PRECALCULUS 4E

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra..................................................... 1

Chapter 1

Functions and Graphs............................................................................................. 126

Chapter 2

Polynomial and Rational Functions ....................................................................... 256

Chapter 3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ................................................................ 411

Chapter 4

Trigonometric Functions........................................................................................ 489

Chapter 5

Analytic Trigonometry........................................................................................... 663

Chapter 6

Additional Topics in Trigonometry ....................................................................... 780

Chapter 7

Systems of Equations and Inequalities................................................................... 944

Chapter 8

Matrices and Determinants .................................................................................. 1076

Chapter 9

Conic Sections and Analytic Geometry ............................................................... 1181

Chapter 10

Sequences, Induction, and Probability................................................................. 1297

Chapter 11

Introduction to Calculus....................................................................................... 1393

iii

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Section P.1

Check Point Exercises

1.

6.

8 + 6( x − 3) 2 = 8 + 6(13 − 3) 2

a.

**Because 2 ≈ 1.4, the number inside the
**

absolute value bars is negative. The absolute

value of x when x < 0 is –x. Thus,

= 8 + 6(10) 2

= 8 + 6(100)

= 8 + 600

= 608

2.

(

b.

**Since 2010 is 10 years after 2000, substitute 10 for x.
**

= 17(10)2 + 261(10) + 3257

= 7567

If trends continue, the tuition and fees will be $7567

5.

**The elements common to {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} and
**

{3, 7, 8, 9} are 3 and 7.

{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∩ {3,7,8,9} = {3, 7}

c.

**The union is the set containing all the elements of
**

either set.

{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∪ {3, 7,8,9} = {3, 4,5, 6, 7,8,9}

π

⎧

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,

2

⎩

9,

x

x

Because x > 0,

Thus,

7.

⎫

10 ⎬

⎭

9 because

π −3

Because π ≈ 3.14, the number inside the

absolute value bars is positive. The absolute

value of a positive number is the number itself.

Thus,

π − 3 = π − 3.

T = 17 x + 261x + 3257

4.

)

1− 2 = − 1− 2 = 2 −1

2

3.

1− 2

x

x

=

x = x.

x

=1

x

−4 − (5) = −9 = 9

The distance between –4 and 5 is 9.

8.

9 =3

a.

Natural numbers:

b.

Whole numbers: 0,

c.

Integers: −9, 0, 9

d.

Rational numbers: −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3,

e.

Irrational numbers:

f.

Real numbers:

π

⎧

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,

2

⎩

7(4 x 2 + 3x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 7(4 x 2 + 3 x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 28 x 2 + 21x + 10 x 2 + 2 x

9

= 38 x 2 + 23x

π

2

,

9.

9

10

9,

⎫

10 ⎬

⎭

6 + 4[7 − ( x − 2)]

= 6 + 4[7 − x + 2)]

= 6 + 4[9 − x]

= 6 + 36 − 4 x

= 42 − 4 x

Exercise Set P.1

1.

7 + 5(10) = 7 + 50 = 57

2.

8 + 6 ( 5 ) = 8 + 30 = 38

3.

6(3) − 8 = 18 − 8 = 10

1

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

4.

8 ( 3) − 4 = 24 − 4 = 20

5.

82 + 3(8) = 64 + 24 = 88

6.

62 + 5 ( 6 ) = 36 + 30 = 66

7.

7 2 − 6(7) + 3 = 49 − 42 + 3 = 7 + 3 = 10

8.

82 − 7 ( 8 ) + 4 = 64 − 56 + 4 = 8 + 4 = 12

9.

4 + 5(9 − 7)3 = 4 + 5(2)3

= 4 + 5(8) = 4 + 40 = 44

10.

6 + 5 (8 − 6 ) = 6 + 5 ( 2 )

3

18.

19.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2 = 4 + 60(2) − 16(2)2

= 4 + 120 − 16(4) = 4 + 120 − 64

= 124 − 64 = 60

Two seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is

60 feet.

20.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2

= 4 + 60(3) − 16(3) 2

= 4 + 180 − 16(9)

= 4 + 180 − 144

= 184 − 144 = 40

Three seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is

40 feet.

3

= 6 + 5 (8)

= 6 + 40 = 46

11.

82 − 3(8 − 2) = 64 − 3(6)

= 64 − 18 = 46

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

21.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∩ {2, 4,5} = {2, 4}

82 − 4 ( 8 − 3) = 64 − 4 ( 5 ) = 64 − 20 = 44

22.

{1,3, 7} ∩ {2,3,8} = {3}

5( x + 2) 5(10 + 2)

=

2 x − 14 2(10) − 14

5(12)

=

6

= 5⋅2

= 10

23.

{s, e, t} ∩ {t , e, s} = {s, e, t}

24.

{r , e, a, l} ∩ {l , e, a, r} = {r , e, a, l}

25.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {2, 4, 6,8,10} = { }

The empty set is also denoted by ∅.

7( x − 3) 7(9 − 3) 7(6)

=

=

= 7 ⋅ 3 = 21

2 x − 16 2(9) − 16

2

2x + 3 y

; x = −2, y = 4

x +1

2 ( −2 ) + 3 ( 4 ) −4 + 12 8

=

=

=

= −8

−2 + 1

−1

−1

2x + y

; x = −2 and y = 4

xy − 2 x

2 ( −2 ) + 4

( −2 )( 4 ) − 2 ( −2 )

17.

5

5

5

C = ( F − 32) = (86 − 32) = (54) = 30

9

9

9

30°C is equivalent to 86°F.

=

−4 + 4 0

= =0

−8 + 4 4

5

5

C = (50 − 32) = (18) = 10

9

9

10°C is equivalent to 50°F.

26.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {−5, −3, −1} = { }

27.

{a, b, c, d} ∩ ∅ = ∅

28.

{w, y, z} ∩ ∅ = ∅

29.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∪ {2, 4,5} = {1, 2,3, 4,5}

30.

{1,3, 7,8} ∪ {2,3,8} = {1, 2,3, 7,8}

31.

{1, 3,5, 7} ∪ {2, 4, 6,8,10}

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,10}

32.

{0,1,3,5} ∪ {2, 4, 6} = {0,1, 2,3, 4,5, 6}

33.

{a, e, i, o, u} ∪ ∅ = {a, e, i, o, u}

34.

{e, m, p, t , y} ∪ ∅

or ∅

= {e, m, p, t , y}

2

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

35. a.

Section P.1

39. 0

100

b.

0, 100

c.

−9, 0, 100

d.

4

−9, − , 0, 0.25, 9.2, 100

5

e.

f.

36. a.

40. Answers may vary. An example is

1

.

2

**41. Answers may vary. An example is 2.
**

42. Answers may vary. An example is −2.

43. true; –13 is to the left of –2 on the number line.

3

44. false; –6 is to the left of 2 on the number line.

4

−9, − , 0, 0.25, 3, 9.2, 100

5

**45. true; 4 is to the right of –7 on the number line.
**

46. true; –13 is to the left of –5 on the number line.

49

47. true; −π = −π

b.

0, 49

c.

−7, 0, 49

d.

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49

**48. true; –3 is to the right of –13 on the number line.
**

49. true; 0 is to the right of –6 on the number line.

e.

f.

37. a.

50

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49, 50

64

b.

0, 64

c.

−11, 0, 64

d.

5

−11, − , 0, 0.75, 64

6

e.

f.

38. a.

5

−11, − , 0, 0.75, 5, π , 64

6

4

0, 4

c.

−5, 0, 4

d.

−5, − 0.3, 0, 4

f.

51.

300 = 300

52.

−203 = 203

53.

12 − π = 12 − π

54.

7−π = 7−π

55.

2 −5 = 5− 2

56.

5 − 13 = 13 − 5

5, π

b.

e.

50. true; 0 is to the right of –13 on the number line.

2

−5, − 0.3, 0, 2, 4

57.

−3 −3

=

= −1

3

−3

58.

−7 −7

=

= −1

7

−7

59.

−3 − −7 = 3 − 7 = −4 = 4

60.

−5 − −13 = 5 − 13 = −8 = 8

61.

x + y = 2 + (−5) = −3 = 3

62.

x − y = 2 − (−5) = 7 = 7

3

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

63.

x + y = 2 + −5 = 2 + 5 = 7

64.

x − y = 2 − −5 = 2 − 5 = −3

65.

y

−5 −5

=

=

= −1

y

−5

5

66.

x

y

2

83.

84.

1

( x + 3) = 1; x ≠ −3 ,

x+3

inverse property of multiplication

( x + 4 ) + ⎡⎣ − ( x + 4 ) ⎤⎦ = 0;

inverse property of addition

85.

−5

2 5

+

= +

= +

= 1 + (−1) = 0

x

y

2 −5 2 −5

5(3 x + 4) − 4 = 5 ⋅ 3x + 5 ⋅ 4 − 4

= 15 x + 20 − 4

= 15 x + 16

67. The distance is 2 − 17 = −15 = 15 .

86.

2(5 x + 4) − 3 = 2 ⋅ 5 x + 2 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 10 x + 8 − 3

68. The distance is 4 − 15 = −11 = 11 .

= 10 x + 5

69. The distance is −2 − 5 = −7 = 7 .

87.

5(3 x − 2) + 12 x = 5 ⋅ 3x − 5 ⋅ 2 + 12 x

= 15 x − 10 + 12 x

70. The distance is −6 − 8 = −14 = 14 .

= 27 x − 10

71. The distance is −19 − (−4) = −19 + 4 = −15 = 15 .

88.

2(5 x − 1) + 14 x = 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅1 + 14 x

= 10 x − 2 + 14 x

72. The distance is −26 − (−3) = −26 + 3 = −23 = 23 .

= 24 x − 2

**73. The distance is
**

−3.6 − (−1.4) = −3.6 + 1.4 = −2.2 = 2.2 .

89.

= 7 ⋅3y − 7 ⋅5 + 2⋅ 4y + 2 ⋅3

= 21y − 35 + 8 y + 6

**74. The distance is
**

−5.4 − (−1.2) = −5.4 + 1.2 = −4.2 = 4.2 .

= 29 y − 29

90.

75. 6 + (–4) = (–4) + 6;

commutative property of addition

= 8 y − 24 + 15 y + 30

= 23 y + 6

91.

77. 6 + (2 + 7) = (6 + 2) + 7;

associative property of addition

5 ( 3 y − 2 ) − ( 7 y + 2 ) = 15 y − 10 − 7 y − 2

= 8 y − 12

92.

6 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 3) = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 2);

commutative property of multiplication

4(5 y − 3) − (6 y + 3) = 20 y − 12 − 6 y − 3

= 14 y − 15

79. (2 + 3) + (4 + 5) = (4 + 5) + (2 + 3);

commutative property of addition

80.

4(2 y − 6) + 3(5 y + 10)

= 4 ⋅ 2 y − 4 ⋅ 6 + 3 ⋅ 5 y + 3 ⋅10

76. 11 ⋅ (7 + 4) = 11 ⋅ 7 + 11 ⋅ 4;

distributive property of multiplication over addition

78.

7(3 y − 5) + 2(4 y + 3)

93.

7 − 4 ⎡⎣3 − ( 4 y − 5 ) ⎤⎦ = 7 − 4 [3 − 4 y + 5]

= 7 − 4 [8 − 4 y ]

7 ⋅ (11⋅ 8) = (11 ⋅ 8) ⋅ 7;

commutative property of multiplication

= 7 − 32 + 16 y

= 16 y − 25

**81. 2 (–8 + 6) = –16 + 12;
**

distributive property of multiplication over addition

82.

**−8(3 + 11) = −24 + (−88) ;
**

distributive property of multiplication over addition

4

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PreCalculus 4E

94.

Section P.1

6 − 5[8 − (2 y − 4)] = 6 − 5 [8 − 2 y + 4]

104. −20

= 6 − 5 [12 − 2 y ]

20

= 6 − 60 + 10 y

95. 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 ( x 2 − 2) + 5⎤⎦

105.

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 12 + 5⎤⎦

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 7⎤⎦

= 18 x 2 + 4 − 6 x 2 + 7

96. 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣7 ( x 2 − 2 ) + 4 ⎤⎦

106.

= 14 x + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 14 + 4 ⎤⎦

2

= 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 10⎤⎦

−0.6

5

2

−2.5

2.5

−2.5

3

= −0.6 .

5

2.5

2.5 = 2.5

= 14 x 2 − 7 x 2 + 5 + 10

Since 2.5 = 2.5,

= (14 − 7 ) x + 15

2

= 7 x 2 + 15

107.

97. –(–14x) = 14x

− ( −17 y ) = 17 y

30 3

−

40 4

30 30

−

40 40

5

= −2.5 .

2

14 15

⋅

15 14

14 15

⋅

15 14

0 1

0 <1

30 3

14 15

Since 0 < 1,

− <

⋅ .

40 4

15 14

99. –(2x – 3y – 6) = –2x + 3y + 6

100. − ( 5 x − 13 y − 1) = −5 x + 13 y + 1

1

(3 x) + [ (4 y ) + (−4 y ) ] = x + 0

3

=x

108.

1

( 2 y ) + ⎣⎡( −7 x ) + 7 x ⎦⎤ = y + 0 = y

2

6

0.6

2.5

= 14 x 2 + 5 − 7 x 2 + 10

103. −6

−0.6

Since 0.6 = 0.6,

= (18 − 6) x 2 + 11 = 12 x 2 + 11

102.

3

5

0.6

0.6

0.6 = 0.6

= 18 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 4 + 7

101.

50

20 < 50

Since 20 < 50, −20 < −50 .

= 10 y − 54

98.

−50

17 18

⋅

18 17

17 18

⋅

18 17

50 5

−

60 6

50 50

−

60 60

1 0

1> 0

17 18

50 5

Since 1 > 0,

⋅

>

− .

18 17

60 6

−3

3

6>3

Since 6 > 3, −6 > −3 .

5

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

109. 8 8

÷

13 13

8 13

⋅

13 8

115. 8 − 3[−2(2 − 5) − 4(8 − 6)] = 8 − 3[−2(−3) − 4(2)]

−1

= 8 − 3[6 − 8]

= 8 − 3[−2]

1

=8+6

1 1

1=1

Since 1 = 1,

110.

= 14

116. 8 − 3[−2(5 − 7) − 5(4 − 2)] = 8 − 3[−2(−2) − 5(2)]

8 8

÷ = −1 .

13 13

= 8 − 3[4 − 10]

= 8 − 3[−6]

4 4

−2

÷

17 17

4 17

2

⋅

17 4

2 1

2 >1

= 8 + 18

= 26

117.

Since 2 > 1, −2 >

4 4

÷ .

17 17

111. 82 − 16 ÷ 22 ⋅ 4 − 3 = 64 − 16 ÷ 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 64 − 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

118.

= 64 − 16 − 3

= 48 − 3

= 45

112. 102 − 100 ÷ 52 ⋅ 2 − 3 = 100 − 100 ÷ 25 ⋅ 2 − 3

119.

= 100 − 4 ⋅ 2 − 3

= 100 − 8 − 3

2(−2) − 4(−3) −4 + 12

=

5−8

−3

8

=

−3

8

=−

3

6(−4) − 5(−3) −24 + 15

=

9 − 10

−1

−9

=

−1

=9

(5 − 6)2 − 2 3 − 7

89 − 3 ⋅ 52

= 92 − 3

= 89

113.

5 ⋅ 2 − 32

2

2

[3 − (−2)]

=

=

=

5⋅2 −9

[9 − (−2)]2

10 − 9

[9 + 2]2

10 − 9

112

1

=

121

114.

10 ÷ 2 + 3 ⋅ 4

(12 − 3 ⋅ 2)

2

=

=

120.

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 22 + 32

7 + 3− 6

2

=

(−1) 2 − 2 −4

89 − 3 ⋅ 25

1 − 2(4)

=

89 − 75

1− 8

=

14

−7

=

14

1

=−

2

=

=

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 4 + 9

7 + 3 − 36

4 ⋅ 5 13

10 − 36

20(13)

=

−26

260

=

−26

= −10

5 + 12

(12 − 6) 2

17

62

17

=

36

121. x − ( x + 4) = x − x − 4 = −4

6

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.1

122. x − ( 8 − x ) = x − 8 + x = 2 x − 8

b.

123. 6 ( −5 x ) = −30 x

124. 10 ( −4 x ) = −40 x

125. 5 x − 2 x = 3 x

126. 6 x − ( −2 x ) = 6 x + 2 x = 8 x

127. 8 x − ( 3x + 6 ) = 8 x − 3x − 6 = 5 x − 6

131. a.

128. 8 − 3 ( x + 6 ) = 8 − 3x − 18 = −3 x − 10

129. a.

b.

130. a.

3

( 220 − a )

5

3

H = ( 220 − 30 )

5

3

= (190 )

5

= 114

The upper limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 114 beats per

minute.

H=

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15, 395 + 988(7) − 2(7)2

= 22, 213

The formula estimates the cost to have been

$22,213 in 2007.

7

( 220 − a )

10

7

H = ( 220 − 20 )

10

7

= ( 200 )

10

= 140

The lower limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 140 beats per

minute.

H=

b.

**This underestimates the value in the graph by
**

$5.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15,395 + 988(10) − 2(10)2

= 25, 075

The formula projects the cost to be $25,075 in

2010.

4

( 220 − a )

5

4

H = ( 220 − 20 )

5

4

= ( 200 )

5

= 160

The upper limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 160 beats per

minute.

H=

132. a.

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15, 395 + 988(6) − 2(6)2

= 21, 251

The formula estimates the cost to have been

$21,251 in 2006.

1

( 220 − a )

2

1

H = ( 220 − 30 )

2

1

= (190 )

2

= 95

The lower limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 95 beats per

minute.

H=

b.

**This underestimates the value in the graph by
**

$16.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15,395 + 988(12) − 2(12)2

= 26, 963

The formula projects the cost to be $26,963 in

2012.

133. a.

0.05 x + 0.12 (10,000 − x )

= 0.05 x + 1200 − 0.12 x

= 1200 − 0.07 x

b.

**1200 − 0.07 x = 1200 − 0.07(6000)
**

= $780

7

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

134. a.

158. −π > −3.5

0.06t + 0.5(50 − t ) = 0.06t + 25 − 0.5t

= 25 − 0.44t

b.

3.14

= −1.57

2

π

− ≈ −1.571

2

−1.57 > −1.571

159. −

0.06(20) + 0.5(50 − 20)

= 1.2 + 0.5(30)

= 1.2 + 15

= 16.2 miles

−

**135. – 144. Answers may vary.
**

145. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

Sample explanation: Models do not always

accurately predict future values.

3.14

π

>−

2

2

160. a.

**146. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: To use the model, substitute 0

for x.

b4 ⋅ b3 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b7

b.

b5 ⋅ b5 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b10

c.

**add the exponents
**

b7

161. a.

147. makes sense

b

**148. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: The commutative property

changes order and the associative property changes

groupings.

b8

b.

b

c.

**149. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: Some rational numbers are not

integers.

162.

3

2

=

b⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b

= b4

b ⋅b ⋅b

=

b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b ⋅b

= b6

b⋅b

subtract the exponents

6.2 × 103 = 6.2 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 6200

It moves the decimal point 3 places to the right.

**150. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: All whole numbers are integers

Section P.2

151. true

Check Point Exercises

**152. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: Some irrational numbers are

negative.

1.

**153. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: The term x has a coefficient of

1.

( 2x y ) = ( 2) ( x ) ( y )

b.

( −6 x y )( 3xy ) = ( −6 ) ⋅ 3 ⋅ x

3

6

2

4

4

5

3

4

6

4

3

= 16 x12 y 24

2

⋅ x ⋅ y5 ⋅ y3

= −18 x 3 y 8

**154. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

5 + 3( x − 4) = 5 + 3 x − 12 = 3x − 7.

c.

**100 x12 y 2 ⎛ 100 ⎞ ⎛ x12 ⎞ ⎛ y 2 ⎞
**

=

⎜

⎟⎜

⎟

20 x16 y −4 ⎜⎝ 20 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x16 ⎠ ⎝ y −4 ⎠

= 5 x12 −16 y 2 − ( −4)

= 5 x −4 y 6

**155. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: − x − x = −2 x.

=

156. true

157.

a.

5 y6

x4

2 ≈ 1.4

1.4 < 1.5

2 < 1.5

8

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PreCalculus 4E

d.

⎛ 5x ⎞

⎜ 4⎟

⎝y ⎠

Section P.2

( 5) ( x )

−2

−2

=

(y )

4

(5) ( x )

=

(y )

4

7.

−2

−2

=

−2

= (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − 02 ]

= 2534.4

The speed of the blood at the central axis of the

artery is 2534.4 centimeters per second.

−2

−2

5−2 x −2

y −8

Exercise Set P.2

y8

52 x 2

y8

=

25 x 2

=

2.

3.

4.

a.

−6

3.017 × 10

a.

5, 210, 000, 000 = 5.21× 10

b.

−0.00000006893 = −6.893 × 10−8

(

= 0.000003017

2.

62 ⋅ 2 = (6 ⋅ 6) ⋅ 2 = 36 ⋅ 2 = 72

3.

(−2)6 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 64

4.

(−2) 4 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 16

5.

−26 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −64

6.

−2 4 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −16

7.

(−3)0 = 1

)

8.

(−9)0 = 1

9.

−30 = −1

10.

−9 0 = −1

11.

4−3 =

1

1

1

=

=

3

4

4 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 4 64

12.

2−6 =

1

1

1

=

=

6

2

2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 64

13.

2 2 ⋅ 23 = 2 2 + 3 = 25 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 32

14.

33 ⋅ 32 = 33+ 2 = 35 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 243

15.

(22 )3 = 22⋅3 = 26 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 64

16.

(33 )2 = 33⋅2 = 36 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 729

17.

28

= 28− 4 = 24 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 16

24

18.

38

= 38 − 4 = 34 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 81

34

19.

3−3 ⋅ 3 = 3−3+1 = 3−2 =

1

1

1

=

=

2

3

3⋅3 9

20.

2−3 ⋅ 2 = 2−3+1 = 2−2 =

1

1

1

=

=

2

2⋅2 4

2

9

410 ×107 = 4.1× 102 × 107

(

= 4.1× 10

)

9

( 7.1×10 )( 5 ×10 )

−7

5

= 7.1 ⋅ 5 × 105 ⋅10−7

= 35.5 × 10−2

(

)

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

(

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

= 3.55 × 10

b.

52 ⋅ 2 = (5 ⋅ 5) ⋅ 2 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 50

−2.6 ×10 = −2, 600, 000, 000

b.

a.

1.

9

= 4.1× 102 × 107

5.

)

−1

1.2 × 106 1.2 106

=

⋅

3 ×10−3

3 10−3

= 0.4 × 106 − ( −3)

= 0.4 × 109

= 4 × 108

6.

S = (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − r 2 ]

13 × 109

13 109

=

⋅

6

5.1 × 10

5.1 106

≈ 2.5 ⋅ 103

≈ 2500

The average Pell grant was $2500 in 2006.

9

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

21.

23

1

1

1

= 23 − 7 = 2 − 4 = 4 =

=

7

2

2

2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 16

22.

34

1

1

1

= 34 − 7 = 3−3 = 3 =

=

37

3

3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 27

23.

x −2 y =

25.

x0 y5 = 1⋅ y5 = y5

26.

x 7 ⋅ y 0 = x 7 ⋅1 = x 7

27.

x 3 ⋅ x 7 = x 3+ 7 = x10

28.

x ⋅x = x

29.

x −5 ⋅ x10 = x −5+10 = x 5

30.

x −6 ⋅ x12 = x −6 +12 = x 6

31.

( x3 )7 = x 3⋅7 = x 21

32.

( x11 )5 = x11⋅5 = x 55

33.

( x −5 )3 = x −5⋅3 = x −15 =

34.

35.

5

11+ 5

42.

⎛ 6⎞

(−6)3

216

⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3

y

y

⎝ y⎠

43.

(−3x 2 y 5 ) 2 = (−3)2 ( x 2 ) 2 ⋅ ( y 5 ) 2

= 9 x 2⋅2 y 5⋅2

= 9 x 4 y10

1

x

=

y3 y3

xy −3 = x ⋅

(−4)3

64

⎛ 4⎞

⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3

x

x

⎝ x⎠

3

1

y

⋅y= 2

x2

x

24.

11

3

41.

44.

**= −27 x 4⋅3 y 6⋅3
**

= −27 x12 y18

=x

45.

(3 x 4 )(2 x 7 ) = 3 ⋅ 2 x 4 ⋅ x 7 = 6 x 4 + 7 = 6 x11

46.

(11x 5 )(9 x12 ) = 11⋅ 9 x 5 x12 = 99 x5 +12 = 99 x17

47.

(−9 x3 y )(−2 x 6 y 4 ) = (−9)(−2) x 3 x 6 yy 4

16

( x −6 ) 4 = x −6⋅4 = x −24 =

= 18 x 3+ 6 y1+ 4

= 18 x 9 y 5

48.

= 30 x11 y12

1

x15

1

x 24

49.

8 x 20 ⎛ 8 ⎞ ⎛ x 20

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

2 x4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ x4

50.

20 x 24 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 24 ⎞

24 − 6

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

= 2 x18

⎟ = 2x

10 x 6 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ x 6 ⎠

x14

= x14 − 7 = x 7

x7

x30

= x 30 −10 = x 20

10

x

38.

⎞

20 − 4

= 4 x16

⎟ = 4x

⎠

25a13 ⋅ b 4 ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎛ a13 ⎞ ⎛ b 4 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟⎜ ⎟

−5a 2 ⋅ b3 ⎝ −5 ⎠ ⎝ a 2 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠

= −5a13 − 2 b 4 − 3

= −5a11b

14

37.

(−5 x 4 y )(−6 x 7 y11 ) = (−5)(−6) x 4 x 7 yy11

= 30 x 4 + 7 y1+11

51.

36.

(−3x 4 y 6 )3 = (−3)3 ( x 4 )3 ( y 6 )3

x

= x14 − ( −7) = x14 + 7 = x 21

x −7

52.

x30

= x30 − ( −10) = x 30 +10 = x 40

x −10

39.

(8 x3 ) 2 = 82 ( x 3 )2 = 82 x 3⋅2 = 64 x 6

40.

(6 x ) = (6) ( x ) = 6 x

4 2

2

4 2

2

4⋅2

= 36 x

35a14 b6 ⎛ 35 ⎞ ⎛ a14 ⎞ ⎛ b6 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟⎜ ⎟

−7a 7 b3 ⎝ −7 ⎠ ⎝ a 7 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠

= −5a14 − 7 b6 − 3

= −5a 7 b3

53.

8

14b7 ⎛ 14 ⎞ ⎛ b 7 ⎞

2

7 −14

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

= 2b −7 = 7

⎟ = 2⋅b

7b14 ⎝ 7 ⎠ ⎝ b14 ⎠

b

10

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

54.

Section P.2

20b10 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ b10 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟

10b 20 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ b 20 ⎠

3

61.

= 2b10 − 20

= 2b

⎛ −3b5 ⎞

=⎜ 6 ⎟

⎝ a ⎠

−27b15

=

a18

−10

2

b10

=

55.

(4 x3 ) −2 = (4−2 )( x 3 ) −2

−2

=4 x

62.

1

42 x6

1

=

16 x 6

1

103 x 6

1

=

1000 x 6

10 x 4 y 9

1

= x 4 −12 y 9 − ( −3)

30 x12 y −3 3

1

= x −8 y12

3

y12

= 8

3x

59.

⎛ 5x ⎞

5 x

y

⎜

⎟ = −2 =

y

25

x6

⎝

⎠

y

−3

−2

−6

⎛ 3x ⎞

⎛ y ⎞

⎜

⎟ =⎜ 4 ⎟

⎝ 3x ⎠

⎝ y ⎠

y3

= 3 4⋅3

3 x

y3

=

27 x12

4

60.

−2

3

3

63.

⎛ 3a −5b 2 ⎞

=1

⎜

3 −4 ⎟

⎝ 12a b ⎠

64.

⎛ 4a −5b3 ⎞

=1

⎜

3 −5 ⎟

⎝ 12a b ⎠

65.

3.8 × 10 2 = 380

66.

9.2 × 10 2 = 920

67.

6 × 10−4 = 0.0006

68.

7 × 10−5 = 0.00007

69.

−7.16 × 106 = −7,160, 000

70.

−8.17 × 106 = −8,170, 000

71.

7.9 × 10−1 = 0.79

72.

6.8 × 10 −1 = 0.68

73.

−4.15 × 10 −3 = −0.00415

74.

−3.14 × 10−3 = −0.00314

75.

−6.00001×1010 = −60, 000,100, 000

76.

−7.00001×1010 = −70, 000,100, 000

77.

32, 000 = 3.2 × 104

78.

64, 000 = 6.4 ×104

0

24 x 3 ⋅ y 5 3 3− 7 5 − ( −9)

= x y

32 x 7 y −9 4

3

= x −4 y14

4

3 y14

= 4

4x

3

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

0

=

58.

⎛ −30a14b8 ⎞ ⎛ −3b8−( −2)

= ⎜⎜ 17−14

⎜

17 −2 ⎟

⎝ 10a b ⎠ ⎝ a

(10 x 2 )−3 = 10−3 x 2⋅( −3)

3

3

⎛ −3b10 ⎞

=⎜

⎟

⎝ a3 ⎠

−27b30

=

a9

= 10−3 x −6

57.

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

3

−6

=

56.

⎛ −15a 4b 2 ⎞ ⎛ −3b 2−( −3)

⎜ 10 −3 ⎟ = ⎜⎜ 10−4

⎝ 5a b ⎠ ⎝ a

2

3

11

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

79.

94.

638, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000

(8.2 ×10 )( 4.6 ×10 )

8

4

= 6.38 ×1017

= 37.72 × 108+ 4 = 37.72 × 1012

80.

579,000, 000, 000, 000, 000 = 5.79 × 1017

= 3.772 × 1013 ≈ 3.77 ×1013

81.

−5716 = −5.716 × 103

82.

−3829 = −3.829 × 103

83.

0.0027 = 2.7 × 10 −3

84.

0.0083 = 8.3 × 10 −3

85.

−0.00000000504 = −5.04 × 10−9

86.

−0.00000000405 = −4.05 × 10−9

87.

(3 × 104 )( 2.1 × 103 ) = (3 × 2.1) (104 × 103 )

( 2 ×10 )( 4.1×10 ) = 8.2 ×10

89.

(1.6 × 10 )( 4 × 10 ) = (1.6 × 4) (10

4

3

(1.4 × 10 )(3 × 10 ) = (1.4 × 3) (10

−11

99.

4.8 × 10−2 4.8 10−2

=

×

2.4 × 106 2.4 106

= 2 × 10−2 − 6 = 2 × 10−8

15

× 10−11 )

100. 7.5 ×10−2

= 3 × 10−2 − 6 = 3 × 10−8

6

2.5 × 10

× 10−4 )

**101. 2.4 × 10−2 2.4 10−2
**

=

×

4.8 ×10−6 4.8 10−6

= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

= 4.2 × 104

(6.1 × 10 )( 2 × 10 ) = (6.1× 2) (10

−8

−4

−8

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 × 103

= 12.2 × 10−8+( −4)

= 12.2 × 10−12

102. 1.5 × 10−2

= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

5 × 10−6

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 ×103

= 1.22 × 10−11

92.

**( 5.1×10 )(3 ×10 ) = 15.3 ×10
**

−8

−4

−12

= 1.53 × 10−11

93.

**103. 480, 000, 000, 000 4.8 × 1011
**

=

0.00012

1.2 ×10−4

4.8 1011

=

×

1.2 10−4

= 4 × 1011− ( −4)

( 4.3 ×10 )(6.2 ×10 )

= ( 4.3 × 6.2) (10 ×10 )

8

4

8

3.6 ×104 3.6 104

=

×

9 10−2

9 × 10−2

= 0.4 ×104 − ( −2)

× 10−11 )

15

= 4.2 × 1015+( −11)

91.

97.

1.2 × 104

= 0.6 × 104 − ( −2) = 0.6 ×106

2 × 10−2

= ( 6 ×10−1 ) ×106 = 6 × 105

= 6.4 × 104

15

6.9 × 108

= 2.3 × 108− 5 = 2.3 × 103

3 ×105

98.

= 6.4 × 1015+ ( −11)

90.

96.

7

−11

15

8.4 × 108 8.4 108

=

×

4 ×105

4 105

= 2.1× 108− 5 = 2.1× 103

= 0.4 ×106 = 4 × 105

= 6.3 × 104+3 = 6.3 × 107

88.

95.

4

= 26.66 × 108+ 4

= 4 × 1015

= 26.66 × 1012

= 2.666 × 1013 ≈ 2.67 × 1013

**104. 282, 000, 000, 000 2.82 × 1011
**

=

0.00141

1.41×10−3

= 2 × 1011− ( −3)

= 2 × 1014

12

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

105.

106.

Section P.2

0.00072 × 0.003

0.00024

7.2

( ×10−4 )(3 ×10−3 )

=

2.4 × 10−4

7.2 × 3 10−4 ⋅10−3

=

×

= 9 × 10−3

2.4

10−4

113.

**( 2−1 x−2 y−1 ) ( 2 x−4 y3 ) (16 x−3 y3 )
**

2

( 2 x−3 y−5 )

( 22 x2 y2 )( 2−2 x8 y−6 )(1)

=

( 22 x−6 y−10 )

−2

=

4

−3

66000 × 0.001 ( 6.6 × 10 )(1× 10 )

=

0.003 × 0.002 ( 3 × 10−3 )( 2 × 10−3 )

114.

6.6 × 10

1− −6

= 1.1× 10 ( )

6 × 10−6

= 1.1× 107

−1

x −3 y −1 )

−2

1

107.

( x y)

(x y )

−3

−2

−1 3

2

=

x 6 y −3

= 6 −3

x y

=

= x 6 − 6 y −3− ( −3) = x 0 y 0 = 1

108.

