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Totally Integrated Power TM Application Manual

Application Manual

www.siemens.com/tip

The information provided in this brochure contains merely general descriptions or characteristics of performance which in actual case of use do not always apply as described or
which may change as a result of further development of the products. An obligation to
provide the respective characteristics shall only exist if expressly agreed in the terms of
contract.

Connecting the worlds


of building construction and power distribution
with integrated solutions for commercial and industrial buildings

totally integrated

power

Siemens AG
Automation and Drives

Power Transmission and Distribution

Siemens Schweiz AG

Nominal charge: 30.00 euro

Gleiwitzer Strae 555

Paul-Gossen-Strae 100

Building Technologies Group

Order no.: E20001-A70-M104-X-7600

D-90475 Nuremberg

D-91052 Erlangen

International Headquarters
Gubelstrasse 22
CH-6301 Zug

2nd Edition

Conversion Factors and Tables

Volume flow rate

Volume
Non-metric
unit
in3

SI unit
cm3

Pressure

Non-metric
unit

SI unit

Non-metric
unit

SI unit

1 gallon/s

3.785 l/s

1 in HG

0.034 bar

1 ft3

28.317 dm3 = 0.028 m3

1 gallon/min

0.227 m3/h = 227 l/h

1 psi

0.069 bar

1 yd3

0.765 m3

1 ft3/s

101.941 m3/h

1 lbf/ft2

1 fl oz

29.574 cm3

1 ft3/min

1.699 m3/h

4.788 x 10-4 bar =


4.882 x 10-4 kgf/cm2

1 quart

0.946 dm3 = 0.946 l

1 lbf/in2

0.069 bar = 0.070 kgf/cm2

1 tonf/ft2

1.072 bar = 1.093 kgf/cm2

1 tonf/in2

154.443 bar =
157.488 kgf/cm2

1 pint
1 gallon
1 barrel

SI unit

cm3

1 dm3
=1l
1

m3

16.387

0.473

dm3

3.785

dm3

158,987
= 159 l

SI unit

= 0.473 l
= 3.785 l

dm3

= 1.589

m3

1 l/s

0.264 gallons/s

1 l/h

0.0044 gallons/min

1 m3/h

4.405 gallons/min =
0.589 ft3/min = 0.0098 ft3/s

Non-metric
unit

0.061

in3

= 0.034 fl oz
Force
Non-metric
unit

0.629 barrels

1 lbf

4.448 N

1 kgf

9.807 N

1 tonf

9.964 kN

SI unit

Non-metric
unit

SI unit

1 ft/s

0.305 m/s = 1,098 km/h

1 mile/h

0.447 m/s = 1,609 km/h


Non-metric
unit

1 m/s

3.281 ft/s = 2.237 miles/h

1 km/h

0.911 ft/s = 0.621 miles/h

0.100 tonf

Torque, moment of force


Non-metric
unit

28.35 g

1 lb

0.454 kg = 453.6 g

1 sh ton

0.907 t = 907.2 kg
Non-metric
unit

29.53 in Hg =
14.504 psi =
2088.54 lbf/ft2 =
14.504 lbf/in2 =
0.932 tonf/ft2 =
6.457 x 10-3 tonf/in2
(= 1.02 kgf/cm2)

Non-metric
unit

1 lbf in

0.113 Nm = 0.012 kgf m

1 lbf ft

1.356 Nm = 0.138 kgf m

0.746 kWh = 2.684 x 106 J


= 2.737 x 105 kgf m

1 ft lbf

0.138 kgf m

1 Btu

1.055 kJ = 1055.06 J
(= 0.252 kcal)

SI unit

Non-metric
unit

1 kWh

1.341 hp h = 2.655 kgf m


= 3.6 x 105 J

1J

3.725 x 10-7 hp h =
0.738 ft lbf =
9.478 x 10-4 Btu
(= 2.388 x 10-4 kcal)

1 kgf m

3.653 x 10-6 hp h =
7.233 ft lbf

Non-metric
unit
8.851 lbf in = 0.738 lbf ft
(= 0.102 kgf m)

SI unit

1 hp h

SI unit

SI unit

1 oz

Non-metric
unit

Energy, work, heat content

0.225 lbf = 0.102 kgf

Mass, weight

SI unit

Non-metric
unit

1 kN

1 Nm

Non-metric
unit

SI unit

1N

SI unit

SI unit
1 bar
= 105 pa
= 102 kpa

61.024 in3 =
0.035 ft3 = 1.057 quarts =
2.114 pint = 0.264 gallons

Velocity

SI unit

Non-metric
unit

Moment of inertia J
Numerical value equation:

J=

Non-metric
unit
1 lbf

ft2

1g

0.035 oz

1 kg

2.205 lb = 35.27 oz

SI unit

1t

1.102 sh ton = 2,205 lb

1 kg m2

GD2
= Wr 2
4

SI unit
0.04214 kg

m2

Non-metric
unit
23.73 lb ft2

Btu = British thermal unit


Btu/h = British thermal unit/hour
lbf
= pound force
tonf = ton force

Conversion Factors and Tables

Conductor cross sections


in the Metric and US System

Temperature

Linear measure

Metric cross
sections acc.
to IEC

American Wire Gauge


(AWG)

Conductor
cross
section

Equivalent
metric CSA

320

160

[mm2]

AWG or MCM

305
[mm2]

Non-metric
unit

150

290
140
275

0.75

1.50

2.50

4.00

0.653

19 AWG

0.832

18

1.040

17

1.310

16

1.650

15

2.080

16.00

35.00

Non-metric
unit

SI system

260

230

3.281 ft = 39.370 in
= 1.094 yd

14

212

100

1 km

0.621 mile = 1,094 yd

2.620

13

200

3.310

12

245

120

90
185

4.170
5.260

11
10

6.630
8.370

9
8

155

70

10.550

140

60

Non-metric
unit

13.300

16.770

50

1 in2

26.670
33.630

4
3
2
1
1/0

70.00

2/0

95.00

85.030

3/0

107.200
126.640
152.000

4/0
250 MCM
300

202.710

400

240.00

253.350

500

300.00

304.000
354.710
405.350
506.710

600
700
800
1000

400.00

1.609 km = 1,609 m

0.394 in

67.430

500.00
625.00

0.914 m

1 mile

1m

53.480

185.00

30.48 cm = 0.305 m

1 yd

110

50.00

150.00

2.54 cm = 25.4 mm

1 ft

39.37 mil

42.410

120.00

0.0254 mm

1 in

1 cm

21.150
25.00

1 mil

1 mm

6.00

10.00

130

SI system

80
Square measure

170

125
110

40
95
30
80
65

20

50

10
0

0.093 m2 = 929 cm2

yd2

0.836 m2

1 acre

4046.9 m2

mile2

SI unit
1 mm2
cm2

10

10

2.59 km2
Non-metric
unit
0.00155 in2
0.155 in2

1 m2

10.76 ft2 = 1,550 in2


= 1.196 yd2

1 km2

0.366 miles2

20
5

6.452 cm2 = 654.16 mm2

ft2

1
32

SI unit

20

25

30

40

40

Btu = British thermal unit


Btu/h = British thermal unit/hour
lbf
= pound force
tonf = ton force

Conversion Factors and Tables

Electrical power

Examples of decimal multiples and


fractions of metric units

Non-metric
unit

SI unit

1 hp

0.746 kW = 745.70 W =
76.040 kgf m/s
(= 1.014 PS)

1 ft lbf/s

1.356 W (= 0.138 kgf in/s)

1 kcal/h

1.163 W

1 Btu/h

0.293 W

1 km2 = 1,000,000 m2;


1 m2 = 10,000 cm2;
1 cm2 = 100 mm2
1 m3 = 1,000,000 cm3;
1 cm3 = 1,000 mm3

Non-metric
unit

SI unit

1 km = 1,000 m;
1 m = 100 cm = 1,000 mm

1 t = 1,000 kg; 1 kg = 1,000 g


1 kW = 1,000 W

1 kW

1.341 hp =
101.972 kgf m/s
(= 1.36 PS)

1W

0.738 ft lbf/s = 0.86 kcal/h =


3.412 Btu
(= 0.102 kgf m/s)

Specific steam consumption


Non-metric
unit

SI unit

1 lb/hp h

0.608 kg/kWh
Non-metric
unit

SI unit
1 kg/kWh

1.644 lb/hp h

Temperature
Non-metric
unit
F

SI unit
5 ( 32) =
F
C
9
5 + 255.37 = T
9 F

Non-metric
unit

SI unit
C

5 + 32 =
F
9 C
5 T 459.67 =
F
9

Note:
Quantity

Symbol

Unit

F*

Temperature in degrees C*
Celsius (centigrade)

Temperature in
Fahrenheit

Thermodynamic
temperature

K
(Kelvin)

Btu = British thermal unit


Btu/h = British thermal unit/hour
lbf
= pound force
tonf = ton force
* The

letter t may be used instead of

Contents
1

Introduction

1/2

Power Distribution Planning for


Commercial and Industrial Buildings

2/2

2.1.
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5
2.1.6

Basics for Drafting Electrical Power Distribution Systems


Requirements to Electrical Power Systems in Buildings
Network Configuration
Power Supply Systems
Routing/Wiring
Switching and Protective Devices
Planning Aid

2/2
2/3
2/4
2/6
2/8
2/8
2/11

2.2

Power System Planning Modules

2/12

System Protection / Safety Coordination

3/2

3.1.
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4

Definitions
Protective Equipment and Features
Low-Voltage Protection Equipment Assemblies
Selectivity Criteria
Preparation of Current-Time Diagrams
(Grading Diagrams)

3/2
3/3
3/4
3/4
3/6

3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4

Protective Equipment for Low-Voltage Systems


Circuit-Breakers with Protective Functions
Switchgear Assemblies
Selecting Protective Equipment
Miniature Circuit-Breakers (MCB)

3/9
3/9
3/16
3/20
3/27

3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2

Selectivity in Low-Voltage Systems


Selectivity in Radial Systems
Selectivity in Meshed Systems

3/33
3/40
3/49

3.4

Protection of Capacitors

3/51

3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2

Protection of Distribution Transformers


Protection with Overreaching Selectivity
Equipment for Protecting Distribution Transformers

3/52
3/52
3/58

Medium Voltage

4/2

4.1

Medium-Voltage and Circuit-Breaker Switchgear


for Primary Power Distribution
Withdrawable Circuit-Breaker Switchgear, Air-Insulated
Fixed-Mounted Circuit-Breaker Switchgear, SF6-Insulated

4/3
4/4
4/26

Secondary Distribution Systems, Switchgear


and Substations

4.3
4.4

4.1.1
4.1.2
4.2

4.5

Low Voltage

6/2

6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3

6/3
6/6
6/11

6.1.6
6.1.7
6.1.8
6.1.9

Low-Voltage Switchgear and Distribution Systems


SIVACON 8PS Busbar Trunking Systems
SIVACON Low-Voltage Switchgear
SIKUS Universal and SIKUS Universal HC
for the Switchgear Manufacturer
Floor-Mounted ALPHA 630 Universal and
ALPHA 630 DIN Distribution Boards
Wall-Mounted ALPHA 400/160, ALPHA Universal and
ALPHA 400 Stratum Distribution Boards
ALPHA-ZS Meter and Distribution Cabinets for Germany
SIMBOX Small Distribution Boards
SMS Rapid Mounting System
8HP Insulated Distribution System

6/24
6/27
6/29
6/31
6/34

6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6
6.2.7

Protective Switching Devices and Fuse Systems


Circuit-Breakers
Fuse Systems
Fuse Switch-Disconnectors
Miniature Circuit-Breakers
Residual-Current-Operated Circuit-Breakers
Lightning Current and Surge Arresters
3LD2 Main Control and EMERGENCY STOP Switches

6/36
6/38
6/41
6/49
6/54
6/61
6/71
6/88

6.3

Modular Devices

6/89

6.4

Maximum-Demand Monitors

6/102

6.5

Switches, Outlets and Electronic Products

6/104

6.6

SIMOCODE pro Motor Management System

6/110

Communications in Power Distribution

7/2

Protection and Substation Control

8/2

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

Power System Protection


Relay Design and Operation
Relay Selection Guide
Typical Protection Schemes

8/11
8/16
8/25
8/29

Power Management

9/2

10

Measuring and Recording Power Quality

10/2

4/44

10.1
10.2
10.3

Overview
SIMEAS Q
SIMEAS R

10/2
10/3
10/8

Medium-Voltage Equipment, Product Range

4/72

11

Meters and Measuring Instruments

11/2

PQM Power Quality Management and


Load Flow Control

4/84

Planning of Systems for Primary and Secondary Power


Distribution Exemplified by the Automotive Industry

4/87

11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4

SIMEAS P Power Meter


SIMEAS T Transducers for High-Current Power Quantities
Meters / Measuring Instruments as Modular Devices
4NC3 and 4NC5 Current Transformers

11/2
11/14
11/20
11/28

Transformers

5/2

12

SIMARIS design the Program for


Dimensioning Electrical Power Distribution

12/2

Appendix

13/2

6.1.4
6.1.5

13

6/19
6/22

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Seite 1

totally integrated

power

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Seite 2

1 We focus your energy


and everything
gets so easy
Totally Integrated Power is more than
mere planning of the power distribution in buildings or industrial plants.
Totally Integrated Power encompasses the philosophy to render you
support with our advice, with a service that is focused on you. A new
project is under way: planning for a
complete power distribution system
for a hospital, an office or industrial
building. You know what this means:
the system has to be designed not
just to meet the needs of today but
the future as well. Thus, cost calculations and construction timetables are
kept under control, and expensive rework is avoided. This is where we offer you our support.
But this is not enough: the requirements of building contractors go far
beyond this. They demand cross-system thinking and integral concepts
right from the project start. The goal
is an optimization of building services
realized by customer-focused overall
solutions. To respond to this demand, Siemens has developed a
portfolio which features total functionality. The optimized interplay of
all functions creates benefits for
everyone involved in the project: the
building contractors, the users and
building operators, the consulting engineers and, last but not least, the
installation company.

components such as medium-voltage


switchgear, transformers, low-voltage switchgear and low-voltage distribution boards to the power consumer. Costs, whether for new systems or extensions, are always
transparent and controllable.
The majority of the electrical power
consumers belongs to the facilities
for supply management, in particular
those for heating, ventilation and air
conditioning systems, drinking water
supply and lighting. The latter is to
be seen in a functional relation to
integrated room automation, including sun protection, daylight control
technologies and motion detection
(i.e. presence of persons in a building). Air conditioning technology is
in a functional relation to smoke
detection and fire alarm systems.
Safe power supply must be
ensured for all operating
modes.

Totally Integrated Power, a concept


which offers electrical consultants
and installation companies integrated
and coordinated power distribution,
from medium voltage to low voltage
with load feeder right down to the final outlet the best foundation for
quick and easy planning. Integrated
project planning combines individual

1/2

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 3

Totally Integrated Power makes


everything so easy for distribution
board manufacturers and electricians:
C Designing TTA systems, for example, is no problem: the components
are completely compatible
C Minimum integration expense
when installing: the distribution
board manufacturers and electricians simply use the data from the
planning tools
C Saving time and money all around
by a simplification of the workflow
C They make use of the evolution of
technical and system know-how by
Siemens and benefit from it and
they will have a partner for the
future
C Optimum cross-functional system
tuning, coordination of all requirements and support from Siemens
as the leading technology manufacturer in the field of automation and
alarm technologies

Take advantage of our focused


know-how
When all the components fit together
smoothly, safe and secure power distribution is guaranteed. And your system will be economical. Now you can
make use of a system that offers you
a complete range of products with integrated solutions from hardware
with bus interfaces to easy-to-use
software.
Your partner also offers you professional expertise and tailored solutions
for monitoring, automation, service
optimization and operational management of the entire building installations of course utilizing planning
tools for efficient project management.
Totally Integrated Power takes into
consideration the demands of the liberalized energy markets as well as
simple and secure configuration, thus
creating the foundation for economical operation. These developments
call for a new way of thinking when
planning. Low energy import costs
are now more than ever a focus of attention. The basis for this is knowledge of the load profiles, the key
loads and consumption-based
billing. Here, the individual solutions and
systems from Totally
Integrated Power and
Total Building Solutions bring transparency, and thus optimization possibilities
within reach. Totally
Integrated Power integrates systems and
components together
with a functional software package for operator control and
monitoring.

Safety
technology

Building
control
systems

Information
technology

Totally
Integrated
Power

Heating,
ventilation
air conditioning

Automation technology

Progressive, holistic operation and


building management is implemented
with systems by Siemens. These
systems communicate with each
other on the basis of globally standardized communication protocols,
such as BACnet, KNX/EIB, ASi and
PROFIBUS. System integrations are
proficiently carried out using internationally accepted open methods like
OPC, LonMark, Modbus and M-Bus.
Functions such as consumption
recording, cost center allocations or
load management can thus be performed, which renders a comprehensive power management system.

1/3

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Advantage: operators can optimize


their installations in terms of maintenance expense, power consumption
and availability. Of course, you expect the optimum solution for every
investment you make, and it is only
natural that system costs are increasingly being determined by operating
costs. But what people are often not
aware of is the fact that data networks and the data they generate
can be used to achieve the optimization of electrical power distribution
processes. Electrical power supply is
the fundamental basis of all
processes and control procedures,
and most of the things we take for
granted today would not function
without electrical energy. This is why
it is important to make use of information networking in the field of
electrical power distribution. Siemens
can implement this because we are
completely at home in this field. Totally Integrated Power offers electrical power distribution for all functions
in a building: heating, ventilation, air
conditioning, production and manufacturing processes, and information
technology with clearly defined communication interfaces. This ensures
reliable power supply, safe working
conditions, appropriate sizing, transparent system status and consumption-based cost structures.

Seite 4

A building automation and control


system comprises:
C Field devices (sensors, signal
sources, switches and actuating
devices such as butterfly and control
valves, or sensors and actuators)
C Local priority control units
C Cabling, data networks and communication units
C Control panels, variable speed drives
(SED 2) and automation stations (PX),
or room controllers (RX)
C Management and server stations, interactive operator terminals and
computer terminals
C Software for functions, communications, data management and operation (rights of use, licenses)
C Services and tools for the installation
of a BACS system (engineering)
C Web services and system maintenance

1.1 Total Building


Solutions
DESIGO
building automation
Building automation includes all facilities, software and services for automatic control, monitoring and load optimization as well as operation and management aimed at energy-efficient,
economical and safe operation of all
technical building installations.
Fig. 1/1 Systems of the technical building equipment

1/4

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

DESIGO RX integrated room automation comprises application-specific devices and functions for zone or
single-room control. This includes an integrated monitoring, control and optimization of room-related building
equipment which is interconnected
through their communication functions.
DESIGO PX ensures that the operation of the building, i.e. of its technical installations, is performed in a
safe, ecological and economically optimized manner which is also a lowexpense mode of operation. The
building automation and control system reliably implements control
strategies regarding HVAC. It has
been optimized for the performance
of operating time optimization, maximum-load limiting and the calculation
of enthalpy and heating curves. It informs the operator about trends and
present and previous operating states.
The building automation and control
system provides the data required for
operating cost controlling and the
documentation of an ecological audit
system. It is possible to demonstrate
no-fault operation. Technical equipment
data and statistics which are relevant
for maintenance are made available
through the building automation and
control system. It can also be employed as a tool for management
tasks such as analysis, adjustment
and continuous optimization of the
modes of operation.

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Seite 5

Introduction

1.2 Life Safety and


Security Management
While building automation mainly
deals with the data of HVAC and
electrical subsystems, which create
the basis for process optimization,
the information rendered by protective and security installations is often
vitally important. Life safety and security management means the limitation and containment of a multitude
of risks and encompasses taking rigorous action against the most diverse
hazardous events that might occur.
This guarantees the protection of human life and property and the maintenance of operations within a building.
The main task of life safety and security management is the easy and safe
handling of critical alarms and events.
The purpose is to fight hazards immediately and with the most suitable
means to prevent greater damage.
Life safety and security management
is typically associated with the specific tasks of security systems. It
must, however, be extended to any
potential hazard that may be inherent
in any other technical installation. Examples are for instance the temperature and humidity limits in museums,
critical faults in the power distribution
system of a hospital, elevator alarms,
etc.

Differences from the user's


point of view
Control and optimization
One aspect is the control and optimization of the performance of technical building installations to supply
both the technical conditions for
which buildings have been designed
and to ensure their users' productivity by providing appropriate ambient
conditions.
Operator tasks are only carried out
under high time pressure and psychological stress in the event of a
fault, as they normally deal with longterm trends and system performance
analyses. Such management functions do not require any permanent
support in commercial and industrial
buildings.
Those who operate these functions
need adaptive graphic displays that
facilitate the user's intuitive orientation and enable actions to be performed which are typical for monitoring a complex system. A good operator interface provides a broad range
of options with functions for generating status reports and user-specific
statistics and data views.

Operators of life safety and security


management systems need simple,
guided operator interfaces with restricted choices of action to be able
to respond fast, safely and efficiently
even in a panic situation.
Support from Siemens
Total Building Solutions by Siemens focus on the performance of the tasks
detailed above and the surplus value
to be gained by the customer.
The type of building control defines
both the complexity of the building automation and control system and its
life safety and security management,
and the structure of the organizations
involved in its operation.
Total Building Solutions enables product and service offers to be adapted to
real customer needs, thus optimizing
benefits for the user.
Detailed descriptions of the available
building solutions can be obtained at:
www.sbt.siemens.de

Signaling and alarms


The other often crucial aspect
deals with sudden system malfunctions. Normally, those events do not
represent any hazard to the building
or its users. In some cases, however,
human life, infrastructure elements or
manufacturing processes might be
put at risk. The treatment of those
cases is the objective of life safety
and security management. It means
the limitation and control of various
hazards in the building and a rigorous
treatment of different potential emergency cases in a building.

1/5

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Seite 6

SIMARIS Planning Software


SIMARIS
With the SIMARIS range of software
products, Siemens offers integrated
tools for fast and effective planning
and calculation of power distribution
systems for commercial and industrial buildings. The tools are designed for international use, taking

SIMARIS design
Thanks to its Windows look and feel,
SIMARIS design is easy to operate and
can be used without any extra software training. From its contents, this
software offers a scope of functionality that facilitates sizing considerably.
In the planning stage, for example,
you can dimension the entire supply
circuit with SIMARIS design on the
basis of real products. In the implementation stage, this helps to avoid
extra costs arising from badly coordinated systems. Suitable components
and distribution systems are selected automatically. You can focus
on whats important in planning your
electrical power distribution system

SIMARIS SIVACON
The SIMARIS SIVACON software
tool supports the sales and manufacturing process for the SIVACON
8PT low-voltage switchboard system which was specially designed
for franchise switchgear manufacturers. The project-planning data from

1/6

into consideration the respective


standards and rules of the country
where they are to be used. The language can also be freely selected
both for working with the program
and for planning results.

and neednt spend hours looking up


product data in catalogs. Per download from our homepage, you can
easily keep up to date the product
data contained in the SIMARIS
design database. Every configuration
of an electric power distribution is
subject to many changes and adaptations both in the planning and implementation stage. SIMARIS design integrates each modification into the
supply concept and automatically
checks it for compliance with the
relevant standards and regulations.
Selectivity, for example for installations in the safety power supply system, data can also be easily verified
with SIMARIS design. All of these
steps will automatically and accu-

SIMARIS design can also be used


directly by this program. In addition,
the forwarding of order data to the
Siemens Mall on the Internet, for example, is completely trouble-free.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

rately be documented in SIMARIS


design, exactly following the specifications you have defined.

TIP_Kap_01_Engl

11.08.2005

18:38 Uhr

Seite 7

Introduction

Power Management
Energy distribution at a glance
The actual status of the power
distribution system can be displayed
online. This enables you to easily
keep a check on all important parameters: every breaker position, every
power requirement, every upper and
lower limit as well as possible over-

Perfect records
All changes in power distribution are
recorded by the system. Regardless
of whether they were remotely controlled or were performed locally, all
events are precisely recorded, together with their date and time. The
event log created is archived in a
database and can then be evaluated

Optimum energy flow


The utilization of a power distribution system can be determined by
the measurement of the energy
flows. This analysis is the basis for
the optimization of power consumption or the system structure. Future
power requirements can also be calculated by studying the load curves:
the ideal prerequisite for any strat-

Maintenance planning
The information required for maintenance is gathered from the system.
All evaluations that can be derived
from operating cycles, runtimes or
scheduled times are contained
within the module. Maintenance
measures, current status and
maintenance due dates are shown.

loads. An invaluable opportunity to


keep on top of the condition of your
power distribution system and, if
required, to control it from a remote
location.

by other programs. Selected status


signals can also be transmitted directly by SMS via mobile phone, allowing faults to be rectified by the
technical staff as quickly as possible.

U
I
cos o
P
W

Status
central ON
OFF
local ON
OFF
tripped

Event logs
Time
22:59:03
23:16:24
01:12:45
03:35:02

Status signal
local OFF local incoming circuit breaker off
local ON local incoming circuit breaker off
Power > 20 A
Power < 1600 A

egy involving
Load curves
Load management
Prognoses
continuous purchasing contracts or the buying of power on
the energy markets. To ensure
demand values become too high,
optimum utilization of current concan automatically add extra capacity
tinuous purchasing contracts, power
that is not directly required for opermanagement monitors the conation.
sumption values and, if maximum

Extensive information such as


personnel requirements and
necessary spare parts is also given.
The user of the system is always
informed of the maintenance measures currently being carried out or
which are due to be carried out,
and can therefore plan both staff
and material requirements well in
advance.

Frame: Installation
Distribution
Maintenance measure

Hall 1
Distribution 3
Feeder II

check HVAC
change ACB contacts
change meter

1/7

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

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18:40 Uhr

Seite B

Power Distribution Planning for


Commercial and Industrial Buildings

2.1 Basics for Drafting Electrical


Power Distribution Systems
2.2 Power System Planning Modules

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Seite C

Power Distribution Planning for


Commercial and Industrial Buildings

chapter 2

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18:41 Uhr

Seite 2

2 Power Distribution Planning for


Commercial and Industrial Buildings
2.1 Basics for Drafting
Electrical Power
Distribution Systems

Framework parameter
analysis:

Totally Integrated Power comprises


products, systems and services from
Siemens for a homogenous implementation concept for power distribution from a medium-voltage switchgear station to the transformer and
from there to the floor distribution
board or final circuit.
With Totally Integrated Power,
Siemens responds to customer
requirements, such as
C Simplification of operational management by transparent, simple power system structures
C Low power loss costs, e.g. by medium-voltage-side power transmission to the load centers
C High supply and operational safety
of the installations even in the
event of individual equipment failures (redundant supply, selectivity of
the power system protection, and
high availability)
C Easy adaptation to changing load
and operational conditions
C Low operating cost thanks to
equipment that is easy to maintain
C Sufficient transmission capacity of
the equipment under normal operating conditions as well as in fault
conditions to be handled

2/2

Power system concept:


Analysis
Selection of the network
configuration
Type of connection to ground
Technical features

Building
Rooms, type of use
Operation

Network calculation:
Load flow
Short-circuit calculation
Energy balance

Lists of consumers
Temperatures
...

Rating:
Transformers
Cables
Protective/switching devices
Provisions for redundant supply

Priorities and
prognoses for
the electrical
power system etc.

Fig. 2/1 Power system planning tasks

C Good quality of the power supply,


i.e. few voltage changes due to
load fluctuations with sufficient voltage symmetry and few harmonic
distortions in the voltage
C Compliance with IEC/EN/VDE specifications and project-related stipulations for special installations
The efficiency of a power supply
system rises and falls with good
planning.
For this reason, power supply concepts must always be evaluated in
the context of their framework parameters and project goals. When focusing on power supply in the field of
building infrastructure, the spectrum
of reasonable options can be narrowed down.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Siemens supports your power system planning with service offers


and tools such as SIMARIS design.
The following design aids can be
obtained from Siemens:
C Application manual
C SINCAL
C SIGRADE
C Specific product catalogs

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

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Seite 3

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

2.1.1 Requirements on
Electrical Power Systems
in Buildings
When planning electrical power systems, the largely ambivalent requirements of the three project stages,
Investment Installation Operation,
must be taken into consideration.
Further influencing factors
The main characteristics of a power
system are determined by the following requirements:
C Use/consumers or purpose of power distribution, i.e. energy balance, power density and load centers
C Architecture, e.g. low building or
high-rise building
C Operating and environmental conditions
C Legal provisions, stipulations by public authorities, e.g. building authorities, safety at work regulations
C By the supplying public utilities
company
Technical specifications regarding
voltage, short-circuit power,
agreed maximum connected load,
permissible equipment
Use of power management to
operate the power system economically within the agreed electric
rates options.

Investment

Installation

Operation

Implementation cost

minimum

maximum

irrelevant

Implementation time

minimum

minimum

irrelevant

Technology/equipment

low-cost

easy installation flexible operation

Space requirements for equipment minimum

maximum

irrelevant

Period of use

maximum

irrelevant

maximum

Fire load

irrelevant

irrelevant

minimum

Operating cost
(e.g. insurance rates)

irrelevant

irrelevant

minimum

Table 2/1

Project stages

Type of use

Features

Residential

Many small
Low nominal currents at Back-up protection
consumer devices comparatively high line
short-circuit power

Offices

Requirements

Action

Users are
no electrical
engineering
experts

Protection against direct Residual currentand indirect contact


operated circuitbreakers are
mandatory!

Many
PC workstations

Voltage stability and


reliable power supply

High proportion of Counter action in the


capacitive loads
event of harmonics

Inductor-type
compensation

General escape
routes

Safety power supply

Generator supply

DP server
rooms

Communications
equipment
(network)

Good electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC)

TN-S system to
minimize stray fault
currents

Medical

Life-saving
machines

High reliability of supply

Redundancy, selective
grading, powerful safety
power supply (SPS)

Intensive care,
EKG

Good electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC)

TN-S system to minimize


stray fault currents

Local limitation of fault


currents

IT system

Mainly motor
loads

High power quantities


required per area

Busbar trunking
systems

Minimize
downtimes

High reliability of supply

Redundant supply,
meshed electrical
networks

Industrial

Different
processes
Table 2/2

Selective grading

Examples for different types of building use and their impact on electric power
systems/equipment

2/3

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Seite 4

2.1.2 Network Configuration

IEC
Regional

America
PAS

Europe
CENELEC

Australia

Asia

Africa

National

USA: ANSI
CA: SCC
BR: COBEI
...

DE: DIN VDE


I: CEI
F: UTE
GB: BS

AUS: SA
NZ: SNZ

CN: SAC
J: JISC

SA: SABS

DIN VDE

German Industrial Standard,


Association of German Electrical
Engineers

CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization


(Comit Europen de Normalisation
Electrotechnique)

IEC

International Electrical Engineering


Commission

JISC

Japanese Industrial Standards


Committee

CEI

PAS

Pacific Area Standards

SABS

South African Bureau of Standards

ANSI

American National Standards


Institute

BS

British Standards

COMITATO ELETTROTECNICO
ITALIANO Italian Electrical
Engineering Committee

COBEI

Comit Brasileiro de Eletricidade,


Eletrnica,
Iluminao e Telecomunicaes

SAC

Standardisation Administration of
China

Table 2/3

SA

Standards Australia

SCC

Standards Council of Canada

SNZ

Standards New Zealand

UTE

UNION TECHNIQUE DE LELECTRICITE ET DE LA COMMUNICATION


Technical Association of Electrical
Engineering & Communications

Interdependencies of national, regional and international standards for electrical engineering

Standards
To minimize technical risks and/or to
protect persons involved in handling
electric equipment or components,
major planning rules have been compiled in standards.
Technical standards are desired conditions stipulated by professional associations which are however made
binding by legal standards such as
safety at work regulations. Furthermore, the compliance to technical
standards is crucial for any approval
of operation granted by authorities or
insurance coverage.

now been agreed upon that drafts


shall be submitted at the central (IEC)
level and then be adopted as regional
or national standards. Only provided
that IEC is not interested in dealing
with the matter or, if there are any
time constraints, a standard shall be
drafted regionally.

An optimum configuration should particularly meet the following requirements:


C Simple structure
C High reliability of supply
C Low losses
C Favorable and flexible expansion
options
The following characteristics shall
be selected accordingly:
C Type of meshing
C Number of feeder points
C Type of feed
Meshing
Low-voltage-side power distribution
shall preferably be designed in a radial topology.
The clearly hierarchical structuring
offers the following advantages:
C Easy monitoring of the power
system
C Fast fault location
C Simple power system protection
C Easy operation

The interrelation of the different


standardization levels is illustrated
in Fig. 2/2.
A complete list of IEC members and
links to more detailed information can
be obtained at www.iec.ch q structure & management q iec members.

While in the past, standards were


mainly drafted at a national level and
debated in regional (i.e. European,
American etc.) committees, it has

2/4

As detailed above, the supply task


determines the configuration of a power system. Buildings featuring different power densities can therefore be
distinguished according to the type
of their configuration.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Fig. 2/2 Unmeshed power system (radial)

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Seite 5

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Radial network with changeover reserve

Simple radial network

a) Partial load reserve

T1

LVMD

T1

LVGPS MD1

n.c.

b) Full load reserve


- transformers not fully utilized
- Use transformers with forced-air cooling

T2

LVSPS MD2

n.o.

T1

LVMD1

T2

n.c.

LVMD2

T3

n.c.

LVMD3

n.c.

n.o.

n.o.

K1
2

K1
2

K2
3

Complete power failure

Continued operation of selected


consumers

Continued operation of all consumers

SN,T1 Ptotal / cos

(n-1) 8 SN,i PSV / cos

(n-1) 8 ai 8 SN,i Ptotal / cos;


a: Utilization factor

n.c.

Fig. 2/3 Radial topology variants

As the operation of a meshed system


places high demands on the equipment, the radial system is generally
preferred at the infrastructure level
for economical reasons. Ring-type
systems are mainly used in highly
consumptive industrial processes in

combination with high-current busbar


trunking systems, as these systems
have the advantage of safe and flexible supply for the consumers. They
are also used for public supply systems at the > 1 kV level.

Number of feeder points


The availability of the radial power
system can be optimized by means
of its infeed configuration.
Fig. 2/3 shows an optimization of the
radial network assuming one fault in
the infeed.

2/5

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Seite 6

Type of infeed
Electrical energy can be fed into the
power system in different ways, determined by its primary function.
For general power supply (GPS) by
C Direct connection to the public grid:
normally up to 300 kW at 400 V
C Supply from the medium-voltage
system (up to 52 kV) via distribution transformers up to 2 MVA
For redundant power supply (RPS),
power sources are selected in dependency of the permissible interruption
time.
C Generators for safety power supply
C Second independent system infeed
with automatic changeover for
safety-supply consumers
C Static uninterruptible power supply
(USP) from a rectifier/inverter unit
or storage battery
C Rotating USP consisting of motor
and generator set

Type

Example

General power
supply (GPS)

Supply of all installations and consumer devices


available in the building

Safety power
supply (SPS)

Supply of life-protecting facilities in cases


of danger
C Safety lighting
C Elevators for firefighters
C Fire-extinguishing equipment

Uninterruptible power
supply (UPS)

Supply of sensitive consumer devices which must be operated without interruption in the event of a GPS failure:
C Emergency lighting
C Servers/computers
C Communications equipment

Fig. 2/4 Supply types

T-1

T-2

T-3
G

A constellation as described in Fig. 2/4


has proven itself for the building
infrastructure level.

GPS
system

UPS

RPS system

2.1.3 Power Supply Systems


Electric systems are distinguished
as follows:
C Type of current used: DC;
AC ~ 50 Hz
C Type and number of live
conductors within the system:
L1, L2, L3, N, PE
C Type of connection to ground:
low-voltage systems: IT, TT, TN
medium-voltage systems: isolated,
low-resistance, compensated

2/6

GPS consumer

SPS consumer

UPS consumer

Fig. 2/4 Type of infeed

The type of connection to ground


must be selected carefully for the
MV or LV system, as it has a major
impact on the expense required for
protective measures. It also determines electromagnetic compatibility regarding the low-voltage system.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

From experience, the best cost-benefit ratio for electric systems within
the general power supply is achieved
with
C Low-resistance neutral for
medium-voltage applications
C TN-S systems for low voltage

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

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Seite 7

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Section A

Section B

3*

3*

Transformer
Generator
1* 2*

1* 2*

L1
L2
L3
PEN (isolated)
PE

L1
L2
L3
PEN (isolated)
PE

1*

Central grounding
point dividing
bridge

4*

4*

L1 L2 L3 N PE
Branches
Circuit A

1* The PEN conductor must be wired isolated


along the entire route, this also applies for its
wiring in the low-voltage main distribution
(LVMD)
2* The PE conductor connection between
LVMD and transformer chamber must be
configured for the max. short-circuit current
that might occur (K2S2 Ik2tk).

L1 L2 L3 N PE
Main equipotential
bonding

3* There must be no connection between the


transformer neutral to ground or to the PE
conductor in the transformer chamber.
4* All branch circuits must be designed as TN-S
systems, i.e. in case of a distributed N conductor function with a separately wired N
conductor and PE conductor. Both 3-pole

Branches
Circuit B

and 4-pole switching devices may be used.


If N conductors with reduced cross sections
are used (we do not recommend this), a protective device with an integrated overload
protection should be used at the N conductor
(example: LSIN).

Fig. 2/5 EMC-friendly power system, centrally installed (short distances)

The advantage of a TN-S system lies


in the fact that the short-circuit current generated in the event of a fault
is not fed back to the voltage source
via a connection to ground but via a
conductor. The comparatively high
1-pole ground fault current enables
rather simple protective devices to
be used, such as fuses or circuit-breakers tripping in the event of a fault.

When TN-S systems are used, residual currents in the building can be
avoided because current flows back
via a separate N conductor. Magnetic
fields depend on the geometrical arrangement of the connections.

As according to IEC 60364-5-54, a


TN-S system is only permissible in
a central arrangement of the feed
system, we recommend to always use
the TN-C-S system as shown in Fig. 2/5.
In case of distributed infeed, 4-pole
switching/protective devices must be
provided at the infeeds and changeover
equipment (parallel operation inhibited).

2/7

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Seite 8

t a (s)
Ir
IrN

1000

Ik min
tr
Ik max

100

2.1.4 Routing/Wiring
10

Nowadays the customer can choose


between cables and busbars for power
distribution. Some features of these
different options are listed below:

Isd
0

C Cable laying
+ Lower material costs
+ When a fault occurs along the
line, only one distribution board
including its downstream
subsystem will be affected
High installation expense
Increased fire load
C Busbar distribution
+ Rapid installation
+ Flexible in case of changes
or expansions
+ Low space requirements
+ Reduced fire load
Rigid coupling to the building
geometry

2/8

tg

0,1

Ii

tsd

0,01

0,5

L
L Overload release
2

These aspects must be weighted in


relation to the building use and
specific area loads when configuring
a specific distribution.
Connection layout comprises the
following specifications for wiring
between output and target
distribution board
C Overload protection
Ib Ir Iz and Iz > I2/1.45
C Short-circuit protection S2K2 >= I2t
C Protection against electrical shock
in the event of indirect contact
C Permissible voltage drop

Ig

Standard I t
Optionally I 4t
Short-time delayed
short-circuit release S
Standard tsd
Optionally I 2t

N
G

10

50

100
x In

Instantaneous
short-circuit release I
Standard On
Optionally Off
Neutral conductor protection
Standard 0.5-1 x Ir
Optionally Off
Ground fault release
Standard t g
Optionally I 2t

Fig. 2/6 Characteristic curve variants

2.1.5 Switching and


Protective Devices
As soon as the initial plans are drafted, it is useful to determine which
technology shall be used to protect the
electric equipment. The technology
that has been selected affects the
behavior and properties of the power
system and hence also influences
certain aspects of use, such as
C Safety of supply
C Mounting expense
C Maintenance and downtimes

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Types of protective equipment


Protective equipment can be divided
into two categories, which can however be combined.
C Fuse technology
+ Good current-limiting properties
+ High switching capacity up
to 120 kA
+ Low investment cost
+ Easy installation
+ Safe tripping, no auxiliary
power required
+ Easy grading between fuses

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

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Seite 9

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Protective tripping
P = I 2* R

This energy (area below the


curve) is also transported in
the contacts and hence in
the switch
I

Current flow when


zero-current
interrupters are used
Current flow when
current-limiting circuitbreakers are used
4 ms

10 ms t

Fig. 2/7 Current limiting

Downtime after fault


Reduces selective tripping in
connection with circuit-breakers
Fuse ageing
Separate protection of personnel
required for switching high
currents
C Fuseless technology
+ Clear tripping times for overload
and short circuit
+ Safe switching of operating and
fault currents
+ Fast resumption of normal
operation after fault trip
+ Various tripping methods
adapted to the protective task
+ Communications-capable:
signaling of system states
Coordination of the protection
concept requires a calculation
of short circuits
Higher investment costs

Above all when fuseless technology


is employed, the selection of the tripping unit is crucial for meeting the
defined objectives for protection.

Q1

In power systems for buildings, selective tripping is gaining more and


more importance, as this results in a
higher supply safety and quality.
While standards such as DIN VDE
0100 Part 710 or DIN VDE 0108 demand a selective behavior of the protective equipment for safety power
supply or certain areas of indoor installations, the proportion of buildings
where selective tripping is also desired for the general power supply is rising.

Fig. 2/8 Selective tripping

Generally speaking, a combined solution using selective and partially selective network sections will be applied in power systems for buildings
when economic aspects are considered.

Q2

In this context, the following device


properties must be taken into
account:
Current limiting:
A protective device has a current-limiting effect if it shows a lower letthrough current in the event of a fault
than the prospective short-circuit current at the fault location.
Selectivity:
When series-connected protective
devices cooperate for graded tripping, the protective device which is
closest upstream of the fault location
must trip first. The other upstream
devices remain in operation. The
temporal and spatial effects of a fault
will be limited to a minimum.

Q2

Trip

Q3

Q1

Trip

Trip

Q3

Fig. 2/9 Back-up conditioned fault tripping

Back-up protection:
The provision is that Q1 is a currentlimiting device. If the fault current is
higher than the rated breaking capacity of the downstream device in the
event of a line shorting, it will be
protected by the upstream protective
device. Q2 can be selected with
Icu Ikmax, Q2. This results in partial
selectivity.

2/9

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Seite 10

Supply section
800 kVA

ACB
1,250 A
LSI

Supply section
400 kVA

Supply section
30 kVA

Fuse
400 A

MCCB
630 A
LSI

Fuse
63 A

Fuse
80 A

MCB
16 A

Fig. 2/10

Supports
the priority
of cost
minimization

MCB
25 A

Grading for a supply section of 800 kVA

Grading in the supply section


Starting from the smallest supply unit
in a building, e.g. a household or a
shop, different protective devices are
preferably suited to meet the requirements of power supply and protection.
TIP: If an 800 kVA supply section is
fed by a transformer and if selective
tripping is a major requirement, a circuit-breaker with definite-time overcurrent-time protection must also
be selected for the medium-voltage
system.
For more detailed information in particular regarding the tripping characteristics, please refer to
C Chapter 3 Power System Protection and Safety Coordination
C Chapter 4 Medium Voltage
C Chapter 6 Low Voltage
in the Application Manual.
Power requirements
The power requirements of the entire
distribution largely determine the layout of the main distribution as well as
the transformer and/or generator rating. This equipment then determines
the amount of investment involved.

2/10

Supports the
priority of
selective fault
tripping

Smax in kVA <

SN in kVA

ukr

Ikmax in kA

1260
1600
1890
2400
2520
3000
3200

630
800
630
800
630
1000
800

2
2
3
3
4
3
4

6%
6%
6%
6%
6%
6%
6%

30
40
45
60
65
75
80

Table 2/5

Proven transformer constellations for buildings

Power requirements are


established by
Smax = Pmax /cosB,
With Pmax = (Pi 8 ai) 8 g
cosB Power factor, purchased
quantity
a
Utilization factor
g
Simultaneity factor
(demand)
When the dimensioning rule Icu Ik
is applied, a minimization of the
purchased power results in a minimization of the short-circuit strength
for the operating equipment. This
means cost savings in investment
and operation.
Transformer:
100 %
Ik, max u
IrTransformer, i
kr, i
Please note that the lower limit for
the short-circuit current is at ~15 kA ,
in order to ensure both a sufficient

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

voltage stability and safe shutdown


in the event of a fault. Consequently,
transformers shall only be selected
for outputs up to 400 kVA, in order
to increase the short-circuit current.
For building power supplies, economical transformer outputs are between 630 and 1,000 kVA. Table 2/5
shows useful constellations for transformers connected in parallel per
supply section. Higher outputs must
therefore be divided into several (>2)
separate supply sections to gain manageable power system data and
hence economical solutions.

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Seite 11

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


2.1.6

Planning Aid

Different individual decisions made regarding the power supply of buildings can be combined as follows:

Functional areas:
Offices
Meeting rooms
Computing center
Catering kitchen and
canteen
HeatingVentilation
Air Conditioning
Fire protection
Logistics

Commercial
building?
yes
Radial system
with partial load
reserve

TN-C-S system,
LVMD with
central
grounding point

Tip:
Given ground area = a2
Length l 100 m = 2 8 a;
max. no. of floors
i 100 - 2a/h

no

i < 5?

High-rise
building

Low building

no

A 2000 m2 ?

Tip:
Smax = P/cos
Smax < 630 kVA; ukr 4%
Smax 630 kVA; ukr 6%

Separation into several


supply sections per area,
i.e. number of floor
distribution boards 2

yes

no

i 10?

i 20?

Smax
2 MVA?
Central utilities
room, supplytransformerLVMD

no

no

yes

Centralized MV
supply, distributed
transformers to
LVMD

Distributed MV
supply to
transformers to
LVMD

Interlocked
changeover with
4-pole devices

Low building,
type 1

Low building,
type 2

High-rise building,
type 1: centralized,
cables

High-rise building,
type 2: centralized,
busbar

yes

High-rise building,
type 3: transformers
at remote location

High-rise building,
type 4: distributed,
cables

High-rise building,
type 5: distributed,
busbar

yes
yes

Tip:
Use busbar trunking systems
if requirements are mainly set
for ease of use, such as good
expandability, fire load
minimization

Fig. 2/11

Cables?

no

Busbars?

Overview of power supply concept modules

2/11

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Seite 12

2.2 Power System


Planning Modules
The following modules may be used
for an easy and systematic power
distribution design for typical building
structures.

FF elevators

1st floor

UPS1.2

SPS2.2

2nd floor

UPS2.2

SPS3.2

3rd floor

UPS3.2

GPS4.2

GPS4.2
GPS3.2

4th floor

UPS4.2

HVAC-SPS

SPS1.2

Low building, type 1:


One supply section

HVAC

GPS2.2

Up-to-date, detailed descriptions on a


variety of applications can be obtained
on the Internet at www.siemens.com/tip

Elevators

GPS1.2

These are schematic solution concepts which can then be extended to


meet specific customer project requirements. When the preplanning
stage has been completed, the power system can easily be configured
and calculated with the aid of the
SIMARIS design software.

LVMD

GPS
1

SPS

MVD

Basement
From PCO
GPS

General power supply

FD

Floor distribution boards

PCO

Power company or system operator

FF

Firefighters

HVAC Heating Ventilation Air conditioning


MVD

Medium-voltage distribution

LVMD Low-voltage main distribution

2/12

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible power supply

G
3~

UPS

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

11.08.2005

18:41 Uhr

Seite 13

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type

Low building

Number of floors

Ground area / total area

2,500 m2 / 10,000 m2

Segmentation of power
required

85% utilized area, 15% side area

Power required

1,000 to 2,000 kW

Supply types

100% total power from the public grid


10 30% of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
5 20% of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility, high safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding


Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network
configuration
Smax = 1,200 kVA,
cos = 0.85

Central transformer supply


close to load center

Supply at the load center,


short LV cables
low losses

Low costs,
time savings during
installation

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault


localization

Transformer module with 2 x 630 kVA, Voltage stability


ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik 30 kA
lighter design
Redundant supply unit:
Generator 400 kVA (30 %)
(the smaller the generator,
the greater the short-circuit
current must be compared to
the nominal current)

UPS: 200 kVA (15 %)

Optimized voltage quality,


economical

Supply of important consumers on


Increased safety of supply
all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
during power failure of the public grid
Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to


DIN VDE 0108

Supply of sensitive and important


consumers

Uninterruptible supply of
consumers, e.g. during power
failure of the public grid

Medium-voltage
supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Small switchgear station


independent of climate

Minimized space requirements for


electric utilities room;
no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with


reduced losses

Low fire load,


indoor installation

Economical

Low-voltage
main distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central


EMC-friendly power system
grounding point q splitting of PEN
in PWE and N to the TN-S system

Protection from
electromagnetic interference
(e.g. to prevent lower transmission
rates at communication lines)

Wiring/
main route

Cables

Cost transparency

Central measurements of current,


voltage, power, e.g. for billing,
cost center allocation

2/13

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

11.08.2005

18:41 Uhr

Seite 14

Low building, type 2:


Two supply sections

Elevators
HVAC
FF-elevators

GPS
MVD
Basement
From PCO
GPS

General power supply

FD

Floor distribution boards

PCO

Power company or system operator

FF

Firefighters

HVAC Heating Ventilation Air conditioning


MVD

Medium-voltage distribution

LVMD Low-voltage main distribution


SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible power supply

2/14

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS

2
z

G
3~

UPS4.2
UPS2.2
UPS1.2

LVMD

UPS3.2

SPS4.2
SPS2.2
SPS1.2

GPS3.2
GPS2.2
GPS1.2

SPS3.2

GPS4.2

UPS4.1
UPS2.1
UPS1.1

UPS3.1

SPS4.1
SPS2.1

1st floor

SPS1.1

2nd floor

GPS2.1

3rd floor

GPS1.1

GPS3.1

4th floor

SPS3.1

GPS4.1

HVAC-SPS

UPS

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

11.08.2005

18:41 Uhr

Seite 15

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type

Low building

Number of floors

Ground area / total area

2,500 m2 / 2 x 10,000 m2

Segmentation of power
required

85 % utilized area
15 % side area

Power required

> 2,000 kW

Supply types

100 % total power from the public grid


10 30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
5 20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility

Proposal for concept finding


Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network
configuration
Smax = 2,400 kVA
cosB = 0.85

Two supply sections per floor

Supply at the load center,


short LV cables
low losses

Low costs, no extra utilities


room necessary, time savings
during installation

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault


localization

Transformer module with 3 x 800 kVA, Minimization of voltage fluctuations; Optimized voltage quality,
ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik 60 kA
low static requirements on building cost minimization in the
structures
building construction work
Redundant supply unit:
Generator 730 kVA (30%)
(the smaller the generator,
the greater the short-circuit
current must be compared to
the nominal current)

UPS: 400 kVA (15 %)

Supply of important consumers on


all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
during power failure of the public grid

Increased safety of supply

Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to


DIN VDE 0108

Supply of sensitive and important


consumers

Uninterruptible power supply,


e.g. during power failure of the
public grid

Medium-voltage
supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Small switchgear station


independent of climate

Minimized space requirements


for distribution board room;
no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with


reduced losses

Low fire load,


indoor installation

Economical

Low-voltage main
distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central


grounding point q splitting of
PEN in PE and N to the
TN-S system

EMC-friendly power system

Protection from
electromagnetic interference
(e.g. to prevent lower
transmission rates at
communication lines)

Wiring/
main route

Cables

Central measurements of current,


voltage, power, e.g. for billing, cost
center allocation

Cost transparency

Two outgoing distribution board


feeders per floor

Shorter cable routes, lower


voltage drop

Economical

2/15

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

11.08.2005

18:41 Uhr

Seite 16

High-rise building, type 1:


Central power supply

GPS

General power
supply

FD

Floor distribution
boards

PCO Power company or


system operator
FF

Elevators

FF elevators

HVAC

HVAC-SPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

1st floor

Firefighters

HVAC Heating Ventilation


Air conditioning

LVMD

MVD Medium-voltage
distribution

GPS

LVMD Low-voltage main


distribution
SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible
power supply

2/16

1
MVD
Basement
From PCO

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS

2
z

G
3~

UPS

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

11.08.2005

18:41 Uhr

Seite 17

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type

High-rise building

Number of floors

10

Ground area / total area

1,000 m2 / 10,000 m2

Segmentation of power
required

80 % utilized area
20 % side area

Power required

1,800 kW

Supply types

100 % total power from the public grid


10 30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
5 20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility


High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding


Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network
configuration

Central transformer supply


close to load center

Simple network configuration,


low power losses

Only one electric utilities room


required, easy and low-cost
operation of electric system

Smax = 1,000 kVA


cos = 0.85
Floors: 8

Transformer module with 2x 630 kVA, Voltage stability,


lighter design
Ukr = 6%, i.e. Ik 30 kA
Redundant supply unit:
Generator 400 kVA (30 %)
(the smaller the generator, the
greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the
nominal current)

Optimized voltage quality,


economical

Supply of important consumers on


Increased safety of supply
all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
during power failure of the public grid
Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to


DIN VDE 0108

UPS: 200 kVA (15 %)

Supply of sensitive or important


consumers

Uninterruptible power supply


during power failure of the
public grid

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault


localization

Medium-voltage
supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Compact design,
independent of climate

Minimized space requirements for


utilities room; no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with


reduced losses

Compact design,
independent of climate

Economical

Low-voltage main
distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central


grounding point q splitting of
PEN in PE and N to the
TN-S system

EMC-friendly power system

Protection of telecommunications
equipment from interference (e.g.
to prevent lower transmission rates
at communication lines)

Wiring/
main route

Cables

Central measurements of current,


voltage, power, e.g. for billing,
central recording

Cost center allocation at


minimum expense

Cost savings

2/17

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

11.08.2005

18:41 Uhr

Seite 18

High-rise building, type 3:


Transformers at remote location

GPS

General power
supply

FD

Floor distribution
boards

PCO Power company


or system operator
FF

Elevators

FF elevators

HVAC

HVAC-SPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

1st floor

Firefighters

HVAC Heating Ventilation


Air conditioning

LVMD

MVD Medium-voltage
distribution

GPS

LVMD Low-voltage main


distribution
SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible
power supply

2/18

z
Basement
From PCO

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS

2
MVD

G
3~

UPS

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

11.08.2005

18:41 Uhr

Seite 19

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type

High-rise building

Number of floors

10 to 20

Ground area / total area

1,000 m2 / 20,000 m2

Segmentation of power
required

80 % utilized area
20 % side area

Power required

1,500 kW; for 2 MW or higher, a relocation of the transformers should be considered even
if the number of floors is less than 10

Supply types

100 % total power from the public grid


10 30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
5 20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility


High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding


Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network
configuration
Smax = 1,800 kVA
cos = 0.85
Floors: 20

Splitting into two supply


sections

Short LV cables, low power losses,


reduction of fire load

Economical, eased fire


protection

2 transformer modules with


(2 + 1) x 630 kVA,
Ukr = 6% i.e. Ik 45 kA

Voltage stability,
lighter design

Optimized voltage quality,


economical

Redundant supply unit:


Generator 800 kVA (30 %)
(the smaller the generator, the
greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the
nominal current)

Supply of important consumers on


Increased safety of supply
all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
during power failure of the public grid
Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to


DIN VDE 0108

UPS: 400 kVA (15 %)

Supply of sensitive or important


consumers

Uninterruptible power supply


during power failure of the
public grid

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault


localization

Medium-voltage
supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Small switchgear station,


independent of climate

Minimized space requirements for


utilities room; no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with


reduced losses

Low fire load,


indoor installation

Economical

Low-voltage main
distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central


EMC-friendly power system
grounding point q splitting of PEN
in PE and N to the TN-S system
(4-pole switches in the feeding
lines and at the changeover point)

Protection of telecommunications
equipment from interference
(e.g. lower transmission rates
for communication lines)

Wiring/
main route

Cables

Central data processing

Central measurements of current,


voltage, power, e.g. for billing,
centrally per floor in LVMD

2/19

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

11.08.2005

18:41 Uhr

Seite 20

High-rise building, type 4:


Distributed supply

Elevators FF elevators
4

GPS

General power
supply

FD

Floor distribution
boards

PCO Power company


or system operator
FF

HVAC

G
3~

UPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

1st floor

Firefighters

HVAC Heating Ventilation


Air conditioning

LVMD

MVD Medium-voltage
distribution

GPS

LVMD Low-voltage main


distribution
SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible
power supply

2/20

HVAC-SPS

z
Basement
From PCO

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS

3
MVD

G
3~

UPS

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

11.08.2005

18:41 Uhr

Seite 21

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type

High-rise building

Number of floors

> 20

Ground area / total area

1,000 m2 / > 20,000 m2

Segmentation of power
required

80 % utilized area
20 % side area

Power required

2,000 kW

Supply types

100 % total power from the public grid


1030 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
520 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility


High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding


Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network
configuration
Smax = 3,600 kVA
cos = 0.85
Floors: 25

Splitting into two supply


sections

Short LV cables,
low power losses,
reduction of fire load

Economical solution,
simplified fire protection

2 transformer modules with 3 x 630 kVA, Voltage stability,


lighter design
Ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik 45 kA
Redundant supply unit:
Generator 2 x 500 kVA (30 %)
(the smaller the generator, the
greater the short-circuit current
must be compared to the nominal current)

Optimized voltage quality,


economical

Supply of important consumers on


Increased safety of supply
all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
during power failure of the public grid
Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to


DIN VDE 0108

UPS: 2 x 250 kVA (15 %)

Supply of sensitive or important


consumers

Uninterruptible power supply


during power failure of the
public grid

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault


localization

Medium-voltage
supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Small switchgear station,


independent of climate

Minimized space requirements;


no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with


reduced losses

Low fire load, indoor installation


without any special precautions

Economical

Low-voltage main
distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central


EMC-friendly power system
grounding point q splitting of PEN
in PE and N to the TN-S system
(4-pole switches to connect to
the low-voltage main distribution)

Protection of telecommunications
equipment from interference
(e.g. lower transmission rates
for communication lines)

Wiring/
main route

Cables

Cost transparency

Central measurements of current,


voltage, power, e.g. for billing,
cost center allocation

Cost savings

2/21

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

11.08.2005

18:41 Uhr

Seite 22

High-rise building, type 2:


Central busbars

GPS

General power
supply

FD

Floor distribution
boards

PCO Power company or


system operator
FF

Elevators

FF elevators

HVAC

HVAC-SPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

1st floor

Firefighters

HVAC Heating Ventilation


Air conditioning

LVMD

MVD Medium-voltage
distribution

GPS

LVMD Low-voltage main


distribution
SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible
power supply

2/22

z
Basement
From PCO

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS

2
MVD

G
3~

UPS

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

11.08.2005

18:41 Uhr

Seite 23

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type

High-rise building

Number of floors

10

Ground area / total area

1,000 m2 / 10,000 m2

Segmentation of power
required

80 % utilized area
20 % side area

Power required

1,800 kW

Supply types

100 % total power from the public grid


1030 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
520 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility


High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding


Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network
configuration
Smax = 1,500 kVA
cos = 0.85
Floors: 8

Central transformer supply


close to load center

Simple network configuration, low


power losses

Only one electric utilities room


required, easy and low-cost
operation of electric system

Transformer modules with 2 x 800 kVA, Optimized voltage quality


Ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik 40 kA
Redundant supply unit:
Generator 400 kVA (30 %)
(the smaller the generator, the
greater the short-circuit current must be compared to the
nominal current)

Operation that is gentle on the user's


equipment, economical equipment

Supply of important consumers on


Increased safety of supply
all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
during power failure of the public grid
Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to


DIN VDE 0108

UPS: 200 kVA (15 %)

Supply of sensitive or important


consumers

Uninterruptible power supply


during power failure of the
public grid

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault


localization

Medium-voltage
supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Small switchgear station,


independent of climate

Minimized space requirements for


utilities room; no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with


reduced losses

Low fire load, indoor installation


without any special precautions

Economical

Low-voltage main
distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central


EMC-friendly power system
grounding point q splitting of PEN
in PE and N to the TN-S system

Protection of telecommunications
equipment from interference
(e.g. lower transmission rates
for communication lines)

Wiring/
main route

Busbars to the subdistribution


boards

Low fire load, flexible power


distribution

Safety, time savings at


restructuring

Few branches in the distribution,


small distribution

Minimized space requirements for


for electric utilities room

Small, minimized rising main busbar Less space requirements for


supply lines

2/23

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

11.08.2005

18:41 Uhr

Seite 24

High-rise building, type 5:


Distributed busbars

Elevators FF elevators
4

General power
supply

FD

Floor distribution
boards

PCO Power company or


system operator
FF

G
3~

HVAC-SPS

UPS

nth floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

System disconnecting point

System disconnecting point

5th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

4th floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

3rd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

2nd floor

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

FD-GPS

FD-SPS

FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor

GPS

HVAC

1st floor

FD-UPS
System disconnecting point

Firefighters

HVAC Heating Ventilation


Air conditioning
MVD Medium-voltage
distribution
LVMD Low-voltage main
distribution
SPS

Safety power supply

UPS

Uninterruptible
power supply

2/24

GPS
1
LVMD
Basement
From PCO

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SPS

3
z

MVD

G
3~

UPS

TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl

11.08.2005

18:41 Uhr

Seite 25

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts


Building type

High-rise building

Number of floors

> 20

Ground area / total area

1,000 m2 / 20,000 m2

Segmentation of power
required

80 % utilized area
20 % side area

Power required

> 2,000 kW

Supply types

100 % total power from the public grid


1030 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
520 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection

Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements

Good electromagnetic compatibility


High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding


Feature

Our solution

Advantage

Your benefit

Network
configuration
Smax = 4,000 kVA
cos = 0.85
Floors: 21

Splitting into two supply


sections

Short LV cables,
low power losses,
reduction of fire load

Lower cost

2 transformer modules with 3 x 800 kVA, Voltage stability


lighter design
Ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik 60 kA
Redundant supply unit:
Generator 2 x 630 kVA (30 %)
(the smaller the generator, the
greater the short-circuit current
must be compared to the nominal current)

Optimized voltage quality,


economical

Supply of important consumers on


Increased safety of supply
all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
during power failure of the public grid
Safety power supply

Safety power supply acc. to


DIN VDE 0108

Supply of sensitive or important


consumers

Uninterruptible power supply


during power failure of the
public grid

Radial network

Transparent structure

Easy operation and fault


localization

Medium-voltage
supply station

SF6 gas-insulated

Small switchgear station,


independent of climate

Minimized space requirements for


utilities room; no maintenance

Transformer

GEAFOL cast-resin with


reduced losses

Low fire load,


indoor installation

Economical

Low-voltage main
distribution

SIVACON 8PT with central


EMC-friendly power system
grounding point q splitting of PEN
in PE and N to the TN-S system
(4-pole switches in the feeding
lines and at the changeover point)

Protection of telecommunications
equipment from interference
(e.g. lower transmission rates
for communication lines)

Wiring/
main route

Busbars to the subdistribution


boards

Low fire load, flexible power


distribution

Safety, time savings when


restructuring work is carried out

Few branches in the distribution,


small distribution

Minimized space requirements for


for electric utilities room

UPS: 2 x 300 kVA (15 %)

Small, minimized rising main busbar Less space requirements for


supply lines

2/25

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Seite 26

Appendix
Short-circuit currents Calculated acc. to DIN VDE 0102 EN 60909, dated 07-01-2002

[V]

Rated current Ir Impedance


oltage Ukr
[A]
[%]

Reduced power
losses Pk
[kVA]

Max. secondary-side
short-circuit current
[kA]

10
10
10
10

400
400
400
400

577
909
1,155
1,443

4
4
4
4

4.3
6.4
7.8
8.9

16
25
31
39

400
630
800
1,000
1,250
1,600

10
10
10
10
10
10

400
400
400
400
400
400

577
909
1,155
1,443
1,804
2,309

6
6
6
6
6
6

4.3
6.4
7.6
8.5
10.5
11.4

10
17
21
26
33
42

400
630
800
1,000

20
20
20
20

400
400
400
400

577
909
1,155
1,443

4
4
4
4

3.9
6.0
7.5
8.7

16
25
31
39

400
630
800
1,000
1,250
1,600

20
20
20
20
20
20

400
400
400
400
400
400

577
909
1,155
1,443
1,804
2,309

6
6
6
6
6
6

4.1
6.4
7.9
9.6
10.5
12.3

10
17
21
26
33
42

Rated power

HV voltage

LV voltage

[kVA]

[kV]

400
630
800
1,000

2/26

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

2/27

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Seite B

System Protection and Safety Coordination

3.1 Definitions
3.2 Protective Equipment for Low-Voltage Systems
3.3 Selectivity in Low-Voltage Systems
3.4 Protection of Capacitors
3.5 Protection of Distribution Transformers

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Seite C

System Protection / Safety Coordination

chapter 3

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Seite 2

3 System Protection and Safety Coordination


System configuration
While in building and industrial power
systems star-type system configurations are normally used for medium
voltage, radial system configurations
are normally preferred for the lowvoltage side (radial systems, double
spur systems). A number of
switchgear stations and distribution
boards are required for distributing
power from the infeed to the load.
The protective equipment of these
devices is connected in series.
Objectives of system protection
The objective of system protection is
to detect faults and to selectively isolate faulted parts of the system. It
must also permit short clearance
times to limit the fault power and the
effect of arcing faults.
High power density, high individual
power outputs, and the relatively
short distances in industrial and building power systems mean that lowvoltage and medium-voltage systems
are closely linked. Activities in the LV
system (short circuits, starting currents) also have an effect on the MV
system. If the situation is reversed,
the control state of the MV system
affects the selectivity criteria in the
secondary power system.
Mutual system interference
It is therefore necessary to adjust the
power system and its protection
throughout the entire distribution
system and to coordinate the protective functions.
This chapter basically comprises the
installation of electrical equipment in
LV systems. Therefore, also when
dealing with network protection, the
emphasis lies on the low-voltage
side. Specific network protection re-

3/2

quirements for medium voltage are


dealt with in Chapter 4 Medium
Voltage and in Chapter 8 Substation Control and Protection Systems.

3.1 Definitions
Electrical installations in a power system are protected either by protective equipment allocated to the installation components or by combinations of these protective elements.
Rated short-circuit breaking
capacity
The rated short-circuit breaking capacity is the maximum value of the
short circuit that the protective device is able to clear according to
specifications. The protective device
may be used in power systems for
rated switching capacities up to this
value.
Back-up protection
If a short circuit, which is higher than
the rated switching capacity of the
protective device used, occurs at a
particular point in the system, back-up
protection must provide protection
for the downstream installation component and for the protection device
by means of an upstream protective
device (grading).
Selectivity
Selectivity, in particular, has become
a topic for discussion in the previous
years. Partly, it has become a general
requirement in tender specifications.
Due to the complexity of this issue,
information about proper selection
and application is often insufficient.
These requirements as well as the
effects of full or partial selectivity in
power distribution systems within
the context of the relevant standard,
industry, country, system configuration or structure should be clarified in

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

advance with the network planners,


installation companies and system
operators involved. The system interconnection together with the 5 rules
of circuit dimensioning must also be
taken into account. Some terms and
definitions shall be described in this
chapter for a better understanding of
the issue. If you wish to obtain more
detailed information regarding further
applications, please contact your
Siemens representative.
Full selectivity
To maintain the supply safety of
power distribution systems, full selectivity is increasingly demanded. A
power system is considered fully selective, if only the protective device
upstream of the fault location disconnects from supply, as seen in the direction of energy flow (from the infeed to the load).
Note:
Full selectivity always refers to a
dead, three-phase, i.e. maximum,
fault current at the mounting location.
Partial selectivity
In certain situations, partial selectivity
(up to a particular short-circuit current) is sufficient. The probability of
faults occurring and the effects of
these on the load must then be considered for unfavorable scenarios.

1) For descriptions and modes of operation of


low-voltage protection devices, controlgear
and switchgear, please also refer to the
Siemens handbook Switching, Protection
and Distribution in Low-Voltage Networks,
published by Publicis MCD, Erlangen.

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Seite 3

System Protection / Safety Coordination

Inverse time-delay
t

Inverse

Definite
time-delay
I 2 . t = constant
Definite

LV HRC fuse

Instantaneous
LV circuit-breaker
with releases

HV HRC fuse

Protective characteristic of LV HRC fuse and


LV circuit-breaker with releases

3.1.1 Protective Equipment


and Features
Low-voltage protective devices1)
Low-voltage high-rupturingcapacity fuses
Low-voltage high-rupturing-capacity
(LV HRC) fuses have a high breaking
capacity. They fuse quickly to restrict
the peak short-circuit current to the utmost degree. The protective characteristic is determined by the selected utilization category of the LV HRC fuse
(e. g. full-range fuse for overload and
short-circuit protection, or partial range
fuse for short-circuit protection only)
and the rated current (Fig. 3/1).
Low-voltage circuit-breakers,
IEC 60947-2
Circuit-breakers for power distribution systems are distinguished according to their type design (open or
compact design), mounting type
(fixed mounting, plug-in, withdrawable), rated current (maximum nominal current of the switch) method of
operation (current limiting: MCCB; or
non-current-limiting: ACB), protective
functions (see releases), communication capability (capability to transmit
data to and from the switch), utilization category (A or B, see IEC 609472).
Releases / protective functions
The protective function of the circuitbreaker in the power distribution system is determined by the selection of

MV circuit-breaker with
time-overcurrent protection
I

Variable operating zones


and setting ranges

Variable characteristic
curves and setting ranges

Fig. 3/1

Instantaneous
release

Fig. 3/2

Protective characteristic of HV HRC fuse and


MV time-overcurrent protection

the appropriate release. Releases can


be divided into thermo-magnetic releases (previously also called electromechanical releases) and electronic
tripping units (ETU).
C Overload protection
Designation: L or earlier a
(L for long-time delay). Depending on the type of release, inverse
time-delay overload releases are
also available with optional
characteristic curves.
C Short-circuit protection, instantaneous
Designation: I (previously also
called n release), e.g. solenoid releases. Depending on the application, I-releases are also offered with
a fixed settable or OFF function.
C Short-circuit protection, with delay
Designation: S, previously also
z release (S for short-time
delay). For a temporal adjustment
of protective functions in series
connections. Besides the standard
curves and settings, there are also
optional functions for special
applications.
Definite-time-delay overcurrent releases: For this standard S-function, the desired delay time tsd is
set to a definite value when a set
current value (limit-value Isd) is exceeded (definite time; similar to the
DMT function in medium voltage)
Inverse-time-delay overcurrent release: For this optional S-function
applies I 2 t = constant. This function

is generally used to ensure a higher


degree of selectivity (inverse time;
similar to the inverse-time
delay function in medium voltage)
C Ground fault protection
Designation: G (previously also
called g release). Besides the
standard function (definite-time),
there is also an optional function
(I 2 t = inverse-time delay).
C Fault current protection
Designation: RCD (= residual current device). To detect differential
fault currents up to 3 A, similar to
the RCCB function for the protection of persons (up to 500 mA).
In addition, electronic releases also
permit new tripping criteria which are
not possible with electromechanical
releases.
Protective characteristics
The protective characteristic curve is
determined by the rated circuitbreaker current as well as the setting
and the operating values of the releases (see Table 3/5).
Low-voltage miniature circuitbreakers (MCB)
Miniature circuit-breakers are distinguished according to their method of
operation either high or low current
limiting. Their protective functions
are determined by electromechanical
releases:

3/3

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Seite 4

Releases
C Overload protection by means of
inverse time-delayed overload
releases, e.g. bimetallic releases
C Short-circuit protection by means
of instantaneous overload releases,
e.g. solenoid releases.
Medium-voltage protection
equipment
High-voltage high-breakingcapacity fuses
High-voltage high-breaking-capacity
(HV HRC) fuses can only be used for
short-circuit protection. They do not
provide any overload protection. A
minimum short-circuit current is
therefore required for correct operation. HV HRC fuses restrict the peak
short-circuit current. The protective
characteristic is determined by the
selected rated current (Fig. 3/2).
Medium-voltage circuit-breakers
Circuit-breakers can provide timeovercurrent protection (definite and
inverse), time-overcurrent protection
with additional directional function or
differential protection. Distance protection is rarely used in the distribution systems described here.
Protective characteristics
Secondary relays, whose characteristic curves are also determined by the
actual current transformation ratio,
are normally used as protective devices in medium-voltage systems.
Static numerical protection devices
are increasingly preferred.

3.1.2 Low-Voltage Protection


Equipment Assemblies
Protection equipment assemblies
With series-connected distribution
boards, it is possible to arrange the following protective devices in series (relative to the direction of power flow):
C Fuse with downstream fuse

3/4

C Circuit-breaker with downstream


miniature circuit-breaker
C Circuit-breaker with downstream
fuse
C Fuse with downstream circuit-breaker
C Fuse with downstream miniature
circuit-breaker
C Several parallel infeeds with or
without coupler units with downstream circuit-breaker or downstream fuse
Current selectivity must be verified in
the case of meshed LV systems.
The high- and low-voltage protection
for the transformers feeding power
to the LV system must be harmonized and adjusted to the additional
protection of the secondary power
system. Appropriate checks must be
carried out to determine the effects
on the primary MV system.
In MV systems, HV HRC fuses are
normally only installed upstream of
the transformers in the LV infeed.
With the upstream circuit-breakers,
only time-overcurrent protection devices with different characteristics
are usually connected in series. Differential protection does not affect,
or only slightly influences the grading
of the other protective devices.

3.1.3 Selectivity Criteria


In addition to factors such as rated
current and rated switching capacity,
a further criterion to be considered
when implementing a protection device is selectivity. Selectivity is important because it ensures optimum
supply reliability. The following criteria can be applied for selective operation of series-connected protection
devices:
C Time difference for clearance
(time grading)
C Current difference for operating
values (current grading)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

C Combination of time and current


grading (inverse time grading)
Power direction (directional protection), impedance (distance protection) and current difference (differential protection) are also used.
Requirements for the selective behavior of protective devices
Protective devices can only behave
selectively if both the highest and the
lowest short-circuit currents for the
relevant system points are known at
the project planning stage.
As a result:
C The highest short-circuit current
determines the required rated
short-circuit switching capacity
Icu/ Ics of the circuit-breaker.
Criterion: Icu/ Ics > IKmax
C The lowest short-circuit current is
important for setting the overcurrent release; the operating value of
this release must be less than the
lowest short-circuit current at the
end of the line to be protected,
since only this setting of Id /Isd
guarantees that the instantaneous
overcurrent release can carry out
its personnel and system protection functions.
Note: With these settings, the admissible tolerance limit of 20%
must be observed!
Criterion: Isd IKmin 20 %
C The observance of specified tripping conditions determines the
maximum conductor lengths or
their cross sections.
C Selective current grading is only
possible if the short-circuit currents
are known.
C In addition to current grading, partial selectivity can be achieved using combinations of carefully
matched protective devices.

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Seite 5

System Protection / Safety Coordination

Ik

tg2

ta1

Operating time of breaker Q1

ta2

Operating time of breaker Q2

te1

Disengaging time of breaker Q1


Disengaging time of breake Q2

td2

Delay time of breaker Q2


grading time tst2

te2

L
S

Q2

t d2 150 ms

td2 tst2

ta2

te2

tL2

to2

to1

ta1

L
S

Q1

Fig. 3/3

to1 = 3 to 30 ms
depending on
circuit-breaker type
and magnitude of
short-circuit current

te1

tg1

tL1

to1

Opening time of breaker Q1

to2

Opening time of breaker Q2

tL1

Arcing time of breaker Q1

tL2

Arcing time of breaker Q2

tg1

Total clearance time of breaker Q1

tg2

Total clearance time of breaker Q2


(tg = to+tL)

Safety
margin

Time sequence for the breaking operation of two graded


LV circuit-breakers in the event of a short circuit

C The highest short-circuit current


can be both the three-phase and
the single-phase short-circuit
current.
C With infeed into LV power systems, the single-phase fault current
will be greater than the threephase fault current if transformers
with the Dy connection are used.
C The single-phase short-circuit current will be the lowest fault current
if the damping zero phase-sequence impedance of the LV cable
is active.
With large installations, it is advisable
to determine all short-circuit currents
using a special computer program.
Here, our SIMARIS design planning
software comes as the optimum solution (see Chapter 12).

Grading the operating currents


with time grading

Grading of the operating currents is


also taken into consideration with
time grading, i.e. the operating value
of the overcurrent release of the
upstream circuit-breaker must be at
least 1.25 times the operating value
of the downstream circuit-breaker.
Scattering of operating currents in
definite-time-delay overcurrent
releases (S) is thus compensated
( 10%).

Plotting the tripping characteristics of


the graded protective devices in a
grading diagram will help to verify
and visualize selectivity.

Fig. 3/3 illustrates the individual


time-related terms using two graded
LV circuit-breakers as an example.
Grading time, delay time

The grading time tsd is the interval


required between the tripping characteristics of two series-connected
protection devices to ensure correct
operation of the protective device
immediately upstream of the fault.
The delay time to be set at the circuit-breaker tsd is obtained from the
sum of the grading times.

Time sequence for circuit-breakers

When grading the operating currents,


the time sequence of the breaking
operation of the circuit-breakers must
also be taken into consideration.

3/5

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Seite 6

Q1

120
100
40
t
20
min 10

Q2

Ik1

L (cold)

4
2
1

4
2
1
400
200
100

Manual preparation
General notes
When characteristic tripping curves
are entered on log-log graph paper,
the following must be observed:
C To ensure positive selectivity, the
tripping curves must neither cross
nor touch.
C With electronic inverse-time delay
(long-time delay) overcurrent releases, there is only one tripping
curve, as it is not affected by preloading. The selected characteristic
curve must therefore be suitable
for a motor or transformer at operating temperature.
C With mechanical (thermal) inversetime delay overload releases (L), the
characteristic curves shown in the
manufacturer catalog apply for cold
releases. The opening times to are
reduced by up to 25% at normal operating temperatures.
Tolerance range of tripping curves
C The tripping curves of circuit-breakers
given in the manufacturer catalogs are
usually only average values and must
be extended to include tolerance
ranges (explicitly shown in Fig. 3/4,
3/20 and 3/24 only).
C With overcurrent releases instantaneous (I) and definite-time delayed
releases (S) the tolerance may be
20% of the current setting (according to EN 60947-2 / IEC 60947-2 /
VDE 0660 Part 101).
Significant tripping times
For the sake of clarity, only the delay
time (td) is plotted for circuit-breakers
with definite-time-delay overcurrent
releases (S), and only the opening
time (to) for circuit-breakers with instantaneous overcurrent releases (I).

