PRECALCULUS 4E

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra..................................................... 1

Chapter 1

Functions and Graphs............................................................................................. 126

Chapter 2

Polynomial and Rational Functions ....................................................................... 256

Chapter 3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ................................................................ 411

Chapter 4

Trigonometric Functions........................................................................................ 489

Chapter 5

Analytic Trigonometry........................................................................................... 663

Chapter 6

Additional Topics in Trigonometry ....................................................................... 780

Chapter 7

Systems of Equations and Inequalities................................................................... 944

Chapter 8

Matrices and Determinants .................................................................................. 1076

Chapter 9

Conic Sections and Analytic Geometry ............................................................... 1181

Chapter 10

Sequences, Induction, and Probability................................................................. 1297

Chapter 11

Introduction to Calculus....................................................................................... 1393

iii

Chapter P
Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra
Section P.1
Check Point Exercises
1.

6.

8 + 6( x − 3) 2 = 8 + 6(13 − 3) 2

a.

Because 2 ≈ 1.4, the number inside the
absolute value bars is negative. The absolute
value of x when x < 0 is –x. Thus,

= 8 + 6(10) 2
= 8 + 6(100)
= 8 + 600
= 608
2.

(

b.

Since 2010 is 10 years after 2000, substitute 10 for x.
= 17(10)2 + 261(10) + 3257
= 7567
If trends continue, the tuition and fees will be \$7567

5.

The elements common to {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} and
{3, 7, 8, 9} are 3 and 7.
{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∩ {3,7,8,9} = {3, 7}

c.

The union is the set containing all the elements of
either set.
{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∪ {3, 7,8,9} = {3, 4,5, 6, 7,8,9}

π

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,
2

9,

x
x
Because x > 0,
Thus,

7.

10 ⎬

9 because

π −3
Because π ≈ 3.14, the number inside the
absolute value bars is positive. The absolute
value of a positive number is the number itself.
Thus,
π − 3 = π − 3.

T = 17 x + 261x + 3257

4.

)

1− 2 = − 1− 2 = 2 −1

2

3.

1− 2

x
x

=

x = x.

x
=1
x

−4 − (5) = −9 = 9
The distance between –4 and 5 is 9.

8.

9 =3

a.

Natural numbers:

b.

Whole numbers: 0,

c.

Integers: −9, 0, 9

d.

Rational numbers: −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3,

e.

Irrational numbers:

f.

Real numbers:
π

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,
2

7(4 x 2 + 3x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 7(4 x 2 + 3 x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)
= 28 x 2 + 21x + 10 x 2 + 2 x

9

= 38 x 2 + 23x

π
2

,

9.

9

10

9,

10 ⎬

6 + 4[7 − ( x − 2)]
= 6 + 4[7 − x + 2)]
= 6 + 4[9 − x]
= 6 + 36 − 4 x
= 42 − 4 x

Exercise Set P.1
1.

7 + 5(10) = 7 + 50 = 57

2.

8 + 6 ( 5 ) = 8 + 30 = 38

3.

6(3) − 8 = 18 − 8 = 10

1

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

4.

8 ( 3) − 4 = 24 − 4 = 20

5.

82 + 3(8) = 64 + 24 = 88

6.

62 + 5 ( 6 ) = 36 + 30 = 66

7.

7 2 − 6(7) + 3 = 49 − 42 + 3 = 7 + 3 = 10

8.

82 − 7 ( 8 ) + 4 = 64 − 56 + 4 = 8 + 4 = 12

9.

4 + 5(9 − 7)3 = 4 + 5(2)3
= 4 + 5(8) = 4 + 40 = 44

10.

6 + 5 (8 − 6 ) = 6 + 5 ( 2 )
3

18.

19.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2 = 4 + 60(2) − 16(2)2
= 4 + 120 − 16(4) = 4 + 120 − 64
= 124 − 64 = 60
Two seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is
60 feet.

20.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2
= 4 + 60(3) − 16(3) 2
= 4 + 180 − 16(9)
= 4 + 180 − 144
= 184 − 144 = 40
Three seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is
40 feet.

3

= 6 + 5 (8)

= 6 + 40 = 46
11.

82 − 3(8 − 2) = 64 − 3(6)
= 64 − 18 = 46

12.
13.

14.

15.

16.

21.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∩ {2, 4,5} = {2, 4}

82 − 4 ( 8 − 3) = 64 − 4 ( 5 ) = 64 − 20 = 44

22.

{1,3, 7} ∩ {2,3,8} = {3}

5( x + 2) 5(10 + 2)
=
2 x − 14 2(10) − 14
5(12)
=
6
= 5⋅2
= 10

23.

{s, e, t} ∩ {t , e, s} = {s, e, t}

24.

{r , e, a, l} ∩ {l , e, a, r} = {r , e, a, l}

25.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {2, 4, 6,8,10} = { }
The empty set is also denoted by ∅.

7( x − 3) 7(9 − 3) 7(6)
=
=
= 7 ⋅ 3 = 21
2 x − 16 2(9) − 16
2
2x + 3 y
; x = −2, y = 4
x +1
2 ( −2 ) + 3 ( 4 ) −4 + 12 8
=
=
=
= −8
−2 + 1
−1
−1
2x + y
; x = −2 and y = 4
xy − 2 x
2 ( −2 ) + 4

( −2 )( 4 ) − 2 ( −2 )
17.

5
5
5
C = ( F − 32) = (86 − 32) = (54) = 30
9
9
9
30°C is equivalent to 86°F.

=

−4 + 4 0
= =0
−8 + 4 4

5
5
C = (50 − 32) = (18) = 10
9
9
10°C is equivalent to 50°F.

26.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {−5, −3, −1} = { }

27.

{a, b, c, d} ∩ ∅ = ∅

28.

{w, y, z} ∩ ∅ = ∅

29.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∪ {2, 4,5} = {1, 2,3, 4,5}

30.

{1,3, 7,8} ∪ {2,3,8} = {1, 2,3, 7,8}

31.

{1, 3,5, 7} ∪ {2, 4, 6,8,10}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,10}

32.

{0,1,3,5} ∪ {2, 4, 6} = {0,1, 2,3, 4,5, 6}

33.

{a, e, i, o, u} ∪ ∅ = {a, e, i, o, u}

34.

{e, m, p, t , y} ∪ ∅

or ∅

= {e, m, p, t , y}

2

PreCalculus 4E

35. a.

Section P.1

39. 0

100

b.

0, 100

c.

−9, 0, 100

d.

4
−9, − , 0, 0.25, 9.2, 100
5

e.
f.
36. a.

40. Answers may vary. An example is

1
.
2

41. Answers may vary. An example is 2.
42. Answers may vary. An example is −2.
43. true; –13 is to the left of –2 on the number line.

3

44. false; –6 is to the left of 2 on the number line.

4
−9, − , 0, 0.25, 3, 9.2, 100
5

45. true; 4 is to the right of –7 on the number line.
46. true; –13 is to the left of –5 on the number line.

49

47. true; −π = −π

b.

0, 49

c.

−7, 0, 49

d.

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49

48. true; –3 is to the right of –13 on the number line.
49. true; 0 is to the right of –6 on the number line.

e.
f.
37. a.

50
−7, − 0.6, 0, 49, 50
64

b.

0, 64

c.

−11, 0, 64

d.

5
−11, − , 0, 0.75, 64
6

e.
f.
38. a.

5
−11, − , 0, 0.75, 5, π , 64
6
4
0, 4

c.

−5, 0, 4

d.

−5, − 0.3, 0, 4

f.

51.

300 = 300

52.

−203 = 203

53.

12 − π = 12 − π

54.

7−π = 7−π

55.

2 −5 = 5− 2

56.

5 − 13 = 13 − 5

5, π

b.

e.

50. true; 0 is to the right of –13 on the number line.

2
−5, − 0.3, 0, 2, 4

57.

−3 −3
=
= −1
3
−3

58.

−7 −7
=
= −1
7
−7

59.

−3 − −7 = 3 − 7 = −4 = 4

60.

−5 − −13 = 5 − 13 = −8 = 8

61.

x + y = 2 + (−5) = −3 = 3

62.

x − y = 2 − (−5) = 7 = 7

3

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

63.

x + y = 2 + −5 = 2 + 5 = 7

64.

x − y = 2 − −5 = 2 − 5 = −3

65.

y
−5 −5
=
=
= −1
y
−5
5

66.

x

y

2

83.

84.

1
( x + 3) = 1; x ≠ −3 ,
x+3
inverse property of multiplication

( x + 4 ) + ⎡⎣ − ( x + 4 ) ⎤⎦ = 0;

85.

−5

2 5
+
= +
= +
= 1 + (−1) = 0
x
y
2 −5 2 −5

5(3 x + 4) − 4 = 5 ⋅ 3x + 5 ⋅ 4 − 4
= 15 x + 20 − 4
= 15 x + 16

67. The distance is 2 − 17 = −15 = 15 .

86.

2(5 x + 4) − 3 = 2 ⋅ 5 x + 2 ⋅ 4 − 3
= 10 x + 8 − 3

68. The distance is 4 − 15 = −11 = 11 .

= 10 x + 5

69. The distance is −2 − 5 = −7 = 7 .

87.

5(3 x − 2) + 12 x = 5 ⋅ 3x − 5 ⋅ 2 + 12 x
= 15 x − 10 + 12 x

70. The distance is −6 − 8 = −14 = 14 .

= 27 x − 10

71. The distance is −19 − (−4) = −19 + 4 = −15 = 15 .

88.

2(5 x − 1) + 14 x = 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅1 + 14 x
= 10 x − 2 + 14 x

72. The distance is −26 − (−3) = −26 + 3 = −23 = 23 .

= 24 x − 2

73. The distance is
−3.6 − (−1.4) = −3.6 + 1.4 = −2.2 = 2.2 .

89.

= 7 ⋅3y − 7 ⋅5 + 2⋅ 4y + 2 ⋅3
= 21y − 35 + 8 y + 6

74. The distance is
−5.4 − (−1.2) = −5.4 + 1.2 = −4.2 = 4.2 .

= 29 y − 29
90.

75. 6 + (–4) = (–4) + 6;

= 8 y − 24 + 15 y + 30
= 23 y + 6
91.

77. 6 + (2 + 7) = (6 + 2) + 7;

5 ( 3 y − 2 ) − ( 7 y + 2 ) = 15 y − 10 − 7 y − 2
= 8 y − 12

92.

6 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 3) = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 2);
commutative property of multiplication

4(5 y − 3) − (6 y + 3) = 20 y − 12 − 6 y − 3
= 14 y − 15

79. (2 + 3) + (4 + 5) = (4 + 5) + (2 + 3);
80.

4(2 y − 6) + 3(5 y + 10)
= 4 ⋅ 2 y − 4 ⋅ 6 + 3 ⋅ 5 y + 3 ⋅10

76. 11 ⋅ (7 + 4) = 11 ⋅ 7 + 11 ⋅ 4;
distributive property of multiplication over addition

78.

7(3 y − 5) + 2(4 y + 3)

93.

7 − 4 ⎡⎣3 − ( 4 y − 5 ) ⎤⎦ = 7 − 4 [3 − 4 y + 5]
= 7 − 4 [8 − 4 y ]

7 ⋅ (11⋅ 8) = (11 ⋅ 8) ⋅ 7;
commutative property of multiplication

= 7 − 32 + 16 y
= 16 y − 25

81. 2 (–8 + 6) = –16 + 12;
distributive property of multiplication over addition
82.

−8(3 + 11) = −24 + (−88) ;
distributive property of multiplication over addition

4

PreCalculus 4E

94.

Section P.1

6 − 5[8 − (2 y − 4)] = 6 − 5 [8 − 2 y + 4]

104. −20

= 6 − 5 [12 − 2 y ]

20

= 6 − 60 + 10 y

95. 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 ( x 2 − 2) + 5⎤⎦

105.

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 12 + 5⎤⎦
= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 7⎤⎦
= 18 x 2 + 4 − 6 x 2 + 7

96. 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣7 ( x 2 − 2 ) + 4 ⎤⎦

106.

= 14 x + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 14 + 4 ⎤⎦
2

= 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 10⎤⎦

−0.6

5
2

−2.5

2.5

−2.5

3
= −0.6 .
5

2.5
2.5 = 2.5

= 14 x 2 − 7 x 2 + 5 + 10

Since 2.5 = 2.5,

= (14 − 7 ) x + 15
2

= 7 x 2 + 15

107.

97. –(–14x) = 14x

− ( −17 y ) = 17 y

30 3

40 4
30 30

40 40

5
= −2.5 .
2

14 15

15 14
14 15

15 14

0 1
0 <1
30 3
14 15
Since 0 < 1,
− <
⋅ .
40 4
15 14

99. –(2x – 3y – 6) = –2x + 3y + 6
100. − ( 5 x − 13 y − 1) = −5 x + 13 y + 1

1
(3 x) + [ (4 y ) + (−4 y ) ] = x + 0
3
=x

108.

1
( 2 y ) + ⎣⎡( −7 x ) + 7 x ⎦⎤ = y + 0 = y
2

6

0.6

2.5

= 14 x 2 + 5 − 7 x 2 + 10

103. −6

−0.6

Since 0.6 = 0.6,

= (18 − 6) x 2 + 11 = 12 x 2 + 11

102.

3
5

0.6
0.6
0.6 = 0.6

= 18 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 4 + 7

101.

50

20 < 50
Since 20 < 50, −20 < −50 .

= 10 y − 54

98.

−50

17 18

18 17
17 18

18 17

50 5

60 6
50 50

60 60

1 0
1> 0
17 18
50 5
Since 1 > 0,

>
− .
18 17
60 6

−3
3

6>3
Since 6 > 3, −6 > −3 .

5

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

109. 8 8
÷
13 13
8 13

13 8

115. 8 − 3[−2(2 − 5) − 4(8 − 6)] = 8 − 3[−2(−3) − 4(2)]

−1

= 8 − 3[6 − 8]
= 8 − 3[−2]

1

=8+6

1 1
1=1
Since 1 = 1,
110.

= 14
116. 8 − 3[−2(5 − 7) − 5(4 − 2)] = 8 − 3[−2(−2) − 5(2)]

8 8
÷ = −1 .
13 13

= 8 − 3[4 − 10]
= 8 − 3[−6]

4 4
−2
÷
17 17
4 17
2

17 4
2 1
2 >1

= 8 + 18
= 26
117.

Since 2 > 1, −2 >

4 4
÷ .
17 17

111. 82 − 16 ÷ 22 ⋅ 4 − 3 = 64 − 16 ÷ 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 64 − 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

118.

= 64 − 16 − 3
= 48 − 3
= 45
112. 102 − 100 ÷ 52 ⋅ 2 − 3 = 100 − 100 ÷ 25 ⋅ 2 − 3
119.

= 100 − 4 ⋅ 2 − 3
= 100 − 8 − 3

2(−2) − 4(−3) −4 + 12
=
5−8
−3
8
=
−3
8
=−
3
6(−4) − 5(−3) −24 + 15
=
9 − 10
−1
−9
=
−1
=9
(5 − 6)2 − 2 3 − 7
89 − 3 ⋅ 52

= 92 − 3
= 89
113.

5 ⋅ 2 − 32
2

2

[3 − (−2)]

=
=
=

5⋅2 −9
[9 − (−2)]2
10 − 9
[9 + 2]2
10 − 9

112
1
=
121
114.

10 ÷ 2 + 3 ⋅ 4
(12 − 3 ⋅ 2)

2

=
=

120.

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 22 + 32
7 + 3− 6

2

=

(−1) 2 − 2 −4

89 − 3 ⋅ 25
1 − 2(4)
=
89 − 75
1− 8
=
14
−7
=
14
1
=−
2

=
=

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 4 + 9
7 + 3 − 36
4 ⋅ 5 13

10 − 36
20(13)
=
−26
260
=
−26
= −10

5 + 12
(12 − 6) 2
17

62
17
=
36

121. x − ( x + 4) = x − x − 4 = −4

6

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.1

122. x − ( 8 − x ) = x − 8 + x = 2 x − 8

b.

123. 6 ( −5 x ) = −30 x
124. 10 ( −4 x ) = −40 x
125. 5 x − 2 x = 3 x
126. 6 x − ( −2 x ) = 6 x + 2 x = 8 x
127. 8 x − ( 3x + 6 ) = 8 x − 3x − 6 = 5 x − 6

131. a.

128. 8 − 3 ( x + 6 ) = 8 − 3x − 18 = −3 x − 10
129. a.

b.

130. a.

3
( 220 − a )
5
3
H = ( 220 − 30 )
5
3
= (190 )
5
= 114
The upper limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 114 beats per
minute.
H=

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15, 395 + 988(7) − 2(7)2
= 22, 213
The formula estimates the cost to have been
\$22,213 in 2007.

7
( 220 − a )
10
7
H = ( 220 − 20 )
10
7
= ( 200 )
10
= 140
The lower limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 140 beats per
minute.
H=

b.

This underestimates the value in the graph by
\$5.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15,395 + 988(10) − 2(10)2
= 25, 075
The formula projects the cost to be \$25,075 in
2010.

4
( 220 − a )
5
4
H = ( 220 − 20 )
5
4
= ( 200 )
5
= 160
The upper limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 160 beats per
minute.
H=

132. a.

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15, 395 + 988(6) − 2(6)2
= 21, 251
The formula estimates the cost to have been
\$21,251 in 2006.

1
( 220 − a )
2
1
H = ( 220 − 30 )
2
1
= (190 )
2
= 95
The lower limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 95 beats per
minute.
H=

b.

This underestimates the value in the graph by
\$16.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15,395 + 988(12) − 2(12)2
= 26, 963
The formula projects the cost to be \$26,963 in
2012.

133. a.

0.05 x + 0.12 (10,000 − x )
= 0.05 x + 1200 − 0.12 x
= 1200 − 0.07 x

b.

1200 − 0.07 x = 1200 − 0.07(6000)
= \$780

7

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

134. a.

158. −π > −3.5

0.06t + 0.5(50 − t ) = 0.06t + 25 − 0.5t
= 25 − 0.44t

b.

3.14
= −1.57
2
π
− ≈ −1.571
2
−1.57 > −1.571

159. −

0.06(20) + 0.5(50 − 20)
= 1.2 + 0.5(30)
= 1.2 + 15
= 16.2 miles

135. – 144. Answers may vary.
145. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: Models do not always
accurately predict future values.

3.14
π
>−
2
2

160. a.

146. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: To use the model, substitute 0
for x.

b4 ⋅ b3 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b7

b.

b5 ⋅ b5 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b10

c.

b7

161. a.

147. makes sense

b

148. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: The commutative property
changes order and the associative property changes
groupings.

b8

b.

b
c.

149. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: Some rational numbers are not
integers.

162.

3

2

=

b⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b
= b4
b ⋅b ⋅b

=

b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b ⋅b
= b6
b⋅b

subtract the exponents

6.2 × 103 = 6.2 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 6200
It moves the decimal point 3 places to the right.

150. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: All whole numbers are integers
Section P.2

151. true

Check Point Exercises

152. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: Some irrational numbers are
negative.

1.

153. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: The term x has a coefficient of
1.

( 2x y ) = ( 2) ( x ) ( y )

b.

( −6 x y )( 3xy ) = ( −6 ) ⋅ 3 ⋅ x

3

6

2

4

4

5

3

4

6

4

3

= 16 x12 y 24
2

⋅ x ⋅ y5 ⋅ y3

= −18 x 3 y 8

154. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is:
5 + 3( x − 4) = 5 + 3 x − 12 = 3x − 7.

c.

100 x12 y 2 ⎛ 100 ⎞ ⎛ x12 ⎞ ⎛ y 2 ⎞
=

⎟⎜

20 x16 y −4 ⎜⎝ 20 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x16 ⎠ ⎝ y −4 ⎠

= 5 x12 −16 y 2 − ( −4)
= 5 x −4 y 6

155. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: − x − x = −2 x.

=

156. true
157.

a.

5 y6
x4

2 ≈ 1.4
1.4 < 1.5
2 < 1.5

8

PreCalculus 4E

d.

⎛ 5x ⎞
⎜ 4⎟
⎝y ⎠

Section P.2

( 5) ( x )
−2

−2

=

(y )
4

(5) ( x )

=

(y )
4

7.

−2

−2

=

−2

= (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − 02 ]
= 2534.4
The speed of the blood at the central axis of the
artery is 2534.4 centimeters per second.

−2

−2

5−2 x −2
y −8

Exercise Set P.2

y8
52 x 2
y8
=
25 x 2
=

2.

3.

4.

a.

−6

3.017 × 10

a.

5, 210, 000, 000 = 5.21× 10

b.

−0.00000006893 = −6.893 × 10−8

(

= 0.000003017

2.

62 ⋅ 2 = (6 ⋅ 6) ⋅ 2 = 36 ⋅ 2 = 72

3.

(−2)6 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 64

4.

(−2) 4 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 16

5.

−26 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −64

6.

−2 4 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −16

7.

(−3)0 = 1

)

8.

(−9)0 = 1

9.

−30 = −1

10.

−9 0 = −1

11.

4−3 =

1
1
1
=
=
3
4
4 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 4 64

12.

2−6 =

1
1
1
=
=
6
2
2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 64

13.

2 2 ⋅ 23 = 2 2 + 3 = 25 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 32

14.

33 ⋅ 32 = 33+ 2 = 35 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 243

15.

(22 )3 = 22⋅3 = 26 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 64

16.

(33 )2 = 33⋅2 = 36 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 729

17.

28
= 28− 4 = 24 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 16
24

18.

38
= 38 − 4 = 34 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 81
34

19.

3−3 ⋅ 3 = 3−3+1 = 3−2 =

1
1
1
=
=
2
3
3⋅3 9

20.

2−3 ⋅ 2 = 2−3+1 = 2−2 =

1
1
1
=
=
2
2⋅2 4
2

9

410 ×107 = 4.1× 102 × 107

(

= 4.1× 10

)

9

( 7.1×10 )( 5 ×10 )
−7

5

= 7.1 ⋅ 5 × 105 ⋅10−7
= 35.5 × 10−2

(

)

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

(

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2
= 3.55 × 10
b.

52 ⋅ 2 = (5 ⋅ 5) ⋅ 2 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 50

−2.6 ×10 = −2, 600, 000, 000

b.

a.

1.

9

= 4.1× 102 × 107

5.

)

−1

1.2 × 106 1.2 106
=

3 ×10−3
3 10−3
= 0.4 × 106 − ( −3)
= 0.4 × 109
= 4 × 108

6.

S = (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − r 2 ]

13 × 109
13 109
=

6
5.1 × 10
5.1 106
≈ 2.5 ⋅ 103
≈ 2500
The average Pell grant was \$2500 in 2006.

9

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

21.

23
1
1
1
= 23 − 7 = 2 − 4 = 4 =
=
7
2
2
2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 16

22.

34
1
1
1
= 34 − 7 = 3−3 = 3 =
=
37
3
3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 27

23.

x −2 y =

25.

x0 y5 = 1⋅ y5 = y5

26.

x 7 ⋅ y 0 = x 7 ⋅1 = x 7

27.

x 3 ⋅ x 7 = x 3+ 7 = x10

28.

x ⋅x = x

29.

x −5 ⋅ x10 = x −5+10 = x 5

30.

x −6 ⋅ x12 = x −6 +12 = x 6

31.

( x3 )7 = x 3⋅7 = x 21

32.

( x11 )5 = x11⋅5 = x 55

33.

( x −5 )3 = x −5⋅3 = x −15 =

34.

35.

5

11+ 5

42.

⎛ 6⎞
(−6)3
216
⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3
y
y
⎝ y⎠

43.

(−3x 2 y 5 ) 2 = (−3)2 ( x 2 ) 2 ⋅ ( y 5 ) 2
= 9 x 2⋅2 y 5⋅2
= 9 x 4 y10

1
x
=
y3 y3

xy −3 = x ⋅

(−4)3
64
⎛ 4⎞
⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3
x
x
⎝ x⎠
3

1
y
⋅y= 2
x2
x

24.

11

3

41.

44.

= −27 x 4⋅3 y 6⋅3
= −27 x12 y18

=x

45.

(3 x 4 )(2 x 7 ) = 3 ⋅ 2 x 4 ⋅ x 7 = 6 x 4 + 7 = 6 x11

46.

(11x 5 )(9 x12 ) = 11⋅ 9 x 5 x12 = 99 x5 +12 = 99 x17

47.

(−9 x3 y )(−2 x 6 y 4 ) = (−9)(−2) x 3 x 6 yy 4

16

( x −6 ) 4 = x −6⋅4 = x −24 =

= 18 x 3+ 6 y1+ 4
= 18 x 9 y 5
48.

= 30 x11 y12
1
x15
1
x 24

49.

8 x 20 ⎛ 8 ⎞ ⎛ x 20
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
2 x4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ x4

50.

20 x 24 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 24 ⎞
24 − 6
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
= 2 x18
⎟ = 2x
10 x 6 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ x 6 ⎠

x14
= x14 − 7 = x 7
x7
x30
= x 30 −10 = x 20
10
x

38.

20 − 4
= 4 x16
⎟ = 4x

25a13 ⋅ b 4 ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎛ a13 ⎞ ⎛ b 4 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
⎟⎜ ⎟
−5a 2 ⋅ b3 ⎝ −5 ⎠ ⎝ a 2 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠
= −5a13 − 2 b 4 − 3
= −5a11b

14

37.

(−5 x 4 y )(−6 x 7 y11 ) = (−5)(−6) x 4 x 7 yy11
= 30 x 4 + 7 y1+11

51.
36.

(−3x 4 y 6 )3 = (−3)3 ( x 4 )3 ( y 6 )3

x
= x14 − ( −7) = x14 + 7 = x 21
x −7

52.

x30
= x30 − ( −10) = x 30 +10 = x 40
x −10

39.

(8 x3 ) 2 = 82 ( x 3 )2 = 82 x 3⋅2 = 64 x 6

40.

(6 x ) = (6) ( x ) = 6 x
4 2

2

4 2

2

4⋅2

= 36 x

35a14 b6 ⎛ 35 ⎞ ⎛ a14 ⎞ ⎛ b6 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
⎟⎜ ⎟
−7a 7 b3 ⎝ −7 ⎠ ⎝ a 7 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠
= −5a14 − 7 b6 − 3
= −5a 7 b3

53.

8

14b7 ⎛ 14 ⎞ ⎛ b 7 ⎞
2
7 −14
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
= 2b −7 = 7
⎟ = 2⋅b
7b14 ⎝ 7 ⎠ ⎝ b14 ⎠
b

10

PreCalculus 4E

54.

Section P.2

20b10 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ b10 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜

10b 20 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ b 20 ⎠

3

61.

= 2b10 − 20
= 2b

⎛ −3b5 ⎞
=⎜ 6 ⎟
⎝ a ⎠
−27b15
=
a18

−10

2
b10

=
55.

(4 x3 ) −2 = (4−2 )( x 3 ) −2
−2

=4 x

62.

1
42 x6
1
=
16 x 6

1
103 x 6
1
=
1000 x 6

10 x 4 y 9
1
= x 4 −12 y 9 − ( −3)
30 x12 y −3 3
1
= x −8 y12
3
y12
= 8
3x

59.

⎛ 5x ⎞
5 x
y

⎟ = −2 =
y
25
x6

y
−3

−2

−6

⎛ 3x ⎞
⎛ y ⎞

⎟ =⎜ 4 ⎟
⎝ 3x ⎠
⎝ y ⎠
y3
= 3 4⋅3
3 x
y3
=
27 x12
4

60.

−2

3

3

63.

⎛ 3a −5b 2 ⎞
=1

3 −4 ⎟
⎝ 12a b ⎠

64.

⎛ 4a −5b3 ⎞
=1

3 −5 ⎟
⎝ 12a b ⎠

65.

3.8 × 10 2 = 380

66.

9.2 × 10 2 = 920

67.

6 × 10−4 = 0.0006

68.

7 × 10−5 = 0.00007

69.

−7.16 × 106 = −7,160, 000

70.

−8.17 × 106 = −8,170, 000

71.

7.9 × 10−1 = 0.79

72.

6.8 × 10 −1 = 0.68

73.

−4.15 × 10 −3 = −0.00415

74.

−3.14 × 10−3 = −0.00314

75.

−6.00001×1010 = −60, 000,100, 000

76.

−7.00001×1010 = −70, 000,100, 000

77.

32, 000 = 3.2 × 104

78.

64, 000 = 6.4 ×104

0

24 x 3 ⋅ y 5 3 3− 7 5 − ( −9)
= x y
32 x 7 y −9 4
3
= x −4 y14
4
3 y14
= 4
4x

3

⎟⎟

0

=

58.

⎛ −30a14b8 ⎞ ⎛ −3b8−( −2)
= ⎜⎜ 17−14

17 −2 ⎟
⎝ 10a b ⎠ ⎝ a

(10 x 2 )−3 = 10−3 x 2⋅( −3)

3

3

⎛ −3b10 ⎞
=⎜

⎝ a3 ⎠
−27b30
=
a9

= 10−3 x −6

57.

⎟⎟

3

−6

=

56.

⎛ −15a 4b 2 ⎞ ⎛ −3b 2−( −3)
⎜ 10 −3 ⎟ = ⎜⎜ 10−4
⎝ 5a b ⎠ ⎝ a

2

3

11

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

79.

94.

638, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000

(8.2 ×10 )( 4.6 ×10 )
8

4

= 6.38 ×1017

= 37.72 × 108+ 4 = 37.72 × 1012

80.

579,000, 000, 000, 000, 000 = 5.79 × 1017

= 3.772 × 1013 ≈ 3.77 ×1013

81.

−5716 = −5.716 × 103

82.

−3829 = −3.829 × 103

83.

0.0027 = 2.7 × 10 −3

84.

0.0083 = 8.3 × 10 −3

85.

−0.00000000504 = −5.04 × 10−9

86.

−0.00000000405 = −4.05 × 10−9

87.

(3 × 104 )( 2.1 × 103 ) = (3 × 2.1) (104 × 103 )

( 2 ×10 )( 4.1×10 ) = 8.2 ×10

89.

(1.6 × 10 )( 4 × 10 ) = (1.6 × 4) (10

4

3

(1.4 × 10 )(3 × 10 ) = (1.4 × 3) (10
−11

99.

4.8 × 10−2 4.8 10−2
=
×
2.4 × 106 2.4 106
= 2 × 10−2 − 6 = 2 × 10−8

15

× 10−11 )

100. 7.5 ×10−2
= 3 × 10−2 − 6 = 3 × 10−8
6
2.5 × 10

× 10−4 )

101. 2.4 × 10−2 2.4 10−2
=
×
4.8 ×10−6 4.8 10−6
= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

= 4.2 × 104

(6.1 × 10 )( 2 × 10 ) = (6.1× 2) (10
−8

−4

−8

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 × 103

= 12.2 × 10−8+( −4)
= 12.2 × 10−12

102. 1.5 × 10−2
= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)
5 × 10−6
= 0.5 × 104 = 5 ×103

= 1.22 × 10−11
92.

( 5.1×10 )(3 ×10 ) = 15.3 ×10
−8

−4

−12

= 1.53 × 10−11
93.

103. 480, 000, 000, 000 4.8 × 1011
=
0.00012
1.2 ×10−4
4.8 1011
=
×
1.2 10−4
= 4 × 1011− ( −4)

( 4.3 ×10 )(6.2 ×10 )
= ( 4.3 × 6.2) (10 ×10 )
8

4

8

3.6 ×104 3.6 104
=
×
9 10−2
9 × 10−2
= 0.4 ×104 − ( −2)

× 10−11 )

15

= 4.2 × 1015+( −11)

91.

97.

1.2 × 104
= 0.6 × 104 − ( −2) = 0.6 ×106
2 × 10−2
= ( 6 ×10−1 ) ×106 = 6 × 105

= 6.4 × 104
15

6.9 × 108
= 2.3 × 108− 5 = 2.3 × 103
3 ×105

98.

= 6.4 × 1015+ ( −11)

90.

96.

7

−11

15

8.4 × 108 8.4 108
=
×
4 ×105
4 105
= 2.1× 108− 5 = 2.1× 103

= 0.4 ×106 = 4 × 105

= 6.3 × 104+3 = 6.3 × 107
88.

95.

4

= 26.66 × 108+ 4

= 4 × 1015

= 26.66 × 1012
= 2.666 × 1013 ≈ 2.67 × 1013

104. 282, 000, 000, 000 2.82 × 1011
=
0.00141
1.41×10−3
= 2 × 1011− ( −3)
= 2 × 1014

12

PreCalculus 4E

105.

106.

Section P.2

0.00072 × 0.003
0.00024
7.2
( ×10−4 )(3 ×10−3 )
=
2.4 × 10−4
7.2 × 3 10−4 ⋅10−3
=
×
= 9 × 10−3
2.4
10−4

113.

( 2−1 x−2 y−1 ) ( 2 x−4 y3 ) (16 x−3 y3 )
2
( 2 x−3 y−5 )
( 22 x2 y2 )( 2−2 x8 y−6 )(1)
=
( 22 x−6 y−10 )
−2

=

4
−3
66000 × 0.001 ( 6.6 × 10 )(1× 10 )
=
0.003 × 0.002 ( 3 × 10−3 )( 2 × 10−3 )

114.

6.6 × 10
1− −6
= 1.1× 10 ( )
6 × 10−6
= 1.1× 107

−1

x −3 y −1 )

−2

1

107.

( x y)
(x y )

−3

−2

−1 3

2

=

x 6 y −3
= 6 −3
x y

=

= x 6 − 6 y −3− ( −3) = x 0 y 0 = 1
108.

( xy )
( x y)

−2 −2

−2

−3

= x −2 − 6 y

4 − ( −3)

= x −8 y 7 =

(2

y7
x8

111.

⎛ x y z ⎞
⎜ −3 −4 −5 ⎟
⎝x y z ⎠
3

4 5

−2

−4

−6

y4 )

y −6 )

−2

(9 x

3

y −3 )

0

2

x 6 y 2 )( 2−2 x12 y −8 ) (1)

(2

2

x −8 y −12 )

2.52 × 1012
3 × 108

c.

2.52 × 1012
3 × 108

=

2.52 1012
× 8
3
10

= 0.84 × 104
= 8400
\$8400 per American

y
y
=
24 x8 z 6 16 x8 z 6

116. a.

110. 3 x −4 yz −7 ( 3x )−3 = 3x −4 yz −7 ⋅ 3−3 x ⋅−3
(
)

= 3−2 x −7 yz −7 =

(2x

b.

109. 2 x −3 yz −6 ( 2 x )−5 = 2 x −3 yz −6 ⋅ 2−5 x ⋅−5
(
)

= 2−4 x −8 yz −6 =

2

(2x

x 26 y 6
4

115. a.

x −2 y 4
= 6 −3
x y

0

x18 y6
4

(2

=

−2

y
y
=
3 x7 z 7 9 x7 z 7
2

2.27 × 1012

b.

2.98 × 108

c.

2.27 × 1012

2.27 1012
=
×
2.98 108
2.98 × 108
= 0.7617 × 104

= ( x6 y z

)

= 7617
\$7617 per American

8 10 −2

= x −12 y −16 z −20 =

1
x y16 z 20

117. 1450 × 109 ⋅ 6.60 = 1.45 × 1012 ⋅ 6.6

12

= 1.45 ⋅ 6.6 × 1012
112. ⎛ x 4 y 5 z 6 ⎞ −4
8 10 12 −4
⎜ −4 −5 −6 ⎟ = ( x y z )
⎝x y z ⎠

= x −32 y −40 z −48 =

= 9.57 × 1012
Box-office receipts were \$9.57 × 1012 in 2006.

1
x y 40 z 48

118. 1400 × 109 ⋅ 6.40 = 1.4 × 1012 ⋅ 6.4

32

= 1.4 ⋅ 6.4 × 1012
= 8.96 × 1012
Box-office receipts were \$8.96 × 1012 in 2005.

13

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

119. 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 20, 000 = 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 2 × 104

138. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 52 ⋅ 5−2 = 25 ⋅ 2−5.

= 5.3 ⋅ 2 × 10−23 ⋅ 104
= 10.6 × 10−19

139. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: 534.7 ≠ 5347.

= 1.06 × 101 ⋅ 10−19

140. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is:

= 1.06 × 10−18
The mass is 1.06 × 10−18 gram.

8 × 1030
2 × 10−5

120. 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 80, 000 = 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 8 × 104

= 1.67 ⋅ 8 × 10−24 ⋅ 104

141. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is:

= 13.36 × 10−20
1

= 1.336 × 10 ⋅ 10

(7 × 105 ) + (2 × 10−3 ) = 700, 000.002.

−20

142. true

= 1.336 × 10−19

143. The doctor has gathered:
1 1
2 1 3
2−1 + 2−2 = +
= + =
2 22 4 4 4

The mass is 1.336 × 10−19 gram.
121. 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 127 = 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 1.27 × 102

= 3.2 ⋅ 1.27 × 107 ⋅ 102

So, 1 −

= 4.064 × 109

3 1
= is remaining.
4 4

144. b A = MN , bC = M , b D = N

Americans eat 4.064 × 109 chickens per year.

b A = bC b D

122. 365 days equals 365 ⋅ 24 or 8760 hours.

A=C+D

8760 hours equals 8760 ⋅ 60 or 525,600 minutes.
525,600 min. equals
525,600 ⋅ 60 or 31,536,000 seconds.

145.

There are 3.1536 × 107 seconds in a year.
123. – 130. Answers may vary.
131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

Sample explanation: 36( x3 )9 = 36 x 27 not 36 x12 .
132. makes sense

70 bts 60 min 24 hrs 365 days

⋅ 80 yrs
hr
day
yr
min
= 70 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 365 ⋅ 80 beats
= 2943360000 beats
= 2.94336 × 109 beats
≈ 2.94 × 109 beats
The heartbeats approximately 2.94 × 109 times over a

133. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
147. a.

Sample explanation: 4.6 × 1012 represents over 4
trillion. The entire world population is measured in
billions ( 109 ).
134. makes sense
135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 4

= 4 × 1030 − ( −5) = 4 × 1035.

−2

b.

16 ⋅ 4 = 64 = 8

c.

16 ⋅ 4 = 16 ⋅ 4

148. a.

300 ≈ 17.32

b.

10 3 ≈ 17.32

c.

300 = 10 3

−3

>4 .

16 ⋅ 4 = 4 ⋅ 2 = 8

136. true
137. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
1
A sample change is: (−2)4 ≠ 2−4 because 16 ≠ .
16

149. a.
b.

21x + 10 x = 31x
21 2 + 10 2 = 31 2

14

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

Section P.3

5.

a.

Check Point Exercises
1.

5 27 + 12
= 5 9⋅3 + 4⋅3
= 5⋅3 3 + 2 3

a.

81 = 9

b.

− 9 = −3

c.

1
1
=
25 5

d.

36 + 64 = 100 = 10

e.

36 + 64 = 6 + 8 = 14

a.

75 = 25 ⋅ 3 = 25 3 = 5 3

b.

5 x ⋅ 10 x = 5 x ⋅10 x

= 15 3 + 2 3
= (15 + 2) 3
= 17 3

2.

b.

= 6 9 ⋅ 2x − 4 4 ⋅ 2x
= 6 ⋅ 3 2x − 4 ⋅ 2 2x
= 18 2 x − 8 2 x
= (18 − 8) 2 x
= 10 2 x
6.

a.

= 50 x 2
= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2

b.

5
3

25
25 5
=
=
16
16 4
150 x 3
2x

=

b.

150 x 3
2x

= 5x 3

3

12

8 13 + 9 13 = (8 + 9) 3
7.

17 x − 20 17 x
= 1 17 x − 20 17 x
= (1 − 20) 17 x

=

Multiply by

3

=

5 3
9

=

5 3
3

12 ⋅ 3 =
3
3
6
12

36 = 6. So multiply by 1,

for 1.
3
3

=

6 3
36

=

4− 5

.
4− 5
8
8
4− 5
=

4+ 5 4+ 5 4− 5
=

= −19 17 x

3

for 1.

The smallest number that will produce a perfect
6
square in the denominator of
is 3
12

6

= 17 13
b.

5

choosing

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 3

a.

=

3

because

= 75 x 2

4.

3

choosing

= 5x 2
a.

If we multiply numerator and denominator by
3, the denominator becomes
3 ⋅ 3 = 9 = 3. Therefore, multiply by 1,

= 25 ⋅ 2 x 2

3.

6 18 x − 4 8 x

8(4 − 5)
42 − ( 5)2

8(4 − 5)
16 − 5
8(4 − 5)
32 − 8 5
or
=
11
11
=

15

6 3
= 3
6

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

8.

9.

a.

3

40 = 3 8 ⋅ 5 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 5 = 2 3 5

Exercise Set P.3

b.

5

8 ⋅ 5 8 = 5 64 = 5 32 ⋅ 5 2 = 2 5 2

1.

36 = 62 = 6

c.

3

125 3 125 5
= 3
=
27
27 3

2.

25 = 52 = 5

3 3 81 − 4 3 3 = 3 3 27 ⋅ 3 − 4 3 3

3.

− 36 = − 62 = −6

4.

− 25 = − 52 = −5

5.

−36 , The square root of a negative number is not
real.

6.

−25 , The square root of a negative number is not
real.

= 3⋅ 33 3 − 4 3 3
= 93 3 − 43 3
= (9 − 4) 3 3
= 53 3
1

25 2 = 25 = 5

10. a.

1

b.

83 = 3 8 = 2

c.

−814 = − 4 81 = −3

d.

( −8 ) 3

e.

27

1

1

1
3

= 3 −8 = −2
1

=

1

1

=

3

27 3
4

(

27 3 =

11. a.

( 4)

2
5

1

32

c.

27

42 =

3

b.

3

2

=

3

2

)

4

=

27

1
3

= (3)4 = 81

= (2)3 = 8

=

32 5

1

(

5

32

)

2

1 1
= 2 =
2
4

7.

25 − 16 = 9 = 3

8.

144 + 25 = 169 = 13

9.

25 − 16 = 5 − 4 = 1

10.

144 + 25 = 12 + 5 = 17

11.

(−13) 2 = 169 = 13

12.

(−17)2 = 289 = 17

13.

50 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 25 2 = 5 2

14.

27 = 9 ⋅ 3 = 9 3 = 3 3

15.

45 x 2 = 9 x 2 ⋅ 5
= 9 x2 5

( 2 x )( 5x )
4/3

12. a.

8/3

= 9 x2 5

= 2 ⋅ 5 x 4 / 3 ⋅ x8 / 3

=3 x 5

= 10 x ( 4 / 3) + (8 / 3)
= 10 x12 / 3
= 10 x

16.

4

= 25 x 2 5

20 x 4 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 4 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟
3
5x 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x 2 ⎠

b.

= 25 x 2 5
=5 x 5

4− 3
= 4x ( 2)
8 − 3
= 4 x( 2 ) ( 2 )

= 4x
13.

6

5

17.

2x ⋅ 6x = 2x ⋅ 6x
= 12 x 2

2

= 4x2 ⋅ 3

x3 = x 6 = x 2 = x
3

125 x 2 = 25 x 2 ⋅ 5

1

= 2x 3

16

PreCalculus 4E

18.

Section P.3

10 x ⋅ 8 x = 10 x ⋅ 8 x

30.

= 80 x 2

24 x 4
=
3x

= 16 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 8 x3

= 4x 5

= 4 x2 ⋅ 2 x

19.

x3 = x 2 ⋅ x = x x

20.

y3 =

21.

2 x2 ⋅ 6 x = 2 x2 ⋅ 6 x

= 2x 2x
31.

y2 ⋅ y = y y

200 x3
10 x −1

= 4 x 2 ⋅ 3x

= 4 ⋅ 5x4
= 2 x2 5
32.

1
1 1
=
=
81
81 9

24.

1
=
49

25.

49
49 7
=
=
16
16 4

26.

121
121 11
=
=
9
3
9

27.

28.

48 x3

=

3x
72 x

3

=

8x

1
7

34.

8 5 + 11 5 = (8 + 11) 5 = 19 5

35.

6 17 x − 8 17 x = (6 − 8) 17 x = −2 17 x

36.

4 13 x − 6 13x = (4 − 6) 13x = −2 13x

= (2 + 3) 2
=5 2
38.

20 + 6 5 = 4 ⋅ 5 + 6 5
= 2 5+6 5
= (2 + 6) 5
=8 5

72 x
= 9 x2 = 3x
8x

150 x
150 x
=
3x
3x

8 + 3 2 = 4⋅2 + 3 2
= 2 2 +3 2

39.
29.

500 x 3
= 50 x 3−( −1)
10 x −1

7 3 + 6 3 = (7 + 6) 3 = 13 3

37.

48 x3
= 16 x 2 = 4 x
3x

4

10 x −1

=

33.

3

=

500 x 3

= 50 x 4 = 25 ⋅ 2 x 4 = 5 x 2 2

= 3x 2x

49

3−( −1)

= 20 x 4

6 x ⋅ 3 x 2 = 6 x ⋅ 3x 2
= 18 x3

1

200 x 3
10 x −1

= 12 x 3

= 9 x2 ⋅ 2 x

23.

=

= 20 x

= 2 x 3x
22.

24 x 4
3x

4

50 x − 8 x = 25 ⋅ 2 x − 4 ⋅ 2 x
= 5 2x − 2 2x
= (5 − 2) 2 x

= 50 x 3

= 3 2x

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2 x
= 5x 2x

17

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

40.

63 x − 28 x = 9 ⋅ 7 x − 4 ⋅ 7 x

49.

= 3 7x − 2 7x

13
3 + 11

= (3 − 2) 7 x

=
=

= 7x
41.

3 18 + 5 50 = 3 9 ⋅ 2 + 5 25 ⋅ 2
= 3⋅3 2 + 5⋅5 2
= 9 2 + 25 2
= (9 + 25) 2

50.

= 34 2
42.

3
3+ 7

= 4⋅ 2 3 − 2⋅5 3

13(3 − 11)
9 − 11

=

13(3 − 11)
−2

=

= −2 3
3 8 − 32 + 3 72 − 75

51.

= 3 4 ⋅ 2 − 16 ⋅ 2 + 3 36 ⋅ 2 − 25 ⋅ 3

7
5−2

= 6 2 − 4 2 + 18 2 − 5 3
=

= 20 2 − 5 3

= 3 9 ⋅ 6 − 2 4 ⋅ 6 − 16 ⋅ 6 + 4 9 ⋅ 7

52.

= 3⋅3 6 − 2⋅ 2 6 − 4 6 + 4 ⋅3 7

5
3 −1

= 9 6 − 4 6 − 4 6 + 12 7

46.

47.

48.

2

2
5
7
3

=

=

=

2

2
5
7

10

10
5
5

=

=

5−2

5+2

5+2

7( 5 + 2)
( 5) 2 − 22
7( 5 + 2)
5−4

5
3 −1

3 +1
3 +1

5( 3 + 1)
( 3) 2 − 12

5( 3 + 1)
3 −1
5( 3 + 1)
=
2

7

10

7

=

7
=

=
7
7
7 7

10

3(3 − 7 )
32 − ( 7 )2

=
=

= 6 + 12 7
45.

3− 7

= 7( 5 + 2)

3 54 − 2 24 − 96 + 4 63

1

3+ 7 3− 7

=
=

= 3⋅ 2 2 − 4 2 + 3⋅ 6 2 − 5 3

1

3

3(3 − 7)
9−7
3(3 − 7)
=
2

= (8 − 10) 3

44.

32 − ( 11)2

=

= 8 3 − 10 3

43.

13(3 − 11)

=

=

4 12 − 2 75 = 4 4 ⋅ 3 − 2 25 ⋅ 3

13
3 − 11

3 + 11 3 − 11

2 10
10
=
10
5

53.

10
5

6
5+ 3

=
=
=

3

21

=
3
3 3

6
5+ 3

5− 3
5− 3

6( 5 − 3)
( 5) 2 − ( 3) 2
6( 5 − 3)
5−3

6( 5 − 3)
2
= 3( 5 − 3)
=

18

PreCalculus 4E

11

54.

Section P.3

11

=

7− 3

=

7− 3

7+ 3

5

73.

7+ 3

11( 7 + 3)
74.

11( 7 + 3)
=
7−3
11( 7 + 3)
=
4
125 = 3 53 = 5

55.

3

56.

3

8 = 3 23 = 2

57.

3

−8 = 3 (−2) = −2

3

77.

5 3 16 + 3 54 = 5 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 3 27 ⋅ 2
= 5 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 33 2
= 13 3 2

61.

4

(−3) 4 = −3 = 3

62.

4

(−2) = −2 = 2

63.

5

(−3)5 = −3

64.

5

(−2) = −2

65.

5

67.

3

= 6 3 3 + 33 3
= 93 3
79.

= − y 3 2x
80.

2

24 xy 3 − y 3 81x

= 2 y 3 3 x − 3 y 3 3x

=

6

3

= 3 8 ⋅ 3xy 3 − y 3 27 ⋅ 3x
= − y 3 3x

1
1
1
= 5 − 5 =−
32
2
2
1

54 xy 3 − y 3 128 x

= 3 y 3 2x − 4 y 3 2x

5

6

3

= 3 27 ⋅ 2 xy 3 − y 3 64 ⋅ 2 x

4

6

3 3 24 + 3 81 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 + 3 27 ⋅ 3
= 3 ⋅ 2 3 3 + 33 3

−81 is not a real number.

1
=
64

162 x5 4
= 81x 4 = 3x
2x

6 5 3 + 25 3 = 85 3

−16 is not a real number.

4

6

2x

4

= 10 3 2 + 3 3 2

60.

66.

4

=

76.

−125 = 3 (−5)3 = −5

162 x 5

64 x 6 5
= 32 x5 = 2 x
2x

5

4 5 2 + 35 2 = 7 5 2

3

4

59.

2x

=

75.

78.
58.

5

4

( 7 )2 − ( 3) 2

64 x 6

1
2

81.

2+ 3 8 = 2+2

82.

3 + 3 15 will not simplify

83.

32 = 3 8 ⋅ 4 = 3 8 3 4 = 2 ⋅ 3 4

361/ 2 = 36 = 6

84. 1211/ 2 = 121 = 11
68.

3

69.

3

70.

3

71.

3

72.

3

150 cannot be simplified further.
85.

81/ 3 = 3 8 = 2

x 4 = 3 x3 ⋅ x = x ⋅ 3 x

86.

271/ 3 = 3 27 = 3

x5 = 3 x3 x 2 = x 3 x 2

87. 1252 / 3 =

9 ⋅ 3 6 = 3 54 = 3 27 ⋅ 2 = 3 27 3 2 = 3 3 2

88.

12 ⋅ 4 = 48 = 8 ⋅ 6 = 2 6
3

3

3

3

82 / 3 =

(

3

125

( 8)
3

2

)

2

= 52 = 25

=4

19

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

89.

90. 16−5 / 2 =

91.

1
1
1
= 4 =
4/5
32
2
16

32−4 / 5 =

1
1
1
1
=
=
=
165 / 2 ( 16)5 45 1024

( 7 x )( 2 x ) = 7 ⋅ 2 x
1/ 3

1/ 4

1/ 3

⋅ x1/ 4

1/ 3 +1/ 4

= 14 ⋅ x

20 x1/ 2 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x1/ 2 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜

5 x1/ 4 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x1/ 4 ⎠
= 4 ⋅ x1/ 2 −1/ 4

4

x12 = x12 / 4 = x

105.

6

x4 = 6 / 2 x4 / 2 = 3 x2

106.

9

x6 = 9 / 3 x6 / 3 = 3 x 2

107.

9

x6 y 3 = x 9 y 9 = x 3 y 3 = 3 x 2 y

108.

12

x 4 y 8 = x 12 y 12 = x 3 y 3 =

109.

34

110.

3

94.

95.

(x

)

=x

2 / 3⋅3

=x

98.

(125 x9 y 6 )1/ 3 = 1251/ 3 x 9 / 3 y 6 / 3 = 5 x 3 y 2

1

2

x y2

3

3

1000 + 3 216

1/ 2

−2 −1/ 2

4 −1/ 2

1/ 2

1 ( −2)( −1/ 2 ) ( 4)( −1/ 2)
x
y
( xy1/ 2 )
491/ 2
1
1
−2 + 1/ 2
= x1 y −2 ⋅ xy1/ 2 = x1+1 y ( )
7
7
1
x2
= x 2 y −3 / 2 = 3 / 2
7
7y

3

3

112. ( 8 x −6 y 3 )

1/ 3

(x

5/ 6

y −1/ 3 )

6

= 81/ 3 x ( −6)(1/ 3) y ( 3)(1/ 3) x (5 / 6)( 6) y ( −1/ 3)( 6)
= 2 x −2 y1 x5 y −2 = 2 x −2 + 5 y1+ ( −2 )

2

= 27 y 12 = 27 y 3
24 ( y1/ 5 )

−1/ 2

=

⎛ 14 ⎞
3
⎜ 3y ⎟
3 1

⎠ = 27 y 4 = 27 y 4 − 12
1
1
y 12
y 12

=

169 + 9 +

−1/ 2

(25 x 4 y 6 )1/ 2 = 251/ 2 x 4⋅1/ 2 y 6⋅1/ 2 = 5 x 2 y

y 3 /10

8

( xy )
= ( 49 ) ( x ) ( y ) ( xy )

97.

1/ 5 4

1

16 + 625 = 3 2 + 25 = 3 27 = 3

111. ( 49 x −2 y 4 )

2

( x 4 / 5 )5 = x 4 / 5⋅5 = x 4

(2y )

2

= 3 4+ 4 = 38
=2

3 / 4 −1/ 3
= 8 x5 /12
⎟ = 8⋅ x

96.

8

3

= 3 16 + 16

72 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 72 ⎞ ⎛ x 3 / 4
= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1/ 3
9 x1/ 3
⎝ 9 ⎠⎝ x
2/3 3

3

= 3 13 + 3 + 10 + 6

= 4 x1/ 4

100.

104.

4

2 / 3+ 3 / 4

= 12 x17 /12

99.

x6 = x6 / 3 = x 2

(3 x 2 / 3 )(4 x3 / 4 ) = 3 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3 ⋅ x 3 / 4
= 12 ⋅ x

93.

3

6

= 14 x 7 /12
92.

103.

= 2 x3 y −1 =

4

y 3 /10

⎛ x −5 / 4 y1/ 3 ⎞
113. ⎜ −3 / 4 ⎟
⎝ x

4/5

16 y
= 3 /10 = 16 y 4 / 5− 3 /10 = 16 y1/ 2
y
101.

4

52 = 52 / 4 = 51/ 2 = 5

102.

4

7 2 = 7 2 / 4 = 71/ 2 = 7

2 x3
y
−6

(

= x(

= ( x −2 / 4 y1/ 3 ) = x(
−6

= x3 y −2 =

−5 / 4 ) − ( −3 / 4 )

−2 / 4 )( −6 )

y(

y1/ 3

)

−6

1/ 3)( −6 )

x3
y2

20

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

⎛ x1/ 2 y −7 / 4 ⎞
114. ⎜

−5 / 4
⎝ y

−4

= ( x1/ 2 y −2 / 4 )
= x −2 y 2 =
115. a.

(

= x1/ 2 y (

−4

−7 / 4 ) − ( −5 / 4 )

)

−4

⎛v⎞
118. Ra = R f 1 − ⎜ ⎟
⎝c⎠

= x (1/ 2)( −4) y ( −2 / 4)( −4)

⎛ 0.9c ⎞
= Rf 1− ⎜

⎝ c ⎠

y2
x2

= R f 1 − ( 0.9 )

In 2004, we have x = 5.

Ra = 0.44 R f
44 = 0.44 R f

In 2011, we have x = 12 .

0.44 R f
44
=
0.44
0.44
100 = R f
If you are gone for 44 weeks, then 100 weeks will
119. Perimeter:
P = 2l + 2 w

For 2020: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 125 + 2 ⋅ 2 20

= 5 10 + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 25 ⋅ 5 + 4 4 ⋅ 5

For 2050: E = 5 x + 34.1
= 5 40 + 34.1

= 2⋅5 5 + 4⋅ 2 5

= 5 ⋅ 2 10 + 34.1

= 10 5 + 8 5
= 18 5 feet
Area:
A = lw

= 10 10 + 34.1
Difference:
(10 10 + 34.1) − (5 10 + 34.1)
= 10 10 + 34.1 − 5 10 − 34.1

= 125 ⋅ 2 20

= 10 10 − 5 10 + 34.1 − 34.1

= 2 125 ⋅ 20

= 5 10

= 2 2500
= 2 ⋅ 50
= 100 square feet

The difference is 5 10.
b.

117.

2

≈ 0.44 R f

y = 20.8 12 + 21 ≈ 93.1
According to the model, 93.1% of email will be
spam in 2011.
This overestimates the value given in the bar
graph by 21.1%.
116. a.

2

= R f 0.19

y = 20.8 5 + 21 ≈ 67.5
According to the model, 67.5% of email was
spam in 2004.
This underestimates the actual value shown in
the bar graph by 0.5%.
b.

2

5 10 ≈ 15.8
This underestimates the difference projected by
the graph of 65.8 − 47.3 = 18.5 by 2.7. This
represents a difference of 2.7 million people.

2
5 + 1 2( 5 + 1)

=
5 −1
5 −1 5 +1
2( 5 + 1)
4
5 +1
=
2
≈ 1.62
=

21

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

120. Perimeter:
P = 2l + 2w

13 + 2 +

139.

= 2 ⋅ 4 20 + 2 ⋅ 80

7

= 13 + 2 +

3+ 2

= 8 4 ⋅ 5 + 2 16 ⋅ 5

= 24 5 feet
Area:
A = lw

21 − 7 2
9−2

= 13 + 2 +

21 − 7 2
7

1

1

140. a.

= 4 1600
= 4 ⋅ 40
= 160 square feet

b.

121. – 128. Answers may vary.

3 2 > 33
Calculator Check: 1.7321 > 1.4422
7 + 18 > 7 + 18
Calculator Check: 6.8884 > 5
5

129. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: The denominator is
rationalized correctly.

141. a.

b.

131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary. Sample
explanation: 2 20 + 4 75 simplifies to 4 5 + 20 3
and thus the radical terms are not common.

2

⋅7

1

2

1
4

4
3

3

4

+ 2−2
+ 2−1

( 8)
3

=

+

4

1

( 16 )
4

3

= 71 = 7.

136. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

20
5
=
.
8
4

)(5 − 3 ) = 22
25 − 3 = 22
3 =3

25 x 14 = 5 x 7

1
22

+

1 1
+
4
2
4
=
1 1
+
23 2
1 1
+
= 16 4
1 1
+
8 2
5
= 16
5
8
8
=
16
1
=
2
Mom’s portion:
1⎛ 1⎞ 1⎛1⎞ 1
1−
=
=
2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 4

135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
The cube root of –8 is the real number –2.

138.

5 3 1
+ −
4 4

= 22

Son’s portion:

16

134. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
1
1
1
1

A sample change is: ( 8 ) 3 =
= 3 = .
1
2
8
(8) 3

A sample change is:

3

22 ⋅ 24

1
4

2 ⋅2 ÷2 =

8

133. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
1

3
4

1

132. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: Finding the nth root first often
gives smaller numbers on the middle step.

A sample change is: 7

5
2

2
Her son is 8 years old.

130. makes sense

3

3+ 2 3− 2

= 16
=4

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

(

3− 2

= 13 + 2 + 3 − 2

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

137. 5 +

= 13 + 2 +

= 8⋅ 2 5 + 2⋅ 4 5
= 16 5 + 8 5

7

22

1
2

= 23 = 8

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

142. (2 x3 y 2 )(5 x 4 y 7 ) = 10 x7 y 9
143. 2 x 4 (8 x 4 + 3x) = 2 x 4 (8 x 4 ) + 2 x 4 (3 x) = 16 x8 + 6 x5
144. 2 x( x 2 + 4 x + 5) + 3( x 2 + 4 x + 5)

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 10 x + 3x 2 + 12 x + 15
= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 3x 2 + 10 x + 12 x + 15
= 2 x3 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 15

Section P.4
Check Point Exercises
1.

(−17 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 11x − 5) + (16 x 3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 15)

a.

= (−17 x 3 + 16 x3 ) + (4 x 2 − 3x 2 ) + (−11x + 3x) + (−5 − 15)
= − x 3 + x 2 − 8 x − 20
b.

(13x 2 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) − (−7 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 9)
= (13 x3 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) + (7 x3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 9)
= (13 x3 + 7 x 3 ) + (−9 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (1 − 9)
= 20 x3 − 11x 2 − 2 x − 8

2.

(5 x − 2)(3x 2 − 5 x + 4)
= 5 x(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4) − 2(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4)
= 5 x ⋅ 3x 2 − 5 x ⋅ 5 x + 5 x ⋅ 4 − 2 ⋅ 3 x 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅ 4
= 15 x 3 − 25 x 2 + 20 x − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 8
= 15 x 3 − 31x 2 + 30 x − 8

3.

(7 x − 5)(4 x − 3) = 7 x ⋅ 4 x + 7 x(−3) + (−5)4 x + (−5)(−3)
= 28 x 2 − 21x − 20 x + 15
= 28 x 2 − 41x + 15

4.

a.

(7 x − 6 y )(3x − y ) = (7 x)(3 x) + (7 x)(− y ) + (−6 y )(3x) + (−6 y )(− y )
= 21x 2 − 7 xy − 18 xy + 6 y 2
= 21x 2 − 25 xy + 6 y 2

5.

b.

(2 x + 4 y )2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(4 y ) + (4 y ) 2 = 4 x 2 + 16 xy + 16 y 2

a.

(3 x + 2 + 5y )(3x + 2 − 5y ) = (3x + 2)2 − (5y )2
= 9x 2 + 12 x + 4 − 25y 2
2

2

= 9x + 12 x − 25y + 4
b.

(2 x + y + 3) 2 = (2 x + y )2 + 2(2 x + y )(3) + 32
= 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 12 x + 6y + 9
2

2

= 4 x + 4 xy + 12 x + y + 6y + 9

23

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Exercise Set P.4
1.

yes; 2 x + 3 x 2 − 5 = 3 x 2 + 2 x − 5

2.

no; The term 3x −1 does not have a whole number exponent.

3.

no; The form of a polynomial involves addition and subtraction, not division.

4.

yes; x 2 − x 3 + x 4 − 5 = x 4 − x3 + x 2 − 5

5.

3x 2 has degree 2
−5x has degree 1
4 has degree 0
3 x 2 − 5 x + 4 has degree 2.

6.

−4x 3 has degree 3
7x 2 has degree 2
–11 has degree 0
−4 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 11 has degree 3.

7.

x 2 has degree 2
−4x 3 has degree 3
9x has degree 1
−12x 4 has degree 4
63 has degree 0
x 2 − 4 x 3 + 9 x − 12 x 4 + 63 has degree 4.

8.

x 2 has degree 2
−8x 3 has degree 3
15x 4 has degree 4
91 has degree 0
x 2 − 8 x3 + 15 x 4 + 91 has degree 4.

9.

(−6 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 8 x + 9) + (17 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 13) = (−6 x 3 + 17 x 3 ) + (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 ) + (−8 x − 4 x) + (9 − 13)
= 11x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 4
The degree is 3.

10.

(−7 x3 + 6 x 2 − 11x + 13) + (19 x3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 17) = (−7 x3 + 19 x3 ) + (6 x 2 − 11x 2 ) + (−11x + 7 x) + (13 − 17)
= 12 x3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x − 4
The degree is 3.

11.

(17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) − (5 x3 − 9 x 2 − 8 x + 11) = (17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) + (−5 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 8 x − 11)
= (17 x3 − 5 x3 ) + (−5 x 2 + 9 x 2 ) + (4 x + 8 x) + (−3 − 11)
= 12 x3 + 4 x 2 + 12 x − 14
The degree is 3.

12.

(18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) − (9 x 4 − 6 x3 − 5 x + 7) = (18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) + (−9 x 4 + 6 x3 + 5 x − 7)
= (18 x 4 − 9 x 4 ) + (−2 x3 + 6 x3 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (8 − 7)
= 9 x 4 + 4 x3 − 2 x + 1
The degree is 4.

24

PreCalculus 4E

13.

Section P.4

(5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) − ( x 2 − 4 x − 3) = (5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) + (− x 2 + 4 x + 3)
= (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 − x 2 ) + (−7 x − 3 x + 4 x) + (−8 + 7 + 3)
= 6x2 − 6x + 2
The degree is 2.

14.

(8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) − (3 x 2 − 4 x) − (−6 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 3) = (8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) + (−3x 2 + 4 x) + (6 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3)
= 6 x 3 + (8 x 2 − 3x 2 + 5 x 2 ) + (7 x + 4 x) + (−5 − 3)
= 6 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 11x − 8
The degree is 3.

15.

( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) = x( x 2 ) − x ⋅ x + x ⋅1 + 1( x 2 ) − 1 ⋅ x + 1 ⋅1
= x3 − x 2 + x + x 2 − x + 1
= x3 + 1

16.

( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 5 x + 25 ) = x( x 2 ) − x(5 x) + x(25) + 5( x 2 ) − 5(5 x) + 5(25)
= x 3 − 5 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125)
= x 3 + 125

17.

(2 x − 3)( x 2 − 3x + 5) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−3x) + (2 x)(5) + (−3)( x 2 ) + (−3)(−3x) + (−3)(5)
= 2 x 3 − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 3x 2 + 9 x − 15
= 2 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 19 x − 15

18.

(2 x − 1)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−4 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−1)( x 2 ) + (−1)(−4 x) + (−1)(3)
= 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − x 2 + 4 x − 3
= 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 10 x − 3

19.

( x + 7)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x + 7 x + 21 = x 2 + 10 x + 21

20.

( x + 8)( x + 5) = x 2 + 5 x + 8 x + 40 = x 2 + 13x + 40

21.

( x − 5)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x − 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 2 x − 15

22.

( x − 1)( x + 2) = x 2 + 2 x − x − 2 = x 2 + x − 2

23.

(3 x + 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + 3 x(1) + 5(2 x) + 5 = 6 x 2 + 3x + 10 x + 5 = 6 x 2 + 13x + 5

24.

(7 x + 4)(3x + 1) = (7 x)(3x) + 7 x(1) + 4(3x) + 4(1) = 21x 2 + 7 x + 12 x + 4 = 21x 2 + 19 x + 4

25.

(2 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (2 x)(5 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−3)(5 x) + (−3)(3) = 10 x 2 + 6 x − 15 x − 9 = 10 x 2 − 9 x − 9

26.

(2 x − 5)(7 x + 2) = (2 x )(7 x) + (2 x)(2) + (−5)(7 x) + (−5)(2) = 14 x 2 + 4 x − 35 x − 10 = 14 x 2 − 31x − 10

27.

(5 x 2 − 4)(3 x 2 − 7) = (5 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (5 x 2 )(−7) + (−4)(3x 2 ) + (−4)(−7) = 15 x 4 − 35 x 2 − 12 x 2 + 28 = 15 x 4 − 47 x 2 + 28

28.

(7 x 2 − 2)(3 x 2 − 5) = (7 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (7 x 2 )(−5) + (−2)(3 x 2 ) + (−2)(−5) = 21x 4 − 35 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 10 = 21x 4 − 41x 2 + 10

29.

(8 x

3

+ 3)( x 2 − 5 ) = ( 8 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 8 x 3 ) ( −5 ) + ( 3) ( x 2 ) + ( 3)( −5 ) = 8 x5 − 40 x 3 + 3 x 2 − 15

25

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

30.

(7x

31.

( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 32 = x 2 − 9

32.

( x + 5)( x − 5) = x 2 − 52 = x 2 − 25

33.

(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) = (3 x) 2 − 22 = 9 x 2 − 4

34.

(2 x + 5)(2 x − 5) = (2 x)2 − 52 = 4 x 2 − 25

35.

(5 − 7 x)(5 + 7 x) = 52 − (7 x) 2 = 25 − 49 x 2

36.

(4 − 3x)(4 + 3x) = 42 − (3x) 2 = 16 − 9 x 2

37.

(4 x 2 + 5 x)(4 x 2 − 5 x) = (4 x 2 ) 2 − (5 x) 2 = 16 x 4 − 25 x 2

38.

(3 x 2 + 4 x)(3x 2 − 4 x) = (3x 2 ) 2 − (4 x) 2 = 9 x 4 − 16 x 2

39.

(1 − y )(1 + y ) = (1) − ( y )

40.

( 2 − y )( 2 + y ) = ( 2 ) − ( y )

41.

( x + 2) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = x 2 + 4 x + 4

42.

( x + 5) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = x 2 + 10 x + 25

43.

(2 x + 3)2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(3) + 32 = 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9

44.

(3 x + 2)2 = (3x) 2 + 2(3x)(2) + 22 = 9 x 2 + 12 x + 4

45.

( x − 3) 2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 3 + 32 = x 2 − 6 x + 9

46.

( x − 4)2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 4 + 42 = x 2 − 8 x + 16

47.

(4 x 2 − 1) 2 = (4 x 2 ) 2 − 2(4 x 2 )(1) + 12 = 16 x 4 − 8 x 2 + 1

48.

(5 x 2 − 3)2 = (5 x 2 ) 2 − 2(5 x 2 )(3) + 32 = 25 x 4 − 30 x 2 + 9

49.

(7 − 2 x)2 = 7 2 − 2(7)(2 x) + (2 x) 2 = 49 − 28 x + 4 x 2 = 4 x 2 − 28 x + 49

50.

(9 − 5 x) 2 = 92 − 2(9)(5 x) + (5 x) 2 = 81 − 90 x + 25 x 2 or 25 x 2 − 90 x + 81

51.

( x + 1)3 = x3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅1 + 3x ⋅12 + 13 = x3 + 3 x 2 + 3 x + 1

52.

( x + 2)3 = x 3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 22 + 23 = x 3 + 6 x 2 + 12 x + 8

53.

(2 x + 3)3 = (2 x)3 + 3 ⋅ (2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x) ⋅ 32 + 33 = 8 x 3 + 36 x 2 + 54 x + 27

3

+ 5 )( x 2 − 2 ) = ( 7 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 7 x 3 ) ( −2 ) + ( 5 ) ( x 2 ) + ( 5 )( −2 ) = 7 x5 − 14 x3 + 5 x 2 − 10

5

5

5 2

2

5

5

2

= 1 − y10

5 2

= 4 − y10

26

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

54.

(3 x + 4)3 = (3x)3 + 3(3x) 2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3x) ⋅ 42 + 43 = 27 x 3 + 108 x 2 + 144 x + 64

55.

( x − 3)3 = x3 − 3 ⋅ x 3 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 32 − 33 = x 3 − 9 x 2 + 27 x − 27

56.

( x − 1)3 = x 3 − 3x 2 ⋅1 + 3 x ⋅12 − 13 = x3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1

57.

(3 x − 4)3 = (3x)3 − 3(3 x)2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3 x) ⋅ 42 − 43 = 27 x 3 − 108 x 2 + 144 x − 64

58.

(2 x − 3)3 = (2 x)3 − 3(2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x ) ⋅ 32 − 33 = 8 x3 − 36 x 2 + 54 x − 27

59.

( x + 5 y )(7 x + 3 y ) = x(7 x) + x(3 y ) + (5 y )(7 x) + (5 y )(3 y )
= 7 x 2 + 3 xy + 35 xy + 15 y 2
= 7 x 2 + 38 xy + 15 y 2

60.

( x + 9 y )(6 x + 7 y ) = x(6 x) + x(7 y ) + (9 y )(6 x) + (9 y )(7 y )
= 6 x 2 + 7 xy + 54 xy + 63 y 2
= 6 x 2 + 61xy + 63 y 2

61.

( x − 3 y )(2 x + 7 y ) = x(2 x) + x (7 y ) + (−3 y )(2 x) + (−3 y )(7 y )
= 2 x 2 + 7 xy − 6 xy − 21y 2
= 2 x 2 + xy − 21 y 2

62.

(3 x − y )(2 x + 5 y ) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(5 y ) + (− y )(2 x) + (− y )(5 y )
= 6 x 2 + 15 xy − 2 xy − 5 y 2
= 6 x 2 + 13xy − 5 y 2

63.

(3 xy − 1)(5 xy + 2) = (3xy )(5 xy ) + (3xy )(2) + (−1)(5 xy ) + (−1)(2)
= 15 x 2 y 2 + 6 xy − 5 xy − 2
= 15 x 2 y 2 + xy − 2

64.

(7 x 2 y + 1)(2 x 2 y − 3) = (7 x 2 y )(2 x 2 y ) + (7 x 2 y )(−3) + (1)2 x 2 y + (1)(−3)
= 14 x 4 y 2 − 21x 2 y + 2 x 2 y − 3
= 14 x 4 y 2 − 19 x 2 y − 3

65.

(7 x + 5 y ) 2 = (7 x) 2 + 2(7 x)(5 y ) + (5 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 + 70 xy + 25 y 2

66.

(9 x + 7 y )2 = (9 x)2 + 2(9 x )(7 y ) + (7 y )2 = 81x 2 + 126 xy + 49 y 2

67.

( x 2 y 2 − 3) 2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(3) + 32 = x 4 y 4 − 6 x 2 y 2 + 9

68.

( x 2 y 2 − 5)2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(5) + 52 = x 4 y 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 25

69.

( x − y )( x 2 + xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x( xy ) + x( y 2 ) + (− y )( x 2 ) + (− y )( xy ) + (− y )( y 2 )
= x3 + x 2 y + xy 2 − x 2 y − xy 2 − y 3
= x3 − y 3

27

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

70.

( x + y )( x 2 − xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x(− xy ) + x( y 2 ) + y ( x 2 ) + y (− xy ) + y ( y 2 )
= x 3 − x 2 y + xy 2 + x 2 y − xy 2 + y 3
= x3 + y 3

71.

(3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = (3x) 2 − (5 y )2 = 9 x 2 − 25 y 2

72.

(7 x + 3 y )(7 x − 3 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (3 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 9 y 2

73.

( x + y + 3)( x + y − 3) = ( x + y ) 2 − 32 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 9

74.

( x + y + 5)( x + y − 5) = ( x + y )2 − 52 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 25

75.

(3 x + 7 − 5 y )(3x + 7 + 5 y ) = (3x + 7) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 + 42 x + 49 − 25 y 2

76.

(5 x + 7 y − 2)(5 x + 7 y + 2) = (5 x + 7 y ) 2 − 22 = 25 x 2 + 70 xy + 49 y 2 − 4

77.

[5 y − (2 x + 3)][5 y + (2 x + 3)] = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 3) 2 = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 12 x + 9) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 12 x − 9

78.

[8 y + (7 − 3x)][8 y − (7 − 3x)] = (8 y ) 2 − (7 − 3x) 2 = 64 y 2 − (49 − 42 x + 9 x 2 ) = 64 y 2 − 49 + 42 x − 9 x 2

79.

( x + y + 1) 2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y ) + 1 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 2 x + 2 y + 1

80.

( x + y + 2)2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y )(2) + 22 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 4 y + 4

81.

(2 x + y + 1) 2 = (2 x + y ) 2 + 2(2 x + y ) + 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 2 y + 1

82.

(5 x + 1 + 6 y )2 = (5 x + 1) 2 + 2(5 x + 1)(6 y ) + (6 y )2 = 25 x 2 + 10 x + 60 xy + 1 + 12 y + 36 y 2

83.

(3 x + 4 y )

2

2
2
2
2
2
− ( 3x − 4 y ) = ⎡( 3x ) + 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(3 x ) − 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤

⎦ ⎣

(

) (

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 24 xy + 16 y 2

)

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 + 24 xy − 16 y 2
= 48 xy
84.

(5 x + 2 y )

2

2
2
2
2
2
− ( 5 x − 2 y ) = ⎡(5 x ) + 2 ( 5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(5 x ) − 2 (5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤

⎦ ⎣

(

) (

= 25 x 2 + 20 xy + 4 y 2 − 25 x 2 − 20 xy + 4 y 2
= 25 x + 20 xy + 4 y − 25 x + 20 xy − 4 y
2

2

2

)

2

= 40 xy
85.

(5 x − 7 )( 3x − 2) − ( 4 x − 5)( 6 x − 1)
2
2
= ⎡15 x − 10 x − 21x + 14⎤ − ⎡24 x − 4 x − 30 x + 5⎤

(

2

⎦ ⎣

) (

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x − 34 x + 5
2

)

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x + 34 x − 5
2

= −9 x + 3 x + 9
28

Section P. = ( 5 x − 3) 2 = ( 5 x ) − 2 ( 5 x )( 3) + ( 3) 2 2 2 = 25 x − 30 x + 9 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. .4 (3 x + 5)( 2 x − 9) − ( 7 x − 2)( x − 1) ( = (6 x ) ( 2 2 = 6 x − 27 x + 10 x − 45 − 7 x − 7 x − 2 x + 2 2 ) ( 2 − 17 x − 45 − 7 x − 9 x + 2 2 ) ) 2 = 6 x − 17 x − 45 − 7 x + 9 x − 2 2 = − x − 8 x − 47 87. (3 x + 4)( 3x − 4) (9 x 2 + 16) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 3 x ) − 4 ⎤ 9 x + 16 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 9 x ) − (16 ) 2 2 = 9 x − 16 9 x + 16 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 81x − 256 ( 2 x − 7 ) = 2 x − 7 5 −3 ( ) 3 ( 2 x − 7) 5 89.PreCalculus 4E 86. = ( 2 x − 7) 2 = ( 2 x ) − 2 ( 2 x )( 7 ) + ( 7 ) 2 2 2 = 4 x − 28 x + 49 ( 5 x − 3) = 5 x − 3 6 − 4 ( ) 4 ( 5 x − 3) 6 90. ( 2 x + 5)( 2 x − 5) ( 4 x 2 + 25) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 2 x ) − 5 ⎤ 4 x + 25 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 4 x ) − ( 25) 2 2 = 4 x − 25 4 x + 25 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 16 x − 625 88. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

210 c. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. 93. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. The model underestimates the actual value of \$57. 348 The difference in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is \$12. 418 = \$121. 57. b.220 shown in the bar graph by \$225. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. 481 = 10. 404 − 33. ( x 8 − 2x )(5 − 2 x ) = x ( 40 − 26 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 40 x − 26 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 26 x + 40 x 30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. M = 177 x 2 + 288 x + 7075 M = 177(16)2 + 288(16) + 7075 = 56. The model overestimates this difference by \$12.748 The model estimates the median annual income for a woman with 18 years of education to be \$53. d. 995 x + 63.336 W = 255(18)2 − 2956(18) + 24. W = 255 x 2 − 2956 x + 24. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 210 M − W = −35(14)3 + 1373(14) 2 − 15. 539 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is \$15.348 − \$10. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14.995. Inc. 539 − \$15.748. 92. 418 The difference in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is \$15.923. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. .348. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. 210 = 12. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 681 = 15. 210 c. 446 + 14. 446 + 14. d. 995(16) + 63. The model underestimates this difference by \$15. 995(14) + 63. 336 = 53. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48.316 shown in the bar graph by \$2432. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. a. 210 = 15.995 x + 63.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 91. 923 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is \$10. 995 The model estimates the median annual income for a man with 16 years of education to be \$56.418. The model overestimates the actual value of \$51. 923 = \$1425. ( x 8 − 2x )(10 − 2 x ) = x ( 80 − 36 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 80 x − 36 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 36 x + 80 x 94. 44.995 x + 63. 220 − 41. b. 995 x + 63. a.210 M − W = −35(16)3 + 1373(16) 2 − 15. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15.539. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14.

(2x − 1)x(x + 3) − x(x − 2)x = (2x 2 + 5x − 3)(x + 2) − x 2 (x − 2) 3 2 3 = 2x + 5x − 3x − x + 2x 2 = x 3 + 7x 2 − 3x 109. . Explanations will vary. – 102.PreCalculus 4E 95. ( x + 3)( x − 1) + (( x + 3) − x)( x − ( x − 1)) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) + 3( x − x + 1) = x 2 − x + 3x − 3 + 3 = x2 + 2 x 108. (4 x + 1)(2 x − 3 ) = 8 x 2 − 10 x − 3 31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 ( x + 9) ( x + 3) − ( x + 5) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − ( x 2 + 6 x + 5 ) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − x 2 − 6 x − 5 = 6 x + 22 96. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section P. Answers may vary. 105. ( x + 4) ( x + 3) − ( x + 2) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − ( x 2 + 3x + 2 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − x 2 − 3x − 2 = 4 x + 10 97. does not make sense. makes sense 104. (x + 5)(2x + 1)(x + 2) − 3 ⋅ x(x + 5) = (2x 2 + 11x + 5)(x + 2) − 3x 2 −15x 3 2 2 = 2x + 15x + 27x + 10 − 3x − 15x = 2x 3 + 12x 2 + 12x + 10 110. ( x − 2 )( x − 12) = x 2 − 14 x + 24 113. ( x + 3)( x + 4 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 112. (y n + 2)(y n − 2) − (y n − 3)2 = y 2 n − 4 − (y 2 n − 6y n + 9) =y 2n −4 −y 2n n + 6y − 9 = 6y n −13 111. Inc. makes sense. 103. Sample explanation: FOIL is used to multiply two binomials. although answers may vary 107. makes sense 106.

Possible Factors of 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 Sum of Outside and Inside Products (Should Equal 19x) (6 x + 1)( x − 7) −42 x + x = −41x (6 x − 7)( x + 1) 6x − 7x = −x (6 x − 1)( x + 7) 42 x − x = 41x (6 x + 7)( x − 1) −6 x + 7 x = x (3 x + 1)(2 x − 7) −21x + 2 x = −19 x (3 x − 7)(2 x + 1) 3x − 14 x = −11x (3 x − 1)(2 x + 7) 21x − 2 x = 19 x (3 x + 7)(2 x − 1) −3x + 14 x = 11x Thus. . a. The required integers are –7 and 2. x 2 + 13x + 40 = ( x + 5)( x + 8) or ( x + 8)( x + 5) 4. 32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The required integers are 8 and 5. Thus. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is 19x. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (6 x )(x ) 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = ( 3x )( 2 x ) Find two Last terms whose product is –7. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (3x − 1)(2 x + 7) or (2 x + 7)(3 x − 1). x 2 − 5 x − 14 = ( x − 7)( x + 2) or ( x + 2)( x − 7).Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Section P. Find two First terms whose product is 6 x 2 . Inc.5 Check Point Exercises 1. 2. The possible factors are 1(–7) and –1(7). Thus. 10 x3 − 4 x 2 = 2 x 2 (5 x) − 2 x 2 (2) = 2 x 2 (5 x − 2) b. Find two numbers whose product is 40 and whose sum is 13. 5. 2 x( x − 7) + 3( x − 7) = ( x − 7)(2 x + 3) x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = ( x3 + 5 x 2 ) − (2 x + 10) = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = ( x + 5)( x 2 − 2) 3. Find two numbers whose product is –14 and whose sum is –5.

a. Since 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 = 56 x. Then use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . 7. 8. a. 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 42 = (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) The factor 9 x 2 − 4 is the difference of two squares and can be factored. Section P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Factor out the greatest common factor. (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) = (9 x 2 + 4) ⎡⎣(3x) 2 − 22 ⎤⎦ = (9 x 2 + 4)(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) Thus. 9. Express 9 x 2 − 4 as the difference of two squares and again use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . factored completely. Thus.5 Find two First terms whose product is 3 x 2 . (−2 y )(−2 y ) . 125 x 3 − 8 = (5 x)3 − 23 = (5 x − 2) ⎡⎣ (5 x)2 + (5 x)(2) + 22 ⎤⎦ = (5 x − 2)(25 x 2 + 10 x + 4) 11. (4 y )( y ) . check to see if the middle term can be expressed as twice the product of 4x and 7. x 2 − 81 = x 2 − 92 = ( x + 9)( x − 9) b. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is −13xy . and (−4 y )(− y ) . 3x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) = 3x ( x − 5 ) 2 33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 = (4 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 x 3 + 1 = x 3 + 13 = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x ⋅ 1 + 12 ) = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) b. Express each term as the square of some monomial. Since 16 x 2 = (4 x) 2 and 49 = 7 2 . 10. 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 + 4)(3x + 2)(3x − 2). 3x 3 − 30 x 2 + 75 x = 3 x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) Factor the perfect square trinomial. 3x 2 − 13xy + y 2 = (3x − y )( x − 4 y ) or ( x − 4 y )(3x − y ). a. x 2 + 14 x + 49 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 = ( x + 7) 2 b.PreCalculus 4E 6. Inc. The possible factors are (2 y )(2 y ) . = (4 x − 7) 2 . 3x 2 − 13xy + 4 y 2 = (3x )(x ) Find two Last terms whose product is 4 y 2 . 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 is a perfect square trinomial. 36 x 2 − 25 = (6 x) 2 − 52 = (6 x + 5)(6 x − 5) Express 81x 4 − 16 as the difference of two squares and use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 .

8 x 2 + 33 x + 4 = (8 x + 1)( x + 4) 10. 20 x 2 + 27 x − 8 = (5 x + 8)(4 x − 1) Exercise Set P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 ( 2 x + 5 ) + 17 ( 2 x + 5) = ( 2 x + 5) ( x 2 + 17 ) 31. 15. x 3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 10 = x 2 ( x − 2) + 5( x − 2) 32. 3x 2 – x – 2 = (3x + 2)(x – 1) 24. Reorder to write as a difference of squares. 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 = (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 25. 3x 2 – 25x – 28 = (3x – 28)(x + 1) 26. 18 x + 27 = 9 ⋅ 2 x + 9 ⋅ 3 = 9(2 x + 3) 2. 3x 2 − 2 x − 5 = (3x − 5)( x + 1) = 6 x2 ( x2 − 3x + 2 ) 27. 6x 2 –11x + 4 = (2x – 1)(3x – 4) 7. x 2 − 4 x − 5 = ( x − 5)( x + 1) 21. x 2 – 2x – 15 = (x – 5)(x + 3) 20. ( 2 x − 1) x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 5 = x 2 ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 5 ) 1 2 17. x 2 – 8x + 15 = (x – 5)(x – 3) 22. x(x + 5) + 3(x + 5) = (x + 5)(x + 3) 28. x(2x + 1) + 4(2x + 1) = (2x + 1)(x + 4) 29. 4 x − 8 x = 4x(x) + 4x(–2) = 4x(x – 2) 5. 4 x 2 + 16 x + 15 = (2 x + 3)(2 x + 5) 9.5 1. = ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 4 ) = x 2 + 20 x + 100 − 36a 2 = ( x 2 + 20 x + 100 ) − 36a 2 13. x 3 − 3x 2 + 4 x − 12 = x 2 ( x − 3) + 4 ( x − 3) 16. 16x – 24 = 8(2x) + 8(–3) = 8(2x – 3) 3. 9 x 2 + 5 x − 4 = (9 x − 4)( x + 1) 33.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 12. x 2 ( x − 3) + 12( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 12) 30. 9 x 4 − 18 x3 + 27 x 2 2 2 = 9 x 2 ( x 2 ) + 9 x 2 (−2 x) + 9 x 2 (3) = 9 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 3) 6. x 2 + 5 x + 6 = ( x + 2)( x + 3) 18. Inc. x 2 − 14 x + 45 = ( x − 5)( x − 9) 23. 6 x 2 − 17 x + 12 = (2 x − 3)(3x − 4) 8. 2 = ( x + 10 + 6a )( x + 10 − 6a ) x ( x − 1) −1 2 14. 6 x 4 − 18 x 3 + 12 x 2 = 6 x ( x ) + 6 x (−3x) + 6 x (2) 2 2 2 2 = ( x 2 + 5)( x − 2) 34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x + 6 x = 3x ⋅ x + 3x ⋅ 2 = 3x ( x + 2) 4. 9 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = (3 x − 1)(3x − 2) 11. x 2 + 8 x + 15 = ( x + 3)( x + 5) 19. . = ( x − 1) ⎣⎡ x + ( x − 1) ⎦⎤ ( 2 x − 1) = ( x − 1) 3x 3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x + 4 = x 2 (3x − 2) − 2(3x − 2) = (3x − 2)( x 2 − 2) − 12 − 12 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 2 x − 12 = x 2 ( x + 6 ) − 2 ( x + 6 ) = ( x + 6) ( x2 − 2) 1 + ( x − 1) 2 1− −1 −1 = ( x − 1) 2 ⎡ x + ( x − 1) 2 ( 2 ) ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ = ( x − 1) x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 2 = x 2 ( x − 1) + 2( x − 1) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 2) = ( x + 10 ) − 36a 2 13. x 2 − 36a 2 + 20 x + 100 12.

. 44. 8 x 3 + 125 = (2 x)3 + 53 = (2 x + 5)[(2 x)2 − (2 x)(5) + 52 ] = (2 x + 5)(4 x 2 − 10 x + 25) 65. 6 x 2 − 7 xy − 5 y 2 = (3 x − 5 y )(2 x + y ) 39. x 2 − 14 x + 49 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 64 x3 + 27 = (4 x)3 + 33 = (4 x + 3)(16 x 2 − 12 x + 9) 64. 15 x 2 − 19 x + 6 = (3x − 2)(5 x − 3) 52. 3x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 = (3x + y )( x + y ) 37. 16 x 4 − 81 = (4 x 2 )2 − 92 = (2 x − 1)(4 x 2 + 2 x + 1) = (4 x 2 + 9)(4 x 2 − 9) = (4 x 2 + 9)[(2 x)2 − 32 ] 62. 6 x − 5 xy − 6 y = (3x + 2 y )(2 x − 3 y ) 38. Inc. 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 = (2 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 2 x ⋅1 + 12 36. 9 x 2 − 25 y 2 = (3 x) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = (3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) 36 x 2 − 49 y 2 = (6 x) 2 − (7 y ) 2 = (6 x + 7 y )(6 x − 7 y ) 59. = ( x − 4)( x 2 + 4 x + 16) x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 60. 9 x 2 − 6 x + 1 = (3x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 3 x ⋅1 + 12 = (3x − 1) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 3x + 9) 2 58. 45. 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = (5 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x ⋅1 + 12 = (5 x + 1) 2 55. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 3 − 64 = x3 − 43 = ( x − 4)( x 2 + x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 46. x 2 + 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅1 + 12 = ( x + 1) 2 50. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = ( x − 5) 2 35. x 3 + 27 = x3 + 33 41. 36 x 2 − 49 = (6 x) 2 − 7 2 = (6 x + 7)(6 x − 7) 42.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 43. 2 x 2 + 3xy + y 2 = (2 x + y )( x + y ) 53.5 34. = (9 x + 1)[(3 x) − 1 ] 2 x 3 − 27 = x 3 − 33 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 48. = ( x + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 3 x + 9) x 4 − 1 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 12 = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) 61. x 2 − 100 = x 2 − 102 = ( x + 10)( x − 10) 56. = (4 x + 9)(2 x + 3)(2 x − 3) 2 27 x 3 − 1 = (3x)3 − 13 = (3x − 1)[(3x) 2 + (3 x)(1) + 12 ] = (3x − 1)(9 x 2 + 3 x + 1) 81x 4 − 1 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 12 = (9 x 2 + 1)(9 x 2 − 1) 63. = ( x − 7) 2 3x 3 − 3x = 3x( x 2 − 1) = 3x( x + 1)( x − 1) 35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 − 144 = x 2 − 122 = ( x + 12)( x − 12) 57. 64 x − 81 = (8 x ) − 9 = (8 x + 9)(8 x − 9) 2 = (2 x + 1) 2 2 2 2 54. x 2 + 4 x + 4 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = ( x + 2) 2 51. 8 x 3 − 1 = (2 x)3 − 13 = (2 x − 1)[(2 x) 2 + (2 x)(1) + 12 ] 47. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 2 2 = (4 x + 3)[(4 x) 2 − (4 x)(3) + 32 ] = (9 x + 1)(3x + 1)(3 x − 1) 2 49. 64 x 2 − 16 x + 1 = (8 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 8 x ⋅1 + 12 = (8 x − 1) 2 40.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 66. 2 x 2 − 2 x − 112 = 2( x 2 − x − 56) = 2( x − 8)( x + 7) 74. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 3 + 3x 2 − 25 x − 75 = ( x 3 + 3x 2 ) − (25 x + 75) = x 2 ( x + 3) − 25( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 25)( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 52 )( x + 3) = ( x − 5)( x + 5)( x + 3) 73. 9 x3 − 9 x = 9 x( x 2 − 1) = 9 x( x − 1)( x + 1) 77. 6 x 2 − 6 x − 12 = 6( x 2 − x − 2) = 6( x − 2)( x + 1) 75. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 9 x − 18 = ( x 3 + 2 x 2 ) − (9 x + 18) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 9( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 9)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 32 )( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2) 72. 7 x 4 − 7 = 7( x 4 − 1) = 7[( x 2 ) 2 − 12 ] = 7( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 7( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 71. Inc. x 3 − 4 x = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x 2 − 22 ) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) 76. x 2 + 64 is prime. 6 x 2 − 18 x − 60 = 6( x 2 − 3 x − 10) = 6( x + 2)( x − 5) 69. 78. 5 x 3 − 45 x = 5 x( x 2 − 9) = 5 x( x + 3)( x − 3) 67. . 36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + 36 is prime. 2 x 4 − 162 = 2( x 4 − 81) = 2[( x 2 ) 2 − 92 ] = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 9) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 32 ) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x + 3)( x − 3) 70. 4 x 2 − 4 x − 24 = 4( x 2 − x − 6) = 4( x + 2)( x − 3) 68.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (− x − 2) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 1)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 12 )( x + 2) = ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x + 2) 81. x 2 − 10 x + 25 − 36 y 2 = ( x 2 − 10 x + 25) − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5)2 − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5 + 6 y )( x − 5 − 6 y ) 87. 2 x 3 − 8a 2 x + 24 x 2 + 72 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 4a 2 + 12 x + 36 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 + 12 x + 36 ) − 4a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 6 ) − 4a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 6 − 2a )( x + 6 + 2a ) ⎣ ⎦ 92. 2 x 3 − 98a 2 x + 28 x 2 + 98 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 49a 2 +14 x + 49 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 +14 x + 49 ) − 49a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 7 ) − 49a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 7 − 7a )( x + 7 + 7a ) ⎣ ⎦ 93. y 5 − 16 y = y ( y 4 − 16) = y[( y 2 ) 2 − 42 ] = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 4) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 22 ) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y + 2)( y − 2) 83.PreCalculus 4E 79. x 2 y − 16 y + 32 − 2 x 2 = ( x 2 y − 16 y ) + ( −2 x 2 + 32 ) = y ( x 2 − 16 ) − 2 ( x 2 − 16 ) = ( x 2 − 16 ) ( y − 2 ) = ( x + 4 )( x − 4 )( y − 2 ) 90. 9b 2 x − 16 y − 16 x + 9b 2 y = ( 9b 2 x + 9b 2 y ) + ( −16 x − 16 y ) = 9b 2 ( x + y ) − 16 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) ( 9b 2 − 16 ) = ( x + y )( 3b + 4 )( 3b − 4 ) 88. x 2 − 12 x + 36 − 49 y 2 = ( x 2 − 12 x + 36 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 + 7 y ) ( x − 6 − 7 y ) 2 86. y 5 − 81y = y ( y 4 − 81) = y[( y 2 )2 − 92 ] = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 9) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 32 ) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y + 3)( y − 3) 82. 16a 2 x − 25 y − 25 x + 16a 2 y = (16a 2 x + 16a 2 y ) + ( −25 y − 25 x ) = 16a 2 ( x + y ) − 25 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) (16a 2 − 25 ) = ( x + y )( 4a + 5 )( 4a − 5 ) 89. 48 y 4 − 3 y 2 = 3 y 2 (16 y 2 − 1) = 3 y 2 [(4 y )2 − 12 ] = 3 y 2 (4 y + 1)(4 y − 1) 85. 20 y 4 − 45 y 2 = 5 y 2 (4 y 2 − 9) = 5 y 2 [(2 y ) 2 − 32 ] = 5 y 2 (2 y + 3)(2 y − 3) 84. 12 x 2 y − 27 y − 4 x 2 + 9 = (12 x 2 y − 27 y ) + ( −4 x 2 + 9 ) = 3 y ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) − 1( 4 x 2 − 9 ) = ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) ( 3 y − 1) = ( 2 x + 3)( 2 x − 3)( 3 y − 1) 91.5 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−4 x − 8) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 4)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 22 )( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)2 80. 3 1 1 1 ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ x 2 − x 2 = x 2 ⎜ x 2 2 ⎟ − 1 = x 2 ( x − 1) ⎝ ⎠ 37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section P. . Inc.

(x 1 1 3 3 1 − 2 ⎣ x2 + 4 2 3 2 ) ( − 12 + 3) + x2 + 4 − ( x + 5) −2 3 7 2 ) ( − 32 + ( x 2 + 3) = x2 + 4 = ( x + 5) −5 3 ) 3 2 1 1 ⎤ 2 ⎡1 − ( x + 3) ⎤ = ( x + 3) 2 ( − x − 2 ) = −( x + 3) 2 ( x + 2) = x + 3 ( ) ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢1 + x 2 + 4 ⎢ ⎣ ( 1 ) 7−3 ⎤ 2 2⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ( = x2 + 4 ) 3 2 ) ( 2⎤ ⎡ 2 2 ⎢1 + x + 4 ⎥ = x + 4 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ( 3 2 ) ( x4 + 8x2 + 17) 1 ⎛ 3⎞ x+4 − 32 ⎡ − −⎜ − ⎟ ⎤ −3 −3 3 ⎢( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − 1⎥ = ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎣⎡( x + 5 ) − 1⎦⎤ = ( x + 5) 2 ( x + 4 ) = ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) 2 = ( x 2 + 3) 5 −5 ⎡ 2 − 2 −⎛⎜ − 5 ⎞⎟ ⎤ x2 + 4 3 ⎢( x + 3) 3 ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ + 1⎥ = ( x 2 + 3)− 3 ⎡( x 2 + 3) + 1⎤ = 5 ⎣ ⎦ ( x 2 + 3) 3 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 1 3 1 ( 4 x − 1) 2 3 1 3 1 1 − ⎤ ⎡ 1 = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎢1 − ( 4 x − 1) 2 2 ⎥ = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎣ 3 ⎦ 101. 12 x 2 ( x − 1) − 4 x ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) (12 x 2 − 4 x − 5 ) = ( x − 1)( 6 x − 5 )( 2 x + 1) 105. ( x + 3) 2 − ( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3) 2 ⎡⎢1 − ( x + 3) 2 98. 4x 1 − x4 − 23 96. −8 ( 4 x + 3) + 10 ( 5 x + 1) (4 x + 3)−1 = 2 ( 4 x + 3) ⎣⎡ −4 + 5 ( 5 x + 1)( 4 x + 3) ⎦⎤ = −2 −2 2(100 x 2 + 95 x + 11) (4 x + 3) 2 103. . 12 x − 3 4 1 x4 = 1⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ x 4 4 − 1⎟ = x 4 ⎜ x 2 − 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 8x 3 = 4 x 1 ⎛ 2⎞ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 32 ⎛ −2 4 (1 + 2 x ) ⎜1 + 2 x 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎟ = 4 x 3 (1 + 2 x ) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ x3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 6x 4 = 6x − 3 4 1 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 ⎛ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 6( x + 2) ⎜ 2 + x 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎟ = 6x 4 (2 + x ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ x4 97.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. 10 x 2 ( x + 1) − 7 x ( x + 1) − 6 ( x + 1) = ( x + 1) (10 x 2 − 7 x − 6 ) = ( x + 1)( 5 x − 6 )( 2 x + 1) 104. y 7 + y = y ( y 6 + 1) = y ⎡⎢( y 2 ) + 13 ⎤⎥ = y ( y 2 + 1)( y 4 − y 2 + 1) ⎣ ⎦ 38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 99. 7 x 4 + 34 x 2 − 5 = ( 7 x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 5 ) 3 107. ( 4 x − 1) 2 − 1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ 2 ⎢⎣1 − 3 ( 4 x − 1) ⎥⎦ = ( 4 x − 1) 1⎤ ⎡ 4 ⎢⎣1 − 3 x + 3 ⎥⎦ 1 −4(4 x − 1) 2 ( x − 1) 4 ⎛4 4 ⎞ = ( 4 x − 1) ⎜ − x ⎟ = (4 x − 1) 2 (1 − x) = 3 3 ⎝3 3 ⎠ 1 1 2 102. ( x + 5) 100. 6 x 4 + 35 x 2 − 6 = ( x 2 + 6 )( 6 x 2 − 1) 106. 3 x4 95.

4 ( x − 0.3x ) = ( x − 0. a. x 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 9 y 4 = x 2 − 9 y 2 111. b. ( x + y ) 4 − 100( x + y ) 2 = ( x + y ) )( x − 3 y ) ( )( x + y ) 116.5 + 1 = ( y + 1) + 13 = ⎡⎣( y + 1) + 1⎤⎦ ⎡( y + 1) − ( y + 1) + 1⎤ = ( y + 2 ) ⎡⎣( y 2 + 2 y + 1) − y − 1 + 1⎤⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 3 2 = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + 2 y + 1 − y − 1 + 1) = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + y + 1) ( 109. 3x 2 + 5 xy 2 + 2 y 4 = 3 x + 2 y 2 b.3 ( x − 0. ( y + 1) 3 Section P.3) = ( 0.7 x ) ( 0. 2 2 ( x − 0. b.4 x ) = ( x − 0. b. 120. .PreCalculus 4E 108. x 4 − 5 x 2 y 2 + 4 y 4 = x 2 − 4 y 2 )( x ( 110. 2 )( x ) − y 2 = ( x + 2 y )( x − 2 y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 ) − y 2 = ( x + 3 y )( x − 3 y )( x + y )( x − y ) ( x − y )4 − 4 ( x − y )2 2 2 2 = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y )2 − 4 ) = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y ) + 2 ) ( ( x − y ) − 2 ) = ( x − y ) ( x − y + 2 ) ( x − y − 2 ) 112.49 x No. Inc. 117. ( x − 0. a. b.6 x )( 0.4 x )(1 − 0. a. 2 ) − 100 = ( x + y )2 ( x + y − 10 ) ( x + y + 10 ) 2 114.7 ) = 0. 118. a. b.3x ) (1 − 0. ( ( x + y) ( 113. a. 119.6 ) = 0. a. 2 x 2 − 7 xy 2 + 3 y 4 = 2 x − y 2 115.36 x No.3x ) − 0. the computer is selling at 36% of its original price. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 x ) − 0. ( 3x ) 2 − 4 ⋅ 22 = 9 x 2 − 16 9 x 2 − 16 = ( 3x + 4 ) ( 3 x − 4 ) (7x) 2 − 4 ⋅ 32 = 49 x 2 − 36 49 x 2 − 36 = ( 7 x + 6 ) ( 7 x − 6 ) x ( x + y) − y ( x + y) x ( x + y ) − y ( x + y ) = ( x + y )( x − y ) x 2 + xy + xy + y 2 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 = ( x + y ) 2 39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 ) = ( 0. the computer is selling at 49% of its original price.

false. . Changes to make the statement true will vary.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. makes sense 132. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A sample change is: The binomial x 2 + 36 is prime. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: x 3 − 64 = ( x − 4 )( x + 4 x + 16 ) 138. false. x 2 n + 6 x n + 8 = ( x n + 4 )( x n + 2 ) 139. makes sense 131. Sample explanation: 4 x 2 − 100 = 4( x 2 − 25) = 4( x + 5)( x − 5) 133. makes sense 134. A sample change is: x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 135. 130. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 3a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 3a = 3a3 − 3ab 2 ( = 3a a 2 − b2 ) = 3a ( a + b )( a − b ) 123. – 129. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 4a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 4a = 4a3 − 4ab 2 = 4a ( a 2 − b 2 ) = 4a ( a + b )( a − b ) 122. Changes to make the statement true will vary. − x 2 − 4 x + 5 = −1( x 2 + 4 x − 5 ) = −1( x + 5 )( x − 1) = − ( x + 5)( x − 1) 140. false. does not make sense. Answers may vary. x 4 − y 4 − 2 x3 y + 2 xy3 = ( x 4 − y 4 ) + ( −2 x 3 y + 2 xy 3 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) − 2 xy ( x 2 − y 2 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 − 2 xy ) = ( x − y )( x + y ) ( x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 ) = ( x − y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 3 = ( x − y) ( x + y) 40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 137. Explanations will vary. true 136.

8 or –8 143. 1 2 3 4 7 + = + = 2 3 6 6 6 Mid-Chapter P Check Point 1. 7 x + 3[9 − (2 x − 6)] = 7 x + 3[ 9 − 2 x + 6] = 7 x + 3 [15 − 2 x ] = 7 x + 45 − 6 x = x + 45 6. (3 x + 5)(4 x − 7) = (3x)(4 x) + (3 x)(−7) + (5)(4 x) + (5)(−7) = 12 x 2 − 21x + 20 x − 35 = 12 x 2 − x − 35 2. (8 x − 3) 2 = (8 x)2 − 2(8 x)(3) + (3) 2 = 64 x 2 − 48 x + 9 7. b =16. − ⎛2⎞ 5 ⎜ 7 ⎟ − 32 = 1 − ⎝ ⎠ 6 0 9. 3. 5 8 5 4⋅2 1 2 2 ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ = 4 15 4 5 ⋅ 3 1 3 3 146. x 2 + bx + 15 . . (3 x + 5) − (4 x − 7) = 3x + 5 − 4 x + 7 = 3x − 4 x + 5 + 7 = − x + 12 6 + 9 6 = 10 6 4. 144. 4. b = 0. where c > 0 is an integer. or –c(c + 4). x 2 + 6 x + 5 ( x + 5)( x + 1) x + 1 = = x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) x − 5 145. 3 12 − 27 = 3 ⋅ 2 3 − 3 3 = 6 3 − 3 3 = 3 3 5. 2 1 ( 5 32 ) 2 = 1− 1 ( 2) 2 = 1− 1 3 = 4 4 (2 x − 5) − ( x 2 − 3x + 1) = 2 x − 5 − x 2 + 3x − 1 = − x 2 + 5 x − 6 41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Mid-Chapter P Check Point −1 ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5) − 12 1 − ( x + 5) 2 ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) ( x + 5) −3 ⎛ ⎞ 1 −⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞⎟ ⎤ − 12 ⎡ − 1 − ⎜⎜ − 3 ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢( x − 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) −1 ⎡⎣( x − 5) − ( x + 5 ) ⎤⎦ −10 −3 −1 = ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5 ) 2 ( −10 ) = 3 1 ( x − 5) 2 ( x + 5) 2 2 2 142. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3.PreCalculus 4E 141. 1 1 ⋅ 6 − ⋅6 ⎛ 31 − 12 ⎞ x2 2 −3 ⎜ x y ⎟ = x3 y 2 = x y = 3 y ⎝ ⎠ 8. Inc. – 16.

e} ∪ {c. 6 y3 ⎛ 1 −5 4 ⎞ −2 −1 −5 − 2 4 −1 ⎜ 3 x y ⎟ 18 x y = 6 x y = x 7 ⎝ ⎠ ( ) 1 4 18. d . h} = {c. c. f . {a.2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. 12 x 4 = x 12 = x 3 = 3 x 19.2 ×10−2 2 ×106 2 106 ( 3 22. 3 32 2 = 3 ) ( ) 32 3 = 16 = 3 24 = 2 3 2 2 ( x 3 + 2)( x 3 − 2) = x 6 − 4 42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. e} ∩ {c. h} = {a. d } 15.2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. d . [ 4 y − (3x + 2)][ 4 y + (3x + 2)] = (4 y)2 − (3x + 2)2 = 16 y 2 − (9 x 2 + 12 x + 4) = 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 12 x − 4 20. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 + 2 x − 5 x 2 + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x 2 + 2 x + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 11x 2 + 17 x − 5 11.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. c. 23. {a. 24 x 2 y13 12 y15 2 − 5 13 − ( −2) −3 15 12 12 = − = − = − x y x y x3 −2 x 5 y −2 17. f . Inc. c. f . d . d . . d . h} 14. x 3 + x3 − x3 ⋅ x 3 = 2 x3 − x 6 = − x 6 + 2 x 3 12. ( x − 2 y − 1) 2 = x ( x − 2 y − 1) − 2 y ( x − 2 y − 1) − ( x − 2 y − 1) = x 2 − 2 xy − x − 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 2 y − x + 2 y + 1 = x 2 − 4 xy + 4 y 2 − 2 x + 4 y + 1 21. ( 3x 2 ) ( ) y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 − −2 x 2 y 3 − 3xy + 5 y 2 = 3x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 + 2 x 2 y 3 − xy + 3xy + 4 y 2 − 5 y 2 = 5 x 2 y 3 + 2 xy − y 2 16. 24 × 103 24 103 = ⋅ = 12 ×10−3 = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (9a − 10b)(2a + b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a )(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a)(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = 18a 2 + 9ab − 20ab − 10b 2 = 18a 2 − 11ab − 10b 2 13. e.

0 × 108 = 420 × 108 = 4. . 3x 2 − 4 xy − 7 y 2 = ( 3x − 7 y )( x + y ) 32. 64 y − y 4 = y 64 − y 3 = y ( 4 − y ) 16 + 4 y + y 2 33. ( ) x2 + 1 1 2 ( ) − 10 x 2 + 1 3 ⎧ ⎨ −11. 26.2 × 1010 The total annual spending on ice cream is \$4. x ( ) ( ( ) ) 2 2 − 3 2 − 2x − 1 2 1 + x2 = x 3 2 − (1 − 2 x + x ) = ( 1 − x) 2 2 3 x2 36.PreCalculus 4E 24. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 ×109 7. 50 x 3 + 20 x 2 + 2 x = 2 x 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = 2 x ( 5 x + 1) 34. Inc. 37. Since 2 − 13 < 0 then 2 − 13 = 13 − 2 39. 0. x 2 − 2 x + 4 is prime. ( x 2 + 2) 2 = ( x 2 ) 2 + 2( x 2 )(2) + (2) 2 = x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4 50 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 12 = 5 ⋅ 2 3 = 10 3 25. 30. x 2 − 6 x + 9 − 49 y 2 = ( x − 3) − 49 y 2 = ⎡⎣( x − 3) + 7 y ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣( x − 3) − 7 y ⎤⎦ = ( x − 3 + 7 y )( x − 3 − 7 y ) 35. 0.2 × 10 2 × 108 = 4. 7 x 2 − 22 x + 3 = ( 7 x − 1)( x − 3) 29.5 109 A human brain has 4 times as many neurons as a gorilla brain. 43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 × 1010 3 1010 = ⋅ = 0. Mid-Chapter P Check Point 11 11 3 = 11 7 + 3 77 + 11 3 77 + 11 3 ⋅ = = 49 − 3 46 7− 3 7+ 3 = 7− 3 11 ⋅ 3 3 3 = 11 3 3 28. Since x < 0 then x = − x . − . 27. 7 ⎩ − 1 2 ( 1 2 ) ( = x2 + 1 − ) ( 1 2 ) (x ⎡ x 2 + 1 − 10 ⎤ = x 2 + 1 ⎣ ⎦ − 2 x +3 x −3 ) ( )( ) ( x + 1) −9 = 2 1 2 ⎫ 25 ⎬ ⎭ 38. 140 ⋅ 3.45. Thus x 2 x = − x 2 x = − x3 40. x 3 + 5 x 2 + 3x + 15 = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 5) 31.4 ×10 = 4 7.2 × 1010 41.

x ≠ −2.8(10) + 64 N = 132 Model 1 predicts there will be 132 channels in 2010. b.8 x + 64 N = 6. Inc. Section P. c. b.8(0) + 64 N = 64 Model 2: N = −0.5(0) 2 + 9.5 x + 62 N = −0.5 x 2 + 9. 2. so –6 and 6 must both must be excluded from the domain. x ≠ 2. and x ≠ −3.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 42. N = −0.5 x + 62 N = −0. . x ≠ −1 Because the denominator has factors of x + 2. The denominator would equal zero if x = −5. x ≠ −1 x +1 x + 3 x2 − x − 6 ⋅ x2 − 4 x2 + 6x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 2) x+3 = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 2) = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x−3 = . Publishing as Prentice Hall.5(6) + 62 N = 101 Model 2 underestimates the number of channels in 2006 by 3. x ≠ −2. x − 2. x ≠ −3 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x2 −1 = 2 x + 2 x + 1 ( x + 1)( x + 1) x −1 = . 44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5(0) + 62 N = 62 Model 2 best describes the data in 2000.5 x 2 + 9.8 x + 64 N = 6. x ≠ −3 Because the denominator is ( x + 1)( x + 1) . a.6 Check Point Exercises 1. so –5 must be excluded from the domain. a. Model 1: N = 6. N = 6. x3 + 3x 2 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 x+3 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 = x 2 .5(6) 2 + 9. 3. b. x 2 − 36 = ( x + 6)( x − 6) The denominator would equal zero if x = −6 or x = 6. and x + 3. x ≠ −3 ( x − 2)( x + 3) Because the denominator is x + 3. a. x ≠ 2.

PreCalculus 4E 4. x ≠ 0 1+3 4 + 3x x 4 4x 4x 2 − 3x −4 = 2x . x − 3. . x2 − 2x + 1 x2 + x − 2 ÷ 3x2 + 3 x3 + x 2 x − 2 x + 1 3x 2 + 3 = ⋅ 2 x3 + x x +x−2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) 3( x 2 + 1) = ⋅ x( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2)( x − 1) 3( x − 1) = . x ≠ 4 + 3x 3 4x 2 − 3x 4 + 3 x = ÷ 2x 4x 2 − 3x 4 x = ⋅ 2 x 4 + 3x 2 − 3x 4 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 2 2 − 3x 2 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 1 2(2 − 3x) −4 . x ≠ 0.6 8. Section P. 2 x − ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 3 5 + x + 1 x −1 3x( x − 1) + 5( x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3x − 3 + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 8x + 2 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) . x − 3. x 2 − 6 x + 9 = ( x − 3) 2 x 2 − 9 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) List the factors of the first denominator. Inc. putting this sum over the least common denominator. = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 9. x ≠ −1 Add numerators. x x−4 − 2 x − 10 x + 25 2 x − 10 x x−4 = − ( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5) 2x ( x − 4)( x − 5) = − 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) x 3x + 2 x − 3x − 2 − = x +1 x +1 x +1 −2 x − 2 = x +1 −2 ( x + 1) = x +1 = −2. x ≠ −2. ( x − 3)( x − 3)( x + 3) or ( x − 3)2 ( x + 3) is the least common denominator. Write all rational expressions in terms of the least common denominator. x≠5 2( x − 5) 2 1−3 2 − 3x x 2 = 2x 2x . x ≠ 1 x( x + 2) Find the least common denominator. 6. = 2 x − ( x 2 − 5 x − 4 x + 20) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 . x 2 − 10 x + 25 = ( x − 5) 2 2 x − 10 = 2( x − 5) The least common denominator is 2(x – 5)(x – 5). x + 3 The least common denominator is the product of all factors in the final list. x ≠ 0 and x ≠ = 4 + 3x 3 45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x − 3 Add any unlisted factors from the second denominator. Factor each denominator completely. 5. x − 3. x ≠ −1 and x ≠ 1.

x ≠ 2. x ≠ −7 =− x( x + 7) x+ 11. x≠2 = = x − 4 x + 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 2 ) x − 2 9.x≠3 x−3 15. and 7 by x+7 x the least common denominator of x( x + 7). –1 = = y 2 + 5 y + 4 ( y + 4 )( y + 1) y + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 36 ( x + 6) 2 x+6 = = . x ≠ −9 x+9 3. .x≠3 x −3 8. x ≠ −9. = = 4 x − 24 4 ( x − 6) 4 2 x≠6 x +1 3/ 2 10. . Multiply each of the three terms. x−3 x −3 = . x 2 − 12 x + 36 ( x − 6 )( x − 6 ) x − 6 . 4 ( x − 2) 4x − 8 4 . 5 x + 4 x − 45 ( x + 9)( x − 5) 2 = x+3 − x 3 x+3 − x x+3 + x = ⋅ 3 x+3 ⋅ x 2 6. 1 1 x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x+7⎠ ⎝ x⎠ x+7 x = 7 7 x( x + 7) x − ( x + 7) = 7 x( x + 7) −7 = 7 x( x + 7) 1 . 1 x+3 + x Exercise Set P. 13 . x ≠ 0. 2 3 x ≠ 5. 2. x ≠ –1. –10 x + 11x + 10 ( x + 1)( x + 10) 16. 3 ( x − 3) 3x − 9 = x − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x − 3) x 2 3 .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 1 1 . x+7 x+7 = . 2 ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x − 36 x ≠ 6. y 2 + 7 y − 18 ( y + 9 )( y − 2 ) y + 9 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. –7 13. x 2 − 8 x + 16 ( x − 4 )( x − 4 ) x − 4 . y ≠ –4. 2 x − 2 2x + 6 x − 2 2( x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x + 9 2 x − 4 3( x + 3) 2( x − 2) 2 1 = = . 10.6 1. –7 2 x − 49 ( x + 7)( x − 7) 5. 12. 7 . = x+7 x ≠ 7. –5 2 x − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) 4. = = y 2 − 3 y + 2 ( y − 2 )( y − 1) y − 1 y ≠ 1. –6 ( x − 7) 2 x 2 − 14 x + 49 14. x+ 1 x x = 1 x x x x = = = = ( x+3 3 3 ( ( ) − ( x) x+3 + x x + 3− x x+3 + x 7. x≠4 = = 3x − 12 3( x − 4) 3 11. x ≠ 5. = ( x − 7)( x + 7) x 2 − 49 x−7 . 2 2 ) 12. −3 6 3 x−5 6 x + 9 x − 5 3(2 x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x − 15 4 x + 6 3( x − 5) 2(2 x + 3) 3 = 6 1 = . Inc. − 2 46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ 7. ) y 2 − 4 y − 5 ( y − 5 )( y + 1) y − 5 . x+5 x+5 = . x −1 x −1 = .

x ≠ –3. –2 x2 − 5x + 6 x2 − 1 ⋅ x2 − 2x − 3 x2 − 4 ( x − 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 1) ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 26. 28 x ≠ –5 2 25. 18. 19. −4. x2 − 4 2 x − 4 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2( x − 2) ⋅ = ⋅ x − 4x + 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)2 x+2 = 2. x ≠ 0. 2. 2. x 2 − 25 x 2 + 10 x + 25 ÷ 2 2x − 2 x + 4x − 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)2 = ÷ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5)( x − 1) ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)( x − 1) = ⋅ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5) 2 x −5 = . 3 x+2 x2 + 5x + 6 x 2 − 9 ⋅ x2 + x − 6 x2 − x − 6 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 3) x + 3 . –3 29. = ⋅ = ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) x − 2 27. x ≠ 1. 2 3x 28. –5 2 x2 + 6 x + 9 1 ⋅ x 3 + 27 x + 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) 1 1 = ⋅ = 2 . x ≠ 0. x ≠ −1 9 47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = ( x − 2)( x − 1) x ≠ 2. 0. 4 x 2 + 10 6 x 2 + 15 ÷ 2 x −3 x −9 2 2(2 x + 5) 3(2 x 2 + 5) = ÷ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x−3 2(2 x 2 + 5) ( x − 3)( x + 3) ⋅ 3(2 x 2 + 5) x−3 2( x + 3) . 2 x 2 = 20. −2. − 3 = 3 x2 + 2 x + 4 . x −1 .3 x( x + 4) 24.PreCalculus 4E 17. –2. –1. x ≠ 2. x ≠ –2. 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 x + 9 ) x + 3 x − 3 x + 9 x ≠ –3 23. x 2 − 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x+2 ÷ = ÷ x − 2 4x − 8 x−2 4( x − 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) 4( x − 2) = ⋅ x−2 x+2 = 4( x − 2). x ≠ 3. 22. x2 + x x2 − 1 ÷ 2 2 x − 4 x + 5x + 6 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 1) = ÷ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) ( x + 2)( x + 3) x( x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 3) . 3 21. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ 2. Section P. x − 4 ÷ x + 2 = ( x − 2)( x + 2) ⋅ x − 2 x x−2 x x+2 2 ( x − 2) = . –2 = 2 x3 − 8 x + 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 2 x + 4 ) x + 2 = ⋅ ⋅ 3x x 2 − 4 3x ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) = x + 5 4 x + 20 x + 5 4( x + 5) ÷ = ÷ 7 9 7 9 x+5 9 = ⋅ 7 4( x + 5) 9 = . –2. . Inc. 1.6 x + 1 3x + 3 x + 1 3( x + 1) ÷ = ÷ 3 7 3 7 x +1 7 = ⋅ 3 3( x + 1) 7 = . x 2 − 9 x 2 − 3x ⋅ 2 x2 x + x − 12 x( x − 3) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ 2 ( x + 4)( x − 3) x ( x − 3)( x + 3) = . x ≠ –2. –1.