( xy )

( x y)

−2 −2

−2

−3

= x −2 − 6 y

4 − ( −3)

= x −8 y 7 =

(2

y7

x8

111.

⎛ x y z ⎞

⎜ −3 −4 −5 ⎟

⎝x y z ⎠

3

4 5

−2

−4

−6

y4 )

y −6 )

−2

(9 x

3

y −3 )

0

2

x 6 y 2 )( 2−2 x12 y −8 ) (1)

(2

2

x −8 y −12 )

2.52 × 1012

3 × 108

c.

2.52 × 1012

3 × 108

=

2.52 1012

× 8

3

10

= 0.84 × 104

= 8400

$8400 per American

y

y

=

24 x8 z 6 16 x8 z 6

116. a.

**110. 3 x −4 yz −7 ( 3x )−3 = 3x −4 yz −7 ⋅ 3−3 x ⋅−3
**

(

)

= 3−2 x −7 yz −7 =

(2x

b.

**109. 2 x −3 yz −6 ( 2 x )−5 = 2 x −3 yz −6 ⋅ 2−5 x ⋅−5
**

(

)

= 2−4 x −8 yz −6 =

2

(2x

x 26 y 6

4

115. a.

x −2 y 4

= 6 −3

x y

0

x18 y6

4

(2

=

−2

y

y

=

3 x7 z 7 9 x7 z 7

2

2.27 × 1012

b.

2.98 × 108

c.

2.27 × 1012

2.27 1012

=

×

2.98 108

2.98 × 108

= 0.7617 × 104

= ( x6 y z

)

= 7617

$7617 per American

8 10 −2

= x −12 y −16 z −20 =

1

x y16 z 20

117. 1450 × 109 ⋅ 6.60 = 1.45 × 1012 ⋅ 6.6

12

= 1.45 ⋅ 6.6 × 1012

112. ⎛ x 4 y 5 z 6 ⎞ −4

8 10 12 −4

⎜ −4 −5 −6 ⎟ = ( x y z )

⎝x y z ⎠

= x −32 y −40 z −48 =

= 9.57 × 1012

Box-office receipts were $9.57 × 1012 in 2006.

1

x y 40 z 48

118. 1400 × 109 ⋅ 6.40 = 1.4 × 1012 ⋅ 6.4

32

= 1.4 ⋅ 6.4 × 1012

= 8.96 × 1012

Box-office receipts were $8.96 × 1012 in 2005.

13

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

119. 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 20, 000 = 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 2 × 104

138. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 52 ⋅ 5−2 = 25 ⋅ 2−5.

= 5.3 ⋅ 2 × 10−23 ⋅ 104

= 10.6 × 10−19

**139. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: 534.7 ≠ 5347.

= 1.06 × 101 ⋅ 10−19

**140. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

= 1.06 × 10−18

The mass is 1.06 × 10−18 gram.

8 × 1030

2 × 10−5

120. 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 80, 000 = 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 8 × 104

= 1.67 ⋅ 8 × 10−24 ⋅ 104

**141. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

= 13.36 × 10−20

1

= 1.336 × 10 ⋅ 10

(7 × 105 ) + (2 × 10−3 ) = 700, 000.002.

−20

142. true

= 1.336 × 10−19

**143. The doctor has gathered:
**

1 1

2 1 3

2−1 + 2−2 = +

= + =

2 22 4 4 4

**The mass is 1.336 × 10−19 gram.
**

121. 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 127 = 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 1.27 × 102

= 3.2 ⋅ 1.27 × 107 ⋅ 102

So, 1 −

= 4.064 × 109

3 1

= is remaining.

4 4

144. b A = MN , bC = M , b D = N

Americans eat 4.064 × 109 chickens per year.

b A = bC b D

122. 365 days equals 365 ⋅ 24 or 8760 hours.

A=C+D

**8760 hours equals 8760 ⋅ 60 or 525,600 minutes.
**

525,600 min. equals

525,600 ⋅ 60 or 31,536,000 seconds.

145.

**There are 3.1536 × 107 seconds in a year.
**

123. – 130. Answers may vary.

131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

**Sample explanation: 36( x3 )9 = 36 x 27 not 36 x12 .
**

132. makes sense

**70 bts 60 min 24 hrs 365 days
**

⋅

⋅

⋅

⋅ 80 yrs

hr

day

yr

min

= 70 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 365 ⋅ 80 beats

= 2943360000 beats

= 2.94336 × 109 beats

≈ 2.94 × 109 beats

The heartbeats approximately 2.94 × 109 times over a

lifetime of 80 years.

146. Answers may vary.

**133. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

147. a.

**Sample explanation: 4.6 × 1012 represents over 4
**

trillion. The entire world population is measured in

billions ( 109 ).

134. makes sense

135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 4

= 4 × 1030 − ( −5) = 4 × 1035.

−2

b.

16 ⋅ 4 = 64 = 8

c.

16 ⋅ 4 = 16 ⋅ 4

148. a.

300 ≈ 17.32

b.

10 3 ≈ 17.32

c.

300 = 10 3

−3

>4 .

16 ⋅ 4 = 4 ⋅ 2 = 8

136. true

137. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

1

A sample change is: (−2)4 ≠ 2−4 because 16 ≠ .

16

149. a.

b.

21x + 10 x = 31x

21 2 + 10 2 = 31 2

14

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

Section P.3

5.

a.

**Check Point Exercises
**

1.

5 27 + 12

= 5 9⋅3 + 4⋅3

= 5⋅3 3 + 2 3

a.

81 = 9

b.

− 9 = −3

c.

1

1

=

25 5

d.

36 + 64 = 100 = 10

e.

36 + 64 = 6 + 8 = 14

a.

75 = 25 ⋅ 3 = 25 3 = 5 3

b.

5 x ⋅ 10 x = 5 x ⋅10 x

= 15 3 + 2 3

= (15 + 2) 3

= 17 3

2.

b.

= 6 9 ⋅ 2x − 4 4 ⋅ 2x

= 6 ⋅ 3 2x − 4 ⋅ 2 2x

= 18 2 x − 8 2 x

= (18 − 8) 2 x

= 10 2 x

6.

a.

= 50 x 2

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2

b.

5

3

25

25 5

=

=

16

16 4

150 x 3

2x

=

b.

150 x 3

2x

= 5x 3

3

⋅

12

8 13 + 9 13 = (8 + 9) 3

7.

17 x − 20 17 x

= 1 17 x − 20 17 x

= (1 − 20) 17 x

=

Multiply by

3

=

5 3

9

=

5 3

3

12 ⋅ 3 =

3

3

6

12

⋅

36 = 6. So multiply by 1,

for 1.

3

3

=

6 3

36

=

4− 5

.

4− 5

8

8

4− 5

=

⋅

4+ 5 4+ 5 4− 5

=

= −19 17 x

3

for 1.

**The smallest number that will produce a perfect
**

6

square in the denominator of

is 3

12

6

= 17 13

b.

5

choosing

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 3

a.

=

3

because

= 75 x 2

4.

3

choosing

= 5x 2

a.

**If we multiply numerator and denominator by
**

3, the denominator becomes

3 ⋅ 3 = 9 = 3. Therefore, multiply by 1,

= 25 ⋅ 2 x 2

3.

6 18 x − 4 8 x

8(4 − 5)

42 − ( 5)2

8(4 − 5)

16 − 5

8(4 − 5)

32 − 8 5

or

=

11

11

=

15

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6 3

= 3

6

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

8.

9.

a.

3

40 = 3 8 ⋅ 5 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 5 = 2 3 5

Exercise Set P.3

b.

5

8 ⋅ 5 8 = 5 64 = 5 32 ⋅ 5 2 = 2 5 2

1.

36 = 62 = 6

c.

3

125 3 125 5

= 3

=

27

27 3

2.

25 = 52 = 5

3 3 81 − 4 3 3 = 3 3 27 ⋅ 3 − 4 3 3

3.

− 36 = − 62 = −6

4.

− 25 = − 52 = −5

5.

**−36 , The square root of a negative number is not
**

real.

6.

**−25 , The square root of a negative number is not
**

real.

= 3⋅ 33 3 − 4 3 3

= 93 3 − 43 3

= (9 − 4) 3 3

= 53 3

1

25 2 = 25 = 5

10. a.

1

b.

83 = 3 8 = 2

c.

−814 = − 4 81 = −3

d.

( −8 ) 3

e.

27

1

1

−

1

3

= 3 −8 = −2

1

=

1

1

=

3

27 3

4

(

27 3 =

11. a.

( 4)

2

5

1

32

c.

27

42 =

3

b.

3

−

2

=

3

2

)

4

=

27

1

3

= (3)4 = 81

= (2)3 = 8

=

32 5

1

(

5

32

)

2

1 1

= 2 =

2

4

7.

25 − 16 = 9 = 3

8.

144 + 25 = 169 = 13

9.

25 − 16 = 5 − 4 = 1

10.

144 + 25 = 12 + 5 = 17

11.

(−13) 2 = 169 = 13

12.

(−17)2 = 289 = 17

13.

50 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 25 2 = 5 2

14.

27 = 9 ⋅ 3 = 9 3 = 3 3

15.

45 x 2 = 9 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 9 x2 5

( 2 x )( 5x )

4/3

12. a.

8/3

= 9 x2 5

= 2 ⋅ 5 x 4 / 3 ⋅ x8 / 3

=3 x 5

= 10 x ( 4 / 3) + (8 / 3)

= 10 x12 / 3

= 10 x

16.

4

= 25 x 2 5

20 x 4 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 4 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟

3

5x 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x 2 ⎠

b.

= 25 x 2 5

=5 x 5

4− 3

= 4x ( 2)

8 − 3

= 4 x( 2 ) ( 2 )

= 4x

13.

6

5

17.

2x ⋅ 6x = 2x ⋅ 6x

= 12 x 2

2

= 4x2 ⋅ 3

x3 = x 6 = x 2 = x

3

125 x 2 = 25 x 2 ⋅ 5

1

= 2x 3

16

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

18.

Section P.3

10 x ⋅ 8 x = 10 x ⋅ 8 x

30.

= 80 x 2

24 x 4

=

3x

= 16 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 8 x3

= 4x 5

= 4 x2 ⋅ 2 x

19.

x3 = x 2 ⋅ x = x x

20.

y3 =

21.

2 x2 ⋅ 6 x = 2 x2 ⋅ 6 x

= 2x 2x

31.

y2 ⋅ y = y y

200 x3

10 x −1

= 4 x 2 ⋅ 3x

= 4 ⋅ 5x4

= 2 x2 5

32.

1

1 1

=

=

81

81 9

24.

1

=

49

25.

49

49 7

=

=

16

16 4

26.

121

121 11

=

=

9

3

9

27.

28.

48 x3

=

3x

72 x

3

=

8x

1

7

34.

8 5 + 11 5 = (8 + 11) 5 = 19 5

35.

6 17 x − 8 17 x = (6 − 8) 17 x = −2 17 x

36.

4 13 x − 6 13x = (4 − 6) 13x = −2 13x

= (2 + 3) 2

=5 2

38.

20 + 6 5 = 4 ⋅ 5 + 6 5

= 2 5+6 5

= (2 + 6) 5

=8 5

72 x

= 9 x2 = 3x

8x

150 x

150 x

=

3x

3x

8 + 3 2 = 4⋅2 + 3 2

= 2 2 +3 2

39.

29.

500 x 3

= 50 x 3−( −1)

10 x −1

7 3 + 6 3 = (7 + 6) 3 = 13 3

37.

48 x3

= 16 x 2 = 4 x

3x

4

10 x −1

=

33.

3

=

500 x 3

= 50 x 4 = 25 ⋅ 2 x 4 = 5 x 2 2

= 3x 2x

49

3−( −1)

= 20 x 4

6 x ⋅ 3 x 2 = 6 x ⋅ 3x 2

= 18 x3

1

200 x 3

10 x −1

= 12 x 3

= 9 x2 ⋅ 2 x

23.

=

= 20 x

= 2 x 3x

22.

24 x 4

3x

4

50 x − 8 x = 25 ⋅ 2 x − 4 ⋅ 2 x

= 5 2x − 2 2x

= (5 − 2) 2 x

= 50 x 3

= 3 2x

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2 x

= 5x 2x

17

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

40.

63 x − 28 x = 9 ⋅ 7 x − 4 ⋅ 7 x

49.

= 3 7x − 2 7x

13

3 + 11

= (3 − 2) 7 x

=

=

= 7x

41.

3 18 + 5 50 = 3 9 ⋅ 2 + 5 25 ⋅ 2

= 3⋅3 2 + 5⋅5 2

= 9 2 + 25 2

= (9 + 25) 2

50.

= 34 2

42.

3

3+ 7

= 4⋅ 2 3 − 2⋅5 3

13(3 − 11)

9 − 11

=

13(3 − 11)

−2

=

= −2 3

3 8 − 32 + 3 72 − 75

51.

= 3 4 ⋅ 2 − 16 ⋅ 2 + 3 36 ⋅ 2 − 25 ⋅ 3

7

5−2

= 6 2 − 4 2 + 18 2 − 5 3

=

= 20 2 − 5 3

= 3 9 ⋅ 6 − 2 4 ⋅ 6 − 16 ⋅ 6 + 4 9 ⋅ 7

52.

= 3⋅3 6 − 2⋅ 2 6 − 4 6 + 4 ⋅3 7

5

3 −1

= 9 6 − 4 6 − 4 6 + 12 7

46.

47.

48.

2

2

5

7

3

=

=

=

2

2

5

7

⋅

10

⋅

10

5

5

=

=

5−2

5+2

⋅

5+2

7( 5 + 2)

( 5) 2 − 22

7( 5 + 2)

5−4

5

3 −1

⋅

3 +1

3 +1

5( 3 + 1)

( 3) 2 − 12

5( 3 + 1)

3 −1

5( 3 + 1)

=

2

7

10

7

=

7

=

⋅

=

7

7

7 7

10

3(3 − 7 )

32 − ( 7 )2

=

=

= 6 + 12 7

45.

3− 7

= 7( 5 + 2)

3 54 − 2 24 − 96 + 4 63

1

⋅

3+ 7 3− 7

=

=

= 3⋅ 2 2 − 4 2 + 3⋅ 6 2 − 5 3

1

3

3(3 − 7)

9−7

3(3 − 7)

=

2

= (8 − 10) 3

44.

32 − ( 11)2

=

= 8 3 − 10 3

43.

13(3 − 11)

=

=

4 12 − 2 75 = 4 4 ⋅ 3 − 2 25 ⋅ 3

13

3 − 11

⋅

3 + 11 3 − 11

2 10

10

=

10

5

53.

10

5

6

5+ 3

=

=

=

3

21

⋅

=

3

3 3

6

5+ 3

⋅

5− 3

5− 3

6( 5 − 3)

( 5) 2 − ( 3) 2

6( 5 − 3)

5−3

6( 5 − 3)

2

= 3( 5 − 3)

=

18

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

11

54.

Section P.3

11

=

7− 3

=

7− 3

⋅

7+ 3

5

73.

7+ 3

11( 7 + 3)

74.

11( 7 + 3)

=

7−3

11( 7 + 3)

=

4

125 = 3 53 = 5

55.

3

56.

3

8 = 3 23 = 2

57.

3

−8 = 3 (−2) = −2

3

77.

5 3 16 + 3 54 = 5 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 3 27 ⋅ 2

= 5 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 33 2

= 13 3 2

61.

4

(−3) 4 = −3 = 3

62.

4

(−2) = −2 = 2

63.

5

(−3)5 = −3

64.

5

(−2) = −2

65.

5

67.

3

= 6 3 3 + 33 3

= 93 3

79.

= − y 3 2x

80.

2

24 xy 3 − y 3 81x

= 2 y 3 3 x − 3 y 3 3x

=

6

3

= 3 8 ⋅ 3xy 3 − y 3 27 ⋅ 3x

= − y 3 3x

1

1

1

= 5 − 5 =−

32

2

2

1

54 xy 3 − y 3 128 x

= 3 y 3 2x − 4 y 3 2x

5

6

3

= 3 27 ⋅ 2 xy 3 − y 3 64 ⋅ 2 x

4

6

3 3 24 + 3 81 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 + 3 27 ⋅ 3

= 3 ⋅ 2 3 3 + 33 3

−81 is not a real number.

1

=

64

162 x5 4

= 81x 4 = 3x

2x

6 5 3 + 25 3 = 85 3

−16 is not a real number.

4

6

2x

4

= 10 3 2 + 3 3 2

60.

66.

4

=

76.

−125 = 3 (−5)3 = −5

−

162 x 5

64 x 6 5

= 32 x5 = 2 x

2x

5

4 5 2 + 35 2 = 7 5 2

3

4

59.

2x

=

75.

78.

58.

5

4

( 7 )2 − ( 3) 2

64 x 6

1

2

81.

2+ 3 8 = 2+2

82.

3 + 3 15 will not simplify

83.

32 = 3 8 ⋅ 4 = 3 8 3 4 = 2 ⋅ 3 4

361/ 2 = 36 = 6

**84. 1211/ 2 = 121 = 11
**

68.

3

69.

3

70.

3

71.

3

72.

3

**150 cannot be simplified further.
**

85.

81/ 3 = 3 8 = 2

x 4 = 3 x3 ⋅ x = x ⋅ 3 x

86.

271/ 3 = 3 27 = 3

x5 = 3 x3 x 2 = x 3 x 2

87. 1252 / 3 =

9 ⋅ 3 6 = 3 54 = 3 27 ⋅ 2 = 3 27 3 2 = 3 3 2

88.

12 ⋅ 4 = 48 = 8 ⋅ 6 = 2 6

3

3

3

3

82 / 3 =

(

3

125

( 8)

3

2

)

2

= 52 = 25

=4

19

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

89.

90. 16−5 / 2 =

91.

1

1

1

= 4 =

4/5

32

2

16

32−4 / 5 =

1

1

1

1

=

=

=

165 / 2 ( 16)5 45 1024

( 7 x )( 2 x ) = 7 ⋅ 2 x

1/ 3

1/ 4

1/ 3

⋅ x1/ 4

1/ 3 +1/ 4

= 14 ⋅ x

20 x1/ 2 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x1/ 2 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟

5 x1/ 4 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x1/ 4 ⎠

= 4 ⋅ x1/ 2 −1/ 4

4

x12 = x12 / 4 = x

105.

6

x4 = 6 / 2 x4 / 2 = 3 x2

106.

9

x6 = 9 / 3 x6 / 3 = 3 x 2

107.

9

x6 y 3 = x 9 y 9 = x 3 y 3 = 3 x 2 y

108.

12

x 4 y 8 = x 12 y 12 = x 3 y 3 =

109.

34

110.

3

94.

95.

(x

)

=x

2 / 3⋅3

=x

98.

(125 x9 y 6 )1/ 3 = 1251/ 3 x 9 / 3 y 6 / 3 = 5 x 3 y 2

1

2

x y2

3

3

1000 + 3 216

1/ 2

−2 −1/ 2

4 −1/ 2

1/ 2

1 ( −2)( −1/ 2 ) ( 4)( −1/ 2)

x

y

( xy1/ 2 )

491/ 2

1

1

−2 + 1/ 2

= x1 y −2 ⋅ xy1/ 2 = x1+1 y ( )

7

7

1

x2

= x 2 y −3 / 2 = 3 / 2

7

7y

3

3

112. ( 8 x −6 y 3 )

1/ 3

(x

5/ 6

y −1/ 3 )

6

= 81/ 3 x ( −6)(1/ 3) y ( 3)(1/ 3) x (5 / 6)( 6) y ( −1/ 3)( 6)

= 2 x −2 y1 x5 y −2 = 2 x −2 + 5 y1+ ( −2 )

2

= 27 y 12 = 27 y 3

24 ( y1/ 5 )

−1/ 2

=

⎛ 14 ⎞

3

⎜ 3y ⎟

3 1

⎝

⎠ = 27 y 4 = 27 y 4 − 12

1

1

y 12

y 12

=

169 + 9 +

−1/ 2

(25 x 4 y 6 )1/ 2 = 251/ 2 x 4⋅1/ 2 y 6⋅1/ 2 = 5 x 2 y

y 3 /10

8

( xy )

= ( 49 ) ( x ) ( y ) ( xy )

97.

1/ 5 4

1

16 + 625 = 3 2 + 25 = 3 27 = 3

111. ( 49 x −2 y 4 )

2

( x 4 / 5 )5 = x 4 / 5⋅5 = x 4

(2y )

2

= 3 4+ 4 = 38

=2

⎞

3 / 4 −1/ 3

= 8 x5 /12

⎟ = 8⋅ x

⎠

96.

8

3

= 3 16 + 16

72 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 72 ⎞ ⎛ x 3 / 4

= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1/ 3

9 x1/ 3

⎝ 9 ⎠⎝ x

2/3 3

3

= 3 13 + 3 + 10 + 6

= 4 x1/ 4

100.

104.

4

2 / 3+ 3 / 4

= 12 x17 /12

99.

x6 = x6 / 3 = x 2

(3 x 2 / 3 )(4 x3 / 4 ) = 3 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3 ⋅ x 3 / 4

= 12 ⋅ x

93.

3

6

= 14 x 7 /12

92.

103.

= 2 x3 y −1 =

4

y 3 /10

⎛ x −5 / 4 y1/ 3 ⎞

113. ⎜ −3 / 4 ⎟

⎝ x

⎠

4/5

16 y

= 3 /10 = 16 y 4 / 5− 3 /10 = 16 y1/ 2

y

101.

4

52 = 52 / 4 = 51/ 2 = 5

102.

4

7 2 = 7 2 / 4 = 71/ 2 = 7

2 x3

y

−6

(

= x(

= ( x −2 / 4 y1/ 3 ) = x(

−6

= x3 y −2 =

−5 / 4 ) − ( −3 / 4 )

−2 / 4 )( −6 )

y(

y1/ 3

)

−6

1/ 3)( −6 )

x3

y2

20

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

⎛ x1/ 2 y −7 / 4 ⎞

114. ⎜

⎟

−5 / 4

⎝ y

⎠

−4

= ( x1/ 2 y −2 / 4 )

= x −2 y 2 =

115. a.

(

= x1/ 2 y (

−4

−7 / 4 ) − ( −5 / 4 )

)

−4

⎛v⎞

118. Ra = R f 1 − ⎜ ⎟

⎝c⎠

= x (1/ 2)( −4) y ( −2 / 4)( −4)

⎛ 0.9c ⎞

= Rf 1− ⎜

⎟

⎝ c ⎠

y2

x2

= R f 1 − ( 0.9 )

In 2004, we have x = 5.

Ra = 0.44 R f

44 = 0.44 R f

In 2011, we have x = 12 .

0.44 R f

44

=

0.44

0.44

100 = R f

If you are gone for 44 weeks, then 100 weeks will

have passed for your friend.

119. Perimeter:

P = 2l + 2 w

For 2020: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 125 + 2 ⋅ 2 20

= 5 10 + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 25 ⋅ 5 + 4 4 ⋅ 5

For 2050: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 5 40 + 34.1

= 2⋅5 5 + 4⋅ 2 5

= 5 ⋅ 2 10 + 34.1

= 10 5 + 8 5

= 18 5 feet

Area:

A = lw

= 10 10 + 34.1

Difference:

(10 10 + 34.1) − (5 10 + 34.1)

= 10 10 + 34.1 − 5 10 − 34.1

= 125 ⋅ 2 20

= 10 10 − 5 10 + 34.1 − 34.1

= 2 125 ⋅ 20

= 5 10

= 2 2500

= 2 ⋅ 50

= 100 square feet

The difference is 5 10.

b.

117.

2

≈ 0.44 R f

y = 20.8 12 + 21 ≈ 93.1

According to the model, 93.1% of email will be

spam in 2011.

This overestimates the value given in the bar

graph by 21.1%.

116. a.

2

= R f 0.19

y = 20.8 5 + 21 ≈ 67.5

According to the model, 67.5% of email was

spam in 2004.

This underestimates the actual value shown in

the bar graph by 0.5%.

b.

2

5 10 ≈ 15.8

This underestimates the difference projected by

the graph of 65.8 − 47.3 = 18.5 by 2.7. This

represents a difference of 2.7 million people.

2

5 + 1 2( 5 + 1)

⋅

=

5 −1

5 −1 5 +1

2( 5 + 1)

4

5 +1

=

2

≈ 1.62

About 1.62 to 1.

=

21

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

120. Perimeter:

P = 2l + 2w

13 + 2 +

139.

= 2 ⋅ 4 20 + 2 ⋅ 80

7

= 13 + 2 +

3+ 2

= 8 4 ⋅ 5 + 2 16 ⋅ 5

= 24 5 feet

Area:

A = lw

21 − 7 2

9−2

= 13 + 2 +

21 − 7 2

7

1

1

140. a.

= 4 1600

= 4 ⋅ 40

= 160 square feet

b.

121. – 128. Answers may vary.

3 2 > 33

Calculator Check: 1.7321 > 1.4422

7 + 18 > 7 + 18

Calculator Check: 6.8884 > 5

5

**129. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: The denominator is

rationalized correctly.

141. a.

b.

**131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary. Sample
**

explanation: 2 20 + 4 75 simplifies to 4 5 + 20 3

and thus the radical terms are not common.

2

⋅7

1

2

1

4

−

4

3

3

−

4

+ 2−2

+ 2−1

( 8)

3

=

+

4

1

( 16 )

4

3

= 71 = 7.

136. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

20

5

=

.

8

4

)(5 − 3 ) = 22

25 − 3 = 22

3 =3

25 x 14 = 5 x 7

1

22

+

1 1

+

4

2

4

=

1 1

+

23 2

1 1

+

= 16 4

1 1

+

8 2

5

= 16

5

8

8

=

16

1

=

2

Mom’s portion:

1⎛ 1⎞ 1⎛1⎞ 1

1−

=

=

2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 4

**135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

The cube root of –8 is the real number –2.

138.

5 3 1

+ −

4 4

= 22

Son’s portion:

16

**134. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

1

1

1

1

−

A sample change is: ( 8 ) 3 =

= 3 = .

1

2

8

(8) 3

A sample change is:

3

22 ⋅ 24

1

4

2 ⋅2 ÷2 =

8

**133. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

1

3

4

1

**132. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: Finding the nth root first often

gives smaller numbers on the middle step.

A sample change is: 7

5

2

2

Her son is 8 years old.

130. makes sense

3

3+ 2 3− 2

= 16

=4

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

(

3− 2

= 13 + 2 + 3 − 2

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

137. 5 +

⋅

= 13 + 2 +

= 8⋅ 2 5 + 2⋅ 4 5

= 16 5 + 8 5

7

22

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1

2

= 23 = 8

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

142. (2 x3 y 2 )(5 x 4 y 7 ) = 10 x7 y 9

143. 2 x 4 (8 x 4 + 3x) = 2 x 4 (8 x 4 ) + 2 x 4 (3 x) = 16 x8 + 6 x5

144. 2 x( x 2 + 4 x + 5) + 3( x 2 + 4 x + 5)

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 10 x + 3x 2 + 12 x + 15

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 3x 2 + 10 x + 12 x + 15

= 2 x3 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 15

Section P.4

Check Point Exercises

1.

(−17 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 11x − 5) + (16 x 3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 15)

a.

= (−17 x 3 + 16 x3 ) + (4 x 2 − 3x 2 ) + (−11x + 3x) + (−5 − 15)

= − x 3 + x 2 − 8 x − 20

b.

(13x 2 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) − (−7 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 9)

= (13 x3 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) + (7 x3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 9)

= (13 x3 + 7 x 3 ) + (−9 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (1 − 9)

= 20 x3 − 11x 2 − 2 x − 8

2.

(5 x − 2)(3x 2 − 5 x + 4)

= 5 x(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4) − 2(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4)

= 5 x ⋅ 3x 2 − 5 x ⋅ 5 x + 5 x ⋅ 4 − 2 ⋅ 3 x 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅ 4

= 15 x 3 − 25 x 2 + 20 x − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 8

= 15 x 3 − 31x 2 + 30 x − 8

3.

(7 x − 5)(4 x − 3) = 7 x ⋅ 4 x + 7 x(−3) + (−5)4 x + (−5)(−3)

= 28 x 2 − 21x − 20 x + 15

= 28 x 2 − 41x + 15

4.

a.

(7 x − 6 y )(3x − y ) = (7 x)(3 x) + (7 x)(− y ) + (−6 y )(3x) + (−6 y )(− y )

= 21x 2 − 7 xy − 18 xy + 6 y 2

= 21x 2 − 25 xy + 6 y 2

5.

b.

(2 x + 4 y )2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(4 y ) + (4 y ) 2 = 4 x 2 + 16 xy + 16 y 2

a.

(3 x + 2 + 5y )(3x + 2 − 5y ) = (3x + 2)2 − (5y )2

= 9x 2 + 12 x + 4 − 25y 2

2

2

= 9x + 12 x − 25y + 4

b.

(2 x + y + 3) 2 = (2 x + y )2 + 2(2 x + y )(3) + 32

= 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 12 x + 6y + 9

2

2

= 4 x + 4 xy + 12 x + y + 6y + 9

23

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Exercise Set P.4

1.

yes; 2 x + 3 x 2 − 5 = 3 x 2 + 2 x − 5

2.

no; The term 3x −1 does not have a whole number exponent.

3.

no; The form of a polynomial involves addition and subtraction, not division.

4.

yes; x 2 − x 3 + x 4 − 5 = x 4 − x3 + x 2 − 5

5.

**3x 2 has degree 2
**

−5x has degree 1

4 has degree 0

3 x 2 − 5 x + 4 has degree 2.

6.

**−4x 3 has degree 3
**

7x 2 has degree 2

–11 has degree 0

−4 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 11 has degree 3.

7.

x 2 has degree 2

−4x 3 has degree 3

9x has degree 1

−12x 4 has degree 4

63 has degree 0

x 2 − 4 x 3 + 9 x − 12 x 4 + 63 has degree 4.

8.

x 2 has degree 2

−8x 3 has degree 3

15x 4 has degree 4

91 has degree 0

x 2 − 8 x3 + 15 x 4 + 91 has degree 4.

9.

(−6 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 8 x + 9) + (17 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 13) = (−6 x 3 + 17 x 3 ) + (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 ) + (−8 x − 4 x) + (9 − 13)

= 11x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 4

The degree is 3.

10.

**(−7 x3 + 6 x 2 − 11x + 13) + (19 x3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 17) = (−7 x3 + 19 x3 ) + (6 x 2 − 11x 2 ) + (−11x + 7 x) + (13 − 17)
**

= 12 x3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x − 4

The degree is 3.

11.

(17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) − (5 x3 − 9 x 2 − 8 x + 11) = (17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) + (−5 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 8 x − 11)

= (17 x3 − 5 x3 ) + (−5 x 2 + 9 x 2 ) + (4 x + 8 x) + (−3 − 11)

= 12 x3 + 4 x 2 + 12 x − 14

The degree is 3.

12.

(18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) − (9 x 4 − 6 x3 − 5 x + 7) = (18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) + (−9 x 4 + 6 x3 + 5 x − 7)

= (18 x 4 − 9 x 4 ) + (−2 x3 + 6 x3 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (8 − 7)

= 9 x 4 + 4 x3 − 2 x + 1

The degree is 4.

24

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PreCalculus 4E

13.

Section P.4

(5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) − ( x 2 − 4 x − 3) = (5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) + (− x 2 + 4 x + 3)

= (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 − x 2 ) + (−7 x − 3 x + 4 x) + (−8 + 7 + 3)

= 6x2 − 6x + 2

The degree is 2.

14.

(8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) − (3 x 2 − 4 x) − (−6 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 3) = (8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) + (−3x 2 + 4 x) + (6 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3)

= 6 x 3 + (8 x 2 − 3x 2 + 5 x 2 ) + (7 x + 4 x) + (−5 − 3)

= 6 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 11x − 8

The degree is 3.

15.

( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) = x( x 2 ) − x ⋅ x + x ⋅1 + 1( x 2 ) − 1 ⋅ x + 1 ⋅1

= x3 − x 2 + x + x 2 − x + 1

= x3 + 1

16.

( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 5 x + 25 ) = x( x 2 ) − x(5 x) + x(25) + 5( x 2 ) − 5(5 x) + 5(25)

= x 3 − 5 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125)

= x 3 + 125

17.

(2 x − 3)( x 2 − 3x + 5) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−3x) + (2 x)(5) + (−3)( x 2 ) + (−3)(−3x) + (−3)(5)

= 2 x 3 − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 3x 2 + 9 x − 15

= 2 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 19 x − 15

18.

(2 x − 1)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−4 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−1)( x 2 ) + (−1)(−4 x) + (−1)(3)

= 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − x 2 + 4 x − 3

= 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 10 x − 3

19.

( x + 7)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x + 7 x + 21 = x 2 + 10 x + 21

20.

( x + 8)( x + 5) = x 2 + 5 x + 8 x + 40 = x 2 + 13x + 40

21.

( x − 5)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x − 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 2 x − 15

22.

( x − 1)( x + 2) = x 2 + 2 x − x − 2 = x 2 + x − 2

23.

(3 x + 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + 3 x(1) + 5(2 x) + 5 = 6 x 2 + 3x + 10 x + 5 = 6 x 2 + 13x + 5

24.

(7 x + 4)(3x + 1) = (7 x)(3x) + 7 x(1) + 4(3x) + 4(1) = 21x 2 + 7 x + 12 x + 4 = 21x 2 + 19 x + 4

25.

(2 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (2 x)(5 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−3)(5 x) + (−3)(3) = 10 x 2 + 6 x − 15 x − 9 = 10 x 2 − 9 x − 9

26.

(2 x − 5)(7 x + 2) = (2 x )(7 x) + (2 x)(2) + (−5)(7 x) + (−5)(2) = 14 x 2 + 4 x − 35 x − 10 = 14 x 2 − 31x − 10

27.

(5 x 2 − 4)(3 x 2 − 7) = (5 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (5 x 2 )(−7) + (−4)(3x 2 ) + (−4)(−7) = 15 x 4 − 35 x 2 − 12 x 2 + 28 = 15 x 4 − 47 x 2 + 28

28.

