Uploaded by Alberto Jiménez

0.0 (0)

solucionario de precalculo blitzer

PRECALCULUS 4E

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra..................................................... 1

Chapter 1

Functions and Graphs............................................................................................. 126

Chapter 2

Polynomial and Rational Functions ....................................................................... 256

Chapter 3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ................................................................ 411

Chapter 4

Trigonometric Functions........................................................................................ 489

Chapter 5

Analytic Trigonometry........................................................................................... 663

Chapter 6

Additional Topics in Trigonometry ....................................................................... 780

Chapter 7

Systems of Equations and Inequalities................................................................... 944

Chapter 8

Matrices and Determinants .................................................................................. 1076

Chapter 9

Conic Sections and Analytic Geometry ............................................................... 1181

Chapter 10

Sequences, Induction, and Probability................................................................. 1297

Chapter 11

Introduction to Calculus....................................................................................... 1393

iii

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Section P.1

Check Point Exercises

1.

6.

8 + 6( x − 3) 2 = 8 + 6(13 − 3) 2

a.

**Because 2 ≈ 1.4, the number inside the
**

absolute value bars is negative. The absolute

value of x when x < 0 is –x. Thus,

= 8 + 6(10) 2

= 8 + 6(100)

= 8 + 600

= 608

2.

(

b.

**Since 2010 is 10 years after 2000, substitute 10 for x.
**

= 17(10)2 + 261(10) + 3257

= 7567

If trends continue, the tuition and fees will be $7567

5.

**The elements common to {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} and
**

{3, 7, 8, 9} are 3 and 7.

{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∩ {3,7,8,9} = {3, 7}

c.

**The union is the set containing all the elements of
**

either set.

{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∪ {3, 7,8,9} = {3, 4,5, 6, 7,8,9}

π

⎧

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,

2

⎩

9,

x

x

Because x > 0,

Thus,

7.

⎫

10 ⎬

⎭

9 because

π −3

Because π ≈ 3.14, the number inside the

absolute value bars is positive. The absolute

value of a positive number is the number itself.

Thus,

π − 3 = π − 3.

T = 17 x + 261x + 3257

4.

)

1− 2 = − 1− 2 = 2 −1

2

3.

1− 2

x

x

=

x = x.

x

=1

x

−4 − (5) = −9 = 9

The distance between –4 and 5 is 9.

8.

9 =3

a.

Natural numbers:

b.

Whole numbers: 0,

c.

Integers: −9, 0, 9

d.

Rational numbers: −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3,

e.

Irrational numbers:

f.

Real numbers:

π

⎧

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,

2

⎩

7(4 x 2 + 3x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 7(4 x 2 + 3 x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 28 x 2 + 21x + 10 x 2 + 2 x

9

= 38 x 2 + 23x

π

2

,

9.

9

10

9,

⎫

10 ⎬

⎭

6 + 4[7 − ( x − 2)]

= 6 + 4[7 − x + 2)]

= 6 + 4[9 − x]

= 6 + 36 − 4 x

= 42 − 4 x

Exercise Set P.1

1.

7 + 5(10) = 7 + 50 = 57

2.

8 + 6 ( 5 ) = 8 + 30 = 38

3.

6(3) − 8 = 18 − 8 = 10

1

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

4.

8 ( 3) − 4 = 24 − 4 = 20

5.

82 + 3(8) = 64 + 24 = 88

6.

62 + 5 ( 6 ) = 36 + 30 = 66

7.

7 2 − 6(7) + 3 = 49 − 42 + 3 = 7 + 3 = 10

8.

82 − 7 ( 8 ) + 4 = 64 − 56 + 4 = 8 + 4 = 12

9.

4 + 5(9 − 7)3 = 4 + 5(2)3

= 4 + 5(8) = 4 + 40 = 44

10.

6 + 5 (8 − 6 ) = 6 + 5 ( 2 )

3

18.

19.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2 = 4 + 60(2) − 16(2)2

= 4 + 120 − 16(4) = 4 + 120 − 64

= 124 − 64 = 60

Two seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is

60 feet.

20.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2

= 4 + 60(3) − 16(3) 2

= 4 + 180 − 16(9)

= 4 + 180 − 144

= 184 − 144 = 40

Three seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is

40 feet.

3

= 6 + 5 (8)

= 6 + 40 = 46

11.

82 − 3(8 − 2) = 64 − 3(6)

= 64 − 18 = 46

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

21.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∩ {2, 4,5} = {2, 4}

82 − 4 ( 8 − 3) = 64 − 4 ( 5 ) = 64 − 20 = 44

22.

{1,3, 7} ∩ {2,3,8} = {3}

5( x + 2) 5(10 + 2)

=

2 x − 14 2(10) − 14

5(12)

=

6

= 5⋅2

= 10

23.

{s, e, t} ∩ {t , e, s} = {s, e, t}

24.

{r , e, a, l} ∩ {l , e, a, r} = {r , e, a, l}

25.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {2, 4, 6,8,10} = { }

The empty set is also denoted by ∅.

7( x − 3) 7(9 − 3) 7(6)

=

=

= 7 ⋅ 3 = 21

2 x − 16 2(9) − 16

2

2x + 3 y

; x = −2, y = 4

x +1

2 ( −2 ) + 3 ( 4 ) −4 + 12 8

=

=

=

= −8

−2 + 1

−1

−1

2x + y

; x = −2 and y = 4

xy − 2 x

2 ( −2 ) + 4

( −2 )( 4 ) − 2 ( −2 )

17.

5

5

5

C = ( F − 32) = (86 − 32) = (54) = 30

9

9

9

30°C is equivalent to 86°F.

=

−4 + 4 0

= =0

−8 + 4 4

5

5

C = (50 − 32) = (18) = 10

9

9

10°C is equivalent to 50°F.

26.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {−5, −3, −1} = { }

27.

{a, b, c, d} ∩ ∅ = ∅

28.

{w, y, z} ∩ ∅ = ∅

29.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∪ {2, 4,5} = {1, 2,3, 4,5}

30.

{1,3, 7,8} ∪ {2,3,8} = {1, 2,3, 7,8}

31.

{1, 3,5, 7} ∪ {2, 4, 6,8,10}

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,10}

32.

{0,1,3,5} ∪ {2, 4, 6} = {0,1, 2,3, 4,5, 6}

33.

{a, e, i, o, u} ∪ ∅ = {a, e, i, o, u}

34.

{e, m, p, t , y} ∪ ∅

or ∅

= {e, m, p, t , y}

2

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

35. a.

Section P.1

39. 0

100

b.

0, 100

c.

−9, 0, 100

d.

4

−9, − , 0, 0.25, 9.2, 100

5

e.

f.

36. a.

40. Answers may vary. An example is

1

.

2

**41. Answers may vary. An example is 2.
**

42. Answers may vary. An example is −2.

43. true; –13 is to the left of –2 on the number line.

3

44. false; –6 is to the left of 2 on the number line.

4

−9, − , 0, 0.25, 3, 9.2, 100

5

**45. true; 4 is to the right of –7 on the number line.
**

46. true; –13 is to the left of –5 on the number line.

49

47. true; −π = −π

b.

0, 49

c.

−7, 0, 49

d.

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49

**48. true; –3 is to the right of –13 on the number line.
**

49. true; 0 is to the right of –6 on the number line.

e.

f.

37. a.

50

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49, 50

64

b.

0, 64

c.

−11, 0, 64

d.

5

−11, − , 0, 0.75, 64

6

e.

f.

38. a.

5

−11, − , 0, 0.75, 5, π , 64

6

4

0, 4

c.

−5, 0, 4

d.

−5, − 0.3, 0, 4

f.

51.

300 = 300

52.

−203 = 203

53.

12 − π = 12 − π

54.

7−π = 7−π

55.

2 −5 = 5− 2

56.

5 − 13 = 13 − 5

5, π

b.

e.

50. true; 0 is to the right of –13 on the number line.

2

−5, − 0.3, 0, 2, 4

57.

−3 −3

=

= −1

3

−3

58.

−7 −7

=

= −1

7

−7

59.

−3 − −7 = 3 − 7 = −4 = 4

60.

−5 − −13 = 5 − 13 = −8 = 8

61.

x + y = 2 + (−5) = −3 = 3

62.

x − y = 2 − (−5) = 7 = 7

3

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

63.

x + y = 2 + −5 = 2 + 5 = 7

64.

x − y = 2 − −5 = 2 − 5 = −3

65.

y

−5 −5

=

=

= −1

y

−5

5

66.

x

y

2

83.

84.

1

( x + 3) = 1; x ≠ −3 ,

x+3

inverse property of multiplication

( x + 4 ) + ⎡⎣ − ( x + 4 ) ⎤⎦ = 0;

inverse property of addition

85.

−5

2 5

+

= +

= +

= 1 + (−1) = 0

x

y

2 −5 2 −5

5(3 x + 4) − 4 = 5 ⋅ 3x + 5 ⋅ 4 − 4

= 15 x + 20 − 4

= 15 x + 16

67. The distance is 2 − 17 = −15 = 15 .

86.

2(5 x + 4) − 3 = 2 ⋅ 5 x + 2 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 10 x + 8 − 3

68. The distance is 4 − 15 = −11 = 11 .

= 10 x + 5

69. The distance is −2 − 5 = −7 = 7 .

87.

5(3 x − 2) + 12 x = 5 ⋅ 3x − 5 ⋅ 2 + 12 x

= 15 x − 10 + 12 x

70. The distance is −6 − 8 = −14 = 14 .

= 27 x − 10

71. The distance is −19 − (−4) = −19 + 4 = −15 = 15 .

88.

2(5 x − 1) + 14 x = 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅1 + 14 x

= 10 x − 2 + 14 x

72. The distance is −26 − (−3) = −26 + 3 = −23 = 23 .

= 24 x − 2

**73. The distance is
**

−3.6 − (−1.4) = −3.6 + 1.4 = −2.2 = 2.2 .

89.

= 7 ⋅3y − 7 ⋅5 + 2⋅ 4y + 2 ⋅3

= 21y − 35 + 8 y + 6

**74. The distance is
**

−5.4 − (−1.2) = −5.4 + 1.2 = −4.2 = 4.2 .

= 29 y − 29

90.

75. 6 + (–4) = (–4) + 6;

commutative property of addition

= 8 y − 24 + 15 y + 30

= 23 y + 6

91.

77. 6 + (2 + 7) = (6 + 2) + 7;

associative property of addition

5 ( 3 y − 2 ) − ( 7 y + 2 ) = 15 y − 10 − 7 y − 2

= 8 y − 12

92.

6 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 3) = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 2);

commutative property of multiplication

4(5 y − 3) − (6 y + 3) = 20 y − 12 − 6 y − 3

= 14 y − 15

79. (2 + 3) + (4 + 5) = (4 + 5) + (2 + 3);

commutative property of addition

80.

4(2 y − 6) + 3(5 y + 10)

= 4 ⋅ 2 y − 4 ⋅ 6 + 3 ⋅ 5 y + 3 ⋅10

76. 11 ⋅ (7 + 4) = 11 ⋅ 7 + 11 ⋅ 4;

distributive property of multiplication over addition

78.

7(3 y − 5) + 2(4 y + 3)

93.

7 − 4 ⎡⎣3 − ( 4 y − 5 ) ⎤⎦ = 7 − 4 [3 − 4 y + 5]

= 7 − 4 [8 − 4 y ]

7 ⋅ (11⋅ 8) = (11 ⋅ 8) ⋅ 7;

commutative property of multiplication

= 7 − 32 + 16 y

= 16 y − 25

**81. 2 (–8 + 6) = –16 + 12;
**

distributive property of multiplication over addition

82.

**−8(3 + 11) = −24 + (−88) ;
**

distributive property of multiplication over addition

4

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

94.

Section P.1

6 − 5[8 − (2 y − 4)] = 6 − 5 [8 − 2 y + 4]

104. −20

= 6 − 5 [12 − 2 y ]

20

= 6 − 60 + 10 y

95. 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 ( x 2 − 2) + 5⎤⎦

105.

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 12 + 5⎤⎦

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 7⎤⎦

= 18 x 2 + 4 − 6 x 2 + 7

96. 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣7 ( x 2 − 2 ) + 4 ⎤⎦

106.

= 14 x + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 14 + 4 ⎤⎦

2

= 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 10⎤⎦

−0.6

5

2

−2.5

2.5

−2.5

3

= −0.6 .

5

2.5

2.5 = 2.5

= 14 x 2 − 7 x 2 + 5 + 10

Since 2.5 = 2.5,

= (14 − 7 ) x + 15

2

= 7 x 2 + 15

107.

97. –(–14x) = 14x

− ( −17 y ) = 17 y

30 3

−

40 4

30 30

−

40 40

5

= −2.5 .

2

14 15

⋅

15 14

14 15

⋅

15 14

0 1

0 <1

30 3

14 15

Since 0 < 1,

− <

⋅ .

40 4

15 14

99. –(2x – 3y – 6) = –2x + 3y + 6

100. − ( 5 x − 13 y − 1) = −5 x + 13 y + 1

1

(3 x) + [ (4 y ) + (−4 y ) ] = x + 0

3

=x

108.

1

( 2 y ) + ⎣⎡( −7 x ) + 7 x ⎦⎤ = y + 0 = y

2

6

0.6

2.5

= 14 x 2 + 5 − 7 x 2 + 10

103. −6

−0.6

Since 0.6 = 0.6,

= (18 − 6) x 2 + 11 = 12 x 2 + 11

102.

3

5

0.6

0.6

0.6 = 0.6

= 18 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 4 + 7

101.

50

20 < 50

Since 20 < 50, −20 < −50 .

= 10 y − 54

98.

−50

17 18

⋅

18 17

17 18

⋅

18 17

50 5

−

60 6

50 50

−

60 60

1 0

1> 0

17 18

50 5

Since 1 > 0,

⋅

>

− .

18 17

60 6

−3

3

6>3

Since 6 > 3, −6 > −3 .

5

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

109. 8 8

÷

13 13

8 13

⋅

13 8

115. 8 − 3[−2(2 − 5) − 4(8 − 6)] = 8 − 3[−2(−3) − 4(2)]

−1

= 8 − 3[6 − 8]

= 8 − 3[−2]

1

=8+6

1 1

1=1

Since 1 = 1,

110.

= 14

116. 8 − 3[−2(5 − 7) − 5(4 − 2)] = 8 − 3[−2(−2) − 5(2)]

8 8

÷ = −1 .

13 13

= 8 − 3[4 − 10]

= 8 − 3[−6]

4 4

−2

÷

17 17

4 17

2

⋅

17 4

2 1

2 >1

= 8 + 18

= 26

117.

Since 2 > 1, −2 >

4 4

÷ .

17 17

111. 82 − 16 ÷ 22 ⋅ 4 − 3 = 64 − 16 ÷ 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 64 − 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

118.

= 64 − 16 − 3

= 48 − 3

= 45

112. 102 − 100 ÷ 52 ⋅ 2 − 3 = 100 − 100 ÷ 25 ⋅ 2 − 3

119.

= 100 − 4 ⋅ 2 − 3

= 100 − 8 − 3

2(−2) − 4(−3) −4 + 12

=

5−8

−3

8

=

−3

8

=−

3

6(−4) − 5(−3) −24 + 15

=

9 − 10

−1

−9

=

−1

=9

(5 − 6)2 − 2 3 − 7

89 − 3 ⋅ 52

= 92 − 3

= 89

113.

5 ⋅ 2 − 32

2

2

[3 − (−2)]

=

=

=

5⋅2 −9

[9 − (−2)]2

10 − 9

[9 + 2]2

10 − 9

112

1

=

121

114.

10 ÷ 2 + 3 ⋅ 4

(12 − 3 ⋅ 2)

2

=

=

120.

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 22 + 32

7 + 3− 6

2

=

(−1) 2 − 2 −4

89 − 3 ⋅ 25

1 − 2(4)

=

89 − 75

1− 8

=

14

−7

=

14

1

=−

2

=

=

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 4 + 9

7 + 3 − 36

4 ⋅ 5 13

10 − 36

20(13)

=

−26

260

=

−26

= −10

5 + 12

(12 − 6) 2

17

62

17

=

36

121. x − ( x + 4) = x − x − 4 = −4

6

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.1

122. x − ( 8 − x ) = x − 8 + x = 2 x − 8

b.

123. 6 ( −5 x ) = −30 x

124. 10 ( −4 x ) = −40 x

125. 5 x − 2 x = 3 x

126. 6 x − ( −2 x ) = 6 x + 2 x = 8 x

127. 8 x − ( 3x + 6 ) = 8 x − 3x − 6 = 5 x − 6

131. a.

128. 8 − 3 ( x + 6 ) = 8 − 3x − 18 = −3 x − 10

129. a.

b.

130. a.

3

( 220 − a )

5

3

H = ( 220 − 30 )

5

3

= (190 )

5

= 114

The upper limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 114 beats per

minute.

H=

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15, 395 + 988(7) − 2(7)2

= 22, 213

The formula estimates the cost to have been

$22,213 in 2007.

7

( 220 − a )

10

7

H = ( 220 − 20 )

10

7

= ( 200 )

10

= 140

The lower limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 140 beats per

minute.

H=

b.

**This underestimates the value in the graph by
**

$5.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15,395 + 988(10) − 2(10)2

= 25, 075

The formula projects the cost to be $25,075 in

2010.

4

( 220 − a )

5

4

H = ( 220 − 20 )

5

4

= ( 200 )

5

= 160

The upper limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 160 beats per

minute.

H=

132. a.

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15, 395 + 988(6) − 2(6)2

= 21, 251

The formula estimates the cost to have been

$21,251 in 2006.

1

( 220 − a )

2

1

H = ( 220 − 30 )

2

1

= (190 )

2

= 95

The lower limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 95 beats per

minute.

H=

b.

**This underestimates the value in the graph by
**

$16.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15,395 + 988(12) − 2(12)2

= 26, 963

The formula projects the cost to be $26,963 in

2012.

133. a.

0.05 x + 0.12 (10,000 − x )

= 0.05 x + 1200 − 0.12 x

= 1200 − 0.07 x

b.

**1200 − 0.07 x = 1200 − 0.07(6000)
**

= $780

7

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

134. a.

158. −π > −3.5

0.06t + 0.5(50 − t ) = 0.06t + 25 − 0.5t

= 25 − 0.44t

b.

3.14

= −1.57

2

π

− ≈ −1.571

2

−1.57 > −1.571

159. −

0.06(20) + 0.5(50 − 20)

= 1.2 + 0.5(30)

= 1.2 + 15

= 16.2 miles

−

**135. – 144. Answers may vary.
**

145. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

Sample explanation: Models do not always

accurately predict future values.

3.14

π

>−

2

2

160. a.

**146. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: To use the model, substitute 0

for x.

b4 ⋅ b3 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b7

b.

b5 ⋅ b5 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b10

c.

**add the exponents
**

b7

161. a.

147. makes sense

b

**148. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: The commutative property

changes order and the associative property changes

groupings.

b8

b.

b

c.

**149. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: Some rational numbers are not

integers.

162.

3

2

=

b⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b

= b4

b ⋅b ⋅b

=

b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b ⋅b

= b6

b⋅b

subtract the exponents

6.2 × 103 = 6.2 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 6200

It moves the decimal point 3 places to the right.

**150. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: All whole numbers are integers

Section P.2

151. true

Check Point Exercises

**152. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: Some irrational numbers are

negative.

1.

**153. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: The term x has a coefficient of

1.

( 2x y ) = ( 2) ( x ) ( y )

b.

( −6 x y )( 3xy ) = ( −6 ) ⋅ 3 ⋅ x

3

6

2

4

4

5

3

4

6

4

3

= 16 x12 y 24

2

⋅ x ⋅ y5 ⋅ y3

= −18 x 3 y 8

**154. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

5 + 3( x − 4) = 5 + 3 x − 12 = 3x − 7.

c.

**100 x12 y 2 ⎛ 100 ⎞ ⎛ x12 ⎞ ⎛ y 2 ⎞
**

=

⎜

⎟⎜

⎟

20 x16 y −4 ⎜⎝ 20 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x16 ⎠ ⎝ y −4 ⎠

= 5 x12 −16 y 2 − ( −4)

= 5 x −4 y 6

**155. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: − x − x = −2 x.

=

156. true

157.

a.

5 y6

x4

2 ≈ 1.4

1.4 < 1.5

2 < 1.5

8

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

d.

⎛ 5x ⎞

⎜ 4⎟

⎝y ⎠

Section P.2

( 5) ( x )

−2

−2

=

(y )

4

(5) ( x )

=

(y )

4

7.

−2

−2

=

−2

= (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − 02 ]

= 2534.4

The speed of the blood at the central axis of the

artery is 2534.4 centimeters per second.

−2

−2

5−2 x −2

y −8

Exercise Set P.2

y8

52 x 2

y8

=

25 x 2

=

2.

3.

4.

a.

−6

3.017 × 10

a.

5, 210, 000, 000 = 5.21× 10

b.

−0.00000006893 = −6.893 × 10−8

(

= 0.000003017

2.

62 ⋅ 2 = (6 ⋅ 6) ⋅ 2 = 36 ⋅ 2 = 72

3.

(−2)6 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 64

4.

(−2) 4 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 16

5.

−26 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −64

6.

−2 4 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −16

7.

(−3)0 = 1

)

8.

(−9)0 = 1

9.

−30 = −1

10.

−9 0 = −1

11.

4−3 =

1

1

1

=

=

3

4

4 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 4 64

12.

2−6 =

1

1

1

=

=

6

2

2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 64

13.

2 2 ⋅ 23 = 2 2 + 3 = 25 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 32

14.

33 ⋅ 32 = 33+ 2 = 35 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 243

15.

(22 )3 = 22⋅3 = 26 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 64

16.

(33 )2 = 33⋅2 = 36 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 729

17.

28

= 28− 4 = 24 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 16

24

18.

38

= 38 − 4 = 34 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 81

34

19.

3−3 ⋅ 3 = 3−3+1 = 3−2 =

1

1

1

=

=

2

3

3⋅3 9

20.

2−3 ⋅ 2 = 2−3+1 = 2−2 =

1

1

1

=

=

2

2⋅2 4

2

9

410 ×107 = 4.1× 102 × 107

(

= 4.1× 10

)

9

( 7.1×10 )( 5 ×10 )

−7

5

= 7.1 ⋅ 5 × 105 ⋅10−7

= 35.5 × 10−2

(

)

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

(

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

= 3.55 × 10

b.

52 ⋅ 2 = (5 ⋅ 5) ⋅ 2 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 50

−2.6 ×10 = −2, 600, 000, 000

b.

a.

1.

9

= 4.1× 102 × 107

5.

)

−1

1.2 × 106 1.2 106

=

⋅

3 ×10−3

3 10−3

= 0.4 × 106 − ( −3)

= 0.4 × 109

= 4 × 108

6.

S = (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − r 2 ]

13 × 109

13 109

=

⋅

6

5.1 × 10

5.1 106

≈ 2.5 ⋅ 103

≈ 2500

The average Pell grant was $2500 in 2006.

9

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

21.

23

1

1

1

= 23 − 7 = 2 − 4 = 4 =

=

7

2

2

2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 16

22.

34

1

1

1

= 34 − 7 = 3−3 = 3 =

=

37

3

3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 27

23.

x −2 y =

25.

x0 y5 = 1⋅ y5 = y5

26.

x 7 ⋅ y 0 = x 7 ⋅1 = x 7

27.

x 3 ⋅ x 7 = x 3+ 7 = x10

28.

x ⋅x = x

29.

x −5 ⋅ x10 = x −5+10 = x 5

30.

x −6 ⋅ x12 = x −6 +12 = x 6

31.

( x3 )7 = x 3⋅7 = x 21

32.

( x11 )5 = x11⋅5 = x 55

33.

( x −5 )3 = x −5⋅3 = x −15 =

34.

35.

5

11+ 5

42.

⎛ 6⎞

(−6)3

216

⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3

y

y

⎝ y⎠

43.

(−3x 2 y 5 ) 2 = (−3)2 ( x 2 ) 2 ⋅ ( y 5 ) 2

= 9 x 2⋅2 y 5⋅2

= 9 x 4 y10

1

x

=

y3 y3

xy −3 = x ⋅

(−4)3

64

⎛ 4⎞

⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3

x

x

⎝ x⎠

3

1

y

⋅y= 2

x2

x

24.

11

3

41.

44.

**= −27 x 4⋅3 y 6⋅3
**

= −27 x12 y18

=x

45.

(3 x 4 )(2 x 7 ) = 3 ⋅ 2 x 4 ⋅ x 7 = 6 x 4 + 7 = 6 x11

46.

(11x 5 )(9 x12 ) = 11⋅ 9 x 5 x12 = 99 x5 +12 = 99 x17

47.

(−9 x3 y )(−2 x 6 y 4 ) = (−9)(−2) x 3 x 6 yy 4

16

( x −6 ) 4 = x −6⋅4 = x −24 =

= 18 x 3+ 6 y1+ 4

= 18 x 9 y 5

48.

= 30 x11 y12

1

x15

1

x 24

49.

8 x 20 ⎛ 8 ⎞ ⎛ x 20

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

2 x4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ x4

50.

20 x 24 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 24 ⎞

24 − 6

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

= 2 x18

⎟ = 2x

10 x 6 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ x 6 ⎠

x14

= x14 − 7 = x 7

x7

x30

= x 30 −10 = x 20

10

x

38.

⎞

20 − 4

= 4 x16

⎟ = 4x

⎠

25a13 ⋅ b 4 ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎛ a13 ⎞ ⎛ b 4 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟⎜ ⎟

−5a 2 ⋅ b3 ⎝ −5 ⎠ ⎝ a 2 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠

= −5a13 − 2 b 4 − 3

= −5a11b

14

37.

(−5 x 4 y )(−6 x 7 y11 ) = (−5)(−6) x 4 x 7 yy11

= 30 x 4 + 7 y1+11

51.

36.

(−3x 4 y 6 )3 = (−3)3 ( x 4 )3 ( y 6 )3

x

= x14 − ( −7) = x14 + 7 = x 21

x −7

52.

x30

= x30 − ( −10) = x 30 +10 = x 40

x −10

39.

(8 x3 ) 2 = 82 ( x 3 )2 = 82 x 3⋅2 = 64 x 6

40.

(6 x ) = (6) ( x ) = 6 x

4 2

2

4 2

2

4⋅2

= 36 x

35a14 b6 ⎛ 35 ⎞ ⎛ a14 ⎞ ⎛ b6 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟⎜ ⎟

−7a 7 b3 ⎝ −7 ⎠ ⎝ a 7 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠

= −5a14 − 7 b6 − 3

= −5a 7 b3

53.

8

14b7 ⎛ 14 ⎞ ⎛ b 7 ⎞

2

7 −14

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

= 2b −7 = 7

⎟ = 2⋅b

7b14 ⎝ 7 ⎠ ⎝ b14 ⎠

b

10

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

54.

Section P.2

20b10 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ b10 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟

10b 20 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ b 20 ⎠

3

61.

= 2b10 − 20

= 2b

⎛ −3b5 ⎞

=⎜ 6 ⎟

⎝ a ⎠

−27b15

=

a18

−10

2

b10

=

55.

(4 x3 ) −2 = (4−2 )( x 3 ) −2

−2

=4 x

62.

1

42 x6

1

=

16 x 6

1

103 x 6

1

=

1000 x 6

10 x 4 y 9

1

= x 4 −12 y 9 − ( −3)

30 x12 y −3 3

1

= x −8 y12

3

y12

= 8

3x

59.

⎛ 5x ⎞

5 x

y

⎜

⎟ = −2 =

y

25

x6

⎝

⎠

y

−3

−2

−6

⎛ 3x ⎞

⎛ y ⎞

⎜

⎟ =⎜ 4 ⎟

⎝ 3x ⎠

⎝ y ⎠

y3

= 3 4⋅3

3 x

y3

=

27 x12

4

60.

−2

3

3

63.

⎛ 3a −5b 2 ⎞

=1

⎜

3 −4 ⎟

⎝ 12a b ⎠

64.

⎛ 4a −5b3 ⎞

=1

⎜

3 −5 ⎟

⎝ 12a b ⎠

65.

3.8 × 10 2 = 380

66.

9.2 × 10 2 = 920

67.

6 × 10−4 = 0.0006

68.

7 × 10−5 = 0.00007

69.

−7.16 × 106 = −7,160, 000

70.

−8.17 × 106 = −8,170, 000

71.

7.9 × 10−1 = 0.79

72.

6.8 × 10 −1 = 0.68

73.

−4.15 × 10 −3 = −0.00415

74.

−3.14 × 10−3 = −0.00314

75.

−6.00001×1010 = −60, 000,100, 000

76.

−7.00001×1010 = −70, 000,100, 000

77.

32, 000 = 3.2 × 104

78.

64, 000 = 6.4 ×104

0

24 x 3 ⋅ y 5 3 3− 7 5 − ( −9)

= x y

32 x 7 y −9 4

3

= x −4 y14

4

3 y14

= 4

4x

3

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

0

=

58.

⎛ −30a14b8 ⎞ ⎛ −3b8−( −2)

= ⎜⎜ 17−14

⎜

17 −2 ⎟

⎝ 10a b ⎠ ⎝ a

(10 x 2 )−3 = 10−3 x 2⋅( −3)

3

3

⎛ −3b10 ⎞

=⎜

⎟

⎝ a3 ⎠

−27b30

=

a9

= 10−3 x −6

57.

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

3

−6

=

56.

⎛ −15a 4b 2 ⎞ ⎛ −3b 2−( −3)

⎜ 10 −3 ⎟ = ⎜⎜ 10−4

⎝ 5a b ⎠ ⎝ a

2

3

11

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

79.

94.

638, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000

(8.2 ×10 )( 4.6 ×10 )

8

4

= 6.38 ×1017

= 37.72 × 108+ 4 = 37.72 × 1012

80.

579,000, 000, 000, 000, 000 = 5.79 × 1017

= 3.772 × 1013 ≈ 3.77 ×1013

81.

−5716 = −5.716 × 103

82.

−3829 = −3.829 × 103

83.

0.0027 = 2.7 × 10 −3

84.

0.0083 = 8.3 × 10 −3

85.

−0.00000000504 = −5.04 × 10−9

86.

−0.00000000405 = −4.05 × 10−9

87.

(3 × 104 )( 2.1 × 103 ) = (3 × 2.1) (104 × 103 )

( 2 ×10 )( 4.1×10 ) = 8.2 ×10

89.

(1.6 × 10 )( 4 × 10 ) = (1.6 × 4) (10

4

3

(1.4 × 10 )(3 × 10 ) = (1.4 × 3) (10

−11

99.

4.8 × 10−2 4.8 10−2

=

×

2.4 × 106 2.4 106

= 2 × 10−2 − 6 = 2 × 10−8

15

× 10−11 )

100. 7.5 ×10−2

= 3 × 10−2 − 6 = 3 × 10−8

6

2.5 × 10

× 10−4 )

**101. 2.4 × 10−2 2.4 10−2
**

=

×

4.8 ×10−6 4.8 10−6

= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

= 4.2 × 104

(6.1 × 10 )( 2 × 10 ) = (6.1× 2) (10

−8

−4

−8

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 × 103

= 12.2 × 10−8+( −4)

= 12.2 × 10−12

102. 1.5 × 10−2

= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

5 × 10−6

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 ×103

= 1.22 × 10−11

92.

**( 5.1×10 )(3 ×10 ) = 15.3 ×10
**

−8

−4

−12

= 1.53 × 10−11

93.

**103. 480, 000, 000, 000 4.8 × 1011
**

=

0.00012

1.2 ×10−4

4.8 1011

=

×

1.2 10−4

= 4 × 1011− ( −4)

( 4.3 ×10 )(6.2 ×10 )

= ( 4.3 × 6.2) (10 ×10 )

8

4

8

3.6 ×104 3.6 104

=

×

9 10−2

9 × 10−2

= 0.4 ×104 − ( −2)

× 10−11 )

15

= 4.2 × 1015+( −11)

91.

97.

1.2 × 104

= 0.6 × 104 − ( −2) = 0.6 ×106

2 × 10−2

= ( 6 ×10−1 ) ×106 = 6 × 105

= 6.4 × 104

15

6.9 × 108

= 2.3 × 108− 5 = 2.3 × 103

3 ×105

98.

= 6.4 × 1015+ ( −11)

90.

96.

7

−11

15

8.4 × 108 8.4 108

=

×

4 ×105

4 105

= 2.1× 108− 5 = 2.1× 103

= 0.4 ×106 = 4 × 105

= 6.3 × 104+3 = 6.3 × 107

88.

95.

4

= 26.66 × 108+ 4

= 4 × 1015

= 26.66 × 1012

= 2.666 × 1013 ≈ 2.67 × 1013

**104. 282, 000, 000, 000 2.82 × 1011
**

=

0.00141

1.41×10−3

= 2 × 1011− ( −3)

= 2 × 1014

12

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

105.

106.

Section P.2

0.00072 × 0.003

0.00024

7.2

( ×10−4 )(3 ×10−3 )

=

2.4 × 10−4

7.2 × 3 10−4 ⋅10−3

=

×

= 9 × 10−3

2.4

10−4

113.

**( 2−1 x−2 y−1 ) ( 2 x−4 y3 ) (16 x−3 y3 )
**

2

( 2 x−3 y−5 )

( 22 x2 y2 )( 2−2 x8 y−6 )(1)

=

( 22 x−6 y−10 )

−2

=

4

−3

66000 × 0.001 ( 6.6 × 10 )(1× 10 )

=

0.003 × 0.002 ( 3 × 10−3 )( 2 × 10−3 )

114.

6.6 × 10

1− −6

= 1.1× 10 ( )

6 × 10−6

= 1.1× 107

−1

x −3 y −1 )

−2

1

107.

( x y)

(x y )

−3

−2

−1 3

2

=

x 6 y −3

= 6 −3

x y

=

= x 6 − 6 y −3− ( −3) = x 0 y 0 = 1

108.

( xy )

( x y)

−2 −2

−2

−3

= x −2 − 6 y

4 − ( −3)

= x −8 y 7 =

(2

y7

x8

111.

⎛ x y z ⎞

⎜ −3 −4 −5 ⎟

⎝x y z ⎠

3

4 5

−2

−4

−6

y4 )

y −6 )

−2

(9 x

3

y −3 )

0

2

x 6 y 2 )( 2−2 x12 y −8 ) (1)

(2

2

x −8 y −12 )

2.52 × 1012

3 × 108

c.

2.52 × 1012

3 × 108

=

2.52 1012

× 8

3

10

= 0.84 × 104

= 8400

$8400 per American

y

y

=

24 x8 z 6 16 x8 z 6

116. a.

**110. 3 x −4 yz −7 ( 3x )−3 = 3x −4 yz −7 ⋅ 3−3 x ⋅−3
**

(

)

= 3−2 x −7 yz −7 =

(2x

b.

**109. 2 x −3 yz −6 ( 2 x )−5 = 2 x −3 yz −6 ⋅ 2−5 x ⋅−5
**

(

)

= 2−4 x −8 yz −6 =

2

(2x

x 26 y 6

4

115. a.

x −2 y 4

= 6 −3

x y

0

x18 y6

4

(2

=

−2

y

y

=

3 x7 z 7 9 x7 z 7

2

2.27 × 1012

b.

2.98 × 108

c.

2.27 × 1012

2.27 1012

=

×

2.98 108

2.98 × 108

= 0.7617 × 104

= ( x6 y z

)

= 7617

$7617 per American

8 10 −2

= x −12 y −16 z −20 =

1

x y16 z 20

117. 1450 × 109 ⋅ 6.60 = 1.45 × 1012 ⋅ 6.6

12

= 1.45 ⋅ 6.6 × 1012

112. ⎛ x 4 y 5 z 6 ⎞ −4

8 10 12 −4

⎜ −4 −5 −6 ⎟ = ( x y z )

⎝x y z ⎠

= x −32 y −40 z −48 =

= 9.57 × 1012

Box-office receipts were $9.57 × 1012 in 2006.

1

x y 40 z 48

118. 1400 × 109 ⋅ 6.40 = 1.4 × 1012 ⋅ 6.4

32

= 1.4 ⋅ 6.4 × 1012

= 8.96 × 1012

Box-office receipts were $8.96 × 1012 in 2005.

13

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

119. 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 20, 000 = 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 2 × 104

138. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 52 ⋅ 5−2 = 25 ⋅ 2−5.

= 5.3 ⋅ 2 × 10−23 ⋅ 104

= 10.6 × 10−19

**139. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: 534.7 ≠ 5347.

= 1.06 × 101 ⋅ 10−19

**140. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

= 1.06 × 10−18

The mass is 1.06 × 10−18 gram.

8 × 1030

2 × 10−5

120. 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 80, 000 = 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 8 × 104

= 1.67 ⋅ 8 × 10−24 ⋅ 104

**141. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

= 13.36 × 10−20

1

= 1.336 × 10 ⋅ 10

(7 × 105 ) + (2 × 10−3 ) = 700, 000.002.

−20

142. true

= 1.336 × 10−19

**143. The doctor has gathered:
**

1 1

2 1 3

2−1 + 2−2 = +

= + =

2 22 4 4 4

**The mass is 1.336 × 10−19 gram.
**

121. 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 127 = 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 1.27 × 102

= 3.2 ⋅ 1.27 × 107 ⋅ 102

So, 1 −

= 4.064 × 109

3 1

= is remaining.

4 4

144. b A = MN , bC = M , b D = N

Americans eat 4.064 × 109 chickens per year.

b A = bC b D

122. 365 days equals 365 ⋅ 24 or 8760 hours.

A=C+D

**8760 hours equals 8760 ⋅ 60 or 525,600 minutes.
**

525,600 min. equals

525,600 ⋅ 60 or 31,536,000 seconds.

145.

**There are 3.1536 × 107 seconds in a year.
**

123. – 130. Answers may vary.

131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

**Sample explanation: 36( x3 )9 = 36 x 27 not 36 x12 .
**

132. makes sense

**70 bts 60 min 24 hrs 365 days
**

⋅

⋅

⋅

⋅ 80 yrs

hr

day

yr

min

= 70 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 365 ⋅ 80 beats

= 2943360000 beats

= 2.94336 × 109 beats

≈ 2.94 × 109 beats

The heartbeats approximately 2.94 × 109 times over a

lifetime of 80 years.

146. Answers may vary.

**133. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

147. a.

**Sample explanation: 4.6 × 1012 represents over 4
**

trillion. The entire world population is measured in

billions ( 109 ).

134. makes sense

135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 4

= 4 × 1030 − ( −5) = 4 × 1035.

−2

b.

16 ⋅ 4 = 64 = 8

c.

16 ⋅ 4 = 16 ⋅ 4

148. a.

300 ≈ 17.32

b.

10 3 ≈ 17.32

c.

300 = 10 3

−3

>4 .

16 ⋅ 4 = 4 ⋅ 2 = 8

136. true

137. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

1

A sample change is: (−2)4 ≠ 2−4 because 16 ≠ .

16

149. a.

b.

21x + 10 x = 31x

21 2 + 10 2 = 31 2

14

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

Section P.3

5.

a.

**Check Point Exercises
**

1.

5 27 + 12

= 5 9⋅3 + 4⋅3

= 5⋅3 3 + 2 3

a.

81 = 9

b.

− 9 = −3

c.

1

1

=

25 5

d.

36 + 64 = 100 = 10

e.

36 + 64 = 6 + 8 = 14

a.

75 = 25 ⋅ 3 = 25 3 = 5 3

b.

5 x ⋅ 10 x = 5 x ⋅10 x

= 15 3 + 2 3

= (15 + 2) 3

= 17 3

2.

b.

= 6 9 ⋅ 2x − 4 4 ⋅ 2x

= 6 ⋅ 3 2x − 4 ⋅ 2 2x

= 18 2 x − 8 2 x

= (18 − 8) 2 x

= 10 2 x

6.

a.

= 50 x 2

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2

b.

5

3

25

25 5

=

=

16

16 4

150 x 3

2x

=

b.

150 x 3

2x

= 5x 3

3

⋅

12

8 13 + 9 13 = (8 + 9) 3

7.

17 x − 20 17 x

= 1 17 x − 20 17 x

= (1 − 20) 17 x

=

Multiply by

3

=

5 3

9

=

5 3

3

12 ⋅ 3 =

3

3

6

12

⋅

36 = 6. So multiply by 1,

for 1.

3

3

=

6 3

36

=

4− 5

.

4− 5

8

8

4− 5

=

⋅

4+ 5 4+ 5 4− 5

=

= −19 17 x

3

for 1.

**The smallest number that will produce a perfect
**

6

square in the denominator of

is 3

12

6

= 17 13

b.

5

choosing

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 3

a.

=

3

because

= 75 x 2

4.

3

choosing

= 5x 2

a.

**If we multiply numerator and denominator by
**

3, the denominator becomes

3 ⋅ 3 = 9 = 3. Therefore, multiply by 1,

= 25 ⋅ 2 x 2

3.

6 18 x − 4 8 x

8(4 − 5)

42 − ( 5)2

8(4 − 5)

16 − 5

8(4 − 5)

32 − 8 5

or

=

11

11

=

15

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6 3

= 3

6

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

8.

9.

a.

3

40 = 3 8 ⋅ 5 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 5 = 2 3 5

Exercise Set P.3

b.

5

8 ⋅ 5 8 = 5 64 = 5 32 ⋅ 5 2 = 2 5 2

1.

36 = 62 = 6

c.

3

125 3 125 5

= 3

=

27

27 3

2.

25 = 52 = 5

3 3 81 − 4 3 3 = 3 3 27 ⋅ 3 − 4 3 3

3.

− 36 = − 62 = −6

4.

− 25 = − 52 = −5

5.

**−36 , The square root of a negative number is not
**

real.

6.

**−25 , The square root of a negative number is not
**

real.

= 3⋅ 33 3 − 4 3 3

= 93 3 − 43 3

= (9 − 4) 3 3

= 53 3

1

25 2 = 25 = 5

10. a.

1

b.

83 = 3 8 = 2

c.

−814 = − 4 81 = −3

d.

( −8 ) 3

e.

27

1

1

−

1

3

= 3 −8 = −2

1

=

1

1

=

3

27 3

4

(

27 3 =

11. a.

( 4)

2

5

1

32

c.

27

42 =

3

b.

3

−

2

=

3

2

)

4

=

27

1

3

= (3)4 = 81

= (2)3 = 8

=

32 5

1

(

5

32

)

2

1 1

= 2 =

2

4

7.

25 − 16 = 9 = 3

8.

144 + 25 = 169 = 13

9.

25 − 16 = 5 − 4 = 1

10.

144 + 25 = 12 + 5 = 17

11.

(−13) 2 = 169 = 13

12.

(−17)2 = 289 = 17

13.

50 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 25 2 = 5 2

14.

27 = 9 ⋅ 3 = 9 3 = 3 3

15.

45 x 2 = 9 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 9 x2 5

( 2 x )( 5x )

4/3

12. a.

8/3

= 9 x2 5

= 2 ⋅ 5 x 4 / 3 ⋅ x8 / 3

=3 x 5

= 10 x ( 4 / 3) + (8 / 3)

= 10 x12 / 3

= 10 x

16.

4

= 25 x 2 5

20 x 4 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 4 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟

3

5x 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x 2 ⎠

b.

= 25 x 2 5

=5 x 5

4− 3

= 4x ( 2)

8 − 3

= 4 x( 2 ) ( 2 )

= 4x

13.

6

5

17.

2x ⋅ 6x = 2x ⋅ 6x

= 12 x 2

2

= 4x2 ⋅ 3

x3 = x 6 = x 2 = x

3

125 x 2 = 25 x 2 ⋅ 5

1

= 2x 3

16

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

18.

Section P.3

10 x ⋅ 8 x = 10 x ⋅ 8 x

30.

= 80 x 2

24 x 4

=

3x

= 16 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 8 x3

= 4x 5

= 4 x2 ⋅ 2 x

19.

x3 = x 2 ⋅ x = x x

20.

y3 =

21.

2 x2 ⋅ 6 x = 2 x2 ⋅ 6 x

= 2x 2x

31.

y2 ⋅ y = y y

200 x3

10 x −1

= 4 x 2 ⋅ 3x

= 4 ⋅ 5x4

= 2 x2 5

32.

1

1 1

=

=

81

81 9

24.

1

=

49

25.

49

49 7

=

=

16

16 4

26.

121

121 11

=

=

9

3

9

27.

28.

48 x3

=

3x

72 x

3

=

8x

1

7

34.

8 5 + 11 5 = (8 + 11) 5 = 19 5

35.

6 17 x − 8 17 x = (6 − 8) 17 x = −2 17 x

36.

4 13 x − 6 13x = (4 − 6) 13x = −2 13x

= (2 + 3) 2

=5 2

38.

20 + 6 5 = 4 ⋅ 5 + 6 5

= 2 5+6 5

= (2 + 6) 5

=8 5

72 x

= 9 x2 = 3x

8x

150 x

150 x

=

3x

3x

8 + 3 2 = 4⋅2 + 3 2

= 2 2 +3 2

39.

29.

500 x 3

= 50 x 3−( −1)

10 x −1

7 3 + 6 3 = (7 + 6) 3 = 13 3

37.

48 x3

= 16 x 2 = 4 x

3x

4

10 x −1

=

33.

3

=

500 x 3

= 50 x 4 = 25 ⋅ 2 x 4 = 5 x 2 2

= 3x 2x

49

3−( −1)

= 20 x 4

6 x ⋅ 3 x 2 = 6 x ⋅ 3x 2

= 18 x3

1

200 x 3

10 x −1

= 12 x 3

= 9 x2 ⋅ 2 x

23.

=

= 20 x

= 2 x 3x

22.

24 x 4

3x

4

50 x − 8 x = 25 ⋅ 2 x − 4 ⋅ 2 x

= 5 2x − 2 2x

= (5 − 2) 2 x

= 50 x 3

= 3 2x

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2 x

= 5x 2x

17

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

40.

63 x − 28 x = 9 ⋅ 7 x − 4 ⋅ 7 x

49.

= 3 7x − 2 7x

13

3 + 11

= (3 − 2) 7 x

=

=

= 7x

41.

3 18 + 5 50 = 3 9 ⋅ 2 + 5 25 ⋅ 2

= 3⋅3 2 + 5⋅5 2

= 9 2 + 25 2

= (9 + 25) 2

50.

= 34 2

42.

3

3+ 7

= 4⋅ 2 3 − 2⋅5 3

13(3 − 11)

9 − 11

=

13(3 − 11)

−2

=

= −2 3

3 8 − 32 + 3 72 − 75

51.

= 3 4 ⋅ 2 − 16 ⋅ 2 + 3 36 ⋅ 2 − 25 ⋅ 3

7

5−2

= 6 2 − 4 2 + 18 2 − 5 3

=

= 20 2 − 5 3

= 3 9 ⋅ 6 − 2 4 ⋅ 6 − 16 ⋅ 6 + 4 9 ⋅ 7

52.

= 3⋅3 6 − 2⋅ 2 6 − 4 6 + 4 ⋅3 7

5

3 −1

= 9 6 − 4 6 − 4 6 + 12 7

46.

47.

48.

2

2

5

7

3

=

=

=

2

2

5

7

⋅

10

⋅

10

5

5

=

=

5−2

5+2

⋅

5+2

7( 5 + 2)

( 5) 2 − 22

7( 5 + 2)

5−4

5

3 −1

⋅

3 +1

3 +1

5( 3 + 1)

( 3) 2 − 12

5( 3 + 1)

3 −1

5( 3 + 1)

=

2

7

10

7

=

7

=

⋅

=

7

7

7 7

10

3(3 − 7 )

32 − ( 7 )2

=

=

= 6 + 12 7

45.

3− 7

= 7( 5 + 2)

3 54 − 2 24 − 96 + 4 63

1

⋅

3+ 7 3− 7

=

=

= 3⋅ 2 2 − 4 2 + 3⋅ 6 2 − 5 3

1

3

3(3 − 7)

9−7

3(3 − 7)

=

2

= (8 − 10) 3

44.

32 − ( 11)2

=

= 8 3 − 10 3

43.

13(3 − 11)

=

=

4 12 − 2 75 = 4 4 ⋅ 3 − 2 25 ⋅ 3

13

3 − 11

⋅

3 + 11 3 − 11

2 10

10

=

10

5

53.

10

5

6

5+ 3

=

=

=

3

21

⋅

=

3

3 3

6

5+ 3

⋅

5− 3

5− 3

6( 5 − 3)

( 5) 2 − ( 3) 2

6( 5 − 3)

5−3

6( 5 − 3)

2

= 3( 5 − 3)

=

18

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

11

54.

Section P.3

11

=

7− 3

=

7− 3

⋅

7+ 3

5

73.

7+ 3

11( 7 + 3)

74.

11( 7 + 3)

=

7−3

11( 7 + 3)

=

4

125 = 3 53 = 5

55.

3

56.

3

8 = 3 23 = 2

57.

3

−8 = 3 (−2) = −2

3

77.

5 3 16 + 3 54 = 5 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 3 27 ⋅ 2

= 5 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 33 2

= 13 3 2

61.

4

(−3) 4 = −3 = 3

62.

4

(−2) = −2 = 2

63.

5

(−3)5 = −3

64.

5

(−2) = −2

65.

5

67.

3

= 6 3 3 + 33 3

= 93 3

79.

= − y 3 2x

80.

2

24 xy 3 − y 3 81x

= 2 y 3 3 x − 3 y 3 3x

=

6

3

= 3 8 ⋅ 3xy 3 − y 3 27 ⋅ 3x

= − y 3 3x

1

1

1

= 5 − 5 =−

32

2

2

1

54 xy 3 − y 3 128 x

= 3 y 3 2x − 4 y 3 2x

5

6

3

= 3 27 ⋅ 2 xy 3 − y 3 64 ⋅ 2 x

4

6

3 3 24 + 3 81 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 + 3 27 ⋅ 3

= 3 ⋅ 2 3 3 + 33 3

−81 is not a real number.

1

=

64

162 x5 4

= 81x 4 = 3x

2x

6 5 3 + 25 3 = 85 3

−16 is not a real number.

4

6

2x

4

= 10 3 2 + 3 3 2

60.

66.

4

=

76.

−125 = 3 (−5)3 = −5

−

162 x 5

64 x 6 5

= 32 x5 = 2 x

2x

5

4 5 2 + 35 2 = 7 5 2

3

4

59.

2x

=

75.

78.

58.

5

4

( 7 )2 − ( 3) 2

64 x 6

1

2

81.

2+ 3 8 = 2+2

82.

3 + 3 15 will not simplify

83.

32 = 3 8 ⋅ 4 = 3 8 3 4 = 2 ⋅ 3 4

361/ 2 = 36 = 6

**84. 1211/ 2 = 121 = 11
**

68.

3

69.

3

70.

3

71.

3

72.

3

**150 cannot be simplified further.
**

85.

81/ 3 = 3 8 = 2

x 4 = 3 x3 ⋅ x = x ⋅ 3 x

86.

271/ 3 = 3 27 = 3

x5 = 3 x3 x 2 = x 3 x 2

87. 1252 / 3 =

9 ⋅ 3 6 = 3 54 = 3 27 ⋅ 2 = 3 27 3 2 = 3 3 2

88.

12 ⋅ 4 = 48 = 8 ⋅ 6 = 2 6

3

3

3

3

82 / 3 =

(

3

125

( 8)

3

2

)

2

= 52 = 25

=4

19

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

89.

90. 16−5 / 2 =

91.

1

1

1

= 4 =

4/5

32

2

16

32−4 / 5 =

1

1

1

1

=

=

=

165 / 2 ( 16)5 45 1024

( 7 x )( 2 x ) = 7 ⋅ 2 x

1/ 3

1/ 4

1/ 3

⋅ x1/ 4

1/ 3 +1/ 4

= 14 ⋅ x

20 x1/ 2 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x1/ 2 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟

5 x1/ 4 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x1/ 4 ⎠

= 4 ⋅ x1/ 2 −1/ 4

4

x12 = x12 / 4 = x

105.

6

x4 = 6 / 2 x4 / 2 = 3 x2

106.

9

x6 = 9 / 3 x6 / 3 = 3 x 2

107.

9

x6 y 3 = x 9 y 9 = x 3 y 3 = 3 x 2 y

108.

12

x 4 y 8 = x 12 y 12 = x 3 y 3 =

109.

34

110.

3

94.

95.

(x

)

=x

2 / 3⋅3

=x

98.

(125 x9 y 6 )1/ 3 = 1251/ 3 x 9 / 3 y 6 / 3 = 5 x 3 y 2

1

2

x y2

3

3

1000 + 3 216

1/ 2

−2 −1/ 2

4 −1/ 2

1/ 2

1 ( −2)( −1/ 2 ) ( 4)( −1/ 2)

x

y

( xy1/ 2 )

491/ 2

1

1

−2 + 1/ 2

= x1 y −2 ⋅ xy1/ 2 = x1+1 y ( )

7

7

1

x2

= x 2 y −3 / 2 = 3 / 2

7

7y

3

3

112. ( 8 x −6 y 3 )

1/ 3

(x

5/ 6

y −1/ 3 )

6

= 81/ 3 x ( −6)(1/ 3) y ( 3)(1/ 3) x (5 / 6)( 6) y ( −1/ 3)( 6)

= 2 x −2 y1 x5 y −2 = 2 x −2 + 5 y1+ ( −2 )

2

= 27 y 12 = 27 y 3

24 ( y1/ 5 )

−1/ 2

=

⎛ 14 ⎞

3

⎜ 3y ⎟

3 1

⎝

⎠ = 27 y 4 = 27 y 4 − 12

1

1

y 12

y 12

=

169 + 9 +

−1/ 2

(25 x 4 y 6 )1/ 2 = 251/ 2 x 4⋅1/ 2 y 6⋅1/ 2 = 5 x 2 y

y 3 /10

8

( xy )

= ( 49 ) ( x ) ( y ) ( xy )

97.

1/ 5 4

1

16 + 625 = 3 2 + 25 = 3 27 = 3

111. ( 49 x −2 y 4 )

2

( x 4 / 5 )5 = x 4 / 5⋅5 = x 4

(2y )

2

= 3 4+ 4 = 38

=2

⎞

3 / 4 −1/ 3

= 8 x5 /12

⎟ = 8⋅ x

⎠

96.

8

3

= 3 16 + 16

72 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 72 ⎞ ⎛ x 3 / 4

= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1/ 3

9 x1/ 3

⎝ 9 ⎠⎝ x

2/3 3

3

= 3 13 + 3 + 10 + 6

= 4 x1/ 4

100.

104.

4

2 / 3+ 3 / 4

= 12 x17 /12

99.

x6 = x6 / 3 = x 2

(3 x 2 / 3 )(4 x3 / 4 ) = 3 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3 ⋅ x 3 / 4

= 12 ⋅ x

93.

3

6

= 14 x 7 /12

92.

103.

= 2 x3 y −1 =

4

y 3 /10

⎛ x −5 / 4 y1/ 3 ⎞

113. ⎜ −3 / 4 ⎟

⎝ x

⎠

4/5

16 y

= 3 /10 = 16 y 4 / 5− 3 /10 = 16 y1/ 2

y

101.

4

52 = 52 / 4 = 51/ 2 = 5

102.

4

7 2 = 7 2 / 4 = 71/ 2 = 7

2 x3

y

−6

(

= x(

= ( x −2 / 4 y1/ 3 ) = x(

−6

= x3 y −2 =

−5 / 4 ) − ( −3 / 4 )

−2 / 4 )( −6 )

y(

y1/ 3

)

−6

1/ 3)( −6 )

x3

y2

20

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

⎛ x1/ 2 y −7 / 4 ⎞

114. ⎜

⎟

−5 / 4

⎝ y

⎠

−4

= ( x1/ 2 y −2 / 4 )

= x −2 y 2 =

115. a.

(

= x1/ 2 y (

−4

−7 / 4 ) − ( −5 / 4 )

)

−4

⎛v⎞

118. Ra = R f 1 − ⎜ ⎟

⎝c⎠

= x (1/ 2)( −4) y ( −2 / 4)( −4)

⎛ 0.9c ⎞

= Rf 1− ⎜

⎟

⎝ c ⎠

y2

x2

= R f 1 − ( 0.9 )

In 2004, we have x = 5.

Ra = 0.44 R f

44 = 0.44 R f

In 2011, we have x = 12 .

0.44 R f

44

=

0.44

0.44

100 = R f

If you are gone for 44 weeks, then 100 weeks will

have passed for your friend.

119. Perimeter:

P = 2l + 2 w

For 2020: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 125 + 2 ⋅ 2 20

= 5 10 + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 25 ⋅ 5 + 4 4 ⋅ 5

For 2050: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 5 40 + 34.1

= 2⋅5 5 + 4⋅ 2 5

= 5 ⋅ 2 10 + 34.1

= 10 5 + 8 5

= 18 5 feet

Area:

A = lw

= 10 10 + 34.1

Difference:

(10 10 + 34.1) − (5 10 + 34.1)

= 10 10 + 34.1 − 5 10 − 34.1

= 125 ⋅ 2 20

= 10 10 − 5 10 + 34.1 − 34.1

= 2 125 ⋅ 20

= 5 10

= 2 2500

= 2 ⋅ 50

= 100 square feet

The difference is 5 10.

b.

117.

2

≈ 0.44 R f

y = 20.8 12 + 21 ≈ 93.1

According to the model, 93.1% of email will be

spam in 2011.

This overestimates the value given in the bar

graph by 21.1%.

116. a.

2

= R f 0.19

y = 20.8 5 + 21 ≈ 67.5

According to the model, 67.5% of email was

spam in 2004.

This underestimates the actual value shown in

the bar graph by 0.5%.

b.

2

5 10 ≈ 15.8

This underestimates the difference projected by

the graph of 65.8 − 47.3 = 18.5 by 2.7. This

represents a difference of 2.7 million people.

2

5 + 1 2( 5 + 1)

⋅

=

5 −1

5 −1 5 +1

2( 5 + 1)

4

5 +1

=

2

≈ 1.62

About 1.62 to 1.

=

21

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

120. Perimeter:

P = 2l + 2w

13 + 2 +

139.

= 2 ⋅ 4 20 + 2 ⋅ 80

7

= 13 + 2 +

3+ 2

= 8 4 ⋅ 5 + 2 16 ⋅ 5

= 24 5 feet

Area:

A = lw

21 − 7 2

9−2

= 13 + 2 +

21 − 7 2

7

1

1

140. a.

= 4 1600

= 4 ⋅ 40

= 160 square feet

b.

121. – 128. Answers may vary.

3 2 > 33

Calculator Check: 1.7321 > 1.4422

7 + 18 > 7 + 18

Calculator Check: 6.8884 > 5

5

**129. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: The denominator is

rationalized correctly.

141. a.

b.

**131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary. Sample
**

explanation: 2 20 + 4 75 simplifies to 4 5 + 20 3

and thus the radical terms are not common.

2

⋅7

1

2

1

4

−

4

3

3

−

4

+ 2−2

+ 2−1

( 8)

3

=

+

4

1

( 16 )

4

3

= 71 = 7.

136. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

20

5

=

.

8

4

)(5 − 3 ) = 22

25 − 3 = 22

3 =3

25 x 14 = 5 x 7

1

22

+

1 1

+

4

2

4

=

1 1

+

23 2

1 1

+

= 16 4

1 1

+

8 2

5

= 16

5

8

8

=

16

1

=

2

Mom’s portion:

1⎛ 1⎞ 1⎛1⎞ 1

1−

=

=

2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 4

**135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

The cube root of –8 is the real number –2.

138.

5 3 1

+ −

4 4

= 22

Son’s portion:

16

**134. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

1

1

1

1

−

A sample change is: ( 8 ) 3 =

= 3 = .

1

2

8

(8) 3

A sample change is:

3

22 ⋅ 24

1

4

2 ⋅2 ÷2 =

8

**133. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

1

3

4

1

**132. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: Finding the nth root first often

gives smaller numbers on the middle step.

A sample change is: 7

5

2

2

Her son is 8 years old.

130. makes sense

3

3+ 2 3− 2

= 16

=4

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

(

3− 2

= 13 + 2 + 3 − 2

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

137. 5 +

⋅

= 13 + 2 +

= 8⋅ 2 5 + 2⋅ 4 5

= 16 5 + 8 5

7

22

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1

2

= 23 = 8

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

142. (2 x3 y 2 )(5 x 4 y 7 ) = 10 x7 y 9

143. 2 x 4 (8 x 4 + 3x) = 2 x 4 (8 x 4 ) + 2 x 4 (3 x) = 16 x8 + 6 x5

144. 2 x( x 2 + 4 x + 5) + 3( x 2 + 4 x + 5)

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 10 x + 3x 2 + 12 x + 15

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 3x 2 + 10 x + 12 x + 15

= 2 x3 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 15

Section P.4

Check Point Exercises

1.

(−17 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 11x − 5) + (16 x 3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 15)

a.

= (−17 x 3 + 16 x3 ) + (4 x 2 − 3x 2 ) + (−11x + 3x) + (−5 − 15)

= − x 3 + x 2 − 8 x − 20

b.

(13x 2 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) − (−7 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 9)

= (13 x3 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) + (7 x3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 9)

= (13 x3 + 7 x 3 ) + (−9 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (1 − 9)

= 20 x3 − 11x 2 − 2 x − 8

2.

(5 x − 2)(3x 2 − 5 x + 4)

= 5 x(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4) − 2(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4)

= 5 x ⋅ 3x 2 − 5 x ⋅ 5 x + 5 x ⋅ 4 − 2 ⋅ 3 x 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅ 4

= 15 x 3 − 25 x 2 + 20 x − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 8

= 15 x 3 − 31x 2 + 30 x − 8

3.

(7 x − 5)(4 x − 3) = 7 x ⋅ 4 x + 7 x(−3) + (−5)4 x + (−5)(−3)

= 28 x 2 − 21x − 20 x + 15

= 28 x 2 − 41x + 15

4.

a.

(7 x − 6 y )(3x − y ) = (7 x)(3 x) + (7 x)(− y ) + (−6 y )(3x) + (−6 y )(− y )

= 21x 2 − 7 xy − 18 xy + 6 y 2

= 21x 2 − 25 xy + 6 y 2

5.

b.

(2 x + 4 y )2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(4 y ) + (4 y ) 2 = 4 x 2 + 16 xy + 16 y 2

a.

(3 x + 2 + 5y )(3x + 2 − 5y ) = (3x + 2)2 − (5y )2

= 9x 2 + 12 x + 4 − 25y 2

2

2

= 9x + 12 x − 25y + 4

b.

(2 x + y + 3) 2 = (2 x + y )2 + 2(2 x + y )(3) + 32

= 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 12 x + 6y + 9

2

2

= 4 x + 4 xy + 12 x + y + 6y + 9

23

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Exercise Set P.4

1.

yes; 2 x + 3 x 2 − 5 = 3 x 2 + 2 x − 5

2.

no; The term 3x −1 does not have a whole number exponent.

3.

no; The form of a polynomial involves addition and subtraction, not division.

4.

yes; x 2 − x 3 + x 4 − 5 = x 4 − x3 + x 2 − 5

5.

**3x 2 has degree 2
**

−5x has degree 1

4 has degree 0

3 x 2 − 5 x + 4 has degree 2.

6.

**−4x 3 has degree 3
**

7x 2 has degree 2

–11 has degree 0

−4 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 11 has degree 3.

7.

x 2 has degree 2

−4x 3 has degree 3

9x has degree 1

−12x 4 has degree 4

63 has degree 0

x 2 − 4 x 3 + 9 x − 12 x 4 + 63 has degree 4.

8.

x 2 has degree 2

−8x 3 has degree 3

15x 4 has degree 4

91 has degree 0

x 2 − 8 x3 + 15 x 4 + 91 has degree 4.

9.

(−6 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 8 x + 9) + (17 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 13) = (−6 x 3 + 17 x 3 ) + (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 ) + (−8 x − 4 x) + (9 − 13)

= 11x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 4

The degree is 3.

10.

**(−7 x3 + 6 x 2 − 11x + 13) + (19 x3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 17) = (−7 x3 + 19 x3 ) + (6 x 2 − 11x 2 ) + (−11x + 7 x) + (13 − 17)
**

= 12 x3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x − 4

The degree is 3.

11.

(17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) − (5 x3 − 9 x 2 − 8 x + 11) = (17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) + (−5 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 8 x − 11)

= (17 x3 − 5 x3 ) + (−5 x 2 + 9 x 2 ) + (4 x + 8 x) + (−3 − 11)

= 12 x3 + 4 x 2 + 12 x − 14

The degree is 3.

12.

(18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) − (9 x 4 − 6 x3 − 5 x + 7) = (18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) + (−9 x 4 + 6 x3 + 5 x − 7)

= (18 x 4 − 9 x 4 ) + (−2 x3 + 6 x3 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (8 − 7)

= 9 x 4 + 4 x3 − 2 x + 1

The degree is 4.

24

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

13.

Section P.4

(5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) − ( x 2 − 4 x − 3) = (5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) + (− x 2 + 4 x + 3)

= (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 − x 2 ) + (−7 x − 3 x + 4 x) + (−8 + 7 + 3)

= 6x2 − 6x + 2

The degree is 2.

14.

(8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) − (3 x 2 − 4 x) − (−6 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 3) = (8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) + (−3x 2 + 4 x) + (6 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3)

= 6 x 3 + (8 x 2 − 3x 2 + 5 x 2 ) + (7 x + 4 x) + (−5 − 3)

= 6 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 11x − 8

The degree is 3.

15.

( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) = x( x 2 ) − x ⋅ x + x ⋅1 + 1( x 2 ) − 1 ⋅ x + 1 ⋅1

= x3 − x 2 + x + x 2 − x + 1

= x3 + 1

16.

( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 5 x + 25 ) = x( x 2 ) − x(5 x) + x(25) + 5( x 2 ) − 5(5 x) + 5(25)

= x 3 − 5 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125)

= x 3 + 125

17.

(2 x − 3)( x 2 − 3x + 5) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−3x) + (2 x)(5) + (−3)( x 2 ) + (−3)(−3x) + (−3)(5)

= 2 x 3 − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 3x 2 + 9 x − 15

= 2 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 19 x − 15

18.

(2 x − 1)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−4 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−1)( x 2 ) + (−1)(−4 x) + (−1)(3)

= 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − x 2 + 4 x − 3

= 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 10 x − 3

19.

( x + 7)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x + 7 x + 21 = x 2 + 10 x + 21

20.

( x + 8)( x + 5) = x 2 + 5 x + 8 x + 40 = x 2 + 13x + 40

21.

( x − 5)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x − 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 2 x − 15

22.

( x − 1)( x + 2) = x 2 + 2 x − x − 2 = x 2 + x − 2

23.

(3 x + 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + 3 x(1) + 5(2 x) + 5 = 6 x 2 + 3x + 10 x + 5 = 6 x 2 + 13x + 5

24.

(7 x + 4)(3x + 1) = (7 x)(3x) + 7 x(1) + 4(3x) + 4(1) = 21x 2 + 7 x + 12 x + 4 = 21x 2 + 19 x + 4

25.

(2 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (2 x)(5 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−3)(5 x) + (−3)(3) = 10 x 2 + 6 x − 15 x − 9 = 10 x 2 − 9 x − 9

26.

(2 x − 5)(7 x + 2) = (2 x )(7 x) + (2 x)(2) + (−5)(7 x) + (−5)(2) = 14 x 2 + 4 x − 35 x − 10 = 14 x 2 − 31x − 10

27.

(5 x 2 − 4)(3 x 2 − 7) = (5 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (5 x 2 )(−7) + (−4)(3x 2 ) + (−4)(−7) = 15 x 4 − 35 x 2 − 12 x 2 + 28 = 15 x 4 − 47 x 2 + 28

28.

(7 x 2 − 2)(3 x 2 − 5) = (7 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (7 x 2 )(−5) + (−2)(3 x 2 ) + (−2)(−5) = 21x 4 − 35 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 10 = 21x 4 − 41x 2 + 10

29.

(8 x

3

+ 3)( x 2 − 5 ) = ( 8 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 8 x 3 ) ( −5 ) + ( 3) ( x 2 ) + ( 3)( −5 ) = 8 x5 − 40 x 3 + 3 x 2 − 15

25

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

30.

(7x

31.

( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 32 = x 2 − 9

32.

( x + 5)( x − 5) = x 2 − 52 = x 2 − 25

33.

(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) = (3 x) 2 − 22 = 9 x 2 − 4

34.

(2 x + 5)(2 x − 5) = (2 x)2 − 52 = 4 x 2 − 25

35.

(5 − 7 x)(5 + 7 x) = 52 − (7 x) 2 = 25 − 49 x 2

36.

(4 − 3x)(4 + 3x) = 42 − (3x) 2 = 16 − 9 x 2

37.

(4 x 2 + 5 x)(4 x 2 − 5 x) = (4 x 2 ) 2 − (5 x) 2 = 16 x 4 − 25 x 2

38.

(3 x 2 + 4 x)(3x 2 − 4 x) = (3x 2 ) 2 − (4 x) 2 = 9 x 4 − 16 x 2

39.

(1 − y )(1 + y ) = (1) − ( y )

40.

( 2 − y )( 2 + y ) = ( 2 ) − ( y )

41.

( x + 2) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = x 2 + 4 x + 4

42.

( x + 5) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = x 2 + 10 x + 25

43.

(2 x + 3)2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(3) + 32 = 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9

44.

(3 x + 2)2 = (3x) 2 + 2(3x)(2) + 22 = 9 x 2 + 12 x + 4

45.

( x − 3) 2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 3 + 32 = x 2 − 6 x + 9

46.

( x − 4)2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 4 + 42 = x 2 − 8 x + 16

47.

(4 x 2 − 1) 2 = (4 x 2 ) 2 − 2(4 x 2 )(1) + 12 = 16 x 4 − 8 x 2 + 1

48.

(5 x 2 − 3)2 = (5 x 2 ) 2 − 2(5 x 2 )(3) + 32 = 25 x 4 − 30 x 2 + 9

49.

(7 − 2 x)2 = 7 2 − 2(7)(2 x) + (2 x) 2 = 49 − 28 x + 4 x 2 = 4 x 2 − 28 x + 49

50.

(9 − 5 x) 2 = 92 − 2(9)(5 x) + (5 x) 2 = 81 − 90 x + 25 x 2 or 25 x 2 − 90 x + 81

51.

( x + 1)3 = x3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅1 + 3x ⋅12 + 13 = x3 + 3 x 2 + 3 x + 1

52.

( x + 2)3 = x 3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 22 + 23 = x 3 + 6 x 2 + 12 x + 8

53.

(2 x + 3)3 = (2 x)3 + 3 ⋅ (2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x) ⋅ 32 + 33 = 8 x 3 + 36 x 2 + 54 x + 27

3

+ 5 )( x 2 − 2 ) = ( 7 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 7 x 3 ) ( −2 ) + ( 5 ) ( x 2 ) + ( 5 )( −2 ) = 7 x5 − 14 x3 + 5 x 2 − 10

5

5

5 2

2

5

5

2

= 1 − y10

5 2

= 4 − y10

26

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

54.

(3 x + 4)3 = (3x)3 + 3(3x) 2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3x) ⋅ 42 + 43 = 27 x 3 + 108 x 2 + 144 x + 64

55.

( x − 3)3 = x3 − 3 ⋅ x 3 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 32 − 33 = x 3 − 9 x 2 + 27 x − 27

56.

( x − 1)3 = x 3 − 3x 2 ⋅1 + 3 x ⋅12 − 13 = x3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1

57.

(3 x − 4)3 = (3x)3 − 3(3 x)2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3 x) ⋅ 42 − 43 = 27 x 3 − 108 x 2 + 144 x − 64

58.

(2 x − 3)3 = (2 x)3 − 3(2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x ) ⋅ 32 − 33 = 8 x3 − 36 x 2 + 54 x − 27

59.

( x + 5 y )(7 x + 3 y ) = x(7 x) + x(3 y ) + (5 y )(7 x) + (5 y )(3 y )

= 7 x 2 + 3 xy + 35 xy + 15 y 2

= 7 x 2 + 38 xy + 15 y 2

60.

( x + 9 y )(6 x + 7 y ) = x(6 x) + x(7 y ) + (9 y )(6 x) + (9 y )(7 y )

= 6 x 2 + 7 xy + 54 xy + 63 y 2

= 6 x 2 + 61xy + 63 y 2

61.

( x − 3 y )(2 x + 7 y ) = x(2 x) + x (7 y ) + (−3 y )(2 x) + (−3 y )(7 y )

= 2 x 2 + 7 xy − 6 xy − 21y 2

= 2 x 2 + xy − 21 y 2

62.

(3 x − y )(2 x + 5 y ) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(5 y ) + (− y )(2 x) + (− y )(5 y )

= 6 x 2 + 15 xy − 2 xy − 5 y 2

= 6 x 2 + 13xy − 5 y 2

63.

(3 xy − 1)(5 xy + 2) = (3xy )(5 xy ) + (3xy )(2) + (−1)(5 xy ) + (−1)(2)

= 15 x 2 y 2 + 6 xy − 5 xy − 2

= 15 x 2 y 2 + xy − 2

64.

(7 x 2 y + 1)(2 x 2 y − 3) = (7 x 2 y )(2 x 2 y ) + (7 x 2 y )(−3) + (1)2 x 2 y + (1)(−3)

= 14 x 4 y 2 − 21x 2 y + 2 x 2 y − 3

= 14 x 4 y 2 − 19 x 2 y − 3

65.

(7 x + 5 y ) 2 = (7 x) 2 + 2(7 x)(5 y ) + (5 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 + 70 xy + 25 y 2

66.

(9 x + 7 y )2 = (9 x)2 + 2(9 x )(7 y ) + (7 y )2 = 81x 2 + 126 xy + 49 y 2

67.

( x 2 y 2 − 3) 2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(3) + 32 = x 4 y 4 − 6 x 2 y 2 + 9

68.

( x 2 y 2 − 5)2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(5) + 52 = x 4 y 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 25

69.

( x − y )( x 2 + xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x( xy ) + x( y 2 ) + (− y )( x 2 ) + (− y )( xy ) + (− y )( y 2 )

= x3 + x 2 y + xy 2 − x 2 y − xy 2 − y 3

= x3 − y 3

27

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

70.

( x + y )( x 2 − xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x(− xy ) + x( y 2 ) + y ( x 2 ) + y (− xy ) + y ( y 2 )

= x 3 − x 2 y + xy 2 + x 2 y − xy 2 + y 3

= x3 + y 3

71.

(3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = (3x) 2 − (5 y )2 = 9 x 2 − 25 y 2

72.

(7 x + 3 y )(7 x − 3 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (3 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 9 y 2

73.

( x + y + 3)( x + y − 3) = ( x + y ) 2 − 32 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 9

74.

( x + y + 5)( x + y − 5) = ( x + y )2 − 52 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 25

75.

(3 x + 7 − 5 y )(3x + 7 + 5 y ) = (3x + 7) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 + 42 x + 49 − 25 y 2

76.

(5 x + 7 y − 2)(5 x + 7 y + 2) = (5 x + 7 y ) 2 − 22 = 25 x 2 + 70 xy + 49 y 2 − 4

77.

[5 y − (2 x + 3)][5 y + (2 x + 3)] = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 3) 2 = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 12 x + 9) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 12 x − 9

78.

[8 y + (7 − 3x)][8 y − (7 − 3x)] = (8 y ) 2 − (7 − 3x) 2 = 64 y 2 − (49 − 42 x + 9 x 2 ) = 64 y 2 − 49 + 42 x − 9 x 2

79.

( x + y + 1) 2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y ) + 1 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 2 x + 2 y + 1

80.

( x + y + 2)2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y )(2) + 22 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 4 y + 4

81.

(2 x + y + 1) 2 = (2 x + y ) 2 + 2(2 x + y ) + 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 2 y + 1

82.

(5 x + 1 + 6 y )2 = (5 x + 1) 2 + 2(5 x + 1)(6 y ) + (6 y )2 = 25 x 2 + 10 x + 60 xy + 1 + 12 y + 36 y 2

83.

(3 x + 4 y )

2

2

2

2

2

2

− ( 3x − 4 y ) = ⎡( 3x ) + 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(3 x ) − 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤

⎣

⎦ ⎣

⎦

(

) (

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 24 xy + 16 y 2

)

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 + 24 xy − 16 y 2

= 48 xy

84.

(5 x + 2 y )

2

2

2

2

2

2

− ( 5 x − 2 y ) = ⎡(5 x ) + 2 ( 5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(5 x ) − 2 (5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤

⎣

⎦ ⎣

⎦

(

) (

= 25 x 2 + 20 xy + 4 y 2 − 25 x 2 − 20 xy + 4 y 2

= 25 x + 20 xy + 4 y − 25 x + 20 xy − 4 y

2

2

2

)

2

= 40 xy

85.

(5 x − 7 )( 3x − 2) − ( 4 x − 5)( 6 x − 1)

2

2

= ⎡15 x − 10 x − 21x + 14⎤ − ⎡24 x − 4 x − 30 x + 5⎤

⎣

(

2

⎦ ⎣

) (

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x − 34 x + 5

2

)

⎦

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x + 34 x − 5

2

= −9 x + 3 x + 9

28

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

4 (3 x + 5)( 2 x − 9) − ( 7 x − 2)( x − 1) ( = (6 x ) ( 2 2 = 6 x − 27 x + 10 x − 45 − 7 x − 7 x − 2 x + 2 2 ) ( 2 − 17 x − 45 − 7 x − 9 x + 2 2 ) ) 2 = 6 x − 17 x − 45 − 7 x + 9 x − 2 2 = − x − 8 x − 47 87. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = ( 2 x − 7) 2 = ( 2 x ) − 2 ( 2 x )( 7 ) + ( 7 ) 2 2 2 = 4 x − 28 x + 49 ( 5 x − 3) = 5 x − 3 6 − 4 ( ) 4 ( 5 x − 3) 6 90. Section P. (3 x + 4)( 3x − 4) (9 x 2 + 16) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 3 x ) − 4 ⎤ 9 x + 16 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 9 x ) − (16 ) 2 2 = 9 x − 16 9 x + 16 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 81x − 256 ( 2 x − 7 ) = 2 x − 7 5 −3 ( ) 3 ( 2 x − 7) 5 89. . ( 2 x + 5)( 2 x − 5) ( 4 x 2 + 25) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 2 x ) − 5 ⎤ 4 x + 25 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 4 x ) − ( 25) 2 2 = 4 x − 25 4 x + 25 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 16 x − 625 88.PreCalculus 4E 86. Inc. = ( 5 x − 3) 2 = ( 5 x ) − 2 ( 5 x )( 3) + ( 3) 2 2 2 = 25 x − 30 x + 9 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

418. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. The model underestimates this difference by $15. 210 c. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 348 The difference in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $12. 210 = 15.748 The model estimates the median annual income for a woman with 18 years of education to be $53. 539 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15. 923 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $10.348 − $10. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. 995(16) + 63. 446 + 14. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. b. d. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. 220 − 41.995 x + 63. The model underestimates the actual value of $57. 44. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14.316 shown in the bar graph by $2432. The model overestimates this difference by $12. 481 = 10. W = 255 x 2 − 2956 x + 24. d.539.995 x + 63.748.923. 404 − 33. 995(14) + 63. 57. b. . 923 = $1425. 995 x + 63. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48.995. ( x 8 − 2x )(10 − 2 x ) = x ( 80 − 36 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 80 x − 36 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 36 x + 80 x 94. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 210 = 12. 93. ( x 8 − 2x )(5 − 2 x ) = x ( 40 − 26 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 40 x − 26 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 26 x + 40 x 30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.348. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15.336 W = 255(18)2 − 2956(18) + 24. 210 M − W = −35(14)3 + 1373(14) 2 − 15. 995 x + 63. M = 177 x 2 + 288 x + 7075 M = 177(16)2 + 288(16) + 7075 = 56.220 shown in the bar graph by $225. 681 = 15. a. Inc. 418 = $121. 995 The model estimates the median annual income for a man with 16 years of education to be $56. a.210 c. 446 + 14. 336 = 53. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. The model overestimates the actual value of $51. 92. 539 − $15. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14.210 M − W = −35(16)3 + 1373(16) 2 − 15. 418 The difference in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 91. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15.

105. makes sense 106. does not make sense. 103. (y n + 2)(y n − 2) − (y n − 3)2 = y 2 n − 4 − (y 2 n − 6y n + 9) =y 2n −4 −y 2n n + 6y − 9 = 6y n −13 111. Answers may vary. Sample explanation: FOIL is used to multiply two binomials. Inc. . makes sense 104.4 ( x + 9) ( x + 3) − ( x + 5) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − ( x 2 + 6 x + 5 ) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − x 2 − 6 x − 5 = 6 x + 22 96.PreCalculus 4E 95. (2x − 1)x(x + 3) − x(x − 2)x = (2x 2 + 5x − 3)(x + 2) − x 2 (x − 2) 3 2 3 = 2x + 5x − 3x − x + 2x 2 = x 3 + 7x 2 − 3x 109. ( x + 3)( x − 1) + (( x + 3) − x)( x − ( x − 1)) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) + 3( x − x + 1) = x 2 − x + 3x − 3 + 3 = x2 + 2 x 108. makes sense. ( x + 4) ( x + 3) − ( x + 2) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − ( x 2 + 3x + 2 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − x 2 − 3x − 2 = 4 x + 10 97. – 102. (x + 5)(2x + 1)(x + 2) − 3 ⋅ x(x + 5) = (2x 2 + 11x + 5)(x + 2) − 3x 2 −15x 3 2 2 = 2x + 15x + 27x + 10 − 3x − 15x = 2x 3 + 12x 2 + 12x + 10 110. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section P. although answers may vary 107. (4 x + 1)(2 x − 3 ) = 8 x 2 − 10 x − 3 31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x − 2 )( x − 12) = x 2 − 14 x + 24 113. ( x + 3)( x + 4 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 112. Explanations will vary.

a. Find two First terms whose product is 6 x 2 .5 Check Point Exercises 1. The required integers are –7 and 2. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (3x − 1)(2 x + 7) or (2 x + 7)(3 x − 1). 2.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Section P. Thus. x 2 − 5 x − 14 = ( x − 7)( x + 2) or ( x + 2)( x − 7). Find two numbers whose product is –14 and whose sum is –5. Inc. . 2 x( x − 7) + 3( x − 7) = ( x − 7)(2 x + 3) x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = ( x3 + 5 x 2 ) − (2 x + 10) = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = ( x + 5)( x 2 − 2) 3. 10 x3 − 4 x 2 = 2 x 2 (5 x) − 2 x 2 (2) = 2 x 2 (5 x − 2) b. 32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + 13x + 40 = ( x + 5)( x + 8) or ( x + 8)( x + 5) 4. The required integers are 8 and 5. Find two numbers whose product is 40 and whose sum is 13. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is 19x. 5. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (6 x )(x ) 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = ( 3x )( 2 x ) Find two Last terms whose product is –7. Thus. Possible Factors of 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 Sum of Outside and Inside Products (Should Equal 19x) (6 x + 1)( x − 7) −42 x + x = −41x (6 x − 7)( x + 1) 6x − 7x = −x (6 x − 1)( x + 7) 42 x − x = 41x (6 x + 7)( x − 1) −6 x + 7 x = x (3 x + 1)(2 x − 7) −21x + 2 x = −19 x (3 x − 7)(2 x + 1) 3x − 14 x = −11x (3 x − 1)(2 x + 7) 21x − 2 x = 19 x (3 x + 7)(2 x − 1) −3x + 14 x = 11x Thus. The possible factors are 1(–7) and –1(7). Publishing as Prentice Hall.

3x 3 − 30 x 2 + 75 x = 3 x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) Factor the perfect square trinomial. 3x 2 − 13xy + y 2 = (3x − y )( x − 4 y ) or ( x − 4 y )(3x − y ). Express 9 x 2 − 4 as the difference of two squares and again use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . Then use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . = (4 x − 7) 2 . 3x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) = 3x ( x − 5 ) 2 33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. 125 x 3 − 8 = (5 x)3 − 23 = (5 x − 2) ⎡⎣ (5 x)2 + (5 x)(2) + 22 ⎤⎦ = (5 x − 2)(25 x 2 + 10 x + 4) 11. factored completely. and (−4 y )(− y ) . Since 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 = 56 x. Section P. 7. 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 + 4)(3x + 2)(3x − 2). 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 is a perfect square trinomial. 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 = (4 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 x 3 + 1 = x 3 + 13 = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x ⋅ 1 + 12 ) = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) b. 9. a. 3x 2 − 13xy + 4 y 2 = (3x )(x ) Find two Last terms whose product is 4 y 2 . Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is −13xy . (−2 y )(−2 y ) . Express each term as the square of some monomial. x 2 − 81 = x 2 − 92 = ( x + 9)( x − 9) b. 36 x 2 − 25 = (6 x) 2 − 52 = (6 x + 5)(6 x − 5) Express 81x 4 − 16 as the difference of two squares and use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . Factor out the greatest common factor. x 2 + 14 x + 49 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 = ( x + 7) 2 b.5 Find two First terms whose product is 3 x 2 . Since 16 x 2 = (4 x) 2 and 49 = 7 2 . (4 y )( y ) . The possible factors are (2 y )(2 y ) . 10. check to see if the middle term can be expressed as twice the product of 4x and 7.PreCalculus 4E 6. a. Inc. (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) = (9 x 2 + 4) ⎡⎣(3x) 2 − 22 ⎤⎦ = (9 x 2 + 4)(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) Thus. 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 42 = (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) The factor 9 x 2 − 4 is the difference of two squares and can be factored.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 12. 4 x 2 + 16 x + 15 = (2 x + 3)(2 x + 5) 9. 6 x 4 − 18 x 3 + 12 x 2 = 6 x ( x ) + 6 x (−3x) + 6 x (2) 2 2 2 2 = ( x 2 + 5)( x − 2) 34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x 2 − 2 x − 5 = (3x − 5)( x + 1) = 6 x2 ( x2 − 3x + 2 ) 27. x 3 − 3x 2 + 4 x − 12 = x 2 ( x − 3) + 4 ( x − 3) 16. 8 x 2 + 33 x + 4 = (8 x + 1)( x + 4) 10. 6x 2 –11x + 4 = (2x – 1)(3x – 4) 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x(2x + 1) + 4(2x + 1) = (2x + 1)(x + 4) 29. x 2 ( x − 3) + 12( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 12) 30. ( 2 x − 1) x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 5 = x 2 ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 5 ) 1 2 17. x(x + 5) + 3(x + 5) = (x + 5)(x + 3) 28. 2 = ( x + 10 + 6a )( x + 10 − 6a ) x ( x − 1) −1 2 14. Inc. 20 x 2 + 27 x − 8 = (5 x + 8)(4 x − 1) Exercise Set P. = ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 4 ) = x 2 + 20 x + 100 − 36a 2 = ( x 2 + 20 x + 100 ) − 36a 2 13. = ( x − 1) ⎣⎡ x + ( x − 1) ⎦⎤ ( 2 x − 1) = ( x − 1) 3x 3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x + 4 = x 2 (3x − 2) − 2(3x − 2) = (3x − 2)( x 2 − 2) − 12 − 12 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 2 x − 12 = x 2 ( x + 6 ) − 2 ( x + 6 ) = ( x + 6) ( x2 − 2) 1 + ( x − 1) 2 1− −1 −1 = ( x − 1) 2 ⎡ x + ( x − 1) 2 ( 2 ) ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ = ( x − 1) x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 2 = x 2 ( x − 1) + 2( x − 1) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 2) = ( x + 10 ) − 36a 2 13. 4 x − 8 x = 4x(x) + 4x(–2) = 4x(x – 2) 5. x 2 − 4 x − 5 = ( x − 5)( x + 1) 21. 6 x 2 − 17 x + 12 = (2 x − 3)(3x − 4) 8. x 3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 10 = x 2 ( x − 2) + 5( x − 2) 32. 16x – 24 = 8(2x) + 8(–3) = 8(2x – 3) 3. 9 x 4 − 18 x3 + 27 x 2 2 2 = 9 x 2 ( x 2 ) + 9 x 2 (−2 x) + 9 x 2 (3) = 9 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 3) 6. x 2 + 5 x + 6 = ( x + 2)( x + 3) 18. 3x 2 – 25x – 28 = (3x – 28)(x + 1) 26. x 2 − 36a 2 + 20 x + 100 12. 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 = (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 25. 3x 2 – x – 2 = (3x + 2)(x – 1) 24. x 2 – 2x – 15 = (x – 5)(x + 3) 20.5 1. 9 x 2 + 5 x − 4 = (9 x − 4)( x + 1) 33. x 2 + 8 x + 15 = ( x + 3)( x + 5) 19. Reorder to write as a difference of squares. x 2 − 14 x + 45 = ( x − 5)( x − 9) 23. 18 x + 27 = 9 ⋅ 2 x + 9 ⋅ 3 = 9(2 x + 3) 2. x 2 – 8x + 15 = (x – 5)(x – 3) 22. 15. 3x + 6 x = 3x ⋅ x + 3x ⋅ 2 = 3x ( x + 2) 4. 9 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = (3 x − 1)(3x − 2) 11. . x 2 ( 2 x + 5 ) + 17 ( 2 x + 5) = ( 2 x + 5) ( x 2 + 17 ) 31.

8 x 3 + 125 = (2 x)3 + 53 = (2 x + 5)[(2 x)2 − (2 x)(5) + 52 ] = (2 x + 5)(4 x 2 − 10 x + 25) 65. x 3 + 27 = x3 + 33 41. 43. 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 = (2 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 2 x ⋅1 + 12 36. x 2 + 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅1 + 12 = ( x + 1) 2 50. 45. 64 x 2 − 16 x + 1 = (8 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 8 x ⋅1 + 12 = (8 x − 1) 2 40. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 3 − 64 = x3 − 43 = ( x − 4)( x 2 + x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 46. = ( x − 4)( x 2 + 4 x + 16) x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 60.5 34.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 2 x 2 + 3xy + y 2 = (2 x + y )( x + y ) 53. 9 x 2 − 6 x + 1 = (3x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 3 x ⋅1 + 12 = (3x − 1) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 3x + 9) 2 58. = (4 x + 9)(2 x + 3)(2 x − 3) 2 27 x 3 − 1 = (3x)3 − 13 = (3x − 1)[(3x) 2 + (3 x)(1) + 12 ] = (3x − 1)(9 x 2 + 3 x + 1) 81x 4 − 1 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 12 = (9 x 2 + 1)(9 x 2 − 1) 63. 6 x 2 − 7 xy − 5 y 2 = (3 x − 5 y )(2 x + y ) 39. 64 x − 81 = (8 x ) − 9 = (8 x + 9)(8 x − 9) 2 = (2 x + 1) 2 2 2 2 54. 44. . x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 2 2 = (4 x + 3)[(4 x) 2 − (4 x)(3) + 32 ] = (9 x + 1)(3x + 1)(3 x − 1) 2 49. = ( x + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 3 x + 9) x 4 − 1 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 12 = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) 61. x 2 + 4 x + 4 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = ( x + 2) 2 51. 36 x 2 − 49 = (6 x) 2 − 7 2 = (6 x + 7)(6 x − 7) 42. 15 x 2 − 19 x + 6 = (3x − 2)(5 x − 3) 52. 16 x 4 − 81 = (4 x 2 )2 − 92 = (2 x − 1)(4 x 2 + 2 x + 1) = (4 x 2 + 9)(4 x 2 − 9) = (4 x 2 + 9)[(2 x)2 − 32 ] 62. 8 x 3 − 1 = (2 x)3 − 13 = (2 x − 1)[(2 x) 2 + (2 x)(1) + 12 ] 47. x 2 − 100 = x 2 − 102 = ( x + 10)( x − 10) 56. 9 x 2 − 25 y 2 = (3 x) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = (3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) 36 x 2 − 49 y 2 = (6 x) 2 − (7 y ) 2 = (6 x + 7 y )(6 x − 7 y ) 59. Inc. 3x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 = (3x + y )( x + y ) 37. = (9 x + 1)[(3 x) − 1 ] 2 x 3 − 27 = x 3 − 33 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 48. 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = (5 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x ⋅1 + 12 = (5 x + 1) 2 55. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = ( x − 5) 2 35. x 2 − 14 x + 49 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 64 x3 + 27 = (4 x)3 + 33 = (4 x + 3)(16 x 2 − 12 x + 9) 64. x 2 − 144 = x 2 − 122 = ( x + 12)( x − 12) 57. = ( x − 7) 2 3x 3 − 3x = 3x( x 2 − 1) = 3x( x + 1)( x − 1) 35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 x − 5 xy − 6 y = (3x + 2 y )(2 x − 3 y ) 38.

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x 2 − 2 x − 112 = 2( x 2 − x − 56) = 2( x − 8)( x + 7) 74. 6 x 2 − 18 x − 60 = 6( x 2 − 3 x − 10) = 6( x + 2)( x − 5) 69. 7 x 4 − 7 = 7( x 4 − 1) = 7[( x 2 ) 2 − 12 ] = 7( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 7( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 71. 6 x 2 − 6 x − 12 = 6( x 2 − x − 2) = 6( x − 2)( x + 1) 75. 4 x 2 − 4 x − 24 = 4( x 2 − x − 6) = 4( x + 2)( x − 3) 68. 78. x 2 + 36 is prime. x 2 + 64 is prime. Inc. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 9 x − 18 = ( x 3 + 2 x 2 ) − (9 x + 18) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 9( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 9)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 32 )( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2) 72. . 2 x 4 − 162 = 2( x 4 − 81) = 2[( x 2 ) 2 − 92 ] = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 9) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 32 ) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x + 3)( x − 3) 70. 9 x3 − 9 x = 9 x( x 2 − 1) = 9 x( x − 1)( x + 1) 77. x 3 − 4 x = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x 2 − 22 ) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) 76. 5 x 3 − 45 x = 5 x( x 2 − 9) = 5 x( x + 3)( x − 3) 67.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 66. x 3 + 3x 2 − 25 x − 75 = ( x 3 + 3x 2 ) − (25 x + 75) = x 2 ( x + 3) − 25( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 25)( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 52 )( x + 3) = ( x − 5)( x + 5)( x + 3) 73.

16a 2 x − 25 y − 25 x + 16a 2 y = (16a 2 x + 16a 2 y ) + ( −25 y − 25 x ) = 16a 2 ( x + y ) − 25 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) (16a 2 − 25 ) = ( x + y )( 4a + 5 )( 4a − 5 ) 89.PreCalculus 4E 79. 9b 2 x − 16 y − 16 x + 9b 2 y = ( 9b 2 x + 9b 2 y ) + ( −16 x − 16 y ) = 9b 2 ( x + y ) − 16 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) ( 9b 2 − 16 ) = ( x + y )( 3b + 4 )( 3b − 4 ) 88. 3 1 1 1 ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ x 2 − x 2 = x 2 ⎜ x 2 2 ⎟ − 1 = x 2 ( x − 1) ⎝ ⎠ 37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−4 x − 8) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 4)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 22 )( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)2 80. x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (− x − 2) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 1)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 12 )( x + 2) = ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x + 2) 81. Section P. 2 x 3 − 98a 2 x + 28 x 2 + 98 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 49a 2 +14 x + 49 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 +14 x + 49 ) − 49a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 7 ) − 49a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 7 − 7a )( x + 7 + 7a ) ⎣ ⎦ 93. y 5 − 16 y = y ( y 4 − 16) = y[( y 2 ) 2 − 42 ] = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 4) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 22 ) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y + 2)( y − 2) 83. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x 3 − 8a 2 x + 24 x 2 + 72 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 4a 2 + 12 x + 36 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 + 12 x + 36 ) − 4a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 6 ) − 4a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 6 − 2a )( x + 6 + 2a ) ⎣ ⎦ 92. x 2 − 12 x + 36 − 49 y 2 = ( x 2 − 12 x + 36 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 + 7 y ) ( x − 6 − 7 y ) 2 86. 12 x 2 y − 27 y − 4 x 2 + 9 = (12 x 2 y − 27 y ) + ( −4 x 2 + 9 ) = 3 y ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) − 1( 4 x 2 − 9 ) = ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) ( 3 y − 1) = ( 2 x + 3)( 2 x − 3)( 3 y − 1) 91. x 2 − 10 x + 25 − 36 y 2 = ( x 2 − 10 x + 25) − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5)2 − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5 + 6 y )( x − 5 − 6 y ) 87. Inc. 48 y 4 − 3 y 2 = 3 y 2 (16 y 2 − 1) = 3 y 2 [(4 y )2 − 12 ] = 3 y 2 (4 y + 1)(4 y − 1) 85. . y 5 − 81y = y ( y 4 − 81) = y[( y 2 )2 − 92 ] = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 9) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 32 ) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y + 3)( y − 3) 82. 20 y 4 − 45 y 2 = 5 y 2 (4 y 2 − 9) = 5 y 2 [(2 y ) 2 − 32 ] = 5 y 2 (2 y + 3)(2 y − 3) 84. x 2 y − 16 y + 32 − 2 x 2 = ( x 2 y − 16 y ) + ( −2 x 2 + 32 ) = y ( x 2 − 16 ) − 2 ( x 2 − 16 ) = ( x 2 − 16 ) ( y − 2 ) = ( x + 4 )( x − 4 )( y − 2 ) 90.

7 x 4 + 34 x 2 − 5 = ( 7 x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 5 ) 3 107. ( x + 3) 2 − ( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3) 2 ⎡⎢1 − ( x + 3) 2 98. 10 x 2 ( x + 1) − 7 x ( x + 1) − 6 ( x + 1) = ( x + 1) (10 x 2 − 7 x − 6 ) = ( x + 1)( 5 x − 6 )( 2 x + 1) 104. .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. 6 x 4 + 35 x 2 − 6 = ( x 2 + 6 )( 6 x 2 − 1) 106. 3 x4 95. ( 99. (x 1 1 3 3 1 − 2 ⎣ x2 + 4 2 3 2 ) ( − 12 + 3) + x2 + 4 − ( x + 5) −2 3 7 2 ) ( − 32 + ( x 2 + 3) = x2 + 4 = ( x + 5) −5 3 ) 3 2 1 1 ⎤ 2 ⎡1 − ( x + 3) ⎤ = ( x + 3) 2 ( − x − 2 ) = −( x + 3) 2 ( x + 2) = x + 3 ( ) ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢1 + x 2 + 4 ⎢ ⎣ ( 1 ) 7−3 ⎤ 2 2⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ( = x2 + 4 ) 3 2 ) ( 2⎤ ⎡ 2 2 ⎢1 + x + 4 ⎥ = x + 4 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ( 3 2 ) ( x4 + 8x2 + 17) 1 ⎛ 3⎞ x+4 − 32 ⎡ − −⎜ − ⎟ ⎤ −3 −3 3 ⎢( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − 1⎥ = ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎣⎡( x + 5 ) − 1⎦⎤ = ( x + 5) 2 ( x + 4 ) = ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) 2 = ( x 2 + 3) 5 −5 ⎡ 2 − 2 −⎛⎜ − 5 ⎞⎟ ⎤ x2 + 4 3 ⎢( x + 3) 3 ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ + 1⎥ = ( x 2 + 3)− 3 ⎡( x 2 + 3) + 1⎤ = 5 ⎣ ⎦ ( x 2 + 3) 3 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 1 3 1 ( 4 x − 1) 2 3 1 3 1 1 − ⎤ ⎡ 1 = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎢1 − ( 4 x − 1) 2 2 ⎥ = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎣ 3 ⎦ 101. 12 x − 3 4 1 x4 = 1⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ x 4 4 − 1⎟ = x 4 ⎜ x 2 − 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 8x 3 = 4 x 1 ⎛ 2⎞ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 32 ⎛ −2 4 (1 + 2 x ) ⎜1 + 2 x 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎟ = 4 x 3 (1 + 2 x ) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ x3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 6x 4 = 6x − 3 4 1 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 ⎛ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 6( x + 2) ⎜ 2 + x 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎟ = 6x 4 (2 + x ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ x4 97. y 7 + y = y ( y 6 + 1) = y ⎡⎢( y 2 ) + 13 ⎤⎥ = y ( y 2 + 1)( y 4 − y 2 + 1) ⎣ ⎦ 38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12 x 2 ( x − 1) − 4 x ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) (12 x 2 − 4 x − 5 ) = ( x − 1)( 6 x − 5 )( 2 x + 1) 105. ( 4 x − 1) 2 − 1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ 2 ⎢⎣1 − 3 ( 4 x − 1) ⎥⎦ = ( 4 x − 1) 1⎤ ⎡ 4 ⎢⎣1 − 3 x + 3 ⎥⎦ 1 −4(4 x − 1) 2 ( x − 1) 4 ⎛4 4 ⎞ = ( 4 x − 1) ⎜ − x ⎟ = (4 x − 1) 2 (1 − x) = 3 3 ⎝3 3 ⎠ 1 1 2 102. ( x + 5) 100. −8 ( 4 x + 3) + 10 ( 5 x + 1) (4 x + 3)−1 = 2 ( 4 x + 3) ⎣⎡ −4 + 5 ( 5 x + 1)( 4 x + 3) ⎦⎤ = −2 −2 2(100 x 2 + 95 x + 11) (4 x + 3) 2 103. 4x 1 − x4 − 23 96. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.

3x 2 + 5 xy 2 + 2 y 4 = 3 x + 2 y 2 b. Inc. 2 )( x ) − y 2 = ( x + 2 y )( x − 2 y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 ) − y 2 = ( x + 3 y )( x − 3 y )( x + y )( x − y ) ( x − y )4 − 4 ( x − y )2 2 2 2 = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y )2 − 4 ) = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y ) + 2 ) ( ( x − y ) − 2 ) = ( x − y ) ( x − y + 2 ) ( x − y − 2 ) 112. a. a.5 + 1 = ( y + 1) + 13 = ⎡⎣( y + 1) + 1⎤⎦ ⎡( y + 1) − ( y + 1) + 1⎤ = ( y + 2 ) ⎡⎣( y 2 + 2 y + 1) − y − 1 + 1⎤⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 3 2 = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + 2 y + 1 − y − 1 + 1) = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + y + 1) ( 109. ( x + y ) 4 − 100( x + y ) 2 = ( x + y ) )( x − 3 y ) ( )( x + y ) 116. b.PreCalculus 4E 108. b.4 x )(1 − 0. x 4 − 5 x 2 y 2 + 4 y 4 = x 2 − 4 y 2 )( x ( 110.4 x ) − 0.4 ) = ( 0. 118.7 ) = 0.3x ) (1 − 0. 119. ( x − 0. a. ( 3x ) 2 − 4 ⋅ 22 = 9 x 2 − 16 9 x 2 − 16 = ( 3x + 4 ) ( 3 x − 4 ) (7x) 2 − 4 ⋅ 32 = 49 x 2 − 36 49 x 2 − 36 = ( 7 x + 6 ) ( 7 x − 6 ) x ( x + y) − y ( x + y) x ( x + y ) − y ( x + y ) = ( x + y )( x − y ) x 2 + xy + xy + y 2 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 = ( x + y ) 2 39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( y + 1) 3 Section P. b.36 x No. a.3 ( x − 0.6 x )( 0. 2 ) − 100 = ( x + y )2 ( x + y − 10 ) ( x + y + 10 ) 2 114.4 x ) = ( x − 0. x 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 9 y 4 = x 2 − 9 y 2 111. the computer is selling at 36% of its original price.3x ) = ( x − 0. the computer is selling at 49% of its original price. 117. b.3) = ( 0. 2 2 ( x − 0.3x ) − 0. 120. a. ( ( x + y) ( 113. 2 x 2 − 7 xy 2 + 3 y 4 = 2 x − y 2 115.6 ) = 0. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. .4 ( x − 0.49 x No.7 x ) ( 0.

– 129. − x 2 − 4 x + 5 = −1( x 2 + 4 x − 5 ) = −1( x + 5 )( x − 1) = − ( x + 5)( x − 1) 140. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 4a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 4a = 4a3 − 4ab 2 = 4a ( a 2 − b 2 ) = 4a ( a + b )( a − b ) 122. true 136. Answers may vary.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 137. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. x 2 n + 6 x n + 8 = ( x n + 4 )( x n + 2 ) 139. Inc. false. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 3a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 3a = 3a3 − 3ab 2 ( = 3a a 2 − b2 ) = 3a ( a + b )( a − b ) 123. A sample change is: The binomial x 2 + 36 is prime. Sample explanation: 4 x 2 − 100 = 4( x 2 − 25) = 4( x + 5)( x − 5) 133. 130. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. x 4 − y 4 − 2 x3 y + 2 xy3 = ( x 4 − y 4 ) + ( −2 x 3 y + 2 xy 3 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) − 2 xy ( x 2 − y 2 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 − 2 xy ) = ( x − y )( x + y ) ( x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 ) = ( x − y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 3 = ( x − y) ( x + y) 40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 132. Publishing as Prentice Hall. makes sense 134. A sample change is: x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 135. false. makes sense 131. Changes to make the statement true will vary. . A sample change is: x 3 − 64 = ( x − 4 )( x + 4 x + 16 ) 138.

b =16. 1 1 ⋅ 6 − ⋅6 ⎛ 31 − 12 ⎞ x2 2 −3 ⎜ x y ⎟ = x3 y 2 = x y = 3 y ⎝ ⎠ 8. Inc. 7 x + 3[9 − (2 x − 6)] = 7 x + 3[ 9 − 2 x + 6] = 7 x + 3 [15 − 2 x ] = 7 x + 45 − 6 x = x + 45 6. b = 0. 4. x 2 + bx + 15 . (8 x − 3) 2 = (8 x)2 − 2(8 x)(3) + (3) 2 = 64 x 2 − 48 x + 9 7. – 16. or –c(c + 4). 144. 8 or –8 143. (3 x + 5)(4 x − 7) = (3x)(4 x) + (3 x)(−7) + (5)(4 x) + (5)(−7) = 12 x 2 − 21x + 20 x − 35 = 12 x 2 − x − 35 2. − ⎛2⎞ 5 ⎜ 7 ⎟ − 32 = 1 − ⎝ ⎠ 6 0 9. where c > 0 is an integer. 1 2 3 4 7 + = + = 2 3 6 6 6 Mid-Chapter P Check Point 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Mid-Chapter P Check Point −1 ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5) − 12 1 − ( x + 5) 2 ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) ( x + 5) −3 ⎛ ⎞ 1 −⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞⎟ ⎤ − 12 ⎡ − 1 − ⎜⎜ − 3 ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢( x − 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) −1 ⎡⎣( x − 5) − ( x + 5 ) ⎤⎦ −10 −3 −1 = ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5 ) 2 ( −10 ) = 3 1 ( x − 5) 2 ( x + 5) 2 2 2 142. 3. (3 x + 5) − (4 x − 7) = 3x + 5 − 4 x + 7 = 3x − 4 x + 5 + 7 = − x + 12 6 + 9 6 = 10 6 4. 5 8 5 4⋅2 1 2 2 ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ = 4 15 4 5 ⋅ 3 1 3 3 146. 3. 2 1 ( 5 32 ) 2 = 1− 1 ( 2) 2 = 1− 1 3 = 4 4 (2 x − 5) − ( x 2 − 3x + 1) = 2 x − 5 − x 2 + 3x − 1 = − x 2 + 5 x − 6 41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 12 − 27 = 3 ⋅ 2 3 − 3 3 = 6 3 − 3 3 = 3 3 5.PreCalculus 4E 141. x 2 + 6 x + 5 ( x + 5)( x + 1) x + 1 = = x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) x − 5 145. .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. d . {a. e. 3 32 2 = 3 ) ( ) 32 3 = 16 = 3 24 = 2 3 2 2 ( x 3 + 2)( x 3 − 2) = x 6 − 4 42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 24 x 2 y13 12 y15 2 − 5 13 − ( −2) −3 15 12 12 = − = − = − x y x y x3 −2 x 5 y −2 17.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. c. d . d . [ 4 y − (3x + 2)][ 4 y + (3x + 2)] = (4 y)2 − (3x + 2)2 = 16 y 2 − (9 x 2 + 12 x + 4) = 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 12 x − 4 20. d } 15. e} ∩ {c. 24 × 103 24 103 = ⋅ = 12 ×10−3 = 1. . f . c. d . e} ∪ {c. Inc. f . h} = {c. 12 x 4 = x 12 = x 3 = 3 x 19. f .2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 + 2 x − 5 x 2 + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x 2 + 2 x + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 11x 2 + 17 x − 5 11.2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. (9a − 10b)(2a + b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a )(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a)(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = 18a 2 + 9ab − 20ab − 10b 2 = 18a 2 − 11ab − 10b 2 13. ( x − 2 y − 1) 2 = x ( x − 2 y − 1) − 2 y ( x − 2 y − 1) − ( x − 2 y − 1) = x 2 − 2 xy − x − 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 2 y − x + 2 y + 1 = x 2 − 4 xy + 4 y 2 − 2 x + 4 y + 1 21. h} = {a. 6 y3 ⎛ 1 −5 4 ⎞ −2 −1 −5 − 2 4 −1 ⎜ 3 x y ⎟ 18 x y = 6 x y = x 7 ⎝ ⎠ ( ) 1 4 18. {a. c. h} 14. x 3 + x3 − x3 ⋅ x 3 = 2 x3 − x 6 = − x 6 + 2 x 3 12. d . 23. ( 3x 2 ) ( ) y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 − −2 x 2 y 3 − 3xy + 5 y 2 = 3x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 + 2 x 2 y 3 − xy + 3xy + 4 y 2 − 5 y 2 = 5 x 2 y 3 + 2 xy − y 2 16.2 ×10−2 2 ×106 2 106 ( 3 22.

5 ×109 7. ( x 2 + 2) 2 = ( x 2 ) 2 + 2( x 2 )(2) + (2) 2 = x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4 50 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 12 = 5 ⋅ 2 3 = 10 3 25. 64 y − y 4 = y 64 − y 3 = y ( 4 − y ) 16 + 4 y + y 2 33. 3 × 1010 3 1010 = ⋅ = 0. Inc.2 × 10 2 × 108 = 4. 0. x 3 + 5 x 2 + 3x + 15 = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 5) 31.2 × 1010 The total annual spending on ice cream is $4. x ( ) ( ( ) ) 2 2 − 3 2 − 2x − 1 2 1 + x2 = x 3 2 − (1 − 2 x + x ) = ( 1 − x) 2 2 3 x2 36. 37.4 ×10 = 4 7.45. 140 ⋅ 3. 0. ( ) x2 + 1 1 2 ( ) − 10 x 2 + 1 3 ⎧ ⎨ −11. 3x 2 − 4 xy − 7 y 2 = ( 3x − 7 y )( x + y ) 32. − . 27. Thus x 2 x = − x 2 x = − x3 40. Since x < 0 then x = − x . Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 × 1010 41. 50 x 3 + 20 x 2 + 2 x = 2 x 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = 2 x ( 5 x + 1) 34. 7 ⎩ − 1 2 ( 1 2 ) ( = x2 + 1 − ) ( 1 2 ) (x ⎡ x 2 + 1 − 10 ⎤ = x 2 + 1 ⎣ ⎦ − 2 x +3 x −3 ) ( )( ) ( x + 1) −9 = 2 1 2 ⎫ 25 ⎬ ⎭ 38. 30. 7 x 2 − 22 x + 3 = ( 7 x − 1)( x − 3) 29. . 26.5 109 A human brain has 4 times as many neurons as a gorilla brain.PreCalculus 4E 24.0 × 108 = 420 × 108 = 4. 43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 − 2 x + 4 is prime. Mid-Chapter P Check Point 11 11 3 = 11 7 + 3 77 + 11 3 77 + 11 3 ⋅ = = 49 − 3 46 7− 3 7+ 3 = 7− 3 11 ⋅ 3 3 3 = 11 3 3 28. Since 2 − 13 < 0 then 2 − 13 = 13 − 2 39. x 2 − 6 x + 9 − 49 y 2 = ( x − 3) − 49 y 2 = ⎡⎣( x − 3) + 7 y ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣( x − 3) − 7 y ⎤⎦ = ( x − 3 + 7 y )( x − 3 − 7 y ) 35.

Inc. Model 1: N = 6.5(0) 2 + 9. x ≠ −3 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x2 −1 = 2 x + 2 x + 1 ( x + 1)( x + 1) x −1 = . x ≠ −3 Because the denominator is ( x + 1)( x + 1) . x ≠ 2. x ≠ −3 ( x − 2)( x + 3) Because the denominator is x + 3. a.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 42. x3 + 3x 2 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 x+3 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 = x 2 . b. x ≠ −1 Because the denominator has factors of x + 2. b. x 2 − 36 = ( x + 6)( x − 6) The denominator would equal zero if x = −6 or x = 6. a.5 x 2 + 9.5 x + 62 N = −0.8 x + 64 N = 6.5(6) + 62 N = 101 Model 2 underestimates the number of channels in 2006 by 3. a. so –6 and 6 must both must be excluded from the domain. x − 2. The denominator would equal zero if x = −5.5 x 2 + 9. 44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ −1 x +1 x + 3 x2 − x − 6 ⋅ x2 − 4 x2 + 6x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 2) x+3 = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 2) = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x−3 = . c. 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ 2. b.8 x + 64 N = 6.8(0) + 64 N = 64 Model 2: N = −0. . so –5 must be excluded from the domain. x ≠ −2. Section P. x ≠ −2. N = −0. 3. and x ≠ −3.8(10) + 64 N = 132 Model 1 predicts there will be 132 channels in 2010.5 x + 62 N = −0.6 Check Point Exercises 1.5(6) 2 + 9. N = 6.5(0) + 62 N = 62 Model 2 best describes the data in 2000. and x + 3.

x ≠ 0. x ≠ −1 and x ≠ 1. x + 3 The least common denominator is the product of all factors in the final list. x − 3 Add any unlisted factors from the second denominator. x ≠ 0 and x ≠ = 4 + 3x 3 45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x≠5 2( x − 5) 2 1−3 2 − 3x x 2 = 2x 2x . x − 3. x x−4 − 2 x − 10 x + 25 2 x − 10 x x−4 = − ( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5) 2x ( x − 4)( x − 5) = − 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) x 3x + 2 x − 3x − 2 − = x +1 x +1 x +1 −2 x − 2 = x +1 −2 ( x + 1) = x +1 = −2.6 8. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = ( x − 5) 2 2 x − 10 = 2( x − 5) The least common denominator is 2(x – 5)(x – 5). x ≠ 4 + 3x 3 4x 2 − 3x 4 + 3 x = ÷ 2x 4x 2 − 3x 4 x = ⋅ 2 x 4 + 3x 2 − 3x 4 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 2 2 − 3x 2 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 1 2(2 − 3x) −4 . = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 9. = 2 x − ( x 2 − 5 x − 4 x + 20) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 .PreCalculus 4E 4. x 2 − 6 x + 9 = ( x − 3) 2 x 2 − 9 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) List the factors of the first denominator. x ≠ 0 1+3 4 + 3x x 4 4x 4x 2 − 3x −4 = 2x . x − 3. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6. putting this sum over the least common denominator. Section P. 5. x − 3. 2 x − ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 3 5 + x + 1 x −1 3x( x − 1) + 5( x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3x − 3 + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 8x + 2 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) . x ≠ 1 x( x + 2) Find the least common denominator. ( x − 3)( x − 3)( x + 3) or ( x − 3)2 ( x + 3) is the least common denominator. . Write all rational expressions in terms of the least common denominator. x ≠ −2. x2 − 2x + 1 x2 + x − 2 ÷ 3x2 + 3 x3 + x 2 x − 2 x + 1 3x 2 + 3 = ⋅ 2 x3 + x x +x−2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) 3( x 2 + 1) = ⋅ x( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2)( x − 1) 3( x − 1) = . Factor each denominator completely. x ≠ −1 Add numerators. 7.

x ≠ −7 =− x( x + 7) x+ 11. –7 2 x − 49 ( x + 7)( x − 7) 5. 4 ( x − 2) 4x − 8 4 . –6 ( x − 7) 2 x 2 − 14 x + 49 14. . x≠2 = = x − 4 x + 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 2 ) x − 2 9. ) y 2 − 4 y − 5 ( y − 5 )( y + 1) y − 5 . x+ 1 x x = 1 x x x x = = = = ( x+3 3 3 ( ( ) − ( x) x+3 + x x + 3− x x+3 + x 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –10 x + 11x + 10 ( x + 1)( x + 10) 16. −3 6 3 x−5 6 x + 9 x − 5 3(2 x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x − 15 4 x + 6 3( x − 5) 2(2 x + 3) 3 = 6 1 = . 1 x+3 + x Exercise Set P. 2 ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x − 36 x ≠ 6. . 1 1 x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x+7⎠ ⎝ x⎠ x+7 x = 7 7 x( x + 7) x − ( x + 7) = 7 x( x + 7) −7 = 7 x( x + 7) 1 . x ≠ −9. and 7 by x+7 x the least common denominator of x( x + 7). x−3 x −3 = . 2 2 ) 12. –7 13. − 2 46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.x≠3 x −3 8. 13 .x≠3 x−3 15. 2 3 x ≠ 5. x ≠ 5. Multiply each of the three terms. x≠4 = = 3x − 12 3( x − 4) 3 11. x 2 − 8 x + 16 ( x − 4 )( x − 4 ) x − 4 . x ≠ −9 x+9 3. 5 x + 4 x − 45 ( x + 9)( x − 5) 2 = x+3 − x 3 x+3 − x x+3 + x = ⋅ 3 x+3 ⋅ x 2 6. = = 4 x − 24 4 ( x − 6) 4 2 x≠6 x +1 3/ 2 10. x+5 x+5 = . x ≠ 7. x ≠ –1. = = y 2 − 3 y + 2 ( y − 2 )( y − 1) y − 1 y ≠ 1. –1 = = y 2 + 5 y + 4 ( y + 4 )( y + 1) y + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 36 ( x + 6) 2 x+6 = = . Inc. x ≠ 2.6 1. x 2 − 12 x + 36 ( x − 6 )( x − 6 ) x − 6 . x+7 x+7 = . = ( x − 7)( x + 7) x 2 − 49 x−7 .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 1 1 . y 2 + 7 y − 18 ( y + 9 )( y − 2 ) y + 9 . x −1 x −1 = . 7 . –5 2 x − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) 4. 2 x − 2 2x + 6 x − 2 2( x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x + 9 2 x − 4 3( x + 3) 2( x − 2) 2 1 = = . 12. 2. x ≠ 0. 10. y ≠ –4. = x+7 x ≠ 7. 3 ( x − 3) 3x − 9 = x − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x − 3) x 2 3 .

28 x ≠ –5 2 25. Section P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = ⋅ = ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) x − 2 27.6 x + 1 3x + 3 x + 1 3( x + 1) ÷ = ÷ 3 7 3 7 x +1 7 = ⋅ 3 3( x + 1) 7 = . x ≠ –3. 2. –2. 18. x ≠ –2. −4.3 x( x + 4) 24. 2 x 2 = 20. x ≠ −1 9 47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 22. −2. x 2 − 9 x 2 − 3x ⋅ 2 x2 x + x − 12 x( x − 3) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ 2 ( x + 4)( x − 3) x ( x − 3)( x + 3) = . x2 + x x2 − 1 ÷ 2 2 x − 4 x + 5x + 6 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 1) = ÷ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) ( x + 2)( x + 3) x( x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 3) . –1. x ≠ 0. x2 − 4 2 x − 4 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2( x − 2) ⋅ = ⋅ x − 4x + 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)2 x+2 = 2. x −1 . x ≠ 0. 19. 2. –2 x2 − 5x + 6 x2 − 1 ⋅ x2 − 2x − 3 x2 − 4 ( x − 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 1) ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 26. –5 2 x2 + 6 x + 9 1 ⋅ x 3 + 27 x + 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) 1 1 = ⋅ = 2 .PreCalculus 4E 17. –1. 3 21. − 3 = 3 x2 + 2 x + 4 . x ≠ 2. Inc. 0. 3 x+2 x2 + 5x + 6 x 2 − 9 ⋅ x2 + x − 6 x2 − x − 6 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 3) x + 3 . 2 3x 28. x ≠ 1. 1. 4 x 2 + 10 6 x 2 + 15 ÷ 2 x −3 x −9 2 2(2 x + 5) 3(2 x 2 + 5) = ÷ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x−3 2(2 x 2 + 5) ( x − 3)( x + 3) ⋅ 3(2 x 2 + 5) x−3 2( x + 3) . 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 x + 9 ) x + 3 x − 3 x + 9 x ≠ –3 23. x − 4 ÷ x + 2 = ( x − 2)( x + 2) ⋅ x − 2 x x−2 x x+2 2 ( x − 2) = . x ≠ 2. x 2 − 25 x 2 + 10 x + 25 ÷ 2 2x − 2 x + 4x − 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)2 = ÷ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5)( x − 1) ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)( x − 1) = ⋅ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5) 2 x −5 = . –2. x ≠ –2. –2 = 2 x3 − 8 x + 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 2 x + 4 ) x + 2 = ⋅ ⋅ 3x x 2 − 4 3x ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) = x + 5 4 x + 20 x + 5 4( x + 5) ÷ = ÷ 7 9 7 9 x+5 9 = ⋅ 7 4( x + 5) 9 = . = ( x − 2)( x − 1) x ≠ 2. x ≠ 3. –3 29. . x 2 − 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x+2 ÷ = ÷ x − 2 4x − 8 x−2 4( x − 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) 4( x − 2) = ⋅ x−2 x+2 = 4( x − 2).

2 2 2 2 31. −1. x ≠ 0. 5 32. 5. x−2 x≠2 48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ − 6x + 5 6 38. x−3 x ≠ –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3 = x+3 4x − 4 x2 − 4x x2 − 4 x + 4 x − 4 + = x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − 4 = ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 = . 4x + 1 8x + 9 4x + 1 + 8x + 9 + = 6x + 5 6x + 5 6x + 5 12 x + 10 = 6x + 5 2(6 x + 5) 5 = = 2. x −4 x + 5x + 6 ÷ x + 3 x − 10 x 2 + 8 x + 15 ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) = ÷ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) = ⋅ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) =1 x ≠ 2. −5 33. 3 x + 2 3x + 6 3 x + 2 + 3 x + 6 + = 3x + 4 3x + 4 3x + 4 6x + 8 = 3x + 4 2(3x + 4) = 3x + 4 =2 4 x≠− 3 x2 − 2 x x2 + x x2 − 2 x + x2 + x + = x 2 + 3 x x 2 + 3x x 2 + 3x 2 2x − x = 2 x + 3x x(2 x − 1) = x( x + 3) 2x −1 . x ≠ 2 2 x + 3 3 − x 2 x + 3 − (3 − x) − = 3x − 6 3x − 6 3x − 6 2x + 3 − 3 + x = 3x − 6 3x = 3( x − 2) x = . 2 2 x2 x ≠ 0. –1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 30. = 2 ( x + 4 )( x + 2 ) x−5 x ≠ –6. –5 35. –3. x + x − 12 x + 5 x + 6 x+3 ⋅ ÷ x 2 + x − 30 x 2 − 2 x − 3 x 2 + 7 x + 6 ( x + 4 )( x − 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x + 6 )( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ x+3 ( x + 6 )( x − 5 ) ( x + 1)( x − 3) 36. Inc. –2. –3. 3 4 x − 10 x − 4 4 x − 10 − ( x − 4) − = x−2 x−2 x−2 4 x − 10 − x + 4 = x−2 3x − 6 = x−2 3( x − 2) = x−2 = 3. 34. x3 − 25 x 2 x 2 − 2 x2 + 5x ⋅ 2 ÷ 2 4x x − 6x + 5 7x + 7 x ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) 7 ( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ 4 x2 ( x − 1)( x − 5 ) x ( x + 5) = 7 ( x + 1) 37.1. . 3.

