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Coalescence Stage

1. Spread of the Revolution

After the cry of Balintawak, it marked the start of the armed revolution.
Bonifacio and his men attack the powder magazine at San Juan del Monte on August 30. The
Spaniards that time were outnumbered and weak however, reinforcements arrived and led
Bonifacio to retreat.
South of Manila, the rebels grew in strength. Thousand of men marched toward Pasig attacked
the small force of civil guards.
400 rebels attacked the church of Pandakan and captured it without any resistance
Pateros, Taguig, Kalookan, Kawit, San Francisco de Malabon Noveleta, San Pedro Makati rose as
one man and pursued the Spanish enemy
Bonifacio shifted the attack to San Mateo, Mariquina and Montalban and captured it however
Spaniards captured that again.
In the North, rebels of San Isidro armed with bolos and sticks attacked Spanish garrison on
September 2, 3, and 4. Led by Mariano Llanera.
2. Reign of Terror
With the various revolts spreading in many provinces, the Spanish became worried therefore to
frighten the population into submission, authorities resorted to a reign of terror in order to
prevent the revolutionary movement from becoming national in scope.
All suspected members of the Katipunan were arrested and thrown to jail.
Governor-General Ramon Blanco issued a decree on August 30 declaring the provinces of Manila,
Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan Pampanga, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija (represents 8 rays of the
sun in our flag) in a state of war and under martial law. The decree further provided that any
person accused of treachery and those against the present form of government would be
handed over to the military court. Those who would surrender to the government within 48 hours
would not be turned over to the military court except the leaders of the Katipunan. Some
Katipuneros surrendered however they were forced at the point of the bayonet to confess what
they know about the society and its members. Torture was employed to make them talk and
those who cannot withstand the tortures shouted the names of the members.
Hundreds were arrested and jailed. Some were shipped to Carolines or Spanish penal colony in
Africa. Fort Santiago was filled with Filipino suspects that many of them died of suffocation.
Spanish authorities extorted money from victims.
In Malinta, Pulo, and Bulacan, Spaniards massacred the people and torture was used to make the
people talk.
One form of torture: hang the suspect by the hands and then have him suddenly dropped to the
ground, use of an electric machine whose wires are connected to the feet or hands, hang suspect
by the hand with his feet barely touching the ground. Some were shot without trial.
September 4 four Katipuneros were executed at Luneta
September 12, thirteen men from Cavite were executed known now as Los Trece Martires de
January 4, 1897, 12 Bicolano rebels were executed known as 12 Bicol Martyrs

Most infamous injustice was perpetrated upon Jose Rizal who was executed at the old
Bagumbayan Field on December 30, 1896
Even before the outbreak of the revolution, the Katipunan in Cavite was already divided into 2
factions: Magdalo and Magdiwang. Magdalo led by Baldomero Aguinaldo (Cavite) and
Magdiwang led by Mariano Alvarez (Noveleta).
The Katipuneros in Cavite were very active having raised the standard revolt on August 31 1896
when they attacked the tribunal or municipal building of San Francisco de Malabon
Magdiwang- attacked the Spaniards in Noveleta.
Magdalo- took the offensive attack against Spanish garrison
In September5, Aguinaldo retreated to Imus and defeated Spanish troops. He returned as hero of
the hour. Cavitenos called him Gen. Miong.
The rebel triumphs fired the imagination of the people. Aguinaldo was so inspired by the showing
of the people and by the unity of all the ranks, he issued two manifestos on Oct 31 calling upon
people to continue to fight until liberty was won. Aguinaldo and his men created the positions of
the secretary of state with Jacinto Lumbreras and Secretary of the Interior, Daniel Tirona.
Bureaucratization Stage
1. Tejeros Convention
Internal problem of the Katipunan: December 31 assembly of revolutionists at Imus determine
whether the Katipunan should be superseded (replaced) by another form of government
Magdalo: believed that with the outbreak of the revolution the Katipunan ceased to be a secret
society and therefore would be replaced by another government in keeping with the demands of
the period
Magdiwang: Katipunan should remain the government of the revolutionists because it already
had a constitution and by-laws recognized by all
As months passed by and as the rebels found themselves at the receiving end of the armed
power with the Spaniards, leaders thought it timely and wise to call another meeting of both
factions to solve the internal problem.
March 22, 1897, the 2 factions met at Tejeros. The convention assembled should solve the
problem of whether a new government should be established to take the place of the Katipunan.
Bonifacio acceded to the wish of some that a new government be established to replace the
Katipunan however, he stated the principle that the will of the majority should be respected and
obeyed must be followed.
The Republic of the Philippines was proclaimed. The elected people were:
Emilio Aguinaldo as President, Mariano Trias as Vice president, Artemio Ricarte as captaingeneral, emiliano riego de Dios as director of war, andres Bonifacio as director of the interior
However, Daniel Tirona was against the proclamation of the Bonifacio since according to him the
position is an exalted one and should be occupied with a person who has a lawyers diploma
(Jose del Rosario). Bonifacio was hurt and insulted since it was agreed previously that whoever
got elected should be respected. With this, Bonifacio announced that the assemble is dissolved
and that everything that has been approved and resolved will be annulled.
Second Meeting at Tejeros. Aguinaldo together with the other elected members the previous day
except Bonifacio, took their oath in office. On March 23, Bonifacio and his men went to the

