Você está na página 1de 13

Hailey Swanson

Professor Deborah Weaver


ENC3315-0M01
26 March 2015
Ocean Sustainability- Research Proposal Draft
Our oceans are an exhaustible resource, dependent on a worldwide effort to sustain them
for generations to come. If they are not properly cared for, they will eventually deplete and the
world will not be able to produce the necessary food, water, and oxygen to survive. The
sustainability of our oceans is not only an issue of climate change, but involves human factors as
well. Aquaculture, industrial fishing, gas usage, pollution, and littering are major factors
contributing to the problems our oceans are currently facing. If humans make a conscious effort
to live more sustainably, our oceans can be preserved and progress will be made.
The target audience for this argument is young adults, who rely on Earths oceans for not
only personal enjoyment, but the necessities of life needed for their survival. This is the
generation that will make the next step of changes to protect our oceans. They will learn through
education and experience about the Earths oceans and negative effects, attributed to human
factors, which are leading to their depletion. Additionally, young adults will become more aware
of these effects, and will be able to apply concepts to their lives to live more sustainably. By
making small steps towards living sustainably, positive changes to maintain the sustainability of
Earths oceans can occur. It is important that this issue is brought up to younger generations, who
will be relied upon to continue to create change that will make progress towards keeping natural
resources as well as marine and plant life in Earths oceans, and will keep them from running dry
for future generations.

According to the Oceanic Institute, the oceans cover 71 percent of the Earths surface
and contain 97 percent of the Earths water and contain 99 percent of the living space on the
planet. In other words, the ocean makes up the largest portion of any surface on Earth. Earths
population relies on the ocean for its natural resources, which are seemingly plentiful and
everlasting. However, the oceans have the ability to eventually run dry if they are not properly
cared for. Therefore, humans need to be aware of the way they carry about their daily lives,
whether at the beach, in the ocean, or elsewhere. By not only acknowledging the problems
associated with ocean sustainability but tackling them as well, Earths oceans will survive.
Aquaculture is one problem our oceans face when it comes to the issue of sustainability.
Aquaculture, as stated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, refers to the
breeding, rearing, and harvesting of plants and animals. Aquaculture aids fish hatcheries, the
aquarium trade, food production, and products used in pharmacies and labs. Fish and plants are
multiplied for the purpose of consumerism, revolving around things such as food and medicine,
and their uses can be beneficial to the environment. However, aquaculture requires a significant
amount of marine resources, which creates depletion and destruction of seafood, mangroves, and
coastal areas. If aquaculture is done in a way that will not have a negative effect on marine and
plant life, it will advantageously contribute to the way our oceans are maintained.
Additionally, industrial fishing is a problem that can be attributed to the risk of Earths
oceans depleting. The rise in fishing technologies has created methods for catching large
amounts of fish, which is useful for those catching and consuming the fish. On the other hand,
removing large quantities of fish puts each species at risk. By taking fish out of their natural
habitat, the number of fish is rapidly decreasing, and there could be no fish left if these practices
continue. National Geographic notes how studies estimate that populations of large ocean fish

are only 10 percent as big as their preindustrial levels. Putting a limit on the amount of fish that
can be caught at a given time will not only sustain the lifespan of different species of fish, but it
will ensure their survival.
Other problems contributing to the digression of Earths oceans include gas usage,
pollution, and littering. The most well-known incident of this time revolving around gas usage is
the 2010 BP Oil spill, when 200 million gallons of crude oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico.
While it was highly publicized, as it had worldwide effects on Earths oceans and climates, there
are other incidents that can happen without much thought. There are beaches around the world
which host billions of tourists and locals every day. Beaches are thought of as places as
enjoyment, but the negative effects of their usage should not be overlooked. Something as
seemingly insignificant as leaving a water bottle or driving on the beach because it is convenient
can have major impacts on Earths oceans. Oil leaks occur both at the beach and on the
mainland, and in-resident National Geographic explorer Enric Sala explained, "Most people
don't know that every eight months the drops of oil that leak from U.S. cars and other machines
and run downstream into the ocean equal the amount of oil [11 million gallons]. That means
there are 11 million gallons of pollution and harm to marine and plant life. Those 11 million
gallons add up, and can be even more detrimental if people do not become aware of the dangers
posed around sustainability. Sala also provides some food for thought, putting the obligation of
maintaining sustainable oceans, saying, "A healthy ocean means healthier humans, more food
on our tables, more jobs, and a healthier economy."
My warrant is that through awareness of these problems, any person has the ability to
make a change in their life, as well as others, which will contribute to preserving Earths oceans.
Oceans are at risk of marine life and plant extinction, exhausting natural resources, and

