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""^^^uit^^"i^"^
^^Z^
.
,
.
ALGEBRA
FOR
BEGINNERS.
/
FOR
ALGEBRA
WITH
NUMEEOUS
BEGINNERS.
EXAMPLES.
4V
If
TODHUKTEB
D. H.SMITH
"
CO.,
M.A.,
BOOKSELLERS
1880.
"
F. K. S.
STATIONERS,
Entered
according
to
Act
of
the
Parliament
of
Canada,
In
the
year
thousand
hundred
eight
and
one
the
lu
Office
ot
the
Minister
of
seventysix,
Agriculture.
by
MACMILLAN
A
Co.
PEEFACE.
The
present work
of many
treatise
on
to
been
order
in
teachers,
beginners, and
has
serve
as
earlier
render
the
to
In
taken
by
be
to
space
the
assigned
the
at
book
be
may
contains
part
fractional
second
said to
the
two
parts
The
treated
third
of
into the
with
part forms
examination
three
of
The
parts.
first
integral and
equations
The
the
papers,
of
nearly the whole
detail
and
are
every
and
amination
ex
introduced
are
exercise.
book;
the
of
which
blems
pro
accordingly they
of illustration
remainder
and
subjects contained
consulted, and
was
mentary
ele
in this country.
on
chapters. The
subjects which
various
in
examinations
operations in
solution
constitute
ample
of
the
guided
been
occupies eighteen chapters.
the
which
has
carried
now
consist
occupies twelve
paper
are
; it
part contains
in these
various
elementary
expressions
; it
are
author
to
use
and
included
be
to
the
each,
to
given
papers
subjects
the
Algebra which
The
the
work
determining
more
a
to young
students, by
intelligible
of simple language and by copious explanations.
the
larger
the
been
have
pains
of
hands
is of
treatise,but
Great
request
accordingly based
it is
author;
chapters of that
elementary character.
in
introduction
an
the
at
placed
be
to
published by the
the
undertaken
it
but
sists
con
rarely
therefore
more
brieflydiscussed.
The
most
subjects
natural
are
order.
to introduce
aarly stage, and
arranged
But
easy
many
in what
appears
teachers
equations and
find
problems
accordingly provision has
been
to
be
it
tageous
advan
at
a
made
the
very
for
PREFACE.
"i
such
It will be
course.
a
that
found
XXI.
may
far
algebraicalmultiplication.
as
be
taken
In accordance
as
soon
with
the
examples
for exercise
are
have
selected
been
Simpson
however
; many
reference
with
by
to
College
the
points which
and
as
of these
nation
University exami
of Saunderson
to be
shewn
as
a
and
constructed
ar"
been
experience
and
proceeded
Some
works
have
XIX.
of teachers, the
original,and
are
author's
the
has
numerous.
very
from
some
student
a
recommendation
the
from
and
papers,
as
Chapters
teacher
portant
im
and
an
examiner.
The
has
author
to
distinguished teachers
and
work
have
either
who
have
of
kindness
the
the sheets
examined
many
of his
marks
given him valuable
suggestions. Any reculties
work, and especiallythe indication of diffi
the
on
acknowledge
in the
text
or
the
will
examples,
be
most
thankfully received.
I. TODHUNTER.
St
John's
College,
July 1863.
Four
new
and
Chapters
also
a
arranged
are
These
eminent
additions
have
July 1867.
added
to the
collection of Miscellaneous
in
sets, each
have
been
teachers, in order
work.
been
made
to
Examples
containing
set
at
the
increase
tion,
present edi
ten
examples.
request of
the
which
some
utilityof
the
CONTENTS.
IT
n.
Principal Signs
The
Eemaimng
rV.
Change
V.
Addition
VIL
Vni.
IX.
16
^
19
M
^
Multiplication
"5
^......^
Division
Factors
33
Besnlts
in
Multiplication
4.1
49
^
Common
Greatest
Measure
Least
Common
Multiple
55
^
"...
63
...^..^.^..^^.....m
68
Fractions
^
..".
XV.
Reduction
of
Fractious
7"
^.*.,^,"
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.
9
la
Brackets
XI.
XIV.
Terms
Like
of Terms.
order
Subtraction
General
XIII.
~
^.".^
X.
XII.
the
5
Brackets
Signs.
of
Terms
Power.
Coefficient.
Factor.
111.
VI.
I
Addition
or
Subtraction
of
Multiplication
Division
of
of
Fractions
76
.^
Fractions
84
...^.".
Fractions
88
.,......^
XIX.
XX.
XXI.
XXII.
XXIII.
Simple Equations
Simple Equations,
XXIV.
103
^.."
ii"
Problems,
continued
Simultaneous
Problems
unknown
two
one
of
than
which
the
unknown
two
lead
first
the
first
degree
136
quantities
Equations
more
of
m
Equations
Simultaneous
with
XXV.
continued
Problems
with
94
.^
of
the
degree
quantities... 145
imknown
to
first
simultaneous
tions
equa
with
than
degree
quantity
more
150
CONTENTS,
XXVI.
XXVIL
Quadratic
Equations
Equations
which
i6o
be
may
like
solved
Qpad
ratics..
XXVIIL
171
XXIX.
lead
which
Problems
to
Quadratic
inyolving
Equations
Simultaneous
Equations
1
Quad182
ratios...*.
XXX.
with
XXXI.
which
Problems
lead
than
more
one
to
Quadratic
unknown
Equations
quantity
190
Involution
,
XXXII.
XXXIII.
XXXIV.
XXXV.
200
Indices
"i8
Surds
"25
^
Proportion
240
...m*...
Arithmetical
xxxvin.
Progression
245
Progression
Greometrical
XXXIX.
249
.,.....^....
XL.
XLI.
XLIL
"30
934
Variation
XXXVII.
195
Evolution
Ratio
XXXVI.
76
Harmonical
Progression
and
Permutations
254
Combinations
^56
Theorem
Binomial
260
,.....,.
XLIIL
Scales
of
Notation
268
.^
XLIV.
^....
Interest
"....m.....m
"
MiscelUneous
ANSWERS
Examples
."...
272
275
305
with
numbers,
and
on
is the
Algebra
of
the
aid
certain
signs
numbers, and
the
Principal
The
L
\.
BEGINNERS,
FOR
ALGEBRA
science
of
in
letters
denote
to
the
Signs,
which
to
the
relations
we
about
reason
denote
the
numbers,
operations performed
of the
nmnbers
to each
other.
K'umbers
2.
which
have
called unknown
numbers
and
by
not
the
known
to
be
found,
and
The
which
It is usual
first letters
of
the
or
bers
num
therefore
are
represent known
to
alphabet,
a,
b, c, "c,
by
necessary
be strictly
not
rule, and so need
be either whole
fractional.
The
or
a
obeyed.
word
quantity
numbers,
numbers
Numbers
number.
either
numbers.
unknown
however
be
may
may
is often
word
the
used
last letters
"vvith the
this
z;
meaning
same
used
integer is often
x,y,
is
as
instea'l of whole
number.
of
himself to the use
beginner has to accustom
letters for representing numbers, and to leani the meaning
of the signs; we
portant
imshall begin by explaining the
most
shall assume
We
their use.
signs and illustrating
of Arithmetic,
that the student
has a knowledge of the elements
3.
The
and
that
he admits
truth
the
the
of
common
such
in all parts of mathematics,
to equals the wholes
are
equal, and
required
added
4.
The
number
sign + placed before
is to be
added.
represented by
T.
A.
Thus
6 is to be
number
a
a
+
added
as,
the
to
if equals be
like.
denotes
b denotes
notions
that
tho number
that
the
the
ber
num
repi'e1
2
sented
by
6 is read
"
thus
a
number
number
number
sign placedbefore
a

representedby
ab
sign,and
3, then
minus
plus b."
number
denotes that the
Thus a"b
denotes that tlio
is to be subtracted.
representedby b is to be subtixicted from the
The
5.
a
12.
represents
tj +
represent9 and h represent3,then a\h
The
sign+ is called the plttssign,and
If
a.
SIGNS.
PRINCIPAL
THE
a.
If
a
represents 6.
a
9 and
represent
The
sign

6 is read thus "a minus
"
denotes
is called the
b."
to add b to
that wo
c denotes
a, and then add c to the result ; a + b
b to a, and then subtract
the result;
to add
c from
are
denotes that we are to subtract b frc^n a, and tnen
ab^c
denotes
that we
tract
add c to the result; a"b"c
to subare
and
then
b from a,
subtract c from the result
6.
Similarlya
+
b
+
c
that
b represent
we
are
"
between
7. The
sign= denotes that the numbers
which it is placed are equal. Thus
b denotes that the
a =
number
representedby a is equal to the number
sented
repreAnd
of
the
b.
a^b
denotes
that the sum
=
c
by
numbers
representedby a and b is equal to the nmnber
representedby c; so that if a represent 9, and b represent
3, then c must represent 12. The sign = is called the
is read thus "a equals b" or
sign of equality,and "="
"a is equal to b."
8.
The
9.
The
.
denotes
that the numbex^s between
which
it stands
to be multiplied together. Thus
are
that the number
a X " denotes
representedby " is to be
multipliedby the number representedhy b. U a represent
9, and b represent 3, then axb
represents27. The
signX is called the sign of midtiplication,and axb
m
read thus " a into b." Similarly
axbxc
denotes the product
of the numbers
and
c.
representedby a, b,
is however
often
signof multiplication
sake of brevity
"?" is used instead
; thus
for the
and has the
axbxc,
The
numbers
Thus 45
sign x
and
meaning; so also
has the same
meaning.
same
abc is used
omitted
of
a
x
5,
instead of
not be omitted when
must
sign of multiplication
are
exjjressedin the ordinary way by figures.
of 4 and
cannot be used to representthe product
PRINCIPAL
THE
3
SIGNS.
meaning has alreadybeen appropriated
We
must
therefore
45, namely,fortyfive.
present
re
6, because
different
a
to
the
product of
and
4
in another
5
way, and 4x5
is adopted. Sometimes, how^ever,
which
way
a
of
instead
thus
the
x
is
used
is
used
4.5
sign
;
stead
inpoint
To prevent any confusion between
of 4x5.
the
of
and the point
multii^lication,
pointthus used as a sign
decimal
notation
for
used in the
it is advisable
fractions,
in
latter
the
the
to place
case
pomt
higher up; thus
is the
be
4*5 may
kept to
instead
not used
denote
4 +
"
.
But
in fact the point is
of the
signx except in cases where there
be no ambiguity. For example,1.2.3.4 may be put for
can
because
the pointshere will not be taken for
1x2x3x4
decimal points.
The
pointis
placed instead
sometimes
of the sign x
between two letters ; so that a fcis used instead oi axh.
But the point is here superfluous,
because,as we have
Nor is the point,
the
nor
said,ab is used instead oi axh.
dinary
sign X necessary between a number
expressedin the or.
by a figureand a number representedby a
letter; so that,for example,3a is used instead of 3xa,
and has the same
meaning.
way
which preThe sign ^ denotes that the number
cedes
it is to be divAded by the number which follows it.
Thus a^h denotes that the number
by a is to
represented
be divided by the number
by h. \i a represent
represented
2
.
and
then
a^h
h
represents The
represent4,
8,
sign is called the sign of division^and a^6 is read
10.
=
thus "a
"2/b."
There is also another way of denotingthat one
is to be divided by another; the dividend is
over
the
divisor with
used instead of
a ^
a
line between
6,and has the
same
them.
ber
num
placed
Thus
v
is
meaning.
alphabet,and the signswhich
have alreadyexplained,
we
togetherwith those which may
occur
hereafter,arc called algebraicalsymbols, because
about which we
they are used to representthe numbers
the operations
performed on them, and
may be reasoning,
11.
The
letters of the
1"2
4
EXAMPLES.
L
their relations to each other.
symbols is called
ejc2)ression.
an
shall
We
12.
Any collection of Algebraical
algebraicalexpression,or briefly
an
give son;o
now
examples
as
Suppose
rt
l, h
=
%
=
7a
+
3"2tZ+/=7
2ab
+
8bcac
If a=l, 6
2"
9a
3.
7ae
5.
abcd
+
+
d=5,
o,
610
+
e
130
+
9daf.
4e3a3b
4.
8abcbcd+9cdede/.
Hcd
Ode
cde
5hcd
6.
+ 5c.
:^+
ab
2a
+
56
c^
3" + 2C
b+d
rt+c
"^
20c
be
cd
de
a +
d^b
6~^c
b +
20
7e
+
,
e
^
bcd~i;~
c +
,
6+
d
"
e +
a+b+c+d+e
c+e
"*"
^
2ac
'^~T~
c
'
j~.
he
ae
d
c
Qb
??^.
fibde
,^
10.
,
"r+
+
"
\2a
6ade

numen
2.
^
9.
6^46.
5,/=o, find the
following
expressions:
'
'
of
Then
"? =
abce + abde + acde + bcde.
8bc
values
103.
52
=
b
4ac
explained;
G,f=0.
=
0=
+
486
d/=4:\
3c2/
+
3bc +
+
=
2, c=:3, d=4,
=
cal values of the
L
+
c
exercise
an
the symbols v. Inch have been
in the use
these examples consist in findingthe numerical
certain algebraical
expressions.
of
ed+cb
+
a'
c +
3"
cd'
COEFFICIENT.
FACTOR.
II.
Factor.
Wlien
13.
POWER.
TERMS.
Coefficient.Power.
5
Terms.
number
consists of the product of two
of the latter is called a factor of
one
numbers, each
the product. Thus, for example, 2 x 3 x 5
each
30 ; and
of the numbers
2, 3, and 5 is a factor of the product 30.
Or we
regard 30 as the product of the two factors,
may
factors 6 and 5,
2 and
15, or as the })roductof the two
or
more
=
or
as
the
productof
tlie two
factors 3 and 10. And
so, also,
the product of the two factors
consider
4ab as
may
4 and
"", or as the product of the two factors 4a and ",
the product of the two factors Ah and a; or we
or as
may
it
and
of
the
the
three
factors
and
4
h.
as
a
regard
product
we
"When a number
consists of the product of two
of the other
each factor is called the coefficient
factors,
factor: so that co^^c/"?"^
is equivalentto cofactor. Thus
14.
and
ab^ we call 4
the coeflicicnt of ah, and
ah the coefficient of 4; and
considering4.ah as the product of Aa and ", we call Aa
There will
the coefficient of 6, and h the coefficient of 4a.
the
Avord
in
coefficient
bo little occasion to use
practicein
in which
the
is
the
that
case
first,
except
any of these cases
4 is regarded as the coefficient of ah ; but for the sake of
of
distinctness we
coefficient
speak of 4 as the numerical
Thus
the numerical
ab in 4"6, or briefly
as
coefficient.
consideringAah
when
as
the
product
factor
a
letter
or
4
factor which
is
represented
other
a
figiue figures,and of anthat is by
,\'hichis representedalgebraically,
product consists of
thsit is by
arithmetically,
a
of
one
etters,the former
or
cal
factor is called the numeri
coefficient.
all the factors of a product are
equal,the
product is called a poicer of that factor. Thus 7 x 7 is
called the second power
of 7 ; 7 x 7 x 7 is called the third
of 7 ;
of 7; 7 xl ^1 "il is called the fourth power
"power
and so on.
In like manner
ax
a is called the second power
of a; ax ax
of a; ax
ah
called the third power
ax
a
ax
is
is called tha fourth power
of a; and so on.
And a itself
15.
sometimes
Wlien
called thc^/v^ power
of
a.
6
FACTOR.
COEFFICIENT.
POIVER.
TERMS,
denoted
thus: instead of
briefly
power is more
vc
expressingall the equal factors,
ex])ress the factor once,
it the number
and placeover
which
indicates how often it
is to be repeated. Thus "* is used to denote ay. a; a^ is
used to denote a x a x "; "* is used to denote a x " x a x ";
And
and so on.
a^ may be used to denote the first power
of a, that is a itself;
that a^ has the same
so
meaning as a.
16.
A
17.
A
number
placed
over
tunes the latter occurs
called an index of the poicer^
as
many
or,
an
index,
briefly,
or
or
an
another
to indicate how
factor in a poAver, is
a
exponent of the power
exponent.
Thus, for example,in a' the exponent
exponent is n.
18. The
student must
and an exponent. Thus 3"!means
coefficient
here 3 is a coefficient.
But d^ means
c
exponent.
is 3; in a" the
between
distinguish
very carefully
a
here 3 is an
;
three times c;
times c times c;
That is
(?
=
cy.cy.c.
of a, that is a\ is often called the
of ", that is
square of a, or a squared; and the third power
cubed.
There
cube
of
no
are
a^ is often called the
a, or a
inroad
"^
for
the
thus
words
in
such
use
higher powers;
*'
*'a to tJiefourth power," or briefly
a to the fourth.^'
19.
The
20.
If
signs
+
second power
and
"
,
expressioncontain
it is called
by
a
the
no
"
and
coinpound expression,
called
are
signs + and
"
tlie parts connected
of the exterms
pression.
simpleexpressions
; a^ + W
and a',6^,and c* are its terms.
compound expression,
Tlius ax,
is a
parts connected by the
it is called a simple expression. If an
parts connected by the signs 4 and
expressioncontain
an
Abe,and 5aV
are
"
"^
\Yhen
an
expressionconsists of two terms it is
it consists of three
called a binomial
: when
expression
terms it is called a trinomial
expression;any expression
consistingof several terms may be called a multinomial
21.
or
expression,
a
expression.
polynoinial
Thus
2a
3^
+
is
binomial
a
trinomial expression; and
multinomial
expressionor
Each
22.
the
of
a
"
expression;
b"c
d
"
7
TERMS.
POWER.
COEFFICIENT.
FACTOR.
e
"
a
1h
"
+
be
miiy
is
called
5c
a
a
polynomial expression.
a
which
letters
of the
in
occur
is
term
a
term, and
the number
of the
called a dimension
Thus
a^l^c or
lettei*s is called the degree of tlie term.
is
said
of
be
six
aKaxbxbxhxc
dimensions
of
to
or
coefficient is not counted ;
the sixth degiee. A numencal
a^b'^ are
thus
of the same
i)d'b* and
dimensions,
namely
dimensions.
seven
word
refers
ditnensicms
to
algebraicalmultiplicationsinvolved in the
of its
tcnn; that is,tlie degree of a term, or the number
dimensions, is the sum
of the ejponents of its algebraical
remember
that if no
factors, provided we
exponent be
expressed the exponent 1 must be understood, as indicated
the
number
the
Thus
in Art
of
16.
expressionis said
2.3. An
teims
is
of the
are
We
shall
numerical
a
35^
5^
a"b3=
"f"+
6*=
8.
=
2, c
=
663
3x4=12,
=
"j"=
1, 6
=
6^
4^
=
e*
5,
=
1x8
=
=
52
=
3f'4cM0
3, rf= 4, ^
=
6^
16.
=
5,/=
0.
=
32.
=
40,
96''
9
5x8
=
e''=
25,
=
3"V
8,
c27a6+/'
=
3
x
4
64 + 914
=
x
x
+
9
=
0
=
108.
59.
271210
5
,
^
+
+
d^
2718+1523
5c23
"^d\_
125 + 64
271
~
c"a
6 +
4
7
1
_
_
evd
+
Adbc
Then
5*=125.
=
c3_2c2
?M^b
dimensions.
is of three
term
7"^+
Thus
all its
more
give some
examples of finding the
of algebraical
expressions.
now
values
Suppose
52
for each
when
homogeneous
dimensions.
same
homogeneous,
to be
31
=
5,
32
=
288.
EXAMPLES.
II.
E3AMPLES.
IL
If a
find the numeric^
l, 5 2, c 3, c? 4, e r",/=:=o,
values of the follomng expressioiui
:
=
=
=
=
I.
a^"l^^"?^cC^^^f,
3.
rt"c*+ 5crr
4.
c^2c'' + 4c13.
5.
a'!3a5+ 3""2

dea^
+
+/*.
5"^
=
"
10
When
29.
forming
two
treated
to be
numbers
are
enclosed
they are
more
or
number
have
we
one
BRACKETS.
SIGNS.
REMAINING
as
hracJzeU.
within
of a and h
that the sum
denote
it thus {a\h)'"c
denote
or
is to be multipHed by c\ we
that
mean
+ h] X c, or simply {a^'b)cox {a + h\c; here we
the wlioU of ct + " is to be nmltiplied
by c. Now if we omit
and this denotes that 6 only
have a + lie,
the brackets we
Thus, suppose
to
\a
multipliedby c and the result added to a. Sunilarly,[a\'b c)d denotes that the result expressed by
avh
c is to be
multipliedby d^ or that the whole of
be multipliedby d\ but if we
omit
the
c is to
a + "
have a + b
brackets we
cd, and this denotes that c only
is to be multipUed by d and the result subtracted from
is to be
"
"
"
"
a
+
b.
So
also
by
{a"b
"
hy d
(a
"
"
+
"

+
c)x{d\e)denotes
+
+
c
is to
This
e.
+ e);just as
c)((/
So also sj(a+ b +
result expressed by
of this result
bo
multiphed by
30.
drawn
a
as
{a
is called
denoted
a
"
"
c
b
b+c)x{d
"
a
thus
"
and
d
We
have
+
?
e\"
pressed
ex
the
result
the result
ab.
ex
expressed
a
as
line is
forming
is used with, the same
e). A line used for this pose
purSo also {a + b
c)^{d+ e')
may
cxd+e
+
+
vincidum.
d+e
a\b
that
ahxabx
Sometimes
instead of using brackets
the numbers
which are to be treated
over
meaning
be
denotes
{ab)^
"
Thus
pressed
ex
that we
to obtain the
are
ib+ c, and then take the square root
{a+ bc)^{dhe) denotes
by a + 6 "; is to be divided by
number.
one
result
c) denotes
also
Eressed
y d+e.
the
aLo be denoted
simiDlythus
may
'tis shortened into ab.
ax
So also {ab)*
denotes dbxah\ and
So
that the result
"
;
reallya
and
here
cinculum
the
used
line between
in
a
particular
sense.
31.
explainedoil
the signswh'!ch are
used
in algebra. Wo
the
cases
may observe tliat in some
word
to the two signs + and
sign is appliedspeciallj'
;
thus in the Fwule for SuDtractiou wo shall speak of chonging
now

11
III.
EXAMPLES.
and
the signs,meaning the signs +
; and
"
in
multiplication
ing
of SignSjmean
and division we shall speak of the Rule
to the signs+ and
a iiile relating
"
.
examples of finding
We
shall now
more
give some
the numerical values of expressions.
32.
Then
Suppose a=l, 5=2, c=3, "a?=5,e"Q.
V(26 + 4c)=^/(4+ 12)=V(16)=4.
4/(4":26)4/(124) ^,8)=2.
=
=
+ 4c)(2g?5)4/(4c26) 8x
c^/(2"
48x2
=
V{(e")(2^5?*)}=
^{(82X1610)}=
32
=
;^;Gx6)
=
+ flr)={3x5+ c)(^c)(c+ a)}(a
2x4)6
{(e6?)("
^{c"+
Zc'b + Scb''+
=^(27
4
16
=
16.
6.
7x642.
=
"3)^ ^("a+ 52 2a")
54 + 36 + 8); ^/(l
+ 4
4)=4/(125)
_

Examples.
r
III.
If "=!, 6="2, c=3,
6?= 5, "3=S, find
lues of the following
expressions :
1.
a{b+ c).
4.
+ e^c^).
b^ici^
b{c+ cr).
2.
6.
1 =.5.
the
numericaJ
c^ed).
3.
cV"'c2).
^^~S
a^ b'
6.
.
+
7.
^^^5?^^^{^bce).
8.
^10. (a+
2"
+
3c + 5^

4^0(6^

5flf 4c

V(25 + 4^+5d).
9.

36
+
13.
"V(^'^3^)+ ^J("^ + 3e).
14.
e{V(c+l)42} + (6^/^)V("4).
1 5.
16.
+ 3rt"+
4 2aZ" + V) s. 4,'(a'
^/(a''^
;^[c^ 3c'a +

3c"x'a"^
J{b^+
3a5'
c^
+
2rt).
"").
2ch).
^
12
CHANGE
IV.
OF
Change of
THE
OF
ORDER
the order
of
Terms.
TERMS.
Like Terms,
When
all the terms of an expression
connected
are
is
in
what
indifferent
it
order
the
+
by
si^
they are
and
thus
tlie
5
5
+
7
+
7
same
give
result,
placed;
namely,
12; and so also a + h and h + a givethe same
namoly,
result,
the sum
of the numbers which are representedby a and 6.
We may express this fact algebraically
thus,
33.
a +
h=^h
+ a.
+ c +
h=b
'b
Similarly,
When
34.
by
the
a
+
+ c=a
+ c + a.
consists of some
terms
expression
and
terms
some
sign +
preceded by
an
ceded
pre
the
sign we may %vrite the former terms first in any order
and the latter terms after them in any order we
we
please,
notions of arithmetic.
please. This is obvious from the common
Thus, for example,
"
,
7+823=8+723=7+832=8+732,
'b
a +
"
ce=b\ac"e=^a\b
In some
35.
terms further,
by
"
e
c=h^aec.
"
change the order of the
may
mixingup the terms which are preceded
by the sign witli those which are precededby the sign+
Thus, for example,suppose that a represents
presents
10,and b reand
c represents5, then
6,
cases
we
"
.
a"b"c=a
for we
arrive ^vithout any
all the cases.
"
c +
b=bc
+ a)
at 11
difficulty
as
the result in
Suppose however that a represents2, b represents6,
and c represents
+ b presentsa
ac
5, then the expression
bocAuse we are thus apparently
difficulty,
requiredto take
from a lets,
a greater number
namely,5 from 2, It "nll
be convenient to agree that such an expression
c + b,
us a
"
when
same
an
c
is
greaterthan a, shall bo understood
At presentwe
thingus a + bc.
as
a + b"c
expression
except when
to
shall not
c
mean
use
is less than
the
such
a +
b;
that a + b
shall consider
so
"
c
"
13
TERMS.
LIKE
will not causg any
the
6 + a to mean
difficulty.
Similarly,
we
6.
thingas a
same
"
value of an expressionremains
Thus the numerical
be the order of the terms
the same, whatever
which
may
have
it.
follows
as
we
from
This,
partly
our
seen,
compose
and subtraction,and partlyfi'om an
notions of addition
agreement as to the meaning which we ascribe to an expression
when
our
ordinary arithmetical notions are not
36.
applicable.Such
strictly
a
conveniiony
and
agreement is called in algebia
an
cojiventioiicd is the
jective.
correspondingad
ffe shall often,as in Art. 34, have to distinguish
the terms of an expressionwhich are preceded by the sign
which
from the terms
+
are
preceded by the sign , and
the following
definition is accordingly
adopted. The terms
in an
are
expression which
preceded by the sign + are
called pontive terms, and the terms which are preceded
This definition is
by the sign are called negativeterms.
the
and no meaning
introduced
sake of brevity,
merely for
37.
"
"
^^ to be given to*the ^\*ord3
positiveand
in
is
the
definition.
wrhat
expressed
38.
It will be
seen
that
a
term
negativebeyond
m
may occur
the first term.
an
pression
ex
Such
with the positiveterms, that is it is
is counted
term
a
treated as if the sign 4 precededit. It \d\\ be found that
in the order of the tenns, as to
if such a change be made
stood first and was
preceded
bringa term which originally
will
be
precededby
by no sign,into any other place,then it
the sign 4For example,
preceded by
no
dgn, namely
.
ak'b"c='b
+
a"c=h
"
c +
a;
sion,
here the term
no
a has
sign before it hi the first expresis
it
preceded
but in the other equivalentexpressions
the following
important
have
Hence
we
by the sign +.
addition to the definition in Art. 37 ; if a term he preceded
by no sign,the sign + is to be understood.
39.
at
or
all,
Terms
differ
they
are
said to be like when
they do not difiFer
wise
only in then* numerical coefficients; othersaid to be unlike,, Thus a, 4a, and la are
are
14
LIKE
like terms; a",5a',and
unlike tenns.
are
TERMS.
Ga^
like terms;
are
d\ a",and
expressionwhich contains like terms
simplified.For example,consider the expression
40.
An
6aa
by Art
35 this
3645c"
+
"
may
3c2a;
2" + 3""
5c+3c.
+
number
2d; 3a; for whatever
a may
6a
a"
present,
rehave
5a left,
if we
subtiact a from 6a we
and then
have
from
subtract
2a
6a
3a left. Similarly
we
the
Thus
8c.
proposed expression
h=2o; and 5c + 3c
form
the
in
be put
simpler
Now
we
be
is equivalent
to
expression
6aa"
if
Zb
+
may
6"
"
=
=
3a
+
2"
+
8c.
This ia
consider the expressiona
46.
3"
3" from
7". For if Ave have first to subtmct
equal to a
and
46
then to subtract
from the remainder,
a number
a,
the
in
obtain
shall
one
we
operation by
requiredresult
this
the
follows
from
from
tions
nocommon
subtracting76
a;
Thus
of Arithmetia
Again;
"
"
"
a
"
There will be
to such a statement
41.
3646=a"
no
as
76.
in gimg
now
difficulty
the folloidng,
3646=
a
ing
mean
76.
We
cannot subtract 36 from nothing and then subtract
46 from the remainder,so that the statement
just given is
not here intelhgible
in itself,
separated from the rest of an
it may
in which
be
sentence
algebraical
occr.r, but it can
of an
easilyexplained thus: if in the course
algebraical
operationwe have to subtract 36 from a number and then
to subtract 46 from the remainder,
we
may subtract 76 at
instead.
once
be led
to conjecture
meaning to
that
give some
the proposed statement
by itself,that is,apart fi'om rmy
this conjecture will bo
and
other algebraicaloperation,
As
found
the student
when
correct,
in the
advances
it is possibleto
a
subjecthe
larger treatise
on
may
Algebra
can
be
15
IV.
EXAMPLES.
consulted with advantage;but the explanationwhich
have given will be sufficient for the present.
we
of expressions
The
hke
8imj)Iifying
by collecting
essential
is the
terms
part of the. processes of Addition and
shall see in the next two
Sabtraction in Algebra,as we
42.
Chapters.
be useful for the
It may
ing
beginnerto notice that accordfo!lo^ving
expressionsare all
defmitions
the
to the single
symbol
equivalent
to
our
:
a}, 1
X
",
a
1
X
a,
4 a
o^
+
a
4
1, ,
X
X
1,
find the
"=2, c=3, 6?=4, ^=5,
:
following
expressions
valu"s of the
,
IV.
Examples.
If (2=1,
4
a"l^
numericaJ
1.
a2b+^c.
3.
{a+ l){h+ c)Q)+ c){c^d)
+ {c\d){d"e).
2.
4.a + ^h
+
"? + (P.
5d + Ae
^c + Zd
^
b^t'j
5.
(a
6.
a*
d
26 4 3c)'


AaV)

b^2hc
^
9.
0 +
+
(Z"

+
2c 4
d
+ e
Zd^f+ {c2d+ Zef.
6"'Z"2 4^2,3+ ^a
_
"^
+
a^
4a^c 4 6a V

4ar'

4
^
7a2bZc4a
5a'
11.
3.i"2a
+
+
5b
Sab2h'ab
10.
a^"2ab
+
+
5a4a'
b^
a+b
15.
a
^{2e^+7b).
+
+
+
4c + 2a.
9b^ 2ab

W.
"49a'4a'6a.
b*+2bc
+
c*
b+c
c'^+2cd+d*
c+d
16.
!J{21^^
+ d*
a).

c*
iG
ADDITION.
V.
Addition.
three cases in Addition,
to make
It is convenient
namely, I. When the terms are all like terms and have the
all like terms
the terms
but
are
sarao
sign; II. When
have not all the same
sign; 111. When the terms are not
in order.
We shall take these thiee cases
all like terms.
43.
which
have the same
I. To add like terms
the numerical
prefix tlie common
coefficientSy
the common
letters.
annex
44.
Add
and
For
example,
Ga
+
^a
+
sign.
sign^
1a=lQa,
2bc1b"9bc=lSbc.
In the first example 6a
See
to + 16a.
II.
is
equivalentto +6a,
and
IGa
Art. 38.
To
add
which
like teims
have not all the
all the positive numencal
same
sign. Add
coefficients
and all the negative numerical
inio one
coefficients
sum,
the
into another; take
difference of these two sums,
the
the
the common
sign of
prefix
greater, and annex
45.
letters.
For
example,
la^a
Ua
+
2bc7bc3bc
in
a5a^a=l^aWa=^a,
4bct5bc

6bc=llbcl6bc=
^^^'
^^ ^^^ terms which
together the terms which
are
the second case, and put down
A^}'
Add
+
+
preceded by
For
its proper
example;
4a +
5blc
+
add
not all like terms.
like terms
by the rule
the otiier terms
each
are
sign.
together
M,
and
5bc.
3""
a
+
+ 2c +
5rf,9a26c4
Sb + 4c3d
+ e.
It is convenient to
the terms m columns,so
an^ange
terms
shall stand in the same
colunm; thus we
that Mke
have
18
EXAMPLES,
r.
V.
Examples.
Add
together
7aUb,
4a5h,
1.
3a2b,
2.
4a;a3?/2,2^5y2,
3.
5a + '3b+ c,
3a + Sb +
4.
3je+27/z,
2x2i/
5.
7a4b
6a+3b5c,
6.
x
7.
a
+
bc,
8.
a
+
2b
9.
a2b
+
4a
"
c,
b,
+
b
+
a,
3c,
+
3c4d,
a
"
+
5b4c.
10.
a^4aJ^
+
5x3,
11.
x^2x^
+
3a^,
a?
+
+
12a
x
"
2c, b
5c.
2j/+ 3z.
+
4c.
+
b"e.
ab.
"
ab,
3b4c
ld4a
3b
a +
2z,
c +
ft
2a"
+
3c,
+
2b,
"
9b.
+
a;'^\y^,
2^*+4y".
Sx +
c
a
a
c"a"h.
ac,
"
rjd2a,
+
2a^la^14,c
x^ + x^ + x,
+
5cGd+3a4b,
5, x^
+
dj/^+ x+H.
4a;*+5^;=', 2^V3.r4,
3x^2x5.
12.
a3_3^?2,
a^ab^
3a^52_5s^ 2a^+5ab^6aI^'Jb%
+
+
2h\
13.
a?32"za;'"
+ a=*.r
+
14.
2"i"
'15.
16.
17.
ar"+
3"a?^+2(7;p, 12a"

Soft + aa;3
"
a",
.?r'
+ 2/"
+
3a:c*, 2a^ax'^2a^.
+
6a'';",

M^x.

+ 10^,
2r3, 4;i;2_5_2^^
8ic'72/'
+ 2/^
+
3ar'4.r?/
62/*6^.
2a;24y+3a?oy + 3,
+ 92/, 6x^Qx'y+ 3y^+ 1x*Jy + ll.
10^2/+ 8?/2
0?^
32/7,
2;i;+
4a; V
\^a^J^+ 12;rj""42^,
4^V + G.Tg/''
4xy^+ y'*,
Qx'y^ 1 2^?/^+ Qy^, 4xy^ 4y^, y^.



"
18.
i^aa^
x^
+
xy^ +
xhj + y^ +
s^z
+
~
xz^
xyxyzx^z^
"
7jz^
+
y'^z

z^
aif y^z


ocyz ys?
xyz,
xz\

19
SUBTRACTION.
VI.
Suppose we
48.
is the
same
from
the
Suhtractioru
have
to take 7 + 3 from 12; the result
if we
firsttake 7 from 12, and then take 3
as
remainder; that is,the result is denoted by
1273.
Thus
Here
because
Art
12(7
we
we
3)=1273.
+
enclose 7 + 3 in brackets in the firstexpression,
of 7 + 3 from 12; see
to take the whole
are
29.
Sunilarly 20(5 +
In like manner,
the result is the
then take c from
denoted by a
6
"
6 + c from a;
if we
first take h from a, and
as
same
the remainder; that is,the result is
we
enclose h
are
to take
have
c.

a{h
we
2)=20542.
we
suppose
Thus.
Here
because
4 +
c)
+
=
ahc.
c'in brackets in the first expression,
to take the whole of " + c from a.
Similarly
a
"
+
{b+
d)=ab"c
c +
d.
"
If
from 12.
Next suppose we
have to take 73
but
have
thus
take 7 from 12 we
obtain 127;
we
we
from 12, for we
had to take,not 7, but 7
taken too much
49.
diminished
and thus we
by
Hence
3.
obtain 12
Similarly 12(7
we
increase the result
must

(7 3)=
+
32)=1273

12

7
by
3;
3.
+
+
2.
In like manner,
have to take b"c from a.
suppose we
If we
have thus
take b from a we
obtain a"b; but we
taken too much
from a, for we
had to take, not b, but b
dimuiished by c. Hence we must increase the result by c ;
and thus we obtain a"{b
c)=a b + c.
"
Similarly
50.
a
"
{b+
c
"
"
d)=a
bc
"
+
d.
Consider the
example
a{b^c~d) abc
=
that is,if b
+
cd
be
subtracted
+
from
d;
a
the
result is
2"2
20
SUBTRACTION.
ab~c+d.
Here we
see
that, in the expressionto be
subtracted there is a term
d, and in the result there is
the correspondingterm +d; also in the expression to be
"
in the result there is a
there is a term
4 c, and
to be subtracted there is a
c ; also in the expression
is
and
the
there
in
result
b.
a term
b,
subtracted
term
"
term
"
in the
followingrule for
consideringthis example,and
From
the
others
preceding Articles we obtain the
Subtraction : change the signs of all the terms
and then collect the
to be subtracted,
two
in
the
terras
pression
ex
as
in
Addition.
subtract Zx
y + z.
the terms to be subtracted ; thus
then collect as in addition;thus
For
example; from
Change the signsof all
we
obtain
"3x
4a;
From
+
y"z;
3y
"
4x
+ 2z"3x
Sa!*+ 5a^
+ yz
6x^ 7^
Change the signs of
and proceed as in addition
3y
"
+
2z
"
a;~2y
=
5 take 2a^
+
2a?

all the
3;zr*
+ 5^
to
terms
have
; thus we
Qa?1x^
5
bx^*+ %x^"
7
2s!^+2!Ji?
ar*+ 7^lla;2
a?
+
z.
+
be
fiX^ 6^7.
subtracted
+ 12
beginnerwill find it prudent at firstto go through
here ; but he may
have done
the operation as fullyas we
the result
himself
to putting do\Mi
graduallyaccustom
without
actuallychanging all the signs,but merely supposing
The
it done.
We
51.
Thus
to be
have
seen
that
correspondingto
subtracted
in the expression
Hence
it is
result.
an
example as the following
the result
subtract
c ; and
the
term
in the
"
have +c
find
such
to
uncommon
proposed for exercise : from a
The
required is avc.
beginner may
we
not
of Art. 41, by considering it as
not in itself,
but in connexion with some
manner
algebraical
operation.
";
"
explainthis in the
having a meaiiing,
other parts of an
EXAMPLES.
It is usual however
serve
and
c
"
"
a
on
a +
may say that a
there remains a\c.
c
=
may say that +
of each other ; tluis
( c) will denote the
Or
so
we
remarks
which will
attention of the beginner^
some
the
time to suggest
to
Tlius
from
offer
to
impress results
perhaps at the same
21
VL
and
we
c
"
c,^o that if we
"
subtract
operationsthe
denote
denotes the
reverse
of + c, and
of the
reverse
of
"
reverse
"
for them.
reasons
+
verse
re
c, that
to + c.
is, ( c) is equivalent
But, as we have implied in
"
"
be content
to defer until
Art. 41, trie beginnermust
later period the completeexplanation
a
of the meaning of operationsperformed on negative
quantities,that is,on quantitiesdenoted by letters with
the
sign

prefixed.
It should be observed
addition
and
that the words
subtraction arc not used in quitethe same
in Algebra
sense
In Arithmetic addition always produces
as in Arithmetic.
increase and subtraction decrease; but in Algebra we may
speak of adding 3 to 5, and obtainingthe Algebraical
sum
2; or we
speak of subtracting"3 from 6, and
may
"
obtainingthe Algebraical remainder
VI.
Examples.
^
1. From
7^4 146 subtract
2. From
6a26c
3. From
3a
26

From
5.
YYomAoi^^x^2x*1x
6. From
la^
7. From
a^
lax
+
subtract
9. From
a^
Za^

+
"
"
1x
+
+ yz
9.
a\
2z^
x'^+ 2xy + 5xz
dx + 6xy
8. From
subtract 2x^
6;c + 3.

3a' subtract x^"ax^
3.ry y^

bx^
+ 9
x^2a^1x^
"
3c.
2a1bcd.
subtract
7^" 8.251
4.
subtract
2a 26
3c subtract
+
106.
4a +
subtract
8.
1 2xz
4y^
+ Axz
Ixy
3a6'


3y^

"
"
"
7yz
2z'.

5z^
+ "yz
'6y'
6^ subtract a^
5^.
"
+
Za^b

Sa6"
+
"".
2;?;'
la?
+ 2a; + 2 subtract Aa^ 2x^2x\
4,
^^^Xx^
and from the remainder subtract 23^
16.
10. From

"
22
BRACKETS.
Brackets.
VII.
of
of the extensive use which is wade
brackets in Algebra,it is necessary that tlie student should
observe
very carefullythe rules respectingthem, and we
On
52.
account
shall state them
When
an
hy
the
When
here
distinctly.
within
earpression
sign + tJie brackets
an
"
pair of
a
pair of
the brackets may
within
the brackets
Thus, for example,
a"b"{c"d+e)=^a"b
a
"
b
"
d +
{c
"
e)
=
a
+
b
"
brackets
is preceded
be removed.
may
within
expression
by the sign
sign of every term
a
"
brackets
be removed
be changed.
is ceded
preiftlie
c"d+ey
c +
de.
second nile has alreadybeen illustrated in Art. 50 ;
The first rule might
it is in fact the rule for /Subtraction.
be illustrated in a similar manner.
The
ments
particularthe student must notice such statethe
as
:
following
{d)=d,
{d)=+d,
+{ + e)=+e, ^{ + e)=e.
In
53.
+
These
he may
must
to
some
be
assumed
as
rules
the
student,which
in Art. 41.
as
explain,
extent
by
Avith more
than one
pair of
brackets : these brackets may be removed
in succession by
the precedingrules beginning with the inside pair. Thus,
54.
for
Expressions may
occur
example,
a^
'J)\{c
d)]=a + {b"rC d]=a\b"c"dy
+ d\=a + b
a + {b{cd)]=a+{bc
c\d,
a{b + {cd)) a{b + c~d?f abc"d,
b + c"d.
a
{b{c d)]=a {bc + d]=a
Similarly,
a\b{c{de)]'\=a\b{cd + e}'\
=a"[b"c + d"e]=ab + c"d+e.
"
"
"
=
=
"
"
"
"
It will be seen
in these examples that,to prevent cob
fusion between
brackets
various pairsof brackets,we use
23
BRACKETS.
usingbrackets
of different shapes; we might distinguish
by
different
sizes.
of the same
shape but of
\'inculum
A
equivalentto
is
bracket;
a
see
Art. 30.
Thus,for example,
a\p{c{dJ^]]=a\b{c{de^f)]]
=a\b{cd
=ah
+
The
55.
brackets
ef}'\=a[bc
+
cd+ef.
beginner is
in
de+f]
+
the
order
recommended
always to remove
preceding Article;
nermost
pair,next the in
shewn
in the
innermost
namely, by
ever
We
pair of all which remain, and so on.
may howif we
remove
a pair of brackets
vary the order; but
includinganother bracketed
expression"vithin it,we must
make
no
chaiKje in tke signs of the included expression.
In fact such an included expression
counts as a smgle term.
removing first the
Thus, for example,
a+{6 + (cc0}=a + " + (cc/)=a + 6 + ";c?,
a"{h{c~d)]=a + h{cd)
a\'bc\dj
b
(c d)=a
c + d,
a"{b + {c d)}=ab
b + {c"d)=a"b
d.
+ c
a
{b{cd)}=a
=
"
"
Also,
"
"
"
"
a[b{c{de)}']=ab
b + c
a
{d"e)=a"b
=
And
"
"
+
{c{de)}
+
c"d+e.
"
"
in like manner,
a[b"{c
"
{d6 /)}]
{c{de^)}=ab
=ab
+
=a^b
+ c
"
d
+
e/=a"b
+
+
c{de^^
cd+e"f.
to put two
more
It is often convenient
or
within brackets ; the rules for introducingbrackets
immediately from those for removing brackets.
56.
Any
within
a
the whole.
Any
of terms
pair of brackets
7iumber
number
of
terms
in an
expression
and the sign +
may
terms
follow
be put
placed before
be put
in an
expression may
and
the sign
placed before
within
a
pair of brackets
the whole, provided the sign
brackets be changed.
"
oj
every
term
within
tke
24
EXAMPLES.
VII.
Thus, for example,a"h +
b + {c d+e), or
'=a
or
=a"{bc + d"e), or
"
"
In like manner
more
introduced.
be
Thus, for
ab
c
d+e
"
=a"b
=ab
than
one
"
{
"
d
{
+ c +
c +
"
pair
e\
d~e).
+
of brackets may
example,
+ de]=a{b"{c"d+e)].
cd+e^a{bc
+
VII.
Examples.
Simplifythe followingexpressionsby removing the
hke terms :
brackets and collecting
ri.
^3.
4.
6.
+ c{abc).
2. ab
Sab(2ab).
l{la) + {la + a^){la + a^a^).
a + b + {7ab) {2a
36) {5a+ 6").
ab
+ c)+ {c"a + b)~{ac + b\
+ c{ba


+ 2z)+ {x + 4y + 5z)~{ixy}
2x3ySz{xy
7. a{bc{de)}.
8. 2a{2bd){ab(2c2d)}.
2a {b {a 26)^.^
10.
9.
a{2b{3c + 2ba)}.
^''^
11. Sa{b + {2ab){ab)}.
12.
7a [3a {4a (5a 2a)}].
13.
3a["{a + ("3a)}].
14.
6a[4"{4a(6a4")}].
15.
2a
(36+ 2c) [56 {6c6b) + 5c{2a(c + 26)}].
16.
a[26 + {3c3a(a + 6)}+ {2a(6 + c)}].
17. 16{52^[l(3a;)]}.
18.
15;i?{4[35:c(3:"7)]}.
6.

"

[2a {2a (2a
a)}].
19.
2a
20.
Gx)]].
2a!^[3y{4:X{5y6x7y)}l
'21.


16
22.
2a
23.
a
24.


a?




2a

[7^ {SxiOx


3a?

[36+ (26 c)


4c
+

{2a (36

c


26)}].
[56 {a (5c 2c^ 6 46)+ 2a (a
+ 4a^ +
"c*[4a^{ex^{4xl)}']'{x*






c)}].
6aj'+ ia!^l).
26
+
26
MUL
II.
60.
TIP
have
Suppose we
A TION.
Lie
multiplya
to
+
6
by
Wo
3.
have
3(a + ")="
by
" +
" +
manner
same
manner
a
and
multiplya
to
+
b
+
cb.
have
we
3{ab)=3a3b,
each
36.
+
have
In the
of
6=3a
have
we
suppose
c{a+ b)=ca
Thus
a +
7a + 1b.
=
same
We
c.
"+
1{a+ b)
Similarly,
In the
+
*J{ab)^1a'Jb, c{ab)
have
=
cacb.
followingrule for the multiplication
compound expressionby a simpleexpression;multiply
term
pression,
of the compound ex2')ression
by the simple exand
put the sign of the term
beforethe result)
collect these results to form the comj^leteproduct.
61.
we
III.
the
Suppose we
As in the second,
case
have
b{c+ d)
=
=
by
"
+
c +
d
have
we
a{c+ d) ac + ad,
therefore (a + 6)(c+ d)
ac +
also
multiplya
to
ad+bc
=
bc +
bd;
bd.
+
Again ; multiplyab hy c + d.
{ab)[c+ d) a{c+ d)b{c + d)\
also
a(c+ d) ac + ad, b{c+ d) bc + bd;
=
=
=
therefore
ac + ad"bc"bd.
(a"b){c+ d) ac + ad(bc+bd)
Similarly
; multiplya + bhy c"d.
+ b) c{a+ b)d{a + b)
{a+b){cd) lcd)[a
ca + cb
{da + db) ca+ cb"da^db.
Lastly;multiplya" " by c c?.
{ab)(cd)^{cd)a{cd)b;
also
{c d)b bc bd;
{cd)a acad,
=
=
=
=
=
=
"
"
=
=
"
"
therefore
{ab){cd)
=
acad(pc"bd)
consider
Let us now
may write it thus,
{+ab){
+
the
=
acadbc
last result.
od)= +a"adbc
By
+
+
bd.
Art. 38
bd.
we
27
MULTIPLICATION.
We
in the
correspondingto the +a which occurs
and the + c which occurs
in the niulti*
multiplicand
plierthere is a term + ac in the product ; correspondingto
d there is a term
ad in the product;
the terms
+ a and
correspondingto the terms "h and +c there is a term
"c in the product ; and correspondingto the terms
6
and "c? there is a term \'bdin the product.
that
see
"
"
"
"
Similar
be made
observations may
obseiTations
three results ; and these
respectingthe other
are
brieflycollected
: like signs
multiplication
followingimportant rule in
produce + and unlike signs
shall often
Rule of Signs, and we
in the
This rule is called the
refer to it by this n.T'^ie.
~
.
give the generalrule for multiplying
plicand
term
of the multialgebraical
expressions
; multiply each
bfjeach term, of the multiplier; if the terms have
the same
sign prefix the sign + to the product^ if they
collect these
have differentsigns prefix the sign
; then
residts to form the completeproduct.
We
62.
now
can
"
For
example ; multiply2a
(2a + 36

4c)(3a
46)
=
6a2
=
6a' + 9a6
9a6
+
This
is the result
the result and
simplify
6a'
1 2ac

8a6

which
the
reduce
it to
+
46.
(2a +
1 66c)

Here
36

4c)
1 66c.
will
rule
"
46

1 26' +

Sa
4c)

1262
a612ac
+
by
(8a6 + 1262
12ac

4c
"
36
(2a+
3a
=

36
+
^VQ', we
may
166c.
the
might illustrate the rule by using it to multiply
that on working by
3 + 2 by 7 + 3
4; it will be found
the terms, the result is 30, that is
rule,and cpllecting
5
6, as it should
We
6
"
"
X
63.
student
will sometimes
4c
by 3a, or multiply
The
4c
"
results which
"
46.
requiredare
are
2a
by
X
46=
~4cx
4";x46^
examples as
by "46, or multiply
find such
followingproposed: multiply2a
the
"
The
be.

the
8a6,
3a=12ac,
166c.
following,
28
The
in the
student may
manner
Thus
to
attach
meaning to these operations
already explained;see Article 41
have
we
the statement
that
mean,
multiplicandand
thele will be
Lie A TION.
TIP
MUL
46

a
occur
term
=
166c
may
the
be
stood
under
terms
of a
among
the terms of a multiplier,
among
166c in the productcorresponding
Ac

46
4cx
"
if
a
occiir
to them.
Particular
cases
of these
2ax4=8a,
Since then
examples are
2x4=8,
such
2xl=2.
be
those
in the preceding Article,it becomes
count
necessary to take acof them
in our niles ; and accordingly
the rules for
multiphcation
may be convenientlypresented thus :
64.
examples may
To
given
as
multiplysimple terms; multiply together the
merical
coefficients,
put the letters after this product
determine the sign by the Rule of Signs.
nw
and
To
multiplyexpressions;multiply eojch term, in one
tiplying
expression by each term in the other by the ride for mulsimple terms, and collectthese partialproducts to
form the complete product.
We
shall now
give some
arranored in a convenient form.
65.
examples of multiplication
MUL
Consider
TIP
29
Lie A TION,
example. We take the first term in
the multiplier,
namely a^,and multiplyall the terms in the
multiplicandby it,paying attention to the Rule of Signs;
thus
we
term
the last
obtain
3rt^
4M^h
"
+
6a%\
take next the second
2ab,and multiplyall the
it,paying attention to the
We
of the multiplier,
namely
in the multiplicandby
obtain
of Signs; thus we
take the last term of the
we
"
terms
Rule
Then
multijjlyall the
and
paying
attention
the Rule
to
multiplier,
namely 3"',
multiphcand by it,
qf Signs; thus we obtain
in
terms
Qd^b\Sa^l)^"\Qah\
the
We
the terms which
thus obtain, so that
we
arrange
like terms
stand in the same
column; this is a very
may
useful arrangement, because it enables
to collect the
us
in order to obtain the final result.
terms
and safely,
easily
In the present example the final result is
3a*

10a'" + 22a'"2_
student should
bringinglike terms of the
66.
22a63 + 156*.
observe that
The
product
with the view of
into the same
colunm
the terms
of the multiphcand and multiplier
are
arranged
We
fix on some
letter which occurs
in a certain order.
in
of the terms and arrange the terms
according to the
many
of that letter. Thus, taking the last example,we
powers
fix on the letter a ; we
put first in the multiplicandthe
which
contains the highest power
of ", namely
term
3a''*,
the second
the
which con"Aab
term
next we
tains
put
power;
of a, namely the first power;
the next power
and last
we
put the term 5h\ which does not contain a at all. The
multiphcand is then said to be arranged according to
descending powers
the
same
of
We
a.
arrange
the
multipUer in
way.
might also have arranged both multiplicandand
multipherin reverse
order,in which case they would be
of a. It is of
arranged according to ascending powers
We
no
consequence
the sam^e
order
67.
We
which
order we
adopt, but
for the multiphcand and the
shall
now
Multiply l+2aT3^
to doscendinrr
cortling
give some
+
a?*
powers
more
by
of
must
take
multipher.
examples.
a;"" 2a?" 2.
x.
we
Arrange
ao*
30
UL
M
Lie A TION,
TIP
ai^'^x*+'2x 41
a^2x
2
+6^4a;2
2^
^'Ja? + 2x'^Qx2
^7_5^5
Multiplya? +
"
+
c'^db'hccah^
a
h
+
+
a
a^
ah
"
b
+
a^b
"
+
^h^ ~hc
ac
"
a^c + ah
"
c^
+
"
abc
ac^
+
ab^'abc
a^c
+
+b^b^c
abcac^
b"^ + "^
^"?
example might also be worked
brackets,thus,
+
with
the
aid of
c"
(6+ c)
+

"
bc'
^b^
This
o2a(5 + c)+ "2_"c
+
+b^c
2"abc
a^
a?
a.
c
a^b
a
c.
of
Arrange accordingto descending powers
a^
+
6c 4 c2)
a2(6+ c)+ a(6^

fa2(6+ c)a(6+ c)(6+ c)+ (6+ c)("""c+ c8)
Then
we
have
a(6^bcv c^) a{h + c){b+ c)

=a{Wbc
=
Mid
+
c^{J}+ c)Q)+ c)}
o.{"2"c + c= ("+
_

2"C
+
c3)}
(6+ c)(62_"c+ c^)="3+ c3.
Thus, as before,the
result is a^
+
b^ + (^oabc.
TIPLICA
MUL
Multiplytogetherx
X
a
X
h
81
TION.
a,x"hyX"c.
"
aP"ax
hxvdb
"
x^{a
X
+
b)x + ah
+
b)x^+
"c
a^{a
cx^
a^
b
{a +
"
{a + h)cx
+
c)x^+ {ab+
+
dbc
"
should
The student
abx
+
ac
notice that
bc)x" abc
he
make
two exercises
in whioli the
can
from
multiplication
every example
pressions,
multiplicand and multiplierare different compound exby changing the original multipher into the
and the originalmultipUcandmto
nmitiphcand."
multipher.
in
should be the
t*"t of the correctness of his work.
obtained
Th? result
which
same,
will
oe
a
VIII.
EXAMPLEa
Multiply
by 4;c'.
by 4a'.
3a*
3.
2a'6
by 2a6'.
1.
2x^
4.
3j^fzhj5xYz\
5.
Ixh/^hy 7y*z*.
6.
4a^36by3a5.
7.
Sa'9abhjZa\
a
+ 5z'^hj2x'h/.
3ar'4!/'
9.
a?V

y^^^+
2.
by aef^y'z^.
^*^
10.
2xy^z^+ S.vh/^z 5x^yz^by ixy^z,
11.
2x
12.
2u,'3
+ 4jr^+ S.r 4 1 6
13.
""

"
+
yhy2y
^2
+ j;

+
1
jt:.
by
a;
by

3a;
1.

