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Source: MACHINE DESIGN DATABOOK

CHAPTER

1
PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING
MATERIALS
SYMBOLS5;6
a
Aj
Af
A0
Ar
Bhn
d
D
E
f"
f
F
G
HB
lf
lj
l0
Q
RB
RC



area of cross section, m2 (in2 )


original area of cross section of test specimen, mm2 (in2 )
area of smallest cross section of test specimen under load Fj , m2
(in2 )
minimum area of cross section of test specimen at fracture, m2
(in2 )
original area of cross section of test specimen, m2 (in2 )
percent reduction in area that occurs in standard test
specimen
Brinell hardness number
diameter of indentation, mm
diameter of test specimen at necking, m (in)
diameter of steel ball, mm
modulus of elasticity or Youngs modulus, GPa
[Mpsi (Mlb/in2 )]
strain fringe (fri) value, mm/fri (min/fri)
stress fringe value, kN/m fri (lbf/in fri)
load (also with subscripts), kN (lbf)
modulus of rigidity or torsional or shear modulus, GPa
(Mpsi)
Brinell hardness number
nal length of test specimen at fracture, mm (in)
gauge length of test specimen corresponding to load Fj , mm
(in)
original gauge length of test specimen, mm (in)
gure of merit, fri/m (fri/in)
Rockwell B hardness number
Rockwell C hardness number
Poissons ratio
normal stress, MPa (psi)

The units in parentheses are US Customary units


[e.g., fps (foot-pounds-second)].

1.1
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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.2

CHAPTER ONE

b
c
s
t
sf
0sf

transverse bending stress, MPa (psi)


compressive stress, MPa (psi)
strength, MPa (psi)
tensile stress, MPa (psi)
endurance limit, MPa (psi)
endurance limit of rotating beam specimen or R R Moore
endurance limit, MPa (psi)
endurance limit for reversed axial loading, MPa (psi)
endurance limit for reversed bending, MPa (psi)
compressive strength, MPa (psi)
tensile strength, MPa (psi)
ultimate stress, MPa (psi)
ultimate compressive stress, MPa (psi)
ultimate tensile stress, MPt (psi)
ultimate strength, MPA (psi)
ultimate compressive strength, MPa (psi)
ultimate tensile strength, MPa (psi)
yield stress, MPa (psi)
yield compressive stress, MPa (psi)
yield tensile stress, MPa (psi)
yield compressive strength, MPa (psi)
yield tensile strength, MPa (psi)
torsional (shear) stress, MPa (psi)
shear strength, MPa (psi)
ultimate shear stress, MPa (psi)
ultimate shear strength, MPa (psi)
yield shear stress, MPa (psi)
yield shear strength, MPa (psi)
torsional endurance limit, MPa (psi)

0sfa
0sfb
sc
su
u
uc
ut
su
sb
u
suc
sut
y
yc
yt
syc
syt

s
u
su
y
sy
sf0

SUFFIXES
a
b
c
f
s
t
u
y

axial
bending
compressive
endurance
strength properties of material
tensile
ultimate
yield

ABBREVIATIONS
AISI
ASA
AMS
ASM
ASME
ASTM
BIS
BSS
DIN
ISO

American Iron and Steel Institute


American Standards Association
Aerospace Materials Specications
American Society for Metals
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Society for Testing Materials
Bureau of Indian Standards
British Standard Specications
Deutsches Institut fur Normung
International Standards Organization

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS


PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

SAE
UNS

1.3

Society of Automotive Engineers


Unied Numbering system

Note:  and  with subscript s designates strength properties of material used in the design which will be used and
observed throughout this Machine Design Data Handbook. Other factors in performance or in special aspects are
included from time to time in this chapter and, being applicable only in their immediate context, are not given at
this stage.

Particular

Formula

For engineering stress-strain diagram for ductile steel,


i.e., low carbon steel

Refer to Fig. 1-1

For engineering stress-strain diagram for brittle


material such as cast steel or cast iron
The nominal unit strain or engineering strain

Refer to Fig. 1-2

The numerical value of strength of a material

"

lf  l0 l lf
A0  Af

1
l0
l0
l0
A0

1-1

where lf nal gauge length of tension test


specimen,
l0 original gauge length of tension test
specimen.
F
1-2
s
A
where subscript s stands for strength.

Point P is the proportionality


limit. Y is the upper yield limit.
E is the elastic limit. Y 0 is the
lower yield point. U is the
ultimate tensile strength point.
R is the fracture or rupture
strength point. R0 is the true
fracture or rupture strength
point.

FIGURE 1-1 Stress-strain diagram for ductile material.



Subscript s stands for strength.

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.4

CHAPTER ONE

Particular

Formula

The nominal stress or engineering stress

F
A0

1-3

where F applied load.


F
tru 0
Af

The true stress

Bridgemans equation for actual stress (act ) during r


radius necking of a tensile test specimen

where Af actual area of cross section or


instantaneous area of cross-section of
specimen under load F at that instant.

 cal

act 
1-5
4r
d
ln 1
1
d
4r
"tru "0

The true strain

l1
l2

l0
l0 l1


Integration of Eq. (1-6) yields the expression for true
strain
From Eq. (1-1)
The relation between true strain and engineering
strain after taking natural logarithm of both sides of
Eq. (1-8)

"tru ln

l3

l0 l1 l2

lf

l0

lf
l0

dli
li

lf
1"
l0
 
lf
ln
ln1 " or "tru ln1 "
l0
" e"tru  1

Eq. (1-9) can be written as

1-4

There is no necking at fracture for


brittle material such as cast iron or low
cast steel.

FIGURE 1-2 Stress-strain curve for a brittle material.

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1-6a
1-6b
1-7
1-8
1-9
1-10

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS


PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Particular

Percent elongation in a standard tension test specimen


Reduction in area that occurs in standard tension test
specimen in case of ductile materials
Percent reduction in area that occurs in standard
tension test specimen in case of ductile materials
For standard tensile test specimen subject to various
loads

1.5

Formula

lf  l0
100
l0
A0  Af
Ar
A0
A0  Af
100
Ar100
A0
"100

1-11
1-12
1-13

Refer to Fig. 1-3.

FIGURE 1-3 A standard tensile specimen subject to various


loads.

The standard gauge length of tensile test specimen


The volume of material of tensile test specimen
remains constant during the plastic range which is
veried by experiments and is given by

p
l0 6:56 a
A0 l0 Af lf


A0
Af

1-14
or

d02
df2

1-15

lf
d
2 ln 0
l0
df

1-16

lf A 0

l0 A f


ln

Therefore the true strain from Eqs. (1-7) and (1-15)

"tru ln

The true strain at rupture, which is also known as the


true fracture strain or ductility

where df minimum diameter in the gauge length


lf of specimen under load at that
instant,
Ar minimum area of cross section of
specimen under load at that instant.


1
"ftru ln
1-17
1  Ar
where Af is the area of cross-section of specimen at
fracture.

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.6

CHAPTER ONE

Particular

Formula

Refer to Table 1-1A for values of "ftru of steel and


aluminum.
From Eqs. (1-9) and (1-16)
Substituting Eq. (1-18) in Eq. (1-4) and using Eq. (1-3)
the true stress
From experimental results plotting true-stress versus
true-strain, it was found that the equation for plastic
stress-strain line, which is also called the strainstrengthening equation, the true stress is given by

A0
1"
Af

or Af

A0
1"

1-18

tru 1 " e"tru

1-19

tru 0 "ntrup

1-20

where 0 strength coecient,


n strain hardening or strain
strengthening exponent,
"trup true plastic strain.
Refer to Table 1-1A for 0 and n values for steels and
other materials.

The load at any point along the stress-strain curve


(Fig 1-1)

F s A0

1-21

The load-strain relation from Eqs. (1-20) and (1-2)

F 0 A0 "ntru e"tru

1-22

Dierentiating Eq. (1-22) and equating the results to


zero yields the true strain equals to the strain hardening exponent which is the instability point

"u n

1-23

The stress on the specimen which causes a given


amount of cold work W

w 0 "w n

The approximate yield strength of the previously


cold-worked specimen

The approximate yield strength since A0w Aw

Fw
Aw

1-24

where Aw actual cross-sectional area of the


specimen,
Fw applied load.
F
sy w w0
1-25
Aw
where Aw A0w the increased cross-sectional
area of specimen because of the elastic recovery
that occurs when the load is removed.
F
sy w w0  w
1-26
Aw

By substituting Eq. (1-26) into Eq. (1-24)

sy w 0 "w n

The tensile strength of a cold worked material

su w

Fu
A0w

1-27
1-28

where Aw Au , Fu A0 su 0 ,
su tensile strength of the original
non-cold worked specimen,
A0 original area of the specimen.
The percent cold work associated with the deformation of the specimen from A0 to A0w

A0  A0w
A  A0w
100 or w 0
A0
A0
W
where w
100

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1-29

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS


PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Particular

For standard tensile specimen at stages of loading A0w


is given by equation

Formula

A0w A0 1  w

Eq. (1-31) can also be expressed as

su 0
1w
su w su 0 e"tru

The modulus of toughness

Valid for Aw  Au or "w  "u .


"r
Tm
s d"

Expression for su w after substituting Eq. (1-28)

1.7

su w

1-30
1-31
1-32

1-33a

s su
1-34b
"r
2
where "r "u strain associated with incipient
fracture.


HARDNESS
The Vickers hardness number (HV ) or the diamond
pyramid hardness number (Hp )

The Knoop hardness number

The Meyer hardness number, HM

2F sin=2 1:8544F

1-35
d2
d2
where F load applied, kgf,
 face angle of the pyramid, 1368,
d diagonal of the indentation, mm,
HV in kgf/mm2 .
F
1-36
HK
0:07028d 2
where d length of long diagonal of the projected
area of the indentation, mm,
F load applied, kgf,
0:07028 a constant which depends on one of
angles between the intersections of the
four faces of a special rhombic-based
pyramid industrial diamond indenter
172.58 and the other angle is 1308,
HK in kgf/mm2 .
HV

HM

4F
d 2 =4

1-37

where F applied load, kgf,


d diameter of indentation, mm,
HM in kgf/mm2 .
The Brinell hardness number HB

HB

2F
p
DD  D2  d 2 

1-38

where F in kgf, d and D in mm, HB in kgf/mm2 .


The Meyers strain hardening equation for a given
diameter of ball

F Ad p

1-39

where F applied load on a spherical indenter,


kgf,
d diameter of indentation, mm,
p Meyer strain-hardening exponent.

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.8

CHAPTER ONE

Particular

Formula

The relation between the diameter of indentation d


and the load F according to Datsko1;2

F 18:8d 2:53

1-40

The relation between Meyer strain-hardening exponent p in Eq. (1-39) and the strain-hardening exponent
n in the tensile stress-strain Eq.  0 "n

p2n

1-41

The ratio of the tensile strength (su ) of a material to


its Brinell hardness number (HB ) as per experimental
results conducted by Datsko1;2
For the plot of ratio of (su =HB KB against the
strain-strengthening exponent n (1)

where p 2.25 for both annealed pure aluminum


and annealed 1020 steel,
p 2 for low work hardening materials such
as pH stainless steels and all cold rolled
metals,
p 2.53 experimentally determined value of
70-30 brass.
su
KB
1-42
HB
Refer to Fig. 1-4 for KB vs n for various ratios of
d=D.

FIGURE 1-4 Ratio of su =HB KB vs strain strengthening exponent n.

The relationship between the Brinell hardness number


HB and Rockwell C number RC

RC 88HB0:162  192

The relationship between the Brinell hardness number


HB and Rockwell B number RB

RB

HB  47
0:0074HB 0:154

1-43
1-44

Courtesy: Datsko, J., Materials in Design and Manufacture, J. Datsko Consultants, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1978, and Standard
Handbook of Machine Design, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1996.

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS


PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Particular

1.9

Formula

The approximate relationship between ultimate tensile


strength and Brinell hardness number of carbon and
alloy steels which can be applied to steels with a Brinell
hardness number between 200HB and 350HB only1;2

sut 3:45HB

The relationship between the minimum ultimate


strength and the Brinell hardness number for steels
as per ASTM

sut 3:10HB

The relationship between the minimum ultimate


strength and the Brinell hardness number for cast
iron as per ASTM

sut 1:58HB  86:2

The relationship between the minimum ultimate


strength and the Brinell hardness number as per
SAE minimum strength

sut 2:60HB  110

In case of stochastic results the relation between HB


and sut for steel based on Eqs. (1-45a) and (1-45b)

sut 3:45; 0:152HB

In case of stochastic results the relation between


HB and sut for cast iron based on Eqs. (1-47a) and
(1-47b)

sut 1:58HB  62 0; 10:3 MPa

500HB

450HB

SI

1-45a

USCS

1-45b

SI

1-46a

USCS

1-46b

SI

1-47a

USCS

1-47b

SI

1-48a

USCS

1-48b

SI

1-49a

USCS

1-49b

MPa
psi

MPa
psi
MPa

230HB  12500 psi


MPa

237:5HB  16000 psi

500; 22HB

MPa

psi

SI

1-50a

USCS

1-50b

230HB  9000 0; 1500 psi

Relationships between hardness number and tensile


strength of steel in SI and US Customary units [7]

Refer to Fig. 1.5.

The approximate relationship between ultimate


shear stress and ultimate tensile strength for various
materials

su 0:82sut

for wrought steel

1-51a

su 0:90sut

for malleable iron

1-51b

su 1:30sut

for cast iron

1-51c

su 0:90sut

for copper and copper alloy 1-51d

su 0:65sut

for aluminum and aluminum alloys


1-51e

The tensile yield strength of stress-relieved (not coldworked) steels according to Datsko1;2

sy 0:072sut  205 MPa

The equation for tensile yield strength of stressrelieved (not cold-worked) steels in terms of Brinell
hardness number HB according to Datsko (2)

sy 3:62HB  205 MPa

The approximate relationship between shear yield


strength sy and yield strength (tensile) sy

sy 0:55sy

1:05sut  30

kpi

525HB  30 kpi

SI

1-52a

USCS

1-52b

SI

1-53a

USCS

1-53b

for aluminum and aluminum alloys


1-54a

sy 0:58sy

for wrought steel

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1-54b

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.10

CHAPTER ONE

Particular

The approximate relationship between endurance


limit (also called fatigue limit) for reversed bending
polished specimen based on 50 percent survival rate
and ultimate strength for nonferrous and ferrous
materials

Formula

For students use


0sfb 0:50sut

for wrought steel having


sut < 1380 MPa 200 kpsi

1-55

0sfb 690 MPa

for wrought steel having


sut > 1380 MPa

1-56a

0sfb 100 kpsi

for wrought steel having


sut > 200 kpsi
USCS

1-56b

For practicing engineers use


0sfb 0:35sut

for wrought steel having


sut < 1380 MPa 200 kpsi

1-57

0sfb 550 MPa

for wrought steel having


SI
sut > 1380 MPa

1-58a

for wrought steel having


USCS
sut > 200 kpsi

1-58b

0sfb 80 kpsi
0sfb 0:45sut

for cast iron and cast steel when


sut  600 MPa 88 kpsi
1-59a

0sfb 275 MPa

for cast iron and cast steel when


sut > 600 MPa
SI 1-60a

0sfb 40 kpsi

FIGURE 1-5 Conversion of hardness number to ultimate


tensile strength of steel sut , MPa (kpsi). (Technical Editor
Speaks, courtesy of International Nickel Co., Inc., 1943.)

for cast iron and cast steel when


USCS 1-60b
sut > 88 kpsi

0sfb 0:45sut

for copper-based alloys


and nickel-based alloys

0sfb 0:36sut

for wrought aluminum alloys up to a


tensile strength of 275 MPa (40 kpsi)
based on 5  108 cycle life
1-62

0sfb 0:16sut

for cast aluminum alloys


up to tensile strength of
300 MPa 50 kpsi based
on 5  108 cycle life

0sfb 0:38sut

1-61

1-63

for magnesium casting alloys


and magnesium wrought alloys
1-64
based on 106 cyclic life

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS


PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Particular

The relationship between the endurance limit for


reversed axial loading of a polished, unnotched specimen and the reversed bending for steel specimens
The relationship between the torsional endurance
limit and the reversed bending for reversed torsional
tested polished unnotched specimens for various
materials
For additional information or data on properties of
engineering materials

1.11

Formula

0sfa 0:850sfb 0:43sut

1-65

sf0 0:580sfb 0:29sut for steel

1-66a

sf0

1-66b

sf0

0:80sfb

0:480sfb

 0:32sut for cast iron


 0:22sut for copper

1-66c

Refer to Tables 1-1 to 1-48

WOOD
Specic gravity, Gm , of wood at a given moisture
condition, m, is given by

Gm

W0
Wm

1-67

where W0 weight of the ovendry wood; N lbf;


Wm weight of water displaced by the
sample at the given moisture
condition, N (lbf ).
weight of ovendry wood and the contained water
volume of the piece at the same moisture content

The weight density of wood, D (unit weight) at any


given moisture content

Equation for converting of weight density D1 from


one moisture condition to another moisture condition
D2

D2 D1

For typical properties of wood of clear material as per


ASTM D 143

Refer to Table 1-47.

1-68
100 M2
100 M1 0:0135D1 M2  M1

1-69

where D1 known weight density for same


moisture condition M1 , kN/m2
(lbf/ft2 ),
D2 desired weight density at a moisture
condition M2 , kN/m2 (lbf/ft2 ). M1 and
M2 are expressed in percent.

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.12

CHAPTER ONE

TABLE 1-1
Hardness conversion (approximate)
Brinell
29.42 kN (3000 kgf ) load
10 mm ball

Rockwell hardness number

Diameter
(mm)

Hardness
number

Vickers
or Firth
hardness
number

2.25
2.30
2.35
2.40
2.45
2.50
2.55
2.60
2.65
2.70
2.75
2.80
2.85
2.90
2.95
3.00
3.05
3.10
3.15
3.20
3.25
3.30
3.35
3.40
3.45
3.50
3 55
3.60
3.65
3.70
3.75
3.80
3.85
3.90
3.95
4.00
4.05
4.10
4.15
4.20
4.25
4.30
4.35
4.40

745
712
682
653
627
601
578
555
534
514
495
477
461
444
429
415
401
388
375
363
352
341
331
321
311
302
293
285
277
269
262
255
248
241
235
229
223
217
212
207
201
197
192
187

840
783
737
697
667
640
615
591
569
547
528
508
491
472
455
440
425
410
396
383
372
360
350
339
328
319
309
301
292
284
276
269
261
253
247
241
234
228
222
218
212
207
202
196

A scale
0.588 kN
(60 kgf )
load
84
83
82
81
81
80
79
78
78
77
76
76
75
74
73
73
72
71
71
70
69
69
68
68
67
66
66
65
65
64
64
63
63
62
61
61

B scale
0.98 kN
(100 kgf )
load

C scale
1.47 kN
(150 kgf )
load

15-N scale
0.147 kN
(15 kgf )
load

Shore
Tensile strength, sut
scleroscope
approximate
hardness
number
MPa
kpsi

110
109
109
108
108
107
106
106
105
104
103
102
101
100
99
98
97
96
96
95
94
93
92
91

65
64
62
60
59
58
57
55
54
52
51
50
49
47
46
45
43
42
40
39
38
37
36
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
25
24
23
22
21
19
18
16
15
14
13
12
10

92
92
91
90
90
89
88
88
87
87
86
85
85
84
83
83
82
81
81
80
79
79
78
77
77
76
76
75
74
74
73
73
72
71
70
70

91
87
84
81
79
77
75
73
71
70
68
66
65
63
61
59
58
56
54
52
51
50
48
47
46
45
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29

2570
2455
2350
2275
2227
2192
2124
2020
1924
1834
1750
1675
1620
1532
1482
1434
1380
1338
12961255
1214
1172
1145
1103
1069
1042
1010
983
955
928
904
875
855
832
810
790
770
748
730
714
690
680
662
645

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373
356
341
330
323
318
309
293
279
266
254
243
235
222
215
208
200
194
188
182
176
170
166
160
155
151
146
142
138
134
131
127
124
120
117
114
111
108
106
103
100
98
96
93

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS


PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.13

TABLE 1-1
Hardness conversion (approximate) (Cont.)
Brinell
29.42 kN (3000 kgf ) load
10 mm ball

Rockwell hardness number

Diameter
(mm)

Hardness
number

Vickers
or Firth
hardness
number

4.45
4.50
4.55
4.60
4.65
470
4.80
4.90
5.00
5.10
5.20
5.30
5.40
5.50
5.60

183
179
174
170
167
163
156
149
143
137
131
126
121
116
111

192
188
182
178
175
171
163
156
150
143
137
132
127
122
117

A scale
0.588 kN
(60 kgf )
load

B scale
0.98 kN
(100 kgf )
load

C scale
1.47 kN
(150 kgf )
load

90
89
88
87
86
85
83
81
79
76
74
72
70
68
65

9
8
7
5
4
3
1

15-N scale
0.147 kN
(15 kgf )
load

Shore
Tensile strength, sut
scleroscope
approximate
hardness
number
MPa
kpsi
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17

631
617
600
585
576
562
538
514
493
472
451
435
417
400
383

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91
89
87
85
83
81
78
74
71
68
65
63
60
58
55

290
125
90
80
108
225
410
430
260
410
150

Material

RQC-100a
1005-1009
1005-1009
1015
1020d
1045e
1045e
5160
9262
9262
950
931
414
345
414
441
724
1448
1669
924
1565
531
469
476
579

ST, SHg
ST and RT ageh
ST and AAi

MPa

HRb Plate
CDc Sheet
HR Sheet
Normalized
HR Plate
Q and Tf
Q and T
Q and T
Annealed
Q and T
HR Plate

Process/
Condition

68
69
84

135
60
50
60
64
105
210
242
134
227
77

kpsi

Ultimate
strength, sut

379
303
469

883
400
262
228
262
634
1365
1531
455
1379
311

MPa

193
122
123
105
103
178
270
280
151
269
145
81
92
108

MPa

1331
841
848
724
710
1227
1862
1931
1041
1855
1000

Steel
128
58
38
33
38
92
198
222
66
200
48
Aluminum:
55
558
44
636
68
745

kpsi

Stress at
fracture, f

kpsi

Yield
strength, sy

25
35
33

67
64
80
68
62
65
51
42
14
32
72

Reduction
in area, Af

0.28
0.43
0.41

1.02
1.02
1.60
1.14
0.96
1.04
0.72
0.87
0.16
0.38
1.24

"f

True strain
at fracture

0.03
0.20
0.11

0.06
0.05
0.16
0.26
0.19
0.13
0.08
0.06
0.22
0.06
0.19

Strain harding exponent

131

903

66
117
120

107
166
302
308
253

738
1145
2082
2124
1744

455
807
827

170
76
77

kpsi

1172
524
531

MPa

Strength
coecient, 0

Tradename, Bethlehem steel Corp. Rolled quenched and tempered carbon steel. Used in structural, heavy applications machinery. b Hot-rolled. c cold-rolled. d low carbon, common machining
steels. e Bar stock, medium carbon high-strength machining steel. f Quenched and tempered. g Solution treated, strain hardened. h Solution treated and RT age. i Solution treated and articially aged.
Source: SAE j1099, Technical Report on Fatigue properties, 1975.

2024-T351
2024-T4
7075-T6

Brinell
hardness
HB

TABLE 1-1A
Mechanical properties of some metallic materials

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.14

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25 mm (1 in) bar
25 mm (1 in) bar

4130
4340

Aged 4828C
Aged 4828C
Aged 4828C

876

CD 20% +
s.r.2h (9008F
WQ + (12008F)
OQ + (1000 8F)
OQ + (800 8F)
1540
1760
1980

814
1262
1531

517
621
805
965
634

586

455
620
710
790
448

Annealed
HR
CD 20%
CD 50%
Annealed

(12008F)

CD 0%
CD 30%
CD 60%
CD 80%
HR

Condition/Process MPa

225
256
288

118
183
200

127

75
90
117
140
92

85

66
90
102
115
65

kpsi

1480
1630
1920

703
1172
1379

696

352
414
670
855
365

441

275
585
605
660
331

215
237
279

102
170
200

101

51
60
97
124
53

64

40
85
88
96
48

MPa kpsi

724
1310
1517

MPa

105
190
220

kpsi

876 127
1007 146

MPa kpsi

752
855

241

427

269
296
370
410
365

296

240
315
350
365
241

MPa

690
690
760

490
109 669
124 469

35

MPa kpsi

100
100
110

71
97
68

62d

39
43a
54d
60d
53

43

35d
46d
51d
53d
35d

kpsi

Fatigue
limit, sf

207

204

GPa

30.0

29.6

Mpsi

Youngs
modulus, E

81

79

83

11.7

11.4

12.0

110
75

100
68

55
62
50

64
52
47

31

57
50
44
25
40

70

70
62
54
26
59

Modulus of
Fracture
rigidity, G toughness, K IC Reduction
in area
GPa Mpsi GPa Mpsi A, %

0.80
0.97
0.69

1.02
0.73
0.63

0.37

0.84
0.69
0.58
0.33
0.51

1.20

1.20
0.97
0.78
0.30
0.89

True
strain at
fracture,
"f

A description of the materials and typical uses follows the table.


CD cold drawn (the percentage reduction in area); HR hot rolled; OQ oil quenched; WQ water quenched (temperature following is the tempering temperature); s:r: stress relieved.
c
Smooth-specimen rotating-beam results, unless noted A ( axial).
d
106 cycles.
Source: Extracted from Kenneth S. Edwards, Jr, and Robert B. McKee, Fundamentals of Mechanical Component Design, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1991, which is drawn from the Structural Alloys Handbook, published by the Metals and
Ceramics Information Center, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, 1985.

