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1692

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008

Transient Capability of Superconducting Devices on Electric Power Systems

Kiruba Sivasubramaniam, Senior Member, IEEE, Tao Zhang, Antonio Caiafa, Xianrui Huang, Minfeng Xu, Member, IEEE, Liang Li, E. T. Laskaris, and J. W. Bray

Abstract—Superconducting devices operating within a power system are expected to go through transient overload conditions during which the superconducting coil has to carry currents above the rated values. Designing the coil to remain superconducting through any possible fault scenario can be cost prohibitive, neces- sitating operation beyond the critical current for short periods. In order to set operating limits and design adequate protection sys- tems for superconducting devices connected to a power system, the region of safe operation of these devices has to be described with general capability curves. Existing standards that define limits for these over-current situations are based on copper winding experience that do not apply to devices with superconducting components because of the highly nonlinear interaction between magnetic fields, operating temperature, and current density in the superconductor, and the rapidly varying material properties at cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, the behavior of supercon- ducting coils during over-currents is discussed and a simplified capability curve is described to help standardize device capabil- ities. These curves are necessary to aid power system designers in appropriately designing the system and associated protection systems.

Index Terms—High-temperature superconductor (HTS) coil, over-current, quench protection, stability criterion, supercon- ducting generator.

TABLE I

ANSI C50.15 THERMAL STABILITY REQUIREMENTS

1692 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Transient Capability of Superconducting

capability [1], [2]. This, unfortunately, is highly dependent on the coil and cooling design, and will not be unique to any given device and current waveform. Mature industries, like the electric utilities, demand general capability curves for devices being hooked up to their system for system design, integration studies, and protection schemes. While a general set of curves is hard to obtain for practical su- perconducting coils, if we recognize that most HTS magnets are conduction cooled with a cryocooler, and the transients of con- cern are short lived [2], then a conservative set of curves can be obtained based on adiabatic operation of each basic conductor type. These curves can be obtained either analytically or empir- ically. In this paper, we describe a format for representing this data, and how to obtain them analytically. This has been vali- dated with some experiments.

I. INTRODUCTION

S UPERCONDUCTING coils are generally designed to be robust against disturbances utilizing one of the following

stability criteria: critical current margin, or cryostability through aggressive cooling. These design practices allow the coil to ac- commodate small disturbances, like those that cause training or spontaneous quenches in low-temperature superconductor mag- nets, but not necessarily for an extended period of normal op- eration. With the advent of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors and operation at significantly higher temper- atures, greater stability is possible due to the increased heat ca- pacity available. The actual level of over-current the coils can withstand is a function of the heat capacity, cooling, and the current/field profile. Several papers discuss how to analyze this

Manuscript received February 18, 2008; revised March 3, 2008. First pub- lished June 27, 2008; current version published September 4, 2008. This paper was recommended by Associate Editor P. Masson. K. Sivasubramaniam, T. Zhang, A. Caiafa, X. Huang, M. Xu, E. T. Laskaris, and J. W. Bray are with the General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY 12309 USA (e-mail: zhangt@research.ge.com). L. Li was with the General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY 12309 USA. He is now with the College of Electrical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430000, China. Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TASC.2008.2000902

II. TRANSIENT REQUIREMENTS

Electrical apparatus for power applications are routinely ex- pected to go through transient fault conditions which can re- sult in significant over-currents compared to steady-state oper- ation. Such transients are rare and short-lived, but may result in a coil quench and thermal run-away [2]. IEEE and ANSI standards give generic specifications for the required short-term current-carrying capability of these devices, which flow down to the superconducting components. For example, the require- ments for the field coil in synchronous generators is shown in Table I [3]. These requirements are generally based on (

1692 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Transient Capability of Superconducting

; ) measurement for the coil capability, and are applicable to apparatus utilizing conventional conductors, such as copper, and operating at around room temperature. At these time-scales, the temperature is determined mainly by the amount of heat dumped into the coil in an adiabatic mode, since cooling is not a significant factor. With an assumption of linear material properties, which is reasonable for conventional con- ductors at these temperatures, the product becomes the lim- iting quantity regardless of the time duration. For superconducting coils, however, the strong coupling be- tween the electromagnetic and thermal conditions, coupled with the highly nonlinear properties at low temperatures means that a simple product cannot be used to gauge the coil capa- bility. The more complex behavior of superconducting coils re- quires a rigorous analysis to qualify the coil for operation under