6,
2
VIU.
EXAMPLES.
14.
16^
l+4;"10:i7''by
15.
a?'4a;'4lla;24
3^;".
+
by ^
+ 4a; +
5.
~T6.
"" + 4;c"+
5;"24by
17.
a^Tar' +
Saj + l
18.
;r'+ 6;c'+24^
19.
d;"2;"2 +
20.
a^2ix^^^x^1x^\
21.
x^Za.
a(P~Zax\ys
22.
a2 +
23.
252 + 3a"a2
24.
a2_Q5
25.
drabv 2b
26.
4:X^
27.
x^
28.
2;c'+
29.
^c'+
y^
30.
x*+
+ 4."V + ^^y'^
+ 1 62/*
by
2.z*y
31.
8 la?*+
32.
a? +
33.
a'" 0^+6;?;
34.
d^ + lr +
"^"bc"ca"ahhya"b^c.
35.
a2 + 4^^
+
452^j
36.
a^~2ah
+
62 +
+ ll^
by 2;i;'4a;+l.
6:0bya^6a;2+l2.c+12.
+
3^
3^_4i3y4^.3+
+
by ^
a2 +
2aa;:c'by
+
2^.4l,
2d;3+ aa;"+ 2^
"
2a;c+A''.
by 7a 5".
2,si)y^2+^5_5a^
+
by a^ +
ab
3x1/ y^ by Sx

;c2_4^

+
2bl
2i/.

xH/ + xy*"y^hyxky.
"
3;ry+ 4^^ by 3^
"
;c2^+
llx^y+
:" +
y
+
1
"
9a;V
Axy Ay'*.
by .?:42/l.
ic
Sj?/+ rr*by
+
2^^.

3.c y.
2y3^by;"2y"33:.
+
"^ by
+
a
by a^

6+
:c.
46.c + 4/.="u.".
a^ 4 2ab
c^.by
^I/
d"^
the following
together
expressions
Multiply
37.
x"ay
ZS.
x
39.
x'axAa^
40.
a~2a,
+
a,
x' + a*.
xha,
+
x
b,
xa,
x
x'^+
+ c.
ax+a'^,
x +
a,
x*

ar;i^"{a*.
x42a.
I.
34
DIVISION.
It may happen that all the factors which
Thus
in this manner.
divisor may be removed
example,that 24a"a? is to be divided by Scix :
3"
lAabx
8a^_^
X
_
~
~
Sax
Sax
70. The rule with respect to the
examination
an
may be obtained from
in
occur
For
in the
suppose, for
occur
sign of
of the
the
quotient
cases
which
Multiplication.
have
example,we
Aab'x.2c=\2dbc;
I2abc
12abc
.,
,
.
"
therefore
=Bc,
,
4ab
,
4:abx
"
3c
3c=
12abc;
"
llabc
.,
\2abG
.
=
.
3c,

,
therefcff"
"
3c,
=
rr
^
12a^C',
"
=

^aby. "3c=l2abc;
\2abc
\2abc
_
therefore
"
4ab.
6e
"
=
"
4ab
Thus
Division
=
"
"
"4ao

"
4abx3c=.
"
,

3c,
'
^

=

,
4.ab.
3c
it will be seen
that the Ride of
as well as in Multiplication.
Hence
,
4ab.
"
therefor"
.,
^
=4ao.
"
Signs
holds
in
have the following
rule for dividingone
another:
Write
the dividend
over
simple expressionby
with a line between
the dimsor
them; if the expressions
have common
the common
factors; prefix
factors,rcTnove
the sign + if the expressionshave the same
sign and the
if they liave differentsigns.
sign
71.
"
we
4
is divided by arwtJter
One power
of any number
of the same
number, by subtracting the index qf
power
the latterpower from the index of the former.
72.
r
35
DIVISION.
For
By
example,suppose
Art. 16,
have to divide a"
we
by a\
a"=axax"xaxa,
a?
therefore
".
,c'
.,
"jxcxc
=
_.
c^ = c' *.
cxcxcxc
the rule may
In'like manner
other case.
may
_
=
=
*'c*
we
a' = a" 3.
=
cxcxcxcxcxcxc
Similarly
i
Or
" x a
=
=
5
be shewn to be true in any
shew the truth of the rule thus
c*'x(?
by Art. 59,
=
therefore
:
c^^
(P
(P
I4="^^
^="^"
in the dividend
If any power of a number occurs
in
number
the divisor,
and a higherpower of the same
the
Arts.
and
be
72.
can
71,
quotient
by
simplified
Suppose,
for example,that 405^ is to be divided by 3c6^;then the
73.
quotientis denoted by
"rg
dividend and
divisor;this
tient denoted
by
^
The factor IP'occm's
.
may
be
in both
removed, and the
quo
^'^,
; thus
=
.
II.
The rule for dividing
a compound expression
tion
by a simpleexpressionwill be obtained from an examinain Multiplication.
of the corresponding
case
74.
For
example,wc
have
{flh)c
therefore
ac'hc\
=
=
a
"
6.
c
(a6)x
therefor"
c=
(3WJ +
"C;
=^a6.
"
"
c
3"2
36
DIVISION.
Hence
qf the
collect the
dividinga
pound
com
simpleexpression: divide each term
the divisor,by the rule in the first
results to form the completequotient.
expressionby
dividend
by
case, and
For
have the followingrule for
we
a
example,
4a2
=
"
^bc +
ac.
To
divide
III.
75.
one
compound expressionby
another we must proceed as in the operationcalled Long
The followingrule may be given.
Division in Arithmetic.
dividend
both
Arrange
of
powers
some
and
common
of some
descending powers
Urst term
of the dividend by
and
ing
according to ascendboth according to
or
letter,
divisor
common
letter.
titefirstterm
put tJie result for the firstterm
of
Divide
the
the
divisor,
oftJiequotient; m,ul
tiply the whole
product from
divisor
the
subtract
and
by this term
t/te dividend.
To the remainder
join as
be
of the dividend, taken in order, as may
terms
many
required, and
repeat the whole
until all the
process
taken
dowru
terms
of
the
Continue
dividend
have been
operation.
the
that for the
The reason
tor this rule is the same
as
rule of Long Division in Arithmetic,namely, that we
may
how
often
and
find
the
break the dividend
into
parts
up
in each part, and then the aggiegate
divisor is contained
is
the
of these results
completequotient.
76.
shall
We
arranged in
a +
a
now
convenient
give
examples
of Division
form.
+ b
b)a^A2ab^W{a
a^ + ab
some
a+bja^b\ab
a^ + ab
37
DIVISION,
a^ 2"6 + 3 "2j 3^4 1 Oa^?,+ ^^cCy^22a"+
4a^b
1 56"
{Sa^4ab
+
56="
lSa^b22ab^
+
Consider the last example. The dividend and divisor
both ananged according to descending powers
of a.
are
The first term in the dividend
is 3a* and the first term in
the divisor is o; dividingthe former
by the latter we
obtain 3a^ for the first term
of the quotient. We
then
multiplythe
whole
that each term
contains
"
the
divisor
below
comes
same
^a^b+lSa^b^;
power
and
by 3a^, and
the term
of a;
we
bring down
we
dividend,namely, "22ab^.
4"^",by the first terai in
We
the
"
Aab for the next
the whole diWsor
under
those terms
place the
result so
of the dividend which
subtract,and
obtain
the next
term of the
divide
the
first term,
divisor,a^; thus
we
obtain
in the quotient.We then multiply
4ab and place the result in order
by
of the dividend with which we are now
subtract,and obtain 5a'^b^ lOab^ ; and we
"
occupied; we
bring doAvu the
We
term
"
"
next
divide
term
5a^2"'by a^,and
in the quotient. We
by 55^,and
place the
of the
term
tlius
then
terms
dividend, namely, 155*.
obtain
55" for the next
multiplythe whole divisor
we
as
before; we
subtract,and
there is no remainder.
all the terms
in the diridend
As
have been broughtdown, the operationis completed; and
the quotientis 3a^
4a5 + 55^.

It is of great importance to arrange
and divisor according to the same
order
letter;and
to
attend
to this order
both
of
some
in every
dividend
common
part of the
operation.
happen, as in Arithmetic, that the division
be exactly performed. Thus, for example, if we
cannot
divide d^ + 2aJ" 4 26 by " !5, we shall obtain,as in the first
example of the preceding Article,a + 6 in the quotient,
Tl.
It may
and there will then be
a
remainder
b'\ This result is
ex
38
DIVISION.
pressedin
we
may
ways
similar to those
used in Arithmetic ; thus
say that
b
+
=a
7
+
=:;
a+D
a+o
that
is,there
In
is i^guotient
a+",and
B
general,let y^Vpnd
denote
is divided
t
.
and
expressions,
is
the quotient g, and
is expressed algebraically
student Vill observe \hat each
an
convenient
an
"
two
B
A
by
suppose that when
then
this
result
the remainder
R;
in the followingways,
The
fractional part
a
feimpleor
expression,
'
for .distindtnessand
expressionby
a
letter hero may represent
it
often
is
compound;
'^"
^^
"
*
'"
"
*
singleletter.
"We shall however
consider
in subsequent
at present shall confine ourselves to
Chapters,and
examples of Division in
fractions
algebraical
which
performed.
the
operationcan
be
exactly
V
^
78.
We
givesome
Divide x^5a^
Arrange both
scendingpowers
+
"
examples :
more
lx^
+
2x'6x
2
by
l + 2xBx'
+
divisor accordingto
divideij^""^d
of ^.
a^.
de
""^'^
a*3x'+2a+ljx''~5x^
2aT^

2x^
"2a^
+'7x^+2x^ex2{x^2x2
+
Qx^
+
2x^
Qx
+Qa^4:a?2x
2x*
^6x'4x2
'2x^
+6a^Ax2
39
DIVISION.
Divide
a'
"3
+
c^
+
as
select
we
contains
that
seen
descending
terms, sucli
a,
h
+
e.
a.
It will be
to
+
a
according to descending powers
Arrange the dividend
of
by
3a6c

a
powers
a*6 and
we
arrange
of
then
a;
these terms
according
when
two
there are
of
a^c,which involve the same
power
letter,as b, and put the term which
wliich does not; and again, of
the term
abc, we put the former first as involving
new
b before
the terms o^ and
of b.
the higher power
example might also be woikod, with
brackets,thus:
This
ahb
+
3abc
cjd^
a^
+
a\b
a\b

a\b
+
c)
+
c)3abc
4
c)

b^ +
+
+
a(62+
a(b^
the
c^{a*a(b+ c)+b^bc
b^ + c^
2bc
+
c^)
bc
+
c^ + b^ + 1^
of
aid
+
c^
40
EXAMPLES.
x^
Divide
{a + h"c)x*^{ab+ac+hc)xabchj
xc
+ {ab+ a"i'bc)xdbc{x'{a"b)a+a
c)ar^
+ i +
itcja^~{a
{a+ b)a^+ {ab+
"
IX.
a"
be)xab"
+
dbx
"abe
abx
abe
"
in which
the mn?.t"
Every example of Multiplication,
plierand the multiplicandare different expressions,Wiil
if the produ'jt
furnish two exercises in Division;because
be di\'ided by either factor the quotientshould be the other
factor. Thus from tht" examples given in the section on
derive exercises in Divlsio^j,
the student can
Multiplication
And
from any example
and test the accuracy of his work.
of Division,in which
the quotient and the divisor are
be obtiiJned
different expressions,a second
exercise may
tliAt
so
by making the quotienta divisor of tlie dividend,
ttie new
divisor.
quotientought to be the original
Examples.
IX.
Divide
I.
I5a*^ by Zx\
4.
24a4^5c"by3a5V.
4ur" 8.y^+ 1 6.r by Ax.
+ 4xt/^by x^
a^
Sx'^ir^
15a^I^ Za^b'^+ 1 2ab by
6.
8.
24a"
2.

3. ISs^ by f?^^.
by 8"l
5. 2Qa^"x^'i/^
h^ ^jb^u'hj.
1 2a^ + 1 5"' by
7. 3a*
3^*.



.
a


1 0.
60a=*"V
II.
a;27a;+12 by
13.
^x"^
14.
6;zr'+14^4;c
16.
9.^3+ 3,y24. ^
16.
*la^~ 24x'^ + 58.^

X

+
3ab.

4Sa^b^e^ + SGrt'^ft
V
3a'

_
12.
a?3.
9
20abc^

by 2;r 3.
24by 2^+6.
by 3x' 1.
2 1 by 7.r

+
1



3.
by
4a he^.
;i:'4ar72by
+
,^::
3.
42
X.
There
79.
so
Results
General
are
often in
notice.
especial
occur
RESULTS
GENERAL
in
Multiplication,
which
examples in Multiplication
operationsthat they deserve
algebraical
some
The
three examples are of great importance.
following
The
first example
Is,of (a + 6)*; thus
we
of (a + 6)(a + 6),that
value
gives the
have
Thus
the square of the sum
is equal to
of two numbers
the sum
increased bp
of ths squares
of the two numbers
twice their product.
Again, the second example gives
(abf
Thus
=
d^2ab
+
lr'.
tJie square
of the difference
of two numbers
the
the
sum
equal to
of
of the two numbers
squares
their
ticice
diminished
product.
by
The
is
last example gives
("+ 6)(a6)
Thus
numbers
=
a2_6^
and
the product of tJie sum
differencecf two
is equal to the differenceof their squares.
results of the preceding Article furnish a
simple example of one of the uses of Algebra; we may
80.
Tlie
Algebra enables us to prove general theorems
respecting numbers, and also to express tfiose theorems
briefly.
say
that
IN
43
MULTIPLICATION.
For example, the veBvM{a + h){a"h)=a'^l^ is
to be tiue,
and is expressed thus by symbols more
than by words.
A
proved
generalresult thus expressed by symbols is
called
B.
pactly
com
often
formula.
81. "We may here indicate the meaning of the sign "
which is made
and which
by combining the signs+ and
,
is called the double sign.
^
"
Smce
we
(a+ 5)2=a2+ 2a5
+
6", and
these results in
mfty express
one
{ahf=a^2ab
thus
formula
+
l^,
:
where =t indicates that we
take either the sign + or
may
the sign , keeping throughout the upper
sign or the
lower sign. a"6
is read thus, ^' a plus or minus
6."
"
"We
shall devote
Articles to explainingthe
some
"We shall
of the formuloe of Art. 79.
that can be made
use
them for tJie sake (f
repeat these fomiul^e,and number
easy and distinrt 'p/erenceto them.
82.
=a"
{a + bf
+
2"6
"'
+
(1)
=a''2abhP
(abf
{a + b){ab) a''b^
(2)
(3)
=
metical
be of use in ArithThe formulae will sometimes
calculations. For example; requiredthe difference
of the squares of 127 and 123.
By the fomr.ila (3)
83.
(127)'(123)*(127+ 123)(127 123)
Thus
it would
the
be
=
=
thus the square
29 by
multiplying
Or suppose
53
X
47
we
formula
=
4
=
1000.
the first.
Again,by the formula (2)
(29)2 (301)2 900
By the
x
is obtained more
easilythan
requirednumber
by squaiing 127 and 123, and subtractingthe
second result from
qnd
250
=
=
(50 +
60
is found
of 29
1=841
+
more
;
easilythan by
directly.
have to multiply53 by 47
29
(3)
3)(50 3) (50)^ 3'

=

=
2500

9
=
2491.
44
GENERAL
We
that we
obtain
Suppose
84.
of
can
course
multiphing 3^
4
RESULTS
2y by
require the square of 3^ + 2y.
ordinaryway, that is by
it in the
2?/. But
'ix +
we
also obtain
can
it
another
namely, by employing the formula (1).
way,
number
The formula is true whatever
a
may be, and whatin
.
h may be;
obtain
we
number
ever
for b.
Thus
(3^ + 2yf
{^xj"+
=
2
so
we
put
may
for a, and
^x
(3:c2y)+ {2yf dx'" I2xy
4y*.
+
=
ly
beginnerwill probablythink that in such a case ho
of the formula,for
does not gain any thing by the use
he will believe that he could have obtained the required
result at least as easilyand as safelyby common
work
of the formula.
This notion may be correct
as by the use
in this case, but it will be found
that in more
complex
wiU
formula
be
of
service.
the
cases
great
The
85.
x
+
Then
x
+ y +
"
(a + by
x'^+
=
Then
by the
Thus
{p
+
y'^
"pt
"
+
+
h^
of
use
(2)we
2pq
+
q^+ 2{pr"ps
g2^
^Q _^ ^2 ^
"
have
z^ {^xy+
^yz
+ 2xz.
"
g'=
of p"q',r
+ r
Denote
s.
"
+
s=a
"
(p
2^r
+
qr
"
2qs
"
+
"
qs)+
2pq
"
require the product
/"^
a
and
+ r*=a
z'i
.
b.
+
{rs)\
qf and (r *)'.
r'^ 2rs + s'
2ps
"
"
2qi
"
of p"q\r"s
q~r"s.
Let jo
note
De
z.
sf
r
we
+
'lyz+ z"^.
+
express
+
Suppose
y
(1)we
(j)q)^+ 2{pq){rs)
=
q
"
+
have
(1)we
a^ + 2ab
=
=p^
p
zf
of
use
of
use
+ 2xz
9.xyt.y2
X'^
Suppose we requirethe square
by 6; then p"q
qhj a and rs
By the
"
+
x
+ '2.i,x
+ y)z +
a'"^az{z'^'{x"yf
=
=
Th\Ji"{x + y
of
square
by the
and
z^a+z;
{a+zf
p
require the
Suppose wc
yhy a.
r*
+
=
"; then
", and jog"
rt*=a"
6.
2rs.
aad
IN
Th^i
the
by
45
MULTIPLICATION.
of
use
have
(3)we
"
{a + b){ah) a*"={pqf{r9fi
=
and
the
by
{pq
use
safe,and
+
should
he
3)=p'*'2pq+ q^{r^'2r8^s?)
=p'^+ q^t^s^2pq + 2rs.
in
exhibited
method
The
have
(2)we
rs){pqr
+
86.
ts
of
the
preceding Article
be adopted by the beginner;
therefore
famihar
with the subject he may
of the work.
Thus in the last example,
becomes
more
dispensewith some
he will be able to omit that part relating
to
simplyput down the followingprocess ;
as
{pq
rs){pqr
+
+
=
j?' 2pq
=
or
rs)(jpqr
+
+
through the
The
formulae.
Find the
c, b
+
Take
b+
c"a"
+
q^" r^ +
2r8
^;
"
c
"
+
2rs
"
s^.
probablyfind it prudent to
the precedingArticle.
will
all the thiee
employ
the four factors
a +
h + c,
a +
bCy
a.
c){a+ bc)={a
the last two
obtain
factors;by (3)and (1)we
+
byc'=a' +
2ab + "c'.
obtain
factors;by (3)and (2)we
{ab+ c)(b+ ca)
We
in
fullyas
product of
the firsttwo
{a+
Take
+
work
will
followingexample
87.
ab
q^{r^2rs + s^)
s)={pq)^{rs)*
=p^"2pq + q^"f^ +
But at firstthe student
go
"
+
still,
briefly
more
{pq
h, and
s) fj"q + {rs)]{pq{j'8)}
ipqf(rsy=p^2pq
=
and
a
=
{c+ (ab)}{c{ab)}
=
c'{ab)*
=
c'a''
have now to multiplytogethera^ + 2ab
2a6 ft^. y^^ obtain
+
+
2abb*.
"c^
and
46
RESULTS
(a'+
2a"
""
+

MULTIPLICATION.
IN
(c" a2 + 2a6 62)
c2)
+ 62c2)}{2a5(a2
+ 6"c2)}
+ (a2
={2aft


+ 62_c2)2
(2a5)2(a"
=
+ 62)2_2(a2+62)c3
+ c4}
=4a''5'{(a"
=
40=62.(a2
+ 2(a2+ ?^)c2_^
+ 52)2
=
^aW
=
2a26a+ 262c2+ 2a2c2_a46*c*.
a^

2a262 54 + 2a2c2+ 252^2 c*


_
whicli are
88. There are other resultsin Multiplication
than the three formulae givenin Art. 82,
of less importance
of attention. We placethem here
V)ut which are deserving
in order that the student may be able to refer to them
when they are wanted; they can
be easilyverified by
actual multiplication.
ffl3
+ 63,
(a+ 6)(a'a6+ 62)
=
+ ah + W') c^h\
{ab){a^
(a+ 6)"=(a+ h)(a^+ 2a6 + 52) ^s + 3^25 + 3^53 + j^s^
+ 62) a3_3^2^, + 3^52_53^
(a6)3=(a6)(a22a6
+ (6+ c)3,
(a+ 6 + c)3 a3 + 3a2(6+ c)+3a(" + c)2
=
=
=
=
a3 + "3 + c34. za\h +
+ 6)+ 6"z""?.
c)+ Z"{a + c)+ Zc^{a
formed by
are
89. Useful exercises in Multiplication
the student to shew that two expressions
requiring
agree in
givingthe same result. For example,shew that
=
+ c'(pa\
{ah){hc){ca)a\ch) + })^{ac)
=
If we
a 6 by 6 c
multiply
ab
then
we
h^"(ic + bc\
"
this result by c
by multiplying
cab

ch^
"
ac^ + hc^
"
that is a2 (c

Again;
shew that
=2{c b){ca)+
~
obtain
"
a
obtain
we
c^h + 062 + g^c

abcy
6)4 6"{ac)+ c\h a).

{a hf + (6 c)2+ (c af

2


(pa){b c)+ 2{ab){a c).


EXAMPLES.
By usingformula (2)of
47
X.
Art
82
we
obtain
(a6)2+ (6c)2+(.ca)"
=2(a'+6'
And
+
c'a6a":6c).
{c"'b){c"a) (^"cacb^ahy
=
(b
"
a){b"c) l^bahc
=
{ab){a"c)
=
a*ab"ac
+ acj
+
bc;
_
therefore
{c"b){ca)
+
{b a){bc)+ {a b)(a
=
therefore (a")' +
=
c^ + l^ + "f"ab
ac"bc;
"
Apply the formulae of Art.
:
examples in multiplication
+
2{ab){a'C}.
X.
Examples.
to the
82
foUowingsixteen
1.
+ I4yf.
{I5a;
2.
(Taj'Sy*)*.
3.
{x'+ 2x2f.
4.
ix'5a;+ iy.
5.
(2^3a;4)".
7.
{x'+
8.
+ 'f){x'oey
+ y^
{a^irxy
9.
{x'+
xy +
c)
("c)"+(ca)'
2{cb){cd) + 2{ba){bc)
xy +

+ 2y
{a!
6.
+
3zf,
y*){x'+ xyt/').
y^){x'xyy').
10.
+ a?2^2^)(a:";ry
+ 2^).
(;c'
11.
{a^"2x'+ 2x"\){a?2a?"Zxl).
12.
+ 6a;+9).
(a;3)"(a^
14.
+ 12;ri/9y').
+ 3y)"(4a:"
(2;c
15.
+ by){ax
("V
(rt.'F
try)
16.
{ax\byf{axby)\

13.
+
tff).
(a+ bf{a*2abl^
48
EXAMPLES.
Shew
that the
X,
results
follo^ving
true:
are
17.
+ d') {aG^hdf+ {adhcf.
{a^+ l}'){c'
18.
(a +
19.
{a'b)(J)c){ca)'bc{c"h)+ ca{a~c)+ db{ba\
20.
{ahf\Wa^=Zab(pa).
21.
+ cfa{h
{airh
22.
+ Wf{a?^abvh''f=4ah{a*+ h^),
{a'^ah
23.
{a+
24.
+ abc.
+ h){p+ c){c\a)
{a+ h^c){ab+ 'bc"ca)^{a
25.
(a +
b){b+ ca){c
26.
ia+
b +
27.
(a + "
=
6
c)'+
+
o'4"''+ c2
(" + 6)2+ ("+ ";)"4(c+a)"
=
=
+
c~a)~'b{a"ch)c{a^hc)
=2(a2 + i/"+ c").
cfa^Wc'=2{a
h +
cf{b
+
+
ab)
cafiab
+
cf{a
+
+ (a"
c)"+ (a+ 5c)''
+
h){h + c){c+ a).
+
bcf
c)'+ ("+ ca)'
+
=
6' +
4(a'+
i2a)\
28.
+ {abf
{a+ bf + 2{a''b^)
29.
(a6)'+ ("c)'+ (ca)3 3(a")(6c)(ca).
30.
iabf
=
=
+
ia+ bf+d{aby{a
+
b)+ ii{a+ byiab)
{2a)\
=
31.
+ ca)(c+a")
(a+ ")'("
+
("6)'(a+
"
+
c)(a+ "c)
=
32.
4a6c*.
+ c''a^)+b(c+a){c^
+ a^b^
a(p+ c){b^
b^c^) 2abc{a^b+
+c{a + b){a^+
=
33.
cl
{ab){xa){xb)"(bc){xb){xc)
+ {c a){x"c){X'a)
{a"b){b"c){a"c).
=
"
34.
c').
+ c)2
+ ("+ ^2^.(^+^2
(a+6)2+ (a+ c)2+ (a4"f)24(6
+ 2(a2+"2 + c2 + "3?2).
(a+ 6 + c + fl?)''^
=
35.
+ (ay
bxY} {{ax+ byf
{{ax+ "2^)2


=
36.
+ ("a? ayf
{oy bzf + {az ftp)^



+
{ay+ bxf)
{a*"){x*p*),
+ 6y + czf
(a;r
FACTORS.
50
Also
x^
"
+
x
ar'y+ a}y^ y^,

"
y
x^
00^

and
+
:c V
.r3y''^

+
^
V^i

on
so
Also
x
*
+ y
X^ ":""
V^
"^=x*
"
X
aad
so
r

x^y + a^y^ xy^ + y^,

y
on.
these operationsas far ai
student
can
carry on
in the truth of
he pleases,
and he will thus gain confidence
shall now
which
the statements
we
make, and which are
in the higher parts of largerworks
demonstrated
strictly
the statements :
are
on
Algebra. The following
The
af'"y^ia divisible by
y if n
ic"
be a7iy whole
a;""
2/"is divisible hj
x
+
y if nhe
of* +
y" is divisible hy
x
+
y if n
any
even
number
number;
whole
be any odd whole
;
number.
might also put into words a statement of the forms
will
of the quotient in the three cases; but the student
most
readily learn these forms by looking at the above
examples and, if necessary, carryingthe operations still
"We
farther.
We
x"y,
may
when
add
n
is
that
an
;r**
+
even
y"
whole
is
never
divisible by
x
+
y
or
number.
The student will be assisted in remembering the
results of the x"receding
Article by noticingthe simplest
93.
51
FACTORS.
in each of the four results,
and referring
other
wish
consider
For
to
whether
to it.
example,suppose we
the
index
3^ "y' is divisible by x
7 is an
y or by xvy,
of this kind is
odd whole number, and the simplestcase
which is divisible hj x
so
we
y, but not by a"+y;
x"y,
and
infer that x^ y"^ is divisible by x
not
by x\y.
y
Again, take a?"y^\ the index 8 is an even whole number,
of this kind is oc^"y"^,
and the simplest case
which is
and x + y; so we
divisible both hy x"y
infer that a^"y^
"
"
"
is divisibleboth
The
94.
x +
y.
additional
are
following
into
expressions
X^y^
and
hj x"y
examplesof resolving
factors.
{x'+ y3)(x^y^
+ xy
ix + y)(x'^xy^y^{xy){x^
=
=
Sfc' 27c"

=
+
y^:
+ 26 x 3c + (dc)^}
(26)3 {Scf {2b 3c){(26)2
(26 3c)(462+ 6bc + 9c^;
=


=

4{ab+ cd)''{a^^b^c'^d'f=
+ cd){a* + b^c'd')
{2{ab+ cd)+ (a^+ b*c*d^)}{2(ab
{2ab+ 2cd + a^ + "c^d^{2ab + 2cda^b^ + (^+d^
{{a+ 6)" (c df] {{c+ df (a 6)2}
+ cd){a + h"c"d){ab\c+ d){b{cird"a).
{akb
=
=




=
ed
Suppose that {a^ 5jty+ 6y*){x Ay) is to be dividWe
by a^"lxy+\2y*.
might multiplya^"6xy"rQy*
and
divide
the result by x^7xy + 12y^.
then
x
by
4y,
of the questionsuggests to us to try if
But the form
x4y is not a factor of x^lxy + Vly'';and we shall find
that x^7xy + l2y^^{x 3y){x Ay). Then
95.
"
"
"

{a^"5xy + 6y^ (x Ay)
{x"3y){xAy)
a^

and
by
division we
_
~

5xy + 6y^
*
x"3y
find that
a^5xy
*3y
+
6y^
=^^^4"2
52
EXAMPLES.
XL
The student with a littlepracticewill be able to
resolve certain trinomials into two binomial factors.
Sf6.
For
we
generally
have
{x + a){x + J)) a^
=
suppose
then
wish
wo
into two
two numbers
possible,
product is 12; and we
x^
lx^\2
+
+
if it be
possibleto resolve
must
factors; we
find, if
to know
binomial
such
see
{a+ 'b)x+ ah\
that their
that 3 and 4
is 7 and their
such numbers.
sum
are
Thus
a;2+ 7:"+ 12
Similarly,
by the aid
of the
+ 3)(^+ 4).
(a?
=
formula
(a!^a){xb) a^{a
=
we
can
resolve """ 7^
+
+
b)x + ab,
12 into the factors
{x
3)(a; 4).
"
"
And, by the aid of the formula
+ a){xb)
{a;
we
can
resolve a^+a;12
shall now
examples in the
We
a;^+
=
{ab)xab,
into the factors (x + 4){x 3).
give for
exercise
preceding Chapters.
Examples.
Add
miscellaneoui
some
XI.
togetherthe following
expressions:
b
1.
a{a
2.
a(ab
+
3.
aia"b
+ c +
+
c), b{b + c"a),
"
c\ b{b
cl), b{a +
d{a
4.
3a(4b1c\
6.
9a
6.
ia+b)x
{5b+ 2c),
+
a), c{ca
c +
"
+
c{a + eb),
b
b"c
+
c +
b).
d), c{a\b+ cd)f
d).
+
3b {Ac 7a),
3c
9b
9c

+
{5c+ 2a),
{4a lb).

{5a+ 2b).
{a+ c)i/, {bc)x + Q)c)y,
{ca)x + (pa)y.
EXAMPLES.
7.
+ {zy){ah)y
{z^x){a'irh)
{yz)a + {xy)h.
8.
{a'b)x+Q)c)y + {ca)z,
a{y + z)+ b{z + x) + c{a;+ y),
9.
Z"a
+
53
XL
+ y)a+(jp+")6,
(a?
ace +
by +
2(a + bc)x + {a + b)y + 2az,
cb)x + {a + c)yi2bzj 2{b + ca)x
10.
a*{ab
(?
{b+ c)y +
+
c)(a+ bc\
+
{c"a
"
b*iba
b){c+ a"b).
+
cz.
+
2cz.
c){b+ acX
:
Simplifythe following
expressions
3a)3{6
2(a6)}.
11.
a2(6
12.
{a+ b)(b+ c){c+ d){d+a){a
13.
4a
14.
{x+b){x
15.
a[5b{a3{cb)
16.
6a7("";)[6a(36
17.
+ 3)"3(;c+2)"
+ 3(a;+l)";c".
(a?
18.
{x+ yf
19.
+ (l+a?)2y
(H;c)"
+ (l+ ^)y2 + y"
+ 1}.
+ 1)+ y (y + 1)+ 2;i:y
{3;c(:i?

+
+

+
+
c){a +
b
+
c)(pd).
{x y)]].
2b
[2a {25{x+ y)
c

a'^+ ab + b* + 3ax.
+
c){x+ b)+
+
2c{a2b~c)}].
+
2c)+ 4";{2a(64ca)}].
{x+ y)*y+ {x+ y)y^ [Za^y+ 5y^x+ 2y"}.


20.
^^
+ c{a + bf + {ab){a + c){bc)
a{b + cf+b{a + c)''
{a+b) (ac) {bc){ab) {a c){b+ c).
{a + b){a+ c){b + d)(d +
a
22
^JLT^^^t^'
ZO.
26
36
a
3a37a266rt6"4553
7
lQ{b"f+ ca* + ab^
6a"26a'6
+
40a6"206'
+
"
a+b
2^
g*7g5 412^
__
a
_
c)^
d
"
^
a"b

12
(6"c+ c*a + a'6) 19a6c
2a'3b

.
64
XL
EXAMPLES.
Divide
25.
a^^if Ij^ifby {x y)\
26.
o^vy^^ 2a^y^by {x+ y)\
27.
(a'3a""+ 5a""3"')
(a26) by a"3a5
28.
(a:39^V
29.
"" J a^ft^+ "8 by
30.
a8
31.
4"z269+
32.
+ 2)(;?r3)bya^5;c
(;c"3a;
+
33.
+ 4)bya;2+
(a:33^+ 2)(;2;
34.
(a^+
ao; +
36.
(a*+
a*b' +
36.
+ a^{x + a) by (a+ ")(a?
+ a^)+ ax{a;^a^)
+ "zV
b{ar^
"
"
23a;y2_i5y3)(^ j^^)by x^hxy
+
_
"8+^t' (^4

_
Resolve
2"".
+
ab
{a?
+
ah
b")(a^+
j4)by (a'

+
ai"+J^")
(a'+ ab
+
the
^2)(o^+ ar^by
") {a+ b) by
6.
a;2.
a^
aV
+
a" + ^5
+
a?*.
6'.
+
expressionsinto
following
fjictors:
38.
x^+Ux
39.
^2
40.
a?2 20.2?+100.
41.
x^hxlS2.
42.
a;27a;44.
43.
a?*81.
44.
ar^+125.
45.
a:8256.
46.
^^64.
47.
a^
48.
;f'' 1 :3.ry
+
49.
(a + byUc{a
60.
+ y)(a + 6)+ 3(a4")"
2(^ + y)'7(;c
Shew
6").
2(3a*2"*)ai"(5a'"ll"2)
by (3a6)(a^6X
d?2^9.2;+ 20.
+
72/".
").
37.
_
+
15^^.50.
9ab
+
that the
20bl
+
+

b)+ SOc^.
results
following
are
61.
{a+ 2b)a^(p+2a)b' {ab){a
52.
a{a2byb(b2af
=
=
true
+
:
b)\
{ab){a + bf.
30.
423^.
COMMON
GREATEST
XII.
97.
another
it,or
or
to
more
measure
Greatest
In
Arithmetic
whole
number
whole
whole
numbers
of them.
Algebra an expressionwhich
exactlyis said to be a m"asure
it; an expression which divides two
measure
exactlyis said to be a com,7non
In
divides
of
measure
said to be a
whole
number
which
divides two
exactlyis said to be a comtnon
In
98.
which
number
exactlyis
it; a
measure
Measure.
Common
a
55
MEASURE.
the
Arithmetic
whole
numbers
divides
of
another
it,or
pression
ex
measure
expressions
more
or
to
of them.
greatest
of
me"isure
comm/)n
is the greatestwhole number
which will measure
them
all. The term
greatest common
is also used in Algebra, but here it is not very
measure
because the terms
dom
appropriate,
greater and less arc selapplicableto those algebraicalexpressionsin which
definite numerical
values have not been
assigned to the
whicli
various letters
It would be better to speak
occur.
of the highestcommon
onea^ure, or of the highestco?nmon
in
but
dicisor;
conformity with established usage we
two
or
more
shall retain the term
greatest
The letters g.c.m.
instead of this term.
We
in
have
to
now
will
comm,on
be
often
explainin
measure.
what
used
sense
for shortness
the term
is used
Algebra.
99.
measure
It is usual
of two
or
by the greatest common
simple expressionsis meant
to say, that
more
greatest expression which
common
of
measure
The
them, all; but
finlyunderstood until we have
rule for findingthe greatest
will
this definition will not be
given and exempUfied the
the
measure
simpleexpressions.
followingis the
simple expressions.Find
for findingthe g.c.m.
of
the g.c.m.
o/
hy Arithmetic
this
number
after
put every
to all the expressions,and
give
Rule
the numerical
letter which
is commmi
to each
letter respectively
the least index
coefficyfnts;
in the expressions.
which
it has
5e
COMMON
GREATEST
the numerical
Here
20a^b^d.
their
and
example; requiredthe
For
100.
MEASURE.
G.aM.
expressionsare
the least index
g.c.m.
of IGa^^e
coefficients are
and
and
16
20,
to both the
The letters common
is 4.
b ; the least index of a is 3, and
a and
of b is 2. Thus we obtain 4a^b^ as the required
G.C.M.
Again; requiredthe
of Sa^c^ar^yz^,
12a^bcxh/^i
Here
the numerical
coefficients are
and IQa^c^x^.
8,
is
The
letters common
4.
to
12, and 16; and their g.c.m.
and
and
their
indices
least
allthe expressionsare a, c, x^
y ;
and
Thus
obtain ^d^cx^ as
1.
we
are
2, 1, 2,
respectively
the requiredg.c.m.
g.c.m.
The following
statement
gives the best practical
is meant
of what
the
term
by
greatest common
in
it
the
of the word
shews
sense
Algebra, as
measure,
expressionsare divided
greatesthere. \Vhen two or more
101.
notion
hy
their
greatestcommon
measure,
the
quotientshave
no
m,easu7^e,
common
^.
the
Take
and
these
first example of Art.
100, and divide the
by their g.c.m.; the quotientsare
have no common
measure.
quotients
4ac
and
pressions
ex
bbd,
second example of Art. 100, and
di\ide the expressions
by their g.c.m.; the quotientsare
and ^a"i^, and these quotientshave no
iWca^z^, Zcv^hy"^^
Again,
common
take
the
measure.
The
notion which is suppliedby the preceding
Article,with the aid of the Chapter on Factors,will enable
the student to determine in many
the g.c.m. of comcases
pound expressions. For example; required the g.c.m. of
4a" ("+ ")'and 6ab{a^b%
of the
Here
2a is the g.c.m.
factors 4a^ and Gab; and a + b is a factor of (a+ b)^and
of a^ b\ and is the only common
factor. The product
is
then
the g.c.m. of the given expressions.
2a{a + b)
102.
"
But
this method
cannot
be applied to complex examples,
because the general theory of the resolution of
expressionsinto factors is beyond the present stage of
the student's knowledge; it is therefore necessary to adopt
58
GREATEST
The
106.
the
MEASURE.
COMMON
rule which
is
given in
principles.
two
following
Art. 104
depends on
If P
mA.
For let
measure
A, it will measure
denote the quotient when
is divided by P; then
A
a
therefore mA
therefore P
A=aP',
measures
maP;
(1)
=
mA.
(2) If P
For, since P
and B=^bP;
P
A
measures
mA
"We
and
and
B, it will
i?,we
mA^nB.
measure
may
suppose
mA^nB={ma^nh)P'y
therefore
measures
107.
A
measure
A
=
aP,
therefore
nB.
"
can
now
demonstrate
the rule which
is given
in Art. 104.
Let
A
and
B
denote the two expressions. Divide ^ by jB; let /?
denote
the quotient,and C the remainder.
Divide S by (7;let $" de
B)
A
pB
C)
note the
quotient,and D the remainder.
Divide C by Z", and
suppose
that there is no remainder,and let r
denote the quotient
Thus
have the
we
A
=pB
+
(p
B
Kjj
qC
D)
C Cr
rZ)
results :
following
a
B=
qC+ A
C=
rD.
"We
shall first shew that Z" is a common
of
measure
A and B.
therefore D
Because
C=rD,
measures
(7;
also
and
therefore,by Art. 106, D measures
g(7,
qC+D;
that is,D measures
B and C,
B. Again, since Z" measures
it measures
Thus
D
A.
pB + C; that is, D measures
measures
"We
A
and
common
A
have
B;
and
B.
thus shewn
shall now
we
of
that Z" is a common
measure
shew that it is their gr cutest
measure.
of A and B meaArt. 106 every common
measure
sures
of
A pBj that is (7j thus every common
measure
of B and C,
A and 5 is a common
measure
Similarly,
C
is
and
B
common
measure
of
a
measure
evei'y common
By
Therefore
of C and D.
^
is
of D.
measure
a
than
D
divide D.
of A and B.
can
measure
common
every
But no
It is obvious
108.
of
measure
of those
two
or
of A
and
sions
expressionof higher dimenD is the greatest
Therefore
common
measure
that, every measure
expressionsis a
more
59
MEASURE.
COMMON
GREATEST
of
a
common
measure
common
expressions.
is
in
107 that every
common
of A and B measures
D; that is,every common
their greatest common
of two expressionsmeasures
It
109.
measure
measure
shewn
Art.
measure;.
state and exemplifya rule which
is adopted in order to avoid fractions in the quotient; by
refer to the
the use of the rule the work is simplified. We
in the larger
Measure
Chapter on the Greatest Common
We
110.
Algebra,for
shall
now
of the rule.
the demonstration
Before
placing a fresh term in any
the dividend,
divide the divisor,or
is common
icliich has no factor which
is
whose
m,easure
greatest common
dividend
at such
a
w,ay multiply the
has no factor that occurs
which
111.
and
but
For
Sx^7x
example; requiredthe
quotient,wer may
hy any expression
to the expressions
required; or, we
pression
exstage by any
in the divisor.
of 2^27^
g.c.m.
+ 5
Here
take 2;^^ 7^ + 5 as divisor;
we
if we divide Zx^ by 2^^ tlie quotient is a fraction ; to
avoid this we multiplythe dividend by 2, and then divide.
+ 4.
"
2x'^1x
+
5) 6x'^Uxh
8
{3
6;i;2_2iic+i5
IxIf
we
now
the
di\'idend,
make
7^7
a
7
divisor and
2^2
"
7^ + 5 the
firstterm of the quotientwill be fractional ;
factor 7 occurs
in every
of the proposed
term
and we remove
divisor,
this,and then divide.
but the
COMMON
GREATEST
60
MEASURlS.
2a^7a;
x\)
i,2x6
+ 5
2x^~2x
"
Thus
we
obtain
it will be
Here
1
a?"
6^ + 5
the
as
that
seen
required.
g.c.m.
the second part of
used
we
the rule of Art. 110, at the beginningof the process, and
the first part of the rule later. The firstpart of the rule
should be used if possible
part. We
; and if not, the second
have used the word expression in statingthe rule,but in
the student will have
the examples which
to solve,the
removed
wiU be almost
factors introduced
or
always nur
merical factors,as they are in the precedingexample.
We
will now
give another example ; requiredthe
of 2a?* 7a;* 4;c'4 a; 4
and
g.c.m.
Zxi^lia^lx^AxlQ.
Multiplythe latter expressionby
2
and
take it for
then
dividend.
^^la^^{x4:)
Qie^21x^6a;*


_
i2ar2+ 3a?

(3
12
a;*+ 8a;'lla?20
multiplyevery term of this remainder by 1
divisor;that is,we may change
using it as a new
signof every term.
We
before
the
21a:3
4a?28a;32
"^8a"
may
+
ll"+20j
2a?*
Ta;"
4a?"+ a?4
+ 9
(,2a?
9a;326a;2_
^^^_
9a^"72a;2+
99a; +180
46a;2_ 138a;
Here 46 is a factor of every term
reoioye
it before using the remainder
4
184
of the remainder;
as
a
new
divisor.
wo
61
EXAMPLES.
XJI.
is the
required.
Thus a^3:"4
g.c.m.
Suppose the originalexpressions to contain a
is obvious
factor I^, which
on
common
inspection
; let
bF.
ai^ and ^
^
Then, by Art. 109, i^ will be a factor
of a and b, and multiply it
Find the g.c.m.
of the G.C.M.
by F; the product will be the g.c.m. of ^ and B.
112.
=
=
than two
proceed to the g.c.m. of more
compound expressions.Suppose we require the g.c.m. of
Find the g.c.m.
of any two of
tht'ee expressionsA, B, C.
them, say of ^ and B; let Z" denote this g.c.m.; then the
of D and C will be the requiredg.c.m. of A, B, and C.
G.C.M.
113.
a
"We
now
For, by Art. 108, every common
of ^, B, and
common
mea.surc
of
Therefore
measure
common
D and C.
of .4,^, and
C;
and
C is a
the g.c.m. of D
^, B,
of D
measure
and
by
common
and
Art.
and
109
measure
C is the
C is
every
of
g.c.m.
G.
In
similar
find the g.c.m. of
may
/our expressions. Or we may find the g.c.m. of two of
the ^ven expressions,
and also the g.c.m.
of the other two;
then the g.c.m.
of the two
results thus obtained
will be
the G.CM.
of the four given expressions.
114.
a
manner
Examples.
Find
the
greatest common
we
XIL
measure
in the
following
examples :
20aHA
2.
I6a^,
Z6j^y^z^,48a^y'z^.
4.
35a'I^x'y\49a^b*a!*y^.
4{x + l)\ 6(;c"l).
6.
6(^ + 1)3, 9(a;^l).
1.
I5x*,
3.
C.
ISxK
C2
XII.
EXAMPLES.
7.
12(a''"6")",
8(a*n
!X^y\ P*2A
8.
11.
a?2+ 2;2?120, ic2_2^_80.
12.
a;* 15^
13.
:p3+
14.
a;3_ 9^2+ 23.?;12,
15.
aj3_29a; +
16.
!X?A\xZ%
17.
a^ + 7^+l7^
18.
0^10.?;^ + 26^ 8,
19.
+
4(a;2a?hl),3(a;^
20.
+ l), 4(a?6l).
5(a;2aj
21.
6ii?^
+
22.
;i;84^
23.
a^^x^^,
24.
a;^2a;2 + 3a?6,
25.
ar*l, 3ir'+
26.
a^9;zj''30a;25, af'^a^'lx^v^x.
27.
35a^
28.
a^'^m^
+
a;"9^
36,
g^s^.i3^+12,
a;
+
36.
a^
7a!2+16;2?+16.
+
^10a?2
42, ;c3+ ^2
35^
_
^
V5,
+
+ 2a? +
47^2
+
49
+
ii^11^2^25;c
+
+
25.
8.^^+19^
a?^3s'
;c2+
12.
+
1Zx\%
+
,.
l).
+ 48a;2+
2, 9;i?3

+ 28a;15.
52.r
3, 2;c4_9^3
+
1 6.
+
i2a;27.
Q!^'ix'^"f%
+
x^

a?
x^ 'Ix.

2;c*+ 4a?3+ 2;c2+
i3"p +
i^ 42a^
+
^\
41;ir3_9^2_9"p_l,
^x'^lx^^^x^'^x+Y,
x^o(?^1x'^^^1x'x^V
29.
2:c^6:c3 4.3;2;23:c+l,x^ ^x^^x^Ax^'^Vlx^,
30.
a?^l, a7i"+a^ +
31.
^3a;70,
32.
a^xy\ 1y,
33.
2^2 + 3^^
34.
ic3_3^2^_2a3^
36.
S^c' 3;cy+ xy^
"
4.
a?8+ 2d7^+ 2^*
+
2^
+
^2
+ a? +
ofi^^x^IQ), a;848."+7.
x"^+ 5.t:y
+
^2^ 3^2
^ 2aa:
62/'.
a\

a:3rt;z;24al

y\
4:X'^ybxy^ + y^

l.
COMMON
LEAST
XIIL
Least
In Arithmetic
another whole number
115.
hj
Common
a
116.
In Arithmetic
more
whole
Multiple.
whole number
is said to be
is measured
number
which
whole
numbers
is said to be
or
a
63
MULTIPLR
common
is measured
which
a
multiple of
by two or more
inultipleof them.
it ;
a
whole
the least connmon
multiple of two
is the least whole number
which
numbers
them all.
The term least common
is measured
by
multiple
is also used in Algebra,but here it is not very appropriate;
The
letters l.c.m.
will ofteybe used for
Art. ^^.
see
shortness
We
in
instead
have
now
of this term.
to
explainin
what
sense
the term
is used
Algebra.
It is usual to say, that by the least common
117.
tiple
mulof two or more
is meant
the leasi
simpleexpressions,
nition
expressionwhich is measured
by them all; but this defiwill not be fuUy understood
until we have given and
exemphfied the rule for findingthe
of simple expressions.
least
multiple
common
followingis the Rule for findingthe l.c.m. of
the l.c.m.
simple expressions. Find by Arithmetic
of the
numerical
coefficients
; after this jiumber
put every letter
ichich occurs
in the expressions,and give to each letter
it hat in the eX'
respectivelythe greatest index which
The
pressions.
118.
For
Here
ZOaWd.
and their L.O.M.
example; required the
the
numerical
L.C.M.
of 16a*bc
coefficients are
16
and
and
20,
in the exThe letters which occur
is 80.
pressions
are
a, h,c, and d; and their greatest indices are
respectively
4, 3, 1, and 1. Thus v/e obtain SOa^b^cd as the
required L.C.M.
of Sd'b^c^x^yz^,
12a*bcar*y^,
of the numerical
coefficients
and
l.c.m.
in the expressionsaie
is 48.
The
letters which
occur
their greatestindi(X's are
a, b, c, x, y, and z ; and
rei"pecas
lively4, 3, 3, 5, 4, and 3. Thus we obtain ^bal^h'^i^a^y^z^
Again; required the
Here the
liia^c^xh/*.
the .jquircdL.C.M.
L.C.M.
LEAST
i)4
notion
MULTIPLE.
gives the best practical
followingstatement
is meant
by the term least common
multiple
The
1 1 9.
COMMON
of what
of the word least here.
in Algebm, as it shc"vp the sense
WTien
the least common
?nuldple of two or more
sions
expresis divided by those expressions the quotientshave no
measure.
common
Take
the first example of Art. 118, and divide the l,c.m..
expressions; the quotientsare ob^d and 4ac, and
by the
these quotientshave
no
common
measure.
Again; take the second example of Art. 118, and divide
the L.C.M.
by the expressions; the quotients are Sa^cy^,
and these quotientshave no common
^(?a?yz^^ and ZaJfia^z^^
measure.
Tlie notion
120.
which
suppliedby the preceding
Chapter on Factors,will enable
is
the aid of the
in many
the l.c.m. of comto determine
the student
pound
cases
expressions. For example, required the l.c.m. of
and Q"ab{a^V). The
of 4a* and 6a" is
l.c.m.
4a"(a + ")='
factor
Also (a + hf and a"h^
have the common
12a6.
that (rt
+ ^)("
+ 6)(a") is a multiple of {a + hf
a + h, so
and of a'^ V^; and on dividingthis by (a+ 6)'and a* li^we
Article,with
"
"
obtain
the
quotientsa
Thus
measure.
we
h and
"
a\h,which
have
no
V2a'^'b{a
+ hf{a"h)
obtain
common
the
as
quired
re
L.C.M.
L.C.M.
or
more
The
be
following
may
given as the definitionof the
of two or more
compound e.rpressions. Let two
of some
compound expressions contain powers
121.
letter;then the expressionof lowest dimensions
in that letter which
is measured
by eicU of these expressions
is called their least common
multiple.
common
We
sh'illnow
how
to find the l.c.m. of two
however
will
compound expressions.The demonstration
not be fullyunderstood
at the present stage of the student's
122.
shew
knowledge.
Let
and
B
denote
freatest
hen from the
measure.
A
common
nature
the two
of the
and
expressions,
Suppose
greatest
A
="
aD.
common
and
D
B
their
=
measure,
bD.
a
66
Hence
LEAST
COMMON
the
is
l.c.m.
MULTIPLE.
x+l)
{x^Zx 4){'Ix''
124.
It is obvious
multiple of tico or more
of those expressions.
(Sors 2ar + 4).

that,every multi2)le
of
is
expressions a common
a
common
multiple
Every common
multipleof two expressionsis
multipleof their least comm.on
multiple.
125.
a
A
aiid B
denote the two
their
expressions,M
multiple.SupL.C.M.; and let N denote any other common
pose,
if possible,
that when N is divided by M
there is a
remainder i2 ; let g denote the quotient.Thus R
N"
qM.
Now
M
and iV,and therefore they meaA and B measure
sure
R (Art.106). But by the nature of division R is of
than M ; and thus there is a common
lower dimensions
than
multipleof A and B which is of lower dimensions
there
is
absurd.
This
Therefore
be no
their l.c.m.
can
iV"is
of
M.
that
remainder R;
a multiple
is,
Let
=
that we
require the l.c.m. of thre^e
Suppose now
compound expressions.A, B, C. Find the l.c.m. of any
of them, say of A and B, let M
denote this l.c.m. ;
two
then the l.c.si. of M
and C will be the requiredL.C.M. of
A, B, and C.
For every common
multipleof M and C is a common
multipleoi A, B, and C, by Art. 124. And every common
multipleof A and ^ is a multipleof M, by Art. 125; hence
multipleof M aiid (7 is a common
multiple
every common
Therefore
M
of A, B, and C.
the l.c.m. of
and G is the
l.c.m. of a, B, and C.
126.
1 27.
In
a
similar
manner
we
may
find the
L.C.M.
of four
expressions.
12S,
of the
and
The theories of the greatestcommon
measure
least common
multiple are not necessary for the
subsequent Chapters of
the
present work,
and
any
be
difii
find in them
culties which
the student may
postmay
of
Boned until he has read the Theory
Equations. The
however
attached
to
the
exitn^ples
precedingChapter and
to the nresent
count
Chapter should be oaiefully
worked, on acof the exercise which
mental
fundathey afford in all the
processes
of
Algebra.
EXAMPLES.
XIII.
Examples.
Find
the least
07
XIII.
multiple in
common
the
amples
followingex
:
1.
4rt'", 6aZ/l
3.
8aVy,
o.
4"i;a46), 66(a3+ 63).
7.
^3j74,
9.
l2a;^ + 5j73,
126Vy'.
2.
Y'laWc, 18a6V.
4.
{aVf,
6.
a^ft^, "'"".
a""".
ar"d712.
6^^ + ^d7.
10.
a;56i;'+ll^6,
11.
A^7^6,
12.
ar*+ z3+2ar'
13.
dr*2a;3t3.r2 + 8a;4, a7^5^
14.
;r*+ aV
15.
4a^"2^, 6053^2, I8a6c3^
16.
8(a"6"), 12(a46)", 20 (a6)*.
17.
4(a+6),
IS.
15(a'6aZ"'), 21(a3a^"'),35 (06*+ 6^
19.
ar2l, ;"3+l,
a?3 I.
20.
a?'l, a^+\,
ar^+l,
ar^l.
21.
a;"l, a?+\,
x^\,
a?"+ l.
22.
a;'+ 3a; + 2,
x^^Ax
23.
a^2+ 2;c3,
;r'+ 3^a;3,
24.
a:"+ 5a?+10,
+
^
a^
8^+17ir
+
a^
a^

+

24.
10.
a^^l.
d;+l,
+
9 j;^+ 260?

aa^

a^x
+
""
20"16,
a^.
6(a2"2)^ 8(a3+ 5').
+
^,
a^
;c'19a;30,
+
5x + Q.
a^
+
^'^kxQ,
;c315;c5a
FRACTIONS.
XIV.
Fractions.
this Chapter and the following
four Chapters
shall treat of Fractions ; and the student will find that
we
the rules and demonstrations
closelyresemble those with
which he is alreadyfamiliar in Arithmetic.

