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University of San Carlos

Department of Chemical Engineering


CHE 512L Chemical Engineering Laboratory 2

Experiment Plan
(Form CHE512L-1)
Prepared and submitted by:

Dela Pena, Paulo Louise L.

Experiment :

Loyao, Alger Jr. S.

Villasica, Serge Lorenz G.

The Climbing Film Evaporator


Objectives of the Experiment

1. Investigate the effect of the feed rate on the evaporator product concentration.
2. Investigate the effect of the operating steam pressure on the rate of evaporation.
3. Determine the overall heat transfer coefficient of the calandria and compare with values predicted from
empirical correlations
4. Perform steady-state mass balance over the evaporator system to estimate mass losses during the
evaporation operations conducted
Methodological Framework
Objective 1
Constant
Set constant the ontacting area
between the feedstock and steam
by keeping the liquid level of
feedstock in the calandria constant.,
Set constant steam temperature
and pressure, by adjusting the
steam regulating valve

Dependent variable

Independent variable

Feed rate on the evaporator, vary


feed rate by adjusting the feed inlet
valve below the calandria

Product concentration, determine


concentration using mass balance
over the evaporator

Dependent variable

Independent variable

Vary steam supply pressure by


turning the steam regulating valve
from 5 psig to 10 psig

Determine rate of evaporation by


measuring the collected condensate
within a specific interval of time

Objective 2
Constant
Set constant the ontacting area
between the feedstock and steam
by keeping the liquid level of
feedstock in the calandria constant.,
Set constant feed rate

Objective 3,
Actual heat transfer coefficient
Input:
Measure volume of the
collected condensed steam
within a certain time interval,
height of liquid in the
calandrial

Output
Experimental over-all
heat transfer coefficient
of the calandria

Process:
Determine mass flowrate
of condensed steam.
Determine the heat being
Supplied during the
evaporation process
using steam tables.

Theoretical heat transfer coefficient


Input:
Steam rate, diameter of the
calandria, liquid level in the
calandria, measure the
pressure of inlet steam, and
temperature of the
condensed steam. Measure
the temperature in vapour
space

Output
Theoretical over-all heat
transfer coefficient of the
calandria

Process:
Use steam tables to
determine properties of
the steam. Calculate
steam side heat transfer
coefficient using
Nusselts model.
Calculate feed side heat
transfer coefficient using
chens method.

Objective 4

,
, ,

, ,

, ,

Materials, Measuring Apparatus & Equipment


Material
Sugar
Distilled Water
Apparatus
Graduated cylinder
Bucket
Plastic container
Thermometer
Stopwatch
Equipment
Vacuum pump
Climbing film evaporator
Steam supply

Quantity
1 kg
15 Liters
Size
2.0 L
-

Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
Specifications
100 torr,1/3 Hp motor

Task Plan
Time
10:30-11:00

10:30 10:40

10:40 10:45

10:45-10:50

10:50-10:55
10:55-10:57
10:57-11:00
11:00-11:15

Task
FEED PREPARATION
Preparation of the sugar solution
Heating of the sugar solution
Determination of the sugar solution density using densitometer
START-UP OPERATION
Closing drain valves, air vents and the recycle valves
Opening vacuum cocks and the valve connecting two receivers
Allowing soft water to flow through pipeline
Opening the by-pass valve located after the steam pressure gauge
Fitting a hose to the feed inlet with the other end dipped in the
large plastic graduated cylinder containing the prepared sugar
solution
EXPERIMENT PROPER
Switching the vacuum pump on and adjusting its pressure to 20 in
HG
Opening the main steam supply valve and allowing the condensed
steam to drain through steam discharge line.
Opening the steam supply valve and adjusting pressure to 5 psig
using steam regulating valve
Allowing the steam to be flushed out of the calandria and closing
the by-pass valve
Opening the cock controlling the vent at the top of the calandria
Opening the feed inlet valve
Adjusting the feed rate to maintain liquid level corresponding to a
marked height at the outer surface of the steam jacket
Measure the height of the liquid in the calandria
Closing the valve between two receivers
Measuring volume at fixed intervals for feed

Person Responsible
Alger

Paulo
Serge
Paulo
Serge

Paulo

Alger
Serge
Alger
Paulo
Serge
Paulo
Serge

11:15-11:17
11:17-11:25
11:25-12:20
12:20-1:15
1:15-2:10

2:10-2:15

2:15-2:25
2:25-2:30
2:30-2:45

Measuring temperature of feed at time intervals


Measuring temperature of vapour at time intervals
Collecting condensed steam
Collect condensed vapor
Restoring receiver to its original setting then opening the valve
between two receivers
Closing the valve between two receivers
Reading the level of concentrate
Stopping the collection of condensed steam
Determining the temperature, volume and density of the
concentrate, condensate and condensed steam
Repeating experiment proper at a pressure of 10 psiag
Repeating experiment proper at the smaller flowrate but higher
operating steam pressure at 10 psig
Repeating experiment proper at higher flowrate and operating
steam pressure at 10 psig
SHUTDOWN OPERATION
Closing the feed and the steam-regulating valves and opening the
by-pass valve.
Closing the evaporator steam inlet valve and the main steam
supply valve
Closing the vacuum cocks on the condensate receivers and
opening the air vents. Turning off the vacuum pump
Closing the condenser cooling water inlet valve
Draining out the feed, the concentrate and the condensate
remaining in the setup.
Disposing of the materials
Cleaning and signing out

Alger
Paulo
Alger
Paulo
Alger
Serge
Paulo
Alger
All
All
All

Paulo

Serge
Alger
All
All

Raw Data Sheets


Equipment specifications
Calandria tube inner diamater (mm)
Calandria tube length (m)
Concentrate receiver capacity (L)
Individual condensate receiver capacity (L)

25
3
7
5

Feed preparation
Volume distilled water (L)
Mass sugar added (kg)
Temperature in immersion heater (C)
Temperature upon using densitometer (C)
Density of feedstock (g/mL)
Feed rate determination
Time(min)

Run 1
Initial

Final

Volume Reading (L)


Run 2
Initial
Final

Run 3
Initial

Final

0
5
10
15
Height of liquid in
calandria (m)
Vapor and feed temperatures
Temperature (C)
Time(min)

Run 1
Feed

0
5
10
15

Run 2
Vapor

Feed

Run 3
Vapor

Feed

Vapor

Output streams
Quantity

Run 1

Run 2
Concentrate

Temperature (C)
Volume collected (mL)
Density (g/mL)
Condensate
Temperature (C)
Volume collected (mL)
Density (g/mL)
Condensed Steam
Temperature (C)
Volume collected (mL)
Density (g/mL)

Run 3

Information Flow Diagram


Objective 1

F =

L =

Objective 2

V =

Objective 3 - Actual

= ( )

Objective 3. Theoretical

, =

, =

= ( )
= (1 + 2.53(106 ) )1.17

3 ( ) 3
= 1.47 [
]
2 ,

1
0.9 0.5 0.1
=(
) ( ) ( )

( ) = 2.35 (

+ 0.736
)
0.2135

0.7
0.17
= 0.1640.69 ( ) [1.8 ( )

1.2
10
+ 4 ( ) + 10 ( )

0.23 0.8 0.4



, Pr

= + ( )

= (1 + 1 )1