PRECALCULUS 4E

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra..................................................... 1

Chapter 1

Functions and Graphs............................................................................................. 126

Chapter 2

Polynomial and Rational Functions ....................................................................... 256

Chapter 3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ................................................................ 411

Chapter 4

Trigonometric Functions........................................................................................ 489

Chapter 5

Analytic Trigonometry........................................................................................... 663

Chapter 6

Additional Topics in Trigonometry ....................................................................... 780

Chapter 7

Systems of Equations and Inequalities................................................................... 944

Chapter 8

Matrices and Determinants .................................................................................. 1076

Chapter 9

Conic Sections and Analytic Geometry ............................................................... 1181

Chapter 10

Sequences, Induction, and Probability................................................................. 1297

Chapter 11

Introduction to Calculus....................................................................................... 1393

iii

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Section P.1

Check Point Exercises

1.

6.

8 + 6( x − 3) 2 = 8 + 6(13 − 3) 2

a.

**Because 2 ≈ 1.4, the number inside the
**

absolute value bars is negative. The absolute

value of x when x < 0 is –x. Thus,

= 8 + 6(10) 2

= 8 + 6(100)

= 8 + 600

= 608

2.

(

b.

**Since 2010 is 10 years after 2000, substitute 10 for x.
**

= 17(10)2 + 261(10) + 3257

= 7567

If trends continue, the tuition and fees will be $7567

5.

**The elements common to {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} and
**

{3, 7, 8, 9} are 3 and 7.

{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∩ {3,7,8,9} = {3, 7}

c.

**The union is the set containing all the elements of
**

either set.

{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∪ {3, 7,8,9} = {3, 4,5, 6, 7,8,9}

π

⎧

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,

2

⎩

9,

x

x

Because x > 0,

Thus,

7.

⎫

10 ⎬

⎭

9 because

π −3

Because π ≈ 3.14, the number inside the

absolute value bars is positive. The absolute

value of a positive number is the number itself.

Thus,

π − 3 = π − 3.

T = 17 x + 261x + 3257

4.

)

1− 2 = − 1− 2 = 2 −1

2

3.

1− 2

x

x

=

x = x.

x

=1

x

−4 − (5) = −9 = 9

The distance between –4 and 5 is 9.

8.

9 =3

a.

Natural numbers:

b.

Whole numbers: 0,

c.

Integers: −9, 0, 9

d.

Rational numbers: −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3,

e.

Irrational numbers:

f.

Real numbers:

π

⎧

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,

2

⎩

7(4 x 2 + 3x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 7(4 x 2 + 3 x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 28 x 2 + 21x + 10 x 2 + 2 x

9

= 38 x 2 + 23x

π

2

,

9.

9

10

9,

⎫

10 ⎬

⎭

6 + 4[7 − ( x − 2)]

= 6 + 4[7 − x + 2)]

= 6 + 4[9 − x]

= 6 + 36 − 4 x

= 42 − 4 x

Exercise Set P.1

1.

7 + 5(10) = 7 + 50 = 57

2.

8 + 6 ( 5 ) = 8 + 30 = 38

3.

6(3) − 8 = 18 − 8 = 10

1

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

4.

8 ( 3) − 4 = 24 − 4 = 20

5.

82 + 3(8) = 64 + 24 = 88

6.

62 + 5 ( 6 ) = 36 + 30 = 66

7.

7 2 − 6(7) + 3 = 49 − 42 + 3 = 7 + 3 = 10

8.

82 − 7 ( 8 ) + 4 = 64 − 56 + 4 = 8 + 4 = 12

9.

4 + 5(9 − 7)3 = 4 + 5(2)3

= 4 + 5(8) = 4 + 40 = 44

10.

6 + 5 (8 − 6 ) = 6 + 5 ( 2 )

3

18.

19.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2 = 4 + 60(2) − 16(2)2

= 4 + 120 − 16(4) = 4 + 120 − 64

= 124 − 64 = 60

Two seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is

60 feet.

20.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2

= 4 + 60(3) − 16(3) 2

= 4 + 180 − 16(9)

= 4 + 180 − 144

= 184 − 144 = 40

Three seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is

40 feet.

3

= 6 + 5 (8)

= 6 + 40 = 46

11.

82 − 3(8 − 2) = 64 − 3(6)

= 64 − 18 = 46

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

21.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∩ {2, 4,5} = {2, 4}

82 − 4 ( 8 − 3) = 64 − 4 ( 5 ) = 64 − 20 = 44

22.

{1,3, 7} ∩ {2,3,8} = {3}

5( x + 2) 5(10 + 2)

=

2 x − 14 2(10) − 14

5(12)

=

6

= 5⋅2

= 10

23.

{s, e, t} ∩ {t , e, s} = {s, e, t}

24.

{r , e, a, l} ∩ {l , e, a, r} = {r , e, a, l}

25.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {2, 4, 6,8,10} = { }

The empty set is also denoted by ∅.

7( x − 3) 7(9 − 3) 7(6)

=

=

= 7 ⋅ 3 = 21

2 x − 16 2(9) − 16

2

2x + 3 y

; x = −2, y = 4

x +1

2 ( −2 ) + 3 ( 4 ) −4 + 12 8

=

=

=

= −8

−2 + 1

−1

−1

2x + y

; x = −2 and y = 4

xy − 2 x

2 ( −2 ) + 4

( −2 )( 4 ) − 2 ( −2 )

17.

5

5

5

C = ( F − 32) = (86 − 32) = (54) = 30

9

9

9

30°C is equivalent to 86°F.

=

−4 + 4 0

= =0

−8 + 4 4

5

5

C = (50 − 32) = (18) = 10

9

9

10°C is equivalent to 50°F.

26.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {−5, −3, −1} = { }

27.

{a, b, c, d} ∩ ∅ = ∅

28.

{w, y, z} ∩ ∅ = ∅

29.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∪ {2, 4,5} = {1, 2,3, 4,5}

30.

{1,3, 7,8} ∪ {2,3,8} = {1, 2,3, 7,8}

31.

{1, 3,5, 7} ∪ {2, 4, 6,8,10}

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,10}

32.

{0,1,3,5} ∪ {2, 4, 6} = {0,1, 2,3, 4,5, 6}

33.

{a, e, i, o, u} ∪ ∅ = {a, e, i, o, u}

34.

{e, m, p, t , y} ∪ ∅

or ∅

= {e, m, p, t , y}

2

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

35. a.

Section P.1

39. 0

100

b.

0, 100

c.

−9, 0, 100

d.

4

−9, − , 0, 0.25, 9.2, 100

5

e.

f.

36. a.

40. Answers may vary. An example is

1

.

2

**41. Answers may vary. An example is 2.
**

42. Answers may vary. An example is −2.

43. true; –13 is to the left of –2 on the number line.

3

44. false; –6 is to the left of 2 on the number line.

4

−9, − , 0, 0.25, 3, 9.2, 100

5

**45. true; 4 is to the right of –7 on the number line.
**

46. true; –13 is to the left of –5 on the number line.

49

47. true; −π = −π

b.

0, 49

c.

−7, 0, 49

d.

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49

**48. true; –3 is to the right of –13 on the number line.
**

49. true; 0 is to the right of –6 on the number line.

e.

f.

37. a.

50

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49, 50

64

b.

0, 64

c.

−11, 0, 64

d.

5

−11, − , 0, 0.75, 64

6

e.

f.

38. a.

5

−11, − , 0, 0.75, 5, π , 64

6

4

0, 4

c.

−5, 0, 4

d.

−5, − 0.3, 0, 4

f.

51.

300 = 300

52.

−203 = 203

53.

12 − π = 12 − π

54.

7−π = 7−π

55.

2 −5 = 5− 2

56.

5 − 13 = 13 − 5

5, π

b.

e.

50. true; 0 is to the right of –13 on the number line.

2

−5, − 0.3, 0, 2, 4

57.

−3 −3

=

= −1

3

−3

58.

−7 −7

=

= −1

7

−7

59.

−3 − −7 = 3 − 7 = −4 = 4

60.

−5 − −13 = 5 − 13 = −8 = 8

61.

x + y = 2 + (−5) = −3 = 3

62.

x − y = 2 − (−5) = 7 = 7

3

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

63.

x + y = 2 + −5 = 2 + 5 = 7

64.

x − y = 2 − −5 = 2 − 5 = −3

65.

y

−5 −5

=

=

= −1

y

−5

5

66.

x

y

2

83.

84.

1

( x + 3) = 1; x ≠ −3 ,

x+3

inverse property of multiplication

( x + 4 ) + ⎡⎣ − ( x + 4 ) ⎤⎦ = 0;

inverse property of addition

85.

−5

2 5

+

= +

= +

= 1 + (−1) = 0

x

y

2 −5 2 −5

5(3 x + 4) − 4 = 5 ⋅ 3x + 5 ⋅ 4 − 4

= 15 x + 20 − 4

= 15 x + 16

67. The distance is 2 − 17 = −15 = 15 .

86.

2(5 x + 4) − 3 = 2 ⋅ 5 x + 2 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 10 x + 8 − 3

68. The distance is 4 − 15 = −11 = 11 .

= 10 x + 5

69. The distance is −2 − 5 = −7 = 7 .

87.

5(3 x − 2) + 12 x = 5 ⋅ 3x − 5 ⋅ 2 + 12 x

= 15 x − 10 + 12 x

70. The distance is −6 − 8 = −14 = 14 .

= 27 x − 10

71. The distance is −19 − (−4) = −19 + 4 = −15 = 15 .

88.

2(5 x − 1) + 14 x = 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅1 + 14 x

= 10 x − 2 + 14 x

72. The distance is −26 − (−3) = −26 + 3 = −23 = 23 .

= 24 x − 2

**73. The distance is
**

−3.6 − (−1.4) = −3.6 + 1.4 = −2.2 = 2.2 .

89.

= 7 ⋅3y − 7 ⋅5 + 2⋅ 4y + 2 ⋅3

= 21y − 35 + 8 y + 6

**74. The distance is
**

−5.4 − (−1.2) = −5.4 + 1.2 = −4.2 = 4.2 .

= 29 y − 29

90.

75. 6 + (–4) = (–4) + 6;

commutative property of addition

= 8 y − 24 + 15 y + 30

= 23 y + 6

91.

77. 6 + (2 + 7) = (6 + 2) + 7;

associative property of addition

5 ( 3 y − 2 ) − ( 7 y + 2 ) = 15 y − 10 − 7 y − 2

= 8 y − 12

92.

6 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 3) = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 2);

commutative property of multiplication

4(5 y − 3) − (6 y + 3) = 20 y − 12 − 6 y − 3

= 14 y − 15

79. (2 + 3) + (4 + 5) = (4 + 5) + (2 + 3);

commutative property of addition

80.

4(2 y − 6) + 3(5 y + 10)

= 4 ⋅ 2 y − 4 ⋅ 6 + 3 ⋅ 5 y + 3 ⋅10

76. 11 ⋅ (7 + 4) = 11 ⋅ 7 + 11 ⋅ 4;

distributive property of multiplication over addition

78.

7(3 y − 5) + 2(4 y + 3)

93.

7 − 4 ⎡⎣3 − ( 4 y − 5 ) ⎤⎦ = 7 − 4 [3 − 4 y + 5]

= 7 − 4 [8 − 4 y ]

7 ⋅ (11⋅ 8) = (11 ⋅ 8) ⋅ 7;

commutative property of multiplication

= 7 − 32 + 16 y

= 16 y − 25

**81. 2 (–8 + 6) = –16 + 12;
**

distributive property of multiplication over addition

82.

**−8(3 + 11) = −24 + (−88) ;
**

distributive property of multiplication over addition

4

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PreCalculus 4E

94.

Section P.1

6 − 5[8 − (2 y − 4)] = 6 − 5 [8 − 2 y + 4]

104. −20

= 6 − 5 [12 − 2 y ]

20

= 6 − 60 + 10 y

95. 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 ( x 2 − 2) + 5⎤⎦

105.

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 12 + 5⎤⎦

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 7⎤⎦

= 18 x 2 + 4 − 6 x 2 + 7

96. 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣7 ( x 2 − 2 ) + 4 ⎤⎦

106.

= 14 x + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 14 + 4 ⎤⎦

2

= 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 10⎤⎦

−0.6

5

2

−2.5

2.5

−2.5

3

= −0.6 .

5

2.5

2.5 = 2.5

= 14 x 2 − 7 x 2 + 5 + 10

Since 2.5 = 2.5,

= (14 − 7 ) x + 15

2

= 7 x 2 + 15

107.

97. –(–14x) = 14x

− ( −17 y ) = 17 y

30 3

−

40 4

30 30

−

40 40

5

= −2.5 .

2

14 15

⋅

15 14

14 15

⋅

15 14

0 1

0 <1

30 3

14 15

Since 0 < 1,

− <

⋅ .

40 4

15 14

99. –(2x – 3y – 6) = –2x + 3y + 6

100. − ( 5 x − 13 y − 1) = −5 x + 13 y + 1

1

(3 x) + [ (4 y ) + (−4 y ) ] = x + 0

3

=x

108.

1

( 2 y ) + ⎣⎡( −7 x ) + 7 x ⎦⎤ = y + 0 = y

2

6

0.6

2.5

= 14 x 2 + 5 − 7 x 2 + 10

103. −6

−0.6

Since 0.6 = 0.6,

= (18 − 6) x 2 + 11 = 12 x 2 + 11

102.

3

5

0.6

0.6

0.6 = 0.6

= 18 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 4 + 7

101.

50

20 < 50

Since 20 < 50, −20 < −50 .

= 10 y − 54

98.

−50

17 18

⋅

18 17

17 18

⋅

18 17

50 5

−

60 6

50 50

−

60 60

1 0

1> 0

17 18

50 5

Since 1 > 0,

⋅

>

− .

18 17

60 6

−3

3

6>3

Since 6 > 3, −6 > −3 .

5

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

109. 8 8

÷

13 13

8 13

⋅

13 8

115. 8 − 3[−2(2 − 5) − 4(8 − 6)] = 8 − 3[−2(−3) − 4(2)]

−1

= 8 − 3[6 − 8]

= 8 − 3[−2]

1

=8+6

1 1

1=1

Since 1 = 1,

110.

= 14

116. 8 − 3[−2(5 − 7) − 5(4 − 2)] = 8 − 3[−2(−2) − 5(2)]

8 8

÷ = −1 .

13 13

= 8 − 3[4 − 10]

= 8 − 3[−6]

4 4

−2

÷

17 17

4 17

2

⋅

17 4

2 1

2 >1

= 8 + 18

= 26

117.

Since 2 > 1, −2 >

4 4

÷ .

17 17

111. 82 − 16 ÷ 22 ⋅ 4 − 3 = 64 − 16 ÷ 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 64 − 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

118.

= 64 − 16 − 3

= 48 − 3

= 45

112. 102 − 100 ÷ 52 ⋅ 2 − 3 = 100 − 100 ÷ 25 ⋅ 2 − 3

119.

= 100 − 4 ⋅ 2 − 3

= 100 − 8 − 3

2(−2) − 4(−3) −4 + 12

=

5−8

−3

8

=

−3

8

=−

3

6(−4) − 5(−3) −24 + 15

=

9 − 10

−1

−9

=

−1

=9

(5 − 6)2 − 2 3 − 7

89 − 3 ⋅ 52

= 92 − 3

= 89

113.

5 ⋅ 2 − 32

2

2

[3 − (−2)]

=

=

=

5⋅2 −9

[9 − (−2)]2

10 − 9

[9 + 2]2

10 − 9

112

1

=

121

114.

10 ÷ 2 + 3 ⋅ 4

(12 − 3 ⋅ 2)

2

=

=

120.

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 22 + 32

7 + 3− 6

2

=

(−1) 2 − 2 −4

89 − 3 ⋅ 25

1 − 2(4)

=

89 − 75

1− 8

=

14

−7

=

14

1

=−

2

=

=

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 4 + 9

7 + 3 − 36

4 ⋅ 5 13

10 − 36

20(13)

=

−26

260

=

−26

= −10

5 + 12

(12 − 6) 2

17

62

17

=

36

121. x − ( x + 4) = x − x − 4 = −4

6

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.1

122. x − ( 8 − x ) = x − 8 + x = 2 x − 8

b.

123. 6 ( −5 x ) = −30 x

124. 10 ( −4 x ) = −40 x

125. 5 x − 2 x = 3 x

126. 6 x − ( −2 x ) = 6 x + 2 x = 8 x

127. 8 x − ( 3x + 6 ) = 8 x − 3x − 6 = 5 x − 6

131. a.

128. 8 − 3 ( x + 6 ) = 8 − 3x − 18 = −3 x − 10

129. a.

b.

130. a.

3

( 220 − a )

5

3

H = ( 220 − 30 )

5

3

= (190 )

5

= 114

The upper limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 114 beats per

minute.

H=

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15, 395 + 988(7) − 2(7)2

= 22, 213

The formula estimates the cost to have been

$22,213 in 2007.

7

( 220 − a )

10

7

H = ( 220 − 20 )

10

7

= ( 200 )

10

= 140

The lower limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 140 beats per

minute.

H=

b.

**This underestimates the value in the graph by
**

$5.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15,395 + 988(10) − 2(10)2

= 25, 075

The formula projects the cost to be $25,075 in

2010.

4

( 220 − a )

5

4

H = ( 220 − 20 )

5

4

= ( 200 )

5

= 160

The upper limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 160 beats per

minute.

H=

132. a.

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15, 395 + 988(6) − 2(6)2

= 21, 251

The formula estimates the cost to have been

$21,251 in 2006.

1

( 220 − a )

2

1

H = ( 220 − 30 )

2

1

= (190 )

2

= 95

The lower limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 95 beats per

minute.

H=

b.

**This underestimates the value in the graph by
**

$16.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15,395 + 988(12) − 2(12)2

= 26, 963

The formula projects the cost to be $26,963 in

2012.

133. a.

0.05 x + 0.12 (10,000 − x )

= 0.05 x + 1200 − 0.12 x

= 1200 − 0.07 x

b.

**1200 − 0.07 x = 1200 − 0.07(6000)
**

= $780

7

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

134. a.

158. −π > −3.5

0.06t + 0.5(50 − t ) = 0.06t + 25 − 0.5t

= 25 − 0.44t

b.

3.14

= −1.57

2

π

− ≈ −1.571

2

−1.57 > −1.571

159. −

0.06(20) + 0.5(50 − 20)

= 1.2 + 0.5(30)

= 1.2 + 15

= 16.2 miles

−

**135. – 144. Answers may vary.
**

145. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

Sample explanation: Models do not always

accurately predict future values.

3.14

π

>−

2

2

160. a.

**146. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: To use the model, substitute 0

for x.

b4 ⋅ b3 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b7

b.

b5 ⋅ b5 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b10

c.

**add the exponents
**

b7

161. a.

147. makes sense

b

**148. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: The commutative property

changes order and the associative property changes

groupings.

b8

b.

b

c.

**149. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: Some rational numbers are not

integers.

162.

3

2

=

b⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b

= b4

b ⋅b ⋅b

=

b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b ⋅b

= b6

b⋅b

subtract the exponents

6.2 × 103 = 6.2 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 6200

It moves the decimal point 3 places to the right.

**150. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: All whole numbers are integers

Section P.2

151. true

Check Point Exercises

**152. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: Some irrational numbers are

negative.

1.

**153. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: The term x has a coefficient of

1.

( 2x y ) = ( 2) ( x ) ( y )

b.

( −6 x y )( 3xy ) = ( −6 ) ⋅ 3 ⋅ x

3

6

2

4

4

5

3

4

6

4

3

= 16 x12 y 24

2

⋅ x ⋅ y5 ⋅ y3

= −18 x 3 y 8

**154. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

5 + 3( x − 4) = 5 + 3 x − 12 = 3x − 7.

c.

**100 x12 y 2 ⎛ 100 ⎞ ⎛ x12 ⎞ ⎛ y 2 ⎞
**

=

⎜

⎟⎜

⎟

20 x16 y −4 ⎜⎝ 20 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x16 ⎠ ⎝ y −4 ⎠

= 5 x12 −16 y 2 − ( −4)

= 5 x −4 y 6

**155. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: − x − x = −2 x.

=

156. true

157.

a.

5 y6

x4

2 ≈ 1.4

1.4 < 1.5

2 < 1.5

8

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PreCalculus 4E

d.

⎛ 5x ⎞

⎜ 4⎟

⎝y ⎠

Section P.2

( 5) ( x )

−2

−2

=

(y )

4

(5) ( x )

=

(y )

4

7.

−2

−2

=

−2

= (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − 02 ]

= 2534.4

The speed of the blood at the central axis of the

artery is 2534.4 centimeters per second.

−2

−2

5−2 x −2

y −8

Exercise Set P.2

y8

52 x 2

y8

=

25 x 2

=

2.

3.

4.

a.

−6

3.017 × 10

a.

5, 210, 000, 000 = 5.21× 10

b.

−0.00000006893 = −6.893 × 10−8

(

= 0.000003017

2.

62 ⋅ 2 = (6 ⋅ 6) ⋅ 2 = 36 ⋅ 2 = 72

3.

(−2)6 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 64

4.

(−2) 4 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 16

5.

−26 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −64

6.

−2 4 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −16

7.

(−3)0 = 1

)

8.

(−9)0 = 1

9.

−30 = −1

10.

−9 0 = −1

11.

4−3 =

1

1

1

=

=

3

4

4 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 4 64

12.

2−6 =

1

1

1

=

=

6

2

2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 64

13.

2 2 ⋅ 23 = 2 2 + 3 = 25 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 32

14.

33 ⋅ 32 = 33+ 2 = 35 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 243

15.

(22 )3 = 22⋅3 = 26 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 64

16.

(33 )2 = 33⋅2 = 36 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 729

17.

28

= 28− 4 = 24 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 16

24

18.

38

= 38 − 4 = 34 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 81

34

19.

3−3 ⋅ 3 = 3−3+1 = 3−2 =

1

1

1

=

=

2

3

3⋅3 9

20.

2−3 ⋅ 2 = 2−3+1 = 2−2 =

1

1

1

=

=

2

2⋅2 4

2

9

410 ×107 = 4.1× 102 × 107

(

= 4.1× 10

)

9

( 7.1×10 )( 5 ×10 )

−7

5

= 7.1 ⋅ 5 × 105 ⋅10−7

= 35.5 × 10−2

(

)

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

(

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

= 3.55 × 10

b.

52 ⋅ 2 = (5 ⋅ 5) ⋅ 2 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 50

−2.6 ×10 = −2, 600, 000, 000

b.

a.

1.

9

= 4.1× 102 × 107

5.

)

−1

1.2 × 106 1.2 106

=

⋅

3 ×10−3

3 10−3

= 0.4 × 106 − ( −3)

= 0.4 × 109

= 4 × 108

6.

S = (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − r 2 ]

13 × 109

13 109

=

⋅

6

5.1 × 10

5.1 106

≈ 2.5 ⋅ 103

≈ 2500

The average Pell grant was $2500 in 2006.

9

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

21.

23

1

1

1

= 23 − 7 = 2 − 4 = 4 =

=

7

2

2

2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 16

22.

34

1

1

1

= 34 − 7 = 3−3 = 3 =

=

37

3

3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 27

23.

x −2 y =

25.

x0 y5 = 1⋅ y5 = y5

26.

x 7 ⋅ y 0 = x 7 ⋅1 = x 7

27.

x 3 ⋅ x 7 = x 3+ 7 = x10

28.

x ⋅x = x

29.

x −5 ⋅ x10 = x −5+10 = x 5

30.

x −6 ⋅ x12 = x −6 +12 = x 6

31.

( x3 )7 = x 3⋅7 = x 21

32.

( x11 )5 = x11⋅5 = x 55

33.

( x −5 )3 = x −5⋅3 = x −15 =

34.

35.

5

11+ 5

42.

⎛ 6⎞

(−6)3

216

⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3

y

y

⎝ y⎠

43.

(−3x 2 y 5 ) 2 = (−3)2 ( x 2 ) 2 ⋅ ( y 5 ) 2

= 9 x 2⋅2 y 5⋅2

= 9 x 4 y10

1

x

=

y3 y3

xy −3 = x ⋅

(−4)3

64

⎛ 4⎞

⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3

x

x

⎝ x⎠

3

1

y

⋅y= 2

x2

x

24.

11

3

41.

44.

**= −27 x 4⋅3 y 6⋅3
**

= −27 x12 y18

=x

45.

(3 x 4 )(2 x 7 ) = 3 ⋅ 2 x 4 ⋅ x 7 = 6 x 4 + 7 = 6 x11

46.

(11x 5 )(9 x12 ) = 11⋅ 9 x 5 x12 = 99 x5 +12 = 99 x17

47.

(−9 x3 y )(−2 x 6 y 4 ) = (−9)(−2) x 3 x 6 yy 4

16

( x −6 ) 4 = x −6⋅4 = x −24 =

= 18 x 3+ 6 y1+ 4

= 18 x 9 y 5

48.

= 30 x11 y12

1

x15

1

x 24

49.

8 x 20 ⎛ 8 ⎞ ⎛ x 20

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

2 x4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ x4

50.

20 x 24 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 24 ⎞

24 − 6

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

= 2 x18

⎟ = 2x

10 x 6 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ x 6 ⎠

x14

= x14 − 7 = x 7

x7

x30

= x 30 −10 = x 20

10

x

38.

⎞

20 − 4

= 4 x16

⎟ = 4x

⎠

25a13 ⋅ b 4 ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎛ a13 ⎞ ⎛ b 4 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟⎜ ⎟

−5a 2 ⋅ b3 ⎝ −5 ⎠ ⎝ a 2 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠

= −5a13 − 2 b 4 − 3

= −5a11b

14

37.

(−5 x 4 y )(−6 x 7 y11 ) = (−5)(−6) x 4 x 7 yy11

= 30 x 4 + 7 y1+11

51.

36.

(−3x 4 y 6 )3 = (−3)3 ( x 4 )3 ( y 6 )3

x

= x14 − ( −7) = x14 + 7 = x 21

x −7

52.

x30

= x30 − ( −10) = x 30 +10 = x 40

x −10

39.

(8 x3 ) 2 = 82 ( x 3 )2 = 82 x 3⋅2 = 64 x 6

40.

(6 x ) = (6) ( x ) = 6 x

4 2

2

4 2

2

4⋅2

= 36 x

35a14 b6 ⎛ 35 ⎞ ⎛ a14 ⎞ ⎛ b6 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟⎜ ⎟

−7a 7 b3 ⎝ −7 ⎠ ⎝ a 7 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠

= −5a14 − 7 b6 − 3

= −5a 7 b3

53.

8

14b7 ⎛ 14 ⎞ ⎛ b 7 ⎞

2

7 −14

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

= 2b −7 = 7

⎟ = 2⋅b

7b14 ⎝ 7 ⎠ ⎝ b14 ⎠

b

10

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

54.

Section P.2

20b10 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ b10 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟

10b 20 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ b 20 ⎠

3

61.

= 2b10 − 20

= 2b

⎛ −3b5 ⎞

=⎜ 6 ⎟

⎝ a ⎠

−27b15

=

a18

−10

2

b10

=

55.

(4 x3 ) −2 = (4−2 )( x 3 ) −2

−2

=4 x

62.

1

42 x6

1

=

16 x 6

1

103 x 6

1

=

1000 x 6

10 x 4 y 9

1

= x 4 −12 y 9 − ( −3)

30 x12 y −3 3

1

= x −8 y12

3

y12

= 8

3x

59.

⎛ 5x ⎞

5 x

y

⎜

⎟ = −2 =

y

25

x6

⎝

⎠

y

−3

−2

−6

⎛ 3x ⎞

⎛ y ⎞

⎜

⎟ =⎜ 4 ⎟

⎝ 3x ⎠

⎝ y ⎠

y3

= 3 4⋅3

3 x

y3

=

27 x12

4

60.

−2

3

3

63.

⎛ 3a −5b 2 ⎞

=1

⎜

3 −4 ⎟

⎝ 12a b ⎠

64.

⎛ 4a −5b3 ⎞

=1

⎜

3 −5 ⎟

⎝ 12a b ⎠

65.

3.8 × 10 2 = 380

66.

9.2 × 10 2 = 920

67.

6 × 10−4 = 0.0006

68.

7 × 10−5 = 0.00007

69.

−7.16 × 106 = −7,160, 000

70.

−8.17 × 106 = −8,170, 000

71.

7.9 × 10−1 = 0.79

72.

6.8 × 10 −1 = 0.68

73.

−4.15 × 10 −3 = −0.00415

74.

−3.14 × 10−3 = −0.00314

75.

−6.00001×1010 = −60, 000,100, 000

76.

−7.00001×1010 = −70, 000,100, 000

77.

32, 000 = 3.2 × 104

78.

64, 000 = 6.4 ×104

0

24 x 3 ⋅ y 5 3 3− 7 5 − ( −9)

= x y

32 x 7 y −9 4

3

= x −4 y14

4

3 y14

= 4

4x

3

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

0

=

58.

⎛ −30a14b8 ⎞ ⎛ −3b8−( −2)

= ⎜⎜ 17−14

⎜

17 −2 ⎟

⎝ 10a b ⎠ ⎝ a

(10 x 2 )−3 = 10−3 x 2⋅( −3)

3

3

⎛ −3b10 ⎞

=⎜

⎟

⎝ a3 ⎠

−27b30

=

a9

= 10−3 x −6

57.

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

3

−6

=

56.

⎛ −15a 4b 2 ⎞ ⎛ −3b 2−( −3)

⎜ 10 −3 ⎟ = ⎜⎜ 10−4

⎝ 5a b ⎠ ⎝ a

2

3

11

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

79.

94.

638, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000

(8.2 ×10 )( 4.6 ×10 )

8

4

= 6.38 ×1017

= 37.72 × 108+ 4 = 37.72 × 1012

80.

579,000, 000, 000, 000, 000 = 5.79 × 1017

= 3.772 × 1013 ≈ 3.77 ×1013

81.

−5716 = −5.716 × 103

82.

−3829 = −3.829 × 103

83.

0.0027 = 2.7 × 10 −3

84.

0.0083 = 8.3 × 10 −3

85.

−0.00000000504 = −5.04 × 10−9

86.

−0.00000000405 = −4.05 × 10−9

87.

(3 × 104 )( 2.1 × 103 ) = (3 × 2.1) (104 × 103 )

( 2 ×10 )( 4.1×10 ) = 8.2 ×10

89.

(1.6 × 10 )( 4 × 10 ) = (1.6 × 4) (10

4

3

(1.4 × 10 )(3 × 10 ) = (1.4 × 3) (10

−11

99.

4.8 × 10−2 4.8 10−2

=

×

2.4 × 106 2.4 106

= 2 × 10−2 − 6 = 2 × 10−8

15

× 10−11 )

100. 7.5 ×10−2

= 3 × 10−2 − 6 = 3 × 10−8

6

2.5 × 10

× 10−4 )

**101. 2.4 × 10−2 2.4 10−2
**

=

×

4.8 ×10−6 4.8 10−6

= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

= 4.2 × 104

(6.1 × 10 )( 2 × 10 ) = (6.1× 2) (10

−8

−4

−8

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 × 103

= 12.2 × 10−8+( −4)

= 12.2 × 10−12

102. 1.5 × 10−2

= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

5 × 10−6

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 ×103

= 1.22 × 10−11

92.

**( 5.1×10 )(3 ×10 ) = 15.3 ×10
**

−8

−4

−12

= 1.53 × 10−11

93.

**103. 480, 000, 000, 000 4.8 × 1011
**

=

0.00012

1.2 ×10−4

4.8 1011

=

×

1.2 10−4

= 4 × 1011− ( −4)

( 4.3 ×10 )(6.2 ×10 )

= ( 4.3 × 6.2) (10 ×10 )

8

4

8

3.6 ×104 3.6 104

=

×

9 10−2

9 × 10−2

= 0.4 ×104 − ( −2)

× 10−11 )

15

= 4.2 × 1015+( −11)

91.

97.

1.2 × 104

= 0.6 × 104 − ( −2) = 0.6 ×106

2 × 10−2

= ( 6 ×10−1 ) ×106 = 6 × 105

= 6.4 × 104

15

6.9 × 108

= 2.3 × 108− 5 = 2.3 × 103

3 ×105

98.

= 6.4 × 1015+ ( −11)

90.

96.

7

−11

15

8.4 × 108 8.4 108

=

×

4 ×105

4 105

= 2.1× 108− 5 = 2.1× 103

= 0.4 ×106 = 4 × 105

= 6.3 × 104+3 = 6.3 × 107

88.

95.

4

= 26.66 × 108+ 4

= 4 × 1015

= 26.66 × 1012

= 2.666 × 1013 ≈ 2.67 × 1013

**104. 282, 000, 000, 000 2.82 × 1011
**

=

0.00141

1.41×10−3

= 2 × 1011− ( −3)

= 2 × 1014

12

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

105.

106.

Section P.2

0.00072 × 0.003

0.00024

7.2

( ×10−4 )(3 ×10−3 )

=

2.4 × 10−4

7.2 × 3 10−4 ⋅10−3

=

×

= 9 × 10−3

2.4

10−4

113.

**( 2−1 x−2 y−1 ) ( 2 x−4 y3 ) (16 x−3 y3 )
**

2

( 2 x−3 y−5 )

( 22 x2 y2 )( 2−2 x8 y−6 )(1)

=

( 22 x−6 y−10 )

−2

=

4

−3

66000 × 0.001 ( 6.6 × 10 )(1× 10 )

=

0.003 × 0.002 ( 3 × 10−3 )( 2 × 10−3 )

114.

6.6 × 10

1− −6

= 1.1× 10 ( )

6 × 10−6

= 1.1× 107

−1

x −3 y −1 )

−2

1

107.

( x y)

(x y )

−3

−2

−1 3

2

=

x 6 y −3

= 6 −3

x y

=

= x 6 − 6 y −3− ( −3) = x 0 y 0 = 1

108.

( xy )

( x y)

−2 −2

−2

−3

= x −2 − 6 y

4 − ( −3)

= x −8 y 7 =

(2

y7

x8

111.

⎛ x y z ⎞

⎜ −3 −4 −5 ⎟

⎝x y z ⎠

3

4 5

−2

−4

−6

y4 )

y −6 )

−2

(9 x

3

y −3 )

0

2

x 6 y 2 )( 2−2 x12 y −8 ) (1)

(2

2

x −8 y −12 )

2.52 × 1012

3 × 108

c.

2.52 × 1012

3 × 108

=

2.52 1012

× 8

3

10

= 0.84 × 104

= 8400

$8400 per American

y

y

=

24 x8 z 6 16 x8 z 6

116. a.

**110. 3 x −4 yz −7 ( 3x )−3 = 3x −4 yz −7 ⋅ 3−3 x ⋅−3
**

(

)

= 3−2 x −7 yz −7 =

(2x

b.

**109. 2 x −3 yz −6 ( 2 x )−5 = 2 x −3 yz −6 ⋅ 2−5 x ⋅−5
**

(

)

= 2−4 x −8 yz −6 =

2

(2x

x 26 y 6

4

115. a.

x −2 y 4

= 6 −3

x y

0

x18 y6

4

(2

=

−2

y

y

=

3 x7 z 7 9 x7 z 7

2

2.27 × 1012

b.

2.98 × 108

c.

2.27 × 1012

2.27 1012

=

×

2.98 108

2.98 × 108

= 0.7617 × 104

= ( x6 y z

)

= 7617

$7617 per American

8 10 −2

= x −12 y −16 z −20 =

1

x y16 z 20

117. 1450 × 109 ⋅ 6.60 = 1.45 × 1012 ⋅ 6.6

12

= 1.45 ⋅ 6.6 × 1012

112. ⎛ x 4 y 5 z 6 ⎞ −4

8 10 12 −4

⎜ −4 −5 −6 ⎟ = ( x y z )

⎝x y z ⎠

= x −32 y −40 z −48 =

= 9.57 × 1012

Box-office receipts were $9.57 × 1012 in 2006.

1

x y 40 z 48

118. 1400 × 109 ⋅ 6.40 = 1.4 × 1012 ⋅ 6.4

32

= 1.4 ⋅ 6.4 × 1012

= 8.96 × 1012

Box-office receipts were $8.96 × 1012 in 2005.

13

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

119. 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 20, 000 = 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 2 × 104

138. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 52 ⋅ 5−2 = 25 ⋅ 2−5.

= 5.3 ⋅ 2 × 10−23 ⋅ 104

= 10.6 × 10−19

**139. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: 534.7 ≠ 5347.

= 1.06 × 101 ⋅ 10−19

**140. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

= 1.06 × 10−18

The mass is 1.06 × 10−18 gram.

8 × 1030

2 × 10−5

120. 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 80, 000 = 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 8 × 104

= 1.67 ⋅ 8 × 10−24 ⋅ 104

**141. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

= 13.36 × 10−20

1

= 1.336 × 10 ⋅ 10

(7 × 105 ) + (2 × 10−3 ) = 700, 000.002.

−20

142. true

= 1.336 × 10−19

**143. The doctor has gathered:
**

1 1

2 1 3

2−1 + 2−2 = +

= + =

2 22 4 4 4

**The mass is 1.336 × 10−19 gram.
**

121. 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 127 = 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 1.27 × 102

= 3.2 ⋅ 1.27 × 107 ⋅ 102

So, 1 −

= 4.064 × 109

3 1

= is remaining.

4 4

144. b A = MN , bC = M , b D = N

Americans eat 4.064 × 109 chickens per year.

b A = bC b D

122. 365 days equals 365 ⋅ 24 or 8760 hours.

A=C+D

**8760 hours equals 8760 ⋅ 60 or 525,600 minutes.
**

525,600 min. equals

525,600 ⋅ 60 or 31,536,000 seconds.

145.

**There are 3.1536 × 107 seconds in a year.
**

123. – 130. Answers may vary.

131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

**Sample explanation: 36( x3 )9 = 36 x 27 not 36 x12 .
**

132. makes sense

**70 bts 60 min 24 hrs 365 days
**

⋅

⋅

⋅

⋅ 80 yrs

hr

day

yr

min

= 70 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 365 ⋅ 80 beats

= 2943360000 beats

= 2.94336 × 109 beats

≈ 2.94 × 109 beats

The heartbeats approximately 2.94 × 109 times over a

lifetime of 80 years.

146. Answers may vary.

**133. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

147. a.

**Sample explanation: 4.6 × 1012 represents over 4
**

trillion. The entire world population is measured in

billions ( 109 ).

134. makes sense

135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 4

= 4 × 1030 − ( −5) = 4 × 1035.

−2

b.

16 ⋅ 4 = 64 = 8

c.

16 ⋅ 4 = 16 ⋅ 4

148. a.

300 ≈ 17.32

b.

10 3 ≈ 17.32

c.

300 = 10 3

−3

>4 .

16 ⋅ 4 = 4 ⋅ 2 = 8

136. true

137. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

1

A sample change is: (−2)4 ≠ 2−4 because 16 ≠ .

16

149. a.

b.

21x + 10 x = 31x

21 2 + 10 2 = 31 2

14

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

Section P.3

5.

a.

**Check Point Exercises
**

1.

5 27 + 12

= 5 9⋅3 + 4⋅3

= 5⋅3 3 + 2 3

a.

81 = 9

b.

− 9 = −3

c.

1

1

=

25 5

d.

36 + 64 = 100 = 10

e.

36 + 64 = 6 + 8 = 14

a.

75 = 25 ⋅ 3 = 25 3 = 5 3

b.

5 x ⋅ 10 x = 5 x ⋅10 x

= 15 3 + 2 3

= (15 + 2) 3

= 17 3

2.

b.

= 6 9 ⋅ 2x − 4 4 ⋅ 2x

= 6 ⋅ 3 2x − 4 ⋅ 2 2x

= 18 2 x − 8 2 x

= (18 − 8) 2 x

= 10 2 x

6.

a.

= 50 x 2

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2

b.

5

3

25

25 5

=

=

16

16 4

150 x 3

2x

=

b.

150 x 3

2x

= 5x 3

3

⋅

12

8 13 + 9 13 = (8 + 9) 3

7.

17 x − 20 17 x

= 1 17 x − 20 17 x

= (1 − 20) 17 x

=

Multiply by

3

=

5 3

9

=

5 3

3

12 ⋅ 3 =

3

3

6

12

⋅

36 = 6. So multiply by 1,

for 1.

3

3

=

6 3

36

=

4− 5

.

4− 5

8

8

4− 5

=

⋅

4+ 5 4+ 5 4− 5

=

= −19 17 x

3

for 1.

**The smallest number that will produce a perfect
**

6

square in the denominator of

is 3

12

6

= 17 13

b.

5

choosing

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 3

a.

=

3

because

= 75 x 2

4.

3

choosing

= 5x 2

a.

**If we multiply numerator and denominator by
**

3, the denominator becomes

3 ⋅ 3 = 9 = 3. Therefore, multiply by 1,

= 25 ⋅ 2 x 2

3.

6 18 x − 4 8 x

8(4 − 5)

42 − ( 5)2

8(4 − 5)

16 − 5

8(4 − 5)

32 − 8 5

or

=

11

11

=

15

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6 3

= 3

6

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

8.

9.

a.

3

40 = 3 8 ⋅ 5 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 5 = 2 3 5

Exercise Set P.3

b.

5

8 ⋅ 5 8 = 5 64 = 5 32 ⋅ 5 2 = 2 5 2

1.

36 = 62 = 6

c.

3

125 3 125 5

= 3

=

27

27 3

2.

25 = 52 = 5

3 3 81 − 4 3 3 = 3 3 27 ⋅ 3 − 4 3 3

3.

− 36 = − 62 = −6

4.

− 25 = − 52 = −5

5.

**−36 , The square root of a negative number is not
**

real.

6.

**−25 , The square root of a negative number is not
**

real.

= 3⋅ 33 3 − 4 3 3

= 93 3 − 43 3

= (9 − 4) 3 3

= 53 3

1

25 2 = 25 = 5

10. a.

1

b.

83 = 3 8 = 2

c.

−814 = − 4 81 = −3

d.

( −8 ) 3

e.

27

1

1

−

1

3

= 3 −8 = −2

1

=

1

1

=

3

27 3

4

(

27 3 =

11. a.

( 4)

2

5

1

32

c.

27

42 =

3

b.

3

−

2

=

3

2

)

4

=

27

1

3

= (3)4 = 81

= (2)3 = 8

=

32 5

1

(

5

32

)

2

1 1

= 2 =

2

4

7.

25 − 16 = 9 = 3

8.

144 + 25 = 169 = 13

9.

25 − 16 = 5 − 4 = 1

10.

144 + 25 = 12 + 5 = 17

11.

(−13) 2 = 169 = 13

12.

(−17)2 = 289 = 17

13.

50 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 25 2 = 5 2

14.

27 = 9 ⋅ 3 = 9 3 = 3 3

15.

45 x 2 = 9 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 9 x2 5

( 2 x )( 5x )

4/3

12. a.

8/3

= 9 x2 5

= 2 ⋅ 5 x 4 / 3 ⋅ x8 / 3

=3 x 5

= 10 x ( 4 / 3) + (8 / 3)

= 10 x12 / 3

= 10 x

16.

4

= 25 x 2 5

20 x 4 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 4 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟

3

5x 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x 2 ⎠

b.

= 25 x 2 5

=5 x 5

4− 3

= 4x ( 2)

8 − 3

= 4 x( 2 ) ( 2 )

= 4x

13.

6

5

17.

2x ⋅ 6x = 2x ⋅ 6x

= 12 x 2

2

= 4x2 ⋅ 3

x3 = x 6 = x 2 = x

3

125 x 2 = 25 x 2 ⋅ 5

1

= 2x 3

16

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

18.

Section P.3

10 x ⋅ 8 x = 10 x ⋅ 8 x

30.

= 80 x 2

24 x 4

=

3x

= 16 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 8 x3

= 4x 5

= 4 x2 ⋅ 2 x

19.

x3 = x 2 ⋅ x = x x

20.

y3 =

21.

2 x2 ⋅ 6 x = 2 x2 ⋅ 6 x

= 2x 2x

31.

y2 ⋅ y = y y

200 x3

10 x −1

= 4 x 2 ⋅ 3x

= 4 ⋅ 5x4

= 2 x2 5

32.

1

1 1

=

=

81

81 9

24.

1

=

49

25.

49

49 7

=

=

16

16 4

26.

121

121 11

=

=

9

3

9

27.

28.

48 x3

=

3x

72 x

3

=

8x

1

7

34.

8 5 + 11 5 = (8 + 11) 5 = 19 5

35.

6 17 x − 8 17 x = (6 − 8) 17 x = −2 17 x

36.

4 13 x − 6 13x = (4 − 6) 13x = −2 13x

= (2 + 3) 2

=5 2

38.

20 + 6 5 = 4 ⋅ 5 + 6 5

= 2 5+6 5

= (2 + 6) 5

=8 5

72 x

= 9 x2 = 3x

8x

150 x

150 x

=

3x

3x

8 + 3 2 = 4⋅2 + 3 2

= 2 2 +3 2

39.

29.

500 x 3

= 50 x 3−( −1)

10 x −1

7 3 + 6 3 = (7 + 6) 3 = 13 3

37.

48 x3

= 16 x 2 = 4 x

3x

4

10 x −1

=

33.

3

=

500 x 3

= 50 x 4 = 25 ⋅ 2 x 4 = 5 x 2 2

= 3x 2x

49

3−( −1)

= 20 x 4

6 x ⋅ 3 x 2 = 6 x ⋅ 3x 2

= 18 x3

1

200 x 3

10 x −1

= 12 x 3

= 9 x2 ⋅ 2 x

23.

=

= 20 x

= 2 x 3x

22.

24 x 4

3x

4

50 x − 8 x = 25 ⋅ 2 x − 4 ⋅ 2 x

= 5 2x − 2 2x

= (5 − 2) 2 x

= 50 x 3

= 3 2x

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2 x

= 5x 2x

17

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

40.

63 x − 28 x = 9 ⋅ 7 x − 4 ⋅ 7 x

49.

= 3 7x − 2 7x

13

3 + 11

= (3 − 2) 7 x

=

=

= 7x

41.

3 18 + 5 50 = 3 9 ⋅ 2 + 5 25 ⋅ 2

= 3⋅3 2 + 5⋅5 2

= 9 2 + 25 2

= (9 + 25) 2

50.

= 34 2

42.

3

3+ 7

= 4⋅ 2 3 − 2⋅5 3

13(3 − 11)

9 − 11

=

13(3 − 11)

−2

=

= −2 3

3 8 − 32 + 3 72 − 75

51.

= 3 4 ⋅ 2 − 16 ⋅ 2 + 3 36 ⋅ 2 − 25 ⋅ 3

7

5−2

= 6 2 − 4 2 + 18 2 − 5 3

=

= 20 2 − 5 3

= 3 9 ⋅ 6 − 2 4 ⋅ 6 − 16 ⋅ 6 + 4 9 ⋅ 7

52.

= 3⋅3 6 − 2⋅ 2 6 − 4 6 + 4 ⋅3 7

5

3 −1

= 9 6 − 4 6 − 4 6 + 12 7

46.

47.

48.

2

2

5

7

3

=

=

=

2

2

5

7

⋅

10

⋅

10

5

5

=

=

5−2

5+2

⋅

5+2

7( 5 + 2)

( 5) 2 − 22

7( 5 + 2)

5−4

5

3 −1

⋅

3 +1

3 +1

5( 3 + 1)

( 3) 2 − 12

5( 3 + 1)

3 −1

5( 3 + 1)

=

2

7

10

7

=

7

=

⋅

=

7

7

7 7

10

3(3 − 7 )

32 − ( 7 )2

=

=

= 6 + 12 7

45.

3− 7

= 7( 5 + 2)

3 54 − 2 24 − 96 + 4 63

1

⋅

3+ 7 3− 7

=

=

= 3⋅ 2 2 − 4 2 + 3⋅ 6 2 − 5 3

1

3

3(3 − 7)

9−7

3(3 − 7)

=

2

= (8 − 10) 3

44.

32 − ( 11)2

=

= 8 3 − 10 3

43.

13(3 − 11)

=

=

4 12 − 2 75 = 4 4 ⋅ 3 − 2 25 ⋅ 3

13

3 − 11

⋅

3 + 11 3 − 11

2 10

10

=

10

5

53.

10

5

6

5+ 3

=

=

=

3

21

⋅

=

3

3 3

6

5+ 3

⋅

5− 3

5− 3

6( 5 − 3)

( 5) 2 − ( 3) 2

6( 5 − 3)

5−3

6( 5 − 3)

2

= 3( 5 − 3)

=

18

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

11

54.

Section P.3

11

=

7− 3

=

7− 3

⋅

7+ 3

5

73.

7+ 3

11( 7 + 3)

74.

11( 7 + 3)

=

7−3

11( 7 + 3)

=

4

125 = 3 53 = 5

55.

3

56.

3

8 = 3 23 = 2

57.

3

−8 = 3 (−2) = −2

3

77.

5 3 16 + 3 54 = 5 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 3 27 ⋅ 2

= 5 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 33 2

= 13 3 2

61.

4

(−3) 4 = −3 = 3

62.

4

(−2) = −2 = 2

63.

5

(−3)5 = −3

64.

5

(−2) = −2

65.

5

67.

3

= 6 3 3 + 33 3

= 93 3

79.

= − y 3 2x

80.

2

24 xy 3 − y 3 81x

= 2 y 3 3 x − 3 y 3 3x

=

6

3

= 3 8 ⋅ 3xy 3 − y 3 27 ⋅ 3x

= − y 3 3x

1

1

1

= 5 − 5 =−

32

2

2

1

54 xy 3 − y 3 128 x

= 3 y 3 2x − 4 y 3 2x

5

6

3

= 3 27 ⋅ 2 xy 3 − y 3 64 ⋅ 2 x

4

6

3 3 24 + 3 81 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 + 3 27 ⋅ 3

= 3 ⋅ 2 3 3 + 33 3

−81 is not a real number.

1

=

64

162 x5 4

= 81x 4 = 3x

2x

6 5 3 + 25 3 = 85 3

−16 is not a real number.

4

6

2x

4

= 10 3 2 + 3 3 2

60.

66.

4

=

76.

−125 = 3 (−5)3 = −5

−

162 x 5

64 x 6 5

= 32 x5 = 2 x

2x

5

4 5 2 + 35 2 = 7 5 2

3

4

59.

2x

=

75.

78.

58.

5

4

( 7 )2 − ( 3) 2

64 x 6

1

2

81.

2+ 3 8 = 2+2

82.

3 + 3 15 will not simplify

83.

32 = 3 8 ⋅ 4 = 3 8 3 4 = 2 ⋅ 3 4

361/ 2 = 36 = 6

**84. 1211/ 2 = 121 = 11
**

68.

3

69.

3

70.

3

71.

3

72.

3

**150 cannot be simplified further.
**

85.

81/ 3 = 3 8 = 2

x 4 = 3 x3 ⋅ x = x ⋅ 3 x

86.

271/ 3 = 3 27 = 3

x5 = 3 x3 x 2 = x 3 x 2

87. 1252 / 3 =

9 ⋅ 3 6 = 3 54 = 3 27 ⋅ 2 = 3 27 3 2 = 3 3 2

88.

12 ⋅ 4 = 48 = 8 ⋅ 6 = 2 6

3

3

3

3

82 / 3 =

(

3

125

( 8)

3

2

)

2

= 52 = 25

=4

19

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

89.

90. 16−5 / 2 =

91.

1

1

1

= 4 =

4/5

32

2

16

32−4 / 5 =

1

1

1

1

=

=

=

165 / 2 ( 16)5 45 1024

( 7 x )( 2 x ) = 7 ⋅ 2 x

1/ 3

1/ 4

1/ 3

⋅ x1/ 4

1/ 3 +1/ 4

= 14 ⋅ x

20 x1/ 2 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x1/ 2 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟

5 x1/ 4 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x1/ 4 ⎠

= 4 ⋅ x1/ 2 −1/ 4

4

x12 = x12 / 4 = x

105.

6

x4 = 6 / 2 x4 / 2 = 3 x2

106.

9

x6 = 9 / 3 x6 / 3 = 3 x 2

107.

9

x6 y 3 = x 9 y 9 = x 3 y 3 = 3 x 2 y

108.

12

x 4 y 8 = x 12 y 12 = x 3 y 3 =

109.

34

110.

3

94.

95.

(x

)

=x

2 / 3⋅3

=x

98.

(125 x9 y 6 )1/ 3 = 1251/ 3 x 9 / 3 y 6 / 3 = 5 x 3 y 2

1

2

x y2

3

3

1000 + 3 216

1/ 2

−2 −1/ 2

4 −1/ 2

1/ 2

1 ( −2)( −1/ 2 ) ( 4)( −1/ 2)

x

y

( xy1/ 2 )

491/ 2

1

1

−2 + 1/ 2

= x1 y −2 ⋅ xy1/ 2 = x1+1 y ( )

7

7

1

x2

= x 2 y −3 / 2 = 3 / 2

7

7y

3

3

112. ( 8 x −6 y 3 )

1/ 3

(x

5/ 6

y −1/ 3 )

6

= 81/ 3 x ( −6)(1/ 3) y ( 3)(1/ 3) x (5 / 6)( 6) y ( −1/ 3)( 6)

= 2 x −2 y1 x5 y −2 = 2 x −2 + 5 y1+ ( −2 )

2

= 27 y 12 = 27 y 3

24 ( y1/ 5 )

−1/ 2

=

⎛ 14 ⎞

3

⎜ 3y ⎟

3 1

⎝

⎠ = 27 y 4 = 27 y 4 − 12

1

1

y 12

y 12

=

169 + 9 +

−1/ 2

(25 x 4 y 6 )1/ 2 = 251/ 2 x 4⋅1/ 2 y 6⋅1/ 2 = 5 x 2 y

y 3 /10

8

( xy )

= ( 49 ) ( x ) ( y ) ( xy )

97.

1/ 5 4

1

16 + 625 = 3 2 + 25 = 3 27 = 3

111. ( 49 x −2 y 4 )

2

( x 4 / 5 )5 = x 4 / 5⋅5 = x 4

(2y )

2

= 3 4+ 4 = 38

=2

⎞

3 / 4 −1/ 3

= 8 x5 /12

⎟ = 8⋅ x

⎠

96.

8

3

= 3 16 + 16

72 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 72 ⎞ ⎛ x 3 / 4

= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1/ 3

9 x1/ 3

⎝ 9 ⎠⎝ x

2/3 3

3

= 3 13 + 3 + 10 + 6

= 4 x1/ 4

100.

104.

4

2 / 3+ 3 / 4

= 12 x17 /12

99.

x6 = x6 / 3 = x 2

(3 x 2 / 3 )(4 x3 / 4 ) = 3 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3 ⋅ x 3 / 4

= 12 ⋅ x

93.

3

6

= 14 x 7 /12

92.

103.

= 2 x3 y −1 =

4

y 3 /10

⎛ x −5 / 4 y1/ 3 ⎞

113. ⎜ −3 / 4 ⎟

⎝ x

⎠

4/5

16 y

= 3 /10 = 16 y 4 / 5− 3 /10 = 16 y1/ 2

y

101.

4

52 = 52 / 4 = 51/ 2 = 5

102.

4

7 2 = 7 2 / 4 = 71/ 2 = 7

2 x3

y

−6

(

= x(

= ( x −2 / 4 y1/ 3 ) = x(

−6

= x3 y −2 =

−5 / 4 ) − ( −3 / 4 )

−2 / 4 )( −6 )

y(

y1/ 3

)

−6

1/ 3)( −6 )

x3

y2

20

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

⎛ x1/ 2 y −7 / 4 ⎞

114. ⎜

⎟

−5 / 4

⎝ y

⎠

−4

= ( x1/ 2 y −2 / 4 )

= x −2 y 2 =

115. a.

(

= x1/ 2 y (

−4

−7 / 4 ) − ( −5 / 4 )

)

−4

⎛v⎞

118. Ra = R f 1 − ⎜ ⎟

⎝c⎠

= x (1/ 2)( −4) y ( −2 / 4)( −4)

⎛ 0.9c ⎞

= Rf 1− ⎜

⎟

⎝ c ⎠

y2

x2

= R f 1 − ( 0.9 )

In 2004, we have x = 5.

Ra = 0.44 R f

44 = 0.44 R f

In 2011, we have x = 12 .

0.44 R f

44

=

0.44

0.44

100 = R f

If you are gone for 44 weeks, then 100 weeks will

have passed for your friend.

119. Perimeter:

P = 2l + 2 w

For 2020: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 125 + 2 ⋅ 2 20

= 5 10 + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 25 ⋅ 5 + 4 4 ⋅ 5

For 2050: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 5 40 + 34.1

= 2⋅5 5 + 4⋅ 2 5

= 5 ⋅ 2 10 + 34.1

= 10 5 + 8 5

= 18 5 feet

Area:

A = lw

= 10 10 + 34.1

Difference:

(10 10 + 34.1) − (5 10 + 34.1)

= 10 10 + 34.1 − 5 10 − 34.1

= 125 ⋅ 2 20

= 10 10 − 5 10 + 34.1 − 34.1

= 2 125 ⋅ 20

= 5 10

= 2 2500

= 2 ⋅ 50

= 100 square feet

The difference is 5 10.

b.

117.

2

≈ 0.44 R f

y = 20.8 12 + 21 ≈ 93.1

According to the model, 93.1% of email will be

spam in 2011.

This overestimates the value given in the bar

graph by 21.1%.

116. a.

2

= R f 0.19

y = 20.8 5 + 21 ≈ 67.5

According to the model, 67.5% of email was

spam in 2004.

This underestimates the actual value shown in

the bar graph by 0.5%.

b.

2

5 10 ≈ 15.8

This underestimates the difference projected by

the graph of 65.8 − 47.3 = 18.5 by 2.7. This

represents a difference of 2.7 million people.

2

5 + 1 2( 5 + 1)

⋅

=

5 −1

5 −1 5 +1

2( 5 + 1)

4

5 +1

=

2

≈ 1.62

About 1.62 to 1.

=

21

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

120. Perimeter:

P = 2l + 2w

13 + 2 +

139.

= 2 ⋅ 4 20 + 2 ⋅ 80

7

= 13 + 2 +

3+ 2

= 8 4 ⋅ 5 + 2 16 ⋅ 5

= 24 5 feet

Area:

A = lw

21 − 7 2

9−2

= 13 + 2 +

21 − 7 2

7

1

1

140. a.

= 4 1600

= 4 ⋅ 40

= 160 square feet

b.

121. – 128. Answers may vary.

3 2 > 33

Calculator Check: 1.7321 > 1.4422

7 + 18 > 7 + 18

Calculator Check: 6.8884 > 5

5

**129. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: The denominator is

rationalized correctly.

141. a.

b.

**131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary. Sample
**

explanation: 2 20 + 4 75 simplifies to 4 5 + 20 3

and thus the radical terms are not common.

2

⋅7

1

2

1

4

−

4

3

3

−

4

+ 2−2

+ 2−1

( 8)

3

=

+

4

1

( 16 )

4

3

= 71 = 7.

136. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

20

5

=

.

8

4

)(5 − 3 ) = 22

25 − 3 = 22

3 =3

25 x 14 = 5 x 7

1

22

+

1 1

+

4

2

4

=

1 1

+

23 2

1 1

+

= 16 4

1 1

+

8 2

5

= 16

5

8

8

=

16

1

=

2

Mom’s portion:

1⎛ 1⎞ 1⎛1⎞ 1

1−

=

=

2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 4

**135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

The cube root of –8 is the real number –2.

138.

5 3 1

+ −

4 4

= 22

Son’s portion:

16

**134. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

1

1

1

1

−

A sample change is: ( 8 ) 3 =

= 3 = .

1

2

8

(8) 3

A sample change is:

3

22 ⋅ 24

1

4

2 ⋅2 ÷2 =

8

**133. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

1

3

4

1

**132. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: Finding the nth root first often

gives smaller numbers on the middle step.

A sample change is: 7

5

2

2

Her son is 8 years old.

130. makes sense

3

3+ 2 3− 2

= 16

=4

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

(

3− 2

= 13 + 2 + 3 − 2

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

137. 5 +

⋅

= 13 + 2 +

= 8⋅ 2 5 + 2⋅ 4 5

= 16 5 + 8 5

7

22

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1

2

= 23 = 8

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

142. (2 x3 y 2 )(5 x 4 y 7 ) = 10 x7 y 9

143. 2 x 4 (8 x 4 + 3x) = 2 x 4 (8 x 4 ) + 2 x 4 (3 x) = 16 x8 + 6 x5

144. 2 x( x 2 + 4 x + 5) + 3( x 2 + 4 x + 5)

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 10 x + 3x 2 + 12 x + 15

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 3x 2 + 10 x + 12 x + 15

= 2 x3 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 15

Section P.4

Check Point Exercises

1.

(−17 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 11x − 5) + (16 x 3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 15)

a.

= (−17 x 3 + 16 x3 ) + (4 x 2 − 3x 2 ) + (−11x + 3x) + (−5 − 15)

= − x 3 + x 2 − 8 x − 20

b.

(13x 2 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) − (−7 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 9)

= (13 x3 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) + (7 x3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 9)

= (13 x3 + 7 x 3 ) + (−9 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (1 − 9)

= 20 x3 − 11x 2 − 2 x − 8

2.

(5 x − 2)(3x 2 − 5 x + 4)

= 5 x(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4) − 2(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4)

= 5 x ⋅ 3x 2 − 5 x ⋅ 5 x + 5 x ⋅ 4 − 2 ⋅ 3 x 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅ 4

= 15 x 3 − 25 x 2 + 20 x − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 8

= 15 x 3 − 31x 2 + 30 x − 8

3.

(7 x − 5)(4 x − 3) = 7 x ⋅ 4 x + 7 x(−3) + (−5)4 x + (−5)(−3)

= 28 x 2 − 21x − 20 x + 15

= 28 x 2 − 41x + 15

4.

a.

(7 x − 6 y )(3x − y ) = (7 x)(3 x) + (7 x)(− y ) + (−6 y )(3x) + (−6 y )(− y )

= 21x 2 − 7 xy − 18 xy + 6 y 2

= 21x 2 − 25 xy + 6 y 2

5.

b.

(2 x + 4 y )2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(4 y ) + (4 y ) 2 = 4 x 2 + 16 xy + 16 y 2

a.

(3 x + 2 + 5y )(3x + 2 − 5y ) = (3x + 2)2 − (5y )2

= 9x 2 + 12 x + 4 − 25y 2

2

2

= 9x + 12 x − 25y + 4

b.

(2 x + y + 3) 2 = (2 x + y )2 + 2(2 x + y )(3) + 32

= 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 12 x + 6y + 9

2

2

= 4 x + 4 xy + 12 x + y + 6y + 9

23

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Exercise Set P.4

1.

yes; 2 x + 3 x 2 − 5 = 3 x 2 + 2 x − 5

2.

no; The term 3x −1 does not have a whole number exponent.

3.

no; The form of a polynomial involves addition and subtraction, not division.

4.

yes; x 2 − x 3 + x 4 − 5 = x 4 − x3 + x 2 − 5

5.

**3x 2 has degree 2
**

−5x has degree 1

4 has degree 0

3 x 2 − 5 x + 4 has degree 2.

6.

**−4x 3 has degree 3
**

7x 2 has degree 2

–11 has degree 0

−4 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 11 has degree 3.

7.

x 2 has degree 2

−4x 3 has degree 3

9x has degree 1

−12x 4 has degree 4

63 has degree 0

x 2 − 4 x 3 + 9 x − 12 x 4 + 63 has degree 4.

8.

x 2 has degree 2

−8x 3 has degree 3

15x 4 has degree 4

91 has degree 0

x 2 − 8 x3 + 15 x 4 + 91 has degree 4.

9.

(−6 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 8 x + 9) + (17 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 13) = (−6 x 3 + 17 x 3 ) + (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 ) + (−8 x − 4 x) + (9 − 13)

= 11x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 4

The degree is 3.

10.

**(−7 x3 + 6 x 2 − 11x + 13) + (19 x3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 17) = (−7 x3 + 19 x3 ) + (6 x 2 − 11x 2 ) + (−11x + 7 x) + (13 − 17)
**

= 12 x3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x − 4

The degree is 3.

11.

(17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) − (5 x3 − 9 x 2 − 8 x + 11) = (17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) + (−5 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 8 x − 11)

= (17 x3 − 5 x3 ) + (−5 x 2 + 9 x 2 ) + (4 x + 8 x) + (−3 − 11)

= 12 x3 + 4 x 2 + 12 x − 14

The degree is 3.

12.

(18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) − (9 x 4 − 6 x3 − 5 x + 7) = (18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) + (−9 x 4 + 6 x3 + 5 x − 7)

= (18 x 4 − 9 x 4 ) + (−2 x3 + 6 x3 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (8 − 7)

= 9 x 4 + 4 x3 − 2 x + 1

The degree is 4.

24

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PreCalculus 4E

13.

Section P.4

(5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) − ( x 2 − 4 x − 3) = (5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) + (− x 2 + 4 x + 3)

= (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 − x 2 ) + (−7 x − 3 x + 4 x) + (−8 + 7 + 3)

= 6x2 − 6x + 2

The degree is 2.

14.

(8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) − (3 x 2 − 4 x) − (−6 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 3) = (8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) + (−3x 2 + 4 x) + (6 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3)

= 6 x 3 + (8 x 2 − 3x 2 + 5 x 2 ) + (7 x + 4 x) + (−5 − 3)

= 6 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 11x − 8

The degree is 3.

15.

( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) = x( x 2 ) − x ⋅ x + x ⋅1 + 1( x 2 ) − 1 ⋅ x + 1 ⋅1

= x3 − x 2 + x + x 2 − x + 1

= x3 + 1

16.

( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 5 x + 25 ) = x( x 2 ) − x(5 x) + x(25) + 5( x 2 ) − 5(5 x) + 5(25)

= x 3 − 5 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125)

= x 3 + 125

17.

(2 x − 3)( x 2 − 3x + 5) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−3x) + (2 x)(5) + (−3)( x 2 ) + (−3)(−3x) + (−3)(5)

= 2 x 3 − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 3x 2 + 9 x − 15

= 2 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 19 x − 15

18.

(2 x − 1)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−4 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−1)( x 2 ) + (−1)(−4 x) + (−1)(3)

= 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − x 2 + 4 x − 3

= 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 10 x − 3

19.

( x + 7)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x + 7 x + 21 = x 2 + 10 x + 21

20.

( x + 8)( x + 5) = x 2 + 5 x + 8 x + 40 = x 2 + 13x + 40

21.

( x − 5)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x − 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 2 x − 15

22.

( x − 1)( x + 2) = x 2 + 2 x − x − 2 = x 2 + x − 2

23.

(3 x + 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + 3 x(1) + 5(2 x) + 5 = 6 x 2 + 3x + 10 x + 5 = 6 x 2 + 13x + 5

24.

(7 x + 4)(3x + 1) = (7 x)(3x) + 7 x(1) + 4(3x) + 4(1) = 21x 2 + 7 x + 12 x + 4 = 21x 2 + 19 x + 4

25.

(2 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (2 x)(5 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−3)(5 x) + (−3)(3) = 10 x 2 + 6 x − 15 x − 9 = 10 x 2 − 9 x − 9

26.

(2 x − 5)(7 x + 2) = (2 x )(7 x) + (2 x)(2) + (−5)(7 x) + (−5)(2) = 14 x 2 + 4 x − 35 x − 10 = 14 x 2 − 31x − 10

27.

(5 x 2 − 4)(3 x 2 − 7) = (5 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (5 x 2 )(−7) + (−4)(3x 2 ) + (−4)(−7) = 15 x 4 − 35 x 2 − 12 x 2 + 28 = 15 x 4 − 47 x 2 + 28

28.

(7 x 2 − 2)(3 x 2 − 5) = (7 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (7 x 2 )(−5) + (−2)(3 x 2 ) + (−2)(−5) = 21x 4 − 35 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 10 = 21x 4 − 41x 2 + 10

29.

(8 x

3

+ 3)( x 2 − 5 ) = ( 8 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 8 x 3 ) ( −5 ) + ( 3) ( x 2 ) + ( 3)( −5 ) = 8 x5 − 40 x 3 + 3 x 2 − 15

25

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

30.

(7x

31.

( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 32 = x 2 − 9

32.

( x + 5)( x − 5) = x 2 − 52 = x 2 − 25

33.

(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) = (3 x) 2 − 22 = 9 x 2 − 4

34.

(2 x + 5)(2 x − 5) = (2 x)2 − 52 = 4 x 2 − 25

35.

(5 − 7 x)(5 + 7 x) = 52 − (7 x) 2 = 25 − 49 x 2

36.

(4 − 3x)(4 + 3x) = 42 − (3x) 2 = 16 − 9 x 2

37.

(4 x 2 + 5 x)(4 x 2 − 5 x) = (4 x 2 ) 2 − (5 x) 2 = 16 x 4 − 25 x 2

38.

(3 x 2 + 4 x)(3x 2 − 4 x) = (3x 2 ) 2 − (4 x) 2 = 9 x 4 − 16 x 2

39.

(1 − y )(1 + y ) = (1) − ( y )

40.

( 2 − y )( 2 + y ) = ( 2 ) − ( y )

41.

( x + 2) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = x 2 + 4 x + 4

42.

( x + 5) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = x 2 + 10 x + 25

43.

(2 x + 3)2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(3) + 32 = 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9

44.

(3 x + 2)2 = (3x) 2 + 2(3x)(2) + 22 = 9 x 2 + 12 x + 4

45.

( x − 3) 2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 3 + 32 = x 2 − 6 x + 9

46.

( x − 4)2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 4 + 42 = x 2 − 8 x + 16

47.

(4 x 2 − 1) 2 = (4 x 2 ) 2 − 2(4 x 2 )(1) + 12 = 16 x 4 − 8 x 2 + 1

48.

(5 x 2 − 3)2 = (5 x 2 ) 2 − 2(5 x 2 )(3) + 32 = 25 x 4 − 30 x 2 + 9

49.

(7 − 2 x)2 = 7 2 − 2(7)(2 x) + (2 x) 2 = 49 − 28 x + 4 x 2 = 4 x 2 − 28 x + 49

50.

(9 − 5 x) 2 = 92 − 2(9)(5 x) + (5 x) 2 = 81 − 90 x + 25 x 2 or 25 x 2 − 90 x + 81

51.

( x + 1)3 = x3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅1 + 3x ⋅12 + 13 = x3 + 3 x 2 + 3 x + 1

52.

( x + 2)3 = x 3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 22 + 23 = x 3 + 6 x 2 + 12 x + 8

53.

(2 x + 3)3 = (2 x)3 + 3 ⋅ (2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x) ⋅ 32 + 33 = 8 x 3 + 36 x 2 + 54 x + 27

3

+ 5 )( x 2 − 2 ) = ( 7 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 7 x 3 ) ( −2 ) + ( 5 ) ( x 2 ) + ( 5 )( −2 ) = 7 x5 − 14 x3 + 5 x 2 − 10

5

5

5 2

2

5

5

2

= 1 − y10

5 2

= 4 − y10

26

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PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

54.

(3 x + 4)3 = (3x)3 + 3(3x) 2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3x) ⋅ 42 + 43 = 27 x 3 + 108 x 2 + 144 x + 64

55.

( x − 3)3 = x3 − 3 ⋅ x 3 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 32 − 33 = x 3 − 9 x 2 + 27 x − 27

56.

( x − 1)3 = x 3 − 3x 2 ⋅1 + 3 x ⋅12 − 13 = x3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1

57.

(3 x − 4)3 = (3x)3 − 3(3 x)2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3 x) ⋅ 42 − 43 = 27 x 3 − 108 x 2 + 144 x − 64

58.

(2 x − 3)3 = (2 x)3 − 3(2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x ) ⋅ 32 − 33 = 8 x3 − 36 x 2 + 54 x − 27

59.

( x + 5 y )(7 x + 3 y ) = x(7 x) + x(3 y ) + (5 y )(7 x) + (5 y )(3 y )

= 7 x 2 + 3 xy + 35 xy + 15 y 2

= 7 x 2 + 38 xy + 15 y 2

60.

( x + 9 y )(6 x + 7 y ) = x(6 x) + x(7 y ) + (9 y )(6 x) + (9 y )(7 y )

= 6 x 2 + 7 xy + 54 xy + 63 y 2

= 6 x 2 + 61xy + 63 y 2

61.

( x − 3 y )(2 x + 7 y ) = x(2 x) + x (7 y ) + (−3 y )(2 x) + (−3 y )(7 y )

= 2 x 2 + 7 xy − 6 xy − 21y 2

= 2 x 2 + xy − 21 y 2

62.

(3 x − y )(2 x + 5 y ) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(5 y ) + (− y )(2 x) + (− y )(5 y )

= 6 x 2 + 15 xy − 2 xy − 5 y 2

= 6 x 2 + 13xy − 5 y 2

63.

(3 xy − 1)(5 xy + 2) = (3xy )(5 xy ) + (3xy )(2) + (−1)(5 xy ) + (−1)(2)

= 15 x 2 y 2 + 6 xy − 5 xy − 2

= 15 x 2 y 2 + xy − 2

64.

(7 x 2 y + 1)(2 x 2 y − 3) = (7 x 2 y )(2 x 2 y ) + (7 x 2 y )(−3) + (1)2 x 2 y + (1)(−3)

= 14 x 4 y 2 − 21x 2 y + 2 x 2 y − 3

= 14 x 4 y 2 − 19 x 2 y − 3

65.

(7 x + 5 y ) 2 = (7 x) 2 + 2(7 x)(5 y ) + (5 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 + 70 xy + 25 y 2

66.

(9 x + 7 y )2 = (9 x)2 + 2(9 x )(7 y ) + (7 y )2 = 81x 2 + 126 xy + 49 y 2

67.

( x 2 y 2 − 3) 2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(3) + 32 = x 4 y 4 − 6 x 2 y 2 + 9

68.

( x 2 y 2 − 5)2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(5) + 52 = x 4 y 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 25

69.

( x − y )( x 2 + xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x( xy ) + x( y 2 ) + (− y )( x 2 ) + (− y )( xy ) + (− y )( y 2 )

= x3 + x 2 y + xy 2 − x 2 y − xy 2 − y 3

= x3 − y 3

27

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

70.

( x + y )( x 2 − xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x(− xy ) + x( y 2 ) + y ( x 2 ) + y (− xy ) + y ( y 2 )

= x 3 − x 2 y + xy 2 + x 2 y − xy 2 + y 3

= x3 + y 3

71.

(3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = (3x) 2 − (5 y )2 = 9 x 2 − 25 y 2

72.

(7 x + 3 y )(7 x − 3 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (3 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 9 y 2

73.

( x + y + 3)( x + y − 3) = ( x + y ) 2 − 32 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 9

74.

( x + y + 5)( x + y − 5) = ( x + y )2 − 52 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 25

75.

(3 x + 7 − 5 y )(3x + 7 + 5 y ) = (3x + 7) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 + 42 x + 49 − 25 y 2

76.

(5 x + 7 y − 2)(5 x + 7 y + 2) = (5 x + 7 y ) 2 − 22 = 25 x 2 + 70 xy + 49 y 2 − 4

77.

[5 y − (2 x + 3)][5 y + (2 x + 3)] = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 3) 2 = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 12 x + 9) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 12 x − 9

78.

[8 y + (7 − 3x)][8 y − (7 − 3x)] = (8 y ) 2 − (7 − 3x) 2 = 64 y 2 − (49 − 42 x + 9 x 2 ) = 64 y 2 − 49 + 42 x − 9 x 2

79.

( x + y + 1) 2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y ) + 1 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 2 x + 2 y + 1

80.

( x + y + 2)2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y )(2) + 22 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 4 y + 4

81.

(2 x + y + 1) 2 = (2 x + y ) 2 + 2(2 x + y ) + 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 2 y + 1

82.

(5 x + 1 + 6 y )2 = (5 x + 1) 2 + 2(5 x + 1)(6 y ) + (6 y )2 = 25 x 2 + 10 x + 60 xy + 1 + 12 y + 36 y 2

83.

(3 x + 4 y )

2

2

2

2

2

2

− ( 3x − 4 y ) = ⎡( 3x ) + 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(3 x ) − 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤

⎣

⎦ ⎣

⎦

(

) (

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 24 xy + 16 y 2

)

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 + 24 xy − 16 y 2

= 48 xy

84.

(5 x + 2 y )

2

2

2

2

2

2

− ( 5 x − 2 y ) = ⎡(5 x ) + 2 ( 5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(5 x ) − 2 (5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤

⎣

⎦ ⎣

⎦

(

) (

= 25 x 2 + 20 xy + 4 y 2 − 25 x 2 − 20 xy + 4 y 2

= 25 x + 20 xy + 4 y − 25 x + 20 xy − 4 y

2

2

2

)

2

= 40 xy

85.

(5 x − 7 )( 3x − 2) − ( 4 x − 5)( 6 x − 1)

2

2

= ⎡15 x − 10 x − 21x + 14⎤ − ⎡24 x − 4 x − 30 x + 5⎤

⎣

(

2

⎦ ⎣

) (

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x − 34 x + 5

2

)

⎦

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x + 34 x − 5

2

= −9 x + 3 x + 9

28

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. Section P. (3 x + 4)( 3x − 4) (9 x 2 + 16) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 3 x ) − 4 ⎤ 9 x + 16 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 9 x ) − (16 ) 2 2 = 9 x − 16 9 x + 16 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 81x − 256 ( 2 x − 7 ) = 2 x − 7 5 −3 ( ) 3 ( 2 x − 7) 5 89. = ( 5 x − 3) 2 = ( 5 x ) − 2 ( 5 x )( 3) + ( 3) 2 2 2 = 25 x − 30 x + 9 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 2 x + 5)( 2 x − 5) ( 4 x 2 + 25) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 2 x ) − 5 ⎤ 4 x + 25 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 4 x ) − ( 25) 2 2 = 4 x − 25 4 x + 25 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 16 x − 625 88.4 (3 x + 5)( 2 x − 9) − ( 7 x − 2)( x − 1) ( = (6 x ) ( 2 2 = 6 x − 27 x + 10 x − 45 − 7 x − 7 x − 2 x + 2 2 ) ( 2 − 17 x − 45 − 7 x − 9 x + 2 2 ) ) 2 = 6 x − 17 x − 45 − 7 x + 9 x − 2 2 = − x − 8 x − 47 87. = ( 2 x − 7) 2 = ( 2 x ) − 2 ( 2 x )( 7 ) + ( 7 ) 2 2 2 = 4 x − 28 x + 49 ( 5 x − 3) = 5 x − 3 6 − 4 ( ) 4 ( 5 x − 3) 6 90.PreCalculus 4E 86. Inc.

995 x + 63.220 shown in the bar graph by $225. 995 x + 63. 44. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. a. 539 − $15. d. 348 The difference in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $12.748 The model estimates the median annual income for a woman with 18 years of education to be $53.210 M − W = −35(16)3 + 1373(16) 2 − 15. 210 c.995. M = 177 x 2 + 288 x + 7075 M = 177(16)2 + 288(16) + 7075 = 56. 995(14) + 63. 481 = 10. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. d. 446 + 14. a. 418 = $121. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 210 = 12. 210 M − W = −35(14)3 + 1373(14) 2 − 15. 923 = $1425. 404 − 33. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48.316 shown in the bar graph by $2432. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. ( x 8 − 2x )(5 − 2 x ) = x ( 40 − 26 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 40 x − 26 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 26 x + 40 x 30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The model overestimates this difference by $12. b.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 91.995 x + 63. Inc. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. 539 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. ( x 8 − 2x )(10 − 2 x ) = x ( 80 − 36 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 80 x − 36 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 36 x + 80 x 94. 923 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $10. 336 = 53. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. W = 255 x 2 − 2956 x + 24. b. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48.748.336 W = 255(18)2 − 2956(18) + 24. The model underestimates the actual value of $57. 220 − 41.348 − $10. 995(16) + 63.539.348. The model underestimates this difference by $15.210 c.418. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. 57. 995 The model estimates the median annual income for a man with 16 years of education to be $56. . 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 681 = 15. 92. 418 The difference in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15. The model overestimates the actual value of $51.995 x + 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 210 = 15. 446 + 14. 93.923.

Inc. makes sense. – 102. 103. ( x + 3)( x + 4 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 112. Explanations will vary. (2x − 1)x(x + 3) − x(x − 2)x = (2x 2 + 5x − 3)(x + 2) − x 2 (x − 2) 3 2 3 = 2x + 5x − 3x − x + 2x 2 = x 3 + 7x 2 − 3x 109. (4 x + 1)(2 x − 3 ) = 8 x 2 − 10 x − 3 31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 105. does not make sense. makes sense 104. . Section P. ( x + 4) ( x + 3) − ( x + 2) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − ( x 2 + 3x + 2 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − x 2 − 3x − 2 = 4 x + 10 97. ( x + 3)( x − 1) + (( x + 3) − x)( x − ( x − 1)) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) + 3( x − x + 1) = x 2 − x + 3x − 3 + 3 = x2 + 2 x 108.PreCalculus 4E 95. although answers may vary 107. Answers may vary. Sample explanation: FOIL is used to multiply two binomials. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (y n + 2)(y n − 2) − (y n − 3)2 = y 2 n − 4 − (y 2 n − 6y n + 9) =y 2n −4 −y 2n n + 6y − 9 = 6y n −13 111. (x + 5)(2x + 1)(x + 2) − 3 ⋅ x(x + 5) = (2x 2 + 11x + 5)(x + 2) − 3x 2 −15x 3 2 2 = 2x + 15x + 27x + 10 − 3x − 15x = 2x 3 + 12x 2 + 12x + 10 110. makes sense 106.4 ( x + 9) ( x + 3) − ( x + 5) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − ( x 2 + 6 x + 5 ) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − x 2 − 6 x − 5 = 6 x + 22 96. ( x − 2 )( x − 12) = x 2 − 14 x + 24 113.

Thus. Find two numbers whose product is 40 and whose sum is 13. Find two numbers whose product is –14 and whose sum is –5. 2. x 2 − 5 x − 14 = ( x − 7)( x + 2) or ( x + 2)( x − 7). 32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (6 x )(x ) 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = ( 3x )( 2 x ) Find two Last terms whose product is –7. Find two First terms whose product is 6 x 2 . 10 x3 − 4 x 2 = 2 x 2 (5 x) − 2 x 2 (2) = 2 x 2 (5 x − 2) b.5 Check Point Exercises 1. Thus. Possible Factors of 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 Sum of Outside and Inside Products (Should Equal 19x) (6 x + 1)( x − 7) −42 x + x = −41x (6 x − 7)( x + 1) 6x − 7x = −x (6 x − 1)( x + 7) 42 x − x = 41x (6 x + 7)( x − 1) −6 x + 7 x = x (3 x + 1)(2 x − 7) −21x + 2 x = −19 x (3 x − 7)(2 x + 1) 3x − 14 x = −11x (3 x − 1)(2 x + 7) 21x − 2 x = 19 x (3 x + 7)(2 x − 1) −3x + 14 x = 11x Thus. The possible factors are 1(–7) and –1(7). a. x 2 + 13x + 40 = ( x + 5)( x + 8) or ( x + 8)( x + 5) 4. 2 x( x − 7) + 3( x − 7) = ( x − 7)(2 x + 3) x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = ( x3 + 5 x 2 ) − (2 x + 10) = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = ( x + 5)( x 2 − 2) 3. The required integers are –7 and 2.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Section P. Inc. 5. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (3x − 1)(2 x + 7) or (2 x + 7)(3 x − 1). Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is 19x. The required integers are 8 and 5.

Inc. factored completely. Express each term as the square of some monomial. 3x 3 − 30 x 2 + 75 x = 3 x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) Factor the perfect square trinomial. 3x 2 − 13xy + 4 y 2 = (3x )(x ) Find two Last terms whose product is 4 y 2 . (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) = (9 x 2 + 4) ⎡⎣(3x) 2 − 22 ⎤⎦ = (9 x 2 + 4)(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) Thus. 3x 2 − 13xy + y 2 = (3x − y )( x − 4 y ) or ( x − 4 y )(3x − y ). (4 y )( y ) . 9. The possible factors are (2 y )(2 y ) . x 2 + 14 x + 49 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 = ( x + 7) 2 b. (−2 y )(−2 y ) . 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 = (4 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 x 3 + 1 = x 3 + 13 = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x ⋅ 1 + 12 ) = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) b.PreCalculus 4E 6. a. Thus. = (4 x − 7) 2 . Then use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . 125 x 3 − 8 = (5 x)3 − 23 = (5 x − 2) ⎡⎣ (5 x)2 + (5 x)(2) + 22 ⎤⎦ = (5 x − 2)(25 x 2 + 10 x + 4) 11. 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 is a perfect square trinomial. 10. 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 + 4)(3x + 2)(3x − 2). Section P. Since 16 x 2 = (4 x) 2 and 49 = 7 2 . 3x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) = 3x ( x − 5 ) 2 33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. 7. 8. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is −13xy . Express 9 x 2 − 4 as the difference of two squares and again use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . a. x 2 − 81 = x 2 − 92 = ( x + 9)( x − 9) b. Since 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 = 56 x. 36 x 2 − 25 = (6 x) 2 − 52 = (6 x + 5)(6 x − 5) Express 81x 4 − 16 as the difference of two squares and use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. and (−4 y )(− y ) .5 Find two First terms whose product is 3 x 2 . 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 42 = (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) The factor 9 x 2 − 4 is the difference of two squares and can be factored. check to see if the middle term can be expressed as twice the product of 4x and 7. Factor out the greatest common factor.

6x 2 –11x + 4 = (2x – 1)(3x – 4) 7. 9 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = (3 x − 1)(3x − 2) 11. = ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 4 ) = x 2 + 20 x + 100 − 36a 2 = ( x 2 + 20 x + 100 ) − 36a 2 13. 16x – 24 = 8(2x) + 8(–3) = 8(2x – 3) 3. x 2 – 8x + 15 = (x – 5)(x – 3) 22. x 2 ( 2 x + 5 ) + 17 ( 2 x + 5) = ( 2 x + 5) ( x 2 + 17 ) 31.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 12. 4 x 2 + 16 x + 15 = (2 x + 3)(2 x + 5) 9. 15. 18 x + 27 = 9 ⋅ 2 x + 9 ⋅ 3 = 9(2 x + 3) 2. 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 = (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 25. Inc. x 2 – 2x – 15 = (x – 5)(x + 3) 20. . 20 x 2 + 27 x − 8 = (5 x + 8)(4 x − 1) Exercise Set P. 3x + 6 x = 3x ⋅ x + 3x ⋅ 2 = 3x ( x + 2) 4. Reorder to write as a difference of squares.5 1. ( 2 x − 1) x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 5 = x 2 ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 5 ) 1 2 17. x 3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 10 = x 2 ( x − 2) + 5( x − 2) 32. 3x 2 − 2 x − 5 = (3x − 5)( x + 1) = 6 x2 ( x2 − 3x + 2 ) 27. x 3 − 3x 2 + 4 x − 12 = x 2 ( x − 3) + 4 ( x − 3) 16. 8 x 2 + 33 x + 4 = (8 x + 1)( x + 4) 10. 6 x 2 − 17 x + 12 = (2 x − 3)(3x − 4) 8. x 2 + 5 x + 6 = ( x + 2)( x + 3) 18. x 2 − 14 x + 45 = ( x − 5)( x − 9) 23. x(x + 5) + 3(x + 5) = (x + 5)(x + 3) 28. x 2 − 36a 2 + 20 x + 100 12. 3x 2 – 25x – 28 = (3x – 28)(x + 1) 26. 2 = ( x + 10 + 6a )( x + 10 − 6a ) x ( x − 1) −1 2 14. 9 x 4 − 18 x3 + 27 x 2 2 2 = 9 x 2 ( x 2 ) + 9 x 2 (−2 x) + 9 x 2 (3) = 9 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 3) 6. x 2 ( x − 3) + 12( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 12) 30. = ( x − 1) ⎣⎡ x + ( x − 1) ⎦⎤ ( 2 x − 1) = ( x − 1) 3x 3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x + 4 = x 2 (3x − 2) − 2(3x − 2) = (3x − 2)( x 2 − 2) − 12 − 12 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 2 x − 12 = x 2 ( x + 6 ) − 2 ( x + 6 ) = ( x + 6) ( x2 − 2) 1 + ( x − 1) 2 1− −1 −1 = ( x − 1) 2 ⎡ x + ( x − 1) 2 ( 2 ) ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ = ( x − 1) x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 2 = x 2 ( x − 1) + 2( x − 1) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 2) = ( x + 10 ) − 36a 2 13. 4 x − 8 x = 4x(x) + 4x(–2) = 4x(x – 2) 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3x 2 – x – 2 = (3x + 2)(x – 1) 24. x 2 − 4 x − 5 = ( x − 5)( x + 1) 21. 9 x 2 + 5 x − 4 = (9 x − 4)( x + 1) 33. x 2 + 8 x + 15 = ( x + 3)( x + 5) 19. 6 x 4 − 18 x 3 + 12 x 2 = 6 x ( x ) + 6 x (−3x) + 6 x (2) 2 2 2 2 = ( x 2 + 5)( x − 2) 34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x(2x + 1) + 4(2x + 1) = (2x + 1)(x + 4) 29.

44. 8 x 3 + 125 = (2 x)3 + 53 = (2 x + 5)[(2 x)2 − (2 x)(5) + 52 ] = (2 x + 5)(4 x 2 − 10 x + 25) 65. 6 x 2 − 7 xy − 5 y 2 = (3 x − 5 y )(2 x + y ) 39. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 + 4 x + 4 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = ( x + 2) 2 51. x 2 − 14 x + 49 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 64 x3 + 27 = (4 x)3 + 33 = (4 x + 3)(16 x 2 − 12 x + 9) 64. 36 x 2 − 49 = (6 x) 2 − 7 2 = (6 x + 7)(6 x − 7) 42. 9 x 2 − 25 y 2 = (3 x) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = (3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) 36 x 2 − 49 y 2 = (6 x) 2 − (7 y ) 2 = (6 x + 7 y )(6 x − 7 y ) 59. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 2 2 = (4 x + 3)[(4 x) 2 − (4 x)(3) + 32 ] = (9 x + 1)(3x + 1)(3 x − 1) 2 49. 6 x − 5 xy − 6 y = (3x + 2 y )(2 x − 3 y ) 38. x 2 − 144 = x 2 − 122 = ( x + 12)( x − 12) 57. = (4 x + 9)(2 x + 3)(2 x − 3) 2 27 x 3 − 1 = (3x)3 − 13 = (3x − 1)[(3x) 2 + (3 x)(1) + 12 ] = (3x − 1)(9 x 2 + 3 x + 1) 81x 4 − 1 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 12 = (9 x 2 + 1)(9 x 2 − 1) 63. x 2 + 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅1 + 12 = ( x + 1) 2 50. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = ( x − 5) 2 35. x 3 − 64 = x3 − 43 = ( x − 4)( x 2 + x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 46. Inc. 64 x − 81 = (8 x ) − 9 = (8 x + 9)(8 x − 9) 2 = (2 x + 1) 2 2 2 2 54. . x 3 + 27 = x3 + 33 41. 2 x 2 + 3xy + y 2 = (2 x + y )( x + y ) 53. 45. 3x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 = (3x + y )( x + y ) 37. = (9 x + 1)[(3 x) − 1 ] 2 x 3 − 27 = x 3 − 33 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 48.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 15 x 2 − 19 x + 6 = (3x − 2)(5 x − 3) 52. 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 = (2 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 2 x ⋅1 + 12 36. 43. 8 x 3 − 1 = (2 x)3 − 13 = (2 x − 1)[(2 x) 2 + (2 x)(1) + 12 ] 47. = ( x − 7) 2 3x 3 − 3x = 3x( x 2 − 1) = 3x( x + 1)( x − 1) 35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 34. = ( x − 4)( x 2 + 4 x + 16) x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 60. = ( x + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 3 x + 9) x 4 − 1 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 12 = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) 61. 64 x 2 − 16 x + 1 = (8 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 8 x ⋅1 + 12 = (8 x − 1) 2 40. 16 x 4 − 81 = (4 x 2 )2 − 92 = (2 x − 1)(4 x 2 + 2 x + 1) = (4 x 2 + 9)(4 x 2 − 9) = (4 x 2 + 9)[(2 x)2 − 32 ] 62. 9 x 2 − 6 x + 1 = (3x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 3 x ⋅1 + 12 = (3x − 1) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 3x + 9) 2 58. x 2 − 100 = x 2 − 102 = ( x + 10)( x − 10) 56. 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = (5 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x ⋅1 + 12 = (5 x + 1) 2 55.

x 2 + 64 is prime. . x 3 − 4 x = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x 2 − 22 ) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) 76. Inc. 36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 x 2 − 4 x − 24 = 4( x 2 − x − 6) = 4( x + 2)( x − 3) 68. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 9 x − 18 = ( x 3 + 2 x 2 ) − (9 x + 18) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 9( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 9)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 32 )( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2) 72. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 3 + 3x 2 − 25 x − 75 = ( x 3 + 3x 2 ) − (25 x + 75) = x 2 ( x + 3) − 25( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 25)( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 52 )( x + 3) = ( x − 5)( x + 5)( x + 3) 73. 6 x 2 − 6 x − 12 = 6( x 2 − x − 2) = 6( x − 2)( x + 1) 75. 6 x 2 − 18 x − 60 = 6( x 2 − 3 x − 10) = 6( x + 2)( x − 5) 69. 2 x 4 − 162 = 2( x 4 − 81) = 2[( x 2 ) 2 − 92 ] = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 9) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 32 ) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x + 3)( x − 3) 70. 78. 9 x3 − 9 x = 9 x( x 2 − 1) = 9 x( x − 1)( x + 1) 77.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 66. x 2 + 36 is prime. 5 x 3 − 45 x = 5 x( x 2 − 9) = 5 x( x + 3)( x − 3) 67. 7 x 4 − 7 = 7( x 4 − 1) = 7[( x 2 ) 2 − 12 ] = 7( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 7( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 71. 2 x 2 − 2 x − 112 = 2( x 2 − x − 56) = 2( x − 8)( x + 7) 74.

2 x 3 − 98a 2 x + 28 x 2 + 98 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 49a 2 +14 x + 49 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 +14 x + 49 ) − 49a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 7 ) − 49a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 7 − 7a )( x + 7 + 7a ) ⎣ ⎦ 93. 12 x 2 y − 27 y − 4 x 2 + 9 = (12 x 2 y − 27 y ) + ( −4 x 2 + 9 ) = 3 y ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) − 1( 4 x 2 − 9 ) = ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) ( 3 y − 1) = ( 2 x + 3)( 2 x − 3)( 3 y − 1) 91. 20 y 4 − 45 y 2 = 5 y 2 (4 y 2 − 9) = 5 y 2 [(2 y ) 2 − 32 ] = 5 y 2 (2 y + 3)(2 y − 3) 84. Section P.5 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−4 x − 8) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 4)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 22 )( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)2 80. y 5 − 81y = y ( y 4 − 81) = y[( y 2 )2 − 92 ] = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 9) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 32 ) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y + 3)( y − 3) 82. x 2 − 12 x + 36 − 49 y 2 = ( x 2 − 12 x + 36 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 + 7 y ) ( x − 6 − 7 y ) 2 86.PreCalculus 4E 79. y 5 − 16 y = y ( y 4 − 16) = y[( y 2 ) 2 − 42 ] = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 4) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 22 ) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y + 2)( y − 2) 83. Inc. x 2 − 10 x + 25 − 36 y 2 = ( x 2 − 10 x + 25) − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5)2 − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5 + 6 y )( x − 5 − 6 y ) 87. 48 y 4 − 3 y 2 = 3 y 2 (16 y 2 − 1) = 3 y 2 [(4 y )2 − 12 ] = 3 y 2 (4 y + 1)(4 y − 1) 85. x 2 y − 16 y + 32 − 2 x 2 = ( x 2 y − 16 y ) + ( −2 x 2 + 32 ) = y ( x 2 − 16 ) − 2 ( x 2 − 16 ) = ( x 2 − 16 ) ( y − 2 ) = ( x + 4 )( x − 4 )( y − 2 ) 90. 9b 2 x − 16 y − 16 x + 9b 2 y = ( 9b 2 x + 9b 2 y ) + ( −16 x − 16 y ) = 9b 2 ( x + y ) − 16 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) ( 9b 2 − 16 ) = ( x + y )( 3b + 4 )( 3b − 4 ) 88. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (− x − 2) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 1)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 12 )( x + 2) = ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x + 2) 81. 16a 2 x − 25 y − 25 x + 16a 2 y = (16a 2 x + 16a 2 y ) + ( −25 y − 25 x ) = 16a 2 ( x + y ) − 25 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) (16a 2 − 25 ) = ( x + y )( 4a + 5 )( 4a − 5 ) 89. . 2 x 3 − 8a 2 x + 24 x 2 + 72 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 4a 2 + 12 x + 36 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 + 12 x + 36 ) − 4a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 6 ) − 4a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 6 − 2a )( x + 6 + 2a ) ⎣ ⎦ 92. 3 1 1 1 ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ x 2 − x 2 = x 2 ⎜ x 2 2 ⎟ − 1 = x 2 ( x − 1) ⎝ ⎠ 37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

4x 1 − x4 − 23 96. 7 x 4 + 34 x 2 − 5 = ( 7 x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 5 ) 3 107. 6 x 4 + 35 x 2 − 6 = ( x 2 + 6 )( 6 x 2 − 1) 106. (x 1 1 3 3 1 − 2 ⎣ x2 + 4 2 3 2 ) ( − 12 + 3) + x2 + 4 − ( x + 5) −2 3 7 2 ) ( − 32 + ( x 2 + 3) = x2 + 4 = ( x + 5) −5 3 ) 3 2 1 1 ⎤ 2 ⎡1 − ( x + 3) ⎤ = ( x + 3) 2 ( − x − 2 ) = −( x + 3) 2 ( x + 2) = x + 3 ( ) ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢1 + x 2 + 4 ⎢ ⎣ ( 1 ) 7−3 ⎤ 2 2⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ( = x2 + 4 ) 3 2 ) ( 2⎤ ⎡ 2 2 ⎢1 + x + 4 ⎥ = x + 4 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ( 3 2 ) ( x4 + 8x2 + 17) 1 ⎛ 3⎞ x+4 − 32 ⎡ − −⎜ − ⎟ ⎤ −3 −3 3 ⎢( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − 1⎥ = ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎣⎡( x + 5 ) − 1⎦⎤ = ( x + 5) 2 ( x + 4 ) = ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) 2 = ( x 2 + 3) 5 −5 ⎡ 2 − 2 −⎛⎜ − 5 ⎞⎟ ⎤ x2 + 4 3 ⎢( x + 3) 3 ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ + 1⎥ = ( x 2 + 3)− 3 ⎡( x 2 + 3) + 1⎤ = 5 ⎣ ⎦ ( x 2 + 3) 3 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 1 3 1 ( 4 x − 1) 2 3 1 3 1 1 − ⎤ ⎡ 1 = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎢1 − ( 4 x − 1) 2 2 ⎥ = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎣ 3 ⎦ 101. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x + 5) 100. 12 x 2 ( x − 1) − 4 x ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) (12 x 2 − 4 x − 5 ) = ( x − 1)( 6 x − 5 )( 2 x + 1) 105. y 7 + y = y ( y 6 + 1) = y ⎡⎢( y 2 ) + 13 ⎤⎥ = y ( y 2 + 1)( y 4 − y 2 + 1) ⎣ ⎦ 38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −8 ( 4 x + 3) + 10 ( 5 x + 1) (4 x + 3)−1 = 2 ( 4 x + 3) ⎣⎡ −4 + 5 ( 5 x + 1)( 4 x + 3) ⎦⎤ = −2 −2 2(100 x 2 + 95 x + 11) (4 x + 3) 2 103. 10 x 2 ( x + 1) − 7 x ( x + 1) − 6 ( x + 1) = ( x + 1) (10 x 2 − 7 x − 6 ) = ( x + 1)( 5 x − 6 )( 2 x + 1) 104. . Inc. 12 x − 3 4 1 x4 = 1⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ x 4 4 − 1⎟ = x 4 ⎜ x 2 − 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 8x 3 = 4 x 1 ⎛ 2⎞ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 32 ⎛ −2 4 (1 + 2 x ) ⎜1 + 2 x 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎟ = 4 x 3 (1 + 2 x ) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ x3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 6x 4 = 6x − 3 4 1 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 ⎛ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 6( x + 2) ⎜ 2 + x 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎟ = 6x 4 (2 + x ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ x4 97. ( 99. ( x + 3) 2 − ( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3) 2 ⎡⎢1 − ( x + 3) 2 98. 3 x4 95.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. ( 4 x − 1) 2 − 1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ 2 ⎢⎣1 − 3 ( 4 x − 1) ⎥⎦ = ( 4 x − 1) 1⎤ ⎡ 4 ⎢⎣1 − 3 x + 3 ⎥⎦ 1 −4(4 x − 1) 2 ( x − 1) 4 ⎛4 4 ⎞ = ( 4 x − 1) ⎜ − x ⎟ = (4 x − 1) 2 (1 − x) = 3 3 ⎝3 3 ⎠ 1 1 2 102.

6 ) = 0.4 x )(1 − 0.7 x ) ( 0. 117.36 x No. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 118. b.4 ) = ( 0. a. the computer is selling at 36% of its original price. b.3 ( x − 0. 3x 2 + 5 xy 2 + 2 y 4 = 3 x + 2 y 2 b. a. a. ( x + y ) 4 − 100( x + y ) 2 = ( x + y ) )( x − 3 y ) ( )( x + y ) 116.3x ) − 0.5 + 1 = ( y + 1) + 13 = ⎡⎣( y + 1) + 1⎤⎦ ⎡( y + 1) − ( y + 1) + 1⎤ = ( y + 2 ) ⎡⎣( y 2 + 2 y + 1) − y − 1 + 1⎤⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 3 2 = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + 2 y + 1 − y − 1 + 1) = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + y + 1) ( 109. 2 ) − 100 = ( x + y )2 ( x + y − 10 ) ( x + y + 10 ) 2 114.7 ) = 0. ( y + 1) 3 Section P.4 x ) = ( x − 0.3) = ( 0. b.3x ) = ( x − 0. 119. a.3x ) (1 − 0.4 ( x − 0. 2 )( x ) − y 2 = ( x + 2 y )( x − 2 y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 ) − y 2 = ( x + 3 y )( x − 3 y )( x + y )( x − y ) ( x − y )4 − 4 ( x − y )2 2 2 2 = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y )2 − 4 ) = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y ) + 2 ) ( ( x − y ) − 2 ) = ( x − y ) ( x − y + 2 ) ( x − y − 2 ) 112. ( x − 0.49 x No. Inc. 2 x 2 − 7 xy 2 + 3 y 4 = 2 x − y 2 115. ( 3x ) 2 − 4 ⋅ 22 = 9 x 2 − 16 9 x 2 − 16 = ( 3x + 4 ) ( 3 x − 4 ) (7x) 2 − 4 ⋅ 32 = 49 x 2 − 36 49 x 2 − 36 = ( 7 x + 6 ) ( 7 x − 6 ) x ( x + y) − y ( x + y) x ( x + y ) − y ( x + y ) = ( x + y )( x − y ) x 2 + xy + xy + y 2 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 = ( x + y ) 2 39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 120. 2 2 ( x − 0. b. a. x 4 − 5 x 2 y 2 + 4 y 4 = x 2 − 4 y 2 )( x ( 110. the computer is selling at 49% of its original price. x 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 9 y 4 = x 2 − 9 y 2 111.6 x )( 0.PreCalculus 4E 108. ( ( x + y) ( 113.4 x ) − 0. b.

Sample explanation: 4 x 2 − 100 = 4( x 2 − 25) = 4( x + 5)( x − 5) 133. makes sense 134. . Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. false. A sample change is: x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 135. Explanations will vary. makes sense 132. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 3a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 3a = 3a3 − 3ab 2 ( = 3a a 2 − b2 ) = 3a ( a + b )( a − b ) 123. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Changes to make the statement true will vary.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. 137. Inc. false. x 2 n + 6 x n + 8 = ( x n + 4 )( x n + 2 ) 139. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 4a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 4a = 4a3 − 4ab 2 = 4a ( a 2 − b 2 ) = 4a ( a + b )( a − b ) 122. does not make sense. A sample change is: The binomial x 2 + 36 is prime. makes sense 131. − x 2 − 4 x + 5 = −1( x 2 + 4 x − 5 ) = −1( x + 5 )( x − 1) = − ( x + 5)( x − 1) 140. true 136. x 4 − y 4 − 2 x3 y + 2 xy3 = ( x 4 − y 4 ) + ( −2 x 3 y + 2 xy 3 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) − 2 xy ( x 2 − y 2 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 − 2 xy ) = ( x − y )( x + y ) ( x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 ) = ( x − y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 3 = ( x − y) ( x + y) 40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 130. Changes to make the statement true will vary. – 129. Answers may vary. A sample change is: x 3 − 64 = ( x − 4 )( x + 4 x + 16 ) 138.

– 16. Inc. 7 x + 3[9 − (2 x − 6)] = 7 x + 3[ 9 − 2 x + 6] = 7 x + 3 [15 − 2 x ] = 7 x + 45 − 6 x = x + 45 6. Mid-Chapter P Check Point −1 ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5) − 12 1 − ( x + 5) 2 ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) ( x + 5) −3 ⎛ ⎞ 1 −⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞⎟ ⎤ − 12 ⎡ − 1 − ⎜⎜ − 3 ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢( x − 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) −1 ⎡⎣( x − 5) − ( x + 5 ) ⎤⎦ −10 −3 −1 = ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5 ) 2 ( −10 ) = 3 1 ( x − 5) 2 ( x + 5) 2 2 2 142. (3 x + 5)(4 x − 7) = (3x)(4 x) + (3 x)(−7) + (5)(4 x) + (5)(−7) = 12 x 2 − 21x + 20 x − 35 = 12 x 2 − x − 35 2. (3 x + 5) − (4 x − 7) = 3x + 5 − 4 x + 7 = 3x − 4 x + 5 + 7 = − x + 12 6 + 9 6 = 10 6 4. − ⎛2⎞ 5 ⎜ 7 ⎟ − 32 = 1 − ⎝ ⎠ 6 0 9. or –c(c + 4). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 or –8 143. 2 1 ( 5 32 ) 2 = 1− 1 ( 2) 2 = 1− 1 3 = 4 4 (2 x − 5) − ( x 2 − 3x + 1) = 2 x − 5 − x 2 + 3x − 1 = − x 2 + 5 x − 6 41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. where c > 0 is an integer. 5 8 5 4⋅2 1 2 2 ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ = 4 15 4 5 ⋅ 3 1 3 3 146. . 3. 1 2 3 4 7 + = + = 2 3 6 6 6 Mid-Chapter P Check Point 1. 1 1 ⋅ 6 − ⋅6 ⎛ 31 − 12 ⎞ x2 2 −3 ⎜ x y ⎟ = x3 y 2 = x y = 3 y ⎝ ⎠ 8. x 2 + 6 x + 5 ( x + 5)( x + 1) x + 1 = = x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) x − 5 145. 4. b = 0. 144. b =16. x 2 + bx + 15 .PreCalculus 4E 141. (8 x − 3) 2 = (8 x)2 − 2(8 x)(3) + (3) 2 = 64 x 2 − 48 x + 9 7. 3. 3 12 − 27 = 3 ⋅ 2 3 − 3 3 = 6 3 − 3 3 = 3 3 5.

2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. 12 x 4 = x 12 = x 3 = 3 x 19. ( x − 2 y − 1) 2 = x ( x − 2 y − 1) − 2 y ( x − 2 y − 1) − ( x − 2 y − 1) = x 2 − 2 xy − x − 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 2 y − x + 2 y + 1 = x 2 − 4 xy + 4 y 2 − 2 x + 4 y + 1 21. e} ∪ {c.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. h} 14. . h} = {a. d . d . 24 × 103 24 103 = ⋅ = 12 ×10−3 = 1. c. f . {a. c.2 ×10−2 2 ×106 2 106 ( 3 22. [ 4 y − (3x + 2)][ 4 y + (3x + 2)] = (4 y)2 − (3x + 2)2 = 16 y 2 − (9 x 2 + 12 x + 4) = 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 12 x − 4 20. x 3 + x3 − x3 ⋅ x 3 = 2 x3 − x 6 = − x 6 + 2 x 3 12.2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. {a. d } 15. 23. d . Inc. 3 32 2 = 3 ) ( ) 32 3 = 16 = 3 24 = 2 3 2 2 ( x 3 + 2)( x 3 − 2) = x 6 − 4 42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d . 6 y3 ⎛ 1 −5 4 ⎞ −2 −1 −5 − 2 4 −1 ⎜ 3 x y ⎟ 18 x y = 6 x y = x 7 ⎝ ⎠ ( ) 1 4 18. e} ∩ {c. d . f . (9a − 10b)(2a + b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a )(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a)(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = 18a 2 + 9ab − 20ab − 10b 2 = 18a 2 − 11ab − 10b 2 13. f . h} = {c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 3x 2 ) ( ) y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 − −2 x 2 y 3 − 3xy + 5 y 2 = 3x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 + 2 x 2 y 3 − xy + 3xy + 4 y 2 − 5 y 2 = 5 x 2 y 3 + 2 xy − y 2 16. e. 24 x 2 y13 12 y15 2 − 5 13 − ( −2) −3 15 12 12 = − = − = − x y x y x3 −2 x 5 y −2 17. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 + 2 x − 5 x 2 + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x 2 + 2 x + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 11x 2 + 17 x − 5 11. c.

( ) x2 + 1 1 2 ( ) − 10 x 2 + 1 3 ⎧ ⎨ −11. 0. x 3 + 5 x 2 + 3x + 15 = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 5) 31. Since 2 − 13 < 0 then 2 − 13 = 13 − 2 39.5 109 A human brain has 4 times as many neurons as a gorilla brain. 3 × 1010 3 1010 = ⋅ = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus x 2 x = − x 2 x = − x3 40. 0. 140 ⋅ 3. ( x 2 + 2) 2 = ( x 2 ) 2 + 2( x 2 )(2) + (2) 2 = x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4 50 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 12 = 5 ⋅ 2 3 = 10 3 25. 64 y − y 4 = y 64 − y 3 = y ( 4 − y ) 16 + 4 y + y 2 33.45. 3x 2 − 4 xy − 7 y 2 = ( 3x − 7 y )( x + y ) 32. Inc.2 × 10 2 × 108 = 4. 26. .0 × 108 = 420 × 108 = 4.4 ×10 = 4 7. 50 x 3 + 20 x 2 + 2 x = 2 x 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = 2 x ( 5 x + 1) 34. x 2 − 6 x + 9 − 49 y 2 = ( x − 3) − 49 y 2 = ⎡⎣( x − 3) + 7 y ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣( x − 3) − 7 y ⎤⎦ = ( x − 3 + 7 y )( x − 3 − 7 y ) 35. x ( ) ( ( ) ) 2 2 − 3 2 − 2x − 1 2 1 + x2 = x 3 2 − (1 − 2 x + x ) = ( 1 − x) 2 2 3 x2 36. 7 x 2 − 22 x + 3 = ( 7 x − 1)( x − 3) 29. 30. 7 ⎩ − 1 2 ( 1 2 ) ( = x2 + 1 − ) ( 1 2 ) (x ⎡ x 2 + 1 − 10 ⎤ = x 2 + 1 ⎣ ⎦ − 2 x +3 x −3 ) ( )( ) ( x + 1) −9 = 2 1 2 ⎫ 25 ⎬ ⎭ 38. 37. − . Mid-Chapter P Check Point 11 11 3 = 11 7 + 3 77 + 11 3 77 + 11 3 ⋅ = = 49 − 3 46 7− 3 7+ 3 = 7− 3 11 ⋅ 3 3 3 = 11 3 3 28.2 × 1010 The total annual spending on ice cream is $4.5 ×109 7. 43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since x < 0 then x = − x .PreCalculus 4E 24. 27.2 × 1010 41. x 2 − 2 x + 4 is prime.

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c.8(10) + 64 N = 132 Model 1 predicts there will be 132 channels in 2010. Model 1: N = 6. x ≠ −2. b. b.5(6) + 62 N = 101 Model 2 underestimates the number of channels in 2006 by 3. a. a. x ≠ −1 Because the denominator has factors of x + 2. N = −0.6 Check Point Exercises 1.5(0) + 62 N = 62 Model 2 best describes the data in 2000. a. x3 + 3x 2 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 x+3 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 = x 2 .5 x 2 + 9. 3. .8(0) + 64 N = 64 Model 2: N = −0. x ≠ −3 Because the denominator is ( x + 1)( x + 1) . 2. x 2 − 36 = ( x + 6)( x − 6) The denominator would equal zero if x = −6 or x = 6. so –6 and 6 must both must be excluded from the domain.8 x + 64 N = 6.5(6) 2 + 9. x ≠ −3 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x2 −1 = 2 x + 2 x + 1 ( x + 1)( x + 1) x −1 = .5 x + 62 N = −0.8 x + 64 N = 6. Section P.5 x + 62 N = −0. and x ≠ −3. so –5 must be excluded from the domain.5 x 2 + 9. x − 2. b. Inc. x ≠ −1 x +1 x + 3 x2 − x − 6 ⋅ x2 − 4 x2 + 6x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 2) x+3 = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 2) = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x−3 = .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ −3 ( x − 2)( x + 3) Because the denominator is x + 3.5(0) 2 + 9. N = 6. x ≠ −2. x ≠ 2. x ≠ 2. The denominator would equal zero if x = −5. and x + 3.

x ≠ −1 Add numerators. x ≠ 0 and x ≠ = 4 + 3x 3 45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 8. x ≠ 0. x ≠ 1 x( x + 2) Find the least common denominator. x − 3. x 2 − 6 x + 9 = ( x − 3) 2 x 2 − 9 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) List the factors of the first denominator. x − 3. ( x − 3)( x − 3)( x + 3) or ( x − 3)2 ( x + 3) is the least common denominator. x + 3 The least common denominator is the product of all factors in the final list.PreCalculus 4E 4. 2 x − ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 3 5 + x + 1 x −1 3x( x − 1) + 5( x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3x − 3 + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 8x + 2 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) . Inc. x2 − 2x + 1 x2 + x − 2 ÷ 3x2 + 3 x3 + x 2 x − 2 x + 1 3x 2 + 3 = ⋅ 2 x3 + x x +x−2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) 3( x 2 + 1) = ⋅ x( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2)( x − 1) 3( x − 1) = . = 2 x − ( x 2 − 5 x − 4 x + 20) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 . putting this sum over the least common denominator. 7. x ≠ 0 1+3 4 + 3x x 4 4x 4x 2 − 3x −4 = 2x . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Write all rational expressions in terms of the least common denominator. x≠5 2( x − 5) 2 1−3 2 − 3x x 2 = 2x 2x . x ≠ −1 and x ≠ 1. x x−4 − 2 x − 10 x + 25 2 x − 10 x x−4 = − ( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5) 2x ( x − 4)( x − 5) = − 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) x 3x + 2 x − 3x − 2 − = x +1 x +1 x +1 −2 x − 2 = x +1 −2 ( x + 1) = x +1 = −2. x ≠ 4 + 3x 3 4x 2 − 3x 4 + 3 x = ÷ 2x 4x 2 − 3x 4 x = ⋅ 2 x 4 + 3x 2 − 3x 4 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 2 2 − 3x 2 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 1 2(2 − 3x) −4 . . x 2 − 10 x + 25 = ( x − 5) 2 2 x − 10 = 2( x − 5) The least common denominator is 2(x – 5)(x – 5). x ≠ −2. Factor each denominator completely. 6. = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 9. x − 3 Add any unlisted factors from the second denominator. 5. Section P. x − 3.

x≠3 x−3 15. x ≠ 2. x −1 x −1 = . –7 2 x − 49 ( x + 7)( x − 7) 5. x+ 1 x x = 1 x x x x = = = = ( x+3 3 3 ( ( ) − ( x) x+3 + x x + 3− x x+3 + x 7. 13 . Inc. 2. y 2 + 7 y − 18 ( y + 9 )( y − 2 ) y + 9 . 12. 2 3 x ≠ 5. x+7 x+7 = . –7 13. − 2 46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 − 8 x + 16 ( x − 4 )( x − 4 ) x − 4 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.x≠3 x −3 8. 10. x ≠ 7. x ≠ −7 =− x( x + 7) x+ 11. –1 = = y 2 + 5 y + 4 ( y + 4 )( y + 1) y + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 36 ( x + 6) 2 x+6 = = . –6 ( x − 7) 2 x 2 − 14 x + 49 14. −3 6 3 x−5 6 x + 9 x − 5 3(2 x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x − 15 4 x + 6 3( x − 5) 2(2 x + 3) 3 = 6 1 = . x ≠ 0. x 2 − 12 x + 36 ( x − 6 )( x − 6 ) x − 6 . 2 ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x − 36 x ≠ 6. x ≠ 5. 2 x − 2 2x + 6 x − 2 2( x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x + 9 2 x − 4 3( x + 3) 2( x − 2) 2 1 = = . x ≠ –1. = ( x − 7)( x + 7) x 2 − 49 x−7 . . ) y 2 − 4 y − 5 ( y − 5 )( y + 1) y − 5 . x+5 x+5 = . Multiply each of the three terms. and 7 by x+7 x the least common denominator of x( x + 7). 7 .6 1. x ≠ −9. 1 1 x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x+7⎠ ⎝ x⎠ x+7 x = 7 7 x( x + 7) x − ( x + 7) = 7 x( x + 7) −7 = 7 x( x + 7) 1 . 5 x + 4 x − 45 ( x + 9)( x − 5) 2 = x+3 − x 3 x+3 − x x+3 + x = ⋅ 3 x+3 ⋅ x 2 6. 1 x+3 + x Exercise Set P. x≠2 = = x − 4 x + 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 2 ) x − 2 9. = x+7 x ≠ 7.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 1 1 . 4 ( x − 2) 4x − 8 4 . y ≠ –4. –10 x + 11x + 10 ( x + 1)( x + 10) 16. 2 2 ) 12. = = 4 x − 24 4 ( x − 6) 4 2 x≠6 x +1 3/ 2 10. x≠4 = = 3x − 12 3( x − 4) 3 11. –5 2 x − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) 4. = = y 2 − 3 y + 2 ( y − 2 )( y − 1) y − 1 y ≠ 1. x ≠ −9 x+9 3. . x−3 x −3 = . 3 ( x − 3) 3x − 9 = x − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x − 3) x 2 3 .

1. = ⋅ = ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) x − 2 27. x 2 − 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x+2 ÷ = ÷ x − 2 4x − 8 x−2 4( x − 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) 4( x − 2) = ⋅ x−2 x+2 = 4( x − 2). x ≠ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ 0. –2 = 2 x3 − 8 x + 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 2 x + 4 ) x + 2 = ⋅ ⋅ 3x x 2 − 4 3x ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) = x + 5 4 x + 20 x + 5 4( x + 5) ÷ = ÷ 7 9 7 9 x+5 9 = ⋅ 7 4( x + 5) 9 = . 19. –3 29. x ≠ –2. 0. x 2 − 25 x 2 + 10 x + 25 ÷ 2 2x − 2 x + 4x − 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)2 = ÷ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5)( x − 1) ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)( x − 1) = ⋅ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5) 2 x −5 = . Inc. x 2 − 9 x 2 − 3x ⋅ 2 x2 x + x − 12 x( x − 3) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ 2 ( x + 4)( x − 3) x ( x − 3)( x + 3) = . 3 21. x ≠ 1.PreCalculus 4E 17. − 3 = 3 x2 + 2 x + 4 . –5 2 x2 + 6 x + 9 1 ⋅ x 3 + 27 x + 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) 1 1 = ⋅ = 2 . x ≠ 3. x ≠ –2. 2 3x 28. 28 x ≠ –5 2 25. 2 x 2 = 20. 3 x+2 x2 + 5x + 6 x 2 − 9 ⋅ x2 + x − 6 x2 − x − 6 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 3) x + 3 . 2. −2. x2 + x x2 − 1 ÷ 2 2 x − 4 x + 5x + 6 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 1) = ÷ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) ( x + 2)( x + 3) x( x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 3) . 2.3 x( x + 4) 24. x ≠ 2. Section P. x −1 . x − 4 ÷ x + 2 = ( x − 2)( x + 2) ⋅ x − 2 x x−2 x x+2 2 ( x − 2) = . x ≠ 2.6 x + 1 3x + 3 x + 1 3( x + 1) ÷ = ÷ 3 7 3 7 x +1 7 = ⋅ 3 3( x + 1) 7 = . x ≠ –3. 22. = ( x − 2)( x − 1) x ≠ 2. –1. –2. –2. –1. 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 x + 9 ) x + 3 x − 3 x + 9 x ≠ –3 23. −4. 18. –2 x2 − 5x + 6 x2 − 1 ⋅ x2 − 2x − 3 x2 − 4 ( x − 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 1) ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 26. x ≠ −1 9 47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 − 4 2 x − 4 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2( x − 2) ⋅ = ⋅ x − 4x + 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)2 x+2 = 2. . 4 x 2 + 10 6 x 2 + 15 ÷ 2 x −3 x −9 2 2(2 x + 5) 3(2 x 2 + 5) = ÷ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x−3 2(2 x 2 + 5) ( x − 3)( x + 3) ⋅ 3(2 x 2 + 5) x−3 2( x + 3) .

−5 33. 5. 34. 3 x + 2 3x + 6 3 x + 2 + 3 x + 6 + = 3x + 4 3x + 4 3x + 4 6x + 8 = 3x + 4 2(3x + 4) = 3x + 4 =2 4 x≠− 3 x2 − 2 x x2 + x x2 − 2 x + x2 + x + = x 2 + 3 x x 2 + 3x x 2 + 3x 2 2x − x = 2 x + 3x x(2 x − 1) = x( x + 3) 2x −1 . 3 4 x − 10 x − 4 4 x − 10 − ( x − 4) − = x−2 x−2 x−2 4 x − 10 − x + 4 = x−2 3x − 6 = x−2 3( x − 2) = x−2 = 3. –2.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 30. x ≠ 0. x ≠ − 6x + 5 6 38. 2 2 2 2 31. −3 = x+3 4x − 4 x2 − 4x x2 − 4 x + 4 x − 4 + = x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − 4 = ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 = . x −4 x + 5x + 6 ÷ x + 3 x − 10 x 2 + 8 x + 15 ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) = ÷ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) = ⋅ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) =1 x ≠ 2. Inc. . x ≠ 2 2 x + 3 3 − x 2 x + 3 − (3 − x) − = 3x − 6 3x − 6 3x − 6 2x + 3 − 3 + x = 3x − 6 3x = 3( x − 2) x = . x−3 x ≠ –2. −1. 2 2 x2 x ≠ 0.1. –1. 4x + 1 8x + 9 4x + 1 + 8x + 9 + = 6x + 5 6x + 5 6x + 5 12 x + 10 = 6x + 5 2(6 x + 5) 5 = = 2. –3. x3 − 25 x 2 x 2 − 2 x2 + 5x ⋅ 2 ÷ 2 4x x − 6x + 5 7x + 7 x ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) 7 ( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ 4 x2 ( x − 1)( x − 5 ) x ( x + 5) = 7 ( x + 1) 37. 3. = 2 ( x + 4 )( x + 2 ) x−5 x ≠ –6. x + x − 12 x + 5 x + 6 x+3 ⋅ ÷ x 2 + x − 30 x 2 − 2 x − 3 x 2 + 7 x + 6 ( x + 4 )( x − 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x + 6 )( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ x+3 ( x + 6 )( x − 5 ) ( x + 1)( x − 3) 36. x−2 x≠2 48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 32. –5 35.

Inc. x ≠ –2. = 3 ( x + 5) + 6 ( x + 4) 3 6 + = x+4 x+5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) x ≠ 3. 3 = x+2 45. 3 = 8 x − 24 + 2 x − 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) = 10 x − 28 . Section P. 47. −4 x−3 43. ( x − 3)( x + 2) 2 41. x ≠ 3. . x ≠ –5. 3x − 3x − 3 3 . 9 x + 39 . x ≠ –1. 0 x2 − 4 x x−6 − 2 2 x − x−6 x − x−6 x 2 − 4 x − ( x − 6) = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 4x − x + 6 = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 5x + 6 = 2 x − x−6 ( x − 2)( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 . = 4 x + 12 − 3 x x ( x + 3) = x + 12 x ( x + 3) 2x x + 2 2 x ( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 )( x + 2 ) + = x+2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 2x2 − 4 x + x2 + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 3x2 + 4 . 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5 ) 49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 x 2 + 3x x 2 − 12 − x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + 3 x − ( x 2 − 12) = x 2 + x − 12 2 x + 3 x − x 2 + 12 = x 2 + x − 12 3x + 12 = 2 x + x − 12 3( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 3) 3 = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ –4.PreCalculus 4E 39. 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 3x x + 4 3x ( x + 2 ) − ( x + 4 )( x − 3) − = x−3 x +2 ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) = 3x 2 + 6 x − ( x 2 + x − 12 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) 2 x + 5 x + 12 . 40. x ( − 2 )( x − 3) x+5 x−5 + x −5 x +5 ( x + 5 )( x + 5 ) + ( x − 5 )( x − 5 ) = ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + x 2 − 10 x + 25 ( x − 5)( x + 5) = 2 x 2 + 50 . 3 3 3x − 3 ( x + 1) − = x ( x + 1) x +1 x = 44. –2 3x + 15 + 6 x + 24 = ( x + 4 )( x + 5) = 42. –5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) 8 ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 2 ) 8 2 + = x−2 x−3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x ≠ 2. 46. x ≠ −2. 0 =− x ( x + 1) x ( x + 1) 4 ( x + 3) − 3 x 4 3 − = x x+3 x ( x + 3) x ≠ –3.