3 = 8 x − 24 + 2 x − 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) = 10 x − 28 . x ≠ –4. 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5 ) 49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ( − 2 )( x − 3) x+5 x−5 + x −5 x +5 ( x + 5 )( x + 5 ) + ( x − 5 )( x − 5 ) = ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + x 2 − 10 x + 25 ( x − 5)( x + 5) = 2 x 2 + 50 . = 3 ( x + 5) + 6 ( x + 4) 3 6 + = x+4 x+5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) x ≠ 3. 46. 3 3 3x − 3 ( x + 1) − = x ( x + 1) x +1 x = 44. ( x − 3)( x + 2) 2 41. x ≠ 3. 47. 0 =− x ( x + 1) x ( x + 1) 4 ( x + 3) − 3 x 4 3 − = x x+3 x ( x + 3) x ≠ –3. x ≠ −2. 3 = x+2 45. x ≠ –2. 0 x2 − 4 x x−6 − 2 2 x − x−6 x − x−6 x 2 − 4 x − ( x − 6) = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 4x − x + 6 = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 5x + 6 = 2 x − x−6 ( x − 2)( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 . –5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) 8 ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 2 ) 8 2 + = x−2 x−3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x ≠ 2. –2 3x + 15 + 6 x + 24 = ( x + 4 )( x + 5) = 42. 40.PreCalculus 4E 39. Inc. . x ≠ –5. x ≠ –1. 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 3x x + 4 3x ( x + 2 ) − ( x + 4 )( x − 3) − = x−3 x +2 ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) = 3x 2 + 6 x − ( x 2 + x − 12 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) 2 x + 5 x + 12 . 9 x + 39 . Section P. 3x − 3x − 3 3 .6 x 2 + 3x x 2 − 12 − x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + 3 x − ( x 2 − 12) = x 2 + x − 12 2 x + 3 x − x 2 + 12 = x 2 + x − 12 3x + 12 = 2 x + x − 12 3( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 3) 3 = . −4 x−3 43. = 4 x + 12 − 3 x x ( x + 3) = x + 12 x ( x + 3) 2x x + 2 2 x ( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 )( x + 2 ) + = x+2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 2x2 − 4 x + x2 + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 3x2 + 4 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

x2 + 6 x + 9 + x2 − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 2 x 2 + 18 . ( x − 3)( x + 3) 54. 3 5x 3 5x + = + 2 5 x + 2 25 x − 4 5 x + 2 ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) = = = 3x 2 + 9 x − 2 x 2 − 10 x ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = x2 − x . 50. 51. ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 2 2 x≠− . 5 5 50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 x x − ( )( − 1)( x + 4 ) x ≠ 6. 2. –4 4 x + 16 ( x + 3) = =− 4 4 4 4 + = + 2 x + 6 x + 9 x + 3 ( x + 3) x+3 = ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = 2 2 3 x ( x + 3) − 2 x ( x + 5 ) = 5 7 5 7 + = + 2 x + 8 3x + 12 2( x + 4) 3( x + 4) 15 14 = + 6( x + 4) 6( x + 4) 15 + 14 = 6( x + 4) 29 = 6( x + 4) x ≠ –4 4 + 4 ( x + 3) 3x 2x − 2 x + 3x − 10 x + x − 6 3x 2x = − ( x + 5 )( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 2 = 3 2 3 2 + = + 2 x + 4 3x + 6 2( x + 2) 3( x + 2) 9 4 = + 6( x + 2) 6( x + 2) 9+4 = 6( x + 2) 13 = 6( x + 2) x ≠ –2 = 52.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. Inc. = 53. . –1 = 3 ( 5x − 2) + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 15 x − 6 + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 20 x − 6 . 2 . x + 3 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) + ( x − 3)( x − 3) + = x−3 x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) x ≠ –3. 1. ( x + 3) x ≠ –3 4 + 4 x + 12 ( x + 3) 2 = 55. x+3 x+2 − x2 − 1 x − 1 x+3 x+2 = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) x − 1 x+3 ( x + 1)( x + 2) = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x+3 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x + 3 − x 2 − 3x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) −x2 − 2x + 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) x ≠ 1. –3 ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) x x − 2 x − 2 x − 24 x − 7 x + 6 x x = − ( x − 6 )( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x − 1) 2 x ( x − 1) − x ( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) x2 − x − x2 − 4 x ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) 5x . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ –5. 3 49.

5 ( x + 1) −3 x ( x + 2 ) 4 x2 + x − 5 + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = = 58. − 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) x + 1 51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ⎡1 + 1 ⎤ 1+ 1 x = ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ = x + 1 . x ≠ 4 4 ( x − 4) 4 ( x − 4) 4 x ≠ 0. 3. 4 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 ) 4 ⎡⎢ x − 1⎤⎥ ⎣4 ⎦ = x − 4 = 1 . Inc. 1 3 3 − 1 x ⎡3 − 1 ⎤ 3 x − 1 ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ x 62. x2 −1 ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x − 1)( x + 1) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎡ ⎤ 1+1 xy ⎢ 1 + 1 ⎥ x y x y ⎦ = y+x = 1 . 4 x2 + x − 6 3x 5 − + 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 1 x + 2 4 x2 + x − 6 −3 x 5 = + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) x + 1 x + 2 = 63. ( x + 3) ⎡⎢⎣ x − x +x 3 ⎤⎥⎦ x ( x + 3) − x x− x x+3 = = x+2 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x −1 . x ≠ 0. 1 4 4− x ⎡⎢ 4 − 1 ⎤⎥ 4 x − 1 x x⎦ ⎣ = 57. Section P. x ≠ 2. x ≠ 0. y ≠ 0. = ⎣ x+ y xy [ x + y ] xy ( x + y ) xy 64. −1 x+2 = 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x + − x 2 + x − 20 x−4 x+5 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x = + − 5 4 4 x x x x + − − +5 ( )( ) = 66. x≠3 x − 3 3[ x − 3] 3 ( x − 3) 3 60. ⎡x ⎤ − 1 3 ⎢⎣ 3 − 1⎥⎦ x −3 1 = = = . 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 + 3 ( x + 5) − 5 x ( x − 4 ) ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = 6 x + 17 x − 40 + 3x + 15 − 5 x 2 + 20 x ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = x 2 + 40 x − 25 . 1 − 1 x ⎡⎢1 − 1 ⎤⎥ x − 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . –3 x+3 ( x − 2 ) [ x − 3] ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x−3 = = 3 ⎤ x ( x − 2) − 3 ⎡ x− 3 x − 2 ( x − 2) ⎢ x − x − 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ − − x x 2 3 ( )( ) = 2 x − 2x − 3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x − 2 = = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. –2 59. .PreCalculus 4E 56. x −1 4 = x−4 61.6 x + 5 x +1 − x2 − 4 x − 2 x+5 x +1 = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 x+5 ( x + 2)( x + 1) = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x+5 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x + 5 − x − 3x − 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 − x2 − 2 x + 3 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x ≠ 2. x ≠ –y 4 x 2 + x − 6 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = x 3 2 x 2 + 3x − x x2 + 2 x = ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) x ( x + 2) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x . x ≠ −5. x ≠ −2. y ≠ 0 xy x ( xy ) x2 y 65. x ≠ 0. x ≠ –2. 8 + 1 x ⎡⎢8 + 1 ⎤⎥ 8 x + 1 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = .

3 − 4 3 − 4 x−2 x+2 = x−2 x+2 7 7 2 x − 2 x + 2) ( )( x −4 ⎡ 3 − 4 ⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 7 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) )( )⎦ ⎣( 3( x + 2) − 4 ( x − 2) 3x + 6 − 4 x + 8 − x + 14 = = = 7 7 7 x − 14 =− x ≠ –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 68. 2. 2 7 x +1 x +1 − 2 x−2 x = 3 +1 3 +1 ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 − 4 ⎡ x + 1⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎣⎢ x − 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎡ ⎤ 3 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 + 1⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ( )( ) ⎣ ⎦ = x ( x + 2 ) + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 3 + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 + 2 x + x2 − 4 2 x2 + 2 x – 4 = x 2 –1 3 + x2 − 4 2( x 2 + x – 2) = ( x –1)( x + 1) 2( x + 2)( x –1) 2( x + 2) = = . −1. –1. x +1 ( x –1)( x + 1) x ≠ 1. – 2 = 69. 1 x +1 1 1 + 2 x − 2x − 3 x − 3 = 1 x +1 1 1 + ( x + 1)( x − 3) x − 3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x +1 = ( x + 1)( x − 3) ( x + 1)( x − 3) + x −3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x−3 = 1+ x +1 x −3 = x ≠ −2.3 x+2 52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 67. .

71. . Inc.6 6 1 6 1 − − + − −3 ( x 5)( x 3) x x + 2 x − 15 x − 3 = 1 1 +1 +1 x+5 x+5 6( x + 5)( x − 3) ( x + 5)( x − 3) − ( x + 5)( x − 3) x −3 = ( x + 5)( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) x+5 6 − ( x + 5) = ( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) 6− x−5 = x − 3 + x 2 + 2 x − 15 1− x = 2 x + 3x − 18 1− x x ≠ −6.PreCalculus 4E Section P. ( x + h)( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x+h x − − x + h +1 x +1 = x + h +1 x +1 h h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) ( x + h)( x + 1) − x( x + h + 1) = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x 2 + x + hx + h − x 2 − hx − x h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) h = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) 1 = ( x + h + 1)( x + 1) = 53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 1 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 − − ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x2 = 2 2 h hx ( x + h) = x 2 − ( x + h) 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2hx + h 2 ) hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − x 2 − 2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 −2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h) 2 −h(2 x + h) = 2 hx ( x + h) 2 (2 x + h) =− 2 x ( x + h) 2 = 72. −5.3 = ( x + 6)( x − 3) 2 70.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( = 1 3 x x x− 1 3 x ) (3 x) 77.x>0 4x 75. Inc. h≠0 x − x+3 3 x x+3 x+5 − x x+5 + x ⋅ 5 x+5 + x ( x + 5) 2 − ( x )2 5( x + 5 + x ) x+5− x 5( x + 5 + x ) 1 x+5 + x x+7 − x x+7 + x ⋅ 7 x+7 + x ( x + 7 )2 − ( x )2 7( x + 7 + x ) x+7− x 7( x + 7 + x ) 1 x+7 + x x+ y x −y 2 2 ⋅ x− y x− y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 5 − x2 2 h x ( x + h) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+3 x x⎠ x+3 x ⎝ x+3 = 3 3 x+3 x = x2 x2 + 2 x − x+h = 3 ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) 1 ( x + y )( x − y ) 54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x+5 − x = 5 − x2 + 2 = x2 ⎛ ⎜ =⎝ = − x 2 + 2 ⎞⎟ x 2 + 2 ⎠ x2 x2 + 2 = x2 x2 + 2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2) x2 x2 + 2 2 =− 2 x x2 + 2 76. x+7 − x = 7 = x2 5 − x2 + 5 − x2 = ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜ 5 − x2 + ⎟ 5 − x2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 5− x ⎠ =⎝ 2 5− x 5 − x2 = 5− x 2 ( = = = ) 81. = 79. 80. x (4 x ) 4x −1 4x 1 = 1− . 1 4 x ( = x x− 1 4 x ) (4 x) 78. x > 0 3x ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+h x x⎠ x+h x ⎝ x+h = h h x+h x = x− 74. .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra x− 73. 5 − x2 + x2 (5 − x ) ( x+ y x −y 2 2 = = 5 5 − x2 ) 2 = 5 − x2 5 = (5 − x ) 2 . x (3 x ) 3x − 1 3x 1 = 1− .

6 x− y = x −y 2 x+ y ⋅ 2 x+ y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 = = = 83. 3 ⎞⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ( x + 2) 3 ⎞⎛ ( x − 1) 5 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎜4− ⎟⎜ 1 + ⎟=⎜ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ x + 2 x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 x + 8 − 3 ⎞⎛ x − 1 + 5 ⎞ 4 x + 5 x + 4 ( 4 x + 5 )( x + 4 ) =⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎜ ⎟= ( x + 2 )( x − 1) ⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ x + 2 x − 1 87. y −1 − ( y + 5) 5 1 −1 = y − 1 y+5 5 LCD = y ( y + 5) 1 y − ⎛1 1 y+5 5 y ( y + 5) ⎜ = ⎝y − 1 ⎞ ⎟ y +5⎠ y ( y + 5)( 5) = y +5− y 5 y ( y + 5) = 5 5 y ( y + 5) = 1 y ( y + 5) 55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 84. . x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x + y ) 1 ( x + y )( x + y ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. ( x 2 − y 2 )( x + y ) 6 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 1) 6 ⎞ ⎛ ( x − 2) 3 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜2− ⎟ ⎜1 + ⎟ = ⎜⎜ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ( x + 1) ( x + 1) ⎠ ⎝ ( x − 2 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 x + 2 − 6 ⎞⎛ x − 2 + 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 x − 4 ⎞ ⎛ x + 1 ⎞ 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) =2 =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟= ⎝ x + 1 ⎠⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ( x + 1) ( x − 2 ) 86.PreCalculus 4E 82. x− y x −y 2 2 Section P. x≠ y ⎛ ( 2 x + 3) ( x + 5 ) ( x − 1) ⎛ 2 x + 3 x2 + 4 x − 5 ⎞ 2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 =⎜ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − ( 2 x + 3) ( x − 1) ⎝ x + 1 2 x + x − 3 ⎠ x + 2 ⎜⎝ x + 1 2 ( x + 1) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 2 ( x + 1) = − = x 1 x 2 x 1 x 2 + + + + ( )( ) ( )( ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎞ ⎟− 2 = x+5 − 2 ⎟ x + 2 x +1 x + 2 ⎠ = x 2 + 2 x + 5 x + 10 − 2 x − 2 x2 + 5x + 8 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎛ ( x + 2) ( x − 4) ⎞ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 ⋅⎜ − ÷ ⎜⎜ − ⎟ ⎟= x − 2 x − 8 ⎝ x − 4 x + 2 ⎠ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎝ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎟⎠ 1 2 ⎛ x+2−x+4 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) 1 1 6 1 ÷ ⎜⎜ ÷ ⎜⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎟ = ⎟⎟ = x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 6 6 ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) 1 = 85.

ab + a 2 − ab + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 = ) ⎞⎟ = ) ⎠⎟ a ab 2 + ab + b2 + a 2 − ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a2 + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 130 x is equal to 100 − x 130 ⋅ 40 130 ⋅ 40 1. y −1 − ( y + 2) 1 −1 y = 2 − 1 y+2 2 LCD = y ( y + 2 ) 1 − y y+2 2 89.000 to inoculate 90% of the population. As x approaches 100. 56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and $520. and $1.000. a. So it costs an astronomical amount of money to inoculate almost all of the people. = = 86. − ) ) ⎛ a ( c − d ) − b ( c − d ) a 3 + b3 ⎞ ⎛ ac − ad − bc + bd a3 − b3 ⎞ ab + ⎜⎜ ÷ 3 3 ⎟⎟ = 2 + ⎜⎜ ⋅ ⎟ 2 a + ab + b ⎝ ac − ad + bc − bd a + b ⎠ a + ab + b ⎝ a ( c − d ) + b ( c − d ) a3 − b3 ⎟⎠ ab 2 2 ( ( ⎛ ( c − d ) ( a − b ) ( a + b ) a 2 − ab + b 2 = 2 +⎜ ⋅ a + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( c − d ) ( a + b ) ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ab = 91. the function is not defined. c. 100 − 80 20 when x = 80 130 ⋅ 90 130 ⋅ 90 = = 1170 .67 .670. = = 520 . Inc. 100 − 40 60 when x = 40 130 ⋅ 80 130 ⋅ 80 2.000 to inoculate 80% of the population. 100 − 90 10 when x = 90 It costs $86.000 to inoculate 40% of the population against this strain of flu. . 3.170. the value of the function increases rapidly. For x = 100.000.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 88. b. and it is impossible to inoculate 100% of the population. ⎛1 1 y ( y + 2) ⎜ = ⎝y 1 ⎞ ⎟ y+2⎠ y ( y + 2 )( 2 ) = y+2− y 2 y ( y + 2) = 2 2 y ( y + 2) = 1 y ( y + 2) ⎛ a ( c + d ) − b ( c + d ) ⎞⎟ ac + ad − bc − bd ⎞ c−d 1 c−d ⎛ 1 ⎜ ⋅ − = ⋅ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 1 1 ⎝ a 3 − b3 ⎠ a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ( c + d ) ( a − b ) ⎞⎟ c−d c+d c−d 1 − = − ⋅ =⎜ ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + bd + b 2 1 ⎝ ⎠ c+d −c+d 2d = 2 = a + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 ( ( 90. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

M = −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 M = −120(4)2 + 998(4) + 590 M = 2662 According to the model. b. the value of this expression will be 2 ⋅ 40 ⋅ 30 2400 = 30 + 40 70 2 = 34 .6 2d d + r1 d r2 LCD = r1r2 2d d r1 + d ⎛d d ⎞ + ⎜ r r ⎟⎟ 1 ⎝ 2⎠ r1r2 ⎜ r2 = = If r1r2 ( 2d ) = 2r1r2 d r2 d + r1d 2r1r2 d d ( r2 + r1 ) = 2r1r2 r2 + r1 r1 = 40 and r2 = 30. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Substitute 4 for x in the model. women between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2078 calories per day.PreCalculus 4E 92. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 38 calories. . W −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 = M −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 = = 2 ( −33x 2 + 263x + 515 ) 2 ( −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 ) −33x 2 + 263x + 515 −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Substitute 4 for x in the model. Inc. 7 Your average speed will be 34 2 miles per hour. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 22 calories. c. a. Section P. W = −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 W = −66(4)2 + 526(4) + 1030 W = 2078 According to the model. 7 93. men between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2662 calories per day.

–108. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8. . Inc. 4 x + 14 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x +5⎠ ⎝ x +6⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+5 x+6 2 x ( x + 6) 2x ( x + ( x + 5)( x + 6) ( x + 5)( x 2 = + 2 2 x + 12 x + 2 x + 10 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 2 = 4 x + 22 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 97. P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x + 3⎠ ⎝ x − 4⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+3 x+4 2 x ( x + 4) 2 x ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x + 4) ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = + 2 2 x + 8x + 2 x + 6 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = 96.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. 12) = 95. Answers may vary. 58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. R= = = 1 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1R2 R3 R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2 4 ⋅8 ⋅12 8⋅12 + 4 ⋅12 + 4 ⋅ 8 384 = 96 + 48 + 32 384 = 176 24 = 11 24 The parallel resistance is ohms. 11 R(4.

A sample change is: 6 + 117. does not make sense. false. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 111.PreCalculus 4E Section P. true 115. It cubes x. Sample explanation: The first step is to invert the second fraction. true 116. Sample explanation: 3x − 3 3(1) − 3 0 = = which is undefined. false. 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 3 2 + 2 + 3 + + 5 4 3 x x x = x x 2 x3 = x + x + x = x x + x + 1 = x3 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 1 + 5 + 6 + 5 + 6 4 4 x x x x x x ( ) 59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 x( x − 1) 4(1)(1 − 1) 0 110. . does not make sense. −1 − 1 6x 1 6x + 1 = + = x x x x ( x − y) −1 + ( x − y) −2 = 1 + x −1 x x +1 x + 2 x −1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = x x +1 x + 2 x + 3 x + 3 1 ( x − y) ( x − y) 2 = ( x − y) 1 x − y +1 + = 2 ( x − y )( x − y ) ( x − y ) ( x − y )2 120. Inc. 112. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) = = x+5 x−5 x−5 114. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. makes sense 113. Sample explanation: The numerator and denominator of 7 do not 14 + x share a common factor. 1 n x −1 − 1 n x +1 − n 1 x 2n −1 = n x +1 x 2n −1 − n = = 118.6 109. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x −1 x 2n 1 x 2n −1 n x +1− x +1−1 x 2n −1 1 x 2n −1 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ x 1 ⎞⎛ x +1 1 ⎞⎛ x + 2 1 ⎞⎛ x + 3 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ − − − ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ x x + x + x + x x x + x + x + x + x + x + 3⎠ 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎛ x − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 1) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 3) − 1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠⎝ x +1 ⎠⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x + 3 ⎠ = 119. Explanations will vary.

2 x = 10 2 x 10 = 2 2 x=5 Check: 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 4[2(5) + 1] − 29 = 3[2(5) − 5] 4[10 + 1] − 29 = 3[10 − 5] 4[11] − 29 = 3[5] 44 − 29 = 15 15 = 15 true The solution set is {5}. 2(6 − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3(6 + 2) 2(3) − 17 = 13 − 3(8) 6 − 17 = 13 − 24 −11 = −11. Section P. Inc. 2 −b − b 2 − 4ac −(9) − (9) − 4(2)(−5) = 2a 2(2) −9 − 81 + 40 4 −9 − 121 = 4 −9 − 11 = 4 = −5 = 3. 60 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x=7 . true 7 ( x − 3) = 2(5) − 4 ( x + 5 ) 7 x − 21 = 10 − 4 x − 20 ⎛ x + 2 x −1 ⎞ ⎛ x+2⎞ ⎛ x −1⎞ − = 12 ⎜ − 12 ⎜ 122. x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 x −3 ⎛ 5 x+5⎞ 28 ⋅ = 28 ⎜ − 4 7 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 14 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 8 x + 4 − 29 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 − 6 x = 6 x − 15 − 6 x 2 x − 25 = −15 2 x − 25 + 25 = −15 + 25 −20 6 5 − = 2 x+3 x−2 x + x−6 −20 6 5 − = x + 3 x − 2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x + 3)( x − 2) 5( x + 3)( x − 2) −20( x + 3)( x − 2) − = x+3 x−2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x − 2) − 5( x + 3) = −20 6 x − 12 − 5 x − 15 = −20 x − 27 = −20 The solution set is {7} . = − x + 10 123. 12 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 3( x + 2) − 4( x − 1) = 3x + 6 − 4 x + 4 7 x − 21 = −4 x − 10 7 x + 4 x = −10 + 21 11x = 11 11x 11 = 11 11 x =1 Check: x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 1− 3 5 1+ 5 = − 4 14 7 −2 5 6 = − 4 14 7 1 1 − =− 2 2 The solution set is {1}.7 Check Point Exercises 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2( x − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3( x + 2) 2.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121.

2 x2 + x = 1 b. 9. 2 x2 + x − 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 2x = 1 1 x= 2 1 1 1 + = p q f 1 pqf 1 pqf 1 pqf + = p q f qf + pf = pq x = −1 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . −1⎬ . a. ( x + 5) 2 = 11 x + 5 = ± 11 4 1 − 2 x = 20 x = −5 ± 11 1 − 2x = 5 { 1 − 2x = 5 or 1 − 2 x = −5 −2 x = 4 −2 x = −6 x = −2 x=3 The solution set is {–2. 3x 2 − 21 = 0 3x 2 = 21 qf − pq = − pf q( f − p) = − pf − pf q( f − p) = f −p f −p pf q= p− f 6. 7. 5. x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x2 + 4x = 1 x2 + 4 x + 4 = 1 + 4 ( x + 2) 2 =5 x+2= ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is { } . 4 1 − 2 x − 20 = 0 b. Inc. x=0 x=3 The solution set is {0.7 1 4 1 = − x + 2 x2 − 4 x − 2 1 4 1 = − x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 1( x + 2)( x − 2) 4( x + 2)( x − 2) 1( x + 2)( x − 2) = − x+2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x−2 x − 2 = 4 − ( x + 2) x−2=4−x−2 x−2=2−x 2x = 4 x=2 2 must be rejected. 3x 2 − 9 x = 0 3x( x − 3) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 3 = 0 3 x 2 21 = 3 3 2 x =7 x=± 7 { } The solution set is − 7. Section P. } The solution set is −5 + 11. ⎩2 ⎭ 8. a. 7 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 4. −5 − 11 . 3}.3} . .

.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. 2 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 Exercise Set P. Check: 6 x − 3 = 63 ⎧⎪ −1 + 3 −1 − 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a = = = = = = −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) 7(11) − 5 = 72 −2 ± 4 + 8 4 −2 ± 12 4 −2 ± 2 3 4 2(−1 ± 3) 4 −1 ± 3 2 77 − 5 = 72 72 = 72 The solution set is {11}. 2. b = −2. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 11. 7x – 5 = 72 7x = 77 x = 11 Check: 7 x − 5 = 72 Check: 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 2 11(7) − [6(7) − 5] = 40 x + 3 = x2 − 6x + 9 77 − (42 − 5) = 40 0 = x2 − 7 x + 6 0 = ( x − 6)( x − 1) x − 6 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 77 − (37) = 40 40 = 40 x=6 x =1 1 does not check and must be rejected. Inc. c = 5 3. 6x – 3 = 63 6x = 66 x = 11 The solution set is {11}. The solution set is {6} . 5 x + 5 = 40 5 x = 35 x=7 The solution set is {7}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The equation has two complex imaginary solutions. x+3 +3 = x x +3 = x−3 ( x+3 ) 2 = ( x − 3) 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 11x − 6 x + 5 = 40 b2 − 4ac = (−2)2 − 4 ⋅3 ⋅5 = 4 − 60 = −56 The discriminant is –56. 62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12. 6(11) − 3 = 63 66 − 3 = 63 63 = 63 3x 2 − 2x + 5 = 0 a = 3. ⎬.7 a = 2. b = 2. c = −1 1.

Inc. 2(x – 1) + 3 = x – 3(x +1) 2x – 2 + 3 = x – 3x – 3 2x +1 = –2x – 3 4x + 1 = –3 4x = –4 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. ⎤ ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 25 ⎞ 5 ⎜ ⎟ − ⎢ 2 ⎜ ⎟ − 10 ⎥ = 35 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎦ 125 ⎡ 50 ⎤ − − 10⎥ = 35 3 ⎢⎣ 3 ⎦ 125 20 − = 35 3 3 105 = 35 3 35 = 35 13(−19) + 14 = 12(−19) − 5 − 247 + 14 = −228 − 5 − 233 = −233 2x – 7 = 6 + x x–7=6 x = 13 The solution set is {13}. Check: 3x + 5 = 2 x + 13 3(8) + 5 = 2(8) + 13 24 + 5 = 16 + 13 29 = 29 Check: 2( x − 1) + 3 = x − 3( x + 1) 2(−1 − 1) + 3 = −1 − 3(−1 + 1) 2(−2) + 3 = −1 − 3(0) − 4 + 3 = −1 + 0 − 1 = −1 63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section P. Check: 7(2) + 4 = 2 + 16 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 13x + 14 = 12x – 5 x + 14 = –5 x = –19 The solution set is {–19}. 28 = 28 10. 7x + 4 = x + 16 6x + 4 = 16 6x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {2}. 3(7) + 7 = 2(14) 21 + 7 = 28 3x + 5 = 2x + 13 x + 5 = 13 x=8 The solution set is {8}.PreCalculus 4E 4. Check: 2(13) − 7 = 6 + 13 Check: 3(9 − 2) + 7 = 2(9 + 5) 26 − 7 = 19 19 = 19 6.7 5x – (2x – 10) = 35 5x – 2x + 10 = 35 3x + 10 = 35 3x = 25 25 x= 3 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 3(x – 2) + 7 = 2(x + 5) 3x – 6 + 7 = 2x + 10 3x + 1 = 2x + 10 x + 1 = 10 x=9 The solution set is {9}. Check: 13 x + 14 = 12 x − 5 9. 5. ⎩3⎭ 14 + 4 = 18 18 = 18 Check: 5 x − (2 x − 10) = 35 8.

x +1 1 2 − x = + 4 6 3 ⎡ x +1 1 2 − x ⎤ 12 ⎢ = + 6 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 4 3x + 3 = 2 + 8 − 4 x 16. 4 x − 6 x = −21 − 12 − 2 x = −33 33 2 x= ⎧ 33 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 x − 3x = 9 − 104 5 x = −95 x = −19 The solution set is {−19} . 13. 25 7 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩5⎭ 3x x − 3 x + 2 − = 5 2 3 ⎡ 3x x − 3 x + 2 ⎤ 30 ⎢ − = 2 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣5 18 x − 15 x + 45 = 10 x + 20 3x − 10 x = 20 − 45 x =1 − 7 x = −25 The solution set is {1}. 64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎩2⎭ 12.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11. Inc. ⎩7⎭ x= x x −3 = 2+ 4 3 x − 3⎤ ⎡x 12 ⎢ = 2 + 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣4 3x = 24 + 4x – 12 3x – 4x = 12 –x = 12 x = –12 The solution set is {–12}. . 3x + 4 x = 10 − 3 7x = 7 x +1 x+2 = 5− 3 7 x + 2⎤ ⎡ x +1 21 ⎢ = 5− 7 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 3 7x + 7 = 105 – 3x – 6 7x + 3x = 99 – 7 10x = 92 92 x= 10 46 x= 5 ⎧ 46 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . x−2 x+3 = 3 8 x − 2 x + 3⎤ ⎡ 24 ⎢5 + = 3 8 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 120 + 8 x − 16 = 3 x + 9 5+ 1 11 +5 = ( x ≠ 1) x −1 x −1 1 11 +5 = x −1 x −1 1 + 5( x − 1) = 11 1 + 5 x − 5 = 11 5 x − 4 = 11 5 x = 15 x=3 The solution set is {3}. 14. x +3 3 x −5 = + 6 8 4 ⎡ x + 3 3 x − 5⎤ 24 ⎢ = + 8 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 6 4 x + 12 = 9 + 6 x − 30 15. b. 17. a.

8x 8 = 4− x +1 x +1 8 x = 4( x + 1) − 8 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∅. 3 5 1 = + x + 3 2( x + 3) x − 2 6( x − 2) = 5( x − 2) + 2( x + 3) 6 x − 12 = 5 x − 10 + 2 x + 6 3 − 7 x − 28 = −4 19. a. b. 65 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ 2) x + 3 2x + 6 x − 2 8x 8 = 4− ( x ≠ −1) x +1 x +1 23. ( x ≠ −2. x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. b. 3 −4 −7 = x+4 x+4 3 − 7( x + 4) = −4 b. 1 x−4 − 5 x+2 = 6 ( x − 4)( x + 2) . . 3 5 1 = + ( x ≠ −3. a. a. 3 + x −1 = 4 x=2 The solution set is {2}. 3 1 2 + = 2x − 2 2 x −1 3 1 2 + = 2( x − 1) 2 x − 1 3 + 1( x − 1) = 4 25. x ≠ −1) x + 1 x −1 x −1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 x2 − 1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2( x − 1) − 1( x + 1) = 2 x 2x − 2 − x −1 = 2x x = −1 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. 8x = 4x + 4 − 8 4 x = −4 2 1 2x − = 2 ( x ≠ 1.PreCalculus 4E 18. 2 x = −2 x−2 x−2 2 = x − 2( x − 2) x = 2 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. a. 20. a. b. b.7 3 −4 −7 = ( x ≠ −4) x+4 x+4 22. ∅. a. b. Inc. 2 x = − 2 ( x ≠ 2) x−2 x−2 24. a. x ≠ −5) b. 4 2 32 + = . −x = 3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. 4) 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 x2 − 2 x − 8 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 ( x − 4)( x + 2) ( x ≠ 4. −x = 8 −7 x = 21 x = −8 The solution set is {–8}. x ≠ 5. Section P. a. −5 x + 5 x − 5 x 2 − 25 4( x − 5) + 2( x + 5) = 32 4 x − 20 + 2 x + 10 = 32 3 1 2 + = ( x ≠ 1) 2x − 2 2 x −1 6 x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. 4 2 32 + = x + 5 x − 5 ( x + 5)( x − 5) ( x ≠ 5. ∅. x ≠ −2) 1( x + 2) − 5( x − 4) = 6 x + 2 − 5 x + 20 = 6 −4 x = −16 x=4 The solution set is the empty set. 2 = x − 2x + 4 21.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 26. ∅. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S −P = t. 3 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 32. Pr interest 35. 2A =a+b h 2A −a=b h area of trapezoid I = Prt I P= . Pt interest 34. . Inc. a. F S −V B(S − V ) = F B= S −V = T − D pm = m m T −D =p m total of payment 30. P = C + MC P − C = MC P −C =M C markup based on cost 31. 29. 28. 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) A= 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) 2A = a+b h A= 37. b. 2π circumference of a circle 33. x ≠ −1. 27. rt interest C = 2πr C r= . T = D + pm T − D = pm F B F S = +V B 36. 1 2 8 . C 1− r S (1 − r ) = C C 1− r = S C −r = − 1 S C r = − +1 S markup based on selling price S= IR + Ir = E I (R + r) = E 2A −b = a h area of trapezoid E R+r electric current I= 66 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 2 8 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 1( x + 1) − 2( x − 3) = 8 x + 1 − 2x + 6 = 8 −x + 7 = 8 −x = 1 x = −1 The solution set is the empty set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S−P = r.

45. Section P. 44. 4}. −5/3} resistance f = 41. −3} f1 = ff 2 f2 − f 49.7 A = 2lw + 2lh + 2 wh A − 2lw = h ( 2l + 2 w ) A − 2lw =h 2l + 2 w surface area 1 1 1 39. x−2 =7 x – 2 = 7 x – 2 = –7 x=9 x = –5 The solution set is {9. 2x −1 = 5 2x – 1 = 5 2x – 1 = –5 2x = 6 2x = –4 x=3 x = –2 The solution set is {3. 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = −11 2 x = −8 2 x = 14 x = −4 x=7 The solution set is {–4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. R1 R2 − RR1 = RR2 R1 ( R2 − R ) = RR2 R1 = RR2 R2 − R 47.PreCalculus 4E 38. 1 1 1 = + R R R 1 2 R1 R2 = RR2 + RR1 43. 7}. ⎩ 5 ⎭ 67 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . –2}. ff1 − f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) f − f2 2 4− focal length f = 42. Inc. 3|2x – 1| = 21 |2x – 1| = 7 2x – 1 = 7 or 2x – 1 = −7 2x = 8 2x = −6 x=4 x = −3 The solution set is {4. –5}. 46. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 2 4− f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 4− ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 f − f1 5 x =6 2 4− f 2 ( f − f1 ) = − ff1 = 5 x = 12 2 5 x=6 2 5 − x=2 2 ff 2 − f1 f 2 = − ff1 f 2 ( f − f1 ) 5 x + 6 = 18 2 − ff1 f − f1 x=− ff1 f2 = f1 − f focal length 4 5 or 4 − 5 x = −6 2 5 − x = −10 2 x=4 ⎧ 4 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f − f2 48. x +1 = 5 x + 1 = 5 x + 1 = –5 x=4 x = –6 The solution set is {–6. 2|3x – 2| = 14 |3x – 2| = 7 3x – 2 = 7 3x – 2 = −7 3x = 9 3x = −5 x=3 x = −5/3 The solution set is {3. + = p q f qf + pf = pq f (q + p) = pq pq f = p+q thin lens equation 40. 4 ⎬ .

x 2 = −11x − 10 58. 54. 5} . 4} . . |x + 1| + 6 = 2 |x + 1| = −4 The solution set is { }. 52. ⎧2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 5} . ⎧1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 50. 9} . x 2 − 13 x + 36 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 9) = 0 x − 4 = 0 or x − 9 = 0 x=4 x=9 61. 4 1− 3 x + 7 = 10 4 4 1− 56. |x + 1| +5 = 3 |x + 1| = −2 No solution The solution set is { }. 3 x =3 4 The solution set is {4. |2x – 1| + 3 = 3 |2x – 1| = 0 2x – 1 = 0 2x = 1 x = 1/2 The solution set is {0. 5 x 2 = 20 x 5 x 2 − 20 x = 0 5 x( x − 4) = 0 5 x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 53. 3x − 2 + 4 = 4 3 x 2 = 12 x 3x 2 − 12 x = 0 3x( x − 4) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 3x − 2 = 0 3x − 2 = 0 3x = 2 2 x= 3 The solution set is {0. ⎩3⎭ 55. ⎬ . 59. ⎩3 3 ⎭ 1− x 2 − 8 x + 15 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 5) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x=3 x=5 The solution set is {3. −1} . 4} . ⎩2⎭ 60. 3 3 x = 4 4 3 3 or 1 − 3 x = − 3 1− x = 4 4 4 4 3 1 3 7 − x=− − x=− 4 4 4 4 1 7 x= x= 3 3 1 7 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . x 2 − 3 x − 10 = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = 0 x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=5 x = −2 The solution set is {−2. x 2 + 11x + 10 = 0 ( x + 10)( x + 1) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x = −10 x = −1 The solution set is {−10. 68 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 = 8 x − 15 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 51. Inc. 3x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} .

. 5 x 2 = 50 ( x + 3) 2 = 1 x 2 = ± 10 x = ± 10 x + 3 = ±1 { x = −3 ± 1 The solution set is {–4. x−4=± 5 x = 4± 5 { } 71. x2 = 9 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 7 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 16 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . 63. 66. x 2 + 6 x = −8 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = −8 + 9 x 2 = 10 64. Inc. –2}. 1 − 3 . x = 1± 3 { 70.PreCalculus 4E 62. 1}. x + 3 = ±4 x = −3 ± 4 The solution set is {–7. Section P.7 5 x 2 = 45 67. 2 2 ( x + 2)2 = 16 =± 5 x + 2 = ±4 x = −2 ± 4 The solution set is {–6. } The solution set is −4 ± 7 . 3 ( x + 4 ) = 21 ( x + 4) 2 =7 2 =± 7 x 2 − 6 x − 11 = 0 x 2 − 6 x = 11 2 ( x + 4) x 2 + 4 x = 12 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 12 + 4 ( x − 4) = 5 ( x − 4) } The solution set is 1 + 3. 69 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 ( x − 4 ) = 15 2 x2 − 2 x = 2 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 2 + 1 3x 2 = 48 65. x2 + 6 x = 7 x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 11 + 9 ( x − 3) 2 = 20 x − 3 = ± 20 x = 3± 2 5 x+4=± 7 x = −4 ± 7 { { } The solution set is 3 + 2 5. The solution set is 4 ± 5 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2}. 3 − 2 5 . } The solution set is ± 10 . 3x 2 − 1 = 47 ( x − 1)2 = 3 x 2 = 16 x −1 = ± 3 x 2 = ± 16 x = ±4 The solution set is {±4} . 69. 5 x 2 + 1 = 51 68.

⎬. x − 2x = 5 x 2 + 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x= x − 2x + 1 = 5 +1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 6 −8 ± 64 − 48 2 −8 ± 16 x= 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 The solution set is {–6. x2 + 5x + 3 = 0 x= x+2= ± 3 74. −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(12) 2(1) −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(15) 2(1) ⎧⎪ −5 + 17 −5 − 17 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . x2 − 2 x − 5 = 0 76. 73. x2 + 4 x + 1 = 0 x 2 + 4 x = −1 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = −1 + 4 77.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 72. 75. x + 3 = ± 14 x2 + 5x + 2 = 0 x= x = −3 ± 14 { } The solution set is −3 + 14. Inc. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ x2 + 6 x = 5 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 5 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 14 78. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ −8 ± 64 − 60 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 −8 ± 2 x= 2 The solution set is {−5. ( x + 2) 2 = 3 x = −2 ± 3 { −5 ± 25 − 12 2 −5 ± 13 x= 2 } x2 + 6 x − 5 = 0 ⎧⎪ −5 + 13 −5 − 13 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . 1 − 6 . − 3 − 14 . −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) −5 ± 25 − 8 2 −5 ± 17 x= 2 x= x 2 + 8 x + 15 = 0 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(3) 2(1) x= The solution set is −2 + 3. ⎬. x= x −1 = ± 6 x = 1± 6 { } The solution set is 1 + 6. ⎬ 6 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 6 70 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x= 79. − 3}. . − 2 − 3 . 3x 2 − 3 x − 4 = 0 x= 3 ± (−3)2 − 4(3)(−4) 2(3) 3 ± 9 + 48 6 3 ± 57 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 3 + 57 3 − 57 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . –2}.

85.PreCalculus 4E 80. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 2 unequal real solutions 6 ± 36 − 12 6 6 ± 24 6 6±2 6 6 3± 6 3 90. (−4) 2 − 4(1)(−5) = 16 + 20 = 36. 3x 2 + 4 x − 2 = 0 42 − 4(3)(−2) = 16 + 24 = 40. 2 complex imaginary solutions 3x = 6 x − 1 3x − 6 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x= x= 3x 2 = 2 x − 1 3x 2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x2 = 2x − 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 ⎧⎪1 + 29 1 − 29 ⎫⎪ .7 5x2 + x − 2 = 0 x= 83. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 1 real solution 88. x2 − 4 x − 5 = 0 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 89. 3 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 3 71 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 complex imaginary solutions ⎪⎧ −1 + 41 −1 − 41 ⎪⎫ . 10 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 10 81. . 2 unequal real solutions 2 ± 4 + 112 x= 8 2 ± 116 x= 8 2 ± 2 29 x= 8 1 ± 29 x= 4 82. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 2 unequal real solutions 4x2 = 2x + 7 x= 4 x2 − 2 x + 3 = 0 (−2) 2 − 4(4)(3) = 4 – 48 = –44. 2 x 2 − 11x + 3 = 0 (−11) 2 − 4(2)(3) = 121 – 24 = 97. (−2) 2 − 4(1)(1) =4–4 = 0. 2 unequal real solutions −1 ± 12 − 4(5)(−2) 2(5) −1 ± 1 + 40 10 −1 ± 41 x= 10 x= 84. 87. 4 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 4 x= 2 x 2 + 11x − 6 = 0 112 − 4(2)(−6) = 121 + 48 = 169. Section P. (−2) 2 − 4(3)(1) = 4 – 12 = –8. 2 unequal real solutions ⎧⎪ 3 + 6 3 − 6 ⎫⎪ . 4 x2 − 2 x − 7 = 0 2 ± (−2)2 − 4(4)(−7) 2(4) 86. x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 (−3)2 − 4(1)(−7) = 9 + 28 = 37. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.

(3 x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 3x + 2 or x − 2 = 0 93. 95. 2 5 . ⎩ 2 ⎭ 92. ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 − 2 . ⎩ 5⎭ x= ⎪⎧ −11 + 33 −11 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 − x = 1 91. } The solution set is −5 5. Inc. 2 ⎬ . x = ±5 5 97. (5 x − 2)( x + 3) = 0 5 x − 2 = 0 or x + 3 2 x + 8 x + 3x + 12 = 1 2 2 x 2 + 11x + 11 = 0 5x = 2 2 5 or −3 ± 32 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) x= 5x = 1 x= } The solution set is 1 + 2. ⎬. 2⎬ . ⎩5 ⎭ −3 ± 9 + 8 4 −3 ± 17 x= 4 x= x= ⎪⎧ −3 + 17 −3 − 17 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . { 2 x 2 = 250 x = ± 125 3x2 − 4x − 4 = 0 2 3 } x 2 = 125 3x 2 − 4 x = 4 x=− { The solution set is −2 5. 5 x 2 + 2 = 11x 94. ⎬. 1 x = − or x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 3x = −2 x2 − 2 x = 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 1 + 1 ( x − 1) 2 = 2 x = −3 or x −1 = ± 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 72 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (5 x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 2 x 2 + 3x = 1 2 x 2 + 3x − 1 = 0 5 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 1 or x = 2 5 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎩ 3 ⎭ x = 1± 2 { 5 x 2 − 11x + 2 = 0 98.5 5 . x 2 = 20 2 x2 − x − 1 = 0 (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = ± 20 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = ±2 5 2 x = −1 96. 3x 2 = 60 x= x = −3 −11 ± 112 − 4(2)(11) 2(2) −11 ± 121 − 88 4 −11 ± 33 x= 4 ⎧ 2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 5 x 2 = 6 − 13x 5 x 2 + 13x − 6 = 0 (2 x + 3)( x + 4) = 1 99. 1⎬ .

(3 x − 4) = 16 2 x2 − 4x + 2 = 0 3x − 4 = ± 16 3x − 4 = ±4 3x = 4 ± 4 3x = 8 or 3x = 0 8 x = or x = 0 3 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 4± 8 2 x = 2± 2 x= ⎧ 8⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. x= { } The solution set is 3 ± 2 . –1}. 3 ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(−7) 2(2) 3 ± 9 + 56 4 3 ± 65 x= 4 x= 106. 4 x 2 − 16 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x − 5x − 5 = 2 4 x 2 = 16 2 x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 x= x2 = 4 x = ±2 The solution set is {−2. 2} . 2 x + 7 = ±5 2 x = −7 ± 5 2 x = −12 or 2 x = −2 x=6 or x = −1 The solution set is {–6. ⎬ . 2 x 2 − 7 x = 0 9 − 6x + x = 0 x(2 x − 7) = 0 2 x = 0 or 2 x − 7 = 0 2x = 7 x − 6x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 The solution set is {3}. ⎬ . 102. . ⎪⎧ 3 + 65 3 − 65 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 104. 101. x2 − 6 x + 7 = 0 103. 4 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 4 x2 = 4 x − 2 107. ⎩ 2⎭ x = 0 or x = 73 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x 2 − 12 x + 12 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(7) 2(1) 6± 8 2 x = 3± 2 x= x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x=2 The solution set is {2}. 2 7 2 ⎧ 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨0.PreCalculus 4E 100. Inc. 3x 2 − 27 = 0 3 x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. ⎬. 109. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3}.7 (2 x − 5)( x + 1) = 2 105. ⎩ 3⎭ { } The solution set is 2 ± 2 . Section P. (2 x + 7) 2 = 25 x2 = 6 x − 7 108.

⎬ . 20 − 8 x = x x 2 + 8 x − 20 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 2) = 0 x + 10 = 0 x−2 = 0 x = −10 0 = x 2 − 5 x − 12 x= 36 = 6 20 − 8 x = x 2 1 1 1 + = .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 + 5x = 3 110. x ≠ 3. x ≠ 3. Inc. The solution set is {2 + 10. − 1}. 2 x2 + 6 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 5) = 0 The solution set is {−5. 114. 2x + 5x − 3 = 0 2 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(2)(−3) 2(2) 2x 6 −28 + = 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎬. 0 = x2 − 8x + 7 0 = ( x − 7 )( x − 1) x=7 x =1 The solution set is {1. −3 x x+3 4 4 x + 12 + 4 x = x 2 + 3x − ( −5 ) ± 18 + 18 = 6 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. 0 = x2 − 4 x − 6 x= − ( −4 ) ± 3 x + 18 = x 2 ( −4 ) − 4 (1)( −6 ) 2 (1) 2 x 2 − 3x − 18 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 6) = 0 x+3=0 x–6=0 x = –3 x=6 3(−3) + 18 = −3 3(6) + 18 = 6 4 ± 16 + 24 2 4 ± 40 x= 2 4 ± 2 10 x= 2 x = 2 ± 10 x= −9 + 18 = −3 116. 112. ⎩ 2⎭ 111. 3 5 x 2 − 20 + = 2 . 5 ± 25 + 48 x= 2 5 ± 73 x= 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 73 5 − 73 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 2 74 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 1 1 + = . −3 x−3 x +3 x −9 2 x ( x + 3) + 6 ( x − 3) = −28 2 x 2 + 6 x + 6 x − 18 = −28 2 x 2 + 12 x + 10 = 0 −5 ± 25 + 24 x= 4 −5 ± 49 x= 4 −5 ± 7 x= 4 1 x = −3. 4 x − 3 x − 4 x − 7 x + 12 3x − 12 + 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 20 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. −2 x x+2 3 3x + 6 + 3 x = x 2 + 2 x 115. 2 − 10}. 7}. x ≠ 0. x ≠ 0. 3x + 18 = x ( −5 ) − 4 (1)( −12 ) 2 (1) 2 x=2 20 − 8(−10) = −10 20 − 8(2) = 2 20 + 80 = −10 20 − 16 = 2 100 = −10 False The solution set is {2}. 113. 4=2 .

120. x + 3 = x − 6x + 9 x2 − 7 x + 6 = 0 6 x + 1 = x2 − 2 x + 1 ( x − 1)( x − 6) = 0 x–1=0 x–6=0 x=1 x=6 6+3 = 6−3 1+ 3 = 1− 3 x2 − 8x = 0 x( x − 8) = 0 x −8 = 0 False 9 = 3 4 = −2 The solution set is {6}. x + 10 = ( x − 2) 121. 75 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x + 12 x + 36 = 0 2 ( x + 6) 2 = 0 122. ( x − 2)( x − 10) = 0 x − 2 = 0 x − 10 = 0 16 = 4 x=2 2 x + 13 = x + 7 2 x + 13 = ( x + 7) x=8 6(0) + 1 = 0 − 1 x − 5 = 2x + 5 ( x + 1)( x − 6) = 0 x +1 = 0 x − 6 = 0 119. 2 x + 10 = x 2 − 4 x + 4 x = −1 6x + 1 = x − 1 6 x + 1 = ( x − 1) 2 2 2 2 x + 13 = x + 14 x + 49 x = 10 2 − 2(2) + 5 = 5 10 − 2(10) + 5 = 5 2− 9 =5 10 − 25 = 5 2 − 3 = 5 False The solution set is {10}. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 x+3 = x−3 117. ( x + 2)( x − 5) = 0 x+2=0 x−5 = 0 x = −2 x=5 −2 − −2 + 11 = 1 5 − 5 + 11 = 1 −2 − 9 = 1 5 − 16 = 1 −2 − 3 = 1 False The solution set is {5}. x=0 1 = −1 False The solution set is {8}. Inc. x + 10 = x − 2 118.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 5−4 =1 . x+6 = 0 10 − 5 = 5 x − x + 11 = 1 x − 1 = x + 11 x = −6 ( x − 1) 2 = x + 11 2(−6) + 13 = −6 + 7 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = x + 11 −12 + 13 = 1 x 2 − 3x − 10 = 0 1 =1 The solution set is {–6}. x2 − 5x − 6 = 0 6(8) + 1 = 8 − 1 0 + 1 = −1 48 + 1 = 7 49 = 7 x − 2x + 5 = 5 ( x − 5) 2 = 2 x + 5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 = 2 x + 5 x=6 −1 + 10 = −1 − 2 x 2 − 12 x + 20 = 0 6 + 10 = 6 − 2 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}.

45 – [4 – 2y – 4(y + 7)] = –4(1 + 3y) – [4 – 3(y + 2) – 2(2y – 5)] 45 – [4 – 2y – 4y – 28] = –4 – 12y – [4 – 3y – 6 – 4y + 10] 45 – [–6y – 24] = –4 – 12y – [–7y + 8] 45 + 6y + 24 = –4 – 12y + 7y – 8 6y + 69 = –5y – 12 11y = –81 y=− 81 11 ⎧ 81 ⎫ ⎬. 25 – [2 + 5y – 3(y + 2)] = –3(2y – 5) – [5(y – 1) – 3y + 3] 25 – [2 + 5y – 3y – 6] = –6y + 15 – [5y – 5– 3y + 3] 25 – [2y – 4] = –6y + 15 – [2y – 2] 25 – 2y + 4 = –6y + 15 – 2y + 2 –2y + 29 = –8y + 17 6y = –12 y = –2 The solution set is {–2}. . The solution set is {–3}. 2 x + 15 = x + 6 ( 2 x + 15 ) 2 = ( x + 6) 2 2 x + 15 = x 2 + 12 x + 36 0 = x 2 + 10 x + 21 0 = ( x + 3)( x + 7) x + 3 = 0 or x + 7 = 0 x = −3 x = −7 –7 does not check and must be rejected. The solution set is {–5}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 125. 2 x + 15 − 6 = x 124. 2 x + 19 = x + 8 ( 2 x + 19 ) 2 = ( x + 8) 2 2 x + 19 = x 2 + 16 x + 64 0 = x 2 + 14 x + 45 0 = ( x + 9)( x + 5) x + 9 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 x = −9 x = −5 –9 does not check and must be rejected. 126. ⎩ 11 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ − 76 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x + 19 − 8 = x 123.

x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 = −8 x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 3) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −7. − 3. 4. 129. x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = −12 or ( x + 8)( x − 6) = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 4) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −8. 10 x − 1 = (2 x + 1) 2 10 x − 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 0 = 4 x2 − 6 x + 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 0 = (2 x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x − 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x= 1 2 x =1 ⎧1 ⎫ ⎩2 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ .1} . The solution set is {−8. 1} . The solution set is {−7. 77 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 6.1⎬ . . x = −3.7 127. and x = 1. Inc. − 6. and x = 4. x = −6. 7 − 7 x = (3x + 2)( x − 1) 7 − 7 x = 3x 2 − x − 2 0 = 3x 2 + 6 x − 9 0 = x2 + 2 x − 3 0 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −3 x =1 The solution set is {−3.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 6} . 128. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 130.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x + 2) . x − x − 3x + 3 + x − 2 x = 1 2 2 2x − 6x + 3 = 1 2 2 x2 − 6 x + 2 = 0 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 2 b = −6 c = 2 . ( x − 2)( x − 3) . −1 ± 1 − 4 (1)( −5 ) 2 x= = 2 (1) = 4−2 = 2 The solution set is {8}. This results in the following: 133. ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ = x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(2)(−9) 2(2) −4 ± 88 4 −4 ± 2 22 x= 4 −2 ± 22 x= 2 x= 78 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ x +5 = x −3+ 4 x −3 + 4 x + 5 = x +1+ 4 x − 3 5 = 1+ 4 x − 3 132. x +5 − x −3 = 2 −1 ± 21 2 x+5 = x −3 + 2 x + 5 = ( x − 3 + 2) 2 ⎪⎧ −1 ± 21 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded. Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 131. −1 ± 1 − ( −20 ) 2 134. x − 1 x 1 + = 2 x − 2 x − 3 x − 5x + 6 x −1 x 1 + = x − 2 x − 3 ( x − 2)( x − 3) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. This results in the following: ( x − 3)( x − 1) + x( x − 2) = 1 4 = 4 x −3 1= x −3 1= x −3 x=4 4+5 − 4−3 = 2 9− 1=2 3 −1 = 2 The solution set is {4}. x= 135. 2 x2 + 4 x − 9 = 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4 ( 2 )( 2 ) 2 ( 2) 6 ± 36 − 16 6 ± 20 = 4 4 6 ± 4⋅5 6 ± 2 5 = = 4 4 3± 5 = 2 ⎧⎪ 3 ± 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 2 x+8 − x−4 = 2 x +8 = x−4 + 2 x + 8 = ( x − 4 + 2) 2 x +8 = x −4+ 4 x −4 + 4 x +8 = x + 4 x − 4 8= 4 x−4 x + 2 = ( x − 1)( x − 2) + 5( x − 1) 2= x−4 x + 2 = x2 − 2 x − x + 2 + 5x − 5 4 = x−4 x + 2 = x2 + 2 x − 3 x=8 0 = x2 + x − 5 8+8 − 8−4 = 2 16 − 4 = 2 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 1 b = 1 c = −5 . . 1 1 5 = + 2 x − 3x + 2 x + 2 x − 4 1 1 5 = + ( x − 1)( x − 2) x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator.

This is 6 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph.19 x + 28.74 = b.24 0 = 0.026 1.013x 2 − 1.026 1.19 ) − 4 ( 0.26 −0.32190 ≈ 0.39 and 58.15.28 = x + 500 0.013 b = −1.26 x = −78 −0.10362 0.72 x = −90 −0. x + 0. .013x 2 − 1.35(200) 0.24 ) 2 ( 0. a.72 x = 125 125 liters of pure peroxide must be added.013)( 25. the healthy weight of a person of height 6’ is 178 pounds. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section P.013) 2 1. − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(12) = 53 2 W − 36 = 53 2 W − 36 + 36 = 53 + 36 2 W = 89 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 89 2 W = 178 According to the formula. 0.15 or 33. Inc. 0.26 x −78 = −0.35(200) x + 200 x + 0.7 136.19 x + 25.72 −0. = − ( −1. 33 year olds and 58 year olds are expected to be in 3 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven.24 3 = 0.28( x + 500) = x + 0.26 x = 300 300 liters of pure acid must be added. x + 0. 2 x2 − 8x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−8) ± (−8) 2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) 139. Thus.74( x + 200) = x + 0. This is 13 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph.74 x + 148 = x + 70 −0.1(500) x + 500 x + 0. W − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(6) = 53 2 W − 18 = 53 2 W − 18 + 18 = 53 + 18 2 W = 71 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 71 2 W = 142 According to the formula. The function models the actual data well.72 x −90 = −0. f ( x ) = 0.19 ± 0. 141.35(200) x + 200 0.1(500) 0.28 x + 140 = x + 50 −0.19 ± 1. 8 ± 24 4 8± 2 6 x= 4 4± 6 x= 2 x= 137.19 x + 28.013x 2 − 1.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0. the healthy weight of a person of height 5’6” is 142 pounds. Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded.31248 0.19 ) ± ( −1.24 x= W 138.026 ≈ 58.1(500) C= C= 140.19 ± 0.4161 − 1. = 79 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.39 The solutions are approximately 33.19 c = 25.

19 ± 0.19 ± 0.19 x + 28.5 = x 0.24 ) 2 ( 0. ( ) 168.1 = 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense.7 x + 12.013x − 1.19 ) ± 160. 1.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 25 = x There will be 16 cluttered minutes 25 years after 1996. Changes to make the statement true will vary.7 x + 12. or 2010. makes sense 161. Explanations will vary.19 − 0.5 167.026 Evaluate the expression to obtain two solutions.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0. does not make sense. Inc. . ( −1. 143.013)(18. Publishing as Prentice Hall.013 b = −1.5 ⎞ ⎜ 0. Drivers of approximately age 19 and age 72 are expected to be involved in 10 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven. 144. or 2021.026 0. f ( x ) = 0.7 2 2 ⎛ 2. 10 = 0.5 7x + 4 + 13 = x b 7(−6) + 4 + 13 = −6 b −38 = −19 b −19b = −38 b=2 [ x − (−3)][ x − (5)] = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 5) = 0 16 = 0.026 1. 80 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.013) 2 1.46762 1.026 162. 1. – 158.94848 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.4161 − 0. 2.19 ± 1.1 x ≈ 19 = 163.19 x + 18. Sample explanation: Substitute n = 6 into the equation to find P.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 142.7 x 3.68383 x= or x = 0. M = 0.013x 2 − 1. ( ) 145.026 0.19 c = 18. M = 0. A sample change is: Some quadratics have one number in their solution sets.87383 0.24 x= = − ( −1.6 = x 0.7 x 2.24 2 0 = 0.68383 1.1 cluttered minutes 14 years after 1996. false. false. Answers may vary. false.026 x ≈ 72. A sample change is: ax 2 + c = 0 can be solved using b = 0 . The formula does not model the data very well.013x 2 − 1. does not make sense. Explanations will vary.68383 ≈ 0. Sample explanation: You should substitute into the original equation.5 = 0.19 + 0.7 2 2 ⎛ 3.7 x + 12.5 x 2 − 2 x − 15 = 0 3.5 15.24 159.7 x + 12. 165.6 ⎞ ⎜ 0. true 166. Explanations will vary.19 x + 28.6 = 0. A sample change is: (2 x − 3) 2 = 25 (2 x − 3) 2 = ± 25 2 x − 3 = ±5 164.026 0. Sample explanation: The factoring method would be quicker.19 ) − 4 ( 0. The formula overestimates the number of fatal accidents.50617 x= x= 0.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 14 ≈ x There will be 15.

037 = 130. 015 2 x + 14. c = − s t= t= t= −v0 ± ( v0 ) − 4 ( −16 )( − s ) 2 ( −16 ) −v0 ± ( v0 ) 2 2 − 64s −32 v0 ± v0 2 − 64 s 32 171. or 2019.1x = −55 −55 x= −1. Let x = the number of years since 1969. 5. 4. The tower is 120 yards tall. 900 a 2 = 14. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + (50) 2 = (130)2 a 2 + 2500 = 16. x + 150 172. 2l + 2 w = P 2( x + 44) + 2 x = 288 2 x + 88 + 2 x = 288 4 x + 88 = 288 4 x = 200 200 x= 4 x = 50 x + 44 = 94 The dimensions of the court are 50 by 94.1x = 33 − 88 −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.70 x = 1200 Before the reduction the computer’s price was $1200. 20 + 0. 81 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 015 2 x = 115.989 and the average salary for men was $72.026 In 2007 the average teaching salary for women was $57. x + 14.8 C−S N L VL = CL − ( C − S ) N V =C− 169.8 192 + 56 x + 4 x 2 = 320 Check Point Exercises 1. The path must be 2 feet wide. s = −16t 2 + v0 t 0 = −16t 2 + v0 t − s a = −16. 037 = 130. Let x + 44 = the length of the court. 037 ) = 130.037 = the average salary for men x + ( x + 14. . Let x = the width of the court. 88 − 1. Let x = the average salary for women Let x + 14.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 037 = 72.989 6. 3.05x 173.1 x = 50 33% of female freshmen will respond this way 50 years after 1969. 2. 400 a = ±120 –120 must be rejected.30 x = 840 0. (16 + 2 x )(12 + 2 x) = 320 VL = CL − CN + SN CN − CL = NS − LV C ( N − L ) = NS − LV C ( N − L) NS − LV N −L N −L NS − LV LV − NS or C= N −L L−N = 170.70 x = 840 840 x= 0. 4 x 2 + 56 x − 128 = 0 x 2 + 14 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 16)( x − 2) = 0 x + 16 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −16 x=2 –16 must be rejected. 4 x + 400 Section P.026. Let x = the computer’s price before the reduction. x − 0.978 x = 57. Inc. b = v0 . 015 x + x + 14.1x = 33 −1.

000. 000. 000. 000( x + 3) − 375.8 x = 3. 000 ⎛ 5. 5. . 000 x + 15. x + ( x + 581) = 2529 x + x + 581 = 2529 2 x + 581 − 581 = 2529 − 581 2 x = 1948 x = 974 x + 581 = 1555 Americans spent 974 hours listening to radio and 1555 hours watching TV. 000 − 375. 000 x( x + 3) = 5. 000 x 2 − 1.8 2 x + 4 − 4 = 11. 000. 000 x 7. 2. Let x + 4 = number of weeks Italians spend on vacation. 000 x = 5.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra The original amount of money per person. 000 x 2 − 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000. 000 5. 000 x + 15. Inc. Let x + 581 = the time spent watching TV. 000.9 Americans spend an average of 3. 000. The new amount of money per person. There were 5 people in the original group. 82 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 x −375. Let x = number of weeks Americans spend on vacation.8 x + x + 4 = 11.8 − 4 2 x = 7.125. Exercise Set P. 000 − 375. Let x = the time spent listening to radio. 000.9 weeks. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 3) x x+3 ⎝ ⎠ 5. 000 = x x+3 5.9 weeks on vacation and Italians spend an average of 7. 000 ⎞ x( x + 3) ⎜ − 375. 000.125. x + ( x + 4) = 11. reduction per winner 5. 000 = 0 x 2 + 3x − 40 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 5) = 0 x + 8 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −8 x=5 –8 must be rejected.9 x + 4 = 7.8 1. 000.

Inc. y = 24. 5. 9. . y = 24. 000 x = −400. 000 x + 2 x − 7740 = 99. 000 = −3000 x −15.5 x = 100 1. 10. 760 The average salary for janitors is $19. Let x = the number of years since 1983. or 2016.5 x = 100 − 43 1. 000 x= −5000 x=7 The car’s value will drop to $10.760. x + (3x − 3500) = 74.900. Let 3x − 3500 = the average salary for registered nurses. Let x = the number of years after 2005 13.000 after 7 years.300 + 1000(9) = 22.800 − 500 x 1500 x = 13. 740 x = 35. x + (2 x − 7740) = 99. 6. 43 + 0. Let x = the number of years after 2000 10. a.390 and the average salary for registered nurses is $54. 500 1500 x 13. 000 x = 10. 000 x Let x = the number of years since 1986.300 and 26. 83 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.900.5 x = 38 All American adults will approve 38 years after 1983. 000 − 5000 x 10. 420 The average salary for carpenters is $35. 8. 000 − 5000 x 10. or 2021. 000 x = 25 The countries will have the same population 25 years after the year 2000.300 at that time. 000 − 12. 000 = −5000 x −35. 13. 000 x = 10. 000 − 5000 x b. 7. 200. 000 = −5000 x −35. 000 x= −3000 x=5 The car’s value will drop to $9000 after 5 years.580 2 x − 7740 = 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 43 + 1. 000 − 3000 x b. y = 45. Let 2 x − 7740 = the average salary for computer programmers. 000 − 28.5 x = 57 57 x= 1. 000 = 9. 200.PreCalculus 4E 3.8 Let x = the average salary for carpenters. 000 − 45. 000 = −3000 x −15. 000 3 x − 7740 = 99. 000 − 3000 x 9000 − 24. 060 4 x − 3500 + 3500 = 74. Section P. 4. 200. 10. 000 − 300.420. 000(25) = 10. or the year 2025. 600. 000 The population in the year 2025 will be 9. 200.6 x = 30 61% of American adults will approve 30 years after 1986.6 x = 18 18 x= 0.500 = 1500 1500 x=9 The two colleges will have the same enrollment about 9 years after 2005. 060 4 x − 3500 = 74. 560 x = 19.800 − 500(9) = 22. 060 x + 3 x − 3500 = 74. 060 + 3500 4 x = 77.000. y = 45. a. or 2014. 390 3 x − 3500 = 54.300 + 1000 x = 26. 000 − 12.6 x = 61 0.580 and the average salary for computer programmers is $63. Let x = the average salary for janitors.6 x = 61 − 43 0.300 The college’s enrollments will be 22. 000 = 45. 000 + 7740 3x = 106. 000 − 12. 000 3x − 7740 + 7740 = 99. 000 − 3000 x 9000 = 24. −16.

Inc. The dimensions are 40 feet by 120 feet. then 2 w + 6 = 2(36) + 6 = 78 .20 = c The dealer’s cost is $467. 16.80 x = 336 x = 420 The television set’s price is $420.08 x = 162 x = 150 The nightly cost is $150. the dimensions are 36 feet by 78 feet.08 x = 162 1.25c 467.25c 15 = 1.20. Let x = the width of the frame. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = the cost of the dictionary x − 0. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. 0. 3w = 3(40) = 120. Let 2w – 6 = the length of the pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 13. 126 = 2 ( 2w − 6 ) + 2 ( w ) 126 = 4w − 12 + 2w 126 = 6 w − 12 138 = 6 w 23 = w Find the length.05 x = 252 1.70 x = 30.25c 12 = c The dealer’s cost is $12. 14. Let w = the width of the pool. 320 = 2 ( 3w ) + 2 ( w ) 320 = 6w + 2w 320 = 8w 40 = w If w = 40. Let w = the width of the swimming pool. Thus. 84 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.80 x = 44 The dictionary’s price before the reduction was $44. 20. then 2 w = 100 . Let w = the width of the field Let 2w + 6 = the length of the field 228 = 6w + 12 216 = 6w 36 = w If w = 36 . 2= x The width of the frame is 2 inches. 2 w − 6 = 2(23) − 6 = 46 − 6 = 40 The dimensions are 23 meters by 40 meters. Total length: 16 + 2x Total width: 12 + 2x P = 2(length) + 2(width) 72 = 2 (16 + 2 x ) + 2 (12 + 2 x ) Let w = the width of the field Let 2w = the length of the field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 72 = 32 + 4 x + 24 + 4 x 72 = 8 x + 56 16 = 8 x 300 = 2 ( 2w) + 2 ( w) 300 = 4 w + 2w 300 = 6w 50 = w If w = 50 . 19. 17. Let x = the cost of the television set.25c 584 = 1. .80 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11. Thus. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0.05 x = 252 x = 240 The nightly cost is $240.20 x = 336 18.30 x = 30. the dimensions are 50 yards by 100 yards. 12. Let c = the dealer’s cost 15 = c + 0. 15. Let c = the dealer’s cost 584 = c + 0. Let 3w = the length of the swimming pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 21. x − 0.

23. is 4 inches. 85 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 26. is 5 inches. larger square Let x = the width of the path (12 + 2 x )(15 + 2 x ) = 378 180 + 24 x + 30 x + 4 x 2 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x + 180 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x − 198 = 0 2 ( 2 x 2 + 27 x − 99 ) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33)( x − 3) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33) = 0 = 64 2 x + 33 = 0 2 x = −33 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 64 x 2 + 6 x − 55 = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 33 2 The width of the path is 3 meters. 4 ( x + 20 ) = 0 x −5 = 0 Let w = the width Let w + 3 = the width Area = lw x + 20 = 0 x = −20 180 = ( w + 3) w 0 = w2 + 3w − 180 0 = ( w + 15 )( w − 12 ) 28.PreCalculus 4E 22. Let x = the length of the side of the original square Let x + 3 = the length of the side of the new. The width is 6 feet and the length is 6 + 3 = 9 feet. Disregard –20 because we can’t have a negative width measurement. The width of the path is 5 meters. This means that x. Let w = the width Let w +3 = the length Area = lw 27. Let x + 2 = the side of the new. 180 = w2 + 3w 2 Let x = the width of the path ( 20 + 2 x )(10 + 2 x ) = 600 200 + 40 x + 20 x + 4 x 2 = 600 54 = w2 + 3w 25. 200 + 60 x + 4 x 2 = 600 4 x + 60 x + 200 = 600 0 = w2 + 3w − 54 2 0 = ( w + 9 )( w − 6 ) w+9 = 0 w−6 = 0 w = −9 w=6 Disregard –9 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 = 36 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 36 x 2 + 4 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 4 ) = 0 54 = ( w + 3) w 24. x + 11 = 0 x −5 = 0 x = −11 x=5 The solution set is {−11. Inc. the length of the side of the original square.5} . Section P. Disregard –11 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. w + 15 = 0 w − 12 = 0 w = 12 w = −15 The width is 12 yards and the length is 12 yards + 3 yards = 15 yards.5} . 4 x 2 + 60 x − 400 = 0 4 ( x 2 + 15 x − 100 ) = 0 4 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. ( x + 2) x +8 = 0 x−4 = 0 x=4 x = −8 The length of the side of the original square. Let x = the side of the original square.8 Let w = the width of the path Let 40 + 2w = the width of the pool and path Let 60 + 2w = the length of the pool and path 2(40 + 2w) + 2(60 + 2w) = 248 80 + 4w + 120 + 4w = 248 200 + 8w = 248 8w = 48 w=6 The width of the path is 6 feet. larger square ( x + 3) x=5 The solution set is {−20. ( x + 11)( x − 5) = 0 x=− Apply the zero product principle.

24. (20 + 2 x)(30 + 2 x) − (20)(30) = 336 34.09 yd 3x ≈ 87. a = ± 800 a ≈ ±28.28. a 2 + b2 = c2 4 x 2 + 44 x − 168 = 0 x 2 + 11x − 42 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 14) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 14 = 0 x=3 x = −14 –14 must be rejected. 32.24 feet The distance along the length and width is about 28.4 x ≈ 29. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + (3x) 2 = 922 a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + 9 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 102 = 302 10 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 100 = 900 x 2 = 846.3 feet tall. A person could save 116.3 must be rejected.09 + 87. The width of the path is 3 feet 30. Let x be the width. . or about 21.62 feet 2x ≈ 57. Inc. or about 24.4 yards. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 must be rejected. 33.2 feet up the house.3 –28.9 feet.4 a 2 = 800 x = ± 846. x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 642 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 4096 5 x 2 = 4096 4096 x2 = 5 4096 x=± 5 x ≈ 28. 36.62 + 57.9 – 64.4 – 92. 86 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9 feet. A person could save 85. (10 + 2 x)(12 + 2 x) − (10)(12) = 168 120 + 44 x + 4 x 2 − 120 = 168 35. The building is 28. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + 152 = 202 a 2 + 225 = 400 a 2 = 175 a = ± 175 a ≈ ±13.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 29. Let x be the width.28 yd The distance along the length and width is about 29.2 –13.4 yards. The width of the path is 3 feet 31. 600 + 100 x + 4 x 2 − 600 = 336 152 + x 2 = ( x + 4) 2 4 x 2 + 100 x − 336 = 0 x 2 + 225 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 225 = 8 x + 16 209 = 8 x 1 x = 26 8 1 x + 4 = 30 8 1 The wire is 30 feet long. The ladder reaches 13. or about 85. 8 x 2 + 25 x − 84 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 28) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 28 = 0 x=3 x = −28 –28 must be rejected. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + b2 = c2 52 + x 2 = ( x + 1) 2 x 2 + 25 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 25 = 2 x + 1 24 = 2 x x = 12 x + 1 = 13 The wire is 13 feet long. or about 116.

000 ⎞ x( x + 4) ⎜ − 32. 000. 000. 000 = x x+2 20. The average velocity of the bus is 30 miles per hour. 000 − 32. reduction per winner 20. 000 x = 480. Let x be the car’s average velocity.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 000 x( x + 4) = 480. 000. 000( x + 2) − 500. . 000. 000 x = 20. 000 x + 1. car's time traveled bus's time traveled 300 180 = x x − 20 300( x − 20) = 180 x 300 x − 6000 = 180 x 120 x = 6000 x = 50 x − 20 = 30 The average velocity of the car is 50 miles per hour. 000 x 2 − 128. 000 − 32. 920. 000 − 32. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 − 500. 000 x( x + 2) = 20. 000. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 2) x x+2 ⎝ ⎠ 20. 000. There were 8 people in the original group. 000 ⎞ x( x + 2) ⎜ − 500. 000 x 1. 000( x + 4) − 32. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 80 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 8) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 8 = 0 x = −10 x=8 –10 must be rejected.8 The original amount of money per person. 20. 920. 000 480. 000 x 40. 000 x 38. Inc. There were 6 people in the original group. 480. 000 − 500. 000. 480. 000 x 37. 000. 000 x + 40. 000 = x x+4 480. 000 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 4) x x+4 ⎝ ⎠ 480. 87 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000. 000 ⎛ 480. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 6) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = −10 x=6 –10 must be rejected. 000 x 2 − 128. 000 ⎛ 20. The new amount of money per person. 000. 000. 000. 000 − 500. 39.

6 + 0.30(140 + x) 35 + x = 42 + 0. freight train's time traveled 240 160 = x x − 20 240( x − 20) = 160 x 240 x − 4800 = 160 x 80 x = 4800 x = 60 x − 20 = 40 The average velocity of the passenger train is 60 miles per hour. Let x be the passenger train’s average velocity. 44. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. 0 = ( x − 35)(9 x − 20) x − 35 = 0 or 9 x + 20 = 0 x = 35 20 x=− x + 5 = 40 9 20 − must be rejected. 41. 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let g = the gross amount of the paycheck Yearly Salary = 2 (12 ) g + 750 30 x + 30 x + 270 = 7 x 2 + 63 x 33150 = 24 g + 750 32400 = 24 g 1350 = g The gross amount of each paycheck is $1350. 49.30 140 + x 35 + x = 0. The average velocity on the 7 return trip is 6 miles per hour. 30 + x = 0. Answers may vary. Let x = inches over 5 feet 100 + 5x = 135 5x = 35 x=7 A height of 5 feet 7 inches corresponds to 135 pounds. – 52.28. Let x be the average velocity of the first engine. Let x be the average velocity on the return trip. 88 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The average velocity of the 9 first engine is 35 miles per hour.30.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 40.30 x 350 + 10 x = 420 + 3x 7 x = 70 x = 10 You must get 10 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0. Let x = number of hours 35x = labor cost 35x + 63 = 448 35x = 385 x = 11 It took 11 hours. . Let x = number of hours 63x = labor cost 63x + 532 = 1603 63x = 1071 x = 17 17 hours were required to repair the yacht. passenger train's time traveled 43. 5 5 7 + = x+9 x 6 5⎞ 7 ⎛ 5 6 x( x + 9) ⎜ + ⎟ = 6 x( x + 9) 6 ⎝ x+9 x⎠ 30 x + 30( x + 9) = 7 x( x + 9) 46. The average velocity of the second engine is 40 miles per hour. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. Inc.28 120 + x 30 + x = 0. 140 200 + =9 x x+5 ⎛ 140 200 ⎞ ⎜ x + x+5⎟ =9 ⎝ ⎠ 140 200 ⎛ ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ + = 9 x( x + 5) x + 5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x 140( x + 5) + 200 x = 9 x( x + 5) 48. The average velocity of the freight train is 40 miles per hour.28(120 + x) 140 x + 700 + 200 x = 9 x 2 + 45 x 0 = 9 x 2 − 295 x − 700 30 + x = 33. 45. 47. 35 + x = 0.28 x 3000 + 100 x = 3360 + 28 x 72 x = 360 x=5 You must get 5 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0. 0 = 7 x 2 + 3 x − 270 0 = ( x − 6)(7 x + 45) x − 6 = 0 or 7 x + 45 = 0 x=6 45 x=− 7 45 − must be rejected.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. . x − = 1 8 2 x − 28 = 8 58. and 5. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 2 x−2 ⎟ 1 1 x−2−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 3 2 ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ After passing the third security guard. Let x = correct answers 26 – x = incorrect answers 8 x − 5(26 − x) = 0 8 x − 130 + 5 x = 0 13x − 130 = 0 13x = 130 x = 10 10 problems were solved correctly. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + ( x + 1) 2 = [12 − x − ( x + 1) ] 2 x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 1 = [12 − x − x − 1] 2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = (11 − 2 x )2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = 121 − 44 x + 4 x 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 46 x + 120 0 = x 2 − 23x + 60 0 = ( x − 3)( x − 20) x − 3 = 0 or x − 20 = 0 x=3 x = 20 x +1 = 4 12 − (3 + 4) = 5 20 must be rejected.36 x = 72 x = 200 The original price was $200. the boy received $8000. Let x = woman’s age 3x = Coburn’s age 3x + 20 = 2(x + 20) 3x + 20 = 2x + 40 x + 20 = 40 x = 20 Coburn is 60 years old the woman is 20 years old. 64. 89 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6x – 0. does not make sense. 62. Sample explanation: Though mathematical models can often provide excellent estimates about future attitudes. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 4 x−3 ⎟ 1 1 7 x −3−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 4 2 8 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 7 Thus. Sample explanation: The correct equation is x − 0.6 x − 0.PreCalculus 4E 53.8 does not make sense. 000 2 x = $4.35 x = 780. true –1 is a solution.4x = 0. makes sense 55. 59. x = 36 The thief stole 36 plants. Let x = the number of plants originally stolen After passing the first security guard.4(0.6x) = price after second reduction 0. 57. Let x be the length of one leg. makes sense 60. 54. Section P. 63. Let x = original price x – 0. 4. they cannot guaranty perfect precision. Explanations will vary. 56. Explanations will vary.6x = price after first reduction 0. Inc. and the girl received $2000. the thief has: 1 1 ⎛1 ⎞ x − ⎜ x + 2⎟ = x − x − 2 = x − 2 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ After passing the second security guard. 000 The mother received $4000. Let x = mother’s amount 2x = boy’s amount x = girl’s amount 2 x x + 2 x + = 14. as it is greater than the perimeter. 000 2 7 x = 14. 3 − 2 x ≤ 11 3 − 2(−1) ≤ 11 3 + 2 ≤ 11 5 ≤ 11. The lengths of the sides are 3. 61.24 x = 72 0.

2. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. x+3 x−2 1 = + 4 3 4 ⎛ x+3⎞ ⎛ x−2 1⎞ 12 ⎜ ⎟ = 12 ⎜ 3 + 4 ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x + 3) = 4( x − 2) + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 8 + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 5 3x − 4 x = −5 − 9 − x = −14 x = 14 The solution set is {14}.5] = x 1≤ x ≤ 3. Inc. 66. −2 x − 4 = x + 5 −2 x − x = 5 + 4 −3 x = 9 9 x= −3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. Numbers in both [1. 6 ) = ( 2.3] : Graph ( 2. { } Graph [1.5 { } c.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 65. [−2.9 Check Point Exercises 1. [1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3] and ( 2. [1. [−∞.3] . 6 ) : To find the intersection. a. 5) = x −2 ≤ x < 5 { } b. .3] ∩ ( 2. 6 ) : Thus. Section P. 90 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) = x x < −1 a. 3.

91 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Numbers in either [1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4] .3] : b. 6 ) : To find the union. ∞ ) . 3x + 1 > 7 x − 15 −4 x > −16 −4 x −16 < −4 −4 x<4 The solution set is { x x < 4} or ( -∞.3] or ( 2. 4) . [1.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 2 3 6 ⎛ x−4⎞ ⎛ x−2 5⎞ 6⎜ ⎟ ≥ 6⎜ 3 + 6 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x + 1 3x − 2 x ≥ 1 + 12 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} or [13. 3. . 1 ≤ 2 x + 3 < 11 −2 ≤ 2 x < 8 −1 ≤ x < 4 The solution set is { x −1 ≤ x < 4} or [−1.3] ∪ ( 2. 6 ) . 5. 4. 6 ) = [1. Graph ( 2. 2 − 3x ≤ 5 −3 x ≤ 3 x ≥ −1 The solution set is { x x ≥ −1} or [−1. 6. ∞) . take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 6 ) or both: Thus. Inc.9 Graph [1.

18 < 6 − 3x 6 − 3x < −18 −3x < −24 −3x −24 > −3 −3 x >8 or 6 − 3x > 18 −3x > 12 −3x 12 < −3 −3 x < −4 The solution set is { x x < −4 or x > 8} or ( −∞.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 7. 7) . −4 ) ∪ ( 8. 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall.25 x 180 < 0. 260 < 80 + 0. 8.3⎥ . x−2 <5 −5 < x − 2 < 5 −3 < x < 7 The solution set is { x −3 < x < 7} or (−3. . Inc. Let x = the number of miles driven in a week. 5 ⎣ 5 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 9.25 x 720 < x Driving more than 720 miles in a week makes Basic the better deal. −3 5 x − 2 + 20 ≥ −19 −3 5 x − 2 ≥ −39 −3 5 x − 2 −39 −3 −3 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 ≤ −13 ≤ 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 −11 ≤ 5 x ≤ 15 −11 5 x 15 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 11 − ≤ x≤3 5 ⎧ 11 ⎫ ⎡ 11 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 3⎬ or ⎢ − . ∞ ) . 92 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x < 5. x>2 8. x ≤ 3. 1<x≤6 2. 2] : To find the intersection. x ≥ –3 10. –5 ≤ x < 2 4. x < 3 12. –2 < x ≤ 4 3.9 Exercise Set P.5 14. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. Inc. –2 ≤ x ≤ 5 7. . 2] = [ −1. 0 ) ∩ [ −1.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x < 2 13. 0 ) . 93 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Numbers in both ( −3. x ≥ –5 11. x>3 9. 2] : Thus.9 1. 0 ) and [ −1. –4 ≤ x < 3 5. ( −3. –3 ≤ x ≤ 1 6.5 15. 0 ) : Graph [ −1. Graph ( −3.

0 ) : Graph [ −1. Graph ( −∞. .1] = ( −4.1] : To find the intersection. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 17. 0 ) or [ −1.1] : To find the union. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.1] : Thus. 18. Numbers in both ( −4.9] = [ 2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Graph ( −∞. 0 ) . Graph ( −4. 2] = ( −3.9] : To find the intersection. ( −3. Graph ( −4. 19. 0 ) : Graph [ −2. 0 ) or [ −2. ( −∞. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. ( −4. Numbers in both ( −∞. 94 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8] : To find the intersection.1] or both: Thus. ( −4. 0 ) ∩ [ −2. Inc. 2] . Graph ( −3. Numbers in either ( −3.6 ) . 0 ) ∪ [ −2. 20. 0 ) ∪ [ −1.8] : Thus. 6 ) and [ 2. 6 ) : Graph [ 2. 0 ) : Graph [ −2. 6 ) ∩ [ 2. 2] or both: Thus.5 ) .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 16.9] : Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5) and [1. Numbers in either ( −4. Numbers in both ( −∞.5 ) : Graph [1.1] = [ −2.5 ) ∩ [1. ( −∞. 0 ) and [ −2.8] = [1.1] . take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 2] : To find the union.

9] .∞ ) : To find the intersection. ∞ ) or both: Thus. ∞ ) . [ 2. Numbers in both [ 2.8] . [3. ∞ ) : Thus. Inc. Numbers in either [3. ∞ ) and ( 6. ∞ ) : To find the intersection. 22. 23. ∞ ) : Graph ( 4. ∞ ) . take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Numbers in both [3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.∞ ) = ( 4. 95 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. Numbers in either ( −∞. ∞ ) .∞ ) : Thus. 24. ∞ ) = [3. ( −∞.5 ) or [1. Graph [3.8] : To find the union. ( −∞.9 Graph ( −∞. Section P. 25. ∞ ) ∪ ( 6. 6 ) or [ 2. ∞ ) ∩ ( 6. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 6 ) : Graph [ 2.9] : To find the union. 6 ) ∪ [ 2.9] = ( −∞. ∞ ) and ( 4. ∞ ) or ( 6. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6.PreCalculus 4E 21.5 ) : Graph [1. Numbers in either ( −∞. ∞ ) : To find the union.5 ) ∪ [1. Graph ( −∞.9] or both: Thus. Graph [ 2.8] = ( −∞. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. [3. Graph [3.8] or both: Thus. . take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. ∞ ) = ( 6. ∞ ) ∩ ( 4.

or ( −∞.∞ ) = [ 2. Numbers in either [ 2. 32. or ⎢ . ∞ ) . 27. Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Graph [ 2. 31. 29. 2x + 5 < 17 2x < 12 x<6 The solution set is { x x < 6} or (–∞. 6).∞ ) : To find the union. 96 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8x – 2 ≥ 14 8x ≥ 16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x > 2} or [ 2. or (–∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ⎟ . Graph ( 4. ∞ ) ∪ ( 4. –5x ≤ 30 x ≥ –6 The solution set is { x x ≥ −6} or [ −6. 3 ⎣3 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 30. 3x – 7 ≥ 13 3x ≥ 20 20 x≥ 3 ⎧ 20 ⎫ ⎡ 20 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > ⎬ . ∞ ) or ( 4. [ 2. 3). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 28. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. ∞ ) : 26. . −4] . 5x + 11 < 26 5x < 15 x<3 The solution set is { x x < 3} . –9x ≥ 36 x ≤ –4 The solution set is { x x ≤ −4} . ∞ ) .∞ ) or both: Thus.

6 6⎦ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ 35. ∞). 36. 18x + 45 ≤ 12x – 8 18x – 12x ≤ –8 – 45 6x ≤ –53 53 x≤− 6 ⎧ 53 ⎫ 53 ⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ or ⎜ −∞. 8x – 11 ≤ 3x – 13 8x – 3x ≤ –13 + 11 5x ≤ –2 2 x≤− 5 ⎧ 2⎫ 2⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ . 4(x + 1) + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 4 + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 6 ≥ 3x + 6 4x – 3x ≥ 6 – 6 x≥0 The solution set is { x x > 0} . –4(x + 2) > 3x + 20 –4x – 8 > 3x + 20 –7x > 28 x < –4 The solution set is { x x < −4} or (–∞.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 2x – 11 < – 3(x + 2) 2x – 11 < – 3x – 6 5x < 5 x<1 The solution set is { x x < 1} . 1). − ⎥ . –4). 5⎭ 5⎦ ⎝ ⎩ 34. . 8x + 3 > 3(2x + 1) + x + 5 8x + 3 > 6x + 3 + x + 5 8x + 3 > 7x + 8 8x – 7x > 8 – 3 x>5 The solution set is { x x > 5} or (5.9 33. Inc. or ⎜ −∞. or (–∞. 38. or [0. ∞ ). 37. 97 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎥ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

∞). or ( −∞. 41. ∞ ) . − 98 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or [ −10. 40. 5(3 – x) ≤ 3x – 1 15 – 5x ≤ 3x – 1 –8x ≤ –16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x ≥ 2} or [2. 1 – (x + 3) ≥ 4 – 2x 1 – x – 3 ≥ 4 – 2x –x – 2 ≥ 4 – 2x x≥6 The solution set is { x x ≥ 6} . 42. ∞ ) . − 6 ) .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 39. . −6} . or [6. 1 − [ −2. Inc. x >4 2 x >3 2 x < –6 The solution set is { x x. 3x 1 x +1 ≥ − 10 5 10 ⎛ 3x ⎞ ⎛1 x ⎞ 10 ⎜ + 1⎟ ≥ 10 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 3x + 10 ≥ 2 − x 4 x ≥ −8 x ≥ −2 The solution set is { x x ≥ −2} or 43. ∞). Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 3 x − ≤ +1 4 2 2 4x 4 ⋅ 3 4 ⋅ x − ≤ + 4 ⋅1 4 2 2 x − 6 ≤ 2x + 4 − x ≤ 10 x ≥ −10 The solution set is { x x ≥ −10} .

45. ∞ ) . . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 99 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is ⎨ x x ≥ ⎬ or ⎢ 6 ⎣ 6 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ x≥− 47. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 6 9 18 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} . or [13. ∞). 3 [3( x + 5) + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [ 3( x − 6) − 2(3x − 5) ] < 2(4 x + 3) 3 [3x + 15 + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [3x − 18 − 6 x + 10] < 8 x + 6 3 [11x + 22] + 5 [ −3x − 8] < 8 x + 6 33x + 66 − 15 x − 40 < 8 x + 6 18 x + 26 < 8 x + 6 10 x < −20 x < −2 The solution set is { x x < −2} or [ −∞. 46. Inc. ∞ ⎟.PreCalculus 4E 44. Section P. −2 ) . 4x − 3 2x −1 +2≥ 6 12 2(4 x − 3) + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 8 x − 6 + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 6 x + 18 ≥ −1 6 x ≥ −19 19 6 ⎧ −19 ⎫ ⎡ -19 ⎞ .9 4 3 7− x < 5 5 4 32 − x<− 5 5 x>8 The solution set is { x x > 8} or (8.

6). or (–5. ⎟ . 2⎭ ⎣2 2 ⎠ ⎩ 2 100 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –6 < x – 4 ≤ 1 –2 < x ≤ 5 The solution set is {x | −2 < x ≤ 5} or (–2. 3 ≤ 4x – 3 < 19 6 ≤ 4x < 22 6 22 ≤x< 4 4 3 11 ≤x< 2 2 ⎧ 3 11⎫ ⎡ 3 11 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x ≤ x < ⎬ or ⎢ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 53. 5 [ 3(2 − 3x) − 2(5 − x) ] − 6 [5( x − 2) − 2(4 x − 3) ] < 3x + 19 5 [ 6 − 9 x − 10 + 2 x ] − 6 [5 x − 10 − 8 x + 6] < 3x + 19 5 [ −7 x − 4] − 6 [ −3x − 4] < 3 x + 19 −35 x − 20 + 18 x + 24 < 3x + 19 −17 x + 4 < 3 x + 19 −20 x < 15 −20 x 15 > −20 −20 3 x>− 4 ⎧ 3⎫ ⎡ 3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > − ⎬ or ⎢ − . –3 ≤ x – 2 < 1 –1 ≤ x < 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x < 3} . 5). Inc. –2]. 4 ⎣ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 49. 51. . –11 < 2x –1 ≤ –5 –10 < 2x ≤ –4 –5 < x ≤ –2 The solution set is { x − 5 < x ≤ −2} . 3). 54. 7 < x + 5 < 11 7 – 5 < x + 5 – 5 < 11 – 5 2<x<6 The solution set is { x 2 < x < 6} or (2. or [–1. or (3.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 52. 50. 5]. ∞ ⎟ . 6 < x + 3 < 8 6–3<x+3–3<8–3 3<x<5 The solution set is { x 3 < x < 5} .

that is. all x in ( −∞. 60. 5). −3 ≤ Section P. 2≤ [–5. ∞ ) . or (–3. Inc. 67. 3 ⎝ 3 ⎩ ⎭ 68. 1]. |3(x – 1) + 2| ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3(x – 1) + 2 ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3x – 1 ≤ 20 –19 ≤ 3x ≤ 21 19 − ≤x≤7 3 ⎧ 19 ⎫ ⎡ 19 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 7 ⎬ or ⎢ − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7). |x| < 5 –5 < x < 5 The solution set is { x − 5 < x < 5} or (–5. 3 x + 5 < 17 –17 < 3x + 5 < 17 –22 < 3x < 12 ( −∞. |2x – 6| < 8 –8 < 2x – 6 < 8 –2 < 2x < 14 –1 < x < 7 The solution set is { x − 1 < x < 7} . 101 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or (–6. ⎠ The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} . . 2 ) . 7 ⎥ . 0).PreCalculus 4E 55. 66. 2y + 6 <2 3 2y + 6 −2 < <2 3 –6 < 2y + 6 < 6 –12 < 2y < 0 –6 < y < 0 The solution set is { x − 6 < y < 0} . 58. 9). 3 ( x − 1) 4 −6 < <6 3 ( x − 1) <6 4 –24 < 3x – 3 < 24 –21 < 3x < 27 –7 < x < 9 The solution set is { x − 7 < x < 9} or (–7. 61. ∞ ) . 62. 1 56. or [3. |x – 1| ≤ 2 –2 ≤ x – 1 ≤ 2 –1 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x ≤ 3} . −3) or ( 3. 3 ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 57. or [–1. 6). 59. 64. or (–1. |x| > 5 x > 5 or x < –5 ⎞ 4⎟ . that is. 3). 3]. 22 ⎛ 22 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x − < x < 4 ⎬ or ⎜ − . 3]. 65. |x| > 3 x > 3 or x < –3 The solution set is { x x > 3 or x < −3} . |x + 3| ≤ 4 –4 ≤ x + 3 ≤ 4 –7 ≤ x ≤ 1 The solution set is { x −7 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [–7. or 2 x − 5 < −1 3 2 x<4 3 3≤x<6 The solution set is { x 3 ≤ x < 6} . |x| < 3 –3 < x < 3 The solution set is { x − 3 < x < 3} . |2(x – 1) + 4| ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2(x – 1) + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x – 2 + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x + 2 ≤ 8 –10 ≤ 2x ≤ 6 –5 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 5 ≤ x ≤ 3} .9 63. −6 ≤ x − 4 < −3 2 1 −2 ≤ x < 1 2 −4 ≤ x < 2 The solution set is { x − 4 ≥ x < 2} or [ −4. −5 ) or ( 5.

that is. ( −∞. −5] or [3. 71. The solution set is { x x ≤ −7 or x ≥ 1} that is. 2 x ≤ −10 x≥3 x ≤ −5 3 3− x > 9 4 3 3 3 − x > 9 or 3 − x < −9 4 4 3 3 − x>6 − x < −12 4 4 x < −8 x > 16 {x x < −8 or x > 16} . ∞ ) . |5x – 2| > 13 5 x − 2 > 13 or 5 x − 2 < −13 5 x < −11 x>3 x<− 11 5 ⎧ −11 ⎫ or x > 3⎬ . 75. or ( −∞. −1] or [3. ∞ ) 5 ⎠ ⎝ 73. that is. ( −∞. −7 ) or (1. ∞ ) . |x + 3| ≥ 4 x + 3 ≥ 4 or x ≥1 x + 3 ≤ −4 x ≤ −7 The solution set is { x x ≤ −2 or x ≥ 4} . 102 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎟ or ( 3. |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x≥3 74. ( −∞. that is all x in ( −∞. ⎟ or ( 5. that is. . 77. Inc. The solution set is { x x ≤ −5 or x ≥ 3} . 70. |3x – 8| > 7 3x − 8 > 7 or 3x − 8 < −7 3x > 15 3x < 1 1 x>5 x< 3 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 5⎬ . ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . −8 ) or (16. The solution set is ⎨ x x < 5 ⎩ ⎭ −11 ⎞ ⎛ that is. ∞ ) . 72. 3⎠ ⎝ ( −∞.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 69. x − 1 ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 3} . that is. 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. −1] or [3. all x in ⎜ −∞. that is. ∞ ) . − 3) or (12. ∞ ) . −2] or [ 4. 5 x > 15 3x − 3 ≥1 9 3x − 3 3x − 3 ≥ 1 or ≤ −1 9 9 3x − 3 ≥ 9 3 x − 3 ≤ −9 3x ≥ 12 3 x ≤ −6 x≥4 x ≤ −2 x≥3 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ 1 or x ≥ 3} . ∞ ) . 3|x – 1| + 2 ≥ 8 3|x – 1| ≥ 6 |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x − 1 ≤ −2 2x + 2 ≥2 4 2x + 2 2x + 2 ≥ 2 or ≤ −2 4 4 2x + 2 ≥ 8 2 x + 2 ≤ −8 2x ≥ 6 2 3− x > 5 3 2 2 3 − x > 5 or 3 − x < −5 3 3 2 2 − x>2 − x < −8 3 3 x < −3 x > 12 The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 12} . ( −∞. 76.

9 5 2x +1 − 3 ≥ 9 82. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 103 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 81. Inc. 2x +1 ≤ − − x > −2 or x<2 83. Section P. 2⎭ 5 > 4 − x is equivalent to 4 − x < 5 . . −2 < 11 − x < 2 −13 < − x < −9 −13 − x −9 > > −1 −1 −1 13 > x > 9 9 < x < 13 The solution set is { x 9 < x < 13}. −2 5 − x < −6 5 2 x + 1 ≥ 12 2x +1 ≥ −2 5 − x −6 −2 −2 5− x > 3 12 5 12 5 7 2x ≥ 5 7 x≥ 10 12 5 17 or 2x ≤ − 5 17 x≤− 10 ⎧ 17 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − or x ≥ ⎬ . 2 > 11 − x is equivalent to 11 − x < 2 . −4 −2 −2 x−4 ≤ 2 80. 9 ≤ 4x + 7 4 x + 7 ≥ 9 or 4 x + 7 ≤ −9 4x ≥ 2 4 x ≤ −16 2 x ≤ −4 x≥ 4 1 x≥ 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ −4 or x ≥ ⎩ 2≤ x≤6 The solution set is { x 2 ≤ x ≤ 6} . −5 < 4 − x < 5 −9 < − x < 1 −9 − x 1 > > −1 −1 −1 9 > x > −1 −1 < x < 9 The solution set is { x −1 < x < 9} . −4 1 − x < −16 −4 1 − x −16 > −4 −4 1− x > 4 1− x > 4 1 − x < −4 3 or −x > − x < −5 x < −3 x>5 86. 84.PreCalculus 4E 78. The solution set is { x −16 ≤ x ≤ 2} . −3 x + 7 ≥ −27 −27 −3 −3 x+7 ≤9 ≤ −9 ≤ x + 7 ≤ 9 −16 ≤ x ≤ 2 85. − x < −8 3 ≤ 2x −1 2x −1 ≥ 3 −2 ≤ x − 4 ≤ 2 −3 x + 7 5 − x < −3 The solution set is { x x < 2 or x > 8} . > 5− x > 3 −2 x − 4 ≥ −4 −2 x − 4 −2 5 − x < −6 1⎫ ⎬. 2 x ≥ 4 or x≥2 ≤ x >8 2 x − 1 ≤ −3 2 x ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 2} . The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 5}. 10 10 ⎭ ⎩ 2x + 1 ≥ 79.

92. 4+ 3− 11 4 > − is true for all x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. that is. 3 3 the solution set is { x x is any real number} or (–∞. The solution set is ⎨ x x < − 14 14 ⎭ ⎩ The solution set is { x 0 ≤ x ≤ 8} or [ 0. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . 3 ⎩ ⎭ 88. ∞ ⎟ . 4 < 2 − x is equivalent to 2 − x > 4 . 90. 4 11 < x− 3 3 Since x − x −1 ≤ 1 2 x ≤2 2 x −2 ≤ 2 − ≤ 2 2 x −4 ≤ − ≤ 0 2 8≥ x≥0 89.8] . that is. 12 < −2 x + − 2− 2− The solution set is { x x < −2 or x > 6} . 1 < 2 − 3x is equivalent to 2 − 3x > 1 . ∞ ).Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 87. 93. 104 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 94. 2 − 3x > 1 −3 x > −1 −3x −1 or < −3 −3 1 x< 3 91. 2−x > 4 or 2 − x < −4 −x > 2 − x < −6 −x 2 < −1 −1 x < −2 − x −6 > −1 −1 x>6 ( −∞. 75 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 87 ⎞ ⎜ −∞.1] . . − ⎟ or ⎜ . 6 3 + 7 7 81 6 < −2 x + 7 7 6 81 6 81 −2 x + > or −2 x + < − 7 7 7 7 75 87 −2 x > −2 x < − 7 7 75 87 x<− x> 14 14 ⎧ 75 87 ⎫ or x > ⎬ . 14 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 14 ⎠ y≤0 2 x − 11 + 3( x + 2) ≤ 0 2 x − 11 + 3x + 6 ≤ 0 5x − 5 ≤ 0 11 7 + 3 3 5x ≤ 5 x ≤1 The solution set is ( −∞. −6] or [ 24. y≥4 1 − ( x + 3) + 2 x ≥ 4 1 − x − 3 + 2x ≥ 4 x−2≥ 4 x≥6 The solution set is [ 6. 2 − 3 x < −1 −3 x < −3 x ≥5 3 x x 3 − ≥ 5 or 3 − ≤ −5 3 3 x x − ≥2 − ≤ −8 3 3 x ≤ −6 x ≥ 24 −3 x −3 > −3 −3 x >1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −6 or x ≥ 24} . 1 < x − x ≥9 3 3− ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 1⎬ . Inc.

40 x − 4 ≤ 40 32 ≤ 0.1 −2. Inc.1 < 38. [ 0.S. . 4 ) 108.2 x > 12 Since x is the number of years after 1994. − ⎥ ∪ [ 3.PreCalculus 4E Section P.9 y≤4 95.1x > 37. 5⎦ ⎣ 104. commitment > passion or passion < commitment 105. 2⎭ 9⎦ ⎩ ⎣ x + 2 ≤ −3 2 x + 4 ≤ −6 x≥2 99. Let x be the number. 101.8 > 63 3.40 x ≤ 44 80 ≤ x ≤ 110 Between 80 and 110 ten minutes. | 4 − 3 x |≥ 5 or | 3x − 4 |≥ 5 3x − 4 ≤ −5 3 x ≤ −1 1 x≤− 3 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x | x ≤ − or x ≥ 3⎬ or 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1 ⎛ ⎤ ⎜ −∞. 109. 105 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. commitment ≥ intimacy or intimacy ≤ commitment − 5 x + 3 ≥ −2 − ( − 5 x + 3 ) ≤ − ( −2 ) 103.5] The solution set is ( −∞. 7− 98. After approximately 5 12 years 107. − ⎥ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. passion ≤ intimacy or intimacy ≥ passion y≥6 8 − 5x + 3 ≥ 6 102. fewer than 38.1% of U. Let x be the number. −2. ∞ ) .40 ( x − 60 ) ≤ 40 28 ≤ 20 + 0. −10] ∪ [ 2. 3.5 x + 63. | 5 − 4 x |≤ 13 or | 4 x − 5 |≤ 13 x +2 ≤ 4 2 −13 ≤ 4 x − 5 ≤ 13 −8 ≤ 4 x ≤ 18 9 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 x − + 2 ≤ −3 2 x +2 ≥3 2 x +2≥3 or 2 x+4≥ 6 9⎫ 2⎤ ⎧ ⎡ The solution set is ⎨ x | −2 ≤ x ≤ ⎬ or ⎢ −2. 3⎦ ⎝ 3x − 4 ≥ 5 3x ≥ 9 x≥3 ( 0. 28 ≤ 20 + 0.1x + 25. 96.5 x < 25 or x > 10 1994 + 10 = 2004 In years after 2004. ∞ ) . passion<commitment or commitment > passion 5x + 3 ≤ 2 −2 ≤ 5 x + 3 ≤ 2 −5 ≤ 5 x ≤ −1 −5 5 x −1 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 1 −1 ≤ x ≤ − 5 1⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −1. x ≤ −10 100. we calculate 1994+12=2006. 63% of voters will use electronic systems after 2006. − ⎥ . 97. inclusive. 9.40 x − 24 ≤ 40 28 ≤ 0. after 3 years 106. voters will use punch cards or lever machines.

645 5 5 h − 50 ≥ 8.5 x 5 ( F − 32 ) ≤ 35 9 9 9 5 9 (15 ) ≤ ⎛⎜ ( F − 32 ) ⎞⎟ ≤ ( 35 ) 5 5⎝9 ⎠ 5 15 ≤ 1200 < x More then 1200 packets of stationary need to be sold each week to make a profit.225 h ≥ 58.6 x > 6250 More than 6250 tapes need to be sold a week to make a profit.5 x 3000 < 2. 000 1. 1800 + 0.04 x 300 < x Plan A is a better deal when driving more than 300 miles a month.5 The man will be working on the job at least 1.08 x < 3 + .40 x 1. 118.50x 30 < 0.08 x < 8 + 0. 2 x > 10. 245 + 95 x ≤ 3000 95 x ≤ 2755 x ≤ 29 29 bags or less can be lifted safely. 86 + 88 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 240 x < 66 This will happen if you get a grade less than 66. 111.03x <6 x < 200 The credit union is a better deal when writing less than 200 checks.05 x 0. 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 90 6 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 540 2 x + 350 ≥ 540 2 x ≥ 190 x ≥ 95 You must receive at least a 95% to earn an A. Let x = the number of hours the mechanic works on the car. 122. inclusive or [59°F. or 41 or less. 3000 + 3x < 5.225 h ≤ 41. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 113. 106 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.08x 1600 < 0.6 x 10.5 hours. 226 ≤ 175 + 34 x ≤ 294 51 ≤ 34 x ≤ 119 1. . 9 ( 3) ≤ F − 32 ≤ 9 ( 7 ) 27 ≤ F − 32 ≤ 63 59 ≤ F ≤ 95 The range for Fahrenheit temperatures is 59°F to 95°F .03x < 200 + 0. 2 + 0. 000 + 0. 15 + 0. 119.05x 32000 < x A home assessment of greater than $32. b. 114. 120. 115. 116.95°F] .20x < 20 + 0. 265 + 65 x ≤ 2800 65 x ≤ 2535 x ≤ 39 39 bags or fewer can be lifted safely.645 or ≤ −1.5 ≤ x ≤ 3.645 5 h − 50 h − 50 ≥ 1. 000 > 1. Inc.775 The number of outcomes would be 59 or more.000 would make the first bill a better deal.225 h − 50 ≤ −8. 50 + 0. Let x = the grade on the final exam. a. 86 + 88 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 270 x ≥ 96 You must get at least a 96. 117. 121.6 x > 10. h − 50 ≥ 1. 112.12 x 12 < 0.5 and at most 3.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 110.6 1.3x 100< x Basic Rental is a better deal when driving more than 100 miles per day.

50 x. | x − 4 |≥ 3 142. 133. −2 ) = ( −∞. we multiply the cost with the 3month pass by 2. Let x = the number of times the bridge is crossed per three month period The cost with the 3-month pass is C3 = 7. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 145.3) ∪ ( −∞. y – x represents a negative number. 3x > 7. . makes sense 3 4 − (3) 2 = −5 x>3 The 3-month pass is the best deal when making more than 3 but less than 15 crossings per 3month period. false. 141. 3) 138. y = 4 − x 2 x y = 4 − x2 −3 4 − (−3)2 = −5 2. Changes to make the statement true will vary. – 131. true 137. a. true 140. makes sense 135. Answers may vary.50 −2 4 − (−2)2 = 0 −1 4 − (−1)2 = 3 0 4 − (0)2 = 4 1 4 − (1)2 = 3 124. makes sense 136.50 + 0. x −4 −3 y = x +1 −4 + 1 = 3 −3 + 1 = 2 −2 −1 0 1 2 −2 + 1 = 1 −1 + 1 = 0 0 +1 = 1 1+1 = 2 2 +1 = 3 139. When both sides are multiplied by (y – x) the inequality must be reversed. 2 ( 7. −1 4 − (−1) = 5 0 4 − (0) = 4 1 4 − (1) = 3 2 4 − (2) = 2 3 4 − (3) = 1 Because we need to buy two 3-month passes per 6-month pass.9 143. x y = 4− x −3 4 − (−3) = 7 −2 4 − (−2) = 6 The cost with the 6-month pass is C6 = 30. Because x > y. y = x + 1 134. Inc. 107 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. | x − 4 |< 3 b. We need this cost to be less than the cost with a 3-month pass. false.50 x ) < 30 15 + x < 30 x < 15 We also must consider the cost without purchasing a pass. A sample change is: 3x > 6 is equivalent to x > 2. 2 4 − (2)2 = 0 132.50 + 0.50 x 144. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A sample change is: ( −∞.50 + 0. Answers may vary. y = 4 − x 123.PreCalculus 4E Section P.50 x > 7.

c. Inc. 0. 81 b. 1 (5 x) + [ (3 y ) + (−3 y ) ] − (− x) = x + [ 0] + x = 2 x 5 {a. e} = {a. d . commutative property of multiplication. 0. e} {a. commutative property of addition. g} = {a. 0. 0. d . f . 7. This overestimates the percent displayed by the bar graph by 3. g} {a. d . b. A = {a. d .6(21) − 15 = 38. b. c} B = {a. − e. 0. d . 81 13 24. g} 22. e} {a. commutative property of multiplication. 81 c.55 38. d . 3 + 17 = 17 + 3. . d . distributive property of multiplication over addition. c} ∪ {a. 81 13 −103 = 103 108 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d . f . 2. (6 ⋅ 9) ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅ (6 ⋅ 9) . −17. 9. 3 − 17 = 17 − 3 since 12. 16. e} 6. 18. f . associative property of multiplication. c} = {a} = 8 − 8 + 10 x 8. b. 0. d . a.55%. 3 + 6( x − 2) = 3 + 6(4 − 2) 3 10. d .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Chapter P Review Exercises 1. c} ∩ {a. (3 ⋅ 7) + (4 ⋅ 7) = (4 ⋅ 7) + (3 ⋅ 7) . b. b. π . 3( 5 + 3) = ( 5 + 3) 3 . 13. (−3)3 (−2)2 = (−27) ⋅ (4) = −108 9 .015(3600) + 60 + 10 = 54 + 60 + 10 = 124 4.05(21)2 + 3. c. g} ∩ {a.75.015(60)2 + (60) + 10 2 = 0. 11. c} 5. = 3 + 6(2)3 = 3 + 6(8) = 3 + 48 = 51 2. 2 −1 = 2 −1 3 A = {a. b. c. c} C = {a. c. c. A = {a. b. − = 10 x 23. f . 81 d. 17. e} = {a. −17.015 x + x + 10 S = 0.75.6 x − 15 P = −0. f . 19. c} B = {a. 5(2 x − 3) + 7 x = 10 x − 15 + 7 x = 17 x − 15 20.05 x 2 + 3. b. g} 21. π f. 15. b. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = 36 − 5(4) 3. 3(4 y − 5) − (7 y + 2) = 12 y − 15 − 7 y − 2 = 5 y − 17 A = {a. c} ∪ {a. 3( 5 + 3) = 15 + 3 . 8 − 2[3 − (5 x − 1)] = 8 − 2[3 − 5 x + 1] = 8 − 2[4 − 5 x ] = 36 − 20 = 16 S = 0. 2. c. −17. (6 ⋅ 3) ⋅ 9 = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 9) .55% of 21 year olds have been tested. 17 is greater than 3. P = −0. commutative property of addition. 4 − (−17) = 4 + 17 = 21 = 21 x 2 − 5( x − y ) = 62 − 5(6 − 2) 14. c} C = {a. 9 .

Inc. 3. 121 121 11 = = 4 2 4 96 x 3 45. 4 43.3 × 102 ) = (3 ×1.74 × 104 = 37. 000 37.0000745 = 10 2 + 6 2 34. 12 x 2 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 2 x 3 42. 0.75 1.3 × 10−2 = 0. 000 = 3. 40. 39. 300 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 10 3 41. (−5 x y )(−2 x 3 2 −11 = (−5)(−2) x x 3 6.59 × 106 = 16 2 35. 4 (3 × 103 )(1. 5−3 ⋅ 5 = 5−351 = 5−3+1 27. 257 × 109 = 2.45 × 10 = 0.57 × 1011 b. = 2x 5 (2 x3 ) −4 = (2)−4 ( x 3 ) −4 = 2−4 x −12 1 2 x12 1 = 16 x12 = 31. 10 x ⋅ 2 x = 20 x 2 −2 y ) −11 y 2 y −2 = 10 ⋅ x3−11 y 2 − 2 = 10 x −8 y 0 = 4x2 ⋅ 5 10 = 8 x 30.590. 33 1 1 = 33− 6 = 3−3 = 3 = 36 3 27 28. Chapter P Review Exercises 1 1 + 24 4 1 1 = + 16 4 1 4 = + 16 16 5 = 16 36.3) × (103 × 102 ) a.75 × 108 2. 2−4 + 4−1 = = 3.9 × 103 ⎛ 6. (−2 x y ) = (−2) ( x ) ( y ) 3 3 3 4 3 38. r3 = r 2 ⋅ r = r r 44.57 × 1011 2. 7 5 + 13 5 = (7 + 13) 5 = 20 5 47.75 × 10 10 The average tax return cost $1469. 175 × 106 = 1. 3 3 = (−2)3 x 4⋅3 y 3⋅3 = −8 x12 y 9 29.PreCalculus 4E 25. 7x y ⎛ 7 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ( x5 −15 )( y 6 − ( −2) ) 28 x15 y −2 ⎝ 28 ⎠ 1 = x −10 y 8 4 y8 = 10 4x 5 = 6 2x = 96 x3 2x = 48 x 2 = 16 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4x 3 3. .57 × 102 ⋅ 109 = 2. 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.023 1 1 = 5−2 = 2 = 5 25 26.00725 = 7.469 × 103 = 1469 8 1.57 1011 ⋅ 8 ≈ 1. 400 46.75 × 102 ⋅ 106 = 1. 32. 2 50 + 3 8 = 2 25 ⋅ 2 + 3 4 ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅5 2 + 3⋅ 2 2 −5 33.9 × 105 = 390.25 × 10 −3 109 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9 ⎞ 3− 5 =⎜ ⎟ × 10 3 ×105 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 2.

15 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 15 ⎞ 3 / 4 −1/ 2 =⎜ ⎟x = 3x1/ 4 5 x1/ 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 70. y3 y 2 = y 3 y 2 6 ⋅ = 3 3 3 = 5 51. y . 6 y 3 = ( y 3 )1/ 6 = y 3⋅1/ 6 = y1/ 2 = 110 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 81 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 = = 251/ 2 25 5 1 1 1 = = 271/ 3 3 27 3 65. = 14 7− 5 ⋅ 7+ 5 125 = 5 4 −125 is not a real number. (125 ⋅ x 6 ) 2 / 3 = ( 3 125 x 6 ) 2 −32 = −2 55. 4 3 16 + 5 3 2 = 4 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 5 3 2 = 4⋅6 2 − 2⋅4 3 = 24 2 − 8 3 49. 56. 3 y5 = 59. 30 30 50. 27 −4 / 3 = 68. 642 / 3 = ( 3 64) 2 = 42 = 16 67. 4 72 − 2 48 = 4 36 ⋅ 2 − 2 16 ⋅ 3 58. 25−1/ 2 = 64. 4 4 32 x 5 4 4 = 2x = x 4 2 16 x 62. 53. 5 3 1 1 1 1 = 3 = 4 = 4/3 4 27 3 81 ( 27) = (5 x 2 )2 3 = 25 x 4 71. (5 x 2 / 3 )(4 x1/ 4 ) = 5 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3+1/ 4 = 20 x11/12 69.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 32 x 5 = 14 3 4 6+ 3 6− 3 52. 27 −1/ 3 = 66. 4 (−5)4 = 4 625 = 4 54 = 5 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1251/ 3 = 3 125 = 5 7+ 5 14( 7 + 5) = 7−5 14( 7 + 5) = 2 = 7( 7 + 5) 5 16 x = 5(6 − 3) 36 − 3 7− 5 54. 2 30 5 = ⋅ = =6 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 3 = 5 6+ 3 = 4 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 53 2 = 83 2 + 53 2 ⋅ = 13 3 2 6− 3 61. Inc. 161/ 2 = 16 = 4 = 5(6 − 3) 33 63. 4 8 ⋅ 4 10 = 4 80 = 4 16 ⋅ 5 = 4 16 ⋅ 4 5 = 2 4 5 60.

Inc. (3 x 2 + 2 y ) 2 = (3 x 2 )2 + 2(3 x 2 )(2 y ) + (2 y ) 2 = 9 x 4 + 12 x 2 y + 4 y 2 84. (5 x − 2)3 = (5 x)3 − 3(5 x )2 (2) + 3(5 x)(2) 2 − 23 = 125 x 3 − 150 x 2 + 60 x − 8 81. (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) − (5 x 4 − 3x3 + 2 x 2 − 6) = (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−5 x 4 + 3 x3 − 2 x 2 + 6) = (13x 4 − 5 x 4 ) + (−8 x3 + 3x3 ) + (2 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + 6 = 8x 4 − 5x3 + 6 The degree is 4. (7 x + 4 y )(7 x − 4 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (4 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 16 y 2 85. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 74. (2 x + 1)3 = (2 x)3 + 3(2 x) 2 (1) + 3(2 x)(1) 2 + 13 = 8 x3 + 12 x 2 + 6 x + 1 80. (4 x + 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x 2 ) − 52 = 16 x 2 − 25 77. (3 x − 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(1) + (−5)(2 x) + (−5)(1) = 6 x 2 + 3 x − 10 x − 5 = 6 x2 − 7 x − 5 76. (3 x − 4) 2 = (3 x) 2 − 2(3 x) ⋅ 4 + (−4) 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 79. 73. ( x + 7 y )(3x − 5 y ) = x(3x ) + ( x)(−5 y ) + (7 y )(3 x) + (7 y )(−5 y ) = 3 x 2 − 5 xy + 21xy − 35 y 2 = 3 x 2 + 16 xy − 35 y 2 82. Chapter P Review Exercises (−6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 9 x + 3) + (14 x3 + 3x 2 − 11x − 7) = (−6 x3 + 14 x3 ) + (7 x 2 + 3x 2 ) + (−9 x − 11x) + (3 − 7) = 8 x 3 + 10 x 2 − 20 x − 4 The degree is 3. (3 x − 2)(4 x 2 + 3x − 5) = (3 x)(4 x 2 ) + (3x)(3x) + (3x)(−5) + (−2)(4 x 2 ) + (−2)(3x) + (−2)(−5) = 12 x3 + 9 x 2 − 15 x − 8 x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 12 x3 + x 2 − 21x + 10 75. (2 x + 5) 2 = (2 x)2 + 2(2 x) ⋅ 5 + 52 = 4 x 2 + 20 x + 25 78.PreCalculus 4E 72. (3 x − 5 y ) 2 = (3x) 2 − 2(3x)(5 y ) + (−5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 − 30 xy + 25 y 2 83. . (a − b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) = a(a 2 ) + a (ab) + a(b 2 ) + (−b)(a 2 ) +(−b)(ab) + (−b)(b 2 ) = a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 − a 2 b − ab 2 − b3 = a 3 − b3 111 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = x 2 + 2 xy + 4 x + 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 y + 4 x + 8 y + 16 = ( x 2 − 2)( x + 5) = x 2 + 4 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 x + 16 y + 16 104. 15 x − x − 2 = (3x + 1)(5 x − 2) 2 91. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 16 x − 40 x + 25 = (4 x − 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x − 5)2 97. x 2 + 18 x + 81 − y 2 = ( x 2 + 18 x + 81) − y 2 88. 6 x2 + 2 x x( x + 2) x . −3 3 ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 − ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x2 + 3) 2 2 1 = ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎡⎣1 − ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) ⎤⎦ 20 x 7 − 36 x3 = 4 x 3 (5 x 4 − 9) 1 = ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎣⎡1 − ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) ⎦⎤ x 3 − 3x 2 − 9 x + 27 = x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) 1 = ( x 2 − 9)( x − 3) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x 2 + 3) 2 (− x 4 + x 2 + 13) = ( x + 3)( x − 3)( x − 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 2 107. 93. 99. 102. 15 x + 3 x = 3x ⋅ 5 x + 3x ⋅1 3 2 2 2 = ( x + 9) − y2 2 = 3x (5 x + 1) 2 89. 12 x − 1 2 + 6x − 3 2 = 6x − 3 2 ( 2 x + 1) = 6(2 x + 1) 96. = 3 x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) 94. x 5 − x = x( x 4 − 1) = x( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2 y + 4) = ( x + 2 y + 4 )( x + 2 y + 4 ) = x ( x + 2 y + 4) + 2 y ( x + 2 y + 4) + 4 ( x + 2 y + 4) 2 = x( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 + 1) 103. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) x3 + 2 x 2 x 2 ( x + 2) = = x 2 . 16 x 90. [5 y − (2 x + 1)][5 y + (2 x + 1)] 101. 3x 4 − 12 x 2 = 3x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 3x 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) 112 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 x2 2 y 3 − 8 = y 3 − 23 = ( y − 2)( y 2 + 2 y + 4) 110. 3x 4 − 9 x 3 − 30 x 2 = 3 x 2 ( x 2 − 3x − 10) 95. = = ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x 2 − 36 x ≠ –6. 4 + 32 x 1 4 = 16 x −3 4 = 1 − ( −3 ) ⎛ 4 4 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ −3 (1 + 2 x ) (1 + 2 x ) = 16 x 16 x 4 3 4 1 106. 64 − x 2 = 82 − x 2 = (8 − x)(8 + x) 92. 27 x 3 − 125 = (3 x)3 − 53 = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 1) 2 = (3 x − 5)[(3 x)2 + (3x)(5) + 52 ] = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 4 x + 1) = (3 x − 5)(9 x 2 + 15 x + 25) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 4 x − 1 87. . x 2 + 16 is prime. Inc. 108.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 86. = = x + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2)2 x + 2 x ≠ –2 2 100. = ( x + 9 − y )( x + 9 + y ) x 2 − 11x + 28 = ( x − 4)( x − 7) 105. = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 98. x ≠ –2 x+2 x+2 x 2 + 3x − 18 ( x + 6)( x − 3) x − 3 . x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 109.

2 x x x+2 3x 3x x − 2 + = ⋅ + ⋅ x+2 x−2 x+2 x−2 x−2 x+2 3x2 − 6 x + x 2 + 2 x = ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x2 − 4 x ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x( x − 1) = . x 2 − 5 x − 24 x 2 − 10 x + 16 ÷ 2 x 2 − x − 12 x + x−6 ( x − 8)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 8) = ÷ ( x − 4)( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 2) x −8 x +3 = ⋅ x − 4 x −8 x+3 = . –2 112. x x −1 + x2 − 9 x2 − 5x + 6 x x −1 = + ( x − 3)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 3) x x−2 x −1 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x − 2 ( x − 2)( x − 3) x + 3 x ( x − 2) + ( x − 1)( x + 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) 113 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x( x + 1) 1 x ≠ 0. 113. ( x + 3)3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 2 3 = 1 1 1 1 118. x + 6 x + 9 ⋅ x + 3 = ( x + 3) ⋅ 2 x −4 x − 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x − 2 = 116. x−4 x ≠ –3. ( x − 2)2 ( x + 2) x ≠ 2. –3. 2 117. (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3 x + 2) 1 2 x ≠ . –2 x2 − 2x + x2 + 2 x − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) = 114. Inc. 1.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 2 2 x+3 111. . x x ≠ 0. 6 x + 2 3x 2 + x ÷ x2 − 1 x −1 x(3x + 1) 2(3 x + 1) = ÷ x −1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x −1 2(3 x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 1)( x + 1) x(3 x + 1) 2 = . − 1. –3 115. x−3 x ≠ 3. − 3. − 3 = 2 x2 − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) x ≠ 3. 4. 2. x − 2 x − 2 6 x = ⋅ 1 − x 1 − x 6x 3 6 3 6 6 − 3x = 2 x − x2 −3( x − 2) = − x( x − 2) 3 = . 2 x − 7 − x − 10 = 2 x − 7 − ( x − 10) x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 1 = . ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x ≠ 2. 8 x+3 4x −1 − 2 x2 + 5x − 3 6 x 2 + x − 2 x+3 4x −1 = − (2 x − 1)( x + 3) (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) 4x −1 3x + 2 = ⋅ (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 3x + 2 x+3 x+3 − ⋅ (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) x + 3 = 12 x 2 + 8 x − 3x − 2 − x 2 − 6 x − 9 (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3x + 2) 11x 2 − x − 11 .

This is a conditional equation. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ 1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 122. x ≠ –1 1 1 2 − = 2 x − 1 x + 1 x −1 1 1 2 − = x − 1 x + 1 (x + 1)(x − 1) x + 1 − (x −1) = 2 x2 25 − x 2 x + 1− x + 1 = 2 25 − x 2 ⎛ 25 − x 2 + x ⎞ 25 − 2 x 2 ⎜ ⎟ 25 − x 2 ⎠ =⎝ (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 2 =2 The solution set is all real numbers except 1 and –1. 1 – 2(6 – x) = 3x + 2 1 – 12 + 2x = 3x + 2 –11 – x = 2 –x = 13 x = –13 The solution set is {–13}. 124. 2( x − 4) + 3( x + 5) = 2 x − 2 2 x − 8 + 3x + 15 = 2 x − 2 5x + 7 = 2 x − 2 3x = −9 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. = x−4 x ≠ 0. 3 − x + 3 3 − x + 3 x + 3 = ⋅ 3+ 1 3+ 1 x +3 x+3 x+3 3( x + 3) − 1 = 3( x + 3) + 1 3x + 9 − 1 = 3x + 9 + 1 3x + 8 = . x ≠ 4 2 30 4 + = x + 2 x − 4 (x + 2)(x − 4) 4(x − 4) + 2(x + 2) = 30 25 − x 2 + x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 25 4x − 16 + 2x + 4 = 30 6x −12 = 30 6x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. x ≠ –2. 2 = = = = = 126. 125. 12 12 119. 4. − 3 25 − x 2 + 121 . . 2x – 4(5x + 1) = 3x + 17 2x – 20x – 4 = 3x + 17 –18x – 4 = 3x + 17 –21x = 21 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. 1 1 120. 3 + x 3 + x x 2 = ⋅ 2 1 − 162 1 − 162 x x x 2 3x + 12 x = 2 x − 16 3x( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 4) 3x . 3 x + 10 10 x ≠ −3. –4 123. This is a conditional equation. (25 − x 2 )3 25 (25 − x 2 )3 ⋅ 25 − x 2 25 − x 2 25 25 − x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 25 − x 2 (5 − x)2 (5 + x)2 114 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This is a conditional equation. Inc.

( x − 3) 2 = ± 24 x − 3 = ±2 6 128. The solution set is {4} .−2 3 x+2=0 x = −2 x= x=4 –2 must be rejected. Inc. 3 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 x= 0 = ( x + 2)( x − 4) or x − 4 = 0 –4 must be rejected. The solution set is {2} . 5⎬ . 2 x 2 − 11x + 5 = 0 (2x – 1)(x – 5) = 0 2x – 1 = 0 x – 5 = 0 1 x = or x = 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . ⎩2 ⎭ x = 3± 2 6 2x x 2 = − x + 6x + 8 x + 4 x + 2 2x x 2 = − ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 4 x + 2 133. 7 ± (−7)2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 7 ± 49 − 12 6 7 ± 37 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 7 + 37 7 − 37 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬.1} . 8 − 2x = x ( 8 − 2x ) 2 = x2 8 − 2 x = x2 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 ⎧ 10 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. 3x 2 + 5 x − 9 x − 15 = 5 3x 2 − 4 x − 20 = 0 x= 2x = x2 + 2x − 2x − 8 4 ± (−4)2 − 4(3)(−20) 2(3) 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 4 ± 16 + 240 6 4 ± 256 x= 6 4 ± 16 x= 6 20 −12 x= . −4 2 x + 1 = −12 2x + 1 = 3 2 x + 1 = 3 or 2 x + 1 = −3 2x = 2 x =1 2 x = −4 x = −2 132. −4 2 x + 1 + 12 = 0 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 115 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 − 9 = 0 127. 8 − 2x − x = 0 134. 3⎭ ⎩ 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 130. 2 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 ⎞ ⎛ x = ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎜ − ⎟ ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎝ x+4 x+2⎠ 2 x = x ( x + 2) − 2( x + 4) (3x + 5)( x − 3) = 5 129.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 131. ⎬ . 3}. 6 6 10 x = . ( x − 3)2 − 24 = 0 ( x − 3) 2 = 24 The solution set is {−2.

