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[A G R E G A T E S]

P R O B L E M S
1. What is the difference between a natural aggregate and
manufactured aggregate ?
Answer :

Natural aggregate are taken from natural deposits without


change in their nature during production, with the exception of
crushing, sizing, grading, or washing. In this group, crushed
stone, gravel, and sand at the most common, although pumice,
shells, iron ore, and limerock may also be included.

Manufacture

aggregate

are

man-made,

manufactured

with

change from nature shape and size. Manufactured aggregates


include

blast

furnace

slag,

clay,

shale,

and

lightweight

aggregates.
2. Aggregate may be classified as fine aggregate or coarse
aggregate, explain the difference !
Answer :
According to ASTM C125 (Concrete and Concrete Aggregate) :

Fine aggregate is defined as aggregate passing a 3/8-in. (9.5


mm) sieve and almost entirely passing a No.4 (4,75 mm) sieve
and predominantly retained on the No.200 (75-m) sieve or that
portion of an aggregate passing the No.4 (4.75 mm) sieve and
retained on the No.200 (75-m) sieve.

Coarse

aggregate

is

defined

as

aggregate

predominantly

retained on the No.4 (4.75-mm) sieve or that portion of an


aggregate retained on the No.4 ( 4.75-mm) sieve
These definitions are for concrete aggregates. For bituminous concrete
mixturs dividing line between fine and coarse aggregate is the No.8 (9.5mm) or the No.10 (11.8-mm).

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3. How aggregate are processed for use a portland cement
concrete ingredients or as a bituminous concrete ingredients.
Answer:
The main fundamental rule of good aggregate procssing is to obtain
aggregates of the highest quality at the least cost. Each process is
completed with these objectives in mind, but are not limited to,
excavation, transportation, washing, crushing and sizing. Processing
begins with excavation and quarrying of the material and ends upon being
stockpiled or delivered to the site.
In the excavation process the overburden is removed (if applicable), as its
presence in aggregate in the form of silt or clay cannot be tolerated. The
removal of the overburden is carried out thrugh the use of power shovels,
draglines, or scrapers. Overburden removal is ussualy considered only if
therre is a depth of 50 ft (15.24 m) or more. If the overburden is light, it
will wash out in the processing of the aggregate.
After the aggregate is excavated, it is transported by rail, truck, or
conveyor belt to the processing of the aggregate. At the processing plant,
unacceptable (deleterious) materials are removed. A deleterious material
is a material that may prove harmful to the final product for which the
aggregate is to be used. One method of removing deleterious materials
(clay, mud, leaves, etc) is to wash the raw material. Sometimes conveyor
belts are used to haul the aggregate through flumes that are flushed with
water.
The next process is to reduce the size of the stone or gravel. In this
process many types of crushers are used. The oldest is the jaw crushers,
which consists of a crushers have a higher capacity than the jaw crusher,
but this is the only disadvantage of the jaw crusher. The usual practice is
to reduce the size of the rock at a ratio of 1:6 or less.
For sizing, vibratory sieves are used for coarse material and
hydraulic classification devices for fine material. The screens vary in
design, capacity, and effeciency. In the screeing procces about 70 percent
of the material will pass through the screen so that the goals of high
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efficiecy and capacity are met. In most cases some removal of oversize
particles, called scrapping, will take.
4. How does particle shape affect the use of aggregate in basecourse materials? In portland cement concrete? In bituminous
concrete?
Answer:
In Base-Course Materials
Particle shape and surface texture influence the properties of freshly
mixed concrete more than the properties ofhardened concrete. Roughtextured, angular, and elongated particles require more water to produce
workable

concrete

than

smooth,

rounded

compact

aggregate.

