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This report investigates the feasibility of the concept of a Zero Emission Coal Power Station

through the clean gasification of coal and power generation via a solid oxide fuel cell. This
preliminary report provides scoping calculations for a power plant with an input of 500 000
tonnes of coal per annum. The design was supported by approximate process design methods
and rough cost estimating.
The hoppers were designed to store the material for a short term period. A stockpile provides
long term storage of the materials. Coal undergoes three crushing operations before being
sent to one of six hoppers, each with a volume of 180 m 3 and then metered through six rotary
valves with a rotor radius of 0.22 m at a rate of 15.9 kg s -1. For the calcium carbonate, there
are three hoppers each with a volume of 136 m 3 metered through a rotary valve of rotor
radius 0.23 m at a rate of 2.07 kg s -1. From each of the rotary valves, they are sent to the
pneumatic conveying system.
Pneumatic Conveying section of the plant was designed based on design principles for a
dilute phase pneumatic conveyor. There were four main streams, these consisted of; a coal
feed stream consisting of 6 pipes with an overall mass flow rate of 16 kg/s, a Calcium
Carbonate feed stream consisting of 3 pipes with an overall mass flow rate of 6kg/s, a
Calcium Oxide recycle stream consisting of 21 pipes with an overall mass flow rate of 56
kg/s, and a Calcium Carbonate stream between the fluidised bed and calcinatory consisting of
23 pipes with an overall mass flow rate of 62 kg/s. The pneumatic conveying system is
estimated to draw approximately 7 MW of power, and cost a total of approximately 9 million
The coal gasification section of the plant was designed by modelling a bubbling fluidized bed
with an inlet coal feed of 16 kg/s and a CaO feed of 30 kg/s, fluidised by a steam flowrate of
40 kg/s. Through basic equilibrium modelling a stream of gas was found with a flowrate of
77.76 m3/s with a hydrogen purity of 40%. The bed dimensions were sized based on particle
properties and fluidising gas, giving a bed 15 m high and 5 m in diameter, with an
accompanying cyclone.
A bubbling fluidized bed calciner was designed by modelling the reaction kinetics available
in literature. A residence of 920 seconds was required for a mass flow rate of 61.7 kg/s. A
CaCO3 refresh ratio of 10% was chosen to maintain the sorbent activity in the
calcinations/carbonation cycle. This feed was fluidized using a recycled stream of CO 2, the
cheapest available option. The superficial velocity of this gas was worked out as 2 metres per
second. The reactor dimensions were worked out as 4.5 m internal reactor diameter with an
8.0 m height in total including the freeboard. This reactor assumes a 100% conversion of
limestone in calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. 9.5% of the calcium oxide is bled out of the
system while the rest is recycled back to the carbonator. The carbon dioxide outlet stream is
purified in a cyclone out of which a 15 kg/s is recycled back into the bed using a compressor.
The entire cost of this system was estimated as 2 million US dollars.
The carbon dioxide gas to be sequestered is 617mol/s exits the calciner at 900C and
undergoes a series of cooling and compressing to react in a 1001m 3 Continuous Stirred Tank
Reactor with magnesium silicate at 185C and 150atm. The reaction achieves an 80%
conversion under these conditions, however, the process is energy intensive due to the pretreatment required to activate olivine.
The gas cleaning section of the plant is required to remove particles from the gas effluent
from the reactor with a flowrate of 77.76 m 3/s. The particles present are mainly volatiles from

the bituminous coal used. The medium to course particles were removed with the aid of
cyclones whereas the finer particulates present were removed by an electrostatic precipitator.
A pure palladium membrane was used after the electrostatic precipitator to purify the gaseous
stream and produce 99.95 mol% hydrogen gas. The total solids were removed with an
efficiency of 97% by the cyclones and 99.9% by the electrostatic precipitators. The gas
stream from the electrostatic precipitator has a very low and almost negligible dust loading of
2.0610-7 kg/m3.
The gas cleaning is proceeded by the design of a solid oxide fuel cell which will be the
subject of future reports.
The final plant design is estimated to generate approximately 40 MW with a total fixed
capital investment of US$ 1.3 billion.