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1. Good governance peruses the idea of dignity and satisfaction of people, it also undergoes
peoples empowerment, participation, transparency accountability of all key actors in the
civil society. Discuss the above elements of good governance and show the overall
significance in the country socio-economic development.

2. Taking Tanzania or any another country of your choice and discuss the factors which limit
the good governance in the country.

Governance is the exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to manage a
countrys affairs at all levels. It comprises the mechanisms, processes, and institutions through
which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their
obligations and mediate their differences. UNDP (1997).
Good governance means that the processes implemented by the organization to produce favorable
results meet the needs of its stakeholders, while making the best use of resources human,
technological, financial, natural and environmental at its disposal.
The following are the characteristics of the good governance
Dignity and satisfaction of the people, Good governance provides the opportunity for its
stakeholders to maintain, enhance, or generally improve their well-being provides the most
compelling message regarding its reason for existence and value to society.
People empowerment, is a process enabling disadvantaged groups to assert their rights. It also
means enlarging the base and enhancing the potential of disadvantaged groups (particularly the
poor) so that they can call institutions that affect their lives to account, negotiate with them and
participate in them. Good governance depends on empowering women to be aware of their role as
bearers of rights, agents of development and informed citizens. bringing women to the center stage
of decision making implies integrating grassroots women`s ways of organizing, learning and
deciding to governance spaces and institutions` policies.
People Participation by both men and women, either directly or through legitimate
representatives, is a key cornerstone of good governance. Participation needs to be informed and
organized, including freedom of expression and assiduous concern for the best interests of the
organization and society in general.
Transparency means that information should be provided in easily understandable forms and
media; that it should be freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by
governance policies and practices, as well as the outcomes resulting therefrom; and that any
decisions taken and their enforcement are in compliance with established rules and regulations.

Accountability is a key tenet of good governance. Who is accountable for what should be
documented in policy statements. In general, an organization is accountable to those who will be
affected by its decisions or actions as well as the applicable rules of law.
The following are the significance of above elements of the good governance in the countrys
socio-economic development.
Promotion Equality among the citizens, Good governance is generally based on the rule of
equality. This means that all members of a country or a state are equal in the eyes of law. Every
individual has the right to enjoy and experience equal economic, political and social rights and the
state is not allowed to discriminate citizens on the standard of sex, caste, property and religion.
Increase international reputation and recognition of country, the practice of good governance
followed by government will allow them to gain the trust of the international organizations and
governments, investors, and the community at large. This will have a positive impact on the
countrys reputation and it will be recognized as a fair and transparent country. This image will
help the country prosper in the long run and achieve its development more quickly.
Reduction of Mismanagement and Corruption, A country can reduce the amount of risks in
their government as well as any attempts of corruption and mismanagement by following the
practices of good governance. Due to the amount of transparency necessary in government that
follow the principles of good governance, many individuals intending to misuse their position and
power will be unable to do so.
Promote equal distribution of national resources, the good governance that based on rule of
law, equality and equity usually encourage the government and its departments to ensure all
national resources benefit every citizens in the country for the aims of reducing political chaos in
the country
Increase stability and responsibility in administration, the implementation of principle of
accountability, transparent always reduce the political conflict, frequent societal demonstration
hence the state and administration become stable thus it easy to experience development changes.

Peacebuilding and conflict prevention, finally the principle of good governance promote good
leadership, reduce gender inequality, increase the civil education to the citizens, and investors as
well as encourage democratic rule and peace and security.
Conclusively the government should take different measure so as to ensure good governance in
the country since good governance is the cornerstone of the socio-economic development in the
developing country like Tanzania.

Governance is the exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to manage a
countrys affairs at all levels. It comprises the mechanisms, processes, and institutions through
which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their
obligations and mediate their differences. UNDP (1997).
Good governance refer to the system that characterized by participatory, consensus oriented,
accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows
the rule of law.
The following are the main factors that limit good governance in Tanzania
Corruption, the high level of corruption in Tanzania has been widely perceived as a major
obstacle in improving the quality of governance. While human greed is obviously a driver of
corruption, it is the structural incentives and poor enforcement system to punish the corrupt that
have contributed to the rising curve of graft in Tanzania.
Poor implementation of code of ethical, the instrumental institutions that are given responsibility
to supervise the code of ethics for civil servants are not so active in their accountability hence there
is weak and poor enforcement of code of ethics as result the civil servant involve in inappropriate
action that reduce the level of good governance.
Absence of core public trainings for civil servant, most of the developing countries typically
Tanzania, the governments dont have critical agenda for the provision of frequent training for its
civil servants hence the civil servants fail to understand their responsibility this result the poor
performance in various governmental department.
Limited experience of democratic process in the country, most of the civil servant as well as
Politicians dont have the so called experience in democratic process thus the people fail to
embrace the political tolerance, citizen participation free and fair election hence the country
evidence the political unrest
Lack of freedom of mass media, in Tanzania country it is usually tendency for government to
close or to prohibit some of the media that criticized the governments or the top leaders thus the

mass media are not free to express their views in the society. And the government is ready to pass
the law that deny the mass media freedom of expressing the crucial issues related to the
Absence of clear separation of power, in Tanzania the separation of power three organs between
judiciary, parliament and executive as well as civil servant is not clear, so it is very easy for the
government to interfere the duties and responsibility of other organ.it is frequently experienced in
Tanzania parliament want to take the role of judiciary.
Excessive power vested in the executive, in Tanzania the present have been given excessive
power by the constitution of 1977, thus it easy for him to abuse his power and no one may judge
him, thus there is need to come with new constitution that may reduce the power of president for
the benefits of our country and promote good governance.
Finally the following are same measure that can be taken by the government and civil society to
reduce the above factor that limit good governance those incudes: - Constitutional reform, division
of power and inter-ethnic cooperation group autonomy and vertical division of power through
integrative decentralization democratization and elections rule of law and judicial reform
remembrance and reconciliation efficient provision of services, combating corruption and
promotion of local communities participation.