8 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by China.3 million barrels. Let x = the original price of the phone 48 = x − 0.000 in one week to earn $800. or 2019.S.5 + 0.80 x 60 = x The original price is $60. respectfully.3 x + x + 0. thus the equation has no real solutions. that will speak a language other than English at home will reach 25. Let w = the width of the playing field. 116 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 x + 0.05 x A 1 + rT 500 = 0.1% 19 years after 2000.5 The daily oil consumption of the United States. 17.4 x = 25.5 million barrels. Let x = the number of years after 2000. China. vt + gt 2 = s gt 2 = s − vt 141.5 x = 5. 143.05 x 10. Let x + 15 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by the United States. and Japan is 20.3 3 x + 15. 9 x 2 − 30 x + 25 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−30)2 − 4(9)(25) = 0 340 = 2 ( 3w − 6 ) + 2w 340 = 6w − 12 + 2 w b 2 − 4ac = 0. x + ( x + 0.8 = 32. Inc. A− P Pr A− P Pr (T ) = Pr Pr PrT = A − P T= 142. 340 = 8w − 12 352 = 8w 44 = w The dimensions are 44 yards by 126 yards.6 x = 19 The percentage of people in the U.3 3x = 16.8 = 6. PrT + P = A P ( rT + 1) = A P= 138. 144. . x 2 = 2 x − 19 x 2 − 2 x + 19 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−2) 2 − 4(1)(19) = −72 −72 < 0. 000 = x Sales must be $10. 136. Let x = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by Japan.5 million barrels.8) + ( x + 15) = 32.8 + x + 15 = 32.20 x 48 = 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 135. 2 The solution set is {2}.1 0. 6. Let x + 0. 2x − 3 + x = 3 2x − 3 = 3 − x 2x − 3 = 9 − 6x + x2 x 2 − 8 x + 12 = 0 x 2 − 8 x = −12 x 2 − 8 x + 16 = −12 + 16 ( x − 4)2 = 4 x − 4 = ±2 x = 4+2 x = 6. and 5. gt s − vt = 2 t2 t s − vt g= 2 t 2 137. thus the equation has one repeated real solution. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 x = 7. Let 3w – 6 = the length of the playing field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 139. Let x = the amount sold to earn $800 in one week 800 = 300 + 0.3 x + 15 = 20. 140.

y2 = 41.100 students. 147. { x x ≤ 0} x 2 = 18. 1500 1500 + 100 = x x−4 1500 ⎛ 1500 ⎞ x( x − 4) ⎜ + 100 ⎟ = x( x − 4) x x−4 ⎝ ⎠ 1500( x − 4) + 100 x( x − 4) = 1500 x 1500 x − 6000 + 100 x 2 − 400 x = 1500 x 15 x − 60 + x 2 − 4 x = 15 x A = lw x 2 − 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 10) = 0 x + 6 = 0 or x − 10 = 0 x = −6 x = 10 –6 must be rejected. { x −3 ≤ x < 5} 151. That year the enrollments will be 32. 148. . the width is 3 yards. 15 = l ( 2l − 7 ) 15 = 2l 2 − 7l 0 = 2l 2 − 7l − 15 0 = (2l + 3)(l − 5) l =5 2l − 7 = 3 The length is 5 yards. 146. (10 + 2 x )(16 + 2 x) = 280 160 + 52 x + 4 x 2 = 280 4 x 2 + 52 x − 120 = 0 x 2 + 13x − 30 = 0 ( x + 15)( x − 2) = 0 x + 15 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −15 x=2 –15 must be rejected. 000 x ≈ ±134. The building is approximately 134 meters high. 117 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. 000 5 x 2 = 90. Chapter P Review Exercises Check some points to determine that y1 = 14. There were originally 10 people. 700 − 800 x .100 when x = 12 .100 + 1500 x and 149.PreCalculus 4E 145. the two colleges will have the same enrollment in the year 2007 + 12 = 2019 . 000 150.164 Discard negative height. { x x > −2} 152. Inc. Let x = height of building 2x = shadow height x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 3002 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 90. Since y1 = y2 = 32. The width of the frame is 2 inches. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1] ∪ [ −1. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.1] and [ −1. Graph [ −1. Graph [1. 155. Numbers in both [1.3) = ( −2. 118 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.1] ∩ [ −1. .3) . 4 ) = ( 0.3) = [ −1. 4 ) : To find the intersection. Graph ( −2.3) : Thus. Numbers in either ( −2. 4 ) : To find the union. Graph [1.1] : Graph [ −1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 153. Graph ( −2. 4 ) .3) .1] or [ −1.3) : To find the intersection. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.3) and ( 0.3) : To find the union. [1. 4 ) or both: Thus. Numbers in both ( −2. 157. Graph ( 0.3) or both: Thus.3) ∪ ( 0. ( −2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 4 ) : Thus.1] . ( −2. ∞ ) .3) : Graph ( 0. 4 ) = [1.3) ∩ ( 0.3) or ( 0.1] : 154. –6x + 3 ≤ 15 –6x ≤ 12 x≥2 The solution set is [ −2. Numbers in either [1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. [1.3) : 156.

⎡3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . − 3] or [ −2. . − ⎟ . 2⎠ ⎝ 2x + 5 ≥ 1 or 2x + 5 ≤ –1 2x ≥ –4 2x ≤ –6 x ≥ –2 or x ≤ –3 160. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) .20 x 16 ≤ 0. The solution set is [ −∞. x+2 ≥3 161. 119 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7 < 2x + 3 ≤ 9 4 < 2x ≤ 6 2<x≤3 (2. ∞ ⎟ . ∞ ) . ∞ ) . 167. Inc.6] . The solution set is [ 2. − 2 ) .20 x ≤ 80 A customer can drive no more than 80 miles. 6x + 5 > –2(x – 3) – 25 6x + 5 > –2x + 6 – 25 8x + 5 > –19 8x > –24 x > –3 The solution set is ( −∞. −4 x + 2 + 5 ≤ −7 −4 x + 2 ≤ −12 The solution set is ( −3. −5] ∪ [1.3) . ⎣5 ⎠ 159.20 x + 24 ≤ 40 0. 165. ∞ ) .20 0. 2 x + 3 ≤ 15 10 x ≥ 6 3 x≥ 5 –15 ≤ 2x + 3 ≤ 15 –18 ≤ 2x ≤ 12 –9 ≤ x ≤ 6 The solution set is [ −9. x 3 x − −1 > 3 4 2 ⎛x 3 ⎞ ⎛ x⎞ 12 ⎜ − − 1⎟ > 12 ⎜ ⎟ 3 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4x – 9 – 12 > 6x –21 > 2x 21 − >x 2 2x + 6 >2 3 2x + 6 2x + 6 >2 < –2 3 3 2 x + 6 > 6 2 x + 6 < –6 2x > 0 2 x < −12 x>0 x < −6 The solution set is ( −∞. 6 x − 9 ≥ −4 x − 3 163.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 158. 166. 3] 0. − 6 ) or ( 0. 0. 2 x + 5 − 7 ≥ −6 2x + 5 ≥ 1 21 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞.20 x ≤ 16 162. 164. 3(2x – 1) – 2(x – 4) ≥ 7 + 2(3 + 4x) 6x – 3 – 2x + 8 ≥ 7 + 6 + 8x 4x + 5 ≥ 8x + 13 –4x ≥ 8 x ≤ –2 x+2≥3 or x ≥1 x + 2 ≤ −3 x ≤ −5 The solution set is ( −∞.

1 11. a} = {5} 4. 5 × 10−6 5 10−6 = ⋅ = 0. 7. 3 5+ 2 = 3 ⋅ 16 x 4 = 3 8 x 3 ⋅ 2 x = 3 8x3 ⋅ 3 2 x 400 ≤ 351 + x < 450 49 ≤ x < 99 A grade of at least 49% but less than 99% will result in a B.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 90 5 400 ≤ 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 450 9. {1.5} ∪ {5. = 7 + 2[−3x + 5] (5 x + 3 y ) 2 = (5 x) 2 + 2(5 x)(3 y ) + (3 y ) 2 = 25 x 2 + 30 xy + 9 y 2 = 7 − 6 x + 10 = −6 x + 17 14. − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 3) 120 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = 2 x 3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − 5 x 2 + 20 x − 15 7 + 2[3( x + 1) − 2(3x − 1)] = 7 + 2[3x + 3 − 6 x + 2] = 2 x 3 − 13x 2 + 26 x − 15 13. = 4 ⋅5 2 − 3⋅3 2 = 20 2 − 9 2 = 11 2 8. x ≠ 3. 2. –3 x 5 + x+3 x−3 x x−3 5 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ x +3 x−3 x −3 x +3 x ( x − 3) + 5( x + 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x + 5 x + 15 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 + 2 x + 15 . 168. Chapter P Test 5(2 x 2 − 6 x) − (4 x 2 − 3x) = 10 x 2 − 30 x − 4 x 2 + 3x = 6 x 2 − 27 x 2. 30 x3 y 4 5 y8 = 5 x3 −9 y 4 − ( −4) = 5 x −6 y 8 = 6 9 −4 x 6x y 6.5} ∩ {5. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5. . = = x 2 − 3 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x − 1) x − 2 x ≠ 2.25 × 102 = 2. 6r ⋅ 3r = 18r 2 = 9r 2 ⋅ 2 = 3r 2 4 50 − 3 18 = 4 25 ⋅ 2 − 3 9 ⋅ 2 15. a} = {1.5 × 101 20 × 10−8 20 10−8 12. 3 5− 2 5+ 2 5− 2 = 3(5 − 2) 25 − 2 = 3(5 − 2) 23 2 x + 8 x2 + 5x + 4 ÷ x−3 x2 − 9 2( x + 4) ( x + 1)( x + 4) = ÷ x−3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 2( x + 4) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ x − 3 ( x + 1)( x + 4) 2( x + 3) = . 3. a} 5. 2. –1. 2. 80 ≤ = 2x 3 2x 10. {1. –4. x +1 x ≠ 3. x 2 + 2 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 . 1.

28n + 47 = W 0. x≠0 x + 3x + 2 29.32 × 1010 3 ( x + 5) − 27 x2 + 5 2 − 27. 6(7 + 4) = 6 ⋅ 7 + 6 ⋅ 4 distributive property of multiplication over addition x 2 + 2 x − x2 ( x + 1)( x + 2) 2x = 2 . 5 3 = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 2) = 5 3 1 ( 3 ) 5 27 = 1 ( 3) 5 = 1 243 ) 2 6. 27 31. 0. x ( x + 3) 26. 3 x 2 − 9 x + 18 = ( x − 3)( x − 6) 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y 3 − 125 = y 3 − 53 = ( y − 5)( y 2 + 5 y + 25) 24. 3(2 + 5) = 3(5 + 2).08 In 2003. commutative property of addition x +5 = 2 + ( x + 3) 5 = ( x + 3) ( x + 3) 5 3 2 x x 2 + 5 − 22x = 3 5 = ( x + 3) 5 (2 x + 3) = = = − x( x + 2) − x 2 x( x + 2) + ( x + 2) = 18. ⎛ 2 x x 2 + 5 − 2 x ⎞ x2 + 5 ⎜ ⎟ x2 +5 ⎠ =⎝ ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x( x 2 + 5) − 2 x3 ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x3 + 10 x − 2 x3 b.28(25) + 53 2 = 3 Three women will receive bachelor’s degrees for every two men. ) 3 5 − 3 x (x 3) 2x + 3 3 4 22 −7. x 3 + 2 x 2 + 3 x + 6 = x 2 ( x + 2) + 3( x + 2) = 1 ( 32. 0. This describes the projections exactly. . Inc.28n + 53 −0. a. M = −0. 5 7 28. 4. = ( x + 5)2 − 9 y 2 = ( x + 5 − 3 y )( x + 5 + 3 y ) 1 − x +x 2 ( x + 2) x 1 − x +x 2 = 1 + 1x 1 + 1x ( x + 2) x ( 25 x 2 − 9 = (5 x)2 − 32 = (5 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (6 x − 7) 2 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 2x + 3 − 2x + 8 = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 11 = .28(25) + 47 R= 0.28n + 47 M = −0.28n + 53 −0. 22.2 × 109 = 1.28(14) + 47 = 43. − .6 × 10−4 30. 43.PreCalculus 4E 16.00076 = 7.25.08%. 2003 is 14 years after 1989. ( x 2 + 10 x + 25) − 9 y 2 25. 4 17.6 × 109 = 13. 21. ( x − 3)( x − 4) x ≠ 3. Chapter P Test 2x + 3 2 − 2 x − 7 x + 12 x − 3 2x + 3 2 = − ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 2x + 3 2 x−4 = − ⋅ ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 x − 4 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) ( ) 36 x 2 − 84 x + 49 = (6 x) 2 − 2(6 x) ⋅ 7 + 7 2 23. 19. R= M −0.08% of bachelor’s degrees were awarded to men.28n + 47 0. 0. ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 10 x c. are rational numbers. R= 121 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This overestimates the actual percent shown by the bar graph by 0.

−b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 –4 does not check and must be rejected. 2 4 8 − = x − 3 x + 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 35. 36. x=5 The solution set is {5}. 34. 37. 7( x − 2) = 4( x + 1) − 21 7 x − 14 = 4 x + 4 − 21 38. x= ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −4 ) 2 2 2±2 5 2 x = 1± 5 x= 2x − 3 = 2x − 8 − x −1 The solution set is 1 − 5. ⎩ 2 ⎭ ( 3x − 1) 2 40. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 − 2x − x = 0 8 − 2x = x ( = 75 3x − 1 = ± 75 8 − 2x ) 2 = ( x) 2 8 − 2 x = x2 3x = 1 ± 5 3 x= 11 ± 112 − 4(1)(28) 2(1) x= −2 x = −10 1 2 } x −3 = x −5 2( x + 3) − 4( x − 3) = 8 x=− { x−3 +5 = x 39. 1± 5 3 3 ⎪⎧1 − 5 3 1 + 5 3 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2⎬ . x − 3 = x 2 − 10 x + 25 x 2 − 11x + 28 = 0 x= 2 x + 6 − 4 x + 12 = 8 −2 x + 18 = 8 11 ± 121 − 112 2 11 ± 9 x= 2 11 ± 3 x= 2 x = 7 or x = 4 4 does not check and must be rejected.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 33. The solution set is {7}. 1 + 5 . ⎬. Inc. x(x – 2) = 4 x2 − 2 x − 4 = 0 7 x − 14 = 4 x − 17 x= 3x = −3 x = −1 The solution set is {–1}. . 2 x 2 − 3x − 2 = 0 (2x + 1)(x – 2) = 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x=2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . The solution set is {2}. 2± 2x − 3 x − 4 x +1 = − 4 2 4 2 x − 3 = 2( x − 4) − ( x + 1) 2x − 3 = x − 9 x = −6 The solution set is {–6}. 3 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 122 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

3(x + 4) ≥ 5x – 12 3x + 12 ≥ 5x – 12 –2x ≥ –24 x ≤ 12 The solution set is (−∞. − ⎥ ∪ ⎢ . 1 V = lwh 3 3V = lwh 3V lwh = lw lw 3V =h lw 3V h= lw 44.3⎬ ⎩2 ⎭ 43. 4x − 7 = 5 4 x − 7 = −5 or 4 x = 12 4x = 2 x=3 1 x= 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎟ . Chapter P Test 2 x−6 = 2 3 2 2 x−6 = 2 x − 6 = −2 3 3 2 2 x=8 x=4 3 3 x = 12 x=6 The solution set is {6. 3x + 2 ≥ 3 3x + 2 ≥ 3 or 3x + 2 ≤ −3 3x ≥ 1 3 x ≤ −5 1 5 x≥ x≤− 3 3 5⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞.PreCalculus 4E 41. Inc. 123 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎣8 ⎠ −3 4 x − 7 + 15 = 0 −3 4 x − 7 = −15 4x − 7 = 5 46. 2x + 5 <6 3 –9 ≤ 2x + 5 < 18 –14 ≤ 2x < 13 13 −7 ≤ x < 2 −3 ≤ 13 ⎞ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −7. ∞ ⎟ . 12}. 2⎠ ⎣ 2x 2 x + = x2 + 6 x + 8 x + 2 x + 4 2x 2 x + = ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 2 x + 4 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2( x + 4)( x + 2) x( x + 4)( x + 2) + = x+2 x+4 ( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 x + 2( x + 4) = x( x + 2) 47. 45. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 42. ∞ ⎟ . 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ 2 x + 2 x + 8 = x2 + 2 x 2 x + 8 = x2 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 0 = ( x − 4)( x + 2) x − 4 = 0 or x=4 x+2 =0 48. 12]. x = −2 (rejected) The solution set is {4} . . x 1 x 3 + ≤ − 6 8 2 4 4 x + 3 ≤ 12 x − 18 −8 x ≤ −21 x≥ 21 8 ⎡ 21 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ .

the cost will be $33.4 x + 500 1177 = 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 49. 124 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4) ± (47. and 65 video rental stores. x + x + 16 + x + 64 = 83 3x + 80 = 83 3x = 3 as a+s R (a + s ) = as Ra + Rs = as R= x =1 x + 16 = 17 x + 64 = 65 For every one million U. Let x + 16 = the number movie theaters.07)(−677) 2(0. 52.07 x 2 + 47. length is 12 feet −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(47.4 x + 500 0 = 2w2 + 4 w − 48 0 = 0. Let x = the number drive-in theaters. Ra − as = − Rs a( R − s ) = − Rs a( R − s ) − Rs = R−s R−s Rs a= s−R 51. Let x + 64 = the number video rental stores. 700 + 150 x = 5000 + 1100 x 48 = (2w + 4) w 48 = 2w2 + 4 w B = 0.4 x − 677 0 = 0. there is 1 drivein theater.600. .07 x 2 + 47. l = 2w + 4 A = lw x = 14 The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004. Inc. or 2018.07 x 2 + 47. 24700 = 950 x 26 = x In 26 years. The formulas model the data quite well. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 53.4)2 − 4(0.S. ( x ) + ( x + 16 ) + ( x + 64 ) = 83 −mx = y1 − mx1 − y −mx y1 − mx1 − y = −m −m y − y1 + x1 x= m 50. or 2018.07) x ≈ 14. 55. y − y1 = mx − mx1 54. residents.07 x 2 + 47. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 43x + 575 = 1177 43x = 602 56. 17 movie theaters. x ≈ −691 (rejected) The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004. 29.4 x − 677 0 = ( w + 6)( w − 4) x= x= 0 = w2 + 2 w − 24 w+6 = 0 w−4 = 0 w = −6 w=4 2 w + 4 = 2(4) + 4 = 12 width is 4 feet.

000 = 0 x 2 + 5 x − 500 = 0 ( x + 25)( x − 20) = 0 x − 20 = 0 x + 25 = 0 or x = −25 x = 20 –25 must be rejected. Inc.60 x 20 = 0. 000 x 59. 000 x + 3. 000 ⎛ 600.06 x. 000. 000 x = 600. 000. 000 ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ − 6000 ⎟ = x ( x + 5) x x+5 ⎝ ⎠ 600. . 125 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.06 x 200 < x x > 200 Plan A is a better deal when more than 200 local calls are made per month. 000 x + 3.PreCalculus 4E 57. Chapter P Test 242 + x 2 = 262 576 + x 2 = 676 x 2 = 100 x = ±10 The wire should be attached 10 feet up the pole. There were originally 20 people. 000 x −6000 x 2 − 30. 58. Let x = the original selling price 20 = x − 0.40 x 50 = x The original price is $50. 60. For Plan A to be better deal. 600. 000 − 6000 = x x+5 600. 000 600. Publishing as Prentice Hall.06 x 12 < 0. 600. 000 − 6000 x 2 − 30. Let x = the number of local calls The monthly cost using Plan A is C A = 25. it must cost less than Plan B. 000( x + 5) − 6000 x( x + 5) = 600. The monthly cost using Plan B is CB = 13 + 0. C A < CB 25 < 13 + 0.

100. 100 . the x-intercept is –3. 100 . y = 1 x = 1. x = −1.1 Check Point Exercises 4. 60% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. Inc.Chapter 1 Functions and Graphs Section 1. 50 ] by distance between y -axis minimum maximum tick y -value y -value marks 2. The graph crosses the x. The graph crosses the x-axis at (–3. d = 4n + 5 d = 4(15) + 5 = 65 65% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. 0). y = 4 x = 1.10] viewing rectangle is as follows: distance between x -axis minimum maximum tick marks x -value x -value [ −100 . y = 1 x = −1. . the y-intercept is 4. y = 5 a. y = 6 5. c. [ −100 . y = 2 x = 2. According to the line graph. there is no x-intercept. y = 3 x = −3. 10 ] x = −3. The mathematical model overestimates the actual percentage shown in the graph by 5%.and y-axes at the origin (0. 0). y = 2 x = −2. Thus. b. 6. 5). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4). Thus. y = 3 x = 2.50] by [−100. y = 0 x = 0. the y-intercept is 5. Thus. x = −4. The meaning of a [−100. y = 3 126 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. the x-intercept is 0 and the y-intercept is 0. y = 7 x = −2. y = 1 3. a. b. 1.100. The graph does not cross the x-axis. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. y = 2 x = 3. x = 0. Thus. c.

3. 8. 5.1 1. 127 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 Exercise Set 1. 11.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. . 6. 10. 12. Inc. 7. 4. 2.

y = 2 x = 1. y = −2 x = 0.Functions and Graphs 13. y = −3 x = 0. y = −1 x = 1. y = −2 x = 1. y = 5 x = –3. y = 0 x = 3. y = −4 x = −1. y = 3 x = 0. y = 11 x = –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 1 x = 0. y = 0 x = –1. . x = –3. y = 2 x = 1. y = 11 128 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 3 x = 2. y = 6 x = 3. 14. y = 6 x = –1. y = –1 x = –2. y = 7 x = 3. y = 3 x = 2. y = −1 x = 2. y = 2 x = −2. y = 2 x = 2. x = −3. Inc. y = −5 x = −2. y = 4 x = 3. y = 7 x = −3. y = 1 16. y = −1 x = −1. 15.

y = 5 2 x = 0. y = 3 x = −1. y = − 1 x = 3. y = 1 x = −1. Inc. y = 2 x = 2. y = 2 7 2 x = –2. y = 0 x = 3.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. y = −1 x = 0. y = 7 x = 1. y = −1 18. y = 0 x = 3. 2 20. y = −3 x = −3. x = –3. y = –4 x = 1. y = 2 x = 0. y = –2 x = 2. y = 1 1 x = 3.1 17. y = 1 2 x = −2. y = 1 x = 1. y = 129 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . y = –10 x = –2. x = −3. y = 3 5 x = –1. y = 3 x = 2. y = 2 3 x = 1. y = 2 x = –3. y = –6 x = 0. y = − 3 2 x = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = –8 x = –1. 19. y = −5 x = −2.

y = 3 x = −1. y = −6 x = −3. y = 2 x = 0. y = −4 x = −2. y = 0 x = 0. 22. y = −1 x = 1. y = 6 x = −2. y = 4 x = −3. y = 2 x = 2. y = 2 130 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = −2 x = −1. . y = −6 x = 3. y = 1 x = 3. Inc. y = 4 24. x = −3. y = 6 x = −2.Functions and Graphs 23. 21. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 4 x = 3. y = 3 x = 3. y = 0 x = 1. y = 0 x = 2. y = 4 x = −1. y = 1 x = 1. y = 1 x = −1. y = 0 x = 0. y = 2 x = 2. x = −3. y = −4 x = 1. y = 2 x = 0. y = −2 x = 2. y = 2 x = −2.

It passes through the point (0. –20. y = 8 x = 3. 30. –8. –800. 4. x = −2. 10. y1 = x 2 . 2. y = 27 131 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 0 x = 2. 28. y = 1 36. 20. 5) . 0) x = 2. 0. –10. 800. y = −1 x = 2. 2. 30. Inc. 0. y-axis tick marks –1000. 20. –2. y = −9 32. 0) . and (3. x = 0. 34. y-axis tick marks are the same. 30. 0. x = 3. y = 0 33. and (3. 700. (c) x-axis tick marks –5. 70 x = −3. –6. –2. y-axis tick marks –4. y = 7 x = 2. 4) . –700. y = 26 26. . Yes. y = −4 is (c). 50. y = −9 (1.1) . ( −1. The equation that corresponds to Y1 in the table is (b). 50. (a) x-axis tick marks –40. 29. y2 = 2 − x . y = −1 x = 1. . y = 8 x = 1. 60. y = 0 x = 3. 10. 4 31. 60. –900. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x-axis tick marks –20. . but all are not on any of the others. 40. We can tell because all of the points (−3. but all are not on any of the others. ( −2. (1. x = 1. 4) . y = 5 x = −2. 40. (2. y-axis tick marks –30. . –4. 900. (−2. 3. y = 5 x = 3. y = 1 (2. y = 0 x = −3. 80. x = −3. –10. 6. No. 0. y = 8 x = −1. (2. (−1. –1. 2. 2) . (b). 20. It passes through the point (0. –3. y = −2 x = 0.1) . –20.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. (0. 0.9) . 2) . y = −9 x = −1. . 8. –2. –4.1 25. 70. We can tell because all of the points ( −3. 10. y = 0 37. 0) . (0. 4. y = 9 x = 0. y = −28 x = −2 . −1) are on the line y = 2 − x . y = −1 x = 0. 4) . 3) . y = −8 x = −1.9) are on the graph y = x 2 . 27. (d) x-axis tick marks –10. 0) . 40. x = −3. 0. 1000 x = −2. y = −27 35. y = −4 x = −1. 1. 5.1) . The equation that corresponds to Y in the table 2 x = 1.

5) none. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–1. b. 5) (2. b. 2. 42. 1. 41. 40. 49. 0) and (–1. y ) none. a. 0). 0) and (–2. 2. 43.–4). The graph intersect the y-axis at (0. 46. –1. 5) 3 (3. 0). The graph does not intersect the x-axis. –4. –1. 45. . 2).Functions and Graphs 38. b. −3 ( −3. a. The graph intersects the x-axis at (2. a. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 1. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. −2 ( −2. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. 0). The graphs of Y and Y intersect at the points 1 2 ( −2. 51. a. 48. 1. Inc. 50.1) . 1. 0). The values of Y1 and Y2 are the same when x = −2 and x = 1 . 44. b. b. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. 5) −1 ( −1. 4) and (1. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 (0. (0. –2. 2. b. 5) 1 2 (1. 132 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0). x ( x. The graph does not intersect the y-axis. 2). 5) 2. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 5) 47. a. 2) 39. a. 1). 2).

−1) 3 (3.1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . According to the line graph. This underestimates the value in the graph by 2%. −1) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 2. 44% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. c. x Section 1.3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. −1) 1 2 (1. A = −n + 70 A = −(26) + 70 = 44 According to formula. a.4n + 28 M = −0. ( x. about 45% of seniors used alcohol in 2006.3 ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . −1) (2. −1) x − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 53. ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 55. −1) −2 −2 ( −2. −1) 0 (0. .1) ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ 2. d. x −2 −1 − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 ( x.1 54.2⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . This underestimates the value in the graph. 133 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The minimum for marijuana was reached in 1990. 2005 is 25 years after 1980. According to the line graph. −3 ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. M = −0.4(25) + 28 = 18 According to formula. e. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. b.PreCalculus 4E 52. −3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2005. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. y ) −3 ( −3. Inc. 18% of seniors used marijuana in 2005. −2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ (1. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( x. −1) −1 −1 ( −1. about 14% of seniors used marijuana in 1990. 2006 is 26 years after 1980.2⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ (1. −1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . According to the line graph. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. −2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − .

A sample change is: A point on the x-axis will have y = 0. Sample explanation: These three points are not collinear. Explanations will vary. 4 ) (1. makes sense –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 68. 61. Changes to make the statement true will vary. This matches the value in the graph. 6 ) ( 2. e. 60. Answers may vary. y ) ( −2.1. 57. According to the line graph. Explanations will vary.4n + 28 M = −0. does not make sense. (b) 80. d. According to the line graph. 2 ) ( 2. 0 ) ( −1.9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (a) 76. false. 1 y = 2(1) = 2 2 y = 2(2) = 4 ( −2. b. 0 y = 2(0) + 4 = 4 1 y = 2(1) + 4 = 6 2 y = 2(2) + 4 = 8 69. (b) The maximum for alcohol was reached in 1980. −4 ) ( −1. −2 ) ( 0. does not make sense. 78. 73. Explanations will vary.4(20) + 28 = 20 According to formula. The difference between the number of awakenings for 18-year-old men and women is about 1. (d) 77. ( x. averaging about 1 awakening per night. This underestimates the value in the graph. the total calories burned will also go up. 4 ) 84. a. Changes to make the statement true will vary. true 74. y ) –2 y = 2( −2) = −4 58. 83. x y = 2x ( x. 134 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. At age 65. false. 72. about 22% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. A sample change is: 3(5) − 2(2) ≠ −4. 70. A sample change is: The product of the coordinates of a point in quadrant III is also positive. (c) 82. Set 1 has each x-coordinate paired with only one ycoordinate. Inc. men have the greatest number of awakenings. (b) According to the line graph. women have the least number of awakenings. Sample explanation: Most graphing utilities do not display numbers an the axes. The difference between the number of awakenings for 25-year-old men and women is about 1. –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 0 y = 2(0) = 0 59. M = −0. 79. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A = −n + 70 A = −(20) + 70 = 50 According to formula. 71. 0 ) (1. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. false. – 66. about 72% of seniors used alcohol in 1980.Functions and Graphs 56. Sample explanation: As the time of day goes up. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. x y = 2x + 4 –2 y = 2( −2) + 4 = 0 67. 75. (c) 2000 is 20 years after 1980. c. 2000 is 20 years after 1980. 2 ) ( 0. averaging about 8 awakenings per night. (a) 81. At age 8. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2000.8) . does not make sense.

x f ( x) = 2x -2 –4 -1 –2 0 0 1 2 2 4 ( x.2. the equation does not define y as a function of x. = x 2 + 6 x + 15 c. The y-coordinates are all real numbers greater than or equal to 1. the x-coordinates are –3 and 3. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. −4 ) ( −1. 17. [ −3. 2 ) ( 2. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. if x = 0. −7 ) ( −1. ( x. y ) -2 g ( −2 ) = 2( −2) − 3 = −7 -1 g ( −1) = 2( −1) − 3 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 2(0) − 3 = −3 1 g (1) = 2(1) − 3 = −1 2 g ( 2 ) = 2(2) − 3 = 1 ( −2. −3) (1. 13. The domain is the set of all first components: {0. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The x-coordinates are all real numbers. f (5) = 400 b. y ) ( −2. The range is the set of all second components: {9.PreCalculus 4E 85. 3] . [ −1. 0 ) (1. When the y-coordinate is 4. b. 4 ) Section 1. y = ± 1 − 02 = ±1 ). x [ −2.1] .1] . . f (9) = 100 c. g ( x) = 2x − 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 3 units. 36}. so the equation defines y as a function of x. = 42 b. a. f (−5) = (−5)2 − 2(−5) + 7 = 25 − (−10) + 7 8. x2 + y 2 = 1 6. 0 ) . c.2 Check Point Exercises 1. [0. = x 2 − ( −2 x ) + 7 domain: { x −3 ≤ x < 0} or range: { y y = −3.2 a. −1} . 30. The minimum T cell count in the asymptomatic stage is approximately 425. y 2 = 1 − x2 4. −2 ) ( 0. 10.7. 3. 6) and (5. −2. b. −1) ( 2.1) The graph (c) fails the vertical line test and is therefore not a function. Section 1.1. a.4}. Inc. 2. −5) ( 0. 10. d. there is one and only one value for y. x = 9 . 5. domain: { x −2 ≤ x ≤ 1} or range: { y 0 ≤ y ≤ 3} or f ( x + 4) = ( x + 4) 2 − 2( x + 4) + 7 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 − 2 x − 8 + 7 b. When the x-coordinate is 2. domain: { x −2 < x ≤ 1} or range: { y −1 ≤ y < 2} or f (− x) = (− x) 2 − 2(− x) + 7 c. 135 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. 6.7. a. 2x + y = 6 y = −2 x + 6 For each value of x. 8) have the same first component but different second components. a. = x + 2x + 7 2 ( −2. 20. y is a function of x for the graphs in (a) and (b). 2 ) . y = ± 1 − x2 Since there are values of x (all values between – 1 and 1 exclusive) that give more than one value for y (for example. then 7. the y-coordinate is 3.

y is not a function of x. y is not a function of x. y = 2 and y = –2. Since two values. can be obtained for x = 1. y = ±4. 5}. can be obtained for x = 1. 6) and (5. The domain is {4. 12. 5. Since two values. 3. x 2 + y = 16 y = 16 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. The relation is a function since there are no two ordered pairs that have the same first component and different second components. 6} and the range is {6. Inc. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {–2.Functions and Graphs Exercise Set 1. y is a function of x. 5} and the range is {2. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. 11. 6}. 4. 8} and the range is {5. 5. 8. 6. 0}. The domain is {–7. –5. 7) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (6. 6} and the range is {1}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –5. 3. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {3. 8}. The relation is a function since there are no ordered pairs that have the same first component but different second components. y is a function of x. –2. Since two values. 10. 7} and the range is {–2. Since two values. 4) and (4. 0} and the range is {–7. 136 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (4. then y = ±2. – 1. x + y = 16 16. can be obtained for one value of x. x = y2 y=± x If x = 1. y = 5 and y = –5. 4. 9}. –3. 4 x = y2 y = ± 4 x = ±2 x If x = 1. . 4. The relation is not a function since there are ordered pairs with the same first component and different second components. 6}. y is a function of x. 7)). y is not a function of x. y = 1 and y = –1. –1. x + y = 25 y = 25 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 4) and (3.2 1. 2. 13. –2. x 2 + y = 25 y = 25 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. The domain is {–3. 7. 15. The domain is {5. 5. x 2 + y 2 = 25 y 2 = 25 − x 2 y = ± 25 − x 2 If x = 0. 7}. y = 16 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 10} and the range is {1. 1. y is a function of x. 5. –3. y = ±1. 14. 7. The domain is {3. can be obtained for one value of x. 4. y = ±5. –1. 9. The domain is {1. 18. 6. 0} and the range is {–3. 4} and the range is {4. y = 4 and y = – 4. The relation is a function since there are no same first components with different second components. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. 5. x 2 + y 2 = 16 y 2 = 16 − x 2 y = ± 16 − x 2 If x = 0. 17. 6) and (6. The domain is {1} and the range is {4. y is not a function of x. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (3. 5}. 0}. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {4. 5)).

y is a function of x. a. x + y 3 = 27 c. y is a function of x. f(–x) = 4(–x) + 5 = – 4x + 5 28. y is a function of x. 26. y is a function of x. h(3a) = (3a) 4 − (3a) 2 + 1 = 81a 4 − 9a 2 + 1 −y = − x +5 y = x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y = − x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x.PreCalculus 4E 19. −y = − x + 2 y = x −2 h(−1) = (−1)4 − (−1) 2 + 1 = 1 −1 +1 =1 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. a. y = 3 8− x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. b. h(2) = 24 − 22 + 1 = 16 − 4 + 1 = 13 x −y=2 b. f(–x) = 3(–x) + 7 = –3x + 7 29. g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + 2(− x) + 3 = x2 − 2x + 3 y ( x + 2) = 1 25. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 21. g ( x + 5) = ( x + 5) 2 + 2( x + 5) + 3 = x 2 + 12 x + 38 y = 3 27 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. f(6) = 4(6) + 5 = 29 x −y=5 c. a. 137 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 31. Inc. b.2 27. f(x + 1) = 4(x + 1) + 5 = 4x + 9 c. y is a function of x. y is a function of x. g (−1) = (−1)2 + 2(−1) + 3 = 1− 2 + 3 =2 = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + 2 x + 10 + 3 y 3 = 27 − x 23. 22. y= b. y = x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. y is a function of x. f(4) = 3(4) + 7 = 19 b. g (− x) = (− x)2 − 10(− x) − 3 = x 2 + 10 x − 3 1 y= x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. a. Section 1. a. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 4 − ( − x ) 2 + 1 = x 4 − x 2 + 1 d. xy + 2 y = 1 1 x+2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 30. g (−1) = (−1) 2 − 10(−1) − 3 = 1 + 10 − 3 =8 g ( x + 2) = ( x + 2) 2 − 10(8 + 2) − 3 = x 2 + 4 x + 4 − 10 x − 20 − 3 = x 2 − 6 x − 19 xy − 5 y = 1 y ( x − 5) = 1 c. 20. . x + y3 = 8 y3 = 8 − x f(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) + 7 = 3x + 10 c. 24.

Functions and Graphs 32. f (r 2 ) = =7 c. f (25 − 2 x) = 25 − (25 − 2 x) − 6 = 2x − 6 35. Inc. f (−9 − x) = −5 + 3 8 8 = =1 −2 −2 = −9 − x + 3 −9 − x + 3 − x − 6 ⎧ 1. h(3a) = (3a)3 − (3a) + 1 f (−2) = 4(−2)3 + 1 −31 31 = = −8 8 (−2)3 c. 2 = −1 −2 . f (−6) = c. a. f (2) = f (−6) = −6 + 6 + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3 37. a. f (−24) = 25 − (−24) − 6 = 49 − 6 = 7−6 =1 c. 3 33. f (−2) = 4(−2) 2 − 1 15 = 4 (−2) 2 c. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 3 − ( − x ) + 1 = − x 3 + x + 1 d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. a. h(−2) = (−2)3 − (−2) + 1 = −8 + 2 + 1 = −5 c. f (− x) = 4(− x)3 + 1 −4 x 3 + 1 = (− x)3 − x3 4 x3 − 1 x3 or = 27 a − 3a + 1 b. f (6) = f (10) = 10 + 6 + 3 = 16 + 3 = 4+3 6 =1 6 b. b. b. 34. a. f (− x) = 4(− x)2 − 1 4 x 2 − 1 = (− x) 2 x2 f (5) = −6 −6 = = −1 −6 6 r2 r2 5+3 5+3 = r2 =1 r2 = −5 + 3 b. 4(2)3 + 1 33 = 23 8 b. a. a.if x > −6 138 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. h(3) = 33 − 3 + 1 = 25 36. f (2) = 4(2)2 − 1 15 = 4 22 b. f (−5) = c. if x < −6 = =⎨ − x − 6 ⎩−1. f ( x − 6) = x − 6 + 6 + 3 = x + 3 f (16) = 25 − 16 − 6 = 9 − 6 = 3 − 6 = −3 38.

y ) 1 g (1) = −2 (1) − 1 = −3 −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) − 1 = −5 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 ( −2. y ) ( −2. 4 ) ( −1. −2 ) ( 2. −5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. −2 ) ( −1.1) ( −1. −5) ( 0. −2 ) ( −1. −1) ( 0. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 ( −2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.1) ( 2. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 4 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 4 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 4 = −4 1 g (1) = 1 − 4 = −3 2 g ( 2 ) = 2 − 4 = −2 ( −2. 139 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3) ( 2. y ) ( −2. . 41. −3) ( 2. 0 ) (1. 0 ) (1. −4 ) (1. −1) (1. −4 ) ( x. 2 ) ( 0.1) ( 2. Inc. −1) ( 0. 2 ) x g ( x) = x − 4 ( x. 2 ) 39. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. 4 ) ( 2.5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 4 units.3) (1. y ) ( −2. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x − 1 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) − 1 = 3 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) − 1 = 1 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 x f ( x) = x ( x. x 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 x g ( x) = x + 3 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 3 = 1 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 3 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = 1 + 3 = 4 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 3 = 5 ( x. 0 ) (1.3) ( −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −2 ) ( x. 2 ) ( 0.1) ( 0.2 f ( x) = x ( x. 40. −6 ) ( −1.

2 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units.1) ( 2. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( 2. −2 ) (1. 2 ) ( 0. −2 ) ( 2. −4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( −1. x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 + 1 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 1 = 5 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 1 = 2 0 g (0) = (0) + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = (1) + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) + 1 = 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x.5 ) ( 0.1) ( 2.1) ( 0. y ) ( −2.5 ) ( −1. 4 ) ( −1. y ) ( −2. 4 ) ( x. y ) ( −2. 4 ) ( −1. −1) ( 2. 4 ) ( −1. y ) ( −2. ( x. 43. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( 0. −1) ( 0. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x + 3 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) + 3 = 7 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) + 3 = 5 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = −2 (1) + 3 = 1 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) + 3 = −1 ( x. 140 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 42.1) ( 0.5 ) x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 2 = 2 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = (1) − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 2 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. Inc. 4 ) ( x. −1) 44. 7 ) ( −1. .1) ( 2. y ) ( −2. y ) ( −2. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3) (1.1) (1.

2 ) ( −1. −1) 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( 0. 2 ) (1. 47. 0 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit.1) ( 2.2 x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 2 = 0 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = 1 − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 2 = 0 ( x.1) ( 2. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units. y ) ( −2. x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x +1 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 1 = 3 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 1 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 1 = 3 ( x. −2 ) (1. y ) f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 ( −2. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 2 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 2 = 1 0 g ( 0) = ( 0) + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = (1) + 2 = 3 2 g ( 2 ) = ( 2 ) + 2 = 10 ( −2.1) (1. −1) ( 2. y ) ( −2. y ) ( −2.1) ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ) ( 2.8) x −2 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 + 2 ( x. 0 ) (1. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( 0. 2 ) ( −1. Section 1. −6 ) ( −1.1) ( 2.3) ( −1. .10 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. 2 ) ( x. 0 ) ( −1. −1) ( 0. 2 ) ( x. Inc.3) f ( x ) = x3 ( x. 141 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3) ( 2.PreCalculus 4E 45.1) ( 0. 46.1) ( 0. −8) −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 ( −1. y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1.

−1) (1. −1) (1. −1) ( −1.Functions and Graphs 48.1) ( 2. x f ( x ) = x3 ( x. −1) x g ( x) = 4 −2 g ( −2 ) = 4 −1 g ( −1) = 4 0 g ( 0) = 4 1 g (1) = 4 2 g ( 2) = 4 ( x. 4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. −9 ) ( −1. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −1 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0 ) = −1 1 f (1) = −1 2 f ( 2 ) = −1 ( −2.5) ( −1. −8) ( −1. −1) ( 2. 0 ) ( 2. 7 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. . y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 1 = −9 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 1 = −2 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = (1) − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 1 = 7 ( −2. −1) ( 0. 49.3) ( 2.8) 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 − 1 ( x. −2 ) ( 0.3) ( 0.3) ( x.5) ( 2.5) (1.5) ( 0. 50. −1) ( 0. y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1. y ) ( −2.5) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 5 units. x f ( x ) = −1 ( x. 4 ) ( 2. Inc. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x f ( x) = 3 −2 f ( −2 ) = 3 −1 f ( −1) = 3 0 f ( 0) = 3 1 f (1) = 3 2 f ( 2) = 3 x g ( x) = 5 −2 g ( −2 ) = 5 −1 g ( −1) = 5 0 g ( 0) = 5 1 g (1) = 5 2 g ( 2) = 5 ( x. y ) ( −2. 4 ) ( 0. 142 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3) (1. 4 ) (1.3) ( −1. 4 ) ( −1.

0 ) (1. y ) ( 0. −1) (1.1) ( 4.1) ( 4. y ) ( 0. 143 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x. 2 ) ( 9. . y ) ( 0. Inc. 52.2 x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 4 g ( 4) = 4 −1 = 1 9 g (9) = 9 −1 = 2 ( x. 2 ) (1.3) ( x. y ) (1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. 0 ) (1. ( x. y ) ( 0.3) ( 4. 2 ) (10.3) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. 0 ) (1. 2 ) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 1 = 1 5 g ( 5) = 5 − 1 = 2 10 g (10 ) = 10 − 1 = 3 ( x.3) 53. 2 ) ( 9. y ) ( 0. 0 ) ( 4.1) ( 5. 0 ) ( 2.3) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = 1 + 2 = 3 4 g ( 4) = 4 + 2 = 4 ( x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 1.PreCalculus 4E 51. 5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted right 1 unit.1) ( 9. 2 ) ( 9.1) ( 4. 4 ) 9 g (9) = 9 + 2 = 5 (9 .

function c. 0 ) (1. not a function e. function d. function b. function 78. When x = −2. 4] 57. y ) ( −2. not a function c. g (10) = −2 75. f ( −3 ) = 0 70. a. x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 2 = 0 –1 g ( −1) = −1 + 2 = 1 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 2 = 2 7 g (7) = 7 + 2 = 3 ( x. .1) ( 4. 65. ∞) c. f (−2) = 3 and domain: (−∞. f (−1) = 0 71. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y ) ( 0. g ( 2 ) = −2 73. f ( 4) = 4 f (2) = −5 f (−1) = 2 and f (3) = 4 144 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1) ( 2.3) 68. 2 ) ( 9. 60. g ( −4 ) = 2 ( x.Functions and Graphs 54. function b. 77. y-intercept: 1 64. When x = 1. domain: (−∞. f ( −2 ) = −4 66. g ( −10 ) = 2 74. f (−2) = −3 and f (2) = 5 domain: (–∞. function e. a. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 d. 0 ) ( −1. not a function 79. g ( x ) = 1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted left 2 units. ∞) b. g ( x) = −1. a. 56. 76. ∞) 62. 2 ) ( 7. range: (–∞. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 58. range: [1. f (−4) = 4 69. not a function d. ∞) 61. f (2) = −4 67. range: [−4.3) 72. x-intercept: none 63. y-intercept: –3 e. Inc. y-intercept: 3 59. ∞) 55.

x-intercept: 4 e. e. x-intercept: –3. ∞) c. domain: [0. Section 1. a. f(4) = 6 84. f (−5) + f (3) = 2 + 2 = 4 145 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. 5) c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y-intercept: 1 e. y-intercept: –2 b. x-intercept: 2 d. f(–1) = 5 domain: {–5. f(4) = 3 b. ∞ ) domain: (–∞. x-intercept: none d. 5] c.1) ∪ (1. a. range: [–5. ∞) c.PreCalculus 4E 80. domain: [–3. a. a. range: [–2. x-intercept: none domain: (–6. domain: (−∞. 4) e. y-intercept: –1 e. b. domain: [0. 86. f(–2) = –3 b. ∞) c. ∞) b. x-intercept: { x x ≤ 0} d. a. f(3) = 2 85. 1. 90. y-intercept: 1. Inc. 83. 6] c. 5) e. range: [–3. range: [0. ∞) c. ∞) b. y-intercept: 0 e. a. x-intercept: –1 d. 88. ∞) domain: (−∞. 89. y-intercept: −1 f(2) = 1 b. range: [–1. 6] domain: (−∞. a. d. ∞) b. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. x-intercept: − f(–4) = 3 and f(3) = 4 d. y-intercept: 1 e. 2] b.75 d. f(–5) = 2 82. a. y-intercept: 1 81. 3} b. x-intercept: –1 d. x-intercept: none d. y-intercept: 4 91. –2. range: [0. x-intercept: none d. domain: [–2. range: (0. ∞) domain: [–1. − 2] f(3) = 1 c. ∞) c. a. y-intercept: 1 e. x-intercept: none d. f(–2) = 0 and f(2) = 4 b. ∞) b. ∞) c. f(–4) = –5 and f(4) = –2 c. range: [0. 0) ∪ (0. 0. y-intercept: –3 e. 0] d.5 e. range: [1. a. range: {2} c.2 domain: (–∞. . 1 2 87. a. y-intercept: 2 e.

Functions and Graphs domain: {–5.6 in the domain corresponds to both Finland and New Zealand in the range.6.5. 0. ( Denmark. the relation is a function. Inc. Denmark )} d. ( Finland. {( 9.6. ( 9. a. ( 9. Finland ) . f ( g (1) ) = f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) + 4 2 = 4 + 2 + 4 = 10 g ( −1) = 3 ( −1) − 5 = −3 − 5 = −8 94. ( New Zealand. 9. 9.7.6 ) . Yes. f ( g ( −1) ) = f ( −8) = ( −8) − ( −8 ) + 4 2 = 64 + 8 + 4 = 76 95. b. c. –2. 9. a. New Zealand ) . x-intercept: none d. Iceland ) . 146 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) + ( − x ) − 5 − ( x3 + x − 5) 3 = − x 3 − x − 5 − x 3 − x + 5 = −2 x 3 − 2 x 98. No.6 ) . g (1) = 3 (1) − 5 = 3 − 5 = −2 93. 1. the relation is not a function. −4 − ( −1) − ( −3) + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 2 = −4 + 1 − 9 + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 = −3 − 9 + −1 ⋅ −6 = 3 − 9 + 6 = −6 + 6 = 0 97.5 )} b. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range. ( 9. {( Iceland.7 ) . . 4} 92. 9. 3 − ( −1) − ( −6 ) + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 2 = 3 + 1 − 36 + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 = 4 − 36 + −1 ⋅ 4 = 2 − 36 + −4 = −34 + −4 = −38 96. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y-intercept: –2 f (−5) + f (4) = −2 + (−2) = −4 e. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) − 3 ( − x ) + 7 − ( x 2 − 3x + 7 ) 2 = x 2 + 3x + 7 − x 2 + 3 x − 7 = 6x 99. 9. range: {–2} c.

a.125(18)2 + 5.125(20)2 + 5. b.25 x + 72 T (4) = −0. f (90) = 25 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 25%.25(20) + 72 = 127 Americans ordered an average of 127 takeout meals per person 20 years after 1984. ( Chad. Yes.94). 1. . T ( x) = −0.7. 1. c. or 2004. Function f is the better model.25(4) + 72 = 91 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91 takeout meals per person. This is represented on the graph by the point (0. a. Inc. R( x) = −0. Bangladesh ) .6 x + 94 R(20) = −0. or 2002.25(18) + 72 = 126 Americans ordered an average of 126 takeout meals per person 18 years after 1984.6(0) + 94 = 94 Americans ordered an average of 94 meals in restaurants per person 0 years after 1984. the relation is not a function. Function f is the better model. Section 1.7 ) .7 in the domain corresponds to both Bangladesh and Chad in the range.6 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91. 103. T ( x) = −0. Haiti ) .PreCalculus 4E 100.125 x 2 + 5.25 x + 72 T (20) = −0.25 x + 72 T (18) = −0. R ( x) = −0. g (90) = 10 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 10%. This is represented on the graph by the point (20. or 2004. or 1984. 101. ( Haiti. c. According to the graphs. a. 1. the average number of takeout orders approximately equaled the average number of inrestaurant meals 4 years after 1984.127).126). (1. No.6 x + 94 R (4) = −0. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range. ( Myanmar. 1. This is represented on the graph by the point (18.6 x + 94 R(0) = −0.6(4) + 94 = 91. 147 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7. g (70) = 76 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 76%.82). {(1.7 ) . (1. c.125 x 2 + 5.8)} b. c. 102.8. 1. a. R( x) = −0. (1. Myanmar )} d.8 ) .6(20) + 94 = 82 Americans ordered an average of 82 meals in restaurants per person 20 years after 1984. Chad ) . b. This is represented on the graph by the point (20.8. a.125(4)2 + 5. or 1988. f (70) = 83 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 83%.125 x 2 + 5. b. 104. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the relation is a function. T ( x) = −0.6 meals in restaurants per person. b.2 {( Bangladesh.

122. Publishing as Prentice Hall.(2. makes sense 129.40(t − 60) C (100) = 20 + 0.60(50 − x) S (30) = 0. false. 2 ) . Explanations will vary. T ( x) = 127. Explanations will vary. – 117.500 − 3200(3) = $12. does not make sense. Answers may vary. does not make sense. do not imply multiplication. 000 + 100 x 125. 130. such as f ( x). the car will be worth $12. 120. S ( x) = 0. An example is {(1. 109. A sample change is: The domain is [−4.Functions and Graphs 105. 40 40 + x x + 30 40 40 T ( 30 ) = + 30 30 + 30 80 40 = + 60 60 120 = 60 =2 If you travel 30 mph going and 60 mph returning. C (t ) = 20 + 0. Inc.10 x + 0. f (2) = f (1 + 1) = f (1) + f (1) = 3+3 = 6 Similarly: f (3) = f (2 + 1) = f (2) + f (1) = 6+3= 9 f (4) = f (3 + 1) = f (3) + f (1) = 9 + 3 = 12 While f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) is true for this function. false.40(40) = 20 + 16 = 36 For 100 calling minutes. Explanations will vary.10(30) + 0. C ( x) = 100. false.40(100 − 60) = 20 + 0.1)} 128. it is not true for all functions. 119. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: f (0) = 0. 000 It will cost $109. true = 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3h 148 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. It is given that f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) and f (1) = 3 . your total trip will take 2 hours. 131. Answers may vary. rewrite 2 as 1 + 1. 2( x + h) 2 + 3( x + h) + 5 − (2 x 2 + 3x + 5) 123. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. for example. It is not true for f ( x ) = x 2 . f (a + h) = 3(a + h) + 7 = 3a + 3h + 7 f (a ) = 3a + 7 f ( a + h) − f ( a ) h ( 3a + 3h + 7 ) − ( 3a + 7 ) = h 3a + 3h + 7 − 3a − 7 3h = = =3 h h 106. Sample explanation: This would not be a function because some elements in the domain would correspond to more than one age in the range. Sample explanation: The parentheses used in function notation. 900 After 3 years. there will be 15 mL of sodium-iodine in the vaccine.8 C (90) = 100. 126. does not make sense. 4]. Sample explanation: The domain is the number of years worked for the company. V ( x) = 22. 500 − 3200 x V (3) = 22. 000 + 100(90) = $109.60(50 − 30) = 15 When 30 mL of the 10% mixture is mixed with 20 mL of the 60% mixture.000 to produce 90 bicycles.900. . A sample change is: The range is [ −2. 107. the monthly cost is $36. To find f (2) .1). 118. 121. = 2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 − 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x − 3 x + 3h + 5 − 5 124. 108.

) . 149 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) c. decreasing: (–2. 3. c. constant: none a. –1). 28 ) . if t > 60 Since 0 ≤ 40 ≤ 60 . decreasing: (–1.40(t − 60) b. This is represented by ( 40. decreasing: none c.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. a. Since 80 > 60 . the cost is $28. This is represented by ( 80. decreasing on the interval (–1. C (40) = 20 With 40 calling minutes. f (− x) = (− x) 2 + 6 = x 2 + 6 = f ( x) The function is even. constant: none a. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 + 2 x 2 − x − 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 Exercise Set 1. 20 ) . 2. increasing: (–∞. the cost is $20. 5. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 60 1. a. a. constant: none a.3 b. 2) b. constant: none a. increasing: (−1. ⎧ 20 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩ 20 + 0. b. h( − x ) = ( − x )5 + 1 = − x 5 + 1 The function is neither even nor odd. increasing: (–3. increasing: (–1. decreasing: (−∞. C (80) = 20 + 0. –1) b. and increasing on the interval (1.3 3. ∞) b. increasing: none b. ∞) b.40(80 − 60) = 28 With 80 calling minutes. g (− x ) = 7(− x)3 − (− x) = −7 x3 + x = − f ( x) The function is odd. 1). ( −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 − −2 x 2 + x + 5 5. = The function is increasing on the interval (–∞. 6) c. ∞) b. decreasing: none c. decreasing: none c. c. increasing: (0. 4. ∞). Publishing as Prentice Hall. constant: none 4. Inc. constant: none a. f ( x ) = −2 x 2 + x + 5 f ( x + h) = −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) + 5 = −2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + x + h + 5 = −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 6. Check Point Exercises 1. − 1) c. 2.3 Section 1.

odd function a. − 1) b. x = −3. decreasing: none c. −4) or (2. a. 2) h( − x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 c. f ( x) = x3 − x g ( x) = x 2 + x b. even function 16. 3. relative maximum = 30 b.5) or (3. g ( x) = x 2 − x g ( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − (− x ) g (− x ) = x 2 + x. decreasing: (−4. decreasing: (–4. decreasing: (0. neither 10. even function 11. neither 21. 1. 0) or (2. increasing: (0. relative minimum = 3 150 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. increasing: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs 7. . constant: (–∞. 0) or (1. constant: none 20.5) c. 19. a. relative maximum = 2 b. x = 0. relative maximum = 21 f (− x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 b. relative minimum = 0 f (− x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = f ( x). constant: none g (− x) = x 2 − x. ∞) a. f ( x) = x 3 + x f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 + (− x ) f ( − x ) = − x 3 − x = −( x 3 + x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). 0) f ( − x ) = − x 3 + x = −( x 3 − x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). f ( x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 f (− x) = 2(− x) 2 + (− x)4 + 1 15. −4) or (−2. ∞ ) 12. a. 3) 17. 22. x = 1. ∞) b. even function 14. a. increasing: (−∞. Inc. x = −3. 4) b. a. even function 23. 4) h( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − ( − x ) 4 b. − 2) or (4. relative maximum = 4 f ( x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) 4 + 1 b. a. 13. 3. relative minimum = −6 f (− x) = f ( x). decreasing: none f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 − ( − x ) c. −2) or (0. x =1. a. h( x ) = x 2 − x 4 increasing: (–2. relative minimum = –1 24. constant: (−∞. a. x = 0. x = 4. ∞ ) h( − x ) = x 2 − x 4 h(− x) = h( x). increasing: (−5. x = −2. decreasing: none c. constant: (−1. 9. 2) or (4. h( x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 increasing: none h(− x ) = 2(− x )2 + (− x) 4 b. ∞) g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + (− x) c. constant: (−∞.5. odd function 18. 8. h(− x ) = h( x).

0 ) g. y-intercept: 1 e. The graph is not symmetric with respect to the y-axis or the origin. f (−2) = 4 and f (3) = 2 j. domain: neither . ( −∞. −4] h. ( 4. 2 f(–x) = – f(x). x-intercepts: 1.PreCalculus 4E 25. neither . f (− x) ≠ − x 2 f(–x) = f(x). ∞ ) 151 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( −∞. The function is neither even nor odd. ( −2. 30. Publishing as Prentice Hall. odd function f ( x) = x 1 − x 2 f (− x) = − x 1 − (− x) f (− x) = − x 1 − x 2 ( = − x 1 − x2 ) f (−x) = x 2 2 c. ( −∞. y-intercept: 4 e. or ( 0. 26. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. f (2) = −2 and f (6) = −2 34. ( 0. ∞ ) or [ 4. −2 ) f. ∞ ) 5 f (− x) = −(2 x3 − 6 x 5 ) 27. The function is odd. 7 d. f (−2) = 4 k. ∞ ) ( −∞. 4] b. ∞ ) b. x = −2 and x = 3 i. f (− x) ≠ − x domain: 2 ( −∞. 1− (−x) 1− x range: l.3 1 6 x − 3x 2 5 1 f (− x) = (− x)6 − 3(− x) 2 5 1 f (− x) = x 6 − 3 x 2 5 f (− x) = f ( x) . f (− x) ≠ x . odd function 28.3) or ( 3. f (− x) ≠ x . The function is even. 0 ) h. The function is odd. f ( x) = f ( x) = 2 x3 − 6 x 5 f (− x) = 2(− x)3 − 6(− x)5 f ( − x ) = −2 x + 6 x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x). Inc. x=4 i. ( −∞. . 4 ) g. range: c. a. f ( x ) = x2 1 − x2 f (−x) = (−x) [ −4. The graph is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. even function 33. x-intercepts: –4. f (−3) = 4 k.∞ ) f. 4 d. 31. x = −4 and x = 4 l. Section 1. 32. a. y = −4 j. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. even function 29.

range: [ 0. f(0) = 4(0) + 7 = 7 c. f(–2) = 3(–2) + 5 = –1 b.1) f. f(2) is not greater than the function values to the immediate left. Inc. neither l. ( −2. f(0) = 7(0) + 3 = 3 c. g(0) = 0 + 5 = 5 b. f (−1) = +2 36. domain: range: ( −∞. f (1) = 4 i. g(–5) = –5 + 5 = 0 41. a. b.3) ( −∞. h(5) = 52 − 9 25 − 9 16 = = =8 5−3 2 2 b. f (0) = 3 e.3] 39. negative. a. g(–6) = –(–6 + 3) = –(–3) = 3 ( −∞.1] d. f(3) = 4(3) + 7 = 19 38. ( −∞. 3) i. 37. h(5) = 10 zeros of f: –3. ( 2. f (4) = −1 k. 3 f (0) = 1 43. g(–6) = –(–6 + 5) = –(–1) = 1 c. a. . x = −5 and x = 5 j. a. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. h(0) = 02 − 25 −25 = =5 0−5 −5 c. a. h(0) = 0 2 − 9 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g(–3) = –3 + 3 = 0 e. h(3) = 6 42. b. 0] a. 44. a. g(0) = 0 + 3 = 3 f(–3) = 6(–3) – 1 = –19 b. a.Functions and Graphs 35. 6 ) g. 4] b. 6] c. b. −3] h. x =1 j. −2 ) f. a. g. h(7) = 7 2 − 25 49 − 25 24 = = = 12 7 −5 2 2 b. c. (1. ( −3. 40. domain: ( −∞. ( −∞. 152 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: c. positive. no. x-intercepts: –3. f(4) = 7(4) + 3 = 31 b. 2 ) h. ( −∞. 3 d. a.

4} a. Section 1. 51. range: (−∞. 0] ∪ [3.3 range: {−4. a. a. 0] ∪ {3} a. range: [ 0. ∞) range: {−3. ( −∞. 153 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. ∞ ) a. 46. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3} a. 47. 49. b. . Inc. ∞) b. a. b. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. b. 52. range: (−∞.PreCalculus 4E 45. b. range: ( −∞. 0] ∪ {2} 50. 48. b. range: a. b.

56. a. Inc. range: [ −1. 55. 57. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 7( x + h) − 7 x = h 7 x + 7h − 7 x = h 7h = h =7 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2( x + h) 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 2( x + 2 xh + h 2 ) − 2 x 2 = h 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 4 xh + 2h = h h ( 4 x + 2h ) = h = 4 x + 2h 154 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 58. b. . 59. ∞ ) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 3( x + h) + 7 − (3x + 7) = h 3x + 3h + 7 − 3x − 7 = h 3h = h =3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 6( x + h) + 1 − (6 x + 1) = h 6 x + 6h + 1 − 6 x − 1 = h 6h = h =6 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( x + h) 2 − x2 h x + 2 xh + h 2 − x 2 = h 2 2 xh + h = h h ( 2x + h) = h = 2x + h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 4( x + h) − 4 x = h 4 x + 4h − 4 x = h 4h = h =4 2 60. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: [ 0. b. 54.Functions and Graphs 53.

Inc. 63. Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 61. 2 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (2 x 2 + x − 1) 2 = f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) − 3 ( x + h ) + 1 − (− x 2 − 3x + 1) 2 = h 2 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h + x + h − 1 − 2 x 2 − x + 1 = h 2 4 xh + 2h + h = h h ( 4 x + 2h + 1) = h = 4 x + 2h + 1 h − x − 2 xh − h − 3 x − 3h + 1 + x 2 + 3x − 1 = h 2 −2 xh − h − 3h = h h ( −2 x − h − 3) = h = −2 x − h − 3 2 2 155 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 4( x + h) + 3 − ( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − 4 x − 4h + 3 − x 2 + 4 x − 3 = h 2 xh + h 2 − 4h = h h(2 x + h − 4) = h = 2x + h − 4 64. . 62. 3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) + 5 − (3 x 2 + x + 5) 2 = h 3x 2 + 6 xh + 3h 2 + x + h + 5 − 3x 2 − x − 5 = h 6 xh + 3h 2 + h = h h ( 6 x + 3h + 1) = h = 6 x + 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 5( x + h) + 8 − ( x 2 − 5 x + 8) = h 2 2 x + 2 xh + h − 5 x − 5h + 8 − x 2 + 5 x − 8 = h 2 2 xh + h − 5h = h h ( 2 x + h − 5) = h = 2x + h − 5 65. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) + 4 − (− x 2 + 2 x + 4) 2 = h − x − 2 xh − h + 2 x + 2h + 4 + x 2 − 2 x − 4 = h 2 −2 xh − h + 2h = h h ( −2 x − h + 2 ) = h = −2 x − h + 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 66.

73. −2 ( x + h ) + 5 ( x + h ) + 7 − (−2 x 2 + 5 x + 7) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 = 2 = h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + 5 x + 5h + 7 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 7 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + 5h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 5 ) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 5 68. Inc. −3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + x − 1) h −3x 2 − 6 xh − 3h 2 + x + h − 1 + 3 x 2 − x + 1 = h −6 xh − 3h 2 + h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 1) = h = −6 x − 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 71. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 7 − 7 0 = = =0 h h h −3 ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + 2 x − 1) 2 = h 2 2 −3x − 6 xh − 3h + 2 x + 2h − 1 + 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = h 2 −6 xh − 3h + 2h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 2 ) = h = −6 x − 3h + 2 69. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 70. . f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2 ( x + h ) − ( x + h ) + 3 − (−2 x 2 − x + 3) 2 = h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h − x − h + 3 + 2 x 2 + x − 3 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h − h = h h ( −4 x − 2h − 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h − 1 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − x h x + = h − ( x + h) x + x ( x + h) x ( x + h) = h x−x−h x ( x + h) = h −h x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ x ( x + h) h −1 = x ( x + h) 156 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 67. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 6 − 6 0 = = =0 h h h 72.

9) − [ f (π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f ( −π ) 2 = 1 + 0 − [ −4 ] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ 3 2 = 1 − 16 + ( −1) ⋅ 3 = 1 − 16 − 3 = −18 78.5) + f ( −0.3t − 36 = 0.3 x+h + x f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x + h −1 − x −1 h = x + h −1 − x −1 x + h −1 + x −1 ⋅ h x + h −1 + x −1 x + h − 1 − ( x − 1) = = = = = h h h ( ( ( x + h −1 + x −1 x + h −1 − x +1 x + h −1 + x −1 h x + h −1 + x −1 ) ) ) 1 x + h −1 + x −1 157 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5) − f (1.9) − [ f ( −π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 f (−2. ⎧50 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩50 + 0.30(t − 200) = 40 + 0.3t − 6 80.3t − 20 81. 75.30(t − 120) = 30 + 0. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 400 if t > 400 .PreCalculus 4E 74.30(t − 400) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x+h − x h x+h − x x+h + x ⋅ h x+h + x x+h− x = = = = h h ( ( x+h + x h x+h + x ) ) 1 = 76. f ( −1. 40 + 0.9) − [ f (−π )] + f (−3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 = 2 − (−2) − [ 3] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ ( −4 ) 2 = 4 − 9 + ( −1)( −4 ) = 2−9+ 4 = −3 79. Section 1. f ( −2.3t − 60 = 0. Inc. 30 + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5) − f (1. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − 2( x + h) 2 x = h x x+h − 2 x ( x + h) 2 x ( x + h) = h −h 2 x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ 2 x ( x + h) h −1 = 2x ( x + h) 77.

99). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000) = 4386. 75]. The percent body fat in men reaches a maximum at age 65. –2) or (0. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. occurs at around age 20. f (3.59. 106. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. 3. domain: [25. ∞) Decreasing: (1. 87. This model describes percent body fat in men. T (20. 39. if t > 450 98.8 ounces is $0. Inc. ⎧60 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩60 + 0. The percent body fat in women reaches a maximum at age 55. 38] 88. 96.148. 700) 95. 75) 84. 75]. 469. 89. Increasing: (–2. 92. 65).75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $20.33( x − 160. decreasing: (65.25(50. 86. about 4.93.15(20. increasing: (25.5 ounces is $0. 1) or (3.Functions and Graphs 82. 107. . The minimum is (20. range: [23. Increasing: (−∞. – 105. decreasing: (55.59.000 owes $8923.5) = 0. increasing: (25. 101. This model describes percent body fat in women. This maximum is 26%. 000) = 782. Answers may vary. 93.35( x − 349. 2) 158 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 99. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. 3) T (50.29.93 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3.25 + 0.75. 91. f (3) = 0. 83. 000 − 31. 26] The number of doctor visits decreases during childhood and then increases as you get older. This maximum is 38%. 75) 100. domain: [25.76 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3 ounces is $0. 000 − 7825) = 2608. 85.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $50. 55).76. 108.75 + 0.50 + 0.850) 94. which means that the minimum number of doctor visits. 90.000 owes $2608.850) = 8923.5 ounces is $0. 0) or (2.35(t − 450) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 450 97. range: [34.25 + 0.75.

120. makes sense 117. Sample explanation: It’s possible the graph is not defined at a. a. makes sense 116. does not make sense. answers may vary Decreasing: (−∞. Explanations will vary. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. 0) 119. Inc. − 2) Constant: (–2. 109. e. Increasing: (2. answers may vary 112. 110. f is odd and g is even: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x ) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) g ( x) f is even and g is odd: f (– x) f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) 159 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) c. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. 111. Increasing: (–∞. ∞) when n is odd. 0) d. 2) Increasing: (0. . h is even if both f and g are even or if both f and g are odd. b. Decreasing: (−∞. f ( x ) = x n is increasing from (–∞. makes sense Increasing: (0.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 0) Decreasing: (0. ∞) 113. 115. a.3 b. f and g are both even: f (– x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) f and g are both odd: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = = h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) h is odd if f is odd and g is even or if f is even and g is odd. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Increasing: (1. 1) 114. ∞) 118.

we get the point slope equation: y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − (−1) = −5[ x − (−2)] x = −2 The point is ( 0. Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4(0) − 3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y = 6 y + 1 = −5( x + 2). m= −2 − 4 −6 = =6 −4 − (−3) −1 b.4 4 −1 3 y2 − y1 = = =3 x2 − x1 −2 − (−3) 1 Check Point Exercises 1. 1). to obtain the point (5. 5. 0 ⎟ . –1). . 160 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎝2 ⎠ When x = 0 : 4x − 3y − 6 = 0 The slope m is 3 5 and the y-intercept is 1. 4). so one point on the line is (1. y + 5 = 6 x − 12 y = 6 x − 17 3. m= 5 − (−2) 7 7 = =− −1 − 4 −5 5 4x − 6 = 0 4x = 6 2. Inc.Solve the equation for y : y + 1 = −5 x − 10 3x + 2 y − 4 = 0 y = −5 x − 11. 2 y = −3 x + 4 −3 x + 4 2 or 4. move 3 units up and 5 units to the right. 124. y= y=− −6 − (−1) −5 = = −5 . 123. 0). y = 3 is a horizontal line. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 6( x − 2) 3 x= 2 ⎛3 ⎞ The point is ⎜ . −2 ) . When y = 0 : 4x − 3 y − 6 = 0 4 x − 3(0) − 6 = 0 a. We can find a second point on the line by using the slope m = 35 = Rise : starting at Run 3 x+2 2 the point (0. −1 − (−2) 1 so the slope is –5.Functions and Graphs 121. answers may vary 122. Using the point (–2.

vertical 5−5 0 161 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.64 − 57. m= −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. falls −1 − (−2) 1 8.0 = 61.PreCalculus 4E 6. m= −2 − 3 −5 = undefined. rises 8−4 4 2. m= 4−3 1 = .016(600) + 52.072 y = 0.6 The temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million would be 61. Change in y 57.016 x + 52. m= 10 − 7 3 = . Any value can be used for y. horizontal 3− 4 −1 6.0 f (600) = 0.016 x + 52. horizontal 3−4 −1 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 All ordered pairs that are solutions of x = −3 have a value of x that is always –3. . 9.016 x − 5.968 f ( x) = 0. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 57.0 Find the temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million. 3x + 6 y − 12 = 0 6 y = −3 x + 12 −3 12 y= x+ 6 6 1 y = − x+2 2 Exercise Set 1.016 Change in x 354 − 317 37 Use the point-slope form and then find slopeintercept form.4 The slope is − 8.04 = 0.6 m= = = ≈ 0.04 = 0. m= −1 − 4 −5 = = −5. rises 2 − (−2) 4 4.016 x + 51. m= 2 − (−2) 0 = = 0. m= 2 −1 1 = . m= 4 −1 3 = = 3.04 0. Section 1. First find the slope. rises 2 − (−1) 3 5.016( x − 317) y − 57. 2 Find the x-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3x − 2(0) − 6 = 0 3x − 6 = 0 3x = 6 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3(0) − 2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y = 6 y = −3 1. falls 4−6 −2 9.6°F. Inc. 1 and the y-intercept is 2. 7. rises 3−2 1 3. f ( x) = 0. m= −2 − (−4) 2 = = −1.

point-slope form: y + 2 = –5(x + 4). m = 8. y1 = 0. 3 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 3 14. 1 . 3 1 m = . m= 11. x1 = 0. slope-intercept form: y = −4( x + 4) 3 24. 4 1 m = −1. y = −3 x − 9 m = −4. x1 = 0. 12. 2 25. y1 = −3. x1 = −2. y1 = −2. slope-intercept form: y = –2x – 3 19. y1 = 3. y1 = 0. y = 2x 162 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. vertical 3−3 0 10.Functions and Graphs 5 − (−4) 9 = undefined. slope-intercept form: y = 4x – 1 13. m = 2. . y1 = 0. x1 = −2. y1 = − . x1 = −4. x1 = 3. 5 3 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 5 y = −4 x − 16 18. point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3). Publishing as Prentice Hall. x1 = 6. x1 = 4. m= −1 . 2⎠ ⎝ 1 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x − 2 5 y = −x − 2 10 − 2 8 = = 2. 1⎞ ⎛ point-slope form: y + 2 = −1⎜ x + ⎟ . point-slope form: y + 3 = –2(x – 0) m = −2. x1 = 10. x1 = −4. slope-intercept form: y − 2 = 2 x − 2 or y − 10 = 2 x − 10. 1 ( x − 0). 2) . y1 = −1. y1 = −4. 5 3 m = − . y1 = −3. point-slope form: y + y = 2x −1 21. x1 = 1. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 2 x − 6 1 = −1( x + 4). y1 ) = (1. m = −1. x1 = −4. point-slope form: y – 3 = 4(x – 1). 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = y = 6 x + 17 15. 4 17 slope-intercept form: y = − x − 4 20. x1 = 0. 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 2 m = 6. m = −5. slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −3 x − 6 23. point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x − 0). point-slope form: y + 3 = –3(x + 2). slope-intercept form: y = –5x – 22 17. x1 = 2 m = − . y1 = 5. y1 = 5. y1 = −2. m = 4. slope-intercept form: y = 8x – 33 m = −3. point-slope form: y + 4 = − ( x − 10). 3 2 point-slope form: y + 2 = − ( x − 6). 5 −1 4 point-slope form: y – 2 = 2(x – 1) using ( x1 . or y – 10 = 2(x – 5) using m= ( x1 . point-slope form: y + 1 = 8(x – 4). point-slope form: y – 5 = 6(x + 2). slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 6 x + 12 1 22. y1 ) = (5. Inc. point-slope form: y – 0 = –4(x + 4). 10) . y1 = −2. 3 2 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x + 4 3 2 y = − x+2 3 16.

slope-intercept form: y + 5 = 0. slope-intercept form: y = x + 3 m= 4 + 4 or 3x 4 y − 6 = x − 4. y1 ) = (3. or y + 5 = 0(x – 6) using m= ( x1 . − 4 ) . y1 ) = (−3.4 15 − 5 10 = =2.so −1 − (−4) 3 = =1. 0 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4) . Section 1. y1 ) = (2. 3 − (−3) 6 3 4 point-slope form: y − 6 = − ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . − 2) . − 1) . 3 − (−3) 6 3 point-slope form: y + 2 = ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y − 9 = x − 2. 4 ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . y1 ) = ( −2. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 26. or y = x+2 163 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 27. or y − 6 = ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . y1 ) = (−3. so y = −5 35. 0 − (−2) 2 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . 6 ) . 8−3 5 point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3) using ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y + 1 = 0. slope-intercept form: y = 2x – 1 28.5 ) . m= 4 − (−1) 5 = =1. y1 ) = (−3. or y + 1 = 0(x – 4) using m= ( x1 . y1 ) = (4. 0) . or y – 2 = 1(x – 0) using m= 32. 4) . 3 4 y = x+2 3 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = 2−0 2 = =1. 6 − (−2) 8 point-slope form: y + 5 = 0(x + 2) using ( x1 . y1 ) = ( −2. 3) . y1 ) = ( 3. −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. or y – 3 = 1(x – 0) using ( x1 . . 6 − (−2) 8 4 = = . or y + 1 = 1(x – 1) using y = −1 34. − 2 ) . − 5 ) .or y – 15 = 2(x – 8) using m= 31. y1 ) = (−3. ( x1 . y1 ) = (1. 0 − (−3) 3 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . m= 4 −2 − 6 −8 = =− . − 1) . −2 − 2 −4 point-slope form: y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . 4 − (−3) 7 point-slope form: y + 1 = 0(x + 3) using ( x1 . ( x1 .15) . y1 ) = ( −3. y1 ) = ( 8. 6) . 2 ) . y1 ) = (−2. − 5) . 30. m = 1 − (−2) 3 point-slope form: y + 4 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y = x + 2 29. 0) . or y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using m= ( x1 . − 1) . y1 ) = ( 3. y1 ) = ( −2. − 1) slope-intercept form: y = x – 2 −5 − (−5) 0 = =0. 2 − (−3) 5 point-slope form: y + 1 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . y1 ) = ( 6. y1 ) = (0. 3− 0 3 = =1. or y + 2 = − ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y + 1 = x + 3or y−4 = x−2 y = x+2 m= 4 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 3 33. y1 ) = (2. or y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . 0 − 4 −4 = = 1. y1 ) = ( 0.

Inc. − 2 ) . y1 ) = (1. m = –3. 0 ) . m= 43. b = 1 40. 3 m = . 0 ) . 0 − 4 −4 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x1 . y1 ) = ( − 12 . m = 3. − 3) . b = –2 4 44. 4) . m= 0 − (−3) 3 3 = =− −1 − 1 −2 2 41. b = 2 164 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b = 2 4−0 4 = =8. 3 3 slope-intercept form: y + 3 = − x + .Functions and Graphs 36. y1 ) = ( 4. b = −3 4 −2 − 0 −2 1 = = . m= 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall. or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) using ( x1 . or 2 2 3 3 y = − x− 2 2 37. y1 ) = (0. b = 1 3 point-slope form: y + 3 = − ( x − 1) using 2 3 ( x1 . y1 ) = ( −1.0 ) . 3 m = . . 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x − 2 2 or y + 2 = 39. or y − 0 = − ( x + 1) using 2 ( x1 . 0 − ( − 12 ) 12 point-slope form: y – 4 = 8(x – 0) using ( x1 . 1 ( x − 4) using 2 1 ( x − 0) using ( x1 . or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) slope-intercept form: y = 8 x + 4 38. m = 2. y1 ) = ( 0. m = –2.

48. 47. . Section 1. 55.b=6 5 51.b=0 2 53. Inc. 46. 1 m=− .b=0 3 54. 2 m=− . b=7 5 49. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 3 m=− . 1 m=− . 50. 52. 165 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 45.

b. 2 x + 3 y − 18 = 0 2 x − 18 = −3 y −3 y = 2 x − 18 2 18 y= x− −3 −3 2 y = − x+6 3 b. b. 62. b.Functions and Graphs 56. a. . b = 5 c. 4x + y − 6 = 0 y − 6 = −4 x y = −4 x + 6 m = −4. Inc. 57. c. b=6 3 c. 3x + 12 = 0 3x = −12 x = −4 59. a. 60. a. 2 m=− . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 58. 3x − 18 = 0 3x = 18 x=6 61. b = 6 166 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 m = − . b = –2 3 c. 3x + y − 5 = 0 y − 5 = −3 x y = −3 x + 5 4 x + 6 y + 12 = 0 4 x + 12 = −6 y −6 y = 4 x + 12 4 12 y= x+ −6 −6 2 y = − x−2 3 m = –3. a.

167 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b = –3 c. b = −4 5 c. b = 3 c. . 6 x − 2(0) − 12 = 0 6 x − 12 = 0 6 x = 12 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 6(0) − 2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y = 12 y = −6 6 x − 5 y − 20 = 0 6 x − 20 = 5 y 5 y = 6 x − 20 6 20 y = x− 5 5 6 y = x−4 5 b. 6 m = .4 8 x − 4 y − 12 = 0 8 x − 12 = 4 y 4 y = 8 x − 12 8 12 y = x− 4 4 y = 2x − 3 66. m = 0. 65. b. a. m = 0. b = −7 c. m = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. a. Section 1. 67. a.PreCalculus 4E 63. 4 y + 28 = 0 4 y = −28 y = −7 b. 3y − 9 = 0 3y = 9 y=3 b. a. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 64.

Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 70. Find the x-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 6 x − 9(0) − 18 = 0 6 x − 18 = 0 6 x = 18 x=3 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 6(0) − 9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y = 18 y = −2 3x + 5(0) + 15 = 0 3x + 15 = 0 3x = −15 x = −5 Find the y-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 3(0) + 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y = −15 y = −3 69. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Find the x-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8 x − 2(0) + 12 = 0 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x + 3(0) + 6 = 0 2x + 6 = 0 2 x = −6 x = −3 Find the y-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 2(0) + 3 y + 6 = 0 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −6 y = −2 8 x = −12 8 x −12 = 8 8 −3 x= 2 Find the y-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8(0) − 2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y = −12 y = −6 168 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 68. Find the x-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 71. Inc. .

the line rises. 4− y 1− 3 4− y −3 = −2 6 = 4− y 2 = −y −2 = y 80. B B 79. Ax = By − C Ax + C = By A C x+ = y B B A C The slope is and the y − intercept is .4 72. B B 78. 74. 169 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − b is a negative. m= −3 = = f ( x) = 3 3 x− 4 2 (a + c) − c a = a − (a − b) b Since a and b are both positive. −4 − y 1 = 3 4 − ( −2 ) 6 x − 3(0) + 15 = 0 6 x + 15 = 0 6 x = −15 6 x −15 = 6 6 5 x=− 2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 6(0) − 3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y = −15 y=5 73. The line is vertical. . 75. m= 6 = −12 − 3 y 18 = −3 y −6 = y −b − 0 −b b = =− a 0 − ( −a ) a Since a and b are both positive. m= 3x − 4 f ( x ) = 6 −4 f ( x ) = −3 x + 6 c 0 a−a The slope is undefined. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 77. the line falls. Inc. the line falls. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Therefore. b Therefore. Ax + By = C By = − Ax + C A C y = − x+ B B A C The slope is − and the y − intercept is . 76.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Therefore. m= 0 − a −a a = =− b−0 b b Since a and b are both positive. − 1 −4 − y = 3 4+2 1 −4 − y = 3 6 6 = 3 ( −4 − y ) a is b negative. a is positive. (b + c ) − b 81.

9 − 31. Inc.7 E (60) = 0. m2 .3 − 70.1 = 0.0 = 0. (10.78 x − 7.9 ) and (10. f ( 35 ) = 0. −5 f ( x ) = −6 x + 20 f ( x) = First.65 ( x − 20 ) b. y − 31.2 = 0.7 −1 = −6 + b 5=b 84. First.1 = 0.0 = = 0.65 x + 38.215 x − 4. a.78 ( x − 10 ) y = 0. y − 45.1) .215 Change in x 40 − 20 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= E ( x) = 0. b4 .78(40) + 23. Change in y 74.6 The life expectancy of American men born in 2020 is expected to be 78.6.8 y = 0. c.215 x + 65.7 = 0.Functions and Graphs 82.65 ( x − 10 ) a.65 x − 6. to be 54.7 ) and 51.7 = 61. ages 25 – 29.38.65 x + 38.215 x + 65.5 83. 3 ( 2) + b 2 −6 = −3 + b −6 = − 85. 38. f ( 40 ) = 0.7 − 45. m4 86.78 ( x − 20 ) b.9 = 0.2 ) .7 y − 31.78 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form. a. b1 . m1 .215( x − 20) y − 38. m3 .3 y − 31. find the slope using ( 20. 6 x − 5 f ( x ) = 20 88.3 c. Using the slope-intercept form for the equation of a line: −1 = −2 ( 3) + b y = 0.5 = = 0.45% in 2015. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 170 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.31.7 f ( x ) = 0.215 x + 65. find the slope using ( 20. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 6 x−4 5 m= y − 45.2 = 0.3 = 54.1 = 0.2 6.8 = = 0. b3 87. y − 45.45 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American males. b2 . −3 = b 89. 45.51.78 x + 23. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) m= b. ages 25 – 29. f ( x ) = 0.7 E ( x) = 0.78 x + 23.5 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American females.78 ( x − 10 ) or y − 70.215(60) + 65.65 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form.65 ( x − 10 ) or y − 51.5% in 2020.65(35) + 38. to be 61.1 7. y − 70.3 c.7 = 78.0 = 0.2 = 0.

4 101. .4 60 − 10 50 y − 230 = −2.7 = 0.24). 5.17 x + 73 E (60) = 0. 10 − 0 10 Check: y = mx + b : y = −3x + 6 .5 − (−2) 7.17( x − 10) y − 74. 110 − 230 120 m= =− = −2.8428126855 d. Two points are (0. Two points are (0. (10. 171 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 10 − 0 10 4 3 Check: y = mx + b : y = x − 2 . −24 − 6 −30 m= = = −3.5). 102. 91. 4 E ( x) = 0.17(60) + 73 = 83.7 − 74. 24 − 4 20 m= = = 2. b. Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Enter data from table. a. −10 − (−5) −5 1 m= = =− . a. Inc. 10 − 0 10 2 Change in y 79.–5) and (10. 230) (60.7 = 0. a = −22.17 x + 73 c.4 x + 24 y = −2. – 99. Two points are (0.75 or . 5.17 x − 1. 6) and (10.4 x + 254 Answers may vary for predictions.7 y = 0.5633751 r = −0.5 3 m= = = 0. 110) Points may vary. 104.7 = ≈ 0.2.2 The life expectancy of American women born in 2020 is expected to be 83.17 Change in x 40 − 10 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 74. Answers may vary.PreCalculus 4E 90. 10 − 0 10 c.4) and (10. 103.–10). 92. b.96876741 b = 260. –24).17 x + 73 E ( x) = 0. 100. Two points are (0. –2) and (10.4( x − 10) y − 230 = −2.

113. A sample change is: Slope-intercept form is y = mx + b . Explanations will vary. 116. slope is 106. then m = 2. Since the slope is the negative reciprocal of − . the coefficient of x is –6 and the coefficient of y is 3. One such way is to rewrite the equation in slope-intercept form. 2 We can put this equation in the form ax + by = c to find the missing coefficients.4 M – 20. 4 x − y − 17 = 0 172 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 109. does not make sense. Since the slope is the same as the slope of y = 2 x + 1. Inc. 4−0 4 4 = = =2 0 − ( −2 ) 0 + 2 2 118. We are given that the x − intercept is −2 and the y − intercept is 4 . 115.4 (M – 25) or E = 2. 2 to find the slope. 110. Multiply both sides of −2 x + y = 4 by 3 to obtain 12 on the righthand-side. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary.4 . Equations of this form have undefined slope and cannot be written in slope-intercept form. the coefficient of x is 1 and the coefficient of y is −2. A sample change is: It is possible for m to equal b. 4 ) m= 1 . x − 2 y = 12 Therefore. Sample explanation: Since college cost are going up. We are given that the y − intercept is − 6 and the 105. −2 x + y = 4 1 119. Let (25. Sample explanation: Linear functions never change from increasing to decreasing. 280) be ordered pairs (M. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 4 then m = 4. false. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 y = x−6 2 1 y − x = −6 2 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ y − x ⎟ = 2 ( −6 ) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 y − x = −12 So the equation of the line is y = 107. Explanations will vary. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 4 ( x − 3) y + 5 = 4 x − 12 −4 x + y + 17 = 0 3 ( −2 x + y ) = 3 ( 4 ) −6 x + 3 y = 12 Therefore. Sample explanation: The slope of line’s whose equations are in this form can be determined in several ways. . Using ( x1 . y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) Using the slope and one of the intercepts. E) where M is degrees Madonna and E is degrees Elvis. Then 280 − 40 240 m= = = 2. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − ( −3 ) ) y − 1 = 2 ( x + 3) y − 0 = 2 ( x − ( −2 ) ) y − 1 = 2x + 6 y = 2 ( x + 2) y = 2x + 7 y = 2x + 4 −2 x + y = 4 Find the x– and y–coefficients for the equation of the line with right-hand-side equal to 12.Functions and Graphs 114. 40 ) . y1 ) = ( 25. A sample change is: The graph of x = 7 is a vertical line through the point (7. Explanations will vary. 1 x − 6. 117. 125 − 25 100 point-slope form tells us that E – 40 = 2. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. We can use the points ( −2. 0 ) and ( 0. 40) and (125. 108. 0). we can write the line in point-slope form. true 112. Answers may vary. Vertical lines have equations of the form x = a . Answers may vary. this function has a positive slope. false. 111.

y − (−6) = 3 ( x − (−2) ) Since L is parallel to y = 2 x. The slope of the line y = 3 x + 1 is 3. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (3) − f (1) 0. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 13 − 03 = =1 x2 − x1 1− 0 b.04 feet per second Δt 1.05 − 0. Inc. Use m = 3 and the point (–2.5 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (1) = 4 −1 x2 − x1 4. The slope of this line is − b.7 − 9.S. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Exercise Set 1.0 3. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y + 6 = 3( x + 2) y + 6 = 3x + 6 −3 x + y = 0 y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. 2 ) .0804 Δs 4. Section 1. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 03 − (−2)3 8 = = =4 x2 − x1 0 − (−2) 2 = Section 1.01 x2 − x1 3 −1 3 −1 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –6) to write the equation. men living alone is projected to increase by 0. 5. a. . Write the equation in slope-intercept form: x + 3 y − 12 = 0 3 y = − x + 12 1 y = − x+4 3 s (1. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 y = 3x + 11 slope-intercept 2.5 1. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Δs 16 − 4 = = 12 feet per second Δt 2 −1 y − 5 = 3 ( x − (−2) ) y − 5 = 3( x + 2) point-slope y − 5 = 3x + 6 b. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 23 − 13 8 − 1 = = =7 x2 − x1 2 −1 1 c.03 = = = 0. 173 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 120. we know it will have slope m = 2. the equation of the line is f ( x ) = 2 x − 6.5 Check Point Exercises 1. a. m= y − 2 = 2x − 8 y = 2x − 6 In function notation.25 million each year. We are given that it passes through ( 4. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (1.01 − 1 1 thus the slope of 3 any line perpendicular to this line is 3.5) = 4(1. y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) 3x − y = 0 general form 3.01)2 = 4.0804 − 4 = = 8. 42 − 12 4 −1 15 = 3 =5 a.25 Change in x 2005 − 1990 15 The slope indicates that the number of U.7 = = ≈ 0.5 − 1 c. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (2) = 4(2)2 = 16 Change in y 12.5)2 = 9 Δs 9 − 4 = = 10 feet per second Δt 1.01) = 4(1.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. L will have slope m = −2 . 1 y − 2 = ( x − ( −1) ) 2 1 y − 2 = ( x + 1) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. 4). Use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. . 1 x+7. point-slope form: y − 2 = −3( x + 4) slope-intercept form: y − 2 = −3x − 12 y = −3x − 10 9. 3 1 L will have slope m = . we have y − 4 = −2 ( x − 3) . 1 y − 4 = − ( x − 2) 2 1 y − 4 = − x +1 2 1 y = − x+5 2 In function notation. y1 = −7 . 2 y−4 = − x1 = −4. 1 1 y−2 = x+ 2 2 1 1 y = x+ +2 2 2 1 5 y = x+ 2 2 1 5 f ( x) = x + 2 2 2x − 3y − 7 = 0 −3 y = −2 x + 7 2 7 y = x− 3 3 The slope of the given line is 2 2 . 5. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − 2) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. m = –5 since the line is perpendicular to 1 y = x + 6. The line passes through (– 2 1. x1 = 2. Inc. so m = since the 2 2 lines are parallel. point-slope form: y + 7 = –5(x + 2) slope-intercept form: y + 7 = −5 x − 10 y = −5 x − 17 7. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. y1 = −3. m = −3 since the line is perpendicular to y = Since L is perpendicular to y = 2 x. point-slope form: y + 10 = –4(x + 8) slope-intercept form: y + 10 = –4x – 32 y = –4x – 42 6. y1 = −10. y − 4 = −2 x + 6 y = −2 x + 10 f ( x ) = −2 x + 10 3. Using the point and the slope. y1 = 2 . We are given that it passes 2 through (2. x1 = −2. 3 ( x + 1) 2 general form: 3 x − 2 y + 9 = 0 point-slope form: y − 3 = 174 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we know it will 1 have slope m = − . x1 = −8. so m = since the 3 3 lines are parallel. m = –4 since the line is parallel to y = −4 x + 3. 2). 2 ( x + 2) 3 general form: 2 x − 3 y + 10 = 0 point-slope form: y − 2 = 10. the equation of the line is 1 f ( x ) = − x + 5.Functions and Graphs 2. Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. 4. 3x − 2 y − = 0 −2 y = −3x + 5 3 5 y = x− 2 2 The slope of the given line is 3 3 . m = –5 since the line is parallel to y = −5 x + 4 . 5 point-slope form: y + 3 = –5(x – 2) slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −5 x + 10 y = −5 x + 7 8.

20. we know the graph of f is a horizontal line with 0 slope.5 x − 2y − 3 = 0 −2 y = − x + 3 1 3 y = x− 2 2 b.001 − 3 Δt 21.5 − 90 = = 65 feet per second Δt 3. 6 − 2 ( 6 ) − (3 − 2 ⋅ 3) 36 − 12 − ( 9 − 6 ) 21 = = =7 6−3 3 3 9 − 4 3−2 1 = = 9−4 5 5 18.7212 Δs 108.07201 Δs 108. The slope of the given line is Δs 122. so the equation of 175 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.01 − 3 Δt d.5)2 = 122.01) = 10(3. point-slope form: y + 9 = 7(x – 5) general form: 7 x − y − 44 = 0 13. Since the line is perpendicular to x = 6 which is a vertical line. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3. so m = –2 since the 2 lines are perpendicular.01)2 = 90.06 − 90 = = 60.001)2 = 90. The graph of f passes through ( −2. 15 − 0 15 = =3 5−0 5 14.01)2 = 108. we know the graph of f is a horizontal s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (4) = 10(4)2 = 160 line with 0 slope.001)2 = 108.5 d.01 feet per second 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.12 feet per second 3.5) = 12(3. 16.01 − 3 Δt 2 17. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.5 − 3 1 . The graph of f passes through ( −1.01 feet per second 3.01) = 12(3.001) = 10(3. 24 − 0 24 = =6 4−0 4 15. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (4) = 12(4)2 = 192 Δs 108 − 192 = = 84 feet per second 4−3 Δt b.001 − 3 Δt 1 The slope of the given line is − .5) = 10(3.601 − 90 = = 60.07201 − 108 = = 72. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.7212 − 108 = = 72.PreCalculus 4E 11. y + 7 = –2 ( x − 4 ) point-slope form: c. 22.5 − 2 Δt 52 + 2 ⋅ 5 − (32 + 2 ⋅ 3) 25 + 10 − (9 + 6) = 5−3 2 20 = 2 = 10 2 s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3. so the equation of Δs 160 − 90 = = 70 feet per second 4−3 Δt f is f ( x ) = 5. 16 − 9 4 − 3 1 = = 16 − 9 7 7 19. 6 ) . Inc. a. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3. so m = 7 since the 7 lines are perpendicular. .5 ) . Since the line is perpendicular to x = −4 which is a vertical line. Section 1.601 Δs 90.5)2 = 147 Δs 147 − 108 = = 78 feet per second 3.1 feet per second 3. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 general form: 2 x + y − 1 = 0 12.001) = 12(3. c. x + 7 y − 12 = 0 7 y = − x + 12 −1 12 y= x+ 7 7 s (3. f is f ( x ) = 6. a.06 Δs 90.

We use these points to find the slope. −4 ) . 0 ) and ( 0. 4 ) and the slope − to find the equation of the line.Functions and Graphs 23. 0 ) and ( 0. 2 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −6 ) ) 2 1 y − 4 = − ( x + 6) 2 1 y −4 = − x−3 2 1 y = − x +1 2 1 f ( x) = − x +1 2 y−4 = − 24. 3 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −5) ) 3 1 y − 6 = − ( x + 5) 3 1 5 y−6 = − x− 3 3 1 13 y =− x+ 3 3 1 13 f ( x) = − x + 3 3 y−6 = − 176 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m= −4 − 0 −4 = =2 0 − 2 −2 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. 6 ) and the slope − 1 to find the equation of the line. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. it will have slope m = − . This line will pass through ( 3. it will have slope m = − . We use these points to find the slope. 3 Use the point ( −5. Inc. m= −9 − 0 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. −9 ) . 2 1 Use the point ( −6. This line will pass through ( 2. First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 2 and y − intercept of −4. First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 3 and y − intercept of −9.

1(7)3 − 35(7) 2 + 264(7) + 557 = 1067. 4x − y − 6 = 0 − y = −4 x + 6 y = 4x − 6 1 The equation of f will have slope − since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 4 y − intercept −6.5 25.1(4)3 − 35(4)2 + 264(4) + 557 = 1123. 2 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 2.2 x + 47 28.1(12)3 − 35(12) 2 + 264(12) + 557 = 585.3 m= ≈ −96 12 − 7 b. 31.3 x + 23 29. This underestimates the decrease by 36 discharges per year. This overestimates by 5 discharges per year. First put the equation 4 x − y − 6 = 0 in slope-intercept form.4 1123. 4 27. 3 26. 177 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x − 2 y − 4 = 0 −2 y = −3 x + 4 y= 3 x−2 2 The equation of f will have slope − 2 since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 3 y − intercept −2.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1.8 585. 1163 − 617 546 = ≈ 137 1998 − 1994 4 There was an average increase of approximately 137 discharges per year. First put the equation 3 x − 2 y − 4 = 0 in slope-intercept form. f ( x) = 1. m= 612 − 1273 −661 = ≈ −132 2006 − 2001 5 There was an average decrease of approximately 132 discharges per year. Inc.8 − 1067. 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. P( x) = 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.4 − 557 m= ≈ 142 4−0 b. P( x) = −1. 1 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 6.3 f (12) = 1.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. m= a. .1(0)3 − 35(0)2 + 264(0) + 557 = 557 f (4) = 1. 30. a. f ( x) = 1.

B The slope of any line perpendicular to Ax + By + C = 0 is B . Answers may vary. c. The lines do not appear to be perpendicular. b. In part (b). A 178 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. – 38. this causes the lines not to appear perpendicular when indeed they are. The lines are perpendicular because their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. Inc. Explanations will vary. 1 x +1 3 y = −3x − 2 y= a. The lines appear to be perpendicular. Sample explanation: Slopes can be used for segments of the graph. The calculator screen is rectangular and does not have the same width and height. makes sense 41. This causes the scale of the x–axis to differ from the scale on the y–axis despite using the same scale in the window settings. This is verified because product of their slopes is –1. 39. Write Ax + By + C = 0 in slope-intercept form. the lines appear to be perpendicular.Functions and Graphs 33. 43. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. does not make sense. Ax + By + C = 0 By = − Ax − C By − Ax C = − B B B A C y = − x− B B The slope of the given line is − A . The zoom square feature compensates for this and in part (c). makes sense 44. makes sense 42. 40.

6}. Therefore. b. The range is {1. The range is { y | 0 ≤ y ≤ 3}. 4. a. c. The relation is a function. Inc. b.3}. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted down 4 units. 7 7 7 has slope m = 46. . 4 − ( −3 ) 4+3 7 7 = = =− −2 − 1 −3 −3 3 Solve Ax + y − 2 = 0 for y to obtain slope-intercept form. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted to the right 2 units. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) reflected across the y-axis. Ax + y − 2 = 0 y = − Ax + 2 So the slope of this line is − A. a. −3) and ( −2. c. The domain is {x | −2 ≤ x < 2}. 2. The domain is {1. The slope of the line containing (1. The range is { y | −1 ≤ y ≤ 2}. 3. 4 ) b. The range is {−6.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 45. 48. The domain is {0. 4}. The relation is not a function. 179 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 1. This line is perpendicular to the line above so its 3 3 3 slope is . 2}. a. The domain is {x | −3 < x ≤ 4}. The relation is not a function. − A = so A = − . The relation is a function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. 2. 4. 47.

Domain: 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. there is one and only one value for y. −1. 7. the equation does not define y as a function of x. The domain is {x | x ≤ 1}. 4] 12. Inc. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (−4) −5 − 3 = = = −1 4 − (−4) 4+4 x2 − x1 25. . f (−2) = 4 18. –2) 15. then y = ± 5 − 4 = ±1 ). x = −2 17.3}. x + y2 = 5 y2 = 5 − x y = ± 5− x Since there are values of x that give more than one value for y (for example. 6. 8. increasing: (–∞. Range: ( −∞. 16. x2 + y = 5 24. The domain is {−2. ∞) 29. Each value of x corresponds to exactly one value of y. f (−6) = 0 and f (2) = 0 21. 9. 2}. y-intercept: 3 14.Functions and Graphs 5. 27. f (100) is negative. The range is { y | y ≥ −1}. neither. 10. x-intercepts: –6 and 2 13. decreasing: (–2. −1. f (−4) = 3 19. if x = 4. 30. The relation is not a function. The range is {−2.1.1. ( −∞. 0. f (−7) = −2 and f (3) = −2 20. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x 180 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 23. ( −6. y = − x2 + 5 For each value of x. ∞ ) 28. 2 ) 22. The relation is a function. so the equation defines y as a function of x. 26.

Inc.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 35. f (− x) = −2(− x) 2 − x − 5 = −2 x 2 − x − 5 neither. 36. . f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x b. 33. 5 y = 20 y=4 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 34. 31. 5 y = −3 x 3 y=− x 5 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) − 5 − (−2 x 2 + x − 5) = h 2 2 −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h − 5 + 2 x 2 − x + 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 181 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 37. a.

2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = −2 x + 10 43. Inc. 39. t > 200 a. y − (−4) = 3( x − 3) y + 4 = 3x − 9 y = 3 x − 13 f ( x) = 3 x − 13 45. 2 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 3 = −2( x + 4) y − 3 = −2 x − 8 y = −2 x − 5 f ( x ) = −2 x − 5 40. The rate of change is 0.16 Change in x 180 − 80 100 a.40(250 − 200) = 50 −5 y −2 x 10 = + −5 −5 −5 2 y = x−2 5 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) The slope of the given line is y − 3 = −2 ( x − (−4) ) m= 5 ( x − (−4) ) 2 5 y + 3 = − x − 10 2 5 y = − x − 13 2 5 f ( x) = − x − 13 2 y − (−3) = − Change in y 1 − (−5) 6 = = =2 Change in x 2 − (−1) 3 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − 2) y − 1 = 2x − 4 y = 2x − 3 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 41.Functions and Graphs 38.40(t − 200) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 200 42. 2 . the percentage of patients with depression in remission increased by 0. 2 +1 . and the lines are parallel. C (250) = 30 + 0. so m = − .16%. C (150) = 30 b. and the lines are 5 5 perpendicular. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (2) − f (−1) = x2 − x1 2 − (−1) = ( 3(2) 2 − 2 ) − ( 3(−1) 2 − (−1) ) =2 182 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. For each minute of brisk walking. if ⎧30 C ( x) = ⎨ ⎩30 + 0. m= b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. m1 = Change in y 0 − (−4) 4 = = Change in x 7−2 5 Change in y 6−2 4 = = Change in x 1 − (−4) 5 The slope of the lines are equal thus the lines are parallel. Change in y 42 − 26 16 = = = 0. 3x − y − 5 = 0 − y = −3 x + 5 m2 = y = 3x − 5 The slope of the given line is 3. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44.16% per minute of brisk walking. so m = 3.

6. 8. 7. Shift to the right 4 units. Horizontally stretch the graph of y = f ( x ) . Vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x . reflected about the x-axis. 4. by a factor of 5. shrunk 1 . . The graph of y = f ( x ) is shifted 1 unit left. b.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Horizontally shrink the graph of y = f ( x ) . Shift up vertically 3 units. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Reflect about the x-axis.6 Section 1. 183 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. Inc. Reflect about the y-axis. 2.6 Check Point Exercises 1. 3. Shift to the right 1 unit and down 2 units. then 3 shifted down 2 units.

Inc.Functions and Graphs 9. Exercise Set 1. 2. . The graph of f ( x) = x 2 is shifted 1 unit right. 184 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9. 8.6 1. 3. 5. stretched by a factor of 2. 4. 7. then shifted up 3 units. 6.

19. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 16. 14.6 10. 18. 15. 17.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 13. 11. 12. 185 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

27. 24. 21. 28. 30. 22. Inc. 23. .Functions and Graphs 20. 26. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 29. 25. 186 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

39. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 31. 32. 34. 35. 187 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. . 40. 37. Inc. 38. 33. 36.

. 49. 50. 47. 188 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 46. 42. 45.Functions and Graphs 41. 44. Inc. 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 43.

6 51. Inc. 52. 57. 62. 53. 60. 59. 189 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 56. 55. .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 54. 61. 58.

66. 65. . 67. 70. 190 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 64. 72.Functions and Graphs 63. Inc. 68. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 71. 69. 73. 74.

84.6 81. 85. 77. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 78. 83. Inc. 82. 191 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 86. 80. 76. .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 75. 79.

Functions and Graphs 93. 90. 97. 92. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 91. 96. 95. 192 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 98. . 89. 94. 87. 88.

107.6 99. 109. 103. 106. 108. 105. . 101.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 110. 104. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 193 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 102. 100.

y = x − 2 124. 113. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 114. 125. 119. 123. 122. 121. 112. Inc. 116. 120. 115. 118. y = ( x + 1) 2 − 4 126. y = − x 3 + 2 117. y = x − 2 + 1 194 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 111.

9203 = 10 ≈ 0.1 − 2. 0 + 19 ) f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 3. then shift the result up 19 units. 10 + 20.1 units. ) 60 + 20. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 135.1 − 2.0 inches per month f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = d. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 50 + 19 ) 60 − 50 43. Answers may vary. . Section 1.9 0 + 20.5633 − 40.9 ) ( ) d.1 10 − 0 29.2 The model describes the actual data very well.1 x + 19 f (48) = 3. First. = = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 ( 2.PreCalculus 4E 127.9 ) ( = b.9 0.0125 − 40. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference.9 48 + 20. 195 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. b. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference.9.1 129.1 = 10 ≈ 0.9 x + 20.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c). c. a. 128. f ( x) = 3.1.27 − 20.8031 − 19 = 10 ≈ 1. a. = f ( x) = 2.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c).0 1.1 f (48) = 2.1 48 + 19 ≈ 40.1 10 + 19) − ( 3.9 50 + 20.1 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 10 − 0 28.6061 = 10 ≈ 0.1 ) ( 60 + 19 − 3. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 2. b. then shift the result up 20. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 3. 60 − 50 42. Inc.5 The model describes the actual data very well.1 ≈ 40. ( 3. c.9 inches per month = f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 2. – 134.6 First.

These values must be excluded from the domain. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t − 1). a. false. false.Functions and Graphs 149. Changes to make the statement true will vary. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 5 + ( x 2 − 1) 1 148. g ( x) = −( x + 4)2 146. true 145. ( f ( x) ) 2 − 2 f ( x ) + 6 = ( 3x − 4 ) − 2(3 x − 4) + 6 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 − 6 x + 8 + 6 137. while the graph a. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. b – 3) 153. 1. 150. g ( x) = – x – 5 + 1 interval [3. A sample change is: The graph of f is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the x-axis. the domain of h is {x x ≥ 3} . ∞ ) . 9 x − 27 ≥ 0 9 x ≥ 27 x≥3 Thus. or the of g is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the yaxis. A sample change is: The graph of g is a translation of f three units to the left and three units upward. The function f ( x) = x 2 + 3x − 17 contains neither division nor an even root. ∞ ) . Section 1. Explanations will vary. The domain of f is the set of all real numbers or ( −∞. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t + 1). does not make sense. 143. (a. (–a. Explanations will vary. 2b) 151. 2x 2x = 3x − x 3− x x Check Point Exercises 142. Publishing as Prentice Hall. domain of g = ( −∞. (a. Inc. c. does not make sense. b) 152. b) 136. (a + 3. The denominator equals zero when x = 7 or x = –7. ∞ ) . g ( x) = − 16 – x 2 − 1 4 = x − 5 + x2 − 1 = − x2 + x − 6 196 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . false. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 30 x + 30 139. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 24 x − 6 x + 16 + 8 + 6 138. (2 x − 1)( x 2 + x − 2) = 2 x( x 2 + x − 2) − 1( x 2 + x − 2) b.7 141. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. A sample change is: The stretch will be 5 units and the downward shift will be 10 units. 147. 2 = 3 −1 x 140. a. the quantity under the radical must be greater than or equal to 0. 155. g ( x) = − x − 2 + 2 2. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 144. = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − x 2 − x + 2 = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x 2 − 4 x − x + 2 = 2 x3 + x 2 − 5 x + 2 154. Since h( x) = 9 x − 27 contains an even root. b.

domain: ( −∞. Thus. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 3 + x +1 b. 2 h ( x ) = f g where f ( x) = x . The function contains neither division nor an even root. g ( x) = x 2 + 5 = x3 − x − 5 x 2 + 5 = x3 − 5 x 2 − x + 5 d.3) ∪ ( 3. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 6. ∞). ∞ ) . Inc. The domain = ( −∞. 1⎫ ⎧ domain: ⎨ x x ≠ 0.7 ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = ( x) g g ⎝ ⎠ x −5 .9 ) ∪ ( 9. ∞ ) 8. The domain = ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (f (f g ) ( x) = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 10. domain: ( −∞. a. 5 ) ∪ ( 5. 1. ( fg )( x ) = ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 − 1) = x ( x 2 − 1) − 5 ( x 2 − 1) 6. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. domain: ( −∞. The function contains neither division nor an even root.10 ) ∪ (10. = x − 5 − ( x − 1) g )( x) = (f b. The domain = ( −∞. 5. x ≠ − ⎬ 2⎭ ⎩ = x − 5 − x2 + 1 = − x2 + x − 4 c. This value must be excluded from the domain. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. ∞ ) 3. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain.PreCalculus 4E b. The function contains neither division nor an even root. ∞ ) g ) (−1) = 10(−1) 2 − 5(−1) + 1 = 10 + 5 + 1 = 16 197 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. ∞) The domain of f + g is the set of all real numbers that are common to the domain of f and the domain of g.7 ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5. domain of f: (f ( g ) ( x) = f ( g ( x ) ) ) = 5 2 x2 − x − 1 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x − 5 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 b. The denominator equals zero when x = 4. 3. a. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 9. domain: ( −∞. 4. x ≠ ±1 = 2 x −1 4. The denominator equals zero when x = −5. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. the domain of f + g is [3. (g f ) ( x) = g ( f ( x) ) = 2 (5 x + 6 ) − ( 5x + 6 ) − 1 2 = 2(25 x 2 + 60 x + 36) − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 120 x + 72 − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 115 x + 65 c. The domain = ( −∞. −8) ∪ ( −8. Exercise Set 1. The function contains neither division nor an even root. 4 4x = 1 1 + 2x +2 x a. . x −3≥ 0 x≥3 [3. −3) ∪ ( −3. ∞ ) 7. This value must be excluded from the domain. Section 1. ∞) domain of g: x +1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −1 [−1. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 2. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.

∞ ) x= 17. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. x−2 = 0 − x = −3 x=3 domain: ( −∞.1) ∪ (1.3) ∪ ( 3. 4 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . . 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 3 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . x −1 = 0 11. ∞ ) x=2 4 −3 = 0. x 4 −1 = 0 x ⎛4 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 4−x = 0 4 −3 = 0 x−2 4 ⎞ − 3 ⎟ = ( x − 2 )( 0 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎛⎜ − x 2 ⎝ ⎠ 4 − 3( x − 2) = 0 4 − 3x + 6 = 0 −3 x + 10 = 0 −3x = −10 − x = −4 10 3 ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) 4 −2 = 0 x −1 4 ⎞ − 2 ⎟ = ( x − 1)( 0 ) ( x − 1) ⎛⎜ ⎝ x −1 ⎠ 13. Exclude x for x = 0 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 3 −1 = 0 x ⎛3 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 3− x = 0 4 − 2 ( x − 1) = 0 4 − 2x + 2 = 0 −2 x + 6 = 0 −2 x = −6 x=3 domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3. ⎟ ∪ ⎜ . x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 domain: [ −2. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ x=4 domain: ( −∞. Exclude x for x − 2 = 0 . x−2 Exclude x for 14. Exclude x for x = 0 . −1) ∪ ( −1. The first denominator cannot equal zero.Functions and Graphs 15. ∞ ) 16. The expression under the radical must not be negative. The first denominator cannot equal zero. x −1 Exclude x for 12. domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. domain: ( −∞. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. ∞ ) 18. ∞ ) x =1 4 −2= 0. 2 ) ∪ ⎜ 2. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3.1) ∪ (1. Exclude x for x − 1 = 0 . The expression under the radical must not be negative. ∞ ) 198 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

x 3 − 2 x 2 − 9 x + 18 24. domain: [3. 84 − 6 x ≥ 0 = x2 ( x − 2) − 9 ( x − 2) ( = ( x − 2) x2 − 9 −6 x ≥ −84 ) = ( x − 2)( x + 3)( x − 3) –3. The expression under the radical must not be negative. ∞ ) = x 2 ( x − 5) − 4 ( x − 5 ) 23.5) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) 20. ∞ ) −2 x ≥ −24 −2 x −24 ≤ −2 −2 x ≤ 12 domain: ( −∞.12] 30. ∞ ) 199 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) −6 x −84 ≤ −6 −6 x ≤ 14 domain: ( −∞. The expression under the radical must not be negative. x −3≥ 0 x ≥ −7 domain: [ −7. x −3≥ 0 x+4≥0 and x≥3 x ≥ −4 To make both inequalities true. x−2 ≥ 0 x > −2 domain: ( −2. domain: ( −∞. x−2 ≥ 0 x+3≥ 0 and x≥2 x ≥ −3 To make both inequalities true. ∞ ) x≥3 The denominator equals zero when x = 6. ∞ ) . x ≥ 2 . Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. The expression under the radical must be positive. ∞ ) x>3 domain: ( 3. Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. 7 x ≥ 70 29. The expression under the radical must not be negative.3) ∪ ( 3. and 3 must be excluded. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. . x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x ≥ 10 domain: [10. domain: ( −∞. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. 2. domain: [ 2. 21. The expression under the radical must not be negative. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. 7 x − 70 ≥ 0 domain: [3. 22. The expression under the radical must not be negative. and 5 must be excluded. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. ∞ ) . The expression under the radical must be positive.5 ) ∪ ( 5.7 19. 6 ) ∪ ( 6. 5 x + 35 ≥ 0 domain: [ 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Inc. 2.14] 25. 5 x ≥ −35 28. 24 − 2 x ≥ 0 ( = ( x − 5) x 2 − 4 ) = ( x − 5)( x + 2)( x − 2) –2. x+2>0 27. x ≥ 3 . ∞ ) x≥2 The denominator equals zero when x = 5. x −3 > 0 26. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. −3) ∪ ( −3. The expression under the radical must not be negative.

∞) = ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) 2 x + 3 = ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g ( x) x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x+2 ⎝g⎠ 33.Functions and Graphs 31. (f + g)(x) = 3x + 2 domain: (−∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 2 x2 – x – 3 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x +1 ⎝g⎠ ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = (2 x + 3) ⋅ ( x − 1) = 2x2 + x − 3 domain: (−∞. ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. = 2 x3 + x 2 – 4 x – 3 domain: (–∞.1) ∪ (1. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = 6 x 2 − 2 x domain: (–∞. (2 x – 3)( x + 1) = 2x – 3 ( x + 1) domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = −3 x 2 + x − 5 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) 34. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. Inc. ∞ ) 200 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) ( f – g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 x – 4 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x−6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5x2 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3 − x2 = ( x ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 2 x − 15 ⎝g⎠ ( f + g )( x) = 5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = –5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞.3) ∪ ( 3. (f + g)(x) = 4x – 2 domain: (–∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1) ∪ ( −1. ∞ ) 32. ∞) (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = (2x + 3) – (x – 1) =x+4 domain: (−∞. ∞) (fg)(x) = (3x – 4)(x + 2) = 3x2 + 2x – 8 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞.1) ∪ (1. ∞ ) 36. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (2 x 2 – x – 3)( x + 1) = − x 4 − 2 x 3 + 18 x 2 + 6 x − 45 domain: (–∞. ∞) 35. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (3 − x 2 )( x 2 + 2 x − 15) ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 3x2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. . ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 3x 2 + x − 5 37. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 4) – (x + 2) = 2x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f + g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = 2 x − 12 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = −2 x 2 − 2 x + 18 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x – 6)(5 x 2 ) = 5 x 3 – 30 x 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 6 x2 − x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (6 x 2 − x − 1)( x − 1) = 6 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 1 domain: (–∞. −5) ∪ ( −5. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x − 5)(3 x 2 ) = 3x 3 − 15 x 2 domain: (−∞. domain: (−∞.

∞ ) ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 5) domain: [0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −5 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 5 domain: [0. ∞ ) 201 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 4 domain: [0. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 5 − x2 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 4 x − 12 ⎝g⎠ 2 + 1x ⎛ ⎛f ⎞ 1⎞ ( ) x = = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ x = 2x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 40.5) ∪ ( 5. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. . −6 ) ∪ ( −6. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 2 + 1 ⎞ 1 6 1 6x −1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ = − 2 = 2 x⎠ x x x x ⎝ domain: ( −∞.7 ( f + g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) = 4x − 7 domain: (–∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (5 − x 2 )( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 1 ⎞ 1 2 1 2x + 1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ = + 2 = x⎠ x x x x2 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 − 1 1 2 6x − 2 − = 6− = x x x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 2 + = −2 x 2 − 4 x + 17 domain: (–∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) 6 − 1x ⎛ ⎛ f ⎞ 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 1 = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ x = 6 x − 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 38. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 6 – ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 4) domain: [0. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 41. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 5 domain: [0. ∞ ) 39. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. Inc. Section 1. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) 42. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x−4 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 4 domain: [0. ∞ ) 1 1 + =6 x x domain: ( −∞. 1 1 − =2 x x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 1 1 2 2x + 2 + = 2+ = x x x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) = − x 4 − 4 x3 + 17 x 2 + 20 x − 60 domain: (–∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

−5 ) ∪ ( −5. −3) ∪ ( −3. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2x − 4 + x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 5x − 3 = 2 x − 25 domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = x + 4 ⋅ x − 1 = x 2 + 3 x − 4 domain: [1. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5x + 1 4 x − 2 = 2 − x − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = 2 x −9 1 = x −3 domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3. −3) ∪ ( −3.5 ) ∪ ( 5. . 12 ) ∪ ( 12 . −5 ) ∪ ( −5. Inc.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 4 − x − 1 domain: [1. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 3x + 1 2 x − 4 = 2 − x − 25 x 2 − 25 x+5 = 2 x − 25 1 = x −5 domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2 ⎛f ⎞ x − 25 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2 x − 4 g ⎝ ⎠ x 2 − 25 3x + 1 x 2 − 25 = 2 ⋅ x − 25 2 x − 4 3x + 1 = 2x − 4 The domain must exclude –5. and any values that make 2 x − 4 = 0. −3) ∪ ( −3. −3) ∪ ( −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and any values that make 4 x − 2 = 0.5 ) ∪ ( 5.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 x2 − 9 (5 x + 1)(4 x − 2) = 2 ( x2 − 9) ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = = = = 3x + 1 2 x − 4 ⋅ x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 (3 x + 1)(2 x − 4) (x 2 − 25 ) 2 domain: ( −∞. 3. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −1 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (1. 2x − 4 = 0 5x + 1 ⎛f ⎞ x2 − 9 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 4 x − 2 ⎝g⎠ x2 − 9 5x + 1 x 2 − 9 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 4x − 2 5x + 1 = 4x − 2 The domain must exclude –3.3) ∪ ( 3. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 44. 4x − 2 = 0 2x = 4 x=2 domain: ( −∞. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.Functions and Graphs 43. ∞ ) 4x = 2 1 2 domain: ( −∞.5 ) ∪ ( 5. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. 5. ( f + g )( x) = x + 4 + x − 1 domain: [1. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 + x2 − 9 x2 − 9 9x −1 = 2 x −9 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 202 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) x= 45.

Inc. . g(x) = x – 5 a. f(x) = 2x. a. ( f g )(2) = 15(2) − 18 = 12 53. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 14 = 18 a. g(x) = x + 7 ( f g )( x) = 2( x + 7) = 2 x + 14 ( g f )( x) = 5(4 x − 3) 2 − 2 = 5(16 x 2 − 24 x + 9) − 2 ( f + g )( x) = x − 5 + 5 − x domain: {5} ( f − g )( x) = x − 5 − 5 − x domain: {5} a. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = x + 6 ⋅ x − 3 = x 2 + 3x − 18 domain: [3. ( f g )( x) = 5(3x − 4) + 2 = 15 x − 18 b. f(x) = 4x – 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( f g )(2) = 3(2) − 15 = −9 ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 2) 2 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 4 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 6 ( f g )( x) = 3( x − 5) = 3 x − 15 b. f(x) = x + 4. 55. ( f g )( x) = 4(5 x 2 − 2) − 3 b. ( f g )( x) = (2 x + 1) + 4 = 2 x + 5 b. f(x) = 5x + 2 . Section 1. g(x) = 2x + 1 ( f + g )( x) = x + 6 + x − 3 domain: [3. g(x) = 3x – 4 ( f + g )( x) = x − 2 + 2 − x domain: {2} ( f − g )( x) = x − 2 − 2 − x domain: {2} a. ( g f )( x) = 3x – 5 c. ( g f )( x) = 3(5 x + 2) − 4 = 15 x + 2 c. f(x) = 3x. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 2) 2 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 4 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 2 c. ( f g )(2) = 20(2)2 − 11 = 69 f ( x) = 7 x + 1. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 5 = 9 52. ( g f )( x) = 2 x + 7 c. b. = 20 x 2 − 11 b. a.PreCalculus 4E 46. = 80 x 2 − 120 x + 43 c. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 4(2) 2 + 6 = 6 203 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. ( f g )(2) = 14(2) 2 − 62 = −6 f ( x) = x 2 + 2. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 6 − x − 3 domain: [3. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−3 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (3. g ( x) = x 2 − 2 50. ∞) 47.7 51. ( fg )( x) = x − 5 ⋅ 5 − x = − x 2 + 10 x − 25 domain: {5} ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5− x ⎝g⎠ domain: ∅ 54. g ( x) = 5 x 2 − 2 ( fg )( x ) = x − 2 ⋅ 2 − x = − x 2 + 4 x − 4 domain: {2} ⎛f ⎞ x−2 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 2− x ⎝ ⎠ domain: ∅ 48. ( g f )( x) = 2(7 x + 1)2 − 9 = 2(49 x 2 + 14 x + 1) − 9 = 98 x 2 + 28 x − 7 c. g ( x) = 2 x 2 – 9 49. ( g f )( x) = 2( x + 4) + 1 = 2 x + 9 c. ( f g )( x) = 7(2 x 2 − 9) + 1 = 14 x 2 − 62 b.

