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HANDBOOK OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS

Volume 9

HANDBOOK OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS


Compiled by :

ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES INFORMATION CENTER

Hughes Aircraft Company


Culver City, California

Sponsored by:

u.s. DEFENSE SUPPLY AGENCY


Defense Electronics Supply Center
Dayton, Ohio
Volume 1:
OPTICAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES, 1971
Volume 2:
III-V SEMICONDUCTING COMPOUNDS, 1971
Volume 3:
SILICON NITRIDE FOR MICROELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, PART I:
PREP ARATION AND PROPERTIES, 1971
Volume 4:
NIOBIUM ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS, 1972
Volume 5:
GROUP IV SEMICONDUCTING COMPOUNDS, 1971
Volume 6:
SILICON NITRIDE FOR MICROELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, PART II:
APPLICATIONS AND DEVICES, 1972
Volume 7:
III-V TERNARY SEMICONDUCTING COMPOUNDS-DATA TABLES, 1972
Volume 8:

LINEAR ELECTROOPTIC MODULATOR MATERIALS

Volume 9:

ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

HANDBOOK OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS


Volume 9

Electronic Properties
of Composite Materials
Maurice A. Leeds

Electronic Properties lnfornwtion Center


Hughes Aircraft Company, Culver City, California

IFIIPLENUM NEW YORK-WASHINGTON-LONDON 1972

This document has been approved for public release and sale;
its distribution is unlimited. Sponsored by U.S. Defense Supply
Agency, Defense Electronics Supply Center, Dayton, Ohio.
Under Contract No. DSA 900-72-C-1182

Library 0/ Congress Catalog Card Number 76-147312


ISBN 978-1-4615-9614-1
001 10.1007/978-1-4615-9612-7

1972

ISBN 978-1-4615-9612-7 (eBook)

IFI/Plenum Data Corpotation, a Subsidiary of

Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 1972

Plenum Publishing Corporation


227 West 17th Street, New York, N.Y. 10011
United Kingdom edition published by Plenum Press, London
A Division of Plenum Publishing Company, Ltd.
Davis House (4th Floor), 8 Scrubs Lane, Harlesden, NW10 6SE, London, England
All Rights Reserved
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form
without written permission from the Publisher

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION .

CERAMIC MATRIX
Aluminum Phosphate Reinforced with S-994 Fiberglass . . . . . .

FIBERS
Boron [Tungsten Core] . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphite and Carbon . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphite-Polyacrylanitrile [PAN] Precursor
Glass . . . . . . .
Glass Fabric . . . .
High Silica Content Glass
Quartz. . . .
Quartz Fabric . . .

7
7
9
10
10
11
13
13

GLASS
Glass Aluminum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LAMELLATE
Glass-Metal

15
19

LAMINATES
Carbon/Graphite-Epoxy
Carbon/Graphite-Polyester
Boron-Epoxy . . . . . . .
Fiberglass-Amide-Imide . .
Fiberglass-Diphenyl Oxide
Fiberglass-Acrylic. . . .
Fiberglass-Diallyl Isophthalate (DAIP).
Fiberglass-Diolefin
Fiberglass-Nylon . .
Fiberglass-Epoxy . .
Fiberglass-Phenplic
Fiberglass-Polybenzimidizole (PBI).
Fiberglass-Polybenzothiazoles (PBT)
Fiberglass Polyester.
Fiberglass-Polyimide.
Fiberglass-Silicone .
Fiberglass-Teflon . .
Polyester (Fiber)-Epoxy, Phenolic, Polyester.
PRD 49-Epoxy . . . .
PRD 49-Polyimide.
Quartz-Epoxy . . .
Quartz-Phenolic .
Quartz-Polybenzimidizol (PBI)
v

20
26
26
27
27
27
28
30
32
33

41
42
47

48

55

61
63
66
67
71
72
72
73

CONTENTS (CONT'D)

LAMINATES (Cont'd)
Quartz-Polyester
Quartz-Polyimide
Quartz-Silicone
Quartz-Teflon

77
78

80
80

METALLIC MATRIX
Unidirectionally Solidified Eutectics
Dispersion-Strengthened Nickel and Aluminum
Tungsten Fiber Reinforced Copper
Fiberglass Reinforced Aluminum . . . . . . .
MOLDED COMPOSITE
Asbestos-Polyester
Dacron-Diallyl Phthalate (DAP)
Fiberglass-Epoxy . .
Fiberglass-Melamine
Fiberglass-Nylon . .
Fiberglass-Phenolic
Fiberglass-Polybutadine
Fiberglass-Polyimide . .
Fiberglass-Polycarbonate
Fiberglass-Polyester
Fiberglass-Teflon

81
81
82
83

85
86
88
89

90
91
92
92
93
94
95

MISCELLANEOUS
Concrete Pavement
Asphalt Pavement

97
98

REFERENCES

99

vi

INTRODUCTION
Composites are the fastest growing class of structural material.
Consequently, electronic properties are often difficult to find. This
report was prepared in order to present a compilation of reliable data
on the electronic and electrical properties of composites.
Composites provide an opportunity to tailor the properties to the
application; a factor that allows designers an unlimited variety of
new materials for new uses. It is this feature that has contributed
to the rapid growth of composites.
The electrical properties of a composite can be of vital importance
in the use or application of the material in a system. The designer
therefore, must be able to obtain the necessary electrical or electronic
property data to guide him in the materials selection. It is the
purpose of this report to assist the designer and engineer in fulfilling
that requirement.
Properties This report provides a compilation of the most commonly
required electronic properties data of structural composites. Thermal
properties often influence electrical design; consequently several of
these properties are included. The specific properties tabulated are:
Arc Resistance
Arc Tracking Resistance
Dielectric Constant
Dissipation Factor
Electrical (Volume) Resistivity
Electrical (Volume) Conductivity

Thermal Conductivity
Linear Thermal Expansion
Coefficient

Other electrical and thermal properties are compiled as the data was
made available.
Materials The first requirement of a material for inclusion was
compliance with the definition adopted for composites. Structural
composites are defined as:
A homogeneous combination of two or more materials,
resulting in structural properties of the composite
superior to those of either constituent. Each phase
shall be identifiable on a microscopic or greater
scale.
Further classification was accomplished by the list of general types
included and specifically excluded as follows:

Included
Fiber/Polymer Matrix
Fiber/Metal Matrix
Fiber/Ceramic Matrix
Lamellates
Aligned Eutectics
Dispersion Strengthened Alloys
Mixtures (high impact strength)

Excluded
Metal Alloys
Non-structural composites
Solid State Electronic Devices
Electrical Contact Materials

A few other classes were included though not listed above because no
electrical data were available, i.e. Whisker/Matrix and Flake/Polymer
Matrix.
When selecting a material for this report, a major consideration
was that it be primarily useful as a structural component and that
electrical properties be secondary. For example, concrete or asphalt
for a highway is a structural material. However, the electronic
properties become important when high frequency electronic detectors
are embedded in order to monitor and control traffic. Boron and
graphite fiber/polymer matrix composites are excellent structural
materials, used in many applications including aircraft. In this
regard, electrical properties become very important with the possibility
of lightning strikes. Tungsten wire reinforced copper was developed
as a high strength material suitable for structural applications
(Reference 47). However, the excellent conductivity of this composite
makes it a suitable contender for power transmission.
Occasionally, composite materials with a borderline compliance
to the above criteria are included. This resulted when unusual or
unique materials were uncovered during the search and the electronic
properties were available. On the other hand, in a class of composites
having a large population of similar materials, a few representative
examples were selected from more than one readily available source.
In addition to the data itself, other information is provided.
With most citations a brief statement clarifying important parameters
is given. Additional material descriptions seemed superfluous
because it was assumed the engineer is familiar with the material
he is considering. Standard test methods stated in the reference
are included in the compilation because the author believes the value
of the data is greatly enhanced when the test method is given. Nonstandard test methods described in the reference are noted in tables
by an "R" or foot note. Where a "U" appears in the table, or no
reference to test methods is given, the reader may assume that they
are not known.
Data Sources A variety of literature provided the data for this
compilation. Included were reports from conferences, journals and
periodicals, books, government research reports and sales literature
from materials manufacturers.

ASSESSMENT OF DATA
The prec~s~on and accuracy* of the data in this report must be
carefully weighed by designers and engineers when determining the
degree of applicability to specific projects. Several factors that
should be considered are discussed below.
Composites are multiphase materials with two or more constituents.
Therefore, within a given class with more than one available source
for the constituents, the composite properties depend upon the constituents used. In addition, it is highly probable that the composite's
properties will vary from lot to lot of the constituents.
The process by which a composite is manufactured has many factors,
such as time, temperature, pressure, etc., each of which could influence
the properties. A feature of many composites is the ability to fabricate
the final shape with few or no intermediate operations. The tooling
used for this shaping could influence the properties. Very often
property data is determined on specimens of standard shapes formed in
special tools. The same material formed into a different shape may
have different values for the same property. This phenomenon is
characteristic of many composites because of the high incidence of
anisotropy.
Measurement accuracy is.dependent upon the test method, especially
when determining electrical properties. Accuracy is also influenced
by the care in application of the method and the equipment used.
Property data is also affected by other variables such as
Thermal and environmental history
Properties of constituents
Distribution of constituents
Presence of foreign matter including voids
Finally, reported values are influenced by material sampling techniques
and statistical analysis methods.
This report should be useful to the designer and engineer as a
guide to the electrical properties of composites. For design data,
however, closer contact to the references and other sources is advisable.
Many new composites are finding expanded use, yet electrical
property data is scarce. The references in this report identify the
sources of recent and current activity for a rapidly expanding and
changing information field.

* Precision and accuracy, as used here, are defined in ASTM E177.

CERAMIC MATRIX

ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE REINFORCED WITH 5-994 FIBERGLASS

Ref. 7

Fiberglass coated with Dow Corning


DL-805 silicone resin

Thickness
030 inch

Dielectric
Constant

Loss
Tangent

3.44

0.0062

BORON [Tungsten Core]

Ref. 8

United Aircraft Tungsten Core Filament (.0005" Diameter)


Mean value of resistance (9 measurements) 44.6 ohms.
Length of sample between edges of mercury pool 0.5259".
Diameter as measured (3 measurements) 0.00393".
The effective resistivity (assuming homogeneous filament)
2600]1~cm.

Effect of Current on Above Resistivity


Current in Fiber (m. amp)

Resistance of Fiber (ohms)

1. 73

44.2

2.60

42.7

6.00

47.5

10.00

44.4

Ref. 54

GRAPHITE AND CARBON

DENSITY gm/ cm 3

HMG-50

HMS

YARN

TOW

1.68

1.84

1.35 x 10- 3

RESISTIVITY ohm-em
SPECIFIC HEAT cal/gm;oC

0.3

0.83 x 10- 3
0.3

Ref. 44

GRAPHITE AND CARBON

Carbon content

Unit

KCF-IOO

KGF-200

99.5

99.8

7.5 x 10- 3

ohm-em

Electric resistance
Thermal conductivity*
Coefficient of thermal expansion

Kcal/m hroC
1O-6;oC

3.0 x 10- 3

15.4

30-40

1.7

1.5

* Calculated by Lorentz Number.


By Lorentz, thermal conductivity is a function of the absolute
temperature and the electrical conductivity.