Consequently, the cement content must also be increased to maintain the


water-cement ratio. Generally, flat and elongated particles are avoided or
are limited to about 15 percent by weight of the total aggregate. Unitweight measures the volume that graded aggregate and the voids
between them will occupy in concrete.
The void content between particles affects the amount of cement paste
required for the mix. Angular aggregates increase the void content. Larger
sizes of well-graded aggregate and improved grading decrease the void
content. Absorption and surface moisture of aggregate are measured
when selecting aggregate because the internal structure of aggregate is
made up of solid material and voids that may or may not contain water.
The amount of water in the concrete mixture must be adjusted to include
the moisture conditions of the aggregate.
Abrasion and skid resistance of an aggregate are essential when the
aggregate is to be used in concrete constantly subject to abrasion as in
heavy-duty floors or pavements. Different minerals in the aggregate wear
and polish at different rates.Harder aggregate can be selected in highly
abrasive conditions to minimize wear.
In Portland Cement Concrete
The shape and texture of aggregate affects the properties of fresh
concrete more than hardened concrete. Concrete is more workable when
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smooth and rounded aggregate is used instead of rough angular or
elongated aggregate. Most natural sands and gravel from riverbeds or
seashores are smooth and rounded and are excellent aggregates. Crushed
stone produces much more angular and elongated aggregates, which
have a higher surface-to-volume ratio, better bond characteristics but
require more cement paste to produce a workable mixture.
The surface texture of aggregate can be either smooth or rough. A
smooth surface can improve workability, yet a rougher surface generates
a stronger bond between the paste and the aggregate creating a higher
strength.
The grading or size distribution of aggregate is an important
characteristic because it determines the paste requirement for workable
concrete. This paste requirement is the factor controlling the cost, since
cement is the most expensive component. It is therefore desirable to
minimize the amount of paste consistent with the production of concrete
that can be handled, compacted, and finished while providing the
necessary strength and durability. The required amount of cement paste is
dependent upon the amount of void space that must be filled and the
total surface area that must be covered. When the particles are of uniform
size the spacing is the greatest, but when a range of sizes is used the void
spaces are filled and the paste requirement is lowered. The more these
voids are filled, the less workable the concrete becomes, therefore, a
compromise between workability and economy is necessary.
The moisture content of an aggregate is an important factor when
developing the proper water/cementitious material ratio. All aggregates
contain some moisture based on the porosity of the particles and the
moisture condition of the storage area. The moisture content can range
from less than one percent in gravel to up to 40 percent in very porous
sandstone and expanded shale. Aggregate can be found in four different
moisture states that include oven-dry (OD), air-dry (AD), saturated-surface
dry (SSD) and wet. Of these four states, only OD and SSD correspond to a
specific moisture state and can be used as reference states for calculating
moisture content. In order to calculate the quantity of water that
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aggregate will either add or subtract to the paste, the following three
quantities must be calculated: absorption capacity, effective absorption,
and surface moisture.
Most stockpiled coarse aggregate is in the AD state with an absorption
of less than one percent, but most fine aggregate is often in the wet state
with surface moisture up to five percent. This surface moisture on the fine
aggregate creates a thick film over the surface of the particles pushing
them apart and increasing the apparent volume. This is commonly known
as bulking and can cause significant errors in proportioning volume.
The density of the aggregates is required in mixture proportioning to
establish weight-volume relationships. Specific gravity is easily calculated
by determining the densities by the displacement of water. All aggregates
contain some porosity, and the specific gravity value depends on whether
these pores are included in the measurement. There are two terms that
are used to distinguish this measurement; absolute specific gravity and
bulk specific gravity. Absolute specific gravity (ASG) refers to the solid
material excluding the pores, and bulk specific gravity (BSG), sometimes
called apparent specific gravity, includes the volume of the pores. For the
purpose of mixture proportioning, it is important to know the space
occupied by the aggregate particles, including the pores within the
particles. The BSG of an aggregate is not directly related to its
performance in concrete, although, the specification of BSG is often done
to meet minimum density requirements.
For mixture proportioning, the bulk unit weight (a.k.a. bulk density) is
required. The bulk density measures the volume that the graded
aggregate will occupy in concrete, including the solid aggregate particles
and the voids between them. Since the weight of the aggregate is
dependent on the moisture content of the aggregate, a constant moisture
content is required. This is achieved by using OD aggregate. Additionally,
the bulk density is required for the volume method of mixture
proportioning.
The most common classification of aggregates on the basis of bulk
specific
5

gravity

is

lightweight,

normal-weight,

and

heavyweight

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aggregates. In normal concrete the aggregate weighs 1,520 1,680
kg/m3, but occasionally designs require either lightweight or heavyweight
concrete. Lightweight concrete contains aggregate that is natural or
synthetic which weighs less than 1,100 kg/m 3and heavyweight concrete
contains aggregates that are natural or synthetic which weigh more than
2080 kg/m3.
Although aggregates are most commonly known to be inert filler in
concrete, the different properties of aggregate have a large impact on the
strength, durability, workability, and economy of concrete. These different
properties of aggregate allow designers and contractors the most
flexibility to meet their design and construction requirements.
Bituminous Concrete
Aggregate particle shape and surface texture are important for
proper compaction, deformation resistance, and workability. However, the
ideal shape for HMA and PCC is different because aggregates serve
different purposes in each material. In HMA, since aggregates are relied
upon to provide stiffness and strength by interlocking with one another,
cubic angular-shaped particles with a rough surface texture are best.
However, in PCC, where aggregates are used as an inexpensive highstrength material to occupy volume, workability is the major issue
regarding particle shape. Therefore, in PCC rounded particles are better.
Rounded particles create less particle-to-particle interlock than angular
particles and thus provide better workability and easier compaction.
However, in HMA less interlock is generally a disadvantage as rounded
aggregate will continue to compact, shove and rut after construction. Thus
angular particles are desirable for HMA (despite their poorer workability),
while rounded particles are desirable for PCC because of their better
workability (although particle smoothness will not appreciably affect
strength) (PCA, 1988).
5. Explain the use of Fullers masimum density curve!
Answer :
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Mathematically, Fuller Grading Curves offer the maximum


density and minimum voids:

where pi = total % passing sieve size i


di = width of opening of sieve size i
D = largest size (sieve opening) in gradation

The maximum density curve give approximation of gradation. If employed


properly, it can be a valuable tool as a point of beginning in designing
aggregate blends for maximum density.
6. Why is gradation important in portland cement concrete?
Answer :
Aggregates properties for portland cement concrete are in many
cases different from aggregates used for base courses or for use in
bituminous concrete. Aggregate gradation becomes a key factor as it
control the workability of the plastic concrete.

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Grading limits and maximum aggregate size are specified because
these properties affect the amount of aggregate used as well as cement
and water requirements, workability, pumpability, and durability of
concrete. In general, if the water-cement ratio is chosen correctly, a wide
range in grading can be used without a major effect on strength. When
gap-graded aggregate are specified, certain particle sizes of aggregate
are omitted from the size continuum. Gap-graded aggregate are used to
obtain uniform textures in exposed aggregate concrete. Close control of
mix proportions is necessary to avoid segregation.
The specific impact of a failed aggregate gradation not only
depends on whether the aggregates fail on the coarser or the finer side of
the gradation but also on the extent of the failure away from the
acceptable gradation limits. Surface texture affect the water cement ratio
so the strength of concrete will be affected.
7. Which

type

of

aggregates

(igneous,

sedimentary,

or

metamorphic) would you expect to be most suitable as a base


course material ? Why ?
Answer :
Materials and Sources Natural aggregate materials include a variety of
rocks and minerals that can be excavated from quarries or mines.
Geologically, these materials can be categorized as one of three types:

Sedimentary rocks limestone and other rocks created by


sedimentary deposits.