( f g )( x) = 4 − ( 2 x 2 + x + 5 ) = 4 − 2 x2 − x − 5 = −2 x − x − 1 2 b. g ( x) = x + 2 a. a. 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 3) 2 + 1 f ( x) = x . ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 6 x − 3. ( f g )(2) = 2 ( f g )(2) = −5(2) 2 + 20(2) − 7 = 13 f ( x) = x . ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ −3 = x +3−3 = x ⎝ 6 ⎠ b. = 2(16 − 8 x + x 2 ) + 4 − x + 5 x+3 2 1 x 1 x =x =x 204 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs f ( x) = x 2 + 1. ( g f )( x) = x + 2 c. = −25 x 2 + 20 x − 4 + 20 x − 8 − 1 c. = 32 − 16 x + 2 x 2 + 4 − x + 5 ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 2 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x + 3−3 =x b. ( f g )( x) = x − 1 b. 57. g ( x) = x x ( f g )( x) = = −25 x 2 + 40 x − 13 59. f ( x) = 4 − x . ( g f )( x) = − ( 5 x − 2 ) + 4 ( 5 x − 2 ) − 1 = −(25 x 2 − 20 x + 4) + 20 x − 8 − 1 (2 x − 3) + 3 2 x = =x 2 2 ( g f )( x) = 62. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 1) 2 − 3 = x + 2x +1 − 3 4 2 61. ( f g )( x) = x + 2 b. Inc. g ( x) = 2 x 2 + x + 5 a. ( g f )( x) = x − 1 c. g ( x) = = 2 x 2 − 17 x + 41 c. ( g f )( x) = c. 6x − 3 + 3 6x = =x 6 6 a. 60. x+3 6 a. ( f g )(2) = −2(2) 2 − 2 − 1 = −11 f ( x) = 5 x − 2. . ( f g )(2) = 24 − 6(2) 2 + 10 = 2 a. g(x) = x – 1 a. g ( x) = − x 2 + 4 x − 1 a. g ( x ) = = x4 + 2 x2 − 2 c. ( f g )(2) = 2 − 1 = 1 = 1 1 1 . ( f g )( x) = 5 ( − x 2 + 4 x − 1) − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 5 − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 7 b. ( g f )( x) = 1 c. ( f g )(2) = 2 + 2 = 4 = 2 = x − 6x + 9 + 1 4 2 = x 4 − 6 x 2 + 10 b. g ( x) = x 2 − 3 56. 58. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 2 1 b. ( g f )( x) = 2 ( 4 − x ) + ( 4 − x ) + 5 2 c. f(x) = 2x – 3.

b. a. 4 ⎛4⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝ x ⎠ 4 +1 x ⎛4⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) x = ⎝ ⎠ ⎛4 ⎞ ⎜ + 1⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 4 . We must exclude −4 because it causes the denominator of f g to be 0. ∞ ) . − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − .PreCalculus 4E 64. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. a. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) . 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 66.x ≠ 0 1 x ⎝ ⎠ +3 x 2( x) = ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ + 3⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 2x = 1 + 3x 68. a. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . f g ( x ) = f ( x − 2) = x − 2 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. Inc. 6 We must exclude − because it causes the 5 denominator of f g to be 0. g ( x) = x x a.7 2 2 . 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 3 denominator of f g to be 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( f g )( x) = 2 b. ∞ ) . a. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. b. . a. x ≠ −4 = 4+ x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. 2 ⎛1⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = . ( −∞. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. b. 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 4 denominator of f g to be 0. f ( x) = Section 1. a. ∞ ) . 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. ( g f )( x) = 2 c. domain: 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. ∞ ) . 205 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 70. ∞ ) . 2 x 2 x 67. ( f g )(2) = 2 65. b. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 3) = x − 3 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. x−2 ≥ 0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. 6⎞ ⎛ 6 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. 6 6 ⎛6⎞ f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x = 6 ⎝ x⎠ + 5 6 + 5x x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. =x =x b. 5⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 5x ⎛1⎞ = f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ x ⎠ 1 + 4 1 + 4x x 69. b.

f ( x) = x 4 . The graph of f + g − x ≥ −1 x ≤1 domain: (−∞. The graph of f − g = 3− x b. ( f g )( x) = f ( 2 − x ) = ( 2−x ) 2 +1 = 2 − x +1 88. x g ( x) = 2 x − 3 80. 89. Inc. ( fg )( 2 ) = f ( 2 ) g ( 2 ) = ( −1)(1) = −1 ( f g )( x) = 7 93. g ( x ) = 5x 2 + 3 92. 2]. 3) g 87. f ( x ) = x3 . f(x) = |x|. a. 84. (f g )(1) = f ( g (1) ) = f ( −5 ) = 3 f ( x) = 3 x. The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. 1− x ≥ 0 The domain of f is ( −4. ( g − f )( −2 ) = g ( −2 ) − f ( −2 ) = 2 − 3 = −1 83.Functions and Graphs 71. = 5− x b. a. 2−x ≥ 0 − x ≥ −2 x≤2 domain: (−∞. g(x) = 3x – 4 79. g ( x ) = x2 − 9 91. x g ( x ) = 4x + 5 81. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 1 . The domain of f + g is [ −4. ( ) 2 x − 3x + 8 − 5 = 7 2 2 x 2 − 6 x + 16 − 5 = 7 2 x 2 − 6 x + 11 = 7 2x2 − 6x + 4 = 0 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x =1 x=2 206 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 1 . 75. 1]. g(x) = 2x – 5 78. The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. g ( x ) = 3x − 1 77. f (x) = |x|. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = −5 73. (f g )( −1) = f ( g (−1) ) = f ( −3) = 1 g ( x) = 2x − 5 90. . 3] . 74. ( f + g )( −3) = f ( −3) + g ( −3) = 4 + 1 = 5 82. 72. ( f g )( x) = f ( 1 − x ) = ( 1− x ) 2 +4 = 1− x + 4 85. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 2 ) = −6 f ( x) = x. 76. g ( 3) 0 ⎛g⎞ = =0 ⎜ ⎟ ( 3) = f ( 3) −3 ⎝f ⎠ 86.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( f g )( x) = 0. .4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 + 3. 207 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. ( B − D )( x ) = B ( x ) − D ( x) = (7.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 b.7 ( f g )( x) = −5 ) = 65(20. a. ( B − D )( x ) = 10.6 x − 5 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $5 rebate. ( Section 1.44 This is the decrease in profits for the first store for each year after 2004. in 2003 by 0.51x + 11. ( g f )( x) = 0.000) – (600. (f c. 96. (R – C)(30. underestimates the actual number of births and deaths in 2005 by 1. The slope for f is -0.000) = 65(30.9(3)2 − 35(3) + 1641 overestimates the actual change in population in the U.5 x 2 − 20 x − 2405 = 10.000 since costs exceeded revenues.5 The number of births and deaths in the U. The function f g models the greater discount. g gives the price of the computer after a 25% discount.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) + ( −3. c. c. ( B + D )( x ) f gives the cost of a pair of jeans for which a $5 rebate is offered. 1 − 6 x 2 − 2 x + 2 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 3 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 8 = 0 3x 2 + x − 4 = 0 (3x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 3 x = −4 x =1 4 x=− 3 95. 000) 97.62 + 0.9 x 2 + 5 x + 6451 ( B + D )( 5 ) = 3. Inc. a. ( B + D )( x ) = 3.9(5)2 + 5(5) + 6451 = 6573.PreCalculus 4E 94.000)) =0 The company broke even. a. 1 − 2 3 x + x − 1 = −5 2 98.S.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405 100. since the 25% discount is taken on the regular price first.51 This is the increase in profits for the second store for each year after 2004.S. ( R − C )(20. c.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7. g )( x ) = 0.1 The change in population in the U. The slope of g is 0. in 2003 was 1634. ( B + D )( x ) = B ( x ) + D ( x) = (7.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7. d. 000)) = −200.6x – 3 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $3 rebate.14 = 0.1 thousand. 99. 2 = 3.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) − ( −3.5 thousand.07 This is the profit for the two stores combined for each year after 2004. a.76 The slope for f + g is 0.75 x − 400 This models the price of a computer after first a 25% discount and then a $400 discount.5 thousand.S. g gives the cost of a pair of jeans that has been discounted 40%. b.6 ( x − 5 ) = 0.000 + 45(30. (g d. in 2005 is 6573.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 − 3. = 1634. 000) − (600. f gives the price of the computer after a $400 discount. f g because of a $5 rebate.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 ( B − D )( 3) = 10. 000 The company lost $200. 000 + 45(20. a.1 thousand.9 x + 5 x + 6451 b.75( x − 400) This models the price of a computer after first a $400 discount and then a 25% discount.044x + 13. f + g = -. b. ( B − D )( x ) c.07x + 24. f )( x ) = 0.

false. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −2). ( f g ) ( x ) = f ( g ( x ) ) = f ( 3x ) = 2(3x) = 6 x (g f )( x ) = g ( f ( x ) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( 2 x ) = 6 x 114. {(4. 106. 118. false. makes sense 110. 111. A sample change is: f ( x ) = 2 x. −1). does not make sense. Explanations will vary. the y value disappears because the function is not defined at x = 0.1). (4. – 105. ( f g )( x) = 2 − x The domain of g is [ 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: The diagram illustrates x +1 = y2 x +1 = y g ( f ( x) ) = x + 4. Changes to make the statement true will vary. g ( x ) = 3x 101. The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. 4] 108. Inc. the relation is not a function. makes sense 109. y = x +1 2 112. x = y2 − 1 x + 1 = y2 120. does not make sense. ∞ ) . 2)} The element 1 in the domain corresponds to two elements in the range. − x ≥ −2 x= 5 +4 y ⎛5 ⎞ y ( x) = y ⎜ + 4 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ xy = 5 + 4 y xy − 4 y = 5 y ( x − 4) = 5 5 y= x−4 x ≤2 x≤4 domain: [ 0. (1. ( f g )( x) = ( f g )(− x) f ( g ( x)) = f ( g (− x)) since g is even f ( g ( x)) = f ( g ( x)) so f g is even 117. false. (1. Explanations will vary. true 107. When your trace reaches x = 0. 2− x ≥ 0 119. Sample explanation: It is common that f g and g f are not the same. A sample change is: ( f g ) ( 4) = f ( g ( 4)) = f ( 7) = 5 115. Answers may vary. Answers may vary. 116. A sample change is: (f g )( x ) = f = ( ( x2 − 4 x2 − 4 ) 2 ) −4 = x2 − 4 − 4 = x2 − 8 208 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Changes to make the statement true will vary. .Functions and Graphs 113.

Find points of f −1 . −1) (1. ⎛ x+7⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−7 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x − 7) + 7 g ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 f ( g ( x) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = x 4.8 Check Point Exercises 1. The graphs of (b) and (c) pass the horizontal line test and thus have an inverse. 2) (2. 3 −1 x Interchange x and y: 3 x = −1 y Solve for y: 3 x = −1 y xy = 3 − y xy + y = 3 y ( x + 1) = 3 3 y= x +1 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : y= f ( x) = 2 x + 7 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 2x + 7 Interchange x and y: x = 2y + 7 Solve for y: x = 2y + 7 x − 7 = 2y x−7 =y 2 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f −1 ( x) = 3. Inc. 6. .PreCalculus 4E Section 1.1) x +1 4 Alternative form for answer: x +1 3 x +1 f ( x) −1 = 3 = 3 4 4 f −1 ( x) = = = 3 3 x +1 3 2 ⋅3 = 3 4 2 3 2x + 2 2 3 2x + 2 3 8 209 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 Section 1. 2. −2) (−1. 0) (0. f ( x) f −1 ( x ) (−2. 3 −1 x Replace f ( x) with y: f ( x) = x−7 2 f −1 ( x) = f ( x) = 4 x3 − 1 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 4 x3 − 1 Interchange x and y: x = 4 y3 − 1 Solve for y: x = 4 y3 − 1 x + 1 = 4 y3 x +1 = y3 4 x 1 + 3 =y 4 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : 3 x +1 5. −2) (−2.

f(x) = 5x – 9. 2. g ( x) = 3 3 x−4 +4 ⎛ x−4⎞ = 3⋅⎜ ⎟+4 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = x−4+4 =x f and g are inverses. f ( x) = 4 x + 9. . x −8 3 8. g ( x ) = 3 3 . x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = x − 1 6. g ( x ) = ⎛ x+5⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 5 ⎜ ⎟−9 ⎝ 9 ⎠ 5 x + 25 = −9 9 5 x − 56 = 9 5x − 9 + 5 5x − 4 g ( f ( x)) = = 9 9 f and g are not inverses. ⎛ x −8⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 3 ⎜ ⎟+8 = x −8+8 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ (3x + 8) − 8 3x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 3 3 f and g are inverses. f ( x) = 3 x − 7. g ( x ) = x+5 9 x+3 7 x + 3 3x + 9 3x − 40 ⎛ ⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ −7 = ⎟−7 = 7 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠ 3x − 7 + 3 3x − 4 g ( f ( x) ) = = 7 7 f and g are not inverses. g ( x) = + 4 x−4 x 3 3 f ( g ( x)) = 3 = 3 =x + − 4 4 x x f ( x) = g ( f ( x)) = ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝6⎠ 6x =x g ( f ( x) ) = 6 f and g are inverses. 3. y = x2 + 1 Interchange x and y: x = y2 +1 Solve for y: x = y2 + 1 1. g ( f ( x) ) = 2 2 x −5 210 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 6 f(x) = 3x + 8. Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f ( x) = 4 x.Functions and Graphs 7. g ( x) = + 5 x −5 x 2 2x f ( g ( x )) = 2 = =x ( x + 5) − 5 2 f ( x) = ⎛ x −5⎞ + 5 = 2⎜ ⎟+5 = x−5+5 = x ⎝ 2 ⎠ f and g are inverses. g ( x) = x−9 4 ⎛ x −9⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟+9 = x −9+9 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x + 9) − 9 4 x g ( f ( x) ) = = =x 4 4 f and g are inverses. x − 1 = y2 5. g ( x) = 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Exercise Set 1.8 x 4 ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x =x g ( f ( x)) = 4 f and g are inverses. 2 2 . f ( x) = x 2 + 1 Replace f ( x) with y: 4. Inc. f ( x) = 6 x .

. a. Inc. f ( x) = 3x − 1 y = 2x y = 3x − 1 x = 2y x = 3y −1 x +1 = 3y x 2 x f −1 ( x) = 2 y= b. a. y = 4x x = 4y x 4 x −1 f ( x) = 4 y= f ( x) = 3 x − 4. x − 3 = 2y f ( f ( x)) = x − 3 + 3 = x x −3 2 x −3 f −1 ( x) = 2 y= f ( x) = x + 5 y = x+5 x = y+5 y = x−5 b. f ( x) = 2 x + 3 x = 2y + 3 −1 f ( f ( x)) = x + 3 − 3 = x b. a. ⎛ x +1 ⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ −1 = x +1 −1 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3x − 1 + 1 3x = =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 3 211 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(x) = x + 3 y=x+3 x=y+3 y=x–3 −1 f ( x) = x − 3 15. f and g are inverses. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f −1 ( x ) = x − 5 f ( x) = 2 x 16. 14. a. f ( x) = 4 x x +1 3 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 3 y= ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝2⎠ 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = =x 2 b. a. Section 1. a. 11.8 f ( x) = − x. g ( x) = − x f ( g ( x)) = −(− x ) = x g ( f ( x)) = −(− x ) = x f and g are inverses.PreCalculus 4E 9. 10. g ( x) = x 3 + 4 f ( g ( x) ) = 3 x 3 + 4 − 4 = 3 x 3 = x g ( f ( x) ) = ( 3 x−4 ) 3 +4 = x−4+4 = x b. ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 y = 2x + 3 −1 12. ⎛ x −3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟+3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x −3+3 =x 2x + 3 − 3 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = = =x 2 2 f ( f −1 ( x) ) = x − 5 + 5 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = x + 5 − 5 = x 13.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. a.Functions and Graphs 17. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ( 3 b. 20. f ( x) = ( x − 1)3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = ( x − 1)3 y = x3 + 2 x = ( y − 1)3 3 x = y3 + 2 x−2 = y 3 3 x = y −1 y = 3 x +1 y = x−2 3 −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. 22. a. . a. Inc. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 3 1 =x 1 x 1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = = x 1 x f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x 2 y= x 2 x= y xy = 2 f ( x) = 2 x 2 f −1 ( x ) = x y= =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 ( x + 2)3 − 2 = x+2−2 =x b. a. x−2 ) 3 21. a. ( ( 3 x −2+2 ) = ( x) 3 3 3 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( x − 13 + 1 = x − 1 + 1 = x +2 = x−2+2 18. f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 y = ( x + 2)3 x = ( y + 2)3 3 x = y+2 y = 3 x −2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ) ( x) 3 x +1 −1 = 1 x 1 y= x 1 x= y xy = 1 f ( x) = y= y = 3 x +1 f ( f −1 ( x)) = 3 1 x 1 −1 f ( x) = x x + 1 = y3 b. f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x f −1( f ( x )) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x 212 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x3 + 2 − 2 = 3 x3 = x f ( x) = x3 − 1 y = x3 − 1 x = y3 − 1 f −1 ( x) = 3 x + 1 ( 3 ) 3 b. x + 1 −1 = x +1−1 =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x 3 − 1 + 1 = 3 x3 = x 19. a.

a. −1 xy − 9 y = 4 y ( x − 9) = 4 f ( f ( x)) = ( x ) = x 24. a. . f ( x) = 25. Inc. xy = 7 − 3 y xy + 3 y = 7 y ( x + 3) = 7 7 x+3 7 −1 f ( x) = x+3 y= b. f ( f −1 ( x)) = x 2 = x = x for x ≥ 0. a. y= x x= y y=x 2 −1 f ( x) = x 2 . a.8 f ( x) = x 4 +9 x 4 y = +9 x 4 x = +9 y xy = 4 + 9 y f ( x) = 26. x ≥ 0 b. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 x3 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = ( x) 3 3 =x 7 −3 x 7 y = −3 x 7 x = −3 y 27. ( ( ) 4 +9 = x 4 x−9 4 −1 =x f ( f ( x) ) = 4 +9−9 x f f −1 ( x) = 2x + 1 x−3 2x + 1 y= x−3 2 y +1 x= y −3 x(y – 3) = 2y + 1 xy – 3x = 2y + 1 xy – 2y = 3x + 1 y(x – 2) = 3x + 1 3x + 1 y= x−2 3x + 1 f −1 ( x ) = x−2 f ( x) = ) 7 −3 = x 7 x+3 7 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 7 −3+3 x f f −1 ( x) = 213 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 23. Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. y 3 b. 2 4 x −9 4 f −1 ( x ) = x −9 y= f ( x) = 3 x y=3x x= y=x 3 f ( x) = x 3 −1 b.

32. . Inc. so it does have an inverse function. 33. a. ) ( 3 2x +1 + 1 x −3 2x + 1 − 2 x−3 3 ( 2 x + 1) + x − 3 35. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so it does have an inverse function. The function fails the horizontal line test. 2x − 3 x +1 2x − 3 y= x +1 2y − 3 x= y +1 xy + x = 2y – 3 y(x – 2) = –x – 3 −x − 3 y= x−2 −x − 3 f −1 ( x ) = . so it does not have an inverse function. The function passes the horizontal line test. = = = b. so it does not have an inverse function. The function fails the horizontal line test. x≠2 x−2 f ( x) = 37. The function passes the horizontal line test. The function passes the horizontal line test.Functions and Graphs b. ) ( 2 −x − 3 − 3 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = −x − 3 +1 x−2 −2 x − 6 − 3x + 6 −5 x = = =x −x − 3 + x − 2 −5 − 2x − 3 − 3 x +1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 2x − 3 − 2 x +1 −2 x + 3 − 3x − 3 −5 x = = =x 2x − 3 − 2x − 2 −5 −1 ( 38. so it does not have an inverse function. ) 29. The function fails the horizontal line test. 214 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 30. 2 x + 1 − 2 ( x − 3) 6x + 3 + x − 3 7x = =x 2x +1 − 2x + 6 7 36. 31. 7x =x 7 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 28. so it does have an inverse function. ) ( 2 3x + 1 + 1 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = 3x + 1 − 3 x−2 2 ( 3x + 1) + x − 2 6 x + 2 + x − 2 = = 3x + 1 − 3 ( x − 2 ) 3x + 1 − 3 x + 6 –1 34.

0] range of f : [ −1. c. ∞ ) domain of f : ( −∞. domain of f : [ 0. f ( x) = x 2 − 1 y = x2 − 1 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 y = 2x − 3 x = y2 −1 x +1 = y2 x = 2y −3 − x +1 = y x + 3 = 2y f −1 ( x) = − x + 1 x+3 =y 2 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 2 b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. 40. a. ∞ ) domain of f : [ −4. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞.8 f ( x) = 2 x − 1 y = 2x −1 41. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. c. Inc. f ( x) = x 2 − 4 y = x2 − 4 x = 2 y −1 x = y2 − 4 x +1 = 2y x + 4 = y2 x +1 =y 2 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 2 x+4 = y f −1 ( x) = x + 4 b. c. a. a. Section 1. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. ∞ ) domain of f : −1 42.PreCalculus 4E 39. 0] domain of f : 215 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) [ −4. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. b. . a. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. b. ( −∞. c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ( −∞. a. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. 44. c. domain of f : 46. b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 43. f ( x) = x3 + 1 y = x3 + 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 + 1 2 x − 1 = y3 x = y −1 3 x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 1 x +1 = y f −1 ( x) = 1 + x b. ∞ ) c. y = x3 − 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 − 1 2 x + 1 = y3 − x = y −1 3 − x +1 = y x +1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x + 1 −1 f ( x) = 1 − x b. ∞ ) domain of f : 216 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1.1] range of f : [ 0.1] domain of f : f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) ( −∞. b. domain of f : [1. c.∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. . ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. Inc. c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. a. f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) f ( x) = x3 − 1 45. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0.

PreCalculus 4E Section 1. a. domain of f : [ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ( −∞.∞ ) 50. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. x= x = y−2 x−2= x +2 = y y +2 y ( x − 2) = y 2 f −1 ( x ) = 3 x + 2 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 2) 2 b. f ( x) = x − 1 3 y = x −1 x = ( y + 2)3 3 3 x= x = y+2 x = y −1 x −2 = y x +1 = y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 f −1 ( x ) = x 2 + 1 b. ∞ ) domain of f : c. a. ∞ ) range of f : −1 217 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. ( −∞. a. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : [ 2. c.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. y = ( x − 2) domain of f −1 : [ 0. Inc. . y = ( x + 2) 49. b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. y −1 2 b.8 f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 47. ∞ ) [ 2. ∞ ) domain of f : c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. 3 3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = x +2 x = ( y − 2)3 3 domain of f : [1. c. ∞ ) f ( x) = ( x − 2)3 48. a.

a. ( −∞. Then x3 = y − 1 g ( x) = 7 x +1 = y 3 −1 = g ( 2 ⋅ 0 − 5) 61. ( g ( f [ h(1) ]) = g f ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = g ( f (4) ) ) = g ( 2 ⋅ 4 − 5) = g ( 3) c. 54. 58. Let g −1 ( 7 ) = x . ∞ ) = 4 ⋅ 3 − 1 = 11 domain of f : 64. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = 1 56. ∞ ) domain of f : x= (g 4x −1 = 7 f ( x) = x + 1 3 4x = 8 x=2 Thus. since f ( 2 ) = −1 . ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ( f ( g [ h(1) ]) = f g ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = f ( g (4) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 4 − 1) = f (15 ) f ( g (1) ) = f (1) = 5 = 2 ⋅ 15 − 5 = 25 f ( g (4) ) = f ( 2 ) = −1 218 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 55. f ( x) = 1 2x − 5 = 1 2x = 6 x=3 Thus. Let f −1 (1) = x . c. f −1 ( g (1) ) = f −1 (1) = −1 . f −1 (1) = 3 y = 3 x −1 y −1 62.Functions and Graphs 51. f −1 ( g (10) ) = f −1 ( −1) = 2 . 63. 53. Then f ( x) = 3 x − 1 3 f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( −5 ) = 4 ( −5 ) − 1 = −21 ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. since f ( −1) = 1 . ) . ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. 59. Inc. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 4 ) = 2 57. (f g )( 0 ) = f ( g (0) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 0 − 1) = f ( −1) = 2 ( −1) − 5 = −7 60. g −1 ( 7 ) = 2 b. a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. 52. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 3 x + 1 y = 3 x +1 x= 3 y +1 x −1 = 3 y ( x − 1)3 = y f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1)3 b.

8.7) = 30 If there are 30 people in the room. (8. Answers may vary. (9.17). f--1(0. 76. (40. (8. (8. (8. (30. (60. (30. 9. (60. 70. Inc.3.25) = 15 If there are 15 people in the room. 50).17).8. one-to-one 219 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 1.3) and (19. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. this function does not have an inverse. 22).4). This function fails the horizontal line test.3.8.2).3) and (19.3).1.m.7.8 It passes the horizontal line test and is one-to-one. (8.8. (22. .8. (50. {(9. 69. 30). the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. (8. (8.3. a. (40.3) . 9 ⎡5 ⎤ ( x − 32) ⎥ + 32 5 ⎢⎣ 9 ⎦ = x − 32 + 32 f ( g ( x)) = =x f and g are inverses.8). {(9. Thus. f--1(0.25.8. (8. not one-to-one 77. 9. c.9. (22.5.8.7. {(17.7). The graph does not represent a one-to-one function. a.7). 60)} f is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of f is not a function. 66.1).PreCalculus 4E 65.50).5)} b.5.2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (8. (50. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. b.5).3) are an example of two x-values that correspond to the same y-value.3). 22). 30). 40). f--1(0.8. a.4. These values can be represented as (12. 67. (12.3)} b.7.5) = 21 If there are 21 people in the room.8. The average happiness level is 3 at 12 noon and at 7 p. {(17. 60)} g is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of g is not a function. 40).8. a. b. – 75.4.5. 68.4).

Inc.Functions and Graphs 84. A sample change is: f(x) = 5 is a horizontal line. x A sample change is: f −1 ( x) = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Changes to make the statement true will vary. so it does not pass the horizontal line test. makes sense 89. false. 3 94. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 81. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 2)}. not one-to-one 220 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 86. 85. (7. one-to-one 83. not one-to-one 87. makes sense 91. makes sense 88. 93. makes sense 90. false. true 82. 92. f and g are inverses one-to-one 79. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary.1). not one-to-one f and g are inverses 80. 78. A sample change is: The inverse is {(4.

Inc. y 2 − 6 y − 4 = 0 y2 − 6 y =4 y − 6y + 9 = 4 + 9 2 ( y − 3) 2 = 13 y − 3 = ± 13 5 xy − 3x = 3 y − 2 y = 3 ± 13 5 xy − 3 y = 3x − 2 y (5 x − 3) = 3 x − 2 3x − 2 5x − 3 3 x−2 f −1 ( x ) = 5x − 3 Note: An alternative approach is to show that ( f f )( x) = x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. No. y = 3 x + 15 98. x = y+5 ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 = (1 − 7) 2 + (−1 − 2) 2 y = x −5 = (−6) 2 + (−3)2 g −1 ( x) = x − 5 f ( x) = 3x = 36 + 9 = 45 y = 3x =3 5 x = 3y x 3 x −1 f ( x) = 3 101. −1 f −1 ) ( x ) = x x − 15 −5 = 3 3 3x − 2 5x − 3 3x − 2 y= 5x − 3 3y − 2 x= 5y − 3 x(5 y − 3) = 3 y − 2 f ( x) = 102. Answers may vary. when it is going up and when it is coming down. there will be 2 times when the spacecraft is at the same height. 8 + f −1 ( x − 1) = 10 f −1 ( x − 1) = 2 f (2) = x − 1 6 = x −1 7=x x=7 x = 3 y + 15 y= x − 15 3 (f g ) ( x) = −1 x − 15 3 g ( x) = x + 5 99.8 95. .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 221 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = x+5 100. ( f g )( x) = 3( x + 5) = 3x + 15. y= 97. y= (g 96.

3. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ .9 ( x − 0)2 + [ y − (−6)]2 = 102 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 5.77 [ −5. k ) = (−3. . k = 0. domain: range: 222 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3] c. k = −6. d= = ( −6 − 4 ) + ( 3 − (−1) ) 2 ( −10 ) + ( 4 ) 2 2 2 = 100 + 16 = 116 = 2 29 ≈ 10. d= ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 d= (1 − (−4) ) + ( −3 − 9 ) 2 2 2 (x x2 + y2 + 4x − 4 y −1 = 0 ) + ( y − 4y ) = 0 ( x + 4x + 4) + ( y + 4 y + 4) = 1 + 4 + 4 2 + 4x 2 2 2 ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 9 = 25 + 144 [ x − (− x)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 32 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . k = 2. 3. a. center: (h. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r = 4. we have h = −3. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 + 7 2 + (−3) ⎞ ⎛ 8 −1 ⎞ ⎛ . x2 + y 2 + 4 x − 4 y − 1 = 0 6. r = 3 . 1) radius: r = 2 d = (8 − 5) 2 + (5 − 1) 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 b. = ( 5) + ( −12 ) 2 2 = 13 2. d = (14 − 2) 2 + (8 − 3)2 x 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 = 122 + 52 ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 4 = 144 + 25 = 169 [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 22 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . ⎟ = ⎜ 4. k = 1. Inc.Functions and Graphs Section 1. 4. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 42 x 2 + y 2 = 16 h = 0. r = 2. = 13 2. − ⎟ 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ h = 0. Exercise Set 1. r = 10. we have = 169 h = −2. −1] [ −1. 1.9 Check Point Exercises 1.

5)2 + (6. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3) = = 25 =5 = 8 2 =2 2 = 36 + 4 ≈ 2.6 − 2. 2 = 9 + 64 2 7. d= = 5.07 = 25 + 4 = 29 ≈ 5.7 − 1.66 223 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d = (−. = 16 + 52 = 73 ≈ 8. d= = d = (4 − 0)2 + [1 − (−3)]2 ( ) ( 2 ( 7) 2 + ⎣⎡ − 2 ⎦⎤ 2 = 7+2 = 42 + 4 2 = 9 = 16 + 16 =3 = 32 ) 7 − 0 + ⎡0 − − 2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ =4 2 ≈ 5.PreCalculus 4E 4. + [3 − ( −2 )]2 = 41 ≈ 6.6) 2 + ( −5.32 9. = 9 + 16 ( −1) 2 + ( −7 ) 2 2 = 1 + 49 = 50 d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [−4 − (−6)]2 =5 2 = 52 + 2 2 ≈ 7.5 − 3.39 13.47 2 12.2) 2 = 9 +16 = (−4) 2 + (−2)2 = 25 =5 = 16 + 4 = 20 d = (3 − 0) 2 + ( −4 − 0 ) =2 5 2 ≈ 4.40 d = (−3− 0) 2 + (4 − 0) 2 = 3 + ( −4 ) 8.83 = 40 = 2 10 ≈ 6.54 = 16 + 25 11. Inc. d= 14. 2 . ( 4 − 0) = 42 + [3 + 2]2 2 = 32 + 42 6. Section 1.9 ( −1 − 2 ) + ( 5 − (−3) ) 2 ( −3 ) + ( 8 ) 2 2 10.2 − 8. d = ( 5 − 0)2 + [0 − (− 3)]2 = ( 5) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 5+3 d = [2 − (−4)]2 + [−3 − (−1)]2 = 6 2 + ( −2 ) d = (1.

5 5 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( = 2 ≈ 1. ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 2 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ( = 5 3. ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 3 −12 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ =⎜ .5) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2 21. −5 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 28. ⎝ ⎠⎟= 5 . ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ −5 ⎞ = ⎜ . ⎛ 8 + (−6) 3 5 + 7 5 ⎞ . ≈ 9. ⎟ = ⎜ . −2 ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 ⎛ 2⎞ 7 ⎛ 4 ⎞⎞ ⎛ 4 3 ⎞ ⎜ − 5 + ⎜ − 5 ⎟ 15 + ⎜ − 15 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ − ⎝ ⎠. = 9 ⋅ 3 + 16 ⋅ 6 = 27 + 96 25. ⎛ −2 + (−6) −8 + (−2) ⎞ .Functions and Graphs 15. . ⎟ = (4. ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 = 12 + 12 ⎛ 2 10 5 ⎞ =⎜ .0) =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 224 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −8 −10 ⎞ =⎜ . 0 ⎟ = (2 2. = 123 ≈ 11. ⎟ = ( −3. 2 ⎟ = ⎜ − . ⎛ 10 + 2 4 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 12 10 ⎞ . ⎛ 6 + 2 8 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 12 ⎞ . ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . . ⎛ −3 + 6 −4 + (−8) ⎞ . = 1. Inc. −5) ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ) ) ⎛ 18 + 2 −4 + 4 ⎞ . 15 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 4 1 3 1⎞ ⎛ 2 1 ⎞ = ⎜− ⋅ . ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛3 2+ 2 0⎞ ⎛4 2 ⎞ .24 18. ⎜ ⎟=⎜ . d = (− 3 − 3 3)2 + (4 5 − 5)2 22. ⎟ = (−4.09 17. ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −12 −8 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 6 −4 ⎞ = ⎜ 2 . −6 ⎟ 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 26. d= = ( − 3 − 2 3 ) + (5 ( −3 3 ) + ( 4 6 ) 2 2 6− 6 ) 2 2 24. ⎟ ⎝ 5 2 15 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 27. ⎟ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ −7 ⎛ 5 ⎞ 3 ⎛ 11 ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠. −4 29. ⎛ −4 + ( −1) −7 + ( −3) ⎞ ⎛ −5 −10 ⎞ .41 19. ⎟ = ⎜ −5. ≈ 2. ⋅ ⎟ = ⎜− . Publishing as Prentice Hall. = (−4 3) 2 + (3 5) 2 = 16(3) + 9(5) = 48 + 45 = 93 23. 2 ⎛1 7⎞ ⎛6 1⎞ d = ⎜ − ⎟ +⎜ − ⎟ ⎝3 3⎠ ⎝5 5⎠ 2 = (−2) 2 + 12 = 4 +1 = 5 2 ⎡ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ d = ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ + ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠⎦ ⎣ 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠⎦ 2 ⎛ 3 1 ⎞ ⎡6 1⎤ = ⎜ + ⎟ +⎢ + ⎥ ⎝ 4 4 ⎠ ⎣7 7⎦ ⎛ −2 + ( −8) −1 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ −10 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ . 6) 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 20. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . ⎟ = (6.64 16. ⎟=⎜ . ⎛ 7 3 + 3 3 −6 + (−2) ⎞ ⎛ 10 3 −8 ⎞ .

36. ⎟⎟ ⎟=⎜ ⎜⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛6 2 ⎞ . center = (3. 0 ⎟ = 3 2. radius = 6 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 102 2 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 0 ) = 100 2 [ x − (−2)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 62 2 ( x + 2 ) + y 2 = 36 2 [ −3. k = 0. 35. 2 2 40. 7] [ −7. 0 =⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( 31. . ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = y 2 h = 0. 7] domain: + ( y + 1) = 3 2 2 = 2 [ x − (−5)] + [ y − (−3)] ( x + 5) 39. r = 4. center = (0.9 ⎛ 50 + 2 −6 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 5 2 + 2 0 ⎞ . x 2 + y 2 = 49 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 h = 0. k = 0. range: ( x − 2 ) + [ y − (−1)] = 42 2 2 ( x − 2 ) + ( y + 1) = 16 2 [ −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 37. 34. radius = 7 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4 )2 = 22 2 2 ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 4 2 [ x − (−3)] + ( y − 5)2 = 32 2 2 ( x + 3) + ( y − 5 ) = 9 [ x − (−3)] + [ y − (−1)] 2 2 2 ( 3) 2 2 = ( 5) [ −7. 0). . radius = 4 ) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 x 2 + y 2 = 49 32. r = 7. + ( y + 3) = 5 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 36 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 62 2 2 h = 3. 0).9] [ −5. 42. Section 1. 2 ( x + 3) 38. Inc. 1). ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = 82 x 2 + y 2 = 64 33. k = 1. 4] domain: ( x − 3 ) + ( y − 2 ) = 52 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 2 ) = 25 range: 2 43.PreCalculus 4E 30. 7] domain: range: 225 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. r = 6. center = (0. 4] [ −4. x 2 + y 2 = 16 41.

6] [ −1. k = 2. –2). center = (–4. radius = 6 [ −5. center = (2. r = 4. [ −2. radius = 5 [ −1. 2). 0] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 4 48. r = 2 center = (–2. 4] [ −10. 3). center = (0. Inc. 4] [ −1. ( x − 2) 2 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 47. k = 3. k = 4. 2] [ −11.1] [ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1] [ 0. radius = 2 2 ( x − 2) + ( y − 3)2 = 42 h = 2. r = 5. k = 1. k = −2. 0] [ −4. ( x + 2) 2 + ( y + 2)2 = 4 ( x + 4 ) + ( y + 5) = 36 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−5)] = 62 2 h = −4. .Functions and Graphs 44.1] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 25 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4)2 = 52 2 2 49. 7] [ −4. 2 x 2 + ( y − 1) = 1 2 h = 0. 2] domain: [ −6.9] range: domain: range: 226 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 22 h = −3. radius = 2 46. 4). k = −5. radius = 4 45. 1). r = 6. center = (–1. r = 2 center = (–3. [ x − (−2)]2 + [ y − (−2)]2 = 22 h = −2. radius = 1 h = −1. r = 1. –5).

4] domain: range: 227 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. center = (–1.2). 2] [ 0. radius = 2 [ −2. h = 0. 2] [ −4. radius = 8 [ −6.0).PreCalculus 4E 50. Section 1.9 x2 + ( y − 2) = 4 2 x2 + y 2 + 6 x + 2 y + 6 = 0 53. k = 0. k = 0. x 2 + y 2 + 8 x + 4 y + 16 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 8 x ) + ( y 2 + 4 y ) = −16 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y 2 + 4 y + 4 ) = 20 − 16 ( x + 4) + ( y + 2) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−2)] = 22 2 2 center = (–4. r = 5. center = (0. Inc. ( x + 2) 2 + y 2 = 16 h = −2. r = 2. radius = 2 [ −6. –1). . (x (x 2 2 − 10 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 30 − 10 x + 25 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 25 + 9 + 30 ( x − 5) 2 + ( y − 3) = 64 2 ( x − 5)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 82 center = (5. radius = 5 54. –2). 5] domain: range: 52. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4] [ −5. 3). ( x + 1) 2 + y 2 = 25 h = −1.0). r = 4. center = (–2. 4] domain: range: 51. k = 2. radius = 2 (x (x 2 2 + 6 x ) + ( y 2 + 2 y ) = −6 + 6 x + 9 ) + ( y 2 + 2 y + 1) = 9 + 1 − 6 ( x + 3) + ( y + 1) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−3)] + [9 − (−1)] = 22 2 2 center = (–3. radius = 4 x 2 + y 2 − 10 x − 6 y − 30 = 0 55.

radius = 5 58. 1). Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs 56. + 8x ) + ( y2 − 2 y ) = 8 x2 + y 2 − 6 y − 7 = 0 x2 + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 7 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y − 2 y + 1) = 16 + 1 + 8 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 1) = 25 2 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 1)2 = 52 2 2 ( x − 0) 2 ( x − 0) 2 = ( y 2 − 6 y + 9) = 0 + 9 + 7 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 3)2 = 42 center = (0. Inc. x 2 + y 2 + 12 x − 6 y − 4 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 12 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 4 + 12 x + 36 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 36 + 9 + 4 2 [ x − (−6)] + ( y − 3)2 = 72 center = (–6. radius = 4 60. 3). 6). radius = 7 57. 3). . 2 2 2 x2 + y 2 + 8x − 2 y − 8 = 0 (x (x ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 16 2 2 ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 42 2 ( x − 2)2 + ( y − 6)2 = 7 2 center = (2. radius = 7 228 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 − 2 x + y 2 − 15 = 0 59. x 2 + y 2 − 4 x − 12 y − 9 = 0 (x (x 2 2 − 4 x ) + ( y 2 − 12 y ) = 9 − 4 x + 4 ) + ( y 2 − 12 y + 36 ) = 4 + 36 + 9 ( x − 2) 2 (x + ( y − 6 ) = 49 (x 2 2 − 2 x ) + y 2 = 15 − 2 x + 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 1 + 0 + 15 2 2 center = (1. radius = 4 center = (–4. 0).

PreCalculus 4E 61. radius = 1 ⎝2 2⎠ 229 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. radius = 2 ⎝ 1 =0 2 1 x2 + x + y 2 + y = 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 x +x+ + y + y+ = + + 4 4 2 4 4 x2 + y 2 + x + y − 2 x 2 + y 2 + 3x − 2 y − 1 = 0 64. radius = 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ center = ⎜ . .9 x2 + y 2 − x + 2 y + 1 = 0 63. x 2 − x + y 2 + 2 y = −1 1 1 x 2 − x + + y 2 + 2 y + 1 = −1 + + 1 4 4 x 2 + 3x + y 2 − 2 y = 1 9 9 x 2 + 3x + + y 2 − 2 y + 1 = 1 + + 1 4 4 2 2 1⎞ 1 2 ⎛ ⎜ x − ⎟ + ( y + 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 ⎞ 3⎞ 17 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ + ( y − 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 ⎞ 1 center = ⎜ . ⎟ . Inc. radius = 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 62. Section 1. ⎠ x2 + y 2 + 3x + 5 y + 17 2 9 =0 4 9 4 9 25 9 9 25 2 2 x + 3x + + y + 5 y + =− + + 4 4 4 4 4 x2 + 3x + y 2 + 5 y = − 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜x − ⎟ +⎜ y − ⎟ =1 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 3⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ 25 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ +⎜ y+ ⎟ = 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛ 3 5⎞ 5 center = ⎜ − . center = ⎜ − . − ⎟ .1⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1⎟ .

a. Intersection points: ( 0. 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 5 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 10 ⎞ . ⎟=⎜ .10 ) .0 )} . ( x − 5) 2 ( x − 5) 2 42 + 02 = 16 4−0 = 4 16 = 16 true 4 = 4 true The solution set is {( 0. + ( y − 10 ) = 2 ( 5) 2 + ( y − 10 ) = 5 Since the line segment passes through the center. ( 3. The center is ( 4. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 5. we get: d= ( 4 − 3) + ( 5 − 6 ) 2 Check ( 0. ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . −3) . 66. =⎜ ⎟=⎜ . Since the line segment passes through the center. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. 6 ) . 4 = 4 true Check ( 4. Intersection points: ( 0. the center is the midpoint of the segment. The center is ( 5. b. . 0 )} . Inc. a.Functions and Graphs 65. 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 7 9 + 11 ⎞ ⎛ 10 20 ⎞ =⎜ . −3) and ( 3. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. 5 units. ( 4. ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . ( 2) ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = 2 2 3 = 3 true 32 + 02 = 9 3−0 = 3 9 = 9 true 3 = 3 true The solution set is {( 0. the center is the midpoint of the segment. −3) : 02 + ( −3) = 9 2 2 = 12 + ( −1) = 1 + 1 2 units. Using the point ( 3.9 ) . Using the point ( 3. −4 ) and ( 4. −4 ) : 02 + ( −4 ) = 16 2 2 16 = 16 true = 22 + 12 = 4 + 1 c. = 2 The radius is 0 − ( −3 ) = 3 9 = 9 true Check ( 3. b.10 ) 67. 0 ) : = 5 The radius is 0 − ( −4 ) = 4 2 2 230 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ) : 2 c.5 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. we get: d= ( 5 − 3) 2 + (10 − 9 ) Check ( 0. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 4.5 ) 2 68. −4 ) .

4 ) ) + ( y − ( −2. 2 2 86. −1) : ( 0 − 3) 2 + ( −1 + 1) = 9 2 ( −3) 2 + 02 = 9 −1 = 0 − 1 −1 = −1 true 9=9 Check ( 3. 770 ⋅ 0. Intersection points: ( 0. ( 2. d = 1. makes sense 87. 079. −2. 2 .4. true + ( 2 + 1) = 9 2 2 = 3 −1 2 = 2 true 0 +3 = 9 9=9 true The solution set is {( 0. 72.1 d = 72. ( x − ( −2. d = (8495 − 4422) 2 + (8720 − 1241)2 ⋅ 0. −3) : ( 0 − 2 ) + ( −3 + 3) = 9 2 ( −2 ) + 0 2 = 4 2 2 −3 = 0 − 3 −3 = −3 true 73.7 ) and 4=4 radius 30. 2 231 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) and ( 3. 82) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 682 70. −1) . −3) and ( 2. 2 ) 84.1 2 ( x + 2. −1) : ( 2 − 2 ) + ( −1 + 3 ) = 4 2 2 d = (8936 − 8448) 2 + (3542 − 2625)2 ⋅ 0. Check ( 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 71. If we place L.A. 2 )} . 68 + 14) = (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1)} .7 ) = 900 74. then we want the equation of a circle with center at ( −2. – 82. at the origin. makes sense = 302 + ( y + 2.1 Intersection points: ( 0. C(0. 033 ⋅ 0. Answers may vary. 524.1 d ≈ 2693 The distance between Boston and San Francisco is about 2693 miles.4 ) −1 = 2 − 3 −1 = −1 true 02 + 22 = 4 4=4 true The solution set is {( 0. −1) d ≈ 328 The distance between New Orleans and Houston is about 328 miles. Check ( 0.9 69. ( 3. 2 ) : ( 3 − 3) 2 85.7 ) ) true Check ( 2. −3) . 2 x 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 4624 75. Inc. 83.

93. –5). d is distance from ( x . Both circles have center (2. Sample explanation: Since r 2 = −4 this is not the equation of a circle. The smaller circle has radius 5 and the larger circle has radius 6. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: The center is at (3. Inc. –3). A sample change is: This is not an equation for a circle. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. y2 ) 2 94. . 91. 89. Changes to make the statement true will vary.56 square units. 92. a. x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 + 4 4 d1 = 1 ( x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 ) 4 1 x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 2 d 2 is distance from midpoint to ( x2 . The smaller circle is inside of the larger circle. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A sample change is: The equation would be x 2 + y 2 = 256. 232 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The distance for A to B: ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d 2 = ⎜ 1 2 − x2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y2 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ AB = (3 − 1) 2 + [3 + d − (1 + d )]2 = 22 + 22 2 2 ⎛ x + x − 2 x2 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 4+4 = 8 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ =2 2 The distance from B to C: BC = (6 − 3) 2 + [3 + d − ( 6 + d )]2 = 32 + ( −3) 2 d1 = d1 = false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. ⎛ x + x − 2 x1 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ false. 2 2 2 2 d2 = x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 + 4 4 d2 = 1 2 ( x1 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 ) 4 1 x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 2 d1 = d 2 = 9+9 d2 = = 18 =3 2 b. A sample change is: Since r 2 = −36 this is not the equation of a circle. x ) to midpoint 1 1 2 2 ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 − x1 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ makes sense 2 2 90. 95. y1 ) to ( x2 y2 ) d3 = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 AC = (6 − 1) 2 + [6 + d − (1 + d )]2 d3 = x2 2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 = 52 + 52 d1 + d 2 = d3 because = 25 + 25 = 50 1 1 a+ a= a 2 2 96. does not make sense. The area between them is given by =5 2 AB + BC = AC 2 2 +3 2 = 5 2 π ( 6 ) − π ( 5 ) = 36π − 25π = 11π 2 5 2 =5 2 2 ≈ 34. Explanations will vary. 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ + ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ false. The distance for A to C: d3 is the distance from ( x1 .Functions and Graphs 88.

4. The tangent line has slope and 4 4 passes through (3. N(x) = 8000 – 100(x – 100) = 8000 – 100x + 10000 = 18. then length = 100 – x A(x) = x(100 – x) = 100x – x2 2 5. π r 2 h = 22 h= V(x) = (15 – 2x)(8 – 2x)x = (120 – 46x +4x2)x = 4x3 – 46x2 + 120x Since x represents the inches to be cut off.10 7. 2. x − 200 a.–4) is −4 − 0 4 m=− = − . d = x 2 + x3 ( ) 2 2 = x 2 + x6 a.04x 300 = x The plans cost the same for 300 minutes.12x y = x3 c.12x 12 = 0. in interval A = 2π r2 + 2 πrh 22 1000 2 = 2π r + 2 πr πr 2 2000 = 2π r 2 + r πr2 44 ⎛ 22 ⎞ 2π r 2 + 2π rh = 2π r 2 + 2π r ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2π r 2 + ⎝ πr ⎠ r 6.000x 233 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the area is 1000 sq yd 100. g(x) = 3 + 0.07x + 0. Inc.000 – 100x)x = –100x2 + 18. The circle is centered at (0. so its equation is: 3 y + 4 = ( x − 3).–4). x > 0.08x = x2 + y2 b.000 – 100x b. 3. ( 0. The domain of V is { x 0 < x < 4} or.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. so must cut less than 4 off each side. The slope of the radius with endpoints (0. f(x) = 15 + 0. The line perpendicular to the 3− 0 3 3 3 radius has slope .10 97. . V = πr h p = 2l + 2w = 2(50) + 2(20) = 140 1000 = πr 2 h 1000 =h πr 2 A = lw = (50)(20) = 1000 The perimeter is 140 yd. a. 4 ) .08x = 3 + 0. d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0 ) Check Point Exercises 1. 000 − x ) Section 1. R(x) = (18. 99. I ( x) = 0.0). 2l + 2w = 200 2l = 200 – 2w l = 100 – w Let x = width.09(25. 4 98. the area is 1200 sq yd b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. p = 2l + 2w = 2(40) + 2(30) = 140 A = lw = (40)(30) = 1200 The perimeter is 140 yd. The smallest side is 8. notation.0) and (3. 15 + 0.

3x = 59.5x c.5x = 21 x = 14 f (14) = 2.Functions and Graphs 6. 8. b.5x = 21+ x 1. a. $35. 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 x 0. a.4 − 0. 000 − 400x + 6000 = 26. 000 − 500x b. 40 = 28 + 06x 12 = 0. P( x) = 28 + 0. 000 − 500x + 10000 = 40.3 x 0.25x 860 = x You drove 860 miles for $395. someone will run a 3 minute mile. 9. 100 + 0. a.6 x b. g( x) = 21+ 0.9 x 60 = 0. a.9 x c. a. 40% of babies born will be out of wedlock. 4. 7.9 x c. R( x) = (40. in 2010. f ( x) = 2.75 x = 21 x = 28 f (28) = 1. 300 + 0.8 x b. 000 − 400x)x 2 = −400x + 26.2 x 1300 = x f (1300) = 300 + 0. g( x) = 40 + 0.4 x = 198 198 years after 1954. 000 x 10. Exercise Set 1. .3 x b. N (x) = 30.15x 320 = 200 + 0.7 x = 40 + 0.7x b. a. 5.6x 20 = x 20 years after 1990.25 x 395 = 180 + 0.5x 800 = x 800 miles a. for either method.1x 600 = x For $600 worth of merchandise. g( x) = 21+ x c. f ( x) = 1. b. 000 − 500(x − 20) = 30.7(1300) = 1210 g(1300) = 40 + 0. in 2152. 2.4 − 0.25(28) = 35 g (28) = 21 + 0. 000 − 400x R(x) = (26. f ( x) = 200 + 0. Inc. 2. M (x ) = 239. 000 − 500 x) x = −500 x 2 + 40.25 x = 21 + 0. your cost is $580 for both plans a.9(1300) = 1210 You would have to purchase $1300 in merchandise at a total cost of $1210. 1. 000 − 400(x − 15) = 20. a.5 x b. 180 = 239.5(14) = 35 g(14) = 21 + 14 = 35 To cross the bridge 14 times costs the same.25x b. N (x) = 20. b. g( x) = 40 + 0. f ( x) = 180 + 0.25x 215 = 0. 000x 234 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 100 + 0.5(28) = 35 If a person crosses the bridge 28 times the cost will be $35 for both options a.15x 120 = 01.10 1.9 x 260 = 0. f ( x) = 300 + 0.8x = 40 + 0.

x > 0. 14.PreCalculus 4E 11. Since each side is 24. a. the volume will be 980 square inches. 15. a. b. b. Y(x) = 270 − 3(x − 30) = 270 − 3x + 90 = 360 − 3x V(6) = 4(63 ) −120(62 ) + 900(6) = 1944 If 6 inches are cut from each side. Section 1. you must cut less than 12 inches off each end. V(x) = (30 − 2x)(30 − 2x)x = (900 −120x + 4x 2 )x = 4x 3 − 120x 2 + 900x b. 000 + 60(90 − x) = 7000 − 60x + 5400 = 12400 − 60x c. V(x) = (24 − 2x)(24 − 2x)x 2 = (576 − 96x + 4x )x = 4x 3 − 96x 2 + 576x c. Since each side is 30 inches. 235 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. V(2) = 4(2) 3 − 96(2) 2 + 576(2) = 800 If 2-inch squares are cut off each corner. the volume will be 972 square inches. the volume will be 2000 square inches. the volume will be 1944 square inches. the volume will be 1728 square inches. the volume will be 1024 square inches. 0 < x < 15 or (0. Since x is the number of inches to be cut from each side. b. ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 8− x ⎞ A( x) = ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 2 2 = x 2 64 − 16 x + x 2 + 16 16 = 2 x 2 − 16 x + 64 16 = x 2 − 8 x + 32 8 V(6) = 4(6) 3 − 96(6)2 + 576(6) = 864 If 6inch squares are cut off each corner.10 N (x) = 9000 + 50(150 − x) = 9000 − 50x + 7500 = 16500 − 50x R(x) = (16500 − 50x)x = −50x 2 + 16500x 16. a. V(4) = 4(4) 3 − 96(4)2 + 576(4) = 1024 If 4-inch squares are cut off each corner. R(x) = (12400 − 60x)x = −60x 2 + 12400x V(3) = 4(33 ) −120(32 ) + 900(3) = 1728 If 3 inches are cut from each side. V(5) = 4(5) 3 − 96(5)2 + 576(5) = 980 If 5inch squares are cut off each corner. 0 < x < 12 a. N (x) = 7. V (3) = 4(3)3 − 96(3)2 + 576(3) = 972 If 3inch squares are cut off each corner. b. the volume will be 1936 square inches. b. A(x) = x(20 − 2x) = −2x 2 + 20x 18. 13. Inc. 15) 17. T (x) = (360 − 3x)x = −3x 2 + 360x V(7) = 4(73 ) −120(72 ) + 900(7) = 1792 If 7 inches are cut from each side. Y(x) = 320 − 4(x − 50) = 320 − 4x + 200 = 520 − 4x T (x) = (520 − 4x)x = −4x 2 + 520x V(5) = 4(53 ) −120(52 ) + 900(5) = 2000 If 5 inches are cut from each side. V(4) = 4(43 ) −120(4 2 ) + 900(4) = 1936 If 4 inches are cut from each side. a. the volume will be 864 square inches. x > 0. a. you must cut less than 15 inches from each side. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . the volume will be 800 square inches. 12. the volume will be 1792 square inches. If x is the inches to be cut off.

600 − 2 x = length = 440r A(x) = (600 − 2x)x = −2 x 2 + 600x 25. 2 x = distance around 2 straight sides π 2r = distance around 2 curved sides 29. 2x = distance around the 2 straight sides 2πr = distance around the 2 curved sides 2 x + 2π r = 880 Let x = w A(x) = x(800 − 2 x) 2 x = 880 − 2π r x = 440 − π r = −2 x 2 + 800x 24. 2 w + l = 600 A( x) = r (440 − π r ) + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 + π r 2 l = 600 − 2 l let x = width. P(x) = x(50 − x) = −x 2 + 50 x 21. 2 w + l = 800 27. Inc. 4y = 1200 − 2x 1200 − 2x y= 4 1200 − 2x 4 x(1200 − 2x) = 4 2x(600 − x) = 4 x(600 − x) = 2 A(x) = x 236 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A(x) = x(300 − x) = −x 2 + 300x 23. 400. 2 x + 2π r = 440 2 x = 440 − 2π r x = 220 − π r A(r ) = (220 − π r )2r + π r 2 = 440r − 2π r 2 + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 l = 800 − 2 w 28. 000 = 350 x + + 125 x x 1. 2 x + 3 y = 1000 xy = 4000 4000 y= x 3 y = 1000 − 2 x 1000 − 2 x 3 ⎛ 1000 − 2 x ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ x(1000 − 2 x) = 3 2x + 4y = 1200 ⎡ ⎛ 4000 ⎞ ⎤ C ( x) = ⎢ 2 x + 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 175 + 125 x ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ 1.Functions and Graphs 19. . A(x) = x(400 − x) = −x 2 + 400x 22. 400. 000 = 475 x + x y= 26. P(x) = x(66 − x) = −x 2 + 66x 20.

15 x + 3500 − 0.06 x = 0.12(18750 − x) =y b.10 x + 0.08 x + 720 39. a.12(18750 − x) = 2117 0.07 x(50000 − x) 31250 = x + 20x + 9x ⎛ 10 ⎞ A( x) = x 2 + 4 ⎜ x ⋅ 2 ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ 40 = x2 + x 32.14 x + 720 − 0. ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 8 x 2 + 16 = x 4 − 7 x 2 + 16 108 = y + 4 x 108 − 4 x = y 40. Let x = amount at 10% 18. A = x (108 − 4 x) 2 d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 = −4 x 3 + 108 x 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 8 ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 16 x 2 + 64 = x 4 − 15 x 2 + 64 237 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b.750 – x = amount at 12% I ( x) = 0.15 x + 0. Let x = amount invested at 12% 8000 – x = amount invested at 5% loss I(x) = 0.07 x + x + 9x 2 10 a.1x + 2250 − 0. 2500 = 0. = 0. 0.07(50000 – x) 6000 = 0.02 x = −133 x = 6650 The amount of money to be invested should be $6650 at 10% and $12100 at 12%.10 125 = lw 125 l = = 5000 x 5000 x 125 x 50000 − 31250 = 18750 Invest $31.10 x + 0. .12 x = 2117 −0.12x – 0. 37.06(12000 − x) ⎛ 400 ⎞ A = x2 + 5 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x ⎝ x ⎠ 2000 2 =x + x 33. 35. + 29x 36.PreCalculus 4E 30. Inc.250 at 15% and $18. Let x = amount at 14% 12000 – x = amount at 6% I ( x) = 0.14 x + 0.750 at 7%. Section 1.15x + 0. = w.08 x 10 = x y x2 Let x = amount invested at 15% 50000 – x = amount invested at 7% I(x) = 0.05(8000 – x) 400 = x 2 y 400 x2 =y 38. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 300 = y + 4 x d = ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 300 − 4 x = y 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 4 A( x) = x (300 − 4 x) 2 = −4 x3 + 300 x 2 34. 6000 = 0. let x = l C(x) = 20 2 31.

. A( x) = 12 x 2 − 25 x + 12 x 2 + 23 x + ( x + 2) [ 2 x − 2] P ( x ) = 2(2 x) + 2 y = 4x + 2 4 − x 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Sample explanation: The decrease in passengers is modeled by 60( x − 300). 2 A( x) = 12 x(2 x) + 12 (6 x − 4 x)( x + 2) + (4 x)( x + 2) + 2 x(8) A( x) = x + x( x + 2) + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x 2 P( x) = 2(2 x) + 2 y A( x) = x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x = 4x + 2 9 − x2 A( x) = 6 x 2 + 26 45. 238 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Explanations will vary. a. 63. V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x + 1)( x + 2) − ( x + 5)(3)( x) V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x 2 + 5 x + 2) − 3x( x + 5) x = 36 + x 2 8-foot pole V ( x) = 2 x3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x + 10 − 3x 2 − 15 x V ( x) = 2 x3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x + 10 c 2 = 82 + (10 − x)2 c = 64 + 100 − 20 x + x 2 50. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: This model is not reasonable. + ( x + 2) [ ( x − 5) + ( x + 3) ] = 2 x 4 − x2 b. does not make sense. A( x) = x 2 − x + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 4 2 A( x) = 3x 2 + x − 4 A( x) = 2 xy = 2x 9 − x A( x) = 12 x( x − 5) + 12 x ( x + 3) 48. Inc. Road from Town A: c 2 = 62 + x 2 d = ( x − 1) 2 + y 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + ( x) 2 c = 36 + x 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + x Road from Town B: c 2 = 32 + (12 − x) 2 = x − x +1 2 42. 6-foot pole c 2 = 62 + x 2 49. d = ( x − 2) + y 2 c = 9 + 144 − 24 x + x 2 2 = x2 − 4 x + 4 + ( x) c = x 2 − 24 x + 153 2 f ( x ) = 36 + x 2 + x 2 − 24 x + 153 = x 2 − 3x + 4 43. 46. b. – 62. A( x) = 2 xy 47. V ( x) = ( x)(2 x + 5 x − 3) − x 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x) = 36 + x + x − 20 x + 164 2 V ( x) = ( x)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) − ( x)( x) [ (2 x − 1) − ( x + 1) ] c = x 2 − 20 x + 164 total length 2 V ( x) = 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3x − x3 + 2 x 2 V ( x) = x3 + 7 x 2 − 3x 51. 64. as it suggests a per minute charge of $30. Answers may vary.Functions and Graphs 41. a. does not make sense.

y = 0 x = 2. y = 4 239 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 2 1 ⎛1 ⎞ = π ⎜ h⎟ h 3 ⎝2 ⎠ 1 1 2 = π h h 3 4 67. y = –6 x = –1. Inc. 7 + 4 2 2 + 5 2 14 + 35 2 + 8 2 + 40 ⋅ = 2 − 5 2 2 + 5 2 4 + 10 2 − 10 2 − 50 54 + 43 2 −46 54 + 43 2 =− 46 = A( x) = (20 + 2 x)(10 + 2 x) − 10(20) = 4 x 2 + 60 x + 200 − 200 = 4 x 2 + 60 x 69. π 12 h3 (7 − 3x )(−2 − 5 x) = −14 − 35 x + 6 x + 15 x 2 = −14 − 29 x + 15 x 2 4 + x2 2 Distance and time walked: d = 6− x rt = d 5t = 6 − x 6− x t= 5 Total time: t= T ( x) = 68. Sample explanation: The area of a rectangle is not solely determined by its perimeter. y = 2 x = 3. Distance and time rowed: d 2 = 22 + x 2 d = 4 + x2 rt = d = 2t = 4 + x 2 71. Explanations will vary. or = 15 x 2 − 29 x − 14 72.PreCalculus 4E 65. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . For example: A 4 by 6 rectangle and a 3 by 7 rectangle both have perimeters of 20 units. 1 (π 2r ) 2 12 = 2h + 2r + π r P = 2h + 2r + Chapter 1 Review Exercises 1. Chapter 1 Review Exercises does not make sense. 12 − 2r − π r = 2h 12 − 2r − π r =h 2 1 ⎛ 12 − 2r − π r ⎞ 2 A=⎜ ⎟ 2r + 2 π r 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 + π r 2 2 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 2 ( ) x = –3. yet their areas are different from each other. 18 − 8 = 9 ⋅ 2 − 4 ⋅ 2 =3 2 −2 2 = 2 4 + x2 6 − x + 2 5 73. r= 1 h 2 1 V ( h) = π r 2 h 3 66. y = –8 x = –2. y = –4 x = 0. 70. y = –2 x = 1.

y = –3 x = –2. function domain: {1. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 14. maximum x-value equal to 40. y = –3 x = 1. y = 6 x = –2. 19} x = 3. y = −1 x = 2. 8. x = –3. and y-scale equal to 1. 2). 500. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. y = 0 17. A portion of Cartesian coordinate plane with minimum x-value equal to –20. y = –2 x = 0. y = –1 x = 0. The graph intersects the x-axis at (5. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. y-intercept: –4. Inc. The graph does not intersect the yaxis. function domain: {2. 10. The lowest marginal tax rate occurred in 1990 and was about 28%.Functions and Graphs 2. The top marginal tax rate in 2005 was 35%. y = 1 240 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The coordinates are (1985. x-intercept: –2. During the five-year period from 1930 to 1935. 2. y = 1 x = −2. 4. x-intercepts: 2. 15. 5} range: {7} x = −3. y = –2 x = 2. 3. y = 1 x = 2. x = –3. 6. y = 0 16. 0). 50%). the top marginal tax rate increased about 38%. the top marginal tax rate remained constant at about 91%. 7. 11. y = 1 x = 3. 0) and (2. 9. –2. y = 1 x = –1. 0). 0). y = –2 x = –1. 14} range: {13. 15. 12. not a function domain: {12. 13. y-intercept: None. y = 3 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = −2 x = 1. During the ten-year period from 1950 to 1960. y = 6 3. y = 0 x = 1. x-scale equal to 10 and with minimum y-value equal to –5. x-intercept: 5. π} x = −1. 13} range: {10. y = 2 x = 3. The highest marginal tax rate occurred in 1945 and was about 94%. –4). The graph intercepts the y-axis at (0. maximum y-value equal to 5. y-intercept: 2. y = −1 x = 0. .

y is a function of x. 21. = −7 x − 16 c. g(0) = 4 – 0 = 4 c. y is not a function of x. f(1) = 12 c. a. g (13) = 13 − 4 = 9 = 3 decreasing: (−3. a. 23. 19. Inc. 5) = 3x 2 − 11x + 10 d. 26. f(x) = 5 – 7x 22. 5) b. g (−2) = 3(−2) 2 − 5(−2) + 2 = 12 + 10 + 2 31. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 22 − 1 3 = =3 2 −1 1 25. 0] c. 29. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. y-intercept: –2 e. g(–3) = 4 – (–3) = 7 24. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. 20. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. f(–2) = –3 and f(3) = –5 = 3x + 5 x + 2 2 241 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(4) = 5 – 7(4) = –23 27. a. f (2) = 2x + y = 6 (−2) 2 − 1 3 = = −1 −2 − 1 −3 2 y 2 = −2 x + 6 y = ± −2 x + 6 Since more than one value of y can be obtained from some values of x. range: [–5. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 2x + y = 8 y = −2 x + 8 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. g ( x − 1) = 3( x − 1) 2 − 5( x − 1) + 2 = 3( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 5 x + 5 + 2 domain: [–3.PreCalculus 4E 18. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. f (−2) = b. g (0) = 3(0)2 − 5(0) + 2 = 2 b. − 2) or (0. increasing: (−2. x-intercept: –3 d. f(–x) = 5 – 7(–x) = 5 + 7x g ( x) = 3x 2 − 5 x + 2 30. a. 3) g (− x ) = 3(− x) 2 − 5(− x) + 2 f. b. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. f ( x + 3) = 5 − 7( x + 3) = 5 − 7 x − 21 28. . = 24 c. 3x 2 + y = 14 y = −3x 2 + 14 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. 0) or (3.

relative maximum −2 39. 0) decreasing: (−∞. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x f (− x) = (− x)3 − 5(− x) = − x3 + 5 x b. b. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. ∞ ) f. 3. domain: (−∞. range: {–3. range: [–2. −2. ∞ ) f. 2) constant: (−∞. − 2) or (2. range: (−∞. increasing: (–5. 40. Inc. f(–9) = –2 and f(14) = 2 = − f ( x) The function is odd. f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 = f ( x) The function is even. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. y-intercept: 3 e. ∞) 38. increasing: (–2. −5. . ∞) c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. domain: (−∞. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)2 + 1 b.Functions and Graphs 32. a. − 5) or (0. a. y-intercept: 0 e. = − f ( x) The function is odd. ∞) 37. 0. f(–2) = 0 and f(6) = –3 33. relative maximum 3 b. 5} a. 34. 2] f (− x) = 2(− x) 1 − (− x)2 c. f ( x) = 2 x 1 − x 2 b. relative minimum −6 36. a. –5 35. a. range: { y y ≤ 0} 242 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. 0. x-intercept: 0 = −2 x 1 − x 2 d. relative minimum −3. a. The function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. x-intercepts: –2 and 3 d.

6 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44. Write 6 x − y − 4 = 0 in slope intercept form. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 42. − x − 10 2 d. b. thus the 1 slope of the desired line is m = − . Inc. a. 6x − y − 4 = 0 − y = −6 x + 4 y = 6x − 4 The slope of the perpendicular line is 6. m= 1 − 2 −1 1 = = − . 1 4 51. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 8( x + h) − 11 − (8 x − 11) h 8 x + 8h − 11 − 8 x + 11 = h 8h = 8 =8 = −2 ( x + 2 xh + h h 2 ) + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 43. − 14 0 = = 0. m= 10 − 5 5 = undefined. rises −3 − (−1) −2 6 y + 6 = − x − 12 x + 6 y + 18 = 0 243 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. falls 5−3 2 2 46. the eagle’s height is a function of time since the graph passes the vertical line test. . Constant: (0. m= −4 − (−2) −2 = = 1. 48. 12) The eagle descended. Increasing: (17. point-slope form: y – 2 = –6(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –6x – 16 −2( x + h) 2 + ( x + h) + 10 − ( −2 x 2 + x + 10 ) 2 47. perpendicular to y = Decreasing: (3. 30) The eagle was ascending. 1 x+4 3 m = –3 point-slope form: y – 6 = –3(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –3x – 9 + 6 y = –3x – 3 53. c. h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 − x − 10 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h −4 x − 2 h + 1 2 m= 49. vertical −2 − (−2) 0 2 − 6 −4 = =2 −1 − 1 −2 point-slope form: y – 6 = 2(x – 1) or y – 2 = 2(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 2x + 4 m= 52.PreCalculus 4E 41. y − (−1) = − 16 ( x − (−12) ) y + 1 = − 16 ( x + 12) y + 1 = − 16 x − 2 45. 3) or (12. 3x + y – 9 = 0 y = –3x + 9 m = –3 point-slope form: y + 7 = –3(x – 4) slope-intercept form: y = –3x + 12 – 7 y = –3x + 5 Yes. 17) The eagle’s height held steady during the first 3 seconds and the eagle was on the ground for 5 seconds. horizontal 6 − (−3) 9 50.

slope: 2 . slope: –4. y-intercept: –1 5 58.7 = = 0. y − 11 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 Find x-intercept: 2 x − 5(0) − 10 = 0 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 Find y-intercept: 2(0) − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = 10 y = −2 59. y-intercept: –2 3 60.116 x − 10. a.56 c.56 f ( x) = 0.116 ( x − 90 ) or 57. 244 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. According to the graph. y − 2.Functions and Graphs 54. France has about 5 deaths per 100.116 ( x − 15) 2y −8 = 0 2y = 8 y=4 slope: 0. y-intercept: 4 b.44 y = 0. 11 − 2. 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −2 x − 6 2 y = − x−2 3 2 slope: − . y-intercept: 5 56.3 8. 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 55.000 persons.116 x + 0.116 x + 0.116 ( x − 90 ) y − 11 = 0.116 90 − 15 75 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 11 = 0. . Inc.3 = 0.

2 2 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) [9 − 4 ( 9 )] − [4 − 4 ⋅ 5] = = 10 x2 − x1 9−5 63. m = = = 182.116(32) + 0. S (0) = −16(0)2 + 64(0) + 80 = 80 S (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 80 = 144 144 − 80 = 32 2−0 b. then it starts to come down. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 69. France has about 4. 65. 64.116 x + 0. 62. 1616 − 886 730 61.000 persons. a.5 billion per year. 67. The rate of change is $182.000 persons. The line passes below the point for France. 70.272 ≈ 4. .7 deaths per 100.56 = 4. Chapter 1 Review Exercises f ( x ) = 0. 71. 68. 245 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 According to the function. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0.3 deaths per 100. The ball is traveling up until 2 seconds. f (32) = 0.5 billion per year.56 66. S (4) = −16(4) 2 + 64(4) + 80 = 80 80 − 144 = −32 4−2 c.5 2006 − 2002 4 Corporate profits increased at a rate of $182.PreCalculus 4E d.

77. . 73. 81. 78.Functions and Graphs 72. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 79. 246 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 75. 83. 76. 74. 80. 82.

( f g )( x) = x + 1 b. ∞ ) 86. g(x) = x – 5 (f + g)(x) = 4x – 6 domain: (−∞. The denominator is zero when x = –7 or x = 3. The denominator is zero when x = 7. ( fg )( x ) = (3x − 1)( x − 5) = 3x 2 − 16 x + 5 domain: (−∞. ( f g )(3) = 3 + 1 = 4 = 2 247 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 84.5 ) ∪ ( 5. Inc. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. 87. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. g ( x) = x − 2 93. g ( x) = x 2 − 1 ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 + x domain: (−∞. 4]. f ( x) = x 2 + 3. −1) ∪ ( −1. The domain is ( −∞. x–2≥0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. ( f + g )( x) = x + 7 + x − 2 domain: [2. ∞ ) 94. ∞ ) ( f g )(3) = 16(3) 2 − 8(3) + 4 = 124 f ( x ) = x . The denominator is zero when x = 5. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. 8 – 2x ≥ 0 –2x ≥ –8 x≤4 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) = x 2 + 5 x − 14 domain: [2. g ( x) = 4 x − 1 a. 95. ∞ ) . ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 1) – (x – 5) = 2x + 4 domain: (−∞. 90. .PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Review Exercises 92. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = x 4 + x3 − x − 1 85.∞ ) f ( x) = x + 7. domain: ( −∞. ( f g )( x) = (4 x − 1)2 + 3 = 16 x 2 − 8 x + 4 x ≥ −5 b. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x2 + x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x2 − 1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x+7 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (2. ( g f )( x) = x + 1 c.5 ) ∪ ( 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = x 2 + x + 1. ( g f )( x) = 4( x 2 + 3) − 1 = 4 x 2 + 11 91. domain: (−∞. f(x) = 3x – 1. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x + 7 − x − 2 domain: [2. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −5 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) c. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = x + 7 ⋅ x − 2 88. 3) ∪ ( 3. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1) − ( x 2 − 1) = x + 2 domain: (−∞. x − 1 ≥ 0 and x + 5 ≥ 0 x ≥1 domain: [1. g ( x) = x + 1 a.1) ∪ (1. ∞) 89.

∞ ⎞⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ (f x = 4y −3 x+3 4 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 4 y= g )( x ) = f ( x + 3) = x + 3 − 1 = x + 2 x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 98. ⎞⎟ ∪ ⎛⎜ . x = 8 y3 + 1 x − 1 = 8 y3 x −1 = y3 8 3 3 x −1 =y 8 x −1 =y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x −1 2 248 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = x + . b. a. x≠0 1 − 2x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 1 1 ( −∞. a. . 2−x 5 ⎛2−x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 2 − 5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = 2 − (2 − x) =x 2 − (2 − 5 x) 5 x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 5 5 f and g are inverses of each other. b. 0 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ 0. [−2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g ( x) = x − 2 5 2 3 3⎛5 ⎞ 1 f ( g ( x)) = ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ + 5⎝3 ⎠ 2 6 1 = x− + 5 2 7 = x− 10 5⎛3 1⎞ g ( f ( x)) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2 3⎝5 2⎠ 5 = x+ −2 6 7 = x− 6 f and g are not inverses of each other. f ( x) = 2 − 5 x. g ( x) = 1 ( f g )( x ) = f ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ ⎝x⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ 1 + 1 ⎜ + 1⎟ x 1+ x x ⎠ = x =⎝ = 1 1 1 − 2x − 2 ⎛⎜ − 2 ⎞⎟ x x ⎝x ⎠ b. f ( x) = 3 x 4 f ( x) = 4 x − 3 y = 4x − 3 102. ∞) ⎛ x+3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 4 ⎠ = x +3−3 =x (4 x − 3) + 3 4 x f ( f ( x)) = = =x 4 4 g ( x) = x + 2 x − 1 2 −1 g ( x) = 7 x + 4 f ( x) = 8 x3 + 1 103. y = 8 x3 + 1 3 1 5 100. 97. 101.Functions and Graphs 96. a. a. Inc. f ( x) = x 99.

3 ⎛ 3 x −1 ⎞ f f ( x) = 8 ⎜ +1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x −1 ⎞ = 8⎜ ⎟ +1 ⎝ 8 ⎠ = x −1 +1 ( ) −1 107. 104. 108. 2 3 8 x3 2 2x = 2 =x = 110. The inverse function exists. ( ) 2 +5 2 x−5 2( x − 5) = +5 2 = x−5+5 111. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 106.PreCalculus 4E b. . The inverse function exists. x ≥ 1 2 2 +5−5 x 2 = 2 x 2x = 2 =x 105. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. 249 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 +5 x 2 y = +5 x 2 x = +5 y xy = 2 + 5 y f ( x) = 1 − x 2 y = 1 − x2 f ( x) = x = 1− y2 y2 = 1− x y = 1− x −1 f ( x) = 1 − x xy − 5 y = 2 y ( x − 5) = 2 2 x −5 2 f −1 ( x) = x −5 y= b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. a. f f −1 ( x) = y = x +1 x= x −1 = f ( f ( x) ) = y +1 y ( x − 1) = y 2 =x −1 f ( x) = x + 1 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 . Inc. =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 (8x 3 ) + 1 −1 109.

W ( x) = 567 + 15 x 702 = 567 + 15 x 135 = 15 x 9=x 9 years after 2000. 6] = 22 + 22 domain: = 4+4 range: = 8 x2 + y2 − 4 x + 2 y − 4 = 0 120. radius: 1 121.07 x c. . 15 + 0.07 x 10 = 0. ⎟=⎜ . ⎜ . .05 x = 5 + 0.1] [ −1. b. –1). radius: 3 ⎛ 2 + ( −12 ) 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ −10 10 ⎞ 114.83 x2 − 4 x + 4 + y2 + 2 y + 1 = 4 + 4 + 1 ( x − 2) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 9 center: (2. 0). in 2009. the two plans cost the same. ⎟ = ( −5. radius: 3 112. x 2 + y 2 = 32 x2 + y 2 = 9 117. ( x − (−2)) 2 + ( y − 4)2 = 62 [ −1. 250 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. [ −1.5] [ −4.1] domain: range: f ( x) = 15 + 0. a. g ( x) = 5 + 0.1] [ 0. a. d = [−2 − (−4)]2 + ( 5 − 3) 2 [ −5. ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 116. d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [9 − (−3)]2 = 52 + 122 = 25 + 144 = 169 = 13 113. Inc.Functions and Graphs 119. center: (–2. −2 ⎟ 115.05 x b.5) ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 + (−15) −6 + 2 ⎞ ⎛ −11 −4 ⎞ ⎛ −11 ⎞ . 2] domain: ( x + 2) + ( y − 4) = 36 2 2 range: 118. .02 x 500 = x For 500 minutes. 3). the average weekly sales will be $702. =2 2 x2 − 4x + y2 + 2 y = 4 ≈ 2. 122. center: (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

3. and (d) are not functions. domain: (–5. 6] c. . –1. 1 c. g. a. 2 b. increasing: (–1. 5] V ( x) = (16 − 2 x)(24 − 2 x) x d. 6) f. f (− x) = f ( x) e. f(4) – f(–3) = 3 – (–2) = 5 b. V = lwh 8 = x⋅ x⋅h 8 =h x2 f. (–1. 1. –4) h. 2. R( x) = x(640 − 2 x) = −2 x 2 + 640 x w = 16 − 2 x l = 24 − 2 x 125. –2. range: [–4. y-intercept: –3 a. f(2) = 5 g. f fails the horizontal line test = 640 − 2 x b. 2. Chapter 1 Test N ( x) = 400 − 2( x − 120) Chapter 1 Test = 400 − 2 x + 240 1. 0 d. − 1) or (2. 124.PreCalculus 4E 123. (c). x-intercepts: –4. a. ⎛ 8 ⎞ = 2x2 + 4 ⎜ ⎟x ⎝ x2 ⎠ 32 = 2x2 + x 127. A( x) = 2 x ⋅ x + 4hx f (0) is a relative minimum.08x + 0.000 – x) h.12(10. Inc. decreasing: (−5. a. b. 251 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. no. Publishing as Prentice Hall. even. (b). 2) 0<x<8 e. i. I = 0. and 5. 2l + 3w = 400 2l = 400 − 3w 400 − 3w 2 Let x = width l= ⎛ 400 − 3w ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ x(400 − 3w) = 2 126.

Inc. [ −2. ( −∞.1] [ −2. ∞ ) {−1. ∞ ) ( −∞. 4] domain: 5. ∞ ) range: {4} [ −6. ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: range: [ −5. i. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2] [ −2. domain: ( −∞. .Functions and Graphs 7. j. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) −1 − 0 1 = =− x2 − x1 1 − (−2) 3 ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: range: 4. range: 9. 8. 7] domain: range: 252 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2} domain: range: 10. 2] domain: range: 6. 2] [ −1. ∞ ) ( −∞.

( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) range of f: [ −1. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f: f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( ( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 4 − x 2 − x − 4 ) h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − x − h − 4 − x 2 + x + 4 = h 2 xh + h 2 − h = h h ( 2 x + h − 1) = h = 2x + h −1 18. 15. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f: domain of f: 12. f ( x − 1) = ( x − 1)2 − ( x − 1) − 4 = x2 − 2 x + 1 − x + 1 − 4 = x2 − 3x − 2 17. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. [ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞. ) . 4] domain of f: domain of f: f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 16. 14. ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) range of g: [ −2. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 11. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ( ( g − f )( x) = 2 x − 6 − x 2 − x − 4 = 2x − 6 − x + x + 4 2 = − x 2 + 3x − 2 253 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. 13.

24. ( g f )( x) = g ( f ( x) ) ( y + 10 = −2( x + 7) y + 10 = −2 x − 14 ) = 2 x2 − x − 4 − 6 2 x + y + 24 = 0 = 2x − 2x − 8 − 6 2 27. 3(10) 2 − 5 − [3(6) 2 − 5] 10 − 6 205 − 103 = 4 192 = 4 = 48 29. = x2 + x − 4 f is neither even nor odd. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) = (2 x − 6) 2 − (2 x − 6) − 4 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) = 4 x 2 − 24 x + 36 − 2 x + 6 − 4 y − (−10) = −2 ( x − (−7) ) = 4 x 2 − 26 x + 38 21. = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 14 22. f (10 ) = 5(10) + 466 = 516 The function predicts that in 2010 the number of sentenced inmates in the U. 476) and (4.Functions and Graphs 19. 4x + 2 y − 5 = 0 ⎛ f ⎞ x2 − x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2x − 6 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) y − 486 = 5 x − 20 y = 5 x + 466 f ( x ) = 5 x + 466 −8 − 1 −9 = =3 −1 − 2 −3 point-slope form: y – 1 = 3(x – 2) or y + 8 = 3(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 3x – 5 m= c. find the slope using the points (2.S. or y − 476 = 5 ( x − 2 ) f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) − 4 b. First. 26. ( a. 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. will be 516 per 100.000 residents.3) ∪ ( 3. 25. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) ) g ( f (−1) ) = 2 (−1) 2 − (−1) − 4 − 6 = 2 (1 + 1 − 4 ) − 6 m= = 2 ( −2 ) − 6 = −4 − 6 y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) = −10 23. 486 − 476 10 = =5 4−2 2 Then use the slope and a point to write the equation in point-slope form. 486) . g(–1) = 3 – (–1) = 4 g (7) = 7 − 3 = 4 = 2 254 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Write 4 x + 2 y − 5 = 0 in slope intercept form. ∞ ) 2 y = −4 x + 5 y = −2 x + 5 2 The slope of the parallel line is –2. . 1 y = − x + 5 so m = 4 4 point-slope form: y – 6 = 4(x + 4) slope-intercept form: y = 4x + 22 28. thus the slope of the desired line is m = −2.

⎟ ∪ ⎜ . 37. . The expressions under each radical must not be negative. 2 − 4x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ domain: ( −∞.∞ ) Y ( x) = 50 − 1.5 x + 45 31. 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 2 + 5 −2 + 2 ⎞ ⎟=⎜ 2 . x + 5 ≥ 0 and x − 1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −5 a.7 = 41.5( x − 30) = 50 − 1. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 33. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.0⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛7 ⎞ The length is 5 and the midpoint is ⎜ .7 seconds.08 = −0. 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛7 ⎞ = ⎜ . T ( x) = x(95 − 1. Inc. 8000 = x ⋅ x ⋅ h 8000 =h x2 g ( x ) = 2x + 3 d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) = (5 − 2) 2 + ( 2 − (−2) ) V = lwh A( x) = 2 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 2 x2 + 2 8000 x2 32.78 − 0. the winning time will be 35. x ≥1 domain: [1. 255 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 38. T ( x) = 41. ( f g )( x) = b.5 x) = −1. a.1) ∪ (1.5 x 2 + 95 x 2l + 2w = 600 2l = 600 − 2w 7 2 −4 x = l = 300 − w 7x 2 − 4x Let x = w A( x) = x(300 − x) = − x 2 + 300 x x ≠ 0.19 x 32 = x 32 years after 1980.19 x −6.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 30. 0 ⎟ . = 95 − 1. ∞ ) 36.78 − 0. in 2012. domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ⎜ 0.19 x 35. f ( x ) = x7 34. b.000 x = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 ⎜ 2 . The denominator is zero when x = 1 or x = –5. ⎝2 ⎠ 35.5 x 32.

−14 + −12 −14 + i 12 = 2 2 −14 + 2i 3 = 2 −14 2i 3 = + 2 2 = −7 + i 3 x2 − 2x + 2 = 0 a = 1. a. Inc. x= 256 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. = i 9 ⋅ 3 + i 16 ⋅ 3 = 3i 3 + 4i 3 = 7i 3 (2 + 6i ) − (12 − i ) = 2 + 6i − 12 + i = (2 − 12) + (6 + 1)i = −10 + 7i b. 1 − i}. = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3(−1) 7i (2 − 9i ) = 7i (2) − 7i (9i ) = 1 − 4i 3 c. . b = −2. 2. a. (−2 + −3) 2 = (−2 + i 3) 2 = (−2) 2 + 2(−2)(i 3) + (i 3) 2 = 14i − 63i 2 = 14i − 63(−1) b. c = 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 2 ± 4 −8 2 2 ± −4 x= 2 2 ± 2i x= 2 x = 1± i The solution set is {1 + i.1 Check Point Exercises 1. (5 − 2i ) + (3 + 3i ) = 5 − 2i + 3 + 3i = (5 + 3) + (−2 + 3)i = 8+i 4. = 63 + 14i 3.Chapter 2 Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. −27 + −48 = i 27 + i 48 (5 + 4i )(6 − 7i ) = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28i 2 = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28(−1) = 30 + 28 − 35i + 24i = 58 − 11i 5 + 4i 5 + 4i 4 + i = ⋅ 4−i 4−i 4+i 20 + 5i + 16i + 4i 2 = 16 + 4i − 4i − i 2 20 + 21i − 4 = 16 + 1 16 + 21i = 17 16 21 = + i 17 17 5.

(−7 + i )(−7 − i ) = 49 + 7i − 7i − i 2 = 49 + 1 = 50 19. = 4 + 12i + 9i 2 ( 5 − 2i ) 2 = 25 − 20i + 4i 2 = 25 − 20i − 4 = 21 − 20i 15i – (12 – 11i) = 15i – 12 + 11i = –12 + 15i + 11i = –12 + 26i 21. 8. 5. 3. (3 + 5i )(3 − 5i ) = 9 − 15i + 15i − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 (–2 + 6i) + (4 – i) = –2 + 6i + 4 – i = –2 + 4 + 6i – i = 2 + 5i 6. (8 – 4i)(–3 + 9i) = −24 + 72i + 12i − 36i 2 = –24 + 36 + 84i = 12 + 84i Exercise Set 2. ( 2 + 7i )( 2 − 7i ) = 4 − 49i 2 = 4 + 49 = 53 17. 2. (−5 + i )(−5 − i ) = 25 + 5i − 5i − i 2 = 25 + 1 = 26 18. 8i – (14 – 9i) = 8i – 14 + 9i = –14 + 8i + 9i = –14 + 17i 9.1 1. 2 = 4 + 12i − 9 = −5 + 12i 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (7 – 5i)(–2 – 3i) = −14 − 21i + 10i + 15i 2 = –14 – 15 – 11i = –29 – 11i 2 2 3+i = ⋅ 3−i 3−i 3+i 2(3 + i ) = 9 +1 2 (3 + i ) = 10 3+i = 5 3 1 = + i 5 5 3 3 4−i = ⋅ 4+i 4+i 4−i 3( 4 − i) = 16 − i 2 3( 4 − i) = 17 12 3 = − i 17 17 257 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –3i(7i – 5) = −21i 2 + 15i = –21(–1) + 15i = 21 + 15i (−5 + 4i )(3 + i ) = −15 − 5i + 12i + 4i 2 = −15 + 7i − 4 = −19 + 7i 12.1 14. (7 + 2i) + (1 – 4i) = 7 + 2i + 1 – 4i = 7 + 1 + 2i – 4i = 8 – 2i = 34 (3 + 2i) – (5 – 7i) = 3 – 5 + 2i + 7i = 3 + 2i – 5 + 7i = –2 + 9i (–7 + 5i) – (–9 – 11i) = –7 + 5i + 9 + 11i = –7 + 9 + 5i + 11i = 2 + 16i 16. 20.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. . –8i (2i – 7) = −16i 2 + 56i = –16(–1) + 56i = 9 − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 = 34 = 16 + 56i 11. (−4 − 8i )(3 + i ) = −12 − 4i − 24i − 8i 2 = −12 − 28i + 8 = −4 − 28i 13. 15. 22. ( 2 + 3i ) 6 − (−5 + 4i ) − (−13 − i ) = 6 + 5 − 4i + 13 + i = 24 − 3i 7 − (−9 + 2i ) − (−17 − i ) = 7 + 9 − 2i + 17 + i = 33 − i 7. Inc. 4.

( −2 + −11 ) = ( −2 + i 11) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 11 + i 2 (11) = 4 − 11 − 4i 11 = −7 − 4i 11 37. ( −5 − −9 ) 2 = (−5 − i 9)2 = ( −5 − 3i ) 2 = 25 + 30i + 9i 2 = 25 + 30i – 9 = 16 + 30i 35. −64 − −25 = i 64 − i 25 = 8i − 5i = 3i −8 + −32 −8 + i 32 = 24 24 −8 + i 16 ⋅ 2 = 24 −8 + 4i 2 = 24 1 2 i =− + 3 6 −12 + −28 −12 + i 28 −12 + i 4 ⋅ 7 = = 32 32 32 = −81 − −144 = i 81 − i 144 = 9i – 12i = –3i −12 + 2i 7 3 7 i =− + 32 8 16 258 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −6i −6i 3 − 2i −18i + 12i 2 = ⋅ = 3 + 2i 3 + 2i 3 − 2i 9+4 12 18 −12 − 18i = =− − i 13 13 13 ( −3 − −7 ) = ( −3 − i 7 ) 2 2 = 9 + 6i 7 + i 2 ( 7 ) = 9 − 7 + 6i 7 = 2 + 6i 7 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2+i 2−i 4 + 4i − 3i 2 = 4 +1 7 + 4i = 5 7 4 = + i 5 5 36. 25. 2i 2i 1 − i 2i − 2i 2 2 + 2i = ⋅ = = = 1+ i 1+ i 1+ i 1− i 1+1 2 31. 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5(4i) + 3(9i) = 20i + 27i = 47i 5i 5i 2 + i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 10i + 5i 2 = 4 +1 −5 + 10i = 5 = −1 + 2i 32. 28. 26. 30. Inc. 27. 24. ( −2 + −4 ) 2 = ( −2 + 2i ) 2 = 4 − 8i + 4i 2 = 4 – 8i – 4 = –8i 8i 8i 4 + 3i = ⋅ 4 − 3i 4 − 3i 4 + 3i 32i + 24i 2 = 16 + 9 −24 + 32i = 25 24 32 =− + i 25 25 34. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5i 8 + 3i 18 = 5i 4 ⋅ 2 + 3i 9 ⋅ 2 = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = 19i 2 33. 29. 3 − 4i 3 − 4i 4 − 3i = ⋅ 4 + 3i 4 + 3i 4 − 3i 12 − 25i + 12i 2 = 16 + 9 −25i = 25 = −i 38.Polynomial and Rational Functions 23.

. −8 ± 82 − 4(4)(13) 2(4) = −4 − 2 = i 12(i 4 − 2) = 2i 3 2i − 2 4 x 2 + 8 x + 13 = 0 x= = −2 6 − 2i 10 −12 2(1) 2 ± 4 − 68 2 2 ± −64 x= 2 2 ± 8i x= 2 x = 1 ± 4i The solution set is {1 + 4i. x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 0 x= 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i The solution set is {3 + i. 3 − i} . ( ( ) ) = ( = 4i 2 (3 ) 3 − 2i 6 )( ) ( )( −5 −4 −12 = 3i 5 −8i 3 ) = −24i 2 15 3 3 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1 + i. − 1 − i ⎬ . 40. x= 259 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(17) x= −15 − 3i 2 5 2 i =− − 33 11 11 −8 x 2 − 2 x + 17 = 0 x= −15 − −18 −15 − i 18 −15 − i 9 ⋅ 2 = = 33 33 33 = 41. Section 2. Inc. −6 − −12 −6 − i 12 = 48 48 −6 − i 4 ⋅ 3 = 48 −6 − 2i 3 = 48 1 3 i =− − 8 24 46. −3 − 5 = i 8(i 3 − 5) = 2i 2 i 3 − 5 42.1 − 4i}. ( ) 47.1 ) = (3i 7 )(2i 8) = (3i 7 )(2i 4 ⋅ 2) ( )( ) = 3i 7 4i 2 = 12i 2 14 = −12 14 45. (3 )( −7 2 −8 −8 ± 64 − 208 8 −8 ± −144 8 −8 ± 12i = 8 4(−2 ± 3i ) = 8 −2 ± 3i = 2 3 = −1 ± i 2 = −4 3 − 2i 6 43.PreCalculus 4E 39. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ = 24 15 44.

(8 + 9i )( 2 − i ) − (1 − i )(1 + i ) = (16 − 8i + 18i − 9i 2 ) − (12 − i 2 ) = 16 + 10i − 9i 2 − 1 + i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8 ( −1) = 23 + 10i 53.Polynomial and Rational Functions 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − − i⎬. − i⎬. − i⎬. −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(2)(3) 2(2) x= −2 ± 4 − 24 4 −2 ± −20 = 4 −2 ± 2i 5 = 4 2(−1 ± i 5) = 4 −1 ± i 5 = 2 1 5 i =− ± 2 2 = = = = = = = 3x 2 − 8 x + 7 = 0 51. 2 x2 + 2 x + 3 = 0 x= 50. . = = = = = = 2(3) 4 ± 16 − 72 6 4 ± −56 6 4 ± 2i 14 6 2(2 ± i 14) 6 2 ± i 14 3 2 14 i ± 3 3 ( 2 − 3i )(1 − i ) − ( 3 − i )( 3 + i ) = ( 2 − 2i − 3i + 3i 2 ) − ( 32 − i 2 ) − ( −8 ) ± (−8) − 4(3)(7) 2 x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(3)(6) 14 2 14 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 2 The solution set is ⎨ + i. ⎩⎪ 3 3 3 3 ⎪⎭ ( 2 + i ) − (3 − i ) 2 2 = ( 4 + 4i + i 2 ) − ( 9 − 6i + i 2 ) = 4 + 4i + i 2 − 9 + 6i − i 2 = −5 + 10i 260 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 2 2 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 49. 3x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 2(3) = 2 − 5i + 3i 2 − 9 + i 2 8 ± 64 − 84 6 8 ± −20 6 8 ± 2i 5 6 2(4 ± i 5) 6 4±i 5 3 4 5 i ± 3 3 = −7 − 5i + 4i 2 = −7 − 5i + 4 ( −1) = −11 − 5i 52. 3 3 3 3 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 5 1 5 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 1 The solution set is ⎨ − + i. ⎧⎪ 4 5 4 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ + i.

Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. .1 ( 4 − i ) − (1 + 2i ) 2 2 59.PreCalculus 4E 54. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5 4 2 −1 + 3 9 2 −1 = 5⋅ 2 2 i + 3⋅3 2 i = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = (10 + 9 ) i 2 = 19i 2 or 0 + 19i 2 60. = (16 − 8i + i 2 ) − (1 + 4i + 4i 2 ) = 16 − 8i + i − 1 − 4i − 4i 2 f ( 3i ) = 2 = 15 − 12i − 3 ( −1) = 18 − 12i 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5 16 −1 + 3 81 −1 = 5 ⋅ 4i + 3 ⋅ 9i = 20i + 27i = 47i or 0 + 47i 56. x 2 + 19 2−x 2 − 3i 9i 2 + 19 = 2 − 3i −9 + 19 = 2 − 3i 10 = 2 − 3i 10 2 + 3i = ⋅ 2 − 3i 2 + 3i 20 + 30i = 4 − 9i 2 20 + 30i = 4+9 20 + 30i = 13 20 30 = + i 13 13 = 15 − 12i − 3i 2 55. f ( x) = f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 5 f (1 − 2i ) = (1 − 2i ) − 2 (1 − 2i ) + 5 2 = 1 − 4i + 4i 2 − 2 + 4i + 5 = 4 + 4i 2 = 4−4 =0 261 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 2 f ( x) = f ( 4i ) = f (1 + i ) = (1 + i ) − 2 (1 + i ) + 2 2 ( 3i ) 2 + 19 x 2 + 11 3− x ( 4i ) 2 + 11 = 16i 2 + 11 3 − 4i 3 − 4i −16 + 11 = 3 − 4i −5 = 3 − 4i −5 3 + 4i = ⋅ 3 − 4i 3 + 4i −15 − 20i = 9 − 16i 2 −15 − 20i = 9 + 16 −15 − 20i = 25 −15 20 = − i 25 25 3 4 =− − i 5 5 = 1 + 2i + i 2 − 2 − 2i + 2 = 1 + i2 = 1 −1 =0 58. 57.

73. A sample change is: (3 + 7i)(3 – 7i) = 9 + 49 = 58 which is a real9number. 4 1+ i 1− i + 1 + 2i 1 − 2i (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = + (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) + (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) 1 − 2i + i − 2i 2 + 1 + 2i − i − 2i 2 = 1 − 4i 2 1 − 2i + i + 2 + 1 + 2i − i + 2 = 1+ 4 6 = 5 6 = + 0i 5 262 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 82. 4 6 − 2i + 3i − i 2 4 6 + i +1 4 = 7+i 4 7−i = ⋅ 7+i 7−i 28 − 4i = 49 − i 2 28 − 4i = 49 + 1 28 − 4i = 50 28 4 = − i 50 50 14 2 = − i 25 25 63. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. makes sense 77. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. Sum: makes sense ( 2 + i )( 3 − i ) = = = 6 + i + 15 = 21 + i The voltage of the circuit is ( 21 + i ) volts. 62. Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 79. A sample change is: 7 + 3i 7 + 3i 5 − 3i 44 − 6i 22 3 = ⋅ = = − i 5 + 3i 5 + 3i 5 − 3i 34 17 17 80. 78. – 72. 76. true 2 81. . Inc. E = IR = ( 2 − 3i )( 3 + 5i ) = 6 + 10i − 9i − 15i = 6 + i − 15 ( −1) 2 (5 + i 15 ) + (5 − i 15 ) = 5 + i 15 + 5 − i 15 = 5+5 = 10 Product: (5 + i 15 )(5 − i 15 ) = 25 − 5i 15 + 5i 15 − 15i 2 = 25 + 15 = 40 64. false. Sample explanation: Imaginary numbers are not undefined. A sample change is: All irrational numbers are complex numbers.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. 74. E = IR = ( 4 − 5i )( 3 + 7i ) E = 12 + 28i − 15i − 35i E = 12 + 13i − 35 ( −1) E = 12 + 35 + 13i = 47 + 13i The voltage of the circuit is (47 + 13i) volts. false. 75. false. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: i = −1 . It is not a variable in this context. Changes to make the statement true will vary.

2 h P=1 P ⎛ ⎞ kP= 4 f ( x) = − ⎜ x − 1 ⎟ + 4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. Step 2: find the vertex: (1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted 1 unit up and 3 units to the left. −(−2) ± (−2) − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) 2 x= 2± 8 2 2±2 2 = 2 = 1± 2 = The solution set is {1 ± 2}. Inc.2 Check Point Exercises 1.2 86. 8 i 2 + i i 8 = 2+i i 8i = 2+i 8i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2−i 16i − 8i 2 = 4 − i2 16i + 8 = 4 +1 8 + 16i = 5 8 16 = + i 5 5 = Section 2. 2 a =−1 0 = −2( x − 3) 2 + 8 84. .PreCalculus 4E 83. 263 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 85. 8 2 1+ i Section 2. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 ( x − 1) 2 =4 x − 1 = ±2 x = 1± 2 x = 3 or x = −1 Step 4: find the y-intercept: −x2 − 2x + 1 = 0 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 2 −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 4) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 2( x − 3) 2 = 8 ( x − 3) 2 = 4 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 x−3= ± 4 x = 3± 2 x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Step 4: find the y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 + 4(0) + 1 = 1 x= Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. thus the parabola has no x-intercepts. Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0.2 and x ≈ −4. Step 4: find the y-intercept: x= f (0) = (0 − 2) + 1 = 5 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −4 ± 42 − 4(−1)(1) 2(−1) −4 ± 20 −2 x = 2± 5 The x-intercepts are x ≈ −0. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. 4. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) + 1 2 3. . 5). domain: (−∞. 2a 8 f (2) = 4(2) 2 − 16(2) + 1000 = 984 The minimum point is 984 at x = 2 . c. Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. 1) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 1 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x ) = − x2 + 4x + 1 f ( 2 ) = −22 + 4(2) + 1 = 5 = −1 The vertex is (2. Step 2: find the vertex: (2. ∞ ) 264 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a = 4. ∞) range: [984. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 . Inc. Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 + 4x + 1 x − 2 = −1 x = 2±i The equation has no real roots. f ( x) = 4 x 2 − 16 x + 1000 a. −b 16 x= = =2 b.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. Step 2: find the vertex: 4 b x=− =− =2 2a 2(−1) Step 1: The parabola opens up because a > 0.

Inc. = 16 − 32 = −16 The vertex is ( 4. 2 y = −0. Section 2.005(200) + 2(200) + 5 = 205 The vertex is (200.PreCalculus 4E 5. Let x = the length of the rectangle. Find the corresponding y-coordinate. The minimum product is −16 .005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −2 ± 22 − 4(−0.005)(5) 2(−0. −16 ) . 0 ) . .2 6. x-coordinate of vertex −b −2 x= = = 200 2a 2 ( −0. y = −0.005) x ≈ −2 or x ≈ 402 The arrow travels 402 feet before hitting the ground. ( 402. This occurs when the two number are 4 and 4 − 8 = −4 . 7.005 x + 2 x + 5 0 = −0. This gives an area of 30 ⋅ 30 = 900 square feet. The maximum height of the arrow is 205 feet. The arrow will hit the ground when the height reaches 0. and ( 200. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x.005 ) The x-coordinate of the minimum is b −8 −8 x=− =− =− = 4. the width y is y = 60 − x = 60 − 30 = 30.005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 a. 2 x + 2 y = 120 2 y = 120 − 2 x x= c. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 30 feet by 30 feet. The information needed is found at the vertex. 5 ) . Rewrite y= A as a function of x. Let y = the width of the rectangle. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 Plot ( 0.005(0)2 + 2(0) + 5 = 5 Since a = −1 is negative. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 120 feet of fencing. 2a 2 (1) 2 y-coordinate of vertex f ( 4) = ( 4) − 8 ( 4) 2 2 y = −0. Let x = one of the numbers.205). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 205 ) . 265 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A ( x ) = x ( 60 − x ) = − x 2 + 60 x The starting point occurs when x = 0. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 8 ) = x 2 − 8 x 120 − 2 x = 60 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 60 − x ) . This occurs 200 feet from its release. b. x − 8 = the other number. When the length x is 30. y = −0. and connect them with a smooth curve. Since we need an equation in one variable. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 60 60 b x=− =− =− = 30.

1) g ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 1 2 3. f(x) = –3(x – 2) + 12 h = 2. vertex: (–1. vertex: (1. 7). 2 10. ∞ ) 2 13. f(x) = –x – 2x + 8 −b 2 x= = = −1 2a −2 2 f(–1) = –(–1) – 2(–1) + 8 = –1 + 2 + 8 = 9 The vertex is at (–1. –1) x-intercepts: 2 The graph is f(x) = –x translated down one. –8). f(x) = –2(x + 4) – 8 h = –4. k = 1 The vertex is at (3. ∞ ) 266 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1). –5). k = –8 The vertex is at (–4. 2 12.2 1. k = 12 The vertex is at (2. –1) f ( x ) = ( x + 1) − 1 2 2 5. . 2 15. The point (–1. 2 17. range: [ −1. g ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x + 1 8. 5). 14. f ( x ) = x 2 + 2 x + 1 7. f(x) = 2(x – 3) + 1 h = 3. –1) j ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 1 2 4. f(x) = 3x – 12x + 1 −b 12 x= = =2 2a 6 f(2) = 3(2)2 – 12(2) + 1 = 12 – 24 + 1 = –11 The vertex is at (2. –11). 1) h ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 1 2 2. j ( x ) = − x2 − 1 0 = ( x − 4) −1 2 1 = ( x − 4) 2 2 ±1 = x – 4 x = 3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 4) 2 − 1 = 15 The axis of symmetry is x = 4. f(x) = –2(x + 1) + 5 h = –1. f(x) = 2x – 8x + 3 −b 8 x= = =2 2a 4 f(2) = 2(2)2 – 8(2) + 3 = 8 – 16 + 3 = –5 The vertex is at (2. k = 5 The vertex is at (–1. h ( x ) = x2 −1 6. 0) is on the graph and f(–1) = 0. Inc. 9). 9. The point (1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 Exercise Set 2. domain: ( −∞. vertex: (–1. 12). f(x) = –2x + 8x – 1 −b −8 x= = =2 2 a −4 2 f(2) = –2(2) + 8(2) – 1 = –8 + 16 – 1 = 7 The vertex is at (2. 0) is on the graph and g(1) = 0. vertex: (1. f ( x ) = ( x − 4) −1 2 vertex: (4. The graph is f(x) = x translated down one. 2 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 16.

∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 3) + 1 = 10 2 range: [1. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. . ∞ ) 267 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 2 2 20. ∞ ) 19.∞ ) range: [ 2. –2) x-intercepts: vertex: (3. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) − 2 0 = ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 1) ( x − 3) 2 2 2 =2 2 = −2 x −1 = ± 2 x − 3 = ±i 2 x = 1± 2 y-intercept: x = 3±i 2 No x-intercepts. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) + 2 2 vertex: (1. Inc. y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 1) 2 + 2 = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 1) − 2 = –1 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) + 2 = 11 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. y-intercept: 10 x = 1± i 2 No x-intercepts. 21.PreCalculus 4E 18. Section 2. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. ∞ ) range: [ −2. domain: ( −∞. 2) x-intercepts: 2 y − 1 = ( x − 3) 0 = ( x − 3) + 1 2 = −2 ( x − 3) x − 1 = ± −2 2 = −1 x – 3 = ±i x = 3 ±i No x-intercepts. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) range: [ 2. 1) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 2 2 ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 3) + 1 vertex: (1. f ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 2 2 2 vertex: (3.

y − 3 = ( x − 1) The axis of symmetry is x = –2. –1) x-intercepts: 0 = 2 ( x + 2) − 1 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f (0) = − ⎜ 0 − ⎟ + = 1 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 ( x + 2) = 1 2 ( x + 2) 2 = x+2= ± x = −2 ± 1 2 1 The axis of symmetry is x = 2 1 2 y-intercept: = −2 ± 2 2 f (0) = 2 ( 0 + 2 ) − 1 = 7 2 domain: ( −∞. 5 ⎛ 1⎞ −⎜ x− ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f ( x) = − ⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 5⎞ vertex: ⎜ . ∞ ) 23. ⎥ 4⎦ ⎝ 268 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. f ( x) = The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) 5⎤ ⎛ range: ⎜ −∞. ∞ ) x = 1± i 3 No x-intercepts y-intercept: range: [ −1. 2 y = ( x − 1) + 3 2 vertex: (1. ⎟ ⎝2 4⎠ x-intercepts: 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ 0 = −⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. 1 5 =± 2 2 1± 5 x= 2 y-intercept: x− f ( x) = 2 ( x + 2 ) − 1 2 vertex: (–2. 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 . ∞ ) 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ range: [3. 3) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 3 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −3 x − 1 = ±i 3 domain: ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 1) + 3 = 4 2 24.

domain: ( −∞. . f ( x ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 26. –16) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 ( x − 3) 2 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: –3 f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 3 = −3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 4] range: [ −4. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 3 ) + 1 = −8 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 3. domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 3 − 1 f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 4 vertex: (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 25. f ( x ) = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 f ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x − 15 f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 15 − 1 vertex: (3. Section 2. ∞ ) 269 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –4) x-intercepts: ( x − 1) 0 = ( x − 1) − 4 2 vertex: (1. 4) x-intercepts: 2 2 2 =4 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: ( x − 1) 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) =4 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) range: [ −16. ∞ ) f ( x ) = 1 − ( x − 3) 2 28. 1) x-intercepts: f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 16 vertex: (1. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 2 =1 x–3=±1 x = 2 or x = 4 y-intercept: 0 = ( x − 1) − 16 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 16 x–1=±4 x = –3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 15 = –15 The axis of symmetry is x = 1.1] domain: ( −∞.2 f ( x ) = 4 − ( x − 1) 2 27.

f ( x ) = x 2 + 3x − 10 30. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ domain: ( −∞. 4 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. ∞ ) ⎡ 49 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . ∞ ) ⎡ 81 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . − ⎟ ⎝4 8 ⎠ x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 49 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ − . 2 f ( 0 ) = 2 ( 0 ) − 7 ( 0 ) − 4 = –4 2 The axis of symmetry is x = domain: ( −∞. − ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2 x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ 0 =⎜x+ ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ 0 = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ 2⎜ x − ⎟ = 4 8 ⎝ ⎠ 2 3⎞ 49 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 3 7 x+ = ± 2 2 3 7 x=− ± 2 2 x = 2 or x = –5 y-intercept: f ( x ) = 02 + 3 ( 0 ) − 10 = −10 The axis of symmetry is x = − 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 4 ⎠ 16 ⎝ 7 9 x− =± 4 4 7 9 x= ± 4 4 1 x = − or x = 4 2 y-intercept: 3 . 7 . ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 8 ⎠ 270 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. f ( x ) = 2x2 − 7 x − 4 7 49 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 2 16 ⎠ 8 ⎝ 9⎞ 9 ⎛ f ( x ) = ⎜ x 2 + 3x + ⎟ − 10 − 4⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ f ( x) = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 7 81 ⎛ ⎞ vertex: ⎜ .

∞ ) =9 range: [ −6. f ( x) = x 2 + 6 x + 3 f ( x) = ( x 2 + 6 x + 9) + 3 − 9 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: range: ( −∞. 1 y-intercept: f (0) = 5 − 4 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) = 5 2 271 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 5 − 4 x − x 2 f ( x) = − x 2 − 4 x + 5 f ( x) = − ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 ) + 5 + 4 f ( x) = − ( x + 2 ) + 9 2 vertex: (–2. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9) x-intercepts: 0 = − ( x + 2) + 9 2 ( x + 2) 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) x+2=±3 x = –5.9] f ( 0) = 2 ( 0) − ( 0) + 3 = 3 2 33. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. f ( x) = − x + 2 x + 3 2 f ( x) = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) + 4 vertex: (1. −6 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 3) − 6 2 ( x + 3) 2 =6 x+3 = ± 6 x = −3 ± 6 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 6(0) + 3 domain: ( −∞. 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 ( x − 1) 2 =4 domain: ( −∞. Section 2. f ( x ) = ( x + 3) − 6 2 vertex: ( −3. Inc. 4] 32.2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 + 3 The axis of symmetry is x = –2. f (0) = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = −3 .PreCalculus 4E 31.

2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 3⎜ x − ⎟ = 3⎠ 3 ⎝ f ( x) = 2 x + 4 x − 3 2 f ( x) = 2( x 2 + 2 x )−3 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 3⎠ 9 ⎝ f ( x) = 2( x + 2 x + 1) − 3 − 2 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 1 13 x− = ± 3 9 vertex: ( −1. ∞ ) x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 4(0) − 1 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. − ⎟ ⎝3 3 ⎠ x-intercepts: domain: ( −∞. −5 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 2) − 5 2 ( x + 2) 2 =5 domain: ( −∞. f ( x) = 3 x 2 − 2 x − 4 2 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x ⎟ − 4 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2 1⎞ 1 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 3 9 3 ⎝ ⎠ f (0) = −1 The axis of symmetry is x = −2 . The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . ∞ ) 35.Polynomial and Rational Functions 34. . ∞ ) 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 0 = 3⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ range: [ −5. ∞ ) x+2 = ± 5 range: [ −5. 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ ⎛ 1 13 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . −5) x-intercepts: x= 0 = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 3(0) 2 − 2(0) − 4 2 ( x + 1) = 5 2 ( x + 1) 2 = 5 2 x +1 = ± 1 13 ± 3 3 f (0) = −4 5 2 x = −1 ± 10 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 2(0) 2 + 4(0) − 3 f (0) = −3 272 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = x 2 + 4 x − 1 f ( x) = ( x + 4 x + 4) − 1 − 4 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2 ) − 5 2 vertex: ( −2.

x= = =2 2a 6 2 f(2) = 3(2) – 12(2) – 1 = 12 – 24 – 1 = –13 The minimum is –13 at x = 2 .PreCalculus 4E Section 2.2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1 . a = 3. f(x) = 3x – 12x – 1 a. x= = =2 2a 4 2 f(2) = 2(2) – 8(2) – 3 = 8 – 16 – 3 = –11 The minimum is –11 at x = 2 . 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 2 2 ( x − 2) domain: ( −∞. 2 f (0) = 6 − 4 ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) = 6 2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 − 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 2. ∞ ) The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 3 38. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. a = 2. c. 2 40. ∞ ) f (0) = 2 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 2 2 39. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. ∞) range: [ −11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range: [ 2. −1] 273 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) range: [ −13. −b 8 b. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 3 ⎠ 37. f(x) = 2x – 8x – 3 a. f ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x − 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 2 x + 1) − 2 + 1 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) − 1 vertex: (1. Inc. domain: (−∞. ∞ ) = −2 x − 2 = ±i 2 x = 2±i 2 No x-intercepts y-intercept: ⎡ 13 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . −b 12 b. c. –1) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) − 1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −1 x – 1 = ±i x = 1 ±i No x-intercepts. . f ( x) = 6 − 4 x + x 2 f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 6 f ( x) = ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) + 6 − 4 f ( x) = ( x − 2 ) + 2 2 vertex: (2. y-intercept: domain: ( −∞. domain: (−∞.

∞ ) . The minimum is 2 4 c. 44. domain: ( −∞. b. domain: (−∞. ∞) range: ⎢ . ( h. minimum point. Since the parabola opens down. b. domain: ( −∞. Inc. Since the parabola opens up. ∞ ) . ∞ ) ⎡ −5 ⎞ domain: (−∞. it opens up from the vertex ( −6. it opens down from the vertex (10.18) . ⎡ −3 ⎞ domain: (−∞. −b −8 = =1 2a −8 f (1) = −4(1) 2 + 8(1) − 3 f ( x) = 6 x 2 − 6 x a. 21] 46. The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value.3) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h ) + k = 2 ( x − 5) + 3 50. −6 ) . The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. c. b. ∞ ) . 43. −b 12 b. a = -4. c. ∞ ) . Since the parabola has a maximum. . ∞) range: ( −∞. the vertex ( −3. ∞ ) domain: (−∞. k ) = ( 7. k ) = ( −10. range: [ −2. a = –2. The minimum is 2 2 = −4 + 8 − 3 = 1 The maximum is 1 at x = 1 . x= = = −3 2 a −4 f(–3) = –2(–3)2 – 12(–3) + 3 = –18 + 36 + 3 = 21 The maximum is 21 at x = −3 . The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. range: [18. range: ( −∞. k ) = ( 5. 4 ) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k = 2 ( x − 7) + 4 51. x= x= 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 6⎜ ⎟ − 6⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 6 3 6 −3 = −3 = − = 4 2 2 2 −3 1 at x = . −b 5 1 x= = = 2a 10 2 domain: ( −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 41. −2 ) is a f ( x) = 5 x 2 − 5 x a. a = 6. ∞) range: ⎢ . −b 6 1 = = 2a 12 2 48. The parabola opens upward and has minimum value. ( h. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) = –2x2 – 12x + 3 a.1] 42. 47. ∞) range: ( −∞. c. −4] a = 5. ∞ ⎟ ⎣2 ⎠ 45. −4 ) is a maximum point. range: ( −∞. the vertex ( −1. f ( x) = −4 x 2 + 8 x − 3 a. domain: ( −∞. ( h. −5 ) 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−10) ] + (−5) 2 = 2 ( x + 10 ) − 5 274 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ 49. Since the parabola has a minimum. −6] 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 5⎜ ⎟ − 5⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5 5 10 −5 = − = − = 4 2 4 4 4 −5 1 at x = .

1) 2(−0. the parabola opens down and a = −3 . Section 2.25) + 6. b = 2.7 x + 6.01) x ≈ 77.1 ± 2.04 x 2 + 2.04.25)2 + 2. ( h.35 The maximum height of the shot is about 18. 0 ) y-coordinate of vertex f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 y = −0.04 ) 2 = 3 ( x − 11) The initial height can be found at x = 0. This occurs 35 feet from its point of release. k ) = ( −2.1 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k 55.1x + 6. y = −0.3 or x ≈ −2.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −0.1 a = −0.1x + 6. 0 ) b. .25 feet from its point of release.01(0) 2 + 0.1x + 6. the parabola opens up and a = 3 .1 a = −0.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 55. 4 ) x= −0.1 = = = 26. y = −0.7(0) + 6.04)(6. −6 ) 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−8)] + (−6) 2 = 2 ( x + 8) − 6 b.1 2 = 3( x − 9) + 0 0 = −0. y = −0.7 x + 6.1 The shot was released at a height of 6.1.1x + 6.1 a = −0. k ) = ( 5.01)(6.1 Since the vertex is a maximum.1) 2(−0.04. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 x + 6.PreCalculus 4E 52. k ) = ( 9.1(26.1 = 3( x − 9) 2 a = −0. y = −0. a.04 x 2 + 2.8 or x ≈ −7. 2 = −3 ( x − 5) + ( −7 ) 2 58.2 ( h.7 The maximum height of the shot is about 33.7(35) + 6.7. b = 0. the parabola opens up and a = 3 . c = 6. 53. Since the vertex is a maximum.1 = 3 ( x − 11) + 0 2 56. c = 6.12 − 4(−0.3 feet.1 0 = −0. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0. ( h. y = −0.01) −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −2.01.04(26.7 x + 6. 2 Since the vertex is a minimum.1.1 ≈ 33. 275 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.04 x 2 + 2.1 x= 2 y = −0.8 feet. = −3 ( x − 5 ) − 7 Since the vertex is a minimum. b = 2.1 = 6. ( h.01. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0.01x 2 + 0.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −2.1 y = −0.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 77. the parabola opens down and a = −3 .7 2 − 4(−0. This occurs 26.7 ± 0.25 2a 2 ( −0. c = 6. b = 0. a.04) x ≈ 55.1 feet. −7 ) y = −0. x= y-coordinate of vertex y = −0.7. Inc. c = 6.01x 2 + 0.01x 2 + 0.04 x 2 + 2.01x + 0.7 = = = 35 2a 2 ( −0.35 feet. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 2 54. f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 57. ( h.7 feet.1 = 18. k ) = ( −8.01(35) 2 + 0.7 x + 6.01x 2 + 0. k ) = (11. f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k = −3[ x − (−2)] + 4 2 = −3 ( x + 2 ) + 4 2 c.

Let x = one of the numbers. This differs from the value in the graph by 0.04 billion. year = − 62. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 16 ) = x 2 − 16 x f ( x ) = −0. U. f ( x ) = x (16 − x ) The product is = 16 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 16 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 16 16 x=− =− =− = 8. Then x − 24 is the smaller number.59 billion in 2002. x − 16 = the other number.38 According to the function.1 y = −0.04 x + 2.048 The other number is 20 − x = 20 − 10 = 10. adult wine consumption in 2005 was 2. or 2002.1 = 6. or 1992.03 billion.05 gallon.43 2 = 1. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 16 − 8 = 8 .14 x + 1.1 feet.1 The shot was released at a height of 6.1(0) + 6. The maximum product is 64. The product is minimized when ( −24 ) b =− = 12 x=− 2a 2 (1) Since 12 − ( −12 ) = 24 . Let x = one of the numbers. f ( x ) = 0. 61.S.03 x + 0. 276 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.14 ( 5 ) + 1.094(25) + 2. 64. 63.43 2 a. Wine consumption was about 2.75 According to the function. x=− 2a 2 (1) 2 f ( 5) = −0. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 8 − 16 = −8 . The minimum product is P(12) = 12 (12 − 24 ) = −144 . the two numbers whose difference is 24 and whose product is minimized are 12 and −12 .03 ( 2 ) + 0.004(25) 2 − 0. The initial height can be found at x = 0.6 ≈ 2.004 ) Wine consumption was at a minimum about 12 years after 1980.75 gallons per person. The minimum product is b 0.094(12) + 2.094 x + 2. The product of these two numbers is given by P( x) = x ( x − 24 ) = x 2 − 24 x f ( 2 ) = −0. The numbers which maximize the product are 10 and 10.S.Polynomial and Rational Functions c. 16 − x = the other number. x=− f (12 ) = 0. 59.004(12)2 − 0. b.43 2 = 1.03 ( 5) + 0.048 gallons per U. Let x = the larger number. f ( 8 ) = −82 + 16 ( 8 ) = −64 + 128 = 64 f ( 25 ) = 0.04(0)2 + 2. 1. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0. −2 2a 2 ( −1) 2 y = −0. adult in 1992.6 The vertex is (8. Movie attendance was at a minimum about 2 years after 2000. b. Inc. 64).14 =− ≈2 2a 2 ( −0. = 2. year = − b 20 20 =− =− = 10 −2 2a 2 ( −1) f ( 8 ) = ( 8 ) − 16 ( 8 ) 2 = 64 − 128 = −64 The vertex is ( 8. 60.6 a. −64 ) . Let x = one of the numbers Let 20 – x = the other number P ( x ) = x ( 20 − x ) = 20 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 20 x −0. The x-coordinate of the minimum is −16 −16 b =− =− = 8.094 b =− ≈ 12 2a 2 ( 0.14 ( 2 ) + 1.38 billion movie tickets were sold in 2005. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0. The maximum product is 10 ⋅10 = 100. This seems reasonable as compared to the values in the graph.59 Movie attendance was about 1.004 x 2 − 0.1x + 6.03) −64 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. .

600 − 2 x = the length of the rectangle We need to maximize. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the area is maximized at the vertex. 000 2 = 5000 The maximum area is 5000 square feet when the length is 100 feet and the width is 50 feet. b 200 x=− =− = 50 2a 2 ( −2 ) 68. Since a = −1 is negative.25 square yards.5. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) 2 y = 50 − 2 x 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 25 − x ) . A ( x ) = x ( 40 − x ) = − x 2 + 40 x x=− b 40 40 =− =− = 20. Rewrite y= A as a function of x. Since we need an equation in one variable. Let y = the width of the rectangle.5 yards. 000 square feet. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 50 yards of fencing.5 = 156.5 ⋅12. This gives an area of 20 ⋅ 20 = 400 square yards. 2 x + 2 y = 50 = 600 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 600 x Since a = −2 is negative. 277 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we have that x is the width of the rectangular plot and 200 − 2 x is the length. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed along a river with 600 feet of fencing. This gives an area of 12.5. the width y is y = 25 − x = 25 − 12.5 = 12. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 25 25 x=− =− =− = 12.5 yards by 12. Let x = the length of the rectangle Let y = the width of the rectangle 2 x + 2 y = 80 2 y = 80 − 2 x 80 − 2 x y= 2 y = 40 − x A = −2 ( 50 ) + 200 ( 50 ) = −5000 + 10. the length is 600 − 2 (150 ) = 600 − 300 = 300 feet. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. Let x = the width of the rectangle. the width y is y = 40 − x = 40 − 20 = 20. From the diagram. Thus. A ( x ) = x ( 600 − 2 x ) 67. 66. A ( x ) = x ( 25 − x ) = − x 2 + 25 x When the width is x = 150 feet. .5. the area of the plot is given by A = l ⋅ w = ( 200 − 2 x )( x ) = −2 x 2 + 200 x Since the graph of this equation is a parabola that opens down. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 12. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 20. Inc. The dimensions of the rectangular plot with maximum area are 150 feet by 300 feet. This gives an area of 150 ⋅ 300 = 45.2 65. Let x = the length of the rectangle. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 12. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 600 600 x=− =− =− = 150. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 20 yards by 20 yards.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.

we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 400 400 b x=− =− 3 = − 3 = 100. 3 3 Maximize the area of the playground with 600 feet of fencing. the width y is 2 2 y = 200 − x = 200 − (150) = 100. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 20 20 x=− =− =− = 5. A ( 3) = −2 ( 3) + 12 ( 3) = −2 ( 9 ) + 36 2 = −18 + 36 = 18 The maximum cross-sectional area is 18 square inches. Maximize the cross-sectional area of the gutter: A ( x ) = x ( 20 − 2 x ) = 20 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 20 x. This gives an area of 150 ⋅100 = 15. the width is 12 − 2 x = 12 − 2 ( 3) = 12 − 6 = 6. 3 3 3 3 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with 2 maximum area are 100 feet by 66 feet. Let y = the width of the rectangle. 2 400 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ − x ⎟ = − x2 + x 3 ⎠ 3 3 ⎝ 3 2 Since a = − is negative. 3 ⎠ ⎝ Rewrite A as a function of x. 70. the width y is 400 2 400 2 200 2 y= − x= − (100) = = 66 . Since we need an equation in one variable.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. Maximize the area of the playground with 400 feet of fencing. 71. 000 square feet. Since we need an equation in one variable. Let x = the length of the rectangle. . 278 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ A ( x ) = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ = − x 2 + 200 x 3 ⎠ 3 ⎝ 2 Since a = − is negative. the width is 20 − 2 x = 20 − 2 ( 5 ) = 20 − 10 = 10. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 150. Since a = −2 is negative. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 100. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. A ( 5 ) = −2 ( 5 ) + 20 ( 5 ) 2 = −2 ( 25 ) + 100 = −50 + 100 = 50 The maximum cross-sectional area is 50 square inches. This occurs when the gutter is 3 inches deep and 6 inches wide. 2 x + 3 y = 600 3 y = 600 − 2 x 600 − 2 x y= 3 2 y = 200 − x 3 2 ⎞ ⎛ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ . This 3 2 2 gives an area of 100 ⋅ 66 = 6666 square feet. we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 200 200 b x=− =− =− = 150. 2 x + 3 y = 400 3 y = 400 − 2 x 400 − 2 x y= 3 400 2 y= − x 3 3 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ − x⎟ . 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with maximum area are 150 feet by 100 feet. Publishing as Prentice Hall. This occurs when the gutter is 5 inches deep and 10 inches wide. 72. Inc. A ( x ) = x (12 − 2 x ) = 12 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 12 x b 12 12 x=− =− =− =3 −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 3. Let x = the length of the rectangle. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 5. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Rewrite A as a function of x. Let y = the width of the rectangle.