129.
In
130.
By the expressiont
equalparts,and
to be divided into b
are
to be taken.
indicate that
we
Here
is called
r
that
a
of such
fraction;
a
a
a
unit is
parts
is called
b is called the denominator.
Thus
into
how
the denominator
indicates
equal parts the
many
and
the
numerator
unit is to be divided,
indicates how
be
to
taken.
of
those
parts are
many
the numerator,
as
and
expressionmay be considered
Every integer or integral
fraction with unity for its denominator; that is,for
a
h+c
a
,
,
example,
"
=
t
b +
"
^
c
"
"
"
.
Algebra, as in Arithmetic, it is usual to give
the followangRule for expressinga fraction as a mixed
by the denominator, as
quantity:Divide the numerator
to the
and
annex
quotient a fraction
Jar as pr)ssible,
remainder
the
for numerator, and tliedivisor for
having
131.
In
denominator.
Examph
^
FRACTIONS.
is recommended
student
The
it is
last
the
to
step;
brackets,namely,
for
Rule
132.
Either
Let
will "
by
denote
^
xc=
^
parts
taken
are
For
in each
This demonstrates
let
be
in
J,
;
^
^
the
is
tf
hence
For
numerator
Let
in
times
tmies
as
="
many
.
b
each
of
c
the
integer;
any
fractions
c
^
parts is taken,but each part
of
each
large as
as
times
into
c
part in
times
as
r
because
in
parts as
in
,
many

.
,
denote
b
r
b
be
will ir"j=^.
therefore
c
the
r
of the Rula
the
se
be
For
be
is
r
b
is th of
c
This demonstrates
integer. Either
integer,or divide the
by
and
fraction,
any
"
c
of the Rule.
jo:kI form
for dividing
a fraction
the denominator
by that
by that integer.
T
\"
r
fraction,and
Rule
multiply
c
and
jb
be
This demonstrates
133.
divide
integer; then
any
b
any
number
times
is
integer.
0
same
i
c
hence
;
^
the first form
the unit is divided
Ob
fraction by an
or
by that integer,
of the fractions
b
will xrx^=""
then
and
in
denote
t
of

equal parts, and
as
use
(j? 2).

fraction,and
v
of the
integer.
b
Again;
=
numerator
into b
m
2)
j? +

that
any
.
b
b
unit is divided
reallyan example
multiplyinga
multiply the
the denominator
(
+
tion
particularatten
to pay
times
c
r,
be'
an
any
by
integer;
Art.
"^
.
9
the firstform of the Rule.
then
132; and
70
FRACTIONS.
QC
let
A^n;
then will
r
denote
^o^
y^"'=i'
and therefore
is th of
~h
^
,
he
^
times
^
c
any
by
r,
integer
Art. 132;
.
h
This demonstrates
and
fraction,
any
the second
and
If the numerator
he multipliedhy t?ie same
fractionis not altered.
134.
form
of the Rule.
denominator
of any fraction
value
the
integer^
of the
For
if the numerator
of a fraction be multiplied
by any
integer,the fraction will be multiplied by that integer;
and the result will be divided
nominat
by that integer if its debe multiplied
by that integer.But if we multiply
by an integer,and then divide the result by
any number
the same
the number
is not altered.
integer,
The result may
also be stated thus: if the numerator
and denominator
of any fraction be divided
by the same
the value of the fraction is not altered.
integer,
Both
these verbal statements
statement
v
=
h
ir
be
included
are
in the
braical
alge
"
of the
This result is of very great importance; many
operationsin Fractions depend on it,as we shall see in the
next
two
135.
Chapters.
The
demonstrations
only when
satisfactory
given
in this
Chapter
are
letter denotes some
positive
whole
but the results are assumed
to be true
number;
whatever
the letters denote.
For the grounds of tliis
assumption the student may hereafter consult tlie larger
Algebra. The result contained in Art. 134 is the most
forth
important ; the student will therefore observe that hencethat it is always true in Algebra th^
assume
we
^^^^^^^^
h~
hr*
For
^'
every
^' ^^d
example,if we
put
^

"^y
denote.
1 for
c
we
hare
=
,
"
v
.
71
XrV.
EXAMPLES.
IBoalso
In like maimer,
to
obtain
we
^
a
that
by assaming
such
results
the
as
36gg
7
as
8a'
4g
+
always
equal
2g
XIV.
following fractions
25a:
is
2a_
Examples.
the
c
following:
"
__,_3i^__"
Express
x
v
mixed
quantities:
3ft
+
Aa
9
12.ir2.'"y
Qx
^
*^
"
"
^
a^
+
+
^3
3
asi^
Sa*jeSa^
jp^2st'
'
'
x2a
x*
+
ai^x+l'
x^l
l
,^
^
9.
,
10.
"
"
.
Multiply
11.
g^by3".
12.
^^^by3("").
Divide
16.
^'by2ic.
3y
16.
^^'"fby
a
+
o
3a~26.
72
OF
REDUCTION
FRACTTONSl
Reduction
XV.
of Fractions,
result contained
The
in
Art. 134 will now
be
the reduction of a
appliedto two important oper^ons,
lowest
anJIihe
fraction to its
reduction of fractions
terms,
to a common
denominator.
136.
Rule for reducinga fraction to its lowest terms.
the numerator
and
denominator
of t?i4fra"tion
137.
Divide
by
their greatestcommon
For
example; reduce
The
4a^h^ ;
we
measure.
,
g, g
to its lowest terms.
of the mimerator
i"
and the denominator
and denominator
dividingboth numerator
by 4a'^b\
G.c.M.
obtain for the required
residt
^
That
r,.
50d
is,
,
I6a'^"c
.
,
^
equal to
J.
^^^
a^a^?
.
.^
^*
*^
.
,
.
expressed m
more
a
i*
"
5bd
I
snnplo
form ; and it is said to be in the lowest terms, because
cannot be further simplified
by the aid of Art. 134.
rg2 4X
+
"
Again
; reduce
,_
3
to its lowest terms.
g_
""
of the numerator
3; dividingboth numerator
we
obtain for the
The
it
G.C.M.
is
and the denominator
and denominator
by x"2
a?
requiredresult
"
1
"
"
.
g
_
In
and
some
examples we
denominator
liave a
rule for findingthe g.c.m.
may
common
perceivethat
the numerator
factor,without using tiia
Thus,for example,
ab
+ e
{ab + c){abc)
cy~ {a+ b + c){abc]~a + bTc^
{abyc'
_
a^(p +
_
74
EXAMPLES.
XV.
Examples.
Reduce
the
XV.
liactions to
following
their lowest tenus:
lOa'^x
5.
5a^x"15ay^'
a^hSx
+ 2
^
^'
a?2+ 6;c + 5'
2y^4a;15
^ ^{a^b}x+
x^{a+b)x + ab
x^+{ca)xac'
(x+af{b
"
^
3T
'
+
4x'
6a^ll;r^.5
3^3_2;^J5_i
21a:+18'
"
rT3
"
T^
2a^^llx^+\Qx+\Q'
23.
^^:^\
X*
+
2.r3+ 2;rr
+ Q
16.
.
a^2ax
"
12a;3_5^4.5^_6
te^
SSx27'
a,3
+ ^+io*
20a^'4;g12
21.
+
x^i5x
a?2+ ;g42
;c310^'^
ab
3x*^2Zx36
c)*
cf
+
{x^hfia +
15.
'
x^^2xl5
~^.
;c3_2^
22.
'
2x^
+
+
+
a\
2rt2ava8
aa^^a^x~^
^^^'
24.
2.r*9^3_i4y
+
3
EXAMPLES.
Reduce
the
denominator
33
XV,
following fractions
75
their
to
lowest
:
^
^
^
^
^
34.
a
x
"
a*
X
36.
a*
a"x*
a^"a**
b
a
1
3
(^1)"'
a
x"a*
a?+l'
(^+1)2'
a^+ax
a**
+
1
a^
"
d?'
1
+
a^^
ip"l'
ax
39.
tfiax
4
a+sf
38.
a^'
"
y
J?
:f1'
a*
ab
36.
37.
ax
x^
+
ax
g'
+
.r*TaV
a^^
1
1
40.
fl?'(a+2")^+ a"'
+
3c^{a
1
+
c)x\ae*
fl?'
common
76
OR
ADDITION
Addition
XVI.
SUBTRACTION
Subtraction
or
Rule for the addition
the fractions to a
Reduce
then add or subtract the numerators
denominator.
inon
140.
Add
Examples.
to
j"
"j
or
of Fractions.
subtraction
ac
T'^
+
_a
and
retain
From
take
36
denominator,
b
'
.
c
4a
com
_2a
a"c
l
b
the
.
c +
~
tions.
frac
denominatn\
common
Here the fractionshave alreadya common
and therefore do not requirereducing;
a\c
of
c
3a 46
4a 36
(3a 46)
_
_
~
c
c
c
4a3bSa
+
4b _a
+
'
c
c
The
full,as
b
~
~
student is recommended
have done in this
we
to
put dovm
the work
example, in order
to
at
ensure
accuracy.
Add
^
a +
^.
to
a"b
a+o
will be the
denominator
Here the common
b and a" 6,that is d^"VK
_c{ab)
c
^+6"
mrefore
ab~
a^fta'
b
+
b)
a^b^
'
c^"^Jfl^^l"^p")
a^b^
c
a +
_c{a
c
product of
ab
_ca"cb
+
ca
+
cb
2ca
_
a^~6"
~a262*
"
From
"2 +
a"b
6
,
,
take
i
;
+
a
a"o
The
77
FRACTIONS.
OF
.
o
denominator
common
{a+ hf
h
a +
is a'Wi
ab
{ah)*
^
_
ab~a'b^*
_
b~a'b^'
a +
J^"Vf_^=K
"i"\_^
b
b
"r"b^
Therefore
a
+
a
"
a'^+2db
b''{a^1ab + b'') 4db
+
_
From
By
s
"
"
"
take
z
:
Art. 123 the
of the denominators
l.c.m.
{x 1)(^3) {^x+
is
6);
3^
(:e4l}(4.c^43.r6)
+ 3ar6)'
3~(a;l)(^3)(4u,^
a?+l
_
a^4a;
4^3a
+
+
+ 2)(^1)
(4.i;23^
2
Therefor"
;B*4a?
+
Aj^dx^lbx+lB,
3
+ 33;6)(4^3a;
(j;+l)(4:e"
+ 3a?
(a; 1)(a; 3)(4;c'

4:g"+

+

2)(a?l)
6)
+ 5^2)
7aT'3:gg(4a.^7a:'
+ 3^6)
(a? 1)(a; 3) (4^;''^



lAa?^xA
+ 3u;
{ps\){xZ){Ax"

6)
78
ADDITION
141.
to
OR
SUBTRACTION
We
have sometimes
to reduce a mixed
quantity
fraction; this is a simple case of addition or subtraction
of fractions.
a
h
+
a4=
^
c
c
a^ + Sab
2^6
_
a\b~
\
x9.
x
b
+
a
3
+
+
a
b~
b
a +
x2
3'
+
a
.
c
(af ^)
a
h
+
ac
=

_
b"
+
+
"
c
2ab
a
_
h
ac
=

I
c
lab
a
h
a
,
,
Examples.
+ 3)(:g'3^f4)
(a?
x2
^
X"Sx
a^ZxV4:
^
+
a^5x+\'Z{x2)
_ar^bx"\2x
*"
+
^a^Qx+\4
2
~~
~
a^Sx
x^3x
+ 4^
"*3jr
+ 4
addition
Expressions may occur
involvingboth
and subtraotion.
Thus, for example,simplify
142.
6"*"^^^^
a +
The
L.G.M.
is
that
a*b\
of
^^+"'
+
a^
b^
a^

{a^b^{a^ib^
is
denominators
the
_a{ab)ia
_a
a^
ah
a
+
a~b^

~
a^b'
_
+
a^'b+
a^
_
a^b*
d'
'
a*b*
abja'+ b*)
ab_
a^
ab*
_
a+b~
a*b'
'
a^b^
^a^a^y^^a^a%^
tf"'
Therefore
a*a^b
+
"
'
a*b*
a*b*
r
+
a+b^a'^b^
aW(a^
+
a^b
a^ + 62
+
ai)'{a*aW)
a'^b*
a*"^b
+
aW

ab^ ^a^^^ab^
a*
+
d^b"^
2i^ff
"
_
a'"
'
+ 4
a'^l?'
Simplify{ab){ac)'^
ibc){b~a)^
{ca){cl"y
The
He
example.
is very
for the
denominators
render
pay
the factor ba
contains
fraction
second
this factor differs from
of the
in the denominator
the
and
which
occurs
in the
and
denominator,
common
thus
to
operationsextremely laborious.
the
The
particular attention to this
the product of the
liable to take
should
befriimer
sign
of each
and
term;
Art.
by
in its denominato
factor
first
a",
fraction,
only
135,
b
b
^
{bc){ab)'
{bc){ba)
the
Also
in
form
a
which
Rule
the
is
of Signs
the
for
convenient
more
be put
object; for by
our
can
have
we
{ca){cb)
Hence
third fraction
of the
denominator
{ac){Jt""c).
=
be put in the form
proposed expression may
b
a^
c
{(^b){ac) {bc){ab)'^
{ac)(bc)'
and
in this form
is
we
at
see
{a"b){a
c)(b
"
that the
once
(b"c)"b
nominato
de
c).
"
By reducing the fractions to the lowest
tlie proposed expressionbecomes
a
of the
L.C.M.
{a"c)
+
c
minator
deno
common
{a"b)
{ab){ac){b")
ab
it,
ac
"
"
'"'"'""^
X
"
ab
bG\ac"bc
+
.,
"""*
(a")(ac)(6c)
In
143.
two
or
hand
two
or
may,
if
we
"
we
into
a
have
""
shewn
*
how
to combine
the other
singlefraction; on
up a singlefraction into
example,
please,break
For
fractions.
more
Zhc
Chapter
fractions
more
we
this
.
,
'
Aac^^ab
^bc
Aac
5ab
3
4
5
a
h
o'
_
_
abc
abc
abc
abc
80
EXAMPLES.
Examples.
Find
the value of
XVL
XVL
82
EXAMPLES,
XVL
30.
ae^+
y"^
31.
_^
'^_
_
y^
xy +
xy
x^2x
+
Z
a^+xy*
x2
1
32.
af^+1
^ar
l^^+l
+
1
2
33.
+
(^3)(a;4)
(a;2)(^4)
1
2^3
1
34.
x{x
x{x+l)
+
i){x+
2)'^
x{x +
x+l
\2x
35.
^_J_
xy
3"
2(^
x'^"xy + y"^
1
x
+
xy
.
x^
y
y^*
+
xylofi
a/^y^
ai*+xy+ y^
x"y
6(a;+ l)'
1)
+
xy
37.
al
x+1
2
38.
a^x+1
x^ + x+1
a
+
h
+
by
x*
ah
by
ax"
x'^+l'
+
2{a^x+'b'^y)
a^x^ + b'y^
39.
ax
2y
1
"^
3(yj:+l)
(^2)(a?3)'
2x
40.
x^"x'^+l
ar^+ x+l
x^"x+1
3
12
41.
a^4x
x^'lcc+U
1
+
x
a
+
JL
ab
44.
2a
4a
42.
43.
x'5x
+ 3
ofi c^
x"a
"
a
+
a^vb'^
b
1
1_
x"oa
2b
_2_
x
+
x'
+
4.b^
a^"."4"
3__
_3
Za
x^a
a^'
x"a
+
4:'
1
G
4
83
XVI
EXAMPLES.
1
4
_
45.
^
a
a"b
2b
"
L +
r+
a
a
c
46.
b
+
'Zb
a +
c
{a!a){ab)'^
ia!b){bay
^
47''
48.
,
{xb){bay
{xa){ab)
fr" TT
,r"
{xa){ab)
+
{xb){ba)'
1
1
49.
{a b){ac)
"
(b a){b"c)'
"
b
a
50.
"^
{ab){ac)
51.
,_U_,.
52.
L^
a{ab){ac)
'
{b~a){bc)
1
.1"_,^
{ab)(ac)'^
{ba)ibc)
{ca){chy
1
L
b{ba){bc)
abc'
+
a*
c"
ft'
53.
{ab){ac)
{ca){ch)'
{ba){bc)
1
54
\
+
si?"{a+b)x+ab
x^{a
+
c)x +
ac
1
x^"{b + c)x + bc'
x+b
x+c
55.
u^"{a + b)v +
ab
a?
"
{a+ c)x +
x
ac
+ a
x^"(J}+ c)x{bc'
1
1
56.
{fLb)(flc){xa) {ba){bc){xb)
1
{ca){cb){xc)'
6"2
84
MULTIPLICATION
FRACTIONS,
OF
Mtdtiplicationof Fractions.
XVII.
of fractions. Multifor the multiplication
ply
for a new
numerator^ and
togetherthe numerators
denominator.
the denominators
for a new
Rule
144.
followingis the
The
145.
Let
Rule.
and
r
be
,
0
usual
demofistration
fractions
two
which
of the
are
to be
a
"1
C
therefore
together; put^=a?,
multiplied
and^=?/;
and
a=bXf
therefore
ac
c
=
bdxy
=
di/;
;
CM
divide
by bd,thus
hd~^'
But
*2^=6^^5
a

.,
therefore
=
d
146.
and
product of the numerators,
denominators; this demonstrates
Similarlythe
two
bd
is the
ac
productof the
than
tj"
j
b
And
ac
c
""
r
Rule
fractions
are
We
now
shall
togetherthe
be
may
demonstrated
bd
the
the Rule.
when
more
multipliedtogether.
pxamples.
give some
factors of the
new
Before multiplying
numerator
and
the
factors of the new
denominator, it is advisable to examine
in both the numerator
if any factor occurs
and denomibe
stinick
and
the
it
of
result will
out
as
both,
luitor,
may
thus be simplified;
Art. 137.
see
Multiply
a
by

.
c
a
a
11
Hence
a

C
4
=
and
are
"
b
ab
c
c
equivalent
;
G
;and^(2ar3)
^.
=
so, for
example,
Multiply
by

85
FRACTIONS.
OF
MULTIPLICATION

.
y
y
s^
xxx
X
X
y^y~yyy~^'
thus
\y)
~y''
MulhplyjbyZa
8c
^
46
_
~
46
9a
6')
4(a"

^
X
_
~
36
9a
(a + 6)
4a(a6)x3a
'
4a
_
~
"
(a h)
I
+

+
by
1
I
1.
+
{a^ +
a^+b'^ab
F +
(a^+b^^a^b^
^O'
a^b^
+
b^
+
~
a^b"
d'b'^
may
ab){a''+ b^ab)
_
~
ab
ab
6(a46)
6(a+6)x3a(a+6)
^
we
36
12a
x
_
3a*
a'4yfq6
Or
2c
12a
X
'
(a + 6)"
Multiply
2g
8c
X
~
^^by^^^
Multiply
3a'_
3a
_
proceed
thus:
a^b''
86
MULTIPIJCA
TJON
FRACTIONS.
OF
therefore
fa
\b
a
.
_,.
The
\fa
J\b
b
two
^^
\
b
b
J
a
^?
5a
a^
h
a^
b'^
a
,.
results
for
agree,
^
'
_
Multiplytogether ^^,

"
f 1
and
^"
add
the
mixed
quantityb +
have
^
^
?"+_.
b and
convenient
singlefraction.
already done
,
factors,aud
aud
by
to
,
reduce
the
Thus
in former Chapters,we
results which
the student
here give some
must
must
sume
asof
and
which
he mi^^t use
to be capable
explanation,
which
be
jis rules in working examples
proposed See
may
and
135.
Arts. 63
147.
As
^ZT
more
,
first t\vo
multiplythe product separatelyby
it is
"
ab^
then
results ; but
=
a^
b
"
,
a*kb* + arll^
,
+
might multiplytogether the
We
ft^
"
we
XV
EXAMPLES.
Examples.
6ftc
2a
5a2
36
a^
b^
x^y
a^
__,
+
^
2ax
+
c"
he
ac
eS)
a^{a
h)x
+
11
^+^^/
"
7
X
r
a^+'j^
"
+
2
x'"l
x1
+
^
y
^^
a^"y^'
"
x
y
^".
^
\
+
yj'
("_""_?).
(,_^Y
a*
h
V
\6(j
cj
oc
or
\r
a
a/
a
\a
J
X
+
+
xj
c??+f"\.('?_?+*y
yj
yj
\a
0
X
a^2a?
+
l
\a
a;'4a7
+
X
4
0
^6"+9
'
(x + 2)*
x''
+
J
a?
\x
x
a?(?
ah
+
l
x"l
a*2ax
a^
+
^''+ ?/'
ar"y^
^^
a?* + 2;?;V+ 2/^ x^xy^y'^
5
14.
6*
x
'
zx'
yz
10.
12.
a2
"
,
g
XVII.
following:
the value of the
Find
87
IL
88
DIVISION
FRACTIONS.
OF
XVIIL
Division
Fractions.
of
Rule for dividingone fraction by another.
the divisor and proceed as in Multiplication.
148.
Rule.
and
followingis
The
149.
Suppose
have
we
therefore
demonstration
divide
to
hx, and
=
ad
c
r
by
j;
hdx
ad
dy;
=
Idx, and
=
therefor"
he
hdy ;

X
_
_
~
hdy~ y'
be
But
y=''^y"b^d'
a
,
therefore
ad
a
r=%.'^
he
DC
c
a^ j=
d
o
160.
usual
therefore
3=y;
a
^,
the
We
shall now
Divide
by
"
a
~
'
examples.

.
h
a
Divide
d
givesome
a
c
ac
Tb^^scZa
9a
"*"
46
_
~
8c
3"5"^
8c
4"
9a
'
{a+hf
abb*
"a
.
(a+ft)3 ^np
x
12a
2c
_
_
~
"
36
X
12a
36
a^1^'
_""62
a""8
^

"
2c
(o + 6)2
52
(a")g
"(a6)(a+6)(a")^
b\a
+
b)^
Invert
bia + b)'
"
put
of the
=
x
^"
90
DIVISION
Find
OF
(^^
the value of
FRACTIONS.
?)
"
^" ^

\2.vbJ
2a6
_2ab"a{a
a
when
^,
a?=
hx
b)
+
+
rt
6
aha
_
_
'b'*
~
a
\~
b
+
2ab
b
~~a
b
+
a
2abb{a
j^_
b)
+
+
abb^
_
a+b
a+b
1
f^
2a?6
Therefore
a+b
^" 6
=
?^'
"^"b
b
^
+
a
db
+
a
a^
"
""
x
=
a{b
a)_
"
i^
abb^
+
a
a
~abb''~b{ab)~~b'
gzJ=(_g^"\
therefore
.
ab
a
.
Again,
^
'
ax=
=
j
1
6
+
a
a'
a(a+b)"ah
=^
^^
_b{a
ab
_b
"
;
=
,
b
a
+
+
b)ab^
a
+
b'
b*
~
"~1
'


biv
(^r
Therefore
1
r

b'
""'
x
b
+
a
+
_^

=
"
bx
\2wb/
a

b
+
a
b
+
a
'''
^^^^
Therefore
b~
+
a
"
Ir
a+b
Ts
~
s
5'
6'
b^
=0.
be
results given in Art. 147 must
again here in connexion vrith Division of Fractions.
The
152.
Since
ac
c
a
t..
rx

b
a
d
ac
and
have
"
5j^
"
c
a
:"=
i
bd
a
...
Also
d
since
04^
c
""ft'^""^
d"
o"
c
jjs;"="
bd
d
"
b^ ,
=
M"^
ac
,
and
(zc
"T^j=~r:j;
b
d
bd^
,
we
c
^
j=jj,
,
^"
y
"*^"
:
bd
a
r,
b
T
given
EXAMPLES.
XVII
91
L
XVIII.
Examples.
Divide
1
a*
a'
Ax*
"
2""
a*" lax
^
Aax
+
6(^;"6^)
J_
,
3.
S.t^
'
Aa^
+
ax
Ax'
,
"^
x^j^
x*
+
xy
+
o^ + 3a^ar+ 3a^
+
^
y^
a^
^
h' + 2nbc*
+
"fa*b^
ar^6ar
+
9
+
^
2ab
^
(a"j;)*
,
^
a
+
b+
b
+
c^a'
a^2x
+
e
V
12.
fl+^Vi'^hv^.
13.
J.
5^^^bya:
+
a*
ar*
15.
a?
a
a
X
,
_^
1
a*

i
X*
by
.
14.
a']ibya^.
92
EXAMPLES.
16.
8a +
^^08^
17.
18.
i
_
"
ar
1,^1
J +
+


.
_byl+.
i+
+
,
1
by


"'
\a\xj
20.
by
^
XVIIL
\a\xJ
^ g3(^2V5?by?
+
+
?.
+
the following
Simplify
expressions:
3a?
23.
x\
^^^
^
X"r\
25i
6
.
X
1
2
2
24.
.
{xh)(xc)
ar+a
L.
1+i
1
"^
26.
1+
i+^.H"L
10?
"
^Y"
27.
28.
^
1
1 +
1 +
1 +

^
0? +
lx
X
29"'
(^
\xy
( ^^
30

y
\^+y
\.
(
^'
y' \
,
yj \x^+ y'^x^yy'
'
x
+
y
\
y^
^
\(
x^7f)
^y
^
\
'
\x
+ y
\
x^"y'^y
I
EXAMPLES.
08
Xrill.
"+i
31
y{xyz
1
+
x
.33.
when
T
o
r.
+
a
0
xb
xa
a^
.
"
when
T
0
.
r
a
oa
"


a; +
+
when
a
2/
x
2a
x=
=
and5

=
^^
yL_when2,=^.
"
4
Aab
x"2a
a6
,
rr
/xay
t)
I
xy
ZT
V9
+
x2a
+

"
;c=
9
4"x^
x
=
a
b
a
+
+
b
,
when:r="
"
^,
x
+
"
.
a2b
2
ab+a
a+1
x+yl
"
when
"
2b
X
\xbj
40.
.
3
x^y^
;c2/
h
2b
39.
,
3
_
38.
.
,
2/
;c +
+
when
6
^+_iL_
37.
j
a^(ba)
,'
qf
6(6 + a)
"
r
a
36.
=
a"b
X
+

x
a
X
.^
35.
followingexpreasionB:
x=
x
"
_.
34.
zy
+
x
of the
the values
Find
+
"
,
r
+ 1
when
,
x=
,
ab+V
.
.
,
ajiay=j":,
^
ab+1
b
94j
equations.
simple
XIX.
Simple Eqiiationa.
When
two algebraical
expressionsare connected
by the sign of equalitythe whole is called an equation.
called sides of the
The
are
expressions thus connected
of the equation. The expression to
equation or members
is called the first side,and
the left of the sign of equality
the expression
to the rightis called the second side.
163.
identical equation is one
the
numbers
sides are equal whatever
identical
for example,the following
are
the two
in which
letters represent;
An
154.
(a;+ a){xa)
=
equations,
x'^"a^,
statements
true \vhatever
that is,these algebraical
are
and a may
numbers
x
represent. The student will see
that up to the present pointhe has been almost exclusively
occupied with results of this kind, that is,with identical
equations.
identical equation is called briefly
an
An
ideiitity.
An equation o/ condition is one which is not true
the letters represent, but only when
whatever
numbers
the lettei*srepresent some
numbers.
or
particularnumber
I'or example, a; + l
be true unless x=6.
An
7 cannot
equation of condition is called brieflyan equation.
155.
=
156.
A
letter to which
a
value
particular
or
values
givenin order that the statement contained in an
quantity. Such
equationmay be tnie,is called an laiknown
value of the unknown
quantityis said to satisfy
particular
the equation^ and is called a root of the equation. To
solve an equation is to find the root or roots.
must
be
An
quantityis
equation involvingouo unknown
said to be of as
dimensions
the index of the
as
many
miknowu
of
the
quantity. Thus, if x denote
highestpowo"
157.
SIMPLE
95
EQUATIONS,
the unknown
quantity,the equation is said to be of
dimension
when
x
occurs
only in the firstpower ; such
equation is also called
the
the
one
an
simple equatimt,or an equation of
no
higher power of x,
a
first degree. If a^ occurs, and
equation is said to be of two
di:nensions
; such
an
quadratic equa'ion,or an equation
degree. If a^ occurs, and no higher power
equationis ;ilsocalled
a
of the second
of X, the e( Jnation is said to be of three dimensions
; such
cubic
equation,or an equation
an
equation is also called a
And
of the third degree.
so
on.
both
It must be observed that these definitions suppose
members
of the equationto be integralexpressio7is
so Jar
as
relates to
x.
simple ecjuations.
which
shall shew
how
to solve
first to indicate
some
tions
opera
presentChapter we
In the
158.
may
We
be
have
performed
destrojingthe equalitywhich
If
159.
term
every
multi2}lied
hy
the
an
equation without
it expresses.
each
on
number
same
on
side oj an
the results are
equation
equal.
truth
of this statement
follows from the
be
if
that
equals
multipliedby the same
principle,
the results are equal ; and the use of this statement
The
seen
be
obvious
number
will bo
immediately.
Likewise
be divided
if every
by the same
term,
on
number
each side
tiieresults
of
are
equation
equal.
an
of Ai*t 159 is to clear an equaa
of fra^ctions; this is eflfected by multiplying evei^
of the fractions,
lerm
by the product of all the denominators
least
the
common
by
please,
multipleof those
or, if we
for
denominators.
example, that
Suppose,
160.
use
principal
The
?
+
?
Multiply every
term
4x6xa?
+
that
divide
e\'cn'
term
by
3x6xa;
3
+
4
3
x
4
+
?=9.
6
x
6 ; thus
3x4xa;^3x4x6x9,
is, 24a?+18.r+12.i^648;
by
6 ; thus
4a; + 3:i;+2.i'=108.
96
EQUATIONS.
SIMPLE
Instead
multiplyingevery
term
by 12, which
of
multiplyevery
3, 4, and
6 ;
is,
that
divide both sides
4
x
6, we
maj
minators
deno
9^=108;
12 is the root
=
12.
=
"
of the
rerify this by putting
proposed equation. We may
for x in the originalequation
12
side becomes
fii*st
The
12
"
1^
which
12
+"
3
+
0
with
agrees
Any
equation to
that is 4
"
4
161.
an
x
9 ; therefore
by
;r
Thus
3
is the l.c.m. of the
then obtain at once
should
we
by
term
,
the second
term
he
may
the other side
Suppose,for example,
Add
to each
a
b from
we
side.
transposedfrom ons side
by changing its sign.
that
x
x"a
see
that
+
=
b
y +
"
"a
has
=
suppose,
from
for
Art.
ay.
as
one
r";m("ved from one
side
the other side ; and
+//
^n
and
side
"6 on
as
appears
J^ the sign of every
changed the equality still holds.
follows
a.
been
l(}2.
Thus
hy.
=
a"y"b
of the equation,and appears
"*bhas been removed
from
the other side.
This
q/
each side ; thus
x"b=b
Here
9 ;
side ; then
that is
Subtract
2, that is
3 +
+
of
term
an
equation
161, by transposingevery
example, that
x"a
=
h"y.
he
term.
08
if
SIMPLE
put 2
we
16106,
shall obtain
for x in the original
equationwe
that is 0, as it should be.
Solve
166.
EQUATIONS.
a?
2
(2^ 3)
^^^.
=
the brackets; thus
Kemove
la?=
that IS,
multiplyby 2,
22x
2
transpose,

=
1
=
therefor"
g"
;
;
;
Zx + 1,
3a?;
2;c +
1 ="r,
that is,
"
6x="\
or
V
"=.
o
Solve
167.
icr=S
2
2"
28
6
=
"
the
;
L.O.M.
of the
is 10;
denominators
multiply
by 10;
+ 4)(7a;+6) 28x25(ajl);
6(5;c
thus
=
25:" + 207a?6
that is,
=
665^
25a?" 7a?+ 5ii;=56
transpose,
23a?
that is,
+
5;
+ 620
+
6j
=46;
46
therefore
a?
==3
2.
to put down all the work
beginneris recommended
in this example, in order to ensure
at full,
as
accuracy.
ing
in clearMistakes with respect to the signsare often made
the
above equation the
an
equation of fr"^tions. In
The
*Ix 4 5
fraction
"
to
"
has
to be
multipliedby 10,
put the result first in the form
ftftenK'ardsin the form
to the signs.
and
it is advisable
"(7a?+ 5),and
"7a; 6) in order to
secure
tion
atten
EXAMPLES,
374",
3)^(165ar)
^(5a;
Solve
lea
+
=
7
o
By
Art
this is the
146
thus
Multiplyby 21;
that is,
aa
same
7(5;"+3)3(165;p) 21(374a?),
=
35;c + 2148
transpose, 35:c +
that
99
XIX,
15a;
+
77721
15a? + 84a; =
is,
134;c
therefore
a?
77784:c;
=
+
48;
804;
=
=
)r^
6,
=

"
134
c
1
Solve
,/,"
169.
by
Multiply
6a?+15
8^10
.^3^
^ __=___.
the
f
4:r7
productof 11, 7, and
5 ; thus
+ 15)65(8:c10) 77(4;z?7),
35(6a;
=
that is,
210^
+ 525 440a;
transpose, 210a?

440:z?
that is,
308a;

change the signs, 440a;
+ 550
=
+ 308a;
308^
=
539

210a?


=
539;
525

550 ;
539 + 525 + 550,
638a?=1614;
1614
r
therefore
*u
a

"^
Examples.
=
,
3.
XIX.
7a?+ 70.
2.
16a?ll
4.
3a? + 23 ==78 2a?.
7(a?18) 3(a:14).
6.
16a? =
7.
7(a?3) 9(a;+l)38.
8.
6 (a;
7) + 63
9.
69(a?7) 61(9a;)2.
1.
5a; +50=
3.
24a? 49
6.
IL
4a? + 66.
19a; 14.
=
=
=
=
28^
+
jg=27C46'").
10.
\%
=
(4a?).
38 3
72 (a;
5)
=
=
63
9a?.
(5ar).
*+ ="^^+
7a
100
15.
BXJJ\IPLES.
f 1=^7.
+
7x
2x
19.
56?2=48f
.
2:c
21.
4a?
+ 6.
12='^
+
^
23.
V^^?f8.
25.
^
27.
4(a?3)7(;r4)
MZ:^=29.
+
=
3
3
X
^^
30.
4'^4~6
2x
33.
f8 74^^.
26.
1 ^=^2.
=
+
6a:.
5
6"''6*
^,
2.HrH=?^.
^
32.
2.
3x
,
+
1
3a? 1
^,
31.
XIX,
^
6='^2
x+?^"=45^^.
""+?_
?^7^io;rl*
EXAMPLES.
37.
7
=
^3.^4
+
101
XIX,
;r^.
3a;l
6a;5
38.
16
8
39.
^^_ 5^,25
0.
=
^3
a;l
^^5
40
"
4
9'
6
7a;+ 5
"a; + 6
_
85a?
~
6
12
2a?+7
"l
^^
*^
"
4
:"+2
^
2^1
x\
=
9ar3
x2
'
2
,^
2.X5
47.
6fl?+ 3
=^."
+
^"
6
Rj + 8
5a?
T.
a;
5a?17.
=
"
2:c9
48.
6
3
49.
3^ Hi^^10^^=0.
60.
J(3aJ4)
^(5a;
3)
7
+
+
=
435:r.
3
"
'""
a?
a;
+
2
34
a?
ar
^
_
^6='^
^^
''"
^2
2^
a?"3
4
9
r
102
EXAMPLES.
53iO
,"
^3
55.
6x
XIX.
3 5a?
3
,
4*3"
=
3
2
5^[8af3{166;?T(45:c)}]
=
l2;r
45;c
13
^^
57.
^
?"i_5rl
+
5a;
+
3
=
^
9.r5
1
^a; +
i2^?"zl,
=
b
^421+
^"
"""
4.,
4
o
58.
e.
TT
^.24.
9ar7
=
^
x2
Zxb
3
12
1
60.
2
61.
^(8a:)+a;l
2(a:6).
+
=
3a;
1
7a;
13a;
^^
62.
"
2xl
"
_
6x4
=
_
7X+12
11,
".
(^+3).
Simple Equations, contintied.
XX.
170.
We
l^Z
EQUATIONS,
SIMPLE
shall
give some
now
examples
of tlie solution
little more
difficult than
are
a
simple equations,which
those
in the preceding Chapter. The student
will see that
it is sometimes
advantageous to clear of fractions partially,
and
then
to effect some
reductions, before we
re
the remaining fractions.
move
of
"1.
Here
Solve
we
may
+
_
j^^
convenientlymultiply by 12; thus,
^:j^4(2;"18)
3(2a;
+
+
that is,
3)
+
By transpositionand
11 ; thus
72 + 6a; + 9
reduction
12
12;c + 72
by transposition,
72
that
is,
+
1 43
x
=
dSx
=
+
3^
+
4.
3.z;+ 4.
(5a? 13),
11
=
12 +
obtain
=
43:z? =
therefore
64
=
we
(;"+ 6)
that is,
^x
=
^^^^"c
Multiply by
5i+^.
=
__
55;c
143;

1 2;r,
215;
"^
=
6.
43
6a?13*
,"^
Here
a^
we
16.r15
"
may
^.
convenientlymultiply by 24;
208^
thus
104
EQUATIONS,
SIMPLE
that is,
144:u320
4
48.C 4 1 Gx
15

165
154
=
+
64ft
16 2x
and
By transposition
reduction
144a; 320
~
'
152;c
multiplyby
15
2a;; thus
144;i;
320

therefore
that
(15
4
1 44;i; + Sx
is,
152a;
2a;) 60
=

320 +
=

8jf ;
60,
380;
=
*=f^2^2=2.
therefore
173.
=
=
Solve
=
.
x1
x+d
+ 9);
Multiplyby {x 7)(a;

thu"
+ 3",
(a;+9)(a;6)=(a?7)(;i;
that is,
x^
+
4:X"45
x^4x"2l;
=
subtract x^ from each side of the
4a;
transpose,
that
4"i;+ 4a;
is,
will be
8a;
seen
4a;
45=
=
45
=
24;
that in this
we
"
thua
equation,
21;
21,
3c^ is found on hoth
cleared of fractious;
example
have
by subtraction,ami
equal ion.
so
the
106
SIMPLE
EQUATIONS.
1
Change the signs; thus
that
{x5){xQ)
therefore

llo; + 5;"=
is,

6
30 ;

6a; =24;
therefore
a?
1
Solve
176.
as
=
Say'e
"
:9"
it is advisable
fractions ; thus
common
"^
10
1*2
.
Sar +
accuracy
ensure
decimals
=4.
75
45^?o
,"^
\100
^
+
10
2
100/
3\
/9a;
^5
If
Simplifying,
"
to express
ol
""'"
^
~
6
"
o
{x 2)(a? 3);
=24;
6a?
therefore
To
=
a^Ux^ZQ^x^Zx^Q'f
is,
that
(^_2)(^_3)(^5) (^6)*
of fractions ; thus
Clear
1
"
9
(x
VlO
10/*
2\
3J
^(^j 6(^^
;
=

a;3a;5^a;2
....
thatis,
2^44="3'3
Multiplyby 12,
transpose,
6a; + 9a;
19a;
=
15

72
=
72
8 + 15
+
4a; + 8 ;

=
95 ;
95
therefore
x
=
"
=
6.
be proposed in vrhich letters are
may
used to represent known
shall continue to
quantities
; we
represent the unknown
quantityby a;, and any other letter
will be supposed to represent a known
will
quantity. We
177.
Equations
M"lve three such
equations.
SIMPLE
Solve
17"

f=a
b
+
a
Multiplyhy ab;
that
thus ba;+aa!
is,
{a+ b)x
divideby 0+":
107
EQUATIONS.
=
(ibc;
abc ;
=
x=^^,
thus
a +
179.
Solve
Here
ab^ax^bx
{a+ x){b+x)=a{b
b
+
c)^^^(A
a^^db+ac+^+a^'f
+
therefore
ax+bx=ac
that
{a+b)a}=ac(l+^
b
is,
divide
by
180.
a +
+
~]
^="'
6 ; thus
_=L_^.
Solve
Clear of fractions ; thus
{xa){2x bf ={xb) (2x of;

that
is, {xa){^^4xb
Multiplyingout
we
l^={xb)iAa?4Mi
+
+
c^
obtain
Aa^4LX^{a + b)^x{4ab+ b'^)(ai^
=^^Ax'^{a\b)"rx{4"iib"a^a^
therefore
therefore
,,
xWai^
xa?
a^b ;
x{([i'^~")a^bdti^=ab{ab)}
=
ab
ab{ab)

thereforo
=
a?=
=
"
"
,
"
7.
108
EXAMPLES.
Although
181.
belong
no
to
difficulty
will
serve
as
resembles
we
the
in
a
following
model
only
single
a
Ja;
transposition,
square
both
for
already
Solve
By
following equation
give
Chapter
we
present
those
obtain
the
sides
+
XX
the
examples.
solved,
in
value
therefore
transpose,
1 6
therefore
;^^
a?
Zx\
tjx
2x6
xZ
it
equation
that
quantity.
=
(8
=
64
16
=
64
+
;
sjxf
"
=
64
^/;i?;
1 6
=
=25.
X
_
.
The
be
and
circumstance
Jx=6\
therefore
will
there
solution,
unknown
8"
=
16
as
strictly
rot
S.
=
16
ic
the
the
of
^(xie)
thus
the
similar
^(a;"16)
;
of
steps
doe^
it
,
80
;

16
V^
+
^
;
"
^^
"
,
^^^^^^
*^
2
=
x^'
^2
7^326
2^7
+^I^
2
2:g5
2a; 6
14.
=
^^'7

xl
7^21
a;l
A'2+ 3
*^
109
XX.
EXAMPLES.
_
3a?8~3;c7*
,
^(a;3)+
8.
15.
"3(3;c)(a;+l)
16.
^x2{x\){x
17.
^^l ^=7:c.
19.
15i(57;pX
(2;r10)^(3a;40)
=
2)={ps2^){b2x).
+
18.
+
+ 3)".
(^+7)(:?;+l)=(;z7
=
6;g +
90
8_2a;
2;c + l
38_
+
a;+12~'
"*"
~
4"+l7
8*
2
40
32
4
3^10_
23.
(a;l)".
^+^(a?2)
24.
^g^ (a?l)(a?2) a^'2d?4
=
+
=
^'
=
6
(3;c2)(2^3)
2,"
^g(3.4)..(^^)i^3)
i5"
x+lO
2C.
"
35
3
,,
5
v"~

"
*/
g
3^1
4;p2
1
24;l
3;i;2
6'
a"3
x2
27.
"
.
34? +
2*
2
110
x4:
a?5
a?7
a?~8
x6
xQ^
xS
x"d*
29,
4a;2l
323?
2"r5
120?
2xl~
^^'
3
+
T^^ie^T^*
^_?+"_l"^^l
'
34.
lx
2x
Sx
33
7^3
=
^^
"
2
6
{x + \){x+ 2){x+ 2k)
+ 3(4a;2)(a?4l).
(:pl)(;r2)(a;3)
=
35.
a?8
a;9_a;tl
X
32
XX.
EXAMPLES.
{xd){xl){x5){x\)
(a;2)(a;4)(:r6)(ar10)
=
36.
(8a;3)2(;cl)(4;cl)2(4:c5).
=
iP1
*25a?+2:cl.
38.
"5:c2
39.
"5a;+ *6a?8
40.
15^; 4
41.
a"
T
*^
l
a; +
=
'75aj+ 25.
=
"1350? 225
36
"6
2
"
D95?18
9
42.
=x.
o"
i"
+"
=
",
~
6a;
6
a;
6
44.
+ ar(a?6) 2(a;a)(a?6X
a;(a;a)
46.
+ 2"
(a;a)(a"")(a?
=
+
26)
=(aj+2a) (a?+26){xah\
46.
{xa){x'b)^{xa'b'f,
b
a
47.
a"b
x"b~x"o'
x~a
^
^^+^
x+b
x+c'
^
4a
,
x
49.
111
XX,
EXAMPLES.
+
a
_1
ab
1_
^
x"a
x
x^"ab'
b
"
1
1
1^1
50.
x"b
x'b"c
x"a+e
x"a
mx"a"b
mx"a"c
51
nx"cd
62,
54.
nx
bd'
"
{ab){xc)(bc){xa)(ea){X'b)='QL
x"a
x
+
a"b
a+b~
lax
a_
a^"b^'
{a"x)(bx)
(p + x)(q + x).
=
x"ai
x
a
"
x"b"\
x"b
^x"a\_
x"a
2~x
"
"
56.
{x + a){2x +
b
57.
{x + 2a) {X
a)2 {x + 2b) {x
68.
{xaf{x
69.
Ji4x)+^{4x1)
60.
^{x
61.
+ ll)+ ^/(a;9)=10.
^/(:c
62.
V(9^
63.
V(^
6^
V("a)+"/Ca2a="/("J).
U)
+
+
+
cY
+
=
{x + b){2x +
=

a2b)
+
=
=
J{xU)
+

7.
=
l4,
=
2a

^/aJ.
a
cf.
+
6)".
(xbf{x2a
4)+V(9a;l)=3.
4a")
xb"*!*
b"l
+
b\
112
PROBLEMS.
XXI.
PrMems,
"We shall now
in the
applythe methods explained
precedingtwo Chapters to the solution of some
problems,
the
student
exhibit
to
of
the
of
and thus
specimens
use
certain
In
these
problems
quantitiesare given
Algebra.
and another, which has some
assignedrelations to these,
has to be found is
has to be found; the quantity which
called the unknoicn
quantity. The relations are usually
expressedin ordinary language in the enunciation of the
problem,and the method of solvingthe problem may be
thus described in generalterms : denote the unknown
in algebraical
quantity hy the letter x, and
express
tchich
hold
between the unknown
langvLagetlie relations
the
given quantities;an equation will thus
quantity and
be obtained from which the value of the unknown
quantity
be found,
may
182.
is 85, and
of two numbers
The sum
183.
is 27 : find the numbers.
denote the less number
of the numbers
is 27, the
denoted by ;z?+ 27 ; and since the
have
we
Let
X
"
that is,
therefore
2;c
=
+
their difference
the difference
will be
greater number
of the numbers
sum
is 85
;
then,since
a;427=85;
2a; + 27
=
85;
27
=
58 ;
=
29.
85

68
therefore
the less number
27, that is 56.
Thus
29 +
a?
=
^
is 29 ; and the greater number
Divide
184.
"2. 10*. among
have
than A^ and G
5*. more
may
and B together.
A, B, and (7,so
may
have
as
much
that
as
is
B
A
Let X denote
the number
in ^'s share,
of shillings
in jB's share,
of shillings
then a; + 5 will denote the number
in C's sliare.
and 2;ir+ 5 will denote the number
of shiUings
11 4
PROBLEMS.
7
is
And
(100a?) shillings.
100
shillings
; therefore
100a?lb8.
the
whole
value
5
is to be
X
^
^xl002:z?+^^(100^);
=
multiplyby 2, thus
600
7x
therefore

tliat is,
=
4a;
=
3a? =
tijcrcfore
x="r
=
4tx + 700
700
500

7a?;

;
200;
66f
.
o
Thus
there must
be
3 2 lbs. of the second sort.
66lbs. of
the
first sort, and
187. A line is 2 feet 4 inches long; it is requiredto
divide it into two parts,such that onepart may be three
fourths of the other part.
Let
denote
X
the number
of inches
in the
largerpart
;
3a?
then
will denote
"
The number
the number
of inches in the other part.
of inches in the whole
line is 28 ; therefor"
a?+^=28;
therefore
4a; + 3a?
therefor"
inches
a?
one
1 12 ;
7a?=112
t'.iatis,
Thus
=
part is 16
J
=16.
inches
long,and
the other part 12
long.
had "1000, part of which
lie lent at
person
aiuujal
4 per cent.,and the rest at 5 per cent. ; the wnole
lent at 4 per
inteiest received was
^44 : how much
was
?
ctnL.
188.
A
115
PROBLEMS.
denote the number
of pounds lent at 4 per cent. ;
of pounds lent at
the number
;c will denote
tlicu 1000
The annual interest obtained from the former
5 per cent.
Let
X
"
IS

and
"
,
from the latter
therefore
^^
^Tqq \
"
^ ^^Too"""^^
"^
=
(1000 x) ;
therefore
4400
=
4^ + 5
that is,
4400
=
4;c + 5000
therefore
Thus
x
"600
was

