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KHAIRUL IMRAN BIN SAINAN

T1-14-6A
03-55432863
013-3153413

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTERS

COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
TURBOMACHINERY
THE DIFFERENTIAL APPROACH TO FLOW ANALYSIS
POTENTIAL FLOW
FLOW PAST IMMERSED BODIES

CO1
[PO1, LO1] {C3}

CO2
[PO3, LO3,SS1] {C4}

CO3
[PO3, LO3,SS1] {C4}

Express differential form of conservation

equations which describe fluid motion

physical domain

Compose solutions for the mathematical

models and deduce appropriate results for
the physical domain

Contd

CO4
[PO10, LO7,SS5]
{P4,A3}

Complete investigative assignment on

selection of physical problem and solutions
scheme

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CHAPTER CONTENTS
Review of thermodynamics principles
One dimensional compressible flows
Stagnation properties
Speed of sound & Mach No.
One dimensional isentropic flows
Variation of fluid velocity with change of area
Isentropic flows through nozzles
- converging nozzles
- converging diverging nozzles

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WHAT IS?
Flows involve significant density variations: compressible
flow
Deals with high velocity of fluid motions
Involve thermodynamics properties fundamentals
Considers the effect of kinetic energy which cannot be
neglected
Potential energy may still negligible

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ASSUMPTIONS
Analyzing in one dimensional sense
Ideal gas
Constant specific heat

External Flows

Internal Flows

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Pressure (P), denstiy () and temperature (T) are related
into:
kg/m3

(1)
Pressure

Kelvin

Static Enthalpy

(2)
Internal
energy

(3)

Differentiate,
(4)

The internal energy may express as a function of 2

independent properties
m3/kg
where

Therefore,
(5)

(6)

Constant
volume

(7)

Meanwhile enthalpy is a function of 2 properties:

Differentiate ,
(8)
Specific heat of constant pressure:
(9)

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Combine (9) into (8)

Constant
pressure

(10)

Combine (10) & (7) into (4)

(11)
Assume constant temperature:
(12)

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Specific heat ratio:
(13)

Therefore,

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Stagnation Process:
Define as the process when the fluid is stagnated or brought
to stop which is V = 0

The properties of a fluid at the stagnation state are called

stagnation properties (stagnation temperature, stagnation
pressure, stagnation density, etc.).

Enthalpy represents the total energy of fluid in absence of

kinetics & potential energies (1st Law of Thermodynamics)
At high speed flows the potential energy may neglected
however the kinetics energy must be considered
Combination of enthalpy and KE is called stagnation
enthalpy (or total enthalpy)
Static enthalpy

KE

(kJ/kg)
Stagnation
enthalpy

(1)

The actual state, actual stagnation

state, and isentropic stagnation
state of a fluid on an h-s diagram.

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a duct (no shaft work, heat
transfer) Q = 0
equations becomes:
Stagnation enthalpy:
Not applicable if turbine
and compressor is exist.

If no heat and work involves in the system

the stagnation enthalpy is constant

What happen if we consider V2=0

Stagnation enthalpy:
The enthalpy of a fluid
isentropically brought
to rest or V = 0.

During this process (stagnation), the kinetic energy

of a fluid is converted to enthalpy, which results in an
increase in the fluid temperature and pressure.

Assume ideal gas and constant specific heat

(2)
Combine (2) into (1)
(3)
Stagnation
Temperature

Static
Temperature

Dynamic Temperature

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Stagnation (or total) temperature T0 : It represents the
temperature an ideal gas attains when it is brought to rest adiabatically.
Dynamic temperature: V2/2cp : corresponds to the
temperature rise during such a process.

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The pressure of fluid attains when brought to rest
isentropically called as stagnation pressure
Stagnation
Pressure

Dynamic Pressure

Static
Pressure

Dynamic pressure: V2 : corresponds to the pressure rise

during such a process.

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For Ideal Gas, based on isentropic process the stagnation
process:

Similarly for stagnation density:

IMPORTANT:
-Stagnation enthalpy and stagnation temperature will never be change as long as
no heat and work transfer across the system boundaries
- However stagnation pressure may change

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Stagnation pressure may change

P0 Change

The stagnation pressure may

change due to friction, pressure
losses which is irreversible
The process is considered as
non-isentropic process

The actual state, actual stagnation

state, and isentropic stagnation
state of a fluid on an h-s diagram.