( x + 3) x ≠ –3 4 + 4 x + 12 ( x + 3) 2 = 55. –1 = 3 ( 5x − 2) + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 15 x − 6 + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 20 x − 6 . –4 4 x + 16 ( x + 3) = =− 4 4 4 4 + = + 2 x + 6 x + 9 x + 3 ( x + 3) x+3 = ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = 2 2 3 x ( x + 3) − 2 x ( x + 5 ) = 5 7 5 7 + = + 2 x + 8 3x + 12 2( x + 4) 3( x + 4) 15 14 = + 6( x + 4) 6( x + 4) 15 + 14 = 6( x + 4) 29 = 6( x + 4) x ≠ –4 4 + 4 ( x + 3) 3x 2x − 2 x + 3x − 10 x + x − 6 3x 2x = − ( x + 5 )( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 2 = 3 2 3 2 + = + 2 x + 4 3x + 6 2( x + 2) 3( x + 2) 9 4 = + 6( x + 2) 6( x + 2) 9+4 = 6( x + 2) 13 = 6( x + 2) x ≠ –2 = 52. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 5 50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –3 ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) x x − 2 x − 2 x − 24 x − 7 x + 6 x x = − ( x − 6 )( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x − 1) 2 x ( x − 1) − x ( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) x2 − x − x2 − 4 x ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) 5x . 1. 2 .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. x ≠ –5. ( x − 3)( x + 3) 54. x2 + 6 x + 9 + x2 − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 2 x 2 + 18 . = 53. x+3 x+2 − x2 − 1 x − 1 x+3 x+2 = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) x − 1 x+3 ( x + 1)( x + 2) = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x+3 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x + 3 − x 2 − 3x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) −x2 − 2x + 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) x ≠ 1. 6 x x − ( )( − 1)( x + 4 ) x ≠ 6. 50. Inc. 3 5x 3 5x + = + 2 5 x + 2 25 x − 4 5 x + 2 ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) = = = 3x 2 + 9 x − 2 x 2 − 10 x ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = x2 − x . . 2. x + 3 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) + ( x − 3)( x − 3) + = x−3 x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) x ≠ –3. ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 2 2 x≠− . 51. 3 49.

6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 + 3 ( x + 5) − 5 x ( x − 4 ) ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = 6 x + 17 x − 40 + 3x + 15 − 5 x 2 + 20 x ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = x 2 + 40 x − 25 . x −1 4 = x−4 61. − 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) x + 1 51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎡x ⎤ − 1 3 ⎢⎣ 3 − 1⎥⎦ x −3 1 = = = . x ≠ 0. 1 3 3 − 1 x ⎡3 − 1 ⎤ 3 x − 1 ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ x 62. y ≠ 0 xy x ( xy ) x2 y 65.6 x + 5 x +1 − x2 − 4 x − 2 x+5 x +1 = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 x+5 ( x + 2)( x + 1) = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x+5 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x + 5 − x − 3x − 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 − x2 − 2 x + 3 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x ≠ 2. = ⎣ x+ y xy [ x + y ] xy ( x + y ) xy 64. −1 x+2 = 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x + − x 2 + x − 20 x−4 x+5 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x = + − 5 4 4 x x x x + − − +5 ( )( ) = 66. Section P. . y ≠ 0. 4 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 ) 4 ⎡⎢ x − 1⎤⎥ ⎣4 ⎦ = x − 4 = 1 . 1 − 1 x ⎡⎢1 − 1 ⎤⎥ x − 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . ( x + 3) ⎡⎢⎣ x − x +x 3 ⎤⎥⎦ x ( x + 3) − x x− x x+3 = = x+2 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x −1 . –3 x+3 ( x − 2 ) [ x − 3] ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x−3 = = 3 ⎤ x ( x − 2) − 3 ⎡ x− 3 x − 2 ( x − 2) ⎢ x − x − 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ − − x x 2 3 ( )( ) = 2 x − 2x − 3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x − 2 = = . –2 59. 4 x2 + x − 6 3x 5 − + 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 1 x + 2 4 x2 + x − 6 −3 x 5 = + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) x + 1 x + 2 = 63. x ≠ 0. x ⎡1 + 1 ⎤ 1+ 1 x = ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ = x + 1 . x ≠ −5. 5 ( x + 1) −3 x ( x + 2 ) 4 x2 + x − 5 + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = = 58.PreCalculus 4E 56. x ≠ 2. x ≠ –y 4 x 2 + x − 6 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = x 3 2 x 2 + 3x − x x2 + 2 x = ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) x ( x + 2) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x . x ≠ 0. x≠3 x − 3 3[ x − 3] 3 ( x − 3) 3 60. Inc. x ≠ 4 4 ( x − 4) 4 ( x − 4) 4 x ≠ 0. x ≠ –2. 8 + 1 x ⎡⎢8 + 1 ⎤⎥ 8 x + 1 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ −2. 3. 1 4 4− x ⎡⎢ 4 − 1 ⎤⎥ 4 x − 1 x x⎦ ⎣ = 57. x2 −1 ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x − 1)( x + 1) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎡ ⎤ 1+1 xy ⎢ 1 + 1 ⎥ x y x y ⎦ = y+x = 1 .

−1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. – 2 = 69. . –1. 2. 3 − 4 3 − 4 x−2 x+2 = x−2 x+2 7 7 2 x − 2 x + 2) ( )( x −4 ⎡ 3 − 4 ⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 7 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) )( )⎦ ⎣( 3( x + 2) − 4 ( x − 2) 3x + 6 − 4 x + 8 − x + 14 = = = 7 7 7 x − 14 =− x ≠ –2. 2 7 x +1 x +1 − 2 x−2 x = 3 +1 3 +1 ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 − 4 ⎡ x + 1⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎣⎢ x − 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎡ ⎤ 3 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 + 1⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ( )( ) ⎣ ⎦ = x ( x + 2 ) + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 3 + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 + 2 x + x2 − 4 2 x2 + 2 x – 4 = x 2 –1 3 + x2 − 4 2( x 2 + x – 2) = ( x –1)( x + 1) 2( x + 2)( x –1) 2( x + 2) = = . 68.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 67. 1 x +1 1 1 + 2 x − 2x − 3 x − 3 = 1 x +1 1 1 + ( x + 1)( x − 3) x − 3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x +1 = ( x + 1)( x − 3) ( x + 1)( x − 3) + x −3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x−3 = 1+ x +1 x −3 = x ≠ −2.3 x+2 52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x +1 ( x –1)( x + 1) x ≠ 1.

Inc. .PreCalculus 4E Section P. −5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 1 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 − − ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x2 = 2 2 h hx ( x + h) = x 2 − ( x + h) 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2hx + h 2 ) hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − x 2 − 2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 −2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h) 2 −h(2 x + h) = 2 hx ( x + h) 2 (2 x + h) =− 2 x ( x + h) 2 = 72.6 6 1 6 1 − − + − −3 ( x 5)( x 3) x x + 2 x − 15 x − 3 = 1 1 +1 +1 x+5 x+5 6( x + 5)( x − 3) ( x + 5)( x − 3) − ( x + 5)( x − 3) x −3 = ( x + 5)( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) x+5 6 − ( x + 5) = ( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) 6− x−5 = x − 3 + x 2 + 2 x − 15 1− x = 2 x + 3x − 18 1− x x ≠ −6. 71.3 = ( x + 6)( x − 3) 2 70. ( x + h)( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x+h x − − x + h +1 x +1 = x + h +1 x +1 h h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) ( x + h)( x + 1) − x( x + h + 1) = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x 2 + x + hx + h − x 2 − hx − x h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) h = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) 1 = ( x + h + 1)( x + 1) = 53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

x (4 x ) 4x −1 4x 1 = 1− . h≠0 x − x+3 3 x x+3 x+5 − x x+5 + x ⋅ 5 x+5 + x ( x + 5) 2 − ( x )2 5( x + 5 + x ) x+5− x 5( x + 5 + x ) 1 x+5 + x x+7 − x x+7 + x ⋅ 7 x+7 + x ( x + 7 )2 − ( x )2 7( x + 7 + x ) x+7− x 7( x + 7 + x ) 1 x+7 + x x+ y x −y 2 2 ⋅ x− y x− y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 5 − x2 2 h x ( x + h) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+3 x x⎠ x+3 x ⎝ x+3 = 3 3 x+3 x = x2 x2 + 2 x − x+h = 3 ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) 1 ( x + y )( x − y ) 54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x > 0 3x ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+h x x⎠ x+h x ⎝ x+h = h h x+h x = x− 74. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( = 1 3 x x x− 1 3 x ) (3 x) 77. . 5 − x2 + x2 (5 − x ) ( x+ y x −y 2 2 = = 5 5 − x2 ) 2 = 5 − x2 5 = (5 − x ) 2 . 1 4 x ( = x x− 1 4 x ) (4 x) 78. x+7 − x = 7 = x2 5 − x2 + 5 − x2 = ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜ 5 − x2 + ⎟ 5 − x2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 5− x ⎠ =⎝ 2 5− x 5 − x2 = 5− x 2 ( = = = ) 81. x (3 x ) 3x − 1 3x 1 = 1− . Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra x− 73.x>0 4x 75. x+5 − x = 5 − x2 + 2 = x2 ⎛ ⎜ =⎝ = − x 2 + 2 ⎞⎟ x 2 + 2 ⎠ x2 x2 + 2 = x2 x2 + 2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2) x2 x2 + 2 2 =− 2 x x2 + 2 76. 80. = 79.

. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x− y x −y 2 2 Section P. ( x 2 − y 2 )( x + y ) 6 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 1) 6 ⎞ ⎛ ( x − 2) 3 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜2− ⎟ ⎜1 + ⎟ = ⎜⎜ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ( x + 1) ( x + 1) ⎠ ⎝ ( x − 2 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 x + 2 − 6 ⎞⎛ x − 2 + 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 x − 4 ⎞ ⎛ x + 1 ⎞ 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) =2 =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟= ⎝ x + 1 ⎠⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ( x + 1) ( x − 2 ) 86. Inc. 3 ⎞⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ( x + 2) 3 ⎞⎛ ( x − 1) 5 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎜4− ⎟⎜ 1 + ⎟=⎜ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ x + 2 x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 x + 8 − 3 ⎞⎛ x − 1 + 5 ⎞ 4 x + 5 x + 4 ( 4 x + 5 )( x + 4 ) =⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎜ ⎟= ( x + 2 )( x − 1) ⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ x + 2 x − 1 87. x≠ y ⎛ ( 2 x + 3) ( x + 5 ) ( x − 1) ⎛ 2 x + 3 x2 + 4 x − 5 ⎞ 2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 =⎜ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − ( 2 x + 3) ( x − 1) ⎝ x + 1 2 x + x − 3 ⎠ x + 2 ⎜⎝ x + 1 2 ( x + 1) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 2 ( x + 1) = − = x 1 x 2 x 1 x 2 + + + + ( )( ) ( )( ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎞ ⎟− 2 = x+5 − 2 ⎟ x + 2 x +1 x + 2 ⎠ = x 2 + 2 x + 5 x + 10 − 2 x − 2 x2 + 5x + 8 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎛ ( x + 2) ( x − 4) ⎞ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 ⋅⎜ − ÷ ⎜⎜ − ⎟ ⎟= x − 2 x − 8 ⎝ x − 4 x + 2 ⎠ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎝ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎟⎠ 1 2 ⎛ x+2−x+4 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) 1 1 6 1 ÷ ⎜⎜ ÷ ⎜⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎟ = ⎟⎟ = x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 6 6 ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) 1 = 85.PreCalculus 4E 82. y −1 − ( y + 5) 5 1 −1 = y − 1 y+5 5 LCD = y ( y + 5) 1 y − ⎛1 1 y+5 5 y ( y + 5) ⎜ = ⎝y − 1 ⎞ ⎟ y +5⎠ y ( y + 5)( 5) = y +5− y 5 y ( y + 5) = 5 5 y ( y + 5) = 1 y ( y + 5) 55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x + y ) 1 ( x + y )( x + y ) . 84.6 x− y = x −y 2 x+ y ⋅ 2 x+ y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 = = = 83.

000 to inoculate 80% of the population. As x approaches 100. − ) ) ⎛ a ( c − d ) − b ( c − d ) a 3 + b3 ⎞ ⎛ ac − ad − bc + bd a3 − b3 ⎞ ab + ⎜⎜ ÷ 3 3 ⎟⎟ = 2 + ⎜⎜ ⋅ ⎟ 2 a + ab + b ⎝ ac − ad + bc − bd a + b ⎠ a + ab + b ⎝ a ( c − d ) + b ( c − d ) a3 − b3 ⎟⎠ ab 2 2 ( ( ⎛ ( c − d ) ( a − b ) ( a + b ) a 2 − ab + b 2 = 2 +⎜ ⋅ a + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( c − d ) ( a + b ) ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ab = 91. the function is not defined. Inc. a. 100 − 80 20 when x = 80 130 ⋅ 90 130 ⋅ 90 = = 1170 . the value of the function increases rapidly.67 . = = 86. 3. and it is impossible to inoculate 100% of the population. For x = 100. = = 520 . and $1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.000 to inoculate 90% of the population. ab + a 2 − ab + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 = ) ⎞⎟ = ) ⎠⎟ a ab 2 + ab + b2 + a 2 − ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a2 + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 130 x is equal to 100 − x 130 ⋅ 40 130 ⋅ 40 1. and $520.000.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 88. ⎛1 1 y ( y + 2) ⎜ = ⎝y 1 ⎞ ⎟ y+2⎠ y ( y + 2 )( 2 ) = y+2− y 2 y ( y + 2) = 2 2 y ( y + 2) = 1 y ( y + 2) ⎛ a ( c + d ) − b ( c + d ) ⎞⎟ ac + ad − bc − bd ⎞ c−d 1 c−d ⎛ 1 ⎜ ⋅ − = ⋅ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 1 1 ⎝ a 3 − b3 ⎠ a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ( c + d ) ( a − b ) ⎞⎟ c−d c+d c−d 1 − = − ⋅ =⎜ ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + bd + b 2 1 ⎝ ⎠ c+d −c+d 2d = 2 = a + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 ( ( 90. 100 − 90 10 when x = 90 It costs $86. 56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b.000 to inoculate 40% of the population against this strain of flu. y −1 − ( y + 2) 1 −1 y = 2 − 1 y+2 2 LCD = y ( y + 2 ) 1 − y y+2 2 89.000.670.170. 100 − 40 60 when x = 40 130 ⋅ 80 130 ⋅ 80 2. . c. So it costs an astronomical amount of money to inoculate almost all of the people.

7 Your average speed will be 34 2 miles per hour. 7 93. a. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 38 calories. Substitute 4 for x in the model. b.PreCalculus 4E 92. women between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2078 calories per day. W = −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 W = −66(4)2 + 526(4) + 1030 W = 2078 According to the model. W −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 = M −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 = = 2 ( −33x 2 + 263x + 515 ) 2 ( −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 ) −33x 2 + 263x + 515 −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c. men between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2662 calories per day. . M = −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 M = −120(4)2 + 998(4) + 590 M = 2662 According to the model. Substitute 4 for x in the model. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section P. Inc. the value of this expression will be 2 ⋅ 40 ⋅ 30 2400 = 30 + 40 70 2 = 34 .6 2d d + r1 d r2 LCD = r1r2 2d d r1 + d ⎛d d ⎞ + ⎜ r r ⎟⎟ 1 ⎝ 2⎠ r1r2 ⎜ r2 = = If r1r2 ( 2d ) = 2r1r2 d r2 d + r1d 2r1r2 d d ( r2 + r1 ) = 2r1r2 r2 + r1 r1 = 40 and r2 = 30. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 22 calories.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. 12) = 95. –108. 11 R(4. . P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x + 3⎠ ⎝ x − 4⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+3 x+4 2 x ( x + 4) 2 x ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x + 4) ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = + 2 2 x + 8x + 2 x + 6 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = 96. Inc. R= = = 1 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1R2 R3 R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2 4 ⋅8 ⋅12 8⋅12 + 4 ⋅12 + 4 ⋅ 8 384 = 96 + 48 + 32 384 = 176 24 = 11 24 The parallel resistance is ohms. 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. 58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 x + 14 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x +5⎠ ⎝ x +6⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+5 x+6 2 x ( x + 6) 2x ( x + ( x + 5)( x + 6) ( x + 5)( x 2 = + 2 2 x + 12 x + 2 x + 10 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 2 = 4 x + 22 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 97.

A sample change is: x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) = = x+5 x−5 x−5 114. false. A sample change is: 6 + 117. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. −1 − 1 6x 1 6x + 1 = + = x x x x ( x − y) −1 + ( x − y) −2 = 1 + x −1 x x +1 x + 2 x −1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = x x +1 x + 2 x + 3 x + 3 1 ( x − y) ( x − y) 2 = ( x − y) 1 x − y +1 + = 2 ( x − y )( x − y ) ( x − y ) ( x − y )2 120. x −1 x 2n 1 x 2n −1 n x +1− x +1−1 x 2n −1 1 x 2n −1 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ x 1 ⎞⎛ x +1 1 ⎞⎛ x + 2 1 ⎞⎛ x + 3 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ − − − ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ x x + x + x + x x x + x + x + x + x + x + 3⎠ 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎛ x − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 1) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 3) − 1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠⎝ x +1 ⎠⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x + 3 ⎠ = 119. 112. Explanations will vary. 4 x( x − 1) 4(1)(1 − 1) 0 110. 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 3 2 + 2 + 3 + + 5 4 3 x x x = x x 2 x3 = x + x + x = x x + x + 1 = x3 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 1 + 5 + 6 + 5 + 6 4 4 x x x x x x ( ) 59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. does not make sense.PreCalculus 4E Section P. Inc. 111. makes sense 113. Sample explanation: 3x − 3 3(1) − 3 0 = = which is undefined. Publishing as Prentice Hall. It cubes x.6 109. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. 1 n x −1 − 1 n x +1 − n 1 x 2n −1 = n x +1 x 2n −1 − n = = 118. Sample explanation: The numerator and denominator of 7 do not 14 + x share a common factor. false. Sample explanation: The first step is to invert the second fraction. true 115. . true 116. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary.

x=7 . = − x + 10 123. Section P. 60 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2(6 − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3(6 + 2) 2(3) − 17 = 13 − 3(8) 6 − 17 = 13 − 24 −11 = −11.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x = 10 2 x 10 = 2 2 x=5 Check: 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 4[2(5) + 1] − 29 = 3[2(5) − 5] 4[10 + 1] − 29 = 3[10 − 5] 4[11] − 29 = 3[5] 44 − 29 = 15 15 = 15 true The solution set is {5}. 2( x − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3( x + 2) 2.7 Check Point Exercises 1. x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 x −3 ⎛ 5 x+5⎞ 28 ⋅ = 28 ⎜ − 4 7 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 14 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 8 x + 4 − 29 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 − 6 x = 6 x − 15 − 6 x 2 x − 25 = −15 2 x − 25 + 25 = −15 + 25 −20 6 5 − = 2 x+3 x−2 x + x−6 −20 6 5 − = x + 3 x − 2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x + 3)( x − 2) 5( x + 3)( x − 2) −20( x + 3)( x − 2) − = x+3 x−2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x − 2) − 5( x + 3) = −20 6 x − 12 − 5 x − 15 = −20 x − 27 = −20 The solution set is {7} . 12 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 3( x + 2) − 4( x − 1) = 3x + 6 − 4 x + 4 7 x − 21 = −4 x − 10 7 x + 4 x = −10 + 21 11x = 11 11x 11 = 11 11 x =1 Check: x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 1− 3 5 1+ 5 = − 4 14 7 −2 5 6 = − 4 14 7 1 1 − =− 2 2 The solution set is {1}. true 7 ( x − 3) = 2(5) − 4 ( x + 5 ) 7 x − 21 = 10 − 4 x − 20 ⎛ x + 2 x −1 ⎞ ⎛ x+2⎞ ⎛ x −1⎞ − = 12 ⎜ − 12 ⎜ 122. 2 −b − b 2 − 4ac −(9) − (9) − 4(2)(−5) = 2a 2(2) −9 − 81 + 40 4 −9 − 121 = 4 −9 − 11 = 4 = −5 = 3.

x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x2 + 4x = 1 x2 + 4 x + 4 = 1 + 4 ( x + 2) 2 =5 x+2= ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. 4 1 − 2 x − 20 = 0 b. 7. 2 x2 + x − 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 2x = 1 1 x= 2 1 1 1 + = p q f 1 pqf 1 pqf 1 pqf + = p q f qf + pf = pq x = −1 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 3x 2 − 9 x = 0 3x( x − 3) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 3 = 0 3 x 2 21 = 3 3 2 x =7 x=± 7 { } The solution set is − 7. 3x 2 − 21 = 0 3x 2 = 21 qf − pq = − pf q( f − p) = − pf − pf q( f − p) = f −p f −p pf q= p− f 6. 2 x2 + x = 1 b. The solution set is { } . −5 − 11 . .3} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. } The solution set is −5 + 11. ( x + 5) 2 = 11 x + 5 = ± 11 4 1 − 2 x = 20 x = −5 ± 11 1 − 2x = 5 { 1 − 2x = 5 or 1 − 2 x = −5 −2 x = 4 −2 x = −6 x = −2 x=3 The solution set is {–2. Inc. 7 . 5. ⎩2 ⎭ 8. a.7 1 4 1 = − x + 2 x2 − 4 x − 2 1 4 1 = − x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 1( x + 2)( x − 2) 4( x + 2)( x − 2) 1( x + 2)( x − 2) = − x+2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x−2 x − 2 = 4 − ( x + 2) x−2=4−x−2 x−2=2−x 2x = 4 x=2 2 must be rejected. x=0 x=3 The solution set is {0. Section P.PreCalculus 4E 4. −1⎬ . 3}. 9.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. b = −2. c = 5 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. Inc. 12. −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a = = = = = = −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) 7(11) − 5 = 72 −2 ± 4 + 8 4 −2 ± 12 4 −2 ± 2 3 4 2(−1 ± 3) 4 −1 ± 3 2 77 − 5 = 72 72 = 72 The solution set is {11}. x+3 +3 = x x +3 = x−3 ( x+3 ) 2 = ( x − 3) 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 11x − 6 x + 5 = 40 b2 − 4ac = (−2)2 − 4 ⋅3 ⋅5 = 4 − 60 = −56 The discriminant is –56. The solution set is {6} . 2 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 Exercise Set P. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 11.7 a = 2. c = −1 1. ⎬. Check: 6 x − 3 = 63 ⎧⎪ −1 + 3 −1 − 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . . 7x – 5 = 72 7x = 77 x = 11 Check: 7 x − 5 = 72 Check: 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 2 11(7) − [6(7) − 5] = 40 x + 3 = x2 − 6x + 9 77 − (42 − 5) = 40 0 = x2 − 7 x + 6 0 = ( x − 6)( x − 1) x − 6 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 77 − (37) = 40 40 = 40 x=6 x =1 1 does not check and must be rejected. 62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The equation has two complex imaginary solutions. 6x – 3 = 63 6x = 66 x = 11 The solution set is {11}. 5 x + 5 = 40 5 x = 35 x=7 The solution set is {7}. 6(11) − 3 = 63 66 − 3 = 63 63 = 63 3x 2 − 2x + 5 = 0 a = 3. b = 2.

7 5x – (2x – 10) = 35 5x – 2x + 10 = 35 3x + 10 = 35 3x = 25 25 x= 3 7. 3(7) + 7 = 2(14) 21 + 7 = 28 3x + 5 = 2x + 13 x + 5 = 13 x=8 The solution set is {8}. Check: 7(2) + 4 = 2 + 16 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section P. Check: 13 x + 14 = 12 x − 5 9. ⎩3⎭ 14 + 4 = 18 18 = 18 Check: 5 x − (2 x − 10) = 35 8. Inc. 13x + 14 = 12x – 5 x + 14 = –5 x = –19 The solution set is {–19}. ⎤ ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 25 ⎞ 5 ⎜ ⎟ − ⎢ 2 ⎜ ⎟ − 10 ⎥ = 35 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎦ 125 ⎡ 50 ⎤ − − 10⎥ = 35 3 ⎢⎣ 3 ⎦ 125 20 − = 35 3 3 105 = 35 3 35 = 35 13(−19) + 14 = 12(−19) − 5 − 247 + 14 = −228 − 5 − 233 = −233 2x – 7 = 6 + x x–7=6 x = 13 The solution set is {13}. . 3(x – 2) + 7 = 2(x + 5) 3x – 6 + 7 = 2x + 10 3x + 1 = 2x + 10 x + 1 = 10 x=9 The solution set is {9}. 2(x – 1) + 3 = x – 3(x +1) 2x – 2 + 3 = x – 3x – 3 2x +1 = –2x – 3 4x + 1 = –3 4x = –4 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}.PreCalculus 4E 4. 28 = 28 10. Check: 2(13) − 7 = 6 + 13 Check: 3(9 − 2) + 7 = 2(9 + 5) 26 − 7 = 19 19 = 19 6. 7x + 4 = x + 16 6x + 4 = 16 6x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {2}. Check: 3x + 5 = 2 x + 13 3(8) + 5 = 2(8) + 13 24 + 5 = 16 + 13 29 = 29 Check: 2( x − 1) + 3 = x − 3( x + 1) 2(−1 − 1) + 3 = −1 − 3(−1 + 1) 2(−2) + 3 = −1 − 3(0) − 4 + 3 = −1 + 0 − 1 = −1 63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5.

13. x +1 1 2 − x = + 4 6 3 ⎡ x +1 1 2 − x ⎤ 12 ⎢ = + 6 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 4 3x + 3 = 2 + 8 − 4 x 16. a. 8 x − 3x = 9 − 104 5 x = −95 x = −19 The solution set is {−19} . x−2 x+3 = 3 8 x − 2 x + 3⎤ ⎡ 24 ⎢5 + = 3 8 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 120 + 8 x − 16 = 3 x + 9 5+ 1 11 +5 = ( x ≠ 1) x −1 x −1 1 11 +5 = x −1 x −1 1 + 5( x − 1) = 11 1 + 5 x − 5 = 11 5 x − 4 = 11 5 x = 15 x=3 The solution set is {3}. x +3 3 x −5 = + 6 8 4 ⎡ x + 3 3 x − 5⎤ 24 ⎢ = + 8 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 6 4 x + 12 = 9 + 6 x − 30 15. ⎩7⎭ x= x x −3 = 2+ 4 3 x − 3⎤ ⎡x 12 ⎢ = 2 + 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣4 3x = 24 + 4x – 12 3x – 4x = 12 –x = 12 x = –12 The solution set is {–12}.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11. 64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎩5⎭ 3x x − 3 x + 2 − = 5 2 3 ⎡ 3x x − 3 x + 2 ⎤ 30 ⎢ − = 2 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣5 18 x − 15 x + 45 = 10 x + 20 3x − 10 x = 20 − 45 x =1 − 7 x = −25 The solution set is {1}. 3x + 4 x = 10 − 3 7x = 7 x +1 x+2 = 5− 3 7 x + 2⎤ ⎡ x +1 21 ⎢ = 5− 7 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 3 7x + 7 = 105 – 3x – 6 7x + 3x = 99 – 7 10x = 92 92 x= 10 46 x= 5 ⎧ 46 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 4 x − 6 x = −21 − 12 − 2 x = −33 33 2 x= ⎧ 33 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . b. Inc. . 17. ⎩2⎭ 12. 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 25 7 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .

20. b. 3 + x −1 = 4 x=2 The solution set is {2}. 3 5 1 = + x + 3 2( x + 3) x − 2 6( x − 2) = 5( x − 2) + 2( x + 3) 6 x − 12 = 5 x − 10 + 2 x + 6 3 − 7 x − 28 = −4 19. b. ∅. Inc. . b. x ≠ −1) x + 1 x −1 x −1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 x2 − 1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2( x − 1) − 1( x + 1) = 2 x 2x − 2 − x −1 = 2x x = −1 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8x = 4x + 4 − 8 4 x = −4 2 1 2x − = 2 ( x ≠ 1. 4 2 32 + = . −x = 8 −7 x = 21 x = −8 The solution set is {–8}. ∅. −x = 3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. 4) 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 x2 − 2 x − 8 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 ( x − 4)( x + 2) ( x ≠ 4. a. a.7 3 −4 −7 = ( x ≠ −4) x+4 x+4 22.PreCalculus 4E 18. x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. a. x ≠ 5. a. x ≠ 2) x + 3 2x + 6 x − 2 8x 8 = 4− ( x ≠ −1) x +1 x +1 23. 3 1 2 + = 2x − 2 2 x −1 3 1 2 + = 2( x − 1) 2 x − 1 3 + 1( x − 1) = 4 25. x ≠ −5) b. −5 x + 5 x − 5 x 2 − 25 4( x − 5) + 2( x + 5) = 32 4 x − 20 + 2 x + 10 = 32 3 1 2 + = ( x ≠ 1) 2x − 2 2 x −1 6 x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. a. 3 −4 −7 = x+4 x+4 3 − 7( x + 4) = −4 b. 2 = x − 2x + 4 21. Section P. 8x 8 = 4− x +1 x +1 8 x = 4( x + 1) − 8 b. a. ( x ≠ −2. 2 x = −2 x−2 x−2 2 = x − 2( x − 2) x = 2 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. 4 2 32 + = x + 5 x − 5 ( x + 5)( x − 5) ( x ≠ 5. b. x ≠ −2) 1( x + 2) − 5( x − 4) = 6 x + 2 − 5 x + 20 = 6 −4 x = −16 x=4 The solution set is the empty set. 3 5 1 = + ( x ≠ −3. ∅. b. a. 65 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 x−4 − 5 x+2 = 6 ( x − 4)( x + 2) . a. 2 x = − 2 ( x ≠ 2) x−2 x−2 24.

29. 2A =a+b h 2A −a=b h area of trapezoid I = Prt I P= . rt interest C = 2πr C r= . 28.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 26. ∅. Publishing as Prentice Hall. F S −V B(S − V ) = F B= S −V = T − D pm = m m T −D =p m total of payment 30. 2π circumference of a circle 33. x ≠ −1. 3 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 32. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S−P = r. Pt interest 34. 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) A= 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) 2A = a+b h A= 37. C 1− r S (1 − r ) = C C 1− r = S C −r = − 1 S C r = − +1 S markup based on selling price S= IR + Ir = E I (R + r) = E 2A −b = a h area of trapezoid E R+r electric current I= 66 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . T = D + pm T − D = pm F B F S = +V B 36. 1 2 8 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 1( x + 1) − 2( x − 3) = 8 x + 1 − 2x + 6 = 8 −x + 7 = 8 −x = 1 x = −1 The solution set is the empty set. 1 2 8 . a. Inc. P = C + MC P − C = MC P −C =M C markup based on cost 31. b. 27. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S −P = t. Pr interest 35.

2x −1 = 5 2x – 1 = 5 2x – 1 = –5 2x = 6 2x = –4 x=3 x = –2 The solution set is {3.PreCalculus 4E 38. 45.7 A = 2lw + 2lh + 2 wh A − 2lw = h ( 2l + 2 w ) A − 2lw =h 2l + 2 w surface area 1 1 1 39. Publishing as Prentice Hall. R1 R2 − RR1 = RR2 R1 ( R2 − R ) = RR2 R1 = RR2 R2 − R 47. x−2 =7 x – 2 = 7 x – 2 = –7 x=9 x = –5 The solution set is {9. 3|2x – 1| = 21 |2x – 1| = 7 2x – 1 = 7 or 2x – 1 = −7 2x = 8 2x = −6 x=4 x = −3 The solution set is {4. 4 ⎬ . + = p q f qf + pf = pq f (q + p) = pq pq f = p+q thin lens equation 40. 4}. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f − f2 48. –2}. ff1 − f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) f − f2 2 4− focal length f = 42. ⎩ 5 ⎭ 67 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −5/3} resistance f = 41. 7}. −3} f1 = ff 2 f2 − f 49. –5}. 1 1 1 = + R R R 1 2 R1 R2 = RR2 + RR1 43. 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = −11 2 x = −8 2 x = 14 x = −4 x=7 The solution set is {–4. x +1 = 5 x + 1 = 5 x + 1 = –5 x=4 x = –6 The solution set is {–6. . 46. 2|3x – 2| = 14 |3x – 2| = 7 3x – 2 = 7 3x – 2 = −7 3x = 9 3x = −5 x=3 x = −5/3 The solution set is {3. Inc. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 2 4− f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 4− ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 f − f1 5 x =6 2 4− f 2 ( f − f1 ) = − ff1 = 5 x = 12 2 5 x=6 2 5 − x=2 2 ff 2 − f1 f 2 = − ff1 f 2 ( f − f1 ) 5 x + 6 = 18 2 − ff1 f − f1 x=− ff1 f2 = f1 − f focal length 4 5 or 4 − 5 x = −6 2 5 − x = −10 2 x=4 ⎧ 4 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 44. Section P.

52. 4} . x 2 = −11x − 10 58. x 2 − 13 x + 36 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 9) = 0 x − 4 = 0 or x − 9 = 0 x=4 x=9 61. Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 50. ⎧1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . |2x – 1| + 3 = 3 |2x – 1| = 0 2x – 1 = 0 2x = 1 x = 1/2 The solution set is {0. 3x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . −1} . ⎩3 3 ⎭ 1− x 2 − 8 x + 15 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 5) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x=3 x=5 The solution set is {3. 51. 5} . . ⎩2⎭ 60. x 2 + 11x + 10 = 0 ( x + 10)( x + 1) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x = −10 x = −1 The solution set is {−10. |x + 1| +5 = 3 |x + 1| = −2 No solution The solution set is { }. 9} . 3x − 2 + 4 = 4 3 x 2 = 12 x 3x 2 − 12 x = 0 3x( x − 4) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 3x − 2 = 0 3x − 2 = 0 3x = 2 2 x= 3 The solution set is {0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5} . 4} . x 2 = 8 x − 15 57. 5 x 2 = 20 x 5 x 2 − 20 x = 0 5 x( x − 4) = 0 5 x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 53. x 2 − 3 x − 10 = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = 0 x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=5 x = −2 The solution set is {−2. 68 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎩3⎭ 55. 54. 3 3 x = 4 4 3 3 or 1 − 3 x = − 3 1− x = 4 4 4 4 3 1 3 7 − x=− − x=− 4 4 4 4 1 7 x= x= 3 3 1 7 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬ . 3 x =3 4 The solution set is {4. 59. ⎧2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . |x + 1| + 6 = 2 |x + 1| = −4 The solution set is { }. 4 1− 3 x + 7 = 10 4 4 1− 56.

3 ( x − 4 ) = 15 2 x2 − 2 x = 2 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 2 + 1 3x 2 = 48 65. } The solution set is −4 ± 7 . Inc. 69. x = 1± 3 { 70. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 63. x 2 + 6 x = −8 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = −8 + 9 x 2 = 10 64. The solution set is 4 ± 5 . } The solution set is ± 10 . . 5 x 2 = 50 ( x + 3) 2 = 1 x 2 = ± 10 x = ± 10 x + 3 = ±1 { x = −3 ± 1 The solution set is {–4. 2 2 ( x + 2)2 = 16 =± 5 x + 2 = ±4 x = −2 ± 4 The solution set is {–6. Section P. –2}. 3 ( x + 4 ) = 21 ( x + 4) 2 =7 2 =± 7 x 2 − 6 x − 11 = 0 x 2 − 6 x = 11 2 ( x + 4) x 2 + 4 x = 12 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 12 + 4 ( x − 4) = 5 ( x − 4) } The solution set is 1 + 3. x2 = 9 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 7 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 16 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . x−4=± 5 x = 4± 5 { } 71. 5 x 2 + 1 = 51 68. 1}. 3x 2 − 1 = 47 ( x − 1)2 = 3 x 2 = 16 x −1 = ± 3 x 2 = ± 16 x = ±4 The solution set is {±4} .PreCalculus 4E 62. 69 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 + 6 x = 7 x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 11 + 9 ( x − 3) 2 = 20 x − 3 = ± 20 x = 3± 2 5 x+4=± 7 x = −4 ± 7 { { } The solution set is 3 + 2 5. 2}. x + 3 = ±4 x = −3 ± 4 The solution set is {–7.7 5 x 2 = 45 67. 3 − 2 5 . 66. 1 − 3 .

⎬. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ −8 ± 64 − 60 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 −8 ± 2 x= 2 The solution set is {−5. x2 + 5x + 3 = 0 x= x+2= ± 3 74. 1 − 6 . −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) −5 ± 25 − 8 2 −5 ± 17 x= 2 x= x 2 + 8 x + 15 = 0 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(3) 2(1) x= The solution set is −2 + 3. 75. x2 − 2 x − 5 = 0 76. ( x + 2) 2 = 3 x = −2 ± 3 { −5 ± 25 − 12 2 −5 ± 13 x= 2 } x2 + 6 x − 5 = 0 ⎧⎪ −5 + 13 −5 − 13 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . − 3}. −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(12) 2(1) −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(15) 2(1) ⎧⎪ −5 + 17 −5 − 17 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬. − 2 − 3 . ⎬ 6 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 6 70 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ x2 + 6 x = 5 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 5 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 14 78. − 3 − 14 . . x= 79. Inc. x= x −1 = ± 6 x = 1± 6 { } The solution set is 1 + 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 + 4 x + 1 = 0 x 2 + 4 x = −1 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = −1 + 4 77.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 72. 73. –2}. x + 3 = ± 14 x2 + 5x + 2 = 0 x= x = −3 ± 14 { } The solution set is −3 + 14. 3x 2 − 3 x − 4 = 0 x= 3 ± (−3)2 − 4(3)(−4) 2(3) 3 ± 9 + 48 6 3 ± 57 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 3 + 57 3 − 57 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . x − 2x = 5 x 2 + 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x= x − 2x + 1 = 5 +1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 6 −8 ± 64 − 48 2 −8 ± 16 x= 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 The solution set is {–6.

x2 − 4 x − 5 = 0 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 89.7 5x2 + x − 2 = 0 x= 83. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 real solution 88. (−2) 2 − 4(3)(1) = 4 – 12 = –8. . 3 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 3 71 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 complex imaginary solutions ⎪⎧ −1 + 41 −1 − 41 ⎪⎫ . 3x 2 + 4 x − 2 = 0 42 − 4(3)(−2) = 16 + 24 = 40. x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 (−3)2 − 4(1)(−7) = 9 + 28 = 37. 2 complex imaginary solutions 3x = 6 x − 1 3x − 6 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x= x= 3x 2 = 2 x − 1 3x 2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x2 = 2x − 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 ⎧⎪1 + 29 1 − 29 ⎫⎪ . 85. 4 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 4 x= 2 x 2 + 11x − 6 = 0 112 − 4(2)(−6) = 121 + 48 = 169. 2 x 2 − 11x + 3 = 0 (−11) 2 − 4(2)(3) = 121 – 24 = 97. 87. 2 unequal real solutions −1 ± 12 − 4(5)(−2) 2(5) −1 ± 1 + 40 10 −1 ± 41 x= 10 x= 84. 4 x2 − 2 x − 7 = 0 2 ± (−2)2 − 4(4)(−7) 2(4) 86. Inc. (−4) 2 − 4(1)(−5) = 16 + 20 = 36. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. Section P.PreCalculus 4E 80. 2 unequal real solutions 2 ± 4 + 112 x= 8 2 ± 116 x= 8 2 ± 2 29 x= 8 1 ± 29 x= 4 82. 10 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 10 81. 2 unequal real solutions 6 ± 36 − 12 6 6 ± 24 6 6±2 6 6 3± 6 3 90. 2 unequal real solutions ⎧⎪ 3 + 6 3 − 6 ⎫⎪ . The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 2 unequal real solutions 4x2 = 2x + 7 x= 4 x2 − 2 x + 3 = 0 (−2) 2 − 4(4)(3) = 4 – 48 = –44. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. (−2) 2 − 4(1)(1) =4–4 = 0.

⎬ .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 − x = 1 91. 2⎬ . 2 5 . 95. ⎬. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 x = − or x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . ⎬. 5 x 2 + 2 = 11x 94. ⎩ 3 ⎭ x = 1± 2 { 5 x 2 − 11x + 2 = 0 98. (5 x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 2 x 2 + 3x = 1 2 x 2 + 3x − 1 = 0 5 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 1 or x = 2 5 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . . 3x 2 = 60 x= x = −3 −11 ± 112 − 4(2)(11) 2(2) −11 ± 121 − 88 4 −11 ± 33 x= 4 ⎧ 2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3.5 5 . x = ±5 5 97. 1⎬ . ⎩5 ⎭ −3 ± 9 + 8 4 −3 ± 17 x= 4 x= x= ⎪⎧ −3 + 17 −3 − 17 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 5 x 2 = 6 − 13x 5 x 2 + 13x − 6 = 0 (2 x + 3)( x + 4) = 1 99. ⎩ 5⎭ x= ⎪⎧ −11 + 33 −11 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎩ 2 ⎭ 92. 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 72 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 2 ⎬ . 1 − 2 . x 2 = 20 2 x2 − x − 1 = 0 (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = ± 20 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = ±2 5 2 x = −1 96. } The solution set is −5 5. (3 x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 3x + 2 or x − 2 = 0 93. { 2 x 2 = 250 x = ± 125 3x2 − 4x − 4 = 0 2 3 } x 2 = 125 3x 2 − 4 x = 4 x=− { The solution set is −2 5. 3x = −2 x2 − 2 x = 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 1 + 1 ( x − 1) 2 = 2 x = −3 or x −1 = ± 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . (5 x − 2)( x + 3) = 0 5 x − 2 = 0 or x + 3 2 x + 8 x + 3x + 12 = 1 2 2 x 2 + 11x + 11 = 0 5x = 2 2 5 or −3 ± 32 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) x= 5x = 1 x= } The solution set is 1 + 2.

. 109. ⎬ . 102. –1}. ⎬ . 2} . Inc. ⎬. (3 x − 4) = 16 2 x2 − 4x + 2 = 0 3x − 4 = ± 16 3x − 4 = ±4 3x = 4 ± 4 3x = 8 or 3x = 0 8 x = or x = 0 3 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 4± 8 2 x = 2± 2 x= ⎧ 8⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. x2 − 6 x + 7 = 0 103. 3x 2 − 12 x + 12 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(7) 2(1) 6± 8 2 x = 3± 2 x= x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x=2 The solution set is {2}. 2 7 2 ⎧ 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. 3}.PreCalculus 4E 100. 101. ⎩ 3⎭ { } The solution set is 2 ± 2 . 3x 2 − 27 = 0 3 x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. 4 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 4 x2 = 4 x − 2 107. x= { } The solution set is 3 ± 2 . ⎩ 2⎭ x = 0 or x = 73 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎪⎧ 3 + 65 3 − 65 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . Section P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x + 7 = ±5 2 x = −7 ± 5 2 x = −12 or 2 x = −2 x=6 or x = −1 The solution set is {–6. 3 ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(−7) 2(2) 3 ± 9 + 56 4 3 ± 65 x= 4 x= 106. 2 x 2 − 7 x = 0 9 − 6x + x = 0 x(2 x − 7) = 0 2 x = 0 or 2 x − 7 = 0 2x = 7 x − 6x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 The solution set is {3}. 4 x 2 − 16 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x − 5x − 5 = 2 4 x 2 = 16 2 x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 x= x2 = 4 x = ±2 The solution set is {−2. (2 x + 7) 2 = 25 x2 = 6 x − 7 108. 104.7 (2 x − 5)( x + 1) = 2 105.

3 5 x 2 − 20 + = 2 . 2 x2 + 6 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 5) = 0 The solution set is {−5. 0 = x2 − 8x + 7 0 = ( x − 7 )( x − 1) x=7 x =1 The solution set is {1. 112. 7}. 2x + 5x − 3 = 0 2 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(2)(−3) 2(2) 2x 6 −28 + = 2 . −3 x x+3 4 4 x + 12 + 4 x = x 2 + 3x − ( −5 ) ± 18 + 18 = 6 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. ⎩ 2⎭ 111. 4 x − 3 x − 4 x − 7 x + 12 3x − 12 + 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 20 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. 114. −3 x−3 x +3 x −9 2 x ( x + 3) + 6 ( x − 3) = −28 2 x 2 + 6 x + 6 x − 18 = −28 2 x 2 + 12 x + 10 = 0 −5 ± 25 + 24 x= 4 −5 ± 49 x= 4 −5 ± 7 x= 4 1 x = −3. Inc. 4=2 . 1 1 1 + = .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 + 5x = 3 110. 2 − 10}. 20 − 8 x = x x 2 + 8 x − 20 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 2) = 0 x + 10 = 0 x−2 = 0 x = −10 0 = x 2 − 5 x − 12 x= 36 = 6 20 − 8 x = x 2 1 1 1 + = . 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 2 74 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎬ . x ≠ 3. The solution set is {2 + 10. ⎬. 5 ± 25 + 48 x= 2 5 ± 73 x= 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 73 5 − 73 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . x ≠ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 113. 0 = x2 − 4 x − 6 x= − ( −4 ) ± 3 x + 18 = x 2 ( −4 ) − 4 (1)( −6 ) 2 (1) 2 x 2 − 3x − 18 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 6) = 0 x+3=0 x–6=0 x = –3 x=6 3(−3) + 18 = −3 3(6) + 18 = 6 4 ± 16 + 24 2 4 ± 40 x= 2 4 ± 2 10 x= 2 x = 2 ± 10 x= −9 + 18 = −3 116. x ≠ 0. 3x + 18 = x ( −5 ) − 4 (1)( −12 ) 2 (1) 2 x=2 20 − 8(−10) = −10 20 − 8(2) = 2 20 + 80 = −10 20 − 16 = 2 100 = −10 False The solution set is {2}. x ≠ 3. − 1}. −2 x x+2 3 3x + 6 + 3 x = x 2 + 2 x 115.

Inc. 5−4 =1 . x2 − 5x − 6 = 0 6(8) + 1 = 8 − 1 0 + 1 = −1 48 + 1 = 7 49 = 7 x − 2x + 5 = 5 ( x − 5) 2 = 2 x + 5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 = 2 x + 5 x=6 −1 + 10 = −1 − 2 x 2 − 12 x + 20 = 0 6 + 10 = 6 − 2 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. 75 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x + 12 x + 36 = 0 2 ( x + 6) 2 = 0 122. ( x − 2)( x − 10) = 0 x − 2 = 0 x − 10 = 0 16 = 4 x=2 2 x + 13 = x + 7 2 x + 13 = ( x + 7) x=8 6(0) + 1 = 0 − 1 x − 5 = 2x + 5 ( x + 1)( x − 6) = 0 x +1 = 0 x − 6 = 0 119. 2 x + 10 = x 2 − 4 x + 4 x = −1 6x + 1 = x − 1 6 x + 1 = ( x − 1) 2 2 2 2 x + 13 = x + 14 x + 49 x = 10 2 − 2(2) + 5 = 5 10 − 2(10) + 5 = 5 2− 9 =5 10 − 25 = 5 2 − 3 = 5 False The solution set is {10}. x=0 1 = −1 False The solution set is {8}. x+6 = 0 10 − 5 = 5 x − x + 11 = 1 x − 1 = x + 11 x = −6 ( x − 1) 2 = x + 11 2(−6) + 13 = −6 + 7 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = x + 11 −12 + 13 = 1 x 2 − 3x − 10 = 0 1 =1 The solution set is {–6}. 120.PreCalculus 4E Section P.7 x+3 = x−3 117. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x + 3 = x − 6x + 9 x2 − 7 x + 6 = 0 6 x + 1 = x2 − 2 x + 1 ( x − 1)( x − 6) = 0 x–1=0 x–6=0 x=1 x=6 6+3 = 6−3 1+ 3 = 1− 3 x2 − 8x = 0 x( x − 8) = 0 x −8 = 0 False 9 = 3 4 = −2 The solution set is {6}. x + 10 = x − 2 118. x + 10 = ( x − 2) 121. ( x + 2)( x − 5) = 0 x+2=0 x−5 = 0 x = −2 x=5 −2 − −2 + 11 = 1 5 − 5 + 11 = 1 −2 − 9 = 1 5 − 16 = 1 −2 − 3 = 1 False The solution set is {5}.

126. 45 – [4 – 2y – 4(y + 7)] = –4(1 + 3y) – [4 – 3(y + 2) – 2(2y – 5)] 45 – [4 – 2y – 4y – 28] = –4 – 12y – [4 – 3y – 6 – 4y + 10] 45 – [–6y – 24] = –4 – 12y – [–7y + 8] 45 + 6y + 24 = –4 – 12y + 7y – 8 6y + 69 = –5y – 12 11y = –81 y=− 81 11 ⎧ 81 ⎫ ⎬. Inc. ⎩ 11 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ − 76 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x + 15 = x + 6 ( 2 x + 15 ) 2 = ( x + 6) 2 2 x + 15 = x 2 + 12 x + 36 0 = x 2 + 10 x + 21 0 = ( x + 3)( x + 7) x + 3 = 0 or x + 7 = 0 x = −3 x = −7 –7 does not check and must be rejected.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x + 19 − 8 = x 123. 25 – [2 + 5y – 3(y + 2)] = –3(2y – 5) – [5(y – 1) – 3y + 3] 25 – [2 + 5y – 3y – 6] = –6y + 15 – [5y – 5– 3y + 3] 25 – [2y – 4] = –6y + 15 – [2y – 2] 25 – 2y + 4 = –6y + 15 – 2y + 2 –2y + 29 = –8y + 17 6y = –12 y = –2 The solution set is {–2}. The solution set is {–5}. The solution set is {–3}. 2 x + 15 − 6 = x 124. 2 x + 19 = x + 8 ( 2 x + 19 ) 2 = ( x + 8) 2 2 x + 19 = x 2 + 16 x + 64 0 = x 2 + 14 x + 45 0 = ( x + 9)( x + 5) x + 9 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 x = −9 x = −5 –9 does not check and must be rejected. 125. .

and x = 1. The solution set is {−7. and x = 4. 6} .7 127. The solution set is {−8. 4.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 10 x − 1 = (2 x + 1) 2 10 x − 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 0 = 4 x2 − 6 x + 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 0 = (2 x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x − 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x= 1 2 x =1 ⎧1 ⎫ ⎩2 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 = −8 x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 3) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −7. 1} . 7 − 7 x = (3x + 2)( x − 1) 7 − 7 x = 3x 2 − x − 2 0 = 3x 2 + 6 x − 9 0 = x2 + 2 x − 3 0 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −3 x =1 The solution set is {−3. − 6. − 3. 77 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 129.1} .1⎬ . 130. . Inc. x = 6. x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = −12 or ( x + 8)( x − 6) = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 4) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −8. x = −6. 128. x = −3.

Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded. x= 135. −1 ± 1 − ( −20 ) 2 134.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 131. 2 x2 + 4 x − 9 = 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4 ( 2 )( 2 ) 2 ( 2) 6 ± 36 − 16 6 ± 20 = 4 4 6 ± 4⋅5 6 ± 2 5 = = 4 4 3± 5 = 2 ⎧⎪ 3 ± 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 2 x+8 − x−4 = 2 x +8 = x−4 + 2 x + 8 = ( x − 4 + 2) 2 x +8 = x −4+ 4 x −4 + 4 x +8 = x + 4 x − 4 8= 4 x−4 x + 2 = ( x − 1)( x − 2) + 5( x − 1) 2= x−4 x + 2 = x2 − 2 x − x + 2 + 5x − 5 4 = x−4 x + 2 = x2 + 2 x − 3 x=8 0 = x2 + x − 5 8+8 − 8−4 = 2 16 − 4 = 2 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 1 b = 1 c = −5 . x +5 − x −3 = 2 −1 ± 21 2 x+5 = x −3 + 2 x + 5 = ( x − 3 + 2) 2 ⎪⎧ −1 ± 21 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. . ( x − 2)( x − 3) . x − 1 x 1 + = 2 x − 2 x − 3 x − 5x + 6 x −1 x 1 + = x − 2 x − 3 ( x − 2)( x − 3) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. This results in the following: 133. Inc. 1 1 5 = + 2 x − 3x + 2 x + 2 x − 4 1 1 5 = + ( x − 1)( x − 2) x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ = x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(2)(−9) 2(2) −4 ± 88 4 −4 ± 2 22 x= 4 −2 ± 22 x= 2 x= 78 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This results in the following: ( x − 3)( x − 1) + x( x − 2) = 1 4 = 4 x −3 1= x −3 1= x −3 x=4 4+5 − 4−3 = 2 9− 1=2 3 −1 = 2 The solution set is {4}. −1 ± 1 − 4 (1)( −5 ) 2 x= = 2 (1) = 4−2 = 2 The solution set is {8}. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ x +5 = x −3+ 4 x −3 + 4 x + 5 = x +1+ 4 x − 3 5 = 1+ 4 x − 3 132. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x + 2) . x − x − 3x + 3 + x − 2 x = 1 2 2 2x − 6x + 3 = 1 2 2 x2 − 6 x + 2 = 0 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 2 b = −6 c = 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

26 −0.28 = x + 500 0. 0. The function models the actual data well.74 = b. Inc.1(500) 0.24 ) 2 ( 0.013) 2 1.24 0 = 0.72 x −90 = −0. the healthy weight of a person of height 6’ is 178 pounds.74( x + 200) = x + 0.35(200) x + 200 x + 0. a.026 1. x + 0.013)( 25.1(500) C= C= 140.39 and 58.26 x −78 = −0. Thus.26 x = 300 300 liters of pure acid must be added.39 The solutions are approximately 33.35(200) x + 200 0.24 x= W 138.15.19 x + 28. 33 year olds and 58 year olds are expected to be in 3 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven. This is 6 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph.10362 0.72 −0.28( x + 500) = x + 0. x + 0. = 79 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section P.013x 2 − 1.026 ≈ 58.35(200) 0. 8 ± 24 4 8± 2 6 x= 4 4± 6 x= 2 x= 137.74 x + 148 = x + 70 −0.72 x = 125 125 liters of pure peroxide must be added. = − ( −1.1(500) x + 500 x + 0. 2 x2 − 8x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−8) ± (−8) 2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) 139.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0.72 x = −90 −0. 0.013x 2 − 1.013 b = −1.7 136. − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(12) = 53 2 W − 36 = 53 2 W − 36 + 36 = 53 + 36 2 W = 89 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 89 2 W = 178 According to the formula. Publishing as Prentice Hall.026 1. W − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(6) = 53 2 W − 18 = 53 2 W − 18 + 18 = 53 + 18 2 W = 71 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 71 2 W = 142 According to the formula. 141.013x 2 − 1.19 x + 25.19 c = 25.4161 − 1.19 ± 0.19 ) ± ( −1.19 x + 28. the healthy weight of a person of height 5’6” is 142 pounds. .15 or 33.19 ± 1.19 ± 0. Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded. f ( x ) = 0.28 x + 140 = x + 50 −0. This is 13 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph.31248 0.26 x = −78 −0.19 ) − 4 ( 0.24 3 = 0.32190 ≈ 0.

2.1 x ≈ 19 = 163.24 2 0 = 0.7 x + 12.87383 0.013x 2 − 1.013) 2 1. 144.19 ) − 4 ( 0.19 ± 0.6 = 0.5 x 2 − 2 x − 15 = 0 3.7 x 2.24 ) 2 ( 0.1 cluttered minutes 14 years after 1996.7 x + 12.68383 x= or x = 0. The formula does not model the data very well. 80 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The formula overestimates the number of fatal accidents.68383 ≈ 0. 1.5 = x 0. Sample explanation: Substitute n = 6 into the equation to find P.5 167.19 ) ± 160. or 2010.7 x 3.19 ± 1.46762 1.19 c = 18.026 1. M = 0.013)(18. 143. false.013 b = −1. M = 0. Answers may vary. Sample explanation: You should substitute into the original equation. does not make sense. ( −1.19 x + 28. .19 + 0.5 7x + 4 + 13 = x b 7(−6) + 4 + 13 = −6 b −38 = −19 b −19b = −38 b=2 [ x − (−3)][ x − (5)] = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 5) = 0 16 = 0. f ( x ) = 0. or 2021.68383 1. ( ) 168. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall.19 x + 18.026 162. makes sense 161. 165.7 2 2 ⎛ 2.19 − 0.5 15.94848 0.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 25 = x There will be 16 cluttered minutes 25 years after 1996.5 = 0. Sample explanation: The factoring method would be quicker.026 Evaluate the expression to obtain two solutions.026 0. false. does not make sense.5 ⎞ ⎜ 0. A sample change is: (2 x − 3) 2 = 25 (2 x − 3) 2 = ± 25 2 x − 3 = ±5 164.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 142. Inc. Drivers of approximately age 19 and age 72 are expected to be involved in 10 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven.7 x + 12.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0.6 ⎞ ⎜ 0.013x − 1.1 = 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: ax 2 + c = 0 can be solved using b = 0 .6 = x 0.19 ± 0. – 158.19 x + 28.026 0. true 166. Changes to make the statement true will vary.24 159. ( ) 145. false.026 x ≈ 72.013x 2 − 1.026 0.7 x + 12. A sample change is: Some quadratics have one number in their solution sets. 1. 10 = 0.4161 − 0. Explanations will vary.24 x= = − ( −1. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. Explanations will vary.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 14 ≈ x There will be 15.7 2 2 ⎛ 3.50617 x= x= 0.

400 a = ±120 –120 must be rejected. x + 14. 3. 2l + 2 w = P 2( x + 44) + 2 x = 288 2 x + 88 + 2 x = 288 4 x + 88 = 288 4 x = 200 200 x= 4 x = 50 x + 44 = 94 The dimensions of the court are 50 by 94. Let x = the width of the court. 037 = 130. 015 2 x = 115. 015 x + x + 14.037 = the average salary for men x + ( x + 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 4 x 2 + 56 x − 128 = 0 x 2 + 14 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 16)( x − 2) = 0 x + 16 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −16 x=2 –16 must be rejected. Let x = the average salary for women Let x + 14. The tower is 120 yards tall.70 x = 1200 Before the reduction the computer’s price was $1200. 037 ) = 130. Let x = the number of years since 1969.30 x = 840 0.8 192 + 56 x + 4 x 2 = 320 Check Point Exercises 1. The path must be 2 feet wide.1x = −55 −55 x= −1. 037 = 130.1x = 33 −1. (16 + 2 x )(12 + 2 x) = 320 VL = CL − CN + SN CN − CL = NS − LV C ( N − L ) = NS − LV C ( N − L) NS − LV N −L N −L NS − LV LV − NS or C= N −L L−N = 170. 81 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2.70 x = 840 840 x= 0. Let x + 44 = the length of the court. s = −16t 2 + v0 t 0 = −16t 2 + v0 t − s a = −16.8 C−S N L VL = CL − ( C − S ) N V =C− 169. c = − s t= t= t= −v0 ± ( v0 ) − 4 ( −16 )( − s ) 2 ( −16 ) −v0 ± ( v0 ) 2 2 − 64s −32 v0 ± v0 2 − 64 s 32 171.026 In 2007 the average teaching salary for women was $57. b = v0 . 20 + 0.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x − 0. or 2019.05x 173. 88 − 1. 5. Let x = the computer’s price before the reduction.1x = 33 − 88 −1. 4. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + (50) 2 = (130)2 a 2 + 2500 = 16.978 x = 57. 015 2 x + 14.026. 037 = 72.989 6. 4 x + 400 Section P. . 900 a 2 = 14.989 and the average salary for men was $72. x + 150 172.1 x = 50 33% of female freshmen will respond this way 50 years after 1969.

9 Americans spend an average of 3. 000 − 375. Exercise Set P.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra The original amount of money per person.9 weeks. 5. . 000 = 0 x 2 + 3x − 40 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 5) = 0 x + 8 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −8 x=5 –8 must be rejected.9 x + 4 = 7. 000. 000 x 7. 000 x + 15. x + ( x + 4) = 11. 000.125. 000 5. x + ( x + 581) = 2529 x + x + 581 = 2529 2 x + 581 − 581 = 2529 − 581 2 x = 1948 x = 974 x + 581 = 1555 Americans spent 974 hours listening to radio and 1555 hours watching TV.125.8 2 x + 4 − 4 = 11. 000. 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 x = 5. 000 x + 15.9 weeks on vacation and Italians spend an average of 7. Let x = number of weeks Americans spend on vacation. 000. Let x + 581 = the time spent watching TV. 000( x + 3) − 375. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 3) x x+3 ⎝ ⎠ 5. 000 ⎛ 5. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 x 2 − 1.8 x = 3. 000. Let x + 4 = number of weeks Italians spend on vacation. 000 x −375. There were 5 people in the original group. 000. Inc. 000.8 − 4 2 x = 7. 000 ⎞ x( x + 3) ⎜ − 375.8 x + x + 4 = 11.8 1. reduction per winner 5. Let x = the time spent listening to radio. 000. The new amount of money per person. 000 x( x + 3) = 5. 000. 000 = x x+3 5. 000 − 375. 82 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000.

Let 3x − 3500 = the average salary for registered nurses.000.6 x = 61 0. 000 x = 10.300 The college’s enrollments will be 22.6 x = 61 − 43 0.390 and the average salary for registered nurses is $54.800 − 500 x 1500 x = 13. 000 x= −3000 x=5 The car’s value will drop to $9000 after 5 years. 000 − 28. 000 = −3000 x −15. Let x = the number of years after 2005 13. 000 x = 25 The countries will have the same population 25 years after the year 2000.900.580 and the average salary for computer programmers is $63. 83 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or the year 2025.300 + 1000 x = 26. Let x = the average salary for janitors. 7.300 + 1000(9) = 22.5 x = 100 − 43 1. 060 + 3500 4 x = 77. 9.8 Let x = the average salary for carpenters. Let 2 x − 7740 = the average salary for computer programmers.000 after 7 years. 8.900. 000 − 5000 x 10. 500 1500 x 13. 000 = 9. 000 The population in the year 2025 will be 9. 000 − 300. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 x = 57 57 x= 1. 000 = −3000 x −15. a. 200. 000 3x − 7740 + 7740 = 99.800 − 500(9) = 22.760. 060 4 x − 3500 + 3500 = 74. 10. 000 − 5000 x 10. Section P.5 x = 100 1. x + (3x − 3500) = 74. 43 + 0. y = 24. a.500 = 1500 1500 x=9 The two colleges will have the same enrollment about 9 years after 2005. 000 = 45. 200. 740 x = 35. 43 + 1. 760 The average salary for janitors is $19. y = 45. Let x = the number of years after 2000 10. 000 3 x − 7740 = 99. or 2016. 200.300 and 26. 560 x = 19. 000 x = −400. 000 x Let x = the number of years since 1986.6 x = 18 18 x= 0. 600. 000 − 45. 000 + 7740 3x = 106. or 2014.300 at that time. 390 3 x − 3500 = 54. 4. 000 − 3000 x 9000 = 24. 200. 13. or 2021. 000 = −5000 x −35. 000 − 3000 x b. −16. 060 x + 3 x − 3500 = 74. y = 24. 000(25) = 10. 000 − 5000 x b. 000 x + 2 x − 7740 = 99. 000 x= −5000 x=7 The car’s value will drop to $10. x + (2 x − 7740) = 99. 000 − 12.PreCalculus 4E 3. 000 − 12. 5. 6. y = 45.6 x = 30 61% of American adults will approve 30 years after 1986.5 x = 38 All American adults will approve 38 years after 1983. . 000 − 12. Let x = the number of years since 1983. 000 x = 10.580 2 x − 7740 = 63. 000 = −5000 x −35. 420 The average salary for carpenters is $35. 000 − 3000 x 9000 − 24. 060 4 x − 3500 = 74. 10.420.

15. the dimensions are 36 feet by 78 feet.05 x = 252 x = 240 The nightly cost is $240. x − 0.70 x = 30.20. Inc. Let 3w = the length of the swimming pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 21.25c 467. Let 2w – 6 = the length of the pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 13. 20. . then 2 w = 100 . Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. 16. Let x = the cost of the television set. Thus. then 2 w + 6 = 2(36) + 6 = 78 . 17.30 x = 30. Let w = the width of the field Let 2w + 6 = the length of the field 228 = 6w + 12 216 = 6w 36 = w If w = 36 . 320 = 2 ( 3w ) + 2 ( w ) 320 = 6w + 2w 320 = 8w 40 = w If w = 40. the dimensions are 50 yards by 100 yards.80 x = 44 The dictionary’s price before the reduction was $44. 14.20 x = 336 18. 2 w − 6 = 2(23) − 6 = 46 − 6 = 40 The dimensions are 23 meters by 40 meters. 0. 2= x The width of the frame is 2 inches.20 = c The dealer’s cost is $467. Let w = the width of the swimming pool. Publishing as Prentice Hall.80 x = 336 x = 420 The television set’s price is $420.80 0. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. Let x = the width of the frame. The dimensions are 40 feet by 120 feet. Thus. 84 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 126 = 2 ( 2w − 6 ) + 2 ( w ) 126 = 4w − 12 + 2w 126 = 6 w − 12 138 = 6 w 23 = w Find the length. Total length: 16 + 2x Total width: 12 + 2x P = 2(length) + 2(width) 72 = 2 (16 + 2 x ) + 2 (12 + 2 x ) Let w = the width of the field Let 2w = the length of the field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 72 = 32 + 4 x + 24 + 4 x 72 = 8 x + 56 16 = 8 x 300 = 2 ( 2w) + 2 ( w) 300 = 4 w + 2w 300 = 6w 50 = w If w = 50 . 12.25c 15 = 1. 3w = 3(40) = 120. Let x = the cost of the dictionary x − 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11.25c 584 = 1. Let c = the dealer’s cost 15 = c + 0. Let w = the width of the pool.05 x = 252 1.08 x = 162 x = 150 The nightly cost is $150. 19.25c 12 = c The dealer’s cost is $12.08 x = 162 1. Let c = the dealer’s cost 584 = c + 0.

Let w = the width Let w +3 = the length Area = lw 27. larger square Let x = the width of the path (12 + 2 x )(15 + 2 x ) = 378 180 + 24 x + 30 x + 4 x 2 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x + 180 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x − 198 = 0 2 ( 2 x 2 + 27 x − 99 ) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33)( x − 3) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33) = 0 = 64 2 x + 33 = 0 2 x = −33 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 64 x 2 + 6 x − 55 = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 33 2 The width of the path is 3 meters. The width of the path is 5 meters.8 Let w = the width of the path Let 40 + 2w = the width of the pool and path Let 60 + 2w = the length of the pool and path 2(40 + 2w) + 2(60 + 2w) = 248 80 + 4w + 120 + 4w = 248 200 + 8w = 248 8w = 48 w=6 The width of the path is 6 feet. 200 + 60 x + 4 x 2 = 600 4 x + 60 x + 200 = 600 0 = w2 + 3w − 54 2 0 = ( w + 9 )( w − 6 ) w+9 = 0 w−6 = 0 w = −9 w=6 Disregard –9 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. The width is 6 feet and the length is 6 + 3 = 9 feet. This means that x. Disregard –20 because we can’t have a negative width measurement. 4 ( x + 20 ) = 0 x −5 = 0 Let w = the width Let w + 3 = the width Area = lw x + 20 = 0 x = −20 180 = ( w + 3) w 0 = w2 + 3w − 180 0 = ( w + 15 )( w − 12 ) 28. . 85 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 = 36 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 36 x 2 + 4 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 4 ) = 0 54 = ( w + 3) w 24. Let x + 2 = the side of the new. 23. Inc. Section P.PreCalculus 4E 22. 26.5} .5} . Let x = the length of the side of the original square Let x + 3 = the length of the side of the new. Disregard –11 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. 4 x 2 + 60 x − 400 = 0 4 ( x 2 + 15 x − 100 ) = 0 4 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. the length of the side of the original square. w + 15 = 0 w − 12 = 0 w = 12 w = −15 The width is 12 yards and the length is 12 yards + 3 yards = 15 yards. ( x + 11)( x − 5) = 0 x=− Apply the zero product principle. is 4 inches. Publishing as Prentice Hall. larger square ( x + 3) x=5 The solution set is {−20. Let x = the side of the original square. x + 11 = 0 x −5 = 0 x = −11 x=5 The solution set is {−11. is 5 inches. 180 = w2 + 3w 2 Let x = the width of the path ( 20 + 2 x )(10 + 2 x ) = 600 200 + 40 x + 20 x + 4 x 2 = 600 54 = w2 + 3w 25. ( x + 2) x +8 = 0 x−4 = 0 x=4 x = −8 The length of the side of the original square.

9 feet.24 feet The distance along the length and width is about 28.9 – 64. A person could save 116. or about 24.4 – 92.62 feet 2x ≈ 57. (10 + 2 x)(12 + 2 x) − (10)(12) = 168 120 + 44 x + 4 x 2 − 120 = 168 35. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + 152 = 202 a 2 + 225 = 400 a 2 = 175 a = ± 175 a ≈ ±13. Let x be the width.3 must be rejected. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + b2 = c2 52 + x 2 = ( x + 1) 2 x 2 + 25 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 25 = 2 x + 1 24 = 2 x x = 12 x + 1 = 13 The wire is 13 feet long. The building is 28.2 must be rejected. or about 85.09 yd 3x ≈ 87. 8 x 2 + 25 x − 84 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 28) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 28 = 0 x=3 x = −28 –28 must be rejected. 600 + 100 x + 4 x 2 − 600 = 336 152 + x 2 = ( x + 4) 2 4 x 2 + 100 x − 336 = 0 x 2 + 225 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 225 = 8 x + 16 209 = 8 x 1 x = 26 8 1 x + 4 = 30 8 1 The wire is 30 feet long.28. . Inc.9 feet.28 yd The distance along the length and width is about 29. 36.4 yards.09 + 87. 86 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + (3x) 2 = 922 a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + 9 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 102 = 302 10 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 100 = 900 x 2 = 846. a = ± 800 a ≈ ±28. Let x be the width. The width of the path is 3 feet 30. The width of the path is 3 feet 31.3 feet tall. or about 21. A person could save 85.2 feet up the house. x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 642 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 4096 5 x 2 = 4096 4096 x2 = 5 4096 x=± 5 x ≈ 28. a 2 + b2 = c2 4 x 2 + 44 x − 168 = 0 x 2 + 11x − 42 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 14) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 14 = 0 x=3 x = −14 –14 must be rejected.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 29.4 x ≈ 29.24. (20 + 2 x)(30 + 2 x) − (20)(30) = 336 34.4 a 2 = 800 x = ± 846. or about 116.2 –13. 32.4 yards.3 –28. The ladder reaches 13. 33.62 + 57.

. Let x be the car’s average velocity. 000 x 37. car's time traveled bus's time traveled 300 180 = x x − 20 300( x − 20) = 180 x 300 x − 6000 = 180 x 120 x = 6000 x = 50 x − 20 = 30 The average velocity of the car is 50 miles per hour. 000. 000. Inc. 000 ⎞ x( x + 2) ⎜ − 500. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 2) x x+2 ⎝ ⎠ 20. 000 x( x + 4) = 480. 000. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 ⎛ 480.8 The original amount of money per person. 000 − 500. 000 x 2 − 128. 000. 39. 000. There were 6 people in the original group. 000 x + 40. 000. 480. The average velocity of the bus is 30 miles per hour. 000 x 2 − 128. 000 ⎞ x( x + 4) ⎜ − 32. 000. 000 − 32. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 4) x x+4 ⎝ ⎠ 480. 000. 000 − 500. 000 x 1. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 80 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 8) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 8 = 0 x = −10 x=8 –10 must be rejected. 000 480. 000( x + 4) − 32. 000. 000( x + 2) − 500. 000. 000 = x x+4 480. 000 = x x+2 20. 000 x = 20. 000 x 38. 000 20. 000 x = 480. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 x + 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000. 000 x 40.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 6) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = −10 x=6 –10 must be rejected. 000 ⎛ 20. 87 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 20. 000. There were 8 people in the original group. 920. 480. 000 − 32. 000 − 32. 000 − 500. 920. The new amount of money per person. 000 x( x + 2) = 20. reduction per winner 20.

28 x 3000 + 100 x = 3360 + 28 x 72 x = 360 x=5 You must get 5 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0. 35 + x = 0. Let g = the gross amount of the paycheck Yearly Salary = 2 (12 ) g + 750 30 x + 30 x + 270 = 7 x 2 + 63 x 33150 = 24 g + 750 32400 = 24 g 1350 = g The gross amount of each paycheck is $1350. The average velocity of the freight train is 40 miles per hour.30. 47. The average velocity of the 9 first engine is 35 miles per hour. Let x = inches over 5 feet 100 + 5x = 135 5x = 35 x=7 A height of 5 feet 7 inches corresponds to 135 pounds. The average velocity of the second engine is 40 miles per hour. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. Let x = number of hours 63x = labor cost 63x + 532 = 1603 63x = 1071 x = 17 17 hours were required to repair the yacht. 140 200 + =9 x x+5 ⎛ 140 200 ⎞ ⎜ x + x+5⎟ =9 ⎝ ⎠ 140 200 ⎛ ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ + = 9 x( x + 5) x + 5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x 140( x + 5) + 200 x = 9 x( x + 5) 48. Let x = number of hours 35x = labor cost 35x + 63 = 448 35x = 385 x = 11 It took 11 hours.28.30 x 350 + 10 x = 420 + 3x 7 x = 70 x = 10 You must get 10 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0.30(140 + x) 35 + x = 42 + 0. Let x be the passenger train’s average velocity. 0 = ( x − 35)(9 x − 20) x − 35 = 0 or 9 x + 20 = 0 x = 35 20 x=− x + 5 = 40 9 20 − must be rejected. . – 52. freight train's time traveled 240 160 = x x − 20 240( x − 20) = 160 x 240 x − 4800 = 160 x 80 x = 4800 x = 60 x − 20 = 40 The average velocity of the passenger train is 60 miles per hour. 30 + x = 0. 42. 0 = 7 x 2 + 3 x − 270 0 = ( x − 6)(7 x + 45) x − 6 = 0 or 7 x + 45 = 0 x=6 45 x=− 7 45 − must be rejected.28 120 + x 30 + x = 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 40. 41. Let x be the average velocity of the first engine. The average velocity on the 7 return trip is 6 miles per hour.30 140 + x 35 + x = 0. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. passenger train's time traveled 43. Let x be the average velocity on the return trip.28(120 + x) 140 x + 700 + 200 x = 9 x 2 + 45 x 0 = 9 x 2 − 295 x − 700 30 + x = 33. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 45. 49. 88 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Answers may vary.6 + 0. 5 5 7 + = x+9 x 6 5⎞ 7 ⎛ 5 6 x( x + 9) ⎜ + ⎟ = 6 x( x + 9) 6 ⎝ x+9 x⎠ 30 x + 30( x + 9) = 7 x( x + 9) 46. 44.

6x = price after first reduction 0. Let x be the length of one leg. 4.8 does not make sense. 54. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 2 x−2 ⎟ 1 1 x−2−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 3 2 ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ After passing the third security guard. makes sense 60. 89 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The lengths of the sides are 3. 56. Inc. Let x = the number of plants originally stolen After passing the first security guard. Explanations will vary. 64. they cannot guaranty perfect precision. 000 The mother received $4000. 57. Answers may vary. . as it is greater than the perimeter.35 x = 780. 000 2 x = $4. Sample explanation: Though mathematical models can often provide excellent estimates about future attitudes. and the girl received $2000. 000 2 7 x = 14.6 x − 0. does not make sense. and 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = mother’s amount 2x = boy’s amount x = girl’s amount 2 x x + 2 x + = 14. 3 − 2 x ≤ 11 3 − 2(−1) ≤ 11 3 + 2 ≤ 11 5 ≤ 11.6x) = price after second reduction 0. x − = 1 8 2 x − 28 = 8 58. makes sense 55.36 x = 72 x = 200 The original price was $200. x = 36 The thief stole 36 plants. 63. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 4 x−3 ⎟ 1 1 7 x −3−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 4 2 8 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 7 Thus. 59.24 x = 72 0.4x = 0. 62. Sample explanation: The correct equation is x − 0. Let x = correct answers 26 – x = incorrect answers 8 x − 5(26 − x) = 0 8 x − 130 + 5 x = 0 13x − 130 = 0 13x = 130 x = 10 10 problems were solved correctly. Section P. true –1 is a solution. Let x = woman’s age 3x = Coburn’s age 3x + 20 = 2(x + 20) 3x + 20 = 2x + 40 x + 20 = 40 x = 20 Coburn is 60 years old the woman is 20 years old. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + ( x + 1) 2 = [12 − x − ( x + 1) ] 2 x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 1 = [12 − x − x − 1] 2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = (11 − 2 x )2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = 121 − 44 x + 4 x 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 46 x + 120 0 = x 2 − 23x + 60 0 = ( x − 3)( x − 20) x − 3 = 0 or x − 20 = 0 x=3 x = 20 x +1 = 4 12 − (3 + 4) = 5 20 must be rejected. Let x = original price x – 0. the thief has: 1 1 ⎛1 ⎞ x − ⎜ x + 2⎟ = x − x − 2 = x − 2 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ After passing the second security guard. the boy received $8000. Explanations will vary.4(0.6x – 0. 61.PreCalculus 4E 53.

3] and ( 2.3] ∩ ( 2.3] : Graph ( 2. [1. 6 ) = ( 2.9 Check Point Exercises 1. 90 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) = x x < −1 a.5 { } c. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. x+3 x−2 1 = + 4 3 4 ⎛ x+3⎞ ⎛ x−2 1⎞ 12 ⎜ ⎟ = 12 ⎜ 3 + 4 ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x + 3) = 4( x − 2) + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 8 + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 5 3x − 4 x = −5 − 9 − x = −14 x = 14 The solution set is {14}.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 65. Section P. [−2. 2. [1.5] = x 1≤ x ≤ 3. −2 x − 4 = x + 5 −2 x − x = 5 + 4 −3 x = 9 9 x= −3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. { } Graph [1. Numbers in both [1. 3. [−∞. 6 ) : Thus. 5) = x −2 ≤ x < 5 { } b. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . a.3] . 6 ) : To find the intersection. 66.

4) . 5. 6 ) : To find the union. 6 ) = [1. 4. 2 − 3x ≤ 5 −3 x ≤ 3 x ≥ −1 The solution set is { x x ≥ −1} or [−1.PreCalculus 4E Section P. Numbers in either [1. [1. ∞) . 3. 3x + 1 > 7 x − 15 −4 x > −16 −4 x −16 < −4 −4 x<4 The solution set is { x x < 4} or ( -∞. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Inc.3] : b. . 6 ) . 6. 1 ≤ 2 x + 3 < 11 −2 ≤ 2 x < 8 −1 ≤ x < 4 The solution set is { x −1 ≤ x < 4} or [−1.4] . 91 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3] or ( 2. Graph ( 2. 6 ) or both: Thus. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 2 3 6 ⎛ x−4⎞ ⎛ x−2 5⎞ 6⎜ ⎟ ≥ 6⎜ 3 + 6 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x + 1 3x − 2 x ≥ 1 + 12 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} or [13.3] ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) .9 Graph [1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

25 x 180 < 0. 5 ⎣ 5 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 9. x−2 <5 −5 < x − 2 < 5 −3 < x < 7 The solution set is { x −3 < x < 7} or (−3. Let x = the number of miles driven in a week.3⎥ .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 7. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3 5 x − 2 + 20 ≥ −19 −3 5 x − 2 ≥ −39 −3 5 x − 2 −39 −3 −3 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 ≤ −13 ≤ 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 −11 ≤ 5 x ≤ 15 −11 5 x 15 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 11 − ≤ x≤3 5 ⎧ 11 ⎫ ⎡ 11 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 3⎬ or ⎢ − . ∞ ) . 18 < 6 − 3x 6 − 3x < −18 −3x < −24 −3x −24 > −3 −3 x >8 or 6 − 3x > 18 −3x > 12 −3x 12 < −3 −3 x < −4 The solution set is { x x < −4 or x > 8} or ( −∞. 8. 7) .25 x 720 < x Driving more than 720 miles in a week makes Basic the better deal. 10. 260 < 80 + 0. −4 ) ∪ ( 8. 92 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

x ≥ –3 10. x>2 8. 0 ) and [ −1. Graph ( −3.5 15. 1<x≤6 2. . 0 ) . 2] = [ −1. –2 < x ≤ 4 3. 2] : To find the intersection.9 Exercise Set P. x ≥ –5 11. x>3 9. x < 5. –2 ≤ x ≤ 5 7. x ≤ 3. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. –4 ≤ x < 3 5. –5 ≤ x < 2 4. x < 3 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( −3. 2] : Thus. 0 ) : Graph [ −1. Inc. 0 ) ∩ [ −1.9 1.PreCalculus 4E Section P.5 14. –3 ≤ x ≤ 1 6. x < 2 13. Numbers in both ( −3. 93 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

. ( −∞. Graph ( −4.1] : Thus. 0 ) : Graph [ −2.9] : To find the intersection.1] = ( −4.5 ) . 6 ) ∩ [ 2. 20. Numbers in both ( −∞.1] : To find the union.5 ) ∩ [1. Inc.1] or both: Thus.9] : Thus. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.8] : Thus. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 0 ) and [ −2. Numbers in both ( −4.6 ) . 2] . 17. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 94 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 16. 0 ) . 2] or both: Thus. 0 ) ∪ [ −2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Publishing as Prentice Hall. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 0 ) or [ −2. 0 ) : Graph [ −1.9] = [ 2. 6 ) and [ 2. Numbers in either ( −3. Numbers in both ( −∞. 2] : To find the union. 0 ) ∪ [ −1.5 ) : Graph [1.1] = [ −2.8] = [1. ( −4. Graph ( −3. 19. 18. 6 ) : Graph [ 2. ( −∞. 2] = ( −3. Numbers in either ( −4. Graph ( −∞. ( −3.5) and [1.1] .1] : To find the intersection. 0 ) : Graph [ −2. 0 ) or [ −1. Graph ( −∞. Graph ( −4. 0 ) ∩ [ −2. ( −4.8] : To find the intersection.

∞ ) ∩ ( 4.9 Graph ( −∞. 6 ) ∪ [ 2. ∞ ) or both: Thus. Inc. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. ∞ ) ∪ ( 6. [3. 25.9] : To find the union. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.∞ ) : Thus. ( −∞. ∞ ) : Graph ( 4.9] . ∞ ) : To find the intersection. Numbers in both [ 2. ∞ ) or ( 6. ( −∞. Graph ( −∞.8] or both: Thus.∞ ) = ( 4. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. Graph [ 2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.9] = ( −∞. Numbers in either [3. Graph [3. 95 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Numbers in either ( −∞.8] : To find the union.8] = ( −∞. ∞ ) = ( 6. ∞ ) and ( 6.8] .5 ) or [1. ∞ ) = [3. 23.9] or both: Thus. . 24. [3. 6 ) or [ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E 21. ∞ ) .5 ) : Graph [1. ∞ ) . ∞ ) ∩ ( 6. Graph [3. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 22.5 ) ∪ [1. Numbers in either ( −∞. ∞ ) : To find the union. [ 2. ∞ ) and ( 4. 6 ) : Graph [ 2. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. Numbers in both [3.∞ ) : To find the intersection. ∞ ) : Thus. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Section P.

32. –5x ≤ 30 x ≥ –6 The solution set is { x x ≥ −6} or [ −6.∞ ) = [ 2. 31. ∞ ) ∪ ( 4. 8x – 2 ≥ 14 8x ≥ 16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x > 2} or [ 2. –9x ≥ 36 x ≤ –4 The solution set is { x x ≤ −4} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6).∞ ) : To find the union.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Graph [ 2. ∞ ) : 26. 28. 2x + 5 < 17 2x < 12 x<6 The solution set is { x x < 6} or (–∞. [ 2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 96 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or ⎢ . 3). 27. Numbers in either [ 2.∞ ) or both: Thus. or (–∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ⎟ . ∞ ) or ( 4. Inc. ∞ ) . −4] . or ( −∞. 5x + 11 < 26 5x < 15 x<3 The solution set is { x x < 3} . 29. Graph ( 4. 3x – 7 ≥ 13 3x ≥ 20 20 x≥ 3 ⎧ 20 ⎫ ⎡ 20 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > ⎬ . . 3 ⎣3 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 30.

36. Inc. or (–∞. .PreCalculus 4E Section P. 8x – 11 ≤ 3x – 13 8x – 3x ≤ –13 + 11 5x ≤ –2 2 x≤− 5 ⎧ 2⎫ 2⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ . 2x – 11 < – 3(x + 2) 2x – 11 < – 3x – 6 5x < 5 x<1 The solution set is { x x < 1} . 5⎭ 5⎦ ⎝ ⎩ 34. –4). or ⎜ −∞. ∞). –4(x + 2) > 3x + 20 –4x – 8 > 3x + 20 –7x > 28 x < –4 The solution set is { x x < −4} or (–∞. − ⎥ . ∞ ). 37. or [0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 6⎦ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ 35. 38. 1).9 33. 18x + 45 ≤ 12x – 8 18x – 12x ≤ –8 – 45 6x ≤ –53 53 x≤− 6 ⎧ 53 ⎫ 53 ⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ or ⎜ −∞. 8x + 3 > 3(2x + 1) + x + 5 8x + 3 > 6x + 3 + x + 5 8x + 3 > 7x + 8 8x – 7x > 8 – 3 x>5 The solution set is { x x > 5} or (5. 97 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4(x + 1) + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 4 + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 6 ≥ 3x + 6 4x – 3x ≥ 6 – 6 x≥0 The solution set is { x x > 0} . − ⎥ .

− 98 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 – (x + 3) ≥ 4 – 2x 1 – x – 3 ≥ 4 – 2x –x – 2 ≥ 4 – 2x x≥6 The solution set is { x x ≥ 6} .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 39. x >4 2 x >3 2 x < –6 The solution set is { x x. or [6. 41. 42. Inc. 1 − [ −2. or ( −∞. 3x 1 x +1 ≥ − 10 5 10 ⎛ 3x ⎞ ⎛1 x ⎞ 10 ⎜ + 1⎟ ≥ 10 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 3x + 10 ≥ 2 − x 4 x ≥ −8 x ≥ −2 The solution set is { x x ≥ −2} or 43. 5(3 – x) ≤ 3x – 1 15 – 5x ≤ 3x – 1 –8x ≤ –16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x ≥ 2} or [2. . ∞ ) . x 3 x − ≤ +1 4 2 2 4x 4 ⋅ 3 4 ⋅ x − ≤ + 4 ⋅1 4 2 2 x − 6 ≤ 2x + 4 − x ≤ 10 x ≥ −10 The solution set is { x x ≥ −10} . or [ −10. − 6 ) . −6} . 40. ∞ ) . ∞). ∞). Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Section P.9 4 3 7− x < 5 5 4 32 − x<− 5 5 x>8 The solution set is { x x > 8} or (8. The solution set is ⎨ x x ≥ ⎬ or ⎢ 6 ⎣ 6 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ x≥− 47. 45. 3 [3( x + 5) + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [ 3( x − 6) − 2(3x − 5) ] < 2(4 x + 3) 3 [3x + 15 + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [3x − 18 − 6 x + 10] < 8 x + 6 3 [11x + 22] + 5 [ −3x − 8] < 8 x + 6 33x + 66 − 15 x − 40 < 8 x + 6 18 x + 26 < 8 x + 6 10 x < −20 x < −2 The solution set is { x x < −2} or [ −∞. −2 ) . x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 6 9 18 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} . ∞ ) . ∞ ⎟. 46. Inc. or [13. 4x − 3 2x −1 +2≥ 6 12 2(4 x − 3) + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 8 x − 6 + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 6 x + 18 ≥ −1 6 x ≥ −19 19 6 ⎧ −19 ⎫ ⎡ -19 ⎞ .PreCalculus 4E 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . ∞). 99 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

54. Inc. –2]. or (3. . or (–5. 5). ∞ ⎟ . 6). 2⎭ ⎣2 2 ⎠ ⎩ 2 100 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎟ . 3 ≤ 4x – 3 < 19 6 ≤ 4x < 22 6 22 ≤x< 4 4 3 11 ≤x< 2 2 ⎧ 3 11⎫ ⎡ 3 11 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x ≤ x < ⎬ or ⎢ .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 7 < x + 5 < 11 7 – 5 < x + 5 – 5 < 11 – 5 2<x<6 The solution set is { x 2 < x < 6} or (2. 52. 5]. 5 [ 3(2 − 3x) − 2(5 − x) ] − 6 [5( x − 2) − 2(4 x − 3) ] < 3x + 19 5 [ 6 − 9 x − 10 + 2 x ] − 6 [5 x − 10 − 8 x + 6] < 3x + 19 5 [ −7 x − 4] − 6 [ −3x − 4] < 3 x + 19 −35 x − 20 + 18 x + 24 < 3x + 19 −17 x + 4 < 3 x + 19 −20 x < 15 −20 x 15 > −20 −20 3 x>− 4 ⎧ 3⎫ ⎡ 3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > − ⎬ or ⎢ − . 53. 50. –6 < x – 4 ≤ 1 –2 < x ≤ 5 The solution set is {x | −2 < x ≤ 5} or (–2. 4 ⎣ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 49. –3 ≤ x – 2 < 1 –1 ≤ x < 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x < 3} . 3). 51. –11 < 2x –1 ≤ –5 –10 < 2x ≤ –4 –5 < x ≤ –2 The solution set is { x − 5 < x ≤ −2} . 6 < x + 3 < 8 6–3<x+3–3<8–3 3<x<5 The solution set is { x 3 < x < 5} . or [–1.

61. or (–3. 3 ⎝ 3 ⎩ ⎭ 68. or (–1. 3 ( x − 1) 4 −6 < <6 3 ( x − 1) <6 4 –24 < 3x – 3 < 24 –21 < 3x < 27 –7 < x < 9 The solution set is { x − 7 < x < 9} or (–7. −3) or ( 3. 1 56. 66. 3]. |3(x – 1) + 2| ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3(x – 1) + 2 ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3x – 1 ≤ 20 –19 ≤ 3x ≤ 21 19 − ≤x≤7 3 ⎧ 19 ⎫ ⎡ 19 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 7 ⎬ or ⎢ − . 9). 2≤ [–5. or [3. or [–1. ∞ ) . |x| > 3 x > 3 or x < –3 The solution set is { x x > 3 or x < −3} . 65. 67. 59. −5 ) or ( 5. that is. 3]. 64. |x – 1| ≤ 2 –2 ≤ x – 1 ≤ 2 –1 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x ≤ 3} .PreCalculus 4E 55. 101 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7 ⎥ . |x| > 5 x > 5 or x < –5 ⎞ 4⎟ . |2x – 6| < 8 –8 < 2x – 6 < 8 –2 < 2x < 14 –1 < x < 7 The solution set is { x − 1 < x < 7} . |x| < 5 –5 < x < 5 The solution set is { x − 5 < x < 5} or (–5. −3 ≤ Section P. . 60. |2(x – 1) + 4| ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2(x – 1) + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x – 2 + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x + 2 ≤ 8 –10 ≤ 2x ≤ 6 –5 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 5 ≤ x ≤ 3} . −6 ≤ x − 4 < −3 2 1 −2 ≤ x < 1 2 −4 ≤ x < 2 The solution set is { x − 4 ≥ x < 2} or [ −4. all x in ( −∞. or (–6. 3 x + 5 < 17 –17 < 3x + 5 < 17 –22 < 3x < 12 ( −∞. that is. 6). 3 ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 57. 3). ⎠ The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} . 22 ⎛ 22 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x − < x < 4 ⎬ or ⎜ − .9 63. 62. ∞ ) . 7). Publishing as Prentice Hall. or 2 x − 5 < −1 3 2 x<4 3 3≤x<6 The solution set is { x 3 ≤ x < 6} . |x + 3| ≤ 4 –4 ≤ x + 3 ≤ 4 –7 ≤ x ≤ 1 The solution set is { x −7 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [–7. Inc. 2 ) . 1]. 5). 58. |x| < 3 –3 < x < 3 The solution set is { x − 3 < x < 3} . 0). 2y + 6 <2 3 2y + 6 −2 < <2 3 –6 < 2y + 6 < 6 –12 < 2y < 0 –6 < y < 0 The solution set is { x − 6 < y < 0} .

or ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x≥3 74. that is. −7 ) or (1. 5 x > 15 3x − 3 ≥1 9 3x − 3 3x − 3 ≥ 1 or ≤ −1 9 9 3x − 3 ≥ 9 3 x − 3 ≤ −9 3x ≥ 12 3 x ≤ −6 x≥4 x ≤ −2 x≥3 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ 1 or x ≥ 3} . 70. ∞ ) . ( −∞. ∞ ) . The solution set is { x x ≤ −5 or x ≥ 3} . 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. ⎟ or ( 3. ⎟ or ( 5. 102 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −5] or [3. that is. 76. 3⎠ ⎝ ( −∞. −1] or [3. that is.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 69. x − 1 ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 3} . |x + 3| ≥ 4 x + 3 ≥ 4 or x ≥1 x + 3 ≤ −4 x ≤ −7 The solution set is { x x ≤ −2 or x ≥ 4} . ∞ ) 5 ⎠ ⎝ 73. Inc. The solution set is { x x ≤ −7 or x ≥ 1} that is. 71. ( −∞. 77. |5x – 2| > 13 5 x − 2 > 13 or 5 x − 2 < −13 5 x < −11 x>3 x<− 11 5 ⎧ −11 ⎫ or x > 3⎬ . that is all x in ( −∞. |3x – 8| > 7 3x − 8 > 7 or 3x − 8 < −7 3x > 15 3x < 1 1 x>5 x< 3 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 5⎬ . 2 x ≤ −10 x≥3 x ≤ −5 3 3− x > 9 4 3 3 3 − x > 9 or 3 − x < −9 4 4 3 3 − x>6 − x < −12 4 4 x < −8 x > 16 {x x < −8 or x > 16} . 72. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . −1] or [3. ( −∞. . that is. that is. 3|x – 1| + 2 ≥ 8 3|x – 1| ≥ 6 |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x − 1 ≤ −2 2x + 2 ≥2 4 2x + 2 2x + 2 ≥ 2 or ≤ −2 4 4 2x + 2 ≥ 8 2 x + 2 ≤ −8 2x ≥ 6 2 3− x > 5 3 2 2 3 − x > 5 or 3 − x < −5 3 3 2 2 − x>2 − x < −8 3 3 x < −3 x > 12 The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 12} . ∞ ) . ( −∞. The solution set is ⎨ x x < 5 ⎩ ⎭ −11 ⎞ ⎛ that is. ∞ ) . −8 ) or (16. all x in ⎜ −∞. − 3) or (12. −2] or [ 4. 75.

2⎭ 5 > 4 − x is equivalent to 4 − x < 5 . 10 10 ⎭ ⎩ 2x + 1 ≥ 79. −4 1 − x < −16 −4 1 − x −16 > −4 −4 1− x > 4 1− x > 4 1 − x < −4 3 or −x > − x < −5 x < −3 x>5 86. −2 < 11 − x < 2 −13 < − x < −9 −13 − x −9 > > −1 −1 −1 13 > x > 9 9 < x < 13 The solution set is { x 9 < x < 13}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 > 11 − x is equivalent to 11 − x < 2 . 2 x ≥ 4 or x≥2 ≤ x >8 2 x − 1 ≤ −3 2 x ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 2} . > 5− x > 3 −2 x − 4 ≥ −4 −2 x − 4 −2 5 − x < −6 1⎫ ⎬. − x < −8 3 ≤ 2x −1 2x −1 ≥ 3 −2 ≤ x − 4 ≤ 2 −3 x + 7 5 − x < −3 The solution set is { x x < 2 or x > 8} . The solution set is { x −16 ≤ x ≤ 2} . Section P. 2x +1 ≤ − − x > −2 or x<2 83. 81.PreCalculus 4E 78.9 5 2x +1 − 3 ≥ 9 82. −4 −2 −2 x−4 ≤ 2 80. 9 ≤ 4x + 7 4 x + 7 ≥ 9 or 4 x + 7 ≤ −9 4x ≥ 2 4 x ≤ −16 2 x ≤ −4 x≥ 4 1 x≥ 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ −4 or x ≥ ⎩ 2≤ x≤6 The solution set is { x 2 ≤ x ≤ 6} . Inc. −3 x + 7 ≥ −27 −27 −3 −3 x+7 ≤9 ≤ −9 ≤ x + 7 ≤ 9 −16 ≤ x ≤ 2 85. 84. −2 5 − x < −6 5 2 x + 1 ≥ 12 2x +1 ≥ −2 5 − x −6 −2 −2 5− x > 3 12 5 12 5 7 2x ≥ 5 7 x≥ 10 12 5 17 or 2x ≤ − 5 17 x≤− 10 ⎧ 17 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − or x ≥ ⎬ . 103 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −5 < 4 − x < 5 −9 < − x < 1 −9 − x 1 > > −1 −1 −1 9 > x > −1 −1 < x < 9 The solution set is { x −1 < x < 9} . The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 5}. .

14 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 14 ⎠ y≤0 2 x − 11 + 3( x + 2) ≤ 0 2 x − 11 + 3x + 6 ≤ 0 5x − 5 ≤ 0 11 7 + 3 3 5x ≤ 5 x ≤1 The solution set is ( −∞. that is. 2 − 3 x < −1 −3 x < −3 x ≥5 3 x x 3 − ≥ 5 or 3 − ≤ −5 3 3 x x − ≥2 − ≤ −8 3 3 x ≤ −6 x ≥ 24 −3 x −3 > −3 −3 x >1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −6 or x ≥ 24} . − ⎟ or ⎜ .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 87.8] . 1 < 2 − 3x is equivalent to 2 − 3x > 1 . 4+ 3− 11 4 > − is true for all x. −6] or [ 24. 2 − 3x > 1 −3 x > −1 −3x −1 or < −3 −3 1 x< 3 91. 93. 104 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ). . 4 < 2 − x is equivalent to 2 − x > 4 . 12 < −2 x + − 2− 2− The solution set is { x x < −2 or x > 6} . 1 < x − x ≥9 3 3− ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 1⎬ . ∞ ⎟ . 94. 2−x > 4 or 2 − x < −4 −x > 2 − x < −6 −x 2 < −1 −1 x < −2 − x −6 > −1 −1 x>6 ( −∞. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 11 < x− 3 3 Since x − x −1 ≤ 1 2 x ≤2 2 x −2 ≤ 2 − ≤ 2 2 x −4 ≤ − ≤ 0 2 8≥ x≥0 89. The solution set is ⎨ x x < − 14 14 ⎭ ⎩ The solution set is { x 0 ≤ x ≤ 8} or [ 0. Inc.1] . 75 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 87 ⎞ ⎜ −∞. 92. y≥4 1 − ( x + 3) + 2 x ≥ 4 1 − x − 3 + 2x ≥ 4 x−2≥ 4 x≥6 The solution set is [ 6. 6 3 + 7 7 81 6 < −2 x + 7 7 6 81 6 81 −2 x + > or −2 x + < − 7 7 7 7 75 87 −2 x > −2 x < − 7 7 75 87 x<− x> 14 14 ⎧ 75 87 ⎫ or x > ⎬ . 90. ∞ ) . 3 ⎩ ⎭ 88. that is. 3 3 the solution set is { x x is any real number} or (–∞.

9. Inc.40 ( x − 60 ) ≤ 40 28 ≤ 20 + 0. 5⎦ ⎣ 104. commitment ≥ intimacy or intimacy ≤ commitment − 5 x + 3 ≥ −2 − ( − 5 x + 3 ) ≤ − ( −2 ) 103. − ⎥ .5] The solution set is ( −∞. −10] ∪ [ 2. voters will use punch cards or lever machines. − ⎥ ∪ [ 3. 2⎭ 9⎦ ⎩ ⎣ x + 2 ≤ −3 2 x + 4 ≤ −6 x≥2 99. ∞ ) . Let x be the number. −2.9 y≤4 95. fewer than 38. 105 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 101. 7− 98.1x + 25. | 5 − 4 x |≤ 13 or | 4 x − 5 |≤ 13 x +2 ≤ 4 2 −13 ≤ 4 x − 5 ≤ 13 −8 ≤ 4 x ≤ 18 9 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 x − + 2 ≤ −3 2 x +2 ≥3 2 x +2≥3 or 2 x+4≥ 6 9⎫ 2⎤ ⎧ ⎡ The solution set is ⎨ x | −2 ≤ x ≤ ⎬ or ⎢ −2.1 −2. after 3 years 106. − ⎥ .40 x − 4 ≤ 40 32 ≤ 0. | 4 − 3 x |≥ 5 or | 3x − 4 |≥ 5 3x − 4 ≤ −5 3 x ≤ −1 1 x≤− 3 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x | x ≤ − or x ≥ 3⎬ or 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1 ⎛ ⎤ ⎜ −∞.5 x + 63. 97. passion<commitment or commitment > passion 5x + 3 ≤ 2 −2 ≤ 5 x + 3 ≤ 2 −5 ≤ 5 x ≤ −1 −5 5 x −1 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 1 −1 ≤ x ≤ − 5 1⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −1.8 > 63 3. x ≤ −10 100. 3⎦ ⎝ 3x − 4 ≥ 5 3x ≥ 9 x≥3 ( 0. inclusive.1% of U.1 < 38. we calculate 1994+12=2006. commitment > passion or passion < commitment 105. [ 0.2 x > 12 Since x is the number of years after 1994. 63% of voters will use electronic systems after 2006. passion ≤ intimacy or intimacy ≥ passion y≥6 8 − 5x + 3 ≥ 6 102. 4 ) 108. ∞ ) . 109. Publishing as Prentice Hall. After approximately 5 12 years 107.S. 96. 28 ≤ 20 + 0.PreCalculus 4E Section P.5 x < 25 or x > 10 1994 + 10 = 2004 In years after 2004.1x > 37. .40 x ≤ 44 80 ≤ x ≤ 110 Between 80 and 110 ten minutes. 3. Let x be the number.40 x − 24 ≤ 40 28 ≤ 0.

h − 50 ≥ 1.6 x > 6250 More than 6250 tapes need to be sold a week to make a profit. 15 + 0. Inc.50x 30 < 0.5 x 5 ( F − 32 ) ≤ 35 9 9 9 5 9 (15 ) ≤ ⎛⎜ ( F − 32 ) ⎞⎟ ≤ ( 35 ) 5 5⎝9 ⎠ 5 15 ≤ 1200 < x More then 1200 packets of stationary need to be sold each week to make a profit. 111. inclusive or [59°F.40 x 1.225 h ≥ 58.6 1.95°F] .08x 1600 < 0. 113. 118.04 x 300 < x Plan A is a better deal when driving more than 300 miles a month.08 x < 3 + . 3000 + 3x < 5. or 41 or less. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = the number of hours the mechanic works on the car. 121. . b. 114. 117. Let x = the grade on the final exam. 2 + 0.6 x > 10.03x <6 x < 200 The credit union is a better deal when writing less than 200 checks.05 x 0.5 hours.775 The number of outcomes would be 59 or more.645 5 h − 50 h − 50 ≥ 1. 50 + 0.20x < 20 + 0.645 or ≤ −1. 265 + 65 x ≤ 2800 65 x ≤ 2535 x ≤ 39 39 bags or fewer can be lifted safely. 122. 115.5 ≤ x ≤ 3. a.5 The man will be working on the job at least 1. 86 + 88 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 240 x < 66 This will happen if you get a grade less than 66.6 x 10.000 would make the first bill a better deal. 000 1. 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 90 6 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 540 2 x + 350 ≥ 540 2 x ≥ 190 x ≥ 95 You must receive at least a 95% to earn an A. 9 ( 3) ≤ F − 32 ≤ 9 ( 7 ) 27 ≤ F − 32 ≤ 63 59 ≤ F ≤ 95 The range for Fahrenheit temperatures is 59°F to 95°F .5 and at most 3. 000 + 0. 000 > 1. 120. 2 x > 10. 86 + 88 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 270 x ≥ 96 You must get at least a 96.05x 32000 < x A home assessment of greater than $32.645 5 5 h − 50 ≥ 8.08 x < 8 + 0. 106 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.12 x 12 < 0. 226 ≤ 175 + 34 x ≤ 294 51 ≤ 34 x ≤ 119 1.03x < 200 + 0.225 h ≤ 41. 119. 112.5 x 3000 < 2. 1800 + 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 110. 245 + 95 x ≤ 3000 95 x ≤ 2755 x ≤ 29 29 bags or less can be lifted safely.225 h − 50 ≤ −8.3x 100< x Basic Rental is a better deal when driving more than 100 miles per day. 116.

3) ∪ ( −∞. we multiply the cost with the 3month pass by 2.50 + 0.50 −2 4 − (−2)2 = 0 −1 4 − (−1)2 = 3 0 4 − (0)2 = 4 1 4 − (1)2 = 3 124.50 x. −2 ) = ( −∞. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Because x > y.50 x ) < 30 15 + x < 30 x < 15 We also must consider the cost without purchasing a pass. – 131.50 x > 7. x y = 4− x −3 4 − (−3) = 7 −2 4 − (−2) = 6 The cost with the 6-month pass is C6 = 30. y – x represents a negative number.50 + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1 4 − (−1) = 5 0 4 − (0) = 4 1 4 − (1) = 3 2 4 − (2) = 2 3 4 − (3) = 1 Because we need to buy two 3-month passes per 6-month pass. 133. We need this cost to be less than the cost with a 3-month pass.50 x 144. A sample change is: 3x > 6 is equivalent to x > 2. 2 4 − (2)2 = 0 132. | x − 4 |< 3 b. makes sense 136. Answers may vary. When both sides are multiplied by (y – x) the inequality must be reversed.50 + 0. true 140. true 137. y = 4 − x 2 x y = 4 − x2 −3 4 − (−3)2 = −5 2. 3) 138. . 107 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: ( −∞. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. x −4 −3 y = x +1 −4 + 1 = 3 −3 + 1 = 2 −2 −1 0 1 2 −2 + 1 = 1 −1 + 1 = 0 0 +1 = 1 1+1 = 2 2 +1 = 3 139. makes sense 135. 141. a. | x − 4 |≥ 3 142. Inc. Let x = the number of times the bridge is crossed per three month period The cost with the 3-month pass is C3 = 7. makes sense 3 4 − (3) 2 = −5 x>3 The 3-month pass is the best deal when making more than 3 but less than 15 crossings per 3month period. y = 4 − x 123.9 143. 3x > 7. false. y = x + 1 134. 2 ( 7.PreCalculus 4E Section P. makes sense 145. Answers may vary.

distributive property of multiplication over addition. = 36 − 5(4) 3. c. f . g} 21. 2 −1 = 2 −1 3 A = {a. g} ∩ {a. 3( 5 + 3) = ( 5 + 3) 3 . d . 3( 5 + 3) = 15 + 3 . 19.015(3600) + 60 + 10 = 54 + 60 + 10 = 124 4. c} = {a} = 8 − 8 + 10 x 8. e} = {a. commutative property of multiplication. c} B = {a. (−3)3 (−2)2 = (−27) ⋅ (4) = −108 9 . c. d . commutative property of addition.55 38.05(21)2 + 3. 81 13 −103 = 103 108 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 (5 x) + [ (3 y ) + (−3 y ) ] − (− x) = x + [ 0] + x = 2 x 5 {a. 81 b. b. 81 d. 0. g} = {a. c} 5. commutative property of multiplication. d . c. 9 . 17 is greater than 3.75. A = {a. c. π . commutative property of addition. c. d . Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.55% of 21 year olds have been tested. b. 0. e} {a. g} {a.75. 0. b. 2.6(21) − 15 = 38. 81 13 24. P = −0. f . Inc. 2. d . (6 ⋅ 3) ⋅ 9 = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 9) . f .55%. a. −17. b. (3 ⋅ 7) + (4 ⋅ 7) = (4 ⋅ 7) + (3 ⋅ 7) . c} C = {a. b. 8 − 2[3 − (5 x − 1)] = 8 − 2[3 − 5 x + 1] = 8 − 2[4 − 5 x ] = 36 − 20 = 16 S = 0. 11. A = {a. c. 18. b.015(60)2 + (60) + 10 2 = 0. e} {a. 13. f . d . e} 6. d . 9. 3 + 6( x − 2) = 3 + 6(4 − 2) 3 10. d . c} ∪ {a. 0. associative property of multiplication. c} B = {a. 15. 3 + 17 = 17 + 3. 17. π f. c} ∪ {a. 0. (6 ⋅ 9) ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅ (6 ⋅ 9) . − = 10 x 23. 0. b. − e. f . 81 c. b. d . −17.015 x + x + 10 S = 0.05 x 2 + 3. c} C = {a. b. 3(4 y − 5) − (7 y + 2) = 12 y − 15 − 7 y − 2 = 5 y − 17 A = {a. = 3 + 6(2)3 = 3 + 6(8) = 3 + 48 = 51 2. 5(2 x − 3) + 7 x = 10 x − 15 + 7 x = 17 x − 15 20. This overestimates the percent displayed by the bar graph by 3. d . 7. 4 − (−17) = 4 + 17 = 21 = 21 x 2 − 5( x − y ) = 62 − 5(6 − 2) 14. 16. 3 − 17 = 17 − 3 since 12. g} 22.6 x − 15 P = −0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Chapter P Review Exercises 1. . c} ∩ {a. −17. e} = {a.

2 50 + 3 8 = 2 25 ⋅ 2 + 3 4 ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅5 2 + 3⋅ 2 2 −5 33.75 × 10 10 The average tax return cost $1469.74 × 104 = 37. (−2 x y ) = (−2) ( x ) ( y ) 3 3 3 4 3 38.469 × 103 = 1469 8 1. 000 37.00725 = 7.3) × (103 × 102 ) a.9 × 105 = 390.45 × 10 = 0.75 1.3 × 102 ) = (3 ×1. = 2x 5 (2 x3 ) −4 = (2)−4 ( x 3 ) −4 = 2−4 x −12 1 2 x12 1 = 16 x12 = 31.0000745 = 10 2 + 6 2 34.9 × 103 ⎛ 6. 5−3 ⋅ 5 = 5−351 = 5−3+1 27. 3 3 = (−2)3 x 4⋅3 y 3⋅3 = −8 x12 y 9 29. 400 46.25 × 10 −3 109 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Chapter P Review Exercises 1 1 + 24 4 1 1 = + 16 4 1 4 = + 16 16 5 = 16 36.590.57 × 1011 2.57 1011 ⋅ 8 ≈ 1. 3. 257 × 109 = 2.75 × 108 2. 121 121 11 = = 4 2 4 96 x 3 45. 300 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 10 3 41. 39. 0. 7x y ⎛ 7 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ( x5 −15 )( y 6 − ( −2) ) 28 x15 y −2 ⎝ 28 ⎠ 1 = x −10 y 8 4 y8 = 10 4x 5 = 6 2x = 96 x3 2x = 48 x 2 = 16 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4x 3 3. 4 (3 × 103 )(1. 7 5 + 13 5 = (7 + 13) 5 = 20 5 47.9 ⎞ 3− 5 =⎜ ⎟ × 10 3 ×105 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 2. 32. 2−4 + 4−1 = = 3. .PreCalculus 4E 25. 12 x 2 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 2 x 3 42. Inc.023 1 1 = 5−2 = 2 = 5 25 26. 175 × 106 = 1.57 × 102 ⋅ 109 = 2. 40. (−5 x y )(−2 x 3 2 −11 = (−5)(−2) x x 3 6. 7. 10 x ⋅ 2 x = 20 x 2 −2 y ) −11 y 2 y −2 = 10 ⋅ x3−11 y 2 − 2 = 10 x −8 y 0 = 4x2 ⋅ 5 10 = 8 x 30. 4 43.57 × 1011 b.3 × 10−2 = 0.75 × 102 ⋅ 106 = 1.59 × 106 = 16 2 35. 000 = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 33 1 1 = 33− 6 = 3−3 = 3 = 36 3 27 28. r3 = r 2 ⋅ r = r r 44.

27 −1/ 3 = 66. 1251/ 3 = 3 125 = 5 7+ 5 14( 7 + 5) = 7−5 14( 7 + 5) = 2 = 7( 7 + 5) 5 16 x = 5(6 − 3) 36 − 3 7− 5 54. 53. 3 81 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 = = 251/ 2 25 5 1 1 1 = = 271/ 3 3 27 3 65. 4 72 − 2 48 = 4 36 ⋅ 2 − 2 16 ⋅ 3 58. (5 x 2 / 3 )(4 x1/ 4 ) = 5 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3+1/ 4 = 20 x11/12 69. 5 3 1 1 1 1 = 3 = 4 = 4/3 4 27 3 81 ( 27) = (5 x 2 )2 3 = 25 x 4 71. Inc. y . 2 30 5 = ⋅ = =6 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 3 = 5 6+ 3 = 4 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 53 2 = 83 2 + 53 2 ⋅ = 13 3 2 6− 3 61. 27 −4 / 3 = 68. 56. 3 y5 = 59. = 14 7− 5 ⋅ 7+ 5 125 = 5 4 −125 is not a real number. 15 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 15 ⎞ 3 / 4 −1/ 2 =⎜ ⎟x = 3x1/ 4 5 x1/ 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 70. 30 30 50. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 642 / 3 = ( 3 64) 2 = 42 = 16 67. y3 y 2 = y 3 y 2 6 ⋅ = 3 3 3 = 5 51. 4 8 ⋅ 4 10 = 4 80 = 4 16 ⋅ 5 = 4 16 ⋅ 4 5 = 2 4 5 60. 4 3 16 + 5 3 2 = 4 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 5 3 2 = 4⋅6 2 − 2⋅4 3 = 24 2 − 8 3 49. 6 y 3 = ( y 3 )1/ 6 = y 3⋅1/ 6 = y1/ 2 = 110 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 32 x 5 = 14 3 4 6+ 3 6− 3 52. 161/ 2 = 16 = 4 = 5(6 − 3) 33 63. 4 (−5)4 = 4 625 = 4 54 = 5 57. (125 ⋅ x 6 ) 2 / 3 = ( 3 125 x 6 ) 2 −32 = −2 55. 25−1/ 2 = 64.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 4 4 32 x 5 4 4 = 2x = x 4 2 16 x 62.

(4 x + 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x 2 ) − 52 = 16 x 2 − 25 77. Inc. . 74. 73. ( x + 7 y )(3x − 5 y ) = x(3x ) + ( x)(−5 y ) + (7 y )(3 x) + (7 y )(−5 y ) = 3 x 2 − 5 xy + 21xy − 35 y 2 = 3 x 2 + 16 xy − 35 y 2 82.PreCalculus 4E 72. (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) − (5 x 4 − 3x3 + 2 x 2 − 6) = (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−5 x 4 + 3 x3 − 2 x 2 + 6) = (13x 4 − 5 x 4 ) + (−8 x3 + 3x3 ) + (2 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + 6 = 8x 4 − 5x3 + 6 The degree is 4. (a − b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) = a(a 2 ) + a (ab) + a(b 2 ) + (−b)(a 2 ) +(−b)(ab) + (−b)(b 2 ) = a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 − a 2 b − ab 2 − b3 = a 3 − b3 111 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (3 x 2 + 2 y ) 2 = (3 x 2 )2 + 2(3 x 2 )(2 y ) + (2 y ) 2 = 9 x 4 + 12 x 2 y + 4 y 2 84. (2 x + 1)3 = (2 x)3 + 3(2 x) 2 (1) + 3(2 x)(1) 2 + 13 = 8 x3 + 12 x 2 + 6 x + 1 80. (3 x − 2)(4 x 2 + 3x − 5) = (3 x)(4 x 2 ) + (3x)(3x) + (3x)(−5) + (−2)(4 x 2 ) + (−2)(3x) + (−2)(−5) = 12 x3 + 9 x 2 − 15 x − 8 x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 12 x3 + x 2 − 21x + 10 75. (2 x + 5) 2 = (2 x)2 + 2(2 x) ⋅ 5 + 52 = 4 x 2 + 20 x + 25 78. (3 x − 4) 2 = (3 x) 2 − 2(3 x) ⋅ 4 + (−4) 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 79. (7 x + 4 y )(7 x − 4 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (4 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 16 y 2 85. (3 x − 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(1) + (−5)(2 x) + (−5)(1) = 6 x 2 + 3 x − 10 x − 5 = 6 x2 − 7 x − 5 76. (5 x − 2)3 = (5 x)3 − 3(5 x )2 (2) + 3(5 x)(2) 2 − 23 = 125 x 3 − 150 x 2 + 60 x − 8 81. (3 x − 5 y ) 2 = (3x) 2 − 2(3x)(5 y ) + (−5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 − 30 xy + 25 y 2 83. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Chapter P Review Exercises (−6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 9 x + 3) + (14 x3 + 3x 2 − 11x − 7) = (−6 x3 + 14 x3 ) + (7 x 2 + 3x 2 ) + (−9 x − 11x) + (3 − 7) = 8 x 3 + 10 x 2 − 20 x − 4 The degree is 3.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 12 x − 1 2 + 6x − 3 2 = 6x − 3 2 ( 2 x + 1) = 6(2 x + 1) 96. −3 3 ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 − ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x2 + 3) 2 2 1 = ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎡⎣1 − ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) ⎤⎦ 20 x 7 − 36 x3 = 4 x 3 (5 x 4 − 9) 1 = ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎣⎡1 − ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) ⎦⎤ x 3 − 3x 2 − 9 x + 27 = x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) 1 = ( x 2 − 9)( x − 3) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x 2 + 3) 2 (− x 4 + x 2 + 13) = ( x + 3)( x − 3)( x − 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 2 107. Inc. = 3 x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) 94. 3 x2 2 y 3 − 8 = y 3 − 23 = ( y − 2)( y 2 + 2 y + 4) 110.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 86. x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 109. = ( x + 9 − y )( x + 9 + y ) x 2 − 11x + 28 = ( x − 4)( x − 7) 105. 16 x 90. 64 − x 2 = 82 − x 2 = (8 − x)(8 + x) 92. 3x 4 − 9 x 3 − 30 x 2 = 3 x 2 ( x 2 − 3x − 10) 95. 27 x 3 − 125 = (3 x)3 − 53 = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 1) 2 = (3 x − 5)[(3 x)2 + (3x)(5) + 52 ] = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 4 x + 1) = (3 x − 5)(9 x 2 + 15 x + 25) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 4 x − 1 87. . 108. 3x 4 − 12 x 2 = 3x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 3x 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) 112 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. [5 y − (2 x + 1)][5 y + (2 x + 1)] 101. 4 + 32 x 1 4 = 16 x −3 4 = 1 − ( −3 ) ⎛ 4 4 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ −3 (1 + 2 x ) (1 + 2 x ) = 16 x 16 x 4 3 4 1 106. 6 x2 + 2 x x( x + 2) x . x 5 − x = x( x 4 − 1) = x( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2 y + 4) = ( x + 2 y + 4 )( x + 2 y + 4 ) = x ( x + 2 y + 4) + 2 y ( x + 2 y + 4) + 4 ( x + 2 y + 4) 2 = x( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 + 1) 103. x ≠ –2 x+2 x+2 x 2 + 3x − 18 ( x + 6)( x − 3) x − 3 . = = ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x 2 − 36 x ≠ –6. = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 98. x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = x 2 + 2 xy + 4 x + 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 y + 4 x + 8 y + 16 = ( x 2 − 2)( x + 5) = x 2 + 4 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 x + 16 y + 16 104. 93. x 2 + 18 x + 81 − y 2 = ( x 2 + 18 x + 81) − y 2 88. 99. 15 x + 3 x = 3x ⋅ 5 x + 3x ⋅1 3 2 2 2 = ( x + 9) − y2 2 = 3x (5 x + 1) 2 89. = = x + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2)2 x + 2 x ≠ –2 2 100. 16 x − 40 x + 25 = (4 x − 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x − 5)2 97. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) x3 + 2 x 2 x 2 ( x + 2) = = x 2 . 15 x − x − 2 = (3x + 1)(5 x − 2) 2 91. x 2 + 16 is prime. 102.

4. –3 115. x 2 − 5 x − 24 x 2 − 10 x + 16 ÷ 2 x 2 − x − 12 x + x−6 ( x − 8)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 8) = ÷ ( x − 4)( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 2) x −8 x +3 = ⋅ x − 4 x −8 x+3 = . x( x + 1) 1 x ≠ 0. − 3 = 2 x2 − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) x ≠ 3. x x ≠ 0.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 2 2 x+3 111. x − 2 x − 2 6 x = ⋅ 1 − x 1 − x 6x 3 6 3 6 6 − 3x = 2 x − x2 −3( x − 2) = − x( x − 2) 3 = . Inc. 2. x + 6 x + 9 ⋅ x + 3 = ( x + 3) ⋅ 2 x −4 x − 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x − 2 = 116. − 3. 2 117. − 2 3 = 1 1 1 1 118. 6 x + 2 3x 2 + x ÷ x2 − 1 x −1 x(3x + 1) 2(3 x + 1) = ÷ x −1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x −1 2(3 x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 1)( x + 1) x(3 x + 1) 2 = . ( x − 2)2 ( x + 2) x ≠ 2. x−4 x ≠ –3. –2 112. . 2 x − 7 − x − 10 = 2 x − 7 − ( x − 10) x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 1 = . –2 x2 − 2x + x2 + 2 x − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) = 114. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1. 2 x x x+2 3x 3x x − 2 + = ⋅ + ⋅ x+2 x−2 x+2 x−2 x−2 x+2 3x2 − 6 x + x 2 + 2 x = ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x2 − 4 x ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x( x − 1) = . –3. x x −1 + x2 − 9 x2 − 5x + 6 x x −1 = + ( x − 3)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 3) x x−2 x −1 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x − 2 ( x − 2)( x − 3) x + 3 x ( x − 2) + ( x − 1)( x + 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) 113 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 1. 8 x+3 4x −1 − 2 x2 + 5x − 3 6 x 2 + x − 2 x+3 4x −1 = − (2 x − 1)( x + 3) (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) 4x −1 3x + 2 = ⋅ (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 3x + 2 x+3 x+3 − ⋅ (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) x + 3 = 12 x 2 + 8 x − 3x − 2 − x 2 − 6 x − 9 (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3x + 2) 11x 2 − x − 11 . ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x ≠ 2. x−3 x ≠ 3. ( x + 3)3 . (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3 x + 2) 1 2 x ≠ . 113.

Inc. − 3 25 − x 2 + 121 . 125. 3 x + 10 10 x ≠ −3. 124. x ≠ –1 1 1 2 − = 2 x − 1 x + 1 x −1 1 1 2 − = x − 1 x + 1 (x + 1)(x − 1) x + 1 − (x −1) = 2 x2 25 − x 2 x + 1− x + 1 = 2 25 − x 2 ⎛ 25 − x 2 + x ⎞ 25 − 2 x 2 ⎜ ⎟ 25 − x 2 ⎠ =⎝ (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 2 =2 The solution set is all real numbers except 1 and –1. 1 1 120.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 122. This is a conditional equation. x ≠ 1. x ≠ –2. 1 – 2(6 – x) = 3x + 2 1 – 12 + 2x = 3x + 2 –11 – x = 2 –x = 13 x = –13 The solution set is {–13}. (25 − x 2 )3 25 (25 − x 2 )3 ⋅ 25 − x 2 25 − x 2 25 25 − x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 25 − x 2 (5 − x)2 (5 + x)2 114 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –4 123. 3 + x 3 + x x 2 = ⋅ 2 1 − 162 1 − 162 x x x 2 3x + 12 x = 2 x − 16 3x( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 4) 3x . 2 = = = = = 126. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 12 12 119. This is a conditional equation. 3 − x + 3 3 − x + 3 x + 3 = ⋅ 3+ 1 3+ 1 x +3 x+3 x+3 3( x + 3) − 1 = 3( x + 3) + 1 3x + 9 − 1 = 3x + 9 + 1 3x + 8 = . 2x – 4(5x + 1) = 3x + 17 2x – 20x – 4 = 3x + 17 –18x – 4 = 3x + 17 –21x = 21 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. x ≠ 4 2 30 4 + = x + 2 x − 4 (x + 2)(x − 4) 4(x − 4) + 2(x + 2) = 30 25 − x 2 + x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 25 4x − 16 + 2x + 4 = 30 6x −12 = 30 6x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. 4. This is a conditional equation. . = x−4 x ≠ 0. 2( x − 4) + 3( x + 5) = 2 x − 2 2 x − 8 + 3x + 15 = 2 x − 2 5x + 7 = 2 x − 2 3x = −9 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}.

8 − 2x − x = 0 134. 3 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 x= 0 = ( x + 2)( x − 4) or x − 4 = 0 –4 must be rejected. 8 − 2x = x ( 8 − 2x ) 2 = x2 8 − 2 x = x2 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 ⎧ 10 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 115 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1} . ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x − 3) 2 = ± 24 x − 3 = ±2 6 128. 5⎬ . 6 6 10 x = . Inc. 2 x 2 − 11x + 5 = 0 (2x – 1)(x – 5) = 0 2x – 1 = 0 x – 5 = 0 1 x = or x = 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 7 ± (−7)2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 7 ± 49 − 12 6 7 ± 37 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 7 + 37 7 − 37 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 ⎞ ⎛ x = ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎜ − ⎟ ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎝ x+4 x+2⎠ 2 x = x ( x + 2) − 2( x + 4) (3x + 5)( x − 3) = 5 129. −4 2 x + 1 = −12 2x + 1 = 3 2 x + 1 = 3 or 2 x + 1 = −3 2x = 2 x =1 2 x = −4 x = −2 132. 3x 2 + 5 x − 9 x − 15 = 5 3x 2 − 4 x − 20 = 0 x= 2x = x2 + 2x − 2x − 8 4 ± (−4)2 − 4(3)(−20) 2(3) 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 4 ± 16 + 240 6 4 ± 256 x= 6 4 ± 16 x= 6 20 −12 x= . ( x − 3)2 − 24 = 0 ( x − 3) 2 = 24 The solution set is {−2. x 2 − 9 = 0 127. . 3}.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 131. 3⎭ ⎩ 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 130. ⎬. The solution set is {2} .−2 3 x+2=0 x = −2 x= x=4 –2 must be rejected. −4 2 x + 1 + 12 = 0 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. ⎩2 ⎭ x = 3± 2 6 2x x 2 = − x + 6x + 8 x + 4 x + 2 2x x 2 = − ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 4 x + 2 133. The solution set is {4} .

3 3 x + 15. Inc.5 + 0. 2 The solution set is {2}. x + ( x + 0. PrT + P = A P ( rT + 1) = A P= 138.1 0. or 2019.05 x 10. China. vt + gt 2 = s gt 2 = s − vt 141.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 135. 340 = 8w − 12 352 = 8w 44 = w The dimensions are 44 yards by 126 yards. 6.5 million barrels. Let x + 0.5 x + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9 x 2 − 30 x + 25 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−30)2 − 4(9)(25) = 0 340 = 2 ( 3w − 6 ) + 2w 340 = 6w − 12 + 2 w b 2 − 4ac = 0. 116 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1% 19 years after 2000.3 3x = 16.3 x + 15 = 20. that will speak a language other than English at home will reach 25. thus the equation has no real solutions.5 million barrels. and 5. gt s − vt = 2 t2 t s − vt g= 2 t 2 137.3 x + x + 0.8 + x + 15 = 32. . 144. Let x = the amount sold to earn $800 in one week 800 = 300 + 0.S. Let 3w – 6 = the length of the playing field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 139. and Japan is 20. 000 = x Sales must be $10. Let x = the original price of the phone 48 = x − 0. Let x = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by Japan. 2x − 3 + x = 3 2x − 3 = 3 − x 2x − 3 = 9 − 6x + x2 x 2 − 8 x + 12 = 0 x 2 − 8 x = −12 x 2 − 8 x + 16 = −12 + 16 ( x − 4)2 = 4 x − 4 = ±2 x = 4+2 x = 6.20 x 48 = 0.000 in one week to earn $800. Let x + 15 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by the United States.6 x = 19 The percentage of people in the U. A− P Pr A− P Pr (T ) = Pr Pr PrT = A − P T= 142.3 million barrels. 17. x 2 = 2 x − 19 x 2 − 2 x + 19 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−2) 2 − 4(1)(19) = −72 −72 < 0.05 x A 1 + rT 500 = 0. respectfully.4 x = 25.8 = 32.80 x 60 = x The original price is $60.8) + ( x + 15) = 32. thus the equation has one repeated real solution. Let w = the width of the playing field.5 The daily oil consumption of the United States. Let x = the number of years after 2000. 140.8 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by China.5 x = 5.8 = 6. 143.4 x = 7. 136.