Ref. 5

GRAPHITE AND CARBON

20

60

40

Fiber Modulus, psi x lO-6

80

GRAPHITE - POLYACRYLANITRILE (PAN) PRECURSOR

Ref. 56

1-22
I

I-IS e-

'"81-14
~'"
'"
r:f 1-10

1-06
1000

2000

3000

HTT <."el

Variation of the resistivity ratio with HTT of specimen.


HTT - Heat treat temperature during graphitization .

1000

3000

Variation of longitudinal resistivity for carbon fibers.

Ref. 30

GLASS

Material

Dielectric constant
(Hz)

Dissipation factor
tan 0
(Hz)

Surface
resistivity
(ohm/em)

6.43 at 10 2
6.11 at 10 10

0.0042 at 10~
0.006 at 10 10

10 15 *

6.8 at 5 x 105

0.007 at 5 x 105

10 12

"E" glass
fibers
"A" glass
fibers

* Estimate (figure for "E" glass not known).

Ref. 55

GLASS FABRIC

Frequency 1000 Hz

TOC

Dielectric
Constant

Dissipation
Factor

25

6.3

0.0037

10

HIGH SILICA CONTENT GLASS

Ref. 39

Composition is 99.3% silica

Refrasil, Batt, Felt and Cloth


2.or--------r--------~------~--------.--------.

:!:I~ 1.5
,

:I:

::>'

tiiE:
b

':;:

:::J

u
c;;

1.0~-------+--------+_~~~+--~~--;_------~

'"

.c:

I-

'">

] O.5~-------+~.-=---+--------;---------r------~
i:i:i

O~------4~OO------~8~070----~1~20~O~--~1~6700~--~2~OOO
MEAN TEMPERATURE - of

Sleeving and Cloth Breakdown Voltage

B-)1

--...:=========== C100-48

500

-==========r;;i/C-100.28
N-Ya
- - - - - - - . - . : . . B-24

Cloth
C10028
C10048

Sleeving Thickness
Series B)1
.050
,013
Series NYa
Series B24
.007

0~--~~--~~--~~--~~--~2~500

TEMPERATURE - of

11

Thickness
.015
:027

Ref. 39

HIGH SILICA CONTENT GLASS (CONT'D)

All Forms

~ VO~lume

Temp.

Resistivity

80F.

5 X lOB
1 X 10 14 *
5 X 1012
5 X 109

500F.
900F.

DIelectric
Constant

1.3 - 2.3*

1.5
1.5

Power Factor

Frequency

.001- .004-

60 cycle - 1 MC

.002
.001

60 cycle - 1 MC
1 KMC

'Depending on moisture content. The dielectric constant of pure non-porous silica is about 3.8.

12

QUARTZ

Ref. 61

Freq., 8.52 GHz


TOC

K'

tan 0

25*

3.02

.0054

25

2.98

;0019

98

2.97

.0018

198

2.96

.0016

307

2.95

.0015

418

2.95

.0014

497

2.945

.0014

591

2.95

.0016

729

2.96

.0022

828

2.975

.0029

905

2.99

.0035

995

3.01

.0042

* As received, other values after vacuum bake


for 24 hours at 125C.

QUARTZ FABRIC

Ref. 55

Frequency 1000 Hz

TOC

Dielectric
Constant

Dissipation
Factor

25

3.7

0.0001

13

01

.....

"

10
20

" ....

--

30

-0-

\\\~ .
,, .,
,
"

'

'\~
\~

"
~

VOL.% OF GLASS

50

60

70

"

80

90

'\

"''!\

.0.
~,.~

'. ,
"

. "
~ ." ,

.. "

.~

CABAL (1.0CaO.2.0B 2 0 3 1 A1 20 3 )

27.8 WT. % Fe203

10.3 WT. % Fe203

""' '~,
.....

.......

~
ts.

---n, __

- -:::...... .

.........
--0
' .......
--_

."4 . . ~
~

40

---{]

0-._. --0

0- -

IRON CALCIUM BORATE


BASE GLASS 0 WT. % Fe203

EFFECT OF GLASS CONTENT ON THE COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR EXPANSION OF COMPOSITES

8 ~

10 ~

12 ~

14

16 ~

18 ~.

20 ~

22 ~

X 10-6

100

S
'"d

(J)

rt

1-"

(J)

(1)

p..

(1)

(l

1-"

!3

(1)

Pl
rt

(1)
p..~

()qo'

H1~

p..(l

p..

(1)

(1)

rt 1-"

1-"

(J)

!3 1-"
(J)
(l rt
0
!3 0
'"dt-n
Pl
(l'"d
rtO
(1) :E:
p..p..

!3 (l
1-" 0

(1)
H(J)

Pl

p..

Pl 0

(J)

Pl (l
(J) 0

()q

::r
(1)

I-j

:;.::l

t-n

(1)

:s::

c::

3::

c::

;J>
t"""

CIl
CIl

G'l

s;:

\~

....
0-

*'

..I

a:

xw

c..

en

.20

.40

.60

.80

400
TEMPERATURE,OF

600

800

Thermal Expansion Curve


Note: The unusual contraction of this composite is discussed in the reference.

200

"E" GLASS FIBERS - 0.0004 IN. DIAMETER


PARRALLEL ORIENTED - 20% GLASS BY VOLUME
COATING ALLOY: 5% Zn, 1% Cd, 1100AI
MATRIX ALLOY :2014 AI VACUUM INJECTION CASTI NG
HEAT TRE'ATMENT: ANNEALED

1000

1.00 ~,-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------,

-1=

C1l

Ii1

'-'

t:::l

o
~

r-..

;J>

CJ)
CJ)

s;:

G')

......

::J
0

I-

>
u

I-

>-'

E
L:
0

'71

100

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4 l-

1.6 l-

1.8 I.\-

2.0 X 10 5

\.

90

\.

\.

80

50

40
ALUMINIUM VOL. PERCENT

60

30

VARIATION OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY


OF COMPOSITES WITH GLASS CONTENT

70

20

10

(.Jl

t-n

::0
(!)

'-...J

t::I

'-l

r--.

~
H

;J;>
t-<

(fl
(fl

s;:

CJ

LAMELLATE

Ref. 63

GLASS-METAL
Glassed Steel
Crys talli zed
Glass
Layer

Amorphous
Glass
Layer

Thermal conductivity
Ceramic component only.
Btu-in/hr f t 2 0p
Composite, 0.05 in. ceramic plus
11/16 in. steel, k/l
Typical chemical service. (liquid
product, steam jacketed
vessel), overall "U"

123

98

87

74

735

700

8.24

8.02

Dielectric strength
Volts per mil, room temp .
60 cycle
Dielectric constant
f = 10 6 cps

19

LAMINATES

Ref. 43

CARBON/GRAPHITE-EPOXY

Unidirectional Piber Orientation


GraphiteEpoxy *
Electrical resistivity (microhm-in.)
Longitudinal

1.18 x 10 3

Transverse

2.76 x 10 6

Coefficient of thermal expansion


(10- 6 in./in./op)
-0.2

Longitudinal

16

Transverse
Thermal conductivity
(Btu./hr./ft. 2 /op/ft.)
Longitudinal

28

Transverse

0.8

Specific heat (Btu./lb./op)

* Tested at room temperature.

20

0.21

....,

64.9
1.38
66.1
0.88
9.6
0.58
11.30
0.67
12.6
0.71
11.7
0.67

60% Type I ) L
S. Treated ) T

50% Type I ) L
Untreated ) T

40% Type II ) L
S. Treated ) T

50% Type II ) L
S. Treated ) T

60% Type II ) L
S. Treated ) T

50% Type II ) L
Untreated
) T
345
2.7

413
5.8

347
3.1

253
1.2

556
2.6

667
5.1

526
3.7

457
2.3

(ohm- l .m- l x10 2 )

8.97
0.63

9.80
0.60

6.70
0.46

11. 70
0.30

15.40
0.65

9;87
0.50

C1010N/m2)

131

47

18

18

17

16

128

71

112

211

214

142

53

75

119

a:r

50

-*

Type I fiber, E = 46.4 x 10 6 psi (31.9 x 10 10 N/m 2)


Type II fiber, E = 34.0 x 10 6 psi (23.5 x 10 10 N/m 2 )
Test methods in reference. Extensive graphic data in reference.

-_ .. _-

51.1
0.96

50% Type I ) L
S. Treated) T

39.3
0.79

40% Type I
S. Treated

Composites

Sample

(W.m-l.oC-l)

Unidirectional Fiber Orientation

-0.37
49.5
-0.18
57.0

19.5

-0.20
54.0
15.5

17.0

-0.035
73.5

17.0

1.41

1.44

1.40

1.30

1. 47

1.57

-1. 22
49.5
-0.47
57.0

1.48

1.38

Density
(kg.m- 3 x10- 3 )

-1.18
54.0

-1.06
73.5

a@100C
(0C- l x10- 6)

19.5

17.0
15.5

17.0

a@25C
(OC- l x10- 6)

5.1

7.0

6.0

9.2

4.2

1.9

3.4

5.8

Voids
%

M'l

;:;:l
(1)

'-'

>-1

,....,

><
-<

'"C

rr:

t:1

>-1

>-

:;c

Cl

t:l:'

n
>:;c

....en

>

..,>

.., ....

300

~
':' 400

51n28

ANGLE BETWEEN THE DIRECTION AND TtE lONGITUDINAL AXIS_

Test methods in reference,

PLOT OF' ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY VERSUS .ln28 F'OR TYPE J COMPOSITE.

c::

::s

::s

1-'0

rt

III

::srt

(1)

1-'-

I-j

I-j

(1)

0-

'Tl
1-'-

.....
III

::s

1-'0

rt

oj:>.
.....

H1

::0
(1)

'-'

I-j

(1)

0
Z

(")

1-'-

P.

1-'-

,....,

0-(

'"><

tT1

tT1

~
"0

::r:
I-t

.........

tx:I

@
C'l

--y

SOVlo CARBON FIBRE/EPOXY

,--

(")

>
::0

Co)

'"

500

, = ANGLE

BETWEEN DIRECTION AND THE LONGfTUDINAL AXIS.

Sov/o CARBON FIBRE I EPOXY

Test methods in reference.

PLOT OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITV VERSUS n 2 8 FOR TVPE II COMPOSITES.

100

200

lAJ300
ex:

.....
en
en

t:400
>

>

..;'6

&00

SOOr

I-'

i-t)

::0
(J)

'-"

,-..

><
><

tTl
"0

tTl

~
"0
::r:
H

C'"l

Z
........

;t>
::0
tI::l

"'"

t-)

40

n.
x

Z
4

(/)

= ANGLE

../'

BETWEEN DIRECTION AND THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS.

Test methods in reference.

PLOT OF THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENT VERSUS Sln2(J FOR TYPE II COMPOSITES.

-10L------------------------------------------------------------------~

z 20t-

bJ

t&.

I&.

u 30

bJ

t-

(J

SOV/o CARBON FIBRE IEPOXY AT 100C.

('")

......

.r::.