becoming dry. If they are not properly maintained, food, water, and oxygen will run out of the
basic necessities of life. Taking proactive steps towards living sustainably will be the change
needed to assure the survival of Earths oceans. Various problems can negatively affect the
Earths oceans, but it only takes one person being aware of the detrimental effects of their
actions to make a change towards sustainability.

Works Cited
"Aqua Facts." Oceanic Institute. Hawai'i Pacific University, 2011. Web. 26 Mar. 2015.
<http://www.oceanicinstitute.org/aboutoceans/aquafacts.html>.
Handwerk, Brian. "Sustainable Earth: Oceans." National Geographic. National Geographic
Society, 2015. Web. 26 Mar. 2015.
<http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/sustainable-earth/oceans/>.
"What is Aquaculture?" NOAA Fisheries. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
2015. Web. 26 Mar. 2015.
<http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/aquaculture/what_is_aquaculture.html>.

Ocean Sustainability- Sources


My claim is a claim of policy.
Our oceans are an exhaustible resource, dependent on a worldwide effort to sustain them for
future generations. If they are not properly cared for, they will eventually deplete and the world
will not be able to produce the necessary food, water, and oxygen to survive. If humans make a
conscious effort to live more sustainably, our oceans can be preserved and progress will be
made.
Audience
My audience is middle-aged, first time homeowners in New Smyrna Beach, Florida. They live in
a coastal area, are avid to become more active in the community, and want to learn more about
the topic of ocean sustainability. In order to adjust to the lifestyle surrounding their homes, they
are interested in becoming involved in local events. New Smyrna Beach is a laid back beach
town, with a strong surf/beachgoer culture, so there are many events that take place at or near its
beaches. Additionally, living by the beach makes ocean sustainability a relevant issue to these
homeowners, so they want to learn more about what they can do to play their part in the
sustainability of the worlds oceans- starting with the preservation of their local beaches.
Sources
1) "Aqua Facts." Oceanic Institute. Hawai'i Pacific University, 2011. Web. 12 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.oceanicinstitute.org/aboutoceans/aquafacts.html>.
The Oceanic Institute discusses general facts about the ocean, including how much of the
Earth is made up of water, what ocean is relatively shallow, and what the largest ocean is.
These facts provide details that help explain sizes and proportions, and they show how a
majority of the Earths surface is covered by oceans. This source will help my audience to

see facts about the worlds oceans and help them to understand the importance of
preserving them, in order to provide access to natural resources and to ensure survival on
our planet.
2) "Aqua Facts." Oceanic Institute. Hawai'i Pacific University, 2011. Web. 12 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.oceanicinstitute.org/aboutoceans/trouble.html>.
The Oceanic Institute discusses current problems that oceans and coastal habitats face. The
Oceanic Institute is part of the research effort to restore our oceans, and information about
habitats and other biological resources is described. By highlighting these problems and the
need to understand them, this source helps validate my argument on the importance of
ocean sustainability.
3) Bcker, Dr. Christian, Dr. Uwe Jenisch, Stephan Lutter, Prof. Dr. Nele Matz-Lck, Jrgen
Messner, Dr. Sven Petersen, Prof. Dr. Lars H. Rpke, Dr. Ulrich Schwarz-Schampera,
and Prof. Dr. Klaus Wallmann. World Ocean Review. World Ocean Review, 2014. Web.
12 Apr. 2015. <http://worldoceanreview.com/en/>.
Experts in various scientific field collaborated to create a three-part compilation regarding
the current state of the worlds oceans. The first part is a report on the current state of the
worlds oceans, the second part focuses on the future of fisheries, and the third part
highlights the opportunities and risks of marine resources. These three parts will explain to
my audience the current conditions of the worlds oceans, so they will understand the work
that still needs to be done regarding ocean sustainability.
4) D, Lina. "40 Of The Most Powerful Social Issue Ads That'll Make You Stop And Think
." Bored Panda. Bored Panda, 2014. Web. 13 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.boredpanda.com/powerful-social-advertisements/>.