The width of the frame is 2 inches.PreCalculus 4E 145. 000 5 x 2 = 90. 147. 146. { x x > −2} 152. There were originally 10 people. 148. y2 = 41. the two colleges will have the same enrollment in the year 2007 + 12 = 2019 . .100 when x = 12 . Inc.100 students. (10 + 2 x )(16 + 2 x) = 280 160 + 52 x + 4 x 2 = 280 4 x 2 + 52 x − 120 = 0 x 2 + 13x − 30 = 0 ( x + 15)( x − 2) = 0 x + 15 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −15 x=2 –15 must be rejected. { x x ≤ 0} x 2 = 18. That year the enrollments will be 32. 000 150. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 x ≈ ±134. 1500 1500 + 100 = x x−4 1500 ⎛ 1500 ⎞ x( x − 4) ⎜ + 100 ⎟ = x( x − 4) x x−4 ⎝ ⎠ 1500( x − 4) + 100 x( x − 4) = 1500 x 1500 x − 6000 + 100 x 2 − 400 x = 1500 x 15 x − 60 + x 2 − 4 x = 15 x A = lw x 2 − 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 10) = 0 x + 6 = 0 or x − 10 = 0 x = −6 x = 10 –6 must be rejected. Let x = height of building 2x = shadow height x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 3002 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 90.164 Discard negative height. b. Since y1 = y2 = 32. Chapter P Review Exercises Check some points to determine that y1 = 14. 15 = l ( 2l − 7 ) 15 = 2l 2 − 7l 0 = 2l 2 − 7l − 15 0 = (2l + 3)(l − 5) l =5 2l − 7 = 3 The length is 5 yards. 700 − 800 x . the width is 3 yards.100 + 1500 x and 149. 117 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The building is approximately 134 meters high. { x −3 ≤ x < 5} 151.

4 ) or both: Thus.3) : To find the union. Graph ( 0.1] ∪ [ −1.3) or ( 0. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.3) or both: Thus.3) = ( −2. –6x + 3 ≤ 15 –6x ≤ 12 x≥2 The solution set is [ −2. 4 ) = ( 0. Numbers in either ( −2.1] : Graph [ −1. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 4 ) : Thus.3) . Numbers in both [1. 118 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( −2. Graph ( −2. 4 ) = [1. ( −2. Numbers in either [1. 155.3) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) . Graph ( −2.3) and ( 0.3) ∩ ( 0.3) : To find the intersection. . Graph [1.1] or [ −1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 153. Inc. 4 ) . 4 ) : To find the union. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. [1. 157. 4 ) : To find the intersection.1] and [ −1. Numbers in both ( −2.3) : Thus. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.3) = [ −1.1] .3) .1] : 154. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3) : Graph ( 0.3) : 156. Graph [ −1. Graph [1.1] ∩ [ −1. [1.

∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x + 5 − 7 ≥ −6 2x + 5 ≥ 1 21 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. −5] ∪ [1. 0. Inc. 7 < 2x + 3 ≤ 9 4 < 2x ≤ 6 2<x≤3 (2. − 2 ) . .20 x ≤ 80 A customer can drive no more than 80 miles. 3(2x – 1) – 2(x – 4) ≥ 7 + 2(3 + 4x) 6x – 3 – 2x + 8 ≥ 7 + 6 + 8x 4x + 5 ≥ 8x + 13 –4x ≥ 8 x ≤ –2 x+2≥3 or x ≥1 x + 2 ≤ −3 x ≤ −5 The solution set is ( −∞. The solution set is [ 2. 3] 0. ∞ ) . 165. − ⎟ .20 x + 24 ≤ 40 0. x+2 ≥3 161.3) . ⎡3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . −4 x + 2 + 5 ≤ −7 −4 x + 2 ≤ −12 The solution set is ( −3.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 158. 6x + 5 > –2(x – 3) – 25 6x + 5 > –2x + 6 – 25 8x + 5 > –19 8x > –24 x > –3 The solution set is ( −∞. − 6 ) or ( 0. 166. − 3] or [ −2. 2⎠ ⎝ 2x + 5 ≥ 1 or 2x + 5 ≤ –1 2x ≥ –4 2x ≤ –6 x ≥ –2 or x ≤ –3 160. 2 x + 3 ≤ 15 10 x ≥ 6 3 x≥ 5 –15 ≤ 2x + 3 ≤ 15 –18 ≤ 2x ≤ 12 –9 ≤ x ≤ 6 The solution set is [ −9. 164. 6 x − 9 ≥ −4 x − 3 163.6] .20 0. x 3 x − −1 > 3 4 2 ⎛x 3 ⎞ ⎛ x⎞ 12 ⎜ − − 1⎟ > 12 ⎜ ⎟ 3 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4x – 9 – 12 > 6x –21 > 2x 21 − >x 2 2x + 6 >2 3 2x + 6 2x + 6 >2 < –2 3 3 2 x + 6 > 6 2 x + 6 < –6 2x > 0 2 x < −12 x>0 x < −6 The solution set is ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) .20 x 16 ≤ 0. ⎣5 ⎠ 159. ∞ ⎟ .20 x ≤ 16 162. The solution set is [ −∞. 167. 119 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

–1. x ≠ 3.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 90 5 400 ≤ 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 450 9. 6r ⋅ 3r = 18r 2 = 9r 2 ⋅ 2 = 3r 2 4 50 − 3 18 = 4 25 ⋅ 2 − 3 9 ⋅ 2 15. {1. 30 x3 y 4 5 y8 = 5 x3 −9 y 4 − ( −4) = 5 x −6 y 8 = 6 9 −4 x 6x y 6. 3 5− 2 5+ 2 5− 2 = 3(5 − 2) 25 − 2 = 3(5 − 2) 23 2 x + 8 x2 + 5x + 4 ÷ x−3 x2 − 9 2( x + 4) ( x + 1)( x + 4) = ÷ x−3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 2( x + 4) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ x − 3 ( x + 1)( x + 4) 2( x + 3) = . = = x 2 − 3 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x − 1) x − 2 x ≠ 2. {1. = 4 ⋅5 2 − 3⋅3 2 = 20 2 − 9 2 = 11 2 8. –3 x 5 + x+3 x−3 x x−3 5 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ x +3 x−3 x −3 x +3 x ( x − 3) + 5( x + 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x + 5 x + 15 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 + 2 x + 15 . Chapter P Test 5(2 x 2 − 6 x) − (4 x 2 − 3x) = 10 x 2 − 30 x − 4 x 2 + 3x = 6 x 2 − 27 x 2. x 2 + 2 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 . 3 5+ 2 = 3 ⋅ 16 x 4 = 3 8 x 3 ⋅ 2 x = 3 8x3 ⋅ 3 2 x 400 ≤ 351 + x < 450 49 ≤ x < 99 A grade of at least 49% but less than 99% will result in a B. 1. 3. = 7 + 2[−3x + 5] (5 x + 3 y ) 2 = (5 x) 2 + 2(5 x)(3 y ) + (3 y ) 2 = 25 x 2 + 30 xy + 9 y 2 = 7 − 6 x + 10 = −6 x + 17 14.5} ∩ {5. a} = {1. 2. 2. x +1 x ≠ 3.25 × 102 = 2. –4.5} ∪ {5. .5 × 101 20 × 10−8 20 10−8 12. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = 2 x 3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − 5 x 2 + 20 x − 15 7 + 2[3( x + 1) − 2(3x − 1)] = 7 + 2[3x + 3 − 6 x + 2] = 2 x 3 − 13x 2 + 26 x − 15 13.5. a} = {5} 4. a} 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. 5 × 10−6 5 10−6 = ⋅ = 0. − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 3) 120 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 168. 80 ≤ = 2x 3 2x 10. Inc. 7. 1 11.

x≠0 x + 3x + 2 29. ⎛ 2 x x 2 + 5 − 2 x ⎞ x2 + 5 ⎜ ⎟ x2 +5 ⎠ =⎝ ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x( x 2 + 5) − 2 x3 ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x3 + 10 x − 2 x3 b.2 × 109 = 1.28n + 53 −0. 0. 19. are rational numbers. x 3 + 2 x 2 + 3 x + 6 = x 2 ( x + 2) + 3( x + 2) = 1 ( 32.28n + 47 M = −0. commutative property of addition x +5 = 2 + ( x + 3) 5 = ( x + 3) ( x + 3) 5 3 2 x x 2 + 5 − 22x = 3 5 = ( x + 3) 5 (2 x + 3) = = = − x( x + 2) − x 2 x( x + 2) + ( x + 2) = 18. 21.08%.PreCalculus 4E 16.25. 4 17.28n + 47 0. 5 7 28.6 × 109 = 13.28n + 53 −0. M = −0.08 In 2003.00076 = 7. R= 121 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 3 = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 2) = 5 3 1 ( 3 ) 5 27 = 1 ( 3) 5 = 1 243 ) 2 6.28(25) + 47 R= 0. 2003 is 14 years after 1989. y 3 − 125 = y 3 − 53 = ( y − 5)( y 2 + 5 y + 25) 24. R= M −0. 4. Inc. 3(2 + 5) = 3(5 + 2).08% of bachelor’s degrees were awarded to men. a. 6(7 + 4) = 6 ⋅ 7 + 6 ⋅ 4 distributive property of multiplication over addition x 2 + 2 x − x2 ( x + 1)( x + 2) 2x = 2 .28(14) + 47 = 43. Publishing as Prentice Hall.28n + 47 = W 0.6 × 10−4 30. Chapter P Test 2x + 3 2 − 2 x − 7 x + 12 x − 3 2x + 3 2 = − ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 2x + 3 2 x−4 = − ⋅ ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 x − 4 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) ( ) 36 x 2 − 84 x + 49 = (6 x) 2 − 2(6 x) ⋅ 7 + 7 2 23. x ( x + 3) 26. − . = ( x + 5)2 − 9 y 2 = ( x + 5 − 3 y )( x + 5 + 3 y ) 1 − x +x 2 ( x + 2) x 1 − x +x 2 = 1 + 1x 1 + 1x ( x + 2) x ( 25 x 2 − 9 = (5 x)2 − 32 = (5 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (6 x − 7) 2 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 2x + 3 − 2x + 8 = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 11 = . This overestimates the actual percent shown by the bar graph by 0.32 × 1010 3 ( x + 5) − 27 x2 + 5 2 − 27. This describes the projections exactly. 43. 0. 22. 0. ( x 2 + 10 x + 25) − 9 y 2 25. 3 x 2 − 9 x + 18 = ( x − 3)( x − 6) 20.28(25) + 53 2 = 3 Three women will receive bachelor’s degrees for every two men. 27 31. . ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 10 x c. ( x − 3)( x − 4) x ≠ 3. ) 3 5 − 3 x (x 3) 2x + 3 3 4 22 −7.

36. 1± 5 3 3 ⎪⎧1 − 5 3 1 + 5 3 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2⎬ . 3 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 122 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎬. Inc. x=5 The solution set is {5}. x − 3 = x 2 − 10 x + 25 x 2 − 11x + 28 = 0 x= 2 x + 6 − 4 x + 12 = 8 −2 x + 18 = 8 11 ± 121 − 112 2 11 ± 9 x= 2 11 ± 3 x= 2 x = 7 or x = 4 4 does not check and must be rejected. The solution set is {7}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7( x − 2) = 4( x + 1) − 21 7 x − 14 = 4 x + 4 − 21 38. x(x – 2) = 4 x2 − 2 x − 4 = 0 7 x − 14 = 4 x − 17 x= 3x = −3 x = −1 The solution set is {–1}. The solution set is {2}.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 33. 2± 2x − 3 x − 4 x +1 = − 4 2 4 2 x − 3 = 2( x − 4) − ( x + 1) 2x − 3 = x − 9 x = −6 The solution set is {–6}. 8 − 2x − x = 0 8 − 2x = x ( = 75 3x − 1 = ± 75 8 − 2x ) 2 = ( x) 2 8 − 2 x = x2 3x = 1 ± 5 3 x= 11 ± 112 − 4(1)(28) 2(1) x= −2 x = −10 1 2 } x −3 = x −5 2( x + 3) − 4( x − 3) = 8 x=− { x−3 +5 = x 39. x= ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −4 ) 2 2 2±2 5 2 x = 1± 5 x= 2x − 3 = 2x − 8 − x −1 The solution set is 1 − 5. . 34. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 –4 does not check and must be rejected. 1 + 5 . 2 4 8 − = x − 3 x + 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 35. 2 x 2 − 3x − 2 = 0 (2x + 1)(x – 2) = 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x=2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 37. ⎩ 2 ⎭ ( 3x − 1) 2 40.

∞ ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2⎠ ⎣ 2x 2 x + = x2 + 6 x + 8 x + 2 x + 4 2x 2 x + = ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 2 x + 4 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2( x + 4)( x + 2) x( x + 4)( x + 2) + = x+2 x+4 ( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 x + 2( x + 4) = x( x + 2) 47. 2x + 5 <6 3 –9 ≤ 2x + 5 < 18 –14 ≤ 2x < 13 13 −7 ≤ x < 2 −3 ≤ 13 ⎞ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −7. ⎣8 ⎠ −3 4 x − 7 + 15 = 0 −3 4 x − 7 = −15 4x − 7 = 5 46. 123 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎥ ∪ ⎢ .PreCalculus 4E 41. . 12}. 12]. x 1 x 3 + ≤ − 6 8 2 4 4 x + 3 ≤ 12 x − 18 −8 x ≤ −21 x≥ 21 8 ⎡ 21 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ 2 x + 2 x + 8 = x2 + 2 x 2 x + 8 = x2 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 0 = ( x − 4)( x + 2) x − 4 = 0 or x=4 x+2 =0 48. 1 V = lwh 3 3V = lwh 3V lwh = lw lw 3V =h lw 3V h= lw 44. 3x + 2 ≥ 3 3x + 2 ≥ 3 or 3x + 2 ≤ −3 3x ≥ 1 3 x ≤ −5 1 5 x≥ x≤− 3 3 5⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞.3⎬ ⎩2 ⎭ 43. 4x − 7 = 5 4 x − 7 = −5 or 4 x = 12 4x = 2 x=3 1 x= 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . Chapter P Test 2 x−6 = 2 3 2 2 x−6 = 2 x − 6 = −2 3 3 2 2 x=8 x=4 3 3 x = 12 x=6 The solution set is {6. ⎟ . ∞ ⎟ . Inc. 45. x = −2 (rejected) The solution set is {4} . 3(x + 4) ≥ 5x – 12 3x + 12 ≥ 5x – 12 –2x ≥ –24 x ≤ 12 The solution set is (−∞. 42.

residents. or 2018. length is 12 feet −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(47. x ≈ −691 (rejected) The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004. x + x + 16 + x + 64 = 83 3x + 80 = 83 3x = 3 as a+s R (a + s ) = as Ra + Rs = as R= x =1 x + 16 = 17 x + 64 = 65 For every one million U. Let x + 64 = the number video rental stores. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 53.600.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 49. Ra − as = − Rs a( R − s ) = − Rs a( R − s ) − Rs = R−s R−s Rs a= s−R 51. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.07 x 2 + 47. Let x + 16 = the number movie theaters. y − y1 = mx − mx1 54.4 x − 677 0 = ( w + 6)( w − 4) x= x= 0 = w2 + 2 w − 24 w+6 = 0 w−4 = 0 w = −6 w=4 2 w + 4 = 2(4) + 4 = 12 width is 4 feet. and 65 video rental stores. Let x = the number drive-in theaters.07 x 2 + 47. or 2018. l = 2w + 4 A = lw x = 14 The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004. there is 1 drivein theater.4)2 − 4(0.07 x 2 + 47. .S. 124 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 55.07 x 2 + 47.4 x + 500 1177 = 0.07)(−677) 2(0. 43x + 575 = 1177 43x = 602 56. 17 movie theaters.07) x ≈ 14. The formulas model the data quite well. 52. 700 + 150 x = 5000 + 1100 x 48 = (2w + 4) w 48 = 2w2 + 4 w B = 0.4 x + 500 0 = 2w2 + 4 w − 48 0 = 0. 29. the cost will be $33.4 x − 677 0 = 0.4) ± (47. 24700 = 950 x 26 = x In 26 years. ( x ) + ( x + 16 ) + ( x + 64 ) = 83 −mx = y1 − mx1 − y −mx y1 − mx1 − y = −m −m y − y1 + x1 x= m 50.

000.06 x 200 < x x > 200 Plan A is a better deal when more than 200 local calls are made per month. 000 − 6000 = x x+5 600. Chapter P Test 242 + x 2 = 262 576 + x 2 = 676 x 2 = 100 x = ±10 The wire should be attached 10 feet up the pole. 125 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 57. Let x = the original selling price 20 = x − 0. it must cost less than Plan B.60 x 20 = 0. 000. C A < CB 25 < 13 + 0.06 x 12 < 0. 000 x + 3. 58. 000 ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ − 6000 ⎟ = x ( x + 5) x x+5 ⎝ ⎠ 600. 000 x −6000 x 2 − 30. Let x = the number of local calls The monthly cost using Plan A is C A = 25. 000 x 59. 000 ⎛ 600. 000 600.06 x. 000 − 6000 x 2 − 30. 000 x = 600. 000 x + 3.40 x 50 = x The original price is $50. Inc. 600. 60. . 000( x + 5) − 6000 x( x + 5) = 600. 600. There were originally 20 people. For Plan A to be better deal. 000 = 0 x 2 + 5 x − 500 = 0 ( x + 25)( x − 20) = 0 x − 20 = 0 x + 25 = 0 or x = −25 x = 20 –25 must be rejected. The monthly cost using Plan B is CB = 13 + 0.

1. x = −1. y = 4 x = 1. y = 3 x = −3. d = 4n + 5 d = 4(15) + 5 = 65 65% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. The mathematical model overestimates the actual percentage shown in the graph by 5%. a. y = 1 3. x = 0. the x-intercept is 0 and the y-intercept is 0. Thus.100. 100 . 5). According to the line graph. Thus. 0). y = 3 126 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.100. 50 ] by distance between y -axis minimum maximum tick y -value y -value marks 2. c. The meaning of a [−100. c. The graph does not cross the x-axis. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 7 x = −2. [ −100 . y = 2 x = 2. y = 2 x = 3.1 Check Point Exercises 4. y = 3 x = 2. y = 6 5. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. 100 . y = 2 x = −2. 6. the y-intercept is 4. The graph crosses the x. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. y = 1 x = −1. there is no x-intercept.Chapter 1 Functions and Graphs Section 1. .and y-axes at the origin (0. 0). the y-intercept is 5. Thus. Thus. y = 1 x = 1.50] by [−100. the x-intercept is –3. y = 0 x = 0. The graph crosses the x-axis at (–3. 4). b. 10 ] x = −3. x = −4. y = 5 a. 60% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. Thus.10] viewing rectangle is as follows: distance between x -axis minimum maximum tick marks x -value x -value [ −100 . b. Inc.

1 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 127 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5. Inc. 12. 6. . 7.1 Exercise Set 1. 2. 3. 4. 10. 8. 9. 11.

y = 3 x = 0. y = −2 x = 0. y = 7 x = −3. Inc. y = 6 x = –1. y = −3 x = 0. y = −5 x = −2. y = 7 x = 3. x = −3. y = 11 x = –2. y = 0 x = 3. y = 2 x = −2. y = 4 x = 3. y = 2 x = 2. y = −1 x = 2. x = –3. y = 5 x = –3. y = 0 x = –1. y = −1 x = 1. y = −1 x = −1. y = 11 128 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 1 x = 0. y = −2 x = 1. y = 2 x = 1. y = 3 x = 2. y = 2 x = 1. y = –1 x = –2. 14.Functions and Graphs 13. y = 6 x = 3. 15. . y = −4 x = −1. y = 3 x = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 1 16.

y = 5 2 x = 0. y = 3 x = 2. y = 2 x = 2. y = −5 x = −2. y = 2 7 2 x = –2. y = 3 x = −1. 2 20. y = –2 x = 2. y = −1 x = 0. y = 2 x = –3. y = –6 x = 0. y = 3 5 x = –1. y = 1 x = −1. y = − 1 x = 3. x = –3.1 17. y = 1 x = 1. 19. y = 129 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 2 x = 0. y = 2 3 x = 1. y = 1 2 x = −2. y = − 3 2 x = 2. y = –10 x = –2. y = −1 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = −3. Inc. y = 7 x = 1. y = –8 x = –1. y = −3 x = −3. y = 0 x = 3. .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. y = –4 x = 1. y = 0 x = 3. y = 1 1 x = 3.

y = 2 x = 0. y = 6 x = −2. y = 0 x = 2. y = 3 x = −1. y = 4 x = −3. y = 0 x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = −3. y = −6 x = −3. y = 1 x = 3. y = 2 x = 2. y = 4 x = 3. y = 2 x = −2. 21. y = 6 x = −2.Functions and Graphs 23. y = 2 130 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = −4 x = −2. y = 0 x = 0. y = 0 x = 0. y = 4 x = −1. y = −4 x = 1. x = −3. y = −2 x = −1. y = 1 x = −1. y = 3 x = 3. y = −6 x = 3. y = −2 x = 2. y = 2 x = 0. y = −1 x = 1. Inc. y = 2 x = 2. 22. y = 4 24. y = 1 x = 1. .

4 31. y = −1 x = 1. –2. –4.1) . (−1. y = 9 x = 0. y = 8 x = 1. 2. y = 7 x = 2. 2) . 4) .9) are on the graph y = x 2 . 8. 10. y = −4 is (c). x = −2. 1000 x = −2. y = 8 x = 3. 30. –800. –2. y = −1 x = 2. (−2. x = 3. . 10. 40. (a) x-axis tick marks –40. . 5. We can tell because all of the points (−3. No. y = −8 x = −1. 20. 70. 0) . 0. . The equation that corresponds to Y1 in the table is (b). 3. y = −28 x = −2 . y = 0 x = −3. y = 1 (2.9) . (0. –10. 2. x = 1. y-axis tick marks –4. –8. y = −1 x = 0. y = 0 x = 3. 4) . 50. 30. 30. –900. (c) x-axis tick marks –5. –20. 4) . 2) . 0) . −1) are on the line y = 2 − x . . y = 8 x = −1. x-axis tick marks –20. ( −1. y-axis tick marks are the same. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4. 4. y = 0 x = 2. –3. y = −27 35. 3) . Yes. 70 x = −3. (0. 28. 60. 5) . y-axis tick marks –1000. y = 0 33. 0. 50. x = −3. but all are not on any of the others. and (3. 27. x = −3. –1. 80. y = 1 36. 29. 800. y = 26 26. 20. 0. y = −4 x = −1. and (3. 900. 40. –10. 6.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. y = 0 37. 1.1 25. –4. (2. but all are not on any of the others. 20. y1 = x 2 . 0. 2. ( −2. . It passes through the point (0. 0. Inc. 0) x = 2. 0. 10. 0) . y2 = 2 − x . y-axis tick marks –30. y = 5 x = −2. –2. –700. y = 27 131 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1) . –6. y = −9 (1. It passes through the point (0. (b). The equation that corresponds to Y in the table 2 x = 1. y = −9 32. (d) x-axis tick marks –10. 700. (2.1) . y = −2 x = 0. 34. 60. x = 0. 40. (1. y = 5 x = 3. y = −9 x = −1. We can tell because all of the points ( −3. –20.

(0. –1. 0) and (–1. 5) 2. b. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 2). a. 1. 2). 1). 2. b. 0). 2) 39. The values of Y1 and Y2 are the same when x = −2 and x = 1 . 132 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 (0. 1. 4) and (1. 51. 0) and (–2. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ( x. The graphs of Y and Y intersect at the points 1 2 ( −2. a. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. 2. 5) 1 2 (1. 5) 3 (3. 40. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. 46.1) . 45. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. –2. −2 ( −2. The graph intersects the x-axis at (2. 1. 50. y ) none. b. 0).Functions and Graphs 38. −3 ( −3. a. –4. a. a. 1. 2. a. –1. b. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 2). 0). 5) (2. The graph does not intersect the y-axis. 0). 41. The graph intersect the y-axis at (0. 0). The graph does not intersect the x-axis. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 5) −1 ( −1. 43. Inc. 48. . 44. 5) none. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 49. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–1. 42. 5) 47.–4). b.

c. ( x. . d. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. 18% of seniors used marijuana in 2005.4(25) + 28 = 18 According to formula. −3 ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . A = −n + 70 A = −(26) + 70 = 44 According to formula.4n + 28 M = −0. −3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ .1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . −1) 0 (0. −1) (2.3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ .2⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ (1. 133 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. about 14% of seniors used marijuana in 1990. 44% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. 2006 is 26 years after 1980. This underestimates the value in the graph by 2%. −1) 1 2 (1. −2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ (1. x Section 1. M = −0. b.3 ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. −1) x − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 53. a. −1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − .2⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − .1) ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ 2. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. According to the line graph.1 54. ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 55. This underestimates the value in the graph. −1) −1 −1 ( −1. The minimum for marijuana was reached in 1990. 2005 is 25 years after 1980. y ) −3 ( −3. e. about 45% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. According to the line graph. −2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1) −2 −2 ( −2. −1) 3 (3. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2005. According to the line graph.PreCalculus 4E 52. −1) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 2. Inc. x −2 −1 − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 ( x.

A sample change is: 3(5) − 2(2) ≠ −4. x y = 2x ( x. Sample explanation: As the time of day goes up. 4 ) 84. Set 1 has each x-coordinate paired with only one ycoordinate. –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 0 y = 2(0) = 0 59. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: A point on the x-axis will have y = 0. −2 ) ( 0. According to the line graph. 83. makes sense –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 68. Sample explanation: Most graphing utilities do not display numbers an the axes. false. A sample change is: The product of the coordinates of a point in quadrant III is also positive. 6 ) ( 2. does not make sense. 0 y = 2(0) + 4 = 4 1 y = 2(1) + 4 = 6 2 y = 2(2) + 4 = 8 69. does not make sense. 2 ) ( 0.8) . (b) 80. 60. – 66. 1 y = 2(1) = 2 2 y = 2(2) = 4 ( −2. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. 4 ) (1. Inc. A = −n + 70 A = −(20) + 70 = 50 According to formula. The difference between the number of awakenings for 25-year-old men and women is about 1. Explanations will vary. 79. (b) The maximum for alcohol was reached in 1980. a. 2 ) ( 2. 73. 78. b. d. 75. (a) 76. 0 ) (1. The difference between the number of awakenings for 18-year-old men and women is about 1. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. 134 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: These three points are not collinear. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. (a) 81. 71.Functions and Graphs 56. (d) 77. averaging about 8 awakenings per night. According to the line graph.4(20) + 28 = 20 According to formula. x y = 2x + 4 –2 y = 2( −2) + 4 = 0 67. Explanations will vary. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. At age 65. (c) 2000 is 20 years after 1980. This underestimates the value in the graph. false. 0 ) ( −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Explanations will vary. men have the greatest number of awakenings. At age 8. 72. M = −0. women have the least number of awakenings.1. 61. true 74. (b) According to the line graph. about 22% of seniors used marijuana in 2000.9. This matches the value in the graph. about 72% of seniors used alcohol in 1980. −4 ) ( −1. y ) ( −2. 2000 is 20 years after 1980. y ) –2 y = 2( −2) = −4 58. ( x. Changes to make the statement true will vary. e. averaging about 1 awakening per night. Answers may vary. does not make sense. the total calories burned will also go up. 57. (c) 82. c.4n + 28 M = −0. 70.

[0. 0 ) (1. there is one and only one value for y. 3] . −3) (1. 10. = x 2 − ( −2 x ) + 7 domain: { x −3 ≤ x < 0} or range: { y y = −3. 2 ) . y ) -2 g ( −2 ) = 2( −2) − 3 = −7 -1 g ( −1) = 2( −1) − 3 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 2(0) − 3 = −3 1 g (1) = 2(1) − 3 = −1 2 g ( 2 ) = 2(2) − 3 = 1 ( −2. 13.7.1] . the y-coordinate is 3. Inc. 3.1] . 8) have the same first component but different second components. = x 2 + 6 x + 15 c. ( x. 2 ) ( 2. g ( x) = 2x − 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 3 units.4}.2 Check Point Exercises 1. a. a. 4 ) Section 1. −2 ) ( 0.PreCalculus 4E 85. b. 6. b. = 42 b. When the y-coordinate is 4. the equation does not define y as a function of x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. f (5) = 400 b. so the equation defines y as a function of x. 30. . −5) ( 0. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. x [ −2. a. The domain is the set of all first components: {0. 2. 17. a. the x-coordinates are –3 and 3. The y-coordinates are all real numbers greater than or equal to 1. y ) ( −2. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. x f ( x) = 2x -2 –4 -1 –2 0 0 1 2 2 4 ( x. then 7. The minimum T cell count in the asymptomatic stage is approximately 425. 5. b. 135 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The x-coordinates are all real numbers. −1} . y 2 = 1 − x2 4. When the x-coordinate is 2. −1) ( 2. 36}. y is a function of x for the graphs in (a) and (b). y = ± 1 − 02 = ±1 ). if x = 0.7. domain: { x −2 < x ≤ 1} or range: { y −1 ≤ y < 2} or f (− x) = (− x) 2 − 2(− x) + 7 c. 0 ) . 20. a. −7 ) ( −1. [ −3.1) The graph (c) fails the vertical line test and is therefore not a function. The range is the set of all second components: {9. [ −1. 6) and (5. −2. d.2 a. y = ± 1 − x2 Since there are values of x (all values between – 1 and 1 exclusive) that give more than one value for y (for example. −4 ) ( −1. f (9) = 100 c. f (−5) = (−5)2 − 2(−5) + 7 = 25 − (−10) + 7 8. domain: { x −2 ≤ x ≤ 1} or range: { y 0 ≤ y ≤ 3} or f ( x + 4) = ( x + 4) 2 − 2( x + 4) + 7 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 − 2 x − 8 + 7 b. 10.2. Section 1. 2x + y = 6 y = −2 x + 6 For each value of x. = x + 2x + 7 2 ( −2.1. x2 + y 2 = 1 6. x = 9 .

5. 9}. The domain is {–7. –2. y = ±1. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {3. 4. 4. 4) and (3. 18. . 3. 3. –1.2 1. 7) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (6. y is a function of x. –3. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {–2. 14. y is not a function of x. y = 1 and y = –1. y is not a function of x. 7}. y = 4 and y = – 4. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. –5. 17. –3. x 2 + y = 25 y = 25 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 7. –5. The relation is a function since there are no ordered pairs that have the same first component but different second components. 12. The domain is {4. 4. then y = ±2. 0} and the range is {–3. 5. 8} and the range is {5. 10. The domain is {3. 5}. 5)). – 1. can be obtained for one value of x. y is a function of x. x + y = 25 y = 25 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 4} and the range is {4. 5. 8}. 0}. The domain is {1} and the range is {4. The relation is a function since there are no two ordered pairs that have the same first component and different second components. 13. can be obtained for one value of x. x 2 + y = 16 y = 16 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. Since two values. The domain is {5. 6}. 6} and the range is {6. 5) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (4. The relation is not a function since there are ordered pairs with the same first component and different second components. 0}. x 2 + y 2 = 16 y 2 = 16 − x 2 y = ± 16 − x 2 If x = 0. 6) and (6. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {4. 5. 7)). can be obtained for x = 1. y is a function of x. 5}. y = ±4. 6) and (5. y = 16 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 2. 4) and (4. 8. The domain is {1. Inc. y = ±5. can be obtained for x = 1. 6}. Since two values. 10} and the range is {1. 6. 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. Since two values. 6} and the range is {1}. 5} and the range is {2. y is a function of x. x = y2 y=± x If x = 1. x 2 + y 2 = 25 y 2 = 25 − x 2 y = ± 25 − x 2 If x = 0. Since two values. 7. y is not a function of x. 1. 7} and the range is {–2. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (3. The relation is a function since there are no same first components with different second components. –2. 136 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y is not a function of x. y = 2 and y = –2. 5. 4. x + y = 16 16. y = 5 and y = –5.Functions and Graphs Exercise Set 1. 6. 4 x = y2 y = ± 4 x = ±2 x If x = 1. 15. 11. 0} and the range is {–7. The domain is {–3. –1.

21. y is a function of x.2 27. b. y is a function of x. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 4 − ( − x ) 2 + 1 = x 4 − x 2 + 1 d. g (−1) = (−1)2 + 2(−1) + 3 = 1− 2 + 3 =2 = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + 2 x + 10 + 3 y 3 = 27 − x 23. y is a function of x. a. f(4) = 3(4) + 7 = 19 b. b.PreCalculus 4E 19. g (−1) = (−1) 2 − 10(−1) − 3 = 1 + 10 − 3 =8 g ( x + 2) = ( x + 2) 2 − 10(8 + 2) − 3 = x 2 + 4 x + 4 − 10 x − 20 − 3 = x 2 − 6 x − 19 xy − 5 y = 1 y ( x − 5) = 1 c. y = 3 8− x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + 2(− x) + 3 = x2 − 2x + 3 y ( x + 2) = 1 25. g ( x + 5) = ( x + 5) 2 + 2( x + 5) + 3 = x 2 + 12 x + 38 y = 3 27 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. −y = − x + 2 y = x −2 h(−1) = (−1)4 − (−1) 2 + 1 = 1 −1 +1 =1 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. a. 26. 22. y= b. g (− x) = (− x)2 − 10(− x) − 3 = x 2 + 10 x − 3 1 y= x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. a. f(6) = 4(6) + 5 = 29 x −y=5 c. x + y3 = 8 y3 = 8 − x f(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) + 7 = 3x + 10 c. 137 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. a. xy + 2 y = 1 1 x+2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y = − x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 30. 24. y is a function of x. x + y 3 = 27 c. h(3a) = (3a) 4 − (3a) 2 + 1 = 81a 4 − 9a 2 + 1 −y = − x +5 y = x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. a. Section 1. f(x + 1) = 4(x + 1) + 5 = 4x + 9 c. 31. h(2) = 24 − 22 + 1 = 16 − 4 + 1 = 13 x −y=2 b. f(–x) = 3(–x) + 7 = –3x + 7 29. y is a function of x. 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y is a function of x. f(–x) = 4(–x) + 5 = – 4x + 5 28. Inc. .

f (−9 − x) = −5 + 3 8 8 = =1 −2 −2 = −9 − x + 3 −9 − x + 3 − x − 6 ⎧ 1. 4(2)3 + 1 33 = 23 8 b. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 3 − ( − x ) + 1 = − x 3 + x + 1 d. if x < −6 = =⎨ − x − 6 ⎩−1. h(−2) = (−2)3 − (−2) + 1 = −8 + 2 + 1 = −5 c.Functions and Graphs 32. f ( x − 6) = x − 6 + 6 + 3 = x + 3 f (16) = 25 − 16 − 6 = 9 − 6 = 3 − 6 = −3 38. f (6) = f (10) = 10 + 6 + 3 = 16 + 3 = 4+3 6 =1 6 b. a. a. a. f (−24) = 25 − (−24) − 6 = 49 − 6 = 7−6 =1 c. a. b. f (− x) = 4(− x)3 + 1 −4 x 3 + 1 = (− x)3 − x3 4 x3 − 1 x3 or = 27 a − 3a + 1 b. f (−2) = 4(−2) 2 − 1 15 = 4 (−2) 2 c. f (2) = 4(2)2 − 1 15 = 4 22 b. 3 33. 34. f (− x) = 4(− x)2 − 1 4 x 2 − 1 = (− x) 2 x2 f (5) = −6 −6 = = −1 −6 6 r2 r2 5+3 5+3 = r2 =1 r2 = −5 + 3 b. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (−5) = c. f (25 − 2 x) = 25 − (25 − 2 x) − 6 = 2x − 6 35. f (2) = f (−6) = −6 + 6 + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3 37. h(3) = 33 − 3 + 1 = 25 36. h(3a) = (3a)3 − (3a) + 1 f (−2) = 4(−2)3 + 1 −31 31 = = −8 8 (−2)3 c. Inc.if x > −6 138 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. f (−6) = c. b. f (r 2 ) = =7 c. a. 2 = −1 −2 .

41. 2 ) 39. −3) ( 2. y ) 1 g (1) = −2 (1) − 1 = −3 −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) − 1 = −5 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 ( −2. 4 ) ( 2. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. −6 ) ( −1. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 4 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 4 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 4 = −4 1 g (1) = 1 − 4 = −3 2 g ( 2 ) = 2 − 4 = −2 ( −2. −2 ) ( 2.5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 4 units.2 f ( x) = x ( x.1) ( −1. x 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 x g ( x) = x + 3 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 3 = 1 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 3 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = 1 + 3 = 4 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 3 = 5 ( x. −5) ( 0. 0 ) (1. 2 ) x g ( x) = x − 4 ( x. −2 ) ( −1. 2 ) ( 0. 40. −4 ) (1. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( 0. −2 ) ( x. −5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. −1) ( 0. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 ( −2. Inc.1) ( 2. −3) ( 2. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x − 1 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) − 1 = 3 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) − 1 = 1 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 x f ( x) = x ( x. 4 ) ( −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1) ( 0. 0 ) (1. y ) ( −2.1) ( 0.1) ( 2. −4 ) ( x. −1) (1. 139 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y ) ( −2.3) ( −1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. −2 ) ( −1.3) (1. y ) ( −2. .

( x. 4 ) ( −1. 4 ) ( x.1) ( 2. 2 ) ( 0. 0 ) (1. y ) ( −2.5 ) ( −1. −2 ) ( 2.1) ( 0. x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 + 1 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 1 = 5 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 1 = 2 0 g (0) = (0) + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = (1) + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) + 1 = 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. −4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x + 3 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) + 3 = 7 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) + 3 = 5 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = −2 (1) + 3 = 1 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) + 3 = −1 ( x.3) (1. . 2 ) ( 2. −1) ( 2. 4 ) ( −1. 7 ) ( −1.1) ( 0. 2 ) ( 0. −2 ) (1. y ) ( −2. Inc. 2 ) ( −1. −1) ( 0. 0 ) (1.1) (1. 2 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y ) ( −2. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units.Functions and Graphs 42.5 ) x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 2 = 2 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = (1) − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 2 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. −1) 44. y ) ( −2.1) ( 2.5 ) ( 0.1) ( 2. 140 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 ) ( −1. 4 ) ( x. y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1. y ) ( −2. 43.

1) ( 0.1) (1. 2 ) ( −1. Section 1.1) ( 2.3) ( 2. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units. 2 ) ( 0. −1) 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( 0. 46. y ) ( −2.3) ( −1.1) ( 2. y ) ( −2. −6 ) ( −1.3) f ( x ) = x3 ( x. 2 ) ( x. y ) ( −2. y ) ( −2.1) ( 2. 2 ) (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1) ( 0. Inc. 0 ) ( −1. 141 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y ) f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 ( −2.1) ( 0. 0 ) (1. 0 ) (1. . −1) ( 0. 0 ) (1.PreCalculus 4E 45. 0 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit. 2 ) ( −1. −2 ) (1. 2 ) ( x. 2 ) ( 2. −1) ( 2. 47.2 x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 2 = 0 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = 1 − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 2 = 0 ( x. x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x +1 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 1 = 3 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 1 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 1 = 3 ( x.10 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 2 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 2 = 1 0 g ( 0) = ( 0) + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = (1) + 2 = 3 2 g ( 2 ) = ( 2 ) + 2 = 10 ( −2. −8) −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 ( −1.8) x −2 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 + 2 ( x.

5) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 5 units. x f ( x ) = −1 ( x.5) (1.3) ( −1.5) ( −1.Functions and Graphs 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1) (1.3) ( x. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 1 = −9 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 1 = −2 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = (1) − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 1 = 7 ( −2. 4 ) (1. −1) x g ( x) = 4 −2 g ( −2 ) = 4 −1 g ( −1) = 4 0 g ( 0) = 4 1 g (1) = 4 2 g ( 2) = 4 ( x.3) ( 2. 4 ) ( −1. 0 ) ( 2. 7 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. 142 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x f ( x ) = x3 ( x. . y ) ( −2.1) ( 2. y ) ( −2. y ) ( −2. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( −2. −1) ( −1.3) (1.3) ( 0. 4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. 49. −1) (1. x f ( x) = 3 −2 f ( −2 ) = 3 −1 f ( −1) = 3 0 f ( 0) = 3 1 f (1) = 3 2 f ( 2) = 3 x g ( x) = 5 −2 g ( −2 ) = 5 −1 g ( −1) = 5 0 g ( 0) = 5 1 g (1) = 5 2 g ( 2) = 5 ( x. 0 ) (1.5) ( 2.8) 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 − 1 ( x. −2 ) ( 0. −1) ( 0. Inc. −9 ) ( −1. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −1 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0 ) = −1 1 f (1) = −1 2 f ( 2 ) = −1 ( −2. 50. −1) ( 0. 4 ) ( 0. −1) ( 2. −8) ( −1. 4 ) ( 2.5) ( 0.

5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted right 1 unit. .1) ( 5. Inc. −1) (1. 0 ) ( 4.1) ( 4.3) 53. y ) ( 0. ( x. 0 ) (1. 0 ) (1. 2 ) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 1 = 1 5 g ( 5) = 5 − 1 = 2 10 g (10 ) = 10 − 1 = 3 ( x.1) ( 4. 52.2 x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 4 g ( 4) = 4 −1 = 1 9 g (9) = 9 −1 = 2 ( x. 2 ) ( 9. Section 1. y ) ( 0.3) ( 4. 0 ) ( 2. 4 ) 9 g (9) = 9 + 2 = 5 (9 . 2 ) ( 9. 0 ) (1. y ) (1. 2 ) (10. 143 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units.1) ( 9. y ) ( 0.PreCalculus 4E 51.3) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = 1 + 2 = 3 4 g ( 4) = 4 + 2 = 4 ( x. ( x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y ) ( 0. 2 ) (1. 2 ) ( 9. y ) ( 0.3) ( x.1) ( 4.

g ( x) = −1. not a function 79. range: (–∞. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 d. 4] 57. function b. 2 ) ( 7. f (−2) = −3 and f (2) = 5 domain: (–∞. f ( −2 ) = −4 66. 0 ) (1. . y ) ( 0. f (2) = −4 67. a. g ( 2 ) = −2 73.Functions and Graphs 54. 65. f (−1) = 0 71. y-intercept: –3 e. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted left 2 units. 2 ) ( 9. domain: (−∞. f ( 4) = 4 f (2) = −5 f (−1) = 2 and f (3) = 4 144 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (−4) = 4 69.3) 68. 77. function d. 76. y-intercept: 1 64. g ( x ) = 1. f (−2) = 3 and domain: (−∞. range: [−4. y-intercept: 3 59. function b.1) ( 2. Inc. f ( −3 ) = 0 70. g (10) = −2 75. When x = 1. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 58. ∞) 55. ∞) c. not a function c. a. y ) ( −2. x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 2 = 0 –1 g ( −1) = −1 + 2 = 1 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 2 = 2 7 g (7) = 7 + 2 = 3 ( x. g ( −4 ) = 2 ( x. not a function d. 0 ) ( −1. a. 60. ∞) 61. ∞) 62. 56. function c.3) 72. When x = −2. function e. not a function e. function 78. g ( −10 ) = 2 74. ∞) b.1) ( 4. x-intercept: none 63. range: [1.

1 2 87. range: [–2. range: (0.75 d. ∞) c. y-intercept: 1 e. range: [0.PreCalculus 4E 80. x-intercept: 4 e. a. a. f(4) = 6 84. ∞) c. domain: (−∞. range: [–3. ∞) c. domain: [–2. x-intercept: none d. Inc. a. domain: [–3. ∞) c. y-intercept: −1 f(2) = 1 b. f(–2) = –3 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: [1.2 domain: (–∞. 5) e. 0) ∪ (0. a. 1. 2] b. range: [–1. f(4) = 3 b. y-intercept: 0 e. a. f (−5) + f (3) = 2 + 2 = 4 145 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: {2} c. range: (−∞. domain: [0. a. 88. y-intercept: 1. 5] c. –2. x-intercept: { x x ≤ 0} d. ∞) b. y-intercept: –3 e. range: [0. a. b. ∞ ) domain: (–∞. x-intercept: 2 d.1) ∪ (1. y-intercept: –1 e. 89. f(–4) = –5 and f(4) = –2 c. x-intercept: none d. a. a. a. ∞) b. x-intercept: –3. x-intercept: none d. 0] d. 3} b. range: (−∞. range: [0. f(–5) = 2 82. 4) e. y-intercept: 1 e. 5) c. x-intercept: none domain: (–6. Section 1. ∞) c. ∞) b. f(–2) = 0 and f(2) = 4 b. ∞) domain: (−∞. 86. d. x-intercept: –1 d. y-intercept: –2 b. y-intercept: 2 e. y-intercept: 1 81. y-intercept: 1 e. a. 83. x-intercept: –1 d. ∞) c. y-intercept: 4 91. f(3) = 2 85. 6] domain: (−∞. 90. x-intercept: − f(–4) = 3 and f(3) = 4 d. − 2] f(3) = 1 c.5 e. x-intercept: none d. 6] c. . e. f(–1) = 5 domain: {–5. range: [–5. ∞) b. domain: [0. ∞) domain: [–1. a. 0.

the relation is not a function. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 ) . g (1) = 3 (1) − 5 = 3 − 5 = −2 93. . ( Denmark. 1. No. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) + ( − x ) − 5 − ( x3 + x − 5) 3 = − x 3 − x − 5 − x 3 − x + 5 = −2 x 3 − 2 x 98. 3 − ( −1) − ( −6 ) + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 2 = 3 + 1 − 36 + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 = 4 − 36 + −1 ⋅ 4 = 2 − 36 + −4 = −34 + −4 = −38 96. a. ( 9. ( Finland. Inc. −4 − ( −1) − ( −3) + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 2 = −4 + 1 − 9 + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 = −3 − 9 + −1 ⋅ −6 = 3 − 9 + 6 = −6 + 6 = 0 97.6 in the domain corresponds to both Finland and New Zealand in the range. the relation is a function. Iceland ) . Finland ) .7 ) . 9. a. Denmark )} d. y-intercept: –2 f (−5) + f (4) = −2 + (−2) = −4 e.6. 0. 4} 92. Yes. –2. New Zealand ) . Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range.Functions and Graphs domain: {–5. f ( g ( −1) ) = f ( −8) = ( −8) − ( −8 ) + 4 2 = 64 + 8 + 4 = 76 95. 9. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) − 3 ( − x ) + 7 − ( x 2 − 3x + 7 ) 2 = x 2 + 3x + 7 − x 2 + 3 x − 7 = 6x 99. x-intercept: none d.7. {( 9. range: {–2} c. ( 9.6 ) . 9. c. 146 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5.5 )} b. ( New Zealand. 9. ( 9. f ( g (1) ) = f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) + 4 2 = 4 + 2 + 4 = 10 g ( −1) = 3 ( −1) − 5 = −3 − 5 = −8 94. b.6. 9. {( Iceland.

the relation is a function. Myanmar )} d. According to the graphs.6(0) + 94 = 94 Americans ordered an average of 94 meals in restaurants per person 0 years after 1984.127). Yes.6 x + 94 R (4) = −0.6 x + 94 R(0) = −0. c. ( Haiti. a. or 2004. 1. R( x) = −0.125(20)2 + 5. No.6 meals in restaurants per person. f (70) = 83 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 83%. ( Myanmar. R ( x) = −0. This is represented on the graph by the point (18.25 x + 72 T (4) = −0. a.6(4) + 94 = 91.7. (1. a.2 {( Bangladesh. or 2002.8. T ( x) = −0. a.125(4)2 + 5. This is represented on the graph by the point (20. c.125 x 2 + 5.7. Haiti ) . {(1. 101.25 x + 72 T (18) = −0. 147 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the relation is not a function.7 in the domain corresponds to both Bangladesh and Chad in the range. R( x) = −0. or 2004.7 ) . Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range.25(20) + 72 = 127 Americans ordered an average of 127 takeout meals per person 20 years after 1984. the average number of takeout orders approximately equaled the average number of inrestaurant meals 4 years after 1984. c.25(4) + 72 = 91 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91 takeout meals per person. a. Chad ) . ( Chad.125 x 2 + 5. g (70) = 76 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 76%. This is represented on the graph by the point (20. . Function f is the better model.25(18) + 72 = 126 Americans ordered an average of 126 takeout meals per person 18 years after 1984.8)} b. Inc. Bangladesh ) . 103. T ( x) = −0. b.7 ) . c. 1.PreCalculus 4E 100. (1. or 1988.8 ) . Function f is the better model.25 x + 72 T (20) = −0. g (90) = 10 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 10%.94). b. b. Section 1. 1.8. T ( x) = −0. f (90) = 25 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 25%. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 x + 94 R(20) = −0.125(18)2 + 5.82). (1. This is represented on the graph by the point (0. 1. 1. 104.6(20) + 94 = 82 Americans ordered an average of 82 meals in restaurants per person 20 years after 1984.6 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91. b. or 1984.126).125 x 2 + 5. 102.

Changes to make the statement true will vary. it is not true for all functions. false. 4].900. S ( x) = 0. Sample explanation: This would not be a function because some elements in the domain would correspond to more than one age in the range.000 to produce 90 bicycles. true = 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3h 148 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: The domain is [−4. 000 + 100(90) = $109. false. Sample explanation: The parentheses used in function notation. false. for example. 107. 122. 121. Answers may vary. does not make sense. 40 40 + x x + 30 40 40 T ( 30 ) = + 30 30 + 30 80 40 = + 60 60 120 = 60 =2 If you travel 30 mph going and 60 mph returning. . rewrite 2 as 1 + 1. Sample explanation: The domain is the number of years worked for the company. 108. makes sense 129.(2. 2( x + h) 2 + 3( x + h) + 5 − (2 x 2 + 3x + 5) 123. 118. Changes to make the statement true will vary.40(t − 60) C (100) = 20 + 0. there will be 15 mL of sodium-iodine in the vaccine. 126. Answers may vary. – 117.1). Explanations will vary. the car will be worth $12. Explanations will vary. such as f ( x). A sample change is: f (0) = 0.10 x + 0. C ( x) = 100.10(30) + 0. does not make sense. T ( x) = 127. An example is {(1. your total trip will take 2 hours. 000 + 100 x 125. 109. 2 ) . It is not true for f ( x ) = x 2 . the monthly cost is $36. 131. It is given that f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) and f (1) = 3 . f (2) = f (1 + 1) = f (1) + f (1) = 3+3 = 6 Similarly: f (3) = f (2 + 1) = f (2) + f (1) = 6+3= 9 f (4) = f (3 + 1) = f (3) + f (1) = 9 + 3 = 12 While f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) is true for this function. To find f (2) .40(40) = 20 + 16 = 36 For 100 calling minutes. Explanations will vary.500 − 3200(3) = $12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 500 − 3200 x V (3) = 22.1)} 128. Inc. Changes to make the statement true will vary. = 2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 − 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x − 3 x + 3h + 5 − 5 124. C (t ) = 20 + 0.60(50 − x) S (30) = 0. does not make sense. 000 It will cost $109.40(100 − 60) = 20 + 0. V ( x) = 22. 120. do not imply multiplication. A sample change is: The range is [ −2. 130. 119.Functions and Graphs 105. f (a + h) = 3(a + h) + 7 = 3a + 3h + 7 f (a ) = 3a + 7 f ( a + h) − f ( a ) h ( 3a + 3h + 7 ) − ( 3a + 7 ) = h 3a + 3h + 7 − 3a − 7 3h = = =3 h h 106.60(50 − 30) = 15 When 30 mL of the 10% mixture is mixed with 20 mL of the 60% mixture.8 C (90) = 100. 900 After 3 years.

∞) c. increasing: (–3. constant: none a. f (− x) = (− x) 2 + 6 = x 2 + 6 = f ( x) The function is even. decreasing: (–2. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 60 1. ( −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 − −2 x 2 + x + 5 5. constant: none 4. Check Point Exercises 1. decreasing: none c. the cost is $28. ∞) b. constant: none a. a. Inc.3 b. 2) b. increasing: (–1. b. 4. decreasing: none c. c. a. decreasing: (–1. ∞) b. 20 ) . increasing: (−1. –1) b. decreasing: (−∞. constant: none a. 1).40(80 − 60) = 28 With 80 calling minutes. 3. f ( x ) = −2 x 2 + x + 5 f ( x + h) = −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) + 5 = −2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + x + h + 5 = −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 6. = The function is increasing on the interval (–∞. This is represented by ( 40. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 + 2 x 2 − x − 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 Exercise Set 1. the cost is $20. ∞) b. − 1) c. c. C (80) = 20 + 0. This is represented by ( 80. 28 ) .40(t − 60) b.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. constant: none a. h( − x ) = ( − x )5 + 1 = − x 5 + 1 The function is neither even nor odd.3 Section 1. 2. Since 80 > 60 . constant: none a. 149 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –1). increasing: (0. 2. C (40) = 20 With 40 calling minutes. and increasing on the interval (1. decreasing: none c. decreasing on the interval (–1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. increasing: none b. ∞). increasing: (–∞. ⎧ 20 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩ 20 + 0. a.3 3. if t > 60 Since 0 ≤ 40 ≤ 60 . 5. g (− x ) = 7(− x)3 − (− x) = −7 x3 + x = − f ( x) The function is odd. ) . 6) c.

relative maximum = 21 f (− x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 b. constant: (−∞. 9. relative maximum = 2 b. decreasing: none c. even function 14. −4) or (2. 2) or (4. 3. 8. g ( x) = x 2 − x g ( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − (− x ) g (− x ) = x 2 + x. f ( x) = x3 − x g ( x) = x 2 + x b. relative minimum = –1 24. 13. x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. relative minimum = −6 f (− x) = f ( x). x = 1. a. 22. decreasing: none c. relative maximum = 4 f ( x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) 4 + 1 b. increasing: (0. −4) or (−2. even function 16. constant: (−∞. a. a. 19. decreasing: (−4. 2) h( − x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 c. − 2) or (4. increasing: (−5. h(− x ) = h( x). decreasing: (0. 3. constant: none 20. ∞ ) h( − x ) = x 2 − x 4 h(− x) = h( x).5. f ( x) = x 3 + x f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 + (− x ) f ( − x ) = − x 3 − x = −( x 3 + x ) f (− x) = − f ( x).5) or (3. 0) or (2. h( x ) = x 2 − x 4 increasing: (–2. constant: none g (− x) = x 2 − x. x = 4. constant: (−1. x = 0. 0) or (1. 4) h( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − ( − x ) 4 b. even function 11. ∞ ) 12. x = −2. x = −3. increasing: (−∞. odd function a. h( x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 increasing: none h(− x ) = 2(− x )2 + (− x) 4 b. decreasing: none f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 − ( − x ) c. 4) b. neither 10. a. x = −3. even function 23. ∞) g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + (− x) c. 3) 17. constant: (–∞. f ( x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 f (− x) = 2(− x) 2 + (− x)4 + 1 15. decreasing: (–4. a. a. ∞) b. ∞) a. −2) or (0. a. odd function 18. a.5) c. relative minimum = 0 f (− x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = f ( x).Functions and Graphs 7. 1. Inc. 0) f ( − x ) = − x 3 + x = −( x 3 − x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). relative maximum = 30 b. neither 21. − 1) b. relative minimum = 3 150 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . x =1. increasing: (−∞.

x = −4 and x = 4 l. f (−3) = 4 k. ( −∞. ( −∞. range: c. 2 f(–x) = – f(x). 31. 26. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. ( 0. 1− (−x) 1− x range: l. Inc. ( −∞. 30. odd function 28. ( −∞. 0 ) h. −2 ) f. The function is odd. y = −4 j. The graph is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. The function is odd. 7 d. f ( x) = f ( x) = 2 x3 − 6 x 5 f (− x) = 2(− x)3 − 6(− x)5 f ( − x ) = −2 x + 6 x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x). even function 33. 4] b. ∞ ) 5 f (− x) = −(2 x3 − 6 x 5 ) 27. a. 4 d. 32. x-intercepts: 1. a. The function is neither even nor odd. or ( 0. 4 ) g. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) ≠ x .∞ ) f.3) or ( 3. ( 4. ∞ ) ( −∞. f (− x) ≠ − x domain: 2 ( −∞. Section 1. neither . y-intercept: 4 e. odd function f ( x) = x 1 − x 2 f (− x) = − x 1 − (− x) f (− x) = − x 1 − x 2 ( = − x 1 − x2 ) f (−x) = x 2 2 c.3 1 6 x − 3x 2 5 1 f (− x) = (− x)6 − 3(− x) 2 5 1 f (− x) = x 6 − 3 x 2 5 f (− x) = f ( x) . y-intercept: 1 e. f (− x) ≠ x . ( −2. The function is even. f (−2) = 4 and f (3) = 2 j. x=4 i. f (2) = −2 and f (6) = −2 34. ∞ ) 151 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. f (− x) ≠ − x 2 f(–x) = f(x). domain: neither . −4] h. x = −2 and x = 3 i. ∞ ) b. even function 29. f ( x ) = x2 1 − x2 f (−x) = (−x) [ −4. The graph is not symmetric with respect to the y-axis or the origin.PreCalculus 4E 25. ∞ ) or [ 4. x-intercepts: –4. 0 ) g. f (−2) = 4 k.

1) f. ( 2. range: c. x-intercepts: –3. g(0) = 0 + 5 = 5 b. 3 d. h(7) = 7 2 − 25 49 − 25 24 = = = 12 7 −5 2 2 b.3] 39. −3] h. g(–5) = –5 + 5 = 0 41. a. ( −∞. c. a. 40. neither l. ( −3. −2 ) f. x = −5 and x = 5 j. ( −2. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. a. g(–3) = –3 + 3 = 0 e. f (1) = 4 i. ( −∞. Inc.Functions and Graphs 35. g(–6) = –(–6 + 5) = –(–1) = 1 c. f (−1) = +2 36. 3) i. 0] a. h(0) = 0 2 − 9 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 c. ( −∞. 44. domain: ( −∞.3) ( −∞. f(0) = 7(0) + 3 = 3 c. g(0) = 0 + 3 = 3 f(–3) = 6(–3) – 1 = –19 b. positive. 3 f (0) = 1 43. h(5) = 52 − 9 25 − 9 16 = = =8 5−3 2 2 b. 4] b. f (4) = −1 k. x =1 j. b. b. h(5) = 10 zeros of f: –3. domain: range: ( −∞. a. f(–2) = 3(–2) + 5 = –1 b. a. a. g(–6) = –(–6 + 3) = –(–3) = 3 ( −∞. h(0) = 02 − 25 −25 = =5 0−5 −5 c. . g. negative. f (0) = 3 e. 152 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. range: [ 0. a. f(0) = 4(0) + 7 = 7 c. no. 6] c. 6 ) g.1] d. f(3) = 4(3) + 7 = 19 38. a. 2 ) h. 37. f(4) = 7(4) + 3 = 31 b. f(2) is not greater than the function values to the immediate left. (1. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. h(3) = 6 42.

153 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: (−∞. ∞ ) range: ( −∞.3 range: {−4. ∞ ) a. range: a. 4} a.PreCalculus 4E 45. b. a. ( −∞. 0] ∪ {3} a. Inc. ∞) b. 49. b. b. a. ∞) range: {−3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 51. b. range: ( −∞. range: (−∞. 0] ∪ {2} 50. range: [ 0. 3} a. b. 48. 52. Section 1. b. b. a. . 47. 46. 0] ∪ [3.

b. Inc. a. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 7( x + h) − 7 x = h 7 x + 7h − 7 x = h 7h = h =7 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2( x + h) 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 2( x + 2 xh + h 2 ) − 2 x 2 = h 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 4 xh + 2h = h h ( 4 x + 2h ) = h = 4 x + 2h 154 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: [ 0. 57. 54. 59.Functions and Graphs 53. b. ∞ ) 58. ∞ ) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 3( x + h) + 7 − (3x + 7) = h 3x + 3h + 7 − 3x − 7 = h 3h = h =3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 6( x + h) + 1 − (6 x + 1) = h 6 x + 6h + 1 − 6 x − 1 = h 6h = h =6 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( x + h) 2 − x2 h x + 2 xh + h 2 − x 2 = h 2 2 xh + h = h h ( 2x + h) = h = 2x + h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 4( x + h) − 4 x = h 4 x + 4h − 4 x = h 4h = h =4 2 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: [ −1. 55. . 56. a.

f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) + 4 − (− x 2 + 2 x + 4) 2 = h − x − 2 xh − h + 2 x + 2h + 4 + x 2 − 2 x − 4 = h 2 −2 xh − h + 2h = h h ( −2 x − h + 2 ) = h = −2 x − h + 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 66. 62. Section 1. 63. Inc. 2 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (2 x 2 + x − 1) 2 = f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) − 3 ( x + h ) + 1 − (− x 2 − 3x + 1) 2 = h 2 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h + x + h − 1 − 2 x 2 − x + 1 = h 2 4 xh + 2h + h = h h ( 4 x + 2h + 1) = h = 4 x + 2h + 1 h − x − 2 xh − h − 3 x − 3h + 1 + x 2 + 3x − 1 = h 2 −2 xh − h − 3h = h h ( −2 x − h − 3) = h = −2 x − h − 3 2 2 155 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) + 5 − (3 x 2 + x + 5) 2 = h 3x 2 + 6 xh + 3h 2 + x + h + 5 − 3x 2 − x − 5 = h 6 xh + 3h 2 + h = h h ( 6 x + 3h + 1) = h = 6 x + 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 5( x + h) + 8 − ( x 2 − 5 x + 8) = h 2 2 x + 2 xh + h − 5 x − 5h + 8 − x 2 + 5 x − 8 = h 2 2 xh + h − 5h = h h ( 2 x + h − 5) = h = 2x + h − 5 65.PreCalculus 4E 61.3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 4( x + h) + 3 − ( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − 4 x − 4h + 3 − x 2 + 4 x − 3 = h 2 xh + h 2 − 4h = h h(2 x + h − 4) = h = 2x + h − 4 64.

f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 7 − 7 0 = = =0 h h h −3 ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + 2 x − 1) 2 = h 2 2 −3x − 6 xh − 3h + 2 x + 2h − 1 + 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = h 2 −6 xh − 3h + 2h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 2 ) = h = −6 x − 3h + 2 69. Inc. 73. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2 ( x + h ) − ( x + h ) + 3 − (−2 x 2 − x + 3) 2 = h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h − x − h + 3 + 2 x 2 + x − 3 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h − h = h h ( −4 x − 2h − 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h − 1 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − x h x + = h − ( x + h) x + x ( x + h) x ( x + h) = h x−x−h x ( x + h) = h −h x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ x ( x + h) h −1 = x ( x + h) 156 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + x − 1) h −3x 2 − 6 xh − 3h 2 + x + h − 1 + 3 x 2 − x + 1 = h −6 xh − 3h 2 + h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 1) = h = −6 x − 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 71. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 6 − 6 0 = = =0 h h h 72. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 70. .Functions and Graphs 67. −2 ( x + h ) + 5 ( x + h ) + 7 − (−2 x 2 + 5 x + 7) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 = 2 = h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + 5 x + 5h + 7 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 7 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + 5h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 5 ) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 5 68.

Section 1. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − 2( x + h) 2 x = h x x+h − 2 x ( x + h) 2 x ( x + h) = h −h 2 x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ 2 x ( x + h) h −1 = 2x ( x + h) 77.30(t − 200) = 40 + 0.3t − 36 = 0. 75.5) + f ( −0.3t − 6 80. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 400 if t > 400 .3t − 20 81. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5) − f (1. ⎧50 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩50 + 0.5) − f (1.9) − [ f (π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f ( −π ) 2 = 1 + 0 − [ −4 ] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ 3 2 = 1 − 16 + ( −1) ⋅ 3 = 1 − 16 − 3 = −18 78. 30 + 0.PreCalculus 4E 74. 40 + 0.30(t − 120) = 30 + 0.3 x+h + x f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x + h −1 − x −1 h = x + h −1 − x −1 x + h −1 + x −1 ⋅ h x + h −1 + x −1 x + h − 1 − ( x − 1) = = = = = h h h ( ( ( x + h −1 + x −1 x + h −1 − x +1 x + h −1 + x −1 h x + h −1 + x −1 ) ) ) 1 x + h −1 + x −1 157 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9) − [ f (−π )] + f (−3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 = 2 − (−2) − [ 3] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ ( −4 ) 2 = 4 − 9 + ( −1)( −4 ) = 2−9+ 4 = −3 79.9) − [ f ( −π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 f (−2. Inc.3t − 60 = 0. f ( −2. f ( −1.30(t − 400) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x+h − x h x+h − x x+h + x ⋅ h x+h + x x+h− x = = = = h h ( ( x+h + x h x+h + x ) ) 1 = 76.

000 owes $8923.75 + 0. which means that the minimum number of doctor visits. 000) = 782.850) = 8923.000 owes $2608.50 + 0.5 ounces is $0.25 + 0.5) = 0. 83. 87. 000 − 7825) = 2608.15(20. 1) or (3.75. –2) or (0. 108. The percent body fat in women reaches a maximum at age 55. increasing: (25. 90.99).59. 38] 88. The minimum is (20. ⎧60 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩60 + 0. 101. 86. 2) 158 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 107. 99.35( x − 349.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $50. occurs at around age 20. if t > 450 98. domain: [25. 75) 100.8 ounces is $0. increasing: (25.76 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3 ounces is $0. range: [23. . This maximum is 26%. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. T (20. 85. 89. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1.29. Increasing: (−∞. 96. 65).59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 55).25 + 0.93. This maximum is 38%. 3) T (50. decreasing: (55.850) 94.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $20. 39.75. ∞) Decreasing: (1. about 4.93 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3. Inc. decreasing: (65. 0) or (2.33( x − 160. 75]. This model describes percent body fat in women.76. f (3) = 0. – 105. 469. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. 26] The number of doctor visits decreases during childhood and then increases as you get older. Increasing: (–2.148. f (3. 000) = 4386.35(t − 450) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 450 97. 75) 84. The percent body fat in men reaches a maximum at age 65. domain: [25.Functions and Graphs 82. 92. This model describes percent body fat in men. Answers may vary. 93.5 ounces is $0. 106. 75].25(50. range: [34. 700) 95. 3. 000 − 31. 91.

0) Decreasing: (0.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Inc. ∞) 113. f and g are both even: f (– x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) f and g are both odd: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = = h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) h is odd if f is odd and g is even or if f is even and g is odd. makes sense 116. Sample explanation: It’s possible the graph is not defined at a. Decreasing: (−∞. answers may vary Decreasing: (−∞. f is odd and g is even: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x ) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) g ( x) f is even and g is odd: f (– x) f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) 159 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . e. h is even if both f and g are even or if both f and g are odd. 1) 114. − 2) Constant: (–2. b. Increasing: (1. 2) Increasing: (0. 110. ∞) 118. ∞) when n is odd. 0) d. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. f ( x ) = x n is increasing from (–∞. does not make sense. 0) 119. answers may vary 112. Increasing: (–∞. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 120. Increasing: (2. makes sense 117. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. ∞) c. 111. Explanations will vary. 115. makes sense Increasing: (0. 109. a.3 b.

4). 123. 1). 0). Inc.Functions and Graphs 121. answers may vary 122. 124. −2 ) . m= 5 − (−2) 7 7 = =− −1 − 4 −5 5 4x − 6 = 0 4x = 6 2. y + 5 = 6 x − 12 y = 6 x − 17 3. ⎝2 ⎠ When x = 0 : 4x − 3y − 6 = 0 The slope m is 3 5 and the y-intercept is 1. m= −2 − 4 −6 = =6 −4 − (−3) −1 b. we get the point slope equation: y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − (−1) = −5[ x − (−2)] x = −2 The point is ( 0.Solve the equation for y : y + 1 = −5 x − 10 3x + 2 y − 4 = 0 y = −5 x − 11. 4(0) − 3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y = 6 y + 1 = −5( x + 2). y = 3 is a horizontal line. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 6( x − 2) 3 x= 2 ⎛3 ⎞ The point is ⎜ . 160 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1 − (−2) 1 so the slope is –5. 5. –1). . Using the point (–2. When y = 0 : 4x − 3 y − 6 = 0 4 x − 3(0) − 6 = 0 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y= y=− −6 − (−1) −5 = = −5 . so one point on the line is (1.4 4 −1 3 y2 − y1 = = =3 x2 − x1 −2 − (−3) 1 Check Point Exercises 1. We can find a second point on the line by using the slope m = 35 = Rise : starting at Run 3 x+2 2 the point (0. to obtain the point (5. 0 ⎟ . Section 1. move 3 units up and 5 units to the right. 2 y = −3 x + 4 −3 x + 4 2 or 4.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.04 = 0. Section 1. m= 10 − 7 3 = .6 The temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million would be 61.64 − 57. vertical 5−5 0 161 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. rises 3−2 1 3. rises 2 − (−2) 4 4. m= −1 − 4 −5 = = −5.6°F.016 Change in x 354 − 317 37 Use the point-slope form and then find slopeintercept form. m= 4 −1 3 = = 3. 2 Find the x-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3x − 2(0) − 6 = 0 3x − 6 = 0 3x = 6 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3(0) − 2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y = 6 y = −3 1.0 = 61.016 x + 52.016( x − 317) y − 57.4 The slope is − 8. m= 2 − (−2) 0 = = 0. Any value can be used for y.0 f (600) = 0. rises 8−4 4 2. 1 and the y-intercept is 2.016 x + 51.016(600) + 52. 7. horizontal 3− 4 −1 6. falls 4−6 −2 9. 9.016 x − 5.6 m= = = ≈ 0.0 Find the temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million.04 0. falls −1 − (−2) 1 8.04 = 0.968 f ( x) = 0. rises 2 − (−1) 3 5. m= −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. .016 x + 52.4 All ordered pairs that are solutions of x = −3 have a value of x that is always –3. m= 4−3 1 = . y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 57.PreCalculus 4E 6. m= −2 − 3 −5 = undefined. Change in y 57. m= 2 −1 1 = . m= −2 − (−4) 2 = = −1. f ( x) = 0. 3x + 6 y − 12 = 0 6 y = −3 x + 12 −3 12 y= x+ 6 6 1 y = − x+2 2 Exercise Set 1. First find the slope. Inc. horizontal 3−4 −1 7.072 y = 0.

x1 = 0. point-slope form: y + 2 = –5(x + 4). 5 −1 4 point-slope form: y – 2 = 2(x – 1) using ( x1 . x1 = −4. x1 = −2. point-slope form: y – 3 = 4(x – 1). 4 1 m = −1. m= −1 . y1 ) = (5. . y1 = 3. 5 3 m = − . m = 4. 3 2 point-slope form: y + 2 = − ( x − 6). 3 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 3 14. point-slope form: y + 3 = –2(x – 0) m = −2. y1 = 5. 2⎠ ⎝ 1 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x − 2 5 y = −x − 2 10 − 2 8 = = 2. point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x − 0). x1 = 10. y1 = −3. 5 3 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 5 y = −4 x − 16 18. slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −3 x − 6 23. x1 = −2. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 2 x − 6 1 = −1( x + 4). 3 1 m = . y1 = 0. m = 8. point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3). y1 = −3. slope-intercept form: y = 4x – 1 13. x1 = 3. 2 25. y1 = − . y1 = −2. point-slope form: y – 0 = –4(x + 4). y = −3 x − 9 m = −4. vertical 3−3 0 10. slope-intercept form: y = –5x – 22 17. y = 2x 162 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y1 ) = (1. m = 2. m = −5. x1 = 0. slope-intercept form: y = 8x – 33 m = −3. 3 2 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x + 4 3 2 y = − x+2 3 16. slope-intercept form: y = –2x – 3 19. y1 = −4. 1 . 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = y = 6 x + 17 15. x1 = 6. or y – 10 = 2(x – 5) using m= ( x1 . y1 = −2. x1 = 2 m = − . 2) . x1 = −4. 12. x1 = −4. 4 17 slope-intercept form: y = − x − 4 20. Inc. x1 = 0. slope-intercept form: y − 2 = 2 x − 2 or y − 10 = 2 x − 10. y1 = 0. point-slope form: y + 1 = 8(x – 4). slope-intercept form: y = −4( x + 4) 3 24.Functions and Graphs 5 − (−4) 9 = undefined. 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 2 m = 6. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 6 x + 12 1 22. y1 = 5. y1 = −1. y1 = −2. x1 = 4. y1 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. point-slope form: y + 4 = − ( x − 10). m= 11. 1⎞ ⎛ point-slope form: y + 2 = −1⎜ x + ⎟ . point-slope form: y + y = 2x −1 21. 10) . m = −1. point-slope form: y + 3 = –3(x + 2). point-slope form: y – 5 = 6(x + 2). 1 ( x − 0). x1 = 1.

− 1) . m= 4 − (−1) 5 = =1.PreCalculus 4E 26.4 15 − 5 10 = =2. y1 ) = (−2. − 1) . −2 − 2 −4 point-slope form: y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . 0 ) . y1 ) = (1. slope-intercept form: y = x + 2 29. or y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using m= ( x1 . − 1) slope-intercept form: y = x – 2 −5 − (−5) 0 = =0. y1 ) = ( 3. − 1) . − 5) .5 ) . y1 ) = ( 3. 4) . m = 1 − (−2) 3 point-slope form: y + 4 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . − 4 ) . − 2) . or y + 1 = 0(x – 4) using m= ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y − 9 = x − 2. y1 ) = (3. or y – 3 = 1(x – 0) using ( x1 . 3 4 y = x+2 3 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = 2−0 2 = =1. − 5 ) . y1 ) = (0. 27. y1 ) = ( 0. 4 − (−3) 7 point-slope form: y + 1 = 0(x + 3) using ( x1 . .so −1 − (−4) 3 = =1. 0) . 2 ) . so y = −5 35. y1 ) = ( −3. y1 ) = ( −2. slope-intercept form: y = 2x – 1 28. slope-intercept form: y + 1 = 0. 6 − (−2) 8 4 = = . − 2 ) . or y + 5 = 0(x – 6) using m= ( x1 . 6 ) . 3 − (−3) 6 3 4 point-slope form: y − 6 = − ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . y1 ) = ( −2. y1 ) = (2. ( x1 . or y − 6 = ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . y1 ) = (−3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y1 ) = (4. m= 4 −2 − 6 −8 = =− . y1 ) = ( −2. y1 ) = ( 8. ( x1 . 0 − (−3) 3 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . Section 1. 0) . y1 ) = (−3. or y + 2 = − ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. or y = x+2 163 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 − (−3) 6 3 point-slope form: y + 2 = ( x1 . 6) . or y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . or y + 1 = 1(x – 1) using y = −1 34. 2 − (−3) 5 point-slope form: y + 1 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . y1 ) = (−3. or y – 2 = 1(x – 0) using m= 32. 6 − (−2) 8 point-slope form: y + 5 = 0(x + 2) using ( x1 . 4) . 3− 0 3 = =1. slope-intercept form: y + 5 = 0.or y – 15 = 2(x – 8) using m= 31. 30. 8−3 5 point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3) using ( x1 . y1 ) = ( 6.15) . 4 ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . 0 − 4 −4 = = 1. y1 ) = (2. slope-intercept form: y = x + 3 m= 4 + 4 or 3x 4 y − 6 = x − 4. 0 − (−2) 2 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . y1 ) = (−3. 3) . Inc. slope-intercept form: y + 1 = x + 3or y−4 = x−2 y = x+2 m= 4 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 3 33.

b = 2 164 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 2 ) . or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) using ( x1 . y1 ) = ( 4. b = 1 40. y1 ) = (1. b = −3 4 −2 − 0 −2 1 = = . 0 − ( − 12 ) 12 point-slope form: y – 4 = 8(x – 0) using ( x1 . m = 2. 3 m = . or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) slope-intercept form: y = 8 x + 4 38.0 ) . m = –3. − 3) .Functions and Graphs 36. m = 3. 3 m = . 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x − 2 2 or y + 2 = 39. y1 ) = ( 0. 0 ) . b = 1 3 point-slope form: y + 3 = − ( x − 1) using 2 3 ( x1 . 0 − 4 −4 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x1 . 0 ) . b = –2 4 44. 4) . m= 42. y1 ) = ( −1. y1 ) = (0. m= 0 − (−3) 3 3 = =− −1 − 1 −2 2 41. . y1 ) = ( − 12 . m = –2. 3 3 slope-intercept form: y + 3 = − x + . m= 43. b = 2 4−0 4 = =8. Inc. 1 ( x − 4) using 2 1 ( x − 0) using ( x1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. or 2 2 3 3 y = − x− 2 2 37. or y − 0 = − ( x + 1) using 2 ( x1 .

52.b=0 3 54. b=7 5 49. 48. 55. 165 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 46. Inc. 50.4 3 m=− . . 1 m=− . 2 m=− .PreCalculus 4E 45. 1 m=− .b=6 5 51. Section 1.b=0 2 53. 47.

a. 3x − 18 = 0 3x = 18 x=6 61. . b. 3x + 12 = 0 3x = −12 x = −4 59. Inc. c. 2 x + 3 y − 18 = 0 2 x − 18 = −3 y −3 y = 2 x − 18 2 18 y= x− −3 −3 2 y = − x+6 3 b. 2 m = − . a. 60. a. 57. a.Functions and Graphs 56. b = 5 c. 4x + y − 6 = 0 y − 6 = −4 x y = −4 x + 6 m = −4. 2 m=− . b=6 3 c. b. 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b = 6 166 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 58. b = –2 3 c. 3x + y − 5 = 0 y − 5 = −3 x y = −3 x + 5 4 x + 6 y + 12 = 0 4 x + 12 = −6 y −6 y = 4 x + 12 4 12 y= x+ −6 −6 2 y = − x−2 3 m = –3. b.

Inc.PreCalculus 4E 63. 6 m = . Section 1. a. m = 0. 65.4 8 x − 4 y − 12 = 0 8 x − 12 = 4 y 4 y = 8 x − 12 8 12 y = x− 4 4 y = 2x − 3 66. m = 0. 6 x − 2(0) − 12 = 0 6 x − 12 = 0 6 x = 12 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 6(0) − 2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y = 12 y = −6 6 x − 5 y − 20 = 0 6 x − 20 = 5 y 5 y = 6 x − 20 6 20 y = x− 5 5 6 y = x−4 5 b. a. b = –3 c. 67. 4 y + 28 = 0 4 y = −28 y = −7 b. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 64. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b = −4 5 c. a. b = −7 c. 167 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m = 2. a. . 3y − 9 = 0 3y = 9 y=3 b. b = 3 c. b.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Find the x-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 71. . Inc. Find the x-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 6 x − 9(0) − 18 = 0 6 x − 18 = 0 6 x = 18 x=3 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 6(0) − 9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y = 18 y = −2 3x + 5(0) + 15 = 0 3x + 15 = 0 3x = −15 x = −5 Find the y-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 3(0) + 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y = −15 y = −3 69.Functions and Graphs 68. Find the x-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8 x − 2(0) + 12 = 0 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x + 3(0) + 6 = 0 2x + 6 = 0 2 x = −6 x = −3 Find the y-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 2(0) + 3 y + 6 = 0 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −6 y = −2 8 x = −12 8 x −12 = 8 8 −3 x= 2 Find the y-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8(0) − 2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y = −12 y = −6 168 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 70.

− 1 −4 − y = 3 4+2 1 −4 − y = 3 6 6 = 3 ( −4 − y ) a is b negative. (b + c ) − b 81. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 77. m= 6 = −12 − 3 y 18 = −3 y −6 = y −b − 0 −b b = =− a 0 − ( −a ) a Since a and b are both positive. the line falls. Therefore. 74. Therefore. m= 3x − 4 f ( x ) = 6 −4 f ( x ) = −3 x + 6 c 0 a−a The slope is undefined. m= −3 = = f ( x) = 3 3 x− 4 2 (a + c) − c a = a − (a − b) b Since a and b are both positive. Ax + By = C By = − Ax + C A C y = − x+ B B A C The slope is − and the y − intercept is . B B 79. .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. the line falls. 4− y 1− 3 4− y −3 = −2 6 = 4− y 2 = −y −2 = y 80. B B 78.4 72. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a is positive. m= 0 − a −a a = =− b−0 b b Since a and b are both positive. −4 − y 1 = 3 4 − ( −2 ) 6 x − 3(0) + 15 = 0 6 x + 15 = 0 6 x = −15 6 x −15 = 6 6 5 x=− 2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 6(0) − 3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y = −15 y=5 73. Ax = By − C Ax + C = By A C x+ = y B B A C The slope is and the y − intercept is . the line rises. 169 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b Therefore. Inc. 76. The line is vertical. 75. − b is a negative.

m3 .7 − 45.45 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American males. 6 x − 5 f ( x ) = 20 88.45% in 2015. find the slope using ( 20.3 = 54.38.215 x − 4.6.3 c. a. m1 .8 y = 0. Using the slope-intercept form for the equation of a line: −1 = −2 ( 3) + b y = 0.78(40) + 23.65 ( x − 10 ) a.1 = 0.78 ( x − 10 ) or y − 70.3 − 70. 3 ( 2) + b 2 −6 = −3 + b −6 = − 85.78 ( x − 20 ) b. . First. f ( 35 ) = 0. f ( x ) = 0.215 x + 65. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 6 x−4 5 m= y − 45.7 y − 31. m4 86.7 = 0. to be 54.0 = 0. b3 87.7 ) and 51.215 Change in x 40 − 20 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= E ( x) = 0.7 = 78.31.5 83.1 7.3 y − 31.2 = 0.5 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American females.215(60) + 65. b2 .65 ( x − 20 ) b. ages 25 – 29. b1 .2 = 0.1 = 0.9 = 0.3 c.215 x + 65. 38.51. a.5% in 2020. ages 25 – 29. find the slope using ( 20.0 = = 0.78 x + 23.9 − 31. 170 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 45.8 = = 0.0 = 0.65 x − 6. to be 61. −3 = b 89.1) .7 −1 = −6 + b 5=b 84. c. b4 .2 ) . −5 f ( x ) = −6 x + 20 f ( x) = First.1 = 0.65 x + 38.78 x + 23. Change in y 74.65 ( x − 10 ) or y − 51.6 The life expectancy of American men born in 2020 is expected to be 78.7 E (60) = 0. Inc.215 x + 65. m2 . y − 31.78 ( x − 10 ) y = 0.65 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) m= b.215( x − 20) y − 38. (10.7 f ( x ) = 0. f ( 40 ) = 0.7 = 61.2 6.78 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form. y − 45. y − 45.5 = = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 ) and (10.78 x − 7.2 = 0.65 x + 38.7 E ( x) = 0.Functions and Graphs 82.65(35) + 38. y − 70.

a. a.5 − (−2) 7.96876741 b = 260. – 99. 10 − 0 10 c. (10.5 3 m= = = 0. 171 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 1. 230) (60.8428126855 d.7 − 74. –2) and (10. 10 − 0 10 Check: y = mx + b : y = −3x + 6 .7 = ≈ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2.4( x − 10) y − 230 = −2. 5.PreCalculus 4E 90. 10 − 0 10 4 3 Check: y = mx + b : y = x − 2 . 100.17 x + 73 E (60) = 0. 91.4 x + 254 Answers may vary for predictions. b.–10). 110) Points may vary.17 x + 73 E ( x) = 0. 102.4 60 − 10 50 y − 230 = −2.2 The life expectancy of American women born in 2020 is expected to be 83. −24 − 6 −30 m= = = −3. 4 E ( x) = 0.4 x + 24 y = −2.7 = 0.7 = 0. 6) and (10.5633751 r = −0. 92.–5) and (10. Enter data from table. Inc. Two points are (0.17 x + 73 c.5). 103.4 101. Two points are (0.17(60) + 73 = 83. 110 − 230 120 m= =− = −2. −10 − (−5) −5 1 m= = =− . –24). Two points are (0.4) and (10. a = −22.17( x − 10) y − 74.17 x − 1. 104. 10 − 0 10 2 Change in y 79.24).75 or . . b. 24 − 4 20 m= = = 2.7 y = 0.17 Change in x 40 − 10 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 74. Answers may vary. Two points are (0. 5.

Since the slope is the same as the slope of y = 2 x + 1. 113. false. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − ( −3 ) ) y − 1 = 2 ( x + 3) y − 0 = 2 ( x − ( −2 ) ) y − 1 = 2x + 6 y = 2 ( x + 2) y = 2x + 7 y = 2x + 4 −2 x + y = 4 Find the x– and y–coefficients for the equation of the line with right-hand-side equal to 12. A sample change is: The graph of x = 7 is a vertical line through the point (7. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) Using the slope and one of the intercepts. E) where M is degrees Madonna and E is degrees Elvis. 115. One such way is to rewrite the equation in slope-intercept form. x − 2 y = 12 Therefore. 1 x − 6. 108. Explanations will vary.4 (M – 25) or E = 2. We are given that the x − intercept is −2 and the y − intercept is 4 . Answers may vary.4 M – 20. 117. 0). Using ( x1 . Let (25. slope is 106. 40) and (125. 2 We can put this equation in the form ax + by = c to find the missing coefficients. Explanations will vary. we can write the line in point-slope form. the coefficient of x is 1 and the coefficient of y is −2. Changes to make the statement true will vary. this function has a positive slope. We are given that the y − intercept is − 6 and the 105. y1 ) = ( 25. 0 ) and ( 0. 40 ) . We can use the points ( −2. 4−0 4 4 = = =2 0 − ( −2 ) 0 + 2 2 118. Equations of this form have undefined slope and cannot be written in slope-intercept form. makes sense 109. false. does not make sense. 2 to find the slope. Vertical lines have equations of the form x = a . 4 ) m= 1 . Sample explanation: Since college cost are going up. the coefficient of x is –6 and the coefficient of y is 3. Multiply both sides of −2 x + y = 4 by 3 to obtain 12 on the righthand-side. does not make sense. 1 y = x−6 2 1 y − x = −6 2 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ y − x ⎟ = 2 ( −6 ) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 y − x = −12 So the equation of the line is y = 107. −2 x + y = 4 1 119. 280) be ordered pairs (M. 116. Answers may vary. then m = 2. 110. Explanations will vary. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: Slope-intercept form is y = mx + b .4 . does not make sense. Inc. false.Functions and Graphs 114. true 112. Then 280 − 40 240 m= = = 2. 111. Sample explanation: The slope of line’s whose equations are in this form can be determined in several ways. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 4 ( x − 3) y + 5 = 4 x − 12 −4 x + y + 17 = 0 3 ( −2 x + y ) = 3 ( 4 ) −6 x + 3 y = 12 Therefore. 4 then m = 4. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: It is possible for m to equal b. Since the slope is the negative reciprocal of − . 125 − 25 100 point-slope form tells us that E – 40 = 2. 4 x − y − 17 = 0 172 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: Linear functions never change from increasing to decreasing.

PreCalculus 4E 120. –6) to write the equation.01)2 = 4. . We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. 5.7 − 9. The slope of the line y = 3 x + 1 is 3.5 Check Point Exercises 1.04 feet per second Δt 1.05 − 0. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (2) = 4(2)2 = 16 Change in y 12.S. the equation of the line is f ( x ) = 2 x − 6. The slope of this line is − b. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 13 − 03 = =1 x2 − x1 1− 0 b. m= y − 2 = 2x − 8 y = 2x − 6 In function notation. men living alone is projected to increase by 0.5 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (1) = 4 −1 x2 − x1 4. 42 − 12 4 −1 15 = 3 =5 a. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 23 − 13 8 − 1 = = =7 x2 − x1 2 −1 1 c.5) = 4(1.25 million each year. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ) . y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) 3x − y = 0 general form 3. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 03 − (−2)3 8 = = =4 x2 − x1 0 − (−2) 2 = Section 1. 173 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Write the equation in slope-intercept form: x + 3 y − 12 = 0 3 y = − x + 12 1 y = − x+4 3 s (1.0804 Δs 4. Inc. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 y = 3x + 11 slope-intercept 2. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y + 6 = 3( x + 2) y + 6 = 3x + 6 −3 x + y = 0 y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (3) − f (1) 0. We are given that it passes through ( 4. Section 1. a. y − (−6) = 3 ( x − (−2) ) Since L is parallel to y = 2 x.7 = = ≈ 0. Use m = 3 and the point (–2.01 − 1 1 thus the slope of 3 any line perpendicular to this line is 3.0 3. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Exercise Set 1.0804 − 4 = = 8.5 1. a.25 Change in x 2005 − 1990 15 The slope indicates that the number of U.5 − 1 c.01 x2 − x1 3 −1 3 −1 6.01) = 4(1. we know it will have slope m = 2. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Δs 16 − 4 = = 12 feet per second Δt 2 −1 y − 5 = 3 ( x − (−2) ) y − 5 = 3( x + 2) point-slope y − 5 = 3x + 6 b.5)2 = 9 Δs 9 − 4 = = 10 feet per second Δt 1.03 = = = 0.

1 y − 4 = − ( x − 2) 2 1 y − 4 = − x +1 2 1 y = − x+5 2 In function notation. The line passes through (– 2 1. x1 = −2. L will have slope m = −2 . We are given that it passes 2 through (2. the equation of the line is 1 f ( x ) = − x + 5. we have y − 4 = −2 ( x − 3) . 4). 1 y − 2 = ( x − ( −1) ) 2 1 y − 2 = ( x + 1) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. 2 ( x + 2) 3 general form: 2 x − 3 y + 10 = 0 point-slope form: y − 2 = 10. y1 = −10. m = –5 since the line is parallel to y = −5 x + 4 . Inc. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. x1 = −8.Functions and Graphs 2. so m = since the 2 2 lines are parallel. point-slope form: y + 7 = –5(x + 2) slope-intercept form: y + 7 = −5 x − 10 y = −5 x − 17 7. 4. y − 4 = −2 x + 6 y = −2 x + 10 f ( x ) = −2 x + 10 3. so m = since the 3 3 lines are parallel. point-slope form: y − 2 = −3( x + 4) slope-intercept form: y − 2 = −3x − 12 y = −3x − 10 9. m = –5 since the line is perpendicular to 1 y = x + 6. 5 point-slope form: y + 3 = –5(x – 2) slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −5 x + 10 y = −5 x + 7 8. 3x − 2 y − = 0 −2 y = −3x + 5 3 5 y = x− 2 2 The slope of the given line is 3 3 . Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. 3 ( x + 1) 2 general form: 3 x − 2 y + 9 = 0 point-slope form: y − 3 = 174 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . y1 = −3. m = –4 since the line is parallel to y = −4 x + 3. y1 = −7 . 2). 2 y−4 = − x1 = −4. 5. y1 = 2 . m = −3 since the line is perpendicular to y = Since L is perpendicular to y = 2 x. x1 = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. point-slope form: y + 10 = –4(x + 8) slope-intercept form: y + 10 = –4x – 32 y = –4x – 42 6. Using the point and the slope. 3 1 L will have slope m = . y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − 2) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. 1 x+7. we know it will 1 have slope m = − . 1 1 y−2 = x+ 2 2 1 1 y = x+ +2 2 2 1 5 y = x+ 2 2 1 5 f ( x) = x + 2 2 2x − 3y − 7 = 0 −3 y = −2 x + 7 2 7 y = x− 3 3 The slope of the given line is 2 2 . Use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form.

24 − 0 24 = =6 4−0 4 15.001) = 12(3. Section 1.01)2 = 108. a.01 − 3 Δt 2 17.5 ) .01) = 10(3. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3. 16. 15 − 0 15 = =3 5−0 5 14.5) = 12(3.01) = 12(3.001) = 10(3. The graph of f passes through ( −1.5)2 = 122. point-slope form: y + 9 = 7(x – 5) general form: 7 x − y − 44 = 0 13. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3. 20. a. The slope of the given line is Δs 122.5)2 = 147 Δs 147 − 108 = = 78 feet per second 3.07201 − 108 = = 72. 6 − 2 ( 6 ) − (3 − 2 ⋅ 3) 36 − 12 − ( 9 − 6 ) 21 = = =7 6−3 3 3 9 − 4 3−2 1 = = 9−4 5 5 18.5) = 10(3. c. The graph of f passes through ( −2. f is f ( x ) = 6.01 feet per second 3.07201 Δs 108. 22. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 general form: 2 x + y − 1 = 0 12. 16 − 9 4 − 3 1 = = 16 − 9 7 7 19. Since the line is perpendicular to x = −4 which is a vertical line.001 − 3 Δt 1 The slope of the given line is − .01)2 = 90. we know the graph of f is a horizontal line with 0 slope.06 Δs 90. Since the line is perpendicular to x = 6 which is a vertical line. x + 7 y − 12 = 0 7 y = − x + 12 −1 12 y= x+ 7 7 s (3.001)2 = 90. 6 ) .PreCalculus 4E 11.1 feet per second 3. so m = 7 since the 7 lines are perpendicular. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 x − 2y − 3 = 0 −2 y = − x + 3 1 3 y = x− 2 2 b.7212 Δs 108.5 d. so the equation of Δs 160 − 90 = = 70 feet per second 4−3 Δt f is f ( x ) = 5. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (4) = 12(4)2 = 192 Δs 108 − 192 = = 84 feet per second 4−3 Δt b.7212 − 108 = = 72. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.001)2 = 108.001 − 3 Δt 21. we know the graph of f is a horizontal s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (4) = 10(4)2 = 160 line with 0 slope. so the equation of 175 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.01 − 3 Δt d.01 feet per second 3. .06 − 90 = = 60.5 − 2 Δt 52 + 2 ⋅ 5 − (32 + 2 ⋅ 3) 25 + 10 − (9 + 6) = 5−3 2 20 = 2 = 10 2 s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3.12 feet per second 3.5 − 3 1 . so m = –2 since the 2 lines are perpendicular. Inc. y + 7 = –2 ( x − 4 ) point-slope form: c.601 Δs 90.601 − 90 = = 60. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.5 − 90 = = 65 feet per second Δt 3.

First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 3 and y − intercept of −9. 2 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −6 ) ) 2 1 y − 4 = − ( x + 6) 2 1 y −4 = − x−3 2 1 y = − x +1 2 1 f ( x) = − x +1 2 y−4 = − 24. 3 Use the point ( −5. 4 ) and the slope − to find the equation of the line. 0 ) and ( 0. −4 ) . First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 2 and y − intercept of −4. . Inc. This line will pass through ( 3. This line will pass through ( 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. m= −4 − 0 −4 = =2 0 − 2 −2 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. 6 ) and the slope − 1 to find the equation of the line. 0 ) and ( 0. m= −9 − 0 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. We use these points to find the slope. −9 ) . it will have slope m = − . We use these points to find the slope. 2 1 Use the point ( −6. 3 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −5) ) 3 1 y − 6 = − ( x + 5) 3 1 5 y−6 = − x− 3 3 1 13 y =− x+ 3 3 1 13 f ( x) = − x + 3 3 y−6 = − 176 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 23. it will have slope m = − .

1163 − 617 546 = ≈ 137 1998 − 1994 4 There was an average increase of approximately 137 discharges per year. 31.8 − 1067. Inc. 30. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 177 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4x − y − 6 = 0 − y = −4 x + 6 y = 4x − 6 1 The equation of f will have slope − since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 4 y − intercept −6. 1 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 6. 3 26.1(4)3 − 35(4)2 + 264(4) + 557 = 1123.2 x + 47 28. 2 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 2.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. 4 27. This overestimates by 5 discharges per year. First put the equation 3 x − 2 y − 4 = 0 in slope-intercept form. 32.5 25. P( x) = 1.3 x + 23 29.4 1123.1(7)3 − 35(7) 2 + 264(7) + 557 = 1067. f ( x) = 1.3 m= ≈ −96 12 − 7 b.8 585.1(12)3 − 35(12) 2 + 264(12) + 557 = 585.4 − 557 m= ≈ 142 4−0 b.3 f (12) = 1. a. This underestimates the decrease by 36 discharges per year. P( x) = −1. f ( x) = 1.1(0)3 − 35(0)2 + 264(0) + 557 = 557 f (4) = 1. m= 612 − 1273 −661 = ≈ −132 2006 − 2001 5 There was an average decrease of approximately 132 discharges per year.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 3x − 2 y − 4 = 0 −2 y = −3 x + 4 y= 3 x−2 2 The equation of f will have slope − 2 since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 3 y − intercept −2.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. First put the equation 4 x − y − 6 = 0 in slope-intercept form. m= a. .

The zoom square feature compensates for this and in part (c). The lines are perpendicular because their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. the lines appear to be perpendicular. Publishing as Prentice Hall. makes sense 41. c. This is verified because product of their slopes is –1. The lines do not appear to be perpendicular. Answers may vary. This causes the scale of the x–axis to differ from the scale on the y–axis despite using the same scale in the window settings. b. B The slope of any line perpendicular to Ax + By + C = 0 is B . The lines appear to be perpendicular. this causes the lines not to appear perpendicular when indeed they are. A 178 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 40. In part (b). makes sense 44. Inc. Ax + By + C = 0 By = − Ax − C By − Ax C = − B B B A C y = − x− B B The slope of the given line is − A . 43. Explanations will vary. 1 x +1 3 y = −3x − 2 y= a. 39. makes sense 42.Functions and Graphs 33. – 38. Write Ax + By + C = 0 in slope-intercept form. does not make sense. Sample explanation: Slopes can be used for segments of the graph. The calculator screen is rectangular and does not have the same width and height.

The domain is {0. 4 ) b. The range is {−6. The range is { y | 0 ≤ y ≤ 3}. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted down 4 units. 47.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 45. The domain is {1. b. 6}. 2. The relation is not a function. Therefore. 2. 2}. 7 7 7 has slope m = 46. c. − A = so A = − . The slope of the line containing (1. The range is { y | −1 ≤ y ≤ 2}. The range is {1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The domain is {x | −3 < x ≤ 4}. c. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted to the right 2 units. c. The relation is a function. 4}. Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 1.3}. b. a. The relation is a function. This line is perpendicular to the line above so its 3 3 3 slope is . 4. −3) and ( −2. The domain is {x | −2 ≤ x < 2}. 48. Ax + y − 2 = 0 y = − Ax + 2 So the slope of this line is − A. The relation is not a function. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) reflected across the y-axis. a. 3. 179 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4. Inc. . 4 − ( −3 ) 4+3 7 7 = = =− −2 − 1 −3 −3 3 Solve Ax + y − 2 = 0 for y to obtain slope-intercept form. a.

26. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .Functions and Graphs 5. 27. –2) 15. Each value of x corresponds to exactly one value of y. The relation is a function.1. Range: ( −∞. x = −2 17. y-intercept: 3 14. then y = ± 5 − 4 = ±1 ). f (−2) = 4 18. the equation does not define y as a function of x. 10. neither. ( −∞. 16. Inc. there is one and only one value for y. 30. 2}. 23. 0. 4] 12. f (−7) = −2 and f (3) = −2 20.1. x + y2 = 5 y2 = 5 − x y = ± 5− x Since there are values of x that give more than one value for y (for example. f (−4) = 3 19. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x 180 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Domain: 11. y = − x2 + 5 For each value of x. so the equation defines y as a function of x. 2 ) 22. The domain is {x | x ≤ 1}. −1. increasing: (–∞. ∞ ) 28. 9. The range is {−2. f (−6) = 0 and f (2) = 0 21. The relation is not a function. x-intercepts: –6 and 2 13. −1. 8. if x = 4. x2 + y = 5 24. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (−4) −5 − 3 = = = −1 4 − (−4) 4+4 x2 − x1 25. The domain is {−2.3}. ∞) 29. ( −6. f (100) is negative. 6. 7. decreasing: (–2. The range is { y | y ≥ −1}.

33. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . f (− x) = −2(− x) 2 − x − 5 = −2 x 2 − x − 5 neither.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 35. 34. 31. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x b. Inc. 5 y = −3 x 3 y=− x 5 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) − 5 − (−2 x 2 + x − 5) = h 2 2 −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h − 5 + 2 x 2 − x + 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 181 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. 36. 5 y = 20 y=4 32. 37.

so m = − . and the lines are 5 5 perpendicular.16% per minute of brisk walking. C (150) = 30 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 2 +1 . For each minute of brisk walking. 3x − y − 5 = 0 − y = −3 x + 5 m2 = y = 3x − 5 The slope of the given line is 3. if ⎧30 C ( x) = ⎨ ⎩30 + 0. Change in y 42 − 26 16 = = = 0. 39. and the lines are parallel. 2 . so m = 3.16 Change in x 180 − 80 100 a. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = −2 x + 10 43. m= b. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44. t > 200 a. The rate of change is 0.40(t − 200) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 200 42. y − (−4) = 3( x − 3) y + 4 = 3x − 9 y = 3 x − 13 f ( x) = 3 x − 13 45. 2 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 3 = −2( x + 4) y − 3 = −2 x − 8 y = −2 x − 5 f ( x ) = −2 x − 5 40. C (250) = 30 + 0.40(250 − 200) = 50 −5 y −2 x 10 = + −5 −5 −5 2 y = x−2 5 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) The slope of the given line is y − 3 = −2 ( x − (−4) ) m= 5 ( x − (−4) ) 2 5 y + 3 = − x − 10 2 5 y = − x − 13 2 5 f ( x) = − x − 13 2 y − (−3) = − Change in y 1 − (−5) 6 = = =2 Change in x 2 − (−1) 3 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − 2) y − 1 = 2x − 4 y = 2x − 3 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 41. m1 = Change in y 0 − (−4) 4 = = Change in x 7−2 5 Change in y 6−2 4 = = Change in x 1 − (−4) 5 The slope of the lines are equal thus the lines are parallel.16%. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (2) − f (−1) = x2 − x1 2 − (−1) = ( 3(2) 2 − 2 ) − ( 3(−1) 2 − (−1) ) =2 182 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 38. the percentage of patients with depression in remission increased by 0.

The graph of y = f ( x ) is shifted 1 unit left. 183 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6. reflected about the x-axis. Reflect about the x-axis. 3. Shift to the right 4 units. Reflect about the y-axis. 8. Vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x . b. shrunk 1 . Horizontally stretch the graph of y = f ( x ) . a. then 3 shifted down 2 units. Inc. 2. . by a factor of 5.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Shift up vertically 3 units.6 Section 1. Horizontally shrink the graph of y = f ( x ) . 7.6 Check Point Exercises 1. Shift to the right 1 unit and down 2 units. 4.

184 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9. 2. 7. 3.6 1. then shifted up 3 units. 5. The graph of f ( x) = x 2 is shifted 1 unit right. Exercise Set 1. 6.Functions and Graphs 9. . 8. stretched by a factor of 2. Inc.

12. 19. 18. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 17. 11. 14. 13. 15. 185 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.6 10. 16.

Functions and Graphs 20. 22. 25. 21. 27. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 24. 29. 26. . Inc. 28. 23. 30. 186 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 33. Inc. 38. 34. 187 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 39. 35.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 36.6 31. . 32. 37. 40.

45. 48. 44.Functions and Graphs 41. 43. 50. 46. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 47. 42. 49. . Inc. 188 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

56. 60. Inc. 59.6 51. 189 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 57. 53.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 52. 55. 61. 62. 54. 58. .

. 190 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 72. 69.Functions and Graphs 63. 74. 66. 67. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 68. 73. Inc. 65. 71. 64. 70.

79. .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 84. 80. 86.6 81. 78. 83. 191 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 85. 76. 75. Inc. 82. 77. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Inc. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 192 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 98. 89. 95.Functions and Graphs 93. 91. 90. 87. 88. 97. 92. 96. 94.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 107. 105.6 99.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. . 109. 100. 106. 104. 193 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 101. 110. 108. 102. Inc. 103.

120. 123. 115. y = x − 2 124. y = x − 2 + 1 194 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 114. 122. 112. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . y = − x 3 + 2 117. 121. 119.Functions and Graphs 111. 118. 113. Inc. 125. 116. y = ( x + 1) 2 − 4 126.

The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference. .9 inches per month = f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9.1 48 + 19 ≈ 40. c. f ( x) = 3. then shift the result up 19 units. 10 + 20. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 3.9 0 + 20. b.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c).27 − 20.9 50 + 20.1 ) ( 60 + 19 − 3. a.1 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 10 − 0 28. ( 3. then shift the result up 20. Answers may vary.1 = 10 ≈ 0. 128. 60 − 50 42. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c). c.1.1 ≈ 40.1 x + 19 f (48) = 3. b.1 − 2. ) 60 + 20.9203 = 10 ≈ 0.9 0. 195 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8031 − 19 = 10 ≈ 1. First. 0 + 19 ) f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 3.9 ) ( = b.1 10 + 19) − ( 3.1 10 − 0 29.1 − 2.9 48 + 20. – 134.1 50 + 19 ) 60 − 50 43.5633 − 40.6061 = 10 ≈ 0.1 129.9 x + 20. a.0 1. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 2. = = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 ( 2.PreCalculus 4E 127.0125 − 40. = f ( x) = 2. Inc. Section 1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 135.9 ) ( ) d.0 inches per month f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = d.6 First.2 The model describes the actual data very well.1 f (48) = 2.1 units. a.5 The model describes the actual data very well.

Since h( x) = 9 x − 27 contains an even root. b. 144. The domain of f is the set of all real numbers or ( −∞. c. while the graph a. (–a. 2b) 151. 155. g ( x) = − x − 2 + 2 2. ∞ ) . . makes sense = 9 x 2 − 30 x + 30 139. A sample change is: The graph of f is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the x-axis. (a. false. a. a. A sample change is: The graph of g is a translation of f three units to the left and three units upward. Explanations will vary. b) 136. A sample change is: The stretch will be 5 units and the downward shift will be 10 units. b) 152. 9 x − 27 ≥ 0 9 x ≥ 27 x≥3 Thus. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. These values must be excluded from the domain. 143.Functions and Graphs 149. (a + 3. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. g ( x) = – x – 5 + 1 interval [3. the domain of h is {x x ≥ 3} . (a. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 5 + ( x 2 − 1) 1 148. ( f ( x) ) 2 − 2 f ( x ) + 6 = ( 3x − 4 ) − 2(3 x − 4) + 6 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 − 6 x + 8 + 6 137. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. ∞ ) . The function f ( x) = x 2 + 3x − 17 contains neither division nor an even root. Inc. does not make sense. 150. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t + 1). b – 3) 153. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 24 x − 6 x + 16 + 8 + 6 138. does not make sense. 2x 2x = 3x − x 3− x x Check Point Exercises 142. false. or the of g is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the yaxis. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. 2 = 3 −1 x 140. 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. false. The denominator equals zero when x = 7 or x = –7. 147. g ( x) = −( x + 4)2 146. the quantity under the radical must be greater than or equal to 0. Section 1. ∞ ) . g ( x) = − 16 – x 2 − 1 4 = x − 5 + x2 − 1 = − x2 + x − 6 196 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true 145.7 141. = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − x 2 − x + 2 = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x 2 − 4 x − x + 2 = 2 x3 + x 2 − 5 x + 2 154. (2 x − 1)( x 2 + x − 2) = 2 x( x 2 + x − 2) − 1( x 2 + x − 2) b. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t − 1). domain of g = ( −∞.

( fg )( x ) = ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 − 1) = x ( x 2 − 1) − 5 ( x 2 − 1) 6. ∞) domain of g: x +1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −1 [−1.3) ∪ ( 3. domain of f: (f ( g ) ( x) = f ( g ( x ) ) ) = 5 2 x2 − x − 1 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x − 5 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 b.10 ) ∪ (10. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 3 + x +1 b. domain: ( −∞. 5 ) ∪ ( 5. The domain = ( −∞. 5. The domain = ( −∞. This value must be excluded from the domain. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 [3. ∞ ) g ) (−1) = 10(−1) 2 − 5(−1) + 1 = 10 + 5 + 1 = 16 197 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Exercise Set 1. ∞ ) 3. ∞ ) 7. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . The domain = ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. Inc. (g f ) ( x) = g ( f ( x) ) = 2 (5 x + 6 ) − ( 5x + 6 ) − 1 2 = 2(25 x 2 + 60 x + 36) − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 120 x + 72 − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 115 x + 65 c. . ∞ ) 8. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. The function contains neither division nor an even root. x ≠ ±1 = 2 x −1 4. 1. 4.7 ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = ( x) g g ⎝ ⎠ x −5 . ∞). The denominator equals zero when x = −5. domain: ( −∞. The function contains neither division nor an even root. This value must be excluded from the domain. x ≠ − ⎬ 2⎭ ⎩ = x − 5 − x2 + 1 = − x2 + x − 4 c. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain.7 ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5. 3. Section 1. −3) ∪ ( −3. domain: ( −∞. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. ∞ ) 9.PreCalculus 4E b. g ( x) = x 2 + 5 = x3 − x − 5 x 2 + 5 = x3 − 5 x 2 − x + 5 d. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. domain: ( −∞. (f (f g ) ( x) = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 10. The denominator equals zero when x = 4. a. ∞ ) 2. ∞ ) 6. The function contains neither division nor an even root. ∞) The domain of f + g is the set of all real numbers that are common to the domain of f and the domain of g. = x − 5 − ( x − 1) g )( x) = (f b. The function contains neither division nor an even root. the domain of f + g is [3. 1⎫ ⎧ domain: ⎨ x x ≠ 0. domain: ( −∞. 2 h ( x ) = f g where f ( x) = x . −8) ∪ ( −8. Thus. The domain = ( −∞. a. −7 ) ∪ ( −7.9 ) ∪ ( 9. 4 4x = 1 1 + 2x +2 x a.

x 4 −1 = 0 x ⎛4 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 4−x = 0 4 −3 = 0 x−2 4 ⎞ − 3 ⎟ = ( x − 2 )( 0 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎛⎜ − x 2 ⎝ ⎠ 4 − 3( x − 2) = 0 4 − 3x + 6 = 0 −3 x + 10 = 0 −3x = −10 − x = −4 10 3 ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 4 −2 = 0 x −1 4 ⎞ − 2 ⎟ = ( x − 1)( 0 ) ( x − 1) ⎛⎜ ⎝ x −1 ⎠ 13. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) 198 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The expression under the radical must not be negative. ∞ ) 16. Exclude x for x − 2 = 0 . ∞ ) x=2 4 −3 = 0. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. Exclude x for x = 0 . 4 ) ∪ ( 4. x 3 −1 = 0 x ⎛3 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 3− x = 0 4 − 2 ( x − 1) = 0 4 − 2x + 2 = 0 −2 x + 6 = 0 −2 x = −6 x=3 domain: ( −∞. 2 ) ∪ ⎜ 2.3) ∪ ( 3.3) ∪ ( 3. Exclude x for x − 1 = 0 . ∞ ) x= 17. x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 domain: [ −2. ∞ ) 18. ⎟ ∪ ⎜ . 4 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . x−2 Exclude x for 14. domain: ( −∞. The first denominator cannot equal zero. The expression under the radical must not be negative. Exclude x for x = 0 . −1) ∪ ( −1. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ x=4 domain: ( −∞. x −1 Exclude x for 12. 3 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x −1 = 0 11. The first denominator cannot equal zero. The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. domain: ( −∞. The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. ∞ ) x =1 4 −2= 0.Functions and Graphs 15.1) ∪ (1. . Inc.1) ∪ (1. x−2 = 0 − x = −3 x=3 domain: ( −∞.

2. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 84 − 6 x ≥ 0 = x2 ( x − 2) − 9 ( x − 2) ( = ( x − 2) x2 − 9 −6 x ≥ −84 ) = ( x − 2)( x + 3)( x − 3) –3. −3) ∪ ( −3. 5 x + 35 ≥ 0 domain: [ 2. 2. x ≥ 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) = x 2 ( x − 5) − 4 ( x − 5 ) 23. 5 x ≥ −35 28. The expression under the radical must not be negative.14] 25. 7 x ≥ 70 29. ∞ ) . Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. The expression under the radical must be positive. x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x ≥ 10 domain: [10. The expression under the radical must not be negative.5) ∪ ( 5. The expression under the radical must not be negative.12] 30. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. x ≥ 2 . ∞ ) x≥2 The denominator equals zero when x = 5. ∞ ) . 7 x − 70 ≥ 0 domain: [3. ∞ ) x≥3 The denominator equals zero when x = 6. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 9 x + 18 24. The expression under the radical must be positive. and 5 must be excluded. The expression under the radical must not be negative. x−2 ≥ 0 x > −2 domain: ( −2. domain: [3. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. domain: ( −∞. 6 ) ∪ ( 6.7 19.3) ∪ ( 3. x+2>0 27. ∞ ) x>3 domain: ( 3. 2 ) ∪ ( 2.5 ) ∪ ( 5. x −3≥ 0 x ≥ −7 domain: [ −7. domain: [ 2. 24 − 2 x ≥ 0 ( = ( x − 5) x 2 − 4 ) = ( x − 5)( x + 2)( x − 2) –2. ∞ ) −2 x ≥ −24 −2 x −24 ≤ −2 −2 x ≤ 12 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 20. x−2 ≥ 0 x+3≥ 0 and x≥2 x ≥ −3 To make both inequalities true. The expression under the radical must not be negative. x −3 > 0 26. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. ∞ ) −6 x −84 ≤ −6 −6 x ≤ 14 domain: ( −∞. 22. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. and 3 must be excluded. 21. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. x −3≥ 0 x+4≥0 and x≥3 x ≥ −4 To make both inequalities true. . Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 199 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

−5) ∪ ( −5. Inc. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (2 x 2 – x – 3)( x + 1) = − x 4 − 2 x 3 + 18 x 2 + 6 x − 45 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 200 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1) ∪ (1. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. . ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 6 x2 − x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 3x 2 + x − 5 37. ∞ ) 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x – 6)(5 x 2 ) = 5 x 3 – 30 x 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3 − x2 = ( x ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 2 x − 15 ⎝g⎠ ( f + g )( x) = 5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞. domain: (−∞. ∞) ( f + g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = 2 x − 12 domain: (–∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0.3) ∪ ( 3. (f + g)(x) = 4x – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = –5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞. (2 x – 3)( x + 1) = 2x – 3 ( x + 1) domain: ( −∞. ∞) 35. ∞) = ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) 2 x + 3 = ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g ( x) x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (6 x 2 − x − 1)( x − 1) = 6 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 1 domain: (–∞. = 2 x3 + x 2 – 4 x – 3 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x+2 ⎝g⎠ 33. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x − 5)(3 x 2 ) = 3x 3 − 15 x 2 domain: (−∞. −1) ∪ ( −1. domain: ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 31. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 2 x2 – x – 3 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x +1 ⎝g⎠ ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = (2 x + 3) ⋅ ( x − 1) = 2x2 + x − 3 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) 32. ∞ ) 34. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = −2 x 2 − 2 x + 18 domain: (–∞. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 4) – (x + 2) = 2x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x−6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5x2 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) (fg)(x) = (3x – 4)(x + 2) = 3x2 + 2x – 8 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f – g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 x – 4 domain: (–∞. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = 6 x 2 − 2 x domain: (–∞. ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = (2x + 3) – (x – 1) =x+4 domain: (−∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (3 − x 2 )( x 2 + 2 x − 15) ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 3x2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞.1) ∪ (1. (f + g)(x) = 3x + 2 domain: (−∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = −3 x 2 + x − 5 domain: (−∞.

∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 5 domain: [0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) = − x 4 − 4 x3 + 17 x 2 + 20 x − 60 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x−4 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. . ∞ ) 6 − 1x ⎛ ⎛ f ⎞ 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 1 = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ x = 6 x − 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 5 − x2 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 4 x − 12 ⎝g⎠ 2 + 1x ⎛ ⎛f ⎞ 1⎞ ( ) x = = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ x = 2x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. Section 1. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 38.7 ( f + g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) = 4x − 7 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 5) domain: [0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 1 1 − =2 x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 1 1 + =6 x x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 4 ) ∪ ( 4.5) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 2 + 1 ⎞ 1 6 1 6x −1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ = − 2 = 2 x⎠ x x x x ⎝ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 5 domain: [0. ∞ ) 39. −6 ) ∪ ( −6. ∞ ) 42. 1 1 2 2x + 2 + = 2+ = x x x x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 4 domain: [0. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (5 − x 2 )( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 1 ⎞ 1 2 1 2x + 1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ = + 2 = x⎠ x x x x2 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −5 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 4 domain: [0. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 − 1 1 2 6x − 2 − = 6− = x x x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 40. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 2 + = −2 x 2 − 4 x + 17 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 41. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 6 – ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 4) domain: [0. ∞ ) 201 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

3.3) ∪ ( 3. 5. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 3x + 1 2 x − 4 = 2 − x − 25 x 2 − 25 x+5 = 2 x − 25 1 = x −5 domain: ( −∞. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞ ) 4x = 2 1 2 domain: ( −∞. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2 ⎛f ⎞ x − 25 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2 x − 4 g ⎝ ⎠ x 2 − 25 3x + 1 x 2 − 25 = 2 ⋅ x − 25 2 x − 4 3x + 1 = 2x − 4 The domain must exclude –5. and any values that make 2 x − 4 = 0. and any values that make 4 x − 2 = 0. 4x − 2 = 0 2x = 4 x=2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. −3) ∪ ( −3.5 ) ∪ ( 5. 2x − 4 = 0 5x + 1 ⎛f ⎞ x2 − 9 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 4 x − 2 ⎝g⎠ x2 − 9 5x + 1 x 2 − 9 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 4x − 2 5x + 1 = 4x − 2 The domain must exclude –3. .5 ) ∪ ( 5. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 + x2 − 9 x2 − 9 9x −1 = 2 x −9 domain: ( −∞. ( f + g )( x) = x + 4 + x − 1 domain: [1. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 4 − x − 1 domain: [1.5 ) ∪ ( 5. −3) ∪ ( −3. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) 202 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 44.3) ∪ ( 3.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −1 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (1.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5x + 1 4 x − 2 = 2 − x − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = 2 x −9 1 = x −3 domain: ( −∞. −3) ∪ ( −3. ∞) ( fg )( x) = x + 4 ⋅ x − 1 = x 2 + 3 x − 4 domain: [1.Functions and Graphs 43. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2x − 4 + x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 5x − 3 = 2 x − 25 domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 12 ) ∪ ( 12 . Inc. −3) ∪ ( −3.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 x2 − 9 (5 x + 1)(4 x − 2) = 2 ( x2 − 9) ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = = = = 3x + 1 2 x − 4 ⋅ x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 (3 x + 1)(2 x − 4) (x 2 − 25 ) 2 domain: ( −∞. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞ ) x= 45.

Section 1. ( g f )( x) = 2( x + 4) + 1 = 2 x + 9 c. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 6 − x − 3 domain: [3. 55. g ( x) = 2 x 2 – 9 49. b. f(x) = x + 4. a. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 5 = 9 52. a. ( g f )( x) = 3(5 x + 2) − 4 = 15 x + 2 c. ( fg )( x) = x − 5 ⋅ 5 − x = − x 2 + 10 x − 25 domain: {5} ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5− x ⎝g⎠ domain: ∅ 54. ( f g )( x) = 5(3x − 4) + 2 = 15 x − 18 b. g(x) = x – 5 a. = 20 x 2 − 11 b. f(x) = 3x. ( f g )( x) = 4(5 x 2 − 2) − 3 b. ( f g )(2) = 3(2) − 15 = −9 ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 2) 2 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 4 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 6 ( f g )( x) = 3( x − 5) = 3 x − 15 b. ∞) 47. ( f g )(2) = 20(2)2 − 11 = 69 f ( x) = 7 x + 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g(x) = 3x – 4 ( f + g )( x) = x − 2 + 2 − x domain: {2} ( f − g )( x) = x − 2 − 2 − x domain: {2} a. g(x) = 2x + 1 ( f + g )( x) = x + 6 + x − 3 domain: [3. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 2) 2 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 4 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 2 c. ( g f )( x) = 2 x + 7 c. ( g f )( x) = 3x – 5 c. f(x) = 2x. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−3 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (3. ( g f )( x) = 2(7 x + 1)2 − 9 = 2(49 x 2 + 14 x + 1) − 9 = 98 x 2 + 28 x − 7 c. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 14 = 18 a. ( f g )(2) = 14(2) 2 − 62 = −6 f ( x) = x 2 + 2.7 51. g ( x) = x 2 − 2 50. g ( x) = 5 x 2 − 2 ( fg )( x ) = x − 2 ⋅ 2 − x = − x 2 + 4 x − 4 domain: {2} ⎛f ⎞ x−2 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 2− x ⎝ ⎠ domain: ∅ 48. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 4(2) 2 + 6 = 6 203 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 80 x 2 − 120 x + 43 c. g(x) = x + 7 ( f g )( x) = 2( x + 7) = 2 x + 14 ( g f )( x) = 5(4 x − 3) 2 − 2 = 5(16 x 2 − 24 x + 9) − 2 ( f + g )( x) = x − 5 + 5 − x domain: {5} ( f − g )( x) = x − 5 − 5 − x domain: {5} a. ( f g )(2) = 15(2) − 18 = 12 53. ( f g )( x) = (2 x + 1) + 4 = 2 x + 5 b. Inc. . ∞) ( fg )( x ) = x + 6 ⋅ x − 3 = x 2 + 3x − 18 domain: [3. f(x) = 4x – 3. a. ( f g )( x) = 7(2 x 2 − 9) + 1 = 14 x 2 − 62 b. f(x) = 5x + 2 .PreCalculus 4E 46.

= 2(16 − 8 x + x 2 ) + 4 − x + 5 x+3 2 1 x 1 x =x =x 204 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( g f )( x) = c. Inc. = −25 x 2 + 20 x − 4 + 20 x − 8 − 1 c. g ( x) = x + 2 a. g ( x) = − x 2 + 4 x − 1 a. ( f g )(2) = 2 + 2 = 4 = 2 = x − 6x + 9 + 1 4 2 = x 4 − 6 x 2 + 10 b. ( f g )( x) = x − 1 b. f(x) = 2x – 3. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 6 x − 3. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 6(2) 2 + 10 = 2 a. ( g f )( x) = − ( 5 x − 2 ) + 4 ( 5 x − 2 ) − 1 = −(25 x 2 − 20 x + 4) + 20 x − 8 − 1 (2 x − 3) + 3 2 x = =x 2 2 ( g f )( x) = 62. ( f g )(2) = −2(2) 2 − 2 − 1 = −11 f ( x) = 5 x − 2. ( g f )( x) = 2 ( 4 − x ) + ( 4 − x ) + 5 2 c. g ( x) = = 2 x 2 − 17 x + 41 c. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 2 1 b. ( f g )(2) = 2 − 1 = 1 = 1 1 1 . 63. x+3 6 a. g ( x) = x x ( f g )( x) = = −25 x 2 + 40 x − 13 59. g(x) = x – 1 a. f ( x) = 4 − x . . ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 1) 2 − 3 = x + 2x +1 − 3 4 2 61. ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 3) 2 + 1 f ( x) = x . 60. a. ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ −3 = x +3−3 = x ⎝ 6 ⎠ b. = 32 − 16 x + 2 x 2 + 4 − x + 5 ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 2 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x + 3−3 =x b. ( g f )( x) = 1 c. ( f g )( x) = 5 ( − x 2 + 4 x − 1) − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 5 − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 7 b. 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( g f )( x) = x + 2 c. g ( x) = 2 x 2 + x + 5 a. g ( x ) = = x4 + 2 x2 − 2 c.Functions and Graphs f ( x) = x 2 + 1. g ( x) = x 2 − 3 56. 6x − 3 + 3 6x = =x 6 6 a. ( f g )( x) = 4 − ( 2 x 2 + x + 5 ) = 4 − 2 x2 − x − 5 = −2 x − x − 1 2 b. 58. ( g f )( x) = x − 1 c. ( f g )( x) = x + 2 b. ( f g )(2) = 2 ( f g )(2) = −5(2) 2 + 20(2) − 7 = 13 f ( x) = x .

x−2 ≥ 0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. . domain: 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. ( g f )( x) = 2 c. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x 2 x 67. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. ( f g )( x) = 2 b. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. 4 ⎛4⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝ x ⎠ 4 +1 x ⎛4⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) x = ⎝ ⎠ ⎛4 ⎞ ⎜ + 1⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 4 . a. a.PreCalculus 4E 64. 5⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 5x ⎛1⎞ = f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ x ⎠ 1 + 4 1 + 4x x 69. f ( x) = Section 1. b. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. 6⎞ ⎛ 6 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . ( −∞. ∞ ) .7 2 2 . 4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 70. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . ∞ ) . b.x ≠ 0 1 x ⎝ ⎠ +3 x 2( x) = ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ + 3⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 2x = 1 + 3x 68. ∞ ) . Inc. 2 ⎛1⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = . g ( x) = x x a. We must exclude −4 because it causes the denominator of f g to be 0. a. b. b. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 3 denominator of f g to be 0. a. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 2) = x − 2 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. ∞ ) . ( f g )(2) = 2 65. 6 We must exclude − because it causes the 5 denominator of f g to be 0. ∞ ) . =x =x b. x ≠ −4 = 4+ x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. ∞ ) . a. 6 6 ⎛6⎞ f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x = 6 ⎝ x⎠ + 5 6 + 5x x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. a. b. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 3) = x − 3 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. 205 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 66. 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 4 denominator of f g to be 0. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0.

g ( x ) = 5x 2 + 3 92. g ( 3) 0 ⎛g⎞ = =0 ⎜ ⎟ ( 3) = f ( 3) −3 ⎝f ⎠ 86. The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. ( f g )( x) = f ( 2 − x ) = ( 2−x ) 2 +1 = 2 − x +1 88. a. g ( x ) = 3x − 1 77. 3] . The domain of f + g is [ −4. Inc. 72. 3) g 87. ( ) 2 x − 3x + 8 − 5 = 7 2 2 x 2 − 6 x + 16 − 5 = 7 2 x 2 − 6 x + 11 = 7 2x2 − 6x + 4 = 0 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x =1 x=2 206 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 71. f ( x ) = x3 . x g ( x ) = 4x + 5 81. 74. g ( x ) = x2 − 9 91. The graph of f − g = 3− x b. = 5− x b. g(x) = 3x – 4 79. f(x) = |x|. The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. (f g )( −1) = f ( g (−1) ) = f ( −3) = 1 g ( x) = 2x − 5 90. (f g )(1) = f ( g (1) ) = f ( −5 ) = 3 f ( x) = 3 x. 1]. ( f g )( x) = f ( 1 − x ) = ( 1− x ) 2 +4 = 1− x + 4 85. ( g − f )( −2 ) = g ( −2 ) − f ( −2 ) = 2 − 3 = −1 83. 2−x ≥ 0 − x ≥ −2 x≤2 domain: (−∞. 2]. . 75. The graph of f + g − x ≥ −1 x ≤1 domain: (−∞. f ( x) = x 4 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 89. g(x) = 2x – 5 78. ( fg )( 2 ) = f ( 2 ) g ( 2 ) = ( −1)(1) = −1 ( f g )( x) = 7 93. f ( x) = 1 . x g ( x) = 2 x − 3 80. 84. 76. a. ( f + g )( −3) = f ( −3) + g ( −3) = 4 + 1 = 5 82. f ( x) = 1 . 1− x ≥ 0 The domain of f is ( −4. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 2 ) = −6 f ( x) = x. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = −5 73. f (x) = |x|.