I-h

(1)

"

'-'

t:1

('")

r--

0-<

'"
~

ttl

ttl

1-1
~

::r:

C)

S;

CARBON/GRAPHITE-POLYESTER

Ref. 19

Unidirectional Fiber Orientation

Modmor Type I Composite


775 (25"'C)
660 (180"'C)

Resistivitr
ohm-cm 10Thermal Conductivity

.04 (25C)

BORON-EPOXY

Ref. 43

Unidirectional Fiber Orientation


BoronEpoxy *
Electrical resistivity (microhm-in.)
Longitudinal
Transverse
Coefficient of thermal expansion
(10- 6 in./in./oF)
Longi tudina1
Transverse
Thermal conductivity
(Btu./hr./ft. 2 /oF/ft.)
Longitudinal
Transverse
Specific heat (Btu.1b./oF

* Tested at room temperature.


Test methods unknown.

26

3.94 x 10 3
3.94 x 10 12

2.5
7.9

1.1

0.6
0.28

t-.)

til

30

"'"

><

n.

8 ANGLE BETWEEN DIRECTION AND THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS.

SOV/o CARBON FlBRE I EPOXY AT 1000C.

Test methods in reference.

PLOT OF THERMAL E.l(PANSION COEffiCIENT VERSUS lin28 FOR TYPE I COMPOSITES.

-1~~----------------------------------------------------------------------

10

Cii
z 20

0"'"

IlL
IlL

z 40
!!l

<.0

70

I-'

.j:::..

CD
H,

::0

'-'

,.-..

>-<

o
><

tTl
"0

tTl

I-f

~::c:

C)

..........

::0

FIBERGLASS-AMIDE-IMIDE

Test
Temperature,

Resin
Amide-imide

of

75
300
400
500

Ref. 55

Dielectric
Constant,
K'

4.29
4.37
4.31
4.53

Dissipation
Factor,
tan <5
0.018
0.016
0.016
0.038

Loss
Index
0.0772
0.0699
0.0690
0.1721

FIBERGLASS-DIPHENYL OXIDE

Resin

Test
Temperature,
of

Dipheny1-oxide*

75
300
400
500

Ref. 55

Dielectric
Constant,
K'

4.83
4.98
5.06
5.20

Dissipation
Factor
tan <5
0.024
0.023
0.027
0.027

Loss
Index
0.1159
0.1145
0.1366
0.1404

FIBERGLASS-ACRYLIC

Resin
Acrylic

Ref. 55

Test
Temperature,
of

75
300
400

* E glass style 181 fabric.


Test frequency 9.35 GHz.

Dielectric
Constant,
K'

3.88
4.63
4.63

Dissipation
Factor
tan <5
0.027
0.013
0.047

Loss
Index
0.1048
0.0602
0.2176

Resin content approximately 35 percent.

27

Ref. 55

Fl'BERGLASS-DIALLYL ISOPHTHALATE (DAIP)

Resin
DAIP

Test
Temperature

Dielectric
Constant,

of

K'

75
300
400
500

Dissipation
Factor,
tan <5

4.16
4.21
4.24
4.29

E glass style 181 fabric.


Test frequency 9.35 GHz.

0.010
0.0-14
0.017
0.029

w
~ 4.5 c:

.!:!

~ 4.0

0.0416
0.0589
0.0721
0.1244

Resin content approximately 35 percent.

5.0

Loss
Factor

----------~~

0--

0;

o Diallyl Isophthalate

100

200

300

500

Temperature, OF

Dielectric constant at 9.35 GHz


of sty1e-120 glass-fabric
laminates as function of
temperature (40 percent resin
content).

28

FIBERGLASS-DIALLYL ISOPHTHALATE (DAIP) (CONT'D)

0.04

Ref. 55

o Oiallyl Isophthalate

0.01

100

200

300

Temperature. of

400

500

Dissipation factor at 9.35 GHz of


.style-l20 glass-fabric laminates as
function of temperature (40 percent
resin content),
0.14.----,-----r-----,---.-----,r---,

0.12

.0

Oiallyl Isophthalate

100

200

0.10

c:

~
X
-",

..: 0.08

.s
~

30.06

004

300

Temperature. of

400

500

Loss factor at 9.35 GHz of style-l20


glass-fabric laminates as function
of temperature (40 percent resin
content) ,

29

Ref. 60

FIBERGLASS-DIALLYL ISOPHTHALATE (DAIP) (CONT'D)

Poly-Preg
P 681**

Poly-Preg
P 680*

Dielectric Constant

3.9

9.3 GHz
10 6 Hz
10 3 Hz

4.1
4.4

Dissipation Tangent
0.014
0.013

0.016

9.3 GHz
10 6 Hz
10 3 Hz

* Fiberglass style 181 fabric with I 550 finish


** Fiberglass style 1581 fabric with volan finish

FIBERGLASS-DIOLEFIN

Resin
Diolefin

Ref. 55

Test
Temperature
of

75
300
400
500

E glass style 181 fabric.


Test frequency 9.35 GHz.

Dielectric
Constant,
K'

3.41
4.08
4.20
4.63

Dissipation
Factor,
tan 0

Loss
Factor

0.0120
0.0104
0.0086
0.0068

0.0409
0.0424
0.0361
0.0315

Resin content approximately 35 percent.

30

FIBERGLASS-DIOLEFIN (CONT'D)

Ref. 55

5.0
-w

~ 4.5
t::

'-'

4.0-

Ol

100

500

300

200

Temperature, OF

Dielectric constant at 9.35 GHz


of style-l20 glass-fabric laminates
as function of temperature (40
percent resin content).

0.04
(; DioJefin
.0

c:

~ 0.03
c:

,g 0.02
~

.~

'"
100

200

300

Temperature, of

400

500

Dissipation factor at 9.35 GHz of


style-l20 glass-fabric laminates as
function of temperature (40 percent
resin content).

31

FIBERGLASS-DIOLEFIN (CONT'D)

Ref. 55

o1 4 , - - - , - - , - - - - , - - - , - - - - - , - _ - - - ,
0.12
I>

<0

Diolefin

0.10

-w
~.

0.08

~
~

0.06

0.04

100

200

300

Temperature. OF

400

500

Loss factor at 9.35 GHz of style-120


glass-fabric laminates as function
of temperature (40 percent resin
content).

FIBERGLASS-NYLON

Ref. 48

Effect of Silanes on Electrical Properties of


Glass** Reinforced Resins at 1000 CPS
Finish

on Fiberglass

Dielectric Constant

Dissipation Factor

Dry

16 Hrs
100% RH/120F

Dry

16 Hrs
100% RH/120oC

4.5

8.3

0.035

5.2

Silane Y-5l08

4.2

4.2

0.035

0.53

Silane Y-4087

4.7

5.2

0.037

0.50

None

* All silanes used at 0.5 wt percent loading, based on glass


** 181 glass fabric reinforced resin, Glass content 40-45 % wet, %.

32-

MIL-R-9300

MIL-R-9300

Test
Method

Dissipation
Factor
10 3 Hz

* Flame resistant

Dissipation
Factor
10 6 Hz

Dissipation
Factor
MIL-R-9300
9.37 Hz
Dry
Dissipation
Factor
MIL-R-9300
9.37 Hz
Wet

Dielectric
Constant
10 6 Hz
Dielectric
w Constant
w
10 3 Hz

Dielectric
Constant
9.37 GHz"
Wet

Dielectric
Constant
9.37 GHz
Dry

Property

0.010

4.55

F155
(28)

.012

.011

4.4

4.4

F16l
(28)

0.007

0.016

4.82

4.76

Poly-Preg
E-705
(60)

"-

0.018

4.68

Poly-Preg
E-741D
(60)

0.022

4.7

Poly-Preg
E-777
(60)

0.005

0.012

5.15

4.86

Poly-Preg *
E-780
(60)

0.167

4.6

F-153
(28)

1-'-

Ii

I-f)

00
.....

(I)

'<
H

rt

Vl

1-'Vl

p..

(I)

Vl

s::

Vl
Vl

$I)

OQ
H

Ii

(I)

0'

1-'-

I-f)

(I)

::f

>-<

><

'"0

ttl

(f.l
(f.l

s;:

CJ

:;0

gJ

'Tl

FIBERGLASS-EPOXY (CONTID)

Resin

Test
Temperature,
of

Ref. 55

Dielectric
Constant,
K

Dissipation
Factor
tan 0

Loss
Index

Epoxy 1

75
300
400
500

4.06
4.30
4.39
4.44

0.015
0.033
0.037
0.042

0.0609
0.1419
0.1624
0.1865

Epoxy 2

75
300
400
500

4.78
4.61
5.28
5.43

0.015
0.018
0.021
0.025

0.0717
0.0830
0.1109
0.1358

Epoxy
novo1ac 1

75
300
400
500

4.65
4.61
4.99

0.019
0.023
0.050

0.0884
0.1060
0.2495

Epoxy
novo lac 2

75
300
400
500

4.68
4.97
5.31

0.013
0.022
0.061

0.0608
0.1093
0.3239

Epoxy
acrylate

75
300
400
500

4.59
5.16

0.025
0.042

0.1148
0.2167

E glass style, 181 fabric.


Test frequency 9.35 GHz.

Resin content approximately 35 percent.

34

Ref. 43

FIBERGLASS-EPOXY (CONT'D)

S-Glass Fabric
Electrical resistivity (microhm-in.)
Longitudinal

3.94 x 10 19

Transverse

3.94 x 10 19

Coefficient of thermal expansion


(10- 6 in.jin.jOF)
3.5

Longitudinal

11.4

Transverse
Thermal conductivity
(Btu-in. jhr ft 2 F
Longitudinal

0.17

Transverse

0.12
0.24

Specific heat (Btu.jlb.jOF)


Data collected at room temperature.

Ref. 61

.'

O,O~ ~ i ""f!;L1= ~'E: 14 ". "'"" ~,_


E. : ''':':; "'~. '''"i

" ,,:,::" , . .:LP

0 ,0)

F-~4..'-i
. I-"-H.f--+
' :l'--l'4-1-""-1' -l-',.-+~
,.J....j.=~~J- TOe
~FF-.-

1-- 1"

,
"
i;.

Elap.ed
tlm~(mtn.)

11

)0
~

6l

SO

81
99

II )

1 )0

Fiberglass laminate with 181 glass cloth


tested at 8.52 GHz.
35

0-

3.0

100

200 300 400 500 600

700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

TEMPERATURE f'J of

Effect of Temperature on Dielectric Constant of Epon 828 Composite

'TJ
III
0'

::r

til

1-"

::I

'TJ
1-"

C/l

1-"

Ii

......

...J

.....

(I)

'<
.....

C/l
C"+

til
til

III

.....

VI

I-h

;:0
(I)

'-'

0-3

~
I
G)

(j

,.-..

><

tTl

C/l
C/l

tTl

to

'TJ

C/l

00

3.5

4.0

4.5

'5.0

U
W

0::

u
u

z
~
en
z

5.5

EPON 828/ S GLASS @ 106 CPS

6.0 --~~~~~~r-r-r-r-~~

Co)
.....

.021

(J)
(J)

o
100

t'V

700

TEMPERATURE

200 300 400 500 600

800 900 1000 1200 1400

of

" EPON 828/S GLASS @ 106 CPS

Effect of Temperature on Loss Tangent of EPON 828 Composite

.003

.006

.009

.012

~ .015

zc::{

LLJ) . 018
c

....
Z

.024

.027

.0301r---~--~--~--~--~----~--~--~--~--~----~~

'Tl

(N

I-h

:::0
<D

o....J

,......

