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Manufacture of springs

The proposed method of winding helical coil springs sold in screwcutting lathe with a special device consisting of a mandrel and a
copier. In the chuck of the machine is fixed mandrel with a hook in the
form of holes in the side flange for fixing the beginning of spring
wire. In the tool post holder is installed with the copier. Copy - this
shaft with a helical groove cut into a variable pitch, which freely
rotates in two bearings. The grooves in the beginning and end of the
copier provides pursed winding turns of the spring, and the central part
- the winding turns of the workers with the necessary step and
diameter. Toolholders copier is a structure welded from 40 mm steel
plate, reinforced edge of a 10-mm strips, and two bearing
housings. The right housing is welded to the plate and the left is bolted
M12 (to allow for replacement of the copier}. Specific drawings are not
represented on the holder, as they are dictated by the type of flowVintorez-tion of the machine and circumferential dimensions of the
spring. Manufacture of springs in the following order. First billet dimensional piece of wire bent at a 90 end of a length of 4 - 5 d
passed underneath the copier and installed in the hole-toe dolly. Then
the copier is rotated manually to match the beginning of the groove
with the position of the wire. Its tightness and constant contact with
the helical groove copier provided significant resistance bending spring
steel billets. The process of forming a spring start spindle turning at
minimum speed. wire wound on a mandrel, and the step is given by
rotating helical grooves in the bearings of the copier. The following is a
method of calculating the parameters of the mandrel and the copier,
providing the necessary dimensions of the spring. The designations
employed in calculations .Baselines {size spring): n - the number of
working coils, etc. - The total number of turns; t - step test section; Do
- inner diameter; DCP - the average diameter. The parameters are
copied: I - working length; DKon - inner diameter of the groove; DHJ1 the diameter of the neutral line of coils wound on a mandrel, to OipYukop - correction factor, T - step helical part of the work; T - step
helical start connection and output units. Arbor: ddiameter. intermediate calculation values; L - length of one coil spring
without pitch; D - mean diameter of coils in a spring, wound on the
mandrel; X - factor table to determine the neutral axis in bending; B coefficient taking into account the properties of spring wire, soca is the
number of working coils springs, wound on a mandrel, taking into

account the elastic wire; L1-length wire running along the working part
of the copier; L2 - length of wire working coils springs, wound on a
mandrel; L3 - length of wire, wound on a mandrel with a view pursed
turns; Lch - the length of the wire springs according to the drawing. is
crucial in calculating a value that takes into account the elasticity of
wire bending. It is used in determining the diameter of the mandrel
and the winding number of pop. To determine the value of this quantity
we recommend the following sequence.In the first approximation is
made mandrel diameter D, on the screw-cutting lathe coils on a
mandrel 5 - 10 turns of wire with a step of filing, approximately equal
to the step springs. In the tool holder sets up a special roller with a
groove. After the winding angle is determined by the unwinding of the
spring coils and the calculated angle per one revolution A.1 and finally
- the coefficient B = a1 / 360 /, taking into account the elasticity of
the wire of a given material. Here is a method for calculating the size
of the example of a copier and a mandrel for coiling spring steel
60S2A-In-1-HN GOST 14963-78 with the following parameters: n = 9;
nt = 11; t = 14 mm; Do = 42 0,9 mm; d = 8 mm; Dsr = 50 mm. For
given dimensions of the spring above procedure has been established
experimentally increased arc of a turn by 30 after removal from the
mandrel 42 mm, which corresponds to an increase in the length of the
coil at 1.083 times (B = 30 360 = 0,083). On this basis, Dcp.onp. =
(L - BL / min = L (1 -) / min = 157x0, 917 / 3.14 = 46 mm, where L =
min Dcp = 3,14 x50 = 157 mm; d def. = Dcp.onp .- d = 46 - 8 = 38
mm = 1.083 nopr n = 1.083 + 0.25 + 0.25 = ~ 10 where 0.25 - extra
turn in the light of the admission of the number of working coils. The
diameter of the neutral line turns on the mandrel (Fig. 2 ) is calculated
by the formula: D nl. = d + def 2D X. . X - determined by the table [1],
depending on the ratio of donp/2d (in our case, 38 / (2x8) = 2,375) by
the method of interpolation and compute X = 0,458 and rounded to
0.46. Dnl.45 Then, 36 mm. DKOn a first approximation, is assumed to
be Do = 42 mm. Then the coefficient k = Dil / Dkon -45.36 / 42 =
1.08. The length of the working part of the copier: = tn = 14x9 = 126
mm. Estimated step of working copier: T = | / (SOCA k) = 126 / (10x1,
08) = 11.67 mm. The resulting current step of the workers of the
copier rounded to the nearest pitch feed screw-cutting lathe (T = 12
mm) to allow cutting of spiral grooves. To maintain a given step, the
inner diameter of the spring groove copier is recalculated from the
condition of the selected step copier: k = L / (Tnonp) = 126 / (12x10) =
1,05. Then DKOP . Dn = n / n = 45.36 / 1.05 = 43.2 mm. The number
of turns and start connection output copier parts chosen to be 1.5.