3/6

20
10

3.1.4 Preparation of CurrentTime Diagrams (Grading Diagrams)

Ik2

ms

40
20
10
2 3 4 6 102

2 3 4 6 103

2 3 4 6 104 2 3 4 6 105
Current I (r.m.s. value)

Grading diagram with tripping curves of the circuit-breakers Q1 and Q2 shown in Fig. 3/3

Grading principles
Delay times and operating currents are
graded in the opposite direction to the
flow of power, starting with the final
circuit.
C Without fuses, for the load breaker
with the highest current setting of
the overcurrent release.
C With fuses, for the fused outgoing
circuit from the busbars with the
highest rated fuse-link current.
Circuit-breakers are preferred to
fuses in cases where fuse links with
high rated currents do not provide selectivity vis--vis the definite-time-delay overcurrent release (S) of the
transformer feeder circuit-breaker, or
only with very long delay times tsd
(400 to 500 ms). Furthermore, circuitbreakers are used where high system
availability is required as they help to
clear faults faster and the circuitbreakers releases are not subject
to aging especially with consumers
with very long infeed distances.
Procedure with two or more voltage levels
In the case of selectivity involving
two or more voltage levels (Fig. 3/39 ff.),
all currents and tripping curves on the
high-voltage side are converted and
referred to the low-voltage side on
the basis of the transformation ratio.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

t d2 180 ms
to1 < 30 ms

2
101

Fig. 3/4

s
t st2 150 ms

Tools for preparing grading


diagrams
C Standard forms with paired current
values for commonly used voltages, e. g. 20/0.4 kV, 10/0.4 kV,
13.8/0.4 kV, etc.
C Templates for plotting the tripping
curves
Fig. 3/4 shows a hand-drawn grading
diagram with tripping curves for two
series-connected circuit-breakers, not
taking into account tolerances. The
time sequence for the breaking operation illustrated in Fig. 3/3 was used
here (time selectivity). When the
SIMARIS design planning software is
used, a manual preparation of grading
diagrams is no longer necessary.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Low-voltage time grading

Grading and delay times


Only the grading time tgt and delay
time tsd are relevant for time grading
between several series-connected
circuit-breakers or in conjunction with
LV HRC fuses (Fig. 3/5).
The delay time tgt2 of breaker Q2 can
be equated approximately with the
grading time tgt2 ; the delay time tgt3
of breaker Q3 is calculated from the
sum of the grading times tgt2 + tgt3.
The resulting inaccuracies are corrected by the calculated grading margins. In the interests of simplicity,
only the grading times are added.
Proven grading times tgt

Series-connected circuit-breakers:
Those so-called "proven grading times"
are guiding values or rules of thumb.
Precise information must be obtained
from the device manufacturer.
C Grading between two circuit-breakers with electronic overcurrent
releases (Q1 and Q2) should be

about 70-80 ms
C Grading between two circuit-breakers with different release types
(Q2 = ETU and Q3 = TM) should
be about 100 ms
C For circuit-breakers with ZSI (zoneselective interlocking, i.e. short-time
grading control) the grading distance has been defined as 50 ms

Irrespective of the type of S-release


(mechanical or electronic), a grading
time of 70 ms to 100 ms is necessary between a circuit-breaker and a
downstream LV HRC fuse.
Between an LV HRC fuse and a
downstream circuit-breaker, a grading time tgt (safety margin) of at least
1 s must be maintained from the
prearcing-time/current characteristic
of the LV HRC fuse to the point at
which the tripping curves L and I or S
intersect, in order to allow for the
scatter band of the L-release (Fig.
3/6).

to1

Opening time of breaker Q1

tgt2 Grading time of breaker Q2

a
Q3

L
S

td3

tgt3 Grading time of breaker Q3

t d3 (t gt2 + ttgt3)

ttgt3

Q2

L
S

td2

t d2 t gt2

td2

Delay time of breaker Q2

td3

Delay time of breaker Q3

Inverse-time delay, Ir

Definite-time delay, Id, td

Instantaneous, Ii

Grading
margin

t o1

Q1

L
I

to1

Safety
margin

Fig. 3/5

Time grading for several series-connected circuit-breakers

3/7

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Seite 8

Back-up protection
Current I

According to the Technical Supply


Conditions of the power supply companies (see Electrical Installations
Handbook), miniature circuit-breakers must be fitted with back-up fuses
with a rated current of 100 A (max.)
to prevent any damage being caused
by short-circuit currents.

Time setting for back-up protection


Short-circuit
current

Time setting
for protection

Operating
current

Grading time t gt
Command time tc
Spread of
Spread of
Spread of
protection
circuit-breaker protection
response time clearance time response time

Load current

The DIN VDE and IEC standards also


permit a switching device to be protected by one of the upstream protective devices with an adequate
rated short-circuit switching capacity
if both the feeder and the downstream protective device are also
protected (back-up protection).

Clearance time
of circuit-breaker

t
Release
time

Grading
margin

Total clearance time t g


of circuit-breaker

Fig. 3/6

Time grading in medium-voltage switchgear

Bibliography
Literature on LV installations
For more information about low-voltage switching and protective devices,
please refer to the Siemens publication Switching, Protection and Distribution in Low-Voltage Networks
and the Electrical Installations Handbook, published by Publicis MCD
Verlag, Erlangen.

Medium-voltage time grading


Command time and grading time
The following must be observed
when determining the grading time
tgt on the medium-voltage side: Once
the protective device has been energized (Fig. 3/6), the set time must
elapse before the device issues the
tripping command to the shunt or undervoltage release of the circuitbreaker (command time tc).
The release causes the circuitbreaker to open. The short-circuit current is interrupted when the arc has
been extinguished. Only then does
the protection system revert to the
normal/rest position (release time).
The grading time tgt between successive protective devices must be
greater than the sum of the total clearance time tg of the breaker and the release time of the protection system.

3/8

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Since a spread of time intervals,


which depends on a number of factors, has to be expected for the protective devices (including circuitbreakers), a safety margin is incorporated in the grading time.
Whereas grading times tgt of less
than 400 to 300 ms are not possible
with protective devices with mechanical releases, the more modern electronic and digital releases permit
grading times of only 300 or 250 ms.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

3.2 Protection Equipment for Low-Voltage


Power Systems
Tables 3/1 and 3/2 provide an
overview of the protection equipment for LV systems. The protection
equipment in the MV system of outgoing transformer feeders has also
been listed in Table 3/2.
Overcurrent protection for
lines and cables
Overcurrent protection devices must
be used to protect lines and cables
against overheating which may result
from operational overloads or dead
short circuits (Electrical Installations
Handbook, Publicis MCD Verlag,
Erlangen, Section 1.7).
The protective switching devices and
safety systems dealt with in this
chapter are further described in
Chapter 6.

3.2.1 Circuit-Breakers with


Protective Functions
Protective functions of
LV circuit-breakers
Circuit-breakers are used, first and
foremost, for overload and short-circuit protection. In order to increase
their protective functions, they can also
be equipped with additional releases,
e.g. for clearance with undervoltage,
or with supplementary modules for
detecting fault/residual currents (also
see Chapter 6).
The circuit-breakers are distinguished
according to their protective function:
C Circuit-breakers for system protection acc. to EN 60947-2/ IEC 609472/DIN VDE 0660-101
C Circuit-breakers for motor protec
tion acc. to EN 60947-2/
IEC 60947-2 / DIN VDE 0660-101

C Circuit-breakers used in motor star


ters acc. to EN 60947-4-2/
IEC 60947-4-2 / DIN VDE 0660-102
C Miniature circuit-breakers for cable
and line protection acc. to
EN 60898/ IEC 60898 /
DIN VDE 0641-11
Zero-current interrupters /
current limiters
Depending on their method of operation, circuit-breakers are available as:
C Zero-current interrupters or
C Current limiters (fuse-type
current limiting).
When configuring selective distribution boards, zero-current interrupters
are more suitable as upstream protection devices and current limiters
as downstream protection devices.

Overcurrent protection devices

Standard

Overload
protection

Short-circuit
protection

See Section

Fuses gL

EN 60 269/IEC 60 269/DIN VDE 0636

Section 6.2.2

Miniature circuit-breakers

EN 60 898/IEC 60 898/DIN VDE 0641-11

Section 6.2.4

Circuit-breakers with overload


and overcurrent releases

EN 60 947-2/IEC 60 947-2/DIN VDE 0660-101

Section 6.2.1

Switchgear
fuses aM

EN 60 269/IEC 60 269/DIN VDE 0636

Section 6.2.2

Switchgear assemblies
with back-up fuse, utilization
category gL or aM, and
contactor with overload relay

EN 60 269/IEC 60 269/DIN VDE 0636

EN 60 947-4-1/IEC 60 947-4-1/DIN VDE 0660-102

or
starter circuit-breaker and
contactor with overload relay

EN 60 947-2/IEC 60 947-2/DIN VDE 0660-101


EN 60 947-4-1/IEC 60 947-4-1/DIN VDE 0660-102

Protection provided
Table 3/1

No protection provided.

Overview of line and cable overcurrent protection devices discussed in this manual together with their protection ranges

3/9

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Protection devices

Seite 10

MV

Switch-disconnectors,
HV HRC fuses

LV

Circuit-breakers or
LV HRC fuses
Low

Cost

Circuit-breakers,
transducer, timeovercurrent protection

Switch-disconnectors,
HV HRC fuses

Tie breaker

Circuit-breakers

Network circuit-breakers
and network master relays

Justifiable

High

Low

Medium-voltage side

Transformers with thermal


release or full thermal
protection
Low-voltage side with
various series-connected
protection devices in
radial systems, and
parallel-connected LV HRC
fuses in interconnected
systems

I>
I>>

HV HRC
MV
LV
Individual
and parallel
operating
customary

Optional
630 A

HV HRC
MV
LV

Individual
and parallel
operating
customary

MV
LV
Only
parallel
operation
customary

LV
HRC

(interconnected
system)

50 A, 100 A

I>
I>>
S

Table 3/2

3/10

HV or LV HRC fuses

Circuit-breaker

Definite-time-overcurrent protection, twolevel I> and I>>, via current transformer

Drawout circuit-breaker (with safe clearance)

Network master relay (directional power relay)


via current transformer and system voltage
Power-factor correction controller

Contactor

Switch-disconnector

Overload relay

Overview of protection grading schemes discussed in this manual for outgoing transformer and LV feeders

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 11

System Protection / Safety Coordination

Overload and overcurrent protection


Tables 3/3 and 3/4 provide an
overview of releases and relays in LV
circuit-breakers. Table 3/5 contains
the operating ranges of the overcurrent releases. According to the standards specified in Table 3/1, the operating value at which the releases trigger may deviate by 20% from the
set value.
Overcurrent releases
The instantaneous electromagnetic
overcurrent releases have either
fixed or variable settings, whereas
the electronic overcurrent releases
used in Siemens circuit-breakers all
have variable settings.
Modules
The overcurrent releases can be integrated in the circuit-breaker or supplied as separate modules for retrofitting or replacement. Possible exceptions are indicated in the
manufacturer specifications.
Overload releases
Mechanical (thermal) inverse-time-delay overload releases (L-releases) are
not always suitable for networks with
a high harmonic content. Circuitbreakers with electronic overload releases must be used in such cases.
Short-circuit protection with
S-releases
In the case of circuit-breakers with
definite (short-)time-delay overcurrent releases (S) used for time-grading short-circuit protection, it should
be noted that the circuit-breakers are
designed for a specific maximum permissible thermal and dynamic load.
If, in the event of a short circuit, the
time delay results in this load to be
exceeded, an I-release must also be
used to ensure that the circuitbreaker is opened instantaneously
with very high short-circuit currents.
The information supplied by the

Protective
function

Siemens
symbol

Time-delay
characteristics
of release

Graphical symbol acc. to


EN 60 617/DIN 40 713
Circuit diagram
or

Overload
protection

Inverse-time
delay

Selective
short-circuit
protection

S1)

Definite-time
delay by
timing element
or
inverse-time
delay

Fault current/
residual current/
earth fault
protection

G1)

Definite-time
delay
or
inverse-time
delay

Short-circuit
protection

Block
diagram

I>
I>

Instantaneous

I>>
I>

1)

For SENTRON 3WL and SENTRON 3VL circuit-breakers, protection also includes
zone-selective interlocking (ZSI)
In the following, combinations of releases will be referred to by their code letters
only (L-, S- and I-releases).

Table 3/3

Symbols for releases according to protective functions

Function

Release

Relay

Overload
protection

Overload release
Inverse-time delay or
electronic delay

Overload relay
Thermal delay or
electronic delay
Thermistor protection release devices

Short-circuit
protection

Overcurrent release
Instantaneous electromagnetic
or electronic

Overcurrent relay
Instantaneous electromagnetic
release

Selective
short-circuit
protection

Overcurrent release
Instantaneous electromagnetic
or electronic

Table 3/4

Circuit-breaker releases and relays with protective functions

3/11

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Seite 12

manufacturer should be consulted


when the release type is selected.
Reclosing lockout after
short-circuit tripping
A number of circuit-breakers can be
fitted with a mechanical and/or electrical reclosing lockout which prevents reclosing to the short-circuit
after short-circuit tripping.
The circuit-breaker can only be closed
again after the fault has been eliminated and the lockout has been reset
manually.
Fault-current/residual-current
protection
The global importance of fault-current
protection devices has grown in the
field of protection technology due to
the high level of protection they provide (protection of human life and
property) and their extended scope
of protection (alternating and pulsating current sensitivity).
Apart from residual-current-operated
circuit-breakers, miniature circuitbreaker assemblies, e. g. miniature
circuit-breakers with fault-current tripping, are being used to an increasing
extent for commercial and industrial
applications.

3/12

Applications
(primarily for
short-circuit
current clearance)

Time-delay
characteristic

Operating ranges of
inverse-time-dealy overcurrent
release as multiple of set
value Ir

Circuit-breaker
for generator
protection

Instantaneous or
short-time delay

Approx. 3 to 6 Ir

Circuit-breaker for
line protection

Instantaneous

Approx. 6 to 12 Ir

Circuit-breaker for
motor protection

Instantaneous or
short-time delay1)

Approx. 8 to 15 Ir

1)

Poss. short-time delay for rush current shunting

Table 3/5

Operating ranges of the overcurrent releases (acc. to EN 60 947 / IEC 60 947/DIN VDE 0660)

MCBs with fault-current tripping


These circuit-breaker assemblies are
available as compact factory-built devices or may be assembled from a
miniature circuit-breaker as the basic
device and an add-on module.
Circuit-breakers with fault-current/
residual-current tripping
The assembly comprising a circuitbreaker and add-on module has established itself for circuit-breakers
with rated currents In of up to 400 A
and fault-current/residual-current tripping.
Technical features
The add-on module for residual-current tripping used in system protection applications includes such technical features as:
C Rated residual current In, adjustable in steps, e.g. 30 mA/
100 mA/300 mA/500 mA/1,000
mA/3,000 mA
C Tripping time ta, adjustable in
steps,
e. g. instantaneous/60 ms/ 100
ms/250 ms/500 ms/1,000 ms
C Operation depends on system
voltage
C Sensitivity: tripping with alternating
and pulsating DC fault currents
C Reset button R for resetting
after residual-current tripping

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

C Test button T for testing the


circuit-breaker assembly
C Status display for the current leakage / residual current I in the
downstream circuit, e. g. by means
of colored LEDs:
green: I 0.,5 In
yellow: 0,25 In < v 0.5 vn
red:
cA > I > 0.5 In
IA = Tripping current of
additional residualcurrent module
C Disconnection of the electronics
overvoltage protection prior to insulation measurement in the installation
C Remote tripping
C Auxiliary switch (AS)
Interface to bus systems
With appropriate interfaces, the
circuit-breaker assemblies can be
equipped to bus systems to enable
the exchange of information and interaction with other components in
the electrical installation.
AC/DC sensitive circuit-breaker
assemblies
In industrial applications, circuitbreaker assemblies which are sensitive to AC/DC currents are required
for electrical installations in which
smooth DC fault currents or currents
with a low residual ripple occur in the
event of a fault.

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Seite 13

System Protection / Safety Coordination


Rated short-circuit
breaking capacity Icn
(r.m.s. value) kA
4.5
6
10
20
50

<
<
<
<
<

Table 3/6

I
I
I
I
I

6
10
20
50

Power factor
cos

Minimum value n
short-circuit making capacity
n=
short-circuit breaking capacity

0.7
0.5
0.3
0.25
0.2

1.5
1.7
2.0
2.1
2.2

Correlation n between rated short-circuit making and breaking capacity


and the respective power factor (for AC circuit-breakers)

The rated short-circuit breaking capacity is indicated using two values:

Icu

Ics

Rated ultimate
short-circuit
breaking capacity

Rated service
short-circuit
breaking capacity

Test sequence

O-t-CO

O-t-CO-t-CO

Test of

ultimate short-circuit
breaking capacity
Testing
the overload tripping
the insulation resistance
the overheating

service short-circuit
breaking capacity
Testing
the overload tripping
the insulation resistance
the overheating

Switching capacity

O Opening (O = Open)
CO Opening and closing (C = Close)
t
Interval (t = time)
Table 3/7

Switching performance categories acc. to EN 60947 / IEC 60947 / DIN VDE 0660
and IEC 157-1

Standards
The standards EN 60947-2/
IEC 60947-2 / DIN VDE 0660-101
apply for circuit-breakers with addon fault-current or residual-current
modules.
Selection criteria for circuitbreakers
When selecting the appropriate circuit-breaker for system protection,
special attention must be paid to the
following characteristics:
C Type of circuit-breaker and its releases according to the respective
protective function and tasks
C Rated voltages

C Short-circuit strength Icu/ Ics and


rated short-circuit making (Icm) and
breaking capacity (Icn)
C Rated and maximum load currents
The system voltage and system
frequency are crucial factors for
selecting the circuit-breakers
according to
C Rated insulation voltage Ui
and
C Rated operating voltage Ue.
Rated insulation voltage Ui
The rated insulation voltage Ui is the
standardized voltage value for which
the insulation of the circuit-breakers
and their associated components is
rated in accordance with HD 625 /
IEC 60664 / DIN VDE 0110, Insulation
Group C.

Rated operating voltage Ue


The rated operating voltage Ue of a
circuit-breaker is the voltage value to
which the rated short-circuit making
and breaking capacities and the shortcircuit performance category refer.
Short-circuit current
The maximum short-circuit current at
the installation location is a crucial
factor for selecting the circuit-breakers
according to
C Short-circuit strength Icu/ Ics , as well
as
C Rated short-circuit making Icm and
breaking capacities Icn.
Dynamic short-circuit strength
The permissible dynamic short-circuit
strength is indicated as the peak shortcircuit current. It is the highest permissible instantaneous value of the
prospective short-circuit current along
the conducting path with the highest
load.
Thermal fault withstand capability
(1-s current)
The permissible thermal short-circuit
strength is referred to as the rated
short-time current Icw . It is the maximum current which the breaker is capable of withstanding for X s without
any damage occurring. Generally, the
Icw current refers to 1 s. Other time
values can be converted assuming
Icn = constant.
Rated switching capacity
The rated switching capacity of the
circuit-breakers is specified as the
rated short-circuit making capacity and
rated short-circuit breaking capacity.

3/13

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Seite 14

Circuit-breaker type

Rated current

Application example

Air
circuit-breaker (ACB)

630A to 6,300 A

Protection of distribution systems, motors,


transformers and generators

SENTRON 3WL1

High rated short-time current for time selectivity


Two series, SENTRON WL1 and SENTRON WL6
with high and medium rated switching capacity
Electronic, microprocessor-based overcurrent
releases independent of external voltages
Zone-selective interlocking (ZSI) with total delay
time of 50 ms

Current-limiting
circuit-breaker
(MCCB)
SENTRON 3VL

Designed and tested in compliance with


EN 60947 / IEC 60947 / DIN VDE 0660
Possible applications:

Tripping characteristic
L
S
I

L
S
I

TM release:
16 A to 630 A
ETU release:
63 A to 1,600 A

For system protection up to 1,600 A


Optional adjustable overload and overcurrent release:
Precise adaptation to protection requirements

ETU release:
63 A to 500 A

For motor protection up to 500 A


Electronic overload release with adjustable time-lag class:
Effective protection when motor is under full load

L
I

L
I

M release:
63 A to 500 A

M release:
100 A to 1,600 A

Circuit-breaker
3RV1

0.16 to 100 A

For starter combinations up to 500 A


Unsusceptible to inrush currents:
Breaker not tripped by direct-on-line motor starting

As isolating circuit-breaker (load interrupter) up to 2,000 A


with integrated overcurrent releases,
no back-up fuse required

3 RV1 circuit-breaker for motor protection


with overload and overcurrent protection

L
I
I

L Overload tripping
Table 3/8

3/14

S Short-time delay overcurrent tripping

I Instantaneous overcurrent tripping

Application examples for modern Siemens circuit-breakers and their typical tripping characteristics

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

G Ground fault tripping

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Seite 15

System Protection / Safety Coordination

Rated short-circuit making


capacity Icm
The rated short-circuit making capacity Icm is the short-circuit current
which the circuit-breaker is capable
of making at the rated operating voltage +10%, rated frequency and a
specified power factor. It is expressed as the maximum peak value
of the prospective short-circuit current, and is at least equal to the rated
short-circuit breaking capacity Icn ,
multiplied by the factor n specified
in Table 3/6.
Rated short-circuit breaking
capacity Icn
The rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn is the short-circuit current which
the circuit-breaker is capable of breaking at the rated operating voltage
+10%, rated frequency and a specified power factor cos . It is expressed as the r.m.s. value of the alternating current component.
Switching capacity category
Switching capacity categories, which
specify how often a circuit-breaker
can switch its rated making and
breaking current as well as the condition of the breaker after the specified
switching cycle, are defined for
circuit-breakers in EN 60947 /
IEC 60947/ DIN VDE 0660 and in
accordance with IEC 157-1 (Table
3/7). The rated short-circuit breaking
capacity Icn is based on the test
sequence O-t-CO-t-CO. The rated
service short-circuit breaking capacity
Ics can also be specified on the basis
of the shortened switching sequence
O-t-CO (see Table 3/7 for explanation
of O, t, and C).

Rated circuit-breaker currents


The rated duty, e.g. continuous
operation, intermittent operation or
short-time operation, plays a decisive
role in selecting the switchgear
according to its rated currents.
The following rated currents are distinguished according to the thermal
characteristics:

Application examples and tripping


curves
Application examples for circuitbreakers with protection
The principal application examples
and typical tripping curves of modern
circuit-breakers currently available
from Siemens are specified in
Table 3/8.

C Rated thermal current Ith


C Rated continuous current Iu
C Rated operating current Ie.
Conventional rated thermal
current Ith , rated continuous
current Iu
The conventional rated thermal current Ith or Ithe for motor starters in
enclosures is defined as an 8-h current in accordance with EN 60947-1,
-4-1, -3 / IEC 60947-1, -4-1, -3 /
DIN VDE 0660-100, -102, -107.
It is the maximum current which can
be carried during this time without
the temperature limit being exceeded. The rated continuous current
Iu can be carried for an unlimited
time.
With adjustable inverse-time-delay
releases and relays, the maximum
current setting is the rated continuous current Iu.
Rated operating current Ie
The rated operating current Ie is the
current that is determined by the operating conditions of the switching
device, the rated operating voltage
and rated frequency, rated switching
capacity, the rated duty, utilization
category1), contact life and the degree of protection.
1) The utilization category describes the
switching devices application and stress,
see device standards EN 60947 /
IEC 60947 / DIN VDE 0660.

3/15

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Seite 16

Circuitbreaker

L Inverse-time-delay
overload release

Fuse
Fuse

I Instantaneous
electromagnetic
overcurrent release

L
Circuitbreaker

Icn Rated short-circuit


breaking capacity

A
I

3.2.2 Switchgear Assemblies


Switchgear assemblies are seriesconnected switching and protection
devices which perform specific tasks
for protecting a system component;
the first device (relative to the flow
of power) provides the short-circuit
protection.

Ik Prospective sus-

tained short-circuit
current at mounting
location

Ik
Ik

Icn

A Safety margins
Operates
Clears

Fig. 3/7

L release

I release

Circuit-breaker

Fuse

Fuse
+ circuit-breaker

Switchgear assembly comprising fuse and circuit-breaker

Switchgear assemblies with fuses


Fuses and molded-case circuitbreakers
If the prospective short-circuit current Ik exceeds the rated short-circuit
breaking capacity Icn of the circuitbreaker at its point of installation, the
latter must be provided with upstream fuses (Fig. 3/7).
Protection and operating ranges
Defined protection and operating
ranges are assigned to each device in
the switchgear assembly. The L-release monitors overload currents,
while the I-release detects short-circuit currents up to the rated short-circuit breaking capacity of the circuitbreaker.
The circuit-breaker provides protection against all overcurrents up to its
rated short-circuit breaking capacity
Icn and ensures all-pole opening and
reclosing. The fuses are only responsible for short-circuit clearance with
higher short-circuit currents Ik . In this
case too, the circuit-breaker disconnects all-pole almost simultaneously
via its I-release, triggered by the letthrough current ID of the fuse. The
fuse must, therefore, be selected
such that its let-through current ID is
less than the rated short-circuit
breaking capacity Icn of the circuitbreaker.

3/16

Fuse, contactor, and thermal


inverse-time-delay overload relay
The contactor is used to switch the
motor on and off. The overload relay
protects the motor, motor supply
conductors and contactor against
overloading. The fuse upstream of
the contactor and overload relay provides protection against short circuits. For this reason, the protection
ranges and characteristics of all the
components (Fig. 3/8) must be carefully coordinated with each other.
The switchgear assembly comprising
contactor and overload relay is referred to as a motor starter or, if a
three-phase motor is started directly,
a direct-on-line starter.
Specifications for contactors and
motor starters
The standards EN 60947-4-1 /
IEC 60947-4-1 / DIN VDE 0660-102
apply for contactors and motor
starters up to 1,000 V for direct-online starting (with maximum voltage).
When short-circuit current protection
equipment is selected for switchgear
assemblies, a distinction is made between various types of protection according to the permissible degree of
damage as defined in EN 60947-4- /
IEC 60947-4-1 / DIN VDE 0660-1021):

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Type a

Destruction and replacement of individual components or complete switching device

Type b

Welding of contacts and


permanent change in
characteristic values of
overload relay

Type c

Welding of contacts without permanent change to


operating values of over
load relay.

Protection and operating ranges of


equipment
Grading diagram for motor starter
The protection ranges and the relevant characteristics of the equipment
constituting a switchgear assembly
used as a motor starter are illustrated
in the grading diagram in Fig. 3/8.

1) The standards EN 60 947-1 / IEC 60 947-4-1/


DIN VDE 0660-102 comprise modified descriptions for short-circuit behavior as
follows:
Coordination type 1:
Destruction of contactor and overload relay
are permissible. The contactor and/or over
load relay must be replaced if necessary.
Coordination type 2:
The overload relay must not be damaged.
Contact welding at the contactor is, however,
permissible, given the contacts can easily be
separated or the contactor can easily be
replaced.

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Seite 17

System Protection / Safety Coordination

Assembly
comprising
LV HRC fuse,
contactor, and
thermal
overload relay
(motor starter)

1
1 min
2

2 Destruction characteristic of thermal overload


relay
3 Rated breaking capacity
of contactor
4 Characteristic of contactor for easily separable
welding of contacts

B
A

1 Tripping characteristic
of (thermal) inversetime-delay overload
relay

4 (Depends on
current limiting
by fuse)
5
C
6

1 ms

5 Prearcing-time/current
characteristic of fuse,
utilization category aM
6 Total clearance-time
characteristic of aM
fuse

A, B, C

Fig. 3/8

Safety margins for reliable short-circuit protection

Switchgear assembly comprising fuse, contactor,


and thermal inverse-time-delay overload relay

The fuses in this assembly must


satisfy a number of conditions:
C The time-current characteristics of
fuses and overload relays must allow the motor to be run up to
speed.
C The fuses must protect the overload relay from being destroyed by
currents approximately 10 times
higher than the rated current of the
relay.
C The fuses must interrupt overcurrents beyond the capability of the
contactor (Ie currents approximately
10 times higher than the rated operating current Ie of the contactor).
C In the event of a short circuit, the
fuses must protect the contactor to
such an extent that any damage
does not exceed the specified degrees of damage mentioned above
(depending on the rated operating
current Ie, contactors must be able
to withstand motor start-up currents of between 8 and 12 Ie without the contacts being welded).
To satisfy these conditions, the following safety margins A, B and C
must be maintained between certain
characteristic curves of the devices:

Protection of overload relay


In order to protect the overload relay,
the prearcing-time/current characteristic of the fuse (an LV HRC
switchgear fuse of utilization category aM was used in this example;
refer to the following section Selecting fuses) must lie in margin A below the intersection of the tripping
curve of the overload relay (1) with
its destruction curve (2).
Protection of contactor
In order to protect the contactor
against excessively high breaking currents, the prearcing-time/current
characteristic curve of the fuse, starting from the current value which corresponds to the breaking capacity of
the contactor (3), must lie in margin B
below the tripping characteristic of
the overload relay (1).
In order to protect the contactor
against contact welding, time-current
characteristic curves can be specified
for each contactor indicating which
load currents can be applied as maximum currents so that
C contact welding is avoided, or else
C welded contacts can easily be separated (characteristic curve 4 in
Fig. 3/8).

Therefore, in both cases, the fuse


must respond in good time. The total
clearance time characteristic of the
fuse (6) must lie in margin C below
the characteristic curve of the contactor for easily separable contact welding (4) (total clearance time = prearcing time + extinction time).
Selecting fuses
LV HRC switchgear fuses
Fuses for motor starters are selected
according to the aforementioned criteria.
Compared with LV HRC fuses of utilization category gL used to protect
lines and cables, LV HRC switchgear
fuses of utilization category aM provide the advantage of weld-free
short-circuit protection for the maximum motor power which the contactor is capable of switching.
Owing to their more effective current
limiting abilities (as compared with
those of line-protection fuses), they
are very effective in relieving contactors of high peak short-circuit currents ip since they respond more
rapidly in the upper short-circuit
range as shown in Fig. 3/9.
It is therefore preferable to use
switchgear fuses rather than lineprotection fuses with relay settings
> 80 A at higher operating currents
with correspondingly lower shortcircuit current attenuation.
Table 3/9 shows the classification
of the fuses based on functional
features.

3/17

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Seite 18

Functional category
Designation

Utilization category

Rated continuous Rated breaking Designation


current
current

Protection of

t s Prearcing time for fuse


104
s
t s 103

Full-range fuses

In

Ia min

gL/gG
gR
gB

Cables and
lines
Semiconductors
Mining
installations

Back-up fuses
a

102

Utilization category
gL
aM

101
100
10-1

In

4 In
2.7 In

aM
aR

Switchgear
Semiconductors

Ia min Minimum rated breaking current

10-2
10-3

8
4 102

103

104
I

Table 3/9

Classification of LV HRC fuses based on their functional characteristics defined in


EN 60269-1/ IEC 60269-1/DIN VDE 0636-10

Classification of LV HRC fuses and


comparison of characteristic
curves of gL and aM utilization
categories
LV HRC fuses are divided into functional and utilization categories in accordance with their type design. They
can continuously carry currents up to
their rated current.
Functional category g
(full-range fuses)
Functional category g applies to fullrange fuses which can interrupt currents from the minimum fusing current
up to the rated short-circuit breaking
current.
Utilization category gL/gG
This category includes fuses of utilization category g/gG used to protect
cables and lines.
Functional category a
(back-up fuses)
Functional category a applies to
backup fuses which can interrupt
currents above a specified multiple of
their rated current up to the rated
short-circuit breaking current.
Utilization category aM
This functional category applies to
switchgear fuses of utilization category aM, the minimum breaking current of which is approximately four

3/18

times the rated current. These fuses


are thus only intended for short-circuit
protection. For this reason, fuses of
functional category a must not be
used above their rated current. A
means of overload protection, e.g. a
thermal time-delay relay, must therefore always be provided.
Comparison of characteristic
curves for utilization categories gL
and aM
The prearcing-time/current characteristics of LV HRC of utilization category gL and aM for 200 A are compared in Fig. 3/9.
Switchgear assemblies without
fuses (fuseless design)
Back-up protection (cascade-connected circuit-breakers)
If two circuit-breakers with I-releases
of the same type are connected in
series along one conducting path,
they will open simultaneously in
the event of a fault (K) in the vicinity
of the distribution board
(Fig. 3/10, 3/11).
The short-circuit current is thereby
detected by two series-connected
interrupting devices and effectively
extinguished. As a result, the downstream circuit-breaker with a lower
rated switching capacity can be in-

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Fig. 3/9

5
[A]

Comparison of prearcing-time/
current characteristics of LV HRC
fuses of utilization categories gL
and aM, rated current 200 A

stalled at a location where the possible short-circuit current exceeds its


rated switching capacity.
Protection and operating ranges of
the circuit-breakers
Fig. 3/10 shows the single-line diagram and Fig. 3/11 the principle of a
cascade connection. The rated current of the upstream circuit-breaker
Q2 is selected in accordance with its
rated operating current. The circuitbreaker Q2 can, for example, be used
as a main circuit-breaker or group circuit-breaker for several feeders in
sub-distribution boards. Its I-release
is set to a very high operating current, if possible to the rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn of the
downstream circuit-breakers.

Circuit-breaker
with I-release

Q2

and
Q1

Circuit-breaker
with L I-release

Fig. 3/10

Single-line diagram of a back-up


circuit (cascade connection) in a
sub-distribution board

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

The outgoing circuit-breaker Q1 provides overload protection and also


clears autonomously relatively low
short-circuit currents which may be
caused by short circuits to exposed
conductive parts, insulation faults or
short circuits at the end of long lines
and cables. The upstream circuitbreaker Q2 is only involved at the
same time if high short-circuit currents occur as a result of a dead
short circuit in the vicinity of the outgoing circuit-breaker Q1 (restricted
selectivity).
Circuit-breakers with L- and
I-releases and contactor
Protection and operating ranges
of devices
The circuit-breaker provides overload
and short-circuit protection also for
the contactor, while the contactor
performs switching duties (Fig. 3/12).
The requirements that must be fulfilled by the circuit-breaker are the
same as those that apply to the fuse
in switchgear assemblies comprising
fuse, contactor and overload relay
(see Fig. 3/8).
Starter circuit-breaker with
I-release, contactor, and overload
relay (a)
Readiness for reclosing
Overload protection is provided by
the overload relay in conjunction with
the contactor, while short-circuit protection is provided by the starter circuit-breaker. The operating current of
its I-release is set as low as the starting cycle will permit, in order to include low short-circuit currents in the
instantaneous breaking range as well
(Fig. 3/13). The advantage of this
switchgear assembly is that it is possible to determine whether the fault

was an overload or short circuit according to whether, via the overload


relay, the contactor or the starter circuit-breaker has opened. Further advantages of the starter circuit-breaker
following short-circuit tripping are
three-phase circuit interruption and
immediate readiness for reclosing.

ip
i
i D1
i D(1+2)

The switchgear assemblies with the


starter circuit-breaker are becoming
increasingly important in fuseless
control units.

Switchgear assemblies with thermistor motor-protection devices


u

Overload relays and releases cease


to provide reliable overload protection when it is no longer possible to
establish the winding temperature
from the motor current. This is the
case with:
C
C
C
C

ue
u B(1+2)
u B1

High switching frequencies


Irregular, intermittent duty
Restricted cooling and
High ambient temperatures

In these cases, switchgear assemblies with thermistor motor-protection devices are used. The
switchgear assemblies are designed
with or without fuses depending on
the installations configuration.
Temperature sensor in motor winding
The degree of protection that can be
attained depends on whether the
motor to be protected has a thermally critical stator or rotor. The operating temperature, coupling time constant and the position of the
temperature sensor in the motor
winding are also crucial factors. They
are usually specified by the motor
manufacturer.

ip

Maximum asymmetrical shortcircuit current (peak value)

i D1

Let-through current Q1

i D (1+ 2) Actual let-through current


(less than i D1)
ue

Source voltage (opening


voltage)

u B (1+ 2) Sum of arc voltages of upstream circuit-breaker Q2 and


outgoing circuit-breaker Q1
u B1

Fig. 3/11

Arc voltage of outgoing


circuit-breaker Q1

Principle of a back-up circuit


(cascade connection)

3/19

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Seite 20

Circuitbreaker with
li releases

Circuit-breaker
with I-release for
starter assemblies

Contactor
Inverse-timedelay overload
relay with
L-release

Contactor

L
1

2
n

Setting range
I

Icn

Icn
Trip

L-release

I-release

Opens

Contactor

Circuit-breaker

1 Rated breaking capacity of


contactor
2 Rated making capacity of
contactor
3 Characteristic of contactor
for easily separable contact welding

Fig. 3/12

L Characteristic of
inverse-time-delay
overload release
I Characteristic of instantaneous electromagnetic
overcurrent release
Icn Rated short-circuit
breaking capacity of
circuit-breaker

L Characteristic curve of
(thermal) inverse-time-de
lay overload relay

Switchgear assembly comprising circuit-breaker and contactor

a)

b)

Fig. 3/13

Switchgear assembly comprising circuit-breaker, adjustable


overcurrent release, contactor, and overload relay

c)

Fuse

Characteristic curve of ad
justable instantaneous
overcurrent release

d)

Fuse

Circuit-breaker with
L- and I-releases
Contactor

Circuit-breaker with
L- and I-releases

Circuit-breaker with
L- and I-releases

Contactor

Contactor

Overload relay
Thermistor
motor protection

Fig. 3/14

Thermistor
motor protection

Switchgear assemblies with thermistor motor-protection devices plus additional overload


relay or release (block diagram)

Motors with thermally critical


stators
Motors with thermally critical stators
can be adequately protected against
overloads and overheating by means
of thermistor motor-protection devices without overload relays. Feeder
cables are protected against short circuits and overloads either by fuses
and circuit-breakers (Fig. 3/14a) or by
fuses alone (Fig. 3/14b).

3/20

Overload relay
Thermistor
motor protection

Thermistor
motor protection

Motors with thermally critical


rotors
Motors with thermally critical rotors,
even if started with a locked rotor,
can only be provided with adequate
protection if they are fitted with an
additional overload relay or release.
The overload relay or release also
protects the cabling against overloads (Fig. 3/14a, c and d).

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

3.2.3 Selecting Protective


Equipment
Short-circuit protection of branch
circuits
Branch circuits in distribution boards
and control units can be provided with
short-circuit protection by means of
fuses or by means of circuit-breakers
without fuses. The level of anticipated
current limiting, which is higher in
fuses with low rated currents than in
current-limiting circuit-breakers with
the same rated current, may also be a

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Seite 21

System Protection / Safety Coordination


[kA] 100

2h

cos 0.25
cos 0.3

ip , i D

63 A i D

cos 0.5

13
10

iD

cos 0.7

ip
a, a

100 A

10 s
a

63 A
1

iD
b
10 ms

10
22
Short-circuit current I k

iD Let-through currents
ip Peak short-circuit current

100
[kA]

e.g. where Ik = 10 kA:


iD Fuse (100 A) 7.5 kA
iD Circuit-breaker 8 kA

Current-limiting characteristics of circuit-breaker (63 A)


and LV HRC fuses (63 and 100 A)

crucial factor in making a choice in


favor of one or the other solution.
Comparing the protective characteristics of fuses with those of
current-limiting circuit-breakers
The following should be taken into
consideration when comparing the
protection characteristics of fuses
and circuit-breakers:
C The rated short-circuit breaking
capacity, which can vary considerably;
C The level of current limiting which,
with fuses of up to 400 A, is always higher than for current-limiting circuit-breakers with the same
rated current;
C The shape of the prearcing
time/current characteristic curves
of fuses and the tripping curves of
circuit-breakers;

1
2
3
A

Current limiting range


Overload range
Short-circuit current range
Test range for fuse
currents

Fig. 3/16

B A

1 1.3 1.6 Ir,(Ie)


1.05 1.2

Fig. 3/15

Icn
Ik
I

100
[kA]

B Test range for limiting


tripping currents of
circuit-breaker
Icn Rated short-circuit
breaking capacity

Characteristics and rated switching capacities of fuse


(a) and circuit-breaker (b) with I-releases

C Clearance conditions in accordance


with HD 384.4.41 / IEC 60 364-4-41/
DIN VDE 0100-410, Section 6.1.3
Protection measures in TN systems (see Electrical Installations Handbook, Chapter 2).

Comparison between the tripping


curves and rated short-circuit
breaking capacity of fuses with
those of circuit-breakers with
the same rated current and a high
switching capacity

Comparison of current-limiting
characteristics

Tripping curves and rated


short-circuit breaking capacity Icn
The prearcing-time/current characteristic curve a of the 63 A fuse link, utilization category gL, and the I tripping characteristic b of a circuitbreaker are, by way of example,
plotted in the time-current diagram in
Fig. 3/16. The current setting for the
inverse-time-delay overload release
of the circuit-breaker corresponds to
the rated current of the fuse link.

Current limiting with LV HRC fuses


and circuit-breakers
Fig. 3/15 shows the current-limiting
characteristics of a circuit-breaker
with rated continuous current of 63 A,
at 400 V and 50 Hz compared to an
LV HRC fuse of type 3NA, utilization
category gL, rated currents 63 A and
100 A. Owing to the high motor starting currents, however, the rated current of the fuse must be higher than
the rated operating current of the motor, i.e. a circuit-breaker with a minimum rated current of 63 A or a fuse
with a minimum rated current of
100 A is required for a 30 kW motor.

Current limiting range (1)


The typical test range for fuse currents (A) is, for example, between
1.3 and 1.6 times the rated current
while the test range for the limiting
tripping currents of the overload release (B) is between 1.05 and 1.2
times the current setting. The adjustable overload release enables the
current setting and, therefore, the
limiting tripping current to be
matched more closely to the continuous loading capability than it would
be possible with a fuse, the different
current ratings of which only permit
approximate matching.

3/21

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Seite 22

Although the limit current of the fuse


is adequate for providing overload
protection for lines and cables, it is
not sufficient for the starting current
of motors where a fuse with the
characteristic a would be needed.
Overload range (2)
In the overload range (2), the prearcing- time/current characteristic curve
of the fuse is steeper than the tripping curve of the overload release.
Short-circuit current range (3)
In the short-circuit current range (3),
the instantaneous release of the circuit-breaker detects short-circuit currents above its operating value faster
than the fuse. At higher currents, the
fuse trips more quickly and therefore,
limits the short-circuit current more
effectively than a circuit-breaker.

Extremely high rated switching


capacity of LV HRC fuses
This results in an extremely high
rated breaking capacity for fuses of
over 100 kA at an operating voltage
of 690 V AC. The rated short-circuit
breaking capacity Icn of circuit-breakers, however, depends on a number
of factors, e.g. the rated operating
voltage Ue and the type.
A comparison between the protection characteristics of fuses, circuitbreakers and their switchgear assemblies can be found in Tables 3/10
and 3/11.
Selecting circuit-breakers for
distribution boards with and
without fuses
Distribution boards and control units
can be constructed with or without
fuses.
Distribution boards with fuses
The standard design of distribution
boards with fuses (Table 3/12) includes switchgear assemblies comprising circuit-breakers and fuses,
whereby a specific task is allocated
to each protection device.
The feeder circuit-breaker provides
overload protection and selective shortcircuit protection for the transformer
and distribution board. The Siemens circuit-breakers SENTRON WL and 3VL
are ideal for this purpose.

3/22

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

The switchgear assemblies comprising fuse and circuit-breaker, which


provide system protection, protect the
lines to the sub-distribution board
against overloads and short circuits.
The switchgear assemblies comprising fuse and circuit-breaker, which
provide motor protection, as well as
fuses, contactor and overload relay
protect the motor feeder cable and
the motor against overloads and short
circuits.
Distribution boards without fuses
(fuseless design)
In distribution boards without fuses
(Table 3/13), short-circuit protection
is provided by circuit-breakers for
system protection and for load
switching, furthermore circuit-breakers fulfill motor protection tasks only
or protect starter assemblies together with the contactor. The protection ranges of the switchgear assemblies comprising circuit-breaker,
contactor and overload relay have already been dealt with in this chapter.
For further technical data, please
refer to the literature supplied by the
manufacturer.

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Seite 23

System Protection / Safety Coordination

Characteristic

Fuse

Circuit-breaker

Rated switching
capacity (AC)

> 100 kA, 690 V

f (Ir Ue type1))

Current limiting

f ( I r I k)

f (Ir Ik Ue type1))

Additional arcing space

None

f (Ir Ik Ue type1))

External indication
of operability

Yes

No

Operational reliability

With additional costs2) Yes

Remote switching

No

Automatic all-pole breaking

With additional costs3) Yes

Indication facility

With additional costs4) Yes

Interlocking facility

No

Yes

Readiness for reclosing after


clearing overload
clearing short circuit

No
No

Yes
f (condition)

Interrupted operation

Yes

f (condition)

Maintenance costs

No

f (number of operations and condition)

Selectivity

No additional costs

With additional costs

Replaceability

Yes5)

With unit of same make

Short-circuit protection
cable
motor

Very good
Very good

Good
Good

Overload protection
cable
motor

Adequate
Not possible

Good
Good

1)

2)

The term type embraces: current


extinguishing method, short-circuit
strength through internal impedance,
type of construction
For example, by means of shockproof
fuse switch-disconnectors with snapaction closing

Yes

3)
4)
5)

By means of fuse monitoring and


associated circuit-breakers
By means of fuse monitoring
Due to standardisation

Table 3/10 Comparison between the protective characteristics of fuses and circuit-breakers

3/23

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Equipment to be
protected and
switching rate

18:44 Uhr

Seite 24

Protection devices with fuses

Fuse
Circuit-breaker
Contactor
Overload protection
Thermistor
motor protection
M
3~

M
3~

Overload protection
Cable
Motor (with thermally critical stator)
Motor (with thermally critical rotor)

++
++1)
++1)

++
++
++

+
++
+

+
++
+

++
++
++

++
++
++

Short-circuit protection
Cable
Motor

++
++

++
++

++
++

++
++

++
++

++
++

Switching rate

++

++

++

Equipment to be
protected and
switching rate

Protection devices without fuses

Circuit-breaker
Contactor
Overload protection
Thermistor
motor protection
M
3~

M
3~

M
3~

M
+

Overload protection
Cable
Motor (with thermally critical stator)
Motor (with thermally critical rotor)

++
++1)
++1)

++
++
++

++
++
++

++
++
++

++
++1)
++1)

+
++
++

Short-circuit protection
Cable
Motor

++
++

++
++

++
++

++
++

++
++

++
++

Switching rate

1)

Protection with slight functional loss following failure of phase conductor


++ Very good
+ Good
Poor

Table 3/11 Comparison between the protective characteristics of different switchgear assemblies (block diagrams)

3/24

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

11.08.2005

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Seite 25

System Protection / Safety Coordination

No. Type of
circuitbreaker

Type
code

Rated
short-circuit
breaking
capacity

Icn

Type of release/relay
L
S
Adjus- Fixed Adjustable settable
ting

Back-up
fuse

Fixed
setting

Adjustable Icn
> 100 kA

Ik1

Tripping
characteristic

TIP_Kap3_E

Adjustable

release

Feeder circuit-breaker
1
1

Circuitbreaker
for selective
protection

3W

Icn
t
Ik1 I

Ik1

Distribution circuit-breaker
2

Fuse
3NA
and
3VF
circuit-breaker 3VL
for system
protection

Ik2
Ik2
Ik2

Icn
t
Ik2 I

Ik2

Load circuit-breaker
4

Ik3

Table 3/12

Ik3
Ik3

Fuse
and
direct-on-line
starter

Ik3
Ik3
Ik3

Icn
t
Ik3 I

Ik3

4
M
3~

Fuse
3NA
and
3RV1
circuit-breaker
for motor
protection

M
3~

3NA
3ND
3TW

Icn
t
Ik3

Power distribution boards with fuses and circuit-breakers

3/25

11.08.2005

18:44 Uhr

Seite 26

No. Type of
circuitbreaker

Type
code

Rated
short-circuit
breaking
capacity

Fixed
setting

Adjustable

Icn

Type of release/relay
L
S
Adjus- Fixed Adjustable settable
ting

Tripping
characteristic

Ik1

TIP_Kap3_E

Adjustable

release

Feeder circuit-breaker
1
1
Ik1

Circuitbreaker
for selective
protection

3W

Icn
t
Ik1 I

Distribution circuit-breaker
2

Ik2

Ik2

Circuit-breaker 3VF
for system
3VL
protection

Ik2
Ik2

Icn
t
Ik2 I

Circuitbreaker
for selective
protection

SEN- Ik2
TRON
WL

Icn
t
Ik2 I

Load circuit-breaker
4

5
Ik3

M
3~

Ik3

M
3~

Circuitbreaker
for motor
protection

3RV1

Circuit3RA
breaker
3TW
and direct-online starter

Ik3

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Icn
t
Ik3

Ik3

Table 3/13 Power distribution with circuit-breakers without fuses

3/26

I
Icn

t
Ik3

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Seite 27

System Protection / Safety Coordination

3.2.4 Miniature CircuitBreakers (MCBs)


Task
Miniature circuit-breakers are mainly
designed for the protection of lines
and cables against overload and short
circuit, thus ensuring the protection
of electrical equipment against excessively high heating according to
the relevant standards, e.g.
DIN VDE 0100-430.

1st condition 2nd condition


Ib In I z
I2 1.45 Iz
Ib
Iz

In

1.45Iz

I2

I1

Iz

Permissible continuous load


current for one conductor
where the permanent temperature limit for the insulation is not exceeded

1.45 Iz Maximum permissible timelimited overload current


where a short-term exceeding of the continuous limit
temperature will not yet result in a safety-relevant reduction of insulation properties.

I2

I3

In

Rated current, i.e. the current for which the miniature


circuit-breaker has been rated and to which other parameters refer (set value)

I1

Small test current, i.e. the


current which does not result in tripping in defined
conditions

I2

Large test current, i.e. the


current which is broken
within one hour in defined
conditions (In 63 A)

I3

Tolerance limiting

I4

Seal-in current of the instantaneous electromagnetic


overcurrent release (shortcircuit release)

I5

Tripping current of the instantaneous electromagnetic


overcurrent release (shortcircuit release)

I3

Application
Miniature circuit-breakers are used in
all distribution networks, both for
commercial buildings and industrial
buildings. Due to a wide range of versions and accessories (e.g. auxiliary
contacts, fault signal contacts, opencircuit shunt releases), they are able
to meet the various requirements of
the most diverse areas of application.

I5

I4

Tripping characteristics

C Tripping characteristic A is particularly suitable for the protection of


transducers in measuring circuits,
for long-line circuits and where disconnection within 0.4 s is required
in accordance with HD 384.4.41 S2 /
IEC 60 364-4-41/

Rated operating current to


be expected, i.e. load-determined current during normal
operation

time t

Under certain conditions, MCBs in a


TN system also provide protection
against electrical stroke at excessively high contact voltage due to
wrong insulation, e.g. according to
HD 384.4.41/ IEC 364-4-41 /
DIN VDE 0100-410.

Four tripping characteristics A, B, C


and D are available for the actual type
of application corresponding to the
equipment being connected in the
circuit to be protected.

Ib

Fig. 3/17

Typical values of lines and protective devices

DIN VDE 0100-4110.


C Tripping characteristic B is the standard characteristic for wall-outlet
circuits in residential and commercial buildings.

3/27

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Seite 28

C Tripping characteristic C is advantageous wherever equipment with


higher inrush currents, e.g.
luminaires and motors, is used.
C Tripping characteristic D is adapted
to highly pulse-generating equipment, such as transformers, solenoid valves or capacitors.
Operating method
Miniature circuit-breakers are protective switches for manual operation,
including overcurrent remote tripping
(via thermal overcurrent instantaneous release). Multi-pole devices
are coupled mechanically at the outside via handles and simultaneously
inside via their releases.
Standards
The international basic standard is
IEC 60898. The European standard
EN 60 898 and the German national
standard DIN VDE 0641-11 are based
upon it. Device sizes are described in
DIN 43880. For the protection against
personal injury, the disconnecting requirements according to the relevant
standards, e.g. HD 384.4.41 S2 /
IEC 60364-4-41 / DIN VDE 0100-410
have to be met.

Versions
MCBs are available in many different
versions: 1-pole, 2-pole, 3-pole,
4-pole and with connected neutral
1-pole+N and 3-pole+N. Corresponding to the preferred series according
to IEC 60898 and DIN 43880, MCBs
are allocated the following rated
currents:
C Devices with 55 mm depth
0.3 A to 63 A
C Devices with 70 mm depth
0.3 A to 125 A
Depending on the device type, an
auxiliary switch (AS), fault-signal contact (FC), open-circuit shunt
release (ST), undervoltage release
(UR) or residual-current-operated
circuit-breaker (RCCB module) can
be retrofitted.
Auxiliary switches (AS) signal the
switching state of the MCB and indicate whether it has been switched
off manually or automatically. Faultsignal contacts (FC) indicate tripping
of the MCB due to overload or short
circuit.
Open-circuit shunt releases (ST) are
suitable for remote switching of
MCBs. Undervoltage releases (UR)
protect devices connected in the circuit against impacts of insufficiently
low supply voltage.
By fitting an RCCB module to an
MCB, you will receive an RCBO
assembly, which as a complete
system can be used for line protection as well as for protection against
electrically ignited fires and personal
injury in the event of direct or indirect contact voltages.

3/28

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

By connecting the AS and the FC


to an instabusEIB binary input,
the signals may also be read into an
instabus EIB system. When using an
instabus EIB binary output, the MCB
which is tripped via the open-circuit
shunt release (AA) can also be
remotely tripped via instabus EIB.
Depending on the device type,
miniature circuit-breakers by
Siemens have the following features:
C Excellent current limiting and selectivity characteristics
C Identical terminals on both sides
for optional infeed from the top or
bottom
C Installation and dismantling without the use of tools
C Rapid and easy removal from the
system
C Terminals safe-to-touch by fingers
or the back of the hand according
to VDE 0106-100 (VBG4)
C Combined terminals for simultaneous connection of busbars and
feeder cables
C Main switch characteristics according to EN 60 204 / IEC 60204/
VDE 0113
C Separate switch position indicator
AC current type MCBs are suitable
for all AC and three-phase networks
up to a voltage of 240/415 V and all
DC networks up to 60 V (1-pole) and
120 V (2-pole).
The MCB voltage rating is
230/400 V AC.
AC/DC current type MCBs may also
be used for 220 V DC (1-pole) and
440 V DC (2-pole).

11.08.2005

18:44 Uhr

Seite 29

System Protection / Safety Coordination

Rated cross
section qn
mm2
1.5
2.5
4
6
10
16
25
35
Table 3/14

Rated current In of the MCB when


protecting
2 conductors under load 3 conductors under load
A
A
16
25
32
40
63
80
100
125

Iz (line)
Permissible continuous load current with
2 conductors under load 3 conductors under load
A
A

16
20
32
40
50
63
80
100

19.5
26
35
46
63
85
112
138

17.5
24
32
41
57
76
96
119

Allocation of miniature circuit-breakers to conductor cross sections


Example: flat-webbed cable, stranded cables on or in the wall, installation type C1) at an ambient temperature of 30C
1) Installation type C acc. to DIN VDE 0298-4 and DIN VDE 0100-430, Supplement 1. Cables are fixed in such a way
that the spacing between them and the wall is smaller than 0.3 times the outer cable diameter.

For line-overcurrent protection, the


MCBs usually have two independent
releases. In the event of overload, a
bimetal contact opens inverse-time
delayed corresponding to the current
value. If a certain threshold is exceeded in the event of a short circuit, however, an electro-magnetic
overcurrent release instantaneously
trips without delay. The tripping
range (time-current threshold zone)
of the MCB according to EN 60898 /
IEC 60898 / DIN VDE 0641-11 is
defined via parameters I1 to I5 (Fig.
3/18). The line parameters Ib and Iz
(see Fig. 3/17) are related to it.

300
timet

MCBs with
tripping characteristics B, C, D acc. to
EN 60 898 / IEC 60 898 / DIN VDE 0641-11

I1 I2

A1)

60
minutes

In order to avoid damaging of the


conductor insulation in case of faults,
temperatures must not rise above
certain values. For PVC insulation,
these values are 70 C permanently
or 160 C for a maximum of 5 s
(short circuit).

10

I1 (t > 1h)

1.13 x In 1.13 x In 1.13 x In 1.13 x In

I2 (t < 1h)

1.45 x In 1.45 x In 1.45 x In 1.45 x In

I4 (t > 0.1s)

2 x In

3 x In

5 x In

10 x In

I5 (t < 0.1s)

3 x In

5 x In

10 x In

20 x In

1)

Specifications in
compliance with
DIN VDE 0100-410

I3
1

10
5
seconds

TIP_Kap3_E

I3

1
0.4

A B
I4

Fig. 3/18

I5

0.1

0.01

Breaking condition
acc. to
HD 384.4.41S2/
IEC 60 364-4-41
DIN VDE 0100-410

I4

I5
I4

3 4

I5

I5

I4

6 8 10
20 30 40 60 80 100
x rated current In

MCB time-current limit ranges

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Seite 30

When the IEC 60898 was published,


new characteristics B, C and D were
defined internationally. They were
also adopted in EN 60898 and
DIN VDE 0641-11.
The new tripping requirements of
MCBs facilitate their assignment to
conductor cross sections. In the relevant German standards, e.g.
DIN/VDE 0100-430, the following
conditions are listed:
1st condition
Ib In Iz (Rated current rule),
2nd condition
I2 1,45 Iz (Tripping current rule).
The 2nd condition automatically being fulfilled with the new characteristic curves due the fact that these
curves have been defined (Iz = In),
the MCB merely needs to be selected according to the simplified criterion In Iz .
Resulting from this, a new allocation
of rated currents for MCBs and conductor cross sections can be given
(see Table 3/14), related to an ambient temperature of 30 C, as it is
considered appropriate according to
DIN VDE 0100-430, Supplement 1,
and in dependence of the type of
installation and accumulation of
equipment.

Standard

Siemens MCBs are available with


the tripping characteristics B, C and
D, bearing, among other things, the
VDE mark based upon the CCA procedure (CENELEC-CertificationAgreement).
Figure 3/19 represents all tripping
characteristics. Due to the position
of the tripping bands, the following
features vary in intensity with a rising degree from curve A to D
C Current pulse withstand strength,
rising
C Permissible line and cable length
for the protection of persons, decreasing
Temperature impact
The tripping characteristics are standard defined at an ambient temperature of +30 C. At higher temperatures, the thermal tripping curve in
Fig. 3/18 shifts to the left, and to the
right at lower temperatures. This
means that tripping becomes effective even with lower currents present
(higher temperatures) or only with
higher currents (lower temperatures).
This has to be taken into account in
particular for an installation in hot
rooms, in encapsulated distribution
boards where, owing to the currentinduced heat losses of the built-in
devices, higher temperatures may
prevail and for distribution boards
installed outdoors. MCBs can be

Rated short-circuit breaking capacity classes

EN 60 898 / IEC 60 898 /


DIN VDE 0641-11

1,500 A
3,000 A
4,500 A
6,000 A
10,000 A
15,000 A
20,000 A
25,000 A

Table 3/15 Rated short-circuit breaking capacity classes for miniature circuit-breakers

3/30

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

used at temperatures ranging from


25 C to +55 C. The relative humidity may be 95%.
Resistance to climate
Miniature circuit-breakers by Siemens
are resistant to climate according to
IEC 68-2-30. They were successfully
tested in six climatic cycles.
Degree of protection
As MCBs are mainly installed in distribution boards, their degree of protection must meet the requirements
of the respective type of room.
MCBs without an encapsulation can
reach IP 30 according to EN 60529/
IEC 60529 / DIN VDE 0470-1 provided that they have sufficient terminal covers.
All MCBs are equipped with a snapon fixing for rapid fitting on 35-mm
wide standard mounting rails according to DIN EN 50022. Some versions
may additionally be screwed on
mounting plates.
Installation
Moreover, some type series are
available with a rapid wiring system
for manual handling without the use
of tools, which even enables the removal of individual MCBs from the
busbar system.

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Seite 31

System Protection / Safety Coordination

[A2 s]
I2 t
Permissible value I 2 t of 1.5 mm2 cable

Transformer

Fuse 50 A

Fuse
B 16
MCB

104
Ik

[A]
i

i
Ieff

B 16

1
Sinusoidal semiwave

5
t

Fig. 3/19

10
[ms]

103
10-1

100

6
Ik

101
[kA]

Selectivity of MCBs with current limiting classes1[ 2 and3 towards back-up fuses.
Curve B16 applies to 16 A Siemens breakers, tripping characteristic B.

Rated short-circuit breaking


capacity
Besides a reliable adherence to characteristic curves, an important performance feature of MCBs is their
rated short-circuit breaking capacity.
It is divided into short-circuit breaking capacity classes and indicates up
to which level short-circuit currents
can be broken according to EN 60898 /
IEC 60898/ DIN VDE 0641-11 (Table
3/18). Depending on their design,
MCBs by Siemens have short-circuit
breaking capacity ratings up to
25,000 A and VDE approval (VDE is
the Association of German Electrical
Engineers).

Current limiting classes


As a selectivity indicator with regard
to upstream fuses, miniature circuitbreakers with characteristic B and C
up to 40 A are divided into three
current limiting classes according to
their current limiting capability.
For permissible let-through I 2t values, please refer to the standards
EN 60898/ IEC 60898 / DIN VDE
0641-11. For reasons of selectivity,
only Class 3 MCBs with a rated
switching capacity of at least 6,000 A
may be used in distribution boards
connected downstream of the meter
for residential and commercial buildings in compliance with the Technical Supply Conditions of German
power supply companies.

Devices must be labeled


6000
3
Selectivity
Selectivity means that only that protective device will trip in the event of
a fault which is closest to the fault
location in the course of the current
path. This enables maintaining energy flow in circuits which are connected in parallel. In the diagram in
Fig. 3/19, the current sequence in a
disconnection process is illustrated
with regard to current limiting
classes. MCBs of type B16 by
Siemens reduce the energy flow to
much lower values than defined for
current limiting class 3.

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Seite 32

Figure 3/19 shows the selectivity


limits of MCBs with different current
limiting classes as the intersection of
the MCB tripping curve with the
melting curve of the fuse. The highly
effective current limitation of the
MCB also affects the high current
discrimination towards the upstream
fuse.
Characteristic B16 relates to 16 A
Siemens breakers, tripping characteristic B.
Back-up protection
If the short-circuit current at the
point where the MCB is installed
exceeds its rated switching capacity,
another short-circuit protecting device has to be connected upstream.
Without affecting the operability of
the breaker in such cases, the
switching capacity of such an assembly will be increased up to 50 kA.

Although circuit-breakers have a high


inherent rated breaking capacity,
they do not switch sufficiently current-limiting in the range of the MCB
switching capacity limit (6 kA/10 kA)
so that they cannot provide much
support. Therefore, miniature circuitbreakers with a rated current of 6 A
to 32 A are only protected by an upstream circuit-breaker (type 3VF1 to
3VF6 and SENTRON WL1/WL5) up
to the defined rated switching capacity of the MCB (back-up protection).
A more detailed description can be
found in Chapter 6.1.2.
Further product information on
MCBs by Siemens is contained in
the Siemens Catalog BETA Built-in
installation devices, Order No.
E86060-K8220-A101-A6-7600.

In some countries, circuit-breakers


rather than LV HRC fuses are connected upstream instead, which
depending on the type reduces the
combined switching capacity considerably.

3/32

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 33

System Protection / Safety Coordination

3.3 Selectivity in LowVoltage Systems


Selectivity and selectivity types
With two series-connected protective
devices, full selectivity in the event of
a fault is achieved if only the protective device directly upstream of the
fault location disconnects from supply.
Selectivity types / selectivity limit
A distinction is made between two
types of selectivity:
C Partial selectivity acc. to
IEC 60947-2, 2.17.2:
Overcurrent discrimination of two
series-connected overcurrent pro
tection devices, where the loadside protective device takes over
the full protection task up to a defi
ned overcurrent level without the
other protective device being
active.
C Full selectivity acc. to IEC 60947-2,
2.17.2:
Overcurrent discrimination of two
series-connected overcurrent pro
tection devices, where the loadside protective device takes over
the full protection task without the
other protective device being
active.
Selectivity types
C Current selectivity:
Selective disconnection by grading
the instantaneous short-circuit releases. Circuit-breakers with LI
characteristics.
C Time selectivity:
Grading of the configurable tripping
times (tsd in the S-part) of the
short-circuit releases. This applies
to standard as well as to optional
characteristic curves. Circuit-breakers with LSI characteristics. It is
often required in main distribution
boards and at transfer points using
devices of different manufacturers.

C Dynamic/energy selectivity
Selectivity based on the evaluation
of the let-through energy of the
downstream devices and the tripping energy of the upstream
protective device.
Selectivity determination
According to IEC 60947-2, Appendix
A, the determination or verification of
the desired type of selectivity is divided in two time ranges.
Time range > 100 ms:
The time range above 100 ms can be
analyzed by a comparison of characteristic curves in the L- or S-range,
taking the tolerances, required protective settings, curve representation
in identical scales etc. into account.
Time range < 100 ms:
According to Fig. A2 in this standard,
selectivity in this time range must be
verified by testing. Due to the fact
that the time and cost expense involved being very high, different devices being used in the power distribution system, selectivity limits can
often be obtained from renowned
equipment manufacturers only. In
practice, let-through currents are
therefore often compared to the operating or pickup currents or, the letthrough currents of the protective devices are compared to each other.
The prerequisite being that the relevant data is available from the equipment manufacturer and that it is analyzed thoroughly.

All characteristic curves must if not


already specified by the manufacturer
be assigned a scatter band to determine selectivity reliably.
In the case of switchgear, EN 609472 /
IEC 60 9472 / DIN VDE 0660101
specify a scatter of 20% for the instantaneous overcurrent release. The
operating times, which are sometimes considerably shorter at normal
operating temperatures, must be
taken into account for electromechanical overload releases.
Determination of the selectivity
limit
As a rule, all selectivity limits between two protective devices can be
determined by carrying out measurements or tests. These measurements
are virtually indispensable, particularly when assessing selectivity in the
event of a short circuit, owing to the
extremely rapid switching operations
when current-limiting protection
equipment is used.
The measurements can, however, be
very costly and complicated, therefore
many manufacturers publish selectivity tables for their switchgear (see
Table 3/16). When using SIMARIS
design, all criteria are automatically
considered.

Comparing characteristic curves


Three diagram types can be used for
comparing characteristics:
C Time-current diagram
C Let-through current diagram
C Let-through energy diagram
Since these characteristic curves are
compared over several orders of
magnitude, they are usually plotted
on log-log paper.

3/33

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Seite 34

Upstream circuit-breakers
System protection

Characteristics In
li

Type
3VL3
TM

TM 160-200

3VL4
TM
200-250

160-200

200-250

250-315

1,000-2,000 1,200-2,500 1,000-2,000 1,250-2,500 1,575-3,150

Icn

40-100

40-100

45-100

45-100

45-100

Downstream circuit-breakers

[A]

[A]

kA

Selectivity limits (kA)

Type

5SY4

Characteristics

LI

6
10
13
16
20
25
32
40
50
63

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

T
T
T
T
9.2
8.6
7.5
7.7
6.7
6.2

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
9.0

T
T
T
T
9.1
8.6
7.6
7.6
6.6
6.2

T
T
T
T
8.8
8.0
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.1

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
8.0

6
10
13
16
20
25
32
40
50
63

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

T
T
T
T
8.6
8.5
8.5
7.5
6.6
6.2

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
9.7
8.7

T
T
T
T
8.5
8.5
8.5
7.6
6.5
6.1

T
T
T
T
7.1
8.1
7.8
6.9
6.5
6.1

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
8.0

6
10
13
16
20
25
32
40
50
63

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

T
T
T
T
9.2
8.6
7.5
7.7
6.7
6.2

T
T
T
T
T
T
14.3
11.1
11.1
9.0

T
T
T
T
9.1
8.6
7.6
7.6
6.6
6.2

T
T
12.9
11.5
8.8
8.0
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.1

T
T
T
T
T
T
12.4
11.8
10.7
8.0

6
10
13
16
20
25
32
40
50
63

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

T
T
T
T
8.5
8.5
8.5
7.5
6.6
6.2

T
T
T
T
T
14.7
14.7
13.0
9.7
8.7

T
T
T
T
8.5
8.5
8.5
7.6
6.5
6.1

T
14.3
11.1
11.1
7.1
8.1
7.8
6.9
6.5
6.1

T
T
T
T
T
13.7
13.4
12.0
10.2
8.0

Characteristics

LI

Type

5SY7

Characteristics

LI

Characteristics

Table 3/16

3/34

LI

Rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn acc. to IEC 60898


Rated limit short-circuit breaking capacity Icu acc. to IEC 60947-2

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 35

System Protection / Safety Coordination

3VL5
TM
315-400

250-315

315-400

400-500

500-630

3VL5
ETU 10/20

3VL6
ETU 10/20

3VL7
ETU 10/20

252-630

320-800

400-1,000

3VL8
ETU 10/20
500-1,250

640-1,600

2,000-4,000 1,575-3,150 2,000-4,000 2,500-5,000 3,150-6,500 788-6,300

1,000-6,400 1,250-11,000 1,563-12,500 2,000-14,400

45-100

45-100

45-100

45-100

45-100

45-100

50-100

50-100

50-100

50-100

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
14.6

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
13.8
13.0

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
14.2
13.3

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
13.4

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
14.2
12.0

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
14.6
12.3

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T = Full selectivity
up to
Icn = rated shortcircuit breaking
capacity of the
lower-rated protective device
M = Electromagnetic release
TM = Thermomagnetic release
ETU = Electronic
tripping unit

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Seite 36

Downstream circuit-breakers

Upstream circuit-breakers
System protection
3WL1
ETU25/27

Type
Series
Characteristics
IR

1,000-2,500 1,280-3,200 1,600-4,000 2,000-5,000 2,520-6,300


li
Icn

MCCB

50,000

50,000

50,000

50,000

50,000

55-100

80-100

100

100

100

[A]

[A]

[kA]

3VL1 Line Pro LI


TM

16
20
25
32
40
50
63
80
100
125
160

300
300
300
300
600
600
600
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,500

40-70
40-70
40-70
40-70
40-70
40-70
40-70
40-70
40-70
40-70
40-70

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

3VL2 Line Pro LI


TM

40-50
50-63
63-80
80-100
100-125
125-160
25-63
40-100
64-100

300-600
300-600
400-800
500-1,000
625-1,250
800-1,600
80-693
125-1,100
200-1,760

40-100
40-100
40-100
40-100
40-100
40-100
40-100
40-100
40-100

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

3VL2 Line Pro LI


TM
ETU

160-200
200-250
80-200
100-250

1,000-2,000
1,250-2,500
250-2,200
312-2,750

40-100
40-100
40-100
40-100

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

3VL4 Line Protect


TM

160-200
200-250
250-315
315-400
126-315
160-400

1,000-2,000
1,250-2,500
1,575-3,150
2,000-4,000
400-3,465
500-4,400

45-100
45-100
45-100
45-100
45-100
45-100

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

ETU

250-315
315-400
400-500
500-630
252-630

1,575-3,150
2,000-4,000
2,500-5,000
3,250-6,500
788-6,300

45-100
45-100
45-100
45-100
45-100

T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T

3VL6 Line Pro LI

320-800

1,000-6,400

50-100

3VL7 Line Pro LI


ETU

400-1000
500-1250

1,250-11,000
1,562-12,500

50-100
50-100

41.4
41.4

41.4
41.4

41.4
41.4

41.4
41.4

41.4
41.4

3VL8 Line Pro LI

640-1,600

2,000-14,400

50-100

41.4

41.4

41.4

41.4

41.4

ETU

ETU

3VL5 Line Protect LI


TM

Table 3/16

3/36

Rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn acc. to IEC 60898


Rated limit short-circuit breaking capacity Icu acc. to IEC 60947-2 (continued)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 37

System Protection / Safety Coordination

3LW1-3B
ETU45B
500-1,250

640-1,600

800-2,000

1,000-2,500

1,280-3,200

1,600-4,000

2,000-5,000

252-630

320-800

400-1,000

787.5-7560

1,000-9,600

1,250-12,000 1,562.5-15,000 2,000-19,200 2,500-24,000 3,125-30,000

4,000-38,400 50,000

50,000

50-65

100

100

100

100

55-100

80-100

100

100

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T

T
T
T
T
T

T
T

T
T

T
T

T
T

T
T

T
T

55-100

T = Full selectivity
up to
Icn = rated shortcircuit breaking
capacity of the
lower-rated protective device
M = Electromagnetic release
TM = Thermomagnetic release
ETU = Electronic
tripping unit

3/37

TIP_Kap3_E

11.08.2005

18:44 Uhr

Seite 38

Downstream circuit-breakers

Upstream circuit-breakers
System protection
3VL1
TM

Type
Series
Characteristics
IR
li
Circuit-breaker for
motor protection

16

20

25

32

40

50

63

[A]

300

300

300

300

600

600

600

Icn

40-70

40-70

40-70

40-70

40-70

40-70

40-70

[A]

[A]

[kA]

Selectivity limits [kA]

3RV1.1

LI

0.70-1.00
0.90-1.25
1.10-1.60
1.40-2.00
1.80-2.50
2.20-3.20
2.80-4.00
3.50-5.00
4.50-6.30
5.50-8.00
7-10
9-12

12
15
19
24
30
38
48
60
76
96
120
144

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
50
50
50

T
T
T
2.5
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

T
T
T
2.5
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

T
T
T
2.5
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

T
T
T
2.5
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

T
T
T
T
T
2.5
1.2
1.2
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.8

T
T
T
T
T
2.5
1.2
1.2
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.8

T
T
T
T
T
2.5
1.2
1.2
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.8

3RV1.2

LI

0.70-1.00
0.90-1.25
1.10-1.60
1.40-2.00
1.80-2.50
2.20-3.20
2.80-4.00
3.50-5.00
4.50-6.30
5.50-8.00
7-10
9-12.5
11-16
14-20
17-22
20-25

12
15
19
24
30
38
48
60
76
96
120
150
192
240
264
300

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
50
50
50
50

T
T
T
T
T
5.0
2.0
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6

T
T
T
T
T
5.0
2.0
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5

T
T
T
T
T
5.0
2.0
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5

T
T
T
T
T
5.0
2.0
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
20.0
6.0
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.8

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
20.0
6.0
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.8

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
20.0
6.0
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.8

3RV1.3

LI

11-16
14-20
18-25
22-32
28-40
36-45
40-50

192
240
300
384
480
540
600

50
50
50
50
50
50
50

0.5

0.5
0.4

0.5
0.4
0.4

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6

3RV1.4

LI

11-16
14-20
18-25
22-32
28-40
36-50
45-63
57-75
70-90
80-100

192
240
300
384
480
600
756
900
1080
1140

100
100
100
100
50-100
50-100
50-100
50-100
50-100
50-100

0.5

0.5
0.4

0.5
0.4
0.4

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.8

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.8

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.8

Table 3/16

3/38

Rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn acc. to IEC 60898


Rated limit short-circuit breaking capacity Icu acc. to IEC 60947-2 (continued)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap3_E

11.08.2005

18:44 Uhr

Seite 39

Disconnector
3VL1
M

System protection
3VL2
TM

80

100

125

160

100

160

40-50

50-63

63-80

80-100

100-125

125-160

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,500

1,800

1,800

300-600

300-600

400-800

500-1,000 625-1,250

800-1,600

40-70

40-70

40-70

40-70

40-100

40-100

40-100

40-100

40-100

40-100

T
T
T
T
T
T
8.0
3.0
2.5
1.5
1.5
1.2

T
T
T
T
T
T
8.0
3.0
2.5
1.5
1.5
1.2

T
T
T
T
T
T
8.0
3.0
2.5
1.5
1.5
1.2

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
8.0
3.0
3.0
2.5

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
30
6
4
4

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
30.0
6.0
4.0
4.0

T
T
T
T
4.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6

T
T
T
T
4.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6

T
T
T
T
T
4.0
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.0
1.0
0.8

T
T
T
T
T
30.0
2.5
1.5
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.2

T
T
T
T
T
T
5.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.5
1.2

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
5.0
4.0
2.0
2.0
1.5

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
20.0
15.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.5

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
20.0
15.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.5

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
20.0
15.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.5

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
10.0
8.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
3.0

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
30.0
12.0
8.0
6.0
5.0
4.0

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
30.0
12.0
8.0
6.0
5.0
4.0

T
T
T
T
T
20.0
8.0
2.5
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.6

T
T
T
T
T
20.0
8.0
2.5
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.6

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
20.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.8

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
20.0
6.0
4.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.0

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
40.0
25.0
5.0
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.5

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
40-50
30.0
5.0
5.0
4.0
2.5
2.0
1.5

3.0
2.0
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.0

3.0
2.0
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.0

3.0
2.0
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.0

6.0
4.0
3.0
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.0

10.0
6.0
4.0
3.0
3.0
2.5
2.5

10.0
6.0
4.0
3.0
3.0
2.5
2.5

0.8
0.8
0.6

0.8
0.8
0.6

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6

1.5
1.2
1.2
1.0
0.6
0.6

3.0
2.0
1.5
1.2
0.6
0.6

4.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
0.6
0.6
0.6

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.2
0.6
0.6

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.2
0.6
0.6

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.2
0.6
0.6

5.0
3.0
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

8.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0

8.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0

0.8
0.6
0.6
0.6

0.8
0.6
0.6
0.6

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6

1.5
1.2
1.2
1.0
0.6
0.6

2.5
1.5
1.5
1.2
0.6
0.6

3.0
2.0
2.0
1.2
0.6
0.6

T = Full selectivity
up to
Icn = rated shortcircuit breaking
capacity of the
lower-rated protective device
M = Electromagnetic release
TM = Thermomagnetic release
ETU = Electronic
tripping unit

3/39

TIP_Kap3_E

11.08.2005

18:44 Uhr

Seite 40

[s]

ts
100 A
size 00

200 A
(160 A)

200 A
size 1

Ik =1300 A
1.4

3.3.1 Selectivity in
Radial Systems

50 A

50 A

100 A
Ik =1300 A

Selectivity between series-connected fuses


The incoming feeder lines and the
outgoing feeders of the busbar of a
distribution board carry different operating currents and, therefore, also
have different cross-sections. Consequently, they are usually protected by
fuses with different rated currents
which ensure selectivity on account
of the different operating behavior.
Selectivity between series-connected fuses with identical utilization categories
When fuses of the same utilization
category (e.g. gL or gG) are used, selectivity is ensured across the entire
overcurrent range up to the rated
breaking capacity (absolute selectivity) if the rated currents differ by a
factor of 1.6 or higher (Fig. 3/20).
The Joulean heat values (I 2t-values)
should be compared in case of high
short-circuit currents. In the example
shown, a 160 A LV HRC fuse would
also have absolute selectivity with
respect to a 100 A LV HRC fuse.

1.37 s
0.03

K1
101
a) Selective isolation
of short circuit K1
Fig. 3/20

104
I

[A]

Selectivity between series-connected LV HRC fuses with


identical utilization categories (example)

Selectivity between seriesconnected circuit-breakers


Selectivity by grading the operating currents of instantaneous overcurrent releases
(current grading)
Selectivity can be achieved by grading the operating currents of instantaneous overcurrent releases (I-releases) (Fig. 3/21). Prerequisites for
this are:
Current grading with different
short-circuit currents
The short-circuit currents in the event
of a short circuit at the respective locations of the circuit-breakers are
sufficiently different.

5-second breaking and lineprotection conditions


In complying with the 5-second
breaking condition specified in
HD 384.4.41 / IEC 60364-4-41 /
DIN VDE 0100-410 or the 5-second
line-protection condition specified in
DIN VDE 0100-430 (if line protection
cannot be provided in any other way),

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

103
1.3

b) Prearcing times where Ik =1300 A

Current grading with differently


configured I-releases
The rated currents and, therefore, the
I-release values of the upstream and
downstream circuit-breakers differ
accordingly.

3/40

102

the I-release must generally be set to


4,000 A so that even very small short
circuits are cleared at the input terminals of the downstream circuitbreaker Q1 within the specified time.
Only partial selectivity can be established by comparing characteristic
curves for current grading since the
increased appearance of broken lines
in the curve in the range < 100 ms,
which result from the complicated dynamic switching and tripping operations, does not permit conclusions to
be drawn with regard to selectivity.
Possible solution: dynamic
selectivity
Selectivity through circuit-breaker
coordination (dynamic selectivity)
With high-speed operations, e.g. in
the event of a short circuit, and the interaction of series-connected protection devices, the dynamic processes
in the circuit and in the electromechanical releases have a considerable effect on selectivity behavior,
particularly if current limiters are
used.

TIP_Kap3_E

11.08.2005

18:44 Uhr

Seite 41

System Protection / Safety Coordination


[s]
Opening time t
104
102

Sr = 400 kVA
at 400 V,
50 Hz

min.