0-<

ttl
"tJ

en
en

G")

:::0

tx:l
ttl

FIBERGLASS-EPOXY (CONT'D)

Ref. 30

Cycles

~ 8
<{

IUJ

U 7
Q:
I-

W
...J

06

4~

40

________

~~

80

________

~~

________

120
TEMPERATURE(OC)

~~

160

______

~~

200

Dielectric constant vs. temperature of


composite at various frequencies. Glass,
"E" glass, 181 cloth; resin, epoxide,
Epikote 828jBF 3 -400, 2 p.h.r.; keying agent,
Volan A.

38

Ref. 30

FIBERGLASS-EPOXY (CONT'D)

10

0.6

0.2

Z
<f

f-

0.1

lLJ

--'

(') 0.06

<f

V>
V>

..J

0.02

0.01

0.006

Loss angle, tan 0 vs. temperature of


composites at various frequencies. Glass,
"E" glass cloth; resin, epoxide,
Epikote 828/BF3-400, 3 p.h.r.; keying
agent, Volan A.

39

Ref. 30

FIBERGLASS-EPOXY (CONTID)

E1012

.;

w
u
z

0V!

V!

a:

Curing agent: BF3 -400. 1 p.h.r.

Curing agent: BF3 -400. 2p.h.r.

108~------~1~0~O----------------~2~0~0~--------------~30C
TEMPERA TURE(O F)

Insulation resistance vs. temperature


of glass cloth-epoxide laminate. Glass,
"E" glass, 12 ply, 181 weave; keying
agent, Volan A; resin, Epikote 1310.

40

Ref. 55

FIBERGLASS-PHENOLIC

Resin
Phenolic

Test
Temperature
of

K'

Dissipation
Factor
tan 0

Loss
Index

4.26
4.59
4.67
5.13

0.022
0.039
0.042
0.096

0.0937
0.1790
0.1961
0.4925

Dielectric
Constant

75
300
400
500

"E" glass style 181 fabric with approximately 35 percent resin


content. Properties measured at 9.35 GHz.

Type F120 style 181 fabric

Ref. 28

1 Megacycle
5.92
5.92
0.021
0.024

D1electr1c Constant, Dry


Dielectric Constant, Wet
Dissipation Factor, Dry
Dissipation Factor, Wet
Volume Resistivity, Dry (ohm-cms)
Volume Resistivity, Wet (ohm-ems)
Surface Resistivity, Dry (ohms)
Surface Resistivity, Wet (ohms)

3000 Megacycles
4.23

---

0.083

---

2.05
5.55
4.60
5.55

41

x
x
x
x

10 13
10 12
10 13
10 12

Ref. 55

FIBERGLASS-POLYBENZIMIDIZOLE (PBI)

Resin

of

75
300
400
500

Polybenzi
midazole

K'

Dissipation
Factor
tan 0

Loss
Index

4.02
3 . 94
4.08
4.20

0.0120
0.0080
0.0096
0.0087

0.0482
0.0315
0.0392
0.0365

Dielectric
Constant

Test
Temperature

E glass style 181 fabric.


Test frequency 9.35 GHz.

Resin content approximately 19 percent.

Ref. 61

..

. ..

!: l; :~ . .

~
i'i +:tGP
::.~'t'H
~~ttt:dl-tttmM
4.8H-l-+,;'F'4
.- '~
" I--.. +-:-I!-":+.:. F.
...+.;:.,.
.. ('-+++-1~
F+==t-.j....J,,"",
l:-+__--I-+-I~--1

K'

~4
-+.,+'....
."1":+.'. 1-.'+ ;.' F' ...j-/i,,
' "$..=-+. ++
';il-' +-1-+-+-+-1-:+4 -=+=
-~::jo...,J..-t-:

...

.020 :';! ;i;~ I ':;.;~ i~


~::b H i::' I :::
~" u :

,;

i' I;'!,

....

iI :: Ii~" 'i: I"


I :: I:: : H :I"
,.
:: ,: I:: I:: I; ,.. : I,:;

Ii';':

r--..

I;';,,:,;

!1-'

w... H
V

Hi

:iii

1'"

' . !':; :g::

.. .

ji

Y-

; / ":

i:'

i-

.:i'L

Temperature (Oe)

Resin content approximately 24 percent.


Laminate density 1.949 g/cm 3 .

42

FIBERGLASS-POLYBENZIMIDIZOLE (PBI) (CONTID)

Ref. 3

S glass style 181 with HTS finish


E glass style 181 with A-lIDO finish
3Jr---------.----------r---------.r---------~--~

C/)

o
(,)

(,)

0:::

~
(,)

UJ
.....J
UJ

3.6
3.5
3.4

3.3
3.2
3.0~--------~----------~--------~----------~--~

50

100

150

200

TIME AT 600F "'-J HOURS


Effect of
F Aging in Air on Dielectric Constant of PBI
at 9. 375 KMc
600 0

43

~
~

(/)
(/)

(!)

IJJ

....
Z

100

AF -R-IOO/E GLASS

TEMPERATURE rv of

200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400

JJ

Effect of Temperature on Loss Tangent of AF-R-IOO PBI Composite

.003

.006

.009

.012

.015

.018

.021

@ 8.5 KMc

t-

.024

--1

.027~

.030

('I)

tN

I-t)

:::0

'-'

t-j

,.....,

I-<

"0
ttl

r-.

t'""'
tTl

I-<

I-<

3:

I-<

zN

t'T1

o::l

o-<

t-

"0

CIl

(IJ

s;:

&S

t'T1

o::l

'"r:I
I-<

t;

5.0

o-r--_

O-Q
AF-R-IOO/E GLASS@8.5KMc -0-.-----0

TEMPERATURE ~ of

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

Effect of Temperature on Dielectric Constant of AF-R-IOO PBI

3.0

UJ 3.5

...J

IU
UJ

~
en 4.5
z
0
u
u
~ 4.0

.z

5.5

6.0.r----T---~----~----~--~----~----r_--~----~--~~--_r----~~

(l)

(".I

Jot,

::0

'>..J

t:1

>-i

(")

,.....,

'>..J

'"'"

,.....,

t""
tTl

t:1

3::

0<

t""

'"o

CIl

~
~

'Tj
H

Ref. 3

FIBERGLASS-POLYBENZIMIDIZOLE (PBI) (CONTID)

.0122

.0114

.-----,------.--------,.-------r-----,
o
o
~----Jo...I...----------------

.0106

PBI/S-994

.0098
.0090
.0082
I-

ILl
(!)

.0074
.0066

~
en .0058
en
0

...J

.0050

.0042

.0034

.0026

.0018

PBI AF-R-IOO

.0010
.0002

100

50

150

200

TIME AT 600F,-o,J HOURS


Effect of 600 0 F Aging in Air on Loss Tangent of PBI at 9. 375 KMc
46

FIBERGLASS-POLYBENZOTHIAZOLES (PBT)

Ref. 3

E glass style 181 with A-llOO finish

.016
~

TEST FREQ. - 9.375 K Me

.014 I -

IJJ
t!)

(/)
(/)

0
..J

.012

I-

~~

.010 ! -

.008

'-

.006 0

100

200

300

I
400

500

600

100

200

300

400

500

600

5.0
~

<4

I"-

4.9

Z
0

4.8

u
(.)

:l:
~

4.7

lLJ

..J
i.LJ

4.6

4.5 0

TEMPERATURE,...., of

Effect of Temperature on Dielectric Properties of Polybenzothiazole


Laminates

47

FIBERGLASS POLYESTER
Composition is mineral filled polyester resin reinforced
with random fiberglass mat.

Glastic
TSF
(25)'"

Glastic
UTS
Flame
Retard
(25) *

Glastic
Rod
Stock
(24) *

400

350

150

250

250

150
(150C)

40
15

40
15

10

3.0

2.5

5.0

Property

Test
Method

Dielectric Strength, ST
Condition A

ASTM
D 229

V/mil

Dielectric Strength, ST
After 200 hrs at 200C

ASTM
D 229

V/mil

Parallel Dielectric
Strength, SS
Condition A
D48/50

ASTM
D 229

kV

Power Factor
60 cycles

ASTM
D 150

Dielectric Constant
60 cycles

ASTM
D 150

Arc Resistance
Condition A

ASTM
D 495

seconds

Arc Tracking
Resistance

ASTM
D 2302

minutes

Thermal
Conducti vi ty

ASTM
l;oF
C 177 ~tu/hr/ft2/i

Thermal Expansion
Coefficient

ASTM
D 690

Units

5.0

in/inoC

120

120

120

120

25

2.0

*Numbers in parenthesis refer to items listed in the References.

48

2 x 10- 5

Ref. 55

FIBERGLASS-POLYESTER (CONT'D)

Resin

Dissipation
Factor
tan 0

Dielectric
Constant

Test
Temperature
of

K'

Loss
Index

Polyester 1

75
300
400
500

4.15
4.23
4.36
4.40

0.012
0.021
0.025
0.036

0.0498
0.0888
0.1090
0.1584

Polyester 2

75
300
400
500

4.68
4.73
4.70
5.01

0.011
0.025
0.035

0.0515
0.1183
0.1645

TAC polyester

75
300
400
500

4.35
4.37
4.41
4.46

0.015
0.017
0.016
0.018

0.0653
0.0743
0.0706
0.0803

"E" glass style 181 fabric with approximately 35 percent resin content.
Properties measured at 9.35 GHz.

O.

14.----,----,,-------,----,---,---~

0.12 .

o Tae Polyester

""

0.10

-w

..: 0.08

~
3 006
004

100

200

300
Tem~erature.

OF

400

500

Loss factor at 9.35 GHz of sty1e~120


glass-fabric laminates as function of
temperature (40 percent resin content).

49

FIBERGLASS-POLYESTER (CONT'D)

Ref. 55

5.0
-",

___

~ 4.5 c:
o
u

0------

--n-~~----~&---~-

~ 4.00;

DTac Polyester

100

200

300

Temperature, OF

500

Dielectric constant at 9.35 GHz of


style-120 glass-fabric laminates as
function of temperature (40 percent
resin content).

0.04

D Tae Polyester

00

~. 0.03

0.02

.~

-----------~~---~

0-

0.01

100

200

300
400
Temperature, OF

500

Dissipation factor at 9.35 GHz of


style-120 glass-fabric laminates as
function of temperature (40 percent
resin content).
50

FIBERGLASS-POLYESTER (CONT'D)

The fiberglass used is style 181 fabric.

Property
Dielectric Constant
9.36 GHz
Dry
Wet

Test
Method
MIL-R-7575

F14l
(28)

F149
(28)

Poly-Preg
P 603
(60)

Poly-Preg
646
(60)

3.99

4.25
4.33

4.31

Dielectric Constant
10 6 Hz
Dry
Wet

FSTM
406

Dielectric Constant
10 3 Hz
Dissipation Factor
9.36 GHz
Dry
Wet

FSTM
406
MIL-R-7575
FSTM
406

Dissipation Factor
10 3 Hz

FSTM
406

4.48

0.0106

o.Oll

0.0096
0.0120

0.012

0.008

51

Dissipation Factor
10 6 Hz
Dry
Wet

4.27

2.4
2.5

0.015

0.016

FIBERGLASS-POLYESTER (CONT'D)

Ref. 48

Effect of temperature on electrical properties of


diallylisophthalate (DAIP) modified polyester resin (1)
and laminate (3). At 8,500 - 10,000 megacycles (2).