34.1. . –5 35.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 30. 3 x + 2 3x + 6 3 x + 2 + 3 x + 6 + = 3x + 4 3x + 4 3x + 4 6x + 8 = 3x + 4 2(3x + 4) = 3x + 4 =2 4 x≠− 3 x2 − 2 x x2 + x x2 − 2 x + x2 + x + = x 2 + 3 x x 2 + 3x x 2 + 3x 2 2x − x = 2 x + 3x x(2 x − 1) = x( x + 3) 2x −1 . 2 2 2 2 31. 5. –3. x + x − 12 x + 5 x + 6 x+3 ⋅ ÷ x 2 + x − 30 x 2 − 2 x − 3 x 2 + 7 x + 6 ( x + 4 )( x − 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x + 6 )( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ x+3 ( x + 6 )( x − 5 ) ( x + 1)( x − 3) 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 32. 3 4 x − 10 x − 4 4 x − 10 − ( x − 4) − = x−2 x−2 x−2 4 x − 10 − x + 4 = x−2 3x − 6 = x−2 3( x − 2) = x−2 = 3. −5 33. x−2 x≠2 48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 2 ( x + 4 )( x + 2 ) x−5 x ≠ –6. 2 2 x2 x ≠ 0. –2. x3 − 25 x 2 x 2 − 2 x2 + 5x ⋅ 2 ÷ 2 4x x − 6x + 5 7x + 7 x ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) 7 ( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ 4 x2 ( x − 1)( x − 5 ) x ( x + 5) = 7 ( x + 1) 37. 4x + 1 8x + 9 4x + 1 + 8x + 9 + = 6x + 5 6x + 5 6x + 5 12 x + 10 = 6x + 5 2(6 x + 5) 5 = = 2. Inc. –1. x ≠ 2 2 x + 3 3 − x 2 x + 3 − (3 − x) − = 3x − 6 3x − 6 3x − 6 2x + 3 − 3 + x = 3x − 6 3x = 3( x − 2) x = . x ≠ − 6x + 5 6 38. –3. −3 = x+3 4x − 4 x2 − 4x x2 − 4 x + 4 x − 4 + = x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − 4 = ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 = . 3. x ≠ 0. x−3 x ≠ –2. −1. x −4 x + 5x + 6 ÷ x + 3 x − 10 x 2 + 8 x + 15 ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) = ÷ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) = ⋅ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) =1 x ≠ 2.

3 = 8 x − 24 + 2 x − 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) = 10 x − 28 .6 x 2 + 3x x 2 − 12 − x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + 3 x − ( x 2 − 12) = x 2 + x − 12 2 x + 3 x − x 2 + 12 = x 2 + x − 12 3x + 12 = 2 x + x − 12 3( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 3) 3 = . x ≠ −2. 9 x + 39 . Section P. . x ( − 2 )( x − 3) x+5 x−5 + x −5 x +5 ( x + 5 )( x + 5 ) + ( x − 5 )( x − 5 ) = ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + x 2 − 10 x + 25 ( x − 5)( x + 5) = 2 x 2 + 50 . 40. Inc. x ≠ 3. 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5 ) 49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 46. −4 x−3 43.PreCalculus 4E 39. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 3x x + 4 3x ( x + 2 ) − ( x + 4 )( x − 3) − = x−3 x +2 ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) = 3x 2 + 6 x − ( x 2 + x − 12 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) 2 x + 5 x + 12 . ( x − 3)( x + 2) 2 41. 3 = x+2 45. 0 =− x ( x + 1) x ( x + 1) 4 ( x + 3) − 3 x 4 3 − = x x+3 x ( x + 3) x ≠ –3. 0 x2 − 4 x x−6 − 2 2 x − x−6 x − x−6 x 2 − 4 x − ( x − 6) = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 4x − x + 6 = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 5x + 6 = 2 x − x−6 ( x − 2)( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 . 3x − 3x − 3 3 . x ≠ –4. = 4 x + 12 − 3 x x ( x + 3) = x + 12 x ( x + 3) 2x x + 2 2 x ( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 )( x + 2 ) + = x+2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 2x2 − 4 x + x2 + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 3x2 + 4 . x ≠ –5. 47. 3 3 3x − 3 ( x + 1) − = x ( x + 1) x +1 x = 44. = 3 ( x + 5) + 6 ( x + 4) 3 6 + = x+4 x+5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) x ≠ 3. x ≠ –2. –5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) 8 ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 2 ) 8 2 + = x−2 x−3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x ≠ 2. –2 3x + 15 + 6 x + 24 = ( x + 4 )( x + 5) = 42. x ≠ –1.

1. 50. 2 . 3 49. 6 x x − ( )( − 1)( x + 4 ) x ≠ 6. –4 4 x + 16 ( x + 3) = =− 4 4 4 4 + = + 2 x + 6 x + 9 x + 3 ( x + 3) x+3 = ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = 2 2 3 x ( x + 3) − 2 x ( x + 5 ) = 5 7 5 7 + = + 2 x + 8 3x + 12 2( x + 4) 3( x + 4) 15 14 = + 6( x + 4) 6( x + 4) 15 + 14 = 6( x + 4) 29 = 6( x + 4) x ≠ –4 4 + 4 ( x + 3) 3x 2x − 2 x + 3x − 10 x + x − 6 3x 2x = − ( x + 5 )( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 2 = 3 2 3 2 + = + 2 x + 4 3x + 6 2( x + 2) 3( x + 2) 9 4 = + 6( x + 2) 6( x + 2) 9+4 = 6( x + 2) 13 = 6( x + 2) x ≠ –2 = 52.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. x2 + 6 x + 9 + x2 − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 2 x 2 + 18 . 3 5x 3 5x + = + 2 5 x + 2 25 x − 4 5 x + 2 ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) = = = 3x 2 + 9 x − 2 x 2 − 10 x ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = x2 − x . –1 = 3 ( 5x − 2) + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 15 x − 6 + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 20 x − 6 . ( x − 3)( x + 3) 54. 51. ( x + 3) x ≠ –3 4 + 4 x + 12 ( x + 3) 2 = 55. 2. x + 3 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) + ( x − 3)( x − 3) + = x−3 x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) x ≠ –3. = 53. x+3 x+2 − x2 − 1 x − 1 x+3 x+2 = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) x − 1 x+3 ( x + 1)( x + 2) = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x+3 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x + 3 − x 2 − 3x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) −x2 − 2x + 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) x ≠ 1. –3 ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) x x − 2 x − 2 x − 24 x − 7 x + 6 x x = − ( x − 6 )( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x − 1) 2 x ( x − 1) − x ( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) x2 − x − x2 − 4 x ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) 5x . Inc. ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 2 2 x≠− . x ≠ –5. 5 5 50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

−1 x+2 = 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x + − x 2 + x − 20 x−4 x+5 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x = + − 5 4 4 x x x x + − − +5 ( )( ) = 66. 1 4 4− x ⎡⎢ 4 − 1 ⎤⎥ 4 x − 1 x x⎦ ⎣ = 57. x −1 4 = x−4 61. x ≠ −2. y ≠ 0. 1 − 1 x ⎡⎢1 − 1 ⎤⎥ x − 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ 0. x ≠ –2. 5 ( x + 1) −3 x ( x + 2 ) 4 x2 + x − 5 + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = = 58. ( x + 3) ⎡⎢⎣ x − x +x 3 ⎤⎥⎦ x ( x + 3) − x x− x x+3 = = x+2 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x −1 . –3 x+3 ( x − 2 ) [ x − 3] ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x−3 = = 3 ⎤ x ( x − 2) − 3 ⎡ x− 3 x − 2 ( x − 2) ⎢ x − x − 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ − − x x 2 3 ( )( ) = 2 x − 2x − 3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x − 2 = = . x ≠ 2. x≠3 x − 3 3[ x − 3] 3 ( x − 3) 3 60.PreCalculus 4E 56. 3. x ≠ –y 4 x 2 + x − 6 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = x 3 2 x 2 + 3x − x x2 + 2 x = ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) x ( x + 2) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x . 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 + 3 ( x + 5) − 5 x ( x − 4 ) ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = 6 x + 17 x − 40 + 3x + 15 − 5 x 2 + 20 x ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = x 2 + 40 x − 25 . . x ≠ 4 4 ( x − 4) 4 ( x − 4) 4 x ≠ 0. x ≠ 0. 8 + 1 x ⎡⎢8 + 1 ⎤⎥ 8 x + 1 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . − 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) x + 1 51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ −5. x ≠ 0. = ⎣ x+ y xy [ x + y ] xy ( x + y ) xy 64. 4 x2 + x − 6 3x 5 − + 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 1 x + 2 4 x2 + x − 6 −3 x 5 = + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) x + 1 x + 2 = 63. ⎡x ⎤ − 1 3 ⎢⎣ 3 − 1⎥⎦ x −3 1 = = = . 1 3 3 − 1 x ⎡3 − 1 ⎤ 3 x − 1 ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ x 62. 4 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 ) 4 ⎡⎢ x − 1⎤⎥ ⎣4 ⎦ = x − 4 = 1 . Section P. y ≠ 0 xy x ( xy ) x2 y 65. x ⎡1 + 1 ⎤ 1+ 1 x = ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ = x + 1 . –2 59. x2 −1 ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x − 1)( x + 1) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎡ ⎤ 1+1 xy ⎢ 1 + 1 ⎥ x y x y ⎦ = y+x = 1 . Inc.6 x + 5 x +1 − x2 − 4 x − 2 x+5 x +1 = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 x+5 ( x + 2)( x + 1) = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x+5 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x + 5 − x − 3x − 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 − x2 − 2 x + 3 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x ≠ 2.

2.3 x+2 52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . – 2 = 69.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 67. 2 7 x +1 x +1 − 2 x−2 x = 3 +1 3 +1 ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 − 4 ⎡ x + 1⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎣⎢ x − 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎡ ⎤ 3 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 + 1⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ( )( ) ⎣ ⎦ = x ( x + 2 ) + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 3 + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 + 2 x + x2 − 4 2 x2 + 2 x – 4 = x 2 –1 3 + x2 − 4 2( x 2 + x – 2) = ( x –1)( x + 1) 2( x + 2)( x –1) 2( x + 2) = = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. –1. −1. x +1 ( x –1)( x + 1) x ≠ 1. 68. 1 x +1 1 1 + 2 x − 2x − 3 x − 3 = 1 x +1 1 1 + ( x + 1)( x − 3) x − 3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x +1 = ( x + 1)( x − 3) ( x + 1)( x − 3) + x −3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x−3 = 1+ x +1 x −3 = x ≠ −2. 3 − 4 3 − 4 x−2 x+2 = x−2 x+2 7 7 2 x − 2 x + 2) ( )( x −4 ⎡ 3 − 4 ⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 7 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) )( )⎦ ⎣( 3( x + 2) − 4 ( x − 2) 3x + 6 − 4 x + 8 − x + 14 = = = 7 7 7 x − 14 =− x ≠ –2.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. −5. ( x + h)( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x+h x − − x + h +1 x +1 = x + h +1 x +1 h h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) ( x + h)( x + 1) − x( x + h + 1) = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x 2 + x + hx + h − x 2 − hx − x h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) h = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) 1 = ( x + h + 1)( x + 1) = 53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 = ( x + 6)( x − 3) 2 70. 1 1 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 − − ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x2 = 2 2 h hx ( x + h) = x 2 − ( x + h) 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2hx + h 2 ) hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − x 2 − 2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 −2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h) 2 −h(2 x + h) = 2 hx ( x + h) 2 (2 x + h) =− 2 x ( x + h) 2 = 72. 71.6 6 1 6 1 − − + − −3 ( x 5)( x 3) x x + 2 x − 15 x − 3 = 1 1 +1 +1 x+5 x+5 6( x + 5)( x − 3) ( x + 5)( x − 3) − ( x + 5)( x − 3) x −3 = ( x + 5)( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) x+5 6 − ( x + 5) = ( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) 6− x−5 = x − 3 + x 2 + 2 x − 15 1− x = 2 x + 3x − 18 1− x x ≠ −6.PreCalculus 4E Section P. .

= 79. x > 0 3x ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+h x x⎠ x+h x ⎝ x+h = h h x+h x = x− 74. x (3 x ) 3x − 1 3x 1 = 1− .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra x− 73.x>0 4x 75. . 5 − x2 + x2 (5 − x ) ( x+ y x −y 2 2 = = 5 5 − x2 ) 2 = 5 − x2 5 = (5 − x ) 2 . h≠0 x − x+3 3 x x+3 x+5 − x x+5 + x ⋅ 5 x+5 + x ( x + 5) 2 − ( x )2 5( x + 5 + x ) x+5− x 5( x + 5 + x ) 1 x+5 + x x+7 − x x+7 + x ⋅ 7 x+7 + x ( x + 7 )2 − ( x )2 7( x + 7 + x ) x+7− x 7( x + 7 + x ) 1 x+7 + x x+ y x −y 2 2 ⋅ x− y x− y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 5 − x2 2 h x ( x + h) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+3 x x⎠ x+3 x ⎝ x+3 = 3 3 x+3 x = x2 x2 + 2 x − x+h = 3 ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) 1 ( x + y )( x − y ) 54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 80. x (4 x ) 4x −1 4x 1 = 1− . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x+5 − x = 5 − x2 + 2 = x2 ⎛ ⎜ =⎝ = − x 2 + 2 ⎞⎟ x 2 + 2 ⎠ x2 x2 + 2 = x2 x2 + 2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2) x2 x2 + 2 2 =− 2 x x2 + 2 76. ( = 1 3 x x x− 1 3 x ) (3 x) 77. Inc. x+7 − x = 7 = x2 5 − x2 + 5 − x2 = ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜ 5 − x2 + ⎟ 5 − x2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 5− x ⎠ =⎝ 2 5− x 5 − x2 = 5− x 2 ( = = = ) 81. 1 4 x ( = x x− 1 4 x ) (4 x) 78.

x− y x −y 2 2 Section P. ( x 2 − y 2 )( x + y ) 6 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 1) 6 ⎞ ⎛ ( x − 2) 3 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜2− ⎟ ⎜1 + ⎟ = ⎜⎜ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ( x + 1) ( x + 1) ⎠ ⎝ ( x − 2 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 x + 2 − 6 ⎞⎛ x − 2 + 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 x − 4 ⎞ ⎛ x + 1 ⎞ 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) =2 =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟= ⎝ x + 1 ⎠⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ( x + 1) ( x − 2 ) 86. . Inc. y −1 − ( y + 5) 5 1 −1 = y − 1 y+5 5 LCD = y ( y + 5) 1 y − ⎛1 1 y+5 5 y ( y + 5) ⎜ = ⎝y − 1 ⎞ ⎟ y +5⎠ y ( y + 5)( 5) = y +5− y 5 y ( y + 5) = 5 5 y ( y + 5) = 1 y ( y + 5) 55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 x− y = x −y 2 x+ y ⋅ 2 x+ y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 = = = 83. 3 ⎞⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ( x + 2) 3 ⎞⎛ ( x − 1) 5 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎜4− ⎟⎜ 1 + ⎟=⎜ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ x + 2 x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 x + 8 − 3 ⎞⎛ x − 1 + 5 ⎞ 4 x + 5 x + 4 ( 4 x + 5 )( x + 4 ) =⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎜ ⎟= ( x + 2 )( x − 1) ⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ x + 2 x − 1 87. x≠ y ⎛ ( 2 x + 3) ( x + 5 ) ( x − 1) ⎛ 2 x + 3 x2 + 4 x − 5 ⎞ 2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 =⎜ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − ( 2 x + 3) ( x − 1) ⎝ x + 1 2 x + x − 3 ⎠ x + 2 ⎜⎝ x + 1 2 ( x + 1) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 2 ( x + 1) = − = x 1 x 2 x 1 x 2 + + + + ( )( ) ( )( ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎞ ⎟− 2 = x+5 − 2 ⎟ x + 2 x +1 x + 2 ⎠ = x 2 + 2 x + 5 x + 10 − 2 x − 2 x2 + 5x + 8 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎛ ( x + 2) ( x − 4) ⎞ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 ⋅⎜ − ÷ ⎜⎜ − ⎟ ⎟= x − 2 x − 8 ⎝ x − 4 x + 2 ⎠ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎝ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎟⎠ 1 2 ⎛ x+2−x+4 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) 1 1 6 1 ÷ ⎜⎜ ÷ ⎜⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎟ = ⎟⎟ = x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 6 6 ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) 1 = 85. 84. x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x + y ) 1 ( x + y )( x + y ) .PreCalculus 4E 82. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

a. 56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c. Inc.67 .170. For x = 100. So it costs an astronomical amount of money to inoculate almost all of the people. = = 520 .000 to inoculate 90% of the population. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3. ⎛1 1 y ( y + 2) ⎜ = ⎝y 1 ⎞ ⎟ y+2⎠ y ( y + 2 )( 2 ) = y+2− y 2 y ( y + 2) = 2 2 y ( y + 2) = 1 y ( y + 2) ⎛ a ( c + d ) − b ( c + d ) ⎞⎟ ac + ad − bc − bd ⎞ c−d 1 c−d ⎛ 1 ⎜ ⋅ − = ⋅ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 1 1 ⎝ a 3 − b3 ⎠ a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ( c + d ) ( a − b ) ⎞⎟ c−d c+d c−d 1 − = − ⋅ =⎜ ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + bd + b 2 1 ⎝ ⎠ c+d −c+d 2d = 2 = a + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 ( ( 90.000.670.000 to inoculate 40% of the population against this strain of flu. . − ) ) ⎛ a ( c − d ) − b ( c − d ) a 3 + b3 ⎞ ⎛ ac − ad − bc + bd a3 − b3 ⎞ ab + ⎜⎜ ÷ 3 3 ⎟⎟ = 2 + ⎜⎜ ⋅ ⎟ 2 a + ab + b ⎝ ac − ad + bc − bd a + b ⎠ a + ab + b ⎝ a ( c − d ) + b ( c − d ) a3 − b3 ⎟⎠ ab 2 2 ( ( ⎛ ( c − d ) ( a − b ) ( a + b ) a 2 − ab + b 2 = 2 +⎜ ⋅ a + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( c − d ) ( a + b ) ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ab = 91. ab + a 2 − ab + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 = ) ⎞⎟ = ) ⎠⎟ a ab 2 + ab + b2 + a 2 − ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a2 + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 130 x is equal to 100 − x 130 ⋅ 40 130 ⋅ 40 1. As x approaches 100. and \$520. = = 86.000.000 to inoculate 80% of the population. and it is impossible to inoculate 100% of the population. 100 − 40 60 when x = 40 130 ⋅ 80 130 ⋅ 80 2. 100 − 80 20 when x = 80 130 ⋅ 90 130 ⋅ 90 = = 1170 . the function is not defined. y −1 − ( y + 2) 1 −1 y = 2 − 1 y+2 2 LCD = y ( y + 2 ) 1 − y y+2 2 89. and \$1. the value of the function increases rapidly.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 88. b. 100 − 90 10 when x = 90 It costs \$86.

b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. M = −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 M = −120(4)2 + 998(4) + 590 M = 2662 According to the model. Substitute 4 for x in the model. Substitute 4 for x in the model. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 38 calories.6 2d d + r1 d r2 LCD = r1r2 2d d r1 + d ⎛d d ⎞ + ⎜ r r ⎟⎟ 1 ⎝ 2⎠ r1r2 ⎜ r2 = = If r1r2 ( 2d ) = 2r1r2 d r2 d + r1d 2r1r2 d d ( r2 + r1 ) = 2r1r2 r2 + r1 r1 = 40 and r2 = 30. c. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 22 calories. Inc. men between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2662 calories per day. . W −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 = M −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 = = 2 ( −33x 2 + 263x + 515 ) 2 ( −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 ) −33x 2 + 263x + 515 −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. women between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2078 calories per day. W = −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 W = −66(4)2 + 526(4) + 1030 W = 2078 According to the model. 7 Your average speed will be 34 2 miles per hour. 7 93. Section P.PreCalculus 4E 92. the value of this expression will be 2 ⋅ 40 ⋅ 30 2400 = 30 + 40 70 2 = 34 .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. R= = = 1 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1R2 R3 R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2 4 ⋅8 ⋅12 8⋅12 + 4 ⋅12 + 4 ⋅ 8 384 = 96 + 48 + 32 384 = 176 24 = 11 24 The parallel resistance is ohms.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. 58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 11 R(4. P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x + 3⎠ ⎝ x − 4⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+3 x+4 2 x ( x + 4) 2 x ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x + 4) ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = + 2 2 x + 8x + 2 x + 6 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = 96. Inc. 12) = 95. 4 x + 14 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x +5⎠ ⎝ x +6⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+5 x+6 2 x ( x + 6) 2x ( x + ( x + 5)( x + 6) ( x + 5)( x 2 = + 2 2 x + 12 x + 2 x + 10 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 2 = 4 x + 22 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 97. –108. 8.

makes sense 113. false.PreCalculus 4E Section P. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. . Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 4 x( x − 1) 4(1)(1 − 1) 0 110. A sample change is: x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) = = x+5 x−5 x−5 114. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Sample explanation: The first step is to invert the second fraction. does not make sense. Inc. −1 − 1 6x 1 6x + 1 = + = x x x x ( x − y) −1 + ( x − y) −2 = 1 + x −1 x x +1 x + 2 x −1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = x x +1 x + 2 x + 3 x + 3 1 ( x − y) ( x − y) 2 = ( x − y) 1 x − y +1 + = 2 ( x − y )( x − y ) ( x − y ) ( x − y )2 120. It cubes x. 111. A sample change is: 6 + 117. Sample explanation: 3x − 3 3(1) − 3 0 = = which is undefined. true 116. 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 3 2 + 2 + 3 + + 5 4 3 x x x = x x 2 x3 = x + x + x = x x + x + 1 = x3 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 1 + 5 + 6 + 5 + 6 4 4 x x x x x x ( ) 59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true 115. 1 n x −1 − 1 n x +1 − n 1 x 2n −1 = n x +1 x 2n −1 − n = = 118.6 109. 112. Sample explanation: The numerator and denominator of 7 do not 14 + x share a common factor. false. Explanations will vary. x −1 x 2n 1 x 2n −1 n x +1− x +1−1 x 2n −1 1 x 2n −1 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ x 1 ⎞⎛ x +1 1 ⎞⎛ x + 2 1 ⎞⎛ x + 3 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ − − − ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ x x + x + x + x x x + x + x + x + x + x + 3⎠ 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎛ x − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 1) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 3) − 1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠⎝ x +1 ⎠⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x + 3 ⎠ = 119.

2 −b − b 2 − 4ac −(9) − (9) − 4(2)(−5) = 2a 2(2) −9 − 81 + 40 4 −9 − 121 = 4 −9 − 11 = 4 = −5 = 3. x=7 . Section P.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. true 7 ( x − 3) = 2(5) − 4 ( x + 5 ) 7 x − 21 = 10 − 4 x − 20 ⎛ x + 2 x −1 ⎞ ⎛ x+2⎞ ⎛ x −1⎞ − = 12 ⎜ − 12 ⎜ 122. Inc. 60 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2( x − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3( x + 2) 2. 12 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 3( x + 2) − 4( x − 1) = 3x + 6 − 4 x + 4 7 x − 21 = −4 x − 10 7 x + 4 x = −10 + 21 11x = 11 11x 11 = 11 11 x =1 Check: x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 1− 3 5 1+ 5 = − 4 14 7 −2 5 6 = − 4 14 7 1 1 − =− 2 2 The solution set is {1}. x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 x −3 ⎛ 5 x+5⎞ 28 ⋅ = 28 ⎜ − 4 7 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 14 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 8 x + 4 − 29 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 − 6 x = 6 x − 15 − 6 x 2 x − 25 = −15 2 x − 25 + 25 = −15 + 25 −20 6 5 − = 2 x+3 x−2 x + x−6 −20 6 5 − = x + 3 x − 2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x + 3)( x − 2) 5( x + 3)( x − 2) −20( x + 3)( x − 2) − = x+3 x−2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x − 2) − 5( x + 3) = −20 6 x − 12 − 5 x − 15 = −20 x − 27 = −20 The solution set is {7} . 2 x = 10 2 x 10 = 2 2 x=5 Check: 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 4[2(5) + 1] − 29 = 3[2(5) − 5] 4[10 + 1] − 29 = 3[10 − 5] 4[11] − 29 = 3[5] 44 − 29 = 15 15 = 15 true The solution set is {5}.7 Check Point Exercises 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = − x + 10 123. 2(6 − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3(6 + 2) 2(3) − 17 = 13 − 3(8) 6 − 17 = 13 − 24 −11 = −11.

PreCalculus 4E 4. Section P. 7. The solution set is { } . −5 − 11 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . } The solution set is −5 + 11. a. Inc. 7 . x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x2 + 4x = 1 x2 + 4 x + 4 = 1 + 4 ( x + 2) 2 =5 x+2= ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x + 5) 2 = 11 x + 5 = ± 11 4 1 − 2 x = 20 x = −5 ± 11 1 − 2x = 5 { 1 − 2x = 5 or 1 − 2 x = −5 −2 x = 4 −2 x = −6 x = −2 x=3 The solution set is {–2.7 1 4 1 = − x + 2 x2 − 4 x − 2 1 4 1 = − x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 1( x + 2)( x − 2) 4( x + 2)( x − 2) 1( x + 2)( x − 2) = − x+2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x−2 x − 2 = 4 − ( x + 2) x−2=4−x−2 x−2=2−x 2x = 4 x=2 2 must be rejected. 9. x=0 x=3 The solution set is {0. 5. −1⎬ . 3}. 3x 2 − 9 x = 0 3x( x − 3) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 3 = 0 3 x 2 21 = 3 3 2 x =7 x=± 7 { } The solution set is − 7. 2 x2 + x − 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 2x = 1 1 x= 2 1 1 1 + = p q f 1 pqf 1 pqf 1 pqf + = p q f qf + pf = pq x = −1 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2 x2 + x = 1 b. 4 1 − 2 x − 20 = 0 b. a. ⎩2 ⎭ 8.3} . 3x 2 − 21 = 0 3x 2 = 21 qf − pq = − pf q( f − p) = − pf − pf q( f − p) = f −p f −p pf q= p− f 6.

6x – 3 = 63 6x = 66 x = 11 The solution set is {11}. ⎬.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 11. 6(11) − 3 = 63 66 − 3 = 63 63 = 63 3x 2 − 2x + 5 = 0 a = 3. c = 5 3. b = 2. . 2. Check: 6 x − 3 = 63 ⎧⎪ −1 + 3 −1 − 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . x+3 +3 = x x +3 = x−3 ( x+3 ) 2 = ( x − 3) 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 11x − 6 x + 5 = 40 b2 − 4ac = (−2)2 − 4 ⋅3 ⋅5 = 4 − 60 = −56 The discriminant is –56. 7x – 5 = 72 7x = 77 x = 11 Check: 7 x − 5 = 72 Check: 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 2 11(7) − [6(7) − 5] = 40 x + 3 = x2 − 6x + 9 77 − (42 − 5) = 40 0 = x2 − 7 x + 6 0 = ( x − 6)( x − 1) x − 6 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 77 − (37) = 40 40 = 40 x=6 x =1 1 does not check and must be rejected. c = −1 1. 12. 5 x + 5 = 40 5 x = 35 x=7 The solution set is {7}. −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a = = = = = = −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) 7(11) − 5 = 72 −2 ± 4 + 8 4 −2 ± 12 4 −2 ± 2 3 4 2(−1 ± 3) 4 −1 ± 3 2 77 − 5 = 72 72 = 72 The solution set is {11}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 Exercise Set P. The solution set is {6} . b = −2.7 a = 2. Inc. The equation has two complex imaginary solutions.

2(x – 1) + 3 = x – 3(x +1) 2x – 2 + 3 = x – 3x – 3 2x +1 = –2x – 3 4x + 1 = –3 4x = –4 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. Check: 13 x + 14 = 12 x − 5 9.7 5x – (2x – 10) = 35 5x – 2x + 10 = 35 3x + 10 = 35 3x = 25 25 x= 3 7. Check: 2(13) − 7 = 6 + 13 Check: 3(9 − 2) + 7 = 2(9 + 5) 26 − 7 = 19 19 = 19 6. . Section P. 3(7) + 7 = 2(14) 21 + 7 = 28 3x + 5 = 2x + 13 x + 5 = 13 x=8 The solution set is {8}. Check: 3x + 5 = 2 x + 13 3(8) + 5 = 2(8) + 13 24 + 5 = 16 + 13 29 = 29 Check: 2( x − 1) + 3 = x − 3( x + 1) 2(−1 − 1) + 3 = −1 − 3(−1 + 1) 2(−2) + 3 = −1 − 3(0) − 4 + 3 = −1 + 0 − 1 = −1 63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7x + 4 = x + 16 6x + 4 = 16 6x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {2}. 3(x – 2) + 7 = 2(x + 5) 3x – 6 + 7 = 2x + 10 3x + 1 = 2x + 10 x + 1 = 10 x=9 The solution set is {9}. 5. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎤ ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 25 ⎞ 5 ⎜ ⎟ − ⎢ 2 ⎜ ⎟ − 10 ⎥ = 35 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎦ 125 ⎡ 50 ⎤ − − 10⎥ = 35 3 ⎢⎣ 3 ⎦ 125 20 − = 35 3 3 105 = 35 3 35 = 35 13(−19) + 14 = 12(−19) − 5 − 247 + 14 = −228 − 5 − 233 = −233 2x – 7 = 6 + x x–7=6 x = 13 The solution set is {13}.PreCalculus 4E 4. ⎩3⎭ 14 + 4 = 18 18 = 18 Check: 5 x − (2 x − 10) = 35 8. Check: 7(2) + 4 = 2 + 16 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 13x + 14 = 12x – 5 x + 14 = –5 x = –19 The solution set is {–19}. 28 = 28 10.

x +3 3 x −5 = + 6 8 4 ⎡ x + 3 3 x − 5⎤ 24 ⎢ = + 8 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 6 4 x + 12 = 9 + 6 x − 30 15. 25 7 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Inc. x−2 x+3 = 3 8 x − 2 x + 3⎤ ⎡ 24 ⎢5 + = 3 8 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 120 + 8 x − 16 = 3 x + 9 5+ 1 11 +5 = ( x ≠ 1) x −1 x −1 1 11 +5 = x −1 x −1 1 + 5( x − 1) = 11 1 + 5 x − 5 = 11 5 x − 4 = 11 5 x = 15 x=3 The solution set is {3}. ⎩5⎭ 3x x − 3 x + 2 − = 5 2 3 ⎡ 3x x − 3 x + 2 ⎤ 30 ⎢ − = 2 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣5 18 x − 15 x + 45 = 10 x + 20 3x − 10 x = 20 − 45 x =1 − 7 x = −25 The solution set is {1}. 17. . 3x + 4 x = 10 − 3 7x = 7 x +1 x+2 = 5− 3 7 x + 2⎤ ⎡ x +1 21 ⎢ = 5− 7 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 3 7x + 7 = 105 – 3x – 6 7x + 3x = 99 – 7 10x = 92 92 x= 10 46 x= 5 ⎧ 46 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . a.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11. x +1 1 2 − x = + 4 6 3 ⎡ x +1 1 2 − x ⎤ 12 ⎢ = + 6 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 4 3x + 3 = 2 + 8 − 4 x 16. ⎩7⎭ x= x x −3 = 2+ 4 3 x − 3⎤ ⎡x 12 ⎢ = 2 + 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣4 3x = 24 + 4x – 12 3x – 4x = 12 –x = 12 x = –12 The solution set is {–12}. 4 x − 6 x = −21 − 12 − 2 x = −33 33 2 x= ⎧ 33 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎩2⎭ 12. b. 8 x − 3x = 9 − 104 5 x = −95 x = −19 The solution set is {−19} . 13. 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

( x ≠ −2. x ≠ −5) b. 2 x = − 2 ( x ≠ 2) x−2 x−2 24. 3 5 1 = + ( x ≠ −3. −5 x + 5 x − 5 x 2 − 25 4( x − 5) + 2( x + 5) = 32 4 x − 20 + 2 x + 10 = 32 3 1 2 + = ( x ≠ 1) 2x − 2 2 x −1 6 x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. a. 8x 8 = 4− x +1 x +1 8 x = 4( x + 1) − 8 b. 2 = x − 2x + 4 21. 4 2 32 + = . 3 + x −1 = 4 x=2 The solution set is {2}. 3 5 1 = + x + 3 2( x + 3) x − 2 6( x − 2) = 5( x − 2) + 2( x + 3) 6 x − 12 = 5 x − 10 + 2 x + 6 3 − 7 x − 28 = −4 19. ∅. x ≠ 5. . a.PreCalculus 4E 18. a. x ≠ −1) x + 1 x −1 x −1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 x2 − 1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2( x − 1) − 1( x + 1) = 2 x 2x − 2 − x −1 = 2x x = −1 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. ∅. a. 3 1 2 + = 2x − 2 2 x −1 3 1 2 + = 2( x − 1) 2 x − 1 3 + 1( x − 1) = 4 25. Section P. b. 1 x−4 − 5 x+2 = 6 ( x − 4)( x + 2) . 2 x = −2 x−2 x−2 2 = x − 2( x − 2) x = 2 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. a. −x = 8 −7 x = 21 x = −8 The solution set is {–8}. x ≠ 2) x + 3 2x + 6 x − 2 8x 8 = 4− ( x ≠ −1) x +1 x +1 23. 65 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ −2) 1( x + 2) − 5( x − 4) = 6 x + 2 − 5 x + 20 = 6 −4 x = −16 x=4 The solution set is the empty set. a. 4) 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 x2 − 2 x − 8 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 ( x − 4)( x + 2) ( x ≠ 4. 3 −4 −7 = x+4 x+4 3 − 7( x + 4) = −4 b. a. ∅. b. Inc. 4 2 32 + = x + 5 x − 5 ( x + 5)( x − 5) ( x ≠ 5. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −x = 3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. 20.7 3 −4 −7 = ( x ≠ −4) x+4 x+4 22. b. b. 8x = 4x + 4 − 8 4 x = −4 2 1 2x − = 2 ( x ≠ 1. b.

P = C + MC P − C = MC P −C =M C markup based on cost 31. 3 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 32. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S−P = r. 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) A= 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) 2A = a+b h A= 37. Pr interest 35. 1 2 8 . 28. 27. 1 2 8 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 1( x + 1) − 2( x − 3) = 8 x + 1 − 2x + 6 = 8 −x + 7 = 8 −x = 1 x = −1 The solution set is the empty set. b. ∅. . Inc. 2A =a+b h 2A −a=b h area of trapezoid I = Prt I P= . T = D + pm T − D = pm F B F S = +V B 36. x ≠ −1. F S −V B(S − V ) = F B= S −V = T − D pm = m m T −D =p m total of payment 30. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 26. 29. a. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S −P = t. rt interest C = 2πr C r= . 2π circumference of a circle 33. C 1− r S (1 − r ) = C C 1− r = S C −r = − 1 S C r = − +1 S markup based on selling price S= IR + Ir = E I (R + r) = E 2A −b = a h area of trapezoid E R+r electric current I= 66 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Pt interest 34.

2|3x – 2| = 14 |3x – 2| = 7 3x – 2 = 7 3x – 2 = −7 3x = 9 3x = −5 x=3 x = −5/3 The solution set is {3. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 38. –5}. x +1 = 5 x + 1 = 5 x + 1 = –5 x=4 x = –6 The solution set is {–6. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f − f2 48.7 A = 2lw + 2lh + 2 wh A − 2lw = h ( 2l + 2 w ) A − 2lw =h 2l + 2 w surface area 1 1 1 39. 46. ff1 − f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) f − f2 2 4− focal length f = 42. 44. . −3} f1 = ff 2 f2 − f 49. ⎩ 5 ⎭ 67 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2x −1 = 5 2x – 1 = 5 2x – 1 = –5 2x = 6 2x = –4 x=3 x = –2 The solution set is {3. 4}. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 2 4− f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 4− ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 f − f1 5 x =6 2 4− f 2 ( f − f1 ) = − ff1 = 5 x = 12 2 5 x=6 2 5 − x=2 2 ff 2 − f1 f 2 = − ff1 f 2 ( f − f1 ) 5 x + 6 = 18 2 − ff1 f − f1 x=− ff1 f2 = f1 − f focal length 4 5 or 4 − 5 x = −6 2 5 − x = −10 2 x=4 ⎧ 4 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 45. R1 R2 − RR1 = RR2 R1 ( R2 − R ) = RR2 R1 = RR2 R2 − R 47. 7}. 1 1 1 = + R R R 1 2 R1 R2 = RR2 + RR1 43. x−2 =7 x – 2 = 7 x – 2 = –7 x=9 x = –5 The solution set is {9. 3|2x – 1| = 21 |2x – 1| = 7 2x – 1 = 7 or 2x – 1 = −7 2x = 8 2x = −6 x=4 x = −3 The solution set is {4. −5/3} resistance f = 41. Section P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 ⎬ . –2}. 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = −11 2 x = −8 2 x = 14 x = −4 x=7 The solution set is {–4. + = p q f qf + pf = pq f (q + p) = pq pq f = p+q thin lens equation 40.

5} . x 2 − 3 x − 10 = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = 0 x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=5 x = −2 The solution set is {−2. Inc. 9} . 54. 3 x =3 4 The solution set is {4. |2x – 1| + 3 = 3 |2x – 1| = 0 2x – 1 = 0 2x = 1 x = 1/2 The solution set is {0. 5 x 2 = 20 x 5 x 2 − 20 x = 0 5 x( x − 4) = 0 5 x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 53. 52. x 2 − 13 x + 36 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 9) = 0 x − 4 = 0 or x − 9 = 0 x=4 x=9 61. ⎩3 3 ⎭ 1− x 2 − 8 x + 15 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 5) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x=3 x=5 The solution set is {3. ⎧1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 51. . ⎧2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 4} . 59.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 50. x 2 = 8 x − 15 57. 4 1− 3 x + 7 = 10 4 4 1− 56. 3 3 x = 4 4 3 3 or 1 − 3 x = − 3 1− x = 4 4 4 4 3 1 3 7 − x=− − x=− 4 4 4 4 1 7 x= x= 3 3 1 7 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . x 2 = −11x − 10 58. |x + 1| + 6 = 2 |x + 1| = −4 The solution set is { }. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎬ . 68 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1} . ⎩3⎭ 55. x 2 + 11x + 10 = 0 ( x + 10)( x + 1) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x = −10 x = −1 The solution set is {−10. ⎩2⎭ 60. 5} . 3x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . 3x − 2 + 4 = 4 3 x 2 = 12 x 3x 2 − 12 x = 0 3x( x − 4) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 3x − 2 = 0 3x − 2 = 0 3x = 2 2 x= 3 The solution set is {0. |x + 1| +5 = 3 |x + 1| = −2 No solution The solution set is { }. 4} .

x = 1± 3 { 70. 1}. Section P. –2}. 69. x + 3 = ±4 x = −3 ± 4 The solution set is {–7. 3 ( x − 4 ) = 15 2 x2 − 2 x = 2 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 2 + 1 3x 2 = 48 65. x2 + 6 x = 7 x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 11 + 9 ( x − 3) 2 = 20 x − 3 = ± 20 x = 3± 2 5 x+4=± 7 x = −4 ± 7 { { } The solution set is 3 + 2 5. } The solution set is ± 10 . 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . x−4=± 5 x = 4± 5 { } 71. 69 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 x 2 = 50 ( x + 3) 2 = 1 x 2 = ± 10 x = ± 10 x + 3 = ±1 { x = −3 ± 1 The solution set is {–4. 2 2 ( x + 2)2 = 16 =± 5 x + 2 = ±4 x = −2 ± 4 The solution set is {–6. Inc. x 2 + 6 x = −8 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = −8 + 9 x 2 = 10 64. x2 = 9 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 7 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 16 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . 5 x 2 + 1 = 51 68. 66. 3x 2 − 1 = 47 ( x − 1)2 = 3 x 2 = 16 x −1 = ± 3 x 2 = ± 16 x = ±4 The solution set is {±4} .PreCalculus 4E 62. 2}. The solution set is 4 ± 5 . 1 − 3 .7 5 x 2 = 45 67. } The solution set is −4 ± 7 . 3 − 2 5 . 3 ( x + 4 ) = 21 ( x + 4) 2 =7 2 =± 7 x 2 − 6 x − 11 = 0 x 2 − 6 x = 11 2 ( x + 4) x 2 + 4 x = 12 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 12 + 4 ( x − 4) = 5 ( x − 4) } The solution set is 1 + 3.

− 2 − 3 . −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) −5 ± 25 − 8 2 −5 ± 17 x= 2 x= x 2 + 8 x + 15 = 0 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(3) 2(1) x= The solution set is −2 + 3. . ⎬. 73. − 3 − 14 . ⎬. –2}. 75. − 3}. x2 − 2 x − 5 = 0 76. ( x + 2) 2 = 3 x = −2 ± 3 { −5 ± 25 − 12 2 −5 ± 13 x= 2 } x2 + 6 x − 5 = 0 ⎧⎪ −5 + 13 −5 − 13 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . x2 + 4 x + 1 = 0 x 2 + 4 x = −1 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = −1 + 4 77. x= x −1 = ± 6 x = 1± 6 { } The solution set is 1 + 6. x − 2x = 5 x 2 + 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x= x − 2x + 1 = 5 +1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 6 −8 ± 64 − 48 2 −8 ± 16 x= 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 The solution set is {–6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ x2 + 6 x = 5 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 5 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 14 78. x= 79. Inc. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ −8 ± 64 − 60 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 −8 ± 2 x= 2 The solution set is {−5. x + 3 = ± 14 x2 + 5x + 2 = 0 x= x = −3 ± 14 { } The solution set is −3 + 14. 1 − 6 . ⎬ 6 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 6 70 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(12) 2(1) −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(15) 2(1) ⎧⎪ −5 + 17 −5 − 17 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . 3x 2 − 3 x − 4 = 0 x= 3 ± (−3)2 − 4(3)(−4) 2(3) 3 ± 9 + 48 6 3 ± 57 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 3 + 57 3 − 57 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . x2 + 5x + 3 = 0 x= x+2= ± 3 74.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 72.

(−2) 2 − 4(3)(1) = 4 – 12 = –8. (−2) 2 − 4(1)(1) =4–4 = 0. (−4) 2 − 4(1)(−5) = 16 + 20 = 36. 2 unequal real solutions 6 ± 36 − 12 6 6 ± 24 6 6±2 6 6 3± 6 3 90. Section P. 4 x2 − 2 x − 7 = 0 2 ± (−2)2 − 4(4)(−7) 2(4) 86. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 unequal real solutions 2 ± 4 + 112 x= 8 2 ± 116 x= 8 2 ± 2 29 x= 8 1 ± 29 x= 4 82. 4 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 4 x= 2 x 2 + 11x − 6 = 0 112 − 4(2)(−6) = 121 + 48 = 169. 2 unequal real solutions −1 ± 12 − 4(5)(−2) 2(5) −1 ± 1 + 40 10 −1 ± 41 x= 10 x= 84. 2 x 2 − 11x + 3 = 0 (−11) 2 − 4(2)(3) = 121 – 24 = 97. 2 complex imaginary solutions ⎪⎧ −1 + 41 −1 − 41 ⎪⎫ . x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 (−3)2 − 4(1)(−7) = 9 + 28 = 37. 3 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 3 71 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 real solution 88.7 5x2 + x − 2 = 0 x= 83.PreCalculus 4E 80. . 10 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 10 81. 2 unequal real solutions ⎧⎪ 3 + 6 3 − 6 ⎫⎪ . 2 complex imaginary solutions 3x = 6 x − 1 3x − 6 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x= x= 3x 2 = 2 x − 1 3x 2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x2 = 2x − 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 ⎧⎪1 + 29 1 − 29 ⎫⎪ . 87. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. Inc. 85. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. x2 − 4 x − 5 = 0 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 89. 2 unequal real solutions 4x2 = 2x + 7 x= 4 x2 − 2 x + 3 = 0 (−2) 2 − 4(4)(3) = 4 – 48 = –44. 3x 2 + 4 x − 2 = 0 42 − 4(3)(−2) = 16 + 24 = 40.

⎩ 3 ⎭ x = 1± 2 { 5 x 2 − 11x + 2 = 0 98. 95. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 92. 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 5 x 2 = 6 − 13x 5 x 2 + 13x − 6 = 0 (2 x + 3)( x + 4) = 1 99. 1⎬ . 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 72 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎩5 ⎭ −3 ± 9 + 8 4 −3 ± 17 x= 4 x= x= ⎪⎧ −3 + 17 −3 − 17 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬ . (5 x − 2)( x + 3) = 0 5 x − 2 = 0 or x + 3 2 x + 8 x + 3x + 12 = 1 2 2 x 2 + 11x + 11 = 0 5x = 2 2 5 or −3 ± 32 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) x= 5x = 1 x= } The solution set is 1 + 2. 2 5 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 x 2 + 2 = 11x 94.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 − x = 1 91. 3x 2 = 60 x= x = −3 −11 ± 112 − 4(2)(11) 2(2) −11 ± 121 − 88 4 −11 ± 33 x= 4 ⎧ 2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. x 2 = 20 2 x2 − x − 1 = 0 (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = ± 20 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = ±2 5 2 x = −1 96. 1 x = − or x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − .5 5 . 3x = −2 x2 − 2 x = 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 1 + 1 ( x − 1) 2 = 2 x = −3 or x −1 = ± 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 1 − 2 . (5 x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 2 x 2 + 3x = 1 2 x 2 + 3x − 1 = 0 5 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 1 or x = 2 5 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . x = ±5 5 97. ⎩ 5⎭ x= ⎪⎧ −11 + 33 −11 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2⎬ . { 2 x 2 = 250 x = ± 125 3x2 − 4x − 4 = 0 2 3 } x 2 = 125 3x 2 − 4 x = 4 x=− { The solution set is −2 5. } The solution set is −5 5. 2 ⎬ . (3 x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 3x + 2 or x − 2 = 0 93. Inc. ⎬. ⎬. .

7 (2 x − 5)( x + 1) = 2 105. Section P. 3 ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(−7) 2(2) 3 ± 9 + 56 4 3 ± 65 x= 4 x= 106. x2 − 6 x + 7 = 0 103. 109. x= { } The solution set is 3 ± 2 . 3x 2 − 12 x + 12 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(7) 2(1) 6± 8 2 x = 3± 2 x= x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x=2 The solution set is {2}. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 100. 104. ⎩ 3⎭ { } The solution set is 2 ± 2 . 4 x 2 − 16 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x − 5x − 5 = 2 4 x 2 = 16 2 x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 x= x2 = 4 x = ±2 The solution set is {−2. (2 x + 7) 2 = 25 x2 = 6 x − 7 108. 2 7 2 ⎧ 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. ⎬ . 3x 2 − 27 = 0 3 x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. 2 x 2 − 7 x = 0 9 − 6x + x = 0 x(2 x − 7) = 0 2 x = 0 or 2 x − 7 = 0 2x = 7 x − 6x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 The solution set is {3}. 3}. ⎪⎧ 3 + 65 3 − 65 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 102. ⎬. . Inc. 2 x + 7 = ±5 2 x = −7 ± 5 2 x = −12 or 2 x = −2 x=6 or x = −1 The solution set is {–6. 4 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 4 x2 = 4 x − 2 107. 101. ⎬ . ⎩ 2⎭ x = 0 or x = 73 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (3 x − 4) = 16 2 x2 − 4x + 2 = 0 3x − 4 = ± 16 3x − 4 = ±4 3x = 4 ± 4 3x = 8 or 3x = 0 8 x = or x = 0 3 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 4± 8 2 x = 2± 2 x= ⎧ 8⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. 2} . –1}.

7}. x ≠ 0. 1 1 1 + = . −3 x−3 x +3 x −9 2 x ( x + 3) + 6 ( x − 3) = −28 2 x 2 + 6 x + 6 x − 18 = −28 2 x 2 + 12 x + 10 = 0 −5 ± 25 + 24 x= 4 −5 ± 49 x= 4 −5 ± 7 x= 4 1 x = −3. 3x + 18 = x ( −5 ) − 4 (1)( −12 ) 2 (1) 2 x=2 20 − 8(−10) = −10 20 − 8(2) = 2 20 + 80 = −10 20 − 16 = 2 100 = −10 False The solution set is {2}. 0 = x2 − 4 x − 6 x= − ( −4 ) ± 3 x + 18 = x 2 ( −4 ) − 4 (1)( −6 ) 2 (1) 2 x 2 − 3x − 18 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 6) = 0 x+3=0 x–6=0 x = –3 x=6 3(−3) + 18 = −3 3(6) + 18 = 6 4 ± 16 + 24 2 4 ± 40 x= 2 4 ± 2 10 x= 2 x = 2 ± 10 x= −9 + 18 = −3 116.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 + 5x = 3 110. ⎬ . 4=2 . 20 − 8 x = x x 2 + 8 x − 20 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 2) = 0 x + 10 = 0 x−2 = 0 x = −10 0 = x 2 − 5 x − 12 x= 36 = 6 20 − 8 x = x 2 1 1 1 + = . 4 x − 3 x − 4 x − 7 x + 12 3x − 12 + 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 20 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. 113. ⎩ 2⎭ 111. − 1}. 114. 2 − 10}. 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 2 74 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 5 x 2 − 20 + = 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎬. 0 = x2 − 8x + 7 0 = ( x − 7 )( x − 1) x=7 x =1 The solution set is {1. −2 x x+2 3 3x + 6 + 3 x = x 2 + 2 x 115. 2 x2 + 6 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 5) = 0 The solution set is {−5. x ≠ 3. 5 ± 25 + 48 x= 2 5 ± 73 x= 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 73 5 − 73 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . −3 x x+3 4 4 x + 12 + 4 x = x 2 + 3x − ( −5 ) ± 18 + 18 = 6 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. 2x + 5x − 3 = 0 2 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(2)(−3) 2(2) 2x 6 −28 + = 2 . x ≠ 0. The solution set is {2 + 10. Inc. 112. x ≠ 3.

2 x + 12 x + 36 = 0 2 ( x + 6) 2 = 0 122. x2 − 5x − 6 = 0 6(8) + 1 = 8 − 1 0 + 1 = −1 48 + 1 = 7 49 = 7 x − 2x + 5 = 5 ( x − 5) 2 = 2 x + 5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 = 2 x + 5 x=6 −1 + 10 = −1 − 2 x 2 − 12 x + 20 = 0 6 + 10 = 6 − 2 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. 120. 5−4 =1 .7 x+3 = x−3 117. 75 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x − 2)( x − 10) = 0 x − 2 = 0 x − 10 = 0 16 = 4 x=2 2 x + 13 = x + 7 2 x + 13 = ( x + 7) x=8 6(0) + 1 = 0 − 1 x − 5 = 2x + 5 ( x + 1)( x − 6) = 0 x +1 = 0 x − 6 = 0 119. x + 10 = x − 2 118. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x + 10 = x 2 − 4 x + 4 x = −1 6x + 1 = x − 1 6 x + 1 = ( x − 1) 2 2 2 2 x + 13 = x + 14 x + 49 x = 10 2 − 2(2) + 5 = 5 10 − 2(10) + 5 = 5 2− 9 =5 10 − 25 = 5 2 − 3 = 5 False The solution set is {10}. x+6 = 0 10 − 5 = 5 x − x + 11 = 1 x − 1 = x + 11 x = −6 ( x − 1) 2 = x + 11 2(−6) + 13 = −6 + 7 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = x + 11 −12 + 13 = 1 x 2 − 3x − 10 = 0 1 =1 The solution set is {–6}. ( x + 2)( x − 5) = 0 x+2=0 x−5 = 0 x = −2 x=5 −2 − −2 + 11 = 1 5 − 5 + 11 = 1 −2 − 9 = 1 5 − 16 = 1 −2 − 3 = 1 False The solution set is {5}. Inc. x + 10 = ( x − 2) 121. x=0 1 = −1 False The solution set is {8}.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x + 3 = x − 6x + 9 x2 − 7 x + 6 = 0 6 x + 1 = x2 − 2 x + 1 ( x − 1)( x − 6) = 0 x–1=0 x–6=0 x=1 x=6 6+3 = 6−3 1+ 3 = 1− 3 x2 − 8x = 0 x( x − 8) = 0 x −8 = 0 False 9 = 3 4 = −2 The solution set is {6}.

2 x + 15 − 6 = x 124. 126. 25 – [2 + 5y – 3(y + 2)] = –3(2y – 5) – [5(y – 1) – 3y + 3] 25 – [2 + 5y – 3y – 6] = –6y + 15 – [5y – 5– 3y + 3] 25 – [2y – 4] = –6y + 15 – [2y – 2] 25 – 2y + 4 = –6y + 15 – 2y + 2 –2y + 29 = –8y + 17 6y = –12 y = –2 The solution set is {–2}.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x + 19 − 8 = x 123. 45 – [4 – 2y – 4(y + 7)] = –4(1 + 3y) – [4 – 3(y + 2) – 2(2y – 5)] 45 – [4 – 2y – 4y – 28] = –4 – 12y – [4 – 3y – 6 – 4y + 10] 45 – [–6y – 24] = –4 – 12y – [–7y + 8] 45 + 6y + 24 = –4 – 12y + 7y – 8 6y + 69 = –5y – 12 11y = –81 y=− 81 11 ⎧ 81 ⎫ ⎬. 2 x + 15 = x + 6 ( 2 x + 15 ) 2 = ( x + 6) 2 2 x + 15 = x 2 + 12 x + 36 0 = x 2 + 10 x + 21 0 = ( x + 3)( x + 7) x + 3 = 0 or x + 7 = 0 x = −3 x = −7 –7 does not check and must be rejected. 2 x + 19 = x + 8 ( 2 x + 19 ) 2 = ( x + 8) 2 2 x + 19 = x 2 + 16 x + 64 0 = x 2 + 14 x + 45 0 = ( x + 9)( x + 5) x + 9 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 x = −9 x = −5 –9 does not check and must be rejected. . The solution set is {–3}. 125. ⎩ 11 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ − 76 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is {–5}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.

10 x − 1 = (2 x + 1) 2 10 x − 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 0 = 4 x2 − 6 x + 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 0 = (2 x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x − 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x= 1 2 x =1 ⎧1 ⎫ ⎩2 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ . and x = 4. and x = 1. x = −3. x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 = −8 x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 3) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −7. x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = −12 or ( x + 8)( x − 6) = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 4) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −8. x = 6. 1} . 6} .PreCalculus 4E Section P. The solution set is {−7. 128. 129.1} . The solution set is {−8. 77 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 6. . 4. Inc. x = −6. 7 − 7 x = (3x + 2)( x − 1) 7 − 7 x = 3x 2 − x − 2 0 = 3x 2 + 6 x − 9 0 = x2 + 2 x − 3 0 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −3 x =1 The solution set is {−3.1⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 3. 130.7 127.

⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ = x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(2)(−9) 2(2) −4 ± 88 4 −4 ± 2 22 x= 4 −2 ± 22 x= 2 x= 78 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This results in the following: 133. x= 135. Publishing as Prentice Hall. This results in the following: ( x − 3)( x − 1) + x( x − 2) = 1 4 = 4 x −3 1= x −3 1= x −3 x=4 4+5 − 4−3 = 2 9− 1=2 3 −1 = 2 The solution set is {4}. Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded. −1 ± 1 − 4 (1)( −5 ) 2 x= = 2 (1) = 4−2 = 2 The solution set is {8}. 2 x+8 − x−4 = 2 x +8 = x−4 + 2 x + 8 = ( x − 4 + 2) 2 x +8 = x −4+ 4 x −4 + 4 x +8 = x + 4 x − 4 8= 4 x−4 x + 2 = ( x − 1)( x − 2) + 5( x − 1) 2= x−4 x + 2 = x2 − 2 x − x + 2 + 5x − 5 4 = x−4 x + 2 = x2 + 2 x − 3 x=8 0 = x2 + x − 5 8+8 − 8−4 = 2 16 − 4 = 2 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 1 b = 1 c = −5 . x +5 − x −3 = 2 −1 ± 21 2 x+5 = x −3 + 2 x + 5 = ( x − 3 + 2) 2 ⎪⎧ −1 ± 21 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. ( x − 2)( x − 3) . . x − 1 x 1 + = 2 x − 2 x − 3 x − 5x + 6 x −1 x 1 + = x − 2 x − 3 ( x − 2)( x − 3) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ x +5 = x −3+ 4 x −3 + 4 x + 5 = x +1+ 4 x − 3 5 = 1+ 4 x − 3 132. x − x − 3x + 3 + x − 2 x = 1 2 2 2x − 6x + 3 = 1 2 2 x2 − 6 x + 2 = 0 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 2 b = −6 c = 2 .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 131. Inc. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x + 2) . 1 1 5 = + 2 x − 3x + 2 x + 2 x − 4 1 1 5 = + ( x − 1)( x − 2) x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. 2 x2 + 4 x − 9 = 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4 ( 2 )( 2 ) 2 ( 2) 6 ± 36 − 16 6 ± 20 = 4 4 6 ± 4⋅5 6 ± 2 5 = = 4 4 3± 5 = 2 ⎧⎪ 3 ± 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. −1 ± 1 − ( −20 ) 2 134.

1(500) 0.74( x + 200) = x + 0.24 3 = 0. Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded.74 x + 148 = x + 70 −0.19 x + 28.013x 2 − 1. 141.26 −0.19 ± 0. = − ( −1.39 The solutions are approximately 33.19 c = 25.15 or 33.15.026 1.72 x = 125 125 liters of pure peroxide must be added.19 ± 0.35(200) 0. 8 ± 24 4 8± 2 6 x= 4 4± 6 x= 2 x= 137.28 x + 140 = x + 50 −0.32190 ≈ 0.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0. x + 0.19 ) − 4 ( 0.26 x = 300 300 liters of pure acid must be added. − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(12) = 53 2 W − 36 = 53 2 W − 36 + 36 = 53 + 36 2 W = 89 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 89 2 W = 178 According to the formula.026 ≈ 58. This is 6 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph. Publishing as Prentice Hall.28 = x + 500 0. This is 13 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph. 0.39 and 58.72 x = −90 −0.31248 0.26 x −78 = −0. the healthy weight of a person of height 5’6” is 142 pounds. 0. 33 year olds and 58 year olds are expected to be in 3 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven.72 −0.013x 2 − 1. = 79 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4161 − 1.19 x + 25.1(500) x + 500 x + 0.7 136. Thus. 2 x2 − 8x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−8) ± (−8) 2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) 139. a.19 ± 1.35(200) x + 200 x + 0.24 ) 2 ( 0.74 = b.72 x −90 = −0.013 b = −1. .24 x= W 138.1(500) C= C= 140.10362 0.35(200) x + 200 0.26 x = −78 −0. the healthy weight of a person of height 6’ is 178 pounds. The function models the actual data well.026 1.013) 2 1.28( x + 500) = x + 0.19 x + 28. x + 0.24 0 = 0. W − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(6) = 53 2 W − 18 = 53 2 W − 18 + 18 = 53 + 18 2 W = 71 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 71 2 W = 142 According to the formula.013)( 25.19 ) ± ( −1.013x 2 − 1. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section P. f ( x ) = 0.

true 166.026 162. Changes to make the statement true will vary.026 1. or 2010.19 ± 0. 10 = 0. f ( x ) = 0.24 x= = − ( −1.7 x + 12.7 x 2. 80 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.50617 x= x= 0.68383 1. 143. A sample change is: Some quadratics have one number in their solution sets.19 c = 18.5 7x + 4 + 13 = x b 7(−6) + 4 + 13 = −6 b −38 = −19 b −19b = −38 b=2 [ x − (−3)][ x − (5)] = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 5) = 0 16 = 0. Sample explanation: Substitute n = 6 into the equation to find P.5 = 0. Sample explanation: The factoring method would be quicker.5 x 2 − 2 x − 15 = 0 3.24 159.026 x ≈ 72.1 cluttered minutes 14 years after 1996. 1.19 ) − 4 ( 0.5 15.19 ± 1. 165. Explanations will vary.6 = 0.5 ⎞ ⎜ 0. 1.6 = x 0.24 2 0 = 0.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0.1 x ≈ 19 = 163.19 x + 28.7 x 3. Answers may vary. does not make sense.94848 0. A sample change is: (2 x − 3) 2 = 25 (2 x − 3) 2 = ± 25 2 x − 3 = ±5 164. The formula does not model the data very well.5 = x 0. 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.013) 2 1. ( ) 168.46762 1.7 x + 12.7 2 2 ⎛ 2.026 0.013 b = −1.7 x + 12. M = 0. – 158.7 x + 12.19 ± 0.68383 x= or x = 0. A sample change is: ax 2 + c = 0 can be solved using b = 0 .7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 14 ≈ x There will be 15. Changes to make the statement true will vary.19 − 0.19 x + 18.026 0.013x − 1. 144. false.6 ⎞ ⎜ 0.013x 2 − 1.013x 2 − 1. makes sense 161.19 ) ± 160. Inc. Explanations will vary. . does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Drivers of approximately age 19 and age 72 are expected to be involved in 10 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven.24 ) 2 ( 0.87383 0.013)(18. does not make sense.1 = 0.68383 ≈ 0.5 167.026 Evaluate the expression to obtain two solutions. Sample explanation: You should substitute into the original equation. M = 0.7 2 2 ⎛ 3.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 142. The formula overestimates the number of fatal accidents. false. ( ) 145.19 x + 28.026 0. or 2021.19 + 0. false. ( −1. Explanations will vary.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 25 = x There will be 16 cluttered minutes 25 years after 1996.4161 − 0.

3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.989 6. 4. Let x = the number of years since 1969. 037 = 130.037 = the average salary for men x + ( x + 14.70 x = 1200 Before the reduction the computer’s price was \$1200. x + 150 172. 5. Let x = the computer’s price before the reduction.1 x = 50 33% of female freshmen will respond this way 50 years after 1969.026 In 2007 the average teaching salary for women was \$57. . 900 a 2 = 14.026. 2.30 x = 840 0. 015 2 x + 14. x − 0. The tower is 120 yards tall. 88 − 1. x + 14.8 192 + 56 x + 4 x 2 = 320 Check Point Exercises 1. 20 + 0. 400 a = ±120 –120 must be rejected. 015 2 x = 115.1x = 33 −1. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + (50) 2 = (130)2 a 2 + 2500 = 16.978 x = 57. Let x + 44 = the length of the court. 2l + 2 w = P 2( x + 44) + 2 x = 288 2 x + 88 + 2 x = 288 4 x + 88 = 288 4 x = 200 200 x= 4 x = 50 x + 44 = 94 The dimensions of the court are 50 by 94. 037 = 130. Let x = the average salary for women Let x + 14. Inc. (16 + 2 x )(12 + 2 x) = 320 VL = CL − CN + SN CN − CL = NS − LV C ( N − L ) = NS − LV C ( N − L) NS − LV N −L N −L NS − LV LV − NS or C= N −L L−N = 170.1x = 33 − 88 −1.70 x = 840 840 x= 0.8 C−S N L VL = CL − ( C − S ) N V =C− 169. 015 x + x + 14.05x 173. Let x = the width of the court. 4 x 2 + 56 x − 128 = 0 x 2 + 14 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 16)( x − 2) = 0 x + 16 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −16 x=2 –16 must be rejected.989 and the average salary for men was \$72. or 2019. 037 = 72. 81 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1x = −55 −55 x= −1. 4 x + 400 Section P. 037 ) = 130. s = −16t 2 + v0 t 0 = −16t 2 + v0 t − s a = −16. c = − s t= t= t= −v0 ± ( v0 ) − 4 ( −16 )( − s ) 2 ( −16 ) −v0 ± ( v0 ) 2 2 − 64s −32 v0 ± v0 2 − 64 s 32 171. The path must be 2 feet wide.PreCalculus 4E Section P. b = v0 .

reduction per winner 5. Let x + 4 = number of weeks Italians spend on vacation. 000.8 x = 3.8 2 x + 4 − 4 = 11. 000. 000. 000 x −375. 000 − 375. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 3) x x+3 ⎝ ⎠ 5. 000. Exercise Set P.9 Americans spend an average of 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 82 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9 weeks on vacation and Italians spend an average of 7. .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra The original amount of money per person. Inc. 000. 000 = 0 x 2 + 3x − 40 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 5) = 0 x + 8 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −8 x=5 –8 must be rejected. 000 = x x+3 5.9 x + 4 = 7. 000 x = 5. 000 ⎛ 5. 000 ⎞ x( x + 3) ⎜ − 375. 000 − 375. Let x = number of weeks Americans spend on vacation. 000. x + ( x + 4) = 11. 000. The new amount of money per person. x + ( x + 581) = 2529 x + x + 581 = 2529 2 x + 581 − 581 = 2529 − 581 2 x = 1948 x = 974 x + 581 = 1555 Americans spent 974 hours listening to radio and 1555 hours watching TV. 000. 000( x + 3) − 375. 5.125. Let x = the time spent listening to radio. 000 x 2 − 1.9 weeks. 000. 000 x + 15. 2. Let x + 581 = the time spent watching TV. 000 x( x + 3) = 5. 000 x 7. 000.8 x + x + 4 = 11.8 − 4 2 x = 7.8 1.125. 000 x + 15. 000 x 2 − 1. There were 5 people in the original group. 000 5.

000 − 28. x + (2 x − 7740) = 99. Let 2 x − 7740 = the average salary for computer programmers. 000 = 9.300 + 1000(9) = 22. 000 The population in the year 2025 will be 9. 740 x = 35.420. 060 x + 3 x − 3500 = 74. 000 x = 10.5 x = 100 − 43 1. 9.300 and 26.500 = 1500 1500 x=9 The two colleges will have the same enrollment about 9 years after 2005.000. 000 − 5000 x 10. 000 − 12. y = 24. 13. y = 24. 8.6 x = 61 − 43 0. Let x = the number of years after 2000 10. 000 x = 25 The countries will have the same population 25 years after the year 2000. −16. 000 − 3000 x 9000 = 24. 000 x= −3000 x=5 The car’s value will drop to \$9000 after 5 years. y = 45. 060 4 x − 3500 + 3500 = 74. x + (3x − 3500) = 74. 000 − 5000 x 10. Inc. 43 + 1.580 and the average salary for computer programmers is \$63. 6. or 2014.8 Let x = the average salary for carpenters. 000 − 12. 000 x = −400.5 x = 57 57 x= 1.PreCalculus 4E 3. 000 = −5000 x −35.390 and the average salary for registered nurses is \$54.6 x = 61 0. 10. 390 3 x − 3500 = 54. 200.800 − 500 x 1500 x = 13. 000 − 300.300 + 1000 x = 26. 4.000 after 7 years. 000 x + 2 x − 7740 = 99. 200. 000 = −3000 x −15. 000 x= −5000 x=7 The car’s value will drop to \$10. 000 + 7740 3x = 106. 060 4 x − 3500 = 74. a.6 x = 30 61% of American adults will approve 30 years after 1986. Let x = the average salary for janitors. 560 x = 19.5 x = 100 1. 000 x = 10. 000 − 12.760. 000 = −5000 x −35. 060 + 3500 4 x = 77.900. Let 3x − 3500 = the average salary for registered nurses.6 x = 18 18 x= 0. a. 000 = −3000 x −15. 43 + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 − 5000 x b. 000 − 3000 x b. 600.800 − 500(9) = 22. 000 x Let x = the number of years since 1986. or 2021.580 2 x − 7740 = 63. Section P.300 at that time. 500 1500 x 13. 000 = 45. or the year 2025. 200. 000 − 3000 x 9000 − 24. Let x = the number of years after 2005 13. 000 3 x − 7740 = 99. 000 − 45. 7. 000(25) = 10. 760 The average salary for janitors is \$19. Let x = the number of years since 1983. 420 The average salary for carpenters is \$35.300 The college’s enrollments will be 22. 10. 5. . or 2016. 000 3x − 7740 + 7740 = 99.5 x = 38 All American adults will approve 38 years after 1983.900. 83 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 45. 200.

80 x = 336 x = 420 The television set’s price is \$420. Let w = the width of the swimming pool. Let 2w – 6 = the length of the pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 13.25c 467. 16. 12. 20. Let x = the cost of the dictionary x − 0. Let c = the dealer’s cost 584 = c + 0. 17.30 x = 30. the dimensions are 50 yards by 100 yards.25c 15 = 1. x − 0. then 2 w + 6 = 2(36) + 6 = 78 .20. Thus. 0. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. Let c = the dealer’s cost 15 = c + 0.08 x = 162 1.80 0. 19. 14. Let x = the width of the frame.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11. Inc. Let w = the width of the pool. Let w = the width of the field Let 2w + 6 = the length of the field 228 = 6w + 12 216 = 6w 36 = w If w = 36 . 126 = 2 ( 2w − 6 ) + 2 ( w ) 126 = 4w − 12 + 2w 126 = 6 w − 12 138 = 6 w 23 = w Find the length.80 x = 44 The dictionary’s price before the reduction was \$44.05 x = 252 x = 240 The nightly cost is \$240. Publishing as Prentice Hall.70 x = 30. 15. Let 3w = the length of the swimming pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 21. Total length: 16 + 2x Total width: 12 + 2x P = 2(length) + 2(width) 72 = 2 (16 + 2 x ) + 2 (12 + 2 x ) Let w = the width of the field Let 2w = the length of the field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 72 = 32 + 4 x + 24 + 4 x 72 = 8 x + 56 16 = 8 x 300 = 2 ( 2w) + 2 ( w) 300 = 4 w + 2w 300 = 6w 50 = w If w = 50 . 320 = 2 ( 3w ) + 2 ( w ) 320 = 6w + 2w 320 = 8w 40 = w If w = 40. then 2 w = 100 .20 = c The dealer’s cost is \$467. 2 w − 6 = 2(23) − 6 = 46 − 6 = 40 The dimensions are 23 meters by 40 meters. Let x = the cost of the television set. 2= x The width of the frame is 2 inches.08 x = 162 x = 150 The nightly cost is \$150.05 x = 252 1. 84 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. Thus.25c 584 = 1.25c 12 = c The dealer’s cost is \$12. . the dimensions are 36 feet by 78 feet.20 x = 336 18. The dimensions are 40 feet by 120 feet. 3w = 3(40) = 120.

4 ( x + 20 ) = 0 x −5 = 0 Let w = the width Let w + 3 = the width Area = lw x + 20 = 0 x = −20 180 = ( w + 3) w 0 = w2 + 3w − 180 0 = ( w + 15 )( w − 12 ) 28. The width is 6 feet and the length is 6 + 3 = 9 feet. ( x + 2) x +8 = 0 x−4 = 0 x=4 x = −8 The length of the side of the original square. Inc. 23. 26. 85 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Disregard –11 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. Disregard –20 because we can’t have a negative width measurement. the length of the side of the original square. This means that x. 180 = w2 + 3w 2 Let x = the width of the path ( 20 + 2 x )(10 + 2 x ) = 600 200 + 40 x + 20 x + 4 x 2 = 600 54 = w2 + 3w 25. x + 11 = 0 x −5 = 0 x = −11 x=5 The solution set is {−11.8 Let w = the width of the path Let 40 + 2w = the width of the pool and path Let 60 + 2w = the length of the pool and path 2(40 + 2w) + 2(60 + 2w) = 248 80 + 4w + 120 + 4w = 248 200 + 8w = 248 8w = 48 w=6 The width of the path is 6 feet. ( x + 11)( x − 5) = 0 x=− Apply the zero product principle. Let x = the side of the original square. 4 x 2 + 60 x − 400 = 0 4 ( x 2 + 15 x − 100 ) = 0 4 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. Section P.PreCalculus 4E 22. Let x + 2 = the side of the new. larger square ( x + 3) x=5 The solution set is {−20. 200 + 60 x + 4 x 2 = 600 4 x + 60 x + 200 = 600 0 = w2 + 3w − 54 2 0 = ( w + 9 )( w − 6 ) w+9 = 0 w−6 = 0 w = −9 w=6 Disregard –9 because we can’t have a negative length measurement.5} . . The width of the path is 5 meters. 2 = 36 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 36 x 2 + 4 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 4 ) = 0 54 = ( w + 3) w 24. Let w = the width Let w +3 = the length Area = lw 27. is 5 inches. Let x = the length of the side of the original square Let x + 3 = the length of the side of the new.5} . w + 15 = 0 w − 12 = 0 w = 12 w = −15 The width is 12 yards and the length is 12 yards + 3 yards = 15 yards. larger square Let x = the width of the path (12 + 2 x )(15 + 2 x ) = 378 180 + 24 x + 30 x + 4 x 2 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x + 180 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x − 198 = 0 2 ( 2 x 2 + 27 x − 99 ) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33)( x − 3) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33) = 0 = 64 2 x + 33 = 0 2 x = −33 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 64 x 2 + 6 x − 55 = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 33 2 The width of the path is 3 meters. is 4 inches. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

A person could save 116. The building is 28. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + 152 = 202 a 2 + 225 = 400 a 2 = 175 a = ± 175 a ≈ ±13. or about 85.24 feet The distance along the length and width is about 28.4 – 92.4 yards.4 yards. (20 + 2 x)(30 + 2 x) − (20)(30) = 336 34.9 feet.3 must be rejected.09 + 87. a 2 + b2 = c2 4 x 2 + 44 x − 168 = 0 x 2 + 11x − 42 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 14) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 14 = 0 x=3 x = −14 –14 must be rejected.09 yd 3x ≈ 87.2 –13.3 –28. . a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + (3x) 2 = 922 a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + 9 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 102 = 302 10 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 100 = 900 x 2 = 846.4 x ≈ 29.24. Let x be the width.4 a 2 = 800 x = ± 846. Let x be the width.28. 36.28 yd The distance along the length and width is about 29. A person could save 85. 8 x 2 + 25 x − 84 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 28) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 28 = 0 x=3 x = −28 –28 must be rejected. or about 24. 33.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 29.62 feet 2x ≈ 57. 600 + 100 x + 4 x 2 − 600 = 336 152 + x 2 = ( x + 4) 2 4 x 2 + 100 x − 336 = 0 x 2 + 225 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 225 = 8 x + 16 209 = 8 x 1 x = 26 8 1 x + 4 = 30 8 1 The wire is 30 feet long. The width of the path is 3 feet 30.2 must be rejected. or about 21. The width of the path is 3 feet 31. x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 642 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 4096 5 x 2 = 4096 4096 x2 = 5 4096 x=± 5 x ≈ 28. The ladder reaches 13.9 – 64. a = ± 800 a ≈ ±28. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + b2 = c2 52 + x 2 = ( x + 1) 2 x 2 + 25 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 25 = 2 x + 1 24 = 2 x x = 12 x + 1 = 13 The wire is 13 feet long. 86 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.9 feet.2 feet up the house. or about 116. (10 + 2 x)(12 + 2 x) − (10)(12) = 168 120 + 44 x + 4 x 2 − 120 = 168 35. 32.62 + 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 feet tall.

480. 000 x 2 − 128. 000 x( x + 4) = 480. 920. 000( x + 2) − 500. 480. 000 − 32. 000. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 2) x x+2 ⎝ ⎠ 20. 000 − 500. The average velocity of the bus is 30 miles per hour. reduction per winner 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 x 38. 20. 000 ⎛ 20. 000. 000( x + 4) − 32. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 6) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = −10 x=6 –10 must be rejected.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 000 x( x + 2) = 20. 000 x = 20. 000 ⎞ x( x + 2) ⎜ − 500. Let x be the car’s average velocity. There were 6 people in the original group. 000 ⎛ 480. 000 x 2 − 1. 000. 920. 000 x + 40. 000 = x x+4 480. 000 − 32. The new amount of money per person. 39. 000 = x x+2 20. 000 480. 000. 000 x 2 − 128. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 4) x x+4 ⎝ ⎠ 480. 000. 000. 000. 000. There were 8 people in the original group. 000. 000 x 2 − 1. car's time traveled bus's time traveled 300 180 = x x − 20 300( x − 20) = 180 x 300 x − 6000 = 180 x 120 x = 6000 x = 50 x − 20 = 30 The average velocity of the car is 50 miles per hour. 000 − 32. 000 20. Inc. 000 x = 480. 000. 000 x 1. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 80 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 8) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 8 = 0 x = −10 x=8 –10 must be rejected. 000.8 The original amount of money per person. 000 x 37. 000 − 500. . 000 x + 1. 000 x 40. 000. 000 ⎞ x( x + 4) ⎜ − 32. 87 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 − 500.

88 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Answers may vary. Let x = number of hours 63x = labor cost 63x + 532 = 1603 63x = 1071 x = 17 17 hours were required to repair the yacht. Let g = the gross amount of the paycheck Yearly Salary = 2 (12 ) g + 750 30 x + 30 x + 270 = 7 x 2 + 63 x 33150 = 24 g + 750 32400 = 24 g 1350 = g The gross amount of each paycheck is \$1350. 47. The average velocity of the second engine is 40 miles per hour.28. 49. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. 35 + x = 0. 42. – 52. passenger train's time traveled 43. 0 = 7 x 2 + 3 x − 270 0 = ( x − 6)(7 x + 45) x − 6 = 0 or 7 x + 45 = 0 x=6 45 x=− 7 45 − must be rejected. Let x = inches over 5 feet 100 + 5x = 135 5x = 35 x=7 A height of 5 feet 7 inches corresponds to 135 pounds.30 140 + x 35 + x = 0.6 + 0.30. 45. Let x = number of hours 35x = labor cost 35x + 63 = 448 35x = 385 x = 11 It took 11 hours. 0 = ( x − 35)(9 x − 20) x − 35 = 0 or 9 x + 20 = 0 x = 35 20 x=− x + 5 = 40 9 20 − must be rejected. freight train's time traveled 240 160 = x x − 20 240( x − 20) = 160 x 240 x − 4800 = 160 x 80 x = 4800 x = 60 x − 20 = 40 The average velocity of the passenger train is 60 miles per hour. Inc.28 120 + x 30 + x = 0.28(120 + x) 140 x + 700 + 200 x = 9 x 2 + 45 x 0 = 9 x 2 − 295 x − 700 30 + x = 33.30 x 350 + 10 x = 420 + 3x 7 x = 70 x = 10 You must get 10 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0. . The average velocity on the 7 return trip is 6 miles per hour. 44. 140 200 + =9 x x+5 ⎛ 140 200 ⎞ ⎜ x + x+5⎟ =9 ⎝ ⎠ 140 200 ⎛ ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ + = 9 x( x + 5) x + 5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x 140( x + 5) + 200 x = 9 x( x + 5) 48.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 40. The average velocity of the freight train is 40 miles per hour. 30 + x = 0. The average velocity of the 9 first engine is 35 miles per hour. 41. Let x be the average velocity on the return trip.28 x 3000 + 100 x = 3360 + 28 x 72 x = 360 x=5 You must get 5 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0.30(140 + x) 35 + x = 42 + 0. Let x be the average velocity of the first engine. Let x be the passenger train’s average velocity. 5 5 7 + = x+9 x 6 5⎞ 7 ⎛ 5 6 x( x + 9) ⎜ + ⎟ = 6 x( x + 9) 6 ⎝ x+9 x⎠ 30 x + 30( x + 9) = 7 x( x + 9) 46.

4x = 0. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + ( x + 1) 2 = [12 − x − ( x + 1) ] 2 x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 1 = [12 − x − x − 1] 2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = (11 − 2 x )2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = 121 − 44 x + 4 x 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 46 x + 120 0 = x 2 − 23x + 60 0 = ( x − 3)( x − 20) x − 3 = 0 or x − 20 = 0 x=3 x = 20 x +1 = 4 12 − (3 + 4) = 5 20 must be rejected. and the girl received \$2000. Let x = woman’s age 3x = Coburn’s age 3x + 20 = 2(x + 20) 3x + 20 = 2x + 40 x + 20 = 40 x = 20 Coburn is 60 years old the woman is 20 years old. 63. 54. Let x = original price x – 0. true –1 is a solution. Explanations will vary. Section P. does not make sense. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 2 x−2 ⎟ 1 1 x−2−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 3 2 ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ After passing the third security guard. 000 2 x = \$4.6x – 0.6x) = price after second reduction 0. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 4 x−3 ⎟ 1 1 7 x −3−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 4 2 8 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 7 Thus. Let x = correct answers 26 – x = incorrect answers 8 x − 5(26 − x) = 0 8 x − 130 + 5 x = 0 13x − 130 = 0 13x = 130 x = 10 10 problems were solved correctly. x − = 1 8 2 x − 28 = 8 58. 62. and 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the boy received \$8000. Sample explanation: The correct equation is x − 0. x = 36 The thief stole 36 plants. . as it is greater than the perimeter. 89 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.24 x = 72 0. 64.4(0. Let x be the length of one leg. 000 2 7 x = 14. 56.36 x = 72 x = 200 The original price was \$200. Sample explanation: Though mathematical models can often provide excellent estimates about future attitudes. Let x = mother’s amount 2x = boy’s amount x = girl’s amount 2 x x + 2 x + = 14. 59.6x = price after first reduction 0.6 x − 0. Explanations will vary.8 does not make sense. 3 − 2 x ≤ 11 3 − 2(−1) ≤ 11 3 + 2 ≤ 11 5 ≤ 11. Let x = the number of plants originally stolen After passing the first security guard.PreCalculus 4E 53. 57.35 x = 780. makes sense 60. 61. Inc. The lengths of the sides are 3. 000 The mother received \$4000. they cannot guaranty perfect precision. makes sense 55. the thief has: 1 1 ⎛1 ⎞ x − ⎜ x + 2⎟ = x − x − 2 = x − 2 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ After passing the second security guard. Answers may vary. 4.

2. 3. 5) = x −2 ≤ x < 5 { } b.3] and ( 2.9 Check Point Exercises 1. 6 ) : To find the intersection. Inc. x+3 x−2 1 = + 4 3 4 ⎛ x+3⎞ ⎛ x−2 1⎞ 12 ⎜ ⎟ = 12 ⎜ 3 + 4 ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x + 3) = 4( x − 2) + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 8 + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 5 3x − 4 x = −5 − 9 − x = −14 x = 14 The solution set is {14}. −1) = x x < −1 a. [−2. { } Graph [1. 90 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 ) = ( 2.3] : Graph ( 2. Numbers in both [1. −2 x − 4 = x + 5 −2 x − x = 5 + 4 −3 x = 9 9 x= −3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. 66. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . [1. Section P. [1. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.3] .5 { } c. a.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 65.5] = x 1≤ x ≤ 3. [−∞. 6 ) : Thus.3] ∩ ( 2.

. 6 ) .4] . 6 ) : To find the union. 2 − 3x ≤ 5 −3 x ≤ 3 x ≥ −1 The solution set is { x x ≥ −1} or [−1. [1. 6 ) = [1. 5.3] : b. Numbers in either [1. 91 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) . take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.9 Graph [1. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 2 3 6 ⎛ x−4⎞ ⎛ x−2 5⎞ 6⎜ ⎟ ≥ 6⎜ 3 + 6 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x + 1 3x − 2 x ≥ 1 + 12 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} or [13. 6.3] or ( 2. 4) .3] ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) . Inc. Graph ( 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 ≤ 2 x + 3 < 11 −2 ≤ 2 x < 8 −1 ≤ x < 4 The solution set is { x −1 ≤ x < 4} or [−1. 3.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 6 ) or both: Thus. 4. 3x + 1 > 7 x − 15 −4 x > −16 −4 x −16 < −4 −4 x<4 The solution set is { x x < 4} or ( -∞.

−4 ) ∪ ( 8. x−2 <5 −5 < x − 2 < 5 −3 < x < 7 The solution set is { x −3 < x < 7} or (−3.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 7.3⎥ . 260 < 80 + 0. 10. 18 < 6 − 3x 6 − 3x < −18 −3x < −24 −3x −24 > −3 −3 x >8 or 6 − 3x > 18 −3x > 12 −3x 12 < −3 −3 x < −4 The solution set is { x x < −4 or x > 8} or ( −∞. 8.25 x 720 < x Driving more than 720 miles in a week makes Basic the better deal. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. −3 5 x − 2 + 20 ≥ −19 −3 5 x − 2 ≥ −39 −3 5 x − 2 −39 −3 −3 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 ≤ −13 ≤ 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 −11 ≤ 5 x ≤ 15 −11 5 x 15 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 11 − ≤ x≤3 5 ⎧ 11 ⎫ ⎡ 11 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 3⎬ or ⎢ − . 92 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7) . Let x = the number of miles driven in a week. . 5 ⎣ 5 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 9. ∞ ) .25 x 180 < 0.

( −3. .9 Exercise Set P. –4 ≤ x < 3 5. Inc. x ≥ –5 11. 2] : To find the intersection. x < 2 13. x>3 9. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 15. 0 ) : Graph [ −1. 0 ) ∩ [ −1. 1<x≤6 2. 0 ) and [ −1. –5 ≤ x < 2 4.9 1. x>2 8. x < 3 12. –2 ≤ x ≤ 5 7. x ≥ –3 10. –3 ≤ x ≤ 1 6.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x < 5.5 14. 2] = [ −1. x ≤ 3. Graph ( −3. Numbers in both ( −3. 2] : Thus. 93 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ) . –2 < x ≤ 4 3.

Inc. Numbers in both ( −∞. 0 ) and [ −2.8] : Thus.1] or both: Thus. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.5 ) .1] = ( −4.1] : To find the intersection. Numbers in both ( −∞. 6 ) and [ 2. 6 ) : Graph [ 2. 2] or both: Thus.1] . ( −4. Graph ( −∞. 0 ) : Graph [ −1. 20. Graph ( −∞. 0 ) .6 ) . ( −3. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 0 ) : Graph [ −2. 17. 0 ) or [ −2. Numbers in either ( −4. 0 ) : Graph [ −2. 2] .1] = [ −2. ( −∞. 2] = ( −3. Graph ( −3.8] : To find the intersection.5 ) : Graph [1.5) and [1.8] = [1.9] : To find the intersection. 6 ) ∩ [ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) ∪ [ −1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 16. 0 ) or [ −1.1] : To find the union. 0 ) ∪ [ −2. 19. ( −∞. 94 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.9] : Thus. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.5 ) ∩ [1.1] : Thus. Graph ( −4.9] = [ 2. ( −4. 18. 0 ) ∩ [ −2. 2] : To find the union. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. . Graph ( −4. Numbers in either ( −3. Numbers in both ( −4.

∞ ) : Graph ( 6. ∞ ) or ( 6. ∞ ) . [3.8] = ( −∞. Graph [3. 95 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9] : To find the union. ∞ ) : Graph ( 4. Section P.5 ) ∪ [1. Graph [3. Numbers in either [3. ∞ ) ∩ ( 4. ∞ ) ∩ ( 6. Numbers in both [3. Graph ( −∞. Graph [ 2. ∞ ) and ( 6.∞ ) : To find the intersection.9] . Inc.PreCalculus 4E 21. 6 ) ∪ [ 2. ∞ ) and ( 4.8] : To find the union. ∞ ) ∪ ( 6. ( −∞. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. ∞ ) : To find the union.5 ) : Graph [1. 6 ) : Graph [ 2. . take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.∞ ) : Thus. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.9] or both: Thus. 24. 22.∞ ) = ( 4.5 ) or [1. 6 ) or [ 2. ∞ ) = ( 6. [3. Numbers in either ( −∞. ( −∞. ∞ ) or both: Thus. Numbers in either ( −∞. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.8] . ∞ ) : Thus. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. ∞ ) . ∞ ) .9] = ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) = [3.9 Graph ( −∞. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 25. 23. [ 2. ∞ ) : To find the intersection.8] or both: Thus. Numbers in both [ 2.

27. or (–∞. 29. ∞ ) . 3x – 7 ≥ 13 3x ≥ 20 20 x≥ 3 ⎧ 20 ⎫ ⎡ 20 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > ⎬ . 96 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. or ⎢ . ∞ ⎟ . ∞ ) . –5x ≤ 30 x ≥ –6 The solution set is { x x ≥ −6} or [ −6. ∞ ) : 26. Graph ( 4. 3 ⎣3 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 30.∞ ) : To find the union. 3).∞ ) or both: Thus.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Graph [ 2. ∞ ) . –9x ≥ 36 x ≤ –4 The solution set is { x x ≤ −4} . [ 2. Inc.∞ ) = [ 2. 28. . take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. −4] . or ( −∞. 8x – 2 ≥ 14 8x ≥ 16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x > 2} or [ 2. 6). Numbers in either [ 2. 2x + 5 < 17 2x < 12 x<6 The solution set is { x x < 6} or (–∞. 32. 31. ∞ ) or ( 4. ∞ ) ∪ ( 4. 5x + 11 < 26 5x < 15 x<3 The solution set is { x x < 3} .

8x – 11 ≤ 3x – 13 8x – 3x ≤ –13 + 11 5x ≤ –2 2 x≤− 5 ⎧ 2⎫ 2⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ . ∞). .9 33. ∞ ). –4). 37. 4(x + 1) + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 4 + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 6 ≥ 3x + 6 4x – 3x ≥ 6 – 6 x≥0 The solution set is { x x > 0} . 6 6⎦ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ 35. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 18x + 45 ≤ 12x – 8 18x – 12x ≤ –8 – 45 6x ≤ –53 53 x≤− 6 ⎧ 53 ⎫ 53 ⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ or ⎜ −∞. 38. 36. 5⎭ 5⎦ ⎝ ⎩ 34. − ⎥ . 1). or (–∞. –4(x + 2) > 3x + 20 –4x – 8 > 3x + 20 –7x > 28 x < –4 The solution set is { x x < −4} or (–∞. 97 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2x – 11 < – 3(x + 2) 2x – 11 < – 3x – 6 5x < 5 x<1 The solution set is { x x < 1} . or [0. or ⎜ −∞. − ⎥ . 8x + 3 > 3(2x + 1) + x + 5 8x + 3 > 6x + 3 + x + 5 8x + 3 > 7x + 8 8x – 7x > 8 – 3 x>5 The solution set is { x x > 5} or (5.

5(3 – x) ≤ 3x – 1 15 – 5x ≤ 3x – 1 –8x ≤ –16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x ≥ 2} or [2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. or ( −∞. ∞). x >4 2 x >3 2 x < –6 The solution set is { x x. .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 39. ∞). −6} . 3x 1 x +1 ≥ − 10 5 10 ⎛ 3x ⎞ ⎛1 x ⎞ 10 ⎜ + 1⎟ ≥ 10 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 3x + 10 ≥ 2 − x 4 x ≥ −8 x ≥ −2 The solution set is { x x ≥ −2} or 43. Inc. − 98 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 41. 42. 40. or [6. 1 – (x + 3) ≥ 4 – 2x 1 – x – 3 ≥ 4 – 2x –x – 2 ≥ 4 – 2x x≥6 The solution set is { x x ≥ 6} . x 3 x − ≤ +1 4 2 2 4x 4 ⋅ 3 4 ⋅ x − ≤ + 4 ⋅1 4 2 2 x − 6 ≤ 2x + 4 − x ≤ 10 x ≥ −10 The solution set is { x x ≥ −10} . or [ −10. − 6 ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) . 1 − [ −2.

45. −2 ) . 46. 99 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is ⎨ x x ≥ ⎬ or ⎢ 6 ⎣ 6 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ x≥− 47. Inc. . 4x − 3 2x −1 +2≥ 6 12 2(4 x − 3) + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 8 x − 6 + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 6 x + 18 ≥ −1 6 x ≥ −19 19 6 ⎧ −19 ⎫ ⎡ -19 ⎞ . ∞). 3 [3( x + 5) + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [ 3( x − 6) − 2(3x − 5) ] < 2(4 x + 3) 3 [3x + 15 + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [3x − 18 − 6 x + 10] < 8 x + 6 3 [11x + 22] + 5 [ −3x − 8] < 8 x + 6 33x + 66 − 15 x − 40 < 8 x + 6 18 x + 26 < 8 x + 6 10 x < −20 x < −2 The solution set is { x x < −2} or [ −∞.9 4 3 7− x < 5 5 4 32 − x<− 5 5 x>8 The solution set is { x x > 8} or (8. or [13.PreCalculus 4E 44. Section P. ∞ ) . ∞ ⎟. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 6 9 18 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. –6 < x – 4 ≤ 1 –2 < x ≤ 5 The solution set is {x | −2 < x ≤ 5} or (–2. ⎟ . 50. –3 ≤ x – 2 < 1 –1 ≤ x < 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x < 3} . 7 < x + 5 < 11 7 – 5 < x + 5 – 5 < 11 – 5 2<x<6 The solution set is { x 2 < x < 6} or (2.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 3 ≤ 4x – 3 < 19 6 ≤ 4x < 22 6 22 ≤x< 4 4 3 11 ≤x< 2 2 ⎧ 3 11⎫ ⎡ 3 11 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x ≤ x < ⎬ or ⎢ . 5). 53. 2⎭ ⎣2 2 ⎠ ⎩ 2 100 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 ⎣ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 49. Inc. 52. 6 < x + 3 < 8 6–3<x+3–3<8–3 3<x<5 The solution set is { x 3 < x < 5} . 3). 51. 54. 5 [ 3(2 − 3x) − 2(5 − x) ] − 6 [5( x − 2) − 2(4 x − 3) ] < 3x + 19 5 [ 6 − 9 x − 10 + 2 x ] − 6 [5 x − 10 − 8 x + 6] < 3x + 19 5 [ −7 x − 4] − 6 [ −3x − 4] < 3 x + 19 −35 x − 20 + 18 x + 24 < 3x + 19 −17 x + 4 < 3 x + 19 −20 x < 15 −20 x 15 > −20 −20 3 x>− 4 ⎧ 3⎫ ⎡ 3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > − ⎬ or ⎢ − . or [–1. . 6). or (–5. 5]. or (3. –2]. ∞ ⎟ . –11 < 2x –1 ≤ –5 –10 < 2x ≤ –4 –5 < x ≤ –2 The solution set is { x − 5 < x ≤ −2} .

or [3. −6 ≤ x − 4 < −3 2 1 −2 ≤ x < 1 2 −4 ≤ x < 2 The solution set is { x − 4 ≥ x < 2} or [ −4. 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1]. 3 x + 5 < 17 –17 < 3x + 5 < 17 –22 < 3x < 12 ( −∞. ⎠ The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} . |3(x – 1) + 2| ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3(x – 1) + 2 ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3x – 1 ≤ 20 –19 ≤ 3x ≤ 21 19 − ≤x≤7 3 ⎧ 19 ⎫ ⎡ 19 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 7 ⎬ or ⎢ − . |x – 1| ≤ 2 –2 ≤ x – 1 ≤ 2 –1 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x ≤ 3} . 60. or (–6. 0). 7 ⎥ . |x + 3| ≤ 4 –4 ≤ x + 3 ≤ 4 –7 ≤ x ≤ 1 The solution set is { x −7 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [–7. 59. 64. 5). 3]. |x| > 5 x > 5 or x < –5 ⎞ 4⎟ .PreCalculus 4E 55. . Inc. 7). 1 56. 3). ∞ ) . −5 ) or ( 5. −3) or ( 3. or 2 x − 5 < −1 3 2 x<4 3 3≤x<6 The solution set is { x 3 ≤ x < 6} . or [–1. 2 ) . 65. that is. or (–1. 58. that is. 101 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or (–3. 22 ⎛ 22 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x − < x < 4 ⎬ or ⎜ − . |x| < 3 –3 < x < 3 The solution set is { x − 3 < x < 3} . |x| > 3 x > 3 or x < –3 The solution set is { x x > 3 or x < −3} . all x in ( −∞. 2≤ [–5. |2x – 6| < 8 –8 < 2x – 6 < 8 –2 < 2x < 14 –1 < x < 7 The solution set is { x − 1 < x < 7} . 67. 3 ( x − 1) 4 −6 < <6 3 ( x − 1) <6 4 –24 < 3x – 3 < 24 –21 < 3x < 27 –7 < x < 9 The solution set is { x − 7 < x < 9} or (–7. 3].9 63. 9). 66. 6). 3 ⎝ 3 ⎩ ⎭ 68. 2y + 6 <2 3 2y + 6 −2 < <2 3 –6 < 2y + 6 < 6 –12 < 2y < 0 –6 < y < 0 The solution set is { x − 6 < y < 0} . 3 ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 57. ∞ ) . 61. |2(x – 1) + 4| ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2(x – 1) + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x – 2 + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x + 2 ≤ 8 –10 ≤ 2x ≤ 6 –5 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 5 ≤ x ≤ 3} . −3 ≤ Section P. |x| < 5 –5 < x < 5 The solution set is { x − 5 < x < 5} or (–5.

that is. ∞ ) . −1] or [3. 2 x ≤ −10 x≥3 x ≤ −5 3 3− x > 9 4 3 3 3 − x > 9 or 3 − x < −9 4 4 3 3 − x>6 − x < −12 4 4 x < −8 x > 16 {x x < −8 or x > 16} . 72. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎟ or ( 5. all x in ⎜ −∞. The solution set is { x x ≤ −7 or x ≥ 1} that is. 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. ⎟ or ( 3. −7 ) or (1. x − 1 ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 3} . that is all x in ( −∞. 3|x – 1| + 2 ≥ 8 3|x – 1| ≥ 6 |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x − 1 ≤ −2 2x + 2 ≥2 4 2x + 2 2x + 2 ≥ 2 or ≤ −2 4 4 2x + 2 ≥ 8 2 x + 2 ≤ −8 2x ≥ 6 2 3− x > 5 3 2 2 3 − x > 5 or 3 − x < −5 3 3 2 2 − x>2 − x < −8 3 3 x < −3 x > 12 The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 12} . 5 x > 15 3x − 3 ≥1 9 3x − 3 3x − 3 ≥ 1 or ≤ −1 9 9 3x − 3 ≥ 9 3 x − 3 ≤ −9 3x ≥ 12 3 x ≤ −6 x≥4 x ≤ −2 x≥3 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ 1 or x ≥ 3} . 75. 77. 71. The solution set is ⎨ x x < 5 ⎩ ⎭ −11 ⎞ ⎛ that is. that is. −5] or [3. that is. The solution set is { x x ≤ −5 or x ≥ 3} . that is. ( −∞. ∞ ) . that is. 76. 3⎠ ⎝ ( −∞. ( −∞. ∞ ) 5 ⎠ ⎝ 73. −2] or [ 4. |3x – 8| > 7 3x − 8 > 7 or 3x − 8 < −7 3x > 15 3x < 1 1 x>5 x< 3 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 5⎬ . 70. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . 102 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 69. |5x – 2| > 13 5 x − 2 > 13 or 5 x − 2 < −13 5 x < −11 x>3 x<− 11 5 ⎧ −11 ⎫ or x > 3⎬ . ∞ ) . ( −∞. or ( −∞. . ∞ ) . −1] or [3. ( −∞. ∞ ) . − 3) or (12. |x + 3| ≥ 4 x + 3 ≥ 4 or x ≥1 x + 3 ≤ −4 x ≤ −7 The solution set is { x x ≤ −2 or x ≥ 4} . −8 ) or (16. Inc. ∞ ) . |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x≥3 74.

−2 5 − x < −6 5 2 x + 1 ≥ 12 2x +1 ≥ −2 5 − x −6 −2 −2 5− x > 3 12 5 12 5 7 2x ≥ 5 7 x≥ 10 12 5 17 or 2x ≤ − 5 17 x≤− 10 ⎧ 17 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − or x ≥ ⎬ . − x < −8 3 ≤ 2x −1 2x −1 ≥ 3 −2 ≤ x − 4 ≤ 2 −3 x + 7 5 − x < −3 The solution set is { x x < 2 or x > 8} . . 2x +1 ≤ − − x > −2 or x<2 83. −3 x + 7 ≥ −27 −27 −3 −3 x+7 ≤9 ≤ −9 ≤ x + 7 ≤ 9 −16 ≤ x ≤ 2 85. 2 x ≥ 4 or x≥2 ≤ x >8 2 x − 1 ≤ −3 2 x ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 2} . −4 1 − x < −16 −4 1 − x −16 > −4 −4 1− x > 4 1− x > 4 1 − x < −4 3 or −x > − x < −5 x < −3 x>5 86. The solution set is { x −16 ≤ x ≤ 2} . −5 < 4 − x < 5 −9 < − x < 1 −9 − x 1 > > −1 −1 −1 9 > x > −1 −1 < x < 9 The solution set is { x −1 < x < 9} . 9 ≤ 4x + 7 4 x + 7 ≥ 9 or 4 x + 7 ≤ −9 4x ≥ 2 4 x ≤ −16 2 x ≤ −4 x≥ 4 1 x≥ 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ −4 or x ≥ ⎩ 2≤ x≤6 The solution set is { x 2 ≤ x ≤ 6} . −2 < 11 − x < 2 −13 < − x < −9 −13 − x −9 > > −1 −1 −1 13 > x > 9 9 < x < 13 The solution set is { x 9 < x < 13}.9 5 2x +1 − 3 ≥ 9 82. 2⎭ 5 > 4 − x is equivalent to 4 − x < 5 .PreCalculus 4E 78. 103 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 10 10 ⎭ ⎩ 2x + 1 ≥ 79. Inc. Section P. 84. Publishing as Prentice Hall. > 5− x > 3 −2 x − 4 ≥ −4 −2 x − 4 −2 5 − x < −6 1⎫ ⎬. −4 −2 −2 x−4 ≤ 2 80. 81. 2 > 11 − x is equivalent to 11 − x < 2 . The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 5}.

2−x > 4 or 2 − x < −4 −x > 2 − x < −6 −x 2 < −1 −1 x < −2 − x −6 > −1 −1 x>6 ( −∞. 2 − 3x > 1 −3 x > −1 −3x −1 or < −3 −3 1 x< 3 91. The solution set is ⎨ x x < − 14 14 ⎭ ⎩ The solution set is { x 0 ≤ x ≤ 8} or [ 0. −6] or [ 24. . 3 ⎩ ⎭ 88. 1 < x − x ≥9 3 3− ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 1⎬ . 4 11 < x− 3 3 Since x − x −1 ≤ 1 2 x ≤2 2 x −2 ≤ 2 − ≤ 2 2 x −4 ≤ − ≤ 0 2 8≥ x≥0 89. 90. 4+ 3− 11 4 > − is true for all x. Inc. 1 < 2 − 3x is equivalent to 2 − 3x > 1 . y≥4 1 − ( x + 3) + 2 x ≥ 4 1 − x − 3 + 2x ≥ 4 x−2≥ 4 x≥6 The solution set is [ 6. that is. 75 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 87 ⎞ ⎜ −∞. that is. 93. − ⎟ or ⎜ . 3 3 the solution set is { x x is any real number} or (–∞. ∞ ). 104 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 94. ∞ ) .1] .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 87. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 92. 12 < −2 x + − 2− 2− The solution set is { x x < −2 or x > 6} . ∞ ) .8] . ∞ ⎟ . 2 − 3 x < −1 −3 x < −3 x ≥5 3 x x 3 − ≥ 5 or 3 − ≤ −5 3 3 x x − ≥2 − ≤ −8 3 3 x ≤ −6 x ≥ 24 −3 x −3 > −3 −3 x >1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −6 or x ≥ 24} . 14 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 14 ⎠ y≤0 2 x − 11 + 3( x + 2) ≤ 0 2 x − 11 + 3x + 6 ≤ 0 5x − 5 ≤ 0 11 7 + 3 3 5x ≤ 5 x ≤1 The solution set is ( −∞. 6 3 + 7 7 81 6 < −2 x + 7 7 6 81 6 81 −2 x + > or −2 x + < − 7 7 7 7 75 87 −2 x > −2 x < − 7 7 75 87 x<− x> 14 14 ⎧ 75 87 ⎫ or x > ⎬ . 4 < 2 − x is equivalent to 2 − x > 4 .

1 < 38. After approximately 5 12 years 107.40 x − 24 ≤ 40 28 ≤ 0. 7− 98. 2⎭ 9⎦ ⎩ ⎣ x + 2 ≤ −3 2 x + 4 ≤ −6 x≥2 99. 101. after 3 years 106. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 105 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎥ ∪ [ 3.8 > 63 3.40 x ≤ 44 80 ≤ x ≤ 110 Between 80 and 110 ten minutes. commitment > passion or passion < commitment 105.2 x > 12 Since x is the number of years after 1994. 9. [ 0. Let x be the number.1 −2. voters will use punch cards or lever machines.5 x + 63. 63% of voters will use electronic systems after 2006. | 5 − 4 x |≤ 13 or | 4 x − 5 |≤ 13 x +2 ≤ 4 2 −13 ≤ 4 x − 5 ≤ 13 −8 ≤ 4 x ≤ 18 9 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 x − + 2 ≤ −3 2 x +2 ≥3 2 x +2≥3 or 2 x+4≥ 6 9⎫ 2⎤ ⎧ ⎡ The solution set is ⎨ x | −2 ≤ x ≤ ⎬ or ⎢ −2. fewer than 38. Inc. passion<commitment or commitment > passion 5x + 3 ≤ 2 −2 ≤ 5 x + 3 ≤ 2 −5 ≤ 5 x ≤ −1 −5 5 x −1 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 1 −1 ≤ x ≤ − 5 1⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −1.5] The solution set is ( −∞. ∞ ) . −2.PreCalculus 4E Section P. −10] ∪ [ 2.5 x < 25 or x > 10 1994 + 10 = 2004 In years after 2004. . 97.1x + 25. commitment ≥ intimacy or intimacy ≤ commitment − 5 x + 3 ≥ −2 − ( − 5 x + 3 ) ≤ − ( −2 ) 103.S. 3⎦ ⎝ 3x − 4 ≥ 5 3x ≥ 9 x≥3 ( 0. | 4 − 3 x |≥ 5 or | 3x − 4 |≥ 5 3x − 4 ≤ −5 3 x ≤ −1 1 x≤− 3 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x | x ≤ − or x ≥ 3⎬ or 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1 ⎛ ⎤ ⎜ −∞. 3.9 y≤4 95. inclusive. Let x be the number. ∞ ) . − ⎥ .1% of U. − ⎥ .40 x − 4 ≤ 40 32 ≤ 0. x ≤ −10 100. 28 ≤ 20 + 0. 109.40 ( x − 60 ) ≤ 40 28 ≤ 20 + 0.1x > 37. 96. 4 ) 108. we calculate 1994+12=2006. 5⎦ ⎣ 104. passion ≤ intimacy or intimacy ≥ passion y≥6 8 − 5x + 3 ≥ 6 102.

95°F] . Let x = the grade on the final exam.775 The number of outcomes would be 59 or more. or 41 or less.225 h ≥ 58.5 ≤ x ≤ 3. 265 + 65 x ≤ 2800 65 x ≤ 2535 x ≤ 39 39 bags or fewer can be lifted safely. inclusive or [59°F. 9 ( 3) ≤ F − 32 ≤ 9 ( 7 ) 27 ≤ F − 32 ≤ 63 59 ≤ F ≤ 95 The range for Fahrenheit temperatures is 59°F to 95°F . 50 + 0. 15 + 0.08x 1600 < 0.6 x 10. a.50x 30 < 0. 106 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.225 h ≤ 41.40 x 1.6 1. Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 110.08 x < 8 + 0.03x <6 x < 200 The credit union is a better deal when writing less than 200 checks. 000 > 1. 111. 114. 120.645 5 5 h − 50 ≥ 8.645 5 h − 50 h − 50 ≥ 1. 119. b. 245 + 95 x ≤ 3000 95 x ≤ 2755 x ≤ 29 29 bags or less can be lifted safely. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 122.645 or ≤ −1.5 x 5 ( F − 32 ) ≤ 35 9 9 9 5 9 (15 ) ≤ ⎛⎜ ( F − 32 ) ⎞⎟ ≤ ( 35 ) 5 5⎝9 ⎠ 5 15 ≤ 1200 < x More then 1200 packets of stationary need to be sold each week to make a profit.6 x > 6250 More than 6250 tapes need to be sold a week to make a profit. 1800 + 0. 3000 + 3x < 5. 86 + 88 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 240 x < 66 This will happen if you get a grade less than 66.000 would make the first bill a better deal.225 h − 50 ≤ −8. 121. Let x = the number of hours the mechanic works on the car. 118. 000 + 0.20x < 20 + 0. 117.5 The man will be working on the job at least 1.5 and at most 3. 116. 115.03x < 200 + 0. . 000 1. 86 + 88 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 270 x ≥ 96 You must get at least a 96. 113.05 x 0. 226 ≤ 175 + 34 x ≤ 294 51 ≤ 34 x ≤ 119 1. h − 50 ≥ 1.08 x < 3 + .5 x 3000 < 2.05x 32000 < x A home assessment of greater than \$32.04 x 300 < x Plan A is a better deal when driving more than 300 miles a month. 2 + 0.6 x > 10.5 hours. 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 90 6 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 540 2 x + 350 ≥ 540 2 x ≥ 190 x ≥ 95 You must receive at least a 95% to earn an A. 112.3x 100< x Basic Rental is a better deal when driving more than 100 miles per day. 2 x > 10.12 x 12 < 0.

107 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.50 −2 4 − (−2)2 = 0 −1 4 − (−1)2 = 3 0 4 − (0)2 = 4 1 4 − (1)2 = 3 124. 3x > 7. Answers may vary. 2 ( 7. | x − 4 |< 3 b. true 137. A sample change is: ( −∞. We need this cost to be less than the cost with a 3-month pass. – 131.9 143. false.50 x 144. true 140. . y = 4 − x 123. y = x + 1 134. Let x = the number of times the bridge is crossed per three month period The cost with the 3-month pass is C3 = 7. 2 4 − (2)2 = 0 132. Changes to make the statement true will vary. y = 4 − x 2 x y = 4 − x2 −3 4 − (−3)2 = −5 2. makes sense 135. Because x > y. makes sense 136. makes sense 3 4 − (3) 2 = −5 x>3 The 3-month pass is the best deal when making more than 3 but less than 15 crossings per 3month period.50 x > 7. Answers may vary. y – x represents a negative number.50 + 0. −2 ) = ( −∞. When both sides are multiplied by (y – x) the inequality must be reversed.3) ∪ ( −∞. 141.50 + 0.50 + 0. x y = 4− x −3 4 − (−3) = 7 −2 4 − (−2) = 6 The cost with the 6-month pass is C6 = 30. −1 4 − (−1) = 5 0 4 − (0) = 4 1 4 − (1) = 3 2 4 − (2) = 2 3 4 − (3) = 1 Because we need to buy two 3-month passes per 6-month pass.PreCalculus 4E Section P. Inc. A sample change is: 3x > 6 is equivalent to x > 2.50 x ) < 30 15 + x < 30 x < 15 We also must consider the cost without purchasing a pass.50 x. | x − 4 |≥ 3 142. a. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 3) 138. 133. makes sense 145. x −4 −3 y = x +1 −4 + 1 = 3 −3 + 1 = 2 −2 −1 0 1 2 −2 + 1 = 1 −1 + 1 = 0 0 +1 = 1 1+1 = 2 2 +1 = 3 139. we multiply the cost with the 3month pass by 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

d . 1 (5 x) + [ (3 y ) + (−3 y ) ] − (− x) = x + [ 0] + x = 2 x 5 {a. 19. c} B = {a. f . d . −17.75. −17. 81 c. e} {a. 17 is greater than 3. c. c. 0. c} ∪ {a. g} 21.05(21)2 + 3. f . e} = {a. Inc. P = −0. 17. 3( 5 + 3) = 15 + 3 . g} {a. − = 10 x 23. 2. 2. 5(2 x − 3) + 7 x = 10 x − 15 + 7 x = 17 x − 15 20. 3( 5 + 3) = ( 5 + 3) 3 . e} 6. b. g} 22. g} ∩ {a. A = {a. f . 81 13 24. d . f . d . 3 + 6( x − 2) = 3 + 6(4 − 2) 3 10. c} 5. = 3 + 6(2)3 = 3 + 6(8) = 3 + 48 = 51 2. commutative property of multiplication. c. 13. 81 b. π f. b. 4 − (−17) = 4 + 17 = 21 = 21 x 2 − 5( x − y ) = 62 − 5(6 − 2) 14. (6 ⋅ 3) ⋅ 9 = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 9) . (−3)3 (−2)2 = (−27) ⋅ (4) = −108 9 . b.55% of 21 year olds have been tested. c} ∩ {a.6 x − 15 P = −0. d . d . c} B = {a.6(21) − 15 = 38. commutative property of addition. 3 − 17 = 17 − 3 since 12. e} {a. d . π . 15. b. 0. 0. c. A = {a. associative property of multiplication. d . c} C = {a. d . c} ∪ {a.75. 0. f . − e. 0.05 x 2 + 3. = 36 − 5(4) 3. 9 . c} = {a} = 8 − 8 + 10 x 8.015 x + x + 10 S = 0. 81 13 −103 = 103 108 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 + 17 = 17 + 3. d . 9. c} C = {a. 11. 8 − 2[3 − (5 x − 1)] = 8 − 2[3 − 5 x + 1] = 8 − 2[4 − 5 x ] = 36 − 20 = 16 S = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. 2 −1 = 2 −1 3 A = {a. 16. 0. b. b. 81 d.015(60)2 + (60) + 10 2 = 0. commutative property of multiplication. b. g} = {a. b. a. (6 ⋅ 9) ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅ (6 ⋅ 9) .55 38. This overestimates the percent displayed by the bar graph by 3.015(3600) + 60 + 10 = 54 + 60 + 10 = 124 4. 3(4 y − 5) − (7 y + 2) = 12 y − 15 − 7 y − 2 = 5 y − 17 A = {a.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Chapter P Review Exercises 1. 18. e} = {a. c. distributive property of multiplication over addition. 7. commutative property of addition. −17. .55%. b. c. (3 ⋅ 7) + (4 ⋅ 7) = (4 ⋅ 7) + (3 ⋅ 7) .

3 3 = (−2)3 x 4⋅3 y 3⋅3 = −8 x12 y 9 29.469 × 103 = 1469 8 1.75 × 10 10 The average tax return cost \$1469.57 × 102 ⋅ 109 = 2. 7 5 + 13 5 = (7 + 13) 5 = 20 5 47. 000 = 3. 4 43. 2−4 + 4−1 = = 3.25 × 10 −3 109 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 37. Inc. 300 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 10 3 41. 5−3 ⋅ 5 = 5−351 = 5−3+1 27.45 × 10 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 32.3) × (103 × 102 ) a.023 1 1 = 5−2 = 2 = 5 25 26. (−2 x y ) = (−2) ( x ) ( y ) 3 3 3 4 3 38.0000745 = 10 2 + 6 2 34.75 × 108 2. 257 × 109 = 2. 121 121 11 = = 4 2 4 96 x 3 45.57 × 1011 b. 7x y ⎛ 7 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ( x5 −15 )( y 6 − ( −2) ) 28 x15 y −2 ⎝ 28 ⎠ 1 = x −10 y 8 4 y8 = 10 4x 5 = 6 2x = 96 x3 2x = 48 x 2 = 16 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4x 3 3.PreCalculus 4E 25.75 1.75 × 102 ⋅ 106 = 1. 7. 3.3 × 10−2 = 0.57 × 1011 2. = 2x 5 (2 x3 ) −4 = (2)−4 ( x 3 ) −4 = 2−4 x −12 1 2 x12 1 = 16 x12 = 31. 4 (3 × 103 )(1.57 1011 ⋅ 8 ≈ 1. 33 1 1 = 33− 6 = 3−3 = 3 = 36 3 27 28. 175 × 106 = 1. 10 x ⋅ 2 x = 20 x 2 −2 y ) −11 y 2 y −2 = 10 ⋅ x3−11 y 2 − 2 = 10 x −8 y 0 = 4x2 ⋅ 5 10 = 8 x 30. 39. 40. r3 = r 2 ⋅ r = r r 44.74 × 104 = 37. 0.59 × 106 = 16 2 35. . 12 x 2 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 2 x 3 42.590.3 × 102 ) = (3 ×1.9 × 103 ⎛ 6. 400 46.00725 = 7. 2 50 + 3 8 = 2 25 ⋅ 2 + 3 4 ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅5 2 + 3⋅ 2 2 −5 33.9 × 105 = 390. (−5 x y )(−2 x 3 2 −11 = (−5)(−2) x x 3 6. Chapter P Review Exercises 1 1 + 24 4 1 1 = + 16 4 1 4 = + 16 16 5 = 16 36.9 ⎞ 3− 5 =⎜ ⎟ × 10 3 ×105 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 2.

5 3 1 1 1 1 = 3 = 4 = 4/3 4 27 3 81 ( 27) = (5 x 2 )2 3 = 25 x 4 71. 4 72 − 2 48 = 4 36 ⋅ 2 − 2 16 ⋅ 3 58. 3 y5 = 59. 642 / 3 = ( 3 64) 2 = 42 = 16 67. 161/ 2 = 16 = 4 = 5(6 − 3) 33 63. Inc. 56. 27 −4 / 3 = 68. 30 30 50. y3 y 2 = y 3 y 2 6 ⋅ = 3 3 3 = 5 51. 27 −1/ 3 = 66. 2 30 5 = ⋅ = =6 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 3 = 5 6+ 3 = 4 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 53 2 = 83 2 + 53 2 ⋅ = 13 3 2 6− 3 61. (5 x 2 / 3 )(4 x1/ 4 ) = 5 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3+1/ 4 = 20 x11/12 69. = 14 7− 5 ⋅ 7+ 5 125 = 5 4 −125 is not a real number. 3 81 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 = = 251/ 2 25 5 1 1 1 = = 271/ 3 3 27 3 65. (125 ⋅ x 6 ) 2 / 3 = ( 3 125 x 6 ) 2 −32 = −2 55. 6 y 3 = ( y 3 )1/ 6 = y 3⋅1/ 6 = y1/ 2 = 110 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 32 x 5 = 14 3 4 6+ 3 6− 3 52. 4 4 32 x 5 4 4 = 2x = x 4 2 16 x 62. 1251/ 3 = 3 125 = 5 7+ 5 14( 7 + 5) = 7−5 14( 7 + 5) = 2 = 7( 7 + 5) 5 16 x = 5(6 − 3) 36 − 3 7− 5 54. 4 (−5)4 = 4 625 = 4 54 = 5 57. y . 53. 4 8 ⋅ 4 10 = 4 80 = 4 16 ⋅ 5 = 4 16 ⋅ 4 5 = 2 4 5 60. 4 3 16 + 5 3 2 = 4 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 5 3 2 = 4⋅6 2 − 2⋅4 3 = 24 2 − 8 3 49.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 15 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 15 ⎞ 3 / 4 −1/ 2 =⎜ ⎟x = 3x1/ 4 5 x1/ 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 70. 25−1/ 2 = 64.