(7 x 2 − 2)(3 x 2 − 5) = (7 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (7 x 2 )(−5) + (−2)(3 x 2 ) + (−2)(−5) = 21x 4 − 35 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 10 = 21x 4 − 41x 2 + 10

29.

(8 x

3

+ 3)( x 2 − 5 ) = ( 8 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 8 x 3 ) ( −5 ) + ( 3) ( x 2 ) + ( 3)( −5 ) = 8 x5 − 40 x 3 + 3 x 2 − 15

25

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

30.

(7x

31.

( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 32 = x 2 − 9

32.

( x + 5)( x − 5) = x 2 − 52 = x 2 − 25

33.

(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) = (3 x) 2 − 22 = 9 x 2 − 4

34.

(2 x + 5)(2 x − 5) = (2 x)2 − 52 = 4 x 2 − 25

35.

(5 − 7 x)(5 + 7 x) = 52 − (7 x) 2 = 25 − 49 x 2

36.

(4 − 3x)(4 + 3x) = 42 − (3x) 2 = 16 − 9 x 2

37.

(4 x 2 + 5 x)(4 x 2 − 5 x) = (4 x 2 ) 2 − (5 x) 2 = 16 x 4 − 25 x 2

38.

(3 x 2 + 4 x)(3x 2 − 4 x) = (3x 2 ) 2 − (4 x) 2 = 9 x 4 − 16 x 2

39.

(1 − y )(1 + y ) = (1) − ( y )

40.

( 2 − y )( 2 + y ) = ( 2 ) − ( y )

41.

( x + 2) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = x 2 + 4 x + 4

42.

( x + 5) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = x 2 + 10 x + 25

43.

(2 x + 3)2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(3) + 32 = 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9

44.

(3 x + 2)2 = (3x) 2 + 2(3x)(2) + 22 = 9 x 2 + 12 x + 4

45.

( x − 3) 2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 3 + 32 = x 2 − 6 x + 9

46.

( x − 4)2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 4 + 42 = x 2 − 8 x + 16

47.

(4 x 2 − 1) 2 = (4 x 2 ) 2 − 2(4 x 2 )(1) + 12 = 16 x 4 − 8 x 2 + 1

48.

(5 x 2 − 3)2 = (5 x 2 ) 2 − 2(5 x 2 )(3) + 32 = 25 x 4 − 30 x 2 + 9

49.

(7 − 2 x)2 = 7 2 − 2(7)(2 x) + (2 x) 2 = 49 − 28 x + 4 x 2 = 4 x 2 − 28 x + 49

50.

(9 − 5 x) 2 = 92 − 2(9)(5 x) + (5 x) 2 = 81 − 90 x + 25 x 2 or 25 x 2 − 90 x + 81

51.

( x + 1)3 = x3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅1 + 3x ⋅12 + 13 = x3 + 3 x 2 + 3 x + 1

52.

( x + 2)3 = x 3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 22 + 23 = x 3 + 6 x 2 + 12 x + 8

53.

(2 x + 3)3 = (2 x)3 + 3 ⋅ (2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x) ⋅ 32 + 33 = 8 x 3 + 36 x 2 + 54 x + 27

3

+ 5 )( x 2 − 2 ) = ( 7 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 7 x 3 ) ( −2 ) + ( 5 ) ( x 2 ) + ( 5 )( −2 ) = 7 x5 − 14 x3 + 5 x 2 − 10

5

5

5 2

2

5

5

2

= 1 − y10

5 2

= 4 − y10

26

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PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

54.

(3 x + 4)3 = (3x)3 + 3(3x) 2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3x) ⋅ 42 + 43 = 27 x 3 + 108 x 2 + 144 x + 64

55.

( x − 3)3 = x3 − 3 ⋅ x 3 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 32 − 33 = x 3 − 9 x 2 + 27 x − 27

56.

( x − 1)3 = x 3 − 3x 2 ⋅1 + 3 x ⋅12 − 13 = x3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1

57.

(3 x − 4)3 = (3x)3 − 3(3 x)2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3 x) ⋅ 42 − 43 = 27 x 3 − 108 x 2 + 144 x − 64

58.

(2 x − 3)3 = (2 x)3 − 3(2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x ) ⋅ 32 − 33 = 8 x3 − 36 x 2 + 54 x − 27

59.

( x + 5 y )(7 x + 3 y ) = x(7 x) + x(3 y ) + (5 y )(7 x) + (5 y )(3 y )

= 7 x 2 + 3 xy + 35 xy + 15 y 2

= 7 x 2 + 38 xy + 15 y 2

60.

( x + 9 y )(6 x + 7 y ) = x(6 x) + x(7 y ) + (9 y )(6 x) + (9 y )(7 y )

= 6 x 2 + 7 xy + 54 xy + 63 y 2

= 6 x 2 + 61xy + 63 y 2

61.

( x − 3 y )(2 x + 7 y ) = x(2 x) + x (7 y ) + (−3 y )(2 x) + (−3 y )(7 y )

= 2 x 2 + 7 xy − 6 xy − 21y 2

= 2 x 2 + xy − 21 y 2

62.

(3 x − y )(2 x + 5 y ) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(5 y ) + (− y )(2 x) + (− y )(5 y )

= 6 x 2 + 15 xy − 2 xy − 5 y 2

= 6 x 2 + 13xy − 5 y 2

63.

(3 xy − 1)(5 xy + 2) = (3xy )(5 xy ) + (3xy )(2) + (−1)(5 xy ) + (−1)(2)

= 15 x 2 y 2 + 6 xy − 5 xy − 2

= 15 x 2 y 2 + xy − 2

64.

(7 x 2 y + 1)(2 x 2 y − 3) = (7 x 2 y )(2 x 2 y ) + (7 x 2 y )(−3) + (1)2 x 2 y + (1)(−3)

= 14 x 4 y 2 − 21x 2 y + 2 x 2 y − 3

= 14 x 4 y 2 − 19 x 2 y − 3

65.

(7 x + 5 y ) 2 = (7 x) 2 + 2(7 x)(5 y ) + (5 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 + 70 xy + 25 y 2

66.

(9 x + 7 y )2 = (9 x)2 + 2(9 x )(7 y ) + (7 y )2 = 81x 2 + 126 xy + 49 y 2

67.

( x 2 y 2 − 3) 2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(3) + 32 = x 4 y 4 − 6 x 2 y 2 + 9

68.

( x 2 y 2 − 5)2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(5) + 52 = x 4 y 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 25

69.

( x − y )( x 2 + xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x( xy ) + x( y 2 ) + (− y )( x 2 ) + (− y )( xy ) + (− y )( y 2 )

= x3 + x 2 y + xy 2 − x 2 y − xy 2 − y 3

= x3 − y 3

27

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

70.

( x + y )( x 2 − xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x(− xy ) + x( y 2 ) + y ( x 2 ) + y (− xy ) + y ( y 2 )

= x 3 − x 2 y + xy 2 + x 2 y − xy 2 + y 3

= x3 + y 3

71.

(3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = (3x) 2 − (5 y )2 = 9 x 2 − 25 y 2

72.

(7 x + 3 y )(7 x − 3 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (3 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 9 y 2

73.

( x + y + 3)( x + y − 3) = ( x + y ) 2 − 32 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 9

74.

( x + y + 5)( x + y − 5) = ( x + y )2 − 52 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 25

75.

(3 x + 7 − 5 y )(3x + 7 + 5 y ) = (3x + 7) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 + 42 x + 49 − 25 y 2

76.

(5 x + 7 y − 2)(5 x + 7 y + 2) = (5 x + 7 y ) 2 − 22 = 25 x 2 + 70 xy + 49 y 2 − 4

77.

[5 y − (2 x + 3)][5 y + (2 x + 3)] = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 3) 2 = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 12 x + 9) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 12 x − 9

78.

[8 y + (7 − 3x)][8 y − (7 − 3x)] = (8 y ) 2 − (7 − 3x) 2 = 64 y 2 − (49 − 42 x + 9 x 2 ) = 64 y 2 − 49 + 42 x − 9 x 2

79.

( x + y + 1) 2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y ) + 1 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 2 x + 2 y + 1

80.

( x + y + 2)2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y )(2) + 22 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 4 y + 4

81.

(2 x + y + 1) 2 = (2 x + y ) 2 + 2(2 x + y ) + 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 2 y + 1

82.

(5 x + 1 + 6 y )2 = (5 x + 1) 2 + 2(5 x + 1)(6 y ) + (6 y )2 = 25 x 2 + 10 x + 60 xy + 1 + 12 y + 36 y 2

83.

(3 x + 4 y )

2

2

2

2

2

2

− ( 3x − 4 y ) = ⎡( 3x ) + 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(3 x ) − 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤

⎣

⎦ ⎣

⎦

(

) (

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 24 xy + 16 y 2

)

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 + 24 xy − 16 y 2

= 48 xy

84.

(5 x + 2 y )

2

2

2

2

2

2

− ( 5 x − 2 y ) = ⎡(5 x ) + 2 ( 5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(5 x ) − 2 (5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤

⎣

⎦ ⎣

⎦

(

) (

= 25 x 2 + 20 xy + 4 y 2 − 25 x 2 − 20 xy + 4 y 2

= 25 x + 20 xy + 4 y − 25 x + 20 xy − 4 y

2

2

2

)

2

= 40 xy

85.

(5 x − 7 )( 3x − 2) − ( 4 x − 5)( 6 x − 1)

2

2

= ⎡15 x − 10 x − 21x + 14⎤ − ⎡24 x − 4 x − 30 x + 5⎤

⎣

(

2

⎦ ⎣

) (

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x − 34 x + 5

2

)

⎦

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x + 34 x − 5

2

= −9 x + 3 x + 9

28

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Publishing as Prentice Hall. = ( 2 x − 7) 2 = ( 2 x ) − 2 ( 2 x )( 7 ) + ( 7 ) 2 2 2 = 4 x − 28 x + 49 ( 5 x − 3) = 5 x − 3 6 − 4 ( ) 4 ( 5 x − 3) 6 90. = ( 5 x − 3) 2 = ( 5 x ) − 2 ( 5 x )( 3) + ( 3) 2 2 2 = 25 x − 30 x + 9 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( 2 x + 5)( 2 x − 5) ( 4 x 2 + 25) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 2 x ) − 5 ⎤ 4 x + 25 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 4 x ) − ( 25) 2 2 = 4 x − 25 4 x + 25 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 16 x − 625 88. (3 x + 4)( 3x − 4) (9 x 2 + 16) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 3 x ) − 4 ⎤ 9 x + 16 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 9 x ) − (16 ) 2 2 = 9 x − 16 9 x + 16 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 81x − 256 ( 2 x − 7 ) = 2 x − 7 5 −3 ( ) 3 ( 2 x − 7) 5 89.PreCalculus 4E 86. . Inc. Section P.4 (3 x + 5)( 2 x − 9) − ( 7 x − 2)( x − 1) ( = (6 x ) ( 2 2 = 6 x − 27 x + 10 x − 45 − 7 x − 7 x − 2 x + 2 2 ) ( 2 − 17 x − 45 − 7 x − 9 x + 2 2 ) ) 2 = 6 x − 17 x − 45 − 7 x + 9 x − 2 2 = − x − 8 x − 47 87.

764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. ( x 8 − 2x )(10 − 2 x ) = x ( 80 − 36 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 80 x − 36 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 36 x + 80 x 94. 923 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $10. 210 = 15. The model overestimates this difference by $12. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. a. 418 = $121. 681 = 15.995 x + 63. 539 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15.210 M − W = −35(16)3 + 1373(16) 2 − 15. 348 The difference in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $12. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 93.348.923. 210 c. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14.418.748. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. 404 − 33. M = 177 x 2 + 288 x + 7075 M = 177(16)2 + 288(16) + 7075 = 56. a. 92.995 x + 63. 995(14) + 63. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall.539. b. 220 − 41. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. 210 M − W = −35(14)3 + 1373(14) 2 − 15.748 The model estimates the median annual income for a woman with 18 years of education to be $53. The model underestimates the actual value of $57. 57. ( x 8 − 2x )(5 − 2 x ) = x ( 40 − 26 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 40 x − 26 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 26 x + 40 x 30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. .336 W = 255(18)2 − 2956(18) + 24. 995 x + 63. 418 The difference in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15. The model underestimates this difference by $15. 923 = $1425. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. 995 The model estimates the median annual income for a man with 16 years of education to be $56. 995 x + 63. 446 + 14. 481 = 10. b.995. d. 539 − $15. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. W = 255 x 2 − 2956 x + 24. 210 = 12. 336 = 53. 446 + 14. 44. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48.348 − $10. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 91.210 c. 995(16) + 63.220 shown in the bar graph by $225. The model overestimates the actual value of $51.316 shown in the bar graph by $2432. d.

105. ( x + 3)( x + 4 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 112. ( x − 2 )( x − 12) = x 2 − 14 x + 24 113. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x + 3)( x − 1) + (( x + 3) − x)( x − ( x − 1)) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) + 3( x − x + 1) = x 2 − x + 3x − 3 + 3 = x2 + 2 x 108. Section P. (4 x + 1)(2 x − 3 ) = 8 x 2 − 10 x − 3 31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. – 102. makes sense. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: FOIL is used to multiply two binomials. 103. ( x + 4) ( x + 3) − ( x + 2) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − ( x 2 + 3x + 2 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − x 2 − 3x − 2 = 4 x + 10 97. makes sense 106. . does not make sense. Answers may vary.4 ( x + 9) ( x + 3) − ( x + 5) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − ( x 2 + 6 x + 5 ) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − x 2 − 6 x − 5 = 6 x + 22 96. Inc. (2x − 1)x(x + 3) − x(x − 2)x = (2x 2 + 5x − 3)(x + 2) − x 2 (x − 2) 3 2 3 = 2x + 5x − 3x − x + 2x 2 = x 3 + 7x 2 − 3x 109. (y n + 2)(y n − 2) − (y n − 3)2 = y 2 n − 4 − (y 2 n − 6y n + 9) =y 2n −4 −y 2n n + 6y − 9 = 6y n −13 111.PreCalculus 4E 95. although answers may vary 107. (x + 5)(2x + 1)(x + 2) − 3 ⋅ x(x + 5) = (2x 2 + 11x + 5)(x + 2) − 3x 2 −15x 3 2 2 = 2x + 15x + 27x + 10 − 3x − 15x = 2x 3 + 12x 2 + 12x + 10 110. makes sense 104.

x 2 + 13x + 40 = ( x + 5)( x + 8) or ( x + 8)( x + 5) 4. 5. Thus. Find two numbers whose product is 40 and whose sum is 13.5 Check Point Exercises 1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Section P. x 2 − 5 x − 14 = ( x − 7)( x + 2) or ( x + 2)( x − 7). . The required integers are –7 and 2. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (3x − 1)(2 x + 7) or (2 x + 7)(3 x − 1). Inc. 32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. 2. Find two numbers whose product is –14 and whose sum is –5. 2 x( x − 7) + 3( x − 7) = ( x − 7)(2 x + 3) x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = ( x3 + 5 x 2 ) − (2 x + 10) = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = ( x + 5)( x 2 − 2) 3. Find two First terms whose product is 6 x 2 . The possible factors are 1(–7) and –1(7). 10 x3 − 4 x 2 = 2 x 2 (5 x) − 2 x 2 (2) = 2 x 2 (5 x − 2) b. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (6 x )(x ) 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = ( 3x )( 2 x ) Find two Last terms whose product is –7. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is 19x. Possible Factors of 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 Sum of Outside and Inside Products (Should Equal 19x) (6 x + 1)( x − 7) −42 x + x = −41x (6 x − 7)( x + 1) 6x − 7x = −x (6 x − 1)( x + 7) 42 x − x = 41x (6 x + 7)( x − 1) −6 x + 7 x = x (3 x + 1)(2 x − 7) −21x + 2 x = −19 x (3 x − 7)(2 x + 1) 3x − 14 x = −11x (3 x − 1)(2 x + 7) 21x − 2 x = 19 x (3 x + 7)(2 x − 1) −3x + 14 x = 11x Thus. The required integers are 8 and 5. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(−2 y )(−2 y ) . 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 = (4 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 x 3 + 1 = x 3 + 13 = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x ⋅ 1 + 12 ) = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) b. Inc. check to see if the middle term can be expressed as twice the product of 4x and 7. 125 x 3 − 8 = (5 x)3 − 23 = (5 x − 2) ⎡⎣ (5 x)2 + (5 x)(2) + 22 ⎤⎦ = (5 x − 2)(25 x 2 + 10 x + 4) 11. 9. a. 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 is a perfect square trinomial. Factor out the greatest common factor. 3x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) = 3x ( x − 5 ) 2 33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x 3 − 30 x 2 + 75 x = 3 x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) Factor the perfect square trinomial. (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) = (9 x 2 + 4) ⎡⎣(3x) 2 − 22 ⎤⎦ = (9 x 2 + 4)(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) Thus. a. = (4 x − 7) 2 . 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 42 = (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) The factor 9 x 2 − 4 is the difference of two squares and can be factored. Then use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . 3x 2 − 13xy + 4 y 2 = (3x )(x ) Find two Last terms whose product is 4 y 2 . a. 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 + 4)(3x + 2)(3x − 2). Since 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 = 56 x. (4 y )( y ) . Express each term as the square of some monomial. x 2 − 81 = x 2 − 92 = ( x + 9)( x − 9) b. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is −13xy . Since 16 x 2 = (4 x) 2 and 49 = 7 2 . factored completely. 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Express 9 x 2 − 4 as the difference of two squares and again use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . Thus. and (−4 y )(− y ) . x 2 + 14 x + 49 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 = ( x + 7) 2 b. 3x 2 − 13xy + y 2 = (3x − y )( x − 4 y ) or ( x − 4 y )(3x − y ). 36 x 2 − 25 = (6 x) 2 − 52 = (6 x + 5)(6 x − 5) Express 81x 4 − 16 as the difference of two squares and use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . 8.5 Find two First terms whose product is 3 x 2 . 7. Section P. The possible factors are (2 y )(2 y ) .PreCalculus 4E 6.

x 2 ( 2 x + 5 ) + 17 ( 2 x + 5) = ( 2 x + 5) ( x 2 + 17 ) 31. 6 x 4 − 18 x 3 + 12 x 2 = 6 x ( x ) + 6 x (−3x) + 6 x (2) 2 2 2 2 = ( x 2 + 5)( x − 2) 34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 4 ) = x 2 + 20 x + 100 − 36a 2 = ( x 2 + 20 x + 100 ) − 36a 2 13. . 3x + 6 x = 3x ⋅ x + 3x ⋅ 2 = 3x ( x + 2) 4. 9 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = (3 x − 1)(3x − 2) 11. 9 x 4 − 18 x3 + 27 x 2 2 2 = 9 x 2 ( x 2 ) + 9 x 2 (−2 x) + 9 x 2 (3) = 9 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 3) 6. 6x 2 –11x + 4 = (2x – 1)(3x – 4) 7. x 2 − 36a 2 + 20 x + 100 12. x 2 – 2x – 15 = (x – 5)(x + 3) 20. 8 x 2 + 33 x + 4 = (8 x + 1)( x + 4) 10. 9 x 2 + 5 x − 4 = (9 x − 4)( x + 1) 33. 3x 2 – 25x – 28 = (3x – 28)(x + 1) 26. x 2 ( x − 3) + 12( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 12) 30. x(2x + 1) + 4(2x + 1) = (2x + 1)(x + 4) 29.5 1. ( 2 x − 1) x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 5 = x 2 ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 5 ) 1 2 17. 6 x 2 − 17 x + 12 = (2 x − 3)(3x − 4) 8. Inc. x 2 − 4 x − 5 = ( x − 5)( x + 1) 21. x 3 − 3x 2 + 4 x − 12 = x 2 ( x − 3) + 4 ( x − 3) 16. x 2 + 8 x + 15 = ( x + 3)( x + 5) 19. 20 x 2 + 27 x − 8 = (5 x + 8)(4 x − 1) Exercise Set P. x 2 + 5 x + 6 = ( x + 2)( x + 3) 18. 3x 2 – x – 2 = (3x + 2)(x – 1) 24. 15. 4 x 2 + 16 x + 15 = (2 x + 3)(2 x + 5) 9. 3x 2 − 2 x − 5 = (3x − 5)( x + 1) = 6 x2 ( x2 − 3x + 2 ) 27. x(x + 5) + 3(x + 5) = (x + 5)(x + 3) 28. 2 = ( x + 10 + 6a )( x + 10 − 6a ) x ( x − 1) −1 2 14. = ( x − 1) ⎣⎡ x + ( x − 1) ⎦⎤ ( 2 x − 1) = ( x − 1) 3x 3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x + 4 = x 2 (3x − 2) − 2(3x − 2) = (3x − 2)( x 2 − 2) − 12 − 12 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 2 x − 12 = x 2 ( x + 6 ) − 2 ( x + 6 ) = ( x + 6) ( x2 − 2) 1 + ( x − 1) 2 1− −1 −1 = ( x − 1) 2 ⎡ x + ( x − 1) 2 ( 2 ) ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ = ( x − 1) x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 2 = x 2 ( x − 1) + 2( x − 1) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 2) = ( x + 10 ) − 36a 2 13.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 12. x 3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 10 = x 2 ( x − 2) + 5( x − 2) 32. x 2 – 8x + 15 = (x – 5)(x – 3) 22. 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 = (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 25. 16x – 24 = 8(2x) + 8(–3) = 8(2x – 3) 3. 4 x − 8 x = 4x(x) + 4x(–2) = 4x(x – 2) 5. x 2 − 14 x + 45 = ( x − 5)( x − 9) 23. Reorder to write as a difference of squares. 18 x + 27 = 9 ⋅ 2 x + 9 ⋅ 3 = 9(2 x + 3) 2.

9 x 2 − 6 x + 1 = (3x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 3 x ⋅1 + 12 = (3x − 1) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 3x + 9) 2 58. 44. 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = (5 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x ⋅1 + 12 = (5 x + 1) 2 55. x 3 + 27 = x3 + 33 41. 6 x − 5 xy − 6 y = (3x + 2 y )(2 x − 3 y ) 38. 2 x 2 + 3xy + y 2 = (2 x + y )( x + y ) 53. 9 x 2 − 25 y 2 = (3 x) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = (3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) 36 x 2 − 49 y 2 = (6 x) 2 − (7 y ) 2 = (6 x + 7 y )(6 x − 7 y ) 59. 64 x − 81 = (8 x ) − 9 = (8 x + 9)(8 x − 9) 2 = (2 x + 1) 2 2 2 2 54. 43.5 34. Inc. 36 x 2 − 49 = (6 x) 2 − 7 2 = (6 x + 7)(6 x − 7) 42. = ( x + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 3 x + 9) x 4 − 1 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 12 = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) 61. = (4 x + 9)(2 x + 3)(2 x − 3) 2 27 x 3 − 1 = (3x)3 − 13 = (3x − 1)[(3x) 2 + (3 x)(1) + 12 ] = (3x − 1)(9 x 2 + 3 x + 1) 81x 4 − 1 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 12 = (9 x 2 + 1)(9 x 2 − 1) 63. 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 = (2 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 2 x ⋅1 + 12 36. = (9 x + 1)[(3 x) − 1 ] 2 x 3 − 27 = x 3 − 33 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 48. = ( x − 7) 2 3x 3 − 3x = 3x( x 2 − 1) = 3x( x + 1)( x − 1) 35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8 x 3 − 1 = (2 x)3 − 13 = (2 x − 1)[(2 x) 2 + (2 x)(1) + 12 ] 47. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = ( x − 5) 2 35. 16 x 4 − 81 = (4 x 2 )2 − 92 = (2 x − 1)(4 x 2 + 2 x + 1) = (4 x 2 + 9)(4 x 2 − 9) = (4 x 2 + 9)[(2 x)2 − 32 ] 62. 64 x 2 − 16 x + 1 = (8 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 8 x ⋅1 + 12 = (8 x − 1) 2 40. 45. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . x 2 − 144 = x 2 − 122 = ( x + 12)( x − 12) 57. x 2 + 4 x + 4 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = ( x + 2) 2 51. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 2 2 = (4 x + 3)[(4 x) 2 − (4 x)(3) + 32 ] = (9 x + 1)(3x + 1)(3 x − 1) 2 49. = ( x − 4)( x 2 + 4 x + 16) x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 60. 3x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 = (3x + y )( x + y ) 37. 15 x 2 − 19 x + 6 = (3x − 2)(5 x − 3) 52. x 2 − 14 x + 49 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 64 x3 + 27 = (4 x)3 + 33 = (4 x + 3)(16 x 2 − 12 x + 9) 64. x 2 + 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅1 + 12 = ( x + 1) 2 50. x 2 − 100 = x 2 − 102 = ( x + 10)( x − 10) 56. 6 x 2 − 7 xy − 5 y 2 = (3 x − 5 y )(2 x + y ) 39.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x 3 − 64 = x3 − 43 = ( x − 4)( x 2 + x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 46. 8 x 3 + 125 = (2 x)3 + 53 = (2 x + 5)[(2 x)2 − (2 x)(5) + 52 ] = (2 x + 5)(4 x 2 − 10 x + 25) 65.

7 x 4 − 7 = 7( x 4 − 1) = 7[( x 2 ) 2 − 12 ] = 7( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 7( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 71. x 3 + 3x 2 − 25 x − 75 = ( x 3 + 3x 2 ) − (25 x + 75) = x 2 ( x + 3) − 25( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 25)( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 52 )( x + 3) = ( x − 5)( x + 5)( x + 3) 73. Inc. 6 x 2 − 6 x − 12 = 6( x 2 − x − 2) = 6( x − 2)( x + 1) 75. 6 x 2 − 18 x − 60 = 6( x 2 − 3 x − 10) = 6( x + 2)( x − 5) 69. . x 3 − 4 x = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x 2 − 22 ) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) 76. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 + 36 is prime. 36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 66. 78. 5 x 3 − 45 x = 5 x( x 2 − 9) = 5 x( x + 3)( x − 3) 67. 4 x 2 − 4 x − 24 = 4( x 2 − x − 6) = 4( x + 2)( x − 3) 68. 2 x 2 − 2 x − 112 = 2( x 2 − x − 56) = 2( x − 8)( x + 7) 74. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 9 x − 18 = ( x 3 + 2 x 2 ) − (9 x + 18) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 9( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 9)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 32 )( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2) 72. 9 x3 − 9 x = 9 x( x 2 − 1) = 9 x( x − 1)( x + 1) 77. 2 x 4 − 162 = 2( x 4 − 81) = 2[( x 2 ) 2 − 92 ] = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 9) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 32 ) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x + 3)( x − 3) 70. x 2 + 64 is prime.

x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (− x − 2) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 1)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 12 )( x + 2) = ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x + 2) 81. y 5 − 16 y = y ( y 4 − 16) = y[( y 2 ) 2 − 42 ] = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 4) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 22 ) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y + 2)( y − 2) 83. x 2 − 10 x + 25 − 36 y 2 = ( x 2 − 10 x + 25) − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5)2 − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5 + 6 y )( x − 5 − 6 y ) 87. x 2 y − 16 y + 32 − 2 x 2 = ( x 2 y − 16 y ) + ( −2 x 2 + 32 ) = y ( x 2 − 16 ) − 2 ( x 2 − 16 ) = ( x 2 − 16 ) ( y − 2 ) = ( x + 4 )( x − 4 )( y − 2 ) 90.PreCalculus 4E 79. 2 x 3 − 98a 2 x + 28 x 2 + 98 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 49a 2 +14 x + 49 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 +14 x + 49 ) − 49a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 7 ) − 49a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 7 − 7a )( x + 7 + 7a ) ⎣ ⎦ 93. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 20 y 4 − 45 y 2 = 5 y 2 (4 y 2 − 9) = 5 y 2 [(2 y ) 2 − 32 ] = 5 y 2 (2 y + 3)(2 y − 3) 84. 48 y 4 − 3 y 2 = 3 y 2 (16 y 2 − 1) = 3 y 2 [(4 y )2 − 12 ] = 3 y 2 (4 y + 1)(4 y − 1) 85. x 2 − 12 x + 36 − 49 y 2 = ( x 2 − 12 x + 36 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 + 7 y ) ( x − 6 − 7 y ) 2 86. 2 x 3 − 8a 2 x + 24 x 2 + 72 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 4a 2 + 12 x + 36 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 + 12 x + 36 ) − 4a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 6 ) − 4a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 6 − 2a )( x + 6 + 2a ) ⎣ ⎦ 92. Section P. 16a 2 x − 25 y − 25 x + 16a 2 y = (16a 2 x + 16a 2 y ) + ( −25 y − 25 x ) = 16a 2 ( x + y ) − 25 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) (16a 2 − 25 ) = ( x + y )( 4a + 5 )( 4a − 5 ) 89. 9b 2 x − 16 y − 16 x + 9b 2 y = ( 9b 2 x + 9b 2 y ) + ( −16 x − 16 y ) = 9b 2 ( x + y ) − 16 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) ( 9b 2 − 16 ) = ( x + y )( 3b + 4 )( 3b − 4 ) 88. 3 1 1 1 ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ x 2 − x 2 = x 2 ⎜ x 2 2 ⎟ − 1 = x 2 ( x − 1) ⎝ ⎠ 37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12 x 2 y − 27 y − 4 x 2 + 9 = (12 x 2 y − 27 y ) + ( −4 x 2 + 9 ) = 3 y ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) − 1( 4 x 2 − 9 ) = ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) ( 3 y − 1) = ( 2 x + 3)( 2 x − 3)( 3 y − 1) 91. . Inc. y 5 − 81y = y ( y 4 − 81) = y[( y 2 )2 − 92 ] = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 9) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 32 ) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y + 3)( y − 3) 82.5 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−4 x − 8) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 4)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 22 )( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)2 80.

12 x − 3 4 1 x4 = 1⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ x 4 4 − 1⎟ = x 4 ⎜ x 2 − 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 8x 3 = 4 x 1 ⎛ 2⎞ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 32 ⎛ −2 4 (1 + 2 x ) ⎜1 + 2 x 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎟ = 4 x 3 (1 + 2 x ) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ x3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 6x 4 = 6x − 3 4 1 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 ⎛ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 6( x + 2) ⎜ 2 + x 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎟ = 6x 4 (2 + x ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ x4 97. Inc. −8 ( 4 x + 3) + 10 ( 5 x + 1) (4 x + 3)−1 = 2 ( 4 x + 3) ⎣⎡ −4 + 5 ( 5 x + 1)( 4 x + 3) ⎦⎤ = −2 −2 2(100 x 2 + 95 x + 11) (4 x + 3) 2 103.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. ( 4 x − 1) 2 − 1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ 2 ⎢⎣1 − 3 ( 4 x − 1) ⎥⎦ = ( 4 x − 1) 1⎤ ⎡ 4 ⎢⎣1 − 3 x + 3 ⎥⎦ 1 −4(4 x − 1) 2 ( x − 1) 4 ⎛4 4 ⎞ = ( 4 x − 1) ⎜ − x ⎟ = (4 x − 1) 2 (1 − x) = 3 3 ⎝3 3 ⎠ 1 1 2 102. ( x + 3) 2 − ( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3) 2 ⎡⎢1 − ( x + 3) 2 98. 3 x4 95. (x 1 1 3 3 1 − 2 ⎣ x2 + 4 2 3 2 ) ( − 12 + 3) + x2 + 4 − ( x + 5) −2 3 7 2 ) ( − 32 + ( x 2 + 3) = x2 + 4 = ( x + 5) −5 3 ) 3 2 1 1 ⎤ 2 ⎡1 − ( x + 3) ⎤ = ( x + 3) 2 ( − x − 2 ) = −( x + 3) 2 ( x + 2) = x + 3 ( ) ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢1 + x 2 + 4 ⎢ ⎣ ( 1 ) 7−3 ⎤ 2 2⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ( = x2 + 4 ) 3 2 ) ( 2⎤ ⎡ 2 2 ⎢1 + x + 4 ⎥ = x + 4 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ( 3 2 ) ( x4 + 8x2 + 17) 1 ⎛ 3⎞ x+4 − 32 ⎡ − −⎜ − ⎟ ⎤ −3 −3 3 ⎢( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − 1⎥ = ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎣⎡( x + 5 ) − 1⎦⎤ = ( x + 5) 2 ( x + 4 ) = ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) 2 = ( x 2 + 3) 5 −5 ⎡ 2 − 2 −⎛⎜ − 5 ⎞⎟ ⎤ x2 + 4 3 ⎢( x + 3) 3 ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ + 1⎥ = ( x 2 + 3)− 3 ⎡( x 2 + 3) + 1⎤ = 5 ⎣ ⎦ ( x 2 + 3) 3 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 1 3 1 ( 4 x − 1) 2 3 1 3 1 1 − ⎤ ⎡ 1 = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎢1 − ( 4 x − 1) 2 2 ⎥ = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎣ 3 ⎦ 101. 6 x 4 + 35 x 2 − 6 = ( x 2 + 6 )( 6 x 2 − 1) 106. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 12 x 2 ( x − 1) − 4 x ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) (12 x 2 − 4 x − 5 ) = ( x − 1)( 6 x − 5 )( 2 x + 1) 105. 7 x 4 + 34 x 2 − 5 = ( 7 x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 5 ) 3 107. 4x 1 − x4 − 23 96. y 7 + y = y ( y 6 + 1) = y ⎡⎢( y 2 ) + 13 ⎤⎥ = y ( y 2 + 1)( y 4 − y 2 + 1) ⎣ ⎦ 38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( 99. ( x + 5) 100. 10 x 2 ( x + 1) − 7 x ( x + 1) − 6 ( x + 1) = ( x + 1) (10 x 2 − 7 x − 6 ) = ( x + 1)( 5 x − 6 )( 2 x + 1) 104. .

x 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 9 y 4 = x 2 − 9 y 2 111.PreCalculus 4E 108. a. a.4 ( x − 0. 120. b.6 x )( 0. b. ( ( x + y) ( 113.6 ) = 0.49 x No. 2 ) − 100 = ( x + y )2 ( x + y − 10 ) ( x + y + 10 ) 2 114. a.3 ( x − 0. a. Inc. ( x + y ) 4 − 100( x + y ) 2 = ( x + y ) )( x − 3 y ) ( )( x + y ) 116.4 ) = ( 0. the computer is selling at 49% of its original price. 119. 118.7 ) = 0. 2 x 2 − 7 xy 2 + 3 y 4 = 2 x − y 2 115. ( 3x ) 2 − 4 ⋅ 22 = 9 x 2 − 16 9 x 2 − 16 = ( 3x + 4 ) ( 3 x − 4 ) (7x) 2 − 4 ⋅ 32 = 49 x 2 − 36 49 x 2 − 36 = ( 7 x + 6 ) ( 7 x − 6 ) x ( x + y) − y ( x + y) x ( x + y ) − y ( x + y ) = ( x + y )( x − y ) x 2 + xy + xy + y 2 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 = ( x + y ) 2 39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 117. a.5 + 1 = ( y + 1) + 13 = ⎡⎣( y + 1) + 1⎤⎦ ⎡( y + 1) − ( y + 1) + 1⎤ = ( y + 2 ) ⎡⎣( y 2 + 2 y + 1) − y − 1 + 1⎤⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 3 2 = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + 2 y + 1 − y − 1 + 1) = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + y + 1) ( 109. x 4 − 5 x 2 y 2 + 4 y 4 = x 2 − 4 y 2 )( x ( 110.36 x No.4 x ) − 0.4 x ) = ( x − 0. b. 2 )( x ) − y 2 = ( x + 2 y )( x − 2 y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 ) − y 2 = ( x + 3 y )( x − 3 y )( x + y )( x − y ) ( x − y )4 − 4 ( x − y )2 2 2 2 = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y )2 − 4 ) = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y ) + 2 ) ( ( x − y ) − 2 ) = ( x − y ) ( x − y + 2 ) ( x − y − 2 ) 112.4 x )(1 − 0.3x ) − 0. the computer is selling at 36% of its original price. 2 2 ( x − 0. . ( x − 0.3x ) (1 − 0. ( y + 1) 3 Section P. b.3) = ( 0.3x ) = ( x − 0.7 x ) ( 0. a. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3x 2 + 5 xy 2 + 2 y 4 = 3 x + 2 y 2 b.