Igneous rocks granite and other rocks created by cooling volcanic


or molten rock material.

And the last is Metamorphic rocks, this type expect to be


most suitable as a base course material because sedimentary
or igneous rocks that have been subjected to enough heat or
pressure to change their mineral structure.One type is necessarily
superior to the others, as the quality of aggregate depends on the
physical and chemical properties of the specific material. This types
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are commonly available will depend on the geologic history of a
region., especially in Indonesia
Some regions in Indonesia have sources of aggregate, as local quarry
resources may be too scarce or of insufficient quality for pavement
construction. If the cost of obtaining natural aggregate is prohibitive, it
may be possible to substitute suitable manufactured materials or
byproducts.

Both reclaimed

asphalt

pavement (RAP)

and recycled

concrete can be used to make high-quality base layers. Other industrial


byproducts including furnace slag and waste glass are also feasible
alternatives.
A number of material properties and characteristics affect the
performance of an aggregate base layer. One of the most important is
the gradation, or the size distribution of aggregate particles in the
material. Others include the ability of the aggregate to resist damage and
its particle shape, texture, and angularity.Bases may consist of uncrushed
virgin aggregate or material that has been crushed in order to create more
rough surfaces and angles
In considering the base as a layer within the pavement structure, its
density along with its moisture content and drainage characteristics are
also important. Achieving the desired density typically requires using
compaction equipment before the pavement surface layers are placed. A
base layer of dense-graded aggregate, with a mix of particles sizes tightly
packed together, will generally provide the most structural support for the
pavement surface. An aggregate base may be hidden from sight after the
pavement is completed, but it remains a critical part of the pavement
structure.
8. Review various refrence on the subject of freezingand thawing
and write short report on how they eventually lead to concrete
failure.
Answer :
Freeze Thaw Resistance When water freezes, it expands about 9 percent.
As the water in moist concrete freezes it produces pressure in the pores of
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the concrete. If the pressure developed exceeds the tensile strength of the
concrete, the cavity will dilate and rupture.
The accumulative effect of successive freezethaw cycles and disruption of paste and
aggregate can eventually cause expansion
and cracking, scaling, and crumbling of the
concrete.
Deicing chemicals for pavements include sodium chloride, calcium
chloride, magnesium chloride, and potassium chloride. These chemicals
reduce the freezing point of the precipitation as it falls on pavements. A
recent trend has seen a wide variety of blends of these materials to
improve performance while reducing costs, and best practice indicates
that a liberal dosage greater than four percent in solution tends to
decrease the potential for scaling of pavement surfaces. The high
concentration of deicers reduces the number of freezing and thawing
cycle exposures to the pavement by significantly lowering the freezing
point.
Deicers for special applications such as airport pavements require nonchloride materials to prevent damage to aircraft. The list of deicers used
for these applications includes urea, potassium acetate, propylene glycol,
and ethylene glycols.
Since scaling damage to pavements of all types is caused by physical salt
attack, the use of high strength (4,000 psi or more), low permeability, air
entrained concrete is crucial to good durability in these applications.
D-Cracking - Cracking of concrete pavements caused by the
freeze-thaw deterioration of the aggregate within concrete is called Dcracking. D-cracks are closely spaced crack formations parallel to
transverse and longitudinal joints that later multiple outward from the
joints toward the center of the pavement panel. D-cracking is a function of
the core properties of certain types of aggregate particles and the
environment in which the pavement is placed.
Due to the natural accumulation of water under pavements in the
base and
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subbase

layers,

the

aggregate

may

eventually

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saturated. Then with freezing and thawing
cycles, cracking of the concrete starts in the
saturated aggregate at the bottom of the slab
and progresses upward until it reaches the
wearing

surface.

This

problem

can

be

reduced either by selecting aggregates that


perform better in freeze-thaw cycles or,
where marginal aggregates must be used, by reducing the maximum
particle size. Also, installation of effective drainage systems for carrying
free water out from under the pavement may be helpful.
Cross section of air-entrained (right)
and non-air-entrained concrete. Large
size air voids are entrapped air. Small
pinpoint size bubbles (entrained air)
uniformly

distributed

through

the

paste are beneficial air voids. Note


comparison with common pin.
Air entrainment - The severity of freeze-thaw exposure varies with
different areas of the United States. Local weather records can help
determine the severity of exposure. The resistance of concrete to freezing
and thawing in a moist condition is significantly improved by the use of
intentionally entrained air. The tiny entrained air voids act as empty
chambers in the paste for the freezing and migrating water to enter, thus
relieving the pressure in the pores and preventing damage to the
concrete. Concrete with a low permeability (that is, a low water-cement
ratio and adequate curing) is better able to resist freeze-thaw cycles. In
rare cases, air-void clustering can occur, leading to a loss of compressive
strength.

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Typical

example

of

scaled

concrete

surface

Prevention

of

Concrete

Scaling.

Scaling is defined as a general loss of surface mortar or mortar


surrounding the coarse aggregate particles on a concrete surface. This
problem is typically caused by the expansion of water due to freezing and
thawing cycles and the use of deicing chemicals; however properly
specified, produced, finished, and cured quality concrete need not suffer
this type of deterioration. There is a distinct chain of responsibility for the
production of scale resistant concrete.
Closeup

view

of

ice

impressions

in

paste of frozen fresh concrete. The ice


crystal formations occur as unhardened
concrete freezes.