(a − b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) = a(a 2 ) + a (ab) + a(b 2 ) + (−b)(a 2 ) +(−b)(ab) + (−b)(b 2 ) = a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 − a 2 b − ab 2 − b3 = a 3 − b3 111 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (3 x − 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(1) + (−5)(2 x) + (−5)(1) = 6 x 2 + 3 x − 10 x − 5 = 6 x2 − 7 x − 5 76.PreCalculus 4E 72. . (2 x + 5) 2 = (2 x)2 + 2(2 x) ⋅ 5 + 52 = 4 x 2 + 20 x + 25 78. (3 x − 2)(4 x 2 + 3x − 5) = (3 x)(4 x 2 ) + (3x)(3x) + (3x)(−5) + (−2)(4 x 2 ) + (−2)(3x) + (−2)(−5) = 12 x3 + 9 x 2 − 15 x − 8 x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 12 x3 + x 2 − 21x + 10 75. (7 x + 4 y )(7 x − 4 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (4 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 16 y 2 85. (3 x − 5 y ) 2 = (3x) 2 − 2(3x)(5 y ) + (−5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 − 30 xy + 25 y 2 83. 73. Inc. (5 x − 2)3 = (5 x)3 − 3(5 x )2 (2) + 3(5 x)(2) 2 − 23 = 125 x 3 − 150 x 2 + 60 x − 8 81. (3 x 2 + 2 y ) 2 = (3 x 2 )2 + 2(3 x 2 )(2 y ) + (2 y ) 2 = 9 x 4 + 12 x 2 y + 4 y 2 84. ( x + 7 y )(3x − 5 y ) = x(3x ) + ( x)(−5 y ) + (7 y )(3 x) + (7 y )(−5 y ) = 3 x 2 − 5 xy + 21xy − 35 y 2 = 3 x 2 + 16 xy − 35 y 2 82. (2 x + 1)3 = (2 x)3 + 3(2 x) 2 (1) + 3(2 x)(1) 2 + 13 = 8 x3 + 12 x 2 + 6 x + 1 80. Chapter P Review Exercises (−6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 9 x + 3) + (14 x3 + 3x 2 − 11x − 7) = (−6 x3 + 14 x3 ) + (7 x 2 + 3x 2 ) + (−9 x − 11x) + (3 − 7) = 8 x 3 + 10 x 2 − 20 x − 4 The degree is 3. (4 x + 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x 2 ) − 52 = 16 x 2 − 25 77. (3 x − 4) 2 = (3 x) 2 − 2(3 x) ⋅ 4 + (−4) 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 79. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) − (5 x 4 − 3x3 + 2 x 2 − 6) = (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−5 x 4 + 3 x3 − 2 x 2 + 6) = (13x 4 − 5 x 4 ) + (−8 x3 + 3x3 ) + (2 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + 6 = 8x 4 − 5x3 + 6 The degree is 4. 74.

= = x + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2)2 x + 2 x ≠ –2 2 100. 3x 4 − 9 x 3 − 30 x 2 = 3 x 2 ( x 2 − 3x − 10) 95. −3 3 ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 − ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x2 + 3) 2 2 1 = ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎡⎣1 − ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) ⎤⎦ 20 x 7 − 36 x3 = 4 x 3 (5 x 4 − 9) 1 = ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎣⎡1 − ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) ⎦⎤ x 3 − 3x 2 − 9 x + 27 = x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) 1 = ( x 2 − 9)( x − 3) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x 2 + 3) 2 (− x 4 + x 2 + 13) = ( x + 3)( x − 3)( x − 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 2 107. x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 109. 15 x + 3 x = 3x ⋅ 5 x + 3x ⋅1 3 2 2 2 = ( x + 9) − y2 2 = 3x (5 x + 1) 2 89. 4 + 32 x 1 4 = 16 x −3 4 = 1 − ( −3 ) ⎛ 4 4 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ −3 (1 + 2 x ) (1 + 2 x ) = 16 x 16 x 4 3 4 1 106. 16 x − 40 x + 25 = (4 x − 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x − 5)2 97. x ≠ –2 x+2 x+2 x 2 + 3x − 18 ( x + 6)( x − 3) x − 3 . 108. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) x3 + 2 x 2 x 2 ( x + 2) = = x 2 . 6 x2 + 2 x x( x + 2) x . x 5 − x = x( x 4 − 1) = x( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2 y + 4) = ( x + 2 y + 4 )( x + 2 y + 4 ) = x ( x + 2 y + 4) + 2 y ( x + 2 y + 4) + 4 ( x + 2 y + 4) 2 = x( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 + 1) 103. 102. = 3 x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) 94. x 2 + 18 x + 81 − y 2 = ( x 2 + 18 x + 81) − y 2 88. [5 y − (2 x + 1)][5 y + (2 x + 1)] 101. . = = ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x 2 − 36 x ≠ –6. 16 x 90. x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = x 2 + 2 xy + 4 x + 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 y + 4 x + 8 y + 16 = ( x 2 − 2)( x + 5) = x 2 + 4 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 x + 16 y + 16 104. 27 x 3 − 125 = (3 x)3 − 53 = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 1) 2 = (3 x − 5)[(3 x)2 + (3x)(5) + 52 ] = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 4 x + 1) = (3 x − 5)(9 x 2 + 15 x + 25) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 4 x − 1 87. x 2 + 16 is prime. 15 x − x − 2 = (3x + 1)(5 x − 2) 2 91. 3 x2 2 y 3 − 8 = y 3 − 23 = ( y − 2)( y 2 + 2 y + 4) 110.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 86. 3x 4 − 12 x 2 = 3x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 3x 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) 112 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = ( x + 9 − y )( x + 9 + y ) x 2 − 11x + 28 = ( x − 4)( x − 7) 105. = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 98. Inc. 93. 99. 12 x − 1 2 + 6x − 3 2 = 6x − 3 2 ( 2 x + 1) = 6(2 x + 1) 96. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 64 − x 2 = 82 − x 2 = (8 − x)(8 + x) 92.

–2 112. − 3 = 2 x2 − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) x ≠ 3. x 2 − 5 x − 24 x 2 − 10 x + 16 ÷ 2 x 2 − x − 12 x + x−6 ( x − 8)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 8) = ÷ ( x − 4)( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 2) x −8 x +3 = ⋅ x − 4 x −8 x+3 = . . 4. –3 115.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 2 2 x+3 111. 113. − 1. 6 x + 2 3x 2 + x ÷ x2 − 1 x −1 x(3x + 1) 2(3 x + 1) = ÷ x −1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x −1 2(3 x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 1)( x + 1) x(3 x + 1) 2 = . x( x + 1) 1 x ≠ 0. x x ≠ 0. 2 117. 1. x − 2 x − 2 6 x = ⋅ 1 − x 1 − x 6x 3 6 3 6 6 − 3x = 2 x − x2 −3( x − 2) = − x( x − 2) 3 = . x−3 x ≠ 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x x x+2 3x 3x x − 2 + = ⋅ + ⋅ x+2 x−2 x+2 x−2 x−2 x+2 3x2 − 6 x + x 2 + 2 x = ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x2 − 4 x ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x( x − 1) = . ( x − 2)2 ( x + 2) x ≠ 2. 8 x+3 4x −1 − 2 x2 + 5x − 3 6 x 2 + x − 2 x+3 4x −1 = − (2 x − 1)( x + 3) (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) 4x −1 3x + 2 = ⋅ (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 3x + 2 x+3 x+3 − ⋅ (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) x + 3 = 12 x 2 + 8 x − 3x − 2 − x 2 − 6 x − 9 (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3x + 2) 11x 2 − x − 11 . (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3 x + 2) 1 2 x ≠ . x x −1 + x2 − 9 x2 − 5x + 6 x x −1 = + ( x − 3)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 3) x x−2 x −1 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x − 2 ( x − 2)( x − 3) x + 3 x ( x − 2) + ( x − 1)( x + 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) 113 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x ≠ 2. –3. Inc. ( x + 3)3 . 2 x − 7 − x − 10 = 2 x − 7 − ( x − 10) x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 1 = . x−4 x ≠ –3. –2 x2 − 2x + x2 + 2 x − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) = 114. − 3. x + 6 x + 9 ⋅ x + 3 = ( x + 3) ⋅ 2 x −4 x − 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x − 2 = 116. 2. − 2 3 = 1 1 1 1 118.

2 = = = = = 126. 3 x + 10 10 x ≠ −3. x ≠ –2. 1 1 120. − 3 25 − x 2 + 121 .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 122. 3 + x 3 + x x 2 = ⋅ 2 1 − 162 1 − 162 x x x 2 3x + 12 x = 2 x − 16 3x( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 4) 3x . This is a conditional equation. This is a conditional equation. This is a conditional equation. 125. 2( x − 4) + 3( x + 5) = 2 x − 2 2 x − 8 + 3x + 15 = 2 x − 2 5x + 7 = 2 x − 2 3x = −9 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. Inc. = x−4 x ≠ 0. x ≠ –1 1 1 2 − = 2 x − 1 x + 1 x −1 1 1 2 − = x − 1 x + 1 (x + 1)(x − 1) x + 1 − (x −1) = 2 x2 25 − x 2 x + 1− x + 1 = 2 25 − x 2 ⎛ 25 − x 2 + x ⎞ 25 − 2 x 2 ⎜ ⎟ 25 − x 2 ⎠ =⎝ (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 2 =2 The solution set is all real numbers except 1 and –1. x ≠ 1. 3 − x + 3 3 − x + 3 x + 3 = ⋅ 3+ 1 3+ 1 x +3 x+3 x+3 3( x + 3) − 1 = 3( x + 3) + 1 3x + 9 − 1 = 3x + 9 + 1 3x + 8 = . (25 − x 2 )3 25 (25 − x 2 )3 ⋅ 25 − x 2 25 − x 2 25 25 − x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 25 − x 2 (5 − x)2 (5 + x)2 114 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 124. –4 123. 1 – 2(6 – x) = 3x + 2 1 – 12 + 2x = 3x + 2 –11 – x = 2 –x = 13 x = –13 The solution set is {–13}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4. 2x – 4(5x + 1) = 3x + 17 2x – 20x – 4 = 3x + 17 –18x – 4 = 3x + 17 –21x = 21 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. x ≠ 4 2 30 4 + = x + 2 x − 4 (x + 2)(x − 4) 4(x − 4) + 2(x + 2) = 30 25 − x 2 + x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 25 4x − 16 + 2x + 4 = 30 6x −12 = 30 6x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. . 12 12 119.

The solution set is {4} . 3x 2 + 5 x − 9 x − 15 = 5 3x 2 − 4 x − 20 = 0 x= 2x = x2 + 2x − 2x − 8 4 ± (−4)2 − 4(3)(−20) 2(3) 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 4 ± 16 + 240 6 4 ± 256 x= 6 4 ± 16 x= 6 20 −12 x= . . The solution set is {2} .−2 3 x+2=0 x = −2 x= x=4 –2 must be rejected. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3⎭ ⎩ 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 130. ⎬. −4 2 x + 1 + 12 = 0 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3.1} . 6 6 10 x = . 2 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 ⎞ ⎛ x = ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎜ − ⎟ ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎝ x+4 x+2⎠ 2 x = x ( x + 2) − 2( x + 4) (3x + 5)( x − 3) = 5 129. 7 ± (−7)2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 7 ± 49 − 12 6 7 ± 37 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 7 + 37 7 − 37 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . −4 2 x + 1 = −12 2x + 1 = 3 2 x + 1 = 3 or 2 x + 1 = −3 2x = 2 x =1 2 x = −4 x = −2 132. 2 x 2 − 11x + 5 = 0 (2x – 1)(x – 5) = 0 2x – 1 = 0 x – 5 = 0 1 x = or x = 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ( x − 3) 2 = ± 24 x − 3 = ±2 6 128. ⎩2 ⎭ x = 3± 2 6 2x x 2 = − x + 6x + 8 x + 4 x + 2 2x x 2 = − ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 4 x + 2 133.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 131. 8 − 2x = x ( 8 − 2x ) 2 = x2 8 − 2 x = x2 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 ⎧ 10 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. ⎬ . x 2 − 9 = 0 127. 8 − 2x − x = 0 134. ( x − 3)2 − 24 = 0 ( x − 3) 2 = 24 The solution set is {−2. 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 115 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3}. Inc. 3 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 x= 0 = ( x + 2)( x − 4) or x − 4 = 0 –4 must be rejected. 5⎬ .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. vt + gt 2 = s gt 2 = s − vt 141.5 x = 5.80 x 60 = x The original price is \$60.5 million barrels. . 000 = x Sales must be \$10. Let x + 0.000 in one week to earn \$800. Let x = the number of years after 2000.3 x + 15 = 20.S.1% 19 years after 2000. gt s − vt = 2 t2 t s − vt g= 2 t 2 137.1 0. Let w = the width of the playing field.8) + ( x + 15) = 32.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 135. thus the equation has one repeated real solution. 9 x 2 − 30 x + 25 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−30)2 − 4(9)(25) = 0 340 = 2 ( 3w − 6 ) + 2w 340 = 6w − 12 + 2 w b 2 − 4ac = 0. PrT + P = A P ( rT + 1) = A P= 138. Inc.5 million barrels.4 x = 7.3 3x = 16. Let x = the original price of the phone 48 = x − 0. x 2 = 2 x − 19 x 2 − 2 x + 19 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−2) 2 − 4(1)(19) = −72 −72 < 0. 140. 144. China. x + ( x + 0. Let 3w – 6 = the length of the playing field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 139.5 + 0. 2 The solution set is {2}.8 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by China.3 x + x + 0. and Japan is 20. A− P Pr A− P Pr (T ) = Pr Pr PrT = A − P T= 142. respectfully.4 x = 25. 136. Let x = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by Japan.05 x 10.3 million barrels. thus the equation has no real solutions.05 x A 1 + rT 500 = 0.5 The daily oil consumption of the United States. 6.6 x = 19 The percentage of people in the U. Let x + 15 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by the United States. 143.3 3 x + 15.5 x + 0. Let x = the amount sold to earn \$800 in one week 800 = 300 + 0. 340 = 8w − 12 352 = 8w 44 = w The dimensions are 44 yards by 126 yards. 2x − 3 + x = 3 2x − 3 = 3 − x 2x − 3 = 9 − 6x + x2 x 2 − 8 x + 12 = 0 x 2 − 8 x = −12 x 2 − 8 x + 16 = −12 + 16 ( x − 4)2 = 4 x − 4 = ±2 x = 4+2 x = 6.8 + x + 15 = 32. 17. that will speak a language other than English at home will reach 25.8 = 32. 116 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and 5. or 2019.8 = 6.20 x 48 = 0.

000 x ≈ ±134. Chapter P Review Exercises Check some points to determine that y1 = 14. That year the enrollments will be 32. 000 150. the two colleges will have the same enrollment in the year 2007 + 12 = 2019 .100 when x = 12 . 148. the width is 3 yards. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = height of building 2x = shadow height x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 3002 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 90. y2 = 41. Inc. The building is approximately 134 meters high.100 students. 147. { x x ≤ 0} x 2 = 18. There were originally 10 people. Since y1 = y2 = 32. 15 = l ( 2l − 7 ) 15 = 2l 2 − 7l 0 = 2l 2 − 7l − 15 0 = (2l + 3)(l − 5) l =5 2l − 7 = 3 The length is 5 yards. The width of the frame is 2 inches. 1500 1500 + 100 = x x−4 1500 ⎛ 1500 ⎞ x( x − 4) ⎜ + 100 ⎟ = x( x − 4) x x−4 ⎝ ⎠ 1500( x − 4) + 100 x( x − 4) = 1500 x 1500 x − 6000 + 100 x 2 − 400 x = 1500 x 15 x − 60 + x 2 − 4 x = 15 x A = lw x 2 − 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 10) = 0 x + 6 = 0 or x − 10 = 0 x = −6 x = 10 –6 must be rejected. b.100 + 1500 x and 149. (10 + 2 x )(16 + 2 x) = 280 160 + 52 x + 4 x 2 = 280 4 x 2 + 52 x − 120 = 0 x 2 + 13x − 30 = 0 ( x + 15)( x − 2) = 0 x + 15 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −15 x=2 –15 must be rejected. 700 − 800 x . { x x > −2} 152. { x −3 ≤ x < 5} 151.164 Discard negative height. 000 5 x 2 = 90. . 146. 117 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 145.

1] or [ −1. Graph [1. 4 ) : To find the intersection. ( −2. Graph ( −2. 4 ) = ( 0. ( −2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 118 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1] : Graph [ −1. 4 ) .3) .3) = ( −2.3) .3) ∩ ( 0. 4 ) = [1. Graph ( −2. Graph [1.3) : To find the union.1] ∩ [ −1.1] ∪ [ −1.3) : Thus.1] .3) : Graph ( 0. Graph [ −1. Numbers in either [1.1] and [ −1.3) or both: Thus. ∞ ) . 4 ) : Thus. 4 ) : To find the union. [1. 157.3) and ( 0. 4 ) or both: Thus. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.3) ∪ ( 0. –6x + 3 ≤ 15 –6x ≤ 12 x≥2 The solution set is [ −2.3) : To find the intersection. Numbers in both ( −2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. [1. Graph ( 0.3) = [ −1. Numbers in both [1. 155. Inc.1] : 154.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 153. Numbers in either ( −2.3) : 156.3) or ( 0.

164. 2 x + 5 − 7 ≥ −6 2x + 5 ≥ 1 21 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 2 x + 3 ≤ 15 10 x ≥ 6 3 x≥ 5 –15 ≤ 2x + 3 ≤ 15 –18 ≤ 2x ≤ 12 –9 ≤ x ≤ 6 The solution set is [ −9.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 158. − 3] or [ −2. 0.6] . 2⎠ ⎝ 2x + 5 ≥ 1 or 2x + 5 ≤ –1 2x ≥ –4 2x ≤ –6 x ≥ –2 or x ≤ –3 160. Inc. − 6 ) or ( 0. 3(2x – 1) – 2(x – 4) ≥ 7 + 2(3 + 4x) 6x – 3 – 2x + 8 ≥ 7 + 6 + 8x 4x + 5 ≥ 8x + 13 –4x ≥ 8 x ≤ –2 x+2≥3 or x ≥1 x + 2 ≤ −3 x ≤ −5 The solution set is ( −∞. x+2 ≥3 161.20 x + 24 ≤ 40 0. 166. −5] ∪ [1. ⎣5 ⎠ 159.20 x ≤ 16 162.20 x 16 ≤ 0. ∞ ) .20 x ≤ 80 A customer can drive no more than 80 miles. 6x + 5 > –2(x – 3) – 25 6x + 5 > –2x + 6 – 25 8x + 5 > –19 8x > –24 x > –3 The solution set is ( −∞. −4 x + 2 + 5 ≤ −7 −4 x + 2 ≤ −12 The solution set is ( −3. x 3 x − −1 > 3 4 2 ⎛x 3 ⎞ ⎛ x⎞ 12 ⎜ − − 1⎟ > 12 ⎜ ⎟ 3 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4x – 9 – 12 > 6x –21 > 2x 21 − >x 2 2x + 6 >2 3 2x + 6 2x + 6 >2 < –2 3 3 2 x + 6 > 6 2 x + 6 < –6 2x > 0 2 x < −12 x>0 x < −6 The solution set is ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 x − 9 ≥ −4 x − 3 163. 167. − ⎟ . .20 0. ∞ ⎟ . 7 < 2x + 3 ≤ 9 4 < 2x ≤ 6 2<x≤3 (2. ∞ ) . The solution set is [ 2. ∞ ) . ⎡3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . 165.3) . The solution set is [ −∞. 3] 0. − 2 ) . ∞ ) . 119 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

a} = {5} 4.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 90 5 400 ≤ 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 450 9. {1. = = x 2 − 3 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x − 1) x − 2 x ≠ 2. 6r ⋅ 3r = 18r 2 = 9r 2 ⋅ 2 = 3r 2 4 50 − 3 18 = 4 25 ⋅ 2 − 3 9 ⋅ 2 15. –4. 3 5− 2 5+ 2 5− 2 = 3(5 − 2) 25 − 2 = 3(5 − 2) 23 2 x + 8 x2 + 5x + 4 ÷ x−3 x2 − 9 2( x + 4) ( x + 1)( x + 4) = ÷ x−3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 2( x + 4) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ x − 3 ( x + 1)( x + 4) 2( x + 3) = . = 4 ⋅5 2 − 3⋅3 2 = 20 2 − 9 2 = 11 2 8. Chapter P Test 5(2 x 2 − 6 x) − (4 x 2 − 3x) = 10 x 2 − 30 x − 4 x 2 + 3x = 6 x 2 − 27 x 2. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = 2 x 3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − 5 x 2 + 20 x − 15 7 + 2[3( x + 1) − 2(3x − 1)] = 7 + 2[3x + 3 − 6 x + 2] = 2 x 3 − 13x 2 + 26 x − 15 13. 168. 7.5 × 101 20 × 10−8 20 10−8 12. a} 5. –1. a} = {1. Inc. x 2 + 2 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 .5} ∩ {5. 3. x +1 x ≠ 3. − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 3) 120 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. 3 5+ 2 = 3 ⋅ 16 x 4 = 3 8 x 3 ⋅ 2 x = 3 8x3 ⋅ 3 2 x 400 ≤ 351 + x < 450 49 ≤ x < 99 A grade of at least 49% but less than 99% will result in a B. 5 × 10−6 5 10−6 = ⋅ = 0. 2. 1 11. 80 ≤ = 2x 3 2x 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . {1. 1. = 7 + 2[−3x + 5] (5 x + 3 y ) 2 = (5 x) 2 + 2(5 x)(3 y ) + (3 y ) 2 = 25 x 2 + 30 xy + 9 y 2 = 7 − 6 x + 10 = −6 x + 17 14.5} ∪ {5. –3 x 5 + x+3 x−3 x x−3 5 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ x +3 x−3 x −3 x +3 x ( x − 3) + 5( x + 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x + 5 x + 15 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 + 2 x + 15 . 30 x3 y 4 5 y8 = 5 x3 −9 y 4 − ( −4) = 5 x −6 y 8 = 6 9 −4 x 6x y 6.25 × 102 = 2. 2. x ≠ 3.5.

28n + 47 M = −0. M = −0. are rational numbers.6 × 109 = 13. y 3 − 125 = y 3 − 53 = ( y − 5)( y 2 + 5 y + 25) 24. a.28n + 53 −0.28n + 47 0. 21. Chapter P Test 2x + 3 2 − 2 x − 7 x + 12 x − 3 2x + 3 2 = − ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 2x + 3 2 x−4 = − ⋅ ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 x − 4 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) ( ) 36 x 2 − 84 x + 49 = (6 x) 2 − 2(6 x) ⋅ 7 + 7 2 23. 4. 3 x 2 − 9 x + 18 = ( x − 3)( x − 6) 20. = ( x + 5)2 − 9 y 2 = ( x + 5 − 3 y )( x + 5 + 3 y ) 1 − x +x 2 ( x + 2) x 1 − x +x 2 = 1 + 1x 1 + 1x ( x + 2) x ( 25 x 2 − 9 = (5 x)2 − 32 = (5 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (6 x − 7) 2 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 2x + 3 − 2x + 8 = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 11 = . commutative property of addition x +5 = 2 + ( x + 3) 5 = ( x + 3) ( x + 3) 5 3 2 x x 2 + 5 − 22x = 3 5 = ( x + 3) 5 (2 x + 3) = = = − x( x + 2) − x 2 x( x + 2) + ( x + 2) = 18. ⎛ 2 x x 2 + 5 − 2 x ⎞ x2 + 5 ⎜ ⎟ x2 +5 ⎠ =⎝ ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x( x 2 + 5) − 2 x3 ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x3 + 10 x − 2 x3 b. 4 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6(7 + 4) = 6 ⋅ 7 + 6 ⋅ 4 distributive property of multiplication over addition x 2 + 2 x − x2 ( x + 1)( x + 2) 2x = 2 .25. ( x − 3)( x − 4) x ≠ 3.28(25) + 47 R= 0. − . This describes the projections exactly.6 × 10−4 30. 5 7 28. x 3 + 2 x 2 + 3 x + 6 = x 2 ( x + 2) + 3( x + 2) = 1 ( 32. x≠0 x + 3x + 2 29.32 × 1010 3 ( x + 5) − 27 x2 + 5 2 − 27.PreCalculus 4E 16.28n + 53 −0. 27 31. x ( x + 3) 26. 0.08%. 19.28(25) + 53 2 = 3 Three women will receive bachelor’s degrees for every two men. R= 121 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 10 x c. This overestimates the actual percent shown by the bar graph by 0. 22. .28n + 47 = W 0. 3(2 + 5) = 3(5 + 2).2 × 109 = 1. 43.00076 = 7. ( x 2 + 10 x + 25) − 9 y 2 25. 2003 is 14 years after 1989. 5 3 = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 2) = 5 3 1 ( 3 ) 5 27 = 1 ( 3) 5 = 1 243 ) 2 6.08% of bachelor’s degrees were awarded to men. 0. 0.28(14) + 47 = 43. R= M −0. ) 3 5 − 3 x (x 3) 2x + 3 3 4 22 −7. Inc.08 In 2003.

Inc. 8 − 2x − x = 0 8 − 2x = x ( = 75 3x − 1 = ± 75 8 − 2x ) 2 = ( x) 2 8 − 2 x = x2 3x = 1 ± 5 3 x= 11 ± 112 − 4(1)(28) 2(1) x= −2 x = −10 1 2 } x −3 = x −5 2( x + 3) − 4( x − 3) = 8 x=− { x−3 +5 = x 39. 2± 2x − 3 x − 4 x +1 = − 4 2 4 2 x − 3 = 2( x − 4) − ( x + 1) 2x − 3 = x − 9 x = −6 The solution set is {–6}. 1± 5 3 3 ⎪⎧1 − 5 3 1 + 5 3 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2⎬ . 1 + 5 . 2 x 2 − 3x − 2 = 0 (2x + 1)(x – 2) = 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x=2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . x(x – 2) = 4 x2 − 2 x − 4 = 0 7 x − 14 = 4 x − 17 x= 3x = −3 x = −1 The solution set is {–1}. 2 4 8 − = x − 3 x + 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 35. 7( x − 2) = 4( x + 1) − 21 7 x − 14 = 4 x + 4 − 21 38. ⎬.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 33. The solution set is {2}. 3 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 122 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 37. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 –4 does not check and must be rejected. 36. x=5 The solution set is {5}. . x= ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −4 ) 2 2 2±2 5 2 x = 1± 5 x= 2x − 3 = 2x − 8 − x −1 The solution set is 1 − 5. ⎩ 2 ⎭ ( 3x − 1) 2 40. x − 3 = x 2 − 10 x + 25 x 2 − 11x + 28 = 0 x= 2 x + 6 − 4 x + 12 = 8 −2 x + 18 = 8 11 ± 121 − 112 2 11 ± 9 x= 2 11 ± 3 x= 2 x = 7 or x = 4 4 does not check and must be rejected. 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {7}.

123 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ 2 x + 2 x + 8 = x2 + 2 x 2 x + 8 = x2 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 0 = ( x − 4)( x + 2) x − 4 = 0 or x=4 x+2 =0 48. 2x + 5 <6 3 –9 ≤ 2x + 5 < 18 –14 ≤ 2x < 13 13 −7 ≤ x < 2 −3 ≤ 13 ⎞ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −7. 12]. ⎣8 ⎠ −3 4 x − 7 + 15 = 0 −3 4 x − 7 = −15 4x − 7 = 5 46.3⎬ ⎩2 ⎭ 43. ∞ ⎟ . ∞ ⎟ . 45. 1 V = lwh 3 3V = lwh 3V lwh = lw lw 3V =h lw 3V h= lw 44. 3(x + 4) ≥ 5x – 12 3x + 12 ≥ 5x – 12 –2x ≥ –24 x ≤ 12 The solution set is (−∞. x = −2 (rejected) The solution set is {4} . 4x − 7 = 5 4 x − 7 = −5 or 4 x = 12 4x = 2 x=3 1 x= 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .PreCalculus 4E 41. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3x + 2 ≥ 3 3x + 2 ≥ 3 or 3x + 2 ≤ −3 3x ≥ 1 3 x ≤ −5 1 5 x≥ x≤− 3 3 5⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 42. 2⎠ ⎣ 2x 2 x + = x2 + 6 x + 8 x + 2 x + 4 2x 2 x + = ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 2 x + 4 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2( x + 4)( x + 2) x( x + 4)( x + 2) + = x+2 x+4 ( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 x + 2( x + 4) = x( x + 2) 47. 12}. − ⎥ ∪ ⎢ . ⎟ . x 1 x 3 + ≤ − 6 8 2 4 4 x + 3 ≤ 12 x − 18 −8 x ≤ −21 x≥ 21 8 ⎡ 21 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . . Chapter P Test 2 x−6 = 2 3 2 2 x−6 = 2 x − 6 = −2 3 3 2 2 x=8 x=4 3 3 x = 12 x=6 The solution set is {6.

29. Publishing as Prentice Hall.07)(−677) 2(0. or 2018. Ra − as = − Rs a( R − s ) = − Rs a( R − s ) − Rs = R−s R−s Rs a= s−R 51. x ≈ −691 (rejected) The system’s income will be \$1177 billion 14 years after 2004.07) x ≈ 14. the cost will be \$33. length is 12 feet −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(47. Inc. Let x + 64 = the number video rental stores.4 x + 500 0 = 2w2 + 4 w − 48 0 = 0. l = 2w + 4 A = lw x = 14 The system’s income will be \$1177 billion 14 years after 2004.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 49.4 x + 500 1177 = 0. 43x + 575 = 1177 43x = 602 56. Let x = the number drive-in theaters. there is 1 drivein theater. . y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 53. ( x ) + ( x + 16 ) + ( x + 64 ) = 83 −mx = y1 − mx1 − y −mx y1 − mx1 − y = −m −m y − y1 + x1 x= m 50. or 2018. and 65 video rental stores. Let x + 16 = the number movie theaters.07 x 2 + 47.4 x − 677 0 = 0.600.S.4 x − 677 0 = ( w + 6)( w − 4) x= x= 0 = w2 + 2 w − 24 w+6 = 0 w−4 = 0 w = −6 w=4 2 w + 4 = 2(4) + 4 = 12 width is 4 feet.07 x 2 + 47. x + x + 16 + x + 64 = 83 3x + 80 = 83 3x = 3 as a+s R (a + s ) = as Ra + Rs = as R= x =1 x + 16 = 17 x + 64 = 65 For every one million U. 24700 = 950 x 26 = x In 26 years. residents. y − y1 = mx − mx1 54.07 x 2 + 47. 55.4)2 − 4(0. 124 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 17 movie theaters. 700 + 150 x = 5000 + 1100 x 48 = (2w + 4) w 48 = 2w2 + 4 w B = 0.4) ± (47.07 x 2 + 47. 52. The formulas model the data quite well.

000 ⎛ 600. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 600. 125 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.06 x 200 < x x > 200 Plan A is a better deal when more than 200 local calls are made per month. 000 − 6000 x 2 − 30. For Plan A to be better deal. . 000 x + 3. The monthly cost using Plan B is CB = 13 + 0. Inc. Chapter P Test 242 + x 2 = 262 576 + x 2 = 676 x 2 = 100 x = ±10 The wire should be attached 10 feet up the pole.06 x.PreCalculus 4E 57. 000 = 0 x 2 + 5 x − 500 = 0 ( x + 25)( x − 20) = 0 x − 20 = 0 x + 25 = 0 or x = −25 x = 20 –25 must be rejected. 000( x + 5) − 6000 x( x + 5) = 600. 000. 000 600.60 x 20 = 0. 600. C A < CB 25 < 13 + 0. 000 ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ − 6000 ⎟ = x ( x + 5) x x+5 ⎝ ⎠ 600.06 x 12 < 0. Let x = the original selling price 20 = x − 0.40 x 50 = x The original price is \$50. 000 x −6000 x 2 − 30. 000 x = 600. 000. Let x = the number of local calls The monthly cost using Plan A is C A = 25. 60. 000 x 59. it must cost less than Plan B. 000 x + 3. There were originally 20 people. 58. 000 − 6000 = x x+5 600.

the y-intercept is 4. y = 2 x = −2. The graph crosses the x. the y-intercept is 5. b. d = 4n + 5 d = 4(15) + 5 = 65 65% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. x = −4. Thus. x = −1. y = 7 x = −2. Inc. b. y = 3 126 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 60% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. y = 4 x = 1.100. y = 5 a. Thus. Thus.10] viewing rectangle is as follows: distance between x -axis minimum maximum tick marks x -value x -value [ −100 .100. c. c. 50 ] by distance between y -axis minimum maximum tick y -value y -value marks 2. there is no x-intercept. 100 . x = 0. y = 1 x = 1. The mathematical model overestimates the actual percentage shown in the graph by 5%. 100 . y = 1 x = −1.and y-axes at the origin (0. The graph does not cross the x-axis. y = 3 x = 2. a. the x-intercept is –3. y = 6 5.50] by [−100.Chapter 1 Functions and Graphs Section 1. . The graph crosses the x-axis at (–3. y = 2 x = 3. the x-intercept is 0 and the y-intercept is 0. Thus.1 Check Point Exercises 4. The meaning of a [−100. 1. y = 0 x = 0. y = 2 x = 2. 10 ] x = −3. 4). [ −100 . The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. 5). 6. Thus. According to the line graph. 0). The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0). y = 3 x = −3. y = 1 3.

1 1. . 127 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12. 10. 2. 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 3. 8.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 6. 9. 7. 11.1 Exercise Set 1. 4.

y = 11 128 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = −3 x = 0. 14. . y = 2 x = 2. y = −5 x = −2. y = 3 x = 2. 15. y = 1 16. y = 0 x = 3. y = 7 x = −3. y = −1 x = 2. y = 2 x = 1. y = 6 x = –1. y = 3 x = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 6 x = 3. y = 0 x = –1. y = 2 x = −2. x = –3. y = 1 x = 0. y = −2 x = 0. y = 3 x = 0. y = −1 x = −1. y = 11 x = –2. y = −2 x = 1. y = 4 x = 3.Functions and Graphs 13. y = 2 x = 1. y = −4 x = −1. x = −3. Inc. y = 7 x = 3. y = 5 x = –3. y = –1 x = –2. y = −1 x = 1.

x = –3. y = 7 x = 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. y = −3 x = −3. y = 3 5 x = –1. y = 3 x = 2. x = −3. y = 2 3 x = 1. y = –10 x = –2. y = 2 x = 0. y = 1 x = 1. y = 2 x = –3. y = 0 x = 3. y = –2 x = 2. y = − 1 x = 3. y = − 3 2 x = 2. y = 2 7 2 x = –2. y = –6 x = 0.1 17. y = 1 x = −1. y = 0 x = 3. y = 129 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 1 2 x = −2. y = 2 x = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 3 x = −1. y = 5 2 x = 0. y = 1 1 x = 3. y = −5 x = −2. y = −1 18. y = −1 x = 0. . 2 20. y = –8 x = –1. 19. y = –4 x = 1. Inc.

x = −3. y = 2 x = 2. x = −3. y = −6 x = 3.Functions and Graphs 23. y = 4 x = 3. y = 0 x = 0. Inc. y = 0 x = 0. y = −4 x = 1. y = 0 x = 2. y = 1 x = −1. y = 2 x = 0. y = 2 x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 2 x = 2. y = −2 x = 2. y = 1 x = 1. y = 2 130 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 3 x = −1. y = −4 x = −2. y = −1 x = 1. y = 4 24. y = 6 x = −2. y = 4 x = −1. 21. y = 1 x = 3. y = 4 x = −3. y = 6 x = −2. y = 2 x = −2. y = 0 x = 1. y = −2 x = −1. y = −6 x = −3. . y = 3 x = 3. 22.

y = 9 x = 0. y-axis tick marks –4. (c) x-axis tick marks –5. ( −2. –4. (0. y = 0 33. 4) . y = 8 x = −1. x = 3. 27.1) . y = 5 x = 3. y-axis tick marks –30. 2) . –3. 4) . –2. y = −1 x = 0. (a) x-axis tick marks –40. –900. . 5. 2. x = 1. y = 0 x = 2. 0. y = −27 35. 80. y = −1 x = 1. y = 0 x = 3. (b). y2 = 2 − x . y = −9 32. 10. –10. –1. 0.1) . 900. 60. 30. (2. y1 = x 2 . (1. y = 5 x = −2. y-axis tick marks –1000. Yes. 0) x = 2. x = −3. (−1. y = −2 x = 0.9) . 1000 x = −2. −1) are on the line y = 2 − x . –6. y = 0 x = −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y-axis tick marks are the same. x = −3. y = 8 x = 3. y = −9 x = −1. –800. 20. x = −2. We can tell because all of the points ( −3. 800. ( −1. 0) . The equation that corresponds to Y in the table 2 x = 1. y = −8 x = −1. 4. 28. 10. 0. 0) . x-axis tick marks –20. 3) . No. –4. 2) . y = 7 x = 2. 4) . y = 1 (2. 40. y = 8 x = 1. (0. but all are not on any of the others. and (3. 5) . 50.1) . 8. y = 0 37. . –20. y = −28 x = −2 . –8. –2. . –700. (2. y = −4 x = −1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. y = 1 36. but all are not on any of the others. 34. (d) x-axis tick marks –10. 2. . 20. . –2. –10. (−2. We can tell because all of the points (−3. y = −1 x = 2. y = −9 (1. 50. 29. It passes through the point (0. y = 27 131 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 60. 20. 40. 1.1 25. and (3. 0. y = −4 is (c). y = 26 26. The equation that corresponds to Y1 in the table is (b). 0. 70. 700. 2. –20. 4. 4 31. 70 x = −3.9) are on the graph y = x 2 . It passes through the point (0. 10. 3. 0) . Inc. x = 0. 40. 0. 6. 30. 30.

0 (0. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. The graph intersect the y-axis at (0. 5) 1 2 (1. x ( x. 0). –4. 2). 1. 1). 45. 41. The values of Y1 and Y2 are the same when x = −2 and x = 1 . 5) 2. 4) and (1. 2). The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. –2. b. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 0). b. 0). 51. 2. a. a. The graph does not intersect the x-axis. The graphs of Y and Y intersect at the points 1 2 ( −2. b. The graph intersects the x-axis at (2. –1. 40. Inc. b. 42. a. 0) and (–2. 2. 0) and (–1. 5) 3 (3. a. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. –1. y ) none. 132 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 43. 5) (2. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. −3 ( −3. 48. −2 ( −2. 0). The graph intersects the x-axis at (–1. b. 46. 2.–4). 1. 5) −1 ( −1. . a. 49. 1. 50. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. b. The graph does not intersect the y-axis. 1.1) . The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. 5) 47. 0). (0. 5) none. 2).Functions and Graphs 38. 44. 2) 39.

−3 ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ .3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . −3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ .3 ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . A = −n + 70 A = −(26) + 70 = 44 According to formula. −1) 0 (0. The minimum for marijuana was reached in 1990. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. This underestimates the value in the graph by 2%.1 54. This underestimates the value in the graph. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2005.4(25) + 28 = 18 According to formula. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y ) −3 ( −3. x −2 −1 − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 ( x. −1) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 2. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( x. According to the line graph. −1) −1 −1 ( −1. b. 18% of seniors used marijuana in 2005.1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . Inc.2⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ (1. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. x Section 1. M = −0. −1) 1 2 (1. ( x. . −2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ (1. −1) x − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 53.2⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . According to the line graph. e. −1) 3 (3. −1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . 133 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. about 45% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. c. d. −1) (2. ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 55. −1) −2 −2 ( −2.4n + 28 M = −0. 2005 is 25 years after 1980. about 14% of seniors used marijuana in 1990. According to the line graph. −2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . 2006 is 26 years after 1980.PreCalculus 4E 52. a. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1.1) ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ 2. 44% of seniors used alcohol in 2006.

75. (c) 82. The difference between the number of awakenings for 18-year-old men and women is about 1. Set 1 has each x-coordinate paired with only one ycoordinate. Sample explanation: These three points are not collinear. x y = 2x + 4 –2 y = 2( −2) + 4 = 0 67. false. averaging about 8 awakenings per night. According to the line graph. does not make sense. (d) 77. ( x. 83. Changes to make the statement true will vary. women have the least number of awakenings. 2000 is 20 years after 1980. the total calories burned will also go up. A = −n + 70 A = −(20) + 70 = 50 According to formula. A sample change is: A point on the x-axis will have y = 0. men have the greatest number of awakenings.4n + 28 M = −0. (a) 76. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( 0. This underestimates the value in the graph. e. 0 ) ( −1. (c) 2000 is 20 years after 1980. about 22% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. c. false. 78. Sample explanation: As the time of day goes up. The difference between the number of awakenings for 25-year-old men and women is about 1. 57.1. Inc. about 72% of seniors used alcohol in 1980. a. Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary. d. – 66.9. M = −0. y ) –2 y = 2( −2) = −4 58. 6 ) ( 2. (b) The maximum for alcohol was reached in 1980. 70. averaging about 1 awakening per night.Functions and Graphs 56.4(20) + 28 = 20 According to formula. does not make sense. This matches the value in the graph. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. Answers may vary. 79. makes sense –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 68. 72. −2 ) ( 0. A sample change is: 3(5) − 2(2) ≠ −4. x y = 2x ( x. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. 134 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. According to the line graph. At age 8. (b) 80. 1 y = 2(1) = 2 2 y = 2(2) = 4 ( −2. A sample change is: The product of the coordinates of a point in quadrant III is also positive. 60. 73. false. 0 y = 2(0) + 4 = 4 1 y = 2(1) + 4 = 6 2 y = 2(2) + 4 = 8 69. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: Most graphing utilities do not display numbers an the axes. 71. (b) According to the line graph.8) . true 74. 4 ) 84. At age 65. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −4 ) ( −1. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. Changes to make the statement true will vary. –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 0 y = 2(0) = 0 59. 61. y ) ( −2. b. 2 ) ( 2. (a) 81. 4 ) (1.

−5) ( 0. When the y-coordinate is 4. then 7. [ −3. 30. Inc. 10. 6) and (5. The range is the set of all second components: {9. 10. = x + 2x + 7 2 ( −2. 135 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1] . 3] . The domain is the set of all first components: {0. b. y = ± 1 − x2 Since there are values of x (all values between – 1 and 1 exclusive) that give more than one value for y (for example. [0. 4 ) Section 1. 17. x [ −2. a. d. [ −1.7. a. . the equation does not define y as a function of x. −7 ) ( −1. x f ( x) = 2x -2 –4 -1 –2 0 0 1 2 2 4 ( x. domain: { x −2 ≤ x ≤ 1} or range: { y 0 ≤ y ≤ 3} or f ( x + 4) = ( x + 4) 2 − 2( x + 4) + 7 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 − 2 x − 8 + 7 b. = x 2 − ( −2 x ) + 7 domain: { x −3 ≤ x < 0} or range: { y y = −3.PreCalculus 4E 85. −4 ) ( −1. a. b. −3) (1. −1) ( 2. 36}.2. 8) have the same first component but different second components. 2. = 42 b.1. The y-coordinates are all real numbers greater than or equal to 1. y ) ( −2. −2. 20. domain: { x −2 < x ≤ 1} or range: { y −1 ≤ y < 2} or f (− x) = (− x) 2 − 2(− x) + 7 c. = x 2 + 6 x + 15 c. Section 1.1) The graph (c) fails the vertical line test and is therefore not a function. f (9) = 100 c. 13. −2 ) ( 0. the x-coordinates are –3 and 3. 3. 5. −1} . the y-coordinate is 3. 6. y = ± 1 − 02 = ±1 ). 2x + y = 6 y = −2 x + 6 For each value of x. there is one and only one value for y. The x-coordinates are all real numbers. y is a function of x for the graphs in (a) and (b). The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5.4}. y 2 = 1 − x2 4. 0 ) . a.1] . g ( x) = 2x − 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 3 units. When the x-coordinate is 2. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. so the equation defines y as a function of x. ( x.7. 2 ) . if x = 0. f (−5) = (−5)2 − 2(−5) + 7 = 25 − (−10) + 7 8. y ) -2 g ( −2 ) = 2( −2) − 3 = −7 -1 g ( −1) = 2( −1) − 3 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 2(0) − 3 = −3 1 g (1) = 2(1) − 3 = −1 2 g ( 2 ) = 2(2) − 3 = 1 ( −2. b. c. 0 ) (1. f (5) = 400 b. The minimum T cell count in the asymptomatic stage is approximately 425.2 Check Point Exercises 1. x = 9 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 + y 2 = 1 6. a. 2 ) ( 2.2 a.

y is not a function of x. then y = ±2. 17. 10} and the range is {1. 8} and the range is {5. x 2 + y = 16 y = 16 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. The domain is {3. 13. 9. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {–2. 0} and the range is {–7. 1. 5}. 4) and (4. 6) and (6. –2.Functions and Graphs Exercise Set 1. x + y = 16 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {3. 10. The domain is {1. x 2 + y 2 = 25 y 2 = 25 − x 2 y = ± 25 − x 2 If x = 0. 3. 5}. x 2 + y = 25 y = 25 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 7. 8. 5)). 3. 7}. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (3. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. 4. 6. 6}. 4} and the range is {4. 4) and (3. The domain is {4. 18. 5. The relation is a function since there are no ordered pairs that have the same first component but different second components. y is not a function of x. y = ±5. 5. y is a function of x. y is a function of x. –3. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {4. y = 4 and y = – 4. y is not a function of x. 5) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (4. –1. 5. 6} and the range is {1}. 4. y is a function of x. 136 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 15. Since two values. 0}. y = ±4. 7} and the range is {–2. x 2 + y 2 = 16 y 2 = 16 − x 2 y = ± 16 − x 2 If x = 0. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. Since two values. The domain is {–3. The domain is {5. 6. The relation is a function since there are no two ordered pairs that have the same first component and different second components. y = 16 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. –2. can be obtained for x = 1. –1. y is a function of x. 11. 7. 5. 0}. Inc. 2. 0} and the range is {–3. The domain is {1} and the range is {4. 4. 4 x = y2 y = ± 4 x = ±2 x If x = 1. 14. The relation is not a function since there are ordered pairs with the same first component and different second components. 7)). can be obtained for one value of x. Since two values. 7) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (6. y = ±1. y = 1 and y = –1. 5} and the range is {2. 5. 12. – 1. 8}. 6} and the range is {6. can be obtained for one value of x. 6}. x + y = 25 y = 25 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. Since two values. can be obtained for x = 1.2 1. 6) and (5. The domain is {–7. y = 2 and y = –2. –3. y is not a function of x. –5. x = y2 y=± x If x = 1. The relation is a function since there are no same first components with different second components. 9}. . –5. y = 5 and y = –5. 4.

30. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 4 − ( − x ) 2 + 1 = x 4 − x 2 + 1 d. y = x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 22. a. 26. h(3a) = (3a) 4 − (3a) 2 + 1 = 81a 4 − 9a 2 + 1 −y = − x +5 y = x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. 20. h(2) = 24 − 22 + 1 = 16 − 4 + 1 = 13 x −y=2 b. Inc. f(x + 1) = 4(x + 1) + 5 = 4x + 9 c. b. g (−1) = (−1) 2 − 10(−1) − 3 = 1 + 10 − 3 =8 g ( x + 2) = ( x + 2) 2 − 10(8 + 2) − 3 = x 2 + 4 x + 4 − 10 x − 20 − 3 = x 2 − 6 x − 19 xy − 5 y = 1 y ( x − 5) = 1 c. f(6) = 4(6) + 5 = 29 x −y=5 c. −y = − x + 2 y = x −2 h(−1) = (−1)4 − (−1) 2 + 1 = 1 −1 +1 =1 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. g ( x + 5) = ( x + 5) 2 + 2( x + 5) + 3 = x 2 + 12 x + 38 y = 3 27 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. f(4) = 3(4) + 7 = 19 b. a. f(–x) = 3(–x) + 7 = –3x + 7 29.PreCalculus 4E 19. 137 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. xy + 2 y = 1 1 x+2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 21. 31. y is a function of x. g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + 2(− x) + 3 = x2 − 2x + 3 y ( x + 2) = 1 25.2 27. x + y 3 = 27 c. y = 3 8− x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 24. y is a function of x. a. . y is a function of x. g (− x) = (− x)2 − 10(− x) − 3 = x 2 + 10 x − 3 1 y= x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. y= b. f(–x) = 4(–x) + 5 = – 4x + 5 28. g (−1) = (−1)2 + 2(−1) + 3 = 1− 2 + 3 =2 = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + 2 x + 10 + 3 y 3 = 27 − x 23. y = − x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. y is a function of x. x + y3 = 8 y3 = 8 − x f(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) + 7 = 3x + 10 c. y is a function of x. a. a.

h(−2) = (−2)3 − (−2) + 1 = −8 + 2 + 1 = −5 c. b. if x < −6 = =⎨ − x − 6 ⎩−1. f (−24) = 25 − (−24) − 6 = 49 − 6 = 7−6 =1 c. f (6) = f (10) = 10 + 6 + 3 = 16 + 3 = 4+3 6 =1 6 b. f (−2) = 4(−2) 2 − 1 15 = 4 (−2) 2 c. f (−5) = c. f (25 − 2 x) = 25 − (25 − 2 x) − 6 = 2x − 6 35. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. f (−9 − x) = −5 + 3 8 8 = =1 −2 −2 = −9 − x + 3 −9 − x + 3 − x − 6 ⎧ 1.Functions and Graphs 32. h(3) = 33 − 3 + 1 = 25 36. a. h(3a) = (3a)3 − (3a) + 1 f (−2) = 4(−2)3 + 1 −31 31 = = −8 8 (−2)3 c. f (− x) = 4(− x)2 − 1 4 x 2 − 1 = (− x) 2 x2 f (5) = −6 −6 = = −1 −6 6 r2 r2 5+3 5+3 = r2 =1 r2 = −5 + 3 b. a. 34.if x > −6 138 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. f ( x − 6) = x − 6 + 6 + 3 = x + 3 f (16) = 25 − 16 − 6 = 9 − 6 = 3 − 6 = −3 38. f (− x) = 4(− x)3 + 1 −4 x 3 + 1 = (− x)3 − x3 4 x3 − 1 x3 or = 27 a − 3a + 1 b. a. 3 33. f (2) = 4(2)2 − 1 15 = 4 22 b. a. f (2) = f (−6) = −6 + 6 + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3 37. 4(2)3 + 1 33 = 23 8 b. 2 = −1 −2 . f (−6) = c. a. b. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 3 − ( − x ) + 1 = − x 3 + x + 1 d. a. f (r 2 ) = =7 c.

4 ) ( −1. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x − 1 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) − 1 = 3 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) − 1 = 1 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 x f ( x) = x ( x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . −2 ) ( −1. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 4 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 4 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 4 = −4 1 g (1) = 1 − 4 = −3 2 g ( 2 ) = 2 − 4 = −2 ( −2. 2 ) ( 0.1) ( 2. 0 ) (1. −2 ) ( −1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units.1) ( 2. −4 ) ( x. 40. −1) (1. 0 ) (1. −6 ) ( −1. −3) ( 2. y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1. −4 ) (1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 2 ) x g ( x) = x − 4 ( x.3) (1.3) ( −1. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 ( −2. −1) ( 0. −2 ) ( x. 2 ) 39. y ) ( −2.5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 4 units.1) ( −1. −5) ( 0.1) ( 0. Inc. −5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. 4 ) ( 2. 2 ) ( 0. −2 ) ( 2. y ) ( −2.2 f ( x) = x ( x. x 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 x g ( x) = x + 3 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 3 = 1 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 3 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = 1 + 3 = 4 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 3 = 5 ( x. 139 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) ( 0. 41. y ) 1 g (1) = −2 (1) − 1 = −3 −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) − 1 = −5 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 ( −2. −3) ( 2.

y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1.5 ) ( 0. −1) ( 2. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x + 3 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) + 3 = 7 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) + 3 = 5 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = −2 (1) + 3 = 1 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) + 3 = −1 ( x. 0 ) (1. 2 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units. y ) ( −2.1) ( 0. −2 ) (1. . y ) ( −2.1) ( 0. 4 ) ( −1.1) (1. 4 ) ( x. ( x. 43. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 + 1 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 1 = 5 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 1 = 2 0 g (0) = (0) + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = (1) + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) + 1 = 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. y ) ( −2. −1) ( 0. 2 ) ( 0. 4 ) ( −1.1) ( 2. −1) 44. 2 ) ( 2.3) (1. 4 ) ( x. y ) ( −2. −4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit. 140 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7 ) ( −1. 2 ) ( 0. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units.1) ( 2.Functions and Graphs 42. y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1.1) ( 2.5 ) ( −1. 4 ) ( −1.5 ) x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 2 = 2 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = (1) − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 2 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. 2 ) ( −1. Inc. −2 ) ( 2.

x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x +1 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 1 = 3 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 1 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 1 = 3 ( x. −2 ) (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ) ( −1. 141 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . y ) ( −2. Inc. 2 ) (1.1) ( 0.1) ( 2. 0 ) ( −1. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( 2. −1) ( 0.3) ( 2.PreCalculus 4E 45.1) (1.1) ( 0. −1) ( 2.10 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. 2 ) ( −1. y ) f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 ( −2.3) ( −1.2 x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 2 = 0 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = 1 − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 2 = 0 ( x.1) ( 0. 46. y ) ( −2. Section 1. 2 ) ( x.1) ( 2. y ) ( −2. −1) 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( 0. 2 ) ( x. −8) −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 ( −1. 0 ) (1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 2 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 2 = 1 0 g ( 0) = ( 0) + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = (1) + 2 = 3 2 g ( 2 ) = ( 2 ) + 2 = 10 ( −2. 47. 0 ) (1. 0 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit. 2 ) ( 0. −6 ) ( −1.8) x −2 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 + 2 ( x.3) f ( x ) = x3 ( x.1) ( 2. y ) ( −2.

Inc. x f ( x ) = x3 ( x. −8) ( −1.8) 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 − 1 ( x. .3) (1. 0 ) ( 2. 50. −1) (1. y ) ( −2. −1) (1. −2 ) ( 0. 142 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y ) ( −2. 4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. x f ( x) = 3 −2 f ( −2 ) = 3 −1 f ( −1) = 3 0 f ( 0) = 3 1 f (1) = 3 2 f ( 2) = 3 x g ( x) = 5 −2 g ( −2 ) = 5 −1 g ( −1) = 5 0 g ( 0) = 5 1 g (1) = 5 2 g ( 2) = 5 ( x. −1) ( 0. x f ( x ) = −1 ( x. −1) ( −1. 4 ) (1. y ) ( −2. −1) ( 0.5) ( 0. −1) x g ( x) = 4 −2 g ( −2 ) = 4 −1 g ( −1) = 4 0 g ( 0) = 4 1 g (1) = 4 2 g ( 2) = 4 ( x. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 1 = −9 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 1 = −2 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = (1) − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 1 = 7 ( −2. 49. 4 ) ( −1. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −1 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0 ) = −1 1 f (1) = −1 2 f ( 2 ) = −1 ( −2.5) ( 2.3) ( 2.3) ( 0. −1) ( 2.Functions and Graphs 48. 7 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. 4 ) ( 0.3) ( x.5) ( −1.1) ( 2.3) ( −1.5) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 5 units.5) (1. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −9 ) ( −1. 4 ) ( 2. 0 ) (1.

2 ) ( 9.3) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = 1 + 2 = 3 4 g ( 4) = 4 + 2 = 4 ( x. 5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted right 1 unit. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. y ) ( 0. 52.1) ( 4. 2 ) (10. 143 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 1 = 1 5 g ( 5) = 5 − 1 = 2 10 g (10 ) = 10 − 1 = 3 ( x. y ) ( 0.1) ( 4. Section 1.2 x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 4 g ( 4) = 4 −1 = 1 9 g (9) = 9 −1 = 2 ( x. ( x. .1) ( 4.3) 53. 2 ) ( 9. −1) (1. 0 ) (1. y ) (1.1) ( 5.3) ( x. 2 ) (1. y ) ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) ( 4. y ) ( 0. 4 ) 9 g (9) = 9 + 2 = 5 (9 .3) ( 4.3) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. 0 ) ( 2.PreCalculus 4E 51. ( x. 0 ) (1. Inc. y ) ( 0.1) ( 9. 2 ) ( 9. 0 ) (1.

a. f (−1) = 0 71. function b. ∞) b. When x = −2. x-intercept: none 63. function b. 0 ) ( −1. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 d. x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 2 = 0 –1 g ( −1) = −1 + 2 = 1 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 2 = 2 7 g (7) = 7 + 2 = 3 ( x. 4] 57.Functions and Graphs 54. ∞) 55. function 78. g (10) = −2 75. f ( 4) = 4 f (2) = −5 f (−1) = 2 and f (3) = 4 144 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. not a function e. y ) ( −2. range: (–∞. g ( −10 ) = 2 74.3) 72. 2 ) ( 9. function c. f ( −2 ) = −4 66. . Inc. f (2) = −4 67. a. ∞) 61. g ( x) = −1. range: [1.1) ( 4.3) 68. y ) ( 0. 2 ) ( 7. y-intercept: –3 e. 76. domain: (−∞. ∞) 62. not a function 79. f ( −3 ) = 0 70. When x = 1. 65. function e. y-intercept: 3 59. 60. y-intercept: 1 64. 77.1) ( 2. g ( −4 ) = 2 ( x. range: [−4. not a function d. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted left 2 units. f (−2) = 3 and domain: (−∞. f (−4) = 4 69. a. g ( 2 ) = −2 73. ∞) c. 0 ) (1. g ( x ) = 1. f (−2) = −3 and f (2) = 5 domain: (–∞. function d. 56. not a function c. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 58. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

d. domain: [–3. b. y-intercept: 0 e. x-intercept: none d. ∞) b. x-intercept: none d. range: [0. 90. f (−5) + f (3) = 2 + 2 = 4 145 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. y-intercept: 1 e. range: [–2. a.5 e. domain: (−∞. 0] d. f(–5) = 2 82. f(3) = 2 85. 2] b. domain: [0. x-intercept: –1 d.75 d. 0) ∪ (0. a. a. x-intercept: –3. a. 5) c. range: [0.2 domain: (–∞. e. a. f(–1) = 5 domain: {–5. y-intercept: 1. y-intercept: 4 91. y-intercept: –3 e. Inc. 6] domain: (−∞. y-intercept: 1 81. f(–2) = 0 and f(2) = 4 b. y-intercept: 1 e. domain: [0. 1 2 87. range: [–5. a. ∞) c. y-intercept: –2 b. f(–2) = –3 b. y-intercept: –1 e.PreCalculus 4E 80. 88. range: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: [1. 5) e. 89. f(4) = 3 b. x-intercept: none domain: (–6. a. ∞ ) domain: (–∞. − 2] f(3) = 1 c. ∞) b. range: [0.1) ∪ (1. x-intercept: none d. –2. ∞) b. ∞) c. f(–4) = –5 and f(4) = –2 c. x-intercept: none d. x-intercept: –1 d. ∞) c. ∞) b. range: [–1. range: (0. Section 1. ∞) c. a. 6] c. 0. ∞) domain: (−∞. range: [–3. x-intercept: − f(–4) = 3 and f(3) = 4 d. ∞) c. 4) e. a. . 86. 83. y-intercept: 1 e. x-intercept: 4 e. x-intercept: 2 d. range: {2} c. a. range: (−∞. a. ∞) domain: [–1. y-intercept: 2 e. 3} b. ∞) c. domain: [–2. 1. x-intercept: { x x ≤ 0} d. y-intercept: −1 f(2) = 1 b. 5] c. f(4) = 6 84.

1. ( Denmark. ( New Zealand. Inc. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) − 3 ( − x ) + 7 − ( x 2 − 3x + 7 ) 2 = x 2 + 3x + 7 − x 2 + 3 x − 7 = 6x 99. {( Iceland. 0. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) + ( − x ) − 5 − ( x3 + x − 5) 3 = − x 3 − x − 5 − x 3 − x + 5 = −2 x 3 − 2 x 98. ( Finland.6.7 ) . c. Finland ) . –2. .6 ) . ( 9.6 ) . 9.5 )} b. 3 − ( −1) − ( −6 ) + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 2 = 3 + 1 − 36 + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 = 4 − 36 + −1 ⋅ 4 = 2 − 36 + −4 = −34 + −4 = −38 96. x-intercept: none d. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range. −4 − ( −1) − ( −3) + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 2 = −4 + 1 − 9 + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 = −3 − 9 + −1 ⋅ −6 = 3 − 9 + 6 = −6 + 6 = 0 97. f ( g (1) ) = f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) + 4 2 = 4 + 2 + 4 = 10 g ( −1) = 3 ( −1) − 5 = −3 − 5 = −8 94. 9. 9. ( 9. f ( g ( −1) ) = f ( −8) = ( −8) − ( −8 ) + 4 2 = 64 + 8 + 4 = 76 95.6 in the domain corresponds to both Finland and New Zealand in the range.7. Yes. ( 9.6. {( 9. a. 146 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the relation is not a function. range: {–2} c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9.5. a. y-intercept: –2 f (−5) + f (4) = −2 + (−2) = −4 e. b. the relation is a function. No. 4} 92. Iceland ) .Functions and Graphs domain: {–5. Denmark )} d. New Zealand ) . 9. g (1) = 3 (1) − 5 = 3 − 5 = −2 93.

94). No. This is represented on the graph by the point (0. This is represented on the graph by the point (20. 1. 1. 102. the relation is a function.126). Function f is the better model. or 2004.6 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91. 1.6 meals in restaurants per person. ( Haiti.6(0) + 94 = 94 Americans ordered an average of 94 meals in restaurants per person 0 years after 1984. b. 1. {(1.25 x + 72 T (4) = −0.125 x 2 + 5. ( Chad. (1. g (90) = 10 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 10%. Section 1. b.6 x + 94 R(20) = −0.25 x + 72 T (18) = −0. R( x) = −0. or 2004. Inc.7 ) .25(20) + 72 = 127 Americans ordered an average of 127 takeout meals per person 20 years after 1984. 101. (1.8 ) . a. 147 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the average number of takeout orders approximately equaled the average number of inrestaurant meals 4 years after 1984. a. b.125(4)2 + 5. f (70) = 83 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 83%. T ( x) = −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. (1. Chad ) . R ( x) = −0.82).7. According to the graphs.125(20)2 + 5. c. Haiti ) . Function f is the better model.6(20) + 94 = 82 Americans ordered an average of 82 meals in restaurants per person 20 years after 1984.25(4) + 72 = 91 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91 takeout meals per person.125 x 2 + 5. 104. the relation is not a function. c.6 x + 94 R(0) = −0. or 2002. b. 103. T ( x) = −0. a. This is represented on the graph by the point (18. c. 1.8.125(18)2 + 5. R( x) = −0. Bangladesh ) . g (70) = 76 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 76%. a. or 1988.127). ( Myanmar.PreCalculus 4E 100. T ( x) = −0.7 ) .2 {( Bangladesh.6(4) + 94 = 91. f (90) = 25 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 25%.8. . Myanmar )} d. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range.25 x + 72 T (20) = −0. Yes.8)} b.7.25(18) + 72 = 126 Americans ordered an average of 126 takeout meals per person 18 years after 1984. c. or 1984. This is represented on the graph by the point (20.6 x + 94 R (4) = −0.7 in the domain corresponds to both Bangladesh and Chad in the range.125 x 2 + 5.

does not make sense. 000 + 100 x 125. the monthly cost is \$36. true = 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3h 148 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Answers may vary. 500 − 3200 x V (3) = 22. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 122. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: f (0) = 0. It is given that f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) and f (1) = 3 . T ( x) = 127.(2.60(50 − 30) = 15 When 30 mL of the 10% mixture is mixed with 20 mL of the 60% mixture. 40 40 + x x + 30 40 40 T ( 30 ) = + 30 30 + 30 80 40 = + 60 60 120 = 60 =2 If you travel 30 mph going and 60 mph returning.40(100 − 60) = 20 + 0.500 − 3200(3) = \$12. Sample explanation: This would not be a function because some elements in the domain would correspond to more than one age in the range.60(50 − x) S (30) = 0. such as f ( x). 2 ) . makes sense 129. Inc. 108. A sample change is: The domain is [−4. false. 121. for example. 000 It will cost \$109. rewrite 2 as 1 + 1. 118. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 900 After 3 years. false. 4]. Sample explanation: The domain is the number of years worked for the company. 109.900.8 C (90) = 100. 126.1)} 128. Explanations will vary. It is not true for f ( x ) = x 2 . Explanations will vary. 000 + 100(90) = \$109. A sample change is: The range is [ −2. does not make sense. f (2) = f (1 + 1) = f (1) + f (1) = 3+3 = 6 Similarly: f (3) = f (2 + 1) = f (2) + f (1) = 6+3= 9 f (4) = f (3 + 1) = f (3) + f (1) = 9 + 3 = 12 While f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) is true for this function. 119. V ( x) = 22.1). . An example is {(1. 2( x + h) 2 + 3( x + h) + 5 − (2 x 2 + 3x + 5) 123. – 117. = 2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 − 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x − 3 x + 3h + 5 − 5 124. Changes to make the statement true will vary. do not imply multiplication. f (a + h) = 3(a + h) + 7 = 3a + 3h + 7 f (a ) = 3a + 7 f ( a + h) − f ( a ) h ( 3a + 3h + 7 ) − ( 3a + 7 ) = h 3a + 3h + 7 − 3a − 7 3h = = =3 h h 106. 130. your total trip will take 2 hours. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: The parentheses used in function notation.Functions and Graphs 105. 107. C (t ) = 20 + 0. 120.40(40) = 20 + 16 = 36 For 100 calling minutes. 131. there will be 15 mL of sodium-iodine in the vaccine. C ( x) = 100.10(30) + 0. Answers may vary. To find f (2) . it is not true for all functions.10 x + 0.000 to produce 90 bicycles. S ( x) = 0.40(t − 60) C (100) = 20 + 0. the car will be worth \$12.

4.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. ⎧ 20 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩ 20 + 0. decreasing: none c. 3. decreasing: (−∞. This is represented by ( 80. Since 80 > 60 . ∞) c. h( − x ) = ( − x )5 + 1 = − x 5 + 1 The function is neither even nor odd.40(t − 60) b. –1). increasing: (−1. Inc. − 1) c. increasing: (–3. 28 ) . This is represented by ( 40. a. ( −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 − −2 x 2 + x + 5 5. c. increasing: (0. f (− x) = (− x) 2 + 6 = x 2 + 6 = f ( x) The function is even.3 3. decreasing: (–1.3 Section 1. increasing: (–1. Check Point Exercises 1. constant: none 4.40(80 − 60) = 28 With 80 calling minutes. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 20 ) . 149 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. constant: none a. 5. increasing: none b. 2) b. constant: none a. 6) c. a. decreasing: (–2. 2. = The function is increasing on the interval (–∞. constant: none a. increasing: (–∞. ∞) b. 1).3 b. g (− x ) = 7(− x)3 − (− x) = −7 x3 + x = − f ( x) The function is odd. ∞). constant: none a. and increasing on the interval (1. a. decreasing on the interval (–1. the cost is \$20. c. decreasing: none c. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 + 2 x 2 − x − 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 Exercise Set 1. ∞) b. decreasing: none c. ∞) b. f ( x ) = −2 x 2 + x + 5 f ( x + h) = −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) + 5 = −2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + x + h + 5 = −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 6. constant: none a. C (80) = 20 + 0. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 60 1. if t > 60 Since 0 ≤ 40 ≤ 60 . C (40) = 20 With 40 calling minutes. 2. the cost is \$28. –1) b. ) .

even function 16. 4) b. increasing: (−∞. . relative maximum = 21 f (− x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 b. a. f ( x) = x3 − x g ( x) = x 2 + x b. ∞) a. h( x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 increasing: none h(− x ) = 2(− x )2 + (− x) 4 b. increasing: (0.Functions and Graphs 7.5. g ( x) = x 2 − x g ( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − (− x ) g (− x ) = x 2 + x. 1. 0) f ( − x ) = − x 3 + x = −( x 3 − x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). 3. f ( x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 f (− x) = 2(− x) 2 + (− x)4 + 1 15. 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. decreasing: (0. −4) or (−2. relative minimum = 0 f (− x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = f ( x). 13. a. −2) or (0. decreasing: none c. 0) or (2. −4) or (2. ∞ ) h( − x ) = x 2 − x 4 h(− x) = h( x). h( x ) = x 2 − x 4 increasing: (–2. 2) or (4. decreasing: (−4.5) c. a. a. 4) h( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − ( − x ) 4 b. relative minimum = 3 150 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3. odd function a. constant: (−1. constant: none 20. x = 0. f ( x) = x 3 + x f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 + (− x ) f ( − x ) = − x 3 − x = −( x 3 + x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). increasing: (−5. constant: none g (− x) = x 2 − x. relative maximum = 30 b. 19. Inc. h(− x ) = h( x). constant: (−∞. 2) h( − x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 c. even function 23. 3) 17. constant: (−∞. a. decreasing: (–4. relative maximum = 4 f ( x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) 4 + 1 b. a. 22. constant: (–∞. x = −2. − 2) or (4. ∞ ) 12. 8. even function 14. − 1) b. x = −3. increasing: (−∞. relative minimum = –1 24. decreasing: none f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 − ( − x ) c. x =1. neither 10. a. x = 1. relative minimum = −6 f (− x) = f ( x).5) or (3. even function 11. a. odd function 18. 0) or (1. x = −3. relative maximum = 2 b. x = 0. x = 4. ∞) g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + (− x) c. decreasing: none c. ∞) b. neither 21.

( −∞. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. even function 33. ( −2. f (− x) ≠ − x 2 f(–x) = f(x). f (2) = −2 and f (6) = −2 34. 4] b. or ( 0. ∞ ) 151 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 30. 1− (−x) 1− x range: l. x-intercepts: 1. −2 ) f. neither . ∞ ) 5 f (− x) = −(2 x3 − 6 x 5 ) 27. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) b. 0 ) h. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. 4 ) g. y-intercept: 4 e. 32. f (− x) ≠ − x domain: 2 ( −∞. f (− x) ≠ x . 7 d. y-intercept: 1 e. x = −4 and x = 4 l. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3) or ( 3. ( −∞. ( −∞.∞ ) f. ∞ ) or [ 4. The graph is not symmetric with respect to the y-axis or the origin. The graph is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. y = −4 j. a. f (−2) = 4 k. ( 0. x = −2 and x = 3 i. 2 f(–x) = – f(x). f (− x) ≠ x . .3 1 6 x − 3x 2 5 1 f (− x) = (− x)6 − 3(− x) 2 5 1 f (− x) = x 6 − 3 x 2 5 f (− x) = f ( x) . The function is even. ( 4. odd function f ( x) = x 1 − x 2 f (− x) = − x 1 − (− x) f (− x) = − x 1 − x 2 ( = − x 1 − x2 ) f (−x) = x 2 2 c. ( −∞. f ( x ) = x2 1 − x2 f (−x) = (−x) [ −4. 4 d. odd function 28. f ( x) = f ( x) = 2 x3 − 6 x 5 f (− x) = 2(− x)3 − 6(− x)5 f ( − x ) = −2 x + 6 x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x). range: c. a. 26. Inc. even function 29. Section 1. f (−3) = 4 k. x-intercepts: –4. f (−2) = 4 and f (3) = 2 j. 0 ) g. domain: neither .PreCalculus 4E 25. 31. The function is odd. −4] h. The function is odd. x=4 i. The function is neither even nor odd.

negative. x-intercepts: –3. neither l. a.Functions and Graphs 35. range: [ 0. ( −∞.1) f. a. a. domain: ( −∞. Inc. −2 ) f. ( −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. −3] h. 3 d. a. a. a. positive.1] d. b. f(3) = 4(3) + 7 = 19 38. 6] c. 2 ) h. f (1) = 4 i. (1. f(0) = 7(0) + 3 = 3 c. h(5) = 52 − 9 25 − 9 16 = = =8 5−3 2 2 b. g(–3) = –3 + 3 = 0 e.3) ( −∞. b. . x = −5 and x = 5 j. ( −2. f(4) = 7(4) + 3 = 31 b. g(–6) = –(–6 + 3) = –(–3) = 3 ( −∞. 152 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( 2. no. 4] b. a. f (−1) = +2 36. 3 f (0) = 1 43. h(7) = 7 2 − 25 49 − 25 24 = = = 12 7 −5 2 2 b. h(0) = 02 − 25 −25 = =5 0−5 −5 c. a. 44.3] 39. f(0) = 4(0) + 7 = 7 c. b. g(–5) = –5 + 5 = 0 41. a. ( −∞. 6 ) g. 3) i. x =1 j. range: c. f (0) = 3 e. 0] a. 37. g(0) = 0 + 3 = 3 f(–3) = 6(–3) – 1 = –19 b. g. g(0) = 0 + 5 = 5 b. h(3) = 6 42. domain: range: ( −∞. 40. f(2) is not greater than the function values to the immediate left. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. h(0) = 0 2 − 9 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 c. f(–2) = 3(–2) + 5 = –1 b. ( −∞. h(5) = 10 zeros of f: –3. f (4) = −1 k. g(–6) = –(–6 + 5) = –(–1) = 1 c.

52. 0] ∪ {3} a. 0] ∪ [3. ∞) b. b. 48. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. . a. range: ( −∞. Inc. 51. range: a. Section 1. ( −∞. b. b. 0] ∪ {2} 50. b.PreCalculus 4E 45. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 153 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. b. ∞ ) a. 46. 4} a. a. range: (−∞. b. 47. range: (−∞. 3} a. 49.3 range: {−4. range: [ 0. b. ∞) range: {−3.

b. ∞ ) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 3( x + h) + 7 − (3x + 7) = h 3x + 3h + 7 − 3x − 7 = h 3h = h =3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 6( x + h) + 1 − (6 x + 1) = h 6 x + 6h + 1 − 6 x − 1 = h 6h = h =6 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( x + h) 2 − x2 h x + 2 xh + h 2 − x 2 = h 2 2 xh + h = h h ( 2x + h) = h = 2x + h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 4( x + h) − 4 x = h 4 x + 4h − 4 x = h 4h = h =4 2 60. Inc. 57. a.Functions and Graphs 53. 55. . ∞ ) 58. a. 54. 59. 56. range: [ 0. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 7( x + h) − 7 x = h 7 x + 7h − 7 x = h 7h = h =7 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2( x + h) 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 2( x + 2 xh + h 2 ) − 2 x 2 = h 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 4 xh + 2h = h h ( 4 x + 2h ) = h = 4 x + 2h 154 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: [ −1. b.

. Inc. 63. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) + 4 − (− x 2 + 2 x + 4) 2 = h − x − 2 xh − h + 2 x + 2h + 4 + x 2 − 2 x − 4 = h 2 −2 xh − h + 2h = h h ( −2 x − h + 2 ) = h = −2 x − h + 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 66.3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 4( x + h) + 3 − ( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − 4 x − 4h + 3 − x 2 + 4 x − 3 = h 2 xh + h 2 − 4h = h h(2 x + h − 4) = h = 2x + h − 4 64. 3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) + 5 − (3 x 2 + x + 5) 2 = h 3x 2 + 6 xh + 3h 2 + x + h + 5 − 3x 2 − x − 5 = h 6 xh + 3h 2 + h = h h ( 6 x + 3h + 1) = h = 6 x + 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 5( x + h) + 8 − ( x 2 − 5 x + 8) = h 2 2 x + 2 xh + h − 5 x − 5h + 8 − x 2 + 5 x − 8 = h 2 2 xh + h − 5h = h h ( 2 x + h − 5) = h = 2x + h − 5 65. 62. Section 1. 2 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (2 x 2 + x − 1) 2 = f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) − 3 ( x + h ) + 1 − (− x 2 − 3x + 1) 2 = h 2 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h + x + h − 1 − 2 x 2 − x + 1 = h 2 4 xh + 2h + h = h h ( 4 x + 2h + 1) = h = 4 x + 2h + 1 h − x − 2 xh − h − 3 x − 3h + 1 + x 2 + 3x − 1 = h 2 −2 xh − h − 3h = h h ( −2 x − h − 3) = h = −2 x − h − 3 2 2 155 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 61. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

−2 ( x + h ) + 5 ( x + h ) + 7 − (−2 x 2 + 5 x + 7) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 = 2 = h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + 5 x + 5h + 7 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 7 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + 5h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 5 ) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 5 68. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 6 − 6 0 = = =0 h h h 72. 73. . f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 70.Functions and Graphs 67. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 7 − 7 0 = = =0 h h h −3 ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + 2 x − 1) 2 = h 2 2 −3x − 6 xh − 3h + 2 x + 2h − 1 + 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = h 2 −6 xh − 3h + 2h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 2 ) = h = −6 x − 3h + 2 69. −3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + x − 1) h −3x 2 − 6 xh − 3h 2 + x + h − 1 + 3 x 2 − x + 1 = h −6 xh − 3h 2 + h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 1) = h = −6 x − 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 71. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2 ( x + h ) − ( x + h ) + 3 − (−2 x 2 − x + 3) 2 = h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h − x − h + 3 + 2 x 2 + x − 3 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h − h = h h ( −4 x − 2h − 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h − 1 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − x h x + = h − ( x + h) x + x ( x + h) x ( x + h) = h x−x−h x ( x + h) = h −h x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ x ( x + h) h −1 = x ( x + h) 156 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

3t − 60 = 0. ⎧50 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩50 + 0.5) + f ( −0.3t − 36 = 0.9) − [ f (−π )] + f (−3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 = 2 − (−2) − [ 3] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ ( −4 ) 2 = 4 − 9 + ( −1)( −4 ) = 2−9+ 4 = −3 79.30(t − 200) = 40 + 0. 75.PreCalculus 4E 74.9) − [ f (π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f ( −π ) 2 = 1 + 0 − [ −4 ] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ 3 2 = 1 − 16 + ( −1) ⋅ 3 = 1 − 16 − 3 = −18 78.30(t − 120) = 30 + 0. Inc.30(t − 400) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x+h − x h x+h − x x+h + x ⋅ h x+h + x x+h− x = = = = h h ( ( x+h + x h x+h + x ) ) 1 = 76.5) − f (1.3 x+h + x f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x + h −1 − x −1 h = x + h −1 − x −1 x + h −1 + x −1 ⋅ h x + h −1 + x −1 x + h − 1 − ( x − 1) = = = = = h h h ( ( ( x + h −1 + x −1 x + h −1 − x +1 x + h −1 + x −1 h x + h −1 + x −1 ) ) ) 1 x + h −1 + x −1 157 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( −2.5) − f (1.3t − 20 81. f ( −1. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 400 if t > 400 . f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − 2( x + h) 2 x = h x x+h − 2 x ( x + h) 2 x ( x + h) = h −h 2 x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ 2 x ( x + h) h −1 = 2x ( x + h) 77.3t − 6 80. 40 + 0. Section 1. 30 + 0.9) − [ f ( −π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 f (−2.

if t > 450 98. range: [23. 3. 38] 88. 96.35( x − 349. 000 − 7825) = 2608. decreasing: (55. about 4. domain: [25.000 owes \$2608. 93.35(t − 450) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 450 97. 90.25 + 0. increasing: (25. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. 55).5 ounces is \$0.29.25(50.50 + 0. This model describes percent body fat in men. 65). T (20.15(20.59. This maximum is 38%. 107. domain: [25. 85. 106. 75]. 86.59. 75) 84. range: [34.Functions and Graphs 82. . 108.75 + 0.75. increasing: (25.75. 92.25 + 0. occurs at around age 20. 39.850) 94. f (3) = 0.5) = 0. Increasing: (−∞. The percent body fat in men reaches a maximum at age 65. 26] The number of doctor visits decreases during childhood and then increases as you get older. 75) 100. 101. 91.93 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3. The minimum is (20.99). which means that the minimum number of doctor visits. –2) or (0.5 ounces is \$0.148. Answers may vary. Increasing: (–2. This model describes percent body fat in women. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. The percent body fat in women reaches a maximum at age 55. ⎧60 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩60 + 0. 000 − 31.76. 1) or (3. 2) 158 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 700) 95. 87. 000) = 782.76 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3 ounces is \$0. 3) T (50.93. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. Inc. 469. 000) = 4386. 75]. 99.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of \$20. f (3. This maximum is 26%. decreasing: (65. ∞) Decreasing: (1. 83.8 ounces is \$0.850) = 8923.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of \$50. 0) or (2.000 owes \$8923. – 105. 89.33( x − 160.

Decreasing: (−∞. f and g are both even: f (– x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) f and g are both odd: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = = h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) h is odd if f is odd and g is even or if f is even and g is odd. b. f is odd and g is even: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x ) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) g ( x) f is even and g is odd: f (– x) f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) 159 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) 113. h is even if both f and g are even or if both f and g are odd. Increasing: (1. Inc. ∞) c. 110. a. f ( x ) = x n is increasing from (–∞. Sample explanation: It’s possible the graph is not defined at a. . ∞) 118. 120. − 2) Constant: (–2. 1) 114. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) d. answers may vary Decreasing: (−∞. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. 2) Increasing: (0. 109. 0) Decreasing: (0.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Increasing: (2. a. 111. 115. ∞) when n is odd. Increasing: (–∞. makes sense 117. 0) 119. makes sense Increasing: (0. e. makes sense 116. answers may vary 112.3 b.

1). 4(0) − 3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y = 6 y + 1 = −5( x + 2). −2 ) . y + 5 = 6 x − 12 y = 6 x − 17 3. answers may vary 122. 0). 0 ⎟ . −1 − (−2) 1 so the slope is –5. We can find a second point on the line by using the slope m = 35 = Rise : starting at Run 3 x+2 2 the point (0. to obtain the point (5. 160 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 3 is a horizontal line. .4 4 −1 3 y2 − y1 = = =3 x2 − x1 −2 − (−3) 1 Check Point Exercises 1. m= 5 − (−2) 7 7 = =− −1 − 4 −5 5 4x − 6 = 0 4x = 6 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. m= −2 − 4 −6 = =6 −4 − (−3) −1 b. When y = 0 : 4x − 3 y − 6 = 0 4 x − 3(0) − 6 = 0 a. 5. 2 y = −3 x + 4 −3 x + 4 2 or 4.Solve the equation for y : y + 1 = −5 x − 10 3x + 2 y − 4 = 0 y = −5 x − 11. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 6( x − 2) 3 x= 2 ⎛3 ⎞ The point is ⎜ . Section 1. 4). 124. we get the point slope equation: y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − (−1) = −5[ x − (−2)] x = −2 The point is ( 0. 123. ⎝2 ⎠ When x = 0 : 4x − 3y − 6 = 0 The slope m is 3 5 and the y-intercept is 1.Functions and Graphs 121. so one point on the line is (1. –1). y= y=− −6 − (−1) −5 = = −5 . Using the point (–2. move 3 units up and 5 units to the right. Inc.

falls −1 − (−2) 1 8.6 m= = = ≈ 0.016 x − 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall.04 = 0.0 = 61.PreCalculus 4E 6.016 Change in x 354 − 317 37 Use the point-slope form and then find slopeintercept form. m= −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. rises 2 − (−1) 3 5. First find the slope. 1 and the y-intercept is 2.04 0.6°F. falls 4−6 −2 9. Section 1.072 y = 0. m= −2 − 3 −5 = undefined. horizontal 3− 4 −1 6.968 f ( x) = 0.016 x + 52. 9. m= 4−3 1 = .016 x + 51. m= −2 − (−4) 2 = = −1. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 57. rises 2 − (−2) 4 4. m= 10 − 7 3 = .0 f (600) = 0. f ( x) = 0. horizontal 3−4 −1 7.016 x + 52. 7. m= 2 −1 1 = . 2 Find the x-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3x − 2(0) − 6 = 0 3x − 6 = 0 3x = 6 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3(0) − 2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y = 6 y = −3 1.64 − 57.4 The slope is − 8.04 = 0. m= 4 −1 3 = = 3. 3x + 6 y − 12 = 0 6 y = −3 x + 12 −3 12 y= x+ 6 6 1 y = − x+2 2 Exercise Set 1. Inc. vertical 5−5 0 161 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0 Find the temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million. rises 8−4 4 2.016(600) + 52. m= 2 − (−2) 0 = = 0. . Any value can be used for y.4 All ordered pairs that are solutions of x = −3 have a value of x that is always –3. m= −1 − 4 −5 = = −5. Change in y 57.016( x − 317) y − 57. rises 3−2 1 3.6 The temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million would be 61.

point-slope form: y – 0 = –4(x + 4). x1 = 0. y1 = − . 3 1 m = . 2⎠ ⎝ 1 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x − 2 5 y = −x − 2 10 − 2 8 = = 2. 10) . slope-intercept form: y = −4( x + 4) 3 24. slope-intercept form: y = 8x – 33 m = −3. 4 17 slope-intercept form: y = − x − 4 20. x1 = −4. 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = y = 6 x + 17 15. point-slope form: y + 3 = –3(x + 2). m = 2. x1 = 10. . point-slope form: y – 3 = 4(x – 1). x1 = −2. 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 2 m = 6. slope-intercept form: y − 2 = 2 x − 2 or y − 10 = 2 x − 10. 3 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 3 14. or y – 10 = 2(x – 5) using m= ( x1 . point-slope form: y + 1 = 8(x – 4). 12. m = 4. y1 = 0. m= 11. y = −3 x − 9 m = −4. x1 = 4. m = −1. x1 = 3. vertical 3−3 0 10. 2 25. x1 = 0. point-slope form: y + 4 = − ( x − 10). m= −1 . y = 2x 162 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m = 8. 2) . y1 = 5. 5 3 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 5 y = −4 x − 16 18. y1 = −2. y1 = 0. 3 2 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x + 4 3 2 y = − x+2 3 16. x1 = 1. 1 . slope-intercept form: y = –5x – 22 17. y1 = −3.Functions and Graphs 5 − (−4) 9 = undefined. m = −5. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 2 x − 6 1 = −1( x + 4). y1 = −1. x1 = 0. x1 = 6. point-slope form: y – 5 = 6(x + 2). point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3). point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x − 0). y1 ) = (1. x1 = −2. 1⎞ ⎛ point-slope form: y + 2 = −1⎜ x + ⎟ . slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −3 x − 6 23. y1 = −2. 1 ( x − 0). point-slope form: y + y = 2x −1 21. point-slope form: y + 2 = –5(x + 4). x1 = −4. 5 3 m = − . point-slope form: y + 3 = –2(x – 0) m = −2. slope-intercept form: y = –2x – 3 19. y1 = −3. 5 −1 4 point-slope form: y – 2 = 2(x – 1) using ( x1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x1 = −4. Inc. slope-intercept form: y = 4x – 1 13. x1 = 2 m = − . y1 ) = (5. y1 = −2. y1 = −4. 4 1 m = −1. y1 = 3. y1 = 5. y1 = 0. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 6 x + 12 1 22. 3 2 point-slope form: y + 2 = − ( x − 6).

slope-intercept form: y = 2x – 1 28. 3 4 y = x+2 3 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = 2−0 2 = =1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y1 ) = (3.4 15 − 5 10 = =2. y1 ) = ( −2. y1 ) = (2.5 ) . − 1) . slope-intercept form: y = x + 2 29. or y – 3 = 1(x – 0) using ( x1 . − 5 ) . 4) . or y + 5 = 0(x – 6) using m= ( x1 . y1 ) = (1. y1 ) = (−3. slope-intercept form: y + 5 = 0.PreCalculus 4E 26. y1 ) = ( −2. 8−3 5 point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3) using ( x1 . or y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using m= ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y + 1 = x + 3or y−4 = x−2 y = x+2 m= 4 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 3 33. −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. y1 ) = (−3. 27. 30. − 2) . 4) . y1 ) = ( 3. 6 − (−2) 8 4 = = . or y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . or y + 1 = 0(x – 4) using m= ( x1 . . y1 ) = ( −3. y1 ) = ( 6.or y – 15 = 2(x – 8) using m= 31. 3 − (−3) 6 3 4 point-slope form: y − 6 = − ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . m= 4 − (−1) 5 = =1. y1 ) = (−2. 6 − (−2) 8 point-slope form: y + 5 = 0(x + 2) using ( x1 . 0 − (−3) 3 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 .so −1 − (−4) 3 = =1. or y = x+2 163 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 1) . − 2 ) . 4 − (−3) 7 point-slope form: y + 1 = 0(x + 3) using ( x1 . y1 ) = (0. y1 ) = (−3. 3) . or y – 2 = 1(x – 0) using m= 32. y1 ) = (−3. y1 ) = ( −2. 4 ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . y1 ) = (4. or y + 2 = − ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . y1 ) = ( 8. slope-intercept form: y − 9 = x − 2. ( x1 . − 4 ) . or y − 6 = ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . 0) . 6) . ( x1 . −2 − 2 −4 point-slope form: y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y + 1 = 0. or y + 1 = 1(x – 1) using y = −1 34. − 1) . 0 ) . Section 1. − 1) slope-intercept form: y = x – 2 −5 − (−5) 0 = =0. 0) . 3− 0 3 = =1. m = 1 − (−2) 3 point-slope form: y + 4 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . m= 4 −2 − 6 −8 = =− . 2 − (−3) 5 point-slope form: y + 1 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . 0 − 4 −4 = = 1. Inc. 6 ) . 2 ) . 3 − (−3) 6 3 point-slope form: y + 2 = ( x1 . so y = −5 35. y1 ) = (2.15) . − 5) . 0 − (−2) 2 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y = x + 3 m= 4 + 4 or 3x 4 y − 6 = x − 4. y1 ) = ( 3. y1 ) = ( 0.

− 2 ) . 0 ) . y1 ) = ( 4. or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) slope-intercept form: y = 8 x + 4 38. m= 43. 0 − ( − 12 ) 12 point-slope form: y – 4 = 8(x – 0) using ( x1 . 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x − 2 2 or y + 2 = 39. b = 2 4−0 4 = =8. 3 m = . − 3) . 1 ( x − 4) using 2 1 ( x − 0) using ( x1 . or 2 2 3 3 y = − x− 2 2 37. y1 ) = (0. y1 ) = ( −1. b = 2 164 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 m = . b = –2 4 44.0 ) .Functions and Graphs 36. 4) . 0 ) . m = 3. y1 ) = ( − 12 . m = –2. m = 2. y1 ) = ( 0. or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) using ( x1 . m = –3. 3 3 slope-intercept form: y + 3 = − x + . y1 ) = (1. b = 1 3 point-slope form: y + 3 = − ( x − 1) using 2 3 ( x1 . 0 − 4 −4 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x1 . or y − 0 = − ( x + 1) using 2 ( x1 . m= 0 − (−3) 3 3 = =− −1 − 1 −2 2 41. m= 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b = −3 4 −2 − 0 −2 1 = = . b = 1 40. Inc. .

4 3 m=− . 55. 52. b=7 5 49. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 47. 50. 1 m=− . 1 m=− . 165 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .b=0 3 54.b=6 5 51. 48. 2 m=− .PreCalculus 4E 45.b=0 2 53. 46. Section 1.

a. 57. 3x − 18 = 0 3x = 18 x=6 61. 2 x + 3 y − 18 = 0 2 x − 18 = −3 y −3 y = 2 x − 18 2 18 y= x− −3 −3 2 y = − x+6 3 b. 3x + 12 = 0 3x = −12 x = −4 59. a. b = 6 166 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4x + y − 6 = 0 y − 6 = −4 x y = −4 x + 6 m = −4. a. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. b = –2 3 c. c. b = 5 c. b. 58. 3x + y − 5 = 0 y − 5 = −3 x y = −3 x + 5 4 x + 6 y + 12 = 0 4 x + 12 = −6 y −6 y = 4 x + 12 4 12 y= x+ −6 −6 2 y = − x−2 3 m = –3. Inc. b. b=6 3 c. 62. 60. 2 m=− . a. 2 m = − .Functions and Graphs 56.

6 x − 2(0) − 12 = 0 6 x − 12 = 0 6 x = 12 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 6(0) − 2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y = 12 y = −6 6 x − 5 y − 20 = 0 6 x − 20 = 5 y 5 y = 6 x − 20 6 20 y = x− 5 5 6 y = x−4 5 b. Section 1. Inc.4 8 x − 4 y − 12 = 0 8 x − 12 = 4 y 4 y = 8 x − 12 8 12 y = x− 4 4 y = 2x − 3 66. m = 2. b = –3 c. m = 0. a. a. b = 3 c. m = 0. 167 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 64. . 4 y + 28 = 0 4 y = −28 y = −7 b.PreCalculus 4E 63. 65. b. 6 m = . a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 3y − 9 = 0 3y = 9 y=3 b. 67. b = −7 c. b = −4 5 c.

Inc. Find the x-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 71. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 70. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs 68. Find the x-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 6 x − 9(0) − 18 = 0 6 x − 18 = 0 6 x = 18 x=3 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 6(0) − 9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y = 18 y = −2 3x + 5(0) + 15 = 0 3x + 15 = 0 3x = −15 x = −5 Find the y-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 3(0) + 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y = −15 y = −3 69. Find the x-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8 x − 2(0) + 12 = 0 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x + 3(0) + 6 = 0 2x + 6 = 0 2 x = −6 x = −3 Find the y-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 2(0) + 3 y + 6 = 0 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −6 y = −2 8 x = −12 8 x −12 = 8 8 −3 x= 2 Find the y-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8(0) − 2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y = −12 y = −6 168 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

−4 − y 1 = 3 4 − ( −2 ) 6 x − 3(0) + 15 = 0 6 x + 15 = 0 6 x = −15 6 x −15 = 6 6 5 x=− 2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 6(0) − 3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y = −15 y=5 73. − 1 −4 − y = 3 4+2 1 −4 − y = 3 6 6 = 3 ( −4 − y ) a is b negative. m= 6 = −12 − 3 y 18 = −3 y −6 = y −b − 0 −b b = =− a 0 − ( −a ) a Since a and b are both positive.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. b Therefore. m= 0 − a −a a = =− b−0 b b Since a and b are both positive. Ax = By − C Ax + C = By A C x+ = y B B A C The slope is and the y − intercept is . (b + c ) − b 81. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 77. Therefore. B B 79. Therefore. the line rises. a is positive.4 72. Ax + By = C By = − Ax + C A C y = − x+ B B A C The slope is − and the y − intercept is . 75. . B B 78. − b is a negative. The line is vertical. 4− y 1− 3 4− y −3 = −2 6 = 4− y 2 = −y −2 = y 80. 76. m= −3 = = f ( x) = 3 3 x− 4 2 (a + c) − c a = a − (a − b) b Since a and b are both positive. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 74. m= 3x − 4 f ( x ) = 6 −4 f ( x ) = −3 x + 6 c 0 a−a The slope is undefined. 169 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the line falls. the line falls. Inc.

First.7 = 0.7 E ( x) = 0.78(40) + 23.3 y − 31.7 = 61.45 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American males. a.78 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form. ages 25 – 29.Functions and Graphs 82.215 x + 65.78 ( x − 20 ) b.8 = = 0. Change in y 74.45% in 2015.0 = 0. −5 f ( x ) = −6 x + 20 f ( x) = First. 3 ( 2) + b 2 −6 = −3 + b −6 = − 85.3 = 54. Using the slope-intercept form for the equation of a line: −1 = −2 ( 3) + b y = 0. y − 31. .5% in 2020. −3 = b 89. Inc.215 x + 65. m4 86.3 c.2 = 0. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) m= b.65 x + 38.78 ( x − 10 ) or y − 70. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 6. 6 x − 5 f ( x ) = 20 88. b1 .65 ( x − 10 ) a. b3 87.7 ) and 51.7 −1 = −6 + b 5=b 84.6.9 = 0.215 x − 4.2 = 0. c.9 ) and (10. find the slope using ( 20. 38.6 The life expectancy of American men born in 2020 is expected to be 78. f ( 35 ) = 0.2 = 0.215( x − 20) y − 38.9 − 31.8 y = 0.1 7. 170 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 = = 0.7 − 45. m2 . m3 .65 x − 6. to be 54.7 y − 31.0 = 0. b2 . a.65(35) + 38.65 x + 38.78 x − 7.215 Change in x 40 − 20 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= E ( x) = 0. y − 45.0 = = 0.7 f ( x ) = 0. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 6 x−4 5 m= y − 45. 45. m1 . ages 25 – 29. f ( 40 ) = 0.65 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form. f ( x ) = 0.65 ( x − 10 ) or y − 51.1 = 0.3 c.78 ( x − 10 ) y = 0.51. to be 61.5 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American females.38.215(60) + 65.78 x + 23.31. find the slope using ( 20.2 ) .1 = 0.78 x + 23. (10.3 − 70. b4 .215 x + 65.1) .5 83. y − 45.7 = 78.65 ( x − 20 ) b.1 = 0. y − 70.7 E (60) = 0.

110 − 230 120 m= =− = −2. a = −22. 91. −24 − 6 −30 m= = = −3. 102.2 The life expectancy of American women born in 2020 is expected to be 83. b. 6) and (10.4) and (10. Two points are (0. a. 104.7 y = 0. –2) and (10. 100.17 Change in x 40 − 10 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 74. 230) (60.5 3 m= = = 0. 5.–10). Inc.5633751 r = −0.4( x − 10) y − 230 = −2.7 = ≈ 0. Enter data from table.5 − (−2) 7.17 x − 1. (10.8428126855 d. b.24). 4 E ( x) = 0.17( x − 10) y − 74. 10 − 0 10 Check: y = mx + b : y = −3x + 6 . 24 − 4 20 m= = = 2. 10 − 0 10 4 3 Check: y = mx + b : y = x − 2 . 5.5). 10 − 0 10 c. Section 1. . –24). Two points are (0.4 101.4 x + 254 Answers may vary for predictions. Two points are (0. −10 − (−5) −5 1 m= = =− .7 = 0.96876741 b = 260. – 99.4 x + 24 y = −2. a. 10 − 0 10 2 Change in y 79.17 x + 73 E (60) = 0.7 − 74. Answers may vary. Two points are (0.17(60) + 73 = 83.4 60 − 10 50 y − 230 = −2.7 = 0. 103.75 or .PreCalculus 4E 90. Publishing as Prentice Hall.17 x + 73 c.2. 92.–5) and (10. 110) Points may vary.17 x + 73 E ( x) = 0. 171 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Changes to make the statement true will vary. Equations of this form have undefined slope and cannot be written in slope-intercept form. Multiply both sides of −2 x + y = 4 by 3 to obtain 12 on the righthand-side. slope is 106. does not make sense. 1 x − 6. Sample explanation: Since college cost are going up. A sample change is: The graph of x = 7 is a vertical line through the point (7. 2 to find the slope. Answers may vary. 1 y = x−6 2 1 y − x = −6 2 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ y − x ⎟ = 2 ( −6 ) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 y − x = −12 So the equation of the line is y = 107. We can use the points ( −2. 4 ) m= 1 . 4 then m = 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since the slope is the negative reciprocal of − . x − 2 y = 12 Therefore. . 125 − 25 100 point-slope form tells us that E – 40 = 2. does not make sense. 110. Sample explanation: The slope of line’s whose equations are in this form can be determined in several ways. Since the slope is the same as the slope of y = 2 x + 1.4 (M – 25) or E = 2. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 4 ( x − 3) y + 5 = 4 x − 12 −4 x + y + 17 = 0 3 ( −2 x + y ) = 3 ( 4 ) −6 x + 3 y = 12 Therefore.Functions and Graphs 114. 40) and (125. Explanations will vary. 116. Using ( x1 . −2 x + y = 4 1 119. Then 280 − 40 240 m= = = 2. 4 x − y − 17 = 0 172 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − ( −3 ) ) y − 1 = 2 ( x + 3) y − 0 = 2 ( x − ( −2 ) ) y − 1 = 2x + 6 y = 2 ( x + 2) y = 2x + 7 y = 2x + 4 −2 x + y = 4 Find the x– and y–coefficients for the equation of the line with right-hand-side equal to 12. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) Using the slope and one of the intercepts. Inc. Explanations will vary. 117. 113. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: Linear functions never change from increasing to decreasing. false. 111. the coefficient of x is –6 and the coefficient of y is 3. 0). Let (25. does not make sense. 4−0 4 4 = = =2 0 − ( −2 ) 0 + 2 2 118.4 . E) where M is degrees Madonna and E is degrees Elvis. Changes to make the statement true will vary. One such way is to rewrite the equation in slope-intercept form. the coefficient of x is 1 and the coefficient of y is −2. false. 0 ) and ( 0. 280) be ordered pairs (M. A sample change is: It is possible for m to equal b. 115. We are given that the y − intercept is − 6 and the 105. 2 We can put this equation in the form ax + by = c to find the missing coefficients. 40 ) . true 112. this function has a positive slope. makes sense 109. We are given that the x − intercept is −2 and the y − intercept is 4 . false. then m = 2.4 M – 20. 108. Vertical lines have equations of the form x = a . y1 ) = ( 25. we can write the line in point-slope form. Answers may vary. A sample change is: Slope-intercept form is y = mx + b .

2 ) . Write the equation in slope-intercept form: x + 3 y − 12 = 0 3 y = − x + 12 1 y = − x+4 3 s (1.PreCalculus 4E 120.25 million each year. the equation of the line is f ( x ) = 2 x − 6.01 x2 − x1 3 −1 3 −1 6. a. We are given that it passes through ( 4. The slope of this line is − b.7 = = ≈ 0.05 − 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0804 − 4 = = 8.5 1.25 Change in x 2005 − 1990 15 The slope indicates that the number of U. The slope of the line y = 3 x + 1 is 3. 42 − 12 4 −1 15 = 3 =5 a. Section 1. Inc. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y + 6 = 3( x + 2) y + 6 = 3x + 6 −3 x + y = 0 y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form.04 feet per second Δt 1. 173 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0 3.5 Check Point Exercises 1. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 y = 3x + 11 slope-intercept 2. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Δs 16 − 4 = = 12 feet per second Δt 2 −1 y − 5 = 3 ( x − (−2) ) y − 5 = 3( x + 2) point-slope y − 5 = 3x + 6 b. 5. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 03 − (−2)3 8 = = =4 x2 − x1 0 − (−2) 2 = Section 1. men living alone is projected to increase by 0. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 13 − 03 = =1 x2 − x1 1− 0 b.5 − 1 c. we know it will have slope m = 2.7 − 9. Use m = 3 and the point (–2. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (3) − f (1) 0.01) = 4(1. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 23 − 13 8 − 1 = = =7 x2 − x1 2 −1 1 c. y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) 3x − y = 0 general form 3. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. .5 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (1) = 4 −1 x2 − x1 4.5)2 = 9 Δs 9 − 4 = = 10 feet per second Δt 1. m= y − 2 = 2x − 8 y = 2x − 6 In function notation.5) = 4(1. a.03 = = = 0.01 − 1 1 thus the slope of 3 any line perpendicular to this line is 3.01)2 = 4.S. y − (−6) = 3 ( x − (−2) ) Since L is parallel to y = 2 x. –6) to write the equation. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (2) = 4(2)2 = 16 Change in y 12. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Exercise Set 1.0804 Δs 4.

5. We are given that it passes 2 through (2. 1 x+7. we have y − 4 = −2 ( x − 3) . 2). we know it will 1 have slope m = − . y1 = −3. y1 = 2 . y − 4 = −2 x + 6 y = −2 x + 10 f ( x ) = −2 x + 10 3. 3 ( x + 1) 2 general form: 3 x − 2 y + 9 = 0 point-slope form: y − 3 = 174 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. point-slope form: y + 10 = –4(x + 8) slope-intercept form: y + 10 = –4x – 32 y = –4x – 42 6. x1 = 2. 1 y − 4 = − ( x − 2) 2 1 y − 4 = − x +1 2 1 y = − x+5 2 In function notation. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form.Functions and Graphs 2. point-slope form: y + 7 = –5(x + 2) slope-intercept form: y + 7 = −5 x − 10 y = −5 x − 17 7. 4). y1 = −7 . L will have slope m = −2 . m = −3 since the line is perpendicular to y = Since L is perpendicular to y = 2 x. y1 = −10. m = –5 since the line is parallel to y = −5 x + 4 . 3x − 2 y − = 0 −2 y = −3x + 5 3 5 y = x− 2 2 The slope of the given line is 3 3 . The line passes through (– 2 1. Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. 2 ( x + 2) 3 general form: 2 x − 3 y + 10 = 0 point-slope form: y − 2 = 10. . 2 y−4 = − x1 = −4. 1 1 y−2 = x+ 2 2 1 1 y = x+ +2 2 2 1 5 y = x+ 2 2 1 5 f ( x) = x + 2 2 2x − 3y − 7 = 0 −3 y = −2 x + 7 2 7 y = x− 3 3 The slope of the given line is 2 2 . y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − 2) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. so m = since the 2 2 lines are parallel. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 1 L will have slope m = . point-slope form: y − 2 = −3( x + 4) slope-intercept form: y − 2 = −3x − 12 y = −3x − 10 9. so m = since the 3 3 lines are parallel. x1 = −2. m = –5 since the line is perpendicular to 1 y = x + 6. x1 = −8. the equation of the line is 1 f ( x ) = − x + 5. 1 y − 2 = ( x − ( −1) ) 2 1 y − 2 = ( x + 1) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. Using the point and the slope. 5 point-slope form: y + 3 = –5(x – 2) slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −5 x + 10 y = −5 x + 7 8. 4. m = –4 since the line is parallel to y = −4 x + 3. Use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form.

. so m = –2 since the 2 lines are perpendicular. f is f ( x ) = 6.12 feet per second 3.01 feet per second 3. a.001) = 12(3.06 Δs 90.601 Δs 90. 6 ) .5 − 3 1 .001 − 3 Δt 21.001)2 = 108. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.7212 − 108 = = 72. 16 − 9 4 − 3 1 = = 16 − 9 7 7 19. The slope of the given line is Δs 122.01) = 12(3. c.5 − 2 Δt 52 + 2 ⋅ 5 − (32 + 2 ⋅ 3) 25 + 10 − (9 + 6) = 5−3 2 20 = 2 = 10 2 s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3. Since the line is perpendicular to x = 6 which is a vertical line.01 feet per second 3.001 − 3 Δt 1 The slope of the given line is − . Since the line is perpendicular to x = −4 which is a vertical line.01)2 = 108. Section 1. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3. 20. 24 − 0 24 = =6 4−0 4 15. 22.5 d. so the equation of Δs 160 − 90 = = 70 feet per second 4−3 Δt f is f ( x ) = 5.5) = 12(3. point-slope form: y + 9 = 7(x – 5) general form: 7 x − y − 44 = 0 13. we know the graph of f is a horizontal line with 0 slope. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (4) = 12(4)2 = 192 Δs 108 − 192 = = 84 feet per second 4−3 Δt b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we know the graph of f is a horizontal s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (4) = 10(4)2 = 160 line with 0 slope. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 general form: 2 x + y − 1 = 0 12.7212 Δs 108.5 ) .01 − 3 Δt d. The graph of f passes through ( −1. The graph of f passes through ( −2. y + 7 = –2 ( x − 4 ) point-slope form: c.5) = 10(3.601 − 90 = = 60. so the equation of 175 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5)2 = 122.07201 − 108 = = 72.06 − 90 = = 60.5)2 = 147 Δs 147 − 108 = = 78 feet per second 3. x + 7 y − 12 = 0 7 y = − x + 12 −1 12 y= x+ 7 7 s (3. 6 − 2 ( 6 ) − (3 − 2 ⋅ 3) 36 − 12 − ( 9 − 6 ) 21 = = =7 6−3 3 3 9 − 4 3−2 1 = = 9−4 5 5 18. 15 − 0 15 = =3 5−0 5 14. Inc.001) = 10(3. so m = 7 since the 7 lines are perpendicular.PreCalculus 4E 11.5 − 90 = = 65 feet per second Δt 3.001)2 = 90. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3.01 − 3 Δt 2 17.01) = 10(3. 16.1 feet per second 3.01)2 = 90. a.5 x − 2y − 3 = 0 −2 y = − x + 3 1 3 y = x− 2 2 b. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.07201 Δs 108.

it will have slope m = − . . m= −4 − 0 −4 = =2 0 − 2 −2 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. This line will pass through ( 2. First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 2 and y − intercept of −4. 3 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −5) ) 3 1 y − 6 = − ( x + 5) 3 1 5 y−6 = − x− 3 3 1 13 y =− x+ 3 3 1 13 f ( x) = − x + 3 3 y−6 = − 176 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m= −9 − 0 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. We use these points to find the slope. −9 ) . This line will pass through ( 3. it will have slope m = − . 3 Use the point ( −5. First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 3 and y − intercept of −9. 2 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −6 ) ) 2 1 y − 4 = − ( x + 6) 2 1 y −4 = − x−3 2 1 y = − x +1 2 1 f ( x) = − x +1 2 y−4 = − 24.Functions and Graphs 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 1 Use the point ( −6. We use these points to find the slope. 0 ) and ( 0. 4 ) and the slope − to find the equation of the line. 6 ) and the slope − 1 to find the equation of the line. Inc. 0 ) and ( 0. −4 ) .

5 25.8 − 1067. a. . 1163 − 617 546 = ≈ 137 1998 − 1994 4 There was an average increase of approximately 137 discharges per year. f ( x) = 1.3 f (12) = 1. 1 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 6. 4 27. Publishing as Prentice Hall. P( x) = −1.3 m= ≈ −96 12 − 7 b. f ( x) = 1. First put the equation 3 x − 2 y − 4 = 0 in slope-intercept form.1(0)3 − 35(0)2 + 264(0) + 557 = 557 f (4) = 1.8 585.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. 177 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. P( x) = 1.2 x + 47 28.3 x + 23 29. m= a.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.4 − 557 m= ≈ 142 4−0 b. 30. This overestimates by 5 discharges per year.1(4)3 − 35(4)2 + 264(4) + 557 = 1123.1(12)3 − 35(12) 2 + 264(12) + 557 = 585. This underestimates the decrease by 36 discharges per year. 2 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 2.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. 32. 31. 4x − y − 6 = 0 − y = −4 x + 6 y = 4x − 6 1 The equation of f will have slope − since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 4 y − intercept −6.4 1123. First put the equation 4 x − y − 6 = 0 in slope-intercept form. 3 26.1(7)3 − 35(7) 2 + 264(7) + 557 = 1067. m= 612 − 1273 −661 = ≈ −132 2006 − 2001 5 There was an average decrease of approximately 132 discharges per year. 3x − 2 y − 4 = 0 −2 y = −3 x + 4 y= 3 x−2 2 The equation of f will have slope − 2 since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 3 y − intercept −2. Inc.

makes sense 44. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Ax + By + C = 0 By = − Ax − C By − Ax C = − B B B A C y = − x− B B The slope of the given line is − A . the lines appear to be perpendicular. 43. b. does not make sense. 39. A 178 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 x +1 3 y = −3x − 2 y= a. This causes the scale of the x–axis to differ from the scale on the y–axis despite using the same scale in the window settings. In part (b). Answers may vary. Sample explanation: Slopes can be used for segments of the graph. B The slope of any line perpendicular to Ax + By + C = 0 is B . 40. The lines appear to be perpendicular. This is verified because product of their slopes is –1. – 38. Explanations will vary. The lines do not appear to be perpendicular. . The zoom square feature compensates for this and in part (c). The lines are perpendicular because their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. Inc. makes sense 42. Write Ax + By + C = 0 in slope-intercept form. makes sense 41. The calculator screen is rectangular and does not have the same width and height.Functions and Graphs 33. this causes the lines not to appear perpendicular when indeed they are.

c. This line is perpendicular to the line above so its 3 3 3 slope is . The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted down 4 units. − A = so A = − . 179 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Ax + y − 2 = 0 y = − Ax + 2 So the slope of this line is − A. 7 7 7 has slope m = 46. b. −3) and ( −2. Therefore. c. 48. The relation is not a function. a. 4 − ( −3 ) 4+3 7 7 = = =− −2 − 1 −3 −3 3 Solve Ax + y − 2 = 0 for y to obtain slope-intercept form. Inc. b. 4}. a. 3. 2. 4. 2. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) reflected across the y-axis. The domain is {x | −2 ≤ x < 2}. c. a. Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 1. . 6}. The relation is not a function. The relation is a function. The range is { y | −1 ≤ y ≤ 2}. The domain is {1. 47. 4 ) b. The relation is a function. The domain is {0. 2}. The range is { y | 0 ≤ y ≤ 3}. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted to the right 2 units. The range is {1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The slope of the line containing (1.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 45. The range is {−6. 4.3}. The domain is {x | −3 < x ≤ 4}.

x-intercepts: –6 and 2 13. x + y2 = 5 y2 = 5 − x y = ± 5− x Since there are values of x that give more than one value for y (for example. ∞ ) 28. increasing: (–∞. The relation is not a function.1. 2}. The range is { y | y ≥ −1}. 26. The domain is {x | x ≤ 1}.3}. −1. the equation does not define y as a function of x. neither. y = − x2 + 5 For each value of x. Inc. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x 180 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (−4) −5 − 3 = = = −1 4 − (−4) 4+4 x2 − x1 25. then y = ± 5 − 4 = ±1 ). x2 + y = 5 24. 30. f (−7) = −2 and f (3) = −2 20. The range is {−2. −1.1. 2 ) 22. The relation is a function. if x = 4. 23. 9. decreasing: (–2. there is one and only one value for y. 7. f (−6) = 0 and f (2) = 0 21. 10. –2) 15. f (100) is negative. 8. Domain: 11. ( −6. 6. 27. y-intercept: 3 14. The domain is {−2. f (−4) = 3 19. Each value of x corresponds to exactly one value of y. 4] 12. ( −∞. so the equation defines y as a function of x. f (−2) = 4 18. 16. . Range: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = −2 17. ∞) 29.Functions and Graphs 5.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 31. 5 y = −3 x 3 y=− x 5 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) − 5 − (−2 x 2 + x − 5) = h 2 2 −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h − 5 + 2 x 2 − x + 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 181 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x b. 36.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 35. . 37. 33. 5 y = 20 y=4 32. 34. a. f (− x) = −2(− x) 2 − x − 5 = −2 x 2 − x − 5 neither.

16 Change in x 180 − 80 100 a. C (150) = 30 b. For each minute of brisk walking. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44.16%. y − (−4) = 3( x − 3) y + 4 = 3x − 9 y = 3 x − 13 f ( x) = 3 x − 13 45. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (2) − f (−1) = x2 − x1 2 − (−1) = ( 3(2) 2 − 2 ) − ( 3(−1) 2 − (−1) ) =2 182 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m= b. so m = − . t > 200 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and the lines are parallel.40(t − 200) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 200 42. 2 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 3 = −2( x + 4) y − 3 = −2 x − 8 y = −2 x − 5 f ( x ) = −2 x − 5 40. 39. if ⎧30 C ( x) = ⎨ ⎩30 + 0. so m = 3. the percentage of patients with depression in remission increased by 0. 2 +1 . 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = −2 x + 10 43. C (250) = 30 + 0.16% per minute of brisk walking. The rate of change is 0. and the lines are 5 5 perpendicular.Functions and Graphs 38. 3x − y − 5 = 0 − y = −3 x + 5 m2 = y = 3x − 5 The slope of the given line is 3. m1 = Change in y 0 − (−4) 4 = = Change in x 7−2 5 Change in y 6−2 4 = = Change in x 1 − (−4) 5 The slope of the lines are equal thus the lines are parallel. Change in y 42 − 26 16 = = = 0. 2 . Inc.40(250 − 200) = 50 −5 y −2 x 10 = + −5 −5 −5 2 y = x−2 5 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) The slope of the given line is y − 3 = −2 ( x − (−4) ) m= 5 ( x − (−4) ) 2 5 y + 3 = − x − 10 2 5 y = − x − 13 2 5 f ( x) = − x − 13 2 y − (−3) = − Change in y 1 − (−5) 6 = = =2 Change in x 2 − (−1) 3 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − 2) y − 1 = 2x − 4 y = 2x − 3 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 41.

then 3 shifted down 2 units. a. 4.6 Check Point Exercises 1. 2. Reflect about the x-axis. Horizontally shrink the graph of y = f ( x ) . Shift to the right 4 units. The graph of y = f ( x ) is shifted 1 unit left.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. . Inc. 8.6 Section 1. by a factor of 5. 3. 6. Horizontally stretch the graph of y = f ( x ) . 183 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Shift up vertically 3 units. Vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x . reflected about the x-axis. b. Shift to the right 1 unit and down 2 units. Reflect about the y-axis. shrunk 1 .

6 1. 9. 4. The graph of f ( x) = x 2 is shifted 1 unit right. 3. then shifted up 3 units.Functions and Graphs 9. 8. Exercise Set 1. 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7. 5. Inc. . 184 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. stretched by a factor of 2. 6.

14. Inc. 185 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 12. 18. 13. 16. 17.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 19.6 10. 11. .

Functions and Graphs 20. Inc. 30. 29. 24. 25. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 23. 28. 26. 22. 186 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 27. 21.

37. 36. 187 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 35.6 31. . 39. 40.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 32. 38. 33. Inc. 34.

44. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 49. 48. 188 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 45. Inc. 42. 47. 50.Functions and Graphs 41. 43. 46.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 57. . 55.6 51. 54. 58. 53. 52. 61. 56. 189 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 59. 62. 60.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.

Inc. 68. 64.Functions and Graphs 63. . 70. 71. 66. 65. 73. 69. 67. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 72. 190 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 74.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 79.6 81. 85. Inc. 83. 82. 86. 80. 75. 77. 76.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 191 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 84. 78.

95. 88. 89. Inc. . 92. 192 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 98. 90. 97. 87. 91.Functions and Graphs 93. 94. 96.

106. 101.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 108.6 99. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 104. 193 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 100. 107. 110. 103. Inc. 102. 105. . 109.

Functions and Graphs 111. y = x − 2 124. 122. 123. 125. 114. 121. 113. . 118. y = − x 3 + 2 117. y = x − 2 + 1 194 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = ( x + 1) 2 − 4 126. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 116. 115. 112. 119. Inc. 120.

9 inches per month = f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 2.1 = 10 ≈ 0. = = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 ( 2.9 0 + 20. c. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference.1 x + 19 f (48) = 3.9 ) ( ) d.1 50 + 19 ) 60 − 50 43.9 0. 128.1 10 − 0 29. First. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 2.9. Answers may vary. = f ( x) = 2. ) 60 + 20. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 3.9 x + 20.6061 = 10 ≈ 0. b.1 48 + 19 ≈ 40.8031 − 19 = 10 ≈ 1. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference. 195 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c).1 − 2. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 135.9 ) ( = b.9203 = 10 ≈ 0.0 1.5633 − 40. Inc.9 48 + 20. – 134.5 The model describes the actual data very well. a. 0 + 19 ) f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. c. f ( x) = 3. ( 3.1 units.1 f (48) = 2.2 The model describes the actual data very well. 10 + 20.6 First.27 − 20.9 50 + 20.1 10 + 19) − ( 3.0125 − 40.1 ) ( 60 + 19 − 3. then shift the result up 20.1 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 10 − 0 28. 60 − 50 42. b.1.1 − 2. Section 1.PreCalculus 4E 127.1 129. a.1 ≈ 40.0 inches per month f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = d. .2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c). then shift the result up 19 units.

g ( x) = – x – 5 + 1 interval [3. b) 136. ∞ ) . 2 = 3 −1 x 140. 1. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 5 + ( x 2 − 1) 1 148. . makes sense = 9 x 2 − 24 x − 6 x + 16 + 8 + 6 138. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. The domain of f is the set of all real numbers or ( −∞. the quantity under the radical must be greater than or equal to 0. (–a. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 30 x + 30 139. 147. 143. c. Section 1. 155. ∞ ) . = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − x 2 − x + 2 = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x 2 − 4 x − x + 2 = 2 x3 + x 2 − 5 x + 2 154. ∞ ) . 150. false. A sample change is: The graph of f is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the x-axis. b – 3) 153. (a.Functions and Graphs 149. A sample change is: The graph of g is a translation of f three units to the left and three units upward. Since h( x) = 9 x − 27 contains an even root. b) 152. true 145. (a + 3.7 141. The function f ( x) = x 2 + 3x − 17 contains neither division nor an even root. b. The denominator equals zero when x = 7 or x = –7. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t − 1). Changes to make the statement true will vary. 9 x − 27 ≥ 0 9 x ≥ 27 x≥3 Thus. (a. Explanations will vary. (2 x − 1)( x 2 + x − 2) = 2 x( x 2 + x − 2) − 1( x 2 + x − 2) b. A sample change is: The stretch will be 5 units and the downward shift will be 10 units. g ( x) = − 16 – x 2 − 1 4 = x − 5 + x2 − 1 = − x2 + x − 6 196 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the domain of h is {x x ≥ 3} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t + 1). g ( x) = −( x + 4)2 146. does not make sense. 2b) 151. or the of g is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the yaxis. Changes to make the statement true will vary. g ( x) = − x − 2 + 2 2. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. while the graph a. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. false. These values must be excluded from the domain. a. domain of g = ( −∞. 144. Inc. false. ( f ( x) ) 2 − 2 f ( x ) + 6 = ( 3x − 4 ) − 2(3 x − 4) + 6 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 − 6 x + 8 + 6 137. a. 2x 2x = 3x − x 3− x x Check Point Exercises 142.

