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Answer Key

Question 1:
(see full question)

You selected:

A nurse is explaining to a patient about the need to


administer a loading dose of a drug. Which of the following
statements best reflects the reason for administering the
loading dose?
"We want to make sure that the drug becomes effective
faster."

Correct
Explanation:

A loading dose is recommended for use with drugs that


may take a prolonged period to reach critical concentration
so that the effects can be obtained more quickly. Size is
unrelated to the use of a loading dose. Evaluating the
body's response is not an indication for using a loading
dose. Duration of action is not an indication for using a
loading dose. (less)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, pp. 54-55.

Question 2:
(see full question)

A patient is receiving 250 mg of a drug that has a half-life


of 12 hours. How much drug would remain after 36 hours?

You selected:

31.25 mg

Correct
Explanation:

This amount of drug is present after 36 hours. This amount


of drug would be present after 12 hours. This amount of
drug would be present after 24 hours. This amount of drug
would b... (more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 51.

Question 3:
(see full question)

When a drug is discontinued, what percentage of that drug


will remain in the body after three half-lives?

You selected:

25%

Incorrect

Correct response:

12.5%

Explanation:

Each half-life removes 50% of the drug stored in the body.


Hence, after one half-life, the percentage of drug in the
body would be 50%. After two half-lives, the percentage of
drug in the body would be half of 50%, which is 25%.
Consequently, after three half-lives, the percentage of drug
would be 12.5%. (less)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4:
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 51.

Question 4:

Your patient is taking low dose aspirin daily for their heart.
You know that the patient is not receiving all the dosage of
the aspirin that is being ingested. This occurs because of
what?

(see full question)

You selected:

Liver metabolism

Incorrect
Correct response:

First-pass effect

Explanation:

A large percentage of an oral dose is destroyed when it


reaches the liver and never reaches the tissues. This
phenomenon is known as the first-pass effect. Therefore
Options A, C, ... (more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 48.

Question 5:

The nursing students are learning about the half-life of


drugs. A student asks the instructor to explain half-life.
What would be the instructor's best response?

(see full question)

You selected:

Half-life of a drug is the time it takes for the drug to reach


of its' potential peak level in the body.

Incorrect
Correct response:

Half-life of a drug is the time it takes for the amount of drug


in the body to decrease to one-half of the peak level it
previously achieved.

Explanation:

The half-life of a drug is the time it takes for the amount of

drug in the body to decrease to one-half of the peak level it


previously achieved. Therefore Options B, C, and D are ...
(more)
Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 51.

Question 6:
(see full question)

Drugs do not metabolize the same in all people. In which of


the following patients would a nurse expect to see an
alteration in drug metabolism?

You selected:

A 50-year-old male with cirrhosis of the liver

Correct
Explanation:

The liver is the most important site of drug metabolism. If


the liver is not functioning effectively like in patients with
cirrhosis, drugs will not be metabolized normally and tox...
(more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 46.

Question 7:
(see full question)

The nurse is explaining the pharmacokinetics of a drug


being administered to a client. What is meant by the term
"pharmakokinetics?"

You selected:

Actions of drugs

Correct
Explanation:

Pharmacokinetics refers to the actions of drugs. The route


of administration refers to the route or method by which a
medication is administered. Treatment of overdoses and
dosages... (more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 42.

Question 8:
(see full question)

You selected:

The nurse is preparing to administer a prescribed drug to a


patient with a history of renal disease. The nurse expects a
reduction in dosage based on the understanding that which
of the following might be altered?
Metabolism

Incorrect
Correct response:

Excretion

Explanation:

If the kidneys are not functioning properly, a drug may not


be excreted properly and could accumulate in the body.
Metabolism may be altered if the patient has liver
disease.... (more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 49.

Question 9:

Urine acidity can play an important role in drug excretion.

(see full question)

You selected:

True

Correct
Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 50.

Question 10:

The patient is a six-year-old who is taking 125 mg of


Amoxicillin every 6 hours. Assuming that the half-life of
Amoxicillin is 3 hours, how much Amoxicillin would be in
the child's body at the time of the next administration of the
drug?