18% Ni maraging
200
L plate
250
L plate
300
L plate

25 mm (1 in)
bar

25 mm (1 in)
bar or plate
25 mm (1 in)
WQ bar or plate
25 mm (1 in) bar

1050

1040

1030

1020

Steel:
1016

Material Form

Ultimate
Yield strength
Shear (torsional) strength
tensile
strength, sut Tensile, syt Compressive, syc Ultimate,  su Yield,  sy

TABLE 1-1B
Mechanical properties of some typical metallic materials

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.15

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.16

CHAPTER ONE

TABLE 1-2
Poissons ratio 
Material

Material

Aluminium, cast
Aluminium, drawn
Beryllium copper
Brass
Brass, 30 Zn
Cast steel
Chromium
Copper
Douglas r
Ductile iron
Glass
Gray cast iron
Iron, soft
Iron, cast
Inconel x
Lead
Magnesium
Malleable cast iron

0.330
0.348
0.285
0.340
0.350
0.265
0.210
0.343
0.330
0.3400.370
0.245
0.2100.270
0.293
0.270
0.410
0.431
0.291
0.230

Molybdenum
Monel metal
Nickel, soft
Nickel, hard
Rubber
Silver
Steel, mild
Steel, high carbon
Steel, tool
Steel, stainless (18-8)
Tin
Titanium
Tungsten
Vanadium
Wrought iron
Zinc

0.293
0.3200.370
0.239
0.306
0.4500.490
0.367
0.303
0.295
0.287
0.305
0.342
0.357
0.280
0.365
0.278
0.331

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Automotive
ASTMA602, SAE J158

ASTM A197
Perlite and martensite:
ASTM A220
ANSI G48-2
MIL-1-11444B

Malleable cast iron:


Ferrite
ASTM A47-52, A338,
ANSI G 48-1
FED QQ-1-66e

365

35018

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517

621

M5503e

M7002e

724

517

M5003d

M8501

448

M4504d

345

414
448
448
448
483
517
552
552
586
655
724

40010
45008
45006
45010
50005
50007
60004
60003
70003
80002
90001
Grade
M3210c

276

345

Class or
grade
32510

431

293

60

121

40

252

362

120

35

50

111

30

214

152
179

Gray cast ironb


ASTM class
20
25

SAE
110

MPa

Material, class, specication

105

90

75

75

65

50

60
65
65
65
70
75
80
80
85
95
105

40

53

50

62.5

52.5

42.5

36.5

31

22
26

kpsi

Tension,
sut

242
242
242
242

1670
1670
1670

220

208

187.5

164

140

124

109

83
97

kpsi

1670

1517

1434

1293

1130

965

855

752

572
669

MPa

Compression,
suc

Ultimate strength

689

552

517

338

352

324

496

448

393

338

303

220
255

MPa

100

80

75

49

51

47

72

65

57

49

44

32
37

kpsi

Shear,
 su

610

503

393

334

276

179
220

MPa

88.5

73

57

48.5

40

26
32

kpsi

Torsional/
shear
strength,
s

TABLE 1-3
Mechanical properties of typical cast ferrous materialsa

586

483

379

345

310

224

276
310
310
310
345
345
414
414
483
552
621

207

241

220

MPa

85

70

55

50

45

32

40
45
45
45
50
50
60
60
70
80
90

30

35

32

kpsi

Yield
strength,
sy

276

270

255

220

214

193

169

148

128

110

97

69
79

MPa

40

39

37

32

31

28

24.5

21.5

18.5

16

14

10
11.5

kpsi

Endurance limit
in reversed
bending,
sfb

269302

229269

187241

187241

163217

156 max

149197
156197
156207
185
179229
204
197241
226
217269
241285
269321

156 max

156 max

156 max

302

262

235

212

210

156
174

186

186

183

180

172

172

141162

130157

27

27

26.5

26

25

25

20.423.5

18.822.8

16.020.0

14.517.2

13.016.4

9.614.0
11.514.8

Mpsi

Tension,
E

110138

10119

90113

6697
79102

Brinell
hardness,
HB
GPa

160

160

160

160

172

172

GPa

27

23.2

23.2

23.2

25

25

Mpsi

Compression,
E

Modulation of elasticity

Mpsi

5459 7.88.5

5055 7.28.0

4454 6.47.8

4048 5.86.9

3645 5.26.6

2739 3.95.6
3241 4.66.0

GPa

Shear,
G

10

10
8
6
10
5
7
4
3
3
2
1

18

10

Elongation
in 50 mm
(2 in), %

19

19

19

19

22

22

156

108

95

75
75

14

14

14

14

16.5

16.5

115

80

70

55
55

ft-lbf

Impact strength
(Charpy)

Steering gear housing,


mounting brackets
Compressor crankshafts
and hubs
Parts requiring selective
hardening, as gears
For machinability and
improved induction
hardening
Connecting rods,
universal joint yokes
Gears with high strength
and good wear resistance

General engineering
service at normal and
elevated temperatures

General purpose at
normal and elevated
temperature, good
machinability, excellent
shock resistance.
Pipe anges, valve parts

Soft iron castings


Cylinder blocks and
heads, housing
Flywheels, brake drums
and clutch plates
Heavy-duty brake
drums, clutch plates
Cam shafts, cylinder
liners
Special high-strength
castings
Special high-strength
castings

Typical application

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.17

559

758

F33800

F34800

1.18

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2445
3090
2545
2045
3490
60100
5560
5865
16
3555

60
65
80
100

141.3

110

81.1

67.3

90150
100
100160
70100

133.5

220.0

56.0

52.5

52.0

kpsi

12401380 180200

6201040
690
6901100
480690

920

1515

386

362

359

MPa

Compression,
suc

875

504

475

472

126.9

73.1

68.9

68.5

MPa kpsi

Shear,
 su
MPa kpsi

Torsional/
shear
strength,
s

40
45
55
70

125.3

72.5

52.5

48.2

47.7

60

40

kpsi

193241 2835

276
310
379
483

864

500

362

332

329

414

276

MPa

Yield
strength,
sy

434

379

345

241

MPa

63

55

50

35

kpsi

Endurance limit
in reversed
bending,
sfb

Source: Compiled from AMS Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1988.
Minimum values of u in MPa (kpsi) are given by class number.
Annealed.
Air-quenched and tempered.
Liquid-quenched and tempered.
Heat-treated and average mechanical properties.
Calculated from tensile modulus and Poissons ratio in tension.

170310
210620
170310
140310
235620
415690
380415
400450
110
241380

414
448
552
689

974

464

F33100

F36200

461

F32800

66.9

80

552

F34100

kpsi

60

MPa

UNS No.
F32800
414

Alloy cast irons


Medium-silicon gray iron
High chromium gray iron
High nickel gray iron
Ni-Cr-Si gray iron
High-aluminum gray iron
Medium-silicon ductile iron
High-nickel ductile iron (20Ni)
High-nickel ductile iron (23Ni)
Durion
Mechanite

SAE j
434C

120-9002h
D4018
D4512
D5506
D7003

8055
06h
100-7003h

Nodular (ductile) cast iron


Grade
60-40-18
ASTM
A395-76
ASME
SA 395
ASTM
80-60-03
A476-70(d)
SAE
AMS5316
ASTM
60-40-18h
A536-72
MIL-I-11466
B(MR)
65-45-12h

Material, class, specication

Tension,
sut

Ultimate strength

TABLE 1-3
Mechanical properties of typical cast ferrous materialsa (Cont.)

170250
250500
130250
110210
180350
140300
140200
130170
520
190

170 max
156217
187255
241302

332

257

192

167

167178

201 min

143187

158
83

164

162

168

168

169

Brinell
hardness,
HB
GPa

23
12

23.8

23.5

24.4

24.4

24.5

Mpsi

Tension,
E

164

165

163

164

GPa

23.8

23.9

23.6

23.8

Mpsi

Compression,
E

Typical application

9.09.3g 11.2

6264g

10

18
12
6
3

63.564g 9.29.3g 1.5

6-10

9.39.4g 15

6465g

1523
2035
60150
80150
5115
12
28
3

2031
2747
80200
110200
7155
16
38
4

Pressurecontaining parts
such as valve and
pump bodies
Machine
components
subjected to shock
and fatigue loads
Crankshafts, gears
and rollers
High-strength
gears and machine
components
Pinions, gears,
rollers and slides
Steering knuckles
Disk brake calipers
Crankshafts
Gears

ft-lbf

Impact strength
(Charpy)

6365.5g 9.19.5g 15

Elongation
in 50 mm
(2 in), % J

Valves and ttings


for steam and
chemical plant
equipment
Paper-mill dryer
rollers

Mpsi

Shear,
G

18

GPa

Modulation of elasticity

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

37.7
10.6
24.5

43.5
12.2
28.3

50.8
14.2
33.1

58.0
16.2
37.7

FG 260 260
73c
169d

FG 300 300
84c
195d

FG 350 350
98c
228d

FG 400 400
112c
260d

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174.1
32.5
75.4

156.6
28.4
66.0

139.2
24.4
56.6

125.3
21.2
49.0

111.4
17.8
41.5

104.4
16.2
37.7

87.0
12.2
15.2

kpsi

460

403

345

299

253

230

173

MPa

66.7

58.5

50.0

43.4

36.7

33.4

25.1

kpsi

Shear
strength,  s
kpsi
9.9
9.9
13.1
12.6
14.4
13.6
17.0
15.7
19.6
18.4
21.6
18.7
2.0
18.4

MPa
68e
68f
90e
87f
99e
94f
117e
108f
135e
127f
149e
129f
152e
127f

Fatigue
limit, sf

145

140

135

128

120

114

100

GPa

21.0

20.3

19.6

18.6

17.4

16.5

14.5

Mpsi

Tension

145

140

135

128

120

114

100

GPa

21.0

20.3

19.6

18.6

17.4

16.5

14.5

Mpsi

Compression

58

56

54

51

48

46

40

GPa

8.4

8.1

7.8

7.4

7.0

6.7

5.8

Mpsi

Modulus of
rigidity, G

320a
400b

280a
250b

240a
300b

208a
260b

176a
120b

160a
200b

120a
150b

MPa

46.4
58.0

40.6
50.8

34.8
43.5

30.2
37.7

25.5
32.0

23.2
29.0

17.4
21.8

kpsi

Notched
tensile
strength,
snt

0.28

0.25

0.22

0.20

0.18

0.17

0.15

Elastic
strain
at
failure,
%
Brinell
hardness
HB

0.50g

0.50g

0.50g

0.57g

207270

207241

180230

180230

0.390.63g 180220

0.480.67g 160220

0.60.75g 130180

Total
elastic
strain
at
fracture,
%

0.26

0.26

0.26

0.26

0.26

0.26

0.26

7300

7300

7250

7200

7150

7100

7050

455.7

455.7

452.6

449.5

446.4

443.3

440.1

11.0

11.0

11.0

11.0

11.0

11.0

11.0

6.1

6.1

6.1

6.1

6.1

6.1

6.1

0.460

0.460

0.460

0.460

0.420

0.375

26.5

0.1089

0.1089

0.1098

0.1098

0.1003

0.0896

0.0640

Specic heat
capacity at 20
to 2008C, c

Poissons
Density, 
ratio,

kg/m3 lbm /ft3 mm/mK min/in8F kJ/kg K Btu/lbm 8F

Coecient of
the thermal
expansion, ,
20 to 2008C

44.0

45.7

47.4

48.8

50.1

50.8

52.5

7.75

8.05

8.35

8.59

8.82

8.95

9.25

W/m2 K Btu/ft2 h8F

Thermal
conductivity at
1008C, K

Note: The typical properties given in this table are the properties in a 30 mm (1.2 in) diameter separately cast test bar or in a casting section correctly represented by this size of test bar, where the tensile
strength does not correspond to that given. Other properties may dier slightly from those given.
Source: IS (Indian Standards) 210, 1993.

1200
224
520

1080
196
455

960
168
390

864
146
338

768
123
286

720
112
260

600
84
195

MPa

Compressive
strength, sc

Modulus of elasticity, E

Circumferential 458 notch-root radius 0.25 mm (0.04 in), notch depth 2.5 mm (0.4 in), root diameter 20 mm (0.8 in), notch depth 3.3 mm (0.132 in), notch diameter 7.6 mm (0.36 in).
Circumferential notch radius 9.5 mm (0.38 in), notch depth 2.5 mm (0.4 in), notch diameter 20 mm (0.8 in).
0.01% proof stress.
0.1% proof stress.
Unnotched 8.4 mm (0.336 in) diameter.
V-notched [circumferential 458 V-notch with 0.25 mm (0.04 in) root radius, diameter at notch 8.4 mm (0.336 in), depth of notch 3.4 mm (0.135 in)].
Values depend on the composition of iron.
Poissons ratio  0:26.

32.0
9.0
20.7

FG 220 220
62e
143d

29.0
8.1
18.8

FG 200 200
56c
130d

kpsi

21.8
6.0
14.2

MPa

FG 150 150
42c
98d

Grade

Tensile
strength, st

TABLE 1-4
Typical mechanical properties of gray cast iron

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.19

3060
61200
3060
61200
3060
61200
3060
61200
3060
61200
3060
61200

mm

1.20

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550
362
318
286
272
253
216
216
181

SG 900/2
SG 800/2
SG 700/2
SG 600/2
SG 500/7
SG 450/10
SG 400/15
SG 400/18
SG 350/22

79.8
52.5
46.1
41.5
39.5
36.7
31.3
31.3
31.3

kpsi

MPa

810
720
630
540
45
405
360
360
315

7150
7200
7200
7170
7100
7100
7100
7100
7100

kg/m3

117.5
107.4
91.4
78.3
65.3
58.7
52.2
52.2
45.7

kpsi

Shear
strength, sc

1.22.4
2.448.0
1.22.4
2.448.0
1.22.4
2.448.0
1.22.4
2.448.0
1.22.4
2.448.0
1.22.4
2.448.0

in

317
304
280
248
224
210
195
195
180

MPa

46.0
44.1
40.6
35.0
32.5
30.5
28.3
28.3
26.1

kpsi

Fatigue
limit, sc

446.4
449.5
449.5
447.6
443.3
443.3
443.3
443.3
443.3

lbm /ft3

Density

0.275
0.275
0.275
0.275
0.275
0.275
0.275
0.275
0.275

67.1
68.6
86.6
67.9
65.9
65.9
65.9
65.9
65.9

GPa

Poissons
ratio, 
kpsi

MPa

kpsi

0.2% Proof stress,


sy min

9.73
9.95
9.95
9.85
9.56
9.56
9.56
9.86
9.56

Mpsi

Modulus of,
Elasticity E

169
169
169
169
169
174
176
176
169

Ten

GPa

169
169
169
169
169
174
176
176
169

Com

24.5
24.5
24.5
24.5
24.5
25.2
25.2
25.2
24.5

Ten

24.5
24.5
24.5
24.5
24.5
25.2
25.2
25.2
24.5

MPsi
Com

Modulus of rigidity, G

11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0

lm/m K

Measured on test pieces from cast-on test samples


700
101.5
400
58.0
2
650
94.3
380
55.1
1
600
87.0
360
52.2
2
550
79.8
340
49.3
1
450
65.3
300
43.5
7
420
61.0
290
42.0
5
390
56.6
250
36.3
15
370
53.7
240
34.8
12
390
56.6
250
36.4
15
370
53.7
240
34.8
12
330
47.9
2231.9
18
320
46.4
210
30.6
15

150

130180

130180

170240

180270

220320

280360
245335
225305
190270
160240
160210
130180
130180
150

Brinell
hardness,
HB

14
12b
17b
15b

10.3 (8.1)
8.8 (6.6)
12.5 (10.3)
11.1 (8.8)

0.461
0.461
0.461
0.461
0.461
0.461
0.461
0.461
0.461

0.1101
0.1101
0.1101
0.1101
0.1101
0.1101
0.1101
0.1101
0.1101

Btu/lbm 8F

Specic heat, c at
208 to 2008C
kJ/kg K

(11)
(9)c
(14)c
(12)c

33.5
31.40
31.40
32.80
35.50
36.5
36.5
36.5
36.5

W/m2 K

5.90
5.53
5.53
5.72
6.25
6.43
6.43
6.43
6.43

Btu/ft2 h8F

Thermal conductivity,
at 1008C

Ferrite

Ferrite

Ferrite

Ferrite + pearlite

Ferrite + pearlite

Pearlite

Ferrite

Ferrite

Pearlite
Pearlite
Ferrite and pearlite
Ferrite and pearlite

Predominant structural
constituent

Mean value from 3 tests on V-notch test pieces at ambient

6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1
6.1

lin/in 8F
at 208 to 2008C

6.6 (3.2)
12.5 (11.0)
10.3 (8.1)
12.5 (10.3)

ft-lbf

Impact values min


(23 58C)

9.0b (4.3)c
17.0b (15.0)c
14.0b (11.0)c
17.0b (14.0)c

Thermal coecient of
linear expansion, 

Elongationa
%, min

Measured on test pieces from separately cast test samples


900
130.5
600
87.0
2
800
116.0
480
69.6
2
700
101.5
420
61.0
2
600
87.0
370
53.7
2
500
72.5
320
46.4
7
450
65.3
310
45.0
10
400
58.0
250
36.3
15
400
58.0
250
36.6
18
350
50.8
220
32.0
22

MPa

Tensile strength,
st min

Elongation is measured on an initial gauge length L 5d where d is the diameter of the gauge length of the test pieces.
c
Individual value.
temperature.
Source: IS 1865, 1991.

MPa

Compression
strength, sc

Grade

SG 350/22A

SG 400/18A

SG 400/15A

SG 500/7A

SG 600/3A

SG 700/2A

SG 900/2
SG 800/2
SG 700/2
SG 600/2
SG 500/7
SG 450/10
SG 400/15
SG 400/18
SG 350/22

Grade

Typical casting
thickness

TABLE 1-5
Mechanical properties of spheroidal or nodular graphite cast iron

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.4
2.4

ASG Ni 13 Mn 7
ASG Ni 20 Cr 2
ASG Ni 20 Cr 3
ASG Ni 20 Si 5 Cr 2
ASG Ni 22
ASG Ni 23 Mn 4
ASG Ni 30 Cr 1
ASG Ni 30 Cr 3
ASG Ni 30 Si 5 Cr 5
ASG Ni 35
ASG Ni 35 Cr 3

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140150
112130

112133
112133

85112
120140
112130
92105
91

112140
112123

ASG Ni 13 Mn 7
ASG Ni 20 Cr 2

ASG Ni 20 Cr 3
ASG Ni 20 Si 5 Cr 2

ASG Ni 22
ASG Ni 23 Mn 4
ASG Ni 30 Cr 1
ASG Ni 30 Cr 3
ASG Ni 30 Si 5 Cr 5

ASG Ni 35
ASG Ni 35 Cr 3

16.220.3
16.217.8

12.316.2
17.420.3
16.218.9
13.315.2
13.2

16.219.3
16.219.3

20.321.8
16.218.9

Mpsi

12.014.0
18.022.0
18.022.0
18.022.0
21.024.0
22.024.0
28.032.0
28.032.0
28.032.0
34.036.0
34.036.0

Ni

Thermal coecient of
linear expansion, 

6.07.0
0.51.5
0.51.5
0.51.5
1.52.5
4.04.5
0.51.5
0.51.5
0.51.5
0.51.5
0.51.5

Mn

5
5

18.4
14.7
12.6
12.6
14.4

18.7
18.0

18.2
18.7

2.8
2.8

10.2
8.2
7.0
7.0
8.0

10.4
10.0

10.1
10.4

lm/m K
lin/in 8F
at 20 to 2008C

2.03.0
1.53.0
1.53.0
4.55.5
1.03.0
1.52.5
1.53.0
1.53.0
5.06.0
1.53.0
1.53.0

Si
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080
0.080

0.3
1.02.5
2.53.5
1.02.5
<0.5
<0.2
1.01.5
2.53.5
4.55.5
0.2
2.03.0

W/m2 K

12.6
12.6

12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6

12.6
12.6

12.6
12.6

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

Cumax

2.22
2.22

2.22
2.22
2.22
2.22
2.22

2.22
2.22

2.22
2.22

Btu/ft2 h8F

Thermal
conductivity, K

Pmax

Cr
455.7
462.0
462.0
462.0
462.0
462.0
462.0
462.0
462.0
474.5
474.5

lbm /ft3
390460
370470
390490
370430
370440
440470
370440
370470
390490
370410
370440

MPa
56.666.7
53.768.2
56.671.1
53.762.4
53.763.8
63.668.2
53.762.4
53.768.2
56.670.5
53.759.5
53.763.8

kpsi

Tensile strength,
st min

30.537.7
30.536.3
30.537.7
30.537.7
24.736.3
30.534.8
30.539.2
30.537.7
34.845.0
30.534.8
30.542.1

kpsi
1525
720
715
1018
2040
2545
1318
718
14
2040
710

Elongation
%, min

Properties and applications

210260
210250
210260
210260
170250
210240
210270
210260
240310
210240
210290

MPa

0.2% proof stress,


sy min
b

130170
140200
150255
180230
130170
150180
130190
140200
110250
130180
140190

15.027.5
13.527.5
12.0
14.9
20.033.0
24.0
17.0
8.5
3.95.9
20.5
7.0

11.120.3
10.020.3
8.9
11.0
14.824.3
17.7
8.1
6.3
2.94.4
15.1
5.2

Brinell
Impact valuesd , min
hardness,
HB
J
ft-lb

Non-magnetic. Hence used as pressure covers for turbine generator sets, housing for insulators, anges and switch gears.
Corrosion and heat resistance. Used in pumps, valves, compressor exhaust gas manifolds, turbo-supercharger housings
and bushings.
Good resistance to corrosion. Used in valves, pump components and components subject to high pressure.
High value of linear expansion and non-magnetic. Used for pumps, valves, compressor and exhaust gas manifold and
turbocharge housings.
High impact properties up to 1968C and non-magnetic. Used in castings for refrigerators, etc.
Good bearing properties. Used in exhaust manifolds and pumps, valves and turbocharger gas housing.
Used in boiler pumps, valves, lter parts and exhaust gas manifolds.
Used in pump components, valves, etc.
Power lower linear coecient of expansion. Used in machine tool parts, scientic instruments, glass molds, and parts
requiring dimensional stability.
Possess lower linear thermal expansion. Used in gas turbine housings and glass molds.

7300
7400
7400
7400
7400
7400
7400
7400
7400
7600
7600

kg/m3

Density

Unless otherwise specied, other elements may be present at the discretion of the manufacturer, provided they do not alter the micro-structure substantially, or aect the property adversely.
Elongation is measured on an initial gauge length L 5d where d is the diameter of the gauge length of the test pieces. c Measured on test pieces machined from separately cast test samples.
d
Mean value from 3 tests on V-notch test pieces at ambient temperature.
Source: IS 2749, 1974.

GPa

Grade

Modulus of
elasticity E

Cmax

Grade

Chemical compositiona , %

TABLE 1-5A
Chemical compositiona and mechanical propertiesc of spheroidal graphite austenitic cast iron

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.21

1.53.0
1.02.8
1.02.8
1.02.8
1.02.8
4.55.5
1.02.0
5.06.0
1.02.0

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.4

AFG Ni 13 Mn 7
AFG Ni 15 Cu 6 Cr 2
AFG Ni 15 Cu 6 Cr 3
AFG Ni 20 Cr 2
AFG Ni 20 Cr 3
AFG Ni 20 Si 5 Cr 3
AFG Ni 30 Cr 3
AFG Ni 30 Si 5 Cr 5
AFG Ni 35

12.4
14.6
5.0

AFG Ni 30 Cr 3
AFG Ni 30 Si 5 Cr 5
AFG Ni 35

6.9
8.1
2.8

460500
460500
460500

460500
460500
460500
460500
460500
460500

0.110.12
0.110.12
0.110.12

0.110.12
0.110.12
0.110.12
0.110.12
0.110.12
0.110.12

Btu/lbm 8F

7300
7300
7300
7300
7300
7300
7300
7300
7300

kg/m3

37.741.9
37.741.9
37.741.9

37.741.9
37.741.9
37.741.9
37.741.9
37.741.9
37.741.9

W/m2 K

6.647.38
6.647.38
6.647.38

6.647.38
6.647.38
6.647.38
6.647.38
6.647.38
6.647.38

Btu/ft2 h8F

Thermal
conductivity, K

0.5
5.57.5
5.57.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

Cu
140220
170210
190240
170210
190240
190280
190240
170240
120180

MPa
20.332.0
24.730.5
27.634.8
24.730.5
27.634.8
27.640.6
27.634.8
27.434.8
17.426.1

kpsi

Tensile strength,
st min

2
12
23
12
23
13

13

Elongation
%, min
630840
700840
8601100
700840
8601100
8601100
700910
560
560700

MPa

91.4121.8
101.5121.8
124.7159.5
101.5121.8
124.7159.5
124.7159.5
101.5132.0
81.2
81.2101.5

kpsi

Ultimate compressive
strength, sut

Properties and applications

120150
140200
150250
120215
160250
140250
120215
150210
120140

Brinell
hardness,
HB

7090
85105
98113
85105
98113
110
98113
105
74

GPa

10.213.1
12.315.2
14.216.4
12.315.2
14.216.4
16.0
14.215.2
15.2
10.7

Mpsi

Modulus of
elasticity, E

Non-magnetic. Used in pressure covers for turbine generator sets, housing for switch gears and terminals, and ducts.
Resistance to corrosion, erosion, and heat. Good bearing properties. Used for pumps, valves, piston ring covers for
pistons, furnace components, bushings.
Possess high coecient of thermal expansion, resistance to corrosion and erosion. Used for pumps handling alkalis.
Used in soap, food and plastic industries.
Resistance to erosion, corrosion, heat. Used in high temperature application. Not suitable between 500 and 6008C.
Resistance to thermal shock and heat, corrosion at high temperature. Used in pumps, pressure vessels, valves, lters,
exhaust gas manifolds, turbine housings.
Resistance to erosion, corrosion, and heat. Possess average thermal expansion. Used in components for industrial
furnaces, valves, and pump components. Possess low thermal expansion and resistant to thermal shock. Used for
scientic instruments, glass molds and in such other parts where dimensional stability is required

455.7
455.7
455.7
455.7
455.7
455.7
455.7
455.7
455.7

lbm /ft3

Density

1.22

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Unless otherwise specied other elements may be present at the discretion of the manufacturer, provided they do not alter the microstructure substantially, or aect the properties adversely.
Measured on test pieces machined from separately cast test pieces/samples.
Source: IS 2749, 1974.

17.7
18.7
18.7
18.7
18.7
18.0

AFG Ni 13 Mn 7
AFG Ni 15 Cu 6 Cr 2
AFG Ni 15 Cu 6 Cr 3
AFG Ni 20 Cr 2
AFG Ni 20 Cr 3
AFG Ni 20 Si 5 Cr 3

9.3
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.0

lm/m K
lin/in 8F
at 20 to 2008C

Grade

0.2
1.02.5
2.53.5
1.02.5
2.53.5
1.54.5
2.53.5
4.55.5
0.2

Cr

Specic hear, c

12.014.0
13.517.5
13.517.5
18.022.0
18.022.0
18.022.0
28.032.0
29.032.0
34.036.0

Ni

J/kg K

6.07.0
0.51.5
0.51.5
0.51.5
0.51.5
0.51.5
0.51.5
0.51.5
0.51.5

Mn

Thermal coecient of
linear expansion, 

Si

Grade

Chemical composition, %

TABLE 1-5B
Chemical compositiona and mechanical propertiesb of ake graphite austenitic cast iron

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

(C 07)
(C 10y)
(C 14y)
(C 15)
(C 15 Mn 75)
(C 20)
(C 25)
(C 25 Mn 75+)
(C 30+)
(C 35)
(C 35 Mn 75+)
(C 40+)
(C 45+)
(C 50+)
(C 50 Mn 1)
(C 55 Mn 75+)
(C 60)
(C 65)

7C4
10 C 4
14 C 6
15 C 4
15 C 8
20 C 8
25 C 4
25 C 8
30 C 8
35 C 4
35 C 8
40 C 8
45 C 8
50 C 4
50 C 12
55 C 8
60 C 4
65 C 6

0.12 max
0.15 max
0.100.18
0.20 max
0.100.20
0.150.25
0.200.30
0.200.30
0.250.35
0.300.40
0.300.40
0.350.45
0.400.50
0.450.55
0.450.55
0.500.60
0.550.65
0.600.70

%C
0.50 max
0.300.60
0.400.70
0.300.60
0.600.90
0.600.90
0.300.60
0.600.90
0.600.90
0.300.60
0.600.90
0.600.90
0.600.90
0.600.90
1.101.40
0.600.90
0.500.80
0.500.80

% Mn
320400
340420
370450
370490
420500
440520
440540
470570
500600
520620
550650
580680
630710
660780
720 min
720 min
750 min
750 min

MPa
46.558.0
49.470.0
53.665.0
53.671.0
61.072.5
63.575.4
63.578.3
68.282.7
72.587.0
75.490.0
79.894.3
84.198.7
91.4103.0
95.7113.1
104.4 min
104.4 min
108.8 min
108.8 min

kpsi

Tensile strength, st

Notes: a , area of cross section; y steel for hardening; + steel for hardening and tempering; Mn 75 average content of Mn is 0.75%.
Source: IS 1570, 1979.