U kr = 4%
I r = 577 A
I k 15 KA

II

101
Q1
Ir = 600 A
(L-release)
Ie = 4000 A
(I-release)

Q2

I k = 10 kA

10

Q2

102
100

101
I (6000 A)1)
II

Q1

4.8 kA

100

Ir = 60 A
(L-release)
Ii = 720 A
(I-release)

I (720 A)

I (4000 A)

10-1

I
2.1 kA

a)

10-2
M
3~

Single-line diagram

Q1 Circuit-breaker for motor protection


(current-limiting)

4
5

102

103

104
2
Current I

5
[A]

b) Tripping curves
L Inverse-time delay overload release
I Instantaneous electromagnetic overcurrent release

Q2 Circuit-breaker (zero-current interrupter)


1)

Fig. 3/21

Maximum setting range

Current selectivity for two series-connected circuit-breakers at different short-circuit current levels (example)

Selectivity is also achieved if the


downstream current-limiting protection device trips so quickly that, although the let-through current does
momentarily exceed the operating
value of the upstream protection device, the mechanically slow release does not have time to trigger.
The let-through current depends on
the peak short-circuit current and current limiting characteristics.
Selectivity limits of two series-connected circuit-breakers
A maximum short-circuit value the
selectivity limit up to which the
downstream circuit-breaker can open
more quickly and alone, i.e. selectively, can be determined for each
switchgear assembly.

Table 3/16 shows an example of a selectivity table. The selectivity limit indicated in the table may be well above
the operating value of the instantaneous overcurrent release in the upstream circuit-breaker (see Fig. 3/22).
Irrespective of this, it is important to
check the selectivity in the event of
an overload by comparing the characteristic curves and by means of tripping times in accordance with the
relevant regulations.
Generally speaking, only partial selectivity is possible in the case of dynamic selectivity with short circuits.
This may be sufficient (full selectivity)
if the prospective maximum short-circuit current at the downstream protective device is lower than the established selectivity limit.

tivity provides a suitable possibility for


establishing full selectivity without
having to use switchgear with shorttime-delay overcurrent releases.
Selectivity by means of shorttime-delay overcurrent releases
(time grading)
Time grading by short-time-delay
releases
If current grading is not possible on
account of the requirements listed on
page 36 and cannot be achieved by
selecting the switchgear in accordance
with the selectivity tables (dynamic selectivity), selectivity can be provided by
time grading short-time delay overcurrent releases. This requires grading of
both the tripping delays and the
appropriate operating currents.

With partial selectivity, which usually


arises with current grading owing to
the clearance condition (see Fig.
3/20), consideration of dynamic selec-

3/41

TIP_Kap3_E

11.08.2005

Circuitbreaker

Power
supply
system

18:44 Uhr

Seite 42

Delay time t d
of S-release

3WL1

220 ms

3WL1
3VL

150 ms

3VL

80 ms

3VL
3RV

Instantaneous

M
Fig. 3/22

Required delay time settings for


electromagnetic short-time-delay
S-releases for selective short-circuit protection

Time grading with virtually


identical short-circuit currents
The upstream circuit-breaker is
equipped with short-time-delay overcurrent releases (S) so that, if a fault
occurs, only the downstream circuitbreaker disconnects the affected part
of the installation from the system.

3/42

Time grading can be implemented to


safeguard selectivity if the prospective short-circuit currents are almost
identical. This requires grading of
both the tripping delays and the
operating currents of the overcurrent
releases.
In addition to the diagram with the
four series-connected circuit-breakers, Fig. 3/22 also contains the associated grading diagram. The necessary
grading time, which allows for all
scatter bands, depends on the operating principle of the release and the
type of circuit-breaker.
Electronic S-releases
With electronic short-time-delay
overcurrent releases (S-releases), a
grading time of approximately 70 ms
to 100 ms from circuit-breaker to circuit-breaker is sufficient to allow for
all scatter bands.
Operating current
The operating current of the shorttime-delay overcurrent release should
be set to at least 1.45 times (twice
per 20% scatter, unless other values
are specified by the manufacturer)
the value of the downstream circuitbreaker.
Additional I-releases
In order to reduce the short-circuit
stress in the event of a dead short
circuit at the upstream circuit-breakers, they can be fitted with instantaneous electromagnetic overcurrent
releases in addition to the short-time
delay releases (Fig. 3/23). The value
selected for the operating current of
the instantaneous electromagnetic
overcurrent releases must be high
enough to ensure that the releases
only operate in case of direct dead
short circuits and, under normal operating conditions, do not interfere with
selective grading.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Zone-selective interlocking (ZSI)


A microprocessor-controlled shorttime grading control, also called
zone-selective interlocking, has
been developed for circuit-breakers to
prevent excessively long tripping
times when several circuit-breakers
are connected in series. This control
function allows the tripping delay to
be reduced to max. 50 ms for the circuit-breakers located upstream of the
short circuit.
The method of operation regarding
zone-selective interlocking is illustrated in Fig. 3/24. A short circuit at
K1 is detected by Q1, Q3, and Q5. If
ZSI is active, Q3 is temporarily disabled by Q1 and Q5 by Q3 by means
of appropriate communication lines.
Since Q1 does not receive any disabling signal, it trips after only 10 ms.
A short circuit at K2 is only detected
by Q5; since it does not receive any
disabling signal, it trips after only 50
ms. Without "ZSI", tripping would only
occur after 150 ms.
Selectivity between circuitbreaker and fuse
When considering selectivity in conjunction with fuses, a permissible
scatter band of 10% in the direction
of current flow must be allowed for in
the time-current characteristics.

TIP_Kap3_E

11.08.2005

18:44 Uhr

Seite 43

System Protection / Safety Coordination


[s]
Opening time t
104

Sr = 1000 kVA
at 400 V,
50 Hz
U kr = 6%
I n = 1445 A
I k 24.1 kA

103

Q1
t d3 = 150 ms
n (20 kA)

Q3

Q2

Main
distribution
board

101
t d2 = 80 ms

Q2

100
I k = 17 kA

Subdistribution
board

S
t d3 =
150 ms

t d2 =
80 ms
-1

10

Q1

n
I k = 10 kA

10-2
102

M
~
Fig. 3/23

Q3

102

103

104

2
Current I

105
[A]

Selectivity between three series-connected circuit-breakers with limitation of short-circuit stress by means
of an additional I-release in circuit-breaker Q3

[s]
Opening time t
104

t d = 150 ms
A t ZSi = 50 ms
E

Q5

103

K2

Q1/Q2

Q3/Q4

Q5

102
Q3

A
E

t d = 80 ms
t ZSi = 50 ms Q4

A
E
t d = 10 ms
t ZSi = t d

101

td = 150 ms

100

Q1

A
E

A
E

Q2

td = 80 ms
tZSi

10-1

t d =10 ms
t ZSi = t d

Icn
td =
10 ms
10-2

K1
Communication lines

102

103

104
Current I

Fig. 3/24

105
[A]

Zone-selective interlocking (ZSI) of series- or parallel-connected circuit-breakers (block diagram)

3/43

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Seite 44

F1 Fuse
Q1 Circuit-breaker
Inverse-time-delay
L
overload delay
Instantaneous electromagnetic
I
overcurrent release
tA Safety margin
Operating current of n release
Ii

F1 Q1

L
I

Q1

tA

The time-current characteristics


(scatter bands) do not touch

F1

I
Ii

Overload range I
Fig. 3/25

Selectivity between circuit-breaker and downstream fuse in overload range

F1 Q1

L
S

Q1

L
S
tA
Id
ts
td

t
L

Overload release
Short-time-delay overcurrent release
Safety margin
Operating current of s release
Prearcing time of fuse
Delay time of s release

t A 100 ms

F1

ts

Ik
Id
Fig. 3/26

Selectivity between circuit-breaker with LS-releases and


downstream fuse; short-circuit current range

Circuit-breaker with
downstream fuse
Selectivity between LI-releases
and fuses with very low rated
currents
In the overload range up to the operating current Ii of the delayed overcurrent release, partial selectivity is
achieved if the upper scatter band of
the fuse characteristic does not touch

3/44

td

the tripping characteristic of the fully


preloaded instantaneous overcurrent
release and maintains a safety margin
of tA 1 s (Fig. 3/25).
A reduction in the tripping time of up
to 25% must be allowed for at normal
operating temperatures (unless the
manufacturer states otherwise).

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Absolute selectivity for circuit-breakers without short-time-delay overcurrent releases is achieved if the letthrough current of the fuse ID does
not reach the operating current of the
instantaneous overcurrent release
(please refer to current limiting diagram for LV HRC fuses in Electrical
Installations Handbook, Section
4.1.1). This is, however, only to be
expected for a fuse, the rated current
of which is very low compared with
the rated continuous current.
Selectivity ratios between LS-releases and fuses with relatively
high rated currents
Due to the dynamic processes that
take place in electromagnetic releases, absolute selectivity can also
be achieved with fuses, whose ID
briefly exceeds the operating current.
Once again, selectivity can only be
verified by means of appropriate
measurements of Ii. Absolute selectivity can be achieved by using circuitbreakers with short-time-delay overcurrent releases (S-releases) if the
safety margin for the operating current td between the upper scatter
band of the fuse characteristic and
the delay time of the S-release td is
selected so that tA 100 ms (Fig.
3/26).
Selectivity between fuse and
downstream circuit-breaker
Selectivity ratios in the
overload range
In order to achieve selectivity in the
overload range, a safety margin of
tA 1 s is required between the lower
scatter band of the fuse and the characteristic curve of the inverse-timedelay overload release (Fig. 3/27).

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Seite 45

System Protection / Safety Coordination

Q1

F1

t
L

In case of short circuits, it is important to remember that, after the releases in the circuit-breaker have
tripped, the fuse continues to be
heated during the arcing time. The selectivity limit lies approximately at the
point where a safety margin of 70 ms
between the lower scatter band of
the fuse and the operating time of the
instantaneous overcurrent release or
the delay time of the short-time-delay
overcurrent release is undershot.
Short-circuit range
A reliable and usually relatively high
selectivity limit for the short-circuit
range can be determined in the
I 2t- diagram. In this diagram, the maximum let-through I 2t value of the circuit-breaker is compared with the
minimum prearcing I 2t value of the
fuse (Fig. 2/28). Since these values
are maximum and minimum values,
the scatter bands are not necessary.

L
I

F1 Fuse
Q1 Circuit-breaker
L
Inverse-time-delay
overload release
I
Instantaneous electromagnetic
overcurrent release
tA Safety margin
Operating current of I-release
Ii

F1

tA 1 s

The time-current characteristics


(scatter bands) do not touch

Q1

I
I

I
Overload range

Fig. 3/27

Selectivity between fuse and downstream circuit-breaker; overload range

Q1 Circuit-breaker
(max. let-through value)
F1 Fuse (min. prearcing value)
ISel Selectivity limit

F1
F1

I 2t

Q1

L
I

Q1

Ik
ISel

Selectivity range
Fig. 3/28

Selectivity between fuse and downstream circuit-breaker; short circuit

[s]
t
T1

Equal ratings

T2

Separate
Parallel
Q1
Q2 Q2+Q3

Base

104
L

Ik Part

103
Q2 L
S

I r = 600 A
I sd = 3,000 A

Q3 L
S
I

I k 10 kA
Ik Part

102
I k 10 kA

101
S

I r = 200 A
I i = 2,400 A

Q1 L
I

100

Ik
M
~

ttd2/3 150 ms
( 70 ms)

Ii
10

Fig. 3/29

Ik

-1

102
102

t1
2

4 6 103

4
3

104
6 I

4
[A]

Selectivity with two infeed transformers of the same rating and operating simultaneously.
Example with outgoing feeder in the center of the busbars.

3/45

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T1

18:44 Uhr

T2

Seite 46

T3
I k Part 1

I k
< 30 kA
L
Q1 S
I

Ik
<15 kA

Ik
<15 kA

Q2

Q3

I k Part 2

Q1

Q2
Q3

I k
15 kA

Fig. 3/30

15 kA

Selectivity with three infeed transformers operating simultaneously

Selectivity with parallel infeeds


Improving selectivity with
parallel infeeds
With parallel infeeds to a busbar, the
total short-circuit current I K that occurs in the faulted outgoing feeder
comprises the partial short-circuit currents I k Part in the individual infeeds
and represents the base current in
the grading diagram (Fig. 3/29). This
is the case for all fault types.
Two identical infeeds
If a short circuit occurs in the outgoing feeder downstream of the circuitbreaker Q1, the total short-circuit
current I k of e.g. 20 kA flows via
this breaker, while the infeed circuitbreakers Q2 and Q3, with the outgoing feeder connected centrally to
the busbars and incoming feeders of
equal length, each carry only half this
current, i.e. 10 kA.
Parallel operation permits additional current selectivity by means
of a shift in the tripping curve (I i)
of the LS-releases of the infeed circuit-breaker

Fig. 3/31

Characteristic displacement factor


Since the total short-circuit current is
ideally distributed equally among the
two infeeds (ignoring the load currents in the other outgoing feeders)
with the outgoing feeder located at
the center of the busbars, the tripping
curve of circuit-breakers Q2 and Q3
can be shifted optimally to the right
along the current scale by a characteristic displacement factor of 2 up to
the line I k, which represents the
base current for this fault condition.
The result of this is selectivity both
with regard to time and also current.
If the characteristic curve of the individual circuit-breaker is used instead
of the shifted characteristic, the exact
short-circuit current (distribution)
which flows through the circuitbreaker must be taken into consideration.
With asymmetrical configurations and
with infeeds and outgoing feeders
located at the busbars, short-circuit
current distribution will differ according to the impedance ratio along the
incoming feeder lines.

Additional current selectivity with


parallel transformer operation
In the grading diagram, the tripping
curve of circuit-breakers Q2 and Q3
must, therefore, be considered in
relation to the base current of the
circuit-breaker Q1.

3/46

Short-circuit distribution via the


tie breaker Q3 with two infeeds
Q1 and Q2

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Reduced selectivity with LV HRC


fuses with a rating of 630 to 1,000 A
near an infeed
This is particularly significant in the
event of fused outgoing circuits with
high current ratings, e.g. 630 to
1,000 A. It is important to ensure that
a safety margin of 100 ms between
the tripping characteristic of the S-release and the prearcing-time/current
characteristic of the LV HRC fuse is
provided not only with parallel operation, but also with individual transformer operation.
When setting the releases of circuitbreakers Q1, Q2 and Q3, it must be
ensured that selectivity is also
achieved for operation with one
transformer and for all short-circuit
currents (single- to three-phase).
For cost-related reasons, S-releases
for the feeder circuit-breakers must
also be provided for low and medium
rated fuse currents as the resulting
current selectivity of I-releases is
insufficient.
Three identical infeeds
With parallel operation of three transformers, the selectivity ratios will,
owing to the additional current selectivity, be more favorable than with
two units since the characteristic displacement factor is > 2 and < 3.
Once again, LS-releases are required
for the circuit-breakers in the infeeds
in order to achieve unequivocal selectivity ratios.

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Seite 47

System Protection / Safety Coordination


a) Fault at the outgoing feeder of the
centre busbar section

Q1

I k Part 1
Q4

Q2

I k Part 2

b) Fault at the outgoing feeder of the


outer busbar section

Q3

I k Part

Q5

3 .I k
I k

Fig. 3/32

Q1

Q2

Q4

I k Part

Q3

Q5

2 .I

k Part

I k

Distribution of the short-circuit currents used in determining the settings for the overcurrent release in the tie breakers Q4 and Q5 with three infeeds and faults a and b
in the outgoing feeders of different busbar sections

Additional I-release necessary


Furthermore, it is necessary to provide additional I-releases to allow a
fault between the transformer and
feeder circuit-breaker to be detected
as shown in Fig. 3/30. For this purpose, the S-releases of circuit-breakers Q1 to Q3 must be set to a value
< I k and the I-releases to a value
> I k, but < I k. The highest and lowest fault currents are important here.
Due to the I-releases, only the
faulted transformer infeed will trip
on the high-voltage and low-voltage
side. The circuit-breakers in the
sound infeeds remain operative.
Parallel-connected infeeds via
tie breakers
Protective functions under
fault conditions
Tie breakers must perform the following protective functions in fault
situations:
C instantaneous release with faults
in the vicinity of the busbars and
C relief of outgoing feeders of the
effects of high total short-circuit
currents.

Selecting the circuit-breakers


The type of device used in the outgoing feeders and the selectivity ratios
depend primarily on whether
circuit-breakers with current-zero
cut-off, i.e. without current limiting,
or with current limiting are used as
tie breakers.
Instantaneous, current-limiting tie
breakers relieve the outgoing circuits
of the effects of high unlimited total
peak short-circuit currents I p and,
therefore, permit the use of less
complex and less expensive circuitbreakers.
Note on setting the overcurrent
releases in tie breakers
The values set for the overcurrent
releases must be as high as possible
in order to prevent operational interference caused by the tie breakers
opening at relatively low short-circuit
currents, e.g. in the outgoing feeders
of the sub-distribution boards.
With two infeeds
With two infeeds and depending on
the fault location (left or right busbar
section or feeder), only the associated partial short-circuit current
(e.g. I k Part 2) flows through the
tie breaker Q3 as shown in Fig. 3/31.

With three infeeds and fault


With three infeeds, the ratios are
different according to which of the
outgoing feeders shown in Fig. 3/32a
and b is faulted.
In the center busbar section
If a fault occurs at the outgoing
feeder of the center busbar section
(Fig. 3/32a), approximately equal partial short-circuit currents flow through
the tie breakers Q4 and Q5.
In the outer busbar section
If a fault occurs at the outgoing
feeder of the outer busbar section,
(Fig. 3/32b), two partial short-circuit
currents flow through the tie breaker Q4.
Computer-assisted selectivity check
Precise values for the short-circuit currents flowing through the tie breakers
are required to permit optimum setting of the overcurrent releases. They
provide information concerning selective characteristics with a large number of different fault currents and are
determined and evaluated with the aid
of a computer program.
Selectivity and undervoltage
protection
If a short circuit occurs, the system
voltage collapses to a residual voltage
at the short-circuit location. The magnitude of the residual voltage depends on the fault impedance. With a
dead short circuit, the fault impedance and, therefore, the voltage at
the short-circuit location drops to almost zero. Generally speaking, however, arcs with arc-drop voltages between approximately 30 V and 70 V
occur with short circuits.

3/47

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Seite 48

a) Short circuit at sub-distribution board

b) Short circuit at main distribution board

Q3

Q3
0.5.U

0.13.Ue

Main distribution
board
Q2

td
70 ms
80 m
3 x 95 mm2 Cu

0.13.Ue

Q2

K2
Sub-distribution
board

Q1

Q1
td = 0

K1

Fig. 3/33

Ue Rated operating
current
td Delay time

Voltage ratios for short-circuited LV switchgear with a main and sub-distribution board

Ik1

F1

F2

Ik2

Ik3
F3

Ik3 = Ik1+Ik2
K1

Ik1+Ik2+Ik4

Ik

Ik4

Ik
b

Ik

Fig. 3/34

3/48

Short-circuited cable with its two


incoming feeder nodes a and b

Fig. 3/35

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Example of a meshed system with multi-phase infeed

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

This voltage, starting at the fault location, increases proportionately to the


intermediate impedance with increasing proximity to the power source.
Fig. 3/33 illustrates the voltage ratios
in LV switchgear with a dead short
circuit.
If a short circuit occurs at K1 (Fig. 3/33a),
the rated operating voltage Ue drops
to 0.13 Ue at the busbar of the subdistribution board and to 0.5 Ue at
the busbar of the main distribution
board. The next upstream circuitbreaker Q1 clears the fault. Depending on the size and type of the circuitbreaker, the total breaking time is
30 ms for zero-current interrupters
and a maximum of 10 ms for currentlimiting circuit-breakers.
If a short-circuit occurs at K2 (Fig. 3/33b),
the circuit-breaker Q2 opens. It is
equipped with a short-time-delay
overcurrent release (S). The delay
time is at least 70 ms. During this
time, the rated operating voltage at
the busbar of the main distribution
board is reduced to 0.13 Ue.
If the rated operating voltage drops to
0.7 0.35 times this value and the
voltage reduction lasts longer than approximately 20 ms, all of the circuitbreakers with undervoltage releases
open. All contactors also open if the
rated control supply voltage collapses
to below 75% of its rated value for
longer than 5 to 30 ms.

Tripping delay for contactors


and undervoltage releases
Undervoltage releases and contactors
with tripping delay are required to ensure that the selective overcurrent protection is not interrupted prematurely.
This is not necessary if current-limiting
circuit-breakers with a maximum total
clearing time of 10 ms are used.

3.3.2 Selectivity in
Meshed Systems
Two selectivity functions must be
performed in meshed systems:
1. Only the short-circuited cable may
be disconnected from the system.
2. If a short-circuit occurs at the terminals of an infeed transformer,
only the faulted terminal may be
disconnected from the system.
Node fuses
The nodes of a meshed LV system
are normally equipped with cables
with the same cross-section and with
LV HRC fuses of utilization category
gL of the same type and rated current
(Fig. 3/34).
If a short circuit (K1) occurs along
the meshed system cable, the shortcircuit currents I k3 and I k4 flow to the
fault location. Short-circuit current I k3
from node a comprises the partial
currents I k1 and I k2 which may differ
greatly depending on the impedance
ratios.
.

Permissible current ratio


Selectivity of the fuses at node a is
achieved if fuse F3, through which
the total current I k3 flows, melts and
fuse F1 or F2, through which the partial short-circuit current I k1 or I k2
flows, remain operative. In the case
of Siemens LV HRC fuses, the permissible current ratio I k1 /(I k1 + I k2)
for high short-circuit currents is 0.8.
Power transformers in meshed
systems
Feeder circuit-breaker with
network master relay
In multi-phase meshed systems
(Fig. 3/35), i.e. infeed via several MV
lines and transformers, power feedback from the LV system to the fault
location shall be prevented if a fault
occurs in a transformer substation or
MV line. A network master relay
(reverse power relay) and a circuitbreaker for mesh-connected systems are required for this purpose.
This is a three-pole circuit-breaker,
possibly without overcurrent release,
but with a capacitor-delayed shunt release (open-circuit shunt release with
memory).
If a short circuit occurs on the HV
side of the transformer (K1) or between the transformer and network
circuit-breaker (K2) or along the cable
(K3) (Fig. 3/36), the HV HRC fuse operates on the HV side; on the LV side,
power flows back to the fault location
via the network circuit-breaker.
The open-circuit shunt release receives the tripping pulse from the
network master relay. The fault location is thus selectively disconnected
from the power system.

3/49

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Seite 50

Network circuit-breaker
without S-release
If the outgoing transformer feeders
are protected by network master relays, no S-release is provided or the
value set for this release is so high
that the thermal overload capability of
the transformer can be fully utilized.

120

K3

Network master relays are used in


conjunction with circuit-breakers for
mesh-connected systems.
In multi-feed LV power systems, they
ensure fast, selective disconnection
of a damaged MV cable from the
connected transformer substations.
The relay detects a reversal in the
flow of power if, in the event of a
short circuit in an MV feeder cable of
the meshed system, high currents
flow through the LV power system
and the transformers of the damaged
MV cable to the fault location.

3/50

0.6.Ue

t
100

0.3.Ue

80

Network master relays

To prevent errors, however, the network master relay permits circulating


currents up to the same value as the
rated current at the rated voltage
(setting can be varied between
2 A and 6 A using the spring bias).
Fig. 3/37 shows the tripping characteristic for the standard setting of
6 A and for various other voltages.

Ue

ms

60
K1
40
K2

Fig. 3/36

20

a HV HRC fuses
b Network circuitbreaker with network
master relay
c Node fuses

Single-line diagram showing the


infeed point of a meshed LV
power system

Circuit-breakers for
mesh-connected networks
Circuit-breaker selection
When selecting this circuit-breaker
and its rated switching capacity, it is
important to remember that the highest short-circuit current must be expected in the event of a short circuit
between the transformer terminals
and the circuit-breaker. In this case,
the total short-circuit current of all
the infeed points flows through the
meshed system and the circuitbreaker to the short-circuit location.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

20

40

60

Fig. 3/37

Tripping characteristic of the network master relay 7RM with standard setting (6 A)

The total short-circuit current may be


higher than the short-circuit current
of the relevant transformer.
Technical details regarding network
master relays and circuit-breakers for
mesh-connected networks can be
found in the literature supplied by the
manufacturer.

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Seite 51

System Protection / Safety Coordination

3.4 Protection of
Capacitors
According to IEC 60358 / VDE 0560
Part 4, capacitor units must be suitable for continuous operation with a
current whose r.m.s. value does not
exceed 1.3 times the current which
flows with a sinusoidal voltage and
rated frequency.
Owing to the above-mentioned dimensioning requirements, no overload protection is provided for capacitor units in the majority of cases
Capacitors in systems with
harmonic components
The capacitors can only be overloaded in systems with devices which
generate high harmonics (e.g. generators and converter-fed drives). The
capacitors, together with the seriesconnected transformer and short-circuit reactance of the primary system,
form an anti-resonant circuit. Resonance phenomena occur if the natural
frequency of the resonant circuit
matches or is close to the frequency
of a harmonic current generated by
the power converter.

Reactor-connected capacitors
The capacitors must be provided with
reactors to prevent resonance (see
Electrical Installations Handbook,
Section 1.6). An LC resonant circuit,
whose resonance frequency is below
the lowest harmonic component
(250 Hz) in the load current, is used
instead of the capacitor. The capacitor unit is thus inductive for all harmonic currents that occur in the load
current and can, therefore, no longer
form a resonant circuit with the
system reactance.
Settings for overload relays
If thermal time-delay overload relays
are used to provide protection against
overcurrents, the tripping value can be
1.3 to 1.43 times the rated current of
the capacitor since, allowing for the
permissible capacitance deviation, the
capacitor current can be 1.1 1.3 = 1.43
times the rated capacitor current.

Harmonics suppression by
means of filter circuits
An alternative solution would be to
use filter circuits to remove the majority of harmonics from the primary
system (see Electrical Installations
Handbook, Sections 1.6.3 and 1.6.4).
The filter circuits are also series resonant circuits which, unlike the reactorconnected capacitors, are tuned precisely to the frequencies of the harmonic currents to be filtered. As a
result, the impedance is almost zero.
Short-circuit protection
LV HRC fuses with utilization category gL are normally used in capacitor
units for short-circuit protection.
A rated fuse current of 1.6 to 1.7 times
the rated capacitor current is required
to prevent the fuses from tripping in
the overload range and when the capacitors switch.

With transformer-heated overload


relays or releases, a higher secondary
current flows due to the changed
transformation ratio of the transformers caused by the harmonic components. This may result in premature
tripping.

3/51

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Seite 52

3.5 Protection of
Distribution Transformers
The following devices are used for
protection tasks in medium-voltage
systems:
HV HRC fuses
High-voltage high-rupturing-capacity
(HV HRC) fuses usually used in conjunction with switch-disconnectors to
protect radial feeders and transformers against short circuits.
Circuit-breakers with protection
Protection relays
Protection relays connected to current transformers (protection core)
can be used to perform all protectionrelated tasks irrespective of the magnitude of the short-circuit currents
and rated operating currents of the
required circuit-breakers.
Digital protection
Modern protection equipment is
controlled by microprocessors (digital
protection) and supports all of the
protective functions required for a
medium-voltage outgoing feeder.
Protection as component of the
substation control and protection
system
Digital protection also allows operating and fault data, which can be called
up via serial data interfaces, to be collected and stored. Digital protection
can, therefore, be incorporated in
substation control and protection
systems as an autonomous
component.

Current transformer rating for


protection purposes
Current transformers are subject to
the standards DIN VDE 0414, Parts 1
to 3, as well as IEC 185 and IEC 186.
Current transformers with 5P or 10P
cores must be used for connecting
protection equipment.
The required rated output and overcurrent factor must be determined on
the basis of the information provided
in the protection relay descriptions.
Overcurrent protection
Overcurrent protection via current
transformers for protecting cables
and transformer feeders can be either
two-phase or three-phase. The neutral-point connection of the mediumvoltage network must be considered
here.
Relay operating currents with
emergency generator operation
Care should be taken to ensure that
the operating currents of the protection relays provided for normal system operation are also attained in the
event of faults during emergency operation using generators with relatively low rated outputs.
Three-phase time-overcurrent
protection
In the interests of future system
safety, it is advisable to configure the
time-overcurrent protection as a threephase system, irrespective of the
method of neutral-point connection.

Standards for protection relays


Static protection relays must comply
with the standards IEC 255 and
DIN VDE 0435-303.

3/52

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

3.5.1 Protection with


Overreaching Selectivity
Ideally, transformer feeders should
be protected by:
HV HRC fuses
High-voltage high-rupturing-capacity
(HV HRC) fuses used in conjunction
with switch-disconnectors for rated
transformer outputs of up to approx.
1,250 kVA for low switching rates, or
Circuit-breakers with protection
Circuit-breakers with protection (see
page 54) from approx. 800 kVA and
for high switching rates; also when
several circuit-breakers with S-releases are arranged in series on the
low-voltage side and selectivity is not
possible with upstream HV HRC
fuses.
The anticipated selectivity ratios
must, therefore, be checked before
the protection scheme is chosen and
dimensioned.
Protection by means of
HV HRC fuses
Dimensioning HV HRC fuses
The rated current of the HV HRC
fuses specified by the manufacturers
for the rated output of each transformer should be used when dimensioning the HV HRC fuses. The lowest rated current is dictated by the
rush currents generated when the
transformers are energized and is
1.5 to 2 times the rated transformer
currents.

11.08.2005

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Seite 53

System Protection / Safety Coordination

Minimum breaking current I a min


For the determination of the maximum rated current it must be observed that, with short circuits on a
transformers secondary side, the
minimum breaking current I a min of
the fuse must be exceeded, affecting
even the installation's busbar system.
Generally, the load on I a min is 4 to 5
times that of the transformers rated
current. Between these limit values,
the fuse link can be chosen according
to selectivity.

Required
back-up
protection
zones

HV HRC

HV HRC

LV HRC

HV HRC

3WL

3WL
a

400 V

LV HRC

LV HRC
LV HRC
b

S 7RM network master relay

Fig. 3/38

Protection zones of HV HRC back-up fuses necessary for various protection devices
used on the low-voltage side

40

Back-up protection with


transmission range
HV HRC fuses must ensure sufficient
back-up protection in case of a possible failure of the downstream protective device. The required transmission range can be seen in Fig. 3/38,
illustrated for three circuit diagrams.
The working range of the back-up
protection increases with the decreasing protective rated current of
the fuse.

20

tp

10
min

400 A

630 A

10 kV

Base Ik < 9.5 kA

TIP_Kap3_E

100 A

6
4

F3

400 kVA
Ukr 6%

F2

1
40
F1

20
F1
s

F2

6
4

Rated currents of LV HRC fuses must


be selected in such a way that, between the established maximum
short-circuit current near the low-voltage sides busbar system (converted
to the medium-voltage side) and the
minimum breaking current I a min (circle in the melting current characteristic), a minimum safety clearance of
25% is observed from I a min to the
transformers short-circuit current I k
(see Fig. 3/39 to 3/43).

630 A

0.4 kV
400 A

F3

10

Safety clearances between the


melting current characteristic of
HV HRC fuses and other protective
devices

630 A

I k < 9.5 kA
>25% Safety margin

Ia min

600
400
200
ms

100
60
40
20
10

6
A at 0.4 kV

1000

A at 10 kV

40

2000 3000
80

120

5000 7500 10000


200

400

20000

50000

800

2000
I

t p Prearcing time for fuses


Minimum breaking current Ia min of HV HRC fuse
Fig. 3/39

Example showing grading of HV HRC with LV HRC fuses in infeed circuits

3/53

TIP_Kap3_E

11.08.2005

18:44 Uhr

Seite 54

40
20

F1
630 A

10
min

100 A

F2
(160) A

6
4

Base Ik <15

t k, t vs

10 kV

2
1
40

F2

1000/ . . A
Ring interconnection Q1
630 A

Ik R.1

100 A
(optionally
160 A)
S n = 630 kVA
Ukr = 6%
Ik max = 15 kA

Ring interconnection

IkT

630 A
Ik R.2

0.4 kV

Q1

F1

630 A

20
s

Ik=
Ik T+Ik R.1+Ik R.2

10

25% Safety margin


Ia min
required

6
4

Scatter band

2
Reverse
protection

1
600
400

current 630 A) are mainly used for


transformers with rated outputs of up
to 400 kVA; circuit-breakers with
overcurrent releases are used on the
low-voltage side for rated outputs
500 kVA.
Tangent prearcing time/current
characteristics F2 (LV HRC) and F3
(HV HRC) referred to 0.4 kV and
possible tripping of the switch disconnector on the medium-voltage side by
the upstream HV HRC fuse are acceptable, since both fuses protect the
same system element and interruption will occur in all cases (restricted
selectivity). HV HRC fuses with higher
rated currents (e.g. 160 A as shown
in Fig. 3/40) would not be suitable
here, since their minimum breaking
current I a min is 12 kA, i.e. well above
the short-circuit current I k which the
transformer can carry (max. 9.5 kA).

200
ms

Grading of HV HRC fuses with


circuit-breakers for mesh-connected systems and downstream
LV HRC fuses

100
60
40
20
10

6
A at 0.4 kV

1000

A at 10 kV

40

tk
t vs
Ik
Q1

Fig. 3/40

2000 3000
80

5000

120

200

400

20000

50000

800

2000

I
Command time for network master relay of circuit-breaker Q1
Virtual prearcing time of fuses
Short-circuit current with individual transformer operation
Tripping characteristic for network master relay S set to 1.2 In transf. = 1,200 A
Minimum breaking current Ia min of HV HRC fuse
Example showing grading with HV HRC fuses network master relay in the
infeed and LV HRC fuses in the outgoing feeder; transformer rating 630 kVA

Further data on safety margins for


gradings as shown in Fig. 3/38, case
b and c, for example, can be found in
the following sections.

3/54

10000

Grading of HV with LV HRC fuses


in infeed circuits
Grading with LV HRC fuses
Example of a transformer with a rated
output of 400 kVA (Fig. 3/39): LV HRC
fuse switch-disconnectors or motor
fuse-disconnectors (maximum rated

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Selecting the HV HRC fuse rating


In meshed systems with several
transformers and parallel system operation, the LV feeder circuit-breakers
are not fitted with overcurrent releases (LS) but, instead, have separate 7RM19 network master relays
which only respond to reverse currents.
Given the absence of the LS-release
as a grading element, the back-up
protection range of the HV HRC fuse
must be extended as shown in Fig.
3/38, case b. In Fig. 3/40, this is
achieved by selecting the HV HRC
fuse with the lower current rating.

11.08.2005

18:44 Uhr

Seite 55

System Protection / Safety Coordination

The proximity of the characteristics


F1 and F2 does not have a detrimental effect on selectivity in this case,
since the ring interconnections also
function as infeeds in the event of a
fault, which means that selectivity is
improved as a result of the total
short-circuit current I k in the feeder
being distributed among the infeeds
(with the two ring interconnections in
Fig. 3/40). This is possible because a
higher short-circuit current (I k) flows
through the LV HRC fuse F1 than
through the HV HRC fuse F2 (I kT).
Grading of HV HRC fuses with lowvoltage circuit-breakers and downstream LV HRC fuses using a
630 kVA transformer as an example
Requirements
Selectivity is required between the
protection devices of the feeders and
those of the infeed, which form a
functional unit; a safety margin of at
least 100 ms is necessary between
the characteristic of an LV HRC fuse
and that of an S-release (Fig. 3/41).
Between LV HRC fuses and
S-releases
Thus, selectivity is achieved with the
400 A LV HRC fuse-link used in the
example. The setting and delay time
td must be adjusted with the S-release (6 kA setting).
In such cases, selectivity can be
achieved more easily using downstream
circuit-breakers, e.g. SENTRON WL
(Fig. 3/43), or using a considerably
more powerful transformer, the associated circuit-breaker enables the S-release to be set to a higher value.

40

10 kV

20

t s, td

10
min

F1
400 A

6
4

(630 A)
F2
100 A (160 A)

Not
selective

Base Ik <15 kA

TIP_Kap3_E

F2

L
Q1 S

100 A
(optional 160 A)
630 kVA
Ukr 6%
3 WL1
1000 A
t d=220 ms

Q1

1
40

F1

0.4 kV
400 (630) A

20
s

Selective

10

I sd=6 kA

6
4

Ik <15 kA
Ia min

25% Safety margin


(requirement)
Scatter band

2
Setting
range S
Q1

1
600
400

td
Safety margin 100 ms

200
ms

Safety margin 100 ms


(required)

100
60
40
20
10

6
A at 0.4 kV

1000

A at 10 kV

40

2000 3000
80

120

5000
200

10000
400

tn Prearcing time for fuses


t d Delay time for S-release
Minimum breaking current Ia min of HV HRC fuse

Fig. 3/41

20000

50000

800

2000
I

Example showing the grading of HV HRC fuses F2 with circuit-breaker Q1 and


downstream LV HRC fuse F1 in the outgoing feeder

3/55

11.08.2005

18:44 Uhr

Seite 56

Between HV HRC fuses


and S-releases
Since the protection devices in the infeed form a functional unit, a restriction in selectivity in the upper shortcircuit current range is accepted in
the case of faults in the vicinity of the
busbars (as indicated by the circle in
the diagram) for the 100 A HV HRC
fuse in Fig. 3/42.

40
t s, tv
min

630 A
F2
not selective
100 A (160 A)
(choose Q1)

6
4

100 A
(optionally 160 A)
630 kVA
Ukr 6%
3 WL1
1000 A
t d2=220 ms

Q2

1
40

F1
630 A

20
I sd =6 kA
Q2

10

F2

L
Q2 S

6
4

Q1
Ik <15 kA

Ia min

0.4 kV
3 WL1
630 A
td1=
100 ms

25% Safety margin


(required)
Scatter band

L characteristic Q1
not shown
I sd =3.6 kA

1
600
400

selective

200
ms

100
60
40

Scatter band of HV HRC fuses


According to EN 60 282-1/ DIN
VDE 0670-4, the scatter band width
of HV HRC fuse-links can be 20%.
Siemens HV HRC fuse-links have a
scatter band width of 10%.

3/56

F1

10

Safety margin between HV HRC


fuse and S-release
If, on the other hand, selectivity is required, e.g. with different switching
priorities at the two voltage levels or
in order to avoid the medium-voltage
switchgear having to be switched off,
for example, when HV HRC fuses are
replaced, there should be a safety
margin of approximately 100 ms on
the base line I k between the characteristic curve of the S-release and the
left-hand limit of the scatter band of
the prearcing-time/current characteristic of the HV HRC fuse.

Result:
When selecting circuit-breakers instead of low-voltage fuses, selectivity
can easily be attained, overlapping of
characteristics Q1 and F2 should be
avoided, as it could result in erroneous tripping. For such cases, HV
HRC fuse-links with a higher rated
current should be chosen.

10 kV

20

Base Ik <15 kA

TIP_Kap3_E

t d2=220 ms

td2

Safety margin
100 ms
t d1=100 ms

td1

Safety margin 100 ms

More pronounced intersection of


Q1 and F2 must be avoided if possible

20
10
6
A at 0.4 kV

1000

A at 10 kV

40

2000 3000
80

120

5000
200

10000
400

20000

50000

800

2000

tn Prearcing time for fuses


t d1 Delay time for S-release (Q1)
t d2 Delay time for S-release (Q2)
Minimum breaking current Ia min

Fig. 3/42

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Example showing the grading of HV HRC fuses F2 with circuit-breaker Q2


and downstream circuit-breaker Q1 with LS-release in the outgoing feeder

11.08.2005

18:44 Uhr

Seite 57

System Protection / Safety Coordination

40

Base IkT <15 kA (individual operation)

TIP_Kap3_E

20

t s, td,t o

F1
400 A

10
min

6
4
Q3
I> = 200 A

L Q2

1
40
20

S = 6 kA
Q2

10

6
4

10 kV
630 A
tI > 500 ms

Q3

I>
I>>

60/1 A

630 kVA
U kr 6%
3 WL
1000 A
t d = 220 ms
H.V.
0.4 kV
L
F1
I
400 A
Q1
630 A
Ik <15 kA

L
Q2 S

Setting
range S

2
1

tc > 500 ms

600
400

Safety margin
300 ms

t d 220 ms
200
ms

Q2

Safety margin
100 ms

100

I>> = 792 A
Q3
tc 50 ms

60
40

I
6 kA

20
10

Q1 t o

6
A at 0.4 kV

1,000

A at 10 kV

40

to
td
tvs
tc

Fig. 3/43

2,000 3,000 5,000


80

120

200

Opening time of circuit-breaker (Q1)


Delay time of S release (Q2)
Prearcing time of fuses F1
Command time of DMT protection (Q3)

10,000
400

20,000

50.000

800

2,000
I

Example showing the grading of circuit-breaker with DMT protection (Q3), SENTRON
WL circuit-breaker, 1000 A with LS-releases (Q2) and downstream outgoing feeders,
e.g. 400 A LV HRC fuse (F1) and 630 A distribution circuit-breaker (Q1) in a 630 kVA
transformer feeder

Protection by means of circuitbreakers with definite-time overcurrent protection (DMT)


Requirement
The two feeder circuit-breakers (in
Fig. 3/43) form a functional unit and
require selectivity with respect to
the protection devices on the lowvoltage side.
Outgoing feeders with
LV HRC fuses
If low-voltage fuses are connected
downstream, selectivity with circuitbreakers with mechanical releases
(3WF) can only be achieved up to a
certain maximum fuse current rating;
in the example, Q2 with mechanical
S-releases (setting range 3 to 6 kA)
400 A for F1. Larger LV HRC fuses
are also selective if SENTRON WL
circuit-breakers with an S-release
range of 2 to 12 I r are used.
Outgoing feeders with mixed
components
If outgoing feeders with mixed components are used, the safety margin
of at least 100 ms relative to the
largest permissible LV HRC fuse-link
for F1 is the crucial factor in determining the setting for the S-release of
Q2. In the case of mechanical S-releases with the highest current setting of 6 kA, this results in a delay
time td of 220 ms for the smallest
permissible safety margin of 100 ms.
This determines the starting point for
all subsequent upward and downward gradings in the diagram.
Outgoing feeders with
circuit-breaker
Since selectivity cannot be achieved
using LV HRC fuses with a higher
current rating (see Fig. 3/41), circuitbreakers with time or, if possible,
current grading should be used.

3/57

TIP_Kap3_E

11.08.2005

18:44 Uhr

Seite 58

Based on the assumption that verification of the short-circuit currents


would show that current grading
would be possible, a 630 A (Q1) distribution circuit-breaker with LI-releases was selected.
Intersection of the characteristics Q2
and Q3 in the middle short-circuit
range is permissible because:
C the L-release of the low-voltage
circuit-breaker Q1 (not shown in
Fig. 3/43) protects the transformer
against overloading, which only
occurs in the range 11.3 times the
rated current of the transformer;
C there is a safety margin of 150 ms
(300 ms in the example shown in
Fig. 3/43) between the I > tripping
value of the DMT protection and
the LV HRC fuse characteristic F1
and selectivity is, therefore,
achieved.
Higher rated transformer outputs
and broader setting ranges for the
S-release of Q2 make it easier for the
characteristic Q3 I > to be shifted to
the left of the characteristic Q2 s.
This also provides a certain degree of
back-up protection with respect to
the L-release of circuit-breaker Q2.
DMT protection
Nowadays, digital devices are used to
provide DMT protection in practically
all applications. They have broader
setting ranges, allow a choice between definite-time and inverse-time
overcurrent protection or overload
protection, provide a greater and
more consistent level of measuring
accuracy and are self-monitoring.

3/58

Selecting current transformers


for DMT protection
The following points should be observed when selecting current transformers for DMT protection (these
considerations are applied in the example shown in Fig. 3/43):
Current transformers with a rating of
40 to 200 A could be selected for rated
currents of 36.4 A on the high-voltage
side of the 630 kVA transformer, with
the characteristic Q3 I> at 200 A positioned at the abscissa for 10 kV and
with the broad setting ranges. Here, it
is important to bear in mind the
higher investment costs for current
transformers with lower rated primary
currents.
If, for example, 60/1 A current transformers are selected, the current
sensors must be set as follows:
Setting the current sensors I>, I>>
and timing elements
Current sensor I >:
The setting for a selected operating
value of 200 A is as follows:
200 A
I p = ______ = 3.3 A
60/1
Timing element for I > excitation:
ti> = 0.5 s
Current sensor I>>:
The current sensor I>> should only respond to faults on the high-voltage
side (in the shortest possible time).
Operating current I>> approximately
I kT 1.20
(safety margin relative to I kT)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

IrT 100% __________


36,4 A 100%
=
= 606.6 A
I kT = _______
ukr
6%
Operating current = I kT 1.2 = 728 A
Operating current (in secondary circuit) =
728 A
I p = ______ 12.1 A
60/1

3.5.2 Equipment for Protecting Distribution Transformers (against Internal Faults)


The following signaling devices and
protection equipment are used to
detect internal transformer faults:
C Devices for monitoring and protecting liquid-cooled transformers such
as Buchholz protectors, temperature detectors, contact thermometers, etc.
C Temperature monitoring systems
for GEAFOL resin-encapsulated
transformers comprising
temperature sensors in the
low-voltage winding and
signaling and tripping devices in
the incoming-feeder switch panel.
The thermistor-type thermal protection protects the transformer against
overheating resulting from increased
ambient temperatures or overloading.
Furthermore, it allows the full output
of the transformer to be utilized irrespective of the number of load cycles
without the risk of damage to the
transformer.
These signaling and protection devices do not have to be included in
the grading diagrams (e.g. Fig. 3/29).

TIP_Kap3_E

11.08.2005

18:44 Uhr

Seite 59

System Protection / Safety Coordination

3/59

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:47 Uhr

Seite B2

Medium Voltage

4.1 Medium-Voltage and Circuit-Breaker Switchgear for Primary Power


Distribution
4.2 Secondary Distribution Systems, Switchgear and Substations
4.3 Medium-Voltage Equipment, Product Range
4.4 PQM Power Quality Management and Load Flow Control
4.5 Planning of Systems for Primary and Secondary Power Distribution
Exemplified by the Automotive Industry

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:47 Uhr

Seite B3

Medium Voltage

chapter 4

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:47 Uhr

Seite 2

4 Medium Voltage

Standards

Insulation

Busbar
system

Compartments

Access
option

Type-tested
indoor
switchgear
acc. to
IEC 62271-200
(IEC 60298)

Interlocking control
circuit-breaker/cable
compartment,
or tool-dependent
busbar/cable
compartment

Operational
availability

LSC 2B
(three-compartment
design + isolating
distances to busbar
and cable)

Accidental
arc
qualification

Switching
device 4)

IAC
(IEC 60298)

CB, SD,

Compartme
ntalization class

PM
(metal-clad)

CB, SD,
contactor1)
CB, SD,
contactor 2)
CB, SD,
contactor 2)

Single

Airinsulated

Double

Single

CB

PM
(metal-clad)

Interlocking control
circuit-breaker/cable
compartment,
or tool-dependent
busbar/cable
compartment

LSC 2A
(two-compartment design
+ isolating distances to
busbar and cable)

Interlocking control to
the high-voltage
compartment

LSC 1 (isolating distances


to busbar and cable)

Interlocking control
circuit-breaker/cable
compartment,
or tool-dependent
busbar/cable
compartment

LSC 2B
(three-compartment
design + isolating
distances to busbar
and cable)

PM
(metal-clad)

Busbar compartment:
tool-based
Circuit-breaker
compartment:
not accessible
Cable compartment:
tool-based

No restriction

PM
(metal-clad)

Busbar compartment:
tool-based
Circuit-breaker
compartment:
not accessible
Cable compartment:
tool-based

No restriction

IAC
(IEC 60298)

CB, SD,

CB, SD,
contactor 1)

IAC

CB, SD,

IAC
(IEC 60298)

CB

CB

IAC
(IEC 60298)

CB, SD,
contactor
CB

CB

Gasinsulated

Double

Table 4/1

Medium-voltage switchgear

4/2

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

PM
(metal-clad)

IAC
(IEC 60298)

CB, SD,
contactor
CB

CB

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:47 Uhr

Seite 3

Medium Voltage

4.1 Medium-Voltage
and Circuit-Breaker
Switchgear for Primary
Power Distribution

Every operator or user of medium-voltage primary distribution equipment,


whether they be power supply or industrial companies or power stations,
places special demands on the
switchgear. These include, for example,
high reliability, personal safety and low
space requirements.
In addition to appropriate voltage levels,
air or gas insulation, a differentiation is
made with respect to environmental in-

Isolating
distance

Switchgear
type

dependence, maintenance-free design,


compactness, security of investment,
cost-efficiency, serviceability and flexibility to suit the demand.
You definitely make the right decision
with circuit-breaker switchgear from
Siemens. The complete range of
switchgear sets standards for the safe
and cost-efficient solution to your special
requirements.

Technical data

7.2
kV

12
kV

15
kV

17.5
kV

24
kV

36
kV

40.5
kV

Maximum rated
normal current of busbar
[A]
7.2
12
15
17.5 24
kV
kV
kV
kV
kV

25/3

2,500 2,500

2,500 2,500

Maximum rated short-time


withstand current [kA], 1/3 s

36
kV

40.5
kV

Maximum rated
normal current of feeder
[A]
7.2
12
15
17.5 24
kV
kV
kV
kV
kV

36
kV

40.5
kV

Withdrawable
unit/truck

NXAIR

25/3

Withdrawable
unit/truck

NXAIR M

31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 25/3

25/3

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

Withdrawable
unit/truck

NXAIR P

50/3

4,000 4,000 4,000

4,000 4,000 4,000

Truck

SIMOPRIME

31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

Truck

8BT2

31.5/3

2,250

2,000

Withdrawable
unit/truck

NXAIR M

25/3

25/3

2,500 2,500

2,500 2,500

Truck

8BT1

25/1

25/1

2,250 2,250

2,000 2,000

Truck

8BT3

16/1

1,250

1,250

Withdrawable
unit/truck

NXAIR M

31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 25/3

25/3

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

Withdrawable
unit/truck

NXAIR P

50/3

4,000 4,000 4,000

4,000 4,000 4,000

Disconnector,
fixed-mounted

NXPLUS C3)

31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 25/3

25/3

/3

/3

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

Disconnector,
fixed-mounted

NXPLUS

31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3

2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000

Disconnector,
fixed-mounted

8DA

40/3

40/3

40/3

40/3

40/3

40/3

40/3

4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

Disconnector,
fixed-mounted

NXPLUS C3)

25/3

25/3

25/3

25/3

25/3

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

Disconnector,
fixed-mounted

NXPLUS

31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

Disconnector,
fixed-mounted

8DB

40/3

4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

1)
2)

50/3

50/3

40/3

50/3

50/3

40/3

up to 7.2 kV
up to 12 kV

40/3
3)
4)

40/3

40/3

40/3

1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

The product ranges of single busbars and busbars can be combined with each other.
CB = circuit-breaker, SD = switch-disconnector

4/3

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:48 Uhr

Seite 4

4.1.1 Withdrawable CircuitBreaker Switchgear,


Air-Insulated
NXAIR Family
Switchgear from the NXAIR family
just makes solutions simpler, because it brings security into all significant decisions for future planning.
Security of investment through innovative technology
The novel modular design of
switchgear panels allows rapid reavailability because the individual
compartments (connection, module
and low-voltage compartment) can
be replaced after a fault inside the
switchgear panel. The bushing-type
current transformer principle, together with the pressure-resistant
partitions, allows the selective disconnection of an internal fault up to
31.5 kA by means of the associated
circuit-breaker. A mimic diagram with
self-explanatory operating symbols
for optimum operator prompting is integrated into the equipment front as
a standard feature. The numerical bay
controller family integrates protection, control, communication, operating and monitoring functions into one
device.

Cost-efficiency of the switchgear


Decades of experience in the manufacture of air-insulated medium-voltage switchgear as well as type and
routine testing in accordance with
IEC 62271-200 ensure reliability. Internal arc tests and self-explanatory
operating symbols ensure personal
safety and operational reliability.
Rapid re-availability is achieved by
the modular design and selectivity.
Flexibility shows itself in the choice
between truck-type or withdrawable

Photo 4/1

4/4

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

NXAIR

switchgear, or in the fact that any


customary cable sealing ends can
be used.
Service friendliness
Switchgear maintenance intervals of
more than 10 years, minimized training expenses due to the self-explanatory operating symbols, and modern
documentation guarantee service
friendliness over the entire life of
the product.

11.08.2005

18:48 Uhr

Seite 5

Medium Voltage
Rated

The air-insulated, metal-clad NXAIR


switchgear is the innovation on the
distribution level up to 12 kV, 25 kA,
2,500 A.
C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad
(LSC 2B)
C Uniform panel structure for all
versions
C Cable connection from the front
or rear
C Available as truck-type or withdrawable switchgear
C Bushing-type current transformers
permit selective shutdown of
feeders
C Panels resistant to internal arc
faults
C Exchange of the module and
connection compartment possible
C Switchgear modules with integrated interlocking and control
board

kV

7.2

12

frequency

Hz

50

50

short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

kV

20

28 **

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

60

75

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

25

25

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

25

25

short-circuit making current

max. kA

63

63

peak withstand current

max. kA

63

63

2,500

2,500

normal current of busbar

max. A

normal current of feeders:


with circuit-breaker

max. A

2,500

2,500

with switch-disconnector

max. A

800 *

800 *

* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used


** Higher value on request

Table 4/2

NXAIR rating

H2

NXAIR features

voltage

H1

TIP_Kap04_E

All panel types

Dimensions in mm

Width W for all panels


(compartment)

800

Height H1 Standard,

2,000

H2 with a high low-voltage cubicle


with open-circuit ventilation
with busbar fittings
Depth D

Photo 4/2

NXAIR switchgear panel

Table 4/3

for all panels

2,350

1,350

NXAIR dimensions

4/5

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:48 Uhr

Seite 6

B
14

2
3

15

22

16

23

1234

17

24

25

18

10

26

19

11
12

20

21

28
29

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle

14 Pressure relief duct

A Module compartment

2 Protection equipment

15 Busbars

B Busbar compartment

3 Option: capacitive voltage detection


system for feeder and busbar

16 Bushing-type insulator

C Connection compartment

17 Bushing-type current transformer

4 High-voltage door to module compartment

18 Make-proof grounding switch

D Vacuum vacuum circuit-breaker


module

5 Door knob for opening high-voltage door

19 Cable connection for 4 cables per phase

E Low-voltage cubicle

7 Mechanical switch position indication and


actuating opening for withdrawable part

20 Cable sealing ends

8 Closing spring charged indicator and


operating cycle counter

22 Low voltage plug connector

9 Mechanical switch position indication for


switching device
10 ON/OFF pushbuttons for switching
device

21 Cable support rail


23 Withdrawable part
24 Combined operating and interlocking unit
for circuit-breaker, withdrawable part and
grounding switch

11 Mechanical switch position indication and


actuating opening for make-proof grounding switch

25 Vacuum interrupters

12 Mimic diagram

29 Option: truck

26 Contact system
28 Grounding busbar

Fig. 4/1

NXAIR circuit-breaker panel 12 kV / 1,250 A, basic panel design (example)

4/6

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:48 Uhr

Seite 7

Medium Voltage
Circuit-breaker panel

Disconnecting panel

Switch-disconnector panel

Spur panel

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

or

or

or

or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Bus sectionalizer (mirror-image version also possible)

Circuitbreaker
panel

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

Metering panel

Riser
panel

or

or

or

or

or

and/or

and/or

Fig. 4/2

NXAIR product range

4/7

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:48 Uhr

Seite 8

Rated

NXAIR M features
The air-insulated, cubicle-type or
metal-clad switchgear NXAIR M is
the consequent further development
of the NXAIR family for use on the
distribution and process level up to
15 kV, 31.5 kA, 2,500 A or 24 kA,
25 kA, 2,500 A.

kV

7.2

12

15

17.5

24

frequency

Hz

50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60

short-duration power-frequency
withstand voltage

kV

20

28

35

38

50

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

60

75

95

95

125

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

25

25

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

25

25

short-circuit making current1)

max. kA

80

80

80

63

63

peak withstand current1)

max. kA

80

80

80

63

63

normal current of busbar

max. A

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

normal current of feeders:


with circuit-breaker
with switch-disconnector
with vacuum contactor

max. A
max. A
max. A

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500


800* 800* 800* 800* 800*
400*

* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used


Values for 50 Hz

1)

NXAIR M rating

H2
H3

Table 4/4

H1

C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad or


cubicle-type (LSC 2A, LSC 2B)
C Circuit-breaker, contactor and switchdisconnector panels can be lined up
C Cable connection from the front
or rear
C Available as truck-type or withdrawable switchgear
C Bushing-type current transformers
permit selective shutdown of
feeders
C Panels resistant to internal arc faults
C Exchange of the module and connection compartment possible
C Switchgear modules with integrated interlocking and control
board

voltage

All panel types

Dimensions in mm

Width W
Standard
(compartment) with 24 kV / 2,500 A

800
1,000

with vacuum contactor panel


Height H1

400

with standard low-voltage cubicle

2,200

H2

with attached air guides (standard)


with a high low-voltage cubicle
with open-circuit ventilation

2,550

H3

with busbar fittings

2,770

Depth D

Single busbar

cubicle-type2)
metal-clad

Vacuum contactor panel


Double busbar with
back-to-back installation
2)

Photo 4/3

NXAIR M switchgear panel

4/8

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

For 24 kV only

Table 4/5

NXAIR M dimensions

1,454
1,554
1,650

cubicle-type2)
metal-clad

2,958
3,158

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:48 Uhr

Seite 9

Medium Voltage

30

30

B
1

14

2
3

15

22

4
5

23

16

24

1234

25

17

10
26
18

11
19

12

27

20

28
21
29

Circuit-breaker panel

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle

transformer

2 Protection equipment

18 Make-proof grounding switch

3 Option: capacitive voltage


detection system for feeder
and busbar

19 Cable connection for


4 cables per phase

4 High-voltage door to module


compartment

21 Cable support rail

5 Door knob for opening


high-voltage door

23 Withdrawable part

7 Mechanical switch position


indication and actuating
opening for withdrawable part
8 Closing spring charged
indicator and operating cycle
counter
9 Mechanical switch position
indication for switching
device
10 ON/OFF pushbuttons for
switching device
11 Mechanical switch position
indication and actuating
opening for make-proof
grounding switch
12 Mimic diagram

30

20 Cable sealing ends

15

22 Low voltage plug connector


24 Combined operating and
interlocking unit for circuitbreaker, withdrawable part
and grounding switch
25 Vacuum switching tubes
26 Contact system
27 Lower partition
28 Grounding busbar

22
23
16

30 Air guide
A Module compartment

24

D
25

17

26
18

29 Option: truck
19
20

B Busbar compartment
C Connection compartment

14 Pressure relief duct

D Vacuum circuit-breaker
module

15 Busbars

E Low-voltage cubicle

16 Bushing-type insulator
17 Bushing-type current

Fig. 4/3

Metal-clad version

28
21
29

Cubicle-type version
(feature: common module and connection compartment)

NXAIR M, basic panel design (example)

4/9

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Circuit-breaker panel

Seite 10

Disconnecting panel

Switch-disconnector panel

Panels for double-busbar applications


Double-busbar switchgear is made up of
the product range of the single-busbar
panels, which are available as:
vis--vis installation
back-to-back installation
Vis--vis installation
Panels from the product range of the
single-busbar systems (circuit-breaker
panel, bus sectionalizer and metering
panel)
Connection of the two systems
with cables or bars below the panels
Bus coupling, consisting of
circuit-breaker panel
disconnecting panel

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

or

or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Vacuum contactor panel (7.2 kV)

Back-to-back installation
Panels from the product range of the single-busbar systems (circuit-breaker panel,
bus sectionalizer and metering panel)
Connection of the two systems with bars
within the panels
Bus coupling, consisting of
circuit-breaker panel with current and
voltage transformers
disconnecting panel, optionally with
current transformers
Note
Double-busbar switchgear with busbar
disconnector attachment on request.

Bus sectionalizer (mirror-image version also possible)

Metering panel

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

or

or

or

and/or

and/or
or

and/or

Fig. 4/4

NXAIR M product range

4/10

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Seite 11

Medium Voltage
Rated

The air-insulated, metal-clad


switchgear NXAIR P is based on the
design principles of the NXAIR family
for use on the distribution and process
level up to 15 kV, 50 kA, 4,000 A.
C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad
(LSC 2B)
C Circuit-breaker, contactor and
switch-disconnector panels can
be lined up
C Cable connection from the front
or rear
C Available as truck-type or withdrawable switchgear
C Bushing-type current transformers
permit selective shutdown of feeders up to 31.5 kA
C Panels resistant to internal arc
faults up to 31.5 kA
C Exchange of the module and connection compartment possible
C Switchgear modules with integrated interlocking and control
board

kV

7.2

frequency

Hz

50/60 50/60 50/60

short-duration power-frequency
withstand voltage

kV

20

28

35

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

60

75

95

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

50

50

50

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

50

50

50

short-circuit making

current1)

12

15

max. kA

125

125

125

current1)

max. kA

125

125

125

normal current of busbar

max. A

4,000 4,000 4,000

normal current of feeders:


with circuit-breaker
with switch-disconnector
with vacuum contactor

max. A
max. A
max. A

4,000 4,000 4,000


800* 800* 800*
400* 400*

peak withstand

* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used


Values for 50 Hz

1)

Table 4/6

NXAIR P rating

H2
H3

NXAIR P features

voltage

H1

TIP_Kap04_E

W1
W2

All panel types (except for vacuum contactor panel)


Width

2,000 A (standard)

Dimensions in mm
800

(compartment) > 2,000 A (with panel ventilation)

1,000

Height

H1 with standard low-voltage cubicle

2,225

H2 with attached pressure relief duct

2,550

H3 with forced ventilation (4,000 A)

2,710

Depth

Single busbar

1,635

Double busbar with back-to-back installation

3,320

Vacuum contactor panel

Photo 4/4

NXAIR P switchgear panel

Width
W1 Standard
(compartment)

400

Height

H1 with standard low-voltage cubicle

2,225

H2 with attached pressure relief duct

2,550

Depth

1,650

Table 4/7

Single busbar

NXAIR P dimensions

4/11

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Seite 12

14

2
15

4
16

23

17

26
25

D
9

18

24
22

10

19
31

11

20

C
12

28

21

13

29

Circuit-breaker panel

Panel 3,150 A with open-circuit ventilation

32

32

Panel 4,000 A with forced ventilation


1 Door of low-voltage cubicle
2 Protection equipment
3 Option: capacitive voltage detection system
for feeder and busbar

11 Mechanical switch position indication


and actuating opening for make-proof
grounding switch
12 Mimic diagram

24 Drive unit
25 Vacuum switching tubes
26 Contact system
28 Grounding busbar

4 High-voltage door to module compartment

13 Ventilation duct

5 Mechanical lifting device for opening


high-voltage door

14 Pressure relief duct


15 Busbars

31 Interlocking unit for circuit-breaker


and grounding switch

6 Locking device for high-voltage door

16 Bushing-type insulator

32 Fan unit with fan

8 Closing spring charged indicator, switch


position indication for switching device
and operating cycle counter

17 Bushing-type current transformer

9 ON/OFF pushbuttons for switching


devices
10 Mechanical switch position indication and
actuating opening for withdrawable part

29 Option: truck

18 Make-proof grounding switch

A Module compartment

19 Cable connection for 6 cables per phase

B Busbar compartment

20 Cable sealing ends

C Connection compartment

21 Cable support rail

D Vacuum circuit-breaker module

22 Low voltage connector

E Low-voltage cubicle

23 Withdrawable part

Fig. 4/5

NXAIR P, basic panel design (example)

4/12

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Seite 13

Medium Voltage
Circuit-breaker panel

Disconnecting panel

Switch-disconnector panel

Panels for double-busbar


applications
Double-busbar switchgear is
made up of the product range
of the single-busbar panels,
which are available as:
vis--vis installation
back-to-back installation

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Vacuum contactor panel (7.2 kV, 12 kV) Bus sectionalizer (mirror-image version also possible)

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

Vis--vis installation
Panels from the product range
of the single-busbar systems
(circuit-breaker panel, bus sectionalizer and metering panel)
Connection of the two systems
with cables or bars below the
panels
Bus coupling, consisting of
circuit-breaker panel
disconnecting panel
Back-to-back installation
Panels from the product range
of the single-busbar systems
(circuit-breaker panel, bus sectionalizer and metering panel)
Connection of the two systems
with bars within the panels
Bus coupling, consisting of
circuit-breaker panel with
current and voltage transformers

Metering panel

or

or
and/or

and/or

and/or

Fig. 4/6

NXAIR P product range

4/13

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Seite 14

SIMOPRIME features

Rated

The air-insulated, metal-clad


switchgear SIMOPRIME is a factoryassembled, type-tested indoor
switchgear for use on the distribution
and process level up to 17.5 kV,
31.5 kA, 2,500 A.

kV

7.2

12

15

17.5

frequency

Hz

50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60

short-duration power-frequency
withstand voltage

kV

20

28

35

38

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

60

75

95

95

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

31.5

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

31.5

short-circuit making current

max. kA

80

80

80

80/82

peak withstand current

max. kA

80

80

80

80/82

normal current of busbar

max. A

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500

normal current of feeders:


with circuit-breaker
with switch-disconnector
with vacuum contactor

max. A
max. A
max. A

2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500


630* 630* 630* 630*
400* 400*

* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used


Table 4/8

SIMOPRIME rating

H2

H1

C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad


(LSC 2B)
C Circuit-breaker, contactor and
switch-disconnector panels can
be lined up
C Cable connection from the front
or rear
C Truck-type version
C Use of block-type or ring-type
current transformers
C Panels resistant to internal arc faults
C All switching operations with
closed door
C Logic interlocks

voltage

All panel types


Width

(compartment) W
Height

Depth
Photo 4/5

SIMOPRIME switchgear panel

4/14

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Table 4/9

Dimensions in mm
with circuit-breaker 1,250 A / vacuum contactor 600
with 2,500 A circuit-breaker,
disconnector truck or switch-disconnector

800

H1 with standard low-voltage cubicle

2,200

H2 with a high low-voltage cubicle

1,780

1,860

Standard

SIMOPRIME dimensions

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Seite 15

Medium Voltage

1
2

E
13

14

4
15

5
6

22

16

23

17

24

10
18

11

19
12

20
21

Circuit-breaker panel, 12 kV, 1,250 A

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle

11 Openings for switch truck operation

A Switchgear compartment

2 Opening for locking/unlocking the


low-voltage cubicle door

12 Opening for grounding switch operation

B Busbar compartment

13 Pressure relief duct

C Connection compartment

3 Option: capacitive voltage detection


system for feeder and busbar

14 Busbars

D Vacuum circuit-breaker truck

4 High-voltage door to switchgear


compartment

15 Bushings

E Low-voltage cubicle

16 Insulators

5 Inspection window for identifying


the switch truck

17 Option: ring-type or block-type current


transformer

6 Opening for locking or unlocking the


high-voltage door

18 Option: make-proof grounding switch

7 Actuating opening for the mechanical


charging of the closing spring of the
circuit-breaker

20 Option: current transformer

8 Openings for manual circuit-breaker


operation (CLOSED/OPEN)
9 Inspection window for reading off
the indicators

19 Cable sealing ends


21 Grounding busbar
22 Low-voltage plug connector
23 Vacuum switching tubes
24 Switch truck

10 Door knob

Fig. 4/7

SIMOPRIME, basic panel design (example)

4/15

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:49 Uhr

Circuit-breaker panel

and/or

Seite 16

Disconnecting panel

or

and/or

or

Switch-disconnector panel

Vacuum contactor panel

or

and/or

and/or

or
and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Bus sectionalizer (mirror-image version also possible)

or

Fig. 4/8

SIMOPRIME product range

4/16

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Metering panel

and/or

and/or

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 17

Medium Voltage

8BT1 features
The air-insulated, cubicle-type
switchgear 8BT1 is a factory-assembled, type-tested indoor switchgear
for the lower performance range, for
use on the distribution and process
level up to 12 kV, 25 kA, 2,250 A.
C Metal-enclosed and cubicle-type
(LSC 2A)
C Circuit-breaker and contactor
panels can be lined up
C Cable connection from the front
C Truck-type version
C Use of block-type current transformers
C Enclosure tested for resistance
to accidental arcing
C All switching operations with
closed door
C Logic interlocks

Rated

8BT1

voltage

kV

12

frequency

Hz

50

short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

kV

28

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

75

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

25

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

25

short-circuit making current

max. kA

63

peak withstand current

max. kA

63

normal current of busbar


normal current of feeders:
with circuit-breaker
or disconnector truck
with contactor

max. A

2,250

max. A

2,000

max. A

400*

* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used


Table 4/10

8BT1 rating

TIP_Kap04_E

W
Photo 4/6

8BT1 switchgear

All panel types


Width

Dimensions in mm

W 1,000 A circuit-breaker, disconnector truck, contactor 600


W 1,250 A, 2,500 A circuit-breaker, disconnector truck

800

Height

2,050

Depth

1,200

Table 4/11

8BT1 dimensions

4/17

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 18

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle


2 Protection equipment
3 Option: capacitive voltage detection
system for feeder and busbar

5 Door of high-voltage compartment

6 Inspection window for disconnector


position
7 Knob for high-voltage door
8 ON/OFF pushbuttons for
switching device
9 Mechanical switch position
indication for switching device
10 Mechanical switch position indication Spring charged and operating
cycle counter
11 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening of the
feeder grounding switch
12 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening for
establishing an isolating distance

3
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

13 Mimic diagram
14 Busbars
16 Block-type current transformer
17 Cable connection for 4 cables
max. per phase
8BT1 switchgear

18 Make-proof grounding switch


19 Cable sealing ends
20 Cable bracket
21 Low-voltage plug connector
22 Vacuum tube
23 Contact system top/bottom
24 Switch truck
25 Voltage transformer

14

A Busbar compartment
B Connection compartment

C Switchgear compartment
E Low-voltage cubicle

21

22
23

C
16
17

B
18
19

25

20

Feeder panel

Fig. 4/9

8BT1, basic panel design (example)

4/18

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

24

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 19

Medium Voltage
Circuit-breaker panel

and/or

and/or

Disconnecting panel

Spur panel

and/or

and/or

and/or

Vacuum contactor panel (7.2 kW)

and/or
or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

Metering panel

and/or

Bus sectionalizer

and/or

Fig. 4/10

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Busbar termination panel

Switch
truck
panel

Riser
panel

or

8BT1 product range

4/19

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 20

8BT2 features

Rated

The air-insulated, metal-clad


switchgear 8BT2 is a factory-assembled, type-tested indoor switchgear
for the lower performance range, for
use on the distribution and process
level up to 36 kV, 31.5 kA, 2250 A.
C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad
(LSC 2B)
C Cable connection from the front
C Truck-type version
C Use of block-type current
transformers
C Enclosure tested for resistance
to accidental arcing
C All switching operations with
closed door
C Logic interlock

8BT2

voltage

kV

36

frequency

Hz

50/60

short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

kV

70

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

170

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

31.5

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

31.5

short-circuit making current

max. kA

80/82

peak withstand current

max. kA

80/82

normal current of busbar

max. A

2,250

normal current of feeders:


with circuit-breaker
with contactor
with switch-disconnector

max. A
max. A
max. A

2,000

8BT2 rating

Table 4/12

Photo 4/7

8BT2 switchgear

All panel types

Dimensions in mm

Width

1,550

Height

2,400

Depth

2,450

Table 4/13

4/20

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

8BT2 dimensions

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 21

Medium Voltage

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle


2 Protection equipment
3 Option: capacitive voltage detection
system for feeder and busbar

4 Mimic diagram

5 Door of high-voltage compartment


6 Inspection window for disconnector
position
7 Knob for high-voltage door
8 ON/OFF pushbuttons for
switching device
9 Mechanical switch position indication for switching device, Spring
charged and operating cycle
counter
11 Actuating opening of the feeder
grounding switch
12 Actuating opening for establishing
an isolating distance

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
11
12

14 Busbars
15 Bushing to busbar or feeder
16 Block-type current transformer
17 Cable connection for 4 cables
max. per phase
18 Make-proof grounding switch
19 Cable sealing ends

8BT2 switchgear

20 Cable bracket
21 Low-voltage plug connector
22 Vacuum tube
23 Contact system top/bottom
24 Switch truck
25 Voltage transformer

14

26 Grounding bus
A Busbar compartment
B Connection compartment

21

C Switchgear compartment
E Low-voltage cubicle

15
22
23

B
16
17
24
18

25

19
26
20
Fig. 4/11

8BT2, basic panel design (example)

4/21

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Circuit-breaker panel

Seite 22

Disconnecting panel

Spur panel

and/or

and

and/or

and

and/or

and/or

or

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Metering panel

and/or

Bus sectionalizer

and/or

or

and/or

and/or

Fig. 4/12

8BT2 product range

4/22

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

and/or

and/or

Busbar termination panel

Switch
truck
panel

Riser
panel

or

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 23

Medium Voltage

8BT3 features
The air-insulated, cubicle-type
switchgear 8BT3 is a factory-assembled, type-tested indoor switchgear
for the lower performance range, for
use on the distribution and process
level up to 36 kV, 16 kA, 1,250 A.
C Metal-enclosed and cubicle-type
(LSC 1)
C Circuit-breaker panel, fixedmounted switch-disconnector
can be lined up
C Cable connection from the front
C Truck-type version
C Use of block-type current
transformers
C Enclosure tested for resistance
to accidental arcing
C All switching operations with
closed door
C Logic interlock

Rated

8BT2

voltage

kV

36

frequency

Hz

50/60

short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage

kV

70

lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

170

short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

16

short-time withstand current, 3s

max. kA

16

short-circuit making current

max. kA

40/42

peak withstand current

max. kA

40/42

normal current of busbar

max. A

1,250

normal current of feeders:


with circuit-breaker
with contactor
with switch-disconnector

max. A
max. A
max. A

1,250

400*

* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used


Table 4/14

8BT3 rating

TIP_Kap04_E

W
Photo 4/8

8BT3 switchgear

All panel types

Dimensions in mm

Width

1,000

Height

2,400

Depth

1,450

Table 4/15

8BT3 dimensions

4/23

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 24

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle


2 Protection equipment
3 Option: capacitive voltage detection
system for feeder and busbar

5 Door of high-voltage compartment

6 Inspection window for disconnector


position
7 Knob for high-voltage door

8 ON/OFF pushbuttons for switching device


9 Mechanical switch position indication Spring charged and operating
cycle counter
10 Mechanical switch position indication Spring charged and operating cycle counter
11 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening of the
feeder grounding switch
12 Mechanical switch position indication and actuating opening for
establishing an isolating distance

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

13 Mimic diagram
14 Busbars
16 Block-type current transformer
17 Cable connection for 2 cables
max. per phase

8BT3switchgear

18 Make-proof grounding switch


19 Cable sealing ends
20 Cable bracket
21 Low-voltage plug connector
22 Vacuum tube
23 Contact system top/bottom

14

24 Switch truck
25 Voltage transformer
D High-voltage cubicle
E Low-voltage cubicle

21

22
23

16
17
18
19
20

Fig. 4/13

8BT3, basic panel design (example)

4/24

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

24
25

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 25

Medium Voltage

Circuit-breaker panel

Disconnector truck panel

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

and/or

Metering panel

Fig. 4/14

Switch-disconnector panel

Busbar termination panel

or

or

and/or

and/or

8BT2, 8BT3 product range

4/25

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 26

4.1.2 Fixed-Mounted
Circuit-Breaker Switchgear,
SF6-Insulated
NXPLUS Family
Switchgear of the NXPLUS family
provides the plus in performance and
is fit for any terrain.
Unique pressure system
This is the only switchgear worldwide with hermetically sealed pressure systems. This makes it independent of external influences.
Whether extreme climatic conditions
or most adverse conditions in conurbations or industrial centers are
concerned, our NXPLUS switchgear
masters every environmental challenge. At the same time, no work
on the gas system is required on
site, nor throughout the lifetime
of the system.
Maintenance-free design
Switchgear of the NXPLUS family requires no maintenance for life. This is
achieved by the gas-tight enclosure
of the high-voltage part, by using SF6
as insulating medium and by maintenance-free operating mechanisms.
Cost-efficiency
Whether you decide for an NXPLUS
or an NXPLUS C you opt for the
most compact dimensions, for the
highest voltages and switching
capacities and thus certainly for
a cost-efficient solution.

4/26

NXPLUS C
It is the first medium-voltage circuitbreaker switchgear to make SF6 insulation and vacuum technology costefficient in its class the compact
NXPLUS C for voltages up to 24 kV.
Features:
C Hermetically sealed pressure
system with SF6 filling for the complete service life
C Type-tested switchgear gets by
completely without any work on
the gas system during installation
and extensions
C Safe-to-touch enclosure and standard connections for cable plugs of
the outside-cone type
C Three-pole SF6-insulated module
for the three-position disconnector
and the circuit-breaker with panel
connection
C Single-pole-insulated and screened
busbars, plug-in system
C Operating mechanisms and transformers easily accessible outside
the SF6 enclosure
C Reduced number of functional
elements due to three-position
disconnector used for isolating
and earthing the outgoing feeder
C Dielectrically unstressed ring-type
current transformers
C Make-proof grounding with vacuum
circuit-breaker
C Measurements on the busbar possible without the need for additional panels
C Aseismic version optionally
available

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 4/9

NXPLUS C

Insulation technology
C Switchgear container filled with
SF6 gas
C Characteristics of the SF6 gas:
nontoxic
odorless and uncolored
non-flammable
chemically neutral
heavier than air
electronegative (high-quality
insulator)
C Pressure of the SF6 gas in the
switchgear container:
Rated filling pressure: 150 kPa

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 27

Medium Voltage
Circuit-breaker panel (basic design)

1
15
2

16
17

Design pressure: 180 kPa


Design temperature of the SF6
gas: 80 C
Operating pressure of the bursting
disc: 300 kPa
Bursting pressure: 400 kPa
Panel configuration
C Factory-assembled, type-tested
C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad
C Switchgear container made of
stainless steel, hermetically tight
welded, without any sealings
C Single-pole busbars with solid
insulation, screened, plug-in type
C No maintenance required
C Degree of protection
IP65 for all high-voltage sections
of the primary conducting path
IP3XD for the switchgear enclosure
C Vacuum circuit-breaker and vacuum
contactor
C Three-position disconnector for
isolating/grounding via the
circuit-breaker
C Three-position switch-disconnector
C Make-proof grounding with the
help of the vacuum circuit-breaker
C Cable connection with outside
cone plug-in system acc. to
DIN EN 50181
C For wall-mounting and stand-alone
installation
C Installation and possible later expansions of existing panels without
any gas works
C Exchange of the switchgear container without any gas works
C Transformer can be removed without
any gas works since it is arranged
outside the gas compartment
C Sheet-steel enclosure with sendzimir
coating, front and end walls varnished with the color light basic
C Low-voltage cubicle can be disassembled, pluggable ring circuits
C Lateral, metal cable ducts for
control lines

18
Z

30

19
20
21

3
4

22

31

23

6
24

32

25
33

26
27

34
28
29

Front view

Cable connection from the front


14 Actuating opening for READY TO
GROUND function of three-position
disconnector

Detail Z
8
9

15 Option: busbar current transformer,


plug-in type

10
11

16 Busbar, single-pole, fully insulated,


plug-in type, external surface grounded

12

17 Option: busbar current transformer

13

18 Switchgear container, hermetically welded,


filled with SF6 gas

14

19 Three-position disconnector
1 Low-voltage cubicle

20 OFF pushbutton for circuit-breaker

2 SIPROTEC 4 multifunction protection


(example)

21 Vacuum interrupter of circuit-breaker

3 Switch position indicator of circuit-breaker

23 Capacitive voltage detection system

4 Actuating opening for the charging of


the circuit-breaker springs

24 Locking device for Feeder grounded


(suitable for locking with padlock)

5 ON pushbutton for circuit-breaker


6 Spring charged indicator

25 Disconnecting device for feeder voltage


transformer

7 Counter for circuit-breaker

26 Bushing feeder voltage transformer

8 Switch position indicator for ISOLATING


function of three-position disconnector

27 Option: feeder voltage transformer

9 Ready-for-service indicator

29 Cable connection compartment

22 Pressure disc (bursting disc)

28 Option: pressure relief duct

10 Switch position indicator for READY


TO GROUND function of three-position
disconnector

30 Operating mechanism for three-position


disconnector

11 Preselection slide and locking device for


ISOLATING/GROUNDING function of
three-position disconnector

32 Feeder current transformer

12 Interrogation lever
13 Actuating opening for ISOLATING
function of three-position disconnector
Fig. 4/15

31 Circuit-breaker operating mechanism


33 Cable connection with outside cone T-plug
34 Actuation for the disconnecting device of
the feeder voltage transformer

NXPLUS C circuit-breaker panel, SF6-insulated

4/27

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 28

SF6-insulated circuit-breaker switchgear NXPLUS C


Rated voltage
Rated frequency

7,2
50/60

12
50/60

15
50/60

17,5
50/60

24
50/60

Rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV

20

28*

36

38

50

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage

60

75 *

95

95

125

max. kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

25

25

Rated short-time withstand current, 3 s

kA

31.5

31.5

31.5

25

25

Rated short-circuit making current

kA

80

80

80

63

63

Rated peak withstand current

kA

80

80

80

63

63

Rated short-circuit breaking current

kV
Hz

kV

Rated normal current


of busbar

max. A

2,500

2,500

2,500

2,500

2,500

Rated normal current


of feeders

max. A

2,500

2,500

2,500

2,000

2,000

Rated normal current of


switch-disconnector panels with fuses

Depending on rated current


of fuse (max. 100 A)
* 42 / 95 kV possible acc. to a number of
international specifications

Table 4/16 Electrical data

Width

mm

600,1,200

Height

mm

2,250

Depth
Single busbar
Double busbar

mm
mm

1,100, 1,225
2,370

Weight (approx.) incl. packing:


single busbar, 1 panel
double busbar, 2 panels
Table 4/17

Dimensions and weights

For further technical data, please


refer to the NXPLUS catalog
(HA 53.41).