=
5000



4400
5x ;
=
600.
lent at 4 per cent.
will find that the only difficulty
In
in
statements
pressed
extranslating
solvinga problem consists
in ordinary language into Algebraicallanguage;
if he is sometimes
and he should not be discouraged,
a
him
little perplexed,since nothing but practicecan
give
in this process.
readiness and certainty
One remark
may
what
is
be made, which is very important for beginners
;
called the imknown
quantity is reallyan unknown
number^
noticed in forming the equaand this should be distinctly
tion.
in
the
second
Tlius,for example,
problem which ^e
189.
The
student
beginby saying,let x denote the number
^'s share; beginners often say, let x
of
A's
which
is not definite,
because
A'% money
be
money,
may
or
as
expressedin various ways, in pounds,or in shillings,
fraction of the w^hole sum.
a
Again, in the fifth problem
have solved,we
which we
begin by saying,let x denote
of inches in the longerpart ; beginnersoften
the number
the longerpart,or, let ;p=
to these
a part,and
say, let x=
the
same
objectionappliesas to that already
phrases
solved,we
in
shillings
liave
=
noticed.
in translating
a
Beginners often find a difficulty
problem from ordinarylanguage into Algebraical
language,
t)jcausethey do not understand
is meant
what
by the
ordinary language. If no consistent meaning can be iisto translate
to the words, it is of course
si;ned
impossible
them; but it often happens that the words are not ab190.
116
XXL
EXAMPLES.
but appear to be susceptible
of more
solutely
unintelligible,
than one
meaning. The student should then select one
and
meanhig,express that meaning in Algebraicals}Tnbol8,
deduce
from it the result to which it will lead.
If the
result be inadmissible,
or
absurd, the student should try
another
But if the result is satisfactory
meaning of the words.
he may infer that he has probablyunderstood
the
words correctly
it
still
be
interestingto try
; though
may
the other possiblemeanings,in order to see if the enunciation
is
of
than
one
reaUy
susceptible more
meaning.
A student in solvingthe problems which
191.
are
for
find
which
he
can
some
exercise,
readilysolve
^ven
may
process of guess and trial ; and he
be thus inclined to undervalue
the i)o\ver of Algebra,
may
and look on
its aid as unnecessary.
13iit we may remark
that by Algebra the student is eiuiblcd to solve all these
he ^^^ll
problems,without any uncertainty; and moreover,
find as he proceeds,that by Algebra ho can
solve problems
which
would
be extremely difficult or altogether
if he relied on Arithmetic
alone.
impracticable,
by Arithmetic,or
by
a
Examples.
Find the number
1.
XXI.
which
exceeds
its fifthpart by 24.
father is 30 years old, and his son
is 2 years old :
many
years will the father be eight times as old t^a
\
A
in how
the son
.3. The
is 33
:
4.
than
B
5.
is 48
:
diflFerenco of two
find the numbers.
numbers
of ^155
The sum
B contributed "15
raised
:
how
muck
was
more
did each
The diflfercnceof two
find the numbers.
than
is 7, and
their
sua
by ^4,^, and C together;
and
C
"20
more
A,
contribute ?
numbers
is 14, and
twice as old as B^ and seven
A\^
imited ages amounted
to as many
years
the age of ^ t find the ages of A and B.
6.
years
as
now
their
ago
sum
their
represent
117
XXL
EXAMPLES.
to a certain
7. If 66 be added
treble that number : find the number.
number, the
result is
child is bom
in November, and on the tenth
he is as many
of December
days old as the month was
he bom
?
the day of his birth : when
was
A
8.
Find
9.
that number
24 exceeds
80
much
as
as
the double
the number
day
on
increased by
itself is below 100.
of which
is 9
of which
is a certain fish,the head
inches long; the tail is as long as the head and half the
back ; and the back is as long as the head and tail together
is the length of the back and of the tail?
: what
There
10.
Divide
three times one
the
11.
12.
as
number
part may
be
and
A
as
B
parts such
two
equalto
four times
raised
by A^ B,
of "1Q was
The sum
B contributed as much
much
into
84
as
together:
that
the other.
and
C ther;
togeand C
A and ^10 more,
how
did each conmuch
tribute
?
Divide the number
of one part may be
13.
seventh
60
parts such that
into two
equal to
a
eighth of the other
an
part.
gallonshad been dra^vn out of one of
equal casks, and 80 gallonsout of the other, there
After
14.
two
remained
other
:
34
just three
times as much
in
did each cask contain when
what
cask
full ?
one
as
in the
Divide the numbei*
75 into two
parts such that
3 times the greater may
exceed 7 times the less by 15.
15.
distributes 20 shilUngs among
20 persons,
each
and
to
sixteen
each
givingsixpence
some,
pence
received
to the rest: bow many
sixpence each ?
persons
tbe
16.
A
17.
Di\'ide the number
of three times one
sum
person
20
into
part,and
parts such
that
five times the otlier
two
be 84.
part,may
The priceof a work
which
out in parts is
comes
"2. 16.9. 8i/.; but if the price of each part were
13 {lunco
than it is,the priceof the work would be "Z. Is. iUi.:
more
18.
how
many
19.
by
parts were
Divide
2 sbaP
be
45
there ?
into two
parts such that the first divided
by
equalto the second multiplied
2.
118
EXAMPLES.
XXL
times as
four times
years ago the father was
is th age of each ?
v/as
: what
20.
old
father is three
A
his son;
old as his son
as
four
as
then
'
21.
Divide
into two
that the
parts such
the
eighth of the
meeting a company
exceed
part may
one
188
other
by
fourth of
14.
of beggars gave four
person
to each, and had sixteen pence left ; he found that
to enable him to
more
e should have
requireda shilling
give the beggars sixpence each : how many beggars were
22.
A
Eence
there ?
Divide 100 into two
part be subtracted from
p;irtssuch that if
23.
one
a
fourth
a
of the other
tliirdof
the
mainder
re
be
11.
may
and B, engage
Two
at play; A
has
24.
persons, A
they begin,and after a ccilain
"T2 and B has ."52 when
have been won
and lost between
of games
number
them,
B
how
much
did
A has three times as much
as
:
A
money
win?
25.
Divide 60 into two
parts such that the difference
be
the greater and (54 may
between
the less and 38.
difference between
equal
to twice
the
of ."276 was
raised hy A, B. and C together;
and iJ 12 more,
B contributed twice as much
{xb A
B and\"12 more:
how much
as
and (7 three times as much
did each contribute ?
26.
The
sum
Find a number
such that
27.
exceed
the sum
shall
its seventh
tAvclfth by 113.
28.
An
3000
in
domg
men,
force
gin::l
29.
; there
so
of its fifth and
sum
its
eighth
and
its
defeat loses onesixth of its number
w^ounded, and 4000 prisoners; it is reinforced
but retreats, losing one fourth of its number
army
in killed and
by
in
the
of
a
remain
18000
men
:
what
was
the
ori
1
Find
a
number
its seventh shall exceed
seventh by 99.
Onehalf
that the sum
of its fifth and
the difference of its fourth and its
of persons received
certain number
eighteenpenceeach,onethird received two sliillings
each,
each ; the whole sum
and the rest received half a crown
how
there ?
distributed was
"2. 4". :
many
persons were
30.
of
such
a
EXAMPLES.
A
31.
ef 4 per
received
much
119
XXI.
had
^"900 ; part of it he lent at the rate
cent.,and part at the rate of 5 per cent.,and he
person
equal sums
interest from
as
the two
parts : how
did he lend at 4 per cent. ?
father has six sons, each of whom
is four years
his next
brother; and the eldest is
younger
three times as old as the youngest: find their respective
A
older than
32.
ages.
Divide the number
92
the firstmay exceed the second
the fourth by 24.
33.
A
34.
gentleman
A, B, C, D;
servants
much
as
much
as
^, (7
C and
much
as
B
left "550
of whom
as
together :
A
how
into
by
four such parts that
10, the third by 18, and
to be divided among
four
B
to
have
twice as
was
and B together,and D as
much
had each 'I
numbers
such that the half
Find two consecutive
and the fifth of the first taken together shall be equal to
the third and the fourth of the second taken together.
35.
three
is to be distributed among
of money
A, B, and C; the shares of A and B together
persons
amount
to "G0 ; those of A and G to "80 ; and those of B
and C to "92 : find the share of each person.
A
36.
sum
together; A
persons A and B are travelling
has "100, ana
B has "48; they are met
by robbers who
take twice as much
from A as from
B, and leave to A
taken from
much
three times as much
to B. how
as
was
Two
37.
each?
of "500 was
four persons,
divided among
The sum
that the first and second
80
together received "280, the
third together "260, and the first and fourth
first and
together"220 : find the share of each.
38.
39.
money
"40
:
After A has received "10 from B
B and "6 more
as
; and between
had each at first ?
what money
A
40.
worth
2
wine
has two sorts of wines,one
sort
and
the
other
worth
Ad.
3s.
a
quart,
of
mixture
to make
100
he wants
a
merchant
a
shillings
quart; from
quarts worth
he has as much
them they have
these
2^. 46;?.a
take from each sort ?
quart: how
many
quarts
must
he
120
EXAMPLES.
In
XXI.
mixture
of wine and water the wine composed
than half of the mixture,and the water
25 gallonsmore
less
than
5 gallons
a third of the mixture
: how
lons
galmany
there
each
of
1
were
41.
In
of
a
of 10000 tickets,
half the
lotteryconsisting
number
of blanks
prizesadded to onethird the number
3500 : how many
was
prizeswere there in the lottery?
In a certain weight of gunpowder the saltpetre
43.
than a half of the weight,the sulphur
composed 6 lbs. more
the charcoal 3 lbs. less than a
5 lbs. less than a third,and
42.
fourth
:
a
how
many
lbs.
were
of each
there
?
ingredients
A general,after having lost
44.
had
left fit for action 3600
a
of the
found
battle,
three
that
than half of his
than oneeighthof his army
more
were
uiiiiy ; 600 men
the remainder, forming onefifth of the
wounded
; and
were
or
slain,taken prisoners,
missing: what was
army,
of
?
the army
the number
he
How
men
more
sheep must a person buy at "7 each
for folding
them at
that after paying one
a score
shilling
them at "8 each ?
night he may gain "79. 16s. by selling
45.
many
of money
shared among
five
A^ B, 6',Z",and E; B received "10 less than A ;
posons
D received "5 less than C;
than B\
C received "16 more
than Z"; and it was
and jE^received "15 more
found that
and B together: how much
E received as much
did
as A
46.
each
A
certain
sum
was
receive ?
of money
starts with a certain sum
A tradesman
;
end of the first year he had doubled his original
stock,all but "100 ; also at the end of the second year he
had doubled the stock at the beginning of the second year,
all but "100;
also in like manner
at the end of the third
47.
at the
year ; and at the end of the third year he
rich as at first : find his original
stock.
as
was
three
times
with a certain sum
of
borrowed
much
he had about him,
as
as
money;
and spent a shilling
out of the whole : witli the remaindei
much
he went to a second tavern, where he burrowed
as
as
he had left,
and also spent a shilling
tlien
went
to
and
he
;
third tavern, borrowing and
a
spending as hefore,after
which he had nothing left: how much
had lie at firet?
48.
A person
there he
went
to
a
tavern
122
PROBLEMS.
perform a piece of work
and B alone can perform it in 12 days : in what
they perform it if they work together%
Let
A
alone
A
1 94.
denote
X
perform
can
perform
z^th of
requirednumber
the

the
of
days.
th of the work ; therefore in
ths of the

in 9
can
work;
work.
In
therefore
day
one
in
days
x
x
days,
time
will
one
day
In
days he
can
B
can
perform
he
can
perfoim
X
~
of the
ths
work.
perform
of the work
A
195.
must
the
be
And
whole
since in
work, the
sum
days
A
and
B
gether
to
of the fractions
equal to unity ; that is,
cistern could
be filled with
alone
pipe
in 6 hours,and
alone in 8 hours ; and it could
one
x
by
by
water
of
means
of another
means
pi{)e
emptied by a tap in 1 2
time will the
: in what
the tap are all open ?
be
closed
Iiours if the two pipes were
cistern be filled if the pipesand
Let
hour
hours
denote
x
the
first
it fills

the
of hours.
required number
pipe fills

th of the cistern
ths of the cistern.
In
one
In
therefore
;
hour
the
oue
in
x
second
o
pipe
fills

th of the cistern ; therefore in
x
hours
it fills
o
1
X
q'ths
of the cistern.
In
one
hour
the tap
empties

th
123
PROBLEMS.
of the cistern ; therefore in
we
filled,
since in
And
cistern.
the
hours
co
it empties
the whole

ths of
cistern
is
have
6
"^8
It is sometimes
196.
hours
x
the
unknown
other
some
this will be
12""
convenient
to denote
by ^, not
required, l"ut
quantity which is explicitly
quantityfrom which that can be easilydeduced ;
illustrated in the next two problems.
A colonel on attemptingto draw up his regiment
in the form of a solid square finds that he has 31 men
in his regimore
ment
over, and that he would require24 men
in order to increase the side of the square by one
197.
man
:
Let
how
many
men
there in the regiment ?
were
denote the number
of men
in the side of the first
of men
in the square is x^ and
square ; then the number
the number
of men
in the regiment is iC^+ 31.
If there
in a side of the square, the number
x+\
of men
were
men
X
be {x + Vf ; thus
in the square would
in the regiment is (:"+1)224.
Therefore
that
From
occur3
is,
{x +\f'2A
ar24 2."+
^^
=
+
2.^+124
2^7
=
+ 24
311
men
31.
these two equalexpressions
we
in both ; thus
therefore
of
x^ + 31,
=
124
the number
=
31;
=
54;
=
27.
can
remove
x^ which
54
therefore
x
=
"
of men
in the regiment is
the number
Hence
that is,729 + 31, that is,760.
+ 31j
(27)'
124
PROBLEMS.
A starts from a certain place,and travels at the
rate of 7 miles in 5 hours ; B starts from the same
place
direction at the
8 hours after A, and travels in the same
rate of 5 miles in 3 hours : how far will A travel before he
198.
is overtaken
Let
by
B
1
before he is overtaken;
in
5
which
travels
B
therefore
travels 7 miles
since A
Now
of hours
represent the number
X
x
A
"
travels
S hours.
hours, he travels
of

a
5
*Ix
mile in
miles.
; and
hour
one
hours
x
he travels
"
5
B travels
Similarly
of

he
hours
therefore in x"S
when
therefore in
travels
A they have
B overtakes
Theiefore
of miles.
multiplyby 15; thus
25
mile
a
8)
(a;

=
21a;,
=
21;c;
25;c200
therefore
25;r21a:=200,
4;r
=
hour, and
one
{x"S)
travelled
that is,
that is,
in
miles.
the
same
And
ber
num
200;
x^"^.50.
therefore
4
Ix
Therefore
7
x50
=
"
=
_
before he
199.
was
70 ;
so
that A
travelled
70 miles
o
o
overtaken.
ProWems
student to have
sometimes
given which
obtained from Arithmetic a
are
suppose
the
knowledge of
1 25
PROBLEMS.
pr()})ortion
; this willbe ilkistrateJ in tl"o
shall conclude
we
next
tvvo problems. After them
the
of
difficultcharacter
a more
Chapter \\v\a\ three problems
tlian those hitherto given.
the
meaning
of
It is
200.
the number
56 into two
be to the other as 3 to 4.
requiredto divide
parts such that
one
may
the first part; then the other
Let the number
x denote
part must be 56 "x., and since ;z; is to be to 56 ;r as 3 to 4
"
we
have
3
X
66^~4*
Clear of fractions;
thus
4.c
3(56x);
=
that is,
42?
=
1683^;
therefore
7^
=
1 68 ;
therefore
ar
1 fi"^
the
Thus
that
IS
=
"
first part is 24
=
and
24.
the other
32.
of solution
preceding method
however
beginner; the following
The
for
a
Let
second
soLond
to 56
;
part is 56"24,
the
part
as
number
must
3 to 4.
denote
is the
is much
natural
shorter.
most
first part ; then the
be \x^ because
the first part is to the
Then
of the two parts is equal
the sum
2x
the
thus
Thus the first part is 3
pa:t is 4 X S^ that is 32.
x
8, that is 24; and
the second
126
PROBLEMS,
A
contains
cask, A,
gallonsof wine and 18
gallonsof water; and another cask, B, contains 9 gallons
of wine and 3 gallonsof water: how many
gallonsmust be
from each cask so as to produce by their mixture
drawn
201.
7
gallonsof
wine
and
7
12
gallonsof
water
?
Let X denote the number
A; then since the mixture
will denote the number
\Ax
the number
Now
B,
of gallonsto be drawn from
is to consist of 14 gallons,
of gallonsto be drawn from
(^gallonsin A is 30, of which 12 are
12
is,the wine is
wine ; that
of the whole.
"
Therefore
the
tJO
X
gallonsdrawn
the
Similarly
14
;r
wine.
gallonsof
A
from
contain
^^^gallonsof
gallonsdraAvn from
the mixture
And
i5 contaiii
wina

is to contain 7
^o
"

gallons
of wine; therefore
12^ ^ 9(14^)_
30
3(14^)
2a;
.,
.
,
that is,
one
.
"5""'""4
"
Thus
10
202.
At
hand
~^'
12
gallonsmust
what
of
a
be drawn
time between
watch exactlyover
^
^^*
from
A^ and
2 o'clock and
4 from
B,
3 o'clock is
the other?
of minutes
after
the required number
will
hand
the long
In X minutes
over
move
2 o'clock.
and
hand
the
fiioe;
as
moves
long
X divisions of the watch
will
the
short
short
hand
twelve times as fast as the
hand,
Let
move
X
over
denote
"
\.2i
divisions in
x
minutes.
At
2
o'clock the
127
PROBLEMS.
of the longhand; so
ghort hand is 10 divisions in advance
the long hand
must
10
that iu the x minutes
pass over
divisions than the short hand; therefore
more
A hare
takes four
leaps to a greyhonnd'sthree,
but two
greyhound'sleapsare equivalentto three of
the hare's ; the hare has a start of fifty
leaps: how many
leapsmust the greyhound take to catch the hare ?
203.
of the
of leaps taken by
Suppose that Zx denote the number
the number
the greyhound; then 4;2J will denote
of leaps
taken by the hare in the same
time. Let a denote the number
of inches in one
of
the
hare
then
3a
denotes
the
leap
;
number
of inches in three leaps of the hare,and therefore
also the number
of inches in two leaps of the greyhound;
therefore
the
denotes
"
the number
greyhound. Then
tain 3a; X
contain (50+
leapsof
3^
Inches.
"
of inches in
And
50
+
the greyhound
4x
leapof
one
will
leaps of the hare
con
will
4;p)ainches; therefore
=(60
"
+
4a;)a.
9x
Divide
by
a; thus
therefore
9x
therefore
Thus
The
a;
the
that
formed.
we
=
50 +
=
100
will see that
a, to enable us
can
remove
4a;;
+
8a; ;
=100.
greyhound must
student
symbol
and
"
take 300
leaps.
have
to form
the
we
introduced
it by division when
an
liary
auxi
equation easily
;
the
equationia
128
EXAMPLES.
XX
IL
Four gamesters, A, B, C, D, each with a different
204.
stock of money,
sit do^Mi to play; A wins half of Ba
first
stock,B wins a third part of C's, C wins a fourth part of
and D \v\ns a fifth part of ^'s ; and then each of the
/"'",
gamesters has ;"23.
Let
denote
Find
the stock of each
the number
of
at first.
which D won
from
the number
A\
in A'" first stock.
Thus
with
what
A won
from B, make
Ax, together
up 23 ;
therefore 23
the number
40? denotes
of pounds which A
B.
from
since
A
half
of ^'s stock,23
won
won
And,
4^?
also denotes what was
left with B after his loss to A.
X
then
poimds
will denote
5x
"
"
B
from
won
4.?;,together with what
C,
denotes
make
therefore
tiie
number
4^x
of
23
;
pounds
up
from C.
which B won
third of C's
And, since B won
a
Cs
first stock, \2.x denotes
first stock; and therefore 8:j;
Again,
denotes
23
what
"
left with
was
C after his loss to B.
Again, 8x, togetherwith
23 ; therefore 23
from D.
C won
stock,4 (23
3
"
And,
Sx)
(23 8x) denotes
"
C
since
D's
denotes
what
won
first stock
left with
was
make
up
first
therefore
after his loss to C.
D
won
from
23 ; thus
23=3(238x)
therefore
23x=46
therefore
x=%
Thus
D
of D's
; and
x, which

J
of
X",make up
pounds which
fourth
a
Finally,3 (23 8x),togetherwith
A
from
won
the number
Sx denotes
"
C
what
+
x;
;
the stocks at firstwere
Examples.
10, 30, 24, 28.
XXII.
privateerrunning at the rate of 10 miles an hour
18 miles off,running at the rate of 8 miles
discovers a sliip
the sliiprun
before it is
miles can
hour : how many
an
1. A
overtaken?
Divide the
of
threefourths
other part the sum
2.
50
number
one
part
may
be
be 40.
into two parts such that if
to fivesixtlisof the
added
130
EXAMPLES.
13.
Divide
the number
the first increased
third
be
multipliedby
equal.
14.
as
3
for
If 20 men,
women
week's work
a
15.
Divide
of their squares
16.
88
into four
There
40
and
women,
50
1
into two parts such that the difference
may be 1000.
100
places154
two
are
apart, from which
with a design to meet ;
in two hours, and the
miles
time
start at the same
travels at the rate of 3 miles
one
other at the rate of 5 miles in four hours
meet?
two
persons
17.
Divide
by
parts such that
by 2, the second diminished by 3, the
4, and the fourth divided by 5, may all
children receive "50
for a week's work, and 2 men
receive as much
5 children,
what does each woman
receive
or
them
among
XXII.
5
:
when
will
they
into two parts such that the greater increased
be to the less increased
by 7, as 4 is
44
may
to 3.
18.
as
A
much
can
as
in 24
the work ?
work
do half
(7,and
days:
as
much
work
together they can
in what
time
could
as
B,
B
can
do
half
complete a piece of
each alone complete
Divide the number
90 into four parts such that if
the first be increased by 5, the second diminished
by 4, the
third multipliedby 3, and the fourth divided by 2, the
19.
results shall all be
20.
Three
equal.
persons
can
together complete a piece of
in 60 days ; and it is found that the first does threefourths of what the second does,and the second fourfifths
of what the third does : in what time could each one alone
work
complete
the work
?
Divide the number
36 into two
part may be fivesevenths of the other.
21.
partssuch
that
one
draw up his army
in
the form of a solid square finds that he has 60 men
over,
and that he would
in
41
his
in
men
more
require
army
order to increase the side of the square by one
man
: how
there in the army ?
were
many men
22.
A
general on
attemptingto
I
131
XXII.
EXAMPLES.
Divide the number 90 into two partssuch that
part may be twothirds of the other.
23.
one
of eggs, half of
person bought a certain number
them at 2 a penny, and half of them at 3 a penny ; he sold
them again at the rate of 5 for two pence, and lost a penny
by the bargain: what was the number of eggs ?
24.
A
A and B are at present of the same
age; if A'"
age be increased by 36 years, and ^'s by 52 years, their
ages will be as 3 to 4 : what is the present age of each ?
25.
For 1 lb. of tea and 9 lbs. of sugar the
8*. 6rf.; for 1 lb. of tea and 15 lbs. of sugar the
12*. Qd. : what is the priceof 1 lb. of sugar ?
26.
so
was
charge is
cliargeis
divided between A and B,
27. A prizeof ;"2000 was
that their shares were
of 7 to 9 : what
in the proportion
the share of each ?
hired for 40 days at 3*. Ad. per
day,for every day he worked ; but with this condition that
for every day he did not work he was to forfeit 1*. Ad. ; and
the whole he had ."3.3^. Ad. to receive : how many days
on
out of the 40 did he work ?
28.
A
workman
29.
A
at
much money
and "6 more,
was
play first won
as B ; but B,
on
had five times
had each at first?
money
B, and had
winningback his own
"5
as
from
much
money
as
A
then
as
money
: what
Divide 100 into two parts,such that the square of
their difierence may
exceed the square of twice the less
30.
part by 2000.
A cistern has two supplypipes,
31.
which will singly
fillit in 4^ hours and 6 hours
and it has also
respectively;
a leak by which
it would
be emptied in 5 hours: in how
many
hours will it be filledwhen
all are
workingtogether?
A farmer would
mix wheat at As. a bushel
so that the whole
mixture may
rye at 2". 6d. a bushel,
of 90 bushels,and be worth
3". '2d. a bushel:
many bushels must be taken of each ?
32.
with
9"2
sist
con
how
132
XXII
EXAMPLES.
bill of "3. Is. 6d. was
paid in
and the whole number
of coins was
florins,
there of each kind ?
coins were
33.
A
34.
mix
A
sort
coarser
a
28
56 lbs. of fine tea at 5*.
3*. 6d. a
at
lb.,so
lb. : what
4*. 6d. a
togetherat
as
how
:
lb. would
a
to sell the
quantityof
many
whole
the latter sort
he take 1
must
35.
the
on
with
grocer
and
halfcrowns,
A
person
agreement
hired
labourer
a
for every
that
day
do
certain work
he worked
he should
to
a
receive 2*.,but that for every day he was
absent he should
lose 9d. ; he worked
twice as many
days as he was absent,
and on the whole received "1. Ids.: find how many
days
he worked.
drawn
up in a solid square ; when
time after if was
some
again dra\vn up in a sohd square
fewer in a side ; in the
it was foimd that there were
5 men
had been
from the field: what
interval 286 men
removed
of men
in the regiment ]
the original
number
was
36.
regiment was
A
of money
divided between
A sum
A
and "\
was
to that of ^ as 5 to 3 ; also the
was
so that the share of A
share of A exceeded
fiveninths of the whole sum
by ^"50 ;
what was
the share of each person ?
37.
38.
left his whole
gentleman
A
estate
share
of the eldest was
"800
the estate; the share of the second was
onefourth of the estate; the third had
The
sons.
his four
among
less than half of
than
"120 more
half as much
as
the eldest ; and the youngest had twothirds of what the
second had.
How
much ("d each son receive ?
39.
A
B
and
began
to
playtogetherwith equal sums
of money ; A first won
"20, but afterwards lost half of all
half as much
he then had, and then his money
that
was
as
had each at first?
of B : what money
A
lady gave
consistingof
had 12d.,each woman
40.
of poor,
of
the
women
was
number
muuber
of
two
of
women.
a
guinea
in
charityamong
a
number
and children ; each man
women,
men,
6d.,and each child Sd. The number
less than twice the number
children
How
four
many
less than
person;^
of men
; and
three times
the
were
there
lieved?
re
EXAMPLES.
133
XXII.
piece of
cloth at Zs. 2d. per
of
it
at
sold
onethird
45. per yard, onefourth of
yard. He
and
the
Sd.
remainder
at 3*. Ad. per
it at 3".
per yard,
the
whole
his
14*.
and
2du
How
was
gain on
yard;
many
contain
the
?
did
piece
yards
41.
draper bought
A
a
"ZZ. *ls:6d. in buying sheep of
the
first
different sorts.
sort, which formed onethird
For the second
of the whole, he paid 9*. 6d. each.
sort,
onefourth of the whole, he paid 11*. each.
which formed
42.
grazierspent
A
For
For the rest he
did he buy ?
paid 12^.
6d. each.
What
mmiber
of
sheep
woman
bought a certain number of e^s,
of
for
at the rate
5
at
twopence; she sold half of them
and
half
of
them
at 3 a penny,
and gained 4"f.
2 ft penny,
number
what
the
of
was
by 80 doing:
eggs 1
43.
A
market
44.
A
pudding consists
and
raisins,
and
the
suet
4
8d.
of 2 parts of flour,3 parts of
parts of
suet ; flour costs 3d. a lb.,
raisins,
6d^
cost
of
the
the
several ingredientsof
Find
pudding,when
the whole
cost is 25. 'id.
employed together
persons, A and B, were
for 50 days,at 55. per day each.
During this time A, by
spending 6d. per day less than B, saved twice as much as
How
much
did
B, besides the expenses of two days over.
45.
A
Two
spend per day?
income.
A
persons, A and B, have the same
laysby onefifth of his ; but B by spending "60 per annum
than A, at the end of three years finds himself ."100
more
of each ?
is the income
What
in debt.
46.
Two
A puts 7
47. A and B shoot by turns at a target
the
bull's
bullets out of 12 into
eye, and B puts in 9 out of
in
bullets. How
32
them
they put
12; between
many
fire?
did
each
shots
the
two
Two
are
casks,A
and
mixtures
of wine
of
is
to the quantityof
wine
and water; in A the quantity
the
like
i?
4 to 3 ; in
water
as
proportionis that of 2 to 3.
what must B contain,so that when
If A contain 84 gallons,
48.
B, contain
put together,the
wiuc and half water ?
new
mixture
may
be half
134?
The
49.
one
XXII.
EXAMPLES.
hundredth
squireof a parishbequeaths a sum
equal to
part of his estate towards the restoration
church;
of the
of the
the
towards
less than
^200
school; and
of the
"
value
"200
After
County Hospital
39
cies,
deductingthese lega
to the heir.
remain
estate
this towards
the endowment
less than this latter sum
What
was
the
of the estate?
How
50.
many
of an
threequarters
does
ago it
hour
was
it want
twice
to 4
as
many
o'clock,if
minutes
o'clock?
past two
casks,A
Two
51.
minutes
and B,
filledwith
are
two
kinds
of
sherry,mixed in the cask A in the proportionof 2 to 7,
and
in the cask B in the proportionof 2 to 5 : what
quantity
mixture
which
each
be taken from
to form
must
a
shall consist of 2 gallonsof the first kind and 6 of the
kind
second
hollow
regiment
the hollow
square
is 1296.
form
the
men
square.
person buys a pieceof land at "30 an acre, and
fold,
finds the value increased threeit in allotments
selling
self:
for himthat he clears "150, and retains 25 acres
so
A
53.
by
of his regiment into
of men
in the
12
deep. The number
in the front of
Find the number
of men
oflScer can
An
52.
a
?
how
54.
many
The
acres
there?
were
country was increased by
war.
During a long peace which
and at the end of that
paid ofi",
national debt
of
in a time of
onefourth
followed
was
"25000000
time the rate of interest
It was
then found
cent.
a
was
that
reduced
the
before the
of the debt before the war
?
was
amount
55.
A
the
same
and B
as
play at
a
game,
winner
one
from
amomit
war.
4^
to 4
per
terest
of annual inthe
What
was
loser
shillingless than half
agreeing that
the
to the
with equal quanthe money
the loser has ; they commence
tities
and
and after B has lost the first game
of money,
than A : how
the second, he has two
more
won
shillings
?
much had each at the commencement
shall
always pay
i
135
XXIL
EXAMPLES.
centre ;
tho same
A clock has two hands tummg
on
twelve hours, and the
a revolution every
the swifter makes
time willthe swifter
slower every sixteen hours : in what
66.
gainjust one
complete revolution
on
the slower?
At what time between
3 o'clock and 4 o'clock is
67.
hand of a watch exactlyin the direction of the other
one
hand produced %
The
58
hands
other at 3 o'clock:
certain
amounted
to X297.
months it amounted
A
59.
60.
hours
of a watch are at
when are they next
sum
of money
12*. in
rightangles to each
at rightangles?
lent at
eightmonths;
to "306
:
what
was
and
the
simple interest
in
sum
seven
more
%
1799
watch gains as much
as a clock loses; and
hours
clock
the
to
1801
by the
are
by
equivalent
much
the watch gainsand the clock loses
: find how
A
watch
per hour.
It is between
and it is observed
11 and 12 o'clock,
of minute
number
between
the hands
is
spaces
it was
twotliirds of what
ten minutes
previously: find the
time.
6L
that the
62.
A
and
made
a
joint stock of jCSOO by which
they gained X 160, of which A had for his share "32 more
than B : what did each contribute to the stock ?
63.
A
distiller has 51
him
B
gallonsof French
brandy, which
to buy some
glish
Enwith the French,
a
shillings
gallon; he wishes
a gallonto mix
brandy at 3 shillings
and sell the whole at 9 shillings
a gallon. How
many
of the English must
he take, so that he may
what
30 per cent, on
he gave
for the brandy of
cost
8
gallons
gain
both
kinds?
officer can
form his men
into a hollow square
and
also
into a hollow square 8 deep; the front in
deep,
the latter formation
contains IG men
fewer
than in the
64.
An
4
former
formation
:
find the munber
of
men.
136
SIMULTANEOUS
XXIII.
SIMPLE
Simultaneous
eqtmtionsof the firstdegree with
unknown
two
EQUATIONSi
quantities.
have an equationcontaining
two unkno^vn
and y, for example 3a?
7?/ 8. For
value which
v/e
please to assign to one of the
every
unknown
quantitieswe can determine the coiresponding
find as many
value of the other ; and thus we
can
pairs
of values as we
which
the
satisfy
given equation.
please
if
find
l
for
3a;
we
Thus,
=15, and therefore
example, y
find cU;
2 we
a?
22, and therefore ic 7J; and
5; if y
205.
Suppose we
x
quantities
"
=
=
=
so
=
=
=
on.
Also, suppose that tliere is another equation of the
snnie
kind, as for example 2a? + 5?/ 44 ; then we can also
find as many
pairsof values as we pleasewhich satisfythis
=
equation.
But
suppose
wc
h"th
equations; we
of
X
anfl
by
5 ; thus
one
x
and
y which
satisfy
value
shall find that there is only one
value of y.
For multiplythe first equation
15a? 35?/
and
of
ask for values
multiplythe
second
40;
=
equationby
14a? +
35y
=
7 ; thua
30"
by addition,
Therefore,
15a?
35y
)^14.r +
that 18,
2.9a?
=
351/ 40
=
+
308 ;
348;
348
,"
tuerefore
Thus
Vut
for
if both
x=

=12.
to be satisfied x must
in cither of the two given
equationsare
this value of
example
"
in the
a?
second; thus
we
obtain
equal 1%
equations^
138
SIMULTANEOUS
Then
put this value
for
example
SIMPLE
of
x
EQUATIONS,
in either of the
in the second
given equations,
thus
;
Suppose,however, that in solvingthese equationswe
If we multiplythe first
to begin by eliminatingx.
by 12, and the second by 8, we obtain
96a; + 84?/
=
wish
tion
equa
1200,
96;z?40y=:704.
Therefore,by svbtraction,
84y
40^=1200704;
+
that is,
1242/ 496,
therefore
y=4.
render
multiply the first
thus
Or
the process
may
we
"
=
for
the second
simple;
more
equation by 3, and
24a? +
212/=300,
24a;
102/= 176.
we
may
by 2;
Therefore,by subtraction,
212/+ 10?/ 300 176;
=
that
is,
31^
therefore
209.
124;
2^=4.
Second
quantitiesin
substitute
=
method.
terms
this value
Express
one
the other from either
in the other equation.
of
Thus, takingthe example given in
have from the first equation
we
8ar=
therefore
of the unknown
10072/;
x^}^:^
.
the
equation^cmd
cle,
preceding Arti
Substitute this value of
obtain
Then
:
from
a?
in the second
x
=
189
and
equation,
of y in either of the
substitute this value
and we shall obtain
Or thus
EQUATIONS.
SIMPLE
SIMULTANEOUS
we
given equations,
9.
have
the first equation we
7z/ 1008a?;
=
lOOSo;
therefore
we
y
=
=
.
of y in the second
this value
Substitute
obtain
"
equation,and
^^_5 (1008^)^33.
84;r5(1008;c) 616;
therefore
=
that is,
84a;500
therefore
124;p
therefore
Third
210.
quantity
in
method.
terms
40:r=616;
5004616
=
a;
+
=
1116;
9.
=
Express
the
same
unknown
of the other from, each equation^and
equate the expressionsthus obtained.
Thus, taking again the
equation
88
+
^'
12
x=
5y
"
^^^
"^~~^"
same
example, from
^^""^
^^"
second
the first
equation
140
SIMPLE
SIMULTANEOUS
1007y ^
^"
_
,
Therefore
88 +
=
"
3(1007y)
30021y=176+
tliercfore
300176
Sly
therefore
y
thus:
from
124;
=
4.
=
deduce
can
first
the
10y;
+
a?
=9.
equation y
12^"88
from
the second
thus
lOy;
21y
=
is,
Or
.
2(SS + 5y);
=
tliat is,
Then, as before,we
5y
i^
"
multiplyingby 24;
Clear of fractions,
by
that
EQUATIONS.
equationy
=
"
=
=
"
and
"
;
therefore
a
=9;
,
o
1008a;
From
before,we
211.
this
deduce
can
Solve
y
19;r21y
that ig,
therefore
+
then,as
21;cl9y
=
140.
be solved by the methods
already
however
to shew that these
them
abbreviated.
be sometimes
we
Here, by addition,
and
4.
=
19;c21y=100,
equationsmay
explained; we shall use
may
shall obtain
equationwe
These
methods
12;c88
obtain
21^19^/
40x

x
=
100 + 140;
40y
=
240
y
=
6.
"
;
we
by subtraction,
Again, fi'om the originalequations,
obtain
21;c 19y 19ar421y
=
140100
that is,
2x\2yA0\
therefore
"+y=20.
;
SIMULTANEOUS
Then
since
SIMPLE
x
"
y
Q and
=
a; +
a?
13, and
=
student will find
obtain
20, we
14;
2/
=
2j;=26, and by subtraction 2y
therefore
141
EQUATIONS.
=
by
tion
addi
y=7.
he
proceedsthat in all
examples may be treated by
parts of Algebra, particular
methods
which are shorter than the generalrules;but such
abbreviations can
only be suggested by experienceand
and the beginner should not waste his time in
practice,
seekingfor them.
212.
The
213.
Solve
+

X
If
cleared these

=
8,
as
?^=
^
y
X
equationsof
3.
y
fractions
they would
involve the product xy of the unknown
quantities;and
thus strictly
they do not belong to the present Chapter,
be solved by the methods
But they may
already^ven,as
shall now
For multiplythe first equation by 3
shew.
we
and
and the second by 2,
add ; thus
wo
142
XXIII.
EXAMPLES.
Solve
214.
a^x +
y^y^c^,
by
+
ax
c.
=
Here a; and y are supposed to denote unknown
while the other letters are supposed to denote
ties,
quantiknown
quantities.
Multiplythe
the first;
thus
second
equationby 6,and
subtract it from
a^xhlPy dbx"lyhj^c^lci
"
that
is,
a{a"h)x
c{c"h);
=
X
~
therefore
x
=
.
,
a{a"o)
Substitute this value of
in the second
x
acic"h)
.,

therefore
,
by=c"
^
c{c"h) c(ab)
i^= ^^
=
the value of y
that of X was
foimd.
might be found
7x9y
2.
Tx5y=24,
4x3y
3.
Zx +
20x3y=^l.
4.
nx'ly
5.
1x + 5y
=
60,
lBxUy
6.
6x'Jy
=
42,
7x6y
7.
10;r +
a
3x4y=l8j
9.
4.5^11,
=
=
290,
^^
"
"
e)
r^;
a"o
8x
7.
=
+
ll,
=
9y
U.
=
=
=
2x3y
2y
=
=
lO.
75.
12;clly
3x +
in the
XXIII.
Zx4y=%
9y
c(a
=
"
1.
3T,
h)
^
(
"
tti:
Examples.
2y=32,
"
c{c"a)
=
Or
=
r^
a"b
ji
vt
c(c
"
"
"
c{a"c)
y
thus
,
a"o
.,
^
therefore
equation;
0.
0.
=
130.
same
way
ai
EXAMPLES.
10.
f
Jl.
u.i?5y=l,
12.
2^
3y=7,
+
+
^
=
^=3y4.
7^4y
21,
=
4y
+
14.
^^
^"
+
~
D
2x
"y=U,
f ^
+
10^"
=
"^~2~"^'
3x
2y_
4T
+
^^
18.
V^.f 34,
=
=
ZZ.
1.
"^"
2"*" 9
7;c
^'
17.
^^
2xy
~3"
5?/_
y'Y^
^f^ZS.
^=15,
+
8^.
^=39.
5
13.
143
XXIIL
f.f f.I..
=
=
10.
4
2a; +
23.
24.
25.
8
32^_
y
"5"103,
i:i^
4
5
4y3d;_3^
"6"
?^"2^+
?tl2
+
2(2a;+ 32^) 3(2a;3y)+ 10,
=
4a?3y
=
4(6y2;c)+
"4"^^
a
v9
144
EXAMPLES.
XXIIL
26.
3:" +
9y24,
27.
"3a?+
1252/ ^6,
28.
'OSo^^ly^SS,
X
"12;c+7y
=
X
^+y=^^^^.
4*+s,=
"
U,'
l=l^=y_^,
^^
+
32.
;!?
=
34.
+f
35.
x
?2^10("l)^x^^j^^
0,
=
=
=
'
ai/=2ab,
ba; +
bj
+
ha
ia + c)xby=bc,
y
"
a
'
i/=a+b,
ic +
X
y
b
a
ax"by^c{a"b).
39.
x
40.
+ "(;cy)=l,
a(:i;+y)
+
4
";z;a2/ 0.
2,
0
as
15
3x
6
+ pa
a
7
Sx
o
"
y=c,
x
a(;c?/)+ "(a;+y)
+
yb
^
a
42.
=
l.
xjLl^=Q
b
4a",
+ 6);c(a")y
("x
(a 6);c + (a+ 6)s^ 2a^2b\
=
=

a
44.
364.
y
7,
;.4y
37.
3;c5y'=2825y.
=
y
30.
33.
"21^06y=03.
+
6
{a+ h)x
a6
+
{bh)y=^c,
2ad
a^+ ft
{b+ k)x+ {ak)y=^e.
SIMPLE
14(6 SIMULTANEOUS
We
and
have
EQUATIONS.
to find the values of
now
and
x
y
from (4)
(5).
Multiply(4)by 9, and multiply(5)by
171?/
2250?+
225a: +
=
5 ;
thus
1134,
710;
65?/=
by subtraction,
therefore,
106?/
=
424;
2/
=
4.
therefore
Substitute the value of y in (4); thus
25a?+76
25a?=
therefore
126
76

therefore
or
Substitute the values of
=
126;
=
50;
=2.
and ?/ in
x
10;
14 + 1224?=
therefore
10
therefore
z
217.
Solve
(1); thiu
=
2^;
=
5.
1 11=
(1),
I
+
"+^
^
24
(2),
^
l'^'^U
(3).
X
+
=
"
z
y
^
X
the result to
add
Multiply(1)by 2, and
546"",
246
+++
+
te
y
'
z
y
z
=
y
X
2 +
(2);thus
24;
z
^
.thatis,

X
+
=
y
26
(4).
SIMULTANEOUS
SIMPLE
add the result to (3); thus
Multiply(1)by 3, and
X
z
y
X
(5).
17
=
X
y
Multiply(5)by 4, and
X
z
y
1^_?
that is,
147
EQUATIONS.
the result to (4); thua
add
X
y
y
47
that is,
'
94 ;
=
"
X
therefore
therefore
47
ar=
94a; ;
=
=


,
2i
J7T
Substitute the value of
in
x
(5);
20^
thus
=
17;
=
2017=3:
y
therefore

y
2
therefore
y=o'
"j
Substitute the values of
and y in
x
(i);
thus
2+3^=1;
3
therefore
=4
;
z
3
therefore
*~4'
10"2
148
EQUATION"
SIMPLE
STMVLTAls'EOUS
Solve
218.
r
^^''
ax

(2),.
+
;
5
=
?+"^4
(2);
(1)from
Subtract
V
z
0
c
thus
oe
y
^
By subtracting(4)from

1;
=
^
0
a
fI=2
that is,
therefore
(3).
c
a
(3) we
therefore
.1;=
(4).
obtain
a.
a
By adding (4)to (3)we
therefore
=3;
obtain
therefore
;2?=
3c.
c
By substitutingthe value otx
219.
of
three.
In
a
similar
equations and
manner
unknown
we
in{l) we
find that y1h
proceed if the number
quantities should exceed
may
EXAMPLES.
XXIV.
Examples.
3y + ^z=\li
1.
x
2.
5x6y
+
3.
4x5y
+ z
4.
lx3y=30,
5.
Sxy+z
6.
x
+
y
7.
x
+
2y
+
z
+
12.
a?+y
13.
y^z"xa^
?
+
+
?
9y5z
17j
=
5x +
4y
+
ft+ c,
7z
+
+
?
=
4.
9j
x
=
+
y
+
4:6.
=
Zz=12.
x+y+z=S3.
T5f
2z=8,
7x
+
4y5z
9;"ll;2?+10
3x +
2y
+
x
+
y
"
3.
=
=
0.
Sz=l01.
x^a=y\h^z"rC.
z^x"y=h,
y
2x + y + 6z
3y2z=10,
2x +
6,
=
=
34,
=
+
3z
2x+2y+z=lv
4ySz=l9,
+
5, 3x5y
z=:a
+
1x
Sz=14:f
7xUy+'2z
e,
=
=
+
2x + y +
4z^l5,
149
XXIV.
z=c.
150
PROBLEMS.
of
the firstdegree with
shall
We
simultaneous
unknown
one
220.
lead to simvltaneoits
which
Prohlems
XXV.
more
than
solve
some
now
equations of
quantity.
unknown
one
equations
quantity,
problems which
first degree with more
the
lead to
than
2
Find
the fraction which
becomes
equal to

when
the
""
4
numerator
is increased
by 2, and equal to
is increased
Let
by
,l
when
the denominat
4.
denote the numerator, and y the denominator
the required fraction ; then,by supposition,
X
""?_?
~3'
y
equationsof
Clear the
^
_4
2^+
4~7'
fractions ; thus
Multiply(1)by 2, and
7^42/
that

(2).
16
subtract it from
6.2;H 4y
is,
obtain
(1),
3.r22/=6
7^4y=
we
of
16
=
+
(2);
thus
12 ;
;c=28
Substitute the value of
a;
in
(1);
6;
842?/=
therefore 2?/
=
90 ; therefore y
thus
"
45.
28
Hence
the
requiredfraction
is
"
.
of money
A sum
divided equallyamong
was
a
certain number
of persons ; if there had
six more,
been
each would
have received
less than he did ;
two
shillings
and if there had been three fewer, each would
have received
two shillings
than he did : find the number
of
more
persons, and what each received.
221.
151
PROBLEMS.
Let
denote the number
of persons, and y the number
of shillings
which each received. Then xy is the number
of
in the sum
of money
which is divided ; and, by
shillings
X
supposition,
{x + Q){y2)=xy
(1),
{x'3,){y^Vi)=xy
From
obtain
(1)we
therefore
Qy
+
xy
From
(2).
"
2x
\2
"
(3).
6y2x=\2
obtain
(2)we
xy^2x^y"Q
therefore
From
xyy
=
2x'"y
xy',
=
(4).
Q
=
3y
(3)and (4),by addition,
=
18 ;
therefore y=6.
Substitute the value of y in (4); thus
2;"18
therefore 2^?
Thus
24 ; therefor"
=
there
12
were
x
=
6;
=
\%
and
persons,
each
received
6
shillings.
of two" digitsis equal to five
certain number
of its digits
if nine be added
to the
times the sum
; and
the digitsare reversed : find the number.
number
222.
A
Let X denote the digitin the tens' place,and y the digit
is H)x\y ; and, by
in the units' place. Then the number
number
the
is equal to five times the sum
of
supposition,
its
digits;therefore
\0x
+
If nine bo added
that is,we
y
obtain the number
From
(1)we
(2)we
(1).
to the number
\(ix+y + ^
From
6{x+y)
=
=
lOy
its
+
digitsare reversed,
x, therefore
\Oy+x
(2).
5a?=4y
(3).
obtain
obtain 9a? + 9
=
9y
;
therefore
a; +
1
=
i/=
152
PROBLEMS.
Substitute for y in
(3); thus
therefore
Then
ic=4.
from
223.
A
5.
=
is 45.
requirednumber
the
Hence
obtain y
(3)we
an hour is detained
railwaytrain after travelling
after which
it proceeds at sixfifths of its
late. If the detention
former rate,and arrives 15 minutes
had taken place 5 miles further on, the train would
have
than
later
arrived 2 minutes
it did. Find the original
rate
distance
and
the
travelled.
of the train,
minutes,
24
of miles per hour at which
Let Zx denote the number
and let y denote the number
the train originally
travelled,
will
^x
of miles in the whole distance tiavellcd. Then y
of miles which remain to be travelled
the number
denote
"
after the detention.
distance
would
be
At
the
rate of the
original
travelled in
"
z
hours:
train this
at
the
in
bx
creased
rate
it will be
travelled in
^r
"
hours.
Since
^x
the train is detained
24 minutes, and yet is only 15 minutes
late at its arrival,it follows that the remainder
of the
journey is performed in 9 minutes less than it would have
been
is

if the rate

of
an
had not been
increased.
And
9 minutes
hour ; therefore
oO
V~^x
y^x
__9^
^
~
ex
5x
If the detention had taken
there would have been y"5x"5
Thus
we
60
^ ^*
place 5 miles further
shall find that
dx
bx
on,
miles left to be travelled
60
^^'
154
EXAMPLES.
such that
numbers
sum
XXV.
is twolbirds
one
of the
other,and
is 100.
We
number,
proceed
may
and
nmnber;
y=3,
Or
we
number^ then
100"
;c
x
then
denote
the
have
we
greater^
ic+y=ioo.
Let x denote the
will denote the less number;
proceed
may
Let
thus.
y the less
thus.
greater"
fore
there
1x
Or
we
proceed thus.
may
number, then
will denote
2x
Let ^x denote
the less number;
the greater
therefore
2.r + 3;"=100.
the
By completingany
numbers
I'cquired
The
student
may
of these processes
60 and 40.
are
accordinglyfind
we
that
shall find tliat
he
can
solve
of the examples at the end of the present Chapter,
with the aid of only one letter to denote an unknown
"iuanof the examples at the
tity;and, on the other hand, some
e!id of Chapter xxii.
most
to him
naturally
may
appear
solved with the aid of two letters. As a general rule it
of
may be stated that the employment of a largernumber
unknov/n
quantitiesrenders the work longer,but at the
time allows the successive steps to be more
same
readily
followed ; and thus is more
suitable for beginners.
some
The
beginner will find it a good exercise to solve the
example given in Art. 204 with the aid of four letters to
which are required.
represent the four unknown
quantities
Examples.
XXV.
If A'" money
three times as
increased by 36 shillings
he would
were
have
much
as
wei^B
B; and if jB's money
diminished by 5 shillings
he would have half as much
ao
A : find the sum
each.
possessedby
1.
2.
second
Find
numbers
two
make
may
of the firstmay
20, and
make
20.
such that the firstwith half the
also that the second with a third
If B
3.
of money
would
be
mis
B
:h
were
to
if
A
;
give "25
double
were
155
XXV.
EXAMPLES.
to
they would have equal
give "11 to"B the money
to A
that of A
:
find the
money
which
has.
actually
such that half the first with a
Find two numbers
Lthird of the second
32, and that a fourth of the
may make
firstwith a fifth of the second may make
18.
4.
buys 8 lbs. of tea and 3 lbs. of si^r for
person
"1. 2s.; and at another time he buys 5 lbs. of tea and 4 lbs.
of sugar for 155. 2.d.: find the priceof tea and sugar per lb.
5.
A
Seven years ago A was
three times as old* as B
seven
was
; and
years hence A will be twice as old as B
will be : find their present ages.
6.
the fraction which becomes
7. Find
equal to ^ when
is increased
the numerator
by 1, and equal to  when the
denominator
is increased by 1.
A certain fishingrod consists of two
parts; the
is
of
the lower as
to the length
lengthof the upper part
5 to 7 ; and 9 times the upper
part togetherwith 13 times
the lower part exceed
11 times the whole rod by 36 inches:
8.
find the
lengthsof
the two
parts.
spends halfacrown in applesand pears,
person
buying the apples at 4 a penny, and the pears at 5 a
he sells half his apples and onethird of his pears
penny;
for 13 pence, which Avas the priceat which he bought them:
find how many
applesand how many pears he bought.
9.
A
has two
wine merchant
sorts of wine, abetter
and a worse;
if he mixes
them
in the proportion of two
the
quarts of the better sort with three of the worse,
mixture will be worth Is. 9d. a quart ; but if he mixes them
in the proportionof seven
quarts of the better sort with
eight of the worse, the mixture will be worth 1*. lOd. a
quart : find the priceof a quart of each sort.
10.
A
farmer sold to one
person 30 bushels of wheat,
and 40 bushels of bai'ley
for "13. 10s.; to another
person
and 30 bushels
he sold 60 bushels of wheat
of barley
for ."17 : find the priceof wheat aud barleyper bushel.
11.
A
156
XXV.
EXAMPLES.
n
farmer has 28 bushels of barley at 2,?. Ad. 9
bushel: "vith these he wishes to mix lye at 3*. a bushel,
and wheat at 4s. a bushel,so that the mixture
consiet
may
^
and be worth
of 100 bushels,
3*. 4c?. a bushel: find hoiHl
bushels of rye and wheat he must take.
^
many
12.
A
if A loses
of 10 shillings;
A and B lay a wager
he will have as much
B will then have ; if B loses he
as
will have half of what
A will then have : find the mone:
13.
i
of each.
If the numerator
of
by 1, and the denominator
will be 1 ; if tlie numerator
and the denominator
the value will be 4 : find the
14.
15.
in
a

A
certain fraction be increased
be diminished
by 1, the value
be increased by the denominator,
diminished by the numerator,
a
fraction.
of posts are placed at equal distances
If to twice the number
of them we add
number
straightline.
two
the distance between
consecutive posts,expressed in
If from four times the distance beis 68.
tween
feet,the sum
subtract
two consecutive posts,expressedin feet,
we
is 68.
of posts,the remainder
half the number
Find the
distance between the extreme
posts.
16.
gentleman distributing
money
A
found
men
able to
to each
that
give
5
man
shillingsleft:
shillings.
4
he
wanted
10
to each man
shillings
shiUingsonly, and
find
the
number
some
poor
order to be
; therefore he gives
finds that he has 6
among
in
shillings,
of
poor
men
and
of
in a tavern found,when they
17. A certain company
if there had been three more
their
that
to
came
bill,
pay
bill,
they would have paid one
persons to pay the same
each less than they did ; and if there had been
shilling
fewer persons they would have paid one
shillingeach
did
find
number
the
of
than
and the
more
:
they
persons
of shillings
each paid.
number
two
certain rectangularfloor,such that
if it had been two feet broader,and three feet longer,
it
would
have been sixtyfoursquare feet larger; but if it
it would
had been three feet broader,and two feet longer,
have been sixtyeight
find
the
feet
length
larger:
square
and breadth of the floor.
18.
There
10.
A
is
a
certain number
of two
digitsis equal
to four
EXAMPLES.
157
XXV.
times the sum
of its digits;and if 18 be added
number
the digits
reversed : find the number.
are
Two
digitswhich form
the addition of 9 ; and the sum
on
33 : find the digits.
20.
a
tlio
to
number
change places
of the two numbers
is
of two digits
When
is doubled,
a certain number
and increased by 36,the result is the same
as if the number
had been reversed,and doubled, and then diminished by
of
itself exceeds four times the sum
36 ; also the number
its digits
by 3 : find the number
21.
have together 5 cwt of luggage,
passengers
above the weight allowed
and are charged for the excess
55. 2d. and
ds. 10c?. respectively
; if the luggage had all
belonged to one of them he would have been charged
Two
22.
19*. Id.
without
find how
:
luggageeach
much
passenger
is allowed
charge.
A
23.
B
and
ran
which
race
a
lasted 5 minutes; B
yards; but A ran 3 yai*dswhile B
running 2, and won
by 30 yards: find the length of
and the speed of each.
course
had
start of 20
a
A
24.
A
gives to
and
back
again to
many
B
as
left;each
many
have
B
^
as
A
has
each
many
as
and
left,
of
has
them
each had at first.
A
and B
B
A
as
as
many
B
a
certain number
has
has
returns
now
was
the
of counters
;
already,and B retmns
left ; A gives to ^ as
to ^
sixteen
as
many
counters:
A has
find how
as
togetherperform a certain work in
30 days; at the end of 18 days however
B is called off
and
A
finishes it alone in 20 more
days : find the time
in which each could perform the work alone.
26.
A, B, and C can drink a cask of beer in 15 days ;
A and B togetherdrink fourthirds of what C does ; and
25.
can
C drinks twice as much
as A : find the time
alone could drink the cask of beer.
each
holding 1200 gallonsis filled by three
pipesA,B,C togetherin 24 minutes. The pipe A requires
than 6' to fill the cistern;and
30 minutes more
10 gallons
than
less run
through C per minute
through A and B
together. Find the time in wliich each pipe alone wouid
27.
A
cistern
in which
fillthe cistern.
158
EXAMPLES.
XXV.
A and B run a mile. At the firstheat A gives B
28.
him by 30 seconds.
At
the
a start of 20 yards,and beats
of
him
second heat A gives B a start
32 seconds, and beats
hour
Find
the
rate
at which A runa
by 9^ yards.
per
situated 24 miles apart,
and B are two towns
of
river.
A
bank
A to B
man
a
on
same
goes from
in 7 hours, by rowing the first half of the distance,and
walkingthe second half. In returning he walks the first
half at threefourths of his former
rate, but the stream
A
29.
the
behig with him he rows at double his
the whole
he accomplishes
distance in
rates of walkmg and rowing.
A
30.
railwaytrain
rate in
going ;
6 hours.
Find
and
his
after travelling
hour is detained
an
it proceeds at threefourths of its
minutes, after which
former rate,and arrives 24 minutes
late. If the detention
miles
taken
further
had
place 5
on, the train would have
15
arrived 3 minutes
tlian it did.
Find
sooner
rate of the train and the distance travelled.
The
the
I
original
which
train takes to travel
an
express
is
of
miles
taken
that
120
to
a journey
by an ordinarytrain
The
14.
time in
as 9 is to
ordinary train loses as much
stoppages as it would take to travel 20 miles without stopping.
31.
time
tinio in
express train only loses half as much
stoppages as the ordinarytrain,and it itlsotravels 15 miles
hour quicker. Find the rate of each train.
an
The
trains,92 feet long and 84 feet long respectively,
with
uniform
velocities
on
moving
are
parallelrails ;
in oppositedirections they are observed
when
they move
in one second and a half;but when
other
to pass each
they
Two
32.
direction the faster train is observed
to
pass the other in six seconds : find the rate at which each
train moves.
move
in the
same
A
from A
to G.
A railroad runs
33.
goods' train
train at 1
and a passenger
B.t 12 o'clock,
starts from A
the
twothirds
of
the
distance
After
o'clock.
goods*
going
threefourths
of
at
travel
train breaks down, and can
only
its former rate.
At 40 minutes past 2 o'clock a collision
train
The rate of the passenger
occurs, 10 miles from C.
the diminished
rate of the goods'train. Find
distance from A to C, and the rates of the trains.
is double
the
A
certain
J5, and
C,
that
shares
of B
34.
eighths
in
6
A
and
A
shares
the
foursevenths
share
of A
and
and
A^
of the
exceeded
by "30;
three
(7's share
B
by "30.
person.
working together can
G together can
earn
G together can
earn
each
man
can
number
and
number
of each
54
alone
earn
shillings
shillingsin 9
SO
shillingsin 15
per day.
40
earn
days;
find the
time
can
is
times
to 48
tmcted
perforaia piece of
G in 30 days; and B and
which each could p^form
in
There
38.
equal
B
and
A
from
of
coin,
and
A
37.
the
certain
G
between
and sixpences
sovereigns,shillings,
The amount
of the shillings
amount
to "8. 6". Qd.
guinea less than that of the sovereigns,and a guinea
half more
the
than
that of the sixpences. Find
a
a
48
and
B
find what
36.
is
B
and
A
of
^'s
and
of A
of each
and
days;
days;
days :
shares
share
; also
by "30
twoninths
the
35.
^'s
G
and
of the
exceeded
Find
so
divided
of money
was
share
exceeded
sum
15^
XXV.
EXAMPLES.
the
certain
a
the
sum
number
sum
of the
extreme
digit:
find the
number.
work
together in
G in 26 days:
the
of three
number
work
alone.
digitswhich
is
digits,and if 198 be subthe digits will be reversed
; also
digitsis equal to twice the middle
of its
bought 10 bullocks, 120 sheep, and 46
Tlie price of 3 sheep is equal to tliat of 5 lambs.
lambs.
of
A bullock, a sheep, and a lamb
togetliercost a number
number
of animals
shillingsgi'eaterby 300 than the whole
Find
the
whole
the
"468. Qs.
sum
bought; and
spent was
of
and
a lamb
respectively.
a bullock,a sheep,
price
A
39.
farmer
A
40.
of
man
sold at
and
horses,oxen,
market
a
7*. per head ; while a
sold for "22, "12. 105.,and
onefourth
than
he
same.
did, the
Find
which
the
number
amount
the number
were
sold.
the
and
of stock
whole
sisting
con
realised
sheep were
he
"1. UKv. respectively. Had
and
of oxen,
25 more
sheep
horse,
received
of
head
that
sheep,so
"2.
sold
100
an
ox,
would
horses,oxen,
have
and
a
been
stillthe
sheep,respectively
160
QUADRATIC
XXVI.
Quadratic Equations.
quadraticequationis
A
226.
EQUATIONS,
of the unknown
the square
equationwhich contains
but
no
quantity,
higher
an
power.
227. A pure
only the square
quadraticequationis one which contains
of the unknown
quantity. An adfected
quach'atic
equationis one which contains the first power
of the unknown
Thus, for
quantityas well as its square.
is a pure
example, 2:"2=50
quadratic equation; and
^aP" 7^ + 3
0 is an adfectedqujidratic
equation.
=