This source is visual, composed of different advertisements that focus on the topic of ocean
sustainability. These advertisements send a message through the pictures and text
accompanied with it, and each focus on a specific issue that needs to be addressed. While I
am only using certain advertisements from this source on my page itself, the sources I do
use will help my audience to not only read about, but actually see the problems that plague
the worlds oceans.
5) Handwerk, Brian. "Sustainable Earth: Oceans." National Geographic. National Geographic
Society, 2015. Web. 12 Apr. 2015.
<http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/sustainable-earth/oceans/>.
Rio+20 leaders, world leaders who are part of the United Nations Conference on
Sustainable Development, describe to National Geographic the biodiversity of the sea and
answer questions about the challenges that Earths oceans face. The challenges of ocean
sustainability and what can be done to overcome these challenges will be included on my
Facebook page, so my audience will be aware of these issues and they will know how they
can play their part in their community.
6) "Marine Debris Prevention Toolkit." United States Environmental Protection Agency. United
States Environmental Protection Agency, 20 Dec. 2011. Web. 12 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.epa.gov/owow_keep/oceans/debris/toolkit/search.html>.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) put together a kit, intended
to help those interested in becoming more involved in marine debris related activities.
Those interested can customize their kit based on their location, intended audience, and
marine debris they want to clean up. I will provide this link to my audience as a resource

for finding materials and information on what they can do to make the next step in
becoming involved in local ocean sustainability related events in their community.
7) Ocean Conservancy. Ocean Conservancy, 2015. Web. 13 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.oceanconservancy.org/>.
Ocean Conservancy is an organization dedicated to educating and empowering citizens to
take action on behalf of the ocean. They encourage collaboration, education, and being
proactive to fight for the survival of Earths oceans. This site provides an overview of the
organization, solutions to different problems that our oceans face, and their visions for the
future of ocean sustainability. My audience will be able to read about solutions and visions
on ocean sustainability, which will encourage them to create their own visions and take
action within their community.
8) "Oceans, Coasts, Estuaries & Beaches." United States Environmental Protection Agency.
United States Environmental Protection Agency, 6 Mar. 2015. Web. 12 Apr. 2015.
<http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/>.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) compiled information and
sources regarding oceans, coasts, estuaries, and beaches. Links are provided under the
topics of coastal watershed protection, marine pollution prevention, monitoring and
assessment, ocean and coastal partnerships, and public health protection at beaches. My
audience will find this information useful for educating themselves on different facts,
policies, and laws regarding ocean sustainability.
9) "Solutions to Plastic Pollution in our Oceans." Natural Resources Defense Council. Natural
Resources Defense Council, 8 Mar. 2014. Web. 13 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.nrdc.org/oceans/plastic-ocean/default.asp>.

The Natural Resources Defense Council provides solutions to plastic pollutions in the
worlds oceans. They provide information on the impact of plastic pollution, how it affects
the environment, humans, and marine life, and what can be done to stop pollution and cut
down the use of specific items. This will educate my audience on simple ways they can
change their daily routine and cut down on and/or eliminate the use of plastic.
10) "What is Aquaculture?." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries.
United States Department of Commernce, n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/aquaculture/what_is_aquaculture.html>.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries defines
aquaculture and its practice. Aquaculture is otherwise known as fish farming, and is used
for reasons that include breeding, rebuilding populations, consumption, and the aquarium
trade. It is important to understand what aquaculture is, because while it does have its
advantages, too much fish breeding can become an issue. My audience can educate
themselves on the topic of aquaculture and look at the pros and cons of this practice.
11) World Oceans Day. The Ocean Project, 2015. Web. 13 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.worldoceansday.org/>.
World Oceans Day is an annual event hosted by the United Nations, taking place on June
8th, which encourages Earths citizens to take action in their community to protect the
worlds oceans. Citizens can do anything from spread awareness through social media,
attend local events, or do anything to aid in the effort of preserving Earths oceans. By
including this event, it will encourage my audience to not only learn about ocean
sustainability, but to apply what they learn by taking part in this event and other events.