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Air at 320K is flowing in a duct at a
velocity (a) 1 , (b) 10, and (c) 100 m/s.

Determine the readings of the thermometer

= 1.005 kJ/kgK

Solutions:
Assumptions: The stagnation process is isentropic
Analysis: The air that strikes the probe will be brought to a
complete stop thus undergo stagnation process. Thermometer
sense this stagnated air which is stagnation temperature, T0
(a) = 320.0 K
(b) = 320.1K
(c) = 325 K

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Calculate the stagnation temperature and pressure for
(a) Helium at 0.25 MPa, 500C and 240 m/s
= 5.1926 kJ/kgK

k = 1.667

(a) Steam at 0.1 MPa, 3500C and 480 m/s

= 1.865 kJ/kgK

k = 1.329

Solutions:
Assumptions: The stagnation process is isentropic and Steam
and Helium are ideal gas

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Speed of sound is pressure wave which travel through a
medium
For an ideal gas, the speed of sound:
Temperature

1.4

Mach No:

287 J/kgK
Sonic
Subsonic
Supersonic

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Area and Mach No relation.
Derivation

what is ? significance ?

(1)

(2)

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Step 3: In steady flow; W, Q, KE and PE assume as 0
or

(3)

Step 4: From 2nd Gibbs equation of entropy

(4)
Step 5: In isentropic flows, Tds = 0; Therefore,

since

(5)

Step 6: Combine (5) into (3)

(6)
Step 7: Combine (6) into (2)

(7)
Step 8: Since,

(8)

Step 9: Combine (8) into (7)

(9)
Step 10: Eqn. 9 can be arrange into
(10)

Finally
(11)
This equation governs the subsonic and supersonic flows for both diffusers and
nozzles

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Conclusion:
(Subsonic)
(Supersonic)
(Sonic)
To accelerate fluid, converging nozzles is needed if the flow
is subsonic and diverging nozzles if the flow is supersonic
In converging nozzles highest velocity is sonic
In Converging-diverging nozzles is needed to accelerate
fluid to supersonic

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In Summary:
1. For Converging nozzle:

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2. Flow properties in nozzles and diffusers

-Nozzle function: to increase the velocity

-Diffuser function: to reduce the velocity

When Mat = 1, the properties at the nozzle

throat become the critical properties.

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ISENTROPIC FLOW THROUGH converging NOZZLES

Effect of Pb on converging nozzle

Mass flow rate through a nozzle

The variation of the mass flow rate through

a nozzle with inlet stagnation properties.
The effect of back pressure Pb on the
mass flow rate and the exit pressure Pe
of a converging nozzle.

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Relation between flow area A throughout nozzle and throat area A*

Relation between flow area Ma throughout nozzle and throat area A*

Ma* is the local velocity
nondimensionalized with respect
to the sonic velocity at the throat.
Ma is the local velocity
nondimensionalized with respect
to the local sonic velocity.
Table A-13

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IMPORTANT:
-In order to achieve supersonic Mach. No; converging-diverging nozzle is needed
with correct back pressure Pb
-Converging nozzle only gives Mach No. = 1
-Diverging nozzle alone will not attains the supersonic velocity.
At Converging nozzle: A decrease; P decrease; T decrease; decrease; V increase;
Ma increase
At Throat: critical-pressure value occurs (Ma = 1)
At Diverging nozzle: A increase; P decrease; T decrease; decrease; V increase;
Ma increase

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Tutorial 1
Air enters a converging diverging nozzle at 800 kPa with
specific heat ratio of k = 1.4. Determine the pressure at the
throat area.

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Tutorial 2
Solve the exit velocity for the nozzle shown:
Assume isentropic flow

T1 = 350K P1 = 1 MPa
P2 = 100kPa

Mat = 1
k = 1.4

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Tutorial 3
Quiescent carbon dioxide at a given inlet temperature of 400K
and pressure of 1.2MPa is accelerated at Mach No. 0.6.

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Tutorial 4
Helium enters a converging diverging nozzle at temperature of
800K , velocity of 100 m/s and pressure 0.7MPa.

