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# 5.

Process Improvement
5.3. Choosing an experimental design
5.3.3. How do you select an experimental design?
5.3.3.6. Response surface designs

## 5.3.3.6.1. Central Composite Designs (CCD)

Box-Wilson Central Composite Designs
CCD designs start A Box-Wilson Central Composite Design, commonly called 'a
with a factorial or central composite design,' contains an imbedded factorial or
fractional
fractional factorial design with center points that is augmented
factorial design with a group of 'star points' that allow estimation of curvature. If
(with center
the distance from the center of the design space to a factorial
points) and add point is 1 unit for each factor, the distance from the center of
"star" points to
the design space to a star point is || > 1. The precise value
estimate curvature of depends on certain properties desired for the design and on
the number of factors involved.
Similarly, the number of centerpoint runs the design is to contain
also depends on certain properties required for the design.
Diagram of
central composite
design generation
for two factors

## FIGURE 3.20: Generation of a Central Composite Design

for Two Factors
A CCD design
A central composite design always contains twice as many star
with k factors has points as there are factors in the design. The star points represent
2k star points
new extreme values (low and high) for each factor in the design.
Table 3.22 summarizes the properties of the three varieties of
central composite designs. Figure 3.21 illustrates the
relationships among these varieties.
Description of 3
TABLE 3.22: Central Composite Designs
types of CCD
Central
Terminology

designs, which
depend on where
the star points are
placed

Composite
Design Type
CCC designs are the original
form of the central composite
design. The star points are at
some distance
from the

Circumscribed

CCC

Inscribed

CCI

Face Centered

CCF

## center based on the properties

desired for the design and the
number of factors in the design.
The star points establish new
extremes for the low and high
settings for all factors. Figure 5
illustrates a CCC design. These
designs have circular, spherical,
or hyperspherical symmetry and
require 5 levels for each factor.
Augmenting an existing
factorial or resolution V
fractional factorial design with
star points can produce this
design.
For those situations in which
the limits specified for factor
settings are truly limits, the CCI
design uses the factor settings
as the star points and creates a
factorial or fractional factorial
design within those limits (in
other words, a CCI design is a
scaled down CCC design with
each factor level of the CCC
design divided by to generate
the CCI design). This design
also requires 5 levels of each
factor.
In this design the star points are
at the center of each face of the
factorial space, so = 1. This
variety requires 3 levels of each
factor. Augmenting an existing
factorial or resolution V design
with appropriate star points can
also produce this design.

Pictorial
representation of
where the star
points are placed
for the 3 types of
CCD designs

## FIGURE 3.21: Comparison of the Three Types of Central

Composite Designs
Comparison of the The diagrams in Figure 3.21 illustrate the three types of central
3 central
composite designs for two factors. Note that the CCC explores
composite designs the largest process space and the CCI explores the smallest
process space. Both the CCC and CCI are rotatable designs, but
the CCF is not. In the CCC design, the design points describe a
circle circumscribedabout the factorial square. For three factors,
the CCC design points describe a sphere around the factorial
cube.
Determining in Central Composite Designs
The value of is To maintain rotatability, the value of depends on the number
chosen to
of experimental runs in the factorial portion of the central
maintain
composite design:
rotatability
=[number of factorial runs]1/4
If the factorial is a full factorial, then

=[2k]1/4
However, the factorial portion can also be a fractional factorial
design of resolution V.
Table 3.23 illustrates some typical values of as a function of
the number of factors.
Values
of depending on
the number of
factors in the
factorial part of
the design

Orthogonal
blocking
Example of both
rotatability and
orthogonal
blocking for two
factors

## TABLE 3.23: Determining for

Rotatability
Number of Factorial Scaled Value for
Factors
Portion
Relative to 1
2
22
22/4 = 1.414
3
23
23/4 = 1.682
4
24
24/4 = 2.000
5-1
5
2
24/4 = 2.000
5
25
25/4 = 2.378
6
26-1
25/4 = 2.378
6
26
26/4 = 2.828
The value of also depends on whether or not the design is
orthogonally blocked. That is, the question is whether or not the
design is divided into blocks such that the block effects do not
affect the estimates of the coefficients in the second order model.
Under some circumstances, the value of allows simultaneous
rotatability and orthogonality. One such example for k = 2 is
shown below:
BLOCK
X1
X2
1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1.414

1.414

-1.414

1.414

2
0
0
Additional central Examples of other central composite designs will be given
composite designs after Box-Behnken designs are described.