Explanations will vary. A sample change is: The binomial x 2 + 36 is prime. 130. . Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 134. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. true 136. Answers may vary. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 4a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 4a = 4a3 − 4ab 2 = 4a ( a 2 − b 2 ) = 4a ( a + b )( a − b ) 122. A sample change is: x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 135. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 132. false. A sample change is: x 3 − 64 = ( x − 4 )( x + 4 x + 16 ) 138. x 4 − y 4 − 2 x3 y + 2 xy3 = ( x 4 − y 4 ) + ( −2 x 3 y + 2 xy 3 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) − 2 xy ( x 2 − y 2 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 − 2 xy ) = ( x − y )( x + y ) ( x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 ) = ( x − y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 3 = ( x − y) ( x + y) 40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 131. x 2 n + 6 x n + 8 = ( x n + 4 )( x n + 2 ) 139. – 129. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. false. false. − x 2 − 4 x + 5 = −1( x 2 + 4 x − 5 ) = −1( x + 5 )( x − 1) = − ( x + 5)( x − 1) 140. Sample explanation: 4 x 2 − 100 = 4( x 2 − 25) = 4( x + 5)( x − 5) 133.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. 137. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 3a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 3a = 3a3 − 3ab 2 ( = 3a a 2 − b2 ) = 3a ( a + b )( a − b ) 123.

x 2 + 6 x + 5 ( x + 5)( x + 1) x + 1 = = x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) x − 5 145. 5 8 5 4⋅2 1 2 2 ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ = 4 15 4 5 ⋅ 3 1 3 3 146. or –c(c + 4). (3 x + 5) − (4 x − 7) = 3x + 5 − 4 x + 7 = 3x − 4 x + 5 + 7 = − x + 12 6 + 9 6 = 10 6 4. 3 12 − 27 = 3 ⋅ 2 3 − 3 3 = 6 3 − 3 3 = 3 3 5. − ⎛2⎞ 5 ⎜ 7 ⎟ − 32 = 1 − ⎝ ⎠ 6 0 9. where c > 0 is an integer. b =16. (8 x − 3) 2 = (8 x)2 − 2(8 x)(3) + (3) 2 = 64 x 2 − 48 x + 9 7. x 2 + bx + 15 . 7 x + 3[9 − (2 x − 6)] = 7 x + 3[ 9 − 2 x + 6] = 7 x + 3 [15 − 2 x ] = 7 x + 45 − 6 x = x + 45 6. Inc. 4. . 3. Mid-Chapter P Check Point −1 ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5) − 12 1 − ( x + 5) 2 ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) ( x + 5) −3 ⎛ ⎞ 1 −⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞⎟ ⎤ − 12 ⎡ − 1 − ⎜⎜ − 3 ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢( x − 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) −1 ⎡⎣( x − 5) − ( x + 5 ) ⎤⎦ −10 −3 −1 = ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5 ) 2 ( −10 ) = 3 1 ( x − 5) 2 ( x + 5) 2 2 2 142. 1 2 3 4 7 + = + = 2 3 6 6 6 Mid-Chapter P Check Point 1. 144. 1 1 ⋅ 6 − ⋅6 ⎛ 31 − 12 ⎞ x2 2 −3 ⎜ x y ⎟ = x3 y 2 = x y = 3 y ⎝ ⎠ 8. (3 x + 5)(4 x − 7) = (3x)(4 x) + (3 x)(−7) + (5)(4 x) + (5)(−7) = 12 x 2 − 21x + 20 x − 35 = 12 x 2 − x − 35 2. – 16. 2 1 ( 5 32 ) 2 = 1− 1 ( 2) 2 = 1− 1 3 = 4 4 (2 x − 5) − ( x 2 − 3x + 1) = 2 x − 5 − x 2 + 3x − 1 = − x 2 + 5 x − 6 41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 141. b = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3. 8 or –8 143.

12 x 4 = x 12 = x 3 = 3 x 19. e. x 3 + x3 − x3 ⋅ x 3 = 2 x3 − x 6 = − x 6 + 2 x 3 12. 3 32 2 = 3 ) ( ) 32 3 = 16 = 3 24 = 2 3 2 2 ( x 3 + 2)( x 3 − 2) = x 6 − 4 42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f . Publishing as Prentice Hall. h} 14. f . (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 + 2 x − 5 x 2 + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x 2 + 2 x + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 11x 2 + 17 x − 5 11. Inc. d . {a. [ 4 y − (3x + 2)][ 4 y + (3x + 2)] = (4 y)2 − (3x + 2)2 = 16 y 2 − (9 x 2 + 12 x + 4) = 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 12 x − 4 20. d . ( x − 2 y − 1) 2 = x ( x − 2 y − 1) − 2 y ( x − 2 y − 1) − ( x − 2 y − 1) = x 2 − 2 xy − x − 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 2 y − x + 2 y + 1 = x 2 − 4 xy + 4 y 2 − 2 x + 4 y + 1 21. c. 23. d . e} ∩ {c. ( 3x 2 ) ( ) y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 − −2 x 2 y 3 − 3xy + 5 y 2 = 3x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 + 2 x 2 y 3 − xy + 3xy + 4 y 2 − 5 y 2 = 5 x 2 y 3 + 2 xy − y 2 16. c. d . . (9a − 10b)(2a + b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a )(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a)(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = 18a 2 + 9ab − 20ab − 10b 2 = 18a 2 − 11ab − 10b 2 13. f .2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. 24 × 103 24 103 = ⋅ = 12 ×10−3 = 1. d } 15. d . h} = {a. e} ∪ {c. c.2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. 6 y3 ⎛ 1 −5 4 ⎞ −2 −1 −5 − 2 4 −1 ⎜ 3 x y ⎟ 18 x y = 6 x y = x 7 ⎝ ⎠ ( ) 1 4 18.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. {a. 24 x 2 y13 12 y15 2 − 5 13 − ( −2) −3 15 12 12 = − = − = − x y x y x3 −2 x 5 y −2 17.2 ×10−2 2 ×106 2 106 ( 3 22. h} = {c.

37.2 × 1010 41.PreCalculus 4E 24. 3 × 1010 3 1010 = ⋅ = 0. x 2 − 2 x + 4 is prime. 3x 2 − 4 xy − 7 y 2 = ( 3x − 7 y )( x + y ) 32. x 3 + 5 x 2 + 3x + 15 = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 5) 31. 0. 26.5 109 A human brain has 4 times as many neurons as a gorilla brain. Since 2 − 13 < 0 then 2 − 13 = 13 − 2 39. 43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus x 2 x = − x 2 x = − x3 40. . 0. Mid-Chapter P Check Point 11 11 3 = 11 7 + 3 77 + 11 3 77 + 11 3 ⋅ = = 49 − 3 46 7− 3 7+ 3 = 7− 3 11 ⋅ 3 3 3 = 11 3 3 28. 50 x 3 + 20 x 2 + 2 x = 2 x 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = 2 x ( 5 x + 1) 34.5 ×109 7. 7 x 2 − 22 x + 3 = ( 7 x − 1)( x − 3) 29. 140 ⋅ 3. Inc. ( ) x2 + 1 1 2 ( ) − 10 x 2 + 1 3 ⎧ ⎨ −11. − . 27.4 ×10 = 4 7.2 × 1010 The total annual spending on ice cream is $4. 64 y − y 4 = y 64 − y 3 = y ( 4 − y ) 16 + 4 y + y 2 33.2 × 10 2 × 108 = 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0 × 108 = 420 × 108 = 4. 30. 7 ⎩ − 1 2 ( 1 2 ) ( = x2 + 1 − ) ( 1 2 ) (x ⎡ x 2 + 1 − 10 ⎤ = x 2 + 1 ⎣ ⎦ − 2 x +3 x −3 ) ( )( ) ( x + 1) −9 = 2 1 2 ⎫ 25 ⎬ ⎭ 38.45. x ( ) ( ( ) ) 2 2 − 3 2 − 2x − 1 2 1 + x2 = x 3 2 − (1 − 2 x + x ) = ( 1 − x) 2 2 3 x2 36. x 2 − 6 x + 9 − 49 y 2 = ( x − 3) − 49 y 2 = ⎡⎣( x − 3) + 7 y ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣( x − 3) − 7 y ⎤⎦ = ( x − 3 + 7 y )( x − 3 − 7 y ) 35. ( x 2 + 2) 2 = ( x 2 ) 2 + 2( x 2 )(2) + (2) 2 = x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4 50 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 12 = 5 ⋅ 2 3 = 10 3 25. Since x < 0 then x = − x .

b. so –5 must be excluded from the domain. x3 + 3x 2 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 x+3 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 = x 2 . x − 2. a. and x ≠ −3.5(6) 2 + 9.8 x + 64 N = 6. x ≠ −3 ( x − 2)( x + 3) Because the denominator is x + 3. x ≠ −2.5 x + 62 N = −0. b. N = −0.5(0) + 62 N = 62 Model 2 best describes the data in 2000. 2.8 x + 64 N = 6. Model 1: N = 6. so –6 and 6 must both must be excluded from the domain. x 2 − 36 = ( x + 6)( x − 6) The denominator would equal zero if x = −6 or x = 6.8(0) + 64 N = 64 Model 2: N = −0.5(0) 2 + 9. 3. x ≠ 2. x ≠ 2. Inc. N = 6. Section P. x ≠ −3 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x2 −1 = 2 x + 2 x + 1 ( x + 1)( x + 1) x −1 = . b. and x + 3.5 x 2 + 9.8(10) + 64 N = 132 Model 1 predicts there will be 132 channels in 2010.5(6) + 62 N = 101 Model 2 underestimates the number of channels in 2006 by 3. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 42. x ≠ −1 Because the denominator has factors of x + 2.6 Check Point Exercises 1. x ≠ −1 x +1 x + 3 x2 − x − 6 ⋅ x2 − 4 x2 + 6x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 2) x+3 = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 2) = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x−3 = .5 x + 62 N = −0. x ≠ −3 Because the denominator is ( x + 1)( x + 1) .5 x 2 + 9. a. x ≠ −2. . The denominator would equal zero if x = −5. a. 44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 − 6 x + 9 = ( x − 3) 2 x 2 − 9 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) List the factors of the first denominator. 5. x ≠ 0 1+3 4 + 3x x 4 4x 4x 2 − 3x −4 = 2x . Write all rational expressions in terms of the least common denominator.6 8. x ≠ 0. Inc. x ≠ −1 and x ≠ 1. x ≠ 1 x( x + 2) Find the least common denominator. Section P. x ≠ −1 Add numerators. x2 − 2x + 1 x2 + x − 2 ÷ 3x2 + 3 x3 + x 2 x − 2 x + 1 3x 2 + 3 = ⋅ 2 x3 + x x +x−2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) 3( x 2 + 1) = ⋅ x( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2)( x − 1) 3( x − 1) = . x x−4 − 2 x − 10 x + 25 2 x − 10 x x−4 = − ( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5) 2x ( x − 4)( x − 5) = − 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) x 3x + 2 x − 3x − 2 − = x +1 x +1 x +1 −2 x − 2 = x +1 −2 ( x + 1) = x +1 = −2. 2 x − ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 3 5 + x + 1 x −1 3x( x − 1) + 5( x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3x − 3 + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 8x + 2 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) . x − 3 Add any unlisted factors from the second denominator. x − 3. Factor each denominator completely. putting this sum over the least common denominator. 7. x + 3 The least common denominator is the product of all factors in the final list. x ≠ −2. x − 3. x ≠ 4 + 3x 3 4x 2 − 3x 4 + 3 x = ÷ 2x 4x 2 − 3x 4 x = ⋅ 2 x 4 + 3x 2 − 3x 4 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 2 2 − 3x 2 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 1 2(2 − 3x) −4 . = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 9. ( x − 3)( x − 3)( x + 3) or ( x − 3)2 ( x + 3) is the least common denominator. = 2 x − ( x 2 − 5 x − 4 x + 20) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 . x≠5 2( x − 5) 2 1−3 2 − 3x x 2 = 2x 2x .PreCalculus 4E 4. x − 3. x ≠ 0 and x ≠ = 4 + 3x 3 45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = ( x − 5) 2 2 x − 10 = 2( x − 5) The least common denominator is 2(x – 5)(x – 5). 6. .

x+7 x+7 = . x 2 − 8 x + 16 ( x − 4 )( x − 4 ) x − 4 .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 1 1 . x+5 x+5 = . 2 2 ) 12. 4 ( x − 2) 4x − 8 4 . x −1 x −1 = . –1 = = y 2 + 5 y + 4 ( y + 4 )( y + 1) y + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 36 ( x + 6) 2 x+6 = = . −3 6 3 x−5 6 x + 9 x − 5 3(2 x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x − 15 4 x + 6 3( x − 5) 2(2 x + 3) 3 = 6 1 = . 2 x − 2 2x + 6 x − 2 2( x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x + 9 2 x − 4 3( x + 3) 2( x − 2) 2 1 = = . 1 x+3 + x Exercise Set P. y ≠ –4. ) y 2 − 4 y − 5 ( y − 5 )( y + 1) y − 5 . 7 . x≠4 = = 3x − 12 3( x − 4) 3 11. . and 7 by x+7 x the least common denominator of x( x + 7). x ≠ –1. 5 x + 4 x − 45 ( x + 9)( x − 5) 2 = x+3 − x 3 x+3 − x x+3 + x = ⋅ 3 x+3 ⋅ x 2 6. x ≠ 0.x≠3 x−3 15. x≠2 = = x − 4 x + 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 2 ) x − 2 9. x ≠ 2. . = x+7 x ≠ 7. − 2 46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 10. x−3 x −3 = . = ( x − 7)( x + 7) x 2 − 49 x−7 .x≠3 x −3 8. 1 1 x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x+7⎠ ⎝ x⎠ x+7 x = 7 7 x( x + 7) x − ( x + 7) = 7 x( x + 7) −7 = 7 x( x + 7) 1 . Multiply each of the three terms. y 2 + 7 y − 18 ( y + 9 )( y − 2 ) y + 9 . = = y 2 − 3 y + 2 ( y − 2 )( y − 1) y − 1 y ≠ 1. 2 ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x − 36 x ≠ 6. –5 2 x − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) 4. x ≠ −7 =− x( x + 7) x+ 11. –7 2 x − 49 ( x + 7)( x − 7) 5. x ≠ 5. x 2 − 12 x + 36 ( x − 6 )( x − 6 ) x − 6 . x ≠ 7. x+ 1 x x = 1 x x x x = = = = ( x+3 3 3 ( ( ) − ( x) x+3 + x x + 3− x x+3 + x 7. 2 3 x ≠ 5. Inc. 12. = = 4 x − 24 4 ( x − 6) 4 2 x≠6 x +1 3/ 2 10. –7 13. –10 x + 11x + 10 ( x + 1)( x + 10) 16.6 1. x ≠ −9. 2. –6 ( x − 7) 2 x 2 − 14 x + 49 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 ( x − 3) 3x − 9 = x − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x − 3) x 2 3 . 13 . x ≠ −9 x+9 3.

x2 + x x2 − 1 ÷ 2 2 x − 4 x + 5x + 6 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 1) = ÷ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) ( x + 2)( x + 3) x( x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 3) . 3 x+2 x2 + 5x + 6 x 2 − 9 ⋅ x2 + x − 6 x2 − x − 6 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 3) x + 3 . x2 − 4 2 x − 4 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2( x − 2) ⋅ = ⋅ x − 4x + 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)2 x+2 = 2. 19. –2. 22. 1. x − 4 ÷ x + 2 = ( x − 2)( x + 2) ⋅ x − 2 x x−2 x x+2 2 ( x − 2) = . 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –5 2 x2 + 6 x + 9 1 ⋅ x 3 + 27 x + 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) 1 1 = ⋅ = 2 . –2 x2 − 5x + 6 x2 − 1 ⋅ x2 − 2x − 3 x2 − 4 ( x − 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 1) ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 26. x ≠ 1. −4. –3 29. . Inc. –1. = ( x − 2)( x − 1) x ≠ 2. x ≠ –2. x ≠ –3. –1. − 3 = 3 x2 + 2 x + 4 . x ≠ 0. x ≠ 2.6 x + 1 3x + 3 x + 1 3( x + 1) ÷ = ÷ 3 7 3 7 x +1 7 = ⋅ 3 3( x + 1) 7 = . x 2 − 25 x 2 + 10 x + 25 ÷ 2 2x − 2 x + 4x − 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)2 = ÷ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5)( x − 1) ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)( x − 1) = ⋅ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5) 2 x −5 = . 4 x 2 + 10 6 x 2 + 15 ÷ 2 x −3 x −9 2 2(2 x + 5) 3(2 x 2 + 5) = ÷ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x−3 2(2 x 2 + 5) ( x − 3)( x + 3) ⋅ 3(2 x 2 + 5) x−3 2( x + 3) . 0. x ≠ −1 9 47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 3x 28.3 x( x + 4) 24. = ⋅ = ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) x − 2 27. x 2 − 9 x 2 − 3x ⋅ 2 x2 x + x − 12 x( x − 3) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ 2 ( x + 4)( x − 3) x ( x − 3)( x + 3) = . 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 x + 9 ) x + 3 x − 3 x + 9 x ≠ –3 23. −2. x −1 . 2.PreCalculus 4E 17. x ≠ 0. –2 = 2 x3 − 8 x + 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 2 x + 4 ) x + 2 = ⋅ ⋅ 3x x 2 − 4 3x ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) = x + 5 4 x + 20 x + 5 4( x + 5) ÷ = ÷ 7 9 7 9 x+5 9 = ⋅ 7 4( x + 5) 9 = . x ≠ 2. Section P. 28 x ≠ –5 2 25. x 2 − 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x+2 ÷ = ÷ x − 2 4x − 8 x−2 4( x − 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) 4( x − 2) = ⋅ x−2 x+2 = 4( x − 2). 2 x 2 = 20. x ≠ –2. –2. 3 21. 2. x ≠ 3.

x + x − 12 x + 5 x + 6 x+3 ⋅ ÷ x 2 + x − 30 x 2 − 2 x − 3 x 2 + 7 x + 6 ( x + 4 )( x − 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x + 6 )( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ x+3 ( x + 6 )( x − 5 ) ( x + 1)( x − 3) 36. x ≠ 2 2 x + 3 3 − x 2 x + 3 − (3 − x) − = 3x − 6 3x − 6 3x − 6 2x + 3 − 3 + x = 3x − 6 3x = 3( x − 2) x = . x −4 x + 5x + 6 ÷ x + 3 x − 10 x 2 + 8 x + 15 ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) = ÷ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) = ⋅ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) =1 x ≠ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 30. –5 35. –2. 2 2 x2 x ≠ 0. –3. . 34. −3 = x+3 4x − 4 x2 − 4x x2 − 4 x + 4 x − 4 + = x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − 4 = ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 = . x3 − 25 x 2 x 2 − 2 x2 + 5x ⋅ 2 ÷ 2 4x x − 6x + 5 7x + 7 x ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) 7 ( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ 4 x2 ( x − 1)( x − 5 ) x ( x + 5) = 7 ( x + 1) 37. x ≠ 0. −1. –1. Inc. –3. x−2 x≠2 48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ − 6x + 5 6 38. 5 32. 2 2 2 2 31. −5 33. 4x + 1 8x + 9 4x + 1 + 8x + 9 + = 6x + 5 6x + 5 6x + 5 12 x + 10 = 6x + 5 2(6 x + 5) 5 = = 2. 3. = 2 ( x + 4 )( x + 2 ) x−5 x ≠ –6. 3 4 x − 10 x − 4 4 x − 10 − ( x − 4) − = x−2 x−2 x−2 4 x − 10 − x + 4 = x−2 3x − 6 = x−2 3( x − 2) = x−2 = 3. 5. 3 x + 2 3x + 6 3 x + 2 + 3 x + 6 + = 3x + 4 3x + 4 3x + 4 6x + 8 = 3x + 4 2(3x + 4) = 3x + 4 =2 4 x≠− 3 x2 − 2 x x2 + x x2 − 2 x + x2 + x + = x 2 + 3 x x 2 + 3x x 2 + 3x 2 2x − x = 2 x + 3x x(2 x − 1) = x( x + 3) 2x −1 . x−3 x ≠ –2.

−4 x−3 43. = 4 x + 12 − 3 x x ( x + 3) = x + 12 x ( x + 3) 2x x + 2 2 x ( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 )( x + 2 ) + = x+2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 2x2 − 4 x + x2 + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 3x2 + 4 . 0 x2 − 4 x x−6 − 2 2 x − x−6 x − x−6 x 2 − 4 x − ( x − 6) = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 4x − x + 6 = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 5x + 6 = 2 x − x−6 ( x − 2)( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 . . 3 3 3x − 3 ( x + 1) − = x ( x + 1) x +1 x = 44. x ≠ –4. ( x − 3)( x + 2) 2 41. Inc. 9 x + 39 . 40. 46. 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5 ) 49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 47. 3x − 3x − 3 3 . x ≠ –5.6 x 2 + 3x x 2 − 12 − x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + 3 x − ( x 2 − 12) = x 2 + x − 12 2 x + 3 x − x 2 + 12 = x 2 + x − 12 3x + 12 = 2 x + x − 12 3( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 3) 3 = . = 3 ( x + 5) + 6 ( x + 4) 3 6 + = x+4 x+5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) x ≠ 3. x ≠ −2. x ≠ –2. x ≠ –1. –5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) 8 ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 2 ) 8 2 + = x−2 x−3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x ≠ 2. 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 3x x + 4 3x ( x + 2 ) − ( x + 4 )( x − 3) − = x−3 x +2 ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) = 3x 2 + 6 x − ( x 2 + x − 12 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) 2 x + 5 x + 12 . 0 =− x ( x + 1) x ( x + 1) 4 ( x + 3) − 3 x 4 3 − = x x+3 x ( x + 3) x ≠ –3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section P. 3 = x+2 45. 3 = 8 x − 24 + 2 x − 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) = 10 x − 28 . x ( − 2 )( x − 3) x+5 x−5 + x −5 x +5 ( x + 5 )( x + 5 ) + ( x − 5 )( x − 5 ) = ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + x 2 − 10 x + 25 ( x − 5)( x + 5) = 2 x 2 + 50 .PreCalculus 4E 39. –2 3x + 15 + 6 x + 24 = ( x + 4 )( x + 5) = 42. x ≠ 3.

( x − 3)( x + 3) 54. 5 5 50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –1 = 3 ( 5x − 2) + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 15 x − 6 + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 20 x − 6 . 2 . –4 4 x + 16 ( x + 3) = =− 4 4 4 4 + = + 2 x + 6 x + 9 x + 3 ( x + 3) x+3 = ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = 2 2 3 x ( x + 3) − 2 x ( x + 5 ) = 5 7 5 7 + = + 2 x + 8 3x + 12 2( x + 4) 3( x + 4) 15 14 = + 6( x + 4) 6( x + 4) 15 + 14 = 6( x + 4) 29 = 6( x + 4) x ≠ –4 4 + 4 ( x + 3) 3x 2x − 2 x + 3x − 10 x + x − 6 3x 2x = − ( x + 5 )( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 2 = 3 2 3 2 + = + 2 x + 4 3x + 6 2( x + 2) 3( x + 2) 9 4 = + 6( x + 2) 6( x + 2) 9+4 = 6( x + 2) 13 = 6( x + 2) x ≠ –2 = 52. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 5x 3 5x + = + 2 5 x + 2 25 x − 4 5 x + 2 ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) = = = 3x 2 + 9 x − 2 x 2 − 10 x ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = x2 − x . x+3 x+2 − x2 − 1 x − 1 x+3 x+2 = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) x − 1 x+3 ( x + 1)( x + 2) = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x+3 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x + 3 − x 2 − 3x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) −x2 − 2x + 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) x ≠ 1. 2. Inc. 6 x x − ( )( − 1)( x + 4 ) x ≠ 6. . –3 ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) x x − 2 x − 2 x − 24 x − 7 x + 6 x x = − ( x − 6 )( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x − 1) 2 x ( x − 1) − x ( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) x2 − x − x2 − 4 x ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) 5x . x + 3 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) + ( x − 3)( x − 3) + = x−3 x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) x ≠ –3. ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 2 2 x≠− .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. = 53. x2 + 6 x + 9 + x2 − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 2 x 2 + 18 . 51. 50. 1. x ≠ –5. 3 49. ( x + 3) x ≠ –3 4 + 4 x + 12 ( x + 3) 2 = 55.

x ≠ 4 4 ( x − 4) 4 ( x − 4) 4 x ≠ 0. x ≠ 2. ⎡x ⎤ − 1 3 ⎢⎣ 3 − 1⎥⎦ x −3 1 = = = . y ≠ 0. 3. Inc. 1 4 4− x ⎡⎢ 4 − 1 ⎤⎥ 4 x − 1 x x⎦ ⎣ = 57. –2 59. y ≠ 0 xy x ( xy ) x2 y 65.6 x + 5 x +1 − x2 − 4 x − 2 x+5 x +1 = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 x+5 ( x + 2)( x + 1) = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x+5 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x + 5 − x − 3x − 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 − x2 − 2 x + 3 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x ≠ 2. x ≠ –y 4 x 2 + x − 6 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = x 3 2 x 2 + 3x − x x2 + 2 x = ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) x ( x + 2) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x . x ≠ −2. 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 + 3 ( x + 5) − 5 x ( x − 4 ) ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = 6 x + 17 x − 40 + 3x + 15 − 5 x 2 + 20 x ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = x 2 + 40 x − 25 . = ⎣ x+ y xy [ x + y ] xy ( x + y ) xy 64. x ≠ 0. 1 − 1 x ⎡⎢1 − 1 ⎤⎥ x − 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . x ≠ 0. x ≠ 0. 8 + 1 x ⎡⎢8 + 1 ⎤⎥ 8 x + 1 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . x2 −1 ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x − 1)( x + 1) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎡ ⎤ 1+1 xy ⎢ 1 + 1 ⎥ x y x y ⎦ = y+x = 1 . x≠3 x − 3 3[ x − 3] 3 ( x − 3) 3 60. x ⎡1 + 1 ⎤ 1+ 1 x = ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ = x + 1 . . 4 x2 + x − 6 3x 5 − + 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 1 x + 2 4 x2 + x − 6 −3 x 5 = + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) x + 1 x + 2 = 63. −1 x+2 = 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x + − x 2 + x − 20 x−4 x+5 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x = + − 5 4 4 x x x x + − − +5 ( )( ) = 66.PreCalculus 4E 56. x ≠ −5. x −1 4 = x−4 61. x ≠ –2. –3 x+3 ( x − 2 ) [ x − 3] ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x−3 = = 3 ⎤ x ( x − 2) − 3 ⎡ x− 3 x − 2 ( x − 2) ⎢ x − x − 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ − − x x 2 3 ( )( ) = 2 x − 2x − 3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x − 2 = = . − 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) x + 1 51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 3 3 − 1 x ⎡3 − 1 ⎤ 3 x − 1 ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ x 62. ( x + 3) ⎡⎢⎣ x − x +x 3 ⎤⎥⎦ x ( x + 3) − x x− x x+3 = = x+2 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x −1 . Section P. 4 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 ) 4 ⎡⎢ x − 1⎤⎥ ⎣4 ⎦ = x − 4 = 1 . 5 ( x + 1) −3 x ( x + 2 ) 4 x2 + x − 5 + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = = 58. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

68. –1. 3 − 4 3 − 4 x−2 x+2 = x−2 x+2 7 7 2 x − 2 x + 2) ( )( x −4 ⎡ 3 − 4 ⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 7 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) )( )⎦ ⎣( 3( x + 2) − 4 ( x − 2) 3x + 6 − 4 x + 8 − x + 14 = = = 7 7 7 x − 14 =− x ≠ –2.3 x+2 52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Inc. −1. 1 x +1 1 1 + 2 x − 2x − 3 x − 3 = 1 x +1 1 1 + ( x + 1)( x − 3) x − 3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x +1 = ( x + 1)( x − 3) ( x + 1)( x − 3) + x −3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x−3 = 1+ x +1 x −3 = x ≠ −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 7 x +1 x +1 − 2 x−2 x = 3 +1 3 +1 ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 − 4 ⎡ x + 1⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎣⎢ x − 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎡ ⎤ 3 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 + 1⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ( )( ) ⎣ ⎦ = x ( x + 2 ) + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 3 + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 + 2 x + x2 − 4 2 x2 + 2 x – 4 = x 2 –1 3 + x2 − 4 2( x 2 + x – 2) = ( x –1)( x + 1) 2( x + 2)( x –1) 2( x + 2) = = . – 2 = 69. 2.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 67. x +1 ( x –1)( x + 1) x ≠ 1.

71. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section P. Inc. ( x + h)( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x+h x − − x + h +1 x +1 = x + h +1 x +1 h h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) ( x + h)( x + 1) − x( x + h + 1) = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x 2 + x + hx + h − x 2 − hx − x h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) h = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) 1 = ( x + h + 1)( x + 1) = 53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 1 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 − − ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x2 = 2 2 h hx ( x + h) = x 2 − ( x + h) 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2hx + h 2 ) hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − x 2 − 2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 −2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h) 2 −h(2 x + h) = 2 hx ( x + h) 2 (2 x + h) =− 2 x ( x + h) 2 = 72.3 = ( x + 6)( x − 3) 2 70.6 6 1 6 1 − − + − −3 ( x 5)( x 3) x x + 2 x − 15 x − 3 = 1 1 +1 +1 x+5 x+5 6( x + 5)( x − 3) ( x + 5)( x − 3) − ( x + 5)( x − 3) x −3 = ( x + 5)( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) x+5 6 − ( x + 5) = ( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) 6− x−5 = x − 3 + x 2 + 2 x − 15 1− x = 2 x + 3x − 18 1− x x ≠ −6. −5.

1 4 x ( = x x− 1 4 x ) (4 x) 78. x+7 − x = 7 = x2 5 − x2 + 5 − x2 = ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜ 5 − x2 + ⎟ 5 − x2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 5− x ⎠ =⎝ 2 5− x 5 − x2 = 5− x 2 ( = = = ) 81. x > 0 3x ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+h x x⎠ x+h x ⎝ x+h = h h x+h x = x− 74. 5 − x2 + x2 (5 − x ) ( x+ y x −y 2 2 = = 5 5 − x2 ) 2 = 5 − x2 5 = (5 − x ) 2 .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra x− 73. . x+5 − x = 5 − x2 + 2 = x2 ⎛ ⎜ =⎝ = − x 2 + 2 ⎞⎟ x 2 + 2 ⎠ x2 x2 + 2 = x2 x2 + 2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2) x2 x2 + 2 2 =− 2 x x2 + 2 76. Publishing as Prentice Hall. h≠0 x − x+3 3 x x+3 x+5 − x x+5 + x ⋅ 5 x+5 + x ( x + 5) 2 − ( x )2 5( x + 5 + x ) x+5− x 5( x + 5 + x ) 1 x+5 + x x+7 − x x+7 + x ⋅ 7 x+7 + x ( x + 7 )2 − ( x )2 7( x + 7 + x ) x+7− x 7( x + 7 + x ) 1 x+7 + x x+ y x −y 2 2 ⋅ x− y x− y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 5 − x2 2 h x ( x + h) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+3 x x⎠ x+3 x ⎝ x+3 = 3 3 x+3 x = x2 x2 + 2 x − x+h = 3 ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) 1 ( x + y )( x − y ) 54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x (3 x ) 3x − 1 3x 1 = 1− . 80. x (4 x ) 4x −1 4x 1 = 1− . ( = 1 3 x x x− 1 3 x ) (3 x) 77.x>0 4x 75. = 79. Inc.