estate-house of Tejeros and held a document called Acta de Tejeros in which they gave their
reasons for not accepting the results of the convention.
Naik Military Agreement. Since Bonifacio and his men drew up another document that resolved
to establish a government independent of and separate from the one established at Tejeros. An
army was to be organized by persuasion or force and a military commander of their own choice
was to take command of it. 41 men signed it.
When Aguinaldo knew about the Naik military agreement, he issued the arrest of Bonifacio.
Bonifacio and his brother were found guilty of treason and sedition. Punishment was from death
sentence to banishment. However the death sentence was upheld since they believed that if
Bonifacio was alive the cause of the revolution would be prejudiced since he would disrupt the
unity of the revolutionary forces.
2. Biyak na Bato Republic
Aguinaldo established his headquarters in Biyak-na-Bato, San Miguel del Mayumo, in Bulacan.
There he established a republican government known as the Biyak-na-Bato Republic. The
provisional constitution of the Republic was prepared by Felix Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho who
copied the Cuban Constitution and signed November 1, 1897. The constitution provides the
creation of a Supreme council composed of president, vice president, secretary of war and
secretary of treasury.
Article 8 reflects the nationalism of the revolutionists for it provides that Tagalog shall be the
official language of the Republic. The constitution also provides the religious liberty, freedom of
education, freedom of the press and freedom to exercise any professions. The Supreme Council
was created in November 2 with the following officers:
Emilio Aguinaldo as President, Mariano Trias as V-President, Antonio Montenegro as Sec of
Foreign Affairs, Isabelo Artacho as Secretary of the Interior, Emilio Riego de Dios as Secretary of
War, Baldomero Aguinaldo as Secretary of the Treasury
3. Truce of Biyak-na-Bato
Pedro Paterno became a mediator between Spain and Philippines. For 4 months (Aug to dec),
Paterno negotiated with Aguinaldo and Primo de Rivera on the conditions that wold be
satisfactory to both. Novemeber 18, December 14 and 15 signing of the 3 documents. Result of
the truce are the foolowing
1. Aguinaldo and his companions would go into voluntary exile abroad
2. Primo de rivera would pay the sum of 800, 000 pesos to the rebels in 3 installments: a)
400,000 to aguinaldo upon his departure from Biyak na Bato b) 200,000 when arms
surrendered by revolutionists exceeded 700 and c) remaining 200,000 when the Te deum
was sung and general amnesty proclaimed by governor
3. Primo would pay additional sum of 900,000 pesos to the families of non-combatant
Filipinos who suffered during the armed conflict
On dec 27 aguinaldo and his men sailed for hongkong with the 400,000 pesos. However, the
truce eventually failed. Filipino leaders were still suspicious of the Spaniards and the
Spaniards were also the same. It resulted to periodic clashes that started in mid-february until
Spanish power was destroyed by combined fil-american forces a few months later.
4. Malolos Republic
Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines from Hongkong with a plan to form a Filipino government.
To show the capacity of the Filipinos for self-government, Aguinaldo established the Dictatorial
government in May. He issued a decree establishing the dictatorial government and it nullified