5.5 2 y = –0. 2 87. b = –82 b −82 x=− =− = 20. Inc. . 185). 520) You can only see a little of the parabola. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = increase A = (20 + x)(60 − 2x) = 1200 + 20x − 2x 2 −b −20 = =5 2a 2(−2) The maximum number of trees is 20 + 5 = 25 trees. x= 74. x = increase A = (50 + x)(8000 −100x) b.25x + 40x −b −40 x= = = 80 2a −0.5) c. y = –0. 50 x 25 = 1250 pounds. = 400.5 − 1681 + 720 = −120.5. Maximize A = (30 + x)(50 – x) = 1500 + 20x – x2 −20 x= = 10 2(−1) Maximum number of trees = 30 + 10 = 40 trees Maximum yield = (30 + 10)(50 – 10) = 1600 pounds 77. 279 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Answers may vary. 76.5 2a 4 y = 2(20. – 83. Choose Ymin to include the y-value of the vertex.5) + 720 = 840. Maximize A = (30 + x)(200 – 5x) = 6000 + 50x – 5x2 − 50 x= =5 2(−5) Maximum rental = 30 + 5 = $35 Maximum revenue = 35(200 – 5·5) = $6125 ( ) 2 85.5 x= 2a −8 2 y = –4(2.25(80) + 40(80) = 1600 vertex: (80. a =2.5 + 50 +160 = 185 The vertex is at (2. y = 2x – 82x + 720 a. 2 84.5) + 20(2.5) 2 − 82(20.5) + 160 = –2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.500. Ymax = 750 d. 000 + 3000x −100x 2 −b −3000 = = 15 2a 2(−100) The maximum price is 50 + 15 = $65. y = –4x + 20x + 160 −b −20 = = 2.2 73. You can choose Xmin and Xmax so the x-value of the vertex is in the center of the graph. x= 2 86. The maximum revenue = 65(800 – 100·15) = $422. –120. The maximum yield is 60 – 2·5=50 pounds per tree. 1600) 75.5 vertex: (20. y = 5x + 40x + 600 −b −40 = = −4 x= 2a 10 2 y = 5(–4) + 40(–4) + 600 = 80 – 160 + 600 = 520 vertex: (–4.

89. true 2 8 = 16a 1 =a 2 Therefore.005(17)2 − 0. does not make sense. d. ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4 5 The maximum y–value is . One unit left of (–2. x= 97. –2) is one unit right of (–2.005 x 2 − 0. 2 . Inc. –2). the function is f ( x ) = 280 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 93.170 x + 14. does not make sense. false. y = 0. –2) y = 0. 1 2 ( x + 3) − 4 . 4 −(−0.372 The worst gas mileage was 13. 4 ) . false. Explanations will vary. b. The values of y increase then decrease. –2) is (–3. which allows us to solve for a. point: (–3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 88.817 ≈ 13. 2) Axis: x = 3 second point (0.01(–30) + 0. 0 = −2 ( x + 4 ) − 8 2 2 ( x + 4 ) = −8 2 ( x + 4) 2 = −4 Because the solutions to the equation are imaginary. −1) . A sample change is: The x-coordinate of the b 1 1 1 maximum is − =− =− = and the y– 2a 2 ( −1) −2 2 coordinate of the vertex of the parabola is ⎛ b ⎞ ⎛1⎞ 5 f ⎜− ⎟ = f ⎜ ⎟ = . makes sense 92.6 = = −30 x= 2a 0. 4 = a (1 + 3) − 4 2 8 = a ( 4) 91. f(x) = 3(x + 2) – 5. graph passes through the point (1. a.6x + 100 −b −0. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: Some parabolas have the y-axis as the axis of symmetry.372 mpg in 1957. Vertex (3.005) 2 98.01x + 0. 91). A sample change is: The vertex is ( 5. We start with the form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k . 96. 2 Since we know the vertex is ( h.170(17) + 14. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 11) 100. Changes to make the statement true will vary. y = 0. A sample change is: The graph has no x–intercepts. 99. we have f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 4 . Changes to make the statement true will vary. 94. we know that there are no x–intercepts. set y = 0 and solve for x. –2).6(–30) + 100 = 9 – 18 + 100 = 91 The vertex is at (–30. 95. We also know that the 2 90. −4 ) .817 c. Explanations will vary. its path will be a line segment. Publishing as Prentice Hall. To find x–intercepts.170) = 17. Sample explanation: The football’s path is better described by a quadratic model. k ) = ( −3. –2) axis: x = –2 (–1. 1940 + 17 = 1957 2(. (–1. false.02 2 y = 0. Sample explanation: If it is thrown vertically.

2 x + y − 2 = 0 y = 2 − 2x d = x + (2 − 2x) π =− −440 440 2 − −3 = a (1) − 1 2 − π 106. the function is even. 105. . f ( x) = (80 + x)(300 − 3x ) − 10(300 − 3x ) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x) 2 + 1 2 = 24000 + 60 x − 3x − 3000 + 30 x = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 Since f (− x) = f ( x). 440 − 2 x = π y form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k 2 440 − 2 x = a ⎡⎣ x − ( −3) ⎤⎦ + ( −1) 2 π = a ( x + 3) − 1 =y 440 − 2 x 2 Maximize A = x We use the point ( −2. We know ( h. k ) = ( −3. the graph is symmetric with respect to the yaxis. −3) on the graph to determine the value of a: f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 1 2 x= −3 = a ( −2 + 3) − 1 2 2 2 π π = − π 440 − 2(110) −3 = a − 1 −2 = a Thus. x= 281 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 2 = −3x + 90 x + 21000 −b −90 3 = = = 15 2 a 2 (−3) 2 The maximum charge is 80 + 15 = $95. which is below the x-axis. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 5 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 5 = −1 f (3) = (3)3 − 2(3) − 5 = 16 The graph passes through (2. ⎛4⎞ 2 y = 2 − 2⎜ ⎟ = ⎝5⎠ 5 ⎛4 2⎞ ⎜5. –1). the maximum profit is –3(15)2 + 9(15) + 21000 = $21. 16). Since the graph of f is continuous. the equation of the parabola is 2 π = 4 = 440 4 f ( x ) = −2 ( x + 3 ) − 1 . and (3. 103. 2 x + 440 π x = 110 π 220 π The dimensions are 110 yards by 2 220 π yards. 102. so the equation is of the 440 = 2 x + π y 104. which is above the x-axis.675. x 3 + 3 x 2 − x − 3 = x 2 ( x + 3) − 1( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 1) = ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 1) d = x 2 + 4 − 8x + 4x 2 d = 5x 2 − 8x + 4 Minimize 5x2 – 8x + 4 −(−8) 4 x= = 2(5) 5 107. Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus.5⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 108.00. Inc. −1) . it must cross the x-axis somewhere between 2 and 3 to get from one of these points to the other.2 101.

polynomial function. –2. the graph crosses the x-axis at this zero. Check Point Exercises 1. polynomial function. polynomial function. degree: 7 5. and 2. the graph 2 touches the x-axis and turns around at this zero.Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. 9. 8. the function falls to the right. f (−3) = 3(−3)3 − 10(–3) + 9 = −42 f (−2) = 3(−2)3 − 10(−2) + 9 = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between –3 and –2. Since the ratio cannot be negative. x3 − 3x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 x = 0 or x = 3 The x-intercepts are 0 and 3. degree: 3 2. not a polynomial function 282 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. Since an > 0 and n is odd. degree: 4 3. the graph rises to the left and to the right. f ( x) = 2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5) has degree 3 + 1 + 1 = 5. We can find the degree of the polynomial by adding the degrees of each of its degree 3 degree 1 degree 1 P P factors.3 2 7. polynomial function. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 2 x4 − 4 x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 x = 0 or x = –2 or x = 2 The zeros are 0. the graph should fall to the left. Because the multiplicity of 5 is odd. The graph does not show the function’s end behavior. f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 Since an > 0 and n is odd. with 2 multiplicity 3. and 5.3 1 The zeros are − . 1 Because the multiplicity of − is even. with multiplicity 2. 5. f ( x) = 2 x3 ( x − 1)( x + 5) is of odd degree with a positive leading coefficient. Inc. . the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. degree: 5 4. f (− x) = (− x)3 − 3(− x) 2 = − x 3 − 3x 2 No symmetry. Exercise Set 2. 4. It is not necessary to multiply out the polynomial to determine its degree. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus its graph falls to the left and rises to the right. Since n is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. 1⎞ 3 ⎛ f ( x ) = −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 2 1⎞ 3 ⎛ −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 x = − or x = 5 2 1. f (0) = 03 − 3(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. 6. f ( x) = x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 0 = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) 0 = ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) 0 = ( x + 2) 2 ( x − 2) x = 2 or x = –2 The zeros are 2 and –2. the model won’t be appropriate. 3. Since n is even and an > 0. not a polynomial function 6.

f ( x) = 2( x − 5)( x + 4) 2 x = 5 has multiplicity 1. x = –4 has multiplicity 2. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. f ( x) = x3 − 2 x 2 + x = x ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) 2 = x( x − 1)2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. 1⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = −3 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 4)3 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x = − has multiplicity 1. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. Not a polynomial function because graph is not continuous. The graph crosses the x-axis.3 7. Not a polynomial function because graph is not smooth. f ( x) = 3( x + 5)( x + 2)2 x = –5 has multiplicity 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph crosses the x-axis. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. 13. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. 26. x = –2 and x = –7 have multiplicity 1. 21. f ( x) = 11x − 6 x + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is odd. The graph crosses the x-axis. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. x = 4 has multiplicity 3. 23. 30. not a polynomial function 10. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. not a polynomial function 9. 20. f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 + 4 x = x ( x2 + 4 x + 4) f ( x) = 11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. Inc. 2 The graph crosses the x-axis. f ( x) = 4( x − 3)( x + 6)3 x = 3 has multiplicity 1. polynomial function. 31. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. (b) 28. 22. The graph crosses the x-axis. polynomial function 12. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 − 4 x − 28 = x 2 ( x + 7) − 4( x + 7) f ( x) = −11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an < 0 and n is even. . The graph crosses the x-axis. 283 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (c) 17. 16. (a) 18. (d) 19. x = –6 has multiplicity 3. 27. 24. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an < 0 and n is even. degree: 2 25. = ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x + 7) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 7) x = 2. The graph crosses the x-axis. not a polynomial function 8. = x( x + 2) 2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. f ( x) = 5 x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is odd. f ( x) = 5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is even. x = 1 has multiplicity 2. 3 29. The graph crosses the x-axis. polynomial function 15. 11. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. 14. The graph crosses the x-axis.

39. 38. f ( x) = x + x − 2x + 1 f(–3) = –11 f(–2) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x) = x 3 + 5 x 2 − 9 x − 45 40. ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = –2. c.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. f ( x ) = 2 x4 − 4 x2 + 1 f(–1) = –1 f(0) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. The graph crosses the x-axis. 34. 3 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 ( x + 2) − ( x + 2) = 0 f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 + 2 f(0) = 2 f(1) = –1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 37. and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f ( x ) = x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 a. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 8 x 2 + x + 2 f(2) = –4 f(3) = 14 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. x = 1. 35. Inc. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. f ( x ) = x 4 + 6 x 3 − 18 x 2 f(2) = –8 f(3) = 81 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 33. d. x = –3 and x = –5 have multiplicity 1. –1. 41. . e. Since an > 0 and n is odd. f ( x ) = x3 − x − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 36. f (− x) = (− x) + 2(− x) 2 − (− x) − 2 = − x3 + 2 x 2 + x − 2 − f ( x) = − x 3 − 2 x 2 + x + 2 The graph has neither origin symmetry nor yaxis symmetry. b. 2 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. = x 2 ( x + 5) − 9( x + 5) = ( x 2 − 9 ) ( x + 5) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 5) x = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (0) = (0)3 + 2(0)2 − 0 − 2 = −2 The y-intercept is –2. f ( x ) = x 5 − x3 − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 23 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 284 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = –1 The zeros at –2. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 10 x + 9 f(–3) = –42 f(–2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values.

Inc. e. x4 − 9 x2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 0. x = –1 f touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. f (0) = (0) 4 − (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f (− x) = − x 3 + x 2 + 4 x − 4 − f ( x) = − x 3 − x 2 + 4 x + 4 neither symmetry e. c. d. x4 − x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0.PreCalculus 4E 42. x + x − 4x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) = 0 3 d. x = 0. f ( x ) = x4 − x2 c. b. f (− x) = x 4 − x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. b. a. –1 and 2 have odd multiplicity. x = 1. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. f ( x ) = x4 − 9 x2 a. d. or x = 2. Section 2. or x = –2 The zeros at –2. f(x) rises to the left and the right. Since an > 0 and n is even. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. x = –3 The zeros at –3 and 3 have odd multiplicity. b. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. –1.3 f ( x ) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. Since an > 0 and n is even. 44. and 2. x = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 43. f (0) = 03 + (0) 2 − 4(0) − 4 = −4 The y-intercept is –4. 2 ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 x = –1. The xintercepts are –2. f (− x) = x 4 − 9 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. e. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. . c. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 285 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since an > 0 and n is odd.

Inc. 4 47. e. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. and 2. e. e. f(x) falls to the left and the right. b. Since an < 0 and n is even. f (− x) = − x 4 + 4 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. f(x) rises to the left and the right. f ( x ) = x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 a. Since f has a double root at 0. d. Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 0. b. x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 2 x = 0. d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 2. c. x = –4 The zeros at –4 and 4 have odd multiplicity. 286 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − x4 + 4x2 = 0 x 2 (4 − x 2 ) = 0 x 2 ( 2 − x )( 2 + x ) = 0 48. f (0) = −(0)4 + 4(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. Since an > 0 and n is even. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and 0. x = 1 The zeros at 1 and 0 have even multiplicity. so f(x) touches the xaxis at 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 45. f (0) = (0) 4 − 2(0)3 + (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. b. – x 4 + 16 x 2 = 0 x 2 ( − x 2 + 16 ) = 0 x 2 ( 4 − x )( 4 + x ) = 0 x = 0. f (− x) = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f ( x ) = − x4 + 4 x2 a. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f ( x ) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 a. x = 4. it touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 2 x = 0. . x = –2 The x-intercepts are –2. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0 and 1. c. f (− x) = − x + 16 x f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 46. Since an > 0 and n is even.0. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 16 x 2 a. c. x = 3 The zeros at 3 and 0 have even multiplicity. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. b. d. The root at 0 has even multiplicity.

Since an < 0 and n is even. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 4 – 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 2. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. a. f ( x ) = 6 x3 − 9 x − x 5 x = 0. f (− x) = x 5 − 6 x 3 + 9 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. x = 1 The zeros at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity. x = 0. The y-intercept is 0. x = 0. Since an < 0 and n is even. −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 2 ) = 0 The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. − x 5 + 6 x3 − 9 x = 0 − x ( x4 − 6 x2 + 9) = 0 − x ( x 2 − 3)( x 2 − 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 4 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Inc. d. −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 4 ) = 0 c. . f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 a. e. x = 2 The zeros at 0 and 2 have odd multiplicity. f (− x) = x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = ± 3 The root at 0 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at (0. e. c. f (0) = −(0)5 + 6(0)3 − 9(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. e. d. f (0) = −2(0) 4 + 4(0)3 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. d. c.3 50. b. 0). so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f(x) falls to the left and the right. d. The zeros at – 3 and 3 have even multiplicity so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and − 3 . b. Since an < 0 and n is odd. 287 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 51. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 2 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 49.PreCalculus 4E c. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 a. f (0) = (0) 4 − 6(0)3 + 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. b.

x = 0. f (− x) = x 3 + 3x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right.Polynomial and Rational Functions e. 0). − x ( x4 + x2 − 6) = 0 − x ( x 2 + 3)( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = a. f (0) = −(0)5 − (0)3 + 6(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. b. f (− x) = The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. f(x) falls to the left and the right. e. c. x = 0. 53. x = 3 The zero at 3 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at that point. 1 1 1 f (0) = − (0)4 + = 2 2 2 1 The y-intercept is . . − x3 + 3x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 1 1 4 − x 2 2 Since an < 0 and n is even. d. b. x = ± 2 The zeros at − 2 . so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f ( x ) = 3x 2 − x 3 e. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. e. Since an < 0 and n is odd. f (0) = −(0)3 + 3(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. 1 1 − x4 + = 0 2 2 1 − ( x 4 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1) ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x = ±1 The zeros at –1 and 1 have odd multiplicity. The graph has 2 turning point and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. c. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 5 – 1. d. f (− x) = x5 + x3 − 6 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. and 2 have odd multiplicity. 2 1 1 4 − x 2 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. c. The graph has 4 turning point and 4 ≤ 5 – 1. Inc. 288 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0. d. a. Since an < 0 and n is odd. f ( x ) = 6 x − x3 − x 5 a. 52. − x5 − x 3 + 6 x = 0 54.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) falls to the left and the right. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. c. d. 0). 58. 57. x = 5 The zeros at –5 and 5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. d. b. 289 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 2 x = 4.3 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) e. Section 2. Inc. The root at 1 has even multiplicity. b. x = 0. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. Since an < 0 and n is even. 0). x = 2 The zeros at –2 and 2 have odd multiplicity. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. d. c. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 0). f ( 0 ) = 03 ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2 x = 1. x = –2. f (0) = 02 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 The y-intercept is 0. so f(x) touches the xaxis at (1. Since an > 0 and n is even. x = –5. 0). f ( − x ) = x 2 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 2 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f (− x) = −3(− x − 1) 2 ( x 2 − 4 ) f ( x ) = x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 3 a. f (0) = −3(0 − 1) 2 (02 − 4)3 = −3(1)(−4) = 12 The y-intercept is 12. Since an < 0 and n is even. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Since an > 0 and n is even. c. The root at 4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the xaxis at (4.PreCalculus 4E 55. f (0) = −2(0 − 4) 2 (02 − 25) = −2(16)(−25) = 800 The y-intercept is 800. c. f ( x ) = −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25) 2 a. The root at –2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–2. f(x) rises to the left and the right. b. f(x) falls to the left and the right. 56. b. . x = 1. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. x = –2. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = –1 The roots at 0 and –1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. e. e. 2 a. f (− x) = −2(− x − 4) 2 ( x 2 − 2 ) f ( x ) = x 3 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 a. x = 0.

The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x + 2 )( − x − 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 (−1) ( x − 2 ) (−1) ( x + 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. Since an < 0 and n is even. 0). Since an < 0 and n is even. 290 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. x = –2 The zeros at 2 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x − 1)( − x + 3) The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 61. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 5 ) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 0). x = 1. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. x = 0. x = –3 The zeros at 1 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. 60. e. f(x) falls to the left and the right. 0). The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. x = 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions d. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. 59. The y-intercept is 0. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 3) a. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 2 ) = 0 d. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 6 – 1. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. The y-intercept is 0. e. x = 0. d. f(x) falls to the left and the right. c. x = 1. f(x) falls to the left and the right. . b. d. b. e. x = 2. e. f ( − x ) = − x3 ( − x + 2 ) ( − x + 1) 2 c. c. b. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) a. f ( 0 ) = −2(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 5 ) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 − 1)( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( x ) = −2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5 ) 2 a. Since an < 0 and n is even. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = –5 The roots at 0 and –5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points.

2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. c. 65. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. and 4. and x − 4 are factors of the function. Since −2 . 63. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . f ( − x ) = ( − x + 3)( − x + 1) ( − x + 4 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f(x) falls to the left and the right. Thus. a. Since the graph has two turning points. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 4 )( x − 1) a. The root at 2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (2. Since an > 0 and n is even. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. . The graph has 2 turning points f ( − x ) = ( − x − 2 ) ( − x + 4 )( − x − 1) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry.PreCalculus 4E 62. f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. b. 1. x − 1 . 3 ≤ 4 – 1. x = –4. 1. Inc. d. f(x) rises to the left and rises the right. x = –3 The roots at 0 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = 0. d. x = –1. Section 2.3 f ( x ) = −3x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 3) 2 a. x + 2 . we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. x = 1. Since an < 0 and n is even. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. c. e. 2 The y-intercept is 0. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 2 ) ( 0 + 4 )( 0 − 1) = −16 2 b. The y-intercept is –16. From the end behavior. b. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) . f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1)( 0 − 4 ) = 8 291 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. e. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 + 1) ( 0 + 4 ) = 12 3 The y-intercept is 12. all three have odd multiplicity. 0). b. Since an > 0 and n is odd. the function must be at least of degree 3. x = 2. and 4 are the zeros. d. f ( 0 ) = −3(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = 3x 3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 3) f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x + 1) ( x + 4 ) 3 a. 0). so they are the zeros. 64. x = –3. c. x = 1 The zeros at –4 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. e. The graph has 3 turning points and The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. c. x = –4 The zeros at all have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

69. to reach degree 6. so they are the zeros. From the end behavior. a. 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3 . the function must be at least of degree 4. b. 2 f ( x ) = ( x + 2) f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1) = 2 2 c. a. and 1. b. 2 68. and x − 1 are factors of the function. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 . Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 1. Since the graph has two turning points. Since −1 and 3 are the zeros. both have even multiplicity. x + 3 and x − 2 are factors of the function. so they are the zeros. a. Since the graph has two turning points. it has even multiplicity. it has even multiplicity. and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 and 1. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. the 2 c. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. all three have odd multiplicity. x + 2 . b.Polynomial and Rational Functions 66. 2. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 3. both have even multiplicity. From the end behavior. 3 . a. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 3) = 9 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 and 1. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. b. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. and x − 5 are factors of the function. Since −2 and 1 are the zeros. −1 . and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. From the end behavior. x + 3 . the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x − 2 )( x − 5) . is f ( x ) = ( x + 1)( x − 3) . and 5 are the zeros. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 . we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. so they are the zeros. c. −1 . f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 1) = −4 2 292 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. Since −3 and 2 are the zeros. the function must be at least of degree 3. The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 . 2 c. Thus. it has even multiplicity. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. so they are the zeros. Since −3 . Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −1 and 4. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. The function is is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1) . the function must be at least of degree 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. they both have odd multiplicity. Since −1 and 4 are the zeros. a. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −2 . x − 2 . Since −2 . b. However. and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. the function must be at least of degree 3. x + 1 and x − 4 are factors of the function. the function must be at least of degree 3. it has odd multiplicity. c. and 5. 2 function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) ( x − 4 ) . 2. x + 1 and x − 3 are factors of the function. Since the graph has five turning points. Thus. so they are the zeros. the function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) . Inc. the function must be at least of degree 6. The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 3. Since the graph has two turning points. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −3 and 2. the function 2 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 4 ) = −16 2 2 71. 2 The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 4. so they are the zeros. and 1 are the zeros. Thus. one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. From the end behavior. From the end behavior. Thus. Since the graph has three turning points. From the end behavior. x + 2 and x − 1 are factors of the function. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. 2 b. Thus. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. Since the graph has two turning points. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 3) ( 0 − 2 ) = −36 70. the function The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 and 2. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 − 2 )( 0 − 5 ) = 30 67. x + 1 . it has odd multiplicity. c. a.

555(3) + 261. The woman’s heart rate reached a minimum of about 64 ± 1 beats per minute.555 x + 261. the graph falls to the right. b. d. b. 444 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28.555 x + 261. b.3 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was increasing from 1960 through 1975 and from 1985 through 2000. 324 x 2 + 107. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was decreasing from 1975 through 1985 and from 2000 through 2005. There were 3 turning points during the 12 minutes. and x − 1 are factors of the function. f ( x) = −3402 x + 42. 931 = 404. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. This occurred after 10 minutes. The leading coefficient should be negative. 2 ( x − 1) 3 . the graph rises to the right. f. – 93. 453 = 404. = 434. Since the degree of f is even and the leading coefficient is negative. c. 75. d. The function will not be a useful model over an extended period of time because it will eventually give negative values. 931 76. Since the graph has five turning points. g (3) = 2769(3)3 − 28.555(5) + 261. f (5) = −3402(5) 2 + 42. 293 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. they both have odd multiplicity. it has even multiplicity. However. a. 203(3) + 308. 731 77. x + 2 . a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. 324 x 2 + 107. The woman’s heart rate reached a maximum of about 116 ± 1 beats per minute. 203 x + 308. so they are the zeros. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. 443 Function f provides a better description of the actual number.PreCalculus 4E 72. 203(5) + 308. g. The graph falls to the left and to the right. 931 = 437. 418 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. Function g provides a better description of the actual number. Since there were 3 turning points. b. 203x + 308. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 . 324(5) 2 + 107. The graph falls to the left and to the right. Inc. Since there were 3 turning points. x + 1 . a. to reach degree 6. 94. and 1 are the zeros. 324(3) 2 + 107. . The percentage reached a minimum of about 18 ± 1% in 1960. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 and 1. the function will be a useful model over an extended period of time. Since −2 . There were 3 turning points during the period shown. b. 453 2 g (5) = 2769(5)3 − 28. From the end behavior. g. a. This occurred after 8 minutes. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 1) = −2 2 3 f ( x) = −3402 x 2 + 42. Answers may vary. The function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 1) c. Based on the end behavior. e. one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. The woman’s heart rate was decreasing from 4 through 8 minutes and from 10 through 12 minutes. 453 f (3) = −3402(3)2 + 42. The woman’s heart rate was increasing from 1 through 4 minutes and from 8 through 10 minutes. 73. Since the degree of g is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. 74. 453 f. c. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. 931 The percentage reached a maximum of about 69 ± 1% in 2000. and 1. Section 2. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. the function must be at least of degree 6. a. e. a. −1 . The leading coefficient should be negative. −1 .

3x 2 − 9 x − 2x + 7 −2 x + 6 102. 95. 110. 1. Inc. 105. 1 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 + 103. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: A forth degree function has at most 3 turning points. A sample change is: Such a function falls to the right and will eventually have negative values. f(x) = x3 – 2x2 96. the graph crosses the x-axis at –2. Sample explanation: Since ( x + 2) is raised to an odd power. false. false. A sample change is: A function with origin symmetry either falls to the left and rises to the right.4 Check Point Exercises 98. 106. f ( x) = x 3 + x 2 − 12 x 109. 6 x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 4 112. false. x−3 . true 294 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x+5 x + 9 x 2 + 14 x + 45 x2 + 9 x 5 x + 45 5 x + 45 0 The answer is x + 5. Explanations will vary. makes sense 104. 737 2 = 35 + 21 21 111. 99.Polynomial and Rational Functions 107. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 2. 1 . makes sense 3x 2 − 11x 101. or rises to the left and falls to the right. 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 x − 3 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 7 2 x3 − 6 x 2 100. 108. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A sample change is: f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Section 2. does not make sense. 2 x 3 − x 2 − 11x + 6 = ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3 x − 2) = ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) 97.

The answer is x − 2 x − 3 .PreCalculus 4E 3. –105 x2 + x − 2 x − 3 x − 2x − 5x + 6 3 2 x3 − 3x 2 x2 − 5x 6. –2 1 1 0 –7 –6 –2 4 6 –2 –3 0 3. Inc. ⎬ . x+3 1. − . 3 5⎭ ⎩ 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 5. 3x 2 + 7 x 3x 2 + 6 x x+2 x+2 0 2 The answer is x + 3 x + 1. . (3 x + 1)(5 x − 2) = 0 1 2 x=− or x = 3 5 1 2⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. –1 15 15 14 –3 –2 –15 1 2 –1 –2 0 x 2 − 3x − 2x + 6 −2 x + 6 0 15 x − x − 2 = 0 2 The answer is x 2 + x − 2. 3x − 1 6 x3 + 7 x 2 + 12 x − 5 x + 5 x 2 + 8 x + 15 x2 + 5x 3 x + 15 3x + 15 0 The answer is x + 3. Section 2. 295 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 x2 − 2x 2 x 4 − 4 x3 5 x − 10 5 x − 10 0 The answer is x + 5.4 9 x2 − 3x 15 x − 5 15 x − 5 0 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3 x + 5. x+5 x − 2 x 2 + 3x − 10 4. –4 3 3 f(–4) = –105 4 –5 3 –12 32 –108 –8 27 x + 2 x3 + 5 x 2 + 7 x + 2 x3 + 2 x 2 2 5.4 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 x − 2 x 2 x + 3x + 0 x 2 − 7 x − 10 2 4 2. 7 x3 + 0 x 2 7 x 3 − 14 x 2 14 x 2 − 7 x 14 x 2 − 28 x x 2 + 3x + 1 21x − 10 21x − 10 . 6 x3 − 2 x 2 9 x 2 + 12 x Exercise Set 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The answer is 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 + 2 x − 2x 4.

− 6x + 6 x − 3 x4 3 The answer is 2 x − 3 + − 81 x − 3x 4 3 . 2x −1 984 . x−4 3 3x3 3x 2 − 9 x 2 2 x2 + x + 6 − 9. 3x − 2 246 x 246 x − 984 3 2x −1 984 The answer is 2 x − 1 4 x2 − 8x + 6 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 4 x2 − 2 x − 6x + 6 x 3 + 3x 2 + 9 x + 27 12. 26 x −3 3x + 7 + 2 60 x 2 − 240 x 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 3x + 4 6 x + 17 x + 27 x + 20 3 10. 2 4x + 3 + 7. x −3 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 3x − 2 12 x 2 + x − 4 8. 984 x−4 x − 4 4 x4 − 4 x2 + 6x 4 x 4 − 16 x 3 12 x 2 − 8 x 9x − 4 9x − 6 2 16 x 3 − 4 x 2 16 x 3 − 64 x 2 60 x 2 + 6 x The answer is 4 x + 3 + 2x − 3 + 26 . Inc. 6 x3 + 8 x 2 x − 3 3x2 − 2 x + 5 9 x 2 + 27 x 3x2 − 9 x 7x + 5 9 x 2 + 12 x 15 x + 20 15 x + 20 0 7 x − 21 26 The answer is 3x + 7 + The answer is 2 x + 3x + 5. 9 x2 38 x+3 9 x 2 − 27 x 27 x − 81 x + 3 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 + 9 x − 20 2x + 6x 3 27 x − 81 2 0 x2 + 9 x The answer is x + 3x + 9 x + 27. 3 x 2 + 3x 2 6 x − 20 6 x + 18 − 38 The answer is 2 x 2 + x + 6 − 38 . .Polynomial and Rational Functions 6. x+3 296 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 3x − 2 11.

0 14. Inc. 18. x+5 − 12 x − 8 ) ÷ ( x + 3) 2 –3 9 x3 + 3x 16. 2 x3 + 1 297 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 − 4x + 1 (4x 3 2 x5 + x 2 4 4 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 73 . 17.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. x+3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1) ÷ ( x − 1) 1 2 x 3 + 1 2 x5 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 + x 2 –3 3 –1 4 1 4 1 4 3 The answer is 4 x 2 + x + 4 + −8 x 4 − 4 x 2 x3 + 4 x 2 x3 + 1 4x −1 The answer is x 2 − 4 x + 1 + 20 . x3 + x 2 − 2 x 15. x2 + x − 3 (x 1 x 4 + x3 − 2 x 2 1 x3 − 2 x 2 − 5x − 3 x 2 − 3x − 6 19. 1 4x −1 . 10 The answer is x + 2. x + x−2 3 3 2 7 –20 –15 40 –8 20 The answer is 3x − 8 + 6 x2 + 3x − 1 3x 2 + 1 18 x 4 + 9 x 3 + 3 x 2 20. −3x − 3x + 6 2 − 12 ( 3x 5 0 1 –2 1 2 2 0 + 7 x − 20 ) ÷ ( x + 5 ) 2 –5 12 . 18 x 4 + 6 x 2 9 x3 − 3x 2 ( 5x 5 − 3x 2 − 3 x 5 − 3x 2 − 1 − 3x + 1 12 –8 –15 81 –27 73 The answer is 5 x − 27 + The answer is 6 x 2 + 3 x − 1 − 3x − 1 . 3 . 4 + x − 2 ) ÷ ( x − 1) 2 1 x 2 + x − 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 4 x 2 − 5x − 6 The answer is x 2 + x − 3 − –10 The answer is 2 x + 5 . x −1 . 3x2 + 1 21. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 2x + 5 13. 3x − x − 3 6 x + 13 x − 11x − 15 2 3 (2x 2 2 + x − 10 ) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 2 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 The answer is 2 x + 5.

64 0 298 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( 5x − 6 x 2 + 3x + 11) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 3 2 5 5 26. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x−2 2 4 28. 2 3 30. x+6 0 1 0 0 –2 1 1 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 3 2 1 0 1 –2 4 –2 5 0 –10 0 0 12 –10 20 –20 40 –80 –10 10 –20 40 –68 The answer is x − 2 x 5 + 5 x 4 − 10 x3 + 10 x 2 68 −20 x + 40 − . 2 33 . 187 . 4 0 –3 2 3 3 21 63 180 546 21 60 182 549 –2 72 –438 2664 –12 73 –444 2664 2664 . . x+2 6 29. x+5 3 0 x 7 + x 5 − 10 x 3 + 12 x+2 1 –5 –6 The answer is x + x + 2 x + 2 x + 2 . 2 x 7 − 128 x−2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 –128 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 1 2 4 8 16 32 The answer is x 6 + 2 x5 + 4 x 4 + 8 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 32 x + 64. x −3 (x (x 1 x5 + x3 − 2 x −1 1 + 4 x 4 − 3 x 2 + 2 x + 3) ÷ ( x − 3) 1 7 The answer is –6 The answer is x 3 − 12 x 2 + 73x − 444 + 4 1 1 1 –2 3 25. –6 3 11 10 8 22 4 11 33 (6x 5 6 5 –3 1 12 24 44 96 186 6 12 The answer is 22 48 93 187 27. –5 1 0 –5 50 –255 1300 1 –10 The answer is 51 –260 1300 x 4 − 256 x−4 4 1 1 1300 x − 10 x + 51x − 260 + . − 5 x3 + x 2 − 5 x ) ÷ ( x + 5) 1 –6 4 − 5x − 5x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 5 + x ) ⇒ –5 1 1 549 x 4 + 7 x 3 + 21x 2 + 60 x + 182 + . x−2 The answer is 5 x 2 + 4 x + 11 + 23. (x (x 0 0 0 –256 4 16 64 256 16 64 0 4 The answer is x + 4 x + 16 x + 64 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. − 6 x3 + x 2 − 6 x ) ÷ ( x + 6 ) –6 0 6 x 4 + 12 x3 + 22 x 2 + 48 x + 93 + (x 4 − 6 x − 6 x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 6 + x ) ⇒ − 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x + 1) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 24.

f ( x ) = x 4 + 5x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 6 3 –3 1 –1 2 –1 –4 14 –30 62 –128 2 –7 The answer is 15 –31 64 –129 f ( 3) = 240 38. −5 − 23 6 10 6 f ( − 32 ) = −7 −2 –1 6 4 1 5 1 1 − 92 1 3 7 9 1 –4 1 6 –1 5 –6 6 0 –5 The quotient is x − 5 x + 6. x+2 32. 3}. Inc. 2 −11 7 2 −6 3 . 2. x−2 3 1 −7 5 40. 2 41. 2 −5 −1 −1 8 −12 −20 −3 −5 −25 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 5 x 3 − x 2 + 3x + 2 −1 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 5 4 6 0 f ( 2) = 0 The answer is x 4 − x 2 + x + 1 + 33. ( x + 1)( x 2 – 5 x + 6) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 3) = 0 x = –1. Section 2. 5 5 −6 −4 −8 4 −3 1 2 3 2 f ( −3) = −133 −2 2 7 9 1 −9 48 −138 3 −16 46 −133 36. Dividend: x 3 – 4 x 2 + x + 6 Divisor: x + 1 −6 f ( x ) = 3x 3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x + 5 3 3 −1 −1 −4 −4 − f ( 3) = −27 −3 2 ( 2) 3 −12 −21 1 −4 −7 −27 35.PreCalculus 4E 31. x = 3 The solution set is {–1. 1 −5 2 1 1 –2 –1 3 –1 1 2 0 –2 2 2 0 –1 1 1 3 39. x = 2. . 5 −6 5 2 −6 −2 1 −3 −1 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − x 3 + 3x 2 − x + 1 x−2 2 −6 3 24 87 246 1 8 29 82 240 129 2 x 4 − 7 x 3 + 15 x 2 − 31x + 64 − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 f − 1 =1 f ( 4 ) = −25 34. 5 −5 1 5 6 0 0 −4 f ( −2 ) = −4 299 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 2 x5 − 3x 4 + x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 1 x+2 –2 2 37.

x= 2 3 2 ⎧ 3 1 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 2. −3 . Dividend: x 3 − 2 x 2 − x + 2 Divisor: x + 1 –1 1 –2 –1 2 –1 3 –2 1 –3 2 0 45. − . 3 2⎭ ⎩ 2 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 2 16 12 The quotient is x 2 − 3 x + 2. ⎬ . 1 . and −1 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 42. 2} . Inc. 2 ⎬ . 43. or {−3. 2 1 2 −5 −6 2 8 6 1 4 3 0 The remainder is 0. 1. 12 – 32 (x + 2) (2 x − 7 x + 3) = 0 2 (x + 2) ( 2 x − 1)( x − 3) = 0 47. x = 1 The solution set is {–1. 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 –3 3 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 22 x − 8 = 0 − 13 2 x − 3 x − 11x + 6 = 0 3 –5 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ (12 x − 2 x − 2) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ 2 ( 6 x − x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 2(3x + 1)(2 x – 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 1 1 x=– . ( x – 2)(2 x − x − 1) = 0 (x – 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) = 0 1 x = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 2. x=− . 2 ⎭ ⎩ x = –2. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 2 44. x = − 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −4. 3⎬ . − . x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 6 = 0 ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 + 4 x + 3) = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 3)( x + 1) = 0 The solutions are 2. 300 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12 x3 + 16 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 2 2 –5 1 2 4 –2 –2 –1 –1 0 46. x = The graph indicates that 2 is a solution to the equation. x = 2.x=3 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −2. x = − . so 2 is a solution. . 2 2 –3 –11 6 –4 14 –6 –7 3 0 3 3 –18 3 3 –2 –2 0 7 –22 –8 –1 –2 8 6 –24 0 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3x + 6 x − 24 = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1 x = –4. 2 ⎬ . x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . ( x + 1)( x 2 − 3x + 2) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 1) = 0 x = –1. 1}. . −1.

14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 3 14 −17 −16 −177 72 0 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) b. The female moth’s abdominal width is 3 millimeters. so the only solution is x = 3. so −3 is a solution. } 1 . 1 . − . or −3. b. One solution is 3. the width is 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 inches and the length is 2 + 7 = 9 inches. 2 . 25 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 The remainder is 0. 2 x 3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 = 0 The solutions are −3 . or 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎨ −6. V = lwh 72 = ( h + 7 )( 2h )( h ) The remainder is 0. Section 2. −3 2 1 −13 6 −6 15 −6 2 −5 2 0 51. 301 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − . 2 ⎭ ⎩ ) 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2 ( h + 6 )( h + 3) ) 0 = 2 ( h − 2 )( h + 6 )( h + 3) 2 ( h − 2) = 0 h + 6 = 0 h + 3 = 0 h−2 = 0 h=2 h = −6 h = −3 The height is 2 inches. It can be used to find other solutions (if they exist). a. 177 We need to find x when f ( x ) = 211. 72 = 2h3 + 14h 2 2 x3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 0 = 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 ( x − 1) ( 2 x 2 + 13 x + 6 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( 2 x + 1)( x + 6 ) = 0 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) ( 0 = ( h − 2 ) 2 ( h 2 + 9h + 18 ) 1 The solutions are 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The dimensions are 2 inches by 4 inches by 9 inches. 1 6 −11 6 −1 6 75 = ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) 2 { 42 The remainder is 0 so 3 is a solution. .4 The graph indicates that −3 is a solution to the equation.1⎬ . 1 2 11 −7 −6 2 59 211 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 50. and . 14 ( x + 3) ( 2 x − 5 x + 2 ) = 0 ( x + 3)( 2 x − 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 49. Inc. 2 3 ⎩3 2 ⎭ 52. and 2. so 1 is a solution. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 The remainder is 0. 2 0 −72 2 14 4 36 2 18 36 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 The solutions are 1.1⎬ . 1 1 ⎧1 1 ⎫ . a. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) = 0 The polynomial 14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 cannot be factored.PreCalculus 4E 48. . 6 −5 1 −5 1 0 13 −6 2 13 6 0 0 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 0 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 This is the equation obtained in part a. 2 2 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. and −6 . so 1 is a solution. or ⎨ .

3 units. Sample explanation: The remainder theorem provides an alternative method for evaluating a function at a given value. 70. 0. . Changes to make the statement true will vary. Answers may vary. 70) same answer as in a. the government’s revenue is $68. does not make sense. Therefore. 69.06 l= = w x + 0. f (x) is not a polynomial function.Polynomial and Rational Functions A = l ⋅ w so A 0. f (40) = (40. true 72. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. 54.3 110 0 −6 −5 3 −6 9 −3 8 −12 4 0 80 a.22 56. f (30) = c. A 8 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x + 3 l= = 3 w x+ 4 − 34 8 80(40) − 8000 = 68.5 x 2 − 0. 302 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 53. the length of the rectangle is 0.06 0. b.5 x3 − 0. -8000 8800 80 800 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 = 70 f (30) = 80 + 80 − 110 (30. Publishing as Prentice Hall. does not make sense.06 0.4 a.57 ten billion. false. Sample explanation: The division must account for the zero coefficients on the x 4 . Explanations will vary.57 Therefore. true 73. 80 8800 A = l ⋅ w so. 68.5 −0.22 x + 0.08 −0. x6 since 3 = x 3 .57) At a 40% tax rate.5 −0. – 65. f (x) is not a polynomial function. Inc. c. (30. 66. 55. 110 -8000 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 f (40) = 80 + 40 − 110 = 68. makes sense 68. 80(30) − 8000 = 70 30 − 110 80 800 57. Sample explanation: The zeros of f are the same as the solutions of f ( x) = 0. does not make sense. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials. −0. x 2 and x terms.1 0. the government tax revenue will be $70 ten billion.57 40 − 110 b. x3 .3x 2 + 0. 67. A sample change is: The degree of the quotient is 3. 70) At a 30% tax rate.2 0.4 x + 0.3 0. x 71. −0. false. the length of the rectangle is 8 x 2 − 12 x + 4 units. A sample change is: The divisor is a factor of the divided only if the remainder is the whole number 0. Explanations will vary.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Then divide the quotient by 2. x n + 1 x 3n −4 = ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) To get a remainder of zero. k = –12 76. x 2n − x n + 1 +1 x 3n + x 2 n − x 2n x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4)2 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −4 ± 20 2 −4 ± 2 5 x= 2 x = −2 ± 5 − x 2n − x n x= xn +1 xn +1 0 { } The solution set is −2 ± 5 . 2 x − 4 = 2( x − 2) Use synthetic division to divide by x – 2.PreCalculus 4E 74. . ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) ) = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 )( x + 1)( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = d ( x) ⋅ q( x) + r ( x) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 9 = d ( x )(2 x − 3) + 3 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x)(2 x − 3) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x) Apply the zero product principle. − 4x + 6 −4 x + 6 The polynomial is x – 2.5} . 2 and 5 and the solution set is {−2. x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 8x2 + 6x 75. Section 2. 3 x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 = 0 5 1 −4 −9 16 20 5 20 x3 + 15 x 2 1 8 x 2 − 10 − 16 x + k −16 x − 12 0 To solve the equation. x −5 = 0 x +1 = 0 2x − 3 x=5 x = −1 x+2=0 x−2 = 0 x−2 2 x − 3 2 x2 − 7 x + 6 2 x2 − 3x x = −2 x=2 The solutions are –2. –1.4 5x2 + 2 x − 4 4 x + 3 20 x + 23x 2 − 10 x + k 78. 1 −4 The remainder is zero and 5 is a solution to the equation. 2. 77. −1. k must equal –12. 5 −20 −20 79. we set it equal to zero and factor. Inc. 303 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

1 p : ± 1. x 2 + 9 x + 20 = 0 20 0 −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(1)(6) x= 2(1) −4 ± −8 2 −4 ± 2i 2 x= 2 x = −2 ± i 2 x= ( x + 4)( x + 5) = 0 x = −4 or x = −5 { The solution set is {1. ± 2. } The solution set is −2 ± i 2 . 2 – 3i}. = p : ± 1. x= 304 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 + 3i. ± q 2 4 2 4 are the possible rational zeros. ± 5. Inc. 1 5. x2 + 4 x + 6 = 0 3. x 2 + 3x + 1 = 0 an ( 50 ) = −150 an = −3 x= Section 2. −4. ±1. −b ± b − 4ac 2a 2 x= ±1. . 81. ± 20 are possible rational zeros 1 8 11 –20 1 9 20 1 9 1 is a zero. . ⎬.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. ± 13 are possible rational zeros.5 x= Check Point Exercises 1. ± 2 are possible rational zeros f (3) = −150 2 1 ) an (3) − 3(3) − 4 = −150 4 2 an ( 81 − 27 − 4 ) = −150 1 2 is a zero. 2 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ p : ± 1. ± 4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. ± 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = an ( x 4 − 3 x 2 − 4) ( 1 ±1. ± 2. 4. ± 2. ± 6 q : ±1 -5 –2 2 6 2 3 1 0 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(1) 2(1) −3 ± 5 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 5 −3 − 5 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ 2. 2. ± 2. ± 3. ± . ± 10. ± 3. ± . ± 3. 1 1 5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a double root. ± . x 2 − 4 x + 13 = 0 0 4 ± 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = = 2 + 3i 2 2 The solution set is{1. −5}. ± 6 q are the possible rational zeros. 17 –13 0 q : ± 1. ± 3 1 –6 22 –30 13 1 –5 17 –13 1 –5 1 is a zero.

–1 are rational zeros. ± 4. ±3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ± . ± 4 q : ±1 9. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 6 x − 8 p : ± 1. ± . ± q 2 4 2 4 305 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± .PreCalculus 4E 6. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. there are no negative real zeros. ± 4 q : ±1 2 x − 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 x +1 = 0 x = 2. p : ± 1. –2. ± 2. ± 2. . ± 8 q 3. ±4. ± . ± 2. p : ± 1. ± 15. –2. or 0 positive real zeros. f ( x) = 4 x5 − 8 x 4 − x + 2 p : ± 1. ± 2. 1 1 –4 –4 2 6 4 x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x 2 + 3 x + 2) = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x + 3x − 11x − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. ± 2. ± 4. ± . ±4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. ±15 q: ±1. ±8 q: ±1. ± . ± . ± 3. ± . f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 8 p: ±1. ± 2. ±3. ± 4 q 2. ± 6. ±2. there are 4. f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. ± q 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 0 2 is a zero. ±3. ±2. ± q 3 3 3 3 7. ± . f ( x) = x 4 − 14 x 3 + 71x 2 − 154 x + 120 q : ±1 f (− x) = x 4 + 14 x 3 + 71x 2 + 154 x + 120 Since f(x) has 4 changes of sign. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 q 8. c. f ( x) = x 5 − x 4 − 7 x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 12 p : ± 1. ± 2. Inc. ± 8 q : ±1 b. 2. ± 3. ± 3. ±2. ± 2 q : ± 1. ± 6. ± 4 Exercise Set 2. x = −2. ± q 3 3 4 p : ± 1. ± 2. f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 p: ±1. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ± 4 q p : ± 1. ±2. –1}. Section 2. ± 2. ± 2. ± 2. Since f(–x) has no changes of sign. 5. x = −1 The solution set is {2. ± 4. ±5. ± . ± 2. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 f ( x) = an ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) f (1) = an (1 + 3)(12 + 1) = 8an = 8 an = 1 f ( x) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) or x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3 7.5 ( x + 3)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) 6. 2. ± 2 4 q f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 p : ± 1. p 1 1 : ± 1. ±3. ±6 q: ±1. 4. ± 2. p : ± 1. ± . f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p: ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 8.5 1. ±6 q: ±1. ± 5.

±3. 2 1 2 –3 0 4 is a zero. ± 3. 2 ⎭ ⎩ p : ± 1. 1 3. ±6 q –1 4 –3 –6 –1 –3 6 1 3 –6 –1 is a rational zero. − 2 ⎬ . ⎬. 2 13. ±6. ± 2. a. x = − . − . . 2 c. ± 4. 4. 1}. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ 306 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±12 q: ±1 p : ± 1. c. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(−6) 2(1) −3 ± 33 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 33 −3 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −1. 11. ±3. 1⎬ . ± . ± 3. ± 2 p 1 3 : ± 1. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. ±2 q: ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − . 4 –2 –2 ( x − 2) (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 1 x = 2. ± 2. x = 1 The solution set is{4. 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 11x + 6 = 0 c. x = −2 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨3. x = −3. ±6 q: ±1 p : ±1. ± 2. b. 1 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 c. ±3. ( x − 4) ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 x = 4. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 11x + 12 p: ±1. 1 are rational zeros. –3 –11 6 6 9 –6 2 3 –2 0 3 is a zero.Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 5 x 2 + x + 2 p: ±1. –3. ± 6. x = . ± q 2 2 b. ± 3. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 b. ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3x − 2) = 0 ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x − 6 p: ±1. –5 2 –1 –1 0 2 is a zero. 2 b. –3. ± 2. . 1 2. Inc. ± q 2 2 3 2 ( x − 2) ( 2 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 6 a. ± 12 q 4 1 12. . ±2. ±2. x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ 2. a. − 2 are rational zeros. ±4. ± 6 q : ± 1. ±2. a. ± 6. 1 are rational zeros. . 0 x 2 + 3x − 6 = 0 x= 1 x = 3.

± 2. Inc. −1 ± 12 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −1 ± 5 2 f ( x) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 8 x − 5 p: ±1. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a c. a. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. ⎧⎪ 1 −1 + 5 −1 − 5 ⎫⎪ . 2 c. 5 2 –4 –4 –2 2 2 1 –2 is a rational zero. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎬. a. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ x2 + x − 1 = 0 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 16. ⎬. f ( x) = 2 x3 + 6 x 2 + 5 x + 2 p: ±1. a. .5 f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 3 x + 1 p: ±1 q: ±1. 0 –4 8 –5 1 –3 5 1 –3 5 1 is a rational zero. Section 2. The solution set is ⎨ −2. ± q 2 –2 2 2(2) −2 ± −4 4 −2 ± 2i = 4 −1 ± i = 2 2 x2 + 2 x − 2 = 0 x= −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(1) = 1 is a rational zero. 0 x 2 − 3x + 5 = 0 x= 6 1 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) 3 ± −11 2 3 ± i 11 = 2 = ⎧⎪ 3 + i 11 3 − i 11 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨1. ± q 2 1 2 b.PreCalculus 4E 14. ±5 q: ±1 p : ± 1. x= x= 1 –3 1 1 1 –1 2 –2 0 −1 + i −1 − i ⎫ ⎧ . ±2 q: ±1. The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬. b. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 15. ± 5 q 1 b. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 307 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 2 2 2 x2 + 2 x + 1 = 0 c.

x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 c. ± 3. ± 2. 1 –5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a rational root. 1 2 –3 0 4 is a root. ± 12 q : ±1 p : ± 1. ± 3. ( x + 1) 2 x = −1 x= The solution set is {4. 19. 0 x3 + 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 c. ± 3. −1} . –3. –2 –7 –4 4 8 4 1 2 1 4 is a root. 4 are rational roots. 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 0 ( x − 4) x = 4. ±4 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 2 + 3i. ± 6. x3 − 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. ± 13 q 1 b. 0 { 20. a. –2 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 2 x − 6) = 0 c. ± 2. 4 1 –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 b. 308 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. p : ± 1. 4 are rational roots.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. 2. 1. −3i}. ± 6. ± 2. 1. Inc. ± 12 q b. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 4. ± 2. 1 − 7 . ± 4. c. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 a. . p : ± 1. –10 } The solution set is −2. x=4 x = −3 x = 1 The solution set is {–3. ± 6. ±13 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 3. ± 4 q 4 0 x= x − 4 = 0 x + 3 = 0 x −1 = 0 b. ± 4. 1 + 7. 1 –12 –2 4 12 1 –2 –6 –2 is a rational root. 4}. ± 12 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 a. –1. 4 + 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = 2 2 4 ± 6i = = 2 ± 3i 2 The solution set is {1. ± 6. ± 2. ±2. ± 12 q x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 p: ±1. 1 2 ± 4 + 24 2 ± 28 = 2 2 2±2 7 = = 1± 7 2 ( x − 4)( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 18. ± 4. q : ±1 p : ± 1.

±2. ± 4 q b. ± 2 ± 4 ± q 2 1 2 2 ( x − 2)( x3 − 5 x − 2) = 0 ( x + 5)(2 x − 1)(3x − 1) = 0 x + 5 = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 3x − 1 = 0 1 1 x = −5. 2. ⎩2 ⎭ x= 309 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 x + 25 x − 24 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 5)(6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 3 c. 5 0 2± 2 5 = 1± 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ± 6 p 1 5 1 5 1 5 : ± 1. . ± 2.PreCalculus 4E 21. ± q 2 2 3 3 6 6 –5 6 25 –24 5 –30 25 –5 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 a. ± . ± 5. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± . Inc. 2 are rational roots. 2 2 –2 –5 8 4 2 0 –10 –4 1 0 –5 –2 2 is a root. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 1 1 −5. b. 2 c. p : ± 1. ± . p : ± 1. a. x = . ± 2. ± .3 are rational roots. ±4 q: ±1. are rational roots. . 2 3⎭ ⎩ 22. ± 5 q : ± 1. 1 is a rational root.5 6 x 3 + 25 x 2 − 24 x + 5 = 0 a. ⎬ . 1 − 2 . −2. −1. Section 2. 1 –2 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 p: ±1. ± . ±15 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 3 ± 5 ± 15 q 3 1 0 –2 –16 –15 3 9 21 15 1 3 7 3 is a root. x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −5. ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 2± 4+4 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 2 2 2 = 1± 2 The solution set is x= {−2. ± 2. ± 3. 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 1 ( x − ) ( 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8) = 0 2 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x2 − 2 x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ } 2. 23. ± 4 q : ±1 p : ± 1. a. 6 –5 1 0 –5 is a root. 2 3 c. 1 − 5 ⎬ . ±3. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 p: ±1. b. 2 b. 0 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 1 1 –2 is a zero of x3 0 –5 –2 –2 4 2 –2 –1 0 – 5x –2 = 0. 1 + –5 –6 4 1 –2 –4 –4 –8 0 24. 1 + 5. ±5.

− 1 + 2i. Inc. . = ( x − 1) ( x 2 + 25 ) ( x − 6) ( x + 5 + 2i ) ( x + 5 − 2i ) = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 5 x − 2ix + 5 x + 25 − 10i + 2ix + 10i − 4i 2 ) = x3 + 25 x − x 2 − 25 = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 10 x + 29 ) = x3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 ) = x 3 + 10 x 2 + 29 x − 6 x 2 − 60 x − 174 = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 f (−1) = an (−1 − 1 − 25 − 25) f ( x) = an ( x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) −104 = an (−52) an = 2 f (2) = an (8 + 16 − 62 − 174) f ( x) = 2 ( x − x + 25 x − 25) 26. ( x − 3) ( x + 3x + 7 x + 5 ) = 0 3 –1 2 1 3 7 5 –1 –2 –5 2 5 0 1 −3ix + 12i − 9i 2 ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 8 x + 25 ) = ( x3 − 8 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 40 x + 125 ) = x 3 − 3 x 2 − 15 x + 125 –1 is a root of x 3 + 3 x 2 + 7 x + 5 f ( x) = an ( x 3 – 3x 2 –15 x + 125) ( x − 3) ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 2 x + 5) ( f (2) = an 23 − 3 ( 2 ) − 15 ( 2 ) + 125 –2 ± 4 − 20 –2 ± −16 = x= 2 2 −2 ± 4i = = −1 ± 2i 2 The solution set is {3. − 1. (x – i)(x + i)(x – 3i)(x + 3i) = ( x 2 − i 2 )( x 2 − 9i 2 ) f (−1) = an (−1 − 4 − 4 − 16) = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 9 ) −50 = an (−25) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 f ( x) = an ( x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9) an = 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) f (–1) = an ((–1) 4 + 10(–1) 2 + 9) f ( x) = 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x − 32 20 = an (20) an = 1 f ( x ) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 310 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions c. 2 91 = an (91) an = 1 ( x − 1) ( x + 5i ) ( x − 5i ) 3 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 − 3i )( x − 4 + 3i ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 3ix − 4 x + 16 − 12i −636 = an (−212) 2 an = 3 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 2 x 2 + 50 x − 50 ( x − 4) ( x + 2i ) ( x − 2i ) f ( x) = 3 ( x3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) = ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 4 ) f ( x) = 3 x3 + 12 x 2 − 93 x − 522 = x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) 29. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 27. 25. − 1 − 2i} . ) f ( x ) = 1( x3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 ) f ( x ) = x 3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 28.

37. 38.5 1⎞ ⎟ ( x − i )( x + i ) 2⎠ 5 ⎛ ⎞ = ⎜ x 2 + x + 1⎟ ( x 2 + 1) 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 = x 4 + x 2 + x3 + x + x 2 + 1 2 2 5 5 = x 4 + x3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1 2 2 5 ⎛ 4 5 3 ⎞ f ( x ) = an ⎜ x + x + 2 x 2 + x + 1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 3 2 ⎡ 4 ⎤ f (1) = an ⎢(1) + (1) + 2 (1) + (1) + 1⎥ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ 18 = an (9) an = 2 f ( x) = x 3 + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 4 Since f(x) has no sign variations. no negative real roots exist. f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. . 3 or 1 positive real roots exist.PreCalculus 4E 30. ( x + 2 ) ⎛⎜ x + ⎝ Section 2. Since f(–x) has no sign variations. 1 negative real roots exist. f ( x) = 2 x 4 − 5 x3 − x 2 − 6 x + 4 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. 2 or 0 negative real roots exist. 33. = x 4 − 6 x + 13x 2 − 3 x3 + 18 x 2 − 39 x − 10 x 2 + 60 x − 130 = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ( f ( x) = an x 4 − 9 x3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ) f (1) = an (1 − 9 + 21 + 21 − 130) −96 = an (−96) an = 1 f ( x) = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 32. no positive real roots exist. f ( − x ) = − x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. f (− x) = − x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 7 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. ( x + 2) ( x − 5) ( x − 3 + 2i ) ( x − 3 − 2i ) ( = (x )( − 3 x − 10 ) ( x = x 2 − 3 x − 10 x 2 − 3 x − 2ix − 3x + 9 + 6i + 2ix − 6i − 4i 2 2 2 − 6 x + 13 ) ) 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) = 5 x 3 − 3 x 2 + 3 x − 1 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 + x + 7 Since f(x) has no sign variations no positive real roots exist. 2 or 0 positive real roots exist. f ( − x ) = −5 x3 − 3 x 2 − 3x − 1 5 5 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x 4 + x 3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 5x3 + 4 x 2 + 5 x + 2 31. 34. 35. ( x + 4) (3x − 1) ( x − 2 + 3i ) ( x − 2 − 3i ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 2 x − 3ix − 2 x + 4 + 6i + 3ix − 6i − 9i 2 ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 3 x 4 − 12 x 3 + 39 x 2 + 11x3 − 44 x 2 + 143x − 4 x 2 + 16 x − 52 = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 f ( x) = an ( 3x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 ) f (1) = an (3 − 1 − 9 + 159 − 52) 100 = an (100 ) an = 1 f ( x) = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 311 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = −2 x 3 + x 2 − x + 7 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + x 3 + 5 x 2 + 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 1 sign variations. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. Inc. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 + x 2 + x + 7 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. no negative real roots exist. f ( − x ) = 2 x 4 + 5 x3 − x 2 + 6 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 2 sign variations.

3 or 1 negative zeros exist. x = 5. 5 0 41. The solution set is ⎨ − . ± 2. ± 5. ± 4 f (− x) = –3 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 1 sign changes. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. ± 5. x = −10 The solution set is {–1. ⎬. f (− x) = − x 3 + 12 x 2 − 21x + 10 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. 312 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±4. exactly one negative real zeros exists. ± q 3 3 3 3 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. ± 2. 2 x= f ( x) = x 3 + 12 x 2 + 2 x + 10 p: ±1. f ( − x ) = − x3 − 4 x 2 + 7 x + 10 Since f(–x) has 1 sign variation. . ± 10 q : ±1 p : ± 1. no positive zeros exist. ±5. q : ± 1. f (− x) = −2 x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 4 2 or no negative real roots exist. 2 or no positive real roots exist. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. 3 x 3 − 8 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. –1 2 –1 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x + 5) 40. 0 or 2 positive real zeros exist. ±2. ± 10 q Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. ±8 q: ±1. ± . 1 –1 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ 2 ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ = ( x + 2)( x − 5)( x − 1) x = –2. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 42. exactly 1 negative real zero exists. ±2. f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 11x + 10 ) = ( x + 1)( x + 10)( x + 1) x = −1. –10}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –2 1 –4 –7 10 –2 12 –10 1 –6 –2 is a zero. ±10 q: ±1. 2 x3 − x 2 − 9 x − 4 = 0 p : ± 1. 5. ± 2 ± 5 ± 10 q 12 21 10 –1 –11 –10 1 11 –1 is a zero. Since f(x) has no sign variations. f ( x) = x3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10 p : ± 1. p : ± 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. ± . ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ± 4 ± q 2 1 positive real root exists. 10 0 1 ± 1 + 16 1 ± 17 = 2 2 ⎪⎧ 1 1 + 17 1 − 17 ⎪⎫ . ± 2. x = 1 The solution set is{–2. ± . Inc. 2 − –9 –4 –1 1 4 –2 –8 0 1 is a root. ± 2. 1}.

±5. 3 – i. ±10 q: ±1 p : ±1. –1 1 –2 1 12 8 –4 14 x= p : ±1. ± 8 q : ±1 p : ± 1. 0 or 2 negative roots exist. 2 + 2i. . ±5. ±2. x 4 − 3 x 3 − 20 x 2 − 24 x − 8 = 0 p : ± 1. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x3 − x 2 + 14 x + 10 p: ±1.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ±10 q 2 is a zero. –1. 3 –1 2⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 − 6 x − 12 ) 3⎠ ⎝ 6 ± 36 + 144 6 ± 6 5 = 6 6 = 1± 5 –1 x= x= q : ±1 –1 –8 1 –3 4 8 0 1 –3 4 8 –1 4 –8 –4 8 0 1 2 0 = x − 4x + 8 10 –1 5 -4 -10 1 -5 4 10 0 1 -5 4 10 –1 6 –10 -6 10 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) x =1 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 − 12 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 2 sign changes. 1 The solution set is {–1. 0 or 2 positive roots exist.1 + 5. ± 4. 3 + i} 45. ± 8 –1 -4 1 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2 – 2i}. ± 2. ± 2. ± 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎩3 ⎭ 43. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. Inc. ± 2. ± 2.5 3 2 3 3 –8 –8 8 2 –4 –8 –6 –12 0 44. –3 –20 –24 –8 –1 4 16 8 –16 –8 0 –4 ( x + 1) ( x − 4 x − 16 x − 8 ) = 0 3 2 313 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 8 q Since f(x) has 2 sign changes. ± 4. –1 −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(8) x= 2(1) 1 1 4 ± 16 − 32 x= 2 4 ± −16 x= 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i The solution set is { –1. ±2.1 − 5 ⎬ . ± 4 ± 8 q 1 positive real root exists. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)3 + (− x) 2 − 12 x + 8 4 -1 f ( x) = ( x − 1)( x − 1)( x 2 − 6 x + 10) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 + 12 x + 8 p : ±1.

± 2. ±15 q: ±1. q : ± 1. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + 3x 3 − 11x 2 − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. ± q 2 2 2 2 2 or no positive real zeros exist. ± 2. x = 3 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. 0 (x 2 + 4) x + 1 = 0 x − 2 = 0 x2 + 4 = 0 x = –1 –1 f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( 3x 3 − 14 x 2 + 13x + 6 ) ( x + 1) ( x − 2 x + 4 x − 8 ) 3 –11 x=2 x 2 = −4 x = ±2i The solution set is {−1. f (− x) = 3x 4 + 11x 3 − x 2 − 19 x + 6 2 or no negative real zeros exist. ±3. 3 46. ± . . ± 3. ( x + 1)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x − 4 ) = 0 6 ± 36 + 16 6 ± 52 = 2 2 6 ± 2 13 3 ± 13 = = 2 2 The solution set is x= {−1. − 2i} .Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 1 1 –4 –16 –8 –2 12 8 –6 –4 0 47. ± 3. ±2. ± . − 2. ± q 3 3 2 or no positive real zeros exists. ± . ± 3 p 1 2 : ± 1. 3⎬ . ± 6. ± 5. ±8 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 2i. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x − x + 2x − 4x − 8 = 0 p: ±1. 1 2 2 3 –11 –9 15 2 5 –6 –15 –6 –15 0 5 f ( x) = ( x − 1) ( 2 x + 5 x − 6 x − 15 ) 3 − 52 2 2 2 5 –6 –15 –5 0 15 0 –6 0 314 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±4. ± 15. ±5. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8 q 1 negative real root exists. 3 ± f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p : ± 1. ± . 2. 4 3 –1 2 1 1 2 1 1 ( x + 1) 2 3 3 19 6 –3 14 –13 –6 –14 13 6 0 –14 13 6 6 –16 –6 –8 –3 0 –1 2 –4 –8 f ( x) = ( x + 1)( x − 2) ( 3x 2 − 8 x − 3) –1 2 –4 8 = ( x + 1)( x − 2)(3x + 1)( x − 3) –2 4 –8 0 1 x = −1. ± 3. Inc. 2. x = 2 x = − . 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 4 –8 2 0 8 0 4 ( x − 2) 48. − . f (− x) = 2 x 4 − 3x 3 − 11x 2 + 9 x + 15 2 or no negative real zeros exist. 3 − 13 . ± 6 –1 3 } 13.

⎬.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ± 2. . ± 2. ± . 51. ±8 q: ±1. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 2 4 –6 2⎞ ⎛ ( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 + 3x + 3) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2⎞ ⎛ 3( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2 − 34 3 3 ( x − 1)(4 x + 3x + 8 x + 6) = 0 3 –3 Another positive real root must exist. x = − 3 2 ⎧ 5 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 49. ± 2. 3 or 1 negative real root exist. 315 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 3 ⎬ . ±4. 4 ⎩ ⎭ 7 0 –18 –4 2 3 –8 8 –6 12 12 –8 –6 –6 4 0 ( x + 2)(2 x + 3x − 6 x − 6 x + 4) = 0 4 3 2 4 x 3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. ± 8. x 2 = −2 –2 x = ±i 2 2 3 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. x = − . − . ± 6. ±2. i 2. . 3. f (− x) = 3 x 4 + 11x3 − 3 x 2 + 6 x + 8 2 or no negative real roots exist. .5 5⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 6 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 5⎞ ⎛ = 2( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 − 3) 2⎠ ⎝ 50. x = 3. ± 4 3 3 3 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 = 0 p : ± 1. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. ± 6 1 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3 x 2 − 6 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. ± . ± . ± q 2 2 4 4 3 or 1 positive real roots exists. ± 3. 3⎞ ⎛ ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 4 x 2 + 8 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ 4( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 2 x +2 =0 2 x 5 + 7 x 4 − 18 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p : ± 1. ± 4. 4 8 −1 ± 1 − 4 −1 ± i 3 = 2 2 ⎧⎪ 2 −1 + i 3 −1 − i 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨4. ± . ± 2. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ± 8 q : ± 1. 4 p 1 3 1 3 : ± 1. ± q 3 3 3 3 2 or no positive real roots exist. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2. x2 − 3 = 0 x2 = 3 x=± 3 5 x = 1. − . ± 4. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. ± q 2 2 or no positive real roots exists. ± . 2 3 4 –11 ( x − 4) ( 3x 3 + x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 q : ± 1. ± 3. 1 negative real root exists. Inc. ± . − i 2 ⎬ . 4 –1 5 –2 –6 4 3 8 6 3 8 6 0 12 4 4 –8 1 1 –2 0 3 8 6 –3 0 –6 0 8 0 1 1 –2 2 2 2 3 3 0 x= 4 x + 3 x + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots.

b. ± . − 4. 2 2⎭ ⎩ 1⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2)2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2( x + 2) 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x −2 = 0 53. ±24 q: ±1.± 4 4 2 or no positive real roots exist. 1. ± 2. ± 4. ±2. x=4 . Thus. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 52. Inc. ±4. we can see that −4 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. ± 12.Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 2 2 3 –6 –6 4 –4 2 8 –4 –1 –4 2 0 ( x − 3)( x + 2)( x + 4) ( 4 x 2 − 1) = 0 4 x2 −1 = 0 4 x2 = 1 1 x2 = 4 1 x=± 2 ( x + 2) 2 (2 x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 2) 2 1 2 –1 –4 2 1 0 2 0 –4 0 2 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨3. ±2. 3 16 0 x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x = −4 x =1 The zeros are −4 . q 2 2 1 3 ± . . ( x − 3) ( 4 x + 24 x + 31x − 6 x − 8) = 0 4 –2 3 2 24 31 –6 –8 –8 –32 2 8 –1 –4 0 4 4 16 ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( 4 x + 16 x − x − 4 ) = 0 3 –4 4 4 2 16 –1 4 –16 0 4 0 –1 0 316 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 2. ± 3. From the graph provided. . − ⎬ . ± 24. ±8. We verify this below: −4 −1 1 16 −16 4 −20 −1 5 −4 x2 = 2 x=± 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. − 2 ⎬ . and 4. 4 4 12 –41 –99 10 24 12 72 93 –18 –24 24 31 –6 –8 0 − x 3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 = 0 ( x + 4) ( − x2 + 5x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 ) ( x2 − 5x + 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) = 0 4 x 5 + 12 x 4 − 41x3 − 99 x 2 + 10 x + 24 = 0 p: ±1. ±3. ±6. 2. ±12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 8. f (− x) = −4 x5 + 12 x 4 + 41x3 − 99 x 2 − 10 x + 24 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. ± . ± 6. f ( x ) = − x3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 a. ±4 p 1 3 : ± 1.

we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. From the graph provided.PreCalculus 4E 54. we can see that 1 1 1 3 3 3 0 Thus. The zeros are and − ± 2 2 3 4 x3 − 8 x 2 − 3x + 9 = 0 ( x + 1)( 2 x − 3) = 0 or ( 2 x − 3) 2 = 0 2 x = −1 2 (1) = 0 ( x + 1) ( 4 x 2 − 12 x + 9 ) = 0 x +1 = 0 −1 ± 12 − 4 (1)(1) b. From the graph provided. Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. 2x − 3 = 0 2x = 3 x= The zeros are −1 and 3 2 3 . b. − ( x + 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 2 x +1 = 0 or x = −1 ( x − 2) 2 =0 x−2 = 0 x=2 The zeros are −1 and 2. 1 is an x3 intercept and is thus a zero of the function. 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3 x + 3 x + 3) = 0 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 55. b. 2 317 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 9 −1 ± −3 2 1 3 −1 ± 3i i = =− ± 2 2 2 1 3 1 i. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. f ( x ) = 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 a. We verify this below: −1 4 −8 −3 9 x= −4 12 −9 4 −12 Thus. Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. We verify this below: 1 3 3 2 2 −1 From the graph provided. ( x + 1) ( − x 2 + 4 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) = 0 56.5 f ( x ) = − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. so we use the quadratic formula: 1 or x 2 + x + 1 = 0 x− =0 3 a =1 b =1 c =1 1 x= 3 f ( x ) = 4 x3 − 8x 2 − 3x + 9 a. . We verify this below: −1 −1 3 0 −4 1 −4 −1 4 −4 4 0 − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 = 0 Thus.

x = −3. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. ± 2. we can see that 1 and 3 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. 0 2 x − 3x − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 4 Thus. ± 3. x = −2 The zeros are −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Factors of the constant term −6 : ±1. ± 2. so 3 is a zero of f. x= 1 is an 2 x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. b. so we use the quadratic formula: a =1 b = 2 c = 2 x = 1. 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 2 x + 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. 318 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 2 . 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 Test 3: 3 4 −18 −36 2 2 4 −18 −36 The possible rational zeros are: Thus. 2 = −4 −6 2 −2 −8 −12 b. 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 57. 3. From the graph provided. and 3. and −1 ± i . We verify this below: 1 2 2 −22 −18 36 Factors of − 6 ±1. ± 6 = Factors of 1 ±1 = ±1. ± 3. ± 6 We test values from above until we find a zero. we can see that 1 −1 −2 ± −4 −2 ± 2i = = −1 ± i 2 2 1 The zeros are . ± 2. x = 3. 36 12 0 2 x + 2 x − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 = 0 4 3 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( 2 x 2 + 10 x + 12 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( x 2 + 5 x + 6 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = 0 The remainder is 0. 3 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 To factor x − x 2 − 4 x − 6 . ± 3. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 a. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −3 −7 −8 6 −2 ± 22 − 4 (1)( 2 ) 2 (1) From the graph provided. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 58. One possibility is shown next: = ( x − 1) ( 2 x3 + 4 x 2 − 18 x − 36 ) 3 2 6 6 2 2 0 30 2 10 1 −1 −4 −6 1 4 −18 −36 6 3 0 Thus. . Inc. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 2 x 3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 a.

x = −2 3 2 The zeros are −2 . The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. 1 and 2. ± 4. ± 4. ± . We verify this below: 1 −5 4 −19 16 4 −5 −1 −20 −4 −5 −1 −20 −4 0 Thus. ± 4 = Factors of 5 ±1. so −1 is a zero of f. ± 2. . ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 5: ±1. ± 3 3 3 We test values from above until we find a zero. x = −1. we can see that 1 and 2 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. ± . ± . ± 3 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The remainder is 0.PreCalculus 4E 59. ± 5 1 2 4 = ±1. ± 5 −3 −8 −4 3 f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 4 x3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 0 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 To factor 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 . One possibility is shown next: Test −1 : − 1 3 11 12 4 8 4 From the graph provided. ± 2. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 3: ±1. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. We verify this below: 1 3 2 −15 −10 12 8 ( x − 1) ( 3 x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1) ( 3x 2 + 8 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1)( 3 x + 2 )( x + 2 ) = 0 5 −10 −20 −8 3 3 5 −10 −20 −8 0 Thus. 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 2 x = 1.5 f ( x ) = 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 a. ± 2. Section 2. ± 3 1 2 4 = ±1. we can see that 1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. One possibility is shown next: 319 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) 2 3 5 −10 −20 −8 6 22 3 11 24 12 8 4 b. ± 5 5 5 We test values from above until we find a zero. 3x + 2 x − 15 x − 10 x + 12 x + 8 5 4 3 2 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) = ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) To factor 3 x 3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 . − . x = − . we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. ± 2. ± 2. a. 0 Thus. −1 . We can now finish the factoring: 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 = 0 From the graph provided. Inc. ± 4 = Factors of 3 ±1. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. ± 2. x = 2. ± .

2000 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x b. 320 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 2000 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 1000 = 0 Find the roots. and ±2i . – 71.Polynomial and Rational Functions 1 Test − : 5 − 15 5 1 20 −1 5 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. The range is (0. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(0) ± (0)2 − 4(1)(−150) 2(1) x ≈ −12. x= 4 −(5) ± (5)2 − 4(1)(−100) 2(1) x ≈ −12. 1500) and (12. 15). x= 61. The depth can be 10 inches or 7.2 inches to obtain a volume of 1500 cubic inches. 1500). 12. reject the negative value.2.8 inches to obtain a volume of 2000 cubic inches. b. Answers may vary.8. 2000). x = −2i. x = − . x = 2i 5 1 The zeros are − . 1. a. 5 −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 The remainder is 0. 2000) and (10. 1⎞ ⎛ − ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 5 x 2 + 20 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 4 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 1500 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 750 = 0 Find the roots.2 Since the depth must be positive. x= b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The depth can be 5 inches or 12. Inc. 50 −1000 5 −100 The range is (0.8. V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 2000 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 63.8 Since the depth must be positive. 5 1 −5 −150 750 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x + 2i )( x − 2i ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1 x = 1. 0 −4 0 20 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 0 1 is a zero of f. The answers correspond to the points (5. The answers correspond to the points (7. a. 10 1 −5 −150 1000 10 1 64. 5 5 1 0 −750 0 −150 0 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. 15).2. . so − ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 62. reject the negative value. 7. 0 65.

74. . ± 3.PreCalculus 4E 72. 321 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±2. we see that there are no real solutions. ± 15. ± . 2. ± . ± . Publishing as Prentice Hall. no negative roots exist. ±9. 3 and 5. ±3. ± q 2 2 2 2 75. ±2. ±4 q: ±1. ±2 1 3 5 15 p : ± 1. it has no positive real roots. ±6 1 1 2 4 1 p : ± 1. ±2. ±3. ±3. ±3. 2 78. ± q 2 2 2 f ( x ) = x 5 − x 4 + x3 − x 2 + x − 8 f(x) has 5 sign variations. ± q 2 3 3 3 6 76. 2 x 4 + 7 x 3 − 4 x 2 − 27 x − 18 = 0 p : ± 1. ±2. ±15 q: ±1. ± q 2 4 100 0 From the graph.5 2 x 3 − 15 x 2 + 22 x + 15 = 0 p: ±1. 3. we see that the solutions are 1 2 . 1 3 9 p : ± 1. 2 2 6 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. ±18. ±18 From the graph. ±2 q: ±1. ±6. ± 4. ±5. 2 3 and 2. − 1. ±2 77. ± 2. ±9. ± 2. From the graph we see that the solutions are 1 − . ±4 1 1 p : ± 1. f ( x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(x) has no sign variations. ±2. ± . 2 73. ± . From the graph we see the solutions are 3 −3. so either 5. ± . we see that the solutions are 1 1 − and . The polynomial’s graph doesn’t intersect the x-axis. Inc. 40 0 4 x 4 + 4 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 p: ±1. Odd functions must have at least one real zero. ± . Section 2. ± . so no negative real roots exist. From the graph. ± . or 1 positive real roots exist. q : ± 1. ±6. f ( − x ) = − x5 − x 4 − x3 − x 2 − x − 8 f(–x) has no sign variations. − . f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. Even functions do not. ± . ± 5.

false. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 + 6 x3 − 4 x 2 − 24 x + 16 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 3x ( x + 5 ) = 208 ( 2 x 2 + 11x + 5) ( x + 2 ) − 3x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 5 x +10 − 3 x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x − 3 x 2 − 15 x − 198 = 0 2 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x − 198 = 0 2 ( x 3 + 6 x 2 + 6 x − 99 ) = 0 3 real zeros 2 nonreal complex zeros 81. makes sense 100. 91. 97. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Explanations will vary. 95. makes sense 99. The equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 0. The function is undefined at x = 1 and x = 2. . 98. 322 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 96. Because the polynomial has no obvious changes of direction but the graph is obviously not linear. 2 92. 94. the smallest degree is 5. Two roots appear twice. f ( x) = x 6 − 64 93. 3 f ( x) = 3 x 4 + 4 x3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x − 3 1 1 6 6 –99 3 27 99 9 33 0 x + 9 x + 33 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = −51 x = 3 in.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction. does not make sense. 89. 1 real zero 2 nonreal complex zeros 80. true 90. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 87. Answers will vary 82. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 2 real zeros 4 nonreal complex zeros 83. 85. The equation of the vertical asymptote is x = 1. Inc. Answers may vary. A sample change is: Descartes’ Rule gives the maximum possible number of real roots. Sample explanation: The quadratic formula is can be applied only of equations of degree 2. A sample change is: The equation has 0 sign variations. the smallest degree is 3. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction and two roots have multiplicity 2. the smallest degree is 5. 84. Changes to make the statement true will vary. f ( x) = x 3 − 6 x − 9 88. the smallest degree is 3. so no positive roots exist. A sample change is: Polynonials of degree n have at most n distinct solutions. 86. false.

∞ ) −75 − −12 = 5i 3 − 2i 3 = 3i 3 (2 − −3 ) = (2 − i 3) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 − 3 = 1 − 4i 3 7. ∞) range: ( −∞. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) − 4 2 The parabola opens up because a > 0. 5). 3i (2 + i ) = 6i + 3i 2 = −3 + 6i 3. (1 + i )(4 − 3i ) = 4 − 3i + 4i − 3i 2 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 =4 x−3 = ± 4 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i + i + i2 = ⋅ = 1− i 1− i 1+ i 1 − i2 1 + 2i − 1 = 1+1 2i = 2 =i x = 3± 2 The equation has x-intercepts at x = 1 and x = 5 . ∞) range: [ −4. –4).PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point 1. x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 3) − 4 2 ( x − 3) = 4+i+3= 7+i 4. x(2 x − 3) = −4 2 The parabola opens down because a < 0. Inc. 9. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) − 4 = 5 2 domain: (−∞. x-intercepts: 2 x 2 − 3 x = −4 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 = 0 x= f ( x ) = 5 − ( x + 2) 0 = 5 − ( x + 2) −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a ( x + 2) −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(4) x= 2(2) 2 2 =5 x+2 = ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: 3 ± −23 x= 4 3 23 x= ± i 4 4 f ( 0) = 5 − ( 0 + 2) = 1 2 domain: (−∞. 5. The vertex is (3. 6. (6 − 2i ) − (7 − i ) = 6 − 2i − 7 + i = −1 − i 2. 5] 323 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . The vertex is (–2.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 − 4(0) + 5 = 5 x= 3 Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 3 f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 The parabola opens up because a > 0. 2(−1) 2 ( x + 1) 3 =0 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 4 ± 36 −2 x = −2 ± 3 The x-intercepts are x = 1 and x = −5 . the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 9). Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) range: ( −∞. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at −1 . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. –2). The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 2 since the zero has multiplicity 2. Inc. ∞ ) f ( −2 ) = −(−2) 2 − 4(−2) + 5 = 9 The vertex is (–2. f ( x ) = − x2 − 4 x + 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 3(0)2 − 6(0) + 1 = 1 The parabola opens down because a < 0. 9] 11. and since the leading coefficient. ∞) range: [ −2. degree 5. x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 − 4 x + 5 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(−1)(5) 12. . b −4 vertex: x = − =− = −2 2a 2(−1) domain: (−∞. x-intercepts: 0 = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−6) ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) x= 6 ± 24 6 x= 3± 6 3 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. b −6 =− =1 vertex: x = − 2a 2(3) f (1) = 3(1)2 − 6(1) + 1 = −2 The vertex is (1. domain: (−∞. is positive. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 324 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1. since the zero has multiplicity 3.

−1 . −2 . the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 1. is positive. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. x = 2. and 2. the graph rises to the left and rises to the right. Apply the zero-product principle: x + 2 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −2 x=2 x =1 The zeros are −2 . is negative. and since the leading coefficient. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point f ( x ) = − ( x − 2) − ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 =0 2 15. 14. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. x = −1. 1. and 2. and since the leading coefficient. −1 . Inc.PreCalculus 4E 13. and since the leading coefficient. x = 1 The zeros are −2 . −1 . the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. since all have multiplicity 1. The graph crosses the x-axis at all four zeros. −2 . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph.. since all have multiplicity 1. x4 − 5x2 + 4 = 0 2 ( x + 1) 6 =0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 The zero is are −1 . x = −2. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around both at −1 and 2 since both zeros have multiplicity 2. and 2. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. . 1. f ( x ) = x4 − 5x2 + 4 (x Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 2 − 4 )( x 2 − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle. −1 . 325 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. degree 4. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) 6 − ( x + 1) = 0 6 ( x − 1) − 4 ( x − 1) = 0 ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. degree 6. and 2. 1. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 since the zero has multiplicity 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and since the leading coefficient. f ( x ) = x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 16. 1. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. is positive. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. 1. is negative. degree 3. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. degree 4.

± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. 3 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x x3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x = 0 x ( x 2 − 2 x + 26 ) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x + 26 does not factor. x = −1. since all have multiplicity 1. ± . 1 1 − . and 1. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. 0. x =1 The zeros are −1 . we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 List all factors of the leading coefficient −6 : ±1. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. −6 . ± 2. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 −6 7 0 −1 −6 −6 1 1 1 1 0 f ( x ) = 2 x3 − 2 x The remainder is 0. b = −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1 . and 1. 0. x = − . x = 3 2 1 1 The zeros are − . . ± 2 3 6 We test values from the above list until we find a zero. ± 6 2 x ( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 x ( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle: x = 0. Inc. 2 x3 − 2 x = 0 To find the zeros. 3 2 x= Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at 0 (the only real zero). is positive. degree 3. degree 3. ± 3. so we use the quadratic formula: x = 0 or x 2 − 2 x + 26 = 0 a = 1. Apply the zero-product property: 1 1 x = 1. c = 26 The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of − 6 ±1. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( 26 ) 2 (1) 2 2 ± −100 2 ± 10i = = 1 ± 5i 2 2 The zeros are 0 and 1 ± 5i . f ( x ) = −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 18. = 326 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . and 1. −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −6 x 2 + x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 − ( x − 1)( 3x + 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 19. 2. and since the leading coefficient. Thus. and since the leading coefficient. so 1 is a zero. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. ± 2. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. is negative. . ± 3. since all have multiplicity 1. ± . the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. since it has multiplicity 1.

21. ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −1) 2 (1) 2 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 1± 2 2 2 The zeros are 3 and 1 ± 2 . degree 3. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. b = −2. so 3 is a zero. ± 3 Factors of − 1 ±1 We test values from above until we find a root. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 1 0 −3 Test 3: −1 3 −1 1 5 −5 −3 −3 6 3 2 1 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 2 )( x − 1) = 0 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) = 0 ( x − 3) ( − x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 3) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x − 1 does not factor. and since the leading coefficient. ± 2 = = ±1. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. is negative. One is shown next: We test values from the previous list until we find a zero. so we use the quadratic formula: x − 3 = 0 or x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 0 x=3 a = 1. and the solution set is {−2. −1 . f ( x ) = − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 To find the zeros. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −3 : ±1. 3 and 1 ± 2 .1} . Inc. x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 x= 2 1 −2 1 1 −2 The remainder is 0. so 1 is a root of the equation. ± 3 = = ±1. c = −1 = 0 The remainder is 0. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. ± 2 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Apply the zero-product property: 2 ( x − 1) = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = −2 x −1 = 0 x =1 The solutions are −2 and 1. is positive. Factors of the constant term 2: ±1. ± 2 Factors of 1 ±1 Factors of − 3 ±1. since all have multiplicity 1. − ( −2 ) ± x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. 1. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. degree 3. 327 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 20. . ± 3 List all factors of the leading coefficient −1 : ±1 The possible rational zeros are: The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 2 ±1. and since the leading coefficient.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. Thus.

. ± 500. ± 100. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 5 −200 −500 20 250 500 2 25 50 0 ( x − 10 ) ( 2 x 2 + 25 x + 50 ) = 0 ( x − 10 )( 2 x + 5 )( x + 10 ) = 0 Apply the zero-product property: x − 1 = 0 or 3 x − 1 = 0 or 2 x − 1 = 0 x =1 2 The remainder is 0. ± . and the solution 2 5 ⎧ ⎫ set is ⎨ −10. x= Apply the zero-product property: x − 10 = 0 or 2 x + 5 = 0 or x + 10 = 0 x = 10 x=− 5 2 5 The solutions are −10. Factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 Factors of the leading coefficient 6: ±1. ±50. ⎬ . ± . 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 x= 3 2 1 1 The solutions are . ± 2. ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. ± 2 2 2 2 Factors of 500 = ±1. ± 125. Thus. ± 10. ± 5. ± 25. ± . ± 2 3 6 The possible rational zeros are: We test values from above until we find a root. 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( 2 x + 1)( 3x − 2 ) ( 2 x − 7 ) = 0 3 Apply the zero-product property: 2x +1 = 0 1 x=− 2 or (3x − 2) 3 = 0 or 3x − 2 = 0 x= 2 3 x = −10 2x − 7 = 0 7 T x= 2 1 2 7 and . 2 3 2 ⎧ 1 2 7⎫ is ⎨ − . 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 125. 10 ⎬ . ± 25. ± 3. ± 2. ± 250. ± 6 24. ± 50. and 10 . ± 2. . ± 20. ± 2 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of 6 ±1. ± 500 Factors of the leading coefficient 2: ±1. ± 3. Inc. and 1. Thus. ⎩ 2 3 2⎭ 328 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Test 1: 1 6 −11 6 We test values from above until we find a root. 2 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 20. Factors of the constant term −500 : ±1. and the solution set he solutions are − .Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. One is shown next: 6 −1 6 −5 −5 1 1 Test 10: 0 10 The remainder is 0. Factors of 2 ±10. ± . ± 4. ± 5. so 1 is a root of the equation. so 10 is a root of the equation. ± . and the solution set is 3 2 ⎧1 1 ⎫ ⎨ . ± 100. ± 4. One is shown next: 1 5 25 125 ±250. ± 2. − . − . ⎩3 2 ⎭ 23. 1⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. .

± 4. 4. ± 3. Note that x 2 + 1 does not factor. Using the Factor Theorem. Inc. Using the Factor Theorem. ± 3. ± i} . ± 3. Factors of the constant term 6: ±1. ± 6. ± 2 1 3 = ±1. As this point we know that −3 and 4 are roots of the equation. ± 2 1 are roots of 2 the equation. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c = −2 At this point. 4. ± . b = −2. We continue testing potential roots: 1 −1 −11 −1 −12 12 −3 −6 2 −5 ( x + 3) ( 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 Test −3 : −3 6 The remainder is 0.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point x − x − 11x − x − 12 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. so we use the square-root principle: x 2 + 1 = 0 Summarizing our findings so far. One possibility is shown next: −3 1 −17 −4 2 ⎝ 1⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2x − 4x − 4) = 0 2⎠ The roots are −3 . ± 4. and the solution set is {−3. 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We test values from this list we find a root. ± 6. ± 3. ± 2. ± 3. we need to factor 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 . we know that x − 1 is a factor. ± 2. 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 3) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 x − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x 4 + x3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 3. ± 12 = ±1 = ±1. Factors of the constant term −12 : ±1. ± 6. ± 4. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 4: ±1. Thus. ± 2. we have 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 ( x + 3) ( 2 x3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 x = −1 2 ( x + 3) ⎛⎜ x − x = ± −1 = ± i 26. and ±i . ± 12 12 1 −4 1 −4 0 Test The remainder is 0. Note that x 2 − 2 x − 2 does not factor. x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 − x − 12 = 0 1 2 6 −6 2 0 1 : 2 2 −5 −2 2 1 −2 −2 ( x + 3) ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 3) ⎡⎣ x 2 ( x − 4 ) + 1( x − 4 )⎤⎦ = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 1) = 0 2 −4 −4 0 The remainder is 0. ± 2. ± 2. ± 6 = Factors of 2 ±1. we know that −3 and The possible rational roots are: 329 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 6. ± 2. so −3 is a root. so we use the quadratic formula: x2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 a = 1. we know that x + 3 is a factor of the polynomial. . 4 3 2 −3 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 12 Factors of 1 ±1. ± 12 Factors of 6 ±1. so −3 is a root of the equation. 15 −2 To solve the equation above. Thus. so 1 1 is a zero and x − is a 2 2 factor. One possibility is shown next: Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Test −3 : x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 = x + 12 25. ± 2 2 We test values from above until we find a root.

2a 2 ( −1) −2 an = −2 f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) or − 2 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 2 x + 2 f ( −9 ) = −9 ⎡⎣ −18 − ( −9 ) ⎤⎦ 33. f (0) = an (0 − 2)(0 − 2)(02 + 9) 36 = 36an an = 1 Let x = height of triangle. This occurs when the two number are −9 and −18 − (−9) = −9 . The maximum daily profit is $1200. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 28. +x 2 Since a = −1 is negative. −18 − x = the other number The product is f ( x ) = x ( −18 − x ) = − x 2 − 18 x 32.Polynomial and Rational Functions x= − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −2 ) 2 (1) 2 30. . 2a 2 ( −1) f ( x) = 1( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 3 + 13x 2 − 36 x + 36 34. 2 2 –13 17 18 –24 8 -20 –12 24 6 0 –5 –3 The quotient is 2 x − 5 x − 3 x + 6 . P ( 75 ) = −752 + 150(75) − 4425 (2x 4 +3 x +1 x +1 3x2 − 1 − 13x 3 + 17 x 2 + 18 x − 24 ) ÷ ( x − 4 ) 4 = −5625 + 11. we know the function opens down and has a maximum at b 150 150 x=− =− =− = 75 . and 1 ± 3 . . 40 − 2x = base of triangle 1 1 A = bh = x(40 − 2 x) 2 2 A( x) = 20 x − x 2 The height at which the triangle will have 20 b maximum area is x = − =− = 10.81) . the function must have a real zero between 1 and 2 because f (1) and f (2) have opposite signs. . 2 ( x − 1)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f ( x) = an ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f (−1) = an (−1 − 1) ( (−1) 2 + 1) = −4an = 8 The x-coordinate of the maximum is b −18 −18 x=− =− =− = −9. 1 ± 3 ⎬ . 330 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 27. − 2 x2 6 x4 2 ± 4 + 8 2 ± 12 2 ± 2 3 = = = = 1± 3 2 2 2 1 The solutions are −3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The maximum product is f ( x) = an ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) 81. and the 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ solution set is ⎨ −3. = −9 ( −18 + 9 ) = −9 ( −9 ) = 81 29. 3 Let x = one of the numbers. 2 x2 − x − 3 3x − 1 6 x − 3x − 11x 2 + 2 x + 4 2 4 − 3 x3 − 9 x 2 + 2 x −3 x 3 − 9x + x + 4 −9 x 2 P ( x ) = − x 2 + 150 x − 4425 2 x2 − x − 3 + 31. A(10) = 20(10) − (10) 2 = 100 The maximum area is 100 squares inches. f ( x) = x 3 − x − 5 f (1) = 13 − 1 − 5 = −5 f (2) = 23 − 2 − 5 = 1 Yes. 250 − 4425 = 1200 The company will maximize its profit by manufacturing and selling 75 cabinets per day. Inc. 3 ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x − 3i )( x + 3i ) = ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) The vertex is ( −9.

a. x 2x2 x2 − 9 2(− x)2 2x2 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 The y-axis symmetry. Since n > m. y = 9 =3 3 y = 3 is a horizontal asymptote. 2 3x − 3 = 0 3x = 3 x =1 The x-intercept is 1. 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. Since n = m. Shift the graph 1 unit down by subtracting 1 from each y-coordinate.6 5.6 Section 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. The denominator cannot equal zero. x = −1 b. . x −5 = 0 x=5 { x x ≠ 5} b. Begin with the graph of f ( x) = 6. a. All real numbers. No vertical asymptotes. Vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: 3 y= =3 1 f ( x) = x −1 x −1 1 = = 2 x − 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x + 1 x = −1 3. c. y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. The denominator cannot equal zero. x ≠ −5} 2. a. g ( x) = 3x − 3 x−2 3(− x) − 3 −3 x − 3 3x + 3 = = f (− x) = −x − 2 −x − 2 x+2 no symmetry 3(0) − 3 3 f (0) = = 0−2 2 3 The y-intercept is . 2 x2 = 0 x=0 The x-intercept is 0. Inc. Check Point Exercises 1. f ( x) = Shift the graph 2 units to the left by subtracting 2 from each x-coordinate. 331 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since n < m. c. x 2 − 25 = 0 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 {x | x ≠ 5. 2(0) 2 f (0) = 2 =0 0 −9 The y-intercept is 0. c. x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = 1. there is no horizontal asymptote. 1 .

000) 100. C (100. 000 + 400(1000) 1000 = 900 C (1000) = c. . 000 = 450 C (10. 10. 1. f ( x) = 7x x −8 { x x ≠ 8} 3. vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 = 0 400 = 400 1 The cost per wheelchair approaches $400 as more wheelchairs are produced. 000 + 400 x x 500. C ( x) = 500. Inc. 500. x4 x2 + 2 (− x)4 x4 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x) 2 + 2 x 2 + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 f (0) = 2 =0 0 +2 The y-intercept is 0. a. 000) = 7. 10. 2 –1 5 the equation of the slant asymptote is y = 2x – 1. there is no horizontal asymptote. 2 2 –5 7 4 –2 g ( x) = 3x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 4) { x x ≠ 5. 000) = 500. 000) 10. and 100. x4 = 0 f ( x) = d. g ( x) = 2 x2 ( x − 2)( x + 6) { x x ≠ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 x 2 = −2 no vertical asymptotes horizontal asymptote: Since n > m. 000 = 405 The average cost per wheelchair of producing 1000. x ≠ −4} 4. 000 + 400(100.000. x x − 10 Exercise Set 2. C ( x) = 500. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 20 20 T (x) = + . 000 + 400(10. f ( x) = 5x x−4 { x x ≠ 4} 2. y= x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: 2 y= =2 1 9. $450. and $405.Polynomial and Rational Functions vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 x = 3. x ≠ −6} 332 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. respectively. x=0 The x-intercept is 0.000 wheelchairs is $900. 8. 000 + 400 x b.

−∞ 18. +∞ 27. −∞ 12. f ( x) = 15 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 x 22. x = 3 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. x ≠ −8} 7. x +8 x 2 − 64 x 2 − 64 = ( x − 8)( x + 8) h( x ) = 24. x+7 x 2 + 49 all real numbers f ( x) = 25. x+3 x( x + 4) x( x + 4) = 0 x = 0. 0 15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 29. 0 +∞ x+3 x( x − 3) x( x − 3) = 0 x = 0.6 x+7 x 2 − 49 2 x − 49 = ( x − 7)( x + 7) h( x ) = 23. { x x ≠ 8.PreCalculus 4E 5. x ≠ −7} 6. 8. 16. { x x ≠ 7. +∞ 11. −∞ 10. 28. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. Inc. Section 2. +∞ 26. 19. x+8 x + 64 all real numbers f ( x) = 9. −∞ 17. g ( x) = n = m. x = 3 g ( x) = x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = −4 2 13. r ( x) = 2 x x +3 x 2 + 3 has no real zeros There is no vertical asymptotes. x = −4 g ( x) = x x+4 x+4=0 x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = –4 f ( x) = 30. f ( x) = x−3 x−3 = 0 x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 31. x 1 = x( x + 4) x + 4 x+4=0 h( x ) = x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 14. r ( x) = f ( x) = 2 12 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 20. 1 21. 12 =4 3 . 1 x 1 = x( x − 3) x − 3 x −3 = 0 h( x ) = x x +4 x 2 + 4 has no real zeros There are no vertical asymptotes. 12 x 2 3x 2 + 1 horizontal asymptote: y = 333 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. x 12 x3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 34. g ( x) = n=m 15 x 2 3x 2 + 1 38. h( x ) = g ( x) = 3 5 1 x −1 40. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit to the right. horizontal asymptote: y = 33. x 2 3 −3 x + 7 5x − 2 n=m s f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 37. f ( x) = n=m 39. h( x ) = g ( x) = 1 x−2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 15 =5 3 1 2 units to the right. . −2 x + 1 3x + 5 1 2 units up. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 334 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. x h( x ) = 1 +1 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit up. 1 +2 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 36. h( x ) = 15 x 3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 35.

42. x2 1 2 units left. h( x ) = 1 ( x + 2) 2 h( x ) = 1 −3 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 4 units down. x2 down. 1 −2 x+2 46. Inc. g ( x) = 45. x2 . g ( x) = 1 −4 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 units left and 2 units x down. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 43. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left and 2 units x g ( x) = 1 ( x + 1) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left. x2 335 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g ( x) = Section 2. 1 3 units down.6 1 −2 x +1 44.PreCalculus 4E 41.

49. 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 3 units right and 2 units x up. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . so y = = 4 1 1 3 units right and 1 unit x2 up. so y = = 3 1 4x x−2 4(− x) 4x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 2 x + 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Inc. 48. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 4(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0−2 x-intercept: 4x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 336 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. h( x ) = 1 +2 ( x − 3) 2 50. 3x x −1 3(− x ) 3x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 1 x + 1 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0 −1 x-intercept: 3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x −1 = 0 f ( x) = x =1 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m.Polynomial and Rational Functions 47. h( x ) = vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 1 +1 ( x − 3) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = x=2 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m.

PreCalculus 4E 51. 0 =0 1 . f ( x) = 4x x2 −1 4 (−x) 4x f (−x) = =− 2 = –f(x) 2 ( −x) −1 x −1 Origin symmetry 4 ( 0) =0 y-intercept: 2 0 −1 x-intercept:4x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 f ( x) = 337 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 2.6 2x 2 x −4 2 (−x) 2x = –f(x) =− 2 f (−x) = 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 Origin symmetry 2 ( 0) 0 y-intercept: 2 = =0 0 − 4 −4 x-intercept: 2x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 53. so y = = 2 1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 52. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x2 x2 −1 f (−x) = 2 (−x) (−x) 2 2 −1 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 2x2 = f ( x) x2 − 1 2 (0) 2 02 − 1 = x-intercept: 2 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x2 −1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m.

so y = 1 −x x +1 − (−x) x f (−x) = = (−x) +1 −x +1 f ( x) = f(–x) ≠ f(x). . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: −1 = −1 n = m.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. so y = 1 4 x2 x2 − 9 f (−x) = 4(−x) (−x) 2 2 −9 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 4 ( 0) 4 x2 = f ( x) x2 − 9 2 02 − 9 =0 x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = ±3 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. 56. Inc. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry − ( 0) 0 y-intercept: y = = =0 0 +1 1 x-intercept: –x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 338 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry y-intercept: −3 ( 0 ) y= =0 0+2 x-intercept: –3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 horizontal asymptote: −3 = −3 n = m. −3 x x+2 −3 ( − x ) 3x f (−x) = = (−x) + 2 −x + 2 f ( x) = f–x) ≠ f(x). so y = = 4 1 55.

f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry −2 =1 y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 2 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 x = 2. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 2 2 y-intercept: y = 2 = = −1 0 + 0 − 2 −2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 2 = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1) = 0 x = −2. Inc. .PreCalculus 4E 57. Section 2. x = −1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 339 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 2 f (−x) = − 2 x + x−2 2 2 f (−x) = − = 2 2 (−x) − x − 2 x − x − 2 f ( x) = 2 = f(x) x −1 2 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: 2 2 y=− 2 =− =2 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: –2 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 (x – 1)(x + 1) x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 1 x −4 1 1 f (−x) = − =− 2 = f(x) 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 y-axis symmetry 1 1 = y-intercept: y = – 2 0 −4 4 x-intercept: –1 ≠ 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x2 = 4 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m or y = 0 f ( x) = − f ( x) = − 59. 2 2 x −1 60. 58. 2 (−x) 2 −1 =− 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). so y = 0 −2 x −x−2 −2 −2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x ) − (− x ) − 2 x + x − 2 f ( x) = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).

x+2 x + x−6 −x + 2 −x + 2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( −x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). x = 2 horizontal asymptote: n < m.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. 62. 2 x2 x2 + 4 2(− x) 2 2 x2 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) + 4 x + 4 y axis symmetry 2(0) 2 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +4 x-intercept: 2 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. Inc. so y = = 2 1 f ( x) = 63. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0+2 2 1 =− =− y-intercept: y = 2 0 +0−6 6 3 x-intercept: x+2=0 x = –2 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) x = −3. so y = = 4 1 f ( x) = 340 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = 0 f ( x) = 2 4 x2 x2 + 1 4(− x) 2 4 x2 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 ( −x) +1 x +1 y axis symmetry 4(0) 2 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +1 x-intercept: 4 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m.

so y = = 1 1 341 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 65. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 + 0 − 12 =3 y-intercept: y = 02 − 4 x-intercept: x 2 + x − 12 = 0 2 ( x − 3)( x + 4) = 0 x = 3. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 64. Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . so none f ( x) = x 2 + x − 12 x2 − 4 (− x) 2 − x − 12 x 2 − x − 12 f (−x) = = 2 x2 − 4 (−x) − 4 f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x). x = 4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 f ( x) = 66. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 2.6 x−4 2 x − x−6 x+4 −x − 4 f (−x) = =− 2 2 (−x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). ( x − 3)( x + 2) x = 3. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0−4 2 = y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−6 3 x-intercept: x − 4 = 0. so none f ( x) = 2 x4 x2 + 1 2(− x) 4 2 x4 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) +1 x +1 y-axis symmetry 2 ( 04 ) y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +2 x-intercept: 2 x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m. x4 x +2 (− x) 4 x4 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 (−x) + 2 x + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +2 x-intercept: x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m. so y = 0 67.

vertical asymptotes: 2 x2 − 5x = 0 x(2 x − 5) = 0 x2 x2 + x − 6 (− x) 2 x2 f (−x) = = 2 2 (−x) − x − 6 x − x − 6 f ( x) = x = 0.x =1 3 ( x + 1) 2 =0 x = –1 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) 2 + 0 − 4 −4 = y-intercept: y = 0 2(0) 2 − 5(0) no y-intercept x-intercepts: 3x2 + x − 4 = 0 (3 x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 x − 1 = 0 3x = −4 4 x = − . so y = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).Polynomial and Rational Functions 68. x = 2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . f ( x) = x2 − 4 x + 3 ( x + 1)2 ( − x ) − 4 ( − x ) + 3 x2 + 4 x + 3 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x + 1) ( − x + 1) 2 69. so y = = 1 1 70. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 02 − 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = =3 2 1 ( 0 + 1) x-intercept: x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = 3 and x = 1 vertical asymptote: 3x 2 + x − 4 2 x2 − 5x 3(− x) 2 − x − 4 3 x 2 − x − 4 f (−x) = = 2 2 x2 + 5x 2 ( − x ) + 5x f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f(–x) ≠ f(x). so y = = 1 1 342 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +0−6 x-intercept: x 2 = 0. 2 x = 5 5 2 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. x = 0 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 x= ( x + 3)( x − 2) = 0 x = −3. Inc.

f ( x) = a. so none exist. x2 − 4 x f ( x) = x2 + 1 x = x2 − 4 = − f ( x) −x −x origin symmetry 02 − 4 4 =− y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 vertical asymptote: x = 0 343 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. . x2 − 1 x ( − x ) − 1 x2 − 1 = = − f ( x) −x (−x) 2 f (−x) = Origin symmetry y-intercept: y = 0 2 − 1 −1 = 0 0 73. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. slant asymptote: 4 f ( x) = x – x y=x f (−x) = (−x) 2 +1 x2 − 4 x (−x) 2 −4 = x2 + 1 = − f ( x) −x −x Origin symmetry 02 + 1 1 = y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = 72. so none exist.PreCalculus 4E 71. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x – x y=x f ( x) = b. a. so none exist. b. no y-intercept x-intercepts: x 2 − 1 = 0 x = ±1 vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n < m. Section 2. a.6 horizontal asymptote: n > m.

vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. so none Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 4 + = = x2 − x − 6 −x − 3 −x − 3 f(–x) ≠ g(x). f ( x) = a. f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + x − 6 x−3 (−x) 2 + (−x) − 6 x2 + x + 1 −x −1 −x −1 no symmetry f (–x) ≠ f (x). so none exist.Polynomial and Rational Functions 74. 6 x –3 y=x+4 b. b. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry 0 2 + 0 − 6 −6 y-intercept: y = = =2 0−3 −3 x-intercept: x2 + x − 6 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 x = –3 and x = 2 344 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. no y-intercept x2 + 4 = 0 x 2 = −4 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m. f (–x) ≠ –g(x) 02 − 0 + 1 1 = = −1 y-intercept: y = 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: x2 − x + 1 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x–1=0 x=1 horizontal asymptote: n > m. f ( x) = a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 − x + 1 x −1 slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = x + x –1 y=x f ( x) = x2 − x − 1 x −1 (−x) − (−x) +1 2 f (−x) = 75. x2 + 4 x slant asymptote: 4 g ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + 4 x (−x) 2 +4 −x origin symmetry y-intercept: y = = x2 + 4 = − f ( x) −x 02 + 4 4 = 0 0 76. b. so none exist. a. . Inc.

. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = no symmetry no symmetry y-intercept: y = 03 + 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 = 0 + 2(0) 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x3 + 1 = 0 x 3 = −1 03 − 1 1 = 02 − 9 9 x-intercept: x3 – 1 = 0 x3 = 1 x =1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3. so none x = −1 vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x = 0 x( x + 2) = 0 x = 0. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = ( − x )3 − 1 − x 3 − 1 = (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).6 x3 + 1 x2 + 2 x 78. so none 345 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 77. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. Inc. slant asymptote: x−2 x 2 + 2 x x3 f ( x) = a. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n > m. (− x)3 + 1 − x3 + 1 = 2 2 (− x) + 2(− x) x − 2 x f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = a. +1 x + 2x 3 2 x3 − 1 x2 − 9 slant asymptote: 9x −1 x+ 2 x −9 x 2 − 9 x3 x − 9x 9x −1 − 2 x2 −2 x 2 + 4 x − 4x + 1 y=x y = x−2 b. −1 3 b.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. 5x2 x2 + 4 x + 4 ⋅ x2 − 4 10 x 3 = 5 x2 ( x + 2) ( x − 2) ⋅ 81. f ( x ) = 2x ( x − 2) x ( x − 3) − 9 ( 2 ) 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x − 18 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = ( x − 6 ) ( x + 3) x−6 = x − 3) 2 ( 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 ) So. f ( x ) = 80. ( x + 2) 2 10 x 3 1 2 x+2 = 2x ( x − 2) x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 = − 2 ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x+2 So. . Inc. f ( x ) = ⋅ 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) 346 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x−6 2 ( x − 3) x −5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 ÷ 10 x − 2 25 x 2 − 1 x −5 25 x 2 − 1 = ⋅ 2 10 x − 2 x − 10 x + 25 = ( 5 x + 1) ( 5 x − 1) 2 2 ( 5 x − 1) ( x − 5) = 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) x −5 So. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

f ( x ) = x 2 +1 x− 347 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Inc. 2 ( x + 3) − 4 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) x 2 − 4 − 3x + 6 x2 − 4 + x + 2 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 2 x + x−2 2x + 6 − 4x − 8 = ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = 3 3 1− x+2 = x + 2 ⋅ ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1 1 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1+ 1+ x−2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) − 3 ( x − 2 ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 ) 1− 2 = −2 x − 2 ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = −2 ( x + 1) −2 = = ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) ( x + 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) ( x − 1) So. f ( x ) = −2 So. Section 2. 1 x x 2 +1 x 2 +1 x+ x ( x − 1)( x + 1) So.6 2 4 − 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 4 x + 3 2 4 = − x + 2 x + 1 x + 3 ( )( ) ( )( x + 1) = 83. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 3) = x−2 x+2 x−2 x+2 1 2 x ⋅ x = x − 1 = ( x − 1)( x + 1) 84.PreCalculus 4E 82.

C(100. 000 When 100. 000 C (4000 ) = = $125 4000 When 4000 bicycles are manufactured.000 C ( x) = 100x +100. the average cost approaches $100.000 shoes are manufactured. g ( x) = 3x + 7 1 = +3 x+2 x+2 d. 000 + 30(100. c. The average cost decreases as the number of bicycles manufactured increases. g ( x) = −1 3x − 7 = +3 x−2 x−2 C ( x ) = 100 x + 100 . 1 As greater numbers of bicycles are manufactured. Inc.000 b. it costs $60 to manufacture each. 87. n = m. 1 As greater numbers of shoes are manufactured. 88.000 x 100 (500 ) + 100. it costs $33 to manufacture each. so y = 348 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. it costs $200 to manufacture each. C (500) = 100 = 100 . a. g ( x) = −1 2x − 9 = +2 x−4 x−4 C= 300. 000) = 33 100. The average cost decreases as the number of shoes manufactured increases. g ( x) = 2x + 7 1 = +2 x+3 x+3 89. C(x) = 30x + 300. 000 C (2000 ) = = $150 2000 When 2000 bicycles are manufactured. n = m. 100 (2000 ) + 100. 00) = d.Polynomial and Rational Functions 85. it costs $330 to manufacture each. 000 C (1000 ) = = $200 1000 When 1000 bicycles are manufactured.000 shoes are manufactured. 100(4000) + 100. it costs $300 to manufacture each. 100(1000) + 100. 000 = $300 500 When 500 bicycles are manufactured. 000 + 30x x 300000 + 30(1000) = 330 1000 When 1000 shoes are manufactured. it costs $150 to manufacture each. a. the average cost approaches $30. 30 = 30 . 86. C(1000) = 300. so y = 90. 300000 + 30(10000) C(10000) = = 60 10000 When 10. it costs $125 to manufacture each. .

2. Over time. 1.5 3 + 1 10 This verifies that the drug’s concentration after 3 hours will be 1. During the first hour. 11(36) 2 + 40(36) + 1040 16736 f (36) = = or 12(36) 2 + 230(36) + 2190 26022 about 64% of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. 89) 9 For a disease that smokers are 9 times more likely to have than non-smokers. 92. y = 100 As incidence of the diseases increases. 12 11 or about 92% of federal 12 expenditures will spent on human resources over time. the drug’s concentration will approach 0 milligrams per liter. a. T (x) = x x − 10 100(10 − 1) = 90 (10. Section 2.e.5 milligrams per liter. According to the function. 100(9 − 1) = 89 (9. This overestimates the actual percent found in the graph by 1%.5 as time goes by. e. 98. C ( 3) = a. The horizontal asymptote is y = 11 .6 From the graph the pH level of the human mouth 42 minutes after a person eats food containing sugar will be about 6.8. 89% of the deaths are smoking related. Inc. 100.4 ( 6 ) + 234 2 f (6) = 62 + 36 97. 90) 10 For a disease that smokers are 10 times more likely to contact than non-smokers. = 4. width. 5 ( 3) b. . the percent of death approaches.7 of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. No.8 The pH level after 6 minutes (i. and then slowly begins to approach the normal level. b. the normal pH level must be 6. 90% of the deaths are smoking related.5 ( 6 ) − 20. 100%.2 or about 63% 2708. Publishing as Prentice Hall. d. the pH level is lowest after about 6 minutes. b.0. According to the graph.PreCalculus 4E 91. d. 15 = 1. as a function of the 5000 . but never gets to be. 90 5 10 5 + = + 9x x x x The function that expresses the total time for driving 10 5 + . 2 f ( x) = 11x 2 + 40 x + 1040 12 x 2 + 230 x + 2190 1707. From the graph. P. the drug’s concentration after three hours appears to be about 1. y = 6. If trends continue. the pH level drops quickly below normal. From the graph. c. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 600 600 + . 6. c. Therefore. is less than the degree of the denominator. 95.5. so the the horizontal asymptote is y = 0 . x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip.5 milligrams per liter. = The degree of the numerator. the pH level rises back to the normal level.5 Over time. 94. the pH level appears to approach 6. a. 96. the lowest pH level) is 4. A = xy = 2500 2500 y= x P(9) = T (x) = 5000 2500 = 2x + x x The perimeter of the floor. 93. and hiking is T (x) = x x P(10) = 99. x is P(x) = 2 x + x P = 2x + 2y = 2x + 2 349 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the percentage approaches 100%. but never reaches 100%. From the graph.

Sample explanation: The function has one vertical asymptote. false. The graph increases from late teens until about the age of 25. Sample explanation: A rational function can have at most one horizontal asymptote. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (x) = 50 +2 x 27725(x − 14) − 5x x2 + 9 w=x+1 50 A= + 2 (x + 1) x 50 + 2x + 2 x 50 + 52 = 2x + x The total area of the page is 50 A(x) = 2 x + + 52. Answers may vary. 2⎭ ⎩ 350 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true 123. Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary. A = lw xy = 50 l=y+2= 115. true 114. 2 x 2 + x = 15 2 x 2 + x − 15 = 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) = 0 2x − 5 = 0 or x+3= 0 x= 5 2 x = −3 5⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 101. x = 2. 128. 121. 102. Sample explanation: As production level increases. x = 50 + b. 112. 120. – 127. and then the number of arrests decreases. 113. makes sense The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. does not make sense. A sample change is: The graph of a rational function may have both a vertical asymptote and a horizontal asymptote. the average cost for a company to produce each unit of its product decreases. 122. ⎬ . a. 117. does not make sense. There are about 356 arrests for every 100. g(x) is the graph of a line where f(x) is the graph of a rational function with a slant asymptote. true 124. x – 2 is a factor of x 2 − 5x + 6 . c. At age 25 the highest number arrests occurs. 116. – 111. 119. . Explanations will vary. In g(x). The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. Answers may vary. 118.000 drivers. Inc.

.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. x + 4 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −4 x=5 The boundary points are –2 and 4. x +1 x + 1 2( x + 3) −2= − x+3 x+3 x+3 x + 1 2x + 6 = − x+3 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 = x+3 −x − 5 x+5 = or − x+3 x+3 Section 2. −4 ) belongs to the solution set. 5 ) does not belong to the solution set. 5 ) ( 5. ( 5. x 2 − x > 20 x 2 − x − 20 > 0 ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle.7 Check Point Exercises 1. ( −4.7 x3 + x 2 = 4 x + 4 129. Publishing as Prentice Hall. true 2 2 Conclusion ( −∞. ∞ ) 0 (0) − (0) > 20 0 > 20. false 10 (10) − (10) > 20 90 > 20. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. −4 ) 30 > 20. The solution set is ( −∞. −4 ) ∪ ( 5. x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4( x + 1) = 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 − 4) = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 The solution set is {−2. 2} . ∞ ) or { x x < −4 or x > 5} . 351 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 130. Inc. true ( −4. Test Test Test Interval Number (−5) 2 − (−5) > 20 –5 ( −∞. −1.

Inc.1] does not belong to the solution set. x3 + 3x 2 ≤ x + 3 x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3 ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x = −1 Test Interval x =1 Test Number ( −∞. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or x ≥ 1} . ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. true 3 ( −∞. . −3] ∪ [ −1. −1] –2 x+3=0 x = −3 Test (−4)3 + 3(−4) 2 ≤ (−4) + 3 0 [1. ( −1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. −3) -4 ( −3.1] 0 ≤ 3 true ( 6 + 3)( 6 − 5 ) > 0 [1.1] or { x x ≤ −3 or − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1} . [1. The solution set is ( −∞. −1) belongs to the solution set.1] Conclusion 2 [ −1. true 2(0) ≥1 0 +1 0 ≥ 1.1] 0 [1. false 2(2) ≥1 2 +1 4 ≥ 1. does not belong to the solution true set. −1] does not belong to the solution (−2)3 + 3(−2) 2 ≤ (−2) + 3 4 ≤ 1 false set. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 2(−2) ≥1 −2 + 1 4 ≥ 1. 2x ≥1 x +1 2x −1 ≥ 0 x +1 x −1 ≥0 x +1 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x =1 x = −1 Test Test Interval Number ( −∞. −3) −16 ≤ −1 true belongs to the solution set. 352 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) –2 ( −1. 3. ( −3. ∞ ) 2 ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. −1) ∪ [1. The solution set is ( −∞. (0) + 3(0) ≤ (0) + 3 3 [ −1.

Section 2. false 2 ( −∞.1) 0 (1.7 1.PreCalculus 4E 4. belongs to the solution set. 4 ) 2 −16(2) 2 + 80(2) > 64 96 > 64. (x + 3)(x – 5) > 0 x = –3 or x = 5 T F T –3 5 Test –4: (–4 + 3)(–4 – 5) > 0 9 > 0 True Test 0: (0 + 3)(0 – 5) > 0 –15 > 0 False Test 6: (6 + 3)(6 – 5) > 0 18 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1) (1. − 2) or (4. 4 ) does not belong to the solution set. ∞). The object will be more than 64 feet above the ground between 1 and 4 seconds. (x – 4)(x + 2) > 0 x = 4 or x = –2 T F T –2 4 Test –3: (–3 – 4)(–3 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True Test 0: (0 – 4)(0 + 2) > 0 –8 > 0 False Test 5: (5 – 4)(5 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True (−∞. ∞ ) 5 Exercise Set 2. −16(5) 2 + 80(5) > 64 ( 4. ( 4. . ∞) 2. Inc. 353 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 3) or (5.7 −16t 2 + 80t > 64 −16t 2 + 80t − 64 > 0 −16(t − 1)(t − 4) > 0 t − 1 = 0 or t − 4 = 0 t =1 t=4 Test Interval Test Number Test −16(0) + 80(0) > 64 0 > 64. ∞ ) does not belong to the 0 > 64. true Conclusion ( −∞. false solution set.

Inc. 3). F –3 T 2 Test –4: (−4) − 4 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True Test 0: (0) 2 + 0 − 6 > 0 –6 > 0 False Test 3: 32 + 3 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 3. − 4) or (−1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. T F 1 T 4 Test 0: 0 − 5(0) + 4 > 0 x2 + x − 6 > 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) > 0 x = –3 or x = 2 2 T 4 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 5(2) + 4 > 0 −2 > 0 False 2 Test 5: 5 − 5(5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 5. ∞) . ∞) . 1) or (4. (x – 7)(x + 3) ≤ 0 x = 7 or x = –3 F 6. 2 x2 − 5x + 4 > 0 ( x − 4)( x − 1) > 0 x = 4 or F Test 0: 0 − 4(0) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False Test 2: 22 − 4(2) + 3 < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 4: 42 − 4(4) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (1. T T 2 (x + 1)(x – 7) ≤ 0 x = –1 or x = 7 F x2 − 4 x + 3 < 0 ( x − 1)( x − 3) < 0 x = 1 or x = 3 x =1 8. 2 354 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. T F –3 7 Test –4: (–4 – 7)(–4 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 – 7)(0 + 3) ≤ 0 –21 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 – 7)(8 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–3. F 1 F –1 7 Test –2: (–2 + 1)(–2 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 + 1)(0 – 7) ≤ 0 –7 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 + 1)(8 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–1. . 7. 7]. 7]. 4. − 3) or (2. 3 x2 + 5x + 4 > 0 ( x + 1)( x + 4) > 0 x = –1 or x = –4 T F –4 T –1 Test –5: (−5) + 5(−5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True Test –3: (−3)2 + 5(−3) + 4 > 0 –2 > 0 False Test 0: 02 + 5(0) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. ∞).

∞). Inc. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ T 1 13. . ∅. ∞ ⎟ . x= F 3 T 1 3 Test –1: 9(−1) 2 + 3(−1) − 2 ≥ 0 4 ≥ 0 True Test 0: 9(0)2 + 3(0) − 2 ≥ 0 –2 ≥ 0 False Test 1: 9(1) 2 + 3(1) − 2 ≤ 0 10 ≥ 0 True −2 ⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. Test 0: 0 − 2(0) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 2(2) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. ⎥ or ⎢ . 2⎠ ⎝ F 2 3 Test –5: 3(−5)2 + 10(−5) − 8 ≤ 0 17 ≤ 0 False Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 10(0) − 8 ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 True Test 1: 3(1) + 10(1) − 8 ≤ 0 2 5 ≤ 0 False 2⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −4. 1) or (1. 2 11.PreCalculus 4E 9. Section 2. ⎥ . 3⎦ ⎣ 355 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) < 0 x=3 F 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. F −2 3 x2 − 2x + 1 > 0 ( x − 1)( x − 1) > 0 x=1 T 1 −2 x= 3 3 T Test 0: 02 − 6(0) + 9 < 0 9 < 0 False 2 Test 4: 4 − 6(4) + 9 < 0 1 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. ⎟ . 10. 9 x2 + 3x − 2 ≥ 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) ≥ 0 3 x = 1 3 x = −2 2 x 2 + x − 15 < 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) < 0 2 x − 5 = 0 or x+3=0 2x = 5 5 x= x = −3 or 2 3x 2 + 10 x − 8 ≤ 0 (3 x − 2)( x + 4) ≤ 0 F T –4 T –3 2 x = or x = −4 3 F 2 x 2 + x < 15 F 5 2 Test –4: 2(−4) 2 + (−4) < 15 28 < 15 False Test 0: 2(0) 2 + 0 < 15 0 < 15 True Test 3: 2(3) 2 + 3 < 15 21 < 15 False 5⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −3.