Freezing temperatures. Concrete gains very little strength at low


temperatures. Accordingly, freshly placed concrete must be protected
against freezing until the degree of saturation of the concrete has been
sufficiently reduced by cement hydration. The time at which this reduction
is accomplished corresponds roughly to the time required for the concrete
to attain a compressive strength of 500 psi. Concrete to be exposed to
deicers should attain a strength of 4,000 psi prior to repeated cycles of
freezing and thawing.
Optimizing the Use of Fly Ash in Concrete Cold weather and winter
conditions can be challenging when concrete contains fly ash. Especially
when used at higher levels, fly ash concrete typically has extended setting
times and slow strength gain, leading to low early-age strengths and
delays in rate of construction. In addition, concretes containing fly ash are
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often reported to be more susceptible to surface scaling when exposed to
deicing chemicals than portland cement concrete. It is therefore important
to know how to adjust the amount of fly ash to minimize the drawbacks,
while maximizing the benefits. Optimized the amount of fly ash on the
basis of the requirements of the concrete specification, the construction
schedule and the temperatur, then limited the amount of fly ash in slabs
on grade placed during winter months to 20 percent. If adequate curing
cannot be provided or if the concrete is exposed to freezing and thawing
in the presence of deicer salts, the amount of fly ash should always be
less than 25 percent.
Effect of Fast Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Mechanical Properties
of Ordinary-Air-Entrained Concrete : Freezing-thawing resistance is a
very significant characteristic for concrete in severe environment (such as
cold region with the lowest temperature
below 0C). Durability of concrete is the
ability to retain its original form and
quality without significant deterioration
for a long time. Factors causing the
damage of concrete material in structure can be divided into two
categories: physical effects (such as freeze-thaw damage and abrasion)
and chemical effects (such as sulfate attack and corrosion of reinforcing
steel), in the whole design life. As a widely used construction material, the
durability characteristics of concrete are all significant to its sustained
use. Due to the need of practical application, many reinforced concrete
structure were (will be) built in cold regions that inevitably subjected to
freezing and thawing action. One main reason of durability problem in
reinforced concrete structures in cold environment is the damage caused
by action of freezing and thawing.
The effects of action of freeze/thaw cycles on air-entrained concrete
and plain concrete are well documented and many researchers have
documented the improvement on the freeze/thaw resistance of airentrained

concrete

over

plain concrete. Reference

introduced

the

experiment study about freezing and thawing resistance of air-entrained


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concrete in which the coarse aggregate was produced from air-entrained
concrete

and

non-air-entrained

concrete,

respectively.

Reference

investigated behavior (strength and durability) of air-entrained CSF


(condensed silica fume) concrete after the action of freezing and thawing
cycles. As one of the main measures to improve the frost resistance of
concrete, ordinary-air-entrained concrete has been applied to many kinds
in civil engineering in cold regions and has got very obvious economic
benefits and social effects.
The main reason that induced cracks in concrete is the volume
expansion caused by water frozen into ice. The second reason that
induced cracks is the thermal stress developed under the action of
repeated freeze-thaw. The third reason the durability of concrete can be
improved greatly by adding air-entraining agent into concrete, and the last
is

the

freeze-thaw

durability

of

concrete

should

be

taken

into

consideration in structure design and maintenance.


9. Review

several

references

and

explain

why

aggregate

beneficiation is necessary. Include in your report the methods


used for aggregate beneficiating.
Answer :
First References Jackson F H.The Durability of Concrete in
Service. Prociding American Concrete Institute. 43 (1942). page
165
This journal discusses the problemofconcretedurability withreference
primarily to highway bridgestructures located in regionssubjecttosevere
frost action. Four major types of deteriorationare definedand illustrated
and several specific mattersthat have bearing on the problem, including
the effect of construction variables, modern versus old fashioned
cements, air entrainment, and the so-called cementalkali aggregate
reaction,

arediscussed.

The

reportconcludes

with

series

of

recommendations indicating correctivemeasuresthat shouldbe taken.


Second References Abdun Nur E A. Concrete and Concrete
Making Materials. ASTM Spech. Tech. Pblication 169-A. 1966. PP 717.
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Size Gradation
Grading or aggregate size distribution is a major characteristic in
concrete mix design. Cement is the most expensive material in concrete.
Therefore, by minimizing the amount of cement, the cost of concrete can
be reduced.

Sieve Analysis -- determines the grading of an aggregate. Coarse


aggregate is that retained on the #4 sieve and fine aggregate is
that passing a #4 sieve. In a sieve analysis a series of sieve are
used with smaller and smaller openings. Coarse aggregates are
analyzed with standard sieves and fine aggregates with half-sized
sieves.

Maximum Aggregate Size -- Smallest sieve in which the entire


sample will pass through. The maximum nominal size is the smallest
sieve in which at least 95%, by weight, of the sample will pass.
Maximum size should not be larger than 1/5 the minimum
dimension of a structural member, 1/3 the thickness of a slab, or 3/4
the clearance between reinforcing rods and forms. These restrictions
limit maximum aggregate size to 1 1/2 inches, except in mass
applications.

Higher

maximum

aggregate

size

lowers

paste

requirements, increases strength and reduces w/c ratios. However,


excessively large aggregate tends to lower strength by reducing
available bonding area. ASTM has limits for grading of concrete
aggregates.

Fineness Modulus -- a parameter for checking the uniformity of


grading. Generally calculated for fine aggregates but also for coarse
aggregates assuming 100% is retained on #8 - #100 sieves.
Therefore, for fine and coarse aggregates respectively, the fineness
modulus is:

F.M. = (Cumulative percent retained on half-sized sieves)/100


F.M. = (Cumulative percent retained on standard sieves including
#4 + 500 )/ 100

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A fineness modulus for fine aggregates should be 2.3 - 3.1. Two
aggregates with the same fineness modulus can have different grading
curves. A low fineness modulus requires more cement paste to maintain
workability. Variations from mix design requirements for fineness modulus
should not exceed 0.2 (ASTM standards). ASTM allows for an increase in
fine aggregates (% passing #50 and #100) if smoother surface finishing is
required. However, there are solid restrictions on very fine particles to
prevent increased water demand and volume instability.
Gap Grading -- An aggregate where one or more of the intermediate-sized
fractions is omitted. Advantages of gap grading are more economical
concrete, use of less cement, and lower w/c ratios. The resulting concrete
is very stiff and has low workability. An extreme case is no-fines concrete.
This concrete is difficult to handle and compact; developing low strength
and high permeability.
Durability of Aggregates
Aggregates makeup the largest part of concrete mixes and are responsible
for the durability of the mix. Durability is a measure of how well concrete
will handle freezing and thawing, wetting and drying, and physical wear.
Chemical reactions also can contribute to problems with durability.