The
followingis the Rule for solvinga pur"
quadraticequation. Find the value of t/iesquare of the
unknown
quantity hy the Rule for solvinga simple equation;
the
the
values
then,by extracting
qfthe
square root,
unknotcn
are
found.
quantity
228.
For
example,solve
Clear of fractions
10
therefore
therefore
"
r
+
"
j"
by multiplying
by
30 ; thna
=

13;i;2^180
a^
=
"
=
+
130 + 15
325;
=
25 ;
"5.
by the Rule for solvinga
is equal to 25 ; therefore x must
number, that if multipliedinto itself the product
example, we
simpleequation,that x^
this
6.
{a^ 13)+ Zia^ 5) 180;
extiact the square root,thus ^=
In
=
"
find
be such a
That is to say, x must
be a square root of
is 25.
is
the
Arithmetic
6
root of 25; in Algebra
In
25.
square
consider either 5 or "5
as
a
we
square root of 25,
may
5x5.
5x "6
Hence
x
gince,by the RtUe of Signs
of
values
the
have
either
the
5
and
or
equation
6,
may
This
denote
satisfied
willbe
thus, 4; "5.
we
=
"
"
162
EQUATIONS.
QUADRATIC
followingis the Rule for solvingan adfected
reduction
quadratic equation. By transposition and
the equation so that the terms
which
involve the
arrange
unknown
quantity are alone on one side,and the coefficient
of a^ is + 1 ; add to each side of the equation the square
of x, and then extract the square
of half the coefficient
root of each side.
230.
The
shall now
It will be seen
from the examples which we
solve that the above rule leads us to a point from which
can
we
immediately obtain the values of the unknown
quantity.
231.
Sdve
aj" 10a; +24=0.
By transposition, a?^10x="2^\
add
(yY,
a^10d?
extract the square
+
62= 24
root,
a:
6
*
=
a?=5*l=5
transpose,
hence
"
26=1;
+
1j
+ l or
verifythat either of these values
proposed equation; and it will be useful for
thus to verifyhis results.
Solve
232.
3"24a?55=0.
By transposition, 3a:24a?=65;
divide
AA
1;
a;=6or4.
It is easy to
the
5"
by 3,
/2V
T^s"'
/2V
4a?
2
65
13
2
extract the square ro"t,
^
=
~
a?=r"
"3
*
11
13
"
00
=*=
o
2
transpose,
169
4
.
^
=5or
"
"
.
*"
satisfies
the student
QUADRATIC
233.
Solve
2a?kZxZ5
2"*
By transposition,
f^y
0.
=
+ 3a; =
35 ;
^+f f;
divide by 2,
.AA
=
^^^ W
^
35
3
x=
"
Solve
*
"5,
=or
4
"*4a?l
2
=
By transposition,a:^ 4^;=
add2",
i
T
7
17
""
4
289
17
3
transpose,
9
^
extract the square root,^+t=
234.
163
EQUATIONS.
0.
1;
"*4x+22=l+4=6;
extract the square
root,
a?
transpose,

2
a;=2"
=
,y6;
"
,^5.
the square root of 5 cannot be found exactly;
of it
l?utwe can find oy Arithmetic "i approximatevame
to any assigneddegree of accuracy, and thus obtain the
values of a; to any assigneddegree of accuracy.
Here
In the examples hitherto solved we have found
two difFerent roots of a quadratic
equation; in some cases
however we shall find really
ample,
only one root. Take, for exthe
the equation a;^14:c + 49
0; by extracting
235.
=
ever
7. It is howx"1
0, therefore x
square root we
found convenientin such a case to say that the quad"
have
ratic equationhas two
=
=
equalroots,
11"3
164
QUADRATIC
Solve
236.
EQUATIONS,
x^Qx
ic^
By transposition,
6a?
"
add
try to
we
=
0.
=
13 ;
"
a?''6x + 32=13
32,
If
U
+
+ 9
extract the square
root
4
=
hare
we
a?3="*y4.
But "4
because any
have
root,exact
approximate,
tiplied
number, whether positiveor negative,if mulgives a positiveresult. In this case the
by itself,
quadraticequationhas no real root ; and this is sometimes
expressed by saying that the roots are imaginary or
impossible,
can
no
square
^
Solve
237.
+
^,
,n
2(a?l)
Here
"
4
by multiplyingby
nominat
multipleof the de
2(a?+ l)+ 12=a;2_i^
a?"
By transposition,
24? "
"
a;22a?+ 1
1*,
the square root, a;
therefore
1
Solve
238.
1
15 ;
=
15+
=
=t
1
2;"
~
12ii;+ 70
=
thtt.
\
Multiplyby 570, which
"
,ar.
3(10+a?)
15
16;
3.
3a?50
+.
=
4;
"?=l"4=5or
a
000
IS and
7
first clear of fractions
which is the least common
Thus
extract
=
x^\
we
A{x^ l\
add
^
or
190
is the least
common
multipleof
190; thus
therefore
190(3^50)^^^"_
*
10 +
therefore
iB
+ x) ;
190(3" 60) (210 40;r)(10

=

103
""":."
"
\'"
t^xtractthe square root,ad+
1939
'
19
therefor"
ar=
1
Solve
239.
^
"
"
=10
"
+
2a?3
^
^2
a;+2
29.
or
a?3
3
^ +
a
t^^c.
39
"
"
=.^^\
"
=
.
1
a;"
Clear of fractions;thus
+ 2)(xl)
",{x+Z){x^2){a!l)4(x3){a!
=
that is, ^7:F
+ 6 +
2a^2a^
that is,
therefore
+ 2"(i2);
(2;c35(iP
":^2a?25a;+
12x+
:
,
12
=
extract the square root,
;
therefore
a?
2a^

2;2;'3a:'8ar+12;
=
3a^

8^
+
12 ;
a:*" 4a?=0;
a?24.?+
add22,
6
2^^4V
2
=
2=fc2
=
^

"
2,
.
=
4 or
0.
have ^veii the last thriee lines in order to complete
manner
the solution of the equation in the same
as
the results
in. the. former examples ; ]"iit
may be obtained
simply.For the equationar^ 4.2; 0 may be written
more
obvious
and in this form it is sufficiently
(x~4)x=0;
have
either a; 4
that we
must
0, or x
0, that is,
We
"
=
x
=
4
or
0.
"":''
=
=
,:"::"
student wili observe that in this example 2x^ is
found on both sides of the equation,after we have cleared
of fractions ; accordingly
it can be removed
by subtraction,
and so the equation
remains a quadratic
equation.
The
166
QUADRATIC
quadralic equation
Every
240.
forvfix* +
px
+
q
numbers^ whole
For
EQUATIONS.
0, where
=
or
p and
be
can
put
q represent
some
in ths
knotcn
fractional,positiveor negative.
contains no
quadraticequation,by definition,
quantity higher than the second
power
be
all
terms
the
Let
brought to one side,and, if necessary,
change the signs of all the terms so that the coeflScient of
of the unknown
the square
quantitymay be a positive
and
number; then divide every term by this coefficient,
the equationtakes the assignedform.
a
of
For
the unknown
example,suppose
therefore
4^^
therefore
a^
"
_
7 ^ + 5
?+

4
Thus
Aa^
*lx
in this example we
7
^
=
0
Here
6.
=
we
.
0.
4
have
"=
and
~
0'=.
4
241.
Solve
4
a^\px\q=Q.
By transposition,
extract
have
the square root,
2
a^+px=
a? +
=^
=
"q\
"
"
"
^
;
2
2
have thus obtained b, generatformula fiSr
the roots of the quadraticequation:^hpic
+ q=0, namely,
that a; must be equal to
242.
We
,
y"+V(p"4g)^ jp^(j"24g)
*
2
2
this general formula
which wiU hold for any
rery important inferences,
equation,by Art. 240.
"We
shall
now
deduce
from
some
ratic
quad
two
quadratic equation
A
243.
167
EQUATIONS,
QUADRATIC
have
cannot
than
more
roots.
For
have
we
other of two
that the root must
seen
he
one
or
the
assignedexpressions.
are
quadratic equation where the terms
all on one
the
and
the coefficient
of
of the
side^
square
unknoicn
quantity is unity the sum, of the roots is equal
to the coefficient
of the second term, with its sign changed,
and th^eproduct of the roots is equal to the last term.
244.
In
a
^
For let the
the
sum
equationbe
+
q=0;
of the roots is
p*^U^4,)
"^/(P'^),
that is p;
^
2,
.
the
sfi+px
it
,
product of the
roots is
2^2*
p^iP^4q)^
that is g.
that is
The p^receding
Article deserves specialattention,
for it furnishes a very good example both of the nature of
the general results of Algebra, and of the methods
by
which these general results are
The
obtained.
student
should verifythese results in the case
of the quadratic
Take, for example, that in
equationsalready solved.
Art 232; the equationmay be put in the form
245.
0^33=0,
and the roots
are
5 and
"

;
thus the
55
4
and the

3
sum
,
productof
the roots is
"
"
.
o
of the roots fa
168
QUADRATIC
Solve
246.
EQUATIONS.
"wr*+ 5:" + c"a
By transposition, ax^
Jdivideby
bx=
+
a?2+
a,
"e;
=
"


;
W4ac
4a2
extract
the square
.therefo"
root,
,=
'
a; +
"
=
"
'
4a2

"
;
Z"i4^rif").
2a
general fonnulse given in Arts. 241 and 248
may be employed in solvingany quadraticequation. Take
for example the equation 80:^"45;"
65
0; divide by 3"
Th"
247.
=
tlius we
have
4a?
55
3
3
^
,
Take the formula
in Art
241, whidi gives the roots of
4
a^^px + q=0'y and put
thua obtain the roots of the
(
as
But it ismore
we
thus
avoid
55
andg="
^=,
;
"
proposed equiUdon.
convenient to use the formufe in Art. 246,
fractiaus. The proposed equation being
Sic^" 4rar 55
4, and
3, 6="
0, we must put a
in the formula which gives the roots of 00?^+ 6.j;
+ c
"
that
shall
we
55,
e="
=
=
=
0,
^^V^"4"c).
is,in
Th.swehaye*"^^(H""!0)^
th,tis,*^".
D
D
that IS,

,
that is, 5
or

"
.
170
XXVI.
EXAMPLES.
35.
5'
2
x\
x
;p2
a74
+
14
37.
"
15*
xZ
x"1
x1
a?3_ll
x4:
a?2~12*
39.
1
1
41.
2(aj2l) 4(;i?+l)
2:^+1
3:i?2
11
3;" + 2
2
8
,"
X1
3^+1
"
3(;"6)
2;g7
5^
2;b8
2
3;2?2
2a?6
2a;^5
3a;2
10
.
47
3
49.
(a?3)2=2(aj29^.
51.
^,
;c +
5
+
2
^1
2^1
X'k2'^x2'"xl'
^^
g
a;il
:
^^
S7
I
^
g
56
^2_2^+13
*
;r+2~
a:+l
a;f
W1
2ajl
_
16
a? +
ar+2
l
TT
"
a?l
a2ijj_2a"a?+a*l
X
+a
a
X
=
X
^'
X
"
?;
8d?3
"23
"
X
'"
"
;ir+
Ill
^
64.
ir
l
^^x={a^li*+xy
62.
aA
.
x+\~'
14a?9
0.
Q'
^2~
"""
*
+
a?l
h
i+"
0
=
T~
x
a;4"2_2a;H3
5;i?ll
"
^Jl.
x + 4.
a;+l
^^
H
;
+ 2
*
.
oS.
g
,
'
x
+ Z
^x
2^ x2~^^^r
+
x
7("l)*
6
.
oo.
x2X^2
f..
""^
"
65
61.
+ 4
x
a?
^+1
M
"'''
11.
=
J.
I
"
x
+ o
=

a
+
"
^
a+6
XXTII.
171
QUADRATICS,
LIKE
EQUATIONS
Equations which
he
may
solved
Uke
Quadratics.
There are many
equationswhich are not strictly
but which may be solved by the method of completing
quadratics,
will give two examples.
the square;
we
248.
Solveaj"7a^=8.
249.
?l;
Addg)V
:".7^."'=8.?
=
4
4
extract
the square
^
7
aj'=*r=8
therefore
extract
the cub6
Sol ve
250*
Subtract
root,thus
4 3;r +
:5?2
2 from
9
7
root,;""=="=;
both
"2 + 3a;
'.1;
ii?=; 2 or
Add

+ 3;"
;"/0"'
namely, J{x'^AZx^^)
square of the former J we
2) 6.

thus
sides,
oji the lefthand side we
and ar^+ 3^
Thus
1.
"
3 a/{^ + 3;p
2 4 3

or
can
2)
=

4.
have two expressions,
2, and the latter is the
"
ihe square.
nowcojiiwip/^e
QY,
a;2+3;"2
thus
+
3
extract the square
V(^
therefore
^ ^
y(;c2+3a?2H(Y=4
+
=
root,thus
+
3;r2)+
Ay(""+3a?2)=

=*;
:
"

=
i or
4.
172
EQ UA TIONS
First suppose
LIKE
J{x^+
3a?
This ia
we
x"
we
+
JiaP'
a?
=
3
or
the whole
on
1
=
.
3a?
2)
=
"
4.

^4 3a?^ 2=
16.
ordinaryquadraticequation;by solvingit
an
shall obtain
Thus
2

.
.
suppose
is
1
=
"
""
Square l)oth sides,thus
This
2)
TICS,
ordmary quadraticequationj by,solvingit
an
shall obtain
Next

^c^+ 3a?
thus
Square both sides,
UADRA
Q
:
6.
"
,
have four vahies for x,
we
namely,
3"r6or=i4^.
important observation must be made with respect
to these values.
them.
we
Sitjlipose
proceed to verify.
find that a?2+ 3a? 2
If we
16, and thus
put a? 3 we
J{x+ 3a? 2) " 4. If w", take the value f 4 the original
4 it
equation will not be satisfied; if we take the value
will be satisfied,' If we
put a?= "6 we arrive at the pame
the result might have
And
result.
been
anticipated,
An
:
=
=
"
=

"
because
the
values
a?
3
=
+ 3a?" 2) 4, which
Ay(a?2
put
we
6
"
were
deduced
was
=
equatioij. If;
or
a?.=.
"'
obtained from
from the original
"
find
w"
that
_
,.
equation will be satisfied
l, anii'the original
a;243a?^2 =
if we
tak"
+ 3;r^2)=
x/(a?2
might have
been
+
1;
the result
and, as Ifefore,
anticipated.
.
;..
arrive at the same
four
fact we shall find that we
of
values of a?,by solving
either
the following{equations,
In
'
'
a^j.3a?"3V(a!"+3a?2)
6,
=
a?2+ 3a? +
but the
values 3
equation,and
or
+ 3a?2) 6;
3x/(a?2
=
only to
belong strictly
6
the values
the second equation.
'

"
"
~
"
;
the
first
only to
belongstrictly
173
QUADRATICS.
LIKE
EQUATIONS
Equationsmay be proposed which will require
the operationsof transposingand squaring to be performed,
before they are reduced to quador oftener,
ratics
once
will givetwo examples.
; we
251.
252.
9.
2a7^/(a;"3a;3)
Solve
=
Transpose,
2a;
9
Jix^
=
transpose,
3;c

4a;236;c
square,
divide

3);

8I=a;'3;?73;
+
Zx"^ Z^x
+
84
=
0 ;
x^\\x
+
1^
=
0.

by 3,
By solving this quadraticwe shall obtain ar=7 or 4.
The value 7 satisfiesthe original
equation; the value 4
to the equation2^ + ^(^2_3^_3^:^9^
belongsstrictly
253.
Solve
Square,
V(a?+ 4)4V(2:c+ 6) ^/(8^+ 9).
=
a; + 4 +
transpose, 2j{x
Mx
square,
that
+
+
transpose,
+
^Q
The
value
satisfies the

1 ;
=
25a;2
=
26x^\Qx+\;

17a;2 66a; 95
6
+ 6)=8a;+9;
4;,y(2a;
5ar
=
By solvingthis quadraticwe
"
+
4)J{2x + 6)
4)(2^+ 6)
^a^+6Qx
is,
2V(^
2a; + 6 +
=
1 0;c + 1 ;
0.
19
shall obtain
a;
=5
or
originalequation; the
"
.
value
19
"
"
to
belongsstrictly
the
equation
+ 4) ^/(8a?
+ 9).
V(2a;+ 6) ^/(a?
=

254.
that in
an
The student will
in which we
cases
ordinary form, we cannot be
obtained for
trial that the values finally
to the original
quantity belong strictly
equation to
certain without
the unknown
equation.
from the precedingexamples
have to square in order to reduce
see
the
174
LIKE
EQUATIONS
QUADRATICS.
Equations are sometimes
proposed which
are
affd
intended to be solved,partlyby inspection,
partlyby
will
two
give
examples.
ordinarymethods ; we
256.
1
Solve
"
o.^
266.
Bring
=
^^^^
the fractions
denominator
common
9 +
/c4
+ 4
^
;
on
90?
a?
g^^^.
each
side of the equationto
a
thus
IQx
ZQx
is a root
To find the
Here it is obvious that a?=0
other roots we begin by dividingboth sides of the tion
equathus
by 4a?;
9
4
Thus
there
are
three roots of the
proposedequation,
namely,0, 6, "6.
257.
Solve
aj"

*Jxa*+ 6a'
=
0.
Here
it is obvious that x"a
is a root.
write the equation x^"c^=7a\xa);
and
to
other roots we beginby dividingby a? a.
Thus
We
may
find the
a^+ax+a^=7a\
By solvingthis quadraticwe
Thus
there
are
.lamely,
a, 2a,
three
So.
roots
shall obtain x=2aor
"So,
of the proposed equation,
175
XXVIL
EXAMPLES,
XXVIL
Examples.
1.
a?*13a:" + 36
3.
+ 6)
a;4x/(^
5.
2V(^2"
6.
a?*2a;' + a;2=36.
8.
9V(^9^
9.
2a?2'+6;B=226V(iB2+3a;8).
7.
=
4.
a?+
V(^6:c
7.
28)+
+ 4)
iC*4j:2_2^(;5*4a:"
11.
fi?+2V(^+5^
12.
3aj+"/(^+
^{a?^S) 2l.
=
31.
=
+
7a;+
2)
=
10.
5)=19.
^(4?+9)=2^/a;3.
a?=7V(2a?2).
13.
15.
+ 8) V("+3)=^/".
^/(a7
6V(l^^ + 5"=7.
17.
+ ^/(5;B19)
^/(2a?48).
^/(3;^"3)
18.
V(2^ + l)+ \/(7a?27)=V(3;"+4).
19.
V(62+"M?)^/(a2+6;c)=a+5.
20.
+ 2a;2="^".
2;cV("+ 'P')
=
^ +
21
+ l
N/(12a';g)^"
22
a;v'(12a2ar) al*
a? +
7
x"1
1_
_1
\\x
1a?
3"_
1+^*
x"7
x\l
1
1
xJi^x^r^'
x+Ji^a^)"^
x
+
25.
J{a^\)
x + a
x"ab+x
x"a
x
26.
27.
Q,
16)+ (a?3)*=ia
+
16.
^^'
=
9;B=flr'+ 36.
10.
14.
x5^xlA
l)+""=23f2;r.
+
+
2.
0.
=
a^+3aa^
+
=
a~
^,
xJ{x^l)_
.
b"x
b"x
b
28.
+
x'
6;B2(aar)(a"^(aJ+3a"
=
176
PROBLEMS.
lead to Quadratic
which
ProUems
XXVIII.
Equations.
that their
such
numbers
two
and their productis 54.
Find
258.
is 15,
sum
of the numbers, then 16"
denote
one
Let X
denote the other number; and by supposition
a?
(15" a;)
=

=
54 ;

/15\^
=
54+
^
"2
15
therefore
a;
=
x=^
take
we
a?
=9
we
"
2

:
*
3
^
have
=
15
dorQ.
=6, and
a?
if
we
9.
althoughthe quadraticequation gives two values
yet there is reallyonlyone solution of the problem.
of
have
we
15
"
.r
=
9,
the two numbers
are
Here
X,
take
6 and
6
Thus
'^^
~
""
9
7=
3
15
r
therefore
^u
If
225
(f)=
a^16x^[" )
therefore
will
54.
a;^ 1 5;r
By transposition,
x
of money
A person laid out a certain sum
goods,which he sold again for ^24, and lost as much
he laid out.
cent, as he laid out : find how much
259.
Let
X
denote the number
the
24 will denote
then a?"
lost. Now
by suppositionhe
per
of pounds which he laid out ,
of pounds which he
number
lost at the rate of
that is the loss was
the fraction
therefore
a?2_ioOa?= 2400.
From
in
"
"
x
per
cent.,
of the cost ; therefore
this quadraticequation we
shall obtain a; =40
Thus all we can infer is that the sum
60.
of money
laid
or
either ;"40 or MO;
out was
for each of these numbers
eatistiesall the conditions of the problem.
178
PROBLEMS.
solvingproblems it is often found,as
In
262.
that results
which
obtained
are
actuallyproposed.
in Art. 260,
do not apply
to the problem
to be, that
the
appears
The
reason
of expressionis more
mode
nary
general than ordialgebraical
language, and thus the equation which is a proper
of the problem will also
of the conditions
representation
Experience v.illconvince the
apply to other conditions.
that he will always be able to select the result
student
it will be
which belongsto the problem he is solving.And
in
the
enunciation of the
often possible,
by suitable changes
form
to
a new
problem correspondingto
problem,
original
to the original
which
was
inapplicable
problem ;
any result
and
will
illustrated
in
Article
this is
we
ther
now
261,
give anoexample.
Find the price of eggs per score, when ten more
crown's worth loweis the pricethreepence per
263.
in half
a
score.
Let
denote
X
the number
of pence
of eggs, then each eg^ costs
score
of eggs
the number
be
can
pence
"
^ ot;
t^^t
^
"
"
bought for
If ^^^"
price
x
less,each
score
per
number
would
of eggs
be
;
price of
a
and therefore
half
a
crown
600
X
is 30
which
in the
"

.
e^g
which
would
could
be
cost
"
were
threepence
Z
"
"
bought
pence,
for half
and
a
the
crown
Therefore,by supposition,
."W
600
a;3
X
therefore
60^=60(a;3)
therefore
a?^x=\SO.
'
+
a?(^3);
shall obtain x=\5
this quadraticequation we
It
the pricerequired is 15"^. per score.
Hence
"12.
or
will be found that 12c;?.is the result of the followingproblem;
ten fctcer
when
find th9 price of eggs per score
in half a crown's
worth raises the price threepence per
From
Boorc.
Examples.
1.
Divide
2.
The
the number
their productmay be 864.
sum
their squares
3.
of two
is 1872:
179
XXVIII.
EXAMPLES.
XXVIII.
60
into two
numbers
is 60, and
find the numbers.
The difference of two numbers
is 720 : find the numbers.
that
parts such
the
of
sum
6, and their product
is
Find three numbers
such that the second shall be
twothirds of the first,
and the third half of the first; and
that the sum
of the squares of the numbers
shall be 549.
4.
The difference of two numbers is 2, and
their squares is 244 : find the numbers.
5.
the
of
sum
'
the number
their productadded to the
6.
Divide
10
sum
into two
parts such that
of their squares may make
76.
7. Find the number
will make 210.
which
added
to ita square
number is 16 times another;and
of the numbers is 144: find the nimibers.
8.
One
the
root
product
disaded
One hundred and ten bushels of coals were
of poor persons ; if each person
a certain number
among
he would
have received as
bushel more
had received one
find the number
bushels as there were
persons:
many
9.
of persons.
A
diningtogetherat an inn find their
company
not allowed to
billamounts to "8. 155. ; two of them were
to 10
pay, and the rest found that their shares amounted
all
than
if
had paid: find the number
a man
more
shillings
of men
in the company.
10.
cistern can
by one of them
pir.es;
than by the other,
and
the time in which each
11.
A
be suppliedwith water
it would be filled 6 hours
by
by both togetherin 4 hours
pipe alone would fillit.
12"2
two
sooner
:
find
180
XXVIII.
EXAMPLES.
of pieces of
person bought a certain number
which
he
sold
cloth for "33. 155.,
again at "2. 8*. per piece,
whole
much
in
the
he
and
as a single
gained as
piece cost :
of piecesof cloth.
find the number
A
12.
and B together can
14 days; and A alone can
than B alone : find the time
A
13.
perform a piece of work
perform it in 12 days
in which
alone
A
can
in
less
form
per
it
14.
18
per
how
A
bought
man
a
certain
quantity of meat for
rise in price one
penny
to
were
shillings.If meat
lb.,he would get 3 lbs. less for the
much meat he bought.
same
Find
sum.
kind of sugar per stone of 14 lbs.
one
than
that
of another kind; and 8 lbs. less of
is \s. 9d. more
be got for "1 tlian of the second: find
the first kind can
the priceof each kind per stone.
15.
priceof
The
of money
spent a certain sum
which he sold againfor X24, and gained as much
16.
in
person
goods cost
the
as
A
him
side of
The
18.
Find
find what
the
goods
cent.
cost.
square is 110 inches long: find the
of a rectanglewhich
shall have its
length and breadth
4 inches longer than that of the square, and its
peiimeter
4 square inches less than that of the square.
area
a
17.
:
per
goods,
the
worth
shilling's
Two
19.
former
an'ived
a* what
eggs per dozen,when two less in
raises the priceone penny per dozen.
priceof
A
messengers
and
B
were
despatched at
to
a
rate per hour
each travelled.
of
person rents a certain number
land for ."70 ; he keeps 8 acres
in his own
20.
the
place at the distance of 90 miles; the
than the latter
by riding one mile per hour more
hour before him: find
at the end of his journeyone
time
same
a
A
and sublets the remainder
at 5 shillings
per
he gave, and
thus he covers
his rent and
find the number
of
acres.
acres
of pasture
possession,
acre
more
has "2
than
over:
EXAMPLES.
From
21.
A
persons
travelled
A
they
B
day
they met
in a day.
A
in
order
far
how
each
meet
the
half
to
miles,
320
B, and
equal
Find
of
to
than
more
w^as
two
other.
number
the
each
ct
number
travelled
drew
of pure
of pure
certain
A
solid
square
companies
being four
a
;
of
before
the
water,
number
prcat
as
in like
treated
in the
water
at the
end
It,and
adds
iiis capital at
end
"o382:
the
manner.
vessel
of
the
the
men
the
into
such
equal
talion
bat
and
C
the
third
the
and
obtained
(7;
and
B,
B
be
put
by dividing
of
is
water
and
C
proportion
of
A
men
formed
square
in the company.
A^
of
of
formed
had
nine
been
brandy
to
C.
remainder
same
another
determine
solid
quantity
contents
Fhid
time.
seven
brandy,
fraction
gallons
each
the
square,
formed
by the
vessels
contents
lends
^"5000
person
he receives
of a year
A
25.
if the
as
of
second
If the
and
water.
brandy
that
the
together, it is found
the
quantity of brandy by
times
square
the
as
equal
the
of
hollow
a
large
as
three
are
contains
into
hollow
Find
There
24.
first
times
company.
consisting
be
he
as
64
drew
can
with
much
that
he
soldiers
of
formed
deep.
much
vessel
as
found
was
how
Find
The
it
full vessel
a
the
up
mixture
the
; and
company
battaUon
be
can
is sixteen
one
wine
from
filled
then
from
remained.
wine
23.
drew
then
of wine
quantity
a
gallons, and
81
He
before
drew
person
held
water.
"he
distauce
a
met.
which
by
a
at
out
set
miles
8
went
22.
a
and
which
days in
miles B
places
two
181
XXVIIL
the
rate
year
rate
at
to
a
certain
rate
of interest
his interest,
spends
his
he
capital;
of
interest
finds
that
of interest.
as
he
then
"25
;
of
lends
at
before, and
has
altogether
182
SIMULTANEOUS
^XIX.
EQUATIONS
Simultaneous
We
shall
Equations involving Qiindratict,
solve
cixamplesof
ous
simultaneThere
two
are
cases
equationsinvolvingquadratics.
wliich
rules
for
be
of frequent occurrence
can
given ; in
both these cases
there are two unknown
quantitiesand two
will always be denoted
quantities
equations. The unknown
264.
by
the letters
x
now
some
and y.
First Case. Suppose that one
of the equations
is of the firstdegree,
and the other of the second degree.
265.
From
Rule.
value
the
equatiofiof the first degreefind the
either of the unknown
quantitiesin terrns
this value in the equation
other, and suhstitute
of
the
the second
of
of
degree.
Example.
Solve Sx
From
first
+
4y18,
hx^

^xy
=
2.
""
the
equation y=
^
;
substitute
this
4
value in the second
equation;
therefore
therefore
20a^54x
+
therefore
From
9x^=8;
29;i;2 54a?

this
=
8.
find ;r=:r2
quadraticequationwe
or
x^;
"
267
then
in
by substituting
266.
Solve
the value of y
3afl+ 5x8y
=
36,
wo
find 2/
2x^3x4y
^
3
=
or
"
:
3.
Here althoughneither of the given equations is of the
firstdegree,yet we can immediately deduce from them an
equation of
the first degree.
INVOLVING
For
by
multiplythe
first equationby 2, and
the
second
3 ; thus
1 0.^15^
therefore,
by subtraction,
that is,
90? +
+
12^^ 72 "9
=
;
19;c4y=63.
From
this
obtain
equationwe
this value in the first of the
3^
+
5a;
therefore
y
"
substitute
;
"

"
givenequations;thus
(19a; 63)
2


3a;2 33a; +90
^211^;
therefore
or
133
QUADRATICS.
+ 30
=
36 ;
=
0;
=
0.
shall find that a?=f
From
this quadraticequationwe
in the value of y we find
6; and then by substituting
that 2/
8
=
or
12f.
Second
267.
When
Case.
quantitiesh\ each
which
Art.
is
the terms
equation
an
second
the
of
hoiuog"3Meousand
the
involving
constitute
known
un
expression
degree;
see
23.
substitute in both
and
Assume
vx,
y
be found.
then by division the value o/y can
Rule.
=
Example.
Assume
Solve
a;^+ a^
2y^ 4:4:,2x'^"a:y+y^=lQ,
+
=
and substitute for 2^; thus
y=vXj
a;2(!+"?+
a;^(2
44,
2??'^)
=
1? +

1?^) IX
=
Therefore,by division,
l4p+2g^
2T
therefor"
th erefore
t!ieraforo
4(1 4??
3""
"^
+

y
_
_
""
~
"j2
+
4
IQ
.
'
2z"^;
11(2 "?
1 5"
tions;
equa
+
1S
=
"^6tf+G^0.
0 ;
+
??2);
184
this
From
In
and
=
since ?/
equation put
same
vx,
have
we
y
=
+
r:r,
=
=
i?
the second
By
subtraction
the
2:^:^+4^2=88;
+
2x^
equationis
multiplythe first of
:
we
2^2
=
^2.
3
"
v
=
we
for
3
2otZ.
thus
2"2) 44 put 2 for v;
" 4.
have y
Again, in the
and
since
; thus x="^'2]
might proceed thus
given equationsby 2 ; thus
Or
shall obtain
quadraticequation we
equation ^2(1+"
the
x='^2;
y
EQUATIONS
SIMULTANEOUS
y^
xy +
"
Sxt/+ Zy^
16.
=
72, therefore 2/^
=
=
Again, multiplythe second
equationby
2
24
"
xy.
and subtract
the first equation; thus
therefore
Sx'^3xy=l2;
9^=siyy^4u
Hence, by multiplication
a;V (24:py)(^y4),
=
2a;V
or
28a;y
=

96.

By solvingthis quadratic we obtain xy
the former in the given equations
;
a;2+
22/2 36, 2a;2+ 2/2
=
=
%
=
we
268.
Solve
Assume
2a;2+ 3^y
y=iDX,
+
may
=
thus
+ 3z? + 2"2) 70, a;2(6
+ tJ"?2)60.
a;2(2
=
=
Therefore
by
division
2 + 3g +
1?2
6 + rZj2
therefore
therefore
therefore
5(2+
3" +
yo
7
~60~6'
"72)7(6 + """2);
=
122?'+ 8")32":0j
3"2
+
take the
2/^ 70, ^x^^xy^j^^Q.
and substitute for y\
2"8
=
0.
stitute
Sub
24.
find x^ and
can
6.
thus
\j\ Similarly
we
other value of xy, and then find ^ and y^.
Hence
or
186
SIMULTANEOUS
We
have
to find
now
+ y
x
these lead to
;c2+
and y from
x
6y
=
;i?=l
Solve
271.
EQUATIONS
x^
+
a^
+
a; +
And
a;=i5
Solve
x"y=^l.
shall obtain
?/=i4
i4,
^
x^ixy+ y^
xy

to solve the
now
d?==t3
273.
Solve
is,
that
is,
x^
x*
+
+
a?"
therefore
6.
=
shall fmJ
we
or
2^^
=
242.
;
+
xy^ + y*= 121,
y* + xy{x^+ y)+ xY=V2l
a^
"
x'^+

"3.
'
2
a?
succer.jively
242
"
a^y^ x^
Now
square
xy
2/= "2
xy
that
obtain
we
"2,
a^y^
^=
_....
'
=
;cy=2,
By^ division,
'
US.
;
"
in Art. 271,
or
=
7.
=
y^=lZ,
proceedingas
y*
x'^"xy"ry^ 'J.
By addition and subtraction
Then
+
equations
x^^anj"y'^=\9,
x'^+
"
"5.
xY'
^
19
y'
+
or
x*
=
"
=
x^
have
roots,
=
"
8ly
=
4l40=l;
x'^+xy^y^ l9,
tliat is,
We
U+40
=
square
or
By^ division,
'
20.
by the second cast; or
just exemplified.For
manner
=
1.
or
=
solved
?/="9,
thus finally
we
272.
xy
y^+2xy
y^2xy
by extractingthe
then
=
=
be
they may be solved in the
deduce from them
we
can
4
j/
2/^ 41,
equationscan
These
simpleequations
y"3;
a?"
4,
or
the
y
Ixy
=
4
(i).
2 ;
?/2
y^^2xy
=
4 ;
+ 4
(2)
EXAMPLES.
therefore
X^
Substitnte from
2xhf^+ lQxy^lQ
=
(3).
(2)and (3)in (1); thus
2x*y"+ 16ary+
that
y*
+
187
XXIX.
16
+
5;cV
is,
therefore
+ 4)+ a?2y2
(2;2?y
xy
=
20^
+
1 05 ;
=
+ 4^2/
ix^y^
121 ;
21,
=
this quadraticequation we
shall obtain xy
Z
with x
7. Take :n/^S, and from this combined
or
y=2,
If
shall obtain a:
3 or
"3.
take
or
we
we
1, y=l
possible
7, we shall find that the values of x and y are imary
; see Art. 236.
From
=
"
"
=
=
"
Examples.
XXIX.
x^xyiy*=2l.
1.
xy=l,
2.
2x5y
3.
x
4.
5{x^y^) A{x^ + y^,
o.
xy
6.
4;r52^
7.
4a?
8.
(x6y
9.
4a^
+
y
x^+xy
3,
=
x^+y''
7(xy),
=
20.
=
=
66.
3y^+ 3x4y=47.
+
{i/5y+2xy=60,
+
2xy
+
5y4x
^+"{4x y)
+
15
5xyy
15x^4y
=
3
4l,
^
4xy.
11.
Zx
12.
xy+2
13.
8(a:y"l) 3.3y, 4(a:y+ l) 33a?.
14.
xy
+
2y
=
=
9y,
xy
x
+
yy
=
+ 2=x.
=
=
=
=
l.
5
^'
10
8,
=
=
ifi
12
y^
y
2x'ixy 6y\
9y=12,
+
+
2x^xy
l,
=
+
x'
3f
+
x
=
=
100:
=
ax=by.
4.cy=4.
188
15.
18.
XXIX,
EXAMPLES.
1 ^=2,xy
+
^
+
=
ah.
^=1, ^!+ ^^i
19.
^2^.^,y^28, xyy'^
20.
:c2+
21.
22.
2:cyy^ 48.
2x2icy;f:56,
a;22.ry=15,xyly'^^'J
23.
a;'+
24.
^2+^y_g^^2^21, a^2y2
25.
a;'^
+
26.
"^
=
2.
4. ^^^3g^
2/2
^y^4g^
=
3^y
28,
=
3xy
54,
=
'^
+
:^:y+
xy
+
^
+
2'
y
8.
=
4y^
=
4.
n5.
=
a:2.",2_Q/)
^"*
2^
=
,
.cv
42/"
29.
+ y(:zry) 158,
^(:"+ 2/)
1ai{x+ y)=^1iy{xy),
30.
:c2y(^^y^^g()^^V(2^3y)
31.
2x'^xy+ y'^ 2y,
=
=
+
a^.
x
+
+
4xy^by.
X^4lfi
0 h^ .
x
+y
"
=
xy
2x^
,
'
a
y
33.
x'^\xya{a + h), a^+y^=a^
34.
;r'+
=
+
2.ryg/2^^2+2al,
{a\)x{x + y"i a{a+\)y{xy\
=
35.
80.
=
"y
=
2.
;i:3_2^_j52.
j)\
EXAMPLES.
36.
x
37.
a;2+
38.
xy
39.
^
40.
x^
41.
+
y
ip3+ 2/3 i89.
9,
=
=
2/2 20,
asyxy=^2.
=
+ y
=
\y
x^y^
=
ns\.
=
3,
ic"+
=
33.
y'
=
^
^^=1,
;c"
a; +
y
a?*+ ^V
y'^ yjy
xy +
+
2 +
43.
ic2+ 2/2_i
44.
4.r2+
45.
a;2+ ;Fy
=
8a?43,
y' +
46.
lar^"a:y
=
2:c +
xy
47.
2x + y +
48.
18 +
49.
a^'a;y=a(a;+l)+ 6+l,
50.
5,
"J(2x+
=
12
6^
+
=
x^z=a,
+
18,
+
6.
y'^^^y+
2.
By
=
4x^ex=y^
4) 23,
=
+
3y.
{xyf.
=
xyy'^=ay
+
h.
=1.
"
y'^
by,
=
xyz
=
=
ay + bx.
xyz^=c.
b,
+ ;2r)(y
+ ;??)h^,{z+ :cX^+ 2/)
a^ (?/
=
=
2y^
2^a;4a:i/=16,
47/2"
56.
+
3.
=
xy
+ 2/)(a?
+ ^)
(a;
+
y
Q.
=
+ l)
4;i?y(a;y
;P2^
"
20.
2(j7+ 2/)2, Q{xy)
9(:c+ y)
63.
3y^
xy{xy+l)
2ary,
=
x^=ax
55.
=
y2+ 2(2;r+ y) 6,
62.
54.
;c2_y"4.^/(^_y2)
34^
=
^
aH
3;z?.
=
2/
a;2+ y2
e
y*=481.
+
3a?y
42.
=
189
XXIX.
;2rx
"
32ra;+ ;C2/=

3.C2/=15.
Q{a^+y^+z'^ \3{x+y{z)
=
5,
=
'^,
xy=z\
c\
19U
PROBLEMS.
with
added
number.
than
more
lead to Quadratic
unknown
one
Equations
quantity.
of two digits;
is a certain number
the sum
creased
inof
is
the
number
the digits equal to
squares
if thirtysix
bo
; and
by the product of its digits
the digitsare
reversed: find the
to the number
There
274.
of the
which
Problems
XXX
denote the digitin the tens'
digitin the units' place. Then the number
if the digitsbe reversed we obtain lOy +
Let
a;
place,and
is lOx
x.
+
the
y
and
y;
by
Therefore,
have
we
supposition,
a!^+
y^ xy+lOx
I0x+y
d6
+
=
10y +
obtain 9y=9x
(2)we
From
+
=
Substitute in
a?2+
y
(1).
a;
(2).
+
Z6; therefore y=a;
+
4.
(1),thus
+ 4)+
+ 4)2=i"
(a;
(a;
ic=
therefore

7a;+ 1 2
=
1 0.'c+ a; + 4 ;
0.
obtain a;=Z or 4;
this quadraticequationwe
From
the required number
and therefore y
7 or 8. Hence
satisfies
must be either 37 or 48 ; each of these numbers
the
all the conditions of
problem.
=
A man
to
starts from the foot of a mountain
275.
His
of
rate
walk
to its summit.
walking during the
is
half
the
half
mile
second
of
distance
a
per hour less than
his rate during the first half,and he reaches the summit
in
form
5^ hour^. He descends in 3 hours by walking at a unithan liis rate
rate,which is one mile per hour more
Find the distance to
during the first half of the ascent.
the summit, and his rates of
Let
suppose
2a! denote
that
walking.
of miles to the summit, and
the first half ol the ascent the maxi
the niunbcr
during
191
PROBLEMS.
walked
y
miles
per
Then
hour.
took
he

hours
for the
y
for the second.
hours
ascent, and
firsl half of the
Tlierefore,by substitution,
thercfore
15
(y +
therefore
1 X4y
28y


1)
=
44y (2y
89?/ + 1 5

1 );
0.
^
5
quadratic equation
this
J%)m
we
5
The
value
"
is
because
inapplicable,
obtain
y
Z
=
or
"
.
by suppositiony
is
28
15
1
^ea.ier
than
.
Therefore
y=3;
and
then
^
*lie whole
"
.
i
i
that
=
distance
to the
summit
is 15 milea.
so
192
EXAMPLES.
XXX,
Examples.
XXX.
is 170, and
The sum
of the squares of two numbers
the difference of their squares is 72 : find the numbers.
1.
product of
The
2.
is twice their difference
The
3.
:
is 640
:
theur
\k 192, and the
two numbers
find the numbers.
product of
their squares
4.
numbers
is 1 08, and
find the numbers.
two
sum
sum
of
is 128, and the differThe product of two numbers
ence
of their squares is 192 : find the numbers.
and the
6.
product of
The
5.
two
of their squares
sum
numbers
is 325
:
is 6 times their sum,
find the numbers.
ence,
The product of two numbei*s is 60 times their differof their squares is 244 : find the numbers.
and the sum
The
numbers
is 6 times their difference,
their product exceeds their sum
ber*.
by 23 : find the num
7.
and
of two
sum
Find
two numbers
such that twice the first with
three times the second may make 60, and twice the square
of the first mth
three times the square of the second may
8.
make
840.
9.
Find two numbers
such that their difference multiplied
into the difference of their squares shall make
32,
and their
shall make
multipliedinto the
sum
sum
of their squares
272.
10.
Find
two
11.
Find
two
such that their difference added
numbers
to the difference of their squares
make
14, and their
may
added to the sum
of their squares may make
sum
26.
numbers
to their sum,
and their
equal to 12.
squares
such that their productis equal
added
of their
to the sum
sum
194
EXAMPLES.
whole
days,
time,
have
received
those
proceeds
When
they
town.
miles
108
at the
run
and
towns
4
the
same
uniform
a
of
rate
of the
two
In
A,
hour,
river.
a
the
and
Q,
design
the
nm
between
miles
18
from
man
the
walks
stream
in
than
more
the
apart
^
5
to
and
the
on
in
walking
first
half
at
being with him, ho
going, and accomplishes
.3^hours.
in
at
the
Find
his
mile
two
^inning post
his
2
of
rates
in the
and
Q,
as
2
before
miles
per
arrives
then
A
Find
wluit
at
first heat.
B, set
time;
same
In
course.
minutes
speed
his as much
; and
before B.
minutes
two
direction
a
increases
A
heat
through
round
the
travellers,A
to pass
same
situated
A
race
reaches
ran
man
Two
distance
returning he
a
run
winning post
24.
other
has
train
one
towns,
the
goes
first half of the distance
diminishes
B
each
rate
B
second
the
and
two
trains.
before, but
B
first heat
the
from
days^
rowmg.
and
A
23.
of
towards
that
the
towns
hour
per
whole
distance
walking and
daVvS they would
number
time
rate
the
other, and that if they continue
they will finish the journey in 9 and
miles
1^
worked
the
In
as
six
it is found
meet
are
half.
the
in
at
hours, by rowing the
second
P
B
bank
the
at
same
had
B
the
at the
rates
and
same
rows
Find
start
rate
same
the
A
22.
the
alike.
respectively. Find
hours
16
absent
day.
than
more
If
14",
per
each
and
"2.
been
had
A
trains
Two
21.
to
and
only
exactly
each
was
paid
what
and
receive(i
XXX.
and
A.
A
B
out
starts
starts
When
A
from
two
from
Q and
overtook
places,
with
P
from
B
the
travels
it
was
together travelled thirty miles, that
had passed through Q four hours
A
before, and that B, :it
hours' journey distant from
nine
his rate of travelling,was
P and
between
Find the distance
P.
Q.
found
that
they
had
195
INVOLUTION.
XXXI.
Involution,
We. have alreadydefined a power to be the product
of two or more
equalfactors,and we have explained
the notation for denotingpowers; see Arts. 15, 16, 17. The
of obtaining
powers is called Involution; so that
?rocess
nvolution is only a particular
of Multiplication,
but
case
it is a particular
which
often that it is
occurs
so
case
convenient to devote a Chapterto it. The student will find
that he is alreadyfamiliar with some
of the results which
shall have to notice,
and that the whole of the present
we
Chapter follows immediatelyfrom the elementarylaws of
Algebra.
276.
277. Any even power
of a negativequantityis
is negative.
and any odd power
tive,
posi
This is a
of the Rule ofSigns.Thus,
"a^a^x
"a=
"a^;
"ax
and
In
tho
so
on.
"ax"ax"ax"a="a^x"a=a^;
when we use the words give the pro;"er
following
Articles,
that the sign is to be determined by tho
sign,we mean
rule of the presentArticle. (See Art 38.)
for
simpleconsequence
example,"ax
a=a\ "ax
278.
of a power.
a power
obtaining
denotingthe powers for the new
proper sign to the result.
Rule for
the numbers
and give the
Thus, for example,{a^f a'; {a^f=a^;
of
This is a simpleconsequence
{"a*f= "a^\
=
powers
which is demonstrated
=a^xa^xa^
(^2)3
For
in Art. 59.
=
02+2+2 =a^
The Rule of the present Article leads
that which we shall now
give.
=
Multiply
exponent,
{a^f^a^"";
the law
of
example,
a\
immediatelyto
Rule for
obtaining
any power of a simpleintegral
pression
expression.Multiply the index of every factor in the exby the n umber denoting the power, and give the
ipToper sign to the result.
279.
132
IDG
INVOLUTION,
Thus, for example,
{a'W(ff= d''"'c''; (2a62c3)6=2"a"2.iV8=64a"6i"ci
Rule
280.
for
obtainingany
and
power
denominator
Art.
145.
of
fraction. Raise
to that power
and
j
both the numerator
give the proper sign to the result.
This follows from
f^^ ^
V"V "'
( ^
example,
/2a^*_
V 36 ;
_^'
"
~
281.
For
'
^'
^V
\
a
'
2V
16a8
_
"
examples of Involution in the case
already been given.
expressions have
Some
binomial
Arts. 82 and 8S.
"
816*
3^"*
of
See
Thus
b\
{a+ bY
=
a:'+ 2ab +
(a+ bf
=
a^ + 'Sa'^b
+ 3ab^
S^.
+
for exercise obtain the fourth,
fifth
The student
may
It will be found that
and sixth powers of a+b.
(a + by =a*
{a+ bf
(a 4 6/
=
=
4a^b
+
6a:^b^+ 4ab^
+
6S
+
+
6ab^
a^ + 6a5" + 15a^6" + 2QaW
+
15a="* + Qah^
In like manner
+
results may
following
the
{abf=a^2db
=
a'
3"26
+
Sa^J
(a by
=
a* 4a^b
+
Ga'^b'^
4aP
{a of
=
a^
+
lOa^ft^ IQab^ + 5ah*
+
Ua^b^20aW


{aby
=

5a^b
a^ea^b
+
6*.
be obtained
:
W,
+
(a bf

6*.
a^ + 5a'^b4 1 Oa^b^+ 1 Oa^^

b^,
+
b\

+

b^.
15ab*6ab^ilA
Thus
where
of a"
in the results obtained for the powers
"
of b occurs, the negativesign is prefixed;
any odd power
of a
be inimediatelj
and thus any power
b can
of a + b, by changing tlie
from
the same
deduced
power
Bigns of the terms which involve the odd powers of.b.
"
197
INVOLUTION.
The student will see hereafter that,by the aid
282.
called the Binomial
of a theorem
Theorem, any power
of a binomial
expressioncan be obtained without the
laboui' of actual multiplication.
The
283.
in tlie way
we
formulae given in Article 281 maybe
have alreadyexplainedin Art
84.
of 1x
pose, for example,we requirethe fourth power
In the formula for {a"h)* put 2x for a, and 3y for b;
used
Bup"
2y.
thus,
{2a;3yy={2xY4:(2xf{By)+ ei2x)\^7/f4{2a;){Zyf+{3yy
16x*96x^y + 2l6xY^lQ^^
=
+
Sly*.
that we can obtain required
It will b" easily
seen
results in Involution by different processes.
Suppose, for
sixth
of
a^b.
We
example, that we require the
power
284.
this by repeated multiplication
by a + b. Or
we
may firstfind the cube of a + b,and then the square of
this result ; since the square of (a+ bf is {a + b)^. Or we
may first find the square of a + b,and then the cube of this
obtain
may
result ; since the cube of
of a
the eighth power
of
square
trinomial
88.
cf
+
Art.
b
may
found
Involution in the case
of
alreadybeen given. See
of
have
a^ + b^ + c^ + 2db
=
2bc
+
3a2("+ c)+ Zb\a
for
+
2ac^
formulae may
c)+ Zc^ia+ h)+ eabc.
+
be used in the
manner
explainedin
Suppose, for example,we require{l 2x + Sx^'f.
formula for {a + b + cf put 1 for a, "2^
for 6, and
84.
In the
3^
be
manner
=
a^ + l^ + "?+
These
In like
{a + Vf.
Thus
{a+ b + cf
{a + h
+
examples
expressions
Arts. 85 and
is
by taking the
by taking the fourth power of {a + b)\
(a+")*,or
Some
285.
{a+ bf
c ;
"
thus
we
obtain
(I2a;
+
3;r!)2=
+ {2x'f+2{lX2x) + 2{2x){3a^+2(lX^)
{l'fH'2a!Y
=
l4x
+
l0x^l2a^
+
9x*.
198
we
Similarly,
+
XXXL
EXAMPLES.
have
+ 3(2^)2(l+3^2)+ 3(3^)2(1
+ 3;2j2)
_2;c)
3(l)''(2a?
+
l8a;3
=
+
=
3
(
2:1?+

\Qx
+
6(l).(2^)(3a^)
+
27^
1 4 Zx^
2x^)+ 12;272(
27x*(l

2^)

36:^^
54a* + 21 x^.
4:^ki^+ GSx^
2la^
4
It is found by observation that the square of any
multinomial expression may bo obtained by either of two
rules.
Take, for example, (a 4 6 + c + df. It will be found
that this
286.
=
a^ + l^ + c^ + d^
+
2ab + 2ach2ad
+
2hc
+
2bd+2cd;
followingrule ; the square
i"f
expression co7i,nsts of the square
of any multinomial
each term, togetherwith twice the product of every pair
of terms.
be obtained
and this may
Again, we
(a +
6+
may
by
the
put the result
in this form
c+cO''
=""+
2"i ("+
c +
+
"/)
62 + 2" (c+
+
"/)
c2 + 2"'cf+ fi?^
rule ; the squnre
be obtained by the following
qf
of any 7nultinom.ial expression consists of the square
each teriUy togetherwith twice the product of each term
and
by
this may
t/ie sum
cfall tlie terms
whi^Jt follow it.
Examples.
XXXI.
Find
1.
{2a^2^)\
2.
{ZaWf.
4.
{2xhfz^\
/9;".2\2
3.
(^3^).
EXAMPLES.
{^
XX
by.
199
XL
b.
{ab)\
ia + bf{ab)\
10.
{lx)\
(2 + :c)".
12.
(32^)".
{l+x)\
14.
(;c2)*.
(2^
+
3)\
16.
{ax
{ax
+
+ {ax by)*.
52/)*
18.
(1 + x)'
(1 + iB)4(l ;i;)*.
20.
(1 +
{lxhx^f.
22.
(l+.rar2)2.
(1 +3^
24.
(1
+

(2 +
+
3a? +
2a?2)2,
4^2)2+ {23x
+
h'i/f\{axtyyf.