The function contains neither division nor an even root. 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 6. 1. 2 h ( x ) = f g where f ( x) = x . . x ≠ − ⎬ 2⎭ ⎩ = x − 5 − x2 + 1 = − x2 + x − 4 c. ∞ ) 7. The domain = ( −∞. 1⎫ ⎧ domain: ⎨ x x ≠ 0. The domain = ( −∞. x ≠ ±1 = 2 x −1 4. a. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 [3. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. ∞). = x − 5 − ( x − 1) g )( x) = (f b. 4 4x = 1 1 + 2x +2 x a. domain: ( −∞. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. This value must be excluded from the domain. ∞ ) 9.7 ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5. Inc. ∞) The domain of f + g is the set of all real numbers that are common to the domain of f and the domain of g. The denominator equals zero when x = 4. ( fg )( x ) = ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 − 1) = x ( x 2 − 1) − 5 ( x 2 − 1) 6. ∞ ) 3. domain: ( −∞. a. ∞ ) . The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain.7 ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = ( x) g g ⎝ ⎠ x −5 . −3) ∪ ( −3. g ( x) = x 2 + 5 = x3 − x − 5 x 2 + 5 = x3 − 5 x 2 − x + 5 d. Thus. The domain = ( −∞. This value must be excluded from the domain. ∞) domain of g: x +1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −1 [−1. The function contains neither division nor an even root. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 8. 5 ) ∪ ( 5. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. Section 1. ∞ ) . The denominator equals zero when x = −5.10 ) ∪ (10. domain: ( −∞. −7 ) ∪ ( −7.9 ) ∪ ( 9. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. domain: ( −∞. The function contains neither division nor an even root. ∞ ) 2. 5. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 3 + x +1 b. the domain of f + g is [3. The function contains neither division nor an even root. domain of f: (f ( g ) ( x) = f ( g ( x ) ) ) = 5 2 x2 − x − 1 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x − 5 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 b. Exercise Set 1. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. The domain = ( −∞. domain: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E b. 3. (f (f g ) ( x) = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 10. −8) ∪ ( −8. ∞ ) g ) (−1) = 10(−1) 2 − 5(−1) + 1 = 10 + 5 + 1 = 16 197 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (g f ) ( x) = g ( f ( x) ) = 2 (5 x + 6 ) − ( 5x + 6 ) − 1 2 = 2(25 x 2 + 60 x + 36) − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 120 x + 72 − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 115 x + 65 c.3) ∪ ( 3.

0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) x=2 4 −3 = 0. x −1 Exclude x for 12. 2 ) ∪ ⎜ 2. ⎟ ∪ ⎜ .3) ∪ ( 3. x−2 = 0 − x = −3 x=3 domain: ( −∞. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. Exclude x for x − 2 = 0 . The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. Exclude x for x = 0 . Exclude x for x − 1 = 0 . 4 ) ∪ ( 4. 3 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 domain: [ −2. Inc. 2 ) ∪ ( 2.1) ∪ (1. The expression under the radical must not be negative. The expression under the radical must not be negative. x 3 −1 = 0 x ⎛3 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 3− x = 0 4 − 2 ( x − 1) = 0 4 − 2x + 2 = 0 −2 x + 6 = 0 −2 x = −6 x=3 domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) x =1 4 −2= 0. ∞ ) 18. ∞ ) 198 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) ∪ ( −1. Exclude x for x = 0 . The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. x−2 Exclude x for 14.3) ∪ ( 3. x 4 −1 = 0 x ⎛4 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 4−x = 0 4 −3 = 0 x−2 4 ⎞ − 3 ⎟ = ( x − 2 )( 0 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎛⎜ − x 2 ⎝ ⎠ 4 − 3( x − 2) = 0 4 − 3x + 6 = 0 −3 x + 10 = 0 −3x = −10 − x = −4 10 3 ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ x=4 domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. domain: ( −∞. 4 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. ∞ ) x= 17.1) ∪ (1. domain: ( −∞. . The first denominator cannot equal zero. x −1 = 0 11.Functions and Graphs 15. ∞ ) 16. The first denominator cannot equal zero. ∞ ) 4 −2 = 0 x −1 4 ⎞ − 2 ⎟ = ( x − 1)( 0 ) ( x − 1) ⎛⎜ ⎝ x −1 ⎠ 13.

∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 3x 2 + x − 5 37. domain: (−∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. Inc. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x − 5)(3 x 2 ) = 3x 3 − 15 x 2 domain: (−∞. ∞) (fg)(x) = (3x – 4)(x + 2) = 3x2 + 2x – 8 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x – 6)(5 x 2 ) = 5 x 3 – 30 x 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = (2x + 3) – (x – 1) =x+4 domain: (−∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (6 x 2 − x − 1)( x − 1) = 6 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 1 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f – g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 x – 4 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 2 x2 – x – 3 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x +1 ⎝g⎠ ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = (2 x + 3) ⋅ ( x − 1) = 2x2 + x − 3 domain: (−∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (3 − x 2 )( x 2 + 2 x − 15) ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 3x2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3 − x2 = ( x ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 2 x − 15 ⎝g⎠ ( f + g )( x) = 5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = −2 x 2 − 2 x + 18 domain: (–∞. ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x−6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5x2 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. (f + g)(x) = 4x – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 36. = 2 x3 + x 2 – 4 x – 3 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = −3 x 2 + x − 5 domain: (−∞.1) ∪ (1. −1) ∪ ( −1. ∞) = ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) 2 x + 3 = ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g ( x) x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) 35.1) ∪ (1. −5) ∪ ( −5. (f + g)(x) = 3x + 2 domain: (−∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 6 x2 − x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( f + g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = 2 x − 12 domain: (–∞. (2 x – 3)( x + 1) = 2x – 3 ( x + 1) domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = 6 x 2 − 2 x domain: (–∞. domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (2 x 2 – x – 3)( x + 1) = − x 4 − 2 x 3 + 18 x 2 + 6 x − 45 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 34. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. ∞ ) 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 200 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = –5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 4) – (x + 2) = 2x – 6 domain: (–∞. .Functions and Graphs 31. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x+2 ⎝g⎠ 33.

0 ) ∪ ( 0. ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 4 domain: [0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0.5) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) 42. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. Inc. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 5 − x2 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 4 x − 12 ⎝g⎠ 2 + 1x ⎛ ⎛f ⎞ 1⎞ ( ) x = = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ x = 2x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. 1 1 − =2 x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 5) domain: [0. Section 1. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 6 – ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 4) domain: [0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 4 domain: [0. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −5 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x−4 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (5 − x 2 )( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 1 ⎞ 1 2 1 2x + 1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ = + 2 = x⎠ x x x x2 ⎝ domain: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 38. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. . ∞ ) 201 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. −6 ) ∪ ( −6. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 2 + = −2 x 2 − 4 x + 17 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 40. ∞ ) = − x 4 − 4 x3 + 17 x 2 + 20 x − 60 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 41. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 5 domain: [0. ∞ ) 1 1 + =6 x x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 − 1 1 2 6x − 2 − = 6− = x x x x domain: ( −∞.7 ( f + g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) = 4x − 7 domain: (–∞. 1 1 2 2x + 2 + = 2+ = x x x x domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 6 − 1x ⎛ ⎛ f ⎞ 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 1 = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ x = 6 x − 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) 39. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 5 domain: [0. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 2 + 1 ⎞ 1 6 1 6x −1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ = − 2 = 2 x⎠ x x x x ⎝ domain: ( −∞.

∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 x2 − 9 (5 x + 1)(4 x − 2) = 2 ( x2 − 9) ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = = = = 3x + 1 2 x − 4 ⋅ x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 (3 x + 1)(2 x − 4) (x 2 − 25 ) 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 4x = 2 1 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 3x + 1 2 x − 4 = 2 − x − 25 x 2 − 25 x+5 = 2 x − 25 1 = x −5 domain: ( −∞. .3) ∪ ( 3. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.3) ∪ ( 3. −3) ∪ ( −3. −3) ∪ ( −3. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 44. 4x − 2 = 0 2x = 4 x=2 domain: ( −∞. −3) ∪ ( −3. Inc. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 43. and any values that make 4 x − 2 = 0. −3) ∪ ( −3. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) 202 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.3) ∪ ( 3. 12 ) ∪ ( 12 .5 ) ∪ ( 5. 2x − 4 = 0 5x + 1 ⎛f ⎞ x2 − 9 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 4 x − 2 ⎝g⎠ x2 − 9 5x + 1 x 2 − 9 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 4x − 2 5x + 1 = 4x − 2 The domain must exclude –3.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ( f + g )( x) = x + 4 + x − 1 domain: [1. ∞) ( fg )( x) = x + 4 ⋅ x − 1 = x 2 + 3 x − 4 domain: [1. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 4 − x − 1 domain: [1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −1 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (1. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 + x2 − 9 x2 − 9 9x −1 = 2 x −9 domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3. and any values that make 2 x − 4 = 0.5 ) ∪ ( 5. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2 ⎛f ⎞ x − 25 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2 x − 4 g ⎝ ⎠ x 2 − 25 3x + 1 x 2 − 25 = 2 ⋅ x − 25 2 x − 4 3x + 1 = 2x − 4 The domain must exclude –5. 5. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2x − 4 + x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 5x − 3 = 2 x − 25 domain: ( −∞.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5x + 1 4 x − 2 = 2 − x − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = 2 x −9 1 = x −3 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) x= 45. 3.

( g f )( x) = 2 x + 7 c. ( f g )(2) = 3(2) − 15 = −9 ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 2) 2 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 4 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 6 ( f g )( x) = 3( x − 5) = 3 x − 15 b. f(x) = x + 4. Section 1. g(x) = 2x + 1 ( f + g )( x) = x + 6 + x − 3 domain: [3. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 6 − x − 3 domain: [3. g(x) = x – 5 a. ( f g )( x) = 5(3x − 4) + 2 = 15 x − 18 b. ∞) 47. ( f g )(2) = 14(2) 2 − 62 = −6 f ( x) = x 2 + 2. = 20 x 2 − 11 b. = 80 x 2 − 120 x + 43 c. f(x) = 4x – 3. ( g f )( x) = 2(7 x + 1)2 − 9 = 2(49 x 2 + 14 x + 1) − 9 = 98 x 2 + 28 x − 7 c. ( f g )( x) = 7(2 x 2 − 9) + 1 = 14 x 2 − 62 b. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( f g )( x) = 4(5 x 2 − 2) − 3 b. g(x) = 3x – 4 ( f + g )( x) = x − 2 + 2 − x domain: {2} ( f − g )( x) = x − 2 − 2 − x domain: {2} a. ( g f )( x) = 3(5 x + 2) − 4 = 15 x + 2 c. ( g f )( x) = 2( x + 4) + 1 = 2 x + 9 c. g(x) = x + 7 ( f g )( x) = 2( x + 7) = 2 x + 14 ( g f )( x) = 5(4 x − 3) 2 − 2 = 5(16 x 2 − 24 x + 9) − 2 ( f + g )( x) = x − 5 + 5 − x domain: {5} ( f − g )( x) = x − 5 − 5 − x domain: {5} a. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 2) 2 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 4 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 2 c. a. a. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 14 = 18 a. f(x) = 3x.7 51. g ( x) = 2 x 2 – 9 49. Inc. ( g f )( x) = 3x – 5 c. g ( x) = 5 x 2 − 2 ( fg )( x ) = x − 2 ⋅ 2 − x = − x 2 + 4 x − 4 domain: {2} ⎛f ⎞ x−2 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 2− x ⎝ ⎠ domain: ∅ 48. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 5 = 9 52. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 4(2) 2 + 6 = 6 203 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = x + 6 ⋅ x − 3 = x 2 + 3x − 18 domain: [3. 55. . b. f(x) = 2x. ( f g )(2) = 15(2) − 18 = 12 53. f(x) = 5x + 2 . ( fg )( x) = x − 5 ⋅ 5 − x = − x 2 + 10 x − 25 domain: {5} ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5− x ⎝g⎠ domain: ∅ 54. g ( x) = x 2 − 2 50.PreCalculus 4E 46. ( f g )( x) = (2 x + 1) + 4 = 2 x + 5 b. ( f g )(2) = 20(2)2 − 11 = 69 f ( x) = 7 x + 1. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−3 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (3.

g(x) = x – 1 a. f ( x) = 4 − x . ( f g )(2) = 2 ( f g )(2) = −5(2) 2 + 20(2) − 7 = 13 f ( x) = x . ( f g )( x) = 4 − ( 2 x 2 + x + 5 ) = 4 − 2 x2 − x − 5 = −2 x − x − 1 2 b. g ( x) = − x 2 + 4 x − 1 a. g ( x) = = 2 x 2 − 17 x + 41 c. g ( x) = x x ( f g )( x) = = −25 x 2 + 40 x − 13 59. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 6(2) 2 + 10 = 2 a. x+3 6 a. g ( x) = x + 2 a. g ( x) = 2 x 2 + x + 5 a. Inc. ( f g )(2) = −2(2) 2 − 2 − 1 = −11 f ( x) = 5 x − 2. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 1) 2 − 3 = x + 2x +1 − 3 4 2 61. g ( x ) = = x4 + 2 x2 − 2 c. ( f g )( x) = x + 2 b. 60. 6x − 3 + 3 6x = =x 6 6 a. ( g f )( x) = 1 c.Functions and Graphs f ( x) = x 2 + 1. 63. = −25 x 2 + 20 x − 4 + 20 x − 8 − 1 c. ( g f )( x) = 2 ( 4 − x ) + ( 4 − x ) + 5 2 c. ( f g )( x) = 5 ( − x 2 + 4 x − 1) − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 5 − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 7 b. ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ −3 = x +3−3 = x ⎝ 6 ⎠ b. ( g f )( x) = x − 1 c. f(x) = 2x – 3. = 2(16 − 8 x + x 2 ) + 4 − x + 5 x+3 2 1 x 1 x =x =x 204 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g ( x) = x 2 − 3 56. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 2 1 b. ( f g )(2) = 2 + 2 = 4 = 2 = x − 6x + 9 + 1 4 2 = x 4 − 6 x 2 + 10 b. a. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 6 x − 3. ( g f )( x) = c. . ( g f )( x) = x + 2 c. ( f g )(2) = 2 − 1 = 1 = 1 1 1 . 58. = 32 − 16 x + 2 x 2 + 4 − x + 5 ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 2 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x + 3−3 =x b. ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 3) 2 + 1 f ( x) = x . ( f g )( x) = x − 1 b. 57. ( g f )( x) = − ( 5 x − 2 ) + 4 ( 5 x − 2 ) − 1 = −(25 x 2 − 20 x + 4) + 20 x − 8 − 1 (2 x − 3) + 3 2 x = =x 2 2 ( g f )( x) = 62.

We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. a. b. a. b. a. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . 205 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 We must exclude − because it causes the 5 denominator of f g to be 0. =x =x b. b.7 2 2 . a. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . domain: 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 66. 2 ⎛1⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = . x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. We must exclude −4 because it causes the denominator of f g to be 0. ∞ ) . b. a. x−2 ≥ 0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) . f g ( x ) = f ( x − 2) = x − 2 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 3) = x − 3 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. 6⎞ ⎛ 6 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. 4 ⎛4⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝ x ⎠ 4 +1 x ⎛4⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) x = ⎝ ⎠ ⎛4 ⎞ ⎜ + 1⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 4 . ∞ ) . 4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 70. 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 4 denominator of f g to be 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g ( x) = x x a.x ≠ 0 1 x ⎝ ⎠ +3 x 2( x) = ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ + 3⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 2x = 1 + 3x 68. . − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . b. ( −∞. ( f g )(2) = 2 65. ( f g )( x) = 2 b. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. Inc. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. a. ∞ ) . 2 x 2 x 67. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 6 6 ⎛6⎞ f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x = 6 ⎝ x⎠ + 5 6 + 5x x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. ( g f )( x) = 2 c. 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 3 denominator of f g to be 0.PreCalculus 4E 64. x ≠ −4 = 4+ x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. 5⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 5x ⎛1⎞ = f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ x ⎠ 1 + 4 1 + 4x x 69. f ( x) = Section 1.

The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. 2]. (f g )( −1) = f ( g (−1) ) = f ( −3) = 1 g ( x) = 2x − 5 90. The graph of f + g − x ≥ −1 x ≤1 domain: (−∞. 89. 76. 3] . f (x) = |x|. f ( x) = x 4 . f ( x ) = x3 . g ( 3) 0 ⎛g⎞ = =0 ⎜ ⎟ ( 3) = f ( 3) −3 ⎝f ⎠ 86. g ( x ) = x2 − 9 91. ( f + g )( −3) = f ( −3) + g ( −3) = 4 + 1 = 5 82. . ( fg )( 2 ) = f ( 2 ) g ( 2 ) = ( −1)(1) = −1 ( f g )( x) = 7 93. f ( x) = 1 . 1]. The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. 84. 74. f(x) = |x|. 2−x ≥ 0 − x ≥ −2 x≤2 domain: (−∞. ( f g )( x) = f ( 2 − x ) = ( 2−x ) 2 +1 = 2 − x +1 88.Functions and Graphs 71. ( g − f )( −2 ) = g ( −2 ) − f ( −2 ) = 2 − 3 = −1 83. ( f g )( x) = f ( 1 − x ) = ( 1− x ) 2 +4 = 1− x + 4 85. g ( x ) = 3x − 1 77. a. 3) g 87. 1− x ≥ 0 The domain of f is ( −4. ( ) 2 x − 3x + 8 − 5 = 7 2 2 x 2 − 6 x + 16 − 5 = 7 2 x 2 − 6 x + 11 = 7 2x2 − 6x + 4 = 0 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x =1 x=2 206 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = −5 73. The graph of f − g = 3− x b. = 5− x b. (f g )(1) = f ( g (1) ) = f ( −5 ) = 3 f ( x) = 3 x. The domain of f + g is [ −4. f ( x) = 1 . x g ( x ) = 4x + 5 81. 75. g(x) = 2x – 5 78. 72. Inc. x g ( x) = 2 x − 3 80. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g(x) = 3x – 4 79. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 2 ) = −6 f ( x) = x. g ( x ) = 5x 2 + 3 92.

(f c. Inc.6 x − 5 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a \$5 rebate. g )( x ) = 0. g gives the cost of a pair of jeans that has been discounted 40%.7 ( f g )( x) = −5 ) = 65(20.044x + 13.51x + 11. 1 − 2 3 x + x − 1 = −5 2 98. f gives the price of the computer after a \$400 discount.5 The number of births and deaths in the U.62 + 0. 99.07x + 24.S.6x – 3 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a \$3 rebate. g gives the price of the computer after a 25% discount.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 b. ( B + D )( x ) = B ( x ) + D ( x) = (7.PreCalculus 4E 94.9(3)2 − 35(3) + 1641 overestimates the actual change in population in the U. ( B − D )( x ) c. in 2005 is 6573. ( B + D )( x ) f gives the cost of a pair of jeans for which a \$5 rebate is offered.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7.76 The slope for f + g is 0. c. 2 = 3. a. ( B − D )( x ) = B ( x ) − D ( x) = (7. The slope of g is 0. 000 The company lost \$200. ( g f )( x) = 0.9 x 2 + 5 x + 6451 ( B + D )( 5 ) = 3.000 + 45(30.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405 100. ( R − C )(20. ( B − D )( x ) = 10. in 2003 was 1634.1 thousand.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 ( B − D )( 3) = 10.000) = 65(30. a.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) − ( −3. since the 25% discount is taken on the regular price first. c.9(5)2 + 5(5) + 6451 = 6573. 000) − (600. The function f g models the greater discount. 000 + 45(20. b. (g d.9 x + 5 x + 6451 b. = 1634. a. 207 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.75 x − 400 This models the price of a computer after first a 25% discount and then a \$400 discount.S. ( B + D )( x ) = 3.5 x 2 − 20 x − 2405 = 10.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 − 3. b. 1 − 6 x 2 − 2 x + 2 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 3 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 8 = 0 3x 2 + x − 4 = 0 (3x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 3 x = −4 x =1 4 x=− 3 95. ( f g )( x) = 0. (R – C)(30. in 2003 by 0. b. ( Section 1.000) – (600. . The slope for f is -0. f g because of a \$5 rebate.75( x − 400) This models the price of a computer after first a \$400 discount and then a 25% discount. c.000 since costs exceeded revenues. a. f + g = -.5 thousand.6 ( x − 5 ) = 0.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 + 3.07 This is the profit for the two stores combined for each year after 2004. a.5 thousand. underestimates the actual number of births and deaths in 2005 by 1.51 This is the increase in profits for the second store for each year after 2004. 000) 97.14 = 0.44 This is the decrease in profits for the first store for each year after 2004. 000)) = −200.1 thousand.000)) =0 The company broke even. f )( x ) = 0.S.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) + ( −3. 96.1 The change in population in the U.

4] 108.Functions and Graphs 113. ∞ ) . – 105. Answers may vary. x = y2 − 1 x + 1 = y2 120. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. the relation is not a function. −1). {(4. −2). (1. does not make sense. makes sense 109. ( f g )( x) = ( f g )(− x) f ( g ( x)) = f ( g (− x)) since g is even f ( g ( x)) = f ( g ( x)) so f g is even 117. When your trace reaches x = 0. 111. 116. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Answers may vary. A sample change is: f ( x ) = 2 x. Inc. Thus. 2− x ≥ 0 119. A sample change is: (f g )( x ) = f = ( ( x2 − 4 x2 − 4 ) 2 ) −4 = x2 − 4 − 4 = x2 − 8 208 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. false. does not make sense. ( f g )( x) = 2 − x The domain of g is [ 0. 118. 2)} The element 1 in the domain corresponds to two elements in the range. A sample change is: ( f g ) ( 4) = f ( g ( 4)) = f ( 7) = 5 115. y = x +1 2 112. The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. Sample explanation: The diagram illustrates x +1 = y2 x +1 = y g ( f ( x) ) = x + 4. 106. (1. true 107. false. − x ≥ −2 x= 5 +4 y ⎛5 ⎞ y ( x) = y ⎜ + 4 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ xy = 5 + 4 y xy − 4 y = 5 y ( x − 4) = 5 5 y= x−4 x ≤2 x≤4 domain: [ 0.1). g ( x ) = 3x 101. makes sense 110. false. Sample explanation: It is common that f g and g f are not the same. (4. the y value disappears because the function is not defined at x = 0. ( f g ) ( x ) = f ( g ( x ) ) = f ( 3x ) = 2(3x) = 6 x (g f )( x ) = g ( f ( x ) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( 2 x ) = 6 x 114.

−2) (−1. −1) (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6. f ( x) f −1 ( x ) (−2. −2) (−2. 2. The graphs of (b) and (c) pass the horizontal line test and thus have an inverse. 3 −1 x Interchange x and y: 3 x = −1 y Solve for y: 3 x = −1 y xy = 3 − y xy + y = 3 y ( x + 1) = 3 3 y= x +1 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : y= f ( x) = 2 x + 7 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 2x + 7 Interchange x and y: x = 2y + 7 Solve for y: x = 2y + 7 x − 7 = 2y x−7 =y 2 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f −1 ( x) = 3.8 Check Point Exercises 1. 0) (0. ⎛ x+7⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−7 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x − 7) + 7 g ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 f ( g ( x) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = x 4.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.8 Section 1. . Find points of f −1 . 2) (2. Inc. 3 −1 x Replace f ( x) with y: f ( x) = x−7 2 f −1 ( x) = f ( x) = 4 x3 − 1 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 4 x3 − 1 Interchange x and y: x = 4 y3 − 1 Solve for y: x = 4 y3 − 1 x + 1 = 4 y3 x +1 = y3 4 x 1 + 3 =y 4 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : 3 x +1 5.1) x +1 4 Alternative form for answer: x +1 3 x +1 f ( x) −1 = 3 = 3 4 4 f −1 ( x) = = = 3 3 x +1 3 2 ⋅3 = 3 4 2 3 2x + 2 2 3 2x + 2 3 8 209 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

2 2 . g ( x ) = 3 3 . f ( x) = 3 x − 7. x 6 f(x) = 3x + 8. f ( x) = 4 x + 9. x − 1 = y2 5. y = x2 + 1 Interchange x and y: x = y2 +1 Solve for y: x = y2 + 1 1. ⎛ x −8⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 3 ⎜ ⎟+8 = x −8+8 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ (3x + 8) − 8 3x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 3 3 f and g are inverses. Exercise Set 1. g ( x) = 3 3 x−4 +4 ⎛ x−4⎞ = 3⋅⎜ ⎟+4 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = x−4+4 =x f and g are inverses.Functions and Graphs 7. g ( x ) = ⎛ x+5⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 5 ⎜ ⎟−9 ⎝ 9 ⎠ 5 x + 25 = −9 9 5 x − 56 = 9 5x − 9 + 5 5x − 4 g ( f ( x)) = = 9 9 f and g are not inverses. x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = x − 1 6. g ( x) = + 5 x −5 x 2 2x f ( g ( x )) = 2 = =x ( x + 5) − 5 2 f ( x) = ⎛ x −5⎞ + 5 = 2⎜ ⎟+5 = x−5+5 = x ⎝ 2 ⎠ f and g are inverses. f ( x) = 6 x . . x −8 3 8. g ( x) = + 4 x−4 x 3 3 f ( g ( x)) = 3 = 3 =x + − 4 4 x x f ( x) = g ( f ( x)) = ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝6⎠ 6x =x g ( f ( x) ) = 6 f and g are inverses. g ( x ) = x+5 9 x+3 7 x + 3 3x + 9 3x − 40 ⎛ ⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ −7 = ⎟−7 = 7 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠ 3x − 7 + 3 3x − 4 g ( f ( x) ) = = 7 7 f and g are not inverses. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3. g ( x) = x−9 4 ⎛ x −9⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟+9 = x −9+9 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x + 9) − 9 4 x g ( f ( x) ) = = =x 4 4 f and g are inverses.8 x 4 ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x =x g ( f ( x)) = 4 f and g are inverses. 2. f(x) = 5x – 9. g ( f ( x) ) = 2 2 x −5 210 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. g ( x) = 7. f ( x) = x 2 + 1 Replace f ( x) with y: 4. Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f ( x) = 4 x.

f ( x) = 4 x x +1 3 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 3 y= ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝2⎠ 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = =x 2 b. b. . f(x) = x + 3 y=x+3 x=y+3 y=x–3 −1 f ( x) = x − 3 15. f ( x) = 3x − 1 y = 2x y = 3x − 1 x = 2y x = 3y −1 x +1 = 3y x 2 x f −1 ( x) = 2 y= b.PreCalculus 4E 9. y = 4x x = 4y x 4 x −1 f ( x) = 4 y= f ( x) = 3 x − 4. g ( x) = x 3 + 4 f ( g ( x) ) = 3 x 3 + 4 − 4 = 3 x 3 = x g ( f ( x) ) = ( 3 x−4 ) 3 +4 = x−4+4 = x b. f ( x) = 2 x + 3 x = 2y + 3 −1 f ( f ( x)) = x + 3 − 3 = x b. 10. a. a. g ( x) = − x f ( g ( x)) = −(− x ) = x g ( f ( x)) = −(− x ) = x f and g are inverses. f and g are inverses. a. a. a.8 f ( x) = − x. ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 y = 2x + 3 −1 12. ⎛ x +1 ⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ −1 = x +1 −1 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3x − 1 + 1 3x = =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 3 211 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. Section 1. f −1 ( x ) = x − 5 f ( x) = 2 x 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 11. x − 3 = 2y f ( f ( x)) = x − 3 + 3 = x x −3 2 x −3 f −1 ( x) = 2 y= f ( x) = x + 5 y = x+5 x = y+5 y = x−5 b. ⎛ x −3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟+3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x −3+3 =x 2x + 3 − 3 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = = =x 2 2 f ( f −1 ( x) ) = x − 5 + 5 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = x + 5 − 5 = x 13. Inc. 14.

f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x f −1( f ( x )) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x 212 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x3 + 2 − 2 = 3 x3 = x f ( x) = x3 − 1 y = x3 − 1 x = y3 − 1 f −1 ( x) = 3 x + 1 ( 3 ) 3 b.Functions and Graphs 17. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ( 3 b. a. a. 20. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 3 1 =x 1 x 1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = = x 1 x f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x 2 y= x 2 x= y xy = 2 f ( x) = 2 x 2 f −1 ( x ) = x y= =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 ( x + 2)3 − 2 = x+2−2 =x b. f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 y = ( x + 2)3 x = ( y + 2)3 3 x = y+2 y = 3 x −2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. ( ( 3 x −2+2 ) = ( x) 3 3 3 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( x − 13 + 1 = x − 1 + 1 = x +2 = x−2+2 18. a. x + 1 −1 = x +1−1 =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x 3 − 1 + 1 = 3 x3 = x 19. Inc. a. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ) ( x) 3 x +1 −1 = 1 x 1 y= x 1 x= y xy = 1 f ( x) = y= y = 3 x +1 f ( f −1 ( x)) = 3 1 x 1 −1 f ( x) = x x + 1 = y3 b. . f ( x) = ( x − 1)3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = ( x − 1)3 y = x3 + 2 x = ( y − 1)3 3 x = y3 + 2 x−2 = y 3 3 x = y −1 y = 3 x +1 y = x−2 3 −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. a. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 22. x−2 ) 3 21.

a. x ≥ 0 b. −1 xy − 9 y = 4 y ( x − 9) = 4 f ( f ( x)) = ( x ) = x 24. ( ( ) 4 +9 = x 4 x−9 4 −1 =x f ( f ( x) ) = 4 +9−9 x f f −1 ( x) = 2x + 1 x−3 2x + 1 y= x−3 2 y +1 x= y −3 x(y – 3) = 2y + 1 xy – 3x = 2y + 1 xy – 2y = 3x + 1 y(x – 2) = 3x + 1 3x + 1 y= x−2 3x + 1 f −1 ( x ) = x−2 f ( x) = ) 7 −3 = x 7 x+3 7 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 7 −3+3 x f f −1 ( x) = 213 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y 3 b. . f ( f −1 ( x)) = x 2 = x = x for x ≥ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 23. a. a. a. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 x3 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = ( x) 3 3 =x 7 −3 x 7 y = −3 x 7 x = −3 y 27. xy = 7 − 3 y xy + 3 y = 7 y ( x + 3) = 7 7 x+3 7 −1 f ( x) = x+3 y= b. 2 4 x −9 4 f −1 ( x ) = x −9 y= f ( x) = 3 x y=3x x= y=x 3 f ( x) = x 3 −1 b. y= x x= y y=x 2 −1 f ( x) = x 2 . Section 1. Inc.8 f ( x) = x 4 +9 x 4 y = +9 x 4 x = +9 y xy = 4 + 9 y f ( x) = 26. f ( x) = 25. a.

7x =x 7 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 28. so it does have an inverse function. so it does have an inverse function. The function passes the horizontal line test. The function fails the horizontal line test. so it does have an inverse function.Functions and Graphs b. 214 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . The function fails the horizontal line test. so it does not have an inverse function. ) ( 2 3x + 1 + 1 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = 3x + 1 − 3 x−2 2 ( 3x + 1) + x − 2 6 x + 2 + x − 2 = = 3x + 1 − 3 ( x − 2 ) 3x + 1 − 3 x + 6 –1 34. 2x − 3 x +1 2x − 3 y= x +1 2y − 3 x= y +1 xy + x = 2y – 3 y(x – 2) = –x – 3 −x − 3 y= x−2 −x − 3 f −1 ( x ) = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. x≠2 x−2 f ( x) = 37. so it does not have an inverse function. 31. 30. The function passes the horizontal line test. ) ( 3 2x +1 + 1 x −3 2x + 1 − 2 x−3 3 ( 2 x + 1) + x − 3 35. so it does not have an inverse function. 2 x + 1 − 2 ( x − 3) 6x + 3 + x − 3 7x = =x 2x +1 − 2x + 6 7 36. The function fails the horizontal line test. The function passes the horizontal line test. = = = b. a. ) 29. ) ( 2 −x − 3 − 3 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = −x − 3 +1 x−2 −2 x − 6 − 3x + 6 −5 x = = =x −x − 3 + x − 2 −5 − 2x − 3 − 3 x +1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 2x − 3 − 2 x +1 −2 x + 3 − 3x − 3 −5 x = = =x 2x − 3 − 2x − 2 −5 −1 ( 38. 32. 33.

. 40. ( −∞. a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. a. ∞ ) domain of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : −1 42. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. a.PreCalculus 4E 39. Inc. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. f ( x) = x 2 − 1 y = x2 − 1 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 y = 2x − 3 x = y2 −1 x +1 = y2 x = 2y −3 − x +1 = y x + 3 = 2y f −1 ( x) = − x + 1 x+3 =y 2 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 2 b. f ( x) = x 2 − 4 y = x2 − 4 x = 2 y −1 x = y2 − 4 x +1 = 2y x + 4 = y2 x +1 =y 2 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 2 x+4 = y f −1 ( x) = x + 4 b. ∞ ) domain of f : [ −4. c. c.8 f ( x) = 2 x − 1 y = 2x −1 41. 0] domain of f : 215 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0] range of f : [ −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. Section 1. domain of f : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. a. b. b. ∞ ) [ −4. c. c.

f ( x) = x3 + 1 y = x3 + 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 + 1 2 x − 1 = y3 x = y −1 3 x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 1 x +1 = y f −1 ( x) = 1 + x b.1] domain of f : f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) ( −∞.∞ ) range of f : [ 0.Functions and Graphs 43. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : 216 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. ∞ ) c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. .∞ ) ( −∞. domain of f : 46. domain of f : [1. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. a. 44. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. a. c. a. c.1] range of f : [ 0. y = x3 − 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 − 1 2 x + 1 = y3 − x = y −1 3 − x +1 = y x +1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x + 1 −1 f ( x) = 1 − x b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. b. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) f ( x) = x3 − 1 45. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞.

∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. domain of f : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f : [ 2.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. 3 3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = x +2 x = ( y − 2)3 3 domain of f : [1. ( −∞. c. b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. f ( x) = x − 1 3 y = x −1 x = ( y + 2)3 3 3 x= x = y+2 x = y −1 x −2 = y x +1 = y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 f −1 ( x ) = x 2 + 1 b. ∞ ) [ 2. ∞ ) domain of f : c.8 f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 47. a. a. ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : c. y −1 2 b. ∞ ) range of f : −1 217 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . y = ( x + 2) 49. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞.∞ ) 50. a.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Inc. x= x = y−2 x−2= x +2 = y y +2 y ( x − 2) = y 2 f −1 ( x ) = 3 x + 2 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 2) 2 b. y = ( x − 2) domain of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. c. a. ∞ ) f ( x) = ( x − 2)3 48.

Let f −1 (1) = x . (f g )( 0 ) = f ( g (0) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 0 − 1) = f ( −1) = 2 ( −1) − 5 = −7 60. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 4 ) = 2 57. 53. 59. ∞ ) domain of f : x= (g 4x −1 = 7 f ( x) = x + 1 3 4x = 8 x=2 Thus. g −1 ( 7 ) = 2 b.Functions and Graphs 51. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. Then f ( x) = 3 x − 1 3 f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( −5 ) = 4 ( −5 ) − 1 = −21 ( −∞. a. Let g −1 ( 7 ) = x . ( f ( g [ h(1) ]) = f g ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = f ( g (4) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 4 − 1) = f (15 ) f ( g (1) ) = f (1) = 5 = 2 ⋅ 15 − 5 = 25 f ( g (4) ) = f ( 2 ) = −1 218 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( −∞. a. f −1 (1) = 3 y = 3 x −1 y −1 62. Inc. ( g ( f [ h(1) ]) = g f ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = g ( f (4) ) ) = g ( 2 ⋅ 4 − 5) = g ( 3) c. since f ( −1) = 1 . ∞ ) = 4 ⋅ 3 − 1 = 11 domain of f : 64. since f ( 2 ) = −1 . 54. ) . f −1 ( g (1) ) = f −1 (1) = −1 . 58. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. f −1 ( g (10) ) = f −1 ( −1) = 2 . c. 55. 63. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = 1 56. 52. Then x3 = y − 1 g ( x) = 7 x +1 = y 3 −1 = g ( 2 ⋅ 0 − 5) 61. f ( x) = 3 x + 1 y = 3 x +1 x= 3 y +1 x −1 = 3 y ( x − 1)3 = y f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1)3 b. f ( x) = 1 2x − 5 = 1 2x = 6 x=3 Thus.

(22.8). (30.8. 30). c. 76. not one-to-one 77. {(9.8. (8.5.9. (8.50). f--1(0.25. (22. a. (8. 70.5) = 21 If there are 21 people in the room. Thus.7. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0.5).17). b.4. The graph does not represent a one-to-one function.3) and (19. 30).m. (60. f--1(0.8.3. – 75.8.4).7).8 It passes the horizontal line test and is one-to-one. Section 1. 66.3) and (19. (8. 9.3). The average happiness level is 3 at 12 noon and at 7 p. 60)} f is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of f is not a function.1).17).7) = 30 If there are 30 people in the room.8.1.PreCalculus 4E 65. (50. {(17.3)} b.3). (40.3) . 22). 67.8.3. 68.2). this function does not have an inverse.8.7). (12.7.8.8. f--1(0.3. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. (8. 9 ⎡5 ⎤ ( x − 32) ⎥ + 32 5 ⎢⎣ 9 ⎦ = x − 32 + 32 f ( g ( x)) = =x f and g are inverses. 22). {(9. a. (9. (30.5. These values can be represented as (12. . 69. a.4).2. (8.8. a.4. (50. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. This function fails the horizontal line test.25) = 15 If there are 15 people in the room. one-to-one 219 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. (40. {(17. 9. Inc. (8. (8. (60.5.3) are an example of two x-values that correspond to the same y-value. 40). 60)} g is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of g is not a function. (8.7. b.5)} b. 40). 50).

86. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 80. one-to-one 83.1). not one-to-one 220 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 90. makes sense 88. f and g are inverses one-to-one 79. . true 82. 78. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Inc. Changes to make the statement true will vary. not one-to-one 87. makes sense 89. false.Functions and Graphs 84. 85. A sample change is: f(x) = 5 is a horizontal line. false. so it does not pass the horizontal line test. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 2)}. 3 94. Publishing as Prentice Hall. false. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 81. 92. (7. 93. A sample change is: The inverse is {(4. x A sample change is: f −1 ( x) = . makes sense 91.

( f g )( x) = 3( x + 5) = 3x + 15. y= 97. −1 f −1 ) ( x ) = x x − 15 −5 = 3 3 3x − 2 5x − 3 3x − 2 y= 5x − 3 3y − 2 x= 5y − 3 x(5 y − 3) = 3 y − 2 f ( x) = 102.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.8 95. y = x+5 100. y 2 − 6 y − 4 = 0 y2 − 6 y =4 y − 6y + 9 = 4 + 9 2 ( y − 3) 2 = 13 y − 3 = ± 13 5 xy − 3x = 3 y − 2 y = 3 ± 13 5 xy − 3 y = 3x − 2 y (5 x − 3) = 3 x − 2 3x − 2 5x − 3 3 x−2 f −1 ( x ) = 5x − 3 Note: An alternative approach is to show that ( f f )( x) = x. x = y+5 ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 = (1 − 7) 2 + (−1 − 2) 2 y = x −5 = (−6) 2 + (−3)2 g −1 ( x) = x − 5 f ( x) = 3x = 36 + 9 = 45 y = 3x =3 5 x = 3y x 3 x −1 f ( x) = 3 101. No. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 8 + f −1 ( x − 1) = 10 f −1 ( x − 1) = 2 f (2) = x − 1 6 = x −1 7=x x=7 x = 3 y + 15 y= x − 15 3 (f g ) ( x) = −1 x − 15 3 g ( x) = x + 5 99. Answers may vary. y= (g 96. when it is going up and when it is coming down. 221 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. there will be 2 times when the spacecraft is at the same height. Inc. y = 3 x + 15 98.

k ) = (−3. a. = ( 5) + ( −12 ) 2 2 = 13 2.3] c.9 Check Point Exercises 1. . k = 2. Inc. d = (14 − 2) 2 + (8 − 3)2 x 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 = 122 + 52 ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 4 = 144 + 25 = 169 [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 22 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . 4. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 ( x − 0)2 + [ y − (−6)]2 = 102 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 5. − ⎟ 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ h = 0. ⎟ = ⎜ 4. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 + 7 2 + (−3) ⎞ ⎛ 8 −1 ⎞ ⎛ . r = 2. r = 4. −1] [ −1. k = −6. d= ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 d= (1 − (−4) ) + ( −3 − 9 ) 2 2 2 (x x2 + y2 + 4x − 4 y −1 = 0 ) + ( y − 4y ) = 0 ( x + 4x + 4) + ( y + 4 y + 4) = 1 + 4 + 4 2 + 4x 2 2 2 ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 9 = 25 + 144 [ x − (− x)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 32 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . we have h = −3.77 [ −5. domain: range: 222 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. r = 10. d= = ( −6 − 4 ) + ( 3 − (−1) ) 2 ( −10 ) + ( 4 ) 2 2 2 = 100 + 16 = 116 = 2 29 ≈ 10. center: (h. 1. k = 0. Exercise Set 1. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 42 x 2 + y 2 = 16 h = 0. 3. we have = 169 h = −2. 1) radius: r = 2 d = (8 − 5) 2 + (5 − 1) 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 b. 3. k = 1. x2 + y 2 + 4 x − 4 y − 1 = 0 6. = 13 2.Functions and Graphs Section 1. r = 3 .

9 ( −1 − 2 ) + ( 5 − (−3) ) 2 ( −3 ) + ( 8 ) 2 2 10. d = (−. d= = d = (4 − 0)2 + [1 − (−3)]2 ( ) ( 2 ( 7) 2 + ⎣⎡ − 2 ⎦⎤ 2 = 7+2 = 42 + 4 2 = 9 = 16 + 16 =3 = 32 ) 7 − 0 + ⎡0 − − 2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ =4 2 ≈ 5.5)2 + (6. 2 = 9 + 64 2 7.6) 2 + ( −5.66 223 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. + [3 − ( −2 )]2 = 41 ≈ 6.54 = 16 + 25 11.7 − 1. ( 4 − 0) = 42 + [3 + 2]2 2 = 32 + 42 6. 2 .47 2 12.PreCalculus 4E 4.3) = = 25 =5 = 8 2 =2 2 = 36 + 4 ≈ 2.6 − 2.39 13. d = ( 5 − 0)2 + [0 − (− 3)]2 = ( 5) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 5+3 d = [2 − (−4)]2 + [−3 − (−1)]2 = 6 2 + ( −2 ) d = (1. d= 14.5 − 3. = 9 + 16 ( −1) 2 + ( −7 ) 2 2 = 1 + 49 = 50 d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [−4 − (−6)]2 =5 2 = 52 + 2 2 ≈ 7. d= = 5.40 d = (−3− 0) 2 + (4 − 0) 2 = 3 + ( −4 ) 8.2) 2 = 9 +16 = (−4) 2 + (−2)2 = 25 =5 = 16 + 4 = 20 d = (3 − 0) 2 + ( −4 − 0 ) =2 5 2 ≈ 4.32 9. Section 1.07 = 25 + 4 = 29 ≈ 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. = 16 + 52 = 73 ≈ 8.2 − 8.83 = 40 = 2 10 ≈ 6.

2 ⎟ = ⎜ − . ≈ 2. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛3 2+ 2 0⎞ ⎛4 2 ⎞ . ⎛ 6 + 2 8 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 12 ⎞ . ⎛ 10 + 2 4 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 12 10 ⎞ . ⎟ = (−4. ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 3 −12 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎟=⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.64 16. ⎛ −3 + 6 −4 + (−8) ⎞ . ⎟ = ⎜ . −2 ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 ⎛ 2⎞ 7 ⎛ 4 ⎞⎞ ⎛ 4 3 ⎞ ⎜ − 5 + ⎜ − 5 ⎟ 15 + ⎜ − 15 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ − ⎝ ⎠. ⎝ ⎠⎟= 5 . ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 = 12 + 12 ⎛ 2 10 5 ⎞ =⎜ .5 5 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( = 2 ≈ 1. ⎟ = ( −3. = 1.5) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2 21. ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ −5 ⎞ = ⎜ . ⎛ 8 + (−6) 3 5 + 7 5 ⎞ . Inc. ⎟ = (6. −5 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 28.0) =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 224 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎜ ⎟=⎜ . −4 29. 2 ⎛1 7⎞ ⎛6 1⎞ d = ⎜ − ⎟ +⎜ − ⎟ ⎝3 3⎠ ⎝5 5⎠ 2 = (−2) 2 + 12 = 4 +1 = 5 2 ⎡ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ d = ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ + ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠⎦ ⎣ 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠⎦ 2 ⎛ 3 1 ⎞ ⎡6 1⎤ = ⎜ + ⎟ +⎢ + ⎥ ⎝ 4 4 ⎠ ⎣7 7⎦ ⎛ −2 + ( −8) −1 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ −10 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ . ⎟ ⎝ 5 2 15 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 27.Functions and Graphs 15. d= = ( − 3 − 2 3 ) + (5 ( −3 3 ) + ( 4 6 ) 2 2 6− 6 ) 2 2 24. ⋅ ⎟ = ⎜− . ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −8 −10 ⎞ =⎜ .09 17. ⎛ −4 + ( −1) −7 + ( −3) ⎞ ⎛ −5 −10 ⎞ . = 123 ≈ 11. ⎛ 7 3 + 3 3 −6 + (−2) ⎞ ⎛ 10 3 −8 ⎞ . −6 ⎟ 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 26. ⎟ = ⎜ −5. ≈ 9. 0 ⎟ = (2 2.24 18. ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −12 −8 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 6 −4 ⎞ = ⎜ 2 . −5) ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ) ) ⎛ 18 + 2 −4 + 4 ⎞ . ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 2 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ( = 5 3. ⎟ = (4. = (−4 3) 2 + (3 5) 2 = 16(3) + 9(5) = 48 + 45 = 93 23. .41 19. ⎟ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ −7 ⎛ 5 ⎞ 3 ⎛ 11 ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠. ⎛ −2 + (−6) −8 + (−2) ⎞ . . = 9 ⋅ 3 + 16 ⋅ 6 = 27 + 96 25. 15 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 4 1 3 1⎞ ⎛ 2 1 ⎞ = ⎜− ⋅ . d = (− 3 − 3 3)2 + (4 5 − 5)2 22. 6) 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 20. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ .

9] [ −5. x 2 + y 2 = 16 41. x 2 + y 2 = 49 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 h = 0. . center = (3. k = 0. 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7] domain: range: 225 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 30. 4] [ −4. 0). k = 1. 34. radius = 4 ) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 x 2 + y 2 = 49 32. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = 82 x 2 + y 2 = 64 33. . + ( y + 3) = 5 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 36 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 62 2 2 h = 3. ⎟⎟ ⎟=⎜ ⎜⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛6 2 ⎞ . Inc. 7] [ −7. 0 ⎟ = 3 2. 7] domain: + ( y + 1) = 3 2 2 = 2 [ x − (−5)] + [ y − (−3)] ( x + 5) 39. 37. 2 2 40. center = (0. 42. center = (0. 0 =⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( 31. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = y 2 h = 0. r = 4. radius = 6 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 102 2 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 0 ) = 100 2 [ x − (−2)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 62 2 ( x + 2 ) + y 2 = 36 2 [ −3. r = 7.9 ⎛ 50 + 2 −6 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 5 2 + 2 0 ⎞ . 1). Section 1. 35. 4] domain: ( x − 3 ) + ( y − 2 ) = 52 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 2 ) = 25 range: 2 43. range: ( x − 2 ) + [ y − (−1)] = 42 2 2 ( x − 2 ) + ( y + 1) = 16 2 [ −4. r = 6. 0). 2 ( x + 3) 38. k = 0. radius = 7 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4 )2 = 22 2 2 ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 4 2 [ x − (−3)] + ( y − 5)2 = 32 2 2 ( x + 3) + ( y − 5 ) = 9 [ x − (−3)] + [ y − (−1)] 2 2 2 ( 3) 2 2 = ( 5) [ −7.

4] [ −10. ( x + 2) 2 + ( y + 2)2 = 4 ( x + 4 ) + ( y + 5) = 36 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−5)] = 62 2 h = −4. 6] [ −1. 2] domain: [ −6. 1). r = 2 center = (–2. Inc. r = 4. center = (–4. [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 22 h = −3. r = 1. 7] [ −4. –2). –5). −1] [ 0. radius = 5 [ −1. [ x − (−2)]2 + [ y − (−2)]2 = 22 h = −2. radius = 4 45. center = (–1. r = 5. 4] [ −1.9] range: domain: range: 226 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. k = 4. center = (2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x 2 + ( y − 1) = 1 2 h = 0. [ −2. k = −5. 4). r = 2 center = (–3. ( x − 2) 2 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 47. . 0] [ −4. k = 3. 0] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 4 48. radius = 2 2 ( x − 2) + ( y − 3)2 = 42 h = 2. radius = 1 h = −1. k = −2. 2). 2] [ −11. center = (0. 3).1] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 25 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4)2 = 52 2 2 49. r = 6. k = 1.Functions and Graphs 44. radius = 2 46.1] [ 0. k = 2. radius = 6 [ −5.

9 x2 + ( y − 2) = 4 2 x2 + y 2 + 6 x + 2 y + 6 = 0 53. radius = 4 x 2 + y 2 − 10 x − 6 y − 30 = 0 55. center = (0. r = 5. . 2] [ −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4] domain: range: 227 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. h = 0. 3). center = (–2. –1). r = 4. ( x + 1) 2 + y 2 = 25 h = −1. center = (–1. 2] [ 0. k = 2. Section 1.PreCalculus 4E 50. radius = 2 [ −2. ( x + 2) 2 + y 2 = 16 h = −2. x 2 + y 2 + 8 x + 4 y + 16 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 8 x ) + ( y 2 + 4 y ) = −16 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y 2 + 4 y + 4 ) = 20 − 16 ( x + 4) + ( y + 2) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−2)] = 22 2 2 center = (–4.0). radius = 8 [ −6. r = 2. radius = 2 (x (x 2 2 + 6 x ) + ( y 2 + 2 y ) = −6 + 6 x + 9 ) + ( y 2 + 2 y + 1) = 9 + 1 − 6 ( x + 3) + ( y + 1) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−3)] + [9 − (−1)] = 22 2 2 center = (–3. 5] domain: range: 52.2). Inc. k = 0. radius = 5 54.0). 4] domain: range: 51. k = 0. –2). radius = 2 [ −6. (x (x 2 2 − 10 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 30 − 10 x + 25 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 25 + 9 + 30 ( x − 5) 2 + ( y − 3) = 64 2 ( x − 5)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 82 center = (5. 4] [ −5.

Inc. radius = 4 center = (–4. 2 2 2 x2 + y 2 + 8x − 2 y − 8 = 0 (x (x ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 16 2 2 ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 42 2 ( x − 2)2 + ( y − 6)2 = 7 2 center = (2. radius = 5 58. x 2 − 2 x + y 2 − 15 = 0 59. radius = 4 60.Functions and Graphs 56. radius = 7 57. x 2 + y 2 − 4 x − 12 y − 9 = 0 (x (x 2 2 − 4 x ) + ( y 2 − 12 y ) = 9 − 4 x + 4 ) + ( y 2 − 12 y + 36 ) = 4 + 36 + 9 ( x − 2) 2 (x + ( y − 6 ) = 49 (x 2 2 − 2 x ) + y 2 = 15 − 2 x + 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 1 + 0 + 15 2 2 center = (1. 3). 6). radius = 7 228 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1). 0). + 8x ) + ( y2 − 2 y ) = 8 x2 + y 2 − 6 y − 7 = 0 x2 + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 7 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y − 2 y + 1) = 16 + 1 + 8 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 1) = 25 2 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 1)2 = 52 2 2 ( x − 0) 2 ( x − 0) 2 = ( y 2 − 6 y + 9) = 0 + 9 + 7 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 3)2 = 42 center = (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 + y 2 + 12 x − 6 y − 4 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 12 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 4 + 12 x + 36 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 36 + 9 + 4 2 [ x − (−6)] + ( y − 3)2 = 72 center = (–6. 3). .

− ⎟ . radius = 2 ⎝ 1 =0 2 1 x2 + x + y 2 + y = 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 x +x+ + y + y+ = + + 4 4 2 4 4 x2 + y 2 + x + y − 2 x 2 + y 2 + 3x − 2 y − 1 = 0 64.PreCalculus 4E 61. ⎟ . −1⎟ . radius = 1 ⎝2 2⎠ 229 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. radius = 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ center = ⎜ . x 2 − x + y 2 + 2 y = −1 1 1 x 2 − x + + y 2 + 2 y + 1 = −1 + + 1 4 4 x 2 + 3x + y 2 − 2 y = 1 9 9 x 2 + 3x + + y 2 − 2 y + 1 = 1 + + 1 4 4 2 2 1⎞ 1 2 ⎛ ⎜ x − ⎟ + ( y + 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 ⎞ 3⎞ 17 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ + ( y − 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 ⎞ 1 center = ⎜ .1⎟ . Inc. Section 1. radius = 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 62. . ⎠ x2 + y 2 + 3x + 5 y + 17 2 9 =0 4 9 4 9 25 9 9 25 2 2 x + 3x + + y + 5 y + =− + + 4 4 4 4 4 x2 + 3x + y 2 + 5 y = − 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜x − ⎟ +⎜ y − ⎟ =1 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 3⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ 25 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ +⎜ y+ ⎟ = 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛ 3 5⎞ 5 center = ⎜ − . center = ⎜ − .9 x2 + y 2 − x + 2 y + 1 = 0 63.

⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 5. −3) : 02 + ( −3) = 9 2 2 = 12 + ( −1) = 1 + 1 2 units. =⎜ ⎟=⎜ . Using the point ( 3. = 2 The radius is 0 − ( −3 ) = 3 9 = 9 true Check ( 3. b. + ( y − 10 ) = 2 ( 5) 2 + ( y − 10 ) = 5 Since the line segment passes through the center.10 ) . −4 ) and ( 4. 5 units. 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 5 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 10 ⎞ . we get: d= ( 4 − 3) + ( 5 − 6 ) 2 Check ( 0. ( 2) ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = 2 2 3 = 3 true 32 + 02 = 9 3−0 = 3 9 = 9 true 3 = 3 true The solution set is {( 0. The center is ( 4. −3) and ( 3. 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 7 9 + 11 ⎞ ⎛ 10 20 ⎞ =⎜ . Intersection points: ( 0. −4 ) : 02 + ( −4 ) = 16 2 2 16 = 16 true = 22 + 12 = 4 + 1 c. ( x − 5) 2 ( x − 5) 2 42 + 02 = 16 4−0 = 4 16 = 16 true 4 = 4 true The solution set is {( 0. .Functions and Graphs 65. 4 = 4 true Check ( 4. 0 ) : 2 c. ( 4. 0 )} . The center is ( 5. Since the line segment passes through the center.0 )} .9 ) . ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . the center is the midpoint of the segment. a.5 ) 2 68.10 ) 67. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 4. the center is the midpoint of the segment. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. −3) . ( 3. 6 ) . a. Inc. ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . Using the point ( 3. we get: d= ( 5 − 3) 2 + (10 − 9 ) Check ( 0. 66. −4 ) . 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle.5 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) : = 5 The radius is 0 − ( −4 ) = 4 2 2 230 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎟=⎜ . Intersection points: ( 0. b.

1 d ≈ 2693 The distance between Boston and San Francisco is about 2693 miles. Intersection points: ( 0. 2 2 86. −1) and ( 3. 2 ) 84. 68 + 14) = (0.A.7 ) and 4=4 radius 30. makes sense = 302 + ( y + 2.1 d = 72. at the origin. If we place L.1 Intersection points: ( 0. −1) : ( 2 − 2 ) + ( −1 + 3 ) = 4 2 2 d = (8936 − 8448) 2 + (3542 − 2625)2 ⋅ 0.4. 72. −3) : ( 0 − 2 ) + ( −3 + 3) = 9 2 ( −2 ) + 0 2 = 4 2 2 −3 = 0 − 3 −3 = −3 true 73. Answers may vary. −1) : ( 0 − 3) 2 + ( −1 + 1) = 9 2 ( −3) 2 + 02 = 9 −1 = 0 − 1 −1 = −1 true 9=9 Check ( 3. 83. then we want the equation of a circle with center at ( −2. ( 2.4 ) −1 = 2 − 3 −1 = −1 true 02 + 22 = 4 4=4 true The solution set is {( 0.1 2 ( x + 2. d = 1. Inc.7 ) = 900 74. makes sense 87. Check ( 0. 2 .9 69. −1) d ≈ 328 The distance between New Orleans and Houston is about 328 miles. 524. ( x − ( −2. −3) . true + ( 2 + 1) = 9 2 2 = 3 −1 2 = 2 true 0 +3 = 9 9=9 true The solution set is {( 0. −3) and ( 2.4 ) ) + ( y − ( −2. d = (8495 − 4422) 2 + (8720 − 1241)2 ⋅ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. C(0. 079. 2 x 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 4624 75. Check ( 0. −1)} . – 82. 2 )} . 770 ⋅ 0. 033 ⋅ 0. 82) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 682 70.7 ) ) true Check ( 2. −1) . 2 231 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ) : ( 3 − 3) 2 85. −2. 71. ( 3.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.

56 square units. A sample change is: Since r 2 = −36 this is not the equation of a circle. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. . d is distance from ( x . 92. ⎛ x + x − 2 x1 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ false. 232 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. false. The area between them is given by =5 2 AB + BC = AC 2 2 +3 2 = 5 2 π ( 6 ) − π ( 5 ) = 36π − 25π = 11π 2 5 2 =5 2 2 ≈ 34. Sample explanation: Since r 2 = −4 this is not the equation of a circle. Both circles have center (2. 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ + ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ false. 89. A sample change is: This is not an equation for a circle. The smaller circle has radius 5 and the larger circle has radius 6. does not make sense. –5). The distance for A to C: d3 is the distance from ( x1 . Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: The equation would be x 2 + y 2 = 256. x ) to midpoint 1 1 2 2 ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 − x1 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ makes sense 2 2 90. y2 ) 2 94. x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 + 4 4 d1 = 1 ( x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 ) 4 1 x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 2 d 2 is distance from midpoint to ( x2 . The smaller circle is inside of the larger circle. 2 2 2 2 d2 = x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 + 4 4 d2 = 1 2 ( x1 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 ) 4 1 x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 2 d1 = d 2 = 9+9 d2 = = 18 =3 2 b. The distance for A to B: ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d 2 = ⎜ 1 2 − x2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y2 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ AB = (3 − 1) 2 + [3 + d − (1 + d )]2 = 22 + 22 2 2 ⎛ x + x − 2 x2 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 4+4 = 8 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ =2 2 The distance from B to C: BC = (6 − 3) 2 + [3 + d − ( 6 + d )]2 = 32 + ( −3) 2 d1 = d1 = false. 93. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 95. 91. A sample change is: The center is at (3. Explanations will vary.Functions and Graphs 88. y1 ) to ( x2 y2 ) d3 = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 AC = (6 − 1) 2 + [6 + d − (1 + d )]2 d3 = x2 2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 = 52 + 52 d1 + d 2 = d3 because = 25 + 25 = 50 1 1 a+ a= a 2 2 96. –3).

Publishing as Prentice Hall. in interval A = 2π r2 + 2 πrh 22 1000 2 = 2π r + 2 πr πr 2 2000 = 2π r 2 + r πr2 44 ⎛ 22 ⎞ 2π r 2 + 2π rh = 2π r 2 + 2π r ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2π r 2 + ⎝ πr ⎠ r 6. I ( x) = 0. 4.000x 233 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.000 – 100x b. 3.–4).08x = 3 + 0. The smallest side is 8.12x y = x3 c. 15 + 0. 4 ) . 2l + 2w = 200 2l = 200 – 2w l = 100 – w Let x = width. the area is 1200 sq yd b. so must cut less than 4 off each side.–4) is −4 − 0 4 m=− = − .07x + 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.0) and (3. 99. 4 98. N(x) = 8000 – 100(x – 100) = 8000 – 100x + 10000 = 18. p = 2l + 2w = 2(40) + 2(30) = 140 A = lw = (40)(30) = 1200 The perimeter is 140 yd. f(x) = 15 + 0.12x 12 = 0. a.10 7. 000 − x ) Section 1. V = πr h p = 2l + 2w = 2(50) + 2(20) = 140 1000 = πr 2 h 1000 =h πr 2 A = lw = (50)(20) = 1000 The perimeter is 140 yd. π r 2 h = 22 h= V(x) = (15 – 2x)(8 – 2x)x = (120 – 46x +4x2)x = 4x3 – 46x2 + 120x Since x represents the inches to be cut off. The slope of the radius with endpoints (0. The domain of V is { x 0 < x < 4} or.09(25. then length = 100 – x A(x) = x(100 – x) = 100x – x2 2 5.0). g(x) = 3 + 0. . The tangent line has slope and 4 4 passes through (3. ( 0. The line perpendicular to the 3− 0 3 3 3 radius has slope . x > 0. The circle is centered at (0. R(x) = (18. d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0 ) Check Point Exercises 1.08x = x2 + y2 b. the area is 1000 sq yd 100. Inc. 2.10 97.04x 300 = x The plans cost the same for 300 minutes. d = x 2 + x3 ( ) 2 2 = x 2 + x6 a. x − 200 a. so its equation is: 3 y + 4 = ( x − 3). notation.000 – 100x)x = –100x2 + 18.

g( x) = 40 + 0. g( x) = 21+ x c. g( x) = 21+ 0.9 x 60 = 0. P( x) = 28 + 0.25x b. a. 7. N (x) = 30. f ( x) = 1. 5.3 x 0. 1.25(28) = 35 g (28) = 21 + 0.75 x = 21 x = 28 f (28) = 1. 100 + 0. a. 180 = 239.5 x b. Inc.5x c.5x = 21+ x 1. f ( x) = 300 + 0. Exercise Set 1. 000 − 400x)x 2 = −400x + 26. a. for either method.1x 600 = x For \$600 worth of merchandise.5x = 21 x = 14 f (14) = 2. 40 = 28 + 06x 12 = 0.7 x = 40 + 0. b. 8. 4. 000 − 500 x) x = −500 x 2 + 40. b. f ( x) = 2.4 − 0.6x 20 = x 20 years after 1990.7x b. f ( x) = 100 + 0.8x = 40 + 0. 000 − 400(x − 15) = 20. R( x) = (40.9 x 260 = 0. a. 000 x 10. 000 − 400x R(x) = (26.25 x 395 = 180 + 0. your cost is \$580 for both plans a.8 x b. f ( x) = 180 + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9(1300) = 1210 You would have to purchase \$1300 in merchandise at a total cost of \$1210.10 1. a. 40% of babies born will be out of wedlock. 3. b.9 x c. 2. someone will run a 3 minute mile. f ( x) = 200 + 0.Functions and Graphs 6. in 2152.25x 860 = x You drove 860 miles for \$395.3 x b.15x 320 = 200 + 0. \$35. 000 − 400x + 6000 = 26. 000 − 500x + 10000 = 40.2 x 1300 = x f (1300) = 300 + 0. a. M (x ) = 239.7(1300) = 1210 g(1300) = 40 + 0. g( x) = 40 + 0. 2.4 − 0. 000 − 500(x − 20) = 30.5 x 0.5(14) = 35 g(14) = 21 + 14 = 35 To cross the bridge 14 times costs the same.4 x = 198 198 years after 1954.25 x = 21 + 0.25x 215 = 0. 000 − 500x b.9 x c. N (x) = 20. 300 + 0. 000x 234 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5x 800 = x 800 miles a. a. in 2010.15x 120 = 01. 9.5(28) = 35 If a person crosses the bridge 28 times the cost will be \$35 for both options a.6 x b. .3x = 59.

b. Since x is the number of inches to be cut from each side. 000 + 60(90 − x) = 7000 − 60x + 5400 = 12400 − 60x c. V (3) = 4(3)3 − 96(3)2 + 576(3) = 972 If 3inch squares are cut off each corner. V(5) = 4(5) 3 − 96(5)2 + 576(5) = 980 If 5inch squares are cut off each corner. V(x) = (30 − 2x)(30 − 2x)x = (900 −120x + 4x 2 )x = 4x 3 − 120x 2 + 900x b. a. the volume will be 1936 square inches. you must cut less than 15 inches from each side. N (x) = 7. x > 0. a. Since each side is 24. a. 0 < x < 12 a. 13. 0 < x < 15 or (0. the volume will be 1944 square inches. 14. b. R(x) = (12400 − 60x)x = −60x 2 + 12400x V(3) = 4(33 ) −120(32 ) + 900(3) = 1728 If 3 inches are cut from each side. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 15. b. the volume will be 864 square inches. If x is the inches to be cut off.10 N (x) = 9000 + 50(150 − x) = 9000 − 50x + 7500 = 16500 − 50x R(x) = (16500 − 50x)x = −50x 2 + 16500x 16. you must cut less than 12 inches off each end. Section 1. Y(x) = 270 − 3(x − 30) = 270 − 3x + 90 = 360 − 3x V(6) = 4(63 ) −120(62 ) + 900(6) = 1944 If 6 inches are cut from each side. a. Since each side is 30 inches. the volume will be 1728 square inches. 12. Inc. the volume will be 800 square inches. the volume will be 1792 square inches. the volume will be 2000 square inches. 235 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. V(4) = 4(4) 3 − 96(4)2 + 576(4) = 1024 If 4-inch squares are cut off each corner. x > 0. the volume will be 980 square inches. a. A(x) = x(20 − 2x) = −2x 2 + 20x 18. b. the volume will be 972 square inches. . V(4) = 4(43 ) −120(4 2 ) + 900(4) = 1936 If 4 inches are cut from each side. V(x) = (24 − 2x)(24 − 2x)x 2 = (576 − 96x + 4x )x = 4x 3 − 96x 2 + 576x c. T (x) = (360 − 3x)x = −3x 2 + 360x V(7) = 4(73 ) −120(72 ) + 900(7) = 1792 If 7 inches are cut from each side.PreCalculus 4E 11. V(2) = 4(2) 3 − 96(2) 2 + 576(2) = 800 If 2-inch squares are cut off each corner. ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 8− x ⎞ A( x) = ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 2 2 = x 2 64 − 16 x + x 2 + 16 16 = 2 x 2 − 16 x + 64 16 = x 2 − 8 x + 32 8 V(6) = 4(6) 3 − 96(6)2 + 576(6) = 864 If 6inch squares are cut off each corner. 15) 17. Y(x) = 320 − 4(x − 50) = 320 − 4x + 200 = 520 − 4x T (x) = (520 − 4x)x = −4x 2 + 520x V(5) = 4(53 ) −120(52 ) + 900(5) = 2000 If 5 inches are cut from each side. b. the volume will be 1024 square inches.

A(x) = x(300 − x) = −x 2 + 300x 23. A(x) = x(400 − x) = −x 2 + 400x 22. 2 w + l = 800 27. 400. P(x) = x(50 − x) = −x 2 + 50 x 21. . Inc. 000 = 350 x + + 125 x x 1. 2x = distance around the 2 straight sides 2πr = distance around the 2 curved sides 2 x + 2π r = 880 Let x = w A(x) = x(800 − 2 x) 2 x = 880 − 2π r x = 440 − π r = −2 x 2 + 800x 24. 2 x = distance around 2 straight sides π 2r = distance around 2 curved sides 29. 2 x + 3 y = 1000 xy = 4000 4000 y= x 3 y = 1000 − 2 x 1000 − 2 x 3 ⎛ 1000 − 2 x ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ x(1000 − 2 x) = 3 2x + 4y = 1200 ⎡ ⎛ 4000 ⎞ ⎤ C ( x) = ⎢ 2 x + 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 175 + 125 x ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ 1. 400. 4y = 1200 − 2x 1200 − 2x y= 4 1200 − 2x 4 x(1200 − 2x) = 4 2x(600 − x) = 4 x(600 − x) = 2 A(x) = x 236 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 w + l = 600 A( x) = r (440 − π r ) + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 + π r 2 l = 600 − 2 l let x = width. 2 x + 2π r = 440 2 x = 440 − 2π r x = 220 − π r A(r ) = (220 − π r )2r + π r 2 = 440r − 2π r 2 + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 l = 800 − 2 w 28. P(x) = x(66 − x) = −x 2 + 66x 20. 000 = 475 x + x y= 26.Functions and Graphs 19. 600 − 2 x = length = 440r A(x) = (600 − 2x)x = −2 x 2 + 600x 25.

+ 29x 36.12(18750 − x) =y b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.15x + 0.07(50000 – x) 6000 = 0. 37. Let x = amount at 14% 12000 – x = amount at 6% I ( x) = 0.14 x + 720 − 0. = w.02 x = −133 x = 6650 The amount of money to be invested should be \$6650 at 10% and \$12100 at 12%. A = x (108 − 4 x) 2 d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 = −4 x 3 + 108 x 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 8 ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 16 x 2 + 64 = x 4 − 15 x 2 + 64 237 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 0. 6000 = 0.14 x + 0.15 x + 3500 − 0.08 x + 720 39. 300 = y + 4 x d = ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 300 − 4 x = y 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 4 A( x) = x (300 − 4 x) 2 = −4 x3 + 300 x 2 34.12 x = 2117 −0.10 x + 0.15 x + 0.750 at 7%. Let x = amount at 10% 18. 35.10 125 = lw 125 l = = 5000 x 5000 x 125 x 50000 − 31250 = 18750 Invest \$31. 2500 = 0.07 x(50000 − x) 31250 = x + 20x + 9x ⎛ 10 ⎞ A( x) = x 2 + 4 ⎜ x ⋅ 2 ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ 40 = x2 + x 32. b. Section 1.12x – 0.08 x 10 = x y x2 Let x = amount invested at 15% 50000 – x = amount invested at 7% I(x) = 0.10 x + 0.1x + 2250 − 0.07 x + x + 9x 2 10 a. Let x = amount invested at 12% 8000 – x = amount invested at 5% loss I(x) = 0.250 at 15% and \$18. 0.PreCalculus 4E 30. . Inc.06 x = 0. a.12(18750 − x) = 2117 0. let x = l C(x) = 20 2 31.05(8000 – x) 400 = x 2 y 400 x2 =y 38.06(12000 − x) ⎛ 400 ⎞ A = x2 + 5 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x ⎝ x ⎠ 2000 2 =x + x 33.750 – x = amount at 12% I ( x) = 0. ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 8 x 2 + 16 = x 4 − 7 x 2 + 16 108 = y + 4 x 108 − 4 x = y 40.

A( x) = 12 x 2 − 25 x + 12 x 2 + 23 x + ( x + 2) [ 2 x − 2] P ( x ) = 2(2 x) + 2 y = 4x + 2 4 − x 44. Sample explanation: The decrease in passengers is modeled by 60( x − 300). – 62. d = ( x − 2) + y 2 c = 9 + 144 − 24 x + x 2 2 = x2 − 4 x + 4 + ( x) c = x 2 − 24 x + 153 2 f ( x ) = 36 + x 2 + x 2 − 24 x + 153 = x 2 − 3x + 4 43. a. Answers may vary. + ( x + 2) [ ( x − 5) + ( x + 3) ] = 2 x 4 − x2 b. b. A( x) = x 2 − x + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 4 2 A( x) = 3x 2 + x − 4 A( x) = 2 xy = 2x 9 − x A( x) = 12 x( x − 5) + 12 x ( x + 3) 48. 64. Explanations will vary. Road from Town A: c 2 = 62 + x 2 d = ( x − 1) 2 + y 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + ( x) 2 c = 36 + x 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + x Road from Town B: c 2 = 32 + (12 − x) 2 = x − x +1 2 42. 238 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 46. as it suggests a per minute charge of \$30. a. V ( x) = ( x)(2 x + 5 x − 3) − x 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x) = 36 + x + x − 20 x + 164 2 V ( x) = ( x)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) − ( x)( x) [ (2 x − 1) − ( x + 1) ] c = x 2 − 20 x + 164 total length 2 V ( x) = 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3x − x3 + 2 x 2 V ( x) = x3 + 7 x 2 − 3x 51. does not make sense. 63. 6-foot pole c 2 = 62 + x 2 49. Explanations will vary. 2 A( x) = 12 x(2 x) + 12 (6 x − 4 x)( x + 2) + (4 x)( x + 2) + 2 x(8) A( x) = x + x( x + 2) + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x 2 P( x) = 2(2 x) + 2 y A( x) = x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x = 4x + 2 9 − x2 A( x) = 6 x 2 + 26 45. Sample explanation: This model is not reasonable.Functions and Graphs 41. V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x + 1)( x + 2) − ( x + 5)(3)( x) V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x 2 + 5 x + 2) − 3x( x + 5) x = 36 + x 2 8-foot pole V ( x) = 2 x3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x + 10 − 3x 2 − 15 x V ( x) = 2 x3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x + 10 c 2 = 82 + (10 − x)2 c = 64 + 100 − 20 x + x 2 50. does not make sense. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A( x) = 2 xy 47. .

π 12 h3 (7 − 3x )(−2 − 5 x) = −14 − 35 x + 6 x + 15 x 2 = −14 − 29 x + 15 x 2 4 + x2 2 Distance and time walked: d = 6− x rt = d 5t = 6 − x 6− x t= 5 Total time: t= T ( x) = 68. 7 + 4 2 2 + 5 2 14 + 35 2 + 8 2 + 40 ⋅ = 2 − 5 2 2 + 5 2 4 + 10 2 − 10 2 − 50 54 + 43 2 −46 54 + 43 2 =− 46 = A( x) = (20 + 2 x)(10 + 2 x) − 10(20) = 4 x 2 + 60 x + 200 − 200 = 4 x 2 + 60 x 69. . y = –8 x = –2. 18 − 8 = 9 ⋅ 2 − 4 ⋅ 2 =3 2 −2 2 = 2 4 + x2 6 − x + 2 5 73. or = 15 x 2 − 29 x − 14 72. 1 (π 2r ) 2 12 = 2h + 2r + π r P = 2h + 2r + Chapter 1 Review Exercises 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = –6 x = –1. y = 2 x = 3. y = –4 x = 0. Chapter 1 Review Exercises does not make sense. y = 0 x = 2. Explanations will vary.PreCalculus 4E 65. yet their areas are different from each other. 12 − 2r − π r = 2h 12 − 2r − π r =h 2 1 ⎛ 12 − 2r − π r ⎞ 2 A=⎜ ⎟ 2r + 2 π r 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 + π r 2 2 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 2 ( ) x = –3. y = –2 x = 1. Distance and time rowed: d 2 = 22 + x 2 d = 4 + x2 rt = d = 2t = 4 + x 2 71. y = 4 239 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 70. Sample explanation: The area of a rectangle is not solely determined by its perimeter. makes sense 2 1 ⎛1 ⎞ = π ⎜ h⎟ h 3 ⎝2 ⎠ 1 1 2 = π h h 3 4 67. r= 1 h 2 1 V ( h) = π r 2 h 3 66. For example: A 4 by 6 rectangle and a 3 by 7 rectangle both have perimeters of 20 units.

11. function domain: {2. y = −2 x = 1. y = 1 240 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the top marginal tax rate increased about 38%. The graph intercepts the y-axis at (0. 14. y = −1 x = 0. A portion of Cartesian coordinate plane with minimum x-value equal to –20. 2). x = –3. . The graph does not intersect the yaxis. 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 0 x = 1. x-scale equal to 10 and with minimum y-value equal to –5. During the ten-year period from 1950 to 1960. y = 1 x = –1. maximum x-value equal to 40. y-intercept: –4. 0). 7. 8. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. 9. x = –3. 50%). 15. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. 0). 2. y = 3 5. y = –1 x = 0. –2. y = −1 x = 2. –4). y-intercept: None. y = –2 x = 0. 3. The coordinates are (1985. Inc. y-intercept: 2. 6. The lowest marginal tax rate occurred in 1990 and was about 28%. π} x = −1. 0) and (2. x-intercept: –2. x-intercept: 5. function domain: {1.Functions and Graphs 2. y = –2 x = 2. The graph intersects the x-axis at (5. 14} range: {13. y = 6 3. y = –2 x = –1. y = –3 x = –2. 12. 500. 5} range: {7} x = −3. 10. 13} range: {10. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. y = 0 16. 15. 13. the top marginal tax rate remained constant at about 91%. 0). maximum y-value equal to 5. y = 1 x = 2. The top marginal tax rate in 2005 was 35%. not a function domain: {12. The highest marginal tax rate occurred in 1945 and was about 94%. y = 6 x = –2. and y-scale equal to 1. During the five-year period from 1930 to 1935. y = 1 x = −2. y = 0 17. y = 1 x = 3. y = 2 x = 3. y = –3 x = 1. x-intercepts: 2. 19} x = 3.

23. g (−2) = 3(−2) 2 − 5(−2) + 2 = 12 + 10 + 2 31. f(1) = 12 c. y-intercept: –2 e. a. 5) = 3x 2 − 11x + 10 d. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. a. f(–x) = 5 – 7(–x) = 5 + 7x g ( x) = 3x 2 − 5 x + 2 30. increasing: (−2. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 2x + y = 8 y = −2 x + 8 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. g(0) = 4 – 0 = 4 c. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. a. b. − 2) or (0. 0] c. f(4) = 5 – 7(4) = –23 27. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. . 5) b. g (13) = 13 − 4 = 9 = 3 decreasing: (−3. x-intercept: –3 d. y is a function of x. 0) or (3. Inc. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function.PreCalculus 4E 18. 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) = 5 – 7x 22. f (2) = 2x + y = 6 (−2) 2 − 1 3 = = −1 −2 − 1 −3 2 y 2 = −2 x + 6 y = ± −2 x + 6 Since more than one value of y can be obtained from some values of x. y is not a function of x. g ( x − 1) = 3( x − 1) 2 − 5( x − 1) + 2 = 3( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 5 x + 5 + 2 domain: [–3. 26. y is a function of x. 3x 2 + y = 14 y = −3x 2 + 14 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. range: [–5. g(–3) = 4 – (–3) = 7 24. g (0) = 3(0)2 − 5(0) + 2 = 2 b. = 24 c. 19. f(–2) = –3 and f(3) = –5 = 3x + 5 x + 2 2 241 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. 3) g (− x ) = 3(− x) 2 − 5(− x) + 2 f. b. 22 − 1 3 = =3 2 −1 1 25. a. = −7 x − 16 c. f ( x + 3) = 5 − 7( x + 3) = 5 − 7 x − 21 28. f (−2) = b. 21. 29.

2) constant: (−∞. f ( x) = 2 x 1 − x 2 b. 3. relative minimum −3. relative maximum −2 39. Publishing as Prentice Hall. domain: (−∞. a. a. = − f ( x) The function is odd. range: (−∞. 34. x-intercepts: –2 and 3 d. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. increasing: (–2. 0. ∞ ) f. y-intercept: 3 e. domain: (−∞. 2] f (− x) = 2(− x) 1 − (− x)2 c. f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 = f ( x) The function is even. 0. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x f (− x) = (− x)3 − 5(− x) = − x3 + 5 x b. ∞) 37. range: {–3. a. range: [–2. 5} a. ∞) c. − 5) or (0. ∞) 38. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)2 + 1 b. increasing: (–5. relative maximum 3 b. –5 35. 40. b. ∞ ) f. y-intercept: 0 e. −2. − 2) or (2. Inc. . x-intercept: 0 = −2 x 1 − x 2 d. a. f(–2) = 0 and f(6) = –3 33.Functions and Graphs 32. a. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. range: { y y ≤ 0} 242 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. relative minimum −6 36. The function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. −5. b. f(–9) = –2 and f(14) = 2 = − f ( x) The function is odd. 0) decreasing: (−∞.

30) The eagle was ascending. 3x + y – 9 = 0 y = –3x + 9 m = –3 point-slope form: y + 7 = –3(x – 4) slope-intercept form: y = –3x + 12 – 7 y = –3x + 5 Yes. point-slope form: y – 2 = –6(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –6x – 16 −2( x + h) 2 + ( x + h) + 10 − ( −2 x 2 + x + 10 ) 2 47. c. m= 10 − 5 5 = undefined. horizontal 6 − (−3) 9 50. 12) The eagle descended. b. − x − 10 2 d. 6 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44. Inc. . the eagle’s height is a function of time since the graph passes the vertical line test. 17) The eagle’s height held steady during the first 3 seconds and the eagle was on the ground for 5 seconds. Increasing: (17. a. Write 6 x − y − 4 = 0 in slope intercept form. − 14 0 = = 0. m= −4 − (−2) −2 = = 1. perpendicular to y = Decreasing: (3. m= 1 − 2 −1 1 = = − . Constant: (0. y − (−1) = − 16 ( x − (−12) ) y + 1 = − 16 ( x + 12) y + 1 = − 16 x − 2 45. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 8( x + h) − 11 − (8 x − 11) h 8 x + 8h − 11 − 8 x + 11 = h 8h = 8 =8 = −2 ( x + 2 xh + h h 2 ) + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 43. falls 5−3 2 2 46. 1 4 51. 1 x+4 3 m = –3 point-slope form: y – 6 = –3(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –3x – 9 + 6 y = –3x – 3 53. 48.PreCalculus 4E 41. h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 − x − 10 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h −4 x − 2 h + 1 2 m= 49. 42. thus the 1 slope of the desired line is m = − . vertical −2 − (−2) 0 2 − 6 −4 = =2 −1 − 1 −2 point-slope form: y – 6 = 2(x – 1) or y – 2 = 2(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 2x + 4 m= 52. rises −3 − (−1) −2 6 y + 6 = − x − 12 x + 6 y + 18 = 0 243 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6x − y − 4 = 0 − y = −6 x + 4 y = 6x − 4 The slope of the perpendicular line is 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3) or (12.

44 y = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.116 x − 10.56 c. Inc. a.7 = = 0.116 x + 0. According to the graph. y-intercept: –1 5 58. y-intercept: 5 56.000 persons. 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −2 x − 6 2 y = − x−2 3 2 slope: − .3 = 0.Functions and Graphs 54.116 ( x − 15) 2y −8 = 0 2y = 8 y=4 slope: 0.56 f ( x) = 0. y − 11 = 0. 244 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y-intercept: 4 b.116 90 − 15 75 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 11 = 0. France has about 5 deaths per 100. .116 ( x − 90 ) y − 11 = 0. slope: –4. y-intercept: –2 3 60. y − 2. 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 55.116 ( x − 90 ) or 57. slope: 2 .116 x + 0. 11 − 2. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 Find x-intercept: 2 x − 5(0) − 10 = 0 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 Find y-intercept: 2(0) − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = 10 y = −2 59.3 8.

Inc. 1616 − 886 730 61. a. Chapter 1 Review Exercises f ( x ) = 0. .5 billion per year. 65.000 persons.7 deaths per 100. 68.3 deaths per 100.56 = 4.56 66. S (0) = −16(0)2 + 64(0) + 80 = 80 S (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 80 = 144 144 − 80 = 32 2−0 b.116(32) + 0. 67. The line passes below the point for France. then it starts to come down.3 According to the function. f (32) = 0. 71. m = = = 182.116 x + 0. 70. The rate of change is \$182. The ball is traveling up until 2 seconds.000 persons. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0.PreCalculus 4E d. 62.272 ≈ 4. 2 2 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) [9 − 4 ( 9 )] − [4 − 4 ⋅ 5] = = 10 x2 − x1 9−5 63. 245 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 billion per year. France has about 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 2006 − 2002 4 Corporate profits increased at a rate of \$182. S (4) = −16(4) 2 + 64(4) + 80 = 80 80 − 144 = −32 4−2 c. 69. 64.

Inc. 74. 81. 76. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 73. 78. 75. 246 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 72. 79. 82. 83. 80. 77.

x–2≥0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. ∞ ) ( f g )(3) = 16(3) 2 − 8(3) + 4 = 124 f ( x ) = x . ( f + g )( x) = x + 7 + x − 2 domain: [2. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. Inc.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ( g f )( x) = 4( x 2 + 3) − 1 = 4 x 2 + 11 91. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. f ( x) = x 2 + 3. ∞) 89. g ( x) = x 2 − 1 ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 + x domain: (−∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −5 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. g(x) = x – 5 (f + g)(x) = 4x – 6 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) . ( fg )( x ) = (3x − 1)( x − 5) = 3x 2 − 16 x + 5 domain: (−∞. −1) ∪ ( −1. ∞ ) 94.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Review Exercises 92. . g ( x) = x − 2 93. domain: (−∞. f ( x) = x 2 + x + 1. 4]. ( g f )( x) = x + 1 c. 8 – 2x ≥ 0 –2x ≥ –8 x≤4 domain: (−∞. The denominator is zero when x = 5. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = x 4 + x3 − x − 1 85. ∞ ) = x 2 + 5 x − 14 domain: [2. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. g ( x) = x + 1 a. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x2 + x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x2 − 1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1) − ( x 2 − 1) = x + 2 domain: (−∞. ∞) c. domain: ( −∞. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 1) – (x – 5) = 2x + 4 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x + 7 − x − 2 domain: [2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 90. g ( x) = 4 x − 1 a. 3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) 86. 87. ( f g )( x) = (4 x − 1)2 + 3 = 16 x 2 − 8 x + 4 x ≥ −5 b. The domain is ( −∞.1) ∪ (1. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x+7 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (2. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. The denominator is zero when x = –7 or x = 3.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ( f g )(3) = 3 + 1 = 4 = 2 247 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 95. 84. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = x + 7 ⋅ x − 2 88. The denominator is zero when x = 7. x − 1 ≥ 0 and x + 5 ≥ 0 x ≥1 domain: [1. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. f(x) = 3x – 1. ( f g )( x) = x + 1 b.∞ ) f ( x) = x + 7.

g ( x) = x − 2 5 2 3 3⎛5 ⎞ 1 f ( g ( x)) = ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ + 5⎝3 ⎠ 2 6 1 = x− + 5 2 7 = x− 10 5⎛3 1⎞ g ( f ( x)) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2 3⎝5 2⎠ 5 = x+ −2 6 7 = x− 6 f and g are not inverses of each other. f ( x) = 2 − 5 x. y = 8 x3 + 1 3 1 5 100. 0 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ 0. x≠0 1 − 2x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 1 1 ( −∞. ∞ ⎞⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ (f x = 4y −3 x+3 4 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 4 y= g )( x ) = f ( x + 3) = x + 3 − 1 = x + 2 x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 98.Functions and Graphs 96. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 101. f ( x) = x + . b. 97. 2−x 5 ⎛2−x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 2 − 5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = 2 − (2 − x) =x 2 − (2 − 5 x) 5 x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 5 5 f and g are inverses of each other. f ( x) = 3 x 4 f ( x) = 4 x − 3 y = 4x − 3 102. g ( x) = 1 ( f g )( x ) = f ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ ⎝x⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ 1 + 1 ⎜ + 1⎟ x 1+ x x ⎠ = x =⎝ = 1 1 1 − 2x − 2 ⎛⎜ − 2 ⎞⎟ x x ⎝x ⎠ b. ∞) ⎛ x+3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 4 ⎠ = x +3−3 =x (4 x − 3) + 3 4 x f ( f ( x)) = = =x 4 4 g ( x) = x + 2 x − 1 2 −1 g ( x) = 7 x + 4 f ( x) = 8 x3 + 1 103. [−2. a. f ( x) = x 99. a. x = 8 y3 + 1 x − 1 = 8 y3 x −1 = y3 8 3 3 x −1 =y 8 x −1 =y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x −1 2 248 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. a. ⎞⎟ ∪ ⎛⎜ . . a.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. The inverse function exists. =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 (8x 3 ) + 1 −1 109. x ≥ 1 2 2 +5−5 x 2 = 2 x 2x = 2 =x 105. a. 2 +5 x 2 y = +5 x 2 x = +5 y xy = 2 + 5 y f ( x) = 1 − x 2 y = 1 − x2 f ( x) = x = 1− y2 y2 = 1− x y = 1− x −1 f ( x) = 1 − x xy − 5 y = 2 y ( x − 5) = 2 2 x −5 2 f −1 ( x) = x −5 y= b.PreCalculus 4E b. ( ) 2 +5 2 x−5 2( x − 5) = +5 2 = x−5+5 111. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. 104. . 3 ⎛ 3 x −1 ⎞ f f ( x) = 8 ⎜ +1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x −1 ⎞ = 8⎜ ⎟ +1 ⎝ 8 ⎠ = x −1 +1 ( ) −1 107. The inverse function exists. 108. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 106. 2 3 8 x3 2 2x = 2 =x = 110. 249 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f f −1 ( x) = y = x +1 x= x −1 = f ( f ( x) ) = y +1 y ( x − 1) = y 2 =x −1 f ( x) = x + 1 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 . Inc. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test.

07 x c. in 2009.83 x2 − 4 x + 4 + y2 + 2 y + 1 = 4 + 4 + 1 ( x − 2) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 9 center: (2. 3). g ( x) = 5 + 0. . 6] = 22 + 22 domain: = 4+4 range: = 8 x2 + y2 − 4 x + 2 y − 4 = 0 120.07 x 10 = 0. . radius: 3 ⎛ 2 + ( −12 ) 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ −10 10 ⎞ 114.5) ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 + (−15) −6 + 2 ⎞ ⎛ −11 −4 ⎞ ⎛ −11 ⎞ . the average weekly sales will be \$702.Functions and Graphs 119. d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [9 − (−3)]2 = 52 + 122 = 25 + 144 = 169 = 13 113. 250 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.05 x b. center: (–2. 2] domain: ( x + 2) + ( y − 4) = 36 2 2 range: 118. center: (0. –1). Inc. ⎟=⎜ . a. =2 2 x2 − 4x + y2 + 2 y = 4 ≈ 2. radius: 3 112. ⎜ . b.5] [ −4. 15 + 0. a. 0). 122. radius: 1 121. ( x − (−2)) 2 + ( y − 4)2 = 62 [ −1. W ( x) = 567 + 15 x 702 = 567 + 15 x 135 = 15 x 9=x 9 years after 2000. . −2 ⎟ 115.02 x 500 = x For 500 minutes. Publishing as Prentice Hall. [ −1. ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 116.1] domain: range: f ( x) = 15 + 0. x 2 + y 2 = 32 x2 + y 2 = 9 117.1] [ 0.1] [ −1. d = [−2 − (−4)]2 + ( 5 − 3) 2 [ −5.05 x = 5 + 0. the two plans cost the same. ⎟ = ( −5.

i. a. ⎛ 8 ⎞ = 2x2 + 4 ⎜ ⎟x ⎝ x2 ⎠ 32 = 2x2 + x 127. decreasing: (−5.12(10. a. y-intercept: –3 a. –1. 2 b. and 5. 2) 0<x<8 e. –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. no.PreCalculus 4E 123. 1. A( x) = 2 x ⋅ x + 4hx f (0) is a relative minimum. 3. 251 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. (b). I = 0. 6] c. 2. V = lwh 8 = x⋅ x⋅h 8 =h x2 f. 124. − 1) or (2. x-intercepts: –4. even. f (− x) = f ( x) e. (–1. 1 c. 0 d. 6) f. –4) h. f(4) – f(–3) = 3 – (–2) = 5 b. 5] V ( x) = (16 − 2 x)(24 − 2 x) x d. Inc. Chapter 1 Test N ( x) = 400 − 2( x − 120) Chapter 1 Test = 400 − 2 x + 240 1. domain: (–5. range: [–4. a.08x + 0. f fails the horizontal line test = 640 − 2 x b. R( x) = x(640 − 2 x) = −2 x 2 + 640 x w = 16 − 2 x l = 24 − 2 x 125. f(2) = 5 g. increasing: (–1. (c). . and (d) are not functions. 2. 2l + 3w = 400 2l = 400 − 3w 400 − 3w 2 Let x = width l= ⎛ 400 − 3w ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ x(400 − 3w) = 2 126.000 – x) h. g.

7] domain: range: 252 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2] [ −1. ( −∞. j. 2] domain: range: 6. ∞ ) {−1. ∞ ) range: {4} [ −6. 4] domain: 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. domain: ( −∞. range: 9.1] [ −2. ∞ ) ( −∞. [ −2. ( −∞. Inc. 2} domain: range: 10. ∞ ) ( −∞. . ∞ ) domain: range: 4. i.Functions and Graphs 7. 2] [ −2. ∞ ) domain: range: [ −5. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) −1 − 0 1 = =− x2 − x1 1 − (−2) 3 ( −∞. 8.

∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞. f ( x − 1) = ( x − 1)2 − ( x − 1) − 4 = x2 − 2 x + 1 − x + 1 − 4 = x2 − 3x − 2 17. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ( ( g − f )( x) = 2 x − 6 − x 2 − x − 4 = 2x − 6 − x + x + 4 2 = − x 2 + 3x − 2 253 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. ∞ ) domain of f: f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( ( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 4 − x 2 − x − 4 ) h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − x − h − 4 − x 2 + x + 4 = h 2 xh + h 2 − h = h h ( 2 x + h − 1) = h = 2x + h −1 18. 14. ∞ ) domain of f: domain of f: 12. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. ∞ ) range of g: ( −∞. 15. [ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of g: [ −2. ∞ ) range of f: [ −1.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 11. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. 4] domain of f: domain of f: f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 16. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ( −∞. ) . 13.

find the slope using the points (2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. = x2 + x − 4 f is neither even nor odd. 4x + 2 y − 5 = 0 ⎛ f ⎞ x2 − x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2x − 6 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞.S. g(–1) = 3 – (–1) = 4 g (7) = 7 − 3 = 4 = 2 254 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. First. 3(10) 2 − 5 − [3(6) 2 − 5] 10 − 6 205 − 103 = 4 192 = 4 = 48 29. 476) and (4. ( a.Functions and Graphs 19. Write 4 x + 2 y − 5 = 0 in slope intercept form. thus the slope of the desired line is m = −2. 486) . 20. .3) ∪ ( 3. or y − 476 = 5 ( x − 2 ) f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) − 4 b.000 residents. 26. f (10 ) = 5(10) + 466 = 516 The function predicts that in 2010 the number of sentenced inmates in the U. = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 14 22. 1 y = − x + 5 so m = 4 4 point-slope form: y – 6 = 4(x + 4) slope-intercept form: y = 4x + 22 28. y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) y − 486 = 5 x − 20 y = 5 x + 466 f ( x ) = 5 x + 466 −8 − 1 −9 = =3 −1 − 2 −3 point-slope form: y – 1 = 3(x – 2) or y + 8 = 3(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 3x – 5 m= c. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) ) g ( f (−1) ) = 2 (−1) 2 − (−1) − 4 − 6 = 2 (1 + 1 − 4 ) − 6 m= = 2 ( −2 ) − 6 = −4 − 6 y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) = −10 23. 24. ( g f )( x) = g ( f ( x) ) ( y + 10 = −2( x + 7) y + 10 = −2 x − 14 ) = 2 x2 − x − 4 − 6 2 x + y + 24 = 0 = 2x − 2x − 8 − 6 2 27. ∞ ) 2 y = −4 x + 5 y = −2 x + 5 2 The slope of the parallel line is –2. will be 516 per 100. 25. 486 − 476 10 = =5 4−2 2 Then use the slope and a point to write the equation in point-slope form. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) = (2 x − 6) 2 − (2 x − 6) − 4 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) = 4 x 2 − 24 x + 36 − 2 x + 6 − 4 y − (−10) = −2 ( x − (−7) ) = 4 x 2 − 26 x + 38 21.

⎟ ∪ ⎜ . in 2012. b. T ( x) = 41.5( x − 30) = 50 − 1. x ≥1 domain: [1.78 − 0. The denominator is zero when x = 1 or x = –5. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 33. T ( x) = x(95 − 1.000 x = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 ⎜ 2 . ( f g )( x) = b. 255 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 30. 0 ) ∪ ⎜ 0.19 x −6. a. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.0⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛7 ⎞ The length is 5 and the midpoint is ⎜ .5 x 32.7 = 41.19 x 35.78 − 0. domain: ( −∞. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. 2 − 4x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x + 5 ≥ 0 and x − 1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −5 a.08 = −0. Inc. ⎝2 ⎠ 35. 8000 = x ⋅ x ⋅ h 8000 =h x2 g ( x ) = 2x + 3 d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) = (5 − 2) 2 + ( 2 − (−2) ) V = lwh A( x) = 2 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 2 x2 + 2 8000 x2 32. the winning time will be 35. ∞ ) 36. 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛7 ⎞ = ⎜ .19 x 32 = x 32 years after 1980. = 95 − 1. 0 ⎟ . 37.7 seconds. d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 38.5 x 2 + 95 x 2l + 2w = 600 2l = 600 − 2w 7 2 −4 x = l = 300 − w 7x 2 − 4x Let x = w A( x) = x(300 − x) = − x 2 + 300 x x ≠ 0. .1) ∪ (1.5 x) = −1. 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 2 + 5 −2 + 2 ⎞ ⎟=⎜ 2 .5 x + 45 31. f ( x ) = x7 34.∞ ) Y ( x) = 50 − 1.

(5 − 2i ) + (3 + 3i ) = 5 − 2i + 3 + 3i = (5 + 3) + (−2 + 3)i = 8+i 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 2. b. a. (−2 + −3) 2 = (−2 + i 3) 2 = (−2) 2 + 2(−2)(i 3) + (i 3) 2 = 14i − 63i 2 = 14i − 63(−1) b. = i 9 ⋅ 3 + i 16 ⋅ 3 = 3i 3 + 4i 3 = 7i 3 (2 + 6i ) − (12 − i ) = 2 + 6i − 12 + i = (2 − 12) + (6 + 1)i = −10 + 7i b. = 63 + 14i 3. −14 + −12 −14 + i 12 = 2 2 −14 + 2i 3 = 2 −14 2i 3 = + 2 2 = −7 + i 3 x2 − 2x + 2 = 0 a = 1.Chapter 2 Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. c = 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 2 ± 4 −8 2 2 ± −4 x= 2 2 ± 2i x= 2 x = 1± i The solution set is {1 + i. . Inc. −27 + −48 = i 27 + i 48 (5 + 4i )(6 − 7i ) = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28i 2 = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28(−1) = 30 + 28 − 35i + 24i = 58 − 11i 5 + 4i 5 + 4i 4 + i = ⋅ 4−i 4−i 4+i 20 + 5i + 16i + 4i 2 = 16 + 4i − 4i − i 2 20 + 21i − 4 = 16 + 1 16 + 21i = 17 16 21 = + i 17 17 5. b = −2. = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3(−1) 7i (2 − 9i ) = 7i (2) − 7i (9i ) = 1 − 4i 3 c.1 Check Point Exercises 1. a. x= 256 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 − i}.

2 = 4 + 12i − 9 = −5 + 12i 10. (−4 − 8i )(3 + i ) = −12 − 4i − 24i − 8i 2 = −12 − 28i + 8 = −4 − 28i 13. (3 + 5i )(3 − 5i ) = 9 − 15i + 15i − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 (–2 + 6i) + (4 – i) = –2 + 6i + 4 – i = –2 + 4 + 6i – i = 2 + 5i 6. Inc. 4.1 1. (8 – 4i)(–3 + 9i) = −24 + 72i + 12i − 36i 2 = –24 + 36 + 84i = 12 + 84i Exercise Set 2. (7 – 5i)(–2 – 3i) = −14 − 21i + 10i + 15i 2 = –14 – 15 – 11i = –29 – 11i 2 2 3+i = ⋅ 3−i 3−i 3+i 2(3 + i ) = 9 +1 2 (3 + i ) = 10 3+i = 5 3 1 = + i 5 5 3 3 4−i = ⋅ 4+i 4+i 4−i 3( 4 − i) = 16 − i 2 3( 4 − i) = 17 12 3 = − i 17 17 257 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –8i (2i – 7) = −16i 2 + 56i = –16(–1) + 56i = 9 − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 = 34 = 16 + 56i 11. 5. 20. (−5 + i )(−5 − i ) = 25 + 5i − 5i − i 2 = 25 + 1 = 26 18. 22. 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 15. ( 2 + 7i )( 2 − 7i ) = 4 − 49i 2 = 4 + 49 = 53 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 2 + 3i ) 6 − (−5 + 4i ) − (−13 − i ) = 6 + 5 − 4i + 13 + i = 24 − 3i 7 − (−9 + 2i ) − (−17 − i ) = 7 + 9 − 2i + 17 + i = 33 − i 7.1 14. = 4 + 12i + 9i 2 ( 5 − 2i ) 2 = 25 − 20i + 4i 2 = 25 − 20i − 4 = 21 − 20i 15i – (12 – 11i) = 15i – 12 + 11i = –12 + 15i + 11i = –12 + 26i 21. . (−7 + i )(−7 − i ) = 49 + 7i − 7i − i 2 = 49 + 1 = 50 19. 8. –3i(7i – 5) = −21i 2 + 15i = –21(–1) + 15i = 21 + 15i (−5 + 4i )(3 + i ) = −15 − 5i + 12i + 4i 2 = −15 + 7i − 4 = −19 + 7i 12. 3. (7 + 2i) + (1 – 4i) = 7 + 2i + 1 – 4i = 7 + 1 + 2i – 4i = 8 – 2i = 34 (3 + 2i) – (5 – 7i) = 3 – 5 + 2i + 7i = 3 + 2i – 5 + 7i = –2 + 9i (–7 + 5i) – (–9 – 11i) = –7 + 5i + 9 + 11i = –7 + 9 + 5i + 11i = 2 + 16i 16. 8i – (14 – 9i) = 8i – 14 + 9i = –14 + 8i + 9i = –14 + 17i 9.

2i 2i 1 − i 2i − 2i 2 2 + 2i = ⋅ = = = 1+ i 1+ i 1+ i 1− i 1+1 2 31.Polynomial and Rational Functions 23. 26. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −6i −6i 3 − 2i −18i + 12i 2 = ⋅ = 3 + 2i 3 + 2i 3 − 2i 9+4 12 18 −12 − 18i = =− − i 13 13 13 ( −3 − −7 ) = ( −3 − i 7 ) 2 2 = 9 + 6i 7 + i 2 ( 7 ) = 9 − 7 + 6i 7 = 2 + 6i 7 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2+i 2−i 4 + 4i − 3i 2 = 4 +1 7 + 4i = 5 7 4 = + i 5 5 36. ( −2 + −4 ) 2 = ( −2 + 2i ) 2 = 4 − 8i + 4i 2 = 4 – 8i – 4 = –8i 8i 8i 4 + 3i = ⋅ 4 − 3i 4 − 3i 4 + 3i 32i + 24i 2 = 16 + 9 −24 + 32i = 25 24 32 =− + i 25 25 34. ( −2 + −11 ) = ( −2 + i 11) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 11 + i 2 (11) = 4 − 11 − 4i 11 = −7 − 4i 11 37. . −64 − −25 = i 64 − i 25 = 8i − 5i = 3i −8 + −32 −8 + i 32 = 24 24 −8 + i 16 ⋅ 2 = 24 −8 + 4i 2 = 24 1 2 i =− + 3 6 −12 + −28 −12 + i 28 −12 + i 4 ⋅ 7 = = 32 32 32 = −81 − −144 = i 81 − i 144 = 9i – 12i = –3i −12 + 2i 7 3 7 i =− + 32 8 16 258 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 − 4i 3 − 4i 4 − 3i = ⋅ 4 + 3i 4 + 3i 4 − 3i 12 − 25i + 12i 2 = 16 + 9 −25i = 25 = −i 38. 30. 28. Inc. 25. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5i 8 + 3i 18 = 5i 4 ⋅ 2 + 3i 9 ⋅ 2 = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = 19i 2 33. 24. 27. ( −5 − −9 ) 2 = (−5 − i 9)2 = ( −5 − 3i ) 2 = 25 + 30i + 9i 2 = 25 + 30i – 9 = 16 + 30i 35. 29. 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5(4i) + 3(9i) = 20i + 27i = 47i 5i 5i 2 + i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 10i + 5i 2 = 4 +1 −5 + 10i = 5 = −1 + 2i 32.

−8 ± 82 − 4(4)(13) 2(4) = −4 − 2 = i 12(i 4 − 2) = 2i 3 2i − 2 4 x 2 + 8 x + 13 = 0 x= = −2 6 − 2i 10 −12 2(1) 2 ± 4 − 68 2 2 ± −64 x= 2 2 ± 8i x= 2 x = 1 ± 4i The solution set is {1 + 4i. (3 )( −7 2 −8 −8 ± 64 − 208 8 −8 ± −144 8 −8 ± 12i = 8 4(−2 ± 3i ) = 8 −2 ± 3i = 2 3 = −1 ± i 2 = −4 3 − 2i 6 43.PreCalculus 4E 39. x= 259 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( ( ) ) = ( = 4i 2 (3 ) 3 − 2i 6 )( ) ( )( −5 −4 −12 = 3i 5 −8i 3 ) = −24i 2 15 3 3 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1 + i. 3 − i} .1 − 4i}. 2 ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(17) x= −15 − 3i 2 5 2 i =− − 33 11 11 −8 x 2 − 2 x + 17 = 0 x= −15 − −18 −15 − i 18 −15 − i 9 ⋅ 2 = = 33 33 33 = 41. x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 0 x= 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i The solution set is {3 + i. . 40. − 1 − i ⎬ . ( ) 47. −6 − −12 −6 − i 12 = 48 48 −6 − i 4 ⋅ 3 = 48 −6 − 2i 3 = 48 1 3 i =− − 8 24 46. Inc. −3 − 5 = i 8(i 3 − 5) = 2i 2 i 3 − 5 42. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ = 24 15 44. Section 2.1 ) = (3i 7 )(2i 8) = (3i 7 )(2i 4 ⋅ 2) ( )( ) = 3i 7 4i 2 = 12i 2 14 = −12 14 45.

2 2 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 49. ⎧⎪ 4 5 4 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ + i. 2 x2 + 2 x + 3 = 0 x= 50. 3 3 3 3 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 5 1 5 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 1 The solution set is ⎨ − + i. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. − i⎬. = = = = = = 2(3) 4 ± 16 − 72 6 4 ± −56 6 4 ± 2i 14 6 2(2 ± i 14) 6 2 ± i 14 3 2 14 i ± 3 3 ( 2 − 3i )(1 − i ) − ( 3 − i )( 3 + i ) = ( 2 − 2i − 3i + 3i 2 ) − ( 32 − i 2 ) − ( −8 ) ± (−8) − 4(3)(7) 2 x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(3)(6) 14 2 14 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 2 The solution set is ⎨ + i. 3x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 2(3) = 2 − 5i + 3i 2 − 9 + i 2 8 ± 64 − 84 6 8 ± −20 6 8 ± 2i 5 6 2(4 ± i 5) 6 4±i 5 3 4 5 i ± 3 3 = −7 − 5i + 4i 2 = −7 − 5i + 4 ( −1) = −11 − 5i 52. − i⎬. − − i⎬.Polynomial and Rational Functions 48. −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(2)(3) 2(2) x= −2 ± 4 − 24 4 −2 ± −20 = 4 −2 ± 2i 5 = 4 2(−1 ± i 5) = 4 −1 ± i 5 = 2 1 5 i =− ± 2 2 = = = = = = = 3x 2 − 8 x + 7 = 0 51. (8 + 9i )( 2 − i ) − (1 − i )(1 + i ) = (16 − 8i + 18i − 9i 2 ) − (12 − i 2 ) = 16 + 10i − 9i 2 − 1 + i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8 ( −1) = 23 + 10i 53. Inc. ⎩⎪ 3 3 3 3 ⎪⎭ ( 2 + i ) − (3 − i ) 2 2 = ( 4 + 4i + i 2 ) − ( 9 − 6i + i 2 ) = 4 + 4i + i 2 − 9 + 6i − i 2 = −5 + 10i 260 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 2 f ( x) = f ( 4i ) = f (1 + i ) = (1 + i ) − 2 (1 + i ) + 2 2 ( 3i ) 2 + 19 x 2 + 11 3− x ( 4i ) 2 + 11 = 16i 2 + 11 3 − 4i 3 − 4i −16 + 11 = 3 − 4i −5 = 3 − 4i −5 3 + 4i = ⋅ 3 − 4i 3 + 4i −15 − 20i = 9 − 16i 2 −15 − 20i = 9 + 16 −15 − 20i = 25 −15 20 = − i 25 25 3 4 =− − i 5 5 = 1 + 2i + i 2 − 2 − 2i + 2 = 1 + i2 = 1 −1 =0 58. 57. Inc. . = (16 − 8i + i 2 ) − (1 + 4i + 4i 2 ) = 16 − 8i + i − 1 − 4i − 4i 2 f ( 3i ) = 2 = 15 − 12i − 3 ( −1) = 18 − 12i 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5 16 −1 + 3 81 −1 = 5 ⋅ 4i + 3 ⋅ 9i = 20i + 27i = 47i or 0 + 47i 56. x 2 + 19 2−x 2 − 3i 9i 2 + 19 = 2 − 3i −9 + 19 = 2 − 3i 10 = 2 − 3i 10 2 + 3i = ⋅ 2 − 3i 2 + 3i 20 + 30i = 4 − 9i 2 20 + 30i = 4+9 20 + 30i = 13 20 30 = + i 13 13 = 15 − 12i − 3i 2 55. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5 4 2 −1 + 3 9 2 −1 = 5⋅ 2 2 i + 3⋅3 2 i = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = (10 + 9 ) i 2 = 19i 2 or 0 + 19i 2 60. f ( x) = f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 5 f (1 − 2i ) = (1 − 2i ) − 2 (1 − 2i ) + 5 2 = 1 − 4i + 4i 2 − 2 + 4i + 5 = 4 + 4i 2 = 4−4 =0 261 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 2.1 ( 4 − i ) − (1 + 2i ) 2 2 59.PreCalculus 4E 54.

– 72. E = IR = ( 4 − 5i )( 3 + 7i ) E = 12 + 28i − 15i − 35i E = 12 + 13i − 35 ( −1) E = 12 + 35 + 13i = 47 + 13i The voltage of the circuit is (47 + 13i) volts. does not make sense. Sample explanation: i = −1 . 76. Answers may vary. 78. false. A sample change is: 7 + 3i 7 + 3i 5 − 3i 44 − 6i 22 3 = ⋅ = = − i 5 + 3i 5 + 3i 5 − 3i 34 17 17 80. 4 6 − 2i + 3i − i 2 4 6 + i +1 4 = 7+i 4 7−i = ⋅ 7+i 7−i 28 − 4i = 49 − i 2 28 − 4i = 49 + 1 28 − 4i = 50 28 4 = − i 50 50 14 2 = − i 25 25 63. 75. Sum: makes sense ( 2 + i )( 3 − i ) = = = 6 + i + 15 = 21 + i The voltage of the circuit is ( 21 + i ) volts. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. true 2 81. Explanations will vary. It is not a variable in this context. 82. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 79. does not make sense. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 62. Sample explanation: Imaginary numbers are not undefined. A sample change is: (3 + 7i)(3 – 7i) = 9 + 49 = 58 which is a real9number. false. Inc. E = IR = ( 2 − 3i )( 3 + 5i ) = 6 + 10i − 9i − 15i = 6 + i − 15 ( −1) 2 (5 + i 15 ) + (5 − i 15 ) = 5 + i 15 + 5 − i 15 = 5+5 = 10 Product: (5 + i 15 )(5 − i 15 ) = 25 − 5i 15 + 5i 15 − 15i 2 = 25 + 15 = 40 64. A sample change is: All irrational numbers are complex numbers. 73. Explanations will vary. makes sense 77. 74. 4 1+ i 1− i + 1 + 2i 1 − 2i (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = + (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) + (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) 1 − 2i + i − 2i 2 + 1 + 2i − i − 2i 2 = 1 − 4i 2 1 − 2i + i + 2 + 1 + 2i − i + 2 = 1+ 4 6 = 5 6 = + 0i 5 262 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Changes to make the statement true will vary.

f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 ( x − 1) 2 =4 x − 1 = ±2 x = 1± 2 x = 3 or x = −1 Step 4: find the y-intercept: −x2 − 2x + 1 = 0 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 2 −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 8 2 1+ i Section 2. 263 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 85.PreCalculus 4E 83. 2 a =−1 0 = −2( x − 3) 2 + 8 84. Inc. 4) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 2( x − 3) 2 = 8 ( x − 3) 2 = 4 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 x−3= ± 4 x = 3± 2 x = 1. −(−2) ± (−2) − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) 2 x= 2± 8 2 2±2 2 = 2 = 1± 2 = The solution set is {1 ± 2}. . 2 h P=1 P ⎛ ⎞ kP= 4 f ( x) = − ⎜ x − 1 ⎟ + 4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 Check Point Exercises 1. 8 i 2 + i i 8 = 2+i i 8i = 2+i 8i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2−i 16i − 8i 2 = 4 − i2 16i + 8 = 4 +1 8 + 16i = 5 8 16 = + i 5 5 = Section 2. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted 1 unit up and 3 units to the left. Step 2: find the vertex: (1.2 86.

1) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 1 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x ) = − x2 + 4x + 1 f ( 2 ) = −22 + 4(2) + 1 = 5 = −1 The vertex is (2. −b 16 x= = =2 b.2 and x ≈ −4. Step 4: find the y-intercept: x= f (0) = (0 − 2) + 1 = 5 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −4 ± 42 − 4(−1)(1) 2(−1) −4 ± 20 −2 x = 2± 5 The x-intercepts are x ≈ −0. c. ∞ ) 264 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Step 2: find the vertex: (2. Step 2: find the vertex: 4 b x=− =− =2 2a 2(−1) Step 1: The parabola opens up because a > 0. thus the parabola has no x-intercepts. 4. Inc. Step 4: find the y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 + 4(0) + 1 = 1 x= Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. f ( x) = 4 x 2 − 16 x + 1000 a. . The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) + 1 2 3. Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 + 4x + 1 x − 2 = −1 x = 2±i The equation has no real roots. 2a 8 f (2) = 4(2) 2 − 16(2) + 1000 = 984 The minimum point is 984 at x = 2 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. a = 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 . domain: (−∞. Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. 5). ∞) range: [984.

2a 2 ( −1) −2 Plot ( 0. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 120 feet of fencing. 5 ) . 2a 2 (1) 2 y-coordinate of vertex f ( 4) = ( 4) − 8 ( 4) 2 2 y = −0. 265 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x + 2 y = 120 2 y = 120 − 2 x x= c. the width y is y = 60 − x = 60 − 30 = 30. This occurs 200 feet from its release.PreCalculus 4E 5. 2 y = −0.005) x ≈ −2 or x ≈ 402 The arrow travels 402 feet before hitting the ground. Find the corresponding y-coordinate. and connect them with a smooth curve. x − 8 = the other number. This occurs when the two number are 4 and 4 − 8 = −4 . 7. A ( x ) = x ( 60 − x ) = − x 2 + 60 x The starting point occurs when x = 0. Let x = one of the numbers.005 ) The x-coordinate of the minimum is b −8 −8 x=− =− =− = 4. −16 ) . . b. The maximum height of the arrow is 205 feet. Let x = the length of the rectangle. The arrow will hit the ground when the height reaches 0. y = −0.005(200) + 2(200) + 5 = 205 The vertex is (200. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 8 ) = x 2 − 8 x 120 − 2 x = 60 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 60 − x ) . Inc. 205 ) . The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 30 feet by 30 feet. Rewrite y= A as a function of x. When the length x is 30. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 60 60 b x=− =− =− = 30. Section 2. The minimum product is −16 .005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −2 ± 22 − 4(−0. The information needed is found at the vertex.005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 a. y = −0.205). x-coordinate of vertex −b −2 x= = = 200 2a 2 ( −0.005(0)2 + 2(0) + 5 = 5 Since a = −1 is negative.2 6. This gives an area of 30 ⋅ 30 = 900 square feet. = 16 − 32 = −16 The vertex is ( 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 402.005)(5) 2(−0. Since we need an equation in one variable. and ( 200.005 x + 2 x + 5 0 = −0. Let y = the width of the rectangle. 0 ) .

f(x) = –2(x + 4) – 8 h = –4. domain: ( −∞.2 1. 2 17. –5). vertex: (1. k = 5 The vertex is at (–1. ∞ ) 2 13. The graph is f(x) = x translated down one. f(x) = 2x – 8x + 3 −b 8 x= = =2 2a 4 f(2) = 2(2)2 – 8(2) + 3 = 8 – 16 + 3 = –5 The vertex is at (2. –8). –1) x-intercepts: 2 The graph is f(x) = –x translated down one. k = –8 The vertex is at (–4. Inc. –11). 9). 14. vertex: (–1. vertex: (1. 9. k = 12 The vertex is at (2. The point (–1. j ( x ) = − x2 − 1 0 = ( x − 4) −1 2 1 = ( x − 4) 2 2 ±1 = x – 4 x = 3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 4) 2 − 1 = 15 The axis of symmetry is x = 4. g ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x + 1 8. 5). 2 12. . k = 1 The vertex is at (3. vertex: (–1. f(x) = –3(x – 2) + 12 h = 2. f ( x ) = ( x − 4) −1 2 vertex: (4. f(x) = 2(x – 3) + 1 h = 3. 2 10. f(x) = –x – 2x + 8 −b 2 x= = = −1 2a −2 2 f(–1) = –(–1) – 2(–1) + 8 = –1 + 2 + 8 = 9 The vertex is at (–1. 0) is on the graph and g(1) = 0. f(x) = 3x – 12x + 1 −b 12 x= = =2 2a 6 f(2) = 3(2)2 – 12(2) + 1 = 12 – 24 + 1 = –11 The vertex is at (2. 2 11. range: [ −1. –1) f ( x ) = ( x + 1) − 1 2 2 5. 1). h ( x ) = x2 −1 6. f(x) = –2x + 8x – 1 −b −8 x= = =2 2 a −4 2 f(2) = –2(2) + 8(2) – 1 = –8 + 16 – 1 = 7 The vertex is at (2. 2 15. The point (1. –1) j ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 1 2 4. 1) g ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 1 2 3. 1) h ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 1 2 2. 0) is on the graph and f(–1) = 0. f ( x ) = x 2 + 2 x + 1 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 266 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(x) = –2(x + 1) + 5 h = –1. 7). 12). 16.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 Exercise Set 2.

2 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 2 2 20. ∞ ) 267 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. y-intercept: 10 x = 1± i 2 No x-intercepts. –2) x-intercepts: vertex: (3. Section 2. domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) range: [ −2. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 3) + 1 = 10 2 range: [1. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. Inc. ∞ ) 19. f ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 2 2 2 vertex: (3. 21. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 1) − 2 = –1 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) + 2 = 11 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) range: [ 2. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) + 2 2 vertex: (1.PreCalculus 4E 18. 1) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 2 2 ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 3) + 1 vertex: (1. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) − 2 0 = ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 1) ( x − 3) 2 2 2 =2 2 = −2 x −1 = ± 2 x − 3 = ±i 2 x = 1± 2 y-intercept: x = 3±i 2 No x-intercepts. y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 1) 2 + 2 = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1.∞ ) range: [ 2. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2) x-intercepts: 2 y − 1 = ( x − 3) 0 = ( x − 3) + 1 2 = −2 ( x − 3) x − 1 = ± −2 2 = −1 x – 3 = ±i x = 3 ±i No x-intercepts. .