Soundness -- rocks that undergo volume changes due to wetting


and drying are rare. However, aggregate is susceptible to volume
change during freezing and thawing cycles. Freezing can cause
internal stresses to build up as water inside the aggregate freezes
and expands. A critical size can be calculated below which freezethaw stress is not a problem; however, for most rock it is greater
than normal sizes.

Wear Resistance -- a good aggregate will be hard, dense, strong,


and free of porous material. The abrasion resistance of aggregate
can be tested by the Los Angeles abrasion test; however, this test
does not match well with concrete wear in the field.

Alkali-Aggregate Reaction -- An expansive reaction between


some reactive forms of silica with the aggregate and alkalis in the

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cement paste. The result is overall cracking in the structure,
manifesting itself in map or pattern cracking at the surface. This
reaction can be controlled most easily by using low-alkali cements.
However, due to changes in manufacturing, low-alkali cements may
not be feasible. A better approach is to avoid aggregate with the
potential or proven record of reactivity. A low w/c ratio is very
impermeable and will slow down the reaction but not stop it. No
adverse reactions will occur without external water.

Other Alkali-Silica Reactions -- sand-gravels found in river


systems of Kansas and Nebraska are highly reactive and cause map
cracking. Replacement of 30% of the aggregate with crushed
limestone is effective in reducing the damage. Basically, it results in
the separation of flat clay minerals causing very slow expansion.

Alkali-Carbonate Reactions -- an expansive reaction involving


clayey carbonate rock. Reaction can be controlled by using lowalkali cements or blending aggregate with other less reactive
material. ASTM has set standards for deleterious substances in
aggregates, which depend on application. This can be divided into
two categories:
o Impurities

Solid materials - particles passing a 200-mesh sieve.


These fine particles may increase water requirements
and interfere with surface bonding between cement and
coarse aggregates.

Soluble substances - organic matter may interfere


chemically with alkaline cement pastes affecting setting
time. Aggregates obtained from the sea should be
thoroughly

cleaned

to

avoid

problems

from

salt

contamination.
o Unsound particles -- Soft particles such as clay lumps, wood,
and coal will cause pitting and scaling at the surface. Organic
compounds can be released which interfere with setting and
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[A G R E G A T E S]
hardening. Weak material of low density which have low wear
resistance should also be avoided.
Why aggregate beneficiation is necessary?
Aggregate Beneficiation -- If an aggregate does not pass the ASTM
tests, an engineer may choose to try to upgrade the material.
Beneficiation as applied to aggregate production has a precise meaning: it
refers to the selective removal of undesirable constituents in an
aggregate. It is therefore the additional processing to upgrade or improve
the quality of the raw material by a variety of means, most of which rely
on

gravity

separation,

or

occasionally

on

centrifugal

separation.

Beneficiation is usually used to remove unsound, lightweight, or


deleterious materials from aggregates, as well as removal of mica flakes
by modified washing procedures. Beneficiation must be distinguished from
the normal production processes of crushing, screening, and washing
which are intended to provide proper gradation and cleanliness. In effect,
the removal of unwanted clay and silt fractions can be regarded as
beneficiation, althouggh this is normally accomplished in conventional
washing or scrubbing operations. Of necessity, beneficiation is expensive
not least because some acceptable material is always lost, and producers
would rather avoid this is possible. Beneficiation may be useful in areas
where aggregate is scarce. There are several possible ways of treatment:

Crushing -- Soft, porous rock may be removed by crushing.

Heavy-media

separation --

Lightweight

particles

may

be

separated by floating them to the top of a liquid.

Reverse water flow or air flow -- used to remove lightweight


particles like wood.

Hydraulic jigging -- Stratification of aggregate in a vertical


pulsation of water. Lightweight particles separate to the top.

Elastic fractionation -- Aggregate is dropped on an incline steel


plate. Hard particles bounce higher off the plate than do softer
particles. Appropriate placement of collection bins can provide good
separation.

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Washing and scrubbing -- Removes fine surface particles.

10. Review the ASTM specifications for tests concerning the


general

quality

of

aggregates,

deletirious

materials

in

aggregates, and the specification used in the design of


portland cement and bituminuous concrete mixes, and write a
short report on the purposes, proceduresm and reasons for
the tests.
Answer :
In the following section we will look at various ASTM test specifications,
with special emphasis on the following categories:
1) Tests concerning thegeneral quality of aggregates.
2) Tests concerning deleterious mterials in aggregates.
3) Tests used in the design of portland cement concrete and
bituminous mix design.
Tests Concerning The General Quality of Aggregates

ASTM C131 (resistance to degredation of small size coarse


aggregate by abrasion and impact in the Los Angeles machine)

Purpose:The purpose of this specification is to test coarse aggregate


smaller than 1.5 in. (3.81 cm) for resistance abration using the Los
Angeles testing machine and to evaluate base-course aggregates for
possible degradation.
Procedure: In this procedure, the test sample is placed in the Los
Angeles testing machine after it has been prepared for testing in
accordance with this specification. The machine is rotated at a speed of
30 to 33 rpm for 500 revolutions. The material discharged from the
machine and a preliminary separation of the sample is made of a sieve
coarser than the No. 12. The finer portion is sieved using the No. 12 sieve
in a manner conforming to the specification. The material coarser than the
No. 12 sieve is washed and oven-dried at 221 to 230F (105 to 110C) to
constant weight and weighed to the nearest gram. The differnce between
the original weight and the final weight of the test sample is expressed as
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a percent of the original weight. The value is reported as a precent of
wear.