6 x − 5 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $5 rebate.000) = 65(30. f + g = -.1 thousand. g gives the cost of a pair of jeans that has been discounted 40%.44 This is the decrease in profits for the first store for each year after 2004. 000) − (600. 000) 97.07 This is the profit for the two stores combined for each year after 2004. d.9(3)2 − 35(3) + 1641 overestimates the actual change in population in the U. in 2005 is 6573.6x – 3 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $3 rebate. The function f g models the greater discount.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 − 3. f )( x ) = 0.14 = 0.000) – (600. a.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405 100. The slope for f is -0. ( B − D )( x ) c. 000)) = −200. ( R − C )(20.5 thousand. in 2003 by 0.51 This is the increase in profits for the second store for each year after 2004.9 x 2 + 5 x + 6451 ( B + D )( 5 ) = 3.000 since costs exceeded revenues. 1 − 6 x 2 − 2 x + 2 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 3 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 8 = 0 3x 2 + x − 4 = 0 (3x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 3 x = −4 x =1 4 x=− 3 95.5 x 2 − 20 x − 2405 = 10.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) + ( −3. ( B + D )( x ) = 3. 96.07x + 24.000 + 45(30.9(5)2 + 5(5) + 6451 = 6573. b.PreCalculus 4E 94.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 ( B − D )( 3) = 10. a. 2 = 3. 000 The company lost $200. ( B − D )( x ) = B ( x ) − D ( x) = (7. ( B − D )( x ) = 10.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 b.7 ( f g )( x) = −5 ) = 65(20. (g d.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) − ( −3.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7. . b. ( Section 1. Inc.S. c.76 The slope for f + g is 0.5 The number of births and deaths in the U. (f c. c. c.044x + 13. 000 + 45(20. g gives the price of the computer after a 25% discount.75 x − 400 This models the price of a computer after first a 25% discount and then a $400 discount.1 The change in population in the U.51x + 11.000)) =0 The company broke even. (R – C)(30. The slope of g is 0. g )( x ) = 0.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7.62 + 0. 1 − 2 3 x + x − 1 = −5 2 98.75( x − 400) This models the price of a computer after first a $400 discount and then a 25% discount. 99. in 2003 was 1634.S. a. a. ( f g )( x) = 0. ( B + D )( x ) f gives the cost of a pair of jeans for which a $5 rebate is offered.5 thousand.1 thousand. underestimates the actual number of births and deaths in 2005 by 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f g because of a $5 rebate.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 + 3.S. = 1634. f gives the price of the computer after a $400 discount. since the 25% discount is taken on the regular price first. a. ( B + D )( x ) = B ( x ) + D ( x) = (7.9 x + 5 x + 6451 b. b.6 ( x − 5 ) = 0. ( g f )( x) = 0. 207 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

2− x ≥ 0 119. the relation is not a function. 4] 108. false. (4. Thus. Answers may vary. −1). g ( x ) = 3x 101. – 105. Answers may vary. the y value disappears because the function is not defined at x = 0. y = x +1 2 112. −2). (1. − x ≥ −2 x= 5 +4 y ⎛5 ⎞ y ( x) = y ⎜ + 4 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ xy = 5 + 4 y xy − 4 y = 5 y ( x − 4) = 5 5 y= x−4 x ≤2 x≤4 domain: [ 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. When your trace reaches x = 0. ( f g )( x) = ( f g )(− x) f ( g ( x)) = f ( g (− x)) since g is even f ( g ( x)) = f ( g ( x)) so f g is even 117. . 106. 111. x = y2 − 1 x + 1 = y2 120. 116. A sample change is: (f g )( x ) = f = ( ( x2 − 4 x2 − 4 ) 2 ) −4 = x2 − 4 − 4 = x2 − 8 208 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. does not make sense. ( f g ) ( x ) = f ( g ( x ) ) = f ( 3x ) = 2(3x) = 6 x (g f )( x ) = g ( f ( x ) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( 2 x ) = 6 x 114. makes sense 109. The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. ∞ ) . false. {(4. Sample explanation: It is common that f g and g f are not the same. makes sense 110. (1. A sample change is: ( f g ) ( 4) = f ( g ( 4)) = f ( 7) = 5 115. Sample explanation: The diagram illustrates x +1 = y2 x +1 = y g ( f ( x) ) = x + 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs 113. 118. false. A sample change is: f ( x ) = 2 x. Changes to make the statement true will vary. ( f g )( x) = 2 − x The domain of g is [ 0. does not make sense.1). Explanations will vary. true 107. Inc. 2)} The element 1 in the domain corresponds to two elements in the range. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary.

0) (0. 3 −1 x Interchange x and y: 3 x = −1 y Solve for y: 3 x = −1 y xy = 3 − y xy + y = 3 y ( x + 1) = 3 3 y= x +1 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : y= f ( x) = 2 x + 7 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 2x + 7 Interchange x and y: x = 2y + 7 Solve for y: x = 2y + 7 x − 7 = 2y x−7 =y 2 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f −1 ( x) = 3.8 Check Point Exercises 1. Find points of f −1 . 6. 2) (2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. f ( x) f −1 ( x ) (−2. −2) (−2. −2) (−1. 3 −1 x Replace f ( x) with y: f ( x) = x−7 2 f −1 ( x) = f ( x) = 4 x3 − 1 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 4 x3 − 1 Interchange x and y: x = 4 y3 − 1 Solve for y: x = 4 y3 − 1 x + 1 = 4 y3 x +1 = y3 4 x 1 + 3 =y 4 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : 3 x +1 5.1) x +1 4 Alternative form for answer: x +1 3 x +1 f ( x) −1 = 3 = 3 4 4 f −1 ( x) = = = 3 3 x +1 3 2 ⋅3 = 3 4 2 3 2x + 2 2 3 2x + 2 3 8 209 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. Inc. . ⎛ x+7⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−7 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x − 7) + 7 g ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 f ( g ( x) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = x 4. The graphs of (b) and (c) pass the horizontal line test and thus have an inverse.8 Section 1.

g ( x ) = 3 3 . g ( f ( x) ) = 2 2 x −5 210 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = x − 1 6. f ( x) = 6 x . 3. x − 1 = y2 5. Exercise Set 1. Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f ( x) = 4 x. f ( x) = 3 x − 7.8 x 4 ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x =x g ( f ( x)) = 4 f and g are inverses. x 6 f(x) = 3x + 8. y = x2 + 1 Interchange x and y: x = y2 +1 Solve for y: x = y2 + 1 1.Functions and Graphs 7. f ( x) = x 2 + 1 Replace f ( x) with y: 4. x −8 3 8. 2 2 . g ( x) = x−9 4 ⎛ x −9⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟+9 = x −9+9 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x + 9) − 9 4 x g ( f ( x) ) = = =x 4 4 f and g are inverses. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g ( x) = 7. g ( x) = + 4 x−4 x 3 3 f ( g ( x)) = 3 = 3 =x + − 4 4 x x f ( x) = g ( f ( x)) = ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝6⎠ 6x =x g ( f ( x) ) = 6 f and g are inverses. 2. Inc. g ( x ) = x+5 9 x+3 7 x + 3 3x + 9 3x − 40 ⎛ ⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ −7 = ⎟−7 = 7 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠ 3x − 7 + 3 3x − 4 g ( f ( x) ) = = 7 7 f and g are not inverses. f(x) = 5x – 9. ⎛ x −8⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 3 ⎜ ⎟+8 = x −8+8 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ (3x + 8) − 8 3x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 3 3 f and g are inverses. g ( x) = + 5 x −5 x 2 2x f ( g ( x )) = 2 = =x ( x + 5) − 5 2 f ( x) = ⎛ x −5⎞ + 5 = 2⎜ ⎟+5 = x−5+5 = x ⎝ 2 ⎠ f and g are inverses. g ( x) = 3 3 x−4 +4 ⎛ x−4⎞ = 3⋅⎜ ⎟+4 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = x−4+4 =x f and g are inverses. f ( x) = 4 x + 9. g ( x ) = ⎛ x+5⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 5 ⎜ ⎟−9 ⎝ 9 ⎠ 5 x + 25 = −9 9 5 x − 56 = 9 5x − 9 + 5 5x − 4 g ( f ( x)) = = 9 9 f and g are not inverses. .

a.8 f ( x) = − x. f(x) = x + 3 y=x+3 x=y+3 y=x–3 −1 f ( x) = x − 3 15. f ( x) = 2 x + 3 x = 2y + 3 −1 f ( f ( x)) = x + 3 − 3 = x b. f ( x) = 4 x x +1 3 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 3 y= ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝2⎠ 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = =x 2 b. ⎛ x −3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟+3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x −3+3 =x 2x + 3 − 3 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = = =x 2 2 f ( f −1 ( x) ) = x − 5 + 5 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = x + 5 − 5 = x 13. f ( x) = 3x − 1 y = 2x y = 3x − 1 x = 2y x = 3y −1 x +1 = 3y x 2 x f −1 ( x) = 2 y= b. a. a. x − 3 = 2y f ( f ( x)) = x − 3 + 3 = x x −3 2 x −3 f −1 ( x) = 2 y= f ( x) = x + 5 y = x+5 x = y+5 y = x−5 b. g ( x) = − x f ( g ( x)) = −(− x ) = x g ( f ( x)) = −(− x ) = x f and g are inverses. Inc. ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 y = 2x + 3 −1 12. Section 1. a. g ( x) = x 3 + 4 f ( g ( x) ) = 3 x 3 + 4 − 4 = 3 x 3 = x g ( f ( x) ) = ( 3 x−4 ) 3 +4 = x−4+4 = x b. a.PreCalculus 4E 9. a. b. f and g are inverses. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ x +1 ⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ −1 = x +1 −1 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3x − 1 + 1 3x = =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 3 211 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 11. f −1 ( x ) = x − 5 f ( x) = 2 x 16. 14. 10. . y = 4x x = 4y x 4 x −1 f ( x) = 4 y= f ( x) = 3 x − 4.

a. . ( ( 3 x −2+2 ) = ( x) 3 3 3 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( x − 13 + 1 = x − 1 + 1 = x +2 = x−2+2 18. x−2 ) 3 21.Functions and Graphs 17. a. a. a. f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x f −1( f ( x )) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x 212 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 3 1 =x 1 x 1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = = x 1 x f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x 2 y= x 2 x= y xy = 2 f ( x) = 2 x 2 f −1 ( x ) = x y= =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 ( x + 2)3 − 2 = x+2−2 =x b. f ( x) = ( x − 1)3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = ( x − 1)3 y = x3 + 2 x = ( y − 1)3 3 x = y3 + 2 x−2 = y 3 3 x = y −1 y = 3 x +1 y = x−2 3 −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ( 3 b. f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 y = ( x + 2)3 x = ( y + 2)3 3 x = y+2 y = 3 x −2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. a. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ) ( x) 3 x +1 −1 = 1 x 1 y= x 1 x= y xy = 1 f ( x) = y= y = 3 x +1 f ( f −1 ( x)) = 3 1 x 1 −1 f ( x) = x x + 1 = y3 b. =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x3 + 2 − 2 = 3 x3 = x f ( x) = x3 − 1 y = x3 − 1 x = y3 − 1 f −1 ( x) = 3 x + 1 ( 3 ) 3 b. x + 1 −1 = x +1−1 =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x 3 − 1 + 1 = 3 x3 = x 19. 22. 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. Inc.

y= x x= y y=x 2 −1 f ( x) = x 2 . xy = 7 − 3 y xy + 3 y = 7 y ( x + 3) = 7 7 x+3 7 −1 f ( x) = x+3 y= b. Section 1. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. a. a. f ( x) = 25. 2 4 x −9 4 f −1 ( x ) = x −9 y= f ( x) = 3 x y=3x x= y=x 3 f ( x) = x 3 −1 b. −1 xy − 9 y = 4 y ( x − 9) = 4 f ( f ( x)) = ( x ) = x 24. ( ( ) 4 +9 = x 4 x−9 4 −1 =x f ( f ( x) ) = 4 +9−9 x f f −1 ( x) = 2x + 1 x−3 2x + 1 y= x−3 2 y +1 x= y −3 x(y – 3) = 2y + 1 xy – 3x = 2y + 1 xy – 2y = 3x + 1 y(x – 2) = 3x + 1 3x + 1 y= x−2 3x + 1 f −1 ( x ) = x−2 f ( x) = ) 7 −3 = x 7 x+3 7 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 7 −3+3 x f f −1 ( x) = 213 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≥ 0 b. . y 3 b. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 23.8 f ( x) = x 4 +9 x 4 y = +9 x 4 x = +9 y xy = 4 + 9 y f ( x) = 26. a. f ( f −1 ( x)) = x 2 = x = x for x ≥ 0. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 x3 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = ( x) 3 3 =x 7 −3 x 7 y = −3 x 7 x = −3 y 27.

31. The function fails the horizontal line test. The function passes the horizontal line test. ) ( 3 2x +1 + 1 x −3 2x + 1 − 2 x−3 3 ( 2 x + 1) + x − 3 35. 2 x + 1 − 2 ( x − 3) 6x + 3 + x − 3 7x = =x 2x +1 − 2x + 6 7 36.Functions and Graphs b. 2x − 3 x +1 2x − 3 y= x +1 2y − 3 x= y +1 xy + x = 2y – 3 y(x – 2) = –x – 3 −x − 3 y= x−2 −x − 3 f −1 ( x ) = . so it does not have an inverse function. ) ( 2 −x − 3 − 3 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = −x − 3 +1 x−2 −2 x − 6 − 3x + 6 −5 x = = =x −x − 3 + x − 2 −5 − 2x − 3 − 3 x +1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 2x − 3 − 2 x +1 −2 x + 3 − 3x − 3 −5 x = = =x 2x − 3 − 2x − 2 −5 −1 ( 38. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. so it does have an inverse function. so it does have an inverse function. ) 29. 214 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The function fails the horizontal line test. 33. 30. The function fails the horizontal line test. 7x =x 7 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 28. so it does have an inverse function. so it does not have an inverse function. so it does not have an inverse function. Inc. ) ( 2 3x + 1 + 1 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = 3x + 1 − 3 x−2 2 ( 3x + 1) + x − 2 6 x + 2 + x − 2 = = 3x + 1 − 3 ( x − 2 ) 3x + 1 − 3 x + 6 –1 34. x≠2 x−2 f ( x) = 37. The function passes the horizontal line test. The function passes the horizontal line test. 32. a. = = = b.

a. 0] range of f : [ −1. ∞ ) domain of f : −1 42. domain of f : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. ( −∞. c. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞.8 f ( x) = 2 x − 1 y = 2x −1 41. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. 40.PreCalculus 4E 39. . ∞ ) domain of f : [ −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = x 2 − 4 y = x2 − 4 x = 2 y −1 x = y2 − 4 x +1 = 2y x + 4 = y2 x +1 =y 2 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 2 x+4 = y f −1 ( x) = x + 4 b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) [ −4. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. 0] domain of f : 215 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. a. c. b. c. a. f ( x) = x 2 − 1 y = x2 − 1 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 y = 2x − 3 x = y2 −1 x +1 = y2 x = 2y −3 − x +1 = y x + 3 = 2y f −1 ( x) = − x + 1 x+3 =y 2 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 2 b. c. Section 1.

∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. f ( x) = x3 + 1 y = x3 + 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 + 1 2 x − 1 = y3 x = y −1 3 x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 1 x +1 = y f −1 ( x) = 1 + x b. ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) f ( x) = x3 − 1 45. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. a.1] domain of f : f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) ( −∞. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. c. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. 44. Inc.∞ ) range of f : [ 0.1] range of f : [ 0. a. ∞ ) domain of f : 216 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. domain of f : 46. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. y = x3 − 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 − 1 2 x + 1 = y3 − x = y −1 3 − x +1 = y x +1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x + 1 −1 f ( x) = 1 − x b. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. . ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. c. b. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. a. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0.∞ ) ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 43. ∞ ) c. domain of f : [1. b.

f ( x) = x − 1 3 y = x −1 x = ( y + 2)3 3 3 x= x = y+2 x = y −1 x −2 = y x +1 = y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 f −1 ( x ) = x 2 + 1 b. a. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. y = ( x − 2) domain of f −1 : [ 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. ∞ ) f ( x) = ( x − 2)3 48.8 f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 47. . x= x = y−2 x−2= x +2 = y y +2 y ( x − 2) = y 2 f −1 ( x ) = 3 x + 2 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 2) 2 b. y = ( x + 2) 49. Inc. b. ∞ ) domain of f : [ 2.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f : −1 217 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. ∞ ) domain of f : c. ∞ ) domain of f : c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1.∞ ) 50. a. ∞ ) [ 2. ( −∞. a. ( −∞. domain of f : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. 3 3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = x +2 x = ( y − 2)3 3 domain of f : [1. y −1 2 b. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. c.

since f ( −1) = 1 . Inc. ( g ( f [ h(1) ]) = g f ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = g ( f (4) ) ) = g ( 2 ⋅ 4 − 5) = g ( 3) c. ∞ ) domain of f : x= (g 4x −1 = 7 f ( x) = x + 1 3 4x = 8 x=2 Thus. (f g )( 0 ) = f ( g (0) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 0 − 1) = f ( −1) = 2 ( −1) − 5 = −7 60. 63. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. a. g −1 ( 7 ) = 2 b. f −1 (1) = 3 y = 3 x −1 y −1 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f −1 ( g (1) ) = f −1 (1) = −1 . ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. 55. f ( x) = 3 x + 1 y = 3 x +1 x= 3 y +1 x −1 = 3 y ( x − 1)3 = y f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1)3 b. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. f ( x) = 1 2x − 5 = 1 2x = 6 x=3 Thus. a. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. Then f ( x) = 3 x − 1 3 f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( −5 ) = 4 ( −5 ) − 1 = −21 ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 51. ∞ ) = 4 ⋅ 3 − 1 = 11 domain of f : 64. Let g −1 ( 7 ) = x . Then x3 = y − 1 g ( x) = 7 x +1 = y 3 −1 = g ( 2 ⋅ 0 − 5) 61. 59. f −1 ( g (10) ) = f −1 ( −1) = 2 . (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = 1 56. ( −∞. since f ( 2 ) = −1 . 53. 52. 58. Let f −1 (1) = x . ( f ( g [ h(1) ]) = f g ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = f ( g (4) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 4 − 1) = f (15 ) f ( g (1) ) = f (1) = 5 = 2 ⋅ 15 − 5 = 25 f ( g (4) ) = f ( 2 ) = −1 218 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 54. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. c. ) . (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 4 ) = 2 57.

30). (9.25.5)} b. 30). one-to-one 219 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3.8. Inc.3). (8.8). f--1(0.8. Section 1. (22. (30. b.8.8. not one-to-one 77. 70. 60)} g is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of g is not a function. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. These values can be represented as (12. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8. a. (8.7) = 30 If there are 30 people in the room. (12.m. 22). .8. (8. (40. 66.5.4).3).7). (30. (60. 67. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. {(17. {(9. f--1(0. {(17. 69. (8.1). 40).5) = 21 If there are 21 people in the room. (40.8 It passes the horizontal line test and is one-to-one.5. (50.8.8.17).2.PreCalculus 4E 65.7).7. The average happiness level is 3 at 12 noon and at 7 p. (8. Thus. 9.3) and (19. b.9.17).7.2).50). 9. (8. 60)} f is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of f is not a function. 50).5). – 75. The graph does not represent a one-to-one function. (60.5.3.3)} b. (8.7. this function does not have an inverse.3) .4). (50.3) and (19. {(9.8.4. a. a.3. f--1(0. 40).4. 9 ⎡5 ⎤ ( x − 32) ⎥ + 32 5 ⎢⎣ 9 ⎦ = x − 32 + 32 f ( g ( x)) = =x f and g are inverses.25) = 15 If there are 15 people in the room. 22). a. (22. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. (8.8. 68. 76. Answers may vary.3) are an example of two x-values that correspond to the same y-value. (8. This function fails the horizontal line test.1. c.

Functions and Graphs 84. false. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 80. 2)}. 78. one-to-one 83. . 92. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. makes sense 91. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: f(x) = 5 is a horizontal line. not one-to-one 87. true 82. not one-to-one 220 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (7. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 88. 86. A sample change is: The inverse is {(4. f and g are inverses one-to-one 79. so it does not pass the horizontal line test. 93. 3 94. makes sense 90. makes sense 89. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 81.1). false. 85. Inc. false. x A sample change is: f −1 ( x) = .

( f g )( x) = 3( x + 5) = 3x + 15.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. when it is going up and when it is coming down.8 95. 8 + f −1 ( x − 1) = 10 f −1 ( x − 1) = 2 f (2) = x − 1 6 = x −1 7=x x=7 x = 3 y + 15 y= x − 15 3 (f g ) ( x) = −1 x − 15 3 g ( x) = x + 5 99. y = x+5 100. −1 f −1 ) ( x ) = x x − 15 −5 = 3 3 3x − 2 5x − 3 3x − 2 y= 5x − 3 3y − 2 x= 5y − 3 x(5 y − 3) = 3 y − 2 f ( x) = 102. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y= 97. 221 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 3 x + 15 98. y= (g 96. Inc. there will be 2 times when the spacecraft is at the same height. No. Answers may vary. x = y+5 ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 = (1 − 7) 2 + (−1 − 2) 2 y = x −5 = (−6) 2 + (−3)2 g −1 ( x) = x − 5 f ( x) = 3x = 36 + 9 = 45 y = 3x =3 5 x = 3y x 3 x −1 f ( x) = 3 101. y 2 − 6 y − 4 = 0 y2 − 6 y =4 y − 6y + 9 = 4 + 9 2 ( y − 3) 2 = 13 y − 3 = ± 13 5 xy − 3x = 3 y − 2 y = 3 ± 13 5 xy − 3 y = 3x − 2 y (5 x − 3) = 3 x − 2 3x − 2 5x − 3 3 x−2 f −1 ( x ) = 5x − 3 Note: An alternative approach is to show that ( f f )( x) = x. .

d = (14 − 2) 2 + (8 − 3)2 x 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 = 122 + 52 ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 4 = 144 + 25 = 169 [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 22 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . 4.9 ( x − 0)2 + [ y − (−6)]2 = 102 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 5.Functions and Graphs Section 1. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . r = 4. k = −6. −1] [ −1. center: (h. 1) radius: r = 2 d = (8 − 5) 2 + (5 − 1) 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 b. we have h = −3. 3. 3. domain: range: 222 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.77 [ −5. a. = ( 5) + ( −12 ) 2 2 = 13 2.3] c. x2 + y 2 + 4 x − 4 y − 1 = 0 6. k = 2. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 42 x 2 + y 2 = 16 h = 0. k = 1. Exercise Set 1. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 + 7 2 + (−3) ⎞ ⎛ 8 −1 ⎞ ⎛ . r = 2. − ⎟ 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ h = 0. Inc. d= = ( −6 − 4 ) + ( 3 − (−1) ) 2 ( −10 ) + ( 4 ) 2 2 2 = 100 + 16 = 116 = 2 29 ≈ 10. 1. ⎟ = ⎜ 4. k = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 Check Point Exercises 1. k ) = (−3. . d= ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 d= (1 − (−4) ) + ( −3 − 9 ) 2 2 2 (x x2 + y2 + 4x − 4 y −1 = 0 ) + ( y − 4y ) = 0 ( x + 4x + 4) + ( y + 4 y + 4) = 1 + 4 + 4 2 + 4x 2 2 2 ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 9 = 25 + 144 [ x − (− x)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 32 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . r = 10. we have = 169 h = −2. = 13 2. r = 3 .

83 = 40 = 2 10 ≈ 6. 2 .PreCalculus 4E 4.9 ( −1 − 2 ) + ( 5 − (−3) ) 2 ( −3 ) + ( 8 ) 2 2 10.40 d = (−3− 0) 2 + (4 − 0) 2 = 3 + ( −4 ) 8.7 − 1. ( 4 − 0) = 42 + [3 + 2]2 2 = 32 + 42 6. d= 14.54 = 16 + 25 11. d= = d = (4 − 0)2 + [1 − (−3)]2 ( ) ( 2 ( 7) 2 + ⎣⎡ − 2 ⎦⎤ 2 = 7+2 = 42 + 4 2 = 9 = 16 + 16 =3 = 32 ) 7 − 0 + ⎡0 − − 2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ =4 2 ≈ 5.66 223 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.07 = 25 + 4 = 29 ≈ 5.32 9.5)2 + (6.2 − 8. d= = 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.5 − 3. = 16 + 52 = 73 ≈ 8.3) = = 25 =5 = 8 2 =2 2 = 36 + 4 ≈ 2. = 9 + 16 ( −1) 2 + ( −7 ) 2 2 = 1 + 49 = 50 d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [−4 − (−6)]2 =5 2 = 52 + 2 2 ≈ 7. Section 1.6 − 2.6) 2 + ( −5.39 13.2) 2 = 9 +16 = (−4) 2 + (−2)2 = 25 =5 = 16 + 4 = 20 d = (3 − 0) 2 + ( −4 − 0 ) =2 5 2 ≈ 4. d = (−. + [3 − ( −2 )]2 = 41 ≈ 6. d = ( 5 − 0)2 + [0 − (− 3)]2 = ( 5) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 5+3 d = [2 − (−4)]2 + [−3 − (−1)]2 = 6 2 + ( −2 ) d = (1. 2 = 9 + 64 2 7.47 2 12.

= (−4 3) 2 + (3 5) 2 = 16(3) + 9(5) = 48 + 45 = 93 23. 15 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 4 1 3 1⎞ ⎛ 2 1 ⎞ = ⎜− ⋅ . ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ −5 ⎞ = ⎜ . ⎟ = ( −3. d= = ( − 3 − 2 3 ) + (5 ( −3 3 ) + ( 4 6 ) 2 2 6− 6 ) 2 2 24. −5 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 28. ⎛ 7 3 + 3 3 −6 + (−2) ⎞ ⎛ 10 3 −8 ⎞ . ⎟ = (6. 0 ⎟ = (2 2. 2 ⎟ = ⎜ − . ⎟ ⎝ 5 2 15 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 27. ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 = 12 + 12 ⎛ 2 10 5 ⎞ =⎜ .64 16. ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛3 2+ 2 0⎞ ⎛4 2 ⎞ . ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 2 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ( = 5 3. ⎛ 8 + (−6) 3 5 + 7 5 ⎞ .0) =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 224 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −2 ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 ⎛ 2⎞ 7 ⎛ 4 ⎞⎞ ⎛ 4 3 ⎞ ⎜ − 5 + ⎜ − 5 ⎟ 15 + ⎜ − 15 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ − ⎝ ⎠. ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 3 −12 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ =⎜ . = 1. ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −8 −10 ⎞ =⎜ .24 18. Inc. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . −5) ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ) ) ⎛ 18 + 2 −4 + 4 ⎞ . = 9 ⋅ 3 + 16 ⋅ 6 = 27 + 96 25. ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −12 −8 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 6 −4 ⎞ = ⎜ 2 . ⋅ ⎟ = ⎜− . d = (− 3 − 3 3)2 + (4 5 − 5)2 22. = 123 ≈ 11. ⎛ 6 + 2 8 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 12 ⎞ . ≈ 2. −4 29.09 17.41 19. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6) 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 20. ⎛ −3 + 6 −4 + (−8) ⎞ . . ⎛ −4 + ( −1) −7 + ( −3) ⎞ ⎛ −5 −10 ⎞ . ⎛ −2 + (−6) −8 + (−2) ⎞ . ⎜ ⎟=⎜ . ⎟ = (4. ⎛ 10 + 2 4 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 12 10 ⎞ . ≈ 9. ⎟ = ⎜ . ⎟=⎜ . ⎝ ⎠⎟= 5 .5) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2 21. .Functions and Graphs 15. −6 ⎟ 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 26. 2 ⎛1 7⎞ ⎛6 1⎞ d = ⎜ − ⎟ +⎜ − ⎟ ⎝3 3⎠ ⎝5 5⎠ 2 = (−2) 2 + 12 = 4 +1 = 5 2 ⎡ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ d = ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ + ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠⎦ ⎣ 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠⎦ 2 ⎛ 3 1 ⎞ ⎡6 1⎤ = ⎜ + ⎟ +⎢ + ⎥ ⎝ 4 4 ⎠ ⎣7 7⎦ ⎛ −2 + ( −8) −1 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ −10 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ . ⎟ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ −7 ⎛ 5 ⎞ 3 ⎛ 11 ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠. ⎟ = (−4. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ .5 5 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( = 2 ≈ 1. ⎟ = ⎜ −5.

35. ⎟⎟ ⎟=⎜ ⎜⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛6 2 ⎞ . . radius = 6 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 102 2 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 0 ) = 100 2 [ x − (−2)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 62 2 ( x + 2 ) + y 2 = 36 2 [ −3. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = 82 x 2 + y 2 = 64 33. r = 6. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = y 2 h = 0. 36. 2 ( x + 3) 38. Inc. 0). 4] domain: ( x − 3 ) + ( y − 2 ) = 52 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 2 ) = 25 range: 2 43. k = 0. r = 4. k = 0. 1). radius = 7 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4 )2 = 22 2 2 ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 4 2 [ x − (−3)] + ( y − 5)2 = 32 2 2 ( x + 3) + ( y − 5 ) = 9 [ x − (−3)] + [ y − (−1)] 2 2 2 ( 3) 2 2 = ( 5) [ −7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. center = (0. 2 2 40. k = 1.PreCalculus 4E 30. 34. center = (0. 42. 0). 37. Section 1. 0 =⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( 31. radius = 4 ) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 x 2 + y 2 = 49 32. x 2 + y 2 = 49 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 h = 0. 7] domain: + ( y + 1) = 3 2 2 = 2 [ x − (−5)] + [ y − (−3)] ( x + 5) 39.9 ⎛ 50 + 2 −6 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 5 2 + 2 0 ⎞ . x 2 + y 2 = 16 41. + ( y + 3) = 5 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 36 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 62 2 2 h = 3. r = 7. . 7] domain: range: 225 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ⎟ = 3 2. 4] [ −4.9] [ −5. 7] [ −7. range: ( x − 2 ) + [ y − (−1)] = 42 2 2 ( x − 2 ) + ( y + 1) = 16 2 [ −4. center = (3.

center = (0. –2). Publishing as Prentice Hall. –5). [ x − (−2)]2 + [ y − (−2)]2 = 22 h = −2. ( x − 2) 2 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 47. center = (–1. 0] [ −4. Inc. 2] domain: [ −6. center = (2. r = 5.Functions and Graphs 44. 4] [ −1. 4] [ −10. 3). center = (–4. 1). k = 2. 0] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 4 48. k = −2. [ −2.1] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 25 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4)2 = 52 2 2 49. radius = 2 2 ( x − 2) + ( y − 3)2 = 42 h = 2. −1] [ 0. 7] [ −4. k = 1. r = 4. . ( x + 2) 2 + ( y + 2)2 = 4 ( x + 4 ) + ( y + 5) = 36 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−5)] = 62 2 h = −4. 2 x 2 + ( y − 1) = 1 2 h = 0. radius = 1 h = −1. radius = 4 45. r = 6.9] range: domain: range: 226 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. radius = 2 46.1] [ 0. radius = 5 [ −1. k = 3. [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 22 h = −3. r = 2 center = (–2. 2] [ −11. k = 4. radius = 6 [ −5. k = −5. 6] [ −1. r = 1. 2). r = 2 center = (–3. 4).

k = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. k = 0. r = 2. 4] domain: range: 51. radius = 4 x 2 + y 2 − 10 x − 6 y − 30 = 0 55. 4] [ −5. –2).PreCalculus 4E 50. center = (–2. k = 0. 2] [ −4. (x (x 2 2 − 10 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 30 − 10 x + 25 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 25 + 9 + 30 ( x − 5) 2 + ( y − 3) = 64 2 ( x − 5)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 82 center = (5. r = 5. 4] domain: range: 227 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2). radius = 8 [ −6. radius = 5 54.0). 2] [ 0.0). . radius = 2 (x (x 2 2 + 6 x ) + ( y 2 + 2 y ) = −6 + 6 x + 9 ) + ( y 2 + 2 y + 1) = 9 + 1 − 6 ( x + 3) + ( y + 1) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−3)] + [9 − (−1)] = 22 2 2 center = (–3. 3).9 x2 + ( y − 2) = 4 2 x2 + y 2 + 6 x + 2 y + 6 = 0 53. Inc. r = 4. center = (–1. radius = 2 [ −2. h = 0. x 2 + y 2 + 8 x + 4 y + 16 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 8 x ) + ( y 2 + 4 y ) = −16 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y 2 + 4 y + 4 ) = 20 − 16 ( x + 4) + ( y + 2) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−2)] = 22 2 2 center = (–4. Section 1. ( x + 2) 2 + y 2 = 16 h = −2. ( x + 1) 2 + y 2 = 25 h = −1. –1). radius = 2 [ −6. 5] domain: range: 52. center = (0.

Inc. x 2 − 2 x + y 2 − 15 = 0 59. 0). 2 2 2 x2 + y 2 + 8x − 2 y − 8 = 0 (x (x ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 16 2 2 ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 42 2 ( x − 2)2 + ( y − 6)2 = 7 2 center = (2. radius = 4 60. radius = 7 228 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. + 8x ) + ( y2 − 2 y ) = 8 x2 + y 2 − 6 y − 7 = 0 x2 + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 7 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y − 2 y + 1) = 16 + 1 + 8 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 1) = 25 2 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 1)2 = 52 2 2 ( x − 0) 2 ( x − 0) 2 = ( y 2 − 6 y + 9) = 0 + 9 + 7 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 3)2 = 42 center = (0. 3). . 6). radius = 5 58. 3). radius = 4 center = (–4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1). x 2 + y 2 + 12 x − 6 y − 4 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 12 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 4 + 12 x + 36 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 36 + 9 + 4 2 [ x − (−6)] + ( y − 3)2 = 72 center = (–6. radius = 7 57.Functions and Graphs 56. x 2 + y 2 − 4 x − 12 y − 9 = 0 (x (x 2 2 − 4 x ) + ( y 2 − 12 y ) = 9 − 4 x + 4 ) + ( y 2 − 12 y + 36 ) = 4 + 36 + 9 ( x − 2) 2 (x + ( y − 6 ) = 49 (x 2 2 − 2 x ) + y 2 = 15 − 2 x + 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 1 + 0 + 15 2 2 center = (1.

⎠ x2 + y 2 + 3x + 5 y + 17 2 9 =0 4 9 4 9 25 9 9 25 2 2 x + 3x + + y + 5 y + =− + + 4 4 4 4 4 x2 + 3x + y 2 + 5 y = − 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜x − ⎟ +⎜ y − ⎟ =1 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 3⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ 25 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ +⎜ y+ ⎟ = 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛ 3 5⎞ 5 center = ⎜ − .PreCalculus 4E 61. radius = 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ center = ⎜ . ⎟ .9 x2 + y 2 − x + 2 y + 1 = 0 63. center = ⎜ − . x 2 − x + y 2 + 2 y = −1 1 1 x 2 − x + + y 2 + 2 y + 1 = −1 + + 1 4 4 x 2 + 3x + y 2 − 2 y = 1 9 9 x 2 + 3x + + y 2 − 2 y + 1 = 1 + + 1 4 4 2 2 1⎞ 1 2 ⎛ ⎜ x − ⎟ + ( y + 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 ⎞ 3⎞ 17 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ + ( y − 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 ⎞ 1 center = ⎜ . .1⎟ . −1⎟ . radius = 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 62. Section 1. radius = 1 ⎝2 2⎠ 229 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. radius = 2 ⎝ 1 =0 2 1 x2 + x + y 2 + y = 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 x +x+ + y + y+ = + + 4 4 2 4 4 x2 + y 2 + x + y − 2 x 2 + y 2 + 3x − 2 y − 1 = 0 64. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − ⎟ . Inc.

Intersection points: ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) : 2 c. Since the line segment passes through the center. ( x − 5) 2 ( x − 5) 2 42 + 02 = 16 4−0 = 4 16 = 16 true 4 = 4 true The solution set is {( 0. −3) and ( 3. we get: d= ( 5 − 3) 2 + (10 − 9 ) Check ( 0. −4 ) : 02 + ( −4 ) = 16 2 2 16 = 16 true = 22 + 12 = 4 + 1 c. 66. the center is the midpoint of the segment. + ( y − 10 ) = 2 ( 5) 2 + ( y − 10 ) = 5 Since the line segment passes through the center. . 5 units.10 ) 67. Inc. ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . −4 ) . b. −3) . =⎜ ⎟=⎜ . 6 ) .Functions and Graphs 65. Intersection points: ( 0. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 5. 0 ) : = 5 The radius is 0 − ( −4 ) = 4 2 2 230 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 5 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 10 ⎞ . the center is the midpoint of the segment.5 ) . −4 ) and ( 4. The center is ( 5. ( 2) ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = 2 2 3 = 3 true 32 + 02 = 9 3−0 = 3 9 = 9 true 3 = 3 true The solution set is {( 0. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. ( 3.0 )} . we get: d= ( 4 − 3) + ( 5 − 6 ) 2 Check ( 0. ⎟=⎜ . Using the point ( 3. a. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. Using the point ( 3. 0 )} . = 2 The radius is 0 − ( −3 ) = 3 9 = 9 true Check ( 3.10 ) . ( 4. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 4.9 ) . The center is ( 4. b. ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . −3) : 02 + ( −3) = 9 2 2 = 12 + ( −1) = 1 + 1 2 units. 4 = 4 true Check ( 4. 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 7 9 + 11 ⎞ ⎛ 10 20 ⎞ =⎜ .5 ) 2 68. a.

033 ⋅ 0. 68 + 14) = (0. 2 ) : ( 3 − 3) 2 85. makes sense = 302 + ( y + 2. −3) .4 ) ) + ( y − ( −2. −2.7 ) and 4=4 radius 30. makes sense 87. 2 . ( 3.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 079. then we want the equation of a circle with center at ( −2. ( 2. −1) and ( 3. 2 231 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1)} .4 ) −1 = 2 − 3 −1 = −1 true 02 + 22 = 4 4=4 true The solution set is {( 0. d = 1. Answers may vary. 2 2 86. If we place L. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3) and ( 2. 2 ) 84. 524.4. Intersection points: ( 0. 82) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 682 70. 2 x 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 4624 75. −3) : ( 0 − 2 ) + ( −3 + 3) = 9 2 ( −2 ) + 0 2 = 4 2 2 −3 = 0 − 3 −3 = −3 true 73. C(0. at the origin. ( x − ( −2. −1) d ≈ 328 The distance between New Orleans and Houston is about 328 miles. 770 ⋅ 0. −1) .A. 71.1 Intersection points: ( 0. d = (8495 − 4422) 2 + (8720 − 1241)2 ⋅ 0. – 82.1 2 ( x + 2. 83. −1) : ( 2 − 2 ) + ( −1 + 3 ) = 4 2 2 d = (8936 − 8448) 2 + (3542 − 2625)2 ⋅ 0. 2 )} .7 ) ) true Check ( 2.9 69.1 d = 72.1 d ≈ 2693 The distance between Boston and San Francisco is about 2693 miles. Inc. 72. −1) : ( 0 − 3) 2 + ( −1 + 1) = 9 2 ( −3) 2 + 02 = 9 −1 = 0 − 1 −1 = −1 true 9=9 Check ( 3. Check ( 0.7 ) = 900 74. Check ( 0. true + ( 2 + 1) = 9 2 2 = 3 −1 2 = 2 true 0 +3 = 9 9=9 true The solution set is {( 0.

91. A sample change is: The center is at (3. 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ + ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ false. 93. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. The area between them is given by =5 2 AB + BC = AC 2 2 +3 2 = 5 2 π ( 6 ) − π ( 5 ) = 36π − 25π = 11π 2 5 2 =5 2 2 ≈ 34. The distance for A to C: d3 is the distance from ( x1 . 95.56 square units. 89. x ) to midpoint 1 1 2 2 ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 − x1 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ makes sense 2 2 90. y1 ) to ( x2 y2 ) d3 = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 AC = (6 − 1) 2 + [6 + d − (1 + d )]2 d3 = x2 2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 = 52 + 52 d1 + d 2 = d3 because = 25 + 25 = 50 1 1 a+ a= a 2 2 96. 92. Changes to make the statement true will vary. ⎛ x + x − 2 x1 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 + 4 4 d1 = 1 ( x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 ) 4 1 x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 2 d 2 is distance from midpoint to ( x2 . A sample change is: The equation would be x 2 + y 2 = 256. d is distance from ( x . false. Inc. –3). 2 2 2 2 d2 = x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 + 4 4 d2 = 1 2 ( x1 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 ) 4 1 x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 2 d1 = d 2 = 9+9 d2 = = 18 =3 2 b. . A sample change is: Since r 2 = −36 this is not the equation of a circle. Explanations will vary. 232 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The smaller circle has radius 5 and the larger circle has radius 6. A sample change is: This is not an equation for a circle. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Both circles have center (2. The distance for A to B: ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d 2 = ⎜ 1 2 − x2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y2 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ AB = (3 − 1) 2 + [3 + d − (1 + d )]2 = 22 + 22 2 2 ⎛ x + x − 2 x2 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 4+4 = 8 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ =2 2 The distance from B to C: BC = (6 − 3) 2 + [3 + d − ( 6 + d )]2 = 32 + ( −3) 2 d1 = d1 = false. a.Functions and Graphs 88. The smaller circle is inside of the larger circle. –5). y2 ) 2 94. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Sample explanation: Since r 2 = −4 this is not the equation of a circle.

so must cut less than 4 off each side.000x 233 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4. R(x) = (18. I ( x) = 0. The smallest side is 8. π r 2 h = 22 h= V(x) = (15 – 2x)(8 – 2x)x = (120 – 46x +4x2)x = 4x3 – 46x2 + 120x Since x represents the inches to be cut off. 2l + 2w = 200 2l = 200 – 2w l = 100 – w Let x = width. Inc. the area is 1000 sq yd 100.–4) is −4 − 0 4 m=− = − .09(25. 2. in interval A = 2π r2 + 2 πrh 22 1000 2 = 2π r + 2 πr πr 2 2000 = 2π r 2 + r πr2 44 ⎛ 22 ⎞ 2π r 2 + 2π rh = 2π r 2 + 2π r ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2π r 2 + ⎝ πr ⎠ r 6. then length = 100 – x A(x) = x(100 – x) = 100x – x2 2 5. d = x 2 + x3 ( ) 2 2 = x 2 + x6 a. . N(x) = 8000 – 100(x – 100) = 8000 – 100x + 10000 = 18. x − 200 a. The line perpendicular to the 3− 0 3 3 3 radius has slope .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 4 ) .07x + 0. so its equation is: 3 y + 4 = ( x − 3). 3. The domain of V is { x 0 < x < 4} or.0) and (3. The slope of the radius with endpoints (0. 99. 15 + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.10 7. V = πr h p = 2l + 2w = 2(50) + 2(20) = 140 1000 = πr 2 h 1000 =h πr 2 A = lw = (50)(20) = 1000 The perimeter is 140 yd.08x = 3 + 0.000 – 100x b. ( 0. d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0 ) Check Point Exercises 1. 000 − x ) Section 1.12x 12 = 0. g(x) = 3 + 0. a.–4). notation.08x = x2 + y2 b. 4 98. The tangent line has slope and 4 4 passes through (3.0). f(x) = 15 + 0.000 – 100x)x = –100x2 + 18. x > 0. the area is 1200 sq yd b.12x y = x3 c.10 97. The circle is centered at (0.04x 300 = x The plans cost the same for 300 minutes. p = 2l + 2w = 2(40) + 2(30) = 140 A = lw = (40)(30) = 1200 The perimeter is 140 yd.

5 x 0. 000 − 400x)x 2 = −400x + 26. 000 − 400x R(x) = (26.5x = 21 x = 14 f (14) = 2.8 x b. 5.7 x = 40 + 0. 2.5(14) = 35 g(14) = 21 + 14 = 35 To cross the bridge 14 times costs the same. 2.2 x 1300 = x f (1300) = 300 + 0. b.9 x c.5x 800 = x 800 miles a.8x = 40 + 0. g( x) = 21+ 0. 000x 234 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. for either method. g( x) = 21+ x c. N (x) = 30.9(1300) = 1210 You would have to purchase $1300 in merchandise at a total cost of $1210.Functions and Graphs 6. 180 = 239.25x 860 = x You drove 860 miles for $395. g( x) = 40 + 0.3 x 0. a.9 x 260 = 0.3 x b.1x 600 = x For $600 worth of merchandise. R( x) = (40. 300 + 0. in 2152.15x 120 = 01.25x b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.10 1. b. 000 − 400(x − 15) = 20. in 2010. f ( x) = 180 + 0.9 x 60 = 0. M (x ) = 239. 000 − 500x + 10000 = 40.25(28) = 35 g (28) = 21 + 0. Exercise Set 1. f ( x) = 300 + 0. f ( x) = 2. 000 − 400x + 6000 = 26.4 − 0.5x c.5x = 21+ x 1. 4.5(28) = 35 If a person crosses the bridge 28 times the cost will be $35 for both options a.3x = 59. a. f ( x) = 200 + 0.7(1300) = 1210 g(1300) = 40 + 0.9 x c. g( x) = 40 + 0.4 x = 198 198 years after 1954. $35.25x 215 = 0.15x 320 = 200 + 0. f ( x) = 1. 8. 1. a. Inc. a. 3.25 x = 21 + 0. b.4 − 0. your cost is $580 for both plans a. 40 = 28 + 06x 12 = 0. . 000 x 10. 40% of babies born will be out of wedlock.6x 20 = x 20 years after 1990. 000 − 500x b. f ( x) = 100 + 0. 9.5 x b.7x b. P( x) = 28 + 0. 7. a. 000 − 500 x) x = −500 x 2 + 40. someone will run a 3 minute mile.6 x b. N (x) = 20. a. a.25 x 395 = 180 + 0. 000 − 500(x − 20) = 30.75 x = 21 x = 28 f (28) = 1. 100 + 0.

Y(x) = 320 − 4(x − 50) = 320 − 4x + 200 = 520 − 4x T (x) = (520 − 4x)x = −4x 2 + 520x V(5) = 4(53 ) −120(52 ) + 900(5) = 2000 If 5 inches are cut from each side. x > 0. x > 0. Inc. Y(x) = 270 − 3(x − 30) = 270 − 3x + 90 = 360 − 3x V(6) = 4(63 ) −120(62 ) + 900(6) = 1944 If 6 inches are cut from each side. the volume will be 1936 square inches. 13. ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 8− x ⎞ A( x) = ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 2 2 = x 2 64 − 16 x + x 2 + 16 16 = 2 x 2 − 16 x + 64 16 = x 2 − 8 x + 32 8 V(6) = 4(6) 3 − 96(6)2 + 576(6) = 864 If 6inch squares are cut off each corner. Section 1. a. b. the volume will be 972 square inches. the volume will be 800 square inches. V(4) = 4(4) 3 − 96(4)2 + 576(4) = 1024 If 4-inch squares are cut off each corner. 000 + 60(90 − x) = 7000 − 60x + 5400 = 12400 − 60x c. A(x) = x(20 − 2x) = −2x 2 + 20x 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. V (3) = 4(3)3 − 96(3)2 + 576(3) = 972 If 3inch squares are cut off each corner.10 N (x) = 9000 + 50(150 − x) = 9000 − 50x + 7500 = 16500 − 50x R(x) = (16500 − 50x)x = −50x 2 + 16500x 16. you must cut less than 12 inches off each end. V(x) = (30 − 2x)(30 − 2x)x = (900 −120x + 4x 2 )x = 4x 3 − 120x 2 + 900x b. b. b. the volume will be 864 square inches. a. a. b. the volume will be 1024 square inches. the volume will be 1792 square inches. R(x) = (12400 − 60x)x = −60x 2 + 12400x V(3) = 4(33 ) −120(32 ) + 900(3) = 1728 If 3 inches are cut from each side. the volume will be 980 square inches. Since each side is 24. 15. 15) 17. 0 < x < 12 a. 12. the volume will be 1728 square inches. .PreCalculus 4E 11. If x is the inches to be cut off. you must cut less than 15 inches from each side. V(5) = 4(5) 3 − 96(5)2 + 576(5) = 980 If 5inch squares are cut off each corner. N (x) = 7. 14. V(2) = 4(2) 3 − 96(2) 2 + 576(2) = 800 If 2-inch squares are cut off each corner. the volume will be 2000 square inches. T (x) = (360 − 3x)x = −3x 2 + 360x V(7) = 4(73 ) −120(72 ) + 900(7) = 1792 If 7 inches are cut from each side. the volume will be 1944 square inches. a. 0 < x < 15 or (0. 235 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. a. V(x) = (24 − 2x)(24 − 2x)x 2 = (576 − 96x + 4x )x = 4x 3 − 96x 2 + 576x c. V(4) = 4(43 ) −120(4 2 ) + 900(4) = 1936 If 4 inches are cut from each side. Since each side is 30 inches. Since x is the number of inches to be cut from each side.

000 = 475 x + x y= 26. 600 − 2 x = length = 440r A(x) = (600 − 2x)x = −2 x 2 + 600x 25. 000 = 350 x + + 125 x x 1. 2 w + l = 800 27. 2 w + l = 600 A( x) = r (440 − π r ) + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 + π r 2 l = 600 − 2 l let x = width. 2 x = distance around 2 straight sides π 2r = distance around 2 curved sides 29. 2x = distance around the 2 straight sides 2πr = distance around the 2 curved sides 2 x + 2π r = 880 Let x = w A(x) = x(800 − 2 x) 2 x = 880 − 2π r x = 440 − π r = −2 x 2 + 800x 24. 2 x + 2π r = 440 2 x = 440 − 2π r x = 220 − π r A(r ) = (220 − π r )2r + π r 2 = 440r − 2π r 2 + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 l = 800 − 2 w 28. 400. P(x) = x(66 − x) = −x 2 + 66x 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. .Functions and Graphs 19. A(x) = x(400 − x) = −x 2 + 400x 22. 400. A(x) = x(300 − x) = −x 2 + 300x 23. 4y = 1200 − 2x 1200 − 2x y= 4 1200 − 2x 4 x(1200 − 2x) = 4 2x(600 − x) = 4 x(600 − x) = 2 A(x) = x 236 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. P(x) = x(50 − x) = −x 2 + 50 x 21. 2 x + 3 y = 1000 xy = 4000 4000 y= x 3 y = 1000 − 2 x 1000 − 2 x 3 ⎛ 1000 − 2 x ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ x(1000 − 2 x) = 3 2x + 4y = 1200 ⎡ ⎛ 4000 ⎞ ⎤ C ( x) = ⎢ 2 x + 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 175 + 125 x ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ 1.

750 at 7%. Publishing as Prentice Hall.06 x = 0. let x = l C(x) = 20 2 31. A = x (108 − 4 x) 2 d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 = −4 x 3 + 108 x 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 8 ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 16 x 2 + 64 = x 4 − 15 x 2 + 64 237 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.250 at 15% and $18.15 x + 3500 − 0. Let x = amount at 10% 18.02 x = −133 x = 6650 The amount of money to be invested should be $6650 at 10% and $12100 at 12%. ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 8 x 2 + 16 = x 4 − 7 x 2 + 16 108 = y + 4 x 108 − 4 x = y 40. 300 = y + 4 x d = ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 300 − 4 x = y 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 4 A( x) = x (300 − 4 x) 2 = −4 x3 + 300 x 2 34.10 x + 0.12(18750 − x) = 2117 0. b.06(12000 − x) ⎛ 400 ⎞ A = x2 + 5 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x ⎝ x ⎠ 2000 2 =x + x 33.12 x = 2117 −0.14 x + 0.1x + 2250 − 0. a.12x – 0.14 x + 720 − 0.750 – x = amount at 12% I ( x) = 0. Inc. Let x = amount at 14% 12000 – x = amount at 6% I ( x) = 0. Section 1. + 29x 36.15x + 0.PreCalculus 4E 30.07 x(50000 − x) 31250 = x + 20x + 9x ⎛ 10 ⎞ A( x) = x 2 + 4 ⎜ x ⋅ 2 ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ 40 = x2 + x 32.07(50000 – x) 6000 = 0.08 x 10 = x y x2 Let x = amount invested at 15% 50000 – x = amount invested at 7% I(x) = 0.07 x + x + 9x 2 10 a. = w. 6000 = 0. 0.10 125 = lw 125 l = = 5000 x 5000 x 125 x 50000 − 31250 = 18750 Invest $31. 35. . 2500 = 0.15 x + 0.12(18750 − x) =y b.10 x + 0. 37.05(8000 – x) 400 = x 2 y 400 x2 =y 38.08 x + 720 39. = 0. Let x = amount invested at 12% 8000 – x = amount invested at 5% loss I(x) = 0.

as it suggests a per minute charge of $30. Inc. 64. does not make sense. 238 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. A( x) = 12 x 2 − 25 x + 12 x 2 + 23 x + ( x + 2) [ 2 x − 2] P ( x ) = 2(2 x) + 2 y = 4x + 2 4 − x 44. 46. 6-foot pole c 2 = 62 + x 2 49. Explanations will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Explanations will vary. V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x + 1)( x + 2) − ( x + 5)(3)( x) V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x 2 + 5 x + 2) − 3x( x + 5) x = 36 + x 2 8-foot pole V ( x) = 2 x3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x + 10 − 3x 2 − 15 x V ( x) = 2 x3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x + 10 c 2 = 82 + (10 − x)2 c = 64 + 100 − 20 x + x 2 50.Functions and Graphs 41. . + ( x + 2) [ ( x − 5) + ( x + 3) ] = 2 x 4 − x2 b. d = ( x − 2) + y 2 c = 9 + 144 − 24 x + x 2 2 = x2 − 4 x + 4 + ( x) c = x 2 − 24 x + 153 2 f ( x ) = 36 + x 2 + x 2 − 24 x + 153 = x 2 − 3x + 4 43. – 62. A( x) = x 2 − x + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 4 2 A( x) = 3x 2 + x − 4 A( x) = 2 xy = 2x 9 − x A( x) = 12 x( x − 5) + 12 x ( x + 3) 48. Road from Town A: c 2 = 62 + x 2 d = ( x − 1) 2 + y 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + ( x) 2 c = 36 + x 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + x Road from Town B: c 2 = 32 + (12 − x) 2 = x − x +1 2 42. does not make sense. Sample explanation: The decrease in passengers is modeled by 60( x − 300). Sample explanation: This model is not reasonable. a. 2 A( x) = 12 x(2 x) + 12 (6 x − 4 x)( x + 2) + (4 x)( x + 2) + 2 x(8) A( x) = x + x( x + 2) + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x 2 P( x) = 2(2 x) + 2 y A( x) = x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x = 4x + 2 9 − x2 A( x) = 6 x 2 + 26 45. Answers may vary. A( x) = 2 xy 47. b. V ( x) = ( x)(2 x + 5 x − 3) − x 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x) = 36 + x + x − 20 x + 164 2 V ( x) = ( x)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) − ( x)( x) [ (2 x − 1) − ( x + 1) ] c = x 2 − 20 x + 164 total length 2 V ( x) = 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3x − x3 + 2 x 2 V ( x) = x3 + 7 x 2 − 3x 51. 63.

70. Chapter 1 Review Exercises does not make sense. y = 0 x = 2. yet their areas are different from each other. π 12 h3 (7 − 3x )(−2 − 5 x) = −14 − 35 x + 6 x + 15 x 2 = −14 − 29 x + 15 x 2 4 + x2 2 Distance and time walked: d = 6− x rt = d 5t = 6 − x 6− x t= 5 Total time: t= T ( x) = 68. 1 (π 2r ) 2 12 = 2h + 2r + π r P = 2h + 2r + Chapter 1 Review Exercises 1. Sample explanation: The area of a rectangle is not solely determined by its perimeter. . Distance and time rowed: d 2 = 22 + x 2 d = 4 + x2 rt = d = 2t = 4 + x 2 71. y = –6 x = –1. For example: A 4 by 6 rectangle and a 3 by 7 rectangle both have perimeters of 20 units. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7 + 4 2 2 + 5 2 14 + 35 2 + 8 2 + 40 ⋅ = 2 − 5 2 2 + 5 2 4 + 10 2 − 10 2 − 50 54 + 43 2 −46 54 + 43 2 =− 46 = A( x) = (20 + 2 x)(10 + 2 x) − 10(20) = 4 x 2 + 60 x + 200 − 200 = 4 x 2 + 60 x 69. 18 − 8 = 9 ⋅ 2 − 4 ⋅ 2 =3 2 −2 2 = 2 4 + x2 6 − x + 2 5 73. or = 15 x 2 − 29 x − 14 72.PreCalculus 4E 65. y = –8 x = –2. r= 1 h 2 1 V ( h) = π r 2 h 3 66. Inc. y = 2 x = 3. y = –4 x = 0. y = 4 239 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12 − 2r − π r = 2h 12 − 2r − π r =h 2 1 ⎛ 12 − 2r − π r ⎞ 2 A=⎜ ⎟ 2r + 2 π r 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 + π r 2 2 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 2 ( ) x = –3. y = –2 x = 1. Explanations will vary. makes sense 2 1 ⎛1 ⎞ = π ⎜ h⎟ h 3 ⎝2 ⎠ 1 1 2 = π h h 3 4 67.

maximum x-value equal to 40. The lowest marginal tax rate occurred in 1990 and was about 28%. The highest marginal tax rate occurred in 1945 and was about 94%. Inc. –2. 11. y = 2 x = 3. x = –3. x-intercept: –2. x-intercepts: 2. y = 6 x = –2. y = −2 x = 1. 0) and (2. y-intercept: 2. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. 2. The top marginal tax rate in 2005 was 35%. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 15. y = 1 x = –1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = –2 x = 2. y = 1 x = 2. function domain: {2. y = 1 x = −2. 4. 14. the top marginal tax rate remained constant at about 91%. function domain: {1. not a function domain: {12. the top marginal tax rate increased about 38%. 0). 3. y = –2 x = –1. 14} range: {13. y-intercept: –4. 7. The graph does not intersect the yaxis. 50%). y = 0 x = 1. y = 6 3. 2). 10. x = –3. . During the ten-year period from 1950 to 1960. y = −1 x = 2. y = 0 16. 500. y = 0 17. 13. x-intercept: 5. y = 3 5. 19} x = 3. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. y = –2 x = 0. The graph intersects the x-axis at (5. y-intercept: None. The graph intercepts the y-axis at (0. y = 1 x = 3. 12. maximum y-value equal to 5. 15. 13} range: {10. 9. During the five-year period from 1930 to 1935. x-scale equal to 10 and with minimum y-value equal to –5. 8. and y-scale equal to 1. π} x = −1. 0). y = −1 x = 0. y = 1 240 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6. 5} range: {7} x = −3. y = –1 x = 0. 0). A portion of Cartesian coordinate plane with minimum x-value equal to –20. y = –3 x = –2.Functions and Graphs 2. –4). The coordinates are (1985. y = –3 x = 1.

5) b.PreCalculus 4E 18. increasing: (−2. 3) g (− x ) = 3(− x) 2 − 5(− x) + 2 f. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. f ( x + 3) = 5 − 7( x + 3) = 5 − 7 x − 21 28. 23. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. y-intercept: –2 e. 20. 5) = 3x 2 − 11x + 10 d. = 24 c. 3x 2 + y = 14 y = −3x 2 + 14 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 19. 0) or (3. y is not a function of x. x-intercept: –3 d. f(4) = 5 – 7(4) = –23 27. g (0) = 3(0)2 − 5(0) + 2 = 2 b. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. y is a function of x. g (−2) = 3(−2) 2 − 5(−2) + 2 = 12 + 10 + 2 31. g ( x − 1) = 3( x − 1) 2 − 5( x − 1) + 2 = 3( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 5 x + 5 + 2 domain: [–3. 21. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 2x + y = 8 y = −2 x + 8 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. a. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. b. f (−2) = b. f(x) = 5 – 7x 22. f(1) = 12 c. a. 22 − 1 3 = =3 2 −1 1 25. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = −7 x − 16 c. a. − 2) or (0. 26. a. Inc. g(0) = 4 – 0 = 4 c. 0] c. f(–2) = –3 and f(3) = –5 = 3x + 5 x + 2 2 241 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y is a function of x. a. g (13) = 13 − 4 = 9 = 3 decreasing: (−3. g(–3) = 4 – (–3) = 7 24. . f(–x) = 5 – 7(–x) = 5 + 7x g ( x) = 3x 2 − 5 x + 2 30. b. f (2) = 2x + y = 6 (−2) 2 − 1 3 = = −1 −2 − 1 −3 2 y 2 = −2 x + 6 y = ± −2 x + 6 Since more than one value of y can be obtained from some values of x. 29. range: [–5. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function.

relative maximum −2 39. 0. f(–9) = –2 and f(14) = 2 = − f ( x) The function is odd. 34. −2. range: {–3. The function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. 0. increasing: (–2. domain: (−∞. range: [–2. − 5) or (0. 5} a. . f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 = f ( x) The function is even. f ( x) = 2 x 1 − x 2 b. f(–2) = 0 and f(6) = –3 33. y-intercept: 0 e. 40. a. 3. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. ∞) 38. a. range: (−∞. relative minimum −3. ∞ ) f. a. ∞ ) f. range: { y y ≤ 0} 242 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. 2] f (− x) = 2(− x) 1 − (− x)2 c. ∞) 37. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)2 + 1 b. −5. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x f (− x) = (− x)3 − 5(− x) = − x3 + 5 x b. 0) decreasing: (−∞. ∞) c. = − f ( x) The function is odd. x-intercepts: –2 and 3 d. a. − 2) or (2. –5 35. Inc. domain: (−∞. increasing: (–5. a.Functions and Graphs 32. b. y-intercept: 3 e. x-intercept: 0 = −2 x 1 − x 2 d. relative minimum −6 36. 2) constant: (−∞. relative maximum 3 b.

m= 1 − 2 −1 1 = = − . falls 5−3 2 2 46. c. 48. Increasing: (17. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 8( x + h) − 11 − (8 x − 11) h 8 x + 8h − 11 − 8 x + 11 = h 8h = 8 =8 = −2 ( x + 2 xh + h h 2 ) + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 43. point-slope form: y – 2 = –6(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –6x – 16 −2( x + h) 2 + ( x + h) + 10 − ( −2 x 2 + x + 10 ) 2 47. − 14 0 = = 0. y − (−1) = − 16 ( x − (−12) ) y + 1 = − 16 ( x + 12) y + 1 = − 16 x − 2 45. m= −4 − (−2) −2 = = 1. a. 1 x+4 3 m = –3 point-slope form: y – 6 = –3(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –3x – 9 + 6 y = –3x – 3 53. 3) or (12. 6 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . horizontal 6 − (−3) 9 50. 3x + y – 9 = 0 y = –3x + 9 m = –3 point-slope form: y + 7 = –3(x – 4) slope-intercept form: y = –3x + 12 – 7 y = –3x + 5 Yes. vertical −2 − (−2) 0 2 − 6 −4 = =2 −1 − 1 −2 point-slope form: y – 6 = 2(x – 1) or y – 2 = 2(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 2x + 4 m= 52. 12) The eagle descended. h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 − x − 10 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h −4 x − 2 h + 1 2 m= 49. rises −3 − (−1) −2 6 y + 6 = − x − 12 x + 6 y + 18 = 0 243 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 41. 17) The eagle’s height held steady during the first 3 seconds and the eagle was on the ground for 5 seconds. 42. Write 6 x − y − 4 = 0 in slope intercept form. − x − 10 2 d. the eagle’s height is a function of time since the graph passes the vertical line test. b. m= 10 − 5 5 = undefined. 30) The eagle was ascending. thus the 1 slope of the desired line is m = − . perpendicular to y = Decreasing: (3. 1 4 51. Inc. Constant: (0. 6x − y − 4 = 0 − y = −6 x + 4 y = 6x − 4 The slope of the perpendicular line is 6.

slope: 2 .56 c. France has about 5 deaths per 100.56 f ( x) = 0. y-intercept: –1 5 58.116 x + 0.116 90 − 15 75 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 11 = 0.7 = = 0. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 Find x-intercept: 2 x − 5(0) − 10 = 0 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 Find y-intercept: 2(0) − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = 10 y = −2 59. . 244 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. According to the graph. y-intercept: 4 b. y − 11 = 0. Inc.44 y = 0. y − 2. y-intercept: 5 56.000 persons.3 = 0.Functions and Graphs 54. 11 − 2. slope: –4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −2 x − 6 2 y = − x−2 3 2 slope: − .116 ( x − 90 ) or 57.116 x + 0.116 ( x − 90 ) y − 11 = 0. a. 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 55.3 8. y-intercept: –2 3 60.116 x − 10.116 ( x − 15) 2y −8 = 0 2y = 8 y=4 slope: 0.

2 2 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) [9 − 4 ( 9 )] − [4 − 4 ⋅ 5] = = 10 x2 − x1 9−5 63. The ball is traveling up until 2 seconds. f (32) = 0. Inc. S (4) = −16(4) 2 + 64(4) + 80 = 80 80 − 144 = −32 4−2 c.000 persons. m = = = 182.5 billion per year.000 persons. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0. .3 deaths per 100. a. 71. 1616 − 886 730 61.7 deaths per 100. S (0) = −16(0)2 + 64(0) + 80 = 80 S (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 80 = 144 144 − 80 = 32 2−0 b.56 = 4. The rate of change is $182. 68. 245 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 62.272 ≈ 4. 67. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 2006 − 2002 4 Corporate profits increased at a rate of $182.PreCalculus 4E d.5 billion per year.116 x + 0. 69. The line passes below the point for France. 64.3 According to the function.116(32) + 0. 65. Chapter 1 Review Exercises f ( x ) = 0. France has about 4.56 66. 70. then it starts to come down.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 75.Functions and Graphs 72. 78. 80. 76. 81. 77. . 79. 73. 246 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 74. Inc. 83. 82.

PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Review Exercises 92. ( fg )( x ) = (3x − 1)( x − 5) = 3x 2 − 16 x + 5 domain: (−∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1) − ( x 2 − 1) = x + 2 domain: (−∞.5 ) ∪ ( 5. g ( x) = x − 2 93.5 ) ∪ ( 5. domain: ( −∞. The domain is ( −∞. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. ∞ ) 86. The denominator is zero when x = 5. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. f(x) = 3x – 1. ∞ ) 94. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x + 7 − x − 2 domain: [2. g ( x) = x 2 − 1 ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 + x domain: (−∞. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = x 2 + 3. ∞) c. 90. x − 1 ≥ 0 and x + 5 ≥ 0 x ≥1 domain: [1. ∞ ) . ( f g )(3) = 3 + 1 = 4 = 2 247 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( f + g )( x) = x + 7 + x − 2 domain: [2. −1) ∪ ( −1. ( f g )( x) = x + 1 b. ( g f )( x) = x + 1 c. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = x + 7 ⋅ x − 2 88. g(x) = x – 5 (f + g)(x) = 4x – 6 domain: (−∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x2 + x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x2 − 1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) = x 2 + 5 x − 14 domain: [2. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. . The denominator is zero when x = 7. 4]. x–2≥0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. 87. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. 8 – 2x ≥ 0 –2x ≥ –8 x≤4 domain: (−∞. The denominator is zero when x = –7 or x = 3. ( f g )( x) = (4 x − 1)2 + 3 = 16 x 2 − 8 x + 4 x ≥ −5 b. 3) ∪ ( 3. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = x 4 + x3 − x − 1 85. ( g f )( x) = 4( x 2 + 3) − 1 = 4 x 2 + 11 91. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x+7 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (2. g ( x) = x + 1 a. 84. 95. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 1) – (x – 5) = 2x + 4 domain: (−∞. f ( x) = x 2 + x + 1. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. ∞ ) ( f g )(3) = 16(3) 2 − 8(3) + 4 = 124 f ( x ) = x .∞ ) f ( x) = x + 7. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −5 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) 89. domain: (−∞. g ( x) = 4 x − 1 a.1) ∪ (1.

y = 8 x3 + 1 3 1 5 100. g ( x) = 1 ( f g )( x ) = f ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ ⎝x⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ 1 + 1 ⎜ + 1⎟ x 1+ x x ⎠ = x =⎝ = 1 1 1 − 2x − 2 ⎛⎜ − 2 ⎞⎟ x x ⎝x ⎠ b. 0 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ 0. [−2. a. f ( x) = 2 − 5 x. a. Inc. x≠0 1 − 2x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 1 1 ( −∞. a. b. 101. ⎞⎟ ∪ ⎛⎜ . b. g ( x) = x − 2 5 2 3 3⎛5 ⎞ 1 f ( g ( x)) = ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ + 5⎝3 ⎠ 2 6 1 = x− + 5 2 7 = x− 10 5⎛3 1⎞ g ( f ( x)) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2 3⎝5 2⎠ 5 = x+ −2 6 7 = x− 6 f and g are not inverses of each other. 97. 2−x 5 ⎛2−x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 2 − 5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = 2 − (2 − x) =x 2 − (2 − 5 x) 5 x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 5 5 f and g are inverses of each other.Functions and Graphs 96. x = 8 y3 + 1 x − 1 = 8 y3 x −1 = y3 8 3 3 x −1 =y 8 x −1 =y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x −1 2 248 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = x + . f ( x) = 3 x 4 f ( x) = 4 x − 3 y = 4x − 3 102. f ( x) = x 99. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . a. ∞) ⎛ x+3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 4 ⎠ = x +3−3 =x (4 x − 3) + 3 4 x f ( f ( x)) = = =x 4 4 g ( x) = x + 2 x − 1 2 −1 g ( x) = 7 x + 4 f ( x) = 8 x3 + 1 103. ∞ ⎞⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ (f x = 4y −3 x+3 4 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 4 y= g )( x ) = f ( x + 3) = x + 3 − 1 = x + 2 x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 98.

Chapter 1 Review Exercises 106.PreCalculus 4E b. x ≥ 1 2 2 +5−5 x 2 = 2 x 2x = 2 =x 105. 108. f f −1 ( x) = y = x +1 x= x −1 = f ( f ( x) ) = y +1 y ( x − 1) = y 2 =x −1 f ( x) = x + 1 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 . The inverse function exists. 3 ⎛ 3 x −1 ⎞ f f ( x) = 8 ⎜ +1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x −1 ⎞ = 8⎜ ⎟ +1 ⎝ 8 ⎠ = x −1 +1 ( ) −1 107. . 249 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 (8x 3 ) + 1 −1 109. The inverse function exists. Inc. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. ( ) 2 +5 2 x−5 2( x − 5) = +5 2 = x−5+5 111. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 3 8 x3 2 2x = 2 =x = 110. 2 +5 x 2 y = +5 x 2 x = +5 y xy = 2 + 5 y f ( x) = 1 − x 2 y = 1 − x2 f ( x) = x = 1− y2 y2 = 1− x y = 1− x −1 f ( x) = 1 − x xy − 5 y = 2 y ( x − 5) = 2 2 x −5 2 f −1 ( x) = x −5 y= b. 104. a.

radius: 3 112. b. 3). . the average weekly sales will be $702.83 x2 − 4 x + 4 + y2 + 2 y + 1 = 4 + 4 + 1 ( x − 2) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 9 center: (2.02 x 500 = x For 500 minutes. 6] = 22 + 22 domain: = 4+4 range: = 8 x2 + y2 − 4 x + 2 y − 4 = 0 120.1] [ −1.05 x = 5 + 0. 0).05 x b. Inc. ⎟=⎜ . =2 2 x2 − 4x + y2 + 2 y = 4 ≈ 2. −2 ⎟ 115. ⎟ = ( −5. ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 116. –1). 122. ( x − (−2)) 2 + ( y − 4)2 = 62 [ −1.07 x 10 = 0. [ −1.1] [ 0. center: (0. 15 + 0.5] [ −4. center: (–2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g ( x) = 5 + 0. .07 x c. 250 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + y 2 = 32 x2 + y 2 = 9 117. d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [9 − (−3)]2 = 52 + 122 = 25 + 144 = 169 = 13 113. d = [−2 − (−4)]2 + ( 5 − 3) 2 [ −5. W ( x) = 567 + 15 x 702 = 567 + 15 x 135 = 15 x 9=x 9 years after 2000. 2] domain: ( x + 2) + ( y − 4) = 36 2 2 range: 118. in 2009. the two plans cost the same. a. radius: 3 ⎛ 2 + ( −12 ) 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ −10 10 ⎞ 114. radius: 1 121. a.5) ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 + (−15) −6 + 2 ⎞ ⎛ −11 −4 ⎞ ⎛ −11 ⎞ . ⎜ .Functions and Graphs 119.1] domain: range: f ( x) = 15 + 0. .

–1. 0 d. . R( x) = x(640 − 2 x) = −2 x 2 + 640 x w = 16 − 2 x l = 24 − 2 x 125. (c). f(4) – f(–3) = 3 – (–2) = 5 b. I = 0. a. increasing: (–1. even.PreCalculus 4E 123. 1 c. –2. (b). 2. range: [–4. f (− x) = f ( x) e. domain: (–5. 2l + 3w = 400 2l = 400 − 3w 400 − 3w 2 Let x = width l= ⎛ 400 − 3w ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ x(400 − 3w) = 2 126. 251 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g. 124. x-intercepts: –4. ⎛ 8 ⎞ = 2x2 + 4 ⎜ ⎟x ⎝ x2 ⎠ 32 = 2x2 + x 127. V = lwh 8 = x⋅ x⋅h 8 =h x2 f. f fails the horizontal line test = 640 − 2 x b. and (d) are not functions. Inc. 2. b. f(2) = 5 g. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6] c. 2 b. a.12(10. i. 1. (–1. − 1) or (2. 6) f. y-intercept: –3 a. Chapter 1 Test N ( x) = 400 − 2( x − 120) Chapter 1 Test = 400 − 2 x + 240 1. decreasing: (−5.08x + 0. 5] V ( x) = (16 − 2 x)(24 − 2 x) x d. –4) h. a.000 – x) h. no. and 5. 3. A( x) = 2 x ⋅ x + 4hx f (0) is a relative minimum. 2) 0<x<8 e.

8. 7] domain: range: 252 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . [ −2. range: 9. ∞ ) range: {4} [ −6. 4] domain: 5. ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) domain: range: [ −5. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞. 2] [ −2. ∞ ) ( −∞. 2] domain: range: 6. ∞ ) domain: range: 4.1] [ −2. ∞ ) {−1. 2} domain: range: 10. 2] [ −1. j. i.Functions and Graphs 7. ( −∞. Inc. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) −1 − 0 1 = =− x2 − x1 1 − (−2) 3 ( −∞.

∞ ) range of f: [ −1. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. 15. ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. ( −∞. 14. ∞ ) range of g: [ −2. ) . ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. 4] domain of f: domain of f: f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 16. ∞ ) range of g: ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. ( ( g − f )( x) = 2 x − 6 − x 2 − x − 4 = 2x − 6 − x + x + 4 2 = − x 2 + 3x − 2 253 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain of f: f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( ( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 4 − x 2 − x − 4 ) h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − x − h − 4 − x 2 + x + 4 = h 2 xh + h 2 − h = h h ( 2 x + h − 1) = h = 2x + h −1 18. [ 0. ∞ ) ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 11. 13. ∞ ) domain of f: domain of f: 12. f ( x − 1) = ( x − 1)2 − ( x − 1) − 4 = x2 − 2 x + 1 − x + 1 − 4 = x2 − 3x − 2 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

thus the slope of the desired line is m = −2. will be 516 per 100.S. 20. f (10 ) = 5(10) + 466 = 516 The function predicts that in 2010 the number of sentenced inmates in the U. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) = (2 x − 6) 2 − (2 x − 6) − 4 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) = 4 x 2 − 24 x + 36 − 2 x + 6 − 4 y − (−10) = −2 ( x − (−7) ) = 4 x 2 − 26 x + 38 21. y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) y − 486 = 5 x − 20 y = 5 x + 466 f ( x ) = 5 x + 466 −8 − 1 −9 = =3 −1 − 2 −3 point-slope form: y – 1 = 3(x – 2) or y + 8 = 3(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 3x – 5 m= c. 4x + 2 y − 5 = 0 ⎛ f ⎞ x2 − x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2x − 6 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. find the slope using the points (2. 1 y = − x + 5 so m = 4 4 point-slope form: y – 6 = 4(x + 4) slope-intercept form: y = 4x + 22 28. 24. = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 14 22. g(–1) = 3 – (–1) = 4 g (7) = 7 − 3 = 4 = 2 254 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 486 − 476 10 = =5 4−2 2 Then use the slope and a point to write the equation in point-slope form. 486) . ( g f )( x) = g ( f ( x) ) ( y + 10 = −2( x + 7) y + 10 = −2 x − 14 ) = 2 x2 − x − 4 − 6 2 x + y + 24 = 0 = 2x − 2x − 8 − 6 2 27. Write 4 x + 2 y − 5 = 0 in slope intercept form. = x2 + x − 4 f is neither even nor odd. 476) and (4.3) ∪ ( 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . ∞ ) 2 y = −4 x + 5 y = −2 x + 5 2 The slope of the parallel line is –2. 3(10) 2 − 5 − [3(6) 2 − 5] 10 − 6 205 − 103 = 4 192 = 4 = 48 29. 26. ( a.000 residents. First. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) ) g ( f (−1) ) = 2 (−1) 2 − (−1) − 4 − 6 = 2 (1 + 1 − 4 ) − 6 m= = 2 ( −2 ) − 6 = −4 − 6 y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) = −10 23.Functions and Graphs 19. or y − 476 = 5 ( x − 2 ) f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) − 4 b. 25. Inc.

Inc. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. Publishing as Prentice Hall.19 x −6. the winning time will be 35. b. ⎝2 ⎠ 35. in 2012. ⎟ ∪ ⎜ . 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛7 ⎞ = ⎜ . a. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 33. = 95 − 1. T ( x) = x(95 − 1.08 = −0. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 30. .78 − 0. domain: ( −∞. x + 5 ≥ 0 and x − 1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −5 a.0⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛7 ⎞ The length is 5 and the midpoint is ⎜ . 8000 = x ⋅ x ⋅ h 8000 =h x2 g ( x ) = 2x + 3 d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) = (5 − 2) 2 + ( 2 − (−2) ) V = lwh A( x) = 2 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 2 x2 + 2 8000 x2 32. x ≥1 domain: [1.5 x + 45 31.∞ ) Y ( x) = 50 − 1. 2 − 4x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 2 + 5 −2 + 2 ⎞ ⎟=⎜ 2 .5 x 2 + 95 x 2l + 2w = 600 2l = 600 − 2w 7 2 −4 x = l = 300 − w 7x 2 − 4x Let x = w A( x) = x(300 − x) = − x 2 + 300 x x ≠ 0. d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 38. 37. ∞ ) 36.5( x − 30) = 50 − 1.000 x = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 ⎜ 2 .5 x) = −1. 0 ⎟ . 0 ) ∪ ⎜ 0.78 − 0. ( f g )( x) = b.19 x 32 = x 32 years after 1980.19 x 35.7 seconds.5 x 32.1) ∪ (1.7 = 41. T ( x) = 41. f ( x ) = x7 34. 255 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The denominator is zero when x = 1 or x = –5.

= 63 + 14i 3. (−2 + −3) 2 = (−2 + i 3) 2 = (−2) 2 + 2(−2)(i 3) + (i 3) 2 = 14i − 63i 2 = 14i − 63(−1) b. a. 2. −27 + −48 = i 27 + i 48 (5 + 4i )(6 − 7i ) = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28i 2 = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28(−1) = 30 + 28 − 35i + 24i = 58 − 11i 5 + 4i 5 + 4i 4 + i = ⋅ 4−i 4−i 4+i 20 + 5i + 16i + 4i 2 = 16 + 4i − 4i − i 2 20 + 21i − 4 = 16 + 1 16 + 21i = 17 16 21 = + i 17 17 5. = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3(−1) 7i (2 − 9i ) = 7i (2) − 7i (9i ) = 1 − 4i 3 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. (5 − 2i ) + (3 + 3i ) = 5 − 2i + 3 + 3i = (5 + 3) + (−2 + 3)i = 8+i 4. . 1 − i}. Inc. x= 256 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c = 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 2 ± 4 −8 2 2 ± −4 x= 2 2 ± 2i x= 2 x = 1± i The solution set is {1 + i.1 Check Point Exercises 1.Chapter 2 Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. b. −14 + −12 −14 + i 12 = 2 2 −14 + 2i 3 = 2 −14 2i 3 = + 2 2 = −7 + i 3 x2 − 2x + 2 = 0 a = 1. b = −2. = i 9 ⋅ 3 + i 16 ⋅ 3 = 3i 3 + 4i 3 = 7i 3 (2 + 6i ) − (12 − i ) = 2 + 6i − 12 + i = (2 − 12) + (6 + 1)i = −10 + 7i b. a.

3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5. (8 – 4i)(–3 + 9i) = −24 + 72i + 12i − 36i 2 = –24 + 36 + 84i = 12 + 84i Exercise Set 2. 22. (−5 + i )(−5 − i ) = 25 + 5i − 5i − i 2 = 25 + 1 = 26 18. 2. (−7 + i )(−7 − i ) = 49 + 7i − 7i − i 2 = 49 + 1 = 50 19.1 1. ( 2 + 7i )( 2 − 7i ) = 4 − 49i 2 = 4 + 49 = 53 17. 8i – (14 – 9i) = 8i – 14 + 9i = –14 + 8i + 9i = –14 + 17i 9. (7 + 2i) + (1 – 4i) = 7 + 2i + 1 – 4i = 7 + 1 + 2i – 4i = 8 – 2i = 34 (3 + 2i) – (5 – 7i) = 3 – 5 + 2i + 7i = 3 + 2i – 5 + 7i = –2 + 9i (–7 + 5i) – (–9 – 11i) = –7 + 5i + 9 + 11i = –7 + 9 + 5i + 11i = 2 + 16i 16. (7 – 5i)(–2 – 3i) = −14 − 21i + 10i + 15i 2 = –14 – 15 – 11i = –29 – 11i 2 2 3+i = ⋅ 3−i 3−i 3+i 2(3 + i ) = 9 +1 2 (3 + i ) = 10 3+i = 5 3 1 = + i 5 5 3 3 4−i = ⋅ 4+i 4+i 4−i 3( 4 − i) = 16 − i 2 3( 4 − i) = 17 12 3 = − i 17 17 257 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . (−4 − 8i )(3 + i ) = −12 − 4i − 24i − 8i 2 = −12 − 28i + 8 = −4 − 28i 13. = 4 + 12i + 9i 2 ( 5 − 2i ) 2 = 25 − 20i + 4i 2 = 25 − 20i − 4 = 21 − 20i 15i – (12 – 11i) = 15i – 12 + 11i = –12 + 15i + 11i = –12 + 26i 21. (3 + 5i )(3 − 5i ) = 9 − 15i + 15i − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 (–2 + 6i) + (4 – i) = –2 + 6i + 4 – i = –2 + 4 + 6i – i = 2 + 5i 6.1 14. 8. 4. 20. –8i (2i – 7) = −16i 2 + 56i = –16(–1) + 56i = 9 − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 = 34 = 16 + 56i 11. ( 2 + 3i ) 6 − (−5 + 4i ) − (−13 − i ) = 6 + 5 − 4i + 13 + i = 24 − 3i 7 − (−9 + 2i ) − (−17 − i ) = 7 + 9 − 2i + 17 + i = 33 − i 7. 2 = 4 + 12i − 9 = −5 + 12i 10. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 15. –3i(7i – 5) = −21i 2 + 15i = –21(–1) + 15i = 21 + 15i (−5 + 4i )(3 + i ) = −15 − 5i + 12i + 4i 2 = −15 + 7i − 4 = −19 + 7i 12.

Inc. 25. . 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5(4i) + 3(9i) = 20i + 27i = 47i 5i 5i 2 + i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 10i + 5i 2 = 4 +1 −5 + 10i = 5 = −1 + 2i 32. 3 − 4i 3 − 4i 4 − 3i = ⋅ 4 + 3i 4 + 3i 4 − 3i 12 − 25i + 12i 2 = 16 + 9 −25i = 25 = −i 38. 28. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 29. ( −5 − −9 ) 2 = (−5 − i 9)2 = ( −5 − 3i ) 2 = 25 + 30i + 9i 2 = 25 + 30i – 9 = 16 + 30i 35. 26. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5i 8 + 3i 18 = 5i 4 ⋅ 2 + 3i 9 ⋅ 2 = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = 19i 2 33. 27.Polynomial and Rational Functions 23. 2i 2i 1 − i 2i − 2i 2 2 + 2i = ⋅ = = = 1+ i 1+ i 1+ i 1− i 1+1 2 31. −64 − −25 = i 64 − i 25 = 8i − 5i = 3i −8 + −32 −8 + i 32 = 24 24 −8 + i 16 ⋅ 2 = 24 −8 + 4i 2 = 24 1 2 i =− + 3 6 −12 + −28 −12 + i 28 −12 + i 4 ⋅ 7 = = 32 32 32 = −81 − −144 = i 81 − i 144 = 9i – 12i = –3i −12 + 2i 7 3 7 i =− + 32 8 16 258 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( −2 + −11 ) = ( −2 + i 11) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 11 + i 2 (11) = 4 − 11 − 4i 11 = −7 − 4i 11 37. ( −2 + −4 ) 2 = ( −2 + 2i ) 2 = 4 − 8i + 4i 2 = 4 – 8i – 4 = –8i 8i 8i 4 + 3i = ⋅ 4 − 3i 4 − 3i 4 + 3i 32i + 24i 2 = 16 + 9 −24 + 32i = 25 24 32 =− + i 25 25 34. 30. −6i −6i 3 − 2i −18i + 12i 2 = ⋅ = 3 + 2i 3 + 2i 3 − 2i 9+4 12 18 −12 − 18i = =− − i 13 13 13 ( −3 − −7 ) = ( −3 − i 7 ) 2 2 = 9 + 6i 7 + i 2 ( 7 ) = 9 − 7 + 6i 7 = 2 + 6i 7 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2+i 2−i 4 + 4i − 3i 2 = 4 +1 7 + 4i = 5 7 4 = + i 5 5 36. 24.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3 − 5 = i 8(i 3 − 5) = 2i 2 i 3 − 5 42. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ = 24 15 44. 2 ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(17) x= −15 − 3i 2 5 2 i =− − 33 11 11 −8 x 2 − 2 x + 17 = 0 x= −15 − −18 −15 − i 18 −15 − i 9 ⋅ 2 = = 33 33 33 = 41. (3 )( −7 2 −8 −8 ± 64 − 208 8 −8 ± −144 8 −8 ± 12i = 8 4(−2 ± 3i ) = 8 −2 ± 3i = 2 3 = −1 ± i 2 = −4 3 − 2i 6 43. −6 − −12 −6 − i 12 = 48 48 −6 − i 4 ⋅ 3 = 48 −6 − 2i 3 = 48 1 3 i =− − 8 24 46.1 − 4i}. 3 − i} . Inc. ( ) 47. x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 0 x= 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i The solution set is {3 + i.1 ) = (3i 7 )(2i 8) = (3i 7 )(2i 4 ⋅ 2) ( )( ) = 3i 7 4i 2 = 12i 2 14 = −12 14 45. x= 259 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 39. ( ( ) ) = ( = 4i 2 (3 ) 3 − 2i 6 )( ) ( )( −5 −4 −12 = 3i 5 −8i 3 ) = −24i 2 15 3 3 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1 + i. . − 1 − i ⎬ . Section 2. 40. −8 ± 82 − 4(4)(13) 2(4) = −4 − 2 = i 12(i 4 − 2) = 2i 3 2i − 2 4 x 2 + 8 x + 13 = 0 x= = −2 6 − 2i 10 −12 2(1) 2 ± 4 − 68 2 2 ± −64 x= 2 2 ± 8i x= 2 x = 1 ± 4i The solution set is {1 + 4i.

− i⎬. 3x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 2(3) = 2 − 5i + 3i 2 − 9 + i 2 8 ± 64 − 84 6 8 ± −20 6 8 ± 2i 5 6 2(4 ± i 5) 6 4±i 5 3 4 5 i ± 3 3 = −7 − 5i + 4i 2 = −7 − 5i + 4 ( −1) = −11 − 5i 52. 3 3 3 3 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 5 1 5 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 1 The solution set is ⎨ − + i. . − i⎬. − − i⎬. 2 x2 + 2 x + 3 = 0 x= 50. = = = = = = 2(3) 4 ± 16 − 72 6 4 ± −56 6 4 ± 2i 14 6 2(2 ± i 14) 6 2 ± i 14 3 2 14 i ± 3 3 ( 2 − 3i )(1 − i ) − ( 3 − i )( 3 + i ) = ( 2 − 2i − 3i + 3i 2 ) − ( 32 − i 2 ) − ( −8 ) ± (−8) − 4(3)(7) 2 x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(3)(6) 14 2 14 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 2 The solution set is ⎨ + i. 2 2 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 49. Inc. ⎩⎪ 3 3 3 3 ⎪⎭ ( 2 + i ) − (3 − i ) 2 2 = ( 4 + 4i + i 2 ) − ( 9 − 6i + i 2 ) = 4 + 4i + i 2 − 9 + 6i − i 2 = −5 + 10i 260 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (8 + 9i )( 2 − i ) − (1 − i )(1 + i ) = (16 − 8i + 18i − 9i 2 ) − (12 − i 2 ) = 16 + 10i − 9i 2 − 1 + i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8 ( −1) = 23 + 10i 53. −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(2)(3) 2(2) x= −2 ± 4 − 24 4 −2 ± −20 = 4 −2 ± 2i 5 = 4 2(−1 ± i 5) = 4 −1 ± i 5 = 2 1 5 i =− ± 2 2 = = = = = = = 3x 2 − 8 x + 7 = 0 51. ⎧⎪ 4 5 4 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ + i.Polynomial and Rational Functions 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

x 2 + 19 2−x 2 − 3i 9i 2 + 19 = 2 − 3i −9 + 19 = 2 − 3i 10 = 2 − 3i 10 2 + 3i = ⋅ 2 − 3i 2 + 3i 20 + 30i = 4 − 9i 2 20 + 30i = 4+9 20 + 30i = 13 20 30 = + i 13 13 = 15 − 12i − 3i 2 55. 57.1 ( 4 − i ) − (1 + 2i ) 2 2 59. Inc. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 54. = (16 − 8i + i 2 ) − (1 + 4i + 4i 2 ) = 16 − 8i + i − 1 − 4i − 4i 2 f ( 3i ) = 2 = 15 − 12i − 3 ( −1) = 18 − 12i 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5 16 −1 + 3 81 −1 = 5 ⋅ 4i + 3 ⋅ 9i = 20i + 27i = 47i or 0 + 47i 56. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5 4 2 −1 + 3 9 2 −1 = 5⋅ 2 2 i + 3⋅3 2 i = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = (10 + 9 ) i 2 = 19i 2 or 0 + 19i 2 60. f ( x) = f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 5 f (1 − 2i ) = (1 − 2i ) − 2 (1 − 2i ) + 5 2 = 1 − 4i + 4i 2 − 2 + 4i + 5 = 4 + 4i 2 = 4−4 =0 261 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 2 f ( x) = f ( 4i ) = f (1 + i ) = (1 + i ) − 2 (1 + i ) + 2 2 ( 3i ) 2 + 19 x 2 + 11 3− x ( 4i ) 2 + 11 = 16i 2 + 11 3 − 4i 3 − 4i −16 + 11 = 3 − 4i −5 = 3 − 4i −5 3 + 4i = ⋅ 3 − 4i 3 + 4i −15 − 20i = 9 − 16i 2 −15 − 20i = 9 + 16 −15 − 20i = 25 −15 20 = − i 25 25 3 4 =− − i 5 5 = 1 + 2i + i 2 − 2 − 2i + 2 = 1 + i2 = 1 −1 =0 58. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .

Sample explanation: Imaginary numbers are not undefined. E = IR = ( 2 − 3i )( 3 + 5i ) = 6 + 10i − 9i − 15i = 6 + i − 15 ( −1) 2 (5 + i 15 ) + (5 − i 15 ) = 5 + i 15 + 5 − i 15 = 5+5 = 10 Product: (5 + i 15 )(5 − i 15 ) = 25 − 5i 15 + 5i 15 − 15i 2 = 25 + 15 = 40 64. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 79. false. Explanations will vary. 76. A sample change is: 7 + 3i 7 + 3i 5 − 3i 44 − 6i 22 3 = ⋅ = = − i 5 + 3i 5 + 3i 5 − 3i 34 17 17 80. 78. . Inc. A sample change is: (3 + 7i)(3 – 7i) = 9 + 49 = 58 which is a real9number. 74. does not make sense. E = IR = ( 4 − 5i )( 3 + 7i ) E = 12 + 28i − 15i − 35i E = 12 + 13i − 35 ( −1) E = 12 + 35 + 13i = 47 + 13i The voltage of the circuit is (47 + 13i) volts. A sample change is: All irrational numbers are complex numbers. false. 62. Answers may vary. 4 1+ i 1− i + 1 + 2i 1 − 2i (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = + (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) + (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) 1 − 2i + i − 2i 2 + 1 + 2i − i − 2i 2 = 1 − 4i 2 1 − 2i + i + 2 + 1 + 2i − i + 2 = 1+ 4 6 = 5 6 = + 0i 5 262 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 75. 73. – 72. 82. Sample explanation: i = −1 . 4 6 − 2i + 3i − i 2 4 6 + i +1 4 = 7+i 4 7−i = ⋅ 7+i 7−i 28 − 4i = 49 − i 2 28 − 4i = 49 + 1 28 − 4i = 50 28 4 = − i 50 50 14 2 = − i 25 25 63. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 77. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. Sum: makes sense ( 2 + i )( 3 − i ) = = = 6 + i + 15 = 21 + i The voltage of the circuit is ( 21 + i ) volts. Changes to make the statement true will vary. It is not a variable in this context. false. true 2 81.

−(−2) ± (−2) − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) 2 x= 2± 8 2 2±2 2 = 2 = 1± 2 = The solution set is {1 ± 2}.2 86. 263 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 83. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted 1 unit up and 3 units to the left. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 ( x − 1) 2 =4 x − 1 = ±2 x = 1± 2 x = 3 or x = −1 Step 4: find the y-intercept: −x2 − 2x + 1 = 0 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 2 −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 2 h P=1 P ⎛ ⎞ kP= 4 f ( x) = − ⎜ x − 1 ⎟ + 4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. 5 85. 4) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 2( x − 3) 2 = 8 ( x − 3) 2 = 4 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 x−3= ± 4 x = 3± 2 x = 1.2 Check Point Exercises 1. . 8 2 1+ i Section 2. 2 a =−1 0 = −2( x − 3) 2 + 8 84. 8 i 2 + i i 8 = 2+i i 8i = 2+i 8i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2−i 16i − 8i 2 = 4 − i2 16i + 8 = 4 +1 8 + 16i = 5 8 16 = + i 5 5 = Section 2. Step 2: find the vertex: (1.

∞ ) 264 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 and x ≈ −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 + 4x + 1 x − 2 = −1 x = 2±i The equation has no real roots. 2a 8 f (2) = 4(2) 2 − 16(2) + 1000 = 984 The minimum point is 984 at x = 2 . . 5). 1) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 1 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x ) = − x2 + 4x + 1 f ( 2 ) = −22 + 4(2) + 1 = 5 = −1 The vertex is (2. thus the parabola has no x-intercepts. f ( x) = 4 x 2 − 16 x + 1000 a. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. 4. Inc. −b 16 x= = =2 b. a = 4. ∞) range: [984. Step 4: find the y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 + 4(0) + 1 = 1 x= Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) + 1 2 3. Step 2: find the vertex: (2. Step 4: find the y-intercept: x= f (0) = (0 − 2) + 1 = 5 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −4 ± 42 − 4(−1)(1) 2(−1) −4 ± 20 −2 x = 2± 5 The x-intercepts are x ≈ −0. domain: (−∞.2 . c. Step 2: find the vertex: 4 b x=− =− =2 2a 2(−1) Step 1: The parabola opens up because a > 0.

005)(5) 2(−0. 5 ) . The maximum height of the arrow is 205 feet.005(200) + 2(200) + 5 = 205 The vertex is (200.PreCalculus 4E 5. x-coordinate of vertex −b −2 x= = = 200 2a 2 ( −0.005 x + 2 x + 5 0 = −0. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 Plot ( 0. ( 402. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 120 feet of fencing. the width y is y = 60 − x = 60 − 30 = 30. 2 y = −0. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 8 ) = x 2 − 8 x 120 − 2 x = 60 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 60 − x ) . 0 ) . b. This gives an area of 30 ⋅ 30 = 900 square feet. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 60 60 b x=− =− =− = 30. = 16 − 32 = −16 The vertex is ( 4. 7. Section 2. Find the corresponding y-coordinate. Since we need an equation in one variable. 205 ) .005(0)2 + 2(0) + 5 = 5 Since a = −1 is negative. This occurs 200 feet from its release. Let x = one of the numbers. When the length x is 30.205). y = −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 265 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The minimum product is −16 . x − 8 = the other number. y = −0. −16 ) . 2a 2 (1) 2 y-coordinate of vertex f ( 4) = ( 4) − 8 ( 4) 2 2 y = −0. Rewrite y= A as a function of x. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 30 feet by 30 feet.005 ) The x-coordinate of the minimum is b −8 −8 x=− =− =− = 4. 2 x + 2 y = 120 2 y = 120 − 2 x x= c. Let y = the width of the rectangle. The arrow will hit the ground when the height reaches 0. The information needed is found at the vertex.2 6.005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −2 ± 22 − 4(−0. and connect them with a smooth curve. and ( 200. A ( x ) = x ( 60 − x ) = − x 2 + 60 x The starting point occurs when x = 0. This occurs when the two number are 4 and 4 − 8 = −4 . Let x = the length of the rectangle. . use the perimeter to express y in terms of x.005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 a. Inc.005) x ≈ −2 or x ≈ 402 The arrow travels 402 feet before hitting the ground.

–1) j ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 1 2 4. k = 5 The vertex is at (–1. k = 12 The vertex is at (2. The graph is f(x) = x translated down one. 5). domain: ( −∞. 7). vertex: (–1. f(x) = 2(x – 3) + 1 h = 3. 2 12. 1) h ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 1 2 2. k = 1 The vertex is at (3. Inc. 2 10. vertex: (1. f(x) = –2(x + 1) + 5 h = –1. The point (–1. . f(x) = –2(x + 4) – 8 h = –4. –5). h ( x ) = x2 −1 6. g ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x + 1 8. 2 11. 12). –11). vertex: (–1. f(x) = 2x – 8x + 3 −b 8 x= = =2 2a 4 f(2) = 2(2)2 – 8(2) + 3 = 8 – 16 + 3 = –5 The vertex is at (2. The point (1. 2 17. –1) f ( x ) = ( x + 1) − 1 2 2 5. 16. ∞ ) 2 13. f(x) = –2x + 8x – 1 −b −8 x= = =2 2 a −4 2 f(2) = –2(2) + 8(2) – 1 = –8 + 16 – 1 = 7 The vertex is at (2. 1) g ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 1 2 3.2 1. f(x) = 3x – 12x + 1 −b 12 x= = =2 2a 6 f(2) = 3(2)2 – 12(2) + 1 = 12 – 24 + 1 = –11 The vertex is at (2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 Exercise Set 2. 1). 9). 2 15. –8). 0) is on the graph and g(1) = 0. 0) is on the graph and f(–1) = 0. vertex: (1. f ( x ) = ( x − 4) −1 2 vertex: (4. k = –8 The vertex is at (–4. 14. 9. ∞ ) 266 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(x) = –3(x – 2) + 12 h = 2. j ( x ) = − x2 − 1 0 = ( x − 4) −1 2 1 = ( x − 4) 2 2 ±1 = x – 4 x = 3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 4) 2 − 1 = 15 The axis of symmetry is x = 4. f(x) = –x – 2x + 8 −b 2 x= = = −1 2a −2 2 f(–1) = –(–1) – 2(–1) + 8 = –1 + 2 + 8 = 9 The vertex is at (–1. f ( x ) = x 2 + 2 x + 1 7. –1) x-intercepts: 2 The graph is f(x) = –x translated down one. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: [ −1.

∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 21. f ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 2 2 2 vertex: (3. ∞ ) range: [ −2. –2) x-intercepts: vertex: (3. ∞ ) 19. Section 2. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 1) − 2 = –1 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) + 2 = 11 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) − 2 0 = ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 1) ( x − 3) 2 2 2 =2 2 = −2 x −1 = ± 2 x − 3 = ±i 2 x = 1± 2 y-intercept: x = 3±i 2 No x-intercepts. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 3) + 1 = 10 2 range: [1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. . ∞ ) 267 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) range: [ 2. domain: ( −∞.∞ ) range: [ 2.2 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 2 2 20. y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 1) 2 + 2 = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 1) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 2 2 ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 3) + 1 vertex: (1.PreCalculus 4E 18. 2) x-intercepts: 2 y − 1 = ( x − 3) 0 = ( x − 3) + 1 2 = −2 ( x − 3) x − 1 = ± −2 2 = −1 x – 3 = ±i x = 3 ±i No x-intercepts. y-intercept: 10 x = 1± i 2 No x-intercepts. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) + 2 2 vertex: (1. domain: ( −∞.

1 . ∞ ) x = 1± i 3 No x-intercepts y-intercept: range: [ −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. ⎟ ⎝2 4⎠ x-intercepts: 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ 0 = −⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. 5 ⎛ 1⎞ −⎜ x− ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f ( x) = − ⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 5⎞ vertex: ⎜ . y − 3 = ( x − 1) The axis of symmetry is x = –2. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 1) + 3 = 4 2 24. 2 . Inc. ∞ ) 5⎤ ⎛ range: ⎜ −∞. f ( x) = The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 2 y = ( x − 1) + 3 2 vertex: (1. 1 5 =± 2 2 1± 5 x= 2 y-intercept: x− f ( x) = 2 ( x + 2 ) − 1 2 vertex: (–2. ∞ ) 23. –1) x-intercepts: 0 = 2 ( x + 2) − 1 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f (0) = − ⎜ 0 − ⎟ + = 1 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 ( x + 2) = 1 2 ( x + 2) 2 = x+2= ± x = −2 ± 1 2 1 The axis of symmetry is x = 2 1 2 y-intercept: = −2 ± 2 2 f (0) = 2 ( 0 + 2 ) − 1 = 7 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ range: [3. ⎥ 4⎦ ⎝ 268 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 3 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −3 x − 1 = ±i 3 domain: ( −∞.

PreCalculus 4E 25.2 f ( x ) = 4 − ( x − 1) 2 27. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 3 ) + 1 = −8 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 3. 4) x-intercepts: 2 2 2 =4 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: ( x − 1) 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. . ∞ ) f ( x ) = 1 − ( x − 3) 2 28. 1) x-intercepts: f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 16 vertex: (1. –4) x-intercepts: ( x − 1) 0 = ( x − 1) − 4 2 vertex: (1. ∞ ) =4 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 2 =1 x–3=±1 x = 2 or x = 4 y-intercept: 0 = ( x − 1) − 16 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 16 x–1=±4 x = –3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 15 = –15 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. –16) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 ( x − 3) 2 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: –3 f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 3 = −3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. Inc. f ( x ) = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 f ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x − 15 f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 15 − 1 vertex: (3. ∞ ) 269 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. domain: ( −∞. Section 2. ∞ ) range: [ −16. f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 3 − 1 f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 4 vertex: (1. 4] range: [ −4. f ( x ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 26.1] domain: ( −∞.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = 2x2 − 7 x − 4 7 49 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 2 16 ⎠ 8 ⎝ 9⎞ 9 ⎛ f ( x ) = ⎜ x 2 + 3x + ⎟ − 10 − 4⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ f ( x) = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 7 81 ⎛ ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . 2 f ( 0 ) = 2 ( 0 ) − 7 ( 0 ) − 4 = –4 2 The axis of symmetry is x = domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ⎡ 49 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . 4 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. − ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2 x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ 0 =⎜x+ ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ 0 = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ 2⎜ x − ⎟ = 4 8 ⎝ ⎠ 2 3⎞ 49 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 3 7 x+ = ± 2 2 3 7 x=− ± 2 2 x = 2 or x = –5 y-intercept: f ( x ) = 02 + 3 ( 0 ) − 10 = −10 The axis of symmetry is x = − 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 4 ⎠ 16 ⎝ 7 9 x− =± 4 4 7 9 x= ± 4 4 1 x = − or x = 4 2 y-intercept: 3 . ∞ ) ⎡ 81 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 8 ⎠ 270 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = x 2 + 3x − 10 30. Inc. − ⎟ ⎝4 8 ⎠ x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 49 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ − . 7 . ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ domain: ( −∞.

4] 32. Section 2. ∞ ) x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: range: ( −∞. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (0) = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = −3 . −6 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 3) − 6 2 ( x + 3) 2 =6 x+3 = ± 6 x = −3 ± 6 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 6(0) + 3 domain: ( −∞.9] f ( 0) = 2 ( 0) − ( 0) + 3 = 3 2 33. ∞ ) =9 range: [ −6. 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 ( x − 1) 2 =4 domain: ( −∞. f ( x) = x 2 + 6 x + 3 f ( x) = ( x 2 + 6 x + 9) + 3 − 9 The axis of symmetry is x = 1.2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 + 3 The axis of symmetry is x = –2. ∞ ) range: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 31. f ( x) = 5 − 4 x − x 2 f ( x) = − x 2 − 4 x + 5 f ( x) = − ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 ) + 5 + 4 f ( x) = − ( x + 2 ) + 9 2 vertex: (–2. f ( x ) = ( x + 3) − 6 2 vertex: ( −3. 1 y-intercept: f (0) = 5 − 4 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) = 5 2 271 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 9) x-intercepts: 0 = − ( x + 2) + 9 2 ( x + 2) 2 domain: ( −∞. Inc. f ( x) = − x + 2 x + 3 2 f ( x) = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) + 4 vertex: (1. ∞ ) x+2=±3 x = –5.

∞ ) 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 0 = 3⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ range: [ −5.Polynomial and Rational Functions 34. ∞ ) x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 4(0) − 1 36. −5) x-intercepts: x= 0 = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 3(0) 2 − 2(0) − 4 2 ( x + 1) = 5 2 ( x + 1) 2 = 5 2 x +1 = ± 1 13 ± 3 3 f (0) = −4 5 2 x = −1 ± 10 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 2(0) 2 + 4(0) − 3 f (0) = −3 272 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) x+2 = ± 5 range: [ −5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . f ( x) = x 2 + 4 x − 1 f ( x) = ( x + 4 x + 4) − 1 − 4 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2 ) − 5 2 vertex: ( −2. 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ ⎛ 1 13 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 3⎜ x − ⎟ = 3⎠ 3 ⎝ f ( x) = 2 x + 4 x − 3 2 f ( x) = 2( x 2 + 2 x )−3 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 3⎠ 9 ⎝ f ( x) = 2( x + 2 x + 1) − 3 − 2 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 1 13 x− = ± 3 9 vertex: ( −1. −5 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 2) − 5 2 ( x + 2) 2 =5 domain: ( −∞. . f ( x) = 3 x 2 − 2 x − 4 2 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x ⎟ − 4 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2 1⎞ 1 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 3 9 3 ⎝ ⎠ f (0) = −1 The axis of symmetry is x = −2 . Inc. ∞ ) 35. − ⎟ ⎝3 3 ⎠ x-intercepts: domain: ( −∞.

∞) range: [ −11. Inc. −1] 273 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 f (0) = 6 − 4 ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) = 6 2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 − 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 2. f ( x) = 6 − 4 x + x 2 f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 6 f ( x) = ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) + 6 − 4 f ( x) = ( x − 2 ) + 2 2 vertex: (2. ∞ ) The axis of symmetry is x = 1. x= = =2 2a 4 2 f(2) = 2(2) – 8(2) – 3 = 8 – 16 – 3 = –11 The minimum is –11 at x = 2 .2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1 . a = 3. –1) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) − 1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −1 x – 1 = ±i x = 1 ±i No x-intercepts. c. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ∞ ) f (0) = 2 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 2 2 39. −b 8 b. a = 2. ∞ ) = −2 x − 2 = ±i 2 x = 2±i 2 No x-intercepts y-intercept: ⎡ 13 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. . f(x) = 2x – 8x – 3 a. −b 12 b. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 3 ⎠ 37. domain: (−∞. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 2 2 ( x − 2) domain: ( −∞. 2 40. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞) range: [ −13. ∞ ) range: [ 2. x= = =2 2a 6 2 f(2) = 3(2) – 12(2) – 1 = 12 – 24 – 1 = –13 The minimum is –13 at x = 2 . ∞ ) range: ( −∞. f ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x − 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 2 x + 1) − 2 + 1 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) − 1 vertex: (1. domain: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) = 3x – 12x – 1 a. c. 3 38. y-intercept: domain: ( −∞.

range: [ −2. ∞ ) ⎡ −5 ⎞ domain: (−∞. f ( x) = −4 x 2 + 8 x − 3 a. range: ( −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 41. ∞) range: ( −∞. f(x) = –2x2 – 12x + 3 a. domain: ( −∞. 47. −4 ) is a maximum point. ( h. ( h. domain: ( −∞. ∞) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) . range: ( −∞. Since the parabola opens up. The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. −6] 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 5⎜ ⎟ − 5⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5 5 10 −5 = − = − = 4 2 4 4 4 −5 1 at x = .18) . −6 ) . −b 12 b. k ) = ( −10. 4 ) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k = 2 ( x − 7) + 4 51. −b 5 1 x= = = 2a 10 2 domain: ( −∞. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. it opens up from the vertex ( −6. x= x= 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 6⎜ ⎟ − 6⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 6 3 6 −3 = −3 = − = 4 2 2 2 −3 1 at x = . Inc. The parabola opens upward and has minimum value. a = 6. 44. the vertex ( −1. a = –2. it opens down from the vertex (10. −2 ) is a f ( x) = 5 x 2 − 5 x a. The minimum is 2 4 c. x= = = −3 2 a −4 f(–3) = –2(–3)2 – 12(–3) + 3 = –18 + 36 + 3 = 21 The maximum is 21 at x = −3 . Since the parabola opens down. −4] a = 5. ⎡ −3 ⎞ domain: (−∞. ∞ ⎟ ⎣2 ⎠ 45. c. 43. . range: [18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ 49. Since the parabola has a minimum. b. b. ∞ ) . The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. a = -4. −b 6 1 = = 2a 12 2 48. b. The minimum is 2 2 = −4 + 8 − 3 = 1 The maximum is 1 at x = 1 . domain: ( −∞. domain: (−∞. k ) = ( 7. c. ( h. Since the parabola has a maximum. ∞) range: ⎢ . k ) = ( 5. c. −5 ) 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−10) ] + (−5) 2 = 2 ( x + 10 ) − 5 274 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain: (−∞. minimum point.1] 42. the vertex ( −3. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞) range: ⎢ . −b −8 = =1 2a −8 f (1) = −4(1) 2 + 8(1) − 3 f ( x) = 6 x 2 − 6 x a.3) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h ) + k = 2 ( x − 5) + 3 50. 21] 46.

04)(6.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −0.04) x ≈ 55. ( h.7 x + 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c = 6.01(35) 2 + 0. the parabola opens up and a = 3 .3 feet.7 x + 6.1) 2(−0.1x + 6. k ) = (11. 2 Since the vertex is a minimum.04.1 a = −0.12 − 4(−0. k ) = ( −2. a. f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k = −3[ x − (−2)] + 4 2 = −3 ( x + 2 ) + 4 2 c.1 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k 55. .1 = 3 ( x − 11) + 0 2 56. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0. b = 2.1(26.1x + 6. the parabola opens down and a = −3 .7 x + 6. c = 6.1 = = = 26. −6 ) 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−8)] + (−6) 2 = 2 ( x + 8) − 6 b.1 feet. y = −0.01)(6.04 ) 2 = 3 ( x − 11) The initial height can be found at x = 0.01x 2 + 0.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 77. y = −0. c = 6. 275 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1) 2(−0. x= y-coordinate of vertex y = −0. b = 2.01.8 feet.1x + 6.1 a = −0.01) x ≈ 77. the parabola opens up and a = 3 .25)2 + 2.1 The shot was released at a height of 6. ( h. 4 ) x= −0.04 x 2 + 2.35 The maximum height of the shot is about 18.7 x + 6.01x 2 + 0. the parabola opens down and a = −3 .1 ± 2. 2 = −3 ( x − 5) + ( −7 ) 2 58.2 ( h. ( h.7. b = 0. ( h. This occurs 35 feet from its point of release.25) + 6.7 The maximum height of the shot is about 33.01) −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −2.PreCalculus 4E 52. k ) = ( −8.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −2. Since the vertex is a maximum.25 2a 2 ( −0.7 = = = 35 2a 2 ( −0.1x + 6.7 x + 6. y = −0.7 2 − 4(−0.1 2 = 3( x − 9) + 0 0 = −0.7 feet. 53.1 a = −0.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 55. k ) = ( 9.01x + 0.35 feet.1.7(0) + 6. 0 ) b. a. = −3 ( x − 5 ) − 7 Since the vertex is a minimum. Section 2. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0.1 = 3( x − 9) 2 a = −0.04 x 2 + 2.01(0) 2 + 0.1 = 6.25 feet from its point of release.1 x= 2 y = −0.1 y = −0. y = −0.8 or x ≈ −7.7 ± 0.04(26. f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 57. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 2 54.1 = 18.01x 2 + 0. Inc.04 x 2 + 2.1 0 = −0. −7 ) y = −0.04 x 2 + 2. c = 6. 0 ) y-coordinate of vertex f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 y = −0.01x 2 + 0. b = 0. k ) = ( 5.3 or x ≈ −2.01.1 Since the vertex is a maximum.04. This occurs 26.7(35) + 6.1 ≈ 33.7.1. y = −0.

03) −64 . The maximum product is 10 ⋅10 = 100.004 x 2 − 0.1 y = −0. b.094 b =− ≈ 12 2a 2 ( 0.43 2 = 1.14 ( 2 ) + 1. U.1 feet.03 x + 0. x=− f (12 ) = 0. x=− 2a 2 (1) 2 f ( 5) = −0. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 8 − 16 = −8 . f ( x ) = 0. Let x = one of the numbers. The maximum product is 64. adult wine consumption in 2005 was 2.14 ( 5 ) + 1. The product is minimized when ( −24 ) b =− = 12 x=− 2a 2 (1) Since 12 − ( −12 ) = 24 .75 According to the function.048 The other number is 20 − x = 20 − 10 = 10.094(12) + 2. Let x = the larger number.004 ) Wine consumption was at a minimum about 12 years after 1980. This differs from the value in the graph by 0.094(25) + 2. The minimum product is P(12) = 12 (12 − 24 ) = −144 . Wine consumption was about 2.03 billion. −64 ) . The minimum product is b 0.43 2 = 1. The product of these two numbers is given by P( x) = x ( x − 24 ) = x 2 − 24 x f ( 2 ) = −0. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 16 − 8 = 8 .04 x + 2. 59.04 billion. b.59 billion in 2002. 16 − x = the other number. f ( 8 ) = −82 + 16 ( 8 ) = −64 + 128 = 64 f ( 25 ) = 0. 64. or 2002.05 gallon. the two numbers whose difference is 24 and whose product is minimized are 12 and −12 . This underestimates the graph’s value by 0.59 Movie attendance was about 1.14 x + 1.6 ≈ 2. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0. = 2.004(12)2 − 0. The numbers which maximize the product are 10 and 10.S. 64). . year = − 62. f ( x ) = x (16 − x ) The product is = 16 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 16 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 16 16 x=− =− =− = 8. Let x = one of the numbers.04(0)2 + 2. 63. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 16 ) = x 2 − 16 x f ( x ) = −0. year = − b 20 20 =− =− = 10 −2 2a 2 ( −1) f ( 8 ) = ( 8 ) − 16 ( 8 ) 2 = 64 − 128 = −64 The vertex is ( 8.03 ( 5) + 0. −2 2a 2 ( −1) 2 y = −0.Polynomial and Rational Functions c.75 gallons per person.1 = 6.094 x + 2. Movie attendance was at a minimum about 2 years after 2000.1(0) + 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall.03 ( 2 ) + 0. The x-coordinate of the minimum is −16 −16 b =− =− = 8.S. or 1992. 1. Then x − 24 is the smaller number.14 =− ≈2 2a 2 ( −0. This seems reasonable as compared to the values in the graph.38 According to the function.1 The shot was released at a height of 6.6 The vertex is (8. 60.6 a. Let x = one of the numbers Let 20 – x = the other number P ( x ) = x ( 20 − x ) = 20 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 20 x −0. x − 16 = the other number. adult in 1992.048 gallons per U. Inc. 61.43 2 a. 276 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The initial height can be found at x = 0.004(25) 2 − 0.38 billion movie tickets were sold in 2005.1x + 6.

5.25 square yards. Let x = the length of the rectangle. .5. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) 2 y = 50 − 2 x 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 25 − x ) . This gives an area of 20 ⋅ 20 = 400 square yards.5 = 12. Inc. From the diagram. 600 − 2 x = the length of the rectangle We need to maximize.5 ⋅12. 2 x + 2 y = 50 = 600 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 600 x Since a = −2 is negative. Thus. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 50 yards of fencing. Rewrite y= A as a function of x. The dimensions of the rectangular plot with maximum area are 150 feet by 300 feet. the width y is y = 25 − x = 25 − 12. A ( x ) = x ( 600 − 2 x ) 67. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 20 yards by 20 yards. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed along a river with 600 feet of fencing. 66.5 yards. Let x = the length of the rectangle Let y = the width of the rectangle 2 x + 2 y = 80 2 y = 80 − 2 x 80 − 2 x y= 2 y = 40 − x A = −2 ( 50 ) + 200 ( 50 ) = −5000 + 10. 277 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the area of the plot is given by A = l ⋅ w = ( 200 − 2 x )( x ) = −2 x 2 + 200 x Since the graph of this equation is a parabola that opens down. This gives an area of 150 ⋅ 300 = 45.5. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 12. This gives an area of 12. Let x = the width of the rectangle. the width y is y = 40 − x = 40 − 20 = 20. the length is 600 − 2 (150 ) = 600 − 300 = 300 feet. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 20.5 = 156. Since a = −1 is negative. A ( x ) = x ( 25 − x ) = − x 2 + 25 x When the width is x = 150 feet. 000 2 = 5000 The maximum area is 5000 square feet when the length is 100 feet and the width is 50 feet. Let y = the width of the rectangle. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 25 25 x=− =− =− = 12.2 65. b 200 x=− =− = 50 2a 2 ( −2 ) 68. 000 square feet.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. the area is maximized at the vertex.5 yards by 12. A ( x ) = x ( 40 − x ) = − x 2 + 40 x x=− b 40 40 =− =− = 20. Since we need an equation in one variable. we have that x is the width of the rectangular plot and 200 − 2 x is the length. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 600 600 x=− =− =− = 150. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 12.

we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 400 400 b x=− =− 3 = − 3 = 100. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 100. 70. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 20 20 x=− =− =− = 5. A ( 5 ) = −2 ( 5 ) + 20 ( 5 ) 2 = −2 ( 25 ) + 100 = −50 + 100 = 50 The maximum cross-sectional area is 50 square inches. Since a = −2 is negative. the width y is 2 2 y = 200 − x = 200 − (150) = 100. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 150. Inc. 2 x + 3 y = 600 3 y = 600 − 2 x 600 − 2 x y= 3 2 y = 200 − x 3 2 ⎞ ⎛ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ . Since we need an equation in one variable. 71. Let x = the length of the rectangle. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Rewrite A as a function of x. Since we need an equation in one variable. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. the width is 12 − 2 x = 12 − 2 ( 3) = 12 − 6 = 6. 72. Let x = the length of the rectangle. we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 200 200 b x=− =− =− = 150. This occurs when the gutter is 3 inches deep and 6 inches wide. 278 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the width is 20 − 2 x = 20 − 2 ( 5 ) = 20 − 10 = 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 3 3 3 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with 2 maximum area are 100 feet by 66 feet. This occurs when the gutter is 5 inches deep and 10 inches wide. 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with maximum area are 150 feet by 100 feet. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 5. . 000 square feet. 3 3 Maximize the area of the playground with 600 feet of fencing. A ( 3) = −2 ( 3) + 12 ( 3) = −2 ( 9 ) + 36 2 = −18 + 36 = 18 The maximum cross-sectional area is 18 square inches. Let y = the width of the rectangle. 3 ⎠ ⎝ Rewrite A as a function of x. Maximize the area of the playground with 400 feet of fencing. Maximize the cross-sectional area of the gutter: A ( x ) = x ( 20 − 2 x ) = 20 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 20 x. 2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ A ( x ) = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ = − x 2 + 200 x 3 ⎠ 3 ⎝ 2 Since a = − is negative. 2 x + 3 y = 400 3 y = 400 − 2 x 400 − 2 x y= 3 400 2 y= − x 3 3 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ − x⎟ . the width y is 400 2 400 2 200 2 y= − x= − (100) = = 66 . This gives an area of 150 ⋅100 = 15. A ( x ) = x (12 − 2 x ) = 12 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 12 x b 12 12 x=− =− =− =3 −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 3. This 3 2 2 gives an area of 100 ⋅ 66 = 6666 square feet. Let y = the width of the rectangle.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. 2 400 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ − x ⎟ = − x2 + x 3 ⎠ 3 3 ⎝ 3 2 Since a = − is negative.

520) You can only see a little of the parabola. b = –82 b −82 x=− =− = 20.5 + 50 +160 = 185 The vertex is at (2. 76.5) 2 − 82(20.5 x= 2a −8 2 y = –4(2. –120.5. y = 5x + 40x + 600 −b −40 = = −4 x= 2a 10 2 y = 5(–4) + 40(–4) + 600 = 80 – 160 + 600 = 520 vertex: (–4. 2 87.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. y = –4x + 20x + 160 −b −20 = = 2.5 2 y = –0. x = increase A = (50 + x)(8000 −100x) b. 185).5 vertex: (20.25x + 40x −b −40 x= = = 80 2a −0.5) c.5 − 1681 + 720 = −120.5) + 720 = 840. 279 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x= 2 86.5) + 20(2. 000 + 3000x −100x 2 −b −3000 = = 15 2a 2(−100) The maximum price is 50 + 15 = $65.2 73. y = 2x – 82x + 720 a. Maximize A = (30 + x)(200 – 5x) = 6000 + 50x – 5x2 − 50 x= =5 2(−5) Maximum rental = 30 + 5 = $35 Maximum revenue = 35(200 – 5·5) = $6125 ( ) 2 85. = 400. Ymax = 750 d. a =2. The maximum revenue = 65(800 – 100·15) = $422.500. 1600) 75. Answers may vary. x= 74. – 83. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. x = increase A = (20 + x)(60 − 2x) = 1200 + 20x − 2x 2 −b −20 = =5 2a 2(−2) The maximum number of trees is 20 + 5 = 25 trees.25(80) + 40(80) = 1600 vertex: (80. You can choose Xmin and Xmax so the x-value of the vertex is in the center of the graph.5. Choose Ymin to include the y-value of the vertex. 50 x 25 = 1250 pounds. The maximum yield is 60 – 2·5=50 pounds per tree.5) + 160 = –2. 2 84. y = –0. . Maximize A = (30 + x)(50 – x) = 1500 + 20x – x2 −20 x= = 10 2(−1) Maximum number of trees = 30 + 10 = 40 trees Maximum yield = (30 + 10)(50 – 10) = 1600 pounds 77.5 2a 4 y = 2(20.

Sample explanation: If it is thrown vertically.005) 2 98. 0 = −2 ( x + 4 ) − 8 2 2 ( x + 4 ) = −8 2 ( x + 4) 2 = −4 Because the solutions to the equation are imaginary. A sample change is: The graph has no x–intercepts. false.170) = 17. ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4 5 The maximum y–value is . –2) y = 0.6 = = −30 x= 2a 0. false.6(–30) + 100 = 9 – 18 + 100 = 91 The vertex is at (–30. We also know that the 2 90. 94.817 ≈ 13. We start with the form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k . set y = 0 and solve for x. To find x–intercepts. f(x) = 3(x + 2) – 5. we know that there are no x–intercepts. does not make sense. the function is f ( x ) = 280 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. One unit left of (–2. d. 2 . does not make sense.6x + 100 −b −0. 2) Axis: x = 3 second point (0. Sample explanation: Some parabolas have the y-axis as the axis of symmetry. –2) axis: x = –2 (–1.005 x 2 − 0.170 x + 14. A sample change is: The vertex is ( 5. its path will be a line segment. −1) . true 2 8 = 16a 1 =a 2 Therefore. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary.372 mpg in 1957.005(17)2 − 0. b. Sample explanation: The football’s path is better described by a quadratic model. 95. 99. 4 −(−0. we have f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 4 . a. Vertex (3. y = 0. 89.817 c. −4 ) . false.372 The worst gas mileage was 13. A sample change is: The x-coordinate of the b 1 1 1 maximum is − =− =− = and the y– 2a 2 ( −1) −2 2 coordinate of the vertex of the parabola is ⎛ b ⎞ ⎛1⎞ 5 f ⎜− ⎟ = f ⎜ ⎟ = . 11) 100. –2). k ) = ( −3. –2).01(–30) + 0. 4 ) . The values of y increase then decrease. –2) is (–3. (–1. y = 0. –2) is one unit right of (–2. x= 97.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 88.02 2 y = 0. point: (–3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 2 ( x + 3) − 4 . Explanations will vary. 4 = a (1 + 3) − 4 2 8 = a ( 4) 91.170(17) + 14.01x + 0. Inc. which allows us to solve for a. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 93. 96. makes sense 92. 2 Since we know the vertex is ( h. graph passes through the point (1. 91). does not make sense. 1940 + 17 = 1957 2(.