Temperature c
20
37
87
137
187
237
260
20

Dielectric Constant

Loss Tangent

4.49
4.60
4.69
4.74
4.70
4.72
4.75
4.47

.014
.015
.018
.018
.018
.018
.020
.Oll

(1) - California Chemical Company, Chevron 6100 - 85 pbw/DAIP


- 15 pbw.
(2) - Tested according to MIL-R-25042A
(3) - Laminate from pretreated 181-150 Garan finish cloth, 12 ply,
1/8 inch laminate, 70% glass.

52

FIBERGLASS-POLYESTER (CONT'D)

I-

I-

<{
I-

'"U
W

l?f:g;;

VJ

-' Z
W 0

-0

Ref. 30

:1
o. 2

/
V

o.1
0.0 7
0.0 5
0.0 3

." 0.02

<{

0.0 1 _

0.007
0.005

0.003
-80

-40

f--

---.?::-

80

~...c::.

40

1
1

160

120

TEMPERATURE(OC)

Dielectric constant and loss angle vs.


temperature at various frequencies. Glass
chopped-strand-mat-polyester laminate.
Ref. 16
Filled Glass Mat Laminates

Electrical Properties *
Arc Resistance, sec .....
Dielectric Strength
Perpendicular, S.T., volts/mil.
Perpendicular, S.S., volts/mil.
Parallel, S.T., kv.. . ........ .
Parallel, S.S., kv ....
Dielectric Strength, wet.
Perpendicular, S.T., volts/mil
Perpendicular, S.S., volts/mil..
Parallel, S.T., kv.
. ..
Parallel, S.S., kv.
. ... .
Power Factor, 100 cycles, 'Yo ..... .
])i('lcctrie Constant
....... .
Volume I{esistivity, ohm-em.
Surface Resistivity, ohm ........ .
Insulation Resistance, ohm .... .
Track Resist., inclined plane, min.

As Molded
(2.5 min at 240F)
(0.5% USP-245)

Post Cured
(16 hrs at 135C)
( 2 hrs at 180C)
( 2 hrs at 200C)

Aged
(10 days at 220C)

170-180

175-185

185-195

470-480
450-460
65-70
60-65

485-495
460-470
60-65
55-60

495-505
470-480
55-60
50-55

0.85-1.05
4.1-4.3

1.0-1.2
4.1-4.3
lAS X 10'
1.0 X 10"
1.0 X 10"
650-700

lAO X 10'0

> 1.0 X 10"


> 1.0 X 10':1

>
>

750-850

* 33% Koplae V7000-15, 33% glass, 34% ASP-400.


53

485-495
470-480
55-60
50-55
1.4-1.6
4.1-4.3
0040 X 10'
1.0 X 10"
> 1.0 X 10'"

>

FIBERGLASS-POLYESTER (CONTID)

Ref. 16

70
60

a:: 50

....0

~ 40

a::

~
Q.

30

t!- 20
10
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

TEMPERATURE, "C

Influence of temperature on the

54

power factor of V7000-15

<.n
<.n

3.5t-

~
CJ)
oZ

lLI

frl
...J

a::

(.)

(.)

3.2'

3.31-

3.4t-

3.61

3.71

I
600

TIME AT 600F'" HOURS

400

I
800

Effect of 600 0 F Aging on Dielectric Constant of AF-R-5000 Polyimide Laminates

200

REINFORCEMENT _liE II GLASS TESTED


AT 662 0 F 10'0 CPS

1000

(N

I-t)

::tl
(\)

ttl

t:l

3:

><
H

t""'

"d

C/)
I

>C/)

t""'

tJ:I
ttl

'T1

Ot

0.

fI)
fI)

LIJ

...Z
"Z~

200

400

600

.00400

.ooeol-

.0060 ....

Effect of 600 0 F Aging on Loss Tangent of AF-R-5000 Polyimide Laminates

TIME AT 600F,..,HOURS

800

1000

OO7
'

-I

REINFORCEMENT _"E" GLASS TESTED


AT 662 of @ 10 10 CPS

.00801-

.0090 1

'Tl

VI

H)

(1)

::tl

'-'

t:l

>-3

,-..

tTl

t:l

:s:

0
t.0-<

."

en
en
I

G)

::tl

tI:I
tTl

Ref. 3

FIBERGLASS-POLYIMIDE (CONTID)

.010r-------~------~--------~------~------~------~

TEST FREQ. - 9.375 K Me


REINFORCEMENT- E GLASS STYLE 181
......009

z
w

(!)

~ .008

en
en
o
..J

.007

.0060

.....
z
~
en
z

100

200

300

400

500

600

100

200

300

400

500

600

4.3
4.2

(,)

4.1

u
a:::

....

4.0

IJJ
..J
IJJ
0

3.9

(,)

3.8 0

TEMPERATURE

I"oJ

of

Effect of Temperature on Dielectric Propertie s of Skybond 700 Polyimide Laminates

57

FIBERGLASS-POLYIMIDE (CONT'D)

Resin

Test
Temperature
of

Ref. 55

Dielectric
Constant,
K'

Dissipation
Factor
tan <5

Loss
Index

Po1yimide 1

75
300
400
500

3.81
3 . 88
3 . 89
4.01

0.0075
0.0117
0:0075
0.0111

0.0286
0.0454
0.0292
0.0445

Po1yimide 2

75
300
400
500

4.20
4.30
4.34
4.34

0.0071
0.0082
0.0110
0.0150

0.0298
0.0353
0.0477
0.0651

E glass style 181 fabric with approximately 35 percent resin content.


Properties measured at 9.35 GHz.

Ref. 61

Glass Fabric
4,6

4. 6

"

"
4.1

' ,1

0.010

..

0.010

....

0.0 16

....

0.01'

o.OIl

0.012

0.00 1

0. 00'

IS

4.

10J
197

I.

))Z
41 .

Sl9
409
195
'OJ

91
107
IZO

...

55

>69

70
71
IS

0 . 004

'00

ZOO

100

400

soo

600

TOe

Fiberglass laminate with 181 glass


cloth and a pol yol eros s -linked
polyimide resin, 8. 52 GHz

Fiberglass laminate with 181 glass


cloth and a polyimide resin,
8.52 GHz

58

* ASTM

0.015
0.014
0.018
0.013
0.010
0.015

3.74
3.74
3.74
3.74
3.74
3.70

100C
150C
200C
250C
300C

* E glass 181 style fabric with A-llOO finish.

Room Temperature
50C

Dissipation Factor

4.81
.01650

4.30
.00639

32,000
16,000

D 48/S0*

D 24/23*

0.016

Dielectric Constant

X-Band Data (8.5 KMC)

ASTM D618-61

55,000
38,000
179
140
4.10
.00445
1.9 x 10 7
2.47 x 1015
3.35 x 10 14

As is

Laminates *

3.74

Temperature

conditioning procedures,

Dielectric strength
Short time parallel to laminate (volts)
Step-by-step parallel to laminate (volts)
Short time (volts/mil)
Stepwise (volts/mil)
Dielectric Constant (lMC)
Dissipation Factor (lMC)
Insula~ion resistance (megohms)
Volume Resistivity (ohm-ems)
Surface Resistivity (ohms)

Property

Skybond 700

1.4 x 10 2
1.16 x lOll
2.90 x 10 10

C96/3S/90*

V1

(1)

"H1

'-'

n
~

otTl

1-1

3:

o
t""
-<
1-1

"tl

en

5:en

~
~

1-1

'T.I

FIBERGLASS-POLYIMIDE (CONT'D)

Property

Test
Method

Dielectric
Constant
8.5 GHz

Dielectric
Constant
10 6 Hz

Dissipation
Factor
8.5 GHz

Dissipation
Factor
10 6 Hz

Thermal
Conductivity
Thermal
Expansion
Coefficient
_70 to 90C
90 to 170C
170 to 400C

Units

F170 *
(28)

Fl7l *
(28)

3.74

Pyralin **

Pyralin ***

Cll)

(ll)

3.76

3.9

3.9

0.016

0.015

0.014

4.1

0.016
0.0044

cal/cm secoC

in/in;oC

4.36 x 10- 4

0.74 x 10- 5
0.34 x 10- 5
0.69 x 10- 5

* E glass style 7781 fabric


** E glass style 181 fabric with A-llOO finish
*** S-994 glass roving

60

Ref. 55

FIBERGLASS-SILICONE

Resin
Silicone

Test
Temperature
of

75
300
400
500

Dielectric
Constant
K'

3.98
4.17
4.31
4.46

Dissipation
Factor
tan 0

Loss
Index

0.0081
0.0069
0.0066
0.0070

0.0322
0.0288
0.0284
0.0312

"E" glass style 181 fabric with approximately 35 percent resin


content properties measured at 9.35 GHz.

61

FIBERGLASS-SILICONE (CONT'D)

Test
Method

Property
Dielectric
Constant
9.36 GHz
Dry
Dielectric
Constant
9.36 GHz
Wet
Dielectric
Constant
10 6 Hz
Dry
Dielectric
Constant
10 6 Hz
Wet
Dissipation
Factor
9.36 GHz
Dry
Dissipation
Factor
9.36 GHz
Wet
Dissipation
Factor
10 6 Hz
Dry

Units

MIL-R-25506

F130*
(28)

F13l*
(28)

3.946

MIL-R-25506

F130**
(46)

POly-Preg
5860*
(60)

3.60

4.17

0.002

0.013

4.021

MIL-R-25506

MIL-R-25506

MIL-R-25506

4.03

3.9

4.12

4.0

0.0082

MIL-R-25506

0.0106

MIL-R-25506

0.0019

0.002

0.0075

0.010

Dissipation
Factor
10 6 Hz
Wet

MIL-R-25$06

Dielectric
Strength
9.37 GHz

V/mil

100

Arc ResistaI ce
9.37 GHz

seconds

244

* E glass
** D glass
62

Ref. 57

FIBERGLASS-TEFLON

RT/duroid 5870 is a polytetrafluoroethylene


laminate reinforced with randomly oriented microglass fibers.
Property

ASTM Method

Test Values

Dielectric Strength, Short Time, volts/mil.