ASTM C88 (soundness of aggregates by use of sodium sulfate or


magnesium sulfate)

Purpose: The purpose of this specification is to determine the potential


resistance of an aggregate to weathering.
Procedure: In this procedure a specific weight of an aggregate having a
known sieve analysis is immersed in a solution of sodium or magnesium
sulfate for 16 to 18 hours. Next, it is placed in an oven at 230F (110C)
and dried constant weight. The procedure is repeated for the desired
period (usually 5 or 10 cycles); the sample is cooled, washed, and dried to
constan weight; then sieved, weighed, and recorded as the percent of
weight lost.

ASTM C666 (resistance of concrete to rapid freezing and thawing)

Purpose: The purpose of this spesification is to determine how concrete


will react under continous cycles of freezing and thawing and to rank
aggregates.
Procedure: In this procedure two methods are used. Method A involves
rapid freezing and thawing in water, and method B involves rapid freezing
in air and thawing in water. Immediately after curring, the specimen is
brought to a temperature within -2F and +4F (-1.1C and 2.2C) of the
target thaw temperature that will be used in the freeze-thaw cycle and
tested for fundamental transverse frequency, weighed, and measured in
accordance with ASTM C215 (Fundamental Transverse, Longitudinal. And
Torsional Frequence of Concrete Specimens). The spesimen is protected
against loss of moisture between the time of removal from curing and the
start of the freeze-thaw test.

ASTM C215 (fundamental transvers, longitudinal, and torsional


frequencies of concrete specimens)

Purpose: The purpose of this test in to determine the relationship


between strength loss and cycles of freezing and thawing.
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Procedure: The spesimen is forced to vibrate at various frequencies.
Record the frequency of the test spesimen that result in maximum
indication having a well-defined peak on the indicator and at which
observation of nodal ponts indicates fundamental transverse vibration as
the fundamental transverse frequency. Youngs modulus is then calculated
as follows :
durability factor=DF 300=

PN ( relative E ) (N cycles)
=
M
duration of test

In this test it is not necessary to perform the test for 300 cycles of freezing
and thawing. It is only necessary to perform the test for 150 cycles and
then calculate the durability factor at 50 percent and the DF 300can
becalculated.

ASTM C597 (pulse velocity through concrete)

Purpose: The major purpose of this specification is to check the


uniformity in mass concrete, to indicate characteristic changes in
concrete, and in the survey of fields stuctures estimate the severity of
deterioration, cracking, or both.
Procedure: In this procedure a sound wave is transmitted through the
concrete mass and the length of time it takes to travel from one end to
the other is recorded. Knowing the time and the path length, the velocity
can be computed.

ASTM C671 (critical dilation of concrete specimens subjected to


freezing)

Purpose: The purpose of thos specification is to determine the test period


of frost immunity of concrete specimens meansured by the water
immersion the time required to produce critical dilation when subjected to
a prescribed slow-freezing procedure.
Procedure: In this procedure, the test specimen is molded and cured as
prescribe by ASTM C192 (Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in
the Laboratory). Once the test spescimen is prepare and conditioned, the
test starts. The test cycle consist by cooling the specimen in watersaturated kerosene from 35 to 15F (1.67 to -9.44C) at a rate of 5 1F (21

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2.8 0.5C) per hour; followed immediately by returning the specimen to
the 35F (1.67C) water bath, where the specimen will remain until the
next cycle. Normally, one test cycle would be carried out every 2 weeks.
The length changes are measured during the cooling process. The test is
continued until critical dilation is exeeded or until the period of interest is
over.

ASTM C682 (evaluation of frost resistance of coarse aggregates in


air-entrained concrete by critical dilation procedure)

Purpose: The purpose of this procedure is to evaluate the frost resistance


of coarse aggregates in air-entrained concrete.
Procedure: The procedure is basically the same as that for the preceding
specification. The only difference is that the sample is prepared in
accordance with ASTM C295 (Petrographic Examination of Aggregates for
Concrete). The aggregate is grade in accordance with field use; otherwise,

equal portions of the No. 4,

3
8

-in.,

1
2

-in., and 1 in. Sieved are used.

Further, the aggregate should be used in this test as it is used in the field.
Portland cement should meet the specifications of ASTM C33 (Concrete
Aggregates). The mix proportion should be in accordance with the ACI
method of mix design with an air content of 6 percent and a slump of 2.5
0.5 in.

ASTM C672 (scaling resistance of concrete surfaces exposed to


deicing chemicals)

Purpose: The purpose of this specification is to evaluated the effect of


mix design, surface treatment, curing, or other variables of concrete
subjected to scaling because of freezing and thawing, and to determine
the resistance to scaling of a horizontal concrete surface subjected to
freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing chemicals.
Procedure: In this specification the concrete at the age of 28 days, after
proper curing, is a covered with approximately 0,25 in. (0.64 cm) of
calcium chloride and water solution having a concentration such that each
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100 ml of solution contains 4 g of anhydrous calcium chloride. The
specimen is than placed in a freezing chamber for 16 to 18 hours. The
specimen is the removed and place in air at 75 3F (23 1.7C) with a
relative humadity of 45 to 55 percent for 6 to 8 hours. Water is added to
the chamber between each cycle to maintain the depth of the solution.
The procedure is repeate daily, and at the end of five cycles the surface of
the concrete is flushed thoroughly. A visul inspection of the concrete is
mnade with the rating given in Table 2-3. These ratings are recorded and
the test continues.