the orders issued under the authority of Biyak-na-Bato Republic and that the dictatorial
government is temporary in nature.
On june 5 aguinaldo issued a decree setting aside June 12 as the day for the proclamation of
independence. The philippine flag was officially hoisted and the philippine national march played
in public.
The decree of june 18, 1898, provided for the reorganization of the local government in those
provinces already freed from Spanish control. Electors were to elect town chiefs and 3 delegates
(internal and order, justice and civil registry, taxes and property): will constitute popular
assembly. Chiefs of towns elect provincial chief and 3 councilors: will constitute the provincial
council. Election of delegates from each province that would constitute the revolutionary
The dictatorial government lasted for 1 month and on june 23 it was replaced by revolutionary
government. issued a decree setting up the revolutionary government. the chief of state will be
called president. Four departments were created to help the president in his duties: foreign
affairs, navy and commerce, war and public works, police and internal order, justice, education,
hygiene; finance, agriculture and manufacturing industry. The decree also provided the creation
of Congress
July 15- Aguinaldo made his first cabinet appointments.
In accordance with the decrees of june 18 and 23, in sept 4 aguinaldo appointed fifty delegates
to the congress and it increased by 10 in September 10.
First significant act of the congress was the ratification on sept 29 the independence proclaimed
at Kawit on june 12.
The Malolos Constitution was promulgated in January 21 1899. It was stated in the constitution
the separation of church and state. The constitution is anchored in democratic traditions that
ultimately had their roots on american soil. It created a Filipino state whose government was
popular, representative and responsible with 3 distinct branches executive, legislative, judicial. It
specifically provided for the safeguard against abuses and enumerated national and individual
rights not only of the Filipinos but also the aliens
On January 2, Aguinaldo formed his cabinet.
Apolinario Mabini as president of the cabinet and secretary of foreign affairs, Teodoro Sandico as
Secretary of interior, Baldomero Aguinaldo as Secretary of War, Mariano Trias as Secretary of
Finance, Gracio Gonzaga as Secretary of Welfare (Public Instruction, Public Works,
Communications, Agriculture, Industry and Commerce)
On January 23 1898 the philippine republic was inaugurated at Malolos. Aguinaldo took his oath
of office after having been informed that he had been proclaimed president of the philippines.
Treaty of Paris
In accordance with the protocol of peace signed on August 12 1898, 5 americans and 5 spanish
commissioners were appointed to meet in paris to dicuss the final peace terms between spain
and US. the peace commission met in paris from October to December 1898. The american
commissioners insisted on their demand which is the cessation of the Philippine to United States.
On December 10 1898, treaty of paris was signed. It provided that spain would cede the
philippines to US in return Spain would receive 20,000,000 from US as payment for
improvements made in the colony. US also agreed to give the Spaniards the right to ship
commodities to philippines for a period of 10 years on the same terms as those of US.

The treaty of paris did not go into effect until the American Senate had ratified it. The proponents
of the ratification did not command a majority in the senate for many senators believed that the
treaty was unfair to Filipinos. However with the outbreak of Filipino-american hostilitites on
February 4, 1899 led many opponents of ratification to vote affirmatively. The vote was taken feb
6 and treaty was ratified by 2/3 majority. American propaganda made it appear that the first
shots were done by Filipinos that led to fil-american hostilities. Thereafter philippines became a
territory of the US.
Decline is in the form of Repression wherein authorities or agents acting on behalf of the
authorities use measures to control or destroy a social movement. Repressive actions may be
defined as legitimate by the state but they are not legitimate from the perspective of the
movement. The treaty of paris was signed without consulting the Filipino people and its