∞ ) x = 1± i 3 No x-intercepts y-intercept: range: [ −1. Inc. –1) x-intercepts: 0 = 2 ( x + 2) − 1 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f (0) = − ⎜ 0 − ⎟ + = 1 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 ( x + 2) = 1 2 ( x + 2) 2 = x+2= ± x = −2 ± 1 2 1 The axis of symmetry is x = 2 1 2 y-intercept: = −2 ± 2 2 f (0) = 2 ( 0 + 2 ) − 1 = 7 2 domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. 1 5 =± 2 2 1± 5 x= 2 y-intercept: x− f ( x) = 2 ( x + 2 ) − 1 2 vertex: (–2. f ( x) = The axis of symmetry is x = 1. y − 3 = ( x − 1) The axis of symmetry is x = –2. ⎥ 4⎦ ⎝ 268 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 23. 2 y = ( x − 1) + 3 2 vertex: (1. 3) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 3 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −3 x − 1 = ±i 3 domain: ( −∞. ⎟ ⎝2 4⎠ x-intercepts: 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ 0 = −⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. 1 . 5 ⎛ 1⎞ −⎜ x− ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f ( x) = − ⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 5⎞ vertex: ⎜ . ∞ ) 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ range: [3. ∞ ) 5⎤ ⎛ range: ⎜ −∞. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 1) + 3 = 4 2 24.

PreCalculus 4E 25.1] domain: ( −∞. Inc. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 3 ) + 1 = −8 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 3. f ( x ) = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 f ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x − 15 f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 15 − 1 vertex: (3. ∞ ) range: [ −16.2 f ( x ) = 4 − ( x − 1) 2 27. Section 2. ∞ ) 269 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 26. . 4) x-intercepts: 2 2 2 =4 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: ( x − 1) 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 3 − 1 f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 4 vertex: (1. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. 4] range: [ −4. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) =4 domain: ( −∞. –16) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 ( x − 3) 2 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: –3 f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 3 = −3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 1) x-intercepts: f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 16 vertex: (1. ∞ ) f ( x ) = 1 − ( x − 3) 2 28. –4) x-intercepts: ( x − 1) 0 = ( x − 1) − 4 2 vertex: (1. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 2 =1 x–3=±1 x = 2 or x = 4 y-intercept: 0 = ( x − 1) − 16 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 16 x–1=±4 x = –3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 15 = –15 The axis of symmetry is x = 1.

2 f ( 0 ) = 2 ( 0 ) − 7 ( 0 ) − 4 = –4 2 The axis of symmetry is x = domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = x 2 + 3x − 10 30. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 8 ⎠ 270 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎟ ⎝4 8 ⎠ x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 49 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ − .Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) ⎡ 81 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . Inc. 7 . ∞ ) ⎡ 49 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . f ( x ) = 2x2 − 7 x − 4 7 49 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 2 16 ⎠ 8 ⎝ 9⎞ 9 ⎛ f ( x ) = ⎜ x 2 + 3x + ⎟ − 10 − 4⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ f ( x) = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 7 81 ⎛ ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . − ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2 x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ 0 =⎜x+ ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ 0 = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ 2⎜ x − ⎟ = 4 8 ⎝ ⎠ 2 3⎞ 49 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 3 7 x+ = ± 2 2 3 7 x=− ± 2 2 x = 2 or x = –5 y-intercept: f ( x ) = 02 + 3 ( 0 ) − 10 = −10 The axis of symmetry is x = − 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 4 ⎠ 16 ⎝ 7 9 x− =± 4 4 7 9 x= ± 4 4 1 x = − or x = 4 2 y-intercept: 3 . 4 . ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ domain: ( −∞.

9] f ( 0) = 2 ( 0) − ( 0) + 3 = 3 2 33. f (0) = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = −3 . .PreCalculus 4E 31. ∞ ) x+2=±3 x = –5. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) =9 range: [ −6. Inc. 1 y-intercept: f (0) = 5 − 4 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) = 5 2 271 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = − x + 2 x + 3 2 f ( x) = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) + 4 vertex: (1. f ( x) = 5 − 4 x − x 2 f ( x) = − x 2 − 4 x + 5 f ( x) = − ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 ) + 5 + 4 f ( x) = − ( x + 2 ) + 9 2 vertex: (–2. 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 ( x − 1) 2 =4 domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = ( x + 3) − 6 2 vertex: ( −3. ∞ ) x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: range: ( −∞. 9) x-intercepts: 0 = − ( x + 2) + 9 2 ( x + 2) 2 domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = x 2 + 6 x + 3 f ( x) = ( x 2 + 6 x + 9) + 3 − 9 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 4] 32.2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 + 3 The axis of symmetry is x = –2. −6 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 3) − 6 2 ( x + 3) 2 =6 x+3 = ± 6 x = −3 ± 6 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 6(0) + 3 domain: ( −∞. Section 2.

The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ ⎛ 1 13 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . f ( x) = x 2 + 4 x − 1 f ( x) = ( x + 4 x + 4) − 1 − 4 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2 ) − 5 2 vertex: ( −2. ∞ ) 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 0 = 3⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ range: [ −5. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) x+2 = ± 5 range: [ −5. − ⎟ ⎝3 3 ⎠ x-intercepts: domain: ( −∞. Inc. 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 3⎜ x − ⎟ = 3⎠ 3 ⎝ f ( x) = 2 x + 4 x − 3 2 f ( x) = 2( x 2 + 2 x )−3 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 3⎠ 9 ⎝ f ( x) = 2( x + 2 x + 1) − 3 − 2 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 1 13 x− = ± 3 9 vertex: ( −1. −5) x-intercepts: x= 0 = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 3(0) 2 − 2(0) − 4 2 ( x + 1) = 5 2 ( x + 1) 2 = 5 2 x +1 = ± 1 13 ± 3 3 f (0) = −4 5 2 x = −1 ± 10 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 2(0) 2 + 4(0) − 3 f (0) = −3 272 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 4(0) − 1 36. f ( x) = 3 x 2 − 2 x − 4 2 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x ⎟ − 4 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2 1⎞ 1 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 3 9 3 ⎝ ⎠ f (0) = −1 The axis of symmetry is x = −2 . −5 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 2) − 5 2 ( x + 2) 2 =5 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 35.Polynomial and Rational Functions 34.

∞ ) The axis of symmetry is x = 1. f ( x) = 6 − 4 x + x 2 f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 6 f ( x) = ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) + 6 − 4 f ( x) = ( x − 2 ) + 2 2 vertex: (2. ∞) range: [ −11. x= = =2 2a 4 2 f(2) = 2(2) – 8(2) – 3 = 8 – 16 – 3 = –11 The minimum is –11 at x = 2 . The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . ∞ ) f (0) = 2 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 2 2 39. c. a = 3. f ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x − 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 2 x + 1) − 2 + 1 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) − 1 vertex: (1.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. x= = =2 2a 6 2 f(2) = 3(2) – 12(2) – 1 = 12 – 24 – 1 = –13 The minimum is –13 at x = 2 . ∞) range: [ −13. 3 38. 2 f (0) = 6 − 4 ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) = 6 2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 − 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 2. a = 2. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 3 ⎠ 37. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 2 2 ( x − 2) domain: ( −∞. domain: (−∞. ∞ ) = −2 x − 2 = ±i 2 x = 2±i 2 No x-intercepts y-intercept: ⎡ 13 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . f(x) = 2x – 8x – 3 a. −1] 273 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y-intercept: domain: ( −∞. 2 40. −b 12 b. –1) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) − 1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −1 x – 1 = ±i x = 1 ±i No x-intercepts. c. domain: (−∞.2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1 . ∞ ) range: [ 2. f(x) = 3x – 12x – 1 a. −b 8 b. Inc. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞.

domain: ( −∞. Since the parabola opens down. ∞ ) . ( h. 4 ) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k = 2 ( x − 7) + 4 51. ⎡ −3 ⎞ domain: (−∞. f(x) = –2x2 – 12x + 3 a. The minimum is 2 2 = −4 + 8 − 3 = 1 The maximum is 1 at x = 1 . range: ( −∞. range: [ −2. ∞ ⎟ ⎣2 ⎠ 45. 21] 46. the vertex ( −1. k ) = ( 5. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. range: ( −∞. the vertex ( −3. ∞) range: ⎢ . The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. The parabola opens upward and has minimum value. −5 ) 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−10) ] + (−5) 2 = 2 ( x + 10 ) − 5 274 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1] 42. b. −b 6 1 = = 2a 12 2 48. ∞ ) . range: [18. Since the parabola opens up. Since the parabola has a minimum. ( h. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ 49. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a = -4. a = 6. ∞ ) . −b −8 = =1 2a −8 f (1) = −4(1) 2 + 8(1) − 3 f ( x) = 6 x 2 − 6 x a. 43. c. ∞) range: ⎢ . ∞) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) ⎡ −5 ⎞ domain: (−∞. ∞) range: ( −∞.3) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h ) + k = 2 ( x − 5) + 3 50. Since the parabola has a maximum. −4 ) is a maximum point.18) . −6 ) . f ( x) = −4 x 2 + 8 x − 3 a.Polynomial and Rational Functions 41. minimum point. . c. domain: ( −∞. 47. it opens down from the vertex (10. −b 12 b. b. The minimum is 2 4 c. Inc. x= x= 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 6⎜ ⎟ − 6⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 6 3 6 −3 = −3 = − = 4 2 2 2 −3 1 at x = . domain: ( −∞. b. 44. k ) = ( 7. it opens up from the vertex ( −6. c. −2 ) is a f ( x) = 5 x 2 − 5 x a. domain: (−∞. ( h. −6] 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 5⎜ ⎟ − 5⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5 5 10 −5 = − = − = 4 2 4 4 4 −5 1 at x = . x= = = −3 2 a −4 f(–3) = –2(–3)2 – 12(–3) + 3 = –18 + 36 + 3 = 21 The maximum is 21 at x = −3 . ∞ ) domain: (−∞. k ) = ( −10. ∞ ) . a = –2. −4] a = 5. The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. −b 5 1 x= = = 2a 10 2 domain: ( −∞.

( h. c = 6.7 x + 6.04 x 2 + 2.1 = 18.1) 2(−0.1 a = −0. 4 ) x= −0. k ) = (11.01x 2 + 0.1x + 6. y = −0. x= y-coordinate of vertex y = −0. k ) = ( 9. the parabola opens up and a = 3 . the parabola opens down and a = −3 . Section 2.1 ± 2. a.01x 2 + 0.7.7 x + 6. This occurs 26. the parabola opens down and a = −3 .1(26.1 a = −0. 0 ) y-coordinate of vertex f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 y = −0.1 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k 55.7 = = = 35 2a 2 ( −0. k ) = ( −8.8 or x ≈ −7.1 0 = −0. −7 ) y = −0.7. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0.7 2 − 4(−0.04 ) 2 = 3 ( x − 11) The initial height can be found at x = 0.1 The shot was released at a height of 6.7 ± 0.12 − 4(−0. f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 57. c = 6.7 feet. b = 2. ( h.1x + 6.04)(6.1 2 = 3( x − 9) + 0 0 = −0.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 77. k ) = ( 5.1 = = = 26.7 The maximum height of the shot is about 33.25 2a 2 ( −0. ( h.PreCalculus 4E 52. 275 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 or x ≈ −2. 2 = −3 ( x − 5) + ( −7 ) 2 58. c = 6.01(0) 2 + 0.01x 2 + 0.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 55. y = −0.7(0) + 6.01x 2 + 0.1. ( h.1) 2(−0.01x + 0.01)(6.8 feet.7(35) + 6. the parabola opens up and a = 3 .1 Since the vertex is a maximum.01(35) 2 + 0. .04 x 2 + 2. b = 2.04(26.01. Since the vertex is a maximum. Publishing as Prentice Hall.35 The maximum height of the shot is about 18. b = 0. 2 Since the vertex is a minimum. k ) = ( −2.3 feet. = −3 ( x − 5 ) − 7 Since the vertex is a minimum.1 feet.04. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 2 54.1 ≈ 33.7 x + 6. y = −0.04 x 2 + 2. 0 ) b.7 x + 6.1 y = −0. y = −0. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0.2 ( h.04. −6 ) 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−8)] + (−6) 2 = 2 ( x + 8) − 6 b.04) x ≈ 55. f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k = −3[ x − (−2)] + 4 2 = −3 ( x + 2 ) + 4 2 c.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −0. 53.01.1 = 3( x − 9) 2 a = −0.25)2 + 2.1 = 6. c = 6.01) −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −2.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −2.7 x + 6.35 feet. This occurs 35 feet from its point of release.1 = 3 ( x − 11) + 0 2 56. b = 0.04 x 2 + 2.1x + 6.1x + 6.1 a = −0. Inc. a.01) x ≈ 77.1 x= 2 y = −0.25) + 6.1. y = −0.25 feet from its point of release.

64. The numbers which maximize the product are 10 and 10.S. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0. This differs from the value in the graph by 0. The product of these two numbers is given by P( x) = x ( x − 24 ) = x 2 − 24 x f ( 2 ) = −0. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 8 − 16 = −8 .004(12)2 − 0. the two numbers whose difference is 24 and whose product is minimized are 12 and −12 .S. U. f ( 8 ) = −82 + 16 ( 8 ) = −64 + 128 = 64 f ( 25 ) = 0.75 gallons per person. Inc.14 x + 1. adult wine consumption in 2005 was 2.094(12) + 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions c. Let x = the larger number.59 Movie attendance was about 1. x=− 2a 2 (1) 2 f ( 5) = −0. The maximum product is 64.14 ( 5 ) + 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 feet.048 The other number is 20 − x = 20 − 10 = 10.38 According to the function. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0.1 y = −0. The product is minimized when ( −24 ) b =− = 12 x=− 2a 2 (1) Since 12 − ( −12 ) = 24 .59 billion in 2002.094 b =− ≈ 12 2a 2 ( 0.1 = 6.03) −64 . The x-coordinate of the minimum is −16 −16 b =− =− = 8.03 ( 2 ) + 0. Wine consumption was about 2.03 ( 5) + 0. = 2.14 ( 2 ) + 1. 60. 276 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 63. Let x = one of the numbers. b. Then x − 24 is the smaller number. year = − 62. The minimum product is b 0. The initial height can be found at x = 0. This seems reasonable as compared to the values in the graph.094 x + 2.03 billion. . The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 16 ) = x 2 − 16 x f ( x ) = −0. x − 16 = the other number. x=− f (12 ) = 0.6 ≈ 2. f ( x ) = x (16 − x ) The product is = 16 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 16 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 16 16 x=− =− =− = 8. Movie attendance was at a minimum about 2 years after 2000.14 =− ≈2 2a 2 ( −0. or 1992. b. Let x = one of the numbers.04 billion. 1.38 billion movie tickets were sold in 2005. f ( x ) = 0. The minimum product is P(12) = 12 (12 − 24 ) = −144 .004 x 2 − 0. 16 − x = the other number. 64).43 2 a.1 The shot was released at a height of 6. 59. −64 ) .04(0)2 + 2.75 According to the function. adult in 1992.03 x + 0.43 2 = 1. −2 2a 2 ( −1) 2 y = −0.05 gallon.094(25) + 2.04 x + 2. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 16 − 8 = 8 .6 The vertex is (8.004(25) 2 − 0.1x + 6.43 2 = 1. The maximum product is 10 ⋅10 = 100. Let x = one of the numbers Let 20 – x = the other number P ( x ) = x ( 20 − x ) = 20 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 20 x −0.6 a.048 gallons per U. year = − b 20 20 =− =− = 10 −2 2a 2 ( −1) f ( 8 ) = ( 8 ) − 16 ( 8 ) 2 = 64 − 128 = −64 The vertex is ( 8. or 2002. 61.1(0) + 6.004 ) Wine consumption was at a minimum about 12 years after 1980.

the area of the plot is given by A = l ⋅ w = ( 200 − 2 x )( x ) = −2 x 2 + 200 x Since the graph of this equation is a parabola that opens down.5. the width y is y = 25 − x = 25 − 12. Inc. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 25 25 x=− =− =− = 12. the width y is y = 40 − x = 40 − 20 = 20.25 square yards. A ( x ) = x ( 25 − x ) = − x 2 + 25 x When the width is x = 150 feet. This gives an area of 12. Let x = the length of the rectangle. the area is maximized at the vertex. the length is 600 − 2 (150 ) = 600 − 300 = 300 feet. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A ( x ) = x ( 600 − 2 x ) 67. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 20. A ( x ) = x ( 40 − x ) = − x 2 + 40 x x=− b 40 40 =− =− = 20. 277 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 50 yards of fencing. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 20 yards by 20 yards. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 600 600 x=− =− =− = 150.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. . 66. Since we need an equation in one variable. 2 x + 2 y = 50 = 600 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 600 x Since a = −2 is negative.5 yards by 12. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 12.2 65. 600 − 2 x = the length of the rectangle We need to maximize.5. Let y = the width of the rectangle. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed along a river with 600 feet of fencing. we have that x is the width of the rectangular plot and 200 − 2 x is the length. Rewrite y= A as a function of x.5 ⋅12. The dimensions of the rectangular plot with maximum area are 150 feet by 300 feet. 000 square feet.5 = 12. Let x = the width of the rectangle.5.5 = 156.5 yards. This gives an area of 20 ⋅ 20 = 400 square yards. 000 2 = 5000 The maximum area is 5000 square feet when the length is 100 feet and the width is 50 feet. From the diagram. Let x = the length of the rectangle Let y = the width of the rectangle 2 x + 2 y = 80 2 y = 80 − 2 x 80 − 2 x y= 2 y = 40 − x A = −2 ( 50 ) + 200 ( 50 ) = −5000 + 10. Thus. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 12. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) 2 y = 50 − 2 x 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 25 − x ) . This gives an area of 150 ⋅ 300 = 45. Since a = −1 is negative. b 200 x=− =− = 50 2a 2 ( −2 ) 68.

Maximize the area of the playground with 400 feet of fencing. 2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ A ( x ) = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ = − x 2 + 200 x 3 ⎠ 3 ⎝ 2 Since a = − is negative. the width y is 2 2 y = 200 − x = 200 − (150) = 100. Let y = the width of the rectangle. This 3 2 2 gives an area of 100 ⋅ 66 = 6666 square feet. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. Let y = the width of the rectangle. Since we need an equation in one variable. A ( x ) = x (12 − 2 x ) = 12 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 12 x b 12 12 x=− =− =− =3 −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 3. 2 x + 3 y = 600 3 y = 600 − 2 x 600 − 2 x y= 3 2 y = 200 − x 3 2 ⎞ ⎛ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ . we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 400 400 b x=− =− 3 = − 3 = 100. 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with maximum area are 150 feet by 100 feet. 000 square feet. This occurs when the gutter is 5 inches deep and 10 inches wide. 70. 3 3 Maximize the area of the playground with 600 feet of fencing. Since we need an equation in one variable. . use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. 278 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 150. the width is 20 − 2 x = 20 − 2 ( 5 ) = 20 − 10 = 10. we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 200 200 b x=− =− =− = 150. the width is 12 − 2 x = 12 − 2 ( 3) = 12 − 6 = 6. 2 400 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ − x ⎟ = − x2 + x 3 ⎠ 3 3 ⎝ 3 2 Since a = − is negative. 3 3 3 3 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with 2 maximum area are 100 feet by 66 feet. A ( 5 ) = −2 ( 5 ) + 20 ( 5 ) 2 = −2 ( 25 ) + 100 = −50 + 100 = 50 The maximum cross-sectional area is 50 square inches.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 20 20 x=− =− =− = 5. Inc. 2 x + 3 y = 400 3 y = 400 − 2 x 400 − 2 x y= 3 400 2 y= − x 3 3 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ − x⎟ . Let x = the length of the rectangle. Since a = −2 is negative. the width y is 400 2 400 2 200 2 y= − x= − (100) = = 66 . Let x = the length of the rectangle. Maximize the cross-sectional area of the gutter: A ( x ) = x ( 20 − 2 x ) = 20 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 20 x. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 100. 72. 3 ⎠ ⎝ Rewrite A as a function of x. A ( 3) = −2 ( 3) + 12 ( 3) = −2 ( 9 ) + 36 2 = −18 + 36 = 18 The maximum cross-sectional area is 18 square inches. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 5. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Rewrite A as a function of x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. This gives an area of 150 ⋅100 = 15. This occurs when the gutter is 3 inches deep and 6 inches wide. 71.

– 83. Ymax = 750 d.5 − 1681 + 720 = −120. 520) You can only see a little of the parabola. 2 84.500.2 73. y = 2x – 82x + 720 a.5) + 160 = –2. b = –82 b −82 x=− =− = 20. 1600) 75. = 400. Inc. x = increase A = (20 + x)(60 − 2x) = 1200 + 20x − 2x 2 −b −20 = =5 2a 2(−2) The maximum number of trees is 20 + 5 = 25 trees. 185). Maximize A = (30 + x)(50 – x) = 1500 + 20x – x2 −20 x= = 10 2(−1) Maximum number of trees = 30 + 10 = 40 trees Maximum yield = (30 + 10)(50 – 10) = 1600 pounds 77. 000 + 3000x −100x 2 −b −3000 = = 15 2a 2(−100) The maximum price is 50 + 15 = \$65. x= 2 86. The maximum revenue = 65(800 – 100·15) = \$422.5) c. y = –0. 76.5 2 y = –0. –120.5) + 20(2. 50 x 25 = 1250 pounds.5) 2 − 82(20. x= 74.5.5 2a 4 y = 2(20. a =2. . Choose Ymin to include the y-value of the vertex.5.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 2 87. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 5x + 40x + 600 −b −40 = = −4 x= 2a 10 2 y = 5(–4) + 40(–4) + 600 = 80 – 160 + 600 = 520 vertex: (–4.5 x= 2a −8 2 y = –4(2.5 vertex: (20.5 + 50 +160 = 185 The vertex is at (2. x = increase A = (50 + x)(8000 −100x) b.25(80) + 40(80) = 1600 vertex: (80.5) + 720 = 840. Answers may vary. 279 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. You can choose Xmin and Xmax so the x-value of the vertex is in the center of the graph. Maximize A = (30 + x)(200 – 5x) = 6000 + 50x – 5x2 − 50 x= =5 2(−5) Maximum rental = 30 + 5 = \$35 Maximum revenue = 35(200 – 5·5) = \$6125 ( ) 2 85. y = –4x + 20x + 160 −b −20 = = 2.25x + 40x −b −40 x= = = 80 2a −0. The maximum yield is 60 – 2·5=50 pounds per tree.

true 2 8 = 16a 1 =a 2 Therefore.01x + 0. false. –2) is (–3. f(x) = 3(x + 2) – 5. d.817 ≈ 13. Sample explanation: If it is thrown vertically. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 95. ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4 5 The maximum y–value is . A sample change is: The vertex is ( 5. set y = 0 and solve for x. does not make sense. –2) axis: x = –2 (–1. A sample change is: The graph has no x–intercepts. 99. Sample explanation: Some parabolas have the y-axis as the axis of symmetry. 0 = −2 ( x + 4 ) − 8 2 2 ( x + 4 ) = −8 2 ( x + 4) 2 = −4 Because the solutions to the equation are imaginary. its path will be a line segment. A sample change is: The x-coordinate of the b 1 1 1 maximum is − =− =− = and the y– 2a 2 ( −1) −2 2 coordinate of the vertex of the parabola is ⎛ b ⎞ ⎛1⎞ 5 f ⎜− ⎟ = f ⎜ ⎟ = . which allows us to solve for a. 4 = a (1 + 3) − 4 2 8 = a ( 4) 91.02 2 y = 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 89. 2) Axis: x = 3 second point (0. 94. Explanations will vary. 11) 100.372 mpg in 1957.6x + 100 −b −0. false. −4 ) .01(–30) + 0.6 = = −30 x= 2a 0. k ) = ( −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.170(17) + 14. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. –2) y = 0. 96. The values of y increase then decrease. –2). b. Vertex (3. We start with the form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k . does not make sense.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 88. (–1. 93. Sample explanation: The football’s path is better described by a quadratic model. y = 0. the function is f ( x ) = 280 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.372 The worst gas mileage was 13. −1) . 91). we have f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 4 . y = 0. 2 Since we know the vertex is ( h. To find x–intercepts. x= 97.817 c. Explanations will vary. Inc. We also know that the 2 90. 4 −(−0. –2) is one unit right of (–2. 2 . does not make sense. makes sense 92. Explanations will vary. point: (–3. 1 2 ( x + 3) − 4 . –2).170) = 17. we know that there are no x–intercepts. One unit left of (–2.005 x 2 − 0. 1940 + 17 = 1957 2(.6(–30) + 100 = 9 – 18 + 100 = 91 The vertex is at (–30.005) 2 98.005(17)2 − 0. a. 4 ) .170 x + 14. graph passes through the point (1.

00. f ( x) = (80 + x)(300 − 3x ) − 10(300 − 3x ) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x) 2 + 1 2 = 24000 + 60 x − 3x − 3000 + 30 x = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 Since f (− x) = f ( x). −3) on the graph to determine the value of a: f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 1 2 x= −3 = a ( −2 + 3) − 1 2 2 2 π π = − π 440 − 2(110) −3 = a − 1 −2 = a Thus. the maximum profit is –3(15)2 + 9(15) + 21000 = \$21. k ) = ( −3. x 3 + 3 x 2 − x − 3 = x 2 ( x + 3) − 1( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 1) = ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 1) d = x 2 + 4 − 8x + 4x 2 d = 5x 2 − 8x + 4 Minimize 5x2 – 8x + 4 −(−8) 4 x= = 2(5) 5 107. 440 − 2 x = π y form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k 2 440 − 2 x = a ⎡⎣ x − ( −3) ⎤⎦ + ( −1) 2 π = a ( x + 3) − 1 =y 440 − 2 x 2 Maximize A = x We use the point ( −2. the graph is symmetric with respect to the yaxis. 105. –1). Inc. so the equation is of the 440 = 2 x + π y 104. the function is even. 2 x + y − 2 = 0 y = 2 − 2x d = x + (2 − 2x) π =− −440 440 2 − −3 = a (1) − 1 2 − π 106. Answers may vary. and (3. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 5 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 5 = −1 f (3) = (3)3 − 2(3) − 5 = 16 The graph passes through (2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 101. −1) . which is below the x-axis. ⎛4⎞ 2 y = 2 − 2⎜ ⎟ = ⎝5⎠ 5 ⎛4 2⎞ ⎜5. 2 x + 440 π x = 110 π 220 π The dimensions are 110 yards by 2 220 π yards. which is above the x-axis. 102. .5⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 108. Thus. x= 281 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the equation of the parabola is 2 π = 4 = 440 4 f ( x ) = −2 ( x + 3 ) − 1 . it must cross the x-axis somewhere between 2 and 3 to get from one of these points to the other. Since the graph of f is continuous. 103. 2 = −3x + 90 x + 21000 −b −90 3 = = = 15 2 a 2 (−3) 2 The maximum charge is 80 + 15 = \$95. 16).675. We know ( h.

the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. polynomial function. 9. f ( x) = x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 0 = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) 0 = ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) 0 = ( x + 2) 2 ( x − 2) x = 2 or x = –2 The zeros are 2 and –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. degree: 3 2. with 2 multiplicity 3. with multiplicity 2. the graph rises to the left and to the right. 3. the graph should fall to the left. Exercise Set 2. 8.Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. –2. degree: 7 5. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 2 x4 − 4 x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 x = 0 or x = –2 or x = 2 The zeros are 0. not a polynomial function 282 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since the ratio cannot be negative. x3 − 3x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 x = 0 or x = 3 The x-intercepts are 0 and 3. not a polynomial function 6.3 2 7. 1⎞ 3 ⎛ f ( x ) = −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 2 1⎞ 3 ⎛ −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 x = − or x = 5 2 1. f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 Since an > 0 and n is odd. The graph does not show the function’s end behavior. f ( x) = 2 x3 ( x − 1)( x + 5) is of odd degree with a positive leading coefficient. polynomial function. 2. Inc.3 1 The zeros are − . f (− x) = (− x)3 − 3(− x) 2 = − x 3 − 3x 2 No symmetry. and 2. It is not necessary to multiply out the polynomial to determine its degree. Thus its graph falls to the left and rises to the right. and 5. the graph crosses the x-axis at this zero. 6. Since n is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. . Check Point Exercises 1. Since n is even and an > 0. Since an > 0 and n is odd. degree: 4 3. 4. the graph 2 touches the x-axis and turns around at this zero. f (−3) = 3(−3)3 − 10(–3) + 9 = −42 f (−2) = 3(−2)3 − 10(−2) + 9 = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between –3 and –2. polynomial function. 1 Because the multiplicity of − is even. f ( x) = 2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5) has degree 3 + 1 + 1 = 5. f (0) = 03 − 3(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. polynomial function. degree: 5 4. the function falls to the right. We can find the degree of the polynomial by adding the degrees of each of its degree 3 degree 1 degree 1 P P  factors. the model won’t be appropriate. 5. Because the multiplicity of 5 is odd.

the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. 24. (d) 19. The graph crosses the x-axis. f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 + 4 x = x ( x2 + 4 x + 4) f ( x) = 11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. x = 1 has multiplicity 2. (c) 17. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. f ( x) = 11x − 6 x + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is odd. 2 The graph crosses the x-axis. . f ( x) = 2( x − 5)( x + 4) 2 x = 5 has multiplicity 1. The graph crosses the x-axis. 21. (b) 28. x = –6 has multiplicity 3. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. 20. not a polynomial function 10. 14. f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an < 0 and n is even. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. f ( x) = 3( x + 5)( x + 2)2 x = –5 has multiplicity 1. polynomial function. degree: 2 25. f ( x) = 5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is even. f ( x) = x3 − 2 x 2 + x = x ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) 2 = x( x − 1)2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. The graph crosses the x-axis. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 5 x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is odd. The graph crosses the x-axis.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 16. polynomial function 12. not a polynomial function 8. The graph crosses the x-axis. Inc. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. 31. 26. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. x = 4 has multiplicity 3. not a polynomial function 9. The graph crosses the x-axis. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 − 4 x − 28 = x 2 ( x + 7) − 4( x + 7) f ( x) = −11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an < 0 and n is even.3 7. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. x = –2 and x = –7 have multiplicity 1. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. The graph crosses the x-axis. f ( x) = 4( x − 3)( x + 6)3 x = 3 has multiplicity 1. 27. Not a polynomial function because graph is not continuous. The graph crosses the x-axis. polynomial function 15. = ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x + 7) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 7) x = 2. 30. 11. 23. (a) 18. 283 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 22. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. 3 29. 1⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = −3 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 4)3 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x = − has multiplicity 1. x = –4 has multiplicity 2. Not a polynomial function because graph is not smooth. = x( x + 2) 2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. 13.

x = 1. f ( x) = x 3 + 5 x 2 − 9 x − 45 40. 39. f ( x ) = x3 − x − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. 2 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. 41. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. 33. 36. f ( x ) = x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 a. e. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 10 x + 9 f(–3) = –42 f(–2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. –1. Since an > 0 and n is odd. f ( x ) = 2 x4 − 4 x2 + 1 f(–1) = –1 f(0) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. = x 2 ( x + 5) − 9( x + 5) = ( x 2 − 9 ) ( x + 5) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 5) x = 3. ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = –2. f (− x) = (− x) + 2(− x) 2 − (− x) − 2 = − x3 + 2 x 2 + x − 2 − f ( x) = − x 3 − 2 x 2 + x + 2 The graph has neither origin symmetry nor yaxis symmetry. b. f ( x ) = x 4 + 6 x 3 − 18 x 2 f(2) = –8 f(3) = 81 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. The graph crosses the x-axis. d. x = –3 and x = –5 have multiplicity 1. 37. 35. f ( x ) = x 5 − x3 − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 23 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 284 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (0) = (0)3 + 2(0)2 − 0 − 2 = −2 The y-intercept is –2. c. 38. 34. . x = –1 The zeros at –2. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 8 x 2 + x + 2 f(2) = –4 f(3) = 14 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = x + x − 2x + 1 f(–3) = –11 f(–2) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 3 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 ( x + 2) − ( x + 2) = 0 f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 + 2 f(0) = 2 f(1) = –1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values.

f (− x) = − x 3 + x 2 + 4 x − 4 − f ( x) = − x 3 − x 2 + 4 x + 4 neither symmetry e. or x = 2.3 f ( x ) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0. f ( x ) = x4 − 9 x2 a. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. f (0) = 03 + (0) 2 − 4(0) − 4 = −4 The y-intercept is –4. x4 − x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. Since an > 0 and n is even. 44. f ( x ) = x4 − x2 c. x = 1. e. c. f(x) rises to the left and the right. Inc. f(x) rises to the left and the right. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1.PreCalculus 4E 42. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. x = –3 The zeros at –3 and 3 have odd multiplicity. x + x − 4x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) = 0 3 d. f (− x) = x 4 − x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. or x = –2 The zeros at –2. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 285 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (0) = (0) 4 − (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. and 2. d. –1. x = 0. Since an > 0 and n is odd. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. The xintercepts are –2. e. Since an > 0 and n is even. d. x = –1 f touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. 43. f (− x) = x 4 − 9 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. b. Section 2. c. a. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 x = –1. b. –1 and 2 have odd multiplicity. x4 − 9 x2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 0. x = 3. b.

− x4 + 4x2 = 0 x 2 (4 − x 2 ) = 0 x 2 ( 2 − x )( 2 + x ) = 0 48. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. and 2. b. Since an > 0 and n is even. d. x = 0. e. f ( x ) = − x4 + 4 x2 a. x = –2 The x-intercepts are –2. f ( x ) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 a. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 2. 4 47. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 286 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (0) = (0) 4 − 2(0)3 + (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. e.Polynomial and Rational Functions 45. . d. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f(x) falls to the left and the right. it touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 2 x = 0. c. Inc. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0.0. x = 1 The zeros at 1 and 0 have even multiplicity. x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 2 x = 0. – x 4 + 16 x 2 = 0 x 2 ( − x 2 + 16 ) = 0 x 2 ( 4 − x )( 4 + x ) = 0 x = 0. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. Since an > 0 and n is even. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. x = –4 The zeros at –4 and 4 have odd multiplicity. so f(x) touches the xaxis at 0. b. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. Since f has a double root at 0. x = 3 The zeros at 3 and 0 have even multiplicity. e. d. c. f (− x) = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. b. 46. f (− x) = − x 4 + 4 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. c. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. f (− x) = − x + 16 x f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. f (0) = −(0)4 + 4(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 16 x 2 a. f ( x ) = x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 a. x = 4. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0 and 1.

−2 x 4 + 2 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 2 ) = 0 The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. d. b. Since an < 0 and n is even. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 4 – 1. c. f (− x) = x 5 − 6 x 3 + 9 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. Since an < 0 and n is odd. − x 5 + 6 x3 − 9 x = 0 − x ( x4 − 6 x2 + 9) = 0 − x ( x 2 − 3)( x 2 − 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 4 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. d. e. x = ± 3 The root at 0 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at (0. f (0) = −(0)5 + 6(0)3 − 9(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. e.3 50. a. f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 2 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f ( x ) = 6 x3 − 9 x − x 5 x = 0. Section 2. b. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. The y-intercept is 0. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. x = 1 The zeros at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity. Inc. d. . x = 0. f (0) = −2(0) 4 + 4(0)3 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 a. 51. 49. d. f(x) falls to the left and the right.PreCalculus 4E c. c. 287 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0). e. x = 0. x = 2 The zeros at 0 and 2 have odd multiplicity. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 a. The zeros at – 3 and 3 have even multiplicity so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and − 3 . f (− x) = x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. b. f (0) = (0) 4 − 6(0)3 + 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 4 ) = 0 c.

d. 0. a. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. e. The graph has 4 turning point and 4 ≤ 5 – 1. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f (− x) = The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. Inc. e. d. The graph has 2 turning point and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. 52. x = 3 The zero at 3 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at that point. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 1 − x4 + = 0 2 2 1 − ( x 4 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1) ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x = ±1 The zeros at –1 and 1 have odd multiplicity. . − x3 + 3x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 1 1 4 − x 2 2 Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( x ) = 3x 2 − x 3 e. b. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. c. − x5 − x 3 + 6 x = 0 54. b. 0). f ( x ) = 6 x − x3 − x 5 a. f (− x) = x5 + x3 − 6 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. c. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 5 – 1. Since an < 0 and n is odd. and 2 have odd multiplicity. Since an < 0 and n is odd. x = 0. 2 1 1 4 − x 2 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. x = ± 2 The zeros at − 2 . x = 0. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0.Polynomial and Rational Functions e. f (− x) = x 3 + 3x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 53. 1 1 1 f (0) = − (0)4 + = 2 2 2 1 The y-intercept is . − x ( x4 + x2 − 6) = 0 − x ( x 2 + 3)( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = a. d. 288 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (0) = −(0)5 − (0)3 + 6(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. c. b. f (0) = −(0)3 + 3(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f(x) falls to the left and the right.

The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. f ( − x ) = x 2 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 2 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. b. b. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. f(x) falls to the left and the right. x = 2 The zeros at –2 and 2 have odd multiplicity. 56. b. c. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. Since an > 0 and n is even. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. x = –1 The roots at 0 and –1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = –5.3 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) e. The root at –2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–2. Section 2. x = 0. e. x = 1. 0). f (− x) = −3(− x − 1) 2 ( x 2 − 4 ) f ( x ) = x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 3 a. f (0) = 02 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 The y-intercept is 0. Since an < 0 and n is even. c. The root at 4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the xaxis at (4. x = –2. f ( x ) = −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25) 2 a. c. f (0) = −3(0 − 1) 2 (02 − 4)3 = −3(1)(−4) = 12 The y-intercept is 12. −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2 x = 1. 0). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 289 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 a. d. 58. Inc. Since an < 0 and n is even. f(x) falls to the left and the right. x = –2. f ( 0 ) = 03 ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. c. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. 0). f(x) rises to the left and the right. b. d. so f(x) touches the xaxis at (1. 57. Since an > 0 and n is even. . e. x = 5 The zeros at –5 and 5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. d. −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 2 x = 4. f(x) rises to the left and the right. f (0) = −2(0 − 4) 2 (02 − 25) = −2(16)(−25) = 800 The y-intercept is 800.PreCalculus 4E 55. f (− x) = −2(− x − 4) 2 ( x 2 − 2 ) f ( x ) = x 3 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 a. The root at 1 has even multiplicity. x = 0. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 0).

b. The y-intercept is 0. 0). d. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x − 1)( − x + 3) The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = 0. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. b. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 2 ) = 0 d. 290 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 0. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) a. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 3) a. f(x) falls to the left and the right. e. Since an < 0 and n is even. The y-intercept is 0. f ( 0 ) = −2(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 5 ) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. Inc. b.Polynomial and Rational Functions d. c. e. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x + 2 )( − x − 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 (−1) ( x − 2 ) (−1) ( x + 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. x = 1. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 5 ) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = 1. 59. d. 60. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 − 1)( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( x ) = −2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5 ) 2 a. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. . x = 2. e. 0). The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f ( − x ) = − x3 ( − x + 2 ) ( − x + 1) 2 c. 0). x = 0. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. e. x = –2 The zeros at 2 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = –5 The roots at 0 and –5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. Since an < 0 and n is even. x = –3 The zeros at 1 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f(x) falls to the left and the right. c. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 6 – 1. 61. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E 62. x = 2. x = 0. e. and 4 are the zeros. Since −2 . b. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 + 1) ( 0 + 4 ) = 12 3 The y-intercept is 12. f ( − x ) = ( − x + 3)( − x + 1) ( − x + 4 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. e. Since an < 0 and n is even. f(x) falls to the left and the right. The y-intercept is –16. x + 2 . a. 1. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . and x − 4 are factors of the function. so they are the zeros. x = –3 The roots at 0 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. b. all three have odd multiplicity. 63. The root at 2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (2. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1)( 0 − 4 ) = 8 291 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 64. c. The graph has 2 turning points f ( − x ) = ( − x − 2 ) ( − x + 4 )( − x − 1) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. and 4. Thus. x = –1. x = –4 The zeros at all have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. d. x = 1 The zeros at –4 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. b. x = –3. d. Section 2. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 2 ) ( 0 + 4 )( 0 − 1) = −16 2 b. f ( 0 ) = −3(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = 3x 3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 3) f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x + 1) ( x + 4 ) 3 a. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) . c. e. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 4 )( x − 1) a. c. d. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. the function must be at least of degree 3. 2 The y-intercept is 0. 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = –4. Since an > 0 and n is even. Since an > 0 and n is odd. 3 ≤ 4 – 1. Since the graph has two turning points. 0).3 f ( x ) = −3x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 3) 2 a. 1. The graph has 3 turning points and The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. f(x) rises to the left and rises the right. f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. From the end behavior. Inc. x − 1 . . x = 1. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. 65. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0).

a. one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. From the end behavior. x + 1 . 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 − 2 )( 0 − 5 ) = 30 67. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 and 1. it has even multiplicity. a. and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 . Since the graph has three turning points. the 2 c. 3 . x + 1 and x − 4 are factors of the function. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. so they are the zeros. From the end behavior. so they are the zeros. both have even multiplicity. the function must be at least of degree 6. 2 68. x − 2 . the function must be at least of degree 3. it has odd multiplicity. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −1 and 4. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. a. Since −1 and 3 are the zeros. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 . 2 The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 4. 2. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −2 . and 5. the function The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 and 2. Thus. a. they both have odd multiplicity. and 5 are the zeros. 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3 . 2 b. Since the graph has two turning points. c. the function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) . The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 . so they are the zeros. so they are the zeros. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. it has odd multiplicity. −1 . x + 3 . Since −3 and 2 are the zeros. and 1 are the zeros. Since the graph has two turning points.Polynomial and Rational Functions 66. all three have odd multiplicity. The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 3. the function must be at least of degree 3. 2 function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) ( x − 4 ) . and 1. Thus. 2 c. Thus. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 3. is f ( x ) = ( x + 1)( x − 3) . the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x − 2 )( x − 5) . Since the graph has five turning points. to reach degree 6. x + 2 . c. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. it has even multiplicity. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. The function is is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1) . Since −2 and 1 are the zeros. both have even multiplicity. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 3) = 9 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 and 1. Since −1 and 4 are the zeros. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. the function 2 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 4 ) = −16 2 2 71. 69. Since the graph has two turning points. and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. x + 3 and x − 2 are factors of the function. From the end behavior. so they are the zeros. and x − 1 are factors of the function. b. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. b. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 1) = −4 2 292 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. From the end behavior. From the end behavior. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . the function must be at least of degree 3. Inc. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. so they are the zeros. the function must be at least of degree 3. b. x + 1 and x − 3 are factors of the function. Since −2 . The lowest even multiplicity is 2. Thus. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −3 and 2. Since the graph has two turning points. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 3) ( 0 − 2 ) = −36 70. and x − 5 are factors of the function. Since −3 . a. 2. it has even multiplicity. a. From the end behavior. −1 . The lowest even multiplicity is 2. b. x + 2 and x − 1 are factors of the function. However. the function must be at least of degree 4. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. b. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 1. 2 f ( x ) = ( x + 2) f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1) = 2 2 c.

3x 2 − 9 x − 2x + 7 −2 x + 6 102. does not make sense. A sample change is: f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 95. 106. 737 2 = 35 + 21 21 111. f ( x) = x 3 + x 2 − 12 x 109. false.Polynomial and Rational Functions 107. Sample explanation: Since ( x + 2) is raised to an odd power. makes sense 104. 1. Explanations will vary. Section 2. false. f(x) = x3 – 2x2 96. 1 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 + 103. true 294 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 . 6 x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 4 112. or rises to the left and falls to the right. x+5 x + 9 x 2 + 14 x + 45 x2 + 9 x 5 x + 45 5 x + 45 0 The answer is x + 5. Sample explanation: A forth degree function has at most 3 turning points. 108. the graph crosses the x-axis at –2. A sample change is: Such a function falls to the right and will eventually have negative values. 2. x−3 . Changes to make the statement true will vary. Inc. 110. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. false. A sample change is: A function with origin symmetry either falls to the left and rises to the right. makes sense 3x 2 − 11x 101. 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 x − 3 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 7 2 x3 − 6 x 2 100. 99. does not make sense. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 Check Point Exercises 98. 105. 2 x 3 − x 2 − 11x + 6 = ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3 x − 2) = ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) 97.

7 x3 + 0 x 2 7 x 3 − 14 x 2 14 x 2 − 7 x 14 x 2 − 28 x x 2 + 3x + 1 21x − 10 21x − 10 . − . (3 x + 1)(5 x − 2) = 0 1 2 x=− or x = 3 5 1 2⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1.4 9 x2 − 3x 15 x − 5 15 x − 5 0 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3 x + 5. 6 x3 − 2 x 2 9 x 2 + 12 x Exercise Set 2.4 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 x − 2 x 2 x + 3x + 0 x 2 − 7 x − 10 2 4 2. . –4 3 3 f(–4) = –105 4 –5 3 –12 32 –108 –8 27 x + 2 x3 + 5 x 2 + 7 x + 2 x3 + 2 x 2 2 5. 3x 2 + 7 x 3x 2 + 6 x x+2 x+2 0 2 The answer is x + 3 x + 1. –1 15 15 14 –3 –2 –15 1 2 –1 –2 0 x 2 − 3x − 2x + 6 −2 x + 6 0 15 x − x − 2 = 0 2 The answer is x 2 + x − 2. x+3 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 3. –2 1 1 0 –7 –6 –2 4 6 –2 –3 0 3. Section 2. –105 x2 + x − 2 x − 3 x − 2x − 5x + 6 3 2 x3 − 3x 2 x2 − 5x 6. ⎬ . The answer is 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 + 2 x − 2x 4. 3 5⎭ ⎩ 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 5. The answer is x − 2 x − 3 . 295 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 x2 − 2x 2 x 4 − 4 x3 5 x − 10 5 x − 10 0 The answer is x + 5. x+5 x − 2 x 2 + 3x − 10 4. 3x − 1 6 x3 + 7 x 2 + 12 x − 5 x + 5 x 2 + 8 x + 15 x2 + 5x 3 x + 15 3x + 15 0 The answer is x + 3. Inc.

2x −1 984 . 3 x 2 + 3x 2 6 x − 20 6 x + 18 − 38 The answer is 2 x 2 + x + 6 − 38 . 26 x −3 3x + 7 + 2 60 x 2 − 240 x 2 . x−4 3 3x3 3x 2 − 9 x 2 2 x2 + x + 6 − 9. 6 x3 + 8 x 2 x − 3 3x2 − 2 x + 5 9 x 2 + 27 x 3x2 − 9 x 7x + 5 9 x 2 + 12 x 15 x + 20 15 x + 20 0 7 x − 21 26 The answer is 3x + 7 + The answer is 2 x + 3x + 5. 3x − 2 246 x 246 x − 984 3 2x −1 984 The answer is 2 x − 1 4 x2 − 8x + 6 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 4 x2 − 2 x − 6x + 6 x 3 + 3x 2 + 9 x + 27 12. − 6x + 6 x − 3 x4 3 The answer is 2 x − 3 + − 81 x − 3x 4 3 . . x+3 296 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x −3 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 3x − 2 12 x 2 + x − 4 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 3x − 2 11. 9 x2 38 x+3 9 x 2 − 27 x 27 x − 81 x + 3 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 + 9 x − 20 2x + 6x 3 27 x − 81 2 0 x2 + 9 x The answer is x + 3x + 9 x + 27. 2 4x + 3 + 7. 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 3x + 4 6 x + 17 x + 27 x + 20 3 10. 984 x−4 x − 4 4 x4 − 4 x2 + 6x 4 x 4 − 16 x 3 12 x 2 − 8 x 9x − 4 9x − 6 2 16 x 3 − 4 x 2 16 x 3 − 64 x 2 60 x 2 + 6 x The answer is 4 x + 3 + 2x − 3 + 26 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 6. Inc.

x+2 32.4 2 x5 − 3x 4 + x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 1 x+2 –2 2 37. 5 −5 1 5 6 0 0 −4 f ( −2 ) = −4 299 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 −11 7 2 −6 3 . 2. x = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 f − 1 =1 f ( 4 ) = −25 34. 5 −6 5 2 −6 −2 1 −3 −1 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − x 3 + 3x 2 − x + 1 x−2 2 −6 3 24 87 246 1 8 29 82 240 129 2 x 4 − 7 x 3 + 15 x 2 − 31x + 64 − . x−2 3 1 −7 5 40. Inc. Dividend: x 3 – 4 x 2 + x + 6 Divisor: x + 1 −6 f ( x ) = 3x 3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x + 5 3 3 −1 −1 −4 −4 − f ( 3) = −27 −3 2 ( 2) 3 −12 −21 1 −4 −7 −27 35. x = 3 The solution set is {–1. . 1 −5 2 1 1 –2 –1 3 –1 1 2 0 –2 2 2 0 –1 1 1 3 39.PreCalculus 4E 31. f ( x ) = x 4 + 5x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 6 3 –3 1 –1 2 –1 –4 14 –30 62 –128 2 –7 The answer is 15 –31 64 –129 f ( 3) = 240 38. 2 −5 −1 −1 8 −12 −20 −3 −5 −25 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 5 x 3 − x 2 + 3x + 2 −1 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 5 4 6 0 f ( 2) = 0 The answer is x 4 − x 2 + x + 1 + 33. 3}. ( x + 1)( x 2 – 5 x + 6) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 3) = 0 x = –1. 5 5 −6 −4 −8 4 −3 1 2 3 2 f ( −3) = −133 −2 2 7 9 1 −9 48 −138 3 −16 46 −133 36. −5 − 23 6 10 6 f ( − 32 ) = −7 −2 –1 6 4 1 5 1 1 − 92 1 3 7 9 1 –4 1 6 –1 5 –6 6 0 –5 The quotient is x − 5 x + 6. 2 41. Section 2.

x = 2. 2} . ( x + 1)( x 2 − 3x + 2) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 1) = 0 x = –1. . Inc. ( x – 2)(2 x − x − 1) = 0 (x – 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) = 0 1 x = 2. 1}. x = 2. and −1 . 2 ⎭ ⎩ x = –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎬ . x = 1 The solution set is {–1. 12 x3 + 16 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 2 2 –5 1 2 4 –2 –2 –1 –1 0 46. x = The graph indicates that 2 is a solution to the equation.Polynomial and Rational Functions 42. 43. 2 ⎬ . 3⎬ . or {−3. x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 300 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − . 2. x= 2 3 2 ⎧ 3 1 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 1 . −3 . 2 ⎬ . so 2 is a solution. 3 2⎭ ⎩ 2 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 2 16 12 The quotient is x 2 − 3 x + 2. x=− . x = − 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −4. − . 2 2 –3 –11 6 –4 14 –6 –7 3 0 3 3 –18 3 3 –2 –2 0 7 –22 –8 –1 –2 8 6 –24 0 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3x + 6 x − 24 = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1 x = –4. . 2 1 2 −5 −6 2 8 6 1 4 3 0 The remainder is 0. 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 –3 3 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 22 x − 8 = 0 − 13 2 x − 3 x − 11x + 6 = 0 3 –5 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ (12 x − 2 x − 2) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ 2 ( 6 x − x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 2(3x + 1)(2 x – 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 1 1 x=– . −1. Dividend: x 3 − 2 x 2 − x + 2 Divisor: x + 1 –1 1 –2 –1 2 –1 3 –2 1 –3 2 0 45. x = − . 12 – 32 (x + 2) (2 x − 7 x + 3) = 0 2 (x + 2) ( 2 x − 1)( x − 3) = 0 47. 1.x=3 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −2. x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 6 = 0 ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 + 4 x + 3) = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 3)( x + 1) = 0 The solutions are 2. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 2 44.

b. Inc. 2 2 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation.1⎬ . 2 ⎭ ⎩ ) 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2 ( h + 6 )( h + 3) ) 0 = 2 ( h − 2 )( h + 6 )( h + 3) 2 ( h − 2) = 0 h + 6 = 0 h + 3 = 0 h−2 = 0 h=2 h = −6 h = −3 The height is 2 inches. . so −3 is a solution.1⎬ . 6 −5 1 −5 1 0 13 −6 2 13 6 0 0 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 0 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 This is the equation obtained in part a. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 The solutions are 1. 25 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 The remainder is 0. a. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 3 14 −17 −16 −177 72 0 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) b. 1 1 ⎧1 1 ⎫ . It can be used to find other solutions (if they exist). − . 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) = 0 The polynomial 14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 cannot be factored. Section 2. } 1 . 301 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 . and −6 . 14 ( x + 3) ( 2 x − 5 x + 2 ) = 0 ( x + 3)( 2 x − 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 49. or 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎨ −6. 1 2 11 −7 −6 2 59 211 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 50. The female moth’s abdominal width is 3 millimeters. 2 x 3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 = 0 The solutions are −3 . 1 . . so the only solution is x = 3. 2 0 −72 2 14 4 36 2 18 36 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. − . and . 177 We need to find x when f ( x ) = 211. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so 1 is a solution. a. or −3. 2 3 ⎩3 2 ⎭ 52. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 The remainder is 0. the width is 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 inches and the length is 2 + 7 = 9 inches. or ⎨ . and 2. 1 6 −11 6 −1 6 75 = ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) 2 { 42 The remainder is 0 so 3 is a solution. V = lwh 72 = ( h + 7 )( 2h )( h ) The remainder is 0.4 The graph indicates that −3 is a solution to the equation. One solution is 3. The dimensions are 2 inches by 4 inches by 9 inches. −3 2 1 −13 6 −6 15 −6 2 −5 2 0 51. so 1 is a solution.PreCalculus 4E 48. 72 = 2h3 + 14h 2 2 x3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 0 = 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 ( x − 1) ( 2 x 2 + 13 x + 6 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( 2 x + 1)( x + 6 ) = 0 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) ( 0 = ( h − 2 ) 2 ( h 2 + 9h + 18 ) 1 The solutions are 1.

55. 68. x 2 and x terms. 54. the length of the rectangle is 8 x 2 − 12 x + 4 units. does not make sense.3 0. true 72. Changes to make the statement true will vary. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials. Explanations will vary. does not make sense.06 l= = w x + 0.06 0. A sample change is: The degree of the quotient is 3. A 8 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x + 3 l= = 3 w x+ 4 − 34 8 80(40) − 8000 = 68. the length of the rectangle is 0.4 a. the government tax revenue will be \$70 ten billion. true 73. (30. 110 -8000 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 f (40) = 80 + 40 − 110 = 68. f (x) is not a polynomial function. Sample explanation: The remainder theorem provides an alternative method for evaluating a function at a given value.22 x + 0. b. . 302 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.57 Therefore. A sample change is: The divisor is a factor of the divided only if the remainder is the whole number 0. 67.08 −0.3 110 0 −6 −5 3 −6 9 −3 8 −12 4 0 80 a. 80 8800 A = l ⋅ w so. Sample explanation: The division must account for the zero coefficients on the x 4 .4 x + 0. does not make sense. the government’s revenue is \$68.57) At a 40% tax rate. 70) At a 30% tax rate.22 56. −0. 70.57 40 − 110 b. x3 . Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: The zeros of f are the same as the solutions of f ( x) = 0.5 x3 − 0. Explanations will vary. 69. x6 since 3 = x 3 . Explanations will vary.5 −0.Polynomial and Rational Functions A = l ⋅ w so A 0.3x 2 + 0. 70) same answer as in a. Answers may vary. −0.2 53. Inc. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (x) is not a polynomial function. c. -8000 8800 80 800 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 = 70 f (30) = 80 + 80 − 110 (30.1 0. – 65. f (40) = (40.2 0. 80(30) − 8000 = 70 30 − 110 80 800 57.5 x 2 − 0.5 −0. Therefore. 0. false.3 units. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials. 66. makes sense 68.06 0. x 71. f (30) = c.57 ten billion.

5 −20 −20 79. x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 8x2 + 6x 75. −1. 3 x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 = 0 5 1 −4 −9 16 20 5 20 x3 + 15 x 2 1 8 x 2 − 10 − 16 x + k −16 x − 12 0 To solve the equation. x −5 = 0 x +1 = 0 2x − 3 x=5 x = −1 x+2=0 x−2 = 0 x−2 2 x − 3 2 x2 − 7 x + 6 2 x2 − 3x x = −2 x=2 The solutions are –2. we set it equal to zero and factor. 2. x n + 1 x 3n −4 = ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) To get a remainder of zero. Section 2. k must equal –12. Inc. ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) ) = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 )( x + 1)( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = d ( x) ⋅ q( x) + r ( x) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 9 = d ( x )(2 x − 3) + 3 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x)(2 x − 3) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x) Apply the zero product principle. . Then divide the quotient by 2. 2 x − 4 = 2( x − 2) Use synthetic division to divide by x – 2.4 5x2 + 2 x − 4 4 x + 3 20 x + 23x 2 − 10 x + k 78. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 −4 The remainder is zero and 5 is a solution to the equation.PreCalculus 4E 74.5} . 2 and 5 and the solution set is {−2. 77. –1. 303 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 4x + 6 −4 x + 6 The polynomial is x – 2. k = –12 76. x 2n − x n + 1 +1 x 3n + x 2 n − x 2n x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4)2 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −4 ± 20 2 −4 ± 2 5 x= 2 x = −2 ± 5 − x 2n − x n x= xn +1 xn +1 0 { } The solution set is −2 ± 5 .

4. ± . ± q 2 4 2 4 are the possible rational zeros. ± 2 are possible rational zeros f (3) = −150 2 1 ) an (3) − 3(3) − 4 = −150 4 2 an ( 81 − 27 − 4 ) = −150 1 2 is a zero.5 x= Check Point Exercises 1. ± 2. ± 5. ± 13 are possible rational zeros. 1 1 5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a double root. ±1. 2. ± 6 q are the possible rational zeros. −4. ± 3. . −b ± b − 4ac 2a 2 x= ±1. 81. x 2 + 9 x + 20 = 0 20 0 −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(1)(6) x= 2(1) −4 ± −8 2 −4 ± 2i 2 x= 2 x = −2 ± i 2 x= ( x + 4)( x + 5) = 0 x = −4 or x = −5 { The solution set is {1. ± 3 1 –6 22 –30 13 1 –5 17 –13 1 –5 1 is a zero. ± 4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. ± . ± 10. x 2 + 3x + 1 = 0 an ( 50 ) = −150 an = −3 x= Section 2. 2 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ p : ± 1. ± 3. f ( x) = an ( x 4 − 3 x 2 − 4) ( 1 ±1. x 2 − 4 x + 13 = 0 0 4 ± 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = = 2 + 3i 2 2 The solution set is{1. ± 2. } The solution set is −2 ± i 2 . ± 20 are possible rational zeros 1 8 11 –20 1 9 20 1 9 1 is a zero. ± 4. ± 3. 17 –13 0 q : ± 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. ± 2. x2 + 4 x + 6 = 0 3. 2 + 3i. ± 6 q : ±1 -5 –2 2 6 2 3 1 0 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(1) 2(1) −3 ± 5 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 5 −3 − 5 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ 2. ⎬. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± . −5}. = p : ± 1. 2 – 3i}. 1 p : ± 1. ± 2. 1 5. Inc. x= 304 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

± 4 q : ±1 9. ± . ± . ±3. ±2. x = −2. ± 3. x = −1 The solution set is {2. ± 5. ± q 2 4 2 4 305 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. ± . ±6 q: ±1. p : ± 1. ± . –1}. ± 4 q : ±1 2 x − 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 x +1 = 0 x = 2. f ( x) = 4 x5 − 8 x 4 − x + 2 p : ± 1. p : ± 1. ± q 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 0 2 is a zero. ± 2. –2. ± 6. ± . ± 2. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 6 x − 8 p : ± 1. Since f(–x) has no changes of sign. ± 2. ±4. ± 2. –2. Section 2. ± 4. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 q 8. f ( x) = x 4 − 14 x 3 + 71x 2 − 154 x + 120 q : ±1 f (− x) = x 4 + 14 x 3 + 71x 2 + 154 x + 120 Since f(x) has 4 changes of sign. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 f ( x) = an ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) f (1) = an (1 + 3)(12 + 1) = 8an = 8 an = 1 f ( x) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) or x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3 7. ± . f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 p: ±1. ± 3. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p: ±1. ± 2. p 1 1 : ± 1. ± 4 q 2. 4. ± 2. ±5. ± 2 4 q f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 p : ± 1. ±15 q: ±1. p : ± 1. ± 6.5 1.5 ( x + 3)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) 6. ± .PreCalculus 4E 6. c. 2. ± 3. –1 are rational zeros. ±6 q: ±1. ±8 q: ±1. ± 2 q : ± 1. ±3. . f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 8 p: ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±3. ± 4 Exercise Set 2. f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. ± 8. ± 4 q p : ± 1. ± . ± 2. ± 2. ± q 3 3 3 3 7. ± . ± 4. Inc. ± 2. ± 2. f ( x) = x 5 − x 4 − 7 x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 12 p : ± 1. 2. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ±3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ± . ± q 3 3 4 p : ± 1. ± 2. or 0 positive real zeros. there are 4. ±2. ± 2. ± 15. ±2. ± . ±2. there are no negative real zeros. ± 8 q 3. ±4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. ± 8 q : ±1 b. 1 1 –4 –4 2 6 4 x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x 2 + 3 x + 2) = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x + 3x − 11x − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. ± 4. 5. ± 2.

4. 2 13. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 11x + 12 p: ±1. 2 1 2 –3 0 4 is a zero. x = −3. 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 11x + 6 = 0 c. x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ 2. ±2. ± 2. − 2 are rational zeros. ±6 q –1 4 –3 –6 –1 –3 6 1 3 –6 –1 is a rational zero. ± 3. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ 306 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 1 are rational zeros. 2 c. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. ± 2. ±2. ± q 2 2 b. . –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 5 x 2 + x + 2 p: ±1. . ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3x − 2) = 0 ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x − 6 p: ±1. ± 2. ⎬. ± 3. –5 2 –1 –1 0 2 is a zero. ±3. ± q 2 2 3 2 ( x − 2) ( 2 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 6 a. ( x − 4) ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 x = 4. 1 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 c. x = . ± 12 q 4 1 12. ± 6 q : ± 1. –3. c. 4 –2 –2 ( x − 2) (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 1 x = 2. ±2. a. 1 3. ± 4. a. − 2 ⎬ . ± 6. 0 x 2 + 3x − 6 = 0 x= 1 x = 3. 2 b. –3. b. − . 1 2. . ±4. ±6 q: ±1 p : ±1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. 2 ⎭ ⎩ p : ± 1. 1⎬ . ± 2 p 1 3 : ± 1. x = 1 The solution set is{4. − . a. ± 6. Inc. 1}. ± . ±3. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 b. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(−6) 2(1) −3 ± 33 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 33 −3 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −1. 11. x = −2 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨3. –3 –11 6 6 9 –6 2 3 –2 0 3 is a zero. ±2 q: ±1. ±6. ± 2. ±12 q: ±1 p : ± 1. x = − . ±3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 are rational zeros. ± 3.

PreCalculus 4E 14. ⎬. . 0 –4 8 –5 1 –3 5 1 –3 5 1 is a rational zero. ± q 2 –2 2 2(2) −2 ± −4 4 −2 ± 2i = 4 −1 ± i = 2 2 x2 + 2 x − 2 = 0 x= −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(1) = 1 is a rational zero. f ( x) = 2 x3 + 6 x 2 + 5 x + 2 p: ±1. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a c. ± q 2 1 2 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. ± 5 q 1 b. The solution set is ⎨ −2. a. a. ±2 q: ±1. ⎧⎪ 1 −1 + 5 −1 − 5 ⎫⎪ . 2 c. . 5 2 –4 –4 –2 2 2 1 –2 is a rational zero. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 307 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 15. 2 2 2 x2 + 2 x + 1 = 0 c. ±5 q: ±1 p : ± 1. x= x= 1 –3 1 1 1 –1 2 –2 0 −1 + i −1 − i ⎫ ⎧ . 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ x2 + x − 1 = 0 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 16. The solution set is ⎨ . 0 x 2 − 3x + 5 = 0 x= 6 1 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) 3 ± −11 2 3 ± i 11 = 2 = ⎧⎪ 3 + i 11 3 − i 11 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨1. Inc. ⎬. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. −1 ± 12 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −1 ± 5 2 f ( x) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 8 x − 5 p: ±1. ± 2. Section 2. b.5 f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 3 x + 1 p: ±1 q: ±1. ⎬.

± 6. ± 6. ± 3. 1. ± 12 q : ±1 p : ± 1. ( x + 1) 2 x = −1 x= The solution set is {4. ± 2. –10 } The solution set is −2. p : ± 1. 2 + 3i. 4 are rational roots. x=4 x = −3 x = 1 The solution set is {–3. p : ± 1. 0 { 20. ± 6. 4 are rational roots. ± 2. . x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 a. 4 1 –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 b. 4 + 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = 2 2 4 ± 6i = = 2 ± 3i 2 The solution set is {1. –3. 1 2 –3 0 4 is a root. a. 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 0 ( x − 4) x = 4. 1 − 7 . q : ±1 p : ± 1. –2 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 2 x − 6) = 0 c. 0 x3 + 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 c. ± 3. –1. x3 − 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. 4}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 + 7. 19. 1 –5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a rational root. ±4 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 2. 2. ± 4 q 4 0 x= x − 4 = 0 x + 3 = 0 x −1 = 0 b. ± 12 q b. ± 4. ± 4. 1 –12 –2 4 12 1 –2 –6 –2 is a rational root. ± 12 q x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 p: ±1. ± 3. ± 13 q 1 b. –2 –7 –4 4 8 4 1 2 1 4 is a root. ± 3. Inc. c. 1 2 ± 4 + 24 2 ± 28 = 2 2 2±2 7 = = 1± 7 2 ( x − 4)( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 18. 1. 308 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±13 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 6. a. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 c. ± 2. ±2. ± 2. −3i}. −1} .Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. ± 4. ± 12 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 a. ± 4.

0 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 1 1 –2 is a zero of x3 0 –5 –2 –2 4 2 –2 –1 0 – 5x –2 = 0. b. ± 2. 2. 1 1 −5. ±15 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 2 are rational roots. 1 is a rational root. ± 3 ± 5 ± 15 q 3 1 0 –2 –16 –15 3 9 21 15 1 3 7 3 is a root. . −1. 23. ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 2± 4+4 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 2 2 2 = 1± 2 The solution set is x= {−2. are rational roots. 2 2 –2 –5 8 4 2 0 –10 –4 1 0 –5 –2 2 is a root. x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −5. ⎬ . ± . x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 p: ±1. 6 –5 1 0 –5 is a root. a. 2 3⎭ ⎩ 22. ± 2 ± 4 ± q 2 1 2 2 ( x − 2)( x3 − 5 x − 2) = 0 ( x + 5)(2 x − 1)(3x − 1) = 0 x + 5 = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 3x − 1 = 0 1 1 x = −5. ±4 q: ±1. 1 − 2 . ± . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 + –5 –6 4 1 –2 –4 –4 –8 0 24. 6 x + 25 x − 24 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 5)(6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 3 c. ±3. ± 2.3 are rational roots. ± 2. ± 4 q : ±1 p : ± 1. 1 + 5. −2. Inc. 2 3 c. ± 5.5 6 x 3 + 25 x 2 − 24 x + 5 = 0 a. ⎩2 ⎭ x= 309 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. ± 6 p 1 5 1 5 1 5 : ± 1. ± . 1 –2 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 p: ±1. Section 2. ± . ±5. . p : ± 1. 2 c. b. ±2. a.PreCalculus 4E 21. 1 − 5 ⎬ . . 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 1 ( x − ) ( 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8) = 0 2 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x2 − 2 x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ } 2. ± q 2 2 3 3 6 6 –5 6 25 –24 5 –30 25 –5 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 a. 5 0 2± 2 5 = 1± 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ± 4 q b. x = . ± 3. ± 5 q : ± 1. p : ± 1. 2 b. ± .

− 1. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 27. = ( x − 1) ( x 2 + 25 ) ( x − 6) ( x + 5 + 2i ) ( x + 5 − 2i ) = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 5 x − 2ix + 5 x + 25 − 10i + 2ix + 10i − 4i 2 ) = x3 + 25 x − x 2 − 25 = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 10 x + 29 ) = x3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 ) = x 3 + 10 x 2 + 29 x − 6 x 2 − 60 x − 174 = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 f (−1) = an (−1 − 1 − 25 − 25) f ( x) = an ( x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) −104 = an (−52) an = 2 f (2) = an (8 + 16 − 62 − 174) f ( x) = 2 ( x − x + 25 x − 25) 26. (x – i)(x + i)(x – 3i)(x + 3i) = ( x 2 − i 2 )( x 2 − 9i 2 ) f (−1) = an (−1 − 4 − 4 − 16) = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 9 ) −50 = an (−25) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 f ( x) = an ( x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9) an = 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) f (–1) = an ((–1) 4 + 10(–1) 2 + 9) f ( x) = 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x − 32 20 = an (20) an = 1 f ( x ) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 310 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ) f ( x ) = 1( x3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 ) f ( x ) = x 3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 28. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 2 91 = an (91) an = 1 ( x − 1) ( x + 5i ) ( x − 5i ) 3 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 − 3i )( x − 4 + 3i ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 3ix − 4 x + 16 − 12i −636 = an (−212) 2 an = 3 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 2 x 2 + 50 x − 50 ( x − 4) ( x + 2i ) ( x − 2i ) f ( x) = 3 ( x3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) = ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 4 ) f ( x) = 3 x3 + 12 x 2 − 93 x − 522 = x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) 29. − 1 − 2i} .Polynomial and Rational Functions c. 25. Inc. ( x − 3) ( x + 3x + 7 x + 5 ) = 0 3 –1 2 1 3 7 5 –1 –2 –5 2 5 0 1 −3ix + 12i − 9i 2 ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 8 x + 25 ) = ( x3 − 8 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 40 x + 125 ) = x 3 − 3 x 2 − 15 x + 125 –1 is a root of x 3 + 3 x 2 + 7 x + 5 f ( x) = an ( x 3 – 3x 2 –15 x + 125) ( x − 3) ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 2 x + 5) ( f (2) = an 23 − 3 ( 2 ) − 15 ( 2 ) + 125 –2 ± 4 − 20 –2 ± −16 = x= 2 2 −2 ± 4i = = −1 ± 2i 2 The solution set is {3. − 1 + 2i.

5 1⎞ ⎟ ( x − i )( x + i ) 2⎠ 5 ⎛ ⎞ = ⎜ x 2 + x + 1⎟ ( x 2 + 1) 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 = x 4 + x 2 + x3 + x + x 2 + 1 2 2 5 5 = x 4 + x3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1 2 2 5 ⎛ 4 5 3 ⎞ f ( x ) = an ⎜ x + x + 2 x 2 + x + 1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 3 2 ⎡ 4 ⎤ f (1) = an ⎢(1) + (1) + 2 (1) + (1) + 1⎥ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ 18 = an (9) an = 2 f ( x) = x 3 + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 4 Since f(x) has no sign variations. ( x + 2 ) ⎛⎜ x + ⎝ Section 2. 35. f ( − x ) = −5 x3 − 3 x 2 − 3x − 1 5 5 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x 4 + x 3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 5x3 + 4 x 2 + 5 x + 2 31. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + x 3 + 5 x 2 + 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 1 sign variations. . 1 negative real roots exist. f(x) = 5 x 3 − 3 x 2 + 3 x − 1 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. no negative real roots exist. f ( x) = −2 x 3 + x 2 − x + 7 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. 34. ( x + 2) ( x − 5) ( x − 3 + 2i ) ( x − 3 − 2i ) ( = (x )( − 3 x − 10 ) ( x = x 2 − 3 x − 10 x 2 − 3 x − 2ix − 3x + 9 + 6i + 2ix − 6i − 4i 2 2 2 − 6 x + 13 ) ) 36. no positive real roots exist. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. no negative real roots exist. Since f(–x) has no sign variations. 38. f ( − x ) = − x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. 37. f (− x) = − x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 7 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. 2 or 0 positive real roots exist. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. 33. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. f ( − x ) = 2 x 4 + 5 x3 − x 2 + 6 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 2 sign variations. = x 4 − 6 x + 13x 2 − 3 x3 + 18 x 2 − 39 x − 10 x 2 + 60 x − 130 = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ( f ( x) = an x 4 − 9 x3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ) f (1) = an (1 − 9 + 21 + 21 − 130) −96 = an (−96) an = 1 f ( x) = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 30. ( x + 4) (3x − 1) ( x − 2 + 3i ) ( x − 2 − 3i ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 2 x − 3ix − 2 x + 4 + 6i + 3ix − 6i − 9i 2 ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 3 x 4 − 12 x 3 + 39 x 2 + 11x3 − 44 x 2 + 143x − 4 x 2 + 16 x − 52 = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 f ( x) = an ( 3x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 ) f (1) = an (3 − 1 − 9 + 159 − 52) 100 = an (100 ) an = 1 f ( x) = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 311 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 2 x 4 − 5 x3 − x 2 − 6 x + 4 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. Inc. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 + x 2 + x + 7 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. 2 or 0 negative real roots exist. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 + x + 7 Since f(x) has no sign variations no positive real roots exist.

± 4 ± q 2 1 positive real root exists. p : ± 1. exactly one negative real zeros exists. 312 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2 ± 5 ± 10 q 12 21 10 –1 –11 –10 1 11 –1 is a zero. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±8 q: ±1. ±4. no positive zeros exist. ± . 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 42. 10 0 1 ± 1 + 16 1 ± 17 = 2 2 ⎪⎧ 1 1 + 17 1 − 17 ⎪⎫ . ± 2. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ± 5. ±2. 2 x3 − x 2 − 9 x − 4 = 0 p : ± 1. Inc. exactly 1 negative real zero exists. ± 2. ± 10 q : ±1 p : ± 1. f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 11x + 10 ) = ( x + 1)( x + 10)( x + 1) x = −1. ± 2. 3 or 1 negative zeros exist. 2 or no positive real roots exist. 2 x= f ( x) = x 3 + 12 x 2 + 2 x + 10 p: ±1. ±5. . ± 10 q Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. ± 2. 5.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. –2 1 –4 –7 10 –2 12 –10 1 –6 –2 is a zero. f (− x) = −2 x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 4 2 or no negative real roots exist. ± 5. f (− x) = − x 3 + 12 x 2 − 21x + 10 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. 3 x 3 − 8 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. q : ± 1. ± . The solution set is ⎨ − . x = 5. 2 − –9 –4 –1 1 4 –2 –8 0 1 is a root. –10}. 5 0 41. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. f ( x) = x3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10 p : ± 1. x = 1 The solution set is{–2. ⎬. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. –1 2 –1 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x + 5) 40. 0 or 2 positive real zeros exist. ± . ±2. f ( − x ) = − x3 − 4 x 2 + 7 x + 10 Since f(–x) has 1 sign variation. ± q 3 3 3 3 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. 1}. ±10 q: ±1. x = −10 The solution set is {–1. Since f(x) has no sign variations. 1 –1 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ 2 ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ = ( x + 2)( x − 5)( x − 1) x = –2. ± 4 f (− x) = –3 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 1 sign changes.

±5. ± 8 –1 -4 1 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 3 – i. x 4 − 3 x 3 − 20 x 2 − 24 x − 8 = 0 p : ± 1. ±10 q: ±1 p : ±1. ± 2. ± 8 q Since f(x) has 2 sign changes.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ±10 q 2 is a zero. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)3 + (− x) 2 − 12 x + 8 4 -1 f ( x) = ( x − 1)( x − 1)( x 2 − 6 x + 10) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 + 12 x + 8 p : ±1. 0 or 2 positive roots exist. Inc. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x3 − x 2 + 14 x + 10 p: ±1. 2 – 2i}. 2 + 2i. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 8 q : ±1 p : ± 1. ±2. ± 4.1 + 5. ± 2. ⎩3 ⎭ 43. 1 The solution set is {–1. –3 –20 –24 –8 –1 4 16 8 –16 –8 0 –4 ( x + 1) ( x − 4 x − 16 x − 8 ) = 0 3 2 313 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 3 2 3 3 –8 –8 8 2 –4 –8 –6 –12 0 44. ±2. ± 2. ± 4. ±5. 0 or 2 negative roots exist. . 3 –1 2⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 − 6 x − 12 ) 3⎠ ⎝ 6 ± 36 + 144 6 ± 6 5 = 6 6 = 1± 5 –1 x= x= q : ±1 –1 –8 1 –3 4 8 0 1 –3 4 8 –1 4 –8 –4 8 0 1 2 0 = x − 4x + 8 10 –1 5 -4 -10 1 -5 4 10 0 1 -5 4 10 –1 6 –10 -6 10 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) x =1 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 − 12 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 2 sign changes. ± 4 ± 8 q 1 positive real root exists. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist.1 − 5 ⎬ . –1 −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(8) x= 2(1) 1 1 4 ± 16 − 32 x= 2 4 ± −16 x= 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i The solution set is { –1. 3 + i} 45. –1 1 –2 1 12 8 –4 14 x= p : ±1. ± 2. –1. ± 4.

±8 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 15. 2. 0 (x 2 + 4) x + 1 = 0 x − 2 = 0 x2 + 4 = 0 x = –1 –1 f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( 3x 3 − 14 x 2 + 13x + 6 ) ( x + 1) ( x − 2 x + 4 x − 8 ) 3 –11 x=2 x 2 = −4 x = ±2i The solution set is {−1. 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 4 –8 2 0 8 0 4 ( x − 2) 48. ± 2. − . x = 2 x = − . Inc. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. 3 46. 2. ± . ± 3. ± .Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 1 1 –4 –16 –8 –2 12 8 –6 –4 0 47. ± q 2 2 2 2 2 or no positive real zeros exist. 3 − 13 . − 2i} . ±3. ± . f (− x) = 3x 4 + 11x 3 − x 2 − 19 x + 6 2 or no negative real zeros exist. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 3. x = 3 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. x − x + 2x − 4x − 8 = 0 p: ±1. ±2. ± 6. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8 q 1 negative real root exists. 3 ± f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p : ± 1. 1 2 2 3 –11 –9 15 2 5 –6 –15 –6 –15 0 5 f ( x) = ( x − 1) ( 2 x + 5 x − 6 x − 15 ) 3 − 52 2 2 2 5 –6 –15 –5 0 15 0 –6 0 314 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±4. ±15 q: ±1. ± q 3 3 2 or no positive real zeros exists. 2i. ± 6 –1 3 } 13. ( x + 1)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x − 4 ) = 0 6 ± 36 + 16 6 ± 52 = 2 2 6 ± 2 13 3 ± 13 = = 2 2 The solution set is x= {−1. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − 3x 3 − 11x 2 + 9 x + 15 2 or no negative real zeros exist. 4 3 –1 2 1 1 2 1 1 ( x + 1) 2 3 3 19 6 –3 14 –13 –6 –14 13 6 0 –14 13 6 6 –16 –6 –8 –3 0 –1 2 –4 –8 f ( x) = ( x + 1)( x − 2) ( 3x 2 − 8 x − 3) –1 2 –4 8 = ( x + 1)( x − 2)(3x + 1)( x − 3) –2 4 –8 0 1 x = −1. q : ± 1. ± . 3⎬ . . f ( x) = 2 x 4 + 3x 3 − 11x 2 − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. ± 5. ± 3 p 1 2 : ± 1. − 2. ± 2. ± 3. ±5.

±4. 4 p 1 3 1 3 : ± 1. . ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. 4 –1 5 –2 –6 4 3 8 6 3 8 6 0 12 4 4 –8 1 1 –2 0 3 8 6 –3 0 –6 0 8 0 1 1 –2 2 2 2 3 3 0 x= 4 x + 3 x + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. . ± .5 5⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 6 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 5⎞ ⎛ = 2( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 − 3) 2⎠ ⎝ 50. ± q 2 2 4 4 3 or 1 positive real roots exists. ± 3. 51. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. − . f (− x) = 3 x 4 + 11x3 − 3 x 2 + 6 x + 8 2 or no negative real roots exist. − i 2 ⎬ . 2 3 4 –11 ( x − 4) ( 3x 3 + x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 q : ± 1. 3. ± q 3 3 3 3 2 or no positive real roots exist. ±2. Inc. − 3 ⎬ . ± . x = − 3 2 ⎧ 5 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. ± 2. 315 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 4. ± 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 2 4 –6 2⎞ ⎛ ( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 + 3x + 3) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2⎞ ⎛ 3( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2 − 34 3 3 ( x − 1)(4 x + 3x + 8 x + 6) = 0 3 –3 Another positive real root must exist. ± 6. ± 2. ± 8.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. . i 2. 4 ⎩ ⎭ 7 0 –18 –4 2 3 –8 8 –6 12 12 –8 –6 –6 4 0 ( x + 2)(2 x + 3x − 6 x − 6 x + 4) = 0 4 3 2 4 x 3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. − . ± q 2 2 or no positive real roots exists. ±8 q: ±1. ⎬. ± 2. x = − . ± 2. 1 negative real root exists. x = 3. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 49. ± . 4 8 −1 ± 1 − 4 −1 ± i 3 = 2 2 ⎧⎪ 2 −1 + i 3 −1 − i 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨4. ± 4 3 3 3 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 = 0 p : ± 1. ± . ± 6 1 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3 x 2 − 6 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. ± . x2 − 3 = 0 x2 = 3 x=± 3 5 x = 1. ± 8 q : ± 1. 3⎞ ⎛ ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 4 x 2 + 8 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ 4( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 2 x +2 =0 2 x 5 + 7 x 4 − 18 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p : ± 1. ± 2. ± . 3 or 1 negative real root exist. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. x 2 = −2 –2 x = ±i 2 2 3 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. ± 4.

f (− x) = −4 x5 + 12 x 4 + 41x3 − 99 x 2 − 10 x + 24 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. ±4 p 1 3 : ± 1. ± 24. ±6. ± 12. 2. 2 2⎭ ⎩ 1⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2)2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2( x + 2) 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x −2 = 0 53. ±3. ±4. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 52. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus. − 2 ⎬ . q 2 2 1 3 ± . From the graph provided. ± 6. We verify this below: −4 −1 1 16 −16 4 −20 −1 5 −4 x2 = 2 x=± 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. 1. 3 16 0 x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x = −4 x =1 The zeros are −4 . ±24 q: ±1. ± 2. ± 4. f ( x ) = − x3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 a. and 4. − 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 2 2 3 –6 –6 4 –4 2 8 –4 –1 –4 2 0 ( x − 3)( x + 2)( x + 4) ( 4 x 2 − 1) = 0 4 x2 −1 = 0 4 x2 = 1 1 x2 = 4 1 x=± 2 ( x + 2) 2 (2 x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 2) 2 1 2 –1 –4 2 1 0 2 0 –4 0 2 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨3. we can see that −4 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. − 4. ± 8. ±2. Inc. . 4 4 12 –41 –99 10 24 12 72 93 –18 –24 24 31 –6 –8 0 − x 3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 = 0 ( x + 4) ( − x2 + 5x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 ) ( x2 − 5x + 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) = 0 4 x 5 + 12 x 4 − 41x3 − 99 x 2 + 10 x + 24 = 0 p: ±1. ±12. ±2. ± . − ⎬ . ± 3. x=4 . . ± . ±8.± 4 4 2 or no positive real roots exist. b. ( x − 3) ( 4 x + 24 x + 31x − 6 x − 8) = 0 4 –2 3 2 24 31 –6 –8 –8 –32 2 8 –1 –4 0 4 4 16 ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( 4 x + 16 x − x − 4 ) = 0 3 –4 4 4 2 16 –1 4 –16 0 4 0 –1 0 316 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3 x + 3 x + 3) = 0 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 55. We verify this below: 1 3 3 2 2 −1 From the graph provided. From the graph provided. 9 −1 ± −3 2 1 3 −1 ± 3i i = =− ± 2 2 2 1 3 1 i.PreCalculus 4E 54. .5 f ( x ) = − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. We verify this below: −1 −1 3 0 −4 1 −4 −1 4 −4 4 0 − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 = 0 Thus. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. f ( x ) = 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 a. so we use the quadratic formula: 1 or x 2 + x + 1 = 0 x− =0 3 a =1 b =1 c =1 1 x= 3 f ( x ) = 4 x3 − 8x 2 − 3x + 9 a. Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. − ( x + 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 2 x +1 = 0 or x = −1 ( x − 2) 2 =0 x−2 = 0 x=2 The zeros are −1 and 2. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. We verify this below: −1 4 −8 −3 9 x= −4 12 −9 4 −12 Thus. 2 317 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x + 1) ( − x 2 + 4 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) = 0 56. Section 2. The zeros are and − ± 2 2 3 4 x3 − 8 x 2 − 3x + 9 = 0 ( x + 1)( 2 x − 3) = 0 or ( 2 x − 3) 2 = 0 2 x = −1 2 (1) = 0 ( x + 1) ( 4 x 2 − 12 x + 9 ) = 0 x +1 = 0 −1 ± 12 − 4 (1)(1) b. From the graph provided. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. we can see that 1 1 1 3 3 3 0 Thus. 2x − 3 = 0 2x = 3 x= The zeros are −1 and 3 2 3 . b. 1 is an x3 intercept and is thus a zero of the function. Inc.

36 12 0 2 x + 2 x − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 = 0 4 3 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( 2 x 2 + 10 x + 12 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( x 2 + 5 x + 6 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = 0 The remainder is 0. ± 6 = Factors of 1 ±1 = ±1. From the graph provided. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −3 −7 −8 6 −2 ± 22 − 4 (1)( 2 ) 2 (1) From the graph provided. we can see that 1 −1 −2 ± −4 −2 ± 2i = = −1 ± i 2 2 1 The zeros are . b. One possibility is shown next: = ( x − 1) ( 2 x3 + 4 x 2 − 18 x − 36 ) 3 2 6 6 2 2 0 30 2 10 1 −1 −4 −6 1 4 −18 −36 6 3 0 Thus. 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 2 x + 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. ± 6 We test values from above until we find a zero. 0 2 x − 3x − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 4 Thus. . we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. ± 3. so 3 is a zero of f. 3 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 To factor x − x 2 − 4 x − 6 . x = −3. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −22 −18 36 Factors of − 6 ±1. Inc. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 2 x 3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 a. Factors of the constant term −6 : ±1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 57. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 58. ± 3. x = −2 The zeros are −3. 1. x = 3. so we use the quadratic formula: a =1 b = 2 c = 2 x = 1. and −1 ± i . ± 2. 3. ± 2. 2 = −4 −6 2 −2 −8 −12 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 318 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and 3. 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 Test 3: 3 4 −18 −36 2 2 4 −18 −36 The possible rational zeros are: Thus. we can see that 1 and 3 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 a. ± 2. x= 1 is an 2 x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. − 2 . ± 3.

a. x = 2. we can see that 1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. − . ± 3 3 3 We test values from above until we find a zero. ± . 1 and 2.PreCalculus 4E 59. ± 2. ± 2. ± 4 = Factors of 5 ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. We can now finish the factoring: 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 = 0 From the graph provided. The remainder is 0. We verify this below: 1 3 2 −15 −10 12 8 ( x − 1) ( 3 x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1) ( 3x 2 + 8 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1)( 3 x + 2 )( x + 2 ) = 0 5 −10 −20 −8 3 3 5 −10 −20 −8 0 Thus. One possibility is shown next: 319 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. ± 5 −3 −8 −4 3 f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 4 x3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 0 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. ± . 0 Thus. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 To factor 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 . x = − .5 f ( x ) = 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 a. Section 2. . ± 2. ± 3 60. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 3: ±1. −1 . ± 4 = Factors of 3 ±1. ± 2. x = −2 3 2 The zeros are −2 . we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. ± 5 5 5 We test values from above until we find a zero. so −1 is a zero of f. One possibility is shown next: Test −1 : − 1 3 11 12 4 8 4 From the graph provided. we can see that 1 and 2 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. ± 4. ± 4. We verify this below: 1 −5 4 −19 16 4 −5 −1 −20 −4 −5 −1 −20 −4 0 Thus. 3x + 2 x − 15 x − 10 x + 12 x + 8 5 4 3 2 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) = ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) To factor 3 x 3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 . ± . 3 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) 2 3 5 −10 −20 −8 6 22 3 11 24 12 8 4 b. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 5: ±1. x = −1. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. ± 3 1 2 4 = ±1. Inc. 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 2 x = 1. ± 2. ± 5 1 2 4 = ±1. ± .

x = −2i. x = 2i 5 1 The zeros are − . 15). 12. a.8 Since the depth must be positive. x= 4 −(5) ± (5)2 − 4(1)(−100) 2(1) x ≈ −12. 1⎞ ⎛ − ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 5 x 2 + 20 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 4 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 1500 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 750 = 0 Find the roots. 0 −4 0 20 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 0 1 is a zero of f.2. 15).8 inches to obtain a volume of 2000 cubic inches. 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 2000 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 1000 = 0 Find the roots. 5 5 1 0 −750 0 −150 0 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. The answers correspond to the points (5. 10 1 −5 −150 1000 10 1 64.2 Since the depth must be positive. The answers correspond to the points (7. The depth can be 10 inches or 7. and ±2i . x= b. 0 65. reject the negative value. so − ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 62. 1. The range is (0. – 71.Polynomial and Rational Functions 1 Test − : 5 − 15 5 1 20 −1 5 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. 5 −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 The remainder is 0.8.2 inches to obtain a volume of 1500 cubic inches. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(0) ± (0)2 − 4(1)(−150) 2(1) x ≈ −12. x= 61. 2000 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x b. Answers may vary.2. 2000) and (10.8. 50 −1000 5 −100 The range is (0. Inc. 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . b. The depth can be 5 inches or 12. a. 2000). V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 2000 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 63. 1500) and (12. 5 1 −5 −150 750 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x + 2i )( x − 2i ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1 x = 1. 320 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = − . reject the negative value. 1500).

± . ±2. Odd functions must have at least one real zero. no negative roots exist. 2 2 6 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. ±3. 2 78. ±6. ± 4. 2 x 4 + 7 x 3 − 4 x 2 − 27 x − 18 = 0 p : ± 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±3. ±5. so no negative real roots exist. − 1. ±18. From the graph.PreCalculus 4E 72. 3. Inc. so either 5. ± . ±2. f ( − x ) = − x5 − x 4 − x3 − x 2 − x − 8 f(–x) has no sign variations. ± 5. ± . ± q 2 2 2 2 75. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. ±15 q: ±1. From the graph we see the solutions are 3 −3. 1 3 9 p : ± 1. it has no positive real roots. ± q 2 4 100 0 From the graph. Even functions do not. 74. ±6 1 1 2 4 1 p : ± 1. ±18 From the graph. 321 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±4 1 1 p : ± 1. 2 3 and 2. ±2 77. ± 2. From the graph we see that the solutions are 1 − . 40 0 4 x 4 + 4 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 p: ±1. 2. we see that the solutions are 1 1 − and . ± . ±2 q: ±1. ± . ± . ± q 2 3 3 3 6 76. Section 2. q : ± 1. . we see that there are no real solutions. f ( x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(x) has no sign variations. ± . ±4 q: ±1. ± 3. ±2. ±9. ± . ± 2. ±6. we see that the solutions are 1 2 . The polynomial’s graph doesn’t intersect the x-axis. ±3. ±2. − .5 2 x 3 − 15 x 2 + 22 x + 15 = 0 p: ±1. 3 and 5. or 1 positive real roots exist. 2 73. ± . ±3. ±2. ± q 2 2 2 f ( x ) = x 5 − x 4 + x3 − x 2 + x − 8 f(x) has 5 sign variations. ± . ± 15. ±2 1 3 5 15 p : ± 1. ±9.

Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction. Two roots appear twice. . The equation of the vertical asymptote is x = 1. 84. A sample change is: Polynonials of degree n have at most n distinct solutions. 3 f ( x) = 3 x 4 + 4 x3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x − 3 1 1 6 6 –99 3 27 99 9 33 0 x + 9 x + 33 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = −51 x = 3 in. 85. Because the polynomial has no obvious changes of direction but the graph is obviously not linear. 2 real zeros 4 nonreal complex zeros 83. 1 real zero 2 nonreal complex zeros 80. The function is undefined at x = 1 and x = 2. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 96. 86. A sample change is: Descartes’ Rule gives the maximum possible number of real roots. Explanations will vary. 94. 2 92. makes sense 100. 322 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. The equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 0. Sample explanation: The quadratic formula is can be applied only of equations of degree 2. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 89. Changes to make the statement true will vary. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 + 6 x3 − 4 x 2 − 24 x + 16 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 3x ( x + 5 ) = 208 ( 2 x 2 + 11x + 5) ( x + 2 ) − 3x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 5 x +10 − 3 x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x − 3 x 2 − 15 x − 198 = 0 2 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x − 198 = 0 2 ( x 3 + 6 x 2 + 6 x − 99 ) = 0 3 real zeros 2 nonreal complex zeros 81. f ( x) = x 3 − 6 x − 9 88. Answers may vary. true 90. A sample change is: The equation has 0 sign variations. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the smallest degree is 5. 87. the smallest degree is 5. the smallest degree is 3. 98. false. 97. so no positive roots exist. the smallest degree is 3. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction and two roots have multiplicity 2. makes sense 99.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. 91. does not make sense. 95. Answers will vary 82. false. f ( x) = x 6 − 64 93.

5). –4).PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point 1. x-intercepts: 2 x 2 − 3 x = −4 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 = 0 x= f ( x ) = 5 − ( x + 2) 0 = 5 − ( x + 2) −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a ( x + 2) −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(4) x= 2(2) 2 2 =5 x+2 = ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: 3 ± −23 x= 4 3 23 x= ± i 4 4 f ( 0) = 5 − ( 0 + 2) = 1 2 domain: (−∞. x(2 x − 3) = −4 2 The parabola opens down because a < 0. 5] 323 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) −75 − −12 = 5i 3 − 2i 3 = 3i 3 (2 − −3 ) = (2 − i 3) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 − 3 = 1 − 4i 3 7. The vertex is (–2. 2 =4 x−3 = ± 4 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i + i + i2 = ⋅ = 1− i 1− i 1+ i 1 − i2 1 + 2i − 1 = 1+1 2i = 2 =i x = 3± 2 The equation has x-intercepts at x = 1 and x = 5 . 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (6 − 2i ) − (7 − i ) = 6 − 2i − 7 + i = −1 − i 2. 9. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) − 4 2 The parabola opens up because a > 0. 3i (2 + i ) = 6i + 3i 2 = −3 + 6i 3. ∞) range: ( −∞. Inc. ∞) range: [ −4. (1 + i )(4 − 3i ) = 4 − 3i + 4i − 3i 2 8. . The vertex is (3. 5. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) − 4 = 5 2 domain: (−∞. x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 3) − 4 2 ( x − 3) = 4+i+3= 7+i 4.

degree 5. b −6 =− =1 vertex: x = − 2a 2(3) f (1) = 3(1)2 − 6(1) + 1 = −2 The vertex is (1. Inc. ∞) range: ( −∞. x-intercepts: 0 = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−6) ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) x= 6 ± 24 6 x= 3± 6 3 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. is positive. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 2 since the zero has multiplicity 2. and since the leading coefficient. 9). ∞ ) f ( −2 ) = −(−2) 2 − 4(−2) + 5 = 9 The vertex is (–2. 2(−1) 2 ( x + 1) 3 =0 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 4 ± 36 −2 x = −2 ± 3 The x-intercepts are x = 1 and x = −5 . y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 − 4(0) + 5 = 5 x= 3 Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 3 f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 The parabola opens up because a > 0. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 9] 11. .Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. Publishing as Prentice Hall. since the zero has multiplicity 3. –2). 1. domain: (−∞. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 324 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 − 4 x + 5 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(−1)(5) 12. ∞) range: [ −2. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at −1 . b −4 vertex: x = − =− = −2 2a 2(−1) domain: (−∞. f ( x ) = − x2 − 4 x + 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 3(0)2 − 6(0) + 1 = 1 The parabola opens down because a < 0.

x = −1. −2 . The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 since the zero has multiplicity 6. x = 2. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around both at −1 and 2 since both zeros have multiplicity 2. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. f ( x ) = x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 16. The graph crosses the x-axis at all four zeros. 14. . the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. 1. 1. 1. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and since the leading coefficient. f ( x ) = x4 − 5x2 + 4 (x Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 2 − 4 )( x 2 − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph.. −1 . is negative. x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) 6 − ( x + 1) = 0 6 ( x − 1) − 4 ( x − 1) = 0 ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. since all have multiplicity 1. and 2. the graph rises to the left and rises to the right. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. x = 1 The zeros are −2 . −1 . −1 . 1. degree 4. and 2. x4 − 5x2 + 4 = 0 2 ( x + 1) 6 =0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 The zero is are −1 . 1. is positive. degree 6. Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point f ( x ) = − ( x − 2) − ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 =0 2 15. since all have multiplicity 1. and 2. is negative. degree 4. Inc. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. and since the leading coefficient. Apply the zero-product principle: x + 2 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −2 x=2 x =1 The zeros are −2 . and 2. 325 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. and since the leading coefficient. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. −1 . −2 . degree 3. x = −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 13. is positive. 1. and since the leading coefficient.

x = −1. and 1. ± 3. is positive. since it has multiplicity 1. −6 . The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( 26 ) 2 (1) 2 2 ± −100 2 ± 10i = = 1 ± 5i 2 2 The zeros are 0 and 1 ± 5i . . ± . 3 2 x= Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. ± 3. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of − 6 ±1. so 1 is a zero. degree 3. and since the leading coefficient. ± 2 3 6 We test values from the above list until we find a zero. −1 . ± . = 326 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −6 x 2 + x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 − ( x − 1)( 3x + 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 19. Thus. and 1. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at 0 (the only real zero). Apply the zero-product property: 1 1 x = 1. 2 x3 − 2 x = 0 To find the zeros. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. degree 3. and 1. 0. . . One is shown next: Test 1: 1 −6 7 0 −1 −6 −6 1 1 1 1 0 f ( x ) = 2 x3 − 2 x The remainder is 0. since all have multiplicity 1. so we use the quadratic formula: x = 0 or x 2 − 2 x + 26 = 0 a = 1. x =1 The zeros are −1 . is negative. 2. ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x x3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x = 0 x ( x 2 − 2 x + 26 ) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x + 26 does not factor. x = 3 2 1 1 The zeros are − . since all have multiplicity 1. f ( x ) = −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 18. ± 2. 0. b = −2. and 1. ± 2. ± 6 2 x ( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 x ( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle: x = 0. Inc. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. 1 1 − . x = − .Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. c = 26 The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. and since the leading coefficient. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 List all factors of the leading coefficient −6 : ±1. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. . ± 3 = = ±1. degree 3. degree 3. 3 and 1 ± 2 . 1. ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −1) 2 (1) 2 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 1± 2 2 2 The zeros are 3 and 1 ± 2 . x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 x= 2 1 −2 1 1 −2 The remainder is 0. and since the leading coefficient. is negative. since all have multiplicity 1. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. 21. so we use the quadratic formula: x − 3 = 0 or x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 0 x=3 a = 1. and since the leading coefficient. − ( −2 ) ± x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots.1} . ± 2 Factors of 1 ±1 Factors of − 3 ±1. Factors of the constant term 2: ±1. −1 . ± 2 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Apply the zero-product property: 2 ( x − 1) = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = −2 x −1 = 0 x =1 The solutions are −2 and 1. and the solution set is {−2. 327 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 1 0 −3 Test 3: −1 3 −1 1 5 −5 −3 −3 6 3 2 1 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 2 )( x − 1) = 0 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) = 0 ( x − 3) ( − x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 3) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x − 1 does not factor. is positive. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −3 : ±1.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. Inc. c = −1 = 0 The remainder is 0. ± 3 Factors of − 1 ±1 We test values from above until we find a root. One is shown next: We test values from the previous list until we find a zero. so 1 is a root of the equation. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. b = −2. f ( x ) = − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 To find the zeros. Thus. so 3 is a zero. Thus. ± 2 = = ±1. ± 3 List all factors of the leading coefficient −1 : ±1 The possible rational zeros are: The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 2 ±1. 20. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph.

One is shown next: 6 −1 6 −5 −5 1 1 Test 10: 0 10 The remainder is 0. so 10 is a root of the equation. ± 4. Factors of 2 ±10. so 1 is a root of the equation. − . ± 2. ± 3. ± 250. ± 2. ± 2 3 6 The possible rational zeros are: We test values from above until we find a root. ± 2 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of 6 ±1. and 10 . and the solution 2 5 ⎧ ⎫ set is ⎨ −10. ± 3. 2 3 2 ⎧ 1 2 7⎫ is ⎨ − . 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 5 −200 −500 20 250 500 2 25 50 0 ( x − 10 ) ( 2 x 2 + 25 x + 50 ) = 0 ( x − 10 )( 2 x + 5 )( x + 10 ) = 0 Apply the zero-product property: x − 1 = 0 or 3 x − 1 = 0 or 2 x − 1 = 0 x =1 2 The remainder is 0. ± 25. ± 20. ± 500. ± 100. ± 100. . ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. ⎬ . ± 2 2 2 2 Factors of 500 = ±1. Thus. ± . 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 5. ± . Publishing as Prentice Hall. One is shown next: 1 5 25 125 ±250. ± 10. . 1⎬ . ± 2. ± . . ± . ± 4. 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 x= 3 2 1 1 The solutions are . ± 50. Test 1: 1 6 −11 6 We test values from above until we find a root. ± 6 24. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. and 1. ± 25. Thus. 2 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ⎩3 2 ⎭ 23. Factors of the constant term −500 : ±1. ± 500 Factors of the leading coefficient 2: ±1. Factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 Factors of the leading coefficient 6: ±1. and the solution set he solutions are − . ± 20. ± 125. and the solution set is 3 2 ⎧1 1 ⎫ ⎨ . ± 125. ± 2. ± . 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( 2 x + 1)( 3x − 2 ) ( 2 x − 7 ) = 0 3 Apply the zero-product property: 2x +1 = 0 1 x=− 2 or (3x − 2) 3 = 0 or 3x − 2 = 0 x= 2 3 x = −10 2x − 7 = 0 7 T x= 2 1 2 7 and . ±50. ± 5. − . 10 ⎬ . ⎩ 2 3 2⎭ 328 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x= Apply the zero-product property: x − 10 = 0 or 2 x + 5 = 0 or x + 10 = 0 x = 10 x=− 5 2 5 The solutions are −10.

We continue testing potential roots: 1 −1 −11 −1 −12 12 −3 −6 2 −5 ( x + 3) ( 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 Test −3 : −3 6 The remainder is 0. we know that x + 3 is a factor of the polynomial. . Inc. we have 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 ( x + 3) ( 2 x3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 x = −1 2 ( x + 3) ⎛⎜ x − x = ± −1 = ± i 26. so 1 1 is a zero and x − is a 2 2 factor. we know that −3 and The possible rational roots are: 329 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Using the Factor Theorem. ± 3. ± 2. 4. ± 3. we need to factor 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 . As this point we know that −3 and 4 are roots of the equation. Factors of the constant term 6: ±1. 4 3 2 −3 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 12 Factors of 1 ±1. 15 −2 To solve the equation above. ± 3. ± 4. 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 3) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 x − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x 4 + x3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 − x − 12 = 0 1 2 6 −6 2 0 1 : 2 2 −5 −2 2 1 −2 −2 ( x + 3) ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 3) ⎡⎣ x 2 ( x − 4 ) + 1( x − 4 )⎤⎦ = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 1) = 0 2 −4 −4 0 The remainder is 0. c = −2 At this point. Factors of the constant term −12 : ±1. b = −2. Using the Factor Theorem.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point x − x − 11x − x − 12 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 12 = ±1 = ±1. ± i} . One possibility is shown next: Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Test −3 : x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 = x + 12 25. ± 4. Note that x 2 + 1 does not factor. ± 4. ± 3. so we use the square-root principle: x 2 + 1 = 0 Summarizing our findings so far. ± 12 12 1 −4 1 −4 0 Test The remainder is 0. One possibility is shown next: −3 1 −17 −4 2 ⎝ 1⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2x − 4x − 4) = 0 2⎠ The roots are −3 . ± 6. ± 2 1 are roots of 2 the equation. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 4: ±1. ± 2. ± 2 2 We test values from above until we find a root. Thus. and the solution set is {−3. ± 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so −3 is a root. ± 6. Thus. and ±i . ± 6. so we use the quadratic formula: x2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 a = 1. ± 2. ± 12 Factors of 6 ±1. ± 2. we know that x − 1 is a factor. ± 3. ± 6 = Factors of 2 ±1. ± 2 1 3 = ±1. ± 3. 4. ± . so −3 is a root of the equation. 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We test values from this list we find a root. ± 2. Note that x 2 − 2 x − 2 does not factor. ± 6.

2 ⎩ ⎭ 27. 330 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we know the function opens down and has a maximum at b 150 150 x=− =− =− = 75 . 250 − 4425 = 1200 The company will maximize its profit by manufacturing and selling 75 cabinets per day. 2 x2 − x − 3 3x − 1 6 x − 3x − 11x 2 + 2 x + 4 2 4 − 3 x3 − 9 x 2 + 2 x −3 x 3 − 9x + x + 4 −9 x 2 P ( x ) = − x 2 + 150 x − 4425 2 x2 − x − 3 + 31. . − 2 x2 6 x4 2 ± 4 + 8 2 ± 12 2 ± 2 3 = = = = 1± 3 2 2 2 1 The solutions are −3 . 2a 2 ( −1) f ( x) = 1( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 3 + 13x 2 − 36 x + 36 34. Inc. 2 2 –13 17 18 –24 8 -20 –12 24 6 0 –5 –3 The quotient is 2 x − 5 x − 3 x + 6 . The maximum product is f ( x) = an ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) 81. −18 − x = the other number The product is f ( x ) = x ( −18 − x ) = − x 2 − 18 x 32. f ( x) = x 3 − x − 5 f (1) = 13 − 1 − 5 = −5 f (2) = 23 − 2 − 5 = 1 Yes. and 1 ± 3 . 2a 2 ( −1) −2 28. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 an = −2 f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) or − 2 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 2 x + 2 f ( −9 ) = −9 ⎡⎣ −18 − ( −9 ) ⎤⎦ 33. 3 ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x − 3i )( x + 3i ) = ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) The vertex is ( −9. 1 ± 3 ⎬ .Polynomial and Rational Functions x= − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −2 ) 2 (1) 2 30. A(10) = 20(10) − (10) 2 = 100 The maximum area is 100 squares inches. the function must have a real zero between 1 and 2 because f (1) and f (2) have opposite signs.81) . = −9 ( −18 + 9 ) = −9 ( −9 ) = 81 29. f (0) = an (0 − 2)(0 − 2)(02 + 9) 36 = 36an an = 1 Let x = height of triangle. The maximum daily profit is \$1200. . 40 − 2x = base of triangle 1 1 A = bh = x(40 − 2 x) 2 2 A( x) = 20 x − x 2 The height at which the triangle will have 20 b maximum area is x = − =− = 10. 2 ( x − 1)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f ( x) = an ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f (−1) = an (−1 − 1) ( (−1) 2 + 1) = −4an = 8 The x-coordinate of the maximum is b −18 −18 x=− =− =− = −9. This occurs when the two number are −9 and −18 − (−9) = −9 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. +x 2 Since a = −1 is negative. P ( 75 ) = −752 + 150(75) − 4425 (2x 4 +3 x +1 x +1 3x2 − 1 − 13x 3 + 17 x 2 + 18 x − 24 ) ÷ ( x − 4 ) 4 = −5625 + 11. 3 Let x = one of the numbers. . and the 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ solution set is ⎨ −3.

331 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. 2 3x − 3 = 0 3x = 3 x =1 The x-intercept is 1. Since n > m. 2 x2 = 0 x=0 The x-intercept is 0. c. Since n = m. x ≠ −5} 2. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 4. c. 1 . c. b. No vertical asymptotes. Shift the graph 1 unit down by subtracting 1 from each y-coordinate. Check Point Exercises 1. The denominator cannot equal zero. g ( x) = 3x − 3 x−2 3(− x) − 3 −3 x − 3 3x + 3 = = f (− x) = −x − 2 −x − 2 x+2 no symmetry 3(0) − 3 3 f (0) = = 0−2 2 3 The y-intercept is . x −5 = 0 x=5 { x x ≠ 5} b. there is no horizontal asymptote. a. x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = 1. f ( x) = Shift the graph 2 units to the left by subtracting 2 from each x-coordinate. Since n < m. x 2 − 25 = 0 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 {x | x ≠ 5. 2(0) 2 f (0) = 2 =0 0 −9 The y-intercept is 0. Vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: 3 y= =3 1 f ( x) = x −1 x −1 1 = = 2 x − 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x + 1 x = −1 3. The denominator cannot equal zero. x = −1 b. x 2x2 x2 − 9 2(− x)2 2x2 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 The y-axis symmetry. All real numbers.6 5. Begin with the graph of f ( x) = 6. . y = 9 =3 3 y = 3 is a horizontal asymptote. a.6 Section 2.

and 100. 000 + 400(100. x4 x2 + 2 (− x)4 x4 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x) 2 + 2 x 2 + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 f (0) = 2 =0 0 +2 The y-intercept is 0. 000 + 400 x b. x=0 The x-intercept is 0.6 x 2 = −2 no vertical asymptotes horizontal asymptote: Since n > m. x ≠ −4} 4. a. f ( x) = 7x x −8 { x x ≠ 8} 3. y= x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. f ( x) = 5x x−4 { x x ≠ 4} 2. g ( x) = 2 x2 ( x − 2)( x + 6) { x x ≠ 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 x = 3. 1. 2 2 –5 7 4 –2 g ( x) = 3x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 4) { x x ≠ 5. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: 2 y= =2 1 9. 000) 10. 8. \$450. C ( x) = 500. 000 + 400(1000) 1000 = 900 C (1000) = c.000 wheelchairs is \$900. 000) 100. Inc. 10. respectively. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 = 450 C (10. x4 = 0 f ( x) = d. and \$405. 000) = 7. C (100. x ≠ −6} 332 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 = 0 400 = 400 1 The cost per wheelchair approaches \$400 as more wheelchairs are produced. 000 + 400 x x 500. C ( x) = 500. .000. 000 = 405 The average cost per wheelchair of producing 1000. 000 + 400(10. 000) = 500. x x − 10 Exercise Set 2. 500. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 20 20 T (x) = + . 10. 2 –1 5 the equation of the slant asymptote is y = 2x – 1. there is no horizontal asymptote.

28. { x x ≠ 8.PreCalculus 4E 5. x 1 = x( x + 4) x + 4 x+4=0 h( x ) = x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 14. x = −4 g ( x) = x x+4 x+4=0 x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = –4 f ( x) = 30. −∞ 10. r ( x) = 2 x x +3 x 2 + 3 has no real zeros There is no vertical asymptotes. 0 +∞ x+3 x( x − 3) x( x − 3) = 0 x = 0. 12 =4 3 . { x x ≠ 7. f ( x) = x−3 x−3 = 0 x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 31. 12 x 2 3x 2 + 1 horizontal asymptote: y = 333 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −∞ 18. x = 3 g ( x) = x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = −4 2 13. 8. 19. +∞ 27. 1 x 1 = x( x − 3) x − 3 x −3 = 0 h( x ) = x x +4 x 2 + 4 has no real zeros There are no vertical asymptotes. +∞ 26. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x+8 x + 64 all real numbers f ( x) = 9. x +8 x 2 − 64 x 2 − 64 = ( x − 8)( x + 8) h( x ) = 24. 16. 0 15. f ( x) = 15 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 x 22.6 x+7 x 2 − 49 2 x − 49 = ( x − 7)( x + 7) h( x ) = 23. −∞ 17. x = 3 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. g ( x) = n = m. Section 2. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. Inc. 1 21. x+7 x 2 + 49 all real numbers f ( x) = 25. −∞ 12. x ≠ −8} 7. +∞ 11. r ( x) = f ( x) = 2 12 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 20. x+3 x( x + 4) x( x + 4) = 0 x = 0. 29. x ≠ −7} 6.

f ( x) = n=m 39. Inc. h( x ) = g ( x) = 3 5 1 x −1 40. x h( x ) = 1 +1 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit up. h( x ) = 15 x 3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 35. x 2 3 −3 x + 7 5x − 2 n=m s f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 37. x 12 x3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 34. −2 x + 1 3x + 5 1 2 units up. h( x ) = g ( x) = 1 x−2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 15 =5 3 1 2 units to the right. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit to the right. . x 334 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. 1 +2 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 36. g ( x) = n=m 15 x 2 3x 2 + 1 38. Publishing as Prentice Hall. horizontal asymptote: y = 33.

PreCalculus 4E 41. h( x ) = 1 ( x + 2) 2 h( x ) = 1 −3 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 4 units down.6 1 −2 x +1 44. Inc. 1 −2 x+2 46. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g ( x) = 45. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left and 2 units x g ( x) = 1 ( x + 1) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left. x2 1 2 units left. x2 down. 43. g ( x) = 1 −4 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 units left and 2 units x down. x2 . 42. 1 3 units down. x2 335 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g ( x) = Section 2.

Inc. h( x ) = 1 +2 ( x − 3) 2 50. 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 3 units right and 2 units x up. so y = = 4 1 1 3 units right and 1 unit x2 up. 49. 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 4(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0−2 x-intercept: 4x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 336 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0 −1 x-intercept: 3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x −1 = 0 f ( x) = x =1 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. 3x x −1 3(− x ) 3x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 1 x + 1 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).Polynomial and Rational Functions 47. h( x ) = vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 1 +1 ( x − 3) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = x=2 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. so y = = 3 1 4x x−2 4(− x) 4x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 2 x + 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). .

f ( x) = 4x x2 −1 4 (−x) 4x f (−x) = =− 2 = –f(x) 2 ( −x) −1 x −1 Origin symmetry 4 ( 0) =0 y-intercept: 2 0 −1 x-intercept:4x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 f ( x) = 337 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 2x 2 x −4 2 (−x) 2x = –f(x) =− 2 f (−x) = 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 Origin symmetry 2 ( 0) 0 y-intercept: 2 = =0 0 − 4 −4 x-intercept: 2x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 53. 0 =0 1 . Section 2. so y = = 2 1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 52. 2 x2 x2 −1 f (−x) = 2 (−x) (−x) 2 2 −1 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 2x2 = f ( x) x2 − 1 2 (0) 2 02 − 1 = x-intercept: 2 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x2 −1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 51. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry − ( 0) 0 y-intercept: y = = =0 0 +1 1 x-intercept: –x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 338 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3 x x+2 −3 ( − x ) 3x f (−x) = = (−x) + 2 −x + 2 f ( x) = f–x) ≠ f(x).Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. . f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry y-intercept: −3 ( 0 ) y= =0 0+2 x-intercept: –3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 horizontal asymptote: −3 = −3 n = m. f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: −1 = −1 n = m. Inc. so y = = 4 1 55. 56. so y = 1 4 x2 x2 − 9 f (−x) = 4(−x) (−x) 2 2 −9 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 4 ( 0) 4 x2 = f ( x) x2 − 9 2 02 − 9 =0 x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = ±3 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = 1 −x x +1 − (−x) x f (−x) = = (−x) +1 −x +1 f ( x) = f(–x) ≠ f(x).

x = 1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 2 f (−x) = − 2 x + x−2 2 2 f (−x) = − = 2 2 (−x) − x − 2 x − x − 2 f ( x) = 2 = f(x) x −1 2 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: 2 2 y=− 2 =− =2 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: –2 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 (x – 1)(x + 1) x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m.6 1 x −4 1 1 f (−x) = − =− 2 = f(x) 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 y-axis symmetry 1 1 = y-intercept: y = – 2 0 −4 4 x-intercept: –1 ≠ 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x2 = 4 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m or y = 0 f ( x) = − f ( x) = − 59. x = −1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 339 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 2 2 y-intercept: y = 2 = = −1 0 + 0 − 2 −2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 2 = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1) = 0 x = −2. 2 (−x) 2 −1 =− 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Inc. 2 2 x −1 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 57. . f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry −2 =1 y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 2 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 x = 2. 58. so y = 0 −2 x −x−2 −2 −2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x ) − (− x ) − 2 x + x − 2 f ( x) = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).

so y = 0 f ( x) = 2 4 x2 x2 + 1 4(− x) 2 4 x2 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 ( −x) +1 x +1 y axis symmetry 4(0) 2 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +1 x-intercept: 4 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Inc. so y = = 4 1 f ( x) = 340 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0+2 2 1 =− =− y-intercept: y = 2 0 +0−6 6 3 x-intercept: x+2=0 x = –2 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) x = −3. 2 x2 x2 + 4 2(− x) 2 2 x2 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) + 4 x + 4 y axis symmetry 2(0) 2 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +4 x-intercept: 2 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. x+2 x + x−6 −x + 2 −x + 2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( −x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). x = 2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. so y = = 2 1 f ( x) = 63.

x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 + 0 − 12 =3 y-intercept: y = 02 − 4 x-intercept: x 2 + x − 12 = 0 2 ( x − 3)( x + 4) = 0 x = 3. Inc. so none f ( x) = x 2 + x − 12 x2 − 4 (− x) 2 − x − 12 x 2 − x − 12 f (−x) = = 2 x2 − 4 (−x) − 4 f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x). x = 4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 f ( x) = 66. x4 x +2 (− x) 4 x4 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 (−x) + 2 x + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +2 x-intercept: x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 2. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0−4 2 = y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−6 3 x-intercept: x − 4 = 0.6 x−4 2 x − x−6 x+4 −x − 4 f (−x) = =− 2 2 (−x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). 65. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. .PreCalculus 4E 64. so y = 0 67. Section 2. ( x − 3)( x + 2) x = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = = 1 1 341 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so none f ( x) = 2 x4 x2 + 1 2(− x) 4 2 x4 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) +1 x +1 y-axis symmetry 2 ( 04 ) y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +2 x-intercept: 2 x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = x2 − 4 x + 3 ( x + 1)2 ( − x ) − 4 ( − x ) + 3 x2 + 4 x + 3 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x + 1) ( − x + 1) 2 69. so y = = 1 1 70. so y = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). .Polynomial and Rational Functions 68. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) 2 + 0 − 4 −4 = y-intercept: y = 0 2(0) 2 − 5(0) no y-intercept x-intercepts: 3x2 + x − 4 = 0 (3 x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 x − 1 = 0 3x = −4 4 x = − . Inc. x = 0 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 x= ( x + 3)( x − 2) = 0 x = −3. vertical asymptotes: 2 x2 − 5x = 0 x(2 x − 5) = 0 x2 x2 + x − 6 (− x) 2 x2 f (−x) = = 2 2 (−x) − x − 6 x − x − 6 f ( x) = x = 0. 2 x = 5 5 2 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. f(–x) ≠ f(x). x = 2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +0−6 x-intercept: x 2 = 0. so y = = 1 1 342 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 02 − 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = =3 2 1 ( 0 + 1) x-intercept: x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = 3 and x = 1 vertical asymptote: 3x 2 + x − 4 2 x2 − 5x 3(− x) 2 − x − 4 3 x 2 − x − 4 f (−x) = = 2 2 x2 + 5x 2 ( − x ) + 5x f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x).x =1 3 ( x + 1) 2 =0 x = –1 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m.

f ( x) = a. a.PreCalculus 4E 71. so none exist. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so none exist. x2 − 1 x ( − x ) − 1 x2 − 1 = = − f ( x) −x (−x) 2 f (−x) = Origin symmetry y-intercept: y = 0 2 − 1 −1 = 0 0 73.6 horizontal asymptote: n > m. slant asymptote: 4 f ( x) = x – x y=x f (−x) = (−x) 2 +1 x2 − 4 x (−x) 2 −4 = x2 + 1 = − f ( x) −x −x Origin symmetry 02 + 1 1 = y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m. Inc. x2 − 4 x f ( x) = x2 + 1 x = x2 − 4 = − f ( x) −x −x origin symmetry 02 − 4 4 =− y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 vertical asymptote: x = 0 343 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . b. a. Section 2. no y-intercept x-intercepts: x 2 − 1 = 0 x = ±1 vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n < m. b. so none exist. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x – x y=x f ( x) = b. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = 72.

so none Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 4 + = = x2 − x − 6 −x − 3 −x − 3 f(–x) ≠ g(x). Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. x2 + 4 x slant asymptote: 4 g ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + 4 x (−x) 2 +4 −x origin symmetry y-intercept: y = = x2 + 4 = − f ( x) −x 02 + 4 4 = 0 0 76. vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. x2 − x + 1 x −1 slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = x + x –1 y=x f ( x) = x2 − x − 1 x −1 (−x) − (−x) +1 2 f (−x) = 75. so none exist. f ( x) = a. a. f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + x − 6 x−3 (−x) 2 + (−x) − 6 x2 + x + 1 −x −1 −x −1 no symmetry f (–x) ≠ f (x). b. Inc. . g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry 0 2 + 0 − 6 −6 y-intercept: y = = =2 0−3 −3 x-intercept: x2 + x − 6 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 x = –3 and x = 2 344 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = a. no y-intercept x2 + 4 = 0 x 2 = −4 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m.Polynomial and Rational Functions 74. f (–x) ≠ –g(x) 02 − 0 + 1 1 = = −1 y-intercept: y = 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: x2 − x + 1 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x–1=0 x=1 horizontal asymptote: n > m. 6 x –3 y=x+4 b. so none exist.

