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Continental Journal of Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Vol 3, No 1


(2012)

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Continental J. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 3 (1): 17 20, 2012 ISSN: 2251 0508
Wilolud Journals, 2012 http://www.wiloludjournal.com ` Printed in Nigeria doi:10.5707/cjwasp.2012.3.1.17.20
ADSORPTION OF CADMIUM AND CHROMIUM USING ACTIVATEDCARBON DERIVED FROM CARICA
PAPAYA SEED.
Ayeni K. E.
Department of SLT, Federal Polytechnic Offa, P.M. B 420 Offa, Kwara State, Nigeria.
Email: kikeyinka@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Heavy metals such as Cadmium and Chromium are toxic and may be found in both surface and
underground water. Carica papaya seed which is an agricultural wastes comprising mostly cellulose
materials was used for the removal of these toxic metals from aqueous solutions. Activated carbons were
prepared from Carica papaya seeds with particle sizes ranging from 355 835 um. 0.10M H 3PO4 andZnCl2
were each used for chemical activation at 3 minutes residence time and at 7500C. This was after carbonizing
the source material at 5000C and also residence time of 5 minutes. The adsorption ofcadmium and
chromium from aqueous solution onto zncl 2 and H3PO4activated carbons was studied and assessed for the
possibility of using thesource materials for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution. Theeffect of
varying the particle size of the activated carbons and the type ofactivating agents on the adsorption capacity
were well as for the carbonized or raw materials. Little adsorption took place when raw material was used
for theadsorption of the metals. The results indicated that the activity of 0.10M H3PO4and 0.10M ZnCl2
activated carbons with particle size of less than 355um gave the highest adsorption capacities; with ZnCl2
activatedcarbons exhibiting better adsorption capability than H3PO4 activated carbons. This work has shown
that Carica papaya seed can be used to remove these two metals from aqueous solution.
KEYWORDS: Activated carbon, H3PO4activated carbons, ZnCl2 activated carbons

INTRODUCTION
Since some heavy metals such as lead, cadmium,chromium, zinc, copper etc are toxic and may be found in both
surface andunderground water. A wide variety of Agricultural by product and agricultural wastes comprising mostly
cellulose materials were tried by different works forthe removal of toxic metals from aqueous solutions. This include
cassava fibre,(1) Biomass of fungi and yeast (2), Horse shoe sea crab shell (3) rice husk

(4)

saw dust

(5)

etc However, a

comprehensive list of naturally occurring adsorbents for removal ofdyes and heavy metals can be obtained from

(6)

However factors such as physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbate e.g. molecular size, molecular
polarity, chemical composition, residence time of the system, temperature and surface area of the adsorbent e.t.c.
affects adsorption ofcations from aqueous solution (7) The purpose of this work is to evaluate the adsorption capacity
of activated carbon from Carica papayaseed on some toxic metals, that is, activated carbon will be prepared from
Carica papaya seed and will be used to check the removal or adsorption of cadmiumand Chromium ions from
aqueous solution. It is also the intention of this work to compare and establish the ability of H3PO4 and ZnCl2as
activating agents for the purpose of producing activated carbon from Carica papaya seeds.
EXPERIMENTAL
Materials
Carica papaya seed were collected from different markets in Zariaand Kano, Nigeria. They were washed, air dried,
grinded and sieved into particle sizes of less than 355, 425 and 834m. All other reagents are of analytical grade were
used without further purification.
Ayeni K. E: Continental J. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 3 (1): 17 20, 2012
Procedure for Carbonization and Activation.
The sample were carbonized and activated by the two steps method (8). 2.00g of raw carica papaya seed sample was
weighed into reweighed crucibles and placed in a carbolite furnance at 5000Cfor 3 minutes to carbonize it.
Adsorption of Calcium and Chrominum using ActivatedCarbon Derived from Carica papaya Seed
500OC, 3 minutes
Raw Carica papaya seeds C(s)+ CO2 (CARBONIZATION)

AA, 750OC, 5 minutes


Carbonized- Carica papayaAC + CO2 (ACTIVATION)

Where AA represents Activating Agent and AC represents Activated Carbon. The above processes were repeated
until a substantial amount was obtained. It was allowed to cool in H 2O and allowed to dry at room temperature and
stored in dry polythene bags.
Preparation of 0.10M solution of H3P04.
0.10M of H3P04 was prepared by diluting 1.70cm3 of H3P04 in 250cm3volumetric flask with distilled water.
Preparation of 0.10M ZnCl2
0.10M of ZnCl2 was prepared by dissolving 3.40g of salt in 250cm3 volumetric flasks with distilled H2O.
Preparation of standard concentration of Cd2+and Cr6+.

1000ppm of Cr6+ was prepared by dissolving, 1.867g of K2Cr2O4 in 250cm3distilled water and it was later diluted to
500cm3 in a 500cm3volumetric flask. 000ppm Cd2+ was prepared by dissolving 1.0516g ofCd (NO3)2 in about
250cm3 distilled water andit was later diluted to 500cm3 in a volumetric flask.
Test for Cd2+ and Cr6+adsorption
1.00g each of the raw materials, the carbonized andthe activated samples was weighed into 250cm3 conical flask.
50cm3of the 1000ppm stock solution of Cd2+ and Cr6+ was added. Each mixture was shaken thoroughly with a
Griffin model electric shaker for an hour to attain equilibrium. Thereafter, the different supernatant were filteredand
the concentration remaining in the filtrate were determined using JENWAYS Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table1: The percentage of Cd2+ adsorbed onto Carica papaya seeds activated with ZnCl2
Initial concentration of Final concentration of Amount
of
Cd2+ % of Cd2+
2+
2+
Cd (ppm)
Cd (ppm)
adsorbed (ppm)
adsorbed
Sss
1000
80.00
920
92.00
1000
390.00
610
61.00
1000
548.40
451.60
45.16
Table 2: The percentage of Cd2+ adsorbed onto Carica papaya seeds activated with H3PO4
Initial
concentration
Cd2+ (ppm)
1000
1000
1000

of

Final concentration
of Cd2+ (ppm)