Inc. x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x + y ) 1 ( x + y )( x + y ) . y −1 − ( y + 5) 5 1 −1 = y − 1 y+5 5 LCD = y ( y + 5) 1 y − ⎛1 1 y+5 5 y ( y + 5) ⎜ = ⎝y − 1 ⎞ ⎟ y +5⎠ y ( y + 5)( 5) = y +5− y 5 y ( y + 5) = 5 5 y ( y + 5) = 1 y ( y + 5) 55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x− y x −y 2 2 Section P. 84. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 ⎞⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ( x + 2) 3 ⎞⎛ ( x − 1) 5 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎜4− ⎟⎜ 1 + ⎟=⎜ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ x + 2 x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 x + 8 − 3 ⎞⎛ x − 1 + 5 ⎞ 4 x + 5 x + 4 ( 4 x + 5 )( x + 4 ) =⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎜ ⎟= ( x + 2 )( x − 1) ⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ x + 2 x − 1 87. ( x 2 − y 2 )( x + y ) 6 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 1) 6 ⎞ ⎛ ( x − 2) 3 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜2− ⎟ ⎜1 + ⎟ = ⎜⎜ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ( x + 1) ( x + 1) ⎠ ⎝ ( x − 2 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 x + 2 − 6 ⎞⎛ x − 2 + 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 x − 4 ⎞ ⎛ x + 1 ⎞ 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) =2 =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟= ⎝ x + 1 ⎠⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ( x + 1) ( x − 2 ) 86.6 x− y = x −y 2 x+ y ⋅ 2 x+ y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 = = = 83. .PreCalculus 4E 82. x≠ y ⎛ ( 2 x + 3) ( x + 5 ) ( x − 1) ⎛ 2 x + 3 x2 + 4 x − 5 ⎞ 2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 =⎜ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − ( 2 x + 3) ( x − 1) ⎝ x + 1 2 x + x − 3 ⎠ x + 2 ⎜⎝ x + 1 2 ( x + 1) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 2 ( x + 1) = − = x 1 x 2 x 1 x 2 + + + + ( )( ) ( )( ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎞ ⎟− 2 = x+5 − 2 ⎟ x + 2 x +1 x + 2 ⎠ = x 2 + 2 x + 5 x + 10 − 2 x − 2 x2 + 5x + 8 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎛ ( x + 2) ( x − 4) ⎞ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 ⋅⎜ − ÷ ⎜⎜ − ⎟ ⎟= x − 2 x − 8 ⎝ x − 4 x + 2 ⎠ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎝ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎟⎠ 1 2 ⎛ x+2−x+4 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) 1 1 6 1 ÷ ⎜⎜ ÷ ⎜⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎟ = ⎟⎟ = x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 6 6 ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) 1 = 85.

170. = = 520 . a. and $1.000 to inoculate 90% of the population. So it costs an astronomical amount of money to inoculate almost all of the people. y −1 − ( y + 2) 1 −1 y = 2 − 1 y+2 2 LCD = y ( y + 2 ) 1 − y y+2 2 89.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 88. c. As x approaches 100. = = 86. b. 100 − 90 10 when x = 90 It costs $86. − ) ) ⎛ a ( c − d ) − b ( c − d ) a 3 + b3 ⎞ ⎛ ac − ad − bc + bd a3 − b3 ⎞ ab + ⎜⎜ ÷ 3 3 ⎟⎟ = 2 + ⎜⎜ ⋅ ⎟ 2 a + ab + b ⎝ ac − ad + bc − bd a + b ⎠ a + ab + b ⎝ a ( c − d ) + b ( c − d ) a3 − b3 ⎟⎠ ab 2 2 ( ( ⎛ ( c − d ) ( a − b ) ( a + b ) a 2 − ab + b 2 = 2 +⎜ ⋅ a + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( c − d ) ( a + b ) ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ab = 91.000 to inoculate 80% of the population. and $520. the value of the function increases rapidly. and it is impossible to inoculate 100% of the population. For x = 100. ab + a 2 − ab + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 = ) ⎞⎟ = ) ⎠⎟ a ab 2 + ab + b2 + a 2 − ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a2 + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 130 x is equal to 100 − x 130 ⋅ 40 130 ⋅ 40 1.000. Inc. 100 − 80 20 when x = 80 130 ⋅ 90 130 ⋅ 90 = = 1170 .67 . 3. the function is not defined. .670. 56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.000 to inoculate 40% of the population against this strain of flu. 100 − 40 60 when x = 40 130 ⋅ 80 130 ⋅ 80 2. ⎛1 1 y ( y + 2) ⎜ = ⎝y 1 ⎞ ⎟ y+2⎠ y ( y + 2 )( 2 ) = y+2− y 2 y ( y + 2) = 2 2 y ( y + 2) = 1 y ( y + 2) ⎛ a ( c + d ) − b ( c + d ) ⎞⎟ ac + ad − bc − bd ⎞ c−d 1 c−d ⎛ 1 ⎜ ⋅ − = ⋅ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 1 1 ⎝ a 3 − b3 ⎠ a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ( c + d ) ( a − b ) ⎞⎟ c−d c+d c−d 1 − = − ⋅ =⎜ ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + bd + b 2 1 ⎝ ⎠ c+d −c+d 2d = 2 = a + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 ( ( 90.000.

M = −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 M = −120(4)2 + 998(4) + 590 M = 2662 According to the model. . Substitute 4 for x in the model. W = −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 W = −66(4)2 + 526(4) + 1030 W = 2078 According to the model. c. W −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 = M −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 = = 2 ( −33x 2 + 263x + 515 ) 2 ( −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 ) −33x 2 + 263x + 515 −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 38 calories. the value of this expression will be 2 ⋅ 40 ⋅ 30 2400 = 30 + 40 70 2 = 34 . women between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2078 calories per day. men between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2662 calories per day.PreCalculus 4E 92. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 22 calories. b. Inc. a. Substitute 4 for x in the model. 7 Your average speed will be 34 2 miles per hour. Section P.6 2d d + r1 d r2 LCD = r1r2 2d d r1 + d ⎛d d ⎞ + ⎜ r r ⎟⎟ 1 ⎝ 2⎠ r1r2 ⎜ r2 = = If r1r2 ( 2d ) = 2r1r2 d r2 d + r1d 2r1r2 d d ( r2 + r1 ) = 2r1r2 r2 + r1 r1 = 40 and r2 = 30. 7 93. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

11 R(4. 8. P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x + 3⎠ ⎝ x − 4⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+3 x+4 2 x ( x + 4) 2 x ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x + 4) ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = + 2 2 x + 8x + 2 x + 6 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = 96. R= = = 1 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1R2 R3 R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2 4 ⋅8 ⋅12 8⋅12 + 4 ⋅12 + 4 ⋅ 8 384 = 96 + 48 + 32 384 = 176 24 = 11 24 The parallel resistance is ohms. 12) = 95. –108. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 x + 14 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x +5⎠ ⎝ x +6⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+5 x+6 2 x ( x + 6) 2x ( x + ( x + 5)( x + 6) ( x + 5)( x 2 = + 2 2 x + 12 x + 2 x + 10 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 2 = 4 x + 22 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 97. Answers may vary. Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. 58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

. 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 3 2 + 2 + 3 + + 5 4 3 x x x = x x 2 x3 = x + x + x = x x + x + 1 = x3 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 1 + 5 + 6 + 5 + 6 4 4 x x x x x x ( ) 59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1 − 1 6x 1 6x + 1 = + = x x x x ( x − y) −1 + ( x − y) −2 = 1 + x −1 x x +1 x + 2 x −1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = x x +1 x + 2 x + 3 x + 3 1 ( x − y) ( x − y) 2 = ( x − y) 1 x − y +1 + = 2 ( x − y )( x − y ) ( x − y ) ( x − y )2 120. does not make sense. 1 n x −1 − 1 n x +1 − n 1 x 2n −1 = n x +1 x 2n −1 − n = = 118. does not make sense. x −1 x 2n 1 x 2n −1 n x +1− x +1−1 x 2n −1 1 x 2n −1 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ x 1 ⎞⎛ x +1 1 ⎞⎛ x + 2 1 ⎞⎛ x + 3 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ − − − ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ x x + x + x + x x x + x + x + x + x + x + 3⎠ 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎛ x − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 1) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 3) − 1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠⎝ x +1 ⎠⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x + 3 ⎠ = 119. does not make sense. A sample change is: 6 + 117. Sample explanation: The numerator and denominator of 7 do not 14 + x share a common factor. true 115.6 109. Explanations will vary. false.PreCalculus 4E Section P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Explanations will vary. 111. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 4 x( x − 1) 4(1)(1 − 1) 0 110. It cubes x. true 116. false. makes sense 113. A sample change is: x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) = = x+5 x−5 x−5 114. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: 3x − 3 3(1) − 3 0 = = which is undefined. Explanations will vary. 112. Inc. Sample explanation: The first step is to invert the second fraction.

2( x − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3( x + 2) 2. 12 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 3( x + 2) − 4( x − 1) = 3x + 6 − 4 x + 4 7 x − 21 = −4 x − 10 7 x + 4 x = −10 + 21 11x = 11 11x 11 = 11 11 x =1 Check: x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 1− 3 5 1+ 5 = − 4 14 7 −2 5 6 = − 4 14 7 1 1 − =− 2 2 The solution set is {1}. 2 x = 10 2 x 10 = 2 2 x=5 Check: 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 4[2(5) + 1] − 29 = 3[2(5) − 5] 4[10 + 1] − 29 = 3[10 − 5] 4[11] − 29 = 3[5] 44 − 29 = 15 15 = 15 true The solution set is {5}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. x=7 .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121.7 Check Point Exercises 1. true 7 ( x − 3) = 2(5) − 4 ( x + 5 ) 7 x − 21 = 10 − 4 x − 20 ⎛ x + 2 x −1 ⎞ ⎛ x+2⎞ ⎛ x −1⎞ − = 12 ⎜ − 12 ⎜ 122. x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 x −3 ⎛ 5 x+5⎞ 28 ⋅ = 28 ⎜ − 4 7 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 14 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 8 x + 4 − 29 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 − 6 x = 6 x − 15 − 6 x 2 x − 25 = −15 2 x − 25 + 25 = −15 + 25 −20 6 5 − = 2 x+3 x−2 x + x−6 −20 6 5 − = x + 3 x − 2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x + 3)( x − 2) 5( x + 3)( x − 2) −20( x + 3)( x − 2) − = x+3 x−2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x − 2) − 5( x + 3) = −20 6 x − 12 − 5 x − 15 = −20 x − 27 = −20 The solution set is {7} . Section P. = − x + 10 123. 2(6 − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3(6 + 2) 2(3) − 17 = 13 − 3(8) 6 − 17 = 13 − 24 −11 = −11. 60 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 −b − b 2 − 4ac −(9) − (9) − 4(2)(−5) = 2a 2(2) −9 − 81 + 40 4 −9 − 121 = 4 −9 − 11 = 4 = −5 = 3.

7 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 1 4 1 = − x + 2 x2 − 4 x − 2 1 4 1 = − x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 1( x + 2)( x − 2) 4( x + 2)( x − 2) 1( x + 2)( x − 2) = − x+2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x−2 x − 2 = 4 − ( x + 2) x−2=4−x−2 x−2=2−x 2x = 4 x=2 2 must be rejected. x=0 x=3 The solution set is {0. 3x 2 − 9 x = 0 3x( x − 3) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 3 = 0 3 x 2 21 = 3 3 2 x =7 x=± 7 { } The solution set is − 7. −5 − 11 . Section P. −1⎬ . 2 x2 + x = 1 b. } The solution set is −5 + 11. .3} . 5. 9. Inc. The solution set is { } . x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x2 + 4x = 1 x2 + 4 x + 4 = 1 + 4 ( x + 2) 2 =5 x+2= ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. 7. ⎩2 ⎭ 8. ( x + 5) 2 = 11 x + 5 = ± 11 4 1 − 2 x = 20 x = −5 ± 11 1 − 2x = 5 { 1 − 2x = 5 or 1 − 2 x = −5 −2 x = 4 −2 x = −6 x = −2 x=3 The solution set is {–2. 3x 2 − 21 = 0 3x 2 = 21 qf − pq = − pf q( f − p) = − pf − pf q( f − p) = f −p f −p pf q= p− f 6. a. 4 1 − 2 x − 20 = 0 b.PreCalculus 4E 4. 2 x2 + x − 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 2x = 1 1 x= 2 1 1 1 + = p q f 1 pqf 1 pqf 1 pqf + = p q f qf + pf = pq x = −1 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 3}.

The equation has two complex imaginary solutions. b = 2. 6x – 3 = 63 6x = 66 x = 11 The solution set is {11}. Check: 6 x − 3 = 63 ⎧⎪ −1 + 3 −1 − 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . . 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 11.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 a = 2. ⎬. 2. x+3 +3 = x x +3 = x−3 ( x+3 ) 2 = ( x − 3) 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 11x − 6 x + 5 = 40 b2 − 4ac = (−2)2 − 4 ⋅3 ⋅5 = 4 − 60 = −56 The discriminant is –56. 6(11) − 3 = 63 66 − 3 = 63 63 = 63 3x 2 − 2x + 5 = 0 a = 3. b = −2. 12. 2 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 Exercise Set P. 7x – 5 = 72 7x = 77 x = 11 Check: 7 x − 5 = 72 Check: 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 2 11(7) − [6(7) − 5] = 40 x + 3 = x2 − 6x + 9 77 − (42 − 5) = 40 0 = x2 − 7 x + 6 0 = ( x − 6)( x − 1) x − 6 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 77 − (37) = 40 40 = 40 x=6 x =1 1 does not check and must be rejected. c = −1 1. The solution set is {6} . −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a = = = = = = −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) 7(11) − 5 = 72 −2 ± 4 + 8 4 −2 ± 12 4 −2 ± 2 3 4 2(−1 ± 3) 4 −1 ± 3 2 77 − 5 = 72 72 = 72 The solution set is {11}. Inc. 5 x + 5 = 40 5 x = 35 x=7 The solution set is {7}. c = 5 3.

⎤ ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 25 ⎞ 5 ⎜ ⎟ − ⎢ 2 ⎜ ⎟ − 10 ⎥ = 35 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎦ 125 ⎡ 50 ⎤ − − 10⎥ = 35 3 ⎢⎣ 3 ⎦ 125 20 − = 35 3 3 105 = 35 3 35 = 35 13(−19) + 14 = 12(−19) − 5 − 247 + 14 = −228 − 5 − 233 = −233 2x – 7 = 6 + x x–7=6 x = 13 The solution set is {13}. Section P. Check: 3x + 5 = 2 x + 13 3(8) + 5 = 2(8) + 13 24 + 5 = 16 + 13 29 = 29 Check: 2( x − 1) + 3 = x − 3( x + 1) 2(−1 − 1) + 3 = −1 − 3(−1 + 1) 2(−2) + 3 = −1 − 3(0) − 4 + 3 = −1 + 0 − 1 = −1 63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Check: 2(13) − 7 = 6 + 13 Check: 3(9 − 2) + 7 = 2(9 + 5) 26 − 7 = 19 19 = 19 6. 28 = 28 10. . Check: 13 x + 14 = 12 x − 5 9. 13x + 14 = 12x – 5 x + 14 = –5 x = –19 The solution set is {–19}. ⎩3⎭ 14 + 4 = 18 18 = 18 Check: 5 x − (2 x − 10) = 35 8. 2(x – 1) + 3 = x – 3(x +1) 2x – 2 + 3 = x – 3x – 3 2x +1 = –2x – 3 4x + 1 = –3 4x = –4 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7x + 4 = x + 16 6x + 4 = 16 6x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {2}. Check: 7(2) + 4 = 2 + 16 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 3(x – 2) + 7 = 2(x + 5) 3x – 6 + 7 = 2x + 10 3x + 1 = 2x + 10 x + 1 = 10 x=9 The solution set is {9}.7 5x – (2x – 10) = 35 5x – 2x + 10 = 35 3x + 10 = 35 3x = 25 25 x= 3 7. Inc. 3(7) + 7 = 2(14) 21 + 7 = 28 3x + 5 = 2x + 13 x + 5 = 13 x=8 The solution set is {8}.PreCalculus 4E 4. 5.

64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. 14. Inc. ⎩5⎭ 3x x − 3 x + 2 − = 5 2 3 ⎡ 3x x − 3 x + 2 ⎤ 30 ⎢ − = 2 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣5 18 x − 15 x + 45 = 10 x + 20 3x − 10 x = 20 − 45 x =1 − 7 x = −25 The solution set is {1}. . 4 x − 6 x = −21 − 12 − 2 x = −33 33 2 x= ⎧ 33 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 25 7 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . x +3 3 x −5 = + 6 8 4 ⎡ x + 3 3 x − 5⎤ 24 ⎢ = + 8 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 6 4 x + 12 = 9 + 6 x − 30 15. 3x + 4 x = 10 − 3 7x = 7 x +1 x+2 = 5− 3 7 x + 2⎤ ⎡ x +1 21 ⎢ = 5− 7 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 3 7x + 7 = 105 – 3x – 6 7x + 3x = 99 – 7 10x = 92 92 x= 10 46 x= 5 ⎧ 46 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11. a. 17. 8 x − 3x = 9 − 104 5 x = −95 x = −19 The solution set is {−19} . ⎩2⎭ 12. x +1 1 2 − x = + 4 6 3 ⎡ x +1 1 2 − x ⎤ 12 ⎢ = + 6 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 4 3x + 3 = 2 + 8 − 4 x 16. x−2 x+3 = 3 8 x − 2 x + 3⎤ ⎡ 24 ⎢5 + = 3 8 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 120 + 8 x − 16 = 3 x + 9 5+ 1 11 +5 = ( x ≠ 1) x −1 x −1 1 11 +5 = x −1 x −1 1 + 5( x − 1) = 11 1 + 5 x − 5 = 11 5 x − 4 = 11 5 x = 15 x=3 The solution set is {3}. 13. ⎩7⎭ x= x x −3 = 2+ 4 3 x − 3⎤ ⎡x 12 ⎢ = 2 + 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣4 3x = 24 + 4x – 12 3x – 4x = 12 –x = 12 x = –12 The solution set is {–12}.

3 5 1 = + x + 3 2( x + 3) x − 2 6( x − 2) = 5( x − 2) + 2( x + 3) 6 x − 12 = 5 x − 10 + 2 x + 6 3 − 7 x − 28 = −4 19. . x ≠ −1) x + 1 x −1 x −1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 x2 − 1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2( x − 1) − 1( x + 1) = 2 x 2x − 2 − x −1 = 2x x = −1 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. ∅. a. 4) 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 x2 − 2 x − 8 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 ( x − 4)( x + 2) ( x ≠ 4. x ≠ −5) b. a. 3 1 2 + = 2x − 2 2 x −1 3 1 2 + = 2( x − 1) 2 x − 1 3 + 1( x − 1) = 4 25. ( x ≠ −2. 3 −4 −7 = x+4 x+4 3 − 7( x + 4) = −4 b. ∅. Section P. b. 8x = 4x + 4 − 8 4 x = −4 2 1 2x − = 2 ( x ≠ 1. b.PreCalculus 4E 18. a. a. 2 = x − 2x + 4 21. b. 1 x−4 − 5 x+2 = 6 ( x − 4)( x + 2) . a. x ≠ 5. 8x 8 = 4− x +1 x +1 8 x = 4( x + 1) − 8 b. 20. a. a. x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. x ≠ 2) x + 3 2x + 6 x − 2 8x 8 = 4− ( x ≠ −1) x +1 x +1 23. −x = 8 −7 x = 21 x = −8 The solution set is {–8}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. x ≠ −2) 1( x + 2) − 5( x − 4) = 6 x + 2 − 5 x + 20 = 6 −4 x = −16 x=4 The solution set is the empty set.7 3 −4 −7 = ( x ≠ −4) x+4 x+4 22. −5 x + 5 x − 5 x 2 − 25 4( x − 5) + 2( x + 5) = 32 4 x − 20 + 2 x + 10 = 32 3 1 2 + = ( x ≠ 1) 2x − 2 2 x −1 6 x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. 4 2 32 + = . 65 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∅. 4 2 32 + = x + 5 x − 5 ( x + 5)( x − 5) ( x ≠ 5. 3 5 1 = + ( x ≠ −3. 2 x = −2 x−2 x−2 2 = x − 2( x − 2) x = 2 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. 3 + x −1 = 4 x=2 The solution set is {2}. a. Inc. −x = 3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. b. 2 x = − 2 ( x ≠ 2) x−2 x−2 24.

P = C + MC P − C = MC P −C =M C markup based on cost 31. b. Pr interest 35.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 26. C 1− r S (1 − r ) = C C 1− r = S C −r = − 1 S C r = − +1 S markup based on selling price S= IR + Ir = E I (R + r) = E 2A −b = a h area of trapezoid E R+r electric current I= 66 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. T = D + pm T − D = pm F B F S = +V B 36. 1 2 8 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 1( x + 1) − 2( x − 3) = 8 x + 1 − 2x + 6 = 8 −x + 7 = 8 −x = 1 x = −1 The solution set is the empty set. 1 2 8 . F S −V B(S − V ) = F B= S −V = T − D pm = m m T −D =p m total of payment 30. 28. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S −P = t. . x ≠ −1. rt interest C = 2πr C r= . Pt interest 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∅. 2A =a+b h 2A −a=b h area of trapezoid I = Prt I P= . Inc. 29. 27. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S−P = r. 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) A= 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) 2A = a+b h A= 37. 2π circumference of a circle 33. 3 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 32.

–5}. −5/3} resistance f = 41. 45. x−2 =7 x – 2 = 7 x – 2 = –7 x=9 x = –5 The solution set is {9. Section P. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f − f2 48. 2x −1 = 5 2x – 1 = 5 2x – 1 = –5 2x = 6 2x = –4 x=3 x = –2 The solution set is {3. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 2 4− f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 4− ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 f − f1 5 x =6 2 4− f 2 ( f − f1 ) = − ff1 = 5 x = 12 2 5 x=6 2 5 − x=2 2 ff 2 − f1 f 2 = − ff1 f 2 ( f − f1 ) 5 x + 6 = 18 2 − ff1 f − f1 x=− ff1 f2 = f1 − f focal length 4 5 or 4 − 5 x = −6 2 5 − x = −10 2 x=4 ⎧ 4 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . R1 R2 − RR1 = RR2 R1 ( R2 − R ) = RR2 R1 = RR2 R2 − R 47.7 A = 2lw + 2lh + 2 wh A − 2lw = h ( 2l + 2 w ) A − 2lw =h 2l + 2 w surface area 1 1 1 39. 44. 3|2x – 1| = 21 |2x – 1| = 7 2x – 1 = 7 or 2x – 1 = −7 2x = 8 2x = −6 x=4 x = −3 The solution set is {4. 1 1 1 = + R R R 1 2 R1 R2 = RR2 + RR1 43.PreCalculus 4E 38. ff1 − f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) f − f2 2 4− focal length f = 42. 4}. 7}. + = p q f qf + pf = pq f (q + p) = pq pq f = p+q thin lens equation 40. x +1 = 5 x + 1 = 5 x + 1 = –5 x=4 x = –6 The solution set is {–6. 2|3x – 2| = 14 |3x – 2| = 7 3x – 2 = 7 3x – 2 = −7 3x = 9 3x = −5 x=3 x = −5/3 The solution set is {3. 46. 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = −11 2 x = −8 2 x = 14 x = −4 x=7 The solution set is {–4. 4 ⎬ . ⎩ 5 ⎭ 67 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . –2}. −3} f1 = ff 2 f2 − f 49. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.

54. |2x – 1| + 3 = 3 |2x – 1| = 0 2x – 1 = 0 2x = 1 x = 1/2 The solution set is {0. x 2 − 13 x + 36 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 9) = 0 x − 4 = 0 or x − 9 = 0 x=4 x=9 61. ⎩3⎭ 55. Inc. |x + 1| + 6 = 2 |x + 1| = −4 The solution set is { }. 5} . 3 3 x = 4 4 3 3 or 1 − 3 x = − 3 1− x = 4 4 4 4 3 1 3 7 − x=− − x=− 4 4 4 4 1 7 x= x= 3 3 1 7 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 4} . ⎧1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩2⎭ 60. −1} . 51. ⎧2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 5 x 2 = 20 x 5 x 2 − 20 x = 0 5 x( x − 4) = 0 5 x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 53. 59. 5} . 3x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . x 2 = 8 x − 15 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 = −11x − 10 58. 68 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + 11x + 10 = 0 ( x + 10)( x + 1) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x = −10 x = −1 The solution set is {−10. ⎩3 3 ⎭ 1− x 2 − 8 x + 15 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 5) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x=3 x=5 The solution set is {3. 4} . x 2 − 3 x − 10 = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = 0 x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=5 x = −2 The solution set is {−2. 52. 4 1− 3 x + 7 = 10 4 4 1− 56. ⎬ . 3 x =3 4 The solution set is {4. 3x − 2 + 4 = 4 3 x 2 = 12 x 3x 2 − 12 x = 0 3x( x − 4) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 3x − 2 = 0 3x − 2 = 0 3x = 2 2 x= 3 The solution set is {0. |x + 1| +5 = 3 |x + 1| = −2 No solution The solution set is { }. .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 50. 9} .

The solution set is 4 ± 5 . 3 − 2 5 . 2 2 ( x + 2)2 = 16 =± 5 x + 2 = ±4 x = −2 ± 4 The solution set is {–6. } The solution set is −4 ± 7 .PreCalculus 4E 62. 63. Inc. 5 x 2 = 50 ( x + 3) 2 = 1 x 2 = ± 10 x = ± 10 x + 3 = ±1 { x = −3 ± 1 The solution set is {–4. 1}. 3x 2 − 1 = 47 ( x − 1)2 = 3 x 2 = 16 x −1 = ± 3 x 2 = ± 16 x = ±4 The solution set is {±4} . Section P. } The solution set is ± 10 . x = 1± 3 { 70. x−4=± 5 x = 4± 5 { } 71. 66. 5 x 2 + 1 = 51 68. 3 ( x − 4 ) = 15 2 x2 − 2 x = 2 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 2 + 1 3x 2 = 48 65. –2}.7 5 x 2 = 45 67. 3 ( x + 4 ) = 21 ( x + 4) 2 =7 2 =± 7 x 2 − 6 x − 11 = 0 x 2 − 6 x = 11 2 ( x + 4) x 2 + 4 x = 12 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 12 + 4 ( x − 4) = 5 ( x − 4) } The solution set is 1 + 3. x 2 + 6 x = −8 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = −8 + 9 x 2 = 10 64. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2}. x2 + 6 x = 7 x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 11 + 9 ( x − 3) 2 = 20 x − 3 = ± 20 x = 3± 2 5 x+4=± 7 x = −4 ± 7 { { } The solution set is 3 + 2 5. 69 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . x + 3 = ±4 x = −3 ± 4 The solution set is {–7. x2 = 9 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 7 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 16 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . 69. 1 − 3 .

− 3 − 14 . 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ −8 ± 64 − 60 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 −8 ± 2 x= 2 The solution set is {−5. x2 + 5x + 3 = 0 x= x+2= ± 3 74. ⎬. −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) −5 ± 25 − 8 2 −5 ± 17 x= 2 x= x 2 + 8 x + 15 = 0 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(3) 2(1) x= The solution set is −2 + 3. ⎬ 6 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 6 70 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 − 6 . x + 3 = ± 14 x2 + 5x + 2 = 0 x= x = −3 ± 14 { } The solution set is −3 + 14. –2}. 75. x= x −1 = ± 6 x = 1± 6 { } The solution set is 1 + 6. x2 + 4 x + 1 = 0 x 2 + 4 x = −1 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = −1 + 4 77. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ x2 + 6 x = 5 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 5 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 14 78. − 3}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x= 79. x2 − 2 x − 5 = 0 76. Inc. ⎬.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 72. ( x + 2) 2 = 3 x = −2 ± 3 { −5 ± 25 − 12 2 −5 ± 13 x= 2 } x2 + 6 x − 5 = 0 ⎧⎪ −5 + 13 −5 − 13 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . − 2 − 3 . x − 2x = 5 x 2 + 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x= x − 2x + 1 = 5 +1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 6 −8 ± 64 − 48 2 −8 ± 16 x= 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 The solution set is {–6. 73. 3x 2 − 3 x − 4 = 0 x= 3 ± (−3)2 − 4(3)(−4) 2(3) 3 ± 9 + 48 6 3 ± 57 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 3 + 57 3 − 57 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(12) 2(1) −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(15) 2(1) ⎧⎪ −5 + 17 −5 − 17 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . .

Section P. Inc. (−2) 2 − 4(1)(1) =4–4 = 0. 2 unequal real solutions 2 ± 4 + 112 x= 8 2 ± 116 x= 8 2 ± 2 29 x= 8 1 ± 29 x= 4 82. 1 real solution 88. 87. 3 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 3 71 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x 2 − 11x + 3 = 0 (−11) 2 − 4(2)(3) = 121 – 24 = 97. 85. 2 complex imaginary solutions 3x = 6 x − 1 3x − 6 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x= x= 3x 2 = 2 x − 1 3x 2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x2 = 2x − 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 ⎧⎪1 + 29 1 − 29 ⎫⎪ . 4 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 4 x= 2 x 2 + 11x − 6 = 0 112 − 4(2)(−6) = 121 + 48 = 169. (−2) 2 − 4(3)(1) = 4 – 12 = –8. 2 unequal real solutions 4x2 = 2x + 7 x= 4 x2 − 2 x + 3 = 0 (−2) 2 − 4(4)(3) = 4 – 48 = –44. 2 unequal real solutions 6 ± 36 − 12 6 6 ± 24 6 6±2 6 6 3± 6 3 90. (−4) 2 − 4(1)(−5) = 16 + 20 = 36. 4 x2 − 2 x − 7 = 0 2 ± (−2)2 − 4(4)(−7) 2(4) 86. 2 unequal real solutions ⎧⎪ 3 + 6 3 − 6 ⎫⎪ . The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 10 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 10 81. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 (−3)2 − 4(1)(−7) = 9 + 28 = 37. . 2 complex imaginary solutions ⎪⎧ −1 + 41 −1 − 41 ⎪⎫ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 80. 3x 2 + 4 x − 2 = 0 42 − 4(3)(−2) = 16 + 24 = 40.7 5x2 + x − 2 = 0 x= 83. 2 unequal real solutions −1 ± 12 − 4(5)(−2) 2(5) −1 ± 1 + 40 10 −1 ± 41 x= 10 x= 84. x2 − 4 x − 5 = 0 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 89. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.

2 5 . ⎩5 ⎭ −3 ± 9 + 8 4 −3 ± 17 x= 4 x= x= ⎪⎧ −3 + 17 −3 − 17 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . . 95. Inc. 1 − 2 . ⎩ 5⎭ x= ⎪⎧ −11 + 33 −11 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 72 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1⎬ . 3x 2 = 60 x= x = −3 −11 ± 112 − 4(2)(11) 2(2) −11 ± 121 − 88 4 −11 ± 33 x= 4 ⎧ 2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. } The solution set is −5 5. ⎩ 3 ⎭ x = 1± 2 { 5 x 2 − 11x + 2 = 0 98. (3 x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 3x + 2 or x − 2 = 0 93. 1 x = − or x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . (5 x − 2)( x + 3) = 0 5 x − 2 = 0 or x + 3 2 x + 8 x + 3x + 12 = 1 2 2 x 2 + 11x + 11 = 0 5x = 2 2 5 or −3 ± 32 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) x= 5x = 1 x= } The solution set is 1 + 2.5 5 . ⎬. x 2 = 20 2 x2 − x − 1 = 0 (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = ± 20 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = ±2 5 2 x = −1 96.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 − x = 1 91. 2⎬ . 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 5 x 2 = 6 − 13x 5 x 2 + 13x − 6 = 0 (2 x + 3)( x + 4) = 1 99. 5 x 2 + 2 = 11x 94. x = ±5 5 97. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 92. (5 x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 2 x 2 + 3x = 1 2 x 2 + 3x − 1 = 0 5 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 1 or x = 2 5 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . { 2 x 2 = 250 x = ± 125 3x2 − 4x − 4 = 0 2 3 } x 2 = 125 3x 2 − 4 x = 4 x=− { The solution set is −2 5. 3x = −2 x2 − 2 x = 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 1 + 1 ( x − 1) 2 = 2 x = −3 or x −1 = ± 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎬. 2 ⎬ .

7 (2 x − 5)( x + 1) = 2 105. (2 x + 7) 2 = 25 x2 = 6 x − 7 108. ⎪⎧ 3 + 65 3 − 65 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2 x 2 − 7 x = 0 9 − 6x + x = 0 x(2 x − 7) = 0 2 x = 0 or 2 x − 7 = 0 2x = 7 x − 6x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 The solution set is {3}. 3x 2 − 27 = 0 3 x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3.PreCalculus 4E 100. 4 x 2 − 16 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x − 5x − 5 = 2 4 x 2 = 16 2 x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 x= x2 = 4 x = ±2 The solution set is {−2. 2 7 2 ⎧ 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. 3 ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(−7) 2(2) 3 ± 9 + 56 4 3 ± 65 x= 4 x= 106. 3x 2 − 12 x + 12 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(7) 2(1) 6± 8 2 x = 3± 2 x= x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x=2 The solution set is {2}. x= { } The solution set is 3 ± 2 . ⎬ . x2 − 6 x + 7 = 0 103. ⎩ 3⎭ { } The solution set is 2 ± 2 . 2} . ⎩ 2⎭ x = 0 or x = 73 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎬. 2 x + 7 = ±5 2 x = −7 ± 5 2 x = −12 or 2 x = −2 x=6 or x = −1 The solution set is {–6. ⎬ . 4 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 4 x2 = 4 x − 2 107. –1}. 104. Section P. 102. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (3 x − 4) = 16 2 x2 − 4x + 2 = 0 3x − 4 = ± 16 3x − 4 = ±4 3x = 4 ± 4 3x = 8 or 3x = 0 8 x = or x = 0 3 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 4± 8 2 x = 2± 2 x= ⎧ 8⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. 3}. 101. Inc. . 109.