+1 x + 2x 3 2 x3 − 1 x2 − 9 slant asymptote: 9x −1 x+ 2 x −9 x 2 − 9 x3 x − 9x 9x −1 − 2 x2 −2 x 2 + 4 x − 4x + 1 y=x y = x−2 b. Section 2. (− x)3 + 1 − x3 + 1 = 2 2 (− x) + 2(− x) x − 2 x f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Inc. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n > m. −1 3 b. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = no symmetry no symmetry y-intercept: y = 03 + 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 = 0 + 2(0) 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x3 + 1 = 0 x 3 = −1 03 − 1 1 = 02 − 9 9 x-intercept: x3 – 1 = 0 x3 = 1 x =1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3. f ( x) = a. so none x = −1 vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x = 0 x( x + 2) = 0 x = 0.6 x3 + 1 x2 + 2 x 78. so none 345 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = ( − x )3 − 1 − x 3 − 1 = (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). slant asymptote: x−2 x 2 + 2 x x3 f ( x) = a.PreCalculus 4E 77. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

( x + 2) 2 10 x 3 1 2 x+2 = 2x ( x − 2) x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 = − 2 ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x+2 So. x−6 2 ( x − 3) x −5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 ÷ 10 x − 2 25 x 2 − 1 x −5 25 x 2 − 1 = ⋅ 2 10 x − 2 x − 10 x + 25 = ( 5 x + 1) ( 5 x − 1) 2 2 ( 5 x − 1) ( x − 5) = 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) x −5 So. f ( x ) = ⋅ 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) 346 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = 2x ( x − 2) x ( x − 3) − 9 ( 2 ) 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x − 18 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = ( x − 6 ) ( x + 3) x−6 = x − 3) 2 ( 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 ) So. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = 80. 5x2 x2 + 4 x + 4 ⋅ x2 − 4 10 x 3 = 5 x2 ( x + 2) ( x − 2) ⋅ 81. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79.

. Section 2. f ( x ) = x 2 +1 x− 347 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = −2 So. 2 ( x + 3) − 4 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) x 2 − 4 − 3x + 6 x2 − 4 + x + 2 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 2 x + x−2 2x + 6 − 4x − 8 = ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = 3 3 1− x+2 = x + 2 ⋅ ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1 1 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1+ 1+ x−2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) − 3 ( x − 2 ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 ) 1− 2 = −2 x − 2 ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = −2 ( x + 1) −2 = = ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) ( x + 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) ( x − 1) So.6 2 4 − 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 4 x + 3 2 4 = − x + 2 x + 1 x + 3 ( )( ) ( )( x + 1) = 83. 1 x x 2 +1 x 2 +1 x+ x ( x − 1)( x + 1) So. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 82. Inc. f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 3) = x−2 x+2 x−2 x+2 1 2 x ⋅ x = x − 1 = ( x − 1)( x + 1) 84.

000 + 30(100. a. . 1 As greater numbers of shoes are manufactured.000 b. 000 C (1000 ) = = \$200 1000 When 1000 bicycles are manufactured. it costs \$125 to manufacture each. g ( x) = −1 2x − 9 = +2 x−4 x−4 C= 300. a. 000 + 30x x 300000 + 30(1000) = 330 1000 When 1000 shoes are manufactured.000 C ( x) = 100x +100. the average cost approaches \$100. 000 = \$300 500 When 500 bicycles are manufactured.000 shoes are manufactured.Polynomial and Rational Functions 85. 100(1000) + 100. g ( x) = 3x + 7 1 = +3 x+2 x+2 d. 000 C (2000 ) = = \$150 2000 When 2000 bicycles are manufactured.000 x 100 (500 ) + 100. b. n = m. 000) = 33 100. C(x) = 30x + 300. 86. c. C (500) = 100 = 100 . 100(4000) + 100. c. Inc. so y = 90. 300000 + 30(10000) C(10000) = = 60 10000 When 10. C(100. it costs \$300 to manufacture each. 000 C (4000 ) = = \$125 4000 When 4000 bicycles are manufactured. it costs \$200 to manufacture each. 000 When 100. it costs \$33 to manufacture each. so y = 348 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 87. g ( x) = −1 3x − 7 = +3 x−2 x−2 C ( x ) = 100 x + 100 . 100 (2000 ) + 100. 00) = d. C(1000) = 300. it costs \$150 to manufacture each. n = m. g ( x) = 2x + 7 1 = +2 x+3 x+3 89. the average cost approaches \$30. Publishing as Prentice Hall.000 shoes are manufactured. 1 As greater numbers of bicycles are manufactured. The average cost decreases as the number of shoes manufactured increases. it costs \$60 to manufacture each. 30 = 30 . 88. The average cost decreases as the number of bicycles manufactured increases. it costs \$330 to manufacture each.

8. = The degree of the numerator. and then slowly begins to approach the normal level. 100(9 − 1) = 89 (9. e. C ( 3) = a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and hiking is T (x) = x x P(10) = 99.7 of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. width. During the first hour. c. the drug’s concentration after three hours appears to be about 1. Inc.e.6 From the graph the pH level of the human mouth 42 minutes after a person eats food containing sugar will be about 6. y = 6. 98.5 milligrams per liter. the pH level is lowest after about 6 minutes.5 as time goes by. 5 ( 3) b. b. 92. a. 15 = 1. the pH level rises back to the normal level. 11(36) 2 + 40(36) + 1040 16736 f (36) = = or 12(36) 2 + 230(36) + 2190 26022 about 64% of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. 1. the lowest pH level) is 4. 90 5 10 5 + = + 9x x x x The function that expresses the total time for driving 10 5 + . This overestimates the actual percent found in the graph by 1%. b. 96. 89% of the deaths are smoking related. the normal pH level must be 6. 95. d. 90) 10 For a disease that smokers are 10 times more likely to contact than non-smokers. 100%. the pH level drops quickly below normal. A = xy = 2500 2500 y= x P(9) = T (x) = 5000 2500 = 2x + x x The perimeter of the floor. d.5 Over time. No. but never reaches 100%.5 ( 6 ) − 20.PreCalculus 4E 91. 93. but never gets to be. x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. According to the graph. From the graph. 2 f ( x) = 11x 2 + 40 x + 1040 12 x 2 + 230 x + 2190 1707. 2. so the the horizontal asymptote is y = 0 . P. From the graph.5 3 + 1 10 This verifies that the drug’s concentration after 3 hours will be 1. . The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 600 600 + . the pH level appears to approach 6.0. 12 11 or about 92% of federal 12 expenditures will spent on human resources over time. a. The horizontal asymptote is y = 11 . y = 100 As incidence of the diseases increases. = 4. as a function of the 5000 . Therefore.5. x is P(x) = 2 x + x P = 2x + 2y = 2x + 2 349 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 90% of the deaths are smoking related. From the graph. Over time.2 or about 63% 2708.5 milligrams per liter. T (x) = x x − 10 100(10 − 1) = 90 (10. the percent of death approaches. the drug’s concentration will approach 0 milligrams per liter. 89) 9 For a disease that smokers are 9 times more likely to have than non-smokers. 6. 100. If trends continue. According to the function.8 The pH level after 6 minutes (i. 94. Section 2. c.4 ( 6 ) + 234 2 f (6) = 62 + 36 97. is less than the degree of the denominator. the percentage approaches 100%.

⎬ . Explanations will vary. does not make sense. makes sense The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. There are about 356 arrests for every 100. . true 124. 113. a. c. A = lw xy = 50 l=y+2= 115. The graph increases from late teens until about the age of 25. 2⎭ ⎩ 350 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 116. g(x) is the graph of a line where f(x) is the graph of a rational function with a slant asymptote. x – 2 is a factor of x 2 − 5x + 6 . 118. Publishing as Prentice Hall. does not make sense. 128. the average cost for a company to produce each unit of its product decreases. false. Sample explanation: A rational function can have at most one horizontal asymptote. 120.000 drivers. 2 x 2 + x = 15 2 x 2 + x − 15 = 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) = 0 2x − 5 = 0 or x+3= 0 x= 5 2 x = −3 5⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −3. Explanations will vary. The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. Answers may vary. Sample explanation: As production level increases. f (x) = 50 +2 x 27725(x − 14) − 5x x2 + 9 w=x+1 50 A= + 2 (x + 1) x 50 + 2x + 2 x 50 + 52 = 2x + x The total area of the page is 50 A(x) = 2 x + + 52. 117. At age 25 the highest number arrests occurs. 122. Sample explanation: The function has one vertical asymptote. x = 50 + b. – 111. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 101. 112. 119. In g(x). does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. 102. 121. true 123. Answers may vary. and then the number of arrests decreases. true 114. A sample change is: The graph of a rational function may have both a vertical asymptote and a horizontal asymptote. – 127. x = 2.

false 10 (10) − (10) > 20 90 > 20.7 x3 + x 2 = 4 x + 4 129. 5 ) does not belong to the solution set. The solution set is ( −∞. ( −4. −4 ) belongs to the solution set. Inc. . 351 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true ( −4. x + 4 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −4 x=5 The boundary points are –2 and 4. x +1 x + 1 2( x + 3) −2= − x+3 x+3 x+3 x + 1 2x + 6 = − x+3 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 = x+3 −x − 5 x+5 = or − x+3 x+3 Section 2. −1.7 Check Point Exercises 1. Test Test Test Interval Number (−5) 2 − (−5) > 20 –5 ( −∞. x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4( x + 1) = 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 − 4) = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 The solution set is {−2. x 2 − x > 20 x 2 − x − 20 > 0 ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ( 5. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 130. −4 ) ∪ ( 5. −4 ) 30 > 20. ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. ∞ ) 0 (0) − (0) > 20 0 > 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2} . true 2 2 Conclusion ( −∞. 5 ) ( 5. ∞ ) or { x x < −4 or x > 5} .

false 2(2) ≥1 2 +1 4 ≥ 1. −1) belongs to the solution set. −3] ∪ [ −1. −1] does not belong to the solution (−2)3 + 3(−2) 2 ≤ (−2) + 3 4 ≤ 1 false set.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. −3) -4 ( −3. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. . ( −3.1] Conclusion 2 [ −1. −1) –2 ( −1. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 2(−2) ≥1 −2 + 1 4 ≥ 1. 2x ≥1 x +1 2x −1 ≥ 0 x +1 x −1 ≥0 x +1 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x =1 x = −1 Test Test Interval Number ( −∞. does not belong to the solution true set. −1) ∪ [1. true 3 ( −∞. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. ∞ ) 2 ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3. Inc. ( −1. The solution set is ( −∞. −3) −16 ≤ −1 true belongs to the solution set. (0) + 3(0) ≤ (0) + 3 3 [ −1. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or x ≥ 1} . 352 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is ( −∞.1] does not belong to the solution set. x3 + 3x 2 ≤ x + 3 x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3 ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x = −1 Test Interval x =1 Test Number ( −∞. true 2(0) ≥1 0 +1 0 ≥ 1.1] 0 ≤ 3 true ( 6 + 3)( 6 − 5 ) > 0 [1.1] or { x x ≤ −3 or − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1} . −1] –2 x+3=0 x = −3 Test (−4)3 + 3(−4) 2 ≤ (−4) + 3 0 [1. [1.1] 0 [1.

∞ ) 5 Exercise Set 2. 4 ) does not belong to the solution set. 4 ) 2 −16(2) 2 + 80(2) > 64 96 > 64. ∞). − 2) or (4. true Conclusion ( −∞. Section 2.1) (1. −16(5) 2 + 80(5) > 64 ( 4. The object will be more than 64 feet above the ground between 1 and 4 seconds.PreCalculus 4E 4. ∞) 2. (x – 4)(x + 2) > 0 x = 4 or x = –2 T F T –2 4 Test –3: (–3 – 4)(–3 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True Test 0: (0 – 4)(0 + 2) > 0 –8 > 0 False Test 5: (5 – 4)(5 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True (−∞. belongs to the solution set. . Inc.7 −16t 2 + 80t > 64 −16t 2 + 80t − 64 > 0 −16(t − 1)(t − 4) > 0 t − 1 = 0 or t − 4 = 0 t =1 t=4 Test Interval Test Number Test −16(0) + 80(0) > 64 0 > 64. − 3) or (5. false 2 ( −∞.7 1. ∞ ) does not belong to the 0 > 64. ( 4. false solution set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (x + 3)(x – 5) > 0 x = –3 or x = 5 T F T –3 5 Test –4: (–4 + 3)(–4 – 5) > 0 9 > 0 True Test 0: (0 + 3)(0 – 5) > 0 –15 > 0 False Test 6: (6 + 3)(6 – 5) > 0 18 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞.1) 0 (1. 353 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

∞) . 2 354 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. T F 1 T 4 Test 0: 0 − 5(0) + 4 > 0 x2 + x − 6 > 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) > 0 x = –3 or x = 2 2 T 4 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 5(2) + 4 > 0 −2 > 0 False 2 Test 5: 5 − 5(5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. . − 3) or (2. 3). 1) or (4. F 1 F –1 7 Test –2: (–2 + 1)(–2 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 + 1)(0 – 7) ≤ 0 –7 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 + 1)(8 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 3. (x – 7)(x + 3) ≤ 0 x = 7 or x = –3 F 6. 7. ∞). 5. − 4) or (−1. 2 x2 − 5x + 4 > 0 ( x − 4)( x − 1) > 0 x = 4 or F Test 0: 0 − 4(0) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False Test 2: 22 − 4(2) + 3 < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 4: 42 − 4(4) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (1. 7]. 7]. F –3 T 2 Test –4: (−4) − 4 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True Test 0: (0) 2 + 0 − 6 > 0 –6 > 0 False Test 3: 32 + 3 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. ∞) . 4. T T 2 (x + 1)(x – 7) ≤ 0 x = –1 or x = 7 F x2 − 4 x + 3 < 0 ( x − 1)( x − 3) < 0 x = 1 or x = 3 x =1 8. T F –3 7 Test –4: (–4 – 7)(–4 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 – 7)(0 + 3) ≤ 0 –21 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 – 7)(8 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–3. Inc. 3 x2 + 5x + 4 > 0 ( x + 1)( x + 4) > 0 x = –1 or x = –4 T F –4 T –1 Test –5: (−5) + 5(−5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True Test –3: (−3)2 + 5(−3) + 4 > 0 –2 > 0 False Test 0: 02 + 5(0) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞.

2 11.7 x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) < 0 x=3 F 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10. ⎟ . ∞). x= F 3 T 1 3 Test –1: 9(−1) 2 + 3(−1) − 2 ≥ 0 4 ≥ 0 True Test 0: 9(0)2 + 3(0) − 2 ≥ 0 –2 ≥ 0 False Test 1: 9(1) 2 + 3(1) − 2 ≤ 0 10 ≥ 0 True −2 ⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. ⎥ or ⎢ . 9 x2 + 3x − 2 ≥ 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) ≥ 0 3 x = 1 3 x = −2 2 x 2 + x − 15 < 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) < 0 2 x − 5 = 0 or x+3=0 2x = 5 5 x= x = −3 or 2 3x 2 + 10 x − 8 ≤ 0 (3 x − 2)( x + 4) ≤ 0 F T –4 T –3 2 x = or x = −4 3 F 2 x 2 + x < 15 F 5 2 Test –4: 2(−4) 2 + (−4) < 15 28 < 15 False Test 0: 2(0) 2 + 0 < 15 0 < 15 True Test 3: 2(3) 2 + 3 < 15 21 < 15 False 5⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −3. 1) or (1. Test 0: 0 − 2(0) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 2(2) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 3⎦ ⎣ 355 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2⎠ ⎝ F 2 3 Test –5: 3(−5)2 + 10(−5) − 8 ≤ 0 17 ≤ 0 False Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 10(0) − 8 ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 True Test 1: 3(1) + 10(1) − 8 ≤ 0 2 5 ≤ 0 False 2⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −4. ∞ ⎟ . ⎥ . 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ T 1 13. ∅.PreCalculus 4E 9. F −2 3 x2 − 2x + 1 > 0 ( x − 1)( x − 1) > 0 x=1 T 1 −2 x= 3 3 T Test 0: 02 − 6(0) + 9 < 0 9 < 0 False 2 Test 4: 4 − 6(4) + 9 < 0 1 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. Section 2. Inc. .

− ⎟ or ⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4⎠ ⎝ x = −2 F 1 3 Test –3: 5(−3) ≤ 2 − 3(−3) 2 –15 ≤ –25 False Test 0: 5(0) ≤ 2 − 3(0) 2 0 ≤ 2 True Test 1: 5(1) ≤ 2 − 3(1) 2 5 ≤ –1 False ⎡ 1⎤ The solution set is ⎢ −2. 3x 2 + 16 x + 5 < 0 6 x2 + x − 1 > 0 (3 x + 1)( x + 5) < 0 3x + 1 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 (2 x + 1)(3x − 1) > 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or 3x − 1 = 0 2 x = −1 1 x=− 2 3x = −1 3x = 1 1 x= 3 T F − 12 x=− − 13 5 x ≤ 2 − 3x 2 17. 3⎠ ⎝ 4 x 2 + 7 x < −3 T T –5 1 3 F x = −5 1 3 F T Test –1: 6(−1) 2 + (−1) > 1 5 > 1 True Test 0: 6(0) 2 + 0 > 1 0 > 1 False Test 1: 6(1)2 + 1 > 1 7 > 1 True 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ 15. ∞ ⎟ . 4 x2 + 7 x + 3 < 0 (4 x + 3)( x + 1) < 0 4x + 3 = 0 or x +1=0 4 x-3=0 3 or x=− x = −1 4 3x2 + 5x − 2 ≤ 0 (3 x − 1)( x + 2) ≤ 0 3x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 3x − 1=0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 x= F − 34 –1 F Test –6: 3(−6) 2 + 16(−6) < −5 12 < –5 False Test –2: 3(−2) 2 + 16(−2) < −5 –20 < –5 True Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 16(0) < −5 0 < –5 False 1⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −5. 3x 2 + 16 x < −5 1 or 3 F Test –2: 4(−2) 2 + 7(−2) < −3 2 < −3 False T –2 2 7 ⎛ 7⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ Test − : 4 ⎜ − ⎟ + 7 ⎜ − ⎟ < −3 8 ⎝ 8⎠ ⎝ 8⎠ 49 49 − < −3 16 8 49 − < −3 True 16 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 7(0) < −3 0 < −3 False 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −1. . ⎣ 3⎦ 356 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎟ .Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. ⎥ . Inc. − ⎟ . 6 x2 + x > 1 16.

4 = 0 x=4 2 x 2 + 3x > 0 x(2 x + 3) > 0 x = 0 or x = − 3 2 T T F 0 T F − 32 4 T 0 Test –2: 2(−2) 2 + 3(−2) > 0 2 > 0 True Test –1: 2(−1)2 + 3(−1) > 0 –1 > 0 False Test 1: 2(1) 2 + 3(1) > 0 5 > 0 True 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. Section 2. 2⎠ ⎝ Test –1: (−1) 2 − 4(−1) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 − 4(1) ≥ 0 −3 ≥ 0 False 0 ≤ 2 True Test 5: 52 − 4(5) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True The solution set is (−∞. − ⎟ or (0. . 0] or [4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 19. ∞). 0). 357 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 4 x2 + 1 ≥ 4 x 20. x2 − 4 x ≥ 0 x( x − 4) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x .PreCalculus 4E 18. 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) ≥ 0 2x −1 = 0 1 x= 2 x2 + 2x < 0 x( x + 2) < 0 x = 0 or x = –2 F T –2 F 0 Test –3: (−3) + 2(−3) < 0 3 < 0 False Test –1: (−1) 2 + 2(−1) < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 + 2(1) < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (–2. 2 T T 1 2 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(0) 1 ≥ 0 True Test 1: 4(1) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(1) 5 ≥ 4 True The solution set is (−∞. ∞ ). ∞). Inc. 21.

Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. 3. 5 3 − x2 + 2 x ≥ 0 x(− x + 2) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x = 2 F F T F 0 T F 0 2 Test –1: −(−1) + 2(−1) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False Test 1: −(1) 2 + 2(1) ≥ 0 1 ≥ 0 True Test 3: −(3)2 + 2(3) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0. −2 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 5 3 Test –1: 3(−1)2 − 5(−1) ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 False Test 1: 3(1)2 − 5(1) ≤ 0 –2 ≤ 0 True Test 2: 3(2)2 − 5(2) ≤ 0 2 ≤ 0 False ⎡ 5⎤ The solution set is ⎢0. 1]. . 2 + 2 ⎤⎦ or [ 0.59 or x ≈ 3. −x2 + x ≥ 0 x= x2 − x ≤ 0 x( x − 1) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 1 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) F T 0 4± 8 2 = 2± 2 x ≈ 0. 2]. 3x 2 − 5 x ≤ 0 x(3x − 5) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 24.59.41] .41 The solution set is ⎡⎣ 2 − 2. ⎣ 3⎦ x2 ≤ 4 x − 2 25.59 3. x2 − 4 x + 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 4 x + 2 = 0 23. 358 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.41 = F 1 Test –1: −(−1) + (−1) ≥ 0 −2 ≥ 0 False 2 F T F 2 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ Test : − ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 1 ≥ 0 True 4 Test 2: −(2) 2 + 2 ≥ 0 0. ⎥ .

F T F x2 ≤ 2x + 2 26. x(4 − x)( x − 6) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. F T F T –0. 3 30.1 + 3 ⎤⎦ or [ −0.73. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 1. 3. ∞ ).73 or x ≈ 2. and –3 Test one value in each interval. F T F 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 0 (2 x − 1)2 = 0 x= –1 31. 2] ∪ [3. 3. x(3 − x)( x − 5) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0.73 F –3 2. 4] ∪ [6. . 32. 2. F T F x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 Solve x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 ( x − 3)2 = 0 28. ∞). ∞).73 0 x=3 3 T 5 The solution set is [0.73 2 The solution set is [1. –2 T The solution set is [–3. 2. x − 2x − 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) 1 2 ± 12 2 = 1± 3 x ≈ −0. ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x + 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –1. 27.7 29. The solution set is ⎡⎣1 − 3.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ∅. 359 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and 5 Test one value in each interval. Inc. = F T 6 The solution set is [0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞). –2. 1 2 T 4 T T 1 2 The solution set is (−∞.73] . and 3 Test one value in each interval. and 5 Test one value in each interval. F F 3 The solution set is the empty set. 3] ∪ [5. ∞). –2] ∪ [–1.

2 ) ∪ 2. –1. ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x + 2)( x − 2) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. x 3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) ≥ 0 ( F x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 9 > 0 x 2 ( x − 1) + 9 ( x − 1) ≥ 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 9) ≥ 0 Boundary point: 1. 7 2 Boundary points: 2. 35. ∞). and 2 Test one value in each interval. –3 3 The solution set is (−∞. 13 2 Test one value in each interval. T F F Test one value in each interval. T F T 13 2 5 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 7 < 0 x 2 ( x + 7) − ( x + 7) < 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and ( x − 3)( x 2 − 9) ≥ 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –3 and 3 Test one value in each interval. ∞ ). F T 1 The solution set is (1. −3]. T T F 7 2 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) ≥ 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 ) 40. 72 . ( ) 34. 2 The solution set is [ −2. –1] ∪ [1. 36. 360 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –1 The solution set is (−1. ∞).5 ) ∪ 5. ∞). .Polynomial and Rational Functions ( ) 33. (5 − x)2 x − 13 <0 2 Boundary points: 5. 13 . F T T 2 The solution set is [–2. x3 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 > 0 x 2 ( x + 1) + 4( x + 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 + 4) ≥ 0 Boundary point: –1 Test one value in each interval. –7) ∪ (–1. 2 –7 –1 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. Test one value in each interval. F F T –2 1 The solution set is (–∞ . –1 and 1 Test one value in each interval. Inc. F T F –2 –1 39. T T F ( x + 7)( x 2 − 1) < 0 ( x + 7)( x + 1)( x − 1) < 0 Boundary points: –7. −2] ∪ [2. and 38. 1). (2 − x)2 x − 72 < 0 37. and 2 Test one value in each interval.

42. F F T 0 46. ∞). F –5 –2 The solution set is (–5. 9 The solution set is [ 0. − 5) ∪ (2. x − 4x ≤ 0 x 2 ( x − 4) ≤ 0 2 Boundary points: 0 and 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 3] ∪ (−2. . Test one value in each interval. 3 x+5 <0 x+2 x = –5 or x = –2 F T F –4 –3 The solution set is (–4.7 x3 − 9 x 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 9) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 0 and 9 Test one value in each interval. − 3) ∪ (4. ∞). ∞). 47. T –3 x=4 –3 −x + 2 ≥0 x−4 x = 2 or x = 4 F 2 4 The solution set is [2. 0 4 The solution set is (–∞. Inc. ∞ ). –2 4 − 2x ≤0 3x + 4 4 3 T F − 43 F –5 T x+3 <0 x+4 x = −3 or F x = −4 T T 2 −4 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. The solution set is ( −∞. ⎟ ∪ [2. Section 2. 45. T T x = 2 or x = − x+5 >0 x−2 x = –5 or x = 2 T F The solution set is (−∞. x−4 >0 x+3 x−4 = 0 x+3 = 0 x = −3 T F −x − 3 ≤0 x+2 x = –3 or x = –2 T F 4 49. 44. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2 The solution set is (−∞.PreCalculus 4E 41. 4). 361 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞). 4]. T T F 48. –2). 43. –3). 0] ∪ [9.

T F T T –3 The solution set is (−∞. 0) ∪ (3. ∞). F . ⎡ 5 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ − . 2). ( x + 4)( x − 1) ≤0 x+2 x = −4 or x = −2 or x = 1 . The solution set is ( −∞. 52. T − F –3 3 5 3 55. Inc. T F –4 T –2 x −2>0 x −1 x 2( x − 1) − >0 x −1 x −1 x − 2x + 2 >0 x −1 −x + 2 >0 x −1 F 1 Values of x = −4 or x = 1 result in f ( x) = 0 and. therefore must be included in the solution set. therefore must be included in the solution set. ( x + 3)( x − 2) ≤0 x +1 x = −3 or x = −1 or x = 2 . 2]. x >0 x−3 x = 0 or x = 3 T F 0 T 3 The solution set is (−∞. − 5) ∪ (−3. The solution set is (−∞. − 3] ∪ (−1. 53. 3x + 5 ≥0 6 − 2x 5 x = − or x = 3 3 F 54. −4] ∪ ( −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1] x = 2 or x = 1 F T 1 2 The solution set is (1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 50. 0 The solution set is ( −∞. 362 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 4) ∪ (0. ⎣ 3 ⎠ 51. 3 ⎟ . x+4 >0 x x = –4 or x = 0 T –1 F –5 T –4 2 x +1 <2 x+3 x +1 −2<0 x+3 x + 1 − 2( x + 3) <0 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 <0 x+3 −x − 5 <0 x+3 x = or x = –3 T F F Values of x = −3 or x = 2 result in f ( x) = 0 and. ∞) . ∞). x >2 x −1 56.

x = −6 or 1 2 F T T -2 The solution set is (−∞. 2⎦ ⎝ 363 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 The solution set is (−∞. ∞ ) . 3) ∪ (4. Inc. ∞). . − 6] ∪ (−2. –2). x −2≥0 x+2 x 2( x + 2) − ≥0 x+2 x+2 x − 2x − 4 ≥0 x+2 −x − 4 ≥0 x+2 1 −1 < 0 x −3 1 x−3 − <0 x−3 x−3 1− x + 3 <0 x −3 −x + 4 <0 x−3 x = –4 or x = –2 x = 4 or x = 3 F F 3 F -6 7 5 1 <1 x−3 T x = −2 T 1 2 58. Section 2.7 x+4 ≤3 2x − 1 x+4 −3≤ 0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 3 ( 2 x − 1) ≤0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 6x + 3 ≤0 2x − 1 −5 x + 7 ≤0 2x − 1 x= 7 or 5 x= T 59. f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 2 x2 − 5x + 2 ≥ 0 Solve 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 2 T F 1 2 T 2 1⎤ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. x−2 ≤2 x+2 x−2 −2≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2 ( x + 2) ≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2x − 4 ≤0 x+2 −x − 6 ≤0 x+2 T T F –4 –2 The solution set is [–4. ⎥ ∪ [ 2. x ≥2 x+2 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 61.PreCalculus 4E 57. ∞).

Inc. thus. thus. 4⎠ ⎝ 63. . − 1) ∪ [1. ∞ ) . ⎛1 ⎤ The domain is ⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. it must be included in the domain. it must be included in the domain. f ( x) = 2x −1 x +1 The domain of this function requires that T F 2x x −1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 x +1 x +1 x = −1 or x = 1 T -1 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and.Polynomial and Rational Functions 62. The domain is ( −∞. 64. 1⎥ . 1 f ( x) = 4x − 9x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 > 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(4 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 4 2 T F 1 4 T 2 1⎞ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. ∞ ) . ⎝2 ⎦ 364 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎟ ∪ ( 2. f ( x) = x −1 2x − 1 x −x + 1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 2x − 1 2x − 1 1 x= or x = 1 2 The domain of this function requires that F T 1 2 F 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and.

Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 or x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 ( x + 3) 2 =0 ( x + 7 )( x − 1) = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x + 3 = ± 0 or x + 7 = 0 3 0 7 x+ = x=− x =1 x = −3 The boundary points are −7. Section 2. . solution set. ( 6. ∞ ) 7 7 + 2 ( 7 ) − 36 > 12 ( −8. True solution set. and 1 . False to the solution set. −8 ) ∪ ( −6. 4 ) belongs to the 02 + 2 ( 0 ) − 36 > 12 ( 4. −3.PreCalculus 4E 65. ( 4. Inc.7 x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 2 x − 36 < −12 or x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 x 2 + 2 x − 24 < 0 x 2 + 2 x − 48 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. 4 ) ∪ ( 6. x2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 6 x + 1 < −8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 x2 + 6 x + 9 < 0 x2 + 6 x − 7 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. −8) belongs to the 27 > 12. − 6. x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 or x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 ( x + 6 )( x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 8 )( x − 6 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. True 5 52 + 2 ( 5) − 36 > 12 ( 6. −8 ) −9 ( −9 ) 2 x=6 Test Conclusion + 2 ( −9 ) − 36 > 12 ( −∞. ∞ ) or { x x < −8 or − 6 < x < 4 or x > 6} . 6 ) solution set. −6 ) −7 ( −7 ) 2 + 2 ( −7 ) − 36 > 12 1 > 12. The solution set is ( −∞. x + 6 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 or x + 8 = 0 or x−6 = 0 x = −6 x=4 x = −8 The boundary points are −8. ( −6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 ) does not belong 1 > 12. 4 ) 0 36 > 12. 66. −6 ) does not belong to the solution set. 365 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. False ( −6. ∞ ) belongs to the 2 27 > 12. True ( −8. 4 and 6 .

False 2 The solution set is ( −3. ∞ ) 3 Test Conclusion 3 3 ( −∞. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. −3) does not belong > −4 + 3 −4 − 2 to the solution set. True 2 3 3 ( 2. ∞ ) or { x x < −7 or x > 1} . −3) ( −3. 3 3 > x+3 x−2 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. −7 ) −8 ( −8 ) 2 Test Conclusion + 6 ( −8 ) + 1 > 8 ( −∞.1) to the solution set. −3) −5 ( −5 ) 2 ( −7. . 1 > 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x+3 = 0 x−2=0 x = −3 x=2 The boundary points are −3 and 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. 3 1 > − . 1 −3 > . 2 ) or { x −3 < x < 2} . 17 ≥ 8. False 2 3 3 ( −3.1) does not belong 02 + 6 ( 0 ) + 1 > 8 0 solution set. ∞ ) does not belong > 3+3 3− 2 to the solution set. False ( −3. −3) does not belong + 6 ( −5 ) + 1 > 8 4 ≥ 8. Inc. 1 ≥ 8. 67. False (1. 2 ) 0 ( 2. 366 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −7 ) belongs to the 17 ≥ 8. ∞ ) (1. 3 3 − >0 x+3 x−2 3( x − 2) 3 ( x + 3) − >0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 3x − 6 − 3x − 9 <0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) −15 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) <0 Find the values of x that make the denominator zero. True ( −7. True The solution set is ( −∞. solution set. ∞ ) belongs to the 22 + 6 ( 2 ) + 1 > 8 2 to the solution set. ( −3. −7 ) ∪ (1. 2 ) belongs to the > 0+3 0−2 solution set.

1 1 − > − . . −3) ∪ ( −1.7 1 2 > x + 1 x −1 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. −x − 3 = 0 x +1 = 0 x −1 = 0 −3 = x x = −1 x =1 The boundary points are −3 . True 3 2 1 2 ( −3. and 1.1) or { x x < −3 or − 1 < x < 1} . False 3 1 2 ( −3. Inc. Section 2. −1) −2 ( −1. −3) ( −3. −1 . True 1 2 (1. 367 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3) belongs to the > −4 + 1 −3 − 1 solution set. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 1 2 ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 2 − >0 x + 1 x −1 2 ( x + 1) x −1 − >0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) x −1 − 2x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) <0 −x − 3 <0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. 2 −1 > − .1) 0 (1. ∞ ) does not belong > 2 + 1 2 −1 to the solution set.1) belongs to the > 0 + 1 0 −1 solution set. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. 1 > 1. −1) does not belong > −2 + 1 −2 − 1 to the solution set. 1 > −2.PreCalculus 4E 68. False 3 The solution set is ( −∞.

( 2. 2 and 3. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 7 > 0. True 3 The solution set is ( −∞.52 − 1. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} .5 2. −1) belongs to the solution set. 10 > 0.52 − 2. 2 − > 0. 2 ) belongs to the solution set.52 − 4 (1. False 3 1. True 3 2. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 x=3 x =1 The boundary points are −1 .5 ) + 3 − ( 3.3) does not belong to the solution set. 2 ) ∪ ( 3.1) does not belong (1.52 − 4 ( 2.1) Conclusion ( −∞. 4 > 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. ∞ ) to the solution set. 368 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 − 2 >0 2.5 4 ( −1. False 3 42 − 4 − 2 >0 4 − 4 ( 4) + 3 2 ( 3. Test Interval Test Number Test 2 −2 ( −∞. 2 ) ( 2.5 − 2 >0 1. .3) 1. True 15 0 02 − 0 − 2 >0 0 − 4 (0) + 3 2 (1.5 ) + 3 5 > 0. x2 − x − 2 >0 x2 − 4 x + 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. 1. −1) ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) − 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 4 ( −2 ) + 3 ( −1. −1) ∪ (1. x2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle.

5 ) + 2 >0 1.52 − 3 ( 2. to the solution set. 1. False 3 1. True 5 The solution set is ( −∞. −1) belongs to the ( −2 ) − 3 ( −2 ) + 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 2 ( −2 ) − 3 2 solution set. 2 ) ( 2. 2 ) ∪ ( 3.5 2 > 0. x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x=2 x =1 x=3 The boundary points are −1 . Inc.5) + 2 >0 2. . True 15 2. 12 > 0. −1) ∪ (1.5 ) − 3 (1.5 ) − 3 ( 2. False 7 >0 solution set.3) − ( 3.5 1 > 0. Section 2. True 5 02 − 3 ( 0 ) + 2 0 − 2 ( 0) − 3 2 >0 ( −1. 1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 2 and 3.1) 0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 Test Conclusion ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 x2 − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.52 − 2 (1. −1) Test Number −2 x − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 2 ( −1. ∞ ) 4 42 − 3 ( 4 ) + 2 4 − 2 ( 4) − 3 2 3 > 0. Test Interval ( −∞.1) does not belong to the solution set. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . 6 > 0.PreCalculus 4E 70.3) does not belong − (1. 2 ) belongs to the 2. ( 3.52 − 3 (1.52 − 2 ( 2. 369 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 x2 − 2x − 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle.

and 1. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≤ 0 . ⎝ 2 ⎠ 73. the solution set is ⎨ x − 6 ≤ x ≤ − or x ≥ 1⎬ or ⎢ −6. and 1. −1 . We verify this 2 numerically by substituting these values into the function: f ( −6 ) = 2 ( −6 ) + 11( −6 ) − 7 ( −6 ) − 6 = 2 ( −216 ) + 11( 36 ) − ( −42 ) − 6 = −432 + 396 + 42 − 6 = 0 3 2 3 2 1 11 7 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ − ⎟ − 7 ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = − + + − 6 = 0 2 2 2 2 8 4 2 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ f (1) = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 (1) − 6 = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 − 6 = 2 + 11 − 7 − 6 = 0 3 2 1 Thus. 2 2⎦ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ 72. the curve is above the x-axis when −6 < x < − 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ and when x > 1 . − . We need to find the intervals on which 2 f ( x ) < 0 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 71.1⎟ . ∞ ) . − ⎥ ∪ [1. + = = = = 4 ( x + 2 ) 4 ( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x 2 − 4 x +1 crosses the x-axis at −1 . −6 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞ . x2 − 4 the boundaries are −2 . and 1. 370 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ) . These intervals are The graph of f ( x ) = indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. Thus. Inc. Thus. and 1. the boundaries are −6 . These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. − . we verified that the boundaries are −6 . and has vertical asymptotes at x = −2 and x = 2 . These intervals are 2 1 indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. Thus. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 < 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 < 0 1 In Problem 63. Now. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the curve is below the x-axis when x < −2 and when −1 < x < 2 . the solution set is { x x < −2 or − 1 ≤ x < 2} or ( −∞. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 ≥ 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 ≥ 0 1 The graph of f ( x ) = 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 appears to cross the x-axis at −6 . the solution set is ⎨ x x < −6 or − < x < 1⎬ or 2 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( −∞. Now. Thus. − . We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≥ 0 . the curve is below the x-axis when x < −6 and when − 1 ⎧ 1 ⎫ < x < 1 . . Now. 1 3 ≤− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + ≤0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) Simplify the left side of the inequality: 3( x + 2) 4 ( x + 1) x−2 x − 2 + 3x + 6 4x + 4 x +1 . −2 ) ∪ [ −1.

−1) ∪ ( 2. The interval is ⎜ 0. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c.0875(35) 2 + 1. f (35) = 0. . and 2.6 a. f ( x) = 0.6 ≈ 160 feet g (35) = 0. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 48t + 160 The ball’s height will exceed that of the rooftop when s (t ) > 160 −16t 2 + 48t + 160 > 160 −16t 2 + 48t > 0 −16t (t − 3) > 0 The boundaries are 0 and 3. Thus.0875 x 2 − 0.4(35) + 66. The function values and the data are identical.PreCalculus 4E 74. 371 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 x + 66. Publishing as Prentice Hall. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 8t + 87 The diver’s height will exceed that of the cliff when s (t ) > 87 −16t 2 + 8t + 87 > 87 −16t 2 + 8t > 0 −8t (2t − 1) > 0 1 . ∞ ) . Testing each interval shows that the ball will be higher than the rooftop for the first three seconds after the throw. ⎝ 2⎠ The boundaries are 0 and 76. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well.6 ≈ 185 feet b. Inc. 75.0875(35)2 − 0. ⎟ .7 1 3 >− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + >0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) x +1 >0 ( x + 2)( x − 2) The boundaries are −2 .0875 x 2 + 1.6 g ( x) = 0. The curve is above the x-axis when −2 < x < −1 and when x > 2 . The interval is ( 0. Testing each interval shows that the diver will be higher than the cliff for the first half 2 ⎛ 1⎞ second after beginning the jump. 77. These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. −1 . We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) > 0 .9(35) + 11. the solution set is { x −2 < x < −1 or x > 2} or ( −2. Section 2. 3) .9 x + 11.

0.4 x + 473.0875 x 2 + 1.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.4 x + 473. 76 ) does not belong to the solution set.6 > 540.9 x + 528.0875)(473.0875 x 2 − 0. 0.9 x + 11.4 x + 66.0875(100)2 − 0. Inc. 78.4 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0.9 x + 528. . 76 ) Test Conclusion 0.6 > 540 0.6 > 540 901.4)2 − 4(0.6 ≈ 381 feet b.6 > 540 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions d.0875 x 2 + 1.4(50) + 66.9 x + 11. x= Interval Test Value 50 ( 30. On dry pavement.4) 2(0.0875 x 2 − 0. This is represented on graph (b) to the right of point (76.0875(55)2 + 1.4(55) + 66. False ( 76. we must test the following intervals. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.0875 x 2 + 1. f ( x) = 0.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. 0. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well.4 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(1.4(100) + 66. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 76 miles per hour.0875 x 2 − 0. ∞ ) 100 0. f (55) = 0.0875(50)2 − 0.6 > 540 265.0875(55)2 − 0. 540).9)2 − 4(0.35 > 540.0875 x 2 − 0.4) 2(0.0875) x ≈ −89 or 68 372 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9(55) + 11. ( 76. True ( 30.6 a.4) ± (−0.0875)(528.0875 x 2 + 1.4 x + 66. d.0875) x ≈ −71 or 76 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30. 0.9) ± (1.6 g ( x) = 0.6 ≈ 309 feet g (55) = 0.

9(50) + 11.68) Test Conclusion ( 30. (19. If the length is less than 6 feet.6 > 540 325. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 68 miles per hour. so we have that width = A ( x ) ≤ 114 x ( 25 − x ) ≤ 114 25 x − x 2 ≤ 114 Solve the related equation 25 x − x 2 = 114 0 = x 2 − 25 x + 114 0 = ( x − 19 )( x − 6 ) Apply the zero product principle: x − 19 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = 19 x=6 The boundary points are 6 and 19. On wet pavement. Interval Test Value 50 ( 30.9(100) + 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .6 > 540. the length of the shorter side must be 6 feet or less. This is represented on graph (a) to the right of point (68.7 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30. 373 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 79. False to the solution set. Since Perimeter = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) . ( 6. we know 50 = 2 x + 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 Now. Let x = the length of the rectangle.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.0875(100)2 + 1.6 > 540 1076. 540).19 ) 10 (19. 68) does not belong 2 0. then the width is 19 feet. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. True solution set.19 ) does not belong 25 (10 ) − 10 ≤ 114 2 150 ≤ 114. True ( 6.0875(50) + 1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. ∞ ) belongs to the 25 ( 20 ) − 20 ≤ 114 2 100 ≤ 114. ∞ ) 20 solution set. Inc. 6 ) 0 Test Conclusion ( −∞. False ( 68. ( 68. if the area of the rectangle is not to exceed 114 square feet. ∞ ) 100 0. 6 ) belongs to the 25 ( 0 ) − 0 ≤ 114 2 0 ≤ 114. Thus. then the width is greater than 19 feet. True to the solution set.35 > 540. we must test the following intervals. A = ( length )( width ) . If the length is 6 feet.

we ignore the larger solution. That is.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. -5) ∪ (2. A ≤ 800 l ⋅ w ≤ 800 ( 90 − w ) w ≤ 800 90w − w2 ≤ 800 − w2 + 90w − 800 ≤ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 ≥ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 = 0 ( w − 80 )( w − 10 ) = 0 w − 80 = 0 or w − 10 = 0 w = 80 w = 10 Assuming the width is the shorter side. 2⎭ 2⎦ ⎣ 374 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 45) 5 90 ( 5 ) − ( 5 ) ≤ 800 true 20 90 ( 20 ) − ( 20 ) ≤ 800 false 2 2 ( 0.10 ) (10. Test Test Test Conclusion Interval Number ( 0. ⎥ .10 ) is part of the solution set (10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is (−∞. Graph y1 = 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 in a standard window. Answers may vary. The length of the shorter side cannot exceed 10 feet. Inc. . 45 ) is not part of the solution set The solution set is {w | 0 < w ≤ 10} or ( 0.10] . – 85. 81. 2l + 2w = P 2l + 2w = 180 2l = 180 − 2w l = 90 − w We want to restrict the area to 800 square feet. 1 87. The graph is below or equal to the x-axis for −3 ≤ x ≤ . ∞). 86. 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x − 3 ≤ x ≤ ⎩ 1⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ ⎬ or ⎢ −3.

x= 375 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9 > 455 0. 4].1) 2(0. ∞ ) 92.1125 x 2 − 0. ∞).1x + 399.1 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. f ( x) = 0. x−4 in a standard viewing window.1125) x ≈ −59 or 60 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0.1125 x 2 − 0.1) ± (−0.7 88.1x + 55. Graph y1 = 1 < x ≤ 4.1x + 399.9 b. x+2 and y2 = 2 x−3 y1 less than or equal to y2 for x < 3 or x ≥ 8 . Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −4. 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –1) or (2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. The solution set is (–2. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −∞.1125)(399. 0. . −1) ∪ [ 2. 90. Inc.1 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0.1125 x 2 − 0.1)2 − 4(0.3) ∪ [8. a. 89.1x + 55.1125 x 2 − 0. we must test the following intervals. 91. ∞ ) 1 2 and y2 = x +1 x+4 y1 less than or equal to y2 for −4 < x < −1 or x ≥ 2 . The graph is below the x-axis for x −1 The solution set is (1.

93.2 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.15 > 455.7) ± (0.7(100) + 37. 98. 0. ∞ ) . ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. A sample change is: The inequalities have different solution sets. does not make sense. Sample explanation: To solve this inequality you must first subtract 2 from both sides.52 ) Test Conclusion 2 0. A sample change is: The inequality cannot be solved by multiplying both sides by x + 3. −5) ∪ ( 5. Changes to make the statement true will vary. ( 60. makes sense 95.1375(10) + 0. f ( x) = 0. Inc.7)2 − 4(0. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. Changes to make the statement true will vary. ∞ ) 100 0.7(10) + 37.1375 x 2 + 0. The value. true 376 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 > 446 58.1375 x 2 + 0.1375 x 2 + 0. On wet pavement.1125(50) − 0.1375)(408. 0. but not included in the domain of the second inequality. Sample explanation: Polynomials are defined for all values. False ( 52.9 > 455.8 > 446 0. On dry pavement. 96.8 > 446. We do not know if x + 3 is positive or negative.1375(100)2 + 0.8 b.9 > 455 332. 94. 101.7 x + 408.1375 x 2 + 0.2 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. Thus. True ( 0.7 x + 37. ∞ ) 100 2 0. false. false. a.7 x + 37. 1. 60 ) does not belong to the solution set.1(50) + 55. does not make sense.1375) x ≈ −57 or 52 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0.1(100) + 55. True ( 0.7 x + 408.1125(100) − 0.2) 2(0. False ( 60.Polynomial and Rational Functions Interval Test Value 50 ( 0. is included in the domain of the first inequality.55 > 446. A sample change is: The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} or ( −∞. makes sense 97. we must test the following intervals. . 100. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Interval Test Value 10 ( 0. stopping distances will exceed 455 feet for speeds exceeding 60 miles per hour. false. we would not know whether or not to reverse the order of the inequality. Explanations will vary.8 > 446 1482. stopping distances will exceed 446 feet for speeds exceeding 52 miles per hour. 99. ( 52. 60 ) Test Conclusion 2 0.9 > 455 1170.52 ) does not belong to the solution set.

Test –4: −21 ≥ 0 no graph. Because any non-zero number squared is positive. 8 ± 64 − 112 8 8 ± −48 ⇒ imaginary x= 8 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 > 0 7 > 0 True The inequality is true for all numbers. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 4 x2 − 8x + 7 < 0 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 = 7 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. Inc. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. the solution is all real numbers except 2. ∅. 3]. and the reciprocal of zero is undefined. y = kx 2 64 = k ⋅ 22 64 = 4k 16 = k b. a. 4 x2 − 8x + 7 > 0 27 − 3(−4) ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 107. The solution set is the empty set. x= 110. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∅. c. a. the solution includes only 2. the solution is all real numbers except 2. One possible solution: x 2 − 2 x − 15 ≤ 0 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 109. the solution is the empty set. 105. One possible solution: ≥0 x+4 9 − x2 ≥ 0 (3 − x)(3 + x) ≥ 0 3− x = 0 3+ x = 0 x = 3 or x = −3 104. 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 x−3 103. Because any number squared is positive. T –3 106. 3 2 Test 0: 27 − 3(0) 2 ≥ 0 27 ≥ 0 True Test 4: 27 − 3(4)2 ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 8 ± (−8) 2 − 4(4)(7) x= 2(4) −21 ≥ 0 no graph -imaginary The solution set is [–3.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. Because any number squared other than zero is positive.imaginary The solution set is all real numbers. . y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 y = 16 ⋅ 52 y = 400 377 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 102. 108. b.

L . w = kl 3 96 x 96 y= 3 y = 32 y= c. = 6(11) = 66 A shower lasting 11 minutes will use 66 gallons of water. kA S= 112. W = kt k . b.6l 3 Use the equation to find w when l = 25. varies directly as the time. l can be expressed as w = kl 2 . 000 = 40 12. y varies directly as the cube of x is expressed as y = kx3 . P k ⋅ 60. . k x k 12 = 8 96 = k y= 111. Use the given values to find k . 000 12. W = kt 30 = k (5) 6=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. Use the given values to find k . The weight. Section 2. w = kl 3 k x 96 y= x y= 2025 = k (15)3 0. y varies inversely as x is expressed as y = 5120 f 5120 10 = f 10 f = 5120 L= W = 6t Use the equation to find W when t = 11 . w . 000 ⋅ 40 =k 60.6l 3 = 0. k L= f 5120 L= f Use the equation to find f when L = 10 .6 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. varies directly as the cube of the length. a. y varies directly as x is expressed as y = kx. k L= f k 8= 640 5120 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. Publishing as Prentice Hall. t can be expressed as W = kt .8 Check Point Exercises 1. f Use the given values to find k . 000 8=k 3. w = 0. W . W = 6t f = 512 A 10 inch violin string will have a frequency of 512 cycles per second. Inc. 378 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. varies inversely as the frequency. x The length. f k can be expressed as L = .6(25)3 = 9375 The 25-foot long shark was 9375 pounds. w = 0. The volume of water.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2.

y = kx 45 = k ⋅ 5 9=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. y = kx 65 = k ⋅ 5 65 k ⋅ 5 = 5 5 13 = k The equation becomes y = 13 x. 120π = k (10)(6)2 π 3 =k Therefore. k . Publishing as Prentice Hall. V varies jointly with h and r 2 and can be modeled as V = khr 2 . Inc. y = 13 x = 13 ⋅12 = 156. 3 (2)(12) 2 = 96π cubic feet k x k 6= 3 18 = k y= y= 18 =2 9 379 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. M = 5. Use the given values to find k. y = = 30.8 let M represent the number of minutes let Q represent the number of problems let P represent the number of people M varies directly as Q and inversely as P is expressed kQ .PreCalculus 4E 4. kQ M = P k (16) 32 = 4 8=k Exercise Set 2. the volume equation is V = V= π 3 Since y varies inversely with x. When x = 12. we have y = 1 2 hr . Use the given values to find k. Section 2. x 60 When x = 2. x . Use the given values to find k. kQ M = P 8Q M = P Use the equation to find M when P = 8 and Q = 24 .8 1. V = khr 2 4. 2 8Q P 8(24) M = 8 M = 24 It will take 24 minutes for 8 people to solve 24 problems. as M = P Use the given values to find k . y = 9 x = 9 ⋅13 = 117 3. 2. k y= x k 12 = 5 k 5 ⋅12 = 5 ⋅ 5 60 = k 60 The equation becomes y = .

c = 9. 3 c 9 y= kmn 2 p k (2)(1) 2 6 2k 15 = 6 2k 15(6) = (6) 6 90 = 2k 15 = 25 = k ( 2 )( 5 ) 25 = k (10 ) 25 k (10 ) = 10 10 5 =k 2 k = 45 5 xz. 10 = k The equation becomes y = 10 x . 2 5 When x = 8 and z = 12. 10 x 10 ( 3) 10 ( 3) 30 5 y= 2 = 2 = = = . z2 When x = 3 and z = 6. a= 7= 7= kb c2 k (9) ( 6) k (9) 2 36 k 7= 4 28 = k a= 7. the square root of c. y = ( 8 )(12 ) = 240. Since y varies jointly as x and z. we have y = c Use the given values to find k. 175 = k ( 2100 )( 4 ) 175 = k ( 8400 ) 1 =k 48 C= 9. y = kxz 1 14400 = 300 ( 2400 )( 6 ) = 48 48 Since y varies jointly as a and b and inversely as kab . z Use the given values to find k. 2 The equation becomes y = y= 45mn 2 45(3)(4) 2 2160 = = = 216 10 10 p 380 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. z 6 36 36 6 6. Since y varies inversely as x and inversely as the kx square of z. Use the given values to find k. 10ab 10(5)(3) 150 y= = = = 50 . kab y= c k (3)(2) 12 = 25 k (6) 12 = 5 k (6) 12(5) = (5) 5 60 = 6k 60 6k = 6 6 10 = k 10ab . we have y = 2 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 5. Inc. 28 ( 4 ) ( 8) 2 = 28 ( 4 ) 64 = C = kAT 7 4 10. we have y = kxz. kx y= 2 z k ( 50 ) 20 = 52 k ( 50 ) 20 = 25 20 = 2k 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b = 3. . The equation becomes y = c When a = 5.

x kyz = . x w kz 18. Inc. y Solving for y kz 3 x= y 16. kyz w2 ⎛ w2 ⎞ w2 kyz ⎜ ⎟x = kz w2 ⎝ kz ⎠ xw2 y= kz 17. kz 3 . x = kyz 2 . Section 2. . x = kz ( y − w) x = kzy − kzw k3 z x= y x + kzw = kzy x + kzw kzy = kz kz x + kzw y= kz k3 z yx = y ⋅ y yx = k 3 z yx k 3 z = x x y= k3 z x 381 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. w Solving for y: kyz x= w x ( w ) = ( w ) kyzw x w = kyz x w kyz = kz kz 12.8 x = kyz . x = kz ( y + w) . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 11. Solving for y : y= x = kyz 2 x kyz 2 = 2 2 kz kz x y= 2 kz 13. kz yz x y= kz x= kyz . Solving for y: x = kz ( y + w) x= xy = y ⋅ x= x = kzy + kzw kz 3 y x − kzw = kzy x − kzw kzy = kz kz x − kzw y= kz xy = kz 3 xy kz 3 = x x kz 3 y= x 14. Solving for y: x = kyz 15.

7 It was dropped from 80 inches. we have T = kB .75 20 = f A force of 20 pounds is needed.000496 (1. 000 ) k ( 343. y−w Solving for y: kz x= y−w ( y − w) x = ( y − w) 8.4 = k (12 ) 8. 56 = 0.9 = k The equation becomes T = 0.000496 (107 ) M = kE 60 = k ( 360 ) 60 k ( 360 ) = 360 360 1 =k 6 M = d = kf 9 = k (12) 9 k (12) = 12 12 0.7 D = 0. Inc. 3 w = 0.6 = k (4) 25. 000 0.75 f = 0. Since B varies directly as D. Robert Wadlow’s weight was approximately 607 pounds. yx + xw = kz yx = kz − xw yx kz − xw = x x kz − xw y= x 15 = 0.000496h 3 .7 D kz y−w xy − wx = kz xy = kz + wx xy kz + wx = x x xw + kz y= x 20. Since a man’s weight varies directly as the cube of his height. 225.4 . Use the given values to find k. Use the given values to find k.75 f = 0. 000 ) 170 = 343. 170 = k ( 70 ) 3 170 = k ( 343.4 k= = 0.7 D.9(6) = 5. 1 (186 ) = 31 6 A person who weighs 186 pounds on Earth will weigh 31 pounds on the moon. . we have B = kD. we have w = kh 3 . 000 343. x= 56 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 19.4 feet. Since T varies directly as B.75 f 15 0. B = kD kz . 382 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. When h = 107. T = kB 3. 043) ≈ 607. T = 0. The tail length is 5.9 B . Use the given values to find k. x= 23.7 56 D= = 80 0. 22.75 = k d = 0.6 k (4) = 4 4 0.000496 = k The equation becomes w = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 12 The equation becomes B = 0.7 0. kz y+w ( y + w) x = ( y + w) kz y+w 24.4 k (12 ) = 12 12 8.75 0. w = kh3 3. When B = 56 . 21. When B = 6 .

Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance. Publishing as Prentice Hall.88 d 5000 The water temperature is 0. Since the banking angle varies inversely as k the turning radius.5 feet. k B= r k 28 = 4 ⎛k⎞ 28 ( 4 ) = 28 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4⎠ 112 = k 112 .5 The banking angle is 32 when the turning radius is 3. 27.5 . d Use the given values to find k.5d 2 h = 0. 50 = k ⋅ 10 0. I = = = 90 2.4 foot-candles at a distance of 50 feet. i= k d k 1000 (1000)4.4 d2 502 2500 The illumination is 2.75 = 1600 i= (1600)3.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.5(30) 2 h = 450 A water pipe with a 30 centimeter diameter can serve 450 houses. k I= 2. The equation becomes I = d2 562. b.5d 2 a.5 When d = 2.5 = 2 3 k 62. .75 = (1600) k 1600 6000 = k 6000 6000 6000 = = = 2. r Use the given values to find k.25 The intensity is 90 milliroentgens per hour. h = 0. d k 62.5 ) = 9 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ 562. r 3. k d2 k 3. 28. 2 h = 0. t= 4.4 = 30.5 562.5 = 9 ⎛k ⎞ 9 ( 62.8 h = kd 2 26. we have B = .52 6.5 = k 29. B = = = 32 . Inc. we have pressure.5 = k 562.5 . h = 0. t= 383 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5d 2 d 2 = 625 d = 625 d = 25 A water pipe with a 25 centimeter diameter can serve 1250 houses.88 Celsius at a depth of 5000 meters.4 = (1000) k 1000 4400 = k 4400 4400 = = 0. The equation becomes B = r 112 112 When r = 3. we have k I= .5 .5d 2 1250 = 0.75 = 2 40 k 3.

15 = 3600 k (180) (3600)35.5mv 2 = 0. L = kAD 31. 4 k a k 1 k t= = ⋅ 3a 3 a t= A year will seem to be 1 of a year. The intensity will I= = = ⋅ (2d ) 2 4d 2 4 d 2 100m c 100(40) 80 = c 4000 80 = c 4000 80c = c ⋅ c 80c = 4000 80c 4000 = 80 80 c = 50 The chronological age is 50. we have L = kAD . 34. 1 . L = 10 ( 9 ⋅ 6 ) (10) = 1800 . we kw have I = 2 . km c k (25) 125 = 20 k (25) 20(125) = (20) 20 2500 = 25k 2500 25k = 25 25 100 = k i= 35.5 e = 0. Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the sound source.15 = 602 k (180) 35. So we have k k 1 k . 703(170) I= ≈ 24. .4 and is not overweight. i= be multiplied by a factor of intensity is 36. So the sound 4 1 of what it was originally. Since heat loss varies jointly as the area and temperature difference. 126540 = 703 180 703w The equation becomes I = 2 . Use the given values to find k. (70)2 This person has a BMI of 24.5(4)(36) = 72 A mass of 4 grams and velocity of 6 centimeters per second has a kinetic energy of 72 ergs.15 = 3600 126540 = k (180) 1200 = k (3 ⋅ 6)(20) 1200 = 360k 1200 360k = 360 360 10 k= 3 The equation becomes L = 10 AD 3 When A = 6 ⋅ 9 = 54 . k= 32. h When w = 170 and h = 70. e = kmv 2 36 = k (8)(3) 2 36 = k (8)(9) 36 = 72k 36 72k = 72 72 k = 0. If you move to a seat twice as d far.5(4)(6) 2 = 0. then d = 2d . D = 10 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. we k have I = 2 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 33. 3 The heat loss is 1800 Btu . Since index varies directly as weight and inversely as the square of one’s height.4. h Use the given values to find k. 3 384 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. kw I= 2 h k (180 ) 35.

02 P1 P2 . 000 = 16269841. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: A direct variation with a positive constant of variation will have both variables increase simultaneously. P. 000 = ( 420 ) 39. Inc. 50. Using one of I the given ordered pairs to find k .5) 0. 0. 400 326. 150 = k (4 ⋅ 5)(30) 150 = k (20)(900) 150 = 18000k 150 18000k = 18000 150 1 =k 120 1 1 (3 ⋅ 4)(60) 2 f = as 2 = 120 120 1 (12)(3600) = 120 = 360 Yes. Since the average number of phone calls varies jointly as the product of the populations and inversely as the square of the distance. Answers may vary. Answers will vary.5) = (0. makes sense 53. d b. 000 ) (3.02 ≈ k The equation becomes C = c.8 a. If v = x then P = k ( x) 2 = kx 2 If v = 2 x then P = k (2 x) 2 = 4kx 2 If the wind speed doubles the pressure is 4 times more destructive. 38. d2 0. 000) 326.5 k =6 6 The equation becomes R = .87 × 1012 ) 176. can be modeled as P = kv 2 . I 40. Use the given values to find k. 385 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 37.5 k 12(0. makes sense 52. kP P C = 12 2 d k ( 777. Pressure. varies directly as the square of wind velocity. does not make sense. Current varies inversely as resistance. the wind will exert a force of 360 pounds on the window. v. Explanations will vary. k 12 = 0. Sample explanation: For an inverse variation. . Section 2.02(650. c. 51. 000) (400) 2 = 17.875 There are approximately 17. Since the current varies inversely as k resistance we have R = . does not make sense. a. 000 = 326. Publishing as Prentice Hall.27k 0. 695. 2 49. 000)(220. we have kP P C = 12 2 . 2 k ( 2. the independent variable can not be zero. C= f = kas 2 b. – 48.875 daily phone calls.

Illumination. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. d k k If d = 15 then I = 2 = 15 225 k k If d = 30 then I = 2 = 30 900 900 =4 Note that 225 If the distance doubles the illumination is 4 times less intense. 60. 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. Since 50 ≈ 7 . varies inversely as the square of the k distance. 4i (3i − 2) = (4i )(3i ) + (4i )(−2) = 12i 2 − 8i = −12 − 8i 56. to triple the heat the resistant must be reduced by a multiple of 3. . (3 − 4i ) 2 = 32 + 2 ⋅ 3(−4i ) + (−4i )2 = 9 − 24i − 16 = −7 − 24i 57. Illumination. r. 6 6 5−i = ⋅ 5+i 5+i 5−i 30 − 6i = 25 + 1 30 − 6i = 26 15 − 3i = 13 15 3 = − i 13 13 386 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d. d If I = x then x = 1. I. varies directly as the square of the voltage. I. v. 55. can be modeled as I = 2 . can be modeled as I = 2 . 3. Chapter 2 Review Exercises If I = k ⇒d= d2 (8 – 3i) – (17 – 7i) = 8 – 3i – 17 + 7i = –9 + 4i 2. 59. the Hubble telescope is able to see about 7 times farther than a ground-based telescope. Answers may vary. x 1 1 k x= 2 ⇒d = x then 50 50 d (7 − i )(2 + 3i ) = 14 + 21i − 2i + 3 = 17 + 19i 50k k = 50 . (7 + 8i )(7 − 8i ) = 7 2 + 82 = 49 + 64 = 113 58. The Heat.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. kv 2 H= r If the voltage remains constant. H. d. and inversely as the resistance. 6. x x 4. = 7 ⋅ 2 + 7(3i ) + (−i )(2) + (−i )(3i ) k .

2 ± −12 2 2 ± 2i 3 x= 2 x= x =1 ±i 3 { domain: (−∞. 9. 387 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x − 2x + 4 = 0 2 =4 x + 1 = ±2 x = −1 ± 2 x = −3 or x = 1 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) + 4 = 3 2 x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(4) 2(1) x= 2 ± 4 − 16 2 The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . 4 + −8 4 + i 8 4 + 2i 2 = = = 2+i 2 2 2 2 11. + i ⎬ . . ∞) range: ( −∞. Chapter 2 Review Exercises 3 + 4i 3 + 4i 4 + 2i = ⋅ 4 − 2i 4 − 2i 4 + 2i 12 + 6i + 16i + 8i 2 = 16 − 4i 2 12 + 22i − 8 = 16 + 4 4 + 22i = 20 1 11 = + i 5 10 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (−2 + −100) = (−2 + i 100) −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) x= −32 − −18 = i 32 − i 18 = i 16 ⋅ 2 − i 9 ⋅ 2 2 2 2x − 6x + 5 = 0 2 = (−2 + 10i ) 2 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. 1 + i 3 . x= 6 ± 36 − 40 4 6 ± −4 x= 4 6 ± 2i x= 4 6 2i x= ± 4 4 3 1 = ± i 2 2 = 4i 2 − 3i 2 ⎧3 1 3 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − i. Inc. 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x + 1) + 4 2 = 4 − 40i + (10i ) 2 = 4 − 40i − 100 = −96 − 40i ( x + 1) 10. 8. ⎩2 2 2 2 ⎭ = (4i − 3i ) 2 =i 2 13.PreCalculus 4E 7. 4] } The solution set is 1 − i 3 .

∞) range: [ −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = 2 x2 − 4 x − 6 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 6 − 2 2 ( x − 1) − 8 2 ( x + 4)2 = 2 x+4=± 2 x = −4 ± 2 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 4)2 − 2 = 14 = –1 axis of symmetry: x = 1 domain: (−∞. domain: (−∞. ∞) range: [ −8. f (−3) = 2(−3) 2 + 12(−3) + 703 = 685 domain: (−∞. f (x) = (x + 4)2 − 2 vertex: (–4.Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. Since a < 0 the parabola opens down with the maximum value occurring at 14 b x=− =− =7. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 18. ∞ ) 15. ∞) range: ( −∞.025 x 2 + x + 6 f (0) = −0. b. f ( x ) = − x + 2x + 3 f (7) = −(7) 2 + 14(7) − 106 = −57 2 = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 b. 2a 2(−1) The maximum value is f (7). Inc. 2a 2(2) The minimum value is f (−3). ∞) range: [ 685.025(0) 2 + (0) + 6 = 6 The ball was tossed at a height of 6 feet. Since a > 0 the parabola opens up with the minimum value occurring at 12 b x=− =− = −3 . . f ( x) = −0. –2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 4)2 − 2 16. domain: (−∞.025(20) 2 + (20) + 6 = 16 The maximum height of 16 feet occurs when the ball is 20 yards downfield. 388 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −57 ] f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 12 x + 703 a. ∞ ) 17. 19. domain: (−∞. ∞ ) The maximum height will occur at the vertex.025 x 2 + x + 6 1 b x=− =− = 20 2a 2(−0. a. f ( x) = − x 2 + 14 x − 106 a. 4] b. ∞) range: ( −∞. The axis of symmetry is x = –4. f ( x) = −0.025) f (20) = −0.

The maximum area is A ( 250 ) = 250 (1000 − 2 ( 250 ) ) −b −10 5 = = = 1.25 or 1 tree 2a 2(−4) 4 The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. so graph (c) is the best match. y= A ( x ) = −2 x + 1000 x 2 Since a = −2 is negative. 2a 2 ( −2 ) −4 23. 2a 2 (1) 2 −(1) ± (1) 2 − 4(−0. Chapter 2 Review Exercises The ball is at a height of 0 when it hits the ground.025 x 2 + x + 6 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = 14 x + x 2 = x 2 + 14 x. The minimum product is −7 ⋅ 7 = −49. 3x + 4y = 1000 4y = 1000 – 3x 1000 − 3x y= 4 A=x =− x= 20. x= = 250 (1000 − 500 ) = 250 ( 500 ) = 125. d. The area is maximized at 125.3.3(reject) The ball will hit the ground 45. A ( x ) = x (1000 − 2 x ) 1000 − 3x 4 3 2 x + 250x 4 −b −250 = = 125 2a 3 2 − 4 1000 − 3(125) = 166. Inc.025)(6) x= 2(−0. 389 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000.025) x ≈ 45. The minimum is at b 14 14 x=− =− = − = −7. Maximize the area using A = lw. f ( x ) = − x3 + 12 x 2 − x The graph rises to the left and falls to the right and goes through the origin.7 4 125 feet by 166. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 24. Let x = one of the numbers Let 14 + x = the other number The other number is 14 + x = 14 + ( −7 ) = 7.025 x 2 + x + 6 21. The football’s path: 22. We need to minimize the function P ( x ) = x (14 + x ) 0 = −0.7 feet will maximize the area. The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. .000 square yards when the width is 250 yards and the length is 1000 − 2 ⋅ 250 = 500 yards. y = 36(150 – 4x) = 36(150 – 4·1) = 5256 The maximum yield will be 5256 pounds. The numbers which minimize the product are 7 and −7 . f ( x) = −0. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 1000 1000 b x=− =− =− = 250. − 5.3 yards downfield. y = (35 + x)(150 – 4x) 2 y = 5250 + 10x − 4x The maximum area is achieved when the width is 250 yards.PreCalculus 4E c.

we know that the elk population will die out over time. This function is not useful in modeling the number of thefts over an extended period of time. h ( x ) = x5 − 5 x 3 + 4 x The graph falls to the left and rises to the right and crosses the y-axis at zero. multiplicity 2. so graph (b) is the best match. f ( − x ) = −4 x + x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x) origin symmetry c. This means that the graph will fall to the right. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125 f ( x) = 4 x − x3 a. − 3. f ( x) = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) zeros: x = 0. Since n is odd and an < 0.87 and the degree is 3. This is impossible. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the graph touches the x-axis 390 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 30. 29. the graph touches the x-axis x = –5. 26. 2. multiplicity 1. so graph (a) is the best match. a. f (− x) = (− x )3 − (− x) 2 − 9(− x) + 9 = − x3 − x 2 + 9 x + 9 28. the number of thefts would be negative. multiplicity 1. b. f ( x) = x3 − x 2 − 9 x + 9 33. the graph crosses the x-axis x = –2. f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Applying the Leading Coefficient Test. f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 ( x + 5)3 x = 1. the f ( x) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 1) zeros: 3. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. 1 leading coefficient is –1 and the degree is 4. 32. the graph crosses the x-axis 34. 27. In the polynomial. multiplicity 5.Polynomial and Rational Functions 25. . the graph crosses the x-axis x = 5. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 21x 2 + 100. f ( x ) = x3 − 2 x − 1 f (1) = (1)3 − 2(1) − 1 = −2 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 1 = 3 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 31. Inc. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c. Since the graph falls to the right. b. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. The model predicts that eventually. we know that even-degree polynomials with negative leading coefficient will fall to the left and to the right. The leading coefficient is –0. –2 = x 2 ( x − 5) − 25( x − 5) = ( x 2 − 25)( x − 5) = ( x + 5)( x − 5) 2 x = –5. f ( x) = − x 4 + 1 f(x) falls to the left and to the right so graph (d) is the best match. Since n is odd and an > 0. g ( x ) = x6 − 6 x 4 + 9 x 2 The graph rises to the left and rises to the right. multiplicity 2.

f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 25(− x) 2 = − x 4 + 25 x 2 = f ( x) y-axis symmetry c. c. g ( x ) = − x 4 + 25 x 2 38. . Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x 3 + 3x 2 − 8 x − 12 a. b. 5 − x 2 ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = –5. b. 5 391 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. The graph falls to the left and to the right. − 2 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 37. The graph rises to the left and to the right. b. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. b. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 6(− x)3 − 9(− x) = − x 4 − 6 x3 − 9 x 2 f (− x ) ≠ f ( x ) f (− x) ≠ f ( x). a. = − x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 zeros: x = 0. −2. 0. f (− x) = −2 x3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x − 12 The graph falls to the left and to the right. Since h is odd and an > 0. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c 3 x 4 − 15 x3 = 0 − x 4 + 25 x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 3x3 ( x − 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = 0. f (− x) = 3(− x)4 − 15(− x) 2 = 3x 4 + 15 x 3 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).PreCalculus 4E 35. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 6 x3 − 9 x 2 a. f (− x) = − f ( x) no symmetry f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry f(x) = (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x + 3) 3 zeros: x = 2. f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 15 x 3 a. 3 36.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. 10 5x − 3 4 3 4 x2 + 2 x2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 + 3 x 40. 0) 2 x2 − 4x + 1 5 x − 3 10 x 3 − 26 x 2 + 17 x − 13 10 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 20 x 2 + 17 x − 20 x 2 + 12 x 5 x − 13 f (0) = 2(0) 2 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 5x − 3 The y-intercept is 0. Inc. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. x = –4. − 10 Quotient: 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 − 2 x2 + 3x − 1 2 x + 1 4 x + 6 x + 3x − 1 2 43. 0) − 2 x2 − 1 −2 x 2 − 1 0 44. f (0) = −(0)3 ( 0 + 4 ) ( 0 − 1) = 0 (3 x 4 + 11x 3 − 20 x3 + 7 x + 35) ÷ ( x + 5) 2 –5 The y-intercept is 0. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. 3 3 11 –20 7 35 –15 20 0 –35 –4 0 7 0 Quotient: 3 x − 4 x + 7 3 45. (3 x 4 − 2 x 2 − 10 x) ÷ ( x − 2) 2 41. x = 0. x = 1 The roots at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. x = 0. The root at –4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–4. 2 4x − 7x + 5 x + 1 4 x3 − 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 3 0 –2 –10 0 6 12 20 20 6 10 10 20 2 3 Quotient: 3x 3 + 6 x 2 + 10 x + 10 + 4 x3 + 4 x 2 − 7 x2 − 2 x −7 x 2 − 7 x 46. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = − x 3 ( x + 4 ) ( x − 1) 2 6 x2 + 3x Since an < 0 and n is even. 5x + 1 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 7 x 2 + 9 x − 3 –13 5x + 5 2 −4 Quotient: 4 x 2 − 7 x + 5 − 2 4 x +1 20 x−2 –7 9 –3 –26 429 –5694 –33 438 –5697 Quotient: f (–13) = –5697 392 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 1. . f ( x ) = 2 x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 42.

. ± 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± . ± 8. f(–x) has no sign variations. ± . –2}. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. ± 4 q 1 Zeros: x = 2. –2 are rational zeros. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. so f(x) = 0 has no negative solutions. so f(x) = 0 has 3 or 1 positive real roots. −3 2 48. ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 4 x − 1) = 0 −4 ± 16 + 4 −4 ± 2 5 x= = = −2 ± 5 2 2 { } The solution set is 4. d. ± 4. ± . . 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 4 x + 4) = 0 p: ±1 q: ±1. . 1 x = 1 or x = –2 The solution set is{1. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 2 2 2 53. 1 negative real zero. so no real roots exist. ± . ± 5 q a. 1 –13 6 4 10 –6 5 –3 0 f ( x ) = f ( − x ) = 2 x4 + 6 x2 + 8 No sign variations exist for either f(x) or f(–x). ± 4 –1 6 1 –4 1 –6 5 –1 6 –5 1 0 –1 is a zero. f ( − x ) = −2 x 5 + 3 x3 − 5 x 2 − 3x − 1 f(–x) has 2 sign variations. ±2. ± 2. ± q 2 3 6 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 2 sign variations. ± 2. f(x) has 2 sign variations. Inc. 1 1 −1. f ( − x ) = −6 x 3 + x 2 + 4 x + 1 f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 2 x3 − 8 x + 5 1 sign variation. so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 positive solutions. are rational zeros. ± 2. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 2 x3 + x + 5 c. 1 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 q : ± 1. ± 3 51. 49. 1 sign variation ⇒ 1 positive real zero f (− x) = − x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 2 sign variations ⇒ 2 or no negative real zeros ( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 = 0 f ( x) = x − 6 x + 14 x − 14 x + 5 p : ± 1. 1. b. −2 + 5. so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 negative solutions. ± q 3 3 3 3 3 0 –4 1 4 –4 1 4 4 1 is a zero.PreCalculus 4E 47. ±3. ± 8 b. f ( x) = ( x − 2)(2 x + 5 x − 3) 2 q : ±1 = ( x − 2)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) p : ± 1. −2 − 5 . q : ±1 50. ±6 p 1 1 1 : ± 1. 3 2 f ( x) = 2 x 5 – 3 x3 – 5 x 2 + 3x – 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 12 x − 8 p : ± 1. 52. ± 5 4 p : ± 1. 3 2 55. ± . x 3 − 17 x + 4 = 0 4 1 1 0 –17 4 4 16 –4 4 –1 0 c. ± 2. 393 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. p : ± 1. 54. p 8 4 2 1 : ± 1.

3 or 1 positive real solutions. ±2. 8 2 1 is a rational zero. ± . 57.± . no negative real solutions. . p: ±1 q: ±1. 394 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎬ .± .± . 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ (2 x + 10 x − 2) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + 5 x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Solving x 2 + 5 x − 1 = 0 using the quadratic 0 sign variations. f ( x ) = 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 2 sign variations. ( x + 1)(3x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 or x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. 3 3 3 5 5 ± .Polynomial and Rational Functions 6 x3 + x 2 – 4 x + 1 = 0 d. ± 6 q 8 x 3 – 36 x 2 + 46 x – 15 = 0 a. 2 or 0 negative real zeros. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. ± 5. ±8 1 1 1 p : ± 1. 1 sign variation. 1 negative real zero. ⎬ . p: ±1. ± 15. b. ( x + 1)(6 x 2 – 5 x + 1) = 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 a. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. ± q 2 formula gives x = 1 is a zero. ± . 2 4 8 2 4 5 15 15 15 ± . ±2 1 p : ± 1. f ( − x ) = −8 x3 − 36 x 2 − 46 x − 15 c. f ( − x ) = x 4 + x3 − 7 x 2 − x + 6 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (2 x – 5)(2 x – 3) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1 5 3 x = or x = or x = 2 2 2 ⎧1 3 5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 8 9 –7 1 1 5 –1 10 –2 0 –36 46 –15 4 –16 15 –32 30 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 d. 2 2 2 −5 ± 29 2 ⎪⎧ 1 −5 + 29 −5 − 29 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ± 2. ± .± . ± 3. d. ±3.± 8 2 4 8 b. ⎩2 2 2⎭ 2 sign variations. ±15 q: ±1. ± 3. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.± .± . 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 58. f ( x ) = x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 2 sign variations. 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x – ⎟ (8 x – 32 x + 30) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (4 x – 16 x + 15) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ p= b. ±5. . x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 p : ± 1. . . q 2 4 8 c. ±4. 3 2⎭ ⎩ x = –1 or x = 56. f ( − x ) = −2 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 7 x + 1 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 a. 2 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 1 2 1 2 2 3 sign variations. Inc. are rational zeros. 2 1 3 5 . ⎬.

1 positive real zero. ± 2. p: ±1. are rational zeros. ± 2. 1 2 2 2 4 − 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 d. ⎩ 2 2 ⎭ 1 –1 –6 0 − 2. ±4 q: ±1. 2 ⎬ . 2 are rational zeros. −1. ± 4. 3 are rational zeros. 1 negative real zero. c. 1. 1. 60. 1 2 4 0 7 0 –2 2 1 4 2 2 8 4 0 –1 2 1 –9 –4 4 4 10 2 –4 2 5 1 –2 0 2 5 1 –2 –2 –3 2 3 –2 0 4 4 2 8 4 –2 0 –4 0 8 0 1 . ± q 2 b.PreCalculus 4E c. 2 or 0 negative real zeros. 2 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 − 2. ±2 q: ±1. ± . . p: ±1. . f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 a. ± q 2 4 b. 2 ⎭ ⎩ 1 1 − . f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 d. − 2i ⎬ . −1. 1 sign variation. . d. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. { − 2. 3} . Inc. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 a. f ( x ) = 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2i. −1. x = −2 or x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ − 2. ±2. ±4 p 1 1 : ± 1. 1 –1 Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 –1 –7 1 6 1 0 –7 –6 1 0 –7 –6 0 1 0 –7 –6 –1 1 6 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟⎜ x + ⎟ (4 x + 8) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎜ x − ⎟ ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 Solving x + 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula gives x = ±2i ⎧ 1 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . ±2. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + 7 x 2 − 2 1 sign variation. 2 2 395 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. −1. ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 6) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x − 3)( x + 2) = 0 The solution set is 59.

±4. ±2. ± 16 q –1 1 f ( x ) = 1( x − 2 ) ( x − 4 x + 13) 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 13 x − 2 x 2 + 8 x − 26 1 62. 4 real zeros. ±i. ± 2. 2 nonreal complex zeros 67. 2 nonreal complex zeros 68. 4 nonreal complex zeros 3 –2 –4 2 –4 2 –1 2 –1 0 69. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 real zero. ±2 q: ±1. ±16 q: ±1 p : ± 1. f ( x) = an ( x – 2)( x – 2 + 3i )( x – 2 – 3i ) 64. 3 real zeros. ±8. g ( x) = 1 −1 ( x + 2) 2 2 x + 3x + 3x – 2 = 0 4 3 ( x + 2)(2 x3 – x 2 + 2 x –1) = 0 ( x + 2)[ x 2 (2 x –1) + (2 x –1)] = 0 ( x + 2)(2 x –1)( x 2 + 1) = 0 1 x = –2. ± 4. ± 2. . 24 2 f ( x ) = an ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 2 1 x – 6 x + x + 24 x + 16 = 0 f ( x ) = x − 6 x + 21x − 26 3 –6 66. one with multiplicity two. 2 f ( x) = ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 2 )( 2 x − 1) 396 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = an ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) f (1) = an (1 − 2 ) ⎡⎣12 − 4 (1) + 13⎤⎦ −10 = −10an an = 1 g ( x) = x 4 − 6 x 3 + x 2 + 24 x + 16 p: ±1. 2 real zeros. . ± q 2 2 7 ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 = 0 x = –1 or x = 4 g ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 + x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 0 –1 ( x + 1) ( x – 8 x + 16) = 0 f ( x ) = 2 ( x + 1)( x + 6 x + 9 ) 3 1 2 2 2 3 –1 an = 2 –2 16 ( x + 1)( x3 – 7 x 2 + 8 x + 16) = 0 2 2 f ( −1) = an ⎡( −1) + 1⎤ ⎡( −1) + 6 ( −1) + 9 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ 16 = 8an 63. ±2 1 p : ± 1. 4 2 f ( x ) = an ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 3) 1 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 12 x3 + 20 x 2 + 12 x + 18 –8 –16 –7 8 16 0 2 –7 8 16 –1 8 –16 –8 16 0 2 65. ± 8.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. one with multiplicity two f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 3x3 + 3x − 2 p: ±1. x = or x = ±i 2 1 The zeros are –2. Inc.

so y = 0 2x = – f ( x) x –9 2 =0 397 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. h( x ) = Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 +3 x −1 72. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = = 2 1 2 Symmetry: f (– x) = – origin symmetry x-intercept: 2x 0= 2 x −9 2x = 0 x=0 y-intercept: y = 2 ( 0) 02 − 9 Vertical asymptote: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3 and x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: n < m.PreCalculus 4E 70. . g ( x) = 2x − 4 x+3 –2 x – 4 x+3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). f ( x) = 2x x −9 Vertical asymptote: x+3=0 x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. Inc. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 2x – 4 = 0 x=2 2 (0) − 4 4 y-intercept: y = =− 0 + 3 3 ( ) Symmetry: g (– x) = 71.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Slant asymptote: 1 y = x –1+ x +1 y=x–1 x2 + 4 x + 3 ( x + 2) x2 x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. so y = = 1 1 74. h(–x) ≠ –h(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x 2 − 3x − 4 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 1) x = 4 x = –1 02 − 3 ( 0 ) − 4 2 y-intercept: y = = 02 − 0 − 6 3 Vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 2) = 0 x = 3. so y = = 1 1 x 2 − 3x − 4 x2 − x − 6 x 2 + 3x – 4 x2 + x – 6 h(–x) ≠ h(x). no horizontal asymptote. Inc. h ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. . f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x2 = 0 x=0 02 y-intercept: y = =0 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 n > m. –2 Symmetry: h(– x) = 75. r ( x) = x2 – x +1 f(–x) ≠ f(x). –1 02 + 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = 2 4 (0 + 2) Vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 Symmetry: r (– x) = 398 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 73. r(–x) ≠ –r(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 4 x + 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x + 1) = 0 x = –3. y= 2 x2 – 4 x + 3 (– x + 2) 2 r(–x) ≠ r(x).

so no horizontal asymptote. Slant asymptote: 12 y = x+5+ x −3 y = x+5 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 2x − 3 4 x 2 + 16 x + 16 Symmetry: g (– x) = –2 x – 3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 = 0 g ( x) = 4 ( x − 2) = 0 2 x=2 y-intercept: 4 ( 0 ) − 16 ( 0 ) + 16 2 y= 77. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 0 2 + 2 ( 0 ) − 3 −3 y-intercept: y = = =1 0−3 −3 Vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. f ( x) = 2 = – f ( x) x2 + 1 Origin symmetry x-intercept: −2 x 3 = 0 x=0 −2 ( 0 ) 3 y-intercept: y = = 0 =0 1 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 No vertical asymptote. Horizontal asymptote: n > m. y= Chapter 2 Review Exercises x2 + 2x − 3 x−3 f ( x) = –2 x + 2x x +1 2 y = –2x x2 – 2 x – 3 –x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). so no horizontal asymptote. Symmetry: f (– x) = 78. Slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = 2 x – 5 + 2x – 3 y = 2x – 5 −2 x 3 x2 + 1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 ( 0) − 3 =− 399 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 76. Slant asymptote: 2 16 3 Vertical asymptote: 2x – 3 = 0 3 x= 2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. . so no horizontal asymptote. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = –3. Inc.

000 = 1025 50 When 50 calculators are manufactured. 000) = = 25.52 3. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 1 ( −∞. 000 C (1000) = = 75 1000 When 1.6 x ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 The boundary points are −3 . the percentage of men in the U. 25(1000) + 50. y= 400 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ( 2 x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 The boundary points are −3 and f ( x) = 82. d.58 x + 114. it costs \$25. .900 100 x 2 + 729 n < m so y = 0 As the number of years of education increases the percentage rate of unemployment approaches zero.000 calculators are manufactured. b. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 = 0 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 4 ) = 0 The boundary points are −4 and − 12 .000 calculators are manufactured. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 ≥ 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. 2 1⎞ ⎛ Testing each interval gives a solution set of ⎜ −3. 80.06 Over time. 000 C (100) = = 525 100 When 100 calculators are manufactured. population will approach 52%. C (50) = 1000 x 2000 P = 2x + x P = 2x + 2 85.48 x + 120.5 100. 0.4 + 1.50 to manufacture each. 25 = 25 is the horizontal 1 asymptote. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 < 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. c. 87.S.58 ≈ 0.4 = P( x) 3. T (x) = 25 x + 50. C(x) = 50. Minimum costs will approach \$25. Publishing as Prentice Hall.58 x + 114.06 x + 235 c. 4 2 + x+3 x M ( x) 1.06 x + 235 1. b. 25(100. so y = = 3000 0. ∞ ⎞⎟ ⎣ 2 ⎠ P ( x) = R( x) = 1 . 25(100) + 50. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 150 x + 120 0. x3 + 2 x 2 = 3x x 3 + 2 x 2 − 3x = 0 x ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 P( x) = M ( x) + F ( x) = 1. Inc. 1000 = lw 1000 =l w 25(50) + 50. 0 ) ∪ (1. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −3. 000) + 50.05 x + 1 150 n = m. it costs \$525 to manufacture each. and 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79.000 x 84. 000 C (100. 81. ∞ ) = 3. n = m.000 When 100. 72. it costs \$75 to manufacture each. −4] ∪ ⎡⎢− .000 + 25x C ( x) = 83. it costs \$1025 to manufacture each. a. x3 + 2 x 2 > 3x Solve the related equation.05 The number of fish available in the pond approaches 3000. so y = 86.

PreCalculus 4E 88. f ( x) = 0. Inc.125) x = −33.4 cubic centimeters of water. ∞ ) . w = 0. 40 Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. ⎣4 ⎠ a.125 x 2 − 0. d = 16(10) 2 = 1. since this would make the denominator zero. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 23 ( −∞. −2 ) ∪ ( 6.125 x 2 + 2. w = ks 28 = k ⋅ 250 0.8 x + 99 > 267 0. .3x + 27 93. speeds exceeding 40 miles per hour on dry pavement will require over 267 feet of stopping distance.4 1200 cubic centimeters of melting snow will produce 134. b. −33.125)(−168) 2(0.125 x 2 − 0. The boundary points are –1. d = kt2 144 = k (3) 2 k = 16 d = 16t 2 g (35) = 0.125(35) 2 + 2. s = −16t 2 + v0 t + s0 32 < −16t 2 + 48t + 0 0 < −16t 2 + 48t − 32 x+3 ≤5 x−4 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. Testing each interval gives a solution set of [ −1.8) ± (−0. 23 The boundary points are 4 and . x= ( x + 1)( x − 2) ≥0 x −1 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. 0. 91.125 x 2 − 0.6 ) ∪ ( 40.3(35) + 27 ≈ 261 The stopping distance on wet pavement for a motorcycle traveling 35 miles per hour is about 261 feet. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. 92. x+3 −5 ≤ 0 x−4 x + 3 5 ( x − 4) − ≤0 x−4 x−4 −4 x + 23 ≤0 x−4 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. g ( x) = 0. 1) ∪ [ 2. ∞ ⎞⎟ . w = 0.8 x + 99 0 < −16 ( t 2 − 3t + 2 ) 0 < –16(t – 2)(t – 1) F T F 1 2 The projectile’s height exceeds 32 feet during the time period from 1 to 2 seconds. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 x − 168 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. This overestimates the distance shown in the graph by 1 foot. ∞ ) . 1 and 2. We exclude 1 from the solution set. We exclude 4 4 from the solution set. 94. Chapter 2 Review Exercises x−6 >0 x+2 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. 600 ft 401 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6. 0.125 x 2 − 0.112(1200) = 134. 90. ∞ ) .112=k Thus.112s. 4 ) ∪ ⎢⎡ . since this would make the denominator zero. Thus.8) 2 − 4(0. 89.8 x − 168 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. The boundary points are –2 and 6.

L= Chapter 2 Test 1. w 1056 = 440 2. kc w k ⋅ 30 10 = 6 10 = 5h t= k to find k. 2 −49 + 3 −64 = 2(7i ) + 3(8i ) = 14i + 24i = 38i h=2 2c w 2(40) = 16 hours t= 5 t= 98. R Use L = This is an approximate model.4 The pitch is 440 vibrations per second. (6 − 7i )(2 + 5i ) = 12 + 30i − 14i − 35i 2 = 12 + 16i + 35 = 47 + 16i 2. 1890 R 1890 L= = 70 27 The average life span of an elephant is 70 years. 1056 . Inc. k d2 k 28 = 2 8 k = 1792 1792 l= 2 d 1792 l = 2 = 112 decibels 4 l= b. 97. 5 5 2+i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 5(2 + i ) = 4 +1 5(2 + i ) = 5 = 2+i 3. R k L= R k 30 = 63 k 63 ⋅ 30 = 63 ⋅ 63 1890 = k 1890 Thus. a. L = . V = khB 175 = k ⋅15 ⋅ 35 1 3 1 V = hB 3 1 V = ⋅ 20 ⋅120 = 800 ft 3 3 k= 402 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. p= 96. . p = 99.6 1056 = k p= Thus.Polynomial and Rational Functions 95. c. k w k 660 = 1.

2) domain: ( −∞. range: [ 4. f ( x) = x 2 − 2 x − 3 y-intercept: f (0) = 02 − 2(0) − 3 = −3 f ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. Inc. f ( x ) = − x 2 + 46 x − 360 b −46 = = 23 2a −2 23 computers will maximize profit. −b 2 = =1 2a 2 f (1) = 12 − 2(1) − 3 = −4 vertex: (1. ∞ ) . range: [ −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4) axis of symmetry: x = –1 x-intercepts: ( x + 1) 2 + 4 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 −2 ± 4 − 20 = −1 ± 2i 2 no x-intercepts y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 1)2 + 4 = 5 x= domain: ( −∞. 403 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . . 2] domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 7. ∞ ) 8. –4) axis of symmetry x = 1 x-intercepts: x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 x = 3 or x = –1 x2 − 4 x + 8 = 0 x= x= −b ± b − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(1)(8) 2(1) 2 4 ± −16 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i x= 5. −12 x= =3 2(−2) f (3) = −2(3) 2 + 12(3) − 16 = −18 + 36 − 16 =2 Maximum point: (3.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 2 Test x2 = 4 x − 8 4. x=− f ( 23) = − ( 23) + 46 ( 23) − 360 = 169 2 Maximum daily profit = \$16. ∞ ) . the graph of f(x) opens down and f(x) has a maximum point. f ( x) = −2 x 2 + 12 x − 16 Since the coefficient of x2 is negative. range: ( −∞.900. 6.

The maximum product is 49. ± 3. ± q 2 2 14. 2 3 404 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 14 − x = the other number. ±5. ± 6 q f ( 7 ) = −7 2 + 14 ( 7 ) = 49 The vertex is (7. f ( x ) = 3x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 + x − 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. This occurs when the two number are 7 and 14 − 7 = 7 . f ( x ) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x − 5 x − 4 x + 20 = 0 3 2 x 2 ( x − 5) − 4( x − 5) = 0 ( x − 5)( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 5. There are 3 or 1 positive real solutions and no negative real solutions. b. ± . the graph of f should fall to the left and rise to the right. ± . ± . 2a 2 ( −1) −2 13. 6 6 –19 16 –4 12 –14 4 –7 2 0 x= −(6) ± (6) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) −6 ± 44 2 = −3 ± 11 The zeros are −3 . and −3 − 11 . ±15. ± 5. ±2 1 3 p : ± 1. a. ± 3. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Inc. 11. ± 15 q : ± 1. –3 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. –2}. 16. ±3. Possible rational zeros are: p : ± 1. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. Let x = one of the numbers. f ( x ) = x5 − x Since the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. f ( − x ) = −3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 − x − 1 f(–x) has no sign variations. ± . a. The product is f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) = − x 2 + 14 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 14 14 x=− =− =− = 7. 12. ±3. ± 6. the possible rational zeros are the factors of 6 p p = : ± 1. ±6 q: ±1. 2 x= 1 2 and . 2. ± 2 1 3 5 15 p : ±1. x 3 + 9 x 2 + 16 x − 6 = 0 Since the leading coefficient is 1. ± 2. ± 2. 49). ±2. 10. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 a. Solve the quotient x 2 + 6 x − 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula to find the remaining roots. ± q 2 2 2 2 6x − 7x + 2 = 0 (3x – 2)(2x – 1) = 0 2 1 x = or x = 3 2 2 The other two roots are −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = The integral root is 2. –2 The solution set is {5. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 1 1 9 16 –6 –3 –18 6 6 –2 0 Thus x = 3 is a root. The x-intercepts should be –1 and 1. 2. −3 + 11 . ± 3. 15.Polynomial and Rational Functions 9.

then a0 (34 − 1) = 160 a0 (80) = 160 160 80 a0 = 2 a0 = f ( x) = 2( x 4 − 1) = 2 x 4 − 2 405 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and the polynomial 2 factors as follows: 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 = 0 The zeros (x-intercepts) are –1 and 2 . Inc. 2 f ( x) = 1 ( x + 3) 2 domain: {x | x ≠ –3} or ( −∞. 3 The zeros are −1 . Use synthetic division to verify this root. −3 x 2 − x + 2 = 0 0 −15 3 2 15 –4 0 −(3x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 3 Thus. −3) ∪ ( −3. f(x) has zeros at –2 and 1. and ± 5 . Chapter 2 Test Verify that −1 and 3 are zeros as it appears in 2 19. The zero at –2 has multiplicity of 2. ∞ ) 17. 3 The y-intercept is f (0) = 2 ( x + 1) ( 2 x3 − 3x 2 − 10 x + 15) = 0 ( x + 1) ⎛⎜ x − 3⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2 x − 10 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Find the remaining zeros by solving: 2 x 2 − 10 = 0 2 x 2 = 10 x2 = 5 x=± 5 20. f ( x) = a0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + i )( x − i ) f ( x) = a0 ( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) = a0 ( x 4 − 1) Since f (3) = 160 . −1 and are zeros.PreCalculus 4E b. x 3 + 3x 2 – 4 = ( x – 1)( x + 2) 2 18. . the graph: −1 2 −1 −13 5 15 –1 −2 3 10 −15 2 −3 −10 15 0 3 2 f ( x ) = −3 x 3 − 4 x 2 + x + 2 The graph shows a root at x = −1 . . –3 –3 2 −3 −10 0 −10 1 2 3 1 4 –1 2 0 Factor the quotient to find the remaining zeros. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1 +2 x −1 domain: {x | x ≠ 1} or ( −∞. f ( x) = 406 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 2 – x–2 y = x +2 Symmetry: f (– x) = 22. x x 2 − 16 domain: {x | x ≠ 4. –4 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. . f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) f ( x) = 23. x2 − 9 x−2 domain: {x | x ≠ 2} f ( x) = x2 – 9 –x – 2 f(–x) ≠ f(x). x ≠ –4} –x = – f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 16 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: x = 0 0 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 − 16 Vertical asymptotes: x 2 − 16 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 4) = 0 x = 4.1) ∪ (1. Inc. so no horizontal asymptote exists.Polynomial and Rational Functions 21. –3 02 − 9 9 y-intercept: y = = 0−2 2 Vertical asymptote: x–2=0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote.

1 2 C ( x) = 26. so y = = 4 is the horizontal asymptote. ( x + 3)( x − 4) < 0 Boundary values: –3 and 4 Solution set: ( −3. x ≠ 1} –x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 2x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). 4 ) 4 x2 x2 + 3 domain: all real numbers 4 x2 = f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x +3 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 f ( x) = y-intercept: y = 4 ( 0) 28. 27.3) ∪ [10. 000 + 10x x x 2 < x + 12 x − x − 12 < 0 2 25. a. =0 2x + 1 ≤3 x−3 2x + 1 −3 ≤ 0 x−3 10 − x ≤0 x −3 Boundary values: 3 and 10 Solution set: ( −∞. Vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x –3. Chapter 2 Test x +1 x + 2x − 3 x 2 + 2 x − 3 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) domain: {x | x ≠ –3. the horizontal 10 = 10 . asymptote is x = 1 This represents the fact that as the number of satellite radio players produced increases. Inc. Since the degree of the numerator equals the degree of the denominator. b. 2 02 + 3 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 3 = 0 x 2 = −3 No vertical asymptote. . f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x+1=0 x = –1 0 +1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 =− 0 + 2 (0) − 3 3 f ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. 1 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. 300. the production cost approaches \$10 per radio. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 24. ∞ ) 407 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

7. 1) or (4. ± 3. (f 5. ±6 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 2x − 5 > 3 2x − 5 > 3 2x > 8 x>4 2 x − 5 < −3 2x < 2 x <1 (−∞. Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–2) 1. 3 2 = x x2 9 x 2 + 3x = 2 9 x2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) = 0 3x − 1 = 0 3x + 2 = 0 1 2 or x = − x= 3 3 2⎫ ⎧1 The solution set is ⎨ . The zero at 1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. Inc. The zero at –1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. ±2. ∞ ⎟ . ∞) 3x 2 > 2 x + 5 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 > 0 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 = 0 (3 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = –1 3 3x 2 − 5 x + 1 = 0 5 ± 25 − 12 5 ± 13 = 6 6 ⎪⎧ 5 + 13 5 − 13 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎜ .Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. 3). the solution is (– ∞. k d2 k 20 = 2 15 4500 = k i= 9. 3. –1) or ⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8. . 4. –1. ± 6 q –3 6. –1). x3 + 2 x 2 − 5x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. ⎟ . − ⎬ . There is a relative maximum at the point (0. –1}. 2}. 3⎭ ⎩3 4500 4500 = = 45 foot-candles d2 102 i= 9+ 12. 2) range: [ 0. 3⎠ ⎝3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛5 ⎞ Testing points. 2. domain: (−2. ∞ ) 10. ±3. 1 f )(−1) = f ( f (−1) ) = f (0) = 3 f ( x) → ∞ as x → −2+ or as 1 2 –5 –6 –3 3 6 –1 –2 0 x + 2 x – 5x – 6 = 0 3 x → 2− 2 ( x + 3)( x 2 – x – 2) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 x = –3 or x = –1 or x = 2 The solution set is {–3. ∞ ⎟ . ± 2. ⎬. ⎝3 ⎠ 408 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. |2x – 1| = 3 2x −1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 2 x − 1 = −3 2 x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {2. ⎜ –1. 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 x= 5⎞ ⎛5 ⎛ ⎞ Test intervals are (–∞. 11.

an = 0 so the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . –9) x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 8 = 0 ( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 x = –4 or x = 2 x −1 x−2 vertical asymptote: x = 2 horizontal asymptote: y = 1 x-intercept: x = 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 f ( x) = 17. y-intercept: f(0) = –8 409 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 16. 4 x-intercepts: f ( 0 ) = 03 − 4(0) 2 − 0 + 4 = 4 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive.PreCalculus 4E 13. Inc. x 2 ( x − 4) − 1( x − 4) = 0 f ( x) = x 2 ( x − 3) zeros: x = 0 (multiplicity 2) and x = 3 y-intercept: y = 0 f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 n = 3. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. Cumulative Review Exercises f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 x-intercepts: x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 = 0 15. 1. 14. ( x − 4)( x 2 − 1) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = –1. f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x − 8 −b −2 = = −1 x= 2a 2 f (−1) = (−1) 2 + 2(−1) − 8 = 1 − 2 − 8 = −9 vertex: (–1.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 18. . f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ⎡ 2( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 1⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ 2 x 2 − x − 1⎤⎦ =⎣ h 2 2 2 x + 4hx − x + 2h − h − 1 − 2 x 2 + x + 1 = h 2 4hx + 2h − h = h = 4 x + 2h − 1 410 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 19. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) ( f g )( x) = 2(4 x − 1) 2 − (4 x − 1) − 1 = 32 x 2 − 20 x + 2 20.

56)3 ≈ 160. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g. x −2 −1 0 1 2 3.2(1. x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 f ( x ) = 3x f (−3) = 3−3 = 1 27 1 9 1 3 f (−2) = 3−2 = f (−1) = 3−1 = f (0) = 30 = 1 f (1) = 31 = 3 f (2) = 32 = 9 f (3) = 33 = 27 4. the average amount spent after three hours of shopping at the mall is \$160. Because c < 0. we Plot these points. graph g ( x) = 3x −1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 3x one unit to the right. Inc. Note that the function g ( x) = 3x −1 has the general form g ( x) = b x + c where c = −1 .2(1. 2. connecting them with a continuous curve. x f ( x ) = ( 13 ) −2 ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 91 −1 0 1 2 f ( x ) = 3x 3−2 = 19 3−1 = 13 30 = 1 31 = 3 32 = 9 g ( x) = 3x −1 3−2 −1 = 3−3 = 271 3−1−1 = 3−2 = 19 30 −1 = 3−1 = 13 31−1 = 30 = 1 32 −1 = 31 = 3 x −2 411 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 42.1 Check Point Exercises 1. connecting them with a continuous curve. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates.20876 ≈ 160 According to the function. This overestimates the actual amount shown by \$11.Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Section 3. f (3) = 42. .56) x Plot these points.

1 1.4 ≈ 29.5 = 0.47 A = Pe rt A = 10. 6 7. . −1. x g ( x) = 2 + 1 2−2 + 1 = 14 + 1 = 54 2−1 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 23 20 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2 21 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3 22 + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5 x 5. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ = \$14.2 −0. 23⋅4 ≈ 10. f ( x) = 1066e0. e 3. nt ⎛ 0. Because c > 0. e –0. 000e0.042(34) ≈ 4446 In 2012 the gray wolf population of the Western Great Lakes is projected to be about 4446.556 2. 918. Inc. e 11. r⎞ ⎛ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ a. 4(5) x g ( x) = 5x −2 5−2 = 251 −1 5−1 = 15 0 50 = 1 1 51 = 5 2 52 = 25 Exercise Set 3.4 ≈ 13.95 10.08(5) = \$14.116 ≈ 0.974 8. 5 3 ≈ 16.75 x −2 −1 0 1 2 ≈ 0. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g.3 ≈ 9.125 6. 4 −1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall.08 ⎞ A = 10. Note that the function g ( x) = 2 x + 1 has the general form g ( x ) = b x + c where c = 1. 12. 7.472 f ( x ) = 4x 4−2 = 161 4−1 = 14 40 = 1 41 = 4 42 = 16 2012 is 34 years after 1978.964 9. x f ( x) − 2 −2 2−2 = 14 −1 2−1 = 12 0 20 = 1 1 21 = 2 2 22 = 4 6. 32. 3 5 ≈ 11.859.242 412 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. e 2.665 4.25 b.387 ≈ 0. we graph g ( x) = 2 x + 1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 2 x up one unit.042 x f (34) = 1066e0.967 3.

. Inc.1 g ( x) = ( 32 ) x ( 32 ) = 49 −1 ( 32 ) = 23 0 ( 32 ) = 1 1 ( 32 ) = 32 2 ( 32 ) = 94 −2 g ( x) = ( 43 ) x 15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 34 ) = 169 −1 ( 43 ) = 43 0 ( 43 ) = 1 1 ( 43 ) = 43 2 ( 43 ) = 169 −2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 h ( x ) = ( 12 ) x ( 12 ) = 4 −1 ( 12 ) = 2 0 ( 12 ) = 1 1 ( 12 ) = 12 2 ( 12 ) = 14 −2 h ( x ) = ( 13 ) x ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 19 −2 413 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −2 −1 0 1 2 14. −2 −1 0 1 2 x 16. x −2 −1 0 1 2 Section 3.PreCalculus 4E x 13.

= 1. This is the graph of f(x) = 3x.6) −1 = 1. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the x- axis.5625 −1 (0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the y- axis. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x − 1 can be obtained by 19.6)−2 = 2.64 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by shifting x the graph of f ( x) = 2 x two units to the left. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit to the right. so the function is G ( x) = 3− x. .6 2 (0.8) −2 (0. range: ( −1. asymptote: y = −1 23. 22. ∞ ) 18. range: ( 0.6 0 (0. 20.6 ) 25. x f ( x) = (0. f ( x ) = ( 0. so the function is H ( x) = −3− x.8) −2 26.6)1 = 0. so the function is g ( x) = 3x −1.8)1 = 0. so the function is F ( x) = −3x. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 −1 (0. shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x downward one unit. so the function is h( x) = 3x − 1. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 27. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit domain: ( −∞. Inc.8 2 (0. ∞ ) .8)0 = 1 1 (0.25 0 (0. ∞ ) .6)2 = 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions x 17.8) 2 = 0.8) −1 = 1.36 the graph of f ( x) = 2 x one unit to the left. ∞ ) . ∞ ) downward.6)0 = 1 1 (0. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x +! can be obtained by shifting x −2 (0. This is the graph of f ( x) = 3x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis. 414 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 24. 21. range: ( 0.

range: ( 2. The graph of h( x) = 2 x + 2 − 1 can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 left and one unit downward. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . x 33. The graph of g ( x) = 2− x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 one unit to the left and one unit downward. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: ( 0. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x ) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by 31. range: ( −1. ∞ ) 415 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. x reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the y-axis. ∞ ) . ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x ) = −2 x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x two units upward.1 28. The graph of h ( x ) = 2 x +1 − 1 can be obtained by 32.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the x-axis. 0 ) 29. Inc. The graph of g ( x) = 2 ⋅ 2 x can be obtained by vertically stretching the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of two. ∞ ) 30. asymptote: y = 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . . range: ( 0. range: ( −1. asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. range: ( −∞. two units to the asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.

The graph of g ( x) = e x −1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right. ∞ ) . ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit down. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of h( x) = e x −1 + 2 can be obtained by asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. 35. range: ( 0. ∞ ) 39. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 38. The graph of g ( x ) = moving f ( x) = e x 2 units up. . ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right and 2 units up. ∞ ) . asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = e x +1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 37. 36. The graph of g ( x) = e x − 1 can be obtained by domain: ( −∞. asymptote: y = −1 domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 34. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) 416 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: ( −1. range: ( 2. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x ) = e x + 2 can be obtained by 1 x ⋅ 2 can be obtained by 2 vertically shrinking the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of one-half. range: ( 0. Inc. range: ( 0. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . range: ( 2.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. range: ( −1. ∞ ) 42. The graph of h( x) = e − x can be obtained by reflecting 44. ∞ ) . range: ( 0. The graph of g ( x) = 2e x can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left and 1 unit down. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . range: (1. 0 ) asymptote: y = 1 domain: ( −∞. The graph of h( x) = e 2 x + 1 can be obtained by stretching f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 2 and then moving the graph up 1 unit. 45. 1 x e can be obtained by 2 shrinking f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 1 . ∞ ) . ∞ ) 41. range: ( −∞. The graph of h( x) = e x+1 − 1 can be obtained by 43. The graph of g ( x) = f ( x) = e x about the y-axis. stretching f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 2. ∞ ) . ∞ ) domain: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. Inc.1 40. ∞ ) . range: ( 0. The graph of h( x) = −e x can be obtained by reflecting f ( x) = e x about the x-axis. range: ( 0. ∞ ) . . asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 417 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . x 46. 48. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 51. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the x-axis. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 1 418 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 1 49. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 50. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by horizontally stretching f(x) by a factor of 3. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by vertically shrinking f(x) by a factor of 13 . The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the y-axis. . Inc. ∞ ) 47. range: ( 2.. The graph of h( x) = e 2 + 2 can be obtained by shrinking f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 1 2 and then moving the graph up 2 units. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and one space up.

055 ⎞ A = 10. a. 737. ⎛ 0. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and two spaces up.055(5) ≈ \$13.065 ⎞ b.000 for 3 years at 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return.055 ⎞ A = 10.19 The point of intersection is ( 0.055 ⎞ A = 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. d. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ \$13. A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2(10) 410 ⋅ ≈ \$9479.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.84 (8.79 12(10) c. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 2 53.065(10) ≈ = \$9560. 000e0. 000e0.92 ≈ 9577.25% compounded quarterly yields the greater return.1 52. A = 5000 ( e ) 0.140. 4( 4 ) 56.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0. 54.67 2(5) 57.31 ⎛ 0. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ \$13.64 (8. Inc. ⎛ 0.0825 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ \$8317. 0 f ( x) = 2 x 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 2 4 x −2 −1 4(5) 12(5) c.11 (7% yield) A = 12. b.70 419 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ \$13.04 g ( x) = 2− x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 A = 10.67 (6.25% yield) 2( 4) ⎛ 0.116. ⎛ 0.51 ⎛ 0. 795. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 14.1) .065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ d. ⎛ 0.07 ⎞ A = 12. a. ⎛ 0.0685(3) ≈ 14.157.3% yield) Investing \$6000 for 4 years at 8. ≈ \$9527.165.083 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ \$ 8306. .85% yield) Investing \$12. 12(3) 55.

Substitute values from the point (1. The graph is of the form y = b x . y = 2x 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 x y = 3x 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 x x = 3y 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 y 61. 59. The graph is of the form y = −b x . Substitute values from the point (1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 58. y = bx x = 2y 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 y 4 = b1 4=b The equation of the graph is y = 4 x 62. −1 0 1 f ( x) = 2 x +1 1 2 1 2 4 2 8 x −2 60. 4) to find b. g ( x) = 2− x +1 8 4 2 1 1 2 The point of intersection is ( 0. 6) to find b. Inc. Substitute values from the point (1. 2 ) . The graph is of the form y = b x . y = bx 6 = b1 6=b The equation of the graph is y = 6 x 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . –e) to find b. y = −b x −e = −b1 e=b The equation of the graph is y = −e x 420 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

14159 ≈ 8.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ⎛1⎞ The equation of the graph is y = ⎜ ⎟ = e − x ⎝e⎠ a. g ( x) = 1. f (50) = 0.026 ) ≈ 1148 India’s population in 2001 will be 1148 million. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1.44 c. the closer the 3 value is to 2 . y = bx 69. S = 465.73205 ≈ 3.7 ≈ 3. 2005 is 50 years after 1955. 2055 − 1974 = 81 . the closer the value is to 2π. India’s population in 2055 will be 4590 million. e) to find b.1415 ≈ 8. f ( 27 ) = 574 (1.026 ) 23 ≈ 8 23.821353305 0 23. 000 (1 + 0. The graph is of the form y = b x . There will still be 157.7320508 ≈ 3.321997085 The closer the exponent is to 3 .815240927 23.321880096 21. 744 10 68.0344 x g (50) = 1.321995226 21.15(50) + 1. find 23. 2005 is 50 years after 1955. Inc.15 x + 1. 000 (1 + 0. e = b −1 1 e= b eb = 1 1 b= e ≈ 3.87e0. 54 71.026 ) ≈ 2295 . .9 According to the linear model.1 ≈ 8.03) = 510.141 ≈ 8.06 ) 10 The linear model is the better model for the data in 2005. 67. S = 510. 000 (1.824977827 The closer the exponent gets to π.14 ≈ 8. there were about 8.141593 ≈ 8. India’s population appears to be doubling every 27 years.824411082 = 574 (1) = 574 23. f ( 80 ) = 1000 ( 0. Since 2028 − 1974 = 54 .0344(50) ≈ 10.73 ≈ 3.4 According to the exponential model.824979946 27 2π ≈ 8. f ( x) = 0. 81 e. find d. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1. a. 3 2 x 65.1 64. b.87e0.44 ≈ 8.9 million words in the federal tax code in 2005.4 million words in the federal tax code in 2005.249009585 21.06 ) ≈ \$832.824961595 India’s population in 1974 was 574 million. f ( 0 ) = 574 (1. = 157.5 kilograms of cesium-137 in Chernobyl’s atmosphere. there were about 10. 21. = 465. Substitute values from the point (–1.732 ≈ 3.321997068 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 66. 230 421 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.49 Chernobyl will not be safe for human habitation by 2066. c.5) 80 30 b. India’s population in 2028 will be 2295 million.026 ) ≈ 4590 . 000 (1.5741877 70.03) 5 5 ≈ \$591.317278183 21.

a. ( 24 1 + 0.029)40 ≈ 19.1e−0. 75.3 g (40) = ≈ 21. f ( x) = 6.4 According to the linear model.052(56) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 28.3 g (56) = ≈ 27.360. Explanations will vary. a. c.05(379) ≈ \$4. f (52) = 80e −0. 662.8% of the material is remembered 4 week after it is first learned.05 12 ) 12(379) 4t 12 t f (0) = 80e −0. Inc. 1975 is 20 years after 1955. f ( x) = 6.05 ⎞ A = 10.045 ⎞ A = 10.9 1 + 6. g ( x) = 1.19(1.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6. ⎛ 0.0 in 2006.19(1.1e−0. ≈ \$3.029) x 76. d.7 37.4 37.19(1.5(4) + 20 ≈ 30.15(20) + 1. Answers may vary. b. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5(1) + 20 ≈ 68. 422 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1e −0. 83.029) x f (56) = 6.1 1 + 6. 77. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ = 80e 0 + 20 = 80(1) + 20 = 100 100% of the material is remembered at the moment it is first learned.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 72. a.4 million words in the federal tax code in 1975.8 30.0344(20) ≈ 3. 5% compounded quarterly offers the better return. 794 c. 074. 81. a. d. . b. b.1e −0.44 ≈ 4.052(40) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 21.87e0. f (1) = 80e−0.5% of the material is remembered 1 week after it is first learned.052 x 37. b.0344 x g (20) = 1.052 x 37. there were about 3. f (40) = 6. does not make sense. b.15 x + 1. Answers may vary.87e0.19(1.3 in 1990.5 68.44 f (20) = 0. 82.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6. a. 73. 74. there were about 4.7 million words in the federal tax code in 1975. The exponential model is the better model for the data in 1975. Sample explanation: The horizontal asymptote is y = 0.7 According to the exponential model. f (4) = 80e −0.5(52) + 20 ≈ 20 20% of the material is remembered 1 year after it is first learned.029)56 ≈ 30.5(0) + 20 c. f ( x) = 0. 1975 is 20 years after 1955.917. – 80. 753 24e0.

92. 88. a.2 84. −(− x) e +e 2 −x e + ex = 2 e x + e− x = 2 = cosh x cosh(− x) = 2 ⎛ e x + e− x ⎞ ⎛ e x − e− x ⎞ ? ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ =1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x e 2 x − 2 + e −2 x ? − =1 4 4 e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x − e 2 x + 2 − e −2 x ? =1 4 4? =1 4 1=1 about the y-axis while f ( x) = −3x reflects the graph 89. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 so it is (d) reflected () x about the y-axis. y = 3x is (d). Explanations will vary.e. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 90. log 4 26 = y means 4 y = 26. makes sense 87. so it is (c) reflected about the y-axis. does not make sense. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. e y = 33 means y = log e 33. 423 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. e− x − e−( − x ) 2 e− x − e x = 2 − −e − x + e x = 2 e x − e− x =− 2 = − sinh x sinh(− x) = ( c. 2 = log b 25 means b 2 = 25. y = 1 3 94. gives x = 3. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 . false. ) 2. y= 5x is () (c). c. b. 1 . false. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. makes sense 85. Section 3. 25 = x means 5 = log 2 x. A sample change is: The functions do not have the same graph. 86. ∞ ) . Solving the related equation. a. b. −x 1. y increases as x increases. Sample explanation: An exponential model is better than a linear model. 95. true 91. i. A sample change is: If f ( x) = 2 x then f (a + b) = f (a ) ⋅ f (b). 3 = log 7 x means 73 = x. y = 1 is the 5 5 –x same as y = 5 . . x is (a). Changes to make the statement true will vary. ? (cosh x) 2 − (sinh x) 2 = 1 2 of y = 3x about the x-axis.2 Check Point Exercises 93.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. false. c. A sample change is: The amount of money will not increase without bound.3) ∪ ( 3. x is the same as y = () x 3–x. f ( x) = 3− x reflects the graph of y = 3x b. Changes to make the statement true will vary. y = 1 is (b). a. b3 = 27 means 3 = log b 27. but not as quickly as y = () y= 1 3 5x . Note that the boundary value x = 3 does not satisfy the inequality. 251/ 2 = 5 2 96. We do not know how to solve x = 2 y for y.

. Question: 10 to what power gives 100? log10 100 = 2 because 10 2 = 100. ≈ 34 The function models the actual increase shown in the graph quite well. Question: 36 to what power gives 6? 1 log 36 6 = because 361/ 2 = 36 = 6 2 d. Thus the domain of g is (−∞.8 log(11) ≈ 80 Thus.6 First. we conclude log 9 9 = 1. 4. a 10-year-old boy is approximately 80% of his adult height. Find the temperature increase after 30 minutes by substituting 30 for x and evaluating the function at 30. ∞). b. Because blogb x = x. we obtain x < 4. we conclude log8 1 = 0. Solving this inequality for x. 26 = 64 3. 7. 1. 5. 8. Exercise Set 3. 92 = x 5. the domain of f is (−∞. 125 5 125 7 = log 10. Inc. 9. The domain of f consists of all x for which 4 – x > 0. Because I = 10.4 ln x − 11. Substitute the boy’s age. b3 = 27 7. Because log b b = x. 32 = x 4. a. f (10) = 29 + 48. x f ( x ) = 3x 10. Thus. a. Question: 5 to what power gives c. Solving this inequality for x. for x and evaluate the function at 10. we conclude 3log3 17 = 17. Question: 3 to what power gives 1 log 3 7 3 = because 31 7 = 7 3. 000 3? =4 The earthquake registered 4.000 I0. ∞). 0) ∪ (0. the domain of h is (5. 000 I 0 R = log I0 1 ? 125 1 1 1 log 5 = −3 because 5−3 = 3 = . 6. 8 x 11. 10. we obtain x < 0 or x > 0. 6y = 216 8.2 The domain of h consists of all x for which x − 5 > 0. 1 1 x 1 3 9 27 9 3 g ( x) = log 3 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 The graph of the inverse can also be drawn by reflecting the graph of f ( x) = 3x about the line y = x. Solving this inequality for x. b. 2 4 = 16 2. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 9 27 9 3 f (30) = 13.4 ln 30 − 11. 5 y = 125 9. f ( x) = 13. we obtain x > 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0 on the Richter scale. we conclude log 7 7 = 8. 10.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 3. log28 = 3 424 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because log b 1 = 0. a. The domain of g consists of all x for which x 2 > 0. 4) b. Thus. b5 = 32 6. 7 a. b. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 3x.6 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 3 x.8 log(10 + 1) = 29 + 48. Because log b b = 1.