Dielectric Constant, 1 MHz
Dissipation Factor, 1 MHz
Dielectric Constant, 10 GHz
Dissipation Factor, 10 GHz
Surface Resistivity, Ohms
As Received
96 hours, 100% R.H., 23C
Volume Resistivity, Ohm - Cm
As Received
96 hours, 100% R.H., 23C
Arc Resistance

D149-55T
D153l-58T
D153l-58T
MIL-P-13949
MIL-P-13949
D257-57T

300
2.35
0.0005
2.35
.0012

Thermal Expansion Coefficient x 10- 5


Longitudinal Direction, O-lOOF
Transverse Direction, O-lOOF
Thickness Direction, O-lOOF
Longitudinal Direction, 100F-350F
Transverse Direction, 100F-350op
Thickness Direction, 100F-350F
Thermal Conductivity,
BTU - in.
Hr. -Sq. Ft. ~

63

D495-56T
U

3.0 x 10 14
3.0 x 10 14
2.0 x 10 13
2.0 x 10 13
No track up
to melting
at 180 sec.
1.6
4.0
10.0
1.0
2.0
10.1
1.8

FIBERGLASS-TEFLON (CONT'D)

Ref. 57

Dielectric Constant vs. Frequency (Hz)


2.40

----- ~----

RT/dUlid 5870

--

2.30

2.20

106

107

108

10 10

Dissipation Factor vs. Frequency (Hz)


.0015
RT/dUD

.0010
.0005

I""""""'

----'~....----' """"
107

108

64

,,'"

1010

FIBERGLASS-TEFLON (CONT'D)

Ref, 61

F1uorg1ass E 650/2-1200
E

Freq. , GHz

TOe

8,5

23
-195

.L

II

tan 0

tan 0

2.505

.0014

2.847

.0036

2.533

.00082

2.896

.00172

DiC1ad-522
All values of tan

E 1. sheet

TOe
25
100
250
-78
-195
-269

10 2

10 3

10 4

105

10 6

10 7

2.739
8.6

2.740
7.0

2.738
6.7

2.737
6.1

2.735
6.3

2.734
6.95

2.733
7.7

<5

2.710
11.1

2.705
8.10

2.704
8.25

2.698
7.17

2.696
7.07

2.683
7.7

<5

2.554
79.0

2.534
36.3

2.522
20.35

2.503
14.9

2.502
11.6

2.49
10.6

<5

2.796
4.2

2.793
5.9

2.790
6.8

2.784
7.1

2.78
7.7

2.78
9.8

K
<5

1 tan
K

1 tan
K

1 tan

<5

2.801
.0005

2.799
2.2

2.794
4.5

2.792
5.1

2.787
5.4

<5

2.789
.0003

2.789
1.2

2.784
2.0

2.783
2.2

2.780
2.1

1 tan
K

1 tan

* Ca.pper

multiplied by 10 4

10

Freq, (Hz)
1 tan

<5

25

cavity

100
250
-54
-195

Freq. (Hz)

3xl0 8

3.155
28

tan

<5

2.4x10 1O

3.146
40

3.133
48

3.127
52

3.03
36

<5

3.17
35

3.13
39

<5

3.22
28

3.12
31

tan

1.4x10 1O

<5

tan

8.5x10 9

3.11
39

tan

3x10 9
3.152
33

<5

tan

10 9
3.153
30

65

2.732
10.0

9xl0 7

3.14xl0

2.731
11. 7

2.712
22.5
2.680
31

2.752
17
2.758
12

E II sheet

TOe

5.5xl0 7

9~

8:

Dielectric Constant
(1 mc)
Dielectric Str. Perp. St
Par. SXS kv
Insulation Resistance
Surface Resistance
vpm
kv
m ohm
m ohm

Units

048/50
C-96/35/90
C-96/35/90

024/23

Condo
3.2-3.4
3.3-3.6
917
80-110
10 9 -10"
10 8 -10"

Epoxy
Matrix

75
10 9
10 8

3.9
4.0

XXXP
Phenolic
Matrix

Experimental Laminates with a Reemay Reinforcement

10 9

90

4.0
4.0

X
Phenolic
Matrix

70
10 9
lOll

3.1
3.1

Polyester
Matrix

"0

ffi

.....

V1

(I)
I-t)

::0

::0

tTl

~
~

t'"""

"0

t'"""

"0

o
><
0-<

"0

rn

'--'

::0

'Tl

r--..

::0

rn

rn

t'"""
0-<

~
77

315

Epon-828

"

54

"

"
"

77

"

"

"

"

49- I II
(120 Style)

77

"

"

"

"

P5289-25

315

"

"

"

"

---

---

After 24 hrs
in H2O

After 315 of
measurement

---

---

"

"

"

---

77

BP-907

Condition

58

of

Temp.

Resin

vlo

Fiber

"

49-111
(120 Style)

Fiber

"

P5289-l8A

Sample

4.05
3.68

to E
to E
to E
to E
to E

II
II
II

3.88

3.45

3.65

3.67

to E

3.25

1 to E
II
II
II

Dielectric
Constant

Fiber
Orientation

Dielectric Properties of PRD-49-111 Composites at 9.3 GHz Frequency

0.0406

0.0159

0.0186

0.0167

0.0509

0.0127

0.00995

Loss
Tangent

'"tl

......

I-t)

::0
CD

tTl
'"tl

\.0

.;:.

::0

PRO 49-EPOXY (CONT'D)

Ref. 10

Thermal Conductivity of PRD-49-III/Epoxy Composites*

v/o

Fiber

Heat Flux Direction

Thermal Conductivity
Btu/hr1ft 2 F/ ft

120 style fabric

46

Across fabric layers

0.123

120 style fabric

46

Parallel to wrap

0.525

181 style fabric

Across fabric layers

0.122

Unidirectional

59.5
54.0

Transverse to fibers

0.087

Unidirectional

54.0

Parallel to fibers

1. 01

Fiber Form

* Test methods unknown.

68

PRO 49-EPOXY (CONT'D)

Ref. 59
9.3 GHz FREQUENCY

181 E-GLA$/POL YMIDE

-I

4.0

\
~

PRD49-1/BP907

---

OIELECTRIC
CONSTANT
EPOXY RESIN SYSTEM GOOD
ONLY TO 3000 F

3.0

200

100

TEMPERATURE DEGREES F

0.02 ,...-------,--------...----,

PRD49-1/BP907
LO$
TANGENT

~.01 It-___~~~..==~~~~
181 E-GLA$/POL YMIDE

0.001

L...._ _ _- ' -_ _ _- - ' - _ - - '

100

200

TEMPERATURE DEGREES F

Test methods in reference.

69

300

......

+41.0 (+23)

-3.2 (-1.80)
+41. 0 (+23)

-5.8 (-3.22)
+56.0 (+31)

-7.6 (4.22)
+93.0 (+52)

+61.0 (+34)

90

(0)

+30.0 (+17)
+20.0 (+11)

+38.0 (+21)

-4.95 (2.75)

+101.0 (+56)

+45.0 (+25)

90

+1.0 (+0.56)

-4.45 (-2.47) -2.7 (-1.5)

-6.6 (-3.7)

-3.68 (-2.0)

90 = Transverse measurement, perpendicular with fiber

~O = Longitudinal measurement, parallel with fiber

Resin System No. 2/


PRD 49-1

ERLA 46l7/PRO 49-1

Composite

C>

Test
Direction

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, 10- 6 in/inoC (10- 6 in/inOF)


Temperature Range, vc
-250 to +150 +100 to +150 -100 to +100 -200 to -100 -250 to -200

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion for Unidirectional PRO 49-1 Fiber Reinforced/Epoxy Composites
Unidirectional Fiber Orientation

'"0

N
\D

t-t,

(1)

::0

'-'

t:J

t-3

r---

o
><
0-<

tTl
'"0

\D

PRD 49-POLYIMIDE

Ref. 59

9.3 GHz FREQUENCY

RESIN
POLYIMIDE
(P13N)

Vf %

TEMP.
(OF)

48

70
100
200
225
275
300
400
500
600

3.40
3.42
3.47
3.46
3.42
3.39
3.40
3.45
3.52

0.00645
0.00727
0.00792
0.00775
0.00726
0.00717
0.00973
0.0148
0.0210

36

70
100
200
250
300
400
500
600

3.28
3.29
3.31
3.32
3.30
3.31
3.39
3.45

0.00505
0.00555
0.00621
0.00654
0.00660
0.00889
0.0132
0.0194

* Test methods given in reference

71

DIELECTRIC
CONSTANT

LOSS
TANGENT

Ref. 55

QUARTZ-EPOXY

Resin

Reinforcement

Epoxy
novo1ac 1

120 glass
503 quartz

Quartz style 503 fabric.

Dielectric
Constant,
K'

4.55
3.46

Dissipation
Factor,
tan <5

0.0865
0.0519

0.019
0.015

Test frequency 9.35 GHz.

Loss
Index

Test methods unknown.

Property
Fabric Description

Epoxy
Epon 828/CL

Oz/sq yd
Weave
Finish
Dielectric constant
X-band, dry-room temp
(9,375 megacycles)
Loss tangent
X-band, dry-room temp

8.4
8H satin
AlIOO

Ref. 46

3.470
0.0092

QUARTZ-PHENOLIC

Ref. 46
Property
Fabric Description

Phenolic
V-204

Oz/sq yd
Weave
Finish
Dielectric constant
X-band, dry-room temp
(9,375 megacycles)
Loss tangent
X-band, dry- room temp

8.4
8H satin
AlIOO

72

3.86
0.040

QUARTZ-POLYBENZIMIDIZOL (PBI)

Ref. 46

Property
Fabric Description

PBI
AF-R-IOO

Oz/sq yd
Weave
Finish
Dielectric constant
X-band, dry-room temp
(9,375 megacycles)
Loss tangent
X-band, dry room temp

8.4
8H satin
AIIOO
3.360
0.0034

Quartz style 581 with amino silane finish.

Ref. 3

.0066
.0058

.0050
t-

lLJ

.0042

C)

z
~

en
en
0

PBI/Quartz

.0034

.0026

..J

o PBI

.0018
.0010
.0002

50

100

150

200

TIME AT 600F~ HOURS


Effect of 600 0 F Aging in Air on Loss Tangent of PBI at 9. 375 KMc
73

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

o
100

9.375 KMc

TEMPERATURE f ' I of

200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

000

AF-R-IOOIQUARTZ

Effect of Temperature on Dielectric Constant of AF-R-IOO PBI

t.aJ
...J
t.aJ
0

(,)

(,)

(,)

~
CJ)

5.5

ao.--~~~~~r-r-III1I1I1~

(1)

().:I

I-t!

::0

'-'

0:1

'"......

o
t""
,.....,

t:I
......

3:
......

......

o
t""
><

'"

>

'8

til

LaJ

..J

LaJ

-a::
....0

CJ)

FZ

50

150

PBI/Quartz

T I ME AT 600F"-I HOURS

100

Effect of 600 0 F Aging in Air on Dielectric Constant of PBI


at 9.375 KMc

3.0

3.2

3.3

3.4

200

PBI AF-R-IOO

3.7 -.-----~----_r_-----r___----~-__,

VI

I-i)

::tI
(1)

1-1
'-'

'"I::l

,-.

t""

1-1

t:l

:s:
1-1

1-1

g;

><:

t""

'"I::l

>-

'8

CJ)

CJ)

t=!

(!)

lLJ

o
100

'"

TEMPERATURE "-I of

200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400

AF - R- 100/ QUARTZ
@ 9.375 KMc

Effect of Temperature on Loss Tangent of AF-R-IOO PBI

.003

.006~

.009

.012

.015

.018

.- .021

.024

.027

.030

::0
CD

VI

I-t)

'-'

'1:::l
tI:1

r"\

t"'"

:s::

to(

t"'"

'1:::l

QUARTZ-POLYESTER

Ref. 55
Dielectric
Constant

Dissipation
Factor,
tan 0

Resin

Reinforcement

Polyester 1

503 quartz

3.45

0.005

0.0173

TAC polyester

503 quartz

3.19

0.010

0.0319

* Quartz style 503 fabric.

Resin
DAIP

Reinforcement
503 quartz

* Quartz style 503 fabric.

Resin

Reinforcement

Diolefin

503 quartz

* Quartz style 503 fabric.

K'

Loss
Index

Test frequency 9.35 GHz.

Dielectric
Constant
K'

3.40

Dissipation
Factor,
tan 0
0.005

Loss
Index
0.0170

Test frequency 9.35 GHz.

Dielectric
Constant
K

2.81

Dissipation
Factor,
tan 0
0.0039

Test frequency 9.35 GHz.