0 = x2 − 4 x − 6 x= − ( −4 ) ± 3 x + 18 = x 2 ( −4 ) − 4 (1)( −6 ) 2 (1) 2 x 2 − 3x − 18 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 6) = 0 x+3=0 x–6=0 x = –3 x=6 3(−3) + 18 = −3 3(6) + 18 = 6 4 ± 16 + 24 2 4 ± 40 x= 2 4 ± 2 10 x= 2 x = 2 ± 10 x= −9 + 18 = −3 116. ⎩ 2⎭ 111. x ≠ 0. 7}. 2x + 5x − 3 = 0 2 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(2)(−3) 2(2) 2x 6 −28 + = 2 . −3 x−3 x +3 x −9 2 x ( x + 3) + 6 ( x − 3) = −28 2 x 2 + 6 x + 6 x − 18 = −28 2 x 2 + 12 x + 10 = 0 −5 ± 25 + 24 x= 4 −5 ± 49 x= 4 −5 ± 7 x= 4 1 x = −3. 4 x − 3 x − 4 x − 7 x + 12 3x − 12 + 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 20 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. 3 5 x 2 − 20 + = 2 . 3x + 18 = x ( −5 ) − 4 (1)( −12 ) 2 (1) 2 x=2 20 − 8(−10) = −10 20 − 8(2) = 2 20 + 80 = −10 20 − 16 = 2 100 = −10 False The solution set is {2}. −3 x x+3 4 4 x + 12 + 4 x = x 2 + 3x − ( −5 ) ± 18 + 18 = 6 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. 4=2 . x ≠ 3. 1 1 1 + = . x ≠ 0. Inc. 113. −2 x x+2 3 3x + 6 + 3 x = x 2 + 2 x 115. 114. 112. − 1}. The solution set is {2 + 10. 2 x2 + 6 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 5) = 0 The solution set is {−5. 5 ± 25 + 48 x= 2 5 ± 73 x= 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 73 5 − 73 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ 3. 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 2 74 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 + 5x = 3 110. 0 = x2 − 8x + 7 0 = ( x − 7 )( x − 1) x=7 x =1 The solution set is {1. 20 − 8 x = x x 2 + 8 x − 20 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 2) = 0 x + 10 = 0 x−2 = 0 x = −10 0 = x 2 − 5 x − 12 x= 36 = 6 20 − 8 x = x 2 1 1 1 + = . ⎬ . 2 − 10}. ⎬.

x + 10 = ( x − 2) 121. 120. ( x + 2)( x − 5) = 0 x+2=0 x−5 = 0 x = −2 x=5 −2 − −2 + 11 = 1 5 − 5 + 11 = 1 −2 − 9 = 1 5 − 16 = 1 −2 − 3 = 1 False The solution set is {5}. Inc. ( x − 2)( x − 10) = 0 x − 2 = 0 x − 10 = 0 16 = 4 x=2 2 x + 13 = x + 7 2 x + 13 = ( x + 7) x=8 6(0) + 1 = 0 − 1 x − 5 = 2x + 5 ( x + 1)( x − 6) = 0 x +1 = 0 x − 6 = 0 119. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x + 12 x + 36 = 0 2 ( x + 6) 2 = 0 122. x=0 1 = −1 False The solution set is {8}. x + 10 = x − 2 118.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x2 − 5x − 6 = 0 6(8) + 1 = 8 − 1 0 + 1 = −1 48 + 1 = 7 49 = 7 x − 2x + 5 = 5 ( x − 5) 2 = 2 x + 5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 = 2 x + 5 x=6 −1 + 10 = −1 − 2 x 2 − 12 x + 20 = 0 6 + 10 = 6 − 2 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. x+6 = 0 10 − 5 = 5 x − x + 11 = 1 x − 1 = x + 11 x = −6 ( x − 1) 2 = x + 11 2(−6) + 13 = −6 + 7 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = x + 11 −12 + 13 = 1 x 2 − 3x − 10 = 0 1 =1 The solution set is {–6}.7 x+3 = x−3 117. x + 3 = x − 6x + 9 x2 − 7 x + 6 = 0 6 x + 1 = x2 − 2 x + 1 ( x − 1)( x − 6) = 0 x–1=0 x–6=0 x=1 x=6 6+3 = 6−3 1+ 3 = 1− 3 x2 − 8x = 0 x( x − 8) = 0 x −8 = 0 False 9 = 3 4 = −2 The solution set is {6}. 2 x + 10 = x 2 − 4 x + 4 x = −1 6x + 1 = x − 1 6 x + 1 = ( x − 1) 2 2 2 2 x + 13 = x + 14 x + 49 x = 10 2 − 2(2) + 5 = 5 10 − 2(10) + 5 = 5 2− 9 =5 10 − 25 = 5 2 − 3 = 5 False The solution set is {10}. 5−4 =1 . 75 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

The solution set is {–3}. Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x + 19 − 8 = x 123. ⎩ 11 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ − 76 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x + 15 − 6 = x 124. 126. 2 x + 19 = x + 8 ( 2 x + 19 ) 2 = ( x + 8) 2 2 x + 19 = x 2 + 16 x + 64 0 = x 2 + 14 x + 45 0 = ( x + 9)( x + 5) x + 9 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 x = −9 x = −5 –9 does not check and must be rejected. The solution set is {–5}. 125. 25 – [2 + 5y – 3(y + 2)] = –3(2y – 5) – [5(y – 1) – 3y + 3] 25 – [2 + 5y – 3y – 6] = –6y + 15 – [5y – 5– 3y + 3] 25 – [2y – 4] = –6y + 15 – [2y – 2] 25 – 2y + 4 = –6y + 15 – 2y + 2 –2y + 29 = –8y + 17 6y = –12 y = –2 The solution set is {–2}. 2 x + 15 = x + 6 ( 2 x + 15 ) 2 = ( x + 6) 2 2 x + 15 = x 2 + 12 x + 36 0 = x 2 + 10 x + 21 0 = ( x + 3)( x + 7) x + 3 = 0 or x + 7 = 0 x = −3 x = −7 –7 does not check and must be rejected. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 45 – [4 – 2y – 4(y + 7)] = –4(1 + 3y) – [4 – 3(y + 2) – 2(2y – 5)] 45 – [4 – 2y – 4y – 28] = –4 – 12y – [4 – 3y – 6 – 4y + 10] 45 – [–6y – 24] = –4 – 12y – [–7y + 8] 45 + 6y + 24 = –4 – 12y + 7y – 8 6y + 69 = –5y – 12 11y = –81 y=− 81 11 ⎧ 81 ⎫ ⎬.

1} . 4. and x = 4.PreCalculus 4E Section P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 128. 77 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = −6. and x = 1. The solution set is {−7. Inc.1⎬ . − 3. 1} . 10 x − 1 = (2 x + 1) 2 10 x − 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 0 = 4 x2 − 6 x + 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 0 = (2 x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x − 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x= 1 2 x =1 ⎧1 ⎫ ⎩2 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ .7 127. x = −3. . x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 = −8 x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 3) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −7. x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = −12 or ( x + 8)( x − 6) = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 4) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −8. 130. 129. x = 6. − 6. 7 − 7 x = (3x + 2)( x − 1) 7 − 7 x = 3x 2 − x − 2 0 = 3x 2 + 6 x − 9 0 = x2 + 2 x − 3 0 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −3 x =1 The solution set is {−3. The solution set is {−8. 6} .

⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ = x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(2)(−9) 2(2) −4 ± 88 4 −4 ± 2 22 x= 4 −2 ± 22 x= 2 x= 78 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1 ± 1 − 4 (1)( −5 ) 2 x= = 2 (1) = 4−2 = 2 The solution set is {8}. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ x +5 = x −3+ 4 x −3 + 4 x + 5 = x +1+ 4 x − 3 5 = 1+ 4 x − 3 132. 1 1 5 = + 2 x − 3x + 2 x + 2 x − 4 1 1 5 = + ( x − 1)( x − 2) x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. −1 ± 1 − ( −20 ) 2 134. x +5 − x −3 = 2 −1 ± 21 2 x+5 = x −3 + 2 x + 5 = ( x − 3 + 2) 2 ⎪⎧ −1 ± 21 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. This results in the following: ( x − 3)( x − 1) + x( x − 2) = 1 4 = 4 x −3 1= x −3 1= x −3 x=4 4+5 − 4−3 = 2 9− 1=2 3 −1 = 2 The solution set is {4}. This results in the following: 133. x − 1 x 1 + = 2 x − 2 x − 3 x − 5x + 6 x −1 x 1 + = x − 2 x − 3 ( x − 2)( x − 3) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x + 2) . x= 135. 2 x+8 − x−4 = 2 x +8 = x−4 + 2 x + 8 = ( x − 4 + 2) 2 x +8 = x −4+ 4 x −4 + 4 x +8 = x + 4 x − 4 8= 4 x−4 x + 2 = ( x − 1)( x − 2) + 5( x − 1) 2= x−4 x + 2 = x2 − 2 x − x + 2 + 5x − 5 4 = x−4 x + 2 = x2 + 2 x − 3 x=8 0 = x2 + x − 5 8+8 − 8−4 = 2 16 − 4 = 2 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 1 b = 1 c = −5 . Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 131. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x2 + 4 x − 9 = 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4 ( 2 )( 2 ) 2 ( 2) 6 ± 36 − 16 6 ± 20 = 4 4 6 ± 4⋅5 6 ± 2 5 = = 4 4 3± 5 = 2 ⎧⎪ 3 ± 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. x − x − 3x + 3 + x − 2 x = 1 2 2 2x − 6x + 3 = 1 2 2 x2 − 6 x + 2 = 0 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 2 b = −6 c = 2 . . ( x − 2)( x − 3) .

a.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0.39 and 58.19 ) − 4 ( 0.013)( 25.74 = b.026 ≈ 58.72 x = 125 125 liters of pure peroxide must be added.72 x −90 = −0.1(500) x + 500 x + 0. x + 0. 141.15 or 33.28 x + 140 = x + 50 −0. 8 ± 24 4 8± 2 6 x= 4 4± 6 x= 2 x= 137.013x 2 − 1.19 x + 28. = − ( −1.26 x = 300 300 liters of pure acid must be added.19 ± 1.39 The solutions are approximately 33.28 = x + 500 0.74( x + 200) = x + 0. the healthy weight of a person of height 6’ is 178 pounds.24 0 = 0. The function models the actual data well. = 79 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the healthy weight of a person of height 5’6” is 142 pounds.26 x = −78 −0. 2 x2 − 8x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−8) ± (−8) 2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) 139.15.19 c = 25.24 3 = 0.32190 ≈ 0. x + 0. − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(12) = 53 2 W − 36 = 53 2 W − 36 + 36 = 53 + 36 2 W = 89 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 89 2 W = 178 According to the formula.28( x + 500) = x + 0. 33 year olds and 58 year olds are expected to be in 3 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven. W − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(6) = 53 2 W − 18 = 53 2 W − 18 + 18 = 53 + 18 2 W = 71 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 71 2 W = 142 According to the formula.74 x + 148 = x + 70 −0. Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded. This is 13 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph.72 −0.26 x −78 = −0.PreCalculus 4E Section P.026 1.19 ) ± ( −1. 0. 0.4161 − 1.013x 2 − 1.19 ± 0. Thus.35(200) x + 200 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.026 1.7 136.1(500) 0.013x 2 − 1. Inc.1(500) C= C= 140.19 ± 0.24 x= W 138.35(200) 0.26 −0. This is 6 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph.24 ) 2 ( 0.10362 0.31248 0. f ( x ) = 0.35(200) x + 200 x + 0.19 x + 25.013) 2 1. .19 x + 28.72 x = −90 −0.013 b = −1.

f ( x ) = 0. Explanations will vary.013x 2 − 1.1 = 0.24 ) 2 ( 0. does not make sense.94848 0.013)(18.24 159. Publishing as Prentice Hall. M = 0. 1.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0.1 cluttered minutes 14 years after 1996.19 − 0.19 c = 18. false. or 2010.7 x + 12. 144.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 25 = x There will be 16 cluttered minutes 25 years after 1996. Sample explanation: You should substitute into the original equation. Sample explanation: Substitute n = 6 into the equation to find P.6 = x 0.68383 ≈ 0.87383 0.026 x ≈ 72. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary.026 Evaluate the expression to obtain two solutions.6 ⎞ ⎜ 0. The formula does not model the data very well.5 x 2 − 2 x − 15 = 0 3.50617 x= x= 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 142. Changes to make the statement true will vary.19 x + 28. 10 = 0.19 ± 1. Changes to make the statement true will vary.6 = 0. The formula overestimates the number of fatal accidents. Inc.4161 − 0. . 1.5 ⎞ ⎜ 0.7 x 3. 143.7 2 2 ⎛ 3.5 = 0.026 0. does not make sense. A sample change is: Some quadratics have one number in their solution sets.24 2 0 = 0.1 x ≈ 19 = 163.24 x= = − ( −1.19 + 0.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 14 ≈ x There will be 15. 2.7 x + 12. ( ) 168. – 158.7 x 2. true 166. Explanations will vary. makes sense 161.19 ) ± 160.19 x + 28.5 7x + 4 + 13 = x b 7(−6) + 4 + 13 = −6 b −38 = −19 b −19b = −38 b=2 [ x − (−3)][ x − (5)] = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 5) = 0 16 = 0. M = 0. false.19 ) − 4 ( 0. Sample explanation: The factoring method would be quicker.013x 2 − 1. Drivers of approximately age 19 and age 72 are expected to be involved in 10 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven. or 2021.026 1.026 0. ( ) 145. does not make sense.013 b = −1.68383 x= or x = 0.7 x + 12.013) 2 1.5 15.19 x + 18. 165.5 167. ( −1.7 x + 12.19 ± 0.68383 1. A sample change is: (2 x − 3) 2 = 25 (2 x − 3) 2 = ± 25 2 x − 3 = ±5 164. false.46762 1.19 ± 0. Answers may vary.026 0.5 = x 0.013x − 1. 80 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: ax 2 + c = 0 can be solved using b = 0 .026 162.7 2 2 ⎛ 2.

026 In 2007 the average teaching salary for women was $57.1x = −55 −55 x= −1.989 6. Let x = the average salary for women Let x + 14. 037 = 130. (16 + 2 x )(12 + 2 x) = 320 VL = CL − CN + SN CN − CL = NS − LV C ( N − L ) = NS − LV C ( N − L) NS − LV N −L N −L NS − LV LV − NS or C= N −L L−N = 170. or 2019. c = − s t= t= t= −v0 ± ( v0 ) − 4 ( −16 )( − s ) 2 ( −16 ) −v0 ± ( v0 ) 2 2 − 64s −32 v0 ± v0 2 − 64 s 32 171. 2.989 and the average salary for men was $72. Let x = the width of the court. Let x = the computer’s price before the reduction. 015 2 x + 14.1x = 33 − 88 −1. x + 150 172.05x 173.037 = the average salary for men x + ( x + 14.70 x = 1200 Before the reduction the computer’s price was $1200.1x = 33 −1. 400 a = ±120 –120 must be rejected. 88 − 1. 81 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 037 = 72. 2l + 2 w = P 2( x + 44) + 2 x = 288 2 x + 88 + 2 x = 288 4 x + 88 = 288 4 x = 200 200 x= 4 x = 50 x + 44 = 94 The dimensions of the court are 50 by 94. 4 x 2 + 56 x − 128 = 0 x 2 + 14 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 16)( x − 2) = 0 x + 16 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −16 x=2 –16 must be rejected. The tower is 120 yards tall. Inc.70 x = 840 840 x= 0.1 x = 50 33% of female freshmen will respond this way 50 years after 1969. 4. x − 0. The path must be 2 feet wide. s = −16t 2 + v0 t 0 = −16t 2 + v0 t − s a = −16. b = v0 .30 x = 840 0.978 x = 57. 015 2 x = 115. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + (50) 2 = (130)2 a 2 + 2500 = 16. 037 ) = 130. Let x + 44 = the length of the court. Let x = the number of years since 1969. . 5.026. 20 + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 900 a 2 = 14.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 037 = 130. 4 x + 400 Section P.8 C−S N L VL = CL − ( C − S ) N V =C− 169. 3. x + 14.8 192 + 56 x + 4 x 2 = 320 Check Point Exercises 1. 015 x + x + 14.

000. 000. 000. reduction per winner 5. 000 ⎞ x( x + 3) ⎜ − 375. 000 x + 15. 2.9 weeks on vacation and Italians spend an average of 7. 000. Let x + 581 = the time spent watching TV. 82 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 x( x + 3) = 5. 000 x 2 − 1. Inc. The new amount of money per person. 000 ⎛ 5.8 2 x + 4 − 4 = 11. 000 x 7. 000. 000( x + 3) − 375. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 − 4 2 x = 7. 000.9 x + 4 = 7. x + ( x + 4) = 11.9 Americans spend an average of 3. . 000. 000 x 2 − 1. 000.8 x = 3.9 weeks. 000 x = 5.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra The original amount of money per person. 000 − 375. 5.8 x + x + 4 = 11. 000 = x x+3 5. 000. 000 = 0 x 2 + 3x − 40 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 5) = 0 x + 8 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −8 x=5 –8 must be rejected. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 3) x x+3 ⎝ ⎠ 5. x + ( x + 581) = 2529 x + x + 581 = 2529 2 x + 581 − 581 = 2529 − 581 2 x = 1948 x = 974 x + 581 = 1555 Americans spent 974 hours listening to radio and 1555 hours watching TV.125. There were 5 people in the original group. 000 x + 15. 000 5.8 1. 000. Let x + 4 = number of weeks Italians spend on vacation. Let x = the time spent listening to radio. Exercise Set P. Let x = number of weeks Americans spend on vacation. 000 − 375.125. 000 x −375.

300 and 26. y = 24. Publishing as Prentice Hall.300 at that time.6 x = 18 18 x= 0.800 − 500(9) = 22. Let 3x − 3500 = the average salary for registered nurses.5 x = 100 1.580 2 x − 7740 = 63. Inc. Let x = the average salary for janitors. 740 x = 35. 000 x + 2 x − 7740 = 99. 000 = −3000 x −15. or 2021. . 000 − 45. y = 45. 000 − 300. 9. 200. Let x = the number of years since 1983. or 2014. 390 3 x − 3500 = 54. 000 − 3000 x 9000 − 24.5 x = 38 All American adults will approve 38 years after 1983. 060 4 x − 3500 + 3500 = 74.6 x = 30 61% of American adults will approve 30 years after 1986. 000 x = −400.800 − 500 x 1500 x = 13. Let x = the number of years after 2000 10. x + (3x − 3500) = 74.420. 000 = −5000 x −35. 760 The average salary for janitors is $19. 000 3 x − 7740 = 99. 000 = −3000 x −15. 000 x = 25 The countries will have the same population 25 years after the year 2000. 000 x = 10. 43 + 1. 000 − 12. 200. or the year 2025. 83 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x + (2 x − 7740) = 99.900. 6. 500 1500 x 13. Let x = the number of years after 2005 13. 000 = 45.8 Let x = the average salary for carpenters. 000(25) = 10. a. y = 24. 000 = −5000 x −35. 000 3x − 7740 + 7740 = 99. 4. 420 The average salary for carpenters is $35.300 The college’s enrollments will be 22. 000 x = 10. 000 + 7740 3x = 106. 000 x= −5000 x=7 The car’s value will drop to $10. 000 x Let x = the number of years since 1986. 000 − 5000 x 10. 060 4 x − 3500 = 74. 000 = 9. 8. y = 45. 000 − 5000 x 10.6 x = 61 0. 7. 5. 000 x= −3000 x=5 The car’s value will drop to $9000 after 5 years.900.300 + 1000(9) = 22. 13. 000 − 3000 x b. Let 2 x − 7740 = the average salary for computer programmers. 600.000. 000 − 28. 200. 43 + 0. −16. 10. 560 x = 19.PreCalculus 4E 3. 000 The population in the year 2025 will be 9. 000 − 5000 x b. 000 − 3000 x 9000 = 24.000 after 7 years. 200.760. 060 x + 3 x − 3500 = 74. 10.300 + 1000 x = 26. 060 + 3500 4 x = 77. Section P. a.580 and the average salary for computer programmers is $63.5 x = 57 57 x= 1.390 and the average salary for registered nurses is $54. or 2016. 000 − 12.6 x = 61 − 43 0.5 x = 100 − 43 1. 000 − 12.500 = 1500 1500 x=9 The two colleges will have the same enrollment about 9 years after 2005.

The dimensions are 40 feet by 120 feet. Thus.08 x = 162 1. Let w = the width of the pool. then 2 w = 100 . 2= x The width of the frame is 2 inches. Publishing as Prentice Hall.80 x = 44 The dictionary’s price before the reduction was $44. then 2 w + 6 = 2(36) + 6 = 78 . 3w = 3(40) = 120. . Let 3w = the length of the swimming pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 21. 320 = 2 ( 3w ) + 2 ( w ) 320 = 6w + 2w 320 = 8w 40 = w If w = 40.05 x = 252 1.25c 12 = c The dealer’s cost is $12.05 x = 252 x = 240 The nightly cost is $240. 17. Let x = the width of the frame. Inc. 19.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11.80 x = 336 x = 420 The television set’s price is $420. 12.80 0. Let w = the width of the swimming pool. the dimensions are 50 yards by 100 yards. 16.25c 15 = 1. Let x = the cost of the dictionary x − 0. Thus.25c 467.20 x = 336 18. Let c = the dealer’s cost 584 = c + 0. Let 2w – 6 = the length of the pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 13. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0.70 x = 30. 2 w − 6 = 2(23) − 6 = 46 − 6 = 40 The dimensions are 23 meters by 40 meters.30 x = 30. 20. Let w = the width of the field Let 2w + 6 = the length of the field 228 = 6w + 12 216 = 6w 36 = w If w = 36 . Total length: 16 + 2x Total width: 12 + 2x P = 2(length) + 2(width) 72 = 2 (16 + 2 x ) + 2 (12 + 2 x ) Let w = the width of the field Let 2w = the length of the field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 72 = 32 + 4 x + 24 + 4 x 72 = 8 x + 56 16 = 8 x 300 = 2 ( 2w) + 2 ( w) 300 = 4 w + 2w 300 = 6w 50 = w If w = 50 . the dimensions are 36 feet by 78 feet. 0. x − 0.20. 14. 126 = 2 ( 2w − 6 ) + 2 ( w ) 126 = 4w − 12 + 2w 126 = 6 w − 12 138 = 6 w 23 = w Find the length. Let x = the cost of the television set.08 x = 162 x = 150 The nightly cost is $150. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. 84 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 15. Let c = the dealer’s cost 15 = c + 0.25c 584 = 1.20 = c The dealer’s cost is $467.

4 ( x + 20 ) = 0 x −5 = 0 Let w = the width Let w + 3 = the width Area = lw x + 20 = 0 x = −20 180 = ( w + 3) w 0 = w2 + 3w − 180 0 = ( w + 15 )( w − 12 ) 28. This means that x. the length of the side of the original square. w + 15 = 0 w − 12 = 0 w = 12 w = −15 The width is 12 yards and the length is 12 yards + 3 yards = 15 yards.8 Let w = the width of the path Let 40 + 2w = the width of the pool and path Let 60 + 2w = the length of the pool and path 2(40 + 2w) + 2(60 + 2w) = 248 80 + 4w + 120 + 4w = 248 200 + 8w = 248 8w = 48 w=6 The width of the path is 6 feet. 4 x 2 + 60 x − 400 = 0 4 ( x 2 + 15 x − 100 ) = 0 4 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. 2 = 36 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 36 x 2 + 4 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 4 ) = 0 54 = ( w + 3) w 24.5} . 23. ( x + 11)( x − 5) = 0 x=− Apply the zero product principle. is 5 inches. 85 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. larger square Let x = the width of the path (12 + 2 x )(15 + 2 x ) = 378 180 + 24 x + 30 x + 4 x 2 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x + 180 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x − 198 = 0 2 ( 2 x 2 + 27 x − 99 ) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33)( x − 3) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33) = 0 = 64 2 x + 33 = 0 2 x = −33 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 64 x 2 + 6 x − 55 = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 33 2 The width of the path is 3 meters. is 4 inches. Disregard –11 because we can’t have a negative length measurement.PreCalculus 4E 22. ( x + 2) x +8 = 0 x−4 = 0 x=4 x = −8 The length of the side of the original square. The width is 6 feet and the length is 6 + 3 = 9 feet. 200 + 60 x + 4 x 2 = 600 4 x + 60 x + 200 = 600 0 = w2 + 3w − 54 2 0 = ( w + 9 )( w − 6 ) w+9 = 0 w−6 = 0 w = −9 w=6 Disregard –9 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. 26. Let w = the width Let w +3 = the length Area = lw 27. Disregard –20 because we can’t have a negative width measurement. Inc. x + 11 = 0 x −5 = 0 x = −11 x=5 The solution set is {−11. Let x + 2 = the side of the new. Let x = the length of the side of the original square Let x + 3 = the length of the side of the new.5} . The width of the path is 5 meters. . larger square ( x + 3) x=5 The solution set is {−20. 180 = w2 + 3w 2 Let x = the width of the path ( 20 + 2 x )(10 + 2 x ) = 600 200 + 40 x + 20 x + 4 x 2 = 600 54 = w2 + 3w 25. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = the side of the original square. Section P.

33. (20 + 2 x)(30 + 2 x) − (20)(30) = 336 34. The width of the path is 3 feet 30.28. 32. 600 + 100 x + 4 x 2 − 600 = 336 152 + x 2 = ( x + 4) 2 4 x 2 + 100 x − 336 = 0 x 2 + 225 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 225 = 8 x + 16 209 = 8 x 1 x = 26 8 1 x + 4 = 30 8 1 The wire is 30 feet long.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 29.2 –13.2 feet up the house.2 must be rejected. or about 21. a 2 + b2 = c2 4 x 2 + 44 x − 168 = 0 x 2 + 11x − 42 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 14) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 14 = 0 x=3 x = −14 –14 must be rejected. x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 642 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 4096 5 x 2 = 4096 4096 x2 = 5 4096 x=± 5 x ≈ 28. or about 116. 8 x 2 + 25 x − 84 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 28) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 28 = 0 x=3 x = −28 –28 must be rejected. The ladder reaches 13. or about 24. Let x be the width. A person could save 85. A person could save 116. .4 – 92. or about 85. Inc. a = ± 800 a ≈ ±28.28 yd The distance along the length and width is about 29.3 –28.62 feet 2x ≈ 57.09 yd 3x ≈ 87.3 must be rejected.4 yards. 86 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The width of the path is 3 feet 31.62 + 57. The building is 28. 36.24.4 yards.09 + 87.9 feet.3 feet tall.4 x ≈ 29. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + b2 = c2 52 + x 2 = ( x + 1) 2 x 2 + 25 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 25 = 2 x + 1 24 = 2 x x = 12 x + 1 = 13 The wire is 13 feet long. Publishing as Prentice Hall.24 feet The distance along the length and width is about 28. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + (3x) 2 = 922 a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + 9 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 102 = 302 10 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 100 = 900 x 2 = 846.4 a 2 = 800 x = ± 846. (10 + 2 x)(12 + 2 x) − (10)(12) = 168 120 + 44 x + 4 x 2 − 120 = 168 35. Let x be the width. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + 152 = 202 a 2 + 225 = 400 a 2 = 175 a = ± 175 a ≈ ±13.9 feet.9 – 64.

000 − 500. 000 = x x+4 480. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 4) x x+4 ⎝ ⎠ 480. 480. 000. 000. 000 ⎛ 480. 920. 000. The average velocity of the bus is 30 miles per hour. There were 6 people in the original group. 000 x = 20. 000. 000 x 40. 000 x + 1. 000 − 32. 000. 000. 000 x 38. Inc. 000( x + 2) − 500. 20. 000 x 37. There were 8 people in the original group. 000 480. Let x be the car’s average velocity. 000 x( x + 2) = 20. 000 − 500. 000. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 2) x x+2 ⎝ ⎠ 20. 000. 000 x 2 − 128. 000 20. 000 ⎞ x( x + 2) ⎜ − 500. 000. 000 x 2 − 128. 000 x = 480. 000 − 32. reduction per winner 20. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 6) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = −10 x=6 –10 must be rejected. 87 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 000 x + 40. 000 = x x+2 20. car's time traveled bus's time traveled 300 180 = x x − 20 300( x − 20) = 180 x 300 x − 6000 = 180 x 120 x = 6000 x = 50 x − 20 = 30 The average velocity of the car is 50 miles per hour. 000 x 2 − 1. 000( x + 4) − 32. The new amount of money per person. 000 x 1. 000 x( x + 4) = 480. 480. 000 − 32. 000.8 The original amount of money per person. 000. 000 ⎞ x( x + 4) ⎜ − 32. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 ⎛ 20. . 000 x = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 80 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 8) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 8 = 0 x = −10 x=8 –10 must be rejected. 920. 39. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000. 000 − 500.

30 x 350 + 10 x = 420 + 3x 7 x = 70 x = 10 You must get 10 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0. The average velocity of the freight train is 40 miles per hour. 41. 30 + x = 0. 88 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. passenger train's time traveled 43. The average velocity of the 9 first engine is 35 miles per hour. 42.30(140 + x) 35 + x = 42 + 0. . Let x be the passenger train’s average velocity. Let x = number of hours 63x = labor cost 63x + 532 = 1603 63x = 1071 x = 17 17 hours were required to repair the yacht. 49. 45. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. freight train's time traveled 240 160 = x x − 20 240( x − 20) = 160 x 240 x − 4800 = 160 x 80 x = 4800 x = 60 x − 20 = 40 The average velocity of the passenger train is 60 miles per hour.6 + 0. – 52. 140 200 + =9 x x+5 ⎛ 140 200 ⎞ ⎜ x + x+5⎟ =9 ⎝ ⎠ 140 200 ⎛ ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ + = 9 x( x + 5) x + 5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x 140( x + 5) + 200 x = 9 x( x + 5) 48.28 120 + x 30 + x = 0. 0 = ( x − 35)(9 x − 20) x − 35 = 0 or 9 x + 20 = 0 x = 35 20 x=− x + 5 = 40 9 20 − must be rejected.28(120 + x) 140 x + 700 + 200 x = 9 x 2 + 45 x 0 = 9 x 2 − 295 x − 700 30 + x = 33. 35 + x = 0. Let x = inches over 5 feet 100 + 5x = 135 5x = 35 x=7 A height of 5 feet 7 inches corresponds to 135 pounds.28 x 3000 + 100 x = 3360 + 28 x 72 x = 360 x=5 You must get 5 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 47. 44.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 40. 0 = 7 x 2 + 3 x − 270 0 = ( x − 6)(7 x + 45) x − 6 = 0 or 7 x + 45 = 0 x=6 45 x=− 7 45 − must be rejected. Let g = the gross amount of the paycheck Yearly Salary = 2 (12 ) g + 750 30 x + 30 x + 270 = 7 x 2 + 63 x 33150 = 24 g + 750 32400 = 24 g 1350 = g The gross amount of each paycheck is $1350. Inc.30.30 140 + x 35 + x = 0. 5 5 7 + = x+9 x 6 5⎞ 7 ⎛ 5 6 x( x + 9) ⎜ + ⎟ = 6 x( x + 9) 6 ⎝ x+9 x⎠ 30 x + 30( x + 9) = 7 x( x + 9) 46. Answers may vary. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. Let x be the average velocity of the first engine. The average velocity of the second engine is 40 miles per hour.28. Let x be the average velocity on the return trip. The average velocity on the 7 return trip is 6 miles per hour. Let x = number of hours 35x = labor cost 35x + 63 = 448 35x = 385 x = 11 It took 11 hours.

4. Sample explanation: Though mathematical models can often provide excellent estimates about future attitudes. 59. 56. x = 36 The thief stole 36 plants. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 61. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 2 x−2 ⎟ 1 1 x−2−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 3 2 ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ After passing the third security guard.6x – 0.4(0.8 does not make sense. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + ( x + 1) 2 = [12 − x − ( x + 1) ] 2 x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 1 = [12 − x − x − 1] 2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = (11 − 2 x )2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = 121 − 44 x + 4 x 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 46 x + 120 0 = x 2 − 23x + 60 0 = ( x − 3)( x − 20) x − 3 = 0 or x − 20 = 0 x=3 x = 20 x +1 = 4 12 − (3 + 4) = 5 20 must be rejected. x − = 1 8 2 x − 28 = 8 58. Section P. as it is greater than the perimeter.4x = 0. . Answers may vary. Inc. 3 − 2 x ≤ 11 3 − 2(−1) ≤ 11 3 + 2 ≤ 11 5 ≤ 11. does not make sense. Let x = woman’s age 3x = Coburn’s age 3x + 20 = 2(x + 20) 3x + 20 = 2x + 40 x + 20 = 40 x = 20 Coburn is 60 years old the woman is 20 years old.6 x − 0.PreCalculus 4E 53. Explanations will vary. makes sense 60. Let x = correct answers 26 – x = incorrect answers 8 x − 5(26 − x) = 0 8 x − 130 + 5 x = 0 13x − 130 = 0 13x = 130 x = 10 10 problems were solved correctly.6x) = price after second reduction 0. 64.36 x = 72 x = 200 The original price was $200. Sample explanation: The correct equation is x − 0. 62. 000 2 7 x = 14.24 x = 72 0. Let x = original price x – 0. true –1 is a solution. Explanations will vary. 000 The mother received $4000. they cannot guaranty perfect precision. The lengths of the sides are 3. 89 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let x be the length of one leg. 57. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 4 x−3 ⎟ 1 1 7 x −3−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 4 2 8 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 7 Thus. and 5. 000 2 x = $4. Let x = the number of plants originally stolen After passing the first security guard. 63. the thief has: 1 1 ⎛1 ⎞ x − ⎜ x + 2⎟ = x − x − 2 = x − 2 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ After passing the second security guard. 54.35 x = 780. and the girl received $2000. the boy received $8000. makes sense 55.6x = price after first reduction 0. Let x = mother’s amount 2x = boy’s amount x = girl’s amount 2 x x + 2 x + = 14.