Step grooves of these parts is determined by the experimentally

established formula: Tn = .875 d = 0.875 x8 = 7 mm, and is assumed
to be the closest step to feed the machine (7 mm). zahodnye and
output side are welded to the axis of the copier or fastened by two pins
with a diameter of 8 mm and two screws M8. Pair grooves start
connection and output parts of the copier with the groove of the
working part is handled manually corresponding with a file, providing a
smooth transition. Material copier - steel 45, heat treatment hardening to a hardness of HRC38 ... 42. For the verification of the
calculations is determined by the length of the wire: L1 = DKon min 1 /
T = 43,2 x3, 14x126/12 = 1425 mm and compared with the length of
the wire: L2 = D nl. ir n def. = 45,36 x3, 14x10 = 1425 mm. also
compared the length of the wire: L3 = D nl. min (n def. + 2x1, 083) =
45,36 x3, 14 (10 +2 x1, 083) = 1733 mm with a length of wire: Lch =
(Do +2 d X) min n = (42 + 2x8x0, 46) HZ, 14h11 = 1705 mm. With
proper calculation error Lambda shall not exceed 2.5 %. In our
case: Lambda = (L3 - Lch) 100% / L4 = (1733 - 1705) 100/1705 =

Drawings of the copier

Vices homemade

So I decided to make a grip, so to speak, by his own request. Made and

use them as early as ten years. Their appearance is now pretty spoiled
by rough handling, but its functions do vise still regularly, and I'm
happy with them. And because I want to share their design with the
readers of the magazine. Before proceeding to describe the device, I
should note that cite somewhat different version of his performance
than the one that zalechatlen in the picture. The proposed design is
more simple to make, but no less functional. This is especially true
configuration of the mobile jaw. Operation of clutches showed that this
piece is made unnecessarily complex and could be simplified without
losing any reliability or usability. The design of my vise screw and
parallel. They are made primarily on the model of the machine
(machine tool) vise. But their main difference from similar devices of
industrial production, of course - small size.At the same time they have
plenty of large flat sponges (and strictly parallel to each other) and a
considerable area of the bearing surface mounted to billet, which is
strictly perpendicular to the vertical surfaces of sponges. vices consist
of the following structural elements: the base, movable jaws,
spindle. The most difficult part in the production - the base. It is made
in concert with a fixed sponge and hard stand, also has a selection of
the base and a longitudinal groove. In the manufacture of the base
without a milling machine can not do, as well as without turning - the
manufacture of the threaded sleeve and screw.Although, if you do not
assume intensive use of the grip, the threaded bushing and you can
not do by running under M10 thread lead screw directly into the
jack. movable jaw - the part is simple, and the spindle can be selected
and prepared in standard, slightly revised. Auxiliary parts: ratchet
screw, screw rolling sponge puck and pins - also not hard to choose
from ready-made hardware, and make their special problems do not
amount to even a novice DIY. When making sense to fit a mobile to a
fixed sponge and polish them with three sides: from the top and on the
sides. In addition, to ensure that the spike moving lips went in the slot
base easily, but without a backlash. hole lead screw (threaded
bushing) in the hard ground and the front seat (blind hole) in the
mobile sponge also drilled together. The end of the spindle in the nest
moving lips, too, should go free, but without much backlash. After
making all the details of their sharp edges (edges) must be blunt, and

mobile and fixed jaws, and lead screw threaded bushing - temper to a
hardness of 30 HRC. When assembling the friction surface preferably
lubricated with a thin layer of grease.