ASTM C295 (petrographic examintion of aggregates for concrete)

Purpose: The purpose of this speciication is to screen the good from the
bad aggregates. It has eight specific purpose :
1. Preliminary determination of quality
2. Establishing properties and probable performances
3. Correlating samples with aggregates previously tested and
used.
4. Selecting and interpreting other tests.
5. Detection contamination
6. Detremining effects of processing
7. Determining physical and chemical properties
8. Describing and classifying constituents.
Table 1.CONCRETE SCALING RATINGS
Ratin
g
0
1
2
3
4
5

Condition of Surface
No scaling
Very slight scaling
Slight to moderate
scaling
Moderate scaling
Moderate to severe
scaling
Severe scaling

Procedure: In this specification the procedure should be carried out by


geologist untilizing x-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, electron
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microscopy, electron diffraction, electron probe, infrared spectroscopy
microscope, and the naked eye.

ASTM D1075 (effect of water on cohesion of compacted bituminous


mixtures)

Purpose: The purpose of this specification is to measure the loss of


cohesion resulting from the action of water on compacted bituminous
mixtures contraining penetration-grade asphalts. In other words, it
evaluates the stripping properties of aggregates.
Procedure: In this specification a 4-in. (10.16 cm) cylindrical specimen 4
in. (10.16 cm) high is tested in accrordance with ASTM D1074
(Comperessive Strength of Bituminous Mixtures). Then the bulk specific
gravity of each specimen is determined. Each set of six test spcimens is
sorted into two groups of three specimens each so that the average bulk
specific grafity is the same in each group. Group 1 is tested in accordance
with procedure A and group 2 in accordance with procedure B. In test
procedure A, the test specimens are brought to the test temperature of 77
1.8F (25 1C) by storing them in air bath maintained at the test
temperature for not less than 4 hours, their compressive strength
determined in accordance with ASTM D1074. In test procedure B, the test
specimen is immersed in water for 4 days at 120 1.8F (49 1C). The
specimen is transferred to a second water bath at 77 1.8F (25 1C)
and stored for 2 hours. At that time the compressive strength is
determined and the numercial index of resistance of bituminous mixtures
to the detrimental effect of water as the percentage of the original
strength that is retained after the immersion period is calculated as
follows :
index of retained strength () =

S2
S1

x 100

where S1 = compressive strength of dry specimens (group 1)


S2 = compressive strength of immersed specimens (group 2)
Tests Concerning Deleterious Materials in Aggregates

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ASTM C33 (concrete aggregates)


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Purpose: The purpose of this specifications is to ensure that satisfactory
materials are used in concrete.
Procedure: Thespecification cover both fine and coarse aggregates but
does not cover lightweight aggregates. Establishes definitions for fine and
coarse

aggregate

and

place

restrictions

on

grading,

deleterious

substances, and soundness. The specification also establishes methods for


testing and sampling.

ASTM C142 (clay lumps and friable particles in aggregates)

Purpose:The purpose of this specification is to measure only particles


that might cause unsightly blemishes in concrete surfaces. It is an
approximate method for the determination of clay lumps and friable
particles in natural aggregates.
Procedure: Aggregates for this test consist of the material remaining
after the completion of ASTM C117 [Materials Finer Than No. 200 (75-m)
Sieve in Minerals Aggregates by Washing]. The aggregate is dried to a
onsistant weight at a temperature of 230F (105 5C). Weight the test
sample spead it into a thin layer on the bottom of the container , cover it
with water, and examine it for clay lumps or friable particles. Particles that
can be broken down with the fingers ito finely divided particles are
calssified as friable particles, prvided that they can be removed by wet
sieving. The residue is removed and weighed. The amount of clay lumps
and friable particles in fine aggregate or individual sizes of coarse
aggregate is computed as follows :
P=

W R
x 100
W

Where P = percent of clay lumps or friable particles


W = weight of test sample passing the layer of sieves but coaser
than the No. 16 sieve
R = weight of particles retained in designated sieve

ASTM C117 (materials finer than no.200 (75-m) sieve in mineral


aggregates by washing)

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Purpose: The purpose of this test is to determine the amount of material
finer than a No. 200 (75-m) sieve in aggregate by washing. Clay particles
and other aggregate particles that are dispersed by the wash water as
well as water-soluble materials will also be removed from the aggregate
during the test.
Procedure: A sample of aggregate is washed in a prescribed manner and
the decantes wash water containing suspended and dissolved materials is
passed trough a No. 200 (75-m) sieve. The loss in weight resulting from
the wash treatment is calculated as weight percent of the original sample
and is reported as the percentage of material finer than a No.200 (75-m)
sieve, by washing.
A=

BC
x 100
B

Where A = percentage of material finer than a No. 200 (75-m) sieve, by


washing
B = original dry weight of sample, grams
C = dry weight of sample, after washing, grams.

ASTM C123 (light weight pieces in aggregates)

Purpose:

The purpose

of this

specification is

to determine the

approximate percetage of lightweight pieces in aggregates by means of


sink-float separation in aheavy liquid of suitable specific gravity.
Procedure: In this procedure the fine aggregate is allowed to dry and
cooled to room temperature after following the procedure prescric=bed in
ASTM D75. The material is sieved using a No. 50 sieve and then brought
to saturated-surface dry conditions. It is put into a heavy liquid such as
kerosene with 1,1,2,2,-tetrabromethane. The particles will be separated by
the float-sink method provided that the specific gravities are different
enough to permit separation. The liquid is poured off into a second
container and passed through a skimmer. Care is taken that only the
floating pieces are poured off with the liwuid and that none of the sand is
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decanted into the decanting process is reparated until the liquid is free of
friable particles. The pieces are dry and thr weight determined. For a
coarse aggregate the particles are sieved using a No. 4 sieve and the
foregoing process is repeated.