9 Check Point Exercises 1. −1) = x x < −1 a. [−2. −2 x − 4 = x + 5 −2 x − x = 5 + 4 −3 x = 9 9 x= −3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. Section P.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 65. x+3 x−2 1 = + 4 3 4 ⎛ x+3⎞ ⎛ x−2 1⎞ 12 ⎜ ⎟ = 12 ⎜ 3 + 4 ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x + 3) = 4( x − 2) + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 8 + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 5 3x − 4 x = −5 − 9 − x = −14 x = 14 The solution set is {14}. 5) = x −2 ≤ x < 5 { } b. 2. 3. Numbers in both [1. [1. 6 ) : Thus.3] ∩ ( 2. 90 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . a.3] and ( 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 66. [−∞.3] : Graph ( 2. 6 ) = ( 2. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. Inc.3] . { } Graph [1.5 { } c.5] = x 1≤ x ≤ 3. 6 ) : To find the intersection. [1.

3. 6 ) = [1. 4. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. ∞) . . Numbers in either [1.9 Graph [1. 4) . ∞ ) . 3x + 1 > 7 x − 15 −4 x > −16 −4 x −16 < −4 −4 x<4 The solution set is { x x < 4} or ( -∞. [1.3] ∪ ( 2. 1 ≤ 2 x + 3 < 11 −2 ≤ 2 x < 8 −1 ≤ x < 4 The solution set is { x −1 ≤ x < 4} or [−1. Inc. Graph ( 2. 6 ) . 6. 2 − 3x ≤ 5 −3 x ≤ 3 x ≥ −1 The solution set is { x x ≥ −1} or [−1. 5.3] : b. 91 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 2 3 6 ⎛ x−4⎞ ⎛ x−2 5⎞ 6⎜ ⎟ ≥ 6⎜ 3 + 6 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x + 1 3x − 2 x ≥ 1 + 12 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} or [13. 6 ) : To find the union.3] or ( 2. 6 ) or both: Thus.PreCalculus 4E Section P.4] . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

x−2 <5 −5 < x − 2 < 5 −3 < x < 7 The solution set is { x −3 < x < 7} or (−3. 5 ⎣ 5 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 9. −4 ) ∪ ( 8. −3 5 x − 2 + 20 ≥ −19 −3 5 x − 2 ≥ −39 −3 5 x − 2 −39 −3 −3 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 ≤ −13 ≤ 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 −11 ≤ 5 x ≤ 15 −11 5 x 15 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 11 − ≤ x≤3 5 ⎧ 11 ⎫ ⎡ 11 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 3⎬ or ⎢ − . 18 < 6 − 3x 6 − 3x < −18 −3x < −24 −3x −24 > −3 −3 x >8 or 6 − 3x > 18 −3x > 12 −3x 12 < −3 −3 x < −4 The solution set is { x x < −4 or x > 8} or ( −∞.25 x 720 < x Driving more than 720 miles in a week makes Basic the better deal. Let x = the number of miles driven in a week. 8.25 x 180 < 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 7. 10. 260 < 80 + 0. 92 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3⎥ . ∞ ) . 7) . . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.

take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. .5 14. x ≥ –3 10. –4 ≤ x < 3 5. –3 ≤ x ≤ 1 6. 2] : To find the intersection.5 15. 0 ) . –2 < x ≤ 4 3. Numbers in both ( −3. x < 2 13. 0 ) ∩ [ −1. Inc. x>3 9. ( −3. 1<x≤6 2. 2] = [ −1.9 1.9 Exercise Set P.PreCalculus 4E Section P. –2 ≤ x ≤ 5 7. x ≤ 3. 2] : Thus. 93 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x < 5. x>2 8. x < 3 12. Graph ( −3. –5 ≤ x < 2 4. 0 ) and [ −1. 0 ) : Graph [ −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≥ –5 11.

take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.5 ) : Graph [1. ( −3. 6 ) : Graph [ 2. Numbers in both ( −4. Graph ( −∞. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Inc.1] = ( −4. Graph ( −∞. Numbers in both ( −∞. 0 ) : Graph [ −1. ( −∞. 2] : To find the union.8] : To find the intersection. Numbers in either ( −3. 18. . ( −4.8] = [1. 20. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.5) and [1.1] : To find the intersection. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. Numbers in both ( −∞.8] : Thus. 6 ) ∩ [ 2. 0 ) or [ −1. 0 ) . 0 ) ∩ [ −2. 0 ) : Graph [ −2.5 ) ∩ [1.9] = [ 2. 2] .1] : Thus.1] : To find the union.1] = [ −2.1] . 2] = ( −3. 2] or both: Thus.6 ) . 0 ) or [ −2. 0 ) and [ −2. 19. 6 ) and [ 2. Graph ( −4. ( −4. 0 ) ∪ [ −2.9] : To find the intersection.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 16.5 ) .9] : Thus. 17. Graph ( −3. Graph ( −4. Numbers in either ( −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1] or both: Thus. ( −∞. 94 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ) : Graph [ −2. 0 ) ∪ [ −1. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.

∞ ) . Numbers in either ( −∞. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Graph [3. 25. ∞ ) = [3.9] . Section P.5 ) or [1. ∞ ) and ( 6. Numbers in either [3. ∞ ) .8] : To find the union.8] = ( −∞.∞ ) : To find the intersection. 24. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. . ∞ ) ∩ ( 6. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Numbers in both [ 2. [ 2. ∞ ) or ( 6. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.8] . Numbers in either ( −∞. 23. 95 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 22. ∞ ) : Graph ( 4. 6 ) ∪ [ 2. Inc.∞ ) = ( 4.5 ) ∪ [1.9] = ( −∞. 6 ) or [ 2. ∞ ) or both: Thus.9] : To find the union.∞ ) : Thus. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. ∞ ) : To find the union. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. ∞ ) ∪ ( 6. ∞ ) = ( 6. ( −∞. ∞ ) and ( 4. ∞ ) : Thus.8] or both: Thus. ∞ ) : To find the intersection.5 ) : Graph [1. Graph ( −∞. [3. Graph [3.9] or both: Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( −∞.9 Graph ( −∞. ∞ ) . Numbers in both [3. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. [3. ∞ ) ∩ ( 4. 6 ) : Graph [ 2. Graph [ 2.PreCalculus 4E 21.

6). ∞ ⎟ . or (–∞. –9x ≥ 36 x ≤ –4 The solution set is { x x ≤ −4} . –5x ≤ 30 x ≥ –6 The solution set is { x x ≥ −6} or [ −6. 31. ∞ ) ∪ ( 4. ∞ ) .∞ ) : To find the union.∞ ) or both: Thus. or ⎢ . ∞ ) . 96 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Numbers in either [ 2. 3x – 7 ≥ 13 3x ≥ 20 20 x≥ 3 ⎧ 20 ⎫ ⎡ 20 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > ⎬ . −4] . 3 ⎣3 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 30.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Graph [ 2. . 5x + 11 < 26 5x < 15 x<3 The solution set is { x x < 3} . ∞ ) or ( 4. 28. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 29. or ( −∞. 3). ∞ ) . 2x + 5 < 17 2x < 12 x<6 The solution set is { x x < 6} or (–∞. Graph ( 4. ∞ ) : 26. [ 2.∞ ) = [ 2. 8x – 2 ≥ 14 8x ≥ 16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x > 2} or [ 2. Inc. 27. 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

8x – 11 ≤ 3x – 13 8x – 3x ≤ –13 + 11 5x ≤ –2 2 x≤− 5 ⎧ 2⎫ 2⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. –4). Inc. . 2x – 11 < – 3(x + 2) 2x – 11 < – 3x – 6 5x < 5 x<1 The solution set is { x x < 1} . 18x + 45 ≤ 12x – 8 18x – 12x ≤ –8 – 45 6x ≤ –53 53 x≤− 6 ⎧ 53 ⎫ 53 ⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ or ⎜ −∞. 4(x + 1) + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 4 + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 6 ≥ 3x + 6 4x – 3x ≥ 6 – 6 x≥0 The solution set is { x x > 0} . 5⎭ 5⎦ ⎝ ⎩ 34. 6 6⎦ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ 35. 37. ∞ ). 1). − ⎥ . ∞).9 33. 97 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 38. − ⎥ . or ⎜ −∞.PreCalculus 4E Section P. –4(x + 2) > 3x + 20 –4x – 8 > 3x + 20 –7x > 28 x < –4 The solution set is { x x < −4} or (–∞. 36. or [0. 8x + 3 > 3(2x + 1) + x + 5 8x + 3 > 6x + 3 + x + 5 8x + 3 > 7x + 8 8x – 7x > 8 – 3 x>5 The solution set is { x x > 5} or (5. or (–∞.

∞ ) . or [6. 1 – (x + 3) ≥ 4 – 2x 1 – x – 3 ≥ 4 – 2x –x – 2 ≥ 4 – 2x x≥6 The solution set is { x x ≥ 6} . 41. 40.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 39. ∞ ) . ∞). 3x 1 x +1 ≥ − 10 5 10 ⎛ 3x ⎞ ⎛1 x ⎞ 10 ⎜ + 1⎟ ≥ 10 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 3x + 10 ≥ 2 − x 4 x ≥ −8 x ≥ −2 The solution set is { x x ≥ −2} or 43. − 6 ) . − 98 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . or [ −10. −6} . 1 − [ −2. 5(3 – x) ≤ 3x – 1 15 – 5x ≤ 3x – 1 –8x ≤ –16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x ≥ 2} or [2. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x >4 2 x >3 2 x < –6 The solution set is { x x. or ( −∞. x 3 x − ≤ +1 4 2 2 4x 4 ⋅ 3 4 ⋅ x − ≤ + 4 ⋅1 4 2 2 x − 6 ≤ 2x + 4 − x ≤ 10 x ≥ −10 The solution set is { x x ≥ −10} . 42. ∞).

4x − 3 2x −1 +2≥ 6 12 2(4 x − 3) + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 8 x − 6 + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 6 x + 18 ≥ −1 6 x ≥ −19 19 6 ⎧ −19 ⎫ ⎡ -19 ⎞ . The solution set is ⎨ x x ≥ ⎬ or ⎢ 6 ⎣ 6 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ x≥− 47. ∞). ∞ ) . 3 [3( x + 5) + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [ 3( x − 6) − 2(3x − 5) ] < 2(4 x + 3) 3 [3x + 15 + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [3x − 18 − 6 x + 10] < 8 x + 6 3 [11x + 22] + 5 [ −3x − 8] < 8 x + 6 33x + 66 − 15 x − 40 < 8 x + 6 18 x + 26 < 8 x + 6 10 x < −20 x < −2 The solution set is { x x < −2} or [ −∞. −2 ) . x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 6 9 18 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 46. 99 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9 4 3 7− x < 5 5 4 32 − x<− 5 5 x>8 The solution set is { x x > 8} or (8. 45.PreCalculus 4E 44. ∞ ⎟. or [13. Section P. Inc. .

5 [ 3(2 − 3x) − 2(5 − x) ] − 6 [5( x − 2) − 2(4 x − 3) ] < 3x + 19 5 [ 6 − 9 x − 10 + 2 x ] − 6 [5 x − 10 − 8 x + 6] < 3x + 19 5 [ −7 x − 4] − 6 [ −3x − 4] < 3 x + 19 −35 x − 20 + 18 x + 24 < 3x + 19 −17 x + 4 < 3 x + 19 −20 x < 15 −20 x 15 > −20 −20 3 x>− 4 ⎧ 3⎫ ⎡ 3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > − ⎬ or ⎢ − . ⎟ . –6 < x – 4 ≤ 1 –2 < x ≤ 5 The solution set is {x | −2 < x ≤ 5} or (–2. 50. –2]. 52. 4 ⎣ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 49. 7 < x + 5 < 11 7 – 5 < x + 5 – 5 < 11 – 5 2<x<6 The solution set is { x 2 < x < 6} or (2. 54. –3 ≤ x – 2 < 1 –1 ≤ x < 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x < 3} . or [–1. 3 ≤ 4x – 3 < 19 6 ≤ 4x < 22 6 22 ≤x< 4 4 3 11 ≤x< 2 2 ⎧ 3 11⎫ ⎡ 3 11 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x ≤ x < ⎬ or ⎢ . ∞ ⎟ . 6). 5). –11 < 2x –1 ≤ –5 –10 < 2x ≤ –4 –5 < x ≤ –2 The solution set is { x − 5 < x ≤ −2} . or (3. 2⎭ ⎣2 2 ⎠ ⎩ 2 100 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or (–5. 53. 6 < x + 3 < 8 6–3<x+3–3<8–3 3<x<5 The solution set is { x 3 < x < 5} . . 3). Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 51. 5].

. 3]. 60. |2(x – 1) + 4| ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2(x – 1) + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x – 2 + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x + 2 ≤ 8 –10 ≤ 2x ≤ 6 –5 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 5 ≤ x ≤ 3} . |x – 1| ≤ 2 –2 ≤ x – 1 ≤ 2 –1 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x ≤ 3} . all x in ( −∞. |x + 3| ≤ 4 –4 ≤ x + 3 ≤ 4 –7 ≤ x ≤ 1 The solution set is { x −7 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [–7. Inc. or [3. 7). 1]. or (–3. 2y + 6 <2 3 2y + 6 −2 < <2 3 –6 < 2y + 6 < 6 –12 < 2y < 0 –6 < y < 0 The solution set is { x − 6 < y < 0} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 57. 62. 101 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. that is. |x| > 3 x > 3 or x < –3 The solution set is { x x > 3 or x < −3} . |3(x – 1) + 2| ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3(x – 1) + 2 ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3x – 1 ≤ 20 –19 ≤ 3x ≤ 21 19 − ≤x≤7 3 ⎧ 19 ⎫ ⎡ 19 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 7 ⎬ or ⎢ − . −3 ≤ Section P. or (–1. −5 ) or ( 5. or 2 x − 5 < −1 3 2 x<4 3 3≤x<6 The solution set is { x 3 ≤ x < 6} . 66. 22 ⎛ 22 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x − < x < 4 ⎬ or ⎜ − . |x| > 5 x > 5 or x < –5 ⎞ 4⎟ . 58. ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E 55. 5). or (–6. ⎠ The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} . or [–1. |x| < 3 –3 < x < 3 The solution set is { x − 3 < x < 3} . 9). that is. 61. 0). 3]. 2≤ [–5. 64. 59. 6). ∞ ) .9 63. 2 ) . 3 ⎝ 3 ⎩ ⎭ 68. 3). −3) or ( 3. |2x – 6| < 8 –8 < 2x – 6 < 8 –2 < 2x < 14 –1 < x < 7 The solution set is { x − 1 < x < 7} . |x| < 5 –5 < x < 5 The solution set is { x − 5 < x < 5} or (–5. 7 ⎥ . 67. 3 x + 5 < 17 –17 < 3x + 5 < 17 –22 < 3x < 12 ( −∞. 65. 1 56. −6 ≤ x − 4 < −3 2 1 −2 ≤ x < 1 2 −4 ≤ x < 2 The solution set is { x − 4 ≥ x < 2} or [ −4. 3 ( x − 1) 4 −6 < <6 3 ( x − 1) <6 4 –24 < 3x – 3 < 24 –21 < 3x < 27 –7 < x < 9 The solution set is { x − 7 < x < 9} or (–7.

∞ ) . 3⎠ ⎝ ( −∞.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 69. or ( −∞. ( −∞. −7 ) or (1. −8 ) or (16. The solution set is { x x ≤ −5 or x ≥ 3} . that is. ∞ ) . all x in ⎜ −∞. x − 1 ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 3} . The solution set is ⎨ x x < 5 ⎩ ⎭ −11 ⎞ ⎛ that is. − 3) or (12. ∞ ) . 75. 5 x > 15 3x − 3 ≥1 9 3x − 3 3x − 3 ≥ 1 or ≤ −1 9 9 3x − 3 ≥ 9 3 x − 3 ≤ −9 3x ≥ 12 3 x ≤ −6 x≥4 x ≤ −2 x≥3 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ 1 or x ≥ 3} . |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x≥3 74. Inc. ∞ ) . 2 x ≤ −10 x≥3 x ≤ −5 3 3− x > 9 4 3 3 3 − x > 9 or 3 − x < −9 4 4 3 3 − x>6 − x < −12 4 4 x < −8 x > 16 {x x < −8 or x > 16} . ⎟ or ( 5. 76. ∞ ) . 72. ∞ ) . that is. that is all x in ( −∞. ( −∞. that is. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . −1] or [3. ( −∞. −1] or [3. ⎟ or ( 3. −5] or [3. . |x + 3| ≥ 4 x + 3 ≥ 4 or x ≥1 x + 3 ≤ −4 x ≤ −7 The solution set is { x x ≤ −2 or x ≥ 4} . ( −∞. The solution set is { x x ≤ −7 or x ≥ 1} that is. 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. |3x – 8| > 7 3x − 8 > 7 or 3x − 8 < −7 3x > 15 3x < 1 1 x>5 x< 3 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 5⎬ . |5x – 2| > 13 5 x − 2 > 13 or 5 x − 2 < −13 5 x < −11 x>3 x<− 11 5 ⎧ −11 ⎫ or x > 3⎬ . 102 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 5 ⎠ ⎝ 73. 3|x – 1| + 2 ≥ 8 3|x – 1| ≥ 6 |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x − 1 ≤ −2 2x + 2 ≥2 4 2x + 2 2x + 2 ≥ 2 or ≤ −2 4 4 2x + 2 ≥ 8 2 x + 2 ≤ −8 2x ≥ 6 2 3− x > 5 3 2 2 3 − x > 5 or 3 − x < −5 3 3 2 2 − x>2 − x < −8 3 3 x < −3 x > 12 The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 12} . that is. that is. −2] or [ 4. 71. ∞ ) . 70. 77.

The solution set is { x −16 ≤ x ≤ 2} . −2 5 − x < −6 5 2 x + 1 ≥ 12 2x +1 ≥ −2 5 − x −6 −2 −2 5− x > 3 12 5 12 5 7 2x ≥ 5 7 x≥ 10 12 5 17 or 2x ≤ − 5 17 x≤− 10 ⎧ 17 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − or x ≥ ⎬ . 9 ≤ 4x + 7 4 x + 7 ≥ 9 or 4 x + 7 ≤ −9 4x ≥ 2 4 x ≤ −16 2 x ≤ −4 x≥ 4 1 x≥ 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ −4 or x ≥ ⎩ 2≤ x≤6 The solution set is { x 2 ≤ x ≤ 6} . Inc. −2 < 11 − x < 2 −13 < − x < −9 −13 − x −9 > > −1 −1 −1 13 > x > 9 9 < x < 13 The solution set is { x 9 < x < 13}. 10 10 ⎭ ⎩ 2x + 1 ≥ 79. 81. The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 5}. − x < −8 3 ≤ 2x −1 2x −1 ≥ 3 −2 ≤ x − 4 ≤ 2 −3 x + 7 5 − x < −3 The solution set is { x x < 2 or x > 8} . −3 x + 7 ≥ −27 −27 −3 −3 x+7 ≤9 ≤ −9 ≤ x + 7 ≤ 9 −16 ≤ x ≤ 2 85. . > 5− x > 3 −2 x − 4 ≥ −4 −2 x − 4 −2 5 − x < −6 1⎫ ⎬. Section P. 2 > 11 − x is equivalent to 11 − x < 2 . 103 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 84. −5 < 4 − x < 5 −9 < − x < 1 −9 − x 1 > > −1 −1 −1 9 > x > −1 −1 < x < 9 The solution set is { x −1 < x < 9} . −4 −2 −2 x−4 ≤ 2 80. −4 1 − x < −16 −4 1 − x −16 > −4 −4 1− x > 4 1− x > 4 1 − x < −4 3 or −x > − x < −5 x < −3 x>5 86.PreCalculus 4E 78. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2⎭ 5 > 4 − x is equivalent to 4 − x < 5 . 2x +1 ≤ − − x > −2 or x<2 83.9 5 2x +1 − 3 ≥ 9 82. 2 x ≥ 4 or x≥2 ≤ x >8 2 x − 1 ≤ −3 2 x ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 2} .

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 87.8] . 4 11 < x− 3 3 Since x − x −1 ≤ 1 2 x ≤2 2 x −2 ≤ 2 − ≤ 2 2 x −4 ≤ − ≤ 0 2 8≥ x≥0 89. 2−x > 4 or 2 − x < −4 −x > 2 − x < −6 −x 2 < −1 −1 x < −2 − x −6 > −1 −1 x>6 ( −∞. 3 3 the solution set is { x x is any real number} or (–∞. 75 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 87 ⎞ ⎜ −∞. 2 − 3x > 1 −3 x > −1 −3x −1 or < −3 −3 1 x< 3 91. 12 < −2 x + − 2− 2− The solution set is { x x < −2 or x > 6} . ∞ ) . 14 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 14 ⎠ y≤0 2 x − 11 + 3( x + 2) ≤ 0 2 x − 11 + 3x + 6 ≤ 0 5x − 5 ≤ 0 11 7 + 3 3 5x ≤ 5 x ≤1 The solution set is ( −∞. 90. ∞ ) . 3 ⎩ ⎭ 88. that is.1] . 92. − ⎟ or ⎜ . 1 < x − x ≥9 3 3− ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 1⎬ . 94. ∞ ). 6 3 + 7 7 81 6 < −2 x + 7 7 6 81 6 81 −2 x + > or −2 x + < − 7 7 7 7 75 87 −2 x > −2 x < − 7 7 75 87 x<− x> 14 14 ⎧ 75 87 ⎫ or x > ⎬ . 2 − 3 x < −1 −3 x < −3 x ≥5 3 x x 3 − ≥ 5 or 3 − ≤ −5 3 3 x x − ≥2 − ≤ −8 3 3 x ≤ −6 x ≥ 24 −3 x −3 > −3 −3 x >1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −6 or x ≥ 24} . −6] or [ 24. 1 < 2 − 3x is equivalent to 2 − 3x > 1 . . Inc. The solution set is ⎨ x x < − 14 14 ⎭ ⎩ The solution set is { x 0 ≤ x ≤ 8} or [ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. that is. y≥4 1 − ( x + 3) + 2 x ≥ 4 1 − x − 3 + 2x ≥ 4 x−2≥ 4 x≥6 The solution set is [ 6. ∞ ⎟ . 4+ 3− 11 4 > − is true for all x. 104 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 93. 4 < 2 − x is equivalent to 2 − x > 4 .

voters will use punch cards or lever machines. x ≤ −10 100. | 5 − 4 x |≤ 13 or | 4 x − 5 |≤ 13 x +2 ≤ 4 2 −13 ≤ 4 x − 5 ≤ 13 −8 ≤ 4 x ≤ 18 9 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 x − + 2 ≤ −3 2 x +2 ≥3 2 x +2≥3 or 2 x+4≥ 6 9⎫ 2⎤ ⎧ ⎡ The solution set is ⎨ x | −2 ≤ x ≤ ⎬ or ⎢ −2.1x + 25.1 < 38.40 x − 4 ≤ 40 32 ≤ 0. ∞ ) . 5⎦ ⎣ 104. 63% of voters will use electronic systems after 2006. [ 0. we calculate 1994+12=2006. 2⎭ 9⎦ ⎩ ⎣ x + 2 ≤ −3 2 x + 4 ≤ −6 x≥2 99.1% of U. commitment > passion or passion < commitment 105.8 > 63 3. 3⎦ ⎝ 3x − 4 ≥ 5 3x ≥ 9 x≥3 ( 0. 96. 3. After approximately 5 12 years 107. passion ≤ intimacy or intimacy ≥ passion y≥6 8 − 5x + 3 ≥ 6 102. 4 ) 108. 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall.S.5 x + 63. 7− 98. after 3 years 106.2 x > 12 Since x is the number of years after 1994. 105 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. | 4 − 3 x |≥ 5 or | 3x − 4 |≥ 5 3x − 4 ≤ −5 3 x ≤ −1 1 x≤− 3 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x | x ≤ − or x ≥ 3⎬ or 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1 ⎛ ⎤ ⎜ −∞. − ⎥ ∪ [ 3. 28 ≤ 20 + 0. −2.PreCalculus 4E Section P. . Let x be the number. fewer than 38.40 ( x − 60 ) ≤ 40 28 ≤ 20 + 0. inclusive.5 x < 25 or x > 10 1994 + 10 = 2004 In years after 2004. Inc. 109.40 x − 24 ≤ 40 28 ≤ 0. − ⎥ . −10] ∪ [ 2.40 x ≤ 44 80 ≤ x ≤ 110 Between 80 and 110 ten minutes.1x > 37.5] The solution set is ( −∞. passion<commitment or commitment > passion 5x + 3 ≤ 2 −2 ≤ 5 x + 3 ≤ 2 −5 ≤ 5 x ≤ −1 −5 5 x −1 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 1 −1 ≤ x ≤ − 5 1⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −1. ∞ ) .9 y≤4 95. 101. commitment ≥ intimacy or intimacy ≤ commitment − 5 x + 3 ≥ −2 − ( − 5 x + 3 ) ≤ − ( −2 ) 103.1 −2. Let x be the number. − ⎥ . 97.

03x < 200 + 0. 86 + 88 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 240 x < 66 This will happen if you get a grade less than 66. a.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 110.645 or ≤ −1.225 h ≥ 58.5 x 3000 < 2. 245 + 95 x ≤ 3000 95 x ≤ 2755 x ≤ 29 29 bags or less can be lifted safely.6 x > 10.03x <6 x < 200 The credit union is a better deal when writing less than 200 checks. inclusive or [59°F. 113. 2 + 0. 111. 3000 + 3x < 5.08 x < 8 + 0. b. 2 x > 10.225 h − 50 ≤ −8. 265 + 65 x ≤ 2800 65 x ≤ 2535 x ≤ 39 39 bags or fewer can be lifted safely.05x 32000 < x A home assessment of greater than $32. 9 ( 3) ≤ F − 32 ≤ 9 ( 7 ) 27 ≤ F − 32 ≤ 63 59 ≤ F ≤ 95 The range for Fahrenheit temperatures is 59°F to 95°F .5 x 5 ( F − 32 ) ≤ 35 9 9 9 5 9 (15 ) ≤ ⎛⎜ ( F − 32 ) ⎞⎟ ≤ ( 35 ) 5 5⎝9 ⎠ 5 15 ≤ 1200 < x More then 1200 packets of stationary need to be sold each week to make a profit.6 x 10. 1800 + 0.05 x 0.5 The man will be working on the job at least 1. 117. 121. . 112. 116. or 41 or less.000 would make the first bill a better deal.04 x 300 < x Plan A is a better deal when driving more than 300 miles a month.20x < 20 + 0. Let x = the grade on the final exam.3x 100< x Basic Rental is a better deal when driving more than 100 miles per day.12 x 12 < 0. 15 + 0.5 ≤ x ≤ 3. 226 ≤ 175 + 34 x ≤ 294 51 ≤ 34 x ≤ 119 1.6 1. Let x = the number of hours the mechanic works on the car. 122.5 hours. Publishing as Prentice Hall.95°F] .6 x > 6250 More than 6250 tapes need to be sold a week to make a profit. 120. 000 + 0. Inc.775 The number of outcomes would be 59 or more.40 x 1. 86 + 88 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 270 x ≥ 96 You must get at least a 96.645 5 5 h − 50 ≥ 8. 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 90 6 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 540 2 x + 350 ≥ 540 2 x ≥ 190 x ≥ 95 You must receive at least a 95% to earn an A. 000 1. 118. 50 + 0. 106 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 114.5 and at most 3. h − 50 ≥ 1.225 h ≤ 41.50x 30 < 0. 119. 000 > 1.645 5 h − 50 h − 50 ≥ 1. 115.08 x < 3 + .08x 1600 < 0.

2 4 − (2)2 = 0 132.50 + 0.50 x.3) ∪ ( −∞. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Answers may vary. 107 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.50 + 0. 141. −1 4 − (−1) = 5 0 4 − (0) = 4 1 4 − (1) = 3 2 4 − (2) = 2 3 4 − (3) = 1 Because we need to buy two 3-month passes per 6-month pass. true 140. . 3x > 7. y = x + 1 134. 133. y – x represents a negative number. Inc. – 131. Changes to make the statement true will vary. When both sides are multiplied by (y – x) the inequality must be reversed. −2 ) = ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. false. y = 4 − x 123. a. 3) 138.50 x 144. y = 4 − x 2 x y = 4 − x2 −3 4 − (−3)2 = −5 2. we multiply the cost with the 3month pass by 2. A sample change is: ( −∞. Because x > y. makes sense 135.50 + 0.9 143.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x y = 4− x −3 4 − (−3) = 7 −2 4 − (−2) = 6 The cost with the 6-month pass is C6 = 30.50 x > 7. 2 ( 7. We need this cost to be less than the cost with a 3-month pass.50 −2 4 − (−2)2 = 0 −1 4 − (−1)2 = 3 0 4 − (0)2 = 4 1 4 − (1)2 = 3 124. A sample change is: 3x > 6 is equivalent to x > 2. makes sense 145. makes sense 3 4 − (3) 2 = −5 x>3 The 3-month pass is the best deal when making more than 3 but less than 15 crossings per 3month period. | x − 4 |< 3 b. x −4 −3 y = x +1 −4 + 1 = 3 −3 + 1 = 2 −2 −1 0 1 2 −2 + 1 = 1 −1 + 1 = 0 0 +1 = 1 1+1 = 2 2 +1 = 3 139. Answers may vary.50 x ) < 30 15 + x < 30 x < 15 We also must consider the cost without purchasing a pass. Let x = the number of times the bridge is crossed per three month period The cost with the 3-month pass is C3 = 7. true 137. false. makes sense 136. | x − 4 |≥ 3 142.

3(4 y − 5) − (7 y + 2) = 12 y − 15 − 7 y − 2 = 5 y − 17 A = {a. c} B = {a. g} ∩ {a. d . −17. associative property of multiplication. 1 (5 x) + [ (3 y ) + (−3 y ) ] − (− x) = x + [ 0] + x = 2 x 5 {a. b. −17.55% of 21 year olds have been tested. 18. g} 22. b. . f . commutative property of addition. − e. π . c. b. − = 10 x 23. c} = {a} = 8 − 8 + 10 x 8. 81 d. f . commutative property of multiplication. −17. 2. b.6 x − 15 P = −0. 3 + 6( x − 2) = 3 + 6(4 − 2) 3 10. 9. d . c.015(3600) + 60 + 10 = 54 + 60 + 10 = 124 4. f . d . (3 ⋅ 7) + (4 ⋅ 7) = (4 ⋅ 7) + (3 ⋅ 7) . 9 . d . 19. e} {a. e} = {a. 2 −1 = 2 −1 3 A = {a. 16. A = {a. 3 − 17 = 17 − 3 since 12. e} = {a. b. b. d . 17. d . 0. e} 6. f . (6 ⋅ 3) ⋅ 9 = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 9) . 3( 5 + 3) = ( 5 + 3) 3 . (−3)3 (−2)2 = (−27) ⋅ (4) = −108 9 . 0. π f. c. c} ∪ {a. c} 5.6(21) − 15 = 38. c. 11. distributive property of multiplication over addition. A = {a. 81 c. 81 13 −103 = 103 108 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Chapter P Review Exercises 1. 15. 4 − (−17) = 4 + 17 = 21 = 21 x 2 − 5( x − y ) = 62 − 5(6 − 2) 14. 17 is greater than 3. 8 − 2[3 − (5 x − 1)] = 8 − 2[3 − 5 x + 1] = 8 − 2[4 − 5 x ] = 36 − 20 = 16 S = 0.75. (6 ⋅ 9) ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅ (6 ⋅ 9) . b.75.55%. e} {a. Inc. f . 3 + 17 = 17 + 3.015 x + x + 10 S = 0.05(21)2 + 3. 0. a. = 36 − 5(4) 3. 13. 0. g} {a. c} C = {a.05 x 2 + 3. d . 2. P = −0. b. 81 b. g} = {a. c} ∪ {a. b.55 38. d . 0. 3( 5 + 3) = 15 + 3 . d . g} 21. b.015(60)2 + (60) + 10 2 = 0. 5(2 x − 3) + 7 x = 10 x − 15 + 7 x = 17 x − 15 20. 7. = 3 + 6(2)3 = 3 + 6(8) = 3 + 48 = 51 2. c} B = {a. commutative property of addition. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. 0. commutative property of multiplication. c. 81 13 24. c} ∩ {a. This overestimates the percent displayed by the bar graph by 3. d . c} C = {a.

0000745 = 10 2 + 6 2 34. 000 = 3. 40.75 × 108 2. 175 × 106 = 1. 3 3 = (−2)3 x 4⋅3 y 3⋅3 = −8 x12 y 9 29.023 1 1 = 5−2 = 2 = 5 25 26.00725 = 7.25 × 10 −3 109 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7 5 + 13 5 = (7 + 13) 5 = 20 5 47. 3. 2−4 + 4−1 = = 3.45 × 10 = 0.75 × 10 10 The average tax return cost $1469.3 × 102 ) = (3 ×1.57 × 1011 b. Chapter P Review Exercises 1 1 + 24 4 1 1 = + 16 4 1 4 = + 16 16 5 = 16 36. (−5 x y )(−2 x 3 2 −11 = (−5)(−2) x x 3 6.590. 7. 300 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 10 3 41.9 × 105 = 390. r3 = r 2 ⋅ r = r r 44.9 × 103 ⎛ 6. 121 121 11 = = 4 2 4 96 x 3 45. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 25.57 1011 ⋅ 8 ≈ 1.57 × 1011 2.469 × 103 = 1469 8 1. 39. (−2 x y ) = (−2) ( x ) ( y ) 3 3 3 4 3 38.3) × (103 × 102 ) a.75 × 102 ⋅ 106 = 1.59 × 106 = 16 2 35. 4 (3 × 103 )(1.3 × 10−2 = 0. 4 43. 12 x 2 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 2 x 3 42. 0. 2 50 + 3 8 = 2 25 ⋅ 2 + 3 4 ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅5 2 + 3⋅ 2 2 −5 33. . 5−3 ⋅ 5 = 5−351 = 5−3+1 27. 7x y ⎛ 7 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ( x5 −15 )( y 6 − ( −2) ) 28 x15 y −2 ⎝ 28 ⎠ 1 = x −10 y 8 4 y8 = 10 4x 5 = 6 2x = 96 x3 2x = 48 x 2 = 16 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4x 3 3. Inc. 33 1 1 = 33− 6 = 3−3 = 3 = 36 3 27 28.9 ⎞ 3− 5 =⎜ ⎟ × 10 3 ×105 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 2. 000 37. 257 × 109 = 2.57 × 102 ⋅ 109 = 2. = 2x 5 (2 x3 ) −4 = (2)−4 ( x 3 ) −4 = 2−4 x −12 1 2 x12 1 = 16 x12 = 31. 400 46. 32.75 1. 10 x ⋅ 2 x = 20 x 2 −2 y ) −11 y 2 y −2 = 10 ⋅ x3−11 y 2 − 2 = 10 x −8 y 0 = 4x2 ⋅ 5 10 = 8 x 30.74 × 104 = 37.