1692 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Transient Capability of Superconducting
1692 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Transient Capability of Superconducting
1692 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Transient Capability of Superconducting

1051-8223/$25.00 © 2008 IEEE

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al.: TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES

1693

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to
Fig. 1. Data organization relative to an SC coil. Fig. 2. Definition of parameters.
Fig. 1.
Data organization relative to an SC coil.
Fig. 2.
Definition of parameters.

various fault scenarios. Such a model needs to incorporate de- tails of the coil assembly, the cryogenic cooling circuit, joule heating of the wire splices, and heat transfer through radiation and conduction to the rest of the system. Numerical analysis can be performed with these models to see if the coils can satisfy specic over-current proles [1], [2], with the coil returning to the superconducting state at the end of the over-current situa- tion (when it returns to the rated current). In other words, the coil should be equal to or below the current sharing temper- ature, , at the rated current after the over-current incident. While these methods allow us to qualify the coils for specic fault conditions, their general overload capability is not easily compared with other devices in the system. For example, even the two current waveforms have the same values, they will have signicantly different impact on the temperature of the su- perconducting coil. There is, thus, a need for a different way to express the transient capability of superconducting coils.

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to

III. CAPABILITY CURVES

The objective of having the transient capability of supercon- ducting coils organized in a generic manner is to give the de- signer a helpful tool that can help avoid over-sizing the super- conducting coil during the design phase, as well as to provide data for system designers to implement system-wide protection schemes. One way to represent the transient capability of su- perconducting coils is to dene a safe operating area (SOA) for a given coil, in the form of the curves shown in Fig. 1. Given the operating temperature , and the operating current

The objective of having the transient capability of supercon- ducting coils organized in a generic manner
, the quantities mentioned in Fig. 1 are de fi ned as follows, and are represented

, the quantities mentioned in Fig. 1 are dened as follows, and are represented in Fig. 2. The critical current depending both on the local magnetic eld and the operating temper-

, the quantities mentioned in Fig. 1 are de fi ned as follows, and are represented
, the quantities mentioned in Fig. 1 are de fi ned as follows, and are represented
, the quantities mentioned in Fig. 1 are de fi ned as follows, and are represented

ature can be obtained from the look-up table generated by

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to

Fig. 3.

Schematic of conductor cross section.

the measured versus data. The quantity and the quantity . The quantity is calculated as lated
the measured
versus
data. The quantity
and the quantity
. The quantity
is
calculated as
lated as
is calcu-
is the max-
imum time that the coil can support the over-current
and
still being able to return in superconducting state when the cur-
rent falls back to
than
In other words,
.
. Referring to Fig. 1,
is bigger
, and
is bigger than
is bigger than
, and
.
is bigger than

IV. ANALYTICAL MODEL

A numerical transient analysis is used to calculate the Joule heating, the temperature, and the resistance of the coil at every time-step. The current and magnetic eld results are the inputs. During an over-current fault, the current and the magnetic eld of the eld coil may exceed its normal operation values and the conductor becomes normal for a short period of time. Consider superconducting coils using the HTS conductor, like that from the American Superconductor Corporation. The conductor con- tains mainly BSCCO, silver, PbSn solder, and stainless steel. A schematic of a typical HTS BSCCO conductor is shown in Fig. 3. During over-current situations, with a given current through the HTS tape, , a portion of it, , will go through the super- conducting component while the remaining, , through the silver matrix. The resulting voltage across a unit length of the tape can be obtained from the superconductors characteristic as

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to

(1)

where V/m is the regular constant to dene the crit-

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to

ical current of HTS material, the critical current, and is usually a large number between 10 and 20 depending on the quality of HTS materials. Apparently, the same voltage will ap- pear across a unit length of the silver matrix, therefore, the cur- rent through the silver can be obtained from Ohms law as

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to

(2)

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to

where and are, respectively, the electric resistivity and cross section area of the silver substrate contained in the tape. Considering the current sharing, i.e., , (1) and (2) can be combined to solve for and for any oper- ating current during the over-current situations, and the total heat generation rate per unit length can be simply calculated as

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to

. The high nonlinearity of (1) makes the explicit solu- tion impossible. A simplication can be made, however, by as-

suming a very high -value such that the current through the su-

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1693 Fig. 1. Data organization relative to

perconducting component remains constant as for all .

In this case, the voltage drop across the HTS tape depends on

1694

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008

1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities

Fig. 4.