Old

New

Designation

TABLE 1-6
Carbon steels with specied chemical composition and related mechanical properties

27
26
26
25
25
24
23
22
21
20
20
18
15
13
11
13
11
10

Elongation, %
(gauge
length

p
5.56 a round
test piece)

40.6
40.6

40.6
40.6
30.5
30.5

55
55
41.35
41.35

ft-lbf

55
55

Izod impact value, min (if


specied)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.23

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(10 S 11)
(14 Mn 1 S 14)
(25 Mn 1 S 14)
(40 S 18)
(11 S 25)
(40 Mn 2 S 12)

10
14
25
40
11
40

0.15 max
0.100.18
0.200.30
0.350.45
0.080.15
0.350.45

%C
0.050.30
0.050.30
0.25 max
0.25 max
0.10 max
0.25 max

% Si
0.600.90
1.201.50
1.001.50
0.801.20
0.801.20
1.301.70

% Mn
0.080.13
0.100.18
0.100.18
0.140.22
0.200.30
0.080.15

%S
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060

370490*
440540
500600*
550650*
370490*
600700*

%P
(max) MPa

53.771.0
63.878.3
72.587.0
79.894.0
53.771.0
87.0101.5

kpsi

Tensile strength, st

24*
22*
20*
17*
22*
15*

Minimum
elongation, %
(gauge
length
p

5.65 a )

40.6

30.2
35.4

55

41
48

100 (4.0)

60 (2.4)

30 (1.2)
30 (1.2)

Izod impact value, Limiting


min (if specied) ruling
section,
J
ft-lbf
mm (in)

Notes: a , area of cross section;  , steel for case hardening. Minimum values of yield stress may be required in certain specications, and in such case a minimum yield stress of 55 percent of minimum
tensile strength should be satisfactory.
Source: IS 1570, 1979.

C 8 S 10
C 14 S 14
C 12 S 14
C 10 S 18
C 10 S 25
C 15 S 12

Old

New

Designation

TABLE 1-7
Carbon and carbon - manganese free - cutting steels with specied chemical composition and related mechanical properties

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.24

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UNS
no.

G10100

G10150

G10200

G10300

G10400

G10500

G10600

G10950

G11170

G11440

G13400

AISIa
no.

1010

1015

1020

1030

1040

1050

1060

1095

1117

1144

1340

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Normalized
Annealed

As-rolled
Normalized
Annealed

As-rolled
Normalized
Annealed

As-rolled
Normalized
Annealed

As-rolled
Normalized
Annealed

As-rolled
Normalized
Annealed

As-rolled
Normalized
Annealed

As-rolled
Normalized
Annealed

As-rolled
Normalized
Annealed

As rolled
Normalized
Annealed

Hot-rolled
Cold-drawn

Treatment

870
800

900
790

900
825

900
790

900
790

900
790

900
790

925
845

870
870

925
870

8C

1600
1475

1650
1450

1650
1575

1650
1450

1650
1450

1650
1450

1650
1450

1700
1550

1600
1600

1700
1600

8F

Austenitizing
temperature

TABLE 1-8
Mechanical properties of selected carbon and alloy steels

836.3
703.3

703.3
667.4
584.7

486.8
467.1
429.5

965.3
1013.5
656.7

813.7
775.7
625.7

723.9
748.1
636.0

620.5
589.5
518.8

551.6
520.0
463.7

448.2
441.3
394.7

420.6
424.0
386.1

320
370

MPa

121.3
102.0

102.0
96.8
84.8

70.6
67.8
62.3

140.0
147.0
95.3

118.0
112.5
90.8

105.0
108.5
92.3

90.0
85.5
75.3

80.0
75.5
67.3

65.0
64.0
57.3

61.0
61.5
56.0

47
53

kpsi

Tensile strength, st

558.5
436.4

420.6
399.9
346.8

305.4
303.4
279.2

572.3
499.9
379.2

482.6
420.6
372.3

413.7
427.5
365.4

413.7
374.0
353.4

344.7
344.7
341.3

330.9
346.5
294.8

313.7
324.1
284.4

180
300

MPa

81.0
63.3

61.0
58.0
50.3

44.3
44.0
40.5

83.0
72.5
55.0

70.0
61.0
54.0

60.0
62.0
53.0

60.0
54.3
51.3

50.0
50.0
49.5

48.0
50.3
42.3

45.5
47.0
41.3

26
44

kpsi

Yield strength, sy

22.0
25.5

21.0
21.0
24.8

33.0
33.5
32.8

9.0
9.5
13.0

17.0
18.0
22.5

20.0
20.0
23.7

25.0
28.0
30.2

32.0
32.0
31.2

36.0
35.8
36.5

39.0
37.0
37.0

28
20

Elongation
in 50 mm
(2 in), %

62.9
57.3

41.0
40.4
41.3

63.0
63.8
58.0

18.0
13.5
20.6

34.0
37.2
38.2

40.0
39.4
39.9

50.0
54.9
57.2

57.0
60.8
57.9

59.0
67.9
66.0

61.0
69.6
69.7

50
40

Reduction
in area, %

248
207

212
197
167

143
137
121

293
293
192

241
229
179

229
217
187

201
170
149

179
149
126

143
131
111

126
121
111

95
105

Brinell
hardness,
HB

92.5
70.5

52.9
43.4
65.1

81.3
85.1
93.6

4.1
5.4
2.7

17.6
13.2
11.3

31.2
27.1
16.9

48.8
65.1
44.3

74.6
93.6
69.4

86.8
117.7
123.4

110.5
115.5
115.0

68.2
52.0

39.0
32.0
48.0

60.0
62.8
69.0

3.0
4.0
2.0

13.0
9.7
8.3

23.0
20.0
12.5

36.0
48.0
32.7

55.0
69.0
51.2

64.0
86.8
91.0

81.5
85.2
84.8

ft-lbf

Izod impact
strength

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.25

1.26

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G31400

G41300

G41500

G43200

G43400

G46200

G48200

G51500

G61500

G86300

G87400

G92550

G93100

3140

4130

4150

4320

4340

4620

4820

5150

6150

8630

8740

9255

9310

Normalized
Annealed

Normalized
Annealed

Normalized
Annealed

Normalized
Annealed

Normalized
Annealed

Normalized
Annealed

Normalized
Annealed

Normalized
Annealed

Normalized
Annealed

Normalized
Annealed

Normalized
Annealed

Normalized
Annealed

Normalized
Annealed

Treatment

890
845

900
845

870
815

870
845

870
815

870
825

860
815

900
855

870
810

895
850

870
815

870
865

870
815

8C

1630
1550

1650
1550

1600
1500

1600
1550

1600
1500

1600
1520

1580
1500

1650
1575

1600
1490

1640
1560

1600
1500

1600
1585

1600
1500

8F

906.7
820.5

932.9
774.3

929.4
695.0

650.2
564.0

939.8
667.4

870.8
675.7

750.0
681.2

574.3
512.3

1279.0
744.6

792.9
579.2

1154.9
729.5

668.8
560.5

891.5
689.5

MPa

131.5
119.0

135.3
112.3

134.8
100.8

94.3
81.8

136.3
96.8

126.3
98.0

109.5
98.8

83.3
74.3

185.5
108.0

115.0
84.0

167.5
105.8

97.0
81.3

129.3
100.0

kpsi

Tensile strength, st

570.9
439.9

579.2
486.1

606.7
415.8

429.5
372.3

615.7
412.3

529.5
357.1

484.7
464.0

366.1
372.3

861.8
472.3

464.0
609.5

734.3
379.2

436.4
360.6

599.8
422.6

MPa

82.8
63.8

84.0
70.5

88.0
60.3

62.3
54.0

89.3
59.8

76.8
51.8

70.3
67.3

53.1
54.0

125.0
68.5

67.1
61.6

106.5
55.0

63.3
52.3

87.0
61.3

kpsi

Yield strength, sy

18.8
17.3

19.7
21.7

16.0
22.2

23.5
29.0

21.8
23.0

20.7
22.0

24.0
22.3

29.0
31.3

12.2
22.0

20.8
29.0

11.7
20.2

25.2
28.2

19.7
24.5

Elongation
in 50 mm
(2 in), %

58.1
42.1

43.4
41.1

47.9
46.4

53.5
58.9

61.0
48.4

58.7
43.7

59.2
58.8

66.7
60.3

36.3
49.9

50.7
58.4

30.8
40.2

59.5
55.6

57.3
50.8

Reduction
in area, %

269
241

269
229

269
201

187
156

269
197

255
197

229
197

174
149

363
217

235
163

321
197

197
156

262
197

Brinell
hardness,
HB

119.3
78.6

13.6
8.8

17.6
40.0

94.6
95.2

35.5
27.4

31.5
25.1

109.8
92.9

132.9
93.6

15.9
51.1

72.9
109.8

11.5
24.7

86.4
61.7

88.0
58.0

10.0
6.5

13.0
29.5

69.8
70.2

26.2
20.2

23.2
18.5

81.0
68.5

98.0
69.0

11.7
37.7

53.8
81.0

8.5
18.2

63.7
45.5

39.5
34.2

ft-lbf

Izod impact
strength

53.6
46.4

All grades are ne-grained except for those 1100 series, which are coarse-grained. Heat-treated specimens were oil-quenched unless otherwise indicated.
Values tabulated were averaged and obtained from specimen 12.75 mm (0.505 in) in diameter which were machined from 25 mm (1 in); rounded gauge lengths were 50 mm (2 in).
Source: ASM Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals. Metals Park, Ohio. 1988

UNS
no.

AISIa
no.

Austenitizing
temperature

TABLE 1-8
Mechanical properties of selected carbon and alloy steels (Cont.)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS


PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.27

TABLE 1-9
Mechanical properties of standard steels
Tensile strength, st

Designation

Yield stress, sy

New

Old

MPa

kpsi

MPa

kpsi

Elongation in
50 mm (gauge
p
length 5.65 a )

Fe 290
Fe E 220
Fe 310
Fe E 230
Fe 330
Fe F 250
Fe 360
Fe F 270
Fe 410
Fe E 310
Fe 490
Fe E 370
Fe 540
Fe E 400
Fe 620
Fe E 460
Fe 690
Fe E 520
Fe 770
Fe E 580
Fe 870
Fe E 650

(St 30)

(St 32)

(St 34)

(St 37)

(St 42)

(St 50)

(St 55)

(St 63)

(St 70)

(St 78)

(St 88)

290
290
310
310
330
330
360
360
410
410
490
490
540
540
620
620
690
690
770
770
870
870

42.0
42.0
45.0
45.0
47.9
47.9
52.2
52.2
59.5
59.5
71.1
71.1
78.3
78.3
90.0
90.0
100.0
100.0
111.7
111.7
126.2
126.2

170
220
180
230
200
250
220
270
250
310
290
370
320
400
380
460
410
520
460
580
520
650

24.7
32.0
26.1
33.4
29.0
36.3
32.0
39.2
36.3
50.0
42.0
53.7
46.4
58.0
55.1
66.7
59.5
75.4
66.7
84.1
75.4
94.3

27
27
26
26
26
26
25
25
23
23
21
21
20
20
15
15
12
12
10
10
8
8

Note: a area of cross-section of test specimen.


Source: IS 1570, 1978.

TABLE 1-10
Chemical composition and mechanical properties of carbon steel castings for surface hardening
Chemical composition (in ladle analysis) max, %
Designation

Si

Mn

Cr

Ni

Mo

Cu

Residual elements

Gr 1
Gr 2

0.4-0.5
0.5-0.6

0.60
0.60

1.0
1.0

0.05
0.05

0.05
0.05

0.25
0.25

0.40
0.40

0.15
0.15

0.30
0.30

0.80
0.80

Yield strength, sy

Tensile strength, st


Designation

Mpa

kpsi

Mpa

kpsi

Elongation, % min
(gauge
length
p

5.65 a )

Gr 1
Gr 2

620
700

90.0
101.5

320
370

46.4
53.7

12
8

Brinell
hardness
HB
460
535

Notes: a area of cross section of test specimen. All castings shall be free from distortion and harmful defects. They shall be well-dressed, fettled,
and machinable. Unless agreed upon by the purchaser and the manufacturer, castings shall be supplied in the annealed, or nomalized and tempered
condition.
Source: IS 2707, 1973.

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0.060.24
0.120.18
0.140.19
0.180.22
0.26 max
0.12 max
0.15 max
0.100.15
0.120.18
0.120.18
0.120.18
0.120.20
0.330.40
0.320.42
0.300.40
0.350.45
0.350.45
0.300.40
0.350.45
0.360.44
0.200.30
0.500.60
0.450.55
0.180.23
0.330.41

%C
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.150.60
0.50 max
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
1.502.00
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
1.502.00
0.100.35
0.200.35
1.101.40

% Si
1.301.70
0.400.60
1.001.30
1.001.40
0.500.80
0.400.70
0.400.70
0.400.70
0.400.70
0.601.00
0.601.00
0.400.70
0.801.00
1.301.70
1.301.80
1.600.90
0.500.80
0.600.90
0.400.70
0.400.70
0.400.70
0.801.00
0.500.80
0.700.90
1.101.40

% Mn

0.200.35
0.400.70
0.450.65

0.150.25

0.901.20
0.400.60

1.001.50
1.251.75
2.252.75
0.30 max

0.400.70

0.200.35

0.200.35

0.800.15
0.100.20
0.150.25

0.901.70
0.901.20
0.450.75
0.901.30
0.500.80
2.903.40

0.150.30
0.450.65
0.901.10

% Mo

0.30 max
0.30 max
3.003.50
3.804.30
1.001.50
1.502.00
1.802.20

% Cr

0.500.80
0.801.10
1.001.30
0.901.20
0.701.10
2.002.50
0.601.00
1.001.40
0.751.25
0.751.25
1.401.70

% Ni

0.150.30

%V

% Al

Notes: (1) Sulfur and phosphorus can be ordered as per following limits: (i) S and P 0.30 max; (ii) S 0.020.035 and P 0.035 max. (2) When the steel is Al killed, total Al contents shall be between
0.020.05 percent.
Source: IS 4367, 1991.

Mn 2
Cr 65
Mn 1 Cr 95
Mn Cr 1
Cr 1 Mo 28
Cr 90 Mo 55
Cr 2 Mo 1
Ni 3 Cr 80
Ni 4 Cr 1
Ni Cr 1 Mo 12
Ni Cr 1 Mo 15
Ni Cr 2 Mo 20
Si 2 Mn 90
Mn 2
Mn 2 Mo 28
Cr 1
Cr 1 Mo 28
Ni 1 Cr 60
Ni 2 Cr 1 Mo 28
Ni 3 Cr 65 Mo 55
Cr 3 Mo 55
Si 2 Mn 90
Cr 1 V 23

20
15
17
20
21
07
10
13
15
15
15
16
37
37
35
40
40
35
40
40
25
55
50

20
15
16
20
21
07
10
13
15
15
15
16
36
37
35
40
40
35
40
40
25
55
50
20
37

C 15
Cr 3
Mn 5 Cr 4
Mn 5 Cr 5
Cr 4 Mo 2
Cr 4 Mo 6
Cr 9 Mo 10
Ni 13 Cr 3
Ni 16 Cr 5
Ni 5 Cr 4 Mo 1
Ni 7 Cr 4 Mo 2
Ni 8 Cr 6 Mo 2
S 17
C 15
Mn 6 Mo 3
Cr 4
Cr 4 Mo 3
Ni 5 Cr 2
Ni 6 Cr 4 Mo 3
Ni 10 Cr 3 Mo 6
Cr 13 Mo 6
Si 7
Cr 4 V 2
Ni Cr MO 2
Mn 5 Si 5

Old

New

Designation

TABLE 1-11
Chemical composition of alloy steel forgings for general industrial use

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.28

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H and T
H and T

R, Q and S.R
R, Q and S.R
R, Q and S.R
H and T

20 C 15

30 C 15

15
16
20
21

R, Q and S.R
R, Q and S.R
R, Q and S.R
R, Q and S.R
R, Q and S.R
R, Q and S.R
H and T
H and T
H and T
H and T

13
15
15
15
16
20
36
37
55
35

H and T
H and T

H and T

40 Cr 4

40 Cr 4 Mo 3

35 Ni 5 Cr 2

Ni 13 Cr 3
Ni 16 Cr 5
Ni 5 Cr 4 Mo 1
Ni 7 Cr 4 Mo 2
Ni 8 Cr 6 Mo 2
Ni Cr Mo 2
Si 7
Mn 5 Si 5
Si 7
Mn 6 Mo 3

N and T
N and T

7 Cr 4 Mo 6
10 Cr 9 Mo 10

Cr 3
Mn 5 Cr 4
Mn 5 Cr 5
Cr 4 Mo 2

Condition

Designation
600750
700850
600750
700850
800950
600 min
800 min
1000 min
650800
700850
800950
380550
410590
520680
850 min
1350 min
1000 min
1100 min
1350 min
900 min
800950
780930
13001500
700850
9001050
10001150
700850
9001050
700850
9001050
10001150
700850
9001050

MPa
87.0108.8
101.5123.3
87.0108.8
101.5123.3
116.0137.8
87.0 min
116.0 min
145.0 min
94.3116.0
101.5123.3
116.0137.8
55.179.8
59.585.6
75.498.6
123.3 min
195.8 min
145.0 min
159.5 min
195.8 min
130.5 min
116.0137.8
113.1134.9
188.6217.6
101.5123.3
130.5152.3
145.0166.8
101.5123.3
130.5152.3
101.5123.3
130.5152.3
145.0166.8
101.5123.3
130.5152.3

kpsi

Tensile strength,b
st

85.6
78.3
101.5
116.0
78.3
101.5
78.3
101.5
116.0
78.3
101.5

540
700
800
540
700
540
700
800
540
700

61.0
66.7
84.1
32.6
35.5
45.0

58.0
66.7
63.8
78.3
87.0

kpsi

590

420
460
580
225
245
310

400
460
440
540
600

MPa

Yield strength,b
sy

TABLE 1-12
Mechanical properties of alloy steel forgings for general industrial use

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220

220

220

229
241
217
217
229
213
217
217
245
220

170
187

170
207
217
210

220

200

Brinell hardness
in soft annealed
condition, max,
HB

18
15
13
18
15
18
15
13
18
15

14

18
16
18
18
16
13
10
8
16
15
14
19
18
18
12
9
9
9
9
11

Elongation,b
%, min
(gauge
length

p
5.65 a )a

55
50
45
55
50
55
50
45
55
50

50
50
50
48
48
48
35
38
60
55
50
60
55
50
48
35
41
35
35
41

40.6
36.9
33.2
40.6
36.9
40.6
36.9
33.2
40.6
36.9

36.9
36.9
36.9
35.4
35.4
35.4
25.8
28.0
44.3
40.6
36.9
44.3
40.6
36.9
35.4
25.8
30.2
25.8
25.8
30.2

ft-Ibf

Izod impactb
value

100
150
63
30
100
30
150
63
30
150
63

4.00
6.00
2.52
1.20
4.00
1.20
6.00
2.52
1.20
6.00
2.52

4.00

235280 100
380440
208252
268311
295341
208252
266311
208252
266311
295341
208252
266311

2.4
1.20
1.20
1.20
1.20

2.52
1.20
6.00
4.00
2.52
1.20
1.20
1.20
6.00
4.00
1.60
1.60
2.00
60
30
30
30
30

178221 63
208252 63
178221 150
208252 100
235280 63
30
30
30
190235 150
208252 100
235280 40
40
50

Brinellb
Limiting
hardness ruling section
number
HB
mm
in

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.29

H and T

H and T

40 Ni 10 Cr 3 Mo 6

50 Cr 4 V 2

9001050
11001250
9001050
11001250
12001350
10001150
12001350
1550 min
9001100
10001200

MPa
130.5152.3
159.5181.3
130.5152.3
159.5181.3
174.0195.8
145.0166.8
174.0195.8
224.8 min
130.5159.5
145.0174.0

kpsi
700
880
700
880
1000
800
1000
1300
700
800

MPa
101.5
127.6
101.5
127.6
145.0
116.0
145.0
188.5
101.5
116.0

kpsi

Yield strength,b
sy

240

250

230

230

Brinell hardness
in soft annealed
condition, max,
HB
15
12
55
11
10
12
10
8
12
10

Elongation,b
%, min
(gauge
length
p

5.65 a a

55
41
55
41
30
48
35
15
45
45

40.6
30.2
40.6
30.2
22.1
35.4
25.8
11.1
33.2
33.2

ftIbf

Izod impactb
value

266311
325370
266311
325370
355399
295341
355399
450 min
266325
295355

150
100
150
63
30
150
150
100
100
40

6.00
4.00
6.00
2.52
1.20
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
1.60

Brinellb
Limiting
hardness ruling section
number
HB
mm
in

a , area of cross section.


Mechanical properties in heat-treated conditions.
Notes: H and T hardened and tempered; N and T normalized and tempered; R,Q and S.R rened quenched and stress-relieved. All properties for guidance only. Other values may be mutually
agreed on between the consumers and suppliers.
Source: IS 4367, 1991.

H and T

Condition

40 Ni 6 Cr 4 Mo 3

25 Cr 13 Mo 6

Designation

Tensile strength,b
st

TABLE 112
Mechanical properties of alloy steel forgings for general industrial use (Cont.)
PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.30

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0.22 0.10 1.30


0.32 0.35 1.70

0.32 0.10 1.30


0.42 0.35 1.70

0.30 0.10 1.30


0.40 0.35 1.80

0.30 0.10 1.30


0.40 0.35 1.80

0.35 0.10 0.60


0.45 0.35 0.90

0.35 0.10 0.50


0.45 0.35 0.80

0.10 0.10 0.40 0.30


0.20 0.35 0.70 max

0.20 0.10 0.40 0.30


0.30 0.35 0.70 max

27 C 15 (27 Mn 2)

37 C 15 (37 Mn 2)

35 Mn 6 Mo 3
(35 Mn 2 Mo 28)

35 Mn 6 Mo 4
(35 Mn 2 Mo 45)

40 Cr 4 (40 Cr 1)

40 Cr 4 Mo 2
(40 Cr 1 Mo 28)

15 Cr 13 Mo 6
(15 Cr 3 Mo 55)

25 Cr 13 Mo 6
(25 Cr 3 Mo 55)

Ni

0.16 0.10 1.30


0.24 0.35 1.70

Mn

20 C 15 (20 Mn 2)##

Si

Designation

0.35
0.55

0.20
0.35

Mo

2.90 0.45
3.40 0.65

2.90 0.45
3.40 0.65

0.90 0.20
1.20 0.35

0.90
1.20

Cr

Percent
V/Al

TABLE 113
Chemical composition and mechanical properties of alloy steels

8901040
9901140
10901240
1540 min

690840
790940

700850
800950
9001050
10001150

690840
790940
8901040

790940
8901040
9901140

690840
790940
8901040
9901140

590740
690840
790940
8901040

590740
690840

590740
690840

MPa

129.0150.8
143.6165.3
158.1179.8
223.4 min

100.0121.8
114.6136.3

101.5123.3
116.0137.8
130.5152.3
145.0166.8

100.0121.8
114.6136.3
129.0150.8

114.6136.3
129.0150.8
143.6165.3

100.0121.8
114.6136.3
129.0150.8
143.6165.3

85.5107.3
100.0121.8
114.6136.3
129.0150.8

85.5107.3
100.0121.8

85.6107.3
100.0121.8

kpsi

Tensile strength, st

56.6
71.1
79.9
94.3

71.1 14
79.9 12
650 94.3. 11
750 108.8 10
830 120.4 9
1240 179.8 8

490
550

13
12
11
10

71.1 14
79.8 12
94.3 11
490 71.1
550 79.8
650 94.3
750 108.8

490
550
650

550 79.8 16
650 94.3 15
750 108.9 13

14
12
12
10

18
18
16
15

56.6 18
65.3 16

56.6 18
65.3 16

490 71.1
550 79.8
650 94.3
750 108.8

390
490
550
650

390
450

390
450

40.6
36.8
36.8
35.4

35.4
35.4
35.4
30.2

40.6
36.8
36.8
35.4

50
48
41
14

36.8
35.4
30.2
10.3

55 40.6
50 36.8

55
50
50
48

55 40.6
50 36.8
50 36.8

55 40.6
55 40.6
48 35.4

55
50
50
48

48
48
48
41

48 35.4
48 35.4

48 35.4
48 35.4

255311
285341
311363
444 min

201248
229277

201248
229277
255311
285341

201248
229277
255311

229277
255311
285341

201248
229277
255311
285341

170217
201248
229277
255311

170217
201248

170217
201248

0.2%
Minimum
Minimum
proof stress, elongation
Izod impact
min, sy
(gauge length
value
Brinell#
p
hardness
5.65 a )a ,
MPa kpsi %
J ft-lbf
HB

150 (6.0)
150 (6.0)
100 (4.0)
63 (2.5)

150 (6.0)
150 (6.0)

150 (6.0)
100 (4.0)
63 (2.5)
30 (1.2)

100 (4.0)
63 (2.5)
30 (1.2)

150 (6.0)
100 (4.0)
63 (2.5)

150 (6.0)
100 (4.0)
63 (2.5)
30 (1.2)

150 (6.0)
100 (4.0)
30 (1.2)
15 (0.6)

100 (4.0)
63 (2.5)

63 (2.5)
30 (1.2)

Limiting
ruling
section,
mm (in)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.31

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790940
8901040
9901140
10901240
11901340
1540 min
8901040
9901140
10901240
11901340
1540 min

0.35 0.10 0. 50 3.20 0.30


0.45 0.35 0.80 3.6
max

0.30 0.10 6090 1.00 0.45


0.40 0.35
1.50 0.75

0.26 0.10 0.40 3.90 1.10


0.34 0.35 0.70 4.30 1.40

0.35 0.10 0.40 1.20 0.90 0.10


0.45 0.35 0.70 1.60 1.30 0.20

0.35 0.10 0.40 1.25 0.90 0.20


0.45 0.35 0.70 1.75 1.30 0.35

35 Ni 5 Cr 2
(35 Ni 1 Cr 60)

30 Ni 16 Cr 5
(30 Ni 4 Cr 1)

40 Ni 6 Cr 4 Mo 2
(40 Ni Cr 1 Mo 15)

40 Ni 6 Cr 4 Mo 3
(40 Ni 2 Cr 1 Mo 28)

31 Ni 10 Cr 3 Mo 6
0.27 0.10 0.40 2.25 0.50 0.40
(31 Ni 3 Cr 65 Mo 55) 0.35 0.35 0.70 2.75 0.80 0.70

1.50 0.10 Al: 0.90


1.80. 0.25 1.30

790940
8901040
9901140
10901240

1540 min

690840
790940
8901040

790940
8901040

690840
790940
8901040

1340 min
1540 min

MPa

40 Ni 14 (40 Ni 31)

V/Al

0.35 0.10 0.40 0.30


0.45 0.45 0.70 max

Mo

3.00 0.90 V: 0.15


3.50 1.10 0.25

Cr

40 Cr 7 Al 10 Mo 2
(40 Cr 2 Al 1 Mo 18)

Ni

0.35 0.10 0.40 0.30


0.45 0.35 0.70 max

Mn

40 Cr 13 Mo 10 V 2
(40 Cr 3 Mo 1 V 20)

Si

129.0150.8
143.6165.3
158.1179.8
172.6194.4
223.4 min

114.6136.3
129.0150.8
143.6165.3
158.1179.8
172.6194.4
223.4 min

114.6136.3
129.0150.8
143.6165.3
158.1179.8

223.4 min

100.0121.8
114.6136.3
129.0150.8

114.6136.3
129.0150.8

100.0121.8
114.6136.3
129.0150.8

194.4 min
223.4 min

kpsi

Tensile strength, st

Designation

Percent

TABLE 113
Chemical composition and mechanical properties of alloy steels (Cont.)