PreCalculus 4E Section 2. –1). the maximum profit is –3(15)2 + 9(15) + 21000 = $21. which is below the x-axis. x= 281 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 103. f ( x) = (80 + x)(300 − 3x ) − 10(300 − 3x ) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x) 2 + 1 2 = 24000 + 60 x − 3x − 3000 + 30 x = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 Since f (− x) = f ( x). Inc. ⎛4⎞ 2 y = 2 − 2⎜ ⎟ = ⎝5⎠ 5 ⎛4 2⎞ ⎜5. 2 x + 440 π x = 110 π 220 π The dimensions are 110 yards by 2 220 π yards. which is above the x-axis. Since the graph of f is continuous. so the equation is of the 440 = 2 x + π y 104. Thus. 2 = −3x + 90 x + 21000 −b −90 3 = = = 15 2 a 2 (−3) 2 The maximum charge is 80 + 15 = $95. the equation of the parabola is 2 π = 4 = 440 4 f ( x ) = −2 ( x + 3 ) − 1 . 2 x + y − 2 = 0 y = 2 − 2x d = x + (2 − 2x) π =− −440 440 2 − −3 = a (1) − 1 2 − π 106. Answers may vary. . 440 − 2 x = π y form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k 2 440 − 2 x = a ⎡⎣ x − ( −3) ⎤⎦ + ( −1) 2 π = a ( x + 3) − 1 =y 440 − 2 x 2 Maximize A = x We use the point ( −2. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 5 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 5 = −1 f (3) = (3)3 − 2(3) − 5 = 16 The graph passes through (2. −3) on the graph to determine the value of a: f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 1 2 x= −3 = a ( −2 + 3) − 1 2 2 2 π π = − π 440 − 2(110) −3 = a − 1 −2 = a Thus.5⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 108. the graph is symmetric with respect to the yaxis. 102. We know ( h. 105. k ) = ( −3. and (3.675. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 3 + 3 x 2 − x − 3 = x 2 ( x + 3) − 1( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 1) = ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 1) d = x 2 + 4 − 8x + 4x 2 d = 5x 2 − 8x + 4 Minimize 5x2 – 8x + 4 −(−8) 4 x= = 2(5) 5 107. 16).2 101. −1) . it must cross the x-axis somewhere between 2 and 3 to get from one of these points to the other. the function is even.00.

Since n is even and an > 0. Exercise Set 2. polynomial function. 1 Because the multiplicity of − is even. degree: 5 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 2 7. the graph rises to the left and to the right. polynomial function. Since an > 0 and n is odd. not a polynomial function 282 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (0) = 03 − 3(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. the graph crosses the x-axis at this zero. 9. Inc. degree: 7 5. . x3 − 3x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 x = 0 or x = 3 The x-intercepts are 0 and 3. f (− x) = (− x)3 − 3(− x) 2 = − x 3 − 3x 2 No symmetry. f (−3) = 3(−3)3 − 10(–3) + 9 = −42 f (−2) = 3(−2)3 − 10(−2) + 9 = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between –3 and –2. 1⎞ 3 ⎛ f ( x ) = −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 2 1⎞ 3 ⎛ −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 x = − or x = 5 2 1. 2. polynomial function. the graph should fall to the left. 6. 4. –2. We can find the degree of the polynomial by adding the degrees of each of its degree 3 degree 1 degree 1 P P factors. f ( x) = 2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5) has degree 3 + 1 + 1 = 5. Since n is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. Thus its graph falls to the left and rises to the right. The graph does not show the function’s end behavior. degree: 3 2. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 2 x4 − 4 x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 x = 0 or x = –2 or x = 2 The zeros are 0. polynomial function. f ( x) = 2 x3 ( x − 1)( x + 5) is of odd degree with a positive leading coefficient. with 2 multiplicity 3. the model won’t be appropriate. degree: 4 3. 3. the function falls to the right. 8. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. Because the multiplicity of 5 is odd. It is not necessary to multiply out the polynomial to determine its degree. the graph 2 touches the x-axis and turns around at this zero. f ( x) = x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 0 = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) 0 = ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) 0 = ( x + 2) 2 ( x − 2) x = 2 or x = –2 The zeros are 2 and –2. and 2.3 1 The zeros are − . Check Point Exercises 1. 5. with multiplicity 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. Since the ratio cannot be negative. f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 Since an > 0 and n is odd. and 5. not a polynomial function 6.

x = –2 and x = –7 have multiplicity 1. f ( x) = x3 − 2 x 2 + x = x ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) 2 = x( x − 1)2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. Not a polynomial function because graph is not continuous. 1⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = −3 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 4)3 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x = − has multiplicity 1. 283 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. 24. (c) 17. Inc. 11. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 − 4 x − 28 = x 2 ( x + 7) − 4( x + 7) f ( x) = −11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an < 0 and n is even. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. The graph crosses the x-axis. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. f ( x) = 4( x − 3)( x + 6)3 x = 3 has multiplicity 1. x = –6 has multiplicity 3. (d) 19. f ( x) = 5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is even. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. 14. 26. 3 29. = x( x + 2) 2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an < 0 and n is even. 27. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. (a) 18. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. 16. 23. f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 + 4 x = x ( x2 + 4 x + 4) f ( x) = 11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. The graph crosses the x-axis. The graph crosses the x-axis. f ( x) = 2( x − 5)( x + 4) 2 x = 5 has multiplicity 1. 21. The graph crosses the x-axis.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. x = –4 has multiplicity 2. The graph crosses the x-axis. 13. . = ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x + 7) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 7) x = 2. The graph crosses the x-axis. not a polynomial function 9. 2 The graph crosses the x-axis. Not a polynomial function because graph is not smooth. not a polynomial function 10. degree: 2 25. polynomial function 12. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. f ( x) = 11x − 6 x + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is odd. 31. polynomial function. f ( x) = 5 x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is odd. 20. 30. not a polynomial function 8. x = 1 has multiplicity 2. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. The graph crosses the x-axis. polynomial function 15. f ( x) = 3( x + 5)( x + 2)2 x = –5 has multiplicity 1.3 7. 22. The graph crosses the x-axis. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. x = 4 has multiplicity 3. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. (b) 28.

c. f (0) = (0)3 + 2(0)2 − 0 − 2 = −2 The y-intercept is –2. Since an > 0 and n is odd. 33. 39. f (− x) = (− x) + 2(− x) 2 − (− x) − 2 = − x3 + 2 x 2 + x − 2 − f ( x) = − x 3 − 2 x 2 + x + 2 The graph has neither origin symmetry nor yaxis symmetry.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 8 x 2 + x + 2 f(2) = –4 f(3) = 14 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x ) = x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 a. 36. ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = –2. The graph crosses the x-axis. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 10 x + 9 f(–3) = –42 f(–2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x) = x 3 + 5 x 2 − 9 x − 45 40. 2 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. 35. x = –1 The zeros at –2. Inc. = x 2 ( x + 5) − 9( x + 5) = ( x 2 − 9 ) ( x + 5) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 5) x = 3. e. 284 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. b. f ( x ) = 2 x4 − 4 x2 + 1 f(–1) = –1 f(0) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x ) = x 5 − x3 − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 23 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. Publishing as Prentice Hall. d. –1. 38. x = –3 and x = –5 have multiplicity 1. 37. x = 1. f ( x ) = x3 − x − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 34. 3 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 ( x + 2) − ( x + 2) = 0 f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 + 2 f(0) = 2 f(1) = –1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x) = x + x − 2x + 1 f(–3) = –11 f(–2) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x ) = x 4 + 6 x 3 − 18 x 2 f(2) = –8 f(3) = 81 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 41.

so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0. d. –1 and 2 have odd multiplicity. Since an > 0 and n is even.PreCalculus 4E 42. c. f (− x) = − x 3 + x 2 + 4 x − 4 − f ( x) = − x 3 − x 2 + 4 x + 4 neither symmetry e. f (− x) = x 4 − 9 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. f (0) = 03 + (0) 2 − 4(0) − 4 = −4 The y-intercept is –4. –1. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. . b. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. x4 − x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 2 ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 x = –1. e. b. f ( x ) = x4 − x2 c. The xintercepts are –2. Inc. f ( x ) = x4 − 9 x2 a. a. Section 2. x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. x = –1 f touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. 285 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. x = 0. b. x = 3. 44. f (0) = (0) 4 − (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. or x = 2. and 2. c. f (− x) = x 4 − x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. or x = –2 The zeros at –2.3 f ( x ) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. Since an > 0 and n is odd. x4 − 9 x2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. Since an > 0 and n is even. x = –3 The zeros at –3 and 3 have odd multiplicity. x + x − 4x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) = 0 3 d. d. e. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. 43.

x = 0.0. Since f has a double root at 0. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. 286 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. e. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f(x) rises to the left and the right. Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( x ) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 a. . – x 4 + 16 x 2 = 0 x 2 ( − x 2 + 16 ) = 0 x 2 ( 4 − x )( 4 + x ) = 0 x = 0. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. 4 47. it touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 45. Since an > 0 and n is even. f (− x) = − x 4 + 4 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. f ( x ) = x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 a. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. Inc. x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 2 x = 0. and 2. 46. b. b. Since an < 0 and n is even. f (0) = −(0)4 + 4(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0 and 1. d. f (− x) = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f(x) rises to the left and the right. c. f ( x ) = − x4 + 4 x2 a. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 16 x 2 a. f (− x) = − x + 16 x f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. c. x = 1 The zeros at 1 and 0 have even multiplicity. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f (0) = (0) 4 − 2(0)3 + (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. b. d. e. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = –4 The zeros at –4 and 4 have odd multiplicity. − x4 + 4x2 = 0 x 2 (4 − x 2 ) = 0 x 2 ( 2 − x )( 2 + x ) = 0 48. Since an > 0 and n is even. so f(x) touches the xaxis at 0. x = 2. x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 2 x = 0. b. c. x = 3 The zeros at 3 and 0 have even multiplicity. d. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and 0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. x = 4. x = –2 The x-intercepts are –2. e.

x = 0. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 1 The zeros at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. e. −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 2 ) = 0 The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. c. 0). Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E c. f(x) falls to the left and the right. 287 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d. x = 0. f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 2 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f(x) falls to the left and the right. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 4 – 1. f (− x) = x 5 − 6 x 3 + 9 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. d. b. Section 2. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 a. x = ± 3 The root at 0 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at (0. b. 49. b. d. − x 5 + 6 x3 − 9 x = 0 − x ( x4 − 6 x2 + 9) = 0 − x ( x 2 − 3)( x 2 − 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 4 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. e. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. f ( x ) = 6 x3 − 9 x − x 5 x = 0. −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 4 ) = 0 c. The zeros at – 3 and 3 have even multiplicity so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and − 3 . Since an < 0 and n is even. f (0) = −2(0) 4 + 4(0)3 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f (− x) = x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. d. 51. f (0) = −(0)5 + 6(0)3 − 9(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 a. a. The y-intercept is 0. Since an < 0 and n is odd. Inc. e. . x = 2 The zeros at 0 and 2 have odd multiplicity.3 50. c. f (0) = (0) 4 − 6(0)3 + 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0.

e. Since an < 0 and n is odd. 1 1 − x4 + = 0 2 2 1 − ( x 4 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1) ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x = ±1 The zeros at –1 and 1 have odd multiplicity. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. b.Polynomial and Rational Functions e. − x3 + 3x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 1 1 4 − x 2 2 Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. 1 1 1 f (0) = − (0)4 + = 2 2 2 1 The y-intercept is . The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. f (0) = −(0)3 + 3(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since an < 0 and n is odd. 288 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (0) = −(0)5 − (0)3 + 6(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. d. b. f (− x) = x5 + x3 − 6 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. c. c. x = ± 2 The zeros at − 2 . The graph has 2 turning point and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. − x5 − x 3 + 6 x = 0 54. c. f (− x) = x 3 + 3x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 2 1 1 4 − x 2 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. 0). and 2 have odd multiplicity. d. x = 0. − x ( x4 + x2 − 6) = 0 − x ( x 2 + 3)( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = a. f ( x ) = 3x 2 − x 3 e. 0. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 52. 53. The graph has 4 turning point and 4 ≤ 5 – 1. e. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. x = 3 The zero at 3 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at that point. . f (− x) = The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 5 – 1. d. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. b. f ( x ) = 6 x − x3 − x 5 a. a.

Since an > 0 and n is even. c. f(x) falls to the left and the right. Section 2. The root at –2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–2. c. x = –1 The roots at 0 and –1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 2 x = 4. 289 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. The root at 4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the xaxis at (4. b. f (− x) = −3(− x − 1) 2 ( x 2 − 4 ) f ( x ) = x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 3 a. e. x = –2. 56. 2 a. 0). f (− x) = −2(− x − 4) 2 ( x 2 − 2 ) f ( x ) = x 3 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 a. . so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. x = –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 5 The zeros at –5 and 5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 0). f ( 0 ) = 03 ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. c. x = 1. Since an > 0 and n is even. f ( − x ) = x 2 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 2 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f (0) = −2(0 − 4) 2 (02 − 25) = −2(16)(−25) = 800 The y-intercept is 800. Since an < 0 and n is even. e. −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2 x = 1. 0).PreCalculus 4E 55. d. b. f (0) = 02 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 The y-intercept is 0. x = 0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. b. f(x) rises to the left and the right. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 57. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. f (0) = −3(0 − 1) 2 (02 − 4)3 = −3(1)(−4) = 12 The y-intercept is 12. x = –5. c. Since an < 0 and n is even. b. 0). The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 58. Inc. x = 0. so f(x) touches the xaxis at (1. x = 2 The zeros at –2 and 2 have odd multiplicity. d.3 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) e. f ( x ) = −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25) 2 a. The root at 1 has even multiplicity. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. d. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry.

The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. x = 0. x = 1. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x − 1)( − x + 3) The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. e. c. . f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) a. x = –3 The zeros at 1 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. The y-intercept is 0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f(x) falls to the left and the right. Inc. Since an < 0 and n is even. Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 3) a. b. f ( − x ) = − x3 ( − x + 2 ) ( − x + 1) 2 c.Polynomial and Rational Functions d. 290 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( 0 ) = −2(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 5 ) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. x = 0. b. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 5 ) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 0). e. 0). Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since an < 0 and n is even. The y-intercept is 0. b. e. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 2 ) = 0 d. 61. c. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x + 2 )( − x − 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 (−1) ( x − 2 ) (−1) ( x + 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. x = 0. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. x = 1. d. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 − 1)( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( x ) = −2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5 ) 2 a. 59. x = –2 The zeros at 2 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. 60. d. e. 0). The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 6 – 1. x = –5 The roots at 0 and –5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = 2.

Since −2 . The graph has 2 turning points f ( − x ) = ( − x − 2 ) ( − x + 4 )( − x − 1) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 65. x = –1. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 2 ) ( 0 + 4 )( 0 − 1) = −16 2 b. 1. so they are the zeros. Thus. x + 2 . and 4 are the zeros. c. . e. x = 1 The zeros at –4 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. x = –4. x = 2. d. e. x = 1. f(x) rises to the left and rises the right. the function must be at least of degree 3. 64. c. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. x = –3. Since an > 0 and n is odd. 3 ≤ 4 – 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0). 1. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . a. b. x − 1 .3 f ( x ) = −3x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 3) 2 a. f(x) falls to the left and the right. b. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. f ( 0 ) = −3(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = 3x 3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 3) f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x + 1) ( x + 4 ) 3 a. Since an > 0 and n is even. Since an < 0 and n is even. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) . b. 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 63. From the end behavior. c. Section 2. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 + 1) ( 0 + 4 ) = 12 3 The y-intercept is 12. The root at 2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (2. and 4. 0). The graph has 3 turning points and The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. 2 The y-intercept is 0. Inc. d. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 4 )( x − 1) a. f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. f ( − x ) = ( − x + 3)( − x + 1) ( − x + 4 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. c. and x − 4 are factors of the function. x = 0. all three have odd multiplicity. e.PreCalculus 4E 62. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. d. x = –3 The roots at 0 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1)( 0 − 4 ) = 8 291 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = –4 The zeros at all have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. Since the graph has two turning points. The y-intercept is –16.

and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. so they are the zeros. Since −2 . From the end behavior. Thus. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. the function must be at least of degree 4. the function The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 and 2. 2. x − 2 . both have even multiplicity. one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. c. the function must be at least of degree 6. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −1 and 4. and 5 are the zeros. 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 − 2 )( 0 − 5 ) = 30 67. Since the graph has two turning points. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 1. Since the graph has two turning points. Thus. x + 3 and x − 2 are factors of the function. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. the function must be at least of degree 3. so they are the zeros. From the end behavior. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. all three have odd multiplicity. Since the graph has two turning points. the function 2 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 4 ) = −16 2 2 71. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 . The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 . f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 3) = 9 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 and 1. b. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 and 1. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. Thus. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 3. Thus. x + 3 . Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −2 . we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. Since −3 and 2 are the zeros. 2 The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 4. The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 3. they both have odd multiplicity. to reach degree 6. Since −1 and 4 are the zeros. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. it has odd multiplicity. a. c. so they are the zeros. b. The function is is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1) . From the end behavior. a. b. −1 . b. and 5. x + 1 . From the end behavior. 3 . x + 2 . the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x − 2 )( x − 5) . the 2 c. the function must be at least of degree 3. so they are the zeros. 2 b. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. a. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −3 and 2. From the end behavior.Polynomial and Rational Functions 66. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. the function must be at least of degree 3. and 1. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 3) ( 0 − 2 ) = −36 70. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 1) = −4 2 292 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since −2 and 1 are the zeros. 2 function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) ( x − 4 ) . The lowest even multiplicity is 2. 2 c. a. and x − 5 are factors of the function. Since the graph has five turning points. so they are the zeros. 2. Since −3 . However. the function must be at least of degree 3. 2 f ( x ) = ( x + 2) f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1) = 2 2 c. is f ( x ) = ( x + 1)( x − 3) . 69. and x − 1 are factors of the function. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. Since −1 and 3 are the zeros. Since the graph has two turning points. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. x + 1 and x − 3 are factors of the function. 2 68. From the end behavior. 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3 . it has even multiplicity. it has even multiplicity. it has odd multiplicity. Inc. it has even multiplicity. a. and 1 are the zeros. x + 1 and x − 4 are factors of the function. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 . both have even multiplicity. c. a. −1 . b. so they are the zeros. x + 2 and x − 1 are factors of the function. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . Since the graph has three turning points. the function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) . and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1.

Inc. g. to reach degree 6. −1 . The function will not be a useful model over an extended period of time because it will eventually give negative values. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 and 1. 324 x 2 + 107. This occurred after 10 minutes. There were 3 turning points during the period shown. 931 The percentage reached a maximum of about 69 ± 1% in 2000. – 93. The function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 1) c. 324(5) 2 + 107. 73. d. The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was decreasing from 1975 through 1985 and from 2000 through 2005.555 x + 261.PreCalculus 4E 72. e. the function will be a useful model over an extended period of time. The graph falls to the left and to the right. = 434. The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was increasing from 1960 through 1975 and from 1985 through 2000. 444 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. and x − 1 are factors of the function. Since the graph has five turning points. and 1 are the zeros. From the end behavior. 453 f (3) = −3402(3)2 + 42. one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. 731 77. 324(3) 2 + 107. g (3) = 2769(3)3 − 28. d.3 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . 931 76. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. 74. Based on the end behavior. x + 1 . a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. a. a. the graph falls to the right. the graph rises to the right. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 1) = −2 2 3 f ( x) = −3402 x 2 + 42. The woman’s heart rate was decreasing from 4 through 8 minutes and from 10 through 12 minutes. Answers may vary. a. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 . The leading coefficient should be negative. The leading coefficient should be negative. 203(3) + 308. c. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. Since the degree of g is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. The percentage reached a minimum of about 18 ± 1% in 1960. b. and 1. x + 2 . 453 2 g (5) = 2769(5)3 − 28. a. 203 x + 308. The woman’s heart rate reached a minimum of about 64 ± 1 beats per minute. 324 x 2 + 107. 2 ( x − 1) 3 . However. c. 453 f. Publishing as Prentice Hall.555 x + 261. f. it has even multiplicity. 203(5) + 308. f (5) = −3402(5) 2 + 42. Since −2 . 75. Since there were 3 turning points. 931 = 404. Since the degree of f is even and the leading coefficient is negative. a. b. There were 3 turning points during the 12 minutes. 453 = 404. 94. 293 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 443 Function f provides a better description of the actual number. The graph falls to the left and to the right. g. 555(3) + 261. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. they both have odd multiplicity. The woman’s heart rate reached a maximum of about 116 ± 1 beats per minute. 418 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. −1 . e. f ( x) = −3402 x + 42. This occurred after 8 minutes. The woman’s heart rate was increasing from 1 through 4 minutes and from 8 through 10 minutes. Since there were 3 turning points. b. Section 2. the function must be at least of degree 6. 931 = 437. . Function g provides a better description of the actual number. 203x + 308. b. b. so they are the zeros.555(5) + 261.

Changes to make the statement true will vary. or rises to the left and falls to the right.4 Check Point Exercises 98. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A sample change is: A function with origin symmetry either falls to the left and rises to the right. does not make sense. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 1 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 + 103. 95. 3x 2 − 9 x − 2x + 7 −2 x + 6 102. Explanations will vary. 1 . Section 2. 6 x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 4 112. f ( x) = x 3 + x 2 − 12 x 109. x+5 x + 9 x 2 + 14 x + 45 x2 + 9 x 5 x + 45 5 x + 45 0 The answer is x + 5. 106. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 x − 3 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 7 2 x3 − 6 x 2 100. 2. A sample change is: Such a function falls to the right and will eventually have negative values. Explanations will vary. 1. 110. x−3 . Sample explanation: Since ( x + 2) is raised to an odd power. makes sense 3x 2 − 11x 101. the graph crosses the x-axis at –2. 105.Polynomial and Rational Functions 107. true 294 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 104. 737 2 = 35 + 21 21 111. 2 x 3 − x 2 − 11x + 6 = ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3 x − 2) = ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) 97. 108. does not make sense. false. Inc. f(x) = x3 – 2x2 96. Sample explanation: A forth degree function has at most 3 turning points. 99. A sample change is: f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right.

The answer is 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 + 2 x − 2x 4. –1 15 15 14 –3 –2 –15 1 2 –1 –2 0 x 2 − 3x − 2x + 6 −2 x + 6 0 15 x − x − 2 = 0 2 The answer is x 2 + x − 2. –4 3 3 f(–4) = –105 4 –5 3 –12 32 –108 –8 27 x + 2 x3 + 5 x 2 + 7 x + 2 x3 + 2 x 2 2 5. ⎬ . − . Section 2. 295 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 9 x2 − 3x 15 x − 5 15 x − 5 0 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3 x + 5. x+3 1. The answer is x − 2 x − 3 . 7 x3 + 0 x 2 7 x 3 − 14 x 2 14 x 2 − 7 x 14 x 2 − 28 x x 2 + 3x + 1 21x − 10 21x − 10 . .PreCalculus 4E 3. (3 x + 1)(5 x − 2) = 0 1 2 x=− or x = 3 5 1 2⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. 3x 2 + 7 x 3x 2 + 6 x x+2 x+2 0 2 The answer is x + 3 x + 1. –105 x2 + x − 2 x − 3 x − 2x − 5x + 6 3 2 x3 − 3x 2 x2 − 5x 6. –2 1 1 0 –7 –6 –2 4 6 –2 –3 0 3. Inc. 3 5⎭ ⎩ 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 5. 3x − 1 6 x3 + 7 x 2 + 12 x − 5 x + 5 x 2 + 8 x + 15 x2 + 5x 3 x + 15 3x + 15 0 The answer is x + 3. 3 x2 − 2x 2 x 4 − 4 x3 5 x − 10 5 x − 10 0 The answer is x + 5. x+5 x − 2 x 2 + 3x − 10 4. 6 x3 − 2 x 2 9 x 2 + 12 x Exercise Set 2.4 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 x − 2 x 2 x + 3x + 0 x 2 − 7 x − 10 2 4 2.

x+3 296 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 6 x3 + 8 x 2 x − 3 3x2 − 2 x + 5 9 x 2 + 27 x 3x2 − 9 x 7x + 5 9 x 2 + 12 x 15 x + 20 15 x + 20 0 7 x − 21 26 The answer is 3x + 7 + The answer is 2 x + 3x + 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2x −1 984 . . − 6x + 6 x − 3 x4 3 The answer is 2 x − 3 + − 81 x − 3x 4 3 . 3 x 2 + 3x 2 6 x − 20 6 x + 18 − 38 The answer is 2 x 2 + x + 6 − 38 . x−4 3 3x3 3x 2 − 9 x 2 2 x2 + x + 6 − 9.Polynomial and Rational Functions 6. x −3 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 3x − 2 12 x 2 + x − 4 8. 2 4x + 3 + 7. 2 3x − 2 11. 3x − 2 246 x 246 x − 984 3 2x −1 984 The answer is 2 x − 1 4 x2 − 8x + 6 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 4 x2 − 2 x − 6x + 6 x 3 + 3x 2 + 9 x + 27 12. 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 3x + 4 6 x + 17 x + 27 x + 20 3 10. 984 x−4 x − 4 4 x4 − 4 x2 + 6x 4 x 4 − 16 x 3 12 x 2 − 8 x 9x − 4 9x − 6 2 16 x 3 − 4 x 2 16 x 3 − 64 x 2 60 x 2 + 6 x The answer is 4 x + 3 + 2x − 3 + 26 . 9 x2 38 x+3 9 x 2 − 27 x 27 x − 81 x + 3 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 + 9 x − 20 2x + 6x 3 27 x − 81 2 0 x2 + 9 x The answer is x + 3x + 9 x + 27. 26 x −3 3x + 7 + 2 60 x 2 − 240 x 2 .

17. 3 . x + x−2 3 3 2 7 –20 –15 40 –8 20 The answer is 3x − 8 + 6 x2 + 3x − 1 3x 2 + 1 18 x 4 + 9 x 3 + 3 x 2 20. x+5 − 12 x − 8 ) ÷ ( x + 3) 2 –3 9 x3 + 3x 16. 2 x3 + 1 297 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 18 x 4 + 6 x 2 9 x3 − 3x 2 ( 5x 5 − 3x 2 − 3 x 5 − 3x 2 − 1 − 3x + 1 12 –8 –15 81 –27 73 The answer is 5 x − 27 + The answer is 6 x 2 + 3 x − 1 − 3x − 1 . x2 + x − 3 (x 1 x 4 + x3 − 2 x 2 1 x3 − 2 x 2 − 5x − 3 x 2 − 3x − 6 19. 4 + x − 2 ) ÷ ( x − 1) 2 1 x 2 + x − 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 4 x 2 − 5x − 6 The answer is x 2 + x − 3 − –10 The answer is 2 x + 5 . −3x − 3x + 6 2 − 12 ( 3x 5 0 1 –2 1 2 2 0 + 7 x − 20 ) ÷ ( x + 5 ) 2 –5 12 . 18. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. x+3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1) ÷ ( x − 1) 1 2 x 3 + 1 2 x5 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 + x 2 –3 3 –1 4 1 4 1 4 3 The answer is 4 x 2 + x + 4 + −8 x 4 − 4 x 2 x3 + 4 x 2 x3 + 1 4x −1 The answer is x 2 − 4 x + 1 + 20 . 0 14. x3 + x 2 − 2 x 15. x2 − 4x + 1 (4x 3 2 x5 + x 2 4 4 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 73 . 3x − x − 3 6 x + 13 x − 11x − 15 2 3 (2x 2 2 + x − 10 ) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 2 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 The answer is 2 x + 5.4 2x + 5 13. x −1 . 3x2 + 1 21. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10 The answer is x + 2. 1 4x −1 .

x+6 0 1 0 0 –2 1 1 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 3 2 1 0 1 –2 4 –2 5 0 –10 0 0 12 –10 20 –20 40 –80 –10 10 –20 40 –68 The answer is x − 2 x 5 + 5 x 4 − 10 x3 + 10 x 2 68 −20 x + 40 − . 4 0 –3 2 3 3 21 63 180 546 21 60 182 549 –2 72 –438 2664 –12 73 –444 2664 2664 . 64 0 298 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –6 3 11 10 8 22 4 11 33 (6x 5 6 5 –3 1 12 24 44 96 186 6 12 The answer is 22 48 93 187 27. 2 33 . x −3 (x (x 1 x5 + x3 − 2 x −1 1 + 4 x 4 − 3 x 2 + 2 x + 3) ÷ ( x − 3) 1 7 The answer is –6 The answer is x 3 − 12 x 2 + 73x − 444 + 4 1 1 1 –2 3 25. x+2 6 29. 187 . Inc. x−2 The answer is 5 x 2 + 4 x + 11 + 23. − 5 x3 + x 2 − 5 x ) ÷ ( x + 5) 1 –6 4 − 5x − 5x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 5 + x ) ⇒ –5 1 1 549 x 4 + 7 x 3 + 21x 2 + 60 x + 182 + .Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. − 6 x3 + x 2 − 6 x ) ÷ ( x + 6 ) –6 0 6 x 4 + 12 x3 + 22 x 2 + 48 x + 93 + (x 4 − 6 x − 6 x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 6 + x ) ⇒ − 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x + 1) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 24. ( 5x − 6 x 2 + 3x + 11) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 3 2 5 5 26. . –5 1 0 –5 50 –255 1300 1 –10 The answer is 51 –260 1300 x 4 − 256 x−4 4 1 1 1300 x − 10 x + 51x − 260 + . 2 3 30. x−2 2 4 28. (x (x 0 0 0 –256 4 16 64 256 16 64 0 4 The answer is x + 4 x + 16 x + 64 . 2 x 7 − 128 x−2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 –128 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 1 2 4 8 16 32 The answer is x 6 + 2 x5 + 4 x 4 + 8 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 32 x + 64. x+5 3 0 x 7 + x 5 − 10 x 3 + 12 x+2 1 –5 –6 The answer is x + x + 2 x + 2 x + 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

( x + 1)( x 2 – 5 x + 6) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 3) = 0 x = –1. 5 −5 1 5 6 0 0 −4 f ( −2 ) = −4 299 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 2 x5 − 3x 4 + x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 1 x+2 –2 2 37. 1 −5 2 1 1 –2 –1 3 –1 1 2 0 –2 2 2 0 –1 1 1 3 39. 3}. f ( x ) = x 4 + 5x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 6 3 –3 1 –1 2 –1 –4 14 –30 62 –128 2 –7 The answer is 15 –31 64 –129 f ( 3) = 240 38. Section 2. x−2 3 1 −7 5 40. 5 −6 5 2 −6 −2 1 −3 −1 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − x 3 + 3x 2 − x + 1 x−2 2 −6 3 24 87 246 1 8 29 82 240 129 2 x 4 − 7 x 3 + 15 x 2 − 31x + 64 − . . Inc. −5 − 23 6 10 6 f ( − 32 ) = −7 −2 –1 6 4 1 5 1 1 − 92 1 3 7 9 1 –4 1 6 –1 5 –6 6 0 –5 The quotient is x − 5 x + 6. 5 5 −6 −4 −8 4 −3 1 2 3 2 f ( −3) = −133 −2 2 7 9 1 −9 48 −138 3 −16 46 −133 36. x = 2. x+2 32. 3 f − 1 =1 f ( 4 ) = −25 34. Dividend: x 3 – 4 x 2 + x + 6 Divisor: x + 1 −6 f ( x ) = 3x 3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x + 5 3 3 −1 −1 −4 −4 − f ( 3) = −27 −3 2 ( 2) 3 −12 −21 1 −4 −7 −27 35. x = 3 The solution set is {–1. 2 41.PreCalculus 4E 31. 2. 2 −11 7 2 −6 3 . 2 −5 −1 −1 8 −12 −20 −3 −5 −25 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 5 x 3 − x 2 + 3x + 2 −1 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 5 4 6 0 f ( 2) = 0 The answer is x 4 − x 2 + x + 1 + 33. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

12 x3 + 16 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 2 2 –5 1 2 4 –2 –2 –1 –1 0 46. Inc. . 2 ⎬ . 1. 2 ⎬ . 3 2⎭ ⎩ 2 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 2 16 12 The quotient is x 2 − 3 x + 2. − . 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 –3 3 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 22 x − 8 = 0 − 13 2 x − 3 x − 11x + 6 = 0 3 –5 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ (12 x − 2 x − 2) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ 2 ( 6 x − x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 2(3x + 1)(2 x – 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 1 1 x=– . x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 6 = 0 ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 + 4 x + 3) = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 3)( x + 1) = 0 The solutions are 2. 2 1 2 −5 −6 2 8 6 1 4 3 0 The remainder is 0. x = − . x= 2 3 2 ⎧ 3 1 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . −3 . x = 2. x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . − . 2 2 –3 –11 6 –4 14 –6 –7 3 0 3 3 –18 3 3 –2 –2 0 7 –22 –8 –1 –2 8 6 –24 0 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3x + 6 x − 24 = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1 x = –4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so 2 is a solution. 1 . 2. or {−3. 12 – 32 (x + 2) (2 x − 7 x + 3) = 0 2 (x + 2) ( 2 x − 1)( x − 3) = 0 47. x=− . . ( x – 2)(2 x − x − 1) = 0 (x – 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) = 0 1 x = 2. 2 ⎭ ⎩ x = –2.x=3 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −2. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 2 44. −1. x = 1 The solution set is {–1. Dividend: x 3 − 2 x 2 − x + 2 Divisor: x + 1 –1 1 –2 –1 2 –1 3 –2 1 –3 2 0 45. and −1 . 2} . 1}. ⎬ . x = 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 42. x = The graph indicates that 2 is a solution to the equation. 300 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 43. ( x + 1)( x 2 − 3x + 2) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 1) = 0 x = –1. 3⎬ . x = − 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −4.

1 1 ⎧1 1 ⎫ . so −3 is a solution. and −6 . 2 ⎭ ⎩ ) 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2 ( h + 6 )( h + 3) ) 0 = 2 ( h − 2 )( h + 6 )( h + 3) 2 ( h − 2) = 0 h + 6 = 0 h + 3 = 0 h−2 = 0 h=2 h = −6 h = −3 The height is 2 inches. 2 .1⎬ .PreCalculus 4E 48. Inc. and 2. 2 2 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 The solutions are 1. the width is 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 inches and the length is 2 + 7 = 9 inches. b. 177 We need to find x when f ( x ) = 211. 2 3 ⎩3 2 ⎭ 52. 1 . 25 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 The remainder is 0. . 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 3 14 −17 −16 −177 72 0 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) b. 14 ( x + 3) ( 2 x − 5 x + 2 ) = 0 ( x + 3)( 2 x − 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 49. 301 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 The remainder is 0. or 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎨ −6. 1 6 −11 6 −1 6 75 = ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) 2 { 42 The remainder is 0 so 3 is a solution. 2 0 −72 2 14 4 36 2 18 36 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. a. . } 1 . a. 72 = 2h3 + 14h 2 2 x3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 0 = 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 ( x − 1) ( 2 x 2 + 13 x + 6 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( 2 x + 1)( x + 6 ) = 0 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) ( 0 = ( h − 2 ) 2 ( h 2 + 9h + 18 ) 1 The solutions are 1. It can be used to find other solutions (if they exist). Section 2. −3 2 1 −13 6 −6 15 −6 2 −5 2 0 51.4 The graph indicates that −3 is a solution to the equation. 1 2 11 −7 −6 2 59 211 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 50. so 1 is a solution. The female moth’s abdominal width is 3 millimeters. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) = 0 The polynomial 14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 cannot be factored. and . − . V = lwh 72 = ( h + 7 )( 2h )( h ) The remainder is 0. − . 2 x 3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 = 0 The solutions are −3 . The dimensions are 2 inches by 4 inches by 9 inches. so 1 is a solution. 6 −5 1 −5 1 0 13 −6 2 13 6 0 0 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 0 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 This is the equation obtained in part a.1⎬ . or ⎨ . One solution is 3. so the only solution is x = 3.

4 x + 0.3 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. the government tax revenue will be $70 ten billion. 55. f (30) = c. Sample explanation: The zeros of f are the same as the solutions of f ( x) = 0. the length of the rectangle is 0. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials. does not make sense.06 0. does not make sense.5 x 2 − 0.4 a.5 −0. f (40) = (40.1 0. makes sense 68. 67. 70) same answer as in a.5 −0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 302 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 69.57 Therefore. the length of the rectangle is 8 x 2 − 12 x + 4 units. – 65. false. Therefore. 80(30) − 8000 = 70 30 − 110 80 800 57. false. f (x) is not a polynomial function. Sample explanation: The division must account for the zero coefficients on the x 4 . 68. (30. Inc.3x 2 + 0. Explanations will vary. 70) At a 30% tax rate. c.3 units.57 40 − 110 b. 70. Sample explanation: The remainder theorem provides an alternative method for evaluating a function at a given value.5 x3 − 0.2 0. . −0. x6 since 3 = x 3 . the government’s revenue is $68. A 8 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x + 3 l= = 3 w x+ 4 − 34 8 80(40) − 8000 = 68. A sample change is: The degree of the quotient is 3.22 56. -8000 8800 80 800 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 = 70 f (30) = 80 + 80 − 110 (30. true 72.22 x + 0. 80 8800 A = l ⋅ w so.Polynomial and Rational Functions A = l ⋅ w so A 0. x 2 and x terms.3 110 0 −6 −5 3 −6 9 −3 8 −12 4 0 80 a. f (x) is not a polynomial function. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. b. true 73.2 53. 0.08 −0.57) At a 40% tax rate. Explanations will vary. 110 -8000 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 f (40) = 80 + 40 − 110 = 68. x3 . 66. x 71.57 ten billion. Answers may vary.06 l= = w x + 0. A sample change is: The divisor is a factor of the divided only if the remainder is the whole number 0. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials.06 0. 54. −0.

( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) ) = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 )( x + 1)( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = d ( x) ⋅ q( x) + r ( x) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 9 = d ( x )(2 x − 3) + 3 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x)(2 x − 3) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x) Apply the zero product principle. Inc. 1 −4 The remainder is zero and 5 is a solution to the equation. −1. . k = –12 76. x n + 1 x 3n −4 = ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) To get a remainder of zero. x −5 = 0 x +1 = 0 2x − 3 x=5 x = −1 x+2=0 x−2 = 0 x−2 2 x − 3 2 x2 − 7 x + 6 2 x2 − 3x x = −2 x=2 The solutions are –2. Section 2. 2 and 5 and the solution set is {−2. we set it equal to zero and factor. x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 8x2 + 6x 75. 3 x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 = 0 5 1 −4 −9 16 20 5 20 x3 + 15 x 2 1 8 x 2 − 10 − 16 x + k −16 x − 12 0 To solve the equation. Then divide the quotient by 2.4 5x2 + 2 x − 4 4 x + 3 20 x + 23x 2 − 10 x + k 78. 77. − 4x + 6 −4 x + 6 The polynomial is x – 2. 303 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 −20 −20 79.5} . x 2n − x n + 1 +1 x 3n + x 2 n − x 2n x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4)2 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −4 ± 20 2 −4 ± 2 5 x= 2 x = −2 ± 5 − x 2n − x n x= xn +1 xn +1 0 { } The solution set is −2 ± 5 . 2. 2 x − 4 = 2( x − 2) Use synthetic division to divide by x – 2.PreCalculus 4E 74. k must equal –12.

± 2. ± 6 q : ±1 -5 –2 2 6 2 3 1 0 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(1) 2(1) −3 ± 5 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 5 −3 − 5 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. 4. ± 2 are possible rational zeros f (3) = −150 2 1 ) an (3) − 3(3) − 4 = −150 4 2 an ( 81 − 27 − 4 ) = −150 1 2 is a zero. ± 2. 2 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ p : ± 1. = p : ± 1. ± . 81. −5}. x= 304 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2. . 1 5. ± 13 are possible rational zeros. 2. −4. Inc. x 2 + 3x + 1 = 0 an ( 50 ) = −150 an = −3 x= Section 2.5 x= Check Point Exercises 1. . ± 3. 1 1 5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a double root. 2 – 3i}. −b ± b − 4ac 2a 2 x= ±1. ± 6 q are the possible rational zeros. ± 4. ± . } The solution set is −2 ± i 2 . ± 3. ±1. ⎬. x 2 + 9 x + 20 = 0 20 0 −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(1)(6) x= 2(1) −4 ± −8 2 −4 ± 2i 2 x= 2 x = −2 ± i 2 x= ( x + 4)( x + 5) = 0 x = −4 or x = −5 { The solution set is {1. ± 4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 + 4 x + 6 = 0 3. ± 10. 2 + 3i. 1 p : ± 1. ± 20 are possible rational zeros 1 8 11 –20 1 9 20 1 9 1 is a zero. 17 –13 0 q : ± 1. ± q 2 4 2 4 are the possible rational zeros. ± . ± 3. x 2 − 4 x + 13 = 0 0 4 ± 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = = 2 + 3i 2 2 The solution set is{1. f ( x) = an ( x 4 − 3 x 2 − 4) ( 1 ±1. ± 2. ± 5. ± 3 1 –6 22 –30 13 1 –5 17 –13 1 –5 1 is a zero.

±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ±4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. ±3. ±3. p : ± 1. ± 4 Exercise Set 2. p : ± 1. ± q 3 3 4 p : ± 1. ± . ± 2. there are 4. ± . or 0 positive real zeros. ± 4. c. Since f(–x) has no changes of sign. ±6 q: ±1. x = −1 The solution set is {2. ± 2. –2. ± . ±3. ± 4. ± .5 1. ± 3. ± 4. ±2. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p: ±1. ± 2. –1 are rational zeros. ± . f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 p: ±1. ± 6. ±6 q: ±1. p 1 1 : ± 1. ±8 q: ±1. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 q 8. x = −2. f ( x) = x 4 − 14 x 3 + 71x 2 − 154 x + 120 q : ±1 f (− x) = x 4 + 14 x 3 + 71x 2 + 154 x + 120 Since f(x) has 4 changes of sign. Section 2. ±15 q: ±1. ± 6. f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. 2. ±2. . ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 f ( x) = an ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) f (1) = an (1 + 3)(12 + 1) = 8an = 8 an = 1 f ( x) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) or x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3 7. ± . ± 2. ± 3. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 8 p: ±1. ± 2. ± . ± . ±3 p 1 2 : ± 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 6. ±2. ± 2. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 6 x − 8 p : ± 1. ± q 2 4 2 4 305 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± . f ( x) = 4 x5 − 8 x 4 − x + 2 p : ± 1. ± 4 q : ±1 9. ± q 3 3 3 3 7. Inc. ± 2. ± q 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 0 2 is a zero. ± 15. ± 4 q 2. ± 4 q p : ± 1. ±4. 4. ± 2. ± 2. ±5. ± 8 q 3. ± 2 4 q f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 p : ± 1. –2. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. ± . ± 8. there are no negative real zeros. ± 5. ± 2. ± 2. ± 2 q : ± 1. ± 2. p : ± 1. f ( x) = x 5 − x 4 − 7 x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 12 p : ± 1. ±2. ± 3. ± 2. –1}. ± 4 q : ±1 2 x − 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 x +1 = 0 x = 2. ± . 5. 1 1 –4 –4 2 6 4 x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x 2 + 3 x + 2) = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x + 3x − 11x − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. ± 8 q : ±1 b.5 ( x + 3)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) 6. 2.

±2 p 1 : ± 1. –3 –11 6 6 9 –6 2 3 –2 0 3 is a zero. 4 –2 –2 ( x − 2) (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 1 x = 2. 1 2. ± 3. ± 2. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ 306 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 2 ⎬ . 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 11x + 6 = 0 c. 1 are rational zeros. ⎬. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 b. x = −2 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨3. ±6. x = 1 The solution set is{4. ±3. ±6 q: ±1 p : ±1. 1}. 2 b. ± q 2 2 b. –3. ± 6 q : ± 1. 1 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 c. ±2. ± . –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 5 x 2 + x + 2 p: ±1. ±3. x = − . 1⎬ . 2 13. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(−6) 2(1) −3 ± 33 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 33 −3 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −1. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. ± 3. x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ 2. ± 2. 2 1 2 –3 0 4 is a zero. − . ± q 2 2 3 2 ( x − 2) ( 2 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 6 a. − . ± 4. c. ± 12 q 4 1 12. ± 6. ±4. 4. x = −3. 1 3. x = . ± 2 p 1 3 : ± 1. 1 are rational zeros. ±3. ± 2. 2 c. a. ±6 q –1 4 –3 –6 –1 –3 6 1 3 –6 –1 is a rational zero. –3. ( x − 4) ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 x = 4. ±12 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ±2. ± 6. . 2 ⎭ ⎩ p : ± 1. ±2. . ± 3. 11. a. . b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 0 x 2 + 3x − 6 = 0 x= 1 x = 3. ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3x − 2) = 0 ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x − 6 p: ±1. –5 2 –1 –1 0 2 is a zero. . f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 11x + 12 p: ±1. ±2 q: ±1. ± 2. − 2 are rational zeros.

2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 15. Inc. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 307 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± q 2 1 2 b. 2 c. a. 0 –4 8 –5 1 –3 5 1 –3 5 1 is a rational zero. ± q 2 –2 2 2(2) −2 ± −4 4 −2 ± 2i = 4 −1 ± i = 2 2 x2 + 2 x − 2 = 0 x= −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(1) = 1 is a rational zero. 2 2 2 x2 + 2 x + 1 = 0 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎬. x= x= 1 –3 1 1 1 –1 2 –2 0 −1 + i −1 − i ⎫ ⎧ . 0 x 2 − 3x + 5 = 0 x= 6 1 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) 3 ± −11 2 3 ± i 11 = 2 = ⎧⎪ 3 + i 11 3 − i 11 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨1. a.PreCalculus 4E 14. b. ⎧⎪ 1 −1 + 5 −1 − 5 ⎫⎪ . ± 2. f ( x) = 2 x3 + 6 x 2 + 5 x + 2 p: ±1. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. The solution set is ⎨ . 5 2 –4 –4 –2 2 2 1 –2 is a rational zero. ±2 q: ±1. . . Section 2. ± 5 q 1 b. ±5 q: ±1 p : ± 1.5 f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 3 x + 1 p: ±1 q: ±1. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a c. ⎬. ⎬. −1 ± 12 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −1 ± 5 2 f ( x) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 8 x − 5 p: ±1. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ x2 + x − 1 = 0 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 16. a. The solution set is ⎨ −2. ±2 p 1 : ± 1.

0 { 20. –10 } The solution set is −2. ± 12 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 a. 4 1 –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 b. 308 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3i}. c. ± 2. ± 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –1. 1. 1 –5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a rational root. –2 –7 –4 4 8 4 1 2 1 4 is a root. ± 2. 1. ± 4 q 4 0 x= x − 4 = 0 x + 3 = 0 x −1 = 0 b. ± 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. 1 2 ± 4 + 24 2 ± 28 = 2 2 2±2 7 = = 1± 7 2 ( x − 4)( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 18. 2 + 3i. 4 are rational roots. 1 –12 –2 4 12 1 –2 –6 –2 is a rational root. ± 12 q : ±1 p : ± 1. ±2. ±13 q: ±1 p : ± 1. p : ± 1. 2. ± 4. 1 − 7 . ± 3. ± 2. 1 2 –3 0 4 is a root. ± 12 q x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 p: ±1. ± 3. ± 3. −1} . x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 c. . ± 12 q b. 4 are rational roots. q : ±1 p : ± 1. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 a. ± 4. –3. 19. ± 13 q 1 b. 0 x3 + 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 c. –2 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 2 x − 6) = 0 c. ± 4. ± 2. ± 6. ± 3. ± 4. x3 − 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 0 ( x − 4) x = 4. ± 6. Inc. ± 6. ( x + 1) 2 x = −1 x= The solution set is {4. ±4 q: ±1 p : ± 1. p : ± 1. 4}. a. 1 + 7. 4 + 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = 2 2 4 ± 6i = = 2 ± 3i 2 The solution set is {1. a. x=4 x = −3 x = 1 The solution set is {–3.

Section 2. 1 − 2 . ± 4 q b. ± . x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −5. ±5. ±4 q: ±1. ± 2. 2 3⎭ ⎩ 22. ± 6 p 1 5 1 5 1 5 : ± 1. ± . 2 c. ± . 1 is a rational root. a. ± 5. 0 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 1 1 –2 is a zero of x3 0 –5 –2 –2 4 2 –2 –1 0 – 5x –2 = 0. 1 + 5. ± 3.5 6 x 3 + 25 x 2 − 24 x + 5 = 0 a. a. Inc. ± 3 ± 5 ± 15 q 3 1 0 –2 –16 –15 3 9 21 15 1 3 7 3 is a root. are rational roots. ± 2. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 2. ⎬ . ± q 2 2 3 3 6 6 –5 6 25 –24 5 –30 25 –5 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 a. ± . −2. 5 0 2± 2 5 = 1± 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .PreCalculus 4E 21. . b. ±15 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± . 23. p : ± 1. 2 b. ± 5 q : ± 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 1 ( x − ) ( 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8) = 0 2 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x2 − 2 x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ } 2. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 p: ±1. b. . 6 –5 1 0 –5 is a root. x = . 6 x + 25 x − 24 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 5)(6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 3 c. ±2. 1 − 5 ⎬ . ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 2± 4+4 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 2 2 2 = 1± 2 The solution set is x= {−2. . 1 –2 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 p: ±1. ⎩2 ⎭ x= 309 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. p : ± 1. −1. 2 are rational roots. ± 2 ± 4 ± q 2 1 2 2 ( x − 2)( x3 − 5 x − 2) = 0 ( x + 5)(2 x − 1)(3x − 1) = 0 x + 5 = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 3x − 1 = 0 1 1 x = −5.3 are rational roots. ±3. ± 4 q : ±1 p : ± 1. 2 2 –2 –5 8 4 2 0 –10 –4 1 0 –5 –2 2 is a root. 1 1 −5. 2 3 c. 1 + –5 –6 4 1 –2 –4 –4 –8 0 24. ± 2.

− 1 + 2i. 2 91 = an (91) an = 1 ( x − 1) ( x + 5i ) ( x − 5i ) 3 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 − 3i )( x − 4 + 3i ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 3ix − 4 x + 16 − 12i −636 = an (−212) 2 an = 3 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 2 x 2 + 50 x − 50 ( x − 4) ( x + 2i ) ( x − 2i ) f ( x) = 3 ( x3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) = ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 4 ) f ( x) = 3 x3 + 12 x 2 − 93 x − 522 = x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) 29. (x – i)(x + i)(x – 3i)(x + 3i) = ( x 2 − i 2 )( x 2 − 9i 2 ) f (−1) = an (−1 − 4 − 4 − 16) = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 9 ) −50 = an (−25) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 f ( x) = an ( x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9) an = 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) f (–1) = an ((–1) 4 + 10(–1) 2 + 9) f ( x) = 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x − 32 20 = an (20) an = 1 f ( x ) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 310 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ) f ( x ) = 1( x3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 ) f ( x ) = x 3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 28. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 27. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x − 3) ( x + 3x + 7 x + 5 ) = 0 3 –1 2 1 3 7 5 –1 –2 –5 2 5 0 1 −3ix + 12i − 9i 2 ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 8 x + 25 ) = ( x3 − 8 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 40 x + 125 ) = x 3 − 3 x 2 − 15 x + 125 –1 is a root of x 3 + 3 x 2 + 7 x + 5 f ( x) = an ( x 3 – 3x 2 –15 x + 125) ( x − 3) ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 2 x + 5) ( f (2) = an 23 − 3 ( 2 ) − 15 ( 2 ) + 125 –2 ± 4 − 20 –2 ± −16 = x= 2 2 −2 ± 4i = = −1 ± 2i 2 The solution set is {3. − 1. − 1 − 2i} .Polynomial and Rational Functions c. 25. Inc. = ( x − 1) ( x 2 + 25 ) ( x − 6) ( x + 5 + 2i ) ( x + 5 − 2i ) = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 5 x − 2ix + 5 x + 25 − 10i + 2ix + 10i − 4i 2 ) = x3 + 25 x − x 2 − 25 = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 10 x + 29 ) = x3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 ) = x 3 + 10 x 2 + 29 x − 6 x 2 − 60 x − 174 = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 f (−1) = an (−1 − 1 − 25 − 25) f ( x) = an ( x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) −104 = an (−52) an = 2 f (2) = an (8 + 16 − 62 − 174) f ( x) = 2 ( x − x + 25 x − 25) 26.

3 or 1 negative real roots exist. 2 or 0 positive real roots exist. . 34. f ( − x ) = − x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. ( x + 2 ) ⎛⎜ x + ⎝ Section 2. 37. no positive real roots exist. Since f(–x) has no sign variations. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 + x + 7 Since f(x) has no sign variations no positive real roots exist. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 + x 2 + x + 7 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. 38. f ( x) = −2 x 3 + x 2 − x + 7 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. f ( − x ) = 2 x 4 + 5 x3 − x 2 + 6 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 2 sign variations. = x 4 − 6 x + 13x 2 − 3 x3 + 18 x 2 − 39 x − 10 x 2 + 60 x − 130 = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ( f ( x) = an x 4 − 9 x3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ) f (1) = an (1 − 9 + 21 + 21 − 130) −96 = an (−96) an = 1 f ( x) = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 32. no negative real roots exist. 35. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + x 3 + 5 x 2 + 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 1 sign variations. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. f ( x) = 2 x 4 − 5 x3 − x 2 − 6 x + 4 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. f(x) = 5 x 3 − 3 x 2 + 3 x − 1 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. ( x + 2) ( x − 5) ( x − 3 + 2i ) ( x − 3 − 2i ) ( = (x )( − 3 x − 10 ) ( x = x 2 − 3 x − 10 x 2 − 3 x − 2ix − 3x + 9 + 6i + 2ix − 6i − 4i 2 2 2 − 6 x + 13 ) ) 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 negative real roots exist. Inc. ( x + 4) (3x − 1) ( x − 2 + 3i ) ( x − 2 − 3i ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 2 x − 3ix − 2 x + 4 + 6i + 3ix − 6i − 9i 2 ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 3 x 4 − 12 x 3 + 39 x 2 + 11x3 − 44 x 2 + 143x − 4 x 2 + 16 x − 52 = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 f ( x) = an ( 3x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 ) f (1) = an (3 − 1 − 9 + 159 − 52) 100 = an (100 ) an = 1 f ( x) = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 311 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. 33. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. no negative real roots exist. 2 or 0 negative real roots exist. f (− x) = − x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 7 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations.PreCalculus 4E 30.5 1⎞ ⎟ ( x − i )( x + i ) 2⎠ 5 ⎛ ⎞ = ⎜ x 2 + x + 1⎟ ( x 2 + 1) 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 = x 4 + x 2 + x3 + x + x 2 + 1 2 2 5 5 = x 4 + x3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1 2 2 5 ⎛ 4 5 3 ⎞ f ( x ) = an ⎜ x + x + 2 x 2 + x + 1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 3 2 ⎡ 4 ⎤ f (1) = an ⎢(1) + (1) + 2 (1) + (1) + 1⎥ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ 18 = an (9) an = 2 f ( x) = x 3 + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 4 Since f(x) has no sign variations. f ( − x ) = −5 x3 − 3 x 2 − 3x − 1 5 5 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x 4 + x 3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 5x3 + 4 x 2 + 5 x + 2 31.

0 or 2 positive real zeros exist. ± 10 q : ±1 p : ± 1. exactly 1 negative real zero exists. –1 2 –1 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x + 5) 40. 2 x3 − x 2 − 9 x − 4 = 0 p : ± 1. q : ± 1. ± 2. ± 5. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ±5. 1}. 5. ± 2. f ( x) = x3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10 p : ± 1. ±8 q: ±1. ± 2. ± 4 f (− x) = –3 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 1 sign changes. The solution set is ⎨ − . f (− x) = −2 x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 4 2 or no negative real roots exist. 3 or 1 negative zeros exist. f ( − x ) = − x3 − 4 x 2 + 7 x + 10 Since f(–x) has 1 sign variation.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. ±2. 10 0 1 ± 1 + 16 1 ± 17 = 2 2 ⎪⎧ 1 1 + 17 1 − 17 ⎪⎫ . 3 x 3 − 8 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. Inc. ±10 q: ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. no positive zeros exist. 312 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 0 41. ± q 3 3 3 3 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. Since f(x) has no sign variations. ±2. exactly one negative real zeros exists. 2 − –9 –4 –1 1 4 –2 –8 0 1 is a root. ±4. x = 1 The solution set is{–2. 2 x= f ( x) = x 3 + 12 x 2 + 2 x + 10 p: ±1. p : ± 1. ± 4 ± q 2 1 positive real root exists. f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 11x + 10 ) = ( x + 1)( x + 10)( x + 1) x = −1. f (− x) = − x 3 + 12 x 2 − 21x + 10 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. x = 5. ⎬. ± . 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 42. –2 1 –4 –7 10 –2 12 –10 1 –6 –2 is a zero. ± 5. ± 2 ± 5 ± 10 q 12 21 10 –1 –11 –10 1 11 –1 is a zero. x = −10 The solution set is {–1. 1 –1 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ 2 ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ = ( x + 2)( x − 5)( x − 1) x = –2. ± 10 q Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. ± . 2 or no positive real roots exist. ± 2. ± . ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. –10}. .

. ± 8 q : ±1 p : ± 1. ±2. ±2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ±10 q: ±1 p : ±1. 3 – i. Inc. ± 2. ± 4. ±5. ± 4. x 4 − 3 x 3 − 20 x 2 − 24 x − 8 = 0 p : ± 1. –1. ± 2. 2 + 2i. –1 −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(8) x= 2(1) 1 1 4 ± 16 − 32 x= 2 4 ± −16 x= 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i The solution set is { –1. ± 2. ± 4. ⎩3 ⎭ 43. ± 8 –1 -4 1 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. ±5. ± 4 ± 8 q 1 positive real root exists. 2 – 2i}. 0 or 2 negative roots exist. –1 1 –2 1 12 8 –4 14 x= p : ±1.5 3 2 3 3 –8 –8 8 2 –4 –8 –6 –12 0 44. ± 8 q Since f(x) has 2 sign changes.1 − 5 ⎬ . 3 –1 2⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 − 6 x − 12 ) 3⎠ ⎝ 6 ± 36 + 144 6 ± 6 5 = 6 6 = 1± 5 –1 x= x= q : ±1 –1 –8 1 –3 4 8 0 1 –3 4 8 –1 4 –8 –4 8 0 1 2 0 = x − 4x + 8 10 –1 5 -4 -10 1 -5 4 10 0 1 -5 4 10 –1 6 –10 -6 10 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) x =1 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 − 12 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 2 sign changes. –3 –20 –24 –8 –1 4 16 8 –16 –8 0 –4 ( x + 1) ( x − 4 x − 16 x − 8 ) = 0 3 2 313 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 The solution set is {–1. ± 2. 3 + i} 45.1 + 5. ±10 q 2 is a zero. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 or 2 positive roots exist. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)3 + (− x) 2 − 12 x + 8 4 -1 f ( x) = ( x − 1)( x − 1)( x 2 − 6 x + 10) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 + 12 x + 8 p : ±1. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x3 − x 2 + 14 x + 10 p: ±1.

±2. ±3. 3 46. ±15 q: ±1. ± 5. ±4. − 2. . ± 15. ± q 2 2 2 2 2 or no positive real zeros exist. x − x + 2x − 4x − 8 = 0 p: ±1. 0 (x 2 + 4) x + 1 = 0 x − 2 = 0 x2 + 4 = 0 x = –1 –1 f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( 3x 3 − 14 x 2 + 13x + 6 ) ( x + 1) ( x − 2 x + 4 x − 8 ) 3 –11 x=2 x 2 = −4 x = ±2i The solution set is {−1. f (− x) = 3x 4 + 11x 3 − x 2 − 19 x + 6 2 or no negative real zeros exist. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. ( x + 1)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x − 4 ) = 0 6 ± 36 + 16 6 ± 52 = 2 2 6 ± 2 13 3 ± 13 = = 2 2 The solution set is x= {−1. ±5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 3. ± 6. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8 q 1 negative real root exists.Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 1 1 –4 –16 –8 –2 12 8 –6 –4 0 47. ± . f ( x) = 2 x 4 + 3x 3 − 11x 2 − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. 2. 2. ± 3. x = 3 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. ± . 3⎬ . ± q 3 3 2 or no positive real zeros exists. 2i. ± . ± 3. x = 2 x = − . ± 2. ± . 3 ± f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p : ± 1. 3 − 13 . − 2i} . ± 3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ± 2. 4 3 –1 2 1 1 2 1 1 ( x + 1) 2 3 3 19 6 –3 14 –13 –6 –14 13 6 0 –14 13 6 6 –16 –6 –8 –3 0 –1 2 –4 –8 f ( x) = ( x + 1)( x − 2) ( 3x 2 − 8 x − 3) –1 2 –4 8 = ( x + 1)( x − 2)(3x + 1)( x − 3) –2 4 –8 0 1 x = −1. 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 4 –8 2 0 8 0 4 ( x − 2) 48. 1 2 2 3 –11 –9 15 2 5 –6 –15 –6 –15 0 5 f ( x) = ( x − 1) ( 2 x + 5 x − 6 x − 15 ) 3 − 52 2 2 2 5 –6 –15 –5 0 15 0 –6 0 314 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 6 –1 3 } 13. ±8 q: ±1 p : ± 1. q : ± 1. Inc. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − 3x 3 − 11x 2 + 9 x + 15 2 or no negative real zeros exist. − .

± 2 ± 4 ± 8. − 3 ⎬ . ± 6 1 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3 x 2 − 6 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. ±8 q: ±1. ± . ± q 2 2 4 4 3 or 1 positive real roots exists.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ± q 3 3 3 3 2 or no positive real roots exist. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 2 4 –6 2⎞ ⎛ ( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 + 3x + 3) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2⎞ ⎛ 3( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2 − 34 3 3 ( x − 1)(4 x + 3x + 8 x + 6) = 0 3 –3 Another positive real root must exist. ± 2. ± 4 3 3 3 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 = 0 p : ± 1. 3⎞ ⎛ ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 4 x 2 + 8 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ 4( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 2 x +2 =0 2 x 5 + 7 x 4 − 18 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p : ± 1. − i 2 ⎬ . 1 negative real root exists. 4 p 1 3 1 3 : ± 1. i 2. ± 3. ⎬. ± 2. ± 2. 4 8 −1 ± 1 − 4 −1 ± i 3 = 2 2 ⎧⎪ 2 −1 + i 3 −1 − i 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨4. ± 6. ± . ± . ± q 2 2 or no positive real roots exists. 3. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 49. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) = 3 x 4 + 11x3 − 3 x 2 + 6 x + 8 2 or no negative real roots exist. − . ±2. 3 or 1 negative real root exist. x = − . 315 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 4. . . ± 2. ± 3. ±4. x = − 3 2 ⎧ 5 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. ± . x = 3. ± 4. x 2 = −2 –2 x = ±i 2 2 3 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. ± .5 5⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 6 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 5⎞ ⎛ = 2( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 − 3) 2⎠ ⎝ 50. 4 –1 5 –2 –6 4 3 8 6 3 8 6 0 12 4 4 –8 1 1 –2 0 3 8 6 –3 0 –6 0 8 0 1 1 –2 2 2 2 3 3 0 x= 4 x + 3 x + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. − . ± 8 q : ± 1. ± . ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. 2 3 4 –11 ( x − 4) ( 3x 3 + x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 q : ± 1. 51. . 4 ⎩ ⎭ 7 0 –18 –4 2 3 –8 8 –6 12 12 –8 –6 –6 4 0 ( x + 2)(2 x + 3x − 6 x − 6 x + 4) = 0 4 3 2 4 x 3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. ± 8. ± 2. x2 − 3 = 0 x2 = 3 x=± 3 5 x = 1. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. Inc.

4 4 12 –41 –99 10 24 12 72 93 –18 –24 24 31 –6 –8 0 − x 3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 = 0 ( x + 4) ( − x2 + 5x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 ) ( x2 − 5x + 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) = 0 4 x 5 + 12 x 4 − 41x3 − 99 x 2 + 10 x + 24 = 0 p: ±1. ± 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 2 2 3 –6 –6 4 –4 2 8 –4 –1 –4 2 0 ( x − 3)( x + 2)( x + 4) ( 4 x 2 − 1) = 0 4 x2 −1 = 0 4 x2 = 1 1 x2 = 4 1 x=± 2 ( x + 2) 2 (2 x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 2) 2 1 2 –1 –4 2 1 0 2 0 –4 0 2 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨3. f (− x) = −4 x5 + 12 x 4 + 41x3 − 99 x 2 − 10 x + 24 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. − 2 ⎬ . ± 4. 2 2⎭ ⎩ 1⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2)2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2( x + 2) 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x −2 = 0 53. 2. ( x − 3) ( 4 x + 24 x + 31x − 6 x − 8) = 0 4 –2 3 2 24 31 –6 –8 –8 –32 2 8 –1 –4 0 4 4 16 ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( 4 x + 16 x − x − 4 ) = 0 3 –4 4 4 2 16 –1 4 –16 0 4 0 –1 0 316 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎬ . − 4. ±4 p 1 3 : ± 1.± 4 4 2 or no positive real roots exist. ± . From the graph provided. f ( x ) = − x3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 a. Inc. ±12. ±6. and 4. . We verify this below: −4 −1 1 16 −16 4 −20 −1 5 −4 x2 = 2 x=± 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. x=4 . ± 3. ±24 q: ±1. ± . ± 24. Thus. b. ± 12. ± 8. ±3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±2. q 2 2 1 3 ± . − 2. 1. ±4. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 52. . ±8. 3 16 0 x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x = −4 x =1 The zeros are −4 . we can see that −4 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. ±2. ± 6.

we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. From the graph provided. We verify this below: 1 3 3 2 2 −1 From the graph provided.PreCalculus 4E 54. f ( x ) = 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 a. so we use the quadratic formula: 1 or x 2 + x + 1 = 0 x− =0 3 a =1 b =1 c =1 1 x= 3 f ( x ) = 4 x3 − 8x 2 − 3x + 9 a. We verify this below: −1 4 −8 −3 9 x= −4 12 −9 4 −12 Thus. ( x + 1) ( − x 2 + 4 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) = 0 56. 9 −1 ± −3 2 1 3 −1 ± 3i i = =− ± 2 2 2 1 3 1 i. 1 is an x3 intercept and is thus a zero of the function. The zeros are and − ± 2 2 3 4 x3 − 8 x 2 − 3x + 9 = 0 ( x + 1)( 2 x − 3) = 0 or ( 2 x − 3) 2 = 0 2 x = −1 2 (1) = 0 ( x + 1) ( 4 x 2 − 12 x + 9 ) = 0 x +1 = 0 −1 ± 12 − 4 (1)(1) b. 2 317 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 2. 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3 x + 3 x + 3) = 0 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 55. − ( x + 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 2 x +1 = 0 or x = −1 ( x − 2) 2 =0 x−2 = 0 x=2 The zeros are −1 and 2. b. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. we can see that 1 1 1 3 3 3 0 Thus. Inc. From the graph provided.5 f ( x ) = − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. 2x − 3 = 0 2x = 3 x= The zeros are −1 and 3 2 3 . We verify this below: −1 −1 3 0 −4 1 −4 −1 4 −4 4 0 − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 = 0 Thus. . b. Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

and −1 ± i . ± 6 = Factors of 1 ±1 = ±1. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 58. 3 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 To factor x − x 2 − 4 x − 6 . ± 6 We test values from above until we find a zero. ± 3. 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 2 x + 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 2 x 3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 a. so we use the quadratic formula: a =1 b = 2 c = 2 x = 1. we can see that 1 and 3 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. 0 2 x − 3x − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 4 Thus. x = −2 The zeros are −3. One possibility is shown next: = ( x − 1) ( 2 x3 + 4 x 2 − 18 x − 36 ) 3 2 6 6 2 2 0 30 2 10 1 −1 −4 −6 1 4 −18 −36 6 3 0 Thus. x = 3. .Polynomial and Rational Functions 57. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. 1. 2 = −4 −6 2 −2 −8 −12 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and 3. we can see that 1 −1 −2 ± −4 −2 ± 2i = = −1 ± i 2 2 1 The zeros are . 36 12 0 2 x + 2 x − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 = 0 4 3 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( 2 x 2 + 10 x + 12 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( x 2 + 5 x + 6 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = 0 The remainder is 0. 3. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −22 −18 36 Factors of − 6 ±1. 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 Test 3: 3 4 −18 −36 2 2 4 −18 −36 The possible rational zeros are: Thus. x= 1 is an 2 x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 a. ± 3. b. so 3 is a zero of f. ± 3. From the graph provided. Factors of the constant term −6 : ±1. 318 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2. ± 2. Inc. x = −3. ± 2. − 2 . We verify this below: 1 2 2 −3 −7 −8 6 −2 ± 22 − 4 (1)( 2 ) 2 (1) From the graph provided.

we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 5: ±1. We verify this below: 1 3 2 −15 −10 12 8 ( x − 1) ( 3 x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1) ( 3x 2 + 8 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1)( 3 x + 2 )( x + 2 ) = 0 5 −10 −20 −8 3 3 5 −10 −20 −8 0 Thus. 3x + 2 x − 15 x − 10 x + 12 x + 8 5 4 3 2 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) = ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) To factor 3 x 3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 . ± 4. We verify this below: 1 −5 4 −19 16 4 −5 −1 −20 −4 −5 −1 −20 −4 0 Thus. x = − . −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 To factor 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 . ± 4 = Factors of 5 ±1. One possibility is shown next: Test −1 : − 1 3 11 12 4 8 4 From the graph provided. so −1 is a zero of f. ± 2. One possibility is shown next: 319 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 2. ± 3 3 3 We test values from above until we find a zero. −1 . ± . 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 2 x = 1. a. ± 4.PreCalculus 4E 59. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. ± 2. ± 2. ± 4 = Factors of 3 ±1. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 3: ±1. we can see that 1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. We can now finish the factoring: 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 = 0 From the graph provided. ± 3 1 2 4 = ±1. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. 3 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) 2 3 5 −10 −20 −8 6 22 3 11 24 12 8 4 b. ± 2. 0 Thus. . 1 and 2.5 f ( x ) = 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 a. − . ± 2. x = −1. ± 5 −3 −8 −4 3 f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 4 x3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 0 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. we can see that 1 and 2 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. Inc. ± 5 1 2 4 = ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. Section 2. The remainder is 0. ± . ± . ± 3 60. ± 5 5 5 We test values from above until we find a zero. ± 2. ± . x = −2 3 2 The zeros are −2 .

V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 2000 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 63. 2000). – 71. 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 2000 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 1000 = 0 Find the roots.2 Since the depth must be positive. a.8 inches to obtain a volume of 2000 cubic inches. x = −2i. reject the negative value. 5 5 1 0 −750 0 −150 0 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. Inc. 12. reject the negative value. 1500) and (12. and ±2i . −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(0) ± (0)2 − 4(1)(−150) 2(1) x ≈ −12. x= 4 −(5) ± (5)2 − 4(1)(−100) 2(1) x ≈ −12. 1. 0 −4 0 20 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 0 1 is a zero of f. 7. The depth can be 10 inches or 7. x = 2i 5 1 The zeros are − .8 Since the depth must be positive. so − ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 62. 5 1 −5 −150 750 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x + 2i )( x − 2i ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1 x = 1. 10 1 −5 −150 1000 10 1 64.2. 2000 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x b. .Polynomial and Rational Functions 1 Test − : 5 − 15 5 1 20 −1 5 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots.8. The range is (0. The answers correspond to the points (7. 5 −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 The remainder is 0.2. 320 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. Answers may vary. The depth can be 5 inches or 12. x= 61. 15).2 inches to obtain a volume of 1500 cubic inches. The answers correspond to the points (5. 1⎞ ⎛ − ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 5 x 2 + 20 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 4 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 1500 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 750 = 0 Find the roots. x= b. b. 2000) and (10. x = − .8. 15). 0 65. 1500). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 50 −1000 5 −100 The range is (0.

f ( − x ) = − x5 − x 4 − x3 − x 2 − x − 8 f(–x) has no sign variations. or 1 positive real roots exist. ±2. ± q 2 2 2 f ( x ) = x 5 − x 4 + x3 − x 2 + x − 8 f(x) has 5 sign variations. Even functions do not. ±2 77. The polynomial’s graph doesn’t intersect the x-axis. ± . ± 2. 321 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±4 1 1 p : ± 1. f ( x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(x) has no sign variations. ±2. so either 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±2. From the graph we see the solutions are 3 −3. ±3. ±3. ± 15. ± 4. 2 2 6 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. ± . ± . . ± . 3 and 5.PreCalculus 4E 72. ±3. ± . ±6. Inc. ± . ±6 1 1 2 4 1 p : ± 1. − . we see that there are no real solutions. 40 0 4 x 4 + 4 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 p: ±1. ± 3. ±4 q: ±1. 2 3 and 2. ± . 2. 3. ±2 q: ±1. ±9. we see that the solutions are 1 2 . ±6. ±18. ±15 q: ±1. Odd functions must have at least one real zero. it has no positive real roots. 2 73. no negative roots exist. 1 3 9 p : ± 1. ±3. 74. we see that the solutions are 1 1 − and . ± q 2 3 3 3 6 76.5 2 x 3 − 15 x 2 + 22 x + 15 = 0 p: ±1. Section 2. 2 78. − 1. ± . ± 2. From the graph we see that the solutions are 1 − . ±5. ± 5. From the graph. ± . ±2. ±2 1 3 5 15 p : ± 1. q : ± 1. ±2. so no negative real roots exist. ± q 2 2 2 2 75. ±9. ± . f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. ± q 2 4 100 0 From the graph. 2 x 4 + 7 x 3 − 4 x 2 − 27 x − 18 = 0 p : ± 1. ±18 From the graph.

f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 + 6 x3 − 4 x 2 − 24 x + 16 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 3x ( x + 5 ) = 208 ( 2 x 2 + 11x + 5) ( x + 2 ) − 3x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 5 x +10 − 3 x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x − 3 x 2 − 15 x − 198 = 0 2 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x − 198 = 0 2 ( x 3 + 6 x 2 + 6 x − 99 ) = 0 3 real zeros 2 nonreal complex zeros 81. Two roots appear twice. false. f ( x) = x 3 − 6 x − 9 88. 91. The equation of the vertical asymptote is x = 1. 2 real zeros 4 nonreal complex zeros 83. Answers will vary 82. Sample explanation: The quadratic formula is can be applied only of equations of degree 2. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction and two roots have multiplicity 2. 97. 84. Because the polynomial has no obvious changes of direction but the graph is obviously not linear. A sample change is: The equation has 0 sign variations. A sample change is: Descartes’ Rule gives the maximum possible number of real roots. The function is undefined at x = 1 and x = 2. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. f ( x) = x 6 − 64 93. the smallest degree is 5. the smallest degree is 3. the smallest degree is 3. 3 f ( x) = 3 x 4 + 4 x3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x − 3 1 1 6 6 –99 3 27 99 9 33 0 x + 9 x + 33 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = −51 x = 3 in. . The equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 0. the smallest degree is 5. does not make sense. 98. true 90. Inc. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. makes sense 99. 86. 95. 2 92. Answers may vary. 322 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 96. makes sense 100. 94. 89. 85. 87. 1 real zero 2 nonreal complex zeros 80. so no positive roots exist.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. A sample change is: Polynonials of degree n have at most n distinct solutions. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point 1. 5] 323 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) range: [ −4. –4). The vertex is (–2. x(2 x − 3) = −4 2 The parabola opens down because a < 0. 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x-intercepts: 2 x 2 − 3 x = −4 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 = 0 x= f ( x ) = 5 − ( x + 2) 0 = 5 − ( x + 2) −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a ( x + 2) −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(4) x= 2(2) 2 2 =5 x+2 = ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: 3 ± −23 x= 4 3 23 x= ± i 4 4 f ( 0) = 5 − ( 0 + 2) = 1 2 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) −75 − −12 = 5i 3 − 2i 3 = 3i 3 (2 − −3 ) = (2 − i 3) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 − 3 = 1 − 4i 3 7. (6 − 2i ) − (7 − i ) = 6 − 2i − 7 + i = −1 − i 2. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) − 4 = 5 2 domain: (−∞. x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 3) − 4 2 ( x − 3) = 4+i+3= 7+i 4. The vertex is (3. (1 + i )(4 − 3i ) = 4 − 3i + 4i − 3i 2 8. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) − 4 2 The parabola opens up because a > 0. . 5. Inc. ∞) range: ( −∞. 3i (2 + i ) = 6i + 3i 2 = −3 + 6i 3. 9. 5). 2 =4 x−3 = ± 4 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i + i + i2 = ⋅ = 1− i 1− i 1+ i 1 − i2 1 + 2i − 1 = 1+1 2i = 2 =i x = 3± 2 The equation has x-intercepts at x = 1 and x = 5 .

domain: (−∞. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 − 4(0) + 5 = 5 x= 3 Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 3 f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 The parabola opens up because a > 0. ∞) range: [ −2. 1. ∞) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) f ( −2 ) = −(−2) 2 − 4(−2) + 5 = 9 The vertex is (–2. 9] 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. is positive. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 9). 2(−1) 2 ( x + 1) 3 =0 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 4 ± 36 −2 x = −2 ± 3 The x-intercepts are x = 1 and x = −5 . –2). since the zero has multiplicity 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. b −4 vertex: x = − =− = −2 2a 2(−1) domain: (−∞. and since the leading coefficient. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at −1 . x-intercepts: 0 = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−6) ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) x= 6 ± 24 6 x= 3± 6 3 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. f ( x ) = − x2 − 4 x + 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 3(0)2 − 6(0) + 1 = 1 The parabola opens down because a < 0. degree 5. b −6 =− =1 vertex: x = − 2a 2(3) f (1) = 3(1)2 − 6(1) + 1 = −2 The vertex is (1. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 324 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 − 4 x + 5 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(−1)(5) 12. Inc. . The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 2 since the zero has multiplicity 2. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial.

The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 since the zero has multiplicity 6. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. since all have multiplicity 1. degree 4. degree 4. is negative. since all have multiplicity 1. and since the leading coefficient. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. x = −2. x = 2. and since the leading coefficient. is positive. and since the leading coefficient. −2 . Inc. −2 . and 2. 1. x = 1 The zeros are −2 . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. 325 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1. degree 3. 1. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around both at −1 and 2 since both zeros have multiplicity 2. and 2. −1 . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and 2. The graph crosses the x-axis at all four zeros. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. and since the leading coefficient. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. the graph rises to the left and rises to the right. 14. f ( x ) = x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 16. f ( x ) = x4 − 5x2 + 4 (x Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 2 − 4 )( x 2 − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle. is positive. degree 6. −1 . Apply the zero-product principle: x + 2 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −2 x=2 x =1 The zeros are −2 . Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point f ( x ) = − ( x − 2) − ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 =0 2 15. x = −1. x4 − 5x2 + 4 = 0 2 ( x + 1) 6 =0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 The zero is are −1 .PreCalculus 4E 13. 1. is negative. −1 . x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) 6 − ( x + 1) = 0 6 ( x − 1) − 4 ( x − 1) = 0 ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. −1 .. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. and 2. 1.

and 1. so 1 is a zero. is positive. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of − 6 ±1. and 1. ± 3. 3 2 x= Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. since all have multiplicity 1. c = 26 The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. ± 2. 2 x3 − 2 x = 0 To find the zeros. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. x = − . Inc. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and 1. − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( 26 ) 2 (1) 2 2 ± −100 2 ± 10i = = 1 ± 5i 2 2 The zeros are 0 and 1 ± 5i . b = −2. −1 . ± . . the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. ± . x = 3 2 1 1 The zeros are − . . and since the leading coefficient. 3 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x x3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x = 0 x ( x 2 − 2 x + 26 ) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x + 26 does not factor. ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. . degree 3. Thus. x = −1. −6 . and 1. x =1 The zeros are −1 . is negative. since all have multiplicity 1. ± 3. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 −6 7 0 −1 −6 −6 1 1 1 1 0 f ( x ) = 2 x3 − 2 x The remainder is 0. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. 1 1 − . 0. ± 2 3 6 We test values from the above list until we find a zero. ± 2. 2. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 List all factors of the leading coefficient −6 : ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = 326 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. degree 3. ± 6 2 x ( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 x ( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle: x = 0. so we use the quadratic formula: x = 0 or x 2 − 2 x + 26 = 0 a = 1. f ( x ) = −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 18. since it has multiplicity 1. and since the leading coefficient. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −6 x 2 + x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 − ( x − 1)( 3x + 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 19. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at 0 (the only real zero). Apply the zero-product property: 1 1 x = 1. 0.

the graph falls to the left and rises to the right.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. 3 and 1 ± 2 . is negative. ± 2 = = ±1. . 21. 1.1} . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. Thus. since all have multiplicity 1. and the solution set is {−2. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. ± 2 Factors of 1 ±1 Factors of − 3 ±1. One is shown next: We test values from the previous list until we find a zero. is positive. ± 3 List all factors of the leading coefficient −1 : ±1 The possible rational zeros are: The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 2 ±1. c = −1 = 0 The remainder is 0. degree 3. Inc. so 1 is a root of the equation. degree 3. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 3 Factors of − 1 ±1 We test values from above until we find a root. b = −2. 327 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −3 : ±1. x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 x= 2 1 −2 1 1 −2 The remainder is 0. −1 . Thus. f ( x ) = − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 To find the zeros. ± 3 = = ±1. so we use the quadratic formula: x − 3 = 0 or x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 0 x=3 a = 1. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 1 0 −3 Test 3: −1 3 −1 1 5 −5 −3 −3 6 3 2 1 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 2 )( x − 1) = 0 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) = 0 ( x − 3) ( − x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 3) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x − 1 does not factor. Factors of the constant term 2: ±1. − ( −2 ) ± x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 2 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Apply the zero-product property: 2 ( x − 1) = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = −2 x −1 = 0 x =1 The solutions are −2 and 1. ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −1) 2 (1) 2 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 1± 2 2 2 The zeros are 3 and 1 ± 2 . and since the leading coefficient. so 3 is a zero. and since the leading coefficient.

± 20. 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 x= 3 2 1 1 The solutions are . ⎬ . . x= Apply the zero-product property: x − 10 = 0 or 2 x + 5 = 0 or x + 10 = 0 x = 10 x=− 5 2 5 The solutions are −10. ± 10. ± 2. ± 25. ± 100. One is shown next: 1 5 25 125 ±250. − . Thus. 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( 2 x + 1)( 3x − 2 ) ( 2 x − 7 ) = 0 3 Apply the zero-product property: 2x +1 = 0 1 x=− 2 or (3x − 2) 3 = 0 or 3x − 2 = 0 x= 2 3 x = −10 2x − 7 = 0 7 T x= 2 1 2 7 and . 2 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. so 10 is a root of the equation. ± 100. 10 ⎬ . 1⎬ . ± 20. and the solution set is 3 2 ⎧1 1 ⎫ ⎨ . ± 3. 2 3 2 ⎧ 1 2 7⎫ is ⎨ − . Factors of 2 ±10. ± 2. ± 4. Thus. so 1 is a root of the equation. . and 1. ± .Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. Test 1: 1 6 −11 6 We test values from above until we find a root. ± 250. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 25. ± . ± . 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 5 −200 −500 20 250 500 2 25 50 0 ( x − 10 ) ( 2 x 2 + 25 x + 50 ) = 0 ( x − 10 )( 2 x + 5 )( x + 10 ) = 0 Apply the zero-product property: x − 1 = 0 or 3 x − 1 = 0 or 2 x − 1 = 0 x =1 2 The remainder is 0. ± . ± 5. ⎩3 2 ⎭ 23. ± 2. ±50. ± 2. and the solution 2 5 ⎧ ⎫ set is ⎨ −10. ± 125. Factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 Factors of the leading coefficient 6: ±1. ± 4. ± 3. ⎩ 2 3 2⎭ 328 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and the solution set he solutions are − . ± 500 Factors of the leading coefficient 2: ±1. ± 2 2 2 2 Factors of 500 = ±1. ± 2 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of 6 ±1. One is shown next: 6 −1 6 −5 −5 1 1 Test 10: 0 10 The remainder is 0. ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. ± 6 24. ± 5. − . ± 125. ± 50. ± . ± 500. Factors of the constant term −500 : ±1. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. Inc. ± 2 3 6 The possible rational zeros are: We test values from above until we find a root. . and 10 .

we have 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 ( x + 3) ( 2 x3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 x = −1 2 ( x + 3) ⎛⎜ x − x = ± −1 = ± i 26. ± 4. ± 2 1 3 = ±1. ± 2. Using the Factor Theorem. c = −2 At this point. so 1 1 is a zero and x − is a 2 2 factor. ± 12 Factors of 6 ±1. ± 4. Note that x 2 − 2 x − 2 does not factor. Thus. 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 3) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 x − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x 4 + x3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 6. 15 −2 To solve the equation above. ± 2 1 are roots of 2 the equation. we need to factor 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 . Factors of the constant term −12 : ±1. ± 3. so we use the quadratic formula: x2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 a = 1. so −3 is a root. Using the Factor Theorem. Inc. ± 3. One possibility is shown next: −3 1 −17 −4 2 ⎝ 1⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2x − 4x − 4) = 0 2⎠ The roots are −3 . 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We test values from this list we find a root. ± 3. We continue testing potential roots: 1 −1 −11 −1 −12 12 −3 −6 2 −5 ( x + 3) ( 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 Test −3 : −3 6 The remainder is 0. ± 12 = ±1 = ±1. so −3 is a root of the equation. ± 2 2 We test values from above until we find a root. ± 6. . ± 6. ± 3. Factors of the constant term 6: ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 12 12 1 −4 1 −4 0 Test The remainder is 0. 4 3 2 −3 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 12 Factors of 1 ±1.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point x − x − 11x − x − 12 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 3. 4. ± . ± i} . so we use the square-root principle: x 2 + 1 = 0 Summarizing our findings so far. ± 6 = Factors of 2 ±1. we know that x − 1 is a factor. ± 2. and the solution set is {−3. ± 2. b = −2. x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 − x − 12 = 0 1 2 6 −6 2 0 1 : 2 2 −5 −2 2 1 −2 −2 ( x + 3) ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 3) ⎡⎣ x 2 ( x − 4 ) + 1( x − 4 )⎤⎦ = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 1) = 0 2 −4 −4 0 The remainder is 0. Note that x 2 + 1 does not factor. As this point we know that −3 and 4 are roots of the equation. we know that −3 and The possible rational roots are: 329 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 4: ±1. Thus. ± 3. ± 6. ± 2. ± 2. One possibility is shown next: Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Test −3 : x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 = x + 12 25. and ±i . 4. we know that x + 3 is a factor of the polynomial. ± 4. ± 2.

The maximum daily profit is $1200. . A(10) = 20(10) − (10) 2 = 100 The maximum area is 100 squares inches. we know the function opens down and has a maximum at b 150 150 x=− =− =− = 75 . 2 ( x − 1)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f ( x) = an ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f (−1) = an (−1 − 1) ( (−1) 2 + 1) = −4an = 8 The x-coordinate of the maximum is b −18 −18 x=− =− =− = −9. The maximum product is f ( x) = an ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) 81. − 2 x2 6 x4 2 ± 4 + 8 2 ± 12 2 ± 2 3 = = = = 1± 3 2 2 2 1 The solutions are −3 . P ( 75 ) = −752 + 150(75) − 4425 (2x 4 +3 x +1 x +1 3x2 − 1 − 13x 3 + 17 x 2 + 18 x − 24 ) ÷ ( x − 4 ) 4 = −5625 + 11. 3 Let x = one of the numbers. and the 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ solution set is ⎨ −3. = −9 ( −18 + 9 ) = −9 ( −9 ) = 81 29. 330 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 40 − 2x = base of triangle 1 1 A = bh = x(40 − 2 x) 2 2 A( x) = 20 x − x 2 The height at which the triangle will have 20 b maximum area is x = − =− = 10. Inc. 2 x2 − x − 3 3x − 1 6 x − 3x − 11x 2 + 2 x + 4 2 4 − 3 x3 − 9 x 2 + 2 x −3 x 3 − 9x + x + 4 −9 x 2 P ( x ) = − x 2 + 150 x − 4425 2 x2 − x − 3 + 31. and 1 ± 3 . −18 − x = the other number The product is f ( x ) = x ( −18 − x ) = − x 2 − 18 x 32. f ( x) = x 3 − x − 5 f (1) = 13 − 1 − 5 = −5 f (2) = 23 − 2 − 5 = 1 Yes. 2 2 –13 17 18 –24 8 -20 –12 24 6 0 –5 –3 The quotient is 2 x − 5 x − 3 x + 6 . This occurs when the two number are −9 and −18 − (−9) = −9 . . 2a 2 ( −1) −2 28. 3 ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x − 3i )( x + 3i ) = ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) The vertex is ( −9. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 27. 1 ± 3 ⎬ . 2a 2 ( −1) −2 an = −2 f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) or − 2 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 2 x + 2 f ( −9 ) = −9 ⎡⎣ −18 − ( −9 ) ⎤⎦ 33.Polynomial and Rational Functions x= − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −2 ) 2 (1) 2 30. 250 − 4425 = 1200 The company will maximize its profit by manufacturing and selling 75 cabinets per day.81) . f (0) = an (0 − 2)(0 − 2)(02 + 9) 36 = 36an an = 1 Let x = height of triangle. 2a 2 ( −1) f ( x) = 1( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 3 + 13x 2 − 36 x + 36 34. the function must have a real zero between 1 and 2 because f (1) and f (2) have opposite signs. +x 2 Since a = −1 is negative. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

f ( x) = Shift the graph 2 units to the left by subtracting 2 from each x-coordinate. Shift the graph 1 unit down by subtracting 1 from each y-coordinate. 2 3x − 3 = 0 3x = 3 x =1 The x-intercept is 1. x 2 − 25 = 0 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 {x | x ≠ 5. The denominator cannot equal zero.6 5. there is no horizontal asymptote. 2(0) 2 f (0) = 2 =0 0 −9 The y-intercept is 0. x ≠ −5} 2. No vertical asymptotes. y = 9 =3 3 y = 3 is a horizontal asymptote. c.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. x 2x2 x2 − 9 2(− x)2 2x2 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 The y-axis symmetry. a. c. Since n = m. Check Point Exercises 1. g ( x) = 3x − 3 x−2 3(− x) − 3 −3 x − 3 3x + 3 = = f (− x) = −x − 2 −x − 2 x+2 no symmetry 3(0) − 3 3 f (0) = = 0−2 2 3 The y-intercept is . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 331 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. . All real numbers. x = −1 b. b. The denominator cannot equal zero. Since n < m. 1 . Since n > m. Vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: 3 y= =3 1 f ( x) = x −1 x −1 1 = = 2 x − 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x + 1 x = −1 3. y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. 4. 2 x2 = 0 x=0 The x-intercept is 0. x −5 = 0 x=5 { x x ≠ 5} b.6 Section 2. x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = 1. Begin with the graph of f ( x) = 6. c. a. Inc.

g ( x) = 2 x2 ( x − 2)( x + 6) { x x ≠ 2. x ≠ −4} 4. 000 + 400(10. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 20 20 T (x) = + . 1. 000) = 7.Polynomial and Rational Functions vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 x = 3.6 x 2 = −2 no vertical asymptotes horizontal asymptote: Since n > m. 2 –1 5 the equation of the slant asymptote is y = 2x – 1. 2 2 –5 7 4 –2 g ( x) = 3x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 4) { x x ≠ 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and $405. C ( x) = 500. x=0 The x-intercept is 0. 000 + 400 x b. f ( x) = 7x x −8 { x x ≠ 8} 3. 000 + 400(1000) 1000 = 900 C (1000) = c. a. there is no horizontal asymptote. 000 = 450 C (10. $450. x ≠ −6} 332 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 = 405 The average cost per wheelchair of producing 1000. 000 + 400(100. 000) 10. x4 x2 + 2 (− x)4 x4 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x) 2 + 2 x 2 + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 f (0) = 2 =0 0 +2 The y-intercept is 0. 10. 000) 100. 8. C ( x) = 500. . respectively. 500. 000 + 400 x x 500. C (100. f ( x) = 5x x−4 { x x ≠ 4} 2. and 100. 10.000 wheelchairs is $900. vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 = 0 400 = 400 1 The cost per wheelchair approaches $400 as more wheelchairs are produced.000. y= x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. Inc. 000) = 500. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: 2 y= =2 1 9. x4 = 0 f ( x) = d. x x − 10 Exercise Set 2.

x+8 x + 64 all real numbers f ( x) = 9. +∞ 11. f ( x) = 15 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 x 22. { x x ≠ 8. x +8 x 2 − 64 x 2 − 64 = ( x − 8)( x + 8) h( x ) = 24. 19.PreCalculus 4E 5. −∞ 12. x+7 x 2 + 49 all real numbers f ( x) = 25. x = 3 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. r ( x) = 2 x x +3 x 2 + 3 has no real zeros There is no vertical asymptotes. 28. x = −4 g ( x) = x x+4 x+4=0 x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = –4 f ( x) = 30. +∞ 27. −∞ 17. −∞ 18. −∞ 10. 1 21. f ( x) = x−3 x−3 = 0 x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 31. x 1 = x( x + 4) x + 4 x+4=0 h( x ) = x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 14. 0 +∞ x+3 x( x − 3) x( x − 3) = 0 x = 0. +∞ 26. 1 x 1 = x( x − 3) x − 3 x −3 = 0 h( x ) = x x +4 x 2 + 4 has no real zeros There are no vertical asymptotes. 0 15. g ( x) = n = m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r ( x) = f ( x) = 2 12 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 20. 12 =4 3 . x ≠ −8} 7. x = 3 g ( x) = x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = −4 2 13. x+3 x( x + 4) x( x + 4) = 0 x = 0. Section 2. 12 x 2 3x 2 + 1 horizontal asymptote: y = 333 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8. 16. 29. Inc.6 x+7 x 2 − 49 2 x − 49 = ( x − 7)( x + 7) h( x ) = 23. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. x ≠ −7} 6. { x x ≠ 7.

x 2 3 −3 x + 7 5x − 2 n=m s f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 37. 1 +2 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 36. x 334 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit to the right. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. h( x ) = 15 x 3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 35. h( x ) = g ( x) = 1 x−2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 15 =5 3 1 2 units to the right. h( x ) = g ( x) = 3 5 1 x −1 40. g ( x) = n=m 15 x 2 3x 2 + 1 38. −2 x + 1 3x + 5 1 2 units up. f ( x) = n=m 39. horizontal asymptote: y = 33. . x h( x ) = 1 +1 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit up. x 12 x3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 34.

g ( x) = 45. x2 down. g ( x) = Section 2. x2 335 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. h( x ) = 1 ( x + 2) 2 h( x ) = 1 −3 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 4 units down. x2 . 1 3 units down. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g ( x) = 1 −4 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 units left and 2 units x down. Inc. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left and 2 units x g ( x) = 1 ( x + 1) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left. 43. 1 −2 x+2 46. x2 1 2 units left.6 1 −2 x +1 44.PreCalculus 4E 41. 42.

1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 3 units right and 2 units x up. Inc. so y = = 4 1 1 3 units right and 1 unit x2 up. 3x x −1 3(− x ) 3x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 1 x + 1 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). h( x ) = vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 1 +1 ( x − 3) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = x=2 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m.Polynomial and Rational Functions 47. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0 −1 x-intercept: 3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x −1 = 0 f ( x) = x =1 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. . 49. h( x ) = 1 +2 ( x − 3) 2 50. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 4(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0−2 x-intercept: 4x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 336 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 48. so y = = 3 1 4x x−2 4(− x) 4x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 2 x + 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).

f ( x) = 4x x2 −1 4 (−x) 4x f (−x) = =− 2 = –f(x) 2 ( −x) −1 x −1 Origin symmetry 4 ( 0) =0 y-intercept: 2 0 −1 x-intercept:4x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 f ( x) = 337 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 2. Inc. 0 =0 1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = = 2 1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 52.6 2x 2 x −4 2 (−x) 2x = –f(x) =− 2 f (−x) = 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 Origin symmetry 2 ( 0) 0 y-intercept: 2 = =0 0 − 4 −4 x-intercept: 2x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 53. 2 x2 x2 −1 f (−x) = 2 (−x) (−x) 2 2 −1 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 2x2 = f ( x) x2 − 1 2 (0) 2 02 − 1 = x-intercept: 2 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x2 −1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m.PreCalculus 4E 51.

−3 x x+2 −3 ( − x ) 3x f (−x) = = (−x) + 2 −x + 2 f ( x) = f–x) ≠ f(x). f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry y-intercept: −3 ( 0 ) y= =0 0+2 x-intercept: –3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 horizontal asymptote: −3 = −3 n = m. so y = 1 −x x +1 − (−x) x f (−x) = = (−x) +1 −x +1 f ( x) = f(–x) ≠ f(x). so y = 1 4 x2 x2 − 9 f (−x) = 4(−x) (−x) 2 2 −9 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 4 ( 0) 4 x2 = f ( x) x2 − 9 2 02 − 9 =0 x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = ±3 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. Inc. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry − ( 0) 0 y-intercept: y = = =0 0 +1 1 x-intercept: –x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 338 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: −1 = −1 n = m. so y = = 4 1 55. 56. .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 58.6 1 x −4 1 1 f (−x) = − =− 2 = f(x) 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 y-axis symmetry 1 1 = y-intercept: y = – 2 0 −4 4 x-intercept: –1 ≠ 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x2 = 4 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m or y = 0 f ( x) = − f ( x) = − 59. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry −2 =1 y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 2 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 x = 2. x = 1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 2 f (−x) = − 2 x + x−2 2 2 f (−x) = − = 2 2 (−x) − x − 2 x − x − 2 f ( x) = 2 = f(x) x −1 2 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: 2 2 y=− 2 =− =2 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: –2 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 (x – 1)(x + 1) x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m.PreCalculus 4E 57. 2 2 x −1 60. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 2 2 y-intercept: y = 2 = = −1 0 + 0 − 2 −2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 2 = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1) = 0 x = −2. so y = 0 −2 x −x−2 −2 −2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x ) − (− x ) − 2 x + x − 2 f ( x) = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). . x = −1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 339 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 (−x) 2 −1 =− 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Section 2. Inc.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. so y = = 2 1 f ( x) = 63. 2 x2 x2 + 4 2(− x) 2 2 x2 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) + 4 x + 4 y axis symmetry 2(0) 2 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +4 x-intercept: 2 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. so y = = 4 1 f ( x) = 340 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x+2 x + x−6 −x + 2 −x + 2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( −x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0+2 2 1 =− =− y-intercept: y = 2 0 +0−6 6 3 x-intercept: x+2=0 x = –2 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) x = −3. x = 2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. so y = 0 f ( x) = 2 4 x2 x2 + 1 4(− x) 2 4 x2 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 ( −x) +1 x +1 y axis symmetry 4(0) 2 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +1 x-intercept: 4 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. . 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.

Inc. so y = 0 67. so none f ( x) = x 2 + x − 12 x2 − 4 (− x) 2 − x − 12 x 2 − x − 12 f (−x) = = 2 x2 − 4 (−x) − 4 f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x). x = −2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m.PreCalculus 4E 64. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 2. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 + 0 − 12 =3 y-intercept: y = 02 − 4 x-intercept: x 2 + x − 12 = 0 2 ( x − 3)( x + 4) = 0 x = 3. x = 4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 f ( x) = 66. . x4 x +2 (− x) 4 x4 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 (−x) + 2 x + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +2 x-intercept: x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m.6 x−4 2 x − x−6 x+4 −x − 4 f (−x) = =− 2 2 (−x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0−4 2 = y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−6 3 x-intercept: x − 4 = 0. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. ( x − 3)( x + 2) x = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 2. 65. so none f ( x) = 2 x4 x2 + 1 2(− x) 4 2 x4 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) +1 x +1 y-axis symmetry 2 ( 04 ) y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +2 x-intercept: 2 x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m. so y = = 1 1 341 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

x = 2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. so y = = 1 1 342 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 0 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 x= ( x + 3)( x − 2) = 0 x = −3. so y = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f(–x) ≠ f(x). vertical asymptotes: 2 x2 − 5x = 0 x(2 x − 5) = 0 x2 x2 + x − 6 (− x) 2 x2 f (−x) = = 2 2 (−x) − x − 6 x − x − 6 f ( x) = x = 0. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) 2 + 0 − 4 −4 = y-intercept: y = 0 2(0) 2 − 5(0) no y-intercept x-intercepts: 3x2 + x − 4 = 0 (3 x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 x − 1 = 0 3x = −4 4 x = − . Inc. f ( x) = x2 − 4 x + 3 ( x + 1)2 ( − x ) − 4 ( − x ) + 3 x2 + 4 x + 3 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x + 1) ( − x + 1) 2 69.x =1 3 ( x + 1) 2 =0 x = –1 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m.Polynomial and Rational Functions 68. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 02 − 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = =3 2 1 ( 0 + 1) x-intercept: x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = 3 and x = 1 vertical asymptote: 3x 2 + x − 4 2 x2 − 5x 3(− x) 2 − x − 4 3 x 2 − x − 4 f (−x) = = 2 2 x2 + 5x 2 ( − x ) + 5x f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 2 x = 5 5 2 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = = 1 1 70. . f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +0−6 x-intercept: x 2 = 0.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 − 1 x ( − x ) − 1 x2 − 1 = = − f ( x) −x (−x) 2 f (−x) = Origin symmetry y-intercept: y = 0 2 − 1 −1 = 0 0 73. b. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x – x y=x f ( x) = b. Section 2.6 horizontal asymptote: n > m. . so none exist. so none exist.PreCalculus 4E 71. x2 − 4 x f ( x) = x2 + 1 x = x2 − 4 = − f ( x) −x −x origin symmetry 02 − 4 4 =− y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 vertical asymptote: x = 0 343 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. a. so none exist. a. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = 72. b. f ( x) = a. slant asymptote: 4 f ( x) = x – x y=x f (−x) = (−x) 2 +1 x2 − 4 x (−x) 2 −4 = x2 + 1 = − f ( x) −x −x Origin symmetry 02 + 1 1 = y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m. no y-intercept x-intercepts: x 2 − 1 = 0 x = ±1 vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n < m.

so none exist. so none Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 4 + = = x2 − x − 6 −x − 3 −x − 3 f(–x) ≠ g(x). f ( x) = a. f ( x) = a. vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. so none exist. no y-intercept x2 + 4 = 0 x 2 = −4 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m. . f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + x − 6 x−3 (−x) 2 + (−x) − 6 x2 + x + 1 −x −1 −x −1 no symmetry f (–x) ≠ f (x). f (–x) ≠ –g(x) 02 − 0 + 1 1 = = −1 y-intercept: y = 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: x2 − x + 1 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x–1=0 x=1 horizontal asymptote: n > m. b. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry 0 2 + 0 − 6 −6 y-intercept: y = = =2 0−3 −3 x-intercept: x2 + x − 6 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 x = –3 and x = 2 344 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. x2 + 4 x slant asymptote: 4 g ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + 4 x (−x) 2 +4 −x origin symmetry y-intercept: y = = x2 + 4 = − f ( x) −x 02 + 4 4 = 0 0 76. 6 x –3 y=x+4 b. x2 − x + 1 x −1 slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = x + x –1 y=x f ( x) = x2 − x − 1 x −1 (−x) − (−x) +1 2 f (−x) = 75. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 74. a.

−1 3 b. Section 2. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = ( − x )3 − 1 − x 3 − 1 = (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). (− x)3 + 1 − x3 + 1 = 2 2 (− x) + 2(− x) x − 2 x f (− x) ≠ f ( x). slant asymptote: x−2 x 2 + 2 x x3 f ( x) = a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n > m. so none 345 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. +1 x + 2x 3 2 x3 − 1 x2 − 9 slant asymptote: 9x −1 x+ 2 x −9 x 2 − 9 x3 x − 9x 9x −1 − 2 x2 −2 x 2 + 4 x − 4x + 1 y=x y = x−2 b. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. . f ( x) = a. so none x = −1 vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x = 0 x( x + 2) = 0 x = 0.PreCalculus 4E 77. Inc. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = no symmetry no symmetry y-intercept: y = 03 + 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 = 0 + 2(0) 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x3 + 1 = 0 x 3 = −1 03 − 1 1 = 02 − 9 9 x-intercept: x3 – 1 = 0 x3 = 1 x =1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3.6 x3 + 1 x2 + 2 x 78.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. f ( x ) = ⋅ 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) 346 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x + 2) 2 10 x 3 1 2 x+2 = 2x ( x − 2) x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 = − 2 ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x+2 So. f ( x ) = 2x ( x − 2) x ( x − 3) − 9 ( 2 ) 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x − 18 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = ( x − 6 ) ( x + 3) x−6 = x − 3) 2 ( 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 ) So. Inc. x−6 2 ( x − 3) x −5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 ÷ 10 x − 2 25 x 2 − 1 x −5 25 x 2 − 1 = ⋅ 2 10 x − 2 x − 10 x + 25 = ( 5 x + 1) ( 5 x − 1) 2 2 ( 5 x − 1) ( x − 5) = 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) x −5 So. f ( x ) = 80. 5x2 x2 + 4 x + 4 ⋅ x2 − 4 10 x 3 = 5 x2 ( x + 2) ( x − 2) ⋅ 81. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6 2 4 − 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 4 x + 3 2 4 = − x + 2 x + 1 x + 3 ( )( ) ( )( x + 1) = 83.PreCalculus 4E 82. 2 ( x + 3) − 4 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) x 2 − 4 − 3x + 6 x2 − 4 + x + 2 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 2 x + x−2 2x + 6 − 4x − 8 = ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = 3 3 1− x+2 = x + 2 ⋅ ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1 1 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1+ 1+ x−2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) − 3 ( x − 2 ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 ) 1− 2 = −2 x − 2 ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = −2 ( x + 1) −2 = = ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) ( x + 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) ( x − 1) So. f ( x ) = −2 So. 1 x x 2 +1 x 2 +1 x+ x ( x − 1)( x + 1) So. f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 3) = x−2 x+2 x−2 x+2 1 2 x ⋅ x = x − 1 = ( x − 1)( x + 1) 84. Inc. . f ( x ) = x 2 +1 x− 347 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 2.

000 C ( x) = 100x +100. 000 = $300 500 When 500 bicycles are manufactured. C (500) = 100 = 100 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 85. the average cost approaches $30. it costs $330 to manufacture each. 100(1000) + 100. it costs $60 to manufacture each. n = m. it costs $150 to manufacture each. 87. 100 (2000 ) + 100. so y = 90. 1 As greater numbers of bicycles are manufactured. 00) = d.000 b. a. . C(100. 000 + 30x x 300000 + 30(1000) = 330 1000 When 1000 shoes are manufactured. g ( x) = 2x + 7 1 = +2 x+3 x+3 89. C(1000) = 300. The average cost decreases as the number of shoes manufactured increases. 30 = 30 . it costs $200 to manufacture each. 88. 000 + 30(100. so y = 348 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 C (1000 ) = = $200 1000 When 1000 bicycles are manufactured. 000 When 100.000 x 100 (500 ) + 100. Inc.000 shoes are manufactured. g ( x) = −1 2x − 9 = +2 x−4 x−4 C= 300. it costs $125 to manufacture each. The average cost decreases as the number of bicycles manufactured increases. 86. 000 C (4000 ) = = $125 4000 When 4000 bicycles are manufactured. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. g ( x) = −1 3x − 7 = +3 x−2 x−2 C ( x ) = 100 x + 100 . n = m. 300000 + 30(10000) C(10000) = = 60 10000 When 10. 000 C (2000 ) = = $150 2000 When 2000 bicycles are manufactured. g ( x) = 3x + 7 1 = +3 x+2 x+2 d. c. it costs $33 to manufacture each. 000) = 33 100. the average cost approaches $100. a.000 shoes are manufactured. c. 1 As greater numbers of shoes are manufactured. C(x) = 30x + 300. 100(4000) + 100. it costs $300 to manufacture each.

8.PreCalculus 4E 91.6 From the graph the pH level of the human mouth 42 minutes after a person eats food containing sugar will be about 6. the lowest pH level) is 4.5 Over time. From the graph. the pH level rises back to the normal level. 100%.5. and then slowly begins to approach the normal level. x is P(x) = 2 x + x P = 2x + 2y = 2x + 2 349 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. From the graph.0. a. 90% of the deaths are smoking related. C ( 3) = a. width. 2 f ( x) = 11x 2 + 40 x + 1040 12 x 2 + 230 x + 2190 1707. 92. the pH level is lowest after about 6 minutes. Inc.e. = 4. as a function of the 5000 .5 as time goes by. c. If trends continue. Publishing as Prentice Hall. e.5 milligrams per liter.5 milligrams per liter. b. y = 100 As incidence of the diseases increases. is less than the degree of the denominator. 11(36) 2 + 40(36) + 1040 16736 f (36) = = or 12(36) 2 + 230(36) + 2190 26022 about 64% of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. the percent of death approaches. a. A = xy = 2500 2500 y= x P(9) = T (x) = 5000 2500 = 2x + x x The perimeter of the floor. Over time. 100. 90) 10 For a disease that smokers are 10 times more likely to contact than non-smokers. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 600 600 + . This overestimates the actual percent found in the graph by 1%. 89% of the deaths are smoking related. the drug’s concentration after three hours appears to be about 1. T (x) = x x − 10 100(10 − 1) = 90 (10. x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. the pH level drops quickly below normal. 100(9 − 1) = 89 (9. 1. The horizontal asymptote is y = 11 . According to the graph. and hiking is T (x) = x x P(10) = 99. 5 ( 3) b. Therefore. the percentage approaches 100%.5 3 + 1 10 This verifies that the drug’s concentration after 3 hours will be 1. but never reaches 100%. 93. 12 11 or about 92% of federal 12 expenditures will spent on human resources over time. 95. d. so the the horizontal asymptote is y = 0 . y = 6. the pH level appears to approach 6.4 ( 6 ) + 234 2 f (6) = 62 + 36 97. the drug’s concentration will approach 0 milligrams per liter. 6. . d. 2. 94. c. the normal pH level must be 6. 98. 89) 9 For a disease that smokers are 9 times more likely to have than non-smokers. 96. 90 5 10 5 + = + 9x x x x The function that expresses the total time for driving 10 5 + . b. From the graph.7 of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. During the first hour. Section 2. = The degree of the numerator.2 or about 63% 2708.8 The pH level after 6 minutes (i. but never gets to be.5 ( 6 ) − 20. 15 = 1. According to the function. P. No.

121.000 drivers. a. Explanations will vary. Answers may vary. In g(x). true 124. the average cost for a company to produce each unit of its product decreases. – 111. A sample change is: The graph of a rational function may have both a vertical asymptote and a horizontal asymptote. 118. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 122. 102. Inc. x = 50 + b. The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases.Polynomial and Rational Functions 101. The graph increases from late teens until about the age of 25. and then the number of arrests decreases. At age 25 the highest number arrests occurs. f (x) = 50 +2 x 27725(x − 14) − 5x x2 + 9 w=x+1 50 A= + 2 (x + 1) x 50 + 2x + 2 x 50 + 52 = 2x + x The total area of the page is 50 A(x) = 2 x + + 52. false. 120. 2⎭ ⎩ 350 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 112. x – 2 is a factor of x 2 − 5x + 6 . does not make sense. c. 116. g(x) is the graph of a line where f(x) is the graph of a rational function with a slant asymptote. 113. 119. Sample explanation: The function has one vertical asymptote. – 127. Explanations will vary. x = 2. Sample explanation: As production level increases. does not make sense. 117. A = lw xy = 50 l=y+2= 115. 2 x 2 + x = 15 2 x 2 + x − 15 = 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) = 0 2x − 5 = 0 or x+3= 0 x= 5 2 x = −3 5⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −3. . true 123. makes sense The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. true 114. ⎬ . Explanations will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Sample explanation: A rational function can have at most one horizontal asymptote. does not make sense. There are about 356 arrests for every 100. Answers may vary. 128.

x 2 − x > 20 x 2 − x − 20 > 0 ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. true ( −4. 130. ( −4. Test Test Test Interval Number (−5) 2 − (−5) > 20 –5 ( −∞. −4 ) ∪ ( 5. −4 ) belongs to the solution set.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.7 Check Point Exercises 1. x + 4 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −4 x=5 The boundary points are –2 and 4. ( 5. . Inc. −4 ) 30 > 20.7 x3 + x 2 = 4 x + 4 129. true 2 2 Conclusion ( −∞. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. ∞ ) 0 (0) − (0) > 20 0 > 20. x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4( x + 1) = 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 − 4) = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 The solution set is {−2. 2} . −1. ∞ ) or { x x < −4 or x > 5} . 5 ) does not belong to the solution set. x +1 x + 1 2( x + 3) −2= − x+3 x+3 x+3 x + 1 2x + 6 = − x+3 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 = x+3 −x − 5 x+5 = or − x+3 x+3 Section 2. ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. The solution set is ( −∞. 351 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 ) ( 5. false 10 (10) − (10) > 20 90 > 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

true 2(0) ≥1 0 +1 0 ≥ 1.1] 0 ≤ 3 true ( 6 + 3)( 6 − 5 ) > 0 [1. The solution set is ( −∞. The solution set is ( −∞. −3) −16 ≤ −1 true belongs to the solution set. Inc. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or x ≥ 1} . false 2(2) ≥1 2 +1 4 ≥ 1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. (0) + 3(0) ≤ (0) + 3 3 [ −1.1] 0 [1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.1] or { x x ≤ −3 or − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1} . ( −3. −1] –2 x+3=0 x = −3 Test (−4)3 + 3(−4) 2 ≤ (−4) + 3 0 [1. −1) –2 ( −1. . ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 2(−2) ≥1 −2 + 1 4 ≥ 1. true 3 ( −∞.1] does not belong to the solution set. 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3) -4 ( −3. −3] ∪ [ −1. 352 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. does not belong to the solution true set.1] Conclusion 2 [ −1. −1) belongs to the solution set. [1. ( −1. −1) ∪ [1. x3 + 3x 2 ≤ x + 3 x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3 ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x = −1 Test Interval x =1 Test Number ( −∞. ∞ ) 2 ( −∞. −1] does not belong to the solution (−2)3 + 3(−2) 2 ≤ (−2) + 3 4 ≤ 1 false set.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. 2x ≥1 x +1 2x −1 ≥ 0 x +1 x −1 ≥0 x +1 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x =1 x = −1 Test Test Interval Number ( −∞.

Inc. Section 2. ∞).1) (1. − 3) or (5. The object will be more than 64 feet above the ground between 1 and 4 seconds. − 2) or (4. ∞ ) 5 Exercise Set 2.7 1. ∞) 2.7 −16t 2 + 80t > 64 −16t 2 + 80t − 64 > 0 −16(t − 1)(t − 4) > 0 t − 1 = 0 or t − 4 = 0 t =1 t=4 Test Interval Test Number Test −16(0) + 80(0) > 64 0 > 64. ∞ ) does not belong to the 0 > 64. belongs to the solution set.PreCalculus 4E 4. 4 ) 2 −16(2) 2 + 80(2) > 64 96 > 64.1) 0 (1. (x – 4)(x + 2) > 0 x = 4 or x = –2 T F T –2 4 Test –3: (–3 – 4)(–3 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True Test 0: (0 – 4)(0 + 2) > 0 –8 > 0 False Test 5: (5 – 4)(5 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True (−∞. true Conclusion ( −∞. 4 ) does not belong to the solution set. . (x + 3)(x – 5) > 0 x = –3 or x = 5 T F T –3 5 Test –4: (–4 + 3)(–4 – 5) > 0 9 > 0 True Test 0: (0 + 3)(0 – 5) > 0 –15 > 0 False Test 6: (6 + 3)(6 – 5) > 0 18 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 4. 353 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. false 2 ( −∞. −16(5) 2 + 80(5) > 64 ( 4. false solution set.

3). F –3 T 2 Test –4: (−4) − 4 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True Test 0: (0) 2 + 0 − 6 > 0 –6 > 0 False Test 3: 32 + 3 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 3 x2 + 5x + 4 > 0 ( x + 1)( x + 4) > 0 x = –1 or x = –4 T F –4 T –1 Test –5: (−5) + 5(−5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True Test –3: (−3)2 + 5(−3) + 4 > 0 –2 > 0 False Test 0: 02 + 5(0) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. T F –3 7 Test –4: (–4 – 7)(–4 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 – 7)(0 + 3) ≤ 0 –21 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 – 7)(8 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–3. − 3) or (2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5. T F 1 T 4 Test 0: 0 − 5(0) + 4 > 0 x2 + x − 6 > 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) > 0 x = –3 or x = 2 2 T 4 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 5(2) + 4 > 0 −2 > 0 False 2 Test 5: 5 − 5(5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 2 x2 − 5x + 4 > 0 ( x − 4)( x − 1) > 0 x = 4 or F Test 0: 0 − 4(0) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False Test 2: 22 − 4(2) + 3 < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 4: 42 − 4(4) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (1. 7]. (x – 7)(x + 3) ≤ 0 x = 7 or x = –3 F 6. 7]. T T 2 (x + 1)(x – 7) ≤ 0 x = –1 or x = 7 F x2 − 4 x + 3 < 0 ( x − 1)( x − 3) < 0 x = 1 or x = 3 x =1 8.Polynomial and Rational Functions 3. ∞) . 7. 4. ∞). Inc. 1) or (4. . − 4) or (−1. F 1 F –1 7 Test –2: (–2 + 1)(–2 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 + 1)(0 – 7) ≤ 0 –7 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 + 1)(8 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–1. 2 354 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) .

x= F 3 T 1 3 Test –1: 9(−1) 2 + 3(−1) − 2 ≥ 0 4 ≥ 0 True Test 0: 9(0)2 + 3(0) − 2 ≥ 0 –2 ≥ 0 False Test 1: 9(1) 2 + 3(1) − 2 ≤ 0 10 ≥ 0 True −2 ⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 10. ⎟ . 2⎠ ⎝ F 2 3 Test –5: 3(−5)2 + 10(−5) − 8 ≤ 0 17 ≤ 0 False Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 10(0) − 8 ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 True Test 1: 3(1) + 10(1) − 8 ≤ 0 2 5 ≤ 0 False 2⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −4. Section 2. 1) or (1.7 x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) < 0 x=3 F 12. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ T 1 13. ∅. 9 x2 + 3x − 2 ≥ 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) ≥ 0 3 x = 1 3 x = −2 2 x 2 + x − 15 < 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) < 0 2 x − 5 = 0 or x+3=0 2x = 5 5 x= x = −3 or 2 3x 2 + 10 x − 8 ≤ 0 (3 x − 2)( x + 4) ≤ 0 F T –4 T –3 2 x = or x = −4 3 F 2 x 2 + x < 15 F 5 2 Test –4: 2(−4) 2 + (−4) < 15 28 < 15 False Test 0: 2(0) 2 + 0 < 15 0 < 15 True Test 3: 2(3) 2 + 3 < 15 21 < 15 False 5⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −3.PreCalculus 4E 9. ∞ ⎟ . ⎥ or ⎢ . Inc. ∞). . ⎥ . Test 0: 0 − 2(0) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 2(2) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. F −2 3 x2 − 2x + 1 > 0 ( x − 1)( x − 1) > 0 x=1 T 1 −2 x= 3 3 T Test 0: 02 − 6(0) + 9 < 0 9 < 0 False 2 Test 4: 4 − 6(4) + 9 < 0 1 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. 2 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3⎦ ⎣ 355 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

− ⎟ . ⎣ 3⎦ 356 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x 2 + 16 x < −5 1 or 3 F Test –2: 4(−2) 2 + 7(−2) < −3 2 < −3 False T –2 2 7 ⎛ 7⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ Test − : 4 ⎜ − ⎟ + 7 ⎜ − ⎟ < −3 8 ⎝ 8⎠ ⎝ 8⎠ 49 49 − < −3 16 8 49 − < −3 True 16 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 7(0) < −3 0 < −3 False 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −1. 4 x2 + 7 x + 3 < 0 (4 x + 3)( x + 1) < 0 4x + 3 = 0 or x +1=0 4 x-3=0 3 or x=− x = −1 4 3x2 + 5x − 2 ≤ 0 (3 x − 1)( x + 2) ≤ 0 3x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 3x − 1=0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 x= F − 34 –1 F Test –6: 3(−6) 2 + 16(−6) < −5 12 < –5 False Test –2: 3(−2) 2 + 16(−2) < −5 –20 < –5 True Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 16(0) < −5 0 < –5 False 1⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −5. 4⎠ ⎝ x = −2 F 1 3 Test –3: 5(−3) ≤ 2 − 3(−3) 2 –15 ≤ –25 False Test 0: 5(0) ≤ 2 − 3(0) 2 0 ≤ 2 True Test 1: 5(1) ≤ 2 − 3(1) 2 5 ≤ –1 False ⎡ 1⎤ The solution set is ⎢ −2. 3⎠ ⎝ 4 x 2 + 7 x < −3 T T –5 1 3 F x = −5 1 3 F T Test –1: 6(−1) 2 + (−1) > 1 5 > 1 True Test 0: 6(0) 2 + 0 > 1 0 > 1 False Test 1: 6(1)2 + 1 > 1 7 > 1 True 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. ∞ ⎟ . ⎥ .Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ 15. 3x 2 + 16 x + 5 < 0 6 x2 + x − 1 > 0 (3 x + 1)( x + 5) < 0 3x + 1 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 (2 x + 1)(3x − 1) > 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or 3x − 1 = 0 2 x = −1 1 x=− 2 3x = −1 3x = 1 1 x= 3 T F − 12 x=− − 13 5 x ≤ 2 − 3x 2 17. Inc. . − ⎟ or ⎜ . − ⎟ . 6 x2 + x > 1 16.

− ⎟ or (0. 357 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞). Inc.4 = 0 x=4 2 x 2 + 3x > 0 x(2 x + 3) > 0 x = 0 or x = − 3 2 T T F 0 T F − 32 4 T 0 Test –2: 2(−2) 2 + 3(−2) > 0 2 > 0 True Test –1: 2(−1)2 + 3(−1) > 0 –1 > 0 False Test 1: 2(1) 2 + 3(1) > 0 5 > 0 True 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞.PreCalculus 4E 18. 2 T T 1 2 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(0) 1 ≥ 0 True Test 1: 4(1) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(1) 5 ≥ 4 True The solution set is (−∞. 0] or [4. ∞). Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 4 x2 + 1 ≥ 4 x 20. Section 2. . 21. 2⎠ ⎝ Test –1: (−1) 2 − 4(−1) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 − 4(1) ≥ 0 −3 ≥ 0 False 0 ≤ 2 True Test 5: 52 − 4(5) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 19. 0). ∞ ). 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) ≥ 0 2x −1 = 0 1 x= 2 x2 + 2x < 0 x( x + 2) < 0 x = 0 or x = –2 F T –2 F 0 Test –3: (−3) + 2(−3) < 0 3 < 0 False Test –1: (−1) 2 + 2(−1) < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 + 2(1) < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (–2. x2 − 4 x ≥ 0 x( x − 4) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x .

Publishing as Prentice Hall.41 The solution set is ⎡⎣ 2 − 2. 2 + 2 ⎤⎦ or [ 0.59 3. 3. −2 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0. 2 5 3 Test –1: 3(−1)2 − 5(−1) ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 False Test 1: 3(1)2 − 5(1) ≤ 0 –2 ≤ 0 True Test 2: 3(2)2 − 5(2) ≤ 0 2 ≤ 0 False ⎡ 5⎤ The solution set is ⎢0. 5 3 − x2 + 2 x ≥ 0 x(− x + 2) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x = 2 F F T F 0 T F 0 2 Test –1: −(−1) + 2(−1) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False Test 1: −(1) 2 + 2(1) ≥ 0 1 ≥ 0 True Test 3: −(3)2 + 2(3) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. . 2].59 or x ≈ 3. 1]. ⎣ 3⎦ x2 ≤ 4 x − 2 25.41] . 3x 2 − 5 x ≤ 0 x(3x − 5) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 24.59. 358 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −x2 + x ≥ 0 x= x2 − x ≤ 0 x( x − 1) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 1 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) F T 0 4± 8 2 = 2± 2 x ≈ 0. x2 − 4 x + 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 4 x + 2 = 0 23.41 = F 1 Test –1: −(−1) + (−1) ≥ 0 −2 ≥ 0 False 2 F T F 2 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ Test : − ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 1 ≥ 0 True 4 Test 2: −(2) 2 + 2 ≥ 0 0. ⎥ . Inc.

and 5 Test one value in each interval. and –3 Test one value in each interval. x(3 − x)( x − 5) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. 359 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞). Inc. 3 30. F T F T –0. ∞). –2 T The solution set is [–3. 4] ∪ [6. 1 2 T 4 T T 1 2 The solution set is (−∞. F T F x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 Solve x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 ( x − 3)2 = 0 28. .73 F –3 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. 3] ∪ [5.1 + 3 ⎤⎦ or [ −0. x − 2x − 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) 1 2 ± 12 2 = 1± 3 x ≈ −0. The solution set is ⎡⎣1 − 3. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 1. F T F 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 0 (2 x − 1)2 = 0 x= –1 31. x(4 − x)( x − 6) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. = F T 6 The solution set is [0. ∞).7 29.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 27. ∞ ). F T F x2 ≤ 2x + 2 26.73] .73 2 The solution set is [1.73 0 x=3 3 T 5 The solution set is [0. 3. and 5 Test one value in each interval. ∞). F F 3 The solution set is the empty set. ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x + 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –1. 32. –2. 3. 2] ∪ [3.73 or x ≈ 2. 2. ∅.73. and 3 Test one value in each interval. –2] ∪ [–1.

7 2 Boundary points: 2. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 ) 40. ( ) 34. T F T 13 2 5 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 7 < 0 x 2 ( x + 7) − ( x + 7) < 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. 36. 1). 2 ) ∪ 2. . ∞). ∞ ). (2 − x)2 x − 72 < 0 37. 35. 2 The solution set is [ −2. (5 − x)2 x − 13 <0 2 Boundary points: 5. –1] ∪ [1. Inc. –3 3 The solution set is (−∞. 2 –7 –1 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. T T F 7 2 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) ≥ 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. –1 and 1 Test one value in each interval. Publishing as Prentice Hall. F T 1 The solution set is (1. T F F Test one value in each interval. –7) ∪ (–1. and 38. x 3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) ≥ 0 ( F x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 9 > 0 x 2 ( x − 1) + 9 ( x − 1) ≥ 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 9) ≥ 0 Boundary point: 1. and 2 Test one value in each interval.5 ) ∪ 5. 13 2 Test one value in each interval. 72 . –1. 13 . −3]. –1 The solution set is (−1. F F T –2 1 The solution set is (–∞ .Polynomial and Rational Functions ( ) 33. x3 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 > 0 x 2 ( x + 1) + 4( x + 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 + 4) ≥ 0 Boundary point: –1 Test one value in each interval. 360 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. F T F –2 –1 39. and ( x − 3)( x 2 − 9) ≥ 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –3 and 3 Test one value in each interval. ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x + 2)( x − 2) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. T T F ( x + 7)( x 2 − 1) < 0 ( x + 7)( x + 1)( x − 1) < 0 Boundary points: –7. F T T 2 The solution set is [–2. −2] ∪ [2. ∞). ∞). and 2 Test one value in each interval. Test one value in each interval.