− ⎟ or ⎜ . Inc. . ⎥ . 3x 2 + 16 x < −5 1 or 3 F Test –2: 4(−2) 2 + 7(−2) < −3 2 < −3 False T –2 2 7 ⎛ 7⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ Test − : 4 ⎜ − ⎟ + 7 ⎜ − ⎟ < −3 8 ⎝ 8⎠ ⎝ 8⎠ 49 49 − < −3 16 8 49 − < −3 True 16 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 7(0) < −3 0 < −3 False 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −1. 6 x2 + x > 1 16. − ⎟ . − ⎟ . ∞ ⎟ . 4⎠ ⎝ x = −2 F 1 3 Test –3: 5(−3) ≤ 2 − 3(−3) 2 –15 ≤ –25 False Test 0: 5(0) ≤ 2 − 3(0) 2 0 ≤ 2 True Test 1: 5(1) ≤ 2 − 3(1) 2 5 ≤ –1 False ⎡ 1⎤ The solution set is ⎢ −2. 4 x2 + 7 x + 3 < 0 (4 x + 3)( x + 1) < 0 4x + 3 = 0 or x +1=0 4 x-3=0 3 or x=− x = −1 4 3x2 + 5x − 2 ≤ 0 (3 x − 1)( x + 2) ≤ 0 3x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 3x − 1=0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 x= F − 34 –1 F Test –6: 3(−6) 2 + 16(−6) < −5 12 < –5 False Test –2: 3(−2) 2 + 16(−2) < −5 –20 < –5 True Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 16(0) < −5 0 < –5 False 1⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −5. ⎣ 3⎦ 356 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3⎠ ⎝ 4 x 2 + 7 x < −3 T T –5 1 3 F x = −5 1 3 F T Test –1: 6(−1) 2 + (−1) > 1 5 > 1 True Test 0: 6(0) 2 + 0 > 1 0 > 1 False Test 1: 6(1)2 + 1 > 1 7 > 1 True 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ 15. 3x 2 + 16 x + 5 < 0 6 x2 + x − 1 > 0 (3 x + 1)( x + 5) < 0 3x + 1 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 (2 x + 1)(3x − 1) > 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or 3x − 1 = 0 2 x = −1 1 x=− 2 3x = −1 3x = 1 1 x= 3 T F − 12 x=− − 13 5 x ≤ 2 − 3x 2 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

21.4 = 0 x=4 2 x 2 + 3x > 0 x(2 x + 3) > 0 x = 0 or x = − 3 2 T T F 0 T F − 32 4 T 0 Test –2: 2(−2) 2 + 3(−2) > 0 2 > 0 True Test –1: 2(−1)2 + 3(−1) > 0 –1 > 0 False Test 1: 2(1) 2 + 3(1) > 0 5 > 0 True 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 2⎠ ⎝ Test –1: (−1) 2 − 4(−1) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 − 4(1) ≥ 0 −3 ≥ 0 False 0 ≤ 2 True Test 5: 52 − 4(5) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True The solution set is (−∞. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 18. ∞). ∞).7 4 x2 + 1 ≥ 4 x 20. Section 2. 0). 357 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 T T 1 2 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(0) 1 ≥ 0 True Test 1: 4(1) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(1) 5 ≥ 4 True The solution set is (−∞. 19. − ⎟ or (0. 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) ≥ 0 2x −1 = 0 1 x= 2 x2 + 2x < 0 x( x + 2) < 0 x = 0 or x = –2 F T –2 F 0 Test –3: (−3) + 2(−3) < 0 3 < 0 False Test –1: (−1) 2 + 2(−1) < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 + 2(1) < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (–2. 0] or [4. ∞ ). x2 − 4 x ≥ 0 x( x − 4) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x . .

. 358 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.41 = F 1 Test –1: −(−1) + (−1) ≥ 0 −2 ≥ 0 False 2 F T F 2 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ Test : − ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 1 ≥ 0 True 4 Test 2: −(2) 2 + 2 ≥ 0 0. 5 3 − x2 + 2 x ≥ 0 x(− x + 2) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x = 2 F F T F 0 T F 0 2 Test –1: −(−1) + 2(−1) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False Test 1: −(1) 2 + 2(1) ≥ 0 1 ≥ 0 True Test 3: −(3)2 + 2(3) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0.41 The solution set is ⎡⎣ 2 − 2. ⎥ . −x2 + x ≥ 0 x= x2 − x ≤ 0 x( x − 1) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 1 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) F T 0 4± 8 2 = 2± 2 x ≈ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3x 2 − 5 x ≤ 0 x(3x − 5) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 24.59. 2 + 2 ⎤⎦ or [ 0. Inc. 2 5 3 Test –1: 3(−1)2 − 5(−1) ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 False Test 1: 3(1)2 − 5(1) ≤ 0 –2 ≤ 0 True Test 2: 3(2)2 − 5(2) ≤ 0 2 ≤ 0 False ⎡ 5⎤ The solution set is ⎢0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22.41] . x2 − 4 x + 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 4 x + 2 = 0 23. ⎣ 3⎦ x2 ≤ 4 x − 2 25. 1]. 2].59 or x ≈ 3.59 3. 3. −2 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0.

3. 3 30.73] . ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 1. and –3 Test one value in each interval. ∞). F T F 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 0 (2 x − 1)2 = 0 x= –1 31. 2. 32. ∞).73 0 x=3 3 T 5 The solution set is [0. ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x + 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –1. F T F T –0. F T F x2 ≤ 2x + 2 26.7 29. = F T 6 The solution set is [0.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.73 F –3 2. 1 2 T 4 T T 1 2 The solution set is (−∞. ∞). 3. –2] ∪ [–1. 3] ∪ [5.73 or x ≈ 2. ∞). 2. Inc. and 5 Test one value in each interval. x(3 − x)( x − 5) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. 2] ∪ [3. ∞ ). –2. x(4 − x)( x − 6) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. ∅. –2 T The solution set is [–3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. F F 3 The solution set is the empty set. 359 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 27. 4] ∪ [6.1 + 3 ⎤⎦ or [ −0.73. x − 2x − 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) 1 2 ± 12 2 = 1± 3 x ≈ −0. The solution set is ⎡⎣1 − 3.73 2 The solution set is [1. and 5 Test one value in each interval. . F T F x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 Solve x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 ( x − 3)2 = 0 28. and 3 Test one value in each interval.

and 2 Test one value in each interval. Inc. ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x + 2)( x − 2) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. . x3 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 > 0 x 2 ( x + 1) + 4( x + 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 + 4) ≥ 0 Boundary point: –1 Test one value in each interval. T T F ( x + 7)( x 2 − 1) < 0 ( x + 7)( x + 1)( x − 1) < 0 Boundary points: –7. 7 2 Boundary points: 2. T T F 7 2 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) ≥ 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. 360 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and 2 Test one value in each interval. 13 2 Test one value in each interval. T F F Test one value in each interval. 2 –7 –1 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. –3 3 The solution set is (−∞. ∞ ). −2] ∪ [2. F T F –2 –1 39. (5 − x)2 x − 13 <0 2 Boundary points: 5. –7) ∪ (–1. –1 and 1 Test one value in each interval. ∞).Polynomial and Rational Functions ( ) 33. ∞). 72 . 36. 13 .5 ) ∪ 5. –1. ( ) 34. −3]. 2 ) ∪ 2. 35. and 38. –1 The solution set is (−1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) ≥ 0 ( F x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 9 > 0 x 2 ( x − 1) + 9 ( x − 1) ≥ 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 9) ≥ 0 Boundary point: 1. T F T 13 2 5 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 7 < 0 x 2 ( x + 7) − ( x + 7) < 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. (2 − x)2 x − 72 < 0 37. ∞). 2 The solution set is [ −2. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 ) 40. and ( x − 3)( x 2 − 9) ≥ 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –3 and 3 Test one value in each interval. Test one value in each interval. F F T –2 1 The solution set is (–∞ . F T 1 The solution set is (1. 1). F T T 2 The solution set is [–2. –1] ∪ [1.

47. . 0 4 The solution set is (–∞. − 5) ∪ (2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –2 4 − 2x ≤0 3x + 4 4 3 T F − 43 F –5 T x+3 <0 x+4 x = −3 or F x = −4 T T 2 −4 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞.PreCalculus 4E 41. ∞). ∞). F F T 0 46. Inc. –2). − 3] ∪ (−2. Section 2. x − 4x ≤ 0 x 2 ( x − 4) ≤ 0 2 Boundary points: 0 and 4. ∞). T T x = 2 or x = − x+5 >0 x−2 x = –5 or x = 2 T F The solution set is (−∞. ∞). T T F 48. ∞ ).7 x3 − 9 x 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 9) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 0 and 9 Test one value in each interval. x−4 >0 x+3 x−4 = 0 x+3 = 0 x = −3 T F −x − 3 ≤0 x+2 x = –3 or x = –2 T F 4 49. 45. 44. –3). 3 x+5 <0 x+2 x = –5 or x = –2 F T F –4 –3 The solution set is (–4. Test one value in each interval. 9 The solution set is [ 0. 4). 0] ∪ [9. 361 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 3) ∪ (4. 43. The solution set is ( −∞. F –5 –2 The solution set is (–5. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2 The solution set is (−∞. T –3 x=4 –3 −x + 2 ≥0 x−4 x = 2 or x = 4 F 2 4 The solution set is [2. ⎟ ∪ [2. 42. 4].

3 ⎟ . therefore must be included in the solution set. x >0 x−3 x = 0 or x = 3 T F 0 T 3 The solution set is (−∞. ∞). x+4 >0 x x = –4 or x = 0 T –1 F –5 T –4 2 x +1 <2 x+3 x +1 −2<0 x+3 x + 1 − 2( x + 3) <0 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 <0 x+3 −x − 5 <0 x+3 x = or x = –3 T F F Values of x = −3 or x = 2 result in f ( x) = 0 and. 52. 362 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. T F –4 T –2 x −2>0 x −1 x 2( x − 1) − >0 x −1 x −1 x − 2x + 2 >0 x −1 −x + 2 >0 x −1 F 1 Values of x = −4 or x = 1 result in f ( x) = 0 and. − 3] ∪ (−1. Inc. 0 The solution set is ( −∞. The solution set is (−∞. F . − 4) ∪ (0. ∞) . The solution set is ( −∞. x >2 x −1 56. T − F –3 3 5 3 55. ∞). 0) ∪ (3. 3x + 5 ≥0 6 − 2x 5 x = − or x = 3 3 F 54. 2]. 53.Polynomial and Rational Functions 50. 2). therefore must be included in the solution set. ( x + 3)( x − 2) ≤0 x +1 x = −3 or x = −1 or x = 2 . ( x + 4)( x − 1) ≤0 x+2 x = −4 or x = −2 or x = 1 . T F T T –3 The solution set is (−∞.1] x = 2 or x = 1 F T 1 2 The solution set is (1. ⎣ 3 ⎠ 51. −4] ∪ ( −2. − 5) ∪ (−3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎡ 5 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ − .

∞). . 61. 2⎦ ⎝ 363 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 57. –2). ⎥ ∪ [ 2. x −2≥0 x+2 x 2( x + 2) − ≥0 x+2 x+2 x − 2x − 4 ≥0 x+2 −x − 4 ≥0 x+2 1 −1 < 0 x −3 1 x−3 − <0 x−3 x−3 1− x + 3 <0 x −3 −x + 4 <0 x−3 x = –4 or x = –2 x = 4 or x = 3 F F 3 F -6 7 5 1 <1 x−3 T x = −2 T 1 2 58.7 x+4 ≤3 2x − 1 x+4 −3≤ 0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 3 ( 2 x − 1) ≤0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 6x + 3 ≤0 2x − 1 −5 x + 7 ≤0 2x − 1 x= 7 or 5 x= T 59. Section 2. f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 2 x2 − 5x + 2 ≥ 0 Solve 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 2 T F 1 2 T 2 1⎤ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. ∞). Inc. x = −6 or 1 2 F T T -2 The solution set is (−∞. ∞ ) . 3) ∪ (4. x ≥2 x+2 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 The solution set is (−∞. x−2 ≤2 x+2 x−2 −2≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2 ( x + 2) ≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2x − 4 ≤0 x+2 −x − 6 ≤0 x+2 T T F –4 –2 The solution set is [–4. − 6] ∪ (−2.

it must be included in the domain. f ( x) = x −1 2x − 1 x −x + 1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 2x − 1 2x − 1 1 x= or x = 1 2 The domain of this function requires that F T 1 2 F 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and.Polynomial and Rational Functions 62. The domain is ( −∞. ⎛1 ⎤ The domain is ⎜ . thus. 1 f ( x) = 4x − 9x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 > 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(4 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 4 2 T F 1 4 T 2 1⎞ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. 64. it must be included in the domain. thus. ∞ ) . . f ( x) = 2x −1 x +1 The domain of this function requires that T F 2x x −1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 x +1 x +1 x = −1 or x = 1 T -1 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎟ ∪ ( 2. 4⎠ ⎝ 63. Inc. ∞ ) . 1⎥ . − 1) ∪ [1. ⎝2 ⎦ 364 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

−6 ) −7 ( −7 ) 2 + 2 ( −7 ) − 36 > 12 1 > 12. − 6. ∞ ) 7 7 + 2 ( 7 ) − 36 > 12 ( −8.7 x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 2 x − 36 < −12 or x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 x 2 + 2 x − 24 < 0 x 2 + 2 x − 48 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. ( 4. Section 2. True solution set. −6 ) does not belong to the solution set. −8 ) ∪ ( −6. The solution set is ( −∞. False ( −6. 365 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −8) belongs to the 27 > 12. −8 ) −9 ( −9 ) 2 x=6 Test Conclusion + 2 ( −9 ) − 36 > 12 ( −∞. ( −6.PreCalculus 4E 65. False to the solution set. ∞ ) belongs to the 2 27 > 12. True 5 52 + 2 ( 5) − 36 > 12 ( 6. ∞ ) or { x x < −8 or − 6 < x < 4 or x > 6} . 4 and 6 . 4 ) ∪ ( 6. 4 ) belongs to the 02 + 2 ( 0 ) − 36 > 12 ( 4. −3. and 1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 6. 4 ) 0 36 > 12. x2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 6 x + 1 < −8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 x2 + 6 x + 9 < 0 x2 + 6 x − 7 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 or x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 ( x + 6 )( x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 8 )( x − 6 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 or x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 ( x + 3) 2 =0 ( x + 7 )( x − 1) = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x + 3 = ± 0 or x + 7 = 0 3 0 7 x+ = x=− x =1 x = −3 The boundary points are −7. Inc. . 6 ) does not belong 1 > 12. x + 6 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 or x + 8 = 0 or x−6 = 0 x = −6 x=4 x = −8 The boundary points are −8. True ( −8. 66. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. solution set. 6 ) solution set.

x+3 = 0 x−2=0 x = −3 x=2 The boundary points are −3 and 2. −3) does not belong + 6 ( −5 ) + 1 > 8 4 ≥ 8. −3) does not belong > −4 + 3 −4 − 2 to the solution set. False 2 The solution set is ( −3. 3 1 > − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −7 ) ∪ (1. ∞ ) or { x x < −7 or x > 1} . 1 > 3. −7 ) belongs to the 17 ≥ 8. 3 3 − >0 x+3 x−2 3( x − 2) 3 ( x + 3) − >0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 3x − 6 − 3x − 9 <0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) −15 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) <0 Find the values of x that make the denominator zero. False ( −3. ∞ ) 3 Test Conclusion 3 3 ( −∞. 2 ) belongs to the > 0+3 0−2 solution set. 366 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. ∞ ) belongs to the 22 + 6 ( 2 ) + 1 > 8 2 to the solution set. True ( −7. 2 ) or { x −3 < x < 2} . . True 2 3 3 ( 2. False (1. ∞ ) (1. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. −3) −5 ( −5 ) 2 ( −7. 2 ) 0 ( 2. 3 3 > x+3 x−2 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. False 2 3 3 ( −3. 1 −3 > .1) does not belong 02 + 6 ( 0 ) + 1 > 8 0 solution set. ∞ ) does not belong > 3+3 3− 2 to the solution set. solution set. −3) ( −3.Polynomial and Rational Functions Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. 17 ≥ 8. True The solution set is ( −∞. 67. ( −3. −7 ) −8 ( −8 ) 2 Test Conclusion + 6 ( −8 ) + 1 > 8 ( −∞. 1 ≥ 8.1) to the solution set.

Inc. True 3 2 1 2 ( −3.PreCalculus 4E 68. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 1 2 ( −∞. −x − 3 = 0 x +1 = 0 x −1 = 0 −3 = x x = −1 x =1 The boundary points are −3 .1) belongs to the > 0 + 1 0 −1 solution set. False 3 1 2 ( −3. −3) belongs to the > −4 + 1 −3 − 1 solution set. True 1 2 (1.1) or { x x < −3 or − 1 < x < 1} .7 1 2 > x + 1 x −1 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. and 1. 1 1 − > − . 1 > −2. 1 2 − >0 x + 1 x −1 2 ( x + 1) x −1 − >0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) x −1 − 2x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) <0 −x − 3 <0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. 1 > 1. −1) does not belong > −2 + 1 −2 − 1 to the solution set. 2 −1 > − . −1) −2 ( −1. −1 . Section 2. −3) ∪ ( −1. ∞ ) does not belong > 2 + 1 2 −1 to the solution set. False 3 The solution set is ( −∞. . −3) ( −3. 367 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1) 0 (1. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞.

False 3 1. 2 ) ( 2.5 − 2 >0 2.1) does not belong (1. −1) belongs to the solution set. True 3 2. 2 ) belongs to the solution set.1) Conclusion ( −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. 2 − > 0.5 − 2 >0 1. −1) ∪ (1. 2 ) ∪ ( 3. True 3 The solution set is ( −∞. 7 > 0. Inc. False 3 42 − 4 − 2 >0 4 − 4 ( 4) + 3 2 ( 3. x2 − x − 2 >0 x2 − 4 x + 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.3) does not belong to the solution set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 1.5 2.52 − 1. ( 2.52 − 2.3) 1. True 15 0 02 − 0 − 2 >0 0 − 4 (0) + 3 2 (1. 368 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 > 0. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . ∞ ) to the solution set.5 ) + 3 − ( 3. x2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. . 10 > 0.5 ) + 3 5 > 0. 2 and 3. −1) ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) − 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 4 ( −2 ) + 3 ( −1.5 4 ( −1. Test Interval Test Number Test 2 −2 ( −∞.52 − 4 (1. x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 x=3 x =1 The boundary points are −1 .52 − 4 ( 2.

1. True 5 02 − 3 ( 0 ) + 2 0 − 2 ( 0) − 3 2 >0 ( −1.5 ) − 3 ( 2. . 6 > 0. −1) belongs to the ( −2 ) − 3 ( −2 ) + 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 2 ( −2 ) − 3 2 solution set. 2 and 3.1) does not belong to the solution set.52 − 2 ( 2. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. True 5 The solution set is ( −∞.5 ) − 3 (1. 2 ) ( 2. −1) Test Number −2 x − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 2 ( −1. ( 3.5 ) + 2 >0 1.3) does not belong − (1. 1. Section 2.7 x2 − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. to the solution set. False 7 >0 solution set. 2 ) belongs to the 2.3) − ( 3.52 − 2 (1. 2 ) ∪ ( 3.PreCalculus 4E 70.52 − 3 ( 2. x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x=2 x =1 x=3 The boundary points are −1 . ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.5 2 > 0. Inc. False 3 1. 369 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 4 42 − 3 ( 4 ) + 2 4 − 2 ( 4) − 3 2 3 > 0. Test Interval ( −∞. x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 x2 − 2x − 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle.5) + 2 >0 2. 12 > 0.52 − 3 (1.1) 0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 Test Conclusion ( −∞. True 15 2. −1) ∪ (1.5 1 > 0.

2 x 3 + 11x 2 < 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 < 0 1 In Problem 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≤ 0 .1⎟ . − . x2 − 4 the boundaries are −2 . These intervals are The graph of f ( x ) = indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. the solution set is { x x < −2 or − 1 ≤ x < 2} or ( −∞. These intervals are 2 1 indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis.Polynomial and Rational Functions 71. the solution set is ⎨ x − 6 ≤ x ≤ − or x ≥ 1⎬ or ⎢ −6. We verify this 2 numerically by substituting these values into the function: f ( −6 ) = 2 ( −6 ) + 11( −6 ) − 7 ( −6 ) − 6 = 2 ( −216 ) + 11( 36 ) − ( −42 ) − 6 = −432 + 396 + 42 − 6 = 0 3 2 3 2 1 11 7 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ − ⎟ − 7 ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = − + + − 6 = 0 2 2 2 2 8 4 2 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ f (1) = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 (1) − 6 = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 − 6 = 2 + 11 − 7 − 6 = 0 3 2 1 Thus. Thus. the solution set is ⎨ x x < −6 or − < x < 1⎬ or 2 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( −∞. Thus. Inc. the curve is below the x-axis when x < −6 and when − 1 ⎧ 1 ⎫ < x < 1 . We need to find the intervals on which 2 f ( x ) < 0 . Thus. the curve is below the x-axis when x < −2 and when −1 < x < 2 . 370 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Now. we verified that the boundaries are −6 . −6 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞ . −2 ) ∪ [ −1. the curve is above the x-axis when −6 < x < − 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ and when x > 1 . 2 ) . −1 . 2 2⎦ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ 72. − . and 1. − . + = = = = 4 ( x + 2 ) 4 ( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x 2 − 4 x +1 crosses the x-axis at −1 . . Thus. These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. Now. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 73. − ⎥ ∪ [1. 1 3 ≤− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + ≤0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) Simplify the left side of the inequality: 3( x + 2) 4 ( x + 1) x−2 x − 2 + 3x + 6 4x + 4 x +1 . and has vertical asymptotes at x = −2 and x = 2 . and 1. and 1. and 1. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 ≥ 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 ≥ 0 1 The graph of f ( x ) = 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 appears to cross the x-axis at −6 . We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≥ 0 . the boundaries are −6 . Now. ∞ ) .

s (t ) = −16t 2 + 48t + 160 The ball’s height will exceed that of the rooftop when s (t ) > 160 −16t 2 + 48t + 160 > 160 −16t 2 + 48t > 0 −16t (t − 3) > 0 The boundaries are 0 and 3.0875 x 2 − 0.7 1 3 >− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + >0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) x +1 >0 ( x + 2)( x − 2) The boundaries are −2 . These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. The curve is above the x-axis when −2 < x < −1 and when x > 2 . Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c. 3) .9 x + 11. f ( x) = 0.4(35) + 66.0875 x 2 + 1. Testing each interval shows that the diver will be higher than the cliff for the first half 2 ⎛ 1⎞ second after beginning the jump. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) > 0 . The function values and the data are identical. The interval is ⎜ 0. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 8t + 87 The diver’s height will exceed that of the cliff when s (t ) > 87 −16t 2 + 8t + 87 > 87 −16t 2 + 8t > 0 −8t (2t − 1) > 0 1 . Testing each interval shows that the ball will be higher than the rooftop for the first three seconds after the throw. and 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0875(35) 2 + 1. ⎝ 2⎠ The boundaries are 0 and 76. 75. Section 2. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well. 77. f (35) = 0. . ∞ ) .6 a.0875(35)2 − 0. the solution set is { x −2 < x < −1 or x > 2} or ( −2.6 g ( x) = 0. 371 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 ≈ 160 feet g (35) = 0. The interval is ( 0.6 ≈ 185 feet b.9(35) + 11. −1) ∪ ( 2. −1 .PreCalculus 4E 74. Inc. ⎟ .4 x + 66. Thus.

6 > 540 265. 540).4)2 − 4(0.0875 x 2 − 0. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well.9 x + 11. 0. .6 > 540 0. we must test the following intervals.4 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 78. f (55) = 0. 76 ) Test Conclusion 0.0875(50)2 − 0.0875 x 2 − 0. x= Interval Test Value 50 ( 30.6 > 540 901.4) ± (−0.0875(55)2 − 0.35 > 540.6 ≈ 381 feet b.4(50) + 66.0875)(528.4) 2(0.9) ± (1. Inc.0875 x 2 + 1.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.4(100) + 66.6 > 540 0. 0.0875 x 2 + 1.9)2 − 4(0. 76 ) does not belong to the solution set. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.6 ≈ 309 feet g (55) = 0. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 76 miles per hour.0875 x 2 + 1.9 x + 528. f ( x) = 0.9 x + 528. This is represented on graph (b) to the right of point (76.9(55) + 11.Polynomial and Rational Functions d. False ( 76.0875)(473.4 x + 473. ∞ ) 100 0.0875) x ≈ −71 or 76 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30.4) 2(0.6 a.0875 x 2 + 1.0875(100)2 − 0.6 > 540.4 x + 473.0875) x ≈ −89 or 68 372 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9 x + 11.4 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(1. True ( 30.4 x + 66.0875 x 2 − 0. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c.0875 x 2 − 0. On dry pavement. ( 76.6 g ( x) = 0.4 x + 66.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. d. 0. 0.4(55) + 66.0875(55)2 + 1.

( 68. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. if the area of the rectangle is not to exceed 114 square feet.0875(50) + 1. Thus. True solution set. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 68 miles per hour. ∞ ) 100 0. False to the solution set.0875(100)2 + 1. we must test the following intervals. (19. Inc. so we have that width = A ( x ) ≤ 114 x ( 25 − x ) ≤ 114 25 x − x 2 ≤ 114 Solve the related equation 25 x − x 2 = 114 0 = x 2 − 25 x + 114 0 = ( x − 19 )( x − 6 ) Apply the zero product principle: x − 19 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = 19 x=6 The boundary points are 6 and 19.68) Test Conclusion ( 30. If the length is 6 feet.19 ) 10 (19. Let x = the length of the rectangle.19 ) does not belong 25 (10 ) − 10 ≤ 114 2 150 ≤ 114. A = ( length )( width ) .35 > 540. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. This is represented on graph (a) to the right of point (68. 373 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 > 540 1076. 6 ) belongs to the 25 ( 0 ) − 0 ≤ 114 2 0 ≤ 114.9(100) + 11. 6 ) 0 Test Conclusion ( −∞. Interval Test Value 50 ( 30. then the width is 19 feet. then the width is greater than 19 feet. we know 50 = 2 x + 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 Now. ( 6.6 > 540 325. the length of the shorter side must be 6 feet or less.9(50) + 11.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 > 540. Since Perimeter = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) . . True ( 6.7 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30. 79. ∞ ) belongs to the 25 ( 20 ) − 20 ≤ 114 2 100 ≤ 114. True to the solution set. If the length is less than 6 feet. On wet pavement. False ( 68. ∞ ) 20 solution set. 540). 68) does not belong 2 0.

∞). -5) ∪ (2. 2⎭ 2⎦ ⎣ 374 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 87. Test Test Test Conclusion Interval Number ( 0. Inc. The solution set is (−∞. we ignore the larger solution. . The length of the shorter side cannot exceed 10 feet. – 85. 2l + 2w = P 2l + 2w = 180 2l = 180 − 2w l = 90 − w We want to restrict the area to 800 square feet. 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x − 3 ≤ x ≤ ⎩ 1⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ ⎬ or ⎢ −3.10] .10 ) (10. A ≤ 800 l ⋅ w ≤ 800 ( 90 − w ) w ≤ 800 90w − w2 ≤ 800 − w2 + 90w − 800 ≤ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 ≥ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 = 0 ( w − 80 )( w − 10 ) = 0 w − 80 = 0 or w − 10 = 0 w = 80 w = 10 Assuming the width is the shorter side. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph is below or equal to the x-axis for −3 ≤ x ≤ .10 ) is part of the solution set (10. That is. 86. 45 ) is not part of the solution set The solution set is {w | 0 < w ≤ 10} or ( 0. 81. Answers may vary. 45) 5 90 ( 5 ) − ( 5 ) ≤ 800 true 20 90 ( 20 ) − ( 20 ) ≤ 800 false 2 2 ( 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. ⎥ . Graph y1 = 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 in a standard window.

Graph y1 = 1 < x ≤ 4. x−4 in a standard viewing window.1125)(399. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −∞. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −4.3) ∪ [8.1125) x ≈ −59 or 60 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0. 89. 91.1 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. −1) ∪ [ 2.9 b. Inc. The graph is below the x-axis for x −1 The solution set is (1.1) 2(0.1)2 − 4(0.1125 x 2 − 0.1x + 55. we must test the following intervals.7 88. ∞ ) 1 2 and y2 = x +1 x+4 y1 less than or equal to y2 for −4 < x < −1 or x ≥ 2 . 4].1125 x 2 − 0. –1) or (2. . ∞).9 > 455 0. 0.1125 x 2 − 0. a.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. x= 375 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.1x + 55.1x + 399. 90. The solution set is (–2. 0. f ( x) = 0. x+2 and y2 = 2 x−3 y1 less than or equal to y2 for x < 3 or x ≥ 8 .1x + 399. ∞ ) 92.1125 x 2 − 0.1) ± (−0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

8 > 446 0. a.8 b. false. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 100 0. 60 ) does not belong to the solution set. does not make sense. is included in the domain of the first inequality.7)2 − 4(0. 99.52 ) does not belong to the solution set. ( 60.7(10) + 37.9 > 455 332.9 > 455.Polynomial and Rational Functions Interval Test Value 50 ( 0. Explanations will vary. On wet pavement. 93. −5) ∪ ( 5.1125(50) − 0. 101. Sample explanation: Polynomials are defined for all values. True ( 0. False ( 60.1(100) + 55. stopping distances will exceed 446 feet for speeds exceeding 52 miles per hour. we would not know whether or not to reverse the order of the inequality.7 x + 408. 1.2 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(0. does not make sense. 0.1375(10) + 0. Interval Test Value 10 ( 0. 0.8 > 446 58. stopping distances will exceed 455 feet for speeds exceeding 60 miles per hour. On dry pavement.1375(100)2 + 0. false.7(100) + 37. 60 ) Test Conclusion 2 0. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 100. A sample change is: The inequality cannot be solved by multiplying both sides by x + 3. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 94.7) ± (0. A sample change is: The inequalities have different solution sets. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we must test the following intervals. Sample explanation: To solve this inequality you must first subtract 2 from both sides.15 > 455.2) 2(0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.1(50) + 55. .1375 x 2 + 0. true 376 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 98. Thus. False ( 52. makes sense 95.1375 x 2 + 0.7 x + 37. We do not know if x + 3 is positive or negative. f ( x) = 0. ( 52.1125(100) − 0.9 > 455 1170. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary.2 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.55 > 446. A sample change is: The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} or ( −∞. ∞ ) 100 2 0. but not included in the domain of the second inequality.7 x + 37.1375 x 2 + 0.52 ) Test Conclusion 2 0. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.1375 x 2 + 0. The value. 96.8 > 446. false.8 > 446 1482.1375)(408. Inc. makes sense 97. True ( 0.1375) x ≈ −57 or 52 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0.7 x + 408.

imaginary The solution set is all real numbers. Inc. y = kx 2 64 = k ⋅ 22 64 = 4k 16 = k b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. the solution is all real numbers except 2. a. ∅. b. T –3 106. 3].PreCalculus 4E Section 2. The solution set is the empty set. x= 110. c.7 102. a. One possible solution: ≥0 x+4 9 − x2 ≥ 0 (3 − x)(3 + x) ≥ 0 3− x = 0 3+ x = 0 x = 3 or x = −3 104. 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 x−3 103. 108. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 4 x2 − 8x + 7 < 0 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 = 7 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. the solution includes only 2. the solution is the empty set. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 y = 16 ⋅ 52 y = 400 377 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 105. 8 ± 64 − 112 8 8 ± −48 ⇒ imaginary x= 8 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 > 0 7 > 0 True The inequality is true for all numbers. One possible solution: x 2 − 2 x − 15 ≤ 0 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 109. the solution is all real numbers except 2. . Test –4: −21 ≥ 0 no graph. 3 2 Test 0: 27 − 3(0) 2 ≥ 0 27 ≥ 0 True Test 4: 27 − 3(4)2 ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 8 ± (−8) 2 − 4(4)(7) x= 2(4) −21 ≥ 0 no graph -imaginary The solution set is [–3. Because any non-zero number squared is positive. and the reciprocal of zero is undefined. 4 x2 − 8x + 7 > 0 27 − 3(−4) ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 107. ∅. Because any number squared is positive.

varies directly as the cube of the length. l can be expressed as w = kl 2 . P k ⋅ 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Use the given values to find k . a. 000 12. 000 ⋅ 40 =k 60.8 Check Point Exercises 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. b. k x k 12 = 8 96 = k y= 111. w = kl 3 k x 96 y= x y= 2025 = k (15)3 0.6 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. y varies directly as the cube of x is expressed as y = kx3 . w = kl 3 96 x 96 y= 3 y = 32 y= c. = 6(11) = 66 A shower lasting 11 minutes will use 66 gallons of water. w = 0. x The length. Use the given values to find k .6l 3 Use the equation to find w when l = 25. y varies inversely as x is expressed as y = 5120 f 5120 10 = f 10 f = 5120 L= W = 6t Use the equation to find W when t = 11 . 378 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f Use the given values to find k . varies directly as the time. Section 2.6(25)3 = 9375 The 25-foot long shark was 9375 pounds. The volume of water. The weight. f k can be expressed as L = . y varies directly as x is expressed as y = kx. varies inversely as the frequency. k L= f k 8= 640 5120 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. w . 000 8=k 3. k L= f 5120 L= f Use the equation to find f when L = 10 . 000 = 40 12. W = 6t f = 512 A 10 inch violin string will have a frequency of 512 cycles per second. kA S= 112. W = kt 30 = k (5) 6=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. W . W = kt k . . L . Inc. t can be expressed as W = kt .6l 3 = 0. w = 0.

we have y = 1 2 hr . Use the given values to find k.8 1. V varies jointly with h and r 2 and can be modeled as V = khr 2 . kQ M = P k (16) 32 = 4 8=k Exercise Set 2. 2 8Q P 8(24) M = 8 M = 24 It will take 24 minutes for 8 people to solve 24 problems. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 let M represent the number of minutes let Q represent the number of problems let P represent the number of people M varies directly as Q and inversely as P is expressed kQ .PreCalculus 4E 4. y = kx 65 = k ⋅ 5 65 k ⋅ 5 = 5 5 13 = k The equation becomes y = 13 x. Inc. y = 9 x = 9 ⋅13 = 117 3. as M = P Use the given values to find k . Use the given values to find k. kQ M = P 8Q M = P Use the equation to find M when P = 8 and Q = 24 . the volume equation is V = V= π 3 Since y varies inversely with x. Use the given values to find k. 120π = k (10)(6)2 π 3 =k Therefore. Section 2. When x = 12. y = = 30. 3 (2)(12) 2 = 96π cubic feet k x k 6= 3 18 = k y= y= 18 =2 9 379 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. M = 5. y = kx 45 = k ⋅ 5 9=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. x . k y= x k 12 = 5 k 5 ⋅12 = 5 ⋅ 5 60 = k 60 The equation becomes y = . k . y = 13 x = 13 ⋅12 = 156. V = khr 2 4. x 60 When x = 2.

175 = k ( 2100 )( 4 ) 175 = k ( 8400 ) 1 =k 48 C= 9. 2 5 When x = 8 and z = 12. 28 ( 4 ) ( 8) 2 = 28 ( 4 ) 64 = C = kAT 7 4 10. we have y = 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. z 6 36 36 6 6. y = ( 8 )(12 ) = 240. Use the given values to find k. we have y = c Use the given values to find k. The equation becomes y = c When a = 5. . Since y varies jointly as x and z. Inc. y = kxz 1 14400 = 300 ( 2400 )( 6 ) = 48 48 Since y varies jointly as a and b and inversely as kab . z2 When x = 3 and z = 6.Polynomial and Rational Functions 5. b = 3. kab y= c k (3)(2) 12 = 25 k (6) 12 = 5 k (6) 12(5) = (5) 5 60 = 6k 60 6k = 6 6 10 = k 10ab . 3 c 9 y= kmn 2 p k (2)(1) 2 6 2k 15 = 6 2k 15(6) = (6) 6 90 = 2k 15 = 25 = k ( 2 )( 5 ) 25 = k (10 ) 25 k (10 ) = 10 10 5 =k 2 k = 45 5 xz. we have y = kxz. kx y= 2 z k ( 50 ) 20 = 52 k ( 50 ) 20 = 25 20 = 2k 8. 2 The equation becomes y = y= 45mn 2 45(3)(4) 2 2160 = = = 216 10 10 p 380 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the square root of c. c = 9. 10ab 10(5)(3) 150 y= = = = 50 . 10 x 10 ( 3) 10 ( 3) 30 5 y= 2 = 2 = = = . a= 7= 7= kb c2 k (9) ( 6) k (9) 2 36 k 7= 4 28 = k a= 7. z Use the given values to find k. Since y varies inversely as x and inversely as the kx square of z. 10 = k The equation becomes y = 10 x .

. Solving for y : y= x = kyz 2 x kyz 2 = 2 2 kz kz x y= 2 kz 13. kz yz x y= kz x= kyz . y Solving for y kz 3 x= y 16. x w kz 18. Solving for y: x = kyz 15. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = kz ( y + w) . x = kz ( y − w) x = kzy − kzw k3 z x= y x + kzw = kzy x + kzw kzy = kz kz x + kzw y= kz k3 z yx = y ⋅ y yx = k 3 z yx k 3 z = x x y= k3 z x 381 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 x = kyz . kz 3 . kyz w2 ⎛ w2 ⎞ w2 kyz ⎜ ⎟x = kz w2 ⎝ kz ⎠ xw2 y= kz 17. x = kyz 2 . x kyz = . Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 11. w Solving for y: kyz x= w x ( w ) = ( w ) kyzw x w = kyz x w kyz = kz kz 12. Solving for y: x = kz ( y + w) x= xy = y ⋅ x= x = kzy + kzw kz 3 y x − kzw = kzy x − kzw kzy = kz kz x − kzw y= kz xy = kz 3 xy kz 3 = x x kz 3 y= x 14.

When B = 56 . yx + xw = kz yx = kz − xw yx kz − xw = x x kz − xw y= x 15 = 0.9(6) = 5.75 20 = f A force of 20 pounds is needed.4 feet. 000 ) 170 = 343.9 = k The equation becomes T = 0. Since T varies directly as B.4 k (12 ) = 12 12 8. The tail length is 5.75 0. Since a man’s weight varies directly as the cube of his height.6 = k (4) 25. 170 = k ( 70 ) 3 170 = k ( 343. 3 w = 0. Use the given values to find k.000496 (107 ) M = kE 60 = k ( 360 ) 60 k ( 360 ) = 360 360 1 =k 6 M = d = kf 9 = k (12) 9 k (12) = 12 12 0. When h = 107. 225. Use the given values to find k. w = kh3 3. T = 0. kz y+w ( y + w) x = ( y + w) kz y+w 24. x= 23. 21.75 f = 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 19.7 0. 000 0. we have T = kB . Inc.7 D.4 = k (12 ) 8.000496h 3 .75 f = 0.6 k (4) = 4 4 0.9 B . y−w Solving for y: kz x= y−w ( y − w) x = ( y − w) 8. 000 ) k ( 343.7 D kz y−w xy − wx = kz xy = kz + wx xy kz + wx = x x xw + kz y= x 20. T = kB 3. we have w = kh 3 . When B = 6 . B = kD kz . Since B varies directly as D.75 f 15 0. 1 (186 ) = 31 6 A person who weighs 186 pounds on Earth will weigh 31 pounds on the moon.7 D = 0. 56 = 0. we have B = kD. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 343.4 .7 56 D= = 80 0.7 12 The equation becomes B = 0. 22.000496 = k The equation becomes w = 0.000496 (1. .4 k= = 0. x= 56 0.75 = k d = 0. 043) ≈ 607.7 It was dropped from 80 inches. 382 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Robert Wadlow’s weight was approximately 607 pounds. Use the given values to find k.

we have B = .5 .5 = 2 3 k 62.5 562.25 The intensity is 90 milliroentgens per hour.5 = 9 ⎛k ⎞ 9 ( 62. r 3. h = 0.5 . 27. Since the banking angle varies inversely as k the turning radius. The equation becomes B = r 112 112 When r = 3.88 d 5000 The water temperature is 0. 28. i= k d k 1000 (1000)4.75 = (1600) k 1600 6000 = k 6000 6000 6000 = = = 2.5 feet.5d 2 a.4 foot-candles at a distance of 50 feet. k I= 2. d k 62.8 h = kd 2 26.5 The banking angle is 32 when the turning radius is 3. B = = = 32 . k d2 k 3.5 = k 562. t= 383 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.52 6. h = 0. r Use the given values to find k. I = = = 90 2. b. k B= r k 28 = 4 ⎛k⎞ 28 ( 4 ) = 28 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4⎠ 112 = k 112 .5 .88 Celsius at a depth of 5000 meters.5(30) 2 h = 450 A water pipe with a 30 centimeter diameter can serve 450 houses. we have k I= . 2 h = 0.75 = 1600 i= (1600)3. .5 ) = 9 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ 562.4 d2 502 2500 The illumination is 2.4 = 30. d Use the given values to find k. Inc. Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance.5d 2 h = 0. The equation becomes I = d2 562. t= 4.5 When d = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 = k 29.5d 2 d 2 = 625 d = 625 d = 25 A water pipe with a 25 centimeter diameter can serve 1250 houses. 50 = k ⋅ 10 0.5d 2 1250 = 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.4 = (1000) k 1000 4400 = k 4400 4400 = = 0. we have pressure.75 = 2 40 k 3.

L = 10 ( 9 ⋅ 6 ) (10) = 1800 . If you move to a seat twice as d far. we have L = kAD . 703(170) I= ≈ 24.15 = 602 k (180) 35.5(4)(6) 2 = 0. Since index varies directly as weight and inversely as the square of one’s height. . Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the sound source. D = 10 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The intensity will I= = = ⋅ (2d ) 2 4d 2 4 d 2 100m c 100(40) 80 = c 4000 80 = c 4000 80c = c ⋅ c 80c = 4000 80c 4000 = 80 80 c = 50 The chronological age is 50.5 e = 0.4 and is not overweight.4. kw I= 2 h k (180 ) 35.15 = 3600 126540 = k (180) 1200 = k (3 ⋅ 6)(20) 1200 = 360k 1200 360k = 360 360 10 k= 3 The equation becomes L = 10 AD 3 When A = 6 ⋅ 9 = 54 . h When w = 170 and h = 70. So the sound 4 1 of what it was originally. 4 k a k 1 k t= = ⋅ 3a 3 a t= A year will seem to be 1 of a year. (70)2 This person has a BMI of 24. i= be multiplied by a factor of intensity is 36. km c k (25) 125 = 20 k (25) 20(125) = (20) 20 2500 = 25k 2500 25k = 25 25 100 = k i= 35.Polynomial and Rational Functions 33. k= 32. 3 384 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. e = kmv 2 36 = k (8)(3) 2 36 = k (8)(9) 36 = 72k 36 72k = 72 72 k = 0. 1 . we k have I = 2 .15 = 3600 k (180) (3600)35. Inc. So we have k k 1 k . 3 The heat loss is 1800 Btu . we kw have I = 2 .5mv 2 = 0. then d = 2d . Use the given values to find k.5(4)(36) = 72 A mass of 4 grams and velocity of 6 centimeters per second has a kinetic energy of 72 ergs. 34. L = kAD 31. Since heat loss varies jointly as the area and temperature difference. h Use the given values to find k. 126540 = 703 180 703w The equation becomes I = 2 .

000 ) (3. 150 = k (4 ⋅ 5)(30) 150 = k (20)(900) 150 = 18000k 150 18000k = 18000 150 1 =k 120 1 1 (3 ⋅ 4)(60) 2 f = as 2 = 120 120 1 (12)(3600) = 120 = 360 Yes. a.87 × 1012 ) 176. makes sense 52.8 a. 695. 000 = 326. does not make sense. – 48. Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary. can be modeled as P = kv 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. C= f = kas 2 b. does not make sense.5 k 12(0.5) = (0.5 k =6 6 The equation becomes R = . 2 k ( 2. Using one of I the given ordered pairs to find k . Use the given values to find k. 000 = 16269841. 000)(220. 000 = ( 420 ) 39. If v = x then P = k ( x) 2 = kx 2 If v = 2 x then P = k (2 x) 2 = 4kx 2 If the wind speed doubles the pressure is 4 times more destructive. 51. makes sense 53. Since the current varies inversely as k resistance we have R = . d b.875 There are approximately 17. P. d2 0.PreCalculus 4E 37. the independent variable can not be zero.5) 0. c. varies directly as the square of wind velocity. . Since the average number of phone calls varies jointly as the product of the populations and inversely as the square of the distance. Answers may vary.875 daily phone calls. v.27k 0. we have kP P C = 12 2 .02 P1 P2 . Sample explanation: A direct variation with a positive constant of variation will have both variables increase simultaneously. k 12 = 0. 000) (400) 2 = 17. 385 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 400 326. 50.02(650. 38. 0. Pressure. Answers will vary. kP P C = 12 2 d k ( 777. the wind will exert a force of 360 pounds on the window. 2 49.02 ≈ k The equation becomes C = c. Section 2. I 40. Sample explanation: For an inverse variation. Current varies inversely as resistance. 000) 326. Inc.

Illumination. v. Since 50 ≈ 7 . can be modeled as I = 2 . to triple the heat the resistant must be reduced by a multiple of 3. kv 2 H= r If the voltage remains constant. 6. x x 4. and inversely as the resistance. 6 6 5−i = ⋅ 5+i 5+i 5−i 30 − 6i = 25 + 1 30 − 6i = 26 15 − 3i = 13 15 3 = − i 13 13 386 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. can be modeled as I = 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. Chapter 2 Review Exercises If I = k ⇒d= d2 (8 – 3i) – (17 – 7i) = 8 – 3i – 17 + 7i = –9 + 4i 2. d. r. (3 − 4i ) 2 = 32 + 2 ⋅ 3(−4i ) + (−4i )2 = 9 − 24i − 16 = −7 − 24i 57. Inc. 4i (3i − 2) = (4i )(3i ) + (4i )(−2) = 12i 2 − 8i = −12 − 8i 56. 60. the Hubble telescope is able to see about 7 times farther than a ground-based telescope.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. H. 59. (7 + 8i )(7 − 8i ) = 7 2 + 82 = 49 + 64 = 113 58. d If I = x then x = 1. d. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. = 7 ⋅ 2 + 7(3i ) + (−i )(2) + (−i )(3i ) k . 3. . I. I. x 1 1 k x= 2 ⇒d = x then 50 50 d (7 − i )(2 + 3i ) = 14 + 21i − 2i + 3 = 17 + 19i 50k k = 50 . d k k If d = 15 then I = 2 = 15 225 k k If d = 30 then I = 2 = 30 900 900 =4 Note that 225 If the distance doubles the illumination is 4 times less intense. varies directly as the square of the voltage. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. 5. Illumination. 55. The Heat.

∞) range: ( −∞. 8. 9. x= 6 ± 36 − 40 4 6 ± −4 x= 4 6 ± 2i x= 4 6 2i x= ± 4 4 3 1 = ± i 2 2 = 4i 2 − 3i 2 ⎧3 1 3 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − i. (−2 + −100) = (−2 + i 100) −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) x= −32 − −18 = i 32 − i 18 = i 16 ⋅ 2 − i 9 ⋅ 2 2 2 2x − 6x + 5 = 0 2 = (−2 + 10i ) 2 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. 4] } The solution set is 1 − i 3 . + i ⎬ .PreCalculus 4E 7. 387 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 2 x − 2x + 4 = 0 2 =4 x + 1 = ±2 x = −1 ± 2 x = −3 or x = 1 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) + 4 = 3 2 x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(4) 2(1) x= 2 ± 4 − 16 2 The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . 4 + −8 4 + i 8 4 + 2i 2 = = = 2+i 2 2 2 2 11. Chapter 2 Review Exercises 3 + 4i 3 + 4i 4 + 2i = ⋅ 4 − 2i 4 − 2i 4 + 2i 12 + 6i + 16i + 8i 2 = 16 − 4i 2 12 + 22i − 8 = 16 + 4 4 + 22i = 20 1 11 = + i 5 10 12. Inc. ⎩2 2 2 2 ⎭ = (4i − 3i ) 2 =i 2 13. 1 + i 3 . 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x + 1) + 4 2 = 4 − 40i + (10i ) 2 = 4 − 40i − 100 = −96 − 40i ( x + 1) 10. 2 ± −12 2 2 ± 2i 3 x= 2 x= x =1 ±i 3 { domain: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

∞ ) 17. b. 19.025(0) 2 + (0) + 6 = 6 The ball was tossed at a height of 6 feet.025(20) 2 + (20) + 6 = 16 The maximum height of 16 feet occurs when the ball is 20 yards downfield. ∞) range: [ −8. Inc. f (−3) = 2(−3) 2 + 12(−3) + 703 = 685 domain: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2a 2(−1) The maximum value is f (7).025 x 2 + x + 6 f (0) = −0. ∞) range: [ −2. ∞ ) The maximum height will occur at the vertex. 388 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = − x + 2x + 3 f (7) = −(7) 2 + 14(7) − 106 = −57 2 = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 b. a. f ( x) = − x 2 + 14 x − 106 a. domain: (−∞. ∞) range: ( −∞. –2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 4)2 − 2 16. f (x) = (x + 4)2 − 2 vertex: (–4. f ( x) = −0. domain: (−∞.025) f (20) = −0. The axis of symmetry is x = –4. Since a > 0 the parabola opens up with the minimum value occurring at 12 b x=− =− = −3 . ∞) range: [ 685.Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. 2a 2(2) The minimum value is f (−3). −57 ] f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 12 x + 703 a. 4] b. ∞) range: ( −∞. f ( x) = −0. ∞ ) 15. .025 x 2 + x + 6 1 b x=− =− = 20 2a 2(−0. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 18. domain: (−∞. f ( x ) = 2 x2 − 4 x − 6 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 6 − 2 2 ( x − 1) − 8 2 ( x + 4)2 = 2 x+4=± 2 x = −4 ± 2 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 4)2 − 2 = 14 = –1 axis of symmetry: x = 1 domain: (−∞. Since a < 0 the parabola opens down with the maximum value occurring at 14 b x=− =− =7.

389 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = (35 + x)(150 – 4x) 2 y = 5250 + 10x − 4x The maximum area is achieved when the width is 250 yards. The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. f ( x) = −0. 24.000 square yards when the width is 250 yards and the length is 1000 − 2 ⋅ 250 = 500 yards. The minimum is at b 14 14 x=− =− = − = −7. 2a 2 ( −2 ) −4 23.025)(6) x= 2(−0.25 or 1 tree 2a 2(−4) 4 The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees.PreCalculus 4E c. The numbers which minimize the product are 7 and −7 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 feet will maximize the area. The minimum product is −7 ⋅ 7 = −49. The maximum area is A ( 250 ) = 250 (1000 − 2 ( 250 ) ) −b −10 5 = = = 1. Chapter 2 Review Exercises The ball is at a height of 0 when it hits the ground. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 1000 1000 b x=− =− =− = 250. 000. so graph (c) is the best match. y= A ( x ) = −2 x + 1000 x 2 Since a = −2 is negative. 2a 2 (1) 2 −(1) ± (1) 2 − 4(−0.7 4 125 feet by 166.025 x 2 + x + 6 21. A ( x ) = x (1000 − 2 x ) 1000 − 3x 4 3 2 x + 250x 4 −b −250 = = 125 2a 3 2 − 4 1000 − 3(125) = 166. Inc. − 5. .025 x 2 + x + 6 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = 14 x + x 2 = x 2 + 14 x. x= = 250 (1000 − 500 ) = 250 ( 500 ) = 125. The football’s path: 22. Maximize the area using A = lw. Let x = one of the numbers Let 14 + x = the other number The other number is 14 + x = 14 + ( −7 ) = 7. We need to minimize the function P ( x ) = x (14 + x ) 0 = −0. 3x + 4y = 1000 4y = 1000 – 3x 1000 − 3x y= 4 A=x =− x= 20. d. The area is maximized at 125. y = 36(150 – 4x) = 36(150 – 4·1) = 5256 The maximum yield will be 5256 pounds.3.3 yards downfield. f ( x ) = − x3 + 12 x 2 − x The graph rises to the left and falls to the right and goes through the origin.025) x ≈ 45.3(reject) The ball will hit the ground 45.

f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 ( x + 5)3 x = 1. f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f ( x) = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) zeros: x = 0. b. Since n is odd and an < 0. the graph touches the x-axis x = –5. f ( − x ) = −4 x + x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x) origin symmetry c. f ( x) = − x 4 + 1 f(x) falls to the left and to the right so graph (d) is the best match. . multiplicity 5. In the polynomial. 30. Since n is odd and an > 0. f (− x) = (− x )3 − (− x) 2 − 9(− x) + 9 = − x3 − x 2 + 9 x + 9 28. f ( x) = x3 − x 2 − 9 x + 9 33. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c. b. multiplicity 2. 26. the graph crosses the x-axis x = –2. h ( x ) = x5 − 5 x 3 + 4 x The graph falls to the left and rises to the right and crosses the y-axis at zero. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 21x 2 + 100. the graph crosses the x-axis x = 5. This is impossible. multiplicity 2. multiplicity 1. − 3. f ( x ) = x3 − 2 x − 1 f (1) = (1)3 − 2(1) − 1 = −2 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 1 = 3 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 29. Inc. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The leading coefficient is –0. multiplicity 1. so graph (a) is the best match. This function is not useful in modeling the number of thefts over an extended period of time.Polynomial and Rational Functions 25. we know that the elk population will die out over time. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. we know that even-degree polynomials with negative leading coefficient will fall to the left and to the right. 1 leading coefficient is –1 and the degree is 4. g ( x ) = x6 − 6 x 4 + 9 x 2 The graph rises to the left and rises to the right. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. 31. This means that the graph will fall to the right. the number of thefts would be negative. Applying the Leading Coefficient Test.87 and the degree is 3. 2. 27. The model predicts that eventually. –2 = x 2 ( x − 5) − 25( x − 5) = ( x 2 − 25)( x − 5) = ( x + 5)( x − 5) 2 x = –5. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125 f ( x) = 4 x − x3 a. so graph (b) is the best match. Since the graph falls to the right. 32. the graph crosses the x-axis 34. the graph touches the x-axis 390 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the f ( x) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 1) zeros: 3.

Since h is odd and an > 0. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 36. f (− x) = −2 x3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x − 12 The graph falls to the left and to the right. b. −2. 0. b. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 25(− x) 2 = − x 4 + 25 x 2 = f ( x) y-axis symmetry c. . − 2 c. f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 15 x 3 a. c. a. f (− x) = − f ( x) no symmetry f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry f(x) = (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x + 3) 3 zeros: x = 2. Inc. b. b. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c 3 x 4 − 15 x3 = 0 − x 4 + 25 x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 3x3 ( x − 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = 0. g ( x ) = − x 4 + 25 x 2 38. 5 391 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) = 3(− x)4 − 15(− x) 2 = 3x 4 + 15 x 3 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). The graph rises to the left and to the right.PreCalculus 4E 35. 5 − x 2 ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = –5. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 6(− x)3 − 9(− x) = − x 4 − 6 x3 − 9 x 2 f (− x ) ≠ f ( x ) f (− x) ≠ f ( x). The graph falls to the left and to the right. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 6 x3 − 9 x 2 a. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x 3 + 3x 2 − 8 x − 12 a. 37. = − x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 zeros: x = 0.

3 3 11 –20 7 35 –15 20 0 –35 –4 0 7 0 Quotient: 3 x − 4 x + 7 3 45. x = 1 The roots at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. − 10 Quotient: 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 − 2 x2 + 3x − 1 2 x + 1 4 x + 6 x + 3x − 1 2 43. x = 1. The root at –4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–4. 0) − 2 x2 − 1 −2 x 2 − 1 0 44. f ( x ) = − x 3 ( x + 4 ) ( x − 1) 2 6 x2 + 3x Since an < 0 and n is even. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. 5x + 1 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 7 x 2 + 9 x − 3 –13 5x + 5 2 −4 Quotient: 4 x 2 − 7 x + 5 − 2 4 x +1 20 x−2 –7 9 –3 –26 429 –5694 –33 438 –5697 Quotient: f (–13) = –5697 392 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. x = –4. x = 0. Inc. f ( x ) = 2 x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 42. 2 4x − 7x + 5 x + 1 4 x3 − 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 3 0 –2 –10 0 6 12 20 20 6 10 10 20 2 3 Quotient: 3x 3 + 6 x 2 + 10 x + 10 + 4 x3 + 4 x 2 − 7 x2 − 2 x −7 x 2 − 7 x 46. f (0) = −(0)3 ( 0 + 4 ) ( 0 − 1) = 0 (3 x 4 + 11x 3 − 20 x3 + 7 x + 35) ÷ ( x + 5) 2 –5 The y-intercept is 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 0) 2 x2 − 4x + 1 5 x − 3 10 x 3 − 26 x 2 + 17 x − 13 10 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 20 x 2 + 17 x − 20 x 2 + 12 x 5 x − 13 f (0) = 2(0) 2 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 5x − 3 The y-intercept is 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. . 10 5x − 3 4 3 4 x2 + 2 x2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 + 3 x 40. f(x) falls to the left and the right. x = 0. (3 x 4 − 2 x 2 − 10 x) ÷ ( x − 2) 2 41.

±2. so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 negative solutions. 1 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 q : ± 1. ± . are rational zeros. f(–x) has no sign variations. b. ± . 3 2 f ( x) = 2 x 5 – 3 x3 – 5 x 2 + 3x – 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. f(x) has 2 sign variations. ± 4. 1 1 −1. 54. –2}. ± . so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 positive solutions. p : ± 1. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 2 x3 + x + 5 c. −3 2 48. q : ±1 50. 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 4 x + 4) = 0 p: ±1 q: ±1. ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 4 x − 1) = 0 −4 ± 16 + 4 −4 ± 2 5 x= = = −2 ± 5 2 2 { } The solution set is 4. ± 2. ± 2. p 8 4 2 1 : ± 1. d. ± . f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 12 x − 8 p : ± 1. 1 –13 6 4 10 –6 5 –3 0 f ( x ) = f ( − x ) = 2 x4 + 6 x2 + 8 No sign variations exist for either f(x) or f(–x). ± 8 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 2 2 2 53. Inc. so no real roots exist.PreCalculus 4E 47. ±6 p 1 1 1 : ± 1. f ( − x ) = −6 x 3 + x 2 + 4 x + 1 f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 2 x3 − 8 x + 5 1 sign variation. ± 3 51. 3 2 55. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. 52. ± 4. 393 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± . ± 2. . x 3 − 17 x + 4 = 0 4 1 1 0 –17 4 4 16 –4 4 –1 0 c. ± 8. 49. −2 − 5 . . −2 + 5. 1 sign variation ⇒ 1 positive real zero f (− x) = − x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 2 sign variations ⇒ 2 or no negative real zeros ( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 = 0 f ( x) = x − 6 x + 14 x − 14 x + 5 p : ± 1. 1 negative real zero. f ( x) = ( x − 2)(2 x + 5 x − 3) 2 q : ±1 = ( x − 2)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) p : ± 1. 1. ± 4 q 1 Zeros: x = 2. ±3. ± 2. so f(x) = 0 has 3 or 1 positive real roots. –2 are rational zeros. 1 x = 1 or x = –2 The solution set is{1. ± 5 4 p : ± 1. ± q 2 3 6 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 2 sign variations. ± 5 q a. ± q 3 3 3 3 3 0 –4 1 4 –4 1 4 4 1 is a zero. so f(x) = 0 has no negative solutions. ± 4 –1 6 1 –4 1 –6 5 –1 6 –5 1 0 –1 is a zero. f ( − x ) = −2 x 5 + 3 x3 − 5 x 2 − 3x − 1 f(–x) has 2 sign variations. .

f ( x ) = x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 2 sign variations. 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x – ⎟ (8 x – 32 x + 30) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (4 x – 16 x + 15) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ p= b. ±8 1 1 1 p : ± 1. ⎬ . 8 9 –7 1 1 5 –1 10 –2 0 –36 46 –15 4 –16 15 –32 30 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 d. f ( − x ) = −8 x3 − 36 x 2 − 46 x − 15 c. 8 2 1 is a rational zero. are rational zeros. . ± 3. f ( − x ) = −2 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 7 x + 1 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 a. no negative real solutions. ± 6 q 8 x 3 – 36 x 2 + 46 x – 15 = 0 a. 1 negative real zero. 2 or 0 negative real zeros. Inc. 3 3 3 5 5 ± . p: ±1. ± 2. 2 1 3 5 . b. ±2 1 p : ± 1. ( x + 1)(6 x 2 – 5 x + 1) = 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 a. ⎩2 2 2⎭ 2 sign variations. ± q 2 formula gives x = 1 is a zero. . ± .± . ⎬.± .± 8 2 4 8 b. 2 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 1 2 1 2 2 3 sign variations. 2 2 2 −5 ± 29 2 ⎪⎧ 1 −5 + 29 −5 − 29 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .± . ± . p: ±1 q: ±1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 6 x3 + x 2 – 4 x + 1 = 0 d. ± 3. ±2. 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ (2 x + 10 x − 2) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + 5 x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Solving x 2 + 5 x − 1 = 0 using the quadratic 0 sign variations. ± . 394 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±3. . f ( x ) = 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 2 sign variations. d. f ( − x ) = x 4 + x3 − 7 x 2 − x + 6 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (2 x – 5)(2 x – 3) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1 5 3 x = or x = or x = 2 2 2 ⎧1 3 5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2 4 8 2 4 5 15 15 15 ± . 2 or 0 positive real zeros. x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 p : ± 1. ±15 q: ±1. ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 15. 3 2⎭ ⎩ x = –1 or x = 56. ± 5.± . 2 or 0 positive real zeros. 3 or 1 positive real solutions. ±4. . ±5. q 2 4 8 c. . 1 sign variation.± .± . ( x + 1)(3x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 or x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 58. 57.

−1. 1 sign variation. d. ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 6) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x − 3)( x + 2) = 0 The solution set is 59. x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 d. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. Inc. 2 2 395 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1. ±2. ±2. ±4 p 1 1 : ± 1. ± q 2 4 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 a. 2 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 − 2. 3} . ±4 q: ±1. 1 –1 Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 –1 –7 1 6 1 0 –7 –6 1 0 –7 –6 0 1 0 –7 –6 –1 1 6 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟⎜ x + ⎟ (4 x + 8) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎜ x − ⎟ ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 Solving x + 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula gives x = ±2i ⎧ 1 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . f ( x ) = 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 c. 1 2 4 0 7 0 –2 2 1 4 2 2 8 4 0 –1 2 1 –9 –4 4 4 10 2 –4 2 5 1 –2 0 2 5 1 –2 –2 –3 2 3 –2 0 4 4 2 8 4 –2 0 –4 0 8 0 1 . −1. c. ± . p: ±1. 2 ⎭ ⎩ 1 1 − . . x = −2 or x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ − 2. −1. 3 are rational zeros. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. 1 negative real zero. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + 7 x 2 − 2 1 sign variation. ± 4. 2 ⎬ . . . ± 2. ± q 2 b. p: ±1. { − 2. 1 positive real zero. are rational zeros. 2 are rational zeros. 60. − 2i ⎬ . 2 or 0 negative real zeros. 1. ± 2.PreCalculus 4E c. ±2 q: ±1. ⎩ 2 2 ⎭ 1 –1 –6 0 − 2. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 a. −1. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. 1 2 2 2 4 − 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 d. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. 2i.

. ±16 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. one with multiplicity two f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 3x3 + 3x − 2 p: ±1. ±4. 2 nonreal complex zeros 67. ± q 2 2 7 ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 = 0 x = –1 or x = 4 g ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 + x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 0 –1 ( x + 1) ( x – 8 x + 16) = 0 f ( x ) = 2 ( x + 1)( x + 6 x + 9 ) 3 1 2 2 2 3 –1 an = 2 –2 16 ( x + 1)( x3 – 7 x 2 + 8 x + 16) = 0 2 2 f ( −1) = an ⎡( −1) + 1⎤ ⎡( −1) + 6 ( −1) + 9 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ 16 = 8an 63. 4 nonreal complex zeros 3 –2 –4 2 –4 2 –1 2 –1 0 69. 2 real zeros. ±i. 24 2 f ( x ) = an ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 2 1 x – 6 x + x + 24 x + 16 = 0 f ( x ) = x − 6 x + 21x − 26 3 –6 66. ±8. ±2 q: ±1. 4 2 f ( x ) = an ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 3) 1 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 12 x3 + 20 x 2 + 12 x + 18 –8 –16 –7 8 16 0 2 –7 8 16 –1 8 –16 –8 16 0 2 65. 3 real zeros. ± 8. one with multiplicity two. g ( x) = 1 −1 ( x + 2) 2 2 x + 3x + 3x – 2 = 0 4 3 ( x + 2)(2 x3 – x 2 + 2 x –1) = 0 ( x + 2)[ x 2 (2 x –1) + (2 x –1)] = 0 ( x + 2)(2 x –1)( x 2 + 1) = 0 1 x = –2. 1 real zero. f ( x) = an ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) f (1) = an (1 − 2 ) ⎡⎣12 − 4 (1) + 13⎤⎦ −10 = −10an an = 1 g ( x) = x 4 − 6 x 3 + x 2 + 24 x + 16 p: ±1. ± 4. . 4 real zeros. 2 f ( x) = ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 2 )( 2 x − 1) 396 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. f ( x) = an ( x – 2)( x – 2 + 3i )( x – 2 – 3i ) 64. ±2 1 p : ± 1. 2 nonreal complex zeros 68. ± 16 q –1 1 f ( x ) = 1( x − 2 ) ( x − 4 x + 13) 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 13 x − 2 x 2 + 8 x − 26 1 62. ±2. ± 2. x = or x = ±i 2 1 The zeros are –2.

so y = 0 2x = – f ( x) x –9 2 =0 397 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 70. h( x ) = Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 +3 x −1 72. f ( x) = 2x x −9 Vertical asymptote: x+3=0 x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. Inc. . g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 2x – 4 = 0 x=2 2 (0) − 4 4 y-intercept: y = =− 0 + 3 3 ( ) Symmetry: g (– x) = 71. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = = 2 1 2 Symmetry: f (– x) = – origin symmetry x-intercept: 2x 0= 2 x −9 2x = 0 x=0 y-intercept: y = 2 ( 0) 02 − 9 Vertical asymptote: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3 and x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. g ( x) = 2x − 4 x+3 –2 x – 4 x+3 g(–x) ≠ g(x).

r(–x) ≠ –r(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 4 x + 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x + 1) = 0 x = –3. so y = = 1 1 74. . Inc. y= 2 x2 – 4 x + 3 (– x + 2) 2 r(–x) ≠ r(x). h(–x) ≠ –h(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x 2 − 3x − 4 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 1) x = 4 x = –1 02 − 3 ( 0 ) − 4 2 y-intercept: y = = 02 − 0 − 6 3 Vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 2) = 0 x = 3. –1 02 + 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = 2 4 (0 + 2) Vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 Symmetry: r (– x) = 398 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x2 = 0 x=0 02 y-intercept: y = =0 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 n > m. h ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. Slant asymptote: 1 y = x –1+ x +1 y=x–1 x2 + 4 x + 3 ( x + 2) x2 x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. no horizontal asymptote. r ( x) = x2 – x +1 f(–x) ≠ f(x). so y = = 1 1 x 2 − 3x − 4 x2 − x − 6 x 2 + 3x – 4 x2 + x – 6 h(–x) ≠ h(x).Polynomial and Rational Functions 73. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –2 Symmetry: h(– x) = 75.

Slant asymptote: 12 y = x+5+ x −3 y = x+5 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 2x − 3 4 x 2 + 16 x + 16 Symmetry: g (– x) = –2 x – 3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). f ( x) = 2 = – f ( x) x2 + 1 Origin symmetry x-intercept: −2 x 3 = 0 x=0 −2 ( 0 ) 3 y-intercept: y = = 0 =0 1 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 No vertical asymptote. Slant asymptote: 2 16 3 Vertical asymptote: 2x – 3 = 0 3 x= 2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m.PreCalculus 4E 76. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 = 0 g ( x) = 4 ( x − 2) = 0 2 x=2 y-intercept: 4 ( 0 ) − 16 ( 0 ) + 16 2 y= 77. so no horizontal asymptote. so no horizontal asymptote. Symmetry: f (– x) = 78. 1 0 2 + 2 ( 0 ) − 3 −3 y-intercept: y = = =1 0−3 −3 Vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. Horizontal asymptote: n > m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = –3. . so no horizontal asymptote. Slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = 2 x – 5 + 2x – 3 y = 2x – 5 −2 x 3 x2 + 1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 ( 0) − 3 =− 399 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y= Chapter 2 Review Exercises x2 + 2x − 3 x−3 f ( x) = –2 x + 2x x +1 2 y = –2x x2 – 2 x – 3 –x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). Inc.

Inc. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 = 0 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 4 ) = 0 The boundary points are −4 and − 12 . and 1. 80. 4 2 + x+3 x M ( x) 1. ∞ ) = 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. it costs $525 to manufacture each. it costs $25. 000 C (100. −4] ∪ ⎡⎢− .000 calculators are manufactured.05 The number of fish available in the pond approaches 3000.900 100 x 2 + 729 n < m so y = 0 As the number of years of education increases the percentage rate of unemployment approaches zero.6 x ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 The boundary points are −3 . 000) = = 25. . n = m. 000 C (1000) = = 75 1000 When 1. x3 + 2 x 2 > 3x Solve the related equation.000 x 84. b. a.48 x + 120. so y = = 3000 0. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 1 ( −∞.4 + 1. 81. 2 1⎞ ⎛ Testing each interval gives a solution set of ⎜ −3. ∞ ⎞⎟ ⎣ 2 ⎠ P ( x) = R( x) = 1 .58 ≈ 0.5 100.000 + 25x C ( x) = 83. x3 + 2 x 2 = 3x x 3 + 2 x 2 − 3x = 0 x ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 P( x) = M ( x) + F ( x) = 1. 000 = 1025 50 When 50 calculators are manufactured. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 < 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.000 When 100. c. 0.06 x + 235 c. Minimum costs will approach $25. C(x) = 50. 25 = 25 is the horizontal 1 asymptote. 1000 = lw 1000 =l w 25(50) + 50.58 x + 114. 0 ) ∪ (1.000 calculators are manufactured. C (50) = 1000 x 2000 P = 2x + x P = 2x + 2 85.S. 25(1000) + 50.4 = P( x) 3.52 3. 25(100) + 50. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 150 x + 120 0. it costs $1025 to manufacture each. 87. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 ≥ 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. the percentage of men in the U.05 x + 1 150 n = m. so y = 86. population will approach 52%.06 Over time. T (x) = 25 x + 50. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −3. 000) + 50. y= 400 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ( 2 x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 The boundary points are −3 and f ( x) = 82. it costs $75 to manufacture each.06 x + 235 1. d. a. 72. 25(100. b. 000 C (100) = = 525 100 When 100 calculators are manufactured.50 to manufacture each.58 x + 114.

91. 92. This overestimates the distance shown in the graph by 1 foot. ∞ ) .4 1200 cubic centimeters of melting snow will produce 134.125 x 2 + 2. 600 ft 401 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1) ∪ [ 2.4 cubic centimeters of water. f ( x) = 0. 90.6.3(35) + 27 ≈ 261 The stopping distance on wet pavement for a motorcycle traveling 35 miles per hour is about 261 feet.125 x 2 − 0. since this would make the denominator zero. ∞ ) . x+3 −5 ≤ 0 x−4 x + 3 5 ( x − 4) − ≤0 x−4 x−4 −4 x + 23 ≤0 x−4 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.8) 2 − 4(0. We exclude 1 from the solution set.112s.8 x − 168 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. −33. g ( x) = 0.6 ) ∪ ( 40. 23 The boundary points are 4 and . 40 Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. 0. w = 0. 0.125)(−168) 2(0. speeds exceeding 40 miles per hour on dry pavement will require over 267 feet of stopping distance. . The boundary points are –2 and 6. We exclude 4 4 from the solution set. w = 0.8 x + 99 0 < −16 ( t 2 − 3t + 2 ) 0 < –16(t – 2)(t – 1) F T F 1 2 The projectile’s height exceeds 32 feet during the time period from 1 to 2 seconds. 94. −2 ) ∪ ( 6.PreCalculus 4E 88. Inc. s = −16t 2 + v0 t + s0 32 < −16t 2 + 48t + 0 0 < −16t 2 + 48t − 32 x+3 ≤5 x−4 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. Thus.8 x − 168 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. ∞ ⎞⎟ .112=k Thus.125 x 2 − 0.125(35) 2 + 2. b. The boundary points are –1. Testing each interval gives a solution set of [ −1. ⎣4 ⎠ a.8) ± (−0. 89.112(1200) = 134. since this would make the denominator zero. w = ks 28 = k ⋅ 250 0. x= ( x + 1)( x − 2) ≥0 x −1 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. Chapter 2 Review Exercises x−6 >0 x+2 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.125 x 2 − 0. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 23 ( −∞. d = 16(10) 2 = 1. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. 1 and 2.3x + 27 93.125 x 2 − 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 x + 99 > 267 0. 4 ) ∪ ⎢⎡ . d = kt2 144 = k (3) 2 k = 16 d = 16t 2 g (35) = 0.125) x = −33. ∞ ) .

p= 96.Polynomial and Rational Functions 95. k w k 660 = 1. L = . 2 −49 + 3 −64 = 2(7i ) + 3(8i ) = 14i + 24i = 38i h=2 2c w 2(40) = 16 hours t= 5 t= 98. w 1056 = 440 2. 1890 R 1890 L= = 70 27 The average life span of an elephant is 70 years.4 The pitch is 440 vibrations per second. L= Chapter 2 Test 1. R Use L = This is an approximate model. Inc. 1056 .6 1056 = k p= Thus. . kc w k ⋅ 30 10 = 6 10 = 5h t= k to find k. p = 99. (6 − 7i )(2 + 5i ) = 12 + 30i − 14i − 35i 2 = 12 + 16i + 35 = 47 + 16i 2. R k L= R k 30 = 63 k 63 ⋅ 30 = 63 ⋅ 63 1890 = k 1890 Thus. 5 5 2+i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 5(2 + i ) = 4 +1 5(2 + i ) = 5 = 2+i 3. k d2 k 28 = 2 8 k = 1792 1792 l= 2 d 1792 l = 2 = 112 decibels 4 l= b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 97. V = khB 175 = k ⋅15 ⋅ 35 1 3 1 V = hB 3 1 V = ⋅ 20 ⋅120 = 800 ft 3 3 k= 402 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. c.

∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E Chapter 2 Test x2 = 4 x − 8 4. f ( x) = x 2 − 2 x − 3 y-intercept: f (0) = 02 − 2(0) − 3 = −3 f ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. −b 2 = =1 2a 2 f (1) = 12 − 2(1) − 3 = −4 vertex: (1. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: ( −∞.900. ∞ ) 8. 2) domain: ( −∞. 6. range: [ 4. f ( x) = −2 x 2 + 12 x − 16 Since the coefficient of x2 is negative. . 403 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = − x 2 + 46 x − 360 b −46 = = 23 2a −2 23 computers will maximize profit. 2] domain: ( −∞. −12 x= =3 2(−2) f (3) = −2(3) 2 + 12(3) − 16 = −18 + 36 − 16 =2 Maximum point: (3. the graph of f(x) opens down and f(x) has a maximum point. 4) axis of symmetry: x = –1 x-intercepts: ( x + 1) 2 + 4 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 −2 ± 4 − 20 = −1 ± 2i 2 no x-intercepts y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 1)2 + 4 = 5 x= domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . range: [ −4. Inc. –4) axis of symmetry x = 1 x-intercepts: x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 x = 3 or x = –1 x2 − 4 x + 8 = 0 x= x= −b ± b − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(1)(8) 2(1) 2 4 ± −16 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i x= 5. x=− f ( 23) = − ( 23) + 46 ( 23) − 360 = 169 2 Maximum daily profit = $16.

f ( x ) = x5 − x Since the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. and −3 − 11 . ±15.Polynomial and Rational Functions 9. b. 10. ± . ± 2. Solve the quotient x 2 + 6 x − 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula to find the remaining roots. ± . 49). ± . 2 x= 1 2 and . ± q 2 2 2 2 6x − 7x + 2 = 0 (3x – 2)(2x – 1) = 0 2 1 x = or x = 3 2 2 The other two roots are −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = The integral root is 2. ±6 q: ±1. ± 3. ± 2. 2. Let x = one of the numbers. –2}. 16. 1 1 9 16 –6 –3 –18 6 6 –2 0 Thus x = 3 is a root. ±2 1 3 p : ± 1. ± 15 q : ± 1. 2 3 404 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3 + 11 . ± 2 1 3 5 15 p : ±1. ± 6. the graph of f should fall to the left and rise to the right. ±3. 2. 11. ± 3. the possible rational zeros are the factors of 6 p p = : ± 1. ± q 2 2 14. ±2. 6 6 –19 16 –4 12 –14 4 –7 2 0 x= −(6) ± (6) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) −6 ± 44 2 = −3 ± 11 The zeros are −3 . x 3 + 9 x 2 + 16 x − 6 = 0 Since the leading coefficient is 1. There are 3 or 1 positive real solutions and no negative real solutions. The x-intercepts should be –1 and 1. a. a. f ( − x ) = −3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 − x − 1 f(–x) has no sign variations. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. f ( x ) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x − 5 x − 4 x + 20 = 0 3 2 x 2 ( x − 5) − 4( x − 5) = 0 ( x − 5)( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 5. The product is f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) = − x 2 + 14 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 14 14 x=− =− =− = 7. 14 − x = the other number. b. –2 The solution set is {5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 a. . This occurs when the two number are 7 and 14 − 7 = 7 . ± 3. ± . ±5. 12. ± 6 q f ( 7 ) = −7 2 + 14 ( 7 ) = 49 The vertex is (7. ± 5. Inc. Possible rational zeros are: p : ± 1. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 13. 15. –3 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. ±3. The maximum product is 49. f ( x ) = 3x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 + x − 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations.

∞ ) 17.PreCalculus 4E b. f(x) has zeros at –2 and 1. −1 and are zeros. −3) ∪ ( −3. 3 The zeros are −1 . f ( x) = a0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + i )( x − i ) f ( x) = a0 ( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) = a0 ( x 4 − 1) Since f (3) = 160 . –3 –3 2 −3 −10 0 −10 1 2 3 1 4 –1 2 0 Factor the quotient to find the remaining zeros. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3 x 2 − x + 2 = 0 0 −15 3 2 15 –4 0 −(3x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 3 Thus. Use synthetic division to verify this root. and the polynomial 2 factors as follows: 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 = 0 The zeros (x-intercepts) are –1 and 2 . 3 The y-intercept is f (0) = 2 ( x + 1) ( 2 x3 − 3x 2 − 10 x + 15) = 0 ( x + 1) ⎛⎜ x − 3⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2 x − 10 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Find the remaining zeros by solving: 2 x 2 − 10 = 0 2 x 2 = 10 x2 = 5 x=± 5 20. the graph: −1 2 −1 −13 5 15 –1 −2 3 10 −15 2 −3 −10 15 0 3 2 f ( x ) = −3 x 3 − 4 x 2 + x + 2 The graph shows a root at x = −1 . The zero at –2 has multiplicity of 2. then a0 (34 − 1) = 160 a0 (80) = 160 160 80 a0 = 2 a0 = f ( x) = 2( x 4 − 1) = 2 x 4 − 2 405 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Chapter 2 Test Verify that −1 and 3 are zeros as it appears in 2 19. x 3 + 3x 2 – 4 = ( x – 1)( x + 2) 2 18. 2 f ( x) = 1 ( x + 3) 2 domain: {x | x ≠ –3} or ( −∞. and ± 5 . . Inc.

Inc. f ( x) = 406 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 2 – x–2 y = x +2 Symmetry: f (– x) = 22.1) ∪ (1. so no horizontal asymptote exists. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. x x 2 − 16 domain: {x | x ≠ 4. –4 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. x ≠ –4} –x = – f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 16 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: x = 0 0 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 − 16 Vertical asymptotes: x 2 − 16 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 4) = 0 x = 4. –3 02 − 9 9 y-intercept: y = = 0−2 2 Vertical asymptote: x–2=0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 21. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) f ( x) = 23. 1 +2 x −1 domain: {x | x ≠ 1} or ( −∞. x2 − 9 x−2 domain: {x | x ≠ 2} f ( x) = x2 – 9 –x – 2 f(–x) ≠ f(x).

PreCalculus 4E 24. a. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x+1=0 x = –1 0 +1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 =− 0 + 2 (0) − 3 3 f ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. the production cost approaches $10 per radio. asymptote is x = 1 This represents the fact that as the number of satellite radio players produced increases. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . the horizontal 10 = 10 . 300. 1 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. =0 2x + 1 ≤3 x−3 2x + 1 −3 ≤ 0 x−3 10 − x ≤0 x −3 Boundary values: 3 and 10 Solution set: ( −∞. 2 02 + 3 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 3 = 0 x 2 = −3 No vertical asymptote. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. 27. Since the degree of the numerator equals the degree of the denominator. 000 + 10x x x 2 < x + 12 x − x − 12 < 0 2 25. so y = = 4 is the horizontal asymptote. Chapter 2 Test x +1 x + 2x − 3 x 2 + 2 x − 3 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) domain: {x | x ≠ –3. 1 2 C ( x) = 26.3) ∪ [10. Inc. 4 ) 4 x2 x2 + 3 domain: all real numbers 4 x2 = f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x +3 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 f ( x) = y-intercept: y = 4 ( 0) 28. b. x ≠ 1} –x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 2x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). ( x + 3)( x − 4) < 0 Boundary values: –3 and 4 Solution set: ( −3. ∞ ) 407 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x –3.

domain: (−2. ∞ ⎟ . 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 x= 5⎞ ⎛5 ⎛ ⎞ Test intervals are (–∞. |2x – 1| = 3 2x −1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 2 x − 1 = −3 2 x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The zero at –1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. 3⎭ ⎩3 4500 4500 = = 45 foot-candles d2 102 i= 9+ 12. the solution is (– ∞. –1. x3 + 2 x 2 − 5x − 6 = 0 p: ±1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. 2x − 5 > 3 2x − 5 > 3 2x > 8 x>4 2 x − 5 < −3 2x < 2 x <1 (−∞. . 2) range: [ 0. 3 2 = x x2 9 x 2 + 3x = 2 9 x2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) = 0 3x − 1 = 0 3x + 2 = 0 1 2 or x = − x= 3 3 2⎫ ⎧1 The solution set is ⎨ . 1 f )(−1) = f ( f (−1) ) = f (0) = 3 f ( x) → ∞ as x → −2+ or as 1 2 –5 –6 –3 3 6 –1 –2 0 x + 2 x – 5x – 6 = 0 3 x → 2− 2 ( x + 3)( x 2 – x – 2) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 x = –3 or x = –1 or x = 2 The solution set is {–3. There is a relative maximum at the point (0. ± 6 q –3 6. k d2 k 20 = 2 15 4500 = k i= 9. 2}. − ⎬ . ⎟ . ⎬. –1). 11. ±2. ±6 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ⎜ –1. ∞) 3x 2 > 2 x + 5 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 > 0 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 = 0 (3 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = –1 3 3x 2 − 5 x + 1 = 0 5 ± 25 − 12 5 ± 13 = 6 6 ⎪⎧ 5 + 13 5 − 13 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ±3. ⎝3 ⎠ 408 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2. (f 5. Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–2) 1. ∞ ) 10. 3). ± 3. 3. 1) or (4. 2. The zero at 1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. 7. 3⎠ ⎝3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛5 ⎞ Testing points. 8. –1) or ⎜ . 4. ∞ ⎟ . ⎜ . Inc. –1}.

16.PreCalculus 4E 13. 1. 14. 4 x-intercepts: f ( 0 ) = 03 − 4(0) 2 − 0 + 4 = 4 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. Inc. ( x − 4)( x 2 − 1) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = –1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y-intercept: f(0) = –8 409 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. Cumulative Review Exercises f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 x-intercepts: x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 = 0 15. an = 0 so the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. –9) x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 8 = 0 ( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 x = –4 or x = 2 x −1 x−2 vertical asymptote: x = 2 horizontal asymptote: y = 1 x-intercept: x = 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 f ( x) = 17. . f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x − 8 −b −2 = = −1 x= 2a 2 f (−1) = (−1) 2 + 2(−1) − 8 = 1 − 2 − 8 = −9 vertex: (–1. x 2 ( x − 4) − 1( x − 4) = 0 f ( x) = x 2 ( x − 3) zeros: x = 0 (multiplicity 2) and x = 3 y-intercept: y = 0 f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 n = 3.

19. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ⎡ 2( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 1⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ 2 x 2 − x − 1⎤⎦ =⎣ h 2 2 2 x + 4hx − x + 2h − h − 1 − 2 x 2 + x + 1 = h 2 4hx + 2h − h = h = 4 x + 2h − 1 410 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) ( f g )( x) = 2(4 x − 1) 2 − (4 x − 1) − 1 = 32 x 2 − 20 x + 2 20.Polynomial and Rational Functions 18. Inc.

f ( x) = 42. This overestimates the actual amount shown by $11. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g. the average amount spent after three hours of shopping at the mall is $160. graph g ( x) = 3x −1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 3x one unit to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates. Because c < 0.1 Check Point Exercises 1.Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Section 3.2(1.56) x Plot these points.20876 ≈ 160 According to the function. Inc.2(1. f (3) = 42. 2.56)3 ≈ 160. Note that the function g ( x) = 3x −1 has the general form g ( x) = b x + c where c = −1 . connecting them with a continuous curve. . x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 f ( x ) = 3x f (−3) = 3−3 = 1 27 1 9 1 3 f (−2) = 3−2 = f (−1) = 3−1 = f (0) = 30 = 1 f (1) = 31 = 3 f (2) = 32 = 9 f (3) = 33 = 27 4. x f ( x ) = ( 13 ) −2 ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 91 −1 0 1 2 f ( x ) = 3x 3−2 = 19 3−1 = 13 30 = 1 31 = 3 32 = 9 g ( x) = 3x −1 3−2 −1 = 3−3 = 271 3−1−1 = 3−2 = 19 30 −1 = 3−1 = 13 31−1 = 30 = 1 32 −1 = 31 = 3 x −2 411 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. connecting them with a continuous curve. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates. x −2 −1 0 1 2 3. we Plot these points.

−1. r⎞ ⎛ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ a. 918. Because c > 0.75 x −2 −1 0 1 2 ≈ 0.47 A = Pe rt A = 10. Inc. 4 −1.4 ≈ 13. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ = $14. e –0.08(5) = $14. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g.042(34) ≈ 4446 In 2012 the gray wolf population of the Western Great Lakes is projected to be about 4446.665 4.556 2. 5 3 ≈ 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .4 ≈ 29. 23⋅4 ≈ 10. 12.974 8.1 1. e 11. 6 7.08 ⎞ A = 10.3 ≈ 9. 4(5) x g ( x) = 5x −2 5−2 = 251 −1 5−1 = 15 0 50 = 1 1 51 = 5 2 52 = 25 Exercise Set 3. Note that the function g ( x) = 2 x + 1 has the general form g ( x ) = b x + c where c = 1. f ( x) = 1066e0. nt ⎛ 0.95 10.472 f ( x ) = 4x 4−2 = 161 4−1 = 14 40 = 1 41 = 4 42 = 16 2012 is 34 years after 1978. 32.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5. x f ( x) − 2 −2 2−2 = 14 −1 2−1 = 12 0 20 = 1 1 21 = 2 2 22 = 4 6.042 x f (34) = 1066e0. e 3.387 ≈ 0.25 b.967 3.859.2 −0. 3 5 ≈ 11.116 ≈ 0. we graph g ( x) = 2 x + 1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 2 x up one unit.964 9. x g ( x) = 2 + 1 2−2 + 1 = 14 + 1 = 54 2−1 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 23 20 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2 21 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3 22 + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5 x 5. 000e0.5 = 0.125 6. e 2.242 412 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7.

1 g ( x) = ( 32 ) x ( 32 ) = 49 −1 ( 32 ) = 23 0 ( 32 ) = 1 1 ( 32 ) = 32 2 ( 32 ) = 94 −2 g ( x) = ( 43 ) x 15. −2 −1 0 1 2 14. −2 −1 0 1 2 x 16.PreCalculus 4E x 13. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x −2 −1 0 1 2 Section 3. Inc. ( 34 ) = 169 −1 ( 43 ) = 43 0 ( 43 ) = 1 1 ( 43 ) = 43 2 ( 43 ) = 169 −2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 h ( x ) = ( 12 ) x ( 12 ) = 4 −1 ( 12 ) = 2 0 ( 12 ) = 1 1 ( 12 ) = 12 2 ( 12 ) = 14 −2 h ( x ) = ( 13 ) x ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 19 −2 413 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .

This is the graph of f ( x) = 3x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis.8) 2 = 0.6 ) 25. 414 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = ( 0. Inc. ∞ ) 27.6 2 (0.6) −1 = 1. asymptote: y = −1 23.8)0 = 1 1 (0. shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x downward one unit. range: ( −1. so the function is G ( x) = 3− x. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x +! can be obtained by shifting x −2 (0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions x 17. .6)2 = 0. This is the graph of f(x) = 3x. ∞ ) .6)−2 = 2. ∞ ) . so the function is F ( x) = −3x. 21. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x − 1 can be obtained by 19.64 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the x- axis. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit to the right. ∞ ) downward. 24. range: ( 0. range: ( 0. = 1. so the function is g ( x) = 3x −1. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. so the function is H ( x) = −3− x. 20. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the y- axis.8) −1 = 1. x f ( x) = (0. 22. ∞ ) 18.36 the graph of f ( x) = 2 x one unit to the left. ∞ ) .5625 −1 (0.8) −2 (0.6)0 = 1 1 (0.8 2 (0.25 0 (0. so the function is h( x) = 3x − 1. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit domain: ( −∞.8) −2 26.6)1 = 0.8)1 = 0.6 0 (0. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by shifting x the graph of f ( x) = 2 x two units to the left.7 −1 (0.

∞ ) . range: ( −1. The graph of g ( x) = 2 ⋅ 2 x can be obtained by vertically stretching the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of two. range: ( −1. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. two units to the asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 30. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. The graph of h ( x ) = 2 x +1 − 1 can be obtained by 32. range: ( −∞. ∞ ) 415 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph of g ( x ) = −2 x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x two units upward. The graph of g ( x) = 2− x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 one unit to the left and one unit downward. reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the x-axis. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . Inc. The graph of g ( x ) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by 31.1 28. The graph of h( x) = 2 x + 2 − 1 can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 left and one unit downward. ∞ ) . 0 ) 29. ∞ ) . . range: ( 0. range: ( 0. x reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the y-axis. asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. asymptote: y = 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. range: ( 2. x 33.

. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 38. ∞ ) . range: ( −1. range: ( 0. The graph of g ( x) = e x − 1 can be obtained by domain: ( −∞. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. range: ( 0. The graph of h( x) = e x −1 + 2 can be obtained by asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = e x +1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left. range: ( 2. 36. ∞ ) . ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right and 2 units up. The graph of g ( x) = e x −1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right. range: ( 2. The graph of g ( x ) = e x + 2 can be obtained by 1 x ⋅ 2 can be obtained by 2 vertically shrinking the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of one-half. Inc. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 416 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph of g ( x ) = moving f ( x) = e x 2 units up. 34. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit down. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. 35. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 37. asymptote: y = −1 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 39. range: ( 0.

The graph of h( x) = −e x can be obtained by reflecting f ( x) = e x about the x-axis.1 40. The graph of h( x) = e − x can be obtained by reflecting 44. range: ( 0. 1 x e can be obtained by 2 shrinking f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 1 . 45. range: ( 0. range: ( −1. ∞ ) 42. range: ( −∞. 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. . 0 ) asymptote: y = 1 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = f ( x) = e x about the y-axis. ∞ ) . Inc. ∞ ) . range: ( 0. ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = e x+1 − 1 can be obtained by 43. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) 41. The graph of h( x) = e 2 x + 1 can be obtained by stretching f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 2 and then moving the graph up 1 unit. range: (1. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. stretching f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 2. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x) = 2e x can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left and 1 unit down. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 417 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

∞ ) . The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the x-axis. x 46. ∞ ) 47. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and one space up. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the y-axis. The graph of h( x) = e 2 + 2 can be obtained by shrinking f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 1 2 and then moving the graph up 2 units. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 50. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. range: ( 2. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by vertically shrinking f(x) by a factor of 13 . asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 51. Inc. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 1 418 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 1 49. 48. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by horizontally stretching f(x) by a factor of 3..

85% yield) Investing $12.055 ⎞ A = 10.92 ≈ 9577. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and two spaces up.1 52.055(5) ≈ $13.25% compounded quarterly yields the greater return.140. . 12(3) 55.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ d. 000e0.000 for 3 years at 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return. a. b.79 12(10) c. 54.64 (8. a.04 g ( x) = 2− x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 A = 10.51 ⎛ 0.083 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $ 8306.055 ⎞ A = 10.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. d.67 2(5) 57.25% yield) 2( 4) ⎛ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.055 ⎞ A = 10. ⎛ 0.116. A = 5000 ( e ) 0.3% yield) Investing $6000 for 4 years at 8. 0 f ( x) = 2 x 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 2 4 x −2 −1 4(5) 12(5) c. ⎛ 0.157. 000e0. ⎛ 0. ⎛ 0.70 419 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.0825 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $8317. ≈ $9527.19 The point of intersection is ( 0. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.31 ⎛ 0.065 ⎞ b.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 14. Inc.11 (7% yield) A = 12. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13. ⎛ 0. A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2(10) 410 ⋅ ≈ $9479.84 (8.07 ⎞ A = 12. 737. 4( 4 ) 56. 795.165. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 2 53.065(10) ≈ = $9560.67 (6.1) .0685(3) ≈ 14.

y = 2x 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 x y = 3x 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 x x = 3y 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 y 61. 4) to find b. 6) to find b. Substitute values from the point (1. 59. –e) to find b. The graph is of the form y = b x . . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ) . Substitute values from the point (1. Inc. −1 0 1 f ( x) = 2 x +1 1 2 1 2 4 2 8 x −2 60. The graph is of the form y = b x . The graph is of the form y = −b x . g ( x) = 2− x +1 8 4 2 1 1 2 The point of intersection is ( 0. y = −b x −e = −b1 e=b The equation of the graph is y = −e x 420 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 58. Substitute values from the point (1. y = bx 6 = b1 6=b The equation of the graph is y = 6 x 63. y = bx x = 2y 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 y 4 = b1 4=b The equation of the graph is y = 4 x 62.

S = 510. e = b −1 1 e= b eb = 1 1 b= e ≈ 3.1 ≈ 8. e) to find b. 54 71.317278183 21. 2055 − 1974 = 81 .4 million words in the federal tax code in 2005.73205 ≈ 3. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1.321997068 23.15 x + 1. 66. g ( x) = 1. 230 421 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0344 x g (50) = 1.7 ≈ 3.249009585 21.5 kilograms of cesium-137 in Chernobyl’s atmosphere. 2005 is 50 years after 1955.44 ≈ 8.321880096 21. there were about 8. find d.5741877 70.824979946 27 2π ≈ 8. 000 (1 + 0. = 157. 81 e. 67. S = 465. the closer the 3 value is to 2 . India’s population in 2028 will be 2295 million.821353305 0 23. 21.824977827 The closer the exponent gets to π.03) = 510.14 ≈ 8. f ( 0 ) = 574 (1. c.44 c.824961595 India’s population in 1974 was 574 million. Substitute values from the point (–1. Since 2028 − 1974 = 54 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.7320508 ≈ 3. 744 10 68.1 64.0344(50) ≈ 10. f ( x) = 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.732 ≈ 3. India’s population in 2055 will be 4590 million.15(50) + 1.4 According to the exponential model. a. y = bx 69.14159 ≈ 8.824411082 = 574 (1) = 574 23. b.87e0. f ( 80 ) = 1000 ( 0.026 ) 23 ≈ 8 23. ⎛1⎞ The equation of the graph is y = ⎜ ⎟ = e − x ⎝e⎠ a.141593 ≈ 8.87e0. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1. The graph is of the form y = b x . There will still be 157.73 ≈ 3. 000 (1. find 23.06 ) 10 The linear model is the better model for the data in 2005.9 According to the linear model.026 ) ≈ 2295 .026 ) ≈ 1148 India’s population in 2001 will be 1148 million.49 Chernobyl will not be safe for human habitation by 2066. the closer the value is to 2π. Inc.03) 5 5 ≈ $591. 2005 is 50 years after 1955.321997085 The closer the exponent is to 3 .5) 80 30 b.815240927 23. 000 (1 + 0.06 ) ≈ $832. .141 ≈ 8. India’s population appears to be doubling every 27 years.321995226 21. 000 (1. 3 2 x 65.026 ) ≈ 4590 .9 million words in the federal tax code in 2005.1415 ≈ 8. f (50) = 0. there were about 10. f ( 27 ) = 574 (1. = 465.

77.0 in 2006. does not make sense. c.19(1. Sample explanation: The horizontal asymptote is y = 0. 73.44 f (20) = 0. g ( x) = 1.917. b. f (40) = 6.052(56) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 28. Answers may vary.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6. a.05 12 ) 12(379) 4t 12 t f (0) = 80e −0.3 in 1990.0344 x g (20) = 1. 83. 074. b.5(52) + 20 ≈ 20 20% of the material is remembered 1 year after it is first learned.052(40) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 21. b. a. there were about 4. – 80. ≈ $3.7 million words in the federal tax code in 1975. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5(1) + 20 ≈ 68.7 According to the exponential model. Inc. 794 c.5% of the material is remembered 1 week after it is first learned. Explanations will vary. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ = 80e 0 + 20 = 80(1) + 20 = 100 100% of the material is remembered at the moment it is first learned.4 According to the linear model. a.44 ≈ 4.5(4) + 20 ≈ 30.360. 1975 is 20 years after 1955.045 ⎞ A = 10. b.052 x 37.87e0. 74. 422 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Answers may vary.4 million words in the federal tax code in 1975.7 37.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 72.8% of the material is remembered 4 week after it is first learned. 753 24e0.1e−0.1 1 + 6. 5% compounded quarterly offers the better return. b.029) x 76.3 g (40) = ≈ 21. d. f ( x) = 6. f (4) = 80e −0. a.1e−0.5 68.029)40 ≈ 19.05 ⎞ A = 10.15 x + 1. 662.19(1. a. there were about 3. ⎛ 0.19(1. f ( x) = 6. 75. .9 1 + 6.1e −0.87e0.8 30. ( 24 1 + 0. 82.15(20) + 1.3 g (56) = ≈ 27.4 37.1e −0.029) x f (56) = 6. f (1) = 80e−0.05(379) ≈ $4.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6. 81. 1975 is 20 years after 1955.052 x 37. f ( x) = 0. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0. f (52) = 80e −0.5(0) + 20 c. The exponential model is the better model for the data in 1975.029)56 ≈ 30.0344(20) ≈ 3. d.19(1.

c.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. b. false. e y = 33 means y = log e 33. A sample change is: The functions do not have the same graph. 25 = x means 5 = log 2 x. Sample explanation: An exponential model is better than a linear model. false. .2 Check Point Exercises 93. −(− x) e +e 2 −x e + ex = 2 e x + e− x = 2 = cosh x cosh(− x) = 2 ⎛ e x + e− x ⎞ ⎛ e x − e− x ⎞ ? ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ =1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x e 2 x − 2 + e −2 x ? − =1 4 4 e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x − e 2 x + 2 − e −2 x ? =1 4 4? =1 4 1=1 about the y-axis while f ( x) = −3x reflects the graph 89. Changes to make the statement true will vary. a. Explanations will vary. A sample change is: If f ( x) = 2 x then f (a + b) = f (a ) ⋅ f (b). ∞ ) . y increases as x increases. y = 1 is the 5 5 –x same as y = 5 . x is the same as y = () x 3–x.3) ∪ ( 3. f ( x) = 3− x reflects the graph of y = 3x b. ) 2. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. false.2 84. y = 1 3 94. y= 5x is () (c). 90. so it is (c) reflected about the y-axis. 88. y = 1 is (b). 95. 86. true 91. 1 . Changes to make the statement true will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Solving the related equation. e− x − e−( − x ) 2 e− x − e x = 2 − −e − x + e x = 2 e x − e− x =− 2 = − sinh x sinh(− x) = ( c. Section 3. log 4 26 = y means 4 y = 26. x is (a). a. b3 = 27 means 3 = log b 27. b. 3 = log 7 x means 73 = x. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 so it is (d) reflected () x about the y-axis. gives x = 3. −x 1. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 . 2 = log b 25 means b 2 = 25. Inc. ? (cosh x) 2 − (sinh x) 2 = 1 2 of y = 3x about the x-axis. but not as quickly as y = () y= 1 3 5x . makes sense 85. A sample change is: The amount of money will not increase without bound. y = 3x is (d). makes sense 87. 251/ 2 = 5 2 96. 92.e. a. c. i. Note that the boundary value x = 3 does not satisfy the inequality. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 423 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. We do not know how to solve x = 2 y for y. does not make sense.

8 log(10 + 1) = 29 + 48. b. 0) ∪ (0. we obtain x < 4. f ( x) = 13. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Question: 10 to what power gives 100? log10 100 = 2 because 10 2 = 100. Question: 3 to what power gives 1 log 3 7 3 = because 31 7 = 7 3. 7.8 log(11) ≈ 80 Thus. a 10-year-old boy is approximately 80% of his adult height. Thus.000 I0. 8. 7 a. Because log b b = 1. 5 y = 125 9. 10. 32 = x 4. b. 6. we conclude 3log3 17 = 17. Because log b 1 = 0. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 3x.2 The domain of h consists of all x for which x − 5 > 0. 10. Solving this inequality for x. b5 = 32 6. 6y = 216 8. we conclude log 9 9 = 1. a. 26 = 64 3. the domain of f is (−∞.0 on the Richter scale. Question: 5 to what power gives c. .4 ln x − 11. a. Thus the domain of g is (−∞. 5. 125 5 125 7 = log 10. 8 x 11. Question: 36 to what power gives 6? 1 log 36 6 = because 361/ 2 = 36 = 6 2 d. Because I = 10. ∞). Thus.6 First. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 9 27 9 3 f (30) = 13. Inc. 92 = x 5. Solving this inequality for x. 1. b. the domain of h is (5. a. b3 = 27 7. we conclude log8 1 = 0.6 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 3 x. ≈ 34 The function models the actual increase shown in the graph quite well.4 ln 30 − 11. ∞). f (10) = 29 + 48. 1 1 x 1 3 9 27 9 3 g ( x) = log 3 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 The graph of the inverse can also be drawn by reflecting the graph of f ( x) = 3x about the line y = x. for x and evaluate the function at 10. Because log b b = x. The domain of g consists of all x for which x 2 > 0. we obtain x > 5. 000 I 0 R = log I0 1 ? 125 1 1 1 log 5 = −3 because 5−3 = 3 = . 4.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 3. Exercise Set 3. we conclude log 7 7 = 8. Substitute the boy’s age. 9. 4) b. x f ( x ) = 3x 10. we obtain x < 0 or x > 0. Because blogb x = x. log28 = 3 424 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Solving this inequality for x. 000 3? =4 The earthquake registered 4. The domain of f consists of all x for which 4 – x > 0. 2 4 = 16 2. Find the temperature increase after 30 minutes by substituting 30 for x and evaluating the function at 30.

log 5 1 1 = −1 because 5−1 = . Inc. log13x = 2 16. Because log b b x = x. log 2 64 = 6 because 2 = 64. 25. 2 3 1 4 16 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 4 x. log 5 625 = 4 11. 2 3 . logb1000 = 3 18. 42. Because blogb x = x. we conclude log 5 57 = 7. log 3 − 1 1 1 . 14. log 2 1 1 = −3 because 2−3 = . log 3 27 = 3 because 33 = 27. Because log b b = 1. we conclude 7 log 723 = 23. Because log b 1 = 0. 6 6 27. Because blogb x = x. we conclude log 6 1 = 0. log8 300 = y 21. 2 1 425 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log b 343 = 3 39. 17. First. 31. 2 1 1 because 81 2 = 81 = 9. 2 43. we conclude log 4 46 = 6. 36. Because log b b x = x. we conclude log11 11 = 1. we conclude 8log8 19 = 19. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = − because 2 2 = 2 2 2 32. log 7 49 = 2 because 7 = 49. Because log b b = 1. 13.2 10. 20. 41. log15 x = 2 37. x g ( x) = log 4 x 1 16 1 4 1 4 16 64 −2 −1 0 1 1 29. 9 9 −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 4 x 1 16 1 4 log 7 7 = 1 because 7 2 = 7. log 64 8 = 1 = −3 125 log8 2 = 1 3 log 64 4 = 34. 8 8 28. log 2 1 15. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 4 x. = − because 3 2 = 2 3 3 33. we conclude log 5 5 = 1. log 6 1 1 = −1 because 6−1 = . log 4 16 = 2 because 4 = 16. log7200 = y 40. 1 3 log81 9 = 1 1 because 64 2 = 64 = 8. 38. 5 5 26. 23. log 6 6 = 1 because 6 2 = 6. 2 35. Because log b 1 = 0. log 2 12. 6 24.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. we conclude log 4 1 = 0. log 5 1 1 = −4 16 − 1 1 1 . 2 30. log 3 1 1 = –2 because 3−2 = . 19. 2 22.

∞) . 52. so the function is G ( x ) = log 3 (− x). This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the y-axis. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis and shifted up one unit. Inc. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x. x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 48. 1 5 25 125 g ( x) = log 5 x −2 −1 0 1 x 3 1 4 1 16 1 64 g ( x) = log 1 4 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x 16 4 1 x ⎛1⎞ 45.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 44. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted right one unit. . 1 25 x 1 5 2 16 4 1 4 1 1 16 1 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 1 4 x. so the function is g ( x) = log 3 ( x − 1). set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 5 x. range: (−∞. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted down one g ( x) = log1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 unit. 50. 1 8 49. so the function is H ( x) = 1 − log 3 x. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis. First. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 5 x 1 25 1 5 2 x ⎛1⎞ 46. First. 53. 51. vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . ⎝2⎠ 47. First. so the function is h( x) = log3 x − 1. ⎝4⎠ x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 3 1 5 25 125 f ( x) = ( 14 ) Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 5 x. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x f ( x) = ( 12 ) x 4 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 8 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log1 2 x. so the function is F ( x) = − log 3 x. ∞) 426 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. vertical asymptote: x = 1 domain: (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) 57.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . ∞) 427 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. ∞) 60. 56. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. range: (−∞. ∞) 61. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 58. ∞) . vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: (2. range: (−∞. ∞) . ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. 55. ∞) 59. Inc.2 54. ∞ ) . range: (−∞.

range: (−∞. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . 67. vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. 69. ∞) . range: (−∞. ∞) 65. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) 428 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 68. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 62. . ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞) 63. Inc. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞) 64. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. ∞) . 66.

Because log10 x = x. Thus. ∞ ) . Thus. ∞). range: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 80.2 70. we obtain x > –4. we obtain x < 2. 77. ∞) 76. ∞ ) . Thus. 85. ∞) 81. Solving this inequality for x. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 6 > 0. 7). 78.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 73. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 7)2 > 0. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 4 > 0. 2). ∞). range: (−∞. Solving this inequality for x. . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. we conclude log107 = 7. the domain of f is (−∞. ∞). we conclude log108 = 8. the domain of f is (–4. log100 = log10 100 = 2 because 102 = 100. Solving this inequality for x. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. the domain of f is (–∞. the domain of f is (−∞. ∞) 75. 84. 0) . Thus. 2) or (2. Because log10 x = x. Thus. the domain of f is (–6. Because 10log x = x. 71. Thus. ∞ ) . 82. we obtain x < 2 or x > 2. 7) or (7. 74. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (−∞. Inc. The domain of f consists of all x for which (x – 2)2 > 0. The domain of f consists of all x for which 7 − x > 0. ∞). we obtain x < 7. we conclude 10log33 = 33. 83. range: (−∞. we obtain x < 7 or x > 7. Because 10logx = x. log1000 = log10 1000 = 3 because 103 = 1000. ∞) 72. 429 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) 86. Solving this inequality for x. Solving this inequality for x. ∞ ) . we conclude 10log 53 = 53. The domain of f consists of all x for which 2 – x > 0. 79. the domain of f is (–∞. we obtain x > –6. Solving this inequality for x.

1 1 = 43 64 1 ⎧1⎫ . 110. and the solution set is {16}. x − 5 > 0 . Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 = 3 x. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. x 2 − 4 x − 12 > 0 . 2 98. we conclude eln125 = 125. ln e = log e e = 1 because e1 = e. 4−3 = x 88. 103. 102. we conclude ln e13 x = 13 x. so ln 7 = −7. −1) ∪ ( 5. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. Inc. log 5 ( x + 4 ) = 2 52 = x + 4 25 = x + 4 21 = x The solution is 21. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Because eln x = x. 104. 109. 430 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because 10log x = x. 5 − x ⎝ ⎠ The boundary points are –1 and 5. Because eln x = x. 91. The solution is 64 ⎩ 64 ⎭ x= Because ln e x = x. 2 97. 108. we conclude ln e6 = 6. 101. log 3 ( x − 1) = 2 32 = x − 1 9 = x −1 ( x + 2)( x − 6) = 0 The boundary points are –2 and 6. log 4 x = −3 ln1 = 0 because e0 = 1 . we conclude ln e7 = 7. and the solution set is {10}. log ( ln e ) = log1 = 0 95. Because ln e x = x. 89. log ( log 81) = log ( log 34 ) 2 3 2 3 93. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ ⎟ to be real. e 106. log 3 ( log 7 7 ) = log 3 1 = 0 1 92. we conclude eln 300 = 300. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x2 − x − 2 = 0 96. Because ln e x = x. log ( log 32 ) = log ( log 25 ) = log 5 = 1 5 2 5 2 5 107. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − x − 2) to be real. 99. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. we conclude e 1 ln e−7 = −7. Because eln x = x.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 87. 1 = ln e −6 e6 Because ln e x = x we conclude 1 ln e −6 = −6. so ln 6 = −6. Because ln e x = x. we conclude eln 7 x = 7 x 2 . 90. ∞ ) . we conclude 10log x 3 x = x. x +1 ⎛ x +1 ⎞ 111. = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 94. 105. ( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 The boundary points are –1 and 2. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − 4 x − 12) to be real. . Because 10log x = x. 10 = x The solution is 10. we conclude lne9x = 9x. −1) ∪ ( 2. we conclude eln 5 x = 5 x 2 . ∞ ) . ln 7 = ln e −7 Because ln e x = x. e ln log 64 x = 2 3 2 64 3 = x x= ( 3 64 ) 2 = 42 = 16 The solution is 16. we conclude 10log 100. x 2 − x − 2 > 0 . Because eln x = x. and the solution set is {21}. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞.

This underestimates the value in the graph by 0. 2010 is 41 years after 1969.2% of first-year college women expressed antifeminist views in 2004. 113.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. a. 116. f ( x ) = −7.8 f(8) = 88–15ln(8 + 1) = 55 f(10) = 88–15ln(10 + 1) = 52 f(12) = 88–15ln(12 + 1) = 49. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ to be real. f (10) = 62 + 35 log(10 − 4) ≈ 89. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 (6.86 ln x + 32. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 ( 3. f ( x ) = −4. a. after 10 months was about 52. Inc.49 ln 35 + 53 ≈ 26.2.5 f ( 41) = −4. ∞ ) .5 The average score after 2 months was about 71. a.2 ×10−6 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 65. – 127. She is approximately 89.9 f(6) = 88–15ln(6 + 1) = 58.86 ln 35 + 32. the sound can rupture the human eardrum. 26. f ( x ) = −7.4% of her adult height. .49 ln 41 + 53 ≈ 25. f(13) = 62 + 35log(13–4) ≈ 95. 114. 118. b.5 f(4) = 88–15ln(4 + 1) = 63. 2004 is 35 years after 1969.2% of her adult height. b. g(x) is f(x) shifted right 2 units and upward 1 unit. g(x) is f(x) reflected about the x-axis.49 ln x + 53 f ( 41) = −7.5 ≈ 14.2 According to the function.9. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞.5.5 According to the function.4 According to the function. 2010 is 41 years after 1969. 128. after 6 months was about 58. after 8 months was about 55. 15.86 ln 41 + 32. 431 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.05 A normal conversation is about 65 decibels. −5) ∪ ( 2. f ( x ) = −4.4 She is approximately 95. after 4 months was about 63. 130. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units upward.5 ≈ 15.5 f ( 35 ) = −4.2 x−2 ⎛ x−2⎞ >0. This underestimates the value in the graph by 1%. f(0) = 88–15ln(0 + 1) = 88 The average score on the original exam was 88. 115. f(2) = 88–15ln(2 + 1) = 71. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units left. 2004 is 35 years after 1969.3 × 106 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 188 Yes. 131.8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 14. f ( 35 ) = −7.2% of first-year college men will express antifeminist views in 2010.6%. and after one year was about 49.5. 117.49 ln x + 53 120. 129. 119. ⎟ x+5 ⎝ x+5⎠ The boundary points are –5 and 2. b. Answers may vary. 112.4% of first-year college men expressed antifeminist views in 2004.5% of first-year college women will express antifeminist views in 2010. 25.86 ln x + 32.2 According to the function.

log 4 ⎡log 3 ( log 2 8) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = log 4 ⎡⎣ log3 ( log 2 23 ) ⎤⎦ = log 4 [ log 3 3] = log 4 1 = 0 c. does not make sense. makes sense 138. log 3 40 > log 3 27 = 3 so log3 40 > 3. 147. logbMN = logbM + logbN The sum of the logarithms of its factors. log 4 60 < log 4 64 = 3 so log 4 60 < 3. a. ∞ ) . Changes to make the statement true will vary. y = xx 135. The score falls below 65 after 9 months. b. A sample change is: We cannot take the log of a negative number. 137. a. Answers may vary. y = x. 146. ⎛ 32 ⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 − log 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ y = x2. . log 2 (8 ⋅ 4) = log 2 8 + log 2 4 148. log 2 8 3 = A sample change is: log 2 4 2 132. log 2 8 + log 2 4 = log 2 23 + log 2 22 = 3 + 2 = 5 c. They are the same. true 143. log 2 32 = log 2 25 = 5 134. Explanations will vary. 141. is ( 0. 142. b.001 2 − (−3) 5 144.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 139. a. A sample change is: The domain of f ( x ) = log 2 x 133. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Inc. 000 times as intense as an earthquake of magnitude 4. false. a. y = x . log3 92 = 2 log3 9 432 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 2 32 − log 2 2 = log 2 25 − log 2 2 = 5 − 1 = 4 c. log 4 60 < 3 < log3 40 log3 40 > log 4 60 d e. makes sense log 2 16 = log 2 24 = 4 136. y = ln x . 145. Sample explanation: An earthquake of magnitude 8 on the Richter scale is 108− 4 = 104 = 10. 2 log3 9 = 2 log3 32 = 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 c. log3 81 = log3 34 = 4 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. false. log 3 81 − logπ 1 4−0 4 = = log 2 2 8 − log 0. y = ex. false. 140. b. makes sense 149. Changes to make the statement true will vary.

log 9 9x =log 9 9+log9 x = 1+log 9 x 5. .3 x log 5 25 y 3 1. log 7 (7 x) = log 7 7 + log 7 x = 1 + log 7 x 4. log(100 x) = log100 + log x = ln x 2 ( x + 5)1/ 3 = ln x 2 3 x + 5 b.02 log 7 8. ⎛7⎞ log 7 ⎜ ⎟ = log 7 7 − log 7 x = 1 − log 7 x ⎝ x⎠ 8. a. log 7 2506 = log 2506 ≈ 4. 2 log( x − 3) − log x = log( x − 3) 2 − log x ⎛ 23 ⎞ log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 23 − log8 x ⎝ x ⎠ = log ⎛ e5 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e5 − ln11 ⎝ 11 ⎠ = 5 − ln11 c. ⎛9⎞ log 9 ⎜ ⎟ = log 9 9 − log 9 x = 1 − log 9 x ⎝ x⎠ 9. log 7 2506 = ln 2506 ≈ 4. 4. a. 1 ln x 2 + ln( x + 5) 3 = ln x 2 + ln( x + 5)1/ 3 9 = logb x1/ 4 − log b 25 y10 = logb x1/ 4 25 y10 4 or log b 7. log( x + 4) 2 = 2 log( x + 4) a. log 6 3 = 9 log 6 3 b. log b x 4 3 y = log x 4 y1/3 b = log x 4 + log y1/3 b b 1 = 4 log x + log y b 3 b b. = 2 + log x 2. log(1000x) = log1000 + log x = 3 + log x 6. b.3 Section 3. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log100 = log x − 2 ⎝ 100 ⎠ 1/ 2 = log5 x 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − log5 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − ( log 5 52 + log 5 y 3 ) = 12 log 5 x − log 5 52 − log 5 y 3 = 12 log 5 x − 2 log 5 5 − 3log 5 y = 12 log 5 x − 2 − 3log 5 y 5. 000 + log x = 4 + log x 7. log8 (13 ⋅ 7) = log8 13 + log8 7 3. log 25 + log 4 = log(25 ⋅ 4) = log100 = 2 b. 000 x) = log10. log(7 x + 6) − log x = log 7x + 6 x 433 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 6. a.02 ln 7 x 25 y10 Exercise Set 3. Check Point Exercises 1. log 5 (7 ⋅ 3) = log 5 7 + log 5 3 2. log 6 (7 ⋅ 11) = log 6 7 + log 6 11 b. 1 ln 3 x = ln x1/ 3 = ln x 3 c. 3. log(10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. a. ( x − 3)2 x 1 log x − 2 log 5 − 10 log y b b 4 b 1/ 4 2 = logb x − log b 5 − log b y10 = logb x1/ 4 − ( logb 25 − log b y10 ) a.

29. . ⎛ x⎞ 1 1/ 2 log 4 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 4 x − log 4 64 = log 4 x − 3 64 2 ⎝ ⎠ 24. log N–6 = –6log N log M −8 = −8log M 19. ⎛ 125 ⎞ log 5 ⎜ ⎟ = log 5 125 − log 5 y = 3 − log 5 y ⎝ y ⎠ 13. log 3 ⎛ x = log ⎜ y ⎝ 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢ log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 3 1 1 = log x − log y 3 3 ⎛ 36 ⎞ 1/ 2 log 6 ⎜ ⎟ = log 6 36 − log 6 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log 6 ( x + 1) 2 434 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log b x 2 y = logb x 2 + log b y = 2 log b x + log b y 22. 12. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1 log 5 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 5 x 2 − log 5 25 = log 5 x − 2 25 2 ⎝ ⎠ 25. logbx3 = 3logbx 16. 1 ln 5 x = ln x (1/ 5) = ln x 5 20. ⎛ 64 ⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ = log 4 64 − log 4 y ⎝ y ⎠ = 3 − log 4 y 27. log 100 x = log(100 x )1/ 2 1 = log(100 x) 2 1 = (log100 + log x) 2 1 = (2 + log x) 2 1 = 1 + log x 2 30. Inc. log b xy 3 = log b x + log b y 3 = log b x + 3log b y 1 1 ln x 7 23. ⎛ 64 ⎞ 1 2 log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 64 − log8 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log8 ( x + 1) 2 1 2 1 ln(ex) 2 1 = (ln e + ln x) 2 1 = (1 + ln x) 2 1 1 = + ln x 2 2 = 31. ⎛ e4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 4 − ln 8 = 4 ln e − ln 8 = 4 − ln 8 ⎝8⎠ 28. ⎛ e2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 2 − ln 5 = 2 ln e − ln 5 = 2 − ln 5 ⎝5⎠ 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ x2 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = log b ( x 2 y ) − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = log b x 2 + log b y − log b z 2 = 2 log b x + log b y − 2 log b z 15. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log1000 = log x − 3 ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 26.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 10. ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb ( x 3 y ) − logb z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb x 3 + log b y − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = 3log b x + log b y − 2 log b z log b x 7 = 7 log b x 18. ln 7 x = ln x 7 = 21. ln ex = ln(ex) 17. 11.

log 2 x y4 z5 = log x1/ 3 + log b y 4 − log b z 5 b 1 = log b x + 4 log b y − 5log b z 3 40. 5 ⎛ 405 ⎞ log 3 405 − log 3 5 = log 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = log3 81 =4 47. ⎛ x⎞ x log 5 = log ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 5 1 1 = log x − log y 5 5 log b 1/ 2 39. log x + 3 log y = log x + log y 3 = log( xy 3 ) 50. ⎛ 2x + 5 ⎞ log(2 x + 5) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ⎡ x3 x 2 + 1 ⎤ ln ⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ( x + 1) ⎦⎥ 48. − ln ( x + 3) 1 = 4 ln x + ln ( x 2 + 3) − 5 ln ( x + 3) 2 x2 y 25 = log5 x 2 / 3 + log 5 y1/ 3 − log 5 251/ 3 log 5 ⎡ x4 x2 + 3 ⎤ ln ⎢ 5 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ( x + 3) ⎥⎦ ⎡ x 4 ( x 2 + 3)1/ 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ( x + 3) ⎦ = ln x 4 + ln ( x 2 + 3) 1 logb x + 3log b y − 3logb z 2 3 35. 33. 38. log 250 + log 4 = log1000 = 3 43. ⎡10 x 2 3 1 − x ⎤ log ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 7( x + 1) ⎦ 1 = 1 + 2 log x + log(1 − x) − log 7 − 2 log( x + 1) 3 3 5 5 = log10 + log x 2 + log 3 1 − x − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 2 1 = log5 x + log5 y − log5 52 / 3 3 3 2 1 2 = log5 x + log5 y − 3 3 3 36. 1 = 2 + 3log x + log(5 − x) − log 3 − 2 log( x + 7) 3 log 5 + log 2 = log(5 ⋅ 2) = log10 = 1 42. ln x + ln 7 = ln(7 x) 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ln x + ln 3 = ln(3x) 45. ⎛ 96 ⎞ log 2 96 − log 2 3 = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 = 5 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 46. 1 4 1 = log 2 x + log 2 y − log 2 16 5 5 5 1 4 4 = log 2 x + log 2 y − 5 5 5 37. ⎛ 3x + 7 ⎞ log(3x + 7) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ = ln x3 + ln x 2 + 1 − ln( x + 1) 4 1 = 3ln x + ln( x 2 + 1) − 4 ln( x + 1) 2 49. ⎡100 x 3 3 5 − x ⎤ log ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ 3( x + 7) ⎦ = log100 + log x3 + log ( 5 − x ) 3 − log 3 − log ( x + 7 ) 1 xy 4 16 = log 2 x1/ 5 + log 2 y 4 / 5 − log 2 161/ 5 41.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. x y3 log b 3 z = logb x1/ 2 + log b y 3 − log b z 3 = 34. 2 . log x + 7 log y = log x + log y 7 = log( xy 7 ) 435 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 1 32. Inc.

5log b x + 6 log b y = log b x 5 + log b y 6 55. 1 1 ln x + ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 3 ( 62. Inc. 61. ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎛ x2 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1 ⎟ or ln ⎜ 2 ⎜ y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln( x + 6) − 3ln x = ln( x + 6) 4 − ln x3 = ln 60. 65. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ x5 ⎞ 5 ln x − 2 ln y = ln x5 − ln y 2 = ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 56. = ln x 4 + ln y 7 − ln z 3 ) = ln 63. 66. 1 3ln x − ln y = ln x 3 − ln y1/ 3 3 64. x4 y7 z3 = log xy = logb ( x 5 y 6 ) 58. 2logbx + 3logby = logbx2 + logby3 = logb(x2y3) 54. ( ) = ln x 3 y or ln y 3 x 1 ) 53.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 51. 1 ln x + ln y = ln x1/ 2 + ln y 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ln ⎜ x 2 y ⎟ or ln y x ⎝ ⎠ ( 52. 4 x3 ) 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 (log 5 x + log 5 y ) − 2 log 5 ( x + 1) 2 1 = log5 xy − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 xy ( x + 1) 2 1 ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) + 2log 4 ( x + 1) 3 1 x = log 4 + log 4 ( x + 1)2 3 y ⎡⎛ x ⎞ = log 4 ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎣⎝ y ⎠ 1/ 3 8 ln (x +9) − 4 ln x = ln( x + 9)8 − ln x 4 = ln ( 1 log x − log y 4 4 3 x 1 = log 4 y 3 x = log 3 4 y 1 1 2 ln x − ln y = ln x 2 − ln y 2 2 ( x + 6) 1 ( log x + log y ) 2 1 = (log xy ) 2 = log( xy )1/ 2 ⎛ = log ⎜ 4 ⎝ ⎛ x3 ⎞ ⎛ x3 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1/ 3 ⎟ or ln ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 59. 4 ln x + 7 ln y − 3ln z ( x + 9)8 x4 ⎤ ( x + 1) 2 ⎥ ⎥⎦ = log 4 ⎡( x + 1) 2 3 xy ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 3ln x + 5 ln y − 6 ln z = ln x3 + ln y 5 − ln z 6 = ln x3 y 5 z6 436 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ x7 ⎞ 7 ln x − 3ln y = ln x 7 − ln y 3 = ln ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 57. .

2304 log 0.6193 ln π 78. y = log15 x = log x log15 81.6944 ln14 74.2340 ln π = log x + log ( x 2 − 1) − ( log 7 + log( x + 1) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) − log ( 7( x + 1) ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) 7( x + 1) x( x + 1)( x − 1) = log 7( x + 1) x( x − 1) = log 7 70. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 ≈ 1.5 = ln 87.2 = ln 57. log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − log15 − log( x + 2) = log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − ( log15 + log( x + 2) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 4 ) − log (15( x + 2) ) x ( x − 4) 2 = log 15( x + 2) x( x + 2)( x − 2) = log 15( x + 2) x( x − 2) = log 15 71. log 5 13 = log( x + 2) log 2 log13 ≈ 1.5 ≈ 1. y = log 2 ( x + 2) = ln 400 ≈ 5. 1 ⎡5ln( x + 6) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 25) ⎤⎦ 3⎣ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ ⎥ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎢ x( x 2 − 25) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ 3 = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 25) ⎦ 69. log14 87.3 19 = log19 ≈ −2. logπ 400 = 79.1 76. log 0. logπ 63 = ln 63 ≈ 3. log x + log ( x − 1) − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 log17 ≈ 1.4595 ln16 75.5812 log 6 72. y = log3 x = log x log 3 80. .3 77.5937 log 5 437 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 3.PreCalculus 4E 67.4456 log 0. Inc.3 1 [2 ln( x + 5) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 = [ln( x + 5) 2 − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 ⎡ ( x + 5)2 ⎤ = ⎢ ln 3 ⎣ x( x 2 − 4) ⎥⎦ ⎡ ( x + 5) 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 4) ⎦ 1/ 3 ( x + 5) 2 = ln 3 x( x 2 − 4) 68. log16 57. log 6 17 = 73. log 0.1 17 = log17 ≈ −1.