4/28

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

kg
kg

900, 1,500
1,800

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:50 Uhr

Seite 29

Medium Voltage

Single busbar panels


Circuit-breaker panel

Switch-disconnector
panel with fuses

Disconnector panel

Metering panel

Double busbar panels


Bus sectionalizer

Circuit-breaker panel

Incoming-feeder coupling

BB1

BB1

BB1

BB2

BB2

BB2

Panel variants of single and double busbars can be combined.


For further variants, please refer to the NXPLUS C catalog (HA 35.41)

Fig. 4/16

Bus coupling

BB1 = busbar 1
BB2 = busbar 2

NXPLUS C panel versions

4/29

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:51 Uhr

Seite 30

NXPLUS
NXPLUS is the gas-insulated
switchgear for up to 40.5 kV with the
benefits of vacuum technology for
a high degree of independence in
operation.
Features:
C Hermetically sealed pressure
system with SF6 filling for the
complete service life
C Type-tested switchgear gets by
completely without any work on
the gas system during installation
and extensions
C Easy module replacement thanks
to self-supporting, individual modules which are bolted together
C Safe-to-touch enclosure and standard connections for cable plugs of
the outside-cone or inside-cone
type
C Three-pole SF6-insulated modules
for the busbar with the three-position switch and for the circuitbreaker with the panel connection
C Single-pole-insulated and screened
couplings for interconnecting the
modules

C Motor operating switching devices,


interlocked electrically and, as an
option, mechanically
C Operating mechanisms and transformers easily accessible outside
the SF6 enclosure
C Reduced number of functional elements due to three-position switch
used for isolating and grounding
the outgoing feeder

Photo 4/10

4/30

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

NXPLUS

C Dielectrically unstressed ring-type


current transformers
C Make-proof grounding with vacuum
circuit-breaker
C Measurements on the busbar
possible without the need for
additional panels

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:51 Uhr

Seite 31

Medium Voltage

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle

2 Multifunction protection SIPROTEC


4 7SJ61/ 7SJ62 for control and
1
protection

8
1

3 Mimic diagram

10

4 EMERGENCY-OFF pushbutton,
mechanical

11

17

12

18

13

19

5 Door to mechanical control board

6 Cover of cable connection


compartment
7 Busbar cover and space for pluggable busbar current transformers
8 Busbar module, welded, SF6 -insulated

11 Three-position disconnector, SF6 insulated, with the three positions: 6

9 Rupture diaphragm
10 Three-pole busbar system

20

14

21

CLOSED OPEN READY-TOGROUND

22

15

23
16

12 Module coupling between busbar


module and circuit-breaker module

24

13 Circuit-breaker module, welded,


SF6 -insulated, with integrated
cable connection

Panel with integrated inside cone

14 Vacuum switching tube of


circuit-breaker
15 Pressure relief duct

16 Integrated cable connection as


inside cone

13

17 Low-voltage cubicle, standard:


935 mm high

26

Option: 1,100 mm high


18 Ring-core current transformer

18

25

23

27
24

19 Manual and motor operating mechanism of three-position switch


20 Mechanical control board

Panel with outside cone

21 Manual and motor operating


mechanism of circuit-breaker
22 Voltage transformer connection
socket as inside cone
23 Cable connection compartment
24 Voltage transformer
25 Isolating device for feeder voltage
transformer
26 Voltage transformer connection
socket as outside cone
27 Cable connection as outside cone

Fig. 4/17

NXPLUS circuit-breaker panel with single busbar

4/31

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:51 Uhr

Seite 32

SF6-insulated circuit-breaker switchgear NXPLUS


Rated voltage

bis kV

24

40.5

Rated short-duration power-frequency


withstand voltage

Hz

50/60

50/60

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage

kV

50

85

Rated short-circuit breaking current

kV

125

185

Rated short-circuit breaking current

max. kA

31.5

31.5

Rated short-time withstand current, 3 s

max. kA

31.5

31.5

Rated short-circuit making current

max. kA

80

80

Rated peak withstand current

max. kA

80

80

Rated normal current of busbar

max. A

2,000

1)

Rated normal current of feeders

max. A

2,000

1)

1)

2,000

1)

2,000

1)

with double busbar 2,500 A possible

Table 4/18

Electrical data

Single Double
busbar busbar
Width
Width of bus sectionalizer panel 2,000 A (> 2,000 A)

mm
mm

600
900
(1,200)

600
600
(900)

Bus coupler

mm

600/1,200

Metering panel

mm

300

Height

mm

2,450

2,600

Depth

mm

1,600

1,840

kg

1,200

1,600

Weight per panel incl.


packing (approx.)
Table 4/19

Dimensions and weights

4/32

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:51 Uhr

Seite 33

Medium Voltage

Busbar fittings

Fittings
upstream of circuit-breaker module
Fittings
downstream of circuit-breaker module 3)
1)

Capacitive
voltage
detection
system

Panel connection
fittings

1 x plug-in
cable,
interface
type 2 or 3

or

1 x plug-in
cable,
interface
type 2 4)

or

2 x plug-in
cable,
interface
type 2 or 3

or

Voltage
transformer,
plug-in
type 4)

or

3 x plug-in
cable,
interface
type 2 or 3

or

Surge
arrester,
plug-in
type 4)

or

4 x plug-in
cable,
interface
type 2

and

Busbar
current
transformer

or

Solidinsulated bar

2)

Voltage
transformer,
plug-in type

Surge
arrester,
plug-in type

Current
transformer

1) Capacitive voltage detection


system acc. to the LRM or IVDS
system
2) Not possible with busbar voltage
transformer
3) Requires cable connection with
container for separate inside cone
4) With single busbar only

Fig. 4/18

NXPLUS panel versions with cable connection as inside cone

Single busbar / double busbar


circuit-breaker panel
With cable connection as inside
cone for
rated voltage up to 36 kV/40.5 kV
(single busbar only)

rated short-circuit breaking current


up to 31.5 kA
rated normal currents of busbars
and feeders up to 2,000 A

4/33

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:51 Uhr

Seite 34

Busbar fittings

Fittings
upstream of circuit-breaker module
Fittings
downstream of circuit-breaker module
1)

Capacitive
voltage
detection
system

Panel connection
fittings

1 x plug-in
cable

or

1 x plug-in
cable,
interface
type 2 3)

or

2 x plug-in
cable

or

Voltage
transformer,
plug-in
type 3)

or

3 x plug-in
cable

or

Surge
arrester,
plug-in
type 3)

and

Busbar
current
transformer

2)

Voltage
transformer,
disconnectable

Current
transformer

Surge arrester
1) Capacitive voltage detection
or limiter,
to be plugged in
system acc. to the LRM or IVDS
additionally
system
2) Not possible with busbar voltage
transformer
3) With single busbar only

Fig. 4/19

NXPLUS panel versions with cable connection as outside cone

Single busbar and double busbar circuitbreaker panel


With cable connection as outside cone for
rated voltage up to 24 kV
rated short-circuit breaking current up
to 25 kA (for 12 kV: 31.5 kA)
rated normal currents of busbars up
to 2,000 A and feeders up to 1,250 A

4/34

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:51 Uhr

Seite 35

Medium Voltage

Bus sectionalizer
for
rated
rated
up to
rated
up to

voltage up to 36 kV/40.5 kV
short-circuit breaking current
31.5 kA
normal current of busbars
2,000 A

Busbar
fittings
Fittings upstream of
circuit-breaker
module

Capacitive
voltage
detection
system

Fig. 4/20

Current
transformer

NXPLUS bus sectionalizer

4/35

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:52 Uhr

Seite 36

Fixed-mounted circuitbreaker switchgear, type


8DA and 8DB up to 40.5 kV,
SF6-insulated
Versions
Fixed-mounted circuit-breaker
switchgear
C 8DA10 for single busbar applications
C 8DA11/8DA12 (single- and doublepole) for traction power supplies
C 8DB10 for double busbar applications are metal-enclosed, metalclad, SF6-insulated switchgear
for indoor installation
Features
Environmental independence
Encapsulation with modular standard
containers made of noncorrosive aluminum alloys make 8DA and 8DB
switchgear
C insensitive to aggressive ambient
conditions such as
salt water
air humidity
dust
temperature
C hermetically tight against ingress of
foreign substances such as e.g.
dust
dirt
C independent of the installation
height
Compactness
The use of SF6-insulation results in
small panel width of only 600 mm up
to 40.5 kV.
Thus,
C existing switchrooms become
effectively usable
C new buildings become more
cost-effective
C inner-city areas are used
economically

4/36

8DA10
panel
for single busbar
applications

Photo 4/11

8DA11/8DA12
panel
for traction power supplies,
single- and double-pole versions (example 8DA11)

8DA/8DB panels

Nearly no maintenance required


Switchgear containers as hermetically sealed pressure system, nomaintenance switchgear and encapsulated cable plugs ensure
C highest security of supply
C safety of the personnel
C reduced operating costs
C economic efficiency of the
investment

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

8DB10
panel
for double busbar
applications

Innovation
The use of digital secondary
technology and combined protective
and control devices results in
C a clear integration into process
control
C flexible, simple adaptations to
new system states and thus, in
economical operation

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:52 Uhr

Seite 37

Medium Voltage

8DA10 panel for single busbar, 3-pole

Panels for traction power supply


8DA11 single-pole
8DA12 double-pole

3
4
5
6

8DB10 panel for double busbar, 3-pole


1 Low-voltage cubicle

2 Electronic operating interface,


e.g. multifunction protection

3 Operating mechanism and interlock for


the three-position switch-disconnector as
well as mechanical switch position indication of the three-position switch disconnector and circuit-breaker

4 Pressure gage for gas monitoring of the


feeder gas compartments
5 Circuit-breaker operating mechanism

6 Operating shaft for vacuum switching


tubes

7 Voltage detection system

8 Operating shaft for three-position


switch-disconnector

Fig. 4/21

Panel design (examples)

4/37

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:52 Uhr

Seite 38

Single busbar

1
2
3

1 Busbar container

2 Busbar

3 Three-position switchdisconnector
4 Gas-tight bushing between three-position
switch-disconnector and
circuit-breaker

6
7

5 Circuit-breaker container

6 Vacuum interrupter

7 Current transformer
8 Pole support plate
9 Panel connection

Double busbar

10

2
3

4
11

12

Pos. 1 to 9, see above

10 Gas-tight bushing between three-position


switch-disconnector or
switch-disconnector and
busbar

11 Gas-tight bushing between three-position


switch-disconnector
(busbar 1) and switchdisconnector (busbar 2)

8
9

12 Busbar switch-disconnector for busbar system 2

Fig. 4/22

Single-pole design

4/38

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:52 Uhr

Seite 39

Medium Voltage
8DA10
3-pole
Rated values
Rated
-voltage
max. kV 12 24 36 40.5
-frequency
50 Hz1)
-short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 28 50 70 85
-lightning surge withstand voltage
kV 75 125 170 185
-short-circuit breaking current
max. 40 kA
-short-time withstand current, 3s
max. 40 kA
-short-time making current
max. 100 kA
-peak withstand current
max. 100 kA
-normal current of busbar
max. 4,000 A
-normal current of feeders
max. 2,500 A
Dimensions in mm
Compartment (width)
Circuit-breaker panel
600
Switch-disconnector panel
600
Transverse coupling

Longitudinal coupling (2 panels)


2 x 600
Longitudinal coupling for connection
2 x 600
in the cable basement (2 panels)
Switchgear termination (end wall)
for left and right switchgear cabinet side 152
Depth
for all panel types
1,625
Height (switchgear front)
Standard
2,350
with high low-voltage cubicle
2,700
with make-proof busbar
2,700
grounding switch
Height switchgear rear side
Standard
1,850
with make-proof busbar
1,960
grounding switch
with busbar isolation without
2,320
additional panel loss
Busbar module without disconnection option:
With voltage transformer up to 24 kV 2,220
36/40.5 kV 2,470
With cable connection for
1 connector, connection type 2
2,050
1 connector, connection type 3
2,030
2 or 3 connectors, connection type 2 2,110
2 or 3 connectors, connection type 3 2,130
4 to 6 connectors, connection type 2 2,250
With connection for all-insulated bar2)
1,930
Busbar modules with disconnection option:
With voltage transformer up to 24 kV 2,420
36/40.5 kV 2,670
With cable connection for
1 connector, connection type 2
2,180
1 connector, connection type 3
2,240
2 or 3 connectors, connection type 2 2,240
2 or 3 connectors, connection type 3 2,260
4 to 6 connectors, connection type 2 2,380
With connection for all-insulated bar2)
2,130
1)

60 Hz on request

2)

The busbar supplier must be consulted about the dimensions

Table 4/20

8DB10
3-pole

12 24 36
40.5
50 Hz1)
28 50 70
85
75 125 170 185
max. 40 kA
max. 40 kA
max. 100 kA
max. 100 kA
max. 4,000 A
max. 2,500 A

600

600
2 x 600
2 x 600

152
2,660
2,350
2,700
2,700

8DA11/8DA12
single-/doublepole

Rated values
Rated
-voltage acc. to
kV 15
25
EN 50163 and IEC 60850
-isolation voltage
max. kV 17.5 27.5
-frequency
Hz 16.7 50/60
-power-frequency to ground
kV 50
95
withstand
over isolating kV 60
110
voltage
distance
-peak
to ground
kV 125 200
withstand
over isolating kV 145 220
current
distance
-short-circuit breaking current
max. 31.5 kA
-short-circuit making current
max. 80 kA
-normal current of
max. 2,500 A
busbar
-normal current of feeders
max. 2,000 A
Dimensions in mm
Compartment (width)
Incoming-feeder panel
600
Section feeder panel
600
Switchgear termination end wall
for left and right
152
switchgear side
Depth
for 8DA11, single-pole
865
for 8DA12, double-pole
1,245
Height switchgear front
Standard
2,350
Height switchgear rear side
Standard
1,850

2,100
2,210
2,570

2,390
2,640
2,300
2,280
2,360
2,380
2,500
2,180
2,590
2,840
2,430
2,490
2,490
2,510
2,630
2,380

Electrical data, dimensions

4/39

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:52 Uhr

Seite 40

Circuit-breaker panel

Busbar fittings
Fitting at the
circuit-breaker housing
Fitting over the
panel connection
1)
Panel connection
variants

2) For plug-in cable connection with inside cone acc.


to EN 50181
Max. of 6 connections
per conductor possible,
depending on the connector size
3) The use of these modules
reduces the possible number of connectable plug-in
cables by 1 piece each

2)
Plug-in cable

Voltage
transformer,
fixed or disconnectable

1) Capacitive voltage
detection system

or

Make-proof
grounding
switch

or

Cable or
busbar connection, fixed or
disconnectable

or

or

or

Fitting at the
panel termination

Current
transformer

all-insulated bar,
solid or gas
insulation
3)
Inductive
voltage
transformer

Longitudinal
disconnection
without additional
space requirements

and/or

3)
Inductive voltage
transformer,
connected via cable

and/or

3)
Ohmic
voltage divider

and/or

3)
Surge arrester

Busbar current
transformer

Switch-disconnector panel

Busbar fittings

Fittings and connection


options same as for
circuit-breaker panel

Fitting at the
riser housing
Fitting over the
panel connection
1)
Panel connection
variants

Longitudinal coupling
Busbar fittings
Consisting of 2 panels
(circuit-breaker arranged
optionally in the left or
right panel)

1)

Busbar
current
transformer

Ohmic
voltage
divider

Fitting at the
riser housing

Current
transformer

Fig. 4/23

8DA10 single busbar panels, 3-pole (panels 8DA11, single-pole and 8DA12, double-pole on request)

4/40

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

11.08.2005

18:52 Uhr

Seite 41

Medium Voltage

Circuit-breaker panel

Busbar fittings

BB1
BB2
Fitting at the
circuit-breaker housing
Fitting over the
panel connection
1)

Panel connection
variants

BB1

BB2

Voltage
transformer,
disconnectable

or
BB2

BB1

BB2

or
BB1

BB1,
BB2

BB2

or
BB1

BB1,
BB2

BB2

BB2

or

BB1

Current
transformer

Ohmic
current
divider

All-insulated
bar, solid or
gas insulation
and/or

3)
Inductive
voltage
transformer

and/or

3)
Inductive voltage
transformer,
connected via cable

Cable or bar
connection,
fixed

and/or

3)
Ohmic voltage
divider

and/or

3)
Surge arrester

Cable or bar
connection,
disconnectable

Busbar
current
transformer

or
BB1

or

Fitting at the
panel termination

Make-proof
grounding
switch

or
BB1

2)
Plug-in cable

Voltage
transformer,
fixed

or

HA35-2444 eps

TIP_Kap04_E

BB2

Longitudinal
disconnection
without additional
space requirements

Abbreviations
BB1 = busbar 1
BB2 = busbar 2
1) Capacitive voltage detection system
2) For plug-in cable connection with inside cone acc. to EN 50181
Max. of 6 connections per conductor possible, depending on the connector size
3) The use of these modules reduces the possible number of connectable
plug-in cables by 1 piece each
Fig. 4/24

8DB10 double busbar panels, 3-pole

4/41

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:52 Uhr

Seite 42

Transverse coupling

Busbar fittings

BB1
BB2

1)

Voltage
transformer,
fixed

or
BB1

BB2

Voltage
tranformer,
disconnectable

or
BB2

BB1

Make-proof
grounding
switch

or
BB1

BB2

or
BB1

BB1,
BB2

BB2

or
BB1

BB1,
BB2

BB2

or
BB1

BB2

or

Abbreviations
BB1 = busbar 1
BB2 = busbar 2
1)

Capacitive voltage detection system

Fig. 4/25

8DB10 double busbar panels, 3-pole

4/42

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

BB1 BB2

Cable or bar
connection,
fixed 1)

Cable or bar
connection,
disconnectable

Busbar
current
transformer

Longitudinal
disconnection
without additonal
space requirements

Fitting at the
riser housing

Current
transformer

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:52 Uhr

Seite 43

Medium Voltage

Longitudinal coupling
for busbar 1 and 2
consisting of 2
assembled panels

Busbar fittings

BB1
BB2

1)

1)

Busbar current
BB1 transformer at
BB1

oder

Current
transformer

Busbar current
transformer at
BB2 BB2

Longitudinal coupling
for connection in the
cable basement
consisting of 2
separate panels

Busbar fittings

BB1
BB2
Fitting at the
circuit-breaker housing
1)

1)

1)

1)
Fitting above the
panel connection

Busbar
BB1 current
transformer
at BB1
or

Busbar
current
BB2 transformer
at BB2

Ohmic
voltage
divider
or

Panel connection
variants:
Single plug-in cable,
sizes 1 to 3 or bar (solid
or gas insulation)

Fitting per panel at


the circuit-breaker or
riser panel termination

Current
transformer

Abbreviations
BB1 = busbar 1
BB2 = busbar 2
1) Capacitive voltage detection system
Fig. 4/26

8DB10 double busbar panels, 3-pole

4/43

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:52 Uhr

Seite 44

Generator level
G

Primary
distribution level

4.2 Secondary
Distribution Systems,
Switchgear and
Substations
General information
In its basic version, the secondary
distribution system consists of consumer substations with ring-main
feeders and directly fed transformer
feeders.
In order to minimize transmission
losses and attain an economical solution for switchgear and transformer
substations, the system configuration
and switchgear technology should be
optimally designed and dimensioned.
To limit transmission losses, the
packaged transformer substations/
consumer substations must be
located directly in the load center.
Therefore, switchgear and substations with a high degree of safety
and reliability and, at the same time,
minimum dimensions are to be
preferred.
The large number of substations
installed in the distribution system
requires a high degree of standardization and the application of
technically mature products. The
switchgear types described below
fulfill these quality requirements in
every respect.
The packaged transformer substations consisting of medium-voltage
switchgear, transformer and lowvoltage distribution are available as
factory-assembled units or as single
components and can be installed in
any building and room at the site of
installation.

4/44

Secondary
distribution level,
with switchgear of
the 8DJ and 8DH
types

Utilities
substation

Utilities customer transfer


substation

Utilities
distribution
substation,
industrial plant

Low-voltage
distribution

Further
utilities
substations
Fig. 4/27

Secondary distribution system

Furthermore, the large number of


substations within the distribution
system asks for a cost-effective solution, e.g. switchgear made of climate-independent, maintenance-free
switching devices, making maintenance work unnecessary throughout
the entire service life of the substations in operation. Block-type ringmain units (non-extendable) and modular switchgear (extendable) have
been developed for such packaged
transformer substations. Extendable
switchgear consists of switch-disconnectors, optionally with or without
HV HRC fuses, circuit-breaker panels,
metering panels and bus sectionalizer panels.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Block-type switchgear are ring-main


units available with various schemes.
Medium-voltage ring-main units and
switchgear in secondary distribution
systems must reliably meet the operational requirements regarding:
C Various layouts of the different
switchgear types for optimum application in the different substation
sizes
C Personal safety
C Operational reliability
C Maximum possible environmental
independence
C Cost-efficiency

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:52 Uhr

Seite 45

Medium Voltage

Siemens has developed switchgear


which complies with all the aforementioned requirements.
8DJ secondary distribution
switchgear and 8DH switchgear
are metal-enclosed, gas-insulated
switchgear for indoor installation.
C 8DJ type as ring-main units in
block-type construction, extension
installation not possible
C 8DH type as modular switchgear
line-up and extendable type in
panel-type construction
More than 400,000 8DJ/8DH-type
switchgear panels are in operation
worldwide.
Application areas
8DJ/8HD switchgear is used in
secondary distribution systems, e.g.
substations, customer transfer substations and distribution substations
of power supply companies and
municipal utilities or industrial plants.
Typical application areas are
C Wind power stations
C High-rise buildings
C Airports
C Lignite open-cast mining
C Underground stations
C Sewage plants
C Docks
C Traction power supplies
C Automobile industry
C Oil industry
C Chemical industry
C Cement industry

The 8DJ secondary distribution


switchgear and 8DH switchgear are
type-tested, factory-assembled,
metal-enclosed switchgear with
SF6 gas insulation. They have been
proven to reliably comply with all
requirements of operation with
regard to:
Maximum personal safety
C Arc-fault-tested stainless-steel
vessel and cable connection compartment tested on the resistance
to accidental arcs
C Logic interlockings
C Guided operation
C Capacitive voltage indication
integrated in switchgear
C Isolation from supply can be safely
tested on the closed switching
front
C Locked and grounded covers for
the fuse section and the cable
terminal compartment

Standards
The 8DJ, 8DH10 and SIMOSEC
switchgear correspond to the following
standards and specifications:
IEC
standard

VDE
standard

IEC 60694

VDE 0670 Part 1,000

IEC 60298

VDE 0670 Part 6

IEC 62271-100

VDE 0671 Part 100

IEC 62271-102

VDE 0671 Part 102

IEC 60265-1

VDE 0670 Part 301

IEC 62271-105

VDE 0671 Part 105

IEC 61243-5

VDE 0682 Part 415,


DIN EN 61243-5

IEC 60529

VDE 0470 Part 1

IEC 60071

VDE 0111

Instrument transformers (e.g. for


8DH or SIMOSEC switchgear)

Further information can be


obtained at:

IEC
standard

www.siemens.com/ptd

Current transformers

VDE
standard

IEC 60044-1

VDE 0414 Part 1

Voltage transformers
IEC 60044-2

VDE 0414 Part 2

Combined transformers for 8DH


switchgear
IEC 60044-3
Table 4/21

VDE 0414 Part 5

Standards

4/45

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

Specifications

18:52 Uhr

Insulation

Seite 46

Type of
construction,
installation

Busbar
system

Compartments

Access
option

Operational
availability

Type of
compartment

LSC 2A
Cable connection
Medium-voltage
indoor
switchgear,
type-tested
according to
IEC 62271-200,
IEC 60298

Gas-insulated

Non-extendable

Single

Accessible
HV HRC fuse
compartment

Busbar
Not
accessible
Switching devices

LSC 2A/B
Cable connection
Gas-insulated

Extendable

Single

Busbar

Accessible

HV HRC fuse

Switching devices

Not
accessible

Air-insulated

Extendable

LSC 2A/B
Single

Busbar

Accessible

Circuit-breaker

Cable connection

Disconnector

Not
accessible

LSC2 A/B

1)
2)
3)
4)

LS = circuit-breaker
LTS = switch-disconnector
LST = circuit-breaker with disconnecting function
PM = partition of metal

Accessible

4/46

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

HV HRC fuse

Cable connection

Not
accessible

Table 4/21a Secondary distribution systems selection matrix

Busbar

Switchdisconnector and
grounding switch
Circuit-breaker

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:52 Uhr

Seite 47

Medium Voltage

Access
control

Compartment class

Interlocking
control

PM4)
(metal
partitions)

Accidental
arc
classification

Feeder
or
switching
device

Application, use

Switchgear
type

IAC
(IEC
60298)

RK2)
TR2)
LS13)

Ring-main unit for packaged


transformer substations,
standard type 1:
for substations with
very narrow widths
transformer cable connection
at the top

8DJ10

Ring-main unit for packaged


transformer substations,
standard type 2:
for compact substations,
substations with control aisle
transformer cable connection
at the front (standard)

8DJ20

Switchgear for substations,


customer transfer substations,
distribution and switching
substations, circuit-breaker
switchgear up to 630 A

8DH10

Switchgear for substations,


customer transfer substations,
distribution and switching
substations, circuit-breaker
switchgear up to 1,250 A

SIMOSEC

Tooldependent
Interlocking
control

Interlocking
control

PM4)
(metal
partitions)

IAC
(IEC
60298)

Tooldependent
Tooldependent

RK2)
TR2)
LS11)
LS21)
LTx1)
LST3)
SE2)
ME1
ME2
ME32)

Interlocking
control

Tooldependent

PM4)
(metal
partitions)

IAC
(IEC
60298)

LS111)2)
LS321)2)

Interlocking
control
Interlocking
control

Tooldependent
Interlocking
control

PM4)
(metal
partitions)

IAC
(IEC
60298)

RK1)
TR1)
LS12)
SE1)
ME1
ME31)
HF

4/47

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

Switchgear
type

18:52 Uhr

Seite 48

Technical data

Rated lightning surge


withstand voltage Up

Rated
voltage Ur

Maximum rated shorttime withstand current

7.2/12
[kV]

17.5/24
[kV]

[kV]

[kA]
1s

[kA]
3s

Rated operating
current
for busbar
for feeder
[A]
[A]

60/75

95/125

7.217.5

25

20

630

up to 630

60/75

95/125

7.2 24

20

20

630

up to 630

60/75

95/125

7.217.5

25

20

630

up to 630

60/75

95/125

7.2 24

20

20

630

up to 630

60/75

95/125

7.217.5

25

20

60/75

95/125

7.2 24

20

20

8DJ10

8DJ20

630 1)

8DH10

max. 1,250
630 1)

up to 630
up to 630

max. 1,250

SIMOSEC

1)

60/75

95/125

7.217.5

25

11.5

max. 1,250

up to 1,250

60/75

95/125

7.2 24

20

20

max. 1,250

up to 1,250

Standard

Table 21b Secondary distribution systems selection matrix / technical data

4/48

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:52 Uhr

Seite 49

Medium Voltage

Operational reliability /
no maintenance required

Maximum environmental
independence

C Non-corrosive, hermetically tight


welded, stainless steel vessel
without gaskets, stable under variable pressures
C Insulating gas which complies with
the requirements to insulating and
extinguishing tasks throughout the
entire service life
C Single-pole enclosure outside the
vessel
C Clear ready-for-service indicator
independent of temperature and
site altitude
C Complete protection zone of
switch-disconnector/fuse assembly even with thermal overload of
the HV HRC fuse (thermal protection function)
C Easy replacement of HV HRC
fuses without tools
C Reliable electrical and mechanical
switching device that requires no
maintenance

C Robust, non-corrosive, no-maintenance operating mechanisms


C No-maintenance, climate-independent and safe-to-touch cable
connections
C Free from leakage currents and
partial discharges
C No-maintenance, safe-to-touch
HV HRC fuse assembly that is
not affected by climatic impacts
Environmental compatibility
C Continuous and integrated
environmental management from
manufacture to disposal
C Tightly sealed vessel, virtually
no loss of gas
C Easy installation and
commissioning
Quality and environment
Quality and environmental mangement systems in compliance with
DIN EN ISO.
Cost-efficiency
The switchgear is cost-effient not
only in purchase but also in service
due to its compactness and minimum
space requirements as well as its
no-maintenance, climate independent-design.

4/49

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:53 Uhr

2 ring-main feeders
1 transformer feeder
Scheme 10

Photo 4/12

Seite 50

3 ring-main feeders
1 transformer feeder
Scheme 71

Ring-main transformer block versions

8DJ10 secondary distribution switchgear: standard


type 1
7.224 kV, gas-insulated,
non-extendable block-type
construction
8DJ10 secondary distribution
switchgear is factory-assembled,
type-tested and metal-enclosed
switchgear for indoor installation.
Application areas
8DJ10 secondary distribution
switchgear is used for power distribution in substations also for severe ambient conditions e.g. in:
C Industry
C Damp, sandy or dusty areas
C Simple outdoor substations
Main fields of application
C Compact substations
C Compact transformer substations,
e.g. for wind power stations
C Garage and vault substations
C Low-lying and underfloor
substations
C Pavement substations
C Accessible substations
C Extremely narrow designs
More than 80,000 8DJ10 secondary
distribution switchgear is in operation
worldwide.

4/50

4 ring-main feeders
2 transformer feeders
Scheme 62

Specific features of the standard


type 8DJ10, the narrowest type
by Siemens
C 2 heights available
1,360 mm
1,650 mm
C Switchgear design with up to
6 feeders
C Three-pole primary enclosure,
metal-enclosed
C Insulating gas SF6
C Gas-tight, welded switchgear vessel made of stainless steel, with
welded-in bushings for electrical
connections and mechanical components
C No maintenance required
C Independent of climate
C Three-position switch-disconnector
with switch-disconnector and
make-proof grounding switch
function
C Cable connection for bushings with
outside cone
C Connection with cable plugs
in ring-main feeders with bolted
contact (M16)
in transformer feeders with
plug- in contact
C Connection of conventional cable
sealing ends (cable feeders)
for thermo-plastic-insulated
cables via AKE 20/630 elbow
adapter (by Siemens)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

for ground cables via adapter


systems
C Easy installation
C Detachable lever mechanism (optional: rotary operating mechanism)
C With capacitive voltage detection
system at ring-main feeders
C Optional motor operating mechanism for switch-disconnector
(24 V DC up to 230 V AC for
remote control)
Cost-efficiency
Extremely low life-cycle costs
and maximum availability due to:
C Maintenance-free concept
C Climatic independence
C Minimum space requirements

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:53 Uhr

Seite 51

Medium Voltage
8DJ10 switchgear
Rated voltage Ur

kV

7.2

12

15

17.5

24

kV

20

28

36

38

50

kV

60

75

95

95

125

Rated frequency fr

Hz

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

Rated normal current Ir


for ring-main feeders
for transformer feeders depending on the
HV HRC fuse link

A
A

400 or 630
200

400 or 630
200

400 or 630
200

400 or 630
200

400 or 630
200

Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 1 s

kA

20
25

20
25

20
25

16
20
25

16
20

Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 3 s (option)

kA

20

20

20

20

20

Rated peak withstand current Ip

kA

50
63

50
63

50
63

40
50
63

40
50

Rated short-circuit making current Ima 1)


for transformer feeder
for ring-main feeder

kA
kA

25

50
63

25

50
63

25

50
63

25
40
50
63

25
40
50

Ambient temperature T

40 to +70

Rated insulation level:


Rated short-duration power-frequency
withstand voltage Ud
Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Up

Pressure values for insulation:


Rated filling pressure pre (at 20C)
1)

hPa (absolute)

1,500

Depending on HV HRC fuse set; please observe the max. let-through current of the HV HRC fuse elements

Table 4/22

Electrical data, temperature, filling pressure

Supply overview

Width mm
Depth

1)

mm

Height mm
Weight 2)
net weight approx. kg

Scheme 10

Scheme 71

Scheme 62

2 ring-main feeders and


1 transformer feeder
(identification symbols 2RK + 1T)

3 ring-main feeders and


1 transformer feeder
(identification symbols 3RK + 1T)

4 ring-main feeders and


2 transformer feeder
(identification symbols 4RK + 2T)

710

1,060

1,410

775

775

775

1,360

1,650

1,360

650

1,360

650

270

300

340

390

500

580

RK = ring-main feeder
T = transformer feeder
1)
Additional wall distance required: 15 mm
2)
Depending on the equipment, e.g. motor operating mechanism
Table 4/23

Dimensions and weights: block versions consisting of ring-main and transformer feeders

For further technical data: please refer to the catalog HA 45.11 8DJ10 switch-disconnector system

4/51

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:53 Uhr

Seite 52

Ring-main transformer block


A

Transformer feeder
Section A-A

Ring-main feeder
Section B-B

17

B
11

24

18

1
12

25

13

20

14

30

20

15

10
19

8
L1

L2

26

L3

2
10

21

26

21
31

16
32
22

22
27

Standard
Cable connection for cable
elbow plug with plug-in contact,
cable routing to the back

Scheme 10

1 Feeder designation
label
2 Sockets for voltage
detection system

29

Cable connection with screw contact


(M 16), optionally for:
cable T-plugs or right-angle cable plugs
AKE 20/630 right-angle adapter
(by Siemens) for conventional cable
sealing ends

10 Lock for cable compartment cover

23

11 HV HRC fuse assembly, cover


removed
18

12 Lock for HV HRC fuse assembly

3 Ready-for-service
indicator

14 Rating and type plate

4 Switch position indication for grounding


function OPEN
GROUNDED

17 Cable elbow plug with plug-in


contact

16 Arrangement of cable connections

Option
Cable connection for straight
cable plugs with plug-in contact,
cable routing to the top

5 Switch position indication for switch-disconnecting function


CLOSED OPEN
6 Locking device
(option for threeposition switchdisconnector)
7 Manual operating
mechanism for the
grounding function
8 Manual operating
mechanism for the
switch-disconnecting
function
9 Short-circuit/groundfault indicator (option)

Personnel safety
All feeder covers can only be opened when
the respective three-position switch-disconnector is switched to GROUNDED.

Fig. 4/28

Switching panel design example

4/52

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

18 Transformer cable connection


20 Three-position switch-disconnector
21 Switchgear vessel, filled with
SF6 gas
22 Cable connection compartment
23 Straight cable plug with plug-in
contact

17

24 Cover of the HV HRC fuse


compartment

18

25 Spring-operated/stored-energy
mechanism
26 Cover of cable connection
compartment
Option
(only for schemes 10 and 71)
cable connection for elbow
plug with plug-in contact,
cable routing to the right

27 Grounding connection M12


29 Cable support rail
30 Spring-operated mechanism
31 Ring-main cable connection
32 Option: Elbow adapter AKE 20/630
with conventional cable sealing end
(M16 bolted contact)

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Seite 53

Medium Voltage

Radial transformer panel


1 transformer feeder
1 radial cable connection
Scheme 01
Photo 4/13

Ring-main transformer block


2 ring-main feeders
1 transformer feeder
Scheme 10

Ring-main transformer block


3 ring-main feeders
2 transformer feeders
Scheme 82

Typical versions

8DJ20 secondary distribution switchgear: standard


type 2
7.224 kV, gas-insulated,
non-extendable block-type
construction
8DJ20 ring-main units are factoryassembled, type-tested and metalenclosed switchgear for indoor
installation.
Typical uses
8DJ20 secondary distribution
switchgear is used for power distribution in substations also for severe ambient conditions e.g. in:
C Industry
C Damp, sandy or dusty areas
C Simple outdoor substations
Main fields of application
C Integrated substations
C Integrated transformer substations,
e.g. for wind power stations
C Garage and vault substations
C Low-lying and underfloor
substations
C Pavement substations
C Accessible substations

Specific features of the standard


type 8DJ20, the most diverse type
by Siemens
C 3 heights available
1,200 mm
1,400 mm
1,760 mm
C Switchgear design with up to
5 feeders
C Three-pole primary enclosure,
metal-enclosed
C Insulating gas SF6
C Gas-tight, welded switchgear vessel made of stainless steel, with
welded-in bushings for electrical
connections and mechanical
components
C Maintenance-free
C Independent of climate
C Three-position switch-disconnector
with switch-disconnector and
make-proof grounding switch
function
C Cable connection for bushings
with outside cone
C Connection with cable plugs
in ring-main feeders with bolted
contact (M16)
in transformer feeders with
plug-in contact
C Connection of conventional cable
sealing ends
for thermo-plastic-insulated
cables via AKE 20/630 elbow
adapter (by Siemens)

for ground cables via adapter


systems
C Easy installation
C Detachable lever mechanism (optional: rotary operating mechanism)
C With capacitive voltage detection
system at ring-main feeders
C Optional motor operating mechanism for switch-disconnector
(24 V DC up to 230 V AC for
remote control)
C Various possibilities for transformer
cable connection:
Standard: front
Option: bottom, for cable routing
to the rear
Cost-efficiency
Extremely low life-cycle costs
and maximum availability due to:
C Maintenance-free concept
C Independence of climate
C Minimum space requirements

4/53

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Seite 54

8DJ20 switchgear
Rated voltage Ur

kV

7.2

12

15

17. 5

24

Rated insulation level:


Rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage Ud kV
Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Up
kV

20
60

28
75

36
95

38
95

50
125

Rated frequency fr

Hz

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

Rated normal current Ir


for ring-main feeders
for transformer feeders depending on the
HV HRC fuse link

A
A

400 or 630
200

400 or 630
200

400 or 630
200

400 or 630
200

400 or 630
200

Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 1 s

kA

20
25

20
25

20
25

16
20
25

16
20

Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 3 s (option)

kA

20

20

20

20

20

Rated peak withstand current Ip

kA

50
63

50
63

50
63

40
50
63

40
50

Rated short-circuit making current Ima 1)


for transformer feeder
for ring-main feeder

kA
kA

25

50
63

25

50
63

25

50
63

25
40
50
63

25
40
50
63

Ambient temperature T

40 to +70

Pressure values for insulation:


Rated filling pressure pre (at 20C)
1)

hPa (absolute)

1,500

Depending on HV HRC fuse set; please observe the max. let-through current of the HV HRC fuse elements

Table 4/24

Electrical data, temperature, filling pressure

Ring-main/transformer block
A

Ring-main feeder
Section B-B

Transformer feeder
Section A-A
6

1
2
3

L1

L2

L3

Scheme 10

1 Switchgear vessel, filled with SF6 gas


2 Three-position switch-disconnector
3 Operating mechanism for three-position
switch-disconnector
Fig. 4/29

Panel design Example

4/54

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Standard
Cable connection for elbow plug
(option: for cable T-plug), cable
routing to the bottom
4 Transformer cable connection:
Cable elbow plug with plug-in
contact (option)
5 Ring-main connection: cable T-plug
with bolted contact (option)

Cable connection with bolted contact (M16):


for cable T-plug or cable elbow plug
for conventional cable sealing ends via
AKE 20/630 elbow adapter (by Siemens)
6 HV HRC fuse assembly
For further technical data:
please refer to the catalog HA 45.31,
8DJ20 switch-disconnector system

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Seite 55

Medium Voltage
Dimensions

Scheme
Components shown
with dashes are
optional

Weight1)
Width Depth2) Height net weight
approx.
kg
mm
mm**) mm

Scheme

Dimensions

Components shown
with dashes are
optional

Width Depth2) Height

1 transformer feeder and


1 ring-main connection

Scheme 21

1 ring-main connection and


1 transformer feeder

mm

mm**) mm

Weight1)
net weight
approx.
kg

Radial transformer panels


Scheme 01
K Radial cable
connection incoming feeder
K

Radial cable con


nection K(E) (with
make-proof grounding
switch)

(identification symbol 1T)


510

775

1,200
1,400
1,760

140
160
200

K(E)

(identification symbols 1K(E) + 1T)


710

775

1,200
1,400
1,760

200
210
250

Single panel
Scheme 02
a) Ring-main
connection
b) Radial cable
connection
RK

1 ring-main feeder with


radial cable connection
(identification symbol 1RK)
710

775

1,200
1,400
1,760

150
170
210

Block versions, consisting of ring-main and transformer feeders (with HV HRC fuse assembly)
2 ring-main feeders and
1 transformer feeder

Scheme 10*)

(identification symbol 1RK + 1T)

1,060

710

775

280
300
340

RV

T
Scheme 72

1,200
1,400
1,760

200
210
250

4 ring-main feeders and


1 transformer feeder
(identification symbol 4RK + 1T)

1,410

1,760

775

1,200
1,400
1,760

340
360
400

3 ring-main feeders and


1 transformer feeder

Scheme 81*)

775

(identification symbol 3RK + 1T)

RV

1,200
1,400
1,760

3 ring-main feeders and


1 transformer feeder

Scheme 71*)

1 ring-main feeder and


1 transformer feeder

(identification symbol 2RK + 1T)

RV

Scheme 20

775

T
Scheme 82

1,200
1,400
1,760

420
440
480

4 ring-main feeders and


1 transformer feeder

(identification symbol 3RK + 1T)

(identification symbol 4RK + 1T)

1,410

1,760

775

1,200
1,400
1,760

400
420
460

775

1,200
1,400
1,760

470
500
540

Block versions, consisting of ring-main feeders (without HV HRC fuse installation)


Scheme 11

Scheme 70*

2 ring-main feeders

Scheme 32*)

(identification symbol 3RK)

710

1,060

775

1,200
1,400
1,760

160
170
210

4 ring-main feeders

Scheme 84

775

1,200
1,400
1,760

210
230
270

5 ring-main feeders

(identification symbol 4RK)

(identification symbol 5RK)

1,410

1,760

775

1,200
1,400
1,760

280
300
340

1) Depending on the equipment, e.g. motor operating mechanism


2) With transformer cable routing to the bottom
*) Scheme also suitable for outdoor enclosures
**) Additional wall distance required: 15 mm
Fig. 4/30

3 ring-main feeders

(identification symbol 2RK)

Identification symbol: RK =
K =
T
=
K(E) =

775

1,200
1,400
1,760

350
380
420

ring-main feeder
cable feeder
transformer feeder
cable feeder for radial cable connection
with make-proof grounding switch

8DJ20 switchgear, up to 24 kV, SF6-insulated, supply overview, schemes

4/55

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Seite 56

8DH10 switchgear up to
24 kV, gas-insulated,
extendable
Modular design for consumer
substations
Application
8DH10 switchgear is factory-assembled, type-tested and three-phase
metal-enclosed single-busbar
switchgear for indoor installation:
C Up to 24 kV
C Feeder currents up to 630 A
C Busbar currents up to 1250 A
Typical uses
8DH10 switchgear is used even under severe environmental conditions
for power distribution in secondary
distribution systems, e.g. in:
C Substations, customer transfer substations, distribution substations
and switching substations of power
supply and public utilities
C Industrial plants
Examples
C Wind power stations
C High-rise buildings
C Airports
C Lignite open-cast mines
C Underground stations
C Sewage treatment plants
C Port facilities
C and many other applications
Modular design
C Individual panels and panel blocks
can be freely combined and
extended without the need
for work involving SF6 gas at site
C Low-voltage cubicles can be supplied in two overall heights and are
wired to the panel by means of
plug-in connections

4/56

Photo 4/14

8DH10 extensible switchgear in modular construction

Reliability
C Type- and routine-tested
C Standardized and manufactured
using numerically controlled
machines
C Quality management system
according to DIN EN ISO 9001
C More than 400,000 8DJ/8DH panels have been in service for many
years all over the world
The 8DH10 switchgear complies with
the requirements for medium-voltage
switchgear, e.g.:
C High degree of security of operation, reliability and availability
C No gas work at site
C Easy installation and extension
C Operation not influenced by
environmental conditions
C Minimum space requirements
C Fully insulated, single-pole, plug-in
busbars for interconnection of
individual panels and panel blocks

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

C Busbar arrangement for panel


blocks within the switchgear
vessel filled with SF6 gas
C Single-phase, cast-resin-insulated,
enclosed, air-insulated HV HRC
fuse assembly.
Fuse assembly arranged at the top,
outside the switchgear vessel
C All live parts are protected against
humidity, pollution, dust and small
animals
C Connection of cable T-plugs or cable elbow plugs for thermo-plasticinsulated cables up to 300 mm2
C All switching devices are accommodated safe-to-touch in earthed
enclosure, HV HRC fuse assembly
and cable sealing ends safe-totouch in grounded enclosure
C Access to HV HRC fuses and to
cable connection compartment only
possible in grounded state
C Hermetically sealed switchgear
vessel; all bushings for electrical
connections and operating mechanism welded gas-tight without
seals

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Seite 57

Medium Voltage
8DH10 switchgear station
Rated insulation level
Rated voltage Ur
kV
Rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage Ud kV
Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Up
kV

7.2
20
60

12
28
75

15
35
95

17.5
38
95

24
50
125

Rated frequency fr

Hz

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

50/60

Rated normal current Ir for:


ring-main feeders
transformer feeders depending on the
HV HRC fuse link
circuit-breaker feeders
section sectionaliser panels (type LT1, LT2)

A
A

400 or 630
200

A
A

400 or 630
400 or 630

Rated normal current Ir for


busbar
metering panels

A
A

630 (standard), 1,250 (option)


up to 630

Rated short-time withstand current Ik


for switchgear with tk = 1 s

kA

20
25

20
25

20
25

16
20
25

16
20

Rated short-time withstand current Ik


for switchgear with tk = 1 s (option)

kA

20

20

20

20

20

Rated peak withstand current Ip

kA

50
63

50
63

50
63

40
50
63

40
50

Rated short-circuit making current Ima


ring-main feeders
circuit-breaker feeders
transformer feeders, depending on the
cut-off current of the HV HRC fuse

kA

50
63
25

50
63
25

50
63
25

40
50
63
25

40
40

25

Rated short-circuit breaking current Isc


for circuit-breaker feeders

kA

20
25

20
25

20
25

16
20
25

16
20

Ambient temperature T
without secondary equipment
Panels with secondary equipment
and circuit-breaker panels

Class Minus 25 indoor (-25 C up to +70 C)


Class Minus 5 indoor (-5 C up to +55 C)

Pressure values for insulation:


Rated filling pressure pre (at 20 C)

hPa (absolute) 1,500

Minimum operating pressure pme for insulation


Table 4/25

hPa (absolute) 1,300

Electrical data, temperature, filling pressure

C Three-position switch-disconnector
with switch positions: CLOSED
OPEN GROUNDED. Operation as
multi-purpose switch-disconnector
with the functions:
switch-disconnector and
make-proof grounding switch
C Each 8DH10 switchgear can
consist of individual panels
(preferably) or panel blocks
depending on the requirements.

One panel block can comprise


up to 4 feeders.
C Circuit-breaker panels are supplied
with an integrated three-phase
current transformer at the cable
connection for connection of
protection systems, optionally for
digital protection systems or
CT-operated protection systems.

C The 8DH10 switchgear requires


no maintenance (VDE 0670
Part 1000/IEC 60694)

For further technical data:


please refer to the catalog
HA 41.11 8DH10 switchgear

4/57

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Seite 58

Ring-main feeder

Section

Transformer feeder

Section

61

61

1
2
31

32
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

23

11
12

15

3
38
5
6
7

25

24

13
14
15
16

26

18

27
19

23

12

35

13
14

15

16

36

17

37

18
10

27
19

28

20

11

15

17
10

34

33

28

20

29

29

21

21

22

22
Type RK
Circuit-breaker feeder

Type TR
Section
1 Option: low-voltage cubicle
2 Niche for customer-side low-voltage equipment,
with swing-out cover
3 Switch position indication for switch-disconnecting
function CLOSED OPEN
4 Switch position indication for grounding function
OPEN GROUNDED

43
44

61

5 Ready-for-service indicator
6 Rating and type plate

45
46
47
48
49
50
11
5
6
8
9
15

10

7 Mimic diagram
8 Option: short-circuit/ground-fault indicator
7
51
52
12
13
63
3
4
53
14
23
16
17

46

9 Sockets for voltage detection system


10 Arrangement of busbars
11 Feeder designation label
12 Option: locking device for three-position
switch-disconnector

24

14 Manual operating mechanism for the


switch-disconnecting function

25

15 Lock for cable compartment cover

26
54
27

18

28

19

29

20

55

21

13 Manual operating mechanism for the grounding function

15

16 Arrangement of cable connections


17 Busbar system
18 Switchgear vessel, filled with SF6 gas
19 Busbar connection
20 Pressure relief device
21 Busbar compartment
22 Ground busbar with ground connection

22
Type LS1 (without voltage transformer)
Fig. 4/31

Switchgear panel design (example)

4/58

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap04_E

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Seite 59

Medium Voltage

Billing metering panel, air-insulated

Section

61
1

2
40
11
39

39

41
7

42

62

22
30
Type ME1

23 Three-position switch-disconnector
25 Bushing for cable plug with screw contact (M16)

Vacuum circuit-breaker:
45 Opening for the operating crank handle
for closing with manual operation
for emergency stop with motor operation

26 Option: cable T-plug

46 Operating mechanism box with operating mechanism

27 Cable compartment cover


28 Cable connection compartment

47 Mechanical ON pushbutton (not applicable with


spring-operated mechanism)

29 Cable support rail

48 Mechanical OFF pushbutton

30 Grounding connection for grounding set

49 Operations counter

31 HV HRC fuse assembly, cover removed

50 Spring charged indication

32 Handle for exchanging the HV HRC fuse insert

51 Vacuum interrupter

33 Lock for HV HRC fuse assembly

52 Switch position indication

34 Cover for the HV HRC fuse compartment

53 Option: lock between vacuum circuit-breaker and


three-position switch-disconnector

24 Spring-operated mechanism

35 Spring-operated / stored-energy mechanism


36 Bushing for cable plug with bolted contact
37 Cable elbow plug with plug-in contact
38 Switch position indication for switch-disconnecting
function CLOSED OPEN with HV HRC fuse
tripped or f-release tripped, if applicable
39 Cover for access to the busbar connection and to
the instrument transformers, screwed
40 Voltage transformer type 4MR
41 Current transformer type 4MA7
42 Cover to busbar connection compartment, screwed
43 Option: SIPROTEC bay control unit
44 Low-voltage cubicle (standard)

54 Option: three-phase current transformer


(protective transformer)
55 Cable-type slip-on current transformer
56 Pluggable 4MT3 voltage transformer on the busbar
57 Bushing for connecting the pluggable voltage
transformers
58 Plug connection acc. to EN 50181/DIN EN 50181
as connection type A
59 Option: pluggable 4MT8 voltage transformer
at the connection
60 Depth cable compartment cover
61 Cable duct, withdrawable, for control cables
and/or bus wires
62 Screwed cover
63 Option: lock between three-position switchdisconnector and circuit-breaker

4/59

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Seite 60

Busbars
Features
C Safe-to-touch due to metallic
covers
C Plug-in design
C Consisting of round-bar copper,
insulated by means of siliconerubber
C Busbar connection with cross and
end adapters, insulated with
silicon rubber
C Insensitive to pollution and
condensation
C Switchgear extension or panel
replacement is possible without
the need to carry out gas works
C Busbar arrangement for the panel
blocks within the switchgear vessel
filled with gas
C Option: screened busbar
Field control with the aid of
conductive layers on the siliconerubber insulation
Installation of 4MC7032 current
transformers is possible
Independent of the installation
height
C No gas work
C To be installed from the front
C Replacement of individual panels
possible to the front without having
to move panels
C Groups of up to 5 panels can be
pre-assembled at the factory
C Fast installation on site

Fig. 4/32

Combination of individual panels with plug-in, silicone-insulated busbar.


No SF6 gas work is required for installation or extension.

7
8
9
1

10

2
3
4
5

Busbar system

7 Primary enclosure panel 1

2 Cross adapter

8 Primary enclosure panel 2

3 Busbar insulation of silicone rubber


4 Threaded bolt M12/M16
5 Busbar, Cu, 32 mm
6 Stopper

Fig. 4/33

4/60

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Switchgear container

1 End adapter

Plug-in busbar, insulated, single-pole,


unscreened version (plan view)

9 Bushing
10 Capacitive tap at the bushings,
grounded (standard)

TIP_Kap04_E

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Seite 61

Medium Voltage

SIMOSEC modular
switchgear up to 24 kV, airinsulated, extendable
Modular design for consumer
substations
Application
SIMOSEC switchgear is factory-assembled, type-tested and threephase metal-enclosed switchgear
for indoor installation:
C Up to 2 kV
C Feeder currents up to 1,250 A
C Busbar currents up to 1,250 A
C Up to 25 kA

Reliability
C Type- and routine-tested
C Standardized and manufactured using numerically controlled machines
C Quality management system
according to DIN EN ISO 9001
C More than 400,000 switchgear
components have been in service
for many years all over the world.
C Without cross-insulation of the insulating distances from phase to
phase
The SIMOSEC switchgear complies
with the requirements for mediumvoltage switchgear, e.g.:

Typical uses
SIMOSEC switchgear is used for
power distribution in distribution
systems with feeder currents up
to 1,250 A, e.g. in:
C Substations, customer transfer
substations, distribution substations and switching substations of
power supply and public utilities
C Public buildings such as, for
example, high-rise buildings, train
stations, hospitals
C Industrial plants
Typical applications
C Wind power stations
C High-rise buildings
C Airports
C Underground stations
C Sewage treatment plants
C Port facilities
C and many other applications
Modular design
C Individual panels can be freely
combined and extended
C Option: low-voltage cubicle in
two overall heights

Personal safety
C All switching operations executable
with the panel front closed
C Metal-enclosed, metal-clad or
cubicle-type switchgear
C HV HRC fuses and cable sealing
ends only accessible with
grounded feeders
C Logic interlock
C Capacitive voltage detection
system to verify the isolation
from supply
C Grounding of feeders via makeproof grounding switches possible
Operational reliability
C Components such as , for example, operating mechanisms, threeposition switches, vacuum circuitbreakers proven for many years
C Metal-clad panels (metallic partition
between busbar and switchgear as
well as between switchgear and
cable connection compartment)
C Cubicle-type panels with metallic
partition between switchgear and
busbar compartment
C Metal-enclosed three-position
switch with gas-insulated switching
functions
sealed by welding in the switchgear
container for life

Photo 4/15

SIMOSEC extensible switchgear


in modular construction

and thus no cross-insulation from


phase to phase
with welded bushings for cable
connection, busbar and driving
mechanics
Re-availability
C Three-position switch-disconnector
with gas-insulated, maintenancefree arc quenching principle
C Metallic partition between busbar
compartment and switching devices as well as the cable
connection compartment
C Separate pressure relief for each
compartment
C Cable test without isolation of
the busbar
C Three-phase current transformer
installation location for selective
disconnection of circuit-breaker
feeders
Cost-efficiency
Low life-cycle costs and high availability during the complete product
service life due to:
C Three-position switch with gasinsulated arc quenching principle
C 3AH vacuum circuit-breaker
C Minimum space requirements
C Simple extendability of the
switchgear
C Standard protective devices,
e.g. SIPROTEC 4 multifunction
protection

For further information and data,


please refer to the catalog HA 41.21,
SIMOSEC Switchgear

4/61

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Seite 62

Common details on electrical data, filling pressure and temperature


Rated voltage Ur
kV 7.2
Rated short-duration power-frequency
kV 20
withstand voltage Ud
Rated lightning surge withstand voltage Up kV 60

Rated insulation level

Rated frequency fr

15
35

17.5
38

24
50

75

95

95

125

50/60 Hz

Rated operating current Ir


of the busbar

1)

Standard
Option

Rated short-time withstand current Ik

630 A
1,250 A

for switchgear with tk = 1 s


for switchgear with tk = 3 s

Rated peak withstand current Ip


Rated filling pressure pre

12
28

up to kA 20 25 20 25 16 20 25 16 20 25 16 20
up to kA 20 20 20 20 20
up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

2)

Minimum operating pressure pme

2)

Ambient temperature T

for insulation

1,500 hPa (absolute) at 20 C

for insulation

1,300 hPa (absolute) at 20 C

for panels without sedoncary equipment


for panels with sedoncary equipment

Class Minus 25 indoor (25 C up to +55 C)


Class Minus 5 indoor (5 C up to +55 C)

Ring-main panel type RK and cable connection panel type K, K-E


Rated operating current Ir

1)

for feeder and transfer, panel tpye RK


for feeder, panel type K, K-E
for feeder, panel type K1, K1-E

Rated short-circuit making


current Ima

630 A (standard), (400 A on request)


630 A (standard), (400 A on request)
630 A (standard), 1,250 A

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Transformer panel type TR


Rated operating current Ir

1)

Rated peak withstand current Ip

for feeder

3)

200 A

3)

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Rated short-circuit making


current Ima 3)

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Inside dimension e for HV HRC fuse-links


Circuit-breaker panel type LS
Rated operating current Ir

1)

mm 292
for feeder

for transfer

442

442

442

with

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

for 3AH vacuum circuit-breakers

1) Rated

operating currents are defined for ambient temperatures of


40 C. The average value over 24 hours is 35 C max. (acc. to
IEC 60694/VDE 0670 Part 1000)

2) Pressure

292

for panel type LS1


and LS1-U 3AH5* 630 A
for panel type LS11
and LS11-U 3AH6* 630 A
for panel type LS31, LS32 and LS31-U 3AH6* 1,250 A

Rated short-circuit making


current Ima
Rated short-circuit breaking
current Isc

4)

values for gas-insulated containers

up to kA 20 25 20 25 16 20 25 16 20 25 16 20

3) With

panels of type TR and ME31-F depending on the max.


let-through current of the HV HRC fuse-link (ID 25 kA)

4) With

inside dimension e = 192 mm, a 100 mm long extension


pipe is additionally required for the 292 mm fuse-link

Table 4/26

Elecrical data of the switchgear panels, pressure values, temperature

4/62

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

* Type designation of the


vacuum circuit-breaker

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:54 Uhr

Seite 63

Medium Voltage

7.2

12

15

17.5

24

Busbar grounding panel type SE


Rated short-circuit making
current Ima

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Busbar voltage metering panels type ME3 and type ME31-F


Rated peak withstand current Ip

3)

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Rated short-circuit making


current Ima 3)

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Inside dimension e in the panel type ME31-F

for HV HRC fuse-links

292 mm

Billing metering panels type ME1


Rated operating current Ir

1)

for transfer, panel type ME1 and ME1-H


for feeder as cable connection panel type
ME1-K
for busbar connection, panel type
ME1-S
for riser panel, type HF

630 A, 1,250 A
630 A, 1,250 A

630 A, 1,250 A

for
for
for
for
for

630 A
630 A
630 A
630 A
1,250 A

630 A, 1,250 A

Sectionalizer panels type LT


Rated operating current Ir

1)

panel
panel
panel
panel
panel

types LT10 and HF, with 3AH5 *


type LT1, with 3AH5 *: on request
types LT11 and HF, with 3AH6 *
types LT2 and LT22 630 A
types LT31 and HF, with 3AH6 *

Rated short-circuit making


current Ima

up to kA 50 63 50 63 40 50 63 40 50 63 40 50

Rated short-circuit breaking


current Isc

for 3AH vacuum circuit-breakers

up to kA 20 25 20 25 16 20 25 16 20 25 16 20

Electrical service life

for 3AH vacuum circuit-breakers:


at rated operating current Ir 1)
at rated short-circuit breaking
current Isc

10,000 operating cycles


50 breaking operations
35 breaking operations with 3AH6* with 25 kA

1) Rated

operating currents are defined for ambient temperatures


of 40 C. The average value over 24 hours is 35 C max. (acc.
to IEC 60694/VDE 0670 Part 1000)

2) Pressure

Table 4/27

values for gas-insulated containers

3) With

panels of type TR and ME31-F depending on the max.


let-through current of the HV HRC fuse-link (ID 25 kA)

* Type designation of the


vacuum circuit-breaker

4) With

inside dimension e = 192 mm, a 100 mm long extension


pipe is additionally required for the 292 mm fuse-link

Electrical data of the switchgear panels, pressure values, temperature

4/63

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:54 Uhr

Seite 64

Ring-main and cable panels, transformer, riser and busbar grounding panels
Ring-main panels
as feeder panels

Transformer panels
as feeder panels
Type RK,
375 mm wide

Option

Option

Type TR
375 mm wide

Option *
Option *
3)

Option *
Option

alternatively

Option

Option *
1)

1)

Type LS1, 500 mm wide


Option

Option

Type TR1
500 mm wide

Option
6) 8)

Option
Option
2)

Option *

Option
Option

1)

1)
3)

Riser panels
630 A and 1,250 A

Ring-main panels
as transfer panels for mounting to
panels of type ME1 or ME1-H
Type RK-U,
Option
500 mm wide

Option
Type HF BB
375 mm wide

Standard:
for bus-sectionalization
to the right

Option

Option *

Option:
for bus-sectionalization
to the left

3)

Option
P2
P1

2)

Option

Cable panels
as feeder panels, 630 A
Type K,
375 mm wide
Option**

Option**
Option
alternatively

Option**
Option

alternatively

Option**

1)

3)

Option**
Option
1)

Fig. 4/34

Product range (basic range, further types available)

4/64

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

alternatively

Option

Cable panels
as feeder panels, 630 A, with
make-proof grounding switch
Type K-E,
Option
375 mm wide

Busbar
grounding panels
Type SE1
375 mm wide

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:55 Uhr

Seite 65

Medium Voltage

Billing metering panels


630 and 1,250 A
standard

3AH5
vacuum
circuit-breaker

HV HRC fuse

3AH6
vacuum
circuit-breaker

Grounding switch

Type ME1
375 mm wide

Option

Option

4)

Standard **:
for bus sectionalization to the
right

P2
P1

5)

2)

Three-position
switch-disconnector

Billing metering panels


630 and 1,250 A
for busbar connection
Option
2)

alternatively *

Option
P1 P2

Type ME1-S
500 mm wide
Standard **:
for bus sectionalization to the
right

Option

2)

2)

Make-proof
grounding switch

Capacitive voltage
detection system

Fixed point
for grounding

Insulator-type current
transformer 4MA,
cast-resin-insulated

Fixed point
for busbar grounding

Voltage transformer,
e.g. 4MR, single-pole,
cast-resin-insulated

Cable (not included


in the scope of
delivery)

2)

Option

2nd cable (not


included in the
scope of supply)

Billing metering panels


630 and 1,250 A **
for cable connection
Option

Option

Surge arrester
Type ME1-K BB
375 mm wide
Standard B:
for bus sectionalization to the
right

P2
P1

2)

P1 and P2
are terminal
markings of the
current transformer

Billing metering panels


630 and 1,250 A **
for busbar connection
Type ME1-KS
375 mm wide

Option

as right- or lefthand end panel

Option

2)

Up to 12 kV
on request

** Connection of 3
cables possible
B

P2
P1

Option: bus
sectionalization to the left

BB For mounting to
left- or right-hand
ring-main panels
of type RK-U

4/65

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:55 Uhr

Seite 66

Circuit-breaker panels
Circuit-breaker panels 1,250 A
as feeder panels
Option

4)

Option

3)

Option

Option

P1
2)

P2

Option**

Option
3)

Option

Option
1)

2)

Option
6)

Type LS31
750 mm wide
with 3AH6 vacuum
circuit-breaker,
withdrawable
for the connection
of 2 cables max.

Option

5)

alternatively

Option

with 3AH5 vacuum


circuit-breaker,
fixed-mounted

alternatively

6) 7)

alternatively alternatively

Option

Option

Option

Type LS1
750 mm wide

alternatively

Circuit-breaker panels 630 A


as feeder panels

Option
1)

3)

with 3AH6 vacuum


circuit-breaker,
withdrawable

Option

Option

Option**

3)

Option

6)

Option

Option

2)

1)

Option

6)

1)

as transfer panels for mounting to


panels of type ME1... or ME1-H

as transfer panels for mounting to


panels of type ME1... or ME1-H

4)

Option

2)

Option
6) 7)

Option:
for bus sectionalization to the left

Option

Option

3)

alternatively

Option B

Option

P1
2)

P2

5)

Option

Option

with 3AH5 vacuum


circuit-breaker,
fixed-mounted
Standard:
for bus sectionalization to
the right

P1
P2

Type LS1-U
750 mm wide

Type LS11-U
750 mm wide
with 3AH6 vacuum
circuit-breaker,
withdrawable
Bus sectionalization only
possible to
the right

6)

Fig. 4/35

Product range (basic range, further types available)

4/66

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Option

3)

Option B
alternatively

Option

3)

Option

Option

Option

1)

Option

for the connection


of 3 cables max.
(4 cables*)

Option

5)

with 3AH6 vacuum


circuit-breaker,
withdrawable

2)

Option
alternatively

5)

Option
alternatively

alternatively

Option

Option
Type LS11
750 mm wide

Option**

Option

alternatively

Option

Option

alternatively

Type LS32
875 mm wide

Option

P1
2)

P2

Option
6)

5)

Type LS31-U
750 mm wide
with 3AH6 vacuum
circuit-breaker,
withdrawable
Bus sectionalization only
possible to
the right

11.08.2005

18:55 Uhr

Seite 67

Medium Voltage

Bus sectionalizer panels 630 A


with 1 three-position switch-disconnector

Option

Option

Three-position
switch-disconnector

Capacitive voltage
detection system

Three-position
switch-disconnector

Make-proof
grounding switch

Insulator-type current
transformer 4MA,
cast-resin-insulated

Fixed point for


grounding

Three-phase
current transformer
4MC63 . . .

Cable (not
included in the
scope of supply)

6)

Voltage transformer,
e.g. 4MR, single-pole,
cast-resin-insulated

2nd cable (not


included in the
scope of supply)

7)

Voltage transformer,
e.g. 4MR, doublepole, cast-resin-insulated

Surge arrester

Type LT2
750 mm wide
corresponds to type
RK-U with type RK-U

2)

3)

with 2 three-position switch-disconnectors

Option

Option

Type LT22
750 mm wide
corresponds to type
RK-U with type RK-U

Option

Option
Type LT22-W
750 mm wide

Option
Option
Option
3)

corresponds to type
RK-U with type RK-U

3)

Option
P2
2)

alternatively

TIP_Kap04_E

P1

Option
6) 7)

P1 and P2
are terminal
markings of the
current transformer
*

Up to 12 kV
on request

** Connection of 3
cables possible
B

Option: bus
sectionalization to
the left

BB For mounting to
left- or right-hand
ring-main panels of
type RK-U

4/67

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:55 Uhr

Seite 68

Transformer panel as feeder


HA41-2394d eps

HA41-2393d eps

Ring-main panel as feeder

60

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1
2
23
24
19
58

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
59
20

25
18

60
2
23
24
19
58

5
6
7
8
9
10

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
59

27
57

26
27
18

20

57

21

21

34

61

28

35

34
35

61
22

31

29

31

33

22

32

29

33

61

56

23

30
Type RK

22

22

Section

30
Type RT

Section

HA41-2395e eps

Billing metering panel

1 Option: low-voltage cubicle


2 Niche for customer-side low-voltage equipment,
cover can be screwed off
3 Option: CAPDIS voltage indication system

60

2
23
24

10

33

37

38
38
8

16
57

9
33

33

40

40

4 Option: short-circuit/ground-fault indicator


5 Option: Ready-for-service indicator for switchgear
6 Switch position indication for switch-disconnecting function CLOSED OPEN
7 Switch position indication for grounding function
OPEN GROUNDED
8 Feeder designation label
9 Mimic diagram
10 Option: sockets for capacitive voltage detection
system (depending on arrangement)
11 Option: ON OFF momentary-contact rotary
control switch for motor drive with local-remote
changeover switch for the three-position switchdisconnector
12 Option: Locking device for three-position
switch-disconnector
13 Pressure relief device for switchgear

65

14 Manual operating mechanism for the grounding


function
15 Manual operating mechanism for the switchdisconnecting function

39

39

16 Rating and type plate


17 Gas-insulated container for switchgear

30

18 Lock for cable compartment cover


19 Bushing-type insulator for the busbar

Type ME1

Section

Fig. 4/36

Switchgear panel design (example)

4/68

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

20 Bushing-type insulator for the feeder

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:55 Uhr

Seite 69

Medium Voltage
Circuit-breaker panel (with 3AH5 vacuum circuit-breaker)
HA41-2396e eps

21 Insulating collar (e.g. for Up > 95 kV)

22 Cable mounting rail with cable clamps (option) for


cable fixing
23 Busbar

60

24 Insulating cap * on the busbar

2
23
24
51
19
58

51
5
45
46
44
8
47
10
48

11
12
13
14
6
7
15
16
17
64
59

49
9

25
43

20

22

27 Three-position switch-disconnector
28 Cable connection
29 Cable compartment cover
30 Ground terminal (for position, see dimension drawing)
31 Grounding switch for the cable connection

41

32 Inspection window

57

33 Insulators

50

34 Insulating collar
35 Option: HV HRC fuse-link

28

36 Option for panel types LS11... and LT11... only: logic


interlocks between circuit-breaker OPEN and threeposition switch-disconnector as well as locking device
for three-position switch-disconnector

29

37 Option: part of the low-voltage equipment

61

38 Cover, screwed

21

61

26 Spring-operated/stored-energy mechanism for


three-position switch-disconnector

64

20

21

25 Spring-operated mechanism for three-position


switch-disconnector

22

30

39 4MR current transformer


40 4MA7 insulator-type current transformer, vacuum
circuit-breaker
41 3AH5 vacuum circuit-breaker, fixed-mounted
42 3AH6 vacuum circuit-breaker, withdrawable

Type LS1

43 Operating mechanism box

Section

44 Manual operation
for closing with manual operation

Circuit-breaker panel (with 3AH6 vacuum circuit-breaker)


HA41-2397d eps

for emergency stop with motor operation

1
60

52

11
36
17
14
15
16
13
64
59
36

5
6
7
8
9
10
54
20
56
50
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

46 Mechanical ON pushbutton (not applicable with


spring-operated mechanism)
55
2
23
24
52
19
58

45 Mechanical OFF pushbutton

25

49 Switch position indication


50 Option: 4MC63 53 three-phase current transformer
51 Option: SIPROTEC easy 7SJ45 time-overcurrent
protection
52 Option: SIPROTEC 4 7SJ62 multifunction protection
53 Cover* for cable connection glands
54 Insulating cap* on the bushing-type insulator

64

55 Option: Cable duct, withdrawable, for control cables


and/or bus wires

57

56 Logic interlock for three-position switch-disconnector


57 Grounding busbar

54

58 Metal cladding of the busbar compartment

43

59 Metal cladding of the cable connection compartment

29

60 Cover of the busbar compartment for panel expansion

42

61 Cable sealing end (not included in the scope of supply)

33

62 Option: feeder grounding via make-proof grounding


switch

62

33

63

61

61

63 or feeder grounding via the vacuum circuit-breaker


(= locking device for feeder grounded when circuitbreaker CLOSED)
64 Lock for cable compartment cover in circuit-breaker
panels

22
56
Type LS11

48 Operations counter

27

50

53

47 Spring charged indication

30
Section

65 Cover of the transformer connection compartment


* For example for Up 95 kV, Ur 15 kV

4/69

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:55 Uhr

Seite 70

Busbars
1 Busbar

C Shock-hazard protection by means


of metallic encapsulation
C Metal-clad busbar compartment
C 3-pole version, can be screwed
from panel to panel
C Simple switchgear expansion
possible
C Consisting of copper:
Fl E-Cu for 630 A
Rd E-Cu for > 630 A up to 1,250 A
HV HRC fuse-link
C For transformer panels of type TR
and TR1
C For busbar voltage metering panel
type ME31-F
C HV HRC fuse-links acc. to
DIN 43625 (main dimensions) with
striker pin; version medium acc.
to IEC 60282/ VDE 0670 Part 4*)
as short-circuit protection in front
of transformers,
with selectivity when selected
correctly to upstream and downstream devices
C Requirements met as high-voltage
switch fuse combination
C Selection of HV HRC fuses for
transformers
C Fuse replacement only possible
with a grounded feeder
C Option: shunt release at the
operating mechanism of the
three-position switch-disconnector

2 Insulating cap (e.g. for Ur > 17,5 kV)


on the busbar
3 Bushing-type insulator for
the busbar

Photo 4/16

Busbar compartments over 3 panels (example), side view

CLOSED indication,
hand- or motor-operated
HV HRC fuse tripped or
f-release tripped indication
OPEN indication

Photo 4/17

Masking frame of a transformer feeder

4 Insulating collar

5 HV HRC fuse (not included in the


scope of supply)

6 Grounding switch (rated short-circuit


breaking current Ima = 4 kA)
for the cable connection
7 Cover for cable lug connection (e.g.
for rated voltage Ur = 24 kV)
8 Cable sealing end (not included in
the scope of supply)

*)

For standards, please refer to page


4/43 and catalog HA 41.21

4/70

Photo 4/18

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

HV HRC fuses in the transformer panel type TR, side view

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:55 Uhr

Seite 71

Medium Voltage

C Option: Tripped signal of the


three-position switch-disconnector
in the transformer feeder (transformer switch) for electrical remote
signaling with 1 normally open
contact (1NO)
HV HRC fuse tripped
When a HV HRC fuse-link has
tripped, the operating mechanism
has to be switched to the OPEN
position to charge the spring.
Then, the equipment can be
grounded using the three-position
switch-disconnector and the fuse
can, for example, be replaced.
Replacement of HV HRC fuse-links
C Isolation and grounding of the
transformer feeder
C Then, manual replacement of the
HV HRC fuse-link

4/71

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:55 Uhr

Seite 72

4.3 Medium Voltage


Equipment, Product
Range

Device

Devices for medium-voltage


switchgear

Rated
voltage

Ratedshort-circuit
current

Rated
short-time
current (3 s)

kV

kA

kA

3AH

7.236

13.172

13.172

NXACT

1224

31.5

31.5

Components for
3AH VCB

3AY2

1224

1640

1640 (1 s)

Outdoor vacuum
circuit-breaker

3AF
3AG

1240.5

2531.5

2531.5

Indoor
vacuum switch

3CG

7.224

1620

Vacuum circuit-breaker/
disconnector unit

3AH58

12

13.125

13.125

Indoor vacuum
contactors

3TL

7.224

8 (1 s)

Indoor vacuum
switching tube

VS

7.224

12.580

12.580

Indoor switchdisconnector

3CJ

1236

2025 (1 s)

Indoor disconnector
and grounding switch

3D

1240.5

1663 (1 s)

HV HRC fuses

3GD

7.236

31.580

Fuse base

3GH

7.236

44
urge current
strength

Current and voltage


transformers for indoor
and outdoor installations

4M

1236

Indoor vacuum
circuit-breaker

The comprehensive switchgear


device range enables Siemens to
supply almost any type of device required for the medium-voltage range
of 7.2 to 36 kV. Table 4/28 presents
an overview of products and their
main properties.
All components and equipment comply with international and national
standards as follows:
Vacuum circuit-breakers
C IEC 60056,
partially IEC 62271-100
C IEC 60694
C BS 5311
Vacuum switches
C IEC 60265-1
Vacuum switch/fuse
combinations
C IEC 60420
Vacuum contactors
C IEC 60470
C UL 347
Switch disconnectors
C IEC 60129
C IEC 60265-1
HV HRC fuses
C IEC 60282
Current and voltage transformers
C IEC 60044-1; 60044-2
C BS 7625, 7626
C ANSI C57.13
Further information can be obtained
at fax no.: +49 9131/73 46 54

Table 4/28

4/72

Type

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Equipment range for medium-voltage switchgear

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:55 Uhr

Seite 73

Medium Voltage

Rated
operating
current

Switching operations

Fields of application /
comment

mechanical

with rated
operating

with rated
fault

80012,000

10,000
12,0000

10,000
30,000

25100

1,2502,500

10,000

10,000

2550

1,2502,500

Equipment manufacturers and retrofitters

1,0002,000

10,000

10,000

2550

Operation at power supply company for almost


any switching task

800

10,000

10,000

All fields of application, such as overhead lines,


cables, transformers, motors, capacitors;
many operating modes; short-circuit protection
required, fuses

8001,250

10,000

10,000

25

In partially enclosed circuit-breaker switchgear

400800

1 x 1063 x 106

0,25 x 1062 x 106

All fields of application, mainly motors


with a high rate of operating cycles

6304,000

10,000
30,000

10,000
30,000

25100

For circuit-breakers, switches and gas-insulated


switchgear

630

1,000 ... 2,500

20

Cables and overhead lines, transformers

6303,000

1,000... 5,000

Protection of personnel during maintenance


work at the equipment by creating an isolating gap

6.3250

Short-circuit protection,
short-circuit limiting

400

Placement of HV HRC fuse-links

Measuring and protecting

A
All fields of application, such as overhead lines,
cables, transformers, motors, generators, capacitors,
filter circuits, arc furnaces

4/73

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:55 Uhr

Seite 74

3AH1-6 vacuum circuitbreakers for universal use


Suitable circuit-breakers for every
application:
3AH5
No-maintenance allrounder for most
standard applications

3AH2
Circuit-breaker for frequent switching
operations, e.g. for industrial
applications.
3AH3
High-performance circuit-breaker,
e.g. for power generation.

Circuit-breakers of type 3AH1, 2, 3, 4


and 6 round off the total product
range.

3AH4
Circuit-breaker for extremely
frequent switching operations,
e.g. in steelworks.

3AH1
Standard circuit-breaker for power
utilities and industrial applications
to complement the 3AH5 range.

3AH6
Circuit-breaker with switching poles
arranged in line one behind the other.