ASTM C40 (organic impurities in sands for concrete)

Purpose: This specification covers an approximate determination of the


presence of injurious organic compounds in natural sands that are to be
used in cement mortar or concrete. The principal value of the test is to
furnish warning that further tests of the sands are necessary before they
are approved for use.
Procedure: The procedure for this specification involves the color test.
The sand and a 3 % solution of sodium hydroxide are mixed vigorously in
a graduate and allowed to stand for 24 hours. The color of the liquid is
then compared to the color of a solution of potassium dichromate in
sulfuric acid. If the solution of the sand and sodium hydroxide is darker
than the potassium, organic impurities are present in the sand.

ASTM

C227

(potensial

alkali

reactivity

of

cement-aggregate

combinations (mortar-bar method))


Purpose: The purpose of this specification is to determine if an aggregate
will react with the alkalies in cement. This test is basically to predict the
alkali-silica reaction.
Procedure:The test method consists of molding bars of mortar 1 in. X 1
in. X 12 in. (2.54 cm x 2.54 cm x 30.5 cm) in which the aggregate in
question is combined with cement that is to be used in the field. The
proportion should be 1 part cement to 225 parts of graded aggregate by
weight. Use enough water to develop a flow of 105 to 120. After 24 hours
in the molds, the length of the bars are measured, and they are stored at
a constant temperature of 100F (37.8C) in sealedcontainers that
containing a small amount of water in the bottom but not in contact with
the speciment.

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ASTM C289 (potential reactivity of aggregates (chemical method))


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[A G R E G A T E S]
Purpose: The purpose of this test procedure is to determine the potential
reactivity of an aggregate with alkalies in portland cement concrete in a
very short time. This is a test for the alkali-silica reaction and is not
intended for the alkali-carbonate reaction.
Procedure: In this procedure the material is ground to the point when it
is finer than the No.50 sieve but coarser than the No.100 sieve. Twenty
five grams of the materuia are mixed with 25ml of a 1 N solution of NaOH
in a steel vessel about 2 in. (5.08 cm) in diameter and 2-1/2 in. (6.35 cm)
high. The vessel is sealed at a temperature 176F (80C) 24 hours and
then the liquid is filtered and tested for alkalinity and dissolved silica.
Tests Used in The Design of Portland Cement Concrete and
Bituminous Mix Design

ASTM D75 (sampling aggregates)

Purpose: The purpose of this test is to sample fine and coarse aggregate
for the following purposes:

Preliminary investigation of the potential source of


supply;

Control of the product at the source of supply;

Control of the operations at the site of use;

Acceptance or rejection of the material.

Procedure:In this procedure, sampling plans and acceptance and control


tests vary with the type of construction in which the material is used.
Samples for preliminary investigation tests are obtained by the party
responsible for developmen of the potential source. Samples must be
inspected and sampling taken from conveyor belts, flowing aggregate
stream, or stockpile.

ASTM C136 (sieve or screen analysis of fine and coarse aggregates)

Purpose:The purpose of this specification is to determine the particle size


of fine and coarse aggregates to be used in various tests.

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Procedure: In this procedure, a weighed sample of dry aggregate is
separated through a series of sieves or screens of progressively smaller
openings for determination of particle-sixe distribution.

ASTM C127 (specific gravity and absorption of coarse aggregates)


and ASTM C128 (specific gravity and absorption of fine aggregates)

Purpose:The purpose of this specification is to ultimately determined the


solid volume of coarse aggregate / fine aggregate and the unit volume of
the dry rodded aggregate such that a weight volume characteristic can be
determined so that a concrete design mix can be determined. The bulk
specific gravity is used to determine the volume occupied by the
aggregate.
Procedure: Test methods for determining relative densities forcoarse and
fine aggregates are described in ASTM C 127 (AASHTO T 85) and ASTM C
128 (AASHTO T 84), respectively.
The relative density of an aggregate may be determinedon an ovendry
basis or a saturated surface-dry (SSD) basis. Both the ovendry and
saturated surface-dry relative densities may be used in concrete mixture
proportioning calculations. Ovendry aggregates do not contain any
absorbed or free water. They are dried in an oven to constant weight.
Saturated surface-dry aggregates are those in which the pores in each
aggregate particle are filled withwater but there is no excess water on the
particle surface. The density of aggregate particles used in mixture
proportioning computations (not including voids between particles) is
determined by multiplying the relative density (specific gravity) of the
aggregate times the density of water. An approximate value of 1000
kg/m3 (62.4 lb/ft3) is often used for the density of water. The density of
aggregate, along with more accurate values for water density, are
provided in ASTM C 127 (AASHTO T 85) and ASTM C 128 (AASHTO T 84).
Most natural aggregates have particle densities of between 2400 and
2900 kg/m3 (150 and 181 lb/ft3).

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ASTM C29 (unit weight of aggregate)

Purpose:This method covers the determination of the unit weight of fine,


coarse, or mixed aggregate.
Procedure: In this procedure, the sample is dried to constant weight in
an oven at 220 to 230F (105 TO 110C) And thoroughly mixed. a
cylindrical metal bucket is calibrated using water (knowing that water
weighs 62.4 lb/ft3). The mrasure is filled one-third full and the surface is
leveled wth the fingers. The layer of aggregate is rodded 25 times with a
tamping rod. The strokes are apllied evenly over the sample. This
procedure is repeated at two-thirds full and at full. The measure is leveled,
weighed, and multiplied by the volume of the bucket. This method applies
to aggregates of 1.5 in. (3.81 cm) or less. For aggregate over 1.5 in. (3.81
cm), use the jigging method.

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