Inc. true. quotient rule 86. false. false. true. log b 81 = log b 34 = 4log b 3 = 4C 100. log b 8 = log b 23 = 3log b 2 = 3 A 99. product rule 101. a. b. log b 84.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 82. ln ee = 0 91. Publishing as Prentice Hall. false. log x+2 = log( x + 2) − log( x − 1) x −1 85. log 3 7 = 1 87. ln x + ln(2 x) = ln ( x ⋅ 2 x) ) = ln 2 x 2 3 = log b 3 − log b 2 = C − A 2 83.03 ⎢⎣ 65 − 30 ⎥⎦ 1 ⎛ 65 ⎞ t= ln ⎜ ⎟ 0. false. true. false. false. ln(5 x) + ln1 = ln 5 x + 0 = ln 5 x 96. x log10 x = x ⋅ x = x 2 94. y = log3 ( x − 2) = ( ) ( ) 92. true. = log b 3 − logb 4 1 = log b 3 2 − log 22 1 log b 3 − 2 log 2 2 1 = C − 2A 2 = 104. x+3 2x x ⎛ I ⎞ D = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ ⎛ 100 I ⎞ D1 = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ = 10 log (100 I − I 0 ) = 10 log100 + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 = 10(2) + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 = log b ⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎟⎟ 16 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ I ⎞ = 20 + 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ This is 20 more than the loudness level of the softer sound. log 4 ( 2 x ) = 3log 4 ( 2 x ) 3 1 ⎛ A ⎞ t = ln ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ A− N ⎠ 1 ⎡ 65 ⎤ ln 0. t= 438 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This means that the 100 times louder sound will be 20 decibels louder. log b log b 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞2 = logb ⎜ ⎟ 27 ⎝ 27 ⎠ 1 ⎛2⎞ = log b ⎜ 3 ⎟ 2 ⎝3 ⎠ 1 = ( logb 2 − log b 33 ) 2 1 = ( logb 2 − 3log b 3) 2 1 3 = log b 2 − log b 3 2 2 1 3 = A− C 2 2 log 7 1 1 = log 3 = log 3 log 7 log 7 3 102. true. true. 89. ln( x ⋅ 1) = ln x + ln1 95. e x = ln ee 103. log b 6 = log b ( 2 ⋅ 3) 97. ln 8 x3 = ln 23 x3 = ln ( 2 x ) = 3ln ( 2 x ) log( x − 2) log 3 3 93. 88. b.63 It will take the chimpanzee a little more than 20. a. . false.5 weeks to master 30 signs. ln e = 1 90. log( x + 3) − log(2 x) = log = log b 2 + log b 3 = A + C 98. false.03 ⎝ 35 ⎠ t ≈ 20.

makes sense b. 116. 122. Inc. Changes to make the statement true will vary. reflect the graph of y = log3x about the x-axis. Changes to make the statement true will vary. these two graphs are log 7 49 − log 7 7 = 2 − 1 = 1 . To obtain the graph of y = –log3x. log(10 x) = log x + 1 and l log(0. does not make sense. makes sense 123. A sample change is: log 7 49 log 7 49 = = log 7 49 = 2 . 1 To obtain the graph of y = 2 + log3x. 113.3 105. but log 7 7 1 Using the product rule. log 3 log x log 25 x = . log 25 log x log100 x = log100 115. . just vertical shifts of y = log x. we would have been able to simplify as follows. Answers may vary. – 120. false. – 112. c. a. the graph of the equation with the largest b will be on the top in the interval (0. Hence. Changes to make the statement true will vary. ) A sample change is: logb x3 + y 3 cannot be simplified. shift the graph of y = log3x two units left. A sample change is: logb ( xy ) = 5logb ( xy ) 5 = 5 ( logb x + logb y ) a. false. y = log 3 x = b. false. = 5logb x + 5logb y top graph: y = log100 x bottom graph: y = log 3 x 439 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true 126. 125. ∞).1x) = log x − 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. To obtain the graph of y = log3(x + 2). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 121. 1) and on the bottom in the interval (1. ( ) logb x3 y 3 = logb x3 + logb y 3 = 3logb x + 3logb y 128. shift the graph of y = log3x two units upward. top graph: y = log 3 x bottom graph: y = log100 x ln x ln 3 Comparing graphs of log b x for b > 1. Answers may vary. Explanations will vary. ( log x log 3 x = . ⎛ x ⎞2 x = log 4 ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ Sample explanation: log 4 ⎛x⎞ 1 log 4 ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ y⎠ 1 = ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) 2 1 1 = log 4 x − log 4 y 2 2 = 114. makes sense 124. 127. If we were taking the logarithm of a product and not a sum.

∞ ) ( −3. e 132. ( 0. log 7 9 = ⎛ 8x ⎞ ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ = e ⎝ 2x ⎠ x2 + 2 x = 4 x + 3 x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x +1 = 0 or x−3= 0 x = −1 x=3 5 131. ∞ ) 440 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 129. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = x( x − 7) = 3 134. Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 1. 2 x − 7x = 3 2 x − 7x − 3 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−7) ± (−7) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) x= 7 ± 61 2 ⎪⎧ 7 ± 61 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. ln 8 x5 − ln 2 x 2 =e ln ( 4 x 3 ) x+2 1 = 4x + 3 x ⎛ x+2 ⎞ ⎛1⎞ x(4 x + 3) ⎜ ⎟ = x(4 x + 3) ⎜ x ⎟ x 4 + 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ x( x + 2) = 4 x + 3 = 4 x3 log b ( x + h) − log b x h x+h log b x = h ⎛ h⎞ log b ⎜1 + ⎟ x⎠ ⎝ = h 1 ⎛ h⎞ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ h x⎠ ⎝ The solution set is {−1. . log e = log10 e = ln e 1 = ln10 ln10 135. log 9 log 32 2 log 3 = = log 7 log 7 log 7 2A = B 130. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎪⎩ 2 ⎪⎭ asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. a( x − 2) = b(2 x + 3) ax − 2a = 2bx + 3b ax − 2bx = 2a + 3b x(a − 2b) = 2a + 3b 2a + 3b x= a − 2b asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −3 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.3} . 1/ h x⎞ ⎛ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ h⎠ 133. ∞ ) 2.

domain of g = (1. f ( x ) = 3x + 6 domain: {x | x is a real number} or ( −∞. ∞ ) 441 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let log100 10 = y range of f = range of g = ( −∞. −6 ) ∪ ( −6. log 3 10 = log10 3 = 14. ∞ ) . except when 4. f ( x ) = log 3 x + 6 The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x>0 domain: {x | x > 0} or ( 0. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. 10. 2 x = −6 domain: {x | x ≠ 0} or ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 3. ∞ ) . 8. 7. ∞ ) . log 2 8 + log 5 25 = log 2 23 + log5 52 = 3+ 2 = 5 asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 1 domain of f = ( 0. log 2 ( log 3 81) = log 2 ( log 3 34 ) = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 range of f = range of g = ( −∞. 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 11. f ( x ) = log 3 ( x + 6 ) The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x+6 > 0 x > −6 domain: {x | x > −6} or ( −6. ∞ ) 100 y = 10 (10 ) 5. Now ( x + 6 ) is always positive. log 3 ( x + 6 ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) . . ∞ ) log 3 1 1 = log 3 2 = log 3 3−2 = −2 9 3 12. 6. Inc. 2 y = 101 102 y = 101 2y = 1 y= asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. ∞ ) 1 2 1 1 3 13. ∞ ) 2 The argument of the logarithm must be positive.

log100 0.08 ⎞ Monthly: A = 8000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 10. 7 log 5 x + 2 log 5 x = log5 x 7 + log 5 x 2 = log5 ( x 7 ⋅ x 2 ) = 7 7 = log5 x9 18. 16. .1 (10 ) 2 y 102 y = ln x 2 − ln y 3 − ln ( z − 2 ) 1 1 10 = 10−1 = = ln x − ⎡⎣ ln y 3 + ln ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ = ln x − ln ⎡⎣ y 3 ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ 2 y = −1 ⎡ x ⎤ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎣ y ( z − 2) ⎦ 1 y=− 2 π 20. 1 ln x − 3ln y − ln ( z − 2 ) 2 ln ( e19 x 20 ) = ln e19 + ln x 20 = 19 + 20 ln x 442 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.08(3) = π ≈ 10. Inc. ⎛ xy ⎞ log ⎜ = log ⎜ 1000 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 26.170 − 10. 6log6 5 = 5 17. logπ π 21. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Continuously: A = 8000e0.162 10.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 15.162 = 8 Interest returned will be $8 more if compounded continuously. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ log 3 ⎜ log 2 ⎟ = log 3 ⎜ log 2 3 ⎟ 8⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 23. 10log13 = 13 19. ln e 24. 100 y = 0. = log 3 ( log 2 2−3 ) = log 3 ( −3) 1 1 8 log 7 x − log 7 y = log 7 x8 − log 7 y 3 3 ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ y3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = not possible This expression is impossible to evaluate.1 = y 25. ) xy − log1000 = log ( xy ) 2 − log103 1 1 log ( xy ) − 3 2 1 = ( log x + log y ) − 3 2 1 1 = log x + log y − 3 2 2 = 22.170 12⋅3 ( ⎛ 0.

3 x−6 7e 2 x = 63 e2 x = 9 ln e 2 x = ln 9 2 x = ln 9 ln 9 ≈ 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 3 10 x = 8000 log10 x = log 8000 x log10 = log 8000 x = log 8000 ≈ 3.11 8 x + 2 = 4 x −3 (2 ) 3 2 x+2 3 x +6 ( ) = 22 x= x −3 = 2 2 x −6 (e x = −12 a.04.10.4 Section 3. . e 2 x − 8e x + 7 = 0 5. ⎩ 2 ⎭ approximately 1. 443 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ln7}. 5 = 125 3 x −6 5 = 53 (2 x − 1) ln 3 = ( x + 1) ln 7 3x − 6 = 3 3x = 9 x=3 b. log 2 ( x − 4) = 3 a.90. The solutions are 0 and (approximately) 1.4 Check Point Exercises 1.95. 3x + 6 = 2x − 6 2. 6.90 The solution set is {log 8000} . Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x ln 3 − ln 3 = x ln 7 + ln 7 2 x ln 3 − x ln 7 = ln 3 + ln 7 x(2 ln 3 − ln 7) = ln 3 + ln 7 ln 3 + ln 7 2 ln 3 − ln 7 x ≈ 12. 5x = 134 ln 5 = ln134 x ln 5 = ln134 ln134 x= ≈ 3.04 ln 5 ⎧ ln134 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 32 x −1 = 7 x +1 ln 32 x −1 = ln 7 x +1 4. − 7 )( e x − 1) = 0 or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 7 ex = 1 ln e = ln 7 ln e x = ln1 x x = ln 7 x=0 The solution set is {0. 3. a. x ex − 7 = 0 x b.10 x= 2 ⎧ ln 9 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 2 = x−4 8= x−4 12 = x Check: log ( x − 4) = 3 2 log (12 − 4) = 3 2 log 8 = 3 2 3=3 The solution set is {12}. ⎩ ln 5 ⎭ approximately 3. approximately 3.

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions b. t= 444 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 = x − 3x − 10 0 = ( x − 5)( x + 2) x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = 5 or x = −2 Check Checking 5: log 5 + log(5 − 3) = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 1=1 Checking –2: log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log(−2) + log(−2 − 3) 0 1 Negative numbers do not have logarithms so –2 does not check.46 3 x 2 − 2 x − 3 = 7 x − 23 Check 4 ln 3x = 8 x 2 − 9 x + 20 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 0 x = 4 or x = 5 Both values produce true statements. 5} ⎛ e2 ⎞ 4 ln 3 ⎜ ⎟ = 8 ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln e2 = 8 4(2) = 8 8=8 9. ⎩3⎭ approximately 2.77 x = 7 e12. The solution set is {4.02) 4t = 3600 1000(1. ln( x − 3) = ln(7 x − 23) − ln( x + 1) 7 x − 23 ln( x − 3) = ln x +1 7 x − 23 x−3= x +1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 7 x − 23 For a risk of 7%. let R = 7 in R = 6e12.77 x = 7 6 ⎛7⎞ ln e12.08 ⎞ 1000 ⎜1_ ⎟ = 3600 4 ⎠ ⎝ 1000(1 + 0.77 For a blood alcohol concentration of 0. ⎧ e2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .02) 4t = ln 3.77 x 6e12.2 After approximately 16. 2 10. 4 ln 3x = 8 8. ⎛ r⎞ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ nt ⎛ 0.6 4t ln(1.6 4 ln1.01 12.02) = ln 3. . The solution set is {5}.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎛7⎞ 12.2 years.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log x( x − 3) = 1 101 = x( x − 3) 10 = x 2 − 3x x= ln ( 76 ) ≈ 0. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.02) 4t = 3600 (1. the risk of a car accident is 7%. the $1000 will grow to an accumulated value of $3600. ln 3x = 2 eln 3 x = e 2 3x = e2 x= e2 ≈ 2.6 ln 3.02 ≈ 16.08 ⎞ 3600 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4t 4t ⎛ 0.01. 7.46.

PreCalculus 4E 11. 5. 4. 53 x −1 = 125 53 x −1 = 53 3x − 1 = 3 3x = 4 4 x= 3 x 3x = 34 x=4 The solution set is {4}. Exercise Set 3. and the solution set is {6} . and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Inc.3 x ≈ 11.3 ln x 6.3ln x = 25 32 x +1 = 33 2x + 1 = 3 2x = 2 x =1 The solution set is {1}. x= 5 2 ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 1. and the solution set is {3} . 32 x +1 = 27 10. Section 3.4 f ( x) = 54. 3x = 81 ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .277 An annual income of approximately $11. 2 x = 26 x=6 The solution is 6.8 log e x = 12. −12. Publishing as Prentice Hall.000 corresponds to 25% of Americans reporting fair or poor health.8 − 12. . ⎩2⎭ 445 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 32 x = 8 (2 ) 5 x = 23 5x = 125 2 5 x = 23 5x = 53 x=3 The solution is 3.8 x = e 12. 29. 3 ⎧3⎫ .4 2. and the solution set is {3} . 5 ⎩5⎭ 4 x = 32 (2 ) 2 x = 25 2 2 x = 25 22 x −1 = 32 2x = 5 22 x −1 = 25 2x − 1 = 5 2x = 6 x=3 The solution is 3. 8. Solve equation when f ( x) = 25 . and the solution set is {2} . 3. 5x = 3 3 x= 5 The solution is 5 = 625 x 5 x = 54 x=4 The solution set is {4}. 42 x −1 = 64 42 x −1 = 43 2x − 1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 The solution is 2.3ln x = −29.8 − 12.3 7.8 −29.8 ln x = −12. 54. ⎩3⎭ 2 = 64 9.3 29.

and the solution set is {5}. 4x = (2 ) 2 x = 1 2 1 1 22 22 x = 2 − 12 1 2 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 2⎠ 4 1 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution is − . 7 7 4 3 x−2 6 x−2 6 = 7 1 = 72 x−2 1 = 6 2 2 ( x − 2 ) = 6 (1) ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 1 2x − 6 = 4 2 x = 10 x=5 The solution is 5. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩ 6⎭ 2x = − 446 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 54 x= = 6 6 = 62 x −3 1 = 4 2 2 ( x − 3) = 4 (1) 125 x = 625 (5 ) x −3 4 x −3 4 32 x = 33 2x = 3 3 x= 2 The solution is 6 x=5 The solution set is {5}. 52 − x = 18. Inc. 9 x = 27 (3 ) 2 x 15. 9x = (3 ) 2 x = 1 3 3 1 1 33 − 13 32 x = 3 1 3 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 3⎠ 6 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . 2 ⎩2⎭ 53 x = 54 3x = 4 16. 17. ⎩3⎭ 2x − 4 = 6 1 13. 4 ⎩ 4⎭ 2x = − 1 125 1 2− x 5 = 3 5 52− x = 5−3 2 − x = −3 − x = −5 x=5 The solution set is {5}. = 33 12. 3 x 3 ⎧3⎫ . and the solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . 2 x = 10 1− x 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 = 27 1 31− x = 3 3 31− x = 3−3 1 − x = −3 − x = −4 x=4 The solution set is {4}.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. .

29.74 23 x + 9 = 2 4 x − 4 3x + 9 = 4 x − 4 26.7 x = ln 5. (2 ) 3 1− x ( ) = 22 3 − 3x = 2 x + 4 −5 x = 1 22.91 ≈ 0. 19 x = 143 x ln 19 = ln 143 ln143 x= ≈ 1.76 ln 5 x+2 23−3 x = 22 x + 4 x=− e x = 5. (2 ) 3 x +3 ( ) = 24 25. 9e x = 107 107 ex = 9 107 ln e x = ln 9 107 x = ln ≈ 2. 10 x = 8.53 5 1 e2 x x+4 e = e −2 x x + 4 = −2 x 3 x = −4 4 x=− 3 30.59 ln10 24.7 ≈ 1.07 ln10 x = ln 8.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.83 ≈ –0. .30 5 ln 3. 13 = x The solution set is {13} .07 x ln10 = ln 8.91 x= 3e5 x = 1977 ln 659 ≈ 1.07 x= ≈ 0.07 ln 8.4 8 x +3 = 16 x −1 19. 5x = 17 28. ⎩ 3⎭ 23.19 ln 5 x = ln17 x ln 5 = ln17 ln17 x= ≈ 1.91 x x= x ln10 = ln 3.69 ln19 1 5 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . 5e x = 23 23 ex = 5 23 ln e x = ln 5 23 x = ln ≈ 1.91 x ln e5 x = ln 659 ln10 = ln 3. x −1 ln e x = 5. 81− x = 4 x + 2 20. e x = 0. Inc. 1 e x +1 e = e −1 x + 1 = −1 x = −2 The solution set is {−2} . ⎩ 5⎭ 21.91 ln10 447 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 27. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 31.83 x = ln 0.48 9 e x +1 = e x+4 = ⎧ 4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . e5 x = 659 10 = 3.83 ln e x = ln 0.

273 ⎞ x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 1.12 7 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 37. Publishing as Prentice Hall.250 4x – 5 = ln 11. e1− 5 x = 793 ln e1− 5 x = ln 793 (1 − 5 x)(ln e) = ln 793 1 − 5 x = ln 793 5 x = 1 − ln 793 x= 34. 52x + 3 = 3x 2–x1+ 3 ln 5 = ln 3x −1 5 x − 3 = ln10.250 ln11.3 x = ln 813 0. ln 7 x + 2 = ln 410 ( x + 2) ln 7 = ln 410 ln 410 x+2= ln 7 ln 410 x= − 2 ≈ 1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 32. 476 e5 x − 3 = 10.58 4 448 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.06 ln 5 ln 70. e5 x − 3 − 2 = 10.2 x ln 3 = ln 0. 478 (5 x − 3) ln e = ln10. 478 + 3 ≈ 2. 250 + 5 x= ≈ 3. 243 e 4 x – 5 = 11. 273 e7 x = 4 ⎛ 10. 273 10.14 5 39.00 8 x= 7 x + 2 = 410 ln10. 273 ⎞ ln e7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎛ 10.3 x = 813 3x / 7 = 0. Inc. 273 ⎞ 7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 1 ⎛ 10.3ln 7 e1−8 x = 7957 ln e1−8 x = ln 7957 (1 – 8x) ln e = ln 7957 1 – 8x = ln 7957 8x = 1 – ln 7957 1 – ln 7957 x= ≈ –1. 478 ln e5 x − 3 = ln10. 478 70.2 ln 3x / 7 = ln 0. 250 (4x – 5)ln e = ln 11. 4e7 x = 10.45 5 e 4 x − 5 − 7 = 11. . 478 (2 x + 3) ln 5 = ( x − 1) ln 3 2 x ln 5 + 3ln 5 = x ln 3 − ln 3 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x ln 3 − 2 x ln 5 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x(ln 3 − 2 ln 5) 3ln 5 + ln 3 =x ln 3 − 2ln 5 −2.09 ln 7 38.3x ln 7 = ln 813 ln 813 x= ≈ 11. 40.80 ≈ x 5 x = ln10.2 x= ≈ –10. 33. 478 + 3 36.2 7 x ln 3 = 7 ln 0.2 7 ln 0.48 0. 250 ln e 4 x − 5 = ln11.25 ln 3 41. 1 – ln 793 ≈ –1. 35. 5 x− 3 = 137 ln 5 x− 3 = ln137 (x – 3) ln 5 = ln 137 ln137 x −3 = ln 5 ln137 x = 3+ ≈ 6.

ln x = 3 e3 = x 20.39 ≈ x 52.PreCalculus 4E 42.58 49. (2 x + 1) ln 7 = ( x + 2) ln 3 ln 3 2 x + 1 = ( x + 2) ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x + 1 = x + ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x − x = −1 ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 ⎞ 2 ln 3 ⎛ −1 x⎜2 − ⎟= ln 7 ⎠ ln 7 ⎝ 2 ln 3 −1 ≈ 0.09 x = ln 7 ln 3 2− ln 7 (e e 2 x − 6 = 0 or e 2 x + 3 = 0 e2 x = 6 x 47. The solutions is approximately 1. ln x = 2 e2 = x 7. 2x + 4 = 0 2 x = −4 ln 2 x = ln ( −4 ) − 3)( e x + 1) = 0 ex − 3 = 0 does not exist or e x + 1 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −1 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x = ln(−1) (e 2x = 3 ln 2 x = ln 3 x ln 2 = ln 3 ln 3 ln 2 x ≈ 1. e 4 x − 3e 2 x − 18 = 0 ( e2 x − 6 )( e2 x + 3) = 0 + 8 )( e 2 x − 3) = 0 50. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ln 6 ≈ 0. Inc. Section 3. 48. 45. 32 x + 3x − 2 = 0 (3x + 2)(3x − 1) = 0 − 2 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 2 = 0 e2 x = −3 ln e 2 x = ln 6 ln e 2 x = ln(−3) 2 x = ln 6 ln(−3) does not exist.09 ≈ x 449 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.90 x= 2 e 2 x − 3e x + 2 = 0 43. log 5 x = 3 53 = x e2 x + 8 = 0 e 2 x = −8 ln e 2 x = ln(−8) 2 x = ln(−8) or e 2 x − 3 = 0 e2 x = 3 ln e 2 x = ln 3 2 x = ln 3 ln 3 ln(−8) does not exist x= 2 ln 3 x= ≈ 0. The solutions are 0 and approximately 0.69. or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 2 ex = 1 ln e x = ln 2 ln e x = ln1 3x + 2 = 0 (e 3x = 1 log 3x = log(−2) log 3x = log1 does not exist log 3 = 0 0 x= log 3 x=0 The solution set is {0}. 22 x + 2 x − 12 = 0 (2 x + 4)(2 x − 3) = 0 e 2 x − 2e x − 3 = 0 x 3x − 1 = 0 3 x = −2 x = ln 2 x=0 The solution set is {0.10. ln 2).55 2 125 = x 51. 44. log 3 x = 4 34 = x 81 = x e 4 x + 5e 2 x − 24 = 0 2x 2x − 3 = 0 x= x = ln 3 no solution The solution set is {ln 3}.4 7 2 x +1 = 3 x + 2 ln 7 2 x +1 = ln 3x + 2 46. .

61. ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 6 ln 2 x = 30 ln 2 x = 5 2 x = e5 log 5 ( x − 7) = 2 x= 5 = x−7 2 32 = x 55.75 = x 65.61 x 62.30 2 450 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 2 eln x = e −1/ 2 43 = 3 x + 2 58. ⎩4⎭ 5 ln 2 x = 20 ln 2 x = 4 eln 2 x = e4 2 x = e4 x= 7 + 3ln x = 6 3ln x = −1 x+2 64 = 3x + 2 59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 = x+5 3 e ln 2 x = e5 59 = x 54.39. 3−3 = 1 = 27 1 4 = 27 4. 32 = 4 x + 1 31 = 4 x 31 =x 4 7.21 2 e4 ≈ 27. ln x + 4 = 1 eln x+4 = e1 x+4 =e log 2 (4 x + 1) = 5 x + 4 = e2 2 = 4x + 1 5 x = e 2 − 4 ≈ 3.72 ln x + 3 = 1 eln log 4 (3 x + 2) = 3 x+3 = e1 x+3 = e x + 3 = e2 x = e 2 − 3 ≈ 4.67 ≈ x 64. .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 53. 6 + 2 ln x = 5 2 ln x = −1 x−4 7 −2 = 1 = 49 48 −1 = 49 −1. log 3 ( x − 4) = −3 e5 ≈ 74.98 ≈ 57.04 ≈ 56. x 1 −1 3 3 ≈ 0. log 7 ( x + 2) = −2 1 3 ln x = − x+2 eln x = e − x=e x 63. log 5 x + log 5 ( 4 x − 1) = 1 log 5 ( 4 x 2 − x ) = 1 4 x2 − x = 5 4 x2 − x − 5 = 0 (4 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = −1 4 x = –1 does not check because log 5 (−1) does not exist.39 62 = 3x 62 =x 3 20. ln x = − x−4 x x = e −1/ 2 ≈ 0. log 4 ( x + 5) = 3 60. Inc.

2 69. log 6 x( x + 5) = 2 x( x + 5) = 6 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ x −1 ⎠ x+2 = 41 x −1 x+2 =4 x −1 x + 2 = 4(x – 1) x + 2 = 4x – 4 3x = 6 x=2 2 x 2 + 5 x = 36 x 2 + 5 x − 36 = 0 (x + 9)(x – 4) = 0 x = –9 or x = 4 x = –9 does not check because log 6 (−9 + 5) does not exist.PreCalculus 4E 66. x + 2 = 8 x − 40 7 x = 42 x=6 451 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 68. . The solution set is {4}. log 4 ( x + 2 ) − log 4 ( x − 1) = 1 log 3 ( x − 5 ) + log 3 ( x + 3) = 2 71. log 3 ⎣⎡( x − 5)( x + 3) ⎦⎤ = 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = log 3 9 + 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 + 2 ( x − 5)( x + 3) = 32 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 4 x 2 – 2 x – 15 = 9 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 24 = 0 32 = x + 4 ( x − 6)( x + 4) = 0 9= x+4 x = 6 or x = −4 x = –4 does not check because log 3 (−4 − 5) does not exist. 5= x 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − log 2 4 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − 2 log 2 ( x − 1) + log 2 ( x + 1) = 3 log 2 ⎡⎣( x − 1)( x + 1) ⎤⎦ = 3 72. 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 3 log 2 ( x − 1) = 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 23 21 = x − 1 x −1 = 8 x2 = 9 x = 3 or x = –3 x = –3 does not check because log 2 (−3 − 1) does not exist.4 log 6 ( x + 5 ) + log 6 x = 2 70. 67. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {3}. Section 3. 3= x 73. log 2 ( x − 6) + log 2 ( x − 4) − log 2 x = 2 log 2 log 2 ( x + 2 ) − log 2 ( x − 5 ) = 3 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟=3 ⎝ x−5⎠ x+2 = 23 x−5 x+2 =8 x−5 x + 2 = 8( x − 5) ( x − 6)( x − 4) =2 x ( x − 6)( x − 4) = 22 x x 2 − 10 x + 24 = 4 x x 2 − 14 x + 24 = 0 x − 12 = 0 or ( x − 12)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {12} since log2 (2−6) = log2 (−4) is not possible. The solution set is {6}.

so the solution set is {8} 75.2 log(5 x + 1) = log(2 x + 3) + log 2 log(5 x + 1) = log(4 x + 6) 5x + 1 = 4x + 6 x=5 x= 83. 1 5 x ≈ 0. 4 x + 8 = x − 3x 2 log( x + 4) − log 2 = log(5 x + 1) log 0 = x − 7x − 8 2 0 = ( x + 1)( x − 8) x +1 = 0 or x−8 = 0 x = −1 x=8 log2 (−1−3) = log2(−4) does not exist. Inc. log(2 x − 1) = log(3x + 9) 2 x − 1 = 3x + 9 79. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . The solution set is 2 log x − log 7 = log112 log x 2 − log 7 = log112 log(3x − 3) = log( x + 1) + log 4 −7 = x This value is rejected. log( x − 2) + log 5 = log100 log(5 x − 10) = log100 5 x − 10 = 100 5 x = 110 2 log x = log 25 x = 22 log x = log 25 2 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 –5 is rejected. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 = log112 7 x2 = 112 7 x 2 = 784 x = ±28 –28 is rejected. x+4 = log(5 x + 1) 2 x+4 = 5x + 1 2 x + 4 = 10 x + 2 { }. ( x − 3) x =2 ( x + 2) log x3 = log125 x3 = 125 x − 3x x+2 4( x + 2) = x 2 − 3x 22 = 3log x = log125 2 x=5 81. x + 4 = 4x 4 = 3x 4 x= 3 77. −10 = x This value is rejected. log(2 x − 1) = log( x + 3) + log 3 84. −9 x = −2 2 9 x ≈ 0. log 2 ( x − 3) + log 2 x − log 2 ( x + 2) = 2 log 2 80. The solution set is x+7 = log(7 x + 1) 3 x+7 = 7x + 1 3 x + 7 = 21x + 3 −20 x = −4 log(3x − 3) = log(4 x + 4) 78.22 x= log( x + 4) = log x + log 4 log( x + 4) = log 4 x 82. 452 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is {28}. The solution set is {5}. ⎩3⎭ 76. log 3x − 3 = 4 x + 4 { }. .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 74. log( x + 7) − log 3 = log(7 x + 1) log ⎧4⎫ This value is rejected.

( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x=2 2 is rejected. ( x + 5)( x − 4) = 0 x = −5 or x = 4 –5 is rejected.PreCalculus 4E 85. The solution set is {3}. Section 3. The solution set is { }. Inc. ln( x − 2) − ln( x + 3) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 7) x−2 x −1 = ln x+3 x+7 x − 2 x −1 = x+3 x+7 ( x − 2)( x + 7) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) log( x + 3x) = log10 2 x 2 + 5 x − 14 = x 2 + 2 x − 3 3 x = 11 log( x + 3) + log( x − 2) = log14 11 3 x ≈ 3. 2 ln x − 6 = 0 2 ln x = 6 ln x = 3 ln x = 3 x=e x ≈ 20. x −5 x −1 = ln x+4 x+2 x − 5 x −1 = x+4 x+2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = ( x + 4)( x − 1) ln ln( x − 4) + ln( x + 1) = ln( x − 8) ln( x 2 − 3 x − 4) = ln( x − 8) x 2 − 3x − 10 = x 2 + 3x − 4 x 2 − 3x − 4 = x − 8 −6 x = 6 x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 x = −1 –1 is rejected. 52 x ⋅ 54 x = 125 52 x + 4 x = 53 ⎛1⎞ log 2 ( x − 1) − log 2 ( x + 3) = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝x⎠ x −1 ⎛1⎞ = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ log 2 x+3 ⎝x⎠ x −1 1 = x+3 x x2 − x = x + 3 56 x = 53 6x = 3 x= 92. 3x + 2 ⋅ 3x = 81 3( x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x = −1 or x = 3 –1 is rejected. 1 2 x + 2)+ x = 34 32 x + 2 = 34 2x + 2 = 4 2x = 2 x =1 93. The solution set is {4}. ln x + 3x = 10 2 x + 3 x − 10 = 0 2 ( x + 5)( x − 2) = 0 x = −5 or x = 2 –5 is rejected. ln( x − 5) − ln( x + 4) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 2) 91. 88. The solution set is { }.05 453 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.67 x= log( x 2 + x − 6) = log14 x 2 + x − 6 = 14 x 2 + x − 20 = 0 90. 86. The solution set is {2}. . 87.4 log x + log( x + 3) = log10 89.09 3 or ln x = −3 x = e −3 x ≈ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 98. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. . ln 3 − ln( x + 5) − ln x = 0 ln 96.54 2 5 − 37 x= ≈ −0. x2 5 = 50 3 x( x + 5) 3 1= x( x + 5) x( x + 5) = 3 e0 = 2 ln 5 x = ln 50 x 2 ln 5 = ln 50 ln 50 x2 = ln 5 ln 50 ≈ ±1.01 x = 102 x = 100 95. x2 + 5x = 3 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − 2 ln x = 0 x= ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − ln x = 0 2 ln 3 =0 x( x + 5) (2 x + 1)( x − 3) =0 x2 (2 x + 1)( x − 3) = e0 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 =1 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 = x2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2 x + 5x − 3 = 0 2a −(5) ± (5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) −5 ± 37 2 −5 + 37 x= ≈ 0. 3 log x − 6 = 0 x= 3 log x = 6 log x = 2 log x = 2 or log x = −2 2(1) x= 2 3x = 45 2 ln 3x = ln 45 x 2 ln 3 = ln 45 ln 45 x2 = ln 3 ln 45 ≈ ±1.56 ln 5 x=± 97.54 2 −5 − 37 x= ≈ −5. 2 ⎩⎪ ⎭⎪ x= x2 − 5x − 3 = 0 454 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.86 ln 3 x=± −(−5) ± (−5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 5 ± 37 2 5 + 37 x= ≈ 5. ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ x = 10−2 x = 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 94.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ −5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.

9e0.975 x ≈ 75 There is 3% of surface sunlight at 75 feet.0183t 22.1 40 ln 36.975 x ≈ 118 There is 1% of surface sunlight at 118 feet.975 x 20 1 = ln 0.9e0. 100.1e0. a.975 x 20 3 = ln 0. 6} . = 252 x = (5 =5 A = 22.1 The population of California was 36. 2005 is 0 years after 2005.975 ln 20 1 ln 20 x= ln 0. 4x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 b.975 x ln 20 3 = x ln 0.9e0.0183t 27 = 22. 455 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or 2014. This is represented by the point (75.0126t 36. 101.9 The population of Texas was 22.975) x ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 1 = 20(0.0126t ln 36.1 40 = ln e0.0183 The population of Texas will reach 27 million about 9 years after 2005. A = 22.3). .0183t = ln 22.975) x 3 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9e0. A = 36.1). 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 = 92 x = ( 32 ) 2x = 34 x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 103.1 ≈8 t= 0.975) x Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 1 = 0.1 million in 2005.PreCalculus 4E 99.0183t Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 2005 is 0 years after 2005.0183t ) 2 2x A = 22.0126t A = 36.975 ln 20 3 ln 20 x= ln 0. This is represented by the point (118.1 40 0.0126t 104.9 27 ln t = 22. or 2013 3 = 20(0.4 2 −12 x 2 −12 x 2 −12 102.9 million in 2005.1e0. a. 6} . b.0126t 40 = 36.0126 The population of California will reach 40 million about 8 years after 2005. A = 36. x = −2 The solution set is {−2.1e0.9 27 0.0183t ln 22.9 27 = ln e0.0126(0) = 36. f ( x) = 20(0. 5x 5 5 Section 3. x = −2 The solution set is {−2.0126t = ln 36.975 x ln 20 1 = x ln 0. f ( x) = 20(0.0183(0) = 22. Inc.9 ≈ 9 0.975) x 40 = e0. ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 27 = e0.1e0.

7 The amount would double in 8.5 ln e 2 r = ln1.005416667)12t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ ⎛ 60 ⎞ 12t ln(1.4) / 720) − 1 111.08 t ≈ 8.8 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 1440 12 t ⎛ 0. 500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12.08t = ln 2 360⋅2 ln 2 0. accumulated amount = 3(2350) = 7050 7050 = 2350er ⋅7 ≈ 0. 000 = 8000e 0.4 360 ⎝ ⎠ 110. accumulated amount = 2(8000) = 16.5 2r = ln1.8 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = ln1.5 r ⎞ ln1.08t = ln 2 0.005416667)12t = r ⎞ ⎛ 1400 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 109.168 e7 r = 3 16. r= (ln1.0575 ⎞ 105.4 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 720 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.2 years r ⎞ ln1. 000 = 12.157 7 15. ( 360 ⋅ 4 ) 1440 r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ (1.8% ln e7 r = ln 3 7r = ln 3 r= ln 3 ≈ 0.4) / 720 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1. 000 = 7250 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 12 t 7250(1.014375 8.2 4 ln1.7% ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ t= ≈ 11.2 years 12 ln1.6 ≈ 8.00541667) = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ (1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ⎛ 0.4) / 720 ln1.8) /1440 − 1 ≈ 0.4 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 720 e ln(1+ r 360 ) 1+ =e r = e(ln1. t= 720 = 1.7 years. .08t e0. 12.08t = 2 ln e0.8 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 1440 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.014375) = ln1. 000 4t ln(1.147 14.6 106. = 1.005416667) = 15.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1. 000 ln 1+ r e ( 360 ) = e(ln1.014375) 4t = ln1.065 ⎞ 15. 500(1. 000 = 8000e r ⋅ 2 e 2 r = 1.3% r = e(ln1.7% 456 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 1440 ln1.014375) 4t = 1.203 2 20.4 720 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = e(ln1.5 ≈ 0.8 360 ⎝ ⎠ 4t ln(1.00541667 107.000 16.6 t= r ⎞ ⎛ 9000 = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 108.014375) 4t = 20. 20.8) /1440 1+ 60 29 ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln(1.

95 2 30 = x 9.8 Only half the students recall the important features of the lecture after 2.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 697 ⎠ t= ⎝ ≈ 8. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x −5. x≈8 If the trend continues. b.5 years 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. f (4) = 8 + 38 ln 4 ≈ 61 According to the function.4 = − log x −2.4 2006 is 4 years after 2002. This overestimates the value shown in the graph by 1%.6 79 = ln x 38 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−5.0 ≈ x (9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. pH = − log x 2. a. 40 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 45 log 2 x = 1.6) = 103.0425t = 697 ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln e0. or 2013.4 −5.4 −( −5. a.0425t 1000 e0. b.4 mole per liter. 50) P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 116. P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 115.8.6 = 10−2. This underestimates the value shown in the graph by 2%.0425 113.6 = − log x 87 = 8 + 38ln x 114.4 = log x x = 10−2.2 times greater than the normal rainfall in part (a). 457 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0.4 112.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ 0. or 2010.8 days.5 ≈ 2. 25. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x 100 = 8 + 38ln x 92 = 38 ln x 92 = ln x 38 x= 92 e 38 x ≈ 11 If the trend continues. 95 30 c. 000 = 17. Inc. 100% of new cellphones will have cameras 11 years after 2002. (2. 425e0. 79 x = e 38 b.6 = log x 79 = 38 ln x x = 10−5. 10−2. 87% of new cellphones will have cameras 8 years after 2002. a. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x log 2 x = f (5) = 8 + 38 ln 5 ≈ 69 According to the function.2 10 The concentration of the acidic rainfall in part (b) is 103.5 x = 21. 61% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2006. pH = − log x 5. .6 mole per liter. 0 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 95 2007 is 5 years after 2002. 69% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2007. 0) 117.

– 122. −2. 2).3 mole per liter. . 9). ( ) The intersection point is 11 . 1 = − log x −1 = log x x = 10 31+1 = 9 32 = 9 −1 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−1 mole per liter. 3 11 Verify: x = 3 11 ⎛ ⎞ log 3 ⎜ 3 ⋅ − 2 ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ log 3 (11-2) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {113} . 10 The concentration of the acidic stomach in part (b) is 101. = 10−1−( −2. The intersection point is (2. Inc.3 125. 458 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8).3 9=9 The solution set is {1}. Answers may vary.3 = log x x = 10−2. 23 = 8 8=8 The solution set is {2}.3 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2.3 = − log x −2.3) = 101.3 times greater than the lemon juice in part (a). Verify x = 1: 3x +1 = 9 pH = − log x b. 119. 2 . a. 2. {1} The intersection point is (1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions pH = − log x 118. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 3 (4 ⋅ 4 − 7) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {4}. Verify: x = 2 2 2 x +1 =8 2 +1 =2 126. Verify: x = 4 123. 124. 10−1 c. The intersection point is (4.

2793139) + 4 7.391606) + 3 0.48ln( x + 1) + 27 0.6855579.2793139 128. 1).1250782178 ≈ 0. Verify x ≈ −1. The intersection point is (2. 131. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 51.8379416).125077 Verify:x ≈ 1.6855579) + 3 6. The intersection point is (20.12507831) and log(2 + 3) + log 2 = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 (1. leveling off at about 30 inches of mercury.837941942 ≈ 7. 1. 7. 0.216788 Verify x ≈ 1.291641.2793139}.291641) + 4 0. 5−1. 6. 2).391606.48ln( x + 1) = 2 1 ln( x + 1) = 0. 29 = 0.5. Verify:x ≈ −1. Verify: x = 2 There are 2 points of intersection.24 0. 130.2793139 = 3(1.291641 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 5x = 3x + 4 1=1 The solution set is {2}. 0.24 1 e ln( x +1) = e 0. As the distance from the eye increases. barometric air pressure increases. 129.21678798) and (1.24 x +1 = e 1 x=e 1 0. Verify x = 20: log (x – 15) + log x = 2 log (20 – 15) + log 20 = 2 log 5 + log 20 = 2 log 100 = 2 100 = 102 100 = 100 The solution set is {20}.6855579 3x = 2x + 3 31. 29).2793139. 459 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.391606 3x = 2x + 3 3-1. .5 The barometric air pressure is 29 inches of mercury at a distance of about 63.6855579 ≈ 2(1.4 127.291641.24 − 1 ≈ 63. approximately (−1.291641 = 3(−1.8379417 The solution set is {–1. The point of intersection is approximately (63. Inc. There are 2 points of intersection.391606 ≈ 2(−1.5 miles from the eye of a hurricane.6855579}. 132.391606.3711158).37111582 ≈ 6. 1.371158 The solution set is {–1.2167879803 ≈ 0. approximately (–1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.

05 ⎠ ln 0.9.03)t = 0. A sample change is: x10 = 5. makes sense 139.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. Explanations will vary.05)t x explanation: 2 = 15 requires logarithms. and 10 = 2 x + 5 . 460 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 = 16 can be solved by rewriting 16 as 24.05 ⎠ t ⎛ 1. 7x + 3 ⎛ 7x + 3 ⎞ 4 then log ⎜ ⎟ = 4. Inc. 142.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0.9) 140. When P = 70.05 ⎠ ⎛ 1. false.5 ⎝ 1. 2 x = 15 (1. The second equation is solved by using the one-to-one property of logarithms. 1⋅t 135.5 ⎝ 1.03 ⎞ A = 4000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ Account paying 5% interest: An adult female elephant weighing 1800 kilograms is about 20 years old.05 ⎠ The accounts will have the same balance in about 36 years. true 134. because there is not a variable in an exponent. false. then 102 = x + 3. so it will take about 7.03 ⎞ t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0. A sample change is: If log ( x + 3) = 2. Sample explanation: The first equation is solved by rewriting it in exponential form. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 t= ≈ 36 ⎛ 1.092(7.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 137. does not make sense.9 minutes. A sample change is: If log ( 7 x + 3) − log ( 2 x + 5 ) = 4. 2 x = 16 2 x = 24 x=4 136. false.71 is not an exponential equation. .05 ⎞ A = 2000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ The two accounts will have the same balance when 4000(1. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary.5 ⎝ 1. 138. Sample x ⎛ 0.03 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.5(1. 143.9 minutes. 141. Account paying 3% interest: 1⋅t ⎛ 0. 2 x + 5 ⎝ ⎠ 70 ≈ 70.05)t ln 2 x = ln15 x ln 2 = ln15 ln15 x= ln 2 t ⎛ 1. Verify: 70 = 45e −0. does not make sense.10076749 The runner’s pulse will be 70 beats per minute after about 7. t ≈ 7. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 133.03)t = 2000(1.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 10−2 3 2 x= 147.003(0) = 10 million 2007: A = 10e−0.003(2) ≈ 9.91 million b.003(1) ≈ 9. 10 10 ⎬ .4 (ln x) 2 = ln x 2 144. e 2 } . (log x)(2 log x + 1) = 6 2(log x) 2 + log x − 6 = 0 (2 log x − 3)(log x + 2) = 0 2 log x − 3 = 0 or log x + 2 = 0 2 log x = 3 log x = −2 log x = 3 2 x = 10 The graph of ln(ln(x)) crosses the graph y = 0 at approximately 2. The solution set is ⎨⎩100 ⎭ 2009: A = 10e−0.718. There are two points of intersection: (1. e2} as determined algebraically. Check by direct substitution: Check:x = 10 10 = 103 / 2 (log x)(2log x + 1) = 6 (ln x) = 2 ln x 2 (ln x ) − 2 ln x = 0 ln x(ln x − 2) = 0 ln x = 2 ln x = 0 eln x = e 2 or x =1 x = e2 The solution set is {1. 0) and approximately (7. The population is decreasing. ln(ln x) = 0 eln(ln x ) = e0 ln x = 1 eln x = e1 x=e The solution set is {e}. 148.3890566099. 2006: A = 10e−0. Inc. 145. An exponential function is the best choice.003(3) ≈ 9.3890561. .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 2 ( log10 ) (2 log10 3/ 2 3/ 2 + 1) = 6 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 ⋅ + 1⎟ = 6 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (3 + 1) = 6 ⎝2⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (4) = 6 ⎝2⎠ 6=6 Check with graphing utility: 146. so the solution set is {1. Since e2 ≈ 7.94 million ⎧ 1 ⎫ .97 million x = 10 10 2008: A = 10e−0. 461 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 100 A = 10e−0. 4). the graph verifies x = 1 and x = e2.003t a.

substitute 4. f (t ) = a.021t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 643 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0. 2000 = 643e0. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain. .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 149.0248t eln 3 = 3 b.0248t = ln ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 16k ⎝ 643 ⎠ b. A = 906.0248 28 So the exponential decay model is A = A0 e −0.4 1 + e −0.0248t = ln 6 ln 16 t= ≈ 72 −0. 1 6 ln e −0. 2. 0.021t 643 ⎛ 2000 ⎞ 0.021t . a.0248t In the exponential decay model A = A0 e kt . ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 0. a. c. Since 2006 is 16 years after 1990. Substitute 10 for t in the model: 0. when t = 16 .5 Check Point Exercises 1.0248 The strontium-90 will decay to a level of 10 grams about 72 years after the accident. the growth function is A = 643e0. eln 3 = 3 A0 = A0 e k ⋅28 2 1 e 28 k = 2 1 ln e 28 k = ln 2 1 28k = ln 2 ln1/ 2 k= ≈ −0.0248t = 1 6 1 −0.021 k= ⎝ 16 Thus.7 1 + e−0. b.8 f (10) = ≈ 0. A0 = 643 .021t ⎝ 643 ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 54 t= ⎝ 0. b. c .021 Africa’s population will reach 2000 million approximately 54 years after 1990.2(0) The proportion of correct responses prior to learning trials was 0. A = 643e0. a.8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A = A0 ekt 906 = 643ek (16) 906 = e16k 643 ⎛ 906 ⎞ 16 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 643 ⎠ e = −0. (e ) ln 3 x = 3x e(ln 3) x = 3x Section 3. In the logistic growth model. 462 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. T = C + (To – C)ekt 2000 = e0.021t a.7.2(10) The proportion of correct responses after 10 learning trials was 0. Substitute 60 for A0 and 10 for A in the model from part (a) and solve for t.8 f (0) = = 0. 10 = 60e −0.4. or 2044. A0 for A since the amount present 2 after 28 years is half the original amount. The limiting size of the proportion of correct responses as continued learning trials take place is 0.021t 3. The time prior to learning trials corresponds to t = 0.

0673t 5 = 70 e −0. c. Because the data in the scatter plot increase rapidly at first and then begin to level off. Scatter plot: 2.5 In 2006.5e0 A = 127. find A when t = 0 : A = 127. the temperature will be 48o.8 In 2006. 3. 1 = e −0.5e 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus.0673 ≈ k Because the data in the scatter plot appear to increase more and more rapidly.001( 0 ) A = 127. Russia has a decreasing population.7% per year. For y = 4(7. the shape suggests that a logarithmic function is a good choice for modeling the data. 5k 5 = e 5k 7 5 ln = ln e 5 k 7 5 ln = 5 k 7 5 ln 7 =k 5 −0. T = 30 + 70e −0.0673t ln 14 1 = −0.5e0.027( 0 ) A = 26.8) x in terms of a natural logarithm. 4. the population of Iraq was 26. Since k = −0. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006. a = 4. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 35 = 30 + 70e—0.8) x . T = 30 + 70e-0.0673t b.001t A = 127.8e0 A = 26.0673 39 ≈ t The temperature will reach 35o after 39 min.5 1. b = 7.4% per year. The population is dropping at of 0.0673t ln 14 1 ln 14 = t −0. .054 x .5 80 = 30 + (100 − 30)e k5 80 = 30 + 70e 5k 50 = 70 e 6.8e 0. the model is approximately equivalent to y = 4e2. Iraq has the greatest growth rate at 2. the population of Japan was 127.5 (1) A = 127.8 (1) A = 26.0673t 14 1 = ln e −0.8. Rounded to three decimal places.8e0. y = ab x is equivalent to y = ae(ln b ) x . y = 4(7. Inc. 463 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 million. the shape suggests that an exponential function is a good choice for modeling the data. 5.0673t 7. Scatter plot: Exercise Set 3.5 million.0673(20) ≈ 48o After 20 minutes.8)x is equivalent to y = 4e(ln 7.027t A = 26. find A when t = 0 : A = 26.004 .

014 The population of India will be 1416 million approximately 18 years after 2006.04 .4 1416 ln = 0.026t = 9 9 3. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.7 million in 2025. A = 12 .01 50 Thus.7 The population is projected to be 118.1e0.014t 1095.01 Now.04 ⎛ 10 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6.04 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040. P( x) = 91.026t = ln ⎛⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3. 2000 + 40 = 2040.01t .04e0. A = A0 e kt 12 = 3. ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6. Substitute A = 1238 into the model for India and solve for t: 1238 = 1095.2 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 3.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0.01t 6. the growth function is A = 3.026t = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 6.014t 1095.026 Now.4 1238 ln = 0. the growth function is A = 6.01t b.0147(18) P(18) = 91. when t = 50 .01t ⎝ 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 9 ⎞ ln e0. or 2015.1e0.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6. 6. 1416 = 1095.026t = 10 = 6. Substitute A = 1416 into the model for India and solve for t: 1416 = e0.2 ⎠ ≈ 0.4 t= ≈9 0. 9 = e0. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.4e b.4 t= ≈ 18 0.014t 1095. a.2e0.04e k (50) 10 = e50 k 6. or 2024.014t 1238 = e0. A0 = 3.4 1416 ln = ln e0. 464 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.014t 7.014 The population of India will be 1238 million approximately 9 years after 2006.4e0. 2000 + 40 = 2040. A = A0 ekt 3.0147(18) ≈ 118.2e0. A0 = 6.04 ⎠ 0.2 .2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 3. when t = 50 .026 k= ⎝ 50 Thus.014t 1095. A = 10 .026t .014t 1095. Inc.4 1238 ln = ln e0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5.1e0.014t 1095.2 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0.04 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0.0147t P(18) = 91. 9.04e0.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.01t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6. e0.4 1416 ln 1095.04 ⎠ k= ⎝ ≈ 0. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040 8. 9 = 6. a. .4 1238 ln 1095.04 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0.2ek (50) 12 = e50 k 3.

0157(18) ≈ 218. Inc.0 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 44.5 The population is projected to be 218.01 Approximately 8 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 5715 years.0 18k =e 44. P(18) = 164.430 years.0ekt 14. 12. P( x) = 19.000121(5715) A = 16e −0.7e0.000121t A = 16e −0.38303 A ≈ 4.691515 A ≈ 8. 11.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.7e0.3 ⎛ 6. A = 16e −0.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.0 = 44.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.0053 The growth rate is –0.4 ⎛ 32.PreCalculus 4E 10.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.4e18k 55. 16.0 ⎛ 40.0157(18) 40.0 ⎠ ⎛ 40.3ekt 6. .4e18k 32.0285 The growth rate is 0. 15.0157t 13.000121t A = 16e −0.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.0e18k 40. P( x) = 44.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 7.4 18k =e 19.0082 The growth rate is –0.4 ⎠ ⎛ 32.7e0.0121 The growth rate is 0.4ekt 55.0285.5 million in 2025.5 P( x) = 164.4 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 19.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 19.0121.4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 32.3 18k =e 7.2 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 = 19.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0. Section 3.3e18k 6.3 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 7.0 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 7.01 Approximately 4 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 11.0053.4ekt 32. P( x) = 7.000121(11430) A = 16e −1.3 = 7.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 19.3 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.2 = e18k 44. A = 16e −0.0082. P( x) = 44. P(18) = 164.2 = 44.0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 40. 465 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 ⎛ 55.

2 2 After 25.039608 The decay rate is 3.0152% per year.0 The half-life is 11.000 years. there will 2 1 be 2 ⋅ = 1 grams present.5 = ekt 0.000121t ln 0.000 years. 22.000121t 15 = e −0.0 years.055t ln 0. 0.5 =k 17.5 = 4560k −0.5k ln 0.15 t= ≈ 15.5 = 17. there will be 16 ⋅ 0.5 = e4560 k ln 0. After 40 seconds. After 75.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 17.000152 The decay rate is 0.6 The half-life is 12.5 = ln e−0.5 =k 4560 k ≈ −0. 2 2 21. 20. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present.063t ln 0.055t ln 0. 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 k ≈ −0.000428 The decay rate is 0. there will be 16 ⋅ ln 0.000121t 100 ln 0.5 = ekt 0.000121t ln 0. After 100.6 years.000121t 88 = e −0. 2 1 1 there will be 1 ⋅ = gram present.5 = ln e17.5 = e −0.5 =k 1620 k ≈ −0.000 years.063t ln 0.000121t ln 0. there 2 1 1 will be 1 ⋅ = gram present.5 =t −0. there 2 1 will be 2 ⋅ = 1 gram present.15 = −0.055 t ≈ 12.5k ln 0.5k ln 0. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present.5 =t −0.000121t A = A0 e 0.000121t ln 0.000 years.063 t ≈ 11.88 = −0.063t ln 0.5 = ln e1620 k ln 0. After 50 seconds.5 = e kt 0.5 = e −0. 679 −0. the skeletons were approximately 1056 years old. 23. 88 = 100e −0.000121 The paintings are approximately 15. 15 = 100e−0. After 50.15 = ln e −0. After 20 seconds. 0.0428% per year.5 = e kt 24.5 = ekt 0.88 = ln e −0. . 0.5 = ln e −0. 25.000121t 100 ln 0.88 t= ≈ 1056 −0. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present.5 = e1620 k ln 0. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present.055t ln 0.5 = ln e4560 k ln 0. 19. After 30 seconds.000121t ln 0. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present.5 = 1620k A = A0 e −0. After 125.000121 In 1989.679 years old.5 = −0. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present.9608% per day.5 = e17.5 = −0.000 years. 466 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. After 10 seconds. 18. Inc.

000 years old.5 = e22 k 0.031507 ln 0. A = e−0.52912t .031507t Next use the decay equation answer question.1 It will take 7.000094t Next use the decay equation answer question.2 = ln e−0.7 It will take 17121.006134 The decay rate is 0.1 years.000094t ln 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.5 = e113k 0.5 = 22k ln 0. A = e−0.945 = ln e −0.1069 billion or 106.000094t ln 0.2 = e−0.52912t ln 0.5 = ln e113k ln 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 = ekt 26. .000094t 0.31k 2 1 ln k = 2 ≈ −0. First find the decay equation.945 A0 = A0 e 0.000094 ln 0. 0.31 2 1 ln = ln e1. 467 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 = ln e22k ln 0.031507t ln 0. A = e−0.2 =t −0.52912t 0.52912t ln 0. A = A0 e −0.945 t= ≈ 0.5 =k 113 k ≈ −0. 27.8 = e−0.5 =k 22 k ≈ −0.945 = −0. 29.8 = ln e−0.000094t ln 0.31k 2 1 ln = 1.945 = e−0.000094 t ≈ 17121.031507t 0.5 = ln e7340 k ln 0.031507t ln 0.52912 The age of the dinosaur ones is approximately 0.1069 −0.52912 1. 1 = 1e k 1.5 28.5 = 113k ln 0.31 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.8 =t −0.031507t ln 0.6134% per hour. A = e−0.5 = e7340k ln 0.5 = 7340k ln 0. Inc.52912t ln 0. First find the decay equation.5 = ekt 0.5 =k 7340 k ≈ −0.8 = −0. b. a.031507 t ≈ 7.5 = ekt −0.52912 t 0. 0.7 years.2 = −0.900.

057762t ln 0.5 = 12k ln 0. First find the decay equation.9 = ln e−0.2 hours.019254t ln 0. 0. ln 2 years.019254t 34.019254 ln 2 = ln e kt ln 2 = kt A = e−0. Inc.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 30.5 = ekt 0.0673 5 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.5 = ln e ln 0.057762t ln 0.019254t Next use the decay equation answer question.5 It will take 5.0673 The population will drop below 100 birds approximately 34 years from now.0673t .5 = ekt 0.057762t 0.057762t ln 0.) A = e−0. The population will double in t = 2 = e kt t= ln 2 k A = e−0.057762t Next use the decay equation answer question. First find the decay equation.2 It will take 6. 0. 100 = 1000e −0. 36k 2 A0 = A0 e kt ln 0.0673t 10 1 ln = −0.5 = e12k ln 0.057762 A = e−0.9 =t −0. ln 3 years.9 = e−0.0673t 10 1 ln 10 t= ≈ 34. A = A0 e kt 1000 = 1400e k 5 1000 = e5k 1400 5 ln = 5k 7 5 ln k = 7 ≈ −0. (This is 39 years from the time the population was 1400.5 =k 36 k ≈ −0. k .5 hours.057762 t ≈ 6.019254t 0.0673t 100 = e −0.7 = −0.2 −0.5 = e36k 33.019254 t ≈ 5.5 = ln e12 k ln 0.7 = e−0. 31.7 = ln e−0. 3 = e kt ln 3 = ln e kt ln 3 = kt t= ln 3 k The population will triple in t = 468 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0673t 1000 1 ln = ln e −0. 32.9 = −0.5 = 36k ln 0.5 =k 12 k ≈ −0.019254t ln 0.7 =t −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. k A = A0 ekt 3 A0 = A0 ekt ln 0.

A = 107. e −0. so Mexico’s growth rate is 1.027 x = ln 30.81e −0.82 ln e −0.027( x ) ln e = ln 30.1e0. e −0.012t ln 2 = 0.67 4.027( x ) = 4.012t 37.82 −0. 100. t= 36.PreCalculus 4E 35.82 f (51) = ≈ 6.81e −0.4e0.81e −0.81e −0. The limiting size of the population that becomes ill is 100. 000e −4 About 1080 people were ill at the end of the fourth week. k = 0.81e −0.48 3. t= c.82 −0.5 A = 4.027( x ) = ln 26. 11.82 ln 30.82 30. 11.01t a.82 2 = e0.82 f ( 4) = 30.027( x ) = 3. 11.012t a. or 2012. f ( x) = When the epidemic began.01t ln 2 = 0.4 = 107.67 4. b.027( x ) ) = 11.012t ln 2 ≈ 58 0.48 3. f ( x) = 7 + 26.82 3.027(57) The function models the data very well. 2 ⋅107.012 .01t ln 2 = ln e0. 38.67 4.81e −0.027( x ) = 11.82 1 + 3.48 x= −0.5 1 + 3.01 . 41.027 x ≈ 77 The world population will reach 8 billion 77 years after 1949.82 7= 1 + 3. . t = 0.027( x ) = In the logistic growth model.027( x ) = ln 2 = ln e0.027 x = ln 26.027(51) The function models the data very well.012t 4.48e −0.01t 2=e 39.81e −0.67e −0.67 x= −0.82 f ( x) = 8 + 30.82 k = 0.0 1 + 3.01t 2 ⋅ 4.81e −0.4e0. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain. A = 107.1 = 4.82 1 + 3.01 New Zealand’s population will double in approximately 69 years. 000 f (0) = ≈ 20 1 + 5000e0 Twenty people became ill when the epidemic began.82 1 + 3.81e −0.2%.48e −0. 40.027( x ) 11.027( x ) = 11. Inc.82 f ( x) = 26.000 people. Publishing as Prentice Hall. or 2026. A = 4. 100. Section 3. so New Zealand’s growth rate is 1%.027( x ) 11.027 x ≈ 63 The world population will reach 7 billion 63 years after 1949. 469 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.027( x ) 11.027( x ) 7 (1 + 3. a.012t b.82 −0. 11.82 1 + 3.012 Mexico’s population will double in approximately 58 years.82 f (54) = ≈ 6.1e0. b.82 ln 26.82 26.82 8= 1 + 3. 0.4e0. c f (t ) = .81e −0.027( x ) 8 (1 + 3.1e0.027( x ) 11. 000 ≈ 1080 1 + 5.027( x ) ) = 11.01t ln 2 ≈ 69 0.48 3.67e −0.

0916t b. the temperature will be 51o.8 0.0916 ≈ k 90 ≈ 3. 44.8 −0. P(80) = T = 45 + 25e−0. 11.027( x ) become very close to 0 and make the denominator become very close to 1. f ( x) = 2 10k =e 5 2 ln = ln e10k 5 2 ln = 10k 5 2 ln 5 =k 10 −0. 90 1 + 271e−0. 46.0916t 5 = 25e−0. the exponent of e will decrease.6 1 + 271e −0.122 = e 1897 2 −0. 43.8 ln 271 t= ≈ 48 −0. 470 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 23 = e5k 38 23 = ln e5k ln 38 23 = 5k ln 38 23 ln 38 = k 5 −0. Thus.0916t 5 1 ln = ln e−0.9 c.122(20) The probability that a 20-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 3.122 x ≈ 56 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 70% at about age 56. P(20) = 90 ≈ 88. the temperature will be 121o.122 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 50% at about age 48.7%.0916t 5 1 ln 5 =t −0.81e −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 1 + 271e −0.82 billion.122t = ln 271 0.6%. 0.122t 0.122t ) = 0. a.122 x T = C + (To – C)ekt 300 = 70 + (450 − 70)ek 5 230 = 380e5k 70(1 + 271e−0. .5 (1 + 271e −0.122 x = ln 1897 2 ln 1897 x= −0.122 x ) = 90 90 1 + 271e−0.122 x = 70 2 271e−0.8 e −0.1004 ≈ k T = 70 + 380e−0.122(80) The probability that an 80-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 88. a.82 1 + 3.027( x ) As x increases. 47. This will make e −0.122t = 1.122t = 271 0.8 70 = 50 = 45 + 25e—0.0916t 1 = e−0.122 x = 7 2 − x 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. Inc.122 t ln e = ln 271 0.122t = 0. 45.0916(15) ≈51o After 15 minutes.0916t 5 1 ln = −0.5 = 1 + 271e−0.1004t b. 55 = 45 + (70 – 45)ek10 10 = 25e10k 48. T = 45 + 25e-0.1004(20) ≈ 121o After 20 minutes.9 0.8 −0. 1 + 271e −0.0916 18 ≈ t The temperature will reach 50o after 18 min. the limiting size of this function is 11. T = 70 + 380ke-0. 271e −0.

5 140 = 70 + 380e—0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0239t 20 = e−0.1004t 38 7 = ln e−0. T = C + (To – C)ekt 30 = 65 + (24 − 65)ek10 50. −25 = e−0.1004t 7 = e−0. .0239t −25 = −47e−0.0158 45 ≈ t The temperature will reach 45o after 45 min.1004t ln 38 7 = −0.0239 26 = t The temperature will reach 50o after 26 min.0158t −20 = −41e−0.PreCalculus 4E c. 471 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0158t ln 41 20 ln 41 = t −0.0239t 51.0158t T = C + (To – C)ekt 38 = 75 + (28 − 75)ek10 45 = 65 – 41e—0.1004t ln 38 7 ln 38 = t −0. 50 = 75 − 47e−0. Section 3.0158t 41 20 = ln e −0.0158t ln 41 20 = −0. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.0239t ln 47 25 = −0. b.0239 ≈ k T = 75 − 47e−0. −35 = −41e10k 35 10k =e 41 35 = ln e10k ln 41 35 = 10k ln 41 35 ln 41 = k 10 −0.0239t −47 25 = ln e−0. a.1004t 70 = 380e−0.1004 17 ≈ t The temperature will reach 140o after 17 min.0239t ln 47 17 ln 47 = t −0.0158 ≈ k T = 65 − 41e−0. 49. Inc.0158t −37 = −47e10k −37 10k =e −47 37 = ln e10k ln 47 37 = 10k ln 47 37 ln 47 = k 10 −0.

871x0.015 .0109 x Since k = .6)x is equivalent to y = 100e( ln 4.6 ≈ 1. b.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 56.5e( ln 0. 58.5e −0.9 (1. The logarithmic model is y = 193.7 ) x . Since r = 0. The exponential model is y = 200. y = 100(4.6)x is equivalent to y = 4.5e( ln 0. 70.7 ≈ −0.6 ≈ –0.988 x . b. 68. 52. a. a. a. The power regression model is y = 195. y = 4. y = 2.16 + 23.574 ln x .999 is very close to 1. x ln1.988.526. The linear model is y = 2. 53. y = 100e1. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.3 ≈ 1.0109 . 69.901. y = 4. but not great.511. Using ln 0. y = 1000e1. Answers may vary. y = 1000(7. 59.3)x is equivalent to y = 1000e( ln 7.511x .9 (1.5(0.6) x .654 x + 198.997 is close to 1. the population of the United States is increasing by about 1% each year. y = 2. . 55. Since r ≈ 0. Using ln 0. a. the model fits the data well. Since r = 0. – 67.097 . the model fits the data okay.9e0. Using ln 4. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.9e( 54. the model fits the data very well. 57.5(0.526 x . Using ln 7. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.011) y = 200. b.011) . the model fits the data fairly well. y = 200.357 x . An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. Inc. 472 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3) x .6) x .878 is fairly close to 1. x Since r ≈ 0.7)x is equivalent to y = 2.357. 71.5e −0.011) x y = 200.

02) x . Sample models are provided 315 x = (1.011) ⎝ 200.9 (1.46e( The model of second best fit is the linear model y = 2. the better model is y = 3.015 315 = 2. true y = 3.5 72. Growth rate measures how fast a population is growing relative to that population.402 (1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.985 = 2.011) 1969 + 41 = 2010 Using the linear model: y = 2. true 81.557 x − 10. r ≈ 0.512.673 Linear Regression: y = 0. does not make sense.46e0.7 (1.654 x + 198. 76. .46(1.078 ) x Exercise 52: y = 2896. Using r. the growth rate is negative.654 x 116. x 74. does not make sense.9 (1. 77.9 ⎠ ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ 200.02) x . Using the exponential model: 315 = 200. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Sample explanation: This is not necessarily so.46(1.S.011) ln1. population will reach 315 million around the year 2013. Explanations will vary.985 x= ≈ 44 2. model y = 200. Explanations will vary.654 x + 198. the U.9 ⎠ Exercise 51: y = 1. Inc.011) 200. makes sense 78.02 x The 65-and-over population is increasing by approximately 2% each year.02 ) x y = 3.629 + 13. According to the linear model.654 x + 198. makes sense 79. the model of best fit is the exponential b. 73. true Exponential Regression: 82. a. Sample explanation: Since the car’s value is decreasing (depreciating). y = 3.011) . Both results are reasonably close to the result found in Example 1 (2010). x y = 3.46(1.015 . the U.02) x x Exercise 53: y = 120 + 4. Explanations will vary. It does not indicate how the size of a population compares to the size of another population. r ≈ 0.972. Models and predictions will vary. 473 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9 ⎟⎠ x= ⎝ ≈ 41 ln (1.947 The exponential model has an r value closer to 1.015 116.424 ln x 75.994 Logarithmic Regression: y = 14.056 ) ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = x ln (1.S.011) ⎟ ⎝ 200.343ln x Exercise 54: y = −11. true 80. r ≈ 0.9 ⎛ 315 ⎞ x ln ⎜ = ln (1.752ln x − 26. Thus.654 1969 + 44 = 2013 According to the exponential model. population will reach 315 million around the year 2010.

5π = 2π x 4 5π 2π x = 4 ⋅ 2π 2π 5 =x 8 asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.6 12.0069 ≈ k Use k to write equation.6 12. Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0069t 15. 5.0069t 15. Use data to find k.6 15. 85. 3.6 15. range of f = range of g = ( 0.6 = k 30 −0.7 ln 15.6 ln 28.6 12. .6e30k 12. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis. 4.0069t ln 28.0069t 28.6 = t −0. so the function is g ( x ) = 4− x. so the function is h ( x ) = −4 − x . This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x. ⎩8 ⎭ 86. Inc.7 ln = 30k 15.6 15.6 = 28. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis then shifted upward 3 units. ∞ ) ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .7 = e30k 15. The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit to the right.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 83. − π 12 π 24π + 12 12 −π + 24π = 12 23π = 12 + 2π = − Chapter 3 Review Exercises 1. 87.7 ln = ln e30k 15. so the function is r ( x) = −4− x + 3.6e−0.0069 ln 28.6 = 70 + (98. 84.6 − 70)e−0. or 8:22 am.6 = e−0. ∞ ) 17π 17π 12π − 2π = − 6 6 6 17π − 12π = 6 5π = 6 474 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0069 88 ≈ t The death occurred at 88 minutes before 9:30.6 − 70)ek 30 12.6 = ln e−0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the yaxis. 2.6 = −0. 827 = 70 + (85.7 = 15. 85.

∞ ) 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 6.25% compounded monthly: 12⋅5 ⎛ 0. Chapter 3 Review Exercises The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit down. 475 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.16 12 ⎠ ⎝ 5.0525 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6497. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. Inc. 5. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. 8. ∞ ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 range of f = ( 0.055 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6558. . ∞ ) range of g = ( −1. 0 ) 10. ∞ ) The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the y – axis.5% compounded semiannually yields the greater return.26 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5. ∞ ) range of f = ( 0.5% compounded semiannually: 2⋅5 ⎛ 0. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 The graph of g(x) vertically stretches the graph of f(x) by a factor of 2. range of f = range of g = ( 0. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −1 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) range of g = ( −∞. 9. The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the x – axis. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0.

domain of f = range of g = ( −∞.04855( 20 ) T = 70 + 130e ≈ 119.135. 772. 30. log 3 (log8 8) = 0. log 6 216 = 3 17.0685(10 ) A = 14. 32. Because log b 1 = 0 we conclude log 3 1 = 0. the temperature is about 119°.85% compounded continuously: 0. Inc. When first taken out of the microwave. 20. y-axis. 43 = x 15. we conclude log8 8 = 1. Because log b b = 1. 25. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. 000 ⎜ 1 + ≈ 28. we conclude ln e5 = 5. So. 3 y = 81 16. log16 4 = 23. log 3 27. log 4 64 = 3 because 43 = 64. b. 13. log − 1 1 1 = log 3 1 = log3 3 2 = − 2 3 32 1 = ln e−2 = −2 e2 1 1 = log 3 = log10−3 = −3 1000 10 29.26 ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 6. 1 because 161/ 2 = 16 = 4. . 25 25 is defined only for x > 0. 2 22. ∞ ) 31. so the function is g ( x) = log(− x). ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. log 3 (log8 8) = log 3 1. ∞ ) we conclude log 3 38 = 8. the temperature of the coffee was about 120°. log 3 ( −9 ) cannot be evaluated since log b x 26. log13 874 = y 19. −0. After 20 minutes. 24. the temperature of the coffee was 200°.23 Using a calculator. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x reflected about the Because ln e x = x. Because log b = 1. 12. log 5 21. a. 000e ≈ 27. The temperature of the room is 70°. The coffee will cool to about 70°.81 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return. we conclude log17 17 = 1. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. 491/ 2 = 7 14. Because logb b x = x. 476 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7% compounded monthly: 1 12⋅10 ⎛ 0.07 ⎞ A = 14. Therefore. 1 1 = −2 because 5−2 = . ln 28. log b 625 = 4 18.

∞ ) 41. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: ( 2. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) 477 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 37. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x 38. Inc. x-intercept: (–1. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = −3 domain of f = ( 0. reflected about the y-axis. so the function is r ( x) = 1 + log(2 − x). x-intercept: (2.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 33. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 5 > 0. . 0 ) 36. Solving this inequality for x. 35. so the function is h( x) = log(2 − x) . This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x shifted left 2 units then reflected about the y-axis. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( 0. ∞ ) 40. 34. x-intercept: (3. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x. ∞ ) 39. we obtain x > −5. Thus the domain of f is ( −5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: ( −∞. domain of g = ( −3. then shifted upward one unit. shifted left 2 units. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) range: ( −∞.

45. 51. 3 log b 7 + log b 3 = log b (7 ⋅ 3) = log b 21 55. 61. Retention decreases as time passes. log 4 52. and 56. a. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. Thus. Solving this inequality for x. 1) ∪ (1. = log 56. log 6 ( 36 x 3 ) = log 6 36 + log 6 x3 = log 6 36 + 3log 6 x = 2 + 3log 6 x 43. Because e ln x = x. we conclude e ln x = x. Because 10log x = x. .0. 53. ∞). the domain of f is ( −∞. 59. log 2 x 1 = log 4 x 2 − log 4 64 64 1 = log 4 x − 3 2 44. Because ln e x = x. 47. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 1)2 > 0. 3 x3 3ln x + 4 ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 4 = ln ( x3 y 4 ) 57. 2 xy 2 = log 2 xy 2 − log 2 64 64 = log 2 x + log 2 y 2 − log 2 64 46. 50. the domain of f is (−∞. 8. Inc. we obtain x < 3. Solving this inequality for x. = log 2 x + 2 log 2 y − 6 1000 I 0 = log1000 = 3 I0 The Richter scale magnitude is 3. 6. we conclude 10log 4 x = 4 x 2 . R = log 48. f (12 ) = 76 − 18log (12 + 1) ≈ 56 After 2. the average scores are about 67. the average score was 76. ln 3 x e 1 ⎛ x⎞ = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝e⎠ 1 = [ ln x − ln e] 3 1 1 = ln x − ln e 3 3 1 1 = ln x − 3 3 f ( 0 ) = 76 − 18log ( 0 + 1) = 76 When first given. 49.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. we obtain x < 1 or x > 1. we conclude ln e6 x = 6 x. log 3 − 3log x = log 3 − log x 3 c. and 12 months. 1 ln x − ln y 2 1 = ln x 2 − ln y = ln t= x y 478 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. respectively. 1 ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 8. 63.3) . Thus.06 ⎝ 12 − 5 ⎠ It will take about 9 weeks. 4.98 0. f (2) = 76 − 18log ( 2 + 1) ≈ 67 f (4) = 76 − 18log ( 4 + 1) ≈ 63 f (6) = 76 − 18log ( 6 + 1) ≈ 61 f (8) = 76 − 18log ( 8 + 1) ≈ 59 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.

ln e x = x ln e 64.52 ln 8 69.14 4 ln 5 log10 x = log 7000 x log10 = log 7000 x = log 7000 x ≈ 3.863 ≈ −0.99 x= 5 62. (3 ) 2 ( ) = 33 3x + 4 = 7 2 x −1 ln 3x + 4 = ln 7 2 x −1 ( x + 4) ln 3 = (2 x − 1) ln 7 x ln 3 + 4 ln 3 = 2 x ln 7 − ln 7 x ln 3 − 2 x ln 7 = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x(ln 3 − 2 ln 7) = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x= ln 3 − 2 ln 7 4 ln 3 + ln 7 x= 2 ln 7 − ln 3 x ≈ 2. false. 8 x = 12. Inc. (ln x )(ln1) = (ln x )(0) = 0 61.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 58. .500 − 2 ln 5 ln 37.863 = log 72.143 ln 8x = ln12.500 ln 54 x + 2 = ln 37. 2 4 x− 2 = 64 2 4 x −2 = 26 ln e12−5 x = ln130 12–5 x = ln 130 5 x = 12– ln 130 12– ln130 x= ≈ 1.500 ( 4 x + 2 ) ln 5 = ln 37.85 67. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 125 x = 25 (5 ) 3 x = 52 71.500 10 x = 7000 66.143 x= ≈ 4. log 2 x 4 = 4 log 2 x 63. true. 53 x = 52 3x = 2 2 x= 3 4 x ln 5 + 2 ln 5 = ln 37. true. log 4 0.348 = 59.2448 log 6 68.27 9 x + 2 = 27 − x x+2 54 x+ 2 = 37.500 4 x ln 5 = ln 37. 72. 9e5 x = 1269 e5 x = 141 ln 0.143 ln12.43 5 4x − 2 = 6 4x = 8 x=2 65. log( x + 9) − log( x + 1) = log ( x + 9) ( x + 1) ln e5 x = ln141 5 x = ln141 ln141 ≈ 0. 70.348 ≈ 6. log 6 72. e12 − 5 x − 7 = 123 e12−5 x = 130 −x 2 x+4 3 = 3−3 x 2 x + 4 = −3 x 5 x = −4 4 x=− 5 479 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 500 − 2 ln 5 x= ≈ 1.1063 ln 4 60.143 x ln 8 = ln 12. false.

log 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 2 ( x 2 − 9) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) x 2 − 9 = 24 x 2 − 9 = 16 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 x = –5 does not check because log 2 (−5 + 3) does not exist. 480 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. e2 x − e x − 6 = 0 (e x 77. Inc. The solution set is ∅. 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 x − 15 16 = x 2 x 2 = 16 x = ±4 x = −4 does not check and must be rejected. Publishing as Prentice Hall.10. log 3 e x − 3 = 0 or e x + 2 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −2 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x − ln(−2) x = ln 3 x = ln(−2) x = ln 3 ≈ 1. The solution set is {5}. The solution set is {ln 3} . .04 x= x2 + x = x + 4 x2 = 4 x = ±2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. approximately 1. 78. 74. The solution set is {4}.099 ln(−2) does not exist. ⎧e ⎫ The solutions set is ⎨ ⎬ . log 3 ( x − 1) − log 3 ( x + 2 ) = 2 log 2 ( x + 3) + log 2 ( x − 3) = 4 79. − 3)( e + 2 ) = 0 x x −1 =2 x+2 x −1 = 32 x−2 x −1 =9 x+2 x – 1 = 9(x + 2) x – 1 = 9x + 18 8x = –19 19 x=− 8 19 ⎛ 19 ⎞ x=− does not check because log 3 ⎜ − − 1⎟ 8 ⎝ 8 ⎠ does not exist. ⎩2⎭ 3 76. 75. 3 + 4 ln(2 x) = 15 4 ln(2 x) = 12 ln(2 x) = 3 ln ( x + 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln x x+4 = ln x x +1 x+4 =x x +1 x( x + 1) = x + 4 ln 2 x = e3 e3 2 x ≈ 10. The solution set is {2}. log 4 ( 3x − 5 ) = 3 3x – 5 = 43 3x – 5 = 64 3x = 69 x = 23 The solutions set is {23}.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 73.

4 35.6 0.075t = ln 3 0.4 35.4 t= ln1.7e −0. 000 85. Chapter 3 Review Exercises P ( x ) = 14.7 t= ≈ 5.1 million.075t 50.05 3.103. or 8.6 = e −0. W ( x ) = 0. 35. 82. A = 22. 000e0.33 = 0.4 = k 10 0. 481 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 = ln e10 k ln 22.PreCalculus 4E 80.045 ≈ k 3.000.6 = −0. t= 560 t = (1.6 ≈ 7.075 = 3 ln e0.21x ln 14.005 The carbon dioxide concentration will be double the pre-industrial level approximately 86 years after the year 2000 in the year 2086.37 9 = ln x e9 = eln x x = e9 ≈ 8103 The population of New York City is approximately 8103 thousand.37 ln x + 0.3 = 10k ln 22.01625) 4t = ln1.6 4t ln1. Inc.075t = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 14.075 It will take about 14.21 f ( t ) = 364 (1.4e0. 000 e0.4 35. Everest is about 5. 000 = 12.33 = ln x 0.005 ) t 560 = 364 (1.1 In 2010. 3 ⋅ 50.7 4. ⎛ 0.21x ln 14.21x 4.045t b.6 ln 14.005 364 560 ln 364 ≈ 86.37 ln x 3.01625 = ln1.6 = ln e −0. 3P = Pe5 r e5 r = 3 ln e5 r = ln 3 5r = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 0.500(1. A = 3P.3 ln 22. 81. A = 22.500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12. 000 = 50. When an investment value triples. . 4t (1. 000e0.5 miles above sea level.01625) 4t = 1. 4.3 years.075t = 150.7e −0.045(20) ≈ 55. t= 84.6 years.21x 83.4e0.05 a.005) 364 560 t ln = ln (1.38 = 0.005 ) 364 560 ln = t ln1.6 ln1. the population will be about 55.6 = 14.7 4.6 The peak of Mt.005 ) t ln(1.21x 14.2197 5 The interest rate would need to be about 22% r= 86.01625) 4t = 20.4e k 10 35.01625 It will take about 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 −0.3 = e10 k 22.3 4 ln1.3 = 22.065 ⎞ 20.37 ln x + 0.7 4.

1438t 40 = 120e−0. A = A0 e −0. 000 = 200 1 + 2499e −0.2 = e −0.045 22 ≈ t 90 = e 2k 120 3 ln = ln e2k 4 3 ln = 2k 4 3 ln 4 =k 2 −0. b. Use the half-life of 140 days to find k. a.1438t 3 1 ln = −0.045t c.004951t 0.4 60 ln = ln e0. 90. 105 = 65 + 120e—0.000 people 482 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A = A0 e kt 1 2 = e k ⋅140 1 2 = e140 k T = C + (To – C)ekt b. f (6) = b.1438t 3 1 ln 3 =t −0.004951 Use A = A0 e kt to find t.1438t 87. f (0) = 500.004951t ln 0. a.045t 22.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 60 = 22.1438 7.6 ≈ t The temperature will reach 105o after 8 min.004951 t ≈ 325 It will take about 325 days for the substance to decay to 20% of its original amount. Inc.1438t 3 1 ln = ln e−0. 000 = 45. T = 65 + 120e−0.1438t 1 = e−0. in 2012.4e0.004951t ln 0.92(0) 200 people became ill when the epidemic began.045t 22. A logarithmic function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data. . 500.045t 22. 150 = 65 + (185 − 65)ek 2 90 = 120e2k 60 = e0.4 60 ln 22. t= 88.4 = t 0.92(6) 1 + 2499e 45. c.2 = −0.004951t ln 0. ln 12 = ln e140 k ln 12 = 140k ln 12 =k 140 k ≈ −0. a.410 were ill after 6 weeks.2 −0.1438 ≈ k The population will reach 60 million about 22 years after 1990. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 89. 500. 411 −0.4 60 ln = 0.2 = ln e −0.

005 x = ln 4 3.005 x = ln 4 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 x = 1.2091 ln 5 400e0.3).4 ≈ 0. Inc. 6.4 ln 5 x = ln1. the domain of f is (−∞. Chapter 3 Test a.844 x 9.2589 0. Thus. 11.5741 log15 3x −2 = 9 x + 4 ( ) 3x −2 = 32 x+ 4 3x −2 = 32 x +8 x − 2 = 2x + 8 − x = 10 x = −10 12.005 483 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 log x + 2 log y = log x 6 + log y 2 ln 2. .43) y = 6. Solving this inequality for x. x = log ( x 6 y 2 ) ( ln 0.4 x ln 5 = ln1.PreCalculus 4E 91.005 x = 1600 e0.5 ( 0. b. we obtain x < 3. 2. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. y = 73e( = 3 + 5 log 4 x x log 3 8. log 4 ( 64 x 5 ) = log 4 64 + log 4 x5 An exponential function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data.4 x= 13.5e 1 x = log3 x 3 − log 3 81 81 1 = log3 x − 4 3 3 7. log 71 ≈ 1.005 x = 4 ln e0.5e −0. Chapter 3 Test 1. ln 7 − 3ln x = ln 7 − ln x 3 7 = ln 3 x 10.6 ) x y = 6. log 36 6 = 5. log15 71 = 94. 5 = 125 3 x= ln 4 ≈ 277. ln1. 92. y = 73e0.956 x 93.6 ) 1 2 4. Answers may vary. y = 73 ( 2.43) x y = 6.

06 10 A = 3. 4 x − 1 = 216 23.0125 ) 4t ln (1. 1012 I 0 I0 = 10log1012 = 10 ⋅12 = 120 The loudness of the sound is 120 decibels. Since ln e x = x.05 ⎞ 8000 = 4000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 8000 4t = (1 + 0.5% compounded semiannually: log 6 ( 4 x − 1) = 3 4 x = 217 x= 16.0125 ) 4t ln 2 = ln (1.0125) 4000 4t 2 = (1.6094 x=0 20.0125 ) It will take approximately 13. 484 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 5 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 5 = 0 or ex = 1 ln e x = ln 5 ln e x = ln1 x = ln 5 x = ln1 x ≈ 1.065 ⎞ A = 3. log 6 1 = 0 because 60 = 1 . 18.51 ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 6% compounded continuously: 0. 000 ⎜1 + ≈ $5. 2(10 ) ⎛ 0.0125 ) ln 2 = 4 ln (1. 687. ln e5 x = 5 x.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 14. ex −1 = 0 ex = 5 D = 10log 25. . log b b = 1 because b1 = b . The solution set is {0. 15. log x + log ( x + 15 ) = 2 log ( x 2 + 15 x ) = 2 x + 15 x = 10 2 ⎛ 0.9 4 ln (1. ln ≈ 1. Inc. e4 x= ≈ 18.6094.1994 3 17.0125 ) ln 2 = 4t ln (1. ln 2 = ln e10 r ln 2 = 10r ln 2 r= ≈ 0. 217 = 54. 4t 2 x + 15 x − 100 = 0 2 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 x + 20 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = –20 x=5 x = –20 does not check because log(−20) does not exist. ln 5} .25 4 2 ln 3x = 8 ln 3x = 4 3x = e4 24. The solution set is {5}.0125 ) 4ln (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 21.9 years for the money to grow to $8000. The solution set is { }.069 10 The money will double in 10 years with an interest rate of approximately 6. 6. ln ( x − 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln 6 2 = 1er10 2 = e10 r x−4 = ln 6 ln x +1 x−4 =6 x +1 6( x + 1) = x − 4 6x + 6 = x − 4 5 x = −10 x = −2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. 4 x − 1 = 63 22. 000e ( ) ≈ $5.0125) ln 2 t= ≈ 13. e 2 x − 6e x + 5 = 0 (e x 19.36 6.9%.5% compounded semiannually yields about $221 more than 6% compounded continuously. 466.

036 ≈ k The exponential growth function is A = 509e0. a.002( 0 ) A = 82. t = 0 and A0 = 509 In 2000.002( x ) 28. In 1990.5 = e7.4e−0. f (10 ) = 140 b.002t 82.002t ln 0. The limiting size of the elk population is 140 elk.036t . the population of Germany was 82.096270t ln 0.5 =k 7. c f (t ) = .3 = e−0. 81.5 = ekt −0. c.4e ≈ 82.4e Chapter 3 Test −0. Plot the ordered pairs.4 ≈ 5 −0. A = e−0. 27.096270t Next use the decay equation answer question. 729 = 509ek 10 729 = e10 k 509 729 ln = ln e10 k 509 729 ln = 10k 509 729 ln 509 = k 10 0.3 = ln e−0.5 ln t = 82. Inc.096270t ln 0. c.5 It will take 12.5 days. 0.5 ln = −0.5 ln = ln e −0. A = 82.2 k ≈ −0.5 million approximately 5 years after 2006 in the year 2011. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 26.5 = e −0.4 In 2006. b.002t 82.002t 82.002. a. ≈ 51 −0.2 k ln 0. 0.002 The population of Germany will be 81.5 = 82.5 = 7.4 81. .165(10 ) 1 + 9e After 10 years.3 = −0.2k The population of Germany is decreasing. 485 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. First find the decay equation. 29.096270t ln 0.4 million. about 51 elk are expected. t = 2000 – 1990 = 10 and A = 729. 30. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.3 =t −0.5 = ln e7.2 k ln 0. We can tell because the model has a negative k = −0. In the logistic growth model.096270 t ≈ 12. 81. y 5 −5 5 x −5 The values appear to belong to a linear function.4 81.096270t 0. f (0) = 140 = 14 −0.096270 A = e−0.4 81.165( 0 ) 1 + 9e Fourteen elk were initially introduced to the habitat.

y = 96 ( 0. x y = 96e( ln 0. x 4 + x3 − 3x 2 − x + 2 = 0 p: ±1. 34.38) x 4. Inc. Plot the ordered pairs. ⎩ 5 ⎭ x= 3x − 4 = 2 3x – 4 = 2 or 3x = 6 3x – 4 = –2 3x = 2 2 x=2 x= 3 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 1 y 1 –3 –1 2 –2 2 2 –2 –1 1 0 –1 ( x + 2)( x – x – x + 1) = 0 3 16 2 ( x + 2)[ x 2 ( x – 1) − ( x – 1)] = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1)( x – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 −5 5 x ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x – 1) 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 The values appear to belong to a quadratic function. y = 96e −0. 32. 1}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Plot the ordered pairs. –1. ± 2 q –2 1 33. . y 900 3. y 5 27 x −3 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) −2 ± −16 2 −2 ± 4i x= 2 x = −1 ± 2i The solution set is {−1 ± 2i} . x= −5 The values appear to belong to a logarithmic function.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 31. ln128 ≈ 0. approximately 0.968 x x =1 e5 x − 32 = 96 e5 x = 128 ln e5 x = ln128 5 x = ln128 Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–3) 1. 2 ⎬ . −5 5 x The values appear to belong to an exponential function. 2. ±2 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ⎩3 ⎭ 486 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.38 ) x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {–2.9704 5 ⎧ ln128 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .9704. Plot the ordered pairs.

–2) and radius of 2 487 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Horizontal asymptote: y 5 1 5x + 4 = 6x + 9 −x = 5 x = −5 x = −5 does not check and must be rejected. Inc. 2x − 4 ≤ 2 2 x − 4 ≤ 2 and 2 x − 4 ≥ −2 2x ≤ 6 2x ≥ 2 x≤3 12. 0 ) . 9. x-intercepts: x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 and x ≥ 1 x=2 The solution set is [1. Cumulative Review Exercises log 2 ( x + 5) + log 2 ( x − 1) = 4 10. –1) log 2 [( x + 5)( x − 1)] = 4 ( x + 5)( x − 1) = 24 x 2 + 4 x − 5 = 16 x 2 + 4 x − 21 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 3) = 0 x + 7 = 0 or x − 3 = 0 x = −7 x=3 x = –7 does not check because log 2 (–7 + 5) does not exist. 0 ) and ( −1. The solution set is {3}. 6. The solution set is { }. Circle with center: (3. 8. 14 − 5 x ≥ −6 −5 x ≥ −20 x≤4 The solution set is ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 5. 0 ) and ( −1. 7. 0 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ln ( x + 4 ) + ln ( x + 1) = 2 ln ( x + 3) ln ( ( x + 4 )( x + 1) ) = ln ( x + 3) ( x + 4 )( x + 1) = ( x + 3) 2 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 2 x2 = 4 x2 + 5x + 4 = x2 + 6 x + 9 x = ±2 The vertical asymptotes are x = 2 and x = –2. or x = −1 The x-intercepts are ( 2.3] . 4] . 11. Parabola with vertex: (2. . x-intercepts: x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 The x-intercepts are (1.

18. Inc. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 The ball reaches its maximum height at −b −(64) = = 2 seconds. k H= 2 C k 8= 2 2 32 = k 488 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. C Use the given values to find k . H . t= 2a 2(−16) The maximum height is s (2) . s (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 5 = 69 feet. Substitute the value of k into the equation. 32 H= 2 C 32 H= 2 4 H =2 If 4 cups of coffee are consumed you should expect to sleep 2 hours. vary inversely as the square of the number of cups of coffee. The ball hits the ground after about 4. y varies inversely as the square of x is expressed as k y= 2.1 seconds. 2 = x2 + 4 x + 4 (g −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a t= g )( x ) = f ( x + 2 ) = ( x + 2) s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Let s (t ) = 0 : f )( x ) = g ( x 2 ) 20. 0 = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Use the quadratic formula to solve. t ≈ −0. 3) point-slope form: y − 3 = −3 ( x − 1) m= 19.5 x ) = 660 40 x + 15 x = 660 55 x = 660 x = 12 Your normal hourly salary is $12 per hour. 3 − (−3) 6 = = −3 1− 3 −2 Using (1. (f −(64) ± (64)2 − 4(−16)(5) 2(−16) t ≈ 4. C can be expressed k as H = 2 . k H= 2 C 32 H= 2 C Use the equation to find H when C = 4 .1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 17. x The hours. slope-intercept form: y − 3 = −3( x − 1) t= y − 3 = −3 x + 3 y = −3 x + 6 16. = x2 + 2 40 x + 10 (1.1 The negative value is rejected. 14.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 13. . 15.

30π 29π = 15 15 . 180o π radians = 45o 4π 4π radians 180o ⋅ radians = − 3 3 π 4 ⋅180o =− = −240o 3 6 radians = 6 radians ⋅ = 6 ⋅180o π 5. subtract 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. For a –135º angle. = 180° 3π = radians 2 π radians 180° 5π =− radians 3 4 radians = = b. the radian measure of θ is 3. a. s. 13π 13π 10π 3π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 b.8o 6. The length of the intercepted arc is 42 feet: s = 42 feet.5 r 12 feet Thus. radians b. − π 15 + 2π = − π 15 + 489 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. add 360º to find a positive coterminal angle.1 Check Point Exercises 1. –135o + 360o = 225o 180o π radians ≈ 343. s 42 feet θ= = = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4. r. −300° = −300° ⋅ c. π radians 4 o 180 4 ⋅ c. Now use the formula for radian measure to find the radian measure of θ . 400o – 360o = 40o b. Inc. 60° = 60° ⋅ = 3.5 π 3 π radians 180° c. For a 400º angle. 270π radians 180 = −300π radians 180 d.Chapter 4 Trigonometric Functions Section 4. The circle’s radius is 12 feet: r = 12 feet. a. The radian measure of a central angle is the length of the intercepted arc. a. divided by the circle’s radius. 2. 60π radians 180 = π radians 270° = 270° ⋅ π − b. a.

s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝4⎠ 4 We are given ω . θ= s 600 centimeters = = 6 radians r 100 centimeters 13. The linear speed is 90π 135π inches = ν = rω = 1. 855° − 360° ⋅ 2 = 855° − 720° = 135° The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. 135° = 135° ⋅ π radians 180° 135π radians 180 3π radians = 4 = 490 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8. we begin by converting π radians 45° to radians. b.1 17π 17π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π 3 3 17π 12π 5π = − = 3 3 3 1. The measure of the central angle in radians is 9. obtuse 3. 18° = 18° ⋅ = = π radians 180° 18π radians 180 π 10 radians 15. straight 6.Trigonometric Functions 7. The length of the arc intercepted by this 4 4 central angle is ⎛ π ⎞ 6π inches ≈ 4. 45° = 45° ⋅ 25π 25π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 6 6 25π 36π 11π =− + = 6 6 6 − c. the linear speed. .25 radians r 8 yards 11.5 inches ⋅ 1 minute minute The linear speed is 135π inches per minute. Thus. Multiply by . π radians 180° 45π radians 180 π = radians 4 = 14. obtuse 2. Exercise Set 4. θ= s 8 yards 4 = = radians r 6 yards 3 10. ω = 45 revolutions per minute We use the formula ν = rω to find v. right 7. acute 4. The circle’s radius is 6 inches : r = 6 inches. the angular speed.71 inches. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. θ= s 18 yards = = 2. 45 revolutions 2π radians ⋅ ω= 1 minute 1 revolution 90π radians = 1 minute The angular speed of the propeller is 90π radians per minute. θ= s 400 centimeters = = 4 radians r 100 centimeters 12. which is approximately 424 inches per minute. we must express ω in radians per minute. 180° π radians 45 45° = 45° ⋅ π radians = 180° 180 = π radians 4 Now we can use the formula s = rθ to find the length of the arc. θ= s 40 inches = = 4 radians r 10 inches 8. π :θ = π . Before applying the formula. acute 5. a. θ= s 30 feet = = 6 radians r 5 feet 9.

2 o 180 = 2 = 90o radians = = π radians 9 o 180 9 180o = −4 ⋅180o = −720o π radians π radians 180° 18π = radians 180 ≈ 0. 20. 18° = 18° ⋅ π radians π radians 180o π radians = −3 ⋅180o = −540o 270π radians 180 3π radians =− 2 π 7π 7π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 6 6 π radians o 7 ⋅180 = 6 = 210o 26.33 radians π radians 180° 40π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. 2 π 9 radians = 28.31 radians 180° ⋅ −4π radians ⋅ 29. 3π radians 1800 3 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 135o 4 4 π radians π radians 180° 225π radians =− 180 5π radians =− 4 −270° = −270° ⋅ 2π 2π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 3 3 π radians o 2 ⋅180 = 3 = 120o 76° = 76° ⋅ 31. π radians 330° = 330° ⋅ 180° 330π radians = 180 11π radians = 6 −225° = −225° ⋅ 11π radians 180o 11 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 330o 6 6 π radians 27. 180° 76π = radians 180 ≈ 1. 19. 180° 150π radians = 180 5π radians = 6 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π radians 300° = 300° ⋅ 24. −3π radians = −3π radians ⋅ 22.1 16. Inc. −40° = −40° ⋅ 180o π radians 180o ⋅ π radians = 20o π radians 30. 18. 150° = 150° ⋅ π radians 23. .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. =− 21.70 radians 491 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 180° 300π radians = 180 5π radians = 3 25.

02o 40. 250° = 250° ⋅ π radians 180° 250π = radians 180 ≈ 4.49 radians = 34. 200° = 200° ⋅ π radians 41.87 radians π radians 180° 42.8 radians = −4. 180o π radians π ≈ −275.89o π radians π radians = π radians 13 180o = 13 ≈ 13. 180° 50π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. . −50° = −50° ⋅ 33.59o π radians 17 −4. 180o 180o = ≈ 10. 39.Trigonometric Functions 32.94o 492 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 radians ⋅ 37. π ≈ 114.59o 36.85o radians ⋅ ⋅ 180o π radians 45. Inc. −5.36 radians 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ = 2 ⋅180o 43.8 ⋅180o 46. −5.2 radians ⋅ 47. 180o π radians 44.2 ⋅180o 180o = π radians π ≈ −297.8 radians ⋅ = −4. 35. 13 π 17 180o 3 ⋅180o = ≈ 171. 200π radians 180 ≈ 3. π 38.

− 53. . − 69. 17π 17π 10π 7π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 65. 49. 415° − 360° = 55° 59. 23π 23π 23π 20π 3π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 5 5 5 5 5 66. −760° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −760° + 1080° = 320° 63. 54.1 48. 57. − 68. 51. −765° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −765° + 1080° = 315° 62. 19π 19π 12π 7π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 64. 52. −160° + 360° = 200° 61. 55. Inc. 56. π 50 π 40 + 2π = − + 2π = − π 50 π 40 + 100π 99π = 50 50 + 80π 79π = 40 40 31π 31π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 7 7 31π 42π 11π =− + = 7 7 7 493 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 25π 25π 25π 24π π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 6 6 6 6 6 67.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −150° + 360° = 210° 60. 395° − 360° = 35° 58. 50.

− 3π 5π and 4 4 80. 7π 63π s = rθ = 9 ⋅ = yards ≈ 49. First. 265 53π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 87. −π and π 83. . π radians 5π = 225° = 225° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . − 81.42 feet 4 86. π radians π = radians 45° = 45° ⋅ 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . convert to degrees. 4 minutes and 25 seconds equals 265 seconds. 55 11π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 84. θ = 45° Begin by converting 45° to radians. 71. in order to use the formula s = rθ . 74.76 inches 3 3 77. − 4π 2π and 3 3 78. π radians 7π = 315° = 315° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . π radians 60π = 60° = 60° ⋅ radians 180° 180 = = π 3 radians Therefore. π radians π = radians 60° = 60° ⋅ 180° 3 Now use the formula s = rθ . convert 60° to radians.42 inches r = 16 inches. 1 1 360° revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution r = 9 yards. 38π 38π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 9 9 38π 54π 16π =− + = 9 9 9 − r = 12 inches. π 16π s = rθ = 16 ⋅ = inches ≈ 16. s = rθ = 12 ⋅ 72.Trigonometric Functions 70. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − π 4 π 2 and 7π 4 and 3π 2 82. 35 7π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 85. 75. in order to use the formula s = rθ . 73. 3 minutes and 40 seconds equals 220 seconds. 76.48 yards 4 4 1 ⋅ 360° = 60° 6 Now. 20 revolutions per second 20 revolutions 2π radians 40π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolution 1 second = 40π radians per second 494 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 7π 5π and 6 6 79. in order to use the formula s = rθ . in order to use the formula s = rθ . θ = 225° Begin by converting 225° to radians. θ = 315° Begin by converting 315° to radians. 220 22π ⋅ 2π = 60 3 r = 8 feet. π 4 = 3π inches ≈ 9. Inc. 6 revolutions per second 6 revolutions 2π radians 12π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolutions 1 seconds = 12π radians per second 1 π revolution is equivalent to 60° or 6 3 radians. 5π s = rθ = 8 ⋅ = 10π feet ≈ 31. θ = 60° Begin by converting 60° to radians.

000 miles and r = 4000 miles.5 radians r 4000 miles Now. convert 120° to radians. revolution is equivalent to 120° or 3 3 radians.1 91. π s . The 1 minute hand moves from 12 to 2 o'clock.5 radians to degrees. 3 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 2π radians = 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ 2π ⎞ 12π s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ inches ⎟= 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 4π inches ≈ 12. We are given that r = 80 centimeters and θ = 60°. We are given that r = 8 inches. π radians 120π = 120° = 120° ⋅ radians 180° 180 2π = radians 3 1 2π Therefore.5 radians ⋅ ≈ 143. We must 1 revolution to radians. convert 2 radians to degrees. we begin by finding r and θ . π radians 60π 60° = 60° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 89.57 inches. We are given that r s = 8000 miles and r = 4000 miles.24o 2π radians 94.38 inches. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. 90.70 inches. The formula 3 s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in 1 radians. or of a complete revolution. convert 2. s . First. Inc. 1 1 360o revolutions = revolutions ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 1 o o = ⋅ 360 = 120 3 Now. = radians 2 The length of each arc is ⎛π ⎞ s = rθ = (24 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = 12π inches ⎝2⎠ ≈ 37. 180o 2. Recall that θ = 495 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since s = rθ . 000 miles θ= = = 2. s 10. We are given that r = 6 inches. we begin by finding r and θ . π radians 90π 90° = 90° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 88. convert to degrees. 180o 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ ≈ 114. The distance that the wheel moves is given by s = rθ .59o π radians 93. We are given that r = 24 inches and θ = 90°. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. . The minute hand moves from 12 to 4 1 o’clock. 92. The length of each arc is given by s = rθ .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. s 8000 miles θ= = = 2 radians r 4000 miles Now. We must convert revolution to radians. Since s = rθ . The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. s.78 centimeters. s. Recall that θ = radians 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 8π s = rθ = (8 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = inches ⎝3⎠ 3 ≈ 8. convert 6 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution = π = π radians 3 The length that the wheel moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 80π s = rθ = (80 centimeters) ⎜ ⎟ = centimeters 3 ⎝3⎠ ≈ 83. We are given that r s = 10. or of a 6 complete revolution. The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length.

π radians 10π 10° = 10° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 = π 18 100. Inc. Recall that s = rθ . Linear speed is given by ν = rω . Answers may vary. We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 10° . 116. – 112. 97. the distance from A to B is 2094 miles. 20 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 20 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution radians = 40π radians per minute ν = rω = (12 feet)(40π ) ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 2094 miles ⎝6⎠ To the nearest mile.Trigonometric Functions 95. ≈ 1508 feet per minute The linear speed of the wheel is about 1508 feet per minute.5 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. Begin by converting 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 496 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛π ⎞ ν = rω = (4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ 4000π = miles per hour 12 ≈ 1047 miles per hour The linear speed is about 1047 miles per hour. . 114. We are given that ω= π 101. radians ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 698 miles ⎝ 18 ⎠ To the nearest mile. π radians 30π 30° = 30° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 π = 6 99. 113. We can only use the formula s = rθ when θ is expressed in radians. We are given that r = 25 feet and the wheel rotates at 3 revolutions per minute. We need to convert 3 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. 2. 96. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . radians per hour and 12 r = 4000 miles.5 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 2. Therefore.08 feet per minute. 3 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 3 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution 115. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . We are given that r = 12 feet and the wheel rotates at 20 revolutions per minute. = 6π radians per minute ν = rω = (25 feet)(6π ) ≈ 471 feet per minute The linear speed of the Ferris wheel is about 471 feet per minute. 98. We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 30° . Recall that s = rθ .5 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution = 5π radians per minute The linear speed of the animals in the outer rows is ν = rω = (20 feet)(5π ) ≈ 100 feet per minute The linear speed of the animals in the inner rows is ν = rω = (10 feet)(5π ) ≈ 50 feet per minute The difference is 100π − 50π = 50π feet per minute or about 157. the distance from A to B is 698 miles. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians.

1 3 126. Check Point Exercises 1. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 20° to radians. makes sense 120.1] 117. A right angle measures 90° and 90° = π Section 4. 2. 122.2 125. θ is smaller than a 2 right angle. Use x = –1 and y = 0 to find the values of the trigonometric functions. does not make sense. π 3 2 tan t = ≈ 286 miles To the nearest mile.57 radians.2 radians ≈ 1. 124.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Florida is 1815 miles north of the equator. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 26° to radians. y = 2 2 1 − x 1 1 = 2 =− =− y 3 3 3 2 119. sin π = y = 0 cos π = x = −1 0 y tan π = = =0 x −1 1 1 sec π = = = −1 x −1 x −1 cot π = = = undefined y 0 1 1 cscπ = = = undefined y 0 497 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: It is possible for π to be used in an angle measured using degrees. does not make sense. ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 sin t = y = 2 cos t = x = = 1 2 3 2 y = x csc t = 1 =2 y = 3 3 1 2 3 = x 3 x cot t = = 3 y sec t = 123. Explanations will vary. Inc. Sample explanation: Angles greater than π will exceed a straight angle. . range: { y −1 ≤ y ≤ 1} or [ −1. 0). a radius of 286 miles should be used. 20° = 20° ⋅ 100= r= π r 9 900 π π 180° = π 9 radians ⎛ 3 1⎞ P⎜ . 121. Miami. domain: { x −1 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [ −1. 26° = 26° ⋅ 3 3 =− 3 3 13π radians 90 180° 13π s =4000 ⋅ 90 ≈ 1815 miles To the nearest mile.5 radians. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Explanations will vary. 2 3 If θ = radians = 1.1] 118. x = − . The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to t = π has coordinates (–1. Sample explanation: That will not be possible if the angle is a multiple of 2π .

cot b.5 ≈ 1.0≤t < 2 2 sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 sin t = π 2 .7071 Exercise Set 4. 3 5 5 1 1 5 = = 2 tan θ 2 5 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 15 8 ⎛ 15 8 ⎞ ⎜ − 17 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. csc 1. 5. 2 sin θ = 3 tan θ = cos θ 5 3 2 3 2 = ⋅ = 3 5 5 2 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 2 5 5 8. cos t is positive. 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ a. 17 ⎟ . 2 ⎛1⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ cos 2 t = 1 − =1 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = sec ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝4⎠ b. ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ π 1 csc = = 2 4 y π 1 sec = = 2 4 x t= cot 4.2 1. ⎛ 9π cos ⎜ − ⎝ 4 a. Use x = − 17 and y = 17 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions. . 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ − ⎟ = − sin ⎜ ⎟ = − 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < 7.Trigonometric Functions 3. π π 4 = x = y 1 y 1 2 6. P⎜ . ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ . 8 sin t = y = 17 15 cos t = x = − 17 8 tan t = 8 y = 1715 = − 15 x − 17 1 17 = y 8 1 17 sec t = = − x 15 x 15 cot t = = − y 8 csc t = 498 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 1 3 = = sin θ 2 2 3 1 1 3 = = sec θ = cos θ 5 5 3 csc θ = = cot θ = 3 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 1 4 3 3 = 4 2 cos t = a.0025 π 4 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = cos ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ≈ 0. Inc. sin b. = 1 π .

The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 3π 2 2⎞ t= . csc 7π 1 = 1 = −2 6 −2 12. sin π 6.2 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 5 12 ⎛ 5 12 ⎞ ⎜ − 13 . cos 5π 3 =− 6 2 8. 12 sin t = y = − 13 5 cos t = x = − 13 12 − 12 y tan t = = 13 = 5 5 x − 13 4. − 13 ⎟ Use x = − 13 and y = − 13 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions. tan 0 = 0 =0 1 11. . Section 4. cos 2π 1 =− 3 2 9.PreCalculus 4E 2. sin π 7. sec 11π 1 2 3 = = 3 6 3 sin t = y = − tan t = y − = x 2 2 2 2 y = 2 = −1 x − 2 2 = −1 1 =− 2 y 1 sec t = = 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = 6 3 = = 1 2 3 2 2 499 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. csc 4π 1 −2 3 = = 3 3 3 − 2 13. Inc.− ⎟⎟ . 2 sin t = y = 2 2 cos t = x = − 2 x=− 1 13 =− 12 y 1 13 sec t = = − x 5 x 5 cot t = = y 12 csc t = 3. tan π = 0 =0 −1 10. Use x = t = − has coordinates ⎜⎜ 4 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 and y = − to find the values of the trigonometric 2 functions. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Use has coordinates ⎜ − ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ 2 tan t = 1 = 2 y 1 sec t = = − 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 2 2 2⎞ π . 2 2 and y = to find the values of the 2 2 trigonometric functions. 2 2 2 cos t = x = 2 5.

cos t = 17 17 17 8 17 sec t = 15 15 cot t = 8 π 1 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 3 3 2 ⎝ ⎠ sin sin t = 11π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 6 = 3 ⎠ csc t = π 3 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 6 6 2 ⎝ ⎠ cos ⎛ 11π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 tan t = 3 2 = 11π − 12 3 = =− 3 6 3 2 15. b. 25. b. sin 3π = −1 2 16. cos π 6 b. cos t = 3 3 tan t = 1 3 2 2 3 = 2 4 csc t = 3 2π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 3 = − 2 ⎠ 3 2 4 cot t = 2 2 sec t = 3 5π − 2 = 1 =− 3 3 2 ⎛ 5π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 3 = csc t = 2π 3 = sin 3 2 ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 8 17 15 17 3 4 sin t = . a. . Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π 3 = 26. sec 3π = undefined 2 18. a.Trigonometric Functions 14. 19. tan 5π ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 3 = 3 ⎠ 500 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. tan 3π = undefined 2 b. 1 2 tan 8 15 3 5 4 5 = 3 4 5 3 5 sec t = 4 4 cot t = 3 5π 1 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 6 = − 2 ⎠ 27. b. a. cos t = 5 5 tan t = 5π 1 = 6 2 ⎛ 5π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 6 8 15 . cos 3π =0 2 17. 20. a. b. 1 2 2 sin t = . 22. 21. sec 5π 1 = 1 =2 3 2 24. 23. a. a.

PreCalculus 4E 28.3 sec 2.3 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ cos 2.7 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ sin1. sin 2 π 2 15 15 = 64 8 π 33. ⎛ 1 ⎞ sin1. 501 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . cos t is positive. sin t = tan t = Section 4.7 csc1. sin 2 π 36. 0 ≤ t < 7 2 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0≤t < 5 2 sin t = 13 13 = 49 7 cos t = π sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 cos 2 t = 1 − 30.3 ⎠ 35. 39 64 25 5 = 64 8 cos 2 t = 1 − cos t = 5 2 Because 0 ≤ t < 6 π sin t = . 2 . sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 ⎛6⎞ 2 ⎜ 7 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < π 2 2 36 49 cos t = .7 = sin1. cos t = 3 3 2 3 5 3 = 31.3 = cos 2. csc2 π 3 6 − tan 2 − cot 2 π 3 π 6 = 1 because 1 + tan 2 t = sec 2 t. = 1 because 1 + cot 2 t = csc 2 t.0≤t < 8 2 sin t = 6 3 + cos 2 + cos 2 π 2 π 3 = 1 by the Pythagorean identity.7 ⎠ 34. 2 ⎛7⎞ 2 ⎜ 8 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ π 21 25 4 2 = 25 5 cos 2 t = 1 − sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 Because 0 ≤ t < . Because 0 ≤ t < 49 cos t = 1 − 64 2 . cos t is positive. cos t is positive. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 5 5 2 ⎛ 39 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 8 ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 3 5 sec t = 5 csc t = cot t = 29. ⎛ 21 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 5 ⎝ ⎠ 7 π sin t = . ⎛ 1 ⎞ cos 2. sec2 π 38. cos t is positive. 0 ≤ t < 8 2 cos t = 2 21 π . Inc. 39 π . = 1 because sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1.2 2 5 . 37.

Inc. cos ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 π 2 =0 9π ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 4π ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎡π ⎤ = cos ⎢ + 2(2π ) ⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ = cos π 2 =0 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 56. ⎛ 9π sec ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sec ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sec 4 = 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 43. a.Trigonometric Functions 39. Publishing as Prentice Hall. csc 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = csc ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = csc = 2 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 41. sin b. 52. cos 9π π 2 ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 40. a. cos b. sin 3π 2 = 4 2 b. a. 49. tan 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = tan ⎜ + π ⎟ = tan = 1 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 44. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 53. 50. cot 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 45. cos 3π 2 =− 4 2 π ⎛π ⎞ − tan ⎜ + 15π ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝4 ⎠ b. . a. 51. cos 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos =− 4 4 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ π ⎛π ⎞ − cot ⎜ + 17π ⎟ = − cot = −1 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 55. ⎛ 9π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π 2 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sin 4 = − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 42. ⎛ 9π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 4 + 3π ⎟ = tan 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 47. sin π 2 =1 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 4π ⎟ = sin = 1 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 502 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 48. sin 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = sin = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 54. ⎛ 5π cot ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎟ = cot ⎜ 4 − 2π ⎟ = cot 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 46.

7321 cot = sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) ⎡ 7π ⎤ = sin ⎢ + 5 ( 2π ) ⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎦ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 60.9511 3π ≈ 0. a. sin 0. a. b. sin π 10 − cos t + 7 cos(t + 1000π ) + tan t + tan(t + 999π ) = 6 cos t + 2 tan t + 2sin t = 2a + 6b + 2c ≈ 0.6247 80. Inc. sec 1 ≈ 1. tan( −t ) − tan t = − tan t − tan t = −2 tan t = −2c 73. ≈ 3. a. a. b. .2643 = 3a + 2b − 2c = 2 cos t − 2 tan t + 3sin t 64. π 69. 3cos( −t ) − cos t = 3cos t − cos t = 2cos t = 2b 75. 0 =0 −1 tan17π = tan(π + 16π ) b. = tan[π + 8(2π )] = tan π =0 58. cot 71.8 ≈ 0. 61. cot cot π 2 = 0 =0 1 15π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + 7π ⎟ = cot = 0 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 7π 2 =− sin 4 2 sin b. csc 1 ≈ 1. + sin t + sin(t − 1000π ) 65. sin(−t ) − sin t = − sin t − sin t = −2sin t = −2a 72.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. tan 3.8253 = cos t + cos t − tan t − tan t − sin t + 4sin t 63. sin(−t − 2π ) + cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) + cos(t ) + tan(t ) 47π 7π 2 ⎛ 7π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 10π ⎟ = cos = cos 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ = −a + b + c 79. 59. sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) − tan(t + π ) = sin(t ) + cos(t ) − tan(t ) = a+b−c 77.4 ≈ 0.7174 cos t + cos(t + 1000π ) − tan t − tan(t + 999π ) − sin t + 4sin(t − 1000π ) 62. sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) 12 π 18 ≈ 5.2 tan π = 57.6 ≈ 0. tan 3. 4 cos(−t ) − cos t = 4 cos t − cos t = 3cos t = 3b 74.6713 = a −b+c 47π ⎛ 7π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 10π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 76. cos 0. sin(−t − 2π ) − cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) = −a − b + c 7π 2 = 4 2 78. cos 70.1884 = − cos t + 7 cos t + tan t + tan t + sin t + sin t 66.7 ≈ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8508 67. cos 68.8090 10 503 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ 12 + 24sin 0 = 12 + 24(0) = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in San Diego on March 21. E = sin = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on March 21. ≈ 9. t = 18.6 There are about 9. At 6 A.3sin 0 = 12 + 8. 504 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8.3sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ = 12 + 8. c.4 hours of daylight in San Diego on June 21. a. π ⋅14 = sin π = 0 ⋅ 21 = sin 3π = −1 2 ⋅ 28 = sin 2π = sin 0 = 0 5π π = sin = 1 14 2 2 Observations may vary.M. b.3998 There are about 14. E = sin b.7339 π 6 ⋅6 = 10 + 4sin π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. c. Inc.7 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on December 21. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅0 6 = 10 + 4sin 0 = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8.5837 = 10 + 4sin π 6 ⋅3 π = 10 + 4(1) = 14 2 The height is 14 feet. t = 0.7 There are about 3. 14 14 For t = 21. .3 There are about 20. π For t = 14.M.5837 E = sin π π 14 For t = 28. t = 12. At 9 A. At noon.3sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin1. At midnight. ≈ 14. 84.. t = 6.7339 ⋅ 7 = sin π 2 =1 b.. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. ≈ 3.6 hours of daylight in San Diego on December 21. ≈ 20.3sin1. E = sin ⋅ 35 = sin Because E(35) = E(7) = 1. a. 82. At 6 P. For t = 7. t = 3.3sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8. E = sin π 14 For t = 35.Trigonometric Functions 81. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅12 6 = 10 + 4sin 2π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.M. the period is 35 – 7 = 28 or 28 days. a.3 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on June 21. a. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin 4.3(0) 83. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3sin 4.

makes sense 3π or 6 2 t = 9. Thus. Explanations will vary. We find another high tide at t = 6 2 This value of t corresponds to 9 P. = . π ⋅ 21 6 7π 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4sin 2 2 = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 The height is 6 feet. only choice (c) is true.M. 104. b. which means high and low tides occur every 12 hours. Thus. This value of t corresponds to 3 P. the height at 9 A. H = 10 + 4sin 99. we find a high tide at π t= π 2 1 4 f (a) + 2 f (−a) = f (a) − 2 f (a) 103. Because the sine has 5π . and 9 P. and ends at t = 2π 6 2 6 or t = 12. Thus. – 96. For t = 9. high tide is at 9 A. a period of 2π we also find a maximum at 2 π 5π or t = 15. From part a. Thus. π or t = 3. This 6 2 value of t corresponds to 9 a.m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. 105. The cycle of the sine function π c 2 = 52 + 122 c 2 = 25 + 144 5π π or t = 0.58 < −1. starts at t= c 2 = 169 c = 13 Next write the ratio. low tide is at 3 A. t = 21. c. and cot t > 0. t is in the third quadrant therefore sin t < 0. the height at 3 A.M. f ( x) = sin x and f (a ) = ⎛1⎞ = 4 f (a) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 because sin x has a ⎝4⎠ period of 2π . Sample explanation: sin t cannot be less than −1. 2 1 4 f (a) + f (a + 2π ) + f (a + 4π ) + f (a + 6π ) 102. The height is given by h = 45 + 40 sin(t – 90°) h(765°) = 45 + 40sin(765° − 90°) ≈ 16. Sample explanation: Cosine is not an odd function. Inc. 2π ] .M.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Explanations will vary. π ⋅9 6 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 2 The height is 6 feet. and 3 P. f ( x) = sin x and f (a) = 1 ⎛1⎞ − 2⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝4⎠ 1 =− 4 f(–a) = –f(a) because sin (–x) = –sin x. . is also 6 feet. Sine is an odd function.7 feet above the ground. The sine function has a minimum at h = 10 + 4sin π 3π .M.M. 2 100. does not make sense. is 14 feet.2 H = 10 + 4sin π 98. At 3 A.M.M. From part a.M. 101. makes sense 505 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 You are about 16.. we find a low tide at does not make sense. the period is 12 hours. c2 = a2 + b2 The period of the sine function is 2π or on the interval [0. 97. Thus. First find the hypotenuse. Thus. t= The sine function has a maximum at 10 ≈ −1. ⋅18 6 = 10 + 4sin 3π = 10 + 4 sin π Note that − = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. tan t > 0. a 5 = c 13 85.M.

a 2 + b2 = c2 12 + b 2 = 52 2 = Use the Pythagorean Theorem. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . . 2 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ ⎜ c ⎟ +⎜ c ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ c c = 2. ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝c⎠ ⎝c⎠ c c = a 2 + b2 c2 Since c 2 = a 2 + b2 . Inc. c2 = 1 + 1 c2 = 2 c= 2 Next write the ratio and simplify.3 2 Check Point Exercises c 2 = 12 + 12 1. a 1 = c 2 = 1 2 ⋅ 2 2 = 2 2 2 c 2 = a 2 + b 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 c = 25 = 5 Referring to these lengths as opposite. to find c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a = 3. adjacent. we have opposite 3 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 adjacent 4 = cos θ = hypotenuse 5 opposite 3 = tan θ = adjacent 4 hypotenuse 5 = csc θ = opposite 3 hypotenuse 5 = sec θ = adjacent 4 adjacent 4 = cot θ = opposite 3 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ 107. First find the hypotenuse. opposite 1 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 cos θ = adjacent 2 6 = hypotenuse 5 opposite 1 6 = = adjacent 2 6 12 hypotenuse 5 = =5 csc θ = opposite 1 tan θ = sec θ = hypotenuse 5 5 6 = = adjacent 12 2 6 cot θ = adjacent 2 6 = =2 6 opposite 1 506 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 .Trigonometric Functions 106. b = 4 c 2 a + b2 1 + b 2 = 25 c2 b 2 = 24 c2 = 2 c =1 b = 24 = 2 6 Note that side a is opposite θ and side b is adjacent to θ . continue simplifying by substituting c 2 for a 2 + b2 . to find b. a2 + b2 c2 Use the Pythagorean Theorem. and hypotenuse. 2 2 c = a +b Section 4.

and a known adjacent side.3 Apply the definitions of these three trigonometric functions. we select the tangent function. tan 60° = length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 3 = 3 1 length of side opposite 30° tan 30° = length of side adjacent to 30° = 1 = 5. 6. 507 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4452) ≈ 334 The distance across the lake is approximately 334 yards. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. an unknown opposite side.PreCalculus 4E 3. . a tan 240 = 750 a = 750 tan 240 a ≈ 750(0. 3 = 1 3 ⋅ 3 3 = 3 3 a. Section 4. length of hypotenuse csc 45° = length of side opposite 45° 2 = 2 1 length of hypotenuse sec 45° = length of side adjacent to 45° = 2 = 2 1 length of side adjacent to 45° cot 45° = length of side opposite 45° 1 = =1 1 = 4. cot π ⎛π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ 12 ⎝ 2 12 ⎠ ⎛ 6π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 12 ⎠ 5π = tan 12 Because we have a known angle. sin 46o = cos(90o − 46o ) = cos 44o b.

3 1. c 2 = 92 + 122 = 225 c = 225 = 15 opposite 9 3 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 adjacent 12 4 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 opposite 9 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 12 4 hypotenuse 15 5 csc θ = = = opposite 9 3 hypotenuse 15 5 sec θ = = = adjacent 12 4 adjacent 12 4 cot θ = = = opposite 9 3 2. Exercise Set 4. Inc. c 2 = 62 + 82 = 100 c = 100 = 10 opposite 6 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 10 adjacent 8 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 10 opposite 6 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 8 4 hypotenuse 10 csc θ = = = opposite 6 hypotenuse 10 sec θ = = = adjacent 8 adjacent 8 4 cot θ = = = opposite 6 3 3 5 4 5 5 3 5 4 508 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. side opposite 14 = side adjacent 10 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Thus.Trigonometric Functions 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 54°. tan θ = Many Graphing Calculators Many Scientific Calculators TAN −1 ( 14 ÷ 10 ) TAN ( 14 ÷ 10 ) ENTER ENTER The display should show approximately 54. .

a 2 + 402 = 412 a 2 = 289 − 225 = 64 a 2 = 1681 − 1600 = 81 a = 64 = 8 opposite 8 = = hypotenuse 17 adjacent 15 = = hypotenuse 17 opposite 8 = = adjacent 15 hypotenuse 17 = = opposite 8 hypotenuse 17 = = adjacent 15 adjacent 15 = = opposite 8 a = 81 = 9 opposite 9 = = hypotenuse 41 adjacent 40 = = hypotenuse 41 opposite 9 = = adjacent 40 hypotenuse 41 = = opposite 9 hypotenuse 41 = = adjacent 40 adjacent 40 = = opposite 9 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 509 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a 2 + 212 = 292 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 4. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 3. a 2 = 841 − 441 = 400 b 2 = 676 − 100 = 576 a = 400 = 20 opposite 20 = = hypotenuse 29 adjacent 21 = = hypotenuse 29 opposite 20 = = adjacent 21 hypotenuse 29 = = opposite 20 hypotenuse 29 = = adjacent 21 adjacent 21 = = opposite 20 b = 576 = 24 opposite 10 5 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 adjacent 24 12 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 opposite 10 5 = = = adjacent 24 12 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = opposite 10 5 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = adjacent 24 12 adjacent 24 12 = = = opposite 10 5 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ a 2 + 152 = 17 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 102 + b 2 = 262 6. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 5. Section 4.