Photo 4/19

Rated
voltage

Vacuum circuit-breaker (type)


For rated short-circuit breaking current1) (rated short-circuit making current)

kV

kA
13.1
(32.8)

kA
16
(40)

kA
20
(50)

kA
25
(63)

kA
31.5
(80)

kA
40
(100)

7.2

12

3AH5

3AH53)

3AH5

3AH5

3AH6 4)

3AH6

3AH6

24

3AH6 4)

3AH6
3AH5

3AH6

36

3AH6 3AH5

3AH3

3AH3

3AH5
3AH2

3AH1
3AH2

3AH3

3AH3

3AH1
3AH2

3AH3

3AH3

3AH2
3AH5
3AH2

3AH1
3AH2

3AH3

3AH3

800 A

800 A
to
1,250 A

1,250 A
to
3,150 A

1,250 A
to
4,000 A

3AH3
3AH4

3AH5 5)
3AH2
3AH5 3)

3AH5

kA
63
(160)

3AH1
3AH2

3AH6
3AH5

kA
50
(125)

3AH2

15

17.5

3AH5 allround circuit-breaker


24 kV / 16 kA

3AH3
3AH4

800 A 800 A 800 A 800 A 1,250 A


to
to
to
to
to2)
1,250 A 2,500 A 1,250 A 2,500 A 2,500 A

3AH3
3AH4
2,500 A 1,250 A
to
3,150 A

Rated operating current


1)

DC current proportion is 36% (higher values on request)

4)

12.5 kA instead of 13.1 kA for 3AH6

2)

3,150 A at 17.5 kV rated voltage for 3AH2

5)

1,250 A to 2,500 A for 24 kV / 25 kV

3)

Up to 2,000 A

Table 4/29

The complete 3AH range: electrical values and products

4/74

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap04_E

11.08.2005

18:56 Uhr

Seite 75

Medium Voltage

Applications
C Power supply installations with
long service life
C Industrial installations with high
short-circuit currents and frequent
switching operations
C Switchgear installation companies
C Special switching tasks, as applicable in capacitors, reactor coils and
filter circuits
C Steelworks
Features
C Proven vacuum switching principle
C Universal use
C Long service life
C No maintenance up to 10,000
operating cycles
C Compact design
Customer benefit
C Cost-saving in the long run due to
its long service life and the fact
that it requires no maintenance
C Space saving due to its compact
design
C Highly reliable, thus ensuring the
utmost availability of power supply
C Flexible use thanks to short delivery times for standard breakers
Circuit-breakers for special
applications
3AH8 high current and
generator circuit-breaker
Applications
C High operating and fault currents
C Switching of generators in hydropower, coal, natural gas and
steam power plants
Features
C High switching cycles
C No maintenance
C Tested in accordance with
IEEE C37.013

Photo 4/20

3AH38 high-current and


generator circuit-breaker

Photo 4/21

3AH47 single-pole circuit-breaker

3AH3 818

17.5 kV / 63 kA / 175 kA / 3,150 A and 4,000 A

3AH3 819

17.5 kV / 72 kA / 200 kA / 3,150 A and 4,000 A

3AH3 838

17.5 kV / 63 kA / 175 kA / 8,000 A and 12,000 A

3AH3 838

17.5 kV / 72 kA / 200 kA / 8,000 A and 12,000 A

Table 4/30

UN

Technical data for 3AH38 types

27.5 kV /
50 and 60 Hz

17.5 kV /
16.7 Hz
ISC

kA

IN

Table 4/31

25

31.5

40

50

1,250 2,000 2,500 2,000 2,500 2,500 2,500

Product range of 3AH47 for single-pole applications

Customer benefit
C Small dimensions, making its installation more flexible
C Easy handling thanks to low weight
C Long service life
C Low life cycle costs
Thanks to their compact design and
high performance features, high-current and generator circuit-breakers of
type 3AH8 and IEEE C37.013 are perfectly suited both for modernizing
existing power plants and for initially
equipping new power plants.
They can be easily installed in
switchgear systems.

3AH7 single-pole
circuit-breaker
Applications
C Railway applications
C Neutral point switch (grounding
transformer, ground-fault
neutralizer)
Features
C High operating cycle rates
C Low maintenance
C Low wear and tear even at
frequencies of 16 2/3 Hz
C Tested and approved in
accordance with EN 50152-1
C Circuit voltage class acc. to EN
50163 or IEC 60850
Customer benefit
C Optimized life cycle costs
C High reliability

4/75

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Seite 76

Components for 12 kV
Up to 2,500 A / up to 40 kA / 1s. For cubicle widths of 800 mm:
With 3AH1 circuit-breaker 7.2/12 kV
210 mm pole center distance
With 3AH5 circuit-breaker 12 kV
210 mm pole center distance
Components for 24 kV
Up to 2,500 A / up to 25 kA / 1s. For cubicle widths of 1,000 mm:
With 3AH1 circuit-breaker 24 kV
275 mm pole center distance
With 3AH5 circuit-breaker 24 kV
275 mm pole center distance
Photo 4/22

Switchgear 12 kV, 25 kA, 1,250 A

Table 4/32

Components for 3AH vacuum


circuit-breakers
Applications
C As cartridge or truck for switchgear
C Components for the switchgear installation company
Features
C Components based on 3AH
circuit-breaker
C Free choice of components ranging
from counter-contacts and bushings to truck and complete
cartridge
C Tested components

Technical data and product range

Rated voltage
kV

ISC
kA

Ima
kA

Pole center distance


mm

Ir
A

12

13.1

32.8

160

800 to 1,250

16

40

160

800 to 1,250

20

50

160

800 to 1,250

25

63

160

800 to 1,250

Table 4/33

Technical data of the 3AH58 vacuum circuit-breaker/disconnector unit

Customer benefit
C Everything from a single source
C Quick to use

Photo 4/23b Disconnector counter-contacts

C Compact design makes room for


cable connections and instrument
transformer in the switchgear cubicle
C All operating elements arranged at
an ergonomic height
C Circuit-breaker and disconnector
drive can be accessed from the
front

3AH58 vacuum circuit-breaker/


disconnector unit a powerful
combination
Applications
C In partially enclosed circuit-breaker
installations
Features
C Combined switching and disconnecting function using a 3AH5
vacuum circuit-breaker and 3DC
disconnector
C Disconnector mechanically
interlocked with the circuit-breaker
C Compact design in fixed mounted
installations
C Factory-tested circuit-breaker/
disconnector unit

4/76

Photo 4/23a 3AH5 804-2, 12 kV/25


kA/1,250 A

Customer benefit
C Time savings due to less installation work required compared with
installing single components
C Disconnector counter-contacts
included in the scope of delivery

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Disconnector counter-contacts
C Included in the scope of delivery
C Lightning surge withstand voltage
75 kV / 85 kV*
C Short-time AC withstand voltage
28 kV / 32 kV*
C Short-circuit time 3s
* Across the isolating gap

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Medium Voltage

Photo 4/24

Photo 4/25

NXACT vacuum circuit-breaker module, type 3AJ

NXACT vacuum circuit-breaker module, type 3AK

NXACT vacuum circuit-breaker


module
NXACT combines the advantages of
vacuum switching technology with
additionally integrated functions.
Applications
C For switchgear installation
companies
Features
C Combination of vacuum switching
technology with further advanced
functions
C Disconnector, grounding switch
drive, locks and operating panel
integrated in the module
C Pre-tested and ready-to-install
delivery
C All operating elements located at
the switchgear front panel

NXACT 3AJ

NXACT 3AK

Rated voltage

kV

12 24

to 15

Rated short-time AC voltage

kV

28 50

to 38

Rated lightning surge voltage

kV

75 125

to 110

Rated frequencyz

Hz

50 / 60

to 50 / 60

Rated short-circuit breaking current (max.)

kA

to 31.5

to 50

Rated short-circuit making current (max.)

kA

to 80

to 125

Rated short-time current, 3 seconds (max.)

kA

to 31.5

to 50

1,250 / 2,500

to 4,000

Rated operating current


Table 4/34

Technical data

Customer benefit
Increased productivity due to
C Easy planning
C Easy installation

C Minimum mounting and commissioning expense


C Immediately ready to use after
delivery
C Clear and transparent operating
front panel

4/77

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Seite 78

3AF01

3AG01

Rated voltage

kV

to 40.5

12

Rated frequency

Hz

50 / 60

50 / 60

Rated lightning surge withstand voltage

kV

170

75

Rated AC withstand voltage

kV

70

28

Rated short-circuit breaking current

kA

25 / 31.5

25

Rated short-circuit making current

kA

63 / 80

63

1,600 / 2,000

1,600

Rated operating current


Table 4/35

Technical data

3AF0/3AG0 vacuum circuit-breaker


for outdoor installations up
to 40.5 kV

Photo 4/27

3TL8 vacuum contactor

Photo 4/28

3TL6 vacuum contactor

Applications
C In particular for use in power
supply companies
C Can be used even in difficult
climatic environments
C For almost every switching task
Features
C Proven vacuum switching tubes
in porcelain insulators
C High electrical and mechanical
service life
C Suitable for short-time interruptions
C Gas- or air-insulated versions
available
Customer benefit
Optimized life cycle costs due to
C Low mounting and commissioning
expense
C Minimum maintenance expense
C Installation possible at any location

Photo 4/26

3TL vacuum contactors


designed for continuous operation
Vacuum contactors are 3-pole contactors for medium-voltage installations
with an electromagnetic drive that
features high switching frequencies
and unlimited ON periods.

3AF/3AG vacuum circuit-breakers

Applications
C Switching of three-phase motors
C Switching of capacitors
C Switching of ohmic loads
(e.g. arc furnaces)

4/78

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 79

Medium Voltage
Vacuum contactor type

3TL81

3TL61

3TL65

3TL71

7.2

12

24

Rated voltage

kV

7.2

Rated frequency

Hz

50 / 60

Rated operating current

400

450

400

800

Switching capacity acc. to utilization category AC-4


(cos = 0,35)
Rated making current
Rated breaking current

A
A

4,000
3,200

4,500
3,600

4,000
3,200

4,500
3,600

Mechanical life of the contactor

operating cycles

1 10 6

3 10 6

1 10 6

1 10 6

Mechanical life of the vacuum


switching tube

operating cycles

0.25 106

2 106

1 10 6

1 10 6

Electrical life of the vacuum switching


tube (nominal current)

operating cycles

0.25 10 6

1 10 6

0.5 10 6

0.5 10 6

Table 4/36

Technical data

Features
C Small dimensions
C High electrical service life up
to 1 million operating cycles
C No maintenance required
Customer benefit
Increased productivity due to
C High reliability and availability
C Flexible mounting positions,
vertical or horizontal
Vacuum switching tubes utmost
switching capacity in extremely
compact designs
Vacuum switching tubes for medium
voltage are supplied by Siemens for
all applications on the international
power market ranging from 1 kV to
40.5 kV. On demand, we are pleased
to complement our comprehensive
standard product range with tailormade, specific customer solutions.
Applications
C Vacuum circuit-breakers
C Vacuum load interrupters
C Vacuum contactors
C Transformer tap changers
C Circuit-breakers for railway
applications
C Auto-reclosers
C Special applications, such as
nuclear fusion

Photo 4/29

Vacuum switching tubes in seal-soldering technology

Tubes for vacuum circuit-breakers


Rated voltage
Rated operating current
Rated short-circuit breaking current

kV
A

7.2 to 40.5
630 to 4,000

kA

12.5 to 80

kV

1 to 24

Tubes for vacuum contactors


Rated voltage
Rated operating current
Table 4/37

400 to 800

Product range (extract) Tube ratings for circuit-breakers/contactors

Features
C Small designs
C High breaking and operating
currents
C High operating cycle rates

Customer benefit
C A suitable solution for every
application
C Long-term supply security

4/79

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Seite 80

Rated voltageg

kV

7.2

12

15

24

Rated lightning surge


withstand voltage, list 2

kV

60

75

95

125

Rated short-circuit
making current

kA

50

50

50

40

Rated short-time
current (3s)

kA

20

20

20

16

Rated operating current

800

800

800

800

Rated closed-loop
breaking current

800

800

800

800

Rated no-load transformer


breaking current

10

10

10

10

Rated no-load capacitor


breaking current

800

800

800

800

3CG vacuum switches are multipurpose load interrupters.

Rated cable-charging
breaking current

63

63

63

63

Applications
C Frequent switching of electric loads
C In particular for switching transformers, motors or capacitors in
industrial applications

Rated breaking current


for locked motors

2,500

1,600

1,250

Transfer current acc. to


IEC 60420, inductive switching
capacity (cos 0.15)

5,000

3,000

2,000

2,000

Induktives Switching capacity


(cos 0.15)

2,500

1,600

1,250

1,250

630

630

630

630

63

63

63

63

63 + 800

63 + 800

63 + 800

63 + 800

10,000

10,000

10,000

10,000

Photo 4/30

3CG vacuum switch for 12 kV,


800 A

3CG vacuum load interrupter


suited for very high operating
cycle rates

Features
C In compliance with IEC 60265-1,
IEC 60420 and VDE 0670 Part 301,
tested in combination with
HV HRC fuses
C Rated currents up to 800 A
C Up to 10,000 electrical operating
cycles
C No maintenance required

Switching capacity under


ground fault conditions:
Rated ground fault
A
breaking current
Rated cable-charging
A
breaking current under
ground fault conditions
Rated cable-charging
A
breaking current under
ground fault conditions with
with superimposed load current

Customer benefit
C Optimization of operating costs
due to high operating cycle rates
C Very economical
C High availability
C Highly reliable due to proven
vacuum switching technology

Operating cycles with rated


operating current
Table 4/38

4/80

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

3CG vacuum circuit-breaker ratings

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Seite 81

Medium Voltage

3CJ2 switch disconnector for daily


use
Indoor switch disconnectors, type
3CJ2, are multi-purpose switch disconnectors that comply with the relevant standards in their basic versions
and when combined with (makeproof) grounding switches.
Applications
C In power distribution, for rare
switching of loads
C Switching of distribution
transformers
Features
C Multi-purpose switch disconnectors
complying with the relevant standards
C Can be combined with make-proof
grounding switches
C Welded basic frame
C Isolating blades
C Robust arc quenching chambers
C Switching angle is always 90
C Can also be supplied as Class B
and acc. to IEC 60420
Customer benefit
C High operator safety
C Easy installation
C Easy handling
C Reliability and safety
3D grounding switch and
disconnector
3D grounding switches and disconnectors are well suited for indoor installations up to 40.5 kV. In addition,
our product range includes makeproof grounding switches for 12 kV
and 24 kV with a rated short-circuit
making current of 50 kA or 40 kA.

Photo 4/31

3CJ1 switch disconnector

Photo 4/32

3DC disconnector

Rated voltage

kV

12

17.5

24

36

Rated short-time current (1s)

kA

25

25

25

20

Rated short-circuit making


current

kA

63

63

50

25

630

630

630

630

Rated operating current


Table 4/39

Ratings for 3CJ2 switch disconnectors

Rated voltage

kV

12

24

36

40.5

Rated short-time
current (1s)

kA

20 63

20 31.5

20 31.5

20 31.5

Rated surge
current

kA

40 160

40 80

50 80

80

Rated operating
current
Table 4/40

630 3,000 630 2,500 630 3,000 1,250 2,500

Ratings for disconnectors and grounding switches

Applications
C To protect personnel when
working at equipment
Features
C Utmost reliability and
operating safety
C Simple, robust construction
C Can be used in difficult climatic
environments

C Mechanical service life up


to 5,000 operating cycles
Customer benefit
C Utmost safety for works at
switchgear installations
C Easy handling

4/81

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Seite 82

3GD high-voltage high-rupturingcapacity fuses


High-voltage high-rupturing-capacity
(HV HRC) fuses are used for shortcircuit protection.
Applications
C Short-circuit protection in
medium-voltage installations
C Protection of transformers, motors
and capacitors for example
C Can be combined with load
interrupter switches
Features
C Fuse base for fuse-link, can be
supplied as 1-pole or 3-pole version
C Cuts short-circuit currents to low
values

Photo 4/33

4M instrument transformers
for safe measurements

3GH fuse base with HV


HRC fuse-links

Rated voltageg

kV

7.2

12

24

36

Rated short-circuit
breaking current

kA

63 80

40 63

31.5 40

31.5

Rated operating
current

kA

6.3 250

6,3 160

6.3 100

6.3 40

Rated voltage

kV

3.6 / 7.2

12

24

36

Surge current
withstand strength

kA

44

44

44

44

400

400

400

400

3GH fuse base

Applications
C In all types of electrical installations

4/82

Photo 4/34

3GD HV HRC fuse-link

Customer benefit
C Reliable protection of connected
consumers
C Thanks to its current-limiting function, more inexpensive consumers
can be used

Features
C Measurement of electrical quantities in electrical installations
C Transformation of currents or voltages into quantities that are better
suited for protective devices
C Disconnection of high or low
voltage
C For indoor and outdoor installations
C Comprehensive product range:
can be supplied in compliance with
every relevant standard
C Manufactured using state-of-the
art cast-resin technologies
C Partial discharge level is below
the test values required by IEC

HV HRC fuse, type 3GD

Rated current
Table 4/41

Product range and rating data

Customer benefit
C Provides safety due to reliable detection of fault currents
C
3E surge arrester
Applications
C Industry
C Power plants
Features
C Protects the insulators of plants or
plant sections against excessive
voltage stress
C Overvoltage limiter to protect

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

C
C
C
C

high-voltage motors, dry-type


transformers and cable networks
up to 15 kV
Special arrester to protect rotating
machines and furnaces up to 42 kV
Plastic or porcelain enclosure
Very high energy absorption
capacity
Stable and self-contained
construction for type 3EE2
Extremely high short-circuit
strength (types 3EF3 and 3EE2)

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Seite 83

Medium Voltage

Photo 4/35

Photo 4/36

4MA block-type current


transformer

3EE2 surge arrester

Customer benefit
C Lower protective level than in
traditional arresters
C Universal solution for an effective
protection of high-voltage motors,
because the protective characteristics of arresters are relatively unsusceptible to steep-edge surges

Current transformers

Ur (kV)

Ir (A)

Changeover option No. of cores

4MA7
insulator-type current
transformer

12
24
36

10 2,500

Primary or
secondary
changeover

4MB1 insulator-type
current transformer

12
24

1,500 6,000

Secondary
changeover

4MC2
bushing-type current
transformers

12
24
36

150 3,000

Secondary
changeover

4MC3
bushing-type current
transformers

12
24
36

1,000 10,000

Secondary
changeover

4ME1
current transformer
for outdoor
installations

12
24
36
52

5 1,200

Primary or
secondary
changeover

Voltage transformers

Ur (kV)

Rating of the
measuring winding
(VA)/class

Thermal limit rating of


ground-fault detection
winding
(VA / A)

4MR1, 4MR2
indoor, single and
two-pole,
small model

12
24

20/0.2; 50/0.5; 100/1


20/0.2; 50/0.5; 100/1

230/4*

4MR5, 4MR6
indoor, single and
two-pole,
large model

12
24
36

30/0.2; 100/0.5; 200/1


45/0.2; 100/0.5; 200/1 350/6*
50/0.2; 100/0.5; 200/1

4MS
outdoor, single-pole

12
24
36
52

30/0.2;
30/0.2;
25/0.2;
60/0.2;

4MS4

36

60/0.2; 150/0.5; 400/1

100/0.5; 200/1
100/0.5; 200/1
75/0.5; 150/1
180/0.5; 400/1

230/4*
230/4*
230/4*
500/9

* Higher values on request


Table 4/42

Product range of current and voltage transformers

3EF

3EH2

3EE2

For networks

kV

3.6 to 15

4.7 to 42

4.5 to 42

Rated discharge surge current

kA

10

10

Short-circuit current

kA

1 to 40

16

50 to 300

Table 4/43

Surge arresters technical data and product range

4/83

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Seite 84

4.4 PQM Power


Quality Management
and Load Flow Control
The future of the rapidly changing
global power distribution markets lies
in the form of power grid operations.
Switching high currents, measures to
be taken by power quality management and handling short circuits remain the major tasks in this context.
New technologies, such as static and
dynamic compensation equipment and
network couplings based on power
electronic components, are the logical
choice to meet these challenges.
POWERCOMP are products and systems that ensure high power quality
of an industrial or public medium-voltage supply grid. By utilizing systems
for reactive power compensation that
are tailored to meet customer requirements, the price of the power
quantities delivered will be reduced.
Return of investment can often be
achieved within less than two years.
In the event of significant load fluctuations, dynamic compensation systems using thyristor valves or IGBT
modules ensure a stable supply voltage. Powerful filter circuit systems
reduce effective harmonic currents of
speed-controlled large drives, and
thus, operating permits for the connection of such plants can be obtained. POWERCOMP systems are

4/84

Photo 4/37

2-MW SIPLINK system at the municipal utilities of Ulm in Germany

modularly designed and can be used


in the voltage range of 3 kV to 36 kV.
SIPLINK, the medium-voltage DC
transmission system, allows economical power exchange at the medium
voltage level by using power electronics. Power supply systems with
differing parameters can thus be
coupled, costs can be saved by optimizing power procurement, the load
flow during power transmission is
controlled and a constant supply of
voltage is maintained through the
provision of reactive power.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Innovative solutions for power


supply
Most consumers dont just draw active power from the grid but also reactive power which is somewhat erratically transmitted to the consumer.
For this reason, in their supply contracts, power supply companies define the exact power factor as the ratio between active power to be transmitted and the apparent power. Any
deviation is on account of the customer. This makes power quality
management a very interesting topic.

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Seite 85

Medium Voltage

Input power supplied by the power


supply company, to be paid by the
customer

Input power
from the tuning
capacitor

Active
power
P

Reactive
power
Q

Required
apparent power
S

Fig. 4/37

Definition of electric power types


compensation

Photo 4/38

Outdoor installation

are gaining ground in the context of


growing cost pressure and the widespread use of electronic modules and
power electronics for automating and
control tasks.
Thanks to the use of intelligent load
flow controls, performance- and costoptimized power procurement is now
attainable. Subnetworks with deviating parameters can also be connected, which means that their voltage stability and quality can thus be
positively influenced.

Photo 4/39

Compact compensation unit

State-of-the art power electronics


provide efficient and cost-effective
options for optimizing power supply
and power quality. Such applications

Applications in the field of power


quality management initially require
comprehensive measurements of
power and harmonic ratios, which are
taken using high-tech measuring instruments. By means of a specially
developed program, these data are
evaluated in a network analysis that

simulates real conditions, taking numerous consumer and load requirements into account.
This analysis helps to develop and
implement the proper PQM solution
even for highly complex and sensitive
networks.
POWERCOMP
compensation systems for
medium voltage
Compact, intelligent and expandable
this characterizes POCOS, a system which is, above all, suitable for
use in medium-voltage installations
that require a compensation system
for a certain technical process or for
reasons of ambitious customer specifications. Extensive experience from
use of this system the world over is
continually being channeled into its
further development.

4/85

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Photo 4/40

18:59 Uhr

Seite 86

SIPLINK ship

Wherever fast load changes result in


a dynamic impact on the voltage at
the point of connection, or wherever
a highly sensitive voltage control is
required, dynamic compensation systems do the job. Their dynamic reactive-power compensation function
can be combined with an activepower filtering function. Fast changing load characteristics of arc furnaces and mill trains affect the system voltage as much as, for example,
the dynamic load characteristics in
traction systems.
Long-standing experience and comprehensive process knowledge about
industrial power supply systems
guarantee economical solutions that
take customer needs into account.
For further information please contact:
POWERCOMP@ptd.siemens.com

Photo 4/41

Transformer/container model

As required, several units can be operated side by side. Choked or nonchoked options are feasible. Despite
the extremely compact design, a high
compensation effect is achieved owing to the use of vacuum switchgear,
optimized capacitors and iron-core reactors. Besides the basic model for
indoor installation, systems for outdoor installation are also available.
Compact compensation systems are
not necessarily suited to every type
of application. In some cases, it may
be more reasonable to use conventional systems with capacitors or filter circuits. For the primary industry
(including paper, cement, steel,
chemical and glass), this type of compensation system has been installed
at every voltage level all over the
world.

4/86

SIPLINK
Closed-loop controlled load flow
for power systems with special requirements
With SIPLINK (Siemens Multifunctional Power Link), Siemens has developed a technology for mediumvoltage direct current transmission
that depending on the application
and configuration of an existing supply system can be utilized by power
supply companies and industrial plant
operators alike to make tremendous
savings in terms of costs of investment, operation and total plant service life.
SIPLINK controls the load flow during
power transmission and ensures optimal voltage stability by a controlled
output of reactive power.
In order to do so, SIPLINK uses technology that is based on self-commutated IGBTs, which allows networks
to be linked that still remain electri-

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

cally isolated. In this case, the connected networks may even feature
different voltage levels, neutral point
connections, frequencies and phase
angles.
The SIPLINK can also be used to supply a separate network without a
power generating set of its own, in
particular if network parameters that
differ from the distribution system
are required. Typical examples are
test bays (for 60 Hz or surge voltage
generation), or shipyards and connection points in harbors for the supply
of on-board networks of ships. Individual plant sections with different
requirements to power quality and
safety of supply can also be operated
isolated from the general power supply using SIPLINK.
For further information please
contact:
SIPLINK@ptd.siemens.com

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Seite 87

Medium Voltage

4.5 Planning of Systems


for Primary and Secondary Power Distribution Exemplified by the
Automotive Industry

sive know-how about the equipment


and systems under consideration.
This know-how will be detailed on
the basis of process-related power
supply planning for a car manufacturing plant.

When power supply systems are


planned, each individual problem can
be faced in various ways: by means
of technical solutions that feature
specific technical advantages. This
means that both a thorough knowledge of the relevant industrial technology is required and comprehen-

During the planning of a power supply system, decisions must be made


regarding the power system design,
ratings and operating mode. These
decisions must focus on the specific
process requirements of the press
shop, body shop, paint shop and the
final car assembly. Network and plant
engineering solutions for the opti-

mum fulfillment of requirements


placed on the power supply of a car
manufacturing plant will be demonstrated here.
Requirements to the power supply
system set by the process
The process flow in an automotive
manufacturing plant determines the
requirements to the electric power
system.
The following requirements shall be
met:
C Covering a process-oriented power
demand

Process flow
Store

Press
shop PR

Body shop
BS

Paint shop
PS

Auxiliary facilities
Store

Final
assembly FA

Compressor
system CS

Store

Transformer Main
substation switchgear

Heating and
boiler system
HB

Social &
administrative
building AB

Paint shop
switchgear

BS

PS /
System 1

PR
110/20 kV

0.4 kV
CS

0.4 kV

M1

AB

HB

M5

0.4 kV
PS /
System 2

M6

UPS
M10

FA

6 kV

0.4 kV

110/20 kV

G
3~

0.4 kV

0.4 kV
0.4 kV

20 kV

Fig. 4/38

20 kV

20 kV

Model network (110/20/6/0.4 kV) to supply production processes in an automotive manufacturing plant

4/87

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Seite 88

MV

TS2

TS1

C Ensuring a high degree of supply


safety by mastering the (n-1)
principle
C Ensuring high power quality in accordance with DIN EN 50160:2000-03
(properties of the supply voltage)
and DIN EN 61000-2-4 (VDE 0839
Parts 2-4):2003-05 (EMC level)
C Ensuring a high degree of safety
for man and machinery under normal operating conditions as well
as under fault conditions
C High adaptability to changing
manufacturing processes
C Reduction of operating costs due
to low maintenance expense and
low power losses
C Simple operatability and operatorfriendly systems alike
In automotive manufacturing plants,
a network configuration as shown in
Fig. 4/38 has proved its worth with
regard to technically and economically efficient implementation of
these requirements.
Optimum power system and plant
configuration
The power supply for the production
halls in a car manufacturing plant is
distributed by means of medium-voltage load center systems. Every MV
load center system is operated in
combination with a low-voltage system built from high-current busbars
and busbar trunking systems (Fig.
4/39 and 4/40). These high-current
busbars and busbar trunking systems
replace the typical line network and
its main and subdistributions that
used to supply the consumers. The
PEHLA-tested transformer load center substation (TS station), tested in

4/88

MEB

TS3

TS4

MEB

MEB

MEB

L1-L3

PEN
LV

High-current busbar system


3

A 16 mm2

L1-L3

L1-L3

PE

PE

A 25 mm2

Busbar trunking system

TS1TS4 Load center substations distributed in the production area


MEB
Main equipotential bonding
Fig. 4/39

Load center network in combination with a TN-C-S system built from busbar trunking
systems

accordance with DIN EN 61330 (VDE


0670 Part 611):1997-08, has proven
itself as an economical and safe element in distributed power supply.

Most favorable operating mode


from the point of view of power
engineering medium voltage
(MV)

Protection for the TS stations, which


are equipped with cast-resin transformers, is provided by a load-switchfuse combination which is rated and
selected according to the criteria given
in IEC 62271-105:2002-08 or DIN EN
60420 (VDE Part 303):1994-09. The
relevant standard for the selection
of the high-voltage high rupturing
capacity fuses (HV HRC fuses) is
DIN VDE 0670-402 (VDE 0670 Part
402):1998-05.

The operating mode of the MV


power system is determined by the
type of neutral point connection. The
most important types of neutral point
connection in MV systems according
to DIN VDE 0101 (VDE 0101):2000-01
are as follows:
C Isolated neutral
C Ground fault compensation or resonant neutral grounding (RESPE)
C Low-resistant neutral grounding
(NOSPE)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 89

Medium Voltage

There is a general tendency towards


replacing resonant grounding of the
neutral point by low-resistant neutral
grounding in MV cable networks in
the automotive industry. The following advantages are decisive for this
trend:
C (n-1)-redundant network design allows selective disconnection of
1-pole faults
C Protective disconnection of the
fault location is carried out without
interrupting the power supply
C Clearly defined protective trippings
and changes of the switching
status enable integrated power
automation
C Low-resistant grounded neutral
operation (resistance) prevents
high transient long-term operating
overvoltages
C Danger of fault expansion and double ground faults is eliminated
C Short tripping times limit follow-up
damages of ground faults at the
fault location
The operating experience gathered
with NOSPE networks used in plants
of Volkswagen AG, Adam Opel AG
and DaimlerChrysler AG confirms the
advantages of low-resistant neutral
grounding. BMW AG is another automotive manufacturer that has decided in favor of low-resistant neutral
grounding of the 20-kV power system to be installed in their new plant
at Leipzig.

MV

TS1

TS2

MEB

TL

TS3

MEB

TS4

MEB

TL

TL

MEB

TL

L1-L3

PE
PEN
High-current busbar system

LV
3

L1-L3

L1-L3

N
PE

PE

Busbar trunking system

TS1TS4 Load center substations distributed in the production area


MEB
Main equipotential bonding
TLPE/PEN Isolating link (bridge only in one load center substation)
Fig. 4/40

Load center network in combination with a TN-S system built from busbar trunking
systems

Most favorable operating mode


from the point of view of power
engineering low voltage (LV)
The system types suitable for operation as LV systems are defined in IEC
60364-1:2001-08 or DIN VDE 0100-300
(VDE 0100 Part 300):1996-01. As far
as the type of connection to ground

of the system power source and the


type of connection to ground of the
conductive parts in the electric consumer system are concerned, distinctions can be made between IT, TT
and TN systems.

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20/0.4kV
1250kVA
6%

TS2

Seite 90

20/0.4kV
1250kVA
6%

TS2

The TN system is the preferred


system type for supplying power to
automotive manufacturing plants. For
distributed transformer infeeds (highcurrent busbar), an LV system conforming to VDE can only be designed
as TN-C system with common neutral and protective conductor (PEN
conductor). Only at a lower level can
a TN-S system be built with a separate neutral conductor (N conductor)
and protective ground conductor
(PE conductor). Consequently, LV
systems for the automotive industry
have so far been designed exclusively as TN-C-S systems.

20/0.4kV
1250kVA
6%

TS3

UN = 400 V
Sk = 55 MVA

u = 1.2 %

M5
3~

M1

M2
3~

M4
3~

M6
3~

M1

M2
3~

M5
3~

160 kW
Press 5

250 kW
Special
press

160 kW
Press 2

160 kW
Press 4

115 kW
Try-out
press

280 kW
Special
press

160 kW
Press 2

160 kW
Press 5

Press line 1

In a modern automotive manufacturing plant, too, higher requirements


are placed on electromagnetic compatibility in order to prevent any
negative impact on the production
process by electromagnetic interference of communication and information technology systems. An EMCsuitable LV system with a continuously de-energized PE conductor
must be designed as TN-S system. In
multiple-supply LV systems, a TN-S
system is only feasible if the PEN
conductors or the individual supply
circuits can be grounded at a central
point.

Press line 2

Average cycle time for pressing the body parts


T = 4s (n = load operations/min)
101

uzul
[%]
3
2
u = 1.2 %
100
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.2

10-1

10-1

100

101
15 Load operations/min

102

103

[min-1]

104

Fig. 4/41

LV system rating in a press shop according to the voltage changes uperm as a function of the frequency n

4/90

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

At present, the form of design represented in Fig. 4/40 is not backed up


by national or international standards.
Until a valid standard has been
adopted, it is the sole responsibility
of the switchgear installer or plant
operator. So far, only Adam Opel AG
has operated a multiple-supply LV
system as TN-S system.

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Seite 91

Medium Voltage

Process-dependent particularities
for the design of subsystems
press shop
In the press shop, a large number of
motorized press drives are installed
for forming metal sheets into body
parts. The individual power output of
these drives is relatively high compared to the total power demand of
the press shop and it puts a surgetype, intermittent burden on the
power system. Another system perturbation is caused by the thyristor
controllers of the press drives, as
they generate harmonics of the vth
order.
Owing to the short-circuit power of
the network, voltage changes due to
surge-type loads must be limited in
such a way that the operational
safety of consumers is not endangered and the optical stress on the
human eye by current fluctuations in
the lighting system remains within
reasonable limits. An example of how
to meet this power quality requirement is shown in Fig. 4/41.
Another requirement for the LV system in the press shop is for the permissible compatibility levels for harmonic contents to be observed as
defined in DIN EN 61000-2-4 (VDE
Parts 2-4):2003-05. To maintain these
levels, the compensation system of
the switchgear substations must normally be inductor-type. The optimum
degree of choking p depends on the
harmonic contents of the vth order
(v = 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23 and 25
for 3-phase bridge circuits) that are
mostly present. In practice, inductorcapacitor units with a choking degree
between p = 6% and p = 7% are
mainly used.

Body shop
Connection of the welders in the
400-V system of the body shop is
carried out in groups by a symmetric
distribution to the phase conductors
L1-L2, L1-L3, L2-L3 (Fig. 4/42). Due
to their intermittent operating mode,
the machines for welding the body
parts connected in the circuit do not
constitute a continuous load. Therefore, the equipment in the welding
circuit must be rated according to its
thermal equivalent current. The thermal equivalent current must be calculated as a sequence of accidentally
overlapping welding pulses. The calculation is performed by means of
the thermal equivalent current
method by establishing the square
average, a probability calculation
based on binomially distributed welding currents.
For rating the welding network, the
thermal equivalent current is, however, merely of minor importance.
What is more important are the voltage dips caused by the accidentally
overlapping welding pulses. The
probability calculation of these voltage dips is again based on the binomial distribution. To apply the
Bernoulli formula, the different welding machine types are combined into
one uniform equivalent welding machine with an identical peak welding
current Iw, the identical power factor
cos and the same relative ON period OP. This probability peak load
calculation provides the required indicator for evaluating the power supply
quality in the body shop.

What is vital for quality-responsive


welding of the body parts is the presence of voltage dips that do not exceed a limit u = 10% in the statistic
mean. Another quality indicator is the
scrap rate for voltage-related faulty
weldings (uperm. > 10%). The permissible limit value for this scrap rate
is perm = 1.
In the body shop, compensation can
normally be made non-choked. For
the non-choked compensation
method, observance of the permissible compatibility level for harmonic
contents has been verified by measurements in several 400-V welding
networks in the automotive industry.
A favorable solution in terms of
power engineering proves to be the
use of capacitors with a rated voltage
of 480 V Um 525 V.
Paint shop
Paint shop processes are characterized by high load densities and long
ON periods of the consumers. What
is particularly typical is the negative
impact on power quality caused by
the rectifiers for the electro-dipcoating or cataphoretic painting process.
In order to relieve the LV system
from harmonic impact, these rectifiers are preferably supplied directly
from the MV system via separate
transformers.
As important as the observance of
the permissible compatibility levels
for harmonic contents according to
DIN EN 61000-2-4 (VDE 0839 Parts 24): 2003-05 is the strict fulfillment of
safety-of-supply requirements set by
the painting process itself.

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Q1

Seite 92

Q2

Q3

nected between phase conductor


(L1vL2vL3) and neutral conductor (N).
In this type of connection, all current
harmonics of the order v that can be
divided by 3 add up in the neutral
conductor N. The current harmonic
whereby v = 3 is particularly distinctive. To prevent thermal overload
caused by current harmonics, the
phase conductors (L1, L2, L3), neutral conductor (N) and PEN conductor
of the TN-C-S system (Fig. 4/39) or
TN-S system are designed with identical cross sections as a matter of
principle.

Q4

L1
L2
L3
PEN
PE
L1
L2
L3
PEN
PE

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

2,500 A high-current busbar

800 A busbar trunking systemsi

Summary

Welding machine group

i L1L2

i L1L3

i L2L3

Number of welders

90

90

90

Peak welding current is

800 A

Relative ON period OP

8%

OP =

Fig. 4/42

ts
100, with welding time ts and cycle time T
T
Operation of welding machines arranged in groups in the 0.4 kV power system of the
body shop (TN-S system)

This includes the uninterruptible handling of the single fault by a protective disconnection of the fault location from supply.
Cast-resin transformers at the TS station provide an instantaneous
standby or hot redundancy to handle such single faults. In addition, a
standby supply is provided for sensitive and fail-critical consumers.

4/92

Final assembly
The connected power of the consumers in the final car assembly is
relatively low as compared to the
nominal power of the supplying
transformers. For this reason, the
maximum power demand of all consumers in the grid is important for
system rating. Power demand is
largely influenced by the simultaneity
factor g, the degree of utilization a,
the power factor cos and the efficiency . In the final assembly plant
section, a large proportion of the nonlinear consumers is single-phase con-

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

The load center network in combination with a TN system consisting of


busbar trunking systems is the ideal
network configuration for the power
supply of production halls in an automotive manufacturing plant. Low-resistant neutral point grounding is
most advantageous for MV system
operation. An EMC-suitable LV system with a continuously de-energized
protective conductor (PE) must be
designed as TN-S system.
Currently, there is no binding standard for the design of a multiple-infeed LV system as TN-S system.
There is only a unanimously optimum
solution for the design and operation
of the supply networks. The rating of
the supply networks for the
processes handled in the production
halls results in engineering differences such as the number and size
of the supplying transformers and the
method of compensation.

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Medium Voltage

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Seite B

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

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Seite C

Transformers

chapter 5

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Seite 2

5 Transformers
Transformers are one of the primary
components for the transmission and
distribution of electrical energy. Their
design mainly results from the range
of application, construction, rated
power and voltage level.
The scope of transformer types extends from generator transformers to
distribution transformers.
Distribution transformers are within
the range from 50 to 2,500 kVA and
max. 36 kV. In the last stage, they
distribute the electrical energy to the
consumers by feeding from the highvoltage into the low-voltage distribution network. These are designed either as liquid-filled or as dry-type
transformers.
Transformers with a rated power up
to 2.5 MVA and a voltage up to 36 kV
are referred to as distribution transformers; all transformers of higher
ratings are classified as power transformers.

Rated power
MVA

Max. operating voltage


kV

Oil distribution
transformers

0.05 2.5

36

GEAFOL cast-resin
transformers

0.10 40

36

Table 5/1

Transformer types

General standards and


specifications
The transformers comply with the
relevant VDE specifications, i.e.
DIN VDE 0532 Transformers and
reactors and the Technical conditions of supply for three-phase transformers issued by VDEW and ZVEI.
Therefore they also satisfy the requirements of IEC Publication 60076,
Parts 1 to 5, together with the
standards and specifications (HD and
EN) of the European Union (EU).
Enquiries should be directed to the
manufacturer where other standards
and specifications are concerned.
Only the US (ANSI/NEMA) and Canadian (CSA) standards differ from IEC
by any substantial degree.

5/2

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Important additional standards


C DIN 42500, HD 428: oil-immersed
three-phase distribution transformers 502500 kVA
C DIN 42523, HD 538:
three-phase dry-type transformers
1002500 kVA
C DIN 45635 T30: noise level
C IEC 60289: reactance coils and
neutral grounding transformers
C IEC 60076-10: measurement of
noise level
C IEC 60076-11: dry-type transformers
C RAL: coating/varnish

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Seite 3

Transformers

Electrical Design
Power ratings and type of cooling
All power ratings in this guide are
the product of rated voltage (noload voltage times phase-factor
for three-phase transformers) and
rated current of the line side winding
(at center tap, if several taps are
provided), expressed in kVA or MVA,
as defined in IEC 60076-1. If only one
power rating and no cooling method
are shown, natural oil-air cooling
(ONAN or OA) is implied for oilimmersed transformers. If two
ratings are shown, forced-air cooling
(ONAF or FA) in one or two steps is
applicable.

In accordance with IEC 60076, the


standard temperature rise for oil-immersed power and distribution transformers is:
C 65 K (average winding temperature
measured by the resistance method)
C 60 K maximum oil temperature
(measured by thermometer)
The standard temperature rise for
Siemens cast-resin transformers is
C 100 K (insulation class F) at HV and
LV winding.

I
1

ii

III

Yd1

iii

iii

II
III

Dy5

iii
i

III

iii

ii

II
III

II

ii

Yd5

ii

II

i
5

11

Dy11

Yd11
i

ii
III

Fig. 5/1

iii

I
11

For cast-resin transformers, natural


air cooling (AN) is standard. Forcedair cooling (AF) is also applicable.
Temperature rise

Dy1

II

ii
III

iii

II

Most commonly used vector groups

Whereby the standard ambient temperatures are defined as follows:


C 40 C maximum temperature,
C 30 C average on any one day,
C 20 C average in any one year,
C 25 C lowest temperature outdoors,
C 5 C lowest temperature indoors.
Higher ambient temperatures require
a corresponding reduction in temperature rise, and thus affect price or
rated power as follows:
C 1.5% surcharge for each 1 K above
standard temperature conditions,
or
C 1.0% reduction of rated power for
each 1 K above standard temperature conditions.

These adjustment factors are applicable up to 15 K above standard temperature conditions.


Altitude of installation
The transformers are suitable for operation at altitudes up to 1000 metres above sea level. Site altitudes
above 1000 m necessitate the use of
special designs. For every 100 m
above the permissible altitude of installation, the rated power for oil-immersed transformers is to be reduced by approx. 0.4% and for drytype transformers for approx. 0.5%.

5/3

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19:05 Uhr

Transformer losses and


efficiencies
Losses and efficiencies stated in this
manual are average values for guidance only. They are applicable if no
loss evaluation figure is stated in the
inquiry (see following chapter) and
they are subject to the tolerances
stated in IEC 60076-1, namely +10%
of the total losses, or +15% of each
component loss, provided that the
tolerance for the total losses is not
exceeded.
If optimized and/or guaranteed losses
without tolerances are required, this
must be stated in the inquiry.
Connections and vector groups
Distribution transformers
The transformers listed in this manual are all three-phase transformers
with one set of windings connected
in star (wye) and the other one in
delta, whereby the neutral of the
star-connected winding is fully rated
and brought to the outside.
The primary winding (HV) is normally
connected in delta, the secondary
winding (LV) in wye. The electrical
offset of the windings in respect to
each other is either 30, 150 or 330
degrees standard (Dy1, Dy5, Dy11).
Other vector groups as well as single-phase transformers and autotransformers on request.

5/4

Seite 4

Test voltages

Routine and special tests

Power-frequency withstand voltages


and lightning-impulse withstand
voltages are in accordance with
IEC 60076-3, Paragraph 5, Table II, as
follows:

All transformers are subjected to the


following routine tests in the factory:
C Measurement of winding resistance
C Measurement of voltage ratio and
check of polarity or vector group
C Measurement of impedance voltage
C Measurement of load loss
C Measurement of no-load loss and
no-load current
C Induced overvoltage withstand test
(windings test)
C Separate-source voltage withstand
test (AC test voltage)
C Partial discharge test (only GEAFOL
cast-resin transformers).

Conversion to 60 Hz possibilities
All ratings in the selection tables of
this guide are based on 50 Hz operation. For 60 Hz operation, the following options apply:
C Rated power and impedance voltage are increased by 10%, all other
parameters remain identical.
C Rated power increases by 20%,
but no-load losses increase by 30%
and noise level increases by 3 dB,
all other parameters remain identical (this layout is not possible for
cast-resin transformers).
C All technical data remain identical,
price is reduced by 5%.
C Temperature rise is reduced by
10 K, load losses are reduced by
15%, all other parameters remain
identical.
Overloading
Overloading of Siemens transformers
is guided by the relevant IEC 60354
Loading guide for oil-immersed
transformers and the (similar) ANSI
C57.92 Guide for loading mineral-oilimmersed power transformers.
Overloading of GEAFOL cast-resin
transformers according to IEC 60905
"Loading guide."

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

The following special tests are optional and must be specified further
in the enquiry:
C Lightning-impulse voltage test
(LI test), full-wave and choppedwave (to be specified)
C Partial discharge test
C Heat-run test at natural or forced
cooling (to be specified)
C Noise level test
C Peak short-circuit test.
Test certificates are issued for all of
the above tests on request.

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

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19:05 Uhr

Seite 5

Transformers

Transformer cell
(indoor installation)
The transformer cell must have the
necessary electrical clearances when
an open-air connection is used. The
ventilation system must be large
enough to fulfil the recommendations
for the maximum temperatures according to IEC.

A. Capital cost
Cp r
CC =
100

amount

year

Cp = purchase price
r=

p qn

qn 1

q=

p
+ 1 = interest factor
100

= depreciation factor

Transformer loss evaluation

= interest rate in % p.a.

The sharply increased costs of electrical energy have made it almost


mandatory for buyers of electrical
machinery to carefully evaluate the
inherent losses of this equipment. In
case of distribution and power transformers, which operate continuously
and most frequently in loaded condition, this is especially important. As
an example, the added cost of lossoptimized transformers can in most
cases be counterbalanced by savings
in power consumption in less than
three years.

= depreciation period in years

Low-loss transformers use more and


better materials for their construction,
therefore their purchase price is
higher. By stipulating loss evaluation
figures in the transformer enquiry, the
manufacturer receives the necessary
information to offer a loss-optimized
transformer rather than the low-cost
model.
Detailed loss evaluation methods for
transformers have been developed
and are described accurately in the
literature, taking the project-specific
evaluation factors of a given customer into account.

B. Cost of no-load loss


CP0 = Ce 8760 h / year P0

Ce

= energy charges

P0

= no-load loss [kW]

amount

year
amount

kWh

C. Cost of load loss


CPk = Ce 8760 h / year 2 Pk

amount

year

constant operating load


=
rated load

Pk

= copper loss [kW]

D. Cost resulting from demand charges


CD = Cd (P0 + Pk)

Cd

Table 5/2

amount

year

= demand charges

amount

kW year

Cost examination for transformer selection

Table 5/2 gives a simplified method


for a quick evaluation of different
quoted transformer losses, making
the following assumptions:
C The transformers are operated continuously
C The transformers operate at partial
load, but this partial load is constant

C Additional cost and inflation factors


are not considered
C Demand charges are based on
100% load.

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Seite 6

The total cost of owning and operating a transformer for one year is thus
defined as follows:
A. Capital cost (CC)
taking into account the purchase
price (Cp), the interest rate (p), and
the depreciation period (n)

Depreciation period.................................
Interest rate ............................................

n
p

Energy charge .........................................

Ce = 0.13 /kWh

C. Cost of load loss (CPk)


based on the copper loss (Pk), the
equivalent annual load factor (),
and energy cost (Ce)

Depreciation factor
r = 13.99

Equivalent annual load factor ..................

Cd = 179
kW year
= 0.8

A. Low-cost transformer

B. Loss-optimized transformer

P0 = 2.6 kW
Pk = 20 kW
Cp = 12800

P0 = 1.7 kW
Pk = 17 kW
Cp = 14300

Demand charge.......................................

B. Cost of no-load loss (CP0)


based on the no-load loss (P0), and
energy cost (Ce)

= 20 years
= 12 % p.a.

no-load loss
load loss
purchase price

no-load loss
load loss
purchase price

D. Demand charges (Cd)


based on the power demand set
by the power supply company,
and the total power loss.

12,800 13.99
Cd =
100
= 1,790/year

14,300 13.99
Cd =
100
= 2,000/year

CP0 = 0.13 8760 2.6


= 2,961/year

CP0 = 0.13 8760 1.7


= 1,936/year

These individual costs are calculated


as shown in Table 5/2.

CPk = 0.13 8760 0.64 20


= 14,580/year

CPk = 0.13 8760 0.64 17


= 12,390/year

To demonstrate the usefulness of


such calculations, the following arbitrary examples are shown, using factors that can be considered typical in
Germany, and neglecting the effects
of inflation on the rate assumed.

C0 = 179 (2.6 + 20)


= 4,045/year

C0 = 179 (1.7 + 17)


= 3,350/year

Total cost of owning and operating this


transformer is thus:

Total cost of owning and operating this


transformer is thus:

23,376/year

19,676/year

The energy saving of the optimized distribution transformer of 3,700 per year
pays for the increased purchase price in less than one year.

Table 5/3

5/6

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Example: 1,600 kVA distribution transformer

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:05 Uhr

Seite 7

Transformers

Mechanical Design
General mechanical design for oilimmersed transformers
C Iron core made of grain-oriented
electrical sheet steel insulated on
both sides, core-type
C Windings consisting of copper section wire, copper band or aluminum
band. The insulation has a high disruptive strength and is temperature-resistant, thus guaranteeing a
long service life
C Designed to withstand short circuit
for at least 2 seconds (IEC)
C Oil-filled tank designed as tank with
strong corrugated walls or as radiator tank
C Transformer base with plain or
flanged wheels (skid base available)
C Cooling/insulation liquid: Mineral oil
according to VDE 0370/IEC 60296(3).
Silicone oil or synthetic liquids are
available (on request)
C Standard coating for outdoor installation. Coatings for special applications (e.g. in aggressive environments) are available
Tank design and oil preservation
system
TUMETIC sealed-tank distribution
transformers
In ratings up to 2,500 kVA and 170 kV
LI this is the standard sealed-tank
distribution transformer without
conservator and gas cushion. The
TUMETIC transformer is always
completely filled with oil; oil expansion is taken up by the flexible corrugated steel tank (variable volume
tank design), whereby the maximum

operating pressure remains at only a


fraction of the usual. These transformers are always shipped completely filled with oil and sealed
for their lifetime. Bushings can be
exchanged from the outside without
draining the oil below the top of the
active part.
The hermetically sealed system prevents oxygen, nitrogen, or humidity
from contact with the insulating oil.
This improves the ageing properties
of the oil to the extent that no maintenance is required on these transformers for their lifetime. Generally,
the TUMETIC transformer is lower
than the TUNORMAtransformer.
This design has been in successful
service since 1973. A special
TUMETIC protection device has been
developed for this transformer.
TUNORMA distribution transformers with conservator
This is the standard distribution transformer design in all ratings. The oil
level in the tank and the top-mounted
bushings is kept constant by a conservator vessel or expansion tank
mounted at the highest point of the
transformer. Oil level changes due to
thermal cycling affect the conservator only. The ambient air is prevented
from direct contact with the insulating oil through oil traps and dehydrating breathers.

Photo 5/1

Cross section of a TUMETIC


three-phase distribution
transformer

Photo 5/2

630 kVA, three-phase, TUNORMA


20 kV 2.5 %/0.4 kV distribution
transformer

Tanks from 50 kVA to approximately


6,000 kVA are preferably of the corrugated steel design, whereby the
sidewalls are formed on automatic
machines into integral cooling pockets. Suitable spot welds and braces
render the required mechanical
stability. Tank bottom and cover are
fabricated from rolled and welded
steel plate.

5/7

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:08 Uhr

Seite 8

Connection Systems
Distribution transformers
All Siemens transformers have topmounted HV and LV bushings according to DIN in their standard version.
Besides the open bushing arrangement for direct connection of bare or
insulated wires, three basic insulated
terminal systems are available.

Photo 5/3

Fully enclosed cable connection box

Photo 5/4

Grounded metal elbow plug connection

Fully enclosed terminal box for


cables (Photo 5/3)
Available for either HV or LV side, or
for both. Horizontally split design in
degree of protection IP 44 or IP 54
(totally enclosed and fully protected
against contact with live parts, plus
protection against drip, splash or
spray water).
Cable installation through split cable
glands and removable plates facing
diagonally downwards. Suitable for
single-core or three-phase cables
with solid dielectric insulation, with
or without stress cones. Multiple cables per phase are terminated on
auxiliary bus structures attached to
the bushings. Removal of transformer by simply bending back the
cables.
Insulated plug connectors
(Photo 5/4)
For substation installations, suitable
HV can be applied using insulated
elbow connectors in LI ratings up to
170 kV.

HV

LV

Cable box

Cable box

Cable box

Flange

Flange

Cable box

Flange

Flange connection
boxes

Elbow
connector

Cable box

Elbow
connector

Flange

Table 5/4

Possible combinations of
connection systems

Flange connection (Photo 5/5)


Air-insulated bus ducts, insulated
busbars or throat-connected
switchgear cubicles are connected
via standardized flanges on steel terminal enclosures. These can accommodate either HV, LV or both bushings. Fiberglass-reinforced epoxy

5/8

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 5/5

Flange connection for switchgear


and bus ducts

partitions are available between HV


and LV bushings if flange/flange
arrangements are chosen.
Apart from open-type arrangements
of the bushings, all terminal system
combinations listed in Table 5/4 are
possible.

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:09 Uhr

Seite 9

Transformers

Accessories and Protective


Devices
Accessories not listed completely.
Deviations are possible.
Double-float Buchholz relay
(Photo 5/6)
For sudden pressure rise and gas detection in oil-immersed transformer
tanks with conservator. Installed in
the connecting pipe between tank
and conservator and responding to internal arcing faults and slow decomposition of insulating materials. Additionally, backup function of oil alarm.

Photo 5/6

Double-float Buchholz relay

Photo 5/8

Magnetic oil level indicator

Photo 5/7

Dial-type contact thermometer

The relay is actuated either by pressure waves or gas accumulation or


by loss of oil below the relay level.
Separate contacts are installed for
alarm and tripping.
In case of a gas accumulation alarm,
gas samples can be drawn directly at
the relay with a small chemical testing kit. Discoloring of two liquids indicates either arcing by-products or insulation decomposition products in
the oil. No change in color indicates
an air bubble.

Dial-type contact thermometer


(Photo 5/7)

Magnetic oil level indicator


(Photo 5/8)

Indicates actual top-oil temperature.


Sensor mounted in well in tank
cover. Up to four separately adjustable alarm contacts and one maximum pointer are available. Installed
to be readable from the ground.
These instruments can also be used
to control forced-cooling equipment.

The float position inside of the conservator is transmitted magnetically


through the tank wall to the indicator.
Devices supplied with limit (position)
switches for high- and low-level
alarm are available. Readable from
the ground.

5/9

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

Photo 5/9

11.08.2005

19:10 Uhr

Protective device for


hermetically sealed
transformers (TUMETIC)

Protective device for hermetically


sealed transformers (TUMETIC)
(Photo 5/9)
For use on hermetically sealed
TUMETIC distribution transformers.
Gives alarm upon loss of oil and gas
accumulation. Mounted directly at
the (permanently sealed) filler pipe of
these transformers.

Seite 10

Photo 5/10 Dehydrating breather

Pressure relief device (Photo 5/12)


Relieves abnormally high internal
pressure shock waves. Easily visible
operation pointer and alarm contact.
Reseals positively after operation and
continues to function without operator action.
Dehydrating breather
(Photos 5/10, 5/11)
A dehydrating breather removes
most of the moisture from the air
which is drawn into the conservator
as the transformer cools down. The
dehydrating breather contributes to
safe and reliable operation of the
transformer.

5/10

Photo 5/11 Dehydrating breather

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 5/12 Pressure relief device

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:10 Uhr

Seite 11

Transformers

Technical Data of
TUNORMA and TUMETIC
Distribution Transformers
Note: The tank with strong corrugated walls represented in Fig. 5/3 is
the preferred design. For high voltages up to 24 kV and a rating up to
2,500 kVA (and with high voltages >
2436 kV and a rating up to 800 kVA),
the conservator is fitted at the vertical side just above the low-voltage
bushings.

Standard

DIN 42500

Rated power

502500 kVA

Rated frequency

50 Hz

HV rating

up to 36 kV

Taps on HV side

2.5 % or 2 x 2.5 %

LV rating

400 720 V (special designs for up to 12 kV


can be built)

Connection

HV winding: delta
LV winding: star
(up to 100 kVA: zigzag)

Losses
The standard HD 428.1.S1 (= DIN
42500, Part 1) applies to three-phase
oil-immersed distribution transformers 50 Hz, from 50 kVA to 2,500 kVA,
Um to 24 kV.
For load losses (Pk), three different
listings (A, B and C) were specified.
There were also three listings (A, B
and C) for no-load losses (P0) and
corresponding sound levels.
Due to the different requirements,
pairs of values were proposed which,
in the national standard, permit one
or several combinations of losses.
DIN 42500 specifies the combinations A-C, C-C and B-A as being
most suitable.
The combinations B-A (normal
losses) and A-C (reduced losses) are
approximately in line with previous
standards. In addition, there is the
C-C combination. Transformers of
this kind with additionally reduced
impedance especially economical
(maximum efficiency > 99%). The
higher costs of these transformers
are counteracted by the energy savings which they make.

Impedance voltage at
rated current

6 % at (4 % only up to 630 kVA rated


power and HV rating
up to 24 kV)

Cooling

ONAN

Protection class

IP 00

Final coating

RAL 7033 (other colors are available)

Table 5/5

TUMETIC and TUNORMA three-phase oil-immersed distribution transformers

Um
kV

Lightning impulse test voltage AC test voltage


kV
kV

1.1

12

75

28

24

125

50

36

170

70

Table 5/6

Insulation level (IP 00)

for no-load losses, the listings D and


E were specified. In order to find the
most efficient transformer, please
see the aforementioned section on
Transformer loss evaluation.

Standard HD 428.3.S1 (= DIN 42500-3)


specifies the losses for oil distribution transformers up to Um = 36 kV.
For load losses, the listings D and E,

5/11

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:10 Uhr

Seite 12

12
11
10

8
2N 2U 2V 2W

H1

1U 2U

1W

B1

7
9

A1

Oil drain plug

Thermometer pocket

10 Lashing lug

Adjustment for off-load tap changer

11 Oil filler neck

Rating plate (relocatable)

Grounding terminals

12 Provision for mounting


protective device

Fig. 5/2

9 Towing eye, 30 mm dia.

TUMETIC distribution transformer (sealed tank)

1
10
H1

3 8
2N 2U 2V 2W
1U 2U

1W

B1

7
9

A1

E
1

Oil level indicator

6 Adjustment for off-load tap changer

Oil drain plug

7 Rating plate (relocatable)

Thermometer pocket

8 Grounding terminals

Buchholz relay (optional extra)

Dehydrating breather (optional extra)

9 Towing eye, 30 mm dia.


10 Lashing lug

Notes: Tank with strong corrugated walls shown in illustration is the preferred design. With
HV ratings up to 24 kV and rated power up to 2,500 kVA (and with HV ratings > 2436 kV and
rated power up to 800 kVA), the conservator is fitted on the long side just above the LV bushings.

Fig. 5/3

5/12

TUNORMA distribution transformer (with conservator)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:10 Uhr

Rated

Max.

Imped-

Combi-

No-load

Load

Sound

power

rated

ance

nation of

losses

losses

pressure power

voltage

voltage

losses

level 1 m level

distance

acc. to

tolerance

(centers)

CENELEC

+ 3 dB

TUMETIC

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

Uz
%

4JB.. 4HB..

50

12

..4744-3LB

B-A'

190

1350

42

55

340

350

860

980

660

660

1210 1085

520

..4744-3RB

A-C'

125

1100

34

47

400

430

825 1045

660

660

1210 1085

520

..4744-3TB

C-C'

125

875

34

47

420

440

835

985

660

660

1220 1095

520

..4767-3LB

B-A'

190

1350

42

55

370

380

760

860

660

660

1315 1235

520

..4767-3RB

A-C'

125

1100

34

47

430

460

860

860

660

660

1300 1220

520

..4767-3TB

C-C'

125

875

33

47

480

510

880 1100

685

685

1385 1265

520

36

..4780-3CB

E-D

230

1450

52

500

710

710

1530

520

12

..5044-3LB

B-A'

320

2150

45

59

500

500

1090 1020

660

660

1275 1110

520

..5044-3RB

A-C'

210

1750

35

49

570

570

980

980

660

660

1315 1145

520

..5044-3TB

C-C'

210

1475

35

49

600

620

1030

930

660

660

1320 1150

520

..5067-3LB

B-A'

320

2150

45

59

520

530

1020 1140

685

685

1360 1245

520

..5067-3RB

A-C'

210

1750

35

49

600

610

1030 1030

690

690

1400 1280

520

..5067-3TB

C-C'

210

1475

35

49

640

680

960 1060

695

695

1425 1305

520

36

..5080-3CB

E-D

380

2350

56

660

780

780

1600

520

12

..5244-3LA

B-A'

460

3100

47

62

620

610

1140 1140

710

710

1350 1185

520

..5244-3RA

A-C'

300

2350

37

52

700

690

1130 1010

660

660

1390 1220

520

..5244-3TA

C-C'

300

2000

38

52

760

780

985 1085

660

660

1380 1215

520

..5267-3LA

B-A'

460

3100

47

62

660

640

1150 1150

695

695

1440 1320

520

..5267-3RA

A-C'

300

2350

37

52

730

730

1030

930

695

695

1540 1420

520

..5267-3TA

C-C'

300

2000

37

52

800

820

1120 1120

710

710

1475 1355

520

36

..5280-3CA

E-D

520

3350

59

900

1120

800

800

1700

520

12

..5344-3LA

B-A'

550

3600

48

63

720

710

1190 1190

680

680

1450 1285

520

..5344-3RA

A-C'

360

2760

38

53

840

830

1070 1120

660

660

1470 1300

520

..5344-3TA

C-C'

360

2350

38

53

900

920

1130 1130

660

660

1450 1285

520

..5367-3LA

B-A'

550

3600

48

63

800

780

1290 1290

820

820

1595 1425

520

..5367-3RA

A-C'

360

2760

38

53

890

910

1110 1230

755

755

1630 1460

520

..5367-3TA

C-C'

360

2350

38

53

950

980

1080 1180

705

705

1595 1430

520

..5380-3CA

E-D

600

3800

61

1000

1250

800

800

1700

520

24

(200)

24

36

dB

to-roller

kV

160

LWA

dB

RollerHeight

Um

24

LPA

Width

kVA

100

Pk 75*

Length

Sn

24

P0

Dimensions

weight

TUNORMA

Total

TUMETIC

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

HV side

Sound

TUNORMA

Type

Seite 13

kg

A1

B1

H1

mm

mm

mm

mm

1000

1050

Dimensions and weights are approximate values.


Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized.
x: On request
* Related to 75 C

Table 5/7

Selection table for oil-immersed distribution transformers from 50 to 2,500 kVA

5/13

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:10 Uhr

Rated

Max.

Imped-

Combi-

No-load

Load

Sound

power

rated

ance

nation of

losses

losses

pressure power

voltage

voltage

losses

level 1 m level

distance

acc. to

tolerance

(centers)

CENELEC

+ 3 dB

TUNORMA

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

Uz
%

4JB.. 4HB..

250

12

..5444-3LA

B-A'

650

4200

50

65

830

820

1300 1300

810

810

1450 1285

520

..5444-3RA

A-C'

425

3250

40

55

940

920

1260 1260

670

820

1480 1415

520

..5444-3TA

C-C'

425

2750

40

55

1050 1070

1220 1220

690

700

1530 1310

520

..5467-3LA

B-A'

650

4200

49

65

900

1340 1340

800

760

1620 1450

520

..5467-3RA

A-C'

425

3250

39

55

1010 1010

1140 1190

760

680

1675 1510

520

..5467-3TA

C-C'

425

2750

40

55

1120 1140

1220 1340

715

710

1640 1475

520

36

..5480-3CA

E-E

650

4250

62

1100

1350

800

1680

520

12

..5544-3LA

B-A'

780

5000

50

66

980

960

1440 1330

820

820

1655 1385

670

..5544-3RA

A-C'

510

3850

40

56

1120 1100

1400 1250

820

820

1690 1415

670

..5544-3TA

C-C'

510

3250

40

56

1240 1260

1380 1260

820

820

1665 1390

670

..5567-3LA

B-A'

780

5000

50

66

1050 1030

1450 1350

840

840

1655 1510

670

..5567-3RA

A-C'

510

3850

40

56

1170 1150

1410 1270

820

820

1755 1610

670

..5567-3TA

C-C'

510

3250

40

56

1250 1280

1395 1290

820

820

1675 1540

670

36

..5580-3CA

E-E

760

5400

64

1220

1420

960

1700

670

12

..5644-3LA

B-A'

930

6000

52

68

1180 1160

1470 1390

930

930

1700 1425

670

..5644-3RA

A-C'

610

4600

42

58

1320 1310

1400 1360

820

820

1700 1430

670

..5644-3TA

C-C'

610

3850

42

58

1470 1470

1410 1390

820

820

1695 1420

670

..5667-3LA

B-A'

930

6000

52

68

1240 1220

1570 1570

940

940

1655 1510

670

..5667-3RA

A-C'

610

4600

42

58

1370 1350

1475 1400

820

820

1760 1615

670

..5667-3TA

C-C'

610

3850

42

58

1490 1520

1440 1400

820

820

1765 1540

670

36

..5580-3CA

E-E

930

6200

65

1480

1470

990

1830

670

12

..5744-3LA

B-A'

1100

7100

53

69

1410 1380

1500 1430

840

840

1710 1440

670

..5744-3RA

A-C'

720

5450

42

59

1650 1620

1560 1550

890

890

1745 1470

670

..5744-3TA

C-C'

720

4550

43

59

1700 1710

1500 1470

820

820

1745 1470

670

..5767-3LA

B-A'

1100

7100

53

69

1460 1440

1470 1530

835

850

1755 1610

670

..5767-3RA

A-C'

720

5450

42

59

1650 1620

1495 1420

835

820

1815 1665

670

..5767-3TA

C-C'

720

4550

43

59

1860 1910

1535 1500

820

820

1860 1645

670

..5780-3CA

E-E

1050

7800

66

1680

1510

1030

1900

670

24

(500)

24

36

dB

to-roller

kV

400

LWA

dB

RollerHeight

Um

24

LPA

Width

kVA

(315)

Pk 75*

Length

Sn

24

P0

Dimensions

weight

TUMETIC

Total

TUMETIC

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

HV side

Sound

TUNORMA

Type

Seite 14

Dimensions and weights are approximate values.


Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized.
x: On request
* Related to 75 C

Table 5/8

5/14

Selection table for oil-immersed distribution transformers from 50 to 2,500 kVA

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

kg

920

A1

B1

H1

mm

mm

mm

mm

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:10 Uhr

Seite 15

Transformers
Rated

Max.

Imped-

Combi-

No-load

Load

Sound

power

rated

ance

nation of

losses

losses

pressure power

voltage

voltage

losses

level 1 m level

distance

acc. to

tolerance

(centers)

CENELEC

+ 3 dB

Total

P0

Pk 75*

LPA

LWA

dB

dB

Dimensions

RollerHeight

to-roller

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

TUNORMA

Width

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

Length

TUMETIC

weight

TUMETIC

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

HV side

Sound

TUNORMA

Type

Sn

Um

Uz

kVA

kV

4JB.. 4HB..

630

12

..5844-3LA

B-A'

1300

8400

53

70

1660 1660

1680 1480

880

880

1755 1585

670

..5844-3RA

A-C'

860

6500

43

60

1850 1810

1495 1420

835

820

1785 1510

670

..5844-3TA

C-C'

860

5400

43

60

2000 1990

1535 1380

820

820

1860 1520

670

..5844-3PA

B-A'

1200

8700

53

70

1750 1760

1720 1560

890

890

1920 1685

670

..5844-3SA

A-C'

800

6750

43

60

1950 1920

1665 1600

870

870

1740 1400

670

..5844-3UA

C-C'

800

5600

43

60

2160 2130

1670 1560

830

830

1840 1500

670

..5867-3LA

B-A'

1300

8400

53

70

1690 1650

1665 1640

860

860

1810 1595

670

..5867-3RA

A-C'

860

6500

43

60

1940 1920

1685 1680

870

870

1910 1695

670

..5867-3TA

C-C'

860

5400

43

60

2100 2130

1600 1490

820

820

1940 1725

670

..5867-3PA

B-A'

1200

8700

53

70

1730 1720

1780 1580

880

880

1760 1610

670

..5867-3SA

A-C'

800

6750

43

60

1970 1960

1645 1640

830

830

1810 1595

670

..5867-3UA

C-C'

800

5600

43

60

2240 2210

1740 1670

880

880

1840 1625

670

36

..5880-3CA

E-E

1300

8800

67

1950

1740

1080

1940

670

12

..5944-3PA

B-A'

1450

10700

55

72

1990 1960

1780 1540

1905 1660

670

..5944-3SA

A-C'

950

8500

45

62

2210 2290

1720 1830

900

960

1935 1630

670

..5944-3UA

C-C'

950

7400

44

62

2520 2490

1760 1710

920

920

1975 1730

670

..5967-3PA

B-A'

1450

10700

55

72

2000 1950

1720 1710

1000 1000

1885 1670

670

..5967-3SA

A-C'

950

8500

45

62

2390 2340

1760 1710

960

960

1945 1730

670

..5967-3UA

C-C'

950

7400

44

62

2590 2550

1770 1700

930

930

1985 1780

670

36

..5980-3CA

E-E

1520

11000

68

2400

1800

1100

2030

670

12

..6044-3PA

B-A'

1700

13000

55

73

2450 2640

1790 1630

1000 1000

2095 2070

820

..6044-3SA

A-C'

1100

10500

45

63

2660 2610

1830 1830

1040 1040

2025 1770

820

..6044-3UA

C-C'

1100

9500

45

63

2800 2750

1830 1830

1040 1040

2105 1840

820

..6067-3PA

B-A'

1700

13000

55

73

2530 2720

1830 1670

1090 1010

2095 2120

820

..6067-3SA

A-C'

1100

10500

45

63

2750 2690

1790 1740

1050 1050

2055 1840

820

..6067-3UA

C-C'

1100

9500

45

63

2830 2810

1725 1770

2065 1850

820

..6080-3CA

E-E

1700

13000

68

2850

2120

2220

820

24

800

24

1000

24

36

kg

A1

B1

H1

mm

mm

mm

mm

1000 1000

990

990

1160

Dimensions and weights are approximate values.


Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized.
x: On request
* Related to 75 C

Table 5/9

Selection table for oil-immersed distribution transformers from 50 to 2,500 kVA

5/15

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:10 Uhr

Rated

Max.

Imped-

Combi-

No-load

Load

Sound

power

rated

ance

nation of

losses

losses

pressure power

voltage

voltage

losses

level 1 m level

distance

acc. to

tolerance

(centers)

CENELEC

+ 3 dB

Sn

Um

Uz

kVA

kV

4JB.. 4HB..

(1 250)

12

..6144-3PA

B-A'

..6144-3SA

dB

2100

16000

56

74

2900 3080

1930 1850

A-C'

1300

13200

46

64

3100 3040

1810 1780

..6144-3UA

C-C'

1300

11400

46

64

3340 3040

..6167-3PA

B-A'

2100

16000

56

74

..6167-3SA

A-C'

1300

13200

46

..6167-3UA

C-C'

1300

11400

36

..6180-3CA

E-E

2150

12

..6244-3PA

B-A'

..6244-3SA

kg

Rollerto-roller

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

Height

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

TUMETIC

LWA

dB

A1

B1

H1

mm

mm

mm

mm

1260 1100

2110 2070

820

990

2145 1880

820

1755 1720

1015 1000

2235 1970

820

2950 3200

2020 1780

1260 1100

2110 2220

820

64

3190 3120

1840 1810

1060 1060

2115 1900

820

46

64

3390 3330

1810 1780

1015

990

2245 2030

820

16400

70

3360

2150

1250

2350

820

2600

20000

57

76

3450 3590

1970 1870

1220 1140

2315 2095

820

A-C'

1700

17000

47

66

3640 3590

2030 1760

1080 1090

2315 2010

820

..6244-3UA

C-C'

1700

14000

47

66

3930 3880

2020 1900

1110 1100

2395 2070

820

..6267-3PA

B-A'

2600

20000

57

76

3470 3690

2070 1830

1280 1120

2335 2320

820

..6267-3SA

A-C'

1700

17000

47

66

3670 3850

2030 2000

1230 1070

2265 2120

820

..6267-3UA

C-C'

1700

14000

47

66

4010 3950

2000 1850

1030 1030

2305 2010

820

36

..6280-3CA

E-E

2600

19200

71

3930

2170

1340

2480

820

12

..6344-3PA

B-A'

2900

25300

58

78

4390 4450

2100 1890

1330 1330

2555 2540

1070

..6344-3SA

A-C'

2050

21200

49

68

4270 4430

2080 1840

1330 1330

2455 2250

1070

..6344-3UA

C-C'

2050

17500

49

68

4730 4710

2020 1730

1330 1330

2495 2170

1070

..6367-3PA

B-A'

2900

25300

58

78

4480 4500

2020 1860

1330 1330

2655 2660

1070

..6367-3SA

A-C'

2050

21200

49

68

4290 4490

2190 2030

1330 1330

2425 2280

1070

..6367-3UA

C-C'

2050

17500

49

68

4910 4840

2110 1980

1330 1330

2475 2180

1070

36

..6380-3CA

E-E

3200

22000

75

5100

2260

1380

2560

1070

12

..6444-3PA

B-A'

3500

29000

61

81

5200 5090

2115 2030

1345 1330

2685 2550

1070

..6444-3SA

A-C'

2500

26500

51

71

5150 5110

2195 1950

1345 1330

2535 2450

1070

..6444-3UA

C-C'

2500

22000

51

71

5790 5660

2190 2190

1330 1330

2565 2240

1070

..6467-3PA

B-A'

3500

29000

61

81

5420 5220

2115 2030

1335 1330

2785 2675

1070

..6467-3SA

A-C'

2500

26500

51

71

5260 5220

2195 2030

1335 1335

2585 2580

1070

..6467-3UA

C-C'

2500

22000

51

71

5640 5470

2160 2080

1330 1330

2605 2305

1070

..6480-3CA

E-E

3800

29400

76

5900

2320

1390

2790

1070

36

Dimensions and weights are approximate values.


Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized.
x: On request
* Related to 75 C

5/16

TUNORMA

LPA

24

Table 5/10

Width

Pk 75*

24

2 500

Length

24

(2 000)

Dimensions

weight

P0

24

1 600

Total

TUMETIC

TUMETIC

TUNORMA

HV side

Sound

TUNORMA

Type

Seite 16

Selection table for oil-immersed distribution transformers from 50 to 2,500 kVA

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

990

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:11 Uhr

Seite 17

Transformers
LV terminals

Three-leg core

Normal arrangement: Top or,


Bottom at LV side.
Special version: available
on request at extra charge

Made of grain-oriented,
low-loss electrolaminations
insulated on both sides

Resilient spacers
HV terminals

To insulate core and


windings from mechanical
vibrations, resulting in low
noise emissions

Variable arrangements, for


optimal station design. HV
tapping links on low-voltage
side for adjustment to system
conditions, reconnectable in
de-energized state

HV winding
Consisting of vacuum-potted
single foil-type aluminum
coils. See enlarged detail in
Fig. 5/5

Cross-flow fans

LV winding

Permitting up to 50% increase


in the rated power

Made of aluminum band.


Turns firmly glued together
by means of insulating
sheet wrapper material

Temperature monitoring
By PTC thermistor detectors
in the LV winding
Paint finish on steel parts

Insulation: Mixture of
epoxy resin and quartz
powder

Multiple coating, RAL 5009.


On request: Two-component
varnish or hot-dip galvanizing
(for particularly aggressive
environments)

Makes the transformer


maintenance-free,
moisture-proof, tropicalized,
flame-resistant and selfextinguishing

Environmental category E2
Clamping frame
and truck

Climatic category C2
(If the transformer is installed
outdoors, degree of protection
IP 23 must be assured)

Rollers can be swung


around for lengthways or
sideways travel

Fire class F1

Fig. 5/4

GEAFOL cast-resin dry-type transformer

GEAFOL Cast-Resin
Dry-Type Transformers
Standards and regulations
GEAFOL cast-resin dry-type
transformers comply with
IEC 60076-11, CENELEC HD 464,
HD 538 and DIN 42523.

Advantages and applications


GEAFOL distribution and power
transformers in ratings from 100 to
approx. 40,000 kVA and LI values of
over 200 kV are full substitutes for
oil-immersed transformers with comparable electrical and mechanical
data.

insulating materials are used throughout, so that all restrictions applying


to oil-filled electrical equipment,
such as oil-collecting pits, fire walls,
fire-extinguishing equipment, etc.,
are omitted.

GEAFOL transformers are designed


for indoor installation close to their
point of use, which is often at the
load center. Flame-retardant inorganic

5/17

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:13 Uhr

Seite 18

GEAFOL transformers are also installed where oil-filled transformers


must not be used: inside buildings, in
tunnels, on ships, on offshore cranes
and platforms, in wind power stations, in groundwater protection areas, in food processing plants etc.
Often they are combined with their
primary and secondary switchgear
and distribution boards into compact
substations that are installed directly
at their point of use. As converter transformers for
variable-speed drives
they can be installed
together with the converters at the drive location. This reduces civil works, cable costs, transmission losses, and installation costs.
GEAFOL transformers are fully LIrated. They have similar noise levels
to comparable oil-filled transformers.
Taking the above indirect cost reductions into account, they are also frequently cost-competitive.

Runddrahtwicklung

8
U

7
6
5

By virtue of their design, GEAFOL


transformers are almost completely
maintenance-free for their lifetime.

6
4

6
5

Folienwicklung

GEAFOL transformers have been in


successful service since 1965. A lot
of licences have been granted to major manufacturers throughout the
world since.

2 4 6 8

1 3 5 7

Fig. 5/5

5/18

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

High-voltage encapsulated winding design of GEAFOL cast-resin transformer


and voltage stress of a conventional round-wire winding (above) and the foil
winding (below)

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:13 Uhr

Seite 19

Transformers

HV winding
The high-voltage windings are wound
from aluminum foil, interleaved with
high-grade polypropylene insulating
foil. The assembled and connected
individual coils are placed in a heated
mold, and are potted in a vacuum
furnace with a mixture of pure silica
(quartz sand) and specially blended
epoxy resins. The only connections
to the outside are copper bushings,
which are internally bonded to the
aluminum winding connections.
The external star or delta connections
are made of insulated copper connectors to ensure an optimal installation
design. The resulting high-voltage
windings are fire-resistant, moistureproof, corrosion-proof, and show excellent ageing properties under all indoor operating conditions. For outdoor use, specially designed
sheet-metal enclosures are available.
The foil windings combine a simple
winding technique with a high degree
of electrical safety. The insulation is
subjected to less electrical stress
than in other types of windings. In a
conventional round-wire winding, the
interturn voltage can add up to twice
the interlayer voltage, while in a foil
winding it never exceeds the voltage
per turn because a layer consists of
only one winding turn. Result: a high
AC voltage and impulse-voltage withstand capacity.

Why aluminum? The thermal expansion coefficients of aluminum and


cast-resin are so similar that thermal
stresses resulting from load changes
are kept to a minimum (see Fig. 5/5).
LV winding
The standard low-voltage winding
with its considerably reduced dielectric stress is wound from single aluminum sheets with interleaved castresin impregnated fiberglass fabric.
The assembled coils are then ovencured to form uniformly bonded solid
cylinders that are impervious to moisture. Through the single-sheet winding design, excellent dynamic stability under short-circuit conditions is
achieved. Connections are submerged-arc-welded to the aluminum
sheets and are extended as aluminum busbars to the secondary terminals.
Fire safety
GEAFOL transformers use only
flame-retardant and self-extinguishing
materials in their construction. No additional substances, such as aluminum oxide trihydrate, which could
negatively influence the mechanical
stability of the cast-resin molding
material, are used. Internal arcing
from electrical faults and externally
applied flames do not cause the
transformers to burst or burn. After
the source of ignition is removed, the
transformer is self-extinguishing.