Heat capacities as a function of temperatures.

the silver matrix as per unit length can be estimated as

1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities

and the total Joule losses

1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities

(3)

In case that the operating current is less than the critical cur-

rent, i.e.,

1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities

, the total Joule losses can be simply estimated

by the losses in the superconducting component only

1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities

(4)

Knowing the losses, a simple time-stepping model under ideal adiabatic conditions can be implemented on a spreadsheet as follows:

1)

Select coil temperature, and operating current/eld and ini-

tialize model. 2) Look-up (or interpolate) critical current based on mea- sured data of critical current versus temperature and eld data. In most power applications, the peak eld is domi- nated by the self-eld of the coil, and the eld has to be

1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities

3)

scaled by the coil current as it goes through the over-cur- rent pulse. Compare the local coil temperature with the critical tem- perature, , which is a function of the local magnetic eld

(
(
1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities

. When

  • , the heat generation

per unit length can be obtained from either (3) or (4) de-

pending on the operating current. Here, is a function of local magnetic eld and temperature , and

1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities
1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities

is based on the measured curve of the HTS

tape. When

1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities

, there is no current sharing and all the

current will go through the silver matrix, therefore, the heat

generation can be calculated as

1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities

(5)

1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities

Fig. 5. 50% over-current pulses with different duration resulting in (a) recovery

(shown on the top with pulse duration s); and (b) thermal runaway (shown

on the bottom with pulse duration s).

It should be noted that, in this step, the local magnet eld

1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities
and temperature defined as are functions of both time and location and . 4) Compute temperature
and temperature
defined as
are functions of both time and location
and
.
4) Compute temperature rise using heat-load from above
and heat capacity of conductor obtained by summing up
temperature-dependent heat capacities of the constituent
materials. The data used for our analysis are shown in the
Fig. 4.

5) Update temperature and progress to the next time step. The

critical pulse duration is the time at which the operating

1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities
1694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. Heat capacities

current is equal to the critical current at the end of the pulse. Fig. 5 below shows typical results for an over-current pulse. On the top, the coil temperature rises from 36 K to 41.5 K for a 50% over-current (normal operating current of 125 A and

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al.: TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES

1695

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1695 Fig. 6. Capability curve from analytical
Fig. 6. Capability curve from analytical model. Fig. 7. Long over-current pulse with 40% over-current. over-current
Fig. 6.
Capability curve from analytical model.
Fig. 7.
Long over-current pulse with 40% over-current.
over-current of 187.5 A) lasting just under 6 s. After the pulse,
the operating current returns to below the critical current
and the coil can continue operating indefinitely. If the over-cur-
rent pulse lasts any longer, as shown on the bottom of the figure,
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1695 Fig. 6. Capability curve from analytical
SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1695 Fig. 6. Capability curve from analytical

would be greater than at the end of the pulse, so the coil continues heating up and can thermally run way without suf- cient cooling. A set of such analyses can be performed to generate the ca- pability curves described in Section IV. Fig. 6 shows the curves for a coil operated at 55 K and under a 6-T background mag- netic eld. To illustrate why such detailed capability curves are impor- tant, consider another over-current pulse as shown in Fig. 7. Compared to the pulses in Fig. 5, it has the same normal oper- ating current of 125 A, but a lower level over-current of 175 A,

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1695 Fig. 6. Capability curve from analytical

Fig. 8. Two typical temperature proles under over-current pulses (top: coil recovers; bottom: coil thermally runs away).

i.e., 40% over-current, and a much longer duration of 38 s. This pulse raises the coil temperature from 36 K to 37 K, and the coil recovers to the superconducting state after the pulse. This is in spite of the fact that the product of this transient pulse is four times that of the short pulse on the top of Fig. 5.

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1695 Fig. 6. Capability curve from analytical
  • V. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION

To verify the analytical predictions and conrm that it is pos- sible to organize data as shown in Fig. 1, a series of tests on an HTS superconductive coil were performed. The purpose of this set of measurements is to determine the maximum time that an over-current can be sustained by the coil and still be able to

reenter the superconducting state when the current goes back to the operating conditions (see Fig. 2). The known parameters are the normal operating current, the initial temperature, the mag-

netic eld, and the current overshoot. Figs. 8 and 9 show a few sets of measurements. The tests proceeded as follows: the value of the operating cur- rent is set, and a single pulse of current is superimposed on the operating current. The temperature is monitored. If, at the end of the pulse, the temperature starts to decrease immediately (as shown on the top of Fig. 8), the test is repeated with a pulse of the same amplitude but increased duration. If, at the end of the pulse, the temperature still rises (as shown on the bottom of Fig. 8), the measurement is repeated with the same pulse am- plitude but decreased duration. If, at the end of the pulse the

1696

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008

1696 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 9. Coil at

Fig. 9.