Inc. b = 49 = 7 opposite 24 = = hypotenuse 25 adjacent 7 = = hypotenuse 25 opposite 24 = = adjacent 7 hypotenuse 25 = = opposite 24 hypotenuse 25 = = adjacent 7 adjacent 7 = = opposite 24 cos 30° = tan = b = 625 − 576 = 49 tan θ length of hypotenuse length of side opposite 45° csc 45° = = 2 cos θ 2 = 2 1 = 242 + b 2 = 252 sin θ length of hypotenuse length of side adjacent to 45° sec 45° = cot π 3 sin π 4 3 = 3 1 = cot 60° = = 15. tan π 4 + csc π 6 ⋅ 1 2 3 3 ⋅ 3 3 = − 1 2 =0 ⎞ ⎟⎟ − 1 ⎠ 6 −1 4 6 −4 = 4 = length of side opposite 30° length of side adjacent to 30° 1 3 3 1 2 = + = 1+ 2 = 3 1 1 π π π ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 sin cos − tan = ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 4 4 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 3 2 = 3 = = tan 45° + csc 30° length of side adjacent to 30° length of hypotenuse 1 3 = sin 45° − cos 45° = 16. 13. . length of side adjacent to 60° length of side opposite 60° 18. tan 30° = = π 3 2 = 2 1 = tan 60° = 14. a 2 + 212 = 352 11. csc θ sec θ cot θ 9. a = 784 = 28 opposite 28 4 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 adjacent 21 3 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 opposite 28 4 = = = adjacent 21 3 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = opposite 28 4 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = adjacent 21 3 adjacent 21 3 = = = opposite 28 4 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 1 3 − cos = π 4 1 3 17. a = 1225 − 441 = 784 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 8. = 10.Trigonometric Functions 7. cos π 3 sec π 3 − cot π 3 = 1− 3 3− 3 = 3 3 3 3 510 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

6 tan π 4 + sin π 3 sec 29. tan 27. 2π ⎛ π 2π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 5 ⎝2 5 ⎠ ⎛ 5π 4π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 10 ⎠ = sin a 13 a = 13sin 34° sin 34° = 16 16 ≈ ≈ 41 m sin 23° 0.5592) ≈ 7 m 33. a 10 a = 10 tan 61° tan 61° = a ≈ 10(1. b 220 b = 220 cos 34° cos 34° = b ≈ 220(0. Inc. . 2 tan π 3 Section 4.8290) ≈ 182 in.7536) ≈ 188 cm π 21.9657 π 10 511 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 3 ⎞ = 6(1) + ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 6 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 6 = 6+ 6 =7 sin 7° = cos(90° − 7°) = cos83° 22.PreCalculus 4E 19. sin19° = cos ( 90° − 19° ) = cos 71° 3π π ⎛ π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 4π 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − − ⎟ = sin ⎜ ⎟ = sin 8 8 ⎠ 8 ⎝2 8 ⎠ ⎝ 8 a 250 a = 250 tan 37° tan 37° = a ≈ 250(0. 6 6 12 3 + 6 = 6 =2 3+ 20. csc 25° = sec(90° – 25 ) = sec 65° 24. ⎛π π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝2 9⎠ ⎛ 9π 2π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 18 18 ⎠ 7π = cot 18 π ⎛π π ⎞ ⎛ 7π 2π = cot ⎜ − ⎟ = cot ⎜ − 7 ⎝2 7⎠ ⎝ 14 14 a ≈ 13(0. csc 35° = sec(90° − 35°) = sec55° 25.8040) ≈ 18 cm 31. cos π 9 32.3907 tan 44° = b= 16 c 23 b 23 23 ≈ ≈ 24 yd tan 44° 0. tan 26. cos 30. sin 23° = c= 5π ⎞ ⎟ = cot 14 ⎠ 34.3 + cos π tan 4 π 6 =2 ⎛ 2 ⎝ 2 ( 3 ) + ⎜⎜ ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 28. Publishing as Prentice Hall. o 23.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 39.9499 ENTER If sin θ = 0. then θ ≈ 0.6252. 37. then θ = 1.9499.4112 COS−1 Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 88 If cos θ = 0.Trigonometric Functions 35. 41.5117 ENTER Display (rounded to three places) .253 radians. then θ ≈ 1.147 radians.395 Scientific Calculator .6252 TAN −1 TAN −1 4. then θ ≈ 29° .473 If tan θ = 0. Inc. 42.4112.0307 ENTER Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) COS−1 . 36.2974 SIN −1 If sin θ = 0.877 COS-1 COS-1 .0307 TAN-1 If tan θ = 26.9499 SIN-1 SIN-1 . Scientific Calculator 26.877.2974. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .877 ENTER Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 29 If cos θ = 0. Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) TAN −1 . then θ ≈ 17°. 40.473 512 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.147 Scientific Calculator . Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator . Scientific Calculator .5117 TAN −1 Graphing Calculator TAN −1 .5117.395 radians. then θ ≈ 78°.4169. then θ ≈ 88°.4169 TAN −1 Display (rounded to three places) 1.2974 ENTER 17 Scientific Calculator .6252 ENTER 78 If tan θ = 4.4169 ENTER .253 If tan θ = 0. Graphing Calculator TAN-1 26.4112 ENTER 1. 38. Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) SIN −1 . then θ = 0.0307. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 4.

.3 π 3 − 1 sec π = 3 1 − 1 2 π cos 6 = 6 3 1 − 1 2 3 2 3 3 − 2 2 =0 = 44. 2 Section 4. csc 37° sec 53° − tan 53° cot 37° = sec 53° sec 53° − tan 53° tan 53° = sec 2 53° − tan 2 53° =1 48. cos12° sin 78° + cos 78° sin12° = sin 78° sin 78° + cos 78° cos 78° = sin 2 78° + cos 2 78° =1 513 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 cot π 4 − 2 csc π = 1 1 tan 6 = 1 1 1 − π 1 sin 4 − 2 π 6 2 1 1 2 1 2 = − 1 2 = 1−1 =0 45. 1 + sin 2 40° + sin 2 50° = 1 + sin 2 (90° − 50°) + sin 2 50° = 1 + cos 2 50° + sin 2 50° = 1+1 =2 46.PreCalculus 4E tan 43. Inc. 1 − tan 2 10° + csc 2 80° = 1 − cot 2 80° + csc2 80° = 1 + csc 2 80° − cot 2 80° = 1+1 =2 47.

1 ⎛π ⎞ tan ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cot θ = 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ 52. 55. 54.Trigonometric Functions 49. . f (θ ) = 2 cos θ − cos 2θ π ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ π⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 cos − cos ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎟ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 6⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝3⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 50. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 125 172 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Thus. tan θ = Many Scientific Calculators 125 ÷ 172 = TAN −1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN −1 ( 125 ÷ 172 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 36. 514 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8391) ≈ 529 The distance across the lake is approximately 529 yards.8391) ≈ 29 The tree’s height is approximately 29 feet. 1 1 ⎛π ⎞ csc ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sec θ = = 1 =3 θ 2 cos ⎝ ⎠ 3 53. Inc. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 36°. f (θ ) = 2 sin θ − sin θ 2 π π ⎛π ⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 sin − sin 3 3 2 ⎝3⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 51. a 630 a = 630 tan 40° tan 40° = a ≈ 630(0. h 35 h = 35 tan 40° tan 40° = h ≈ 35(0.

68.99998 θ sin θ approaches 1 as θ approaches 0.01 sinθ 0.0998 0.1987 0. Answers may vary.0001 9. 57.999998 × 10 −4 9. c= 58. cos θ = 61.9983 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 0.9736 0.3 0. θ 0. Thus.0099998 sin θ 0. tan Many Scientific Calculators 555 ÷ 1320 = TAN-1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN-1 ( 555 ÷ 1320 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 23. Thus.9851 0. – 67. Inc.999999998 515 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0.001 0. sin10° = 500 c 500 500 ≈ ≈ 2880 sin10° 0.2 0.0872) = 436 The driver’s increase in altitude was approximately 436 feet. 59.1736 The plane has flown approximately 2880 feet.3894 0. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 37°. θ 0.1 0.9933 0. Section 4. the angle of elevation is approximately 23°. sin 5° = 60 75 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .3 555 1320 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . cos θ = Many Scientific Calculators 60 ÷ 75 = COS Many Graphing Calculators −1 COS−1 ( 60 ÷ 75 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 37. Many Scientific Calculators Many Graphing Calculators -1 55 ÷ 80 = COS COS-1 ( 55 ÷ 80 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 47.00001 1 × 10 −5 1 . 55 80 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 47°. Thus.99999998 × 10 −5 0. a 5000 a = 5000sin 5° ≈ 5000(0.2955 0. 60.9999998 0.PreCalculus 4E 56.

9999 tanθ 1.999999995 –0. makes sense 74.92106 0. At 90°.99 89.005 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 516 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. does not make sense.148878 –0. Explanations will vary.9 89.9999995 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.00005 0 θ cos θ − 1 θ approaches 0 as θ approaches 0.99995 cos θ − 1 –0.7321 2. In a right triangle. false.0001 0.6713 57 573 5730 57. Changes to make the statement true will vary.04996 –0. 79. Irrational numbers are rounded on calculators.Trigonometric Functions 69. A sample change is: 75. does not make sense.7475 5. the hypotenuse is greater than either other side. θ 60 70 80 89 89. Explanations will vary. Inc.3 0.01 cos θ 0. Use a calculator in degree mode to generate the following table.98007 0.4 0.099667 –0.95534 0. A sample change is: sin 45° + cos 45° = 77.99500 0. The sine and cosine are not reciprocals of each other. .0005 1 –0. true tan 45° ⎛ 45° ⎞ ≠ tan ⎜ ⎟ tan15° ⎝ 15° ⎠ 78.2 0.296 572. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: This value is irrational. 73.999 89.00001 0. tanθ increases without bound. true 76. 72. does not make sense. tanθ is undefined. θ 0. Therefore both 1 2 + 1 2 = 2 2 ≠1 opposite adjacent and must be hypotenuse hypotenuse less than 1 for an acute angle in a right triangle.958 As θ approaches 90°. Sample explanation: An increase in the size of a triangle does not affect the ratios of the sides. 70. 71. Sample explanation: The sine and cosine are cofunctions of each other.001 0.1 0. false. Then use the table to describe what happens to the tangent of an acute angle as the angle gets close to 90°.19735 –0.

b. Let b = the plane’s height above the lighthouse.4 Let a = distance of the ship from the lighthouse. θ = 90° = x r First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = 34 x −3 −3 34 −3 34 = = ⋅ = . x 1 cos 0° = cos 0 = = = 1 r 1 r 1 csc 0° = csc 0 = = . x 1 10 = = r 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = = −3 x 1 r 10 10 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 y r r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = (−3) 2 + 42 r =5 y 4 = .1): x = 0. undefined y 0 b. Section 4.4 Check Point Exercises 1. y = 1. r 5 82. b. y = 0. r = x2 + y2 π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive y-axis. Inc. b. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 2. which is positive. a. Select the point P = (0. π x 0 cos 90° = cos = = = 0 2 r 1 π r 1 csc 90° = csc = = = 1 2 y 1 517 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. r = (−3)2 + 52 83. and r.7002 The ship is approximately 357 feet from the lighthouse. which is r 34 34 34 34 negative. θ ′ = 360D − 345D = 15D b. b tan 22° = 357 b = 357 tan 22° ≈ 357(0. 250 tan 35° = a 250 250 a= ≈ ≈ 357 tan 35° 0.4040) ≈ 144 sin θ = a. . y −3 3 10 = =− r 10 10 cos θ = 144 + 250 = 394 The plane is approximately 394 feet above the water. a. θ′ = π − 5π 6π 5π π = − = 6 6 6 6 10 = 10 1 1 1 =− −3 3 a.0): x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. r = 12 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. 81. Section 4. y.PreCalculus 4E 80. θ = 0° = 0 radians The terminal side of the angle is on the positive x-axis. Select the point P = (1. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions.

a. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . it is in quadrant III. d. The reference 4 7π 8π 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = − = . 4 4 4 4 2π = 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative y-axis. The reference angle is 4 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = . b. we can find sin θ and sec θ . a. and r. θ = 180° = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative x-axis. y 1 1 10 10 sin θ = = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 sec θ = 7π 3π 6π = and lies between 4 2 4 r 10 10 = =− x 3 −3 3 . Inc. Thus.0): x = −1. angle is θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 11π 11π 12π π + 2 ⋅ 2π = − + = 3 3 3 3 This angle is in quadrant I. d. b. Because sin θ < 0. y. 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. a. c. with sin θ < 0. x is negative and y is positive. The reference 2 angle is θ ′ = 3. 3π x 0 cos 270° = cos = = =0 2 r 1 3π r 1 csc 270° = csc = = = −1 2 y −1 c. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. 2 5π lies in quadrant III.6 lies between π ≈ 3. In quadrant II. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. 5π π = + tan = 1 .71 . π 3 . Because 8π . θ lies in quadrant II.Trigonometric Functions c. x −1 cos180° = cos π = = = −1 r 1 r 1 csc180° = csc π = = . 15π 15π 8π 7π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 This angle is in quadrant IV. thus the reference − angle is θ ′ = Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. it is in quadrant IV. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° .14 and 3π ≈ 4. Because 3. it is in quadrant II. Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. 300° lies in quadrant IV. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which cosine is negative and the sine is negative. θ cannot lie in quadrant I. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. thus the reference 7π 8π 7π π = − = . sin 300° = − sin 60° = − b.–1): x = 0. y = −1. Select the point P = (0. 4. y = 1 Furthermore. 7. y = 0.46 . 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. The reference angle is θ = 240 − 180 = 60° . sin θ is positive in quadrant II. 4 4 4 4 π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. all the functions are positive in quadrant I. undefined y 0 5. θ cannot lie in quadrant II. tan 4 4 tan 518 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . sin 60° = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. Select the point P = (–1. θ = 270° = 6. 665° − 360° = 305° This angle is in quadrant IV. it is in quadrant III. 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = 3 x −3 x = −3. Furthermore.6 − π ≈ 0. . Because –240° lies between –180° and –270°. thus the reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 305° = 55° . Thus.

we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . a. and r. π 2 3 = 6 3 Because the secant is positive in quadrant IV. y 5 sin θ = = r 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− 13 13 r 5 5 y tan θ = = =− 12 x −12 −22π 2π π 3 = sin = sin = . cos cos b.PreCalculus 4E c.4 lies in quadrant IV. = r 5 5 = =− 4 x −4 4 x −4 cot θ = = =− 3 3 y sec θ = 17π 5π π 3 = cos = − cos = − . and r. Inc. Furthermore.4 Exercise Set 4. . 6 6 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 . r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + 52 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = lies in quadrant 6 6 6 6 5π π II. Because P = (–4. and r. y. The reference angle is θ ′ = π − = . 6 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. We need values for x. and r. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Because P = (–12. y. 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. 6 3 ⎝ 6⎠ 8. 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . sec r = x 2 + y 2 = (−4)2 + 32 = 16 + 9 = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. 3 3 3 2 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = − 5 5 y csc θ = 519 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The reference angle is 2π π = . Furthermore. . − π Section 4. x = −12 and y = 5 . sin We need values for x. θ′ = π − 3 3 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 sin = . y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 cos θ = = =− 5 5 r 3 3 y tan θ = = =− 4 x −4 r 5 csc θ = = y 3 π 2 3 ⎛ π⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = + sec = . x = −4 and y = 3 . y. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The reference angle is 6 θ′ = π 6 1. y. 6 6 6 2 −22π −22π 24π 2π + 8π = + = lies in 3 3 3 3 quadrant II. 2.

Furthermore. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + 7 2 = 9 + 49 = 58 Now that we know x. and r. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . and r. Furthermore. 6. Furthermore. y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . We need values for x. x = 3 and y = −3 . sin θ = =5 2 Now that we know x. 2 sin θ = 2 2 2 = 18 = 3 2 Now that we know x. and r. and r. Furthermore. and r. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . 7) is a point on the terminal side of θ . and r. 3 3 13 3 13 y = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 sin θ = 2 2 13 2 13 x = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 y 3 tan θ = = x 2 13 r csc θ = = 3 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y 4. x = 3 and y = 7 . 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y. 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . and r. y. and r. Because P = (3. Because P = (5. y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . y. Because P = (3. y.Trigonometric Functions 3. y. x = 2 and y = 3 . –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Inc. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + (−3) 2 = 9 + 9 r = x + y = 2 + 3 = 4 + 9 = 13 Now that we know x. 3 3 58 3 58 x = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 y 7 tan θ = = x 3 58 r csc θ = = 7 y sin θ = cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y We need values for x. r = x 2 + y 2 = 5 + (−5)2 = 25 + 25 = 50 7 7 58 7 58 y = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 −5 −1 2 2 y = = ⋅ =− 2 r 5 2 2 2 5 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 5 2 2 2 y −5 = −1 tan θ = = 5 x r 5 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −5 y cos θ = 58 3 sec θ = −3 −1 2 2 y = =− ⋅ =− 2 r 3 2 2 2 cos θ = 13 2 sec θ = We need values for x. 3 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 3 2 2 2 y −3 = −1 tan θ = = x 3 r 3 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −3 y r 3 2 = = 2 3 x 3 x = −1 cot θ = = y −3 sec θ = 2 3 We need values for x. . x = 5 and y = –5 . y. Because P = (2. 3 7 r 5 2 = = 2 5 x 5 x = −1 cot θ = = y −5 sec θ = 520 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

r = 1 Apply the definition of the θ= 10 = − 10 −1 −1 1 = −3 3 15. 10. and r. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosecant function. = x 0 = =0 y 1 . Select the point P = (–1. x −1 cos π = = = −1 r 1 3π y −1 = = . Because P = (–1.PreCalculus 4E 7. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. y = 1. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. Inc. cot π 2 521 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 13. y = 0. Select the point P = (–1. –1): x = 0. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . r 1 csc π = = . Select the point P = (0. and r. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. –1): x = 0.4 We need values for x. undefined y 0 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−2) 2 + (−5) 2 = 4 + 25 = 29 Now that we know x. Furthermore. y. 0): x = −1. 0): x = −1. Select the point P = (0. Select the point P = (0. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cotangent function. Select the point P = (–1. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. y. 0): x = −1. x = –1 and y = –3 . y = –1. sin θ = tangent function. y = 0. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 29 29 =− −2 2 −2 2 = −5 5 We need values for x. and r. Select the point P = (–1. y = −1. y = 0. y. undefined x 0 2 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. Section 4. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−1) 2 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. y. y = 0. 1): x = 0. tan −3 −3 10 3 10 y = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 14. –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . −1 −1 10 10 x cos θ = = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = =3 x −1 10 10 r =− csc θ = = −3 3 y r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 9. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. Furthermore. Because P = (–2. x = −2 and y = −5 . and r. r 1 = −1 sec π = = x −1 12. sin θ = −5 −5 29 5 29 y = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 −2 −2 29 2 29 x = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 y −5 5 tan θ = = = x −2 2 29 29 r =− csc θ = = −5 5 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 8. r = 1 Apply the definition of the secant function. 0): x = −1. 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. 3π x 0 = = =0 cos 2 r 1 θ= θ= π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. y 0 =0 tan π = = x −1 11.

We are also given that cos θ > 0. the tangent function is positive in those quadrants. the tangent function is positive in those two quadrants. Thus. 19. Because cot θ > 0. Because quadrant II is the only quadrant in which the cosine is negative and the tangent is negative. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. x2 + y 2 = r 2 20. the sine function is negative in those quadrants. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the secant is negative and the cotangent is positive. Because tan θ < 0. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant II. Because sin θ < 0. θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. r = 13 . 13 r 13 Furthermore. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant II.Trigonometric Functions 16. Thus. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the sine is negative and the tangent is negative. with cot θ > 0. y = 1. y. x −5 5 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 y −12 12 tan θ = = = x −5 5 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −12 12 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −5 5 x −5 5 cot θ = = = y −12 12 21. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. 24. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . y. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. θ cannot lie in quadrant II or quadrant IV. and r. Because quadrant I is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and sine is positive. with sin θ < 0. Furthermore. undefined 2 x 0 23. Because sin θ > 0. 52 = (−3) 2 + y 2 y 2 = 25 − 9 = 16 y = − 16 = −4 Now that we know x. In quadrant III x is negative and y is negative. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. We are also given that sin θ < 0 . 5 r 5 r 2 = x2 + y2 17. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. 3 x −3 cosθ = − = = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus. r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. x is negative and y is negative. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. π y 1 tan = = . Because tan θ < 0. Because sin θ < 0. θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. . We are also given that cos θ > 0 . 12 y −12 sin θ = − = = . we conclude that θ lies in quadrant I. Select the point P = (0. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. x = –3. θ cannot lie in quadrant III or quadrant IV. We are also given that sec θ < 0 . x 2 + (−12) 2 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 144 = 25 x = − 25 = −5 Now that we know x. In quadrant III. 4 y −4 sin θ = = =− 5 5 r y −4 4 tan θ = = = x −3 3 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 3 x −3 3 = cot θ = = y −4 4 18. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . with sin θ > 0. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. Thus. the cotangent function is negative in those two quadrants. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. and r. with sin θ < 0. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant III. Thus. Thus. r = 5. Thus. with tan θ < 0. Inc. y = −12. θ= π 22. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. 1): x = 0. with tan θ < 0. Thus. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. 522 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

x is positive and y is negative. and r. Because 270° < θ < 360°. sin θ = y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 tan θ = y −2 2 = = −2 2 x 1 r 3 3 2 3 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 r 3 sec θ = = = 3 x 1 csc θ = cot θ = x 1 1 2 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 523 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Furthermore. 17 r r = 17. cos θ = tan θ = csc θ = sec θ = cot θ = y 2 = 289 − 64 = 225 y = − 225 = −15 Now that we know x. 13 r x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + 52 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 25 = 144 82 + y 2 = 17 2 x = − 144 = −12 Now that we know x. θ is in quadrant IV. y. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . In quadrant IV. . and r. x is positive and y is negative. In quadrant IV.4 27. y −3 3 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 y −3 3 tan θ = = =− x 4 4 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 r 5 sec θ = = x 4 x 4 4 cot θ = = =− y −3 3 y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. r = 3 . 4 x cos θ = = . Furthermore x2 + y 2 = r 2 25. Furthermore. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Thus. x = 4. y −15 15 sin θ = = =− r 17 17 y −15 15 tan θ = = =− x 8 8 r 17 17 csc θ = = =− y −15 15 r 17 sec θ = = x 8 x 8 8 cot θ = = =− y −15 15 x −12 12 = =− r 13 13 y 5 5 = =− x −12 12 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 = =− y 5 5 26. and r. r = 13 . Because 270° < θ < 360°. In quadrant IV x is positive and y is negative. 5 r 2 2 x + y = r2 28. y. Thus. 8 x cos θ = = . 1 x cos θ = = . Thus. r = 5 . Furthermore. y. 5 y sin θ = = . θ is in quadrant IV. and r. x = 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. In quadrant II x is negative and y is positive. 3 r 2 2 x + y = r2 42 + y 2 = 52 y 2 = 25 − 16 = 9 12 + y 2 = 32 y = − 9 = −3 Now that we know x. y = 5. Inc. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . x = 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus. y.

Thus. 3 x −3 31. y. x = −12. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y = 1. Inc. y −5 5 sin θ = = =− r 13 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −5 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = = y −5 5 10 10 =− −3 3 −3 = −3 1 524 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. y. y. θ lies in quadrant III. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + (−4)2 = 9 + 16 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 22 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. sin θ = y 1 1 10 10 = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 cos θ = −3 −3 x 10 3 10 = = ⋅ =− r 10 10 10 10 csc θ = r 10 = = 10 y 1 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + (−5)2 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Trigonometric Functions 29. tan θ = = = 3 x −3 x = –3. θ lies in quadrant III. In quadrant III. Thus. negative and y is negative. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . In quadrant II. 5 y −5 tan θ = = = . x = −3 . x is negative and y is negative. Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. Furthermore. y −4 4 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 x −3 3 cos θ = = =− r 5 5 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 x −3 3 cot θ = = = y −4 4 13 13 =− −3 3 −3 3 =− 2 2 30. and r. 3 x −3 32. Furthermore. θ lies in quadrant II. 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = . sin θ = y 2 2 13 2 13 = = ⋅ = r 13 13 13 13 cos θ = −3 −3 13 x 3 13 = = ⋅ =− r 13 13 13 13 csc θ = r 13 = y 2 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. 2 y 2 tan θ = − = = . x is negative and y is positive. x is 4 y −4 . y. y = –4. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. . In quadrant II. y = −5 . Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. In quadrant III. and r. and r. Thus. x = −3. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Furthermore. Furthermore. Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. and r. θ lies in quadrant II. y = 2. x is negative and y is positive. 12 x −12 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because 351° lies between 270° and 360°. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 351° = 9° . The reference angle is 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = . r 3 sec θ = −3 = = . y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . (−1)2 + y 2 = 32 37. r 4 csc θ = −4 = = . y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 x −1 1 cos θ = = =− r 3 3 sin θ = tan θ = 39. Inc. Because 160° lies between 90° and 180°. y −1 1 sin θ = = =− r 4 4 x − 15 15 cos θ = = =− r 4 4 y 1 15 15 −1 tan θ = = = ⋅ = x − 15 15 15 15 sec θ = r 4 4 15 4 15 = =− ⋅ =− x − 15 15 15 15 cot θ = x − 15 = = 15 y −1 43. θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 41. it is in quadrant III. Because the cosecant is negative and the tangent is positive. Thus. it is in quadrant II. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 36. it is 6 2 6 6 in quadrant II. 4 4 4 4 42. Because 44. y. The reference angle is 5π 6π 5π π = − = . r = 4 . 38. it is in quadrant III.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. In quadrant III. it 4 2 4 4 is in quadrant IV. The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 170° = 10° . y. In quadrant III. 525 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y −1 5π 4π 3π 6π lies between π = and = . it is in quadrant IV. Furthermore. −150° + 360° = 210° Because the angle is in quadrant III. θ′ = π − 7 7 7 7 π= 45. . The reference angle is 7π 8π 7π π = − = . y −2 2 = =2 2 x −1 40. The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 160° = 20° . Because 170° lies between 90° and 180°. Because x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + (−1) 2 = 42 x 2 = 16 − 1 = 15 5π π 3π 6π lies between = and π = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° . Because 34. r = 3 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 355° = 5° . x is negative and y is negative. x −1 x2 + y 2 = r 2 35. Because 5π 10π π 7π = lies between = and 2 14 7 14 14π . r 3 3 2 3 2 csc θ = = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 cot θ = x 1 2 2 −1 = = ⋅ = y −2 2 2 2 2 4 7π 3π 6π 8π lies between = and 2π = . Furthermore. x = −1. Thus. it is in quadrant II. x is negative and y is negative. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . The reference angle is 14 5π 7π 5π 2π = − = . and r. it is in quadrant IV.4 33. Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. Because 205° lies between 180° and 270°. it 4 4 2 4 is in quadrant III. it is in quadrant II. Because the secant is negative and the tangent is positive. θ lies in quadrant III. Because 355° lies between 270° and 360°. θ lies in quadrant III. θ′ = π − 6 6 6 6 x = − 15 Now that we know x. and r. y = −1. the reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° .

225° lies in quadrant III. the reference angle is θ ′ = 25° . 4 4 sin 60° = sin 300° = − sin 60° = − 23π 23π 16π 7π − 4π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. −359° + 360° = 1° Because the angle is in quadrant I.7 − π ≈ 1. the reference angle is θ ′ = 1° . the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = π − = . 2 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant III.71 and 2π ≈ 6. 565° − 360° = 205° Because the angle is in quadrant III. 49. 210° lies in quadrant III. 47. 3π ≈ 4. 54. the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = −π = . the reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° .5 lies between 51.14 and 3π ≈ 4. 553° − 360° = 193° Because the angle is in quadrant III. The reference angle is θ ′ = 4. The reference angle is θ ′ = 2π − 5. −250° + 360° = 110° Because the angle is in quadrant II. 6 6 − 13π 13π 18π 5π + 6π = − + = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. tan 30° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 4π = − = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. 3 3 tan 210°= tan 30° = 3 . 2 63. 55. 4 4 − 17π 17π 24π 7π + 4π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant III.Trigonometric Functions 46. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = −π = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . 6 6 − 25π 25π 36π 11π + 6π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant IV.28 . 50. it 2 59. 11π 11π 16π 5π + 4π = − + = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant III. 3 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. 11π 11π 8π 3π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant II. 3 3 − 61. 3 526 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −335° + 360° = 25° Because the angle is in quadrant I. the reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 110° = 70° . 56. Inc. Because 4. 2 it is in quadrant IV. 4 4 3 . 57. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . the reference 11π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45° . is in quadrant III.71 .5 ≈ 0. 6 6 cos 225°= − cos 45°= − 2 . Because 5.56 . the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . 2 62. 60. 48. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . . the reference 3π π angle is θ ′ = π − = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . 58. cos 45° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant II.7 lies between π ≈ 3. 52. the reference angle is θ ′ = 193° − 180° = 13° . 53. 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. 300° lies in quadrant IV.78 .

tan 420°= tan 60°= 3 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 420° − 360° = 60° . sec 240° = − sec 60° − 2 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 405° − 360° = 45° . 67. 72. Inc. 4 4 4 4 π 2 cos = 4 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. 240° lies in quadrant III. tan 45° = 1 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. The reference angle is 2 9π 9π 8π π θ′ = − 4π = − = . 71. 3 3 3 3 sin π =1 4 Because the cotangent is negative in quadrant IV. –240° lies in quadrant II. The reference angle is 6 7π 7π 6π π −π = − = . The reference angle is 4 3π 4π 3π π θ′ = π − = − = . sin 60° = sin(−240°)= sin 60°= 3π π 2 . θ′ = 6 6 6 6 2 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. tan 2 2 undefined. 420° lies in quadrant I. sec 60° = 2 Because the secant is negative in quadrant III. 7π lies in quadrant IV.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2π π 3 =sin = . π 69. 405° lies in quadrant I. 3 3 2 3π lies in quadrant II. 2 sin(−225°) = sin 45° = . 73. 2 2 2 2 π 9π is also Because tan is undefined. –225° lies in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45°. 7π lies in quadrant III. 7π π cot = − cot = −1 . cos 9π lies on the positive y-axis. The reference angle is 3 2π 3π 2π π θ′ = π − = − = . 70. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . 9π π tan =tan = 1 4 4 3 = 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . 2 74. 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. tan 60° = 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. 6 6 csc π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. θ′ = 4 4 4 4 tan 2π lies in quadrant II.4 64. 66. 2 sin 45° = π =2 6 Because the cosecant is negative in quadrant III. 68. The reference angle is 4 9π 9π 8π π − 2π = − = . 4 4 cot 527 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7π π csc = − csc = −2 . tan 405°=tan45°=1 . θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 65. sin 9π lies in quadrant I. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The reference angle is 4 7π 8π 7π π = − = . =– cos = − 4 4 2 3 .

The reference angle is 4 θ′ = π 4 76. 2 3 sec 510° = sec150° = − 3 79. ⎛ 17π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 86. 6 3 ⎝ ⎠ 77. cos 35π 11π 3 = cos = 6 6 2 83. π ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝ 4⎠ tan sin 89. 17π 5π 17π 5π cos sin + cos 3 4 3 4 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 2⎞ = ⎜− − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6− 2 = 4 = 7π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = tan 6 = 3 ⎠ π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = sin 3 = 2 ⎠ 528 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. lies in quadrant IV. cot π 4 cos 0 − sin π 6 cos π 2 1 + 2 2 2 +1 = 2 = 3 ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − . π 1 ⎛ 35π ⎞ = sin = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 6 2 ⎝ 6 ⎠ 90. π ⎛ 11π ⎞ = tan = 1 tan ⎜ − ⎟ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 85. lies in quadrant IV. θ= π ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 − −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ . sin ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 1 − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ 3 6 6 3 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. ⎛ 17π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 84.Trigonometric Functions 75. − π 6 π cos π − cos π 3 sin 3π 2 3 1 + 2 2 1− 3 = 2 88. =1 4 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. tan = sec 495° = sec135° = − 2 78. − π 87. 19π 7π = cot = 3 6 6 11π 5π 11π 5π cos sin + cos 4 6 4 6 ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ =⎜ − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6+ 2 =− 4 =− 80. cos 23π 7π 2 = cos = 4 4 2 82. Publishing as Prentice Hall. cot 13π π 3 = cot = 3 3 3 81. Inc. . The reference angle is π 3 =− π .

94. m= f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ − sin ⎜ 4 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 3π 5π − 2 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ 4π π ⎞ ⎛ 4π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ f⎜ + ⎟+ f ⎜ +f⎜ ⎟ ⎟ 6⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝6⎠ 4 π π 4 π π ⎛ ⎞ = sin ⎜ + ⎟ + sin + sin 6⎠ 3 6 ⎝ 3 3π 4π π = sin + sin + sin 2 3 6 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠ =− ⎞⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ cos ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎛1⎞ = 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ =1 sin =− 3− ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎟ = h⎜ g ⎜ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ π 4 2 −1 + 2 = 3 +1 2 π 4 ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎛ 5π π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ + ⎟+ g⎜ g⎜ ⎟+ g⎜ 6 ⎟ 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π π ⎛ 5π π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + ⎟ + cos + cos 6 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ π 5π = cos π + cos + cos 6 6 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 3 3⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = −1 = ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2 2 −4 π 529 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . Inc. 92. 17π ⎝ 3 ( h D g ) ⎛⎜ 96.4 3π ⎛ 15π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − − cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1)(1) − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 1 = −1 − 2 2 1 =− − 2 2 3 =− 2 sin 95. f ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . f ( x2 ) ) 2 3 3 − 2 2 3 3 =− 2 =− 93.PreCalculus 4E 91. Section 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ 11π ⎞ = h⎜ f ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ sin ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ( h D f ) ⎛⎜ 3π ⎛ 8π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − + cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ = ( −1) 3 + ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2⎞ = 2⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) = 2 3 2 97. .

sin θ = − g ( x2 ) − g ( x1 ) x2 − x1 QIII ⎛ 3π ⎞ cos (π ) − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ = 3π π− 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = θ =π + 99. 110. 104. 6 6 π 5π 3 π 3 2π = 3 2π 5π θ= . QII QIII sin θ = θ= θ = 2π − 102. g ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . QI QIV π θ = 2π − 3 = θ= . QI QII θ =π − . Inc. 3 3 100. g ( x2 ) ) m= 2 π when the reference angle is and 4 2 θ is in quadrants III or IV. – 109. cos θ = − 2 2 −4 π 4 5π 4 5π 7π θ= . tan θ = − π QII 3 5π 3 θ =π − QIV π 6 5π = 6 5π 11π θ= . π 3 4π = 3 π 3 and θ is QIV θ = 2π − π 3 5π = 3 3 π when the reference angle is and 6 3 θ is in quadrants II or IV. 530 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. does not make sense. ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ θ =π − 2 π when the reference angle is and θ is 4 2 in quadrants I or II. Explanations will vary. Answers may vary. cos θ = θ= 7π 4 θ =π + in quadrants II or IV. 4 4 4 = π = π ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ QIV 3 θ = 2π − π 6 11π = 6 105. 3 3 π 4 = π 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is 3 2 in quadrants II or III.Trigonometric Functions 98. 4 θ =π − 4 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is in 3 2 quadrants I or IV. . QII π π 3π 4 4 103. tan θ = − 3 when the reference angle is 3π = 4 θ= π 3 2π = 3 2π 4π θ= . Sample explanation: Sine is defined for all values of the angle. 101.

makes sense π − 4 1 2 y π 0 1 − 2 y π 3 0 116. Explanations will vary. 5π is in quadrant IV. − 19π 19π 24π 5π + 6π = − + = 4 4 4 4 b. a. . the reference angle 4 5π 5π 4π π −π = − = is 4 4 4 4 Since 531 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 1. 0 2π ⎞ ⎛ 115. 10° = 10° ⋅ = 112. y = 3sin x 0 y 0 7π 12 4 π 2 5π 6 0 10π radians 180 π radians 180° =− 105π radians 180 7π radians 12 π π 3. Sample explanation: Sine and cosecant have the same sign within any quadrant because they are reciprocals of each other. 5π is in quadrant III. the reference angle 3 5π 6π 5π π is 2π − = − = 3 3 3 3 c.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 111. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 1 5 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 7 3 3 0 − 2 2 11 4 3 3 −3 − 0 2 3 6. y = 4 sin ⎜ 2 x − 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x = radians =− 0 8 18 180° −105° = −105° ⋅ 1 114. does not make sense. 113. Since a. 2. y = cos(4 x + π ) 2 x − π π radians 13π 12 −4 4π 3 0 13π 13π radians 180o radians = − ⋅ π radians 20 20 o = −117 11π 11π 6π 5π − 2π = − = 3 3 3 3 b. Explanations will vary. − 5. c. Sample explanation: It is also possible that y = −3 and x = −5. 8 4 1 2 5π 5π radians 180o radians = ⋅ = 75o 12 12 π radians 4. does not make sense.

4 − y 4 sin θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 3 − x 3 cos θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 4 − y 4 tan θ = = 5 = 3 3 x − 5 r 1 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 5 r 1 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 5 3 − x 3 cot θ = = 5 = 4 y − 4 5 10. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . sec θ = hypotenuse 6 6 11 = = adjacent 11 11 cot θ = adjacent 11 = opposite 5 r = x2 + y2 r = 32 + (−2) 2 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . a 2 + b2 = c2 b. and r. 52 + b 2 = 62 25 + b 2 = 36 b 2 = 11 c. y. Use the Pythagorean theorem to find b. 8. Inc. . 510° − 360° = 150° 9. the reference angle is 180° − 150° = 30° cos θ = r = x2 + y2 2 adjacent 11 = hypotenuse 6 opposite 5 11 = adjacent 11 hypotenuse 6 = csc θ = opposite 5 tan θ = 2 9 16 25 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 4⎞ r = ⎜− ⎟ +⎜− ⎟ = + = =1 5 5 25 25 25 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Now that we know x. a. and r.Trigonometric Functions 7. sin θ = −2 2 13 y = =− 13 r 13 3 3 13 x = = 13 r 13 2 y −2 tan θ = = =− 3 3 x 13 13 r =− csc θ = = −2 2 y cos θ = 13 r = 3 x 3 3 x =− cot θ = = 2 y −2 sec θ = 532 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y. b = 11 opposite 5 = sin θ = hypotenuse 6 Since 150° is in quadrant II.

Thus. 6 r x2 + y2 = r 2 12 + y 2 = 62 1 + y 2 = 36 y 2 = 35 y = ± 35 3 x = . Furthermore. sec 20. x = −4. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . r = 7 .PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 11. y. r = 6 . Furthermore. and r to find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 x tan θ = − = . tan 30° = 3 3 17. Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. 7 r Since θ is acute. θ is in quadrant II. Inc. y = + 35 = 35 y 35 ⎛π ⎞ = 35 cot ⎜ − θ ⎟ = tan θ = = x 1 ⎝2 ⎠ x2 + y2 = r 2 32 + y 2 = 72 9 + y 2 = 49 y 2 = 40 y = ± 40 = ±2 10 Because the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. x = 3. 4 y 13. cot120° = 1 1 1 3 = = =− tan120° − tan 60° − 3 3 18. and r. Since cos θ = 1 x = . . y. cos 240° = − cos 60° = − 19. r 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 r =5 Now that we know x. In quadrant II. sin θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− r 7 7 tan θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− x 3 3 r 7 7 10 = =− y −2 10 20 r 7 sec θ = = x 3 x 3 3 10 cot θ = = =− y −2 10 20 csc θ = 16. sin 2 11π = 6 π 7 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 = = = = 11π π 3 3 3 cos cos 6 6 2 + cos 2 π 7 =1 533 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 3 . x is negative and y is positive. x = 1. In quadrant IV. Furthermore. x is positive and y is negative. θ is in quadrant IV. side opposite θ side adjacent θ a tan 41° = 60 a = 60 tan 41° tan θ = r 2 = x2 + y2 r = (−3) + 4 2 2 a ≈ 52 cm 2 14. y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 =− cos θ = = 5 5 r r 5 csc θ = = y 3 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 4 x −3 4 =− cot θ = = y 4 3 12. Therefore y = −2 10 Use x. Since cos θ = side adjacent θ hypotenuse 250 cos 72° = c 250 c= cos 72° c ≈ 809 m cos θ = 15.

Linear speed is given by ν = rω . cos 495° = cos ( 495° − 360° ) = cos135° = tan = 8π ≈ 25. It is given that r = 10 feet and the merry-go-round rotates at 8 revolutions per minute.7 feet per minute. ⎛ 22π csc ⎜ ⎝ 3 23. 8 revolutions per minute 4π ⎞ ⎛ 22π ⎞ ⎟ = csc ⎜ 3 − 6π ⎟ = csc 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1 = = = 4π π 3 − sin sin − 3 3 2 =− π 3 3 30. Begin by converting from degrees to radians.9 feet sin θ = side opposite θ side adjacent θ 50 tan θ = 60 ⎛ 50 ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 60 ⎠ θ ≈ 40° tan θ = 534 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.13 cm = 8 revolutions per minute ⋅ 2 3 3 = − cos 45° = − 5 28.Trigonometric Functions 21. 2 2 29. 2 3 =− 24. Convert 8 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. .7 feet per minute T he linear speed of the horse is about 502. 26. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − cos π = (1) − (−1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ + 2π n ⎟ + tan ⎜ + nπ ⎟ cos ⎜ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π 5π π π = cos + tan = − cos − tan 6 6 6 6 3 3 3 3 2 3 =− − =− − 2 3 6 6 5 3 =− 6 side opposite θ hypotenuse h sin 6° = 5280 h = 5280sin 6° h ≈ 551. 7π ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎛ 17π ⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 6 + 4π ⎟ = tan 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 2 π 2 π 6 = 2π radians 1 revolution = 16π radians per minute ν = rω = (10)(16π ) = 160π ≈ 502. π radians π 36° = 36° ⋅ = radians 180° 5 s = rθ = 40 ⋅ 3 =− 2 22. ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 3 + 2π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4π π = sin = − sin 3 3 27. Inc. 25.

then by 4 4 2 adding quarter. 2 π x=π+ x= y = 3sin 1 The equation y = − sin x is of the form y = Asin x 2 1 with A = − . 0) π 2 0 .5 Section 4. 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.5 Check Point Exercises 1.3 π y = 3sin x = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . 2 . 0) 2 π 2 π 2 = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= coordinates = 3 ⋅1 = 3 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. then by adding quarter-periods to 4 4 2 generate x-values for each of the key points. 1 y = − sin x 2 535 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) 3π 2 3π y = 3 sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 3π . Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 2π π the period. 2 2 2π 1 y = − sin 2π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (2 π .periods. 0) 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sinx. Publishing as Prentice Hall. by 4. Thus. 2π . and the minimum point on the interval [0. 0) 3π 2 1 3π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − (−1) = 2 2 3π 1 . 0) 1 π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − ⋅1 = − 2 2 π π 1 y = − sin π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (π . The equation y = 3sin x is of the form y = A sin x with A = 3. = = . by 4. 2. −3 2 2π y = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . the maximum point. the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 The period for both y = 3sin x and y = sinx is 2π. the amplitude is 2 1 1 1 A = − = . 2π] by dividing the period. Inc. 2π.− 1 2 .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The five x-values are x=0 x = 0+ x= π 2 π + x =π + = 2 π 2 π 2 π x=0+ 2 =π = x= 3π 2 2 + x y = 3sin x 0 y = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π π 2 x (0. The five x-values are x=0 π 1 y = − sin 0 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 coordinates (0. The period for both y = − sin x 2 2 2 and y = sin x is 2π . We find the three x–intercepts. period 2π π = = . Thus.

Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the right. The phase shift is B 2 3 2 6 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π = . 2 The amplitude is A = 2 = 2 . 0) = 2 sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 536 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. B = 2. and C = = 2 sin 0 π The equation y = 3 sin 2 x − (2 π . 3π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅3π 2 (3π . π (0. The C 3 π 1 π = = ⋅ = . by 4.Trigonometric Functions Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . 2 Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 4π = = π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2π 2π The period is = =π. − 2 ) 3π 2 = 2 ⋅ (−1) = −2 = 2 sin 4π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . . 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle = 2 ⋅0 = 0 y = 2 sin 3 amplitude is A = 3 = 3 . The five x-values are x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) = 2 sin 2π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 (π . 2) begins. then by the period. Extend the pattern of each graph to the left and right as desired. x = π 6 . B 2 coordinates 1 ⋅0 2 π y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3. 0 ) = 2 sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3. 4 4 adding quarter-periods. by 4. The period is B The equation y = 2sin Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 2π 2π = 1 = 4π . Inc. 1 x is of the form 2 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . x 0 y = 2sin y = 2 sin 1 x 2 4. = 2 ⋅1 = 2 1 ⋅2π 2 is of the form π 3 . then by adding the period. 4π . π .

PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 4) . then by adding 4 4 2 quarter periods to the value of x where the cycle begins. = = . the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 .3 12 2π 3 ⎛ 2π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ 3 3⎠ ⎝ 3π = 3sin = 3sin π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 2π . by 4. (1.0 = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 5π 12 ⎛ 5π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 3π π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 5π . π π 3 6 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus. The period is B π Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period 2 1 the period. and B = π . 2π 2π = = 2.0 6 ⎛ 1⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ = −4 cos 6π = 3 sin 2π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 = 3 sin π 2 1 . x= π x π 6 y = 3sin 2x − y = 3sin 2 ⋅ π 6 π coordinates 3 − 5. The five x-values are x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. x=0+ x y = −4 cos πx 0 y = −4 cos (π ⋅ 0 ) coordinates (0. –4) = −4 cos 0 = −4 1 2 7π . Inc. −3 12 7π 6 y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ 7π π − 6 3 The equation y = −4 cos π x is of the form y = Acos Bx with A = −4.0 3 11π 12 ⎛ 11π π ⎞ − ⎟ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 9π 3π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ( −1) = −3 11π . The five x-values are x= π 6 π 2π 3π 5π + = + = 6 4 12 12 12 5π π 5π 3π 8π 2π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 3 2π π 8π 3π 11π x= + = + = 3 4 12 12 12 11π π 11π 3π 14 π 7π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 6 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 2.0 2 =0 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 1) = −4 cos π = 4 537 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph.

and C = −π . − π 4 y= 3 cos(−π + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 y= y= = 0 π 4 6. 2 2 2π 2π The period is = =π. − π 4 3 2 . = . 2 π 4 2 . Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the left. 538 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 B 2 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π the period. 2 The five x-values are x=− − 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 y= y= coordinates π 4 =0 π 4 π 4 4 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. the amplitude is A = = . Inc. by 4. π . –4) = −4 cos 2π = −4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. .Trigonometric Functions ⎛ 3⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 3π = −4 cos =0 2 3 2 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 2) 2 3 .0 2 x − π 2 (2.0 0. B 2 π C −π The phase shift is = =− . then by adding 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle y= begins. 3 3 cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π )) 2 2 The equation is of the form y = Acos(Bx − C) with 3 A = . 2 3 3 Thus. x = − 3 cos(2 x + π ) 2 π 3 cos − + π 2 2 3 cos(0 + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅ −1 = − 2 2 = π 3 cos + π 2 2 x=− y= π x=− 2 2 π 4 x=0+ x= π + + + π 4 π π 4 π 4 = = =− . B = 2 . 2 2 2 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph. π π π − π 3 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.0 3 π 3 cos(π + π ) .

12 = B 12B = 2π 3π .PreCalculus 4E 7. D = 12. The period is . A = 2. y = 2sin π 6 x− π 2 + 12 . The graph is modeled by y = 4 sin 4 x . The graph shows that this maximum value is 4. Inc. 3π 2 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Thus. 12 hours. Section 4. 2 =π = 9. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 539 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. is 3. .1 2 6 π =C 2 Substitute these values into y = Asin(Bx − C) + D . The period for both functions is 2π . x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 8. The phase shift. The number of hours of daylight is modeled by (2 π . The period is 12.5 The graph of y = 2 cosx + 1 is the graph of y = 2 cosx shifted one unit upwards. Add quarter4 2 periods to generate x-values for the key points. B C 3= B C 3= π B= . 2 B π 2π = 2 B πB = 4 π π 2 2π π = 12 6 The graph shows that the starting point of the cycle is C shifted from 0 to 3. π 2π A = 4 . −1) = 2 ⋅(−1) + 1 = −1 3π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 y = 2 cos2π + 1 Because the hours of daylight ranges from a minimum of 10 hours to a maximum of 14 hours. Thus. the amplitude. we obtain one period of the graph. x y = 2 cosx + 1 coordinates 0 y = 2 cos0 + 1 (0. the curve oscillates about the middle value. Thus. is the maximum value of y. Thus. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. and period = . 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 By connecting the points with a smooth curve. Thus. The cycle begins at x = 0. π B=4 Substitute these values into y = A sin Bx . or 12 2π months. 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 π 2 y = 2 cos π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 π y = 2 cos π + 1 3π 2 y = 2 cos 2π A. The quarter-period is 2π π or . The maximum number of hours is 2 hours above 12 hours.1 (π .

5 1. 2π π or . 0) 3π 2 y = 5sin 2π y = 5sin 2π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 π y = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = 4 sin 3π .5 (π . 2π π The period is 2π . −5 2 (2 π . The quarter-period is or . . 0) 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The period is 2π .Trigonometric Functions 2. Exercise Set 4. Thus. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. x=0 3π = 5(−1) = −5 2 (0. 0) π 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3π 2 x 2 π x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Inc. −4 2 2π y = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . The equation y = 4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 4.4 π y = 5sin π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . π The equation y = 5 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 5. 0) 3π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. the amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = x=0+ π x= 2 =π = y = 4 sin x 0 y = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin 2 + π 2 = 4 ⋅1 = 4 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = 5sin x coordinates 0 y = 5sin 0 = 5⋅ 0 = 0 (0. Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . 540 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) π π 2 y = 5sin π 2 coordinates = 5 ⋅1 = 5 .

0) 2 . 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Inc.5 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 3 1 1 1 = . The period is 2π . Thus.− 2 4 2π y= 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (2 π . 541 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) y= 1 sin x 3 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 y= π y= 3π 2 y= 1 3π sin 2 3 1 1 = (−1) = − 3 3 y= + 2 = coordinates x 2π 2 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 π 2 π 2 π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= x y= 1 sin x 4 (0. 0) π y= 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (π . . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0.PreCalculus 4E 3. (2 π . The period is 2π . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. with A = .− 2 3 3π 2 y= 1 3π 1 1 sin = (−1) = − 2 4 4 4 1 3π . Section 4. with A = . 2 π x=π+ x= π 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 4 1 1 1 = . 0) 1 3π . the amplitude is A = 4 4 4 2π π or . x=0 The equation y = 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 . Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . x=0 The equation y = x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π 2 = 4. the amplitude is A = 3 3 3 2π π or . 0) 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 3 3 3 π 1 π 2 3 y= 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 4 4 4 π 1 2 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 (π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) coordinates (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus. 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.

2π π or . Thus.3 2 (2 π . 0) y = −4 sin π 2 coordinates = −4 ⋅1 = −4 π y = −4 sin π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −4 sin 2π y = −4 sin 2π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = −4(−1) = 4 2 (0. the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 6. 0) π 2 . π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 x y = −3sin x 0 y = −3 sin x = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 y = −3 sin π 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 π y = −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −3sin 2π y = −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 = −3(−1) = 3 π 2 (0. 542 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. π The equation y = −4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –4. . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The period is 2π .Trigonometric Functions 5. The equation y = −3sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –3. The period is 2π .4 2 (2 π . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . the amplitude is A = −3 = 3. 0) 3π . 0) 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = −4 sin x 0 y = −4 sin 0 = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 2 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 3π . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . coordinates π + x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. −4 (π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. −3 (π . x=0 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 2π π or . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0.

Add x= π 4 + π x=0+ 4 π 4 = π x= 2 π π 3π x= + = 2 4 4 3π π x= + =π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The B 2 quarter-period is π 8. −1 4 π 3π = sin = −1 2 π ⋅ coordinates π 3π y = sin 2 ⋅ 4 π 1 π = sin π = 0 3π 4 = π =1 y = sin 2 ⋅ 2 . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.PreCalculus 4E 7. The A = 1 = 1. 543 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) π (0. Thus.1 8 π π 2 2 y = sin(2 ⋅ π ) = sin 2π = 0 = 4 3π x= + = 4 8 8 3π π π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. π . x y = sin 2x 0 y = sin 2 ⋅ 0 = sin 0 = 0 π 4 y = sin 2 ⋅ = sin π 2 π 2 π 4 π π 8 + π 8 π 8 = = π 8 π x y = sin 4x (0. The cycle begins at 4 2 4 8 x = 0. Inc. 0) 0 y = sin(4 ⋅ 0) = sin 0 = 0 π 4 π . Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. . x=0 x=0+ The equation y = sin 4x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 4.5 The equation y = sin 2x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 2. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 1 = 1. Section 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The period is = = π .0 3π .0 y = sin 4 ⋅ 4 y = sin 4 ⋅ 3π 8 y = sin 4 ⋅ = sin 3π . The period is B 4 2 coordinates π 8 π 4 = sin 2 =1 = sin π = 0 3π 8 π 8 π 4 . 0) π 2 . −1 8 3π = −1 2 y = sin 2π = 0 2 (π . the amplitude is 2π 2π π = = . .1 . x=0 quarter-period is 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.0 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.

The equation y = 3sin 1 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 2 1 x is of the form 4 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . 0) (3π .Trigonometric Functions 9. Add quarter4 periods to generate x-values for the key points. The cycle begins at x = 0. The cycle begins at x = 0. Inc. 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . 0) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. x 0 y = 3sin 1 x 2 4 8π = 2 π . − 3) 3π = 3sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 4π 0 (π . x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. 3) = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π y = 2sin (0. The equation y = 2sin 1 . The quarterThe period is B with A = 3 and B = 2 4π period is = π . The quarter-period is B 10. . 0) (6π . coordinates 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 0 2 y = 3sin = 3sin 2π 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 2π y = 2sin = 3 ⋅1 = 3 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 2π 2 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 3π 2 y = 3sin y = 2sin 1 x 4 1 ⋅0 4 coordinates (0. x=0 x = 0 + 2π = 2π x = 2π + 2π = 4π x = 4π + 2 π = 6π x = 6π + 2 π = 8π Evaluate the function at each value of x. the 4 amplitude is A = 2 = 2. − 2) (8π . 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π x 1 ⋅ 2π 4 π 2 (2 π . 0) = 2sin 0 = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 = 2sin (2 π . Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 544 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. The period is 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π . 2) = 2 ⋅1 = 2 4π y = 2sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 6π y = 2sin 8π y = 2sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = 2(−1) = −2 2 (4π . 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π .

Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. −4 2 = 4 sin 2 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ coordinates y = 3sin 2π ⋅ = 3sin 1 (2. The equation y = 4 sin πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 4 and B = π . The equation y = 3sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 3 and B = 2π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The is A = 3 = 3.0 2 = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 . The cycle begins at x = 0. 4 2 Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The B π 2 1 quarter-period is = . The amplitude 2π 2π = = 1. Inc. x=0 12. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 4 = 4.5 11. 0) 0 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 4 1 . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 13. 0) 1 . The period is B 2π 1 quarter-period is . 0) 3 4 3 . 1 1 = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The period is = = 2 . x=0+ x=0+ x y = 4 sin πx 0 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 0) = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 2 y = 4 sin π ⋅ = 4 sin 1 3 2 π 2 1 2 coordinates x y = 3sin 2πx (0. The equation y = −3 sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –3 and B = 2π . The amplitude 545 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 2 = 3sin = 4(1) = 4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅1) = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin π ⋅ 3 2 1 2 (1. 0) 3 4 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 2) = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 1 4 (0. −3 4 3π = 3(−1) = −3 2 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅1) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (1.3 4 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ 1 2 1 . The cycle begins at x = 0. .

The period is 2π 2π = = 1. −2 2 = −2 ⋅1 = −2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅1) = −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin 3 . y = −3 sin 2πx x coordinates quarter-period is 0 1 4 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = −3sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 = −3sin quarter-period is (0. 15. The amplitude 546 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) 3 . The B 2π is A = −2 = 2 . x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 1 . with A = –1 and B = 14. 0) y = −2 sin π x 0 y = −2 sin(π ⋅ 0) = −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 1 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 2 1 . x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x.3 4 coordinates y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin = −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 4 x 1 2 1 . 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0.2 2 3π = −2(−1) = 2 2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅2) = −2 sin 2π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2. . π 2 1 2 (0. 0) 1 . 0) = −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The period is 2 1 = . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The cycle begins at x = 0. The equation y = − sin 2 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 3 2 . The B π 3 2 (1.Trigonometric Functions is A = −3 = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1. The equation y = −2 sin π x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . −3 4 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 1 2 2π 2π = = 2 . Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Inc.0 2 3 2 3 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 2 3π = −3sin 2 = −3(−1) = 3 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅1) 1 (1.

0 4 . 3π . x=0 3π 3π x=0+ = 4 4 3π 3π 3π x= + = 4 4 2 3π 3π 9π x= + = 2 4 4 9π 3π x= + = 3π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x.5 The period is 2π 2π 3 = 2 = 2π ⋅ = 3π . The quarter-period is = − sin 0 = 0 3π 4 4 x is of the form 3 4 y = Asin Bx with A = –1 and B = .0 2 = − sin π = 0 9π 4 y = − sin 2 9π ⋅ 3 4 9π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 3π . Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The period is B 4 2 16. x=0 3π 3π = x=0+ 8 8 3π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 4 3π 3π 9π x= + = 4 8 8 9π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.1 4 3π = − sin 2 = −(−1) = 1 3π y = − sin 2 ⋅ 3π 3 3π 2 3π 1 3π ⋅ = . Inc. 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1. The equation y = − sin x y = − sin 0 y = − sin 4 x 3 4 ⋅0 3 = coordinates (0. 0) = − sin 0 = 0 (3π . The quarter-period is 2 x 3 x y = − sin 0 2 y = − sin ⋅ 0 3 coordinates 3 y = − sin = − sin 3π 2 y = − sin 2 3π ⋅ 3 4 π 2 (0. 3 3π 2π 2π = 4 = 2π ⋅ = . 4 2 4 8 The cycle begins at x = 0. The cycle begins at x = 0. −1 4 = −1 2 3π ⋅ 3 2 3π . 0) 3π 8 = − sin 2π = 0 y = − sin = − sin 3π 4 y = − sin 4 3π ⋅ 3 8 π 2 3π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. B 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 0) 3π . −1 8 = −1 4 3π ⋅ 3 4 = − sin π = 0 547 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Trigonometric Functions

9π

8

y = − sin

4 9π

⋅

3 8

9π

,1

8

3π

= − sin

= −(−1) = 1

2

3π

2

4 3π

y = − sin ⋅

3 2

3π

,0

2

x

y = sin(x − π )

coordinates

π

y = sin(π − π )

(π , 0)

3π

2

y = sin

= sin 0 = 0

= sin

= − sin 2π = 0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

−π

2

π

2

3π

,1

2

=1

2π

y = sin(2 π − π )

5π

2

y = sin

(2 π , 0)

= sin π = 0

= sin

5π

−π

2

5π

, −1

2

3π

= −1

2

y = sin(3π − π )

(3π , 0 )

= sin 2π = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

**17. The equation y = sin(x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is

C π

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

= = π . The

B

1

B 1

2π π

= . The cycle begins at x = π .

quarter-period is

4

2

Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=π

18. The equation y = sin x −

π

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

5π π

x=

+ = 3π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

2

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C =

π

2

. The

**amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
**

π

2π 2π

C 2 π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

= = . The

B

1

B 1 2

2π π

= . The cycle begins at

quarter-period is

4

2

x=

π

**. Add quarter-periods to generate
**

2

x-values for the key points.

548

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x=

x=

Section 4.5

19. The equation y = sin(2 x − π ) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is

2π 2π

C π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The quarterB

2

B 2

π

2

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

x

π

π

y = sin x −

π

2

y = sin

π

y = sin π −

3π

2

y = sin

2

π

−

x=

x=

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

2

= sin

3π π

−

2

2

π

2

=1

π

2

,0

(π , 1)

y = sin 2π −

3π

,0

2

y = sin

2

π

+

x

π

2

π

2

(2 π , −1)

5π π

−

2

2

π

=

3π

4

y = sin(2 x − π )

y = sin 2 ⋅

π

2

−π

coordinates

π

2

,0

= sin(π − π )

= sin 0 = 0

3π

= −1

= sin

2

5π

2

π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= sin π = 0

2π

π

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4

4

2

coordinates

2

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
**

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is

3π

4

5π

,0

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

= sin 2π = 0

= sin

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

3π

−π

4

3π

,1

4

3π

−π

2

π

2

=1

y = sin(2 ⋅ π − π )

= sin(2 π − π )

= sin π = 0

549

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(π , 0)

Trigonometric Functions

5π

4

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

= sin

3π

2

5π

−π

4

5π

, −1

4

x

5π

−π

2

π

4

3π

= −1

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

3π

−π

2

3π

,0

2

π

= sin(3π − π )

= sin 2π = 0

2

π

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

3π

4

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

coordinates

2

π

−

4

π

π

2

4

π

−

2

,0

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

= sin π −

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

y = sin 2x −

−

π

π

π

2

2

= sin

2

3π π

−

4 2

π

2

,1

=1

3π

,0

4

3π π

−

2

2

= sin π = 0

20. The equation y = sin 2x −

π

2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C =

π

2

= sin 2π −

. The

= sin

amplitude is A = 1 = 1.

2π 2π

=

=π.

The period is

B

2

5π

4

π

The phase shift is

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = .

B 2 2 2 4

The quarter-period is

π

4

The cycle begins at x =

x=

2

π

2

5π π

−

4 2

5π π

−

2

2

4

4

+

π

=

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

4

5π

,0

4

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

π

(π , −1)

= sin 2π = 0

. Add quarter-periods to

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

π

3π

= −1

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

.

π

y = sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

550

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**21. The equation y = 3sin(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is

2π 2π

C π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The quarterB

2

B 2

π

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
**

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is

x=

x=

π

2

π

+

π

=

3π

4

22. The equation y = 3 sin 2 x −

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4

4

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

π

2

y = 3sin(2x − π )

y = 3sin 2 ⋅

π

2

−π

y = 3sin 2 ⋅

3π

−π

4

,0

π

5π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= 3 sin

5π

−π

4

π

4

**The cycle begins at x =
**

x=

3π

,3

4

x=

π

4

+

π

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

(π , 0)

4

=

π

5π

, −3

4

3π

2

= 3(−1) = −3

3π

−π

2

π

4

5π

−π

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

.

π

= 3 sin

3π

2

.

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

π

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

y = 3sin(2 ⋅ π − π )

= 3sin(2 π − π )

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

3π

−π

= 3sin

2

= 3sin

π

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = .

The phase shift is

B 2 2 2 4

= 3sin(π − π )

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

3π

4

is of the form

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .

2π 2π

=

=π.

The period is

B

2

The quarter-period is

2

2

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C =

coordinates

π

π

3π

,0

2

= 3 sin(3π − π )

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

551

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

y = 3 sin 2 x −

π

π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= sin

π

2

−

4

π

23.

coordinates

2

−

π

π

2

4

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

,0

= 3 sin π −

= 3 sin

3π

4

π

2

−

π

π

2

2

,3

π

2

**. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
**

2

the key points.

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π π

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

−

4 2

= 3 sin 2π −

= 3 sin

5π

4

2

π

2

x=0+

x=

(π , − 3)

π

2

+

+

π

2

π

2

2

x

5π

,0

4

−

π

2

5π π

−

2

2

π

π

2

=

=0

π

2

=π

3π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=π+

π

5π π

−

4 2

2

x=−

3π

= 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= 3 sin

π

π

x=−

3π

,0

4

= 3 sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

x=−

3π π

= 3 sin

−

2

2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A =

2

2

1

π

sin x − −

2

2

1

π

, B = 1, and C = − .

2

2

1

1

The amplitude is A =

= . The period is

2

2

π

2π 2π

C −2

π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

=

=− .

B

B

1

1

2

2π π

The quarter-period is

= . The cycle begins at

4

2

π

π

1

π

π

1

sin x +

= sin x − −

2

2

2

2

The equation y =

= 3 sin 0 = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y=

=

y=

π

1

sin x +

2

2

y=

1

π π

sin − +

2

2 2

=

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

0

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=

=

π

2

y=

=

coordinates

−

π

2

,0

1

1

sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

1

π

sin 0 +

2

2

0,

1

2

1

1

π 1

sin = ⋅1 =

2

2

2 2

1

π π

sin

+

2

2 2

1

1

sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

552

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

π

2

,0

PreCalculus 4E

π

Section 4.5

y=

1

π

sin π +

2

2

π, −

1

2

1

3π

sin

2

2

1

1

= ⋅(−1) = −

2

2

=

3π

2

y=

1

3π π

sin

+

2

2

2

3π

,0

2

x

y=

−π

y=

−

1

sin 2π

2

1

= ⋅0 = 0

2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

2

=

1

sin(− π + π )

2

1

1

= sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

=

0

π

2

24.

1

1

sin(x + π ) = sin( x − (− π ))

2

2

1

The equation y = sin(x − (−π )) is of the form

2

1

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = , B = 1, and C = −π .

2

1

1

The amplitude is A =

= . The period is

2

2

2π 2π

C −π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

=

= −π .

B

B

1

1

2π π

The quarter-period is

= . The cycle begins at

4

2

x = −π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

the key points.

x = −π

y=

x = −π +

x=−

π

2

x=0+

π

π

2

+

π

2

π

2

=

=−

1

π

sin − + π

2

2

1

sin(0 + π )

2

1

1

= sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

1

π

sin

+π

2

2

(−π , 0 )

−

π 1

2

,

2

(0, 0)

π

2

,−

1

2

1

3π 1

1

sin

= ⋅ (−1) = −

2

2

2

2

1

sin(π + π )

2

1

1

= sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

(π , 0)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

2

=0

π

2

π

+ =π

2 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

coordinates

1

1

π 1

sin = ⋅1 =

2

2

2 2

y=

=

π

1

sin(x + π )

2

553

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

25.

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

2

= −2 sin 2 x − −

The equation y = −2 sin 2x − −

π

2

π

x

2

−

is of the form

π

4

π

2

= −2 sin −

. The amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is

π

0

x=−

x=−

4

x=0+

x=

π

4

+

+

π

4

π

π

=

=

4

=0

π

−

π

4

,0

2

π

2

(0, –2)

π

2

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

= −2 sin

4

π

2

π

4

+

π

π

2

4

π

π

2

2

,0

π

+

2

= −2 sin π

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

π

4

4

2

2

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

4

π

π

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −2 sin

π

π

+

4

+

2

= −2 sin 0 +

π

**. The cycle begins at x = − . Add
**

4

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

period is

π

= −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π 2π

=

= π . The

B

2

π 1

π

C −2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarterphase shift is

B

2

2 2

4

π

π

coordinates

2

y = −2 sin 2⋅ −

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2,

B = 2, and C = −

π

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

π

2

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

π

2

= −2 sin π +

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

+

,2

π

2

3π

2

= −2(−1) = 2

= −2 sin

3π

4

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

= −2 sin

3π π

+

4 2

3π

,0

4

3π π

+

2 2

= −2 sin 2π

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

554

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

26.

Section 4.5

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

= −3sin 2x − −

The equation y = −3sin 2x − −

π

2

π

π

2

4

= −3sin

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2, and C = −

π

2

π

2

−

π

C

π 1

π

2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is .

2

2 2

4

4

B

π

4

π

4

+

+

π

4

π

4

π

4

=

=

=0

π

4

x

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

,0

+

π

π

2

2

,3

π

2

3π

,0

4

3π π

+

2

2

π

2

π

4

+

+

π

2

−

π

4

,0

π

2

= −3sin 0 = −3⋅ 0 = 0

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −3sin 0 +

= −3sin

4

3π π

+

4 2

coordinates

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ −

= −3sin −

0

2

2

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

4

π

π

+

π

π

π

π

= −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

−

+

3π

= −3⋅ (−1) = 3

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

4

x=0+

x=

3π

4

π

π

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

2

4

= −3sin π +

π

x=−

π

π

= −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

.

**The amplitude is A = −3 = 3. The period is
**

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

B

2

The cycle begins at x = −

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

π

2

π

2

(0, –3)

π

2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

555

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

27.

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

The equation y = 3sin(π x − (−2)) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = π , and C = –2.

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is

C −2

2

2π 2π

=

= 2 . The phase shift is

=

= − . The

B π

B

π

π

2 1

quarter-period is = . The cycle begins at

4 2

2

x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 4

3π − 4

y = 3sin π

+2

2π

2π

π

2π − 2

1 π −4

x=− + =

π 2

2π

π − 4 1 π −2

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

π − 2 1 3π − 4

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

3π − 4 1 2π − 2

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

2

−

2

π

y = 3sin π −

2

π

= 3sin

3π

−2 +2

2

3π

2

= 3(−1) = −3

π

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

3π − 4

+2

2

= 3sin

**the key points.
**

2

x=−

x

= 3sin

π

y = 3sin π

2π − 2

π

−

= 3sin

= 3sin

= 3sin

π −4

2

π

2

2

π

,0

π−4

,3

2π

+2

−2 + 2

π

2

= 3⋅1 = 3

π −2

π −2

π y = 3sin π π + 2

2π − 2

π

,0

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

= 3sin(−2 + 2)

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

π −4

π −4

2π y = 3sin π 2π + 2

+2

= 3sin(2 π − 2 + 2)

= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

coordinates

+2

5π

, −3

4

π −2

,0

π

= 3sin(π − 2 + 2)

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

556

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

28.

Section 4.5

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4) = 3sin(2π x − (−4))

The equation y = 3sin(2 πx − (−4)) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2π , and

C = –4. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period

C −4

2

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

=

=− .

is

B 2π

B 2π

π

1

The quarter-period is . The cycle begins at

4

2

x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 8

3π − 8

y = 3sin 2π

+4

4π

4π

**the key points.
**

2

x=−

π − 2 y = 3sin 2π π − 2 + 4

π

π

= 3sin(2 π − 4 + 4)

= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

π

1 π −8

=

4

4π

π −8 1 π − 4

x=

+ =

4

4π

2π

π − 4 1 3π − 8

x=

+ =

4

2π

4π

3π − 8 1 π − 2

x=

+ =

π

4

4π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=−

2

π

x

−

2

π

+

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4)

y = 3sin 2π −

2

π

= 3sin

= 3sin

2

π

2

π

2

= 3sin

3π

− 4+4

2

= 3sin

3π

= 3(−1) = −3

2

π −2

,0

π

coordinates

+4

π −8

π −8

+4

y = 3sin 2π

4π

4π

π −8

3π − 8

+4

2

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

−

2

π

,0

29.

= 3sin(−4 + 4)

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

= 3sin

= 3sin

3π − 8

, −3

4π

π −8

,3

4π

+4

−4 + 4

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

π −4

π−4

2π y = 3sin 2π 2 π + 4

π−4

,0

2π

= 3sin(π − 4 + 4)

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

**y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π ) = −2sin(2π x − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = −2 sin(2π x − (−4π )) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2, B = 2π , and

C = −4 π . The amplitude is A = −2 = 2 . The

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

1

C −4 π

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

2π

4

B

begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

7

1

x = −2 + = −

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

557

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π )

coordinates

–2 y = −2 sin(2π (−2) + 4 π )

= −2 sin(−4π + 4π )

= −2 sin 0

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

(–2, 0)

x

−

7

7

4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

−

π

2

7

, −2

4

7π

+ 4π

2

= −2 sin −

= −2 sin

−

30.

1

7

=−

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x = −2 +

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

3

3

2 y = −2 sin 2π − 2 + 4 π

3

− ,0

2

= −2 sin(−3π + 4π )

= −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

−

5

5

4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

= −2 sin −

**y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π ) = −3 sin(2π x − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = −3 sin(2 πx − (−4 π )) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2π , and

C = −4π . The amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The

2π 2π

=

= 1 . The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

C −4π

1

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

−

5

,2

4

5π

+ 4π

2

x

y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π )

–2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−2) + 4π )

(–2, 0)

= −3 sin( −4 π + 4π )

= −3 sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

3π

2

= −2 (−1) = 2

= −2 sin

−

–1 y = −2 sin(2π (−1) + 4 π )

= −2 sin(−2π + 4π )

coordinates

7

7

4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

(–1, 0)

= −3 sin −

= −2 sin 2π

= −3 sin

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

−

π

2

−

7

, −3

4

7π

+ 4π

2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

3

3

2 y = −3 sin 2π − 2 + 4π

3

− ,0

2

= −3 sin( −3π + 4π )

= −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

−

5

5

4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

= −3 sin −

= −3 sin

–1

−

5

,3

4

5π

+ 4π

2

3π

= −3(−1) = 3

2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−1) + 4π )

= −3 sin( −2 π + 4π )

= −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

558

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(–1, 0)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

the graph of y = 2 cosx .

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

**32. The equation y = 3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = 3. Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

**31. The equation y = 2 cosx is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = 2. Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

π

2

π

2

=

x=0+

π

x=

2

y = 2 cosx

2

π

y = 2 cos

π

2

= 2⋅0 = 0

y = 2 cos π

2

,0

(π , − 2)

= 2 ⋅(−1) = −2

3π

2

y = 2 cos

3π

2

= 2⋅0 = 0

3π

,0

2

2π

y = 2 cos2π

(2 π , 2 )

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

y = 3 cos x

0

y = 3 cos 0 = 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

(0, 2)

π

2

2

x

π

coordinates

y = 2 cos0

π

π

x=

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

π

+

2

=

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

0

2

x=π+

=π

π

x

π

π

y = 3 cos

π

2

coordinates

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = 3 cos π = 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3

3π

2

y = 3 cos

2π

y = 3 cos2 π = 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

2

(0, 3)

π

2

,0

(π , − 3)

3π

,0

2

(2 π , 3)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
**

and graph one complete cycle of the given function

with the graph of y = cos x .

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

559

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

33. The equation y = −2 cos x is of the form y = Acos x

with A = –2. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is 2π . The quarterπ

2π

or . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

period is

4

2

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

π

=

2

π

2

**34. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = –3. Thus, the amplitude is A = −3 = 3 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

π

2

x=

=π

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

coordinates

0

y = −2 cos 0

(0, –2)

2

π

y = −2 cos

π

2

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = −2 cos π

y = −2 cos

2π

y = −2 cos 2π

3π

2

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

y = −3 cos x

0

y = −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

π

,0

(π , 2)

= −2 ⋅ (−1) = 2

3π

2

π

=

x

2

π

+

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

π

2

x=π+

π

y = −2 cos x

π

π

3π

,0

2

y = −3 cos

π

2

coordinates

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

3π

2

y = −3 cos

2π

y = −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

3π

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

(0, –3)

π

2

,0

(π , 3)

3π

,0

2

(2 π , − 3)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

the graph of y = cos x .

(2 π , − 2)

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

the graph of y = cos x .

560

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**35. The equation y = cos2 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
**

with A = 1 and B = 2. Thus, the amplitude is

2π 2π

A = 1 = 1. The period is

=

= π . The

B

2

quarter-period is

π

**36. The equation y = cos 4 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
**

with A = 1 and B = 4. Thus, the amplitude is

2π 2π π

A = 1 = 1. The period is

=

= . The

B

4

2

π

. The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

4

+

π

4

π

4

=

=

π

x=0+

4

π

x=

2

π π 3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y = cos2 x

0

y = cos(2 ⋅ 0)

4

y = cos 2 ⋅

= cos

π

2

π

2

π

8

(0, 1)

π

4

4

π

2

2

y = cos 2 ⋅

3π

4

y = cos(2 ⋅ π )

+

π

8

π

, −1

8

=

=

π

8

π

0

y = cos(4 ⋅ 0) = cos 0 = 1

8

,0

y = cos 4 ⋅

4

y = cos 4 ⋅

3π

8

y = cos 4 ⋅

= cos

3π

,0

4

π

3π

=0

= cos

2

π

π

y = cos 4 x

= cos π = −1

3π

4

=

x

π

π

⋅

π

π

=0

y = cos 2 ⋅

π 1

π

coordinates

π

=

4

3π

x= + =

4 8

8

3π π π

x=

+ =

8

8 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= cos 0 = 1

π

2

**. The cycle begins at
**

4 2 4 8

x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

the key points.

x=0

quarter-period is

2

coordinates

π

8

π

4

= cos

π

2

=0

= cos π = −1

3π

8

(0, 1)

π

8

π

4

,0

, −1

3π

,0

8

3π

=0

2

y = cos 4 ⋅

π

2

= cos2 π = 1

π

2

,1

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

(π , 1)

= cos2 π = 1

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

561

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

37. The equation y = 4 cos2 πx is of the form

y = Acos Bx with A = 4 and B = 2π . Thus, the

amplitude is A = 4 = 4 . The period is

2π 2π

1

=

= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

x

y = 4 cos2 πx

0

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

**38. The equation y = 5 cos2 πx is of the form
**

y = Acos Bx with A = 5 and B = 2π . Thus, the

amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . The period is

2π 2π

1

=

= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

coordinates

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, 4)

= 4 cos 0

= 4 ⋅1 = 4

1

4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

= 4 cos

1

4

1

,0

4

π

2

= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1

2

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

1

2

1

, −4

2

3

4

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

= 5 cos

3

,0

4

3π

2

= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1

2

= 4 cos

1

0

1

4

= 4 ⋅ (−1) = −4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

y = 5 cos2 πx

coordinates

(0, 5)

= 5 cos 0 = 5 ⋅1 = 5

= 4 cos π

3

4

x

π

2

1

4

1

,0

4

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

1

2

1

, −5

2

= 5 cos π = 5 ⋅ (−1) = −5

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅1)

(1, 4)

3

4

= 4 cos2 π

= 4 ⋅1 = 4

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

= 5 cos

1

3π

4

3

,0

4

3π

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅1)

= 5 cos2 π = 5 ⋅1 = 5

562

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(1, 5)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 3π

2

(3π , 0 )

3π

2

= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

= −4 cos

4π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 4π

2

(4π , – 4)

= −4 cos 2π

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

1

x is of the form

2

1

y = Acos Bx with A = –4 and B = . Thus, the

2

amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . The period is

2π 2π

= 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . The quarter-period is

B

39. The equation y = −4 cos

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

2

4π

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

1

40. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form

3

1

y = Acos Bx with A = –3 and B = . Thus, the

3

amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The period is

2π 2π

= 1 = 2π ⋅3 = 6π . The quarter-period is

B

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

0

y = −4 cos

y = −4 cos

1

x

2

1

⋅0

2

coordinates

3

6π 3π

=

. The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

(0, –4)

= −4 cos 0

3π 3π

=

2

2

3π 3π

x=

+

= 3π

2

2

3π 9π

x = 3π +

=

2

2

9π 3π

x=

+

= 6π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

π

y = −4 cos

= −4 cos

1

⋅π

2

x=0+

(π , 0)

π

2

= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 2π

2

(2 π , 4)

= −4 cos π

= −4 ⋅ (−1) = 4

563

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

1

y = −3 cos x

3

0

y = −3 cos

x=0

coordinates

1

⋅0

3

3 3

=

2 2

3 3

x = + =3

2 2

3 9

x= 3+ =

2 2

9 3

x = + =6

2 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, –3)

= −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

3π

2

y = −3 cos

= −3 cos

1 3π

⋅

3 2

π

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

1

y = −3 cos ⋅ 3π

3

3π

3π

,0

2

(3π , 3)

= −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

9π

2

y = −3 cos

= −3 cos

6π

y = −3 cos

1 9π

⋅

3 2

x

y=−

π

1

cos x

3

2

0

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅ 0

3

2

9π

,0

2

0, −

1

2

1

cos0

2

1

1

= − ⋅1 = −

2

2

=−

3π

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

1

⋅ 6π

3

coordinates

3

2

(6π , − 3)

y=−

π 3

1

cos ⋅

3 2

2

3

,0

2

π

1

cos

2

2

1

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

= −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

=−

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅3

3

2

3,

1

2

1

cos π

2

1

1

= − ⋅(−1) =

2

2

=−

9

2

π

1

cos x is of the form

3

2

π

1

y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the

3

2

1

1

= . The period is

amplitude is A = −

2

2

2π 2π

3

6 3

= π = 2π ⋅ = 6 . The quarter-period is = .

B

π

4 2

41. The equation y = −

y=−

1

π 9

cos ⋅

3 2

2

9

,0

2

3π

1

cos

2

2

1

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

=−

6

3

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅6

3

2

1

cos2π

2

1

1

= − ⋅1 = −

2

2

=−

**The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to
**

generate x-values for the key points.

564

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6, −

1

2

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=−

6

=−

y=−

8

1

π

cos ⋅6

4

2

(6, 0)

3π

1

1

cos

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

2

2

π

1

cos ⋅8

4

2

8, −

1

2

1

1

1

cos2π = − ⋅1 = −

2

2

2

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

=−

π

1

cos x is of the form

4

2

π

1

y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the

4

2

1

1

= . The period is

amplitude is A = −

2

2

2π 2π

4

8

= π = 2π ⋅ = 8 . The quarter-period is 4 = 2 .

B

π

42. The equation y = −

4

**The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
**

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

π⎞

⎛

43. The equation y = cos ⎜ x − ⎟ is of the form

2⎠

⎝

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

x = 0 +2 = 2

x= 2+ 2 = 4

π

x = 4 +2 = 6

C=

x = 6 +2 = 8

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

period is

x

y=−

1

π

cos x

2

4

0

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅ 0

4

2

=−

2

y=−

=−

4

=−

1

2

cycle begins at x =

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

2

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

(2, 0)

x=

π

1

1

cos = − ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

2

π

1

y = − cos ⋅ 4

4

2

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

B

1

2π π

C 2 π

=

= . The quarter-period is

= . The

4

2

B 1 2

1

1

1

cos0 = − ⋅1 = −

2

2

2

π

1

cos ⋅2

4

2

A = 1 = 1 . The

π

coordinates

0, −

. Thus, the amplitude is

2

π

2

π

2

+

x =π +

π

2

π

=π

=

3π

2

2

3π π

+ = 2π

x=

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1

4,

2

1

1

1

cos π = − ⋅ (−1) =

2

2

2

565

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

π

x

coordinates

π

2

⎛π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

x=−

π

(π , 0 )

x =0+

3π

2

⎛ 3π

⎞

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

⎝

⎠

2π

( 2π , 0 )

5π

2

⎛ 5π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

x=−

x=

2

period is

π

2

π

+

2

π

2

π

2

=

=0

π

2

=π

3π

=

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

. Thus, the amplitude is

π

x

coordinates

π

⎛ π ⎞

⎜ − 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

−

π⎞

⎛

44. The equation y = cos ⎜ x + ⎟ is of the form

2⎠

⎝

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

π

+

2

x =π +

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

C=−

2

π

2

0

( 0, 0 )

π

2

⎛π

⎞

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

⎝

⎠

π

(π , 0 )

3π

2

⎛ 3π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

A = 1 = 1 . The

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

B

1

π

−

2π π

C

π

= 2 = − . The quarter-period is

= . The

4

2

B

1

2

cycle begins at x = −

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

2

generate x-values for the key points.

566

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**45. The equation y = 3cos(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 3, and B = 2, and

**46. The equation y = 4 cos(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 4, and B = 2, and C = π .

Thus, the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. The period is

C π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The

B 2

B

2

**C = π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The
**

C π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= .

period is

B 2

B

2

The quarter-period is

π

. The cycle begins at x =

π

4

2

Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=

x=

π

x=

2

π

+

π

=

π

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add
**

4

2

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

quarter-period is

.

π

2

π 3π

+ =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4 4

2

3π

4

x=

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4 4

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

**Evaluate the function at each value of x.
**

x

coordinates

π

π

2

2

x

,3

coordinates

π

π

2

2

,4

3π

4

3π

,0

4

3π

4

3π

,0

4

π

(π , − 3)

π

(π , − 4)

5π

4

5π

,0

4

5π

4

5π

,0

4

3π

2

3π

,4

2

3π

2

3π

,3

2

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

567

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

47.

1

1

π

π

= cos 3x − −

cos 3x +

2

2

2

2

y=

The equation y =

1

π

cos 3x − −

2

2

is of the form

1

, and B = 3, and

2

1

1

π

= . The

C = − . Thus, the amplitude is A =

2

2

2

2π 2π

=

. The phase shift is

period is

B

3

π

π 1

π

C −2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is

3

2 3

6

B

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A =

π

1

1

cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π ))

2

2

1

The equation y = cos(2 x − (−π )) is of the form

2

1

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = , and B = 2, and

2

1

1

C = −π . Thus, the amplitude is A =

= . The

2

2

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

period is

B

2

C −π

π

π

=

= − . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2

2

4

6

begins at x = −

48.

2π

3

π

2π 1 π

=

⋅ = . The cycle begins at x = − . Add

4

3 4 6

6

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

x=−

π

6

π

6

x=0+

π

x=

6

π

x=

+

+

π

+

=0

6

π

=

6

π

6

π

=

=

−

π

6

3

π

x=−

0

x=−

π 1

,

6 2

π

6

6

,−

π

π

3

3

π

2

π

2

π

4

x=0+

(0, 0)

π

π

x=−

coordinates

−

π

**. Add quarter-periods to generate x2
**

values for the key points.

π

3 6 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y=

x=

π

+

+

π

4

π

π

4

π

4

=

=−

π

4

=0

π

4

π

+ =

4 4 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1

2

,0

π 1

,

2 2

2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function

568

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x

−

−

π

2

π

4

Section 4.5

49. The equation y = −3 cos 2x −

−

−

π 1

,

2 2

π

4

B = 2, and C =

,0

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −3 = 3. The period is

π

0

1

0, −

2

π

π

4

4

π 1

2

,

. The cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter4

4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

,0

2

π

2π 2π

=

= π . The

B

2

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period

B 2 2 2 4

phase shift is

is

π

π

**is of the form
**

2

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –3, and

coordinates

x=

2

x=

π

4

π

π

π

x

4

=

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

4

+

π

coordinates

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −3

,0

3π

4

3π

,3

4

π

(π , 0)

5π

4

5π

, −3

4

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

569

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

50. The equation y = −4 cos 2x −

π

51.

is of the form

2

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –4, and B = 2, and

C=

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 .

The period is

π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

B

2

π

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period is . The

4

B 2 2 2 4

cycle begins at x =

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

x=

π

4

π

4

+

π

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

x

4

=

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −4

3π

,4

4

π

(π , 0)

5π

4

5π

, −4

4

coordinates

–4

(–4, 2)

15

4

−

7

2

7

− , −2

2

13

4

−

−

,0

3π

4

x

−

coordinates

π

**y = 2 cos(2π x + 8π ) = 2 cos(2πx − (−8π ))
**

The equation y = 2 cos(2π x − (−8π )) is of the form

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 2, B = 2π , and C = −8π .

Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2. The period is

C −8π

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

=

= −4 . The

B 2π

B 2π

1

quarter-period is . The cycle begins at x = –4. Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x = −4

1

15

x = −4 + = −

4

4

15 1

7

x=− + =−

4 4

2

7 1

13

x=− + =−

2 4

4

13 1

x = − + = −3

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

−

–3

15

,0

4

13

,0

4

(–3, 2)

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
**

and graph one complete cycle of the given function.

570

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

52.

Section 4.5

**y = 3cos(2πx + 4 π ) = 3 cos(2πx − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = 3cos(2πx − (−4π )) is of the form

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 3, and B = 2π , and

C = −4π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

1

C −4π

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

4

B 2π

begins at x = –2. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

1

7

x = −2 + = −

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

–2

**53. The graph of y = sin x + 2 is the graph of y = sin x
**

shifted up 2 units upward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

x

y = sin x + 2

coordinates

0

y = sin 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

(0, 2)

coordinates

π

(–2, 3)

2

7

,0

4

π

y = sin π + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

3π

2

y = sin

2π

y = sin 2π + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

−

7

4

−

−

3

2

3

− , −3

2

−

5

4

−

5π

,0

4

–1

(–1, 3)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

+2

2

=1 +2 = 3

y = sin

3π

+2

2

= −1 + 2 = 1

π

2

,3

(π , 2)

3π

,1

2

(2 π , 2 )

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

571

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

54. The graph of y = sin x − 2 is the graph of y = sin x

shifted 2 units downward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

**55. The graph of y = cos x − 3 is the graph of y = cos x
**

shifted 3 units downward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

π

x=0+

2

=π

=

x=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y = sin x − 2

0

y = sin 0 − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

2

y = sin

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

y = sin π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

3π

2

y = sin

2π

y = sin 2π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

3π

− 2 = −1 − 2 = −3

2

π

2

π

2

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

x=

coordinates

− 2 = 1 − 2 = −1

2

=

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

π

π

π

(0, –2)

π

4

, −1

x

y = cos x − 3

coordinates

0

y = cos 0 − 3

= 1 − 3 = −2

(0, –2)

π

y = cos

π

−3

2

= 0 − 3 = −3

(π , − 2)

2

3π

, −3

2

π

y = cos π − 3

= −1 − 3 = − 4

3π

2

y = cos

2π

y = cos2 π − 3

= 1 − 3 = −2

(2 π , − 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

3π

−3

2

= 0 − 3 = −3

π

2

, −3

(π , − 4)

3π

, −3

2

(2 π , − 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

572

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

**56. The graph of y = cos x + 3 is the graph of y = cos x
**

shifted 3 units upward. The period for both functions

2π

π

is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The cycle

4

2

begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

π

2

=π

=

x

y = 2sin

0

y = 2sin

3π

2

x

y = cos x + 3

0

y = cos 0 + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

2

(0, 1)

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

y = cos

1

⋅0 +1

2

coordinates

= 2sin 0 + 1

x=

π

1

x +1

2

π

2

π

= 2sin

(0, 4)

π

2

2π

,3

π

y = cos π + 3 = −1 + 3 = 2

(π , 2)

3π

2

y = cos

3π

+3 = 0 + 3 = 3

2

3π

,3

2

2π

y = cos2 π + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

(2 π , 4)

1

⋅π + 1

2

(π , 3)

π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

coordinates

+3 = 0+ 3= 3

y = 2sin

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 2π + 1

2

(2 π , 1)

= 2sin π + 1

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 3π + 1

2

(3π , − 1)

3π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1

= −2 + 1 = −1

= 2sin

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

4π

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 4π + 1

2

(4π , 1)

= 2sin 2π + 1

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we

obtain one period of the graph.

1

**57. The graph of y = 2sin 2 x + 1 is the graph
**

1

**of y = 2sin 2 x shifted one unit upward. The
**

amplitude for both functions is 2 = 2. The period

2π

for both functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter2

4π

period is

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

573

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

1

58. The graph of y = 2 cos x + 1 is the graph of

2

1

y = 2 cos x shifted one unit upward. The amplitude

2

for both functions is 2 = 2. The period for both

2π

functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter-period is

2

4π

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

1

y = 2 cos x + 1

2

0

y = 2 cos

1

⋅0 +1

2

**59. The graph of y = −3 cos2 πx + 2 is the graph of
**

y = −3 cos2 πx shifted 2 units upward. The amplitude

for both functions is −3 = 3. The period for both

1

2π

= 1. The quarter-period is . The

functions is

4

2π

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

coordinates

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, 3)

= 2 cos0 + 1

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

π

y = 2 cos

= 2 cos

1

⋅π + 1

2

(π , 1)

π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

2π

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 2π + 1

2

x

y = −3 cos2 πx + 2

0

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 0) + 2

= −3 cos 0 + 2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2

= −3 + 2 = −1

(2 π , − 1)

= 2 cos π + 1

= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1 = − 2 + 1 = −1

3π

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 3π + 1

2

1

4

(3π , 1)

= −3 cos

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 4π + 1

2

π

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

4π

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

(4π , 3)

1

2

= 2 cos2π + 1

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

1

+2

4

coordinates

(0, –1)

1

,2

4

+2

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

1

+2

2

= −3 cos π + 2

= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2

= 3 +2 = 5

574

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1

,5

2

PreCalculus 4E

3

4

Section 4.5

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

3

+2

4

3

,2

4

3π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

x

y = −3sin 2πx + 2

0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) + 2

= −3sin 0 + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

= −3 cos

1

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 1) + 2

= −3 cos2 π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2

= −3 + 2 = −1

1

4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

(1, –1)

= −3sin

1

+2

4

coordinates

(0, 2)

1

, −1

4

π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2 = −3 + 2 = −1

1

2

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

1

+2

2

1

,2

2

= −3sin π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

3

4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

3

+2

4

3

,5

4

3π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5

= −3sin

1

**60. The graph of y = −3sin 2πx + 2 is the graph of
**

y = −3 sin 2πx shifted two units upward. The

amplitude for both functions is A = −3 = 3. The

2π

= 1. The quarterperiod for both functions is

2π

1

period is . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter–

4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 1) + 2

= −3sin 2π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

(1, 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

**61. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 ,
**

The period is 4π and thus

2π

2π 1

B=

=

=

period 4π 2

y = A cos Bx

y = 3cos

1

x

2

575

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

**62. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 , The
**

period is 4π and thus

2π

2π 1

=

=

B=

period 4π 2

y = A sin Bx

y = 3sin

67.

1

x

2

**63. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,
**

The period is π and thus

2π

2π

=

=2

B=

period π

y = A sin Bx

68.

y = −2sin 2 x

64. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,

The period is 4π and thus

2π

2π

=

=2

B=

period π

y = A cos Bx

69.

y = −2cos 2 x

65. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 , The

period is 4 and thus

2π

2π π

=

=

B=

period

4

2

70.

y = A sin Bx

⎛π

y = 2sin ⎜

⎝2

⎞

x⎟

⎠

**66. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 ,
**

The period is 4 and thus

2π

2π π

=

=

B=

period

4

2

y = A cos Bx

71.

⎛π ⎞

y = 2 cos ⎜ x ⎟

⎝2 ⎠

72.

576

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

. 10) corresponds to December. (9. Answers may vary. (12. The period is c. 75. In the month of February. The period of the emotional cycle is 28 days. (6. 14) corresponds to June. (0. The period of the physical cycle is 33 days. The information gives the five key point of the graph. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 76. 14) corresponds to June By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph the information from June of one year to June of the following year.M. B 2π 365 y = 15 There will be 15 hours of daylight.. Thus. 38) corresponds to 9 P. 23) corresponds to Noon. 365 2π 2π 365 = 2π = 2π ⋅ = 365 . 23) corresponds to Midnight. In the month of February. the author should not run in a marathon on February 18. Answers may vary. 2π y = 3sin ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(1) + 12 81. Inc. because the emotional cycle is at a maximum. (9. March 21 would be the best day to meet an on-line friend for the first time. (3. This occurs when the sine function equals 1. 38) corresponds to 3 P. the physical cycle is at a minimum on February 18. This occurs when the sine function equals –1. (0. the author should begin writing the on February 11.M. 77. 79. The longest day of the year will have the most hours of daylight. 73. (6.5 84. A = 3 and B = 80. 12) corresponds to September. The shortest day of the year will have the least hours of daylight. The function y = 3sin 78. 83. 82. The information gives the five key points of the graph. d. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 is of the form 365 C⎞ ⎛ y = A sin B ⎜ x − ⎟ + D with B⎠ ⎝ 85. (12. 53) corresponds to 6 P. Extend the graph one cycle to the right to graph the information for 0 ≤ x ≤ 24. . In the month of March. the intellectual cycle is at a maximum on February 11. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(−1) + 12 y = 3sin y=9 There will be 9 hours of daylight. 12) corresponds to March.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 74. By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph information from noon to midnight. Thus.M. 2π . The period of the intellectual cycle is 23 days. A = 3 = 3. (3.. The amplitude is b. 577 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

The amplitude is A = 16 = 16 .25 + 91. 3 2π 2π 6 The period is = π = 2π ⋅ = 12 .25 x = 170. The cycle begins at x = 4. (0. 24) (4. the curve oscillates about the middle value.5 + 91.25 = 352. Add 4 quarter-periods to find the x-values of the key points. or 12 hours. 40) (7. x=4 The amplitude is 3. 15) (261. . 9 feet. πx 6 +9.1) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain the graph for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . Thus.07) (79.25 . The depth of the water is modeled by y = 3cos 2π 6 = ⋅ = 4 . 56) (10. B = π 6 . D = 9. Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 6 feet to a maximum of 12 feet. 578 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Using a calculator we have the following points. 26. Inc. The period is 12. Thus.Trigonometric Functions e. 9) (365. The quarter-period is B 365 = 91. 2π . (1.5. x = 4+3 = 7 x = 7 + 3 = 10 x = 10 + 3 = 13 x = 13 + 3 = 16 Because we are graphing for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . The period is 365.25. The function y = 16 sin ⎜ x − 3 ⎝6 87. we will evaluate the function for the first four xvalues along with x = 0 and x = 365. 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π ⎞ ⎟ + 40 is in the ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) + D with A = 16.25 = 170. The highest average monthly temperature is 56° in July.75. The cycle begins at x = 79. Using a calculator we have the following points. 40) (12.25 = 261. The C phase shift is = 79 . Thus. x = 79 x = 79 + 91. starting on January 1. 2π ⎛π 86. 9. 9.75 + 91. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12-0. we will evaluate the function for the three x-values between 1 and 12. A = 3.07) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain one period of the graph. Publishing as Prentice Hall.75 x = 352. The maximum depth of the water is 3 feet above 9 feet.5 x = 261. 12) (352. The phase B π 6 and C = C = shift is B 2π 3 π 6 B= 2π π = 12 6 Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D .25 = 444 Because we are graphing for 0 ≤ x ≤ 365 . Add quarter4 periods to find the x-values for the key points. The quarter-period is 3 π 12 = 3 . 12) (170. along with x = 1 and x = 12.

B = C = −π . The function y = −2 cos ⎜ 2π x − ⎟ is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx − C ) with A = –2.2 sin ⎜ x + π ⎟ = 0. We choose B π 10 −10 ≤ x ≤ 30 .2 = 0. 4 feet. The function y = 3sin(2 x + π ) = 3sin(2 x − (−π )) is of 104. The cycle begins B π 10 C −π 10 = π = −π ⋅ = −10 . The cycle begins at x = = . The amplitude is period is 2π π = 12 6 at x = πx 6 2π 2π 10 = π = 2π ⋅ = 20 . and B 2 2 2 2 −4 ≤ y ≤ 4 for our graph. Thus. 101. The period is 105. The amplitude is period is A = 3 = 3 . B = 2. and A = 3 = 3 . Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . The function ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ y = 0. 4 4 B 2π 2 2π 4 and −3 ≤ y ≤ 3 for our graph. B = 2.2 . 89.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. A = −2 = 2 . The +4. and C= π 2 . and 10 A = 0.2sin ⎜ x − (−π ) ⎟ is of the ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 0. Thus. the graph has a vertical shift 5 units π 5π . Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 3 feet to a maximum of 5 feet.5 88. Thus. period is C π 2π 2π = = π .2. D = 4. The maximum depth of the water is 1 foot above 4 feet. The cycle begins at B 2π π C π 1 1 1 9 = 2 = ⋅ = . and −1 ≤ y ≤ 1 for our graph. and C = −π . The amplitude is 2π 2π = = π . The cycle begins at B 2 C −π π π 3π x= = = − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. and 0 ≤ y ≤ 10 for upward. B = 2π . The function y = 3sin(2 x − π ) + 5 is of the form the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 3. The D = 5. The depth of the water is modeled by y = cos π . π⎞ ⎛ 102. Inc. C = π . Answers may vary. The 2π 2π = = 1 . 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π B= 103. A = 1. The period is 12. or 12 hours. B 2 B 2 Because D = 5. . We choose ≤ x ≤ . – 100. We choose ≤ x ≤ 2 2 our graph. We choose − ≤ x ≤ . The amplitude is y = A cos( Bx − C ) + D with A = 3. the curve oscillates about the middle value. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. π 2 to π 2 . The graphs appear to be the same from − x= 579 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

a. b. does not make sense.50 x − 2. −1.1. 116.1] The graph is similar to y = sin x . A = π 109. −1] ⎡ π 7π π ⎤ . except not smooth.17 y = π cos(2π x + 4π ) or y = π cos [ 2π ( x + 2) ] 580 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Trigonometric Functions 110.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . Answers may vary. makes sense 115. the maximum will occur at 3 − 2 = 1 and the minimum will occur at −3 − 2 = −5 . ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ The graph is very similar to y = sin x . ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ 108. 113. ⎥ by [ −5. . Since A = 3 and D = −2. 106. except the amplitude is greater and the curve is less smooth.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . the maximum will occur at 1 − 2 = −1 and the minimum will occur at −1 − 2 = −3 . Explanations will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. makes sense 107. ⎡ π 23π π ⎤ . B= 2π 2π = = 2π period 1 C C = = −2 B 2π C = −4π y = A cos( Bx − C ) y = 22. ⎥ by [ −3. 114. Thus the range is [ −3. . Since A = 1 and D = −2. 111.04) + 57. makes sense The graphs appear to be the same from − π 2 to π 2 112.61sin(0. Thus the range is [ −5. Inc. Sample explanation: It may be easier to start at the highest point. b.

⎟ < x < ⎬ or ⎜ − ⎨x − 4 4 ⎝ 4 4⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 581 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 3π π 2π π + − − 4 4 = 4 = 2 = −π 2 2 2 4 122.5 117. 1 1 118. a. y = sin 2 x = 1 1 − cos 2 x 2 2 − 121. y = cos x = + cos 2 x 2 2 The reciprocal function is undefined. − 120. Answers may vary. b. − π 2 − π π 2 < x+ < x+ π π 4 − < π π 2 < π − π 4 4 4 2 4 2π π 2π π − − <x< − 4 4 4 4 π 3π − <x< 4 4 ⎧ 3π π⎫ ⎛ 3π π ⎞ . 2 119. .

two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 . Midway between these asymptotes is x = 4 0. 0+π π x-intercept = = 2 2 582 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . An xintercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. and the points midway between to graph one period π 4 to π 4 and the graph passes through π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . Continue the pattern 2⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. 0). In order to graph for 3π <x< . Solve the equations x− π 2 =− x= π π and 2 π x− π 2 = π 2 π π x= + − 2 2 2 2 x=0 x =π Thus.Trigonometric Functions Section 4. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 1 Because the coefficient of the cotangent is . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. − π An x-intercept is π 3. x = 0 and x = π . to graph one full period of y = cot x . Solve the equations π 2 x = 0 and x=0 π 2 x =π x= π π 2 2. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − . The 2 2 curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. ⎝ ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. 0). x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. to graph one full period of π Thus. 4 π of y = 3 tan 2 x from − 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ 2 . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. x = 0 and x 2 1 π = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ⎟ .6 Check Point Exercises 1. Solve the equations 2 x = − x= − π and 2 π 2x = x= 4 and x = 2 π 4 π . Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. the x-intercept. Inc. Use the two asymptotes. An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Midway between x = 0 and x = 2 is x = 1.

π 2 . from to 0 is − units. ⎜ . Use the first four points graph for − 4 4 3π units to the left. and π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. ⎜ . 2 C C There is no phase shift. −2 ⎟ . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. amplitude: A = 2 = 2 C=− 2π 2π period: = =π B 2 π 2 The function with C = − π . ⎜ . C π π . . Section 4. Thus.6 π⎞ ⎛ The x-intercepts of y = sin ⎜ x + ⎟ correspond to 4⎠ ⎝ Exercise Set 4. The graph has an asymptote at π . and use them as guides to graph y = 2sec 2 x . 2 2 B C C = = −π B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = tan( x + π ) . . Inc. . 2). the x-values are π π 3π 0. 5. = =0 B 1 C =0 The function with C = 0 is y = − tan x . π π⎞ ⎛ is y = tan ⎜ x + ⎟ . from to − is −π units. 2. y = 2 cos 2 x . Use quarter-periods. 2 2 B C C π = =− 2 B 1 3. Use the and extend the graph − 4 graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Thus.PreCalculus 4E 4. . to find x-values for the five 4 key points. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 2. . The graph has an asymptote at x = − The phase shift. (π . 583 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2) . Thus. 2⎠ ⎝ 4. C π π The phase shift. Starting with x = 0. 0 ⎟ . The graph has an asymptote at x = 0 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 2⎠ ⎝ The graph has an asymptote at x = π . π= C= π 2 +C π 2 π⎞ ⎛ The function is y = − tan ⎜ x − ⎟ . Evaluating the function at each 4 2 4 value of x. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 0 ⎟ . In order to 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 3π 3π ≤x≤ . 4⎠ ⎝ 1.6 π⎞ ⎛ vertical asymptotes of y = csc ⎜ x + ⎟ .

Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. π Solve the equations π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. x from −2π to 4 2π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 4 . Inc. 584 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. − π π to . the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 7. π 4 and 2 x = x= x= π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0). . x = −2π and x = 2π . to graph one full period of y = 3 tan from 4 −2π to 2π . Solve the equations 2 x = − π 2 − π2 x= 2 x=− Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. x = − and 4 2 π 1 x = . x = −2π and x x = 2π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is .Trigonometric Functions 5. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ Solve the equations x = ⎜ − ⎟ 4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. 1 0). Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. to graph one full period of y = tan 2 x from 2 4 x-intercept = 6. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. 0).

Section 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the coefficient of the tangent is –2. −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. 0).6 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. x = −π and 1 x = π . to graph one full 1 period of y = −3 tan x from −π to π . to graph one full period of y = −2 tan x 2 from −π to π . x = − x= − π π 4 π 4 10. x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0). the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . 0). Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Solve the equations 2x = − x= π and 2 x = 2 −2 2 π x=− x= π x= 4 π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. 9. Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− x= and 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x =π Thus. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− and x= 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x=π Thus. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. Inc. to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 2 x from π to . x = −π and x = π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 π 4 . and . −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 585 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . 4 4 Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Continue 2 the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right.PreCalculus 4E 8. − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. . Because the coefficient of the tangent is –3.

Continue the pattern 4⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. There is no phase shift. Continue the pattern y = tan( x − π ) from 2 2 and extend the graph another full period to the right. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. C π π . 3π . 0 ⎟ . x = − π 2 + 32π 42π 4π = = =π 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π and the graph passes through (π . The graph has an asymptote at 12. 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 π 2 and 1. to graph one full period of and x = 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . B 1 2 π Thus. C C = =0 B 1 C =0 Because the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. from 0 to is units. B 2 2 C C π = = Thus. Thus. x = π 4 3π . An x-intercept is π π 2 Thus. and x = 2 x-intercept = 4 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ .Trigonometric Functions 11. to graph one full period of 2 π 3π to . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = and the graph passes through and 1. Inc. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. and x = 13. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − π C= π 2 The function with C = π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = − cot ⎜ x − ⎟ . 4 − x-intercept = π 4 2 . Solve the equations x− π 4 =− π and 2 2π π + x=− 4 4 x=− π 4 x− π 4 = 2 2π π + x= 4 4 3π x= 4 3π and x = . 0) . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. The phase shift. ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 2 π +π 2 3π x= 2 x= π π 2 3π . Solve the equations x −π = − x=− x= π and 2 π 2 +π x −π = 13. The function with C = 0 and A = –1 is y = − cot x . A = –1. 2⎠ ⎝ 4 3π 2π 4 = 4 =π 2 2 4 + 586 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use the two consecutive asymptotes.

PreCalculus 4E Section 4. C . 0 ⎟ . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. x = 0 and x = π . . 0 ⎟ . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. The graph has an asymptote at −π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0 +π π x-intercept = = 2 2 . B C C = = −π Thus. from 0 to −π is −π units. The phase shift. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 1 . Two An x-intercept is 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . x-intercept = π and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . The phase shift. Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π . 2 C π π C C π = =− . to graph one full period of y = cot x . 2 2⎠ ⎝ An x-intercept is 0+π π = 2 2 2 1 2 1 and − . 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. 587 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the points on the graph midway between an x2 16. x = 0 2 1 and x = π . The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. B 1 2 B 2 2 C=− The function with C = − π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . from 0 to − is − units. Thus. Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . to graph one full period of y = 2 cot x . The graph has an asymptote at − π 18. π and the graph passes through intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 17.6 15. B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = cot( x + π ) .

to graph one full period of y = −3cot π x . Inc. 0 ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The curve is repeated along the x-axis 2 one full period as shown. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 1 . x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . 0 ⎟ . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is –3. Solve the equations 2 x = 0 and x=0 2x = π x= The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Solve the equations π 2 x=0 x=0 and π 2 x =π x= π π 2 1 intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 1 and − . to graph one full period of y = cot 2 x . x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . x = 0 2 π 1 and x = . 2 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. the points on the graph midway between an x2 21. x = 0 and x = 2. x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. 588 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 2. Solve the equations 2 x = 0 x=0 and 2x = π x= π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 .Trigonometric Functions 19. 0+2 2 x-intercept = = =1 2 2 An x-intercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. 20. x = 0 and x = π 2 . 0). to graph one full period of y = 2 cot 2 x .

6 22. 2 2⎠ ⎝ 589 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Inc. − π2 + π2 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. Solve the equations π π and 2 π π⎞ ⎛ x = . 4 x-intercept = 23. 0). to graph one full period of 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . 0 ) . x = − π 4 3π and x = . x =π x= π π 4 x=4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 4. Solve the equations π 4 π x = 0 and 4 x=0 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. Solve the equations x+ π 4 =0 and x =0− x . x = 0 and x = 4 . to graph one full period of y = −2cot π 24. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. The curve is repeated along the x4⎠ ⎝ axis one full period as shown. to graph one full period of y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is – 2. x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = − 2 2 π 2 and . The curve is repeated along the x- x=− 4 axis one full period as shown. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 3. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0+4 4 x-intercept = = =2 2 2 An x-intercept is 2 and the graph passes through ( 2. 0 ⎟ .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. x+ π π 4 =π x =π − 4 π π 4 3π x= 4 4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π 2 =0 and x =0− x=− π 2 π 2 x+ π 2 x= π π 2 4 and the graph passes through and –3. . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 =π x =π − and − π4 + 34π 24π π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is x+ 4 3π .

and use them as guides to graph y = 3csc x . Draw the 2 2 vertical asymptotes. (π . The x-intercepts of y = −3cos π 2 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = −3sec π x . The x-intercepts of y = − sin corresponds to 2 2 1 x vertical asymptotes of y = − csc . y = 3sin x . ⎜ . and 2π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0). . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 0). 26. 2 2 28. and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = −3sec 29. Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. The x-intercepts of y = 3sin 4 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = 3csc 4 x . Draw the vertical asymptotes. The x-intercepts of y = 590 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. to find x-values for the 2 five key points. amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = 3csc 4 x . Use ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ these key points to graph y = 3sin x from 0 to 2π . Inc. π . 2 27. − 3 ⎟ . and use them as a guide to 1 sketch the graph of y = sec 2π x . . 0) . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 3 and B = 1. π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 3 ⎟ . Evaluating the function at 0. π 2 x. 2 2 each value of x. Starting with x = 0.Trigonometric Functions 1 x 25. 1 cos 2π x corresponds to 2 1 vertical asymptotes of y = sec 2π x . Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. the x-values are π 3π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. and (2π . and use them as a guide to 1 x sketch the graph of y = − csc . the key points are (0. ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ .

The 2 4 3 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ π . − 2 ⎟ .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. π . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. Graph the reciprocal sine function. 2 4 591 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. to find x-values for the five key points. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. y = 2sin x . The Extend the graph one cycle to the right. − ⎟ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. π . . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. y = Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Graph the reciprocal sine function. − ⎟ . the key points are (0. 6π . and (8π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. the x-values are 0. 2 2 31. and 4π . Evaluating the function at each value of x. Inc. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Use these key points to graph y = 2sin x from 0 to 2π . 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 x Use these key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 2 4 8π . 2π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 0) . Evaluating the function at each value of x. Starting with x = 0. 0) . 3π . 0). 0). ⎜ 2π . ⎜ 6π . Use these 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 4π . ⎟ . (4π . π . and (4π . ⎜ . 0). ⎜ 3π . 2 1 1 amplitude: A = = 2 2 2π 2π period: = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. . 4π . The 2 2 1 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . 3 x sin . 0). ⎟ . ⎜ . 0) . and use 1 x them as guides to graph y = csc . to find x-values for the five key points. 2π . y = 1 x sin . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0). the key points are 3⎞ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎛ (0. (2π . and (2π . the x-values are 0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. .6 30. Starting with x = 0. (π . 2 2 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. 4 3 3 = amplitude: A = 2 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π period: B 4 Use quarter-periods. and 2π . 0). 2 ⎟ . the x-values are π 3π 0. and use them as guides to graph 3 x y = csc . and use them as guides to graph y = 2cscx. 32. and 8π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Starting with x = 0. 2π . π .

(2π . the x-values are 0. 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. π . the x-values are π 3π 0. and 2π . − 1). Use these key (3π . amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. Evaluating the function at each value 2 2 ⎛π ⎞ of x. π 3π . the x-values 3π 9π . ⎜ . 3). and 6π . 0 ⎟ . 1). Extend the graph one cycle to the right. and use them as x guides to graph y = sec . ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 592 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Starting with x = 0. 0 ⎟ . π . . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. y = 3cos x . Starting with x = 0. ⎝2 ⎠ 3 π ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . Extend the 3 graph one cycle to the right. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 9π ⎞ . ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ x points to graph y = cos from 0 to 6π .Trigonometric Functions 33. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. to find x-values for the five 2 key points. . − 3). Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. (π . 3 amplitude: B= period: A = 1 =1 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 3 = 6π B 3 6π 3π = . π. 2) . 0 ⎟ . π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 3) . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Starting with x = 0. . ⎜ . 2 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ at each value of x. − 2). to find x-values for the five 2 key points. (π . x 35. Evaluating the function are 0. 3π . . and use them as guides to graph y = 3sec x . 1) . 0 ⎟ . the key points are (0. Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. 2). The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 3 and B = 1 . . ⎜ . and (2π . y = cos . 0 ⎟ . 2π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. to find x-values for 4 2 the five key points. y = 2 cos x . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Inc. 0 ⎟ . the key points are (0. amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: Use these key points to graph y = 3cos x from 0 to 2π . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec x . and (6π . 34. The 3 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . ⎜ . 3 Use quarter-periods. Use these key points to ⎝ 2 ⎠ graph y = 2 cos x from 0 to 2π .

⎜ . (1. (π . to find 4 2 x-values for the five key points. Evaluating the function at each value of x. to find x-values for the five key points. − ⎟ . Evaluating the 2 2 function at each value of x. 2π . 2 A=− Use these key points to graph y = cos 1 and B = π . and use them as guides to graph y = −2 csc π x . 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. Graph the reciprocal sine function. 0). and 2. 1 and use them as guides to graph y = − csc π x . and 2 . 3π . and (2. π . Inc.6 Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ . (1. x and use them as guides to graph y = sec . . − 2 ⎟ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. the x-values are 1 3 0. ⎟ . 0) . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 37. Starting with x = 0. 0 ) . (2π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. and (4π . the x-values are 0. 0). 0). ⎜ . ⎜ . 2 The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with x from 0 to 2 4π . ( 3π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 1. 593 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use quarter-periods. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. . 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 B= 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. period: 1 38. Starting with x = 0. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. The 2 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . 1) . the key points are 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎛3 1⎞ (0. the key points are (0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Starting with x = 0. . π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . amplitude: A = −2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . . 2 amplitude: A = − period: 1 1 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. and 4π . 0). − 1). and (2. Use these key 2 ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ points to graph y = −2sin π x from 0 to 2. y = −2sin π x . y = cos . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 ⎟ . y = − sin π x . 0 ) . 1 3 the x-values are 0. 1). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) . 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎝2 2⎠ 1 Use these key points to graph y = − sin π x from 0 2 to 2 . x 36. the key points are (0. 2 Use quarter-periods. .

. ⎜1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ⎟ . Inc. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A=− 3 40. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x.Trigonometric Functions 1 39. and 2 . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 1. Use quarter-periods. 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ . 594 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 3 and use them as guides to graph y = − sec π x . − ⎟ . Evaluating the function at each 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ value of x. ⎜ . ⎜ . 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with 1 and B = π . 1. . Starting with x = 0. 0 ⎟ . − ⎟ . 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 Use these key points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 2 to 2 . 0 ⎟ . Use these key 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 to 2. ⎜ 2. y = − cos π x . 2 Use quarter-periods. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. ⎜1. 2 amplitude: A = − 2π 2π = =2 B π period: 2 1 = . . y = − cos π x . the key points are ⎜ 0. 0 ⎟ . ⎟ . the key points are 3⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0. and use them as guides to graph 1 y = − sec π x . ⎜ 2. ⎜ . Starting with x = 0. Extend 2 the graph one cycle to the right. ⎟ . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. and 2. − ⎟ . 2 3 3 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . the x-values are 1 3 0. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 2 amplitude: period: A = − A=− 1 1 = 2 2 3 and B = π . − ⎟ . . the x-values are 1 3 0. Graph the reciprocal cosine function.

Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2 2 Evaluating the function at each value of x. y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ . the x-values are π . 0 ⎟ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Use these key points to graph 2 ⎝ ⎠ y = sin( x − π ) from π to 3π . 0) . . and C = 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π = =π phase shift: B 1 2π π = . Starting with x = π π 2 . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 0 ⎟ . π 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 period: . − 1) . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . 4 2 x-values for the five key points. 1) . to find Use quarter-periods. . to find x-values for the five key points. the x-values are 3π 5π .6 41. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. and 3π . and . amplitude: A = 1 = 1 A = 1 . − 1⎟ . 3π 5π . the key ⎛ 3π ⎞ points are (π . and use them as guides to graph y = csc( x − π ) . 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 5π to . 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0 ⎟ . and ⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 2π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. 1⎟ . 2⎠ ⎝ . π. y = sin( x − π ) . 2π . 2⎠ ⎝ The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 1. 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π2 π = = phase shift: B 1 2 period: Use quarter-periods.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 0). (2π . π⎞ ⎛ 42. 595 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎜ . Graph the reciprocal sine function. ⎜ . and B = 1. 2π . B = 1 . Starting with x = π . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . (π . π 2 . Inc. Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. and C = π . (3π . and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = csc ⎜ x − ⎟ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 0).

. and π . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. . ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ − . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec( x + π ) . y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2. 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C − π2 π = =− phase shift: B 1 2 period: 596 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ) . and C=− π 2 . ⎜ . 2 amplitude: A = 2 = 2 46. 2). Extend the graph one cycle to the right. π 45. 2⎠ ⎝ 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C −π = = −π phase shift: B 1 2π π Use quarter-periods. and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 sec ⎜ x + ⎟ . − 2 ⎟ . Inc. y = 2 cos( x + π ) . = .Trigonometric Functions 43. 2) . ( 0. π . B = 1. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. ⎜ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. Starting with x = −π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. amplitude: . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 0. Starting with x = − A = 2 =2 period: are −π . 0 ) . and C = −π . ( 0. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. and (π . to find x-values for the five − π . 0 ⎟ . 44. The equation is of the form Use quarter-periods. The equation is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2 and B = 1 . the x-values are π 3π . 2 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . Evaluating the function 2 2 at each value of x. Use these ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ key points to graph y = 2 cos( x + π ) from −π to π . . the key points are ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ − . Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. the key points are (−π . ⎜ . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 3π − to . Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 2 ) . 2 ⎟ . 0. the x-values π 2 key points. and . − π π . π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ . (π .

50 49. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 56. and Ymax = 2 . x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. Ymin = −2 .79. 6. 0. . and Ymax = 2 .71.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 5. − 0.50 50. Use a graphing utility with y1 = tan x and y2 = −1 . Xmax = 2π . 48. 2. . Xmax = 2π .93. 53. For the window use Xmin = −2π . Xmax = 2π . Xmax = 2π . and Ymax = 2 . Ymin = −2 . Ymin = −2 . 57. 2. − 0. .36. x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. 3π π .28. 0. 5π π 3π 7π .93. π⎞ ⎛ y = ( f h ) ( x) = f (h( x)) = 2 sec ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 54. π⎞ ⎛ y = ( g h ) ( x) = g (h( x)) = −2 tan ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 55. x ≈ −6. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ cos x and y2 = 1 . Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ tan x and y2 = −1 . Inc. x=− 2 2 x ≈ −4. For the window use Xmin = −2π . Ymin = −2 . 5. For the window use Xmin = −2π . 58. 5π π 3π 7π . and Ymax = 2 . − . For the window use Xmin = −2π .28 597 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.36. x = −2π .79. 1. − .57 51. 2π 52.6 47. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ sin x and y2 = 1 .

2]. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. Use the cotangent function. and use ⎡ π π⎤ them as guides to graph d = 10sec x on ⎢ − . Inc. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. to graph y = 2 cot x for 0 < x < π . d sec x = 10 d = 10 sec x Graph the reciprocal cosine function. x = 0 and x = π . 10). ⎝2 ⎠ 2 . Use the two 1 1 consecutive asymptotes. 1. (Do not use the left hand side of the first period of the graph on [0. 4 4 − 14 + 14 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 12. In a right triangle the angle of elevation is one of the acute angles. and ⎜ . amplitude: A = 10 = 10 period: b. . y = 10 cos x . to 4 4 graph one full period of d = 12 tan 2π t . the secant function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎥ . continue the pattern and extend the graph to 2. two consecutive asymptotes occur at 1 1 x = − and x = . Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and d = 12 tan 2π t a. ⎣ 2 2⎦ 598 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.75. 0. 0 ⎟ . and 1. To graph on [0. and Connect these points with a smooth curve. then draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have ycoordinates of –12 and 12.Trigonometric Functions 59.75. d cot x = 2 d = 2 cot x Use the equations x = 0 and x = π . and the opposite leg is 2 mi. and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Solve the equations 2π t = − π and 2π t = x = π . 0 ⎟ . For − π 2 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 <x< π 2 .25. The beam is shining parallel to the wall at these times. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 10 and B = 1. π π to 2 ⎛π ⎞ (0. 0 ⎟ . Midway between x = 0 and x = π is x = π 2 2 π − π2 t= t= 2 2π 2π 1 1 t=− t= 4 4 Thus. 61. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 60. π π The function is undefined for t = 0.25. the adjacent leg is the distance d. 2]. use the x-values − ⎛ π ⎞ find the key points ⎜ − . Use the function that relates the acute angle with the hypotenuse and the adjacent leg. 0). x = − and x = . 0. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2.) An x-intercept is 2 2 .

period: π B = π 1 4 Graph y = tan = π ⋅ 4 = 4π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 8π .82 . Solve the equations π x +1 = − πx= − x= 78. period: π B = π and π x + 1 = 2 π −1 2 −π 2 −1 π −π − 2 x= 2π π 4 Graph y = tan 4 x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π 2 x ≈ −0.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.2 . 63. 2 599 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.18 B Thus. Answers may vary.82 ≤ x ≤ 1. and graph for −0. – 76. 2 64. period: π 80. 4 82. we include −0. period: π = π =1 π πx = x= x= π 2 π 2 π 2 −1 −1 π π −2 2π x ≈ 0.18 in our graph of 1 y = tan(π x + 1) . 2 65. .85 ≤ x ≤ 1. 81. period: π B Graph y = = π =1 π 1 tan π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 . 77. Graphs will vary. period: π = π B 2 Graph y = cot 2 x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π . 79. B = π 1 2 Graph y = cot = π ⋅ 2 = 2π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 4π . Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 62. Graphs will vary.

88. . 3 C = 0. 2 B= 600 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. you can use a sine graph. Sample explanation: To obtain a cosecant graph. 87. Inc. 85. use sine or cosine. makes sense 91. 84. does not make sense. Thus. The oscillation is faster as x gets closer to 0. A = 1. Thus. we include y = sin 25π in our graph. Explanations will vary. 2 86. 3 3 3 π 2π = B 3 2π B = 3π 2π 2π = =2 B π C π6 π 1 1 = = ⋅ = phase shift: B π 6 π 6 1 25 in our graph. 92. period: 2π 2π = =π B 2 C π6 π phase shift: = = B 2 12 π ≤x≤ 12 5π graph for 0 ≤ x ≤ . and 12 89. we include ≤ x ≤ 6 6 9 for 0 ≤ x ≤ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 93. Thus. period: 3π 3 = 2π 2 The points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 1 and –1. does not make sense. makes sense 90. An equation for this graph is y = cot x . and graph Thus. 2 1 x The graph is oscillating between 1 and –1. Explanations will vary. period: Thus. but over all the concentration increased from 1990 to 2008. 2π 2π 3 = π = 2π ⋅ = 6 B π 3 Graph the functions for 0 ≤ x ≤ 12 .Trigonometric Functions 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Graph the functions for 0 ≤ x ≤ 8π . Sample explanation: To model a cyclical temperature. The period is −0 = . There is no phase shift. Explanations may vary. 83. period: The graph shows that carbon dioxide concentration rises and falls each year. The graph has the shape of a cotangent function with consecutive asymptotes at 2π 2π 2π x = 0 and x =