X
"
3x
(l^
{lixa^^K
29.
(H3a;
3^3.
(2 +
3a? +
4a?2)3 (2
(la?
b
+
{a +
b
+

c
+
chdf
+
{ab
+
cd)^.
+
cd)\
(l+3a?+3a?2+a;")^
(1 +
4a? +
ea;''+ 4ar" +
ilxy{l+x
+
(l +
33.
(rf{ab
3;e2)i.
;c2)s
+
+
2a^.
4a?*)'.
3a? +
a?24a:')2.
+
+
{a

a;)".
4x^f.
+
27.
3a? +

a?2)2.
+
{l+x+x'f.
(1
(1

37.
2a? +
3"2+4a^\
(l6a?+12a?=8"")".
x*)K
ay')\
40.
ilx+X'f{l^xijrf.
200
EVOLUTION.
XXXII.
Evolution.
387. Evolution is the inverse of Involution; so that
Evolution is the method
of findingany proposed root of
or
a given number
expression. It is usual to employ the
with the
word
and its derivatives in connexion
extract
"word roo#; thus, for example, to extract
the square
root
the same
means
thing as to find the square root.
In the present
shall
beginby statingthree
of the Ruh
shall then
we
of Sigiis,
simple consequences
consider in succession the extraction of the roots of simple
the extraction of the square root of compound
expressions,
expressionsand numbers, and the extraction of the cube
and numbers.
root of compound expressions
Any
288.
either
even
positiveor
Chapter we
of
negative.
root
Thus,for example,a
the square
+ a
or
a
=
a^,and
root of a^ is either
a
or
fore
there
"a=(f\
"ax
"a,
that
Any odd
the quantity.
is,eithe?
of
root
a
quantity has the
sign
same
Thus, for example,the cube root of a' is a, and the
root of a'
290.
h"
"a.
289.
as
x
positivequ/intitymay
a
is
There
cube
a.
can
be
no
even
root
of a negativequantity.
Thus,for example, there can be no square root of a^;
for if any quantitybe multipliedby itself the result is
a positivequantity.
fact that there can be no even
root of a
such
quantityis sometimes
expressedby calling
The
itnpossible
quantity or
an
negative
a
root
an
imaginary quantity.
Rule
for obtainingany root of a simple integral
the index
expression. Divide
of every factor in the
expression hy the number
denoting the root^ and givt
291.
the proper
sign
to the result.
202
EVOLUTION.
If there
as
has
go
t"Mni in the
fcae
The
divide
sliould
of
."uni
Then
root.
2{a
b)
+
must
process
the
should
we
its square,
from
the
a;
subtracted
been
aheady
we
terms
more
formerly with
did
we
were
remainder
for
and
the
a
new
new
continued
be
Examples.
4^
12x1/ + 9y^
4^
4j^

bx)

2Qa^
+
37^" ZOx
+
9
12^2
+
9
+
9
20^+25^2
Aai^lOx^Z)
_
30^
12a;230A
4a?3?/2+ 4.rV
that is,a^
wnth
+
a+"
^abkh'^
proposed expression,
by 2(rt+ d)for a now
subtrahend
we
midtiply
term.
term, by the new
until the required root
is found.
295.
proceed
203
EVOLUTION.
of"
2:c'+
2a^
+
2x^)40^
4x^2j;
J
10a;3
4:0:^100:^
40?*
2;p3+
+4x+l
8a;3^.4;p2
2x^4x^
4a;"44?lJ

+
4x+l
2a^Ax^"Ax

already observed
It has been
296.
+4;c+l
+
\
that all
even
roots
sign; see Art. 288. Thus the square
"a"b.
In fact,in
root of d' + 2ah^b'' is eittier
a + 6 or
root of a^ + 2ab + Ij^,
the process of extractingthe square
we
begin by extractingthe square root of a; and this
admit
of
a
double
take the latter,and continue
the operationas before,we
shall arrive at the result
a"b.
A
other
holds in every
similar remark
case.
for
last
in
the
of
worked
those
out
Art.
295.
Take,
example,
be either
may
a
or
If
"a.
we
"
Here
may
we
begin by extractingthe
square root of x^: this
take the latter,
and continue
shall airive at the result
be either a^ or "a^.
If we
the operation
as
before,we
x^2a^i2x
+
l.
fourth root of an expressionmay be foand
by extractingthe square root of the squnre root ; similarly
be found, by extractingthe square
the eighth root may
297.
The
root of the fourth root ; and
298.
Bquare
cannot
cannot
In Arithmetic
of every
find the square
find the square
root
so
on.
that we
cannot find the
know
number
exactly; for example, we
we
root
root
exactly. In Algebra we
every proposedexpression
of 2
of
204
EVOLUTION.
sometimes
exactly. We
find sucli an example as the following
proposed; find four terms of the square root of 1 2;r.

a}
5.r*
Thus
have
we
findingfour
terms
/
know
that
remamder
"
"
~
"o
a?
""
T
of the square rc"ot of I 2;2;; and
of
^x*
x^
x* a^^
"^
=12^^
"^
^)
(^1^2
"
'
'*'^*'"''
so
we
^
T
2
*
4
of the square root of
precedinginvestigation
Algebraicalexpression will enable us to demonstrate
rule which is given in Arithmetic
for the extraction of
299.
an
a
the
the square
The
root of
a
number.
square root of 100 is 10, the square root of 10000
is 100,the square root of 1000000
is 1000, and so on ; hence
less than lOt)
it follows that,the square
of a number
root
consist of only one
must
figure,the square root of a
The
205
EVOLUTION.
between
of two placesof figures,
100 and 10000
of
between
and 1000000
of three placesof
10000
a number
and so on.
If then a point be placed over
figures,
every
second figurein any number, beginningwith the figurein
of pointswill shew the number
the units' place,
the number
of figuresin the square
root.
Thus, for example, the
and the square
square root of 4356 consists of two figures,
root of 6il^2i consists of three figures.
number
300.
Suppose the
square root of 3249
required.
Point tne number
accordingto the
rule ; thus it appears
that the root
must
consist of two placesof figures.
Let a + b denote the root,where a is 100
the value of the figurein the tens'
place,and h of that in the units' place.
Then
must
a
be the
of
+ 7
324"(^50
2500
+
7J749
749
"
greatest midtiple
ten,which has its square
to be 60.
Subtract a\ that
less than 3200 ; this is found
is,the square of 50, from the
remainder
Divide
is 749.
this remainder
given number, and the
by 2a, that is,by 100, and the quotient
which is the value of b. Then
that is,107
(2a46)",
749, is the number
no
remainder,we
square
is 7,
x
7 or
is now
subtracted ; and as there
conclude that 50 + 7 or 57 is the required
to be
root.
It is stated above that a is the greatestmultiple
of ten
which has its square less than 3200.
For a evidently
canbe a greater multipleof ten.
ii;"t
If possible,
it
suppose
less than this,say x; then since
is in the
b in the units' place,a? + 6 is less
X
than a ; therefore the square of x + b is less than a?,and
consequentlyx + b\s, less than the true square root.
to be
some
multipleof ten
tens' place,and
let a reIf the root consist of three placesof figures,
present
the hundreds, and b the tens; then hfving obtained
and
and
b as
tens
a
before, let the hundreds
together be considered as a new value of a, and find a new
value of b for the units.
206
301.
EVOLUTION.
bo omitted
for the sake of
Tlie cyphers may
tlie followiDg
rule may be obtained from the
and
brevity,
process.
Point every second figure,beginning
with that in the unit^ place,and thus
into periods.
divide the whole number
324"
(^57
25
the greatestnumber
Find
whose
107 ) 749
square
is contained in the firstperiod; this
*j^q
is the first
figurein the root; subtract its
square from the firstperiod,and to the
the next period. Divide this
remainder
bring down
omittingthe lastfigure,by twice the part of the
quantitij,
the result to the root and
annex
root alreadyfound, and
also to the divisor; then multiply the divisor as it note
stands by the part ofthe root last obtained for the subtrahend.
there
be
more
If
periodsto be broughtdown, the
operationmust
302.
be
repeated.
Examples.
Extract the square root of 132496,and of 5322249.
In the firstexample,after the firstfigureof the root is
found and we have brought down
the remainder,we ha\e
to the rule we
divide 42 by 6 to give the
424 ; according
in the root : thus apparently7 is the next
next figure
obtain the product
67 by 7 we
figure.But on multiplying
tliat 7 is too
is
This
shews
which
than
424.
469,
greater
of the root,and we accordingly
largefor the second figure
in this
try 6, which succeeds. We are liable occasionally
the
at
to try too largea figure,
especially
early
manner,
of
of
the
root.
extraction
a
stag^
square
SO"?
EVOLUTION.
Tn the
example, the
cypher in the
second
of the
occurrence
student
should notice tb"
root.
The rule for extractingthe square
root of a
must
serve,
obdecimal
follows from the preceding rule. We
however, that if any decimal be squared there will
of decimal placesin the result,and
number
be an even
be an
therefore
there cannot
exact
root of any
square
has
odd
of
decimal which in its simpleststate
number
an
decimal places.
303.
of the square
of 32'49 is onetenth
also
the square
So
root of 100 X 3249 ; that is of 3249.
of the square root of
of '003249, is onethousandth
root
Thus
is
of
deduce
3249.
lOUOOOOx
we
003249, that
may
this rule for extracting
the square root of a decimal.
Put
a point over
everi/ second figure^heginning with that in
The
square
root
the uniis^place and
the left of it; then
continuing both to the right and to
proceed as in the extraction of the
root' of integers,and mark
decimal
off as many
square
qf periods in the deri^
placesin the result as the number
mal
part of the proposed number.
In
this rule the student
should pay particular
attention to the words
with that in the units' place.
heginning
In the extraction of the square root of an integer,
if there is stilla remainder
have arrived at the
after we
figurein the units' place of the root, it indicates that tlie
We may
proposed number has not an exact square root.
if we pleaseproceed with the approximationto any desired
extent, by supposing a decimal point at the end of the
304.
of cyproposed number, and annexing any even number
pherSjand continuing the operation. We thus obtain a
decimal part to be added
to the integral part already
foimd.
if
Similarly,
root,we
may
annex
a
decimal
number
cyphers,and
mati:"n to any desired
extent
has
no
exact
proceedwith the
square
approxi
208
EVOLUTION.
305.
of '4 to
Tlic
seven
is the extraction
following
decimal places:
of the square
root
04606...
(^6324555
36
123^ 400
3G9
1262
J
3100
2524
12644; 57600
50576
126485; 702400
632425
1264905; G997500
6324525
12649105; G7297500
63245525
4051975
We
306.
cube root of
proceed to the method
compomid expression.
now
a
of
the
extracting
The cube root of a^ + 3a'j+ 3a"2 + 53 jg a+h\
and we
shall be led to a generalrule for the extraction of the cube
root of any compound expression
by observingthe manner
in which a + h may be derived from a^ + M'^b + ^db^ + h^.
Arrange the
terms
acdimensions
cording to the
the
of one
letter "; then
first term is a',and its cube
root is a, which
is the first
terra of the required root.
its cube, that is
Subtract
a',from
the whole
a^
+
M^h
+
Zdb'^+ l"^{a
+
b
^s
Sa^JZaP'b+
3ab^+l^
^^^j^^ ^j^2
expression,and bring
do\vn
^
yt
the
re
210
EVOLUTION,
In continuingthe operationwe must add such a
308.
the
firstcolumn, as to obtain there three times the
tenu to
This is conveniently
part of the root already/found.
effected
column
have
thus; we
already in the first
d and
3a + 5; place 2" below
add;
3a
obtain 3a + 35, which
is three times
a + ", that
is,three times the part of the root
alreadyfound. Moreover,we must add such a
to the second
term
column, as to obtain there
thus
+
we
times tJie square
of the part of the
found. This is convenientlyeflFectedthus ; we
three
"
1
25)
3a
root
have
+
35
already
already
5)5,
and below
in the second colunm (3a+
that 3a2 + 3a5 + 52; place " below, and
add the expressionsin the three lines;
obtain 3a^ + 6a5 + 352,which
is
tlius we
(3a+ 5)5
3^2
+
3^
+
5^3
times (a + 5)^ tliat is three times
the square of the part of the root already
found.
three
309.
Example.
E3^ract
8a;" 36;"* + 102;c*


3^3
1 Tla:^+ 204^
+
144;" + 64.

5i;z;=36aj+ 16
8.r"36;2:"+102;i;*l7l^+ 204:c2_i44^
+
+ "
(j4(^2.r23J;
8.f"
36^
+
36a?"+
102;c*

1 71^
+
204a?"

144:b + 64
54.^'* 21 a^
48^

g^j ^ 351
the cube root of
12;r*36ar"

+
144.^3+ 204:^2 1 44^;
4"i?* 144a:*+ 2()4;j;2 144^
_
+
64
+
g4
211
EVOLUTION.
The cube root of 8.r*is 2a^,which will be the firstterm
of the requiredroot ; put 8a^ under the given expression
in the third column and subtract it. Put three times 2i(^
in
in the first column, and three times the square of 2^
the second column; that is,put Qa^ in the first column,
Divide "ZQx^
aiid 12:c* in the second column.
by 12.r^,
and thus obtain the quotient Zx, which will be the second
term of the root; placethis term in the firstcolumn, and
in the first column, that is
multiplythe expressionnow
"
Gx^
Zx, by "Zx; placethe productunder the expression
in the second column, and add it to that expression
; thus
this by
obtain 12a:* ISx^ + ^x^ ; multiply
we
3:r,and place
and subtract. Thus
the productin the third column
we
have a remainder in the third column, and the part of
"We must
the root alreadyfound is 2x^"2x.
now
adjust
the first and second columns in the manner
explainedin
Art. 308. We put twice
3^',that is Qx, in the firstcolunm,
and add the two lines;thus we
obtain Qa^
dx, which is
three times the part of the root alreadyfound.
We put
tlie square of
in the second column, and
3a',that is dx"^,
add the last three lines in this column ; thus we
obtain
\2a^"'ZQa? + '2.*!x^,
which is three tunes the square of the
part of the root alreadyfound.
"
"
"

"
"
"
Now
divide the remainder
in the third column by the
expressionjust obtained,and wo arrive at 4 for the last
term
of the root, and witii this we
proceed as before.
this
Place
in the first column, and multiplythe
term
in
the first column, that is Qx"dx+A,
expressionnow
by 4 ; place the product under the expression in the
second column, and add it to that expression;thus we
obtain l^x^ZQofihblx'^ZGx+lQ', multiply this by 4
and placethe product in the third column
and subtract
As there is now
conclude that 2j^"Zx+
4
no remainder
we
is the requiredcube root.
The preceding investigation
of the cube root of
an
Algebraical
expressionwill suggest a method for the
extraction of the cube root of any number.
310.
The cube root of 1000 is 10, the cubo root of 1000000 is
the cube root of
100, and so on; hence it follows thatf,14"2
212
a
EVOLUTION.
number
less than
1000
the cube
two
consist of only one figure,
between
and 1000000
1000
of
If then a pomt be placed
on.
must
root of a number
and so
placesof figures,
every third figurein any number, beginningwitli the
of pointswill shew
figure in the units' place,the number
the number
of figuresin the cube root. Thus, for example,
over
of 405224
consists of two figures,
the cube root^
and
cube root of 1281^904 consists of three figures.
Suppose the
cube root of 274G25
180 + 5
10800
the
required.
274625 C60 + 5
925
216000
11725
68626
58G25'
Point the number
accordingto the rule ; thus it appears
that the root must consist of two places of figures.Let
the root, where a is the value of the figurein
a + h denote
the tens' place,and h of that in the units' place. Then
a
be the greatest multipleof ten which has its cube
must
Place the cube
less than 274000 ; this is found to be 60.
of 60, that is 216000, in the third column
under
the given
Place three times GO, that is 180,
number
and subtract.
in the first column, and three times the square
of 60, that
is 10800, in the second column.
Divide the remainder
in
in the second
the third column
column,
by the number
that is,divide 58625
by 10800; we thus obtain 5, which
is the value of b.
Add
5 to the first column, and multiply
thus formed by 5, that is,multiply185 by 5; we
the sum
and
thus obtain 925, which we place in the second column
obtain
add to the number
11725;
alreadythere. Thus we
the
third
column,
multiplythis by 5, place the product in
therefore
is
remainder
65 is
The
and subtract.
zero, and
the requiredcube root.
The
cyphers may
and the probe ^emitted for brevity,
cess
will stand thus;
185
108
925
11725
274625 (65
216
68G25
68625
213
EVOLUTION.
Exampic.
311.
1271
14
Extract the cube root of 109215352.
10921535^(^478
48
f
889 1
1418
64
6689 "
45215
49
39823
6627
5392352
5392352
11344
674044
of the root,namely
obtainingthe first two figures
47, we adjustthe first and second columns in the manner
explainedin Art. 308. We place twice 7 under the first
column, and add the two lines,
giving141 ; and we place
tlie square of 7 under the second column, and add the last
three lines,
giving6627. Then the operationis continued
After
as
before.
The
In the
course
imagined that
cube root is 478.
working this example we might have
of the root would be 8 or
the second figure
of
trial it will be found that these numbers
of the square root, we are
too large. As in the case
are
liable occasionally
at the
to try too largea figure,
especially
even
9 ; but
on
earlystagesof
1
10)
6153
operation.
Extract the cribe root of 8653002877.
Example.
312.
605
the
"653002877 (,2053
1200
3025)
123025
(
25^
126075
18459
8
653002
615125
37877877
37877877
12625959
In this example the student
of the cypher in the root.
fence
should
notice the
occuiv
214
EVOLUTION.
If the root have
of decim:;! places,
any number
the cube will have thrice as rufiny ; and therefore tiic number
of decimal places in a decimal
number, which is a
and
in its simpleststate,will necessarily
be a
perfectcube,
and
of
the
decimal
number
of
placesin the
multiple three,
313.
cube root will necessarily
be a third of that number.
Hence
be a decimal,we placea point
if the given cube number
the figure in the units' place,and over
over
every third
figureto the rightand to the left of it,and proceed as in
the extraction of the cube root of an integer; then the
of
number
pointsin the decimal
will indicate the number
number
cube root.
part of the proposed
of decimal
Example. Extract the cube
314.
256
1
1456
y
16
7236
root of 14102'327296.
l4lO^327296(,2416
12
I
placesin the
8
J
278327
1728
173521
7211
173521
r
104806296
104806296
174243
43416
17467716
315.
cube
If any number,
root,
we
may
annex
integralor decimal, has no exact
cyphers,and proceed with thr
approximationto the cube
root
to any desired extent.
The following
is the extraction of the cube root of '4 to
four decimal places
:
EXAMPLES.
Examples.
Find
XXXII.
the value of
I.
^/(9a*6^).
2.
4/(8a""').
4.
4/(16a^6"0
5.
4/(a"6V).
Find
the square
roots
16""
13.
36^"+12:c34.i.
+
25a"420a^
+
4y
25a"
+
4c"'
+
of the
40"zd + 25fe2.
II.
*"''"
215
XXXIL
20flc
3.
A"'(64a"5").
followingexpressions:
12.
49a*84a26
14.
64a"
+
+
366".
48a5c+96*c*
9^7*240^^+16
4;B212a?+9
'
216
EXAMPLES.
XXXII.
17.
x^ + ^x^ + ^x'^+ ^x+l.
19.
a?*+ 6a^ + 25a;'+48.r
21.
lAx^lOa^lla^
22.
4i^r' 4a;^7^44;"' + 4.
23.
a?* 2a;r3+ ba^a^
24.
^
25.
a:^
26.
a^^ 4ax^
27.
l2.^
18.
20.
64.
+
+
l2a;
6;"2_4^^4^
+
a?*4a?3 + 8;r+4.
^ai^,
"



2"a?3+ {a"+
1 2ar"+
+
4a^x + 4a\
"
2W')a^ ^aVx
60a;^1 60a?'+ 240.?:= 192:1?+ 64.
4a*;i?
+ a*.
1 0"';i;"
+

h\
+

3^4^
5:c*4^
+
+
3a?^2:"'+ ;i?".
4x*
X
16^
gy'
exy
16a?*
9y*
;^
15yz
16z*
5z^
Ihs?'
^*
:
following
expressions
Find
the fourth roots of the
29.
l+4a;
30.
+ 216a?V216a?y3+ 81y4^
16a?*96a?3y
31.
l4a?+10a7216a?3+19a?^16a?^+10a?"4a?^
32.
+
6a?'+ 4a?'+ a;*.
+ (a2+
{a?* 2(a+ 6)a;3
Find

the
eighthroots
4a6
of the
+
+
a?".
+ a^ftsjs.
V^o^ 2ah{a+ ")a?

following
:
expressions
33.
x^ + 8a^ + 28afi+ 56a^ + lOx* + 56a;3+ 28a?a+ So? + 1.
34.
{x*2a^y+ 3a^^2xy^
Find
the square
35.
1156.
36.
2025.
39.
7569.
40.
9801.
43.
165649.
46.
835396.
roots of the
44.
47.
+
y*}\
numbers
following
37.
41.
308025.
1522766.
3721.
15129.
45.
48.
:
38.
42.
5184.
103041.
412164.
29376400.
218
INDICES.
Indices.
XXXIII.
have defined an index or exponent in Art. 16,
index has hitherto
an
atid,accordingto that definition,
been
number.
We
w
hole
about
a positive
are
now
always
the definition of an
to extend
the
index,by explaining
of
and
of
fractional
indices
negativeindices.
meaning
We
316.
and
a"*"*"".
If
317.
a"*
X
a"
=
are
n
m
any
positivewhole
nwnbers
truth of this statement
has alreadybeen shewn
in Art. 59, but it is convenient to repeat the demonstration
here.
The
arz=aKaxax
a" =a
X
X
a
a X
to
m
to
w
factors,
by
factors,
by
Art. 16,
Art. 16 ;
therefore
a"*x""=axaxax
""+",by
=
a'^xa'^x
so
...
m
+ n
factore
Art. 16.
whole number,
positive
aP=o'""^" x aP
a"*+*+';
ifjo is also
In like manner,
and
to
...xaxaxax
a
=
on.
318.
If
greaterthan
and
m
n,
we
n
whole numbers, and
positive
by Art. 317
are
have
"""""
X
a*
=
"""""+"
=
m
a"";
"=""".
therefore
a
This also has been
As
not yet been
319.
tioiii
we
alreadyshewn
; see
Art. 72.
negativeindices have
libertyto givewhat defiiii
fractional indices and
we
defined,
please to them
are
;
at
and
it is found
convenient
U)
219
INDICES.
givesuch definitions
relation a"
he.
may
x
a"
to them
the
trite,whatever
"""*""always
=
will make
as
important
and
m
n
example; requiredthe meaning of a*.
a^
Thus a 5
to have a^xa^
a.
we
are
By supposition
be such a number
that if it be multipliedby itself
must
the result is a; and the square
root of a is by definition
For
=
such
number; therefore a^
a
square
root of o, that
=
of
Again ; requiredthe meaning
Hence,
of a, that is
root
=a
before, a^
as
i+i+i
i
y.a
"Ka
a^.
to have
are
i
i
a
equivalentto the
s/a.
is,a'^
we
By supposition
be
must
=
,
=a
be
must
=a.
equivalent to the cube
a^= ^a.
Again ; requiredthe meaning
I
a
By supposition,
xcr
xa
I
therefore
2
I
3
a
=
of a*.
=a';
xa
"i/a\
These examples would enable the student to understand
what is meant
by any fractional exponent ; but we
will give the definition in generalsymbols in the next two
Articles.
1
320.
Required the meaning
of
a"
tchere
n
is any
whole number.
positive
By supposition,
111
1
h
1
a*xa*xa*x
"
...to
n
factors
=
a"
"
"
_^i_^j
"
1
therefore a* must
that
is,
be
equivalentto the n"*
a*=
;ya.
root
of a,
220
INDICES.
Required the meaning qf
positivewhole numbers.
321.
any
where
a"
o,nd
ra
art
n
By supposition,
xa"
a"
a"x
m
m
m
i"
X
...
therefore "" must
that
to
be
is,
factors
?i
a''
=
m
"
"
="'";
the n^^ root of t"",
equivalentto
a"
m
V^"*
=
m
the n*^ root of the
that is,in a fractional index the numerator
and the denominator
a root.
Hence
a"
have thus
We
322.
index, whether whole or
to
meaning
For
fractional
;
a?
x
a~^
a^^
=
a~^
therefore
givethe
now
=
"
=
s
.
generalsymbols.
the meaning of a""/
whole or fractional.
a"*
X
m,
""
m
may
suppose
and' then, by what has gone
X
a"
=
a*" x
therefore
"
a
a~''=
be, we
we
before,
I
n
therefore
where
are
n
\"f
any
to have
"""".
=
and
""" J
may
positiveand
we
Therefore
to
or
definition in
whatever
By supposition,
a*"""
positive
assigna
",
=
Required
positivenumber
Now
power
of ar\
a^
=
a^
323.
a
to any
it remains
example,requiredthe meaning
will
denotes
assigned a meaning
of a\
power
negativeindices.
By supposition,
We
m**
means
"
.
greater than
have
a"*"*
=
^
"
w,
221
INDICES.
In order
this
to express
reciprocal. One
word
of another
will define tho
we
quantity is said to be the
the product of the two is
when
unity; thus,for example,x
Hence
words
in
is the reciprocalof
reciprocal
equal to

.
is the reciprocal
of a" ; or we
may
result symbolically
in any of the following
ways,
a~"
a"=\,
a"=^,
a"
a"
a^xa"
It will follow from
given to
than n,
m
negativeindex
a
as
well
as
n
we
less than
;
when
meaning
that "'"
"
a"
has been
a"""" when
~
is gi'eaterthan
m
which
n,
is less
m
For
suppose
have
a"* ^ a"
=
=
"
"
=

then
"(""")
a"*~*.
=
""
a"
a"
Suppose
the
this
1.
=
'
324.
put
is
obviously
and
""""="'*.
The last symbol has not hitherto received a
meaning, so that we arc at libertyto give it the meaning
which naturallypresents itself;hence we
may
say that
m
w
=
;
a"
^
a"
=
1 ;
In order to form a complete theory of Indices it
325.
would be necessary to give demoiistrations of several propositions
which will be found in tlie luri^er
Algebra. But
these propositionsfollow so naturallyfrom the definitions
and the propertiesof fractions,
that the student wOl not
find any difficulty
in tho simple cases
which will come
fore
behim.
We
shall therefore
refer for the completetheory
only give here some
examples as
to the
largerAlgebra,and
specimens.
If
326.
that
hold
m
and
n
(""*)"a"""; see
=
when
m
and
n
are
whole
positive
Art. 279.
are
not
Now
numbers
this result
positivewhole
we
know
will also
numbers.
For
example,
{a^ a^.
=
Por
let
fourth power
(a^)*x
^
we
;
have
by raisingboth sides to tDG
a^ .tr*j
then by raisingboth sides
than
=
222
INDICES,
to the tliird power
to be shewn.
was
is a positivewhole number
(a6)". This result will also hold
If
327.
a"x6*
a
have a=;c'';therefore aj=aT7, which
we
=
n
know
when
n
if
each
that
is not
For
number.
example, a^ x 6* {cib)^.
raise each side to the third power, we
obtain in
db ; so that each side is the cube root of ab.
positivewhole
"oY
we
case
In like
=
manner
have
we
1
ill
a"
a,
we
X
"" X c"
X
(a"c...)".
=
...
that there are
Suppose now
6, c,...,and that all the rest
of
m
these
equal to
are
quantities
a;
thus
we
obtain
1
1^
(a")"*
[arY; that is,(IJaT J^JdT.
=
=
the m* power of the w*^ root
n^ root of the wi"" power of a.
Thus
of
a
is
equal to
the
fraction may take different forms without
expect to be able to give
may
any change in its value,we
out
different forms to a quantity with a fractional index,withalteringthe value of the quantity. Thus, for example,
Since
328.
2
since
k
4
=
2
we
^
expect that
may
a^
4
=
a^ ; and
this is the
o
o
For
case
a
obtain o^
;
if we
raise each side to the sixth power,
that is,each side is the sixth root of a\
We
will
give some
we
examples of Algebraical
involvingfractional and negativeexponents.
opeiations
329.
now
by a^h^c^
Multiply(fih^c^
therefore
217
3
3'*"2~6'
"^2 6'
4"^3"'12
4"^3"'12'
a
"
1_13
3'^3
h^(^ a^h^c^ a^h^c.
x
=
^'
22a
x~^
a;^+ 2^Hl
a;3
X
a?^xa?=;i;^*^a;%
in the first line
Here
a?~^
=
a;*
=
1 ;
=
and
so
ar^
xa?*=j;',
on.
Divide
x^'^y'^ ^^o^y'^y'^by a;* 2;a:(^2^"^
+ y~i

x^2x^y~^+ a^y~^

x^y~^ 2a^y~^y'^
+
224
XXXIII.
EXAMPLES.
XXXIII.
Examples.
Find
I.
the value of
9"i
2.
4"^.
3.
(100)"^.
4. (1000)^
5. (81)"^.
Simplify
6.
("2)3. 7. (^")3.
a^ X d^y, a~K
10.
8.
Ja*,
9.
Ua\
Multiply
II.
J
13.
^
14.
^
y^ by Jy^.
+
12.
"*+ aM
+
6Hy a*6*.
by x+a;^2.
;z!2+l by x'^x'^ + l.
a;242
+
+
16.
a"*l.
a^
+ l by
a^2 + a"* by a^a"^.
17.
a +
18.
o^xy^"rx^yy^
by + ^*2/^+y
15.
a"3 +
ah^a;^y^
by
a +
a6^+ :i;Vi
a;
Divide
19.
x^y^by a^i^.
21.
64a;^ + 272/2by
22.
x^"xy^+ x^yy^by
23.
a3 4.
20.
a6
by "*"'.
4a;~^
+ 3y~".
x'^y'^.
25.
^^5^+ 2,1by a^+ aM + ^"i
"^+ ^""c3 42aM by a^+ h^iA
a.'^2aM4a3
by a^2a^x^+ a.
26.
+y^ by ;c^2;"".y8a;*^4;z;^2/8+6^M4.2;y
24.
Find
27.
29.
3D.
the square
roots of the
x^4:
+ 4x~K
28.
:
followingexpressions
(x + x^y4:{xx^).
x^4x^+2x^ + 4x4x^ + xk
4x^ 1 2a'^
24x~^+ 16^;"^
+ 25


220
SURDS,
For
x 2)
example, ^'32 "s/(lG
=
^^16x ^2
=
=
4
^2
;
4/48= V(8x6)= 4/8x4/6 24/6;
=
surd
fraction can
be transformed
into
w
ith
the
surd
equivalent
expression
part integral.
A
335.
y?
y?^
'^S^'^axQ
=
yi" ^
^^27" 3
=
an
_
*
Surds which have not the same
index can
be
transfoimed into equivalent
surds which have ; see Art 327.
336.
For
4/11: ^5
and
example,take J6
=
5^*4/11 (11)*
;
=
6^ 5^= 4/53=^125, (1I)*11^= 4/(11)'
=4/121.
=
=
of the preceding
notice an application
Suppose we wish to knew wliich is the greater,
have
reduced them
to the same
we
,^/5or 4/11 When
ir.dex we see that the former is the greater,because 125 is
greaterthan 121.
337.
Article.
We
may
Surds are said to be similar when theyhave, or
iiTatioual factors.
be reduced to have,the same
338.
can
and bjl
4/v/7
Thus
are
also similar surds,for
To add
surds; 5,^2 and 44/16
similar
are
4^^16 84/2.
=
subtract similar surds,add or subtract
their coefficients,
and affix to the result the common
irrational factor.
339.
For
or
example, ^/12+ ^75
=
2
a
73
^2
=
(2 + 54)^3
7256
1
^/48

=
2
^^3+
6
J3
3^/3.
"/12 1 '/64xl2
^~27"
8 ^i
2
"'4^"9=3 ^
^2^12
3
2
1

44/12^24/12
"^4
'
3
3
4
J3
227
SURDS.
multiplysimple surds which
Index, multiplyseparatelythe rational
To
340.
have the same
factors aud tho
irrational factors.
For
example,3 ^/2x ^3
2^4x3 4^2
6
=
3
=
"y6
; 4
4/8
^5
7 ^6
x
=
28
^/30;
6x2=12.
=
To multiply
simplesurds which have not the
surds which have the
index,reduce them to equivalent
index,and then proceedas before.
341.
For
By
example,multiply4 ^/S by
Art. 336
Hence
342.
the
^5
=
same
same
4/11.
2
^\25, 4/11=4/121.
that is,84^15125.
x 121),
productis 8 4/(12o
The multiplication
of compound surds is performed
like the multiplication
of compound algebraical
expressions.
For
example,(6^3 5 ^y2)x (2^3
36 + 18 ;v^610^6 30

=
=
+ 3
6 +
v/2)
8^/6.
Division
may
by a simple surd is performedby
that for multiplication
by a simple surd; the
be simplified
by Art. 335.
For
example,3v2^4V3
343.
like
4
=
nile
result
a
^ ?y^ ^y^^f;
=
=
yi2^2iill)
/5^2Vll^^^^^2 2V y^^2
1212V
4^5.2^112"
^^^^
121
x(ll)*
_2 4/lS30125
11
The student will observe that by the aid of Art. 3:15 the
merical
convenient for nuresults are put in forms which are more
the
have to find
mate
approxiapplication
; thus, if we
metliod
easiest
is
numerical value of 3^^/2^4^3. the
to extract the square root of 6, and dividethe result by 4.
1.)";.
228
1
SURDS,
of division by a compound surd
The only case
is of any importanceis that in which the divisor is
surds
or difference of two quadratic surds,that is,
344.
which
the
sum
effected
involving
square roots. The division is practically
by an importantprocess which is called rationalisingthe
denominator
of a fraction. For example,take the fraction
4
5
/04.0
/Q
"
^^
^"
multiplyboth
nator
denomi
and
numerator
of this fraction by 5 J'22sj3,the value of the fraction
is not altered,
while itsdenominator is made rational;
4
J3)
4(5^22
thus
6j2t2V3 (5^/2+ 2^3)(5^/22V3)
4(5v/22v/3) 10s/24j3
==
^
6012
19
s/3+ V2
Similarly,
"^'2 3^2
(,/3W2)(2^3f^2)_
(2^/3^2) (2^3 +^2)
^8+3^/6^8+ 3^6
*
"10
122
shew how to find the square root of
We shall now
binomial expression,
of whose terms
is a quadratic
one
345.
a
surd.
root
requirethe
Suppose,for example,that we
of 7+4^3.
Since ija;+Jyy
square
aj + yh2 J{xy), it is
and y from x + y
7,
root of 7 + 4^/3 will be
=
obvious
find values of x
we
and 2 J{xy) 4jS, then the square
to/x+ ^y. We may arraage the whole process thus
that if
=
slO + 4.JZ)= pjx+ Jy
Suppose
7+
square,
Assume
4^^3
=
(x +
square, and subtract,
that
^
;
Ji^xy).
2
+
:
JS;
thcn2j(xy)=4:
y=T,
x +
+
^
=
y)'^4xy
is,(a!"yf ljtherefore
=
Sincea;+y=7 and
xy
=
x"y
49
=
"
^(7 +
4
v/3) ^4
Similarly,
n/C7
4
^/3) 2^3.

=
+
=
1,
have x=4j y
therefore
=
48
l.
=
l, we
"
^3
=
2 +
V3.
=
3;
229
XXXIV,
EXAMPLES.
Examples.
XXXIV.
Simplify
1.
3^/2 + 4^8^/32.
3.
2V3
+
2^4
2.
3^/(H)V(5i).
+
54^32^/108.
Tj^^Q
4.
Multiply
5.
^/3.
N/5+V(li);j5by
^/6 J2.
7.
l+^/3^2by
8.
L.
^/3+^/2by^
+
Rationalise
Q
of the
the denominators
v/3+ n/2
x/3^2
3+V2
^*
2^2*
2V5+
+
13.
14
16.
4^/15.
+
'
2;^3*
the square
Extract
6^/5.
3^2
3^32;V5'
2^/3
V3
n
3"/5
followingfractions:
root
of
14.
166J7.
+
15.
Bimplify
17.
^
"..^
.,.,.
18.
8
+
4^1^3.
230
\
TIO,
RA
XXXV.
Ratio.
Ratio is the relation which one
quantitybears
to another with respect to nvi^itudc, tlie comparison
34(".
what
made
beiii"?
by considering
is of the second.
the \\\"i
multiple,
part,or parts,
Thus, for example,in comparing 6 with 3, we observe
that 6 hus a certain magnitude with respect to 3, which
it contains twice ; again,in comparing G with 2, we see that
different relalice magnitude,for it contains
has now
a
2 throe times ; or 6 is greater when compared with 2 than
it is when compared with 3.
6
The
347.
by two
expressed
usually
them, thus,a : 6 ; and the former is
of the ratio,
and the latter the consequent
ratio of
pointsplacedbetween
called the antecedent
of the ratio.
to " is
a
A ratio is measured by the fraction which has for
the antecedont
of the ratio,and for its
its numerator
dwiominator the consequent of the ratio. Thus the ratio
348.
of
a
to
" is measured
say that the ratio of
Hence
349.
to the ratio of
If
350.
hy the
351.
c
;
then for shortness
to " is equalto
a
may
the terms
t
or
is r
say that the ratio of
d^ when
to
,
of a
r
we
may
.
a
to 6 is equal
=
t
.
ratio he
or
multiplied
divided
quantitythe ratio is not altered.
same
xn
we
by
ma
a
We
,.
compare
the fractionswhich
Gtruuxiiiaatur.
.
,"""
two
measure
Thiia,
suppose
or
more
these
cue
ratios
ratios
by reducing
to
a
common
ratio to be that of
a
to
d,
231
RATIO.
and {inot!^crratio to be that of
f
J,,and
"
the second ratio
bil
b
Hence
than
the
c
=
^
a
d; then the firstratio
to
r^*
ha
the first ratio is gieater
than,equal to,or less
second ratio,accordingas "w? is gi'eater than,
to,or
etjual
be.
less than
of
ratio is called a ratio of greater inequality,
less inequality^
or of equality^
according as the antecedent
A
352.
to the consequent.
than,less than, or eqwd
is greater
ratio of greater inequalityis diminished^
A
ratio qf less inequalityis increased^by adding
a
number
to both terms
of the ratio.
353.
and
any
the ratio be
Let
adding
to both
x
^,
and
terms
let a
of the
new
ratio be formed
originalratio;then
by
,^
o\x
is
greateror less than ^, accordingas 6(" + a;)is greateror
that is,
a(ft+a?);
accordingas bx is greateror less
than "M?, that is,accordingas " is greater or less than a.
less than
354.
ratio
ratio of greater
inequalityis increased^and
inequality is diminishedyby takingfrom
A
of less
both tenns
of the ratio
a
each
of those
any
number
is less than
which
terms.
Let the ratio be
takingx from both
v
and
let
,
a
of the
terms
new
ratio be formed
original
ratio;then
^
0
is greater
or
or
less than
less than
,
than
"
"
"
X
x) is firreater
is,accordingas "a; is less or
that is,according
6 is less or greater
as
a{b"x)\
gi'caterthan ax,
accordingas b(a
by
that
a.
If the antecedents of any ratios be multiplied
together,and also the consequents, a new ratio is obtained
which is said to be compounded of the for'ner ratiua. Thud
355.
232
EATTO.
the ratfo
a : h and
5c?is said to be
d.
"c
c
:
of the two ratiw
compounded
:
the ratio a : 6 is compounded with itself tlie
resultingratio is a^ \W\ this ratio is sometimes called the
duplicateratio of a : d. And the ratio a? \W\" sometimes
ratio of a : 6.
called the triplicate
When
The
356.
follomng is
a
importanttheorem
very
cob
ccrningequalratios^
Supjyosethat ^=
tlicn each
=
of thew
ratios
fpa'^+ qc'^+ r^^X
_
wherejt?,
g,
r,
rorletA;
n
any mmibcrs
are
whatever.
^ ^=^;then
=
=
oaf
kh
therefore
p
=
kd
a,
c,
=
+
+ q {kd)"
{kb)"
r
/cf=e
;
{kff =pa*
+
go"4 2r"*;
therefore
U%"3pl^^'.
\pb* qd'* rJ^J
therefore
+
+
of demonstration
mode
there
similar result obtained when
The
a
ratios
same
^
po
p
=
a^c
b
+
a
examx"Iewo
particular
that if
^
"
+
qd
+
q^r,eo
+
are
applied,and
than
more
threa
givenequal
As
see
be
may
e
d+f'
r
=
,
0
a
";
and
=
",
each
may
suppose
of these
1, then
?*=
ratios is
equal
we
to
J
then
as
a
rf*
that each of the
specialcase
we
may
givenequalratios
is
suppose
equal to
234
PROPORTION.
XXXVL
Proportion,
said to be proportional
Four numbers
when
are
the firstis the same
multiple,
part,or parts of the second
357.
y"
ft
as
the third is of tlie fourth ; that is when
i
0
numbers
ft,
c, d
",
the
terms
a
and d
is to 6
a
a
is
c
a
called the extremes, and
are
usually
is to d; and
:b^c : d.
as
d^ ov thus
:
the four
,
called,
proportionals.This
are
expressedby saying that
thus a : b :: c
represented
The
=
it is
h and
c
ineang.
when
two ratios are equal,
the four riunibers
which fonn the ratios aie called proportionals
; and the present
devoted
the
to
is
of
two
ratios.
subject
equal
Chapter
358.
Thus
359.
When
of the
Let a,
four
nuinhers
equcd to
is
extremes
proportionalsthe product
the prodtictqfthe means.
are
ft,
;
c, d be proportionals
a
c
,.
then
1=3;
o
a
multiplyby hd; thus ad=bc.
three terms in a proportion
are
given,the fourth
from the relation ad=be.
be determined
If
may
any
If ft
c
=
second
as
is
extremes
When
tinued
between
have ad=b^; that is,if the first be to the
tfte second is to the third, the product of the
we
a
to
eqital
:b ::b
:
the sqvAxre
d then
proportion; and
a
and
a,
of the
d
ft,
msan.
said to be in
are
ftis called the
co7i
2?roportiondl
m,ean
d.
be equal to the
If the product qf two numbers
the four are
proportionals, the
product of two otJiers,
mid
terms
of either product being taJcen for the m^an^
the terms of the other product for the extremes.
360.
Fur let xy=ab\
divide
by
ay, thus
=

a
or
X
: a
lib :p

;
y
(Art.357).
235
PROPORTION.
If
361.
For
a
6
:
and
=
Y
:: c
,
J,
=
b
For
: a
thus
he proportionals,
they are
b
each
unity by
divide
d
::
: a
taken
'.:h:d.
: c
For^;multiplyby
=
or
a
T=
'.
a
add
i;
,
1
=
:
c?,
these
of
equals;
=
:'.b : d,
c
proportionals,the first
are
1, that
Also
the second
as
unity
second
the
:
as
the
fourth;
third
IS
^
the excess
the excess
+
=
"
._
; OTa
thus
equals;
d
"^
is
that
d.
these
to
bc
+
..a
.,
,
+
^
365.
pro
:: c
c
c
+
"
thus^^;
togetherwith the second is to the
the fourth is to
together with
i( a :b ::c : d, then a + b:b :: c + d
r
:
: c.
;

numbers
If four
364.
a
a
they are proproportionals,
that is,if a : 6 :: c : rf,
alternately;
when
poitionals
For
is,if
be
If four numbers
363.
a
;
c
a
then
t;
\f.
v.e
:/.
:: e
inversely; that
taken
or
:
=

=
r
\h
a
: c.
;i ;
=
V
d
::
:h
a
numbers
If four
poi'Honalswhen
thou
therefore
;
^
or
362.
then
and c\d\\e:f,
rf,
:
b:0::c
+
,,
+
d:d.
of the firstabove the second is
of
the third
the fourth
above
to
is to
the fourth.
For
"
=
"
J
r
b
1
,
=
"
d
subtract
unity from
^~^
c
,
"
;
"
J.I
J.
that
1,
'
c
d
"
"
^"
b
"J
d
or
a"
b
,

,
"
IS
:
thus
equals;
these
b
v. ca
,
:
a,
536
PROPORTION.
366.
second
Also the firstis to the excess of th^ firstabove ths
the third is to the excess
of the third above thsi
as
fourth.
the last Article
By
a

..
therefore
b
"
b
x

,"
"
r
b
d
c"d
=

=
",
"
a
b
"
: a
:: c
"
d
also
^
b
d
x
"
=,:
d*
a"b
c"d
or

,
bade
or
;
'
=
.
a
:
therefore
c;
: a
a
b
"
'
c
:: c
: c
d.
"
When
are
four numbers
proportionalsy tliesum
t}ie
and
second
is
to
their
of
first
differenceas the sum
the
third
and
is
to
their
of
difference; that is,if
fourth
b ;: c + d : c"d.
a : b :: c : dj then a + b : a
367.
"
By
Arts. 364
and 365
=
"
i"
"
j
0
,.
a

therefore
"
+
j"
a"b
b
+
"
b
j"
c +
=
:,"
b
or
a+b
d
"
d
:
a"b
and
,
c
+
a
^,
3"
d
::
"
d
0
d
"
=
5"
a
c+d
,
'
that
.
^
is
+
ab
:
b
"
^
j
;
c+d
=
:,"
cd%
cd.
It is obvious from the precedingArticles that
four numbers
derive from then^
are
we
can
proportionals
also Art. 356.
other proportions;
see
many
368.
Proportionit is supposed that
determine what multipleor what part one quantity
we
can
kind.
is of another
But wo
cannot
quantityof the same
if
the side of a
always do this exactly. For example,
the
noted
inch long the length of
diagonalis desquare is one
by J 2 inches ; but J 2 cannot be exactlyfound,so
that the ratio of the length of the diagonalof a square
to the length of a side cannot be exactlyexpressed by
numbers.
Two
quantitiesare called incommensurable
when
the ratio of one
to the other cannot be exactly
pressed
exby numbers.
will sugThe
student's acquaintancewith Arithmetic
gest
to him
that if two quantities
are
reallyincommen369.
In the definition of
sm'able stillwe may be able to express the ratio of one to
the other by numbers
as
nearlyas we please.For example,
find two mixed numbers, one less than J2, and the
we
can
other greater than ^2, and one diflfering
from the other by
as small a fraction as we
please.
237
PROPORTION.
with respectto the
"We will give one
proposition
quantities.
comparisonof two incommensurable
370.
Let
known
another
:
then
x
integerq
that both
such
integer p
and

quantities;and
and y denote two
that however
great an
X
and y
are
it
be we can
find
y lie between
may
and
x
suppose
equal.
q
q
the difference between
For
as
;

and
x
and
by taking q largeenough
y cannot
can

be
so
be made
great
less
But if x and y were
unequal their difference could not be made less than any
assignedquantitywliatever. Therefore x and y must be
than any
assignedquantitywhatever.
equal.
371.
It will be useful to compare
the definition of portion
proin this Chapter with that
of Euclid.
Euclid's definition
used
has been
which
which is given in the fifth book
are
proportionals
may be stated thus : four quantities
be taken of the first and the
wlien if any equimultiples
of the second
and the
third,and also any equimultiples
fourth,the multipleof the third is gieaterthan, equalto,
less than, the multipleof the fourth,according as the
or
multipleof the first is greater than,equal to,or less than
the
multipleof
372.
We
the second.
will first shew
the
definition
algebraical
Euclid's.
satisfy
For
suppose
that
a
:
b
that if four
of
::
c
satisfy
quantities
will
also
proportion,they
:
d; then
"
=
0
j.=
j^
whatever
nmnbers
p and q may
j :
therefore
a
be.
Hence
ji7Cis
is
greater than,equal to, or less than qcl,according
as pa
greater than, equal to, or less than qb. That is,the four
Euclid's
quantities
a, ",c, d satisfy
definition of
proportion.
"We shall next shew that if four quantities
satisfy
Euclid's definition of proportionthey will also satisfy
the
373.
definition.
algebraical
For suppose
whatever
that a, h, r, d are
cumbers p and q may
four
quantitiessuch
be, pc
is greater
that
than,
238
PROPORTION.
equal to,or less than qd,accordingas pa is greater thail
equalto,or less than qh.
First suppose that c and d
p and q such that pc=qd; then
1
=

^;
=
therefore
Next
Then we
1=3.
b
qd
qb
are
commensurable
by hjTpothesis
pa
Therefore
a
:b
;
=
takcSI
qb: thus
:: c
d
:
d.
j
m
that c and c? are
incommensurable.
cannot find whole numbers
p and g', such that
pc=qd. But we may take any multiplewhatever of d, as
of c,
qd, and this will lie between two consecutive multiples
suppose
say between
pc and
^
and
is greaterthan
,
is less than
"^^
Thus

,
"
.
must
unity,and
^
^^
is greaterthan
"
,
both greaterthan
^
And
since this is true howeyer
are
and
,
be
Tliat
equal:
see
^
Art.
is less than
unity,
unity. Hence, by hypothesis,
and
infer that
be, we
{p + l)c. Thus
cannot
370.
be
,
unity.
and both less than
great p s6idq
may
unequal;that is,they
Therefore
a
:
b
:: c
:
d.
the algeis,the four quantities
braical
a, b,c, d satisfy
definition of
proportion.
stated that the Algebraical
It is usually
definition
be used in Geometry because tliere is
of proportion
cannot
374.
of representing
geometricallythe result of the
operationof division. Straightlines can be represented
no
method
number which expresses
how often one
straightline is contained in another. But it
should be observed that Euclid's definition is rigorous
and
to incommensurable
to commensuras well as
able
applicable
definition is,strictly
quantities
; while the Algebraical
Hence
this consideration
confined to the latter.
speaking,
alone would
for the definition
furnish a sufficient reason
adopted by Euclid.
but
geometrically,
not the abstract
EXAMPLES.
Examples.
Find
ca'
the value
I.
4
:
3.
6
: 0?
5.
d? +
4
: a;
6.
a; +
4:
:
7.
3a? + 2
8.
a;2+ ic+l
9.
aa?+"
7
10.
If j9g
II.
If
:
W
12.
+ 2
7
+
::
::
5a?+a
:: mor
:: c
If
a
:
"
:
6
::
:
+
n
J, and
:
c"^ : d(^ and
::
:
7
:; a?
4.
x
;
9
::
+
a"'
:
c, then
42.
:
16
:
a?.
5.
3.V + 2.
5a? + 8.
+ m.
: war
a'
"'"
::
63(.^"l).
l :
+
qt=su, then p
r*, and
6
3
:
9iP2
followingproportions.
2.
: w
2a;l
of the
G2{x + l) ::x^,x
;
:
+ S
x
::
2a? + 8
=
in each
a;
45.
:
: a?
XXXVI.
: a?.
:: ^
:
a
8
::
of
239
XXXVI.
^
::
cd'
:
:
::t
: r
c'
:
:u.
then
c?',
"/";?.
{" + c") (ab+ lc)\
(a^+ 6^)
=
in contimied proportion;
three numbers
the middle number
of the others is 120 :
is 60, and the sum
tiiidthe numbers.
13.
There
are
Find three numbers
in continued
tliat theu' sum
be 19, aud the sum
may
14.
such
proportion,
of their squares
133.
If
a
:
6
:: c
:
relations
rf,shew that the following
are
true.
15.
17.
+ h).
a{ckd)=c{a
16.
aj{(^+ d^=c^{a^
(a+ c)(o"+ "^) {b+ d){"^d^)
^
{ac){a:^c?)~
{hd){Wd^y
18.
pa* + gab +
pc^ + qcd +
rd^
_
Id^ + mab
krd/" Ic^+ mcd
19.
"^
a
20.
rV^
a
'.
~
2ft
3c
b
iimaf
::
ind^
4"/
+
a"i ( 4
3
'
2"*"J
ncf) : ^ {mhP ^ nd^).
+
lr^
240
VARIATION,
XXXVII.
Variation.
The present Chapter consists of a series of
connected with the definitions of ratio and propositions
portion
stated in a new
w
hich
is
convenient
phraseology
for some
puiposes.
375.
One quantityis said to tary directlyas another
376.
when the two quantities
depend on each other,and in such
that if one
be changed the other is changed in
a manner
the
same
proportion.
Sometimes
and say
for shortness
simplythat
the
omit
we
quantityvaries
one
as
word
directly
another.
Thus,for example,if the altitude of a trianglebe
varies as the base ; for if the base be
the area
invariable,
from Euclid that the
kicreased or diminished,we
know
is increased or diminished
in the same
area
proportion.
We may express this result with Algebraicalsymbols thus ;
which
let A and a be numbers
representthe areas of two
triangleshaving a common
altitude,and let J3 and b bo
which represent the bases of these triangles
numbers
re377.
B
A
then
spectively;
A
^
=
"
v.
from
And
this
we
deduce
a
=
r
,
by
If there be
Art. 363.
a
third
triangle
havingthe
altitude as the two alreadyconsidered,then the ratio
whidi
of the number
which representsits area to the number
same
representsits
then^=m,
base will also be
and
A
=
mB.
Here
equal to
A
may
Put
t.
i
=
*^"
represent the
B
area
as
which have
series of triangles
altitude,and B the correspondingbase, and
that the area
Hence
the statement
constant.
oi any
one
the base may
of
a
also be
expressedthus, the
area
a
mon
comm
mains
re
varies
has
a
242
VARIATION.
quantityis said to vary directlyas a second
it varies jointlyas the
and inversely as a third, when
of the third.
second and the reciprocal
One
382.
Or if .4
=
77
and
as B
directly
IfK
383.
Qc
where
,
is constant,A
m
is said to vary
as C.
inversely
B, and
B
C, then
oc
A
C.
oc
For let A
nC^ where m and n
mB, and B
then A
m7iC; and, as mnis
constant,A
are
=
=
=
If
384.
V(AB)
For
Also
a
A
x
G, and
J(J.B)
=
and
B=nC, where m and
(m " n)C ; therefore A^B
=
A
jC/"
a
BC, "A"w
(7 x
Similarly,
A
J[;r
let
For
therefore AC
oc
A
=
cc
CrA
X
For let A=mB,
then
^
and
n
are
stants
con
C
x
B
B
^,"wc?
oc
=
d
C
oc
4.
therefore 5
^
oc
.
.
B, and
mB,
C
and
D, "A^
x
AC
C=nD;
x
then
BD.
AC=mnBD;
BD.
Similarly,if A
and
ACEccBDF;
387.
C,
oc
^J{mnG^)=C^{mn);iheYefore ^{AB)a:C.
For let A =mBC,
386.
A=tB
then
"C,
a:
C.
let A =mC,
; then ^ " i5
385.
B
stants;
con
C.
cc
so
B, and
0"xDy
and
EccFt
then
or.
B, then
A'
x
B".
then A''=m'B':
therefore A*
x
jB".
243
VARIATION.
//" A
388.
B,
X
quantity variable
For letA
B
AP^
B "rAew
then A
invariable,
7/"A
389.
is
cc
BP, where
P
is any
invariable.
or
mB, then
=
AP
then
X
mBP
C
is
x
BG
; therefore
AP
invariable, and
when
both
A
B
^P.
x
C wjA^w
x
C
and
are
The
variation of A depends on the variations of the
B and C ; let the variations of the latter
two quantities
B is changed to b
take placeseparately.When
quantities
A
let A
be
changed
let C be
Now
changed
to
A
B
7
a'
X
=
"
a'
^
"
a'
;
then, by supposition,
/
to c, and
in consequence
then, by supposition,

G
0
a
changed
a ;
X
to
that^. IS,
c
^,
=
"
a
r
.
let a' be
Therefore

.
BC
A
.,
;
=
B
=
"1"
be
;
.
therefore ^
.
x
"^
BC.
this proposition
is furnished in
Geometry. It can be shewn that the area of a triangle
the height is invariable,
and that
varies as the base when
the base is invariable.
the area varies as the heightwhen
both the base and the heig:ht
when
Hence
vary, the area
which representthe
varies iis the productof the numbers
A
very
base and
good example of
the
height.
this proposition
are
suppliedby the
in Arithmetic
under the head of the
which occur
questions
"For
instance suppose
that the
Double Rule of Three.
which
be
work
varies
can
as
accomplished
quantity of a
of workmen
when the time is given,and varies
the number
is given ; then
of workmen
the number
as the time when
the quantityof the work ^^^llvary as the product of the
and the time when both vary.
number of workmen
Other
390.
examples of
In the
same
of
manner, if there be any number
varies as another
each of which
B, C, D,
quantities
A
quantity when the rest are constant,when they all vary
A varies as their product.
...
16"2
244
EXAMPLES.
XXX
Examples.
varies
A
1.
value of A
If A^
2.
varies
as
B
when
^
"
yl varies
and C= 1
:
varies
A
2, and C 2
+
SB,
8.
B^b,
9.
when
C^b.
+
B
when
:
B
A 4
when
jB
C=S:
find
1, and
=
n.
A
l
=
2 and
=
B
and
C jointly;and A
12
find the value of A
when
(7=4
: B
and
find the
=
when
C= 2.
and
directly
C=c:
=
as
C
are
."112 and
inversely
; and
find the value of A
Charitable
partly vary as the
expenses
of
when
C jointly
A
when
a
; and
value of A when
B=h^
and
^
constant, and
the inmates
When
'2;
=
as
as
=
=
A
The
A
5
and
C jointly
^
8 when
; and
find the value of BC when ^
10.
i?
varies
B=h, and
A^5
B
and
(7 jointly
; and
find the value of A when
/?
as
10.
the
^
varies
A
and
(7=c:
"
and
as
A varies
2, and (7=3:
=
find
that
as
7.
S
jS=1;
B", shew

=
6.
=
A"
as
5A
as
=
^=1,
when
2
A varies as nB + C; and
and
^
7 when S 2, and
;
5.
^
varies
varies
: B.
ZA + 5B
find the ratio A
C=2
=
B.
3.
4.
A
2.
=
B^
+
XXXYII.
B, and
as
VIL
a
A=a
^=c
and
when
Institution
number
are
of
partly
inmates.
and 3000 the expenses
are
spectively
reFind
the expenses
for 1000
"180.
960
inmates.
11.
find how
The
many
wages
men
of 5
can
for 7 weeks
being ."17. 10*.
be hired to work 4 weeks for "30.
men
If the cost of making an embankment
vary as the
lengthif the area of the transverse section and heightbe
constant,as the height if the area of the transverse section
and lengthbe constant, and as the area
of the transverse
section if the length and height be constant, and an embankment
cost
1 mile long,10 feet high, and 12 feet broad
12.
find the cost of an
"9600
embankment
16 feet high,and 15 feet broad.
half
a
mile
long,
ARITHMETICAL
24^
PROGRESSION,
Arithmetical
XXXYIII.
Progression,
Quantities are said to be in Arithmetical
when they increase or decrease by a common
391.
Thus
followingseries
the
in
are
Arithmetical
gression
Pro
ference.
dif
gression
Pro
2,5,8,11,14,
20, 18, 16, 14, 12,
a, a + ", a + 2", a + 36,a
difference
+
4Z"
is found
by subtractingany
follows
it. In the first
term from that which
immediately
difference is 3 ; in the second series it is
series the common
2 ; in the third series it is h.
The
common
"
denote the
Progression," the common
Let
392.
terra is
a
+
a
6, the
third
term
Thus
of
first term
Arithmetical
an
diflference;then the second
is a}2",the fourth term
is
the n^
36,and
an
To find the sum
of a given number of terms nf
Arithmetical
Progression, the firsttei^m, and the convdifferencebeing supposed known.
so
on.
is
1)6.
a+
term
("
+
a
"
393.
mon
denote the first term, " the common
of terms, / the last term, s
the number
Then
terms.
Let
n
difference,
a
"
=
a +
(a+ 6)+ (a+2") +
And, by writingthe series in the
the
+
sum
1
order,we have
reverse
idso
*
=
/+
(Z6)+ (/2")+
+a.
by addition,
Tlierefore,
1s
=
{l+ a) + {l+d)+
=
thetefore
s
=
to
n
terms
n{l+a)\
^{l^(i)
of the
(1).
246
PROGRESSION,
ARITHMETICAL
Also
thus
/a+(nl)6
(2),
(nl)"}
"={2a
(3).
+
equation(3)gives the value of s in terms of the
which were
Equation (1) also
quantities
supposed known.
gives a convenient expression for s, and furnishes the
in
number
of term^
of any
followingrule: the sum
Arithmetical
Progression is equal to the product of the
number
into half the sum
of the first and
of the term^
The
last termx.
to
apply the equationsin the present Article
gression.
Proexamples relatingto Arithmetical
shall now
We
solve
some
394.
Find
Uere
a
=
the
of 20
sura
l, 6=1,
n
of the series 1,2,3,4,...
terms
20; therefore
=
20
5=(2+19)
=
10x21
210.
=
i
395.
Find the
Here
a
=
l, 6
of 20 terms
sum
2,
=
n
20
='^
(2+ 19
396.
Find the
Here
a
sum
=20, 6=
"=^(402
397.
Here
Find the
"7^,
1, 3, 5, 7,...
series,
20; therefore,
=
2^0
"
of the
6
sum
=
X
2)
=
^ 40
X
of 12 terms
=
of 8 terms
=
=
6
X
18=
of the series
8; therefore
'2(1211) 1^^*
+
400.
of the series 20, 18,16,...
ll) 6(4022)
^5,^
=
therefore
2, n\1\
X
(20)2
=
=
'""
108.
r^
,
^^"
7
"
"
""""
EXAMPLES.
How
many
15, 12, 9,...that the
Hwe
sum
"=42, "=I5,
42
taken
of
t^e
series
be 42 ?
may
6=
be
must
terms
398.
247
XXXVIII.
therefore
3;
303("l)=(33
=
to find n from this quadratic equation; by
The series is 15,
4 or 7.
shall obtain w
thus it will be found that we
tain
ob9, 6, 3, 0,3,
; amd
of the first4 terms, or as the sum
42 as the sum
of the
We
have
solvingit we
1^
=
first 7 terms.
Insert five Arithmetical
399.
means
between
11
and
23.
Here
have
we
consistingof
with
(2)of
Arithmetical
an
terms, beginning with 11
7 ; therefore
^==11, ^=23, n
seven
Thus
23.
to obtain
=
Progression
and
ending
by equation
Art. 393,
23
=
ll +
6",
therefore 6=2.
Thus
the whole series is 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23.
Examples.
Sam
the
XXXVIII.
followingseries :
1.
100,101,102,
to
2.
1,2^,4,
to 10 terms.
3.
1, 2,4^,
to
4.
2, 3f,5^,
to 12 terms.
6.
2
5
,
,
O
D
1,
2* ""3* ""6'
9 terms.
9 terms,
to 18 terms.
to 15 terms.
7.
Insert 3 Arithmetical
means
between
12 and
20.
8.
Insert 5 Arithmetical
means
between
14 and
16.
24"S
XXX
EXAMPLES.
7 Arithmetical
Insert
9.
Insert 8 Arithmetical
11.
The
of
first term
13, the second
is
term
between
means
10.
Fill.
8 and
between
means
Arithmetical
an
11, the
1 and
"
5.
Progression is
find the
is 40:
smn
4.
"
number
of terms.
The
12.
5, and
first term
the fifth term
The
13.
is 44, and
sum
of
is 11
Arithmetical
Progression is
of 8 terms.
find the sum
an
:
tlie last term
is 17
:
sum
Progression
find tlio terms.
numbers
of three
is 21, and the sum
The
14.
in Arithmetical
of four terms
in Arithmetical
of their squares
is 155
gression
Pro
find the
:
numbers.
The
1 5.
siou
is
sum
15, and
of five numbers
the
in Arithmetical
of their squares
sum
is 55:
Progi*esfind
the
numbers.
The seventh term of an Arithmetical
Progression
is 12, and
of the series is
the twelfth term is 7; the sum
of terms.
171 : find the number
16.
17.
He
traveller has
A
miles
26
goes
third,and
so
In
on.
jouraey of 140 miles to perform
the
first day, 24 the second, 22 the
how many
days does he perform the
a
journey?
from a place and travels 2^ miles an
hour.
B
after A, and
sets out
travels in the
3 hours
direction,3 miles the first hour, 3 miles the second,
same
18.
4
miles
overtake
19.
A
sets
the
A
The
out
third, and
of
sum
If the
is
common
how
many
hours
will B
1
is 12 ; and
the numbers.
20.
In
on.
so
sum
the
of
sum
to
in Arithmetical
of their squares
terms
n
always equal
difference.
nimibers
three
of
an
?i%find the
is 66
gression
Pro:
find
Arithmetical
Progression
and the
first term
250
PROGRESSION.
GEOMETRICAL
If / denote
the last term
have
we
l=at*^
therefore
"=
(2),
rl"a
~3T
,".
(3).
Equation (1)gives the value of s in terms of the
which were
supposed known.
Equation(3)is
quantities
sometimes
We
a
convenient form.
applythese equationsto solve
to Geometrical Progression.
relating
shall
403.
Here
now
Find the
"
=
1, ^
of 6 terms
sum
3, n
=
of the series
some
amples
ex
1,3,9,27,...
6; therefore
=
3"l
7291
31
31
364.
404.
Find
the
of
sum
6
terms
of the
series 1, 3,
9, 27....
Here
a
=
l,r="
3, w
=
6; therefore
.(3)"'l
*
7291
_3_i
405.
Herea
Find
=
the
4, r,
"182.