Determine the lowest temperature and pressure at the throat

Assume k = 1.667 and Cp = 5.1926 kJ/kgK

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Tutorial 1
Determine the air speed of a scramjet engine at Mach No. 7
with air temperature of -200C

R = 0.287 kJ/kgK

k =1.4

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Normal shock waves: The shock waves that occur in a plane
normal to the direction of flow. The flow process through the
shock wave is highly irreversible.

is supersonic

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Conservation of mass
Area is same because NS
occurs within thin line

Conservation of energy

Conservation of momentum

Increase of entropy

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Fanno line:
Combining the conservation of mass
and energy relations into a single
equation and plotting it on an h-s
diagram yield a curve. It is the locus
of states that have the same value
of stagnation enthalpy and mass
flux.

Rayleigh line:
Combining the conservation of mass
and momentum equations into a
single equation and plotting it on the
h-s diagram yield a curve.

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The relations between various properties before and after the shock for an ideal gas
with constant specific heats
downstream

upstream

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When the space shuttle travels at supersonic speeds through the atmosphere, it
produces a complicated shock pattern consisting of inclined shock waves called
oblique shocks.
Some portions of an oblique shock are curved, while other portions are straight.

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Turbomachines: Pumps and turbines in which energy is supplied or extracted by a
rotating shaft.
The words turbomachine and turbomachinery are often used in the literature to
refer to all types of pumps and turbines regardless of whether they utilize a rotating
shaft or not.
OBJECTIVES:

Identify various types of pumps and turbines, and understand how

they work
Apply dimensional analysis to design new pumps or turbines that are
geometrically similar to existing pumps or turbines
Perform basic vector analysis of the flow into and out of pumps and
turbines
Use specific speed for preliminary design and selection of pumps
and turbines

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Pumps:
-Energy absorbing devices
-energy is supplied
-transfer energy to the fluid
-the increase in fluid energy is
felt as increase in pressure of
the fluid.
Turbines:
-Energy producing devices
-extract energy from fluid
-transfer that energy to
mechanical output
-The fluid at outlet suffers an
energy loss in the form of a
loss of pressure.

The purpose of a pump is to add

energy to a fluid, resulting in an
increase in fluid pressure, not
necessarily an increase of fluid
speed across the pump.

The purpose of a turbine is to

extract energy from a fluid,
resulting in a decrease of fluid
pressure, not necessarily a
decrease of fluid speed across
the turbine.

mass flow out = mass flow in
For incompressible flow,
Dout = Din, Vout = Vin, but Pout > Pin.

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When used with gases, pumps are called fans, blowers, or compressors, depending
on the relative values of pressure rise and volume flow rate.

Fan: relatively low pressure rise and high flow rate. Examples include ceiling fans,
house fans, and propellers.
Blower: relatively moderate to high pressure rise and moderate to high flow rate.
Examples include centrifugal blowers and squirrel cage blowers in automobile
ventilation systems, furnaces, and leaf blowers.
Compressor: designed to deliver a very high pressure rise, typically at low to
moderate flow rates. Examples include air compressors that run pneumatic tools and
inflate tires at automobile service stations, and refrigerant compressors used in heat
pumps, refrigerators, and air conditioners.

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Fluid machines may also be broadly classified as either positive-displacement
machines or dynamic machines, based on the manner in which energy transfer
occurs.
In positive-displacement machines: Fluid is directed into a closed volume. Energy
transfer to the fluid is accomplished by movement of the boundary of the closed
volume, causing the volume to expand or contract, thereby sucking fluid in or
squeezing fluid out, respectively.
Dynamic machines: There is no closed volume; instead, rotating blades supply or
extract energy to or from the fluid.
For pumps, these rotating blades are called impeller blades, while for turbines, the
Examples of dynamic pumps include enclosed pumps and ducted pumps and
open pumps.
Examples of dynamic turbines include enclosed turbines, such as the
hydroturbine that extracts energy from water in a hydroelectric dam, and open
turbines such as the wind turbine that extracts energy from the wind.