Amount of Cd2+
adsorbed (ppm)

%
of
adsorbed

147.10
358.40

852.90
641.60

85.29
64.16

Cd2+

Particle
size (um)
< 355
425
835

Particle size (um)


< 355
425

467.70
532.30
53.32
835
Ayeni K. E: Continental J. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 3 (1): 17 20, 2012

Table 3: The percentage of Cd6+ adsorbed onto Carica papaya seeds activated with ZnCl2
Initial concentration
of Cr6+ (ppm)

Final concentration
of Cr6+ (ppm)

Amount of Cr6+
adsorbed (ppm)

% of Cr6+ adsorbed

1000
483.40
516.60
51.66
1000
638.90
361.10
36.11
1000
713.20
286.80
28.68
Table 4: The percentage of Cr6+ adsorbed onto Carica papaya seeds activated with H3PO4
Initial concentration
of Cr6+ (ppm)
1000
1000
1000
Table 1 and 2 show that

Particle size (um)

< 355
425
835

Final concentration Amount of Cr6+ % of Cr6+ Particle size (um)


of Cr6+ (ppm)
adsorbed (ppm)
adsorbed
389.80
510.20
71.02
< 355
436.20
361.10
36.11
425
553.10
286.80
28.68
835
the percentage of Cd2+adsorbed onto Carica papaya seeds carbon activated with ZnCl2and

H3PO4 respectively. The result shows that ZnCl2has better activating activity than H3PO4. The adsorbedof Cd2+ in the
aqueous solution increases with decreases in particle size. This may be explained as a result of increase in surface
area with decrease in particle size producing a large surface area for adsorbed ofcadmium in aqueous solution. This
is in agreement with studies by {8,9}.More so similar observation was also observed in the case of Cr6+adsorption from
aqueous solution using H3PO4 and ZnCl2activated Carica papaya seeds as shown on Table 3 and 6, but in this case
the result shows that H3PO4 has better activating activity than ZnCl2.
Table 5: The percentage of Cd2+ adsorbed onto carbonized Carica papaya seeds

Initial concentration
of Cd2+ (ppm)

Final concentration
of Cd2+ (ppm)

Amount of Cd2+
adsorbed (ppm)

% of Cd2+ adsorbed

Particle size (um)

1000
732,70
267.30
26.73
1000
848.90
151.10
15.11
1000
887.40
112.60
11.26
Table 6: The percentage of Cd2+ adsorbed onto raw Carica papaya seeds

<355
429
835

Initial concentration Final concentration Amount of Cd2+ % of Cd2+ adsorbed


of Cd2+ (ppm)
of Cd2+ (ppm)
adsorbed (ppm)
1000
917.70
82.30
8.32
1000
943.20
56.80
5.68
1000
969.90
30.10
3.01
Table 7: The percentage of Cr6+ adsorbed onto carbonized Carica papaya seeds

Particle size (um)

Initial concentration
of Cr6+ (ppm)
1000
1000
1000

Final concentration
of Cr6+ (ppm)
887.90
936.20
967.80

Amount of Cr6+
adsorbed (ppm)
112.10
638.00
32.20

<355
425
835

% of Cr6+ adsorbed

Particle size (um)

11.21
6.38
3.22

<355
425
835

Ayeni K. E: Continental J. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 3 (1): 17 20, 2012
Table 8: The percentage of Cr6+ adsorbed onto carbonized Carica papaya seed
Initial concentration Final concentration Amount of Cr6+ % of Cr6+ adsorbed
of Cr6+ (ppm)
of Cr6+ (ppm)
adsorbed (ppm)
1000
913.90
86.10
8.61
1000
956.70
43.30
4.33
1000
972.40
27.60
2.76
Table 5,6,7,8 show control experiments. The carbonized samples and the raw forms of various

Particle size (um)


<355
425
835
particle sizes were

used for the adsorbed or raw samples with similar particle sizes could exhibit similar to theactivated samples. Table
5,6,7,8, show low affinities for metals uptakes in aqueous solution when compared to that of carbonized and
activated ones. Theraw sample has no sufficient exposed structure as compared to the carbonized ones because
molecular architecture of the surface has been altered during carbonization and subsequent activation.
CONCLUSION
Carbon prepared from Carica papaya seed can be a good source of raw material toward utilization as a cheap and
alternative source of commercial carbon that can be used for the recycling of heavy metals waste water. The
activated samples treated with H 3PO4 andZnCl2 gave higher adsorption of Cd2+ and Cr6+when compared to the
carbonized and raw samples.
REFERENCES
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modified with citric acid. J. Chemical Society of Nigeria, 33 :243-253.
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pyrolyed Horse show sea crab shell from Atlantic ocean. Bioresource Technology, 96:1169-1174.
Wuana, R. A., Okieimen F. E., Amua, Q.m. (2005). Aqueous phase adsorption of organics on rice husk bases
activated carbonmodified with malic
Argun, K. N., Dursun, S., Ozdemis, C., Kanatas, M. (2007) Heavy metal adsorption by modified Oak Sawdust:
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Development, 32:29-92.
Cheremisnoff, P., and Ellerbusch, F. (1978). Carbonadsorption handbook. Ann Anbor Science Publisher Inc 72,pg
689-690.
Gimba, C. E., and Bahago N. A. (2004). Adsorption ofCu, Cd, and Cr using activated carbon derived from Arachis
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Received for Publication: 04/02/2012
Accepted for Publication: 08/04/2012

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