_4
of 8 terms
sum
w
=
of the series
8; therefore
4, 2, 1,

i
Insert three Geometrical
407.
251
PROGRESSION.
GEOMETRICAL
between
means
2
and
32.
Geometrical
Progression
and
2
with
\ni\\
of
endhig
five
beginning
terms,
consisting
Thus
32.
a
by equation (2)
5; therefore,
2, / 32, "
Here
=
of Art.
to obtain
have
we
a
=
=
402,
22
that is
therefore
"
r^
r
=
=
2r*
16
2*;
=
%
the whole series is 2,4,8, 16,32.
Thus
We
408.
thus
may
the value of s, given in Art. 402,
write
a(lr")
\r
Now suppose that r is less than unity; then the larger
is,the smaller will r" be, and by taking n largeenough
If we neglectV*
be made
can
we
as small as
please.
n
r"
obtain
we
a
and
enunciate the result thus.
In a Geometrical
ratio is numerically
Progression in which the common
than
less
number
of terms
unity,by taking a sufficient
the sum
be
to
made
little
can
as
we
differas
please
we
may
from
.
1"r
example,take
For
409.
Here
a
=
therefore
l, r=;
sufficientnumber
a
little as
as
the
terms
we
sum
of terms
pleasefrom
is 2
"

"
,
if we
if

8
2
the series 1,
,
take six terms
r"
,
2.
In fact if
the
sum
can
we
five terms
is 2
...
by taking
be made
sum
take
,
,
Thus
=2.
the
we



"
"
,
to differ
take four
the
and
so
sum
is
on.
result is sometimes expressedthus for shortness,
the sum
of terms of this series it
of an infinitenumber
is 2.
to infiniiy
2; or thus,the sum
The
252
EXAMPLES.
XXXIX.
Recurring decimals
410.
of wliat
Progression.Thus for examp^
called infmite Georaetricul
24
3
"3242424... denotes
examples
are
24
24
+_+
+
+
_
...
3
Here
the
after
terms
form
"
a
Geometrical
Progw
24
sion,of which
is
Hence
75.
is
the firstterm
we
may
and
3
that the
say
the
,
of
sum
rati
common
an
iufinit
10
number
of this series is
of terms
TTp
^^^^^
(1 "77:2)
"^
"
24
Therefore
"
the
value
the
of
.
recurring decimal
2"
1
\
10"'"
990*
value of the
thus:
tically
The
recurringdecimal
Let
32424...;
5=
then
10
and
1000
be found pmo
may
32424...,
5=
5=3242424...
(1000 10)5
Hence,by subtraction,

=
324

3
=
323 ;
321
therefore
And
*
any
other
=
"
.
example may
be
manner.
XXXIX.
Examples.
Sum
the
series
following
:
1.
1, 4, 16,
to
6 terms.
2.
9, 3, 1,
to
5 terms,
3.
25,10,4,
to
4 teims.
4.
1, ^2, 2, 2^2,
...
to 12 terms.
treated
in
a
simil jr
t
EXAMPLES.
3
1
1
g,
gj
g,
X
r
5.
2
^*
terms.
6
to
3
6.
3"
7.
253
XXXIX.
to7terms.
1"2'
1,
3,
to
infinity.
infinity.
g,
8.
1,5, Y^,
to
9.
If
to
infinity.
to
infinity.
X,
7,
2
10.
6, 2,
,
o
Find
the value of the
followingrecurringdecimals
;
11.
ISlSlo...
12.
"123123123...
13.
4282828...
14.
28131313...
15.
Insert 3 Geometrical
means
between
1 and
16.
Insert 4 Geometrical
means
between
5^
and
40.
17.
Insert 4 Geometrical
means
3
and
729.
between
25 G.
of three terms in Geometrical
The sum
Progression
thii'd
is 45:
difference
of
the
fiistand
terms
the
and
Is 63,
find the terms.
18.
of a Geometrical
of the first four terms
of the first eight terms is
Progression is 40, and the sum
19.
3280
:
20.
is
terms.
The
sum
find the
The
21, and
Progression.
of three
sum
the
sum
terms
in Geometrical
of their squares
is 189
sion
Progres:
find the
254.
Harmonical
XL.
Progression.
C
A, B,
quantities
when
A : G
Progression
Three
411.
Any number
Harmonical
A
::
"
monical
said to be in HarB : B
G.
"
said to be in Harmonical
three consecutive quantities
in
are
every
Progression,
Hairmonical
in
reciprocalsof qiiantities
The
412.
are
are
quantities
of
Progressionwhen
in Arithmetical
Progressionare
A
PROGRESSION,
HARMONTOAL
Let A, B,
v.AB
: G
C
be
:
BG.
Therefore
A{BG)
Diyide
ABG
by
Harmonical
in
Progression; then
G{AB).
=
; thus
=
Ti~'n
the
This demonstrates
Progression.
~l
j"~
proposition.
The property established in the precedingArtich
Lrticleal
will enable us to solve some
monical
questions relatingto HarFor
insert
five
Harmonical
Progression.
example,
413.
2
between
means
8
and

Here
"
.
we
3
Arithmetical
(2)of
have
to insert five
15
6
between
means
15
^
and

Hence, by
.
Art. 393,
3
therefore
6?"
=
1
therefore

h
=
"
.
,
8
16
3
Hence
TF
lo
"
t;;
16
,
J
tion
equa
the
r^
lo
,2
gressionis,
"
Arithmetical
^
"
Progressionis
^""^^ therefore
the
16
,
,
16
16
16
^,
,
,
,
r^
Harmonical
o
16
25
8
^5'
26

,
:j^,
Pro
EXAMPLES.
$55
XL.
Let a and c be any two
quantities;let A
their Arithmetical mean,
G their Geometrical
mean,
their Harmonical
Then
mean.
414.
Aa
c"A
=
a
:
G
a
:
c
G
:.
:
Continue
the
^{ac).
^"
therefore H=
Hc,
:
.
Examples.
1.
{a + c).
=
c; therefore G=
aU
::
therefore A
;
be
H
XL.
Harmonical
Progression6, 3,
for
2
three terms.
2.
Continue
the Harmonical
Progression8, 2, \\
for
three terms.
3.
Insert 2 Harmonical
4.
Insert 3 Harmonical
The Arithmetical
the Harmonica!
is 8
mean
5.
6.
The
Geometrical
the Harmonical
7.
Find
two
8.
Find
two
4
between
means
numbers
of two
find the numbers,
:
46^
:
such that the
Arithmetical
and Harmonical
of the
Arithmetical
mean
and
"
.
is 9, and
is 48, and
of two numbers
find the imiiibers.
of their Arithmetical,
is 9f,and the
numbers
such that the sum
Geometrical,and Harmonical means
is 27.
product of these means
numbers
and 2.

mean
mean
is
mean
between
means
product of
is 27, and
means
above
the
the
Harmonical
their
excess
mean
isli
9.
If a, fc,
c
a
10.
and
+ c
If three
"
26
:
a"c
numbers
are
is increased
each of them
thHt the results are
shew
Progression,
in Harmonical
are
:: a
"
c
:
avc.
in Geometrical
by the middle
in Harmonical
that
Progression,
number, shew
Progression.
256
PERMUTATIONS
XLI.
Thus
at
a
called their
are
and
Combinaiiona.
a
permutationsof the three
time,are o",ba, ac, ca, be,cb.
combinations
of
a
letters a, h,c, taken
of
formed
a
ab,
time, are
permutations^form
ca, and
and
417.
T at
a
of
out
things
are
them,
placed.
of the three letters a, b,c, taken
ac^ be ; ab and ba, though different
the combinations
Thus
at
the
things are
set
be
different collections which
can
the order in whiijh the
without iegarding
two
thingscan
set of
permutations.
the
The
416.
COMBINATIONS,
different orders in which
be aiTanged
two
Permutations
The
415.
AND
same
also do
eombination,so
a"c
be and cb.
The number
time
the
is
n(n
"
of permutations of n things taken
(n" r + 1).
l)(n" 2)
Lot there be n letters a, b,c, d,
shall first find
; we
of permutationsof them
taken two at a time.
the number
thus obtain
Put a before each of the other letters; we
stands first. Put b bcforo
1 permutationsin which
""
a
thus obtain n"
other letters;we
1 permutations
in which
b stands first. Similarlythere are
n"l
Thus,
permutationsin which e stands first. And so on.
there
of
letters
the
are
n
on
n{nl) permutations
whole,
of
We
taken two at a time.
shall next find the number
of n letters taken thj^^e at a time.
It has
})ermutations
just been shewn that out of n letters we can form n (n l)
permutations,each of two letters;hence out of the n"l
form {nl) {n 2) permutations,
letters b,c,d,
can
we
letters: put a before each of those, and
each
of two
each of three letters,
have (n l)(n 2) pennutations,
we
each of the
"
"
"
"
stands first. Similarly
there are
{n
\){n 2)
in which b stands first.
permutations,each of three letters,
first. And
there are
in which
c stands
as many
Similarly
in which
80
on.
a
"
Thus, on
of
n
the
whole, there
n
are
letters taken three at
a
{n
"
time.
l)(w" 2)
"
mutations
per
258
COMBINATIONS.
AND
PERMUTATIONS
For the number of permutation* of n thingstaken r M
a time is n{n
l)(n 2)...{7ir+l)hyAn.411; and each
combination produces [r permutationsby Art 420; hence
/
"
"
"
of combinations
the number
be
must
n{nl){n2)...{n r^\)
"
If
multiplyboth
we
expressionby
this
*'
^
"aloe of
In
"
r
and
numerator
it takes the form
"
denominator
,"
.^"^=
"

[r [n~^
,
of
tlie
beingimchanged.
course
To find the mimler
422.
which are
taken all togetlier
of permutations of
not
all
n
things
different.
letters ; and suppose p of them to be a,
q of them to be S,r of them to be ";,and the rest of them
then the
to be the letters d, ",.., each occurringsingly:
of permutationsof them taken all togetherwill be
number
Let there be
n
[p\q\r'
For
iV to represent the
suppose
If
penuutations.
'm
any
of the
one
required number
of
permutations the
p
and difleicnt letters,
letters a were
changed into p new
tlien,without changlHg the situation of any of the other
could from the singlepermutation produce J7?
letters,
we
if the p letters a were
changed into p new and different letters the whole number
if the q letters
would be iV x ^).Similarly
of permutations
also
b were
whole number
bo iVx 1^ X
into
r
thus
penuutations:and
different
new
^
.
And
if the
r
and
different letters the
could now
obtain would
also changed
letters c were
changed into q new
of permutations we
of perdifferent letters the whole number
mutations
this
number
be iV X [^ X [^ X [r. But
woidd
and
of
of permutations
letters taken all together,
that is to [".
nuist be
equalto
the number
n
different
\n
Thus
And
iVx["x '^x [r tn; therefore
=
similaily
any other
case
may
^^^J^^
be treated.
259
XLI.
EXAMPLES.
method of
The student should notice the peculiar
demonstration which is employedin Art. 417. This is (railed
mathematical
induction^and may be thus described: Wo
is true in one case, whatever that
shew that if a theorem
case
may be,it is also true in another case so related to the
former that it may be called the next case ; we also shew
is true in a certain case ;
in some
that the theorem
manner
hence it is true in the next case, and hence in the next to
the theorem
be true
must
that,and so on; thus finally
in ever}' case after that with which we began.
423.
induction is
of mathematical
The method
used in the higherparts of mathematics.
Examples.
Find how many
1.
from
a
company
of
of
parties
24*men.
frequentiy
XLI.
each
6 men
can
be formed
be formed
can
many permutations
taken all together.
letters in the word company,
of the
be formed
of the
2.
Find how
3.
Find
how
many
lettersin the word
combinations
can
taken four
longitude,
at
a
time.
Find how many permutationscan be formed of tba
lettersin the word consonant, taken all together.
4.
of a set of things
of the combinations
number
taken four at a time is twice as great as the number
taken
three at a time : find how many thingsthere are in the set.
The
5.
6.
and
word.
how
words each containingtwo consonants
many
vowel can
be formed
from 20 consonants
and one
5 vowels, the vowel being the middle letter of the
Find
Five persons
7.
find in how
often
are
to be chosen
by lot out
be done.
many ways this can
assigned*
person would be chosen.
an
Find
of
twenty:
also how
"
boat's crew
and a
consistingof eight rowers
is to be formed out of twelve persons, nine of
whom
but cannot steer,while the other three can
can
row
steer but cannot
find in how many
row:
ways the crew
be formed.
Find also in how many
cjin
ways the crew
could be formed if one of tiiethree were
able both to row
and to steer.
S.
A
ateersman
17^
260
XLII.
We
424.
and
is any
425.
have
Binomial
alreadyseen
=x^ + Zx^a +
Chapter is to find an
that
present
n
THEOREM.
BINOMIAL
{x + of
Theorem.
2xa + a^
{x\af=x^\2xa^ + a? ; the object of the
expressionfor {x + a)*where
that
positive
integer.
obtain
we
By actual multiplication
+ {a+ b)iV^dby
{x+a){x\h)=x^
(x+a){x+b){x+c)=a^
+
{a\b^'c)x^+{ah+bcica)x+abc
+ bi^c+d)x^
{x+a)(a+b){xi'C){ie+d)=x*+{a
+ {ab + ac + ad + bc + bd+ cd)a^
+ {ctOc
+ bed + cda + dab)x+ abed.
Now
hold:
I.
more
in these results
we
see
that the
followinglaws
The number
of terms on the righthandside is one
plied
than the number
of binomial factors which are multi
together.
II. The exponent of x in the firsttdrm is the same
as
a
nd
the
number
binomial
in
other
of
terms
the
factors,
is
less
than
term
that of the preceding
each exponent
by
unity.
III. The coeflScient of the first term
is unity; the
coefficient of the secdnd teim is the sum
of the second
letters of the binomial factors ; the coefficient of the third
is the sum
of the products of the second letters of
tcmn
the binomial factors taken two at a time; the coefficientoi
the fomth term is the sum
of the products of the second
letters of the binomial factors taken three at a time ; and
is the productof all the second letters
so
on ; the last term
of the binomial factors.
shall show that these laws always hold,whatever
We
factors.
be the number
of binomial
Suppose the laws
that is,
to hold when ni
factors are multiplied
togctlier;
BINOMIAL
there
guppose
and
are
261
THEOREM.
factors ic+a,
n\
J, a!+c,...a?+Ai^
^7+
that
where p
the
sum
the
sum
two
at
the
sum
=
g
=
r
=
of the letters o,
of the
a
three at
.
.
A?,
.
products of these letters taken
time,
of the
products
of these letters taken
time,
a
productof
M=the
6,c,
all these letters.
sides of this identityby another factor
arrange the product on the righthand according
of x ; thus
Multiplyboth
x
+
l,and
to powers
+ a)(;?+6)(a?
+ c)
(dj
.
.
.
+ 0
+ *) (ar
(a;
{q+pl)^'
r
Now
p + l=a+b
=
the
+ c +
sum
...+k
+
=
"" +
+
Cp + /)a?"""
+...
(r+ ql)x''^
l
"+...
^k)
of the products taken
the sum
time of all the letters ot, 6, ";,...
A, / ;
=
g; r+/(a6+ac
=
td.
of all the lettersa, b,Cy..k,
I;
+ h +
q+pl =q\l{a
r +
+
+
two
at
a
6c"4...)
of the products taken three at
=the sum
of all the letters a, b,\...ky
I;
a
time
tt^=the product of all the letters.
factors are multiplied
when
n1
together,they hold when n factors are multiplied
together;but they have been shewn to hold when /our
fectors are multiplied
therefore they hold when
together,
and so on: thus tiiey
""5 factors are multipliedtogether,
hold universally.
Hence,
if the laws hold
262
BIl^OMIAL
THEOREM.
shall write the result for the
factors thus for abbreviation :
We
of
multiplication
\Jix''^
+
Now
n
in
P
is the
Q is the
number;
letters two
of the letters
sum
and
sum
of
are
products of these
the
"^
^
are
of these
q"" products;and
"
"
so
See Art. 42t.
on.
I each equal to
Suppose b,Cf..,kf
n(nl)
,
^
na,
Q becomes
and
so
/
V.
...+
k, I,which
a,b,c^...
that tliere
two, so
products; R is the
of
sum
n
V
Thus
on.
Nn
on.
or, R
n{n
becomes
P
,
^
n(7i\)
7i{nl){n2)
"_,
,
1
1,2
^
becomes
l)(n2)
^a^;
^\
"
finally
n,

^
Then
a.
.
J
.
.
,
o
^
''^
,
^'*
1.2.3.4
justobtained is called the Binomial
Theorem; the series on the righthandside is called the
and when
we
+ a)",
expansion of (a?
put this series instead
said to expand {x + ay.
of {x + aY we
The theorem
are
discovered by Newton.
was
The
426.
formula
the theorem
that we have demonstrated
is
in which the exponent "
a positiveinteger;
have used fn this demonstiation the method
It will be
seen
in the case
and that we
of mathematical
427.
Take
induction.
for
example {x4 af.
) 6^
n(nl)_6.5
"1.2"^^'
_
1.2
_
Here
n
=
6.5
n{nl){n2)
?i(?^l)(yi2)_
6^
6,
.4
~1.2.3"^""
~1.
_
1.2.3
w(wl)(n2)(n3)
6.5.4.3
1.2.3.4
1.2.3.4
15,
n(nl)(n2)(n3)(n4) 6.5.4.3.2
"1.2.3.4.6' 6;
1.2.3.4.5
_
^03^
{xh"if^3^\
1 5aV
+
26S
THEOREM.
BINOMIAL
20aV
+
1 5a*:c*+ 6"*" + efi,
+
requirethe expansion of {l^\cy)*:
Agrain,
suppose we
have onlyto put "* for x and cy for a in the preceding
we
identity;thus
+ M'
4 eieyfb^
15("^)*(52)2
+
Again, suppose
put
must
";
"
+ 15";V=**
Gq/ft^o
+ (fl/^.
+ 6c'y'b^
+ I5c*y^*
200^1/^1/
+
.
^'* +
=
for
requirethe expansionof (x"e)'; we
we
in thd result of Art. 425
a
thus
;
n{nl){ni)
*"
1.2.3
Again,in the expansion^f (x + a)" put
/.
\
n{nl) _'
\"
n(wl)
'^2
{l+xy=lhnx+
1
l)(n
"
2
1
and ais thiols true for allvalues of
/,
n(n
\ ^^
,
{l+aT=l+na+
a
we
1 for ar; thua
may
"
2),
^"^""'
3
put a; for
w(/i l)(n 2)
"
,
"i ;
thua
"
"^
,
+
"^
I
2
"
3
to expand
apply the Binomial Theorem
For example,
than two terms.
expressionscontainingmore
requiredto expand {i+ 2x"a:^)*. Put y for 2x"x^; then
have (lf2x^)* {l^yy=l + 4y + 6y^+ 4y^ky*
we
We
428.
may
=
=
4 6 {2x
4.(2^ a;2)
1+

Also (2x
{2x

x^f
=
=


+ 4 (2a; a^' + (2"
a?^*.
aj2)2


+ (a^')2
=4a^^4x^\x*,
.7r*)*(2jr)2 2 (2;c)a;*
=

(a;2)2{a^^
{2xf Z[2xfa^+ 3(2a;)
8a;312.r*46ar"ic",


4 (2a;)(a:2)'
4 (aj""
+ 6 (24;)2(a^)2
(2""**)* (2a;" 4 (2a;)3a;"
=
=

i"ir*


32j:" + 24j;"

"c7
+
a?8.
264
BINOMIAL
THEOREM,
tlie temia, we
Hence, coTlecthig
429.
terms
are
the
{\+
2x
a^*
the
of
expansion of (I+x)" the coefficients
and
the end
equally distant from the beginning
In
"
M^
same.
coeflRcient of the r^ term
The
'
^^
^^
obtain
the
from
beginning is "'
both
'; by multiplying
numerator
^~
_
In
and denouirnator by
fn
"^
"
1
r+
this becomes
"
yj'i]jir^i
from the end is tlie
the beginning,and its coefficientis
The
r"" term
\nr
by multiplyingboth
+
.
,
L
y
*
\
nnmerator
(a

r 4
term
2)**
from
that is
[n
dentmiinatMr
and
by [y" 1
in
tkis also becomes
V"l
\n
"
ril'
Hitherto in speakingof the expansion of (x + a)*
430.
that n deiwtes sr)me
have assumed
we
positiveinteger.
is
also
Theorem
J3ut the Binomial
applied to expand
when
is
or
a
w
positivefraction, a negative quan{x + "V"
tity
whole or fractional. For a discussion of the Binomial
with any exponent the student is referred to the
be a useful exercise to
laigerAlgebra; it will however
from
the general formula.
obtain various particular
cases
Theorem
Thus the student will assume
bo the values of x, a, and n,
for the presentthat whatever
n{nl)(n2){nS)
"^"^
^
^
1.2.3.4
If n i" not
a.
positiveintegerthe aeries
never
ends*
26(J
",
Thus
EXAMPLES.
.
,
.
(1 + y)"
=
,
I
XLIT.
m{m^\)
m(.m4 l)(m +
y^
"jTy^
^ 3
,

my
+
m(m4l)(m
+
2)(m43)
^
^
1.2.3.4
As
a
case
particular
suppose
Again,expand (1+2^"^^)^in
a"4?^; thus
have (l+
powers
2^";2)"
=
1 + ?a
of
ar.
Put y
(l+y)^
(2;?;;c2j3^j^^i collect
expand (2jpa^)2,
Now
:
thus
we
shall obtain
3
\s
Examples.
1.
"
1,1,5^
,1
terms
we
._
1 ; thus
m=
be verified by dividing1 by
This may
2^

Write
XLIL
down
the first three and the last three termg
down
the
QiicLx)^,
of
2.
Write
3.
Expand (l2y)^
4.
Writ"
down
expansionof (3 2a^)'.
the first four
ix+2yY.
6,
Expand {l^xx^\
e.
Expand U+.f;**'^/.
"
terras
in the expansios
267
XLII.
EXAMPLES.
^)*
7.
Expand
8.
Find
the
coefficient of
ar' in
the
expansion
9.
Find
the
coefficient of
3?
the
expansion of
(12^
+
in
of
(l2a; + 3a,'2)5.
10.
If the second
term
X, y, and
sixth,seventh,and
eighth
in the
terms
{x + 7jY be respectively112, 7, and
of
and
lOSO, find
term
n.
If the
11.
the fourth
720, and
240, the third term
+ y)*be
expansion of {cr.
in the
pansion
ex
find x, y,
,
n.
12.
Write
down
the
first five tenns
of the
expansion
of(a2x)K
13.
Expand
14.
Expand
15.
Write
(1
to four terms
~
^
^)
"
(l2^)\
down
coefficient of a?' in the
the
expansion
rf(l*:)2.
16.
the
doAvn
Write
sixth term
in the
expansion
of
Sxy)l
17.
z

1 and
Expand
6
=

five terms
to
the fourth
(a36)""V:shew
is
term
greater than
that
it
either tho
o
third
or
18.
the fifth.
Write
down
the coefficient of x*" in the
expansicm
of(l;c)^
11^ Expand (l+x
+
x^)
Expand {lx
+
x^)~^
to four
20.
to
four terms
terms
in powers
of u.
in powers
of
".
268
OF
SCALES
XLIII.
NOTATION
Scales of Notation.
have learned from
The student will of course
of expressiiijj
method
the
in
that
Arithmetic
ordinary
the number
whole numbers
representedby each
by figures,
figureis alwayssome multipleof s'tme power often, Thiw
in 523 the 5 represents 5 hundreds, that is 5 times 10';
the 2 represents 2 tens, that is 2 times 10^; and the 3,
which represents 3 units,may be said to represent 3 times
432.
10'^;see
Art. 324.
common
or
radix
is called the
numbers
ten is said to be the base
(rf expressingwhole
This mode
and
scale of notation,
scale.
of the common
shew
We
shall now
that any positiveinteger
of 10 for the radix ;
be
than
used
instead
unity may
greater
be
and
then explain how
a
given whole number
may
433.
proposed scale.
The figuresby means
of which a number
When
called
we
are
digits.
speak in future
that this radix is
shall always mean
we
integergreater than unity.
expressed in
434.
any
To shew
in terms
that any
whole
number
is expressed
of any
radix
positive
some
he expressed
may
radix.
of any
Let N denote the whole number, r the radix. Suppose
that r" is the highest power of r which is not greater than
mainder
N; divide iV by r"; let the quotientbe a, and the reP : thus
N=ar*+P.
is
a is less than
Here, by supposition,
r, and P
than **. Divide P by r*^let the quotientbe b,and
remainder
Q
:
less
tl\e
thus
in this way until the remainder
Proceed
thus we
find N expressed in the manner
is less than
shewn
+
"r*"^
i
by the I
"
identity,
following
iV="zr"
r :
+
cr"~2+
+hr
+
k.
Each
one
any
h, k is less than r; and
digitsa^b,Cj
dfter
the first may
of them
happen to be
of the
or
260
NOTATION.
OF
SCALES
more
zero.
To
scale.
435.
given
a
express
whole
number
in any
posed
pro
number
we
mean
a whole
By a given whole number
expressed in words, or else expressedby digitsin some
scale
assignedscale. If no scale is mentioned the common
is to be understood.
Let N be the given whole number, r the radix of the
scale in which it is to be expressed. Suppose k, h,..c, b,a
the requireddigits,
with that
n + 1 in number, beginning
the righthand : then
on
N=ar^+br^~^
+
cr''~^+...+hr
+
k.
be the quotient;then it is
Divide iVby r, and let M
obvious
that M=af'''^
+ br*~^h
that the
+ /*,and
is k.
Hence
the first digitis found
remainder
by this
rule: divide the given number
by tlis proposed radix,
is the firstof the required digits.
and the remainder
J/ by r ; then it is obvious that the
is /t; and thus the second
remainder
of the required
digitsis found.
Again,divide
By proceedingin this
all the requireddigits.
436.
We
Transform
shall
now
32884
way
solve
we
some
shall find in succession
examples.
into the scale of which
the radix
is
seven.
7 132884
7 46!)7...5
767J_...0
7[Q^...6
7J23...4
1 ...6
Thus 32884
1 .7"+ 6.7* + 4.7' + 6.7' + 0. 7^ + 5,
80 that the number
expressed in the scale of which
radix is seven
is 164605.
=
the
270
SCALES
Transform
twelve.
74194
NOTATION.
OF
into tiie scale of which
12
tlie radix w
I74194
{6 182... 10
12_515...2
12
12 j42. ..11
3...G
Thus
74194=3.
12^
+
12^+11.122+2.12
6.
+ 10.
In order to express the nuiuber in the scale of which
che radix is twelve in the usual manner,
we
requiretwo
new
symbols,one for terijand tlieother for eleven: we will
and e for the latter. Thus tlio number
t for the former,
use
in
the
scale of which the radix is twelve is
expressed
36^2^.
is expressed in the scale of
the radix is nine,into tliescale of wluch the radix is
Transform
which
645032, which
eight.
8
[645032
72782...
The
division
4.
by eightis performed thus
:
First
eight is
have to find how
often eight is
not contained in 6, so we
contained iu 64; here 6 stands for six times nine, that is
often is eight conthat the question is how
so
tained
fiftyfour,
is seven
and the answer
times with
in fiftyeight,
Next
two over.
have to find how often eight is conwe
tained
in 25, that is how often eightis contained in twentythe answer
is twice with seven
Next
over.
we
have to find how often eightis contained in 70, that is how
often eight is contained in sixtythree,
and tlio answer
is
Next
have to find how
times with seven
we
seven
over.
often eightis contained in 73, that is how often eight is
is eighttimes with
and the answer
contained in sixtysix,
two over.
Next we
have to find how often eight is contained
in 22, that is how often eightis contained in twenty,
and the answer
is twice with four over.
Thus 4 is tlie first
of the required digits.
three,and
of the process ; the
"We will indicate the remainder
student should carefully
work it for himself,
and then com
EXAMPLES.
bis reaolt with
pare
:^71
XLIIL
that wliicb is here obtained.
72782
8
SI y210...2,
3
11023^..
8
n3...6
8
.5
8 1^2..
1...3.
so
.8" + 3. 8* + 5.8* + S.S'^f3. 8* + 2.8I4,
that,expressedin the scale of which the radix is eight,it
18
1356324.
Thus the unmber
437.
=
It is easy
1
to form
an
unlimited
number
of self
verifying
examples. Thus, take two numbers, expressed in
the common
stale,and obtain their sum, their difference,
these into any proposed
and their product,and transform
the
into the proposed
numbers
transform
scale; next
and their proscale,and obtain their sum, their difference,
duct in this scale ; the results shouUl of
with those already obtained.
spectively
Examples.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
radix
agree
twelve; transform
XLIII.
them
to
the
scale aud
common
together.
becomes
6.
Find
in what
scale the iinmber
4161
7.
Find
in what
scale the ninnbcr
.^261 becomes
Express 17161
divide it by te in
S.
9.
ro
Express 34042 in the scale whose radix is five.
Express 45792 in tlie scale whose radix is twelve.
Express 1866 in the scale whose radix is two.
Express 2745 in the scale whose radix is eleven.
Multiply eAt by te,these being in the scale with
multiplythem
and
course
Find
in the scale whose
that scale.
the radix of the scale in which
radix
is
lOIOl.
4020.5.
twelve,
13, 22, 33
are
in geometricalprogression.
10.
whose
Extract
the square
radix is twelve.
root
of eetOOl, in the scalo
272
INTEREST.
XL
IV.
Inter esU
The
subjectof Interest is discussed in treatises
on
Arithmetic; but by the aid of Algebraicalnotjitiou
the rules can
be presentedin a form easy to understand
438.
and to remember.
Interest is money
paid for the use of money.
The money
lent is called the Principal
The Ainount
at
end
of
the
of the Principal
a given time is the sum
and the
Interest at the end of that time.
439.
Interest is of two kinds,simple and compound.
When
interest is charged on the Principal
alone it is called
simple interest ; but if the interest as soon as it becomes
due is added to the principal,
and interest charged on the
whole,it is called compound interest.
440.
The rate of interest is the money
paid for the use
for a certain time.
In practice the sum
of a certain sum
is
and
the
time
is
and
when
one
we
usually^100,
year;
say
that the rate is "4. 5s. per cent, we
that "4, 5*.,that
mean
is "\\, is paid for the use of "100 for one
year. In thcorij
shall see, to use a symbol to denote
it is convenient,
as we
the interest of one pound for one year.
441.
442.
time at
To find the amount
of a given
in any
sum
given
simple interest.
P be the number
of pounds in the principal,
n the
of years, r the interest of one pound for one
year,
of
expressed as a fraction of a pound, M the number
of
in
the
the
amount.
Since
is
interest
one
r
pound
pounds
for one year, Pr is the interest of P pounds for one year,
and wPr is the interest of P pounds for " years; therefore
Let
number
M==
443.
the four
found:
P
+
Pnr
=
P{l
+
7ir).
nr\ if any three of
equationM=P{1+
M, P, n, r are given,the fourth can be
quantities
From
the
thus
r"
^*lT^'
MP
_MP
^
^~
Pr
'
^"
Pn
'
\
274
At
EXAMPLES,
XLIV.
ample interest
M^P{\
^
At
In
interest of a
the discount
448.
stead of
mediate
442;
D=M^P=^.
interest
compound
therefore
Art
""nr\ by
Jf=Pi2,
byArt444;
P^g;
D^MP=^^^^^.
practiceit
is
sum
as
allow the
of money
paid before it is due instead of
here defined.
Thus
at simple interest in
the
^
payer
to
common
very
would
be
allowed
Mnr
for im
payment
Examples.
At what
interest in one
rate
1.
yeur
XLIV.
will "a produce the same
per cent
"h produces when
the rate is "c
as
per cent 9
2.
Shew
that
a
of
at
money
given rate per cent
sum
becomes
greater at a
than
it does at twice
of years
of years.
that number
3.
Find
itself at
4.
interest
years.
a
that
interest
for
number
rate
a
given
per
of money
many
years a sum
rate of simple interest.
in how
given
compound
cent
for half
will double
nomial
Shew, by taking the first three terms of the Bithat at five per cent, compound
series for (1 4r)'*,
a sum
of money
will be
more
than doubled
in tiiteen
Examples.
Miscellaneous
1.
Find the values when
a^ + Za^h + Mh'^
+
275
EXAMPLES.
MISCELLANEOUS
6 and 6
a=
h^,of a2+10a"
+
=
4 of
9"2,of(a6)",
and of {a+ 96)(a" 6).
2.
5:c
Simplify
3.
Square Z

3
+ 9y
[2;p

2
{3a; 4 (y a;)}].


5x + 1x\
"
Divide 1 by l~x
+ x^ to four terms
to four terms.
1" arby lj^
4.
^
^
Q.
6.
Find
,.^^^P^y
:
also divide
4;c317:"+12
6:^m^l2
the
42?^ 9,
of
lC.M.
6jr5.r6, and
6a;24.5;._6.
a
X
7.
Simplify
"
a
1
solre
8.
^
a
+


+2
^
+
^2
"
X
2
+
a? +
+
"
/
7a;6
5
=
5.
The first edition of a book had 600 pages and was
divided into two parts. In the second edition one quarter
of the second part was
omitted,and 30 pages were added
the two parts of the
to the first part; this change made
same
length. Find the number of pages in each part in
the firstedition.
9.
exceeded
the
other by one third of the less,
the changeout of a "5 noto
difference
bills
of eacli
half the
of the
was
: find the amount
bill
10.
In
11. Add
paying two
one
bills,
together2/+2raj,
and from the result subtract
of which
z +
^s^y, x+^y^z;
x"y^.z.
18"2
27()
MJSCELLANEOUIS
12.
If
a
=
1, "
EXAMPLES.
3, and
=
c
5, find the value of
=
2a"4fe34.c3+a2(6c)
+ 62(2a^c)K;2(2a.^")
2a363+c8+a2(ftc)62(2ac)4c2(2a+")*
13.
14.
SimpUfy(a+")"(a+""X"*){a(26~2).(6"2a
Divide
by a^"ie^"2t^.
2ar*"V4^pV"''5^2/'42/'
a?*2a;3+^_l
15.
Reduce
16.
Find
19.
Solve
to its lowest terms
it^ka^+l
the
of
L.C.M.
i(a:3)
?(a:l)(a?+2)
4.
+
^
20.
=
4
o
persons A
Two
a;"9;"10,a^7a:30,
and
jB
own
together175 shares in
divide,and A takes 85
They agree to
railwaycompany.
shares,while B takes 90 shares and pays ;"100
a
the value of
21.
Add
22.
Find
a
to A.
Find
share.
together a+2;pj^+246, 3a4j"2^8l6,
2/2a455";
and subtract the result from 3a+"+3a?+2y.
^
+
when
.d?h
the
value
"=3, 6=2^, and
of
(2a36)",
y^+^7a6(2c2a5)
c=2.
23.
Simplify{x{x^a)a{xa)}{x{a}a)a{a'x)}.
24.
Divide
X^
"X^
1
X
""
"

gg"
"
result by multiplication.
g
26.
Findthea.c.M.
4
^7
1
X
*"^

3
2
'
^^^^^ ***"
ofa?4+3;c2_10andar*34:24.2.
MISCELLANEOUS
26.
SimpUfy
27.
Find
28.
Solve
^^^2

the
+
t:Tir
of
l.o.m.
_
277
EXAMPLES.
+
^
tt^
"
a^4:, 4a:'7a?2, and
S__=4.
A
29.
man
bought a suit of clothes for M. Is. Gd.
The trowsers cost half as much again as the waistcoat,
and
the coat half as much
again as the trowsers and waistcoat
together. Find the priceof each garment.
sells
number
of bushels of
and
bushels
of barley at
200
wheat at 75. 6d. per bushel,
and receives altogether
4s. 6d, per bushel,
as much
as if he
wheat
and
the
at
rate
both
had sold
of 5*. 6d. per
barley
much wheat did he sell1
bushel.
How
farmer
30.
A
31.
If a=l,
b
6
+
2, c="
=
certain
a
,
rf=0,find the value of
ad be
c
bdiac
bc
Multiply togethera? a, "", x+a,
an* divide the result by x^ + x{a + 6)+ ab.
32.
33.
Divide
34.
Find
and
a^b;
2x^'y.
^a:^x'hj^\'t/^h^
the
q.o.m.
of
Ax{x^"rlO)16x'Q2and
ar" 7a;410.
1
x
lowesti. Xterms
to its
^
35.
Reduce
36.
Simplify
1+
87.
Solve
aArh^^
^
"l^?Z^9
l2x'^\5xyk'Zy^
"Q^_Q^^y^2xy^2y''
4
2^:11+
14
23^^^
30
278
MISCELLANEOUS
38.
Solve
EXAMPLES.
9=2r
^
piece of work in one hour,B and G
hours: how long would
each in two
A, B, and C take,
working together?
39.
A
do
can
a
having three times as much money
pounds to B, and then he had t^vice as
40.
two
had.
A
How
Add
42.
Find
together
2x
+
3y
+
4Zf x2y
44.
Simplify
2a~3("~c)
Find
as
B
5Zf and
product of

the
{a~2(6c)}2{a3("~c)}.
+
of
g.c.m.
a;^+ 67a?2+ 66
45.
+
the sum, the difference,
and the
3a?2 Axy + 4y^ and 4;i;2
+ 2xy
'Sy\

43.
gave
much
had each at first?
much
41.
B
as
and
x*^2x^ + 2a^ + 2a}+\.
^^
a^^i
x
l.o.m.
of ;c2 4^ ^^2 5^ ^ g^ ^^^ x^9.
^'^^
Simplify
x* + 2j^'+2x^+2x
+
1'
46.
Fiod the
47.
Reduce
48.
Solve
3(aj^l)4(a?2) 2(3a:).
49.
Solve
J{9
_
_
""
to its lowest terms
~'^~
=
+
4x)
5'2^x.
=
How
much
be mixed
tea at 3^. 9c?. per lb. must
with 45 lbs. at 3*. 4c?. per lb. that the mixture
be
may
worth 35. ed. per lb.?
50.
Multiply3(x2+
producthy a + b.
51.
the
Find the
2ar'5x^'6x+15.
62.
63l
6'
a"
g.o.m.
of
hy a?2ab2b\
l+x
divide
+ 3(a?6)+ 15 and
2a;(;r3)
Simplify
i__L_
*
and
i__L
1
"4.
Simplify "^"l^^^.
56.
Solve
+
66.
Solve
ar +
=
68.
Solve
3^
=
.
2,
2(;c3)
3,
^(y3)
3(y5) +
^"2)
=
10.
=
Solve
7yz=lO{y
r"
59.
26
"
=
y
67.
2
7
1^(1+2^
=

^,
3
279
EXAMPLES.
MISCELLANEOUS
.
Solve
+
z), Zzx=4{z

+
x\
9xy
=
20{x+y%
ha
b
a
+
=w,

=n.
of a certain fraction exceeds the
denominator
be increased by 5 the
numerator
by 2 ; if the numerator
fraction is increased by unity: find the fraction.
60.
The
61.
Divide
^5
by
a?
X
33a:"49a;10
to its lowest
62.
Reduce
63.
Simplify
Solve
^.
a
65.
1
Solve
2^^_^^_^_^,
Ja^w(f.ll).
^
64.
terms
x'
3(a;l)+ 2(a?2)=;r3.
"l
^
y+l
66.
Solve 5:r + 2
67.
Solve
^
L,
=
2;c3
5
=
3y,
132y
=^.
6xyl0x'^^^^
S.
3 3,
=
4"+
g
=2*
280
MISCELLANEOUS
68.
Solve
^
Solve
"
69.
xiA.
sJ{x'^^AO)
=
x^ + ^x
,
EXAMPLES
+ 2
5x
X'x6
^^j
=
J72
Y
A father's age is double that of his son ; 10 years
three times that of his son : find
ago the father's age was
the presentage of each.
70.
Find the value whence
71.
=4
of
^(2x.l)(,.l)(3;^
72.
^"^ '*^ ^''''^^
Reduce
2a^Ux^+na!~6
and find its value when
73.
Resolve into
and x'"6x
a;
=
""''
3.
simplefactors x^"
3x
+
2,a^
"
*Jx+ lOf
+ 5.
^_3^^^^4.^_/^^^^^_
7^
Simplify
75.
Solve
76.
Solve 9^' 63;c
(5;rl).
j^(3;r+^^)^(4;c2
=
+ 68
0.
=
and a boy beingpaidfor certain days'
work,
77. A man
been
had
who
the man
and
received 27 shillings the boy
absent 3 daysout of the time received 12 shillings:
had the
instead of the boy been absent those 3 daystheywould
man
both have claimed an equalsum.
Find the wages of each
per
day.
Extract the square root of 9^*6a^ + Tx^2x+l;
and shew that the result is true when ;c
10.
78.
=
79.
If
a
:
b
:: c
a^c + ac"
80.
a*"d}
81.
by 8.
:
:
d, shew
Vd+hd^
::
that
{a"cf: {h+ df.
If a, b,c, d be in geometrical
shew that
progression,
\9"
greaterthan b^ + c'.
If
n
is a whole
nunSber 7'""*''
+ 1 is divisible
positive
282
MISCELLANEOUS
94.
Solve
95.
Solve
"y +
EXAMPLES.
+
^^
3
=
y
",
20(a?2/) 0, y5r430(t^2r)
0,
=
96.
=
Solve 2a^1x+
V (3.^2 4:r
_
3dy2xf=0.
6)
1 8 + 2a:.
=

He leaves
at the rate of 8J miles an hour.
time that B leaves Ely. A spends
Cambridge at the same
in Ely and is back in Cambridge 2 hours and
12 minutes
at the rate of 7^
after B gets there. B rows
20 minutes
Find the distance
miles an hour; and there is uo stream.
97.
from
sold
rows
Cambridge
Ely.
to
apple woman
findingthat apples have this
become
so much
cheaper that she could sell 60 more
lowered her priceand
she used to do for five shillings,
them one penny per dozen cheaper. Find the price
98.
year
than
A
An
per dozen.
99.
Sum
and to
to 8 terms
12
infinity
+ 4 +
1J +
...
Find
three numbers
in geometricalprogression
if
such that
1, 3, and 9 be subtracted from them in order
is 15.
whose sum
they will form an arithmetical progression
100.
101.
'iUvMiyl^x^a^^x^x^
x^^i;
+ x^x+x^lh^
and divide \
102.
Find
a^
103.
x*
"
"
by
the
1
+
.
of a?
L.C.M.
ax'"a^x
Simplify
ar

a*,
a^
+
a^,x*
+
o^,B.ndai^ + aa^a'x"d^,
^52"
"
"
a +
6
,
1+
~^,
a
104.
x+5
105.
"
b
Solve
l/x
Solve
2\
1x~l
+
4;"14
2/^
^
x~5
=;
a?+10
,
"
^l i^,
5
+
x
+
x
+
aW
+ a
106.
283
EXAMPLES.
MISCELLANEOUS
aj2+y3+ 5?2=50,
Solve
xy^yz"zx^^l.
and
B
travel
miles
rail. B
back again takes a return
ticket iot
intending to come
much
A
and
which he pays half as
again as
they find that
;
for
than
^d.
A by 4s.
B travels cheaper
every 100 miles.
the
of
A'e,
ticket.
Find
price
107.
A
108.
Find
between
3
third
a
the
the harmonic
mean
between
geometric mean
_,
and
togetherby
to
proportional
and
and
120
2
18
109.
yj
y\
110.
If
111.
Dividea;a
112.
Reduce
a
6
:
"
::
:
x\
3^
^
X""
"
.^'
fl:"
,a;"
.
20
to
"
Xr
r^
its lowest
terms, and
1.2
~~
^=2,
a?+2
13
xS
Solve
113.
4
Find
114.
+
by
! ^.7
n
n
"
3^7'
+
j
yj
that h^=
8n
a?"
"
find its value when
X
c, shew
8n
m^x^
root of
Exta*act the square
3(6a:)'
3
for which the equation
of m
will
have its roots equal to one
0
the values
(m' + 7n)axia^
=
another.
115.
116.
Solve 3^:2/
+ :f*= 10,
Solve

X
+

y
=
5,
'

y
5xy 2x1^=2.
+
^
=
X
.
21.
""
Find the fraction such that if you quadruple the
117.
and add 3 to the denominator
the fraction ia
numerator
and quadruple
doubled ; but if you add 2 to the numerator
the denominator
the fraction is halved.
284
EXAMPLES.
MISCELLANEOUS
118.
{(a;)'}*.
Simplify{(x')M"*x
The third term of an arithmetical
18 ; and the seventh term is 30: find the sum
119.
120.
shew
If
"
6,
X,
that a, ",c
of 17 terms.
be in harmonica!
"^
in
are
progressionis
progressioi
geometricalprogression.
1
121.
Simplifya"
+
ah
122.
the square root of
+ 9:c* 20a;y"
^Ixhp 30a:"y
+ Ay^,
Extract


123.
Resolve
,".
1
a
Solve
124.
S^r* I4a^24ca! into its simple factors.
^
3(5a:+l)
^
1
+ 5
j;
2a;l
5ii?+ 4
125.
Solve
^+J5=y.
126.
Solve
a;^y^ 9,
127.
Solve
y
128.
If a,
=
+
^(^^
6,c, d
a
are
:
4
=
r
6
+
a; +
2a;l
4
=
24.
*
3(i/l).
i) 2, J{x + 1)
=
_

^(a? 1) s/V

in Geometrical
fl?:: "?
:
Progression,
c^d+(P.
difference in an arithmetical proThe common
gression
is equal to 2, and the number
of terms is equsd to
the second term : find what the firstterm must be that the
sum
may be 35.
129.
130.
Sum
to
n
terms
Find the o.c.m.
132.
24a:* + 14a^48a!"32"r.
the series whose
wi*^ term
of 30a?*+ 16a?350j;'24:c
is
MISCELLANEOUS
133.
Solve
a^xl1
134.
Form
a
3 and

shall be
roois
2.
^+^ ^^^"
136.
Solve
137.
Having given ^3
"
Q.
quadraticequationwhose
Bolve

1^o
=
135.
7T
28A
EXAMPLES.
"x=l4
o
.,
=
173205, find the
value
of
to five placesof decimals.
1
138.
Extract
139.
Fiud
root of 61
the square

28
JZ.
x
the
\v
between
proportional
mean
aud

_
If a, 6,c be the first,
second and last terms
arithmetical progression,
find the number
of terms.
of the terms.
find the 8um
140.
141.
If
d, Cf b,a
a +
b+c
ab+c'
142.
1 + 5a; +
and
an
Also
2, 3, 4, 5, find the values of
/a"\
abcd
,
^63*
acbd'
by
In the product of l+4x
+ 15x*
+ '7a^\lOx^
9x^ + lZx^+nx*, find the coefficient of x*.
Divide 21ar^2x^
^^n
are
of
o"
!"*
lOa^

23a;2+ 33^7 + 27
a*"b*
_^^___V5?
by 7a;"+
a"b
?r_"".
4a?