8
8

179.9

71.1 14
79.8 12
94.3 10

79.8 16
94.3 15

71.1 18
79.8 16
94.3 15

152.2
179.8

650
750
830
930
1240

550
650
750
830
930
1240

94.3
108.8
120.4
134.9
179.8

79.8
94.3
108.8
120.4
134.9
179.8

15
12
11
10
8

16
15
11
11
10
6

550 79.8 16
650 94.3 15
750 108.8 13
830 120.4 13

1240

490
550
650

550
650

490
550
650

1050
1240

55
48
41
35
14

55
55
48
41
30
11

55
55
48
41

40.6
35.4
30.3
25.8
10.3

40.6
40.6
36.8
30.3
22.1
8.1

40.6
40.6
35.4
30.3

14 10.3

55 40.6
50 36.8
50 36.8

55 40.6
55 40.6

55 40.6
55 40.6
48 35.4

21 15.5
14 10.3

255311
285341
311363
341401
444 min

229277
255311
285341
311363
341401
444 min

229277
255311
285341
311363

444 min

201248
229277
255311

229277
255311

201248
229277
255311

363 min
444 min

0.2%
Minimum
Minimum
proof stress, elongation
Izod impact
min, sy
(gauge length
value
Brinell#
p a
5.65 a ) ,
hardness
MPa kpsi %
J ft-lbf
HB

150 (6.0)
150 (6.0)
100 (4.0)
63 (2.5)
63 (2.5)

150 (6.0)
150 (6.0)
100 (4.0)
63 (2.5)
30 (1.2)
30 (1.2)

150 (6.0)
100 (4.0)
63 (2.5)
30 (1.2)

(air-hardened)

150 (6.0)

(air-hardened)

150 (6.0)
100 (4.0)
63 (2.5)

100 (4.0)
63 (2.5)

150 (6.0)
100 (4.0)
63 (2.5)

63 (2.5)
30 (1.2)

Limiting
ruling
section,
mm (in)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.32

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Si

Mn

Ni

Cr

Mo

V/Al
9901140
10901240
11901240
1540 min

MPa
143.6165.3
158.1179.8
172.6194.4
223.4 min

kpsi

Tensile strength, st

750
830
930
1240

108.8 12
120.4 11
134.9 10
179.8 8

48
41
35
14

35.4
30.3
25.8
10.3

285341
311363
341401
444 min

0.2%
Minimum
Minimum
proof stress, elongation
Izod impact
min, sy
(gauge length
value
Brinell#
p a
5.65 a ) ,
hardness
MPa kpsi %
J ft-lbf
HB

150 (6.0)
150 (6.0)
150 (6.0)
100 (4.0)

Limiting
ruling
section,
mm (in)

Note: a , area of cross section;  hardened and tempered condition oil-hardened unless otherwise stated; # hardness given in this table is for guidance only; x steel designations in parentheses are old
designations; numerals in parentheses are in inches.
Source: IS 1750, 1988.

40 Ni 10 Cr 3 Mo 6
0.36 0.10 0.40 2.25 0.50 0.40
(40 Ni 3 Cr 65 Mo 55) (0.44 0.35 0.70 2.75 0.80 0.70

Designation

Percent

TABLE 113
Chemical composition and mechanical properties of alloy steels (Cont.)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.33

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.34

CHAPTER ONE

TABLE 1-14
Mechanical properties of case hardening steels in the rened and quenched condition (core properties)

Tensile strength, st


Steel designation

MPa

kpsi

Minimum
elongation, %
(gauge length
p
= 5.65 a ) a

Izod impact value,


min (if specied)
J

ft-lbf

Limiting ruling
section, mm (in)

Brinell hardness
number, max, HB
130
143

10 C 4 (C 10)
14 C 4 (C 14)

490
490

71.1
71.1

17
17

54
54

39.8
39.9

10 C 8 S 11 (10 S 11)
14 C 14 S 14
(14 Mn 1 S 14)
11 C 15
(11 Mn 2)
15 Cr 65
17 Mn 1 Cr 95
20 Mn Cr 1
16 Ni 3 Cr 2
(16 Ni 80 Cr 60)
16 Ni 4 Cr 3
(16 Ni 1 Cr 80)

490
588

71.1
85.4

17
17

54
40

39.8
29.7

15 (0.6)
>15 (0.6)
<30 (1.2)
30 (1.2)
30 (1.2)

588

85.4

17

54

39.8

30 (1.2)

154

588
784
981
686

85.4
113.8
142.3
99.6

13
10
8
15

47
34
37
40

34.7
25.3
27.5
29.7

30 (1.2)
30 (1.2)
30 (1.2)
90 (3.6)

170
207
217
184

834
784
735
834
784
1324
1177
1128
834
686
882
784
735
981
932
1079
932
932
1324
1177
1128

121.0
113.8
106.7
121.0
113.8
192.0
170.7
163.2
121.0
99.6
128.0
113.8
106.7
142.3
135.1
156.5
142.3
135.1
193.0
170.7
163.6

12

40

29.7

217

12

47

34.7

34

25.3

12

61

44.8

11

40

29.7

40

29.7

34

25.3

34

25.3

30 (1.2)
60 (2.4)
90 (3.6)
60 (2.4)
100 (4.0)
30 (1.2)
60 (2.4)
90 (3.6)
30 (1.2)
60 (2.4)
30 (1.2)
60 (2.4)
90 (3.6)
30 (1.2)
90 (3.6)
30 (1.2)
60 (2.4)
90 (3.6)
30 (1.2)
60 (2.4)
90 (3.6)

13 Ni 13 Cr 3
(13 Ni 3 Cr 80)
15 Ni 4 Cr 1

20 Ni 2 Mo 25
20 Ni 7 Cr 2 Mo 2
(20 Ni 55 Cr 50 Mo
20)
15 Ni 13 Cr 4
(15 Ni Cr 1 Mo 12)
15 Ni 5 Cr 4 Mo 2
(15 Ni 2 Cr 1 Mo.15)
16 Ni 8 Cr 6 Mo 2
(16 Ni Cr 2 Mo 20)

143
154

229
241

207
213

217
217

229

a area of cross section.


Source: IS 4432. 1967.

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS


PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.35

TABLE 1-15
Typical mechanical properties of some carburizing steelsa
Hardness
Ultimate
tensile
strength,
sut

Tensile
yield
strength,
sy

Case

Elongation
Core
in 50 mm Reduction Brinell,
AISI No. MPa kpsi MPa kpsi (2 in), %
of area, % H B

Izod impact
energy

Thickness
Rockwell,
RC

mm

in

ft-lbf

Machinability

Poor
Poor
Good
Very good
Excellent

C1015
C1020
C1022
C1117
C1118

503
517
572
669
779

73
75
83
97
113

317
331
324
407
531

46
48
47
59
77

31
31
27
23
17

71
71
66
53
45

Plain carbon
149
156
163
192
229

62
62
62
65
61

1.22
1.17
1.17
1.14
1.65

0.048
0.046
0.046
0.045
0.065

123
126
110
45
22

91
93
81
33
16

4320b
4620b
8620b

100
793
897

146
115
130

648
531
531

94
77
77

22
22
22

56
62
52

Alloy steels
293
235
262

59
59
61

1.91
1.52
1.78

0.075 65
0.060 106
0.070 89

48
78
66

Average properties for 15 mm (1 in) round section treated, 12.625 mm (0.505 in) round section tested. Water-quenched and tempered at 1778C
(3508F), except where indicated.
b
Core properties for 14.125 mm (0.565 in) round section treated, 12.625 mm (0.505 in) round section tested. Oil-quenched twice, tempered at 2328C
(4508F).
Source: Modern Steels and Their Properties, Bethlehem Steel Corp., 4th ed., 1958 and 7th ed., 1972.

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.36

CHAPTER ONE

TABLE 1-16
Minimum mechanical properties of some stainless steels
Tensile
strength, st
UNS No. AISI No. MPa

kpsi

Yield
strengtha , sy
MPa

kpsi

Brinell
Elongation,
hardness, H B %

Reduction
in area, %

Weldability Machinability Application

Annealed (room temperatures)


Austenitic
S30200
S30300
S30400
S30500
S30800
S30900
S31000
S31008
S34800
S38400

302
303b
304
305
308
309
310
310 S
348
384

515
585b
515
480
515
515
515
515
515
415550

75
85b
75
70
75
75
75
75
75
6080

205
240b
205
170
205
205
205
205
205

30
35b
30
25
30
30
30
30
30

88
88
88
88
95
95
95
88

40
50b
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

55b

Good
Poor
Good
Good

Poor
Good
Poor

General purpose, springs


Bolts, rivets, and nuts
Welded structures
General purpose

Good
Good

Poor
Poor

Heat-exchange parts
Turbine and furnace
Jet engine parts
Fasteners and cold-worked parts

Excellent
Fair
Fair

Fair to good
Fair

Screw machine parts, muer


Machine parts subjected to hightemperature corrosion

Annealed high-nitrogen
Austenitic
S20200
202
S21600
216
S30452
304 HN

655
690
620

95
100
90

310
415
345

4560
50

Ferrite
S40500
S43000
S44600

405
430
446

415
450
515

60
65
75

170
205
275

25
30
40

88 max
88 max
95 max

22e
20

Martensite
S40300
403
S41000
410

485
450

70
65

205
205

30
30

88 max
95 max

25c
22c

100
100

40
40
30

S41400
S41800d
S42000e
S43100d

414
418d
420e
431d

795
1450b
1720
1370b

115
210b
250
198b

620
1210b
1480b
1030b

90
175b
215b
149b

S44002

440 A

725b

105b

415b

60b

95b

20b

S44003
S44004
S50200

440 B
440 C
502b

740
760b
485b

107b
110b
70b

425b
450b
205b

62b
65b
30b

96b
97b

18b
14b
30b

52RC b

15
18b
8b
16b

Bolts, shafts, and machine parts


Bolts, springs, cutlery, and
machine parts
45
52b
25b
55b

High-strength parts used in


aircraft and bolts
Cutlery, bearing parts, nozzles
and ball bearings

70b

At 0.2% oset.
Typical values.
c
20% elongation for thickness of 1.3 mm (0.050 in) or less.
d
Tempered at 2608C (5008F).
e
Tempered at 2058C (4008F).
Source: ASM Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1988.
b

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11.5/13.5

Cr

0.20 max 1.0 max 1.5 max

0.03 max 1.0 max 2.0 max 8.0/12.0 17.5/20.0

0.08 max 1.0 max 2.0 max 8.0/10.5 17.5/20.0

0.15 max 1.0 max 2.0 max 8.0/10.0 17.0/19.0

0.08 max 1.0 max 2.0 max 9.0/12.0 17.0/19.0

0.08 max 1.0 max 2.0 max 9.0/12.0 17.0/19.0

0.08 max 1.0 max 2.0 max 10.0/14.0 16.0/18.0 2.0/3.0

0.08 max 1.0 max 2.0 max 10.0/14.0 16.0/18.0 2.0/3.0

0.08 max 1.0 max 2.0 max 10.0/14.0 16.0/18.0 2.0/3.0

0.03 max 1.0 max 2.0 max 11.0/15.0 18.0/20.0 3.0/4.0

0.25 max 2.5 max 2.0 max 18.0/21.0 24.0/26.0

0.12 max 1.0 max 10.0/14.0 3.5/5.5

0.35/0.50 2.5 max 1.0 max 12.0/15.0 12.0/15.0

X 15 Cr 25 N

X 02 Cr 19 Ni 10

X 04 Cr 19 Ni 9

X 07 Cr 18 Ni 9

X 04 Cr 18 Ni 10 Nb

X 04 Cr 18 Ni 10 Ti

X 04 Cr 17 Ni 12 Mo 2

X 02 Cr 17 Ni 12 Mo 2

X 04 Cr 17 Ni Mo 2 Ti 2

X 04 Cr 19 Ni 13 Mo 3

X 20 Cr 25 Ni 20

X 07 Cr 17 Mn 12 Ni 4

X 40 Ni 14 Cr 14 W 3 Si 2

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5XC0.80

5XC0.80

Ti

and

P max

0.040

0.040

0.040

0.030
0.045
and
N 0:25
max

0.030

0.030

0.030

Chromium steels
0.030
0.040

S max

0.035
W
2.0/3.0

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.030

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

Chromiumnickel steels
0.030
0.045

10XC1.0

Nb

(785)

515
(517)
515
(517)
515
(517)
485
(483)
515
(517)
515
(517)
515
(490)
550

485
(483)
515
(517)
515

415
(445}#
450
(483)
450
(483)
(600
700)
515
(490)

MPa

(113.9)

74.7
(75.0)
74.7
(75.0)
74.7
(75.0)
70.3
(70.0)
74.7
(75.0)
74.7
{75.0)
74.7
(71.1)
79.8

70.3
(70.0)
74.7
(75.0)
74.7

60.2
(64.5)
65.3
(70.0)
65.3
(70.0)
(87.0
101.5)
74.7
(71.1)

kpsi

Tensile strength,
min, st

(345)

205
(207)
205
(207)
205
(207)
170
(172)
205
(207)
205
(207)
210
(210)
250

170
(172)
205
(207)
205

275
(280)

205
(276)#
205
(276)
205
(276)

MPa

(50.0)

29.7
(30.0)
29.7
(30.0)
29.7
(30.0)
24.7
(25.0)
29.7
(30.0)
29.7
(30.0)
30.5
(30.5)
36.3

24.7
(25.0)
29.7
(30.0)
29.7

39.9
(40.6)

29.7
(40.0)
29.7
(40.0)
29.7
(40.0)

kpsi

0.2% proof stress,


min, sy

(269)

217

217

217

217

217

217

183

183

183

183

183

217
(212)

(225)

183

217

183

88

95

95

95

95

95

88

88

88

88

88

88

95

88

Brinell HB Rockwell RB

Hardness number

(35)

40
(40)
40
(40)
40
(40)
40
(40)
40
(40)
35
(40)
40
(40)
45

40
(40)
40
(40)
40

20
(16)

22
(20)#
20
(20)
22
(20)

(40)

(50)

(50)

(50)

(50)

(50)

(50)

(50)

(50)

(50)

(50)

(45)

(45)

(45)

(45)#

Elongation Reduction
in 50 mm
of area,
(2 in),
min,
min, %
%

Notes: Annealed quenched or solution-treated condition;  for free-cutting varieties sulfur and selenium content shall be as agreed between the purchaser and the manufacturer;  for electrode steel
Nb 10C to 1.0 in place of Ti; # the mechanical properties in parentheses are for bars and ats and the properties without parentheses for plates, sheets, and strips.
Source: Compiled from IS 1570 (part 5), 1985.

16.0/18.0

23.0/27.0

0.35/0.45 1.0 max 1.0 max 1.0 max 12.0/14.0

X 40 Cr 13

Mo

0.12 max 1.0 max 1.0 max 1.25/2.50 15.0/17.0

0.80/0.15 1.0 max 1.0 max 1.0 max 11.5/13.5

Ni

X 07 Cr 17

X 12 Cr 12

0.08 max 1.0 max 1.0 max

Mn

X 04 Cr 12

Si

Designation of steel

Chemical composition, %

TABLE 1-17
Chemical composition and mechanical properties of some stainless, heat resisting and high alloy steels

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.37

1.38

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415

485
550
620

Grade 60
Grade 70
Grade 80

485

Grade 50

K12249

K02601
K12609
K12700

70
80
90

60

70

65
75
85
70
70
65
95115

kpsi

415
485
550

345

345

345
415
485
345
345
345
552

310
310

310

345
415
450
345

290

60
70
80

50

50

50
60
70
50
50
50
80

45
45

45

50
60
65
50

42

275345 4250

290345 4250

290345 4250

MPa

Minimum yielda
strength,a sy

May vary with product size and mill form.


Source: ASM Metal Handbook, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1988.

A715

A690

A656

A618

450
520
590
483
483
448
655793

65
60

450
410

A607

Grade 50
Grade 60
Grade 70
Grade I
Grade II
Grade III
Grade 1
and 2

65

450

Hot-rolled
and annealed
or normalized
Cold-rolled
Grade 45

A606

65
75
80
70

450
520
550
480

Grade 50
Grade 60
Grade 65
Hot-rolled

60

415

Grade 42

415485 6070

435485 6370

435480 6370

kpsi

A572

K12211

A441

K11510
K12810

Type 1

A242

UNS
designation MPa

A440

Type, grade,
or condition

ASTM
specication

Minimum tensilea
strength,a st

TABLE 1-18
Mechanical properties of high-strength low-alloy steels

18

19
18
18
12

18
16
15

20

18

18

18

In 200 mm (8 in)

2022
1820
1618

2224

2022
1618
14
22
22
20

22
2225

22

21
18
17
22

24

21

21

21

In 50 mm (2 ln)

Minimum
elongation,a %

Truck frames, brackets, crane booms, railcars. and


other applications where weight saving is important
Dock walls, sea walls, bulkheads, excavations, and
similar structures exposed to sea water
Structural and miscellaneous applications where high
strength, weight savings, improved formability, and
good weldability are important

General structural purposes including


welded, bolted, or riveted bridges and buildings

Structural and miscellaneous purposes where greater


strength or weight saving is important

Structural and miscellaneous purposes where weight


saving or added durability is important

Structural members in welded, bolted, or riveted


construction
Structural members, primarily in bolted or riveted
construction
Welded, bolted, or riveted structures but primarily
welded bridges
Welded, bolted, or riveted structures, but used
mainly in bolted or riveted bridges and buildings

Intended uses

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

CB-30d
C-50d
CE-30d
CF-8d
CH-20d

ACId

ASTM
A607
A606
Types 2, 4h
A607
715 (sheet)i
A656 (plate)
A607
A607

138
20
159
23
172
25
214
31
244
34
303
44
255
37
331
48
Cast Stainless Steels

Cast Alloy Steels


24
20
22
20
17
9
14
6

200
172
193
193

29
25
28
28

3
61
14
95
20

81
75
65
54
79
41
61
32
2
45
10
70
15

60
55
48
40
58
30
45
24

255

448
414
483
586

J410Cg
J410Cg

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70
85

65
60

414
60
448483 6570

1758

379
483

345
345

55
70

50
50

20
14

22
24

25
22

245
8
High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) Steels

310
45
310345 4550

1689

6.612

31

23

17

2030 1522

35
40
50
60
85
125
95
145

kpsi

To 2144 To 311 To 1703 To 247

414
448
448
241276
345

241
276
345
414
586
862
655
1000

MPa

23

95
7097
8797
7585
8088

65
70
80
90
105
150
120
175

kpsi

Yield strength,
sy

60
15
65
18
65
18
3540
55
50
38
Ultra-High-Strength Steels
To 2068 To 300 To 1724 To 250
10

J410CRg

SAE
J410Cg

Medium carbon low alloys


4 140 M, 433OV, D 6AC, 4340
Mod. 5 Cr-Mo-V tool steels:
H-11 (Mod). H-13 (Mod)
Maraging steels (high nickel):
18 Ni (350) Almar 302

448
483
552
620
724
1034
827
1207

Grade
LC1a
WC4a
80-50a
90-60a
105-85b
150-125b
120-95b
175-145b

ASTM
A352-68a
A219-6
A148-65
A148-1
A148-65
A148-65
A148-65
A148-65
655
483669
600669
517586
552607

MPa

Materials classication

Tensile strength,
st

Fatiguec
Impact
endurance limit, Elongation Modulus of
elasticity E
Charpy
sj
in 50 mm
(2 in)
MPa
kpsi
%
GPa
Mpsi J
ft-lbf

TABLE 1-19
Mechanical properties of some cast alloy, cast stainless, high-strength and iron-based super alloy steels

Cb and/or V

Composition
Cb and/or V
(Proprietary) Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni,
P, and other additions
Cb and or V
(Proprietary) Cb, Ti, Zr, Si,
N, V, and others

217
311
262
352

Rupture strength,
Brinell
100 h at 5388C
hardness,
(10008F)
temperature,
Mpsi
8C (8F), HB GPa

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.39

H-11

422

AM 350

Stainless W

16-25-G

17-24 Cu Mo

A-286

610

616

Austenitic
633

635

650

653

660

1031413
1130
15171551
517552
758965
621
593772
448
1007903

827
531
682896
758
9312137
1241
10341655
1172

MPa

160205
160
220225
7580
110140
90
86112
65
146
131

120
77
125138
110
135310
180
150240
170

kpsi

4141207
745
14822000
255345
345689
228
276620
200
655
607

689
372
655745
586
6891655
965
6821207
869

MPa

kpsi

60175 482689 70100


108
215290 372662 5496
3750
50100
33
4090
29
95
88

1238
9
1.5
58
2045
58
3045
37
25
19

317
10
1619
16

30
20
7

20

19.3

19.5

20.9

20.3

20

21

22

21

2.88

2.80

2.85

3.02

2.94

2.90

3.05

3.17

3.08

Brinell
hardness,
temperature,
8C (8F), HB

14

21
538
5144 4106 21
538
20
15
21
538
1135 826
21
538
5681 41-60 21
538

19

70
1000
70
1000
70
1000
70
1000
70
1000

Temperature
8C
8F
21
70
538
1000
21
70
538
1000
1443 1032 21
70
538
1000
1452 1038 21
70
538
1000

Elongation Modulus of
Impact
in 50 mm
elasticity E
Charpy
(2 in)
%
GPa
Mpsi J
ft-lbf

Iron-Based Superalloys

MPa

100
54
95108
85
100240 896
130
140
125175 621758 90100
126

kpsi

Yield strength,
sy

Normalized and tempered.


Quenched and tempered.
c
Polished specimen.
d
Corrosion resistance.
e
Heat resistance.
f
Heat and corrosion resistance.
g
Semikilled or killed.
h
Semikilled or killed-improved corrosion resistance.
i
Inclusion control-improved formability, killed.
Source: Machine Design, 1981 Materials Reference Issue, Penton/IPC, Cleveland, Ohio, Vol. 53, No. 6 (March 19, 1981).

Chromalloy

604

Martensitic
AISI
601
17-22A

Materials classication

Tensile strength,
st

Fatiguec
endurance limit,
sj

TABLE 1-19
Mechanical properties of some cast alloy, cast stainless, high-strength and iron-based super alloy steels (Cont.)

75

49

Mpsi

689

330

538

220

710

400

100

48

78

32

103

58

655793 95115

517

338

GPa

Rupture strength,
100 h at 5388C
(10008F)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.40

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CS
CS
CS
CS
CS

1
2
3
4
5

a 
a , area of cross section.
Source: IS 2644, 1979.

640
700
840
1030
1230

Designation

Grade
640
700
840
1030
1230

MPa
92.8
101.5
121.8
149.4
178.3

kpsi

Tensile strength, min, st

TABLE 1-20
Mechanical properties of high tensile cast steel

390
560
700
850
1000

MPa
56.7
81.2
101.5
123.3
145.1

kpsi

Yield strength (or 0.5%


proof stress), min, sy

35
30
28
20
12

Reduction in
area, min, %

15
14
12
8
5

Elongation,
min, %
(gauge
length

p
5.65 a ) a

190
207
248
305
355

Brinell
hardness,
min,
HB

30
30
29
20

22.1
21.1
20.6
14.5

ft-lbf

Izod impact strength, min

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.41

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1.301.50
1.251.40
1.101.25
0.650.75
0.800.90
0.700.80
0.600.70
2.002.30
1501.70
1.001.20
0.901.20
0.850.95
0.901.20
0.901.20
0.500.60
0.500.60
0.450.55
0.550.65
0.260.34
0.500.60
0.250.40
0.300.40
0.300.40
0.700.80
0.750.90
0.500.60
0.120.20
0.15 max

T 140 W 4 Cr 50
T 133
T 118
T 70
T 85
T 75
T 65
T 215 Cr 12
T 160 Cr 12
T 110 W 2 Cr 1
T 105 W 2 Cr 60 V 25
T 90 Mn 2 W 50 Cr 45
T 105 Cr 1
T 105 Cr 1 Mn 60
T 55 Cr 70
T 55 Si 2 Mn 90 Mo 33
T 50 Cr 2 V 23
T 60 Ni 1
T 30 Ni 4 Cr 1
T 55 Ni 2 Cr 65 Mo 30
T 33 W 9 Cr 3 V 38
T 35 Cr 5 Mo V 1
T 35 Cr 5 Mo W 1 V 30
T 75 W 18 Co 6 Cr 4 V 1 Mo 75
T 83 Mo W 6 Cr 4 V 2
T 55 W 14 Cr 3 V 45
T 16 Ni 85 Cr 60
T 10 Cr 5 Mo 75 V 23

Optional
Source: IS 1871, 1965.

%C

Steel designation

TABLE 1-21
Chemical composition of tool steels

0.100.35
0.100.30
0.100.30
0.100.30
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
1.502.00
0.100.35
0.100.65
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.801.20
0.801.20
0.100.35
0.100.35
0.200.35
0.100.35
0.100.35

% Si
0.250.50
0.200.35
0.200.35
0.200.35
0.500.80
0.500.80
0.500.80
0.250.50
0.250.50
0.901.30
0.250.50
1.251.75
0.200.40
0.400.80
0.600.80
0.801.00
0.500.80
0.500.80
0.400.70
0.500.80
0.200.40
0.250.50
0.250.50
0.200.40
0.200.40
0.200.40
0.601.00
0.250.50

% Mn

0.901.20
0.30 max
1.101.40
0.500.80
2.803.30
4.755.25
4.755.25
4.004.50
3.754.50
2.803.30
0.400.80
4.755.25

11.013.0
11.013.0
0.901.30
0.400.80
0.300.60
1.001.60
1.001.60
0.600.80

0.300.70

% Cr

0.200.30
0.25 max

0.120.20a
0.150.30

0.25 maxa

0.250.40

0.250.50
1.001.20
0.200.40
1.501.50
1.752.00
0.300.60
0.150.30

1.201.60
1.201.60
0.501.00
5.506.50

0.501.00

0.250.35

0.80 maxa
0.80 maxa

%V

0.80 maxa
0.80 maxa

%Mo

1.201.60
17.5019.00
5.506.50
13.0015.00

8.010.0

1.251.75
1.251.75
0.400.60

3.504.20

%W

0.601.00

1.001.50
3.904.30
1.251.75

% Ni

5.006.00

% Co

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.42

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640
2170
710
1827

Annealed 7758C (14258F)


Tempered 2058C (4008F)

Annealed 8008C (14758F)


Tempered 2058C (4008F)

Annealed 7908C (14508F)


Tempered 2058C (4008F)

Annealed 8308C (15258F)


Tempered 2058C (4008F)

Annealed 8458C (15508F)b


Tempered 5658C (10508F)

P-20

S-1

S-5

S-7

A-8

724
2344

690
2068

103
265

93
315

105
340

100
300

100
270

95
290

103
290

100
295

kpsi

448
1550

380
1448

440
1930

414
1896

517
1413

380
1793

510
1793

365
1724

MPa

65
225

55
210

64
280

60
275

75
205

55
260

74
260

53
250

kpsi

Yield strength,
sy

25
9

25
7

25
5

24
4

17
10

25
4

25
5

25
9

97 RB
52 RC

95 RR
58 RC

96 RB
59 RC

96 RB
57.5 RC

97 RB
52 RC

93 RB
54 RC

96 RB
54 RC

96 RB
55 RC

Elongation,
%
Hardness

1010

940

1850

1725

1600

1700

925
870

1575

855

1550

1575

855
845

1850

8F

1010

8C

Hardening
temperature

air

air

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

air

244

206

250

20

12

28

14

Quenched
media
J

Medium to
high

152c

Medium

Medium

Medium

184c

180

Medium to
high

Medium

High

Medium to
high

Machinability

15

21

10

ft-lbf

Impact strength
Charpy V-notch

Single temper, oil-quenched unless otherwise indicated.


Double temper, air-quenched.
c
Charpy impact unnotched tests made on longitudinal specimens of small cross-sectional bar stock. The heat treatments listed were to develop nominal mechanical properties for hardened and
tempered materials for test purposes only and may not be suitable for some applications.
Source: Machine Design, 1981 Materials Reference Issue, Penton/IPC, Cleveland, Ohio, Vol. 53, No. 6 (March 19, 1981).