4). 43. 3 x+5 <0 x+2 x = –5 or x = –2 F T F –4 –3 The solution set is (–4. –2). 42. The solution set is ( −∞. ⎟ ∪ [2. ∞). F –5 –2 The solution set is (–5. − 5) ∪ (2. F F T 0 46. Inc. ∞).PreCalculus 4E 41. 0 4 The solution set is (–∞. –3).7 x3 − 9 x 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 9) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 0 and 9 Test one value in each interval. ∞). T T x = 2 or x = − x+5 >0 x−2 x = –5 or x = 2 T F The solution set is (−∞. x − 4x ≤ 0 x 2 ( x − 4) ≤ 0 2 Boundary points: 0 and 4. 47. T T F 48. − 3] ∪ (−2. x−4 >0 x+3 x−4 = 0 x+3 = 0 x = −3 T F −x − 3 ≤0 x+2 x = –3 or x = –2 T F 4 49. ∞). 45. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2 The solution set is (−∞. T –3 x=4 –3 −x + 2 ≥0 x−4 x = 2 or x = 4 F 2 4 The solution set is [2. . − 3) ∪ (4. ∞ ). 0] ∪ [9. Test one value in each interval. –2 4 − 2x ≤0 3x + 4 4 3 T F − 43 F –5 T x+3 <0 x+4 x = −3 or F x = −4 T T 2 −4 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 2. 9 The solution set is [ 0. 4]. 44. 361 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

x+4 >0 x x = –4 or x = 0 T –1 F –5 T –4 2 x +1 <2 x+3 x +1 −2<0 x+3 x + 1 − 2( x + 3) <0 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 <0 x+3 −x − 5 <0 x+3 x = or x = –3 T F F Values of x = −3 or x = 2 result in f ( x) = 0 and. 2]. F . T − F –3 3 5 3 55. 53. Inc. therefore must be included in the solution set. ⎣ 3 ⎠ 51. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 50. 52. The solution set is (−∞. T F –4 T –2 x −2>0 x −1 x 2( x − 1) − >0 x −1 x −1 x − 2x + 2 >0 x −1 −x + 2 >0 x −1 F 1 Values of x = −4 or x = 1 result in f ( x) = 0 and. ∞). − 3] ∪ (−1. therefore must be included in the solution set. 0) ∪ (3. 0 The solution set is ( −∞. − 5) ∪ (−3. x >0 x−3 x = 0 or x = 3 T F 0 T 3 The solution set is (−∞. ∞). 2).1] x = 2 or x = 1 F T 1 2 The solution set is (1. ( x + 4)( x − 1) ≤0 x+2 x = −4 or x = −2 or x = 1 . T F T T –3 The solution set is (−∞. 3x + 5 ≥0 6 − 2x 5 x = − or x = 3 3 F 54. 362 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) . ⎡ 5 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ − . 3 ⎟ . The solution set is ( −∞. − 4) ∪ (0. x >2 x −1 56. −4] ∪ ( −2. ( x + 3)( x − 2) ≤0 x +1 x = −3 or x = −1 or x = 2 .

PreCalculus 4E 57. x = −6 or 1 2 F T T -2 The solution set is (−∞. ∞). ∞). x−2 ≤2 x+2 x−2 −2≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2 ( x + 2) ≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2x − 4 ≤0 x+2 −x − 6 ≤0 x+2 T T F –4 –2 The solution set is [–4. 61. –2). f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 2 x2 − 5x + 2 ≥ 0 Solve 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 2 T F 1 2 T 2 1⎤ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. Section 2. . 2⎦ ⎝ 363 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 The solution set is (−∞. ∞ ) . − 6] ∪ (−2. Inc. 3) ∪ (4.7 x+4 ≤3 2x − 1 x+4 −3≤ 0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 3 ( 2 x − 1) ≤0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 6x + 3 ≤0 2x − 1 −5 x + 7 ≤0 2x − 1 x= 7 or 5 x= T 59. x −2≥0 x+2 x 2( x + 2) − ≥0 x+2 x+2 x − 2x − 4 ≥0 x+2 −x − 4 ≥0 x+2 1 −1 < 0 x −3 1 x−3 − <0 x−3 x−3 1− x + 3 <0 x −3 −x + 4 <0 x−3 x = –4 or x = –2 x = 4 or x = 3 F F 3 F -6 7 5 1 <1 x−3 T x = −2 T 1 2 58. ⎥ ∪ [ 2. x ≥2 x+2 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

− 1) ∪ [1. ⎝2 ⎦ 364 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. thus. ∞ ) . it must be included in the domain. f ( x) = x −1 2x − 1 x −x + 1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 2x − 1 2x − 1 1 x= or x = 1 2 The domain of this function requires that F T 1 2 F 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and.Polynomial and Rational Functions 62. 1⎥ . Inc. thus. . f ( x) = 2x −1 x +1 The domain of this function requires that T F 2x x −1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 x +1 x +1 x = −1 or x = 1 T -1 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. ⎟ ∪ ( 2. 64. The domain is ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛1 ⎤ The domain is ⎜ . 4⎠ ⎝ 63. it must be included in the domain. 1 f ( x) = 4x − 9x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 > 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(4 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 4 2 T F 1 4 T 2 1⎞ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. ∞ ) .

6 ) does not belong 1 > 12. solution set. − 6. ∞ ) 7 7 + 2 ( 7 ) − 36 > 12 ( −8. 6 ) solution set. False to the solution set. 4 and 6 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −8 ) −9 ( −9 ) 2 x=6 Test Conclusion + 2 ( −9 ) − 36 > 12 ( −∞.7 x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 2 x − 36 < −12 or x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 x 2 + 2 x − 24 < 0 x 2 + 2 x − 48 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. x2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 6 x + 1 < −8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 x2 + 6 x + 9 < 0 x2 + 6 x − 7 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. 4 ) belongs to the 02 + 2 ( 0 ) − 36 > 12 ( 4. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. x + 6 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 or x + 8 = 0 or x−6 = 0 x = −6 x=4 x = −8 The boundary points are −8. 4 ) ∪ ( 6. 66. True 5 52 + 2 ( 5) − 36 > 12 ( 6. and 1 . The solution set is ( −∞. −6 ) does not belong to the solution set. x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 or x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 ( x + 6 )( x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 8 )( x − 6 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 or x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 ( x + 3) 2 =0 ( x + 7 )( x − 1) = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x + 3 = ± 0 or x + 7 = 0 3 0 7 x+ = x=− x =1 x = −3 The boundary points are −7. ( −6. ∞ ) belongs to the 2 27 > 12. −6 ) −7 ( −7 ) 2 + 2 ( −7 ) − 36 > 12 1 > 12. ∞ ) or { x x < −8 or − 6 < x < 4 or x > 6} . Inc. −8) belongs to the 27 > 12. 4 ) 0 36 > 12. ( 6. 365 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3. . Section 2. True solution set. True ( −8.PreCalculus 4E 65. False ( −6. −8 ) ∪ ( −6. ( 4.

1 −3 > . ∞ ) 3 Test Conclusion 3 3 ( −∞. ∞ ) (1. 1 > 3. −3) does not belong + 6 ( −5 ) + 1 > 8 4 ≥ 8. solution set. ∞ ) or { x x < −7 or x > 1} . x+3 = 0 x−2=0 x = −3 x=2 The boundary points are −3 and 2. 2 ) 0 ( 2. Inc. −7 ) ∪ (1. . 17 ≥ 8. False ( −3. False 2 The solution set is ( −3. 2 ) belongs to the > 0+3 0−2 solution set. True 2 3 3 ( 2. ( −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. 3 3 − >0 x+3 x−2 3( x − 2) 3 ( x + 3) − >0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 3x − 6 − 3x − 9 <0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) −15 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) <0 Find the values of x that make the denominator zero. −7 ) −8 ( −8 ) 2 Test Conclusion + 6 ( −8 ) + 1 > 8 ( −∞. ∞ ) does not belong > 3+3 3− 2 to the solution set. 3 3 > x+3 x−2 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. −7 ) belongs to the 17 ≥ 8. −3) ( −3.Polynomial and Rational Functions Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. 3 1 > − .1) to the solution set.1) does not belong 02 + 6 ( 0 ) + 1 > 8 0 solution set. 67. ∞ ) belongs to the 22 + 6 ( 2 ) + 1 > 8 2 to the solution set. False 2 3 3 ( −3. True ( −7. −3) does not belong > −4 + 3 −4 − 2 to the solution set. 2 ) or { x −3 < x < 2} . True The solution set is ( −∞. False (1. 366 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 ≥ 8. −3) −5 ( −5 ) 2 ( −7.

−1) does not belong > −2 + 1 −2 − 1 to the solution set. ∞ ) does not belong > 2 + 1 2 −1 to the solution set. 2 −1 > − . −x − 3 = 0 x +1 = 0 x −1 = 0 −3 = x x = −1 x =1 The boundary points are −3 . 1 > −2. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 1 2 ( −∞. −3) ∪ ( −1. 1 1 − > − .1) 0 (1. −1 . −3) belongs to the > −4 + 1 −3 − 1 solution set. 1 > 1. Inc.7 1 2 > x + 1 x −1 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. and 1. 1 2 − >0 x + 1 x −1 2 ( x + 1) x −1 − >0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) x −1 − 2x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) <0 −x − 3 <0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. Section 2. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. True 3 2 1 2 ( −3.1) belongs to the > 0 + 1 0 −1 solution set. True 1 2 (1. False 3 The solution set is ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. False 3 1 2 ( −3. −1) −2 ( −1.1) or { x x < −3 or − 1 < x < 1} .PreCalculus 4E 68. . 367 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3) ( −3.

x2 − x − 2 >0 x2 − 4 x + 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. Test Interval Test Number Test 2 −2 ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) to the solution set. 1.5 2. x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 x=3 x =1 The boundary points are −1 .3) 1. 2 ) belongs to the solution set. ( 2. −1) belongs to the solution set. . 7 > 0. Inc. 10 > 0. 2 ) ∪ ( 3. x2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. 2 and 3. 2 ) ( 2.5 4 ( −1. False 3 42 − 4 − 2 >0 4 − 4 ( 4) + 3 2 ( 3.1) does not belong (1.1) Conclusion ( −∞. 2 − > 0.52 − 4 (1. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} .5 ) + 3 5 > 0. False 3 1.5 − 2 >0 1.52 − 2.52 − 4 ( 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69.3) does not belong to the solution set. 368 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. True 3 The solution set is ( −∞. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 4 > 0. −1) ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) − 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 4 ( −2 ) + 3 ( −1.5 ) + 3 − ( 3.52 − 1.5 − 2 >0 2. −1) ∪ (1. True 3 2. True 15 0 02 − 0 − 2 >0 0 − 4 (0) + 3 2 (1.

2 ) ∪ ( 3.5 1 > 0.5) + 2 >0 2.1) 0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 Test Conclusion ( −∞. −1) belongs to the ( −2 ) − 3 ( −2 ) + 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 2 ( −2 ) − 3 2 solution set. x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 x2 − 2x − 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. Test Interval ( −∞. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. Section 2. Inc. 6 > 0. True 5 02 − 3 ( 0 ) + 2 0 − 2 ( 0) − 3 2 >0 ( −1. 2 and 3. False 7 >0 solution set. True 5 The solution set is ( −∞. x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x=2 x =1 x=3 The boundary points are −1 .7 x2 − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.5 ) − 3 ( 2.3) − ( 3.5 ) − 3 (1. 369 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 4 42 − 3 ( 4 ) + 2 4 − 2 ( 4) − 3 2 3 > 0. 1. −1) ∪ (1. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . False 3 1.1) does not belong to the solution set. −1) Test Number −2 x − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 2 ( −1.52 − 3 (1. 12 > 0. True 15 2.PreCalculus 4E 70.5 2 > 0. 2 ) ( 2.52 − 3 ( 2.3) does not belong − (1. ( 3. 2 ) belongs to the 2. .52 − 2 (1. to the solution set. 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.52 − 2 ( 2.5 ) + 2 >0 1.

the curve is above the x-axis when −6 < x < − 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ and when x > 1 . Thus. We need to find the intervals on which 2 f ( x ) < 0 . and 1. the curve is below the x-axis when x < −6 and when − 1 ⎧ 1 ⎫ < x < 1 . x2 − 4 the boundaries are −2 . We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≥ 0 . . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 73. −6 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞ . 2 x 3 + 11x 2 < 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 < 0 1 In Problem 63. Now. and 1. the solution set is ⎨ x − 6 ≤ x ≤ − or x ≥ 1⎬ or ⎢ −6. We verify this 2 numerically by substituting these values into the function: f ( −6 ) = 2 ( −6 ) + 11( −6 ) − 7 ( −6 ) − 6 = 2 ( −216 ) + 11( 36 ) − ( −42 ) − 6 = −432 + 396 + 42 − 6 = 0 3 2 3 2 1 11 7 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ − ⎟ − 7 ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = − + + − 6 = 0 2 2 2 2 8 4 2 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ f (1) = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 (1) − 6 = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 − 6 = 2 + 11 − 7 − 6 = 0 3 2 1 Thus. Now. the solution set is ⎨ x x < −6 or − < x < 1⎬ or 2 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( −∞. Now. 2 2⎦ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ 72. Thus. the boundaries are −6 . and has vertical asymptotes at x = −2 and x = 2 . 370 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we verified that the boundaries are −6 . − ⎥ ∪ [1. −1 . 1 3 ≤− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + ≤0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) Simplify the left side of the inequality: 3( x + 2) 4 ( x + 1) x−2 x − 2 + 3x + 6 4x + 4 x +1 . and 1.1⎟ . ∞ ) . These intervals are 2 1 indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis.Polynomial and Rational Functions 71. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 ≥ 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 ≥ 0 1 The graph of f ( x ) = 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 appears to cross the x-axis at −6 . − . Thus. the solution set is { x x < −2 or − 1 ≤ x < 2} or ( −∞. −2 ) ∪ [ −1. 2 ) . These intervals are The graph of f ( x ) = indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. Thus. − . − . These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. the curve is below the x-axis when x < −2 and when −1 < x < 2 . + = = = = 4 ( x + 2 ) 4 ( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x 2 − 4 x +1 crosses the x-axis at −1 . and 1. Inc. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≤ 0 .

−1) ∪ ( 2. and 2.6 ≈ 160 feet g (35) = 0. Inc.0875 x 2 − 0.PreCalculus 4E 74. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 48t + 160 The ball’s height will exceed that of the rooftop when s (t ) > 160 −16t 2 + 48t + 160 > 160 −16t 2 + 48t > 0 −16t (t − 3) > 0 The boundaries are 0 and 3. These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis.6 g ( x) = 0.0875(35) 2 + 1. ⎟ . Section 2. The curve is above the x-axis when −2 < x < −1 and when x > 2 . 3) . The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well. the solution set is { x −2 < x < −1 or x > 2} or ( −2. 75. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4(35) + 66.6 a. The function values and the data are identical.9(35) + 11.7 1 3 >− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + >0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) x +1 >0 ( x + 2)( x − 2) The boundaries are −2 . f (35) = 0. Thus. ⎝ 2⎠ The boundaries are 0 and 76. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) > 0 . Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c. ∞ ) . −1 .0875(35)2 − 0.6 ≈ 185 feet b. . The interval is ⎜ 0.0875 x 2 + 1. The interval is ( 0. f ( x) = 0.9 x + 11. Testing each interval shows that the ball will be higher than the rooftop for the first three seconds after the throw. Testing each interval shows that the diver will be higher than the cliff for the first half 2 ⎛ 1⎞ second after beginning the jump.4 x + 66. 77. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 8t + 87 The diver’s height will exceed that of the cliff when s (t ) > 87 −16t 2 + 8t + 87 > 87 −16t 2 + 8t > 0 −8t (2t − 1) > 0 1 . 371 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

0.0875 x 2 − 0. x= Interval Test Value 50 ( 30.0875(55)2 − 0. 0. ( 76.0875 x 2 − 0.4 x + 473.9 x + 11. 76 ) does not belong to the solution set.6 ≈ 381 feet b.4 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(1.9) ± (1.9(55) + 11. 0.6 ≈ 309 feet g (55) = 0.0875)(473.4) 2(0. f (55) = 0.35 > 540.4 x + 66. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 76 miles per hour.0875) x ≈ −71 or 76 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30. d.4(100) + 66.6 > 540 0.0875(55)2 + 1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. On dry pavement.0875) x ≈ −89 or 68 372 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 100 0.9 x + 528. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 76 ) Test Conclusion 0.4 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0.4(50) + 66.4) ± (−0.0875 x 2 + 1.6 > 540 265.9)2 − 4(0.9 x + 11.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.6 > 540 901. This is represented on graph (b) to the right of point (76.0875)(528.0875 x 2 − 0. . Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c. we must test the following intervals.6 > 540 0. 540).9 x + 528. 0. False ( 76. Inc.4) 2(0.0875 x 2 + 1.4 x + 66.0875(50)2 − 0. f ( x) = 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions d.4)2 − 4(0.0875 x 2 − 0.4 x + 473.6 > 540.6 g ( x) = 0.6 a.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. True ( 30. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well.0875(100)2 − 0. 78.0875 x 2 + 1.4(55) + 66.0875 x 2 + 1.

If the length is less than 6 feet.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. False to the solution set.19 ) 10 (19.0875(50) + 1. 540). Inc. ∞ ) belongs to the 25 ( 20 ) − 20 ≤ 114 2 100 ≤ 114. 79. True solution set. ( 6.9(50) + 11. True ( 6. then the width is 19 feet. Since Perimeter = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) .35 > 540. ∞ ) 20 solution set. This is represented on graph (a) to the right of point (68. ( 68. False ( 68. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 68 miles per hour. 68) does not belong 2 0.6 > 540 325. .6 > 540 1076. so we have that width = A ( x ) ≤ 114 x ( 25 − x ) ≤ 114 25 x − x 2 ≤ 114 Solve the related equation 25 x − x 2 = 114 0 = x 2 − 25 x + 114 0 = ( x − 19 )( x − 6 ) Apply the zero product principle: x − 19 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = 19 x=6 The boundary points are 6 and 19. then the width is greater than 19 feet. if the area of the rectangle is not to exceed 114 square feet.68) Test Conclusion ( 30.9(100) + 11.6 > 540. 6 ) 0 Test Conclusion ( −∞. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. the length of the shorter side must be 6 feet or less.0875(100)2 + 1. 373 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. True to the solution set. On wet pavement. Interval Test Value 50 ( 30.19 ) does not belong 25 (10 ) − 10 ≤ 114 2 150 ≤ 114. If the length is 6 feet. 6 ) belongs to the 25 ( 0 ) − 0 ≤ 114 2 0 ≤ 114. Thus. we must test the following intervals. we know 50 = 2 x + 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 Now. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (19. Let x = the length of the rectangle. ∞ ) 100 0. A = ( length )( width ) .7 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. Test Test Test Conclusion Interval Number ( 0. The solution set is (−∞.10 ) is part of the solution set (10. 1 87. 45) 5 90 ( 5 ) − ( 5 ) ≤ 800 true 20 90 ( 20 ) − ( 20 ) ≤ 800 false 2 2 ( 0. 45 ) is not part of the solution set The solution set is {w | 0 < w ≤ 10} or ( 0. 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x − 3 ≤ x ≤ ⎩ 1⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ ⎬ or ⎢ −3. A ≤ 800 l ⋅ w ≤ 800 ( 90 − w ) w ≤ 800 90w − w2 ≤ 800 − w2 + 90w − 800 ≤ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 ≥ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 = 0 ( w − 80 )( w − 10 ) = 0 w − 80 = 0 or w − 10 = 0 w = 80 w = 10 Assuming the width is the shorter side.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. -5) ∪ (2. 2⎭ 2⎦ ⎣ 374 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph is below or equal to the x-axis for −3 ≤ x ≤ . Answers may vary. Graph y1 = 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 in a standard window. 81. That is.10 ) (10. 2l + 2w = P 2l + 2w = 180 2l = 180 − 2w l = 90 − w We want to restrict the area to 800 square feet. 86. ∞). .10] . ⎥ . – 85. The length of the shorter side cannot exceed 10 feet. we ignore the larger solution.

f ( x) = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1) 2(0. ∞ ) 1 2 and y2 = x +1 x+4 y1 less than or equal to y2 for −4 < x < −1 or x ≥ 2 . 90. x+2 and y2 = 2 x−3 y1 less than or equal to y2 for x < 3 or x ≥ 8 .3) ∪ [8.1125 x 2 − 0.1125 x 2 − 0. x−4 in a standard viewing window.1x + 399. 0. x= 375 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1125 x 2 − 0.1125 x 2 − 0.1125) x ≈ −59 or 60 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0. . 91. 89. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −4.1125)(399.1x + 55.1 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0.1x + 399.1)2 − 4(0. ∞ ) 92. we must test the following intervals.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.7 88.9 > 455 0. –1) or (2. ∞). 0. a. −1) ∪ [ 2.9 b. The solution set is (–2. 4].1 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. The graph is below the x-axis for x −1 The solution set is (1. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −∞. Inc.1) ± (−0. Graph y1 = 1 < x ≤ 4.1x + 55.

∞ ) .8 b. makes sense 95. 1.8 > 446 0.9 > 455 332.7 x + 408. Sample explanation: Polynomials are defined for all values. A sample change is: The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} or ( −∞.1375 x 2 + 0. ∞ ) 100 0. The value. −5) ∪ ( 5. Inc. 93. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: The inequalities have different solution sets. True ( 0. stopping distances will exceed 446 feet for speeds exceeding 52 miles per hour. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 x + 37.8 > 446. 100. false.1375) x ≈ −57 or 52 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0. 60 ) does not belong to the solution set.1375 x 2 + 0.7 x + 408. Changes to make the statement true will vary.8 > 446 1482. False ( 60. 0. false. is included in the domain of the first inequality. Changes to make the statement true will vary.Polynomial and Rational Functions Interval Test Value 50 ( 0. 96.7(10) + 37. we would not know whether or not to reverse the order of the inequality. does not make sense. 60 ) Test Conclusion 2 0. 0. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.2 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.15 > 455.55 > 446.1375 x 2 + 0.52 ) does not belong to the solution set. a.1(50) + 55. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: To solve this inequality you must first subtract 2 from both sides.8 > 446 58. True ( 0. but not included in the domain of the second inequality.7) ± (0.7(100) + 37. . Interval Test Value 10 ( 0.1375(10) + 0. Thus. 101. we must test the following intervals. ( 52.1375(100)2 + 0. ( 60. 94. f ( x) = 0. 99. false. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.2) 2(0.7)2 − 4(0.9 > 455.7 x + 37. Explanations will vary.1125(100) − 0. does not make sense. False ( 52. We do not know if x + 3 is positive or negative.1(100) + 55.1125(50) − 0. stopping distances will exceed 455 feet for speeds exceeding 60 miles per hour.52 ) Test Conclusion 2 0.1375 x 2 + 0. 98. true 376 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 97. A sample change is: The inequality cannot be solved by multiplying both sides by x + 3. On dry pavement.1375)(408. On wet pavement.9 > 455 1170.2 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(0. ∞ ) 100 2 0.

a. and the reciprocal of zero is undefined.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 108. 105. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Test –4: −21 ≥ 0 no graph. c. The solution set is the empty set. 3]. One possible solution: x 2 − 2 x − 15 ≤ 0 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 109. 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 x−3 103. the solution is all real numbers except 2. 3 2 Test 0: 27 − 3(0) 2 ≥ 0 27 ≥ 0 True Test 4: 27 − 3(4)2 ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 8 ± (−8) 2 − 4(4)(7) x= 2(4) −21 ≥ 0 no graph -imaginary The solution set is [–3. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. Because any non-zero number squared is positive. 8 ± 64 − 112 8 8 ± −48 ⇒ imaginary x= 8 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 > 0 7 > 0 True The inequality is true for all numbers. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 4 x2 − 8x + 7 < 0 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 = 7 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. ∅. b. T –3 106. the solution includes only 2. the solution is all real numbers except 2. x= 110. y = kx 2 64 = k ⋅ 22 64 = 4k 16 = k b. Because any number squared is positive. Because any number squared other than zero is positive.7 102. One possible solution: ≥0 x+4 9 − x2 ≥ 0 (3 − x)(3 + x) ≥ 0 3− x = 0 3+ x = 0 x = 3 or x = −3 104. 4 x2 − 8x + 7 > 0 27 − 3(−4) ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 107. . the solution is the empty set. c. ∅. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 y = 16 ⋅ 52 y = 400 377 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.imaginary The solution set is all real numbers. a.

The weight.6l 3 Use the equation to find w when l = 25. Use the given values to find k .6l 3 = 0. = 6(11) = 66 A shower lasting 11 minutes will use 66 gallons of water. t can be expressed as W = kt . W = kt k . 000 = 40 12.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. varies directly as the time. k L= f k 8= 640 5120 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. 000 8=k 3. w = 0. f Use the given values to find k . L . . k x k 12 = 8 96 = k y= 111. P k ⋅ 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. varies directly as the cube of the length. w = kl 3 k x 96 y= x y= 2025 = k (15)3 0. varies inversely as the frequency. k L= f 5120 L= f Use the equation to find f when L = 10 . y varies directly as x is expressed as y = kx.6(25)3 = 9375 The 25-foot long shark was 9375 pounds. The volume of water. 378 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. W = kt 30 = k (5) 6=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. w . W = 6t f = 512 A 10 inch violin string will have a frequency of 512 cycles per second. kA S= 112. w = 0.8 Check Point Exercises 1. w = kl 3 96 x 96 y= 3 y = 32 y= c. f k can be expressed as L = . x The length. y varies directly as the cube of x is expressed as y = kx3 . 000 ⋅ 40 =k 60. y varies inversely as x is expressed as y = 5120 f 5120 10 = f 10 f = 5120 L= W = 6t Use the equation to find W when t = 11 . Use the given values to find k . a. Section 2. W . Inc. 000 12. l can be expressed as w = kl 2 . b.6 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation.

y = 9 x = 9 ⋅13 = 117 3. Use the given values to find k. k y= x k 12 = 5 k 5 ⋅12 = 5 ⋅ 5 60 = k 60 The equation becomes y = . y = = 30. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we have y = 1 2 hr . the volume equation is V = V= π 3 Since y varies inversely with x. When x = 12. kQ M = P 8Q M = P Use the equation to find M when P = 8 and Q = 24 . V varies jointly with h and r 2 and can be modeled as V = khr 2 . as M = P Use the given values to find k . V = khr 2 4. Use the given values to find k. x . M = 5. x 60 When x = 2. 120π = k (10)(6)2 π 3 =k Therefore. Use the given values to find k.8 let M represent the number of minutes let Q represent the number of problems let P represent the number of people M varies directly as Q and inversely as P is expressed kQ . 2 8Q P 8(24) M = 8 M = 24 It will take 24 minutes for 8 people to solve 24 problems. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 4. 3 (2)(12) 2 = 96π cubic feet k x k 6= 3 18 = k y= y= 18 =2 9 379 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. kQ M = P k (16) 32 = 4 8=k Exercise Set 2. y = kx 65 = k ⋅ 5 65 k ⋅ 5 = 5 5 13 = k The equation becomes y = 13 x. y = kx 45 = k ⋅ 5 9=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. k .8 1. Inc. y = 13 x = 13 ⋅12 = 156. 2.

y = kxz 1 14400 = 300 ( 2400 )( 6 ) = 48 48 Since y varies jointly as a and b and inversely as kab . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 28 ( 4 ) ( 8) 2 = 28 ( 4 ) 64 = C = kAT 7 4 10. The equation becomes y = c When a = 5. kx y= 2 z k ( 50 ) 20 = 52 k ( 50 ) 20 = 25 20 = 2k 8. z2 When x = 3 and z = 6. z Use the given values to find k. we have y = kxz. 175 = k ( 2100 )( 4 ) 175 = k ( 8400 ) 1 =k 48 C= 9. 2 5 When x = 8 and z = 12. the square root of c. z 6 36 36 6 6. 2 The equation becomes y = y= 45mn 2 45(3)(4) 2 2160 = = = 216 10 10 p 380 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c = 9. . Since y varies inversely as x and inversely as the kx square of z. we have y = c Use the given values to find k. a= 7= 7= kb c2 k (9) ( 6) k (9) 2 36 k 7= 4 28 = k a= 7. we have y = 2 . 10ab 10(5)(3) 150 y= = = = 50 . Since y varies jointly as x and z. 3 c 9 y= kmn 2 p k (2)(1) 2 6 2k 15 = 6 2k 15(6) = (6) 6 90 = 2k 15 = 25 = k ( 2 )( 5 ) 25 = k (10 ) 25 k (10 ) = 10 10 5 =k 2 k = 45 5 xz. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 5. kab y= c k (3)(2) 12 = 25 k (6) 12 = 5 k (6) 12(5) = (5) 5 60 = 6k 60 6k = 6 6 10 = k 10ab . 10 x 10 ( 3) 10 ( 3) 30 5 y= 2 = 2 = = = . Use the given values to find k. y = ( 8 )(12 ) = 240. b = 3. 10 = k The equation becomes y = 10 x .

w Solving for y: kyz x= w x ( w ) = ( w ) kyzw x w = kyz x w kyz = kz kz 12. Section 2. x = kz ( y + w) . Solving for y: x = kyz 15. . kz 3 .8 x = kyz . x = kz ( y − w) x = kzy − kzw k3 z x= y x + kzw = kzy x + kzw kzy = kz kz x + kzw y= kz k3 z yx = y ⋅ y yx = k 3 z yx k 3 z = x x y= k3 z x 381 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Solving for y: x = kz ( y + w) x= xy = y ⋅ x= x = kzy + kzw kz 3 y x − kzw = kzy x − kzw kzy = kz kz x − kzw y= kz xy = kz 3 xy kz 3 = x x kz 3 y= x 14. x kyz = . Inc. x w kz 18. Solving for y : y= x = kyz 2 x kyz 2 = 2 2 kz kz x y= 2 kz 13. kz yz x y= kz x= kyz . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = kyz 2 . y Solving for y kz 3 x= y 16.PreCalculus 4E 11. kyz w2 ⎛ w2 ⎞ w2 kyz ⎜ ⎟x = kz w2 ⎝ kz ⎠ xw2 y= kz 17.

7 D kz y−w xy − wx = kz xy = kz + wx xy kz + wx = x x xw + kz y= x 20. 225. 56 = 0.7 D = 0.9 = k The equation becomes T = 0. x= 23. Use the given values to find k.9(6) = 5.75 0.6 = k (4) 25.4 feet.000496 (107 ) M = kE 60 = k ( 360 ) 60 k ( 360 ) = 360 360 1 =k 6 M = d = kf 9 = k (12) 9 k (12) = 12 12 0.4 . When h = 107. 000 0. When B = 6 . w = kh3 3. 043) ≈ 607. 000 ) 170 = 343. 3 w = 0.7 12 The equation becomes B = 0. x= 56 0. Use the given values to find k. yx + xw = kz yx = kz − xw yx kz − xw = x x kz − xw y= x 15 = 0.000496h 3 . 000 343. Publishing as Prentice Hall.75 f = 0. 22.7 0.7 D. kz y+w ( y + w) x = ( y + w) kz y+w 24.4 k (12 ) = 12 12 8. . Since a man’s weight varies directly as the cube of his height. Robert Wadlow’s weight was approximately 607 pounds. we have T = kB . Since T varies directly as B. Since B varies directly as D.000496 (1. T = kB 3. When B = 56 . Use the given values to find k. 21. 000 ) k ( 343.Polynomial and Rational Functions 19. 1 (186 ) = 31 6 A person who weighs 186 pounds on Earth will weigh 31 pounds on the moon.9 B .75 20 = f A force of 20 pounds is needed. T = 0.7 56 D= = 80 0. B = kD kz .7 It was dropped from 80 inches.4 = k (12 ) 8.000496 = k The equation becomes w = 0. y−w Solving for y: kz x= y−w ( y − w) x = ( y − w) 8.75 f = 0.75 f 15 0.6 k (4) = 4 4 0. 382 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.75 = k d = 0. we have B = kD. Inc.4 k= = 0. 170 = k ( 70 ) 3 170 = k ( 343. The tail length is 5. we have w = kh 3 .

t= 383 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. h = 0.5d 2 h = 0.5 = k 562. b.25 The intensity is 90 milliroentgens per hour. r 3.5 .5(30) 2 h = 450 A water pipe with a 30 centimeter diameter can serve 450 houses.88 Celsius at a depth of 5000 meters.5 562.4 foot-candles at a distance of 50 feet.5d 2 a.4 = (1000) k 1000 4400 = k 4400 4400 = = 0. t= 4.5 .5 .5 = 2 3 k 62. r Use the given values to find k.4 d2 502 2500 The illumination is 2.75 = 2 40 k 3.5 When d = 2. 28.5 = 9 ⎛k ⎞ 9 ( 62. we have B = . The equation becomes B = r 112 112 When r = 3. i= k d k 1000 (1000)4. Inc. 27.5 feet. Since the banking angle varies inversely as k the turning radius. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 h = kd 2 26. . 50 = k ⋅ 10 0. The equation becomes I = d2 562. d k 62.52 6.5d 2 1250 = 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.5 ) = 9 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ 562.5d 2 d 2 = 625 d = 625 d = 25 A water pipe with a 25 centimeter diameter can serve 1250 houses. k B= r k 28 = 4 ⎛k⎞ 28 ( 4 ) = 28 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4⎠ 112 = k 112 .75 = (1600) k 1600 6000 = k 6000 6000 6000 = = = 2. k I= 2. B = = = 32 . k d2 k 3. we have k I= .75 = 1600 i= (1600)3.88 d 5000 The water temperature is 0.4 = 30. h = 0.5 = k 29. we have pressure. 2 h = 0. Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance. d Use the given values to find k. I = = = 90 2.5 The banking angle is 32 when the turning radius is 3.

5(4)(6) 2 = 0.5(4)(36) = 72 A mass of 4 grams and velocity of 6 centimeters per second has a kinetic energy of 72 ergs. The intensity will I= = = ⋅ (2d ) 2 4d 2 4 d 2 100m c 100(40) 80 = c 4000 80 = c 4000 80c = c ⋅ c 80c = 4000 80c 4000 = 80 80 c = 50 The chronological age is 50. Since index varies directly as weight and inversely as the square of one’s height. k= 32. Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the sound source. h Use the given values to find k.4. 3 The heat loss is 1800 Btu . 34. 126540 = 703 180 703w The equation becomes I = 2 . 703(170) I= ≈ 24. L = kAD 31. then d = 2d . Since heat loss varies jointly as the area and temperature difference.15 = 3600 126540 = k (180) 1200 = k (3 ⋅ 6)(20) 1200 = 360k 1200 360k = 360 360 10 k= 3 The equation becomes L = 10 AD 3 When A = 6 ⋅ 9 = 54 . we have L = kAD .Polynomial and Rational Functions 33. 1 . e = kmv 2 36 = k (8)(3) 2 36 = k (8)(9) 36 = 72k 36 72k = 72 72 k = 0.4 and is not overweight. Use the given values to find k. D = 10 . So we have k k 1 k . h When w = 170 and h = 70. i= be multiplied by a factor of intensity is 36.15 = 3600 k (180) (3600)35. If you move to a seat twice as d far. L = 10 ( 9 ⋅ 6 ) (10) = 1800 . Inc. (70)2 This person has a BMI of 24. km c k (25) 125 = 20 k (25) 20(125) = (20) 20 2500 = 25k 2500 25k = 25 25 100 = k i= 35. .5 e = 0. we kw have I = 2 . we k have I = 2 . kw I= 2 h k (180 ) 35. 3 384 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 k a k 1 k t= = ⋅ 3a 3 a t= A year will seem to be 1 of a year.15 = 602 k (180) 35. So the sound 4 1 of what it was originally.5mv 2 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

02 P1 P2 . Explanations will vary. I 40. 000 = 326.875 daily phone calls. v. d b. 000 = ( 420 ) 39. a.5) = (0. Current varies inversely as resistance. 000) (400) 2 = 17. Use the given values to find k. kP P C = 12 2 d k ( 777.8 a. Sample explanation: A direct variation with a positive constant of variation will have both variables increase simultaneously. 2 49. Since the current varies inversely as k resistance we have R = . 51. Answers may vary.5 k 12(0. . does not make sense.27k 0.02 ≈ k The equation becomes C = c. varies directly as the square of wind velocity. 000)(220. 000 ) (3. Using one of I the given ordered pairs to find k .5) 0.87 × 1012 ) 176. Section 2. 695. 0. 000 = 16269841. d2 0. 400 326. 150 = k (4 ⋅ 5)(30) 150 = k (20)(900) 150 = 18000k 150 18000k = 18000 150 1 =k 120 1 1 (3 ⋅ 4)(60) 2 f = as 2 = 120 120 1 (12)(3600) = 120 = 360 Yes. Since the average number of phone calls varies jointly as the product of the populations and inversely as the square of the distance. Sample explanation: For an inverse variation. the independent variable can not be zero.02(650. does not make sense.PreCalculus 4E 37. we have kP P C = 12 2 . C= f = kas 2 b. k 12 = 0. 2 k ( 2. c. Inc. makes sense 52. P. 50. – 48. the wind will exert a force of 360 pounds on the window. makes sense 53. Pressure.875 There are approximately 17. 000) 326. can be modeled as P = kv 2 .5 k =6 6 The equation becomes R = . 38. Answers will vary. 385 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. If v = x then P = k ( x) 2 = kx 2 If v = 2 x then P = k (2 x) 2 = 4kx 2 If the wind speed doubles the pressure is 4 times more destructive. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Explanations will vary.

d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4i (3i − 2) = (4i )(3i ) + (4i )(−2) = 12i 2 − 8i = −12 − 8i 56. 5. 6 6 5−i = ⋅ 5+i 5+i 5−i 30 − 6i = 25 + 1 30 − 6i = 26 15 − 3i = 13 15 3 = − i 13 13 386 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Illumination. x 1 1 k x= 2 ⇒d = x then 50 50 d (7 − i )(2 + 3i ) = 14 + 21i − 2i + 3 = 17 + 19i 50k k = 50 . 3. Since 50 ≈ 7 . . 60. I. (3 − 4i ) 2 = 32 + 2 ⋅ 3(−4i ) + (−4i )2 = 9 − 24i − 16 = −7 − 24i 57. x x 4. Answers may vary. to triple the heat the resistant must be reduced by a multiple of 3. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. H. varies directly as the square of the voltage. d k k If d = 15 then I = 2 = 15 225 k k If d = 30 then I = 2 = 30 900 900 =4 Note that 225 If the distance doubles the illumination is 4 times less intense. (7 + 8i )(7 − 8i ) = 7 2 + 82 = 49 + 64 = 113 58. 6. kv 2 H= r If the voltage remains constant. r. = 7 ⋅ 2 + 7(3i ) + (−i )(2) + (−i )(3i ) k . Chapter 2 Review Exercises If I = k ⇒d= d2 (8 – 3i) – (17 – 7i) = 8 – 3i – 17 + 7i = –9 + 4i 2. Inc. d If I = x then x = 1. 59. can be modeled as I = 2 . 55. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. I. The Heat. Illumination. d.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. and inversely as the resistance. v. the Hubble telescope is able to see about 7 times farther than a ground-based telescope. can be modeled as I = 2 .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x + 1) + 4 2 = 4 − 40i + (10i ) 2 = 4 − 40i − 100 = −96 − 40i ( x + 1) 10. 1 + i 3 . 8. 4] } The solution set is 1 − i 3 . ⎩2 2 2 2 ⎭ = (4i − 3i ) 2 =i 2 13. . 9. (−2 + −100) = (−2 + i 100) −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) x= −32 − −18 = i 32 − i 18 = i 16 ⋅ 2 − i 9 ⋅ 2 2 2 2x − 6x + 5 = 0 2 = (−2 + 10i ) 2 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. Chapter 2 Review Exercises 3 + 4i 3 + 4i 4 + 2i = ⋅ 4 − 2i 4 − 2i 4 + 2i 12 + 6i + 16i + 8i 2 = 16 − 4i 2 12 + 22i − 8 = 16 + 4 4 + 22i = 20 1 11 = + i 5 10 12. x= 6 ± 36 − 40 4 6 ± −4 x= 4 6 ± 2i x= 4 6 2i x= ± 4 4 3 1 = ± i 2 2 = 4i 2 − 3i 2 ⎧3 1 3 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − i. 387 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 + −8 4 + i 8 4 + 2i 2 = = = 2+i 2 2 2 2 11. + i ⎬ . Inc. ∞) range: ( −∞. 2 x − 2x + 4 = 0 2 =4 x + 1 = ±2 x = −1 ± 2 x = −3 or x = 1 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) + 4 = 3 2 x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(4) 2(1) x= 2 ± 4 − 16 2 The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . 2 ± −12 2 2 ± 2i 3 x= 2 x= x =1 ±i 3 { domain: (−∞.PreCalculus 4E 7.

The axis of symmetry is x = –4.025 x 2 + x + 6 1 b x=− =− = 20 2a 2(−0. f ( x ) = 2 x2 − 4 x − 6 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 6 − 2 2 ( x − 1) − 8 2 ( x + 4)2 = 2 x+4=± 2 x = −4 ± 2 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 4)2 − 2 = 14 = –1 axis of symmetry: x = 1 domain: (−∞. 2a 2(−1) The maximum value is f (7). f (x) = (x + 4)2 − 2 vertex: (–4. domain: (−∞. Inc. f ( x) = −0. 19. ∞) range: [ −2. domain: (−∞. f (−3) = 2(−3) 2 + 12(−3) + 703 = 685 domain: (−∞. f ( x) = − x 2 + 14 x − 106 a. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 18. .025(0) 2 + (0) + 6 = 6 The ball was tossed at a height of 6 feet. 4] b. Since a < 0 the parabola opens down with the maximum value occurring at 14 b x=− =− =7.Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. f ( x) = −0.025(20) 2 + (20) + 6 = 16 The maximum height of 16 feet occurs when the ball is 20 yards downfield. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 17. f ( x ) = − x + 2x + 3 f (7) = −(7) 2 + 14(7) − 106 = −57 2 = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 b.025 x 2 + x + 6 f (0) = −0. b.025) f (20) = −0. ∞ ) 15. ∞) range: [ −8. ∞) range: ( −∞. domain: (−∞. ∞) range: [ 685. −57 ] f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 12 x + 703 a. a. –2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 4)2 − 2 16. ∞ ) The maximum height will occur at the vertex. ∞) range: ( −∞. 388 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2a 2(2) The minimum value is f (−3). Since a > 0 the parabola opens up with the minimum value occurring at 12 b x=− =− = −3 .

3x + 4y = 1000 4y = 1000 – 3x 1000 − 3x y= 4 A=x =− x= 20. A ( x ) = x (1000 − 2 x ) 1000 − 3x 4 3 2 x + 250x 4 −b −250 = = 125 2a 3 2 − 4 1000 − 3(125) = 166. Let x = one of the numbers Let 14 + x = the other number The other number is 14 + x = 14 + ( −7 ) = 7.3. Inc. The numbers which minimize the product are 7 and −7 .000 square yards when the width is 250 yards and the length is 1000 − 2 ⋅ 250 = 500 yards. 000. y = (35 + x)(150 – 4x) 2 y = 5250 + 10x − 4x The maximum area is achieved when the width is 250 yards.3(reject) The ball will hit the ground 45. The minimum is at b 14 14 x=− =− = − = −7. 2a 2 ( −2 ) −4 23. The maximum area is A ( 250 ) = 250 (1000 − 2 ( 250 ) ) −b −10 5 = = = 1. 2a 2 (1) 2 −(1) ± (1) 2 − 4(−0. f ( x) = −0.3 yards downfield.25 or 1 tree 2a 2(−4) 4 The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. f ( x ) = − x3 + 12 x 2 − x The graph rises to the left and falls to the right and goes through the origin. The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. 389 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 1000 1000 b x=− =− =− = 250. d.7 4 125 feet by 166.025) x ≈ 45. We need to minimize the function P ( x ) = x (14 + x ) 0 = −0. 24. .025 x 2 + x + 6 21. − 5. Maximize the area using A = lw.025)(6) x= 2(−0. The area is maximized at 125. Chapter 2 Review Exercises The ball is at a height of 0 when it hits the ground. x= = 250 (1000 − 500 ) = 250 ( 500 ) = 125.PreCalculus 4E c. y= A ( x ) = −2 x + 1000 x 2 Since a = −2 is negative. Publishing as Prentice Hall.025 x 2 + x + 6 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = 14 x + x 2 = x 2 + 14 x. The minimum product is −7 ⋅ 7 = −49.7 feet will maximize the area. so graph (c) is the best match. The football’s path: 22. y = 36(150 – 4x) = 36(150 – 4·1) = 5256 The maximum yield will be 5256 pounds.

f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 ( x + 5)3 x = 1. 32. so graph (b) is the best match. g ( x ) = x6 − 6 x 4 + 9 x 2 The graph rises to the left and rises to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since n is odd and an > 0. the graph touches the x-axis x = –5. the graph crosses the x-axis 34. This is impossible. h ( x ) = x5 − 5 x 3 + 4 x The graph falls to the left and rises to the right and crosses the y-axis at zero.Polynomial and Rational Functions 25. a. f ( x ) = x3 − 2 x − 1 f (1) = (1)3 − 2(1) − 1 = −2 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 1 = 3 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. multiplicity 2. 26. we know that even-degree polynomials with negative leading coefficient will fall to the left and to the right. In the polynomial. 2. This means that the graph will fall to the right. f ( − x ) = −4 x + x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x) origin symmetry c. multiplicity 2. . f ( x) = x3 − x 2 − 9 x + 9 33. multiplicity 5. Since the graph falls to the right. multiplicity 1. the graph crosses the x-axis x = –2. f ( x) = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) zeros: x = 0. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. The model predicts that eventually. f (− x) = (− x )3 − (− x) 2 − 9(− x) + 9 = − x3 − x 2 + 9 x + 9 28. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 21x 2 + 100.87 and the degree is 3. the graph touches the x-axis 390 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the f ( x) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 1) zeros: 3. The leading coefficient is –0. 1 leading coefficient is –1 and the degree is 4. 30. so graph (a) is the best match. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c. − 3. b. –2 = x 2 ( x − 5) − 25( x − 5) = ( x 2 − 25)( x − 5) = ( x + 5)( x − 5) 2 x = –5. Applying the Leading Coefficient Test. the graph crosses the x-axis x = 5. b. the number of thefts would be negative. Inc. 31. f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f ( x) = − x 4 + 1 f(x) falls to the left and to the right so graph (d) is the best match. we know that the elk population will die out over time. 27. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125 f ( x) = 4 x − x3 a. Since n is odd and an < 0. This function is not useful in modeling the number of thefts over an extended period of time. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. multiplicity 1. 29.

−2. c. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 6 x3 − 9 x 2 a. g ( x ) = − x 4 + 25 x 2 38. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x 3 + 3x 2 − 8 x − 12 a. The graph rises to the left and to the right. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 25(− x) 2 = − x 4 + 25 x 2 = f ( x) y-axis symmetry c. . a. b. Since h is odd and an > 0. f (− x) = 3(− x)4 − 15(− x) 2 = 3x 4 + 15 x 3 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).PreCalculus 4E 35. − 2 c. Inc. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 6(− x)3 − 9(− x) = − x 4 − 6 x3 − 9 x 2 f (− x ) ≠ f ( x ) f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c 3 x 4 − 15 x3 = 0 − x 4 + 25 x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 3x3 ( x − 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = 0. 0. 3 36. f (− x) = − f ( x) no symmetry f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry f(x) = (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x + 3) 3 zeros: x = 2. = − x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 zeros: x = 0. 37. The graph falls to the left and to the right. f (− x) = −2 x3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x − 12 The graph falls to the left and to the right. f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 15 x 3 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 391 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. b. b. 5 − x 2 ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = –5.

0) 2 x2 − 4x + 1 5 x − 3 10 x 3 − 26 x 2 + 17 x − 13 10 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 20 x 2 + 17 x − 20 x 2 + 12 x 5 x − 13 f (0) = 2(0) 2 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 5x − 3 The y-intercept is 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (3 x 4 − 2 x 2 − 10 x) ÷ ( x − 2) 2 41. f ( x ) = 2 x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 42. 2 4x − 7x + 5 x + 1 4 x3 − 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 3 0 –2 –10 0 6 12 20 20 6 10 10 20 2 3 Quotient: 3x 3 + 6 x 2 + 10 x + 10 + 4 x3 + 4 x 2 − 7 x2 − 2 x −7 x 2 − 7 x 46. . x = 1 The roots at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = 0. f (0) = −(0)3 ( 0 + 4 ) ( 0 − 1) = 0 (3 x 4 + 11x 3 − 20 x3 + 7 x + 35) ÷ ( x + 5) 2 –5 The y-intercept is 0. The root at –4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–4. 3 3 11 –20 7 35 –15 20 0 –35 –4 0 7 0 Quotient: 3 x − 4 x + 7 3 45. 10 5x − 3 4 3 4 x2 + 2 x2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 + 3 x 40. f(x) rises to the left and the right. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. x = –4. f ( x ) = − x 3 ( x + 4 ) ( x − 1) 2 6 x2 + 3x Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. 5x + 1 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 7 x 2 + 9 x − 3 –13 5x + 5 2 −4 Quotient: 4 x 2 − 7 x + 5 − 2 4 x +1 20 x−2 –7 9 –3 –26 429 –5694 –33 438 –5697 Quotient: f (–13) = –5697 392 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) − 2 x2 − 1 −2 x 2 − 1 0 44. x = 1. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. − 10 Quotient: 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 − 2 x2 + 3x − 1 2 x + 1 4 x + 6 x + 3x − 1 2 43. 3 Since an > 0 and n is even.

so no real roots exist. ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 4 x − 1) = 0 −4 ± 16 + 4 −4 ± 2 5 x= = = −2 ± 5 2 2 { } The solution set is 4. ± 5 4 p : ± 1. ± 2. f ( − x ) = −2 x 5 + 3 x3 − 5 x 2 − 3x − 1 f(–x) has 2 sign variations. ± . ±2. ± 8 b. ± 8. 3 2 f ( x) = 2 x 5 – 3 x3 – 5 x 2 + 3x – 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. so f(x) = 0 has no negative solutions. . 1 1 −1. ± 5 q a. ±6 p 1 1 1 : ± 1. so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 positive solutions. ± . f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. ± q 2 3 6 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 2 sign variations. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 2 2 2 53. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 2 x3 + x + 5 c. so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 negative solutions. . ± 4 q 1 Zeros: x = 2.PreCalculus 4E 47. –2 are rational zeros. 3 2 55. ± . ± 3 51. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± . f ( − x ) = −6 x 3 + x 2 + 4 x + 1 f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 2 x3 − 8 x + 5 1 sign variation. ±3. ± 4 –1 6 1 –4 1 –6 5 –1 6 –5 1 0 –1 is a zero. 1 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 q : ± 1. ± 2. ± 2. –2}. 1. q : ±1 50. 1 negative real zero. 54. ± 4. 49. −3 2 48. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 12 x − 8 p : ± 1. . ± . f ( x) = ( x − 2)(2 x + 5 x − 3) 2 q : ±1 = ( x − 2)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) p : ± 1. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. 1 –13 6 4 10 –6 5 –3 0 f ( x ) = f ( − x ) = 2 x4 + 6 x2 + 8 No sign variations exist for either f(x) or f(–x). Inc. 1 sign variation ⇒ 1 positive real zero f (− x) = − x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 2 sign variations ⇒ 2 or no negative real zeros ( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 = 0 f ( x) = x − 6 x + 14 x − 14 x + 5 p : ± 1. 393 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so f(x) = 0 has 3 or 1 positive real roots. −2 − 5 . ± q 3 3 3 3 3 0 –4 1 4 –4 1 4 4 1 is a zero. ± 4. 52. −2 + 5. d. x 3 − 17 x + 4 = 0 4 1 1 0 –17 4 4 16 –4 4 –1 0 c. p 8 4 2 1 : ± 1. b. f(x) has 2 sign variations. 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 4 x + 4) = 0 p: ±1 q: ±1. f(–x) has no sign variations. 1 x = 1 or x = –2 The solution set is{1. p : ± 1. ± 2. are rational zeros.

3 or 1 positive real solutions. ( x + 1)(3x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 or x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. . ± 3. 3 3 3 5 5 ± . ±2 1 p : ± 1. ± 15. ± 5.± . 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x – ⎟ (8 x – 32 x + 30) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (4 x – 16 x + 15) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ p= b. ±15 q: ±1. 8 9 –7 1 1 5 –1 10 –2 0 –36 46 –15 4 –16 15 –32 30 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 d. b. ⎬. 8 2 1 is a rational zero. ± .± . f ( − x ) = −8 x3 − 36 x 2 − 46 x − 15 c. 2 4 8 2 4 5 15 15 15 ± . . . ± 3. p: ±1 q: ±1. 2 1 3 5 . no negative real solutions. ± . q 2 4 8 c. 57.± .± . f ( − x ) = −2 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 7 x + 1 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 a. 2 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 1 2 1 2 2 3 sign variations. Inc. d. ±2. f ( x ) = 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 2 sign variations. ±5. 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ (2 x + 10 x − 2) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + 5 x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Solving x 2 + 5 x − 1 = 0 using the quadratic 0 sign variations. ±4. ⎬ . ⎬ . f ( − x ) = x 4 + x3 − 7 x 2 − x + 6 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (2 x – 5)(2 x – 3) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1 5 3 x = or x = or x = 2 2 2 ⎧1 3 5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .± . 2 or 0 positive real zeros. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 58. 2 or 0 negative real zeros. 1 sign variation. 3 2⎭ ⎩ x = –1 or x = 56. 2 2 2 −5 ± 29 2 ⎪⎧ 1 −5 + 29 −5 − 29 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . .± . ± 2. ± q 2 formula gives x = 1 is a zero. 394 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 6 q 8 x 3 – 36 x 2 + 46 x – 15 = 0 a. f ( x ) = x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 2 sign variations. ±3. ±8 1 1 1 p : ± 1. are rational zeros. p: ±1. ( x + 1)(6 x 2 – 5 x + 1) = 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 a. 1 negative real zero.Polynomial and Rational Functions 6 x3 + x 2 – 4 x + 1 = 0 d.± 8 2 4 8 b. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± . x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 p : ± 1. ⎩2 2 2⎭ 2 sign variations. 2 or 0 positive real zeros.

3 are rational zeros. p: ±1. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. f ( x ) = 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 c. −1. ±2 q: ±1. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. { − 2. 1 2 4 0 7 0 –2 2 1 4 2 2 8 4 0 –1 2 1 –9 –4 4 4 10 2 –4 2 5 1 –2 0 2 5 1 –2 –2 –3 2 3 –2 0 4 4 2 8 4 –2 0 –4 0 8 0 1 . x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 d. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + 7 x 2 − 2 1 sign variation. 1 negative real zero. 1. 1 sign variation. ± 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±2. c. ± 2. 1. − 2i ⎬ . p: ±1. 60. 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 a. −1. ±2. ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 6) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x − 3)( x + 2) = 0 The solution set is 59. d. 2i. ± . 2 or 0 negative real zeros. . ± q 2 b. 2 2 395 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1. . ± 2. . f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 a. 1 –1 Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 –1 –7 1 6 1 0 –7 –6 1 0 –7 –6 0 1 0 –7 –6 –1 1 6 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟⎜ x + ⎟ (4 x + 8) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎜ x − ⎟ ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 Solving x + 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula gives x = ±2i ⎧ 1 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . ±4 q: ±1.PreCalculus 4E c. 1 positive real zero. 1 2 2 2 4 − 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 d. 2 ⎭ ⎩ 1 1 − . x = −2 or x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ − 2. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. Inc. 3} . 2 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 − 2. ⎩ 2 2 ⎭ 1 –1 –6 0 − 2. are rational zeros. ±4 p 1 1 : ± 1. −1. ± q 2 4 b. 2 ⎬ . 2 or 0 positive real zeros. 2 are rational zeros.

4 2 f ( x ) = an ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 3) 1 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 12 x3 + 20 x 2 + 12 x + 18 –8 –16 –7 8 16 0 2 –7 8 16 –1 8 –16 –8 16 0 2 65. 1 real zero. ± 8. ± q 2 2 7 ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 = 0 x = –1 or x = 4 g ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 + x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 0 –1 ( x + 1) ( x – 8 x + 16) = 0 f ( x ) = 2 ( x + 1)( x + 6 x + 9 ) 3 1 2 2 2 3 –1 an = 2 –2 16 ( x + 1)( x3 – 7 x 2 + 8 x + 16) = 0 2 2 f ( −1) = an ⎡( −1) + 1⎤ ⎡( −1) + 6 ( −1) + 9 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ 16 = 8an 63. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. 2 f ( x) = ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 2 )( 2 x − 1) 396 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 24 2 f ( x ) = an ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 2 1 x – 6 x + x + 24 x + 16 = 0 f ( x ) = x − 6 x + 21x − 26 3 –6 66. g ( x) = 1 −1 ( x + 2) 2 2 x + 3x + 3x – 2 = 0 4 3 ( x + 2)(2 x3 – x 2 + 2 x –1) = 0 ( x + 2)[ x 2 (2 x –1) + (2 x –1)] = 0 ( x + 2)(2 x –1)( x 2 + 1) = 0 1 x = –2. 2 real zeros. 2 nonreal complex zeros 68. 3 real zeros. ± 2. one with multiplicity two f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 3x3 + 3x − 2 p: ±1. ±i. 4 real zeros. ±2. 4 nonreal complex zeros 3 –2 –4 2 –4 2 –1 2 –1 0 69. f ( x) = an ( x – 2)( x – 2 + 3i )( x – 2 – 3i ) 64. ± 16 q –1 1 f ( x ) = 1( x − 2 ) ( x − 4 x + 13) 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 13 x − 2 x 2 + 8 x − 26 1 62. ±2 1 p : ± 1. ± 2. . ±16 q: ±1 p : ± 1. f ( x) = an ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) f (1) = an (1 − 2 ) ⎡⎣12 − 4 (1) + 13⎤⎦ −10 = −10an an = 1 g ( x) = x 4 − 6 x 3 + x 2 + 24 x + 16 p: ±1. one with multiplicity two. ± 4. 2 nonreal complex zeros 67. ±2 q: ±1. ±8. x = or x = ±i 2 1 The zeros are –2. .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 2x – 4 = 0 x=2 2 (0) − 4 4 y-intercept: y = =− 0 + 3 3 ( ) Symmetry: g (– x) = 71. f ( x) = 2x x −9 Vertical asymptote: x+3=0 x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. so y = 0 2x = – f ( x) x –9 2 =0 397 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 70. . so y = = 2 1 2 Symmetry: f (– x) = – origin symmetry x-intercept: 2x 0= 2 x −9 2x = 0 x=0 y-intercept: y = 2 ( 0) 02 − 9 Vertical asymptote: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3 and x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. g ( x) = 2x − 4 x+3 –2 x – 4 x+3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). h( x ) = Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 +3 x −1 72.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 73. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x2 = 0 x=0 02 y-intercept: y = =0 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 n > m. y= 2 x2 – 4 x + 3 (– x + 2) 2 r(–x) ≠ r(x). so y = = 1 1 74. –2 Symmetry: h(– x) = 75. h(–x) ≠ –h(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x 2 − 3x − 4 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 1) x = 4 x = –1 02 − 3 ( 0 ) − 4 2 y-intercept: y = = 02 − 0 − 6 3 Vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 2) = 0 x = 3. Slant asymptote: 1 y = x –1+ x +1 y=x–1 x2 + 4 x + 3 ( x + 2) x2 x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. . –1 02 + 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = 2 4 (0 + 2) Vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 Symmetry: r (– x) = 398 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. h ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. r ( x) = x2 – x +1 f(–x) ≠ f(x). no horizontal asymptote. so y = = 1 1 x 2 − 3x − 4 x2 − x − 6 x 2 + 3x – 4 x2 + x – 6 h(–x) ≠ h(x). r(–x) ≠ –r(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 4 x + 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x + 1) = 0 x = –3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.

Horizontal asymptote: n > m. so no horizontal asymptote. Slant asymptote: 12 y = x+5+ x −3 y = x+5 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 2x − 3 4 x 2 + 16 x + 16 Symmetry: g (– x) = –2 x – 3 g(–x) ≠ g(x).PreCalculus 4E 76. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 = 0 g ( x) = 4 ( x − 2) = 0 2 x=2 y-intercept: 4 ( 0 ) − 16 ( 0 ) + 16 2 y= 77. 1 0 2 + 2 ( 0 ) − 3 −3 y-intercept: y = = =1 0−3 −3 Vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. Inc. so no horizontal asymptote. so no horizontal asymptote. Slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = 2 x – 5 + 2x – 3 y = 2x – 5 −2 x 3 x2 + 1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 ( 0) − 3 =− 399 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Symmetry: f (– x) = 78. Slant asymptote: 2 16 3 Vertical asymptote: 2x – 3 = 0 3 x= 2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 2 = – f ( x) x2 + 1 Origin symmetry x-intercept: −2 x 3 = 0 x=0 −2 ( 0 ) 3 y-intercept: y = = 0 =0 1 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 No vertical asymptote. y= Chapter 2 Review Exercises x2 + 2x − 3 x−3 f ( x) = –2 x + 2x x +1 2 y = –2x x2 – 2 x – 3 –x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = –3.

0 ) ∪ (1. and 1. 1000 = lw 1000 =l w 25(50) + 50. 72. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 1 ( −∞.58 x + 114. the percentage of men in the U. 000 = 1025 50 When 50 calculators are manufactured. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ( 2 x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 The boundary points are −3 and f ( x) = 82. 87. c.06 x + 235 c.S. it costs $75 to manufacture each.000 calculators are manufactured. d. ∞ ) = 3. so y = = 3000 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 = 0 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 4 ) = 0 The boundary points are −4 and − 12 . x3 + 2 x 2 = 3x x 3 + 2 x 2 − 3x = 0 x ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 P( x) = M ( x) + F ( x) = 1.900 100 x 2 + 729 n < m so y = 0 As the number of years of education increases the percentage rate of unemployment approaches zero. population will approach 52%.000 When 100. −4] ∪ ⎡⎢− .05 The number of fish available in the pond approaches 3000. T (x) = 25 x + 50. C (50) = 1000 x 2000 P = 2x + x P = 2x + 2 85. 80. 25(1000) + 50. . 000 C (100) = = 525 100 When 100 calculators are manufactured. 81. it costs $25.58 ≈ 0. a.06 x + 235 1. Inc.06 Over time. a.4 + 1. 25 = 25 is the horizontal 1 asymptote.000 x 84. 000) + 50. 25(100) + 50.6 x ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 The boundary points are −3 . it costs $525 to manufacture each. 0. ∞ ⎞⎟ ⎣ 2 ⎠ P ( x) = R( x) = 1 . so y = 86. n = m.5 100. Minimum costs will approach $25.000 + 25x C ( x) = 83.4 = P( x) 3. 000 C (100. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 ≥ 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. b. b.48 x + 120.000 calculators are manufactured. 4 2 + x+3 x M ( x) 1. 25(100. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 150 x + 120 0. it costs $1025 to manufacture each.52 3. 000 C (1000) = = 75 1000 When 1. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 < 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. 2 1⎞ ⎛ Testing each interval gives a solution set of ⎜ −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. C(x) = 50.05 x + 1 150 n = m. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −3.58 x + 114.50 to manufacture each. x3 + 2 x 2 > 3x Solve the related equation. y= 400 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000) = = 25.

1 and 2.3(35) + 27 ≈ 261 The stopping distance on wet pavement for a motorcycle traveling 35 miles per hour is about 261 feet.125)(−168) 2(0.8 x − 168 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. 1) ∪ [ 2.8 x − 168 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.112=k Thus.125 x 2 − 0.6 ) ∪ ( 40.112s. 90.8 x + 99 0 < −16 ( t 2 − 3t + 2 ) 0 < –16(t – 2)(t – 1) F T F 1 2 The projectile’s height exceeds 32 feet during the time period from 1 to 2 seconds. 600 ft 401 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 91. We exclude 1 from the solution set. Chapter 2 Review Exercises x−6 >0 x+2 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.125 x 2 − 0. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 23 ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 88. ∞ ) . w = ks 28 = k ⋅ 250 0. b. The boundary points are –2 and 6. s = −16t 2 + v0 t + s0 32 < −16t 2 + 48t + 0 0 < −16t 2 + 48t − 32 x+3 ≤5 x−4 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. 89.125(35) 2 + 2.4 cubic centimeters of water. g ( x) = 0. ⎣4 ⎠ a. Publishing as Prentice Hall.125) x = −33. Thus. ∞ ) .6. Testing each interval gives a solution set of [ −1.125 x 2 − 0. x+3 −5 ≤ 0 x−4 x + 3 5 ( x − 4) − ≤0 x−4 x−4 −4 x + 23 ≤0 x−4 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. 40 Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. The boundary points are –1. 92.3x + 27 93. ∞ ) . . 0. 4 ) ∪ ⎢⎡ . 94. w = 0. f ( x) = 0. We exclude 4 4 from the solution set.8) ± (−0.8 x + 99 > 267 0. 0. speeds exceeding 40 miles per hour on dry pavement will require over 267 feet of stopping distance.4 1200 cubic centimeters of melting snow will produce 134. ∞ ⎞⎟ . 23 The boundary points are 4 and .112(1200) = 134.125 x 2 + 2. x= ( x + 1)( x − 2) ≥0 x −1 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. since this would make the denominator zero. This overestimates the distance shown in the graph by 1 foot. d = kt2 144 = k (3) 2 k = 16 d = 16t 2 g (35) = 0.125 x 2 − 0. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞.8) 2 − 4(0. since this would make the denominator zero. −33. d = 16(10) 2 = 1. w = 0.

Inc. L = . 5 5 2+i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 5(2 + i ) = 4 +1 5(2 + i ) = 5 = 2+i 3. c.Polynomial and Rational Functions 95. a. R k L= R k 30 = 63 k 63 ⋅ 30 = 63 ⋅ 63 1890 = k 1890 Thus. 1056 . (6 − 7i )(2 + 5i ) = 12 + 30i − 14i − 35i 2 = 12 + 16i + 35 = 47 + 16i 2. k w k 660 = 1. V = khB 175 = k ⋅15 ⋅ 35 1 3 1 V = hB 3 1 V = ⋅ 20 ⋅120 = 800 ft 3 3 k= 402 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1890 R 1890 L= = 70 27 The average life span of an elephant is 70 years. w 1056 = 440 2. p= 96. . L= Chapter 2 Test 1. R Use L = This is an approximate model.4 The pitch is 440 vibrations per second. p = 99. 97. kc w k ⋅ 30 10 = 6 10 = 5h t= k to find k.6 1056 = k p= Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. k d2 k 28 = 2 8 k = 1792 1792 l= 2 d 1792 l = 2 = 112 decibels 4 l= b. 2 −49 + 3 −64 = 2(7i ) + 3(8i ) = 14i + 24i = 38i h=2 2c w 2(40) = 16 hours t= 5 t= 98.

the graph of f(x) opens down and f(x) has a maximum point. f ( x ) = − x 2 + 46 x − 360 b −46 = = 23 2a −2 23 computers will maximize profit. f ( x) = x 2 − 2 x − 3 y-intercept: f (0) = 02 − 2(0) − 3 = −3 f ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. ∞ ) . 403 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 7. ∞ ) . x=− f ( 23) = − ( 23) + 46 ( 23) − 360 = 169 2 Maximum daily profit = $16.900. 6. 2] domain: ( −∞. Inc. 4) axis of symmetry: x = –1 x-intercepts: ( x + 1) 2 + 4 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 −2 ± 4 − 20 = −1 ± 2i 2 no x-intercepts y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 1)2 + 4 = 5 x= domain: ( −∞. .PreCalculus 4E Chapter 2 Test x2 = 4 x − 8 4. 2) domain: ( −∞. −12 x= =3 2(−2) f (3) = −2(3) 2 + 12(3) − 16 = −18 + 36 − 16 =2 Maximum point: (3. ∞ ) 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = −2 x 2 + 12 x − 16 Since the coefficient of x2 is negative. ∞ ) . –4) axis of symmetry x = 1 x-intercepts: x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 x = 3 or x = –1 x2 − 4 x + 8 = 0 x= x= −b ± b − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(1)(8) 2(1) 2 4 ± −16 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i x= 5. range: [ 4. −b 2 = =1 2a 2 f (1) = 12 − 2(1) − 3 = −4 vertex: (1. range: [ −4. range: ( −∞.

−3 + 11 . ± . 6 6 –19 16 –4 12 –14 4 –7 2 0 x= −(6) ± (6) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) −6 ± 44 2 = −3 ± 11 The zeros are −3 . a. 1 1 9 16 –6 –3 –18 6 6 –2 0 Thus x = 3 is a root. 14 − x = the other number. . ±3. b. ± 15 q : ± 1. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 13. 2 x= 1 2 and . ±15. and −3 − 11 . 2 3 404 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±2. ± 5. ± . ± . 11. Inc. the possible rational zeros are the factors of 6 p p = : ± 1. ± 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 9. 49). 16. –2}. 12. ± 3. f ( − x ) = −3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 − x − 1 f(–x) has no sign variations. The product is f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) = − x 2 + 14 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 14 14 x=− =− =− = 7. 15. ± 2 1 3 5 15 p : ±1. ± 6 q f ( 7 ) = −7 2 + 14 ( 7 ) = 49 The vertex is (7. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 a. Possible rational zeros are: p : ± 1. Solve the quotient x 2 + 6 x − 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula to find the remaining roots. ± 3. The x-intercepts should be –1 and 1. ± q 2 2 14. x 3 + 9 x 2 + 16 x − 6 = 0 Since the leading coefficient is 1. ± 2. This occurs when the two number are 7 and 14 − 7 = 7 . the graph of f should fall to the left and rise to the right. f ( x ) = 3x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 + x − 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. 10. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. a. Let x = one of the numbers. ± q 2 2 2 2 6x − 7x + 2 = 0 (3x – 2)(2x – 1) = 0 2 1 x = or x = 3 2 2 The other two roots are −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = The integral root is 2. –2 The solution set is {5. ± . f ( x ) = x5 − x Since the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. 2. ±6 q: ±1. f ( x ) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x − 5 x − 4 x + 20 = 0 3 2 x 2 ( x − 5) − 4( x − 5) = 0 ( x − 5)( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 5. ±2 1 3 p : ± 1. ± 2. –3 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. b. There are 3 or 1 positive real solutions and no negative real solutions. The maximum product is 49. ± 6. ±3. ±5.

Inc. 2 f ( x) = 1 ( x + 3) 2 domain: {x | x ≠ –3} or ( −∞. 3 The zeros are −1 . Use synthetic division to verify this root. f(x) has zeros at –2 and 1. –3 –3 2 −3 −10 0 −10 1 2 3 1 4 –1 2 0 Factor the quotient to find the remaining zeros. −3 x 2 − x + 2 = 0 0 −15 3 2 15 –4 0 −(3x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 3 Thus. . The zero at –2 has multiplicity of 2. f ( x) = a0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + i )( x − i ) f ( x) = a0 ( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) = a0 ( x 4 − 1) Since f (3) = 160 . and the polynomial 2 factors as follows: 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 = 0 The zeros (x-intercepts) are –1 and 2 . ∞ ) 17. the graph: −1 2 −1 −13 5 15 –1 −2 3 10 −15 2 −3 −10 15 0 3 2 f ( x ) = −3 x 3 − 4 x 2 + x + 2 The graph shows a root at x = −1 . and ± 5 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 3 + 3x 2 – 4 = ( x – 1)( x + 2) 2 18. then a0 (34 − 1) = 160 a0 (80) = 160 160 80 a0 = 2 a0 = f ( x) = 2( x 4 − 1) = 2 x 4 − 2 405 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 The y-intercept is f (0) = 2 ( x + 1) ( 2 x3 − 3x 2 − 10 x + 15) = 0 ( x + 1) ⎛⎜ x − 3⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2 x − 10 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Find the remaining zeros by solving: 2 x 2 − 10 = 0 2 x 2 = 10 x2 = 5 x=± 5 20. Chapter 2 Test Verify that −1 and 3 are zeros as it appears in 2 19.PreCalculus 4E b. −1 and are zeros. . −3) ∪ ( −3.

f ( x) = 406 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 21. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = 3.1) ∪ (1. . 5 Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 2 – x–2 y = x +2 Symmetry: f (– x) = 22. x2 − 9 x−2 domain: {x | x ≠ 2} f ( x) = x2 – 9 –x – 2 f(–x) ≠ f(x). ∞ ) f ( x) = 23. –3 02 − 9 9 y-intercept: y = = 0−2 2 Vertical asymptote: x–2=0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. so no horizontal asymptote exists. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. –4 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. x x 2 − 16 domain: {x | x ≠ 4. x ≠ –4} –x = – f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 16 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: x = 0 0 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 − 16 Vertical asymptotes: x 2 − 16 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 4) = 0 x = 4. 1 +2 x −1 domain: {x | x ≠ 1} or ( −∞.

a. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x+1=0 x = –1 0 +1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 =− 0 + 2 (0) − 3 3 f ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. 1 2 C ( x) = 26. Chapter 2 Test x +1 x + 2x − 3 x 2 + 2 x − 3 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) domain: {x | x ≠ –3. the horizontal 10 = 10 .PreCalculus 4E 24. 27. 1 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. Vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x –3. the production cost approaches $10 per radio. Since the degree of the numerator equals the degree of the denominator. x ≠ 1} –x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 2x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). 4 ) 4 x2 x2 + 3 domain: all real numbers 4 x2 = f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x +3 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 f ( x) = y-intercept: y = 4 ( 0) 28. 300. ∞ ) 407 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. =0 2x + 1 ≤3 x−3 2x + 1 −3 ≤ 0 x−3 10 − x ≤0 x −3 Boundary values: 3 and 10 Solution set: ( −∞. ( x + 3)( x − 4) < 0 Boundary values: –3 and 4 Solution set: ( −3.3) ∪ [10. Inc. so y = = 4 is the horizontal asymptote. 2 02 + 3 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 3 = 0 x 2 = −3 No vertical asymptote. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . asymptote is x = 1 This represents the fact that as the number of satellite radio players produced increases. 000 + 10x x x 2 < x + 12 x − x − 12 < 0 2 25.

2) range: [ 0. − ⎬ . ±6 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 3. 4. ± 2. 2x − 5 > 3 2x − 5 > 3 2x > 8 x>4 2 x − 5 < −3 2x < 2 x <1 (−∞. –1}. 8. 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 x= 5⎞ ⎛5 ⎛ ⎞ Test intervals are (–∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎜ –1. domain: (−2. . 11. 1) or (4. ∞ ⎟ . 3⎠ ⎝3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛5 ⎞ Testing points. 2}. ∞ ⎟ . ∞ ) 10. 7. ⎟ . 3. 3). –1. –1). Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–2) 1. ±3. x3 + 2 x 2 − 5x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. ⎬. There is a relative maximum at the point (0. ⎜ . Inc. –1) or ⎜ . the solution is (– ∞. ⎝3 ⎠ 408 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. ±2. ∞) 3x 2 > 2 x + 5 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 > 0 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 = 0 (3 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = –1 3 3x 2 − 5 x + 1 = 0 5 ± 25 − 12 5 ± 13 = 6 6 ⎪⎧ 5 + 13 5 − 13 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ± 6 q –3 6. (f 5. The zero at 1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. 2. 1 f )(−1) = f ( f (−1) ) = f (0) = 3 f ( x) → ∞ as x → −2+ or as 1 2 –5 –6 –3 3 6 –1 –2 0 x + 2 x – 5x – 6 = 0 3 x → 2− 2 ( x + 3)( x 2 – x – 2) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 x = –3 or x = –1 or x = 2 The solution set is {–3. 3 2 = x x2 9 x 2 + 3x = 2 9 x2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) = 0 3x − 1 = 0 3x + 2 = 0 1 2 or x = − x= 3 3 2⎫ ⎧1 The solution set is ⎨ . k d2 k 20 = 2 15 4500 = k i= 9. |2x – 1| = 3 2x −1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 2 x − 1 = −3 2 x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {2. The zero at –1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. 3⎭ ⎩3 4500 4500 = = 45 foot-candles d2 102 i= 9+ 12.

–9) x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 8 = 0 ( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 x = –4 or x = 2 x −1 x−2 vertical asymptote: x = 2 horizontal asymptote: y = 1 x-intercept: x = 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 f ( x) = 17. f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x − 8 −b −2 = = −1 x= 2a 2 f (−1) = (−1) 2 + 2(−1) − 8 = 1 − 2 − 8 = −9 vertex: (–1. 4 x-intercepts: f ( 0 ) = 03 − 4(0) 2 − 0 + 4 = 4 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. . x 2 ( x − 4) − 1( x − 4) = 0 f ( x) = x 2 ( x − 3) zeros: x = 0 (multiplicity 2) and x = 3 y-intercept: y = 0 f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 n = 3. ( x − 4)( x 2 − 1) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = –1. y-intercept: f(0) = –8 409 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. an = 0 so the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. Cumulative Review Exercises f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 x-intercepts: x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 = 0 15. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 13. Inc. 16. 14.

( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) ( f g )( x) = 2(4 x − 1) 2 − (4 x − 1) − 1 = 32 x 2 − 20 x + 2 20. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ⎡ 2( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 1⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ 2 x 2 − x − 1⎤⎦ =⎣ h 2 2 2 x + 4hx − x + 2h − h − 1 − 2 x 2 + x + 1 = h 2 4hx + 2h − h = h = 4 x + 2h − 1 410 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 19.Polynomial and Rational Functions 18. .

20876 ≈ 160 According to the function. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates.56) x Plot these points. graph g ( x) = 3x −1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 3x one unit to the right. This overestimates the actual amount shown by $11.Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Section 3. we Plot these points. f (3) = 42. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g. Note that the function g ( x) = 3x −1 has the general form g ( x) = b x + c where c = −1 . f ( x) = 42. x f ( x ) = ( 13 ) −2 ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 91 −1 0 1 2 f ( x ) = 3x 3−2 = 19 3−1 = 13 30 = 1 31 = 3 32 = 9 g ( x) = 3x −1 3−2 −1 = 3−3 = 271 3−1−1 = 3−2 = 19 30 −1 = 3−1 = 13 31−1 = 30 = 1 32 −1 = 31 = 3 x −2 411 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates. the average amount spent after three hours of shopping at the mall is $160.2(1. Because c < 0. Inc. connecting them with a continuous curve. connecting them with a continuous curve.1 Check Point Exercises 1.56)3 ≈ 160. x −2 −1 0 1 2 3.2(1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 f ( x ) = 3x f (−3) = 3−3 = 1 27 1 9 1 3 f (−2) = 3−2 = f (−1) = 3−1 = f (0) = 30 = 1 f (1) = 31 = 3 f (2) = 32 = 9 f (3) = 33 = 27 4. .

08(5) = $14. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ = $14.95 10. we graph g ( x) = 2 x + 1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 2 x up one unit. 000e0.4 ≈ 13.472 f ( x ) = 4x 4−2 = 161 4−1 = 14 40 = 1 41 = 4 42 = 16 2012 is 34 years after 1978.3 ≈ 9. nt ⎛ 0. 918. r⎞ ⎛ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ a.08 ⎞ A = 10. 32. e 2.042 x f (34) = 1066e0. e 11. e –0. 5 3 ≈ 16. x f ( x) − 2 −2 2−2 = 14 −1 2−1 = 12 0 20 = 1 1 21 = 2 2 22 = 4 6.116 ≈ 0.042(34) ≈ 4446 In 2012 the gray wolf population of the Western Great Lakes is projected to be about 4446. 12.47 A = Pe rt A = 10. −1.974 8.964 9. Inc.2 −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 23⋅4 ≈ 10.387 ≈ 0.4 ≈ 29. f ( x) = 1066e0. x g ( x) = 2 + 1 2−2 + 1 = 14 + 1 = 54 2−1 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 23 20 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2 21 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3 22 + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5 x 5. 7.125 6.25 b.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5. 4 −1.1 1.242 412 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.967 3. 3 5 ≈ 11. 6 7.859. e 3. Because c > 0. . 4(5) x g ( x) = 5x −2 5−2 = 251 −1 5−1 = 15 0 50 = 1 1 51 = 5 2 52 = 25 Exercise Set 3. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g. Note that the function g ( x) = 2 x + 1 has the general form g ( x ) = b x + c where c = 1.5 = 0.556 2.75 x −2 −1 0 1 2 ≈ 0.665 4.

1 g ( x) = ( 32 ) x ( 32 ) = 49 −1 ( 32 ) = 23 0 ( 32 ) = 1 1 ( 32 ) = 32 2 ( 32 ) = 94 −2 g ( x) = ( 43 ) x 15. . −2 −1 0 1 2 14. Inc. ( 34 ) = 169 −1 ( 43 ) = 43 0 ( 43 ) = 1 1 ( 43 ) = 43 2 ( 43 ) = 169 −2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 h ( x ) = ( 12 ) x ( 12 ) = 4 −1 ( 12 ) = 2 0 ( 12 ) = 1 1 ( 12 ) = 12 2 ( 12 ) = 14 −2 h ( x ) = ( 13 ) x ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 19 −2 413 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x −2 −1 0 1 2 Section 3.PreCalculus 4E x 13. −2 −1 0 1 2 x 16.

21. 20. range: ( 0. x f ( x) = (0. ∞ ) 27. This is the graph of f(x) = 3x. ∞ ) downward. range: ( −1. so the function is g ( x) = 3x −1. . ∞ ) .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions x 17. so the function is H ( x) = −3− x.25 0 (0.6 ) 25.5625 −1 (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8) −1 = 1. = 1. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by shifting x the graph of f ( x) = 2 x two units to the left.6)1 = 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit domain: ( −∞.8) −2 26. so the function is G ( x) = 3− x. ∞ ) 18.6)2 = 0.7 −1 (0. range: ( 0. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.8) −2 (0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the x- axis. f ( x ) = ( 0. so the function is h( x) = 3x − 1. asymptote: y = −1 23.6) −1 = 1. ∞ ) .6 0 (0.6 2 (0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit to the right. ∞ ) . 24. 414 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 2 (0.6)0 = 1 1 (0.36 the graph of f ( x) = 2 x one unit to the left. 22.8) 2 = 0.8)1 = 0.64 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the y- axis.8)0 = 1 1 (0. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x − 1 can be obtained by 19. This is the graph of f ( x) = 3x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis.6)−2 = 2. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x +! can be obtained by shifting x −2 (0. shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x downward one unit. Inc. so the function is F ( x) = −3x.

The graph of g ( x ) = −2 x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x two units upward. x 33. The graph of g ( x ) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by 31. . ∞ ) . 0 ) 29.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. range: ( −∞. reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the x-axis. The graph of g ( x) = 2 ⋅ 2 x can be obtained by vertically stretching the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of two. ∞ ) . range: ( 0. range: ( −1. asymptote: y = 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 415 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the y-axis. two units to the asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . range: ( 0. ∞ ) 30. The graph of h ( x ) = 2 x +1 − 1 can be obtained by 32. The graph of h( x) = 2 x + 2 − 1 can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 left and one unit downward. asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = 2− x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 one unit to the left and one unit downward. ∞ ) . Inc. range: ( −1. ∞ ) . ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. range: ( 2.1 28.

range: ( 2. ∞ ) . ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. range: ( 0. ∞ ) . ∞ ) .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 37. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 39. range: ( 2. range: ( 0. ∞ ) 416 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph of g ( x ) = moving f ( x) = e x 2 units up. 36. 35. 34. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right and 2 units up. range: ( −1. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 38. ∞ ) . Inc. The graph of g ( x) = e x − 1 can be obtained by domain: ( −∞. range: ( 0. The graph of h( x) = e x −1 + 2 can be obtained by asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. asymptote: y = −1 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x ) = e x + 2 can be obtained by 1 x ⋅ 2 can be obtained by 2 vertically shrinking the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of one-half. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit down. The graph of g ( x) = e x −1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right. ∞ ) . asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x) = e x +1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left.

1 x e can be obtained by 2 shrinking f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 1 . stretching f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 2. range: ( 0. range: ( −∞. ∞ ) . range: ( −1. The graph of g ( x) = 2e x can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left and 1 unit down. asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 45. range: ( 0. The graph of h( x) = −e x can be obtained by reflecting f ( x) = e x about the x-axis. 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = f ( x) = e x about the y-axis. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 42. . asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = e x+1 − 1 can be obtained by 43. range: (1. ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ∞ ) . 0 ) asymptote: y = 1 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 417 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. range: ( 0. The graph of h( x) = e − x can be obtained by reflecting 44. Inc.1 40. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) 41. The graph of h( x) = e 2 x + 1 can be obtained by stretching f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 2 and then moving the graph up 1 unit.

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 1 49. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and one space up. ∞ ) 47. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the y-axis. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 1 418 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the x-axis. x 46. 48. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞.. range: ( 2. Inc. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 51. The graph of h( x) = e 2 + 2 can be obtained by shrinking f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 1 2 and then moving the graph up 2 units. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 50. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by horizontally stretching f(x) by a factor of 3. . The graph of g(x) can be obtained by vertically shrinking f(x) by a factor of 13 .

79 12(10) c. 795. 4( 4 ) 56.51 ⎛ 0. b. A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2(10) 410 ⋅ ≈ $9479. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.64 (8. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13. ≈ $9527.07 ⎞ A = 12.157. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.083 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $ 8306. 737.1 52.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.000 for 3 years at 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return. ⎛ 0.1) .70 419 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ 0. Inc.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ d.84 (8. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 14.065(10) ≈ = $9560.85% yield) Investing $12. a.055 ⎞ A = 10.055(5) ≈ $13. 000e0.31 ⎛ 0. ⎛ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.67 (6. ⎛ 0. 0 f ( x) = 2 x 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 2 4 x −2 −1 4(5) 12(5) c. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and two spaces up.116.0825 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $8317.11 (7% yield) A = 12. A = 5000 ( e ) 0. a.055 ⎞ A = 10.3% yield) Investing $6000 for 4 years at 8. .04 g ( x) = 2− x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 A = 10. d.25% compounded quarterly yields the greater return.0685(3) ≈ 14. ⎛ 0. 12(3) 55.92 ≈ 9577.140.25% yield) 2( 4) ⎛ 0. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 2 53.67 2(5) 57.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0. 000e0.165.065 ⎞ b.055 ⎞ A = 10.19 The point of intersection is ( 0. 54.

2 ) . . y = −b x −e = −b1 e=b The equation of the graph is y = −e x 420 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = bx x = 2y 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 y 4 = b1 4=b The equation of the graph is y = 4 x 62. The graph is of the form y = b x . g ( x) = 2− x +1 8 4 2 1 1 2 The point of intersection is ( 0. y = 2x 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 x y = 3x 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 x x = 3y 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 y 61. The graph is of the form y = b x .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 58. Substitute values from the point (1. Substitute values from the point (1. 4) to find b. Inc. 59. Substitute values from the point (1. y = bx 6 = b1 6=b The equation of the graph is y = 6 x 63. –e) to find b. −1 0 1 f ( x) = 2 x +1 1 2 1 2 4 2 8 x −2 60. 6) to find b. The graph is of the form y = −b x . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

c. 54 71. find d.4 According to the exponential model.0344 x g (50) = 1. 2005 is 50 years after 1955. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.14159 ≈ 8.321995226 21. e) to find b. f ( 80 ) = 1000 ( 0. f ( 27 ) = 574 (1. the closer the 3 value is to 2 .44 ≈ 8.026 ) ≈ 1148 India’s population in 2001 will be 1148 million. f ( 0 ) = 574 (1. a.0344(50) ≈ 10. 67.1 ≈ 8. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1.15 x + 1. e = b −1 1 e= b eb = 1 1 b= e ≈ 3.06 ) 10 The linear model is the better model for the data in 2005.73 ≈ 3.87e0.73205 ≈ 3. There will still be 157. f (50) = 0. 744 10 68. g ( x) = 1. 000 (1. India’s population in 2055 will be 4590 million.14 ≈ 8.824979946 27 2π ≈ 8.815240927 23.026 ) 23 ≈ 8 23. Substitute values from the point (–1. 2055 − 1974 = 81 . 000 (1.1415 ≈ 8.15(50) + 1.7320508 ≈ 3. 21. there were about 8.1 64.9 According to the linear model.026 ) ≈ 2295 .06 ) ≈ $832.5741877 70. Inc. India’s population in 2028 will be 2295 million.49 Chernobyl will not be safe for human habitation by 2066. India’s population appears to be doubling every 27 years.5 kilograms of cesium-137 in Chernobyl’s atmosphere. 000 (1 + 0. S = 465. .44 c. f ( x) = 0. ⎛1⎞ The equation of the graph is y = ⎜ ⎟ = e − x ⎝e⎠ a. 2005 is 50 years after 1955.824411082 = 574 (1) = 574 23. = 465. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 66.321997068 23.03) = 510.87e0.4 million words in the federal tax code in 2005. 230 421 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the closer the value is to 2π.824961595 India’s population in 1974 was 574 million. Since 2028 − 1974 = 54 .321880096 21.321997085 The closer the exponent is to 3 .317278183 21. 81 e.141 ≈ 8. The graph is of the form y = b x . S = 510. find 23. b. there were about 10.824977827 The closer the exponent gets to π.821353305 0 23. 000 (1 + 0.7 ≈ 3. = 157.5) 80 30 b.03) 5 5 ≈ $591.026 ) ≈ 4590 .732 ≈ 3.249009585 21.141593 ≈ 8.9 million words in the federal tax code in 2005. y = bx 69. 3 2 x 65.

Answers may vary.1e−0. – 80. 83.87e0.1 1 + 6. a. f (52) = 80e −0.029)56 ≈ 30.87e0.3 g (56) = ≈ 27. 82. there were about 3.052 x 37.045 ⎞ A = 10.05 ⎞ A = 10.8 30. ≈ $3. 74.052 x 37. f ( x) = 6.05(379) ≈ $4. b. ( 24 1 + 0.5% of the material is remembered 1 week after it is first learned. b.19(1. Answers may vary.5(0) + 20 c. d.1e −0. g ( x) = 1.029)40 ≈ 19. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ = 80e 0 + 20 = 80(1) + 20 = 100 100% of the material is remembered at the moment it is first learned.052(56) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 28.7 million words in the federal tax code in 1975.19(1. 75.0344 x g (20) = 1.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6.3 g (40) = ≈ 21. 1975 is 20 years after 1955. b.7 According to the exponential model. 662.052(40) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 21.4 According to the linear model.1e −0. 074. b.7 37.4 37.44 ≈ 4. 794 c.05 12 ) 12(379) 4t 12 t f (0) = 80e −0. ⎛ 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 72.5(52) + 20 ≈ 20 20% of the material is remembered 1 year after it is first learned.029) x 76.8% of the material is remembered 4 week after it is first learned. Publishing as Prentice Hall.44 f (20) = 0.917.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6.15(20) + 1. 5% compounded quarterly offers the better return. 81. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0. 753 24e0. f ( x) = 6. 422 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. 73.0 in 2006.5(1) + 20 ≈ 68. f (40) = 6.15 x + 1. Inc.029) x f (56) = 6.0344(20) ≈ 3. Sample explanation: The horizontal asymptote is y = 0.19(1. b. . does not make sense.3 in 1990. The exponential model is the better model for the data in 1975.9 1 + 6. f (1) = 80e−0. there were about 4. a. 77.360. d. 1975 is 20 years after 1955. f (4) = 80e −0.1e−0.5(4) + 20 ≈ 30. a.19(1. a.4 million words in the federal tax code in 1975.5 68. c. f ( x) = 0. Explanations will vary.

does not make sense. 423 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. false. . gives x = 3. b. 92.2 Check Point Exercises 93. y increases as x increases. 251/ 2 = 5 2 96. Note that the boundary value x = 3 does not satisfy the inequality. Explanations will vary. i. ∞ ) . y = 1 3 94. 2 = log b 25 means b 2 = 25.e. y = 1 is the 5 5 –x same as y = 5 . 86. c. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 so it is (d) reflected () x about the y-axis. true 91. 88. e− x − e−( − x ) 2 e− x − e x = 2 − −e − x + e x = 2 e x − e− x =− 2 = − sinh x sinh(− x) = ( c. makes sense 85.2 84.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. so it is (c) reflected about the y-axis. log 4 26 = y means 4 y = 26. y= 5x is () (c). false. Section 3. 25 = x means 5 = log 2 x. Inc. x is (a). −(− x) e +e 2 −x e + ex = 2 e x + e− x = 2 = cosh x cosh(− x) = 2 ⎛ e x + e− x ⎞ ⎛ e x − e− x ⎞ ? ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ =1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x e 2 x − 2 + e −2 x ? − =1 4 4 e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x − e 2 x + 2 − e −2 x ? =1 4 4? =1 4 1=1 about the y-axis while f ( x) = −3x reflects the graph 89. Solving the related equation. −x 1. b. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 . Changes to make the statement true will vary. ? (cosh x) 2 − (sinh x) 2 = 1 2 of y = 3x about the x-axis. e y = 33 means y = log e 33. ) 2. 3 = log 7 x means 73 = x. a. A sample change is: The amount of money will not increase without bound. b3 = 27 means 3 = log b 27. We do not know how to solve x = 2 y for y. a. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 95. 1 . but not as quickly as y = () y= 1 3 5x . x is the same as y = () x 3–x. y = 3x is (d). Sample explanation: An exponential model is better than a linear model. false. f ( x) = 3− x reflects the graph of y = 3x b. 90. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. y = 1 is (b). a. makes sense 87. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A sample change is: If f ( x) = 2 x then f (a + b) = f (a ) ⋅ f (b). c. A sample change is: The functions do not have the same graph. Changes to make the statement true will vary.3) ∪ ( 3.

Solving this inequality for x. 5. 9. 32 = x 4. Question: 5 to what power gives c. Because blogb x = x.000 I0. 125 5 125 7 = log 10. 1. 7. ≈ 34 The function models the actual increase shown in the graph quite well.0 on the Richter scale. 10.4 ln x − 11. 2 4 = 16 2. we conclude log 9 9 = 1. Because I = 10. Thus. Exercise Set 3. Question: 36 to what power gives 6? 1 log 36 6 = because 361/ 2 = 36 = 6 2 d. we obtain x < 4. 6. 4. a. 1 1 x 1 3 9 27 9 3 g ( x) = log 3 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 The graph of the inverse can also be drawn by reflecting the graph of f ( x) = 3x about the line y = x. The domain of f consists of all x for which 4 – x > 0.4 ln 30 − 11. b5 = 32 6. f ( x) = 13. we conclude log 7 7 = 8. Thus the domain of g is (−∞. x f ( x ) = 3x 10.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 3. the domain of f is (−∞. a. 8 x 11. . we obtain x < 0 or x > 0. Thus. we obtain x > 5. log28 = 3 424 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. Solving this inequality for x. b.6 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 3 x. 26 = 64 3. The domain of g consists of all x for which x 2 > 0. Inc. 0) ∪ (0. the domain of h is (5. Substitute the boy’s age. 92 = x 5. Solving this inequality for x. 10.8 log(10 + 1) = 29 + 48. for x and evaluate the function at 10. 000 I 0 R = log I0 1 ? 125 1 1 1 log 5 = −3 because 5−3 = 3 = . 6y = 216 8. we conclude log8 1 = 0. b3 = 27 7. Question: 3 to what power gives 1 log 3 7 3 = because 31 7 = 7 3. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because log b 1 = 0. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 9 27 9 3 f (30) = 13. Find the temperature increase after 30 minutes by substituting 30 for x and evaluating the function at 30. f (10) = 29 + 48. Question: 10 to what power gives 100? log10 100 = 2 because 10 2 = 100.6 First. 5 y = 125 9. b. 000 3? =4 The earthquake registered 4. ∞). Because log b b = 1. 4) b. 7 a. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 3x. a 10-year-old boy is approximately 80% of his adult height. ∞).8 log(11) ≈ 80 Thus. 8. Because log b b = x. we conclude 3log3 17 = 17.2 The domain of h consists of all x for which x − 5 > 0.

Because blogb x = x. 17. we conclude log11 11 = 1. log 2 12. 36. log 2 1 1 = −3 because 2−3 = . 41. log 3 − 1 1 1 . log13x = 2 16. we conclude 7 log 723 = 23. 31. 5 5 26. 2 1 1 because 81 2 = 81 = 9. 2 30. x g ( x) = log 4 x 1 16 1 4 1 4 16 64 −2 −1 0 1 1 29. 25. 2 3 . we conclude log 6 1 = 0. log 3 27 = 3 because 33 = 27. log15 x = 2 37. log 2 64 = 6 because 2 = 64. 2 22. 38. log 3 1 1 = –2 because 3−2 = . we conclude log 4 1 = 0. First. Because log b b = 1. log 64 8 = 1 = −3 125 log8 2 = 1 3 log 64 4 = 34. we conclude log 5 5 = 1. log 7 49 = 2 because 7 = 49. 23. Inc. Because blogb x = x. 13. 9 9 −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 4 x 1 16 1 4 log 7 7 = 1 because 7 2 = 7. 19. 2 3 1 4 16 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 4 x. 2 43. log 6 1 1 = −1 because 6−1 = . Because log b b = 1. log 6 6 = 1 because 6 2 = 6. we conclude log 5 57 = 7. log 2 1 15. logb1000 = 3 18. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 4 x. 2 1 425 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log8 300 = y 21. = − because 2 2 = 2 2 2 32. Because log b b x = x. 2 35. 1 3 log81 9 = 1 1 because 64 2 = 64 = 8. 8 8 28. we conclude log 4 46 = 6. Because log b 1 = 0. log b 343 = 3 39.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. log 5 625 = 4 11. 20. Because log b 1 = 0. log 5 1 1 = −4 16 − 1 1 1 . log 5 1 1 = −1 because 5−1 = . = − because 3 2 = 2 3 3 33. 42. 6 6 27. we conclude 8log8 19 = 19.2 10. Because log b b x = x. log 4 16 = 2 because 4 = 16. 6 24. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 14. log7200 = y 40.

∞) 426 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis and shifted up one unit. ⎝2⎠ 47. 1 8 49. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 52. First. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the y-axis. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted down one g ( x) = log1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 unit. 1 5 25 125 g ( x) = log 5 x −2 −1 0 1 x 3 1 4 1 16 1 64 g ( x) = log 1 4 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x 16 4 1 x ⎛1⎞ 45. . so the function is g ( x) = log 3 ( x − 1). −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 5 x 1 25 1 5 2 x ⎛1⎞ 46. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 5 x. so the function is G ( x ) = log 3 (− x). range: (−∞. so the function is H ( x) = 1 − log 3 x. 50. vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 44. 1 25 x 1 5 2 16 4 1 4 1 1 16 1 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 1 4 x. ⎝4⎠ x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 3 1 5 25 125 f ( x) = ( 14 ) Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 5 x. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted right one unit. 53. First. 51. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . so the function is F ( x) = − log 3 x. ∞) . Inc. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x f ( x) = ( 12 ) x 4 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 8 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log1 2 x. so the function is h( x) = log3 x − 1. x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 48. First.

vertical asymptote: x = 1 domain: (1. ∞) 60. ∞) 427 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: (2. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) 61.2 54. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞) 57. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 58. Inc. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . range: (−∞. 55. ∞) 59. ∞ ) . ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. 56. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . ∞) . range: (−∞. ∞) .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0.

range: (−∞. 66. ∞ ) . ∞) . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 69. ∞) 428 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) 65. range: (−∞. 68. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) 64. ∞) 63. range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. range: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. ∞) . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 62. range: (−∞. Inc. 67. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞ ) .

Because 10log x = x. 83. Thus. 429 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the domain of f is (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) . log1000 = log10 1000 = 3 because 103 = 1000. 7) or (7. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 6 > 0. ∞ ) . the domain of f is (–4. ∞).PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 7). 2) or (2. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 71. 80. ∞ ) . Solving this inequality for x. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞). ∞). Solving this inequality for x. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 4 > 0. ∞) 76. ∞) 86. Because log10 x = x. Solving this inequality for x. we obtain x < 7 or x > 7. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 82. ∞) 81. 77. Solving this inequality for x. Thus. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. we obtain x < 7. ∞) 72. ∞) 75. 2). Because 10logx = x. Thus. the domain of f is (–6. we conclude 10log 53 = 53. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. The domain of f consists of all x for which 2 – x > 0. . Inc. 79. Solving this inequality for x. we conclude log107 = 7. The domain of f consists of all x for which (x – 2)2 > 0. we obtain x > –6. 85. 73. range: (−∞. The domain of f consists of all x for which 7 − x > 0. 78. the domain of f is (–∞. Thus. we conclude 10log33 = 33. the domain of f is (−∞. we conclude log108 = 8.2 70. range: (−∞. we obtain x < 2 or x > 2. log100 = log10 100 = 2 because 102 = 100. 74. the domain of f is (–∞. Because log10 x = x. Solving this inequality for x. Thus. 84. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 7)2 > 0. we obtain x < 2. ∞). we obtain x > –4. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. Thus. range: (−∞.

105. we conclude e 1 ln e−7 = −7. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − 4 x − 12) to be real. 90. e 106. 91. 2 98. x 2 − x − 2 > 0 . so ln 7 = −7. Because eln x = x. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. −1) ∪ ( 5. we conclude 10log x 3 x = x. 109. log 5 ( x + 4 ) = 2 52 = x + 4 25 = x + 4 21 = x The solution is 21. = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 94. Inc. 1 = ln e −6 e6 Because ln e x = x we conclude 1 ln e −6 = −6. ( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 The boundary points are –1 and 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 103. log ( log 32 ) = log ( log 25 ) = log 5 = 1 5 2 5 2 5 107. log 3 ( x − 1) = 2 32 = x − 1 9 = x −1 ( x + 2)( x − 6) = 0 The boundary points are –2 and 6. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 = 3 x. Because eln x = x. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. Because eln x = x.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 87. −1) ∪ ( 2. we conclude eln 7 x = 7 x 2 . ∞ ) . 1 1 = 43 64 1 ⎧1⎫ . 2 97. 430 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we conclude eln125 = 125. and the solution set is {21}. we conclude ln e13 x = 13 x. 4−3 = x 88. x +1 ⎛ x +1 ⎞ 111. 99. so ln 6 = −6. x − 5 > 0 . Because ln e x = x. e ln log 64 x = 2 3 2 64 3 = x x= ( 3 64 ) 2 = 42 = 16 The solution is 16. x 2 − 4 x − 12 > 0 . we conclude 10log 100. we conclude eln 5 x = 5 x 2 . 10 = x The solution is 10. The solution is 64 ⎩ 64 ⎭ x= Because ln e x = x. 108. we conclude ln e7 = 7. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − x − 2) to be real. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x2 − x − 2 = 0 96. ∞ ) . log ( log 81) = log ( log 34 ) 2 3 2 3 93. we conclude eln 300 = 300. ∞ ) . and the solution set is {16}. ln e = log e e = 1 because e1 = e. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. . Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. ln 7 = ln e −7 Because ln e x = x. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ ⎟ to be real. Because 10log x = x. 5 − x ⎝ ⎠ The boundary points are –1 and 5. we conclude lne9x = 9x. and the solution set is {10}. log 3 ( log 7 7 ) = log 3 1 = 0 1 92. Because 10log x = x. 101. we conclude ln e6 = 6. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 104. log ( ln e ) = log1 = 0 95. Because ln e x = x. 89. 102. 110. log 4 x = −3 ln1 = 0 because e0 = 1 . Because eln x = x. Because ln e x = x.

f(2) = 88–15ln(2 + 1) = 71.5 ≈ 15. 26. f ( x ) = −7.6%. −5) ∪ ( 2. ⎟ x+5 ⎝ x+5⎠ The boundary points are –5 and 2.86 ln 41 + 32. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ to be real.4 According to the function. 2004 is 35 years after 1969.2 According to the function. f ( 35 ) = −7. 116. f ( x ) = −4.49 ln x + 53 120. 2010 is 41 years after 1969. – 127. Inc.5% of first-year college women will express antifeminist views in 2010.5. a. f(13) = 62 + 35log(13–4) ≈ 95.5 According to the function. 118.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.4% of first-year college men expressed antifeminist views in 2004. 15.5 f(4) = 88–15ln(4 + 1) = 63. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0. f (10) = 62 + 35 log(10 − 4) ≈ 89. 128. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 (6. 117. 14. 119. and after one year was about 49. a.5 ≈ 14. f ( x ) = −4.2 According to the function. after 4 months was about 63.2 ×10−6 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 65.2. after 6 months was about 58. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units left. b. 131. Publishing as Prentice Hall.49 ln x + 53 f ( 41) = −7.8. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units upward.49 ln 41 + 53 ≈ 25. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. after 8 months was about 55.2% of her adult height. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 ( 3. She is approximately 89. 25. g(x) is f(x) shifted right 2 units and upward 1 unit. 113.5. 115. This underestimates the value in the graph by 1%. b. b.4 She is approximately 95. g(x) is f(x) reflected about the x-axis.86 ln 35 + 32.86 ln x + 32. 112.86 ln x + 32.5 The average score after 2 months was about 71. 2004 is 35 years after 1969. after 10 months was about 52.2% of first-year college men will express antifeminist views in 2010. a. 2010 is 41 years after 1969. 129.9 f(6) = 88–15ln(6 + 1) = 58. the sound can rupture the human eardrum.3 × 106 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 188 Yes. ∞ ) .2% of first-year college women expressed antifeminist views in 2004.49 ln 35 + 53 ≈ 26. Answers may vary.5 f ( 35 ) = −4. f ( x ) = −7.5 f ( 41) = −4.8 f(8) = 88–15ln(8 + 1) = 55 f(10) = 88–15ln(10 + 1) = 52 f(12) = 88–15ln(12 + 1) = 49.4% of her adult height. 431 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 130. .05 A normal conversation is about 65 decibels. f(0) = 88–15ln(0 + 1) = 88 The average score on the original exam was 88.9. 114.2 x−2 ⎛ x−2⎞ >0.

y = x . log 4 60 < 3 < log3 40 log3 40 > log 4 60 d e. log 2 32 = log 2 25 = 5 134. ⎛ 32 ⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 − log 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ y = x2. log3 81 = log3 34 = 4 b. 142. does not make sense. y = x. is ( 0. A sample change is: We cannot take the log of a negative number. true 143. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . Explanations will vary. false. log 4 ⎡log 3 ( log 2 8) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = log 4 ⎡⎣ log3 ( log 2 23 ) ⎤⎦ = log 4 [ log 3 3] = log 4 1 = 0 c. 137. log 2 8 3 = A sample change is: log 2 4 2 132. 000 times as intense as an earthquake of magnitude 4. log 4 60 < log 4 64 = 3 so log 4 60 < 3. Inc. y = ex. y = ln x . Changes to make the statement true will vary. log 2 (8 ⋅ 4) = log 2 8 + log 2 4 148. b. logbMN = logbM + logbN The sum of the logarithms of its factors. makes sense 138. A sample change is: The domain of f ( x ) = log 2 x 133. a. 2 log3 9 = 2 log3 32 = 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 c.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 139. 147. false. a. 140. false. 141. b. makes sense log 2 16 = log 2 24 = 4 136. The score falls below 65 after 9 months. log 3 40 > log 3 27 = 3 so log3 40 > 3. . They are the same. Answers may vary.001 2 − (−3) 5 144. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: An earthquake of magnitude 8 on the Richter scale is 108− 4 = 104 = 10. a. 146. log 3 81 − logπ 1 4−0 4 = = log 2 2 8 − log 0. b. 145. y = xx 135. log 2 8 + log 2 4 = log 2 23 + log 2 22 = 3 + 2 = 5 c. log 2 32 − log 2 2 = log 2 25 − log 2 2 = 5 − 1 = 4 c. makes sense 149. Changes to make the statement true will vary. a. log3 92 = 2 log3 9 432 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

log(100 x) = log100 + log x = ln x 2 ( x + 5)1/ 3 = ln x 2 3 x + 5 b. log 6 3 = 9 log 6 3 b.02 log 7 8. log b x 4 3 y = log x 4 y1/3 b = log x 4 + log y1/3 b b 1 = 4 log x + log y b 3 b b.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. log( x + 4) 2 = 2 log( x + 4) a. log 6 (7 ⋅ 11) = log 6 7 + log 6 11 b. 000 + log x = 4 + log x 7. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log100 = log x − 2 ⎝ 100 ⎠ 1/ 2 = log5 x 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − log5 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − ( log 5 52 + log 5 y 3 ) = 12 log 5 x − log 5 52 − log 5 y 3 = 12 log 5 x − 2 log 5 5 − 3log 5 y = 12 log 5 x − 2 − 3log 5 y 5. 3. log 7 2506 = ln 2506 ≈ 4. ⎛9⎞ log 9 ⎜ ⎟ = log 9 9 − log 9 x = 1 − log 9 x ⎝ x⎠ 9. ( x − 3)2 x 1 log x − 2 log 5 − 10 log y b b 4 b 1/ 4 2 = logb x − log b 5 − log b y10 = logb x1/ 4 − ( logb 25 − log b y10 ) a. Check Point Exercises 1. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4. = 2 + log x 2. ⎛7⎞ log 7 ⎜ ⎟ = log 7 7 − log 7 x = 1 − log 7 x ⎝ x⎠ 8. a.3 x log 5 25 y 3 1.02 ln 7 x 25 y10 Exercise Set 3. log(10. log 25 + log 4 = log(25 ⋅ 4) = log100 = 2 b. 1 ln 3 x = ln x1/ 3 = ln x 3 c.3 6. log 5 (7 ⋅ 3) = log 5 7 + log 5 3 2. log(7 x + 6) − log x = log 7x + 6 x 433 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . log 7 (7 x) = log 7 7 + log 7 x = 1 + log 7 x 4. log(1000x) = log1000 + log x = 3 + log x 6. a. log8 (13 ⋅ 7) = log8 13 + log8 7 3. log 7 2506 = log 2506 ≈ 4.3 Section 3. 1 ln x 2 + ln( x + 5) 3 = ln x 2 + ln( x + 5)1/ 3 9 = logb x1/ 4 − log b 25 y10 = logb x1/ 4 25 y10 4 or log b 7. 000 x) = log10. log 9 9x =log 9 9+log9 x = 1+log 9 x 5. b. 2 log( x − 3) − log x = log( x − 3) 2 − log x ⎛ 23 ⎞ log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 23 − log8 x ⎝ x ⎠ = log ⎛ e5 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e5 − ln11 ⎝ 11 ⎠ = 5 − ln11 c. a. a.

log 3 ⎛ x = log ⎜ y ⎝ 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢ log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 3 1 1 = log x − log y 3 3 ⎛ 36 ⎞ 1/ 2 log 6 ⎜ ⎟ = log 6 36 − log 6 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log 6 ( x + 1) 2 434 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . ln ex = ln(ex) 17. log b x 2 y = logb x 2 + log b y = 2 log b x + log b y 22. 11. ⎛ x2 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = log b ( x 2 y ) − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = log b x 2 + log b y − log b z 2 = 2 log b x + log b y − 2 log b z 15. ⎛ 125 ⎞ log 5 ⎜ ⎟ = log 5 125 − log 5 y = 3 − log 5 y ⎝ y ⎠ 13. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1 log 5 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 5 x 2 − log 5 25 = log 5 x − 2 25 2 ⎝ ⎠ 25. ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb ( x 3 y ) − logb z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb x 3 + log b y − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = 3log b x + log b y − 2 log b z log b x 7 = 7 log b x 18. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1/ 2 log 4 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 4 x − log 4 64 = log 4 x − 3 64 2 ⎝ ⎠ 24. 29. logbx3 = 3logbx 16. Inc. 12. log b xy 3 = log b x + log b y 3 = log b x + 3log b y 1 1 ln x 7 23. ⎛ 64 ⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ = log 4 64 − log 4 y ⎝ y ⎠ = 3 − log 4 y 27. ⎛ 64 ⎞ 1 2 log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 64 − log8 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log8 ( x + 1) 2 1 2 1 ln(ex) 2 1 = (ln e + ln x) 2 1 = (1 + ln x) 2 1 1 = + ln x 2 2 = 31. ln 7 x = ln x 7 = 21. log 100 x = log(100 x )1/ 2 1 = log(100 x) 2 1 = (log100 + log x) 2 1 = (2 + log x) 2 1 = 1 + log x 2 30. 1 ln 5 x = ln x (1/ 5) = ln x 5 20.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ e2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 2 − ln 5 = 2 ln e − ln 5 = 2 − ln 5 ⎝5⎠ 14. log N–6 = –6log N log M −8 = −8log M 19. ⎛ e4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 4 − ln 8 = 4 ln e − ln 8 = 4 − ln 8 ⎝8⎠ 28. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log1000 = log x − 3 ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 26.

1 4 1 = log 2 x + log 2 y − log 2 16 5 5 5 1 4 4 = log 2 x + log 2 y − 5 5 5 37. ⎡10 x 2 3 1 − x ⎤ log ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 7( x + 1) ⎦ 1 = 1 + 2 log x + log(1 − x) − log 7 − 2 log( x + 1) 3 3 5 5 = log10 + log x 2 + log 3 1 − x − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 2 1 = log5 x + log5 y − log5 52 / 3 3 3 2 1 2 = log5 x + log5 y − 3 3 3 36. x y3 log b 3 z = logb x1/ 2 + log b y 3 − log b z 3 = 34. 33. ⎛ 2x + 5 ⎞ log(2 x + 5) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ⎡ x3 x 2 + 1 ⎤ ln ⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ( x + 1) ⎦⎥ 48. log x + 7 log y = log x + log y 7 = log( xy 7 ) 435 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ 3x + 7 ⎞ log(3x + 7) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ = ln x3 + ln x 2 + 1 − ln( x + 1) 4 1 = 3ln x + ln( x 2 + 1) − 4 ln( x + 1) 2 49. log x + 3 log y = log x + log y 3 = log( xy 3 ) 50. 38. ⎛ 96 ⎞ log 2 96 − log 2 3 = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 = 5 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 46.3 1 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ln x + ln 3 = ln(3x) 45. − ln ( x + 3) 1 = 4 ln x + ln ( x 2 + 3) − 5 ln ( x + 3) 2 x2 y 25 = log5 x 2 / 3 + log 5 y1/ 3 − log 5 251/ 3 log 5 ⎡ x4 x2 + 3 ⎤ ln ⎢ 5 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ( x + 3) ⎥⎦ ⎡ x 4 ( x 2 + 3)1/ 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ( x + 3) ⎦ = ln x 4 + ln ( x 2 + 3) 1 logb x + 3log b y − 3logb z 2 3 35. ⎛ x⎞ x log 5 = log ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 5 1 1 = log x − log y 5 5 log b 1/ 2 39. 5 ⎛ 405 ⎞ log 3 405 − log 3 5 = log 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = log3 81 =4 47. 1 = 2 + 3log x + log(5 − x) − log 3 − 2 log( x + 7) 3 log 5 + log 2 = log(5 ⋅ 2) = log10 = 1 42. log 250 + log 4 = log1000 = 3 43. Inc. log 2 x y4 z5 = log x1/ 3 + log b y 4 − log b z 5 b 1 = log b x + 4 log b y − 5log b z 3 40. 2 . ln x + ln 7 = ln(7 x) 44. ⎡100 x 3 3 5 − x ⎤ log ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ 3( x + 7) ⎦ = log100 + log x3 + log ( 5 − x ) 3 − log 3 − log ( x + 7 ) 1 xy 4 16 = log 2 x1/ 5 + log 2 y 4 / 5 − log 2 161/ 5 41.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.

Inc. ⎛ x5 ⎞ 5 ln x − 2 ln y = ln x5 − ln y 2 = ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 56. . 4 x3 ) 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 (log 5 x + log 5 y ) − 2 log 5 ( x + 1) 2 1 = log5 xy − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 xy ( x + 1) 2 1 ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) + 2log 4 ( x + 1) 3 1 x = log 4 + log 4 ( x + 1)2 3 y ⎡⎛ x ⎞ = log 4 ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎣⎝ y ⎠ 1/ 3 8 ln (x +9) − 4 ln x = ln( x + 9)8 − ln x 4 = ln ( 1 log x − log y 4 4 3 x 1 = log 4 y 3 x = log 3 4 y 1 1 2 ln x − ln y = ln x 2 − ln y 2 2 ( x + 6) 1 ( log x + log y ) 2 1 = (log xy ) 2 = log( xy )1/ 2 ⎛ = log ⎜ 4 ⎝ ⎛ x3 ⎞ ⎛ x3 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1/ 3 ⎟ or ln ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 59. 1 1 ln x + ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 3 ( 62. x4 y7 z3 = log xy = logb ( x 5 y 6 ) 58. 2logbx + 3logby = logbx2 + logby3 = logb(x2y3) 54. ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎛ x2 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1 ⎟ or ln ⎜ 2 ⎜ y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln( x + 6) − 3ln x = ln( x + 6) 4 − ln x3 = ln 60. ⎛ x7 ⎞ 7 ln x − 3ln y = ln x 7 − ln y 3 = ln ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 51. ( ) = ln x 3 y or ln y 3 x 1 ) 53. 4 ln x + 7 ln y − 3ln z ( x + 9)8 x4 ⎤ ( x + 1) 2 ⎥ ⎥⎦ = log 4 ⎡( x + 1) 2 3 xy ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 3ln x + 5 ln y − 6 ln z = ln x3 + ln y 5 − ln z 6 = ln x3 y 5 z6 436 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 ln x + ln y = ln x1/ 2 + ln y 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ln ⎜ x 2 y ⎟ or ln y x ⎝ ⎠ ( 52. 65. 1 3ln x − ln y = ln x 3 − ln y1/ 3 3 64. 66. 61. 5log b x + 6 log b y = log b x 5 + log b y 6 55. = ln x 4 + ln y 7 − ln z 3 ) = ln 63.

5 ≈ 1.1 17 = log17 ≈ −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6193 ln π 78. y = log3 x = log x log 3 80.6944 ln14 74.4595 ln16 75. logπ 63 = ln 63 ≈ 3.3 77.2 = ln 57. Inc. log16 57.2340 ln π = log x + log ( x 2 − 1) − ( log 7 + log( x + 1) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) − log ( 7( x + 1) ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) 7( x + 1) x( x + 1)( x − 1) = log 7( x + 1) x( x − 1) = log 7 70.2304 log 0. log14 87.3 19 = log19 ≈ −2. logπ 400 = 79.4456 log 0.5 = ln 87.3 1 [2 ln( x + 5) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 = [ln( x + 5) 2 − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 ⎡ ( x + 5)2 ⎤ = ⎢ ln 3 ⎣ x( x 2 − 4) ⎥⎦ ⎡ ( x + 5) 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 4) ⎦ 1/ 3 ( x + 5) 2 = ln 3 x( x 2 − 4) 68. log 5 13 = log( x + 2) log 2 log13 ≈ 1.PreCalculus 4E 67.5812 log 6 72. . log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − log15 − log( x + 2) = log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − ( log15 + log( x + 2) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 4 ) − log (15( x + 2) ) x ( x − 4) 2 = log 15( x + 2) x( x + 2)( x − 2) = log 15( x + 2) x( x − 2) = log 15 71. log 0. 1 ⎡5ln( x + 6) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 25) ⎤⎦ 3⎣ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ ⎥ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎢ x( x 2 − 25) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ 3 = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 25) ⎦ 69. log 0. log 6 17 = 73. y = log 2 ( x + 2) = ln 400 ≈ 5.5937 log 5 437 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 ≈ 1. log x + log ( x − 1) − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 log17 ≈ 1. Section 3.1 76. y = log15 x = log x log15 81.

ln(5 x) + ln1 = ln 5 x + 0 = ln 5 x 96. b. true. log 3 7 = 1 87. a.63 It will take the chimpanzee a little more than 20. ln ee = 0 91. ln( x ⋅ 1) = ln x + ln1 95. false. false. false.5 weeks to master 30 signs. product rule 101. quotient rule 86. false. false. log b 84. true. true. log b 6 = log b ( 2 ⋅ 3) 97. log 4 ( 2 x ) = 3log 4 ( 2 x ) 3 1 ⎛ A ⎞ t = ln ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ A− N ⎠ 1 ⎡ 65 ⎤ ln 0. ln 8 x3 = ln 23 x3 = ln ( 2 x ) = 3ln ( 2 x ) log( x − 2) log 3 3 93. Inc.03 ⎝ 35 ⎠ t ≈ 20. false. false. 88. t= 438 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This means that the 100 times louder sound will be 20 decibels louder.03 ⎢⎣ 65 − 30 ⎥⎦ 1 ⎛ 65 ⎞ t= ln ⎜ ⎟ 0. ln e = 1 90. true. log x+2 = log( x + 2) − log( x − 1) x −1 85. = log b 3 − logb 4 1 = log b 3 2 − log 22 1 log b 3 − 2 log 2 2 1 = C − 2A 2 = 104. x log10 x = x ⋅ x = x 2 94. b. y = log3 ( x − 2) = ( ) ( ) 92. log b log b 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞2 = logb ⎜ ⎟ 27 ⎝ 27 ⎠ 1 ⎛2⎞ = log b ⎜ 3 ⎟ 2 ⎝3 ⎠ 1 = ( logb 2 − log b 33 ) 2 1 = ( logb 2 − 3log b 3) 2 1 3 = log b 2 − log b 3 2 2 1 3 = A− C 2 2 log 7 1 1 = log 3 = log 3 log 7 log 7 3 102. e x = ln ee 103. 89. false. log b 81 = log b 34 = 4log b 3 = 4C 100. Publishing as Prentice Hall. true. ln x + ln(2 x) = ln ( x ⋅ 2 x) ) = ln 2 x 2 3 = log b 3 − log b 2 = C − A 2 83. x+3 2x x ⎛ I ⎞ D = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ ⎛ 100 I ⎞ D1 = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ = 10 log (100 I − I 0 ) = 10 log100 + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 = 10(2) + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 = log b ⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎟⎟ 16 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ I ⎞ = 20 + 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ This is 20 more than the loudness level of the softer sound. a.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 82. true. . log b 8 = log b 23 = 3log b 2 = 3 A 99. log( x + 3) − log(2 x) = log = log b 2 + log b 3 = A + C 98.

A sample change is: log 7 49 log 7 49 = = log 7 49 = 2 . Answers may vary. reflect the graph of y = log3x about the x-axis. – 112. – 120. log(10 x) = log x + 1 and l log(0. shift the graph of y = log3x two units left. ) A sample change is: logb x3 + y 3 cannot be simplified. A sample change is: logb ( xy ) = 5logb ( xy ) 5 = 5 ( logb x + logb y ) a. makes sense 124.3 105. ∞). ⎛ x ⎞2 x = log 4 ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ Sample explanation: log 4 ⎛x⎞ 1 log 4 ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ y⎠ 1 = ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) 2 1 1 = log 4 x − log 4 y 2 2 = 114. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Explanations will vary. y = log 3 x = b. 116. 127. false. just vertical shifts of y = log x. the graph of the equation with the largest b will be on the top in the interval (0. shift the graph of y = log3x two units upward. but log 7 7 1 Using the product rule. Answers may vary. 113. 122. c.1x) = log x − 1. these two graphs are log 7 49 − log 7 7 = 2 − 1 = 1 . Hence. 1) and on the bottom in the interval (1. top graph: y = log 3 x bottom graph: y = log100 x ln x ln 3 Comparing graphs of log b x for b > 1. ( log x log 3 x = . If we were taking the logarithm of a product and not a sum. log 25 log x log100 x = log100 115. To obtain the graph of y = log3(x + 2). Inc. false. makes sense 123. . 121. log 3 log x log 25 x = . makes sense b. Changes to make the statement true will vary. ( ) logb x3 y 3 = logb x3 + logb y 3 = 3logb x + 3logb y 128.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. does not make sense. To obtain the graph of y = –log3x. 1 To obtain the graph of y = 2 + log3x. we would have been able to simplify as follows. = 5logb x + 5logb y top graph: y = log100 x bottom graph: y = log 3 x 439 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. true 126. 125.

. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = x( x − 7) = 3 134. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. log 9 log 32 2 log 3 = = log 7 log 7 log 7 2A = B 130. ∞ ) 440 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎪⎩ 2 ⎪⎭ asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. log 7 9 = ⎛ 8x ⎞ ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ = e ⎝ 2x ⎠ x2 + 2 x = 4 x + 3 x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x +1 = 0 or x−3= 0 x = −1 x=3 5 131.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 129. ( 0. 1/ h x⎞ ⎛ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ h⎠ 133. ∞ ) ( −3. 2 x − 7x = 3 2 x − 7x − 3 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−7) ± (−7) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) x= 7 ± 61 2 ⎪⎧ 7 ± 61 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. ∞ ) 2.3} . ln 8 x5 − ln 2 x 2 =e ln ( 4 x 3 ) x+2 1 = 4x + 3 x ⎛ x+2 ⎞ ⎛1⎞ x(4 x + 3) ⎜ ⎟ = x(4 x + 3) ⎜ x ⎟ x 4 + 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ x( x + 2) = 4 x + 3 = 4 x3 log b ( x + h) − log b x h x+h log b x = h ⎛ h⎞ log b ⎜1 + ⎟ x⎠ ⎝ = h 1 ⎛ h⎞ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ h x⎠ ⎝ The solution set is {−1. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0. e 132. Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 1. a( x − 2) = b(2 x + 3) ax − 2a = 2bx + 3b ax − 2bx = 2a + 3b x(a − 2b) = 2a + 3b 2a + 3b x= a − 2b asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −3 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. log e = log10 e = ln e 1 = ln10 ln10 135.

Inc. ∞ ) 1 2 1 1 3 13. f ( x ) = 3x + 6 domain: {x | x is a real number} or ( −∞. log 3 ( x + 6 ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) . log 2 8 + log 5 25 = log 2 23 + log5 52 = 3+ 2 = 5 asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 1 domain of f = ( 0. −6 ) ∪ ( −6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) log 3 1 1 = log 3 2 = log 3 3−2 = −2 9 3 12. ∞ ) 100 y = 10 (10 ) 5. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. ∞ ) 441 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) . 7. 6. f ( x ) = log 3 ( x + 6 ) The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x+6 > 0 x > −6 domain: {x | x > −6} or ( −6. 2 y = 101 102 y = 101 2y = 1 y= asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. f ( x ) = log 3 x + 6 The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x>0 domain: {x | x > 0} or ( 0. log 3 10 = log10 3 = 14. log 2 ( log 3 81) = log 2 ( log 3 34 ) = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 range of f = range of g = ( −∞. Let log100 10 = y range of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) 11. 9.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 3. Now ( x + 6 ) is always positive. 8. ∞ ) 2 The argument of the logarithm must be positive. domain of g = (1. 10. 2 x = −6 domain: {x | x ≠ 0} or ( −∞. . except when 4.