This design has been approved by


fire safety officers in many countries
for installation in buildings where
people are generally present and in
other areas.
The environmental safety of the combustion residues has been proven in
many tests.
Categorization of cast-resin transformers
Dry-type transformers have to be categorized under the sections listed
below:
C Environmental category
C Climatic category
C Fire category
These categories have to be shown
on the rating plate of each dry-type
transformer.
Product conformity to the properties
laid down in the standards for ratings
within the approximate category
relating to environment, humidity,
climate and fire behavior has to be
proven by means of tests.
These tests are described for the environmental category (code number
E0, E1 and E2) and for the climatic
category (code number C1, C2) in
DIN VDE 0532, Part 6 (corresponding
to HD 464). According to this standard, they are to be carried out on
complete transformers.
The tests of fire behavior (fire class
code numbers F0 and F1) are limited
to tests on a duplication of a complete transformer. It consists of
a core leg, a low-voltage winding and
a high-voltage winding. The specifications for fire class F2 are determined
by agreement between the manufacturer and the customer.

5/19

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:13 Uhr

Seite 20

ing temperatures are not exceeded


for extended periods of time.
Temperature monitoring
Each GEAFOL transformer is fitted
with three temperature sensors
which are installed in the LV winding.
Solid-state tripping devices can be
supplied separately on order. The
PTC thermistors used for sensing are
selected for the hot-spot winding
temperature. Additional sets of sensors can be installed for them and for
fan control purposes. Additional dialtype thermometers and Pt100 are
available too. Special versions can be
provided for 3.6 kV operating voltages of the LV winding and higher.
Auxiliary wiring is run in a protective
conduit and terminated in a central
LV terminal box (optional). Each wire
and terminal is identified and a wiring
diagram is permanently attached to
the inside cover of this terminal box.
Photo 5/13 Flammability test of cast-resin transformer

Siemens has carried out a lot of


tests.

Insulation class and temperature


rise

The results for our GEAFOL transformers are something to be proud


of:
C Environmental category E2
C Climatic category
C2
C Fire class
F1

The high-voltage winding and the


low-voltage winding utilise class F
insulating materials with a mean temperature rise of 100 K (standard design).

This good behavior is solely due to


the GEAFOL cast-resin mix which
has been used successfully for
decades.

5/20

Overload capability
GEAFOL transformers can be overloaded permanently up to 50% (with
a corresponding increase in impedance voltage and impedance losses)
if additional cross-flow fans are installed. (Dimensions increase by
approximately 200 mm in length and
width.) Short-time overloads are uncritical as long as the maximum wind-

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Installation and enclosures


Indoor installation in electrical operating rooms or in various protective enclosures is the preferred method of
installation. The transformers need to
be protected against direct sunlight,
sandstorms and against water. Sufficient ventilation must be provided by
the installation location or the enclosure. Otherwise forced-air cooling
must be provided by other equipment.

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:19 Uhr

Seite 21

Transformers

Photo 5/14 GEAFOL transformer with plugtype cable connections

Instead of the standard open terminals, insulated plug-type elbow connectors can be supplied for the highvoltage side with LI ratings up to
170 kV. Primary cables are usually
fed to the transformer from trenches
below, but can also be connected
from above.
Secondary connections can be made
by multiple insulated cables or by
busbars, from either below or above.
Secondary terminals are aluminum
flat pad connections with bores.
A variety of indoor and outdoor enclosures in different safety classes are
available for the transformers alone,
or for indoor compact substations in
conjunction with high- and low-voltage switchgear cabinets.

Photo 5/15 Radial cooling fans on


GEAFOL transformer for AF
cooling

Photo 5/16 GEAFOL transformer in protective


housing to IP 20/40

Recycling of GEAFOL transformers


In GEAFOL cast-resin transformer
types, the high-voltage and low-voltage coils form firm tubes owing to
electrical and mechanical advantages
and production-specific requirements.
In order to recycle these valuable materials, these parts can normally be
removed and post-processed with
little effort, once the upper clamping
structure has been dismantled and
the top core yoke has been pulled
out. It is common practice to recycle
the main mass portions consisting of
iron core, frame and truck.

5/21

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:19 Uhr

Seite 22

GEAFOL Cast-Resin
Selection Tables, Technical
Data, Dimensions and
Weights

Standard

DIN 42 523

Rated power

10020,000 kVA*

Rated frequency

50 Hz

HV rating

up to 36 kV

LV rating
up to 780 V
(special designs for up to 20 kV are possible)
Tappings on HV side

2.5 % or 2 x 2.5 %

Connection

HV winding: delta
LV winding: star

Impedance voltage at rated


current

4 8 %

Insulation class

HV/ LV = F / F

Temperature rise

HV/ LV = 100/100 K

Color of metal parts

RAL 5009

Table 5/11

GEAFOL three-phase transformers

Um
kV

Lightning impulse test voltage AC test voltage


kV
kV

1.1

12

75

28

24

95**

50

36

145**

70

Table 5/12

Insulation level

2U

2V

2N

2W

H1

A1
* Power ratings > 2.5 MVA upon request
** Other levels upon request

5/22

Fig. 5/6

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

GEAFOL cast-resin transformer

E
B1

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:19 Uhr

Seite 23

Transformers
Rated

Max.

Imped-

power

rated

ance

voltage

voltage

Type

No-load

Load

Load

Sound

Sound

Total

losses

losses

losses

pressure

power

weight

level 1 m

level

HV side

Dimensions
Length

Width

RollerHeight

to-roller
distance
(centers)

tolerance
+ 3 dB

Sn

Um

Uz

kVA

kV

4GB..

100

12

.5044-3CA

440

1600

1900

45

59

630

1210

705

835

without wheels

.5044-3GA

320

1600

1900

37

51

760

1230

710

890

without wheels

.5044-3DA

360

2000

2300

45

59

590

1190

705

860

without wheels

.5044-3HA

300

2000

2300

37

51

660

1230

710

855

without wheels

.5064-3CA

600

1500

1750

45

59

750

1310

755

935

without wheels

.5064-3GA

400

1500

1750

37

51

830

1300

755

940

without wheels

.5064-3DA

420

1800

2050

45

59

660

1250

750

915

without wheels

.5064-3HA

330

1800

2050

37

51

770

1300

755

930

without wheels

.5244-3CA

610

2300

2600

47

62

770

1220

710

1040

520

.5244-3GA

440

2300

2600

39

54

920

1290

720

1050

520

.5244-3DA

500

2300

2700

47

62

750

1270

720

990

520

.5244-3HA

400

2300

2700

39

54

850

1300

725

985

520

.5264-3CA

800

2200

2500

47

62

910

1330

725

1090

520

.5264-3GA

580

2200

2500

39

54

940

1310

720

1095

520

.5264-3DA

600

2500

2900

47

62

820

1310

725

1075

520

.5264-3HA

480

2500

2900

39

54

900

1350

765

1060

520

.5444-3CA

820

3000

3500

50

65

1040

1330

730

1110

520

.5444-3GA

600

3000

3400

42

57

1170

1330

730

1135

520

.5444-3DA

700

2900

3300

50

65

990

1350

740

1065

520

.5444-3HA

570

2900

3300

42

57

1120

1390

745

1090

520

.5464-3CA

1050

2900

3300

50

65

1190

1390

735

1120

520

.5464-3GA

800

2900

3300

41

57

1230

1400

735

1150

520

.5464-3DA

880

3100

3600

50

65

990

1360

735

1140

520

.5464-3HA

650

3100

3600

41

57

1180

1430

745

1160

520

.5475-3DA

1300

3800

4370

50

65

1700

1900

900

1350

520

24

160

12

24

250

12

24

36

P0

Pk 75*

Pk 120** LPA

dB

LWA

GGES

A1

B1

H1

dB

kg

mm

mm

mm

mm

Dimensions and weights are approximate values, valid for 400 V at the secondary side.
The vector group is either Dyn 5 or Dyn 11. Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized.
* Related to 75 C
** Related to 120 C
Table 5/13

GEAFOL cast-resin transformer for 100 to 2,500 kVA

5/23

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

Rated

Max.

Imped-

power

rated

ance

voltage

voltage

19:19 Uhr

Type

Seite 24

No-load

Load

Load

Sound

Sound

Total

losses

losses

losses

pressure

power

weight

level 1 m

level

HV side

Dimensions
Length

Width

RollerHeight

to-roller
distance
(centers)

tolerance
+ 3 dB

Sn

Um

Uz

kVA

kV

4GB..

(315)

12

.5544-3CA

980

3300

3800

52

67

1160

1370

820

1125

670

.5544-3GA

720

3300

3800

43

59

1320

1380

820

1195

670

.5544-3DA

850

3400

3900

51

67

1150

1380

830

1140

670

.5544-3HA

680

3400

3900

43

59

1290

1410

830

1165

670

.5564-3CA

1250

3400

3900

51

67

1250

1410

820

1195

670

.5564-3GA

930

3400

3900

43

59

1400

1440

825

1205

670

.5564-3DA

1000

3600

4100

51

67

1190

1410

825

1185

670

.5564-3HA

780

3600

4100

43

59

1300

1460

830

1195

670

36

.5575-3DA

1450

4500

5170

51

67

1900

1950

920

1400

670

12

.5644-3CA

1150

4300

4900

52

68

1310

1380

820

1265

670

.5644-3GA

880

4300

4900

44

60

1430

1380

820

1290

670

.5644-3DA

1000

4300

4900

52

68

1250

1410

825

1195

670

.5644-3HA

820

4300

4900

44

60

1350

1430

830

1195

670

.5664-3CA

1450

3900

4500

52

68

1410

1440

825

1280

670

.5664-3GA

1100

3900

4500

44

60

1570

1460

830

1280

670

.5664-3DA

1200

4100

4700

52

68

1350

1480

835

1275

670

.5664-3HA

940

4100

4700

44

60

1460

1480

835

1280

670

36

.5675-3DA

1700

5100

5860

52

68

2100

2000

920

1440

670

12

.5744-3CA

1350

4900

5600

53

69

1520

1410

830

1320

670

.5744-3GA

1000

4900

5600

45

61

1740

1450

835

1345

670

.5744-3DA

1200

5600

6400

53

69

1470

1460

845

1275

670

.5744-3HA

980

5600

6400

45

61

1620

1490

845

1290

670

.5764-3CA

1700

4800

5500

53

69

1620

1500

835

1330

670

.5764-3GA

1270

4800

5500

44

61

1830

1540

840

1350

670

.5764-3DA

1400

5000

5700

53

69

1580

1540

850

1305

670

.5764-3HA

1100

5000

5700

45

61

1720

1560

850

1320

670

.5775-3DA

1900

6000

6900

53

69

2600

2050

940

1500

670

24

400

24

(500)

24

36

P0

Pk 75*

Pk 120** LPA

dB

LWA

GGES

A1

B1

H1

dB

kg

mm

mm

mm

mm

Dimensions and weights are approximate values, valid for 400 V at the secondary side.
The vector group is either Dyn 5 or Dyn 11. Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized.
* Related to 75 C
** Related to 120 C
Table 5/14

5/24

GEAFOL cast-resin transformer for 100 to 2,500 kVA

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:19 Uhr

Seite 25

Transformers
Rated

Max.

Imped-

power

rated

ance

voltage

voltage

Type

No-load

Load

Load

Sound

Sound

Total

losses

losses

losses

pressure

power

weight

level 1 m

level

HV side

Dimensions
Length

Width

RollerHeight

to-roller
distance
(centers)

tolerance
+ 3 dB

Sn

Um

Uz

kVA

kV

4GB..

630

12

.5844-3CA

1500

6400

7300

54

70

1830

1510

840

1345

670

.5844-3GA

1150

6400

7300

45

62

2070

1470

835

1505

670

.5844-3DA

1370

6400

7400

54

70

1770

1550

860

1295

670

.5844-3HA

1150

6400

7400

45

62

1990

1590

865

1310

670

.5864-3CA

1950

6000

6900

53

70

1860

1550

845

1380

670

.5864-3GA

1500

6000

6900

45

62

2100

1600

850

1400

670

.5864-3DA

1650

6400

7300

53

70

1810

1580

855

1345

670

.5864-3HA

1250

6400

7300

45

62

2050

1620

860

1370

670

36

.5875-3DA

2200

7000

8000

53

70

2900

2070

940

1650

670

12

.5944-3CA

1850

7800

9000

55

72

2080

1570

850

1560

670

.5944-3GA

1450

7800

9000

47

64

2430

1590

855

1640

670

.5944-3DA

1700

7600

8700

55

72

2060

1560

865

1490

670

.5944-3HA

1350

7600

8700

47

64

2330

1600

870

1530

670

.5964-3CA

2100

7500

8600

55

72

2150

1610

845

1580

670

.5964-3GA

1600

7500

8600

47

64

2550

1650

855

1620

670

.5964-3DA

1900

7900

9100

55

71

2110

1610

860

1590

670

.5964-3HA

1450

7900

9100

47

64

2390

1630

865

1595

670

36

.5975-3DA

2600

8200

9400

55

72

3300

2140

950

1850

670

12

.6044-3CA

2200

2200

10200

55

73

2480

1590

990

1775

820

.6044-3GA

1650

1650

10200

47

65

2850

1620

990

1795

820

.6044-3DA

2000

2000

9700

56

73

2420

1620

990

1560

820

.6044-3HA

1500

1500

9700

47

65

2750

1660

990

1560

820

.6064-3CA

2400

2400

10000

55

73

2570

1660

990

1730

820

.6064-3GA

1850

1850

10000

47

65

3060

1680

990

1815

820

.6064-3DA

2300

2300

10500

55

73

2510

1680

990

1620

820

.6064-3HA

1750

1750

11000

47

65

2910

1730

990

1645

820

.6075-3DA

3000

3000

10900

55

73

3900

2200

1050

1900

820

24

(800)

24

1000

24

36

P0

Pk 75*

Pk 120** LPA

dB

LWA

GGES

A1

B1

H1

dB

kg

mm

mm

mm

mm

Dimensions and weights are approximate values, valid for 400 V at the secondary side.
The vector group is either Dyn 5 or Dyn 11. Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized.
* Related to 75 C
** Related to 120 C
Table 5/15

GEAFOL cast-resin transformer for 100 to 2,500 kVA

5/25

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

Rated

Max.

Imped-

power

rated

ance

voltage

voltage

19:19 Uhr

Type

Seite 26

No-load

Load

Load

Sound

Sound

Total

losses

losses

losses

pressure

power

weight

level 1 m

level

HV side

Dimensions
Length

Width

RollerHeight

to-roller
distance
(centers)

tolerance
+ 3 dB

Sn

Um

Uz

kVA

kV

4GB..

P0

Pk 75*

Pk 120** LPA

dB

(1250)

12

.6144-3DA

2400

.6144-3HA

9600

11000

57

75

2900

1780

990

1605

820

1850

10500

12000

49

67

3370

1790

990

1705

820

.6164-3DA

2700

10000

11500

57

75

3020

1820

990

1635

820

.6164-3HA

2100

10500

12000

49

67

3490

1850

990

1675

820

36

.6175-3DA

3500

11000

12600

57

75

4500

2300

1060

2000

520

12

.6244-3DA

2800

11000

12500

58

76

3550

1840

995

2025

1070

.6244-3HA

2100

11400

13000

50

68

4170

1880

1005

2065

1070

.6264-3DA

3100

11800

13500

58

76

3640

1880

995

2035

1070

.6264-3HA

2400

12300

14000

49

68

4080

1900

1005

2035

1070

36

.6275-3DA

4300

12700

14600

58

76

5600

2500

1100

2400

1070

12

.6344-3DA

3600

14000

16000

59

78

4380

1950

1280

2150

1070

.6344-3HA

2650

14500

16500

51

70

5140

1990

1280

2205

1070

.6364-3DA

4000

14500

16500

59

78

4410

2020

1280

2160

1070

.6364-3HA

3000

14900

17000

51

70

4920

2040

1280

2180

1070

36

.6375-3DA

5100

15400

17700

59

78

6300

2500

1280

2400

1070

12

.6444-3DA

4300

17600

20000

62

81

5130

2110

1280

2150

1070

.6444-3HA

3000

18400

21000

51

71

6230

2170

1280

2205

1070

.6464-3DA

5000

17600

20000

61

81

5280

2170

1280

2160

1070

.6464-3HA

3600

18000

20500

51

71

6220

2220

1280

2180

1070

.6475-3DA

6400

18700

21500

61

81

7900

2700

1280

2400

1070

24

1600

24

(2000)

24

2500

24

36

LWA

GGES

A1

B1

H1

dB

kg

mm

mm

mm

mm

Dimensions and weights are approximate values, valid for 400 V at the secondary side.
The vector group is either Dyn 5 or Dyn 11. Power ratings in parentheses are not standardized.
* Related to 75 C
** Related to 120 C
Table 5/16 GEAFOL cast-resin transformer for 100 to 2,500 kVA

5/26

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap_05_Engl

11.08.2005

19:19 Uhr

Seite 27

Transformers

5/27

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:30 Uhr

Seite B2

Low Voltage

6.1 Low-Voltage Switchgear and


Distribution Systems

6.5 Switches, Outlets and Electronic


Products

6.2 Protective Switching Devices and


Fuse Systems

6.6 SIMOCODE pro Motor Management


Systems for Constant-Speed Motors
in the Low-Voltage Range

6.3 Modular Devices


6.4 Maximum-Demand Monitors

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:30 Uhr

Seite B3

Low Voltage

chapter 6

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:30 Uhr

Seite 2

6 Low Voltage
One important element of the Totally
Integrated Power philosophy for
power distribution by Siemens (see
Chapter 3) is its comprehensive
protection scheme. Especially in
commercial or institutional buildings,
in industry and in infrastructural projects, i.e. in production sites and administrative buildings, the highest
safety requirements for systems and
persons have to be met. Examples
for this are airports or railway stations.
Only an integrated protection scheme
with systems and products from one
manufacturer, with a guaranteed uniform quality standard, based on national and international standards,
provides this high safety level.
A protection system whose components are coordinated in an optimal
way has been part of the Siemens
product philosophy for a long time.
These products that stand for
reliable Siemens high-performance
technology have been included in the
Totally Integrated Power system. The
result is an integrated protection
scheme from the main distribution
board to the consumer.
The high reliability and availability of
the system ensures a faultless operation on an economical basis. The
components have been certified in
accordance with all international standards and can therefore be used all
over the world. As a leading manufacturer of technology, Siemens is setting new standards with respect to
safety.

6/2

Components of the integrated


Siemens protection scheme
C Low-voltage switchgear and distribution systems from 6,300 A (e.g.
SIVACON, ALPHA) down to 63 A
(e.g. SIMBOX)
C SIVACON busbar trunking systems
for safe power distribution from
25 A up to 6,300 A
C Protective switching devices and
fuse systems for overload, shortcircuit and fire protection by way of
circuit- breakers (e.g. SENTRON
3VL), fuse systems (LV HRC,
DIAZED and NEOZED) and
miniature circuit-breakers
C Residual-current-operated circuitbreakers for personnel and fire
protection
C Lightning current and surge arrester of the Classes B, C and D
C Monitoring systems for undervoltage and overvoltage protection
C Fuse switch-disconnectors for safe
isolation and disconnection
C Switching operations handled
safely with conventional techniques
or automated processes via main
and EMERGENCY stop switches,
operator units, modular, switching,
control and signaling devices
C Optimization of the power distribution by way of remote signaling,
communication and control via bus
systems

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:30 Uhr

Seite 3

Low Voltage

6.1 Low-Voltage
Switchgear and
Distribution System

An overview of the available program


of the Siemens low-voltage
switchgear and distribution systems
is shown in Fig. 6/1.

General

In Table 6/2, the essential selection


criteria are summarised in the following four areas:

Low-voltage switchgear and distribution


boards form the link between the equipment for the generation (generators),
transmission (cables, overhead lines)
and transformation (transformers) of
electrical energy on the one hand, and
the loads, e.g. motors, solenoid valves,
actuators and devices for heating, lighting and air conditioning, and information
technology on the other hand.

Medium voltage
Low voltage e.g

Currents
C Rated currents of the busbars
C Rated currents of the power supply
C Rated currents of the feeders
C Rated peak withstand current Ipk of
the busbars

Distribution system

Degree of protection and installation


C Degree of protection
C Protection against electric shock
(safety class)
C Material of the enclosure
C Type of mounting (wall-mounting,
stand-alone)
C Number of front operating panels
Type of device installation
C Fixed installation
C Plug-in
C Withdrawable unit
C Snap-on mounting on standard
mounting rail
Application
C Eight different types of application

Enclosures

Busbar trunking
systems

230/ 400 V
6300 A

3200 A

630 A

400 A
160 A

63 A

Fig. 6/1

Product range of low-voltage switchgear and distribution systems (European technology)

6/3

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:30 Uhr

Seite 4

Types of construction

DIN VDE

NF CEI

Small distribution board

SIMBOX 63

SIMBOX LC, SIMBOX Universal

Wall-mounted distribution board

ALPHA 160 / 400, ALPHA

ALPHA Universal

Floor-mounted distribution cabinet < 630 A

ALPHA 630

ALPHA Universal

High-power distribution board > 630 A

SIVACON

SIKUS Universal

SIVACON

Power Center

SIVACON

SIKUS Universal HC

SIVACON

Busbar trunking system

SIVACON

SIVACON

SIVACON

Table 6/1

ALPHA 400

Low-voltage switchgear and distribution systems in compliance with EN 60439 / IEC 60439

The low-voltage switchgear and distribution systems described comply


with the following standards:
EN 60 439-1/IEC 60 439-1/
VDE 0660 Part 500
Low-voltage switchgear assemblies;
type-tested and partially type-tested
assemblies.
EN 60 439-2/IEC 60 439-2/
VDE 0660 Part 502
Low-voltage switchgear assemblies;
special requirements for busbar
trunking systems.
EN 60 439-3/IEC 60 439-3/
VDE 0660 Part 504
Low-voltage switchgear assemblies;
special requirements for low-voltage
switchgear assemblies which can be
operated by non-specialists
EN 60 439-3/IEC 60 439-3/
VDE 0660 Part 504
Low-voltage switchgear assemblies
(point-to-point distribution boards);
special requirements for low-voltageswitchgear assemblies which can
be operated by non-specialists.
EN 60 439-4/IEC 60 439-4/
VDE 0660 Part 501
Low-voltage switchgear assemblies
(point-to-point distribution boards);
special requirements for construction
site distribution boards. The various
construction types of switchgear and
distribution boards do not show any

6/4

BS

strict discrimination features. Therefore, the manufacturer and the operator use different terms for the same
product. In most cases, the operators type of application will be decisive for the designation.
Main or subdistribution board
In order to prevent these problems with
regard to the definition of terms, only
the two terms main distribution board
and subdistribution board are used to
give an example of a low-voltage system in an industrial plant (Table 6/2).
Here, the main distribution board is
supplied directly via one transformer
per busbar section. The downstream
motor control centers, control systems, distribution boards for lighting,
heating, air conditioning, workshops,
etc., which are again supplied by the
main distribution board, are part of
the subdistribution boards.
Point-to-point distribution board
Point-to-point distribution board is
the designation for all switchgear and
distribution boards which supply the
electrical energy radially via cables and
leads from the point-to-point distribution board to the remotely arranged
consumers. The necessary switching,
protective and measuring devices are
combined centrally in the switchgear
or distribution board for that.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Busbars (point-to-point distribution)


With busbar trunking systems,
power is transmitted to the immediate vicinity of the consumers. The
consumers are connected to the busbar trunking system via tap-off units
with or without fuse protection and
short spur lines or cables.
Busbar trunking systems supply and
distribute electrical power in industrial facilities and buildings. Tap-off
units can be installed at suitable positions in the trunking, which makes
these systems most suitable for consumers which need to be reinstalled
at different locations frequently.
They are also used as rising mains in
high-rise buildings to supply the floor
distribution boards.
Busbar trunking systems can communicate. In these applications, the tapoff units include the appropriate communications equipment in addition to
the required protective devices. In this
combination, power distribution and
automation are implemented in an object-oriented, decentralized manner.
Types of construction
All distribution boards in accordance
with IEC 60 439; EN 60 439 in a locally
preferred type in accordance with
DIN/VDE, NF/CEI and BS.

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:30 Uhr

Seite 5

Low Voltage
Type of

Switchgear

distribution board

Distribution systems

Point-to-point distribution board

Point-to-point

Line

2,0005)/ 630

Max. rated current


of busbars

7,400 A

6,300 A

3,200 A

2000 A

A, 1,000 A

630 A

6,300 A

Max. rated current


of supply

6,300 A

6,300 A

3,200 A

2,000 A

2,0005)/ 630
A, 2,000 A

630 A

6,300 A

Max. rated current of


outgoing feeders

5,000 A

5,000 A

3,200 A

630 A

2,000/630 A

630 A

6,300 A

Rated peak current Ipk


of busbars up to

375 kA

250 kA

187 kA

80 kA

68 kA

80 kA

286 kA

Degree of protection

Max. IP54

IP54

IP30, IP41
IP54

bis IP656)

IP651)

IP34 IP68

Device mounting type

Fixed moun- Fixed moun- Fixed mounted2), plug-in, ted2), plug-in, ted2), plug-in
withdrawable withdrawable

Outgoing feeders with


or without fuses

Fixed moun- Fixed moun- Fixed mounted2), snap-on ted2), snap-on ted2), snap-on
mounting
mounting
mounting

Tap-off units
with plug-in
technology

Option

Mounting type
(indoors)

Wall
or
stand-alone

Wall, standalone
or
double front

Wall
or
stand-alone

Floor- or wall- Wall


mounted,
or
flush- or
stand-alone
surfacemounted

Wall

Suspended
from ceiling,
wall-mounted,
sub-floor
mounted

Operating front panels


(quantity)

1 or 2

1 or 2

Protection against
electric shock3)

SK 1

SK 1

SK 1

SK 1

SK 2
SK 1

SK 2

Enclosure
material

Metal

Metal

Metal

Metal

Molded
plastic
Metal

Molded plastic Molded plastic


Aluminum
Metal

Type of application4)

1, 2, 4, 6, 7

1, 2, 4, 6, 7

2, 4, 7, 8

2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 8

2, 3, 4, 5,

3, 8

System type

SIVACON 8PT, SIVACON 8PV SIVACON 8PT, 8HU


SIKUS
SIKUS
Universal HC
Universal

1)

Special version for shipbuilding IP66

2)

Option: withdrawable circuit-breaker

3)

Safety class: SK 1 = Protective ground connection;


SK 2 = Protective insulation; SK 3= Safety extra-low
voltage

Table 6/2

4)

1
3
5
7

5)

SIKUS Klassik

6)

SIMBOX Universal WP

SK1

1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6, 8

8GK, 8GB,
8HP
8GD, 8GS,
ALPHA,
ALPHA
Stratum

Main switchgear station


Light and energy distribution system
Distribution cabinet
Reactive power compensation

SIVACON 8PS
Systeme CD-K,
BD01, BD2,
LD, LX, PEC

2
4
6
8

Main distribution board


Subdistribution board
Motor distribution board
Control

Selection criteria for low-voltage switchgear and distribution systems

6/5

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:30 Uhr

Seite 6

6.1.1 SIVACON 8PS


Busbar Trunking Systems
What are busbar trunking
systems?
Busbar trunking systems are the linking element between transformer
and power consumer. They are used
for power transmission and distribution.
The new SIVACON 8PS busbar trunking system is a well proven system
and the market leader in its field. It
covers a current range of 25 A to
6,300 A, meaning it is suitable for any
given application. The system is divided into 6 subsystems:
CD-K (25 A 40 A)
BD01 (40 A 160 A)
BD2 (160 A 1,250 A)
LD (1,100 A 5,000 A, ventilated)
LX (800 A 6,300 A, sandwich-type)
and PEC (800 A 6,000 A, cast)
Power transmission
Between the transformer and the
low-voltage switchgear, busbar trunking systems transmit electrical power
by means of system components.
They are installed between the transformers and the main distribution
boards, and also connect the subdistribution boards, including the feeder
lines for power distribution to the
consumer locations busbar trunking
systems with flexible tap-off units are
used here.
Busbar trunking systems are increasingly replacing connecting cables in
the field of power transmission. With
high currents in particular, cables
must be connected in parallel. Owing
to the high short-circuit power and resulting short distances of cable sup-

6/6

Photo 6/1

SIVACON 8PS the right solution for every application

ports, this type of cable laying is both


costly and time-consuming, not to
mention problematic on account of
the imbalanced power distribution.
Moreover, the installation of cable
trays is expensive, too.
In contrast to this, busbar trunking
systems are power transmission systems which constitute a type-tested
system even when used as combined systems. They have been properly designed for this task as specified in their technical data. They can
be used economically and ensure
safe and reliable power transmission.
Busbar trunking systems have proved
their worth in power transmission
over decades. Today, they are the first
choice in this field of application, with
almost no other system being a real
alternative.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Power distribution
In terms of pictorial projection, busbar trunking systems are an elongated busbar system (line distribution) of a point-to-point distribution
board. Here, individual consumer taps
are no longer connected rigidly to the
system of busbars, as is the case
with point-to-point distribution, but
can be flexibly adjusted to changing
tasks via appropriate tap-off units.
This adjustment can be carried out as
required within a system-related grid.
This way, a variable line distribution
system is created for line supply
and/or area-wide power supply.
The traditional, radial power installation with fixed wired cables and lines
is no longer up to the state of the art.
It is far too rigid for automated production sites. Cable laying in ducts,
on trays, in walls or ceilings is an impediment to flexibility requirements.

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:30 Uhr

Seite 7

Low Voltage

Readjustment made easy


Readjustments are indispensable in
modern production sites, in particular
in automated production. Rearrangements of machinery and restructuring
of existing plant facilities call for a
flexible adjustment of the power supply installation systems.
Busbar trunking systems are particularly geared to these requirements.
An area-wide power supply can be
planned ahead. When modifications
have been scheduled, the consumer
tap-off units are taken to the new location of the machinery and simply
readjusted at the existing system of
busbars. Even completely new supply lines can be built up by reutilizing
existing system components. This
makes busbar trunking system an interesting investment into the future.

Photo 6/2

Lighting control with BD01 and CD-K systems

Photo 6/3

Control of supply with the BD01 system

Retrofitting and re-equipping without


interrupting the production process is
not only important for a continuous
supply of electricity, but is also crucial for production sites that work in
multi-shifts around the clock. Here,
an interruption is only feasible, if at
all, in very narrow time slots. Any
modification must be achievable
quickly and cost-saving.
Consumer tap-off units must therefore be designed that allow for power
tapping, relocation and extension under voltage, i.e. with a busbar track
that has not been isolated from supply. This way, expensive interruptions
of operation are avoided.

Communication-capable busbar
trunking systems
The growing requirements to the economic efficiency, flexibility and transparency of automated systems for
building power supply and industrial
applications make the trend towards
decentralized power distribution and
automation an irreversible process. In
this electrifying context, intelligent
power distribution concepts open up
new savings potential and reduce the
number of interfaces to the automation world.

SIVACON 8PS busbar trunking systems supply and protect consumers


in a distributed manner, which means
right on the spot. A recent development is the concept of combined, decentralized power distribution and
distributed automation in an integrated range of products: system networking results in a high degree of
transparency on the one hand, and in
central processing of recorded consumption and operating data on the
other hand.

6/7

TIP_Kap06_Engl

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19:30 Uhr

Seite 8

Photo 6/4

CD-K system

Photo 6/5

BD2 system

Photo 6/6

LX system

Photo 6/7

BD01 system

Photo 6/8

LD system

Photo 6/9

PEC system

The concept of communication-capable busbar trunking systems is based


on tap-off units which are complemented by communication-capable
device units. The bus systems
PROBUS-DP, AS-Interface and
instabus EIB constitute the communications basis.
These flexible modules enable the
combination of different solution
packages for specific customer requirements. Short planning and configuration times, fast installation of
the power distribution and automation system, easy commissioning and
a high degree of flexibility in terms of
modified area utilization are measurable advantages of communication-capable busbar trunking systems.

6/8

CD-K
C Rated current: 30 A, 40 A, 2 x 25 A,
2 x 40 A
C Conductor material: copper
C Rated operating voltage: 400 V
C Degrees of protection: IP54, IP55
C Spacing between consumer taps:
0.5 m each, 1 m from one side or
both sides
C Rated current of the consumer taps
up to 16 A, with or without fuse
C Codeable tapping points
BD01
C Rated current: 40 A, 63 A, 100 A,
125 A, 160 A
C Aluminum as conductor material for
up to 125 A, and copper for 160 A
C Rated operating voltage: 400 A

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

C Degrees of protection: IP54, IP55


C Spacing of consumer taps: either
0.5 m or 1 m from one side
C Rated current of the consumer tapoff units up to 63 A
BD2
C Rated current: 160 A, 250 A, 315 A
400 A, 500 A, 630 A, 800 A
1,000 A, 1,250 A
C Conductor material: aluminum,
copper
C Degrees of protection: IP52/54,
IP55 for power transmission
C Spacing of consumer tap-off units:
0.5 m each from both sides
C Rated current of the consumer
tap-off units up to 630 A

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:30 Uhr

Seite 9

Low Voltage

Ratings

Conductors

Trunking unit, degree of protection

Tap-off unit, live adjustment

CD-K (25 A 40 A)

2, 3, 4, 6, 2 x 4, copper,
PE enclosure

IP54, IP55

up to 16 A

BD01 (40 A 160 A)

4, aluminum, copper,
PE enclosure

IP54, IP55

up to 63 A

BD2 (160 A 1250 A)

5, aluminum, copper

IP52, IP54 with additional unit,


IP55

up to 630 A

LD (1100 A 5000 A)

4, 5, aluminum, copper

IP34, IP54

up to 1,250 A

LX (800 A 6300 A)

3, 4, 5, aluminum, copper,
Clean Earth, optionally
200% conductor

IP54, IP55

up to 630 A
(up to 1,250 A no live
adjustment)

PEC (800 A 6000 A)

4, 5, copper

IP66, IP68 (140 h)

Table 6/3

Technical data

LD
C Rated current for degree of protection IP34 and Al conductors: 1,100
A, 1,250 A, 1,600 A, 2,000 A, 2,500
A, 3,000 A, 3,700 A, 4,000 A
C Rated current for degree of protection IP54 and Al conductors: 900 A,
1,000 A, 1,200 A, 1,500 A, 1,800 A,
2,000 A, 2,400 A, 2,700 A
C Rated current for degree of protection IP34 and Cu conductors: 2,000
A, 2,600 A, 3,400 A, 4,400 A, 5,000A
C Rated current for degree of protection IP54 and Cu conductors: 1,600
A, 2,000 A, 2,600 A, 3,200 A, 3,600A
C Rated operating voltage: 1,000 V
C Degrees of protection: IP34, IP54
C Tap-off units with circuit-breakers
up to 1,250 A
C Tap-off units with switch disconnectors with fuse up to 630 A

LX
C Rated current: 800 A, 1,000 A,
1,250 A, 1,400 A, 1,600 A, 2,000 A,
2,500 A, 3,200 A, 4,000 A, 4,500 A,
5,000 A, 6,300 A
C Conductor material: aluminum,
copper
C Rated operating voltage: 690 V
C Degrees of protection: IP54, IP55 for
power transmission up to 3,200 A
C Tap-off units with circuit-breakers
up to 1,250 A
C Tap-off units with fuse switchdisconnectors up to 630 A
PEC
C Rated current: 800 A, 1,000 A, 1,200
A, 1,400 A, 1,750 A, 2,000 A, 2,500
A, 3,000 A, as parallel systems
3,500 A, 4,000 A, 5,000 A, 6,000 A
C Conductor material: copper
C Rated operating voltage: 1,000 V
C Degrees of protection: IP66, IP68
type-tested for a duration of
140 days
C Tapping points feasible for the
installation of customer-specific
tap-off units

Every element of the SIVACON 8PS


busbar trunking system is tested
prior to delivery. This test includes
dielectric tests which are performed
to ensure proper insulation. The entire
SIVACON 8PS busbar trunking system is manufactured and tested in
compliance with ISO 9001.
Standards
All SIVACON 8PS busbar trunking
systems constitute type-tested
switchgear assemblies (TTA) in compliance with IEC 60439-1 and -2.
Approvals (system-specific)
GL Germanischer Lloyd
LR Lloyd's Register Of Shipping
ABS American Bureau Of Shipping
BV Bureau Veritas
DNV Dansk Norske Veritas
RINA Registro Italiano Navale
SABS South Africa
GOST-R Russia

6/9

TIP_Kap06_Engl

Photo 6/10

11.08.2005

tap-off unit

19:30 Uhr

Seite 10

Photo 6/11

BD2 angular element

Photo 6/12

Communication-capable
BD2 tap-off unit

1: Straight trunking unit


2: Tap-off unit
3: Transformer infeed
4: Connection to SIVACON 8PT/8PV
5: Directional change element
6: Clamp connection, fastener

Photo 6/13

Block diagram of busbar trunking systems

6/10

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:30 Uhr

Seite 11

Low Voltage

4 MVA
690 V
Cable or busbar system
6,300 A

Power supply
LT

3 AC 50 Hz

Main distribution board


Circuit-breakers as
feeders tho the
subdistribution boards

5,000 A

Connecting cables
ET

ST

630 A

100 A

FT

630 A
630 A

100 A

Photo 6/14

Motor control center


1 in withdrable
design for
production/manufacturing plants

SIVACON 8PV low-voltage


switchgear

6.1.2 SIVACON Low-Voltage


Switchgear Economical,
Flexible and Safe

M M

Motor control center


2 in withdrable
design for
production/manufacturing plants

CBS Circuit-breaker design


PS Plug-in design

Fig. 6/2

WS
FS

Subdistribution boards
for auxiliary system
(lighting, heating
air conditioning,
workshops, etc.)
100 A
Control unit

Withdrawable design
Fixed-mounted design

Example for the structure of a low-voltage system in an industrial company

Introduction
Low-voltage switchgear forms the
link between the equipment for the
generation (generators), transmission
(cables, overhead lines) and transformation (transformers) of electrical energy on the one hand, and the consumers, e.g. motors, solenoid valves,
actuators and devices for heating,
lighting and air conditioning on the
other hand.
Since the majority of the applications
is supplied with low voltage, the lowvoltage switchgear is especially important both for public supply systems and for industrial plants. The
prerequisite for a reliable supply system is high availability, flexibility for
process-related adaptations and high
control and operating reliability of the
switchgear.
The power distribution in a system is
usually implemented via a main
switchgear station (power center or
main distribution board) and a number of sub- or motor control centers
(see Fig. 6/5).

SIVACON 8PV for the


process industry
The SIVACON 8PV low-voltage
switchgear is an economical, demand- meeting and type-tested
switchgear assembly (see Photo
6/14) which is used in power distribution, in the chemical, mineral oil and
capital goods industry as well as in
public and private buildings.
It is characterized by a high degree of
personnel and system safety and can
be used on all power levels up to
6,300 A:
C as main switchgear (power center
or main distribution board)
C as motor control center
C as subdistribution board

All modules used are type-tested


(TTA*), i.e. they comply with the requirements of
C IEC 60439-1
C DIN EN 60439-1
C VDE 0660 Part 500
and additionally
C DIN EN 50274 (VDE 0660 Part 514),
IEC 61641, VDE 0660 Part 500
Supplement 2 (arcing fault), DIN EN
ISO 9001/14001 certification.

Thanks to the many options to combine SIVACON 8PV boards due to


their modular design, all requirements
can be met with fixed-mounted and
plug-in as well as with withdrawable
designs.

* Type-tested switchgear assembly

6/11

TIP_Kap06_Engl

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19:30 Uhr

Seite 12

Rated insulation voltage Ul

1,000 V

Rated operational voltage Ue

up to

Rated currents for busbars (3- and 4-pole):


Main horizontal busbars
Rated current
Rated peak withstand current Ipk
Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 6,300 A
up to 250 kA
up to 100 kA

Vertical busbars
for circuit-breaker design
Rated current
Rated peak withstand current Ipk
Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 6,300 A
up to 250 kA
up to 100 kA

for fixed-mounted and plug-in design


Rated current
Rated peak withstand current Ipk
Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 2,000 A
up to 110 kA
up to
50 kA

for withdrawable design


Rated current
Rated peak withstand current Ipk
Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 1,000 A
up to 143 kA
up to
65 kA

Switchgear rated currents


Circuit-breakers
Outgoing feeders
Motor feeders

up to 6,300 A
up to 1,600 A
up to 630 A

Degree of protection
in acc. with IEC 60 529, EN 60 529:

IP 20 up to IP 54

Tabl 6/4

690 V

Technical data

400
600

400

600

400
400
400

[mm]

Busbar compartment
Device compartment

Cable/busbar connection compartment


Cross-wiring compartment

Fig. 6/3

Panel structure

6/12

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Features of a SIVACON 8PV


switchgear station
C Type-tested standard modules
C Space-saving base areas starting
from 400 x 400 mm
C Solid wall design for safe
panel-to-panel separation
C Highest packing density with up
to 40 feeders per panel
C Standard operator interface for
all withdrawable units
C Test and disconnected position
with door closed
C Visible isolating gaps and points
of contact
C Variable busbar positions at the
top or at the rear
C Cable/busbar connection from
above or below
Description
Panel structure
The cabinet is structured in a modular
grid based on one modular spacing
(1 M) corresponding to 175 mm. The
effective device installation space has
a height of 1,750 mm = 10 M.
Basically, a panel is subdivided into
four functional compartments (see
Fig. 6/3):
C Busbar compartment
C Device compartment
C Cable/busbar connection
compartment
C Cross-wiring compartment
Main busbar system
The main busbar system with busbar
cross sections for rated currents up
to 6,300 A can be used variably (see
Fig. 6/7) and consists of the three
phase conductors L1 to L3 and the
PE, N or PEN conductors.

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:31 Uhr

Seite 13

Cable entry:
Use:

Position of the main


busbar system:

Busbar current:
Mounting:
Cable entry:
Use:

400

Busbar current:
Mounting:
Cable entry:
Use:

at the rear (top and/or


bottom)
In up to 4,000 A,
Icw up to 100 kA
on the wall or standalone
from below and/or
above
main/sub-distribution
board or integrated motor control center

Position of the main


busbar system:
Busbar current:
G

2200

Position of the main


busbar system:

Mounting:
Cable entry:
Use:

center
(top and/or bottom)
In up to 4,000 A,
Icw up to 100 kA
stand-alone, double front
from below and/or above
main/sub-distribution board
or integrated motor control
centre in double-front
version

center top
In up to 6,300 A,
Icw up to 100 kA
stand-alone, double front
from below and/or above
power center

up
up
up
up
up

to
to
to
to
to

Table 6/5

1200

Operating side

Busbar

Construction variants of SIVACON 8PV low-voltage switchgear stations by


virtue of the variable position of the main busbar system

Rated breaker current


In
In
In
In
In

1000

600

G Device installation space


Fig. 6/4

2200

Mounting:

at the top
In up to 2,000 A,
Icw up to 50 kA
on the wall or
stand-alone
from below
motor control centre
sub-distribution board

2200

Position of the main


busbar system:
Busbar current:

2200

Low Voltage

1,000 A
1,600 A
2,500 A
3,200 A
6,300 A

Panel width
400
500
600
800
1,000

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

Ciruit-breaker panel width

Circuit-breaker design
The circuit-breaker panels have separate functional areas for the device
compartment, cross-wiring compartment and cable/busbar connection
compartment (Photo 6/15).
The cross-wiring compartment is located above the device compartment, the cable/busbar connection
compartment below. Supply from
above results in a mirror-image
arrangement. The panel width is determined by the rated current of the
SENTRON WL circuit-breaker (Table
6/5).

Photo 6/15

Circuit-breaker panel with withdrawable type SENTRON 3WL,


1,600 A rated current

Photo 6/16

Panel with motor assemblies

Withdrawable design

from supply (Photo 6/16).

If requirements change frequently, as


often demanded by industrial
processes, such as changes in the
motor power or switching new consumers into supply, a withdrawable
circuit-breaker technology offers the
optimum for plant availability.

Withrawable units equipped with the


communication-capable SIMOCODE
motor protection and control units enable a cost-effective interfacing to the
worlds of automation.

Consumer or motor feeders can be


replaced or whole compartments can
even be rearranged without that the
switchgear must be disconnected

These withdrawable units are


available in sizes 1/4 (11 kW),
1/2 (18.5 kW), 1 (37 kW), 2 (75 kW)
3 (160 kW), 4 (250 kW).

6/13

TIP_Kap06_Engl

Photo 6/17

11.08.2005

19:31 Uhr

Panel with pluggable in-line


switch disconnectors and plug-in
modules

Seite 14

Photo 6/18

Fixed-mounted panel with modular functional units

Owing to the plug contacts at the


feeder side (Photo 6/21 Plug-in module), this technology enables fast replacement without the switchgear
having to be isolated from supply.
In-line technology, plugged
In-line switch-disconnectors with
fuses for outgoing cables up to
630 A. The banks are 50 mm (125 A),
100 mm (250 A) or 200 mm (400 A /
630 A) high.
Photo 6/20

Withdrawable unit equipped


with SIMOCODE

Plug-in technology
Consumer feeders up to 45 kW and
outgoing circuit-breaker units up to
100 A. The plug-in modules are
50 mm (11 kW) and 100 mm
(45 kW) high.
Fixed-mounted design

Photo 6/21

Plug-in module

Plug-in technology
Thanks to their compact design, pluggable banks and plug-in modules
make it possible to construct a panel
at low costs and save space (see
Photo 6/17).

6/14

In certain applications, e.g. in building


installation systems, there is no need
to replace components when the
switchgear has not been disconnected from supply, or short standstill times do not result in exceptional
costs.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 6/19

Reactive power control unit,


250 kvar, choked

In such cases, the fixed-mounted


design (Photo 6/18) offers excellent
economy, high reliability and sufficient flexibility.
Modular functional units can be combined in the panel as required and
if necessary, they can easily be replaced once the equipment has been
disconnected from supply.
Reactive power compensation
Depending on the type of load,
choked or non-choked control units
(i.e. with or without reactors) are
provided for reactive power compensation.
Depending on the power installed
and the ambient temperature, it may
be necessary to mount a fan assembly (reinforcement of convection).
The capacitor units are designed
with fuse switch-disconnectors
(Photo 6/19).

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:31 Uhr

Seite 15

Low Voltage

SIVACON 8PT for the


infrastructure market
Introduction
The SIVACON 8PT low-voltage
switchgear is the standard solution
for building and industrial installations.
SIVACON 8PT is tailored to the needs
of the world market, i.e. it takes into
account the demand for standard solutions from one manufacturer and for
local production and the resulting advantages in terms of financing and
procurement close to the plant.
As a power distribution board,
SIVACON 8PT is available throughout
the world and can be used at all
power levels up to 7,400 A, as a fixedmounted unit as well as a plug-in and
withdrawable unit design.
Your advantage:
SIVACON Technology Partner
These are qualified and permanently
audited switchgear manufacturers
close to your company who were
chosen by Siemens. This way, you
will always benefit from Siemens
know-how on conditions that can only
be offered by a local sales partner.
This is a fast, flexible and cost-effective solution for you.

The exclusive use of high-quality


Siemens switchgear ensures a long
service life and reliable operation.
C Safety and proven quality for
every system by type testing
C Siemens switchgear for reliable
operation
C Worldwide presence through
SIVACON Technology Partner
C High flexibility for economical
solutions

Photo 6/22

SIVACON 8PT low-voltage switchgear, busbar at the rear, up to 3,200 A

Busbar system

Rear
(top, bottom)

Rated insulation voltage Ul

Top

1,000 V

1,000 V

690 V

up to 690 V

Rated operating voltage Ue

up to

Rated currents for busbars


Main horizontal busbars
Rated current
Rated peak withstand current Ipk
Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 3,200 A
up to
187 kA
up to
85 kA

up to 7,400 A
up to
375 kA
up to
150 kA

For circuit-breaker technology


Vertical busbars
Rated current
Rated peak withstand current Ipk
Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 3,200 A
up to
187 kA
up to
85 kA

up to 6,300 A
up to
250 kA
up to
100 kA

For fixed-mounted design


Rated current
Rated peak withstand current Ipk
Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to
up to
up to

1,150 A
110 kA
50 kA

up to 1,400 A
up to
163 kA
up to
65 kA

For in-line plug-in design


Rated current
Rated peak withstand current Ipk
Rated short-time withstand current Icw

up to 2,100 A
up to
110 kA
up to
50 kA

up to 2,100 A
up to
163 kA
up to
50 kA

Rated currents switchgear


Circuit-breakers
Outgoing feeders

up to 3,200 A
up to
630 A

up to 6,300 A
up to
630 A

Degree of protection
in acc. with IEC 60529, EN 60529:

IP30 to IP54

IP30 to IP54

Dimensions (mm)
Height
Depth

2,000, 2,200
600

2,200
600 to 1,200

Table 6/6

Technical data

6/15

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:31 Uhr

Seite 16

All of the modules used are type-tested


(TTA), i.e. they comply with the
requirements of
C IEC 60439-1
C DIN EN 60439-1, VDE 0660, Part 500
C IEC 61641, VDE 0660 Part 500,
Supplement 2 (arcing fault)
C Quality management
DIN EN ISO 9001
C Environmental management
DIN EN ISO 14001
Features of a SIVACON 8PT
switchgear, busbar at the top,
up to 7,400 A

Photo 6/23

SIVACON 8PT low-voltage switchgear, busbar at the top, up to 7,400 A

0/
80 000
1,

/
00 0
1,0 ,20
1

0
80

0
80

2,200

2,600

0
60

/
00 0
1,0 ,20
1

C Type-tested standard modules


C (TTA)
C Standardized busbar position at
the top of the panel
C 3- and 4-pole busbar system
up to 7,400 A
C Rated withstand current Ipk up
to 375 kA
C Deep switchgear compartment
for universal installation
C Modular structure of device
compartments
C Single-front and back-to-back
installation
C Cable/busbar entry from above
or below
C Cable connection from the front or rear
Description

[mm]

Busbar compartment
Device compartment
Cable/busbar connection
compartment

Fig. 6/5

Cross-wiring compartment (for control


cables and contact conductors)
Cable routing compartment
for cables from above

Panel structure
Generally, a panel is divided into
five functional units (Fig. 6/5):
C Busbar compartment
C Device compartment
C Cable/busbar connection compartment
C Cross-wiring compartment
C Cable routing compartment

Panel structure

Main busbar system


The main busbar system with busbar
cross sections for rated currents up to
7,400 A can be used in various ways
(Fig. 6/6) and consists of the three
phase conductors L1 to L3 and the PE,
N or PEN conductors.

6/16

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:31 Uhr

Seite 17

Low Voltage

Busbar system up to 3,200 A


The frames are 600 mm deep and suitable for wall or rear
mounting.

800/
1000
600
L1 L2 L3 N/PEN

With cable connection from above, the depth


of the frame is 800 mm or 1,000 mm.

Bedienfront

PE

200

Max. short-circuit strength:


Ipk
200 kA
Icw
80 kA

2200
1700

Max. rated current (35 C):


Ventilated
3,200 A
Unventilated
2,400 A

Busbar system up to 4,000 A


The frames are 800 mm deep and suitable for wall or
rear mounting.

1000/
1200
800
L1

L2

L3 N/PEN

Max. rated current (35 C):


Ventilated
4,000 A
Unventilated
2,950 A

Busbar system up to 7,400 A


The frames are 800 mm deep and suitable for wall or
rear mounting.

2200
1700

1000/
1200
800
L1

L2

L3 N/PEN

L1

L2

L3 N/PEN

2600
1700

Bedienfront

PE

200

Location of the main busbar system

Circuit-breaker technology

Various panel versions are available


depending on function, switchgear
rated current and necessary shortcircuit strength.
Fixed-mounted design

With cable connection from above, the depth


of the frame is 1,000 mm or 1,200 mm.

Fig. 6/6

Circuit-breaker panel with withdrawable type circuit-breakers

Circuit-breaker technology (Photo


6/24) comprises panel types which
are exclusively used for the supply of
the switchgear and for outgoing feeders and couplings.

PE

Max. rated current (35 C):


Ventilated
7,400 A
Unventilated
5,400 A
Max. short-circuit strength:
Ipk
375 kA
Icw
150 kA

Bedienfront

200

With cable connection from above, the depth


of the frame is 1,000 mm or 1,200 mm.

300

Max. short-circuit strength:


Ipk
250 kA
Icw
100 kA

Photo 6/24

Depending on the requirements, the


panels for outgoing feeders in fixedmounted design are equipped with
circuit-breakers, fuse switch-disconnectors or switchable fuse switchdisconnectors.
Modular feeders
The modular outgoing feeders enable
efficient installation (Photo 6/25).
Modifications and adjustments necessary for operation can be easily
performed.

6/17

TIP_Kap06_Engl

Photo 6/25

11.08.2005

19:31 Uhr

Seite 18

Fixed-mounted panel with outgoing feeders, modular design

Photo 6/26

Fixed-mounted panel with outgoing feeder cables, compartment


design

Photo 6/27

Fixed-mounted panel with switchable in-line fuse switch-disconnectors

Photo 6/28

3NJ6 fuse switch disconnectors,


in-line plug-in design

Photo 6/29

Reactive power control unit,


500 kvar, non-choked

Outgoing cable feeders in


compartment design
This technology, which provides single compartments for each circuitbreaker, ensures a higher degree
of operator and system safety
(Photo 6/26).
Switchable in-line fuse switchdisconnectors
The in-line fuse switch-disconnectors
make for optimum packing density
thanks to their compact design and
their modular structure (Photo 6/27).
In-line plug-in design
Panels that provide for outgoing feeders (Photo 6/28) to be plugged in and
arranged in line represent a lowpriced alternative to the withdrawable
design. By virtue of the supply-side
plug-in contact and their compact design, these panels facilitate easy and
quick retrofitting or replacement without switchgear shutdown.

6/18

Reactive power compensation


The panels for central reactive power
compensation (Photo 6/29) ease the
load on transformers

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

and cables, reduce transmission


losses and save electricity costs.
Depending on the load structure,
they are equipped with choked or
non-choked capacitor modules.

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Low Voltage

Bild 6/30

SIKUS Universal HC

6.1.3 SIKUS Universal and


SIKUS Universal HC
Systems for the Switchgear
Manufacturer
Product and system description
Product description
The single and modular distribution
boards of the SIKUS system comply with the relevant regulations.
They can for instance be used as
main and subdistribution boards in
administrative and functional buildings, in industrial plants and commercial buildings as well as in public
buildings such as schools or hospitals.
All cabinet versions are modularly designed. Their enclosure consists of a
robust frame with holes, including
roof, base and rear plate, and side
parts, and depending on their width,
a single or double door. The cabinet is
made of electroplated, powder-

Bild 6/31

coated sheet steel and meets the requirements of safety class 1 (protective earth conductor). The enclosure
can be equipped as required with
matching assemblies, components
and doors.
With assembled doors, the enclosures have the degree of protection
IP 55 as a standard. When individual
cabi- nets are lined up, a sealing between the frames is required to attain
IP 55. Doors which feature four-point
locking and door lock can be
mounted on all sides of the individual
cabinets as well as of the cabinet assemblies. Doors can optionally be
hinged left or right.
The door opening angle is 180, improving escape ways in narrow operator rooms.

SIKUS Universal

The busbars can be arranged vertically or horizontally in the cabinets.


A fully developed and harmonized
product range of assembly kits for
fixed mounting and withdrawable
units is available. The cabinets can be
equipped with Siemens circuit-breakers and modular devices on mounting
rails.
Available designs and assemblies
All cabinet versions are available in
safety class 1, with protective earth
conductor, and in degree of protection IP 55 with protective cover and
sealed door, or in IP 30 with protective cover without door.
Cabinets in component kits
The cabinet has not been assembled
and is put together by the switchgear
cabinet installer.

The enclosures can be matched with


busbar systems for rated currents up
to 6,300 A.

6/19

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Seite 20

Design and test requirements

Cabinet panel versions

Type testing

SIKUS Universal and SIKUS Universal


HC distribution boards have been
approved as type-tested low-voltage
switchgear assemblies (TTA) in accordance with IEC 60439-1, DIN EN
60439 Part 1 (VDE 0660 Part 500).
The constructor of a switchgear
station is normally the switchgear installer. He has to observe the specific
instructions for the Siemens
switchgear to be built in when he
performs an installation.

C Unequipped panels
C Panel with mounting plate for any
devices
C Panel with assembly kit for
circuit-breakers
C Panel with standard mounting rails
for modular devices
C Panel with assembly kit for switch
disconnector
C Panel with assembly kit for LV HRC
fuse switch-disconnector
C Panel with assembly kit for LV HRC
in-line fuse switch-disconnectors
C Panel with assembly kit for
compensation modules
C Panel with assembly kit for 19
system expansion

The type-tested modular SIKUS distribution boards meet the requirements


with regard to
C Temperature-rise limit
C Dielectric strength
C Short-circuit strength
C Effectiveness of the protective
earth conductor
C Clearance in air and creepage distances
C Mechanical functions
C Degree of protection

Environmental aspects
The plastic materials used are free
of halogen and PVC and can be recycled. The paints used dont contain
any solvents, cadmium or lead.
Modular system and component
design
Stable cabinet frames with 25-mm
hole grid in accordance with DIN
43660 including
C System-specific frame coverings
C Cable entry from top or bottom
C Vertical or horizontal busbar
arrangement
C Base frame accessible from four
sides
C Cabinet-high doors with espagnolette lock, four-point locking and
double-bit key with 3-mm pin
C Door-opening angle 180, doors to
be hinged left or right
C Doors to be mounted at all cabinet
sides
C Fixing with thread-forming screws.
All parts mounted with this fixing
method are thus included in the
protective measure.

6/20

Features at a glance
C Modular component principle for
the creation of a great variety of
cabinet combinations for standalone and line-up installation
C High quality and safety standards
C Flexible expansion with manifold
assembly kits and accessories
C Easy to install due to modular kit
system
C Safe contacting due to grounding
scheme and thread-forming screws
C The matching design for every
requirement
C Appealing design

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

When installing an electrical system,


the switchgear installer as the manufacturer has to observe the standards
IEC 60439-1, DIN EN 60 439 Part 1
(VDE 0660 Part 500) and the instructions of the system supplier.
Routine testing for
C wiring, electrical functions,
C insulation,
C protective measures
has then to be performed by the
manufacturer (switchgear installer).
He is obliged to sign the corresponding test record.
Interior compartmentalization
Partitions
C prevent any contact between the
energized parts of adjacent functional switching panels,
C limit the possibility of accidental
arc flashover and
C protect the equipment from the
transition of solid objects from one
panel to another.

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Low Voltage

Technical data

STRATUM 3200
SIKUS Universal
SIKUS 3200

SIKUS Universal HC

Overvoltage category

1,000/III, 600/IV

1,000/III, 600/IV

Rated impulse withstand


voltage Uimp

kV

Clearances in air and creepage distances

DIN VDE 0110

DIN VDE 0110

Rated insulation voltage Ul

1,000

1,000

Rated operational voltageUe

690

690

Rated current,
main busbars

3,200

6,300

Short-circuit strength
Main busbars
Ipk
Icw (1 s)

kA
kA

up to 220
up to 100

220
100

Multi-terminal busbars Ipk


Icw (1 s)

kA
kA

up to 176
up to 80

Protective measure

degree of protection 1 (protective ground conductor)

safety class 1

Number of conductors
in the busbar run

3, AC
4, AC
2 and 3, DC

3, AC
4, AC
2 and 3, DC

Degree of protection acc. to DIN EN 60 529

IP 30 with protective cover


without door;
IP 55 with protective cover and sealed door

IP 30

Level of pollution

Ambient temperature

35 (24-h average)

40

Relative humidity

50 at 40 C

50 at 40 C

Altitude of installation

max. 2000 (above sea level)

2,000

Enclosure

frame and doors made of 2-mm sheet steel

Plastic parts

without halogens and PVC

Surface of metal parts

electroplated and powder-coated

Color

RAL 7035, light gray (other RAL color on request)

Locking system

2-/4-point locking with built-in espagnolette lock and


double-bit key 3-mm pin

Table 6/7

Technical data

6/21

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6.1.4 Floor-Mounted ALPHA


630 Universal, ALPHA 630
DIN Distribution Boards
Description
The ALPHA floor-mounted distribution
board can be used as main and subdistribution board in administrative,
functional, commercial and industrial
buildings.
The distribution boards and components are modularly designed and
constructed. The system components
and assemblies can also be supplied
in kit form for individual distribution
board construction.
With just a few standard components, a great variety of configurations is possible.
The standard mounting rail tier spacing amounts to 125 + 150 mm. Degree of protection IP 55 can be attained. The rated current maximum
amounts to 630 A
40 mm or 60 mm busbar systems
with dimensions up to 30 x 10 mm
can be installed.
The construction is based on international specifications and installation
preferences. All components are typetested (TTA).
The transparent system design enables easy planning, configuration,
calculation, ordering and installation.
The distribution board components are
designed in such a way that all
switchgear and modular devices can
be installed using only a screwdriver.
We recommend using a batterydriven screwdriver. A pre-assembled
kit consists of an equipment rack,
supports and the corresponding front
cover.

6/22

Photo 6/32

ALPHA Universal,
design standard: NF, CEI

The materials used are environmentally compatible, free of halogens and


recyclable.
System
A distribution board system comprises an enclosure, assemblies for
mounting the switchgear and modular devices, system components and
accessories.
Enclosure
Material: Sheet steel, electroplated,
powder-coated and in safety class 2
with total insulation.
Color: RAL 7035 light gray (further
RAL colors on request).
Assembly kits
Made of sendzimir-galvanized sheet
steel for a wide range of configurations, e.g. for switchgear, modular devices or terminal blocks. The largest
switchgear that can be installed are
the LV HRC fuse switch-disconnectors, of size NH3, 630 A. For fuseless
incoming/outgoing circuits, assemblies of the 3VL molded-case circuit-

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 6/33

ALPHA 630 DIN,


design standard: BS

breaker series, 63 A up to 630 A, are


available.
Application
As main and subdistribution boards in
functional, commercial and industrial
buildings. Can be used as control
cabinet with cabinet-high mounting
plate (see accessories).
Features
C System design conforms to relevant DIN, EN and VDE specifications
C Type-tested cabinets in accordance
with DIN EN 60 439-1/3
C Degree of protection IP 55 can be
attained with door
C Safety class 1 (protective ground
conductor) or safety class 2 (total
insulation) are available
C High-quality surface finish: Cabinets and enclosures made of electroplated and powder-coated sheet
steel; system components made of
sendzimir-galvanized sheet steel;
small parts and screws chromated

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Low Voltage

Technical data

ALPHA 630 DIN

ALPHA 630 Universal

Overvoltage category

III

III

kV 6

Rated impulse withstand


voltage Uimp
Clearances in air and
creepage distances

DIN VDE 0110

DIN VDE 0110

Rated insulation voltage Ui

V 690

69

Rated operational voltage Ue

V 690

690

Rated voltage
Rated current

V AC 690, 40 to 60 Hz; for built-in devices


A 630

690, 40 to 60 Hz; for built-in devices


630

Rated peak short-circuit


current Ipk

kA up to 61.3 (3-pole)1), current flow time 30 ms

53

Rated short-time
current Icw/1s

kA 20

25

Protective measure

safety class 1 with protective ground conductor, safety class 1 with protective ground
or safety class 2 with total insulation
connection

Degree of protection acc.


to DIN EN 60529

IP43 / 55

IP30 / 43 / 55

Tier spacing of mounting rail mm 125, 150

150, 200

Modular width

18 mm is 1 MW

18 mm is 1 MW

Level of pollution

Ambient temperature

35 (24-h average)

35 (24-h average)

Relative humidity

% 50 at 40C

50 at 40C

Altitude of installation

m max. 2,000 above sea level

max. 2,000 above sea level

Type-tested switchgear
assembly (TTA)

acc. to DIN EN 60439-1 (VDE 0660 Part 500)


and DIN EN 60439-3 (VDE 0660 Part 504)

EN 60439-1

Enclosure

sheet steel

sheet steel

Plastic parts

environmentally compatible, recyclable

environmentally compatible, recyclable

Surface of metal parts

electroplated and powder-coated

electroplated and powder-coated

Color

RAL 7035 light gray

RAL 7035 light gray

Locking system

3-point locking with built-in espagnolette


and double-bit key with 3-mm pin

3-point locking with built-in espagnolette lock


lock and double-bit key with 3-mm pin

Packing

in impact-proof, environmentally
compatible packing

in impact-proof, environmentally
compatible packing

1)

Busbar holder spacing: 400 mm; busbar 30 mm x 10 mm

Table 6/8

Technical data

6/23

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C Replaceable locking systems


(accessories)
C Built-in double-bit key with
3-mm pin
C Doors can be hinged on the right
or left
C Door opening angle 180
C Modular design allows transparent
planning
C 125 and 150 mm tier spacing of the
mounting rail in accordance with
DIN 43870
C Ample wiring space behind the
mounting rail
C Distortion-resistant equipment
racks and front covers
C Environmentally compatible, without PVC and halogens, fully
recyclable plastics
C Sturdy sheet-steel stays in the
scope of supply
C Comprehensive range of pressembled kits
C Front cover with sealable 90
quick-release locks
C Doors with foamed sealing as
standard

Seite 24

6.1.5 Wall-Mounted ALPHA


400/600, ALPHA Universal
and ALPHA 400 Stratum Distribution Boards
Description
The wall-mounted distribution board
system for a rated current of up to
400 A can be used as a main or subdistribution board in industrial, administrative, functional, commercial and
residential buildings.
The distribution boards and components are modularly designed. The
system components and assemblies
can also be supplied in kit form for individual board construction.
With just a few standard components, a variety of configurations is
possible. Several assembly kits from
the SIKUS floor-mounted product
range are identical in design.
Being a complete product system,
the wall-mounted distribution board
range includes cabinets with 6 to 9
rows. The mounting rail tier spacing is
125, 150 or 200 mm.
Enclosures are available both for surface mounting and for flush mounting. The product range comprises
cabinets designed as safety class 1
with PE connection or safety class 2
with total insulation. Cabinets with
doors feature degree of protection
IP43.
The construction is based on international standards. All components are
type-tested (TTA).

6/24

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 6/34

ALPHA Universal
design standard: NF, CEI

The transparent system design of the


Siemens distribution board range enables easy planning, configuration,
calculation, order processing and installation. All components to be integrated into the cabinet are designed
in such a way that their installation
merely requires a screwdriver.
The materials used are environmentally compatible and recyclable.
System
A distribution board system comprises an enclosure, assembly kits for
mounting the switchgear and modular equipment, system components
and accessories. 40-mm/60-mm busbar systems can be mounted.

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Seite 25

Low Voltage

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

Photo 6/35

ALPHA 400
design standard: DIN VDE

Enclosure
Material: Electroplated sheet steel,
powder-coated and, in safety class 2,
with total insulation
Color: light gray, RAL 7035
(ALPHA Universal),
traffic white, RAL 9016
(ALPHA 160/400)
Installation using auxiliary frames
and kits
Sendzimir-galvanized sheet steel for a
wide range of configurations, e.g. for
switchgear, modular devices or terminal blocks. The largest switchgear
that can be mounted are LV HRC
fuse switch-disconnectors of size
NH2, 400 A. Additionally, 3VL circuitbreakers up to 400 A can be
mounted.

Photo 6/35

ALPHA 400 stratum


design standard: BS

Application
The SIKUS wall-mounted distribution
board can be used as main and subdistribution board in industrial, administrative, functional, commercial and
residential buildings. With its cabinethigh mounting plate, the wallmounted distribution boards can also
be used as control cabinets.
Features
C System design conforms to relevant DIN, EN and VDE specifications.
C Type-tested cabinets according to
DIN EN 60 439-1 (VDE 0660 Part
500) and DIN EN 60439-3
(DIN VDE 0660 Part 504)
C Robust sheet-steel enclosure
C Available in safety class 1 (protective ground conductor connection)
or safety class 2 (total insulation)
C High-quality surface finish: distribution boards and enclosure made of
electroplated sheet steel with powder coating; system components
made of sendzimir galvanized sheet

C
C
C
C
C

steel; small parts and screws


chromated
Replaceable locking systems
(accessories)
Doors can be hinged on the right
or left
Door opening angle 180
Modular design allows transparent
planning
Ample wiring space behind the
mounting rail
2 cable entries top and bottom
per panel width
Distortion-resistant equipment
racks and front covers
Environmentally compatible,
without PVC and halogens, fully
recyclable plastics
Sturdy sheet-steel stays
Comprehensive program of preassembled kits
Front cover with sealable 90
quick-release locks
Assemblies can be installed and
removed over entire height
Kits mounted on stays can be
removed for configuration and
wiring purposes
Installation facilitated by components with keyhole fixing and
quick-release locks
Doors with foamed sealing as
standard

6/25

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Seite 26

Technical data

ALPHA 400/160 DIN

ALPHA 125 Universal

ALPHA 400 STRATUM

Overvoltage category

III

III

III

DIN VDE 0110

DIN VDE 0110

DIN VDE 0110

Rated impulse withstand


voltage Uimp

kV

Clearances in air and


creepage distances
Rated insulation voltage Ui

690

690

690

Rated operational voltage Ue

690

690

690

690, 40 to 60 Hz; for built-in


devices

690, 40 to 60 Hz; for built-in


devices

690, 40 to 60 Hz; for


built-in devices

up to 400

up to 400

up to 400

Rated voltage

V AC

Rated current

Rated peak short-circuit


current Ipk

kA

up to 61.3 (3-pole)1), current,


flow time 30 ms

17

17

Rated short-time
current Icw /1s

kA

20

10 / 0,1s

Protective measure

safety class 1 with protective


ground connection
or safety class 2 with
total insulation

safety class 1 with protective


ground connection

safety class 1 with protective


ground connection

Number of conductors
on the busbar track

4/5

4/5

4/5

Degree of protection acc.


to DIN EN 60529

IP43

IP30 / 43

IP40

125/150

200

18 mm is 1 MW

18 mm is 1 MW

18 mm is 1 MW

35 (24-h average)

35 (24-h average)

35 (24-h average)

Tier spacing of mounting rail

mm

Modular width
Level of pollution

Ambient temperature
Relative humidity

50 at 40C

50 at 40C

50 at 40C

Altitude of installation

max. 2,000 above sea level

max. 2,000 above sea level

max. 2,000 above sea level

Type-tested switchgear assembly


(TTA)

acc. to DIN EN 60439-1


(VDE 0660 Part 500)
and DIN EN 60439-3
(VDE 0660 Part 504)

EN 60439-1
EN 60439-3

EN 60439-1

Enclosure

sheet steel

sheet steel

sheet steel

Surface of metal parts

electroplated and
powder-coated

electroplated and
powder-coated

electroplated and
powder-coated

Color

RAL 9016 traffic white

RAL 7035 light gray

RAL 7035 light gray

Locking system

2-point locking with built-in


espagnolette lock and doublebit key with 3-mm pin

2-point locking with built-in


espagnolette lock and doublebit key with 3-mm pin

2-point locking with built-in


espagnolette lock and doublebit key with 3-mm pin

Packing

in impact-proof, environmentally in impact-proof, environmentally in impact-proof, environcompatible packing


compatible packing
mentally compatible packing

1)

Busbar holder spacing: 400 mm; busbar 30 mm x 10 mm

Table 6/9

Technical data

6/26

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Low Voltage

6.1.6 ALPHA-ZS Meter and


Distribution Cabinets for
Germany
Overview
For universal use in residential and
non-residential buildings, Siemens offers the new ALPHA 400-ZS meter
cabinets. Based on the wall-mounted
ALPHA 400-DIN, an identical modular
system has been created that conforms to all of the current technical
supply conditions and provides a
great variety of options in terms of
enclosure design, scope of delivery,
degree of protection and equipment
to be integrated.
A special emphasis has been placed on
meeting regionally differing requirements of power distribution system operators and local installation practice.
The system includes empty cabinets
as flat packs for surface mounting
(delivered in components for self-assembly), preassembled empty cabinets for flush and surface mounting,
cabinet-high rapid mounting kits
(RMK) for extremely fast equipping
and wiring, and a comprehensive
range of accessories.
The transparent system design enables easy planning, calculation, ordering, delivery, transportation, equipping and installation of components
and complete cabinets.
ALPHA SELECT is available as a planning tool for electricians, planning engineers and electrical wholesalers. It
helps to speed up planning and
quickly determines prices for distribution boards and meter cabinets. The
search criteria town, postal code and
responsible power distribution system operator can be used to find a
product range of complete meter

Photo 6/37

Meter cabinet with three panels

cabinets and installation examples


that meets the given requirements.
In addition, individual combinations
of empty cabinets and rapid mounting kits can be planned.
Benefit
C Identical with ALPHA 400-DIN distribution board
C Planning conforms to current technical supply conditions and requirements of power distribution system
operators
C Short installation times
C Low storage expense
Field of application
ALPHA 400-ZS meter cabinets can be
used wherever electric energy is to be
supplied, measured and distributed.
Meter cabinets and their components
are modularly designed, so that few
standard components are sufficient to
create an optimum of diverse, project-

specific mounting and equipping options.


Besides the customary meter cabinets, which are offered in degree of
protection IP43, the system also includes meter cabinets for damp
rooms featuring IP55.
Design
Modular meter cabinets of the
ALPHA 400-ZS series consist of the
following system components: empty
cabinets in four heights and five
widths, RMKs in three different
widths, accessories.
Thanks to the universal system design and numerous combination possibilities with the distribution board
system ALPHA 400-DIN, the options
for planning and erecting larger metering and distribution cabinet systems are manifold.
To complete these systems, ALPHA
cable inlet boxes and cable connection boxes are provided. For internal
measurements, metering kits can be
mounted in any Siemens installation
system featuring a depth of 210 mm.

6/27

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Seite 28

Fig. 6/7

ALPHA meter cabinet, assembly drawing

6/28

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 29

Low Voltage

6.1.7 SIMBOX Small


Distribution Boards
Application
Small distribution boards are suitable
for all types of applications in electrical buildings installations as subdistribution boards or floor distribution
boards.
Thanks to their low mounting depth,
they can be used close to the load
center both in residential and institutional buildings, such as schools, or
in commercial buildings and shops.

Selection criteria
Installation
Small distribution boards are offered
for flush and surface mounting.
According to different requirements
to their fire safety, they can be categorized as suitable for flush-mounting
as wall distribution boards (filament
testing up to 650C) and for hollowwall installation (filament testing up
to 850C).

Size
Depending on your space requirements for built-in devices and wiring,
you may choose from 1- to 4-row versions of small distribution boards.
Mounting rail spacing can vary between 125 mm and 150 mm.
Mounting depth
The distribution boards can be
equipped with modular devices such
as MCBs and RCCBs, up to a 70 mm

Standards
SIMBOX small distribution boards
comply with DIN VDE 0603, DIN
43871 and IEC 60439-3 standards.
This ensures the compliance with
standard measures and, above all,
safe operation due to the observance
of fire safety regulations (e.g. filament testing at temperatures from
650 to 950C) or the protection
against non-permissible voltages on
the enclosures (safety class III).

Photo 3/38

SIMBOX 63 for flush-mounting / hollow-wall installation

Photo 6/39

Photo 6/40

SIMBOX WP

SIMBOX 63 hood-type small


distribution board

Photo 6/41

SIMBOX Universal LC

6/29

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Seite 30

or 55 mm device mounting depth for


snap-on fixing on the 35 mm x 7.5
mm standard mounting rails in accordance with DIN EN 50022.
Degree of protection
You may choose between small distribution boards for a variety of applications, ranging from degree of protection IP30 (residential buildings) to IP 55
(splash-water protected industrial,
commercial and functional buildings)
System advantages
Easy installation
Comb: The soft and flexible teeth
at the sliding flange help to make
wiring a quick and convenient action.
The cables are simply inserted and
you can do without the cumbersome
and imprecise knocking out of the
cable entry glands.
Terminal block
The terminal block with an inclination
of 20 is easily visible and allows uncomplicated cable entry. Above that,
strain relief clamps ensure perfect
control and secure seating of the
N and PE conductors.

6/30

Photo 6/42

Comb

150 mm mounting rail spacing


SIMBOX LC and SIMBOX WP provide
for additional wiring space owing to a
mounting rail spacing of 150 mm.
Appealing design
Designed by Guigiaro: SIMBOX LC
owes its attractive look to the Italian
designer Giugiaro, who is one of the
best known industrial and consumer
goods designers.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 6/43

Door frame in low relief

Low in relief
Flush-mounted SIMBOX 63 types almost disappear in the wall and can
be concealed by a picture if desired.

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Seite 31

Low Voltage

6.1.8 SMS Rapid Wiring


System
Application
As the components of the SMS Universal rapid wiring system are already
pre-assembled at the factory, the system provides rapid and efficient
wiring in ceiling plenums, hollow
walls, cellular floors as well as in
ductings for electrical installations.
It facilitates the installation at the
construction site and saves time and
costs.
Since all of the cables are equipped
with plug-in connectors at the connection and distribution points, the
installation of a line network is completely flexible; the installation can be
designed, modified or retrofitted simply by plugging in the components.

In contrast to conventional electrical


installations, it is no longer necessary
to cut the cables to length, to strip
them and to make the terminal connections at the construction site. You
only have to make the initial connections of the system infeed.
Plugging in saves considerable installation time. Compared to conventional installations, this system is less
expensive. Furthermore, there is no
waste and the cables can always be
used again for later modifications.
Depending on the requirements and
the application intended, the SMS
Universal rapid wiring system is available for many types of application:
C For the installation of luminaires,
e.g. in false ceilings, operated via
conventional switches/pushbuttons
C For the installation of shielded contact outlets in sill-type trunkings

C For installations in false and cellular


floors, skirting-boards, furniture ...
C Temporary design installations,
trade fairs, camping ...
Supply connection
System power is supplied via a feeder,
for example NYM 5 x 2.5 mm2,
230/400 V or 3 x 2.5 mm2, 230 V.
The 5-pole first connection with strain
relief (socket version) is designed for
screw connection. Solid or stranded
conductors of 1.5 to 2.5 mm2 can be
connected.
The 3-pole first connection with
strain relief can be made with screwless terminals. Solid conductors of
1.5 to 2.5 mm2 or finely stranded
ones of 1.5 mm2 with end sleeves
can be connected.
Plug-in connectors
The housings of the screw-type plugin connectors can be opened by re-

APM 610 switching devices

SMS Universal Kombi


(instabus EIB)

SMS Universal

Fig. 6/8

Overview of SMS rapid wiring system

6/31

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Seite 32

leasing two locating levers (opposite


each other) with a screwdriver. Opening up the hinged housing parts will
make the shock-hazard protected
screw terminals accessible for conductor connection.

Extension cables
They consist of 3-, 4- or 5-pole prefabricated cables similar to H05VV-F,
with factory-crimped plug and socket.
They are available in standard lengths
(2, 4, 6 and 8 m).

On the upper half of the housing, you


will find the identification of the conductors, for example: for the 5-pole
plug-in connector 1, 2, 3, N, and the
grounding sign U. The construction
of the plug-in connector guarantees
non-interchangeability so that it is impossible to connect other plug-in systems.

Connecting cables
3 x 1.5 mm2/2.5 mm2
They consist of a 3-pole pre-fabricated H05VV-F cable, with factorycrimped plug or socket and free ultrasonically compacted core ends for
further fabrication.

Distribution blocks
It is possible to through-connect and
branch off to the electricity consumers
via plug-in distribution blocks with
one incoming and several outgoing
terminals. 2 x 5-pole and 6 x 3-pole
distribution blocks are suitable for
5-pole through-wiring and have
3-pole outgoing terminals. The 5-pole
through-wiring is marked as phase
conductor with the terminal designation 1, 2, 3. The N conductor is a leading conductor with regard to the
phase conductors, the PE conductor
in turn is a leading conductor with
regard to the N conductor. The outgoing terminals are designed as socket
parts (coupling). With the exception
of the T-distribution, every 3- and
5-pole distribution block has an integrated provision for fixing. T-distributors
are suitable for 3-pole through-wiring
of luminaires, for example, and have
two outgoing 3-pole conductors.