Coil at the limit of thermal run away.

1696 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 9. Coil at

Fig. 11.

Temperature versus time for test coil.

Fig.

1696 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 9. Coil at
10. Measured capability curve for coil having critical current A.
10.
Measured
capability
curve
for
coil
having
critical
current
A.

temperature tends to stay constant (as shown in Fig. 9), the du- ration of the pulse is recorded as the maximum duration of the pulse current the coil can support and still be able to reenter the superconductive state. Once the maximum pulse duration is determined, one of the known parameters is changed and the de- scribed procedure is repeated. The parameter values kept constant are: magnetic eld at 6 T, and initial temperature at 55 K. The critical current of the coil under these conditions is 46.5 A. The parameters modied are the operating current (or base current), and the amplitude and duration of the over-current pulse. These data, plotted according the procedure indicated above, are shown in Fig. 10. It can be seen that the data measured are consistent with what was ex- pected (Fig. 6). But the test coil has much higher capability than the predictions under adiabatic conditions. This discrepancy is mainly because of the way the test coil was cooled. In the ex- periment, the coil was placed inside a liquid helium dewar with a certain distance above the liquid level. The convection of cold helium gas keep the coil cool, and a temperature controller was used to drive a heater so that the coil temperature can be main- tained constant. Right before the over-current pulse was applied,

however, the temperature controller had to be turned OFF other- wise it will try to adjust the heater output to control the coil tem- perature at constant. This apparently resulted in an extra cooling effect during the over-current pulse, compared to the adiabatic condition. As shown in Fig. 11, the coil temperature was kept constant at 50 K before s. After that, the temperature controller was turned OFF, and the coil temperature immediately dropped, indicating a signicant cooling effect.

1696 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 9. Coil at
1696 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2008 Fig. 9. Coil at

VI. CONCLUSION

This work proves that superconducting coils can be safely op- erated for a limited amount of time outside the superconducting state in a reliable, repeatable manner, as long as operation is lim- ited to a well-dened safe operating region. Dening this SOA in the form of simple, yet conservative, capability curves as de- scribed in this paper can be useful in designing system-wide re- laying and protection. These results are important because they can be used to dramatically reduce the size of superconducting coils, while maintaining the reliability required in mature indus- tries. This generic SOA establishes the minimum over-current capability for electrical devices using HTS conductors. In elec- trical devices in which the cooling is signicant, the capability can be higher, as demonstrated in the tests described above. En- gineers can take advantage of the increased capability based on the condence in the cooling conditions.

REFERENCES

[1] A. Ishiyama and H. Asai, A stability criterion for cryocooler-cooled HTS coils,IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 18321835, Mar. 2001.

[2] K. Sivasubramaniam, X. Huang, E. T. Laskaris, T. Zhang, J. W. Bray, J. M. Forgarty, and R. A. Nold, Performance of an HTS generator eld coil under system fault conditions,IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 19711975, Dec. 2006.

[3]

American National Standard Requirements for Synchronous Machines,

ANSI Standard C50. [4] J. W. Lue, M. S. Lubell, D. Aized, J. M. Campbell, and R. E. Schwall, Spontaneous quenches of a high temperature superconducting pan- cake coil,IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 26132616, Jul. 1996.

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al.: TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES

1697

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1697 Kiruba Sivasubramaniam (S ’ 96 –

Kiruba Sivasubramaniam (S96A00M02SM05) received the B.S. degree in electronic and electrical engineering, from Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria, and the Ph.D. degree in electric power engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, in 2000. He works in the Electromagnetics and Super- conductivity Laboratory, General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY. Kirubas recent research activities include the development of ad- vanced superconducting generators, next-generation MRI magnets, and other electromagnetic equipment. He is currently the lead technologist for a high-power density superconducting multimegawatt generator for the AFRL.

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1697 Kiruba Sivasubramaniam (S ’ 96 –

Tao Zhang received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in power and energy engineering from Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, and the Ph. D. degree in me- chanical engineering from Florida State University, in 2004. He is currently working at the Electromag- netics and Superconductivity Laboratory, General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY. His research interests include the development and research on advanced cryogenic technologies and the applications of superconductivity, e.g., superconducting high-power density generators, MRI magnets, and other electromagnetic devices. He has published over 20 peer-reviewed technical papers.