77

Loss
Index
0.0110

QUARTZ-POLYIMIDE

Ref. 55
Dielectric
Constant

Reinforcement

Resin
Polyimide

KI

503 quartz

Dissipation
Factor
tan 0

Loss
Index

0.0049

0.0155

3.16

Quartz style 503 fabric.

Test frequency 9.35 GHz.

Quartz style 581 fabric astroquartz.


Laminate Identification

Polyimide PBI-373.

Ref. 2

A-730-2

A-714-1

.54

.28

Specific Gravity

1.64

1.68

Resin Content, % W/O

35.0

34.8

Void Content, % V/O

5.7

5.5

3.27/.008

Thickness, in.

Dielectric Constant/Loss Tangent


at 9.375 GHz:
R.T.
400F

3.17/.003

500F

2.21/.003

600F

3.00/.004

* see Figure on next page.


Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion of Quartz/ BPI-373
Polyimide Eaminate - Wrap Direction
75p-400op

400op-500F

500F-600op

Spec. 1

2.31

2.50

1.50

1.77

3.25

1. 75

2.23

2.2.5

1. 75

Avg

2.10

2.67

1.67

Temp. Range
. j"1n 0p :
CTE 10- 6 1n

Laminate #A-714-1.

Test method given in reference.


78

QUARTZ-POLYIMIDE

Ref. 2

I,

3.40

I
1-----!
i

:z:

(!J

,....,

1.0

r;

0\

3.30t--+-~~~-+---+-

e
+0)

s::

~ -~h~t1i;t-j--- i--f--- I ---I --f--~


r---r---ri-r--Ut
--+1---1------+-- ~ - - -+3.20

is 3. 10 t--+'

.008

:z:

(!J

+-----+---+----+1--

!!

-- --- ,- ----l-- - r-- -

+0)

.004

t:

QJ

0)

t:

....
ttl

VI
VI

-'

.002
.000

i
~!

i-

-r---

~t~-~~) - --- ,i--!


200

I
t

-t-i- !

t----- I -----,

t--t- -,- T~~tt-2--ri--

Lh
I

0\

I -

--i---J-T~k ~ -r---j--+--L

----- ---

,...., .006

1.0
M

"

300 400
500
600
700
Test Temperature, of

I i -+- -900

DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF QUARTZ/BPI-373 POLYIMIDE


LAMINATE VS. TEMPERATURE
79

Ref. 46

QUARTZ-SILICONE

Property
Fabric Description

Silicone

Oz/sq yd
Weave
Finish
Dielectric constant
X-band, dry-room temp
(9,375 megacycles)
Loss tangent
X-band, dry-room temp

8.4
8H satin
None
2.93
0.00098

Ref. 46

QUARTZ -TEFLON

Property
Fabric Description

Teflon

Oz/sq yd
Weave
Finish
Dielectric constant
X-band, dry-room temp
(9,375 megacycles)
Loss tangent
X-band, dry-room temp

80

8.4
8H satin
Teflon
2.47
0.0007

METALLIC MATRIX

Ref. 20

UNIDIRECTIONALLY SOLIDIFIED EUTECTICS


Thermoelectric Properties of the
Controlled Sb-lnSb and Te-Bi.Te. Eutectics
Material

pohm-cm

Sb
InSb
InSb-Sb eutectic
with 4.3 rods

4.4 X

with 8.5 rods


with 28 rods
BI.T""
Te
Bt.T",,-Te eutectic

1~

10....

35
-325

0.18
0.16

X
X
X
X
X
X

10'"
104
1010'"
10'"
10'"
lo-a
4.0 X 10-1

-18
-71
-12
-53
-8.2
-28
214

5.4 X 104

18
22
25
45
55
65

3.05
33.0
3.0
33.0
3.15
34.0

2.2 X lo-a

Kw/cmo

Qp.v/o

n
n

II Sb rods

0.11
0.08
0.12
0.09
0.14
0.10
0.02

1.

Sb
Sb
Sb
Sb
Sb

rods
rods
rods
rods
rods

II growth

(20 C)
(40 C)
(60 C)
(20 C)
(40 C)
(60 C)

rectlon

1.

dl-

growth dlrectlon

DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED NICKEL AND ALUMINUM

Ref. 62

Physical Properties of Dispersion-Strengthened


Nickel and Aluminum at Room Temperature

Alloy
TD NickelHigh Purity
Nickel"
TDNICb
Aluminumo
SAP
M257
M486 d

Density

Thermal
Conductivity
at 70 0 F.
Btu(fthr_OF)-1

2% ThO.
None

0.322
0.320

50.0
54.5

7.6
7.0

2% ThO.
None
13% AI.O.
8% AI.O.
Intermetallic
Compound

0.306
0.097
0.100
0.098
0.104

8.3
120.0
100.0
110.0
60.0

108.0
2.9
4.2
3.4
6.7

Dlspersold

<0.1% total impurities other than thoria.


b 20.0% Cr added to Ni matrix
<1.0% total impurities other than alumina.
dAI-7.8% Fe-l%(Cr-V-Ti-Zr).

81

Electrical
Resistivity
(microhm-em)

TUNGSTEN FIBER REINFORCED COPPER

.6

I~

EI~ctric~1

~ ~ndUCtiVity

.5
E

Ref. 47

~
_ .4 - c:';'

i.... "

'"

fo,....<; ~

Id'

~p

"'"

Open symbol s denote resistivity; _


sOlid SYTbOIS Idenoti coniuctiV!ty

,1

iL>".....
f<!'

20

40

Electrical
resistiVit'y -

~I.

cV

J.

60

Fiber content, vol ume percent

80

"1~
-

100

Electrical resistivity and conductivity of tungsten-fiber-reinforced


copper composites.

82

Ref. 64

FIBERGLASS REINFORCED ALUMINUM

ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY
Glass Fiber: "E" - . 0006" Dia. -Parallel Oriented
Coating Alloy: 2% Zn 0.2% Cd 1100 Al
Matrix Alloy: 2014 Al
Vacuum Injection Casting
Heat Treatment: Solutioned and Aged
Percent Glass
By Volume
0
15
15
15
15
15
19
19
19
19
19
22.5
22.5
30
30
30
30

Resistivity
(microhm-cm)

6.42
6.45
6.54
6.43
6.64
6.66
6.30
6.29
6.64
6.48
6.50
6.55
6.50
6.45
6.30
5.71

Av. Resistivity
(microhm-cm)

Calculated
Resistivity
(mi cron -cm)

3.13

3.13

6.49

3.69

6.47

3.86

6.525

4.00

6.42*

4.47

5.74**

4.47

* Samples air cooled immediately after casting


** Held at 900F for three hours, then slow cooled in furnace

83

Ref. 64

FIBERGLASS REINFORCED ALUMINUM

THERMAL EXPANSION DATA


30-40% Glass in a 2014 Aluminum Matrix
Glass Fiber: "E" - .0006" Dia. -Parallel Oriented
Coating Alloy: 2% Zn 0.2% Cd 1100 Al
Vacuum Injection Casting
As Cast
Temperature
of

--AI:..
L

75
161
300
502
715
1030
1054
407
75

.0023
.0004
-.0008

Second Cycle

75
990
75

0
.0029
0

Third Cycle

70
207
357
484
688
960
764
574
413
227
70

0
.0005
.0013
.0020
.0023
.0027
.0020
.0018
.0012
.0005

70
303
670
942
562
222
70

0
.0013
.0022
.0024
.0017
.0003
-.0002

First Cycle

Fourth Cycle

84

0
.0004
.0011
.0020
.0024

--

--

MOLDED COMPOSITE
ASBESTOS-POLYESTER

Ref. 48

Random Distribution, Cut Fibers

Polyester Premix Molding Compound Reinforced with Crocidolite Asbestos


(Short View Fibers)
Dielectric Constant:
@ 1 KHz
@ 10 KHz

7.3
6.1

Powder Factor:
@ 1 KHz
@ 10 KHz

0.22
0.014

Volume Resistivity:
@ 500 Vdc, ohm-em

1.2 x 10 12

85

DACRON-DIALLYL PHTHALATE (DAP)

Ref. 53

Random Distribution, Cut Fibers

Test
Method
FTMS 406

Property
125

4011

> 397

4031

Dielectric Constant 1 KC Dry

3.7

4021

Dielectric Constant 1 KC D24/23

3.8

4021

Dielectric Constant 1 MC Dry

3.5

4021

Dielectric Constant 1 MC D24/23

3.5

4021

Dissipation Factor 1 KC Dry

0.014

4021

Dissipation Factor 1 KC D24/23

0.015

4021

Dissipation Factor 1 MC Dry

0.016

4021

Dissipation Factor 1 MC D24/23

0.020

4021

Arc Resistance Secs


Dielectric Strength (S/S) Volts/Mil D48/50

Volume Resistance Megohms C 720/70/100+Dew

86

0.06 x 10 6

MIL-M-14 F

'I

00

FTMS
4064021
FTMS
4064021

FTMS
4064021

Dielectric
Constant
10 3 Hz;
Dry
Wet

Dissipation
Factor
10 6 Hz
Dry
Wet

Dissipation
Factor
10 3 Hz
Dry
Wet

* F lame retardant

Arc
Resistance

Electrical
Resistance
(Volume)
Humidity + Dew
U

MIL-P
19833

FTMS
4064021

Dielectric
Constant
lOb Hz
Dry
Wet

Dielectric
Strength, SS
Wet

Test
Method

Property

seconds

10 12 ohms

V/mi1

Units

J 25

0.17

38-420

0.008
0.008-0.010

0.013-0.010
0.015-0.012

4.4
4.4

4.2
4.3

1030 (53)
and
Poly-Dap
6130 (60)

DAP

125

0.14

397-424

0.007-0.009
0.007-0.017

0.010-0.017
0.014-0.017

4.3-4.1
4.3-4.1

4.2-3.9
4.2-4.0

1030 * F (53)
and
Poly-Dap
6l30F (60)

Random Distribution, Cut Fibers

125-150

0.08

391-425

0.009
0.008-0.011

0.012
0.014

4.2
'4.2

4.0
4.0

lM30 (53)
and
Poly-Dap
6230 (60)

DAIP

125

0.20

389-410

0.008
0.008-0.011

0.014-0.011
0.015

4.3-4.1
4.3

4.3-4.0
4.3-4.1

lM30F (53)
and
Poly-Dap
6230F (60)

'Tl

'--'

"CI

'--' ,-.,

"CI

~[T1

~2:3

,-., t""'

[T15S

~~

;;t""'
t""'''CI

2n~

0>"CIt""'

(flH

HO

(fl
(fl
I

>-

e:l
t""'

[T1

t:7:1

00
00

FTMS
4064021

FTMS
4064021

FTMS
4064021

Dielectric
Constant
10 6 Hz
Dry
Wet

Dielectric
Constant
10 3 Hz
Dry
Wet

Dissipation
Factor
10 6 Hz
Dry
Wet

Dissipation
Factor
10 3 Hz
Dry
Wet

Thermal
Expansion
Coefficient

FTMS
4064011

FTMS
4064031

Thermal
Conductivity

Arc
Resistance

Electrical
Resistivity
(Volume)

Dielectric
Strength, SS
Dry
Wet

FTMS
4064021

Property

Dielectric
Strength, ST
Dry
Wet

Test
Method

in/in;oC

cal/sec/cm 2 /oC/cm

seconds

ohm-em

V/mi!