6/32

Device connection without screws


(snap-in)
Can be snapped into the device
cutouts of the consumer devices,
e.g. luminaires for sheet strengths of
0.5 to 1.5 mm.
Available as 3-pole socket (output) or
plug (input). Connection for finely
stranded conductor 0.5 to 1.5 mm2.
Two connections per pole are possible. All of the device terminals are
lockable.
Distribution box
The distribution box consists of a
housing with an integrated circuit either for 1 series circuit or 1 pushbutton circuit with 2 connected outputs
for luminaires and 1 output for a
power outlet.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Locking
The socket and plug parts of extension
and connection cables have a locking
device to form a fixed connection in
accordance with DIN VDE 0628.
Cover
The covers can be used to seal outgoing terminals (socket parts) which
are not used in order to raise the degree of protection of the plug-in system from IP 20 to IP 40, if necessary.
Features
C Suitable for wiring in all types of
structural hollow spaces
C Easy and straightforward planning
C Fast, simple and time-saving installation (simply plug in)
C Flexible with regard to modification
and retrofitting
C All of the plug connectors can be
plugged and unplugged while the
system is energised in acc. with
DIN VDE 0625, EN 60 320, IEC 320
C Cost-saving wiring and therefore
less expensive than the conventional installation
C To be used in ambient temperatures of up to 45C
C Connectors are non-interchangeable through coding
C Reusable
C Cutting to length and termination
can be performed at the device
C The system is also available for an
instabus EIB installation with integrated bus line.

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Seite 33

Low Voltage

SMS Universal installation


with central ON/OFF
20
11

20
11

20

11

20

10

11
10

11

15

7
20
11

14
20

11
11
8

Through-wiring,
direct connection

20
15
20

Luminaires with snap-in


connector for T-distribution

11

Through-wiring, with
snap-in plugs/sockets
integrated in the luminaire

NYM 3 x 2,5-mm2-Einspeiseleitung geschaltet


3
6
7
8
10

Plug-in connector, socket-type, 3-pole, without screws


Distribution block, 6 x 3-pole
Distribution block, 4 x 3-pole
T-distributor, 4 x 3-pole
Extension cable 3 x 2.5 mm2, plug and socket

Fig. 6/9

11
14
15
20

Extension cable 3 x 1.5 mm2, plug and socket


Connection cable 3 x 1.5 mm2, socket
Connection cable, 3 x 1.5 mm2, plug
Snap-in connector, 3-pole, without screws

Installation of luminaires with SMS Universal in false ceilings, circuitry with central ON/OFF, 230 V AC plug-in connector, 16 A

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6.1.9 8HP Insulated


Distribution System
High Performance due to
Modular Design
Brief description
The 8HP insulated distribution system is a type-tested modular system
for the fast and efficient construction
of totally insulated power distributions.
Minimum space requirements due
to high density of assemblies and a
flexible adaptation to constructive requirements at the site of installation
allow customer requirements to be
met perfectly.
Areas of application
The type-tested (TTA) insulated 8HP
distribution system is used as a lowvoltage main and sub-distribution
board in industrial, functional and residential buildings.
The modularly designed system is
suitable as a housing for small distribution boards and controls (e.g.
garage door controls with LOGO!
mini control).
The high degree of protection IP 65
(special version in IP 66) allows the
distribution board to be used in damp
or dusty environment (e.g. on ships,
in building-site power distributions,
steelworks and quarries). Resistance
against corrosive atmosphere makes
it perfectly suitable for use in the
chemical industry, in paper factories,
or sewage plants.
The fireproofing test also permits use
in coal mines and lignite open strip
mines.

6/34

Photo 6/44 8HP insulated distribution system

Product range
Any combination of five enclosure
sizes, with transparent or non-transparent cover.
C Uneqiupped enclosure with mounting plate for any kind of device
installation
C Molded-plastic enclosure with
assembly kits for:
modular devices with snap-on
fixing (e.g. 5SY miniature circuitbreaker)
DIAZED and NEOZED fuse links
(e.g. 5SB, 5SE)
NH00 to NH3 fuse bases
(e.g. 3NA)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

fuse switch-disconnectors, 100 A


to 630 A (e.g. 3NP)
switch-disconnectors with fuses,
63 A to 250 A (e.g. 3KL)
switch-disconnectors, 63 A to
800 A (e.g. 3KA, 3KE)
load transfer switches, 250 A to
630 A (e.g. 3KE)
parallel switches, 400 A to 1000 A
(e.g. 3KE)
circuit-breakers, 63 A to 630 A
(e.g. 3VF)
C Special design for use on ships

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Seite 35

307

307

307

460,5

307

153,5

307

614

Low Voltage

614

614
[mm]

Fig. 6/10

Delivery range: 5 housing sizes in any combination, with transparent or non-transparent cover

C Type-tested switchgear assembly (TTA)

Creation of TTA-tested power distributions

C High degree of protection IP 65 (IP 66)

Use in dusty or humid environment


(also on ships)

C Resistant against corrosion and contaminants

Suitable for use in corrosive atmosphere


(e.g. chemical industry)

C Total insulation

High degree of personnel protection and system availability

C UL approval

Use as system component for export to USA

C IAB and BfZ test

Also suitable for use in areas with earthquake hazard and in civil
emergency rooms

Table 6/10

Features

6/35

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6.2 Circuit-Breaker
Devices and Fuse
Systems
Due to increasingly complex
processes, safety for human beings
and machines is becoming more and
more important. Siemens circuitbreaker devices and fuse systems
provide optimum prerequisites for
complete system protection and thus
for safe and reliable operation in modern power supply systems. The demands on electrical power supply in
industry, residential and functional
buildings are increasing. The demand
for more comfort is combined with
the desire for improved security and
reduced downtimes. Only perfectly
adjusted components and products
from a single source, i.e. with the
guarantee of a uniform quality standard based on national and international regulations and standards can
ensure this high safety level. The high
reliability and availability of the individual components, and thus the
whole system, ensures an economic
and fault-free operation for many
years.

6/36

Seite 36

This is only possible if all individual


products and systems are well coordinated and are able to exchange important information. This is carried out
via a device-internal bus interface or
by mountable accessories and binary
inputs.
Individual system components
Circuit-breakers are responsible for
the protection against overload and
short circuits in systems, motors,
generators and transformers when
faults occur. They can also be used as
incoming and outgoing feeder circuits
in distribution boards as well as main
and EMERGENCY STOP switches in
connection with lockable rotary operating mechanisms.
The SENTRON 3VL circuit-breakers can
be used in every country all over the
world and work reliably in accordance
with every electrical standard. Thanks
to their modular design and modular
accessories, they can be easily adjusted to changing requirements at
any time. Via PROFIBUS-DP, they can
also be connected to a power management system.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Personnel protection and fire


protection with residual-currentoperated circuit-breakers
Personnel protection
Damages to the insulation might result in fault states which require additional measures according to DIN
VDE 0100 against excessive shock
currents. Siemens residual-currentoperated circuit-breakers provide optimum protection against hazardous
shock currents in case of indirect
contact, and the best possible protection in case of direct contact (with
rated fault current 30 mA).
Fire protection
Short circuits and ground faults are
especially fire-hazardous if relatively
high resistances occur in the fault circuit at the arc. A fault clearance by
line-side overcurrent protective devices such as fuses or circuit-breakers is not always guaranteed at relatively low currents. In combination
with oxygen or air, a thermal load of
only 60 W might lead to an ignition.
Here too, the residual-current-operated circuit-breaker with a rated fault
current of 300 mA ensures extensive protection.

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Low Voltage

Cable and line protection with


circuit-breakers and fuses
Due to their excellent product features and the fact that the product
range is optimally designed for the
wide range of applications in the
fields of industry, or commercial,
institutional and residential buildings,
Siemens circuit-breakers and fuses
provide the best conditions for protecting cables and lines against
overload and short circuit. The new
5SY circuit-breaker product range
with its components based on the
complete breaker range for all important functions really offers you many
advantages, e.g., increased operator
safety, installation safety and extremely reduced installation times.

System protection
The well coordinated combination of
circuit-breakers, fuses, miniature circuit-breakers and residual-current-operated circuit-breakers ensures comprehensive system protection as regards short-circuit, overload and fire
protection. Moreover, the coordinated
use of lightning current and surge
arresters can protect the electrical
system against overvoltages resulting
from electrostatic discharges, switching overvoltages and overvoltages
caused by strikes of lightning. Matching all individual components ensures
optimum system protection in all
areas of application. This prevents
damage to increasingly expensive
and sensitive devices and systems.

The circuit-breaker product range is


rounded off by mountable residualcurrent-operated circuit-breaker
blocks which integrate the residualcurrent protective function into the
device as a whole.

Disconnecting and isolating


The available disconnectors guarantee a safe isolation of downstream
system components and devices.
They are used, for example, as
EMERGENCY STOP and repair
switches in distribution boards. Thus,
personnel protection has highest priority. In the open position they comply with the conditions determined
for disconnection.

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Seite 38

6.2.1 Circuit-Breakers
Brief description
Circuit-breakers serve as incoming
and outgoing circuit-breakers for
power distribution in low-voltage
switchgear. They are responsible for
overload and short-circuit protection
in systems, motors, generators and
transformers.

SENTRON 3WL
Air Circuit-Breakers
Areas of application
C As an incoming, distribution, coupling and outgoing circuit-breaker
in electric installations
C As a switching and protecting
device for motors, capacitors, generators, transformers, busbars and
cables
C As an Emergency OFF circuitbreaker in connection with Emergency OFF equipment
Product range
C 3 sizes from 630 A to 6,300 A
C Fixed-mounted and withdrawable
design, 3- and 4-pole
C Short-circuit breaking capacity from
50 kA to 100 kA (at 440 V AC)
C Rated operational voltages up to
1,000 V
C No derating (i.e. full rated current)
up to 55 C (up to 5,000 A)
C Wide range of accessories such as
locking devices, mechanical mutually interlocking devices, Switch ES
operator control and monitoring
software
C External digital and analog output
modules, digital input module

6/38

Photo 6/45

SENTRON 3WL

Features
C Modular design for an easy retrofitting of functions and components
C Communication-capable via
PROFIBUS-DP (transmission of circuit-breaker states, current values,
tripped signals, power management functions)
C Remote diagnosis via Ethernet / Internet possible with BDA (Breaker
Data Adapter)
C Space saving: up to 1,600 A in
switchgear only 400 mm wide
C State-of-the-art microprocessorcontrolled overcurrent release for
every application
Further versions
C SENTRON 3WL circuit-breaker with
UL489 approval
C Versions with ANSI, CSA or CCC
approval
C SENTRON 3WL switch-disconnector for DC applications

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 6/46

SENTRON 3VL (250A)

SENTRON VL
Compact Circuit-Breakers
Areas of application
C As incoming and outgoing circuitbreakers in distribution systems
C As switching and protective devices for motors, generators, transformers and capacitors
C As main and EMERGENCY STOP
switches in connection with lockable rotary operating mechanisms
Product range
C Rated currents from 16 to 1,600 A;
rated operational voltage up to
690 V AC
C Three versions with short-circuit
breaking capacity 40, 70, 100 kA at
415 V AC
C No derating up to 50C, i.e. full
rated current at same size up to
50C
C Complete range of modular accessories, same accessories for several sizes

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Seite 39

Low Voltage

Features
Modular design
Due to the compact dimensions and
the modular accessories, it is extraordinarily easy to adjust the device to
changing requirements.
Easy connection and installation
No matter whether you are using
front or rear terminals, integrated
wrap-around terminals, a plug-in system, withdrawable design or busbar
connection the high versatility of
SENTRON 3VL guarantees easy
installation.
Quality
Quality management according to
ISO 9001 and state-of-the-art production methods ensure consistently
high quality.
Universal accessories
No matter whether you are using motorized operating mechanisms, plugin sockets or guide frames, a comprehensive range of accessories even
meets special requirements. Two internal accessory product lines are
available for different voltage levels
and can be easily snapped into place.
Easy configuration
Dimensioning programs such as
SIMARIS design provide you with
support for calculations and dimensioning processes.
Communication via PROFIBUS-DP
Independent of the selected overcurrent release, thermal/magnetic or
electronic, every SENTRON 3VL can
communicate via PROFIBUS or other
internationally used bus protocols.
Power Management offers the user
an economic method to visualize
system states.

Standards
SENTRON 3VL circuit-breakers work
reliably no matter where they are
used, in accordance with every electrical standard.
Economical operation in all cases
Graded switching capacities make it
possible to economically adjust the
circuit-breakers to short-circuit currents up to 100 kA at the mounting
position.

SIRIUS 3RV
Circuit-Breakers
Areas of application
3RV1 circuit-breakers are compact,
current-limiting circuit-breakers optimized for load feeders. The circuitbreakers are used for switching and
protecting AC motors up to 45 kW at
400 V AC or for other loads with rated
currents up to 100 A.
Product range
The circuit-breakers are available in
4 sizes:
C Size S00 45 mm wide, max. rated
current 12 A, at 400 V AC suitable
for AC motors up to 5.5 kW
C Size S0 45 mm wide, max. rated
current 25 A, at 400 V AC suitable
for AC motors up to 11 kW
C Size S2 55 mm wide, max. rated
current 50 A, at 400 V AC suitable
for AC motors up to 22 kW
C Size S3 70 mm wide, max. rated
current 100 A, at 400 V AC suitable
for AC motors up to 45 kW

Photo 6/47

SIRIUS 3RV10 circuit-breakers

Operating conditions
The 3RV1 circuit-breakers are climateproof. They are designed for indoor
operation in which there are no severe operating conditions (e.g. dust,
corrosive vapors, destructive gases).
For installation in dusty and damp
rooms, suitable encapsulations have
to be provided. The 3RV circuit-breakers
can be power supplied from the bottom or top. The permissible ambient
temperatures, maximum switching
capacity, tripping currents and other
boundary conditions for the application are to be found in the technical
data and tripping characteristics. The
3RV1 circuit-breakers are suitable for
use in IT systems (IT networks). The
different short-circuit breaking capacity in the IT system has to be observed for that.

6/39

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Seite 40

Since the operational currents, starting


currents and current peaks can even
be different in motors with the same
power rating due to the inrush current that is present, the motor power
values given in the selection tables
are only guide values. Decisive for the
correct selection of circuit-breakers is
always the precise starting and rating
data for the motor to be protected.
The same applies to the circuit-breakers
for transformer protection.
Areas of application
The tripping characteristics of the
3RV10 /3RV11 circuit-breakers are
mainly designed for the protection of
AC motors. The circuit-breakers are
therefore also called motor circuitbreakers. The rated current In of the
motor to be protected is to be set on
the setting scale. The factory setting
of the short-circuit release is a value
thirteen times the rated current of
the circuit-breaker. This ensures a
trouble-free start-up and safe protection of the motor. The phase-failure
sensitivity of the circuit-breaker ensures
that the circuit-breaker is tripped in
time in case of the failure of a phase
and the resulting overcurrents in the
other phases. Circuit-breakers with
thermal overload releases are usually
designed in tripping class 10 (CLASS
10). The circuit-breakers of sizes S2
and S3 are also available in tripping
class 20 (CLASS 20), thus making the
start-up of motors under aggravated
start-up conditions possible.

6/40

Motor protection with overload relay function (automatic reset)


The circuit-breakers for motor protection with overload relay function are
designed for the protection of AC motors. They have the same short-circuit
release and overload release as the
circuit-breakers for motor protection
without overload relay function. The
circuit-breaker always remains active
in the case of an overload. The overload release just activates two auxiliary contacts (1NC + 1NO). Overload
tripping can be signaled to a higherlevel controller via the auxiliary contacts. It is also possible to directly
deactivate a downstream contactor.
The overload signal is reset automatically. The circuit-breaker itself only
trips in case of a downstream short
circuit.
System protection
The 3RV10 / 3RV11 circuit-breakers
for motor protection are also suitable
for system protection. In order to prevent premature trippings due to the
phase-failure sensitivity, the three current paths are always to be loaded
uniformly. With single-phase loads,
the current paths are to be connected
in series.
Transformer protection
The 3RV14 circuit-breakers are also
suitable for transformer protection.
Due to the high excitation values for
the instantaneous short-circuit release
of >20 x In, even high peak inrush
currents of the transformers do not
lead to trippings upon closure.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 41

Low Voltage

6.2.2 Fuse Systems


General
Low-voltage fuses are space-saving,
high-quality switch- and controlgear
which reliably break overload and
short-circuit currents.
They provide secure protection for
electric systems, cables and lines as
well as for electric devices.
They comply with the requirements
concerning high operating safety, low
power loss, optimum selectivity conditions among themselves as well as
in combination with miniature circuitbreakers, and accurate current limiting with a high resistance to aging.

Flush-mounting
fuse base

Protective
cover

Adapter
sleeve

Fuse link

Screw cap

Photo 6/47 Design of a NEOZED fuse (screw-in fuse system)

The following low-voltage fuse systems are classified according to their


application:
C NEOZED fuses D0 system
ranging from the standard version
to MINIZED circuit-breakers
C DIAZED fuses D system with
DIAZED and SILIZED fuse links
C LV HRC fuse system
C Cylindrical fuses
A fuse always consists of several
components (at least one fuse base
and one fuse link).

LV HRC fuse
base

Photo 6/48

Protective cover

Cover

LV HRC fuse
link

Design of a LV HRC fuse (plug-in fuse system)

Fuse systems
Within the low-voltage range of up to
1000 V, fuse systems are distinguished as follows:
C Fuses that can be handled by nonspecialists (mainly screw-in type)
NEOZED D01/E14, D02/E18,
D03/M30 x 1
DIAZED NDZ/E16, DII/E27, DIII/E33,
DIV/R11/4,
where it is impossible to interchange fuses having different rated
currents due to their design, and
where shock-hazard protection is
ensured for the user.

C Fuses that can only be handled by


specialists (mainly plug-in type)
LV HRC fuse systems size 00 (size
000), size 0, size 1, size 2, size 3,
size 4, size 4a, where neither a
rated current non-interchangeability
as a result of the design, nor
adequate shock-hazard protection
is required.
Siemens offers an appropriate
range of covers and phase barriers
to also provide these LV HRC fuses
with shock-hazard protection.

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Selection
The following parameters are important when choosing a fuse for circuit
protection:
C Rated voltage Volt (V)
AC voltage1)
DC voltage2)
C Rated current Ampere (A)
C Utilization category
(as time-current characteristic)
C Design (type and sizes)
Features
C NEOZED, DIAZED, SILIZED, LV
HRC, SITOR fuses and cylindrical
fuses have a consistently high
quality
C Low power loss output for high
economy and minimal heating
C Safe rated breaking capacity from
the lowest inadmissible overload
current up to the highest shortcircuit current
C Fuses have full selectivity in
accordance with the standard at
a rated current ratio of 1:1.6
C High current limiting to protect all
system components
C Reliable long-term, continuous
operation
C High resistance towards aging to
avoid unnecessary system malfunctions
C Constant characteristics even
under different temperature conditions
C Safe replacement of fuse links and
switching with the MINIZED
switch-disconnector
C Extensive product range for all
applications

Seite 42

C Wide range of matched accessories, especially to enhance


shock-hazard protection
C Approved in many countries
throughout the world
Selectivity
Usually, several fuses are connected
in series in an installation. Selectivity
ensures that only the faulted circuit is
broken and not the entire process in
operation.
Siemens fuses of the utilization category gL/gG are interselective in the
ratio 1:1.25 at a rated voltage of up to
230 V AC, i.e. from one rated current
level to the other. This is due to the
fact that the tolerance ranges of 5%
of the time/current characteristics are
considerably lower. Here, the requirement of a ratio of 1:1.6 given in the
standard is distinctly exceeded. Owing to smaller rated currents, conductor cross-sections can be reduced in
size.
Utilization categories
According to their functions, fuses
are divided into utilization categories:
the first letter indicates the functional
class, the second the object to be
protected:
1st letter: Functional class
a = Accompanied fuses: Fuse links
which must, at least, continuously conduct currents up to
their specified rated current and
which must be able to break
currents above a specific multiple of the rated current up to the
rated breaking current.

Photo 6/49

Fast arcing and an accurate


extinction are the prerequisites
for a safe breaking capacity

g = General-purpose fuses: Fuse


links which must, at least, continuously conduct currents up to
the specified rated current and
break currents from the lowest
fusing current up to the breaking
current. Overload and short-circuit protection.
2nd letter: Object
G = Cable and conductor protection
(general applications)
M = Switchgear/motor protection (for
protection of motor circuits)
R = Semiconductor/thyristor protection (for protection of rectifiers)
L = Cable and conductor protection
(acc. to DIN VDE)
B = Protection of mines
Tr = Transformer protection

1)

European notation for alternating voltage e.g.


500 V AC, German notation e.g. ~ 500V
2) European notation for direct voltage e.g. 440 V
DC, German notation e.g. 440V

6/42

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 43

Low Voltage

Furthermore, DIAZED fuses are


marked with the designations slow
and quick. These designations are
defined in IEC/CEE and DIN VDE.
Under short-circuit conditions, the
fuse with the quick characteristic
interrupts more quickly than one in
the utilization class gL/gG. The characteristic slow of the DIAZED
fuses for the protection of DC traction systems is particularly suitable
for breaking direct currents with a
high inductance. Both characteristics
can also be used for cable and conductor protection.
General-purpose fuses (gL/gG, gR,
quick, slow) safely interrupt inadmissible overload and short-circuit currents.
Accompanied fuses (aM, aR) are
used exclusively for short-circuit protection.
The following utilization categories
are available in the Siemens product
range:
gL (DIN VDE)/gG (IEC) = General-purpose cable and conductor protection
aM (DIN VDE/IEC) = Accompanied
switchgear protection
aR (DIN VDE/IEC) = Accompanied
semiconductor protection
gR (DIN VDE/IEC) = General-purpose
semiconductor protection
quick (DIN VDE/IEC/CEE) = Generalpurpose cable and conductor protection
slow (DIN VDE) = General-purpose cable and conductor protection

Breaking capacity
The fuses distinguish themselves
with their high rated current breaking
capacity and minimum space requirements. The basic requirements and
circuit data for tests voltages, performance factor, switching angle, etc.
are defined in the national (DIN VDE
0636) and international (IEC 60 269)
standards.
For a consistently safe interruption of
any current, ranging from the lowest
inadmissible overload current to the
highest short-circuit current, many
quality features have to be considered during construction and manufacture. For example, besides designing the dimensions, punched profile
and position in the fuse body of the
fuse element, the resistance to pressure and temperature change of the
fuse body as well as the chemical purity, grain size and density of the
quartz sand are of great importance.

The rated breaking capacity for AC is


50 kA for NEOZED and most of the
DIAZED fuses. For LV HRC fuses it is
even 120 kA AC.
Current limiting
Besides a safe rated breaking capacity, the current limiting effect of a
fuse link has a significant impact on
the cost-effectiveness of an installation. When a fuse blows because of a
short circuit, the short-circuit current
continues to be fed into the network
until the fuse breaks the circuit. The
short-circuit current is only limited by
the network impedance.
When all of the narrow parts of a
fuse element melt at the same time,
partial electrical arcs in series result,
ensuring that the current is quickly interrupted with significant current limiting. The current limiting, too, is significantly influenced by the manufacturing quality. For Siemens fuses it is
excellent. For example, an LV HRC
fuse link of size 2 with In = 224 A
reduces a short-circuit current with a
potential rms value of approx. 50 to a
cut-off current with a peak value of
approx. 18 kA.

gB
Mining
HV HRC fuse
switch-fuse
combination
gR/aR
semiconductor
protection

LV HRC fuse
switch-disconnector

gTr
transformer
protection

Overcurrent
relay > I
M

aM
switchgear
protection

gL/gG cable
and conductor
protection

Fig. 6/11

Fuse application with regard to the utilization category

6/43

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Seite 44

Photo 6/50 MINIZED switch-disconnector and


NEOZED fuses in a SIMBOX 63
small distribution board

This strong current limitation protects


the system from excessive load at all
time.
Fuse assignment for cable and
conductor protection
When assigning fuses to cable and
conductor protection against overload,
the following requirements have to
be met in accordance with DIN VDE
0100, Part 430:
(1) IB In Iz
(Nominal current rule)
(2) I2 1.45 x In
(Tripping rule)
IB: Circuit operating current
In: Rated current of the selected
protective device

Photo 6/51 LV HRC fuse links with center


indicator in a 3NP fuse switchdisconnector

Photo 6/52 NEOZED and DIAZED bus-mounted fuses of the 60 mm SR busbar


system integrated in an ALPHA
distribution board

I z:

Permissible current load capacity


under given operating conditions
I2: Tripping current of protective device under specified conditions
(high test current).
In the meantime, factor 1.45 is an internationally accepted compromise
between utilization and level of protection for a conductor when considering the interrupting performance of
the possible protective device (e.g.
fuses).
Siemens fuse links of the utilization
category gL/gG meet the following
requirement in accordance with the
supplementary sections of DIN VDE
0636:

Interruption with I2 = 1.45 x In for


the conventional test duration under
specific test conditions according to
the supplementary sections of DIN
VDE 0636.
Rated power loss
The cost-effectiveness of a fuse depends considerably on the rated
power loss. This should be kept as
low as possible and only manifest a
low self-heating characteristic. However, when evaluating the intrinsic
losses of a fuse, the physical interdependence between the rated breaking capacity and rated power losses
should be taken into consideration. In
order to achieve a low resistance
value, the fuse element should be as
thick as possible. To ensure a high
rated breaking capacity, however, a
thin fuse element is required.
Considering the high breaking safety,
Siemens fuses have the lowest possible rated loss.

6/44

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 45

Low Voltage

These values lie far below the limits


specified in the relevant regulations.
This means minimal heating, safe
breaking capacity and high cost-effectiveness.

Photo 6/54 LV HRC fuse links in fuse bases


and fuse switch-disconnectors,
assembled in an ALPHA distribution board

Load capacity at higher ambient


temperatures
According to DIN VDE 0636, the
course of the time/current characteristics of NEOZED/DIAZED and LV HRC
fuses refers to an ambient temperature of 20C 5C. When used at
higher ambient temperatures of
50C, the fuse should be loaded
with 90% of the rated current. The
short-circuit breaking capacity is
not affected by higher ambient temperatures.
Application examples
Fuses are primarily used to protect
cables and conductors against overload and short-circuit currents regardless of the currents strength, and
they are also suited to protect equipment and devices.

Photo 6/55 LV HRC fuse links with center


indicator in a 3KL fuse switch-disconnector

Load capacity

Photo 6/53 DIAZED fuses and LV HRC


fuses in a building-site distribution
board

120
%
100
90
80
60
40
20
0

20

40 50 60

80

100 C 120

Ambient temperature

Fig. 6/12

Load capacity at higher ambient


temperatures

C A high degree of selectivity requirements in radial and meshed networks to avoid unnecessary system
failures

Amongst the many tasks and different use conditions for fuses, the following are included:

6/45

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C Back-up protection of miniature


circuit-breakers
C Protection of motor circuits, in
which short-term overloads and
short circuits may occur during operation
C Short-circuit protection of switchand controlgear such as contactors
and automatic circuit-breakers
C In TN and TT networks where disconnection is operated by overcurrent protective devices, fuses additionally prevent unduly high contact
voltages from being maintained in
the event of a fault.
Fuses are used in a wide range of
applications, extending from residential installations to installations
in commercial buildings and from
industrial installations to installations
in power supply companies.
The MINIZED switch-disconnector
allows NEOZED fuse links to be replaced in no-voltage conditions, and
the safe switching of overload and
short-circuit currents of up to 50 kA.
Here, the MINIZED fuse switch-disconnector is particularly suitable for
use in meter cabinets as the main
switch, and for selective duties in
control and industrial applications
where high switching capacity, safe
operation, selectivity and minimum
space are required.

6/46

Seite 46

Environmental protection
Environmental protection is a continuing task for modern industrial society and demands action!
Environmentally compatible recycling of LV HRC/HV HRC fuses
National and global environmental
problems for example, changes in
the climate and the atmosphere of
the earth, the destruction of the
ozone layer, the deterioration of the
ground and water resources, problems in dealing with waste and raw
materials have all proven the necessity of common action. The recycling
law, which was enacted in Germany
at the end of 1996, requires companies to recycle materials and thus to
save resources. Industry is requested
to be aware of its responsibility also
towards future generations and to
take the initiative.
We, as a manufacturer of low-voltage
and high-voltage HRC fuses, are
aware of this responsibility and are
determined to focus more than ever
on protecting the environment and
taking care of our natural resources.
Initiated by Siemens AG, various German manufacturers of LV/HV HRC
fuses have formed a committee
NH/HH-Recycling e.V., which has
been recognised as beneficial to
common interests. The purpose of
this committee is to duly recycle fuse
links, taking into account the prevailing legal regulations, and in doing so
actively contribute to the protection
of the environment and natural resources.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

How are fuses recycled in


Germany?
Only LV HRC and HV HRC fuse links
will be accepted for recycling, without packaging. Euro pallet boxes are
available from your wholesaler. If you
accumulate large quantities of old
fuses, you can also have a Euro pallet
box on your premises. For further information, contact your regional
Siemens sales office.
The disconnected fuse links are completely melted down by an officially
certified recycler. The silver and copper gained are put back into the materials cycle. Residues such as inorganic waste are used, for example, in
road and dam building. Profits made
herewith will be assigned to environmental research for public interest by
the NH/HH-Recycling e.V. committee. The fuses are labeled with the
following symbols

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Seite 47

Low Voltage

MINIZED switch-disconnectors, draw-out assembly


Standards
DIN VDE 0638, EN 60947-3
Dimensions
DIN 43880
Utilization categories
gL/gG
Rated voltage
400 /415 V AC, 48 /110 V DC
Rated current range
2 to 63 A
Rated breaking capacity
50 kA AC, 8 kA DC
Mounting position
any, preferably vertical
Resistance to climate1)
up to 45 C, at 95% rel. humidity
Non-interchangeability
achieved with adapter sleeves
1)

e.g. with regard to corrosion

NEOZED fuse
Standards:
Dimensions:
Rated voltage:
Rated current range:
Mounting position:
Non-interchangeability:

DIAZED fuse, SILIZED fuse link


Standards:
Dimensions:
Utilization categories:
Rated voltage:
Rated current range:
Rated breaking capacity:
Non-interchangeability:

Table 6/11

DIN VDE 0636, DIN VDE 0680,


EC 60269, EN 60269
DIN VDE 49522, DIN VDE 49523,
DIN VDE 49524, DIN VDE 49525
400 V AC, 250 V DC
2 to 100 A
any, preferably vertical
achieved with adapter sleeves

DIN VDE 0635, DIN VDE 0636, DIN VDE 0680,


IEC 60269, IEC 60241, CEE 16, EN 60269
DIN VDE 49510, DIN VDE 49511, DIN VDE 49514,
DIN VDE 49515, DIN VDE 49516
gL/gG, aR, slow, quick
500/690/750 V AC, 500/600/750 V DC
2 to 63 A
50 kA AC (E16), 40 kA AC (E16),
8 kA DC (E16), 1.6 kA DC (E16)
achieved with screw adapters or ring adapter

Overview 1: fuse systems

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Seite 48

LV HRC fuse
Standards:
Dimensions:
Utilization categories:
Rated voltage:
Rated current range:
Rated breaking capacity:
Resistance to climate1):
Non-interchangeability:
1)

e.g. with regard to corrosion

SITOR fuse link


Standards:
Dimensions:
Utilization categories:
Rated voltage:
Rated current range:
Rated breaking capacity:

Cylindrical fuse
Standards:
Dimensions:
Utilization categories:
Rated voltage:
Rated current range:
Resistance to climate1):

1)

DIN VDE 0636, DIN VDE 0680


IEC 60269, EN 60269
DIN VDE 43620, DIN VDE 43623
gL / gG, aM
500/690 V AC, 250/440 V DC
2 to 1,250 A
120 kA AC, 50 kA DC
30C to 50 C, at 95% rel. humidity
not required

e.g. with regard to corrosion

Table 6/12

Overview 2: fuse systems

6/48

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

DIN VDE 0636, IEC 60 269, EN 60269


DIN 43620, DIN 43623
aR, gR
600/690/1,000 V AC
16 to 630 A
> 50 kA AC

IEC 60269, NF C 60200, NF C 63210, NF C 63211,


NBN C 63269-, 2-EN-2-1, CEI 32-4
IEC 60 269-2-1
gG, aM
400/500 V AC
0.5 to 100 A
up to 45 C, at 95% rel. humidity

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Seite 49

Low Voltage

6.2.3 Fuse SwitchDisconnectors


3K Switch-disconnectors
High-Level Safety and
Performance
Brief description
3KA and 3KE switch-disconnectors
are able to make, conduct and break
the specified rated current (incl. a
predetermined degree of overload). If
a short circuit occurs, the switchdisconnector must be able to conduct a specified short-circuit current
during the time indicated.
Switch-disconnectors 3KL and 3KM
with fuses
are able to make, conduct and break
the specified rated current (incl. a
predetermined degree of overload).
If a short circuit occurs, the switchdisconnector must be able to conduct a specified short-circuit current
during the time indicated. Additionally, the fuses fitted to the circuitbreaker also provide overload and
short-circuit protection for downstream system components, cables
and loads.

Areas of application
Switch-disconnectors 3KA and 3KE
are used as main, EMERGENCY
STOP, repair, system selector and system disconnection switches in distribution board construction for residential and functional buildings as well as
in industrial switchgear.
Switch-disconnectors 3KL and 3KM
with fuses
also provide overload and short-circuit
protection as main and EMERGENCY
STOP switches for switchgear, distribution boards, power supply and motor feeders. In combination with
semiconductor fuses (SITOR), they
can be used as effective protection in
frequency converters, UPS systems
and soft starters. In the 3KM version,
the switch-disconnector can be easily
mounted, without tools, on a busbar
system.
The 3KA and 3KL switch disconnectors
are available as special versions for
use in aggressive atmospheres (hydrogen sulfide in the chemical industry, paper mills, sewage plants, lignite
open strip mining).
Features
High rated short-circuit current
(up to 100/80/50 kA)
Easy configuration, as calculation of
short-circuit current is not required.
Unlimited selectivity
Selectivity to a line-side fuse can
be easily attained using the factor
K = 1.6.
High switching capacity
AC 23 A at 690 V AC
A standard series meets highest demands as to power distribution and
motor switching capacity.

Photo 6/56

3KL switch-disconnector with


fuses

Use in aggressive atmosphere


This special version of the switchdisconnector can be used under
extreme ambient conditions
(e.g. hydrogen sulfide).
IP 65 enclosure
Safety switch philosophy up to 1,000 A
realized with 8HP molded-plastic
enclosure.
High level of safety for user and
system
Lockable to prevent reclosure, deenergized fuses in OFF position by
means of double contact seaparation
of the switching contacts.
Quality
Quality management according to
ISO 9001 and state-of-the-art production methods guarantee consistently
high quality.

6/49

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Seite 50

3KA and 3KE miniature circuit-breakers without fuses


Switch type:

3KA50

3KA51

3KA52

3KA53

3KA55

3KA57

3KA58

Rated continuous current:

63 A

80 A

125 A

160 A

250 A

400 A

630 A

Rated operational voltage:

690 V AC, 440 V DC

Switch type:

3KE42

3KE43

3KE44

3KE45

Rated continuous current:

250 A

400 A

630 A

1000 A

Rated operational voltage:

690 V AC, 440 V DC

Customers can combine two 3KE miniature


circuit-breakers to a transfer control device

3KL and 3KM miniature circuit-breakers with fuses


Switch type:

3KL/M50

3KL/M52

3KL/M53

3KL/M55

3KL/M57

3KL61

Rated continuous current:

63 A

125 A

160 A

250 A

400 A

630 A

Rated operational voltage:

690 V AC, 440 V DC

C Available with LV HRC and BS88 fuse-switches for the IEC and British Standard Market
C 3KL miniature circuit-breakers available as protective switches with high-quality 8HP (IP 65) molded plastic enclosure, 63 A to 400 A

Table 6/13

6/50

Range of delivery 3K switch-disconnectors

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 51

Low Voltage

3NP4 Fuse Switch-Disconnectors Compact and Safe


Isolation and Protection
Brief description
3NP4 fuse switch-disconnectors are
able to make, conduct and break the
specified rated current (including a
certain degree of overload). If a short
circuit occurs, the fuse switch-disconnector must be able to conduct a
specified short-circuit current during
a predefined time. The switch-disconnector is opened (OFF) and closed
(ON) by operating the handle unit. In
the open position, it meets the requirements for an isolating function.
Overload and short-circuit protection
of downstream system components
and devices is provided by the size
NH000 to NH3 (630 A), (630 A)
LV HRC fuses integrated in the
handle unit.
Areas of application
3NP4 fuse switch-disconnectors are
used in power distribution and infeed
for occasional manual switching/isolating of load feeders and cable distribution cabinets. The fuses effectively
protect downstream electric devices
and system components from short
circuits and overloads.
The fuse switch-disconnectors are
suitable for distribution board construction for residential and functional
buildings, as well as in industrial
switchgear. They protect and switch
downstream system components
and devices on an all-pole basis.
Together with semiconductor fuses

(SITOR) they can be used to protect,


for example, frequency converters
and soft starters. Due to the open
isolating gap they are perfectly suited
for isolating systems and, thus, for
personnel protection.
Range of delivery
3NP4 fuse switch-disconnectors are
available
C up to a rated continuous current of
630 A in size 000 to 3 for mounting/installation
C for mounting onto standard mounting rails (up to 250 A) and snapping
onto busbar systems (up to 630 A)
C with or without fuse monitoring
C Accessories:
Terminals and terminal covers,
feeder terminals and busbars,
auxiliary switches, masking frames
and mounting sets for various
cabinet/distribution board systems
such as STAB-SIKUS, SIKUS-3200,
SIPRO, 8HP.
Features
High safety for users and system
Overreaching protection and laterally
fingerproof, quick opening due to an
artificial point of force, no arc in case
of short-circuit breaking via fuse,
sealable, degree of protection
IP 30/IP 20.

Photo 6/57 3NP4 fuse switch-disconnector

Various fields of application


Semiconductor protection by the
tested use of SITOR fuses, capacitor
protection via tested capacitor
switching capacity. Free selection of
distribution boards due to a wide
range of accessories and covers.
Quick and easy installation
ensured by snap-on mechanism or
quick mounting plates for installation
on standard mounting rails and versions for mounting onto busbar
systems (40 mm and 60 mm).
Fuse monitoring
by built-on 3RV circuit-breakers.
Electronic fuse monitoring by
5TT3 170 fuse monitor.
Quality
Quality management in accordance
with ISO 9001, and state-of-the-art
production methods guarantee consistently high quality.

6/51

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Seite 52

3NP5 Fuse Switch-Disconnectors Isolation and


Protection, Sturdy, Compact
and Safe With High Switching Capacity

(SITOR) they can be used to protect,


for example, frequency converters
and soft starters. Due to the open
isolating gap they are perfectly suited
for isolating systems and, thus, for
personnel protection.

Brief description

3NP5 fuse switch-disconnectors are


especially suitable for industrial
plants and distribution systems with
high demands on switching capacity
and material resistance, such as ship
installations, chemistry and paper
industry.

3NP5 fuse switch-disconnectors have


a high switching capacity and are
able to make, conduct and break the
indicated rated current (including a
certain degree of overload). If a short
circuit occurs, the fuse switch-disconnector must be able to conduct a
specified short-circuit current during
a predefined time. The switch-disconnector is opened (OFF) and closed
(ON) by operating the handle unit. In
the open position, it meets the
requirements for an isolating function.
Overload and short-circuit protection
of downstream system components
and devices is provided by the size
NH00 to NH3 (630 A), LV HRC fuses
integrated in the handle unit.
Areas of application
3NP5 fuse switch-disconnectors are
used in power distribution and infeed
for occasional manual switching/isolation of load feeders and cable distribution cabinets. The integrated fuses
efficiently protect downstream loads
and system components against
short circuit and overload.
The fuse switch-disconnectors are
used in distribution board construction for residential and functional
buildings, as well as in industrial
switchgear. They protect and switch
downstream system components
and devices on an all-pole basis.
Together with semiconductor fuses

6/52

Range of delivery
3NP5 fuse switch-disconnectors are
available
C up to a rated continuous current of
630 A for size LV HRC 00 to
LV HRC 3
C for mounting/installation and for
affixing to busbar systems
C with or without fuse monitoring
C Accessories:
Terminals and terminal covers,
busbar adapters, auxiliary switches,
masking frames and mounting
sets for numerous cabinet/distribution board systems such as
STAB-SIKUS, SIKUS-3200, SIPRO,
8HP and switchboard installation.
Features
High degree of safety for user and
system
High rated breaking capacity, 23 A AC
switching capacity of up to 690 V AC,
overreaching protection and laterally
fingerproof, fully compartmented,
high-speed closing prevents arc
standstill, no arcing in case of shortcircuit breaking by fuse, sealable, degree of protection IP 30/IP 20.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 6/58 3NP5 fuse switch-disconnector

Various fields of application


Semiconductor protection by the
tested use of SITOR fuses; capacitor
protection via tested capacitor
switching capacity; free selection of
distribution boards due to a wide
range of accessories and covers.
Quick and easy installation
due to easy mounting/installation and
adapter for busbar systems (40 mm
and 60 mm).
Use in aggressive atmosphere
The special version can be also used
under extreme ambient conditions
(e.g. hydrogen sulfide).
Fuse monitoring
due to integrated 3RV circuit-breakers.
Solid-state fuse monitoring by selfsupplied, integrated fuse monitor.
Quality
Quality management in accordance
with ISO 9001 and state-of-the-art
production methods guarantee
consistently high quality.

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Seite 53

Low Voltage

3NJ4/3NJ5 Fuse
Switch-Disconnectors,
In-Line Type
Isolation and Protection,
Compact and Safe in
Narrow Design
Brief description
3NJ4/ 3NJ5 in-line fuse switch-disconnectors are able to make, conduct
and break the rated current (including
a certain degree of overload). If a
short circuit occurs, the fuse switchdisconnector must be able to conduct
a specified short-circuit current during
a predefined time. The switch-disconnector is opened (OFF) and closed
(ON) by operating the handle unit. In
the open position, they meet the
requirements for an isolating function.
Overload and short-circuit protection
of downstream system components
and devices is provided by the size
NH00 to NH4a (1,250 A), LV HRC
fuses integrated in the handle unit.
Areas of application
3NJ4/3NJ5 fuse switch-disconnectors are used in power distribution
and infeed for occasional manual
switching/isolation of load feeders
and cable distribution cabinets. The
integrated fuses efficiently protect
downstream loads and system components against short circuit and
overload.

The in-line fuse switch-disconnectors


are used in distribution board construction for residential and functional
buildings. As a result of the narrow
design, they are mainly used in lowvoltage distribution boards, network
and transformer substations, and in
cable distribution cabinets used in
power supply companies and in industry. They protect and switch downstream system components and consumers in one- and all-pole operation.
Due to the open isolating gap they are
perfectly suited for isolating systems
and, thus, for personnel protection.
3NJ4/3NJ5 in-line fuse switch-disconnectors are fed via the 185 mm
busbar system, disconnectors of
size NH00 via a 100 mm busbar
system.
Range of delivery
3NJ4/3NJ5 in-line fuse switch-disconnectors are available
C up to a rated continuous current of
1,250 A in sizes NH00 to NH4a
C switchable in one- and three-pole
mode
C for affixing to 185 mm busbar
system, for size NH00 on 100 mm
C Accessories:
Terminals and terminal covers,
auxiliary switches, masking frame,
adapter for adjusting size NH00 to
NH1-3.
Features
High degree of safety for user and
system
No arcing in case of short-circuit
breaking by fuse, parking position of
the handle unit, visible isolating gap,

Photo 6/59 3NJ4 fuse switch-disconnector,


in-line type

lockable in OFF position, inspection


holes for voltage testing in ON position, TTA testing in connection with
SIKUS-3200 and SIVACON cabinet
system.
Easy current pick-off
Measuring fuses for current measurement as well as piggyback for construction site supply pick-off can be
inserted via a window in the grip lug.
Quick and easy installation
By direct mounting on busbar systems, mechanical fixing and electrical
contact in one work operation, cable
connection from top or bottom.
Quality
Quality management in accordance
with ISO 9001 and state-of-the-art
production methods guarantee
consistently high quality.

6/53

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Seite 54

6.2.4 Miniature CircuitBreakers


Areas of application
Miniature circuit-breakers are mainly
used to protect cables and lines
against overload and short circuit.
Thus, they also protect electrical
equipment against overheating according to DIN VDE 0100 Part 430.

Photo 6/60 5SP4 miniature circuit-breaker


single-pole

Photo 6/61 5SY miniature circuit-breaker


single-pole

Under certain conditions, in accordance with DIN VDE 0100, Part 410,
miniature circuit-breakers also ensure
protection against hazardous shock
currents in case of an excessive
touch voltage caused by insulation
failures.
Further, due to the fixed rated current
settings of the miniature circuitbreakers, it is also possible to protect
motors in a limited form.
For the respective application, different tripping characteristics are available. EN 60 898, DIN VDE 0641 Part
11 and IEC 60 898 are the underlying
standards for construction and approval. For application in industry and
system engineering, circuit-breakers
are supplemented by the following
add-on accessories:
C
C
C
C
C
C

Auxiliary circuit switches


Fault signal contacts
Open-circuit shunt releases
Undervoltage releases
Remote control
RCCB blocks

Photo 6/62 5SY miniature circuit-breaker with versatile additional components

Functional design, mode of


operation
Circuit-breakers have a time-delayed
overload current/time-dependent
thermal release (thermal bimetal) for
low overcurrents, and an instantaneous electromagnetic release for
higher overload and short-circuit currents.
The special contact materials ensure
a long service life and offer a high
level of protection against contact
welding.

6/54

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Due to the ultra-fast separation of the


contacts in case of faults and the
quick quenching of the arc in the arc
chamber, miniature circuit-breakers
significantly and safely limit the current when breaking.
Generally, the admissible I2t limit
values of energy limitation class 3,
specified in DIN VDE 0641 Part 11,
are underranged by 50%. This
guarantees excellent selectivity
with the upstream overcurrent
protective devices.

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Seite 55

Low Voltage

Rated cross section

mm2

Iz (conductor)
Continuous current in A acc. to
DIN VDE 0298 T4 and
DIN VDE 0100 T430 Supplement 1
Two-conductor
Three-conductor
A
A

Rated current
miniature circuit-breaker (MCB)

Two-conductor
A

Three-conductor
A

1.5

16

16

19.5

17.5

2.5

25

20

26

24

32

32

35

32

40

40

46

41

10

63

50

63

57

16
25
35

80
100
125

63
80
100

85
112
138

76
96
119

Table 6/14

Conductor cross-sections: Allocation of miniature circuit-breakers to copper wires with PVC insulation for installation type C1) and R=30C.
1)
Example: Rising main busbar, multi-core wires on/in the wall.

Cable and line protection


The actual task of miniature circuitbreakers is to protect cables and
lines against thermal overload of the
insulation caused by overcurrents
and short-circuits. Thus, the tripping
characteristics of the miniature circuit-breakers are adjusted to the load
withstand curves of the cables and
lines.

Iz

Ib
In

I2

I1

I2

Ib Operating current: load-determined


current during uninterrupted operation

1,45 x I z

Iz Permissible continuous current for a


conductor whereby the continuous
limit temperature of the insulation is
not exceeded

Time t

1.45 x Iz Maximum permissible, temporary overload current which does not result in a
safety-relevant reduction of the insulation
properties when the continuous limit
temperature is temporarily exceeded
In Rated current: current which the MCB is
suitable for and which other rated values
refer to

I3

In the opposite chart, the relative values of the lines and of the miniature
circuit-breakers are assigned to each
other. The tripping characteristics are
in accordance with the standards
EN 60 898, IEC 60 898 and
DIN VDE 0641 Part 11.

I1 Conventional non-tripping current:


current which does not lead to a
switch-off under defined conditions
I2 Conventional tripping current: current
which leads to a switch-off within one
hour (In 63 A) under defined conditions

I3

I3 Tolerance limit
I4 Holding current of the instantaneous
release (short-circuit release)
I5 Tripping current of the instantaneous
release (short-circuit release)
I4

I5

Current I

Fig. 6/13

Schematic drawing of the relative values of lines and protective device

6/55

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Seite 56

1,13 1,45

120

1,131,45

120

I2_06663b

Minutes

Minutes

20

Tripping time

Tripping time

10
6
4
2
1
40
20

20

10
6
4

10
6
4

2
1
0.6
0.4

0.1

0.06
0.04

0.06
0.04

0.02

0.02
1.5 2

3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20
Multiple of rated current

0.01
1

30

20

Minutes

20
10
6
4

Tripping time

Minutes
Tripping time

60
40

2
1
40

10
6
4
2

20

20

10
6
4

10
6
4

2
1
0.6
0.4

2
1
0.6
0.4

0.2

0.2

0.1
0.06
0.04

0.1
0.06
0.04

0.02

0.02
3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20
Multiple of rated current

30

I2_06354c

1
40

Seconds

Seconds

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

30

1,13 1,45

60
40

Fig. 6/14

3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20
Multiple of rated current

120

I2_06353c

0.01
1 1.5 2

1.5 2

Tripping characteristic B
Cable protection mainly in residential
building installations, no proof regarding personnel protection required

1,13 1,45

120

Tripping characteristic C
C Cable protection, advantageous for
controlling higher making currents,
e.g. with lamps, motors

6/56

1
0.6
0.4
0.2

Tripping characteristic A
C For limited semiconductor protection
C Protection of measuring circuits with
transformers
C Protection of circuits with long cable
lengths which require tripping within
0.4 sec. acc. to DIN VDE 0100
Part 410

C High rated breaking capacity up to


15,000 A according to EN 60 898
and 25 kA according to EN 60947-2
C Excellent current limiting and
selectivity
C Tripping characteristics A, B, C
and D
C Terminals are safe from finger
touch and touch by the back of the
hand
C Uniform additional components,
quick mounting using snap-on and
snap-in mechanism on site
C Separate switch position indication
C Variable labeling system
C Handle locking device effectively
prevents unauthorized operation of
the handle
C Disconnector characteristics acc. to
DIN VDE 0660 Part 107
C Main switch characteristics acc. to
EN 60204

0.1

0.01
1

Features of miniature circuitbreakers

10
6
4

1
40

0.2

In practice, the new tripping characteristics with a thermal tripping of


I2 = 1.45 x In have the advantage of a
more simple and obvious assignment
of miniature circuit-breakers for cable
and line protection in case of overload. The only condition is now:
I n I z.

20

Seconds

Seconds

Thus, the three characteristics B, C


and D can be certified. Characteristic
B replaces the previous characteristic
L. Characteristic G in accordance with
CEE 19, 1st edition is still defined,
however, it is replaced by characteristic C.

I2_06352c

60
40

60
40

0.01
1

1.5 2

3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20
Multiple of rated current

30

Tripping characteristic D
C Application area is adapted to
strongly pulsating equipment, e.g.
transformers, solenoid valves, capacities

Tripping characteristics according to EN 60 898, DIN VDE 0641 Part 11

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Low Voltage

Photo 6/63 Flexible and without tools

Features of 5SY
Easier, faster, more wiring space
C Identical terminals at the top and
bottom
C Connection of the feeder cable in
front of the busbar
C Larger and more easily accessible
wiring space for the feeder cable
C Comfortable insertion of the feeder
cables into the busbar
C Clear, visible and verifiable
connection of the feeder cables
C Universal infeed with busbar
mounting at the top or bottom

Photo 6/64 Shock-hazard protection with


obvious advantages

Photo 6/65 Easier, faster, more wiring space

Flexible and without tools


C Integrated, movable terminal
covers in the area of the feeder
cable entries
C With tightened screws, the terminals are completely enclosed
C Effective shock-hazard protection
even if fully grabbed
C VBG 4/BGV A2 requirements are
greatly exceeded
Shock-hazard protection with clear
advantages
C Manual rapid mounting and
dismounting system no need
for tools
C Rapid mounting and dismounting of
the MCB onto and from the standard mounting rails in accordance
with DIN EN 60715
C Devices can be replaced easily and
comfortably at any time

Photo 6/66 Removal from the assembly

Removal from the assembly


As a result of the combination of the
various features, the 5SY miniature
circuit-breakers can easily and rapidly
be removed from the assembly when
circuits have to be changed: It is no
longer necessary to remove the busbar. It just takes a moment to replace
a 5SY miniature circuit-breaker.

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Seite 58

Product overview
Tripping
characteristic

Device
mounting
depth
[mm]

Rated
currents In

Standards

5SJ6

70

6 ... 32 A

EN 60898

5SY6

6 ... 80 A

C
D

Rated breaking
capacity
Energy limitation
class

Type of application
Functional
buildings
Residential
buildings
Industry

Version

Standard product range

0.3 ... 80 A

0.3 ... 63 A

6 000
3

High-performance
product range
5SY4

5SY7

5SY8

70

1 ... 80 A

EN 60898

10 000
3

6 ... 80 A

0.3 ... 80 A

0.3 ... 63 A

6 ... 63 A

0.3 ... 63 A

0.3 ... 63 A

0.3 ... 63 A

0.3 ... 63 A

15 000
3

EN 60947-2

25 kA

AC/DC product range


5SY5

70

6 ... 63 A

EN 60898

0.3 ... 63 A

10 000
3

High current product range


5SP4

70

80 ... 125 A

EN 60898

10 000

80 ... 125 A

80 ... 100 A

Power supply company


product range
5SP3

92

Table 6/15

Overview of miniature circuit-breaker product ranges

6/58

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

16 ... 100 A

DIN VDE 0645 25 000

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Seite 59

Low Voltage
Technical data
Number of poles

1
1+N
2
3
3+N
4

Rated voltage

5SY4

5SY5

5SY6

5SY7

5SY8

5SP4

C
C
C
C
C
C

C
C
C
C
C
C

C
C
C
C
C
C

C
C
C
C
C
C

V AC
V DC

230 / 400

V AC / DC
V/Pol DC
V AC

220 / 440

24
60 1)
440

220

60

10

15

acc. to EN 60947-2

kA AC
kA DC
kA AC

Coordination of insulation
Rated insulation voltage

V AC

250/440

Operational voltage

min.
max.
max.

Rated breaking capacity


acc. to EN 60898

Degree of pollution with


overvoltage category III

C
C
C

1)

15

10
25

Shock-hazard protection
acc. to DIN EN 50274

Main switch characteristics


acc. to EN 60204

Sealable in the final handle position


Device depth
acc. to DIN 43880

mm

Degree of protection

70
IP00 acc. to DIN 40050, IP20 acc. to DIN 40050 for 5SY, IP40
when mounted in distribution board

Free of CFC and silicone

yes

Mounting

can be snapped onto 35 mm standard mounting rail (DIN EN 60715); additionally for
C 5SY: rapid mounting system operable without tools
C 5SP4: also screw mounting

Terminals

5SY combined terminals on both sides for simultaneous connection of busbars (pin-type version) and conductors
5SP4 tunnel terminals on both sides

Terminal tightening torque


recommended

Nm

2.5 ... 3

3 ... 3.5

Conductor cross sections


solid and stranded
C upper terminal
C lower terminal

mm2
mm2

0.75 ... 35
0.75 ... 35

0.75 ... 50
0.75 ... 50

finely stranded with end sleeve


C upper terminal
C lower terminal

mm2
mm2

0.75 ... 25
0.75 ... 25

0.75 ... 35
0.75 ... 35

Different cable cross sections can be clamped


simultaneously; details available on request
Supply connection

any, adhere to the specified polarity for DC applications

Mounting position

any

Service life

average of 20,000 operations at rated load

Ambient temperature

25 ... +45, temporarily +55, max. 95% humidity, storage temperature: 40 ... +75

m/s2

60 at 10 Hz ... 150 Hz acc. to IEC 60068-2-6

Resistance to climate
Resistance to vibration
1)
2)

2)

6 cycles acc. to IEC 60068-2-30

Battery charging voltage 72 V


10,000 operations for 5SY5, 40 A, 50 A and 63 A at rated load

Table 6/16

Technical data for miniature circuit-breakers

6/59

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Seite 60

Technical data
Number of poles

5SJ6

230 / 400

V AC / DC
V DC / Pol
V AC

24
60
250

Rated breaking capacity


acc. to EN 60898
acc. to DIN VDE 0645

kA AC
kA AC

Coordination of insulation
Rated insulation voltage

V AC

250

min.
max.
max.

C
C

V AC

Operational voltage

5SP3

1
1+N

Rated voltage

5SY6 -.KV

Degree of pollution
with overvoltage category III

230

220 / 440

440

25
690

2 / III

3 / IV

Shock-hazard protection
acc. to DIN EN 50274

Main switch characteristics


acc. to EN 60204

Sealable in the final handle position

Device depth
acc. to DIN 43880

mm

Degree of protection

70

92

IP20 acc. to DIN 40050 for 5SP3, IP40 when mounted in distribution board

Free of CFC and silicone

yes

Mounting

can be snapped onto 35 mm (DIN EN 60715) standard mounting rail;


additionally for 5SP3: also screw mounting

Terminals

5SP3 saddle terminals on both sides, 5SJ6, 5SY6 ...-.KV tunnel terminals on both sides

Conductor cross sections


Solid and stranded
C upper terminal
C lower terminal

mm2
mm2

0.75 ... 25
0.75 ... 25

0.75 ... 16
0.75 ... 16

max. 70
max. 70

Finely stranded with end sleeve


C upper terminal
C lower terminal

mm2
mm2

0.75 ... 25
0.75 ... 25

0.75 ... 16
0.75 ... 16

max. 50
max. 50

Supply connection

any

Mounting position

any

Service life

average of 20,000 operations at rated load

Ambient temperature

25 ... +45, temporarily +55, max. 95% humidity, storage temperature: 40 ... +75

m/ s2

60 at 10 Hz ... 150 Hz acc. to IEC 60068-2-6

Resistance to climate
Resistance to vibration

6 cycles acc. to IEC 60068-2-30

Tabelle 6/17 Technical data for miniature circuit-breakers

6/60

2)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Seite 61

Low Voltage

6.2.5 Residual-CurrentOperated Circuit-Breakers


Protection against hazardous
shock currents according to DIN
VDE 0100 Part 410
Application
C Protection against indirect contact
(indirect personnel protection). Protection is provided by disconnecting hazardous high contact voltages
caused by a short circuit to exposed conductive parts of equipment.
C When using RCCBs with In 30 mA.
extensive protection from direct
contact (direct personnel protection) is given as supplementary
protection via disconnection when
live parts are touched.
Protective action
While RCCBs for rated fault current
In 30 mA provide protection
against indirect contact, the installation of RCCBs with In 30 mA provides a high level of supplementary
protection against unintentional direct
contact with live parts.

Photo 6/67 RCCB 4-pole

Figure 6/15 shows the physiological


responses of the human body when
current flows through it, classified
into current ranges. Current/time values in range 4 are dangerous, as they
can initiate heart fibrillation which can
result in death.
The RCCB tripping range with a rated
fault current of 10 mA and 30 mA is
indicated. The average release time
lies between 10 ms and 30 ms. The
admissible tripping time in accordance with DIN VDE 0664 or EN 61 008
or IEC 1008 of max. 0.3 s (300 ms) is
not required. Residual-current-operated circuit-breakers with a rated fault
current of 10 mA or 30 mA provide
reliable protection even if current
flows through a person as a result of
unintentional direct contact with live
parts. This level of protection cannot
be achieved by any other comparable
means of protection against indirect
contact.

Thus, a current can only flow through


a human body if two faults are present or if the person accidentally
touches live parts.
If a person directly touches live parts,
two resistances determine the level
of the current flowing through the human body, i.e. the internal resistance
of the person RM and the local ground
leakage resistance RSt (see Fig. 6/17).
For the purpose of accident prevention, the worst case must be assumed
which means that the local ground
leakage resistance is almost zero.
The resistance of the human body is
dependent on the current path. Measurements resulted, for example, in a
resistance of 1000 for a hand-tohand or hand-to-foot current path.
A fault voltage of 230 V AC results in
a current of 230 mA for a hand-tohand current path.

Wherever RCCBs are used, an appropriate earth terminal must also be


provided and connected to all of the
equipment and parts of the system.

Photo 6/68 RCCB-protected outlet for a


higher protective level

Photo 6/69 RCCB 2-pole

6/61

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Seite 62

Range a
Usually, the
effect is not
perceived.

10 mA 30 mA

10000
ms
t
2000

Range s
Usually, there
are no noxious
effects.

1000
500
1

200
100
50

Fire protection according to


DIN VDE 0100-482
Application
When using residual-current-operated
circuit-breakers with In 300 mA,
protection against electrically ignited
fires caused by insulation faults.

20
0.1 0.2 0.5 1

5 10 20

Range d
Usually, no
danger of
50 100 200 500 1000 mA 10000 heart fibrillation.
IM

IM

: Shock current

Range f
Heart fibrillation
danger.

t : Duration

Fig. 6/15

Protective action
For locations exposed to the hazards
of fire, DIN VDE 0100-482 specifies
measures to prevent fires that might
result from insulation failures.

Rated current range according to IEC 60479

FI

Taking into account all external influences, the electrical equipment must
be selected and mounted in such a
way that their heating during normal
operation and the predictable increase of temperature in case of a
fault cannot cause a fire.

L1
N
PE
RA

FI

L1
N
PE
RA

PE conductor
interrupted
and insulation
failure in the
equipment

Damaged
insulation

L1
N
PE
RA

FI

Conductors
interchanged

This may be achieved by a suitable


type of equipment or by additional
protective measures during the installation.
In TN and TT systems, there are
therefore RCCBs with a rated fault
current of 300 mA maximum additionally requested for locations exposed to the hazards of fire. Where
resistive faults can cause a fire (e.g.
in the case of overhead radiation
heatings with surface heating elements), the rated fault current must
not exceed 30 mA.

Fig. 6/16

R St

R St

R St

Examples for unintentional direct contact

L1
L2
L3
N

The additional protection against fire


provided by RCCBs should be used
not only at locations with increased
fire hazard but in general.

FI

RM

IM

R St

Photo 6/70 RCCB


AC/DC current sensitive

6/62

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Fig. 6/17

Schematic drawing: Additional


protection when directly touching
live parts

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Seite 63

Low Voltage
L1 L2 L3 N

L1 L2 L3

3 x 230 V AC + N

3 x 230 V AC

3 x 400 V AC + N

3 x 400 V AC

Fig. 6/18

TN system

3-pole connection
4-pole RCCBs (Fig. 6/18) can also be
used in 3-pole supply networks. In this
case, the device must be connected at
the terminals 1, 3, 5 and 2, 4, 6 (Fig.
6/18). The functionality of the test facility is only ensured if a jumper is inserted between the terminals 3 and N.

However, if an insulation fault causes a


fault current to flow, this balance is disturbed and a residual magnetic field remains in the transformer core. This produces a voltage in the secondary winding, which, via the release and the
contact latching mechanism, disconnects the circuit with the insulation
fault. This tripping principle works independently of the supply voltage or an
auxiliary supply. This is the prerequisite
for the high level of protection which
RCCBs provide according to IEC/EN
61008 (VDE 0664). Only this ensures
that the full protective function of the
RCCB is maintained, even in case of a
network fault, e.g. if a phase conductor
fails or the neutral conductor is interrupted.

Application
RCCBs can be used in all three
distribution network types
(DIN VDE 0100-410) (Fig. 6 /19).
In the IT system, a tripping upon the
first fault is not required since this can
not yet cause a dangerous touch voltage. An insulation monitoring device
has to be provided so that the first fault
is signaled by an audible or visual signal
and the fault cleared as quickly as possible. The tripping is only requested in
the case of a second fault. Depending
on the grounding, the tripping conditions of the TN orTT system must be
observed. The RCCB can also be used
as a suitable circuit-breaker here; each
current-using equipment must then be
equipped with its own RCCB.

TN-C

TN-S

TT system

L1
L2
L3
N
RCCB

In a fault-free system, the magnetizing effects of current carrying conductors in the summation current
transformer cancel each other out in
accordance with Kirchhoffs law.
There is no residual magnetic field
which could induce a voltage in the
secondary winding.

PE

L1
L2
L3
N

PE

PE

IT system (limited application)

PE

Fig. 6/19

L1
L2
L3
RCCB

The summation current involves all of


the conductors, i.e. also the neutral
conductor, which are necessary for
current conduction.

RCCB

RCCB

PEN

We recommend that the functionality


of the RCCB is tested after installation and at regular intervals (about
twice a year).
Furthermore, other standards or regulations (e.g. accident prevention regulations) which specify test intervals
must also be met. The minimum operating voltage for the test function is
typically 100 V AC (5SM series).

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

RCCB

An RCCB essentially comprises 3


major functional groups:
1. Summation current transformer
for fault current detection
2. Release to convert the electrical
measured value into a mechanical
release
3. Contact-latching mechanism with
the contacts

Test button
Each RCCB has a test button which
can be used to check its operability.
When the test button is pressed, an
artificial fault current is produced and
the RCCB must trip.

RCCB

Design and mode of operation of


residual-current-operated circuitbreakers

Connection of RCCBs

PE

RCCB; possible application in all


three network types

Current types
When using electronic components
in household appliances and in industrial plants for equipment with an
ground terminal (protection class I),
non-sinusoidal fault currents may
flow through an RCCB in case of an
insulation fault.

6/63

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Seite 64

Current type

Current
waveform

Tripping current 1)

Proper functioning of
RCCBs type
AC

AC fault currents

0.5 1.0 In

pulsating DC fault currents


(pos. and neg. half-waves)

0.35 1.4 In

C
C

C
C

0.25 1.4 In
0.11 1.4 In

Half-wave current with superimposed smooth 6 mA DC current

max. 1.4 In+ 6 mA

Smooth DC current

0.5 2.0 In

Phased half-wave currents


Phase control angle

1) Tripping

Table 6/18

90el
135el

currents acc. to IEC /EN 61008-1 (VDE 0664, Part 10); for smooth DC currents acc. to VDE 0664, Part 100.

Tripping currents for RCCBs

The standards for RCCBs include


additional requirements and test
specifications for fault currents which
become zero or almost zero within
one period of the supply frequency.
RCCBs which trip on both sinusoidal
AC fault currents as well as on
pulsating DC fault currents have
the symbol
.

Three-phase bridge
connection 6-pulse
L1 L2 L3

Pulse current sensitive RCCBs cannot


detect such DC fault currents and
cannot trip. Furthermore, this has a
negative impact on their tripping
function.
This is why electrical equipment which
generates such fault currents when
faults occur may not be operated together with pulse current sensitive
RCCBs on electrical supply networks.

6/64

Load current
IB

L1 L2 L3
IB

IB

Fault current
I

RCCBs which additionally trip on


smooth DC currents (type B) have
the symbol
.
DC fault currents
In industrial electrical equipment, circuits are being increasingly used
where smooth DC fault currents or
fault currents with a low residual ripple may flow in the event of a fault
condition. This is shown in Fig. 6/20
with the example of a piece of electrical equipment with a three-phase
rectifier circuit. Electrical equipment
includes devices such as frequency
converters, medical devices (e.g.
x-ray generators, CT systems) and
UPS systems.

Three-phase star
connection

I
t

Fig. 6/20

Block diagram with fault location

A protective measure would be protective separation, which, however, can


only be implemented using heavy and
expensive transformers. A technically
optimum and cost-effective solution is
obtained by using the new AC/DC sensitive RCCBs. This RCCB type (type B)
is specified in DIN EN 50178 (DIN VDE
0160) Electronic equipment for use in
power installations
.
AC/DC sensitive protective device
Design
The basis for the AC/DC sensitive
protective device is a pulse-currentsensitive protective switching unit
with a release which operates independently of the line supply, supplemented by an additional unit which
senses smooth DC fault currents.
Figure 6/21 shows the basic design.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

The W1 summation current transformer monitors, as before, the electrical system or plant for AC and pulsating fault currents. The summation
current transformer W2 senses the
smooth DC fault currents, and transmits a disconnection command to release A via electronic unit E when a
fault occurs.
Operating principle
In order to ensure a highly reliable
supply, the power for the electronic
unit is tapped from all of the three
phase conductors and the neutral
conductor. Furthermore, it is dimensioned to ensure that the electronics
still operate when the voltage is reduced to 70% (e.g. between phase
conductors and neutral conductor).

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Seite 65

Low Voltage
L1
L2
L3
N
PE
1

M
A

W1

This consequently ensures tripping


whenever a smooth DC fault current
is present; this also applies in case of
faults in the supply network, e.g.
when the neutral conductor is interrupted. Even in the extremely improbable case of a failure of the two
phase conductors and the neutral
conductor, and if the remaining intact
phase conductor represents a fire
hazard due to a ground fault, protection is still provided by the pulse-current-sensitive breaker part, which reliably trips due to its supply-independent release.
RCCBs of type B are suitable for use
in an AC system with 50/60 Hz ahead
of input circuits with rectifiers. They
are not designed for use in DC systems and in systems with operating
frequencies deviating from 50/60 Hz.
They can be used for the detection
and tripping of fault currents which
might arise in the power supply
units (e.g. frequency converters,
computer tomographs) of threephase loads with electronic components (rectifiers).
In this electronic equipment, apart
from the described fault current
forms (AC fault currents, pulsating
and smooth DC fault currents), there
might also arise AC fault currents of
very different frequencies as, for example, on the outgoing side of a frequency converter.
For RCCBs of type B, the device regulation VDE 0664 Part 100 defines requirements for frequencies up to 2 kHz.
At the moment, statements as to the
danger of heart fibrillation (up to 1 kHz)
for frequencies exceeding 100 Hz can
only be made in a very limited way. Safe
statements as to further effects and the
influence on the human organism (thermal, electrolytic) are not possible.

W2

Release

M Mechanical system
of the protective device
E

Electronics to trip in the event


of smooth DC fault currents

Test facility

Secondary winding

W1 Summation CT to
sense sinusoidal fault
currents
W2 Summation CT to
sense smooth DC fault
currents

Fig. 6/21

Block diagram of an AC/DC current sensitive RCCB

Based on these facts, protection for


the case that a person directly
touches live parts is only possible for
frequencies up to 100 Hz. For higher
frequencies, the method of protection to be implemented is protection
against indirect contact with live
parts.
Configuration
When designing and installing electrical systems, it must be ensured that
electrical devices which can generate
smooth DC fault currents when a
fault occurs have their own circuit
with an AC/DC sensitive RCCB (see
Fig. 6 /22).
It is not permissible to branch circuits
with these types of electrical devices
to pulse-current-sensitive RCCBs.
Consumers which can generate
smooth DC fault currents under fault
conditions would then adversely affect pulse-current-sensitive RCCB
tripping.
The tripping conditions are defined
according to DIN VDE 0664 Part 100
(for RCCBs of type B) and correspond
to those of type A for AC and pulsating fault currents. The tripping values
for smooth DC fault currents were
defined in this device regulation taking into account the current compati-

bility characteristics according to


IEC 60479 for the range 0.5- to 2.0times the rated fault current.
AC/DC sensitive RCCBs have the
symbols
.
Note:
Using the available auxiliary current
switches, the RCCBs can be integrated into the building management
system via an instabus EIB or
AS-Interface bus or PROFIBUS.
Selective tripping
Residual-current-operated circuitbreakers normally have an instantaneous release. As a consequence, an
RCCB series connection which is to
selectively disconnect in case of
faults will not work. To achieve selectivity when RCCBs are connected in
series, the serially connected devices
must be graded both with regard to
the release time as well as to the
rated fault current. Selective RCCBs
have a tripping delay.
Furthermore, selective RCCBs must
have an increased surge withstand
strength of at least 3 kA according to
IEC /EN 61008-1 (VDE 0664, Part 10).
Siemens devices have a surge withstand strength of 5 kA.
Selective RCCBs have the symbol S .

6/65

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19:32 Uhr

Seite 66

Wh

I n = 300 mA

FI

FI

Fig. 6/22

I n = 30 mA

I n = 30 mA

I n = 30 mA

FI

I n = 30 mA

FI

FI

I n = 300 mA

FI

Configuration of circuits

Sub-distribution
FI
board

Main distribution
board

SIGRES RCCBs are marked with


the symbol i .

FI

FI
selective version
Upstream RCCB
for selective tripping

1)

instantaneous/short-time delayed K

Downstream RCCB
S

or
instantaneous short-time
K
delayed

In

Tripping time
(at 5 In)

In

Tripping time Tripping time


(at 5 In)
(at 5 In)

300 mA
500 mA
1000 mA

60110 ms

10, 30 or 100 mA
10, 30 or 100 mA
10, 30, 100, 300 or 500 mA

< 20 ms 1)

20< 40 ms

for RCCBs of type AC: < 40 ms

Table 6/19

Allocation of RCCBs

Table 6 /19 shows a possible grading


of RCCBs for selective tripping when
the RCCBs are connected in series
without or with short-time delay.
Short-time delayed tripping
Electrical devices which cause high
leakage currents at switch-on (e.g.
as a result of transient fault currents
which flow between the phase conductor and PE via noise suppression
capacitors) can cause instantaneous
RCCBs to trip when they should not
if the leakage current exceeds the
rated fault current In of the RCCB.

6/66

For applications such as these, where


it is either not possible or only partially possible to eliminate such fault
sources, short-time delayed RCCBs
can be used. These devices have a
minimum tripping time of 10 ms, i.e.
they will not trip in case of a 10 ms
fault current impulse. Here, the
tripping conditions according to
IEC/EN 61008-1 (VDE 0664, Part 10)
are maintained. The devices have an
increased surge withstand strength
of 3kA.
Short-time delayed RCCBs are
marked with the symbol K .

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SIGRES RCCBs for aggravated


ambient conditions i
Our SIGRES RCCBs have been developed for the use of RCCBs in environments with an increased impact of
corrosive gas such as, for example,
C indoor swimming pools:
chloric gas atmosphere;
C agriculture: ammonia;
C building site distribution boards,
chem. industry: nitrogen oxides
[NOx], sulfur dioxide [SO2]

With the patented active condensation protection, a clear increase of


the service life is achieved.
The following points have to be
taken into account when using
the SIGRES RCCBs:
C The must always be supplied from
the bottom at the terminals 2/N or
2/4/6/N.
C Prior to insulation tests of the installation system with voltages exceeding 500 V, the SIGRES RCCB
must be deactivated or the cables
on the supply side (bottom) have to
be disconnected.

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Seite 67

Low Voltage
Rated current
of RCCB

RCCBs with N-connection


on the left side
Since the RCCBs are usually located
on the left side of the miniature circuit-breakers but have the N-conductor connection on the right side, the
continuous busbar connection is disturbed. RCCBs in connection with
MCBs therefore require a special
busbar. To enable the customer to always use standard busbars, four-pole
RCCBs are also offered with an Nconnection on the left side. The installation habit with the RCCB on the
left side of the MCB using standard
busbar connections can thus be
retained.
Breaking capacity, short-circuit
capacity
According to the regulations for installation, which are specified in DIN
VDE 0100 Part 410 (protection against
hazardous shock currents), RCCBs
may be used in all three network
types (TN, TT and IT systems). If the
neutral conductor is used as protective conductor in TN systems, shortcircuit-type fault currents may flow in
the event of a fault. Thus, RCCBs together with a back-up fuse must have

Maximum permissible
short-circuit back-up
fuse LV HRC, DIAZED,
NEOZED, utilization category gL/gG for RCCB

125 V
400 V AC
A

500
800
800
800
800
800
800
1250

63
100
100
100
100
100
100
125

63
63
63

630

63

500 V AC

Type A
16 ... 40
63
80
25
40
63
80
125

2 MW
2.5 MW
2.5 MW
4 MW
4 MW
4 MW
4 MW
4 MW
Type B

25 ... 63
Table 6/20

8 MW

Rated breaking capacity/short-circuit strength

Stirn

Kenngren eines Stromstoes nach


DIN VDE 0432 Teil 2
TS Stirnzeit in s
T r Rckenhalbwertzeit in s
0 1 Nennbeginn
Im Scheitelwert

Scheitel

%
100
90

Rcken
Im

Versions for 50 to 400 Hz


Due to their mode of operation, the
standard versions of the RCCBs are
designed for the maximum efficiency
in the 50/60 Hz system. The device
specifications and tripping conditions
also refer to this frequency. With an
increasing frequency the sensitivity
decreases. To be able to realize an effective residual-current protection for
applications in systems up to 400 Hz
(e.g. industry), suitable devices have
to be used. Such RCCBs fulfill the
tripping conditions up to the stated
frequency and offer appropriate
protection.

Rated breaking
capacity Im acc.
to IEC/EN 61008
(VDE 0664) at a 35 mm
grid clearance

50

10
0
01

TS
Tr

Fig. 6/23

Surge current wave 8/20 s (8 s front time; 20 s time to half-value on tail)

an appropriate short-circuit strength.


Tests have been defined for this purpose. The short-circuit strength of the
combination must be specified on
the devices.
Siemens RCCBs have, together with
an appropriate back-up fuse, a shortcircuit strength of 10,000 A. In accordance with the VDE standards, this
corresponds to the highest possible
level of short-circuit strength.
Details about the rated breaking capacity in accordance with IEC /EN
61008 and the maximum permissible
short- circuit back-up fuse for RCCBs
are shown in Table 6/20.

Surge strength
During thunderstorms, atmosphericrelated overvoltage conditions may
enter a system or electric installation
via the overhead power lines in the
form of travelling waves and thus the
RCCBs are tripped. To prevent unintended disconnections, pulse-currentsensitive RCCBs must pass special
tests to prove surge withstand
strength. A surge current of the standardized surge current wave 8/20 s
is used for testing. Siemens pulsecurrent-sensitive RCCBs have a surge
withstand strength of 1000 A.