665
2000

Annealed 7758C (14258F)a


Tempered 3158C (6008F)

L-6
690
1860

710
2000

Annealed 7758C (14258F)


Tempered 2058C (4008F)

L-2

690
2034

Annealed 8708C (16008F)b


Tempered 5408C (10008F)

MPa

H-11

AISI steel
designation Conditiona

Tensile strength,
st

TABLE 1-22
Mechanical properties of some tool steels

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.43

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90.791.5

94.595.2

Fine
Coarse

Medium

84WC-16Co

72WC-8TiC11.5TaC-8.5Co

Medium
64TiC-28WC2TaC-2Cr3 C2 -4.0Co

6.6

12.6

13.9
13.9

14.6
14.5

15.0
15.0
15.0

0.24

0.45

0.50
0.50

0.53
0.52

0.54
0.54
0.54

Mg/m3 lb/in3

Density

690

1720

3380
2900

3100
2760

1790
2000
2210

MPa

100

250

490
420

450
400

260
290
320

kpsi

4340

5170

4070
3860

5170
4000

5930
5450
5170

MPa

630

750

590
560

750
580

860
790
750

kpsi

Compressive
strength,
sc

1720

970
700

1590
1170

2550
1930
1450

MPa

250

140
100

230
170

370
280
210

kpsi

Proportional
limit
compressive
strength, sp

558

524
524

620
552

614
648
641

GPa

81

76
76

90
80

89
94
93

Mpsi

Modulus of
elasticity, E

1860

1340

1450
1520

MPa

270

195

210
220

kpsi

Tensile
strength,
st

0.90

3.05
2.83

1.69
2.03

1.02
1.36
1.36

27
25

15
18

9
12
12

in-lbf

Impact
strength

50

88

112

100
121

W/m K

Thermal
conductivity

5.8

5.8

5.2

4.3
4.3
4.3

2008C

7.0

7.0

5.9
5.4
5.6

3.2

3.2

2.9

2.4
2.4
2.4

10008C 4008F

3.8

3.8

3.3
3.0
3.0

18008F

Coecient of linear expansion, 


lm/m8C at
lin/in8F at

Source: Metals Handbook Desk Edition, ASM International 1985, Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 (formerly the American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH 44073, 1985).

89
86.087.5

90.791.3
87.488.2

Fine
Coarse

90WC-10Co

92.593.1
91.792.2
90.591.5

Fine
Medium
Coarse

Grain size

94WC-6Co

Nominal
composition

Brinell
Hardness
HB

Transverse
strength,
sb

TABLE 1-23
Properties of representative cobalt-bonded cemented carbides
PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.44

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS


PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.45

TABLE 1-24
Typical uses of tool steel
Steel designation

Type

T 140 W 4 Cr 50
T 133
T 118
T 70

Cold-Work Water-Hardening Steels


Fast nishing tool steel
Finishing tools with light feeds, marking tools, etc.
Carbon tool steels
Engraving tools, les, razors, shaping and wood-working
tools, heading and press tools, drills, punches, chisels,shear
blades, vice jaws, etc.

T 215 Cr 12
T 160 Cr 12
T 110 W 2 Cr 1
T 105 W 2 Cr 60 V 25
T 90 Mn 2 W 50 Cr 45
T 105 Cr 1
T 105 Cr 1 M 60
T 85
T 75
T 65
T 55 Cr 70
T 55 Si 2 Mn 90 Mo 33
T 50 Cr 1 V 23
T 60 Ni 1
T 30 Ni 4 Cr 1
T 55 Ni 2 Cr 65 Mo 3
T 33, W 9 Cr 3 V 38
T 35 Cr 5 Mo V 1
T 35 Cr 5 Mo W 1 V 30
T 75 W 18 Co 6 Cr 4 V 1 Mo 75
T 83 Mo W 6 Cr 4 V 2
T 55 W 14 Cr 3 V 45a
T 16 Ni 80 Cr 60
T 10 Cr 5 bee 75 V 23

Typical uses

Cold-Work Oil and Air-Hardening Steels


High-carbon highPress tools, drawing and cutter dies, shear blade thread
chromium tool steels
rollers. etc.
Nondeforming tool steels
Engraving tools, press tools, gauge, tape, dies, drills, hard
reamers, milling cutters, broaches, cold punches, knives. etc.
Carbon-chromium tool
steels

Lathe centers, knurling tools, press tools


Die blocks, garden and agricultural tools, etc.

Carbon tool steels


Shock-resisting tool steels

Pneumatic chisels, rivet shape, shear blades, heavy-duty


punches, scarng tools, and other tools under high shock

Nickel-chromemolybdenum tool steels

Cold and heavy duty punches, trimming dies, scarng tools,


pneumatic chisels, etc.

Hot-Work and High-Speed Steel


Hot-work tool steels
Castings dies for light alloys, dies for extrusion, stamping,
and forging
High-speed tool steels

Drills, reamers, broaches, form cutters, milling cutters,


deep-hole drills, slitting saws, high-speed and heavy-cut
tools

Low-Carbon Mold Steel


Carburizing steels
After case hardening for molds for plastic materials

a
May also be used as hot-work steel.
Source: IS 1871, 1965.

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.46

CHAPTER ONE

TABLE 1-25
Mechanical properties of carbon and alloy steel bars for the production of machine parts
Ultimate tensile strength, sut
Steel designation

MPa##

kpsi

MPa

kpsi

14 C 4 (C 14)
20 C 8 (C 20)
30 C 8 (C 30)
40 C 8 (C 40)
45 C 8 (C 45)
55 C 8 (C 55 Mn 75)
65 C 6 (C 65)
14 C 14 S 14 (14 Mn 1 S 14)
11 C 10 S 25 (13 S 25)

363
432
490
569
618
706
736
432
363

52.6
62.6
71.1
82.5
89.6
102.4
106.7
62.6
52.6

441
510
588
667
696

64.0
74.0
85.3
96.7
101.0

530
481

76.8
69.7

Notes: a , area of cross section;


Source: IS 2073, 1970.

##

Minimum
(gauge length
pelongation

= 5.65 a ), %
26
24
21
18
15
13
10
22
23

minimum; maximum;  steel designations in parentheses are old designations

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14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123

14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
14731123
13731123
13731123

30 C 8 (C 30)
35 C 8 (C 25 Mn 74)
40 C 8 (C 40)
50 C 8 (C 50)
55 C 8 (C 55 Ma 75)
40 C 10 Si 8 (40 S 18)
40 C 15 Si 2 (40 Mn 2 S 12)
220 C 15 (20 Mn 2)
27 C 15 (27 Mn 2)
37 C 15 (37 Mn 2)
40 Cr 4 (40 Cr 1)
35 Mn 6 Mo 3 (35 Mn 2 Mo 28)
35 Mn 6 Mo 4 (35 Mn 2 Mo 45)
40 Cr 4 Mo 3 (40 Cr 1 Mo 28)
40 Ni 14 (40 Ni 3)
35 Ni Cr 2 Mo (35 Ni Cr Mo 60)
40 Ni 6 Cr 4 Mo 2 (40 Ni Cr Mo 15)
40 Ni 6 Cr 4 Mo 3 (40 Ni 2 Cr 1 Mo 28)

15 Ni Cr 1 Mo 12 (31 Ni 3 Cr 65 Mo 55)
30 Ni 13 Cr 5 (30 Ni 4 Cr 1)
15 Cr 13 Mo 6 (15 Cr 3 Mo 55)
25 Cr 13 Mo 6 (25 Cr 3 Mo 55)
40 Cr 13 Mo 10 V 2 (40 Cr 3 Mo 1 V 20)
40 Cr 7 Al 10 Mo 2 (40 Cr 2 Al 1 Mo 18)
55 Cr 70)
105 Cr 4 (105 Cr 1)
105 Cr 1 Mn 60

Stabilization 823 K (5508C).


Source: IS 1871, 1965.

Designation

1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1100850
1100850

1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850
1200850

8C

Hot-working
temperature

800850

850880
830860

11231153
11031133

10731123

860890
850880
830860
810840
810840
830860
840870
860900
840880
850870
850880

8C

11331163
11231153
11031133
10831113
10831113
11031113
11131143
11331173
11331153
11231143
11231153

Normalizing

TABLE 1-26
Recommended hardening and tempering treatment for carbon and alloy steels

11031123
10831103
11631183
11631183
11731213
11231173
10731123
10931133
10731113

11331163
11131153
11031133
10831113
10831113
11031133
11131143
11331173
11331153
11231143
11231153
11131133
11131133
11231153
11031133
10931123
11031123
11031123

830850
810820
890910
890910
900940
850900
800850
820860
800840

860890
840880
830860
810840
810840
830860
840870
860900
840880
850870
850880
840860
840860
850880
830860
820850
820850
830850

8C

Hardening
8C

Oil
Air or oil
Oil
Oil
Oil
Oil
Oil
Water or oil
Water or oil

Water or oil
Water or oil
Water or oil
Oil
Oil
Oil
Oil
Water or oil
Water or oil
Water or oil
Oil
Water or oil
Oil
Oil
Oil
Water or oil
Oil
Oil

Quenching

823923
8031033
823933
823933
823933
823933
823933
823933
823933
823933
823933
823933
823933
823933
823933
823933
823933
823933
or
423473
(depending
on hardness
required)
933

523
823973a
823973a
843923
823973
773973
>423
403453

Tempering

660

250
550700a
550700a
570650
550700
500700
>150 in oil
130180

550660
530760
550660
550660
550660
550660
550660
550660
550660
550660
550660
550660
550660
550660
550660
550660
550660
550660
or
150200

8C

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.47

11.2
12.7
12.5

11.6
13.6
13.6
12.6

14.3
14.1
14.1

13.0

5.8
6.3

0.85
1.11
1.28

0.83
1.16
0.93
0.98

0.52
0.75
1.24

0.75

0.90
0.89

0.37
0.6

0.95

1.47
0.99
0.64

0.38
0.60
0.67
0.6

0.57
0.54
0.94

Si

Mo
Mo
Mo
Mo

1.46 Mo
1.20 Mo

3.65 Ni

2.4 Mo
2.0 Mo
3.0 Mo

0.96
1.10
0.96
0.87

Other

Mill liner
Plate

Round

Round
Round
Round

Round
Round
Plate
Plate

Round
Round
Keel block

Form

100
100

25

25
25
25

25
25
25
50

25
25
100

mm

4
4

1
1
1

1
1
1
2

1
1
4

in

Section

340
330a

655

600
745
600

695
560
510
435a

440
450
330a

MPa

49
48a

181

150

3.5 Ni manganese steel


295
43

95

6 Mn-1 Mo alloys
325
47

220
183
235

2 Mo manganese steels
370
54
365
53
440
64

87
108
87

163
185
188

1 Mo manganese steels
101
345
50
81
400
58
74
365
53
63a

kpsi

Brinell
hardness,
HB

245

MPa

Yield strength, sy


(0.2% oset)

Plain manganese steels


64

65
360
52
48a

kpsi

Tensile strength,
st

2
1a

36

15.5
34.5
7.5

30
13
11
4a

14.5
4
1a

Elongation
in
50 mm, %

26

13
27
10

29
15
16

Reduction
in area, %

Properties converted from transverse bend tests on 6  13 mm (14  12 in) bars cut from castings and broken by center loading across 25 mm (1 in) span.
Charpy V-notch.
Source: Metals Handbook Desk Edition, ASM International, 1985, Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 (formerly the American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH 44073, 1985).

Mn

Composition, %

TABLE 1-27
Mechanical properties of some as-cast austenitic manganese steels

ft-lbf

72

53

3.4 2.5

Impact strength
Charpy b

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.48

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179
278
331
250

290

303
283

186

-T 43
-T 6
240.0 -F
295.0 -T 4
-T 6
319.0 -F
-T 6
C 355.0 -T6
356.0 -T 6

A 390.0 -F
-T 6
520.0 -T4
A 535.0 -F

-T 6

C 355.0 -T61
A 356.0 -T 61

-F

-O
-H 14
-H 18
-T 3
-T 6
-O
-T 451
-T 651
-O
-T 451
-O
-T 351
-T 3
-T 86

355.0

513.0

1100

2014
-T 4.
-T 6.
2017
-T 4.
2024
-T 4.

2011

414
448
235
221
250
186
250
269
228

201.0

90
125
165
380
395
185
425
482
180
425
185
470
485
515

MPa

Alloy no.

13
18
24
55
57
27
62
70
26
62
27
68
70
75

27

44
41

42

26
40
48
36

60
65
34
32
36
27
26
39
33

kpsi

Ultimate
tensile
strength, sut

35
115
150
295
270
95
290
415
70
275
75
325
345
490

110

234
207

185

179
278
179
124

255
379
200
110
165
124
164
200
164

MPa

5
17
22
43
39
14
42
60
10
40
11
47
50
71

16

34
30

27

26
40
26
18

37
55
29
16
24
18
24
29
24

kpsi

Tensile yield
strengthd ,
syt

117

248
221

185

17

36
32

27

27

25

172

186

56
30
17
25
19
25

kpsi

386
207
117
172
131
172

MPa

Compressive
yield
strength,d
syc

60
75
90
220
235
125
260
290
125
260
125
285
280
310

152

221
193

235

234

9
11
13
32
34
18
38
42
18
38
18
41
40
45

22

32
28

34

34

26

26
31
22
29

179
217
152
200
179

42

kpsi

290

MPa

Shear
strength,
s

35
50
60
125
125
90
140
125
90
125
90
140
140
125

69

97
90

69

90
55

59

48
52
69
76

MPa

5
7
9
18
18
13
20
18
13
18
13
20
20
18

10

14
13

10

13
8

8.5

7
7.5
10
11

kpsi

Endurance
limit in
reversed
bending,
sfb

23
32
44
95
97
45
105
135
45
105
47
120
120
135

60

90
90

90

100
140
75
65

130
90
60
75
70
80
85
70

9.5

11.9

10.5

10.0
10.0
10.7
10.7

10.5

Wrought alloys

72

Permanent mold casting

65

82

72

69
69
74
74

Sand casting alloys

Brinell
hardness
Modulus of
4.9 kN
e
(500 kgf) load elasticity, E
on 10-mm
ball, HB
GPa
Mpsi

35
9
5
15
17
18
20
13
22
22
20
20
18
6

7.0

3.0
10.0

D
B
B

D
B
B
B

C
D
D

E
D
D
A

3
3

4
4
1
1

1
1
3
2
2
3
3
3
3

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D
C
C
D

D
D
D

A
A
A
D

Machiability Gas

C
C

A
A
A
D

3
2

2
2
1
1

<1.0
<1.0
16
9.0

4.0

4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3

Corrosion
resistance

17
8
1.0
8.5
5.0
2.0
2.0
5.0
3.5

(2 in), %

Elongation
in 50 mm

TABLE 1-28
Mechanical properties, fabrication characteristics,a and typical uses of some aluminum alloysb

D
B
B
C

D
B
B

A
A
A
D

2
2

2
2
5
4

2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2

Arc

Welding

D
B
B
B

B
B
B

B
A
A
D

Resistance

Truck wheels, screw-machine products, aircraft


structure

Truck frames, aircraft structures

Screw machine products

Sheet metal work, spun holloware, n stock

Machine-tool parts, aircraft wheels, pump parts, marine


hardware, valve bodies
Ornamental hardware and architectural ttings

Timing gears, impellers, compressor and aircraft and


missile components requiring high strength

Aircraft ttings and components, levers, brackets

Air compressor tting, crankcase, gear housing


Cylinder heads, impellers, timing gears, water jackets,
meter parts
Automotive engine blocks, pulleys, brake shoes, pumps

Crankcases, spring hangers, housing, wheels

Aircraft structural components

Uses

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.49

110

150
200
180
240
285
195

260
290
125

310
90
240
230
570

-O

-H 14
-H 18
-O
-H 34
-H 38
-O

-H 34
-H 38
-O

-T 6
-O
-T 6
-O
-T 6

3003

45
13
35
38
83

38
42
18

22
29
26
35
41
28

16

kpsi

275
50
215
105
505

215
255
55

145
185
70
200
250
90

40

MPa

40
7
31
15
73

31
37
8

21
27
10
29
36
13

kpsi

Tensile yield
strengthd ,
syt
MPa

kpsi

205
70
150
150
330

145
165
80

95
110
110
125
145
125

75

MPa

30
10
22
22
48

21
24
12

14
16
16
18
21
18

11

kpsi

Shear
strength,
s

95
55
70
115
160

125
140
60

60
70
95
105
110
110

50

MPa

14
8
10
17
23

18
20
9

9
10
14
15
16
16

kpsi

Endurance
limit in
reversed
bending,
sfb

95
25
73
60
150

68
77
30

40
55
45
63
77
47

28

ball, HB

Brinell
hardness
4.9 kN
(500 kgf) load
on 10-mm
GPa

Mpsi

Modulus of
elasticity,e E

12
17
11

12

10
7
25

8
4
20
9
5
25

30

(2 in), %

Elongation
in 50 mm

B
A
A

A
A
B

A
A
A
A
A
A

Corrosion
resistance

C
D
B

C
C
D

D
D
D
C
C
D

A
A
A
D
D

A
A
A

A
A
B
B
B
A

Machiability Gas

A
A
A
C
C

A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A

Arc

Welding

A
A
A
B
B

A
A
B

A
A
B
A
A
B

Resistance

Fin stock, cladding alloy


Aircraft and other structures

Pipe, railing, furniture, architectural extrusions

Heavy-duty structures requiring good corrosion


resistance, truck and marine, railroad car, furniture,
pipeline applications

Hydraulic tube, appliances, bus body sheet, sheet metal


work, welded structures, boat sheet

Trailer panel sheet, storage tanks, sheet metal works

Pressure vessels, storage tanks, heat-exchanger tubes,


chemical equipments, cooking utensils

Uses

For ratings of characteristics, 1 is the best and 5 is the poorest of the alloys listed. Ratings A through D are relative ratings in decreasing order of merit.
Average of tensile and hardness values determined by tests on standard 12.5-mm (12-in) diameter test specimens.
c
Endurance limits on 500 million cycles of completely reversed stresses using rotating beam-type machine and specimen.
d
At 0.2% oset.
e
Average of tension and compression moduli.
Key: Temper designations: F, as cast; O, annealed; Hxx, strain hardened; T1, cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process and naturally aged; T2, cooled from an elevated temperature
shaping process, cold-worked and naturally aged; T3, solution heat-treated and cold worked and naturally aged; T4, solution heat-treated and naturally aged; T5, cooled from an elevated temperature
shaping process and articially aged; T6, solution heat-treated and articially aged; T7, solution heat-treated and stabilized; T8, solution heat-treated, cold-worked and articially aged; TX 51, stressrelieved by stretching.
Source: ASM Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1988.

7075

6063

6061

5052

3004

MPa

Alloy no.

Ultimate
tensile
strength, sut

Compressive
yield
strength,d
syc

TABLE 1-28
Mechanical properties, fabrication characteristics,a and typical uses of some aluminum alloysb Cont:

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.50

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0.150.35
0.20.4

A-4

A-5

A-6

A-8

A-9

A-10 LM10 0.1

A-11 LM11 4.05.0

A-12 LM12 9.010.5

BS 1490
9.011.5
(LM12)
A-13 LM 13 0.51.3

4223

5230

4600

4250

4635

5500

2280

2585

4685

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A13 (special)

LM9

LM8

LM6

LM5

LM4

LM2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

2.04.0

0.72.5

0.81.5

0.1

9.511.0

0.20.6

0.30.8

0.1

3.06.0

0.15

0.3

0.15

A-2

6.08.0

4520

LM1

A-1

Mg

2447

Cu

IS
old

IS
new

BS

Designation

11.013.0

2.5

2.0

0.25

0.25

10.013.0

3.5 6.0

10.013.0

0.3

4.06.0

9.011.15

2.04.0

Si

0.8

1.0

1.0

0.5

Ni

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.5

0.6

Ti

0.8

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.5

1.2

0.2
0.2

0.050.3 0.05

0.2
0.2
0.3

0.1
0.1

0.2

0.1

0.05

0.2
0.2

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.05

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

Pb

0.1

0.2

Ti +
Nb

0.2

2.04.0 0.2

Zn

2.03.0 0.1

0.5

0.5

0.1

0.1

0.30.7 0.1

0.5

0.5

0.30.7 0.1

0.30.7 0.3

0.5

0.6

Mn

0.51.5 0.6

0.25

0.35

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.0

Fe

Chemical composition, percent

TABLE 1-29
Chemical composition and mechanical properties of cast aluminum alloy5;6;7

0.10

0.1

0.10

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.20

0.20

Sn

Al

MPa

WP

Fullly heattreated
WP

170
247
170
278
139
201

124
154
As cast
124
147
As cast
139
154
As cast
139
170
As cast
162
185
As cast
124
162
162
232
147
185
232
278
Precipitation- 170
treated
231
Solution278
treated
307
Solution216
treated
263
WP
278
309
Fully heattreated
WP
278
As cast

Condition

24.6
35.9
24.6
40.3
20.2
29.2

40.3

18.0
22.3
18.0
21.3
20.2
22.3
20.2
24.6
23.5
26.9
18.0
23.5
23.5
33.6
21.3
26.9
33.6
40.3
24.6
36.4
40.3
44.8
31.3
38.1
40.3
44.8

kpsi

Tensile strength, st

2
1.5
2
8
12
7
13
4
9

2
2
3
5
5
7
2
3
2.5
5
1
2

65
65

100
100

100

Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Sand-cast
Chill-cast

Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Sand-cast
Chill-cast

Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Sand-cast
Chill-cast

Brinell
Elongation hardness,
Test piece
%
HB

Mechanical properties

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.51

A-18 LM18 0.1

A-22 LM22 2.83.8

A-24 LM24 3.04.0

4300

4223

4420

0.1

0.05

0.1

0.40.6

1.21.7

Mg

7.59.5

4.06.0

4.56.0

4.55.5

0.6

Si

1.3

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.6

Fe

0.5

Zn

0.1

0.25

0.5

1.0
3.0

0.15

0.1

0.1

1.82.3 0.1

Ni

0.30.6 0.15

0.5

0.5

0.6

Mn

Chemical composition, percent

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

Ti

Ti +
Nb

0.3

0.05

0.1

0.05
0.1

0.05

Pb

Notes: IS: Sp-1-1967 Specication of Aluminum Alloy Castings and BS 1490 (from LM 1 to LM 24) are same.

Refer to both Indian Standards and British Standards; ** refer to British Standards, BS 1490 only.
Source IS Sp-1, 1967.

A-16 LM16 1.01.5

4225

A-14 (special)

A-14 LM 14 3.54.5

Cu

2285

BS

IS
old

IS
new

Designation

TABLE 1-29
Chemical composition and mechanical properties of cast aluminum alloy (Cont.)

0.1
0.20

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Sn

Al
216
278
185
232

MPa

As cast

177

170
201
232
263
232
278
116
139
Solution (W)- 247
treated
WP
WP
WP
WP
As cast

Fully heattreated
WP
Solutiontreated

Condition

25.7

24.6
29.2
33.6
38.1
33.8
40.3
16.8
20.2
35.9

31.3
40.3
26.9
33.6

kpsi

Tensile strength, st

1.5

3
4
8

2
3

100
100
75
75

Chill-cast

Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Chill-cast

Sand-cast
Chill-cast
Sand-cast
Chill-cast

Brinell
Elongation hardness,
Test piece
%
HB

Mechanical properties

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.52

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99 min

99.5 min

19000

19500

Remainder

Remainder

Remainder

Remainder

Remainder

Remainder

Remainder

Remainder

24345

24534

43000

46000

52000

53000

54300

63400

19600

Al

Designation

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0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

3.54.7

3.85.0

0.05

0.1

Cu

0.40.9

4.04.9

2.84.0

1.72.6

0.2

0.2

0.41.2

0.20.8

0.2

Mg

0.7

0.7

0.4

0.7

Fe

0.30.7

0.4

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.5

10.013.0 0.6

4.5 6.00 0.6

0.20.7

0.51.2

0.3

0.5

Si

0.3

0.51.0

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.41.2

0.31.2

0.05

0.1

Mn

Chemical composition, %

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

Zn

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3*

Ti
or
others

0.1

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.3*

Cr

O
Ma
O
Ma
O
W

Ma
O
Ma
O
Ma
O
Ma

Ma
O

WP

Ma
O
Ma
O
Ma
Ma
O
W

Condition

10 (0.4)
10 (0.4)
75 (3.0)
150 (6.0)

10 (0.4)
25 (1.0)
75 (3.0)
150 (6.0)

10 (0.4)
75 (3.0)
150 (6.0)

50 (2.0)

All sizes

150 (6.0)

Over
mm
(in)

Size

10 (0.4)
75 (3.0)
150 (6.0)
200 (8.0)
10 (0.4)
25 (1.0)
75 (3.0)
150 (6.0)
200 (8.0)

10 (0.4)
75 (3.0)
150 (6.0)
200 (8.0)
15 (0.6)
15 (0.6)
15 (0.6)
15 (0.6)
150 (6.0)
50 (2.0)
150 (6.0)
150 (6.0)
150 (6.0)
150 (6.0)
150 (6.0)

150 (6.0)
200 (8.0)

Up to and
including
mm (in)

2.5
13
25.4
32.6
34.1
34.1
32.6
54.4
58.0
60.9
58.7
55.1
13.0
25.0
31.9
34.1
34.1
32.6

10.2
14.5
14.5

18.9
18.1

11.6
11.6

100
100

130
125

80
80

2.6

18
17
90
175
225
235
235
225
375
400
420
405
380
90
175#
220
235
235
225

70

2.9

kpsi

20

MPa

0.2% proof stress,


min, sp

TABLE 1-30
Chemical composition and mechanical properties of wrought aluminum and aluminum alloys for general engineering purposes6

65
110#
65
100#
65
150
240#
375
385
385
375
430
460
480
460
430
150
240
375
385
385
375
90
130#
100
150#
160
240#
215
200
260#
275
350
110
130#
140
125

MPa

9.4
16.0
9.4
14.5
9.4
21.6
34.8
54.4
55.8
55.8
54.4
62.4
66.7
69.6
66.7
62.4
21.0
34.8
54.4
55.8
55.8
54.4
13.0
18.9
14.5
21.8
23.2
34.8
31.2
29.0
37.7
40.0
50.8
16.0
18.8
20.3
18.1

kpsi

Tensile strength,
min, st

18
25
23
25
23
12
12
10
10
8
8
6
6
6
6
6
12
12
10
10
8
8
18
18
10
12
14
18
14
14
10
11
13
13
18
14
13

Elongation,
% (min)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.53

Remainder

Remainder

Remainder

Remainder

64423

64430

65032

74530

1.54

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0.41.2

0.51.3

Mg

0.2

0.40.8

0.61.3

0.71.3

Si

1.0 1. 5 0.40.8

0.150.4 0.71.2

0.1

0.51.0

Cu

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.8

Fe

0.20.7

0.20.8

0.41.0

1.0

Mn

45

0.2

1.0

Zn

0.2

0.2

0.2

Ti
or
others

0.2

0.150.35

0.25

Cr

WP

WP

W
(Naturally
aged for 30
days)
WP

WP

Ma
O
W

All sizes

6 (0.24)
15 (0.6)

6 (0.24)

150 (6.0)

All sizes

150 (6.0)

5 (0.2)
75 (3.0)
150 (6.0)
All sizes

150 (6.0)

150 (6.0)

6 (0.24)
75 (3.0)

Condition

Ma
O
W
WP
Ma
O
W
WP

Over
mm
(in)

Size

6 (0.24)
75 (3.0)
150 (6.0)

6 (0.24)
75 (3.0)
150 (6.0)

15 (0.6)
150 (6.0)
200 (8.0)
150 (6.0)
200 (8.0)
6 (0.24)
75 (3.0)
150 (6.0)

23 (0.12)
12 (0.5)
150 (6.0)
200 (8.0)

150 (6.0)
200 (8.0)
5 (0.2)
75 (3.0)
150 (6.0)
200 (8.0)

Up to and
including
mm (in)

245
26245

430
455
430

140
110
150
130

125#
155
265
80

120
100
255
270
270
240
50
115#
115
100
235
200
220
230
220

MPa

35.5
37.7
35.5

62.4
66.6
62.4

20.3
16.0
21.8
18.9

18.1
22.5
38.4
11.6

18.1
14.5
37.0
39.2
39.2
34.8
7.3
16.7
22.5
14.5
34.0
29.0
31.4
33.6
31.4

kpsi

0.2% proof stress,


min, sp

285
310
290
290#
500
530
500

170
150
185
150
120
215#
265
330
110
150#
185
170
295
310
295
280
110
150#
185
170
280
245
255
275
265

MPa

41.3
45.0
42.1
42.1
72.5
78.9
72.5

24.7
21.8
26.8
21.8
17.4
31.2
38.4
47.9
16.0
21.8
26.8
24.7
42.8
45.0
42.8
40.6
16
21.8
26.8
24.7
40.6
35.5
37.0
40.0
38.4

kpsi

Tensile strength,
min, st

7
7
7
10
6
6
6

7
7
7
6
10
15
13
7
12
16
14
12
7
7
7
6
12
16
14
12
7
6
9
9
9

Elongation,
% (min)

Properties in M (as-cast) temper are only typical values and are given for information only.
Key: # Maximum, M as-cast condition; R stress-relieved only; P precipitation-treated; W solution-treated, WP solution-treated and precipitation treated; WPS fully heat treated plus
stabilization.
Source: IS 733, 1983.