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1697 Kiruba Sivasubramaniam (S ’ 96 –

Antonio Caiafa received the Laurea degree in elec- trical engineering from the Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy, in 1999, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from University of South Carolina, Columbia, in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In 2000, he joined the R&D group of ST Mi- croelectronics as a Simulation Software Developer. Since October 2004, he has been a Lead Engineer in the Electronic Power Conversion Laboratory, Gen- eral Electric Research Center, Niskayuna, NY. His main interests are semiconductor device modeling and characterization, soft-switching topologies, and high voltage applications.

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1697 Kiruba Sivasubramaniam (S ’ 96 –

Liang Li received the B.Sc. degree in electrical en- gineering from Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, China, in 1985, and the M.Eng. degree in fusion engineering from the Plasma Physics Institute, Chinese Academy of Science, in 1988. He received the Ph.D. degree from Kathlieke University Leuven, Belgium, in 1998. From 1988 to 1991, he was a Research Scientist developing electromagnets for fusion research with the Plasma Physics Institute, Chinese Academy of Science. From 1997 to 2000, he was an Associate Re- searcher with the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), Talla- hassee, FL, engaging high eld pulsed magnet development. He succeeded in the development of a pulsed magnet reaching 78.8 T nondestructively. From October 2000 to April 2007, he was a Senior Electrical Engineer with Gen- eral Electric Global Research Center (GE GRC). His research areas are pulsed magnets, permanent magnetic (PM) and superconducting MRI, high-tempera- ture superconducting generator, and wind generator. In April 2007, he joined Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, China, as a Professor in the Electrical Engineering College, where he is the Director of the Pulsed High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the General Manager of the National Big Science Projectof Pulsed High Magnetic Field Facility. He is the author and coauthor of more than 55 publications. He is the holder of three patents.

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1697 Kiruba Sivasubramaniam (S ’ 96 –
  • E. T. Laskaris received the M.S. degree in mechan-

ical engineering, and the Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, in 1971 and 1974, respectively. He joined the General Electric (GE) Large Steam Turbine Generator Department in 1967, and trans- ferred to GE Corporate Research and Development in 1973. He held several technical leadership and management positions related to applied research in superconductivity and was responsible for several technology developments including: a 20 MVA superconducting generator, 0.51.5 T superconducting MRI magnet prototypes for the GE Signa magnetic resonance imaging products, 0.7 and 1.2 T open MRI magnets for diagnostic and interventional applications, and the technology of cryogen-free, conduction-cooled superconducting magnets for image-guided therapy. Dr. Laskaris was elected to the National Academy of Engineers in 2004.

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1697 Kiruba Sivasubramaniam (S ’ 96 –

Xianrui Huang received the B.S. degree in mechan- ical engineering from the Nanjing Aeronautical Insti- tute, Nanjing, China, in 1975, and the Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Wis- consin-Madison, in 1984. His research activities are focused on the develop- ment and application of superconducting magnetic resonance imaging systems and other electric de- vices. He has written over 50 technical papers and has been awarded over 32 patents.

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1697 Kiruba Sivasubramaniam (S ’ 96 –

Minfeng Xu (M06) received the B.S. degree in elec- trical engineering from Nanjing University, China, in 1982, and the Ph.D. degree in physics from the Uni- versity of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, in 1990. He worked in the elds of condensed matter physics and ultra-low temperature research, and in the design and engineering of power electronics and superconducting magnets for high-energy physics and utility applications. He is currently a Senior Scientist in General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY. His research areas include the de- velopment of superconducting magnets and systems for magnetic resonance imaging and for other applications.

SIVASUBRAMANIAM et al. : TRANSIENT CAPABILITY OF SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES 1697 Kiruba Sivasubramaniam (S ’ 96 –
  • J. W. Bray received the B.S. degree in physics

from Georgia Institute of Technology, in 1970. He received the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the University of Illinois, in 1971 and 1974, respectively. While at Illinois, he worked under Professor John Bardeen on unusual mechanisms for superconductivity.

He joined General Electric Corporate Research and Development after graduation in September, 1974. He has held several technical and management positions supervising R&D on various physical science topics, biotechnology, electronic materials processing (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition), electronic devices, electronic packaging, and high-temperature superconductivity.