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-The mass flow rate of fluid through the pump is an obvious primary pump performance
parameter.
-For incompressible flow, it is more common to use volume flow rate rather than mass
flow rate.
-In the turbomachinery industry, volume flow rate is called capacity and is simply mass
flow rate divided by fluid density,

-The performance of a pump is characterized additionally by its net head H,

defined as the change in Bernoulli head between the inlet and outlet of the pump:

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For the case in which a liquid is being pumped,
the Bernoulli head at the inlet is equivalent to
the energy grade line at the inlet.

The net head of a pump, H, is defined as the

change in Bernoulli head from inlet to outlet;
for a liquid, this is equivalent to the change in
the energy grade line, H = EGLout - EGLin,
relative to some arbitrary datum plane; bhp is
the brake horsepower, the external power
supplied to the pump.

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1. Pump performance VS Piping Requirement

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Free delivery: Max volume flow rate when its net head is zero, H = 0
Shutoff head: The net head when the volume flow rate is zero which achieved when the outlet port
is blocked off. H is large but V is zero; the pumps efficiency is zero
Best Efficiency Point (BEP): Max efficiency & notated by an asterisk (H*, bhp*, etc.).
Pump Performance Curves (or characteristic curves): Curves of H, pump, and bhp as functions of
volume flow rate.
Operating point or duty point of the system: In a typical application, Hrequired and Havailable match at
one unique value of flow ratethis is the operating point or duty point of the system.
For steady conditions, a pump can operate only along its performance curve.

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2. Impeller Dia. VS Piping Requirement

It is common practice in the pump industry to offer

several choices of impeller diameter for a single
pump casing.
(1) reduce manufacturing costs
(2) increase capacity by simple impeller replacement
(3) to standardize installation mountings
(4) reuse of equipment for a different application

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3. Cavitations & Net Positive Suction Head
Local pressure fall below the vapor
pressure of the liquid, Pv.
When P < Pv, vapor-filled bubbles
called cavitation bubbles appear.
The difference between the pumps

The volume flow rate at which the actual

NPSH and the required NPSH intersect
represents the maximum flow rate that
can be delivered by the pump without
the occurrence of cavitation.

Required net positive suction head (NPSHrequired): The minimum NPSH

necessary to avoid cavitation in the pump.

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4. Pumps Configuration

-At low values volume flow rate, Hcombined = H1 + H2 + H3

-However individual pump must be bypassed if the volume flow rate is running larger
than the design free delivery flow rate

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4. Pumps Configuration

-At high values volume flow rate, Qcombined = Q1 + Q2 + Q3

-However individual pump must be bypassed if the system is running larger than the

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to the fluid.
-Sometimes called rotodynamic pumps or simply rotary pumps.
-Rotary pumps are classified by the manner in which flow exits the pump:
(a) centrifugal flow, (b) mixed flow and (c) axial flow

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Centrifugal-flow Pump:
Fluid enters axially (in the same direction as the axis of the rotating shaft) in the
center of the pump, but is discharged radially (or tangentially) along the outer
radius of the pump casing. Centrifugal pumps are also called radial-flow pumps.
Axial-flow Pump:
Fluid enters and leaves axially, typically along the outer portion of the pump
because of blockage by the shaft, motor, hub, etc.

Mixed-flow Pump:
Intermediate between centrifugal and axial, with the flow entering axially, not
necessarily in the center, but leaving at some angle between radially and
axially.

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r1 and r2 as the radial locations of the impeller blade inlet and outlet
b1 and b2 are the axial blade widths at the impeller blade inlet and outlet

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-V1, n and V2, n are defined as average normal (radial) components of velocity at radii r1 and r2.

-Absolute velocity vectors of the fluid are shown as bold arrows. It is assumed that the
flow is everywhere tangent to the blade surface when viewed from a reference frame
rotating with the blade, as indicated by the relative velocity vectors.

X1
V1, t
X2

X1
V1, t
X2

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Euler turbomachine equation:

Shaft Torque:

-impeller blades behave more like the wing of an airplane

-producing lift by changing the momentum of the fluid as they rotate.
-lift force on the blade is caused by pressure differences between the top and
bottom surfaces of the blade, and the change in flow direction leads to downwash
(a column of descending air) through the rotor plane.
-From a time-averaged perspective, there is a pressure jump across the rotor
plane that induces a downward airflow.