76528

Al

Designation

Chemical composition, %

TABLE 1-30
Chemical composition and mechanical properties of wrought aluminum and aluminum alloys for general engineering purposes (Cont.)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

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84 Cu, 10 Sn, 2.5 Pb, 3.5 Ni 324
80 Cu, 10 Sn, 10 Pb
241
81 Cu, 4 Ni, 4 Fe, 11 AI

C 86300

C 87200

C 87500

C 90500

C 92200

C 96300

C 97800

C 99400

C 16200

C 17000

Silicon bronze

Silicon brass

Tin bronze

Leaded tin bronze

Leaded tin nickel bronze C 92900


High-leaded tin bronze
C 93700

C 95500

Manganese bronze

Aluminum bronze

Copper-nickel

Nickel-silver

Special alloy

Cadmium copper

Beryllium copper

Leaded beryllium copper C 17300

88 Cu, 6 Sn, 1.5 Pb, 4.5 Zn 276

C 85400

99.5 Cu, 1.9 Be, 0.4 Pb

99.5 Cu, 1.7 Be, 0.20 Co

99.0 Cu, 1.0 Cd

90.4 Cu, 2.2 Ni, 2.0 Fe,


1.2 Al, 1.2 Si, 3.0 Zn

47
35

40

45

67

55

115

34

37

kpsi

179
124

138

152

207

172

572

83

117

MPa

26
18

20

22

30

25

83

12

17

kpsi

517

30

55

25

15

10

1210

20
20

30

25

21

30

15

25

469-1479 68-200 172-1255 25-182 48-3

483-1310 70-190 221-1172 32-170 45-3

Wrought Alloys
769
571

234372 3454

207

379

241689 35100 48476

455545 6679

55

75

Elongation
in 50 mm
(2 in),
%

Cast Alloys
30

Tensile yieldb
strength, syt

689827 100120 303469 4468

310

462

379

793

234

66 Cu, 5 Sn, 2 Pb, 25 Ni, 2 Zn379

79.3 Cu, 20 Ni, 0.7 Fe

88 Cu, 10 Sn, 2 Zn

82 Cu, 14 Zn, 4 Si

89 Cu min, 4 Si

63 Cu, 25 Zn, 3 Fe, 6 Al,


3 Mn

67 Cu, 1 Sn, 3 Pb, 29 Zn

255

Leaded yellow brass

85 Cu, 5 Sn, 5 Pb, 5 Zn

C 83600

Leaded red brass

MPa

UNS no. Composition,a

Alloy name

Ultimate tensile
strength, sut

TABLE 1-31
Typical mechanical properties and uses of some copper alloys4

RB 98

50

125170d

RB 77

60

130d

50

20

20

15

50

192230d

150

40
80

42

30

50

80
60

65

115
134d
75

40

225d

85

80

84

50

60

Brinell,
4.9 kN
Machin(500-kgf Rockwell,a ability
load) HB R
ratingc

Hardness

Trolley wire, spring contacts, railbands, high-strength


transmission lines, switch gear components, and ware-guide
Bellows, diaphragms, fuse clips, fasteners, lock washers,
springs, valves, welding equipment, bourdon tubing
Bellows, diaphragms, fuse clips, fasteners, lock washers,
springs, valves, welding equipment, switch parts, roll pins

Valves, anges, pipe ttings, pump castings, water pump


impellers and housings, small gears, ornamental ttings
General-purpose yellow casting alloy, furniture hardware,
radiator ttings, ship trimmings, clocks, battery clamps,
valves, and ttings
Extra-heavy-duty, high-strength alloy, large valve stems,
gears, cams, slow heavy-load bearings, screw-down nuts,
hydraulic cylinder parts
Bearings, bells, impellers, pump and valve components,
marine ttings, corrosion-resistant castings
Bearings, gears, impeller, rocker arms, valve stems, small
boat propellers
Bearings, bushings, piston rings, valve components, steam
ttings, gears
Valves, ttings and pressure-containing parts for use up to
2888C (5508F), bolts, nuts, gears, pump piston, expansion
joints
Gears, wear plates, cams, guides
Bearings for high-speed and heavy-pressure pumps,
impellers, pressure-tight castings
Valve guides and seats in aircraft engines, bushings, rolling
mill bearings, washers, chemical plant equipment, chains,
hooks, marine propellers, gears, worms
Marine ttings, sleeves and seawater corrosion resistance
parts
Valves and valve seats, musical instrument components,
sanitary and ornamental hardware
Valve stems, marine uses, propeller wheels, mining
equipment gears

Typical uses

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.55

85.0 Cu, 15.0 Zn

C 22000

C 23000

C 26000

C 26800

C 28000

C 34000
C 36000
C 37700
C 44300
C 44400
C 44500
C 46400
to
C 46700
C 51000

Commercial bronze
(90%)
Red brass (85%)

Cartridge brass (70%)

Yellow brass

Muntz metal

Medium leaded brass


Free-cutting brass
Forging brass
Admiralty brass

C 71500

C 77000

Copper-nickel (30%)

Nickel-silver 55-18

1.56

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kpsi

69427 1062

69400 1058

MPa

1560
1845
20
1822

172455 2566

103414
124310
138
124152

145379 2155

138483 2070

207414 3060

60145 186621 2790

5475

6584

56145 145483 2170

47140 131552 1980

5588

4788
4968
52
4855

5474

46128 97427 1462

44130 76448 1165

39105 69434 1063

3772

3464

kpsi

Tensile yieldb
strength, syt

402

4515

3319

633

642

5017

607
5318
45
6560

5210

653

663

553

503

454

Elongation
in 50 mm
(2 in),
%

90-82RB

30

20

30

30

20

30

70
100
80
30

85RF 80RB 40

80RB 64RF 30

82RB 64RF 30

77RB 55RF 30

70RB 53RF 20

64RB 46RF 20

Brinell,
Machin4.9 kN
(500-kgf Rockwell,a ability
load) HB R
ratingc

Hardness

Aircraft turn buckle barrels, balls, bolts, nuts, marine


hardware, propeller, rivets, shafts, valve stems, welding
rods, condenser plate
Bellows, bourdon tubing, clutch disks, cotter pins,
diaphragms, fasteners, lock washers, chemical hardware,
textile machinery
Hydraulic pressure liners, anchor screws, bolts, cap screws,
machine screws, nuts, rivets, U-bolts, electrical conduits,
welding rod
Clutch disks, pump rods, shafting, balls, valve stems and
bodies
Condensers, condenser plates, distiller tubing, evaporator
and heat-exchanger tubing, ferrules, salt water piping
Optical goods, springs, and resistance wires

Coins, medals, bullet jackets, fuse caps, primers, jewellery


base for gold plate
Etching bronze, grillwork, screen cloth, lipstick cases,
marine hardware, screws, rivets
Conduit, sockets, fasteners, re extinguishers, condenser
and heat-exchanger tubing, radiator cores
Radiator cores and tanks, ashlight shells, lamp xtures,
fasteners, locks, hinges, ammunition components, rivets
Radiator cores and tanks, ashlight shells, lamp xtures,
fasteners, locks, hinges, rivets
Architectural, large nuts and bolts, brazing rods, condenser
plates, heat-exchanger and condenser tubing, hot forgings
Butts, gears, nuts, rivets, screws, dials, engravings
Gears, pinions, automatic high-speed screws, machine parts
Forgings and pressings of all kinds
Ferrules, condenser, evaporator and heat-exchanger tubing,
distiller tubing

Typical uses

a
b
c
Nominal composition. unless otherwise noted.
All yield strengths are calculated by 0.5 percent oset method.
Machinability rating expressed as a percentage of the machinability of
d
e
29.4 kN (3000 kgf) load.
RA , RB , RF , Rockwell numbers in A, B, F scales.
C 36000, free-cutting brass, based on 100 percent for C 36000.
Note: Values tabulated are average values of test specimens.
Source: ASM Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, Metals Park., Ohio, 1988.

55.0 Cu, 27.0 Zn, 18.0 Ni 4141000

58.5 Cu, 1.4 Fe, 39.0 Zn, 448 579


1.0 Sn, 0. 1 Mn
70.0 Cu, 30.0 Ni
372517

C 67500

Manganese bronzeA

386 1000

324 965

379607

324607
338469
359
331379

372 510

317883

303896

97.0 Cu, 3.0 Si

95.0 Cu. 5.0 Sn, trace P

60.0 Cu, 39.25 Zn,


0.75 Sn

65.0 Cu. 1.0 Pb, 34.0 Zn


61.5 Cu, 3.0 Pb, 35.5 Zn
59.0 Cu, 2.0 Pb, 39.0 Zn
71.0 Cu, 28.0 Zn, 1.0 Sn

60.0 Cu, 41.0 Zn

65.0 Cu, 35.0 Zn

70.0 Cu, 30.0 Zn

269724

255496

234441

MPa

High-silicon bronze -A C 65500

Phosphor bronze
(5% A)

Naval brass

90.0 Cu, 10.0 Zn

C 21000

Guilding brass (95%)

95.0 Cu, 5.0 Zn

UNS no. Composition,a

Alloy name

Ultimate tensile
strength, sut

TABLE 1-31
Typical mechanical properties and uses of some copper alloys (Cont.)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

6.0
7.6
9.0

6.0
4.3
9.0

3.0
8.5

3.0

AZ63AT6
AZ81AT4
AZ92AT6
HK3IAT6
HZ32AT5
ZE41AT5
ZH62AT5
ZK61AT6

AM60AF
AS41AFc
AZ91A and BFc

AZ31B and CFd


AZ80AT5
HM31AF
ZK60AT5

AZ3IBH24
HK31AH24
HM21AT8
0.6

1.2

0.13
0.35
0.13

0.15
0.13
0.10

3.0
2.0

3.0

0.7

1.8

3.3
3.3

Mn(a) Th

1.0

5.5

1.0
0.5

2.1
4.2
5.7
6.0

3.0
0.7
2.0

Zn

0.6

0.45a

0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7

Zr

kpsi

MPa kpsi

1.0 Si

290
255
235

260
380
290
365

205
220
230

180
160
130

26
23
19

14
35
27
36

Extruded Bars and Shapes


38
200
29
97
55
275
40
240
42
230
33
185
53
305
44
250
Sheets and Plates
42
220
32
33
200
39
34
170
25

17
22
24

115
150
165

Die Castings
30
115
17
32
150
22
33
150
22

19
12
22
15
13
20
25
28

MPa kpsi

Compressive

Bearing

325
285
270

345
405

230

360
305
450
275
255
350
340

47
41
39

50
59

33

52
44
65
40
37
51
49

MPa kpsi

Yield strength, sy

Sand and Permanent Mold Castings


275
40
130
19
130
275
40
83
12
83
275
40
150
22
150
220
32
105
15
105
185
27
90
13
90
1.2 RE 205
30
140
20
140
240
35
170
25
170
310
45
195
28
195

Others MPa

Tensile

Minimum.
4.9-kN (500-kgf) load, 10-mm ball.
c
A and B are identical except that 0.30% max residual Cu is allowable in AZ91B.
d
Properties of B and C are identical, but AZ31C contains 0. 15 min Mn, 0.1 max Cu, and 0.03 max Ni.
Source: ASM Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1988.

Al

Alloy

Composition

Tensile strength,
st

TABLE 1-32
Nominal compositions and typical room-temperature mechanical properties of some magnesium alloys

15
9
11

15
7
10
11

6
4
3

5
15
3
8
4
3.5
4
10

160
140
125

130
165
150
180

140

145
125
150
145
140
160
165
180

23
20
18

19
24
22
26

20

21
18
22
21
20
23
24
26

73
68

88

49
82

63

73
55
84
55
57
62
70
70

Shear strength,
Elongation
s
Brinellb
in 50 mm
hardness,
(2 in), % MPa
kpsi
HB

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

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1290
830
1620
1460
1280
525

187
120
235
212
185
76

134
204
100

52
107

352
740
924
1410
690

65110
5575
95
50
90120
185
7590
7095
145180
140170
91
98
185
19.6
162
70
75100
80120
140175
105

kpsi

448758
379517
655
345
620825
1275
517621
483655
10001240
9651172
624
672
1276
135
1120
485
512690
552827
9651207
725

MPa

1050
715
1310
1220
795
515

462
965
635

220
365

276690
103207
621
110
205415
910
172345
205380
8621172
7241034
210
307
910
117
635
455
207414
241621
8961172
260

152
104
190
177
115
75

67
140
92

32
53

40100
1530
90
16
3060
132
2550
3050
125170
105150
30.4
45
132
17.0
92
66
3060
3590
130170
38

10
8
15
14
25
35

52
17
27

14.5
56

3510
3540
4
50
5535
28
6035
4525
52
3020
49
46
28
102
24
9
6030
5025
52
56.0

Tensile yield
strength, syt (0.2%
oset)
Elongation
in 50 mm
MPa
kpsi
(2 in), %

Values shown represent usual ranges for common sections.


Values tabulated are approximate average ones.
Source: ASM Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1988.

Waspaloy

Unitemp
AF2IDA
Rene 95

Hastelloy B
Udimet 700

Hastelloy G-3

Hastelloy W

Incoloy 800

Inconel X-750

Inconel 825

Monel K-500
Inconel 600

Monel 400

Durnickel 301

Bar, 218C (708F)


8708C (16008F)
Bar, forging 218C (708F)
6508C (12008F)
Bar, 218C (708F)
8708C (16008F)

Bar, cold-drawn
Annealed
Strip, cold-drawn
Annealed
Bar, cold-drawn, annealed
Age-hardened
Bar, annealed, 218C (708F)
Wire. annealed
Spring temper
Bar, drawn, age-hardened
Rod, annealed
As rolled
Bar, annealed, 218C (708F)
8718C (16008F)
Bar, 218C (708F)
7608C (14008F)
Bar, annealed
Hot-nished
Wire, spring temper
Bar, solution-treated
4258C (8008 F)
9008C (16508F)
Sheet, 6.419 mm
(0.250.75 in) thick
Bar, cast
Bar, 218C (708F)
8708C (16008F)

Nickel 200

Nickel 270

Condition

Name of alloy

Ultimate tensile
strength, sut

TABLE 1-33
Mechanical propertiesa of some nickel alloys4

87RB

24RC
75RB
86RB

95RB
35BB
35RC

53

Hardness
number
J

39

ft-lbf

Impact strength
notched Charpy

Jet engines, missiles, turbines where hightemperature strength and corrosion


resistance are important

Superalloy, jet engine, turbine, furnace

Springs
Corrosion-resistant parts
Jet engines, missiles, etc. where corrosion
resistance and high strength are required

High strength and hardness, corrosion


resistance
Corrosion-resistant parts

Corrosion-resistant parts

Typical uses

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

365
255
434

317

207
214

53
37
63

46

30
31

Zinc Foundry Alloys

Die-Casting Alloys

110120
90100
110125

110125

105120
105125

82
91

Tensile yield strength,


Brinell
syt
hardness,
MPa
kpsi
HB

36
811
1

13
13

10
7
14

Elongation
in 50 mm
(2 in), %

58
65
54

43
48
40

ft-lbf

Impact strength
Charpy

Die-cast.
Note: Values given are average values.
Source: Machine Design, 1981 Materials Reference Issue, Penton/IPC, Cleveland, Ohio, Vol. 53, No. 6 (March 19, 1981); SAE Handbook, pp. 11123, 1981.

5864
4547
65

400440
310324
448

ZA-27
Sand-cast
Sand-cast
Die-cast

41
47
47

57

283
324
283

kpsi

393

Z 33520
Z 35531

MPa

4045
4550

903
925a
903

UNS

276310
310345

AG 40 A
AC 41 A

Alloy 3
Alloy 5
Alloy 7

SAE

Ultimate tensile
strength, sut

ZA-12
Sand-cast
Permanent
Mold
Die-cast

ASTM

Grade

Designation of alloy

TABLE 1-34
Mechanical properties of some zinc casting alloys8

47
56

MPa

6.8
8.2

kpsi

Fatigue endurance
limit, sf , 108 cycles

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

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550

R 58010

900
1030
1170
1170

Ti-6AI-4Vb
Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn
Ti-10V-2Fe-3Ala;c
Ti-6A1-2Sn-4Zr6Moe
Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al
Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr4Mo-4Zrb;c
900

790
690
1000

Ti-5Al-2.5Sn
Ti-5Al-2.5Sn-ELI
Ti-2.25Al-11Sn5Zr-IMo

130

130
150
170
170

115
100
145

50

830

830
970
1100
1100

760
620
900

480

380

280

170

120

120
140
160
160

110
90
130

70

55

40

25

10

19

20

22

24

13.5

24.5

35

10

18e

26a

34RC

30RC

40b

22b

30b

40b

MachiHardness nability

Gas turbine engine casting and rings, aerospace


structural members, excellent weldability,
pressure vessels, excellent corrosive resistance,
jet engine blades and wheels, large bulkhead
forgings
Most widely used alloy, aircraft gas turbine
disks and blades, turbine disks and blades,
air frame structural components, gas turbine
engines, disks and fan blade, components of
compressors
Missile applications such as solid rocket motor
cases, advanced manned and unmanned
airborne systems, springs for airframe
applications

Resistance to temperature eect of structures,


easy to fabricate, excellent corrosive resistance,
cyrogenic applications

Uses

At 0.2% oset.
Mechanical and other properties given for annealed conditions.
c
Mechanical and other properties given for solution-treated and aged condition.
d
Based on a rating of 100 for B1112 resulfurized steel.
e
Approximate values of annealed bars at room temperature.
Source: Metals Handbook, Desk Edition, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002, 1985 (formerly the American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1985).

Beta alloy
Beta alloy

R 56260

R 56400

80

450

ASTM Grade 3
(Ti-65A)
ASTM Grade 4

Alpha-beta
alloy

65

340

ASTM Grade 2

Commercially
pure titanium
Commercially
pure titanium
Commercially
pure titanium
Alpha alloy
R 54520
Alpha alloy
R 54521
Alpha alloy
R 54790

35

ASTM Grade 1

Commercially R 50520
pure titanium

240

Designation

Name of alloy UNS no.

Strength
Ultimate
impact
tensile
Tensile yield
Charpy
strength, sut strength, syt Elongation
in 50 mm
MPa kpsi MPa kpsi (2 in), % J
ft-lbf

TABLE 1-35
Mechanical properties of some wrought titanium alloy4

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

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951
827
920

100
94
100

Forged

100
345
95.5
414
94
427
100
455
100
896
95.5
876
99 min 937
99
1103

Density
, %
MPa

Blended elemental alloy, cold


Blended elemental alloy, forged,
preforms or vacuum hot pressed
Solution treated and aged
Hot isostatically pressed

Forged

Processing

120
133.5

138

50
60
62
66
130
127
136
160

kpsi

738
841

910

344
324
338
365
827
786
862
1013

MPa

107
122

132

50
47
49
53
120
114
125
147

kpsi

62
28
60

60d

414d

kpsi

427
193
414

MPa

Fatigue limit
notched, sf

83f

55e
45e
61e

76f

50e
40e
56e

p
p
MPA m kpsi in

Fracture
toughness, KIC

114
117
116

103
103

GPa

16.5
17
16.8

15
15

Mpsi

Elastic
modulus, E

5
11.5

15

23
10
8
1218
4.9

5
15

8
25

39

30
20
14
15-40
7.6

35
14

ReducElonga- tion in
tion,
area,
%
%

0.12% oxygen.
0.2% oxygen.
c
Consolidated at 811 MPa (58.8 tpsi), 0.5 s dwell in low-carbon steel uid dies. Preheat temperature was 9408C (17258F) held at temperature 0.75 h. Powder was vacuum lled into uid dies following
cold static outgassing for 24 h.
d
Kt 3.
e
Ke .
f
Ktc .
Source: Metals Handbook, Desk Edition, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002, 1985 (formerly the American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1985).

Plasma rotating electrode


processed Ti-6Al-4V
Powder metallurgy Ti-6Al-4Va

Wrought commercial purity


titanium Grade II
Sponge commercial puritya
Powder metallurgy titanium
Wrought Ti-6Al-4V (AMS 4298)
Powder metallurgy Ti-6Al-4V

Name of alloy

Ultimate tensile
Yield
strength, sut strength, sy

TABLE 1-35A
Mechanical properties of powder metallurgy and wrought titanium and titanium-base alloys

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

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4350

4930

5367

54520 30
8 MPa at 1008C

54820 34

54915 37

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7610
2756

55111 52.5
19 MPa at 1008C

33

4790

1450

37

36

32

28

5380

5200

4640

4060

12.5 1810

MPa psi

Shear
strength,  s

1495

624

464

8.1

16

14

12

10
30% at
1008C
12

3060
135200
at 1008C
(2128F)

60

130

25

18

10

55

48

28
10

13
46

30

3.24.5

30 MPa 4358
20
at
at
2  107 2  107

10.30

4.3

3.2

Fatigue strength
at 107 cycles, sf Hardness Elongation
number, in 50 mm
(2 in), %
MPa
psi
HB

2.9 MPa for 1000 h


0.45 MPa for 1000 h at
1008C (2128F)

2.1 MPa for 1000 h

3.5 MPa for 1000 h


1.1 MPa for 1000 h at
1008C (2128F)
0.790 MPa for 0.01%
per day

19.5 MPa-1000 h
7.5 MPa-1000 h at 1008C
28 MPa for 100 h
3% per year at 2.07 MPa

Creep

For general purpose; most popular of all


lead alloys

Wiping solder for joining lead pipes and


cable sheaths; for automobile radiator
cores and heating units

Low melting-point chemical process


applications, used as solder for the jobs
lead alloyed with tin, bismuth cadmium,
indium forms alloys with low melting
point. Some of these are fusible alloys,
used in automotive devices, re
extinguishers, sprinkler heads.

Uses

Note: Values tabulated are average values obtained from standard test specimens.
Source: Metals Handbook, Desk Edition, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002, 1985 (formerly the American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1985).

4700

55030 32.4

870

4060

54321 28

6 MPa at 1008C

10297

53620 71

10

4002

9570
8701160

7978

MPa psi

52901 27.6

psi

17401885 55
5076
261 at 2128F
10152
66
23202755 68

MPa

Yield
strength, sy

50042 12-13
50132 35
1.8 MPa at 1008C
50750 70
51120 16-19

UNS
No.

Ultimate tensile
strength, sut

TABLE 1-36
Mechanical properties of some lead alloys

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Sand-cast
(cast-on)
Sand-cast
(separately cast)
Chill-cast

Elongation percent,
min

8.0
12.0

5.0

196
(28.4)
216
(31.3)

Class II
gun
metalc

3.0

186
(27.0)f
206
(29.9)f

Class I
phosphora
bronze b

4.0

2.0

137
(19.9)
157
(22.8)

Class III
leaded

4.0

2.0

157
(22.8)
176
(25.5)

Class IV
bronzed

Railway, bronze

12.0

8.0

186
(27.0)
206
(29.9)

Class V
leadede
gun metal

20.0
20.0

12.0

490
(71.0)
539
(78.2)

Grade II

15.0

647
(93.8)
647
(93.8)

Grade I

20.0

446
(64.7)
196
(28.4)

Grade III

Aluminum bronze

Brinell hardness, HB for phosphor bronzes: 60 for sand cast (cast-on) test pieces and 65 for sand-cast (separately cast) test pieces.
Used for locomotive side valves, oil-lubricated side rod, pony pivot bushes, steel axle box, oil-lubricated connecting rod.
c
Used for fusible plugs, relief valves, whistle valve body, stung box, nonferrous boxes, oil-lubricated connecting rod, large end bearings.
d
Used for locomotive grease lubricated non-ferrous axle boxes, side rod and motion bushes.
e
Used for castings for carriage and wagon bearings shells.
f
sut given in parentheses are the units in US Customary Units (kpsi).

Sand-cast
(cast-on)
Sand-cast
(separately cast)
Chill-cast

Ultimate strength,
min sut , MPa (kpsi)

Property

Mode of casting
test pieces

TABLE 1-37
Mechanical properties of bronzes

12.0

216
(31.3)
226
(32.8)
245
(35.5)
8.0

Tin
bronze

20.0

309
(44.8)

Silicon
bronze

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

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1.273.00
1.301.40
1.201.30
1.06
1.122.00
0.971.25
0.981.35

Material

Duprene
Koroseal (hard)
Koroseal (soft)
Plioform (plastic)
Rubberb (hard)
Rubberc (soft)
Rubber (linings)
88
758
14
103

MPa

12.8
110.0
2.0
15.1

kpsi
1.428
1462
3.417
2834
769
3.5

MPa
0.24.0
2.09.0
0.62.6
4.05.0
1.010.0
0.6

kpsi

Tensile
strength, st

Sclerscope.
Coecient of linear expansion from 0 to 333 K (608C 1408F) is 35  106 .
c
Coecient of linear expansion from 0 to 333 K (608C 1408F) is 36  106 .

Specic
gravity

Compressive
strength, sc

TABLE 1-38
Mechanical properties of rubber and rubber-like materials

48
62
62
103

MPa

7.0
9.0
9.0
15.1

kpsi

Transverse
strength, sb

50a /80

1595
80100
3080

Hardness
shore
durometer

422
373
361
344393
328367
339367
361

149
100
88
71120
5571
6594
88

8C

300
212
190
160250
130160
150200
190

8F

Maximum temperature

Softens
Softens
Softens

Stiens slightly
Softens
Softens

Eect of heat

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.64

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0.52.8

21.0

15.247.5 2.26.9

812

6.57.0

5569

69138

348

5583

4548

Cellulosic
(cellulose
acetate)

Epoxy resin
(glass-ber
ller)

Fluoroplastic
group

Nylon

Phenolic
(general
purpose)

0.57.0

1020

810

60200

100300

4.0

4060

7.69.0

1.22.9

2.83.6

1.53.1

Acetal

5.410.5 550

2.3

3772

520

Acrylics

kpsi

41

MPa

0.51.6

8.8

1.11.3

0.180.42

3.04

0.40.5

1.44.5

4.1

2.741

Excellent

Good

Available

Available

Heat

Good

Excellent

High

Fair

Fair

0.04-0.13

0.05

With
steel

Coecient of
friction, 

Chemical With
plastic

Resistance to

114120 R Poor

50-80 D

100110 M

122 R

8094 M

92100 M

103

Hardness,
Rockwell

0.300.35 7095 E

1.03.3

230

1.07.3

0.41.2

6.5

ft-lbf

Izod impact
strength

0.0650.40 1.49.9

0.40.52

0.220.45

0.33

Modulus of
Elongation
elasticity, E
in 50 mm
(2 in), %
GPa
Mpsi

ABS (general
purpose

Name of
plastic

Tensile strength,
sut

TABLE 1-39
Properties of some thermoplastics

Wall plates, industrial switch gears, handles


for appliances, housing for vacuum cleaners,
automatic transparent rings, housing for
thermostats, small motors, small tools,
communication instruments, components
for aircraft and computers, used as synthetic
rubber for tires

Structural, mechanical components such as


gears, fan blades, washing-machine agitator,
valve, pump, impeller, pistons, and cams

Gears, bearings, tracks, bushings, rollerskate wheels, chute liners

Filament wound structures, aircraft pressure


bottles, oil storage tanks and highperformance tubing, reinforced glass-ber
composites

Decorative knobs, handles, camera cases,


pipes, pipe ttings, eyeglass frames, phone
and ashlight cases, helmets, pumps and
power tool housings, transparent parts for
safety glasses, lens signs, refrigerator shelves
and snowmobile windshields, extruded and
cast lm, and sheet for packaging

Mechanical gears, cams, pistons, rollers,


valves, fan blades, washing-machine
agitators, bushings, bearings, chute liners,
wear strips, and structural components

Light-duty mechanical knobs, pipe ttings,


automobile-steering wheels, eyeglass frames,
tool handles, camera cases, optical and
transparent parts for safety glasses,
snowmobile windshields, refrigerator shelves

Light-duty mechanical and decorative


eyeglass frames, automobile-steering wheels,
knobs, handles, camera cases, battery cases,
phone and ashlight cases, helmets, housing
for power tools, pumps

Application

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.65

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55159

438

Polyester

Polyethylene

10.2

Polysulfone

1.66

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50100

10500

201000

1300

<1

25

0.76.2

0.11.2

1.911.7

2.3-5.9

2-5

0.72.6

0.323

0.51.9

0.2517

2.7-21.7 2-16

2.7-6.8

ft-lbf

0.36

0.10.9

1.8

0.73.0

1.3

0.52.2

0.0140.18 0.727.1 0.520

0.281.7

0.34-0.86

0.35-0.93

Izod impact
strength

120 R

50110 R

1065 R

65100 M

88120 M

62- 91 M

115-119 R
106-108 L

Hardness,
Rockwell

Excellent

Excellent

Excellent

Excellent

Good

Heat

Excellent

Poor

Excellent

Fair

Fair

0.12
0.22

0.52

0.12
0.13

0.39

With
steel

Coecient of
friction, 

Chemical With
plastic

Resistance to

Source: Machine Design, 1981 Materials Reference Issue, Penton/IPC, Cleveland, Ohio. Vol. 53, No. 6 (March 19, 1981).