7 log 5 x + 2 log 5 x = log5 x 7 + log 5 x 2 = log5 ( x 7 ⋅ x 2 ) = 7 7 = log5 x9 18. 10log13 = 13 19.08(3) = π ≈ 10. 16.162 = 8 Interest returned will be $8 more if compounded continuously. Continuously: A = 8000e0.08 ⎞ Monthly: A = 8000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 10.1 (10 ) 2 y 102 y = ln x 2 − ln y 3 − ln ( z − 2 ) 1 1 10 = 10−1 = = ln x − ⎡⎣ ln y 3 + ln ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ = ln x − ln ⎡⎣ y 3 ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ 2 y = −1 ⎡ x ⎤ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎣ y ( z − 2) ⎦ 1 y=− 2 π 20. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ log 3 ⎜ log 2 ⎟ = log 3 ⎜ log 2 3 ⎟ 8⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 23. Inc. = log 3 ( log 2 2−3 ) = log 3 ( −3) 1 1 8 log 7 x − log 7 y = log 7 x8 − log 7 y 3 3 ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ y3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = not possible This expression is impossible to evaluate. 100 y = 0. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6log6 5 = 5 17. logπ π 21. ⎛ xy ⎞ log ⎜ = log ⎜ 1000 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 26. log100 0.170 − 10. ln e 24.170 12⋅3 ( ⎛ 0. ) xy − log1000 = log ( xy ) 2 − log103 1 1 log ( xy ) − 3 2 1 = ( log x + log y ) − 3 2 1 1 = log x + log y − 3 2 2 = 22.162 10. 1 ln x − 3ln y − ln ( z − 2 ) 2 ln ( e19 x 20 ) = ln e19 + ln x 20 = 19 + 20 ln x 442 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 15.1 = y 25.

⎩ 2 ⎭ approximately 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.04 ln 5 ⎧ ln134 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. x ex − 7 = 0 x b. ⎩ ln 5 ⎭ approximately 3. 2 x ln 3 − ln 3 = x ln 7 + ln 7 2 x ln 3 − x ln 7 = ln 3 + ln 7 x(2 ln 3 − ln 7) = ln 3 + ln 7 ln 3 + ln 7 2 ln 3 − ln 7 x ≈ 12.90.10. Inc. 3 10 x = 8000 log10 x = log 8000 x log10 = log 8000 x = log 8000 ≈ 3. 443 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 Check Point Exercises 1.4 Section 3. 5x = 134 ln 5 = ln134 x ln 5 = ln134 ln134 x= ≈ 3. The solutions are 0 and (approximately) 1. 3 x−6 7e 2 x = 63 e2 x = 9 ln e 2 x = ln 9 2 x = ln 9 ln 9 ≈ 1.90 The solution set is {log 8000} .95. − 7 )( e x − 1) = 0 or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 7 ex = 1 ln e = ln 7 ln e x = ln1 x x = ln 7 x=0 The solution set is {0. log 2 ( x − 4) = 3 a. 32 x −1 = 7 x +1 ln 32 x −1 = ln 7 x +1 4.04. 3.10 x= 2 ⎧ ln 9 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. ln7}.11 8 x + 2 = 4 x −3 (2 ) 3 2 x+2 3 x +6 ( ) = 22 x= x −3 = 2 2 x −6 (e x = −12 a. 5 = 125 3 x −6 5 = 53 (2 x − 1) ln 3 = ( x + 1) ln 7 3x − 6 = 3 3x = 9 x=3 b. 6.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 3x + 6 = 2x − 6 2. . e 2 x − 8e x + 7 = 0 5. approximately 3. a. 2 = x−4 8= x−4 12 = x Check: log ( x − 4) = 3 2 log (12 − 4) = 3 2 log 8 = 3 2 3=3 The solution set is {12}.

the risk of a car accident is 7%.6 4 ln1.02) 4t = 3600 1000(1. 4 ln 3x = 8 8.77 For a blood alcohol concentration of 0.46. ⎛ r⎞ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ nt ⎛ 0.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log x( x − 3) = 1 101 = x( x − 3) 10 = x 2 − 3x x= ln ( 76 ) ≈ 0.08 ⎞ 1000 ⎜1_ ⎟ = 3600 4 ⎠ ⎝ 1000(1 + 0.46 3 x 2 − 2 x − 3 = 7 x − 23 Check 4 ln 3x = 8 x 2 − 9 x + 20 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 0 x = 4 or x = 5 Both values produce true statements. Inc.02) = ln 3. 2 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎩3⎭ approximately 2. ⎧ e2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 7.77 x = 7 e12.01 12.02) 4t = ln 3. t= 444 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions b.02 ≈ 16.6 4t ln(1. The solution set is {5}.77 x = 7 6 ⎛7⎞ ln e12.08 ⎞ 3600 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4t 4t ⎛ 0. 5} ⎛ e2 ⎞ 4 ln 3 ⎜ ⎟ = 8 ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln e2 = 8 4(2) = 8 8=8 9.01.77 x 6e12. the $1000 will grow to an accumulated value of $3600.2 years. . The solution set is {4. 0 = x − 3x − 10 0 = ( x − 5)( x + 2) x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = 5 or x = −2 Check Checking 5: log 5 + log(5 − 3) = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 1=1 Checking –2: log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log(−2) + log(−2 − 3) 0 1 Negative numbers do not have logarithms so –2 does not check.2 After approximately 16.6 ln 3.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎛7⎞ 12.02) 4t = 3600 (1. ln 3x = 2 eln 3 x = e 2 3x = e2 x= e2 ≈ 2. ln( x − 3) = ln(7 x − 23) − ln( x + 1) 7 x − 23 ln( x − 3) = ln x +1 7 x − 23 x−3= x +1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 7 x − 23 For a risk of 7%. let R = 7 in R = 6e12.

3 29. Solve equation when f ( x) = 25 .4 2. and the solution set is {6} .3 ln x 6. 5. 54. 3 ⎧3⎫ .8 log e x = 12.3 x ≈ 11. 2 x = 26 x=6 The solution is 6.4 f ( x) = 54.PreCalculus 4E 11. and the solution set is {3} . 8.8 −29. 53 x −1 = 125 53 x −1 = 53 3x − 1 = 3 3x = 4 4 x= 3 x 3x = 34 x=4 The solution set is {4}.8 ln x = −12. Inc. ⎩2⎭ 445 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.000 corresponds to 25% of Americans reporting fair or poor health. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .3 7. Section 3. x= 5 2 ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎩3⎭ 2 = 64 9. 32 x = 8 (2 ) 5 x = 23 5x = 125 2 5 x = 23 5x = 53 x=3 The solution is 3. 29. 1.277 An annual income of approximately $11. 5x = 3 3 x= 5 The solution is 5 = 625 x 5 x = 54 x=4 The solution set is {4}. 3x = 81 ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 4. 32 x +1 = 27 10. 3. and the solution set is {2} .3ln x = −29.8 x = e 12.8 − 12. .3ln x = 25 32 x +1 = 33 2x + 1 = 3 2x = 2 x =1 The solution set is {1}. 42 x −1 = 64 42 x −1 = 43 2x − 1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 The solution is 2. 5 ⎩5⎭ 4 x = 32 (2 ) 2 x = 25 2 2 x = 25 22 x −1 = 32 2x = 5 22 x −1 = 25 2x − 1 = 5 2x = 6 x=3 The solution is 3. −12.8 − 12. and the solution set is {3} . Exercise Set 3.

3 x 3 ⎧3⎫ . 2 ⎩2⎭ 53 x = 54 3x = 4 16. 9x = (3 ) 2 x = 1 3 3 1 1 33 − 13 32 x = 3 1 3 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 3⎠ 6 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7 7 4 3 x−2 6 x−2 6 = 7 1 = 72 x−2 1 = 6 2 2 ( x − 2 ) = 6 (1) ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 4x = (2 ) 2 x = 1 2 1 1 22 22 x = 2 − 12 1 2 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 2⎠ 4 1 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution is − . 9 x = 27 (3 ) 2 x 15. and the solution set is {5}. 52 − x = 18. 3 = 27 1 31− x = 3 3 31− x = 3−3 1 − x = −3 − x = −4 x=4 The solution set is {4}. = 54 x= = 6 6 = 62 x −3 1 = 4 2 2 ( x − 3) = 4 (1) 125 x = 625 (5 ) x −3 4 x −3 4 32 x = 33 2x = 3 3 x= 2 The solution is 6 x=5 The solution set is {5}. = 33 12. Inc. ⎩ 6⎭ 2x = − 446 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 4 ⎩ 4⎭ 2x = − 1 125 1 2− x 5 = 3 5 52− x = 5−3 2 − x = −3 − x = −5 x=5 The solution set is {5}. ⎩3⎭ 2x − 4 = 6 1 13. 2 x = 10 1− x 14.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. 17. and the solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . . 1 2x − 6 = 4 2 x = 10 x=5 The solution is 5.

74 23 x + 9 = 2 4 x − 4 3x + 9 = 4 x − 4 26.76 ln 5 x+2 23−3 x = 22 x + 4 x=− e x = 5. Inc.91 x= 3e5 x = 1977 ln 659 ≈ 1.07 ln 8. (2 ) 3 x +3 ( ) = 24 25. 29. ⎩ 5⎭ 21.48 9 e x +1 = e x+4 = ⎧ 4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .83 x = ln 0. 81− x = 4 x + 2 20. 9e x = 107 107 ex = 9 107 ln e x = ln 9 107 x = ln ≈ 2. e x = 0.91 ≈ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.07 ln10 x = ln 8.91 x x= x ln10 = ln 3.59 ln10 24.7 ≈ 1. 27.07 x= ≈ 0.91 x ln e5 x = ln 659 ln10 = ln 3.53 5 1 e2 x x+4 e = e −2 x x + 4 = −2 x 3 x = −4 4 x=− 3 30.19 ln 5 x = ln17 x ln 5 = ln17 ln17 x= ≈ 1.91 ln10 447 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.69 ln19 1 5 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . (2 ) 3 1− x ( ) = 22 3 − 3x = 2 x + 4 −5 x = 1 22.83 ≈ –0.7 x = ln 5.4 8 x +3 = 16 x −1 19. 5e x = 23 23 ex = 5 23 ln e x = ln 5 23 x = ln ≈ 1. ⎩ 3⎭ 23.07 x ln10 = ln 8.7 31.83 ln e x = ln 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 5x = 17 28. 19 x = 143 x ln 19 = ln 143 ln143 x= ≈ 1. x −1 ln e x = 5. 1 e x +1 e = e −1 x + 1 = −1 x = −2 The solution set is {−2} . e5 x = 659 10 = 3. .30 5 ln 3. 13 = x The solution set is {13} . 10 x = 8.

2 ln 3x / 7 = ln 0. 250 + 5 x= ≈ 3. 273 ⎞ 7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 1 ⎛ 10.48 0. ln 7 x + 2 = ln 410 ( x + 2) ln 7 = ln 410 ln 410 x+2= ln 7 ln 410 x= − 2 ≈ 1.2 x= ≈ –10. 478 (2 x + 3) ln 5 = ( x − 1) ln 3 2 x ln 5 + 3ln 5 = x ln 3 − ln 3 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x ln 3 − 2 x ln 5 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x(ln 3 − 2 ln 5) 3ln 5 + ln 3 =x ln 3 − 2ln 5 −2. 273 10. 35.06 ln 5 ln 70. Inc.3x ln 7 = ln 813 ln 813 x= ≈ 11. 478 70.58 4 448 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.09 ln 7 38.3 x = ln 813 0. 478 ln e5 x − 3 = ln10. 40. 478 (5 x − 3) ln e = ln10.2 7 x ln 3 = 7 ln 0. 1 – ln 793 ≈ –1.80 ≈ x 5 x = ln10.2 x ln 3 = ln 0.3ln 7 e1−8 x = 7957 ln e1−8 x = ln 7957 (1 – 8x) ln e = ln 7957 1 – 8x = ln 7957 8x = 1 – ln 7957 1 – ln 7957 x= ≈ –1.250 4x – 5 = ln 11. e1− 5 x = 793 ln e1− 5 x = ln 793 (1 − 5 x)(ln e) = ln 793 1 − 5 x = ln 793 5 x = 1 − ln 793 x= 34.00 8 x= 7 x + 2 = 410 ln10.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 32. 273 e7 x = 4 ⎛ 10. 476 e5 x − 3 = 10. 243 e 4 x – 5 = 11. . 478 + 3 36. 4e7 x = 10. 250 (4x – 5)ln e = ln 11. 478 + 3 ≈ 2.3 x = 813 3x / 7 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.25 ln 3 41.2 7 ln 0. 273 ⎞ x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 1. 273 ⎞ ln e7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎛ 10.12 7 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 37. 250 ln e 4 x − 5 = ln11. 33. 52x + 3 = 3x 2–x1+ 3 ln 5 = ln 3x −1 5 x − 3 = ln10.14 5 39.250 ln11.45 5 e 4 x − 5 − 7 = 11. e5 x − 3 − 2 = 10. 5 x− 3 = 137 ln 5 x− 3 = ln137 (x – 3) ln 5 = ln 137 ln137 x −3 = ln 5 ln137 x = 3+ ≈ 6.

09 ≈ x 449 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 22 x + 2 x − 12 = 0 (2 x + 4)(2 x − 3) = 0 e 2 x − 2e x − 3 = 0 x 3x − 1 = 0 3 x = −2 x = ln 2 x=0 The solution set is {0.4 7 2 x +1 = 3 x + 2 ln 7 2 x +1 = ln 3x + 2 46. The solutions is approximately 1. log 5 x = 3 53 = x e2 x + 8 = 0 e 2 x = −8 ln e 2 x = ln(−8) 2 x = ln(−8) or e 2 x − 3 = 0 e2 x = 3 ln e 2 x = ln 3 2 x = ln 3 ln 3 ln(−8) does not exist x= 2 ln 3 x= ≈ 0. . e 4 x − 3e 2 x − 18 = 0 ( e2 x − 6 )( e2 x + 3) = 0 + 8 )( e 2 x − 3) = 0 50. 45.69.10.09 x = ln 7 ln 3 2− ln 7 (e e 2 x − 6 = 0 or e 2 x + 3 = 0 e2 x = 6 x 47.PreCalculus 4E 42. The solutions are 0 and approximately 0.90 x= 2 e 2 x − 3e x + 2 = 0 43.39 ≈ x 52. 44. ln 2). 2x + 4 = 0 2 x = −4 ln 2 x = ln ( −4 ) − 3)( e x + 1) = 0 ex − 3 = 0 does not exist or e x + 1 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −1 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x = ln(−1) (e 2x = 3 ln 2 x = ln 3 x ln 2 = ln 3 ln 3 ln 2 x ≈ 1. Section 3.55 2 125 = x 51. (2 x + 1) ln 7 = ( x + 2) ln 3 ln 3 2 x + 1 = ( x + 2) ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x + 1 = x + ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x − x = −1 ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 ⎞ 2 ln 3 ⎛ −1 x⎜2 − ⎟= ln 7 ⎠ ln 7 ⎝ 2 ln 3 −1 ≈ 0. Inc. ln x = 2 e2 = x 7. ln 6 ≈ 0.58 49. log 3 x = 4 34 = x 81 = x e 4 x + 5e 2 x − 24 = 0 2x 2x − 3 = 0 x= x = ln 3 no solution The solution set is {ln 3}. 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ln x = 3 e3 = x 20. or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 2 ex = 1 ln e x = ln 2 ln e x = ln1 3x + 2 = 0 (e 3x = 1 log 3x = log(−2) log 3x = log1 does not exist log 3 = 0 0 x= log 3 x=0 The solution set is {0}. 32 x + 3x − 2 = 0 (3x + 2)(3x − 1) = 0 − 2 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 2 = 0 e2 x = −3 ln e 2 x = ln 6 ln e 2 x = ln(−3) 2 x = ln 6 ln(−3) does not exist.

ln x = − x−4 x x = e −1/ 2 ≈ 0.67 ≈ x 64. 4 = x+5 3 e ln 2 x = e5 59 = x 54.04 ≈ 56.98 ≈ 57.39 62 = 3x 62 =x 3 20. log 3 ( x − 4) = −3 e5 ≈ 74. 32 = 4 x + 1 31 = 4 x 31 =x 4 7. 61. x 1 −1 3 3 ≈ 0. Inc. ⎩4⎭ 5 ln 2 x = 20 ln 2 x = 4 eln 2 x = e4 2 x = e4 x= 7 + 3ln x = 6 3ln x = −1 x+2 64 = 3x + 2 59.21 2 e4 ≈ 27. log 5 x + log 5 ( 4 x − 1) = 1 log 5 ( 4 x 2 − x ) = 1 4 x2 − x = 5 4 x2 − x − 5 = 0 (4 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = −1 4 x = –1 does not check because log 5 (−1) does not exist. 3−3 = 1 = 27 1 4 = 27 4.75 = x 65.72 ln x + 3 = 1 eln log 4 (3 x + 2) = 3 x+3 = e1 x+3 = e x + 3 = e2 x = e 2 − 3 ≈ 4. ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ln x + 4 = 1 eln x+4 = e1 x+4 =e log 2 (4 x + 1) = 5 x + 4 = e2 2 = 4x + 1 5 x = e 2 − 4 ≈ 3. 6 ln 2 x = 30 ln 2 x = 5 2 x = e5 log 5 ( x − 7) = 2 x= 5 = x−7 2 32 = x 55.61 x 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 7 ( x + 2) = −2 1 3 ln x = − x+2 eln x = e − x=e x 63. 6 + 2 ln x = 5 2 ln x = −1 x−4 7 −2 = 1 = 49 48 −1 = 49 −1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 53.39. . 1 2 eln x = e −1/ 2 43 = 3 x + 2 58. log 4 ( x + 5) = 3 60.30 2 450 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

The solution set is {3}. The solution set is {6}. 3= x 73. 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 3 log 2 ( x − 1) = 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 23 21 = x − 1 x −1 = 8 x2 = 9 x = 3 or x = –3 x = –3 does not check because log 2 (−3 − 1) does not exist.PreCalculus 4E 66. 2 69. log 2 ( x − 6) + log 2 ( x − 4) − log 2 x = 2 log 2 log 2 ( x + 2 ) − log 2 ( x − 5 ) = 3 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟=3 ⎝ x−5⎠ x+2 = 23 x−5 x+2 =8 x−5 x + 2 = 8( x − 5) ( x − 6)( x − 4) =2 x ( x − 6)( x − 4) = 22 x x 2 − 10 x + 24 = 4 x x 2 − 14 x + 24 = 0 x − 12 = 0 or ( x − 12)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {12} since log2 (2−6) = log2 (−4) is not possible. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {4}. x + 2 = 8 x − 40 7 x = 42 x=6 451 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 6 x( x + 5) = 2 x( x + 5) = 6 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ x −1 ⎠ x+2 = 41 x −1 x+2 =4 x −1 x + 2 = 4(x – 1) x + 2 = 4x – 4 3x = 6 x=2 2 x 2 + 5 x = 36 x 2 + 5 x − 36 = 0 (x + 9)(x – 4) = 0 x = –9 or x = 4 x = –9 does not check because log 6 (−9 + 5) does not exist. . Section 3. log 3 ⎣⎡( x − 5)( x + 3) ⎦⎤ = 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = log 3 9 + 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 + 2 ( x − 5)( x + 3) = 32 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 4 x 2 – 2 x – 15 = 9 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 24 = 0 32 = x + 4 ( x − 6)( x + 4) = 0 9= x+4 x = 6 or x = −4 x = –4 does not check because log 3 (−4 − 5) does not exist. Inc. log 4 ( x + 2 ) − log 4 ( x − 1) = 1 log 3 ( x − 5 ) + log 3 ( x + 3) = 2 71. 68. 67.4 log 6 ( x + 5 ) + log 6 x = 2 70. 5= x 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − log 2 4 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − 2 log 2 ( x − 1) + log 2 ( x + 1) = 3 log 2 ⎡⎣( x − 1)( x + 1) ⎤⎦ = 3 72.

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 74. log(2 x − 1) = log( x + 3) + log 3 84. −9 x = −2 2 9 x ≈ 0. 452 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 log(5 x + 1) = log(2 x + 3) + log 2 log(5 x + 1) = log(4 x + 6) 5x + 1 = 4x + 6 x=5 x= 83. log(2 x − 1) = log(3x + 9) 2 x − 1 = 3x + 9 79. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Inc. 1 5 x ≈ 0. log( x − 2) + log 5 = log100 log(5 x − 10) = log100 5 x − 10 = 100 5 x = 110 2 log x = log 25 x = 22 log x = log 25 2 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 –5 is rejected. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 3x − 3 = 4 x + 4 { }. so the solution set is {8} 75. ⎩3⎭ 76. log( x + 7) − log 3 = log(7 x + 1) log ⎧4⎫ This value is rejected. The solution set is {5}. The solution set is {28}.22 x= log( x + 4) = log x + log 4 log( x + 4) = log 4 x 82. The solution set is x+7 = log(7 x + 1) 3 x+7 = 7x + 1 3 x + 7 = 21x + 3 −20 x = −4 log(3x − 3) = log(4 x + 4) 78. . ( x − 3) x =2 ( x + 2) log x3 = log125 x3 = 125 x − 3x x+2 4( x + 2) = x 2 − 3x 22 = 3log x = log125 2 x=5 81. −10 = x This value is rejected. x+4 = log(5 x + 1) 2 x+4 = 5x + 1 2 x + 4 = 10 x + 2 { }. x2 = log112 7 x2 = 112 7 x 2 = 784 x = ±28 –28 is rejected. log 2 ( x − 3) + log 2 x − log 2 ( x + 2) = 2 log 2 80. The solution set is 2 log x − log 7 = log112 log x 2 − log 7 = log112 log(3x − 3) = log( x + 1) + log 4 −7 = x This value is rejected. 4 x + 8 = x − 3x 2 log( x + 4) − log 2 = log(5 x + 1) log 0 = x − 7x − 8 2 0 = ( x + 1)( x − 8) x +1 = 0 or x−8 = 0 x = −1 x=8 log2 (−1−3) = log2(−4) does not exist. x + 4 = 4x 4 = 3x 4 x= 3 77.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. .PreCalculus 4E 85. 52 x ⋅ 54 x = 125 52 x + 4 x = 53 ⎛1⎞ log 2 ( x − 1) − log 2 ( x + 3) = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝x⎠ x −1 ⎛1⎞ = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ log 2 x+3 ⎝x⎠ x −1 1 = x+3 x x2 − x = x + 3 56 x = 53 6x = 3 x= 92. 3x + 2 ⋅ 3x = 81 3( x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x = −1 or x = 3 –1 is rejected. ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x=2 2 is rejected. The solution set is {4}.09 3 or ln x = −3 x = e −3 x ≈ 0. ( x + 5)( x − 4) = 0 x = −5 or x = 4 –5 is rejected.4 log x + log( x + 3) = log10 89. The solution set is {3}. ln x + 3x = 10 2 x + 3 x − 10 = 0 2 ( x + 5)( x − 2) = 0 x = −5 or x = 2 –5 is rejected. Section 3. 1 2 x + 2)+ x = 34 32 x + 2 = 34 2x + 2 = 4 2x = 2 x =1 93. 87. 88. ln( x − 5) − ln( x + 4) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 2) 91. ln( x − 2) − ln( x + 3) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 7) x−2 x −1 = ln x+3 x+7 x − 2 x −1 = x+3 x+7 ( x − 2)( x + 7) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) log( x + 3x) = log10 2 x 2 + 5 x − 14 = x 2 + 2 x − 3 3 x = 11 log( x + 3) + log( x − 2) = log14 11 3 x ≈ 3. 2 ln x − 6 = 0 2 ln x = 6 ln x = 3 ln x = 3 x=e x ≈ 20. x −5 x −1 = ln x+4 x+2 x − 5 x −1 = x+4 x+2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = ( x + 4)( x − 1) ln ln( x − 4) + ln( x + 1) = ln( x − 8) ln( x 2 − 3 x − 4) = ln( x − 8) x 2 − 3x − 10 = x 2 + 3x − 4 x 2 − 3x − 4 = x − 8 −6 x = 6 x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 x = −1 –1 is rejected.05 453 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is {2}. Inc.67 x= log( x 2 + x − 6) = log14 x 2 + x − 6 = 14 x 2 + x − 20 = 0 90. The solution set is { }. The solution set is { }. 86.

⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ x = 10−2 x = 0.01 x = 102 x = 100 95. Publishing as Prentice Hall.54 2 5 − 37 x= ≈ −0. 2 ⎩⎪ ⎭⎪ x= x2 − 5x − 3 = 0 454 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ −5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.56 ln 5 x=± 97. x2 5 = 50 3 x( x + 5) 3 1= x( x + 5) x( x + 5) = 3 e0 = 2 ln 5 x = ln 50 x 2 ln 5 = ln 50 ln 50 x2 = ln 5 ln 50 ≈ ±1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 94.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 98. Inc.86 ln 3 x=± −(−5) ± (−5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 5 ± 37 2 5 + 37 x= ≈ 5. x2 + 5x = 3 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − 2 ln x = 0 x= ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − ln x = 0 2 ln 3 =0 x( x + 5) (2 x + 1)( x − 3) =0 x2 (2 x + 1)( x − 3) = e0 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 =1 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 = x2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2 x + 5x − 3 = 0 2a −(5) ± (5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) −5 ± 37 2 −5 + 37 x= ≈ 0. ln 3 − ln( x + 5) − ln x = 0 ln 96. 3 log x − 6 = 0 x= 3 log x = 6 log x = 2 log x = 2 or log x = −2 2(1) x= 2 3x = 45 2 ln 3x = ln 45 x 2 ln 3 = ln 45 ln 45 x2 = ln 3 ln 45 ≈ ±1. .54 2 −5 − 37 x= ≈ −5.

975) x 40 = e0.0183t = ln 22.9 27 0. or 2014.PreCalculus 4E 99.9 ≈ 9 0. b.1).975 x 20 3 = ln 0. 6} . A = 22.975) x Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 1 = 0. 2005 is 0 years after 2005. 6} .0126t ln 36.0183(0) = 22.0126t 36.9 27 = ln e0. x = −2 The solution set is {−2. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A = 36. = 252 x = (5 =5 A = 22. 4x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 b.0183t ) 2 2x A = 22.975 x ≈ 75 There is 3% of surface sunlight at 75 feet.1e0.0183t ln 22. This is represented by the point (75.1 40 = ln e0. 101.1e0.4 2 −12 x 2 −12 x 2 −12 102.975) x 3 = 0.0126(0) = 36.9e0.0183 The population of Texas will reach 27 million about 9 years after 2005.1e0.975 x ≈ 118 There is 1% of surface sunlight at 118 feet.0126t = ln 36. a. ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 27 = e0.1e0.0126t A = 36.1 ≈8 t= 0. 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 = 92 x = ( 32 ) 2x = 34 x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 103.975 x ln 20 3 = x ln 0.3).975 x ln 20 1 = x ln 0. or 2013 3 = 20(0.1 million in 2005.975 ln 20 3 ln 20 x= ln 0.0126t 104. 100.975 x 20 1 = ln 0.0183t 27 = 22.0126t 40 = 36.9 million in 2005.1 The population of California was 36. x = −2 The solution set is {−2. f ( x) = 20(0. a.0126 The population of California will reach 40 million about 8 years after 2005. This is represented by the point (118.1 40 0. .9e0.0183t Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 2005 is 0 years after 2005.1 40 ln 36.9 27 ln t = 22.9 The population of Texas was 22. 455 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.975) x ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 1 = 20(0.0183t 22.9e0.9e0.975 ln 20 1 ln 20 x= ln 0. 5x 5 5 Section 3. f ( x) = 20(0. A = 36.

5 2r = ln1.4) / 720 ln1.005416667)12t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ ⎛ 60 ⎞ 12t ln(1.014375 8.00541667 107.4 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 720 e ln(1+ r 360 ) 1+ =e r = e(ln1.4 720 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.0575 ⎞ 105.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = e(ln1. 12.2 4 ln1.014375) 4t = 20.014375) 4t = 1. 500(1.4 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 720 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.168 e7 r = 3 16. Inc.2 years r ⎞ ln1.8 360 ⎝ ⎠ 4t ln(1.6 t= r ⎞ ⎛ 9000 = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 108. = 1.08t = 2 ln e0.8 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 1440 12 t ⎛ 0.08t = ln 2 0. 000 ln 1+ r e ( 360 ) = e(ln1.8 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 1440 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.5 ≈ 0. accumulated amount = 3(2350) = 7050 7050 = 2350er ⋅7 ≈ 0.4 360 ⎝ ⎠ 110. t= 720 = 1.005416667)12t = r ⎞ ⎛ 1400 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 109.08 t ≈ 8.7 years.3% r = e(ln1. accumulated amount = 2(8000) = 16.014375) 4t = ln1.203 2 20.4) / 720 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.4) / 720) − 1 111.08t = ln 2 360⋅2 ln 2 0.08t e0.065 ⎞ 15.000 16.6 106.014375) = ln1.6 ≈ 8.7 The amount would double in 8. 20. 000 = 7250 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 12 t 7250(1.157 7 15.147 14. .8% ln e7 r = ln 3 7r = ln 3 r= ln 3 ≈ 0. 500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12. r= (ln1. 000 4t ln(1.5 r ⎞ ln1.8 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = ln1.5 ln e 2 r = ln1. 000 = 8000e r ⋅ 2 e 2 r = 1.6 1440 ln1.00541667) = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ (1. 000 = 8000e 0.7% ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ t= ≈ 11.8) /1440 1+ 60 29 ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln(1.005416667) = 15.7% 456 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 = 12.8) /1440 − 1 ≈ 0.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 years 12 ln1. ( 360 ⋅ 4 ) 1440 r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ (1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ⎛ 0.

a.0425t 1000 e0.8. f (4) = 8 + 38 ln 4 ≈ 61 According to the function.4 = log x x = 10−2. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x −5.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.0425t = 697 ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln e0.2 10 The concentration of the acidic rainfall in part (b) is 103.0 ≈ x (9.4 2006 is 4 years after 2002. This overestimates the value shown in the graph by 1%. 000 = 17. or 2010.5 ≈ 2. a. 25.5 x = 21. x≈8 If the trend continues. 10−2. 50) P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 116.0425 113.6 mole per liter.2 times greater than the normal rainfall in part (a). 87% of new cellphones will have cameras 8 years after 2002.4 mole per liter. 61% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2006.6 79 = ln x 38 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−5. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x log 2 x = f (5) = 8 + 38 ln 5 ≈ 69 According to the function. pH = − log x 2.4 112.0.5 years 0.6 = 10−2. 95 2 30 = x 9. (2.4 −( −5.6 = log x 79 = 38 ln x x = 10−5. 425e0. 95 30 c. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2.6 = − log x 87 = 8 + 38ln x 114. 0) 117.8 Only half the students recall the important features of the lecture after 2.6) = 103. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x 100 = 8 + 38ln x 92 = 38 ln x 92 = ln x 38 x= 92 e 38 x ≈ 11 If the trend continues. 457 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 115. Inc. This underestimates the value shown in the graph by 2%.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ 0. 0 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 95 2007 is 5 years after 2002. 100% of new cellphones will have cameras 11 years after 2002. b. a.8 days.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 697 ⎠ t= ⎝ ≈ 8. b. pH = − log x 5. 79 x = e 38 b. .4 = − log x −2. 40 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 45 log 2 x = 1.4 −5. 69% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2007. or 2013.

Verify x = 1: 3x +1 = 9 pH = − log x b. – 122. 3 11 Verify: x = 3 11 ⎛ ⎞ log 3 ⎜ 3 ⋅ − 2 ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ log 3 (11-2) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {113} . a.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions pH = − log x 118. log 3 (4 ⋅ 4 − 7) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {4}. 2. .3 = − log x −2. 9). 124. ( ) The intersection point is 11 .3 = log x x = 10−2. −2.3 125.3 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2. = 10−1−( −2. {1} The intersection point is (1.3 9=9 The solution set is {1}. The intersection point is (4. 1 = − log x −1 = log x x = 10 31+1 = 9 32 = 9 −1 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−1 mole per liter. 23 = 8 8=8 The solution set is {2}. 2). Answers may vary. 10−1 c. Verify: x = 4 123. The intersection point is (2. Verify: x = 2 2 2 x +1 =8 2 +1 =2 126. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3) = 101. Inc.3 mole per liter. 10 The concentration of the acidic stomach in part (b) is 101.3 times greater than the lemon juice in part (a). 458 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 119. 8). 2 .

The intersection point is (2. Verify:x ≈ −1.371158 The solution set is {–1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6855579.291641. 1. The intersection point is (20.291641) + 4 0. 29 = 0.837941942 ≈ 7.5 miles from the eye of a hurricane.12507831) and log(2 + 3) + log 2 = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 (1.391606. 5−1. 130.391606. 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 1. 0.125077 Verify:x ≈ 1.291641 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 5x = 3x + 4 1=1 The solution set is {2}. Verify x ≈ −1. The point of intersection is approximately (63.3711158).21678798) and (1. barometric air pressure increases. leveling off at about 30 inches of mercury. 459 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1).37111582 ≈ 6.6855579) + 3 6.5.391606 ≈ 2(−1.6855579 3x = 2x + 3 31.1250782178 ≈ 0.48ln( x + 1) = 2 1 ln( x + 1) = 0. As the distance from the eye increases.291641. Verify: x = 2 There are 2 points of intersection. 7.8379416).391606 3x = 2x + 3 3-1. 51.48ln( x + 1) + 27 0.24 1 e ln( x +1) = e 0.24 − 1 ≈ 63. Inc. 132. 129. 6.391606) + 3 0. approximately (–1. There are 2 points of intersection. approximately (−1.8379417 The solution set is {–1.24 0.6855579}. 2).2793139 128.6855579 ≈ 2(1.2793139) + 4 7.24 x +1 = e 1 x=e 1 0.5 The barometric air pressure is 29 inches of mercury at a distance of about 63.2793139 = 3(1. Verify x = 20: log (x – 15) + log x = 2 log (20 – 15) + log 20 = 2 log 5 + log 20 = 2 log 100 = 2 100 = 102 100 = 100 The solution set is {20}.2793139.2167879803 ≈ 0. 131. .4 127.216788 Verify x ≈ 1.2793139}. 29).291641 = 3(−1.

03)t = 0. because there is not a variable in an exponent. 143. then 102 = x + 3. 1⋅t 135. . A sample change is: If log ( 7 x + 3) − log ( 2 x + 5 ) = 4. Sample explanation: The first equation is solved by rewriting it in exponential form.10076749 The runner’s pulse will be 70 beats per minute after about 7. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 460 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.03)t = 2000(1. Account paying 3% interest: 1⋅t ⎛ 0.9 minutes.03 ⎞ t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0.05 ⎠ ln 0. 2 = 16 can be solved by rewriting 16 as 24.05)t ln 2 x = ln15 x ln 2 = ln15 ln15 x= ln 2 t ⎛ 1. so it will take about 7. true 134. When P = 70. Changes to make the statement true will vary.03 ⎞ A = 4000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ Account paying 5% interest: An adult female elephant weighing 1800 kilograms is about 20 years old. 2 x + 5 ⎝ ⎠ 70 ≈ 70. Verify: 70 = 45e −0.9 minutes. and 10 = 2 x + 5 .03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. A sample change is: x10 = 5. false.5 t= ≈ 36 ⎛ 1. t ≈ 7.03 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.5 ⎝ 1. 2 x = 15 (1.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0.9.092(7. 138.05 ⎞ A = 2000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ The two accounts will have the same balance when 4000(1. does not make sense.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 137. Inc. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary.5 ⎝ 1. The second equation is solved by using the one-to-one property of logarithms.71 is not an exponential equation. does not make sense.05 ⎠ ⎛ 1. Explanations will vary. 141. false. Sample x ⎛ 0.5(1.05 ⎠ The accounts will have the same balance in about 36 years. Publishing as Prentice Hall.05)t x explanation: 2 = 15 requires logarithms.05 ⎠ t ⎛ 1. A sample change is: If log ( x + 3) = 2. makes sense 139. 2 x = 16 2 x = 24 x=4 136.5 ⎝ 1. makes sense 133. 7x + 3 ⎛ 7x + 3 ⎞ 4 then log ⎜ ⎟ = 4. 142.9) 140.

3890561. 461 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the graph verifies x = 1 and x = e2. The population is decreasing. 145. 2 ( log10 ) (2 log10 3/ 2 3/ 2 + 1) = 6 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 ⋅ + 1⎟ = 6 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (3 + 1) = 6 ⎝2⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (4) = 6 ⎝2⎠ 6=6 Check with graphing utility: 146.3890566099. The solution set is ⎨⎩100 ⎭ 2009: A = 10e−0. (log x)(2 log x + 1) = 6 2(log x) 2 + log x − 6 = 0 (2 log x − 3)(log x + 2) = 0 2 log x − 3 = 0 or log x + 2 = 0 2 log x = 3 log x = −2 log x = 3 2 x = 10 The graph of ln(ln(x)) crosses the graph y = 0 at approximately 2.003(2) ≈ 9.91 million b.718.003(0) = 10 million 2007: A = 10e−0. e2} as determined algebraically.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. e 2 } . x = 10−2 3 2 x= 147.003t a. 10 10 ⎬ .4 (ln x) 2 = ln x 2 144.003(1) ≈ 9. 0) and approximately (7.003(3) ≈ 9. ln(ln x) = 0 eln(ln x ) = e0 ln x = 1 eln x = e1 x=e The solution set is {e}. 148. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 100 A = 10e−0. Check by direct substitution: Check:x = 10 10 = 103 / 2 (log x)(2log x + 1) = 6 (ln x) = 2 ln x 2 (ln x ) − 2 ln x = 0 ln x(ln x − 2) = 0 ln x = 2 ln x = 0 eln x = e 2 or x =1 x = e2 The solution set is {1. so the solution set is {1.97 million x = 10 10 2008: A = 10e−0. Since e2 ≈ 7. An exponential function is the best choice. 4). .94 million ⎧ 1 ⎫ . There are two points of intersection: (1. Inc. 2006: A = 10e−0.

(e ) ln 3 x = 3x e(ln 3) x = 3x Section 3.8 f (10) = ≈ 0.2(10) The proportion of correct responses after 10 learning trials was 0. 1 6 ln e −0. 462 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0248t = ln 6 ln 16 t= ≈ 72 −0. Inc. Substitute 10 for t in the model: 0.021 k= ⎝ 16 Thus.0248 28 So the exponential decay model is A = A0 e −0.021t 643 ⎛ 2000 ⎞ 0. a.5 Check Point Exercises 1. a.4.021t a.0248t = 1 6 1 −0. Since 2006 is 16 years after 1990. 0.7 1 + e−0. substitute 4. The limiting size of the proportion of correct responses as continued learning trials take place is 0.2(0) The proportion of correct responses prior to learning trials was 0. ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 0. 2. A0 = 643 . a. the growth function is A = 643e0. The time prior to learning trials corresponds to t = 0.0248 The strontium-90 will decay to a level of 10 grams about 72 years after the accident. 2000 = 643e0.0248t eln 3 = 3 b. b.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 149. A = 643e0. when t = 16 . c. A0 for A since the amount present 2 after 28 years is half the original amount. A = 906. f (t ) = a.021t ⎝ 643 ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 54 t= ⎝ 0. 10 = 60e −0.4 1 + e −0. T = C + (To – C)ekt 2000 = e0. Substitute 60 for A0 and 10 for A in the model from part (a) and solve for t.021t 3. A = A0 ekt 906 = 643ek (16) 906 = e16k 643 ⎛ 906 ⎞ 16 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 643 ⎠ e = −0. c . or 2044.7.0248t = ln ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 16k ⎝ 643 ⎠ b.021t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 643 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0.021t .8.0248t In the exponential decay model A = A0 e kt .021 Africa’s population will reach 2000 million approximately 54 years after 1990. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.8 f (0) = = 0. b. . In the logistic growth model. eln 3 = 3 A0 = A0 e k ⋅28 2 1 e 28 k = 2 1 ln e 28 k = ln 2 1 28k = ln 2 ln1/ 2 k= ≈ −0.

0673t 5 = 70 e −0.5e 0.8 (1) A = 26.0673t 14 1 = ln e −0. 5k 5 = e 5k 7 5 ln = ln e 5 k 7 5 ln = 5 k 7 5 ln 7 =k 5 −0.0673t ln 14 1 = −0.8e0.5 80 = 30 + (100 − 30)e k5 80 = 30 + 70e 5k 50 = 70 e 6. 35 = 30 + 70e—0. The population is dropping at of 0. . Because the data in the scatter plot increase rapidly at first and then begin to level off. 5. a = 4.5e0. Russia has a decreasing population. find A when t = 0 : A = 26.0673 39 ≈ t The temperature will reach 35o after 39 min. the population of Iraq was 26.004 .0673t ln 14 1 ln 14 = t −0.5e0 A = 127. y = ab x is equivalent to y = ae(ln b ) x .001( 0 ) A = 127. the model is approximately equivalent to y = 4e2.5 million.8e 0.8)x is equivalent to y = 4e(ln 7. T = 30 + 70e −0. 1 = e −0. Inc.4% per year.027( 0 ) A = 26.5 In 2006.027t A = 26. 3.0673t 7.054 x .0673t b.8 million.8) x .5 1. Scatter plot: Exercise Set 3.001t A = 127. T = 30 + 70e-0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0673(20) ≈ 48o After 20 minutes.8) x in terms of a natural logarithm. the temperature will be 48o. Since k = −0. 463 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Rounded to three decimal places. c.5 (1) A = 127. Iraq has the greatest growth rate at 2. Scatter plot: 2. the shape suggests that a logarithmic function is a good choice for modeling the data. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006. the population of Japan was 127.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. For y = 4(7.0673 ≈ k Because the data in the scatter plot appear to increase more and more rapidly.8 In 2006. b = 7. 4. find A when t = 0 : A = 127. y = 4(7. the shape suggests that an exponential function is a good choice for modeling the data.8e0 A = 26. Thus.7% per year.8.

4 1238 ln = ln e0.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 3. the growth function is A = 6. A = A0 ekt 3.1e0.014t 1238 = e0. 2000 + 40 = 2040.1e0. or 2015.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.4 1416 ln = 0. when t = 50 .04e0.014t 1095.026 k= ⎝ 50 Thus.026 Now.01t .04 ⎛ 10 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6.04 . Substitute A = 1416 into the model for India and solve for t: 1416 = e0. 9.026t = 9 9 3.04 ⎠ k= ⎝ ≈ 0. 9 = e0.0147(18) P(18) = 91.4 1416 ln 1095.4 t= ≈9 0.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0.4 1416 ln = ln e0.04 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0. e0. 464 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5. A = A0 e kt 12 = 3.2ek (50) 12 = e50 k 3. Inc. P( x) = 91. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040 8.026t = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3.2 ⎠ ≈ 0. the growth function is A = 3. when t = 50 . so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040.4 1238 ln 1095. A = 12 .01t b. A0 = 3. A = 10 .014t 1095.7 The population is projected to be 118. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000. a. Substitute A = 1238 into the model for India and solve for t: 1238 = 1095.2 .014t 1095.2 9 ⎞ ln e0.04 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.01 Now.014t 1095.0147t P(18) = 91.04 ⎠ 0.014 The population of India will be 1416 million approximately 18 years after 2006.014t 7.026t = 10 = 6.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 6.4e0. or 2024.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.2 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 3.014t 1095.04e0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2e0.01t ⎝ 6. 2000 + 40 = 2040.2e0.01t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6.014 The population of India will be 1238 million approximately 9 years after 2006.026t .01t 6.2 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0.1e0. ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6. 9 = 6.4e b.0147(18) ≈ 118.04e k (50) 10 = e50 k 6. a. 6.04 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0. 1416 = 1095.01 50 Thus.4 t= ≈ 18 0.7 million in 2025.026t = ln ⎛⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3.014t 1095. .4 1238 ln = 0. A0 = 6.

3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 7.0 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.3 18k =e 7.7e0.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.3ekt 6.0285 The growth rate is 0. Section 3.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6. 15. . A = 16e −0.691515 A ≈ 8.4 ⎛ 55.5 million in 2025.0053.7e0. P( x) = 44.0 18k =e 44.0157t 13.0157(18) ≈ 218.38303 A ≈ 4.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 19. P( x) = 19.0157(18) 40. Publishing as Prentice Hall.01 Approximately 4 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 11.430 years.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.000121t A = 16e −0.0285.0ekt 14.3 = 7.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 7.4 ⎠ ⎛ 32.0121.4 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 19. 12. 465 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4e18k 55.4e18k 32.4 ⎛ 32.PreCalculus 4E 10.0082.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.0053 The growth rate is –0.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 19. A = 16e −0.2 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 44. P( x) = 7. 11.5 The population is projected to be 218.0121 The growth rate is 0.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.4 = 19.4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 32.2 = 44.000121(11430) A = 16e −1.4 18k =e 19.3 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.0 ⎛ 40.2 = e18k 44.0082 The growth rate is –0.5 P( x) = 164.3 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 7.000121(5715) A = 16e −0.0 ⎠ ⎛ 40.3 ⎛ 6. 16.7e0.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.000121t A = 16e −0.01 Approximately 8 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 5715 years. P(18) = 164.4ekt 55.3e18k 6.0 = 44.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 40.4ekt 32. P( x) = 44. Inc.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0.0 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 44. P(18) = 164.0e18k 40.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0.

5 = e1620 k ln 0. the skeletons were approximately 1056 years old. After 20 seconds. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present.88 = −0.679 years old. After 10 seconds.5 =k 1620 k ≈ −0.5k ln 0. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present.5k ln 0. 0.063t ln 0.000121t ln 0.000121 In 1989.5 = ekt 0.5k ln 0.5 = ln e1620 k ln 0.5 = ln e −0.15 t= ≈ 15. there will 2 1 be 2 ⋅ = 1 grams present.5 = 17.055t ln 0.000 years. 2 2 After 25.88 = ln e −0.5 = −0.5 = e kt 24.000121t ln 0. 0.063t ln 0. .0 The half-life is 11. 88 = 100e −0.5 =k 17.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 17.000121t ln 0. After 30 seconds.0428% per year.5 =t −0. there 2 1 will be 2 ⋅ = 1 gram present. After 100. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present. After 125.063t ln 0. After 75.000121t A = A0 e 0.000121t ln 0. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present.6 years.000121 The paintings are approximately 15. 2 1 1 there will be 1 ⋅ = gram present.15 = −0.5 k ≈ −0.5 = e4560 k ln 0.000 years. 15 = 100e−0. Inc.5 = e −0. 466 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 = −0.88 t= ≈ 1056 −0.000121t 100 ln 0. 679 −0.5 = 1620k A = A0 e −0.063 t ≈ 11.5 = e kt 0. 0. 22.000121t 88 = e −0.5 = ekt 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 = ln e17. 20.5 =t −0.5 = 4560k −0. 2 2 21.6 The half-life is 12.0 years.055t ln 0.5 = ln e4560 k ln 0. 25. 19. 0.000428 The decay rate is 0. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present. After 50.5 = ekt 0.055t ln 0. there will be 16 ⋅ 0. After 40 seconds. 18. there will be 16 ⋅ ln 0. 23.15 = ln e −0.000 years. there 2 1 1 will be 1 ⋅ = gram present.000 years.5 = ln e−0.000121t ln 0.000121t 15 = e −0.000121t 100 ln 0.5 = e17.5 = e −0.039608 The decay rate is 3. After 50 seconds.5 =k 4560 k ≈ −0.000152 The decay rate is 0.9608% per day.000 years.055 t ≈ 12.0152% per year.

27.52912 The age of the dinosaur ones is approximately 0. A = e−0.031507t Next use the decay equation answer question. Publishing as Prentice Hall.000094 ln 0.31 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0. A = e−0.000094 t ≈ 17121.1 It will take 7.006134 The decay rate is 0.5 =k 22 k ≈ −0.5 = ekt −0.2 = −0.8 = e−0.2 = e−0.000094t 0.5 = ln e22k ln 0.6134% per hour.8 = −0.5 = ekt 26.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. .2 = ln e−0.031507 t ≈ 7.5 = ln e7340 k ln 0.000 years old.31k 2 1 ln = 1.31 2 1 ln = ln e1.5 = ln e113k ln 0.1069 billion or 106. a.031507 ln 0. First find the decay equation.5 = e7340k ln 0.031507t 0.5 =k 7340 k ≈ −0.000094t ln 0.945 = ln e −0.900. First find the decay equation.7 years.000094t Next use the decay equation answer question.031507t ln 0.5 = 113k ln 0.52912t ln 0. A = e−0.1069 −0.52912t ln 0.8 = ln e−0.000094t ln 0.52912 t 0.52912t 0. 1 = 1e k 1.5 = e22 k 0.5 =k 113 k ≈ −0. A = e−0.7 It will take 17121. b.2 =t −0.5 = e113k 0.031507t ln 0.5 28. Inc.52912t .945 = −0. 0. 467 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 = 7340k ln 0.000094t ln 0. 29.945 t= ≈ 0.945 A0 = A0 e 0.031507t ln 0.52912 1.8 =t −0.945 = e−0. 0.1 years. A = A0 e −0.5 = ekt 0.52912t ln 0.31k 2 1 ln k = 2 ≈ −0.5 = 22k ln 0.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.057762t ln 0.0673 5 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.5 = ekt 0.2 hours.057762t ln 0.5 =k 12 k ≈ −0.5 = e36k 33.0673t 1000 1 ln = ln e −0.0673t .5 = ln e ln 0. First find the decay equation.2 It will take 6.5 It will take 5.019254t 0. The population will double in t = 2 = e kt t= ln 2 k A = e−0. 0.2 −0.5 = 36k ln 0.9 = ln e−0. A = A0 e kt 1000 = 1400e k 5 1000 = e5k 1400 5 ln = 5k 7 5 ln k = 7 ≈ −0.0673t 10 1 ln 10 t= ≈ 34. Inc.057762 A = e−0.0673t 10 1 ln = −0. 31.019254t ln 0.5 hours. 100 = 1000e −0.5 =k 36 k ≈ −0.5 = ln e12 k ln 0. First find the decay equation.5 = e12k ln 0.019254t ln 0. 3 = e kt ln 3 = ln e kt ln 3 = kt t= ln 3 k The population will triple in t = 468 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.057762t 0. 32.9 = −0. 0.057762 t ≈ 6.7 = ln e−0.019254t Next use the decay equation answer question. 36k 2 A0 = A0 e kt ln 0.5 = ekt 0. ln 3 years.057762t ln 0.057762t Next use the decay equation answer question.019254 t ≈ 5.9 = e−0. k A = A0 ekt 3 A0 = A0 ekt ln 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 30.7 = −0.9 =t −0. k .0673 The population will drop below 100 birds approximately 34 years from now.7 = e−0.5 = 12k ln 0. (This is 39 years from the time the population was 1400.019254t 34.0673t 100 = e −0.7 =t −0.019254 ln 2 = ln e kt ln 2 = kt A = e−0.) A = e−0. ln 2 years.

b.82 −0.82 1 + 3. 000 ≈ 1080 1 + 5.012t b.027(57) The function models the data very well. A = 4. t= 36.82 f ( x) = 26.48 3.81e −0. 38.027( x ) 11.81e −0.48 x= −0.027( x ) 11.67 4.01 New Zealand’s population will double in approximately 69 years. 11.PreCalculus 4E 35.027( x ) ) = 11.012t 37. Section 3. k = 0.82 8= 1 + 3.027 x = ln 30. or 2012.67 4.81e −0.82 7= 1 + 3. t= c.5 A = 4. 000e −4 About 1080 people were ill at the end of the fourth week.01t ln 2 = ln e0. 40. so Mexico’s growth rate is 1.012 Mexico’s population will double in approximately 58 years. 000 f (0) = ≈ 20 1 + 5000e0 Twenty people became ill when the epidemic began.82 f ( x) = 8 + 30. The limiting size of the population that becomes ill is 100.027 x ≈ 77 The world population will reach 8 billion 77 years after 1949.027 x ≈ 63 The world population will reach 7 billion 63 years after 1949. 100.82 1 + 3.48 3.82 30.67 4.67e −0.027( x ) 7 (1 + 3.82 26.012t a.01t ln 2 = 0.82 k = 0.027( x ) = 4.82 −0. t = 0.027( x ) = ln 26.0 1 + 3.4 = 107. e −0.82 1 + 3.1e0.012 .81e −0. .48e −0.1 = 4. a. 0. or 2026.027( x ) = ln 2 = ln e0.027( x ) 11.81e −0.81e −0.67 x= −0.4e0.82 f ( 4) = 30.82 2 = e0.81e −0.82 f (54) = ≈ 6. 11.012t 4.027( x ) = In the logistic growth model.027( x ) ) = 11.82 ln e −0.82 3. e −0.81e −0. 2 ⋅107. b.82 −0.027(51) The function models the data very well.027( x ) = 11.01 .012t ln 2 = 0.5 1 + 3.01t 2=e 39. 11. c f (t ) = .1e0. so New Zealand’s growth rate is 1%. A = 107.000 people.012t ln 2 ≈ 58 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 100.027( x ) = 11.01t ln 2 ≈ 69 0.4e0.81e −0.82 ln 26.027 x = ln 26. 11.82 f (51) = ≈ 6.67e −0.027( x ) 11.48e −0.027( x ) = 3. 41. 469 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.82 1 + 3.81e −0.1e0.01t 2 ⋅ 4.027( x ) ln e = ln 30. f ( x) = 7 + 26.4e0. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain. Inc. f ( x) = When the epidemic began.01t a.2%. A = 107.82 ln 30.48 3.027( x ) 8 (1 + 3.

122 x = 70 2 271e−0.6 1 + 271e −0. a.5 = 1 + 271e−0.0916t 1 = e−0. 1 + 271e −0.122 x = 7 2 − x 0.1004 ≈ k T = 70 + 380e−0.0916t b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a.1004(20) ≈ 121o After 20 minutes. the limiting size of this function is 11.122t ) = 0.122t = 271 0. 55 = 45 + (70 – 45)ek10 10 = 25e10k 48. 46.122(80) The probability that an 80-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 88. the temperature will be 121o. P(20) = 90 ≈ 88.122 x ) = 90 90 1 + 271e−0.8 0. f ( x) = 2 10k =e 5 2 ln = ln e10k 5 2 ln = 10k 5 2 ln 5 =k 10 −0.122t = ln 271 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. P(80) = T = 45 + 25e−0. 44.122 x = ln 1897 2 ln 1897 x= −0.122 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 50% at about age 48. 271e −0.8 70 = 50 = 45 + 25e—0.1004t b.7 1 + 271e −0.8 −0.9 0. T = 70 + 380ke-0. 45. .0916t 5 1 ln 5 =t −0. Thus.122t = 1.5 (1 + 271e −0.122t = 0. 90 1 + 271e−0.0916(15) ≈51o After 15 minutes.122 = e 1897 2 −0.0916 ≈ k 90 ≈ 3. Inc.122 x ≈ 56 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 70% at about age 56. 47. T = 45 + 25e-0.8 −0.0916 18 ≈ t The temperature will reach 50o after 18 min.82 1 + 3.122(20) The probability that a 20-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 3. This will make e −0.8 e −0.6%. 470 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the exponent of e will decrease.0916t 5 = 25e−0.122 t ln e = ln 271 0. 23 = e5k 38 23 = ln e5k ln 38 23 = 5k ln 38 23 ln 38 = k 5 −0. 43. the temperature will be 51o.122t 0.0916t 5 1 ln = ln e−0.7%.9 c. 0. 11.81e −0.122 x T = C + (To – C)ekt 300 = 70 + (450 − 70)ek 5 230 = 380e5k 70(1 + 271e−0.027( x ) As x increases.8 ln 271 t= ≈ 48 −0.0916t 5 1 ln = −0.82 billion.027( x ) become very close to 0 and make the denominator become very close to 1.

0239t ln 47 25 = −0.0158 45 ≈ t The temperature will reach 45o after 45 min.PreCalculus 4E c. T = C + (To – C)ekt 30 = 65 + (24 − 65)ek10 50. .0158t T = C + (To – C)ekt 38 = 75 + (28 − 75)ek10 45 = 65 – 41e—0. b.1004t 70 = 380e−0.1004 17 ≈ t The temperature will reach 140o after 17 min. a.0239 26 = t The temperature will reach 50o after 26 min. −25 = e−0.1004t ln 38 7 = −0.0239t −47 25 = ln e−0. 471 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 49.0158t ln 41 20 = −0.0239t 51. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.0239t −25 = −47e−0.1004t 7 = e−0.0158 ≈ k T = 65 − 41e−0.5 140 = 70 + 380e—0.0158t −37 = −47e10k −37 10k =e −47 37 = ln e10k ln 47 37 = 10k ln 47 37 ln 47 = k 10 −0.0239t 20 = e−0.0239t ln 47 17 ln 47 = t −0.0158t 41 20 = ln e −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0158t −20 = −41e−0. 50 = 75 − 47e−0. −35 = −41e10k 35 10k =e 41 35 = ln e10k ln 41 35 = 10k ln 41 35 ln 41 = k 10 −0.1004t ln 38 7 ln 38 = t −0.0158t ln 41 20 ln 41 = t −0.0239 ≈ k T = 75 − 47e−0.1004t 38 7 = ln e−0. Inc. Section 3.

The logarithmic model is y = 193. a. 55. – 67.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 56.901.5e( ln 0.6) x .7 ) x . y = 100e1. Inc.097 .015 . Using ln 0. 68. but not great.357.9e( 54.357 x .3) x . b.6) x . a. b.6)x is equivalent to y = 100e( ln 4. The exponential model is y = 200. Since r ≈ 0. Since r = 0.5(0. y = 1000(7. Answers may vary. the model fits the data okay.9 (1. a. the model fits the data well.011) y = 200. 57. Using ln 0.5e −0. Using ln 4.988 x .3 ≈ 1.997 is close to 1.6 ≈ –0. b. 472 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0109 . the model fits the data fairly well. The linear model is y = 2. the population of the United States is increasing by about 1% each year. a. y = 2.574 ln x .9 (1. The power regression model is y = 195. x ln1.3)x is equivalent to y = 1000e( ln 7.7 ≈ −0. Using ln 7. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.526 x .878 is fairly close to 1.526.871x0. y = 2.6 ≈ 1. 71.6)x is equivalent to y = 4. y = 4. 59.9e0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5(0.011) . x Since r ≈ 0. 69.999 is very close to 1. 52. 58. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.654 x + 198. Since r = 0.511. the model fits the data very well. y = 200. 53.988. y = 100(4.5e( ln 0. y = 1000e1.5e −0. b.511x . 70.16 + 23.7)x is equivalent to y = 2.0109 x Since k = . A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.011) x y = 200. . y = 4.

Explanations will vary.02 x The 65-and-over population is increasing by approximately 2% each year.557 x − 10. does not make sense.02) x .985 = 2. According to the linear model.S.654 x + 198.673 Linear Regression: y = 0. r ≈ 0. Explanations will vary.46(1. r ≈ 0.424 ln x 75. Growth rate measures how fast a population is growing relative to that population. x y = 3. r ≈ 0. the model of best fit is the exponential b. population will reach 315 million around the year 2010. Inc.654 1969 + 44 = 2013 According to the exponential model.02 ) x y = 3.5 72.46(1.078 ) x Exercise 52: y = 2896. the U. Sample explanation: This is not necessarily so. Sample models are provided 315 x = (1.9 ⎠ ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ 200.011) 200. the growth rate is negative.02) x x Exercise 53: y = 120 + 4.752ln x − 26.629 + 13.9 (1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.402 (1. population will reach 315 million around the year 2013. Thus. 76. Using the exponential model: 315 = 200. the better model is y = 3. 473 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.46(1. true Exponential Regression: 82.654 x 116.947 The exponential model has an r value closer to 1. true 80.9 ⎛ 315 ⎞ x ln ⎜ = ln (1. It does not indicate how the size of a population compares to the size of another population. Publishing as Prentice Hall.512.056 ) ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = x ln (1.9 ⎟⎠ x= ⎝ ≈ 41 ln (1.011) .011) ln1. true y = 3.972. 73.015 . Both results are reasonably close to the result found in Example 1 (2010). true 81.7 (1.015 315 = 2. Explanations will vary. y = 3.S.343ln x Exercise 54: y = −11. makes sense 78. a.994 Logarithmic Regression: y = 14.9 ⎠ Exercise 51: y = 1.011) 1969 + 41 = 2010 Using the linear model: y = 2.011) ⎟ ⎝ 200. model y = 200.654 x + 198. x 74. makes sense 79.015 116. 77. .654 x + 198.02) x . does not make sense.011) ⎝ 200.9 (1. Using r. Sample explanation: Since the car’s value is decreasing (depreciating).46e0.985 x= ≈ 44 2.46e( The model of second best fit is the linear model y = 2. the U. Models and predictions will vary.

The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit to the right.6 = 70 + (98.7 ln 15.6 15.0069 ≈ k Use k to write equation. 827 = 70 + (85. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis.7 = e30k 15. 4. Answers may vary. 2. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x.6 12. 5.6 12.6e−0.0069t 28. Inc.6 = k 30 −0.6 12.6 − 70)ek 30 12.0069 ln 28. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the yaxis. Use data to find k. − π 12 π 24π + 12 12 −π + 24π = 12 23π = 12 + 2π = − Chapter 3 Review Exercises 1.0069 88 ≈ t The death occurred at 88 minutes before 9:30.7 = 15.6 15.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 83.7 ln = ln e30k 15. 5π = 2π x 4 5π 2π x = 4 ⋅ 2π 2π 5 =x 8 asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ⎩8 ⎭ 86. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 87.6 − 70)e−0.6 = 28.0069t ln 28.6e30k 12. so the function is r ( x) = −4− x + 3. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis then shifted upward 3 units.0069t 15.7 ln = 30k 15. range of f = range of g = ( 0. ∞ ) 17π 17π 12π − 2π = − 6 6 6 17π − 12π = 6 5π = 6 474 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 ln 28. . 85. or 8:22 am.6 15. ∞ ) ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . so the function is g ( x ) = 4− x. 3.6 = t −0.6 = −0.0069t 15.6 = ln e−0.6 = e−0. 85. 84. so the function is h ( x ) = −4 − x .

Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the x – axis. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0.26 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5. ∞ ) range of f = ( 0.0525 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6497. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. . ∞ ) range of g = ( −1. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.055 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6558. Chapter 3 Review Exercises The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit down. ∞ ) range of g = ( −∞.5% compounded semiannually: 2⋅5 ⎛ 0. 475 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8. 0 ) 10. 9. range of f = range of g = ( 0.PreCalculus 4E 6. ∞ ) 7. 5. ∞ ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 range of f = ( 0. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 The graph of g(x) vertically stretches the graph of f(x) by a factor of 2. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.16 12 ⎠ ⎝ 5. ∞ ) The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the y – axis. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −1 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.5% compounded semiannually yields the greater return.25% compounded monthly: 12⋅5 ⎛ 0.

476 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 25 25 is defined only for x > 0. 1 because 161/ 2 = 16 = 4. Because log b 1 = 0 we conclude log 3 1 = 0. Because log b b = 1. 000e ≈ 27. 43 = x 15.26 ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 6. 32. ∞ ) we conclude log 3 38 = 8.81 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return. 3 y = 81 16. 000 ⎜ 1 + ≈ 28. The coffee will cool to about 70°. log 6 216 = 3 17. Therefore. the temperature is about 119°. we conclude log8 8 = 1. 7% compounded monthly: 1 12⋅10 ⎛ 0. So. y-axis.04855( 20 ) T = 70 + 130e ≈ 119. log 3 ( −9 ) cannot be evaluated since log b x 26. log b 625 = 4 18. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. the temperature of the coffee was 200°. we conclude log17 17 = 1. log13 874 = y 19. Because logb b x = x. c. 772.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. The temperature of the room is 70°. 12. the temperature of the coffee was about 120°. log 3 27.135. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. ln 28. a. log 5 21. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. we conclude ln e5 = 5. log − 1 1 1 = log 3 1 = log3 3 2 = − 2 3 32 1 = ln e−2 = −2 e2 1 1 = log 3 = log10−3 = −3 1000 10 29.07 ⎞ A = 14. After 20 minutes. −0. log16 4 = 23. 30. 13. log 3 (log8 8) = log 3 1. Inc. b. 2 22. log 3 (log8 8) = 0. log 4 64 = 3 because 43 = 64.0685(10 ) A = 14. . Because log b = 1. 25. 491/ 2 = 7 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall.23 Using a calculator. 1 1 = −2 because 5−2 = .85% compounded continuously: 0. When first taken out of the microwave. 20. ∞ ) 31. 24. so the function is g ( x) = log(− x). ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x reflected about the Because ln e x = x.

so the function is h( x) = log(2 − x) .PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 33. Inc. then shifted upward one unit. shifted left 2 units. 0 ) 36. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x 38. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = −3 domain of f = ( 0. reflected about the y-axis. range: ( −∞. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 5 > 0. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. domain of g = ( −3. ∞ ) 477 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus the domain of f is ( −5. ∞ ) 40. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) 37. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x. ∞ ) 41. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x-intercept: (3. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( 0. we obtain x > −5. . ∞ ) 39. 34. Solving this inequality for x. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: ( 2. 35. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. so the function is r ( x) = 1 + log(2 − x). x-intercept: (2. x-intercept: (–1. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( −∞. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x shifted left 2 units then reflected about the y-axis.

98 0. log 4 52. 1) ∪ (1. we obtain x < 1 or x > 1. 53.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. 47. = log 56. Solving this inequality for x. b. Thus. 8. 61. we conclude 10log 4 x = 4 x 2 . 59. 2 xy 2 = log 2 xy 2 − log 2 64 64 = log 2 x + log 2 y 2 − log 2 64 46. ln 3 x e 1 ⎛ x⎞ = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝e⎠ 1 = [ ln x − ln e] 3 1 1 = ln x − ln e 3 3 1 1 = ln x − 3 3 f ( 0 ) = 76 − 18log ( 0 + 1) = 76 When first given. f (2) = 76 − 18log ( 2 + 1) ≈ 67 f (4) = 76 − 18log ( 4 + 1) ≈ 63 f (6) = 76 − 18log ( 6 + 1) ≈ 61 f (8) = 76 − 18log ( 8 + 1) ≈ 59 54. log 3 − 3log x = log 3 − log x 3 c. 6. 3 x3 3ln x + 4 ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 4 = ln ( x3 y 4 ) 57. 4. Thus. = log 2 x + 2 log 2 y − 6 1000 I 0 = log1000 = 3 I0 The Richter scale magnitude is 3. R = log 48. log 2 x 1 = log 4 x 2 − log 4 64 64 1 = log 4 x − 3 2 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the average scores are about 67. ∞). 51. 50. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. 1 ln x − ln y 2 1 = ln x 2 − ln y = ln t= x y 478 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the domain of f is (−∞. Retention decreases as time passes. and 56.0. 1 ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 8. a.06 ⎝ 12 − 5 ⎠ It will take about 9 weeks. 3 log b 7 + log b 3 = log b (7 ⋅ 3) = log b 21 55. f (12 ) = 76 − 18log (12 + 1) ≈ 56 After 2. the average score was 76. log 6 ( 36 x 3 ) = log 6 36 + log 6 x3 = log 6 36 + 3log 6 x = 2 + 3log 6 x 43. 49. we obtain x < 3. we conclude e ln x = x.3) . Because ln e x = x. Because e ln x = x. and 12 months. Solving this inequality for x. we conclude ln e6 x = 6 x. respectively. 63. . 45. Because 10log x = x. the domain of f is ( −∞. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 1)2 > 0. Inc.

log 6 72. false. e12 − 5 x − 7 = 123 e12−5 x = 130 −x 2 x+4 3 = 3−3 x 2 x + 4 = −3 x 5 x = −4 4 x=− 5 479 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.43 5 4x − 2 = 6 4x = 8 x=2 65.14 4 ln 5 log10 x = log 7000 x log10 = log 7000 x = log 7000 x ≈ 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1063 ln 4 60.99 x= 5 62. false.500 10 x = 7000 66. log 2 x 4 = 4 log 2 x 63. .500 4 x ln 5 = ln 37.143 x ln 8 = ln 12. 125 x = 25 (5 ) 3 x = 52 71. true. log( x + 9) − log( x + 1) = log ( x + 9) ( x + 1) ln e5 x = ln141 5 x = ln141 ln141 ≈ 0. 500 − 2 ln 5 x= ≈ 1.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 58.500 ln 54 x + 2 = ln 37. true. ln e x = x ln e 64. Inc.500 − 2 ln 5 ln 37.143 ln12.143 x= ≈ 4. 53 x = 52 3x = 2 2 x= 3 4 x ln 5 + 2 ln 5 = ln 37.348 ≈ 6.27 9 x + 2 = 27 − x x+2 54 x+ 2 = 37.143 ln 8x = ln12. 9e5 x = 1269 e5 x = 141 ln 0.500 ( 4 x + 2 ) ln 5 = ln 37. log 4 0. (3 ) 2 ( ) = 33 3x + 4 = 7 2 x −1 ln 3x + 4 = ln 7 2 x −1 ( x + 4) ln 3 = (2 x − 1) ln 7 x ln 3 + 4 ln 3 = 2 x ln 7 − ln 7 x ln 3 − 2 x ln 7 = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x(ln 3 − 2 ln 7) = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x= ln 3 − 2 ln 7 4 ln 3 + ln 7 x= 2 ln 7 − ln 3 x ≈ 2.863 = log 72.85 67. 72.348 = 59.52 ln 8 69. 8 x = 12.863 ≈ −0. 70. 2 4 x− 2 = 64 2 4 x −2 = 26 ln e12−5 x = ln130 12–5 x = ln 130 5 x = 12– ln 130 12– ln130 x= ≈ 1.2448 log 6 68. (ln x )(ln1) = (ln x )(0) = 0 61.

The solution set is {ln 3} . e2 x − e x − 6 = 0 (e x 77. 74. ⎩2⎭ 3 76. 3 + 4 ln(2 x) = 15 4 ln(2 x) = 12 ln(2 x) = 3 ln ( x + 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln x x+4 = ln x x +1 x+4 =x x +1 x( x + 1) = x + 4 ln 2 x = e3 e3 2 x ≈ 10. 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 x − 15 16 = x 2 x 2 = 16 x = ±4 x = −4 does not check and must be rejected. approximately 1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 73. 480 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is {4}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {5}. Inc. log 3 e x − 3 = 0 or e x + 2 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −2 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x − ln(−2) x = ln 3 x = ln(−2) x = ln 3 ≈ 1. ⎧e ⎫ The solutions set is ⎨ ⎬ .099 ln(−2) does not exist. The solution set is ∅. log 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 2 ( x 2 − 9) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) x 2 − 9 = 24 x 2 − 9 = 16 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 x = –5 does not check because log 2 (−5 + 3) does not exist. log 3 ( x − 1) − log 3 ( x + 2 ) = 2 log 2 ( x + 3) + log 2 ( x − 3) = 4 79.04 x= x2 + x = x + 4 x2 = 4 x = ±2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. . 75. − 3)( e + 2 ) = 0 x x −1 =2 x+2 x −1 = 32 x−2 x −1 =9 x+2 x – 1 = 9(x + 2) x – 1 = 9x + 18 8x = –19 19 x=− 8 19 ⎛ 19 ⎞ x=− does not check because log 3 ⎜ − − 1⎟ 8 ⎝ 8 ⎠ does not exist. 78. log 4 ( 3x − 5 ) = 3 3x – 5 = 43 3x – 5 = 64 3x = 69 x = 23 The solutions set is {23}.10. The solution set is {2}.

4 t= ln1.500(1.3 = ln e10 k ln 22.005 The carbon dioxide concentration will be double the pre-industrial level approximately 86 years after the year 2000 in the year 2086.3 = e10 k 22. When an investment value triples.005) 364 560 t ln = ln (1. 3 ⋅ 50. Chapter 3 Review Exercises P ( x ) = 14.37 ln x 3.1 In 2010. 000 = 50. or 8. the population will be about 55.4 = k 10 0.075t = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 14.4 35. t= 560 t = (1.065 ⎞ 20.3 = 22.4 35.3 ln 22.01625) 4t = ln1.4e0.075t = 150.6 4t ln1.6 0. A = 22.500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12. 3P = Pe5 r e5 r = 3 ln e5 r = ln 3 5r = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 0.7 4. Everest is about 5. W ( x ) = 0.4e0.6 years.2197 5 The interest rate would need to be about 22% r= 86.38 = 0.37 ln x + 0.6 = e −0.01625 = ln1.05 a.05 3. 000 = 12. 481 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.01625) 4t = 20.21x ln 14.075t = ln 3 0.005 ) t ln(1.045(20) ≈ 55. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 years. 4t (1. 000 e0.103.7e −0. 000e0.7 4. 000 85.37 9 = ln x e9 = eln x x = e9 ≈ 8103 The population of New York City is approximately 8103 thousand.000.5 miles above sea level.005 ) 364 560 ln = t ln1.21x 4.01625 It will take about 7.045t b. 82.7e −0.1 million.21x 14. A = 3P.075 It will take about 14.075 = 3 ln e0.01625) 4t = 1.6 = 14.7 t= ≈ 5.PreCalculus 4E 80. 81.6 ln 14. .4e k 10 35. ⎛ 0.21 f ( t ) = 364 (1.6 = −0.21x ln 14.5 −0.6 ≈ 7.6 The peak of Mt.37 ln x + 0. Inc.3 4 ln1.6 = ln e −0.075t 50. A = 22.045 ≈ k 3. 35.21x 83.33 = ln x 0. t= 84.3 = 10k ln 22.7 4.005 ) t 560 = 364 (1. 000e0. 4.005 364 560 ln 364 ≈ 86.6 ln1.33 = 0.4 35.

1438 7.004951t ln 0.004951 Use A = A0 e kt to find t.1438t 3 1 ln 3 =t −0.045t 22.004951t 0.004951 t ≈ 325 It will take about 325 days for the substance to decay to 20% of its original amount. A logarithmic function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data. ln 12 = ln e140 k ln 12 = 140k ln 12 =k 140 k ≈ −0.2 = e −0. .2 −0.2 = −0.4 60 ln = ln e0.4 60 ln = 0. Inc.1438 ≈ k The population will reach 60 million about 22 years after 1990.1438t 40 = 120e−0. t= 88.000 people 482 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. c. A = A0 e kt 1 2 = e k ⋅140 1 2 = e140 k T = C + (To – C)ekt b.4e0. A = A0 e −0. 89. a.1438t 3 1 ln = −0.045t 22. 500.045t 22.4 = t 0. 411 −0.92(6) 1 + 2499e 45.045 22 ≈ t 90 = e 2k 120 3 ln = ln e2k 4 3 ln = 2k 4 3 ln 4 =k 2 −0.410 were ill after 6 weeks. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 90.2 = ln e −0. T = 65 + 120e−0. f (6) = b.004951t ln 0. f (0) = 500. a. 105 = 65 + 120e—0. Use the half-life of 140 days to find k.1438t 87.6 ≈ t The temperature will reach 105o after 8 min. 000 = 45. 500.045t c. in 2012.004951t ln 0.1438t 1 = e−0.92(0) 200 people became ill when the epidemic began.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 60 = 22. 000 = 200 1 + 2499e −0.4 60 ln 22. b.1438t 3 1 ln = ln e−0. 150 = 65 + (185 − 65)ek 2 90 = 120e2k 60 = e0.

5e 1 x = log3 x 3 − log 3 81 81 1 = log3 x − 4 3 3 7. log 4 ( 64 x 5 ) = log 4 64 + log 4 x5 An exponential function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data. .6 ) x y = 6. Answers may vary.4 x= 13. ln 7 − 3ln x = ln 7 − ln x 3 7 = ln 3 x 10.956 x 93. y = 73e( = 3 + 5 log 4 x x log 3 8.3). log15 71 = 94.005 x = 1600 e0. b.005 483 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 x ln 5 = ln1. 92.5741 log15 3x −2 = 9 x + 4 ( ) 3x −2 = 32 x+ 4 3x −2 = 32 x +8 x − 2 = 2x + 8 − x = 10 x = −10 12. 5 = 125 3 x= ln 4 ≈ 277.2091 ln 5 400e0.43) y = 6. 6 log x + 2 log y = log x 6 + log y 2 ln 2. Chapter 3 Test a.PreCalculus 4E 91. ln1.844 x 9. Inc. 5 x = 1. the domain of f is (−∞.5 ( 0. x = log ( x 6 y 2 ) ( ln 0. Chapter 3 Test 1.43) x y = 6. Thus.005 x = 4 ln e0. 6. Solving this inequality for x.4 ≈ 0.005 x = ln 4 0. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. 2.5e −0. 11.4 ln 5 x = ln1.005 x = ln 4 3. log 71 ≈ 1. y = 73e0.2589 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we obtain x < 3. log 36 6 = 5.6 ) 1 2 4. y = 73 ( 2.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1012 I 0 I0 = 10log1012 = 10 ⋅12 = 120 The loudness of the sound is 120 decibels.5% compounded semiannually: log 6 ( 4 x − 1) = 3 4 x = 217 x= 16.1994 3 17. 000 ⎜1 + ≈ $5. Since ln e x = x. log 6 1 = 0 because 60 = 1 . log x + log ( x + 15 ) = 2 log ( x 2 + 15 x ) = 2 x + 15 x = 10 2 ⎛ 0. 4t 2 x + 15 x − 100 = 0 2 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 x + 20 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = –20 x=5 x = –20 does not check because log(−20) does not exist. Inc. 466. 6. 18.6094.0125 ) 4t ln (1. 687.6094 x=0 20. e4 x= ≈ 18. 484 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 x − 1 = 216 23. 4 x − 1 = 63 22. ex −1 = 0 ex = 5 D = 10log 25. 217 = 54. .0125 ) ln 2 = 4 ln (1.51 ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 6% compounded continuously: 0.0125) ln 2 t= ≈ 13. 000e ( ) ≈ $5.0125 ) 4t ln 2 = ln (1. ln e5 x = 5 x. ln ( x − 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln 6 2 = 1er10 2 = e10 r x−4 = ln 6 ln x +1 x−4 =6 x +1 6( x + 1) = x − 4 6x + 6 = x − 4 5 x = −10 x = −2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected.06 10 A = 3. ln 5} . 2(10 ) ⎛ 0. The solution set is {0. log b b = 1 because b1 = b .9 4 ln (1. − 5 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 5 = 0 or ex = 1 ln e x = ln 5 ln e x = ln1 x = ln 5 x = ln1 x ≈ 1.0125 ) It will take approximately 13. 21. The solution set is { }.0125 ) 4ln (1.25 4 2 ln 3x = 8 ln 3x = 4 3x = e4 24. ln 2 = ln e10 r ln 2 = 10r ln 2 r= ≈ 0. The solution set is {5}. 15.0125 ) ln 2 = 4t ln (1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 14.069 10 The money will double in 10 years with an interest rate of approximately 6. e 2 x − 6e x + 5 = 0 (e x 19. ln ≈ 1.9 years for the money to grow to $8000.36 6.065 ⎞ A = 3.5% compounded semiannually yields about $221 more than 6% compounded continuously.05 ⎞ 8000 = 4000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 8000 4t = (1 + 0.9%.0125) 4000 4t 2 = (1.

5 ln t = 82.5 ln = ln e −0.4 81.3 = ln e−0. a.096270 t ≈ 12.4e Chapter 3 Test −0.036 ≈ k The exponential growth function is A = 509e0. 729 = 509ek 10 729 = e10 k 509 729 ln = ln e10 k 509 729 ln = 10k 509 729 ln 509 = k 10 0.002( x ) 28. f (0) = 140 = 14 −0.4e ≈ 82.PreCalculus 4E 26. A = 82.002t 82.002t 82. the population of Germany was 82.2k The population of Germany is decreasing. 27. Plot the ordered pairs. A = e−0.3 = −0.096270t ln 0.002 The population of Germany will be 81.3 = e−0.5 = ln e7. a.002t ln 0.5 = e7. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.5 = ekt −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. We can tell because the model has a negative k = −0.5 million approximately 5 years after 2006 in the year 2011. 0.096270t ln 0. .002t 82. c.096270t Next use the decay equation answer question. about 51 elk are expected.4 ≈ 5 −0. 81.4e−0. t = 2000 – 1990 = 10 and A = 729.5 = 7. c. ≈ 51 −0.2 k ln 0.036t .002. The limiting size of the elk population is 140 elk.5 ln = −0. 30. In 1990. y 5 −5 5 x −5 The values appear to belong to a linear function. 81.2 k ≈ −0. c f (t ) = .5 = 82.3 =t −0.165(10 ) 1 + 9e After 10 years. Inc.4 In 2006.096270 A = e−0.4 million. In the logistic growth model.5 days.165( 0 ) 1 + 9e Fourteen elk were initially introduced to the habitat.2 k ln 0.5 It will take 12. f (10 ) = 140 b. First find the decay equation.4 81. 29. 485 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.002( 0 ) A = 82. b.4 81.5 =k 7. 0.096270t 0.096270t ln 0. t = 0 and A0 = 509 In 2000.5 = e −0.

Plot the ordered pairs. 32. ⎩ 5 ⎭ x= 3x − 4 = 2 3x – 4 = 2 or 3x = 6 3x – 4 = –2 3x = 2 2 x=2 x= 3 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . x y = 96e( ln 0. x= −5 The values appear to belong to a logarithmic function.9704 5 ⎧ ln128 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 2. y 900 3. 1 y 1 –3 –1 2 –2 2 2 –2 –1 1 0 –1 ( x + 2)( x – x – x + 1) = 0 3 16 2 ( x + 2)[ x 2 ( x – 1) − ( x – 1)] = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1)( x – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 −5 5 x ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x – 1) 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 The values appear to belong to a quadratic function. Inc. y = 96e −0. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.38 ) x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {–2. y 5 27 x −3 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) −2 ± −16 2 −2 ± 4i x= 2 x = −1 ± 2i The solution set is {−1 ± 2i} . Plot the ordered pairs.38) x 4.9704. approximately 0. –1.968 x x =1 e5 x − 32 = 96 e5 x = 128 ln e5 x = ln128 5 x = ln128 Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–3) 1. ±2 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ln128 ≈ 0. ± 2 q –2 1 33. −5 5 x The values appear to belong to an exponential function. y = 96 ( 0. 1}. Plot the ordered pairs. ⎩3 ⎭ 486 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ⎬ . 34.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 31. x 4 + x3 − 3x 2 − x + 2 = 0 p: ±1.

Horizontal asymptote: y 5 1 5x + 4 = 6x + 9 −x = 5 x = −5 x = −5 does not check and must be rejected.3] . 0 ) and ( −1. The solution set is {3}. x-intercepts: x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 and x ≥ 1 x=2 The solution set is [1. Cumulative Review Exercises log 2 ( x + 5) + log 2 ( x − 1) = 4 10.PreCalculus 4E 5. Parabola with vertex: (2. 8. –1) log 2 [( x + 5)( x − 1)] = 4 ( x + 5)( x − 1) = 24 x 2 + 4 x − 5 = 16 x 2 + 4 x − 21 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 3) = 0 x + 7 = 0 or x − 3 = 0 x = −7 x=3 x = –7 does not check because log 2 (–7 + 5) does not exist. or x = −1 The x-intercepts are ( 2. 2x − 4 ≤ 2 2 x − 4 ≤ 2 and 2 x − 4 ≥ −2 2x ≤ 6 2x ≥ 2 x≤3 12. 9. x-intercepts: x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 The x-intercepts are (1. ln ( x + 4 ) + ln ( x + 1) = 2 ln ( x + 3) ln ( ( x + 4 )( x + 1) ) = ln ( x + 3) ( x + 4 )( x + 1) = ( x + 3) 2 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 2 x2 = 4 x2 + 5x + 4 = x2 + 6 x + 9 x = ±2 The vertical asymptotes are x = 2 and x = –2. 0 ) . 0 ) and ( −1. Circle with center: (3. 0 ) . –2) and radius of 2 487 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7. The solution set is { }. 6. 14 − 5 x ≥ −6 −5 x ≥ −20 x≤4 The solution set is ( −∞. Inc. . 11. 4] .

1 The negative value is rejected. The ball hits the ground after about 4.5 x ) = 660 40 x + 15 x = 660 55 x = 660 x = 12 Your normal hourly salary is $12 per hour.1 seconds. k H= 2 C 32 H= 2 C Use the equation to find H when C = 4 .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 13. C can be expressed k as H = 2 . x The hours. 17. 0 = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Use the quadratic formula to solve. 18. Inc. Substitute the value of k into the equation. 15. 14. C Use the given values to find k . 2 = x2 + 4 x + 4 (g −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a t= g )( x ) = f ( x + 2 ) = ( x + 2) s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Let s (t ) = 0 : f )( x ) = g ( x 2 ) 20. t ≈ −0. . H . slope-intercept form: y − 3 = −3( x − 1) t= y − 3 = −3 x + 3 y = −3 x + 6 16. 32 H= 2 C 32 H= 2 4 H =2 If 4 cups of coffee are consumed you should expect to sleep 2 hours. y varies inversely as the square of x is expressed as k y= 2. k H= 2 C k 8= 2 2 32 = k 488 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (f −(64) ± (64)2 − 4(−16)(5) 2(−16) t ≈ 4. s (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 5 = 69 feet. 3) point-slope form: y − 3 = −3 ( x − 1) m= 19. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 The ball reaches its maximum height at −b −(64) = = 2 seconds. t= 2a 2(−16) The maximum height is s (2) . = x2 + 2 40 x + 10 (1.1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 − (−3) 6 = = −3 1− 3 −2 Using (1. vary inversely as the square of the number of cups of coffee.

a.5 π 3 π radians 180° c. 13π 13π 10π 3π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 b.1 Check Point Exercises 1. divided by the circle’s radius. r. π radians 4 o 180 4 ⋅ c.Chapter 4 Trigonometric Functions Section 4. 180o π radians = 45o 4π 4π radians 180o ⋅ radians = − 3 3 π 4 ⋅180o =− = −240o 3 6 radians = 6 radians ⋅ = 6 ⋅180o π 5. For a –135º angle. 270π radians 180 = −300π radians 180 d. s 42 feet θ= = = 3. a. Inc. 400o – 360o = 40o b. −300° = −300° ⋅ c. –135o + 360o = 225o 180o π radians ≈ 343. 4. 2.8o 6. The radian measure of a central angle is the length of the intercepted arc. The length of the intercepted arc is 42 feet: s = 42 feet. subtract 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. The circle’s radius is 12 feet: r = 12 feet.5 r 12 feet Thus. s. a. radians b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = 180° 3π = radians 2 π radians 180° 5π =− radians 3 4 radians = = b. 60π radians 180 = π radians 270° = 270° ⋅ π − b. For a 400º angle. a. − π 15 + 2π = − π 15 + 489 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the radian measure of θ is 3. a. 60° = 60° ⋅ = 3. Now use the formula for radian measure to find the radian measure of θ . 30π 29π = 15 15 . add 360º to find a positive coterminal angle.

acute 4. which is approximately 424 inches per minute. the angular speed. straight 6. we begin by converting π radians 45° to radians.5 inches ⋅ 1 minute minute The linear speed is 135π inches per minute. b.71 inches. 45 revolutions 2π radians ⋅ ω= 1 minute 1 revolution 90π radians = 1 minute The angular speed of the propeller is 90π radians per minute. Exercise Set 4. π radians 180° 45π radians 180 π = radians 4 = 14. s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝4⎠ 4 We are given ω . acute 5. a. The linear speed is 90π 135π inches = ν = rω = 1. θ= s 40 inches = = 4 radians r 10 inches 8. θ= s 600 centimeters = = 6 radians r 100 centimeters 13. the linear speed. right 7. The length of the arc intercepted by this 4 4 central angle is ⎛ π ⎞ 6π inches ≈ 4. θ= s 400 centimeters = = 4 radians r 100 centimeters 12. Before applying the formula. 45° = 45° ⋅ 25π 25π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 6 6 25π 36π 11π =− + = 6 6 6 − c. Multiply by . ω = 45 revolutions per minute We use the formula ν = rω to find v. 180° π radians 45 45° = 45° ⋅ π radians = 180° 180 = π radians 4 Now we can use the formula s = rθ to find the length of the arc. Thus. obtuse 3. 855° − 360° ⋅ 2 = 855° − 720° = 135° The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians.1 17π 17π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π 3 3 17π 12π 5π = − = 3 3 3 1. The measure of the central angle in radians is 9. Inc. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 135° = 135° ⋅ π radians 180° 135π radians 180 3π radians = 4 = 490 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The circle’s radius is 6 inches : r = 6 inches. 18° = 18° ⋅ = = π radians 180° 18π radians 180 π 10 radians 15. π :θ = π . obtuse 2. θ= s 30 feet = = 6 radians r 5 feet 9.Trigonometric Functions 7. we must express ω in radians per minute.25 radians r 8 yards 11. θ= s 18 yards = = 2. θ= s 8 yards 4 = = radians r 6 yards 3 10. 8.

31 radians 180° ⋅ −4π radians ⋅ 29. −3π radians = −3π radians ⋅ 22. 180° 76π = radians 180 ≈ 1. 180° 150π radians = 180 5π radians = 6 17. Inc. 3π radians 1800 3 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 135o 4 4 π radians π radians 180° 225π radians =− 180 5π radians =− 4 −270° = −270° ⋅ 2π 2π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 3 3 π radians o 2 ⋅180 = 3 = 120o 76° = 76° ⋅ 31. π radians 300° = 300° ⋅ 24. =− 21.33 radians π radians 180° 40π =− radians 180 ≈ −0.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 19. 2 π 9 radians = 28. 18.70 radians 491 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −40° = −40° ⋅ 180o π radians 180o ⋅ π radians = 20o π radians 30. π radians 330° = 330° ⋅ 180° 330π radians = 180 11π radians = 6 −225° = −225° ⋅ 11π radians 180o 11 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 330o 6 6 π radians 27. 150° = 150° ⋅ π radians 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 16. 180° 300π radians = 180 5π radians = 3 25. 2 o 180 = 2 = 90o radians = = π radians 9 o 180 9 180o = −4 ⋅180o = −720o π radians π radians 180° 18π = radians 180 ≈ 0. 20. . 18° = 18° ⋅ π radians π radians 180o π radians = −3 ⋅180o = −540o 270π radians 180 3π radians =− 2 π 7π 7π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 6 6 π radians o 7 ⋅180 = 6 = 210o 26.

59o π radians 17 −4. π ≈ 114. Inc. π 38. 13 π 17 180o 3 ⋅180o = ≈ 171. −50° = −50° ⋅ 33.85o radians ⋅ ⋅ 180o π radians 45.89o π radians π radians = π radians 13 180o = 13 ≈ 13. 180o 180o = ≈ 10.59o 36. 250° = 250° ⋅ π radians 180° 250π = radians 180 ≈ 4. . −5.02o 40.87 radians π radians 180° 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall.49 radians = 34. −5. 180o π radians 44. 200° = 200° ⋅ π radians 41.2 radians ⋅ 47. 200π radians 180 ≈ 3. 180o π radians π ≈ −275.8 ⋅180o 46.36 radians 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ = 2 ⋅180o 43.Trigonometric Functions 32.2 ⋅180o 180o = π radians π ≈ −297.94o 492 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 35.8 radians = −4. 180° 50π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. 3 radians ⋅ 37.8 radians ⋅ = −4. 39.

50. 55. π 50 π 40 + 2π = − + 2π = − π 50 π 40 + 100π 99π = 50 50 + 80π 79π = 40 40 31π 31π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 7 7 31π 42π 11π =− + = 7 7 7 493 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 51. − 69. 395° − 360° = 35° 58. 415° − 360° = 55° 59. −765° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −765° + 1080° = 315° 62. 49. 52. − 53. 57. . −760° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −760° + 1080° = 320° 63. 56. −160° + 360° = 200° 61. 17π 17π 10π 7π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 65.1 48. 23π 23π 23π 20π 3π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 5 5 5 5 5 66. −150° + 360° = 210° 60. Inc. 19π 19π 12π 7π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 64. 54. − 68.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 25π 25π 25π 24π π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 6 6 6 6 6 67.

− 3π 5π and 4 4 80. − 4π 2π and 3 3 78. 38π 38π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 9 9 38π 54π 16π =− + = 9 9 9 − r = 12 inches. 76. 7π 63π s = rθ = 9 ⋅ = yards ≈ 49. 4 minutes and 25 seconds equals 265 seconds. π 4 = 3π inches ≈ 9. convert to degrees. First. π radians 7π = 315° = 315° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . − 81. 265 53π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 87. 74. in order to use the formula s = rθ . 6 revolutions per second 6 revolutions 2π radians 12π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolutions 1 seconds = 12π radians per second 1 π revolution is equivalent to 60° or 6 3 radians. 220 22π ⋅ 2π = 60 3 r = 8 feet. − π 4 π 2 and 7π 4 and 3π 2 82. −π and π 83. 1 1 360° revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution r = 9 yards. 20 revolutions per second 20 revolutions 2π radians 40π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolution 1 second = 40π radians per second 494 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. in order to use the formula s = rθ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Inc.42 inches r = 16 inches. 75. in order to use the formula s = rθ . s = rθ = 12 ⋅ 72.48 yards 4 4 1 ⋅ 360° = 60° 6 Now.42 feet 4 86. 71. θ = 45° Begin by converting 45° to radians. 3 minutes and 40 seconds equals 220 seconds. π 16π s = rθ = 16 ⋅ = inches ≈ 16. θ = 225° Begin by converting 225° to radians. 35 7π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 85.76 inches 3 3 77.Trigonometric Functions 70. π radians 5π = 225° = 225° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . convert 60° to radians. π radians 60π = 60° = 60° ⋅ radians 180° 180 = = π 3 radians Therefore. in order to use the formula s = rθ . − 7π 5π and 6 6 79. π radians π = radians 45° = 45° ⋅ 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . 55 11π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 84. 5π s = rθ = 8 ⋅ = 10π feet ≈ 31. θ = 315° Begin by converting 315° to radians. θ = 60° Begin by converting 60° to radians. π radians π = radians 60° = 60° ⋅ 180° 3 Now use the formula s = rθ . 73.

Since s = rθ . We must 1 revolution to radians. The formula 3 s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in 1 radians. = radians 2 The length of each arc is ⎛π ⎞ s = rθ = (24 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = 12π inches ⎝2⎠ ≈ 37.5 radians r 4000 miles Now.70 inches. convert 2. The length of each arc is given by s = rθ . Inc. π radians 90π 90° = 90° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 88. π radians 120π = 120° = 120° ⋅ radians 180° 180 2π = radians 3 1 2π Therefore. We are given that r = 8 inches. 90. convert 120° to radians. convert 2 radians to degrees. π radians 60π 60° = 60° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 89.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length.59o π radians 93. 92. 180o 2. or of a 6 complete revolution. π s . The minute hand moves from 12 to 4 1 o’clock. we begin by finding r and θ .5 radians ⋅ ≈ 143. . We are given that r = 6 inches.5 radians to degrees. or of a complete revolution. convert to degrees.38 inches. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. 180o 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ ≈ 114. s . 1 1 360o revolutions = revolutions ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 1 o o = ⋅ 360 = 120 3 Now.000 miles and r = 4000 miles. Since s = rθ . The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. we begin by finding r and θ .24o 2π radians 94. Recall that θ = 495 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. convert 6 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution = π = π radians 3 The length that the wheel moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 80π s = rθ = (80 centimeters) ⎜ ⎟ = centimeters 3 ⎝3⎠ ≈ 83. 3 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 2π radians = 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ 2π ⎞ 12π s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ inches ⎟= 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 4π inches ≈ 12. We are given that r s = 10. We are given that r = 80 centimeters and θ = 60°. s.78 centimeters. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length. revolution is equivalent to 120° or 3 3 radians.57 inches. The distance that the wheel moves is given by s = rθ . We must convert revolution to radians. 000 miles θ= = = 2. First. Publishing as Prentice Hall. s 10. s. s 8000 miles θ= = = 2 radians r 4000 miles Now. We are given that r = 24 inches and θ = 90°. We are given that r s = 8000 miles and r = 4000 miles.1 91. Recall that θ = radians 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 8π s = rθ = (8 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = inches ⎝3⎠ 3 ≈ 8. The 1 minute hand moves from 12 to 2 o'clock.

. 496 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 2. ⎛π ⎞ ν = rω = (4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ 4000π = miles per hour 12 ≈ 1047 miles per hour The linear speed is about 1047 miles per hour. Inc. π radians 10π 10° = 10° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 = π 18 100. 114. Begin by converting 2.5 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 10° . 2. Recall that s = rθ . 96. 20 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 20 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution radians = 40π radians per minute ν = rω = (12 feet)(40π ) ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 2094 miles ⎝6⎠ To the nearest mile. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . the distance from A to B is 698 miles. We can only use the formula s = rθ when θ is expressed in radians. We are given that r = 12 feet and the wheel rotates at 20 revolutions per minute. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . We need to convert 3 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. We are given that r = 25 feet and the wheel rotates at 3 revolutions per minute. 97. 3 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 3 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution 115. 98. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Therefore. radians ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 698 miles ⎝ 18 ⎠ To the nearest mile. 113.5 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution = 5π radians per minute The linear speed of the animals in the outer rows is ν = rω = (20 feet)(5π ) ≈ 100 feet per minute The linear speed of the animals in the inner rows is ν = rω = (10 feet)(5π ) ≈ 50 feet per minute The difference is 100π − 50π = 50π feet per minute or about 157. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. π radians 30π 30° = 30° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 π = 6 99. Recall that s = rθ . Answers may vary. We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 30° . radians per hour and 12 r = 4000 miles. the distance from A to B is 2094 miles. ≈ 1508 feet per minute The linear speed of the wheel is about 1508 feet per minute. – 112. We are given that ω= π 101. 116. = 6π radians per minute ν = rω = (25 feet)(6π ) ≈ 471 feet per minute The linear speed of the Ferris wheel is about 471 feet per minute.Trigonometric Functions 95.08 feet per minute.

2 3 If θ = radians = 1. Explanations will vary. 26° = 26° ⋅ 3 3 =− 3 3 13π radians 90 180° 13π s =4000 ⋅ 90 ≈ 1815 miles To the nearest mile. does not make sense. π 3 2 tan t = ≈ 286 miles To the nearest mile. 121. domain: { x −1 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [ −1. A right angle measures 90° and 90° = π Section 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 3 126.2 125.2 radians ≈ 1. Explanations will vary.5 radians.1] 117. makes sense 120. y = 2 2 1 − x 1 1 = 2 =− =− y 3 3 3 2 119. does not make sense. Use x = –1 and y = 0 to find the values of the trigonometric functions. Sample explanation: That will not be possible if the angle is a multiple of 2π . a radius of 286 miles should be used. range: { y −1 ≤ y ≤ 1} or [ −1.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Explanations will vary. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 26° to radians.57 radians. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 20° to radians. Sample explanation: It is possible for π to be used in an angle measured using degrees. Florida is 1815 miles north of the equator. Miami. 124. Inc. . does not make sense. ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 sin t = y = 2 cos t = x = = 1 2 3 2 y = x csc t = 1 =2 y = 3 3 1 2 3 = x 3 x cot t = = 3 y sec t = 123. 20° = 20° ⋅ 100= r= π r 9 900 π π 180° = π 9 radians ⎛ 3 1⎞ P⎜ . x = − . Check Point Exercises 1.1] 118. 2. 122. sin π = y = 0 cos π = x = −1 0 y tan π = = =0 x −1 1 1 sec π = = = −1 x −1 x −1 cot π = = = undefined y 0 1 1 cscπ = = = undefined y 0 497 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. θ is smaller than a 2 right angle. 0). Sample explanation: Angles greater than π will exceed a straight angle. The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to t = π has coordinates (–1.

3 5 5 1 1 5 = = 2 tan θ 2 5 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 15 8 ⎛ 15 8 ⎞ ⎜ − 17 . 8 sin t = y = 17 15 cos t = x = − 17 8 tan t = 8 y = 1715 = − 15 x − 17 1 17 = y 8 1 17 sec t = = − x 15 x 15 cot t = = − y 8 csc t = 498 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. cos t is positive.7071 Exercise Set 4. Use x = − 17 and y = 17 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions. sin b. ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ .Trigonometric Functions 3. ⎛ 9π cos ⎜ − ⎝ 4 a.0≤t < 2 2 sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 sin t = π 2 . = 1 π . P⎜ . 5. ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ π 1 csc = = 2 4 y π 1 sec = = 2 4 x t= cot 4. 17 ⎟ . 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ − ⎟ = − sin ⎜ ⎟ = − 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < 7.0025 π 4 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = cos ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ≈ 0. cot b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 1. 2 ⎛1⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ cos 2 t = 1 − =1 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = sec ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝4⎠ b. 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ a. π π 4 = x = y 1 y 1 2 6. 2 sin θ = 3 tan θ = cos θ 5 3 2 3 2 = ⋅ = 3 5 5 2 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 2 5 5 8. csc 1.5 ≈ 1. . 1 1 3 = = sin θ 2 2 3 1 1 3 = = sec θ = cos θ 5 5 3 csc θ = = cot θ = 3 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 1 4 3 3 = 4 2 cos t = a. Inc.

2 2 2 cos t = x = 2 5. tan π = 0 =0 −1 10. . Use has coordinates ⎜ − ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ 2 tan t = 1 = 2 y 1 sec t = = − 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 2 2 2⎞ π . Inc. csc 7π 1 = 1 = −2 6 −2 12. tan 0 = 0 =0 1 11. 2 2 and y = to find the values of the 2 2 trigonometric functions. . 2 sin t = y = 2 2 cos t = x = − 2 x=− 1 13 =− 12 y 1 13 sec t = = − x 5 x 5 cot t = = y 12 csc t = 3. sin π 6.PreCalculus 4E 2. Section 4. − 13 ⎟ Use x = − 13 and y = − 13 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions.− ⎟⎟ . csc 4π 1 −2 3 = = 3 3 3 − 2 13. 12 sin t = y = − 13 5 cos t = x = − 13 12 − 12 y tan t = = 13 = 5 5 x − 13 4. sin π 7. The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 3π 2 2⎞ t= .2 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 5 12 ⎛ 5 12 ⎞ ⎜ − 13 . Use x = t = − has coordinates ⎜⎜ 4 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 and y = − to find the values of the trigonometric 2 functions. Publishing as Prentice Hall. cos 2π 1 =− 3 2 9. sec 11π 1 2 3 = = 3 6 3 sin t = y = − tan t = y − = x 2 2 2 2 y = 2 = −1 x − 2 2 = −1 1 =− 2 y 1 sec t = = 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = 6 3 = = 1 2 3 2 2 499 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. cos 5π 3 =− 6 2 8.

Trigonometric Functions 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 22. b. b. 19. cos t = 17 17 17 8 17 sec t = 15 15 cot t = 8 π 1 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 3 3 2 ⎝ ⎠ sin sin t = 11π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 6 = 3 ⎠ csc t = π 3 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 6 6 2 ⎝ ⎠ cos ⎛ 11π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 tan t = 3 2 = 11π − 12 3 = =− 3 6 3 2 15. b. a. sin 3π = −1 2 16. sec 3π = undefined 2 18. a. cos 3π =0 2 17. Inc. tan 5π ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 3 = 3 ⎠ 500 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. a. 1 2 2 sin t = . . tan 3π = undefined 2 b. π 3 = 26. 21. cos t = 3 3 tan t = 1 3 2 2 3 = 2 4 csc t = 3 2π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 3 = − 2 ⎠ 3 2 4 cot t = 2 2 sec t = 3 5π − 2 = 1 =− 3 3 2 ⎛ 5π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 3 = csc t = 2π 3 = sin 3 2 ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 8 17 15 17 3 4 sin t = . sec 5π 1 = 1 =2 3 2 24. 23. 25. 20. cos π 6 b. 1 2 tan 8 15 3 5 4 5 = 3 4 5 3 5 sec t = 4 4 cot t = 3 5π 1 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 6 = − 2 ⎠ 27. a. a. cos t = 5 5 tan t = 5π 1 = 6 2 ⎛ 5π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 6 8 15 . b.

3 sec 2.3 ⎠ 35. 0 ≤ t < 7 2 32.7 = sin1. ⎛ 21 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 5 ⎝ ⎠ 7 π sin t = . 37. sin 2 π 36. cos t is positive.7 csc1.0≤t < 8 2 sin t = 6 3 + cos 2 + cos 2 π 2 π 3 = 1 by the Pythagorean identity. = 1 because 1 + cot 2 t = csc 2 t. csc2 π 3 6 − tan 2 − cot 2 π 3 π 6 = 1 because 1 + tan 2 t = sec 2 t. 2 ⎛7⎞ 2 ⎜ 8 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ π 21 25 4 2 = 25 5 cos 2 t = 1 − sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 Because 0 ≤ t < .0≤t < 5 2 sin t = 13 13 = 49 7 cos t = π sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 cos 2 t = 1 − 30. sin 2 π 2 15 15 = 64 8 π 33. 39 π . Inc. = 1 because sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1. cos t = 3 3 2 3 5 3 = 31. . cos t is positive. cos t is positive. 2 . sec2 π 38. ⎛ 1 ⎞ cos 2. 501 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 28.2 2 5 . cos t is positive. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ 1 ⎞ sin1. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 ⎛6⎞ 2 ⎜ 7 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < π 2 2 36 49 cos t = . sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 5 5 2 ⎛ 39 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 8 ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 3 5 sec t = 5 csc t = cot t = 29.3 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ cos 2. sin t = tan t = Section 4.7 ⎠ 34.3 = cos 2. Because 0 ≤ t < 49 cos t = 1 − 64 2 .7 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ sin1. 0 ≤ t < 8 2 cos t = 2 21 π . 39 64 25 5 = 64 8 cos 2 t = 1 − cos t = 5 2 Because 0 ≤ t < 6 π sin t = .

Trigonometric Functions 39. Inc. ⎛ 5π cot ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎟ = cot ⎜ 4 − 2π ⎟ = cot 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 46. sin 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = sin = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 54. ⎛ 9π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 4 + 3π ⎟ = tan 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 47. a. cos ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 π 2 =0 9π ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 4π ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎡π ⎤ = cos ⎢ + 2(2π ) ⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ = cos π 2 =0 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 56. 48. cos 3π 2 =− 4 2 π ⎛π ⎞ − tan ⎜ + 15π ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝4 ⎠ b. 50. . a. cot 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 45. ⎛ 9π sec ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sec ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sec 4 = 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 43. 51. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 53. 49. cos b. a. tan 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = tan ⎜ + π ⎟ = tan = 1 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 44. ⎛ 9π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π 2 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sin 4 = − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 42. 52. sin b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. cos 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos =− 4 4 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ π ⎛π ⎞ − cot ⎜ + 17π ⎟ = − cot = −1 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 55. sin π 2 =1 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 4π ⎟ = sin = 1 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 502 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. cos 9π π 2 ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 40. sin 3π 2 = 4 2 b. csc 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = csc ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = csc = 2 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 41.

7174 cos t + cos(t + 1000π ) − tan t − tan(t + 999π ) − sin t + 4sin(t − 1000π ) 62. . + sin t + sin(t − 1000π ) 65. sin π 10 − cos t + 7 cos(t + 1000π ) + tan t + tan(t + 999π ) = 6 cos t + 2 tan t + 2sin t = 2a + 6b + 2c ≈ 0. sec 1 ≈ 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 cos(−t ) − cos t = 4 cos t − cos t = 3cos t = 3b 74.4 ≈ 0. sin(−t − 2π ) − cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) = −a − b + c 7π 2 = 4 2 78. tan 3.2 tan π = 57. csc 1 ≈ 1. b. sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) 12 π 18 ≈ 5. 59. 3cos( −t ) − cos t = 3cos t − cos t = 2cos t = 2b 75. 61.2643 = 3a + 2b − 2c = 2 cos t − 2 tan t + 3sin t 64.8090 10 503 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) − tan(t + π ) = sin(t ) + cos(t ) − tan(t ) = a+b−c 77.8508 67. cot 71. Inc. cos 70. a. sin 0.8 ≈ 0.1884 = − cos t + 7 cos t + tan t + tan t + sin t + sin t 66. π 69. ≈ 3. a.6 ≈ 0. sin(−t − 2π ) + cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) + cos(t ) + tan(t ) 47π 7π 2 ⎛ 7π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 10π ⎟ = cos = cos 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ = −a + b + c 79.7 ≈ 0.6247 80. = tan[π + 8(2π )] = tan π =0 58. tan( −t ) − tan t = − tan t − tan t = −2 tan t = −2c 73.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. a. sin(−t ) − sin t = − sin t − sin t = −2sin t = −2a 72. cot cot π 2 = 0 =0 1 15π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + 7π ⎟ = cot = 0 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 7π 2 =− sin 4 2 sin b. 0 =0 −1 tan17π = tan(π + 16π ) b. b. cos 68. tan 3.6713 = a −b+c 47π ⎛ 7π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 10π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 76. a.7321 cot = sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) ⎡ 7π ⎤ = sin ⎢ + 5 ( 2π ) ⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎦ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 60. cos 0.9511 3π ≈ 0.8253 = cos t + cos t − tan t − tan t − sin t + 4sin t 63.

H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅0 6 = 10 + 4sin 0 = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. a. At noon. b.7339 π 6 ⋅6 = 10 + 4sin π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. c.. At 9 A. Inc. the period is 35 – 7 = 28 or 28 days.3sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8.. At 6 P.M. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin1. E = sin = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on March 21. ≈ 14.M.7 There are about 3.5837 E = sin π π 14 For t = 28. π For t = 14. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ 12 + 24sin 0 = 12 + 24(0) = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in San Diego on March 21.3sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ = 12 + 8. a. 82. At midnight. t = 6. E = sin b. E = sin π 14 For t = 35. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin 4.3 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on June 21.3sin 4. t = 12. ≈ 20. t = 18.6 There are about 9.6 hours of daylight in San Diego on December 21.4 hours of daylight in San Diego on June 21. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8.7339 ⋅ 7 = sin π 2 =1 b. 14 14 For t = 21. E = sin ⋅ 35 = sin Because E(35) = E(7) = 1.7 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on December 21.. t = 0. a. ≈ 9.3sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8.3998 There are about 14. For t = 7. . H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅12 6 = 10 + 4sin 2π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.3sin 0 = 12 + 8. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8.3(0) 83.M. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. At 6 A. π ⋅14 = sin π = 0 ⋅ 21 = sin 3π = −1 2 ⋅ 28 = sin 2π = sin 0 = 0 5π π = sin = 1 14 2 2 Observations may vary.Trigonometric Functions 81. c. ≈ 3. 84.5837 = 10 + 4sin π 6 ⋅3 π = 10 + 4(1) = 14 2 The height is 14 feet. t = 3. 504 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3sin1.3 There are about 20. a.

Thus. and 9 P. 101. The cycle of the sine function π c 2 = 52 + 122 c 2 = 25 + 144 5π π or t = 0. Inc. Answers may vary. t is in the third quadrant therefore sin t < 0. and 3 P. t = 21.M. makes sense 3π or 6 2 t = 9. high tide is at 9 A. π or t = 3. 2π ] . c2 = a2 + b2 The period of the sine function is 2π or on the interval [0. At 3 A. t= The sine function has a maximum at 10 ≈ −1. First find the hypotenuse. This value of t corresponds to 3 P. 104. 97. 105. ⋅18 6 = 10 + 4sin 3π = 10 + 4 sin π Note that − = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. is 14 feet.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Because the sine has 5π . only choice (c) is true.M. low tide is at 3 A. . From part a. This 6 2 value of t corresponds to 9 a. the period is 12 hours. Thus. Sample explanation: sin t cannot be less than −1. 2 1 4 f (a) + f (a + 2π ) + f (a + 4π ) + f (a + 6π ) 102. a period of 2π we also find a maximum at 2 π 5π or t = 15. Explanations will vary.7 feet above the ground. For t = 9.7 You are about 16. Explanations will vary. The sine function has a minimum at h = 10 + 4sin π 3π . we find a low tide at does not make sense. Sample explanation: Cosine is not an odd function. which means high and low tides occur every 12 hours. a 5 = c 13 85. π ⋅ 21 6 7π 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4sin 2 2 = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 The height is 6 feet.M. we find a high tide at π t= π 2 1 4 f (a) + 2 f (−a) = f (a) − 2 f (a) 103.58 < −1. and ends at t = 2π 6 2 6 or t = 12.M. does not make sense. c. We find another high tide at t = 6 2 This value of t corresponds to 9 P. f ( x) = sin x and f (a) = 1 ⎛1⎞ − 2⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝4⎠ 1 =− 4 f(–a) = –f(a) because sin (–x) = –sin x. Thus. b. makes sense 505 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = . is also 6 feet. The height is given by h = 45 + 40 sin(t – 90°) h(765°) = 45 + 40sin(765° − 90°) ≈ 16. From part a.M.M.. – 96. the height at 9 A.M. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and cot t > 0. starts at t= c 2 = 169 c = 13 Next write the ratio. Thus.M. π ⋅9 6 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 2 The height is 6 feet. 2 100. the height at 3 A. Thus. Thus.M.2 H = 10 + 4sin π 98. H = 10 + 4sin 99. Sine is an odd function. tan t > 0. f ( x) = sin x and f (a ) = ⎛1⎞ = 4 f (a) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 because sin x has a ⎝4⎠ period of 2π .m.

a2 + b2 c2 Use the Pythagorean Theorem. 2 2 c = a +b Section 4. ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝c⎠ ⎝c⎠ c c = a 2 + b2 c2 Since c 2 = a 2 + b2 . a 1 = c 2 = 1 2 ⋅ 2 2 = 2 2 2 c 2 = a 2 + b 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 c = 25 = 5 Referring to these lengths as opposite. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . b = 4 c 2 a + b2 1 + b 2 = 25 c2 b 2 = 24 c2 = 2 c =1 b = 24 = 2 6 Note that side a is opposite θ and side b is adjacent to θ . a = 3. we have opposite 3 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 adjacent 4 = cos θ = hypotenuse 5 opposite 3 = tan θ = adjacent 4 hypotenuse 5 = csc θ = opposite 3 hypotenuse 5 = sec θ = adjacent 4 adjacent 4 = cot θ = opposite 3 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ 107. . to find b. a 2 + b2 = c2 12 + b 2 = 52 2 = Use the Pythagorean Theorem. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . Inc.Trigonometric Functions 106. c2 = 1 + 1 c2 = 2 c= 2 Next write the ratio and simplify. 2 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ ⎜ c ⎟ +⎜ c ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ c c = 2. adjacent. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and hypotenuse.3 2 Check Point Exercises c 2 = 12 + 12 1. continue simplifying by substituting c 2 for a 2 + b2 . opposite 1 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 cos θ = adjacent 2 6 = hypotenuse 5 opposite 1 6 = = adjacent 2 6 12 hypotenuse 5 = =5 csc θ = opposite 1 tan θ = sec θ = hypotenuse 5 5 6 = = adjacent 12 2 6 cot θ = adjacent 2 6 = =2 6 opposite 1 506 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. to find c. First find the hypotenuse.

cot π ⎛π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ 12 ⎝ 2 12 ⎠ ⎛ 6π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 12 ⎠ 5π = tan 12 Because we have a known angle. 3 = 1 3 ⋅ 3 3 = 3 3 a. tan 60° = length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 3 = 3 1 length of side opposite 30° tan 30° = length of side adjacent to 30° = 1 = 5. and a known adjacent side. a tan 240 = 750 a = 750 tan 240 a ≈ 750(0. length of hypotenuse csc 45° = length of side opposite 45° 2 = 2 1 length of hypotenuse sec 45° = length of side adjacent to 45° = 2 = 2 1 length of side adjacent to 45° cot 45° = length of side opposite 45° 1 = =1 1 = 4.PreCalculus 4E 3. 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4452) ≈ 334 The distance across the lake is approximately 334 yards. 507 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 4. .3 Apply the definitions of these three trigonometric functions. Inc. sin 46o = cos(90o − 46o ) = cos 44o b. an unknown opposite side. we select the tangent function.

side opposite 14 = side adjacent 10 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.Trigonometric Functions 7.3 1. Exercise Set 4. . tan θ = Many Graphing Calculators Many Scientific Calculators TAN −1 ( 14 ÷ 10 ) TAN ( 14 ÷ 10 ) ENTER ENTER The display should show approximately 54. Thus. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 54°. c 2 = 62 + 82 = 100 c = 100 = 10 opposite 6 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 10 adjacent 8 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 10 opposite 6 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 8 4 hypotenuse 10 csc θ = = = opposite 6 hypotenuse 10 sec θ = = = adjacent 8 adjacent 8 4 cot θ = = = opposite 6 3 3 5 4 5 5 3 5 4 508 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c 2 = 92 + 122 = 225 c = 225 = 15 opposite 9 3 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 adjacent 12 4 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 opposite 9 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 12 4 hypotenuse 15 5 csc θ = = = opposite 9 3 hypotenuse 15 5 sec θ = = = adjacent 12 4 adjacent 12 4 cot θ = = = opposite 9 3 2. Inc.

a 2 = 841 − 441 = 400 b 2 = 676 − 100 = 576 a = 400 = 20 opposite 20 = = hypotenuse 29 adjacent 21 = = hypotenuse 29 opposite 20 = = adjacent 21 hypotenuse 29 = = opposite 20 hypotenuse 29 = = adjacent 21 adjacent 21 = = opposite 20 b = 576 = 24 opposite 10 5 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 adjacent 24 12 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 opposite 10 5 = = = adjacent 24 12 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = opposite 10 5 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = adjacent 24 12 adjacent 24 12 = = = opposite 10 5 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ a 2 + 152 = 17 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 102 + b 2 = 262 6. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 3. a 2 + 402 = 412 a 2 = 289 − 225 = 64 a 2 = 1681 − 1600 = 81 a = 64 = 8 opposite 8 = = hypotenuse 17 adjacent 15 = = hypotenuse 17 opposite 8 = = adjacent 15 hypotenuse 17 = = opposite 8 hypotenuse 17 = = adjacent 15 adjacent 15 = = opposite 8 a = 81 = 9 opposite 9 = = hypotenuse 41 adjacent 40 = = hypotenuse 41 opposite 9 = = adjacent 40 hypotenuse 41 = = opposite 9 hypotenuse 41 = = adjacent 40 adjacent 40 = = opposite 9 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 509 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 4.3 5. a 2 + 212 = 292 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 4. Inc.

cos π 3 sec π 3 − cot π 3 = 1− 3 3− 3 = 3 3 3 3 510 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a 2 + 212 = 352 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a = 784 = 28 opposite 28 4 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 adjacent 21 3 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 opposite 28 4 = = = adjacent 21 3 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = opposite 28 4 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = adjacent 21 3 adjacent 21 3 = = = opposite 28 4 12. Inc. = 10. csc θ sec θ cot θ 9. tan 30° = = π 3 2 = 2 1 = tan 60° = 14. 13. b = 49 = 7 opposite 24 = = hypotenuse 25 adjacent 7 = = hypotenuse 25 opposite 24 = = adjacent 7 hypotenuse 25 = = opposite 24 hypotenuse 25 = = adjacent 7 adjacent 7 = = opposite 24 cos 30° = tan = b = 625 − 576 = 49 tan θ length of hypotenuse length of side opposite 45° csc 45° = = 2 cos θ 2 = 2 1 = 242 + b 2 = 252 sin θ length of hypotenuse length of side adjacent to 45° sec 45° = cot π 3 sin π 4 3 = 3 1 = cot 60° = = 15. a = 1225 − 441 = 784 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 8.Trigonometric Functions 7. . length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 1 3 − cos = π 4 1 3 17. tan π 4 + csc π 6 ⋅ 1 2 3 3 ⋅ 3 3 = − 1 2 =0 ⎞ ⎟⎟ − 1 ⎠ 6 −1 4 6 −4 = 4 = length of side opposite 30° length of side adjacent to 30° 1 3 3 1 2 = + = 1+ 2 = 3 1 1 π π π ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 sin cos − tan = ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 4 4 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 3 2 = 3 = = tan 45° + csc 30° length of side adjacent to 30° length of hypotenuse 1 3 = sin 45° − cos 45° = 16. length of side adjacent to 60° length of side opposite 60° 18.

sin 23° = c= 5π ⎞ ⎟ = cot 14 ⎠ 34.5592) ≈ 7 m 33. cos 30. tan 26. csc 25° = sec(90° – 25 ) = sec 65° 24. 2π ⎛ π 2π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 5 ⎝2 5 ⎠ ⎛ 5π 4π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 10 ⎠ = sin a 13 a = 13sin 34° sin 34° = 16 16 ≈ ≈ 41 m sin 23° 0. tan 27. o 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 3 ⎞ = 6(1) + ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 6 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 6 = 6+ 6 =7 sin 7° = cos(90° − 7°) = cos83° 22. a 10 a = 10 tan 61° tan 61° = a ≈ 10(1. 6 6 12 3 + 6 = 6 =2 3+ 20. sin19° = cos ( 90° − 19° ) = cos 71° 3π π ⎛ π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 4π 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − − ⎟ = sin ⎜ ⎟ = sin 8 8 ⎠ 8 ⎝2 8 ⎠ ⎝ 8 a 250 a = 250 tan 37° tan 37° = a ≈ 250(0.8290) ≈ 182 in.3 + cos π tan 4 π 6 =2 ⎛ 2 ⎝ 2 ( 3 ) + ⎜⎜ ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 28.8040) ≈ 18 cm 31. ⎛π π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝2 9⎠ ⎛ 9π 2π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 18 18 ⎠ 7π = cot 18 π ⎛π π ⎞ ⎛ 7π 2π = cot ⎜ − ⎟ = cot ⎜ − 7 ⎝2 7⎠ ⎝ 14 14 a ≈ 13(0. csc 35° = sec(90° − 35°) = sec55° 25. Inc.3907 tan 44° = b= 16 c 23 b 23 23 ≈ ≈ 24 yd tan 44° 0.9657 π 10 511 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 19.7536) ≈ 188 cm π 21. cos π 9 32. 6 tan π 4 + sin π 3 sec 29. 2 tan π 3 Section 4. b 220 b = 220 cos 34° cos 34° = b ≈ 220(0. .

then θ ≈ 1. 39.Trigonometric Functions 35. .877 COS-1 COS-1 .0307 ENTER Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) COS−1 . Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) TAN −1 . Scientific Calculator 26. 40.395 radians.2974. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .9499 SIN-1 SIN-1 . then θ = 1.2974 SIN −1 If sin θ = 0.4169 TAN −1 Display (rounded to three places) 1.473 512 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. then θ = 0. 37.395 Scientific Calculator . 42. 41. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .4169. 38.5117.6252 ENTER 78 If tan θ = 4.147 Scientific Calculator . Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 4.0307.2974 ENTER 17 Scientific Calculator . Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) SIN −1 .5117 TAN −1 Graphing Calculator TAN −1 .0307 TAN-1 If tan θ = 26. Graphing Calculator TAN-1 26. Inc.6252. then θ ≈ 88°. then θ ≈ 78°.4169 ENTER . Publishing as Prentice Hall.147 radians. Scientific Calculator . then θ ≈ 17°. 36.4112.6252 TAN −1 TAN −1 4.9499 ENTER If sin θ = 0.4112 ENTER 1.253 If tan θ = 0. then θ ≈ 29° .877 ENTER Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 29 If cos θ = 0.253 radians.473 If tan θ = 0.5117 ENTER Display (rounded to three places) .9499.4112 COS−1 Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 88 If cos θ = 0.877. then θ ≈ 0.

1 + sin 2 40° + sin 2 50° = 1 + sin 2 (90° − 50°) + sin 2 50° = 1 + cos 2 50° + sin 2 50° = 1+1 =2 46. Inc.3 π 3 − 1 sec π = 3 1 − 1 2 π cos 6 = 6 3 1 − 1 2 3 2 3 3 − 2 2 =0 = 44.PreCalculus 4E tan 43. 1 cot π 4 − 2 csc π = 1 1 tan 6 = 1 1 1 − π 1 sin 4 − 2 π 6 2 1 1 2 1 2 = − 1 2 = 1−1 =0 45. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 Section 4. cos12° sin 78° + cos 78° sin12° = sin 78° sin 78° + cos 78° cos 78° = sin 2 78° + cos 2 78° =1 513 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 − tan 2 10° + csc 2 80° = 1 − cot 2 80° + csc2 80° = 1 + csc 2 80° − cot 2 80° = 1+1 =2 47. csc 37° sec 53° − tan 53° cot 37° = sec 53° sec 53° − tan 53° tan 53° = sec 2 53° − tan 2 53° =1 48.

125 172 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . 1 1 ⎛π ⎞ csc ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sec θ = = 1 =3 θ 2 cos ⎝ ⎠ 3 53. 55. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. Thus.Trigonometric Functions 49. tan θ = Many Scientific Calculators 125 ÷ 172 = TAN −1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN −1 ( 125 ÷ 172 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 36. h 35 h = 35 tan 40° tan 40° = h ≈ 35(0. f (θ ) = 2 sin θ − sin θ 2 π π ⎛π ⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 sin − sin 3 3 2 ⎝3⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 51.8391) ≈ 529 The distance across the lake is approximately 529 yards.8391) ≈ 29 The tree’s height is approximately 29 feet. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 36°. 514 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 1 ⎛π ⎞ tan ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cot θ = 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ 52. a 630 a = 630 tan 40° tan 40° = a ≈ 630(0. 54. f (θ ) = 2 cos θ − cos 2θ π ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ π⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 cos − cos ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎟ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 6⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝3⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 50.

θ 0. 60.3 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3894 0.0998 0.9999998 0.99998 θ sin θ approaches 1 as θ approaches 0.9736 0.1 0.999998 × 10 −4 9.3 555 1320 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . cos θ = Many Scientific Calculators 60 ÷ 75 = COS Many Graphing Calculators −1 COS−1 ( 60 ÷ 75 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 37.0001 9. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 47°. Thus.1736 The plane has flown approximately 2880 feet.0099998 sin θ 0. 57.9983 0. Many Scientific Calculators Many Graphing Calculators -1 55 ÷ 80 = COS COS-1 ( 55 ÷ 80 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 47. 0. θ 0. Section 4. 59.99999998 × 10 −5 0.999999998 515 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1987 0.PreCalculus 4E 56. Thus. – 67. 55 80 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Answers may vary.2 0. c= 58.9933 0.001 0. sin 5° = 60 75 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Inc. Thus. cos θ = 61.9851 0. sin10° = 500 c 500 500 ≈ ≈ 2880 sin10° 0. tan Many Scientific Calculators 555 ÷ 1320 = TAN-1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN-1 ( 555 ÷ 1320 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 23.00001 1 × 10 −5 1 .0872) = 436 The driver’s increase in altitude was approximately 436 feet. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 37°.4 0.01 sinθ 0.2955 0. 68. a 5000 a = 5000sin 5° ≈ 5000(0. the angle of elevation is approximately 23°.