-Unlike centrifugal fans, brake horsepower tends to

decrease with flow rate.

-The efficiency curve leans more to the right

-Efficiency drops rapidly at higher volume flow rates
beyond the BEP.
-The net head curve also decreases continuously with
flow rate

-If head requirements not important, propeller fans is operated beyond BEP to achieve higher
volume flow rates.
-Since bhp decreases at high values of flow rate, there is not a power penalty when the fan is
run at high flow rates. For this reason it is tempting to install a slightly undersized fan and push
it beyond its best efficiency point.
-At the other extreme, if operated below its maximum efficiency point, the flow may be noisy
and unstable, which indicates that the fan may be oversized.
-It is usually best to run a propeller fan at, or slightly above, its maximum efficiency point.

(a) Tube-axial fan

(b) A second rotor rotates opposite direction
called a counter-rotating axial-flow fan
upstream or downstream of the rotating
impeller.

106

Dimensional analysis is useful for

scaling two geometrically similar
pumps. If all the dimensionless
pump parameters of pump A are
equivalent to those of pump B, the
two pumps are dynamically similar.

When plotted in terms of dimensionless

pump parameters, the performance curves
of all pumps in a family of geometrically
similar pumps collapse onto one set of
nondimensional pump performance curves.
Values at the best efficiency point are
indicated by asterisks.

When a small-scale model is

tested to predict the performance
of a full-scale prototype pump,
the measured efficiency of the
model is typically somewhat
lower than that of the prototype.
Empirical correction equations
such as Eq. 1434 have been
developed to account for the
improvement of pump efficiency
with pump size.

108

Pump specific speed is used to characterize the

operation of a pump at its optimum conditions
(best efficiency point) and is useful for
preliminary pump selection and/or design.

109

Conversions between the dimensionless,

conventional U.S., and conventional
European definitions of pump specific
speed. Numerical values are given to four
significant digits. The conversions for
NSp,US assume standard earth gravity.

Maximum efficiency as a function of

pump specific speed for the three
main types of dynamic pump. The
horizontal scales show
nondimensional pump specific speed
(NSp), pump specific speed in
customary U.S. Units (NSp, US), and
pump specific speed in customary
European units (NSp, Eur).

Affinity Laws
Equations 1438 apply to both pumps and
turbines.
States A and B can be any two homologous
states between any two geometrically
similar turbomachines, or even between two
homologous states of the same machine.
Examples include changing rotational
speed or pumping a different fluid with the
same pump.

111

TURBINES
The rotating part of a hydroturbine is called the runner.
When the working fluid is water, the turbomachines are called hydraulic turbines or
hydroturbines.
When the working fluid is air, and energy is extracted from the wind, the machine is
called a wind turbine.
Most people use the word windmill to describe any wind turbine, whether used to
grind grain, pump water, or generate electricity.
The turbomachines that convert energy from the steam into mechanical energy of a
rotating shaft are called steam turbines.
Turbines that employ a compressible gas as the working fluid is gas turbine.

112

Positive-Displacement Turbines

A positive-displacement turbine may be thought

of as a positive-displacement pump running
backwardas fluid pushes into a closed volume,
it turns a shaft or displaces a reciprocating rod.
The closed volume of fluid is then pushed out as
more fluid enters the device.
There is a net head loss through the positivedisplacement turbine; energy is extracted from
the flowing fluid and is turned into mechanical
energy.
However, positive-displacement turbines are
generally not used for power production, but
rather for flow rate or flow volume measurement.

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Dynamic Turbines
Dynamic turbines are used both as flow measuring devices and as power generators.
Hydroturbines utilize the large elevation change across a dam to generate electricity, and
wind turbines generate electricity from blades rotated by the wind. There are two basic
types of dynamic turbineimpulse and reaction.
Impulse turbines require a higher head, but can operate with a smaller volume flow rate.
Reaction turbines can operate with much less head, but require a higher volume flow
rate.

114

Impulse Turbines
In an impulse turbine, the fluid is sent
through a nozzle so that most of its
available mechanical energy is converted
into kinetic energy.
The high-speed jet then impinges on
bucket-shaped vanes that transfer energy
to the turbine shaft.
The modern and most efficient type of
impulse turbine is Pelton turbine and the
rotating wheel is now called a Pelton
wheel.