70

514.5

Polypropylene 34100

0.65.5

823

3.650

25345

Polyimide

10-125

2.46.4

Modulus of
Elongation
elasticity, E
in 50 mm
(2 in), %
GPa
Mpsi

7.0-17.3 460

kpsi

8-16

48-123

MPa

Polycarborate 55-110

Phenylene
oxide

Name of
plastic

Tensile
strength, sut

TABLE 1-39
Properties of some thermoplastics (Cont.)

Mechanical cams, pistons, washing machine


agitators, fan blades, valves, pump
impellers, gears, bushings, chute liners,
bearings, tracks, wear strips and other wearresisting parts
Pipe ttings, battery cases, knobs, camera
and handle cases, trim moldings, eyeglass
frames, tool handles, housings for pumps,
power tools, phone cases, transparent parts,
safety glasses, lenses, snowmobile
windshields, signs, refrigerator shelves, and
vandal-resistant glazing

Decorative knobs, automobile steering


wheels, eyeglass frames, tool handles,
camera cases, phone and ashlight cases,
housings for pump and power tools

Flashlight and phone cases, housing for


pumps, power tools and other appliances,
gears, bushings, bearings, tracks, rollerskate wheels and chute liners

Molded polyimides are used in jet-engine


vane bushings, high load bearings for
business machines and computer printout
terminals, gear pump gaskets, hydraulic
valve seals, multilayer printed-circuit
boards, tubes for oil-well exploration

Mechanical gears, pistons, rollers, pump


impellers, fan blades, rotor housing for
pumps, power tools, phone cases, transparent
parts for safety glasses, lenses and
snowmobile windshields, refrigerator shelves,
and ashlight cases

Small housing for power tools, pumps, small


appliances, hollow shapes for telephones,
ashlight cases, helmets, TV cabinets, cable
protective cover, bush-bar sleeves, scrubbervane mist eliminators

Application

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

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2166

2869

3469

28138

3462

345

Alkyd

Allylic

Amino

Epoxy

Phenolics

Silicone

0.46.5

59

420

51 0

410

39.5

kpsi

717

2.521

916

221

GPa

1.02.5

0.353.04

1.32.4

0.33.0

Mpsi

Modulus of
elasticity, E

8090 M

7095 E

80120 M

110120 M

103120 M

98E99 M

Hardness,
Rockwell

15

110

0.30.9

Elongation
in 50 mm
(2 in), %

0.514

0.41.5

0.341

0.424

0.316

0.514

0.310

0.261.05

0.230

0.2718

0.212

0.310

ft-lbf

Impact strength Izod

Fair

Chemical

Excellent Excellent

Excellent Good

Excellent Excellent

Excellent Excellent

Excellent Excellent

Good

Heat

Resistance

Source: Machine Design, 1981 Materials Reference Issue, Penton/IPC, Cleveland, Ohio. Vol. 53, No. 6 (March 19, 1981).

MPa

Name

Tensile
strength, st

TABLE 1-40
Properties of some thermosets8

Refrigerator equipment, used as a washing, sealant,


laminating parts, injection mold silicon rubber

Handles for appliances, automotive power-brake systems and


industrial terminal strips, industrial switch gear, housing for
vacuum cleaners, handles for pots and pans, automotive
transmission rings, and electrical components, thermostat
housings, housing for small motors and heavy-duty electrical
components, small power tools, electrical components for
aircraft and computers, pump housings, synthetic rubber for
tires and other mechanical rubber goods, dry ingredients for
brake linings, clutch facings and other friction products

Filament wound structures, aircraft pressure bottles, oil


storage tank, used with various reinforcements, glass bers,
asbestos, cotton, synthetic bers, and metallic foils, imprinted
circuits, graphite and carbon-ber-reinforced laminates used
for radomes, pressure vessels, and aircraft components
requiring high modulus and light weight, potting and
encapsulating electrical and electronic components ranging
from miniature coils and switches to large motors and
generators

Electrical wiring devices and switch housings, toaster and


other appliance bases, push buttons, knobs, piano keys and
camera parts, dinnerware, utensil handles, food-service trays,
housings for electric shavers and mixers, metal blocks,
connector plugs, automotive and aircraft ignition parts, coil
forms, used as baking enamel coatings, particle-board
binders, paper and textile treatment materials

Switch gear and TV components, insulators, circuit boards,


and housings, tubing and aircraft parts, copper-clad laminate
for high-performance printed-circuit boards

Military switch gear, electrical terminal strips, and relay


housings and bases, automotive ignition parts, radio and TV
components, switch gear, and small-appliance housings

Application

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.67

Polycarbonate
Marblette [annealed
72 h at 356 K
(1818F)]

Bakelite ERL 2774


(50 phthalic
anhydride)
Hysole 4290:
at 296.9 K (758F)
at 405.2 K (2708F)
Armstrong C-6

Araldite 6020
at 299.7 K (808F)
Araldite 6020
at 277.4 K (408F)
Araldite B

Methyl methacrylate
(unplasticized)
Polystyrene
Cellulose nitrate
Castolite
Kriston
CR-39 (Columbia
resin)
Epoxy Resin:
Araldite CN-501

38.062.0 5.559.0 88.2117.2

3.0

20.6

7.0

48.3

22.4
3.25
at 296.3 K at 748F
34.5
5.0

8.0

55.2

28.3
4.12
at 299 K at 778F

4.0

27.6

82.7
1.38

12.0
0.20

10.0

8.25
7.06.0

56.5
48.041.4

68.9

7.55

7.0

12.517.0

10.0

kpsi

51.7

48.2

69.0

Cataline (61-893)

8.68

60.0

MPa

Glass

kpsi

MPa

Tensile
strength, st

Material

Elastic
limit, se

3.45
0.014
3.3
at 294 K
2.55
3.79 4.13

3.2
at 294 K
3.30
0.036
at 433 K

3.10
at 298 K
3.10

2.4
4.3
3.7
1.72.6

2.8

4.24.3

69.0

GPa
0.20

Poissons
ratio, 

0.38

500.0
2.0
475
at 708F
370.0
550.0
600.0

460
at 708F
478.5
5.2
at 3208F

452.0
at 778F
445.0

0.38
0.41

0.34
0.50

0.38

0.362

0.35

350.0
0.33
623.0
0.35
540.0
250.0380.0 0.42

400.0

615.0628.0 0.365

10,000

kpsi

Youngs
modulus, E

TABLE 1-41
Optical and mechanical properties of photoelastic material6

10.508
0.245
13.222
at 293.6 K
7.355
14.535

10.30
0.435
at 433 K

60.0
1.4
75.5
at 708F
42.0
83.0

58.75
2.5
at 3208F

59.0

60,5

10.595
10.332

61.5
at 778F
58.0

310
245
182
80
83.599

54.290
42.907
31.873
14.010
14.62317.338

10.770
at 298 K
10.157

880

87

17402420

5.59
at 293.6 K
4.00
5.33

4.3

4.83

4.57
at 298 K
4.57

25.40
1.00
4.83
11.9012.50

91.00

4.83

4.83

220
at 708F
157
210

170

191

180
at 778F
180

1000
39
191
468492

3582

191

191

lin/fri

Strain fringe
value, fs

lbf/in fri lm/fri

154,113

304.724
423.812
15.236

kN/m fri

Stress fringe
value, f

347,000
261,000

328,000
57,000
290,000

320,000
83,000

310,000

305,000

290,000

56,000
135,000
264,000
116,000
150,000

18,200

226,000
163,000
27,600
280,000

fri/m

8810
6626

8333
1428
6291

8145
2080

7796

7672

7350

1428
3423
6750
29943838

455

70697218

57474132

fri/in

Figure of merit,
Q E=f 

4690

1694

4596

5360

2628

14081188

643

25004070

19701415

fri/m

119

43

16

136

67

36.030.0

16.3

63.8100

53.5

fri/in

S e =f 

Little optical and mechanical creep


Good stress-optical relationship;
susceptible for time edge eect

Used for 2-D and 3-D models

Used for 2-D and 3-D models

Used most commonly for 2-D and


3-D models
Used for 2-D and 3-D models

Used most commonly for 2-D and


3-D models
Used for 2-D and 3-D models

Used for 2-D and 3-D models

Used for 2-D models; free from time


edge eect

Low optical sensitivity


Free from time edge eect; used
for photoplasticity

Used for 2-dimensional (2-D) and 3dimensional (3-D) models;


susceptible for time edge eect

Low optical sensitivity; rarely used

Remarks

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.68

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2.85
102

46.2

31.0

MPa

6.70

4.50

kpsi

Tensile
strength, st

0.003
0.004
75.8
106

0.003

1.72

1.65

GPa

0.425
0.625
11
103

0.425

250.0

240.0

kpsi

Youngs
modulus, E

0.50

0.46

0.467

0.38

0.40

Poissons
ratio, 

0.025

0.158
0.14

0.9

0.5

10.0
1.7

1.752
0.289

0.084

57.6

57.0

483.00

82.00

40.60

431.80

5.84

7.87

19016

3228

1598

17000

230

310

lin/fri

Strain fringe
value, fs

lbf/in fri lm/fri

10.087

9.982

kN/m fri

Stress fringe
value, f

19,000
25,000
3032

35,700

170,000

165,000

fri/m

78

4722694

850

4340

4210

fri/in

Figure of merit,
Q E=f 

1076

684

893

fri/m

31.6

17.4

47.4

fri/in

S e =f 

Great optical sensitivity; used for


model study of body forces

Used for preparation of models in


stress wave propagation and models
of dam

Good stress-optical relationship;


susceptible for time edge eect

Remarks

Sources: K. Lingaiah, Machine Design Data Handbook, Vol. II (SI and Customary Metric Units), Suma Publishers, Bangalore, India, 1986, and K. Lingaiah and B. R. Narayana Iyengar, Machine
Design Data Handbook, Vol. I (SI and Customary Metric Units), Suma Publishers, Bangalore, India, 1986.

Gelatin
(15% gelatin,
25% glycerine,
60%water)

Hysole 4485

0.17

1.0

6.9

Urethane rubber
Hysole 8705
at 26.9 K (758F)

2.70

18.9

Marblette
(phenofomaldehyde)
Catalin 800
Natural rubber
Hard
Soft

kpsi

MPa

Material

Elastic
limit, se

TABLE 1-41
Optical and mechanical properties of photoelastic material (Cont.)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.69

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W-Ni-Fe alloy 17.0


W-Ni Fe alloy 18.0
W-Ni-Fe alloy 18.5

2
3
4

0.614 895
0.650 925
0.667 795

0.614 785
130
134
115

114

kpsi

615
655
690

605

MPa

89
95
100

88

kpsi

Yielda
strength, spl

260
350
450

205

MPa

38
51
65

30

kpsi

Proportional
limit, spl

275
310
345

275

GPa

40
45
50

40

Mpsi

Modulus of
elasticity, E

16
6
3

4
27 RC
29 RC
32 RC

27 RC

Elongation
in 50 mm
(2 in), %
Hardness
lin/in8F
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.6

lm/m8C
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.0

Coecient of thermal
expansion, 

Virtually
nonmagnetic
Slightly magnetic
Slightly magnetic
Slightly magnetic

Magnetic
properties

1.70

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0.4
0.4
0.4
4
0.20.4
5
4
0.5
0.0010.01
0.2
0.20.5
0.8

13
0.0250.25
5
513
20.5

103 in

10.2
10.2
10.2
102.0
510
127
102

103 mm

7.64
2.43
2.62
1.11
1.49

2.48
2.43
2.46
2.56
1.431.75
1.78
3.40

g/cm3

0.283
0.090
0.097
0.041
0.052

0.092
0.090
0.091
0.095
0.0530.066
0.066
0.126

lb/in3

Density, 

28524184
6892067
13782067
827
690

3100
4498
5510
2756
17233445
1240
2480

MPa

385600
100300
200300
120
100

450
650
800
400
250500
180
360

kpsi

Tensile strength, st

200
172
138413
2.8
4

72.5
85
100
415
241689
310
414

GPa

29
25
2060
0.4
0.6

10.5
12.3
14.5
60
35100
45
60

Mpsi

Modulus of
elasticity, E

30
3.7
4550
4550

6.5
8190
8190

2.8
1.5
6.4
2.2

5.0
2.7
11.5
4.0
54

2.8

lin/in8F
5.0

lm/mK

Coecient of thermal
expansion, 

60
87
29

7.5

Btu/(ft2 h8F)/in

381
381

1.7
1.7

2240038080 100170

13440
19488
6496

1680

W/(m2 K/m)

Thermal conductivity, K

Class 2, 9194
Class 3, 9496
Class 4, 9698

Class 1, 8991

Tungsten, %
by weight

Courtesy: J. E. Ashton, J. C. Halpin, and P. H. Petit, Primer on Composite MaterialsAnalysis, Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., 750 Summer Street, Stanford, Conn. 06901, 1969.

E glass
S glass
970 S glass
Boron on tungsten
Graphite
Beryllium
Silicon carbide on
tungsten
Stainless steel
Asbestos
Aluminum
Polyamide
Polyester

Fiber

Typical ber
diameter

TABLE 1-43
Representative properties for ber reinforcement

a
0.2% oset; RC , Rockwell hardness scale C.
Source: Metals Handbook Desk Edition, ASM International, Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 (formerly The American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH 44073), 1985.

W-Ni-Cu alloy 17.0

Mg/m3 lb/in3 MPa

Classication
Class of alloy

Density, 

Ultimate tensile
strength, sut

TABLE 1-42
Typical mechanical properties of commercial machinable tungsten alloys

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Fe

97.7100

97.7100

97.7100

97.499.7

97.499.7

97.499.7

97.099.1

97.099.1

97.099.1

97.099.1

97.099.1

97.099.1

93.898.5

93.898.5

93.598.2

93.598.2

93.598.2

93.598.2

93.197.9

93.197.9

93.197.9

93.197.9

93.197.0

93.197.9

91.495.7

91.095.4

91.095.4

86.093.4

MPIF
material
designationa

F-0000

F-0000

F-0000

F-0005

F-0005

F-0005

F-0008

F-0008

F-0008

F-0008

F-0008

F-0008

FC-0200

FC-0200

FC-0205

FC-0205

FC-0205

FC-0205

FC-0208

PC-0208

FC-0208

FC-0208

FC-0208

FC-0208

FC-0505

FC-0508

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FC-0508

FC-0808

0.61.0

0.61.0

0.61.0

0.30.6

0.61.0

0.61.0

0.61.0

0.610

0.61.0

0.61.0

0.30.6

0.30.6

0.30.6

0.30.6

0.3 max

0.3 max

0.61.0

0.61.0

0.61.0

0.61.0

0.61.0

0.61.0

0.30.6

0.30.6

0.30.6

0.3 max

0.3 max

0.3 max

6.011.0

4.06.0

4.06.0

4.06.0

1.53.9

1.53.9

1.53.9

1.53.9

1.53.9

1.53.9

1.53.9

1.53.9

1.53.9

1.53.9

1.53.9

1.53.9

Cu

Ni

MPIF chemical composition


limits and rangesb , %

HT

<6.0

AS
AS

6.46.8
<6.0

HT

6.06.4

AS
AS

6.46.8
6.06.4

AS

HT

AS

HT

6.06.4

6.87.2

6.87.2

6.46.8

AS

AS

6.46.8

HT

<6.0

AS

HT

AS

6.87.2

6.87.2

6.46.8

6.46.8

AS

AS

<6.0
6.87.2

HT

AS

HT

AS

HT

AS

HT

AS

AS

AS

6.87.2

6.87.2

6.46.8

6.46.8

6.06.4

6.06.4

6.46.8

6.46.8

6.06.4

7.27.6

AS

AS

<6.0
6.87.2

Conditionc

MPIF
density,
,
g/cm3

250

515

480

425

455

345

690

550

550

415

295

225

690

425

585

345

255

160

650

395

510

290

400

240

415

220

170

275

205

110

MPa

MPa

kpsi

Yield
strength, sy
MPa

36

75

70

62

66

50

100

80

80

60

43

33

100

62

85

50

37

23

94

57

74

42

58

35

60

32

25

40

30
26

22

480

480

395

380

290

655

395

330

205

655

310

560

260

70

70

57

55

42

95

57

48

30

95

45

81

38

Copper Steel

23

195

185

160

170

130

260

210

210

155

110

85

260

160

220

130

95

110
130
130
90
116
90
90
116

30d
30d
38d
19d
25d
24d
27d
29d

110

23d

70

70
16d

130

14d

160

13d

90
130

9d

Iron Copper Steel


115
17
60

91

150

38d

130

36d

245

625

40

130

130

22d

275

195

100

24d

110

28d

36

150

110

110

14d

250

110

90

22d

31d

90

90

19d

110

30

155

85
13d

205

57

23

20
23d

395

160

140

90

160

15d

110

70
130

6
11d

12d

65

105

80

GPa

16

13

13

16

13

19

19

16

16

10.5

10.5

19

19

16

16

19

13

19

19

16

16

13

13

16

16

13

23

19

10.5

7.5

9.5

4.7

4.1

7.5

6.8

3.4

6.1

4.7

6.8

6.1

11

13

23

6.8

4.7

34

20

4.1

Mpsi J

Modulus of
elasticity, E

10d

Steel

180

150

kpsi

Fatigue
strength, sf

Iron and Carbon Steel


10
75
11
40

kpsi

Tensile
strength, st

TABLE 1-44
Designation, composition and mechanical properties of ferrous powder metallurgy structural steels

5.5

7.0

3.5

3.0

4.5

3.5

5.0

4.5

8.0

5.0

2.5

9.5

5.5

17

5.0

3.5

25

15

ft-lbf

Impact
energy

<0.5

1.0

55RB

85RB

30RC

<0.5

75RB
65RB

1.0

1.5

60RB

40RC
1.0

<0.5

35RC
80RB

1.5

<0.5

70RB

95RB
1.0

45RB
<0.5

35RC
<0.5

<0.5

30RC
75RB

3.0

60RB

1.5

30RB

<0.5

80RH

30RC

2.5

75RB
<0.5

25RC
2.5

65RB

1.5

100RB

50RB

100RB

45RB

20RB

30RB

15RB

10RH

Apparent
hardness

<0.5

<0.5

1.0

0.5

2.5

1.5

15

Elongation
in 25 mm
(1 in), %

B 426, Grade 3

B 426, Grade 2

B 426. Grade 1

B 310, Class C

B 310, Class B

B 310, Class A

ASTM designation

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.71

91.698.7

90.297.0

FN-0208

FN-0400

1.72

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0.60.9

2.0 max

6.08.0

87.193.4

AS
AS

6.87.2
7.27.6

655

550

HT

FN-0708(e)

620
1160

AS

FN-0705

7.27.6

705

6.46.8

HT

6.08.0

370

2.0 max

AS

0.30.6

87.493.7

585

490

FN-0705

AS
AS

6.87.2

640

395

1240

510

770

310

400

FN-0700

6.08.0

87.794.0

FN-0700

2.0 max

AS

0.3 max

AS

3.05.5
7.27.6

2.0 max

6.46.8

0.60.9

89.696.4

FN-0408

HT

AS

HT

7.27.6

6.46.8

AS

AS

340

545
1105

HT

690

HT
AS

330

AS

760

HT

6.87.2. AS

7.27.6

6.46.8

345

SS

565

HT

7.27.6

3.05.5

3.05.5

3.05.5

1.03.0

1.03.0

6.87.2

255

310

195

205

MPa

95

80

168

90

102

54

85

71

93

57

80

74

112

45

58

49

160

79

100

48

110

50

82

37

45

28

30

kpsi

Tensile
strength, st

AS

FN-0405

2.0 max

2.0 max

2.0 max

2.5 max

2.5 max

1.03.0

6.46.8

AS

AS

FN-0405

0.30.6

0.30.6

0.3 max

0.60.9

0.30.6

2.5 max

1.03.0

7.27.6

6.46.8

89.996.7

91.998.7

FN-0208

0.306

2.5 max

1.03.0

1.03.0

FN-0405

91.998.7

FN-0205

0.30.6

2.5 max

2.5 max

AS

<60

6.46.8

91.998.7

FN-0205

0.3 max

0.3 max

Conditionc

89.996.7

92.299.0

FN-0200

9.510.5

Ni

FN-0405

92.299.0

FN-0200

0.3 max

Cu

MPIF
density,
,
g/cm3

7.27.6

87.290.5

FC-1000

MPIF chemical composition


limits and rangesb , %

FN-0400

Fe

MPIF
material
designationa
kpsi

30

455

380

895

390

57

60

55

130

260

220

500

250

280

150
80

Nickel Steel
240
35
550

240

195
48

330

Iron Nickel
275
40

160

450

205

310

125

255

42

154

43

94

26

160

68

470

290

1060

295

650

180

Nickel Steel

36

140

250

Iron Nickel
205
30

220

275

130

305

140

225

105

415

50

94

30

88

31

65

23

75
125

MPa

38

32

65

36

41

22

34

28

37

23

65

30

45

18

23

20

60

32

40

19

44

20

33

15

18

11

kpsi

Fatigue
strength, sf

155

1070

345

650

205

605

215

450

160

Nickel Steel

205

Iron Nickel
125
18

Iron Copper

MPa

Yield
strength, sy

160

145

160

160

115

115

160

145

160

115

160

160

115

115

160

145

160

160

115

115

145

145

115

115

160

115

GPa

23

21

23

23

17

17

23

21

23

17

23

23

17

17

23

21

23

23

17

17

21

21

17

17

23

17

22

16

27

33

11

12

35

28

22

81

19

41

8.1

14

68

47

24

30

8.1

11

22

24

8.1

14

36

19

Mpsi J

Modulus of
elasticity, E

TABLE 1-44
Designation, composition and mechanical properties of ferrous powder metallurgy structural steels (Cont.)

16

12

20

24

26

21

16

14

30

10

50

35

18

22

16

18

10

50

14

ft-lbf

Impact
energy

3.0

2.5

1.5

5.0

0.5

2.0

4.5

1.5

1.5

6.0

0.5

3.0

6.5

0.5

3.5

0.5

2.0

1.0

3.5

0.5

3.0

11

0.5

Elongation
in 25 mm
(1 in), %

96RB

88RB

40RC

90RB

24RC

69RB

83RB

72RB

95RB

72RB

44RC

80RB

27RC

63RB

67RB

60RB

47RC

87RB

34RC

62RB

42RC

70RB

32RC

50RB

51RB

38RB

70RF

Apparent
hardness

B 484, Grade 3, Class C

B 484, Grade 3, Class B

B 484, Grade 3, Class A

B 484, Grade 2, Class C

B 484, Grade 2, Class B

B 484, Grade 2, Class A

B 484, Grade 1, Class C

B 484, Grade 1, Class B

B 484, Grade 1, Class A

B 222, B439, Grade 3

ASTM designation

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

80.591.7

80.191.4

70.785.0

70.484.7

70.084.4

FX-1005 (e)

FX-1008 (e)

FX-2000 (e)

FX-2005 (e)

FX-2008 (e)

0.61.0

0.30.7

0.3 max

0.61.0

0.30.6

15.025.0

15.025.0

15.025.0

8.014.9

8.014.9

Cu

Ni

MPIF chemical composition


limits and rangesb , %

7.27.6

7.27.6

7.27.6

7.27.6

MPIF
density,
,
g/cm3

895

585
860

HT

790

HT
AS

515

AS

450

HT
AS

620

830

HT
AS

570

MPa

AS

Conditionc

125

85

115

75

65

130

90

120

83

kpsi

Tensile
strength, st
kpsi

740

515

655

345

775

515

740

107

75

95

50

105

75

107

Inltered Steel
440
64

MPa

Yield
strength, sy

MPa

kpsi

Fatigue
strength, sf

125

125

125

125

135

135

135

135

GPa

18

18

18

18

20

20

20

20

6.8

14

8.1

12.9

20

9.5

16.0

9.5

19

Mpsi J

Modulus of
elasticity, E

5.0

10

6.0

9.5

15

7.0

12

7.0

14

ft-lbf

Impact
energy

80RB
92RC

1.0

30RC

<0.5
<0.5

75RB

60RB

40RC

80RB

35RC

75RB

Apparent
hardness

1.5

1.0

60.5

2.6

1.0

4.0

Elongation
in 25 mm
(1 in), %

B 303, Class C

B 303, Class B

B 303, Class A

ASTM designation

Designation listed are nearest comparable designations, ranges and limits may vary slightly between comparable designations.
Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) standards require that the total amount of all other elements be less then 2.0%, except that the total amount of other elements must be less than 4.0%
inltered steel.
c
AS, as sintered; SS, sintered and sized; HT, heat treated, typically austenized at 8708C (16008F), oil quenched and tempered at 2008C (4008F).
d
Estimated as 38% of tensile strength.
e
x indicates inltered steel;
f
Unnotched Charpy test; RB hardness Rockwell B scale; RC hardness Rockwell scale C; RF hardness Rockwell F scale.
Source: Metals Handbook Desk Edition, ASM International, 1985, Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 (formerly The American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH 44073, 1985).

Fe

MPIF
material
designationa

TABLE 1-44
Designation, composition and mechanical properties of ferrous powder metallurgy structural steels (Cont.)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.73

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Ti-5Al-3.5Sn
Ti-5Al-2.5Sn (EL1)
Ti-6Al-4V (EL1)

A 286

Pyromet 538
Nitromic 70
Kromare 5S

347

310S

0.05
1.4

9.5
8.0
9.3

2.0 max

2.0 max

2.0 max

S 30400
0.03
(AISI 304)
S 31008
0.03
(AISI 310)
S34700
0.03
(AISI 347)

0.5
0.10

304

0.1

0.7

0.5
0.1

15

Ni

2.0

0.4

0.15
3.5
0.05

1.0

1.5

2.6

7.0
8.5
23

913

1922

Austenitic Stainless Steel


1.0
812

High Nickel Alloys


Rem
1.7
3944
0.9
Rem
2.5
Rem

Copper and Copper Alloys

0.05

5.5
Rem
18.5
6.8

0.2

Fe

0.07
0.04
0.04
0.04

16

Mo

0.35 max
0.4
0.8

Al

0.2
0.1
0.17

0.05

0.02
0.07
0.03

0.08 max

0.08 max

0.08 max

1.25

2.2

3.1.