9.
286
EXAMPLES.
MISCELLANEOUS
Solve the
144.
following
equation
Qi)x
,,,
(1)
^
6
.
^
12
xf4_5j? +
..
24yx
=
_
^ ^
a? +
3'"43;c^'
+"
^^'
^'
Q"
20
Solve the
145.
3:c~5
__
:
t/,i2"3*
following
equations:
20
21
/i\
(3) 3;t24a;2/=7,
3a^4j/2
=
bill of X20
find 32 piecesare used
kind.
is paid in sovereignsand
find how many
there were
A
146.
6.
:
crowns,
of each
A herd cost "180, but on 2 oxen
the
147.
beingstolen,
first
than at
rest average "1 a head more
: find the number
of oxen.
Find
148.
numbers
two
their
when
is 40, and the
sum
5
sum
of their
Find
149.
third
ia
reciprocals
a

.
to 2^ and 6f ;
proportional
mean
100. and
to
proportional
and
130.
If 8
gold coins and 9 silver coins are worth
much as 6 gold coins and 19 silver ones, find the ratio
the value ol a gold coin to that of a silver coin.
150.
Remove
151.
a
as
of
the brackets from
{xa){xb){xc)\pc{xa){{a\'h"c)X''a{h^c)]x
and
^{a^h)+
162.
Multiplya
+ 2
153.
Find
g.c.m.
4d:"

the
48.cS+ 1^^
_
234.
2
^/"by a

2
*J{a%)+
of a^16aj'493a?'234.rf
2
^b.
216
MISCELLANEOUS
164.
Solve the
^^
3oJ +
Solve the
3o?+l
2850?
_
9~3orl"3*
3C4)=n(i).
(3, ..=3,
155.
287
equations:
following
130? 1
",
EXAMPLES
equations:
following
+ ^/(2o:)=7.
(1) ^/(o;+l)
(2) 7o:20.v/o?3.
=
(3) 7o?"/5of2=36,4ory 3^2=105.
in oranges ; if he had
money
for
his
they would have averaged
bought 5 more
money
more
: find how
an
halfpennyless,if 3 fewer an halfpenny
156.
much
he
157.
boy spends his
A
spent
Potatoes
6 lbs. for bd.
:
are
find the
sold
so
gain per
as
to
cent,
gain 25 per cent,
when
they are sold
at
at
5 lbs.for e^;.
A horse is sold for "24, and the number
the profitper cent, expresses also the cost
of the horse : find the cost
158.
159.
pressing
ex
price
Sunplify
^{Aa^+ ^{IQa^x^4 Saaj*+ or*)}.
160.
If the
161.
the following
:
Simplify
expressions
of two fractions is unity,shew that the
firsttogetherwith the square of the second is equalto the
second togetherwith the square of the first.
sum
a~\h{a+ (Jba)]l
26a
19"[36{4a(566(j)}]8a,
[{(a)}^][{(""r"nn
288
MISCELLANEOUS
EXAMPLES.
162.
Find
the
g.O.m.
of 18"z'18a2;c+
163.
Find
the
L.C.M.
of
24(^
+
and
6^^26:^3,
\S{a^y^l I2{xy)\ and
2/3).
164.
Solve the
equations:
following
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4) 2(a?y) 3(a;4y),
+ y) ll(a?48)
14(a?
=
165.
Solve the
(1)
=
following
equations:
32;c5a?2=l2.
(2) ^{2x + ^)J{x2)=\5.
(3)
a;2+
y2=290,
;ry
=
143.
(4) 3;B24y^=8, 5a^56;C2/32.
=
4 and B togethercomplete a
would
have occupied A alone 4
it employ B alone ?
166.
which
would
work
in 3
days: how
days
long
2
167.
Find
two
of their squares,
96
times
the
numbers
whose
productis

of the
sum
and
is
the difference of their squares
quotientof the less number divided by the
greater.
168.
Find
a
fraction which
becomes

on
its
increasing
o
numerator
nator.
by 1, and

on
its denomiincreasing
similarly
290
MISCELLANEOUS
176. "When are
after 12 o'clock ?
EXAMPLES,
clockhands at rightanglesfirst
the
divided
gireaas quotient2, and the
27 : find the number.
177.
number
A
by the product of its digits
digitsare inverted by adding
A bill of "26. 15". was
and
paid with halfguineas
exceed^ the numand the number
of halfguineas
ber
crowns,
of crowns
by 17 : find how many there were of each.
178.
to six terms
179.
Sum
180.
Extract
181.
If
182.
Reduce
183.
If two
and to
12
infinity
the square root of 55
"=^^,and y=4lTi
^^^
"
3^2
same
digitsin
the numbers
184.
to its lowest terms
a
Solve the
5^ +
..
..
_
t^e yalue of
\Qx"
12
a^^a^Ux+l'k'i'
equations:
following
(1)
214a?
3^4
3a;3
9
3
4
2a; +
185
+
be expressedby the
of two digits
numbers
reversed order,shew that the difference of
be divided by 9.
can
(2)
8
/v/24.
7

+
3y
"
g"
ly^^r.
x_
+
38,
2
2/11.
Solve the following
equations:
24.
(1) ^(a;.3)xV(3a?3)
=
(2) ^(a?+ 2)+ ^(3;c+ 4)
=
(3) a^'x^{2x2)
=
8.
2x\^
of 9 to 7
Find two numbers
in the proportion
shall be equal to the
such that the square of their sum
cube of their difference.
186.
291
EXAMPLES
MISCELLANEOUS
traveller sets out from A for B, going3^ miles
Fortyminutes afterwards another sets out from
A
187.
hour.
B for Ay going 4^ miles an hour,and he goes half a mile
beyond the middle pointbetween A and B before he meets
the first traveller;find the distance between A and B.
an
188.
Two
189.
li
A bets B
persons A and B play at bowls.
four shillings
to three on every game, and after playinga
certain number
of games A is the winner of eightshillings.
The next day A bets two to one, and wins one
more
game
and
that
he
out of the same
finds
has
to
receive
number,
three shillings.
of games.
Find the number
shew that
m
mn
Sum
190.
=
+
x"
x'^ and
y~^,
n=y"
J{{m^+ 4)(n'+ 4)}
2
=
9
to nineteen terms
Multiply3
4
4
o
Reduce
.
t
2
+
....
4
32.
+
58^39

Find
193.
^
4
a;* 9ar*+ 29a;2 39;c
the
Solve the
L. o. M.
*
+
18
of a^k2^V+
^'^+ 8t/^and
:
following
equations
(1)
l(a;
+ e)^{16Sa:)
4l
(2)
'^^Z^
^?t^
(3)
j
to itslowest terms
4^ 27.^2
194.
+

+
"
^4i!'+^*"V"'t*+27
by ^*+a
DiTide
192.
jby
+
+
3
3
:, +
4
191.
/^
=
=
s.20,
4), l{a^y)^l{a:l{x+y)=l{2x
+
19"2
292
EXAMPLES,
MISCELLANEOUS
195.
equations:
following
Solve the
(1)
\{x^^)=\{mZ),
(2) J(a;+ 3)+ V(3iC3)
(3)
a? +
=
10.
+ 2^)
(a;2+2,2)(^
y=6,
=
i44o.
and CamLondon
bridge,
The express train between
which travels at the rate of 32 miles an hour, performs
the
in
less
hours
than
the journey
parliamentary
2$
train which travels at the rate of 14 miles an hour: find
the distance.
196.
of two digits,
which
Find the number, consisting
and is
is equalto three times the product of those digits,
of the digits
the
also such that if it be divided by the smn
quotientis 4.
197.
of a certain
The number
of resident members
in
ber
college the Michaelmas Term 1864, exceeded the numin 1863 by 9.
If there had been accommodation
in
in
number
1864 for 13 more
students in college
the
rooms,
in lodgings,
collegewould have been 18 times the number
and the number
in lodgings would have been less by 27
Find
the
than the total number
of residents in 1863.
of residents in 1864.
number
198.
199.
the square
Extract
a"
and of

la^h
+
root of
ZaW

2at^
+
h\
(a+ 6)^2(a2+ 62)(^+ 5)2+2(^4+ 2,4).
Find a geometrical progressionof four terms
Buch that the third term is greater by 2 than tlie sum
of
the first and second, and the fourth term
is greater by 4
of the second and third.
than the sum
200.
201.
Multiply
83x+'^"^'8
T2x
7^' 55
by
^2x
+
30a;
+
6Zx
202.
Find the
g. c. m.
of x*
+
4:X^+ 16 and x*x^
+
8xS.
I
MISCELLANEOUS
203.
Add
together^^,
Take
\"x
\+x+x'^
204.
^5^..,^^^^.
from
r
,
293
EXAMPLES
Solve the
+
x^
following
equations:
(2) {a+ h){ax)^a(pxl
^^
205.
Solve the
(1)
^
'
*'
12
16
a
"
following
equation*:
6x+
=
44.
X
+ Sx)2^{x^
(2) 4:{x^
(3)
;r2+ :cy
=
+
3x)
15, y^+ xy
=
=
l%
lQ.
A person walked out from Cambridge to a viTIago
at the rate of 4 miles an hour, and on reachingthe railway
for the train which was
station had to wait ten minutes
which were
then 4^ miles off. On arrivingat his rooms
the Cambridge station he found that he had
a mile from
Find the distance of the village.
been out 3j hours.
206.
of a number
is less by 2 than the
The tens digit
207.
and if the digits
units digit,
number
ai*e inverted the new
is to the former as 7 is to 4 : find the number.
of money
consists of shillings
and crowns,
A sum
208.
of crowns
and is such, that the square of the number
Is
also the sum
is
equal to twice the number of shillings;
of
florins
there
worth as many
as
are
: find
pieces
money
the sum.
209.
Extract the square root of
4x*
210.
firstterm
+
8ax^
+
4a2:"2+ isb^x^ + 16ai^x
+
16ft".
Find the arithmetical
progression ol wmcn
is 7, and the sum
of twelve terms is 348.
ine
294
MISCELLANEOUS
Divide 6a?"
211.

by 2;"27^
+
25^y
4 47^V

49.iV + 62:ry* 45y"

92/2.
Multiply
212.
12
"
EXAMPLES.
+
^
2 + ^^
213.
41a: + 36;i:?
u
4T7^"
Reduce
26j78:p"14
^y^^^^
"
o
'
34;r
to its lowest terras
4ar345.g^4162.r185
ar*15;c* + 81^'' 185.C+
214.
Solve the follo^Ning
equations:
^^'
11
6
(2) a?+y=17,
^^^
216.
160'
t/+^^.^=8.
i^y~2' ^"^^"9' y'^^'lS'
Solve the
following
equations:
^^
a;
ar +
3
6
(2) lO;Fy7;i?27^ 5y2_3ary
=
=
(3)
a?42/
=
6, a;*+ 2^
=
20.
272.
Divide "34. 4*. into two parts such that the number
in the one
of crowns
of
may be equal to the number
in the other.
shillings
216.
217.
A
of three digits
whose
number, consisting
sum
is
equalto 4*2 times the sum of the middle and lefthand
of the
digits;also the righthand digitis twice the sum
9, is
otiier two
:
find the umnber.
of railwayshares when
person bought a number
at a certain price for i,'2U25,
and afterwards
they were
when
the priceof each shar^ was
doubled,sold them all
but five for "4000 : find how many shares he bought
218.
A
in arithmetical
productof the second
numbers
is 50, and the
their sum
156 : find the numbers.
219.
Pour
Extract
221.
Divide ^
root of 17 + 12
by or* 1
1
;
and
Find
21;c2_26^
the
Solve the
7:5^4*2214?+
12
and
fdlowingequations:
?^?^=7.
(2) 17^13^
/3)
^ '
144, 23;p + 19y
1
i
=
y
Solve the
'
=
11
X
^
of
l. c. m.
8.
+
(i)
225.
mxn,
Simplify
223.
224.
and third ia
J%
Tn{qji^rx)+p{Tnx^njF)n{qx"r)hj
222.
progressioa;
are
the square
220.
2%
EXAMPLES.
MISCELLANEOUS
100
%'
X
+
l
i
1"
89a
=
i
A
=
=
^'
z
z
y
72*
following
equations:
l^x
(2) "0075;J"+
4
75:1?=150
(3) J{x^y)"j{xy)
6("a)
+
=
j",
a("y)=0.
A person walked out a certain distance at the
226.
rate of 3^ miles an hour,and then ran part of the way back
tance
at the rate of 7 miles an
hour, walking the remaining disHe was
in 5 minutes.
out 25 minutes : how far did
he run?
leaves his property amounting to "7500
227. A man
to be divided between
his wife,his two sons, and his three
(Laughtersas follows: a son is to have twice as much as
296
a
MISCELLANEOUS
EXAMPLES.
than all the fivechilthe widow ^500 more
chOfl
dren
much
each person obtained.
: find how
together
daughter,and
be
filled by two pipesin 1^ hours.
than
The larger pipe by itself will fill the cistern sooner
Find what time each will sepathe smaller by 2 hours.
rately
228.
cistern
A
can
take to fillit
The third term of an arithmetical progression
is
and
first
the
sixtli
term is 17: find
four times the
term;
the series.
229.
230.
Sum
231.
:
Simplifythe followingexpressions
to
3^ + 2^ + If+
terms
n
6
a +
6
2a
a'ah
+
+
.
..
o2+"2
h
2a(a")*
b''
a^b^
X
a?2+ lia?+30
to its lowest terms
232.
Reduce
233*
Solve the following
equations:
^^
x'^2x
(2)
^ '
^
1 +
Solve the
(1)
^
+
'
(2)
3*
3x
I=
8.
\x
a;
2x"y
5y
4a; +
".
234.
9a;3+ 53a;294?18
1
^
following
equations:
J8_^_16^_
x
'S
+
aa^
+
a?+10
b^+c^=a^
+
2bc
+
2(pc)x^a,
(3) ^/(^+y)+^/(a;y)=4, x' + y^=4l.
298
MISCELLANEOUS
EXAMPLES
"
the
bought
at
borrow
355.
they at
244.
number
leaves
a
to
p^ce 350 lbs.,but
complete the payment.
same
I to
fA
obliged
was
How
much
had
first?
two digitsof a number
are
is subtracted
thus formed
from
of the
remainder equal to the sum
The
inverted ; the
th" first,and
ference
digits;the difis unity: find the number.
of the digits
Find three numbers
the third of which exceeds
the first by 5, such that the product of their sum
plied
multi245.
by the firstis 48, and
by the third is 128.
the
product of
their
sum
tiplied
mul
lends
A
at a certain rate ot
"1024
person
interest ; at the end of two years he receives back for his
of "1150:
capitaland compound interest on it the sum
find the rate of interest.
246.
of money
I take away
247. From
"50 more
a
swn
than the half,then from the remainder
than the
"30 more
from
than
the
second
remainder
the
then
"20
more
fifth,
find the original
fouith part; at last only "10 remains:
sum.
248.
numerator
Find
such
a
fraction that when
its value becomes
,
2 is added
and when
1 is
to the
taken fron
o
the denominator
its value becomes

.
4
the smaller of two numbers
by the
is
'04162 ; if
greater,the quotientis '21,and the remainder
I divide the greater number
by the smaller the quotientis
4, and the remainder is 742 : find the numbers.
249.
If I divide
250.
Shew
251.
Simplify
that ^"^
^^^
=
"
r
r
.
6a4[4a{8"(2a+ 46)226}76]
[7"+ (8a (3"+ 4")+ 85}+ 6a].


a* + u^,
Multiplya^x
successively
by a + a?,a* + ;"*,
also multiply
a"*'" fe*"' by a"~"*^"''"""
4fia^\
252.
MISCELLANEOUS
253.
Find
the
254.
Solve the
g.c.m.
299
EXAMPLES.
of 46a';r + 3^'a;29a^
+ 6^
and
followingequations:
(1) x^^"
".
(3) ax=J{a'^xJ{Aa^'*la^).
Divide the number
such that
208 into two parts,
the sum
of one quarter of the greater and one third of the
less when increased by 4, shall equal four times the difference
of the two parts.
255.
Two
A
men
purchase an estate for ^9000.
if
the
whole
B
him
while
B
half his capital,
pay
gave
could pay the whole if A gave him onethird of his capital
:
find how much
each
of
them
had.
money
256.
could
piece of ground whose
breadth by 6 yards,has an area
of
257.
A
length exceeds the
91 square
yards : find
its dimensions.
258.
A man
buys a certain quantityof applesto divide
his children. To the eldest he giveshalf of the whole,
8 apples;to the second he gives half the remainder,
among
all but
all but 8 apples. In the same
also does he treat the
manner
and
third
fourth child. To the fifth he givesthe 20 apples
which remain.
he bought.
Find how many
259.
The
their squares
260.
"\^A,
and
A
of two
horsedealer
gainsjustas
had cost him.
261.
is 13, the difference of
numbers
is 39 ; find the numbers.
sum
Find
buys a horse,and sellsit againfor
x)oundsper cent, as the horse
many
what
he gave
for the horse.
SimpUfy
("n6)(a6){a+ "cC6ac)
+
(t+ca)}(a"c)t
300
MISCELLANEOUS
Multiply a?+af^\a:^"x^+\ by x^\)
262.
^
X
EXAMPLES
1
by
+
and
1.
''ax
a
multipliedby
263.
"What
quantity,when
264.
the following
expressions:
Simplify
Za^lZx'^
r a^h
a?",
+ 2Zx'2.\
2"2
ah
\ab
2b
\2{flh)
2(o ")'^a2"2/
'
+
265.
Solve the followingequations
:
"1) ^31^2^31
(2) ^(3 +
(3)
266.
+ 90?=
167.
following
equations:
a^xQ
^+1
(9\
^^
.)W=^.
f +9y=91, ^
Solve the
(1)
6.
=
=
a? +
Q.
2_2^+13
a?l"'".'c2~
^p+r*
(3) x^"xy
+
y'^=7,
x
+ j/=
5,
The ratio of the sum
to the difference of two
is that of 7 to 3. Shew that if half the less be
added
to the greater,and half the greater to the less,
the
ratio of the numbers
formed will be that of 4 to 3.
so
267.
numbers
The
priceof barleyper quarter is 15 shillings
less than that of wheat, and the value of 50 quarters of
barleyexceeds that of 30 quarters of wheat by "7. I0s,i
find the priceper quarter of each.
268.
Shew
269.
that
cda
(pcd+
dab
+
dbcf {a^l
+
Extract
"
"
the square
root of
5x^
,
.
ar\ar
and of
1 .
3320^2.
=
272.
Divide
273.
Add
ar*21^
Zakx
974.
MultiplyBx
,
from
1^
^r"
,
"k
"^i"
^
a?
+
4;g^^_^
+
rf
^^^"^^
a^
ax
?_0^7.
a;
(2) 5y3a?=2,
(3) ^
by
following
equations:
'
X
.
1+^^.
by
(1) lL2
=.
^
7a;2
+
Simplify
Solve the
and
,
^^_^^
c
276.
l3;p+a".
27a*+3"^
.
^r
275.
x2if, and (;=a?^ya2r,
+
by
8
+
together
Take
Divide
9'
3
b
271. li a=ykz2x,
z
find the value of b'^+ c^ + 2bc"a\
,
1
X
,
12
_,
dfabcd
+ c^
{he ad){ca bd){ab cd),

"
270.
301
EXAMPLES
MISCELLANEOUS
8y5a?=l.
2"1,
3+24,
a^
.
302.
MISCELLANEOUS
EXAMPLES,
Solve the following
equations:
277.
(1) a?{xaf
+ a)\
J"^{x
=
5x+l
x
,^.
^
(3) ^{nx\)sJ{2x\)
5.
=
at the
person walked to the top of a mountain
the same
rate of 24 miles an hour, and down
at the
way
miles an
and
rate of
out
5
hours: how farfl
was
hour,
did he im^k altogether]
A
278.
3
^
that the difference between the square of a
number, consistingof two digits,and the square of the
number
formed by changingthe placesof the digits
sible
is diviShew
279.
by
99.
li
280.
'.h :: c
a
:
d, shew that
+ h^): U{(^
:: ll{a?
+ "2): J^c'^d^)
+ d^).
^/(a2
W'hen
a
the value of
Fmd
281.
3, 6
=
/,
,
+
.
^^^^
V
.o,
4.
=
Subtract (""a){c" d) from {a b){cd): what
the value of the result when a= 2b, and d=2c'l
282.
"
Reduce
283.
to their
x^"2ax24a*
"
=
7a^"
284.
=
:
x
y
.
1
xvy
x"y
,
y"x
equations:
_^_i
(1)
'
^'
xy
and
44a'
Solve the
^
simplestforms
,
"
=
ar"
y
Z^x
=
5
(3) J{2x\)
A.
Ix
X
2
+
~^'
3^2"^
s/i^x+lO) J{nx^%),
=
ia
285.
Solve the
SOS
EXAMPLES.
MISCELLANEOUS
equations:
1^
9.
(1)
10;" +
"^)
(I?0(M).
^
'
=
lx
(3) iiP'xyvy^=*ly5:c2y=9.
286.
In
a
time
boat is rowed
one
race
the
; another
over
course
at an
moves
yards per second
average pace
of
the
rate
the
at
the
half
of
first
course
over
3^ yards per
half
and
last
at
the
over
second,
\\ yards per second,
seconds
later tluin the firsts
15
the
reaching
winning post
Find the time taken by each.
of 4
rectangularpictureis surrounded
by a narrow
hnear
feet,and costs,
measures
altogetherten
three shillingsa foot,five times as many
as
shillings
A
frame, which
287.
at
there
are
square
length and
288.
feet in the
breadth
li
of the
of the
area
picture. Find
the
picture.
a.hv.c'.d, shew
that
'b
a\l)\c\d\a^'b
"
c
"
d\\a
'b\cd'.a
"
"
"
c\d,
The volume
of a pyramid varies jointlyas the
of its base and its altitude.
A pyramid, the base of
area
is 10
which
is 9 feet square, and the height of which
feet is found to contain 10 cubic yards. Find
the height
of a pyramid on a base 3 feet square
that it may contain
2 cubic yards.
289.
290.
Find the
1
gression
291.
6=1,
l+a;'
Find
c=07.
gum
1
\3^'
of
n
terms
of the arithmetical pro
1
\x
the value of a'

fr^
^. ^3 +
3^5^^^hen
^
.
.93^
304
EXAMPLES,
MISCELLANEOUS
{achdf+{ad^lcyo^iand
Simplify
c' d^
292.
shew
that
+
293.
If
294.
Reduce
"i +
"+
c
=
0, shew
that a^^'b^^"?
=
Zabc,
to its lowest terms
a:^+ 2^
+
6;c9
+ 2)^/(4:^?3)
20.
(2) ^/(2a;
=
+ l)^/(2;cl)=l.
(3) ^/(3a;
A siphon would
297.
empty a cistern in 48 minutes,
it is empty both
fiU it in 36 minutes ; when
a cock would
begin to act : find how soon the cistern willbellied.
298.
and he
A
time
up and down.
the
same
299.
and
hack in 12 hours,
in
5 miles "vith the stream
row
can
3 againstit. Find the times of rowing
waterman
finds that he
as
rows
30 miles
Insert three Arithmetical
a+".
300.
Find
a;
if 2**; 2^^ :: 8
:
1.
and
means
between
ah
306
ANSWERS.
VIII.
7.
8a?".
1.
12a^
2.
24a*27rt*".
iaH^.
3.
6a?VS:"'y + 10a?^*/^2,
8,
6a;V^2_ioa;V2^.
2;J^+
10.
4^V^
12.
60^96.
14.
l2^31;r2
15.
0;=+ 151.tr234.
18.
a;*+10080.'
19.
4a;*5;r* + 8ar"10^8.r5^4.
20.
0^
22.
a^+Aa^x
24.
a4a262
S6.
28.
25. iPxh/' + xh^'^.
+ 3.r2/2+2y3.
7^22,
+ 26a;^2^.i
6;zr*+17;cV
9^,^4.4^^
29.
;c^+?/^
+ 3.^2a?22/+l.
31.
243:c=2/^
33.
a3 +
34.
a3 +
36.
"*2a263 4.j4 + 4^5c'c*.
38.
a?3+
39.
a?*+ar*a*+ a^
+
72a;"30.r*.
Ix^lbx^
17.
+
2x^+1.
2a"3_64,
+
Z^a^^oa^+x^^l,
+
23.
lC2"3a^"2
25.
a*
+
+
26a2"7a".
3a"52 + 46^
12a'"1
32.
6;r3^
4.
Sa^"V.
7.
o'
+
8.
a;*
10.
15a*i"* 12053+ 9a5c' 5c*.
13.
a?
16.
a;*3a;+7.
17.
x^
18.
"^+dbb\
19.
.a^+
20.
a^x^y
21.
X^
22.
a^
2a
2o^6a""
25.
a^
+
2a36 + 4"35*
+
+
+
3a^.
9.
*4.
Zc?b^ + ahA.
12.
15.
^8.
3;r'+ 2A+l.
x^ + 9^ + s^ + x+\.
+ 9.^2/'
+ 272/*.
3ar^2/
a^y+a^y^+xy^+j/^.
Saft^+ 1 6"^
18a"2_27^^^
2xy + 2y*.
""5;r + G.
+

11.
3cir'2.2?+4.
xy*.
Aa\
5?"22? + 4.
6.
3:rz/+ 4?/'.

14.
+
3.
4a^6V.
5.
+ x + 2.
5c)4Adc.
3a'.
2.
4a5.
+
a^QO^.^
40.
a^a*
?7.
+ ac
+ " + c)+ ;c(rt6
d?2(a
1.

ar^32i/5.
30,
x^Aif+Vlyz^z\
"=6 + a2"2+ g"3^.252^,_^^_^^^^
53 + c33"5c.
35.
a*486V(a"2)+ i6d*ie*.
IX.
28.
120.
x^^a^x,
21.
Aa'a^x^.
+
iir'41^
15.
720.
+
1x^+2x^
+
3a^2^.
x^2x"\.
13.
+
H.
26.
29.
24.
a7^2.r + 2.
^24x
+
8.
Jf"+ .ijy+ j/*.
27.
a'Sj?!.
SO,
^^5^^^.
307
ANSWER/S.
31.
a^0D\9.
33.
a?*+ 2a^
35.
32.
l'^x
3^+2^+l.
^x^a^
+
Zl^.
34.
a^^^ab
a^ + 2a?h + 2ab''"b\
3G.
a;^
37.
ix^\^2a^^Zx' + 1x
38.
A'"a;"+20^^2.
39.
;rc.
42.
a^
44.
" +
48.
a" + "(25c) + 6'6c
48.
+ ")+ a".
a;'^;^(d5
d
45.
+ c.
1. 225a;2 +
5.
4:1?^
12.^ 7^
10.
7^
a +
2"
+
47.
49. x+yz,
4.
4;?.
+
"7.
a(6 + c)6c.
60.
a; +
y +
;".
+ 25y*.
49x*70x^y''
2.
iC^10a7'+ 39;c270;c+ 49.
+ 24a? +16.

14.
16;c*+
a*4"2624a""6*
13.
+ l44.2;V8l2/*.
96.r'V
aW2an)'^x'^y^+ l*y\
XI.
a" + ?""+ c'.
1.
a" + 6"+c".
4.
+ " + c).
6("Jt
7. hx + ay\{aJfh)z.
"^ + "' + c2+ c?*+2a"; + 266?.
6.
6. 2h{x+ y).
2(a + " + c).
+
+ a)+ ^(2c + 6).
a;(2rt
c)+ 2/(25
+ ^ + ;2f).
2(a + 5 + c)(a7
6^ +
10.
2("'+
c;""i6"cca).
2a + Aby.
13.
12.
h^d\
16.
2a5"
19.
a^"x^y+ xy^+ y\
22.
36.
24.
6c'
17.
+ 4"7.
23.
+
c(9a+
6.
20.
a*a!*'l*y\
15.
2.
3,
9.
43.
+ a;V
4. 9^2 + 4^y + g;^^ + i2y^. 7. x* + 2ar^y
42,2
V^;z?^
+ a;V + ?/^.
9. x^xhflxif^y^.
11. ic"+ 2.2;44.5^2_i,.
X^x^y^'+ ^xify^.
ic* 18.2?'^
+ 81.
8.
+ 2/'.
;"'2.2;y
+
12.
16.
41.
c".
+
+ 196yl
420^^2/
ar^+ 4a:38a; + 4.
8.
\.
+
3.i?2
+ 4.2;
+ 1.

hxkc.
+
x{y+\) + y'^y+
3.
6. ^2
+ \.
ax^
40.
+
X.
+
6ll".
11.
14.
18.
+ rt)". 15.
".
(^c
^c^+ ^V + ^2/"
+ 2/^
12a6c.
21.
aJft+
c +
rf.
9a''30a"4256".
4")6rt".
25.
(^'+^
+
y')*.
808
ANSWERS.
a' + 6'.
35.
a^axA.a\
36.
34.
a+x.
37.
38.
+ 5).
+ 4)(j;
+ 6).
(^ + 5)(a;
(a;
(ar5)(d;10).40. {x\Qif. 41. (a;11)(a;+ 12).
43.
+ 3)(a;2+9).
(a?3)(a?
(;c44)(a?ll).
+ 5)(jf"5aj
+ 25).
(a;
+ 4)(^+16).
+ 2)(:c"
(a?2)(*
+ 2a; + 4) {of 2x + 4).
"2)(a;2
(^ 2)\x
48.
(a? 6y)(;i;7y).
(a+ 4")(a+ 5").
(a + 65c)(a + 66c).
(2^ + 2ya5)(;c + 2/3a3").
39.
42.
44.
45.
46.
47.
49.
60.




XII.
1
S.r'.
7a'Wv".
7. 4(a"+6").
4a"6".
2.
3.
2(a;+l).
a7"2/". 9.
4.
5.
8.
6.
a; +
12:"V^.
3(;c+l).
5.
10.
;c7.
11.
a?
10.
12.
a;
12.
13.
a;'4 3.2;+ 4.
14.
;c"5j? + 3.
15.
;c'6^+7.
16.
a^Qx~5.
17.
a? +
18.
iy4.
19.
ar^x"\.
20.
""":
21.
3^7+2.
22.
cc'^xl.
23.
iB*2.
24.
x2,
25.
a;''+l.
26.
"'
27.
7ar'+ 8^
28.
a?*2a;3 + 3^2^+l.
30.
^
34.
x2a,
3.
XIII.
4.
7.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
1.
3a?45.
+
+
+
1.
31.
x
+
35.
1.
12a'"".
+ l.
29.
1.
32.
a;'3^+l.
33.
.f+3y.
A' + o.
;i;i/.
2.
36a362c3.
3.
^Aa^l^a^y^.
6. (a+ 6)(a^ ^s)^
5. 12a6(a'+ 63).
(a+ ")(" 6)1
8. {x + 2){x+ ^){pi?
+ ZxA\).
+ 3)(jr4).
(a?+l)(;c
+ 3).
a?(2;"+l)(3:cl)(4.r
(^5a? + 6)(;27l)(;c4).
(V+ 3:c42)(a?3)(a;
+ 5).
+ a?+l)(;B"+l)(d7+l)(aJl).
(a;"
\as^^a^^^x
+ ^){xl){xA).
+ a")(;"'
+ aa? + a')(;ca)'.
(a;*a:"
:.
36a'i"c'.
16.
120(a + 6j'(a")*
_
909
ANSWERS.
105a5"(a+ ")(a6).
17.
24(a*)(a"+ 63).
19.
a^l.
"2.
23.
+ 3).
+ 2)(^
(a;+ l)(a;
+ l)(a;+2)(^
(a?
+ 5:c+10).
(;c319;c30)(:r"
24.
a^^l.
21.
1
4ac+^.
2.
1.30;+^.
9
7
2a?5^.
6j?
a^"Zax
7.
a^
20.
XIV.
4.
18.
2;r^.
"3
6.
"
8.
".
x\
'
x"2a'
^.
2a+
4a
a; +
Za*\
+
^+f^.
3
5.
3.
2a;3}.
+
"c*"x + l'
4*2*
2
8{a^+b^
3(a + ")
"
3a + 26
4a;
^^
^^
^"^"32^ ^^r2a^;g
w
JL\
^
5.
1.
,
i^r
5{a"b)
10
a"b
x
+
4:c
+ c
'
5'
+
13.
x
:.
'
x +
^^
^r.
3*
30.
,
+
Zx+Z'
^r^+
^
+ 2
2a'
aa;"
22.
'
4:'
2x'+3a'
,
+ 5
3u;'+
2x^
3a;(:g'5a2)
^'
^
"'^^
25
3.r"4.;c
+ 2
c
a"
"
19.
.
^+^
+
6
x'
24.
;c
^""z*z:".
^"
21.
2*?
".
16.
4:
"
",
5.
x"7
a; +
lx + Z^
3;B"+ a;+l"
flj
n
+ 3
9.
x"5
"
.?'
18.
:^ax+a'^'
29.
5
+
^,
x'
a;"4;z;3'
^"
x
^
.
^3
^5^
r^"^.
2.i:^
+
x^7
.
o.
?^.3
12.
ax3y^'
+ 2
r.
x
?^^
,^:^3
a?"
20.
x
l
+
2ax
ab'
7.
.
'
x^
b
+
^
11.
a^2x
17.
b*
+
T
^^
.
'
.
'
_
+ c
14.
a
^
3.
"
2b
O.
.
^^
a;
rr;
(a;l)^(a;+l)'
(a:"l)(;r+l)
3(^T6)6
fl^+
2,
"
a^cib
4{a + b)
"7
~z
x^
3{ab)
2(a + 6)'
2(^5)
.
31.
'
^^'
r^,.
+
3ax
+
4a*'
^::^
_^+1_
+
x^+l'
32.
^,.
a*
310
ANSWERS,
a(a+5)(a^ + "^)
{x^+
a
g")
+
ax
+ l)"
(.rl)(;r
.
a;^+
a^
+
ga;
40.
{xa){xb){x"cy"'
6a66c
XVI.
"
*
a+"
_2c"_
cfiW'
a
2a
ax
l^
Aa6*
"
17.
^"
T?.
a262*
15.
a^a;*
*
4(;r+10)
^^
^
05
**
2.2;2t^^444
a^
31. 1.
32.
J
(l+^2)(i+^)
2^^+ 2
'*''"
0:32/3
,1^.
41.
"fi
^^
42.
+
..
(*'o2)(*"9"2)
ys
4^a^^3_^ya)
'
a'^x^bHf
i^,.
43.
^,
^''*'
y.
0.
_2^
^s
a;^+ ;ir2+l*
0.
64:
33.
^^3^.
q"
"
'
+
x^"2x
j.
'
J4.
x^1
^^'
2a
6
+ 2)*
a;(ar+l)(:c
'
x'16
"
",~Po.^'30.
.
25.
"
QtP' \ax"ofi
.
+ 3)*
+ 2)(.r
(a;+ l)(a;
?^^":^\
a*
b*
24.
a^;i:^
44.
i
2^
?^
22
''^yiofiy'^y^^"lx^' x^V
4a^{a''ax+ x^)
40.
2
18.
.
*
__J^^
_^^.
x{x^"a^)
J2^
2)^'
+
_
^^'
^7'"
9c2
+
6ac
a + x
7
"
{x''\){x2y
"
g^zr^*
"
2a2
4fl^
,^
5;z^^7^
"4
**
1
"
^'''
29.
x"y'
2b
"
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ANSWERS.
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54.
ANSWERS,
200000000.
past three.
55.
6*.
32^^ "iinutes past three.
58.
seconds.
60.
2
62.
"300
61.
and
XXIV.
^200.
4.
9; 11; 13.
7.
45;
21;
10.
^;^;g.
12.
a;
2.
3 ; 4 ; 6.
"
2 ; 1 ; 3.
5; 5;
9.
51;76;1.
ca\"o,
a:=\{b
11.
+
1
("+ d + c)", "c.
13.
x=^{b+
abc

14.
16.
5.
6.
2
=
Ik
3.
10; 7; 3.
8.
past eleven.
640.
4 ; 0 ; 5.
6.
1.
64.
je288.
59.
minutes
40
14.
63.
2 ; 1 ; 3.
1.
49yV minutea
57.
48.
56.
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^
ab
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+
bc +
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=
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=
42
42;; 26.
x=a.y"b,
'^
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,
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z=c.
2.
2.
12 ; 16.
3.
116; 1664
4.
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24; 60.
i6; 63.
5.
9.
30^. ; Be?.
72;
60.
10.
6.
7.
49 ; 21.
30t/.;I5d.
15
11.
5".; 3*.
315
ANSIVERS.
12.
20; 52.
16.
15; 65.
20.
1 ; 2.
70;
13.
17.
21.
5.
12;
30, 20 yards per minute.
26.
70 ; 42; 35.
29.
4 miles
19.
23.
21 ; 11.
train 30 miles per hour.
3". ;
^s,
39.
420 ; 35 ; 21
"9.
6.
7.
"6.
10.
3, ~.
11.
14.
6,3.
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4.
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2a
3.
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432.
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9.
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1,2.
5, 3.
10, 10.
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1.
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5,.
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11,3.
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5,
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1, 1.
2.
2,12.
13.
,\.
31.
35.
38.
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3.
35.;
35.
10,5.
16.
24
2.
per hour.
2 ; 4 ; 94.
40.
4^, a
33i^
30.
miles ; passenger
60
"25.
2.
miles.
12
37. 120 ; 80 ; 40.
shillings.
"4.
1.
50 ; 75.
28.
; 120 ; 90.
150
34.
4 ; 59 ; 55.
36.
XXVI.
33.
24.
yards;
150
25.
90 ; 72 ; 60.
30 ; 50 miles per hour,
32.
14; 10.
100 lbs.
24.
27.
(241)20.
15.
walking,3 miles rowing,at first.
hour ; 48 J distance.
31. 45 ; 30 miles
miles per
5.
18.
22.
59.
f.
14.
50.
32.
2,
36.
3.
6, 2f
.
o
37.
6,
41.
3,
45.
49.
y.
5.
38.
42.
7,314.
3,9.
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1,\.
3, ^.
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1.
40.
44.
3, 4.
43.
2,
47.
4^,^. 3,^
51.
4,
1.
48.
3, Ij.
52.
3, If.
816
ANSWERS.
4,0.
57.
5,11%.
61.
1,0.
54.
53.
(a"6)2.
62.
a".
XXVII.
1.
6,
9.
9,12.
13.
If.
18.
4.
49.
2.
7.
2.
3,
10.
5, Ij.
V(a").
"
2",0
60.
64.
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a,
4.
3.
4.
8.
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2,15^
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66.
69.
63.
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6.
3.
5.
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58.
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55.
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12, 3.
4, 111
12.
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3a".
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16.
16.
1.
15.
4.
20.
19.
21.
2
22.
26.
0,
=fc^.23.
0, ";^("").
XXYIII.
18, 12, 9.
8.
3, 4".
9.
14.
24.
17.
126, 96.
21.
192, 128.
25.
4 per cent.
XXIX.
8^.
9
5,4;
4.
3,
on
7.
11.
23.
6, 12; 2,
4.
.
7.
6, 12.
12.
".
7. 24, ;
4,
24.
56.
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^
8. 6, ;
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4, 7.
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2
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4
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20.
4
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12,
196.
16.
64.
5.
6
^

4, 6.
2.
4,5.
30,24.
3.
10, 9 miles.
gallons.
2, "1.
^"
",
9d.,7s.
8*.
19.
41
,
28.
36,24.
6.
16.
25.
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2a.

10.
10.
22.
48
2,
12,
0, "
2.
27 lbs.
d=8; "6.
6. 4, ;
9.
a, 2a,
11.
18.
1.
24.
36,24.
5.
13.
3.
27.
1.
4.
0, "5.
10. 6,0;
5,0.
11.
3
^.Oj^.O^
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13.4,?;8,^.
12.3,6;i..
u.

15. ".
817
ANSWERS.
0;0, ".
18. a,
19.
"4,
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"
21.
"7;
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22.
"15;
24.
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25.
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27. "8;
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30.
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1, 2
42,
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+
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+
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48.
1.
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;
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=
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818
ANSWERS.
XXX.
6.
11; 7.
1.
10; 15.
9.
6; 18.
10; 12.
6.
10.
6; 3.
2.
4; 2.
17.
60; 10.
21.
22. 4^
756 ; 36 ; 27.
10 ; 12 miles per hour.
23.
XXXI.
12;
18.
64.
1.
24.
8.
15.
19.
8. 18; 8: 6; 1612.
20; 15.
160 ; "2.
8.rV^'^.
16.
20.
7.
a^+7a'2" + 21"i'6"+ 35a*65 +
9.
ar3a''b^ + Sa^"b^
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35a364+2la'"5+7^^6+^7^
10.
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12.
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+
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1 + 4x
15.
960^^+216.^''+ 216.^
16.27^4
17.
2a*x*+12a^xbY
+
^bY'
19.
l4:X'^ + 6x*4x^
+
a^.
22.
l+2^;ir*2;i;3
24.
l6a?+15.i;2_i8a;3
26.
l + Sx +
28.
l +
29.
1 + 9:c +
33.r'*
+ 63^^+
30.
l9a;
36a;281ic"'4108.c^bl;?:^+ 27^'.
31.
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33.
1 + 4aj
+
34.
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l +
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37.
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38.
1 + 8^ +

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3.
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+
dx"^"{4:X^+ X*.
+
ex^
+
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+
3.T'^.
+
+
+
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+
+
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+
cd).
25.
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2a;'+a;*.
2
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25:^'+
4x*.
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x^.
+
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1 4
+
Sx^x*
+
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(^2+
+
ex^
1 60a^ + 240a?*
.")
6x^ +
6ax"i/+ :ir').
2(5:i;+lOar3
gg^4 ^ 35^.5 ^ g.t:^
20a^+15x*
+
2aKz^ +
1 + 6x + I'Sx'^
+ 12x^ +
23.
Sx'
36^8;?;'.
1 + 2.r + 3:c"+
20.
9j7*.
ex^
16.
81.
+
1 0.r2+ 20.r?'
+ 25.^'"
+

3^
+
+
a?*S;ir'+24a;232;r+16
14.
.i'''.
+
at first.
6 miles.
24.
11.
39. 1
24; 4*.; 3s.
27"/"'
V
4; 6.
30 ; 40.
walking; 4 rowing
2.
8; 16,
4.
2 ; 2.
11.
7;
14.
8;
7. 7; 5.
13.
4.
3.
4

2"c + c^ + "2 +
+
2?"^+ (^2)^
x^.
1 92cr'+
56.^r5+ 28^
64a/'.
+
8^'
3a;24 6.r*4 7:c^+ 6x^
+
x^.
+ 3x"" +
x^*.
319
ANSWEICii.
10.
.
14.
Sa^ZU.
18.
la;
21.
12^
24. a^
27.

4a + 5".
11.
"
2a^.
3j;2.
+

6^
+
lx+od'a^^a*.
12a?
8. 26. :c34 2a:c2

\x+a^.
31.
32.
ic'^(a45)a;+a6.
33.
x+\.
37.
61.
38.
72.
39.
87.
41.
123.
42.
321.
43.
407.
45.
642.
46.
'914.
47.
1234.
49.
6201.
60.
7058.
61.
8*008.
63.
12007.
64.
50406.
65.
1*8042.
67.
75416.
61.
65574.
65.
1863488.
66.
11956331.
68.
12^:2^4^3^
(39
a!ab.
71.
afiaxa^.
74.
lx
x'^xy + y\
+
77. 27.
443329.
63.
'09233.
62.
xl*x^.
75.
79. 54.
138.
84.
148.
85.
378.
88.
604.
89.
1111.
90.
2755.
6. fl~".
12. aft.
13. a?2+
8. a'.
16.
a23rt^
+ 3a"^a2.
18.
x^+ x^yxy^y^
20.
a^+ a^6i+ 6^.
5420.
4937.
60.
2'49198.
1135781.
2x+3p.
a^\x + l.
73. l3a?
76.
81.
61.
86.
88.
4
19.
4:r2.
3a?
82.
92.
100.
10. 0^7
l+a;*.
17. a'^+
+
1.
92.
87. 576.
392.
45045.
91.
65'5.
21319.
67.
14. a?'+
21.
99.
66.
70.
9. a\
2a;^f
;c4.
40.
62.
64.
l..2..3.i.
7. a*.
46.
48.
l + 2x.
80.
36.
44.
412310.
83.
XXXIII.
34.
'94868.
2x^+4cx3cK
72.
78. 35.
35.
69.
l + ;r.
Az
2:c3y.
68.
29.
a^

6z
30.
34.
2a"x

2y
l.
+ x +
a;"aa7 42a2.
23.
?^_1?_?2/^
28.
^
;r"2;r2.
20.
23^~x^2.
22.
6".25. 0^
a;c +
ar5+ 3;c + 8.
19.
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13.
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1^. 16.f5.
15.
+
7a26".
12.
n.
17479.
6.^^
s^y^,
15.ail.
2ah^+ dbx^y\
x^"x^y^
+ x^y^
+ yK
.16a?~^12d:~^3/~^
+ 9y"^.
320
ANSWERS.
a^ah^+ J)^.
23.
22.
x"y.
25.
2x^a^
x^+ 2x^"i^
+ Zx^a
+ a\
+
a^2,"~^. 28.
2^^3 + 4^;"^
27.
30.
XXXIV.
1.
7^/2.
2.
x^"Ix^y"
+ y*,
26.
x2x\
a;""
29.
94/4.
a*+ 6*A
24.

2.c^
+ a?*.
\jZ.
3.
^.
4.
4
3
6.^^.
6.
5?.7.2
4+1^2.
10.
12.
9.y6
^(l8
4Vl5
14.
3^/7.
15.
9.
+
+
ij^j2'
5 +
+
2^22^3.
2^6.
8.2
Vio).
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13.
3+^/5.
ll'
Jl Ji
16.
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19.
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+
^^"^
11.
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2 +
18.
6
+
^10.
20.
I
3
7.
11.
XXXVI.
11.
2.
8,
3.
18.
5.
9.
1,

4.
15.
1.
13.
12.
4.
5. 4.
45, 60, 80.
4,6,9.
XXXVII.
6.
14.
7. 2, 2^.
6. 4.
14.
1.
1.
7.
5.
15.
1. 4.
8.
12.
3.
8.
"15360.
"5c.
5
:
2.
9.
4.
^.
2.
6.
10.
4.
"113i.
822
ANSWERS.
16.
r+l.
17.
a
'^^"'j_f"'g(
16.
11
LI
XLIII.
2076.
8.
9^21 ; te.
M592.
6.
XLIV.
Radix
9.
1.
1040
2.
22600.
6.
Radix
w
10.
=
Miscellaneous,
^^Qx
l_a.
7.
+
a;3_^.
8.
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l.
Z1ic^20x^
+
3.
11101001010.
7.
8.
Radix
6
eee.
.
r
a
3.
+
5.
3.
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"
4^40
i"
^oTfe3l^^i7,4
62+
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65a
+
2042132.
1.
4.
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5.
+
Aai^,
9.
3.
(4a;29)(9;i;2_4
g^
240,360.
51?^.
l+ara^^a?*,
4.
2^!+3^^
41a?
2.
729,369,1,41.
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10.
CL
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18.
a +
^
2a^xy2y^.
15.
(.10)(".l)(x
6.
Sb+4af
7.
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+
4y.
~^~?.
a;24a;+ l
+
3).
20.
22.
11.
17.
(^_io)(^^i)(^^3)21.
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23.
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2a2bx2y,
24
v
+
^
25.
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28.
6.
31.
1.
26.
1^229.
32.
Us,
27.
f"!.
o
4
(16^2_i)(^_4).
2ls, 52^5.
30.
(ara)("6).
(a;"o2^(j^62),
100.
323
ANSWERS,
33.
4^2af^y
xVa?^+^.
34.
+
ij[\
35.
36. 1.
"
o/o
^18,^6.
x^Qxy + 7y2,
40.
43.
bc.
a +
41.
lx2xy^y\
10j;^2^ar^^+ ^q^h/ 12y*.
3a*5a3"12a8"2_^
52.
2;r5.
57.
5i 8.
53.
42.


a;"+ l.
51.
39. 30 minutes.
38. 2.
37. 4.
10a;+10^.
12jr*
44.
x2.
(^"^.
54.
(*2_4)(a^9).
46.
354^3a'8a"54a6"
+
2.
^"
45.
55,
j.
1; 2.
56
56.
3 ; 6.
V"
58.
4; 5"; 2.
f.
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62
"
.
^
61.
+
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hn
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1
2;
70.
20; 40 years.
73.
2) (a?
(d72)(a?l),
(a?
5), (^l)(a:5).
75.
1
78.
3*2^+1.
84.
5.
87.
^Zxy'^
92.
^ ^
76.
.
68.
77.
.
,
+
47
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or
3
8(^ + 2^);48(a;*y^).93.
2.
69.
83.
86.
52.
'
74.
0.
2 shillings.
shillings,
74.
68.
"IS.
.
^,
5
2:r" 1'
{se^Ay^f.
82.
85.
3.
72.
1.
an
"
"5
66.
71.
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hm
+
a?^+l
67. 3; 3.
4.
+
'
^ 1;.
+
^
"3
7.r+ 7^ + 2
a^ + V"
59.
"m
60.
3"3.
+
89.
45
3; 2.
gallons.
4'85409.
^1^^.
"y^
94.1.
91. xy.
95.4,5,6.
X
96.
3,
.
per dozen.
97.
99.
20
18
miles.
98.
(l ^)

; 18
Present
100.
price3
pence
4. 8, 16.
824
ANSWERS.
a^\,
101.
104.1.
or
\ +
105,
x^"x^.
13,
tfcS;"6;
=f4.
48.
109.
108.
^
:.2;*1.
117.
.
+

1.
+
"".
119.
3(3"l).
133.
4,
136.
"2.
140.
127.
131.
^
;2; .
1,
.
2("a)
197, Za^2x'^5xZ.
144.
(1)4. (2)0,5. (3) 5;
a{a^ +
143.
or
\.
139.^^.
138.72^3.
142.
3.
2a? (3.1?
4 4).
;c*="*
135.
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141.
(""^)";^"b^
6a
129.
132.
.
137.819615.
2,;^.
125.
/
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3.
3"^5xj,+ 22,'.
%.
124.
^;4,^
130.
x\
612.
122.
"
1
5,
+
\,\;\,\.
4)("6).
126.
af+l
111.
2a6^y4"t
"(3"
'^^"
X
116.
118.
"^^^ ^^'"
a,
shillings.
107. 20
12'
123.
^^^'
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y
115.
{x^a^iaf^of^. 103.
102.
3,2,2.
'
'
h'^,f^
80
(3)"7;
149.
x"
^^^
^^^
As
(1)3,
145.
147.
16; 16.
146.
=t5.
7.
5 to 1.
148.
20.
a?.
151.
(2)
j^.
16,
152.
154.
(1)a
(2)9.
(1)5.
(3) *9;
d=7.
(2)3.
(3) 7;
156.
24.
a'+4".
~^
xZ.
8.
4.
30 pence.
825
ANSWERS.
157.
80.
161.
a,
163.
n{xyf{x' + y%
(4) 20;
21a276
2.
159.
6c, a""*"'.
+
(4)"2;
(1) 9.
164.
=Fl.
166.
(2)
(3) 12.
(2)8.
(3) "11, "13.;
11.
days. 167. 4, 8.
12
2a,
+
x
3(a^).
162.
(1) 6, g.
165.
"11.
"13,
"20,
158.
168.
^.
15
170.
208;
173.
afi^ax^
400.
(4)3.
+
Za'xa^.
174.
(1) 2,4.
175.
178.
36.
172.
(1) 13.
(2) "5;
(4) 1, 5; 5, 1.
=p1, "5.
177.
22b\^a.
171.
(2) 4. (3) 6;
10.
(3) "1, "7;
"4.
161^ minutes
176.
40,23.
2,p\x^.
after 12.
36(l^),
36.
179.
3^ + 2
180.
7^6.
(2) 6;
186.
A
8.
181.
(3)4, ^.
8 games
182.
185.
184.
a?2x24:'
(1)13, 15.
29 miles.
187.
288, 224.
won
15.
188.
(2)7. (3)2, 1.
the first day
On
and lost 4 games.
"85^.
190.
18jr'412.c^43.r' + 36:i?18
(1) a
%a^20x^
x\ZQ
+
191.
144
4ig^lo;gH3
192,
+
(2) 7. (3)40;
196.
4, 2.
a"a"
199.
a?*16y*.
193.
a^Qx^
+
195.
16.
56 miles.
,.(2)
(1)
197.
6', a"+6'.
24.
a;'2a; + 4.
198.
23+15.
203.
{2+ Zxf*
3(72;c)
2.r
204.
ar*
(3) 2,4:
13.
16a?"
202.
+
(1) 8.
2, 4, 8, 16.
200.
\ + ^x\Zx'^
201.
l+ar^
194.
llxQ
(1) 9.
(2)
^. (3) 6; a
326
ANSWERS.
205.
(1) 7,
207.
24.
\.(2) 1,4.
208.
6
(3) i3;
211.
3^3_2^y
(3) 3; 6.;9.
216.
210.
3^2_53^.
+
215.
(1)3,
1*14 of each.
13,14.
220.
217.
3 +
222.
,^^^, ^^,
224.
(1)9, (2)23;
19.
(3)2, 4; 4, 2.
"5.
11,12,
219.
21.
218.
221.
...
^.^^f.^g
(2) "7;
126.
2^2.
7, 11, 15,
212.
6.
10 mileft.
206.
shillings.
+18
crowns
209. 2;c2+2a;"+4"".
"2.
a^ka^\\,
px^+qx~r.
(7^4)(3;r2)(^3).
223.
(3)12; 24;
225.
36.
(1)28, 3.
^^^^rw) 2ST25srF)
(2)100. 200.
(3)
""
"
7
226.
j^of
mile.
a
4 hours.
229.
231.
a?^^^^,
234.
(1) 5,
227.
2,5,8,....
%
^:^.
(2)
fj
150, 50.
237
239.
o3 + a25 +
241.
14;cy,
?All
247. 2200
244.
.
a"2+6",a
"
1
lings.
hours;
^^{Qn).
230.
hja'+ b^)
o
236.
228. 2
500; 1000; 4000.
"
64.
248.
(3) 5;
19.
235.
"4.
a
23a
40, 50.
2"
+
~^.
+
3c.
242.
1975.
xhf^
+ ^x^y\
240.
x
243.
+ a.
shil
105
X*
245.
^.
249.
3, 5, 8
246.
5678,1234.
6J per
251.
cent
2a
t.
327
ANSWERS.
a""^",
252.
(2) 114;
(3)0,
77.
a;(3o+ 2;c).
253.
C
1
255.
.
^"5400,^ has ;"7200.
259.
8; 6.
262.
a;i"l,
263.
^.+l
257.
112; 96.
7;
"80.
260.
(1)
254.
^
2o6.
13.
258.
5.
has
80.
c^ + 2hc.
261.
^^{2a^^Zaa?'ia'x'Z
i+^.264.^1^3,1.(1)
266.
+
(2)1. (3)18;
9.
266.
(2)5,
(1)3, 2.
. (3) 2, 3;
3, 2.
o
1
iC
268.
45
271.
0.
30 shillings.270.
shUlings,
272.
a^ +
a;2+3iC+8.
^^f'^^'
273.
12ag8a;r45a^
4a?^
.
^^^
"
15a24aa;2a;"
(2)11;7.
(3)5.
(4o3;r)(5a2a;)'
^
7
+
^3.
(3) 5,
?.
285.
286.
2 feet
289.
281.^.
7mnes.
^^' ^
47
2,".
276.
277. (1)!^\
(3)4;^.
2^'
278.
(1)
"", a,
290.
(1)2.
(2)4,7.
(I) 4. (2)6;
0.
292.
h\
;
287. 3 feet;
(^i:l)f\
^ (,?_
+
^"^^
291.
4.
.(3) 1, 
boat 16 minutes.
18 feet.
.
^^'
2(o5)(ccO,
282.
284.
\,I.(2)2a,
Second
.
*^^
_^i^^^)"l_,
^r^^^.
275.
;^2.
62
,
294.
a;2+ 2a?43
328
295.
ANSWERS.
(2) 7,
298.
(2) 61;
(1) 4.
4^

73.
.
with
a^d,
299.
rtream.
the
THE
PRINTED
AT
THE
STEAM
PRKSS
OOLBORNE
(1)7, 8.
296.
8.
297. 144 minutes.
(3) 1,5.
"
hours
(3) 16;
stream, *1\hours
a, a+_6"
against the
300.
3,1.
END.
ESTABLISHMENT
STREET,
OF
TORONTO.
COPP,
CLARK
*
CO.
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