1 3 log81 9 = 1 1 because 64 2 = 64 = 8. 8 8 28. 9 9 −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 4 x 1 16 1 4 log 7 7 = 1 because 7 2 = 7. we conclude 8log8 19 = 19. log8 300 = y 21. log 5 625 = 4 11. 6 24. x g ( x) = log 4 x 1 16 1 4 1 4 16 64 −2 −1 0 1 1 29. = − because 2 2 = 2 2 2 32. we conclude 7 log 723 = 23. log b 343 = 3 39. 2 22. we conclude log 5 57 = 7. 42. we conclude log 4 46 = 6. 41. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 4 x. log 2 64 = 6 because 2 = 64. = − because 3 2 = 2 3 3 33. log7200 = y 40. 20. Inc. log 7 49 = 2 because 7 = 49. log 2 12. 31. log15 x = 2 37. log13x = 2 16. 2 1 1 because 81 2 = 81 = 9. 6 6 27. log 2 1 1 = −3 because 2−3 = . Because log b 1 = 0. logb1000 = 3 18. 38. 2 3 1 4 16 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 4 x. log 3 27 = 3 because 33 = 27. 2 43. Because log b b = 1. First. 2 30. log 3 1 1 = –2 because 3−2 = . Because log b b x = x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 13. Because log b b = 1. log 6 1 1 = −1 because 6−1 = . log 2 1 15. we conclude log11 11 = 1. Because log b 1 = 0. log 5 1 1 = −1 because 5−1 = . 36. 23. 2 35. Because log b b x = x. we conclude log 6 1 = 0. we conclude log 4 1 = 0. 14. log 4 16 = 2 because 4 = 16. Because blogb x = x. 25. 2 3 . Because blogb x = x. log 6 6 = 1 because 6 2 = 6. we conclude log 5 5 = 1. 5 5 26.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 19. 2 1 425 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 10. log 64 8 = 1 = −3 125 log8 2 = 1 3 log 64 4 = 34. 17. log 3 − 1 1 1 . log 5 1 1 = −4 16 − 1 1 1 .

−2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 5 x 1 25 1 5 2 x ⎛1⎞ 46. 1 25 x 1 5 2 16 4 1 4 1 1 16 1 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 1 4 x.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 44. 53. 1 5 25 125 g ( x) = log 5 x −2 −1 0 1 x 3 1 4 1 16 1 64 g ( x) = log 1 4 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x 16 4 1 x ⎛1⎞ 45. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x f ( x) = ( 12 ) x 4 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 8 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log1 2 x. 50. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted down one g ( x) = log1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 unit. First. 1 8 49. Inc. 51. so the function is H ( x) = 1 − log 3 x. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis and shifted up one unit. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted right one unit. x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 48. First. First. so the function is F ( x) = − log 3 x. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 5 x. so the function is g ( x) = log 3 ( x − 1). This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x. . This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the y-axis. vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. 52. range: (−∞. ⎝2⎠ 47. ∞) 426 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) . so the function is h( x) = log3 x − 1. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis. ⎝4⎠ x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 3 1 5 25 125 f ( x) = ( 14 ) Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 5 x. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . so the function is G ( x ) = log 3 (− x). Publishing as Prentice Hall.

range: (−∞. ∞) 61.2 54. vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: (2. ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) 57. vertical asymptote: x = 1 domain: (1. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. ∞) 60. range: (−∞. 55. ∞) 427 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) . range: (−∞. Inc. 56. ∞) 59. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. 58. ∞ ) . ∞) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞ ) .

Inc. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. 68. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) 64. 66.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 62. ∞) . ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. range: (−∞. 69. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 67. range: (−∞. ∞) 63. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. ∞) . . ∞ ) . ∞) 65. ∞) 428 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0.

∞) 81. ∞ ) . Thus. ∞). Because log10 x = x. ∞) 76. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) 86. 71. 0) . Thus. Thus. ∞). ∞ ) . 7) or (7. 83. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 6 > 0. the domain of f is (−∞. Solving this inequality for x. 84. we obtain x > –6. Solving this inequality for x. Thus. . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. log100 = log10 100 = 2 because 102 = 100. The domain of f consists of all x for which (x – 2)2 > 0. ∞ ) . 74. we conclude 10log 53 = 53. we obtain x < 2 or x > 2. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞). we conclude log107 = 7. range: (−∞. Thus. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (−∞. 79. we conclude 10log33 = 33. range: (−∞.2 70. range: (−∞. Because 10log x = x. the domain of f is (–4. 77. The domain of f consists of all x for which 7 − x > 0. 73. Because log10 x = x. range: (−∞. ∞) 75. the domain of f is (–6. we obtain x < 7 or x > 7. we obtain x < 7. ∞) 72. the domain of f is (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Solving this inequality for x. the domain of f is (–∞. 80. 429 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . log1000 = log10 1000 = 3 because 103 = 1000. Because 10logx = x. the domain of f is (–∞. 78.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 82. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 4 > 0. ∞). The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 7)2 > 0. we obtain x > –4. Inc. The domain of f consists of all x for which 2 – x > 0. 2) or (2. Solving this inequality for x. we conclude log108 = 8. Solving this inequality for x. Thus. 7). 2). Solving this inequality for x. we obtain x < 2. 85.

101. 2 97. The solution is 64 ⎩ 64 ⎭ x= Because ln e x = x. 430 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. log 3 ( x − 1) = 2 32 = x − 1 9 = x −1 ( x + 2)( x − 6) = 0 The boundary points are –2 and 6. 4−3 = x 88. 89. Because ln e x = x. so ln 6 = −6. 104. so ln 7 = −7. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ ⎟ to be real. Because eln x = x. = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 94. we conclude ln e7 = 7. we conclude lne9x = 9x. 102. and the solution set is {16}. e 106. we conclude eln 300 = 300. we conclude eln 5 x = 5 x 2 . 110. Because ln e x = x. and the solution set is {21}. 103. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 87. we conclude eln 7 x = 7 x 2 . Because 10log x = x. 99. log 4 x = −3 ln1 = 0 because e0 = 1 . x +1 ⎛ x +1 ⎞ 111. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. ln 7 = ln e −7 Because ln e x = x. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. log 5 ( x + 4 ) = 2 52 = x + 4 25 = x + 4 21 = x The solution is 21. 105. we conclude eln125 = 125. Because ln e x = x. log ( log 81) = log ( log 34 ) 2 3 2 3 93. ln e = log e e = 1 because e1 = e. Because eln x = x. log ( log 32 ) = log ( log 25 ) = log 5 = 1 5 2 5 2 5 107. we conclude e 1 ln e−7 = −7. 5 − x ⎝ ⎠ The boundary points are –1 and 5. log ( ln e ) = log1 = 0 95. we conclude ln e6 = 6. ∞ ) . For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − x − 2) to be real. 1 = ln e −6 e6 Because ln e x = x we conclude 1 ln e −6 = −6. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 = 3 x. we conclude ln e13 x = 13 x. Because 10log x = x. log 3 ( log 7 7 ) = log 3 1 = 0 1 92. 90. ∞ ) . 1 1 = 43 64 1 ⎧1⎫ . 108. 91. −1) ∪ ( 2. 109. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x2 − x − 2 = 0 96. Because eln x = x. . Because eln x = x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. ( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 The boundary points are –1 and 2. 2 98. x 2 − 4 x − 12 > 0 . we conclude 10log 100. e ln log 64 x = 2 3 2 64 3 = x x= ( 3 64 ) 2 = 42 = 16 The solution is 16. x 2 − x − 2 > 0 . and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . and the solution set is {10}. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − 4 x − 12) to be real. ∞ ) . we conclude 10log x 3 x = x. −1) ∪ ( 5. x − 5 > 0 . 10 = x The solution is 10.

b. Changes to make the statement true will vary. b. a. log 4 60 < log 4 64 = 3 so log 4 60 < 3.001 2 − (−3) 5 144. a. log 3 81 − logπ 1 4−0 4 = = log 2 2 8 − log 0. log 4 60 < 3 < log3 40 log3 40 > log 4 60 d e. Answers may vary. They are the same. 147. log3 92 = 2 log3 9 432 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense log 2 16 = log 2 24 = 4 136. log 4 ⎡log 3 ( log 2 8) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = log 4 ⎡⎣ log3 ( log 2 23 ) ⎤⎦ = log 4 [ log 3 3] = log 4 1 = 0 c. b. a. log 2 8 3 = A sample change is: log 2 4 2 132. 146. Explanations will vary. 2 log3 9 = 2 log3 32 = 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 c. log 2 8 + log 2 4 = log 2 23 + log 2 22 = 3 + 2 = 5 c. does not make sense. false. Inc. makes sense 149. ⎛ 32 ⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 − log 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ y = x2. false. ∞ ) . log 2 32 − log 2 2 = log 2 25 − log 2 2 = 5 − 1 = 4 c. The score falls below 65 after 9 months. y = x . is ( 0. log 3 40 > log 3 27 = 3 so log3 40 > 3. logbMN = logbM + logbN The sum of the logarithms of its factors. log3 81 = log3 34 = 4 b. 140. 000 times as intense as an earthquake of magnitude 4. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: The domain of f ( x ) = log 2 x 133. y = ln x . y = ex. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 141. log 2 (8 ⋅ 4) = log 2 8 + log 2 4 148. y = x. y = xx 135. 142. true 143.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 139. 145. Sample explanation: An earthquake of magnitude 8 on the Richter scale is 108− 4 = 104 = 10. log 2 32 = log 2 25 = 5 134. . false. makes sense 138. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 137. A sample change is: We cannot take the log of a negative number. a.

000 + log x = 4 + log x 7. log(7 x + 6) − log x = log 7x + 6 x 433 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Check Point Exercises 1.3 6.3 x log 5 25 y 3 1. a. log(1000x) = log1000 + log x = 3 + log x 6. a. ( x − 3)2 x 1 log x − 2 log 5 − 10 log y b b 4 b 1/ 4 2 = logb x − log b 5 − log b y10 = logb x1/ 4 − ( logb 25 − log b y10 ) a. log(10. log 6 (7 ⋅ 11) = log 6 7 + log 6 11 b. 2 log( x − 3) − log x = log( x − 3) 2 − log x ⎛ 23 ⎞ log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 23 − log8 x ⎝ x ⎠ = log ⎛ e5 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e5 − ln11 ⎝ 11 ⎠ = 5 − ln11 c. 1 ln 3 x = ln x1/ 3 = ln x 3 c. 4.02 ln 7 x 25 y10 Exercise Set 3. log 6 3 = 9 log 6 3 b. 000 x) = log10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log b x 4 3 y = log x 4 y1/3 b = log x 4 + log y1/3 b b 1 = 4 log x + log y b 3 b b. = 2 + log x 2. .3 Section 3. log( x + 4) 2 = 2 log( x + 4) a. log(100 x) = log100 + log x = ln x 2 ( x + 5)1/ 3 = ln x 2 3 x + 5 b. log 7 2506 = ln 2506 ≈ 4. log 7 2506 = log 2506 ≈ 4. 1 ln x 2 + ln( x + 5) 3 = ln x 2 + ln( x + 5)1/ 3 9 = logb x1/ 4 − log b 25 y10 = logb x1/ 4 25 y10 4 or log b 7. ⎛9⎞ log 9 ⎜ ⎟ = log 9 9 − log 9 x = 1 − log 9 x ⎝ x⎠ 9. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log100 = log x − 2 ⎝ 100 ⎠ 1/ 2 = log5 x 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − log5 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − ( log 5 52 + log 5 y 3 ) = 12 log 5 x − log 5 52 − log 5 y 3 = 12 log 5 x − 2 log 5 5 − 3log 5 y = 12 log 5 x − 2 − 3log 5 y 5. ⎛7⎞ log 7 ⎜ ⎟ = log 7 7 − log 7 x = 1 − log 7 x ⎝ x⎠ 8. 3. log8 (13 ⋅ 7) = log8 13 + log8 7 3. a. log 9 9x =log 9 9+log9 x = 1+log 9 x 5.02 log 7 8. log 7 (7 x) = log 7 7 + log 7 x = 1 + log 7 x 4. b. log 25 + log 4 = log(25 ⋅ 4) = log100 = 2 b. a. log 5 (7 ⋅ 3) = log 5 7 + log 5 3 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. Inc.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ e2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 2 − ln 5 = 2 ln e − ln 5 = 2 − ln 5 ⎝5⎠ 14. log 3 ⎛ x = log ⎜ y ⎝ 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢ log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 3 1 1 = log x − log y 3 3 ⎛ 36 ⎞ 1/ 2 log 6 ⎜ ⎟ = log 6 36 − log 6 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log 6 ( x + 1) 2 434 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log1000 = log x − 3 ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 26. ln ex = ln(ex) 17. 1 ln 5 x = ln x (1/ 5) = ln x 5 20. 29. . ⎛ 125 ⎞ log 5 ⎜ ⎟ = log 5 125 − log 5 y = 3 − log 5 y ⎝ y ⎠ 13. logbx3 = 3logbx 16. ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb ( x 3 y ) − logb z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb x 3 + log b y − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = 3log b x + log b y − 2 log b z log b x 7 = 7 log b x 18.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 10. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1 log 5 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 5 x 2 − log 5 25 = log 5 x − 2 25 2 ⎝ ⎠ 25. log 100 x = log(100 x )1/ 2 1 = log(100 x) 2 1 = (log100 + log x) 2 1 = (2 + log x) 2 1 = 1 + log x 2 30. log b xy 3 = log b x + log b y 3 = log b x + 3log b y 1 1 ln x 7 23. ⎛ 64 ⎞ 1 2 log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 64 − log8 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log8 ( x + 1) 2 1 2 1 ln(ex) 2 1 = (ln e + ln x) 2 1 = (1 + ln x) 2 1 1 = + ln x 2 2 = 31. ⎛ x2 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = log b ( x 2 y ) − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = log b x 2 + log b y − log b z 2 = 2 log b x + log b y − 2 log b z 15. log b x 2 y = logb x 2 + log b y = 2 log b x + log b y 22. 11. Inc. ln 7 x = ln x 7 = 21. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1/ 2 log 4 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 4 x − log 4 64 = log 4 x − 3 64 2 ⎝ ⎠ 24. ⎛ 64 ⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ = log 4 64 − log 4 y ⎝ y ⎠ = 3 − log 4 y 27. ⎛ e4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 4 − ln 8 = 4 ln e − ln 8 = 4 − ln 8 ⎝8⎠ 28. log N–6 = –6log N log M −8 = −8log M 19. 12.

1 4 1 = log 2 x + log 2 y − log 2 16 5 5 5 1 4 4 = log 2 x + log 2 y − 5 5 5 37. x y3 log b 3 z = logb x1/ 2 + log b y 3 − log b z 3 = 34. 33. Inc. log 250 + log 4 = log1000 = 3 43. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ln x + ln 7 = ln(7 x) 44. ⎛ x⎞ x log 5 = log ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 5 1 1 = log x − log y 5 5 log b 1/ 2 39. − ln ( x + 3) 1 = 4 ln x + ln ( x 2 + 3) − 5 ln ( x + 3) 2 x2 y 25 = log5 x 2 / 3 + log 5 y1/ 3 − log 5 251/ 3 log 5 ⎡ x4 x2 + 3 ⎤ ln ⎢ 5 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ( x + 3) ⎥⎦ ⎡ x 4 ( x 2 + 3)1/ 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ( x + 3) ⎦ = ln x 4 + ln ( x 2 + 3) 1 logb x + 3log b y − 3logb z 2 3 35. ⎛ 96 ⎞ log 2 96 − log 2 3 = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 = 5 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 46. 38. log x + 7 log y = log x + log y 7 = log( xy 7 ) 435 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎡10 x 2 3 1 − x ⎤ log ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 7( x + 1) ⎦ 1 = 1 + 2 log x + log(1 − x) − log 7 − 2 log( x + 1) 3 3 5 5 = log10 + log x 2 + log 3 1 − x − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 2 1 = log5 x + log5 y − log5 52 / 3 3 3 2 1 2 = log5 x + log5 y − 3 3 3 36. 2 .3 1 32. log x + 3 log y = log x + log y 3 = log( xy 3 ) 50. 1 = 2 + 3log x + log(5 − x) − log 3 − 2 log( x + 7) 3 log 5 + log 2 = log(5 ⋅ 2) = log10 = 1 42. ⎛ 3x + 7 ⎞ log(3x + 7) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ = ln x3 + ln x 2 + 1 − ln( x + 1) 4 1 = 3ln x + ln( x 2 + 1) − 4 ln( x + 1) 2 49.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 5 ⎛ 405 ⎞ log 3 405 − log 3 5 = log 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = log3 81 =4 47. log 2 x y4 z5 = log x1/ 3 + log b y 4 − log b z 5 b 1 = log b x + 4 log b y − 5log b z 3 40. ln x + ln 3 = ln(3x) 45. ⎛ 2x + 5 ⎞ log(2 x + 5) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ⎡ x3 x 2 + 1 ⎤ ln ⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ( x + 1) ⎦⎥ 48. ⎡100 x 3 3 5 − x ⎤ log ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ 3( x + 7) ⎦ = log100 + log x3 + log ( 5 − x ) 3 − log 3 − log ( x + 7 ) 1 xy 4 16 = log 2 x1/ 5 + log 2 y 4 / 5 − log 2 161/ 5 41.

2logbx + 3logby = logbx2 + logby3 = logb(x2y3) 54. 1 3ln x − ln y = ln x 3 − ln y1/ 3 3 64. 4 x3 ) 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 (log 5 x + log 5 y ) − 2 log 5 ( x + 1) 2 1 = log5 xy − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 xy ( x + 1) 2 1 ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) + 2log 4 ( x + 1) 3 1 x = log 4 + log 4 ( x + 1)2 3 y ⎡⎛ x ⎞ = log 4 ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎣⎝ y ⎠ 1/ 3 8 ln (x +9) − 4 ln x = ln( x + 9)8 − ln x 4 = ln ( 1 log x − log y 4 4 3 x 1 = log 4 y 3 x = log 3 4 y 1 1 2 ln x − ln y = ln x 2 − ln y 2 2 ( x + 6) 1 ( log x + log y ) 2 1 = (log xy ) 2 = log( xy )1/ 2 ⎛ = log ⎜ 4 ⎝ ⎛ x3 ⎞ ⎛ x3 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1/ 3 ⎟ or ln ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 59. 4 ln x + 7 ln y − 3ln z ( x + 9)8 x4 ⎤ ( x + 1) 2 ⎥ ⎥⎦ = log 4 ⎡( x + 1) 2 3 xy ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 3ln x + 5 ln y − 6 ln z = ln x3 + ln y 5 − ln z 6 = ln x3 y 5 z6 436 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( ) = ln x 3 y or ln y 3 x 1 ) 53. 65. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 66. Inc. . 1 ln x + ln y = ln x1/ 2 + ln y 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ln ⎜ x 2 y ⎟ or ln y x ⎝ ⎠ ( 52. = ln x 4 + ln y 7 − ln z 3 ) = ln 63. ⎛ x7 ⎞ 7 ln x − 3ln y = ln x 7 − ln y 3 = ln ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 57. ⎛ x5 ⎞ 5 ln x − 2 ln y = ln x5 − ln y 2 = ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 56. 5log b x + 6 log b y = log b x 5 + log b y 6 55. 1 1 ln x + ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 3 ( 62. ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎛ x2 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1 ⎟ or ln ⎜ 2 ⎜ y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln( x + 6) − 3ln x = ln( x + 6) 4 − ln x3 = ln 60. x4 y7 z3 = log xy = logb ( x 5 y 6 ) 58. 61.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 51.

log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − log15 − log( x + 2) = log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − ( log15 + log( x + 2) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 4 ) − log (15( x + 2) ) x ( x − 4) 2 = log 15( x + 2) x( x + 2)( x − 2) = log 15( x + 2) x( x − 2) = log 15 71. Inc. log14 87.3 1 [2 ln( x + 5) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 = [ln( x + 5) 2 − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 ⎡ ( x + 5)2 ⎤ = ⎢ ln 3 ⎣ x( x 2 − 4) ⎥⎦ ⎡ ( x + 5) 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 4) ⎦ 1/ 3 ( x + 5) 2 = ln 3 x( x 2 − 4) 68.4456 log 0. log16 57.1 76. Section 3.3 77.2340 ln π = log x + log ( x 2 − 1) − ( log 7 + log( x + 1) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) − log ( 7( x + 1) ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) 7( x + 1) x( x + 1)( x − 1) = log 7( x + 1) x( x − 1) = log 7 70.4595 ln16 75. y = log 2 ( x + 2) = ln 400 ≈ 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5937 log 5 437 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log x + log ( x − 1) − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 log17 ≈ 1. log 0. logπ 400 = 79.6944 ln14 74. y = log15 x = log x log15 81. y = log3 x = log x log 3 80.3 19 = log19 ≈ −2.2 ≈ 1.2 = ln 57.6193 ln π 78.5 ≈ 1.1 17 = log17 ≈ −1.5 = ln 87.PreCalculus 4E 67. log 0. log 6 17 = 73.2304 log 0. . 1 ⎡5ln( x + 6) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 25) ⎤⎦ 3⎣ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ ⎥ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎢ x( x 2 − 25) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ 3 = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 25) ⎦ 69. log 5 13 = log( x + 2) log 2 log13 ≈ 1. logπ 63 = ln 63 ≈ 3.5812 log 6 72.

a. false. false.63 It will take the chimpanzee a little more than 20. true. ln(5 x) + ln1 = ln 5 x + 0 = ln 5 x 96. . log b 8 = log b 23 = 3log b 2 = 3 A 99. b. true. ln ee = 0 91. log 3 7 = 1 87. This means that the 100 times louder sound will be 20 decibels louder. Publishing as Prentice Hall. t= 438 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ln 8 x3 = ln 23 x3 = ln ( 2 x ) = 3ln ( 2 x ) log( x − 2) log 3 3 93. log( x + 3) − log(2 x) = log = log b 2 + log b 3 = A + C 98. true. log b log b 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞2 = logb ⎜ ⎟ 27 ⎝ 27 ⎠ 1 ⎛2⎞ = log b ⎜ 3 ⎟ 2 ⎝3 ⎠ 1 = ( logb 2 − log b 33 ) 2 1 = ( logb 2 − 3log b 3) 2 1 3 = log b 2 − log b 3 2 2 1 3 = A− C 2 2 log 7 1 1 = log 3 = log 3 log 7 log 7 3 102. true. log b 84. b. false. e x = ln ee 103. true. x log10 x = x ⋅ x = x 2 94. = log b 3 − logb 4 1 = log b 3 2 − log 22 1 log b 3 − 2 log 2 2 1 = C − 2A 2 = 104. false. log b 6 = log b ( 2 ⋅ 3) 97. true. 88.03 ⎝ 35 ⎠ t ≈ 20.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 82. ln x + ln(2 x) = ln ( x ⋅ 2 x) ) = ln 2 x 2 3 = log b 3 − log b 2 = C − A 2 83. log 4 ( 2 x ) = 3log 4 ( 2 x ) 3 1 ⎛ A ⎞ t = ln ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ A− N ⎠ 1 ⎡ 65 ⎤ ln 0.03 ⎢⎣ 65 − 30 ⎥⎦ 1 ⎛ 65 ⎞ t= ln ⎜ ⎟ 0.5 weeks to master 30 signs. false. Inc. a. false. log b 81 = log b 34 = 4log b 3 = 4C 100. product rule 101. ln e = 1 90. log x+2 = log( x + 2) − log( x − 1) x −1 85. quotient rule 86. x+3 2x x ⎛ I ⎞ D = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ ⎛ 100 I ⎞ D1 = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ = 10 log (100 I − I 0 ) = 10 log100 + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 = 10(2) + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 = log b ⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎟⎟ 16 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ I ⎞ = 20 + 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ This is 20 more than the loudness level of the softer sound. false. false. 89. y = log3 ( x − 2) = ( ) ( ) 92. ln( x ⋅ 1) = ln x + ln1 95.

log 25 log x log100 x = log100 115. just vertical shifts of y = log x. To obtain the graph of y = log3(x + 2). false. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 116. makes sense b. If we were taking the logarithm of a product and not a sum. Hence. makes sense 124. false. A sample change is: log 7 49 log 7 49 = = log 7 49 = 2 . shift the graph of y = log3x two units upward. – 112. 1) and on the bottom in the interval (1. 127.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 122. but log 7 7 1 Using the product rule. top graph: y = log 3 x bottom graph: y = log100 x ln x ln 3 Comparing graphs of log b x for b > 1. A sample change is: logb ( xy ) = 5logb ( xy ) 5 = 5 ( logb x + logb y ) a. does not make sense. ∞). log(10 x) = log x + 1 and l log(0. the graph of the equation with the largest b will be on the top in the interval (0. a. 125. ) A sample change is: logb x3 + y 3 cannot be simplified.3 105. ⎛ x ⎞2 x = log 4 ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ Sample explanation: log 4 ⎛x⎞ 1 log 4 ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ y⎠ 1 = ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) 2 1 1 = log 4 x − log 4 y 2 2 = 114. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. true 126. log 3 log x log 25 x = . Changes to make the statement true will vary. c. . shift the graph of y = log3x two units left. ( ) logb x3 y 3 = logb x3 + logb y 3 = 3logb x + 3logb y 128.1x) = log x − 1. we would have been able to simplify as follows. 1 To obtain the graph of y = 2 + log3x. Answers may vary. 113. Inc. 121. – 120. reflect the graph of y = log3x about the x-axis. To obtain the graph of y = –log3x. these two graphs are log 7 49 − log 7 7 = 2 − 1 = 1 . ( log x log 3 x = . Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. y = log 3 x = b. = 5logb x + 5logb y top graph: y = log100 x bottom graph: y = log 3 x 439 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 123. Answers may vary.

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 129.3} . ⎪⎩ 2 ⎪⎭ asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. log 7 9 = ⎛ 8x ⎞ ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ = e ⎝ 2x ⎠ x2 + 2 x = 4 x + 3 x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x +1 = 0 or x−3= 0 x = −1 x=3 5 131. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1/ h x⎞ ⎛ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ h⎠ 133. ∞ ) 440 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x − 7x = 3 2 x − 7x − 3 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−7) ± (−7) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) x= 7 ± 61 2 ⎪⎧ 7 ± 61 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. ln 8 x5 − ln 2 x 2 =e ln ( 4 x 3 ) x+2 1 = 4x + 3 x ⎛ x+2 ⎞ ⎛1⎞ x(4 x + 3) ⎜ ⎟ = x(4 x + 3) ⎜ x ⎟ x 4 + 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ x( x + 2) = 4 x + 3 = 4 x3 log b ( x + h) − log b x h x+h log b x = h ⎛ h⎞ log b ⎜1 + ⎟ x⎠ ⎝ = h 1 ⎛ h⎞ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ h x⎠ ⎝ The solution set is {−1. Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 1. . log 9 log 32 2 log 3 = = log 7 log 7 log 7 2A = B 130. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0. log e = log10 e = ln e 1 = ln10 ln10 135. ( 0. Inc. ∞ ) ( −3. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = x( x − 7) = 3 134. e 132. ∞ ) 2. a( x − 2) = b(2 x + 3) ax − 2a = 2bx + 3b ax − 2bx = 2a + 3b x(a − 2b) = 2a + 3b 2a + 3b x= a − 2b asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −3 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.

7. f ( x ) = log 3 ( x + 6 ) The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x+6 > 0 x > −6 domain: {x | x > −6} or ( −6. 9. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. f ( x ) = log 3 x + 6 The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x>0 domain: {x | x > 0} or ( 0. ∞ ) . domain of g = (1. ∞ ) . Inc. except when 4. . 6. 10. log 2 8 + log 5 25 = log 2 23 + log5 52 = 3+ 2 = 5 asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 1 domain of f = ( 0. ∞ ) 441 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 3 10 = log10 3 = 14. ∞ ) . Now ( x + 6 ) is always positive. ∞ ) log 3 1 1 = log 3 2 = log 3 3−2 = −2 9 3 12. Let log100 10 = y range of f = range of g = ( −∞. −6 ) ∪ ( −6. 2 y = 101 102 y = 101 2y = 1 y= asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. log 3 ( x + 6 ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. f ( x ) = 3x + 6 domain: {x | x is a real number} or ( −∞. ∞ ) 11. 2 x = −6 domain: {x | x ≠ 0} or ( −∞. ∞ ) 2 The argument of the logarithm must be positive. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8. ∞ ) 100 y = 10 (10 ) 5. log 2 ( log 3 81) = log 2 ( log 3 34 ) = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 range of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 3. ∞ ) 1 2 1 1 3 13.

162 = 8 Interest returned will be \$8 more if compounded continuously. Continuously: A = 8000e0.08 ⎞ Monthly: A = 8000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 10. ⎛ xy ⎞ log ⎜ = log ⎜ 1000 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 26. 6log6 5 = 5 17.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 15. .1 = y 25. Inc.08(3) = π ≈ 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall.170 − 10.170 12⋅3 ( ⎛ 0. log100 0. logπ π 21. 100 y = 0.162 10. ) xy − log1000 = log ( xy ) 2 − log103 1 1 log ( xy ) − 3 2 1 = ( log x + log y ) − 3 2 1 1 = log x + log y − 3 2 2 = 22. 10log13 = 13 19. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ log 3 ⎜ log 2 ⎟ = log 3 ⎜ log 2 3 ⎟ 8⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 23. 7 log 5 x + 2 log 5 x = log5 x 7 + log 5 x 2 = log5 ( x 7 ⋅ x 2 ) = 7 7 = log5 x9 18. ln e 24. = log 3 ( log 2 2−3 ) = log 3 ( −3) 1 1 8 log 7 x − log 7 y = log 7 x8 − log 7 y 3 3 ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ y3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = not possible This expression is impossible to evaluate. 16.1 (10 ) 2 y 102 y = ln x 2 − ln y 3 − ln ( z − 2 ) 1 1 10 = 10−1 = = ln x − ⎡⎣ ln y 3 + ln ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ = ln x − ln ⎡⎣ y 3 ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ 2 y = −1 ⎡ x ⎤ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎣ y ( z − 2) ⎦ 1 y=− 2 π 20. 1 ln x − 3ln y − ln ( z − 2 ) 2 ln ( e19 x 20 ) = ln e19 + ln x 20 = 19 + 20 ln x 442 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

5 = 125 3 x −6 5 = 53 (2 x − 1) ln 3 = ( x + 1) ln 7 3x − 6 = 3 3x = 9 x=3 b. − 7 )( e x − 1) = 0 or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 7 ex = 1 ln e = ln 7 ln e x = ln1 x x = ln 7 x=0 The solution set is {0. Inc. 3 x−6 7e 2 x = 63 e2 x = 9 ln e 2 x = ln 9 2 x = ln 9 ln 9 ≈ 1.95. e 2 x − 8e x + 7 = 0 5. 443 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎩ ln 5 ⎭ approximately 3.11 8 x + 2 = 4 x −3 (2 ) 3 2 x+2 3 x +6 ( ) = 22 x= x −3 = 2 2 x −6 (e x = −12 a. ln7}.04.10 x= 2 ⎧ ln 9 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.4 Check Point Exercises 1. ⎩ 2 ⎭ approximately 1. . 32 x −1 = 7 x +1 ln 32 x −1 = ln 7 x +1 4. 6. 5x = 134 ln 5 = ln134 x ln 5 = ln134 ln134 x= ≈ 3. 3x + 6 = 2x − 6 2. a. The solutions are 0 and (approximately) 1. x ex − 7 = 0 x b.90.4 Section 3.10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 = x−4 8= x−4 12 = x Check: log ( x − 4) = 3 2 log (12 − 4) = 3 2 log 8 = 3 2 3=3 The solution set is {12}. 3 10 x = 8000 log10 x = log 8000 x log10 = log 8000 x = log 8000 ≈ 3. approximately 3. log 2 ( x − 4) = 3 a. 2 x ln 3 − ln 3 = x ln 7 + ln 7 2 x ln 3 − x ln 7 = ln 3 + ln 7 x(2 ln 3 − ln 7) = ln 3 + ln 7 ln 3 + ln 7 2 ln 3 − ln 7 x ≈ 12.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.90 The solution set is {log 8000} .04 ln 5 ⎧ ln134 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 3.

46 3 x 2 − 2 x − 3 = 7 x − 23 Check 4 ln 3x = 8 x 2 − 9 x + 20 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 0 x = 4 or x = 5 Both values produce true statements. .2 years.08 ⎞ 3600 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4t 4t ⎛ 0. Inc.6 4 ln1.77 x = 7 6 ⎛7⎞ ln e12.02) 4t = ln 3. 0 = x − 3x − 10 0 = ( x − 5)( x + 2) x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = 5 or x = −2 Check Checking 5: log 5 + log(5 − 3) = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 1=1 Checking –2: log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log(−2) + log(−2 − 3) 0 1 Negative numbers do not have logarithms so –2 does not check.77 For a blood alcohol concentration of 0.77 x 6e12.6 ln 3. 7.6 4t ln(1.2 After approximately 16.02 ≈ 16. The solution set is {4.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions b.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎛7⎞ 12. ⎛ r⎞ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ nt ⎛ 0.01. 2 10. The solution set is {5}.02) = ln 3. ⎩3⎭ approximately 2. 4 ln 3x = 8 8. the risk of a car accident is 7%. ln 3x = 2 eln 3 x = e 2 3x = e2 x= e2 ≈ 2.08 ⎞ 1000 ⎜1_ ⎟ = 3600 4 ⎠ ⎝ 1000(1 + 0.02) 4t = 3600 (1.02) 4t = 3600 1000(1.77 x = 7 e12. the \$1000 will grow to an accumulated value of \$3600. let R = 7 in R = 6e12.46. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5} ⎛ e2 ⎞ 4 ln 3 ⎜ ⎟ = 8 ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln e2 = 8 4(2) = 8 8=8 9. ⎧ e2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ln( x − 3) = ln(7 x − 23) − ln( x + 1) 7 x − 23 ln( x − 3) = ln x +1 7 x − 23 x−3= x +1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 7 x − 23 For a risk of 7%.01 12.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log x( x − 3) = 1 101 = x( x − 3) 10 = x 2 − 3x x= ln ( 76 ) ≈ 0. t= 444 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

3ln x = 25 32 x +1 = 33 2x + 1 = 3 2x = 2 x =1 The solution set is {1}. 2 x = 26 x=6 The solution is 6. . Inc. and the solution set is {6} .3 29. ⎩3⎭ 2 = 64 9. 3.4 f ( x) = 54. −12. 5 ⎩5⎭ 4 x = 32 (2 ) 2 x = 25 2 2 x = 25 22 x −1 = 32 2x = 5 22 x −1 = 25 2x − 1 = 5 2x = 6 x=3 The solution is 3.8 − 12. 8. 29. and the solution set is {3} . 3x = 81 ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 32 x = 8 (2 ) 5 x = 23 5x = 125 2 5 x = 23 5x = 53 x=3 The solution is 3. 42 x −1 = 64 42 x −1 = 43 2x − 1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 The solution is 2. x= 5 2 ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 3 ⎧3⎫ . 5x = 3 3 x= 5 The solution is 5 = 625 x 5 x = 54 x=4 The solution set is {4}. Solve equation when f ( x) = 25 . and the solution set is {2} . 1. ⎩2⎭ 445 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.277 An annual income of approximately \$11.8 log e x = 12.4 2.8 x = e 12. 53 x −1 = 125 53 x −1 = 53 3x − 1 = 3 3x = 4 4 x= 3 x 3x = 34 x=4 The solution set is {4}.3 7. and the solution set is {3} .3 ln x 6. 4.PreCalculus 4E 11.8 ln x = −12. 32 x +1 = 27 10. Section 3.000 corresponds to 25% of Americans reporting fair or poor health. 5. 54. Exercise Set 3.3 x ≈ 11.8 − 12.3ln x = −29. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 −29. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .

and the solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . 52 − x = 18. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎩3⎭ 2x − 4 = 6 1 13. 4x = (2 ) 2 x = 1 2 1 1 22 22 x = 2 − 12 1 2 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 2⎠ 4 1 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution is − . ⎩ 6⎭ 2x = − 446 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 2x − 6 = 4 2 x = 10 x=5 The solution is 5. 7 7 4 3 x−2 6 x−2 6 = 7 1 = 72 x−2 1 = 6 2 2 ( x − 2 ) = 6 (1) ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. 3 x 3 ⎧3⎫ . 4 ⎩ 4⎭ 2x = − 1 125 1 2− x 5 = 3 5 52− x = 5−3 2 − x = −3 − x = −5 x=5 The solution set is {5}. . 2 ⎩2⎭ 53 x = 54 3x = 4 16. Inc. 2 x = 10 1− x 14. = 33 12. = 54 x= = 6 6 = 62 x −3 1 = 4 2 2 ( x − 3) = 4 (1) 125 x = 625 (5 ) x −3 4 x −3 4 32 x = 33 2x = 3 3 x= 2 The solution is 6 x=5 The solution set is {5}. 9x = (3 ) 2 x = 1 3 3 1 1 33 − 13 32 x = 3 1 3 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 3⎠ 6 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . and the solution set is {5}. 9 x = 27 (3 ) 2 x 15. 17. 3 = 27 1 31− x = 3 3 31− x = 3−3 1 − x = −3 − x = −4 x=4 The solution set is {4}.

91 x x= x ln10 = ln 3.91 x= 3e5 x = 1977 ln 659 ≈ 1. e5 x = 659 10 = 3.4 8 x +3 = 16 x −1 19. Inc. 9e x = 107 107 ex = 9 107 ln e x = ln 9 107 x = ln ≈ 2.7 ≈ 1.83 ≈ –0. (2 ) 3 1− x ( ) = 22 3 − 3x = 2 x + 4 −5 x = 1 22.76 ln 5 x+2 23−3 x = 22 x + 4 x=− e x = 5. e x = 0.69 ln19 1 5 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . 1 e x +1 e = e −1 x + 1 = −1 x = −2 The solution set is {−2} .91 x ln e5 x = ln 659 ln10 = ln 3.83 ln e x = ln 0. . ⎩ 3⎭ 23. (2 ) 3 x +3 ( ) = 24 25.83 x = ln 0.7 x = ln 5. 19 x = 143 x ln 19 = ln 143 ln143 x= ≈ 1.91 ln10 447 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 13 = x The solution set is {13} . 5e x = 23 23 ex = 5 23 ln e x = ln 5 23 x = ln ≈ 1. 5x = 17 28. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 29.74 23 x + 9 = 2 4 x − 4 3x + 9 = 4 x − 4 26. 10 x = 8. 81− x = 4 x + 2 20.07 ln 8.19 ln 5 x = ln17 x ln 5 = ln17 ln17 x= ≈ 1.48 9 e x +1 = e x+4 = ⎧ 4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .07 ln10 x = ln 8. ⎩ 5⎭ 21. x −1 ln e x = 5.59 ln10 24.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.53 5 1 e2 x x+4 e = e −2 x x + 4 = −2 x 3 x = −4 4 x=− 3 30.07 x= ≈ 0. 27.30 5 ln 3.7 31.07 x ln10 = ln 8.91 ≈ 0.

00 8 x= 7 x + 2 = 410 ln10. 273 ⎞ ln e7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎛ 10.25 ln 3 41. 478 + 3 36.2 x= ≈ –10. e1− 5 x = 793 ln e1− 5 x = ln 793 (1 − 5 x)(ln e) = ln 793 1 − 5 x = ln 793 5 x = 1 − ln 793 x= 34. 478 ln e5 x − 3 = ln10.2 7 ln 0.14 5 39.80 ≈ x 5 x = ln10. 250 ln e 4 x − 5 = ln11.250 4x – 5 = ln 11. e5 x − 3 − 2 = 10.2 7 x ln 3 = 7 ln 0. 243 e 4 x – 5 = 11. 33. 1 – ln 793 ≈ –1. 273 e7 x = 4 ⎛ 10. 5 x− 3 = 137 ln 5 x− 3 = ln137 (x – 3) ln 5 = ln 137 ln137 x −3 = ln 5 ln137 x = 3+ ≈ 6. 273 10. 478 + 3 ≈ 2. 250 (4x – 5)ln e = ln 11. Inc. 273 ⎞ x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 32.250 ln11.48 0.2 ln 3x / 7 = ln 0. 476 e5 x − 3 = 10.12 7 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 37. 273 ⎞ 7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 1 ⎛ 10. 478 (5 x − 3) ln e = ln10. 250 + 5 x= ≈ 3. ln 7 x + 2 = ln 410 ( x + 2) ln 7 = ln 410 ln 410 x+2= ln 7 ln 410 x= − 2 ≈ 1. 478 (2 x + 3) ln 5 = ( x − 1) ln 3 2 x ln 5 + 3ln 5 = x ln 3 − ln 3 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x ln 3 − 2 x ln 5 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x(ln 3 − 2 ln 5) 3ln 5 + ln 3 =x ln 3 − 2ln 5 −2.2 x ln 3 = ln 0. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.3x ln 7 = ln 813 ln 813 x= ≈ 11. 35.58 4 448 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4e7 x = 10.45 5 e 4 x − 5 − 7 = 11. 40.3ln 7 e1−8 x = 7957 ln e1−8 x = ln 7957 (1 – 8x) ln e = ln 7957 1 – 8x = ln 7957 8x = 1 – ln 7957 1 – ln 7957 x= ≈ –1.3 x = 813 3x / 7 = 0. 478 70.3 x = ln 813 0.06 ln 5 ln 70. 52x + 3 = 3x 2–x1+ 3 ln 5 = ln 3x −1 5 x − 3 = ln10.09 ln 7 38.

PreCalculus 4E 42. e 4 x − 3e 2 x − 18 = 0 ( e2 x − 6 )( e2 x + 3) = 0 + 8 )( e 2 x − 3) = 0 50.55 2 125 = x 51. 32 x + 3x − 2 = 0 (3x + 2)(3x − 1) = 0 − 2 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 2 = 0 e2 x = −3 ln e 2 x = ln 6 ln e 2 x = ln(−3) 2 x = ln 6 ln(−3) does not exist. Publishing as Prentice Hall.09 x = ln 7 ln 3 2− ln 7 (e e 2 x − 6 = 0 or e 2 x + 3 = 0 e2 x = 6 x 47.90 x= 2 e 2 x − 3e x + 2 = 0 43. Section 3. The solutions are 0 and approximately 0. 45. 44. 48.4 7 2 x +1 = 3 x + 2 ln 7 2 x +1 = ln 3x + 2 46. log 3 x = 4 34 = x 81 = x e 4 x + 5e 2 x − 24 = 0 2x 2x − 3 = 0 x= x = ln 3 no solution The solution set is {ln 3}. 22 x + 2 x − 12 = 0 (2 x + 4)(2 x − 3) = 0 e 2 x − 2e x − 3 = 0 x 3x − 1 = 0 3 x = −2 x = ln 2 x=0 The solution set is {0. or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 2 ex = 1 ln e x = ln 2 ln e x = ln1 3x + 2 = 0 (e 3x = 1 log 3x = log(−2) log 3x = log1 does not exist log 3 = 0 0 x= log 3 x=0 The solution set is {0}. ln x = 2 e2 = x 7.39 ≈ x 52.69. ln 2). ln 6 ≈ 0. .09 ≈ x 449 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.58 49. 2x + 4 = 0 2 x = −4 ln 2 x = ln ( −4 ) − 3)( e x + 1) = 0 ex − 3 = 0 does not exist or e x + 1 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −1 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x = ln(−1) (e 2x = 3 ln 2 x = ln 3 x ln 2 = ln 3 ln 3 ln 2 x ≈ 1.10. Inc. log 5 x = 3 53 = x e2 x + 8 = 0 e 2 x = −8 ln e 2 x = ln(−8) 2 x = ln(−8) or e 2 x − 3 = 0 e2 x = 3 ln e 2 x = ln 3 2 x = ln 3 ln 3 ln(−8) does not exist x= 2 ln 3 x= ≈ 0. ln x = 3 e3 = x 20. The solutions is approximately 1. (2 x + 1) ln 7 = ( x + 2) ln 3 ln 3 2 x + 1 = ( x + 2) ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x + 1 = x + ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x − x = −1 ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 ⎞ 2 ln 3 ⎛ −1 x⎜2 − ⎟= ln 7 ⎠ ln 7 ⎝ 2 ln 3 −1 ≈ 0.

3−3 = 1 = 27 1 4 = 27 4.61 x 62. Inc. ln x + 4 = 1 eln x+4 = e1 x+4 =e log 2 (4 x + 1) = 5 x + 4 = e2 2 = 4x + 1 5 x = e 2 − 4 ≈ 3. log 5 x + log 5 ( 4 x − 1) = 1 log 5 ( 4 x 2 − x ) = 1 4 x2 − x = 5 4 x2 − x − 5 = 0 (4 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = −1 4 x = –1 does not check because log 5 (−1) does not exist. log 3 ( x − 4) = −3 e5 ≈ 74. 61. 1 2 eln x = e −1/ 2 43 = 3 x + 2 58.72 ln x + 3 = 1 eln log 4 (3 x + 2) = 3 x+3 = e1 x+3 = e x + 3 = e2 x = e 2 − 3 ≈ 4.04 ≈ 56. log 4 ( x + 5) = 3 60.67 ≈ x 64. ⎩4⎭ 5 ln 2 x = 20 ln 2 x = 4 eln 2 x = e4 2 x = e4 x= 7 + 3ln x = 6 3ln x = −1 x+2 64 = 3x + 2 59. . 4 = x+5 3 e ln 2 x = e5 59 = x 54. 6 ln 2 x = 30 ln 2 x = 5 2 x = e5 log 5 ( x − 7) = 2 x= 5 = x−7 2 32 = x 55. ln x = − x−4 x x = e −1/ 2 ≈ 0. x 1 −1 3 3 ≈ 0.75 = x 65.98 ≈ 57. 32 = 4 x + 1 31 = 4 x 31 =x 4 7. ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.21 2 e4 ≈ 27.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 53.39 62 = 3x 62 =x 3 20. 6 + 2 ln x = 5 2 ln x = −1 x−4 7 −2 = 1 = 49 48 −1 = 49 −1.30 2 450 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 7 ( x + 2) = −2 1 3 ln x = − x+2 eln x = e − x=e x 63.39.

log 6 x( x + 5) = 2 x( x + 5) = 6 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ x −1 ⎠ x+2 = 41 x −1 x+2 =4 x −1 x + 2 = 4(x – 1) x + 2 = 4x – 4 3x = 6 x=2 2 x 2 + 5 x = 36 x 2 + 5 x − 36 = 0 (x + 9)(x – 4) = 0 x = –9 or x = 4 x = –9 does not check because log 6 (−9 + 5) does not exist. The solution set is {6}. Section 3. Inc. log 3 ⎣⎡( x − 5)( x + 3) ⎦⎤ = 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = log 3 9 + 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 + 2 ( x − 5)( x + 3) = 32 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 4 x 2 – 2 x – 15 = 9 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 24 = 0 32 = x + 4 ( x − 6)( x + 4) = 0 9= x+4 x = 6 or x = −4 x = –4 does not check because log 3 (−4 − 5) does not exist. 67. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {3}. 5= x 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − log 2 4 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − 2 log 2 ( x − 1) + log 2 ( x + 1) = 3 log 2 ⎡⎣( x − 1)( x + 1) ⎤⎦ = 3 72. 3= x 73. log 4 ( x + 2 ) − log 4 ( x − 1) = 1 log 3 ( x − 5 ) + log 3 ( x + 3) = 2 71. . 68. The solution set is {4}. log 2 ( x − 6) + log 2 ( x − 4) − log 2 x = 2 log 2 log 2 ( x + 2 ) − log 2 ( x − 5 ) = 3 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟=3 ⎝ x−5⎠ x+2 = 23 x−5 x+2 =8 x−5 x + 2 = 8( x − 5) ( x − 6)( x − 4) =2 x ( x − 6)( x − 4) = 22 x x 2 − 10 x + 24 = 4 x x 2 − 14 x + 24 = 0 x − 12 = 0 or ( x − 12)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {12} since log2 (2−6) = log2 (−4) is not possible.PreCalculus 4E 66. x + 2 = 8 x − 40 7 x = 42 x=6 451 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 log 6 ( x + 5 ) + log 6 x = 2 70. 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 3 log 2 ( x − 1) = 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 23 21 = x − 1 x −1 = 8 x2 = 9 x = 3 or x = –3 x = –3 does not check because log 2 (−3 − 1) does not exist. 2 69.

log(2 x − 1) = log(3x + 9) 2 x − 1 = 3x + 9 79. ( x − 3) x =2 ( x + 2) log x3 = log125 x3 = 125 x − 3x x+2 4( x + 2) = x 2 − 3x 22 = 3log x = log125 2 x=5 81. x+4 = log(5 x + 1) 2 x+4 = 5x + 1 2 x + 4 = 10 x + 2 { }. log(2 x − 1) = log( x + 3) + log 3 84.2 log(5 x + 1) = log(2 x + 3) + log 2 log(5 x + 1) = log(4 x + 6) 5x + 1 = 4x + 6 x=5 x= 83.22 x= log( x + 4) = log x + log 4 log( x + 4) = log 4 x 82. so the solution set is {8} 75. x + 4 = 4x 4 = 3x 4 x= 3 77. log 3x − 3 = 4 x + 4 { }. The solution set is x+7 = log(7 x + 1) 3 x+7 = 7x + 1 3 x + 7 = 21x + 3 −20 x = −4 log(3x − 3) = log(4 x + 4) 78. The solution set is {28}. . The solution set is 2 log x − log 7 = log112 log x 2 − log 7 = log112 log(3x − 3) = log( x + 1) + log 4 −7 = x This value is rejected. Inc. log( x − 2) + log 5 = log100 log(5 x − 10) = log100 5 x − 10 = 100 5 x = 110 2 log x = log 25 x = 22 log x = log 25 2 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 –5 is rejected. 1 5 x ≈ 0. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . x2 = log112 7 x2 = 112 7 x 2 = 784 x = ±28 –28 is rejected. log( x + 7) − log 3 = log(7 x + 1) log ⎧4⎫ This value is rejected. log 2 ( x − 3) + log 2 x − log 2 ( x + 2) = 2 log 2 80. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {5}. 452 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 74. −9 x = −2 2 9 x ≈ 0. ⎩3⎭ 76. −10 = x This value is rejected. 4 x + 8 = x − 3x 2 log( x + 4) − log 2 = log(5 x + 1) log 0 = x − 7x − 8 2 0 = ( x + 1)( x − 8) x +1 = 0 or x−8 = 0 x = −1 x=8 log2 (−1−3) = log2(−4) does not exist.

86. The solution set is {2}. ln x + 3x = 10 2 x + 3 x − 10 = 0 2 ( x + 5)( x − 2) = 0 x = −5 or x = 2 –5 is rejected.4 log x + log( x + 3) = log10 89. Section 3.67 x= log( x 2 + x − 6) = log14 x 2 + x − 6 = 14 x 2 + x − 20 = 0 90. The solution set is { }. ln( x − 2) − ln( x + 3) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 7) x−2 x −1 = ln x+3 x+7 x − 2 x −1 = x+3 x+7 ( x − 2)( x + 7) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) log( x + 3x) = log10 2 x 2 + 5 x − 14 = x 2 + 2 x − 3 3 x = 11 log( x + 3) + log( x − 2) = log14 11 3 x ≈ 3. x −5 x −1 = ln x+4 x+2 x − 5 x −1 = x+4 x+2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = ( x + 4)( x − 1) ln ln( x − 4) + ln( x + 1) = ln( x − 8) ln( x 2 − 3 x − 4) = ln( x − 8) x 2 − 3x − 10 = x 2 + 3x − 4 x 2 − 3x − 4 = x − 8 −6 x = 6 x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 x = −1 –1 is rejected. Inc.05 453 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ln x − 6 = 0 2 ln x = 6 ln x = 3 ln x = 3 x=e x ≈ 20. ln( x − 5) − ln( x + 4) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 2) 91. The solution set is {3}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 87. 1 2 x + 2)+ x = 34 32 x + 2 = 34 2x + 2 = 4 2x = 2 x =1 93.PreCalculus 4E 85. 3x + 2 ⋅ 3x = 81 3( x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x = −1 or x = 3 –1 is rejected. ( x + 5)( x − 4) = 0 x = −5 or x = 4 –5 is rejected. ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x=2 2 is rejected.09 3 or ln x = −3 x = e −3 x ≈ 0. The solution set is {4}. The solution set is { }. 88. 52 x ⋅ 54 x = 125 52 x + 4 x = 53 ⎛1⎞ log 2 ( x − 1) − log 2 ( x + 3) = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝x⎠ x −1 ⎛1⎞ = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ log 2 x+3 ⎝x⎠ x −1 1 = x+3 x x2 − x = x + 3 56 x = 53 6x = 3 x= 92.

56 ln 5 x=± 97. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 98. x2 + 5x = 3 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − 2 ln x = 0 x= ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − ln x = 0 2 ln 3 =0 x( x + 5) (2 x + 1)( x − 3) =0 x2 (2 x + 1)( x − 3) = e0 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 =1 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 = x2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2 x + 5x − 3 = 0 2a −(5) ± (5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) −5 ± 37 2 −5 + 37 x= ≈ 0.86 ln 3 x=± −(−5) ± (−5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 5 ± 37 2 5 + 37 x= ≈ 5.54 2 −5 − 37 x= ≈ −5.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 94. 2 ⎩⎪ ⎭⎪ x= x2 − 5x − 3 = 0 454 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ x = 10−2 x = 0. Inc. ln 3 − ln( x + 5) − ln x = 0 ln 96. 3 log x − 6 = 0 x= 3 log x = 6 log x = 2 log x = 2 or log x = −2 2(1) x= 2 3x = 45 2 ln 3x = ln 45 x 2 ln 3 = ln 45 ln 45 x2 = ln 3 ln 45 ≈ ±1.54 2 5 − 37 x= ≈ −0.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. x2 5 = 50 3 x( x + 5) 3 1= x( x + 5) x( x + 5) = 3 e0 = 2 ln 5 x = ln 50 x 2 ln 5 = ln 50 ln 50 x2 = ln 5 ln 50 ≈ ±1.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ −5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.01 x = 102 x = 100 95.

0183 The population of Texas will reach 27 million about 9 years after 2005.0126t ln 36.975) x ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 1 = 20(0.1 40 ln 36. 5x 5 5 Section 3.1).0183t ln 22.975 ln 20 3 ln 20 x= ln 0. 4x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 b.4 2 −12 x 2 −12 x 2 −12 102. or 2014.1 ≈8 t= 0.1 The population of California was 36.975) x 3 = 0.975 x 20 1 = ln 0.975) x 40 = e0. 2005 is 0 years after 2005.0183t 27 = 22. x = −2 The solution set is {−2. A = 36. 455 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0126 The population of California will reach 40 million about 8 years after 2005.1 million in 2005.1 40 0.0126t 104. b. a. = 252 x = (5 =5 A = 22.975) x Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 1 = 0.975 x ≈ 118 There is 1% of surface sunlight at 118 feet.1 40 = ln e0.9 The population of Texas was 22. 6} . Publishing as Prentice Hall.0183t = ln 22.0183t Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 2005 is 0 years after 2005. .9 27 = ln e0.975 x ≈ 75 There is 3% of surface sunlight at 75 feet.9 million in 2005.1e0. Inc. a. 100. 101.975 ln 20 1 ln 20 x= ln 0.1e0. 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 = 92 x = ( 32 ) 2x = 34 x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 103.9 ≈ 9 0. This is represented by the point (75.0126t 36. f ( x) = 20(0. x = −2 The solution set is {−2.975 x ln 20 3 = x ln 0. f ( x) = 20(0.9e0.0126t 40 = 36.0126(0) = 36. ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 27 = e0.9e0. This is represented by the point (118.3).975 x 20 3 = ln 0.9e0.0183(0) = 22. A = 22.9 27 ln t = 22.PreCalculus 4E 99.9e0.1e0.0126t A = 36. or 2013 3 = 20(0. A = 36.975 x ln 20 1 = x ln 0. 6} .0126t = ln 36.0183t 22.1e0.0183t ) 2 2x A = 22.9 27 0.

014375) 4t = ln1.2 4 ln1.8 360 ⎝ ⎠ 4t ln(1.8% ln e7 r = ln 3 7r = ln 3 r= ln 3 ≈ 0.5 2r = ln1.6 t= r ⎞ ⎛ 9000 = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 108.08t = ln 2 360⋅2 ln 2 0. 500(1.4 720 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1. .4 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 720 e ln(1+ r 360 ) 1+ =e r = e(ln1.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = e(ln1. r= (ln1. 20.4) / 720) − 1 111.6 106.00541667 107.2 years r ⎞ ln1. 000 = 12.0575 ⎞ 105.8 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 1440 12 t ⎛ 0.147 14.00541667) = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ (1.7 The amount would double in 8.08 t ≈ 8. 000 4t ln(1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ⎛ 0. 12.2 years 12 ln1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 years.4 360 ⎝ ⎠ 110.014375 8.168 e7 r = 3 16. 000 = 7250 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 12 t 7250(1.014375) 4t = 1.8) /1440 − 1 ≈ 0.4 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 720 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.005416667)12t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ ⎛ 60 ⎞ 12t ln(1.014375) 4t = 20.08t = ln 2 0. t= 720 = 1. 000 = 8000e r ⋅ 2 e 2 r = 1.8 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = ln1. 000 ln 1+ r e ( 360 ) = e(ln1.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.005416667)12t = r ⎞ ⎛ 1400 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 109.065 ⎞ 15. Inc. = 1.08t = 2 ln e0.4) / 720 ln1.3% r = e(ln1.7% ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ t= ≈ 11. 000 = 8000e 0.5 ln e 2 r = ln1. 500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12.5 r ⎞ ln1.7% 456 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 1440 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.157 7 15.6 1440 ln1.4) / 720 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.005416667) = 15.08t e0.014375) = ln1. ( 360 ⋅ 4 ) 1440 r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ (1.6 ≈ 8.203 2 20.5 ≈ 0.8) /1440 1+ 60 29 ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln(1.000 16. accumulated amount = 2(8000) = 16. accumulated amount = 3(2350) = 7050 7050 = 2350er ⋅7 ≈ 0.

f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2.6 = 10−2. 40 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 45 log 2 x = 1. a. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x −5.0. This overestimates the value shown in the graph by 1%. pH = − log x 2.6 = − log x 87 = 8 + 38ln x 114. 457 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0 ≈ x (9. 50) P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 116. 87% of new cellphones will have cameras 8 years after 2002.6 79 = ln x 38 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−5. 10−2. 95 30 c.4 2006 is 4 years after 2002.2 10 The concentration of the acidic rainfall in part (b) is 103.0425t = 697 ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln e0.4 −5. This underestimates the value shown in the graph by 2%. Inc.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ 0.8 Only half the students recall the important features of the lecture after 2. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x 100 = 8 + 38ln x 92 = 38 ln x 92 = ln x 38 x= 92 e 38 x ≈ 11 If the trend continues. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x log 2 x = f (5) = 8 + 38 ln 5 ≈ 69 According to the function. a. 425e0. or 2013.5 ≈ 2.8 days.5 x = 21.5 years 0. .4 mole per liter.6 mole per liter. P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 115.0425t 1000 e0. 0 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 95 2007 is 5 years after 2002. 61% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2006.4 = − log x −2. b. (2.4 = log x x = 10−2.6 = log x 79 = 38 ln x x = 10−5. or 2010.0425 113.2 times greater than the normal rainfall in part (a). a. pH = − log x 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 112.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 697 ⎠ t= ⎝ ≈ 8. 95 2 30 = x 9. 79 x = e 38 b. b.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 69% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2007.4 −( −5. 0) 117. x≈8 If the trend continues. 000 = 17.8. 25. 100% of new cellphones will have cameras 11 years after 2002.6) = 103. f (4) = 8 + 38 ln 4 ≈ 61 According to the function.

Verify: x = 4 123. 124.3) = 101. The intersection point is (4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10 The concentration of the acidic stomach in part (b) is 101. 2). 119. 8). Verify x = 1: 3x +1 = 9 pH = − log x b. 3 11 Verify: x = 3 11 ⎛ ⎞ log 3 ⎜ 3 ⋅ − 2 ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ log 3 (11-2) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {113} . 1 = − log x −1 = log x x = 10 31+1 = 9 32 = 9 −1 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−1 mole per liter. The intersection point is (2.3 9=9 The solution set is {1}. – 122.3 = − log x −2. a.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions pH = − log x 118.3 mole per liter. 9).3 times greater than the lemon juice in part (a). {1} The intersection point is (1. −2. = 10−1−( −2. 10−1 c. Answers may vary. Inc. 2. Verify: x = 2 2 2 x +1 =8 2 +1 =2 126.3 = log x x = 10−2. log 3 (4 ⋅ 4 − 7) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {4}. ( ) The intersection point is 11 . 23 = 8 8=8 The solution set is {2}. 2 .3 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2. 458 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .3 125.

Verify x ≈ −1.2167879803 ≈ 0.291641. 29 = 0. leveling off at about 30 inches of mercury.291641 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 5x = 3x + 4 1=1 The solution set is {2}. Verify: x = 2 There are 2 points of intersection. 51. 1. The intersection point is (2. 6. barometric air pressure increases.8379416). The intersection point is (20.3711158).391606.5 miles from the eye of a hurricane.2793139}. There are 2 points of intersection.391606) + 3 0. 131.216788 Verify x ≈ 1.8379417 The solution set is {–1.6855579) + 3 6. 459 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6855579. 5−1.12507831) and log(2 + 3) + log 2 = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 (1.37111582 ≈ 6. The point of intersection is approximately (63.48ln( x + 1) + 27 0.125077 Verify:x ≈ 1.6855579}. 129.2793139. 2). 7.5. 0.21678798) and (1.24 1 e ln( x +1) = e 0.6855579 ≈ 2(1.2793139 = 3(1. As the distance from the eye increases.2793139 128.391606 3x = 2x + 3 3-1.24 x +1 = e 1 x=e 1 0.24 − 1 ≈ 63.6855579 3x = 2x + 3 31.2793139) + 4 7.837941942 ≈ 7. Verify x = 20: log (x – 15) + log x = 2 log (20 – 15) + log 20 = 2 log 5 + log 20 = 2 log 100 = 2 100 = 102 100 = 100 The solution set is {20}. approximately (–1. 130.291641 = 3(−1. 132.5 The barometric air pressure is 29 inches of mercury at a distance of about 63.4 127.1250782178 ≈ 0. 29).391606 ≈ 2(−1.24 0.371158 The solution set is {–1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.48ln( x + 1) = 2 1 ln( x + 1) = 0. . 0. 1.291641. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Verify:x ≈ −1. approximately (−1.391606.291641) + 4 0. 1). Inc.

Changes to make the statement true will vary.05 ⎠ The accounts will have the same balance in about 36 years. Account paying 3% interest: 1⋅t ⎛ 0.9 minutes.9.5 ⎝ 1.10076749 The runner’s pulse will be 70 beats per minute after about 7.71 is not an exponential equation. 2 x = 16 2 x = 24 x=4 136. so it will take about 7.092(7. does not make sense. and 10 = 2 x + 5 .03 ⎞ t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.05 ⎞ A = 2000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ The two accounts will have the same balance when 4000(1. 2 x = 15 (1.05 ⎠ ln 0. false.03)t = 0. does not make sense. 142. 7x + 3 ⎛ 7x + 3 ⎞ 4 then log ⎜ ⎟ = 4. A sample change is: x10 = 5. When P = 70. because there is not a variable in an exponent.03)t = 2000(1. Sample explanation: The first equation is solved by rewriting it in exponential form. true 134. Changes to make the statement true will vary.5 ⎝ 1. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: If log ( x + 3) = 2.03 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.5(1. false.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 137. 2 = 16 can be solved by rewriting 16 as 24.9 minutes. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Verify: 70 = 45e −0.05)t ln 2 x = ln15 x ln 2 = ln15 ln15 x= ln 2 t ⎛ 1. makes sense 139.05 ⎠ ⎛ 1. A sample change is: If log ( 7 x + 3) − log ( 2 x + 5 ) = 4. then 102 = x + 3.03 ⎞ A = 4000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ Account paying 5% interest: An adult female elephant weighing 1800 kilograms is about 20 years old. t ≈ 7. Sample x ⎛ 0. Explanations will vary. false. Explanations will vary. 143. 141.5 ⎝ 1.05)t x explanation: 2 = 15 requires logarithms. 2 x + 5 ⎝ ⎠ 70 ≈ 70.5 t= ≈ 36 ⎛ 1. 138.9) 140. 460 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.05 ⎠ t ⎛ 1. . 1⋅t 135. The second equation is solved by using the one-to-one property of logarithms. Inc.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0. makes sense 133.

003(2) ≈ 9.3890566099.97 million x = 10 10 2008: A = 10e−0. 1 100 A = 10e−0.003(1) ≈ 9. .4 (ln x) 2 = ln x 2 144.94 million ⎧ 1 ⎫ .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 2006: A = 10e−0.003(0) = 10 million 2007: A = 10e−0.003t a. e 2 } . ln(ln x) = 0 eln(ln x ) = e0 ln x = 1 eln x = e1 x=e The solution set is {e}.91 million b.003(3) ≈ 9. Check by direct substitution: Check:x = 10 10 = 103 / 2 (log x)(2log x + 1) = 6 (ln x) = 2 ln x 2 (ln x ) − 2 ln x = 0 ln x(ln x − 2) = 0 ln x = 2 ln x = 0 eln x = e 2 or x =1 x = e2 The solution set is {1. 10 10 ⎬ . The population is decreasing. e2} as determined algebraically. 148. Publishing as Prentice Hall.718. (log x)(2 log x + 1) = 6 2(log x) 2 + log x − 6 = 0 (2 log x − 3)(log x + 2) = 0 2 log x − 3 = 0 or log x + 2 = 0 2 log x = 3 log x = −2 log x = 3 2 x = 10 The graph of ln(ln(x)) crosses the graph y = 0 at approximately 2. 0) and approximately (7. An exponential function is the best choice. The solution set is ⎨⎩100 ⎭ 2009: A = 10e−0. 4). 461 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3890561. x = 10−2 3 2 x= 147. the graph verifies x = 1 and x = e2. 145. 2 ( log10 ) (2 log10 3/ 2 3/ 2 + 1) = 6 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 ⋅ + 1⎟ = 6 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (3 + 1) = 6 ⎝2⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (4) = 6 ⎝2⎠ 6=6 Check with graphing utility: 146. Inc. Since e2 ≈ 7. There are two points of intersection: (1. so the solution set is {1.

The limiting size of the proportion of correct responses as continued learning trials take place is 0.5 Check Point Exercises 1. or 2044.4. b.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 149. Since 2006 is 16 years after 1990. 1 6 ln e −0. a. Substitute 60 for A0 and 10 for A in the model from part (a) and solve for t.021t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 643 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0. 2.8 f (0) = = 0.021t a. ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 0. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain. 462 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c. A0 = 643 .0248t = 1 6 1 −0. A0 for A since the amount present 2 after 28 years is half the original amount. b. eln 3 = 3 A0 = A0 e k ⋅28 2 1 e 28 k = 2 1 ln e 28 k = ln 2 1 28k = ln 2 ln1/ 2 k= ≈ −0. T = C + (To – C)ekt 2000 = e0. A = 643e0. f (t ) = a.2(10) The proportion of correct responses after 10 learning trials was 0. 0.0248 28 So the exponential decay model is A = A0 e −0.021t . when t = 16 . A = A0 ekt 906 = 643ek (16) 906 = e16k 643 ⎛ 906 ⎞ 16 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 643 ⎠ e = −0.8 f (10) = ≈ 0.0248 The strontium-90 will decay to a level of 10 grams about 72 years after the accident.021 k= ⎝ 16 Thus. (e ) ln 3 x = 3x e(ln 3) x = 3x Section 3. 2000 = 643e0. A = 906.0248t = ln 6 ln 16 t= ≈ 72 −0. In the logistic growth model. a.0248t In the exponential decay model A = A0 e kt . substitute 4.2(0) The proportion of correct responses prior to learning trials was 0.8.4 1 + e −0. . The time prior to learning trials corresponds to t = 0.021 Africa’s population will reach 2000 million approximately 54 years after 1990.021t ⎝ 643 ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 54 t= ⎝ 0. the growth function is A = 643e0.0248t = ln ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 16k ⎝ 643 ⎠ b.7 1 + e−0.7.0248t eln 3 = 3 b.021t 3. Inc. a.021t 643 ⎛ 2000 ⎞ 0. Substitute 10 for t in the model: 0. c . 10 = 60e −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

463 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the temperature will be 48o. Because the data in the scatter plot increase rapidly at first and then begin to level off.0673t 7.0673 ≈ k Because the data in the scatter plot appear to increase more and more rapidly.027( 0 ) A = 26.0673t ln 14 1 ln 14 = t −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 = e −0. Scatter plot: Exercise Set 3. Thus.0673t ln 14 1 = −0.8) x .4% per year.0673t b. 4. 3. Inc.8 In 2006.5 80 = 30 + (100 − 30)e k5 80 = 30 + 70e 5k 50 = 70 e 6.5 (1) A = 127. 35 = 30 + 70e—0. 5. the shape suggests that a logarithmic function is a good choice for modeling the data. a = 4. Since k = −0.027t A = 26. y = 4(7.8.7% per year. 5k 5 = e 5k 7 5 ln = ln e 5 k 7 5 ln = 5 k 7 5 ln 7 =k 5 −0.5 1. the model is approximately equivalent to y = 4e2.8) x in terms of a natural logarithm.5e 0. c.5e0 A = 127.054 x . the shape suggests that an exponential function is a good choice for modeling the data. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006. T = 30 + 70e-0. find A when t = 0 : A = 26. For y = 4(7.8 million.001( 0 ) A = 127.0673 39 ≈ t The temperature will reach 35o after 39 min.8 (1) A = 26. the population of Iraq was 26.8e0 A = 26.5e0.0673t 5 = 70 e −0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. T = 30 + 70e −0. find A when t = 0 : A = 127.0673t 14 1 = ln e −0. Scatter plot: 2. b = 7.004 .0673(20) ≈ 48o After 20 minutes. the population of Japan was 127.001t A = 127. .5 In 2006.8e 0.8e0. Rounded to three decimal places. y = ab x is equivalent to y = ae(ln b ) x . Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006. Russia has a decreasing population. Iraq has the greatest growth rate at 2.8)x is equivalent to y = 4e(ln 7. The population is dropping at of 0.5 million.

014t 1095.014 The population of India will be 1238 million approximately 9 years after 2006.2 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 3. or 2015.4 1238 ln = 0.01t 6.026t = 10 = 6.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 6. 9 = 6. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.7 The population is projected to be 118.01t .2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3. A0 = 3.04 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0.014t 1095.01t b. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040 8.1e0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. or 2024. A = 10 .4 1238 ln 1095.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6.2 . Substitute A = 1416 into the model for India and solve for t: 1416 = e0.01t ⎝ 6. A = A0 e kt 12 = 3.014t 7. the growth function is A = 6. 464 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Substitute A = 1238 into the model for India and solve for t: 1238 = 1095.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0.04e k (50) 10 = e50 k 6.014t 1095.04 ⎠ k= ⎝ ≈ 0.1e0.014t 1095.0147t P(18) = 91.01 50 Thus. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.026t = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3.04 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0. 9 = e0. the growth function is A = 3.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5.04 ⎠ 0.014t 1238 = e0. 6.2 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0.0147(18) P(18) = 91. . so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040. 2000 + 40 = 2040.014t 1095.014t 1095. a.4 1416 ln 1095. A = A0 ekt 3.4e0. Inc.04 . A = 12 .4 t= ≈9 0. A0 = 6.2 9 ⎞ ln e0.014 The population of India will be 1416 million approximately 18 years after 2006.4 t= ≈ 18 0.026t = 9 9 3. 9. 2000 + 40 = 2040.04 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0.7 million in 2025.4e b. a.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.04e0.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 3.01t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6.2e0. when t = 50 .04 ⎛ 10 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6.2ek (50) 12 = e50 k 3.2e0. ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6.4 1416 ln = ln e0.0147(18) ≈ 118.04e0. P( x) = 91.026t . e0. when t = 50 .4 1416 ln = 0.4 1238 ln = ln e0.026t = ln ⎛⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3.026 Now.1e0.026 k= ⎝ 50 Thus. 1416 = 1095.01 Now.2 ⎠ ≈ 0.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 7.000121t A = 16e −0.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.3e18k 6.0 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6. P( x) = 44.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.430 years.4ekt 55.000121(5715) A = 16e −0.4 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 19. A = 16e −0.4 ⎠ ⎛ 32. A = 16e −0.3 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 7.4 ⎛ 32.01 Approximately 4 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 11.7e0.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0. 465 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 = e18k 44. 15. P(18) = 164.PreCalculus 4E 10.4 = 19.0121.01 Approximately 8 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 5715 years.0053.3ekt 6.000121t A = 16e −0.0e18k 40.4e18k 32. P( x) = 7.3 18k =e 7.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.0053 The growth rate is –0.3 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.0ekt 14. P(18) = 164.5 The population is projected to be 218.7e0.4ekt 32.0 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 44.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 19.5 million in 2025.0285.4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 32.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.38303 A ≈ 4.4 18k =e 19.0157t 13.0 18k =e 44.0082 The growth rate is –0.4e18k 55.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 19.2 = 44.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.691515 A ≈ 8.0082.3 ⎛ 6. 12. Section 3.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.000121(11430) A = 16e −1.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 7. Inc.0 ⎠ ⎛ 40. 11.5 P( x) = 164.0 ⎛ 40.2 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 44. P( x) = 44. 16. .0 = 44.0285 The growth rate is 0.0157(18) ≈ 218.7e0. P( x) = 19.4 ⎛ 55.0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 40.0157(18) 40.0121 The growth rate is 0.3 = 7.

000 years. there will be 16 ⋅ 0.000 years.5 =t −0.0 years.5 = 17. 0. 0.055t ln 0.000121t ln 0. the skeletons were approximately 1056 years old. After 125.0 The half-life is 11. 0.5 = e4560 k ln 0.000 years.5k ln 0. 19.15 t= ≈ 15.5 k ≈ −0.055 t ≈ 12.5 = ekt 0. 23.063t ln 0. After 10 seconds.000121t 88 = e −0.000 years.5 =k 17. there will be 16 ⋅ ln 0.88 t= ≈ 1056 −0.055t ln 0.000121 In 1989.000121t A = A0 e 0. there 2 1 will be 2 ⋅ = 1 gram present.5 = ln e4560 k ln 0.000121t 15 = e −0. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present. 2 2 21. 2 2 After 25.039608 The decay rate is 3.000121t ln 0. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present. 20.5 =k 1620 k ≈ −0. After 40 seconds. there will 2 1 be 2 ⋅ = 1 grams present.000121t 100 ln 0.5 = 1620k A = A0 e −0. After 75.000428 The decay rate is 0.5 = 4560k −0. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present.5 = ln e1620 k ln 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 17.5 = e −0.88 = −0.6 years. 18.5 =k 4560 k ≈ −0. 0.5 = e17.5 = e kt 24.5 = ln e−0. After 100.15 = ln e −0.5 = ln e −0.000121t ln 0.15 = −0. 88 = 100e −0.5 = ekt 0.5 = −0. there 2 1 1 will be 1 ⋅ = gram present. After 50 seconds.055t ln 0.000121t ln 0.000 years. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present.000121 The paintings are approximately 15.88 = ln e −0.000121t ln 0.5 = e kt 0. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present.5k ln 0.5 = e1620 k ln 0. After 30 seconds. Inc. 25.063t ln 0. After 50. 679 −0. 15 = 100e−0. 2 1 1 there will be 1 ⋅ = gram present. 22.5 =t −0.063t ln 0.000152 The decay rate is 0.9608% per day. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5k ln 0. After 20 seconds.0152% per year.000121t 100 ln 0.5 = ln e17.5 = −0. 466 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 = e −0.5 = ekt 0. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present.063 t ≈ 11.6 The half-life is 12.679 years old. .0428% per year.

PreCalculus 4E Section 3.000094t 0.6134% per hour.031507t ln 0.2 = ln e−0.000094t Next use the decay equation answer question.000094 t ≈ 17121.5 = ln e7340 k ln 0.1069 −0.006134 The decay rate is 0. 1 = 1e k 1.031507t 0.52912t 0. a.8 = −0.5 = e113k 0.000094 ln 0.1 years. 467 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.52912t ln 0. 29.5 = 7340k ln 0. 27.31 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.8 = ln e−0. 0.900.1069 billion or 106.5 = 22k ln 0.2 = e−0.7 It will take 17121.5 =k 113 k ≈ −0.52912t ln 0.2 =t −0.31k 2 1 ln k = 2 ≈ −0.1 It will take 7.031507 t ≈ 7.5 = 113k ln 0.5 =k 22 k ≈ −0.5 = e22 k 0.5 = ekt 0.5 = ln e113k ln 0. First find the decay equation.5 = e7340k ln 0.7 years. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 =t −0.52912 The age of the dinosaur ones is approximately 0.945 = −0.8 = e−0.5 28.31 2 1 ln = ln e1. A = e−0. First find the decay equation.2 = −0.52912 t 0.945 t= ≈ 0. Inc. A = e−0.52912t ln 0. 0.031507 ln 0.5 =k 7340 k ≈ −0.5 = ekt −0.000094t ln 0.000 years old. A = e−0.945 A0 = A0 e 0.945 = ln e −0. . b.5 = ekt 26.031507t ln 0. A = e−0.000094t ln 0.52912t .031507t Next use the decay equation answer question.000094t ln 0.31k 2 1 ln = 1. A = A0 e −0.945 = e−0.52912 1.5 = ln e22k ln 0.031507t ln 0.

7 = e−0. ln 3 years. First find the decay equation. k A = A0 ekt 3 A0 = A0 ekt ln 0. 0.019254t 34. 31. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 36k 2 A0 = A0 e kt ln 0.019254t ln 0.9 = −0.019254t ln 0.019254 t ≈ 5.0673t 10 1 ln 10 t= ≈ 34. A = A0 e kt 1000 = 1400e k 5 1000 = e5k 1400 5 ln = 5k 7 5 ln k = 7 ≈ −0.057762t 0. 3 = e kt ln 3 = ln e kt ln 3 = kt t= ln 3 k The population will triple in t = 468 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 =k 12 k ≈ −0.019254t 0. 100 = 1000e −0.057762 t ≈ 6.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 30.057762t ln 0.5 It will take 5.7 =t −0.0673t 100 = e −0.7 = ln e−0.9 = e−0.0673 5 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.5 = 36k ln 0.019254t Next use the decay equation answer question.5 = e36k 33.5 hours.057762t Next use the decay equation answer question. k . (This is 39 years from the time the population was 1400.0673 The population will drop below 100 birds approximately 34 years from now.057762t ln 0. The population will double in t = 2 = e kt t= ln 2 k A = e−0.5 = ekt 0.5 = ln e12 k ln 0.9 =t −0.057762t ln 0.5 = e12k ln 0.2 It will take 6.057762 A = e−0.2 hours.2 −0.7 = −0.5 = ln e ln 0.) A = e−0.0673t .019254 ln 2 = ln e kt ln 2 = kt A = e−0.5 =k 36 k ≈ −0. ln 2 years.0673t 10 1 ln = −0.5 = 12k ln 0.0673t 1000 1 ln = ln e −0.9 = ln e−0. 32.5 = ekt 0. 0. First find the decay equation.

027 x ≈ 63 The world population will reach 7 billion 63 years after 1949.027(57) The function models the data very well.5 1 + 3. Section 3.48e −0.82 f (54) = ≈ 6.027 x = ln 26.82 ln 30.01t ln 2 ≈ 69 0. t= c.4 = 107.82 1 + 3.82 f ( 4) = 30.82 1 + 3.027( x ) = ln 2 = ln e0. k = 0.000 people.01t ln 2 = ln e0.027(51) The function models the data very well. or 2012.82 1 + 3.81e −0.67 x= −0.67 4.1e0. t= 36.67e −0.027( x ) = 3.82 −0.48e −0. so Mexico’s growth rate is 1.012t 4.82 ln e −0. a. .81e −0.027( x ) = 11.012t 37.82 ln 26.012 .4e0.012 Mexico’s population will double in approximately 58 years.01t a.48 x= −0.81e −0. A = 107.82 3.48 3.81e −0.PreCalculus 4E 35.82 30.81e −0. 41. b.82 8= 1 + 3.82 f ( x) = 26.012t b.81e −0.027( x ) 11. 000 ≈ 1080 1 + 5. 000e −4 About 1080 people were ill at the end of the fourth week.012t a.027( x ) = In the logistic growth model.027( x ) = ln 26. A = 107. f ( x) = 7 + 26. or 2026. The limiting size of the population that becomes ill is 100.027( x ) 11.82 −0.027( x ) ) = 11.81e −0. 40. 100. 11.01t 2 ⋅ 4. 469 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.027( x ) 11. 11.82 k = 0. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain. 000 f (0) = ≈ 20 1 + 5000e0 Twenty people became ill when the epidemic began. so New Zealand’s growth rate is 1%.1e0.027( x ) 8 (1 + 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.82 1 + 3. 2 ⋅107. 0.82 7= 1 + 3.82 26.48 3. 100. 38. c f (t ) = .027 x = ln 30. t = 0.027( x ) 11.012t ln 2 ≈ 58 0.2%.01t ln 2 = 0. 11. A = 4.0 1 + 3.01 .81e −0.82 f (51) = ≈ 6.027( x ) 7 (1 + 3.027 x ≈ 77 The world population will reach 8 billion 77 years after 1949. f ( x) = When the epidemic began.01t 2=e 39.67e −0.48 3.1e0.82 2 = e0.82 f ( x) = 8 + 30.027( x ) = 4.1 = 4. b. 11.027( x ) = 11.67 4.4e0.82 −0. Inc.012t ln 2 = 0.027( x ) ) = 11.4e0.027( x ) ln e = ln 30.67 4.81e −0.01 New Zealand’s population will double in approximately 69 years. e −0.81e −0. e −0.5 A = 4.

1004 ≈ k T = 70 + 380e−0.5 (1 + 271e −0.82 billion.8 −0.0916t 5 = 25e−0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42.0916t 1 = e−0. the temperature will be 51o.0916 ≈ k 90 ≈ 3.122 = e 1897 2 −0.7 1 + 271e −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.122t ) = 0.8 e −0. 23 = e5k 38 23 = ln e5k ln 38 23 = 5k ln 38 23 ln 38 = k 5 −0.7%. This will make e −0. 0.122t = 1.122 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 50% at about age 48. 43. f ( x) = 2 10k =e 5 2 ln = ln e10k 5 2 ln = 10k 5 2 ln 5 =k 10 −0. Thus.0916t b.0916t 5 1 ln 5 =t −0.8 −0. Inc. the exponent of e will decrease.9 c.027( x ) become very close to 0 and make the denominator become very close to 1. 1 + 271e −0. P(80) = T = 45 + 25e−0.5 = 1 + 271e−0. 90 1 + 271e−0.122t = ln 271 0.6 1 + 271e −0. 45.82 1 + 3.122 x = 70 2 271e−0.122t = 0.122 x = 7 2 − x 0. 47.122 x ≈ 56 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 70% at about age 56.0916(15) ≈51o After 15 minutes. 55 = 45 + (70 – 45)ek10 10 = 25e10k 48. T = 70 + 380ke-0. . T = 45 + 25e-0.122 t ln e = ln 271 0. P(20) = 90 ≈ 88.0916t 5 1 ln = ln e−0.8 70 = 50 = 45 + 25e—0. 470 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1004t b. a.1004(20) ≈ 121o After 20 minutes.0916t 5 1 ln = −0.122 x = ln 1897 2 ln 1897 x= −0.122 x ) = 90 90 1 + 271e−0.8 ln 271 t= ≈ 48 −0.122 x T = C + (To – C)ekt 300 = 70 + (450 − 70)ek 5 230 = 380e5k 70(1 + 271e−0.122t = 271 0.0916 18 ≈ t The temperature will reach 50o after 18 min. 271e −0.027( x ) As x increases.81e −0.122(80) The probability that an 80-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 88.122t 0.8 0. the limiting size of this function is 11. 46. 44.122(20) The probability that a 20-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 3. the temperature will be 121o.6%.9 0. 11. a.

1004 17 ≈ t The temperature will reach 140o after 17 min.0239t 51.0158t 41 20 = ln e −0. −25 = e−0.0158 45 ≈ t The temperature will reach 45o after 45 min. Section 3.1004t ln 38 7 ln 38 = t −0.0239t −47 25 = ln e−0. −35 = −41e10k 35 10k =e 41 35 = ln e10k ln 41 35 = 10k ln 41 35 ln 41 = k 10 −0.1004t ln 38 7 = −0.0239t ln 47 17 ln 47 = t −0. 471 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0239 26 = t The temperature will reach 50o after 26 min.0158 ≈ k T = 65 − 41e−0. T = C + (To – C)ekt 30 = 65 + (24 − 65)ek10 50. 49.0158t ln 41 20 ln 41 = t −0.0239t −25 = −47e−0. a.0239t 20 = e−0. Inc.1004t 70 = 380e−0.1004t 7 = e−0. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. 50 = 75 − 47e−0.0158t T = C + (To – C)ekt 38 = 75 + (28 − 75)ek10 45 = 65 – 41e—0.0239 ≈ k T = 75 − 47e−0.1004t 38 7 = ln e−0. .PreCalculus 4E c.0158t ln 41 20 = −0.0158t −37 = −47e10k −37 10k =e −47 37 = ln e10k ln 47 37 = 10k ln 47 37 ln 47 = k 10 −0. b.0158t −20 = −41e−0.5 140 = 70 + 380e—0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0239t ln 47 25 = −0.

the model fits the data fairly well.901.6 ≈ –0. . Using ln 0.3)x is equivalent to y = 1000e( ln 7. 59. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.6) x .988 x .7 ≈ −0. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. a.5(0. b. 52. the model fits the data well.011) x y = 200. the population of the United States is increasing by about 1% each year. a. Using ln 4. a. but not great.097 .5e( ln 0.5e −0.3) x . y = 200.3 ≈ 1. 70.9 (1.5e −0. 58.6) x . y = 2. the model fits the data okay. The linear model is y = 2.357 x . y = 100e1. y = 2.6)x is equivalent to y = 100e( ln 4. Since r ≈ 0. b. b.5e( ln 0.511.9e( 54. 55. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7)x is equivalent to y = 2.6 ≈ 1. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 56. Answers may vary. x Since r ≈ 0. – 67.011) y = 200.999 is very close to 1.9e0. 472 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The exponential model is y = 200. the model fits the data very well. The logarithmic model is y = 193.654 x + 198. 68.0109 . The power regression model is y = 195. y = 4.526 x . 53. y = 4. a. Since r = 0.997 is close to 1.6)x is equivalent to y = 4. Using ln 0. Using ln 7.574 ln x .357. Inc.7 ) x .011) .526.511x .9 (1. y = 1000(7. b. x ln1.0109 x Since k = . 71. 57. Since r = 0.015 .878 is fairly close to 1. 69.988.5(0.871x0. y = 100(4.16 + 23. y = 1000e1.

512.402 (1. 473 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the model of best fit is the exponential b. 76.011) ⎝ 200. Both results are reasonably close to the result found in Example 1 (2010).985 = 2.46(1. population will reach 315 million around the year 2010. According to the linear model. Sample models are provided 315 x = (1.7 (1. Explanations will vary.015 . Models and predictions will vary. .654 x + 198. x y = 3. a. the U. Using the exponential model: 315 = 200.654 x + 198. Growth rate measures how fast a population is growing relative to that population. makes sense 79.011) 1969 + 41 = 2010 Using the linear model: y = 2.056 ) ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = x ln (1.985 x= ≈ 44 2. r ≈ 0.S. r ≈ 0. does not make sense. 77.654 1969 + 44 = 2013 According to the exponential model. Thus.078 ) x Exercise 52: y = 2896. Inc.S. the better model is y = 3.424 ln x 75.015 116.947 The exponential model has an r value closer to 1.011) .9 ⎠ Exercise 51: y = 1. the growth rate is negative.46e0. x 74.654 x + 198.02 ) x y = 3. makes sense 78.46(1.9 ⎛ 315 ⎞ x ln ⎜ = ln (1. Explanations will vary. Using r. population will reach 315 million around the year 2013.994 Logarithmic Regression: y = 14.5 72.9 ⎠ ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ 200. r ≈ 0.46e( The model of second best fit is the linear model y = 2.015 315 = 2.343ln x Exercise 54: y = −11. true 80.9 (1.9 ⎟⎠ x= ⎝ ≈ 41 ln (1.02 x The 65-and-over population is increasing by approximately 2% each year. Explanations will vary.011) ⎟ ⎝ 200. the U. true Exponential Regression: 82. Sample explanation: This is not necessarily so.011) 200.557 x − 10. y = 3. true y = 3.9 (1.02) x . does not make sense. true 81. Sample explanation: Since the car’s value is decreasing (depreciating). It does not indicate how the size of a population compares to the size of another population.654 x 116.972.02) x x Exercise 53: y = 120 + 4.011) ln1.02) x .673 Linear Regression: y = 0.46(1. 73. model y = 200.752ln x − 26.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.629 + 13. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

or 8:22 am. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x.7 ln = 30k 15. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the yaxis. 3.0069 ≈ k Use k to write equation. so the function is h ( x ) = −4 − x . so the function is g ( x ) = 4− x.6 = 28.6 15.0069 ln 28.6 = t −0. ∞ ) 17π 17π 12π − 2π = − 6 6 6 17π − 12π = 6 5π = 6 474 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use data to find k.7 = 15. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis.7 ln 15. Inc.0069 88 ≈ t The death occurred at 88 minutes before 9:30. ∞ ) ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .0069t 15.0069t 15. 4.0069t ln 28. 84.0069t 28. ⎩8 ⎭ 86.6e−0. 5. − π 12 π 24π + 12 12 −π + 24π = 12 23π = 12 + 2π = − Chapter 3 Review Exercises 1. so the function is r ( x) = −4− x + 3. . range of f = range of g = ( 0. 85.6 12.6 − 70)e−0.6 = 70 + (98.6 = ln e−0.7 = e30k 15.6 − 70)ek 30 12. 87.7 ln = ln e30k 15. 827 = 70 + (85. 2.6 15.6 ln 28.6 15. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis then shifted upward 3 units.6e30k 12.6 = −0.6 = e−0.6 12.6 12.6 = k 30 −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 85. 5π = 2π x 4 5π 2π x = 4 ⋅ 2π 2π 5 =x 8 asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 83. The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit to the right. Answers may vary.

∞ ) range of g = ( −∞.5% compounded semiannually yields the greater return.5% compounded semiannually: 2⋅5 ⎛ 0. ∞ ) 7. . range of f = range of g = ( 0.PreCalculus 4E 6. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0.26 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.16 12 ⎠ ⎝ 5.0525 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6497. Inc. ∞ ) range of f = ( 0.25% compounded monthly: 12⋅5 ⎛ 0. 475 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 range of f = ( 0. Chapter 3 Review Exercises The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit down. ∞ ) The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the y – axis. ∞ ) range of g = ( −1. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 The graph of g(x) vertically stretches the graph of f(x) by a factor of 2. 9. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −1 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. 8. 5.055 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6558. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. 0 ) 10. The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the x – axis.

the temperature of the coffee was about 120°. 25 25 is defined only for x > 0. 30. 12. 13. we conclude ln e5 = 5. the temperature is about 119°. a. log b 625 = 4 18. ∞ ) we conclude log 3 38 = 8. ∞ ) 31. we conclude log17 17 = 1.81 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return. log 4 64 = 3 because 43 = 64. Because log b b = 1. After 20 minutes. 000 ⎜ 1 + ≈ 28. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x reflected about the Because ln e x = x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 6 216 = 3 17. 24.26 ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 6. log13 874 = y 19.0685(10 ) A = 14. 000e ≈ 27. 772. Because logb b x = x. y-axis. 7% compounded monthly: 1 12⋅10 ⎛ 0. 476 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 25. Because log b = 1. . −0.23 Using a calculator. log 3 (log8 8) = log 3 1. 1 because 161/ 2 = 16 = 4. ln 28. The coffee will cool to about 70°. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. The temperature of the room is 70°. So.04855( 20 ) T = 70 + 130e ≈ 119.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. When first taken out of the microwave. so the function is g ( x) = log(− x). log16 4 = 23. 20. log 3 27. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. 491/ 2 = 7 14. 32.07 ⎞ A = 14. 2 22. b. 43 = x 15. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. log 3 (log8 8) = 0. we conclude log8 8 = 1. 1 1 = −2 because 5−2 = . Therefore.85% compounded continuously: 0. log 3 ( −9 ) cannot be evaluated since log b x 26. c.135. log 5 21. Because log b 1 = 0 we conclude log 3 1 = 0. 3 y = 81 16. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. the temperature of the coffee was 200°. Inc. log − 1 1 1 = log 3 1 = log3 3 2 = − 2 3 32 1 = ln e−2 = −2 e2 1 1 = log 3 = log10−3 = −3 1000 10 29.

Inc. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 5 > 0. so the function is r ( x) = 1 + log(2 − x). shifted left 2 units. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. Solving this inequality for x. . x-intercept: (–1. 0 ) 36. so the function is h( x) = log(2 − x) . x-intercept: (2. ∞ ) 37. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x. reflected about the y-axis. ∞ ) 41. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) 477 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = −3 domain of f = ( 0. range: ( −∞. 35. x-intercept: (3. domain of g = ( −3.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 33. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall. then shifted upward one unit. ∞ ) 40. we obtain x > −5. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x 38. Thus the domain of f is ( −5. ∞ ) 39. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: ( 2. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x shifted left 2 units then reflected about the y-axis.

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. 3 log b 7 + log b 3 = log b (7 ⋅ 3) = log b 21 55. Thus. log 3 − 3log x = log 3 − log x 3 c.0. 4. and 12 months. 3 x3 3ln x + 4 ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 4 = ln ( x3 y 4 ) 57. the average score was 76. we obtain x < 1 or x > 1. 6. we conclude e ln x = x. 2 xy 2 = log 2 xy 2 − log 2 64 64 = log 2 x + log 2 y 2 − log 2 64 46. . The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 1)2 > 0. 49. 1 ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 8. 1 ln x − ln y 2 1 = ln x 2 − ln y = ln t= x y 478 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because ln e x = x.98 0.3) . R = log 48. ln 3 x e 1 ⎛ x⎞ = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝e⎠ 1 = [ ln x − ln e] 3 1 1 = ln x − ln e 3 3 1 1 = ln x − 3 3 f ( 0 ) = 76 − 18log ( 0 + 1) = 76 When first given. log 4 52. Because e ln x = x. 51. 63. = log 2 x + 2 log 2 y − 6 1000 I 0 = log1000 = 3 I0 The Richter scale magnitude is 3. the domain of f is ( −∞. log 6 ( 36 x 3 ) = log 6 36 + log 6 x3 = log 6 36 + 3log 6 x = 2 + 3log 6 x 43. we conclude 10log 4 x = 4 x 2 . Thus. we conclude ln e6 x = 6 x. 61. 47. Solving this inequality for x. 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (2) = 76 − 18log ( 2 + 1) ≈ 67 f (4) = 76 − 18log ( 4 + 1) ≈ 63 f (6) = 76 − 18log ( 6 + 1) ≈ 61 f (8) = 76 − 18log ( 8 + 1) ≈ 59 54. respectively. f (12 ) = 76 − 18log (12 + 1) ≈ 56 After 2. the average scores are about 67. 59. = log 56. log 2 x 1 = log 4 x 2 − log 4 64 64 1 = log 4 x − 3 2 44. 45. Because 10log x = x. and 56. Retention decreases as time passes.06 ⎝ 12 − 5 ⎠ It will take about 9 weeks. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. we obtain x < 3. 1) ∪ (1. Solving this inequality for x. a. 53. ∞). Inc. 50. b. the domain of f is (−∞.

863 = log 72.85 67.348 = 59. 2 4 x− 2 = 64 2 4 x −2 = 26 ln e12−5 x = ln130 12–5 x = ln 130 5 x = 12– ln 130 12– ln130 x= ≈ 1.52 ln 8 69. log 2 x 4 = 4 log 2 x 63.143 x= ≈ 4.500 ( 4 x + 2 ) ln 5 = ln 37. true. Inc. 70.143 ln 8x = ln12. 500 − 2 ln 5 x= ≈ 1. log 4 0. 9e5 x = 1269 e5 x = 141 ln 0. log 6 72. false.500 10 x = 7000 66. . e12 − 5 x − 7 = 123 e12−5 x = 130 −x 2 x+4 3 = 3−3 x 2 x + 4 = −3 x 5 x = −4 4 x=− 5 479 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 125 x = 25 (5 ) 3 x = 52 71.500 4 x ln 5 = ln 37. (ln x )(ln1) = (ln x )(0) = 0 61. 72.500 − 2 ln 5 ln 37.99 x= 5 62.43 5 4x − 2 = 6 4x = 8 x=2 65. ln e x = x ln e 64. false.2448 log 6 68. 53 x = 52 3x = 2 2 x= 3 4 x ln 5 + 2 ln 5 = ln 37. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 x = 12.14 4 ln 5 log10 x = log 7000 x log10 = log 7000 x = log 7000 x ≈ 3.143 ln12.863 ≈ −0. (3 ) 2 ( ) = 33 3x + 4 = 7 2 x −1 ln 3x + 4 = ln 7 2 x −1 ( x + 4) ln 3 = (2 x − 1) ln 7 x ln 3 + 4 ln 3 = 2 x ln 7 − ln 7 x ln 3 − 2 x ln 7 = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x(ln 3 − 2 ln 7) = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x= ln 3 − 2 ln 7 4 ln 3 + ln 7 x= 2 ln 7 − ln 3 x ≈ 2.500 ln 54 x + 2 = ln 37. log( x + 9) − log( x + 1) = log ( x + 9) ( x + 1) ln e5 x = ln141 5 x = ln141 ln141 ≈ 0. true.27 9 x + 2 = 27 − x x+2 54 x+ 2 = 37.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 58.348 ≈ 6.1063 ln 4 60.143 x ln 8 = ln 12.

⎧e ⎫ The solutions set is ⎨ ⎬ . log 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 2 ( x 2 − 9) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) x 2 − 9 = 24 x 2 − 9 = 16 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 x = –5 does not check because log 2 (−5 + 3) does not exist. . The solution set is ∅. e2 x − e x − 6 = 0 (e x 77. 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 x − 15 16 = x 2 x 2 = 16 x = ±4 x = −4 does not check and must be rejected. approximately 1. − 3)( e + 2 ) = 0 x x −1 =2 x+2 x −1 = 32 x−2 x −1 =9 x+2 x – 1 = 9(x + 2) x – 1 = 9x + 18 8x = –19 19 x=− 8 19 ⎛ 19 ⎞ x=− does not check because log 3 ⎜ − − 1⎟ 8 ⎝ 8 ⎠ does not exist. The solution set is {ln 3} . log 3 ( x − 1) − log 3 ( x + 2 ) = 2 log 2 ( x + 3) + log 2 ( x − 3) = 4 79. log 3 e x − 3 = 0 or e x + 2 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −2 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x − ln(−2) x = ln 3 x = ln(−2) x = ln 3 ≈ 1. log 4 ( 3x − 5 ) = 3 3x – 5 = 43 3x – 5 = 64 3x = 69 x = 23 The solutions set is {23}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {4}. Inc. The solution set is {2}.10. 75.099 ln(−2) does not exist.04 x= x2 + x = x + 4 x2 = 4 x = ±2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. 3 + 4 ln(2 x) = 15 4 ln(2 x) = 12 ln(2 x) = 3 ln ( x + 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln x x+4 = ln x x +1 x+4 =x x +1 x( x + 1) = x + 4 ln 2 x = e3 e3 2 x ≈ 10. 78. 480 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 74. ⎩2⎭ 3 76.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 73. The solution set is {5}.

4 = k 10 0.4 t= ln1.1 In 2010.005 ) t 560 = 364 (1.005 ) 364 560 ln = t ln1. or 8. Chapter 3 Review Exercises P ( x ) = 14.6 = e −0.005 364 560 ln 364 ≈ 86.3 = 10k ln 22.01625) 4t = 20. 000e0.075t = 150.103. A = 22. Everest is about 5.33 = 0.4e0.075t 50.6 ≈ 7.5 miles above sea level.065 ⎞ 20.4e k 10 35. 35.01625) 4t = 1.01625 It will take about 7.37 9 = ln x e9 = eln x x = e9 ≈ 8103 The population of New York City is approximately 8103 thousand.37 ln x + 0. W ( x ) = 0.3 = 22.7 4.37 ln x 3. 000 = 50.7 4. 481 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.21 f ( t ) = 364 (1.6 = ln e −0.075t = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 14.7 t= ≈ 5. 3 ⋅ 50. 000e0. A = 22.01625 = ln1.3 = ln e10 k ln 22.21x 14.05 3.21x ln 14.005 The carbon dioxide concentration will be double the pre-industrial level approximately 86 years after the year 2000 in the year 2086. ⎛ 0.6 years.6 = 14.075 It will take about 14.6 0.6 The peak of Mt.045t b.6 = −0.4e0.21x ln 14.4 35. the population will be about 55.2197 5 The interest rate would need to be about 22% r= 86. 4. Inc.21x 83. 4t (1.7 4.5 −0.33 = ln x 0.PreCalculus 4E 80. When an investment value triples.075 = 3 ln e0.005) 364 560 t ln = ln (1.7e −0. 000 85. t= 84.500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12.37 ln x + 0.21x 4. A = 3P. t= 560 t = (1. 000 = 12.6 ln1.005 ) t ln(1. 82.3 4 ln1.045(20) ≈ 55.05 a.4 35.7e −0.38 = 0.3 = e10 k 22.6 ln 14.3 years.000.3 ln 22.1 million.6 4t ln1. . 3P = Pe5 r e5 r = 3 ln e5 r = ln 3 5r = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 0. 81. Publishing as Prentice Hall.01625) 4t = ln1.075t = ln 3 0. 000 e0.4 35.045 ≈ k 3.500(1.

A = A0 e −0.4 = t 0.1438t 3 1 ln = −0. 105 = 65 + 120e—0. Use the half-life of 140 days to find k.004951t 0.1438t 40 = 120e−0.2 = e −0.045 22 ≈ t 90 = e 2k 120 3 ln = ln e2k 4 3 ln = 2k 4 3 ln 4 =k 2 −0.4e0.1438t 3 1 ln = ln e−0.410 were ill after 6 weeks.1438t 3 1 ln 3 =t −0. 411 −0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 60 = 22. 000 = 200 1 + 2499e −0.92(0) 200 people became ill when the epidemic began.045t 22.045t c. 500. 150 = 65 + (185 − 65)ek 2 90 = 120e2k 60 = e0. 89. 000 = 45. A logarithmic function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data.004951 t ≈ 325 It will take about 325 days for the substance to decay to 20% of its original amount. in 2012.000 people 482 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. T = 65 + 120e−0. ln 12 = ln e140 k ln 12 = 140k ln 12 =k 140 k ≈ −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1438 ≈ k The population will reach 60 million about 22 years after 1990.4 60 ln = ln e0.1438t 87.045t 22.004951t ln 0.004951t ln 0. 90. .1438 7.4 60 ln = 0. 500. t= 88.2 = ln e −0. A = A0 e kt 1 2 = e k ⋅140 1 2 = e140 k T = C + (To – C)ekt b.6 ≈ t The temperature will reach 105o after 8 min.4 60 ln 22. a. c.2 −0.004951 Use A = A0 e kt to find t.1438t 1 = e−0. f (0) = 500.045t 22. a. Inc.004951t ln 0. b.92(6) 1 + 2499e 45. f (6) = b.2 = −0. a.

5 ( 0. the domain of f is (−∞. x = log ( x 6 y 2 ) ( ln 0.6 ) 1 2 4.956 x 93.005 483 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ln1.005 x = 4 ln e0. 92. ln 7 − 3ln x = ln 7 − ln x 3 7 = ln 3 x 10. log 36 6 = 5. y = 73e( = 3 + 5 log 4 x x log 3 8. Thus. we obtain x < 3.005 x = ln 4 3. y = 73e0. Inc.43) x y = 6. 5 x = 1. Chapter 3 Test 1. 6.6 ) x y = 6. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. 2. 11.005 x = 1600 e0. 5 = 125 3 x= ln 4 ≈ 277. log 4 ( 64 x 5 ) = log 4 64 + log 4 x5 An exponential function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data. log15 71 = 94.4 x ln 5 = ln1.4 ln 5 x = ln1.2091 ln 5 400e0.5e −0.844 x 9. Answers may vary.3).4 x= 13.5e 1 x = log3 x 3 − log 3 81 81 1 = log3 x − 4 3 3 7.43) y = 6. 6 log x + 2 log y = log x 6 + log y 2 ln 2.4 ≈ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Chapter 3 Test a. Solving this inequality for x.2589 0.5741 log15 3x −2 = 9 x + 4 ( ) 3x −2 = 32 x+ 4 3x −2 = 32 x +8 x − 2 = 2x + 8 − x = 10 x = −10 12. log 71 ≈ 1. . y = 73 ( 2.PreCalculus 4E 91.005 x = ln 4 0. b.

The solution set is {0. The solution set is {5}.25 4 2 ln 3x = 8 ln 3x = 4 3x = e4 24. Since ln e x = x. 000 ⎜1 + ≈ \$5.1994 3 17. ln e5 x = 5 x. log x + log ( x + 15 ) = 2 log ( x 2 + 15 x ) = 2 x + 15 x = 10 2 ⎛ 0. − 5 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 5 = 0 or ex = 1 ln e x = ln 5 ln e x = ln1 x = ln 5 x = ln1 x ≈ 1.06 10 A = 3. 6.0125 ) 4t ln 2 = ln (1. e 2 x − 6e x + 5 = 0 (e x 19. log b b = 1 because b1 = b . 18.0125 ) ln 2 = 4 ln (1.5% compounded semiannually yields about \$221 more than 6% compounded continuously. ln 2 = ln e10 r ln 2 = 10r ln 2 r= ≈ 0. 217 = 54.6094. ex −1 = 0 ex = 5 D = 10log 25. The solution set is { }.51 ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 6% compounded continuously: 0.36 6. 466.0125) ln 2 t= ≈ 13.9 years for the money to grow to \$8000. 2(10 ) ⎛ 0. e4 x= ≈ 18. ln ≈ 1.0125) 4000 4t 2 = (1.9 4 ln (1. log 6 1 = 0 because 60 = 1 .0125 ) ln 2 = 4t ln (1. 21.069 10 The money will double in 10 years with an interest rate of approximately 6. 687. Inc.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 14. 1012 I 0 I0 = 10log1012 = 10 ⋅12 = 120 The loudness of the sound is 120 decibels. 4t 2 x + 15 x − 100 = 0 2 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 x + 20 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = –20 x=5 x = –20 does not check because log(−20) does not exist.0125 ) 4t ln (1. 484 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ln ( x − 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln 6 2 = 1er10 2 = e10 r x−4 = ln 6 ln x +1 x−4 =6 x +1 6( x + 1) = x − 4 6x + 6 = x − 4 5 x = −10 x = −2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected.05 ⎞ 8000 = 4000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 8000 4t = (1 + 0. ln 5} .0125 ) 4ln (1.065 ⎞ A = 3. . 15.9%.6094 x=0 20.0125 ) It will take approximately 13. 4 x − 1 = 63 22. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 x − 1 = 216 23. 000e ( ) ≈ \$5.5% compounded semiannually: log 6 ( 4 x − 1) = 3 4 x = 217 x= 16.

a.5 ln t = 82. Inc. t = 0 and A0 = 509 In 2000. 81.2k The population of Germany is decreasing. We can tell because the model has a negative k = −0. c.2 k ln 0.002. a.036 ≈ k The exponential growth function is A = 509e0.002( 0 ) A = 82.5 million approximately 5 years after 2006 in the year 2011.002( x ) 28. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.096270t Next use the decay equation answer question. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y 5 −5 5 x −5 The values appear to belong to a linear function.002t 82. 27.4 81.PreCalculus 4E 26. In 1990.096270 A = e−0.3 = −0.3 =t −0.096270t 0.3 = e−0.165( 0 ) 1 + 9e Fourteen elk were initially introduced to the habitat.096270t ln 0. 81.4 ≈ 5 −0.5 = 82.4 81. A = 82.5 = ekt −0. ≈ 51 −0. 0.5 = ln e7. . A = e−0.2 k ≈ −0.5 days.2 k ln 0.4e Chapter 3 Test −0. c.4e ≈ 82.4 81.5 = e7. 729 = 509ek 10 729 = e10 k 509 729 ln = ln e10 k 509 729 ln = 10k 509 729 ln 509 = k 10 0.5 It will take 12.5 =k 7. t = 2000 – 1990 = 10 and A = 729.4e−0. Plot the ordered pairs. In the logistic growth model.5 ln = ln e −0. 30. 29. b.4 In 2006. about 51 elk are expected. 0. c f (t ) = .002t ln 0.3 = ln e−0. f (0) = 140 = 14 −0.002t 82. 485 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.002t 82.096270 t ≈ 12.4 million. First find the decay equation.002 The population of Germany will be 81.5 = e −0. f (10 ) = 140 b.165(10 ) 1 + 9e After 10 years. the population of Germany was 82.096270t ln 0.5 ln = −0.5 = 7. The limiting size of the elk population is 140 elk.036t .096270t ln 0.

y 5 27 x −3 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) −2 ± −16 2 −2 ± 4i x= 2 x = −1 ± 2i The solution set is {−1 ± 2i} . Plot the ordered pairs. ± 2 q –2 1 33. x 4 + x3 − 3x 2 − x + 2 = 0 p: ±1. ⎩ 5 ⎭ x= 3x − 4 = 2 3x – 4 = 2 or 3x = 6 3x – 4 = –2 3x = 2 2 x=2 x= 3 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .38 ) x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {–2. x y = 96e( ln 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ⎬ . . approximately 0. ±2 q: ±1 p : ± 1.968 x x =1 e5 x − 32 = 96 e5 x = 128 ln e5 x = ln128 5 x = ln128 Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–3) 1. 1 y 1 –3 –1 2 –2 2 2 –2 –1 1 0 –1 ( x + 2)( x – x – x + 1) = 0 3 16 2 ( x + 2)[ x 2 ( x – 1) − ( x – 1)] = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1)( x – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 −5 5 x ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x – 1) 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 The values appear to belong to a quadratic function.9704. 2. Plot the ordered pairs. Inc. y = 96 ( 0. −5 5 x The values appear to belong to an exponential function. ⎩3 ⎭ 486 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 31.9704 5 ⎧ ln128 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . y = 96e −0. 1}. x= −5 The values appear to belong to a logarithmic function. Plot the ordered pairs.38) x 4. 32. ln128 ≈ 0. –1. y 900 3. 34.

0 ) and ( −1. Circle with center: (3. 0 ) . 6. . The solution set is { }. 11. –2) and radius of 2 487 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 9. 4] . Cumulative Review Exercises log 2 ( x + 5) + log 2 ( x − 1) = 4 10. 2x − 4 ≤ 2 2 x − 4 ≤ 2 and 2 x − 4 ≥ −2 2x ≤ 6 2x ≥ 2 x≤3 12. 0 ) and ( −1. x-intercepts: x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 The x-intercepts are (1. 0 ) .3] . Inc. Horizontal asymptote: y 5 1 5x + 4 = 6x + 9 −x = 5 x = −5 x = −5 does not check and must be rejected. 7. The solution set is {3}. or x = −1 The x-intercepts are ( 2. 8.PreCalculus 4E 5. x-intercepts: x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 and x ≥ 1 x=2 The solution set is [1. 14 − 5 x ≥ −6 −5 x ≥ −20 x≤4 The solution set is ( −∞. ln ( x + 4 ) + ln ( x + 1) = 2 ln ( x + 3) ln ( ( x + 4 )( x + 1) ) = ln ( x + 3) ( x + 4 )( x + 1) = ( x + 3) 2 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 2 x2 = 4 x2 + 5x + 4 = x2 + 6 x + 9 x = ±2 The vertical asymptotes are x = 2 and x = –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –1) log 2 [( x + 5)( x − 1)] = 4 ( x + 5)( x − 1) = 24 x 2 + 4 x − 5 = 16 x 2 + 4 x − 21 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 3) = 0 x + 7 = 0 or x − 3 = 0 x = −7 x=3 x = –7 does not check because log 2 (–7 + 5) does not exist. Parabola with vertex: (2.

1 The negative value is rejected. Inc.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 13. The ball hits the ground after about 4. k H= 2 C 32 H= 2 C Use the equation to find H when C = 4 . s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 The ball reaches its maximum height at −b −(64) = = 2 seconds. C Use the given values to find k . 3 − (−3) 6 = = −3 1− 3 −2 Using (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 32 H= 2 C 32 H= 2 4 H =2 If 4 cups of coffee are consumed you should expect to sleep 2 hours. k H= 2 C k 8= 2 2 32 = k 488 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3) point-slope form: y − 3 = −3 ( x − 1) m= 19. 18.1. t= 2a 2(−16) The maximum height is s (2) . H . . 0 = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Use the quadratic formula to solve. slope-intercept form: y − 3 = −3( x − 1) t= y − 3 = −3 x + 3 y = −3 x + 6 16. (f −(64) ± (64)2 − 4(−16)(5) 2(−16) t ≈ 4. 14. 2 = x2 + 4 x + 4 (g −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a t= g )( x ) = f ( x + 2 ) = ( x + 2) s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Let s (t ) = 0 : f )( x ) = g ( x 2 ) 20. y varies inversely as the square of x is expressed as k y= 2.1 seconds. 17. Substitute the value of k into the equation. t ≈ −0. 15. C can be expressed k as H = 2 . s (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 5 = 69 feet. vary inversely as the square of the number of cups of coffee.5 x ) = 660 40 x + 15 x = 660 55 x = 660 x = 12 Your normal hourly salary is \$12 per hour. x The hours. = x2 + 2 40 x + 10 (1.

1 48.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 55. 57. − 69. 25π 25π 25π 24π π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 6 6 6 6 6 67. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 19π 19π 12π 7π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 64. 51. −150° + 360° = 210° 60. 23π 23π 23π 20π 3π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 5 5 5 5 5 66. 54. −765° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −765° + 1080° = 315° 62. − 53. 17π 17π 10π 7π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 65. 52. . 49. −160° + 360° = 200° 61. 415° − 360° = 55° 59. 56. −760° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −760° + 1080° = 320° 63. 50. 395° − 360° = 35° 58. π 50 π 40 + 2π = − + 2π = − π 50 π 40 + 100π 99π = 50 50 + 80π 79π = 40 40 31π 31π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 7 7 31π 42π 11π =− + = 7 7 7 493 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 68.

⎛ 9π cos ⎜ − ⎝ 4 a. 2 ⎛1⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ cos 2 t = 1 − =1 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = sec ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝4⎠ b. sin b. 3 5 5 1 1 5 = = 2 tan θ 2 5 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 15 8 ⎛ 15 8 ⎞ ⎜ − 17 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 8 sin t = y = 17 15 cos t = x = − 17 8 tan t = 8 y = 1715 = − 15 x − 17 1 17 = y 8 1 17 sec t = = − x 15 x 15 cot t = = − y 8 csc t = 498 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ .Trigonometric Functions 3. Inc. 1 1 3 = = sin θ 2 2 3 1 1 3 = = sec θ = cos θ 5 5 3 csc θ = = cot θ = 3 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 1 4 3 3 = 4 2 cos t = a.7071 Exercise Set 4. π π 4 = x = y 1 y 1 2 6. 17 ⎟ . cos t is positive.0025 π 4 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = cos ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ≈ 0. 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ − ⎟ = − sin ⎜ ⎟ = − 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < 7.0≤t < 2 2 sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 sin t = π 2 . Use x = − 17 and y = 17 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions. 2 sin θ = 3 tan θ = cos θ 5 3 2 3 2 = ⋅ = 3 5 5 2 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 2 5 5 8. 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ a.2 1. = 1 π .5 ≈ 1. cot b. P⎜ . 5. ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ π 1 csc = = 2 4 y π 1 sec = = 2 4 x t= cot 4. csc 1.

2 2 and y = to find the values of the 2 2 trigonometric functions. . tan 0 = 0 =0 1 11.− ⎟⎟ . Section 4. . The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 3π 2 2⎞ t= . Inc. tan π = 0 =0 −1 10. csc 7π 1 = 1 = −2 6 −2 12. Use x = t = − has coordinates ⎜⎜ 4 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 and y = − to find the values of the trigonometric 2 functions.PreCalculus 4E 2. 12 sin t = y = − 13 5 cos t = x = − 13 12 − 12 y tan t = = 13 = 5 5 x − 13 4. 2 sin t = y = 2 2 cos t = x = − 2 x=− 1 13 =− 12 y 1 13 sec t = = − x 5 x 5 cot t = = y 12 csc t = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 13 ⎟ Use x = − 13 and y = − 13 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions. cos 2π 1 =− 3 2 9. sin π 6. Use has coordinates ⎜ − ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ 2 tan t = 1 = 2 y 1 sec t = = − 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 2 2 2⎞ π . sin π 7. sec 11π 1 2 3 = = 3 6 3 sin t = y = − tan t = y − = x 2 2 2 2 y = 2 = −1 x − 2 2 = −1 1 =− 2 y 1 sec t = = 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = 6 3 = = 1 2 3 2 2 499 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 2 cos t = x = 2 5. csc 4π 1 −2 3 = = 3 3 3 − 2 13. cos 5π 3 =− 6 2 8.2 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 5 12 ⎛ 5 12 ⎞ ⎜ − 13 .

cos t = 5 5 tan t = 5π 1 = 6 2 ⎛ 5π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 6 8 15 . 1 2 tan 8 15 3 5 4 5 = 3 4 5 3 5 sec t = 4 4 cot t = 3 5π 1 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 6 = − 2 ⎠ 27. Inc. cos π 6 b. a. π 3 = 26. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.Trigonometric Functions 14. cos t = 17 17 17 8 17 sec t = 15 15 cot t = 8 π 1 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 3 3 2 ⎝ ⎠ sin sin t = 11π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 6 = 3 ⎠ csc t = π 3 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 6 6 2 ⎝ ⎠ cos ⎛ 11π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 tan t = 3 2 = 11π − 12 3 = =− 3 6 3 2 15. b. b. 22. 20. cos t = 3 3 tan t = 1 3 2 2 3 = 2 4 csc t = 3 2π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 3 = − 2 ⎠ 3 2 4 cot t = 2 2 sec t = 3 5π − 2 = 1 =− 3 3 2 ⎛ 5π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 3 = csc t = 2π 3 = sin 3 2 ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 8 17 15 17 3 4 sin t = . sec 3π = undefined 2 18. tan 3π = undefined 2 b. sec 5π 1 = 1 =2 3 2 24. a. tan 5π ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 3 = 3 ⎠ 500 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. a. b. sin 3π = −1 2 16. cos 3π =0 2 17. . 23. 25. a. 1 2 2 sin t = . 21. 19.