0.20

0.02

2.0
Titanium and Titanium Alloys
Omax
Sn
Hmax
0.20
2.03.0
0.02
0.5 max 0.15 max
4.06.0 0.07 max
0.12
23
0.018
0.2 max 0.08 max 4.75.6 0.05 max
3.54.5 0.13
0.015 max 0.15 max 0.15 max 0.08 max 5.56.5 0.05 max

0.3

20
17
15.5 0.16

1719

2426

1820

15.5
16
18.6
15.0

Smax
Aluminum Alloys

0.06

Ti

0.045

3.0 Zn
5.6 Zn

0.18 Zr

Pmax Other

0.30Mmax

0.005 0.008Zr,
0.016B
0.005B

0.045 (10C)(Nb+Tb)

0.045

1.5Co, 4.0W
3.0 (Nb+Ta)
5.0 Nb
0.85 Nb

30 Zn

0.1

70.0

0.15
0.20
0.20
0.23

Cr

1.9 Be

4.4
1.0
2.8
2.5

0.5

Mg

98.1

0.28
0.05 0.25
1.6

0.6
0.1

0.8
0.3
0.7

Mn

4.4
6.3

Cu

0.8

Si

No 5500
No 9706
No 7718

UNS No.

Hastelloy C
Inconel 706
Inconel 718
Inconel X 750

C 17200
Beryllium copper
C 26000
Cartridge brass,
70%

2014
2219
5083
6061
7039
7075

Alloy designation

Nominal composition, %

TABLE 1-45
Nominal composition of some of structural alloys at subzero temperatures (i.e., at cryogenic temperatures)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

320
423
452
75
320
423
452

253

269
24
196
253
269

24
196
253
6061, T651 temper, L.O.
24
196
269
7039, T6 temper, L.O.
24
196
253
7075, T 651 temper, L.O.
24
196
269
7075, T 7351 temper, L.O.
24
196
269

6061-T6 temper, L.O.

5083-H113, L.O.

75
320
423
75
320
452
75
320
423
75
320
452
75
320
452

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Plate

Plate

Sheet

Plate

Sheet

Plate

Plate

Sheet

97.6
48.5
67.1
90.0
85.8

97.6

84.5

320 46.3
425 61.8
495 72.0
310 44.9
400 58.3
485 70.1
455 66.0
575 83.2
665 96.2
580 84.2
705 102
825 120
525 76.2
675 98.2
760 110

675
335
465
620
590

675

585

44.9
58.3
70.1
60.2
66.5
78.8
94.5
67.8

196

2219-T87 temper, L.O.

2219-T62 temper, L.O.

310
400
485
415
460
545
650
465

75
320
452
75
320
423
452
75

24
196
269
24
196
253
269
24

2014-T651 temper, L.O.

Plate

MPa kpsi

Form

8C

Alloy and condition

8F

Tensile
strength, st

Temperature

290
340
365
290
335
380
410
495
535
530
650
770
455
570
605

510
235
27.5
305
280

490

460

290
335
380
290
345
370
390
380

42.2
49.6
52.6
42.2
48.9
55.0
59.8
72.0
77.4
77.1
94.4
112
66.2
82.5
88.1

74.2
34.2
39.6
43.9
40.5

71.0

66.6

42.2
48.9
55.0
41.9
50.2
53.6
55.2
56.3

12
18
26
16
23
26
11
15
14
10
7
6
10
11
11

15
15
31
30
29

14

13

16
23
26
10
11
14
23
11

Yield
strength, sy Elongation,
MPa kpsi %
MPa

kpsi

Room temperature
yield strength, syr

14
10
9
22
14
12

50
48
42

23
23
31
24
28

21

25

26

403

536

381

289

142*

382

58.5

77.7

55.3

41.9

20.6*

55.4

Aluminum Alloys
50
432
62.7
48
42
382
55.4

Reduction in
area,
%

35.9
32.1

22.5
27.6

32.3
33.5

32.7
29.2

20.5
25.1

29.4
30.5

26.5
37.9

43.7*

48.0*

29.1
41.6

24.6*
39.5b

36.3
(26.2)
42.4
(31.4)
48.0
(34.0)

21.2
26.1

p
kpsi m

27.0*
43.4b

39.9
(28.8)
46.5
(34.5)
52.5
(37.2)

23.2
28.7

p
MPa m

Fracture toughness
KIC (J)

T.S.

T.L.

Bend

Bend

Bend

C.T.

T.L.

T.L.

T.L.

T.L.

Bend, CT T.S.

Bend

Bend

Specimen Orientdesign
ation

TABLE 1-46
Typical tensile properties and fracture toughness of structural alloys at sub-zero temperature (i.e. cryogenic temperature)

7039 has good combination of strength


and fracture toughness at room and at
196 8C
Used for plate of 7075-T6 for the inner
tank skirt between the liquid oxygen
and liquid hydrogen sections of the
external tank of the space shuttle.
Improves ductility and notch toughness
of 7075 alloy at cryogenic temperature
processing it to the T7351 temper.


Fracture toughness values are for 5083O, i.e., KIC (J). 5083-O is not heat
treatable and used in annealed (O)
condition. Used to build liqueed
natural gas (LNG) spherical tanks in
ships.
Aluminum alloys 6061 in the T6 temper
have the same strength and ductility at
both room and sub-zero temperatures.

High toughness at room and sub-zero


temperatures, used for liquid oxygen
and liquid hydrogen tanks for space
shuttle.
Fracture toughness values in
parentheses refer to specimen design
C.T.

Possess high strength at room


temperature and sub-zero temperature.

Uses and remarks

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.75

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452
75
320
423
452

75
260
320
452

269
GTA weld in Inconel
24
X-750 sheet, X-750 ller 196
metal, aged 20 h at 7008C 253
269

24
162
196
269

24
196
269
24
196

A645 (5Ni Steel), L.O.


quenched, tempered,
reversion annealed.

304 annealed, L.O.

310 S annealed, T.O.

75
320

24
196

Inconel 718, L.O.


[Aged 34 h at 9828C
(18008F)]

75
320
452
75
320

75
320
423
75
320
452

24
196
253
Inconel 706 (VIM-VAR)
24
STDA
196
269

Hastelloy C, cold rolled


20%, L.O.

C17200 TD02 temper


(Solution treated, cold
worked to 12 hard)

75
320
423
75
320
423

Forging

Sheet

Plate

Weldment

Sheet

Bar

Forged
billets

Sheet

Sheet

Bar

165
220
252
183
228
243

263
187
224
241

660 95.5
1650 236
1700 247
330
48
670 97

715 104
930 135
1130 164

1810
1290
1540
1660

1410 204
1650 239

1140
1520
1740
1260
1570
1680

95.2
117
132
90
117
137

24
196
253
24
196
253

C26000 03 temper (34 hard)


655
805
910
620
805
945

MPa kpsi

Form

8C

Alloy and condition

8F

Tensile
strength, st

Temperature

295
425
570
580
1070

530
570
765

1410
860
945
1020

1170
1340

1000
1280
1380
1050
1200
1250

420
475
505
550
690
750

21
22
50
28

15
21

13
32
33
24
29
30

14
28
32
15
37
45

42.5
55.0
82.5
84
155

75
42
30
40
46

76.8 32
82.9 2.8
111 30

204
125
137
148

170
197

145
186
200
152
174
181

61.0
68.5
73.5
80
100
109

Reduction in
area,
%
MPa

kpsi

Room temperature
yield strength, syr

825

1170*

1065

120

170*

154

Austenitic Stainless Steels

76
260
37.9
67

Ferritic Nickel Steels


72
68
535
77.5
62

20


18
20

33
33
33

High-Nickel Alloys

58
63
58

Copper and Copper Alloys (L.O.)

Yield
strength, sy Elongation,
MPa kpsi %

196
87.1
58.4

112

178
79.3
53.2

134#
176

102

87.8*
94

143

157

96.4*
103

121

p
kpsi m

133

p
MPa m

Fracture toughness
KIC (J)

122#
160

C.T.

C.T.

C.T.

T.L.

C.R.

Specimen Orientdesign
ation

Uses and remarks

Austenitic stainless steels are used


extensively for subzero temperature
applications to 2698C.

Welding process, SMA, Filler, 310S.


b
In weld fusion zone, as welded.

(VEB). Used in construction of storage


tanks for liqueed hydrocarbon gases,
structures and machineries in cold
regions.

Fracture toughness values refer to KIC


(J). These high nickel alloys exhibit
excellent combinations of strength,
toughness, and ductility over the entire
range of subzero temperatures. Used in
energy related equipments such as
superconducting motors and
generators.
* Refer to STDA alloy.
The fatigue strengths of high-nickel
alloys are higher at cryogenic
temperature than at room temperature.
#
KIJ (J), fusion zone, gas tungsten arc
weld (GTA).

KIC (J), vacuum electron beam weld

Tensile and fatigue properties of copper


alloys increase as the testing
temperature decreased. Used in
stabilizers, components of the windings
in superconducting magnets, solenoids
and power cables at super
temperatures.

TABLE 1-46
Typical tensile properties and fracture toughness of structural alloys at sub-zero temperature (i.e. cryogenic temperature) (Cont.)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

75
320
423
75
320
452
75
452
452

A-286 annealed sheet, welded 24


and age hardened, L.O. 196
A-286 STA
253
24
196
269
24
269
269

452

75
320
452
75
320
452

269

452
452
75
320
423
75
320
423
75
320
423
75
320

Nitronic 60, annealed, L.O. 24


196
253
Kromarc 58 annealed
24
plate, tested as welded*, L.O. 196
Kromarc 58 STQ
269

310 S annealed, T.O.

109
218
204
72
124
154
11
16
15

66
60
24
36
46
33

79
66
27
61
41
40

24

74
61

24

370

340

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Weldamentc

820

125
166
186

58.1
101
125
133
192
209

31

52
47
35
3
29
2
3
10
10
51
48

26

MPa

119

88.2

53.8

49

kpsi

Room temperature
yield strength, syr

Plate

860
1145
1280

400
695
860
915
1325
1440

239

57
61
63
173
208
226
160
223
259
105
211

160

Reduction in
area,
%

610

600 87
745 108
870 126

750
1500
1410
495
855
1060

1240 180

1650

255
420
435
1190
1430
1560
1100
1540
1790
725
1455

650
1365
1610
1320
1900
2010
1180
1720
2000
415
1005

94
198
234
191
276
292
171
249
290
60
146

1105

825 120

Yield
strength, sy Elongation,
MPa kpsi %

Bar

Plate
Weldamentc
Sheet

Plate

Plate
Weldmentc
Weldmenta
Bar

Plate

Sheet

Sheet

Plate,
Weldment ;a
Sheet

Form

MPa kpsi

8F

8C

269
269
347 annealed, L.O.
24
196
253
304 hard cold rolled, L.O. 24
196
253
310, 75% cold reduced,
24
L.O.
196
253
Pyromet 538 annealed
24
Pyromet 538 STQ
196

Alloy and condition

Tensile
strength, st

Temperature

125
123
118
161
179
247b

214
155b

181
82b
175b

275a

259
116b

p
MPa m

T.L.

Specimen Orientdesign
ation

114
112
107
146
163
225b

195
141b

L.T.

T.S.

T.L.

165 at 2698C (4528F)


74b at 2698C (4528F)
159b at 2698C (4528F)

250a

236
106b

p
kpsi m

Fracture toughness
KIC (J)
Uses and remarks

A-286 alloy develops good strength,


with good ductility and notch
toughness in the cryogenic
temperature range.

Welding process: GTA.


Filler: Kromrc 58.
Kromrc is used for structural
appliances.
Prototype super-conducting
generators

Strength of these steels is increased by


rolling or cold drawing at 1968C.
Used in liquid hydrogen and liquid
oxygen tank construction in Atlas and
Centaur rockets. Type 304 stainless
steels used in piping, tubing, and valves.
Used in transfer of oxygen for storage
tanks. Cast steels are used for Bubble
Chambers, and for cylindrical magnet
tubes for superconducting magnets.

Welding process: GTA.


Filler: Pyromet 538.
Fracture toughness values refer to
Pyromet 538 STQ.
a
Shielded metal arc weld.
b
In weld fusion zone, as welded.
c
Gas tungsten arc weld.

TABLE 1-46
Typical tensile properties and fracture toughness of structural alloys at sub-zero temperature (i.e. cryogenic temperature) (Cont.)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.77

Forging

Sheet/
Plate

Sheet/
Plate

850
1370
1700
800
1300
1570
970
1570
1650

123
199
246
116
188
228
141
227
239

795
1300
1590
740
1210
1450
915
1480
1570

115
188
231
107
175
210
133
214
227

16
14
7
16
16
10
14
11
11

Reduction in
area,
%
MPa

kpsi

Room temperature
yield strength, syr

40
31
24

830

120

Titanium and Titanium Alloys


875
127
875
127
875
127
705
102
705
102

Yield
strength, sy Elongation,
MPa kpsi %

55.5
49.2

54.1

101
81.5

65.4
48.6

p
kpsi m

610

111
89.6

71.8
53.4

p
MPa m

Fracture toughness
KIC (J)

C.T.
Bend
Bend
C.T.
C.T.
Bend
C.T.

L.T.
L.T.
L.T.
L.T.
L.T.
L.T.
L.T.

Specimen Orientdesign
ation

Ti-5Al-2.5Sn and Ti-6Al-4V, titanium


alloys have high strength to weight
ratio at cryogenic temperatures and
preferred alloys at temperatures of
alloys at temperatures of 1968C to
2698C (3208F to 4528F). Used in
spherical pressure vessels in Atlas and
Centaur Rockets, the Apollo and
Saturn launch Boosters and Lunar
Modules. Should not be used at
cryogenic temperatures for storage or
transfer of liquid oxygen, since the
condensed oxygen will cause ignition
during abrasion.

Uses and remarks

AAM, air arc melted. C.T., compact toughness. GMA, gas metal arc welding process. GTA, gas tungsten arc weld. L.O., longitudinal orientation. S.T., solution treated. STDA, solution treated and
double aged. VAR, vacuum arc remelted. VEB, vacuum electron beam weld. VIM, vacuum induction melted. W, weld.
Source: Metals Handbook Desk Edition, ASM International, 1985, Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 (formerly The American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH 44073, 1985).

75
320
423
75
320
423
75
320
423
452

Form

MPa kpsi

8F

8C

Ti-5 Al-2.5 Sn, nominal


24
interstitial annealed, L.O. 196
253
Ti-5 Al-2.5 Sn (EL1)
24
annealed, L.O.
196
253
Ti-6 Al-4 V (EL1) as
24
forged
196
253
269

Alloy and condition

Tensile
strength, st

Temperature

TABLE 1-46
Typical tensile properties and fracture toughness of structural alloys at sub-zero temperature (i.e. cryogenic temperature) (Cont.)
PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.78

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0.64
0.67
0.66
0.53
0.43
0.55
0.66
0.55
0.77
0.51
0.68
0.66
0.71
0.55
0.45
0.56

Cedar, western red


Cypress
Douglas r, coast region
Hemlock, eastern
Hemlock, western
Larch, western
Pine, red
Pine, ponderosa
Pine, eastern white
Pine, western white
Redwood
Spruce, sitka
Spruce, white

Ash, white
Beech
Birch, yellow
Cherry, black
Cottonwood, eastern
Elm, American
Elm, rock
Sweetgum
Hickory. shagbark
Mahogany (swietenia spp)
Maple, sugar
Oak, red, northern
Oak, white
Tupelo, black
Yellow poplar
Walnut, black

6.64
7.11
6.80
5.53
4.42
5.53
7.00
5.69
7.90
5.37
6.95
6.95
7.58
5.53
4.58
6.00

3.62
5.06
5.37
4.42
4.6
6.00
4.90
4.42
3.62
4.27
4.42
4.42
4.42

42
45
43
35
28
35
44
36
50
34
44
44
48
35
29
38

23
32
34
28
29
38
31
28
24
27
28
28
28

kN/m3 lbf/ft3

Density , D

4.9
5.1
7.2
3.7
3.9
4.2
4.8
5.4
7.0
3.5
4.9
4.0
5.3
4.4
4.2
5.2

2.4
3.8
4.8
3.0
4.3
4.5
3.8
3.9
2.1
2.6
2.6
4.3
4.7

Rad

7.9
11.0
9.2
7.1
9.2
9.5
8.1
10.2
10.5
4.8
9.5
8.2
9.0
7.7
7.6
7.1

5.0
6.2
7.6
6.8
7.0
9.1
7.2
6.3
6.1
5.3
4.4
7.5
8.2

Tan

Shrinkage

106.18
102.74
114.46
84.80
58.60
81.36
102.05
86.19
139.28
79.02
108.94
98.60
104.80
66.20
69.64
100.67

51.71
73.09
85.50
61.37
77.11
90.33
75.85
64.81
59.30
66.88
69.00
70.33
67.57

MPa

15.4
14.9
16.6
12.3
8.5
11.8
14.8
12.5
20.2
11.46
15.80
14.30
15.20
9.60
10.10
14.6

7.5
10.6
12.4
8.9
11.3
13.10
11.00
9.4
8.6
9.7
10.0
10.2
9.8

kpsi

Modulus
of rupture

12.20
11.86
14.55
10.27
9.45
9.24
10.62
11.31
14.89
10.34
12.62
12.55
12.27
8.27
10.89
11.58

7.65
9.93
13.45
8.28
11.31
12.90
11.24
8.90
8.55
10.10
9.24
10.83
9.24

GPa

kpsi

4.56
6.36
7.24
5.41
7.71
7.64
6.07
5.32
4.80
5.04
6.15
5.61
5.47

7.41
7.30
8.17
7.11
4.91
5.52
7.05
6.32
9.21
6.80
7.83
6.76
7.44
5.52
5.54
7.58

Softwoods
1.11
31.44
1.44
43.85
1.95
49.92
1.20
37.30
1.64
49.02
1.87
52.68
1.63
41.85
1.29
36.68
1.24
33.10
1.46
34.75
1.34
42.40
1.57
38.68
1.34
37.72
Hardwoods
1.77
51.10
1.72
50.33
2.11
56.33
1.49
48.95
1.37
33.85
1.34
38.06
1.54
48.60
1.64
43.58
2.16
63.50
1.50
46.88
1.83
53.98
1.82
46.61
1.78
51.30
1.20
38.06
1.58
38.20
1.68
52.26

Maximumd
crushing
strength, scr
MPa

Mpsi

Modulus of
elasticity, E

Static bending

8.00
6.96
6.69
4.76
2.55
4.76
8.48
4.28
12.14
7.58
10.14
7.00
7.38
6.41
3.45
7.00

3.17
5.38
5.52
4.48
3.79
6.76
4.14
4.00
3.03
3.24
4.83
4.00
3.17

MPa

1.16
1.01
0.97
0.69
0.37
0.69
1.23
0.62
1.76
1.10
1.47
1.01
1.07
0.93
0.50
1.01

0.46
0.78
0.80
0.65
0.55
0.98
0.60
0.58
0.44
0.47
0.70
0.58
0.46

kpsi

Compressiona
proportionality
limit, scp

6.48
7.00
6.34
3.86
4.00
4.55

5.24

5.17

5.52
5.52
3.44
3.72
4.76

1.52
1.86
2.34

2.34
3.00
3.17
2.90
2.18

1.66
2.55
2.48

MPa

0.94
1.01
0.92
0.56
0.58
0.66

0.76

0.75

0.80
0.80
0.50
0.54
0.69

0.22
0.27
0.34

0.34
0.43
0.46
0.42
0.31

0.24
0.37
0.36

kpsi

Tensile
strengthe;f , st

1092
1041
1397
737
508
990
1422
813
1702

483
1092
940
559
610
864

430
864
787
533
660
889
660
483
457
584
483
635
508

mm

43
41
55
29
20
39
56
32
67

19
43
37
22
24
34

17
34
31
21
26
35
26
19
18
23
19
25
20

in

Impact bending in
a drop of 222 N
(50 lbf) hammer

13.45
13.86
13.00
11.72
6.41
10.41
13.24
11.03
16.75
8.48
16.06
12.27
13.80
9.24
8.21
9.45

5.93
6.89
8.00
7.31
6.62
9.38
8.76
7.79
6.21
7.17
6.48
7.93
7.45

MPa

1.95
2.01
1.88
1.70
0.93
1.51
1.92
1.6
2.43
1.23
2.33
1.78
2.00
1.34
1.19
1.37

0.86
1.00
1.16
1.06
1.25
1.36
1.21
1.13
0.90
1.04
0.94
1.15
1.08

kpsi

Sheard
strength,  s

1320
1300
1260
950
430
830
1320
850

800
1450
1290
1360
810
540
1010

350
510
710
500
540
830
560
460
380
420
480
510
480

Hardness
average of
R and T

Seasoned wood at 12% moisture. b Seasoned wood at 12% moisture content. c Percent from green to ovendry condition based on dimensions when green. d Parallel to grain. e Perpendicular to grain.
Height of drop of 222 N (50 lbf) hammer for failure, mm (in). Rad, radially. Tan, tangentially. g Tensile strength parallel to grain may be taken as equal to modulus of rupture in bending.
Source: Extracted from Wood Handbook and the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory.

0.34
0.48
0.51
0.43
0.44
0.59
0.47
0.42
0.37
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.45

Kind of wood

Specic
gravity
Gm
ovendry
volume

TABLE 1-47
Typical properties of wooda of clear material of section 50 mm  50 mm (2 in  2 in), as per ASTM D143

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.79

24
40
1
40

166
276
7
276
28

60
10
12
7
15

kpsi

414
69
83
48
103

MPa

14

365
310
214
145
152
172
469
290
83
345

GPa

9828C 18008F 218C

53
45
31
21
22
25
68
42
12
50
4.0

9.0
8.8
13.5
9.0
9.9
10.1
4.0
4.5
4.7
9.2
2.2

5.0
4.9
7.5
5.0
5.5
5.6
2.2
2.5
2.6
5.1

12320
29120
10528
4480
29120
4480
32480
32480
29120
22400

194880 64960

47040
324800
53760
13888
33600
12992
87360
44800
33600
49280

Specic
heat, c

870

210
1450
240
62
15
58
390
200
150
220
290

55
130
47
20
15
20
145
145
130
100

1.42

1.09
2.09
1.05
0.25
0.59
0.25
0.84
1.51
1.63
0.46

0.34

0.26
0.50
0.25
0.06
0.14
0.06
0.20
0.36
0.39
0.11

2128F 18008F
Btu/(ft2 h8F/in) kJ/kg8C Btu/lbm 8F

Thermal
conductivity, K at

1008C 9828C
lin/in8F W/(m2 8C/m)

Linear
coecientb
of expansion, 

Mpsi lm/
m8C

708F

Modulus of
elasticity, E

3871

2032
2571
2799
3049
2538
2799
2760
2449
2760
2143

8C

7000

3690
4660
5070
5520
4600
5070
5000d
4440
5000
3890

8F

Fusion point

Good

Good
Very good
Poor
Fair
Fair
Fair
Excellent
Good
Good
Good

103

10
0.5
1010
106

>1014
>1014
>1014
>1014
108

Thermal
stress
708C
resistance (218C)

102

104

107
108
107
105
500

18008F
(9828C)

Electrical
resistivity,  cmc

Porosity: 0 to 5%.
Between 208C (658F) and 9828C (18008F).
c
Multiply the values by 0.393 in to obtain electrical resistivity in units of -in.
d
Stabilized.
Courtesy: Extracted from Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 8th edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1978, and Norton Refractories, 3rd edition, Green and
Stewart, ASTM Standards on Refractory Materials Handbook (Committee, C-8), 1.

2.22 0.0802 21

0.143
0.110
0.129
0.361
0.202
0.396
0.116
0.097
0.0813
0.224

100
20
14
12
20
12
24
50
7
100

3.97
3.03
3.58
10.00
5.60
10.96
3.22
2.52
2.25
6.20

Alumina (Al2 O3 )
Beryllium oxide (BeO)
Magnesium oxide (MgO)
Thoria (ThO2 )
Zirconia (ZrO2 )
Uranium oxide (UO2 )
Silicon carbide (SiC)
Boron carbide (BC)
Boron nitride (BN)
Molybdenum silicide
(MoSi2 )
Carbon (C)

lb/in3 MPa kpsi

218C 708F

689
138
97
83
138
83
166
345
48
689

g/m3

Material

Density

Modulus of rupture, sr

TABLE 1-48
Mechanical and physical properties of typical densea pure refractories

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.80

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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS


PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.81

REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
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Units), Suma Publishers, Bangalore, India, 1986.
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Shigley, J. E., Mechanical Engineering Design, Metric Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York,
1986.
Deutschman, A. D., W. J. Michels, and C. E. Wilson, Machine DesignTheory and Practice, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1975.
Juvinall, R. C., Fundaments of Machine Components Design, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1983.
Lingaiah, K., and B. R. Narayana Iyengar, Machine Design Data Handbook, Engineering College Co-operative Society, Bangalore, India, 1962.
Lingaiah, K., Machine Design Data Handbook, Vol. II (SI and Customary Metric Units), Suma Publishers,
Bangalore, India, 1981 and 1984.
Lingaiah, K., and B. R. Narayana Iyengar, Machine Design Data Handbook, Vol. I (SI and Customary Metric
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Siegel, M. J., V. L. Maleev, and J. B. Hartman, Mechanical Design of Machines, 4th edition, International
Textbook Company, Scranton, Pennsylvania, 1965.
Black, P. H., and O. Eugene Adams, Jr., Machine Design, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1963.
Niemann, G., Maschinenelemente, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Erster Band, 1963.
Faires, V. M., Design of Machine Elements, 4th edition, Macmillan Company, New York, 1965.
Nortman, C. A., E. S. Ault, and I. F. Zarobsky, Fundamentals of Machine Design, Macmillan Company, New
York, 1951.
Spotts, M. F., Design of Machine Elements, 5th edition, Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi, 1978.
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PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.82

CHAPTER ONE

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Black, P. H., and O. Eugene Adams, Jr., Machine Design, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1983.
Decker, K.-H., Maschinenelemente, Gestalting und Bereching, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich, Germany, 1971.
Decker, K.-H., and Kabus, B. K., Maschinenelemente-Aufgaben, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich, Germany, 1970.
Deutschman, A. D., W. J. Michels, and C. E. Wilson, Machine DesignTheory and Practice, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1975.
Faires, V. M., Design of Machine Elements, 4th edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1965.
Honger, O. S. (ed.), (ASME) Handbook for Metals Properties, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1954.
ISO standards.
Juvinall, R. C., Fundaments of Machine Components Design, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1983.
Lessels, J. M., Strength and Resistance of Metals, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1954.
Lingaiah, K., and B. R. Narayana Iyengar, Machine Design Data Handbook, Engineering College Co-operative
Society, Bangalore, India, 1962.
Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 8th edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York,
1978.
Niemann, G., Maschinenelemente, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Erster Band, 1963.
Norman, C. A., E. S. Ault, and I. E. Zarobsky, Fundamentals of Machine Design, McGraw-Hill Book Company,
New York, 1951.
SAE Handbook, 1981.
Shigley, J. E., Mechanical Engineering Design, Metric Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1986.
Siegel, M. J., V. L. Maleev, and J. B. Hartman, Mechanical Design of Machines, 4th edition, International Textbook Company, Scranton, Pennsylvania, 1965.
Spotts, M. F., Design of Machine Elements, 5th edition, Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi, 1978.
Vallance, A., and V. L. Doughtie, Design of Machine Members, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1951.

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Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.