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116

Reaction Turbines
The other main type of energy-producing
hydroturbine is the reaction turbine, which
consists of fixed guide vanes called stay vanes,
adjustable guide vanes called wicket gates, and
Flow enters tangentially at high pressure, is
turned toward the runner by the stay vanes as it
moves along the spiral casing or volute, and
then passes through the wicket gates with a
large tangential velocity component.
A reaction turbine differs significantly
from an impulse turbine; instead of
using water jets, a volute is filled with
swirling water that drives the runner.
For hydroturbine applications, the axis
is typically vertical. Top and side views
are shown, including the fixed stay

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Reaction Turbines
There are two main types of reaction turbineFrancis and Kaplan.
The Francis turbine is somewhat similar in geometry to a centrifugal or mixed-flow
pump, but with the flow in the opposite direction.

The Kaplan turbine is somewhat like an axial-flow fan running backward.

We classify reaction turbines according to the angle that the flow enters the runner. If
the flow enters the runner radially, the turbine is called a Francis radial-flow turbine.
If the flow enters the runner at some angle between radial and axial, the turbine is
called a Francis mixed-flow turbine. The latter design is more common.
Some hydroturbine engineers use the term Francis turbine only when
there is a band on the runner. Francis turbines are most suited for heads that lie
between the high heads of Pelton wheel turbines and the low heads of Kaplan turbines.
A typical large Francis turbine may have 16 or more runner blades and can achieve a
turbine efficiency of 90 to 95 percent.
If the runner has no band, and flow enters the runner partially turned, it is called a
propeller mixed-flow turbine or simply a mixed-flow turbine. Finally, if the flow is turned
completely axially before entering the runner, the turbine is called an axial-flow turbine.

118

Kaplan turbines are called double regulated because the flow rate is controlled in two
waysby turning the wicket gates and by adjusting the pitch on the runner blades.
Propeller turbines are nearly identical to Kaplan turbines except that the blades are
fixed (pitch is not adjustable), and the flow rate is regulated only by the wicket gates
(single regulated).
Compared to the Pelton and Francis turbines, Kaplan turbines and propeller turbines
are most suited for low head, high volume flow rate conditions.
Their efficiencies rival those of Francis turbines and may be as high as 94 percent.

Relative and absolute velocity

vectors and geometry for the
outer radius of the runner of a
Francis turbine. Absolute velocity
vectors are bold.

Relative and absolute velocity vectors

and geometry for the inner radius of
the runner of a Francis turbine.
Absolute velocity vectors are bold.

120

Typical setup and terminology for a hydroelectric plant

that utilizes a Francis turbine to generate electricity;
drawing not to scale. The Pitot probes are shown for
illustrative purposes only.
The net head of a turbine is defined as the difference
between the energy grade line just upstream of the turbine
and the energy grade line at the exit of the draft tube.

121

By definition, efficiency must

always be less than unity.
The efficiency of a turbine is
the reciprocal of the
efficiency of a pump.

(a) An aerial view of Hoover Dam and (b) the top

(visible) portion of several of the parallel electric
generators driven by hydraulic turbines at Hoover
Dam.

122

The main variables used for

dimensional analysis of a turbine.
The characteristic turbine diameter
D is typically either the runner
diameter Drunner or the discharge
diameter Ddischarge.

123

In practice, hydroturbine engineers

generally find that the actual increase in
efficiency from model to prototype is only
about two-thirds of the increase given by
this equation.

Dimensional analysis is useful for

scaling two geometrically similar
turbines. If all the dimensionless
turbine parameters of turbine A are
equivalent to those of turbine B, the
two turbines are dynamically similar.
124

Turbine Specific Speed

A pumpturbine is used by
some power plants for energy
storage: (a) water is pumped
by the pumpturbine during
periods of low demand for
power, and (b) electricity is
generated by the pump
turbine during periods of high
demand for power.

125

Maximum efficiency as a function of turbine specific speed for the three main
types of dynamic turbine. Horizontal scales show nondimensional turbine specific
speed (NSt) and turbine specific speed in customary U.S. units (NSt, US). Sketches
of the blade types are also provided on the plot for reference.
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