Hailey Swanson
ENC 3315-0M01
Professor Weaver
27 April 2015
Cover Page- Final Argument
Title: New Smyrna Beach Homeowners Guide to Ocean Sustainability
Audience: Middle-aged homeowners living in New Smyrna Beach, Florida. They are at an age
where they are energetic, mature, conscious of ocean-related issues, and interested in learning
more about their local community and ways they can become more involved. Ocean
sustainability is a relevant issue to them, as New Smyrna Beach is a town that revolves around its
laid-back, beach-goer lifestyle.
Why I chose this genre: I chose this genre because Facebook is an easily accessible social
platform for New Smyrna Beach middle-aged homeowners. They are familiar with technology,
and Facebook can be accessed through a desktop, laptop, smart phone, or tablet. Even my
audience who doesnt belong to Facebook can view my page from any device with internet
access. This genre allows my audience to see visuals of local beaches as well as provides links to
local events, programs, information, and resources that only take a second to click.
Claim: My claim is a claim of policy. Oceans are an exhaustible resource, dependent on not only
a worldwide effort but more specifically a local effort of New Smyrna Beach middle-aged
homeowners, to sustain them for future generations. If homeowners in New Smyrna Beach are
educated on the topic of ocean sustainability and make a conscious effort to live more
sustainably, the long-term effects of sustainability will help to make progress in preserving our
oceans.

Resources
"Beach Information." Official City Website of New Smyrna Beach, Florida. The City of New
Smyrna Beach, 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.cityofnsb.com/DocumentCenter/Home/View/1460>.
"Comprehensive Plan: City of New Smyrna Beach, Florida." Official City Website of New
Smyrna Beach, Florida. The City of New Smyrna Beach, 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.cityofnsb.com/DocumentCenter/Home/View/1460>.
D, Lina. "40 Of The Most Powerful Social Issue Ads That'll Make You Stop And Think
." Bored Panda. Bored Panda, 2014. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.boredpanda.com/powerful-social-advertisements/>.
"Educational Initiatives: Outreach Materials." Sea Turtle Conservancy. Sea Turtle Conservancy,
2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015. <http://www.conserveturtles.org/florida.php>.
"Florida Healthy Beaches." Florida Health. Florida Department of Health, 2015. Web.
27 Apr. 2015. <http://volusia.floridahealth.gov/programs-and-services/environmentalhealth/florida-healthy-beaches/index.html>.
"Florida Healthy Beaches Program." Florida Health. Florida Department of Health, 2015. Web.
27 Apr. 2015. <http://www.floridahealth.gov/environmental-health/beach-waterquality/county-detail.html?County=Volusia&Zip=32117>.
"Marine Debris Prevention Toolkit." United States Environmental Protection Agency. United
States Environmental Protection Agency, 20 Dec. 2011. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.epa.gov/owow_keep/oceans/debris/toolkit/search.html>.
Marine Science Center. Volusia County, Florida, 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.marinesciencecenter.com/>.

Natural Resources Defense Council. Natural Resources Defense Council, 2015. Web. 27 Apr.
2015. <http://www.nrdc.org/>.
The Nature Conservancy. The Nature Conservancy, 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.nature.org/>.
Ocean Conservancy. Ocean Conservancy, 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.oceanconservancy.org/>.
Oceanic Institute. Hawai'i Pacific University, 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.oceanicinstitute.org/index2.html>.
Reef Relief. Reef Relief, 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015. <http://reefrelief.org/>.
Sea Turtle Conservancy. Sea Turtle Conservancy, 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.conserveturtles.org/>.
Surfrider Foundation. Surfrider Foundation, 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.surfrider.org/>.
Swanson, Hailey S. New Smyrna Beach. 2015. Photographs. Private collection, New Smyrna
Beach.
"Testing the Waters 2014: A Guide to Water Quality at Vacation Beaches." Natural Resources
Defense Council. Natural Resources Defense Council, 2014. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.nrdc.org/water/oceans/ttw/fl.asp>.
World Oceans Day. The Ocean Project, 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.worldoceansday.org/>.