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APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL CONCEPTS IN THE

DETERMINATION OF WEIGHT VARIATION IN


SAMPLES
M.C BUENSUCESO1
1
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES
DATE PERFORMED: AUGUST 13, 2015
INSTRUCTORS NAME: MR. AMADO LUIS ORDEN

1. What is the significance of


standard
deviation?
Standard deviation is significant
because it is a measure of how
dispersed a data set is, with its
mean as a reference point. That
is, a data with a low standard
deviation has data points that
are closer to the mean; whereas
a data set with a high standard
deviation has data points that
farther away from the mean. A
low standard deviation means a
more
precise
set
of
measurements.
Standard deviation can also be
used to determine (levels of)
confidence for a set of data.
Furthermore, standard deviation
can also be used to measure
whether a change in a system is
statistically significant, or if it is,
instead, a result of casual
variation.
2. What is the significance of
confidence
limits?
The value of statistics derived
from a sample, which in this
case is an analytical sample, is
only an estimate of the true
value of the statistics from the
population. Instead of wasting
resources by measuring all

analytical
samples
and
obtaining the true population
statistics, confidence intervals
may be used to define a range
with which the true value of
statistics may fall under, given a
certain probability. This gives a
measure of how sure it is that
the true value lies within a
certain interval.

Confidence limits are also


important because they are a
measure of the precision of a
set of data; a smaller interval
means a more precise data set.
However, confidence limits are
only valid when determinate
errors are absent from the lab
experiment.
3. What is the significance of
the Grubbs test*?
The Grubbs test is important
because it detects outliers from
normal distributions, given a
data set. It also determines
whether a measurement is
acceptable or not, compared to
other similar measurements.
*Instead of the Q-test.

4. How
do
the
statistical
parameters calculated from
data set 1 compare to those
obtained from data set 2?
The Qtab value for data set 2 is
lower than that of data set 1
because of the amount of
observations in each data set.
One (1) Qexp of data set 2 was
lower than those of data set 1
because more measurements in
data
set
2
were
evenly
distributed, with the exception
of the last sample, with an
outlier mass of 6.1343 g. These
evenly distributed values made
the value of X q X n smaller.
The mean, standard deviation,
relative
standard
deviation,
confidence interval, and range,
and relative range of data set 2
are larger compared to those of
data set 1.
5. What is the significance of
pooled standard deviation?
Pooled standard deviation is
significant because standard
deviations may differ from
sample to sample, despite
having the same type of
measurements. Pooled standard
deviation, therefore, gives a
more
accurate
standard
deviation of the entire analysis.
It also describes the precision of
the analysis.
6. What are the 3 types of
experimental
error? Give
examples of each type.
Systematic Errors:
These errors result from
conditions
in
the
experimental system or from
the instruments used. These
may
be
removed
by
correcting the conditions in
which the experiment is
conducted.
An
example

would be using an electronic


mass balance that has not
been zeroed to measure the
masses of the coins in this
experiment (Experiment 1).
Gross Errors:
These errors result from
mistakes done by conductor
of
the
experiment.
An
example would be recording
the incorrect masses on the
data sheet (e.g. 5.4123 g
instead of 5.4132 g).
Random Errors:
These errors are a result of
chance
variations
in
experimental systems or
instruments that lead to
different measured values. In
essence, this means that
values measured are either
higher or lower than what is
really expected. An example
would be an electronic mass
balance
yielding
two
different masses (e.g. 5.41 g
vs 5.60 g) for the same coin
due to disturbances in the
surroundings.
7. What
are
the
Gaussian/normal
distribution
and
the
requirements for a data set
to
have
a
normal
distribution?
The Gaussian distribution is a
continuous
probability
distribution, wherein the most
likely measurement is the mean
of the distribution. This means
that the farther away a value is
from the mean, the less likely it
is to be measured. It is more
commonly known as the bellshaped curve, and is described
by
the
following
equation
equation:

1
e
2

( x )
2
2

If a large enough number of


measurements is conducted on
the same sample under the
same conditions, it will most
likely result to a Gaussian
distribution.
Most
measurements
from
this
instance will be close to the
mean value of the data sets,
with other measurements being
less frequent, as their value
goes farther away from the
mean.
The data set must follow these
conditions in order to be
normally distributed:
1. n 30
2. The mean, median, and
mode should be equal or
near to each other.
3. Half of the measurements
should be higher than the
mean. The other half
should, subsequently, be
lower than the mean.
4. The frequency of the
measurements
should
decrease as the absolute
difference of the mean
and the measurement
increases.
5. The
frequency
of
a
measurement lower than
the
mean
and
a

measurement higher than


the mean with the same
absolute
difference
should be close or equal
to one another.
8. What is the rationale behind
the use of forceps/crucible
tongs in handling the coins?
Forceps were used so that the
coins would not lose or gain any
additional weight (e.g. moisture)
by coming into contact with
human skin.
If the forceps affected the
masses of the coins in any way,
it would be consistent for all the
coins. Thus, it would not affect
most statistical parameters.
REFERENCES
[1] Qualitative Inorganic Analysis
Laboratory
Manual,
2007 ed;
Institute of Chemistry, University of
the Philippines, Diliman: Quezon
City, Metro Manila, 2007.
[2] NIST/SEMATECH Handbook of
Statistical
Methods.
http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/hand
book/index.htm. (Accessed August
17, 2015).
[3] Dixon, W.J. and Massey, F.J.J.
Introduction to Statistical Analysis;
New York City: New York, 1957; pp.
14-20.