7475 5. false.005 0. tanθ increases without bound. the hypotenuse is greater than either other side.0005 1 –0.92106 0.99500 0.00005 0 θ cos θ − 1 θ approaches 0 as θ approaches 0.6713 57 573 5730 57. does not make sense.958 As θ approaches 90°.9 89. 70. θ 0. 71. Explanations will vary.3 0. Use a calculator in degree mode to generate the following table. Sample explanation: An increase in the size of a triangle does not affect the ratios of the sides. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Changes to make the statement true will vary. tanθ is undefined. 73.999 89. 72. The sine and cosine are not reciprocals of each other.9999 tanθ 1.9999995 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.148878 –0.19735 –0. does not make sense.2 0.1 0. At 90°. Therefore both 1 2 + 1 2 = 2 2 ≠1 opposite adjacent and must be hypotenuse hypotenuse less than 1 for an acute angle in a right triangle. Explanations will vary.7321 2. .99 89.04996 –0. 516 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: This value is irrational.99995 cos θ − 1 –0.001 0. true 76. A sample change is: 75.999999995 –0. Irrational numbers are rounded on calculators. makes sense 74. true tan 45° ⎛ 45° ⎞ ≠ tan ⎜ ⎟ tan15° ⎝ 15° ⎠ 78.01 cos θ 0. Sample explanation: The sine and cosine are cofunctions of each other.Trigonometric Functions 69. Inc. Then use the table to describe what happens to the tangent of an acute angle as the angle gets close to 90°. Explanations will vary.95534 0.296 572. A sample change is: sin 45° + cos 45° = 77.099667 –0.0001 0. does not make sense. false.4 0. θ 60 70 80 89 89.00001 0.98007 0. 79. In a right triangle.

which is positive. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. Inc. 250 tan 35° = a 250 250 a= ≈ ≈ 357 tan 35° 0. .0): x = 1. θ = 90° = x r First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = 34 x −3 −3 34 −3 34 = = ⋅ = . y. r = 12 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. 2. b. a. y = 0. Section 4. b tan 22° = 357 b = 357 tan 22° ≈ 357(0. r = (−3)2 + 52 83. a.4 Check Point Exercises 1. 81. θ = 0° = 0 radians The terminal side of the angle is on the positive x-axis. b. r 5 82. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π x 0 cos 90° = cos = = = 0 2 r 1 π r 1 csc 90° = csc = = = 1 2 y 1 517 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 Let a = distance of the ship from the lighthouse. Let b = the plane’s height above the lighthouse. y −3 3 10 = =− r 10 10 cos θ = 144 + 250 = 394 The plane is approximately 394 feet above the water.7002 The ship is approximately 357 feet from the lighthouse. θ′ = π − 5π 6π 5π π = − = 6 6 6 6 10 = 10 1 1 1 =− −3 3 a. x 1 10 = = r 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = = −3 x 1 r 10 10 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 y r r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = (−3) 2 + 42 r =5 y 4 = . Section 4. r = x2 + y2 π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive y-axis.1): x = 0. x 1 cos 0° = cos 0 = = = 1 r 1 r 1 csc 0° = csc 0 = = . r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. Select the point P = (0. θ ′ = 360D − 345D = 15D b. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . a. y = 1. and r.PreCalculus 4E 80.4040) ≈ 144 sin θ = a. undefined y 0 b. b. which is r 34 34 34 34 negative. Select the point P = (1.

d. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. thus the reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 305° = 55° . b. 300° lies in quadrant IV. it is in quadrant III.6 lies between π ≈ 3. sin 60° = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. we can find sin θ and sec θ . We are also given that cos θ < 0 . x is negative and y is positive. Publishing as Prentice Hall. θ cannot lie in quadrant II. θ lies in quadrant II. all the functions are positive in quadrant I. Inc. y 1 1 10 10 sin θ = = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 sec θ = 7π 3π 6π = and lies between 4 2 4 r 10 10 = =− x 3 −3 3 . Because 3. c. y = 1 Furthermore. it is in quadrant II. 3. . 3π x 0 cos 270° = cos = = =0 2 r 1 3π r 1 csc 270° = csc = = = −1 2 y −1 c. Furthermore. a. y = −1. 15π 15π 8π 7π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 This angle is in quadrant IV.–1): x = 0. The reference 4 7π 8π 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = − = .14 and 3π ≈ 4. 4 4 4 4 2π = 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative y-axis. θ cannot lie in quadrant I. The reference angle is θ = 240 − 180 = 60° . tan 4 4 tan 518 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. it is in quadrant III. thus the reference 7π 8π 7π π = − = . 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = 3 x −3 x = −3. Select the point P = (0. a. θ = 180° = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative x-axis. b. Because –240° lies between –180° and –270°. Because sin θ < 0. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . y = 0. Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. y. 665° − 360° = 305° This angle is in quadrant IV. The reference 2 angle is θ ′ = 3. 5π π = + tan = 1 . 4 4 4 4 π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. sin 300° = − sin 60° = − b. thus the reference − angle is θ ′ = Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. and r. Because 8π . Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which cosine is negative and the sine is negative. sin θ is positive in quadrant II. π 3 . a. θ = 270° = 6.71 . 4. 2 5π lies in quadrant III. Thus. d. In quadrant II. undefined y 0 5. Thus.0): x = −1. angle is θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 11π 11π 12π π + 2 ⋅ 2π = − + = 3 3 3 3 This angle is in quadrant I. 7. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. The reference angle is 4 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = .Trigonometric Functions c. with sin θ < 0.6 − π ≈ 0. x −1 cos180° = cos π = = = −1 r 1 r 1 csc180° = csc π = = . Select the point P = (–1. it is in quadrant IV. 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III.46 .

and r. x = −4 and y = 3 . y 5 sin θ = = r 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− 13 13 r 5 5 y tan θ = = =− 12 x −12 −22π 2π π 3 = sin = sin = . 6 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. The reference angle is 6 θ′ = π 6 1. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . π 2 3 = 6 3 Because the secant is positive in quadrant IV. Furthermore. Because P = (–4. − π Section 4. y. and r.PreCalculus 4E c. y. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + 52 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. We need values for x. y. The reference angle is θ ′ = π − = . = r 5 5 = =− 4 x −4 4 x −4 cot θ = = =− 3 3 y sec θ = 17π 5π π 3 = cos = − cos = − . a. sec r = x 2 + y 2 = (−4)2 + 32 = 16 + 9 = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. sin We need values for x. 6 6 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 . and r. 6 6 6 2 −22π −22π 24π 2π + 8π = + = lies in 3 3 3 3 quadrant II. The reference angle is 2π π = . y. 2. y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 cos θ = = =− 5 5 r 3 3 y tan θ = = =− 4 x −4 r 5 csc θ = = y 3 π 2 3 ⎛ π⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = + sec = . θ′ = π − 3 3 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 sin = . 3 3 3 2 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = − 5 5 y csc θ = 519 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 Exercise Set 4. 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . . Inc. Furthermore. and r. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 lies in quadrant IV. Because P = (–12. 6 3 ⎝ 6⎠ 8. x = −12 and y = 5 . 5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . cos cos b. . 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = lies in quadrant 6 6 6 6 5π π II.

3 7 r 5 2 = = 2 5 x 5 x = −1 cot θ = = y −5 sec θ = 520 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and r. y. and r. Because P = (5. y. y. . Furthermore. 5. y. Furthermore. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y. 3 3 13 3 13 y = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 sin θ = 2 2 13 2 13 x = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 y 3 tan θ = = x 2 13 r csc θ = = 3 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y 4. and r. y. x = 2 and y = 3 . Inc. y. 3 3 58 3 58 x = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 y 7 tan θ = = x 3 58 r csc θ = = 7 y sin θ = cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y We need values for x. r = x 2 + y 2 = 5 + (−5)2 = 25 + 25 = 50 7 7 58 7 58 y = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 −5 −1 2 2 y = = ⋅ =− 2 r 5 2 2 2 5 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 5 2 2 2 y −5 = −1 tan θ = = 5 x r 5 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −5 y cos θ = 58 3 sec θ = −3 −1 2 2 y = =− ⋅ =− 2 r 3 2 2 2 cos θ = 13 2 sec θ = We need values for x. 6. Because P = (3. –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Because P = (3. y. x = 5 and y = –5 . 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . 3 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 3 2 2 2 y −3 = −1 tan θ = = x 3 r 3 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −3 y r 3 2 = = 2 3 x 3 x = −1 cot θ = = y −3 sec θ = 2 3 We need values for x. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . x = 3 and y = −3 . and r. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + 7 2 = 9 + 49 = 58 Now that we know x. Furthermore. and r.Trigonometric Functions 3. 2 sin θ = 2 2 2 = 18 = 3 2 Now that we know x. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + (−3) 2 = 9 + 9 r = x + y = 2 + 3 = 4 + 9 = 13 Now that we know x. x = 3 and y = 7 . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . and r. sin θ = =5 2 Now that we know x. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 7) is a point on the terminal side of θ . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . and r. Furthermore. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Because P = (2. and r. We need values for x.

0): x = −1. and r. Because P = (–1. Select the point P = (–1. undefined y 0 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−2) 2 + (−5) 2 = 4 + 25 = 29 Now that we know x. y = 0. Inc. Select the point P = (–1. –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . x = −2 and y = −5 . x = –1 and y = –3 . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosecant function. and r. 29 29 =− −2 2 −2 2 = −5 5 We need values for x. y = −1. r 1 = −1 sec π = = x −1 12. y = 0. r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. –1): x = 0. Because P = (–2. y. x −1 cos π = = = −1 r 1 3π y −1 = = . y = 0. 0): x = −1. 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. –1): x = 0. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−1) 2 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. and r. y = 0. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . r 1 csc π = = . 1): x = 0. 10. y = –1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. undefined x 0 2 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. cot π 2 521 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. tan −3 −3 10 3 10 y = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 14. r = 1 Apply the definition of the secant function. Select the point P = (0. y 0 =0 tan π = = x −1 11. and r. 0): x = −1. Select the point P = (–1. 0): x = −1. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. r = 1 Apply the definition of the θ= 10 = − 10 −1 −1 1 = −3 3 15.PreCalculus 4E 7. y = 1. −1 −1 10 10 x cos θ = = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = =3 x −1 10 10 r =− csc θ = = −3 3 y r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 9. Select the point P = (–1. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. Select the point P = (0. Furthermore. = x 0 = =0 y 1 . sin θ = −5 −5 29 5 29 y = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 −2 −2 29 2 29 x = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 y −5 5 tan θ = = = x −2 2 29 29 r =− csc θ = = −5 5 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 8. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. Select the point P = (0. Furthermore. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cotangent function. 13.4 We need values for x. y. y. y. sin θ = tangent function. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. 3π x 0 = = =0 cos 2 r 1 θ= θ= π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. Section 4.

y. θ cannot lie in quadrant II or quadrant IV. Because tan θ < 0. r = 5. y. r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function.Trigonometric Functions 16. 5 r 5 r 2 = x2 + y2 17. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. Inc. We are also given that sin θ < 0 . We are also given that sec θ < 0 . θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the sine is negative and the tangent is negative. Publishing as Prentice Hall. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. 1): x = 0. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 3 x −3 cosθ = − = = . 4 y −4 sin θ = = =− 5 5 r y −4 4 tan θ = = = x −3 3 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 3 x −3 3 = cot θ = = y −4 4 18. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant III. Because sin θ > 0. the sine function is negative in those quadrants. Thus. Thus. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Thus. We are also given that cos θ > 0. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. In quadrant III. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. with sin θ < 0. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the secant is negative and the cotangent is positive. 12 y −12 sin θ = − = = . 19. Because tan θ < 0. θ cannot lie in quadrant III or quadrant IV. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. with tan θ < 0. Thus. undefined 2 x 0 23. radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. with tan θ < 0. We are also given that cos θ > 0 . we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. Thus. with sin θ < 0. 13 r 13 Furthermore. the tangent function is positive in those quadrants. with sin θ > 0. x2 + y 2 = r 2 20. x 2 + (−12) 2 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 144 = 25 x = − 25 = −5 Now that we know x. π y 1 tan = = . 522 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because quadrant I is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and sine is positive. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. Because cot θ > 0. θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . 52 = (−3) 2 + y 2 y 2 = 25 − 9 = 16 y = − 16 = −4 Now that we know x. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. Thus. 24. . θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant II. r = 13 . θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. x is negative and y is negative. y = −12. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . and r. Because sin θ < 0. with cot θ > 0. Because sin θ < 0. Thus. Thus. the cotangent function is negative in those two quadrants. In quadrant III x is negative and y is negative. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant I. x −5 5 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 y −12 12 tan θ = = = x −5 5 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −12 12 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −5 5 x −5 5 cot θ = = = y −12 12 21. y = 1. Furthermore. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant II. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. the tangent function is positive in those two quadrants. Select the point P = (0. Because quadrant II is the only quadrant in which the cosine is negative and the tangent is negative. θ= π 22. and r. x = –3.

x = 4. and r. r = 13 . and r. Because 270° < θ < 360°. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y −15 15 sin θ = = =− r 17 17 y −15 15 tan θ = = =− x 8 8 r 17 17 csc θ = = =− y −15 15 r 17 sec θ = = x 8 x 8 8 cot θ = = =− y −15 15 x −12 12 = =− r 13 13 y 5 5 = =− x −12 12 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 = =− y 5 5 26. sin θ = y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 tan θ = y −2 2 = = −2 2 x 1 r 3 3 2 3 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 r 3 sec θ = = = 3 x 1 csc θ = cot θ = x 1 1 2 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 523 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Inc. y. Furthermore. x is positive and y is negative. y −3 3 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 y −3 3 tan θ = = =− x 4 4 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 r 5 sec θ = = x 4 x 4 4 cot θ = = =− y −3 3 y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. θ is in quadrant IV. cos θ = tan θ = csc θ = sec θ = cot θ = y 2 = 289 − 64 = 225 y = − 225 = −15 Now that we know x. In quadrant II x is negative and y is positive. . x is positive and y is negative. x = 8. Furthermore. and r. Furthermore. 5 y sin θ = = . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Furthermore x2 + y 2 = r 2 25. y. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r = 5 . y. 4 x cos θ = = . 17 r r = 17. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 1 x cos θ = = . 3 r 2 2 x + y = r2 42 + y 2 = 52 y 2 = 25 − 16 = 9 12 + y 2 = 32 y = − 9 = −3 Now that we know x. x = 1. 13 r x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + 52 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 25 = 144 82 + y 2 = 17 2 x = − 144 = −12 Now that we know x. θ is in quadrant IV. y = 5. r = 3 . y. Thus. In quadrant IV. Thus. 5 r 2 2 x + y = r2 28. and r. Thus. Thus.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Because 270° < θ < 360°.4 27. In quadrant IV x is positive and y is negative. In quadrant IV. 8 x cos θ = = .

In quadrant II. 2 y 2 tan θ = − = = . Furthermore. y. negative and y is negative. Thus. 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = . Thus. In quadrant III. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. and r. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . and r. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x is 4 y −4 . In quadrant III. y = 2. Furthermore. x is negative and y is negative. y = −5 . y. y = –4. Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. Thus. x = −12. sin θ = y 2 2 13 2 13 = = ⋅ = r 13 13 13 13 cos θ = −3 −3 13 x 3 13 = = ⋅ =− r 13 13 13 13 csc θ = r 13 = y 2 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. sin θ = y 1 1 10 10 = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 cos θ = −3 −3 x 10 3 10 = = ⋅ =− r 10 10 10 10 csc θ = r 10 = = 10 y 1 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + (−5)2 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. y = 1. θ lies in quadrant III. Thus. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y. x = −3 . Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. 5 y −5 tan θ = = = . and r. y −4 4 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 x −3 3 cos θ = = =− r 5 5 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 x −3 3 cot θ = = = y −4 4 13 13 =− −3 3 −3 3 =− 2 2 30. In quadrant II. and r. Furthermore. θ lies in quadrant II. Furthermore. x is negative and y is positive. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. θ lies in quadrant III. y. 3 x −3 32. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 3 x −3 31. y −5 5 sin θ = = =− r 13 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −5 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = = y −5 5 10 10 =− −3 3 −3 = −3 1 524 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + (−4)2 = 9 + 16 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 22 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. x is negative and y is positive. . 12 x −12 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. tan θ = = = 3 x −3 x = –3.Trigonometric Functions 29. x = −3. Inc. θ lies in quadrant II.

The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 160° = 20° . x is negative and y is negative. y = −1.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Because 44. and r. it is in quadrant III. it is in quadrant II. Because x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + (−1) 2 = 42 x 2 = 16 − 1 = 15 5π π 3π 6π lies between = and π = . it is 6 2 6 6 in quadrant II. 36. Because 5π 10π π 7π = lies between = and 2 14 7 14 14π . r = 3 . it 4 2 4 4 is in quadrant IV. y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 x −1 1 cos θ = = =− r 3 3 sin θ = tan θ = 39. Because the secant is negative and the tangent is positive. and r. it is in quadrant II. 525 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The reference angle is 14 5π 7π 5π 2π = − = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 355° = 5° . x −1 x2 + y 2 = r 2 35. Because 351° lies between 270° and 360°. Because 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus. it is in quadrant II. θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 41. Inc. x is negative and y is negative. Furthermore. r 3 3 2 3 2 csc θ = = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 cot θ = x 1 2 2 −1 = = ⋅ = y −2 2 2 2 2 4 7π 3π 6π 8π lies between = and 2π = . it is in quadrant IV. Because 170° lies between 90° and 180°. In quadrant III. Furthermore. The reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° . Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. r = 4 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 351° = 9° . x = −1. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . The reference angle is 5π 6π 5π π = − = . y −1 5π 4π 3π 6π lies between π = and = . y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. y.4 33. In quadrant III. θ lies in quadrant III. The reference angle is 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 170° = 10° . it 4 4 2 4 is in quadrant III. θ′ = π − 6 6 6 6 x = − 15 Now that we know x. it is in quadrant IV. Because 160° lies between 90° and 180°. y −1 1 sin θ = = =− r 4 4 x − 15 15 cos θ = = =− r 4 4 y 1 15 15 −1 tan θ = = = ⋅ = x − 15 15 15 15 sec θ = r 4 4 15 4 15 = =− ⋅ =− x − 15 15 15 15 cot θ = x − 15 = = 15 y −1 43. r 3 sec θ = −3 = = . θ′ = π − 7 7 7 7 π= 45. y −2 2 = =2 2 x −1 40. it is in quadrant III. 4 4 4 4 42. Because 205° lies between 180° and 270°. The reference angle is 7π 8π 7π π = − = . θ lies in quadrant III. . r 4 csc θ = −4 = = . (−1)2 + y 2 = 32 37. −150° + 360° = 210° Because the angle is in quadrant III. Because the cosecant is negative and the tangent is positive. Because 355° lies between 270° and 360°. Thus. the reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . y. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 38. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ .

2 it is in quadrant IV. Because 4. 58. 49. the reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° . 2 63. 47. 55. 52. 3π ≈ 4. 2 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant III. −359° + 360° = 1° Because the angle is in quadrant I. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = π − = . the reference angle is θ ′ = 25° . tan 30° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 4π = − = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . the reference angle is θ ′ = 1° . 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. is in quadrant III.5 lies between 51. The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45° . 53. Inc.5 ≈ 0. 60. 11π 11π 16π 5π + 4π = − + = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant III. −335° + 360° = 25° Because the angle is in quadrant I. the reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 110° = 70° . 6 6 cos 225°= − cos 45°= − 2 .56 . 50. 48. −250° + 360° = 110° Because the angle is in quadrant II. 6 6 − 13π 13π 18π 5π + 6π = − + = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. Because 5. . 3 526 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the reference angle is θ ′ = 193° − 180° = 13° . 300° lies in quadrant IV. it 2 59. 57. the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = .71 .Trigonometric Functions 46.7 − π ≈ 1.71 and 2π ≈ 6. 6 6 − 25π 25π 36π 11π + 6π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = −π = . 4 4 sin 60° = sin 300° = − sin 60° = − 23π 23π 16π 7π − 4π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . the reference 11π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . the reference 3π π angle is θ ′ = π − = . 225° lies in quadrant III.28 . 3 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. The reference angle is θ ′ = 2π − 5. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = −π = . 4 4 − 17π 17π 24π 7π + 4π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant III. 11π 11π 8π 3π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.14 and 3π ≈ 4. 553° − 360° = 193° Because the angle is in quadrant III. 3 3 tan 210°= tan 30° = 3 . 3 3 − 61. 56. 2 62.7 lies between π ≈ 3. 4 4 3 . the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . 210° lies in quadrant III. cos 45° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant II. 54.78 . 565° − 360° = 205° Because the angle is in quadrant III.

sin 9π lies in quadrant I. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . –225° lies in quadrant II. 72. –240° lies in quadrant II. tan 2 2 undefined. 68. 4 4 cot 527 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 9π π tan =tan = 1 4 4 3 = 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. The reference angle is 4 9π 9π 8π π − 2π = − = . 2π π 3 =sin = . 7π π csc = − csc = −2 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 420° − 360° = 60° . 73. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . 3 3 2 3π lies in quadrant II. tan 45° = 1 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. Inc. =– cos = − 4 4 2 3 .4 64. 67. 71. The reference angle is 4 7π 8π 7π π = − = . The reference angle is 6 7π 7π 6π π −π = − = . 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. The reference angle is 2 9π 9π 8π π θ′ = − 4π = − = . 2 74. θ′ = 6 6 6 6 2 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. 2 sin 45° = π =2 6 Because the cosecant is negative in quadrant III. 2 2 2 2 π 9π is also Because tan is undefined. 2 sin(−225°) = sin 45° = . 240° lies in quadrant III. sin 60° = sin(−240°)= sin 60°= 3π π 2 . 7π π cot = − cot = −1 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45°. 7π lies in quadrant IV. 420° lies in quadrant I. θ′ = 4 4 4 4 tan 2π lies in quadrant II. θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 65. 6 6 csc π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. π 69. 3 3 3 3 sin π =1 4 Because the cotangent is negative in quadrant IV. The reference angle is θ ′ = 405° − 360° = 45° . The reference angle is 4 3π 4π 3π π θ′ = π − = − = . 405° lies in quadrant I. 66.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. tan 420°= tan 60°= 3 . cos 9π lies on the positive y-axis. 70. tan 405°=tan45°=1 . 7π lies in quadrant III. tan 60° = 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. 4 4 4 4 π 2 cos = 4 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. Publishing as Prentice Hall. sec 240° = − sec 60° − 2 . The reference angle is 3 2π 3π 2π π θ′ = π − = − = . sec 60° = 2 Because the secant is negative in quadrant III.

Inc. cot 13π π 3 = cot = 3 3 3 81. cot π 4 cos 0 − sin π 6 cos π 2 1 + 2 2 2 +1 = 2 = 3 ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − . ⎛ 17π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 86. The reference angle is 4 θ′ = π 4 76. lies in quadrant IV. lies in quadrant IV. π ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝ 4⎠ tan sin 89. tan = sec 495° = sec135° = − 2 78. cos 23π 7π 2 = cos = 4 4 2 82. π 1 ⎛ 35π ⎞ = sin = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 6 2 ⎝ 6 ⎠ 90. ⎛ 17π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 84. θ= π ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 − −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ . . cos 35π 11π 3 = cos = 6 6 2 83. 17π 5π 17π 5π cos sin + cos 3 4 3 4 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 2⎞ = ⎜− − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6− 2 = 4 = 7π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = tan 6 = 3 ⎠ π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = sin 3 = 2 ⎠ 528 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − π 87. The reference angle is π 3 =− π . π ⎛ 11π ⎞ = tan = 1 tan ⎜ − ⎟ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 85. − π 6 π cos π − cos π 3 sin 3π 2 3 1 + 2 2 1− 3 = 2 88. 19π 7π = cot = 3 6 6 11π 5π 11π 5π cos sin + cos 4 6 4 6 ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ =⎜ − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6+ 2 =− 4 =− 80. sin ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 1 − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ 3 6 6 3 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. 6 3 ⎝ ⎠ 77. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 3 sec 510° = sec150° = − 3 79. =1 4 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV.Trigonometric Functions 75.

The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 .4 3π ⎛ 15π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − − cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1)(1) − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 1 = −1 − 2 2 1 =− − 2 2 3 =− 2 sin 95. 94. ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ 11π ⎞ = h⎜ f ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ sin ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ( h D f ) ⎛⎜ 3π ⎛ 8π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − + cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ = ( −1) 3 + ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2⎞ = 2⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) = 2 3 2 97. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x2 ) ) 2 3 3 − 2 2 3 3 =− 2 =− 93. Section 4. 92. m= f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ − sin ⎜ 4 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 3π 5π − 2 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ 4π π ⎞ ⎛ 4π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ f⎜ + ⎟+ f ⎜ +f⎜ ⎟ ⎟ 6⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝6⎠ 4 π π 4 π π ⎛ ⎞ = sin ⎜ + ⎟ + sin + sin 6⎠ 3 6 ⎝ 3 3π 4π π = sin + sin + sin 2 3 6 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠ =− ⎞⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ cos ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎛1⎞ = 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ =1 sin =− 3− ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎟ = h⎜ g ⎜ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ π 4 2 −1 + 2 = 3 +1 2 π 4 ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎛ 5π π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ + ⎟+ g⎜ g⎜ ⎟+ g⎜ 6 ⎟ 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π π ⎛ 5π π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + ⎟ + cos + cos 6 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ π 5π = cos π + cos + cos 6 6 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 3 3⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = −1 = ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2 2 −4 π 529 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. .PreCalculus 4E 91. f ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . 17π ⎝ 3 ( h D g ) ⎛⎜ 96.

g ( x2 ) ) m= 2 π when the reference angle is and 4 2 θ is in quadrants III or IV. π 3 4π = 3 π 3 and θ is QIV θ = 2π − π 3 5π = 3 3 π when the reference angle is and 6 3 θ is in quadrants II or IV. 530 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. sin θ = − g ( x2 ) − g ( x1 ) x2 − x1 QIII ⎛ 3π ⎞ cos (π ) − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ = 3π π− 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = θ =π + 99. 4 θ =π − 4 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is in 3 2 quadrants I or IV. Explanations will vary. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . 3 3 π 4 = π 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is 3 2 in quadrants II or III. 101.Trigonometric Functions 98. . Inc. QI QIV π θ = 2π − 3 = θ= . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Sample explanation: Sine is defined for all values of the angle. tan θ = − 3 when the reference angle is 3π = 4 θ= π 3 2π = 3 2π 4π θ= . 104. 6 6 π 5π 3 π 3 2π = 3 2π 5π θ= . cos θ = − 2 2 −4 π 4 5π 4 5π 7π θ= . cos θ = θ= 7π 4 θ =π + in quadrants II or IV. does not make sense. g ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . QII QIII sin θ = θ= θ = 2π − 102. 4 4 4 = π = π ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ QIV 3 θ = 2π − π 6 11π = 6 105. 3 3 100. Answers may vary. ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ θ =π − 2 π when the reference angle is and θ is 4 2 in quadrants I or II. 110. tan θ = − π QII 3 5π 3 θ =π − QIV π 6 5π = 6 5π 11π θ= . QI QII θ =π − . QII π π 3π 4 4 103. – 109.

2. y = 3sin x 0 y 0 7π 12 4 π 2 5π 6 0 10π radians 180 π radians 180° =− 105π radians 180 7π radians 12 π π 3. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. Sample explanation: It is also possible that y = −3 and x = −5. Sample explanation: Sine and cosecant have the same sign within any quadrant because they are reciprocals of each other. Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 4 1 2 5π 5π radians 180o radians = ⋅ = 75o 12 12 π radians 4. − 19π 19π 24π 5π + 6π = − + = 4 4 4 4 b. Explanations will vary. . does not make sense. − 5. Inc. 5π is in quadrant IV. y = 4 sin ⎜ 2 x − 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x = radians =− 0 8 18 180° −105° = −105° ⋅ 1 114. 10° = 10° ⋅ = 112. the reference angle 4 5π 5π 4π π −π = − = is 4 4 4 4 Since 531 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 2π ⎞ ⎛ 115. 113. y = cos(4 x + π ) 2 x − π π radians 13π 12 −4 4π 3 0 13π 13π radians 180o radians = − ⋅ π radians 20 20 o = −117 11π 11π 6π 5π − 2π = − = 3 3 3 3 b. a. x 1 5 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 7 3 3 0 − 2 2 11 4 3 3 −3 − 0 2 3 6. the reference angle 3 5π 6π 5π π is 2π − = − = 3 3 3 3 c. c.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 111. makes sense π − 4 1 2 y π 0 1 − 2 y π 3 0 116. 5π is in quadrant III. Since a.

and r. sin θ = −2 2 13 y = =− 13 r 13 3 3 13 x = = 13 r 13 2 y −2 tan θ = = =− 3 3 x 13 13 r =− csc θ = = −2 2 y cos θ = 13 r = 3 x 3 3 x =− cot θ = = 2 y −2 sec θ = 532 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. sec θ = hypotenuse 6 6 11 = = adjacent 11 11 cot θ = adjacent 11 = opposite 5 r = x2 + y2 r = 32 + (−2) 2 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. a 2 + b2 = c2 b. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 510° − 360° = 150° 9. . and r. b = 11 opposite 5 = sin θ = hypotenuse 6 Since 150° is in quadrant II. 52 + b 2 = 62 25 + b 2 = 36 b 2 = 11 c. Use the Pythagorean theorem to find b. y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 4 − y 4 sin θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 3 − x 3 cos θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 4 − y 4 tan θ = = 5 = 3 3 x − 5 r 1 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 5 r 1 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 5 3 − x 3 cot θ = = 5 = 4 y − 4 5 10. 8. Inc.Trigonometric Functions 7. a. y. the reference angle is 180° − 150° = 30° cos θ = r = x2 + y2 2 adjacent 11 = hypotenuse 6 opposite 5 11 = adjacent 11 hypotenuse 6 = csc θ = opposite 5 tan θ = 2 9 16 25 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 4⎞ r = ⎜− ⎟ +⎜− ⎟ = + = =1 5 5 25 25 25 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Now that we know x.

sec 20. 6 r x2 + y2 = r 2 12 + y 2 = 62 1 + y 2 = 36 y 2 = 35 y = ± 35 3 x = . In quadrant II. x = 3. 4 y 13. θ is in quadrant IV. Since cos θ = side adjacent θ hypotenuse 250 cos 72° = c 250 c= cos 72° c ≈ 809 m cos θ = 15. y. Inc. and r. r 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 r =5 Now that we know x. cos 240° = − cos 60° = − 19. y = 3 . sin 2 11π = 6 π 7 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 = = = = 11π π 3 3 3 cos cos 6 6 2 + cos 2 π 7 =1 533 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x is positive and y is negative. .PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 11. r = 7 . r = 6 . Furthermore. Furthermore. 7 r Since θ is acute. θ is in quadrant II. Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. Since cos θ = 1 x = . y = + 35 = 35 y 35 ⎛π ⎞ = 35 cot ⎜ − θ ⎟ = tan θ = = x 1 ⎝2 ⎠ x2 + y2 = r 2 32 + y 2 = 72 9 + y 2 = 49 y 2 = 40 y = ± 40 = ±2 10 Because the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. and r to find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . tan 30° = 3 3 17. cot120° = 1 1 1 3 = = =− tan120° − tan 60° − 3 3 18. In quadrant IV. y. x = −4. Therefore y = −2 10 Use x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. side opposite θ side adjacent θ a tan 41° = 60 a = 60 tan 41° tan θ = r 2 = x2 + y2 r = (−3) + 4 2 2 a ≈ 52 cm 2 14. x is negative and y is positive. 3 x tan θ = − = . Thus. sin θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− r 7 7 tan θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− x 3 3 r 7 7 10 = =− y −2 10 20 r 7 sec θ = = x 3 x 3 3 10 cot θ = = =− y −2 10 20 csc θ = 16. x = 1. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 =− cos θ = = 5 5 r r 5 csc θ = = y 3 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 4 x −3 4 =− cot θ = = y 4 3 12. Furthermore.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 3 =− 24. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . Convert 8 revolutions per minute to radians per minute.13 cm = 8 revolutions per minute ⋅ 2 3 3 = − cos 45° = − 5 28. ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 3 + 2π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4π π = sin = − sin 3 3 27. ⎛ 22π csc ⎜ ⎝ 3 23.9 feet sin θ = side opposite θ side adjacent θ 50 tan θ = 60 ⎛ 50 ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 60 ⎠ θ ≈ 40° tan θ = 534 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − cos π = (1) − (−1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ + 2π n ⎟ + tan ⎜ + nπ ⎟ cos ⎜ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π 5π π π = cos + tan = − cos − tan 6 6 6 6 3 3 3 3 2 3 =− − =− − 2 3 6 6 5 3 =− 6 side opposite θ hypotenuse h sin 6° = 5280 h = 5280sin 6° h ≈ 551. 7π ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎛ 17π ⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 6 + 4π ⎟ = tan 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 2 π 2 π 6 = 2π radians 1 revolution = 16π radians per minute ν = rω = (10)(16π ) = 160π ≈ 502. 2 2 29. π radians π 36° = 36° ⋅ = radians 180° 5 s = rθ = 40 ⋅ 3 =− 2 22. It is given that r = 10 feet and the merry-go-round rotates at 8 revolutions per minute. 8 revolutions per minute 4π ⎞ ⎛ 22π ⎞ ⎟ = csc ⎜ 3 − 6π ⎟ = csc 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1 = = = 4π π 3 − sin sin − 3 3 2 =− π 3 3 30.7 feet per minute.7 feet per minute T he linear speed of the horse is about 502. Inc. 25. Begin by converting from degrees to radians. 26. cos 495° = cos ( 495° − 360° ) = cos135° = tan = 8π ≈ 25. .Trigonometric Functions 21.

Inc.3 π y = 3sin x = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . then by adding quarter-periods to 4 4 2 generate x-values for each of the key points. by 4. The period for both y = − sin x 2 2 2 and y = sin x is 2π . then by 4 4 2 adding quarter. the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 The period for both y = 3sin x and y = sinx is 2π. 2 2 2π 1 y = − sin 2π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (2 π . Thus. 0) 2 π 2 π 2 = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= coordinates = 3 ⋅1 = 3 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.5 Section 4.periods. 2π] by dividing the period. 2π. Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 2π π the period. 2π . the maximum point. 0) 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sinx. = = . 2. 0) 3π 2 3π y = 3 sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 3π .5 Check Point Exercises 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus. The five x-values are x=0 π 1 y = − sin 0 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 coordinates (0.− 1 2 . 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. period 2π π = = . 0) 1 π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − ⋅1 = − 2 2 π π 1 y = − sin π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (π . 1 y = − sin x 2 535 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The equation y = 3sin x is of the form y = A sin x with A = 3. The five x-values are x=0 x = 0+ x= π 2 π + x =π + = 2 π 2 π 2 π x=0+ 2 =π = x= 3π 2 2 + x y = 3sin x 0 y = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π π 2 x (0. 0) 3π 2 1 3π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − (−1) = 2 2 3π 1 . 2 . and the minimum point on the interval [0. 0) π 2 0 . We find the three x–intercepts. 2 π x=π+ x= y = 3sin 1 The equation y = − sin x is of the form y = Asin x 2 1 with A = − . −3 2 2π y = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . the amplitude is 2 1 1 1 A = − = . by 4.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.

3π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅3π 2 (3π . Extend the pattern of each graph to the left and right as desired. 0) = 2 sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 536 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The C 3 π 1 π = = ⋅ = . 0) = 2 sin 2π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 (π . 4π . π . by 4. 2 The amplitude is A = 2 = 2 . 2π 2π = 1 = 4π . Inc. 1 x is of the form 2 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . by 4. 4 4 adding quarter-periods. B = 2. π (0. x = π 6 . The five x-values are x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. = 2 ⋅1 = 2 1 ⋅2π 2 is of the form π 3 . and C = = 2 sin 0 π The equation y = 3 sin 2 x − (2 π . 2π 2π The period is = =π. then by adding the period. The phase shift is B 2 3 2 6 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π = . 2 Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 4π = = π .Trigonometric Functions Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . − 2 ) 3π 2 = 2 ⋅ (−1) = −2 = 2 sin 4π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle = 2 ⋅0 = 0 y = 2 sin 3 amplitude is A = 3 = 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) = 2 sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3. . 2) begins. B 2 coordinates 1 ⋅0 2 π y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3. then by the period. Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the right. The period is B The equation y = 2sin Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. x 0 y = 2sin y = 2 sin 1 x 2 4.

Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2. = = . then by adding 4 4 2 quarter periods to the value of x where the cycle begins. by 4.0 2 =0 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 1) = −4 cos π = 4 537 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0 6 ⎛ 1⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ = −4 cos 6π = 3 sin 2π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 = 3 sin π 2 1 . x= π x π 6 y = 3sin 2x − y = 3sin 2 ⋅ π 6 π coordinates 3 − 5. π π 3 6 .3 12 2π 3 ⎛ 2π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ 3 3⎠ ⎝ 3π = 3sin = 3sin π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 2π .0 = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 5π 12 ⎛ 5π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 3π π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 5π . The five x-values are x= π 6 π 2π 3π 5π + = + = 6 4 12 12 12 5π π 5π 3π 8π 2π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 3 2π π 8π 3π 11π x= + = + = 3 4 12 12 12 11π π 11π 3π 14 π 7π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 6 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The five x-values are x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . −3 12 7π 6 y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ 7π π − 6 3 The equation y = −4 cos π x is of the form y = Acos Bx with A = −4. 2π 2π = = 2. x=0+ x y = −4 cos πx 0 y = −4 cos (π ⋅ 0 ) coordinates (0. Inc. (1. 4) . The period is B π Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period 2 1 the period. –4) = −4 cos 0 = −4 1 2 7π . and B = π .5 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph.0 3 11π 12 ⎛ 11π π ⎞ − ⎟ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 9π 3π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ( −1) = −3 11π .

2 π 4 2 . . 2 B 2 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π the period.Trigonometric Functions ⎛ 3⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 3π = −4 cos =0 2 3 2 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 2) 2 3 . π π π − π 3 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 . − π 4 y= 3 cos(−π + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 y= y= = 0 π 4 6.0 3 π 3 cos(π + π ) . 538 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the amplitude is A = = . x = − 3 cos(2 x + π ) 2 π 3 cos − + π 2 2 3 cos(0 + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅ −1 = − 2 2 = π 3 cos + π 2 2 x=− y= π x=− 2 2 π 4 x=0+ x= π + + + π 4 π π 4 π 4 = = =− . then by adding 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle y= begins. Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the left. Inc. B = 2 . 2 2 2π 2π The period is = =π. π . B 2 π C −π The phase shift is = =− . − π 4 3 2 . 2 3 3 Thus. 2 The five x-values are x=− − 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 y= y= coordinates π 4 =0 π 4 π 4 4 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 2 2 2 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph. = . by 4. 3 3 cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π )) 2 2 The equation is of the form y = Acos(Bx − C) with 3 A = . and C = −π . –4) = −4 cos 2π = −4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.0 2 x − π 2 (2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0 0.

. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. 3π 2 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 12 hours. The maximum number of hours is 2 hours above 12 hours. 539 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph is modeled by y = 4 sin 4 x . the curve oscillates about the middle value. 2 =π = 9. the amplitude. B C 3= B C 3= π B= . x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 8. 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 π 2 y = 2 cos π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 π y = 2 cos π + 1 3π 2 y = 2 cos 2π A. Inc. Section 4. is 3.1 2 6 π =C 2 Substitute these values into y = Asin(Bx − C) + D .PreCalculus 4E 7. D = 12. Thus.5 The graph of y = 2 cosx + 1 is the graph of y = 2 cosx shifted one unit upwards. The cycle begins at x = 0. or 12 2π months. The phase shift. y = 2sin π 6 x− π 2 + 12 . 2 B π 2π = 2 B πB = 4 π π 2 2π π = 12 6 The graph shows that the starting point of the cycle is C shifted from 0 to 3. Thus. A = 2. The period is . and period = . π 2π A = 4 . Add quarter4 2 periods to generate x-values for the key points. . x y = 2 cosx + 1 coordinates 0 y = 2 cos0 + 1 (0. The period for both functions is 2π . π B=4 Substitute these values into y = A sin Bx . The number of hours of daylight is modeled by (2 π . The quarter-period is 2π π or .1 (π . 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 By connecting the points with a smooth curve. −1) = 2 ⋅(−1) + 1 = −1 3π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 y = 2 cos2π + 1 Because the hours of daylight ranges from a minimum of 10 hours to a maximum of 14 hours. 12 = B 12B = 2π 3π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. we obtain one period of the graph. Thus. The graph shows that this maximum value is 4. Thus. The period is 12. is the maximum value of y. Thus.

4 π y = 5sin π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. −4 2 2π y = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . 2π π The period is 2π . −5 2 (2 π .5 (π . 2π π or . 0) 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The period is 2π . the amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . 540 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) π 2 . 0) 3π 2 y = 5sin 2π y = 5sin 2π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 π y = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = 4 sin 3π .5 1. Exercise Set 4. 3π 2 x 2 π x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Thus. . Inc. The quarter-period is or . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Thus. 0) 3π .Trigonometric Functions 2. x=0 3π = 5(−1) = −5 2 (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. The equation y = 4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 4. the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. π The equation y = 5 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 5. 0) π π 2 y = 5sin π 2 coordinates = 5 ⋅1 = 5 . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = x=0+ π x= 2 =π = y = 4 sin x 0 y = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin 2 + π 2 = 4 ⋅1 = 4 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = 5sin x coordinates 0 y = 5sin 0 = 5⋅ 0 = 0 (0.

0) coordinates (0. 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x .− 2 4 2π y= 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (2 π . 0) π y= 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (π . x=0 The equation y = x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π 2 = 4. 541 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. the amplitude is A = 4 4 4 2π π or . 0) 1 3π . . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 2 π x=π+ x= π 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 4 1 1 1 = .5 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 3 1 1 1 = . The period is 2π .− 2 3 3π 2 y= 1 3π 1 1 sin = (−1) = − 2 4 4 4 1 3π . Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 3 3 3 π 1 π 2 3 y= 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 4 4 4 π 1 2 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 (π . Thus. 0) 2 . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.PreCalculus 4E 3. with A = . (2 π . x=0 The equation y = 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 π 2 π 2 π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= x y= 1 sin x 4 (0. with A = . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Inc. Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . the amplitude is A = 3 3 3 2π π or . The period is 2π . 0) y= 1 sin x 3 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 y= π y= 3π 2 y= 1 3π sin 2 3 1 1 = (−1) = − 3 3 y= + 2 = coordinates x 2π 2 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Section 4.

x=0 . 0) 3π . 2π π or . 0) π 2 .4 2 (2 π . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Thus. −3 (π . Inc. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 6. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 x y = −3sin x 0 y = −3 sin x = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 y = −3 sin π 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 π y = −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −3sin 2π y = −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 = −3(−1) = 3 π 2 (0. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . π The equation y = −4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –4. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0.3 2 (2 π . The period is 2π . coordinates π + x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The equation y = −3sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –3. 2π π or . the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . . 0) y = −4 sin π 2 coordinates = −4 ⋅1 = −4 π y = −4 sin π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −4 sin 2π y = −4 sin 2π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = −4(−1) = 4 2 (0.Trigonometric Functions 5. −4 (π . 542 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the amplitude is A = −3 = 3. Thus. The period is 2π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = −4 sin x 0 y = −4 sin 0 = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 2 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 3π .

the amplitude is 2π 2π π = = .PreCalculus 4E 7. The A = 1 = 1. The period is = = π . The B 2 quarter-period is π 8.5 The equation y = sin 2x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 2. . Add x= π 4 + π x=0+ 4 π 4 = π x= 2 π π 3π x= + = 2 4 4 3π π x= + =π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. x y = sin 2x 0 y = sin 2 ⋅ 0 = sin 0 = 0 π 4 y = sin 2 ⋅ = sin π 2 π 2 π 4 π π 8 + π 8 π 8 = = π 8 π x y = sin 4x (0. x=0 x=0+ The equation y = sin 4x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 4. Thus. −1 8 3π = −1 2 y = sin 2π = 0 2 (π . 0) 0 y = sin(4 ⋅ 0) = sin 0 = 0 π 4 π .1 8 π π 2 2 y = sin(2 ⋅ π ) = sin 2π = 0 = 4 3π x= + = 4 8 8 3π π π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) π 2 . π .0 y = sin 4 ⋅ 4 y = sin 4 ⋅ 3π 8 y = sin 4 ⋅ = sin 3π . 543 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The cycle begins at x = 0. −1 4 π 3π = sin = −1 2 π ⋅ coordinates π 3π y = sin 2 ⋅ 4 π 1 π = sin π = 0 3π 4 = π =1 y = sin 2 ⋅ 2 .0 3π . The period is B 4 2 coordinates π 8 π 4 = sin 2 =1 = sin π = 0 3π 8 π 8 π 4 . x=0 quarter-period is 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. . The cycle begins at 4 2 4 8 x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. Section 4. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 1 = 1. 0) π (0. Inc. Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.1 .

0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 3) = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π y = 2sin (0. the 4 amplitude is A = 2 = 2. Add quarter4 periods to generate x-values for the key points. − 3) 3π = 3sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 4π 0 (π . x=0 x = 0 + 2π = 2π x = 2π + 2π = 4π x = 4π + 2 π = 6π x = 6π + 2 π = 8π Evaluate the function at each value of x. x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) (3π . The quarterThe period is B with A = 3 and B = 2 4π period is = π . The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) (6π .Trigonometric Functions 9. The cycle begins at x = 0. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. 0) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 2) = 2 ⋅1 = 2 4π y = 2sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 6π y = 2sin 8π y = 2sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = 2(−1) = −2 2 (4π . coordinates 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 0 2 y = 3sin = 3sin 2π 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 2π y = 2sin = 3 ⋅1 = 3 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 2π 2 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 3π 2 y = 3sin y = 2sin 1 x 4 1 ⋅0 4 coordinates (0. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 2) (8π . Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The equation y = 3sin 1 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 2 1 x is of the form 4 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . . 0) = 2sin 0 = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 = 2sin (2 π . 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . 544 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The quarter-period is B 10. The equation y = 2sin 1 . x 0 y = 3sin 1 x 2 4 8π = 2 π . Thus. The period is 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π . 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π x 1 ⋅ 2π 4 π 2 (2 π .

−4 2 = 4 sin 2 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ coordinates y = 3sin 2π ⋅ = 3sin 1 (2. The is A = 3 = 3. Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The equation y = −3 sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –3 and B = 2π . −3 4 3π = 3(−1) = −3 2 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅1) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (1. x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The cycle begins at x = 0. The amplitude 545 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 4 = 4. 1 1 = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. .5 11. x=0+ x=0+ x y = 4 sin πx 0 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 0) = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 2 y = 4 sin π ⋅ = 4 sin 1 3 2 π 2 1 2 coordinates x y = 3sin 2πx (0. 4 2 Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) 0 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 4 1 . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The period is B 2π 1 quarter-period is . The period is = = 2 . 0) 3 4 3 .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. x=0 12. Inc. The equation y = 4 sin πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 4 and B = π .4 2 = 3sin = 4(1) = 4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅1) = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin π ⋅ 3 2 1 2 (1.3 4 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ 1 2 1 . 0) 3 4 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 2) = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 1 4 (0. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The equation y = 3sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 3 and B = 2π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The amplitude 2π 2π = = 1. The B π 2 1 quarter-period is = .0 2 = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 . 13. 0) 1 .

15. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.3 4 coordinates y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin = −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 4 x 1 2 1 . The equation y = −2 sin π x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . π 2 1 2 (0. 0) 1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The B 2π is A = −2 = 2 . The equation y = − sin 2 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 3 2 . The period is 2π 2π = = 1. The amplitude 546 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1.0 2 3 2 3 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 2 3π = −3sin 2 = −3(−1) = 3 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅1) 1 (1. 0) y = −2 sin π x 0 y = −2 sin(π ⋅ 0) = −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 1 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 2 1 . The period is 2 1 = . x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) 3 . The cycle begins at x = 0. 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. .2 2 3π = −2(−1) = 2 2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅2) = −2 sin 2π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2. The B π 3 2 (1. 1 . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. −2 2 = −2 ⋅1 = −2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅1) = −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin 3 . −3 4 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 1 2 2π 2π = = 2 . 0) = −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.Trigonometric Functions is A = −3 = 3. y = −3 sin 2πx x coordinates quarter-period is 0 1 4 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = −3sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 = −3sin quarter-period is (0. Inc. with A = –1 and B = 14.

The quarter-period is 2 x 3 x y = − sin 0 2 y = − sin ⋅ 0 3 coordinates 3 y = − sin = − sin 3π 2 y = − sin 2 3π ⋅ 3 4 π 2 (0. The quarter-period is = − sin 0 = 0 3π 4 4 x is of the form 3 4 y = Asin Bx with A = –1 and B = . 0) = − sin 0 = 0 (3π . Inc.0 4 . The equation y = − sin x y = − sin 0 y = − sin 4 x 3 4 ⋅0 3 = coordinates (0. 3 3π 2π 2π = 4 = 2π ⋅ = .PreCalculus 4E Section 4.5 The period is 2π 2π 3 = 2 = 2π ⋅ = 3π . The cycle begins at x = 0. The period is B 4 2 16.0 2 = − sin π = 0 9π 4 y = − sin 2 9π ⋅ 3 4 9π . −1 8 = −1 4 3π ⋅ 3 4 = − sin π = 0 547 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x=0 3π 3π = x=0+ 8 8 3π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 4 3π 3π 9π x= + = 4 8 8 9π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. B 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 4 2 4 8 The cycle begins at x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) 3π . 0) 3π 8 = − sin 2π = 0 y = − sin = − sin 3π 4 y = − sin 4 3π ⋅ 3 8 π 2 3π . −1 4 = −1 2 3π ⋅ 3 2 3π . 3 3π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.1 4 3π = − sin 2 = −(−1) = 1 3π y = − sin 2 ⋅ 3π 3 3π 2 3π 1 3π ⋅ = . Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 3π . 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1. x=0 3π 3π x=0+ = 4 4 3π 3π 3π x= + = 4 4 2 3π 3π 9π x= + = 2 4 4 9π 3π x= + = 3π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x.

Trigonometric Functions

9π

8

y = − sin

4 9π

⋅

3 8

9π

,1

8

3π

= − sin

= −(−1) = 1

2

3π

2

4 3π

y = − sin ⋅

3 2

3π

,0

2

x

y = sin(x − π )

coordinates

π

y = sin(π − π )

(π , 0)

3π

2

y = sin

= sin 0 = 0

= sin

= − sin 2π = 0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

−π

2

π

2

3π

,1

2

=1

2π

y = sin(2 π − π )

5π

2

y = sin

(2 π , 0)

= sin π = 0

= sin

5π

−π

2

5π

, −1

2

3π

= −1

2

y = sin(3π − π )

(3π , 0 )

= sin 2π = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

**17. The equation y = sin(x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is

C π

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

= = π . The

B

1

B 1

2π π

= . The cycle begins at x = π .

quarter-period is

4

2

Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=π

18. The equation y = sin x −

π

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

5π π

x=

+ = 3π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

2

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C =

π

2

. The

**amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
**

π

2π 2π

C 2 π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

= = . The

B

1

B 1 2

2π π

= . The cycle begins at

quarter-period is

4

2

x=

π

**. Add quarter-periods to generate
**

2

x-values for the key points.

548

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x=

x=

Section 4.5

19. The equation y = sin(2 x − π ) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is

2π 2π

C π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The quarterB

2

B 2

π

2

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

x

π

π

y = sin x −

π

2

y = sin

π

y = sin π −

3π

2

y = sin

2

π

−

x=

x=

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

2

= sin

3π π

−

2

2

π

2

=1

π

2

,0

(π , 1)

y = sin 2π −

3π

,0

2

y = sin

2

π

+

x

π

2

π

2

(2 π , −1)

5π π

−

2

2

π

=

3π

4

y = sin(2 x − π )

y = sin 2 ⋅

π

2

−π

coordinates

π

2

,0

= sin(π − π )

= sin 0 = 0

3π

= −1

= sin

2

5π

2

π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= sin π = 0

2π

π

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4

4

2

coordinates

2

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
**

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is

3π

4

5π

,0

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

= sin 2π = 0

= sin

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

3π

−π

4

3π

,1

4

3π

−π

2

π

2

=1

y = sin(2 ⋅ π − π )

= sin(2 π − π )

= sin π = 0

549

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(π , 0)

Trigonometric Functions

5π

4

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

= sin

3π

2

5π

−π

4

5π

, −1

4

x

5π

−π

2

π

4

3π

= −1

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

3π

−π

2

3π

,0

2

π

= sin(3π − π )

= sin 2π = 0

2

π

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

3π

4

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

coordinates

2

π

−

4

π

π

2

4

π

−

2

,0

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

= sin π −

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

y = sin 2x −

−

π

π

π

2

2

= sin

2

3π π

−

4 2

π

2

,1

=1

3π

,0

4

3π π

−

2

2

= sin π = 0

20. The equation y = sin 2x −

π

2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C =

π

2

= sin 2π −

. The

= sin

amplitude is A = 1 = 1.

2π 2π

=

=π.

The period is

B

2

5π

4

π

The phase shift is

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = .

B 2 2 2 4

The quarter-period is

π

4

The cycle begins at x =

x=

2

π

2

5π π

−

4 2

5π π

−

2

2

4

4

+

π

=

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

4

5π

,0

4

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

π

(π , −1)

= sin 2π = 0

. Add quarter-periods to

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

π

3π

= −1

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

.

π

y = sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

550

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**21. The equation y = 3sin(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is

2π 2π

C π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The quarterB

2

B 2

π

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
**

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is

x=

x=

π

2

π

+

π

=

3π

4

22. The equation y = 3 sin 2 x −

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4

4

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

π

2

y = 3sin(2x − π )

y = 3sin 2 ⋅

π

2

−π

y = 3sin 2 ⋅

3π

−π

4

,0

π

5π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= 3 sin

5π

−π

4

π

4

**The cycle begins at x =
**

x=

3π

,3

4

x=

π

4

+

π

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

(π , 0)

4

=

π

5π

, −3

4

3π

2

= 3(−1) = −3

3π

−π

2

π

4

5π

−π

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

.

π

= 3 sin

3π

2

.

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

π

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

y = 3sin(2 ⋅ π − π )

= 3sin(2 π − π )

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

3π

−π

= 3sin

2

= 3sin

π

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = .

The phase shift is

B 2 2 2 4

= 3sin(π − π )

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

3π

4

is of the form

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .

2π 2π

=

=π.

The period is

B

2

The quarter-period is

2

2

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C =

coordinates

π

π

3π

,0

2

= 3 sin(3π − π )

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

551

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

y = 3 sin 2 x −

π

π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= sin

π

2

−

4

π

23.

coordinates

2

−

π

π

2

4

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

,0

= 3 sin π −

= 3 sin

3π

4

π

2

−

π

π

2

2

,3

π

2

**. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
**

2

the key points.

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π π

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

−

4 2

= 3 sin 2π −

= 3 sin

5π

4

2

π

2

x=0+

x=

(π , − 3)

π

2

+

+

π

2

π

2

2

x

5π

,0

4

−

π

2

5π π

−

2

2

π

π

2

=

=0

π

2

=π

3π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=π+

π

5π π

−

4 2

2

x=−

3π

= 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= 3 sin

π

π

x=−

3π

,0

4

= 3 sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

x=−

3π π

= 3 sin

−

2

2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A =

2

2

1

π

sin x − −

2

2

1

π

, B = 1, and C = − .

2

2

1

1

The amplitude is A =

= . The period is

2

2

π

2π 2π

C −2

π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

=

=− .

B

B

1

1

2

2π π

The quarter-period is

= . The cycle begins at

4

2

π

π

1

π

π

1

sin x +

= sin x − −

2

2

2

2

The equation y =

= 3 sin 0 = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y=

=

y=

π

1

sin x +

2

2

y=

1

π π

sin − +

2

2 2

=

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

0

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=

=

π

2

y=

=

coordinates

−

π

2

,0

1

1

sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

1

π

sin 0 +

2

2

0,

1

2

1

1

π 1

sin = ⋅1 =

2

2

2 2

1

π π

sin

+

2

2 2

1

1

sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

552

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π

2

,0

PreCalculus 4E

π

Section 4.5

y=

1

π

sin π +

2

2

π, −

1

2

1

3π

sin

2

2

1

1

= ⋅(−1) = −

2

2

=

3π

2

y=

1

3π π

sin

+

2

2

2

3π

,0

2

x

y=

−π

y=

−

1

sin 2π

2

1

= ⋅0 = 0

2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

2

=

1

sin(− π + π )

2

1

1

= sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

=

0

π

2

24.

1

1

sin(x + π ) = sin( x − (− π ))

2

2

1

The equation y = sin(x − (−π )) is of the form

2

1

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = , B = 1, and C = −π .

2

1

1

The amplitude is A =

= . The period is

2

2

2π 2π

C −π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

=

= −π .

B

B

1

1

2π π

The quarter-period is

= . The cycle begins at

4

2

x = −π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

the key points.

x = −π

y=

x = −π +

x=−

π

2

x=0+

π

π

2

+

π

2

π

2

=

=−

1

π

sin − + π

2

2

1

sin(0 + π )

2

1

1

= sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

1

π

sin

+π

2

2

(−π , 0 )

−

π 1

2

,

2

(0, 0)

π

2

,−

1

2

1

3π 1

1

sin

= ⋅ (−1) = −

2

2

2

2

1

sin(π + π )

2

1

1

= sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

(π , 0)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

2

=0

π

2

π

+ =π

2 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

coordinates

1

1

π 1

sin = ⋅1 =

2

2

2 2

y=

=

π

1

sin(x + π )

2

553

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

25.

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

2

= −2 sin 2 x − −

The equation y = −2 sin 2x − −

π

2

π

x

2

−

is of the form

π

4

π

2

= −2 sin −

. The amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is

π

0

x=−

x=−

4

x=0+

x=

π

4

+

+

π

4

π

π

=

=

4

=0

π

−

π

4

,0

2

π

2

(0, –2)

π

2

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

= −2 sin

4

π

2

π

4

+

π

π

2

4

π

π

2

2

,0

π

+

2

= −2 sin π

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

π

4

4

2

2

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

4

π

π

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −2 sin

π

π

+

4

+

2

= −2 sin 0 +

π

**. The cycle begins at x = − . Add
**

4

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

period is

π

= −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π 2π

=

= π . The

B

2

π 1

π

C −2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarterphase shift is

B

2

2 2

4

π

π

coordinates

2

y = −2 sin 2⋅ −

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2,

B = 2, and C = −

π

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

π

2

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

π

2

= −2 sin π +

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

+

,2

π

2

3π

2

= −2(−1) = 2

= −2 sin

3π

4

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

= −2 sin

3π π

+

4 2

3π

,0

4

3π π

+

2 2

= −2 sin 2π

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

554

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

26.

Section 4.5

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

= −3sin 2x − −

The equation y = −3sin 2x − −

π

2

π

π

2

4

= −3sin

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2, and C = −

π

2

π

2

−

π

C

π 1

π

2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is .

2

2 2

4

4

B

π

4

π

4

+

+

π

4

π

4

π

4

=

=

=0

π

4

x

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

,0

+

π

π

2

2

,3

π

2

3π

,0

4

3π π

+

2

2

π

2

π

4

+

+

π

2

−

π

4

,0

π

2

= −3sin 0 = −3⋅ 0 = 0

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −3sin 0 +

= −3sin

4

3π π

+

4 2

coordinates

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ −

= −3sin −

0

2

2

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

4

π

π

+

π

π

π

π

= −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

−

+

3π

= −3⋅ (−1) = 3

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

4

x=0+

x=

3π

4

π

π

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

2

4

= −3sin π +

π

x=−

π

π

= −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

.

**The amplitude is A = −3 = 3. The period is
**

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

B

2

The cycle begins at x = −

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

π

2

π

2

(0, –3)

π

2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

555

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

27.

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

The equation y = 3sin(π x − (−2)) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = π , and C = –2.

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is

C −2

2

2π 2π

=

= 2 . The phase shift is

=

= − . The

B π

B

π

π

2 1

quarter-period is = . The cycle begins at

4 2

2

x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 4

3π − 4

y = 3sin π

+2

2π

2π

π

2π − 2

1 π −4

x=− + =

π 2

2π

π − 4 1 π −2

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

π − 2 1 3π − 4

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

3π − 4 1 2π − 2

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

2

−

2

π

y = 3sin π −

2

π

= 3sin

3π

−2 +2

2

3π

2

= 3(−1) = −3

π

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

3π − 4

+2

2

= 3sin

**the key points.
**

2

x=−

x

= 3sin

π

y = 3sin π

2π − 2

π

−

= 3sin

= 3sin

= 3sin

π −4

2

π

2

2

π

,0

π−4

,3

2π

+2

−2 + 2

π

2

= 3⋅1 = 3

π −2

π −2

π y = 3sin π π + 2

2π − 2

π

,0

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

= 3sin(−2 + 2)

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

π −4

π −4

2π y = 3sin π 2π + 2

+2

= 3sin(2 π − 2 + 2)

= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

coordinates

+2

5π

, −3

4

π −2

,0

π

= 3sin(π − 2 + 2)

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

556

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

28.

Section 4.5

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4) = 3sin(2π x − (−4))

The equation y = 3sin(2 πx − (−4)) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2π , and

C = –4. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period

C −4

2

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

=

=− .

is

B 2π

B 2π

π

1

The quarter-period is . The cycle begins at

4

2

x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 8

3π − 8

y = 3sin 2π

+4

4π

4π

**the key points.
**

2

x=−

π − 2 y = 3sin 2π π − 2 + 4

π

π

= 3sin(2 π − 4 + 4)

= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

π

1 π −8

=

4

4π

π −8 1 π − 4

x=

+ =

4

4π

2π

π − 4 1 3π − 8

x=

+ =

4

2π

4π

3π − 8 1 π − 2

x=

+ =

π

4

4π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=−

2

π

x

−

2

π

+

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4)

y = 3sin 2π −

2

π

= 3sin

= 3sin

2

π

2

π

2

= 3sin

3π

− 4+4

2

= 3sin

3π

= 3(−1) = −3

2

π −2

,0

π

coordinates

+4

π −8

π −8

+4

y = 3sin 2π

4π

4π

π −8

3π − 8

+4

2

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

−

2

π

,0

29.

= 3sin(−4 + 4)

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

= 3sin

= 3sin

3π − 8

, −3

4π

π −8

,3

4π

+4

−4 + 4

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

π −4

π−4

2π y = 3sin 2π 2 π + 4

π−4

,0

2π

= 3sin(π − 4 + 4)

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

**y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π ) = −2sin(2π x − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = −2 sin(2π x − (−4π )) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2, B = 2π , and

C = −4 π . The amplitude is A = −2 = 2 . The

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

1

C −4 π

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

2π

4

B

begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

7

1

x = −2 + = −

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

557

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π )

coordinates

–2 y = −2 sin(2π (−2) + 4 π )

= −2 sin(−4π + 4π )

= −2 sin 0

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

(–2, 0)

x

−

7

7

4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

−

π

2

7

, −2

4

7π

+ 4π

2

= −2 sin −

= −2 sin

−

30.

1

7

=−

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x = −2 +

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

3

3

2 y = −2 sin 2π − 2 + 4 π

3

− ,0

2

= −2 sin(−3π + 4π )

= −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

−

5

5

4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

= −2 sin −

**y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π ) = −3 sin(2π x − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = −3 sin(2 πx − (−4 π )) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2π , and

C = −4π . The amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The

2π 2π

=

= 1 . The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

C −4π

1

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

−

5

,2

4

5π

+ 4π

2

x

y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π )

–2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−2) + 4π )

(–2, 0)

= −3 sin( −4 π + 4π )

= −3 sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

3π

2

= −2 (−1) = 2

= −2 sin

−

–1 y = −2 sin(2π (−1) + 4 π )

= −2 sin(−2π + 4π )

coordinates

7

7

4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

(–1, 0)

= −3 sin −

= −2 sin 2π

= −3 sin

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

−

π

2

−

7

, −3

4

7π

+ 4π

2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

3

3

2 y = −3 sin 2π − 2 + 4π

3

− ,0

2

= −3 sin( −3π + 4π )

= −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

−

5

5

4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

= −3 sin −

= −3 sin

–1

−

5

,3

4

5π

+ 4π

2

3π

= −3(−1) = 3

2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−1) + 4π )

= −3 sin( −2 π + 4π )

= −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

558

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(–1, 0)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

the graph of y = 2 cosx .

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

**32. The equation y = 3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = 3. Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

**31. The equation y = 2 cosx is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = 2. Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

π

2

π

2

=

x=0+

π

x=

2

y = 2 cosx

2

π

y = 2 cos

π

2

= 2⋅0 = 0

y = 2 cos π

2

,0

(π , − 2)

= 2 ⋅(−1) = −2

3π

2

y = 2 cos

3π

2

= 2⋅0 = 0

3π

,0

2

2π

y = 2 cos2π

(2 π , 2 )

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

y = 3 cos x

0

y = 3 cos 0 = 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

(0, 2)

π

2

2

x

π

coordinates

y = 2 cos0

π

π

x=

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

π

+

2

=

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

0

2

x=π+

=π

π

x

π

π

y = 3 cos

π

2

coordinates

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = 3 cos π = 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3

3π

2

y = 3 cos

2π

y = 3 cos2 π = 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

2

(0, 3)

π

2

,0

(π , − 3)

3π

,0

2

(2 π , 3)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
**

and graph one complete cycle of the given function

with the graph of y = cos x .

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

559

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

33. The equation y = −2 cos x is of the form y = Acos x

with A = –2. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is 2π . The quarterπ

2π

or . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

period is

4

2

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

π

=

2

π

2

**34. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = –3. Thus, the amplitude is A = −3 = 3 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

π

2

x=

=π

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

coordinates

0

y = −2 cos 0

(0, –2)

2

π

y = −2 cos

π

2

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = −2 cos π

y = −2 cos

2π

y = −2 cos 2π

3π

2

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

y = −3 cos x

0

y = −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

π

,0

(π , 2)

= −2 ⋅ (−1) = 2

3π

2

π

=

x

2

π

+

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

π

2

x=π+

π

y = −2 cos x

π

π

3π

,0

2

y = −3 cos

π

2

coordinates

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

3π

2

y = −3 cos

2π

y = −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

3π

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

(0, –3)

π

2

,0

(π , 3)

3π

,0

2

(2 π , − 3)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

the graph of y = cos x .

(2 π , − 2)

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

the graph of y = cos x .

560

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**35. The equation y = cos2 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
**

with A = 1 and B = 2. Thus, the amplitude is

2π 2π

A = 1 = 1. The period is

=

= π . The

B

2

quarter-period is

π

**36. The equation y = cos 4 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
**

with A = 1 and B = 4. Thus, the amplitude is

2π 2π π

A = 1 = 1. The period is

=

= . The

B

4

2

π

. The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

4

+

π

4

π

4

=

=

π

x=0+

4

π

x=

2

π π 3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y = cos2 x

0

y = cos(2 ⋅ 0)

4

y = cos 2 ⋅

= cos

π

2

π

2

π

8

(0, 1)

π

4

4

π

2

2

y = cos 2 ⋅

3π

4

y = cos(2 ⋅ π )

+

π

8

π

, −1

8

=

=

π

8

π

0

y = cos(4 ⋅ 0) = cos 0 = 1

8

,0

y = cos 4 ⋅

4

y = cos 4 ⋅

3π

8

y = cos 4 ⋅

= cos

3π

,0

4

π

3π

=0

= cos

2

π

π

y = cos 4 x

= cos π = −1

3π

4

=

x

π

π

⋅

π

π

=0

y = cos 2 ⋅

π 1

π

coordinates

π

=

4

3π

x= + =

4 8

8

3π π π

x=

+ =

8

8 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= cos 0 = 1

π

2

**. The cycle begins at
**

4 2 4 8

x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

the key points.

x=0

quarter-period is

2

coordinates

π

8

π

4

= cos

π

2

=0

= cos π = −1

3π

8

(0, 1)

π

8

π

4

,0

, −1

3π

,0

8

3π

=0

2

y = cos 4 ⋅

π

2

= cos2 π = 1

π

2

,1

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

(π , 1)

= cos2 π = 1

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

561

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

37. The equation y = 4 cos2 πx is of the form

y = Acos Bx with A = 4 and B = 2π . Thus, the

amplitude is A = 4 = 4 . The period is

2π 2π

1

=

= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

x

y = 4 cos2 πx

0

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

**38. The equation y = 5 cos2 πx is of the form
**

y = Acos Bx with A = 5 and B = 2π . Thus, the

amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . The period is

2π 2π

1

=

= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

coordinates

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, 4)

= 4 cos 0

= 4 ⋅1 = 4

1

4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

= 4 cos

1

4

1

,0

4

π

2

= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1

2

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

1

2

1

, −4

2

3

4

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

= 5 cos

3

,0

4

3π

2

= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1

2

= 4 cos

1

0

1

4

= 4 ⋅ (−1) = −4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

y = 5 cos2 πx

coordinates

(0, 5)

= 5 cos 0 = 5 ⋅1 = 5

= 4 cos π

3

4

x

π

2

1

4

1

,0

4

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

1

2

1

, −5

2

= 5 cos π = 5 ⋅ (−1) = −5

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅1)

(1, 4)

3

4

= 4 cos2 π

= 4 ⋅1 = 4

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

= 5 cos

1

3π

4

3

,0

4

3π

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅1)

= 5 cos2 π = 5 ⋅1 = 5

562

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(1, 5)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 3π

2

(3π , 0 )

3π

2

= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

= −4 cos

4π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 4π

2

(4π , – 4)

= −4 cos 2π

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

1

x is of the form

2

1

y = Acos Bx with A = –4 and B = . Thus, the

2

amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . The period is

2π 2π

= 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . The quarter-period is

B

39. The equation y = −4 cos

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

2

4π

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

1

40. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form

3

1

y = Acos Bx with A = –3 and B = . Thus, the

3

amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The period is

2π 2π

= 1 = 2π ⋅3 = 6π . The quarter-period is

B

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

0

y = −4 cos

y = −4 cos

1

x

2

1

⋅0

2

coordinates

3

6π 3π

=

. The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

(0, –4)

= −4 cos 0

3π 3π

=

2

2

3π 3π

x=

+

= 3π

2

2

3π 9π

x = 3π +

=

2

2

9π 3π

x=

+

= 6π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

π

y = −4 cos

= −4 cos

1

⋅π

2

x=0+

(π , 0)

π

2

= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 2π

2

(2 π , 4)

= −4 cos π

= −4 ⋅ (−1) = 4

563

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

1

y = −3 cos x

3

0

y = −3 cos

x=0

coordinates

1

⋅0

3

3 3

=

2 2

3 3

x = + =3

2 2

3 9

x= 3+ =

2 2

9 3

x = + =6

2 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, –3)

= −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

3π

2

y = −3 cos

= −3 cos

1 3π

⋅

3 2

π

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

1

y = −3 cos ⋅ 3π

3

3π

3π

,0

2

(3π , 3)

= −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

9π

2

y = −3 cos

= −3 cos

6π

y = −3 cos

1 9π

⋅

3 2

x

y=−

π

1

cos x

3

2

0

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅ 0

3

2

9π

,0

2

0, −

1

2

1

cos0

2

1

1

= − ⋅1 = −

2

2

=−

3π

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

1

⋅ 6π

3

coordinates

3

2

(6π , − 3)

y=−

π 3

1

cos ⋅

3 2

2

3

,0

2

π

1

cos

2

2

1

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

= −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

=−

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅3

3

2

3,

1

2

1

cos π

2

1

1

= − ⋅(−1) =

2

2

=−

9

2

π

1

cos x is of the form

3

2

π

1

y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the

3

2

1

1

= . The period is

amplitude is A = −

2

2

2π 2π

3

6 3

= π = 2π ⋅ = 6 . The quarter-period is = .

B

π

4 2

41. The equation y = −

y=−

1

π 9

cos ⋅

3 2

2

9

,0

2

3π

1

cos

2

2

1

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

=−

6

3

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅6

3

2

1

cos2π

2

1

1

= − ⋅1 = −

2

2

=−

**The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to
**

generate x-values for the key points.

564

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6, −

1

2

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=−

6

=−

y=−

8

1

π

cos ⋅6

4

2

(6, 0)

3π

1

1

cos

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

2

2

π

1

cos ⋅8

4

2

8, −

1

2

1

1

1

cos2π = − ⋅1 = −

2

2

2

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

=−

π

1

cos x is of the form

4

2

π

1

y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the

4

2

1

1

= . The period is

amplitude is A = −

2

2

2π 2π

4

8

= π = 2π ⋅ = 8 . The quarter-period is 4 = 2 .

B

π

42. The equation y = −

4

**The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
**

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

π⎞

⎛

43. The equation y = cos ⎜ x − ⎟ is of the form

2⎠

⎝

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

x = 0 +2 = 2

x= 2+ 2 = 4

π

x = 4 +2 = 6

C=

x = 6 +2 = 8

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

period is

x

y=−

1

π

cos x

2

4

0

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅ 0

4

2

=−

2

y=−

=−

4

=−

1

2

cycle begins at x =

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

2

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

(2, 0)

x=

π

1

1

cos = − ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

2

π

1

y = − cos ⋅ 4

4

2

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

B

1

2π π

C 2 π

=

= . The quarter-period is

= . The

4

2

B 1 2

1

1

1

cos0 = − ⋅1 = −

2

2

2

π

1

cos ⋅2

4

2

A = 1 = 1 . The

π

coordinates

0, −

. Thus, the amplitude is

2

π

2

π

2

+

x =π +

π

2

π

=π

=

3π

2

2

3π π

+ = 2π

x=

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1

4,

2

1

1

1

cos π = − ⋅ (−1) =

2

2

2

565

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

π

x

coordinates

π

2

⎛π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

x=−

π

(π , 0 )

x =0+

3π

2

⎛ 3π

⎞

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

⎝

⎠

2π

( 2π , 0 )

5π

2

⎛ 5π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

x=−

x=

2

period is

π

2

π

+

2

π

2

π

2

=

=0

π

2

=π

3π

=

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

. Thus, the amplitude is

π

x

coordinates

π

⎛ π ⎞

⎜ − 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

−

π⎞

⎛

44. The equation y = cos ⎜ x + ⎟ is of the form

2⎠

⎝

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

π

+

2

x =π +

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

C=−

2

π

2

0

( 0, 0 )

π

2

⎛π

⎞

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

⎝

⎠

π

(π , 0 )

3π

2

⎛ 3π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

A = 1 = 1 . The

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

B

1

π

−

2π π

C

π

= 2 = − . The quarter-period is

= . The

4

2

B

1

2

cycle begins at x = −

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

2

generate x-values for the key points.

566

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**45. The equation y = 3cos(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 3, and B = 2, and

**46. The equation y = 4 cos(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 4, and B = 2, and C = π .

Thus, the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. The period is

C π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The

B 2

B

2

**C = π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The
**

C π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= .

period is

B 2

B

2

The quarter-period is

π

. The cycle begins at x =

π

4

2

Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=

x=

π

x=

2

π

+

π

=

π

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add
**

4

2

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

quarter-period is

.

π

2

π 3π

+ =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4 4

2

3π

4

x=

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4 4

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

**Evaluate the function at each value of x.
**

x

coordinates

π

π

2

2

x

,3

coordinates

π

π

2

2

,4

3π

4

3π

,0

4

3π

4

3π

,0

4

π

(π , − 3)

π

(π , − 4)

5π

4

5π

,0

4

5π

4

5π

,0

4

3π

2

3π

,4

2

3π

2

3π

,3

2

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

567

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

47.

1

1

π

π

= cos 3x − −

cos 3x +

2

2

2

2

y=

The equation y =

1

π

cos 3x − −

2

2

is of the form

1

, and B = 3, and

2

1

1

π

= . The

C = − . Thus, the amplitude is A =

2

2

2

2π 2π

=

. The phase shift is

period is

B

3

π

π 1

π

C −2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is

3

2 3

6

B

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A =

π

1

1

cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π ))

2

2

1

The equation y = cos(2 x − (−π )) is of the form

2

1

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = , and B = 2, and

2

1

1

C = −π . Thus, the amplitude is A =

= . The

2

2

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

period is

B

2

C −π

π

π

=

= − . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2

2

4

6

begins at x = −

48.

2π

3

π

2π 1 π

=

⋅ = . The cycle begins at x = − . Add

4

3 4 6

6

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

x=−

π

6

π

6

x=0+

π

x=

6

π

x=

+

+

π

+

=0

6

π

=

6

π

6

π

=

=

−

π

6

3

π

x=−

0

x=−

π 1

,

6 2

π

6

6

,−

π

π

3

3

π

2

π

2

π

4

x=0+

(0, 0)

π

π

x=−

coordinates

−

π

**. Add quarter-periods to generate x2
**

values for the key points.

π

3 6 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y=

x=

π

+

+

π

4

π

π

4

π

4

=

=−

π

4

=0

π

4

π

+ =

4 4 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1

2

,0

π 1

,

2 2

2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function

568

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x

−

−

π

2

π

4

Section 4.5

49. The equation y = −3 cos 2x −

−

−

π 1

,

2 2

π

4

B = 2, and C =

,0

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −3 = 3. The period is

π

0

1

0, −

2

π

π

4

4

π 1

2

,

. The cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter4

4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

,0

2

π

2π 2π

=

= π . The

B

2

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period

B 2 2 2 4

phase shift is

is

π

π

**is of the form
**

2

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –3, and

coordinates

x=

2

x=

π

4

π

π

π

x

4

=

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

4

+

π

coordinates

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −3

,0

3π

4

3π

,3

4

π

(π , 0)

5π

4

5π

, −3

4

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

569

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

50. The equation y = −4 cos 2x −

π

51.

is of the form

2

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –4, and B = 2, and

C=

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 .

The period is

π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

B

2

π

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period is . The

4

B 2 2 2 4

cycle begins at x =

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

x=

π

4

π

4

+

π

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

x

4

=

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −4

3π

,4

4

π

(π , 0)

5π

4

5π

, −4

4

coordinates

–4

(–4, 2)

15

4

−

7

2

7

− , −2

2

13

4

−

−

,0

3π

4

x

−

coordinates

π

**y = 2 cos(2π x + 8π ) = 2 cos(2πx − (−8π ))
**

The equation y = 2 cos(2π x − (−8π )) is of the form

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 2, B = 2π , and C = −8π .

Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2. The period is

C −8π

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

=

= −4 . The

B 2π

B 2π

1

quarter-period is . The cycle begins at x = –4. Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x = −4

1

15

x = −4 + = −

4

4

15 1

7

x=− + =−

4 4

2

7 1

13

x=− + =−

2 4

4

13 1

x = − + = −3

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

−

–3

15

,0

4

13

,0

4

(–3, 2)

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
**

and graph one complete cycle of the given function.

570

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

52.

Section 4.5

**y = 3cos(2πx + 4 π ) = 3 cos(2πx − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = 3cos(2πx − (−4π )) is of the form

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 3, and B = 2π , and

C = −4π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

1

C −4π

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

4

B 2π

begins at x = –2. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

1

7

x = −2 + = −

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

–2

**53. The graph of y = sin x + 2 is the graph of y = sin x
**

shifted up 2 units upward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

x

y = sin x + 2

coordinates

0

y = sin 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

(0, 2)

coordinates

π

(–2, 3)

2

7

,0

4

π

y = sin π + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

3π

2

y = sin

2π

y = sin 2π + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

−

7

4

−

−

3

2

3

− , −3

2

−

5

4

−

5π

,0

4

–1

(–1, 3)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

+2

2

=1 +2 = 3

y = sin

3π

+2

2

= −1 + 2 = 1

π

2

,3

(π , 2)

3π

,1

2

(2 π , 2 )

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

571

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

54. The graph of y = sin x − 2 is the graph of y = sin x

shifted 2 units downward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

**55. The graph of y = cos x − 3 is the graph of y = cos x
**

shifted 3 units downward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

π

x=0+

2

=π

=

x=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y = sin x − 2

0

y = sin 0 − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

2

y = sin

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

y = sin π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

3π

2

y = sin

2π

y = sin 2π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

3π

− 2 = −1 − 2 = −3

2

π

2

π

2

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

x=

coordinates

− 2 = 1 − 2 = −1

2

=

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

π

π

π

(0, –2)

π

4

, −1

x

y = cos x − 3

coordinates

0

y = cos 0 − 3

= 1 − 3 = −2

(0, –2)

π

y = cos

π

−3

2

= 0 − 3 = −3

(π , − 2)

2

3π

, −3

2

π

y = cos π − 3

= −1 − 3 = − 4

3π

2

y = cos

2π

y = cos2 π − 3

= 1 − 3 = −2

(2 π , − 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

3π

−3

2

= 0 − 3 = −3

π

2

, −3

(π , − 4)

3π

, −3

2

(2 π , − 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

572

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

**56. The graph of y = cos x + 3 is the graph of y = cos x
**

shifted 3 units upward. The period for both functions

2π

π

is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The cycle

4

2

begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

π

2

=π

=

x

y = 2sin

0

y = 2sin

3π

2

x

y = cos x + 3

0

y = cos 0 + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

2

(0, 1)

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

y = cos

1

⋅0 +1

2

coordinates

= 2sin 0 + 1

x=

π

1

x +1

2

π

2

π

= 2sin

(0, 4)

π

2

2π

,3

π

y = cos π + 3 = −1 + 3 = 2

(π , 2)

3π

2

y = cos

3π

+3 = 0 + 3 = 3

2

3π

,3

2

2π

y = cos2 π + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

(2 π , 4)

1

⋅π + 1

2

(π , 3)

π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

coordinates

+3 = 0+ 3= 3

y = 2sin

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 2π + 1

2

(2 π , 1)

= 2sin π + 1

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 3π + 1

2

(3π , − 1)

3π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1

= −2 + 1 = −1

= 2sin

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

4π

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 4π + 1

2

(4π , 1)

= 2sin 2π + 1

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we

obtain one period of the graph.

1

**57. The graph of y = 2sin 2 x + 1 is the graph
**

1

**of y = 2sin 2 x shifted one unit upward. The
**

amplitude for both functions is 2 = 2. The period

2π

for both functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter2

4π

period is

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

573

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

1

58. The graph of y = 2 cos x + 1 is the graph of

2

1

y = 2 cos x shifted one unit upward. The amplitude

2

for both functions is 2 = 2. The period for both

2π

functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter-period is

2

4π

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

1

y = 2 cos x + 1

2

0

y = 2 cos

1

⋅0 +1

2

**59. The graph of y = −3 cos2 πx + 2 is the graph of
**

y = −3 cos2 πx shifted 2 units upward. The amplitude

for both functions is −3 = 3. The period for both

1

2π

= 1. The quarter-period is . The

functions is

4

2π

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

coordinates

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, 3)

= 2 cos0 + 1

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

π

y = 2 cos

= 2 cos

1

⋅π + 1

2

(π , 1)

π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

2π

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 2π + 1

2

x

y = −3 cos2 πx + 2

0

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 0) + 2

= −3 cos 0 + 2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2

= −3 + 2 = −1

(2 π , − 1)

= 2 cos π + 1

= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1 = − 2 + 1 = −1

3π

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 3π + 1

2

1

4

(3π , 1)

= −3 cos

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 4π + 1

2

π

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

4π

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

(4π , 3)

1

2

= 2 cos2π + 1

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

1

+2

4

coordinates

(0, –1)

1

,2

4

+2

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

1

+2

2

= −3 cos π + 2

= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2

= 3 +2 = 5

574

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1

,5

2

PreCalculus 4E

3

4

Section 4.5

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

3

+2

4

3

,2

4

3π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

x

y = −3sin 2πx + 2

0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) + 2

= −3sin 0 + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

= −3 cos

1

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 1) + 2

= −3 cos2 π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2

= −3 + 2 = −1

1

4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

(1, –1)

= −3sin

1

+2

4

coordinates

(0, 2)

1

, −1

4

π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2 = −3 + 2 = −1

1

2

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

1

+2

2

1

,2

2

= −3sin π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

3

4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

3

+2

4

3

,5

4

3π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5

= −3sin

1

**60. The graph of y = −3sin 2πx + 2 is the graph of
**

y = −3 sin 2πx shifted two units upward. The

amplitude for both functions is A = −3 = 3. The

2π

= 1. The quarterperiod for both functions is

2π

1

period is . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter–

4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 1) + 2

= −3sin 2π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

(1, 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

**61. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 ,
**

The period is 4π and thus

2π

2π 1

B=

=

=

period 4π 2

y = A cos Bx

y = 3cos

1

x

2

575

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

**62. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 , The
**

period is 4π and thus

2π

2π 1

=

=

B=

period 4π 2

y = A sin Bx

y = 3sin

67.

1

x

2

**63. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,
**

The period is π and thus

2π

2π

=

=2

B=

period π

y = A sin Bx

68.

y = −2sin 2 x

64. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,

The period is 4π and thus

2π

2π

=

=2

B=

period π

y = A cos Bx

69.

y = −2cos 2 x

65. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 , The

period is 4 and thus

2π

2π π

=

=

B=

period

4

2

70.

y = A sin Bx

⎛π

y = 2sin ⎜

⎝2

⎞

x⎟

⎠

**66. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 ,
**

The period is 4 and thus

2π

2π π

=

=

B=

period

4

2

y = A cos Bx

71.

⎛π ⎞

y = 2 cos ⎜ x ⎟

⎝2 ⎠

72.

576

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Thus. The period is c. This occurs when the sine function equals –1. The period of the intellectual cycle is 23 days. Inc. 79. 14) corresponds to June By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph the information from June of one year to June of the following year. (6. (12. Thus. 12) corresponds to March. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the author should begin writing the on February 11. the intellectual cycle is at a maximum on February 11. (6. (0. 76. a. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(−1) + 12 y = 3sin y=9 There will be 9 hours of daylight. 23) corresponds to Noon. B 2π 365 y = 15 There will be 15 hours of daylight. 53) corresponds to 6 P. (9. 23) corresponds to Midnight. In the month of March. 73. the physical cycle is at a minimum on February 18. Extend the graph one cycle to the right to graph the information for 0 ≤ x ≤ 24. 2π . because the emotional cycle is at a maximum. (12. (9. 2π y = 3sin ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(1) + 12 81. Answers may vary. The information gives the five key points of the graph.M. This occurs when the sine function equals 1.M. 365 2π 2π 365 = 2π = 2π ⋅ = 365 . The amplitude is b. In the month of February. Answers may vary. March 21 would be the best day to meet an on-line friend for the first time. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 is of the form 365 C⎞ ⎛ y = A sin B ⎜ x − ⎟ + D with B⎠ ⎝ 85. the author should not run in a marathon on February 18. The longest day of the year will have the most hours of daylight. 38) corresponds to 9 P. A = 3 and B = 80. The information gives the five key point of the graph. 38) corresponds to 3 P. (3. 75. The shortest day of the year will have the least hours of daylight. In the month of February. By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph information from noon to midnight. (3. 74.5 84. The function y = 3sin 78.. The period of the physical cycle is 33 days. 12) corresponds to September. 577 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (0.. . 82. d. A = 3 = 3.M. 14) corresponds to June.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 77.. The period of the emotional cycle is 28 days. 10) corresponds to December. 83.

9. The period is 12. D = 9. The amplitude is A = 16 = 16 . The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12-0. The C phase shift is = 79 . The highest average monthly temperature is 56° in July. we will evaluate the function for the first four xvalues along with x = 0 and x = 365. Add 4 quarter-periods to find the x-values of the key points. 9 feet.5. 2π ⎛π 86. Thus. along with x = 1 and x = 12. 24) (4. 15) (261. . Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 6 feet to a maximum of 12 feet. 26.25. πx 6 +9.75. The quarter-period is 3 π 12 = 3 . x=4 The amplitude is 3. 2π .25 . The maximum depth of the water is 3 feet above 9 feet.07) (79. the curve oscillates about the middle value. The phase B π 6 and C = C = shift is B 2π 3 π 6 B= 2π π = 12 6 Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D .25 x = 170.75 + 91. x = 4+3 = 7 x = 7 + 3 = 10 x = 10 + 3 = 13 x = 13 + 3 = 16 Because we are graphing for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . 9. 40) (7. A = 3.25 = 352. B = π 6 . The cycle begins at x = 79.07) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain one period of the graph. 40) (12.5 + 91. 56) (10.Trigonometric Functions e. 9) (365. The quarter-period is B 365 = 91. 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π ⎞ ⎟ + 40 is in the ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) + D with A = 16. Inc. (1. Thus. 578 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The period is 365.5 x = 261. Thus.25 = 170. or 12 hours. Using a calculator we have the following points. Publishing as Prentice Hall.25 = 261. 3 2π 2π 6 The period is = π = 2π ⋅ = 12 .25 + 91. we will evaluate the function for the three x-values between 1 and 12.25 = 444 Because we are graphing for 0 ≤ x ≤ 365 . 12) (352. x = 79 x = 79 + 91. The depth of the water is modeled by y = 3cos 2π 6 = ⋅ = 4 . 12) (170. (0. Add quarter4 periods to find the x-values for the key points. starting on January 1. Using a calculator we have the following points.75 x = 352. The function y = 16 sin ⎜ x − 3 ⎝6 87.1) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain the graph for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . The cycle begins at x = 4.

We choose B π 10 −10 ≤ x ≤ 30 . the graph has a vertical shift 5 units π 5π .2 = 0. Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . The amplitude is 2π 2π = = π . The cycle begins at B 2 C −π π π 3π x= = = − . A = 1. Thus. or 12 hours. and C = −π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. and −1 ≤ y ≤ 1 for our graph. the curve oscillates about the middle value. and B 2 2 2 2 −4 ≤ y ≤ 4 for our graph. and A = 3 = 3 .2sin ⎜ x − (−π ) ⎟ is of the ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 0. period is C π 2π 2π = = π . 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π B= 103. π 2 to π 2 . The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. – 100. π⎞ ⎛ 102. B 2 B 2 Because D = 5. The amplitude is period is A = 3 = 3 . B = 2π . The D = 5. The depth of the water is modeled by y = cos π . We choose − ≤ x ≤ .2. The function y = 3sin(2 x − π ) + 5 is of the form the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 3. Inc. The cycle begins at B 2π π C π 1 1 1 9 = 2 = ⋅ = . We choose ≤ x ≤ 2 2 our graph. The amplitude is y = A cos( Bx − C ) + D with A = 3.2 sin ⎜ x + π ⎟ = 0.2 . The period is 105. A = −2 = 2 . Answers may vary. and 10 A = 0. . Thus. B = 2. B = 2. and 0 ≤ y ≤ 10 for upward. The maximum depth of the water is 1 foot above 4 feet. and C= π 2 . The period is 12. Thus. 101.5 88. The graphs appear to be the same from − x= 579 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The amplitude is period is 2π π = 12 6 at x = πx 6 2π 2π 10 = π = 2π ⋅ = 20 . We choose ≤ x ≤ . The +4. The 2π 2π = = 1 . The function ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ y = 0. C = π . Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 3 feet to a maximum of 5 feet. 89. The cycle begins at x = = . The function y = 3sin(2 x + π ) = 3sin(2 x − (−π )) is of 104. 4 4 B 2π 2 2π 4 and −3 ≤ y ≤ 3 for our graph. D = 4. The cycle begins B π 10 C −π 10 = π = −π ⋅ = −10 . The function y = −2 cos ⎜ 2π x − ⎟ is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx − C ) with A = –2. B = C = −π . 4 feet.

.04) + 57. Since A = 1 and D = −2. Answers may vary. 106. ⎥ by [ −5.17 y = π cos(2π x + 4π ) or y = π cos [ 2π ( x + 2) ] 580 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus the range is [ −3. Sample explanation: It may be easier to start at the highest point. does not make sense. 111. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.1. 113.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . b. ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ 108. ⎡ π 23π π ⎤ . 116.1] The graph is similar to y = sin x . 114. except not smooth.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . makes sense 107.Trigonometric Functions 110. the maximum will occur at 3 − 2 = 1 and the minimum will occur at −3 − 2 = −5 . Inc. except the amplitude is greater and the curve is less smooth. Since A = 3 and D = −2. the maximum will occur at 1 − 2 = −1 and the minimum will occur at −1 − 2 = −3 . makes sense 115. A = π 109. ⎥ by [ −3. a.61sin(0. b. Thus the range is [ −5. −1] ⎡ π 7π π ⎤ . a.50 x − 2. −1. makes sense The graphs appear to be the same from − π 2 to π 2 112. B= 2π 2π = = 2π period 1 C C = = −2 B 2π C = −4π y = A cos( Bx − C ) y = 22. ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ The graph is very similar to y = sin x . Explanations will vary.

2 119. . y = sin 2 x = 1 1 − cos 2 x 2 2 − 121.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. b. a. 1 1 118.5 117. − π 2 − π π 2 < x+ < x+ π π 4 − < π π 2 < π − π 4 4 4 2 4 2π π 2π π − − <x< − 4 4 4 4 π 3π − <x< 4 4 ⎧ 3π π⎫ ⎛ 3π π ⎞ . ⎟ < x < ⎬ or ⎜ − ⎨x − 4 4 ⎝ 4 4⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 581 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3π π 2π π + − − 4 4 = 4 = 2 = −π 2 2 2 4 122. y = cos x = + cos 2 x 2 2 The reciprocal function is undefined. − 120.

Trigonometric Functions Section 4. 0+π π x-intercept = = 2 2 582 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 0 and x = π . 0). two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − . An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. the x-intercept. . In order to graph for 3π <x< . and the points midway between to graph one period π 4 to π 4 and the graph passes through π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . ⎝ ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. The 2 2 curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Midway between these asymptotes is x = 4 0. Inc. 0). Solve the equations 2 x = − x= − π and 2 π 2x = x= 4 and x = 2 π 4 π . the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 . to graph one full period of π Thus. Continue the pattern 2⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Midway between x = 0 and x = 2 is x = 1. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. An xintercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. x = 0 and x 2 1 π = 2.6 Check Point Exercises 1. Use the two asymptotes. 1 Because the coefficient of the cotangent is . Solve the equations x− π 2 =− x= π π and 2 π x− π 2 = π 2 π π x= + − 2 2 2 2 x=0 x =π Thus. 0 ⎟ . Solve the equations π 2 x = 0 and x=0 π 2 x =π x= π π 2 2. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. 4 π of y = 3 tan 2 x from − 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ 2 . − π An x-intercept is π 3. to graph one full period of y = cot x .

Use the and extend the graph − 4 graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Starting with x = 0. Use the first four points graph for − 4 4 3π units to the left. from to 0 is − units. π= C= π 2 +C π 2 π⎞ ⎛ The function is y = − tan ⎜ x − ⎟ . Use quarter-periods. 583 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. In order to 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 3π 3π ≤x≤ .PreCalculus 4E 4. The graph has an asymptote at x = 0 . 2. . The graph has an asymptote at x = − The phase shift. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. from to − is −π units. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. Evaluating the function at each 4 2 4 value of x. 2) . The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 2. 2⎠ ⎝ 4. . Thus. amplitude: A = 2 = 2 C=− 2π 2π period: = =π B 2 π 2 The function with C = − π .6 π⎞ ⎛ vertical asymptotes of y = csc ⎜ x + ⎟ . ⎜ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. and π .6 π⎞ ⎛ The x-intercepts of y = sin ⎜ x + ⎟ correspond to 4⎠ ⎝ Exercise Set 4. Thus. 2 2 B C C = = −π B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = tan( x + π ) . −2 ⎟ . = =0 B 1 C =0 The function with C = 0 is y = − tan x . ⎜ . 0 ⎟ . C π π . . 0 ⎟ . π π⎞ ⎛ is y = tan ⎜ x + ⎟ . the x-values are π π 3π 0. π 2 . 2). 4⎠ ⎝ 1. 2 2 B C C π = =− 2 B 1 3. Inc. to find x-values for the five 4 key points. ⎜ . and use them as guides to graph y = 2sec 2 x . 2 2⎠ ⎝ The graph has an asymptote at x = π . y = 2 cos 2 x . 5. Section 4. . C π π The phase shift. 2 C C There is no phase shift. (π . The graph has an asymptote at π . .

Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. x from −2π to 4 2π . to graph one full period of y = tan 2 x from 2 4 x-intercept = 6. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. − π π to . 0). Inc. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . π 4 and 2 x = x= x= π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. π Solve the equations π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. . Solve the equations 2 x = − π 2 − π2 x= 2 x=− Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. 0). 584 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = −2π and x x = 2π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0.Trigonometric Functions 5. to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 7. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. to graph one full period of y = 3 tan from 4 −2π to 2π . 1 0). two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 π . x = − and 4 2 π 1 x = . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 4 . Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. x = −2π and x = 2π . −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the tangent is . π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ Solve the equations x = ⎜ − ⎟ 4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0.

to graph one full period of y = −2 tan x 2 from −π to π .PreCalculus 4E 8. Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− x= and 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x =π Thus. x = −π and x = π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− and x= 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x=π Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. Section 4. to graph one full 1 period of y = −3 tan x from −π to π . to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 2 x from π to . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Inc. and . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. 0). x = −π and 1 x = π .6 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. 4 4 Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Solve the equations 2x = − x= π and 2 x = 2 −2 2 π x=− x= π x= 4 π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. 0). Continue 2 the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. x = − x= − π π 4 π 4 10. −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 585 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 9. . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the tangent is –2. Because the coefficient of the tangent is –3. − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 π 4 . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. 0).

0) . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. Continue the pattern y = tan( x − π ) from 2 2 and extend the graph another full period to the right. C π π . ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 2 π +π 2 3π x= 2 x= π π 2 3π . from 0 to is units. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = and the graph passes through and 1. There is no phase shift. Inc. 4 − x-intercept = π 4 2 .Trigonometric Functions 11. to graph one full period of and x = 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . x = π 4 3π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − π C= π 2 The function with C = π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = − cot ⎜ x − ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. and x = 13. The graph has an asymptote at 12. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. 3π . The function with C = 0 and A = –1 is y = − cot x . 14. The phase shift. An x-intercept is π π 2 Thus. and x = 2 x-intercept = 4 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Solve the equations x −π = − x=− x= π and 2 π 2 +π x −π = 13. Thus. B 1 2 π Thus. Continue the pattern 4⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. Solve the equations x− π 4 =− π and 2 2π π + x=− 4 4 x=− π 4 x− π 4 = 2 2π π + x= 4 4 3π x= 4 3π and x = . . B 2 2 C C π = = Thus. C C = =0 B 1 C =0 Because the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. 0 ⎟ . to graph one full period of 2 π 3π to . 2⎠ ⎝ 4 3π 2π 4 = 4 =π 2 2 4 + 586 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = − π 2 + 32π 42π 4π = = =π 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π and the graph passes through (π . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 π 2 and 1. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. A = –1.

The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Inc. from 0 to − is − units. π and the graph passes through intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 17. Two An x-intercept is 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . x = 0 2 1 and x = π . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 1 .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. x-intercept = π and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . The phase shift. The graph has an asymptote at −π . C . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. 2 C π π C C π = =− . 2 2⎠ ⎝ An x-intercept is 0+π π = 2 2 2 1 2 1 and − . 587 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. x = 0 and x = π . 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π . 0 +π π x-intercept = = 2 2 . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Publishing as Prentice Hall. B 1 2 B 2 2 C=− The function with C = − π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. The graph has an asymptote at − π 18. consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π .6 15. the points on the graph midway between an x2 16. B C C = = −π Thus. The phase shift. 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = cot( x + π ) . to graph one full period of y = cot x . Thus. . from 0 to −π is −π units. to graph one full period of y = 2 cot x .

x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . 0 ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. to graph one full period of y = 2 cot 2 x . x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . x = 0 and x = π 2 . 0 ⎟ . x = 0 2 π 1 and x = . x = 0 and x = 2. The curve is repeated along the x-axis 2 one full period as shown. 0). ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. 20. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3.Trigonometric Functions 19. Solve the equations π 2 x=0 x=0 and π 2 x =π x= π π 2 1 intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 1 and − . Solve the equations 2 x = 0 and x=0 2x = π x= The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. 0+2 2 x-intercept = = =1 2 2 An x-intercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. to graph one full period of y = cot 2 x . Solve the equations 2 x = 0 x=0 and 2x = π x= π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 1 . to graph one full period of y = −3cot π x . x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is –3. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. the points on the graph midway between an x2 21. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 2. 2 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Inc. 588 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .

2 2⎠ ⎝ 589 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. to graph one full period of y = −2cot π 24. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 3. 0 ⎟ . to graph one full period of 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Solve the equations x+ π 4 =0 and x =0− x .6 22. x = 0 and x = 4 . − π2 + π2 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is – 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. 0+4 4 x-intercept = = =2 2 2 An x-intercept is 2 and the graph passes through ( 2. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = − π 4 3π and x = . x+ π π 4 =π x =π − 4 π π 4 3π x= 4 4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π 2 =0 and x =0− x=− π 2 π 2 x+ π 2 x= π π 2 4 and the graph passes through and –3. to graph one full period of y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . The curve is repeated along the x- x=− 4 axis one full period as shown. Solve the equations π π and 2 π π⎞ ⎛ x = . x =π x= π π 4 x=4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 4. x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Inc. Solve the equations π 4 π x = 0 and 4 x=0 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. 0 ) . 4 x-intercept = 23. 0). the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 =π x =π − and − π4 + 34π 24π π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is x+ 4 3π . x = − 2 2 π 2 and .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 3. The curve is repeated along the x4⎠ ⎝ axis one full period as shown. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. .

and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = 3csc 4 x . . (π . y = 3sin x . The x-intercepts of y = 590 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. The x-intercepts of y = 3sin 4 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = 3csc 4 x . 0). and 2π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. Draw the 2 2 vertical asymptotes. ⎜ . amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. π . The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 3 and B = 1. Inc. 26. and use them as a guide to 1 x sketch the graph of y = − csc . 2 2 each value of x.Trigonometric Functions 1 x 25. 0) . the key points are (0. and use them as guides to graph y = 3csc x . Use ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ these key points to graph y = 3sin x from 0 to 2π . 1 cos 2π x corresponds to 2 1 vertical asymptotes of y = sec 2π x . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. π 2 x. ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ . 2 27. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = −3sec 29. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. and use them as a guide to 1 sketch the graph of y = sec 2π x . 0). Starting with x = 0. . and (2π . Draw the vertical asymptotes. the x-values are π 3π . The x-intercepts of y = −3cos π 2 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = −3sec π x . − 3 ⎟ . 2 2 28. π . Evaluating the function at 0. 3 ⎟ . to find x-values for the 2 five key points. Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. The x-intercepts of y = − sin corresponds to 2 2 1 x vertical asymptotes of y = − csc .

2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Use these key points to graph y = 2sin x from 0 to 2π . and (4π . 0).6 30. ⎜ 2π . π . 4π . and 2π . . 2 1 1 amplitude: A = = 2 2 2π 2π period: = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. (2π . 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 x Use these key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 2 4 8π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. ⎜ 3π . ⎜ . 32. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. to find x-values for the five key points. π . 2π . ⎟ . y = 1 x sin . − 2 ⎟ . Starting with x = 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. The 2 4 3 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . 0) . . and use them as guides to graph y = 2cscx. and use them as guides to graph 3 x y = csc . Inc. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. the x-values are 0. 2 ⎟ . to find x-values for the five key points. 0). 2 2 31. ⎟ . π . 4 3 3 = amplitude: A = 2 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π period: B 4 Use quarter-periods. y = 2sin x . − ⎟ . 0) . Graph the reciprocal sine function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6π . 3π . 0) . The Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Evaluating the function at each value of x. and (2π . 2 2 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. π . and 8π . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ π . and 4π . 3 x sin . ⎜ 6π . Starting with x = 0. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. Evaluating the function at each value of x. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Use these 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 4π . the key points are (0. the x-values are 0. and use 1 x them as guides to graph y = csc . y = Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Starting with x = 0. and (8π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 0). 0). (π . the x-values are π 3π 0. to find x-values for the five 2 key points. 2 4 591 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. ⎜ . 2π . − ⎟ . 0). 0). The 2 2 1 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . . Graph the reciprocal sine function. the key points are 3⎞ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎛ (0. (4π .

Starting with x = 0. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 3π . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. ⎝2 ⎠ 3 π ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . to find x-values for 4 2 the five key points. x 35. amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: Use these key points to graph y = 3cos x from 0 to 2π . and (2π . 3 amplitude: B= period: A = 1 =1 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 3 = 6π B 3 6π 3π = . Use these key points to ⎝ 2 ⎠ graph y = 2 cos x from 0 to 2π . Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. − 3). 2). The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. the x-values 3π 9π . 1) . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. y = 2 cos x . 2 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ at each value of x. 0 ⎟ . Evaluating the function at each value 2 2 ⎛π ⎞ of x. ⎜ . π . and 2π . . π . π . 3). Graph the reciprocal cosine function. (π . Inc. ⎜ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0 ⎟ . and 6π . ⎜ . the key points are (0. − 2). Extend the 3 graph one cycle to the right. amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. and (6π . 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . π. the x-values are π 3π 0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 592 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2) . 34. 3) . and use them as x guides to graph y = sec . and use them as guides to graph y = 3sec x . Evaluating the function are 0. π 3π . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 0 ⎟ . . the key points are (0. ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ x points to graph y = cos from 0 to 6π . The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 3 and B = 1 . − 1). (2π . y = cos . . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 9π ⎞ . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. . the x-values are 0. The 3 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . Use these key (3π . 1). Starting with x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2π . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec x . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 3 Use quarter-periods. (π .Trigonometric Functions 33. 0 ⎟ . ⎜ . y = 3cos x . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Starting with x = 0.

π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. the key points are (0. 0) . and (2. Evaluating the function at each value of x. 1). ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ . 0). . 2 Use quarter-periods. Evaluating the 2 2 function at each value of x. 0). and (2. 0 ) . Inc. (1. 2 amplitude: A = − period: 1 1 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . Starting with x = 0. 1 3 the x-values are 0. x 36. to find x-values for the five key points. the x-values are 0. 1. − 2 ⎟ . Starting with x = 0. 2 The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with x from 0 to 2 4π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 3π . . (2π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. the key points are (0. to find 4 2 x-values for the five key points. 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎝2 2⎠ 1 Use these key points to graph y = − sin π x from 0 2 to 2 . Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. 37. The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . 2 ⎟ . ⎜ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . period: 1 38. ⎜ . The 2 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . ( 3π . the x-values are 1 3 0. and (4π . ⎜ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 B= 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. y = cos . ⎟ . and 2. . 1) . Starting with x = 0. 0). x and use them as guides to graph y = sec . 1 and use them as guides to graph y = − csc π x . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. . π . Use quarter-periods. and 2 . − 1). Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. and use them as guides to graph y = −2 csc π x . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 2 A=− Use these key points to graph y = cos 1 and B = π . amplitude: A = −2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . the key points are 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎛3 1⎞ (0. (1. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. (π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0) . 593 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = −2sin π x . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. Use these key 2 ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ points to graph y = −2sin π x from 0 to 2.6 Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 0 ) . y = − sin π x . 0). and 4π . − ⎟ . 1. 2π .

⎟ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. . Use these key 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 to 2. ⎜1. ⎜ 2. the key points are 3⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0. 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ . 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 1. − ⎟ . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. and use them as guides to graph 1 y = − sec π x . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. − ⎟ . 1. 0 ⎟ . and 2. ⎜ . Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. 2 amplitude: period: A = − A=− 1 1 = 2 2 3 and B = π . 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with 1 and B = π . Starting with x = 0. ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . Evaluating the function at each 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ value of x. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. y = − cos π x . Inc. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Use quarter-periods. y = − cos π x . 594 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Starting with x = 0. 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 Use these key points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 2 to 2 . and 2 . 3 and use them as guides to graph y = − sec π x . − ⎟ . ⎜ . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. . ⎜ . .Trigonometric Functions 1 39. Extend 2 the graph one cycle to the right. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2 3 3 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . 2 amplitude: A = − 2π 2π = =2 B π period: 2 1 = . the key points are ⎜ 0. . 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A=− 3 40. ⎜ 2. the x-values are 1 3 0. − ⎟ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 2 Use quarter-periods. . the x-values are 1 3 0. ⎜1.

− 1⎟ . and 3π . and C = 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π = =π phase shift: B 1 2π π = . 2π . 3π 5π . and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = csc ⎜ x − ⎟ . and ⎜ . 1⎟ . 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 5π to . π 2 . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. − 1) . Graph the reciprocal sine function. the x-values are π . 4 2 x-values for the five key points. y = sin( x − π ) . y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . to find Use quarter-periods. and use them as guides to graph y = csc( x − π ) . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . and B = 1. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. ( 2π . . π. Starting with x = π . 0 ⎟ . 595 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0). Inc. 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 2 Evaluating the function at each value of x. (π . (2π . ⎜ . π 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 period: . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0) . the x-values are 3π 5π . and C = π . 0).6 41. Use these key points to graph 2 ⎝ ⎠ y = sin( x − π ) from π to 3π . 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π2 π = = phase shift: B 1 2 period: Use quarter-periods. to find x-values for the five key points. . 2⎠ ⎝ The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 1. ⎜ . 2π . 1) . Graph the reciprocal sine function. the key ⎛ 3π ⎞ points are (π . Starting with x = π π 2 . Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. and .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . 2⎠ ⎝ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. amplitude: A = 1 = 1 A = 1 . π⎞ ⎛ 42. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. (3π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. B = 1 . 0 ⎟ .

and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 sec ⎜ x + ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0. The equation is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2 and B = 1 . ( 0. Evaluating the function 2 2 at each value of x. π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ . − 2 ) . The equation is of the form Use quarter-periods. 0. 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C − π2 π = =− phase shift: B 1 2 period: 596 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 0 ) . and . 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Starting with x = −π . 0 ) . ⎜ . to find x-values for the five − π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. . and C=− π 2 . π 45. the key points are (−π . 44. Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. and C = −π . − π π . y = 2 cos( x + π ) . 2). Starting with x = − A = 2 =2 period: are −π . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 3π − to . the x-values are π 3π . the key points are ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ − . y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. = . B = 1. π . 2 amplitude: A = 2 = 2 46. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ − . . 2 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . ⎜ . the x-values π 2 key points. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. (π . Use these ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ key points to graph y = 2 cos( x + π ) from −π to π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. 2⎠ ⎝ 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C −π = = −π phase shift: B 1 2π π Use quarter-periods. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Graph the reciprocal cosine function.Trigonometric Functions 43. and (π . . 0 ⎟ . amplitude: . ⎜ . 2) . ( 0. − 2 ⎟ . and π . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec( x + π ) . 2 ⎟ .

1. 53. 56. For the window use Xmin = −2π . .50 50. 2. − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. .57 51. .50 49.36. − 0. 48. 0. x=− 2 2 x ≈ −4. and Ymax = 2 .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 0. x = −2π . 2.93.79.93. x ≈ −6. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ cos x and y2 = 1 . π⎞ ⎛ y = ( f h ) ( x) = f (h( x)) = 2 sec ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 54. 57.28. Ymin = −2 .6 47. x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. For the window use Xmin = −2π . and Ymax = 2 . 5π π 3π 7π . and Ymax = 2 . 5. Ymin = −2 . Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ tan x and y2 = −1 . Xmax = 2π . x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. 3π π . 58. − . 5π π 3π 7π . Xmax = 2π . Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ sin x and y2 = 1 . Ymin = −2 . Inc. 5. For the window use Xmin = −2π . For the window use Xmin = −2π .79. and Ymax = 2 . Xmax = 2π . Use a graphing utility with y1 = tan x and y2 = −1 . π⎞ ⎛ y = ( g h ) ( x) = g (h( x)) = −2 tan ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 55. Ymin = −2 . 6.36.28 597 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Xmax = 2π . 2π 52.71. − 0.

the secant function. and use ⎡ π π⎤ them as guides to graph d = 10sec x on ⎢ − . d sec x = 10 d = 10 sec x Graph the reciprocal cosine function. To graph on [0. and ⎜ . amplitude: A = 10 = 10 period: b. 2]. ⎝2 ⎠ 2 . d cot x = 2 d = 2 cot x Use the equations x = 0 and x = π . and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . (Do not use the left hand side of the first period of the graph on [0. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 60. continue the pattern and extend the graph to 2.25. Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and d = 12 tan 2π t a. and Connect these points with a smooth curve.75. y = 10 cos x . ⎣ 2 2⎦ 598 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. 0 ⎟ . In a right triangle the angle of elevation is one of the acute angles.Trigonometric Functions 59. 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10). and the opposite leg is 2 mi. Midway between x = 0 and x = π is x = π 2 2 π − π2 t= t= 2 2π 2π 1 1 t=− t= 4 4 Thus. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have ycoordinates of –12 and 12. 4 4 − 14 + 14 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. 0. Use the function that relates the acute angle with the hypotenuse and the adjacent leg. The beam is shining parallel to the wall at these times. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 12.25. 61. to 4 4 graph one full period of d = 12 tan 2π t . Use the two 1 1 consecutive asymptotes.75. 0). to graph y = 2 cot x for 0 < x < π . For − π 2 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 <x< π 2 . ⎥ . 1. x = 0 and x = π . the adjacent leg is the distance d. 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . Use the cotangent function. . and 1. use the x-values − ⎛ π ⎞ find the key points ⎜ − . x = − and x = . then draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Solve the equations 2π t = − π and 2π t = x = π . π π The function is undefined for t = 0. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 10 and B = 1. two consecutive asymptotes occur at 1 1 x = − and x = . π π to 2 ⎛π ⎞ (0. Inc. 2].) An x-intercept is 2 2 .

period: π B = π 1 4 Graph y = tan = π ⋅ 4 = 4π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 8π . period: π = π B 2 Graph y = cot 2 x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π . period: π = π =1 π πx = x= x= π 2 π 2 π 2 −1 −1 π π −2 2π x ≈ 0.18 in our graph of 1 y = tan(π x + 1) . 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. period: π B = π and π x + 1 = 2 π −1 2 −π 2 −1 π −π − 2 x= 2π π 4 Graph y = tan 4 x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π 2 x ≈ −0. B = π 1 2 Graph y = cot = π ⋅ 2 = 2π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 4π . 2 599 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and graph for −0. period: π 80. 2 64. Solve the equations π x +1 = − πx= − x= 78.82 . – 76. period: π B Graph y = = π =1 π 1 tan π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 . 81.85 ≤ x ≤ 1. . 4 82.2 .18 B Thus. 79.82 ≤ x ≤ 1.6 62. 2 65. Graphs will vary. we include −0. 77.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Graphs will vary. Answers may vary. Inc.

does not make sense. 83. Thus.Trigonometric Functions 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Graph the functions for 0 ≤ x ≤ 8π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 87. period: The graph shows that carbon dioxide concentration rises and falls each year. 85. 3 3 3 π 2π = B 3 2π B = 3π 2π 2π = =2 B π C π6 π 1 1 = = ⋅ = phase shift: B π 6 π 6 1 25 in our graph. makes sense 91. Inc. The graph has the shape of a cotangent function with consecutive asymptotes at 2π 2π 2π x = 0 and x = . The period is −0 = . Explanations will vary. The oscillation is faster as x gets closer to 0. 84. . period: 3π 3 = 2π 2 The points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 1 and –1. we include y = sin 25π in our graph. 2 1 x The graph is oscillating between 1 and –1. and 12 89. we include ≤ x ≤ 6 6 9 for 0 ≤ x ≤ . period: Thus. Thus. use sine or cosine. 2π 2π 3 = π = 2π ⋅ = 6 B π 3 Graph the functions for 0 ≤ x ≤ 12 . There is no phase shift. 2 B= 600 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. An equation for this graph is y = cot x . A = 1. you can use a sine graph. period: 2π 2π = =π B 2 C π6 π phase shift: = = B 2 12 π ≤x≤ 12 5π graph for 0 ≤ x ≤ . 3 C = 0. does not make sense. 93. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: To model a cyclical temperature. but over all the concentration increased from 1990 to 2008. and graph Thus. 88. 2 86. 92. Explanations may vary. makes sense 90. Thus. Sample explanation: To obtain a cosecant graph.

the range is ( −∞. 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2− x decreases the amplitude as x gets larger. yes. 6. ∞ ) ⎡ 1 7 ⎤ Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − .1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . 601 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The angle is 5π . the coefficient of x is given by 2π =2 B where B 2π =2 B 2 B = 2π b. 100. −1] ∪ [1. ⎛ π ⎞ This is represented by the point ⎜ − . c. Thus. . Since the period is 3π . 2 3 Thus. − ⎟ . y = 2 csc 2x 3 96. Explanations will vary.1⎥ by [ −6. Thus. The angle is − π 6 . a. −3] ∪ [3. The range shows that A = 2. Since A=1. y = π csc π x 97. yes. Examples may vary. the coefficient of x is given 2π = 3π by B where B 2π = 3π B 3Bπ = 2π B= b.− ⎟. − 3 ⎟ . ⎝ 6 2⎠ 95. −x y = 2 sin x b. C = 0 . c. 4 B= c. The period is 99. An equation for 3 the reciprocal function is y = cos x . = 3 B 3 8π B = 6π 6π 3 = 8π 4 There is no phase shift. Explanations will vary.6 94. a. ⎜ 6 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 101.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The angle is − π 3 . . an 4 3 equation for this graph is y = sec x . 6 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 6 b. Since A=3. ∞ ) 7π ⎤ ⎡ π by [ −3. a. 8π 2π 8π . 1⎞ ⎛ π This is represented by the point ⎜ − . The reciprocal function has amplitude A = 1 . Since the period is 2. the range is ( −∞. Thus. 6 ⎛ 5π 3⎞ This is represented by the point ⎜ . yes. The graph has the shape of a secant function. Explanations will vary. The range shows that A = π .1] ⎣ 2 2 ⎦ 98. 3. Inc. B =π Thus. π .

85) Radian Display (rounded to four places) Keystrokes COS−1 TAN −1 ( 1 ÷ 3 ) ENTER − 35.7 Check Point Exercises 1.5429 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode a. 5. then sin θ = . tan −1 (−35. Inc. ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = −1 is − . ⎛1⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ Radian 1 ÷ 3 = b. 2 2 3 ⎝ 2⎠ 2π ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2π . ⎜ 2 4 4 4 ⎣ 2 2⎦ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3. Let θ = sin −1 3 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode a. then sin θ = − . ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 π π 2⎞ π ⎡ π π⎤ The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . Thus.85 Display (rounded to four places) Keystrokes + − COS−1 1. θ= 3 ⎝ 2⎠ 3 π ⎛ π π⎞ Let θ = tan −1 (−1) . or cos −1 ⎜ − ⎟ = .85) Radian 35. Thus 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ θ =− π 4 or tan −1 θ = − π 4 . or sin −1 = . ⎛ 2 2⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − . 1 1 2π ⎛ 1⎞ Let θ = cos −1 ⎜ − ⎟ . Thus.5429 602 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus θ = − . ⎥ that satisfies cos θ = − is − . 4. then tan θ = −1 . . The only angle in the interval [0. θ = . tan −1 (−35.2310 –1. The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . ⎛1⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ Radian b. π ] that satisfies cos θ = − is .85 ENTER 1.Trigonometric Functions Section 4. The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 2 3 3 3 ⎣ 2 2⎦ 2. then cos θ = − . or sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟⎟ = − .2310 TAN −1 –1. 2 2 3 π π 3 π ⎡ π π⎤ is .

Section 4.7 b. 7. x is not in [–1. 3⎞ side opposite θ 3 ⎛ = sin ⎜ tan −1 ⎟ = sin θ = 4 hypotenuse 5 ⎝ ⎠ 8. 1 ⎛ 1⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ .PreCalculus 4E 6. 2 ⎝ 2⎠ Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find x. Inc.1] so cos ( cos −1 π ) is not defined. x 2 + (−1) 2 = 22 x2 + 1 = 4 x2 = 3 x= 3 Use values for x and r to find the exact value. then tan θ = .7) = 0. 4 ⎝4⎠ Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find r. then sin θ = − . a.1] so cos(cos −1 0. x is in the domain of sin x. so sin −1 (sin π ) = sin −1 (0) = 0 ⎣ 2 2⎦ c. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 . x is not in ⎢ − . r 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 r = 25 = 5 Use the right triangle to find the exact value.7 cos ( cos −1 0. . cos ( cos −1 π ) x = π . θ is in the first quadrant. x ⎡ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ cos ⎢sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥ = cos θ = = 2 r 2 ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 603 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. sin −1 (sin π ) ⎡ π π⎤ x = π . ⎥ . θ is in quadrant IV. 3 ⎛3⎞ Let θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ . Because sin θ is negative. x is in [–1.7 ) x = 0. Because tan θ is positive.

The only angle in the interval 2 2 . a. or sin −1 2 π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 .Trigonometric Functions 9. The only angle in the interval 2 ⎝ 2⎠ π π ⎛ 1⎞ θ = − . θ= 4. 1 π = . or ⎣ 2 2⎦ −1 sin 0 = 0 . then sin θ = . Thus ⎣ ⎦ 3 π = . 1 1 . The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . 2 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ 1 π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . sec ( tan −1 x ) = sec θ = x2 + 1 = x2 + 1 1 Exercise Set 4. Thus. a 2 = x 2 + 12 a = x2 + 1 Use the right triangle to write the algebraic expression. 1 Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the third side. 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 is 3 . The only angle in the interval 2 2 .7 1. 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = − 2 is − 6 . θ = 6 . Let θ = sin −1 sin −1 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus ⎣ ⎦ 3 π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . or sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ = − . Let θ = tan −1 x . then sin θ = . 2 4 3 3 . 3. Thus ⎣ ⎦ 604 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 is 4 . then sin θ = − . . then sin θ = . 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 is 6 . then sin θ = 0 . Thus θ = 0 . 2 3 1 ⎛ 1⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ . then tan θ =x = x . or ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ π π⎤ Let θ = sin −1 0 . ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 0 is 0. or sin −1 Let θ = sin −1 θ= 5. 2 6 Let θ = sin −1 π 4 π 3 2 2 . Inc. 1 π π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . The only angle in the interval 2 2 2 π = .

The only angle in the interval [ 0. 2 2 2 3 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ 3⎞ π =− . or tan −1 1 = π 4 . θ= ⎟⎟ = ⎜ 4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 4 ⎛ 3 3⎞ 10. Thus θ = . then tan θ = . or cos −1 0 = 2 π 2 . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = is . 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 2 π π . 3 6 π ⎛ π π⎞ 14. Thus ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 3π 2 ⎞ 3π . or tan −1 3 π = . or cos −1 ⎜ − . Thus θ = . ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ The only angle in the interval [ 0. 2 4 ⎛ 2 2 2⎞ 3π Let θ = cos −1 ⎜ − . Let θ = tan −1 1 . then cos θ = . 12. π ] that satisfies cos θ = is . Thus θ = . The only angle in the interval [0. π ] that satisfies cos θ = − ⎛ 3 5π 5π 3 ⎞ 5π is . Inc. Thus θ = − . ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 3 π π ⎡ π π⎤ The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . then cos θ = 0 . then cos θ = − . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = 1 is . The only angle in the interval [ 0. The only angle in the interval [0. then cos θ = − . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . 9. Thus θ = 0 .PreCalculus 4E 6. or cos −1 ⎜ − = . . ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = − is − . then tan θ = 1 . or sin −1 ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 7. The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . 13. ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 6 2 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ 11.7 ⎛ 3 3⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − . . π ] that satisfies cos θ = 0 is Thus θ = π 2 π . Let θ = cos −1 1 . Let θ = tan −1 θ= π 6 3 3 3 π ⎛ π π⎞ . Thus 3 3 3 6 ⎝ 2 2⎠ . 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ Thus θ = π 4 . 3 π = . Section 4. π ] that satisfies cos θ = 1 is 0 . 2 2 2 4 4 2 π = . The only angle in the interval [0. Let θ = cos −1 or cos −1 8. then cos θ = 1 . Let θ = cos −1 ⎜ − . π ] that satisfies cos θ = is . π ] that satisfies cos θ = − is . then sin θ = − . then cos θ = . Let θ = cos −1 0 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 6 Let θ = cos −1 or cos −1 3 3 3 π π . or cos −1 1 = 0 . 605 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

or tan −1 (−1) = − π 4 . or tan −1 ⎜ − =− . Thus 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ θ =− π 4 . Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes sin −1 0. The only angle in the interval ⎜ − .30 20.47 Radian SIN −1 0. Let θ = tan −1 ⎜ − . Let θ = tan −1 − 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.49 606 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 π ⎛ π π⎞ is − . 3 ⎝ 2 2⎠ ( Thus θ = − π 3 ) ( ) . The only angle in the interval ⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ π 3⎞ π Thus θ = − . or ⎝ 2 2⎠ tan −1 0 = 0 . then tan θ = − . Thus θ = 0 . then tan θ = 0 . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = − 3 6 ⎝ 2 2⎠ Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes sin −1 0.3 Radian 0. Inc. then tan θ = −1 . ⎜ − .Trigonometric Functions ⎛ π π⎞ 15. then tan θ = − 3 . ⎛ 3⎞ 3 18. ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = − 3 is − . ⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ 19.49 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes Display (rounded to two places) sin −1 0. Let θ = tan −1 (−1) . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − .30 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes Display (rounded to two places) sin −1 0.47 SIN −1 Display (rounded to two places) 0. π ⎛ π π⎞ 16. . π ⎛ π π⎞ 17.47 Radian 0. Let θ = tan −1 0 . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − .47 ENTER 0. or tan −1 − 3 = − π 3 . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = −1 is − .3 SIN −1 Display (rounded to two places) 0.3 ENTER 0. ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = 0 is 0.3 Radian SIN −1 0.

32) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes + 0.19 Scientific Calculator Solution 24.625 + − SIN −1 –0.33 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode sin −1 (−0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Function Mode ⎛4⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes 4 ÷ 9 = COS−1 1.11 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode ⎛4⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 ( 4 ÷ 9 ) ENTER 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.7 21. Inc.625 ENTER –0. Function Mode ⎛3⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝8⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes 3 ÷ 8 = COS−1 1.68 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode sin −1 (−0.32 ENTER –0. Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode sin −1 (−0.68 Scientific Calculator Solution 23.32) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes SIN −1 − 0.19 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode ⎛3⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝8⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 ( 3 ÷ 8 ) ENTER 1.32 − SIN −1 –0. .625) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes 0. Function Mode sin −1 (−0.625) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes SIN −1 − 0.11 607 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.33 Scientific Calculator Solution 22.

Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 7 ÷ 10 ) ( ENTER 1.54 608 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.25 Scientific Calculator Solution Function cos −1 7 10 Mode Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes ÷ 10 = 7 COS−1 1.52 Scientific Calculator Solution 28.25 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode 5 7 Radian cos −1 26. Inc. Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode 5 7 Radian cos −1 Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 ÷ 7 = 5 1.Trigonometric Functions 25.30 Graphing Calculator Solution Function cos −1 7 10 Mode Radian 27.52 Graphi