(see full question)

You selected:

31.25 mg

Correct
Explanation:

The half-life of a drug is the time it takes for the amount of


drug in the body to decrease to one-half of the peak level it
previously achieved. Option A would occur at 3 hours af...
(more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in

Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer


Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 51.
Question 11:
(see full question)

You selected:

When drugs are bound to proteins in the blood they can be


transported to different areas of the body. The protein-drug
complex is relatively large and cannot enter into capillaries
and into tissues to react. What must occur for drugs to do
their job in the body?
The drug must be freed from the protein binding site

Correct
Explanation:

Most drugs are bound to some extent to proteins in the


blood to be carried into circulation. The proteindrug
complex is relatively large and cannot ente... (more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 44.

Question 12:
(see full question)

Drugs that are highly lipid soluble are more likely to pass
through the blood-brain barrier and reach the central
nervous system.

You selected:

True

Correct
Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 46.

Question 13:
(see full question)

Only drugs that are lipid soluble or have a transport system


have the ability to:

You selected:

Cross the blood-brain barrier.

Correct
Explanation:

The blood-brain barrier is composed of tight walls, limiting


movement of drug molecules. This barrier makes drug
therapy for the CNS difficult because drug molecules
cannot pass th... (more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 46.

Question 14:

A pharmacology student asks the instructor what an


accurate description of a drug agonist is. What would be
the instructor's best response?

(see full question)

You selected:

A drug that interacts directly with receptor sites to cause


the same activity that a natural chemical would cause at
that site

Correct
Explanation:

Agonists are drugs that produce effects similar to those


produced by naturally occurring neurotransmitters,
hormones, or other substances found in the body. Noncompetitive antago... (more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 53.

Question 15:

A client older than 65 years is more likely to experience


drug reaction than a client younger than 50 years. Which of
the following factors accounts for this developmental
variation?

(see full question)

You selected:

Age-related physiologic changes

Correct
Explanation:

In older adults (65 years and older), physiologic changes


may alter all pharmacokinetic processes. Although drugs
crossing the bloodbrain barrier affect drug reaction, this ...
(more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmcodynamics, p. 47.

Question 16:
(see full question)

You selected:

Which of the following represents a pharmacokinetic


phase? Select all that apply.
Metabolism
Excretion
Distribution
Absorption

Correct
Explanation:

The pharmacokinetic phases are absorption, distribution,


metabolism, and excretion. The acronym A.D.M.E. is a
helpful way to remember to pharmacokinetic phases....
(more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 42.

Question 17:
(see full question)

A nurse is to administer a drug that is loosely bound to


protein. The nurse understands that this would mean which
of the following?

You selected:

The drug will lead to toxicity with other drugs.

Incorrect
Correct response:

The drug will have a short duration of action.

Explanation:

Drugs that are loosely bound to protein act very quickly


and are excreted very quickly. Drugs that are tightly bound
to protein are released very slowly. Drugs that are tightly
bou... (more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, pp. 44-46.

Question 18:

Pharmacotherapeutics is the achievement of the desired


therapeutic goal of drug therapy. What standard does the
FDA apply to a drug for approval?

(see full question)

You selected:
Correct

The drug has to be statistically significantly more effective


than placebo.

Explanation:

If the clinical studies indicate that the effect a drug has on


the desired treatment outcome is statistically significantly
better than that achieved with a placebo (an inactive su...
(more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4:
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 42.

Question 19:
(see full question)

A drug with a half-life of 4 hours is administered at a


dosage of 100 mg. How much of the drug will be in the
patient's system 8 hours after administration?

You selected:

25 mg

Correct
Explanation:

The half-life of a drug is the time it takes for the amount of


drug in the body to decrease to one-half of the peak level it
previously achieved. Option A would occur 2 hours after...
(more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 51.

Question 20:
(see full question)

The route medication must be given to achieve 100%


bioavailability is given:

You selected:

IV.

Correct
Explanation:

Drugs given via the oral route, IM, and sub q routes are
virtually always less than 100% available because some of
the drug is absorbed in the GI or liver before reaching
systemic ... (more)

Reference:

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. Drug Therapy in


Nursing, 4th ed., Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012, Chapter 4,
Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacokinetics, and
Pharmacodynamics, p. 43.