2 2 5 .7 ⎠ 34. cos t is positive. cos t is positive. 501 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. sin 2 π 36. Inc. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 5 5 2 ⎛ 39 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 8 ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 3 5 sec t = 5 csc t = cot t = 29.3 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ cos 2. 2 ⎛7⎞ 2 ⎜ 8 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ π 21 25 4 2 = 25 5 cos 2 t = 1 − sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 Because 0 ≤ t < .3 = cos 2. sin t = tan t = Section 4. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 ⎛6⎞ 2 ⎜ 7 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < π 2 2 36 49 cos t = .7 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ sin1.0≤t < 5 2 sin t = 13 13 = 49 7 cos t = π sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 cos 2 t = 1 − 30. sec2 π 38. 37. = 1 because sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1. ⎛ 1 ⎞ sin1. cos t is positive. cos t = 3 3 2 3 5 3 = 31. . 0 ≤ t < 8 2 cos t = 2 21 π . 2 . 39 π . = 1 because 1 + cot 2 t = csc 2 t.3 sec 2.0≤t < 8 2 sin t = 6 3 + cos 2 + cos 2 π 2 π 3 = 1 by the Pythagorean identity. sin 2 π 2 15 15 = 64 8 π 33. Because 0 ≤ t < 49 cos t = 1 − 64 2 .PreCalculus 4E 28.7 = sin1. ⎛ 1 ⎞ cos 2. 39 64 25 5 = 64 8 cos 2 t = 1 − cos t = 5 2 Because 0 ≤ t < 6 π sin t = .3 ⎠ 35. ⎛ 21 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 5 ⎝ ⎠ 7 π sin t = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ≤ t < 7 2 32.7 csc1. csc2 π 3 6 − tan 2 − cot 2 π 3 π 6 = 1 because 1 + tan 2 t = sec 2 t. cos t is positive.

cos 9π π 2 ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 40. a. tan 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = tan ⎜ + π ⎟ = tan = 1 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 44. . Inc. a. ⎛ 9π sec ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sec ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sec 4 = 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 43. sin 3π 2 = 4 2 b. ⎛ 9π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 4 + 3π ⎟ = tan 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 47. 51.Trigonometric Functions 39. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 53. a. cos 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos =− 4 4 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ π ⎛π ⎞ − cot ⎜ + 17π ⎟ = − cot = −1 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 55. ⎛ 9π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π 2 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sin 4 = − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 42. sin 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = sin = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 54. cos 3π 2 =− 4 2 π ⎛π ⎞ − tan ⎜ + 15π ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝4 ⎠ b. sin b. sin π 2 =1 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 4π ⎟ = sin = 1 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 502 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 50. csc 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = csc ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = csc = 2 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 41. a. cos ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 π 2 =0 9π ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 4π ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎡π ⎤ = cos ⎢ + 2(2π ) ⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ = cos π 2 =0 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 56. cot 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 45. cos b. ⎛ 5π cot ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎟ = cot ⎜ 4 − 2π ⎟ = cot 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 46. 49. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 52. 48.

7 ≈ 0.8508 67.9511 3π ≈ 0. sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) − tan(t + π ) = sin(t ) + cos(t ) − tan(t ) = a+b−c 77. sec 1 ≈ 1. sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) 12 π 18 ≈ 5. tan 3.8253 = cos t + cos t − tan t − tan t − sin t + 4sin t 63.7321 cot = sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) ⎡ 7π ⎤ = sin ⎢ + 5 ( 2π ) ⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎦ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 60. cos 0. 3cos( −t ) − cos t = 3cos t − cos t = 2cos t = 2b 75. π 69.4 ≈ 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.2 tan π = 57. csc 1 ≈ 1.6 ≈ 0. = tan[π + 8(2π )] = tan π =0 58. b.2643 = 3a + 2b − 2c = 2 cos t − 2 tan t + 3sin t 64.8 ≈ 0. 61.6247 80. tan 3.7174 cos t + cos(t + 1000π ) − tan t − tan(t + 999π ) − sin t + 4sin(t − 1000π ) 62. 0 =0 −1 tan17π = tan(π + 16π ) b. sin(−t − 2π ) + cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) + cos(t ) + tan(t ) 47π 7π 2 ⎛ 7π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 10π ⎟ = cos = cos 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ = −a + b + c 79. a. Inc. cos 70.8090 10 503 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. a. cos 68. sin(−t ) − sin t = − sin t − sin t = −2sin t = −2a 72. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ≈ 3. sin 0. + sin t + sin(t − 1000π ) 65. cot cot π 2 = 0 =0 1 15π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + 7π ⎟ = cot = 0 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 7π 2 =− sin 4 2 sin b.1884 = − cos t + 7 cos t + tan t + tan t + sin t + sin t 66. tan( −t ) − tan t = − tan t − tan t = −2 tan t = −2c 73. sin π 10 − cos t + 7 cos(t + 1000π ) + tan t + tan(t + 999π ) = 6 cos t + 2 tan t + 2sin t = 2a + 6b + 2c ≈ 0. cot 71. 59. sin(−t − 2π ) − cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) = −a − b + c 7π 2 = 4 2 78. a. a. .6713 = a −b+c 47π ⎛ 7π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 10π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 76. 4 cos(−t ) − cos t = 4 cos t − cos t = 3cos t = 3b 74.

t = 3. a. At noon. 84. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. t = 6. π For t = 14.5837 E = sin π π 14 For t = 28. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin1. the period is 35 – 7 = 28 or 28 days. For t = 7. ≈ 9.6 There are about 9.3sin1. E = sin π 14 For t = 35. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅0 6 = 10 + 4sin 0 = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.M.6 hours of daylight in San Diego on December 21. At 6 P. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅12 6 = 10 + 4sin 2π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.3sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ = 12 + 8.4 hours of daylight in San Diego on June 21. ≈ 3. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. π ⋅14 = sin π = 0 ⋅ 21 = sin 3π = −1 2 ⋅ 28 = sin 2π = sin 0 = 0 5π π = sin = 1 14 2 2 Observations may vary.M. a. At 9 A.5837 = 10 + 4sin π 6 ⋅3 π = 10 + 4(1) = 14 2 The height is 14 feet. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ 12 + 24sin 0 = 12 + 24(0) = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in San Diego on March 21.Trigonometric Functions 81.7 There are about 3. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin 4. 14 14 For t = 21.3sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8. t = 0. Inc. E = sin = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on March 21. E = sin b.3sin 4.M. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. t = 18.7 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on December 21.. c. a. a. t = 12.. E = sin ⋅ 35 = sin Because E(35) = E(7) = 1.7339 ⋅ 7 = sin π 2 =1 b. At 6 A.3 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on June 21. b.3 There are about 20.. ≈ 20.3sin 0 = 12 + 8. ≈ 14.3sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8. 504 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 82. At midnight. .3998 There are about 14.3(0) 83.7339 π 6 ⋅6 = 10 + 4sin π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.

First find the hypotenuse.M.M. = . Thus. Explanations will vary. makes sense 3π or 6 2 t = 9. only choice (c) is true. 2 1 4 f (a) + f (a + 2π ) + f (a + 4π ) + f (a + 6π ) 102. and ends at t = 2π 6 2 6 or t = 12. a period of 2π we also find a maximum at 2 π 5π or t = 15. Thus. f ( x) = sin x and f (a) = 1 ⎛1⎞ − 2⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝4⎠ 1 =− 4 f(–a) = –f(a) because sin (–x) = –sin x. 2 100. 97. Sine is an odd function.7 feet above the ground. f ( x) = sin x and f (a ) = ⎛1⎞ = 4 f (a) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 because sin x has a ⎝4⎠ period of 2π . 104.58 < −1. H = 10 + 4sin 99.m. Explanations will vary.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. the height at 3 A.M. t= The sine function has a maximum at 10 ≈ −1. low tide is at 3 A. Thus. π ⋅ 21 6 7π 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4sin 2 2 = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 The height is 6 feet. 2π ] . and 9 P.M. Sample explanation: Cosine is not an odd function. Because the sine has 5π . π ⋅9 6 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 2 The height is 6 feet. From part a. and cot t > 0. Thus.M. Thus. starts at t= c 2 = 169 c = 13 Next write the ratio. and 3 P. we find a low tide at does not make sense. we find a high tide at π t= π 2 1 4 f (a) + 2 f (−a) = f (a) − 2 f (a) 103.M. does not make sense. Inc. The sine function has a minimum at h = 10 + 4sin π 3π . 101. For t = 9. – 96. From part a. is also 6 feet. Sample explanation: sin t cannot be less than −1. tan t > 0. which means high and low tides occur every 12 hours. This value of t corresponds to 3 P.. At 3 A. makes sense 505 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 H = 10 + 4sin π 98. This 6 2 value of t corresponds to 9 a.M. the period is 12 hours. The cycle of the sine function π c 2 = 52 + 122 c 2 = 25 + 144 5π π or t = 0. t = 21. π or t = 3. Thus. Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. a 5 = c 13 85. . ⋅18 6 = 10 + 4sin 3π = 10 + 4 sin π Note that − = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.M. The height is given by h = 45 + 40 sin(t – 90°) h(765°) = 45 + 40sin(765° − 90°) ≈ 16. 105. t is in the third quadrant therefore sin t < 0. We find another high tide at t = 6 2 This value of t corresponds to 9 P. is 14 feet.M. the height at 9 A.7 You are about 16. c2 = a2 + b2 The period of the sine function is 2π or on the interval [0. b. high tide is at 9 A.

. Section 4. tan 60° = length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 3 = 3 1 length of side opposite 30° tan 30° = length of side adjacent to 30° = 1 = 5. sin 46o = cos(90o − 46o ) = cos 44o b.PreCalculus 4E 3. cot π ⎛π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ 12 ⎝ 2 12 ⎠ ⎛ 6π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 12 ⎠ 5π = tan 12 Because we have a known angle. an unknown opposite side.3 Apply the definitions of these three trigonometric functions. 3 = 1 3 ⋅ 3 3 = 3 3 a. and a known adjacent side. we select the tangent function. a tan 240 = 750 a = 750 tan 240 a ≈ 750(0. 6. 507 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4452) ≈ 334 The distance across the lake is approximately 334 yards. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. length of hypotenuse csc 45° = length of side opposite 45° 2 = 2 1 length of hypotenuse sec 45° = length of side adjacent to 45° = 2 = 2 1 length of side adjacent to 45° cot 45° = length of side opposite 45° 1 = =1 1 = 4.

sin19° = cos ( 90° − 19° ) = cos 71° 3π π ⎛ π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 4π 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − − ⎟ = sin ⎜ ⎟ = sin 8 8 ⎠ 8 ⎝2 8 ⎠ ⎝ 8 a 250 a = 250 tan 37° tan 37° = a ≈ 250(0.PreCalculus 4E 19. 6 tan π 4 + sin π 3 sec 29.3907 tan 44° = b= 16 c 23 b 23 23 ≈ ≈ 24 yd tan 44° 0. 2 tan π 3 Section 4. b 220 b = 220 cos 34° cos 34° = b ≈ 220(0. tan 27. csc 25° = sec(90° – 25 ) = sec 65° 24. . sin 23° = c= 5π ⎞ ⎟ = cot 14 ⎠ 34. o 23. cos π 9 32. cos 30. 6 6 12 3 + 6 = 6 =2 3+ 20. ⎛π π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝2 9⎠ ⎛ 9π 2π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 18 18 ⎠ 7π = cot 18 π ⎛π π ⎞ ⎛ 7π 2π = cot ⎜ − ⎟ = cot ⎜ − 7 ⎝2 7⎠ ⎝ 14 14 a ≈ 13(0.8040) ≈ 18 cm 31.9657 π 10 511 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a 10 a = 10 tan 61° tan 61° = a ≈ 10(1. tan 26.3 + cos π tan 4 π 6 =2 ⎛ 2 ⎝ 2 ( 3 ) + ⎜⎜ ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 28.5592) ≈ 7 m 33. 2π ⎛ π 2π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 5 ⎝2 5 ⎠ ⎛ 5π 4π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 10 ⎠ = sin a 13 a = 13sin 34° sin 34° = 16 16 ≈ ≈ 41 m sin 23° 0. csc 35° = sec(90° − 35°) = sec55° 25.7536) ≈ 188 cm π 21. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 3 ⎞ = 6(1) + ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 6 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 6 = 6+ 6 =7 sin 7° = cos(90° − 7°) = cos83° 22.8290) ≈ 182 in.

4112 COS−1 Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 88 If cos θ = 0.2974 ENTER 17 Scientific Calculator . then θ ≈ 78°.4112 ENTER 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2974.0307 ENTER Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) COS−1 . . then θ ≈ 88°. then θ ≈ 1. 39. then θ = 1.147 Scientific Calculator .0307. Graphing Calculator TAN-1 26. 36.5117 ENTER Display (rounded to three places) . Inc. Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) SIN −1 . 38.0307 TAN-1 If tan θ = 26.253 radians. then θ ≈ 0.Trigonometric Functions 35. Scientific Calculator 26. then θ ≈ 17°.877 COS-1 COS-1 . Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator . 41. Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) TAN −1 .4112. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .6252 TAN −1 TAN −1 4.473 If tan θ = 0.4169.395 Scientific Calculator .877 ENTER Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 29 If cos θ = 0.5117.4169 ENTER .6252.6252 ENTER 78 If tan θ = 4.5117 TAN −1 Graphing Calculator TAN −1 . 42. Scientific Calculator .9499. then θ ≈ 29° . then θ = 0.877.4169 TAN −1 Display (rounded to three places) 1.473 512 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9499 ENTER If sin θ = 0. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 4.2974 SIN −1 If sin θ = 0.253 If tan θ = 0.9499 SIN-1 SIN-1 .147 radians. 40.395 radians. 37.

2 Section 4. csc 37° sec 53° − tan 53° cot 37° = sec 53° sec 53° − tan 53° tan 53° = sec 2 53° − tan 2 53° =1 48. cos12° sin 78° + cos 78° sin12° = sin 78° sin 78° + cos 78° cos 78° = sin 2 78° + cos 2 78° =1 513 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E tan 43. Inc. . 1 + sin 2 40° + sin 2 50° = 1 + sin 2 (90° − 50°) + sin 2 50° = 1 + cos 2 50° + sin 2 50° = 1+1 =2 46. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 π 3 − 1 sec π = 3 1 − 1 2 π cos 6 = 6 3 1 − 1 2 3 2 3 3 − 2 2 =0 = 44. 1 − tan 2 10° + csc 2 80° = 1 − cot 2 80° + csc2 80° = 1 + csc 2 80° − cot 2 80° = 1+1 =2 47. 1 cot π 4 − 2 csc π = 1 1 tan 6 = 1 1 1 − π 1 sin 4 − 2 π 6 2 1 1 2 1 2 = − 1 2 = 1−1 =0 45.

54. h 35 h = 35 tan 40° tan 40° = h ≈ 35(0. 55. 1 1 ⎛π ⎞ csc ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sec θ = = 1 =3 θ 2 cos ⎝ ⎠ 3 53.8391) ≈ 529 The distance across the lake is approximately 529 yards. f (θ ) = 2 cos θ − cos 2θ π ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ π⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 cos − cos ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎟ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 6⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝3⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 50. 125 172 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . 514 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. Inc. f (θ ) = 2 sin θ − sin θ 2 π π ⎛π ⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 sin − sin 3 3 2 ⎝3⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 51. a 630 a = 630 tan 40° tan 40° = a ≈ 630(0. tan θ = Many Scientific Calculators 125 ÷ 172 = TAN −1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN −1 ( 125 ÷ 172 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 36.Trigonometric Functions 49. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 36°. .8391) ≈ 29 The tree’s height is approximately 29 feet. 1 ⎛π ⎞ tan ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cot θ = 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ 52. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

0998 0. c= 58.PreCalculus 4E 56. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 47°.1736 The plane has flown approximately 2880 feet. the angle of elevation is approximately 23°.3894 0. cos θ = 61.9736 0.4 0.0099998 sin θ 0. 68. Answers may vary. Thus.01 sinθ 0.2955 0. Thus.0001 9. 55 80 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .3 0.99998 θ sin θ approaches 1 as θ approaches 0.001 0. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 37°. 60. a 5000 a = 5000sin 5° ≈ 5000(0.999998 × 10 −4 9. θ 0. sin 5° = 60 75 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .1 0.00001 1 × 10 −5 1 .9983 0.9999998 0. 0. Thus.0872) = 436 The driver’s increase in altitude was approximately 436 feet. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.999999998 515 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 57.9851 0. – 67.1987 0. 59. Many Scientific Calculators Many Graphing Calculators -1 55 ÷ 80 = COS COS-1 ( 55 ÷ 80 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 47. θ 0.2 0.9933 0. cos θ = Many Scientific Calculators 60 ÷ 75 = COS Many Graphing Calculators −1 COS−1 ( 60 ÷ 75 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 37. tan Many Scientific Calculators 555 ÷ 1320 = TAN-1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN-1 ( 555 ÷ 1320 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 23.99999998 × 10 −5 0.3 555 1320 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Section 4. sin10° = 500 c 500 500 ≈ ≈ 2880 sin10° 0.

005 0.099667 –0.00005 0 θ cos θ − 1 θ approaches 0 as θ approaches 0. Sample explanation: An increase in the size of a triangle does not affect the ratios of the sides. 516 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.92106 0.999999995 –0. makes sense 74. In a right triangle. does not make sense. Explanations will vary.4 0.9 89.99500 0.148878 –0. does not make sense. Sample explanation: This value is irrational. true tan 45° ⎛ 45° ⎞ ≠ tan ⎜ ⎟ tan15° ⎝ 15° ⎠ 78. the hypotenuse is greater than either other side. tanθ increases without bound. Then use the table to describe what happens to the tangent of an acute angle as the angle gets close to 90°. Sample explanation: The sine and cosine are cofunctions of each other. 72. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false.9999 tanθ 1. Use a calculator in degree mode to generate the following table. A sample change is: 75. θ 0.99995 cos θ − 1 –0. 71. 73.6713 57 573 5730 57.9999995 0.0001 0.00001 0. Inc.958 As θ approaches 90°.01 cos θ 0. The sine and cosine are not reciprocals of each other.Trigonometric Functions 69. θ 60 70 80 89 89. Irrational numbers are rounded on calculators.3 0. true 76.98007 0.0005 1 –0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.296 572.001 0. 70.19735 –0. false. 79.7475 5. tanθ is undefined.04996 –0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A sample change is: sin 45° + cos 45° = 77.95534 0.99 89. Therefore both 1 2 + 1 2 = 2 2 ≠1 opposite adjacent and must be hypotenuse hypotenuse less than 1 for an acute angle in a right triangle.999 89.1 0. does not make sense. . At 90°. Explanations will vary.7321 2. Explanations will vary.2 0.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. which is r 34 34 34 34 negative. π x 0 cos 90° = cos = = = 0 2 r 1 π r 1 csc 90° = csc = = = 1 2 y 1 517 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 Check Point Exercises 1. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. b. y −3 3 10 = =− r 10 10 cos θ = 144 + 250 = 394 The plane is approximately 394 feet above the water.PreCalculus 4E 80.4 Let a = distance of the ship from the lighthouse.4040) ≈ 144 sin θ = a.1): x = 0. b tan 22° = 357 b = 357 tan 22° ≈ 357(0. x 1 10 = = r 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = = −3 x 1 r 10 10 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 y r r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = (−3) 2 + 42 r =5 y 4 = . y. Section 4. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . θ ′ = 360D − 345D = 15D b. a. θ = 0° = 0 radians The terminal side of the angle is on the positive x-axis. θ′ = π − 5π 6π 5π π = − = 6 6 6 6 10 = 10 1 1 1 =− −3 3 a. a. 2. r = (−3)2 + 52 83. Let b = the plane’s height above the lighthouse. . y = 1. 81. Section 4. b. x 1 cos 0° = cos 0 = = = 1 r 1 r 1 csc 0° = csc 0 = = .0): x = 1. θ = 90° = x r First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = 34 x −3 −3 34 −3 34 = = ⋅ = . undefined y 0 b. r = x2 + y2 π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive y-axis. Inc. b. which is positive. and r. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. r 5 82. Select the point P = (0. a. y = 0.7002 The ship is approximately 357 feet from the lighthouse. 250 tan 35° = a 250 250 a= ≈ ≈ 357 tan 35° 0. Select the point P = (1. r = 12 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x.

y.4 Exercise Set 4. Because P = (–12. 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = lies in quadrant 6 6 6 6 5π π II. and r. and r. cos cos b. Because P = (–4. y. 3 3 3 2 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = − 5 5 y csc θ = 519 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . sec r = x 2 + y 2 = (−4)2 + 32 = 16 + 9 = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. 6 6 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 . The reference angle is 2π π = . sin We need values for x. θ′ = π − 3 3 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 sin = . r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + 52 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. 6 6 6 2 −22π −22π 24π 2π + 8π = + = lies in 3 3 3 3 quadrant II. 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . y. − π Section 4.4 lies in quadrant IV. x = −12 and y = 5 . Furthermore. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. x = −4 and y = 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 cos θ = = =− 5 5 r 3 3 y tan θ = = =− 4 x −4 r 5 csc θ = = y 3 π 2 3 ⎛ π⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = + sec = . and r. 2. . The reference angle is θ ′ = π − = . The reference angle is 6 θ′ = π 6 1. 6 3 ⎝ 6⎠ 8. Furthermore. a. π 2 3 = 6 3 Because the secant is positive in quadrant IV. 6 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II.PreCalculus 4E c. y. = r 5 5 = =− 4 x −4 4 x −4 cot θ = = =− 3 3 y sec θ = 17π 5π π 3 = cos = − cos = − . y 5 sin θ = = r 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− 13 13 r 5 5 y tan θ = = =− 12 x −12 −22π 2π π 3 = sin = sin = . . and r. Inc. We need values for x.

we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . and r. We need values for x. Inc. 5. Because P = (3. y. y. 3 3 13 3 13 y = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 sin θ = 2 2 13 2 13 x = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 y 3 tan θ = = x 2 13 r csc θ = = 3 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y 4. 2 sin θ = 2 2 2 = 18 = 3 2 Now that we know x. x = 3 and y = 7 . x = 3 and y = −3 . and r. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . and r. 6. –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . r = x 2 + y 2 = 5 + (−5)2 = 25 + 25 = 50 7 7 58 7 58 y = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 −5 −1 2 2 y = = ⋅ =− 2 r 5 2 2 2 5 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 5 2 2 2 y −5 = −1 tan θ = = 5 x r 5 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −5 y cos θ = 58 3 sec θ = −3 −1 2 2 y = =− ⋅ =− 2 r 3 2 2 2 cos θ = 13 2 sec θ = We need values for x. Because P = (3. Because P = (5. y. Furthermore.Trigonometric Functions 3. y. and r. Because P = (2. . 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Furthermore. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . y. Furthermore. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + 7 2 = 9 + 49 = 58 Now that we know x. and r. and r. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . x = 2 and y = 3 . y. 7) is a point on the terminal side of θ . sin θ = =5 2 Now that we know x. x = 5 and y = –5 . r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + (−3) 2 = 9 + 9 r = x + y = 2 + 3 = 4 + 9 = 13 Now that we know x. and r. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Furthermore. and r. 3 3 58 3 58 x = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 y 7 tan θ = = x 3 58 r csc θ = = 7 y sin θ = cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y We need values for x. 3 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 3 2 2 2 y −3 = −1 tan θ = = x 3 r 3 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −3 y r 3 2 = = 2 3 x 3 x = −1 cot θ = = y −3 sec θ = 2 3 We need values for x. 3 7 r 5 2 = = 2 5 x 5 x = −1 cot θ = = y −5 sec θ = 520 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y. y. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Select the point P = (–1. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosecant function. –1): x = 0. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−1) 2 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. x −1 cos π = = = −1 r 1 3π y −1 = = . y.4 We need values for x. y = 0. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Select the point P = (0. y = –1. 3π x 0 = = =0 cos 2 r 1 θ= θ= π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. and r. −1 −1 10 10 x cos θ = = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = =3 x −1 10 10 r =− csc θ = = −3 3 y r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 9. Furthermore. y. and r. y. Furthermore. undefined y 0 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−2) 2 + (−5) 2 = 4 + 25 = 29 Now that we know x. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . y = −1. 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. = x 0 = =0 y 1 . Because P = (–2. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. Select the point P = (0. 0): x = −1. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Select the point P = (–1. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cotangent function. tan −3 −3 10 3 10 y = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 14. Select the point P = (0. Select the point P = (–1. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. 29 29 =− −2 2 −2 2 = −5 5 We need values for x. r = 1 Apply the definition of the secant function. sin θ = tangent function. r 1 csc π = = . y 0 =0 tan π = = x −1 11. 0): x = −1. 10. r 1 = −1 sec π = = x −1 12. 0): x = −1. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. x = –1 and y = –3 . 13. –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Section 4.PreCalculus 4E 7. –1): x = 0. y = 0. Because P = (–1. y = 0. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. sin θ = −5 −5 29 5 29 y = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 −2 −2 29 2 29 x = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 y −5 5 tan θ = = = x −2 2 29 29 r =− csc θ = = −5 5 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 8. 0): x = −1. x = −2 and y = −5 . y. and r. undefined x 0 2 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. r = 1 Apply the definition of the θ= 10 = − 10 −1 −1 1 = −3 3 15. Select the point P = (–1. Inc. 1): x = 0. cot π 2 521 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 0. y = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and r. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis.

In quadrant IV. and r. Thus. x = 8. y.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. x is positive and y is negative. 5 y sin θ = = . θ is in quadrant IV. In quadrant II x is negative and y is positive. Furthermore x2 + y 2 = r 2 25. 3 r 2 2 x + y = r2 42 + y 2 = 52 y 2 = 25 − 16 = 9 12 + y 2 = 32 y = − 9 = −3 Now that we know x. x is positive and y is negative. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y. y −3 3 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 y −3 3 tan θ = = =− x 4 4 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 r 5 sec θ = = x 4 x 4 4 cot θ = = =− y −3 3 y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. sin θ = y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 tan θ = y −2 2 = = −2 2 x 1 r 3 3 2 3 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 r 3 sec θ = = = 3 x 1 csc θ = cot θ = x 1 1 2 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 523 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because 270° < θ < 360°. Thus. y = 5. 1 x cos θ = = . cos θ = tan θ = csc θ = sec θ = cot θ = y 2 = 289 − 64 = 225 y = − 225 = −15 Now that we know x. Thus. In quadrant IV. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . and r. 13 r x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + 52 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 25 = 144 82 + y 2 = 17 2 x = − 144 = −12 Now that we know x. and r. y. r = 13 . x = 1. Because 270° < θ < 360°. y. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 5 r 2 2 x + y = r2 28. Furthermore. Furthermore. Thus. . Inc. 8 x cos θ = = . 4 x cos θ = = . y −15 15 sin θ = = =− r 17 17 y −15 15 tan θ = = =− x 8 8 r 17 17 csc θ = = =− y −15 15 r 17 sec θ = = x 8 x 8 8 cot θ = = =− y −15 15 x −12 12 = =− r 13 13 y 5 5 = =− x −12 12 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 = =− y 5 5 26. r = 5 . and r.4 27. 17 r r = 17. r = 3 . In quadrant IV x is positive and y is negative. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Furthermore. x = 4. θ is in quadrant IV.

x = −12. 3 x −3 32. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . θ lies in quadrant III. 3 x −3 31. y −5 5 sin θ = = =− r 13 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −5 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = = y −5 5 10 10 =− −3 3 −3 = −3 1 524 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and r. x is negative and y is negative. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. x = −3 . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y = −5 . tan θ = = = 3 x −3 x = –3. 12 x −12 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. y = –4. sin θ = y 2 2 13 2 13 = = ⋅ = r 13 13 13 13 cos θ = −3 −3 13 x 3 13 = = ⋅ =− r 13 13 13 13 csc θ = r 13 = y 2 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. In quadrant II. negative and y is negative.Trigonometric Functions 29. Furthermore. Furthermore. x = −3. θ lies in quadrant II. . r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + (−4)2 = 9 + 16 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 22 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. y. x is 4 y −4 . Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = . and r. y = 1. Thus. y = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and r. Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. Thus. θ lies in quadrant II. x is negative and y is positive. Thus. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. In quadrant II. 2 y 2 tan θ = − = = . y. In quadrant III. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . sin θ = y 1 1 10 10 = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 cos θ = −3 −3 x 10 3 10 = = ⋅ =− r 10 10 10 10 csc θ = r 10 = = 10 y 1 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + (−5)2 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. 5 y −5 tan θ = = = . y. Inc. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . θ lies in quadrant III. x is negative and y is positive. In quadrant III. and r. y −4 4 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 x −3 3 cos θ = = =− r 5 5 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 x −3 3 cot θ = = = y −4 4 13 13 =− −3 3 −3 3 =− 2 2 30. Thus. y. Furthermore. Furthermore.

17π 5π 17π 5π cos sin + cos 3 4 3 4 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 2⎞ = ⎜− − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6− 2 = 4 = 7π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = tan 6 = 3 ⎠ π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = sin 3 = 2 ⎠ 528 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ 17π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 84. lies in quadrant IV. 6 3 ⎝ ⎠ 77. π ⎛ 11π ⎞ = tan = 1 tan ⎜ − ⎟ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 85. tan = sec 495° = sec135° = − 2 78. Inc. 2 3 sec 510° = sec150° = − 3 79. − π 6 π cos π − cos π 3 sin 3π 2 3 1 + 2 2 1− 3 = 2 88. cot 13π π 3 = cot = 3 3 3 81. . =1 4 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. ⎛ 17π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 86. sin ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 1 − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ 3 6 6 3 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. cos 35π 11π 3 = cos = 6 6 2 83. cos 23π 7π 2 = cos = 4 4 2 82.Trigonometric Functions 75. The reference angle is π 3 =− π . 19π 7π = cot = 3 6 6 11π 5π 11π 5π cos sin + cos 4 6 4 6 ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ =⎜ − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6+ 2 =− 4 =− 80. π ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝ 4⎠ tan sin 89. cot π 4 cos 0 − sin π 6 cos π 2 1 + 2 2 2 +1 = 2 = 3 ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − . The reference angle is 4 θ′ = π 4 76. Publishing as Prentice Hall. lies in quadrant IV. π 1 ⎛ 35π ⎞ = sin = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 6 2 ⎝ 6 ⎠ 90. θ= π ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 − −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ . − π 87.

f ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . Section 4. m= f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ − sin ⎜ 4 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 3π 5π − 2 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ 4π π ⎞ ⎛ 4π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ f⎜ + ⎟+ f ⎜ +f⎜ ⎟ ⎟ 6⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝6⎠ 4 π π 4 π π ⎛ ⎞ = sin ⎜ + ⎟ + sin + sin 6⎠ 3 6 ⎝ 3 3π 4π π = sin + sin + sin 2 3 6 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠ =− ⎞⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ cos ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎛1⎞ = 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ =1 sin =− 3− ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎟ = h⎜ g ⎜ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ π 4 2 −1 + 2 = 3 +1 2 π 4 ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎛ 5π π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ + ⎟+ g⎜ g⎜ ⎟+ g⎜ 6 ⎟ 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π π ⎛ 5π π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + ⎟ + cos + cos 6 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ π 5π = cos π + cos + cos 6 6 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 3 3⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = −1 = ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2 2 −4 π 529 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 .PreCalculus 4E 91. Inc. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 17π ⎝ 3 ( h D g ) ⎛⎜ 96. ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ 11π ⎞ = h⎜ f ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ sin ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ( h D f ) ⎛⎜ 3π ⎛ 8π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − + cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ = ( −1) 3 + ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2⎞ = 2⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) = 2 3 2 97. 94.4 3π ⎛ 15π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − − cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1)(1) − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 1 = −1 − 2 2 1 =− − 2 2 3 =− 2 sin 95. f ( x2 ) ) 2 3 3 − 2 2 3 3 =− 2 =− 93. 92.

Inc. – 109. QI QII θ =π − . 104. does not make sense. 530 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. tan θ = − π QII 3 5π 3 θ =π − QIV π 6 5π = 6 5π 11π θ= . Explanations will vary. tan θ = − 3 when the reference angle is 3π = 4 θ= π 3 2π = 3 2π 4π θ= . cos θ = − 2 2 −4 π 4 5π 4 5π 7π θ= . cos θ = θ= 7π 4 θ =π + in quadrants II or IV. QI QIV π θ = 2π − 3 = θ= . ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ θ =π − 2 π when the reference angle is and θ is 4 2 in quadrants I or II. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. sin θ = − g ( x2 ) − g ( x1 ) x2 − x1 QIII ⎛ 3π ⎞ cos (π ) − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ = 3π π− 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = θ =π + 99. QII QIII sin θ = θ= θ = 2π − 102.Trigonometric Functions 98. . 3 3 π 4 = π 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is 3 2 in quadrants II or III. 3 3 100. 4 4 4 = π = π ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ QIV 3 θ = 2π − π 6 11π = 6 105. 101. g ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . 4 θ =π − 4 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is in 3 2 quadrants I or IV. g ( x2 ) ) m= 2 π when the reference angle is and 4 2 θ is in quadrants III or IV. Sample explanation: Sine is defined for all values of the angle. π 3 4π = 3 π 3 and θ is QIV θ = 2π − π 3 5π = 3 3 π when the reference angle is and 6 3 θ is in quadrants II or IV. 6 6 π 5π 3 π 3 2π = 3 2π 5π θ= . QII π π 3π 4 4 103. 110.

.Trigonometric Functions 7. Inc. the reference angle is 180° − 150° = 30° cos θ = r = x2 + y2 2 adjacent 11 = hypotenuse 6 opposite 5 11 = adjacent 11 hypotenuse 6 = csc θ = opposite 5 tan θ = 2 9 16 25 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 4⎞ r = ⎜− ⎟ +⎜− ⎟ = + = =1 5 5 25 25 25 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Now that we know x. b = 11 opposite 5 = sin θ = hypotenuse 6 Since 150° is in quadrant II. sin θ = −2 2 13 y = =− 13 r 13 3 3 13 x = = 13 r 13 2 y −2 tan θ = = =− 3 3 x 13 13 r =− csc θ = = −2 2 y cos θ = 13 r = 3 x 3 3 x =− cot θ = = 2 y −2 sec θ = 532 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and r. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 4 − y 4 sin θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 3 − x 3 cos θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 4 − y 4 tan θ = = 5 = 3 3 x − 5 r 1 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 5 r 1 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 5 3 − x 3 cot θ = = 5 = 4 y − 4 5 10. Use the Pythagorean theorem to find b. a 2 + b2 = c2 b. y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 52 + b 2 = 62 25 + b 2 = 36 b 2 = 11 c. and r. 510° − 360° = 150° 9. sec θ = hypotenuse 6 6 11 = = adjacent 11 11 cot θ = adjacent 11 = opposite 5 r = x2 + y2 r = 32 + (−2) 2 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. y. 8. a.

y = + 35 = 35 y 35 ⎛π ⎞ = 35 cot ⎜ − θ ⎟ = tan θ = = x 1 ⎝2 ⎠ x2 + y2 = r 2 32 + y 2 = 72 9 + y 2 = 49 y 2 = 40 y = ± 40 = ±2 10 Because the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. In quadrant IV. y = 3 . 3 x tan θ = − = . x is positive and y is negative. . In quadrant II. Inc. x = 1. Since cos θ = side adjacent θ hypotenuse 250 cos 72° = c 250 c= cos 72° c ≈ 809 m cos θ = 15. θ is in quadrant IV. sec 20. cos 240° = − cos 60° = − 19. and r to find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. side opposite θ side adjacent θ a tan 41° = 60 a = 60 tan 41° tan θ = r 2 = x2 + y2 r = (−3) + 4 2 2 a ≈ 52 cm 2 14. y. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. sin θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− r 7 7 tan θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− x 3 3 r 7 7 10 = =− y −2 10 20 r 7 sec θ = = x 3 x 3 3 10 cot θ = = =− y −2 10 20 csc θ = 16. r = 7 . x = 3. r = 6 . and r. x = −4. cot120° = 1 1 1 3 = = =− tan120° − tan 60° − 3 3 18.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 11. Furthermore. θ is in quadrant II. Furthermore. Therefore y = −2 10 Use x. Since cos θ = 1 x = . sin 2 11π = 6 π 7 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 = = = = 11π π 3 3 3 cos cos 6 6 2 + cos 2 π 7 =1 533 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 y 13. 6 r x2 + y2 = r 2 12 + y 2 = 62 1 + y 2 = 36 y 2 = 35 y = ± 35 3 x = . x is negative and y is positive. tan 30° = 3 3 17. 7 r Since θ is acute. y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 =− cos θ = = 5 5 r r 5 csc θ = = y 3 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 4 x −3 4 =− cot θ = = y 4 3 12. Thus. y. Furthermore. r 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 r =5 Now that we know x.

Inc.Trigonometric Functions 21. Convert 8 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. Begin by converting from degrees to radians. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 25.7 feet per minute.13 cm = 8 revolutions per minute ⋅ 2 3 3 = − cos 45° = − 5 28. . 26. ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 3 + 2π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4π π = sin = − sin 3 3 27.9 feet sin θ = side opposite θ side adjacent θ 50 tan θ = 60 ⎛ 50 ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 60 ⎠ θ ≈ 40° tan θ = 534 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 feet per minute T he linear speed of the horse is about 502. 8 revolutions per minute 4π ⎞ ⎛ 22π ⎞ ⎟ = csc ⎜ 3 − 6π ⎟ = csc 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1 = = = 4π π 3 − sin sin − 3 3 2 =− π 3 3 30. π radians π 36° = 36° ⋅ = radians 180° 5 s = rθ = 40 ⋅ 3 =− 2 22. 2 3 =− 24. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . cos 495° = cos ( 495° − 360° ) = cos135° = tan = 8π ≈ 25. It is given that r = 10 feet and the merry-go-round rotates at 8 revolutions per minute. 2 2 29. 7π ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎛ 17π ⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 6 + 4π ⎟ = tan 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 2 π 2 π 6 = 2π radians 1 revolution = 16π radians per minute ν = rω = (10)(16π ) = 160π ≈ 502. ⎛ 22π csc ⎜ ⎝ 3 23. − cos π = (1) − (−1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ + 2π n ⎟ + tan ⎜ + nπ ⎟ cos ⎜ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π 5π π π = cos + tan = − cos − tan 6 6 6 6 3 3 3 3 2 3 =− − =− − 2 3 6 6 5 3 =− 6 side opposite θ hypotenuse h sin 6° = 5280 h = 5280sin 6° h ≈ 551.

The equation y = 3sin x is of the form y = A sin x with A = 3. 0) π 2 0 . 0) 3π 2 1 3π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − (−1) = 2 2 3π 1 .3 π y = 3sin x = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . 2π. by 4. 0) 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sinx. and the minimum point on the interval [0. 2 .− 1 2 . Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 2π π the period. The period for both y = − sin x 2 2 2 and y = sin x is 2π . The five x-values are x=0 π 1 y = − sin 0 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 coordinates (0. Thus. 2π] by dividing the period. Thus. = = . the maximum point. then by 4 4 2 adding quarter. then by adding quarter-periods to 4 4 2 generate x-values for each of the key points.periods. Publishing as Prentice Hall. period 2π π = = . 0) 2 π 2 π 2 = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= coordinates = 3 ⋅1 = 3 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.5 Check Point Exercises 1. Inc. We find the three x–intercepts. by 4. the amplitude is 2 1 1 1 A = − = .5 Section 4. the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 The period for both y = 3sin x and y = sinx is 2π. 0) 1 π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − ⋅1 = − 2 2 π π 1 y = − sin π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (π . −3 2 2π y = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . 2 π x=π+ x= y = 3sin 1 The equation y = − sin x is of the form y = Asin x 2 1 with A = − . 0) 3π 2 3π y = 3 sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 3π . 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 2 2 2π 1 y = − sin 2π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (2 π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2. 1 y = − sin x 2 535 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2π . The five x-values are x=0 x = 0+ x= π 2 π + x =π + = 2 π 2 π 2 π x=0+ 2 =π = x= 3π 2 2 + x y = 3sin x 0 y = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π π 2 x (0.

2π 2π = 1 = 4π . The five x-values are x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. − 2 ) 3π 2 = 2 ⋅ (−1) = −2 = 2 sin 4π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . 2) begins. 0) = 2 sin 2π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 (π . then by adding the period. 4π . 2π 2π The period is = =π. B 2 coordinates 1 ⋅0 2 π y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3. The phase shift is B 2 3 2 6 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π = . Extend the pattern of each graph to the left and right as desired. . and C = = 2 sin 0 π The equation y = 3 sin 2 x − (2 π . The period is B The equation y = 2sin Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. by 4. x = π 6 . 4 4 adding quarter-periods. then by the period. x 0 y = 2sin y = 2 sin 1 x 2 4. π . 2 The amplitude is A = 2 = 2 . 3π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅3π 2 (3π . 0) = 2 sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 536 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. B = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 x is of the form 2 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = .Trigonometric Functions Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the right. The C 3 π 1 π = = ⋅ = . 0 ) = 2 sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3. π (0. 2 Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 4π = = π . 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle = 2 ⋅0 = 0 y = 2 sin 3 amplitude is A = 3 = 3 . = 2 ⋅1 = 2 1 ⋅2π 2 is of the form π 3 . by 4.

Thus. by 4. 2. 2π 2π = = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π π 3 6 .3 12 2π 3 ⎛ 2π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ 3 3⎠ ⎝ 3π = 3sin = 3sin π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 2π . x=0+ x y = −4 cos πx 0 y = −4 cos (π ⋅ 0 ) coordinates (0. 4) . = = .5 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph. (1. and B = π . then by adding 4 4 2 quarter periods to the value of x where the cycle begins.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.0 3 11π 12 ⎛ 11π π ⎞ − ⎟ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 9π 3π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ( −1) = −3 11π .0 = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 5π 12 ⎛ 5π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 3π π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 5π . –4) = −4 cos 0 = −4 1 2 7π .0 2 =0 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 1) = −4 cos π = 4 537 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The period is B π Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period 2 1 the period. x= π x π 6 y = 3sin 2x − y = 3sin 2 ⋅ π 6 π coordinates 3 − 5. The five x-values are x= π 6 π 2π 3π 5π + = + = 6 4 12 12 12 5π π 5π 3π 8π 2π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 3 2π π 8π 3π 11π x= + = + = 3 4 12 12 12 11π π 11π 3π 14 π 7π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 6 Evaluate the function at each value of x.0 6 ⎛ 1⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ = −4 cos 6π = 3 sin 2π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 = 3 sin π 2 1 . the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . The five x-values are x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. −3 12 7π 6 y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ 7π π − 6 3 The equation y = −4 cos π x is of the form y = Acos Bx with A = −4. Inc.

3 3 cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π )) 2 2 The equation is of the form y = Acos(Bx − C) with 3 A = . x = − 3 cos(2 x + π ) 2 π 3 cos − + π 2 2 3 cos(0 + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅ −1 = − 2 2 = π 3 cos + π 2 2 x=− y= π x=− 2 2 π 4 x=0+ x= π + + + π 4 π π 4 π 4 = = =− . Inc. by 4. 2 2 2 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph.0 3 π 3 cos(π + π ) . B = 2 . the amplitude is A = = . Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the left.Trigonometric Functions ⎛ 3⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 3π = −4 cos =0 2 3 2 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 2) 2 3 . π . 538 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 The five x-values are x=− − 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 y= y= coordinates π 4 =0 π 4 π 4 4 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. = . and C = −π . 2 2 2π 2π The period is = =π. − π 4 3 2 . − π 4 y= 3 cos(−π + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 y= y= = 0 π 4 6. π π π − π 3 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 .0 0. B 2 π C −π The phase shift is = =− . 2 B 2 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π the period. . 2 π 4 2 . then by adding 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle y= begins. –4) = −4 cos 2π = −4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 2 3 3 Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0 2 x − π 2 (2.

. π 2π A = 4 . 3π 2 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. . Section 4. The graph shows that this maximum value is 4. π B=4 Substitute these values into y = A sin Bx .1 2 6 π =C 2 Substitute these values into y = Asin(Bx − C) + D . −1) = 2 ⋅(−1) + 1 = −1 3π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 y = 2 cos2π + 1 Because the hours of daylight ranges from a minimum of 10 hours to a maximum of 14 hours. The phase shift. The cycle begins at x = 0. we obtain one period of the graph. Inc. the amplitude. 12 = B 12B = 2π 3π . is 3. The period is 12. B C 3= B C 3= π B= . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The maximum number of hours is 2 hours above 12 hours. the curve oscillates about the middle value. or 12 2π months. 2 B π 2π = 2 B πB = 4 π π 2 2π π = 12 6 The graph shows that the starting point of the cycle is C shifted from 0 to 3. Add quarter4 2 periods to generate x-values for the key points. Thus.5 The graph of y = 2 cosx + 1 is the graph of y = 2 cosx shifted one unit upwards. 539 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 =π = 9. A = 2. and period = . x y = 2 cosx + 1 coordinates 0 y = 2 cos0 + 1 (0. 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 By connecting the points with a smooth curve. 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 π 2 y = 2 cos π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 π y = 2 cos π + 1 3π 2 y = 2 cos 2π A. The period for both functions is 2π . The graph is modeled by y = 4 sin 4 x . Thus.PreCalculus 4E 7. The period is .1 (π . The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. The number of hours of daylight is modeled by (2 π . y = 2sin π 6 x− π 2 + 12 . Thus. D = 12. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 8. 12 hours. Thus. is the maximum value of y. Thus. The quarter-period is 2π π or .

5 (π . −5 2 (2 π . 3π 2 x 2 π x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The equation y = 4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 4.4 π y = 5sin π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . x=0 3π = 5(−1) = −5 2 (0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Thus. . π The equation y = 5 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 5. 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = x=0+ π x= 2 =π = y = 4 sin x 0 y = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin 2 + π 2 = 4 ⋅1 = 4 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = 5sin x coordinates 0 y = 5sin 0 = 5⋅ 0 = 0 (0. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. The period is 2π . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . 0) 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) 3π . 0) π 2 . Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . the amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . 2π π or . 540 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.5 1. −4 2 2π y = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . 0) 3π 2 y = 5sin 2π y = 5sin 2π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 π y = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = 4 sin 3π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The quarter-period is or . Thus.Trigonometric Functions 2. the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. 0) π π 2 y = 5sin π 2 coordinates = 5 ⋅1 = 5 . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Exercise Set 4. 2π π The period is 2π .

the amplitude is A = 3 3 3 2π π or . Publishing as Prentice Hall. (2 π . Thus. 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) y= 1 sin x 3 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 y= π y= 3π 2 y= 1 3π sin 2 3 1 1 = (−1) = − 3 3 y= + 2 = coordinates x 2π 2 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) coordinates (0. Thus. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. x=0 The equation y = x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π 2 = 4. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. . Section 4.PreCalculus 4E 3. with A = . with A = .5 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 3 1 1 1 = . 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . 0) 2 . The period is 2π . 541 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 π 2 π 2 π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= x y= 1 sin x 4 (0. The period is 2π . Inc. x=0 The equation y = 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 . 2 π x=π+ x= π 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 4 1 1 1 = .− 2 3 3π 2 y= 1 3π 1 1 sin = (−1) = − 2 4 4 4 1 3π . 0) 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 3 3 3 π 1 π 2 3 y= 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 4 4 4 π 1 2 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 (π . 0) 1 3π .− 2 4 2π y= 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (2 π . the amplitude is A = 4 4 4 2π π or . 0) π y= 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (π .

Thus. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The period is 2π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) y = −4 sin π 2 coordinates = −4 ⋅1 = −4 π y = −4 sin π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −4 sin 2π y = −4 sin 2π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = −4(−1) = 4 2 (0. The equation y = −3sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –3. 0) 3π . π The equation y = −4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –4. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 6. 0) π 2 . .Trigonometric Functions 5. 2π π or .3 2 (2 π . −3 (π . x=0 . The period is 2π . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 x y = −3sin x 0 y = −3 sin x = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 y = −3 sin π 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 π y = −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −3sin 2π y = −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 = −3(−1) = 3 π 2 (0. 542 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 2 (2 π . the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . 2π π or . Thus. −4 (π . 0) 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = −4 sin x 0 y = −4 sin 0 = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 2 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. coordinates π + x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. the amplitude is A = −3 = 3. 3π . Inc. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0.

Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) π (0. π .0 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 543 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The period is = = π . 0) π 2 . The B 2 quarter-period is π 8. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 1 = 1. The cycle begins at x = 0. −1 4 π 3π = sin = −1 2 π ⋅ coordinates π 3π y = sin 2 ⋅ 4 π 1 π = sin π = 0 3π 4 = π =1 y = sin 2 ⋅ 2 . The cycle begins at 4 2 4 8 x = 0. . x y = sin 2x 0 y = sin 2 ⋅ 0 = sin 0 = 0 π 4 y = sin 2 ⋅ = sin π 2 π 2 π 4 π π 8 + π 8 π 8 = = π 8 π x y = sin 4x (0.0 y = sin 4 ⋅ 4 y = sin 4 ⋅ 3π 8 y = sin 4 ⋅ = sin 3π . Section 4. The period is B 4 2 coordinates π 8 π 4 = sin 2 =1 = sin π = 0 3π 8 π 8 π 4 .0 3π . Thus. Inc.1 .1 8 π π 2 2 y = sin(2 ⋅ π ) = sin 2π = 0 = 4 3π x= + = 4 8 8 3π π π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x=0 quarter-period is 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.PreCalculus 4E 7. −1 8 3π = −1 2 y = sin 2π = 0 2 (π . 0) 0 y = sin(4 ⋅ 0) = sin 0 = 0 π 4 π . x=0 x=0+ The equation y = sin 4x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 4. the amplitude is 2π 2π π = = . Add x= π 4 + π x=0+ 4 π 4 = π x= 2 π π 3π x= + = 2 4 4 3π π x= + =π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The A = 1 = 1. . Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.5 The equation y = sin 2x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 2.

coordinates 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 0 2 y = 3sin = 3sin 2π 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 2π y = 2sin = 3 ⋅1 = 3 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 2π 2 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 3π 2 y = 3sin y = 2sin 1 x 4 1 ⋅0 4 coordinates (0. 0) (3π . 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . The quarter-period is B 10. 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π x 1 ⋅ 2π 4 π 2 (2 π . the 4 amplitude is A = 2 = 2. 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. Inc.Trigonometric Functions 9. 0) = 2sin 0 = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 = 2sin (2 π . − 2) (8π . x 0 y = 3sin 1 x 2 4 8π = 2 π . x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. 544 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The equation y = 3sin 1 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 2 1 x is of the form 4 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . The equation y = 2sin 1 . The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. Thus. The quarterThe period is B with A = 3 and B = 2 4π period is = π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The cycle begins at x = 0. 2) = 2 ⋅1 = 2 4π y = 2sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 6π y = 2sin 8π y = 2sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = 2(−1) = −2 2 (4π . The period is 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π . x=0 x = 0 + 2π = 2π x = 2π + 2π = 4π x = 4π + 2 π = 6π x = 6π + 2 π = 8π Evaluate the function at each value of x. − 3) 3π = 3sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 4π 0 (π . . 0) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. Add quarter4 periods to generate x-values for the key points. 3) = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π y = 2sin (0. 0) (6π .

x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. −3 4 3π = 3(−1) = −3 2 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅1) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (1. The equation y = 4 sin πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 4 and B = π .4 2 = 3sin = 4(1) = 4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅1) = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin π ⋅ 3 2 1 2 (1. 4 2 Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The amplitude 2π 2π = = 1. 1 1 = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 13. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 4 = 4. The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) 3 4 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 2) = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 1 4 (0. The amplitude 545 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The period is B 2π 1 quarter-period is . −4 2 = 4 sin 2 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ coordinates y = 3sin 2π ⋅ = 3sin 1 (2. The equation y = 3sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 3 and B = 2π . Inc. The equation y = −3 sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –3 and B = 2π . . 0) 1 . Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The B π 2 1 quarter-period is = . 0) 3 4 3 .0 2 = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 .3 4 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ 1 2 1 . x=0 12. The is A = 3 = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 11. The period is = = 2 . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 0) 0 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 4 1 .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The cycle begins at x = 0. x=0+ x=0+ x y = 4 sin πx 0 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 0) = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 2 y = 4 sin π ⋅ = 4 sin 1 3 2 π 2 1 2 coordinates x y = 3sin 2πx (0. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.

−2 2 = −2 ⋅1 = −2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅1) = −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin 3 . The B π 3 2 (1. x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The equation y = − sin 2 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 3 2 . −3 4 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 1 2 2π 2π = = 2 . 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1.3 4 coordinates y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin = −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 4 x 1 2 1 . x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) = −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) 1 . The period is 2 1 = . The period is 2π 2π = = 1. The equation y = −2 sin π x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . The B 2π is A = −2 = 2 . Inc. 1 . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The amplitude 546 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 15. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) y = −2 sin π x 0 y = −2 sin(π ⋅ 0) = −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 1 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 2 1 . with A = –1 and B = 14. y = −3 sin 2πx x coordinates quarter-period is 0 1 4 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = −3sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 = −3sin quarter-period is (0. 0) 3 . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.0 2 3 2 3 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 2 3π = −3sin 2 = −3(−1) = 3 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅1) 1 (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Trigonometric Functions is A = −3 = 3. . π 2 1 2 (0.2 2 3π = −2(−1) = 2 2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅2) = −2 sin 2π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2.

0) 3π 8 = − sin 2π = 0 y = − sin = − sin 3π 4 y = − sin 4 3π ⋅ 3 8 π 2 3π .1 4 3π = − sin 2 = −(−1) = 1 3π y = − sin 2 ⋅ 3π 3 3π 2 3π 1 3π ⋅ = . −1 4 = −1 2 3π ⋅ 3 2 3π . 3π . The quarter-period is = − sin 0 = 0 3π 4 4 x is of the form 3 4 y = Asin Bx with A = –1 and B = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 3π 2π 2π = 4 = 2π ⋅ = . The equation y = − sin x y = − sin 0 y = − sin 4 x 3 4 ⋅0 3 = coordinates (0. The period is B 4 2 16. 0) = − sin 0 = 0 (3π . B 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) 3π . x=0 3π 3π x=0+ = 4 4 3π 3π 3π x= + = 4 4 2 3π 3π 9π x= + = 2 4 4 9π 3π x= + = 3π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 3 3π . 4 2 4 8 The cycle begins at x = 0. Inc. x=0 3π 3π = x=0+ 8 8 3π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 4 3π 3π 9π x= + = 4 8 8 9π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. −1 8 = −1 4 3π ⋅ 3 4 = − sin π = 0 547 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The cycle begins at x = 0.0 2 = − sin π = 0 9π 4 y = − sin 2 9π ⋅ 3 4 9π .0 4 .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1. The quarter-period is 2 x 3 x y = − sin 0 2 y = − sin ⋅ 0 3 coordinates 3 y = − sin = − sin 3π 2 y = − sin 2 3π ⋅ 3 4 π 2 (0.5 The period is 2π 2π 3 = 2 = 2π ⋅ = 3π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.

Trigonometric Functions

8

y = − sin

4 9π

3 8

,1
8

= − sin
= −(−1) = 1
2

2

4 3π
y = − sin ⋅
3 2

,0
2

x

y = sin(x − π )

coordinates

π

y = sin(π − π )

(π , 0)

2

y = sin

= sin 0 = 0

= sin

= − sin 2π = 0
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

−π
2

π
2

,1
2

=1

y = sin(2 π − π )

2

y = sin

(2 π , 0)

= sin π = 0

= sin

−π
2

, −1
2

= −1
2

y = sin(3π − π )

(3π , 0 )
= sin 2π = 0
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

17. The equation y = sin(x − π ) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C = π . The
amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
C π
2π 2π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
= = π . The
B
1
B 1
2π π
= . The cycle begins at x = π .
quarter-period is
4
2
Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=π

18. The equation y = sin x −

π

x=π+ =
2
2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
π 5π
x = 2π + =
2
2
5π π
x=
+ = 3π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π
2

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C =

π
2

. The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
π

2π 2π
C 2 π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
= = . The
B
1
B 1 2
2π π
= . The cycle begins at
quarter-period is
4
2
x=

π

2
x-values for the key points.

548

PreCalculus 4E

x=
x=

Section 4.5
19. The equation y = sin(2 x − π ) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C = π . The
amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
2π 2π
C π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= . The quarterB
2
B 2

π
2

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2

=

2

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
π 5π
x = 2π + =
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=

x

π

π

y = sin x −

π

2

y = sin

π

y = sin π −

2

y = sin

2

π

x=
x=

= sin 0 = 0

2

π
2

= sin

3π π

2
2

π
2

=1

π
2

,0

(π , 1)

y = sin 2π −

,0
2

y = sin

2

π

+

x

π
2

π
2

(2 π , −1)

5π π

2
2

π

=

4

y = sin(2 x − π )
y = sin 2 ⋅

π
2

−π

coordinates

π
2

,0

= sin(π − π )
= sin 0 = 0

= −1
= sin
2

2

π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= sin π = 0

π

2 4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4
4
2

coordinates

2

π

. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
2
periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is

4

,0
2

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin

= sin 2π = 0

= sin

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

−π
4

,1
4

−π
2

π
2

=1

y = sin(2 ⋅ π − π )
= sin(2 π − π )
= sin π = 0

549

(π , 0)

Trigonometric Functions

4

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin
= sin

2

−π
4

, −1
4

x

−π
2

π
4

= −1
2

y = sin 2 ⋅

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin

−π
2

,0
2

π

= sin(3π − π )
= sin 2π = 0

2

π
2

y = sin 2 ⋅

4

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin

coordinates

2

π

4

π

π

2

4

π

2

,0

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

= sin π −
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

y = sin 2x −

π

π

π

2

2

= sin

2

3π π

4 2

π
2

,1

=1

,0
4

3π π

2
2

= sin π = 0

20. The equation y = sin 2x −

π
2

π
is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C =

π
2

= sin 2π −
. The

= sin

amplitude is A = 1 = 1.
2π 2π
=
=π.
The period is
B
2

4

π

The phase shift is

C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = .
B 2 2 2 4

The quarter-period is

π

4

The cycle begins at x =

x=

2

π
2

5π π

4 2

5π π

2
2

4
4

+

π

=

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

4

,0
4

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
π

(π , −1)

= sin 2π = 0

4
generate x-values for the key points.
x=

π

= −1
2

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin

.

π

y = sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

550

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

21. The equation y = 3sin(2x − π ) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C = π . The
amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is
2π 2π
C π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= . The quarterB
2
B 2

π

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
2
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
period is

x=
x=

π
2

π

+

π

=

4

22. The equation y = 3 sin 2 x −

2 4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4
4
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

π
2

y = 3sin(2x − π )
y = 3sin 2 ⋅

π
2

−π

y = 3sin 2 ⋅

−π
4

,0

π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅
= 3 sin

−π
4

π

4

The cycle begins at x =
x=

,3
4

x=

π
4

+

π

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

(π , 0)

4

=

π

, −3
4

2
= 3(−1) = −3

−π
2

π

4

−π
2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

.

π

= 3 sin

2

.

4
generate x-values for the key points.

π

= 3 ⋅1 = 3
2
y = 3sin(2 ⋅ π − π )
= 3sin(2 π − π )
= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

−π
= 3sin
2
= 3sin

π

C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = .
The phase shift is
B 2 2 2 4

= 3sin(π − π )
= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

4

is of the form

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .
2π 2π
=
=π.
The period is
B
2

The quarter-period is

2

2

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C =

coordinates

π

π

,0
2

= 3 sin(3π − π )
= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

551

Trigonometric Functions

x

y = 3 sin 2 x −

π

π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅
= sin

π
2

4

π

23.

coordinates

2

π

π

2

4

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

,0

= 3 sin π −
= 3 sin

4

π
2

π

π

2

2

,3

π
2

. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
2
the key points.

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π π
y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

4 2

= 3 sin 2π −
= 3 sin

4

2

π
2

x=0+
x=

(π , − 3)

π
2

+

+

π
2

π
2

2

x

,0
4

π
2

5π π

2
2

π

π
2
=

=0

π
2

2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=π+

π

5π π

4 2

2

x=−

= 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3
2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅
= 3 sin

π

π

x=−

,0
4

= 3 sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0
y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

x=−

3π π
= 3 sin

2
2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A =

2

2

1
π
sin x − −
2
2

1
π
, B = 1, and C = − .
2
2
1
1
The amplitude is A =
= . The period is
2
2
π
2π 2π
C −2
π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
=
=− .
B
B
1
1
2
2π π
The quarter-period is
= . The cycle begins at
4
2

π

π

1
π
π
1
sin x +
= sin x − −
2
2
2
2

The equation y =

= 3 sin 0 = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y=

=

y=

π
1
sin x +
2
2

y=

1
π π
sin − +
2
2 2

=

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0
0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=
=

π
2

y=
=

coordinates

π
2

,0

1
1
sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2
1
π
sin 0 +
2
2

0,

1
2

1
1
π 1
sin = ⋅1 =
2
2
2 2
1
π π
sin
+
2
2 2
1
1
sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

552

π
2

,0

PreCalculus 4E

π

Section 4.5

y=

1
π
sin π +
2
2

π, −

1
2

1

sin
2
2
1
1
= ⋅(−1) = −
2
2

=

2

y=

1
3π π
sin
+
2
2
2

,0
2

x

y=

−π

y=

1
sin 2π
2
1
= ⋅0 = 0
2
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
2

=

1
sin(− π + π )
2
1
1
= sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

y=
=

0

π
2

24.

1
1
sin(x + π ) = sin( x − (− π ))
2
2
1
The equation y = sin(x − (−π )) is of the form
2
1
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = , B = 1, and C = −π .
2
1
1
The amplitude is A =
= . The period is
2
2
2π 2π
C −π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
=
= −π .
B
B
1
1
2π π
The quarter-period is
= . The cycle begins at
4
2
x = −π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
the key points.
x = −π
y=

x = −π +
x=−

π
2

x=0+

π

π
2

+

π
2

π
2
=

=−

1
π
sin − + π
2
2

1
sin(0 + π )
2
1
1
= sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

y=

1
π
sin

2
2

(−π , 0 )

π 1
2

,

2

(0, 0)

π
2

,−

1
2

1
3π 1
1
sin
= ⋅ (−1) = −
2
2
2
2

1
sin(π + π )
2
1
1
= sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

y=

(π , 0)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
2

=0

π
2

π

+ =π
2 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=

coordinates

1
1
π 1
sin = ⋅1 =
2
2
2 2

y=

=

π

1
sin(x + π )
2

553

Trigonometric Functions

25.

y = −2 sin 2x +

π
2

= −2 sin 2 x − −

The equation y = −2 sin 2x − −

π
2

π

x

2

is of the form

π
4

π
2

= −2 sin −

. The amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is
π

0

x=−
x=−

4

x=0+
x=

π
4

+

+

π
4

π

π

=
=

4

=0

π

π
4

,0

2

π
2

(0, –2)

π
2

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅
= −2 sin

4

π
2

π
4

+

π

π

2

4

π

π

2

2

,0

π

+

2

= −2 sin π
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4

π

4

4

2

2
= −2 ⋅1 = −2

4

π

π

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −2 sin

π
π

+

4

+

2

= −2 sin 0 +

π

. The cycle begins at x = − . Add
4
4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.

period is

π

= −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π 2π
=
= π . The
B
2

π 1
π
C −2
=
= − ⋅ = − . The quarterphase shift is
B
2
2 2
4
π

π

coordinates

2

y = −2 sin 2⋅ −

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2,
B = 2, and C = −

π

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

π
2

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

π
2

= −2 sin π +

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

+

,2

π
2

2
= −2(−1) = 2
= −2 sin

4

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅
= −2 sin

3π π
+
4 2

,0
4

3π π
+
2 2

= −2 sin 2π
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

554

PreCalculus 4E

26.

Section 4.5

y = −3sin 2x +

π
2

= −3sin 2x − −

The equation y = −3sin 2x − −

π
2

π

π

2

4

= −3sin

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2, and C = −

π
2

π
2

π
C
π 1
π
2
=
= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is .
2
2 2
4
4
B

π

4

π
4

+

+

π
4

π
4

π
4
=
=

=0

π
4

x

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

,0

+

π

π

2

2

,3

π
2

,0
4

3π π
+
2
2

π
2

π
4

+

+

π
2

π
4

,0

π
2

= −3sin 0 = −3⋅ 0 = 0
y = −3sin 2 ⋅ 0 +
= −3sin 0 +
= −3sin

4

3π π
+
4 2

coordinates

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ −
= −3sin −

0

2

2

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

4

π

π

+

π

π

π

π

= −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

+

= −3⋅ (−1) = 3
2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅
= −3sin

4

x=0+
x=

4

π
π

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

4
generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

2

4

= −3sin π +

π

x=−

π

π

= −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

.

The amplitude is A = −3 = 3. The period is
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
B
2

The cycle begins at x = −

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

π
2

π
2

(0, –3)

π
2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

555

Trigonometric Functions

27.

y = 3sin(π x + 2)
The equation y = 3sin(π x − (−2)) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = π , and C = –2.
The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is
C −2
2
2π 2π
=
= 2 . The phase shift is
=
= − . The
B π
B
π
π
2 1
quarter-period is = . The cycle begins at
4 2
2
x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 4
3π − 4
y = 3sin π
+2

π

2π − 2

1 π −4
x=− + =
π 2

π − 4 1 π −2
x=
+ =
π
2

π − 2 1 3π − 4
x=
+ =
π
2

3π − 4 1 2π − 2
x=
+ =
π
2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.
2

2

π

y = 3sin π −

2

π

= 3sin

−2 +2
2

2
= 3(−1) = −3

π

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

3π − 4
+2
2

= 3sin

the key points.
2
x=−

x

= 3sin

π

y = 3sin π

2π − 2

π

= 3sin
= 3sin
= 3sin

π −4
2

π
2

2

π

,0

π−4
,3

+2

−2 + 2

π

2
= 3⋅1 = 3

π −2
π −2
π y = 3sin π π + 2

2π − 2

π

,0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

= 3sin(−2 + 2)
= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

π −4
π −4
2π y = 3sin π 2π + 2

+2

= 3sin(2 π − 2 + 2)
= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

coordinates
+2

, −3
4

π −2
,0
π

= 3sin(π − 2 + 2)
= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

556

PreCalculus 4E

28.

Section 4.5

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4) = 3sin(2π x − (−4))
The equation y = 3sin(2 πx − (−4)) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2π , and
C = –4. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period
C −4
2
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
=
=− .
is
B 2π
B 2π
π
1
The quarter-period is . The cycle begins at
4
2
x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 8
3π − 8
y = 3sin 2π
+4

the key points.
2
x=−

π − 2 y = 3sin 2π π − 2 + 4
π
π
= 3sin(2 π − 4 + 4)
= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π
π

1 π −8
=
4

π −8 1 π − 4
x=
+ =
4

π − 4 1 3π − 8
x=
+ =
4

3π − 8 1 π − 2
x=
+ =
π
4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=−

2

π

x

2

π

+

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4)
y = 3sin 2π −

2

π

= 3sin
= 3sin

2

π
2

π
2

= 3sin

− 4+4
2

= 3sin

= 3(−1) = −3
2

π −2
,0
π

coordinates
+4

π −8
π −8
+4
y = 3sin 2π

π −8

3π − 8
+4
2

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

2

π

,0

29.

= 3sin(−4 + 4)
= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

= 3sin

= 3sin

3π − 8
, −3

π −8
,3

+4

−4 + 4
= 3 ⋅1 = 3

π −4
π−4
2π y = 3sin 2π 2 π + 4

π−4
,0

= 3sin(π − 4 + 4)
= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π ) = −2sin(2π x − (−4π ))
The equation y = −2 sin(2π x − (−4π )) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2, B = 2π , and
C = −4 π . The amplitude is A = −2 = 2 . The
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
period is
B 2π
1
C −4 π
=
= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

4
B
begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x = −2
7
1
x = −2 + = −
4
4
7 1
3
x=− + =−
4 4
2
3 1
5
x=− + =−
2 4
4
5 1
x = − + = −1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

557

Trigonometric Functions

y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π )

coordinates

–2 y = −2 sin(2π (−2) + 4 π )
= −2 sin(−4π + 4π )
= −2 sin 0
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

(–2, 0)

x

7
7
4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

π
2

7
, −2
4

+ 4π
2

= −2 sin −
= −2 sin

30.

1
7
=−
4
4
7 1
3
x=− + =−
4 4
2
3 1
5
x=− + =−
2 4
4
5 1
x = − + = −1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x = −2 +

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

3
3
2 y = −2 sin 2π − 2 + 4 π

3
− ,0
2

= −2 sin(−3π + 4π )
= −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

5
5
4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π
= −2 sin −

y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π ) = −3 sin(2π x − (−4π ))
The equation y = −3 sin(2 πx − (−4 π )) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2π , and
C = −4π . The amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The
2π 2π
=
= 1 . The phase shift is
period is
B 2π
C −4π
1
=
= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2π
4
begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x = −2

5
,2
4

+ 4π
2

x

y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π )

–2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−2) + 4π )

(–2, 0)

= −3 sin( −4 π + 4π )
= −3 sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2
= −2 (−1) = 2
= −2 sin

–1 y = −2 sin(2π (−1) + 4 π )
= −2 sin(−2π + 4π )

coordinates

7
7
4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

(–1, 0)

= −3 sin −

= −2 sin 2π

= −3 sin

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
2

7
, −3
4

+ 4π
2
= −3 ⋅1 = −3

3
3
2 y = −3 sin 2π − 2 + 4π

3
− ,0
2

= −3 sin( −3π + 4π )
= −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

5
5
4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π
= −3 sin −
= −3 sin

–1

5
,3
4

+ 4π
2

= −3(−1) = 3
2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−1) + 4π )
= −3 sin( −2 π + 4π )
= −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

558

(–1, 0)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

the graph of y = 2 cosx .

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

32. The equation y = 3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
with A = 3. Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .
π

or .
The period is 2π . The quarter-period is
4
2
The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

31. The equation y = 2 cosx is of the form y = Acos x
with A = 2. Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2 .
π

or .
The period is 2π . The quarter-period is
4
2
The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

π
2

π
2

=

x=0+

π

x=

2

y = 2 cosx

2

π

y = 2 cos

π

2
= 2⋅0 = 0

y = 2 cos π

2

,0

(π , − 2)

= 2 ⋅(−1) = −2

2

y = 2 cos

2
= 2⋅0 = 0

,0
2

y = 2 cos2π

(2 π , 2 )

π
2

=

2

y = 3 cos x

0

y = 3 cos 0 = 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

(0, 2)

π

2

2

x

π

coordinates

y = 2 cos0

π

π

x=

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

π

+

2

=

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=π+ =
2
2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

0

2

x=π+

π

x

π

π

y = 3 cos

π
2

coordinates

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = 3 cos π = 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3

2

y = 3 cos

y = 3 cos2 π = 3 ⋅1 = 3

= 3⋅ 0 = 0
2

(0, 3)

π
2

,0

(π , − 3)

,0
2
(2 π , 3)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
and graph one complete cycle of the given function
with the graph of y = cos x .

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function with

559

Trigonometric Functions
33. The equation y = −2 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
with A = –2. Thus, the amplitude is
A = −2 = 2 . The period is 2π . The quarterπ

or . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add
period is
4
2
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

π

=

2

π
2

34. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
with A = –3. Thus, the amplitude is A = −3 = 3 .
π

or .
The period is 2π . The quarter-period is
4
2
The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+

π
2

x=

x=π+ =
2
2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

coordinates

0

y = −2 cos 0

(0, –2)

2

π

y = −2 cos

π

2
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = −2 cos π

y = −2 cos

y = −2 cos 2π

2
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

π
2

=

2

y = −3 cos x

0

y = −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

π

,0

(π , 2)

= −2 ⋅ (−1) = 2

2

π

=

x

2

π

+

2

2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

π

2

x=π+

π

y = −2 cos x

π

π

,0
2

y = −3 cos

π
2

coordinates

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

2

y = −3 cos

y = −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0
2

(0, –3)

π
2

,0

(π , 3)

,0
2
(2 π , − 3)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function with
the graph of y = cos x .

(2 π , − 2)

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function with
the graph of y = cos x .

560

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

35. The equation y = cos2 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
with A = 1 and B = 2. Thus, the amplitude is
2π 2π
A = 1 = 1. The period is
=
= π . The
B
2

quarter-period is

π

36. The equation y = cos 4 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
with A = 1 and B = 4. Thus, the amplitude is
2π 2π π
A = 1 = 1. The period is
=
= . The
B
4
2
π

. The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=0
x=0+
x=

π
4

+

π
4

π
4

=
=

π

x=0+

4

π

x=

2
π π 3π
x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

y = cos2 x

0

y = cos(2 ⋅ 0)

4

y = cos 2 ⋅
= cos

π
2

π
2

π
8

(0, 1)

π

4

4

π

2

2

y = cos 2 ⋅

4

y = cos(2 ⋅ π )

+

π
8

π

, −1

8

=
=

π
8

π

0

y = cos(4 ⋅ 0) = cos 0 = 1

8

,0

y = cos 4 ⋅

4

y = cos 4 ⋅

8

y = cos 4 ⋅
= cos

,0
4

π

=0
= cos
2

π

π

y = cos 4 x

= cos π = −1

4

=

x

π

π

π

π

=0

y = cos 2 ⋅

π 1

π

coordinates

π

=

4

x= + =
4 8
8
3π π π
x=
+ =
8
8 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= cos 0 = 1

π

2

. The cycle begins at
4 2 4 8
x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
the key points.
x=0

quarter-period is

2

coordinates

π
8

π
4

= cos

π
2

=0

= cos π = −1

8

(0, 1)

π
8

π
4

,0

, −1

,0
8

=0
2

y = cos 4 ⋅

π
2

= cos2 π = 1

π
2

,1

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

(π , 1)

= cos2 π = 1
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

561

Trigonometric Functions
37. The equation y = 4 cos2 πx is of the form
y = Acos Bx with A = 4 and B = 2π . Thus, the
amplitude is A = 4 = 4 . The period is
2π 2π
1
=
= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2π
4
begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x=0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

x

y = 4 cos2 πx

0

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

38. The equation y = 5 cos2 πx is of the form
y = Acos Bx with A = 5 and B = 2π . Thus, the
amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . The period is
2π 2π
1
=
= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2π
4
begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x=0

coordinates

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

(0, 4)

= 4 cos 0
= 4 ⋅1 = 4
1
4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅
= 4 cos

1
4

1
,0
4

π

2
= 4 ⋅0 = 0
1
2

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

1
2

1
, −4
2

3
4

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅
= 5 cos

3
,0
4

2
= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1
2

= 4 cos

1

0
1
4

= 4 ⋅ (−1) = −4
y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

y = 5 cos2 πx

coordinates
(0, 5)

= 5 cos 0 = 5 ⋅1 = 5

= 4 cos π
3
4

x

π
2

1
4

1
,0
4

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

1
2

1
, −5
2

= 5 cos π = 5 ⋅ (−1) = −5

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅1)

(1, 4)

3
4

= 4 cos2 π
= 4 ⋅1 = 4

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅
= 5 cos

1

4

3
,0
4

= 5⋅ 0 = 0
2

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅1)
= 5 cos2 π = 5 ⋅1 = 5

562

(1, 5)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y = −4 cos

1
⋅ 3π
2

(3π , 0 )

2
= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0
= −4 cos

y = −4 cos

1
⋅ 4π
2

(4π , – 4)

= −4 cos 2π
= −4 ⋅1 = −4

1
x is of the form
2
1
y = Acos Bx with A = –4 and B = . Thus, the
2
amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . The period is
2π 2π
= 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . The quarter-period is
B

39. The equation y = −4 cos

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

2

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0
x = 0 +π = π

1
40. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form
3
1
y = Acos Bx with A = –3 and B = . Thus, the
3
amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The period is
2π 2π
= 1 = 2π ⋅3 = 6π . The quarter-period is
B

x = π + π = 2π
x = 2π + π = 3π
x = 3π + π = 4 π
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x
0

y = −4 cos
y = −4 cos

1
x
2
1
⋅0
2

coordinates

3

6π 3π
=
. The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4
2
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

(0, –4)

= −4 cos 0

3π 3π
=
2
2
3π 3π
x=
+
= 3π
2
2
3π 9π
x = 3π +
=
2
2
9π 3π
x=
+
= 6π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

π

y = −4 cos
= −4 cos

1
⋅π
2

x=0+

(π , 0)

π

2
= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

y = −4 cos

1
⋅ 2π
2

(2 π , 4)

= −4 cos π
= −4 ⋅ (−1) = 4

563

Trigonometric Functions

x

1
y = −3 cos x
3

0

y = −3 cos

x=0
coordinates

1
⋅0
3

3 3
=
2 2
3 3
x = + =3
2 2
3 9
x= 3+ =
2 2
9 3
x = + =6
2 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

(0, –3)

= −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

2

y = −3 cos
= −3 cos

1 3π

3 2

π
2

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

1
y = −3 cos ⋅ 3π
3

,0
2

(3π , 3)

= −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

2

y = −3 cos
= −3 cos

y = −3 cos

1 9π

3 2

x

y=−

π
1
cos x
3
2

0

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅ 0
3
2

,0
2

0, −

1
2

1
cos0
2
1
1
= − ⋅1 = −
2
2
=−

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0
2
1
⋅ 6π
3

coordinates

3
2

(6π , − 3)

y=−

π 3
1
cos ⋅
3 2
2

3
,0
2

π
1
cos
2
2
1
= − ⋅0 = 0
2

= −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

=−

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.
3

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅3
3
2

3,

1
2

1
cos π
2
1
1
= − ⋅(−1) =
2
2

=−

9
2

π
1
cos x is of the form
3
2
π
1
y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the
3
2
1
1
= . The period is
amplitude is A = −
2
2
2π 2π
3
6 3
= π = 2π ⋅ = 6 . The quarter-period is = .
B
π
4 2

41. The equation y = −

y=−

1
π 9
cos ⋅
3 2
2

9
,0
2

1
cos
2
2
1
= − ⋅0 = 0
2

=−

6

3

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅6
3
2

1
cos2π
2
1
1
= − ⋅1 = −
2
2

=−

The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.

564

6, −

1
2

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=−

6

=−
y=−

8

1
π
cos ⋅6
4
2

(6, 0)

1
1
cos
= − ⋅0 = 0
2
2
2

π
1
cos ⋅8
4
2

8, −

1
2

1
1
1
cos2π = − ⋅1 = −
2
2
2
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.
=−

π
1
cos x is of the form
4
2
π
1
y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the
4
2
1
1
= . The period is
amplitude is A = −
2
2
2π 2π
4
8
= π = 2π ⋅ = 8 . The quarter-period is 4 = 2 .
B
π

42. The equation y = −

4

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

π⎞

43. The equation y = cos ⎜ x − ⎟ is of the form
2⎠

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

x = 0 +2 = 2
x= 2+ 2 = 4

π

x = 4 +2 = 6

C=

x = 6 +2 = 8
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

period is

x

y=−

1
π
cos x
2
4

0

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅ 0
4
2

=−
2

y=−
=−

4

=−

1
2

cycle begins at x =

π

2
generate x-values for the key points.
x=

(2, 0)

x=

π
1
1
cos = − ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2
2

π
1
y = − cos ⋅ 4
4
2

2π 2π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
B
1

2π π
C 2 π
=
= . The quarter-period is
= . The
4
2
B 1 2

1
1
1
cos0 = − ⋅1 = −
2
2
2

π
1
cos ⋅2
4
2

A = 1 = 1 . The

π

coordinates
0, −

. Thus, the amplitude is

2

π
2

π
2

+

x =π +

π
2

π

=

2

2
3π π
+ = 2π
x=
2
2
π 5π
x = 2π + =
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1
4,
2

1
1
1
cos π = − ⋅ (−1) =
2
2
2

565

Trigonometric Functions

π

x

coordinates

π
2

⎛π ⎞
⎜ 2 , 1⎟

x=−

π

(π , 0 )

x =0+

2

⎛ 3π

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

( 2π , 0 )

2

⎛ 5π ⎞
⎜ 2 , 1⎟

x=−

x=

2

period is

π
2

π

+

2

π
2

π
2
=

=0

π
2

=
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

. Thus, the amplitude is

π

x

coordinates

π

⎛ π ⎞
⎜ − 2 , 1⎟

π⎞

44. The equation y = cos ⎜ x + ⎟ is of the form
2⎠

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and
π

+

2

x =π +

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

C=−

2

π

2

0

( 0, 0 )

π
2

⎛π

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

π

(π , 0 )

2

⎛ 3π ⎞
⎜ 2 , 1⎟

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

A = 1 = 1 . The

2π 2π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
B
1

π

2π π
C
π
= 2 = − . The quarter-period is
= . The
4
2
B
1
2
cycle begins at x = −

π

2
generate x-values for the key points.

566

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

45. The equation y = 3cos(2x − π ) is of the form
y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 3, and B = 2, and

46. The equation y = 4 cos(2x − π ) is of the form
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 4, and B = 2, and C = π .
Thus, the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. The period is
C π
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= . The
B 2
B
2

C = π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The
C π
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= .
period is
B 2
B
2
The quarter-period is

π

. The cycle begins at x =

π

4
2
Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=
x=

π

x=

2

π

+

π

=

π

π

. The cycle begins at x = . Add
4
2
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.

quarter-period is

.

π
2

π 3π
+ =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4 4
2

4

x=

2 4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4 4
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

coordinates

π

π

2

2

x

,3

coordinates

π

π

2

2

,4

4

,0
4

4

,0
4

π

(π , − 3)

π

(π , − 4)

4

,0
4

4

,0
4

2

,4
2

2

,3
2

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

567

Trigonometric Functions

47.

1
1
π
π
= cos 3x − −
cos 3x +
2
2
2
2

y=

The equation y =

1
π
cos 3x − −
2
2

is of the form

1
, and B = 3, and
2
1
1
π
= . The
C = − . Thus, the amplitude is A =
2
2
2
2π 2π
=
. The phase shift is
period is
B
3
π
π 1
π
C −2
=
= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is
3
2 3
6
B
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A =

π

1
1
cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π ))
2
2
1
The equation y = cos(2 x − (−π )) is of the form
2
1
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = , and B = 2, and
2
1
1
C = −π . Thus, the amplitude is A =
= . The
2
2
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
period is
B
2
C −π
π
π
=
= − . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2
2
4

6

begins at x = −

48.

3

π
2π 1 π
=
⋅ = . The cycle begins at x = − . Add
4
3 4 6
6
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=−
x=−

π
6

π
6

x=0+

π

x=

6

π

x=

+
+

π

+

=0

6

π

=

6

π
6

π

=
=

π
6

3

π

x=−

0

x=−

π 1
,
6 2

π

6

6

,−

π

π

3

3

π
2

π
2

π
4

x=0+

(0, 0)

π

π

x=−

coordinates

π

. Add quarter-periods to generate x2
values for the key points.

π

3 6 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

y=

x=

π

+
+

π
4

π

π
4

π
4
=

=−

π
4

=0

π
4

π

+ =
4 4 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1
2

,0

π 1

,
2 2
2
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

568

PreCalculus 4E

x

π
2

π
4

Section 4.5

49. The equation y = −3 cos 2x −

π 1
,
2 2

π
4

B = 2, and C =

,0

π
2

. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −3 = 3. The period is
π

0

1
0, −
2

π

π

4

4

π 1
2

,

. The cycle begins at x =

π

4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.

,0

2

π

2π 2π
=
= π . The
B
2

C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period
B 2 2 2 4

phase shift is
is

π

π

is of the form
2
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –3, and

coordinates

x=

2

x=

π
4

π

π

π

x

4

=

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

4

+

π

coordinates

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −3

,0

4

,3
4

π

(π , 0)

4

, −3
4

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

569

Trigonometric Functions

50. The equation y = −4 cos 2x −

π

51.

is of the form

2
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –4, and B = 2, and

C=

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 .

The period is
π

2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
B
2

π
C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period is . The
4
B 2 2 2 4
cycle begins at x =

π

4
generate x-values for the key points.
x=
x=

π
4

π
4

+

π

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

x

4

=

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −4

,4
4

π

(π , 0)

4

, −4
4

coordinates

–4

(–4, 2)

15
4

7
2

7
− , −2
2

13
4

,0

4

x

coordinates

π

y = 2 cos(2π x + 8π ) = 2 cos(2πx − (−8π ))
The equation y = 2 cos(2π x − (−8π )) is of the form
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 2, B = 2π , and C = −8π .
Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2. The period is
C −8π
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
=
= −4 . The
B 2π
B 2π
1
quarter-period is . The cycle begins at x = –4. Add
4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x = −4
1
15
x = −4 + = −
4
4
15 1
7
x=− + =−
4 4
2
7 1
13
x=− + =−
2 4
4
13 1
x = − + = −3
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

–3

15
,0
4

13
,0
4

(–3, 2)

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
and graph one complete cycle of the given function.

570

PreCalculus 4E

52.

Section 4.5

y = 3cos(2πx + 4 π ) = 3 cos(2πx − (−4π ))
The equation y = 3cos(2πx − (−4π )) is of the form
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 3, and B = 2π , and
C = −4π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
period is
B 2π
1
C −4π
=
= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
4
B 2π
begins at x = –2. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x = −2
1
7
x = −2 + = −
4
4
7 1
3
x=− + =−
4 4
2
3 1
5
x=− + =−
2 4
4
5 1
x = − + = −1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x
–2

53. The graph of y = sin x + 2 is the graph of y = sin x
shifted up 2 units upward. The period for both

π
functions is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The
4
2
cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2

π
2

=

π
2

=

2

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=

x

y = sin x + 2

coordinates

0

y = sin 0 + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

(0, 2)

coordinates

π

(–2, 3)

2

7
,0
4

π

y = sin π + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

2

y = sin

y = sin 2π + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

7
4

3
2

3
− , −3
2

5
4

,0
4

–1
(–1, 3)
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

+2
2
=1 +2 = 3

y = sin

+2
2
= −1 + 2 = 1

π
2

,3

(π , 2)

,1
2

(2 π , 2 )

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

571

Trigonometric Functions
54. The graph of y = sin x − 2 is the graph of y = sin x
shifted 2 units downward. The period for both

π
functions is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The
4
2
cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2

π
2

=

55. The graph of y = cos x − 3 is the graph of y = cos x
shifted 3 units downward. The period for both

π
functions is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The
4
2
cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

π

x=0+

2

=

x=

2

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

y = sin x − 2

0

y = sin 0 − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

2

y = sin

2

+

x=π+

π
2

π

y = sin π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

2

y = sin

y = sin 2π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

− 2 = −1 − 2 = −3
2

π
2

π
2

π
2

=

2

x=

coordinates

− 2 = 1 − 2 = −1

2

=

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

π

π

π

(0, –2)

π
4

, −1

x

y = cos x − 3

coordinates

0

y = cos 0 − 3
= 1 − 3 = −2

(0, –2)

π

y = cos

π

−3
2
= 0 − 3 = −3

(π , − 2)

2

, −3
2

π

y = cos π − 3
= −1 − 3 = − 4

2

y = cos

y = cos2 π − 3
= 1 − 3 = −2

(2 π , − 2)

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

−3
2
= 0 − 3 = −3

π
2

, −3

(π , − 4)

, −3
2

(2 π , − 2)

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

572

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

x=0
x = 0 +π = π
x = π + π = 2π
x = 2π + π = 3π
x = 3π + π = 4 π
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

56. The graph of y = cos x + 3 is the graph of y = cos x
shifted 3 units upward. The period for both functions

π
is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The cycle
4
2
begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2

π
2

=

π
2

=

x

y = 2sin

0

y = 2sin

2

x

y = cos x + 3

0

y = cos 0 + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

2

(0, 1)

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

y = cos

1
⋅0 +1
2

coordinates

= 2sin 0 + 1

x=

π

1
x +1
2

π
2

π

= 2sin

(0, 4)

π
2

,3

π

y = cos π + 3 = −1 + 3 = 2

(π , 2)

2

y = cos

+3 = 0 + 3 = 3
2

,3
2

y = cos2 π + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

(2 π , 4)

1
⋅π + 1
2

(π , 3)

π

+1
2
= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

coordinates

+3 = 0+ 3= 3

y = 2sin

y = 2sin

1
⋅ 2π + 1
2

(2 π , 1)

= 2sin π + 1
= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

y = 2sin

1
⋅ 3π + 1
2

(3π , − 1)

+1
2
= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1
= −2 + 1 = −1
= 2sin

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

y = 2sin

1
⋅ 4π + 1
2

(4π , 1)

= 2sin 2π + 1
= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1
By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.
1

57. The graph of y = 2sin 2 x + 1 is the graph
1

of y = 2sin 2 x shifted one unit upward. The
amplitude for both functions is 2 = 2. The period

for both functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter2

period is
= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add
4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.

573

Trigonometric Functions

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

1
58. The graph of y = 2 cos x + 1 is the graph of
2
1
y = 2 cos x shifted one unit upward. The amplitude
2
for both functions is 2 = 2. The period for both

functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter-period is
2

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0
x = 0 +π = π
x = π + π = 2π
x = 2π + π = 3π
x = 3π + π = 4 π
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

1
y = 2 cos x + 1
2

0

y = 2 cos

1
⋅0 +1
2

59. The graph of y = −3 cos2 πx + 2 is the graph of
y = −3 cos2 πx shifted 2 units upward. The amplitude
for both functions is −3 = 3. The period for both
1

= 1. The quarter-period is . The
functions is
4

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

coordinates

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

(0, 3)

= 2 cos0 + 1
= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

π

y = 2 cos
= 2 cos

1
⋅π + 1
2

(π , 1)

π

+1
2
= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

y = 2 cos

1
⋅ 2π + 1
2

x

y = −3 cos2 πx + 2

0

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 0) + 2
= −3 cos 0 + 2
= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2
= −3 + 2 = −1

(2 π , − 1)

= 2 cos π + 1
= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1 = − 2 + 1 = −1

y = 2 cos

1
⋅ 3π + 1
2

1
4
(3π , 1)

= −3 cos

y = 2 cos

1
⋅ 4π + 1
2

π

2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

(4π , 3)
1
2

= 2 cos2π + 1
= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

1
+2
4

coordinates
(0, –1)

1
,2
4

+2

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

1
+2
2

= −3 cos π + 2
= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2
= 3 +2 = 5

574

1
,5
2

PreCalculus 4E

3
4

Section 4.5

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

3
+2
4

3
,2
4

+2
2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

x

y = −3sin 2πx + 2

0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) + 2
= −3sin 0 + 2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

= −3 cos

1

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 1) + 2
= −3 cos2 π + 2
= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2
= −3 + 2 = −1

1
4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

(1, –1)

= −3sin

1
+2
4

coordinates
(0, 2)

1
, −1
4

π

+2
2
= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2 = −3 + 2 = −1

1
2

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

1
+2
2

1
,2
2

= −3sin π + 2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

3
4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

3
+2
4

3
,5
4

+2
2
= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5
= −3sin

1

60. The graph of y = −3sin 2πx + 2 is the graph of
y = −3 sin 2πx shifted two units upward. The
amplitude for both functions is A = −3 = 3. The

= 1. The quarterperiod for both functions is

1
period is . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter–
4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 1) + 2
= −3sin 2π + 2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

(1, 2)

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

61. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 ,
The period is 4π and thus

2π 1
B=
=
=
period 4π 2
y = A cos Bx

y = 3cos

1
x
2

575

Trigonometric Functions

62. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 , The
period is 4π and thus

2π 1
=
=
B=
period 4π 2
y = A sin Bx

y = 3sin

67.

1
x
2

63. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,
The period is π and thus

=
=2
B=
period π
y = A sin Bx

68.

y = −2sin 2 x
64. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,
The period is 4π and thus

=
=2
B=
period π
y = A cos Bx

69.

y = −2cos 2 x
65. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 , The
period is 4 and thus

2π π
=
=
B=
period
4
2

70.

y = A sin Bx
⎛π
y = 2sin ⎜
⎝2

x⎟

66. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 ,
The period is 4 and thus

2π π
=
=
B=
period
4
2
y = A cos Bx

71.

⎛π ⎞
y = 2 cos ⎜ x ⎟
⎝2 ⎠

72.

576

38) corresponds to 9 P. the physical cycle is at a minimum on February 18. 74. The information gives the five key points of the graph. In the month of February. In the month of March. 83. 12) corresponds to March. Answers may vary. 76. 53) corresponds to 6 P. The period of the physical cycle is 33 days. A = 3 = 3. 2π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right to graph the information for 0 ≤ x ≤ 24. 23) corresponds to Noon. By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph information from noon to midnight. March 21 would be the best day to meet an on-line friend for the first time.. 14) corresponds to June By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph the information from June of one year to June of the following year. (9. Answers may vary. d. (0.. (6. The function y = 3sin 78. (9. Inc. This occurs when the sine function equals –1. The shortest day of the year will have the least hours of daylight. 82. 75. Publishing as Prentice Hall. B 2π 365 y = 15 There will be 15 hours of daylight. The information gives the five key point of the graph. Thus. a. 10) corresponds to December. 77.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. (12. The amplitude is b. The longest day of the year will have the most hours of daylight. 23) corresponds to Midnight. because the emotional cycle is at a maximum. In the month of February.. the intellectual cycle is at a maximum on February 11. (12.M. the author should begin writing the on February 11. (3. (3.5 84. 577 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2π y = 3sin ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(1) + 12 81. 79. The period is c. This occurs when the sine function equals 1. Thus. The period of the emotional cycle is 28 days. The period of the intellectual cycle is 23 days. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 is of the form 365 C⎞ ⎛ y = A sin B ⎜ x − ⎟ + D with B⎠ ⎝ 85. 73. the author should not run in a marathon on February 18.M. 38) corresponds to 3 P. (6. A = 3 and B = 80. 365 2π 2π 365 = 2π = 2π ⋅ = 365 . .M. 12) corresponds to September. (0. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(−1) + 12 y = 3sin y=9 There will be 9 hours of daylight. 14) corresponds to June.

2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π ⎞ ⎟ + 40 is in the ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) + D with A = 16.5 + 91. The cycle begins at x = 79. Thus. x=4 The amplitude is 3. The depth of the water is modeled by y = 3cos 2π 6 = ⋅ = 4 . 24) (4.75.25 = 352. 26. 12) (170. starting on January 1.Trigonometric Functions e. The period is 12. Add 4 quarter-periods to find the x-values of the key points. Thus. The phase B π 6 and C = C = shift is B 2π 3 π 6 B= 2π π = 12 6 Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . The C phase shift is = 79 . (0. A = 3. 12) (352. B = π 6 . 9.25 . 9) (365.07) (79.75 x = 352. . along with x = 1 and x = 12. Inc. or 12 hours. Add quarter4 periods to find the x-values for the key points. we will evaluate the function for the first four xvalues along with x = 0 and x = 365. πx 6 +9.25 = 261. 56) (10.25 + 91.25. 40) (7. 3 2π 2π 6 The period is = π = 2π ⋅ = 12 . 578 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 4+3 = 7 x = 7 + 3 = 10 x = 10 + 3 = 13 x = 13 + 3 = 16 Because we are graphing for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Using a calculator we have the following points. we will evaluate the function for the three x-values between 1 and 12.75 + 91.07) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain one period of the graph. 15) (261. 9.5 x = 261. 40) (12. the curve oscillates about the middle value. The quarter-period is 3 π 12 = 3 . The highest average monthly temperature is 56° in July. The maximum depth of the water is 3 feet above 9 feet. The function y = 16 sin ⎜ x − 3 ⎝6 87. The amplitude is A = 16 = 16 .25 = 170.25 x = 170. Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 6 feet to a maximum of 12 feet. The cycle begins at x = 4. D = 9. The period is 365. (1.25 = 444 Because we are graphing for 0 ≤ x ≤ 365 . Using a calculator we have the following points. 2π . 2π ⎛π 86.5. The quarter-period is B 365 = 91. Thus. x = 79 x = 79 + 91. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12-0. 9 feet.1) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain the graph for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 .

. A = 1. The amplitude is period is A = 3 = 3 . and C = −π . The graphs appear to be the same from − x= 579 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 . π⎞ ⎛ 102.2 sin ⎜ x + π ⎟ = 0. and −1 ≤ y ≤ 1 for our graph. Inc. and B 2 2 2 2 −4 ≤ y ≤ 4 for our graph. the curve oscillates about the middle value. The period is 12. Answers may vary.2. Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . Publishing as Prentice Hall. and C= π 2 . We choose − ≤ x ≤ .2sin ⎜ x − (−π ) ⎟ is of the ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 0. Thus. Thus. 4 4 B 2π 2 2π 4 and −3 ≤ y ≤ 3 for our graph. A = −2 = 2 . 4 feet. 89. The amplitude is y = A cos( Bx − C ) + D with A = 3. The cycle begins at B 2π π C π 1 1 1 9 = 2 = ⋅ = . The period is 105. The function y = 3sin(2 x − π ) + 5 is of the form the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 3. B = 2. The maximum depth of the water is 1 foot above 4 feet. B 2 B 2 Because D = 5. the graph has a vertical shift 5 units π 5π . We choose ≤ x ≤ 2 2 our graph. B = 2. 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π B= 103. The cycle begins at x = = . and 0 ≤ y ≤ 10 for upward.2 = 0. or 12 hours. The amplitude is period is 2π π = 12 6 at x = πx 6 2π 2π 10 = π = 2π ⋅ = 20 . The function y = 3sin(2 x + π ) = 3sin(2 x − (−π )) is of 104. and A = 3 = 3 . B = C = −π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Thus. B = 2π . The cycle begins at B 2 C −π π π 3π x= = = − . We choose B π 10 −10 ≤ x ≤ 30 . The function y = −2 cos ⎜ 2π x − ⎟ is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx − C ) with A = –2. The function ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ y = 0. π 2 to π 2 . The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. The D = 5. The cycle begins B π 10 C −π 10 = π = −π ⋅ = −10 . D = 4. The +4. The depth of the water is modeled by y = cos π . period is C π 2π 2π = = π . – 100.5 88. We choose ≤ x ≤ . C = π . Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 3 feet to a maximum of 5 feet. The 2π 2π = = 1 . and 10 A = 0. The amplitude is 2π 2π = = π . 101.

Sample explanation: It may be easier to start at the highest point. the maximum will occur at 3 − 2 = 1 and the minimum will occur at −3 − 2 = −5 .1. ⎡ π 23π π ⎤ . . 116. −1] ⎡ π 7π π ⎤ . B= 2π 2π = = 2π period 1 C C = = −2 B 2π C = −4π y = A cos( Bx − C ) y = 22. Since A = 1 and D = −2. makes sense 107. 113. Explanations will vary. makes sense 115. except the amplitude is greater and the curve is less smooth. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus the range is [ −5. except not smooth.17 y = π cos(2π x + 4π ) or y = π cos [ 2π ( x + 2) ] 580 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. does not make sense. Since A = 3 and D = −2. ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ 108. ⎥ by [ −5.04) + 57.1] The graph is similar to y = sin x .61sin(0. Thus the range is [ −3. b. Answers may vary. ⎥ by [ −3. .1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . a. −1. b. makes sense The graphs appear to be the same from − π 2 to π 2 112. 106. Inc. 114. a. 111.Trigonometric Functions 110. A = π 109. ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ The graph is very similar to y = sin x .1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . the maximum will occur at 1 − 2 = −1 and the minimum will occur at −1 − 2 = −3 .50 x − 2.

. ⎟ < x < ⎬ or ⎜ − ⎨x − 4 4 ⎝ 4 4⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 581 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Answers may vary. 1 1 118. 2 119. y = sin 2 x = 1 1 − cos 2 x 2 2 − 121. − 120. a.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. − π 2 − π π 2 < x+ < x+ π π 4 − < π π 2 < π − π 4 4 4 2 4 2π π 2π π − − <x< − 4 4 4 4 π 3π − <x< 4 4 ⎧ 3π π⎫ ⎛ 3π π ⎞ . Inc. 3π π 2π π + − − 4 4 = 4 = 2 = −π 2 2 2 4 122.5 117. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. y = cos x = + cos 2 x 2 2 The reciprocal function is undefined.

0+π π x-intercept = = 2 2 582 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2.Trigonometric Functions Section 4. Use the two asymptotes. Midway between x = 0 and x = 2 is x = 1. 1 Because the coefficient of the cotangent is . x = 0 and x 2 1 π = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 Check Point Exercises 1. Inc. An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. In order to graph for 3π <x< . x = 0 and x = π . to graph one full period of y = cot x . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Solve the equations π 2 x = 0 and x=0 π 2 x =π x= π π 2 2. The 2 2 curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. . ⎝ ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. and the points midway between to graph one period π 4 to π 4 and the graph passes through π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. Solve the equations 2 x = − x= − π and 2 π 2x = x= 4 and x = 2 π 4 π . Continue the pattern 2⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. Midway between these asymptotes is x = 4 0. the x-intercept. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . 0 ⎟ . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. 0). An xintercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 . 0). to graph one full period of π Thus. Solve the equations x− π 2 =− x= π π and 2 π x− π 2 = π 2 π π x= + − 2 2 2 2 x=0 x =π Thus. 4 π of y = 3 tan 2 x from − 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ 2 . Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. − π An x-intercept is π 3. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. Use the two consecutive asymptotes.

Thus. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 2. and use them as guides to graph y = 2sec 2 x . ⎜ . the x-values are π π 3π 0. (π . Section 4. −2 ⎟ . Starting with x = 0. π 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Evaluating the function at each 4 2 4 value of x. C π π The phase shift. . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. 2). Use quarter-periods. π π⎞ ⎛ is y = tan ⎜ x + ⎟ . 2 C C There is no phase shift. The graph has an asymptote at x = − The phase shift. The graph has an asymptote at π . . to find x-values for the five 4 key points. y = 2 cos 2 x . ⎜ . 2) . from to 0 is − units. 5. 2 2 B C C = = −π B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = tan( x + π ) . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 C=− 2π 2π period: = =π B 2 π 2 The function with C = − π . 0 ⎟ . from to − is −π units. 2 2 B C C π = =− 2 B 1 3. 583 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4⎠ ⎝ 1. . 2 2⎠ ⎝ The graph has an asymptote at x = π . Thus. 0 ⎟ . 2.PreCalculus 4E 4. In order to 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 3π 3π ≤x≤ . ⎜ . Thus. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. The graph has an asymptote at x = 0 . and π . 2⎠ ⎝ 4. = =0 B 1 C =0 The function with C = 0 is y = − tan x . C π π . . Use the and extend the graph − 4 graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function.6 π⎞ ⎛ vertical asymptotes of y = csc ⎜ x + ⎟ .6 π⎞ ⎛ The x-intercepts of y = sin ⎜ x + ⎟ correspond to 4⎠ ⎝ Exercise Set 4. π= C= π 2 +C π 2 π⎞ ⎛ The function is y = − tan ⎜ x − ⎟ . . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Use the first four points graph for − 4 4 3π units to the left. Inc.

Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 7. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = − and 4 2 π 1 x = . 0). π Solve the equations π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = −2π and x = 2π . 1 0). π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ Solve the equations x = ⎜ − ⎟ 4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. to graph one full period of y = 3 tan from 4 −2π to 2π . to graph one full period of y = tan 2 x from 2 4 x-intercept = 6. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 4 . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the coefficient of the tangent is . Use the two consecutive asymptotes.Trigonometric Functions 5. the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 π . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. π 4 and 2 x = x= x= π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. x = −2π and x x = 2π . Inc. 584 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0). Solve the equations 2 x = − π 2 − π2 x= 2 x=− Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. − π π to . Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . . x from −2π to 4 2π .

Solve the equations 2x = − x= π and 2 x = 2 −2 2 π x=− x= π x= 4 π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. 9. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. x = −π and 1 x = π . 4 4 Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Because the coefficient of the tangent is –3. 0). x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 585 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− x= and 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x =π Thus.PreCalculus 4E 8. Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− and x= 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x=π Thus. and . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 2 x from π to . Continue 2 the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. 0). two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is –2. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 π 4 . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. x = −π and x = π . Section 4.6 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. to graph one full period of y = −2 tan x 2 from −π to π . 0). x = − x= − π π 4 π 4 10. to graph one full 1 period of y = −3 tan x from −π to π . . Inc.

Inc. from 0 to is units. C π π . B 1 2 π Thus. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Solve the equations x− π 4 =− π and 2 2π π + x=− 4 4 x=− π 4 x− π 4 = 2 2π π + x= 4 4 3π x= 4 3π and x = . 2⎠ ⎝ 4 3π 2π 4 = 4 =π 2 2 4 + 586 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Continue the pattern 4⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. B 2 2 C C π = = Thus. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − π C= π 2 The function with C = π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = − cot ⎜ x − ⎟ . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. and x = 13. 0) . . to graph one full period of and x = 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = and the graph passes through and 1. The function with C = 0 and A = –1 is y = − cot x . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. to graph one full period of 2 π 3π to . 3π . An x-intercept is π π 2 Thus. 14. x = π 4 3π . 4 − x-intercept = π 4 2 . and x = 2 x-intercept = 4 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . The graph has an asymptote at 12. A = –1. There is no phase shift. Solve the equations x −π = − x=− x= π and 2 π 2 +π x −π = 13. Thus. The phase shift. 0 ⎟ .Trigonometric Functions 11. Continue the pattern y = tan( x − π ) from 2 2 and extend the graph another full period to the right. x = − π 2 + 32π 42π 4π = = =π 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π and the graph passes through (π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. C C = =0 B 1 C =0 Because the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 2 π +π 2 3π x= 2 x= π π 2 3π . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 π 2 and 1.

C . B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = cot( x + π ) . The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. 0 ⎟ . x-intercept = π and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . x = 0 2 1 and x = π . from 0 to −π is −π units. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. B 1 2 B 2 2 C=− The function with C = − π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2.6 15. Inc. from 0 to − is − units. 0 +π π x-intercept = = 2 2 . 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. to graph one full period of y = 2 cot x . Publishing as Prentice Hall. to graph one full period of y = cot x . 2 C π π C C π = =− . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 1 . The graph has an asymptote at −π . 0 ⎟ . The graph has an asymptote at − π 18. π and the graph passes through intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 17. B C C = = −π Thus. the points on the graph midway between an x2 16. . Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . x = 0 and x = π . Two An x-intercept is 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . 587 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The phase shift. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. The phase shift. consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . Thus.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2 2⎠ ⎝ An x-intercept is 0+π π = 2 2 2 1 2 1 and − .

Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Solve the equations 2 x = 0 x=0 and 2x = π x= π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . The curve is repeated along the x-axis 2 one full period as shown. 2 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 2. 20. to graph one full period of y = cot 2 x . Publishing as Prentice Hall. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 1 . x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. x = 0 and x = 2. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is –3. . π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . 0 ⎟ . to graph one full period of y = 2 cot 2 x . ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. Inc. x = 0 and x = π 2 . 588 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0). to graph one full period of y = −3cot π x . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0 ⎟ . x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . the points on the graph midway between an x2 21. Solve the equations 2 x = 0 and x=0 2x = π x= The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Solve the equations π 2 x=0 x=0 and π 2 x =π x= π π 2 1 intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 1 and − . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = 0 2 π 1 and x = .Trigonometric Functions 19. 0+2 2 x-intercept = = =1 2 2 An x-intercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1.

4 x-intercept = 23. Solve the equations π π and 2 π π⎞ ⎛ x = . x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0+4 4 x-intercept = = =2 2 2 An x-intercept is 2 and the graph passes through ( 2. Solve the equations x+ π 4 =0 and x =0− x . x = − π 4 3π and x = . to graph one full period of 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . − π2 + π2 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. Solve the equations π 4 π x = 0 and 4 x=0 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. 0 ⎟ . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 =π x =π − and − π4 + 34π 24π π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is x+ 4 3π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Use the two consecutive asymptotes.6 22. 0 ) . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 3. 2 2⎠ ⎝ 589 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x+ π π 4 =π x =π − 4 π π 4 3π x= 4 4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π 2 =0 and x =0− x=− π 2 π 2 x+ π 2 x= π π 2 4 and the graph passes through and –3.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. x =π x= π π 4 x=4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 4. x = − 2 2 π 2 and . The curve is repeated along the x- x=− 4 axis one full period as shown. to graph one full period of y = −2cot π 24. . to graph one full period of y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . x = 0 and x = 4 . 0). Inc. The curve is repeated along the x4⎠ ⎝ axis one full period as shown. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is – 2. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 3.

Use ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ these key points to graph y = 3sin x from 0 to 2π . 2 2 28. 3 ⎟ . (π . The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 3 and B = 1. Starting with x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. y = 3sin x . 2 27. and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = −3sec 29. and use them as a guide to 1 x sketch the graph of y = − csc . − 3 ⎟ . The x-intercepts of y = −3cos π 2 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = −3sec π x . The x-intercepts of y = − sin corresponds to 2 2 1 x vertical asymptotes of y = − csc . The x-intercepts of y = 3sin 4 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = 3csc 4 x . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 2 each value of x. and use them as guides to graph y = 3csc x . Inc. π . Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. The x-intercepts of y = 590 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 cos 2π x corresponds to 2 1 vertical asymptotes of y = sec 2π x . Draw the 2 2 vertical asymptotes. to find x-values for the 2 five key points. Draw the vertical asymptotes.Trigonometric Functions 1 x 25. π 2 x. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. 26. . and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = 3csc 4 x . Graph the reciprocal sine function. and use them as a guide to 1 sketch the graph of y = sec 2π x . . ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ . Evaluating the function at 0. the x-values are π 3π . π . 0). amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. and (2π . ⎜ . and 2π . the key points are (0. 0). 0) .

and 2π . 0) . to find x-values for the five key points. 0). 0). to find x-values for the five key points.6 30. ⎟ . (2π . π . 6π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 2 31. the key points are (0. the key points are 3⎞ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎛ (0. 0). Inc. 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 x Use these key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 2 4 8π . 2 2 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. ⎜ 3π . 2π . and 8π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. to find x-values for the five 2 key points. . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. y = Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. the x-values are 0. − 2 ⎟ . ⎜ 2π . − ⎟ . 2π . Starting with x = 0. 0). 0). Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Use these 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 4π . 3 x sin . Evaluating the function at each value of x. 0) . − ⎟ . The 2 2 1 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . Starting with x = 0. Graph the reciprocal sine function. 4π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. ⎟ . and use 1 x them as guides to graph y = csc . 4 3 3 = amplitude: A = 2 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π period: B 4 Use quarter-periods. . 2 4 591 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 32.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 3π . Evaluating the function at each value of x. 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Use these key points to graph y = 2sin x from 0 to 2π . (4π . . The 2 4 3 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . Publishing as Prentice Hall. π . y = 1 x sin . the x-values are 0. and 4π . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. y = 2sin x . (π . and (4π . 2 1 1 amplitude: A = = 2 2 2π 2π period: = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. 2π . and (8π . the x-values are π 3π 0. Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. and use them as guides to graph y = 2cscx. 2 ⎟ . Starting with x = 0. π . ⎜ . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ π . 0). and (2π . π . and use them as guides to graph 3 x y = csc . ⎜ 6π . 0) . ⎜ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts.

to find x-values for the five 2 key points. ⎜ . 2π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. the x-values 3π 9π . Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x.Trigonometric Functions 33. Starting with x = 0. 0 ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Extend the 3 graph one cycle to the right. ⎜ . π . Use these key points to ⎝ 2 ⎠ graph y = 2 cos x from 0 to 2π . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec x . − 3). the x-values are π 3π 0. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. and 6π . the x-values are 0. π . 1) . π. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. The 3 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . 0 ⎟ . 3 Use quarter-periods. π . 0 ⎟ . 2) . 0 ⎟ . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 3 and B = 1 . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 1). . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 3) . 0 ⎟ . 2). y = 3cos x . . . ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ x points to graph y = cos from 0 to 6π . Evaluating the function at each value 2 2 ⎛π ⎞ of x. ⎜ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. ⎝2 ⎠ 3 π ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: Use these key points to graph y = 3cos x from 0 to 2π . and 2π . the key points are (0. 34. . (2π . Starting with x = 0. 3 amplitude: B= period: A = 1 =1 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 3 = 6π B 3 6π 3π = . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. the key points are (0. and use them as guides to graph y = 3sec x . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. 2 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ at each value of x. x 35. Starting with x = 0. 3). − 1). 3π . and (6π . y = cos . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. π 3π . ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 592 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. to find x-values for 4 2 the five key points. and (2π . . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Evaluating the function are 0. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 9π ⎞ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. y = 2 cos x . − 2). and use them as x guides to graph y = sec . 0 ⎟ . amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. (π . ⎜ . (π . Inc. Use these key (3π .

The 2 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . 2 The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with x from 0 to 2 4π . 0). Use quarter-periods. − ⎟ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎝2 2⎠ 1 Use these key points to graph y = − sin π x from 0 2 to 2 . 0). (π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x.6 Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Graph the reciprocal sine function. 2π . y = −2sin π x . and (4π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 593 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = cos . 37. − 2 ⎟ . 2 A=− Use these key points to graph y = cos 1 and B = π . (2π . 2 Use quarter-periods. 2 amplitude: A = − period: 1 1 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. the key points are (0. the key points are (0. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. π . − 1). x and use them as guides to graph y = sec . Evaluating the function at each value of x. ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ . x 36. . Evaluating the 2 2 function at each value of x. y = − sin π x . 0). 0 ) . and 2. to find 4 2 x-values for the five key points. the key points are 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎛3 1⎞ (0. Graph the reciprocal sine function. ⎜ . 0) . and 2 . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. 3π . the x-values are 1 3 0. and 4π . 0) . and (2. The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . ⎜ . 1) . (1. 2 ⎟ . 1). Starting with x = 0. 1. . and (2. Use these key 2 ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ points to graph y = −2sin π x from 0 to 2. period: 1 38. to find x-values for the five key points. 1. (1. and use them as guides to graph y = −2 csc π x . . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 B= 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. . 0 ) . 1 3 the x-values are 0. . Inc. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. amplitude: A = −2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . the x-values are 0. 0). 1 and use them as guides to graph y = − csc π x . π . Starting with x = 0. Starting with x = 0. ⎟ . ⎜ . ( 3π .

. ⎜1. and 2. ⎜ 2. 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A=− 3 40. ⎜ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 0 ⎟ . 1. y = − cos π x . the key points are 3⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ value of x. and use them as guides to graph 1 y = − sec π x . ⎜ . 594 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the key points are ⎜ 0. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. . − ⎟ . and 2 . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ . 1. . 2 3 3 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . Use quarter-periods. Extend 2 the graph one cycle to the right. ⎟ . ⎜ 2. 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 and use them as guides to graph y = − sec π x . 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 Use these key points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 2 to 2 .Trigonometric Functions 1 39. ⎟ . . Use these key 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 to 2. 2 amplitude: A = − 2π 2π = =2 B π period: 2 1 = . − ⎟ . Inc. − ⎟ . . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2 amplitude: period: A = − A=− 1 1 = 2 2 3 and B = π . ⎜1. Starting with x = 0. 2 Use quarter-periods. 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with 1 and B = π . the x-values are 1 3 0. ⎜ . y = − cos π x . − ⎟ . the x-values are 1 3 0. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0 ⎟ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Starting with x = 0.

Starting with x = π π 2 . and 3π . 3π 5π . π⎞ ⎛ 42. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. to find Use quarter-periods. . and C = π . ⎜ . and C = 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π = =π phase shift: B 1 2π π = . Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. Graph the reciprocal sine function. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. 595 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = sin( x − π ) . (π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 1⎟ . 0 ⎟ . B = 1 . 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 5π to . − 1⎟ . 0 ⎟ . and B = 1. 4 2 x-values for the five key points. 1) . π 2 . . (3π . 0) . the x-values are 3π 5π . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ . π 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 period: . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . and ⎜ . Inc. 2⎠ ⎝ The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 1. the key ⎛ 3π ⎞ points are (π . ( 2π . 2π . 2π . − 1) . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = csc ⎜ x − ⎟ . and . 0 ⎟ .6 41.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 0). and use them as guides to graph y = csc( x − π ) . (2π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Starting with x = π . 2⎠ ⎝ . ⎜ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π2 π = = phase shift: B 1 2 period: Use quarter-periods. 0). the x-values are π . Use these key points to graph 2 ⎝ ⎠ y = sin( x − π ) from π to 3π . to find x-values for the five key points. π. 2 2 Evaluating the function at each value of x. amplitude: A = 1 = 1 A = 1 .

0 ) . − 2 ) . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. the key points are ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ − . Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Use these ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ key points to graph y = 2 cos( x + π ) from −π to π . . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. π 45. 2⎠ ⎝ 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C −π = = −π phase shift: B 1 2π π Use quarter-periods. and . ( 0. 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C − π2 π = =− phase shift: B 1 2 period: 596 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 ⎟ . ( 0. . 0. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. 0 ) . ⎜ . π . the key points are (−π . Inc. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. (π . amplitude: . and π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ⎟ . 2 amplitude: A = 2 = 2 46.Trigonometric Functions 43. π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ . Starting with x = −π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Evaluating the function 2 2 at each value of x. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 sec ⎜ x + ⎟ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 3π − to . 0. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ − . 44. . = . The equation is of the form Use quarter-periods. 2). the x-values are π 3π . and C = −π . to find x-values for the five − π . y = 2 cos( x + π ) . the x-values π 2 key points. y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2. and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec( x + π ) . Starting with x = − A = 2 =2 period: are −π . ⎜ . − π π . The equation is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2 and B = 1 . 2) . and (π . 2 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . B = 1. − 2 ⎟ . ⎜ . and C=− π 2 .

36. 6. − 0. . 56. and Ymax = 2 .79. and Ymax = 2 . 5π π 3π 7π .93. x ≈ −6.36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 48. For the window use Xmin = −2π . 2. Use a graphing utility with y1 = tan x and y2 = −1 . 0.79. 5. − . 58. Inc. For the window use Xmin = −2π . x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. − .71. Ymin = −2 . 0. Ymin = −2 .28. 2π 52. 57. Xmax = 2π . For the window use Xmin = −2π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. − 0. Xmax = 2π . Xmax = 2π . x=− 2 2 x ≈ −4.50 50. Xmax = 2π . 1. . 53. 3π π . For the window use Xmin = −2π . Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ cos x and y2 = 1 . and Ymax = 2 . 2. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ sin x and y2 = 1 .93.28 597 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.57 51. x = −2π . x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. π⎞ ⎛ y = ( g h ) ( x) = g (h( x)) = −2 tan ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 55. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ tan x and y2 = −1 . Ymin = −2 . . 5.6 47. Ymin = −2 . 5π π 3π 7π .50 49. π⎞ ⎛ y = ( f h ) ( x) = f (h( x)) = 2 sec ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 54. and Ymax = 2 .

continue the pattern and extend the graph to 2. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 12.25. To graph on [0. x = 0 and x = π . 4 4 − 14 + 14 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 60. to 4 4 graph one full period of d = 12 tan 2π t . use the x-values − ⎛ π ⎞ find the key points ⎜ − . d cot x = 2 d = 2 cot x Use the equations x = 0 and x = π . Use the two 1 1 consecutive asymptotes. and Connect these points with a smooth curve. 0. π π The function is undefined for t = 0. (Do not use the left hand side of the first period of the graph on [0. 10). Use the two consecutive asymptotes. amplitude: A = 10 = 10 period: b. 1. 0 ⎟ . y = 10 cos x . two consecutive asymptotes occur at 1 1 x = − and x = . The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 10 and B = 1.) An x-intercept is 2 2 . ⎝2 ⎠ 2 .75. and ⎜ . 0). and the opposite leg is 2 mi. d sec x = 10 d = 10 sec x Graph the reciprocal cosine function. the secant function.75. Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and d = 12 tan 2π t a. 2]. Inc. π π to 2 ⎛π ⎞ (0. Use the cotangent function. and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . In a right triangle the angle of elevation is one of the acute angles. The beam is shining parallel to the wall at these times. 0. then draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. 2]. For − π 2 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 <x< π 2 . the adjacent leg is the distance d. x = − and x = .25. ⎣ 2 2⎦ 598 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use the function that relates the acute angle with the hypotenuse and the adjacent leg. 61. to graph y = 2 cot x for 0 < x < π . and use ⎡ π π⎤ them as guides to graph d = 10sec x on ⎢ − . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have ycoordinates of –12 and 12. . 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . and 1. Midway between x = 0 and x = π is x = π 2 2 π − π2 t= t= 2 2π 2π 1 1 t=− t= 4 4 Thus. ⎥ .Trigon