V/mil

Units

186

376
368

0.013
0.016

0.019
0.021

5.4
5.5

5.1
5.1

EM7I02
(60)

1.1 x 10- 5
(-30 to + 30C)

10 x 10- 4

180

1 x 10 16

380

5.1

E7111 *
(18)

390

420

0.017
0.02 (170C)

5.8
6.0 (170C)

E260 *
(18)

380

400

0.0015
0.02 (170C)

4.5
4.8 (170C)

E360 *
(18)

---

0.9 x 10- 5
1.2 x 10- 5
(-30 to + 200C) (-30 to + 200C)

Random Distribution, Cut Short and Long Fibers

I
I
I

,
H

>-<

o
><

tTl
"0

C/'l
C/'l

t""'
;J>

es

tTl

t;:I

'Tl

Ref. 18

FIBERGLASS-MELAMINE

Random Distribution, Cut Short and Long Fibers

Property
Dielectric
Constant
10 6 Hz

Dissipation
Factor
10 6 Hz

Dielectric
Strength, ST
Dry
Wet

Test
Method

M-2880

M-2037

ASTM
D150

6.2

8.0

ASTM
D150

0.020

0.030

V/mil

300
275

230
150

V/mil

250
250

220
135

seconds

180+

180+

Units

ASTM
D149

Dielectric
Strength, SS
Dry
Wet
Arc
Resistance

ASTM
D495

Thermal
Conductivity

ASTM
Cl77

cal-cm/sec cm2 C

10 x 10- 4

Thermal
Expansion
Coefficient

ASTM
D696

in/in;oC

1.6 x 10- 5

89

1.6 x 10- 5

'0

ASTM
D149
ASTM
D149

Dielectric
Strength, ST

Dielectric
Strength, SS

A.rc
Resistance
Thermal
Conductivity
Thermal
Expansion
Coefficient
ASTM
D696

CencoFitch

ASTM
D495

ASTM
D257

ASTM
D150

Dissipation
Factor
10 6 Hz

Electrical
Resistivity
(Volume)
Dry
Wet

ASTM
D150

ASTM
D150

ASTM
D150

Dissipation
Factor
60 Hz
Dissipation
Factor
10 3 Hz

Dielectric
Constant
10 6 Hz
Dry
Wet

ASTM
D150

ASTM
D150

Dielectric
Constant
60 Hz

Dielectric
Constant
10 3 "Hz
Dry
Wet

Test
Method

Property

in/in;oF

Btu-in/hr ft 2F

seconds

ohm-cm

V/mil

V/mil

Units

1.3 x 10- 5

4.7x10 15
2.3 x 10 9

440

530

0.0221

0.0199

3.73
10.7

4.52
25.0

ZYTEL
7010-33
(9)

1.0 x 10- 5

4.0 x 10 14
3.0 x 10 9

510

630

0.0177

0.0185

3.38

4.22

ZYTEL
7110-33
(9)

Random Distribution, Cut Short Fibers

2.1 x 10- 5

1.5

148

5.5 x 10 15

400

sod

0.017

0.022

0.018

3.4

3.9

4.0

(17)

NYLAFIL
G-l/30

c _

1.4 x 10- 5

3.3

100

2.6 x 10 15

400

480

0.018

0.011

0.009

4.1

4.4

4.4

NYLAFIL
G-IO/40
(17)

"T:I

t:"'"

>-<

(f)
(f)
I

;t>

2i
t:"'"

tTl

t7j

SIT, short time

SIS, step by step

L--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .__

9 x 10- 4

1.5 x 10- 5
10 x 10- 4

ASTM D696
ASTM Cl77

Ex~ansion, in.jin.jOC
-30 C to +30C
Thermal Conductivity, CaljSecjCm 2 jOCjCm

Coefficient of Linear

6.0
0.025
320
300
260
180
1 x 10 13
1.8 x 10- 5

5.0
0.02
380
320
380
300

FM 5064

1 x 10 13

ASTM D257

Dry
Dry
Wet
Wet

ASTM D150
ASTM D150
ASTM D149

Volume Resistivity, Ohm-cm

Dielectric Constant, 1 MC Dry


Dissipation Factor, 1 MC Dry
Dielectric Strength, VoltsjMil, SjT
Sjs
SjT
SjS

FM 4030-190

Random Distribution, Cut Long and Short Fibers

()O

I-h

(1)

:;0

t"'"

'"gjz

(fl
(fl
I

tx:1

'T.I

Ref. 18

FIBERGLASS-POLYBUTADINE

Random Distribution, Cut Long Fibers

PBD-l60
Dielectric Constant

RT, 1 mc

4.2

Dielectric Constant

170C 1 mc

4.25

Dissipation Factor

RT 1 mc.

.003

Dissipation Factor

170C 1 mc

.0035

Dielectric Strength V/mil SIT

420 +

Dielectric Strength V/mil SIS

420 +

Coefficient of Linear Expansion


in/iniaC -30 to +200C

1.3 x 10- 5

Ref. 18

FIBERGLASS-POLYIMIDE

Random Distribution, Cut Long Fibers

PI-560
Dielectric Constant

RT, 1 mc

4.9

Dielectric Constant

170C 1 mc

4.9

Dissipation Factor

RT 1 mc

.005

Dissipation Factor

170C 1 mc

.0045

Dielectric Strength V/mil SIT

380

Dielectric Strength V/mil SIS

350

Coefficient of Linear Expansion


in/iniaC -30 to +200C
Half Life

260C hrs.

.6 x 10- 5
5000

92

ASTM
D150
ASTM
D150
ASTM
D149
ASTM
D149

Dissipation
Factor
10 3 Hz

Dissipation
Factor
10 6 Hz

Dielectric
Strength, ST

Dielectric
Strength, SS

Thermal
Expansion
Coefficient

Thermal
Conductivity

V/mil

V/mil

ASTM
D696

CencoFitch

in/in-oF

Btu-in/hr/ft 2 F

seconds

ASTM
D150

Dissipation
Factor
60 Hz

ASTM
D495

ASTM
D150

Dielectric
Constant
10 6 Hz

ohm-cm

ASTM
D150

Dielectric
Constant
10 3 Hz

Units

ASTM
D257

ASTM
D150

Dielectric
Constant
60 Hz

Electrical
Resistivity
(Volume)
Arc
Resistance

Test
Method

Property

1.8 x 10- 5

0.522

70

1.5 x 1015

435

475

0.009

0.006

3.3

3.7

Polycarbafil
G-50/20
(17)

1.2 x 10- 5

0.374

100

1.5 x 1015

422

482

0.008

0.002

0.003

3.7

3.8

3.8

Polycarbafil
G-50/40
(17)

Random Distribution, Cut Short Fibers

2.1 x 10- 5

2.3

120

6 x 1015

490

0.0079

0.0011

0.0008

3.26

3.31

3.31

Thermocomp
DF-1004
(45)

2.9 x 10- 5

2.7

120

6 x 1015

465

0.0072

0.0014

0.0012

3.61

3.68

3.66

Thermocomp
DF-1004
(45)

'T.I

tTl

g;

::0

;J>

o
r-'
><
n

"0

en
en

r-'
;J>

tTl

H
t):I

ASTM
D2303

ASTM
Cl77

ASTM
D696

**ASTM D 149

Arc
Tracking

Thermal
Conductivity

Thermal
Expansion
Coefficient

*ASTM D 150

LP4064011.2

LP4064031

Dielectric
Strength, SS
Dry
Wet

Arc
Resistance

LP4064031

LP4064021

L1:'4064021

LP4064021

LP4064021

Test
Method

Dielectric
Strength, ST
Dry
Wet

Dissipatioll
Factor
10 3 Hz
Dry
Wet

Dissipation
Factor
10 6 Hz
Dry
Wet

Dielectric
Constant
10 3 Hz
Dry
Wet

Dielectric
Constant
10 6 Hz
Dry
Wet

Property

***ASTM D 495

in/in;oC

ca1-cm/sec cm 2 C

minutes

seconds

V/mi1

V/mi1

Units

----

184

307
315

335
401

***

**

**

0.012
0.051

6.1
7.0

S-6300
(18)

14.9 x 10- 4

**** Flame retardant

------

1. 59 x 10- 5

1.40 x 10- 4

191

290
400

390
410

0.0152
0.0082

0.0083
0.0113

5.07
4.88

5.42
5.43

S-642
(18)

Random Distribution, Cut Short and Long Fibers

***

**

**

2.02 x 10- 5

14.9 x 10- 4

191

351
389

380
475

0.009
0.0106

4.95
5.03

****
S-6400
(18)

300-600

180-350

300-350

***

**

Type
E1ectr. Grade
(27)
I

tTl

ttl

t-<
0-(

"0

en
en

es

"Ij
H

I:!'
ttl

FIBERGLASS-TEFLON

Ref. 57

Random Distribution, Cut Very Short Fibers

Property

ASTM Method

Units

Condition

Typical
Value
2.38 .05
2.38 .05

Dielectric Constant
Perpendicular to
molding direction

Dl53l

2.5 GHz
10.0 GHz

Dissipation Factor

D153l

2.5 GHz
10.0 GHz

.0025
.0025

Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion x 10- 6 MD

D696

-73 to 20C
20 to 25C
25 to 100C

120
54
149

-73 to 20C
20 to 25C
25 to 100C

49
76
54

23 to 100C

2.5

in/in;oC

CMD

Thermal Conductivity

cal-cm/hr cm 2 C

MD - molded direction
CMD - perpendicular to molded direction

95

MISCELLANEOUS

CONCRETE PAVEMENT

Sample

Density

Sl

Dry

Ref. 61

(MHz)
K

tan 0
Sl

Wet

0.1

10

9.05

7.97

7.01

.0946
176.5

.0913
69.2

.822

tan 0

1.088

.0730
23.5
.734

100
6.57
.0536
13.2
.485

Concrete pavement at 40% R.H., 25C, 14 GHz


1
2

0.1
0.1
0.335

2.14

2.21

0.453

2.04

2.81

Various
Various
Face 1
Face 1,
Face 2
Face 2,
Face 1
Face 1,
Face 2
Face 2,

97

90
90
90
90

5.03-5.06
5.06-5.17
5.21
5.20
5.30
5.26
4.71
4.60
4.70
4.55

.026-.029
.034-.030
.059
.0612
.0509
.0505
.0470
.0455
.0487
.0487

ASPHALT PAVEMENT

Sample

Density

Dry

Ref. 61

(Hz)
K

tan
S

Wet

Dry

Wet

10 8

4.51

4.34

4.21

4.14

14.48

6.54

.444

.233

4.70

.0158

4.61

.0123

9.28

.0121

6.65

.280

.368

.0198

9.03

4.73

.0187

(3

.0181

.638

4.79
(3

.0221
17.7

.875

(3

tan

10 7

42.0

tan

10 6

.0280

(3

tan

10 5

6.01

.190

.104

Asphalt pavement at 40% R.H., 25C, 14 GHz


Sample

Thickness Density

No.

(cm)

1
2
3
4
5

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.91

(gj cm 3 )

H2 O

Orientation

tan

(3

(%)
Independent
Independent

2.35

K'

.754

Face
Face
Face
Face

98

1
1, 90
2
2, 90

4.73
4.62
5.03
5.48
6.02
5.53
5.37
5.44

.0114
.0103
.0120
.0095
.021
.052
.204
.102

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