6/67

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Seite 68

RCCBs

RCCB, type A1 1), 16 ... 125 A


instantaneous tripping,
surge strength > 1 kA

Number Rated
of poles current In
A

Rated fault
current In
mA

MW Auxiliary
switch,
mountable

N-connection on the
right
left

10, 30
30, 100, 300

30, 100, 300

2.5

30, 300
500
30, 300
100, 500
30, 300
100, 500
30, 300
30, 100, 300, 500
30

16
25
40
63
80
25
40
63

K short-time delayed,
surge strength > 3 kA

S selective,

2
4

surge strength > 5 kA

80
125
25
40
63
63
40
63

125
SIGRES RCCB, type A1), for aggravated ambient conditions
instantaneous tripping,
2
25
surge strength > 1 kA
40
63
80
4
25
40
63
80
4
63
S selective,
surge strength > 5 kA
RCCB, type A1), 500 V
instantaneous tripping,
4
25
surge strength > 1 kA
40
63
RCCB, type A1), 50 ... 400 Hz
instantaneous tripping,
4
25
surge strength > 1 kA
40
>N<, AC/DC sensitive, type B2)
surge strength > 1 kA
4
25
40
63
S selective, surge strength > 5 kA
63

1)

30, 100
100, 300
100, 300
100, 1000
300
300, 500

2.5
4

30

30

2.5

30
30, 300

30
300

30, 300

30

30, 300

fixed
fixed
fixed
fixed

300

mounted
mounted
mounted
mounted

= Type A for AC and pulsating fault currents

2)

= Type B for AC fault currents, pulsating and smooth DC fault currents

Table 6/21

Overview of RCCB product range

6/68

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

*1 MW = modular width 18 mm
>N< = device mounting depth 55 mm
70 mm mounting depth = 70 mm device mounting depth

TIP_Kap06_Engl

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Seite 69

Low Voltage
RCCBs

Number Rated
of poles current In
A

RCCB modules for 5SY4, 5SY6, 5SY7, 5SY8 MCBs


instantaneous tripping,
2
surge strength > 1 kA
2
3
4
K short-time delayed,
surge strength > 3 kA
S selective,
surge strength > 5 kA

4
2
3
4

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

... 16
... 40
... 63
... 40
... 63
... 40
... 63
... 40
... 63
... 40
... 63
... 63
... 63

RCCB modules for 5SP4 MCBs2)


instantaneous tripping,
2
80 ... 100
surge strength > 1 kA
4
80 ... 100
S selective,
2
80 ... 100
surge strength > 5 kA
4
80 ... 100
RCCB protected outlets
for installation on mounting box,
2
16
equipped with RCCB and 2 SCHUKO outlets
Molded-plastic enclosure, equipped
2
16
with RCCB and SCHUKO outlet
RCCB protected outlet for an increased protection level
16
SCHUKO outlet DELTA profil titanium white 2
RCCB/MCB 6 ... 40 A; type A1)
instantaneous tripping,
surge strength > 250 kA
Rated breaking capacity 6 kA
2
6
Characteristics B and C
10
6 000
3
13
16
20
25
32
40
Rated breaking capacity 10 kA
2
6
Characteristics B and C
10
10 000
3
13
16
20
25
32
40

1)

Rated fault
current In
mA

MW Additional
components,
mountable

10
30, 300
30, 300, 500
30, 300
30, 300, 500
30, 300
30, 300, 500
30

2
2

300

300, 500, 1000


300, 500, 1000

3
3

at
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
at

30, 300
30, 300
300
300, 1000

3.5
5
3.5
5

at
at
at
at

3
3
3

Type
(Typ A)1)

MCB
MCB
MCB
MCB
MCB
MCB
MCB
MCB
MCB
MCB
MCB
MCB
MCB

MCB
MCB
MCB
MCB

10, 30

10

10, 30

10, 30, 300

30, 300

10, 30, 300

30, 300

= Type A for AC and pulsating fault currents

Table 6/22

Overview of RCCB product range

*1 MW = modular width 18 mm
>N< = device mounting depth 55 mm
70 mm mounting depth = 70 mm device mounting depth

6/69

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Seite 70

Technical data

Standards

IEC / EN 61008, VDE 0664 Part 10; IEC / EN 61543, VDE 0664 Part 30
IEC / EN 61009, VDE 0664 Part 20

Versions

2-pole and 4-pole

Rated voltages Un

AC V

125230
230400
500

Rated currents In

16, 25, 40, 63, 80, 125

Rated fault currents In

mA

10, 30, 100, 300, 500, 1000

Enclosure

5060 Hz
5060 Hz
5060 Hz

gray molded plastic (RAL 7035)

Terminals

at
at
at
at

In
In
In
In

=
=
=
=

16 A, 25 A, 40 A
63 A, 80 A
25 A, 40 A, 63 A, 80 A
125 A

Cable cross
section
mm2
1.0 ... 16
1.5 ... 25
1.5 ... 25
2.5 ... 50

Terminal
tightening torque,
recommended Nm
2.5 ... 3,0
2.5 ... 3,0
2.5 ... 3,0
3.0 ... 3,5

5SM3, tunnel terminals with wire


protection on both sides, lower
combined terminal for simultaneous
connection of busbars and conductors

at 2 MW
at 2.5 MW
at 4 MW

5SZ, tunnel terminals with wire


protection on both sides

In = 25 A, 40 A, 63 A
Screw terminals with auxiliary switch

1.5 ... 25
0.75 ... 2,5

2.5 ... 3,0


0.6 ... 0,8

5SM2, tunnel terminals with wire protection

up to In = 63 A
In = 80 / 100 A

1.0 ... 25
6.0 ... 35

2.5 ... 3,0


3.0 ... 3,5

1.0 ... 25

2.5 ... 3,0

5SU1, tunnel terminals with wire


protection on both sides
Supply connection

optionally top or bottom (SIGRES: supplied from the bottom)

Mounting position

any

Degree of protection

IP20 acc. to DIN VDE 0470 Part 1


IP40 when mounted in distribution board
IP54 when mounted in molded-plastic enclosure

Minimum operating voltage for


test facility function

AC V

with RCCB

16 A ... 80 A: 100,
125 A: 195

RCCB module

0,3...63 A 2- and 3-pole: 195,


4-pole: 100
80...100 A: 100
RCCB/MCB in two modular widths: 195
Device service life

> 10,000 operating cycles (electrical and mechanical)

Storage temperature

40 to + 75

Ambient temperature

5 to +45,
for versions marked

-25

: 25 to + 45

Resistance to climate acc. to IEC 60068-2-30

28 cycles (55 C; 95% rel. humidity)

Free of CFC and silicone

yes

Table 6/23 Technical data for RCCBs

6/70

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

*1 MW = modular width 18 mm
>N< = device mounting depth 55 mm
70 mm mounting depth = 70 mm device mounting depth

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Seite 71

Low Voltage

6.2.6 Lightning Current and


Surge Arresters
Lightning current and overvoltage
protection why?
Today, high-performance information
systems are the backbone of modern
industrial society. Any malfunction or
system breakdown could have farreaching consequences. This may
even result in the bankruptcy of an industrial enterprise or service provider.
The causes of faults can be manifold,
with electromagnetic interferences
playing an important part here. Considering our highly technologized,
electromagnetic environment, however, it is no longer wise to wait for
the mutual interference of electric
and electronic equipment and systems and then take action to remedy
the fault at considerable expense. It
is necessary to plan and implement
preventive measures in advance that
reduce the risk of interferences,
faults and destruction.
Nevertheless, damage statistics of
electronics insurance companies
show worrying figures: more than a
quarter of all damage cases are
caused by overvoltages due to electromagnetic interference (see Fig.
6/24).

Causes of overvoltages
According to their causes, overvoltages are filed in two categories:
C LEMP (lightning electromagnetic
impulse) overvoltages that are
caused by atmospheric impact (e.g.
direct lightning strike, electromagnetic lightning fields)

Lightning current arrester


Class I (B)

SEMP (switching electromagnetic


impulse) overvoltages that are
caused by switching operations
(e.g. breaking short circuits, operational switching of loads).
Overvoltages due to a thunderstorm
are caused by direct/close strikes or
remote strikes of lightning (Fig. 6/26).
Direct or close strikes of lightning
are lightning strikes into the lightning
protection system of a building or the
electrically conductive systems leading into the building (e.g. low-voltage
supply, telecommunications and control lines). The resulting surge currents and surge voltages are particularly dangerous for the system to be
protected, with regard to the current/voltage amplitude and energy
content involved.
In the event of a direct or close lightning strike, overvoltages (Fig. 6/26)
are caused by the voltage drop at the
surge grounding resistor and the resulting raise of the ground potential
of the building in relation to the far
surroundings. This means the highest
stressing for electric systems in
buildings.

Combi-arrester
Class I (B) and II (C)

Surge arrester
Class II (C)

Surge arrester
Class III (D)

Accessories

Photo 6/71

Product overview

6/71

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Seite 72

The characteristic parameters of the


surge current present (peak value,
current rise speed, load content, specific energy) can be described by the
surge current waveform 10/350 s
(Fig. 6/25). They have been defined in
international and national standards
as the test current for components
and equipment protecting against direct lightning strikes.
In addition to the voltage drop at the
surge grounding resistor, overvoltages are generated in the electric
building installation and the systems
and equipment connected to it by the
inductive effect of the electromagnetic lightning field (Fig. 6/26, case
1b).

Negligence
36.1 %
Other

1.2 %

6/72

5.7 %

Elementary

27.4 %

Water,
fire

Overvoltage,
lightning discharge,
switching operations

Fig. 6/24

Damage causes to electronic equipment in the year 2000, analysis of 8,400 damage
cases

80
i [kA]

The energy of these induced overvoltages and of the resulting pulse


currents is far lower than the one of
the direct lightning surge current, it is
therefore described by the surge current waveform 8/20 s (Fig. 6/25).
Components and equipment that
need not conduct currents resulting
from direct lightning strikes are therefore tested with such 8/20 s surge
currents.
Lightning strikes are called remote if
they occur at a farer distance to the
object to be protected, or strike
medium-voltage overhead lines, or
occur as cloud-to-cloud lightning discharges in the immediate vicinity of
such overhead lines (Fig. 6/26, cases
2a, 2b and 2c). Similar to induced
overvoltages, the effects of remote
strikes of lightning to the electric
building installation are handled by
components and equipment which
have been dimensioned according to
the surge current waveform 8/20 s.

12.9 % Theft,
vandalism

16.7 %

60

40

20
2
0
0 80

200

fmax [kA]

600

800

t [s]

Waveform [s]

Q [As]

W/R [J/]

Test surge current for


1 lightning current arrester 75

10/350

37.5

1.5 x 106

Test surge current for


2 surge arrester

8/20

0.27

2.75 x 103

Fig. 6/25

75

Test surge currents

Overvoltages caused by switching


operations are, for example, generated by:
The disconnection of inductive
loads (e.g. transformers, reactors,
motors)

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

400
350

Arc initiation and interruption (e.g.


arc welding equipment)
Fuse tripping

TIP_Kap06_Engl

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Seite 73

Low Voltage

The effects of switching operations in


the electrical installation are also simulated by surge currents of the waveform 8/20 s under test conditions.

Lightning
protection zone

Definition

0A

Zone in which objects are exposed to direct lightning strikes and


must therefore be capable of carrying the entire lightning current.
The undamped electromagnetic field is present here.

0B

Zone in which objects are not exposed to direct lightning strikes,


in which, however the undamped electromagnetic field is
present.

Zone in which objects are not exposed to direct lightning strikes


and currents are reduced as compared to zone 0A. In this zone,
the electromagnetic field may be damped dependent on the
shielding measures taken.

2, 3

If a large-scale reduction of the conducted currents and/or the


electromagnetic field is required, subsequent zones must be
established. Requirements to these zones must comply with
the required ambient zones of the system to be protected.

Protection scheme
To ensure continuous availability of
complex electric and IT systems even
in the event of a direct impact of
lightning, further measures for the
protection of electric and electronic
systems against overvoltage, based
on a lightning protection system for
the building, are required. It is important to take all causes of overvoltages
into account. To do so, the concept of
lightning protection zones, as described in IEC 61312-1 (DIN VDE 0185
Part 103), is applied (Fig. 6/27). The
building is divided into endangered
zones. According to the degree of
endangerment of these zones, the
equipment and components necessary for lightning and overvoltage
protection can then be determined
properly.
Part of an EMC-suitable lightning
protection zone concept is the outer
protection against lightning (including
lightning rods, roof conductors or air
termination network, arrester,
grounding), the equal potential bonding, the room shield and the overvoltage protection for the electrical and
IT network. Definitions apply as classified in the Table Definition of lightning protection zones.

Table 6/24

Definition of lightning protection zones

Definition of lightning protection


zones
In accordance with the requirements
and burdens placed on surge protective devices, they are categorized as
lightning current arresters, surge arresters and combined arresters.
The highest requirements are placed
on the arresting capability of lightning
current arresters and combined arresters, which perform the transition
from lightning protection zone 0A to 1
or 0A to 2. These arresters must be
capable of conducting partial lightning currents of waveform 10/350 s
several times without being destroyed in order to prevent the
ingress of destructive partial lightning
currents into the electrical building installation. At the transition point of
lightning protection zone 0B to 1,

or downstream of the lightning current arrester at zone transition point


1 to 2 and higher, surge arresters are
used to protect against overvoltages.
Their task is both to reduce the residual current/voltage quantities of the
upstream protective levels even further and to suppress the overvoltages induced or generated in the
installation itself.
The above described lightning and
overvoltage protective measure at
the borders of the lightning protection zones equally applies to the electrical and the IT network. By summation of the measures defined in the
EMC-compatible concept of lightning
protection zones, continuous availability of modern infrastructure systems can be achieved.

6/73

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Seite 74

Direkt/close lightning strike


Strike into outer lightning
protection system, process frame
(in industrial plants), cables etc.

2b
2a

1a Voltage drop at the surge


grounding resistor RS
1b Induced voltage in loop
1

20 kV

L1
L2
L3
PEN

2c
Remote lightning strike
2a Lightning strike into mediumvoltage overhead lines
1b

IT network

Fig. 6/26

1b RS

2b Traveling surge waves


in overhead lines due
to cloud-to-cloud
lightnings

Power
network

2c Fields of the lightning channel

Causes for overvoltages during lightning discharges

LPZ 0A
LEMP
LPZ 0B

LPZ 1
LEMP

Room shield
Ventilation

LPZ 2

Terminal

LPZ 3
LEMP
LPZ 2
LPZ 0B

LPZ 0B

IT network
SEMP

Power
network

Fig. 6/27

The concept of lightning protection zones

6/74

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Equipotential bonding as lightning


protection, lightning current arrester
Local equipotential bonding,
surge arrester

TIP_Kap06_Engl

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Seite 75

Low Voltage

Requirement classes of arresters


(SPD = surge protective devices:
lightning current/overvoltage
protective devices)

Rated surge voltage and overvoltage categories


6 kV
IV

Lightning current and overvoltage protection is only effective if the stipulated insulation strength of installation
sections is also taken into account
here. To do this, the withstand surge
voltage of the different overvoltage categories is matched with the protective
level Up of the different SPDs.
The international standard IEC 60664-1
(EN 60664-1) distinguishes four withstand surge voltage categories for lowvoltage equipment. The categories
listed in Table 6/25 apply to low-voltage
installations with nominal voltages of
230/400 V in particular.
The circuit diagram shown in Fig. 6/28,
Table 6/25 respectively, demonstrates
that the lightning current arresters and
surge arresters are divided into requirement classes dependent on their
location within the power system.
Siemens SPDs comply with the
following product standards:
C Germany (VDE 0675-6, 1996)
C International (IEC 61643-1, 1998)
C Italy (CEI EN 61643-11)
C Austria (VE/NORM E 8001)
Co-ordinated use of lightning
current and overvoltage arresters
In practice, arresters of the different
requirement classes are virtually connected in parallel. Owing to the different response characteristics, discharge capacity and protective tasks,

4 kV
III

HA

2.5 kV
II

1.5 kV
I

230/400 V

Protection
level

Fig. 6/28

B
<4 kV

C
D
none
<1.5 kV <1.3 kV
Requirement classes acc. to E DIN part 6/A1

Requirement classes

Category

Withstand
Description
surge voltage

IV

6 kV

For devices connected upstream of the distribution board

III

4 kV

For devices which are an integral part of the installation


(e.g. distribution cabinets)

II

2.5 kV

For equipment withstanding normal impulse voltages


(e.g. household appliances)

1.5 kV

For very sensitive equipment (e.g. electronic equipment)

Table 6/25

Stospannungskategorien

German Draft
Standard
VDE 0675-6

International
Standard
IEC 61643-1

European
Standard
EN 61643-11

Designation

Class B

Class I

Type 1

Lightning current arrester

Class C

Class II

Type 2

Surge arrester for power


distribution

Class D

Class III

Type 3

Surge arrester for consumer

Table 6/26

Product standards: Categorization of surge protective devices (SPD)

6/75

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Seite 76

kWh

Service
entry
Fig. 6/29

Electricity
meter

Lightning current
arrester

Surge
arrester 1

Surge
arrester n

Co-ordinated use of lightning current and surge arresters

the different arrester types must be


installed in the network in such a way
that the ratings of the individual
devices are not exceeded, which
ensures comprehensive protection.
To do so, an energetic evaluation is
required to ensure that a surge current always goes to the next upstream arrester if the affected arrester might be overloaded by this
surge current. This approach is called
energetic co-ordination. It must be
provided between arresters of Class I
(B) and II (C), and between arresters
of Class II and III (D). In the latter
case, energetic co-ordination has already been established if there is a
cable length of 5 m between the
Class II arrester and the Class III arrester. The co-ordination of SPDs of
Classes I and II will be discussed in
the following.
If an installation is stressed by lightning current, the surge arrester of
Class II (C) will respond first due to
its low protective level. These arresters provide a protective level of
< 1.5 kV. This voltage value does not
suffice to make the series gap of the
Class I lightning current arrester respond, which is connected in parallel,
as its response value is in the range
of 3.5 kV.

6/76

Interaction-limiting
reactor

Lightning current arrester

Surge arrester

L1
L2
L3
N
Minimum cable lengths:
5 m for PE conductor not integrated in the cable
15 m for PE conductor integrated in the cable
l
Alternative:
Use of an interaction-limiting reactor

Mounting diagram

Circuit diagram
Interaction-limiting reactor

Interaction-limiting
reactor

Lightning
current
arrester
Lightning
current
arrester

Surge arrester

Fig. 6/30

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Energetic co-ordination

Surge
arrester

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:32 Uhr

Seite 77

Low Voltage

In order not to overload the Class II


arrester, an additional voltage drop of
approx. 2 kV must be induced on the
line between the B arrester and the C
arrester, which shall reach the response value of the series gap of the
lightning current arrester, when
added up to the protective level of
the surge arrester.
In high-current networks, the voltage
drop is attained by utilizing the existing cable impedances or by applying
bundled inductivities, so-called interaction-limiting reactors. Line inductivity depends on the cable routing of

the PE conductor. If the PE conductor


is wired in a common cable together
with L1, L2, L3 and N, a cable length
of 15 m and more is required to attain a sufficient level of inductivity
and the respective voltage drop. If
the PE conductor is wired separate
from the other conductors at a distance of 1 m or more, a cable length
of 5 m is sufficient. If these cable
lengths cannot be realized, additional
interaction-limiting reactors (5SD7
390-0/-1) must be used between arresters of Class I and Class II.

Line arrangement /
connection to ground

Conductor distribution

Interaction-limiting reactor
must be built in if

L1 - L2 - L3 - N
PE built into
different line

L1 - L2 - L3 - N

l<5m

L1 - L2 - L3 - N
PE built into
same line

L1 - L2 - L3 - N - PE

Table 6/27

PE
l < 15 m

Energetic co-ordination of lightning current arresters and surge arresters

F1

If the maximum possible system short


circuit current is lower than the maximum system follow current that can
be extinguished by the SPD, an upstream protective device is not necessary. Otherwise, a fuse or miniature
circuit-breaker must be installed. Rating information for the protective device is provided in the following sections.
The single-pole lightning current arrester 5SD7 315-0 and the combi-arresters 5SD7 343-0, 5SD7 341-1 and
5SD7 344-0 have a follow current extinction capacity of 50 kA.

Co-ordinating an SPD with overcurrent protective devices shall

M
S
P
D

This characterizes the height of the


maximum system follow current that
the arrester itself is capable of breaking without the aid of an upstream
protective device, such as a miniature
circuit-breaker or fuse. The system follow current is caused by a deliberate
short-term short circuit that the lightning current arrester produces in order
to discharge the lightning current. This
means, the system follow current is a
short-circuit current with a frequency
of 50 Hz.

Co-ordination of SPDs with miniature-circuit breakers and fuses

F1
F

Follow current extinction capacity

S
P
D

C protect the SPD against overload


when excessive currents are
present
C ensure system availability

Fig. 6/31

Protection of surge arresters

C support the extinction of system


follow currents

6/77

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

Description

19:32 Uhr

Seite 78

Requirement
class

Product designation

Max. permissible Max. permissible


energy value
peak current

I2tmax
Combi-arrester

ip max

5SD7 343-0,
5SD7 344-0,
5SD7 343-1

600 kA s

18 kA

No protection necessary up to a shortcircuit current of 50 kA

1-pole lightning current


I
arrester with high follow
current extinction capacity

5SD7 315-0

600 kA2s

18 kA

No protection nec
essary up to a shortcircuit current of 50 kA

Encapsulated lightning
current arrester

5SD7 311-1, 5SD7 313-1

120 kA2s

10 kA

Open lightning
current arrester

5SD7 311-0

80 kA2s

13 kA

Surge arrester

II

5SD7
5SD7
5SD7
5SD7
5SD7

Table 6/28

I and II

Comment

300-2, 5SD7 301-2, 100 kA2s


302-2, 5SD7 303-2,
323-2, 5SD7 325-2,
327-2, 5SD7 324-2,
326-2

10 kA

Maximum permissible energy values and peak current values of surge protective devices

A co-ordination of the SPDs and fuse


or miniature circuit-breaker shall ensure that
C the maximum permissible peak current Ipmax and
C the maximum permissible energy
value I2tmax
of the SPD are not exceeded. This
way, damage to the SPD and hence,
danger for persons or property, is prevented.
Basically, two connection methods
can be distinguished:
C The protective device is integrated
in the connection line of the SPD.
When a miniature circuit-breaker or
fuse trips, power supply is maintained. We recommend using a signaling device to indicate that the
overvoltage protective function has

6/78

been isolated from supply and is


therefore not effective.
C As standard, protection is effected
by the standard protective device
integrated in the power distribution
system (e.g. service fuse). In this
case, the SPDs are only protected
by the system fuse. If this fuse
trips due to an SPD overload, the
installation is isolated from supply.
The fuse or miniature circuitbreaker to be used must be rated in
accordance with the line cross sections in the installation.
Maximum permissible arrester backup fuse ratings must always be taken
into account.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Flow chart for the co-ordination of


the SPD with the overvoltage
protective device
Power distribution within the installation is effected by circuit-breakers
and fuses in accordance with relevant
installation standards. If required,
lightning current or surge arresters
shall ensure protection against overvoltages by means of fuses or magneto-thermal switches.
The planning engineer may utilize the
system protection situated upstream
of the SPD or provide a series circuit
for the arrester.
The following flow chart describes
the procedure for choosing between
fuse and miniature circuit-breaker as
an overvoltage protective device: if a
fuse is used (recommended use), you
may directly refer to Tables 6/29 and
6/30 and ignore the flow chart.

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:32 Uhr

Seite 79

Low Voltage

Characteristic values of miniature circuit-breaker A

A
Icc eff

Establish effective short-circuit current Icc eff

S
P
D

Establish maximum value of ip and I2t


limited by protective device A

A = Protective device for network


B = Protective device for SPD
Icc eff = Short-circuit current

ip ip max3)
and
I2t and I2tmax3)

No

Yes
1)

No additional surge arrester


fuse required

Protection B required for the SPD

A
S
P
D

Miniature circuit-breaker

Back-up fuse
or
MCB?

Back-up fuse

Solution 1
2)

Breaker selection B with very high


In and isolating capacity so that
ip ip max3) and
I2t and I2tmax3)

Fuse selection B with very high In


and isolating capacity. Observe
maximum fuse values. Take
selectivity between protective
device A and fuse F (B) into account.

SPD protected by MCB (B)

SPD protected by back-up fuse F (B)

A
MCB (B)

F (B)

S
P
D

Solution 3

S
P
D

Solution 2

1)

Owing to an allocated cross-sectional element, line power supply can be quickly restored in case of a replacement of the surge protective device.

2)

Recommended, because fuses generate a lower voltage drop and ensure better protection.

3)

Please refer to Table 6/28 for values.

Fig. 6/32

Flow chart for the co-ordination of the SPD with an overvoltage protective device

6/79

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:32 Uhr

Seite 80

Installation protected by miniature


circuit-breaker
The following tables list the conditions
required for protection against maxi-

Upstream
MCB
[A]

Lq1

Lq2

Lq3

because fuses ensure a lower voltage


drop and better protection.

mum currents, and the maximum


rated current of the fuse matching the
SPD. We recommend using fuses instead of magneto-thermal switches

Surge arrester

1-pole and multi-pole surge arresters

5SD7 315-01) 5SD7 313-1,


5SD7 311-1

5SD7 300-2, 5SD7 301-2, 5SD7 302-2, 5SD7 302-4, 5SD7 303-2,
5SD7 303-4, 5SD7 303-5, 5SD7 308-0, 5SD7 323-2, 5SD7 324-2,
5SD7 325-2, 5SD7 326-2, 5SD7 327-2, 5SD7 328-2

Fuse F

Fuse F
[gL/gG]
[A]

16

2.5

2.5

16

Upstream
MCB
[A]

25

16

10

1.5

1.5

2.5

2.5

[mm ] [mm ] [mm ] [gL/gG]


2

Lq1

Lq2

Fuse F
[gL/gG]
[mm ] [mm ] [mm ] [A]
2

Lq3

32

10

10

16

16

50

16

16

16

up to 125

25

63

25

25

25

up to 160

32

10

10

10

80

35

35

35

up to 160

50

16

16

16

up to 160

63

25

25

25

up to 125

up to 160

80

35

25

25

up to 125

50

25

25

up to 125

100

50

125

35

50

35

35

35

160

95

35

35

up to 160

100

200

120

35

35

up to 160

125

50

25

25

up to 125

250

35

35

up to 160

160

95

25

25

up to 125

> 250

35

35

up to 160

200

120

25

25

up to 125

250

25

25

up to 125

> 250

25

25

up to 125

1)

Up to 50 kA, surge arrester 5SD7 315-0 does not require a fuse.

MCB

Lq1

MCB Lq1
Lq2

Lq2
S
P
D

Lq3
S
P
D

Lq3

F
Fuse
Lq1 Line cross section of the installation

Lq2 Discharge-line cross section to arrester


Lq3 Line cross section with connection to ground

Combi-arresters 5SD7 343-0, 5SD7 343-1, 5SD7 344-0


Feed-through connection

Discharge connection

Upstream
MCB

Lq1 = Lq2

Lq3

[gL/gG]

[mm2]

16

2,5

2)

Upstream
MCB

Lq1

Lq2

Lq3

Fuse F

[mm2]

[gL/gG]

[mm2]

[mm2]

[mm2]

[gL/gG]

16

16

2,5

2,5

16

25

16

25

16

35

10

16

32

10

10

16

50

16

16

50

16

16

16

63

25

25

63

25

25

25

80

35

35

80

35

25

35

100

50

50

100

50

25

35

125

50

50

125

50

25

35

/
/

160

95

25

35

200

120

25

35

250

25

35

>250

25

35

2)

Follow current extinction capacity 50 kA.


/ = No discharge protection necessary.

Table 6/29

Technical data

6/80

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:32 Uhr

Seite 81

Low Voltage

Installation protected by fuse

Upstream
fuse
[A]

Lq1

Lq2

Lq3

Surge arrester

1-pole and multi-pole surge arresters

5SD7 315-01) 5SD7 313-1,


5SD7 311-1

5SD7 300-2, 5SD7 301-2, 5SD7 302-2, 5SD7 302-4, 5SD7 303-2,
5SD7 303-4, 5SD7 303-5, 5SD7 308-0, 5SD7 323-2, 5SD7 324-2,
5SD7 325-2, 5SD7 326-2, 5SD7 327-2, 5SD7 328-2

Fuse F

Fuse F
[gL / gG]
[A]

16

2.5

2.5

16

Upstream
fuse
[A]

25

16

10

1.5

1.5

2.5

2.5

[mm ] [mm ] [mm ] [gL / gG]


2

Lq1

Lq2

Fuse F
[gL / gG]
[mm ] [mm ] [mm ] [A]
2

Lq3

32

10

10

16

16

50

16

16

16

25

63

25

25

25

32

10

10

10

80

35

35

35

50

16

16

16

63

25

25

25

80

35

25

25

50

25

25

100

50

125

35

50

35

35

35

160

95

35

35

100

200

120

35

35

up to 160

125

50

25

25

250

35

35

up to 160

160

95

25

25

up to 125

250

35

35

up to 160

200

120

25

25

up to 125

250

25

25

up to 125

250

25

25

up to 125

1)

Up to 50 kA, surge arrester 5SD7 315-0 does not require any


fuses.
Lq1

Lq1
Lq2

F1

F1

Lq2
S
P
D

Lq3
S
P
D

Lq3

F
Fuse
Lq1 Line cross section of the installation

Lq2 Discharge-line cross section to arrester


Lq3 Line cross section with connection to ground

Combi-arresters 5SD7 343-0, 5SD7 343-1, 5SD7 344-0


Feed-through connection

Discharge connection

Upstream
MCB

Lq1 = Lq2

Lq3

[gL / gG]

[mm2]

16

2.5

2)

Upstream
MCB

Lq1

Lq2

Lq3

Fuse F

[mm2]

[gL / gG]

[mm2]

[mm2]

[mm2]

[gL / gG]

16

16

2.5

2.5

16

25

16

25

16

35

10

16

32

10

10

16

50

16

16

50

16

16

16

63

25

25

63

25

25

25

80

35

35

80

35

25

35

100

50

50

100

50

25

35

125

50

50

125

50

25

35

160

95

25

35

200

120

25

35

250

25

35

>250

25

50

2)

Follow current extinction capacity 50 kA.


/ = No discharge protection necessary.

Table 6/30

Technical data

6/81

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:32 Uhr

Seite 82

TN-S system
L1

F1

L2
L3

N
F3

F2

Wh

Consumer

PE

PE
4 arresters,
Class C

4 arresters,
Class B

Power outlet with integrated


overvoltage protection,
Class D

* For feeding with a TN-C system,


the arrester between N and PE is omitted

TT system 3+1 wiring1)

L1

F1

L2
L3

L
F2

F3
Wh

Consumer

PE
3 arresters,
Class B
1 N/PE arrester,
Class B

PE
3 arresters,
Class C

Power outlet with integrated


overvoltage protection,
Class D

1 N/PE arrester,
Class C

For rating the protective devices F2 and F3, please refer to Tables 6/28 to 6/30.
If the lightning current and surge arrester are installed upstream of the RCCB,
an S differential must be provided.
1)

In the single-phase TT system, the circuit diagram is called 1+1 wiring

Fig. 6/33

Circuit diagrams overview

6/82

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:32 Uhr

Seite 83

Low Voltage
Combi-arrester range of protection
Caution: The protection range of the combi-arrester covers
5 m! If the consumer is located more than 5 m (cable
length) away from the combi-arrester, an additional
overvoltage protection device must be provided for the
consumer.
MD
SD
Con Consumer
Con

MD = Main distribution
system
SD = Subdistribution
system

Combi-arrester
Surge arrester

Combi-arrester application in a combined main and subdistribution system


SD
Con
Con
Surge arrester

Power outlet with


integrated overvoltage
protection

SD
Con
Power outlet with
integrated overvoltage
protection

Surge arrester
MD

SD
Con Consumer
Con
MD = Main distribution
system
SD = Subdistribution
system

Combi-arrester
Surge arrester
multi-pole
Conventional installation using an interaction-limiting reactor
SD
Con
Con
Surge arrester

Power outlet with


integrated overvoltage
protection

SD
Con

Surge arrester

Power outlet with


integrated overvoltage
protection

MD + SD
Con
Con
Lightning
current
arrester

Fig. 6/34

Surge arrester
Interaction-limiting reactor

Power outlet with


integrated overvoltage
protection

MD = Main distribution
system
SD = Subdistribution
system

Circuit diagrams combi-arresters (application notes)

6/83

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:32 Uhr

Seite 84

TN-C system
Version featuring 1-pole arresters
L3
L2
L1

3-pole version
L1
L2
L3

PE

PEN

a 3 arresters, type 5SD7 311-1


s Busbar, type 5SD7 361-1 (cut at 6-pole)

a 3 arresters, type 5SD7 313-1

TN-S system
Version featuring 1-pole arresters
N
L3
L2
L1

3-pole version
N
L1
L2
L3

PE

PE

a 4 arresters, type 5SD7 311-1


s Busbar, type 5SD7 361-1

a Arrester, type 5SD7 313-4


s Arrester, type 5SD7 311-1
d Busbar, type 5SD7 361-0

TT system
Version featuring 1-pole arresters
N
L3
L2
L1

3-pole version
N
L1
L2
L3
f

a
a

PE

PE
a
s
d
f
g

3 arresters, type 5SD7 311-1


through-terminal, type 5SD7 360-0
N/PE arrester, type 5SD7 318-1
Busbar, type 5SD7 361-0 (cut at 2-pole)
Busbar, type 5SD7 361-1

Fig. 6/35

Circuit diagrams lightning current arresters, Class I (B)

6/84

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

a
s
d
f

Arrester, type 5SD7 313-1


Through-terminal, type 5SD7 360-0
N/PE arrester, type 5SD7 318-1
Busbar, type 5SD7 361-0

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:32 Uhr

Seite 85

Low Voltage

TT system
3+1 wiring (with interaction-limiting reactors)
N

L2

L1
=

L1
=

L2

L3

L3
PE

3
1
4
3
1
1
1
2
2

arresters, type 5SD7 311-1


arrester, type 5SD7 318-1
interaction-limiting reactors
arresters, type 5SD7 300-2
arrester, type 5SD7 308-0
through-terminal, type 5SD7 360-0
busbar, type 5ST2 147
combs, type 5SD7 361-1
combs, type 5SD7 361-0

Caution!

The design of the combi-arrester ensures an energetic


co-ordination with the class II arresters without that an
interaction-limiting reactor would be required.
See solution shown in Fig. 6/39.
Note: To simplify these circuit diagrams, the fuses or magnetothermal switches have not been represented: for their use and
ratings please refer to co-ordination tables 6/29 and 6/30.

PE

Fig. 6/36

Circuit diagrams lightning current arresters, Class I (B)

TN-S system
Version featuring 1-pole surge arrester
N

Version featuring multi-pole surge arrester


PE
Fault alarm

L1

a
a

a a

a
L1
L2
L3
N

PE

a 3 surge arresters, type 5SD7 303-2


s Busbar, type 5SD7 361-0
Austria:
a 3 surge arresters, type 5SD7 303-4
s Busbar, type 5SD7 361-0

Fig. 6/37

TN system:
Surge arrester for a TN system
(type 5SD7 325-2 or
5SD7 326-2)
a 1 surge arrester, type 5SD7 326-2
Austria:
a 1 surge arrester, type 5SD7 326-4

Circuit diagrams lightning current arresters, Class II (C)

6/85

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:32 Uhr

Seite 86

TT system
Version featuring 1-pole surge arrester

Version featuring multi-pole surge arrester


PE
Fault alarm

L3
L2
L1
N
PE

a
a s

d d

d
L1
L2
L3
N

f
a 1 surge arrester, type 5SD7 308-0
a 1 through-terminal, type 5SD7 360-0
d 3 surge arresters, type 5SD7 302-2
f 1 busbar, type 5SD7 361-1 (cut at 5-pole)
Austria:
a 3 surge arresters, type 5SD7 308-0
s 1 through-terminal, type 5SD7 360-0
& 3 surge arresters, type 5SD7 303-4
f 1 busbar, type 5SD7 361-0 (cut at 5-pole)

TN system:
Surge arrester for a TN system
(type 5SD7 325-2 or
5SD7 326-2)
a 1 surge arrester, type 5SD7 328-2
Austria:
a 1 surge arrester, type 5SD7 328-4
5SD7 300-2, 5SD7 301-2, 5SD7 302-2, 5SD7 303-2, 5SD7 323-2,
5SD7 324-2, 5SD7 325-2, 5SD7 326-2, 5SD7 327-2, 5SD7 328-2
F1
Miniature circuit-breaker

F1 >125 A gL/gG

F3 =125 A gL/gG
F3
On the arrester line

F1 >125 A gL/gG

F3

Note:
To simplify these circuit diagrams, the fuses or magnetothermal switches have not been represented: for their use
and ratings please refer to co-ordination tables 6/29 and 6/30.

Fig. 6/38

Circuit diagrams surge arresters, Class II (C)

6/86

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:32 Uhr

Seite 87

Low Voltage

SEC

F4

F5

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

F6

F1F2F3
L1 L1 L2 L2 L3 L3 N
H1
H2
H3

5SD7 344-0

N PE
5SD7 348-3
1 2 3 4

PE

F4 - F6
125 A gL/gG
(s = 50 mm2 Cu)

PAS

L1 L2 L3 N
Service entrance cable

SEC

F1 - F3
>125 A gL/gG

F4

F5
s

L1
L2
L3
N
PE

F6
s

F1F2F3
L1 L1 L2 L2 L3 L3 N
H1
H2
H3

F1 - F3
>315 A gL/gG

5SD7 343-1
5SD7 348-3
1 2 3 4

PE

F4 - F6
315 A gL/gG
(s = 50 mm2 Cu)
PE

L1 L2 L3 N
Service entrance cable

Fig. 6/39

PAS

Circuit diagrams combi-arresters, Class I (B) and II (C)

6/87

TIP_Kap06_Engl

11.08.2005

19:33 Uhr

Seite 88

6.2.7 3LD2 Main Control and


EMERGENCY STOP Switches
Brief description
Three- or four-pole switch-disconnectors with manual operation (network
disconnecting devices) for switching
main and auxiliary circuits of threephase motors and other devices of
up to 45 kW (e.g. machine tools and
processing machines). The lockable
rotary operating mechanism guarantees optimum use as maintenance or
repair switch from 16 to 125 A.
Areas of application
Main switches (network disconnecting devices) or EMERGENCY STOP
switches
C of individual machine tools or processing machines, direct switching
C for switching off machine or device
groups, encapsulated in a moldedplastic enclosure for wall mounting
C of switchgear and control cabinets
for maintenance or repair purposes
Product range
Main control and EMERGENCY STOP
switches from 16 A to 125 A, lockable
in OFF position with three padlocks.
C For front mounting with rotary operating mechanism (center- or fourhole fixing)
C For front mounting with masking
frame and knob, lockable with two
padlocks

6/88

Photo 6/72 6-pole main and EMERGENCY


STOP switch

Photo 6/73 Main and EMERGENCY STOP


switch in a molded-plastic
enclosure

C In molded-plastic enclosure with


rotary operating mechanism
C For base mounting with rotary
operating mechanism, 300 mm
shaft, detachable door coupling
and door locking in ON position
(center- or four-hole fixing)
C For mounting in distribution boards,
mountable on 35 mm standard
mounting rail, lockable with two
padlocks, cap dimensions 45 mm
C As 6-pole changeover and parallel
switches
Advantages at a glance
C Plugged on accessories installed
(convertible from three-pole to fourpole switches; 2 auxiliary contact
blocks can be mounted; N and PE
conductor can be mounted)
C Rapid mounting with center-hole
fixing 22.5 mm
C Snap-on terminal covers and safeto-touch terminals
C Captive terminal screws accessible
from mounting perspective

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 6/74 Main and EMERGENCY STOP


switch with door-coupling rotary
operating mechanism

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Low Voltage

The following list provides an


overview of the currently available
product groups mainly used in functional, i.e. in commercial, administrative and institutional buildings and in
industry.

Application

Standards

Switching of lighting, motors


and other electrical
equipment

IEC 60947-3, DIN EN 60947-3


(VDE 0660 Part 107)
IEC 60669-1, DIN EN 60669-1
(VDE 0632 Part 1)

Use in buildings of type


functional

Switch

and is therefore also the reason for an


increase in device development.

5TE8 control switch


C Changeover switch 5TE8,
20 A
C Group switch with
center position
5TE8, 20 A
C Control switch 5TE8,
20 A

Table 6/31

industrial

The term modular devices, as a collective name, refers to all installation


equipment which is used for switching, monitoring, indicating, controlling
and signaling. Together with the
instabus EIB devices, modular devices provide maximum functionality
for low-voltage switchgear as well as

power distribution boards and distribution boards. In Germany, the design


and with it the dimensions of the
modular devices are constructed to
conform with DIN 43880, also defined
in the CENELEC Report R 023- 001.
This standardization has led to an
enormous simplification regarding the
planning, construction and installation
of switchgear and distribution boards

residential

6.3 Modular Devices

C C C
C C C

C C C

For use in logic operations in


control cabinets

5TE4 8 pushbutton
With/without latching
function

As pushbutton in control systems,


e.g. to switch on sealed-in circuits,
or as pushbutton with latching
function for manual operation,
as control switch or for
load switching

IEC 60947-3, DIN EN 60947-3


(VDE 0660 Part 107)
IEC 60669-1, DIN EN 60669-1
(VDE 0632 Part 1)

5TE8 ON/OFF switch


20 A to 125 A

For use in logic operations


in control cabinets

1625 A and 40 100 A:


IEC 60947-3, DIN EN 60947-3
(VDE 0660 Part 107)
IEC 60669-1, DIN EN 60669-1
(VDE 0632 Part 1)
32 A and 125 A:
IEC 60947-3, DIN EN 60947-3
(VDE 0660 Part 107)

C C C

5TE1 switch-disconnector
100 A to 200 A

Switching of plant sections

IEC 60947-3, DIN EN 60947-3,


KEMA-certified acc. to UL 508

Product overview

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Switching devices
Switching of lighting, ohmic and inductive load, switching of small loads
and contact multiplications in controllers, protection of motor-driven
mechanical drive parts and pumps,
rotational speed setting of 1-phase
AC motors.

Use in buildings of type

Remote-control switch
C Without central switching Switching of lighting with
C With central switching
pushbuttons
C With central and group
switching
Venetian blinds and remote
series switch
Electronic remote series switch
Remote-control switch,
flush-mounted
System remote-control switch
C Without central switching
C With central switching
C With central and
group switching
Relay
C For controllers

C For capacitive loads

Insta contactors

Table 6/32

Product overview

6/90

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DIN EN 61095 (VDE 0637)


DIN EN 60669 (VDE 0632)

industrial

Standards

residential

Application

functional

Switch

C C
C
C
C C
C
C C
C C
C
C

Switching of small loads, or


DIN EN 60255 (VDE 0435)
use in control circuits, especially
to switch lights, such as fluorescent
lamps or high-pressure metal-vapor
lamps and metal-halide lamps,
with capacitive properties

Switching of motors, heaters


or lighting, such as fluorescent or
glow lamps, ohmic and
inductive loads

C C C

EN 60947-4-1, EN 60947-5-1,
EN 61095

C C

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Low Voltage

Protection of machinery with gear,


belt or chain drives, conveyor belts,
fans, pumps, compressors, packing
machines and door-opening drives

DIN EN 60947-4-2,
(VDE 0660 Part 117)

EMERGENCY OFF switch for


in industry, trade and private
households

In compliance with the EC


Directive for Machinery
98/37/EC, DIN EN 954-1

Use in buildings of type

Soft-starter
C 5TT3 441, 230 V AC

C 5TT3 440, 400 V AC

EMERGENCY OFF module >N<

5TT5 200, 10 A

Electric switching

Table 6/33

industrial

Standards

residential

Application

functional

Switch

C
C

Some general requirements to operation, in particular to the switching of


lighting systems are to be taken into account for planning. The technical
information presented here is intended to provide background information
and to prevent planning errors and early system failures that would result in
time-consuming trouble shooting.

Product overview

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Timers
Power saving in stairwell lighting, prewarned off-switching of stairwell
lighting in multiple dwellings, power
saving in rarely used rooms or rooms
that are frequented with a varying
intensity, timer-controlled stairwell

lighting for ECG dynamic electronic


controlgear, run-on operation for fans
in toilets, for time sequence control
in control systems.
30-minute accurate switching in day
or week cycles, 1-minute accurate
switching in day, week and year
Application

Standards

Power saving for staircase lighting;

DIN EN 60669, IEC 60699

C C

Flashes to warn before the stairwell


lights are switched off in multiple
dwellings;
To trigger electronic control gear in
fluorescent lamps, warns by
dimming the stairwell light before it
is switched off on multi-apartment
floors and landings;
Power saving in rarely used rooms,
or rooms that are frequented with a
varying intensity, flashes to warn
before the lights are switched off

DIN EN 60669, IEC 60699,


DIN 18015

C C

DIN EN 60669, IEC 60699,


DIN 18015

C C

DIN EN 60669, IEC 60699,


DIN 18015

C C

Use in buildings of type


functional

Timers

mode, automatic startup without the


necessity to enter the time, time
monitoring for accuracy. Creates,
modifies and documents switching
programs.

industrial

11.08.2005

residential

TIP_Kap06_Engl

Timers for buildings

C Stairwell lighting timer,


7LF6 110, 7LF6 111
C Stairwell lighting timer
with pre-warning
function, 7LF6 113
C Stairwell lighting
timer ECG,
5TT1 303

C Lighting timer with


pre-warning function,
7LF6 114
C Power-save timer with
pre-warning function,
7LF6 115
C Fan timer,
7LF6 112
Industrial timers
C Multi-function timer,
5TT3 185
C Delay timer,
5TT3 181
C Wiper timer,
5TT3 182
C Flashing timer,
5TT3 183
C Off-delay timer,
5TT3 184

Table 6/34

Product overview

6/92

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

C C

Power saving in toilets

DIN EN 60699, IEC 60699

For time sequence control in


control systems

DIN EN 60255, IEC 60255

C C

C
C
C
C
C

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Low Voltage

1-second accuracy of switching


in day, week or year mode

DIN EN 60730, IEC 60730

Use in buildings of type

Mechanical and digital


clock timers

C C C

Product overview

Monitoring of the emergency lightings power supply in public buildings, monitoring of the power supply
to ensure the compliance with operational parameters for devices or system parts, monitoring of the neutral
conductor for breakage, monitoring of
all types of fuses, monitoring of the
power supply for short-time interruptions of 20 ms, monitoring of 24 V DC

power supply, disconnecting of unused lines, monitoring of power supply, monitoring of a networks direction of rotation, monitoring of operating hours and switching-on of devices
or systems, overcurrent release for
the protection of motors, monitoring
of emergency and signal lighting and
motors, monitoring of luminaries and
transformers for halogen lighting,
switching of network loads in resi-

Application

Standards

Use in buildings of type


functional

Monitoring devices

dential buildings, thermal protection


of motor windings in heating or cooling equipment, remote display of
room temperatures, controlling and
limiting of temperatures, controlling
of liquid levels in containers, switching of lighting according to daytime
brightness.

Table 6/36

Light indicator
5TE5 8

Optical signaling in plants and


DIN VDE 0710-1
control circuits to indicate switching
states or faults

Bell, buzzer
With power supply unit
4AC3 004, 4AC3 104

Bell or buzzer with 230 V AC


connection in one device, that can
also be pushbutton-operated with
12 V AC safety extra voltage

DIN EN 61558-2-8

industrial

Monitoring devices

residential

Table6/35

industrial

Standards

residential

Application

functional

Timers

Product overview

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Application

Standards

Use in buildings of type


functional

Monitoring devices

Fault signaling units


5TTE5 8
C Centralized fault indicator Evaluation and display of faults or
5TT3 460
alarms to monitor industrial plants
C Expansion fault indicator footpaths, for cost saving purposes
5TT3 461

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435-303

industrial

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residential

TIP_Kap06_Engl

Dusk switches
7LQ2 1, 5TT3 3

On-demand switching of lighting


systems for shop windows or
sidewalks to save costs.

EN 60730

C C

Temperature controller
7LQ2 0

Temperature control and limiting

EN 60730

C C C

Fuse monitor
5TT3 170

Monitoring of all types of fuses

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

Power-off switch
5TT3 171

Disconnection of unused
supply lines

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

Phase-sequence/direction Monitoring of the phase sequence


of rotation monitors
of a network or power supply
5TT3 421 / 5TT3 423

Table 6/37

Product overview

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Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

C
C

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Low Voltage

Power supply monitoring of


the emergency lighting in
public buildings

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435-303,


DIN VDE 0108

Use in buildings of type

Voltage relays
C Undervoltage relay,
5TT3 400 to 5TT3 403
C Undervoltage relay,
5TT3 404 to 5TT3 406
C Short-time voltage relay,
5TT3 407
C Under-/overvoltage relay
5TT3 408

C Under-/overvoltage relay
5TT3 410
C Overvoltage relay,
5TT3 19

Table 6/38

Power supply monitoring for


short-time failures of 20 ms
Power supply monitoring to
maintain operative
parameters for equipment or
plant sections
Monitoring of neutral
conductor for breakage
Power supply monitoring to
maintain operative
parameters for equipment or
plant sections

industrial

Standards

residential

Application

functional

Monitoring devices

C
C
C
C

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

DIN VDE 0633

C
C

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

Current relay
5TT6 1

To monitor emergency and


signal lighting and motors

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435-303

Priority switch
5TT6 10

Switching of network loads


in residential buildings

IEC 60669 (VDE 0632),


BTO 6 Section 4

Isolation monitor for


industrial applications
5TT3 4

To monitor the dielectric


resistance in ungrounded
networks

IEC 60255, IEC 61557

Cos monitor
5TT3 472

To monitor low loads of


motors up to approx. 5 A
alternating current by cos
measurements

IEC 60255, IEC 61557

Level relay
5TT3 430/5TT3 435

Control of liquid levels in


containers

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

Thermistor motor
protection relay
5TT3 43

Thermal protection of motor


windings

IEC 60255, DIN VDE 0435

Product overview

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Seite 96

Power supply units


Voltage/current supply up to 63 VA
as safety extra-low voltage, DC current/voltage supply up to 24 VA as
safety extra-low voltage, for power
supply during maintenance.
Application

Standards

Bell transformers
4AC3 0, 4AC3 1

Alternating current/voltage supply up


to 40 VA, as safety extra-low voltage,
for gongs, buzzers, bells, dooropeners, intercoms, remote-control
switches and AC power supply for
safety-extra-low-voltage systems
intended for short-term operation

DIN EN 61558-2-8

C C

Transformers for
continuous load
4AC3 4, 4AC3 5, 4AC3 6

Alternating current/voltage supply up


to 63 VA, as safety extra-low voltage,
for control circuits, relays, Insta
contactors and AC power supply
for safety-extra-low-voltage systems
intended for permanent operation

DIN EN 61558-2-2

Power supply units


for DC voltage
4AC2 4

Direct current/voltage supply up


to 40 VA, as safety extra-low voltage,
for gongs, buzzers, bells, dooropeners, relays, Insta contactors
and DC power supply for safetyextra-low-voltage systems intended
for permanent operation

DIN EN 61558-2-6

C C C

Outlets
5TE6 7

Power supply for maintenance


purposes in distribution boards

DIN VDE 0620,


CEE 7 Standard Sheet V

C C C

Table 6/39

Product overview

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industrial

residential

Use in buildings of type


functional

Power supply units

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Low Voltage

instabus binary inputs


N260 binary input
For four independent switching or pushbutton signals,
input voltage 230 V AC,
contacting via data bus.

Standards
EN 50090

N261 binary input


For four independent switching or pushbutton signals,
input voltage 24 V AC/DC,
contacting via data bus.

Table 6/40

Product overview

6/97

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instabus clock timers


REG371 2-channel clock timer
Can be used in day, week or year mode. 36 switching times can be
permanently saved. Holiday timing to interrupt the automatic program
for 199 days with pre-selection of 199 days.
Calendar-timed automatic summertime/wintertime changeover.
Switching, priority, dimming or value frames can be sent on every
channel. Bus contacting via bus terminal.
REG372 4-channel clock timer
Can be used in day, week or year mode. 324 switching times can
be permanently saved. Besides the standard week program, up to
9 more week programs can be entered in each channel and called
up with reference to a certain period (e.g. 12-24 to 01-06). Every
week program can be complemented by date switching commands
and single-date switching commands. A random switching program
can be enabled. Temporary or permanent manual operation is possible. Calendar-timed automatic summertime/wintertime changeover.
Bus contacting via bus terminal. Date and time can be transmitted.

REG372/02 4-channel clock timer


In addition to the functions featured by the REG372 clock timer,
REG372/02, when used in connection with a DCF77 antenna,
type AP390, can perform an automatic time synchronization and
summertime/wintertime changeover triggered by a DCF77 signal.

REG373 16-channel clock timer


Can be used in day, week or year mode. 500 switching times can
be permanently saved. Besides the standard week program, up to
9 more week programs can be entered in each channel and called
up with reference to a certain period (e.g. 12-24 to 01-06). Every
week program can be complemented by date switching commands
and single-date switching commands. A random switching program
can be enabled. Temporary or permanent manual operation is possible. Calendar-timed automatic summertime/wintertime changeover.
In connection with a DCF77 antenna, type AP390, an automatic
time synchronization and summertime/wintertime changeover
triggered by a DCF77 signal can be performed. Bus contacting via
bus terminal. Date and time can be transmitted.
AP390 DCF77 antenna
To receive DCF77 signals for REG372/02 and REG373 clock timers.

Table 6/41

Product overview

6/98

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Standards
EN 50090
EN 60730-2-7

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Low Voltage

instabus actuators
N512 load switch
By means of eight floating contacts (bi-stable relays, contact rating
for 230 V AC, 16 A at cos = 1), the load switch controls eight independent groups of electric consumers. No supply voltage necessary. Manual operation and switch position indicator. Bus connection via data bus and/or bus terminal. Terminal may be used as
connector.

Standards
EN 50090

N522/02 Venetian blinds switch


The N22/02 Venetian blinds switch can independently drive four
230 V AC sun shield or window drives and their integrated end position switches. This easy-to install Venetian blinds switch has 4 terminals per output to connect all of the 4 conductors (Up, Down, N, PE)
of a drive line.
Functions for manual and automatic operation can be configured
separately. Slat angles or blinds position can be controlled at any
angle/position between 0 and 100%.
In connection with a higher-level time, brightness or sun-follow-on
controller, the Venetian blinds switch can be used for shading with
an optimum daylight incidence. Contacting is made via bus terminal.

N523/02 Venetian blinds switch


The N523/02 Venetian blinds switch can independently control four
sun shields (Venetian blinds, roller shutters, sunshade blinds). The
sun shield drives must have end position switches.
A pushbutton with LED enables changeover between manual and
automatic mode. In manual mode, the sun shield can be repositioned by the actuator, using two pushbuttons per channel if a
230 V AC supply and bus voltage are available.
Bus connection via data bus and/or bus terminal. Terminal may
be used as connector.

Tabele 6/42

Product overview

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N527 universal dimmer


Dimming of glow lamps and LV halogen lamps (with electronic or
conventional transformers) from 20 W to 500 W. Automatically operates according to general phase control principle. Short-circuiting
protection by means of electronic fuse.
Bus connection via data bus and/or bus terminal. Terminal may
be used as connector.

N526E switching/dimming actuator


The switching/dimming actuator switches or dims eight independent groups (channels) of fluorescent lamps with dimmable electronic control gear. Each channel is assigned to a 110 V control
output and a contact output with a switching power of 230 V AC,
16 A at cos = 1.
The switching contact output has a mechanical switching position
indicator which can also be used for direct manual operation of the
contact outputs.
Bus connection via data bus and/or bus terminal. Terminal may
be used as connector.
N670 universal I/O module
The module is equipped with two universal inputs/outputs, either
of them to be used as binary or anolog input or output, so that four
completely different functionalities are available for each universal
input/output: binary input or output, analog input or output.
For temperature measurements, two inputs are provided for
Pt 1000 sensors in two-wire connection. In addition, two power relays are provided with corresponding switching and forced-guidance
objects.
The device requires an external 24 V AC/DC supply.
Bus connection via data bus and/or bus terminal. Terminal may
be used as connector.

Table 6/43

Product overview

6/100

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Standards
EN 50090

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Low Voltage

instabus function modules


N341 event module
It can process up to 200 event programs with a maximum of 200
event tasks for up to 255 communication objects. The event module
handles up to 125 calendar entries / day programs together with a
maximum of 400 time-scheduling tasks. For the timing function,
the event module requires a date/time source.
Contacting is made via the data bus.

Standards
EN 50090

N343 operating hours and switching operations counter


It records operating hours and switching operations for a maximum
of 36 sensor/actuator channels with 1-bit switching objects. Limit
values can be defined for all counter values, so that an alarm can be
output to the instabus EIB if a limit is exceeded or undershot.
The maximum runtime of the operating hours counter is 136 years,
a maximum of 4.3 billion switching operations can be recorded.

N350 event, time-scheduling and logic module


In a compact module unit
10 event programs,
100 timing programs (week clock timer) and
10 logic gates (AND; OR; NAND; NOR) with up to six inputs
are offered.
The module can process up to 10 event programs with a maximum
of 10 event tasks each.
The week clock timer provides 100 timing tasks for 20 timer channels. For the timing function, the event module requires a date/time
source. Contacting is made via the data bus.

Table 6/44

Product overview

6/101

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6.4 Maximum-Demand
Monitors
Product and functional description
Description
The maximum-demand monitor is a
modular device with a width of 4 MW
and is able to suppress peak loads
and thus noticeably lower the users
costs for power and energy supply.
Based on a defined maximum average
power supply value, loads/consumers
are switched off or switched back on.
Here, as a rule, the operational
switching carried out by the operator
is handled with priority and therefore
the maximum-demand monitor can
only switch loads that are operationally
switched on. Each load can be disabled
and released by the assigned bus
sensor, i.e. this load is not subject to
switching by the maximum-demand
monitor in disabled state.
Power is supplied via the bus line and
via a 230 V supply.
Connection to the bus can be made
via an EIB bus terminal or optionally
via a data rail.

6/102

Seite 102

Technical data
Up to 120 channels are available for
control. Channels 1 to 8 directly display the current state via LEDs at the
device. For all of the 120 channels
available, the following parameters
can be set during start-up via the EIB
Tool Software (ETS):
C Switching-off priority (1 to 10)
C Minimum switching-on time
C Minimum switching-off time
C Maximum switching-off time
C Number of permissible switching
cycles per 24 h.
The power range limit to be observed
by the maximum-demand monitor
can be parametrized between 30 and
1,000 kW. Additionally, a warning limit
between 25 and 1,000 kW can be
set. Exceeding of this warning limit is
indicated via an LED. This is possible
for 2 rates (high rate and low rate).
The demand integration period required for the determination of the
average power value can be set to
15, 30 and 60 minutes. In coordination with this, the cycle time for the
load projection intervals can be parameterised with 15, 30, 60, 120 and
240 seconds. LEDs indicate the devices position within the demand
integration period in terms of time.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Photo 6/75

Maximum-demand monitor

The maximum-demand monitor is


parametrized via the ETS and can be
run without any additional software.
To visualize performance statistics, a
software is available that can be used
to draw up demand integration periods, day/month and year statistics,
which can then be exported to Excel
for further evaluation. This offers the
possibility to create a consumption
statistic. This enables the customer
to negotiate better and more economical supply contracts with the
respective power supply companies.

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Low Voltage

Changeover
high/low
rate

Synchronous pulse
by the power supply company
Visualization
software

S0 interface
PC

Maximum
demand
monitor

instabus EIB

Meter

Actuator
technology
Sensor
technology
Electrical heater
Lighting
Fan
ON/OFF, disabling or releasing
via pushbutton, binary inputs,
sensors os sontrol modules

Fig. 6/40

Electrical heater
Lighting
Fan
Loads available for
load management

Application example

The software is available as part of


the EIB visualization and as standalone version.
The maximum-demand monitor can
also be operated exclusively as registration unit during a recording period.
This offers the possibility to save load
curves and consumption values without the parameterization of the individual channels.
The maximum-demand monitor has
the following inputs to which floating
contacts or an S0 interface can optionally be connected according to
DIN 43 864 and 62 053-31:

C Consumption pulses:
The valency of the pulses to be
read in can be determined depending on the respective meter to be
connected. Thus, all conventional
meters with S0 interface can be
used.
C Power supply company synchronous pulse
C Changeover high/low rate:
The high/low rate changeover can
also be carried out via bus.

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Seite 104

6.5 Switches, Outlets


and Electronic
Products

60 mm

Application

71 mm

The application of electrical installation equipment in residential, public,


commercial and industrial buildings
offers ever more diverse solutions for
operating, switching, controlling and
signaling operations as well as for information and monitoring in electrical
building installation.

71 mm
Box

Insert

Frame

Rocker

Influences on device construction


The construction of operation elements as well as the actual device
construction with the required additional functions is subject to the differing national techniques and customs. The following criteria have an
influence on device construction:
C Voltage level
C Plug configuration
C Mounting box dimensions
C Modular size for side-by-side
arrangements
C Conductor connection
C Supplementary functions
C Design

Fig 6/41

CEE/VDE techniques for devices in southern Europe, type A

Standards
The technical requirements are laid
down in standards EN 60669-1 / IEC
60669-1 / DIN VDE 0632-1 for
switches and in IEC 60884-1 / DIN
VDE 0620-1 for power outlets, and
EN 669-2-1 / IEC 60669-2-1 / VDE
0632-2-1 for electronic products. In
accordance with these standards,
uniform performance features have
been specified which, however, also
allow for country-specific values for
the rated current as well as types of
construction and versions.
Various installation techniques
Due to the various country-specific
plug configurations, different national
techniques developed worldwide.
CEE/VDE technology
In Europe, the most commonly used
technique is the circular box system
(Fig. 6/41), made up of a 60 mm diameter mounting box and a modular
size of 71 mm for side-by-side
arrangements.

6/104

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Box

Fig. 6/42

Device

Country-specific monoblock
technology for type B devices
with a switching function

Modular technology
In the south of Europe, a modular
technology (Fig. 6/43) is applied.
With this technology, individual device inserts are arranged side-by-side
within a supporting frame with a
masking frame or a cover. The modular technology comprises manufacturer-specific device inserts and country-specific mounting boxes with
varying dimensions.

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Low Voltage

Monoblock technology
Monoblock technology is mainly
applied in South-East Europe. With
this technology, complete devices
which can also comprise several
switching or plugging functions, can
be inserted into mounting boxes. The
device dimensions are not standardized and only designed to comply
with the dimensions of the respective country-specific mounting boxes
(Fig. 6/40).

83.5
mm

Box

Device insert
Type B

Type A
Higher and ever changing demands
result in a permanent modification of
the touch elements surface design.
The international standardized type A
takes this into consideration and thus
ensures that the covers which account for the devices stylish design
can be replaced without detaching
the connected conductors.
CEE/VDE technology
Uniform device inserts
The Siemens DELTA product range
(Photo 6/77) meets these requirements as it uses uniform device inserts (Photo 6/79). The device inserts
are very easy to mount as they have
very small base dimensions, providing more space for the conductors in
the 60 mm diameter mounting box. A
screwless terminal connection technique as well as a circuit diagram on
the back of the base illustrating the

Type A

Supporting
frame

Cover

Type A

Masking frame

Fig. 6/43

Modular technology for devices used in Southern Europe, South America and Asia,
design types A and B

connections in correct order further


ease conductor connection.
The device inserts are equipped with
an overall shock-hazard protection, i.e.
live parts have finger-proof covers.
Furthermore, they come with returning claws and are fixed to the mounting box with captive +/ screws. For
insertion into deeper wall-recessed
mounting boxes, extension claws are

available which must simply be


plugged onto the conventional device
claws.
When mounted, the device inserts
can be tested for voltage from the
front.

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Seite 106

DELTA line

DELTA line

DELTA vita

DELTA vita

titan white

aluminum metallic

gold

carbon metallic

DELTA miro

DELTA miro

DELTA style

DELTA style

titan white

aluminum

titan white

titan white/ silver

DELTA profil

DELTA profil

DELTA natur

DELTA ambiente

tobacco

bronze

cherry tree

arctic white/ steel

Surface-mounted range IP20

Surface-mounted range IP44 Surface-mounted range IP55 Surface-mounted range IP68

Photo 6/76

DELTA product range in CEE/VDE technology, design type A

Photo 6/77

DELTA product range in CEE/VDE technology, device insert and SCHUKO outlet (without stylish part)

6/106

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

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Low Voltage

a) Plug-on technique
Frame and
rocker with
bearing block

Switching reliability:
practical solution for
badly fitting inserts
1 mm

Fig. 6/44

Practical
leveling ring:
3 mm

b)
Frame: Horizontal and vertical mounting for
flush-type boxes and trunking installations
Thermoplast molded plastic: resistant to
impact and breakage

3 mm

Leveling and switching reliability for DELTA device inserts in CEE/VDE design as well as rapid frame mounting with plug-on technology

Leveling ring
The design of the touch elements
and the switching device inserts allows leveling which is needed in
practice. Thus, even with badly fitting
device inserts, switching reliability
can be attained (Fig. 6/44).
Rocker, bearing block
Rocker and bearing block have been
constructed to form one single part,
preventing the rocker from being accidentally removed separately.

Frame
The frame is mounted together with
the rocker by plugging them onto the
device insert horizontally and vertically (Fig. 6/44).
Orientation light
The DELTA device inserts have been
designed in such a way that an orientation or pilot lamp can be retrofitted
without having to remove the inserts.
An inspection window integrated in
the rocker leads to an optimum
brightness, this fulfills the German
Ordinance on Workplaces criteria for
commercial and public buildings.

Environmentally compatible
materials
The contact material of the DELTA
device inserts is free of cadmium and
nickel and the electroplatings are free
of chrome-6 deadening agents. All
plastics are free of halogens and pigments containing heavy metals.

6/107

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DELTA Venetian blinds control,


conventional type

Seite 108

Photo 6/78

DELTA Universal switch for twoway switch

Photo 6/79

DELTA rotary dimmer switch

Photo 6/80

DELTA reflex smoke detector

Photo 6/81

DELTA connection box, category 45

Device insert versions


The various device insert versions of
the Siemens DELTA product range
can be distinguished as follows:
Operator units:
C Pushbuttons for various
applications
C Double pushbuttons for various
applications
C Venetian blinds pushbuttons
Switching devices:
C ON/OFF switches, 1-, 2- and 3-pole
C Two-way switches
C Double two-way switches
C Intermediate switches
C Two-circuit switches
C Control switches for various
applications
C Venetian blinds switches
C Venetian blinds key-operated
switches
C Timers
C Delay timers
Control devices:
C Rotary dimmers for various
applications
C Sensor dimmers for various
applications

6/108

C Pushbutton-type dimmers for


various applications
C Regulating switches for various
applications
C Volume control buttons
C Speed-regulating rheostats
C Room temperature controllers for
various applications
C Motion detectors
Signaling devices:
C Light signals
C Information displays
C Smoke detectors

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Communication devices and


sockets for data/voice networks:
C Aerial sockets for various
applications
C Telephone sockets for various
applications
C Loudspeaker sockets
C Telecommunications connection
units
C Universal connection box and
specific device inserts for data
and voice networks (Photo 6/81)

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Low Voltage

Plug-in equipment for power


supply:
C -outlets for various
applications
C -outlets with operation
indicator
C -outlets with overvoltage
protection
C Child-proof -outlets
(shutter)
C -outlets with integrated
fault current protection, childproof
(shutter)
C Outlets with center ground
contact, 2-pole, according to CEE 7
C Outlets with center ground
contact, 2-pole, according to CEE 7
and child-proof
C Outlets, 2-pole, according to
US standard C73

Photo 6/82

-outlet

Photo 6/83

-outlets with center


ground contact, child-proof

Photo 6/84

DELTA bus coupling unit

Photo 6/85

DELTA Venetian blinds control,


radio controlled

The various DELTA product ranges


The DELTA product ranges meet the
quality of design required from an
architectural point of view and come
in different materials, shapes,
dimensions, surfaces and colors.
The operating rockers of the DELTA
product ranges can also be plugged
onto the instabus KNX/EIB DELTA
bus coupling units (Photo 6/87).
Depending on the type of insert and
application, various functions can be
controlled via the instabus KNX/EIB
in its Twisted-Pair, Powerline or radiocontrol version.

Universal application
The module technology implemented
in the DELTA flush-mounting device
insert system allows for a universal
application of these devices. The
functionality of the DELTA SCHUKO
outlets can, for example, be
extended with modular accessories
for various applications (Photos
6/83, 6/85). The standard mounting
depth of 32 mm is still observed.

6/109

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Seite 110

6.6 SIMOCODE pro


Motor Management
System for ConstantSpeed Motors in the
Low-Voltage Range
Description
SIMOCODE pro is a flexible, modular
motor management system for constant-speed motors in the low-voltage range. It optimizes the interfacing
between the instrumentation and
control system and the motor feeder,
while increasing plant availability and
rendering substantial savings during
the construction, commissioning,
operation and maintenance of a plant
at the same time.
When integrated in the low-voltage
switchgear, SIMCODE pro is an
intelligent interface between the
higher-level automation system and
the motor feeder, combining:
C Full, multi-functional, electronic
motor protection, independent of
the automation system
C Flexible software instead of hardware for motor control
C Detailed operating, service and
diagnostic data
C Power management capability
C Open communication via
PROFIBUS-DP, the standard among
the field bus systems

6/110

Photo 6/86

The SIMOCODE pro motor management system

Fields of application
SIMOCODE pro is often used in automated processes where a plant
standstill would be extremely costly
and where it is important to prevent
plant standstills by an analysis of detailed operating, service and diagnostic data. SIMOCODE pro is modular
and space saving in its design, which
makes it especially suitable for application in Motor Control Centers
(MCC), as used in the process industry and power engineering.

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Another field of application is the


protection and control of motors
C in hazardous, potentially explosive
locations (chemical, oil and gas
industry)
C featuring heavy duty start-up
(paper, cement, metal industry)
C in high-availability plants (chemical,
oil refinery, materials processing
industry, power plants)

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Low Voltage

SIMOCODE pro V

SIMOCODE pro C
Basic component 1

Basic component 2

Current measuring module

Current measuring module


or current/voltage measuring
module1*)

Operating module
(optional)

Operating module
(optional)
Various expansion modules
(optional)

Tabele 6/45 SIMOCODE hardware components

Design
SIMOCODE pro is a modularly designed motor management system
which can be divided into two functionally graded component series.
Both series (systems) consist of
different hardware components
(modules):
C SIMOCODE pro C
C SIMOCODE pro V

Photo 6/89

SIMOCODE pro C

Photo 6/90

SIMOCODE pro V (fully extended)

6/111

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Seite 112

Every system consists of one basic


component per feeder and a separate
current detection module. Both modules are linked through a connecting
cable via the system interface, they
can either be mechanically coupled
as a unit (in series) or mounted separately (side by side). The motor current to be monitored determines the
selection of the current detection
module.
Optionally, an operating module can
be connected to the basic component via a second system interface.
The operating module can either be
installed in the control cabinet door or
in a front plate. Both the current
measuring module and the operating
module are power supplied by the
basic component. In addition to the
inputs/outputs integrated in the basic
component, basic component 2
(SIMOCODE pro V) can be complemented by further expansion modules providing more inputs/outputs
and functions. To detect and monitor
voltage, power output and the power
factor and any other related monitoring function, basic component 2 must
be equipped with a combined current/voltage detection module 1*)
instead of a mere current detection
module.

Bild 6/91

Current detection module

Bild 6/92

Photo 6/93

Expansion modules for SIMOCODE pro V

All modules are linked by connecting


cables, which are available in different
lengths. The maximum distance
between the modules (e.g. between
the basic component and the current
detection module) may be up to 2 m.

6/112

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Operating module

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Low Voltage
Functions
Full electronic motor protection for
motor current ratings of 0.3 to 820 A

Software based motor control (instead of


comprehensive hardware interlocks)

Protective functions:

Control functions:

C Current-dependent electronic overload protection


(Class 5 40)
C Phase failure/imbalance protection
C Stall protection
C Thermistor motor protection
C Ground fault monitoring
C Monitoring of settable limit values for motor current
C Monitoring of operating hours, standstill times and
number of starts

C Direct-on-line and reverse starter


C Star-delta starter also with reversal of rotational
direction
C Two speeds; motors with separate windings (pole
reversing) also with reversal of rotational direction
C Two speeds; motors with separated Dahlander
windings also with reversal of rotational direction
C Solenoid valve actuation
C Valve control
C Control of a circuit-breaker
C Control of a soft starter also with reversal of
rotational direction

Extended monitoring functions*):


C Temperature monitoring via up to 3 analog sensor
circuits
C Voltage monitoring
C Power monitoring
C Cos--monitoring (no-load monitoring and loaddischarge monitoring of motor)
C Input, output and monitoring of analog signals
(e.g. level/flow monitoring)
etc.
Recording of measuring curves

In addition, these control functions can be customized


with parameterizable logic modules (truth tables,
counter, timer, edge evaluation), and by using standard
functions (supply line failure, emergency start, external
faults), they can be flexibly adapted to any customerspecific motor feeder version.

*)

Operating, service and diagnostic data

Communication via PROFIBUS-DP

Operating data

SIMOCODE pro supports:

C Motor switching state, deducted from the current flow


in the main circuit
C All phase currents
C All line voltages *)
C Active power, apparent power, and power factor *)
C Phase imbalance
C Phase sequence *)
C Time till triggering
C Remaining cooling time
C Temperature (e.g. motor temperature) *)
etc.

C Baud rates up to 12 Mbit/s


C Automatic baud rate detection
C Time stamping in device/clock synchronization *)
via PROFIBUS-DP
C Cyclical services (DPV0) and acyclical services (DPV1)
etc.

Service data

Power management

C Motor operating hours


C Motor standstill times
C Number of motor starts
C Number of overload tripping events
C Internal comments saved in the device
etc.

SIMOCODE pro also monitors current, voltage,


power output and power factor independent of the
automation system, makes all necessary data available
and enables an optimal integration of the motor feeder
into the higher-level power management systems via
PROFIBUS-DP.

Diagnostic data
C Numerous detailed early warning alarms and fault
messages
C Device-internal fault logging with time stamp
etc.
*)

available as of mid 2005

Table 6/46

function overview

6/113

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Autonomous operation
An important feature of SIMOCODE
pro is the autonomous execution of
all protective and control tasks even
when the communication to the control system has been interrupted. This
means, even in the event of a bus
system failure or automation system
failure, the full functional performance capability of the motor feeder is
maintained, or a defined response to
such a failure can be configured, for
example, a targeted disconnection of
the feeder, or the execution of certain
parameterized control mechanisms
(such as the reversal of the rotational
direction).
Integration
Besides the device function and the
hardware design, a high degree of
user friendliness of the parameterization software is also important for
communication-capable switching
devices together with a good system
integration, i.e. an optimum and fast
integratability to the most diverse
system configurations and process
automation systems. For this reason,
SIMOCODE pro offers matching software tools for integrated, fast parameterization, configuration and
diagnosis:

*)

Seite 114

C SIMOCODE ES for totally integrated commissioning and service


C Object manager OM SIMOCODE
pro for total integration in
SIMATIC S7
C PCS 7 library SIMOCODE pro for
total integration in PCS 7

C Communication via PROFIBUS-DP:


Control of the motor feeder
Transmission of binary and analog
signals
Transmission of operating, service
and diagnostic data

Features

C Current detection/monitoring in the


range of 0.3 820 A

C Modular design:
Expansion modules for retrofitting
of inputs/outputs and functions as
desired
Maximum module spacing up to 2 m
C Compact, space saving design
types:
Basic components, 45 mm wide
Expansion modules, 22.5 mm wide
DIN mounting rail installation or
directly on mounting plate
C Removable current measuring
modules (current transformers):
Motor rated currents of 0.3 A 820 A
Busbar connection, or straightthrough current transformer
45 mm 145 mm width
Installation on DIN mounting rail,
directly on mounting plate, or at
contactor

Available as of mid 2005.

6/114

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

Recording of measuring curves

*)

C Voltage detection/monitoring up to
690 V *)
C Safe isolation
C Power management *)
C Supply voltages:
C 24 V DC or
C 110 240 V AC/DC
(wide voltage range)
C Easy installation and
commissioning:
Removable terminals
Memory module for parameterization without PC/PD
Address plug to assign a
PROFIBUS address without PC/PD
C Typical certifications and approvals

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Low Voltage

6/115

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Seite B

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Seite C

Communications in Power Distribution

chapter 7

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Seite 2

7 Communications in Power Distribution


From electrical power distribution
to power management within the
corporation
Power management as part of Totally
Integrated Power implements the
connection of various energies
(electricity, gas, water, heating, cooling, etc.) to various software packages. Applications such as status
visualization, consumption recording
with the corresponding load curve
presentations and assignment to cost
centers, load management, prognoses, as well as reporting and control functions, recording and managing of maintenance information can
be implemented. A consistent operating and monitoring concept forms

the basis for comprehensive power


management (see Chapter 9).
Power management in
electrical power distribution
A visualisation for event-oriented operating and monitoring is used at the
level of low and medium voltage
electrical power distribution. All
information about faults and events
aids in troubleshooting. Complete
and detailed maintenance information
is important for the execution of
maintenance works. The electrical
power supply is monitored only with
regard to observance of limits and
the switching of equipment (onand off-switching). The electrical

Visualization

Load curve

Operating
and monitoring

Energy flow
History

energy demand is forecasted. All


information and actions focus on
smooth-free operation, fast fault
clearance, and the expedient
execution of maintenance work.
Bus systems are used for the data
transmission and communication in
the electrical energy distribution.
This communication is not only used
to record switch position, messages
and measurements, but also to perform switching operations. The communication with modern circuitbreakers allows a direct online parameterisation of the setting values.
Furthermore, all recorded measured
values can be read out.

Archive

Events

Operating and
monitoring level

Motor 1 Service
Motor 2 Service

U
I
cos

p
W

Tank cv

Bearing replacement
Completion of
operating hours
Technical
Tank test
Inspectorate

Bus systems
Substation control and
protection systems
(Chapter 8)

Processing level

Bus systems

Acquisition and
control level

Contactors Meters Analogue SIMEAS


Switches Pulses signals multifunction
measuring
device
Fig. 7/1

7/2

Energy
meter

SENTRON
circuitbreaker

System structure for the communication in the energy distribution

Totally Integrated Power by Siemens

SIMOCODE

SIPROTEC
medium-voltage
protection

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Seite 3

Communications in Power Distribution

Power Management

Power Management

Power Management

in
energy distribution

within
the site

within the corporation

Visualization

Event-oriented operating
and monitoring

Event-oriented operating
and monitoring

Demand-oriented
reports

Faults

Correction

Correction

Analysis

Maintenance

Execution

Execution

Planning/evaluation

Energy import

Monitoring

Monitoring

Dispatch/monitoring

Energy
procurement

Demand forecasts

Demand forecasts

Load forecasts (base,


average, peak load)

Functions

Site 1

Electrical
energy
Extending energy
distribution by bus-capable
data acquisition and control

Gas
Compressed air
Water

Taking account of
all energy types of
the on-site energy
provider

Site 2

Bundling all
corporation-wide
energy services

Steam
etc.

Fig. 7/2

Site n

From energy distribution to power management within the corporation

In the new installation business,


system integrators, such as switchgear cabinet and assembly manufacturers, must provide the hardware
and software requirements, whereas
in the retrofit market (for retrofitting
existing installations), this demand
is placed on electrical fitting and
maintenance departments.
Power management within the site
In addition to electricity, the requirements of power management within
the site take account of all of the
other energies that an in-house supplier provides for smooth operation
within the site. The software satisfies
all requirements of site management,
such as internal energy providers, electrical departments or maintenance
departments.

Power management within the


corporation
In the highest level of functionality,
the power management view is extended to satisfy the corporation requirements. Executive department,
corporate department, head office
can also be used as synonym for corporation. The power management in
the corporation covers all sites. In the
individual sites, the recorded data is
documented in reports according to
the requirements; any faults that occur are analyzed and plannable maintenance work scheduled. The results
and stipulations are transferred to the
individual sites; such data can be
used for optimum fault clearance or
preventive maintenance.
Within the dispatch (see Chapter 9),
the quantities of corporation-wide
energy supply contracts are allocated

to the individual sites and updated


cyclically. The corporation goal is the
optimum utilization of existing energy
supply contracts. The energy procurement combines the forecasts of
the individual sites to produce total
quantities. The base, average and
peak load are each satisfied with the
appropriate purchases at the energy
exchanges. These purchases then
form the stipulations for dispatch.
Although the individual functionality
levels must build on each other,
there is the option to focus all of the
three levels of power management
merely on a single type of energy.
The following discussion refers to
electrical energy.

7/3

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Seite 4

Transducers
The communication transfers the
transducers measured values. After
being scaled, the measured value can
be used for the actual-value display.
Limit-value monitoring for editable
values provide additional information
about the plant state as superposed
functions.

Conventional
Switching
Indication
Signaling
Bus systems

In future

Fig. 7/3

Operating
Monitoring
Fault messages
Parameterizing
Analyzing
Documenting

Modern power distribution with connection to bus systems

Modern power distribution with


connection to bus systems
In a conventional power distribution
system, analog measuring instruments for voltage, current, capacity,
frequencies etc. are often equipped
with the appropriate transducers.
However, only limited use is made of
this information.
In future, the automatic acquisition
via devices that can be connected to
the bus will permit a central display
and evaluation. The same bus will
also be used to switch the power
distribution.
Newly designed power distribution
systems are equipped with bus
systems by default.
Operating and monitoring in an
electrical power distribution
system
When power distribution is
considered from the viewpoint of

7/4

Load curves
Measurements are transparently
visualized by means of graphic display of the measured values or load
curves. The load curve shows the
measured value over time. The capacity measurement display provides
for a rapid and transparent analysis
of demand/consumption fluctuations.

operating and monitoring, three


basic types/classes result:
C Switches, circuit-breakers
C Disconnectors
C Transducers
Switches
Using the communications, the
switch state ON/OFF, tripped,
is queried and displayed in the
operator control and monitoring
system. This allows the status of the
energy distribution to be uniformly
visualized.
The operating and monitoring communications level permits off-switching using
the voltage or undervoltage coil. If the
switch has a motor drive, in addition to
off-switching, on-switching and reset
can be performed on initiation from the
operating and monitoring level.
Disconnectors
The actual disconnector setting