4 8 ⋅ 4 10 = 4 80 = 4 16 ⋅ 5 = 4 16 ⋅ 4 5 = 2 4 5 60. 27 −1/ 3 = 66. (125 ⋅ x 6 ) 2 / 3 = ( 3 125 x 6 ) 2 −32 = −2 55. 25−1/ 2 = 64. 56. 4 (−5)4 = 4 625 = 4 54 = 5 57. 161/ 2 = 16 = 4 = 5(6 − 3) 33 63. 15 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 15 ⎞ 3 / 4 −1/ 2 =⎜ ⎟x = 3x1/ 4 5 x1/ 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 70. 5 3 1 1 1 1 = 3 = 4 = 4/3 4 27 3 81 ( 27) = (5 x 2 )2 3 = 25 x 4 71. 2 30 5 = ⋅ = =6 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 3 = 5 6+ 3 = 4 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 53 2 = 83 2 + 53 2 ⋅ = 13 3 2 6− 3 61. y . 3 81 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 = = 251/ 2 25 5 1 1 1 = = 271/ 3 3 27 3 65. 4 4 32 x 5 4 4 = 2x = x 4 2 16 x 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = 14 7− 5 ⋅ 7+ 5 125 = 5 4 −125 is not a real number. 642 / 3 = ( 3 64) 2 = 42 = 16 67. 27 −4 / 3 = 68. 6 y 3 = ( y 3 )1/ 6 = y 3⋅1/ 6 = y1/ 2 = 110 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1251/ 3 = 3 125 = 5 7+ 5 14( 7 + 5) = 7−5 14( 7 + 5) = 2 = 7( 7 + 5) 5 16 x = 5(6 − 3) 36 − 3 7− 5 54. (5 x 2 / 3 )(4 x1/ 4 ) = 5 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3+1/ 4 = 20 x11/12 69. 4 72 − 2 48 = 4 36 ⋅ 2 − 2 16 ⋅ 3 58. Inc. y3 y 2 = y 3 y 2 6 ⋅ = 3 3 3 = 5 51. 30 30 50.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 4 3 16 + 5 3 2 = 4 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 5 3 2 = 4⋅6 2 − 2⋅4 3 = 24 2 − 8 3 49. 53. 32 x 5 = 14 3 4 6+ 3 6− 3 52. 3 y5 = 59.

(5 x − 2)3 = (5 x)3 − 3(5 x )2 (2) + 3(5 x)(2) 2 − 23 = 125 x 3 − 150 x 2 + 60 x − 8 81. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (4 x + 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x 2 ) − 52 = 16 x 2 − 25 77. Inc. (2 x + 5) 2 = (2 x)2 + 2(2 x) ⋅ 5 + 52 = 4 x 2 + 20 x + 25 78.PreCalculus 4E 72. . 74. (3 x − 2)(4 x 2 + 3x − 5) = (3 x)(4 x 2 ) + (3x)(3x) + (3x)(−5) + (−2)(4 x 2 ) + (−2)(3x) + (−2)(−5) = 12 x3 + 9 x 2 − 15 x − 8 x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 12 x3 + x 2 − 21x + 10 75. (3 x 2 + 2 y ) 2 = (3 x 2 )2 + 2(3 x 2 )(2 y ) + (2 y ) 2 = 9 x 4 + 12 x 2 y + 4 y 2 84. Chapter P Review Exercises (−6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 9 x + 3) + (14 x3 + 3x 2 − 11x − 7) = (−6 x3 + 14 x3 ) + (7 x 2 + 3x 2 ) + (−9 x − 11x) + (3 − 7) = 8 x 3 + 10 x 2 − 20 x − 4 The degree is 3. (7 x + 4 y )(7 x − 4 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (4 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 16 y 2 85. (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) − (5 x 4 − 3x3 + 2 x 2 − 6) = (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−5 x 4 + 3 x3 − 2 x 2 + 6) = (13x 4 − 5 x 4 ) + (−8 x3 + 3x3 ) + (2 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + 6 = 8x 4 − 5x3 + 6 The degree is 4. 73. (3 x − 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(1) + (−5)(2 x) + (−5)(1) = 6 x 2 + 3 x − 10 x − 5 = 6 x2 − 7 x − 5 76. (2 x + 1)3 = (2 x)3 + 3(2 x) 2 (1) + 3(2 x)(1) 2 + 13 = 8 x3 + 12 x 2 + 6 x + 1 80. (3 x − 4) 2 = (3 x) 2 − 2(3 x) ⋅ 4 + (−4) 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 79. (a − b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) = a(a 2 ) + a (ab) + a(b 2 ) + (−b)(a 2 ) +(−b)(ab) + (−b)(b 2 ) = a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 − a 2 b − ab 2 − b3 = a 3 − b3 111 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x + 7 y )(3x − 5 y ) = x(3x ) + ( x)(−5 y ) + (7 y )(3 x) + (7 y )(−5 y ) = 3 x 2 − 5 xy + 21xy − 35 y 2 = 3 x 2 + 16 xy − 35 y 2 82. (3 x − 5 y ) 2 = (3x) 2 − 2(3x)(5 y ) + (−5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 − 30 xy + 25 y 2 83.

15 x − x − 2 = (3x + 1)(5 x − 2) 2 91. 16 x − 40 x + 25 = (4 x − 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x − 5)2 97. 3x 4 − 9 x 3 − 30 x 2 = 3 x 2 ( x 2 − 3x − 10) 95. x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 109. = = ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x 2 − 36 x ≠ –6. 3x 4 − 12 x 2 = 3x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 3x 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) 112 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 x2 + 2 x x( x + 2) x . x 5 − x = x( x 4 − 1) = x( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2 y + 4) = ( x + 2 y + 4 )( x + 2 y + 4 ) = x ( x + 2 y + 4) + 2 y ( x + 2 y + 4) + 4 ( x + 2 y + 4) 2 = x( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 + 1) 103. x 2 + 18 x + 81 − y 2 = ( x 2 + 18 x + 81) − y 2 88. = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 98. 4 + 32 x 1 4 = 16 x −3 4 = 1 − ( −3 ) ⎛ 4 4 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ −3 (1 + 2 x ) (1 + 2 x ) = 16 x 16 x 4 3 4 1 106. 12 x − 1 2 + 6x − 3 2 = 6x − 3 2 ( 2 x + 1) = 6(2 x + 1) 96. 64 − x 2 = 82 − x 2 = (8 − x)(8 + x) 92. x ≠ –2 x+2 x+2 x 2 + 3x − 18 ( x + 6)( x − 3) x − 3 . 99. x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = x 2 + 2 xy + 4 x + 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 y + 4 x + 8 y + 16 = ( x 2 − 2)( x + 5) = x 2 + 4 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 x + 16 y + 16 104. = = x + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2)2 x + 2 x ≠ –2 2 100. 93.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 86. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) x3 + 2 x 2 x 2 ( x + 2) = = x 2 . = 3 x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) 94. 16 x 90. [5 y − (2 x + 1)][5 y + (2 x + 1)] 101. 102. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 108. −3 3 ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 − ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x2 + 3) 2 2 1 = ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎡⎣1 − ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) ⎤⎦ 20 x 7 − 36 x3 = 4 x 3 (5 x 4 − 9) 1 = ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎣⎡1 − ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) ⎦⎤ x 3 − 3x 2 − 9 x + 27 = x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) 1 = ( x 2 − 9)( x − 3) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x 2 + 3) 2 (− x 4 + x 2 + 13) = ( x + 3)( x − 3)( x − 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 2 107. = ( x + 9 − y )( x + 9 + y ) x 2 − 11x + 28 = ( x − 4)( x − 7) 105. x 2 + 16 is prime. Inc. 15 x + 3 x = 3x ⋅ 5 x + 3x ⋅1 3 2 2 2 = ( x + 9) − y2 2 = 3x (5 x + 1) 2 89. 3 x2 2 y 3 − 8 = y 3 − 23 = ( y − 2)( y 2 + 2 y + 4) 110. 27 x 3 − 125 = (3 x)3 − 53 = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 1) 2 = (3 x − 5)[(3 x)2 + (3x)(5) + 52 ] = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 4 x + 1) = (3 x − 5)(9 x 2 + 15 x + 25) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 4 x − 1 87.

–2 x2 − 2x + x2 + 2 x − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) = 114. x−4 x ≠ –3. x + 6 x + 9 ⋅ x + 3 = ( x + 3) ⋅ 2 x −4 x − 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x − 2 = 116. . x x ≠ 0. –3. (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3 x + 2) 1 2 x ≠ . − 3 = 2 x2 − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) x ≠ 3. 2 x − 7 − x − 10 = 2 x − 7 − ( x − 10) x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 1 = . − 1. ( x − 2)2 ( x + 2) x ≠ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 3. ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x ≠ 2. x − 2 x − 2 6 x = ⋅ 1 − x 1 − x 6x 3 6 3 6 6 − 3x = 2 x − x2 −3( x − 2) = − x( x − 2) 3 = . x−3 x ≠ 3. x( x + 1) 1 x ≠ 0. 1. x 2 − 5 x − 24 x 2 − 10 x + 16 ÷ 2 x 2 − x − 12 x + x−6 ( x − 8)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 8) = ÷ ( x − 4)( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 2) x −8 x +3 = ⋅ x − 4 x −8 x+3 = . 8 x+3 4x −1 − 2 x2 + 5x − 3 6 x 2 + x − 2 x+3 4x −1 = − (2 x − 1)( x + 3) (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) 4x −1 3x + 2 = ⋅ (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 3x + 2 x+3 x+3 − ⋅ (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) x + 3 = 12 x 2 + 8 x − 3x − 2 − x 2 − 6 x − 9 (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3x + 2) 11x 2 − x − 11 . − 2 3 = 1 1 1 1 118. 2 x x x+2 3x 3x x − 2 + = ⋅ + ⋅ x+2 x−2 x+2 x−2 x−2 x+2 3x2 − 6 x + x 2 + 2 x = ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x2 − 4 x ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x( x − 1) = . ( x + 3)3 .PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 2 2 x+3 111. x x −1 + x2 − 9 x2 − 5x + 6 x x −1 = + ( x − 3)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 3) x x−2 x −1 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x − 2 ( x − 2)( x − 3) x + 3 x ( x − 2) + ( x − 1)( x + 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) 113 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 x + 2 3x 2 + x ÷ x2 − 1 x −1 x(3x + 1) 2(3 x + 1) = ÷ x −1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x −1 2(3 x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 1)( x + 1) x(3 x + 1) 2 = . –2 112. –3 115. 113. Inc. 2. 4. 2 117.

This is a conditional equation. = x−4 x ≠ 0. x ≠ 4 2 30 4 + = x + 2 x − 4 (x + 2)(x − 4) 4(x − 4) + 2(x + 2) = 30 25 − x 2 + x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 25 4x − 16 + 2x + 4 = 30 6x −12 = 30 6x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (25 − x 2 )3 25 (25 − x 2 )3 ⋅ 25 − x 2 25 − x 2 25 25 − x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 25 − x 2 (5 − x)2 (5 + x)2 114 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12 12 119. 1 – 2(6 – x) = 3x + 2 1 – 12 + 2x = 3x + 2 –11 – x = 2 –x = 13 x = –13 The solution set is {–13}. x ≠ –1 1 1 2 − = 2 x − 1 x + 1 x −1 1 1 2 − = x − 1 x + 1 (x + 1)(x − 1) x + 1 − (x −1) = 2 x2 25 − x 2 x + 1− x + 1 = 2 25 − x 2 ⎛ 25 − x 2 + x ⎞ 25 − 2 x 2 ⎜ ⎟ 25 − x 2 ⎠ =⎝ (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 2 =2 The solution set is all real numbers except 1 and –1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 122. This is a conditional equation. x ≠ 1. 2 = = = = = 126. 4. 1 1 120. x ≠ –2. Inc. 3 x + 10 10 x ≠ −3. This is a conditional equation. . 2( x − 4) + 3( x + 5) = 2 x − 2 2 x − 8 + 3x + 15 = 2 x − 2 5x + 7 = 2 x − 2 3x = −9 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. 3 − x + 3 3 − x + 3 x + 3 = ⋅ 3+ 1 3+ 1 x +3 x+3 x+3 3( x + 3) − 1 = 3( x + 3) + 1 3x + 9 − 1 = 3x + 9 + 1 3x + 8 = . − 3 25 − x 2 + 121 . 2x – 4(5x + 1) = 3x + 17 2x – 20x – 4 = 3x + 17 –18x – 4 = 3x + 17 –21x = 21 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. 124. –4 123. 3 + x 3 + x x 2 = ⋅ 2 1 − 162 1 − 162 x x x 2 3x + 12 x = 2 x − 16 3x( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 4) 3x . 125.

. ( x − 3) 2 = ± 24 x − 3 = ±2 6 128. ( x − 3)2 − 24 = 0 ( x − 3) 2 = 24 The solution set is {−2. The solution set is {4} .−2 3 x+2=0 x = −2 x= x=4 –2 must be rejected.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 131. The solution set is {2} . −4 2 x + 1 = −12 2x + 1 = 3 2 x + 1 = 3 or 2 x + 1 = −3 2x = 2 x =1 2 x = −4 x = −2 132. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 115 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5⎬ . 2 x 2 − 11x + 5 = 0 (2x – 1)(x – 5) = 0 2x – 1 = 0 x – 5 = 0 1 x = or x = 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 3 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 x= 0 = ( x + 2)( x − 4) or x − 4 = 0 –4 must be rejected. −4 2 x + 1 + 12 = 0 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. ⎬ . 6 6 10 x = . x 2 − 9 = 0 127. Inc. 3⎭ ⎩ 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 130. ⎩2 ⎭ x = 3± 2 6 2x x 2 = − x + 6x + 8 x + 4 x + 2 2x x 2 = − ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 4 x + 2 133. 3}. 8 − 2x = x ( 8 − 2x ) 2 = x2 8 − 2 x = x2 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 ⎧ 10 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2.1} . 3x 2 + 5 x − 9 x − 15 = 5 3x 2 − 4 x − 20 = 0 x= 2x = x2 + 2x − 2x − 8 4 ± (−4)2 − 4(3)(−20) 2(3) 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 4 ± 16 + 240 6 4 ± 256 x= 6 4 ± 16 x= 6 20 −12 x= . ⎬. 8 − 2x − x = 0 134. 2 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 ⎞ ⎛ x = ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎜ − ⎟ ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎝ x+4 x+2⎠ 2 x = x ( x + 2) − 2( x + 4) (3x + 5)( x − 3) = 5 129. 7 ± (−7)2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 7 ± 49 − 12 6 7 ± 37 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 7 + 37 7 − 37 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .

x 2 = 2 x − 19 x 2 − 2 x + 19 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−2) 2 − 4(1)(19) = −72 −72 < 0.8 = 32. 17.000 in one week to earn $800. Let x = the original price of the phone 48 = x − 0.4 x = 7.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 135. Let x + 15 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by the United States. vt + gt 2 = s gt 2 = s − vt 141. Let x = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by Japan.3 x + x + 0. . A− P Pr A− P Pr (T ) = Pr Pr PrT = A − P T= 142.6 x = 19 The percentage of people in the U.3 x + 15 = 20.05 x A 1 + rT 500 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. PrT + P = A P ( rT + 1) = A P= 138. 136.5 The daily oil consumption of the United States. 340 = 8w − 12 352 = 8w 44 = w The dimensions are 44 yards by 126 yards. 116 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let 3w – 6 = the length of the playing field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 139. x + ( x + 0.5 million barrels. 143. 9 x 2 − 30 x + 25 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−30)2 − 4(9)(25) = 0 340 = 2 ( 3w − 6 ) + 2w 340 = 6w − 12 + 2 w b 2 − 4ac = 0.4 x = 25.8 + x + 15 = 32.05 x 10.5 x + 0. 2 The solution set is {2}. 140. 000 = x Sales must be $10.3 3 x + 15. Let x + 0. Inc. and Japan is 20. gt s − vt = 2 t2 t s − vt g= 2 t 2 137.5 x = 5. that will speak a language other than English at home will reach 25. 2x − 3 + x = 3 2x − 3 = 3 − x 2x − 3 = 9 − 6x + x2 x 2 − 8 x + 12 = 0 x 2 − 8 x = −12 x 2 − 8 x + 16 = −12 + 16 ( x − 4)2 = 4 x − 4 = ±2 x = 4+2 x = 6. respectfully.1 0. 144.8 = 6.1% 19 years after 2000. Let x = the amount sold to earn $800 in one week 800 = 300 + 0.S.80 x 60 = x The original price is $60. Let x = the number of years after 2000. 6.20 x 48 = 0. Let w = the width of the playing field. and 5.8) + ( x + 15) = 32.5 million barrels. or 2019. thus the equation has no real solutions.8 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by China.5 + 0. China.3 3x = 16. thus the equation has one repeated real solution.3 million barrels.

147. y2 = 41. 000 150. Chapter P Review Exercises Check some points to determine that y1 = 14. b. the two colleges will have the same enrollment in the year 2007 + 12 = 2019 . The building is approximately 134 meters high. 000 x ≈ ±134. Let x = height of building 2x = shadow height x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 3002 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 90. 146. That year the enrollments will be 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . (10 + 2 x )(16 + 2 x) = 280 160 + 52 x + 4 x 2 = 280 4 x 2 + 52 x − 120 = 0 x 2 + 13x − 30 = 0 ( x + 15)( x − 2) = 0 x + 15 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −15 x=2 –15 must be rejected. Since y1 = y2 = 32. 000 5 x 2 = 90.PreCalculus 4E 145. 148. The width of the frame is 2 inches.100 students. 700 − 800 x . 15 = l ( 2l − 7 ) 15 = 2l 2 − 7l 0 = 2l 2 − 7l − 15 0 = (2l + 3)(l − 5) l =5 2l − 7 = 3 The length is 5 yards. { x x ≤ 0} x 2 = 18. There were originally 10 people. Inc.100 when x = 12 .100 + 1500 x and 149. 117 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the width is 3 yards.164 Discard negative height. { x −3 ≤ x < 5} 151. { x x > −2} 152. 1500 1500 + 100 = x x−4 1500 ⎛ 1500 ⎞ x( x − 4) ⎜ + 100 ⎟ = x( x − 4) x x−4 ⎝ ⎠ 1500( x − 4) + 100 x( x − 4) = 1500 x 1500 x − 6000 + 100 x 2 − 400 x = 1500 x 15 x − 60 + x 2 − 4 x = 15 x A = lw x 2 − 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 10) = 0 x + 6 = 0 or x − 10 = 0 x = −6 x = 10 –6 must be rejected.

( −2. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.1] ∪ [ −1.3) = ( −2. Inc. . 4 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 118 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. Graph [1. 157.3) : To find the union. Numbers in either [1. Graph [1. 155. 4 ) = ( 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 153. [1.1] or [ −1.3) . take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.3) = [ −1.3) and ( 0. ∞ ) .3) or both: Thus.3) : To find the intersection.1] : 154.3) ∩ ( 0. –6x + 3 ≤ 15 –6x ≤ 12 x≥2 The solution set is [ −2. Numbers in both [1. Graph ( −2.1] and [ −1. 4 ) : To find the intersection. Numbers in both ( −2. Numbers in either ( −2. Graph [ −1. ( −2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. [1. 4 ) or both: Thus.3) ∪ ( 0.1] ∩ [ −1.3) : Graph ( 0. Graph ( 0. 4 ) : To find the union.3) : Thus.3) .1] .3) or ( 0.3) : 156. 4 ) : Thus. 4 ) = [1. Graph ( −2.1] : Graph [ −1.

∞ ) . 164. 7 < 2x + 3 ≤ 9 4 < 2x ≤ 6 2<x≤3 (2. The solution set is [ 2. 3] 0. − 2 ) .20 x ≤ 16 162. − 6 ) or ( 0. x 3 x − −1 > 3 4 2 ⎛x 3 ⎞ ⎛ x⎞ 12 ⎜ − − 1⎟ > 12 ⎜ ⎟ 3 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4x – 9 – 12 > 6x –21 > 2x 21 − >x 2 2x + 6 >2 3 2x + 6 2x + 6 >2 < –2 3 3 2 x + 6 > 6 2 x + 6 < –6 2x > 0 2 x < −12 x>0 x < −6 The solution set is ( −∞.20 x 16 ≤ 0. 166. The solution set is [ −∞. 6 x − 9 ≥ −4 x − 3 163.6] .20 x ≤ 80 A customer can drive no more than 80 miles. − 3] or [ −2.20 0. Inc. 165. ∞ ) . 3(2x – 1) – 2(x – 4) ≥ 7 + 2(3 + 4x) 6x – 3 – 2x + 8 ≥ 7 + 6 + 8x 4x + 5 ≥ 8x + 13 –4x ≥ 8 x ≤ –2 x+2≥3 or x ≥1 x + 2 ≤ −3 x ≤ −5 The solution set is ( −∞. 167. 2⎠ ⎝ 2x + 5 ≥ 1 or 2x + 5 ≤ –1 2x ≥ –4 2x ≤ –6 x ≥ –2 or x ≤ –3 160. ∞ ) . − ⎟ . ⎡3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . . ∞ ) . x+2 ≥3 161.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 158. −4 x + 2 + 5 ≤ −7 −4 x + 2 ≤ −12 The solution set is ( −3. 2 x + 3 ≤ 15 10 x ≥ 6 3 x≥ 5 –15 ≤ 2x + 3 ≤ 15 –18 ≤ 2x ≤ 12 –9 ≤ x ≤ 6 The solution set is [ −9. 2 x + 5 − 7 ≥ −6 2x + 5 ≥ 1 21 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 119 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3) . ⎣5 ⎠ 159.20 x + 24 ≤ 40 0. −5] ∪ [1. 6x + 5 > –2(x – 3) – 25 6x + 5 > –2x + 6 – 25 8x + 5 > –19 8x > –24 x > –3 The solution set is ( −∞. 0. ∞ ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

x 2 + 2 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 . 1 11. . 30 x3 y 4 5 y8 = 5 x3 −9 y 4 − ( −4) = 5 x −6 y 8 = 6 9 −4 x 6x y 6. − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 3) 120 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. {1. = 7 + 2[−3x + 5] (5 x + 3 y ) 2 = (5 x) 2 + 2(5 x)(3 y ) + (3 y ) 2 = 25 x 2 + 30 xy + 9 y 2 = 7 − 6 x + 10 = −6 x + 17 14. 5 × 10−6 5 10−6 = ⋅ = 0. = = x 2 − 3 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x − 1) x − 2 x ≠ 2. 7. {1. 6r ⋅ 3r = 18r 2 = 9r 2 ⋅ 2 = 3r 2 4 50 − 3 18 = 4 25 ⋅ 2 − 3 9 ⋅ 2 15. Chapter P Test 5(2 x 2 − 6 x) − (4 x 2 − 3x) = 10 x 2 − 30 x − 4 x 2 + 3x = 6 x 2 − 27 x 2. a} = {5} 4.5 × 101 20 × 10−8 20 10−8 12. 168. –4. = 4 ⋅5 2 − 3⋅3 2 = 20 2 − 9 2 = 11 2 8.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 90 5 400 ≤ 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 450 9. –1. x +1 x ≠ 3. a} 5. 80 ≤ = 2x 3 2x 10. 3 5− 2 5+ 2 5− 2 = 3(5 − 2) 25 − 2 = 3(5 − 2) 23 2 x + 8 x2 + 5x + 4 ÷ x−3 x2 − 9 2( x + 4) ( x + 1)( x + 4) = ÷ x−3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 2( x + 4) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ x − 3 ( x + 1)( x + 4) 2( x + 3) = . –3 x 5 + x+3 x−3 x x−3 5 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ x +3 x−3 x −3 x +3 x ( x − 3) + 5( x + 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x + 5 x + 15 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 + 2 x + 15 . 3. 3 5+ 2 = 3 ⋅ 16 x 4 = 3 8 x 3 ⋅ 2 x = 3 8x3 ⋅ 3 2 x 400 ≤ 351 + x < 450 49 ≤ x < 99 A grade of at least 49% but less than 99% will result in a B. a} = {1. Inc.5} ∪ {5. 2.5} ∩ {5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. x ≠ 3.25 × 102 = 2. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = 2 x 3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − 5 x 2 + 20 x − 15 7 + 2[3( x + 1) − 2(3x − 1)] = 7 + 2[3x + 3 − 6 x + 2] = 2 x 3 − 13x 2 + 26 x − 15 13. 2.5. 1.

43. − . 3 x 2 − 9 x + 18 = ( x − 3)( x − 6) 20. 0. = ( x + 5)2 − 9 y 2 = ( x + 5 − 3 y )( x + 5 + 3 y ) 1 − x +x 2 ( x + 2) x 1 − x +x 2 = 1 + 1x 1 + 1x ( x + 2) x ( 25 x 2 − 9 = (5 x)2 − 32 = (5 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (6 x − 7) 2 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 2x + 3 − 2x + 8 = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 11 = . 4 17.6 × 10−4 30. 4. M = −0.PreCalculus 4E 16.25.2 × 109 = 1. ( x − 3)( x − 4) x ≠ 3. 21.28n + 47 0.28n + 47 M = −0.28(14) + 47 = 43.28n + 53 −0. 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. This overestimates the actual percent shown by the bar graph by 0.00076 = 7. 0. x≠0 x + 3x + 2 29. This describes the projections exactly.28n + 47 = W 0. Chapter P Test 2x + 3 2 − 2 x − 7 x + 12 x − 3 2x + 3 2 = − ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 2x + 3 2 x−4 = − ⋅ ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 x − 4 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) ( ) 36 x 2 − 84 x + 49 = (6 x) 2 − 2(6 x) ⋅ 7 + 7 2 23.08%.32 × 1010 3 ( x + 5) − 27 x2 + 5 2 − 27.28(25) + 47 R= 0. 5 7 28. x 3 + 2 x 2 + 3 x + 6 = x 2 ( x + 2) + 3( x + 2) = 1 ( 32. ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 10 x c. 5 3 = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 2) = 5 3 1 ( 3 ) 5 27 = 1 ( 3) 5 = 1 243 ) 2 6. are rational numbers.28(25) + 53 2 = 3 Three women will receive bachelor’s degrees for every two men. commutative property of addition x +5 = 2 + ( x + 3) 5 = ( x + 3) ( x + 3) 5 3 2 x x 2 + 5 − 22x = 3 5 = ( x + 3) 5 (2 x + 3) = = = − x( x + 2) − x 2 x( x + 2) + ( x + 2) = 18. R= M −0. 27 31.28n + 53 −0.6 × 109 = 13. ( x 2 + 10 x + 25) − 9 y 2 25. a. ⎛ 2 x x 2 + 5 − 2 x ⎞ x2 + 5 ⎜ ⎟ x2 +5 ⎠ =⎝ ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x( x 2 + 5) − 2 x3 ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x3 + 10 x − 2 x3 b. 2003 is 14 years after 1989. 22. x ( x + 3) 26.08% of bachelor’s degrees were awarded to men. R= 121 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 6(7 + 4) = 6 ⋅ 7 + 6 ⋅ 4 distributive property of multiplication over addition x 2 + 2 x − x2 ( x + 1)( x + 2) 2x = 2 .08 In 2003. Inc. ) 3 5 − 3 x (x 3) 2x + 3 3 4 22 −7. 3(2 + 5) = 3(5 + 2). y 3 − 125 = y 3 − 53 = ( y − 5)( y 2 + 5 y + 25) 24. 19.

Inc. 3 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 122 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x= ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −4 ) 2 2 2±2 5 2 x = 1± 5 x= 2x − 3 = 2x − 8 − x −1 The solution set is 1 − 5. 7( x − 2) = 4( x + 1) − 21 7 x − 14 = 4 x + 4 − 21 38. 36.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 33. 2± 2x − 3 x − 4 x +1 = − 4 2 4 2 x − 3 = 2( x − 4) − ( x + 1) 2x − 3 = x − 9 x = −6 The solution set is {–6}. 2 x 2 − 3x − 2 = 0 (2x + 1)(x – 2) = 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x=2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 2 4 8 − = x − 3 x + 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 35. The solution set is {7}. 34. x=5 The solution set is {5}. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 –4 does not check and must be rejected. ⎩ 2 ⎭ ( 3x − 1) 2 40. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2⎬ . x − 3 = x 2 − 10 x + 25 x 2 − 11x + 28 = 0 x= 2 x + 6 − 4 x + 12 = 8 −2 x + 18 = 8 11 ± 121 − 112 2 11 ± 9 x= 2 11 ± 3 x= 2 x = 7 or x = 4 4 does not check and must be rejected. 1± 5 3 3 ⎪⎧1 − 5 3 1 + 5 3 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 1 + 5 . 37. ⎬. . 8 − 2x − x = 0 8 − 2x = x ( = 75 3x − 1 = ± 75 8 − 2x ) 2 = ( x) 2 8 − 2 x = x2 3x = 1 ± 5 3 x= 11 ± 112 − 4(1)(28) 2(1) x= −2 x = −10 1 2 } x −3 = x −5 2( x + 3) − 4( x − 3) = 8 x=− { x−3 +5 = x 39. The solution set is {2}. x(x – 2) = 4 x2 − 2 x − 4 = 0 7 x − 14 = 4 x − 17 x= 3x = −3 x = −1 The solution set is {–1}.

∞ ⎟ . 2x + 5 <6 3 –9 ≤ 2x + 5 < 18 –14 ≤ 2x < 13 13 −7 ≤ x < 2 −3 ≤ 13 ⎞ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −7. 123 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3(x + 4) ≥ 5x – 12 3x + 12 ≥ 5x – 12 –2x ≥ –24 x ≤ 12 The solution set is (−∞. x 1 x 3 + ≤ − 6 8 2 4 4 x + 3 ≤ 12 x − 18 −8 x ≤ −21 x≥ 21 8 ⎡ 21 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . 1 V = lwh 3 3V = lwh 3V lwh = lw lw 3V =h lw 3V h= lw 44. ⎟ . Inc. − ⎥ ∪ ⎢ . . 42. x = −2 (rejected) The solution set is {4} . ⎣8 ⎠ −3 4 x − 7 + 15 = 0 −3 4 x − 7 = −15 4x − 7 = 5 46. 12}. 3x + 2 ≥ 3 3x + 2 ≥ 3 or 3x + 2 ≤ −3 3x ≥ 1 3 x ≤ −5 1 5 x≥ x≤− 3 3 5⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. Chapter P Test 2 x−6 = 2 3 2 2 x−6 = 2 x − 6 = −2 3 3 2 2 x=8 x=4 3 3 x = 12 x=6 The solution set is {6. 12]. 4x − 7 = 5 4 x − 7 = −5 or 4 x = 12 4x = 2 x=3 1 x= 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 45. ∞ ⎟ .3⎬ ⎩2 ⎭ 43. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2⎠ ⎣ 2x 2 x + = x2 + 6 x + 8 x + 2 x + 4 2x 2 x + = ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 2 x + 4 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2( x + 4)( x + 2) x( x + 4)( x + 2) + = x+2 x+4 ( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 x + 2( x + 4) = x( x + 2) 47. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ 2 x + 2 x + 8 = x2 + 2 x 2 x + 8 = x2 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 0 = ( x − 4)( x + 2) x − 4 = 0 or x=4 x+2 =0 48.PreCalculus 4E 41.

4)2 − 4(0. The formulas model the data quite well. 52.4 x − 677 0 = ( w + 6)( w − 4) x= x= 0 = w2 + 2 w − 24 w+6 = 0 w−4 = 0 w = −6 w=4 2 w + 4 = 2(4) + 4 = 12 width is 4 feet.07 x 2 + 47. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 53. y − y1 = mx − mx1 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = the number drive-in theaters. 124 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.07 x 2 + 47.07)(−677) 2(0. l = 2w + 4 A = lw x = 14 The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004.4) ± (47. or 2018. length is 12 feet −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(47.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 49. Let x + 16 = the number movie theaters. or 2018. residents. and 65 video rental stores. 55. ( x ) + ( x + 16 ) + ( x + 64 ) = 83 −mx = y1 − mx1 − y −mx y1 − mx1 − y = −m −m y − y1 + x1 x= m 50. x + x + 16 + x + 64 = 83 3x + 80 = 83 3x = 3 as a+s R (a + s ) = as Ra + Rs = as R= x =1 x + 16 = 17 x + 64 = 65 For every one million U. the cost will be $33.S. 24700 = 950 x 26 = x In 26 years.07) x ≈ 14.4 x + 500 1177 = 0. 29.4 x − 677 0 = 0. x ≈ −691 (rejected) The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004.07 x 2 + 47. 43x + 575 = 1177 43x = 602 56. Let x + 64 = the number video rental stores. Inc. . 17 movie theaters.07 x 2 + 47. 700 + 150 x = 5000 + 1100 x 48 = (2w + 4) w 48 = 2w2 + 4 w B = 0.4 x + 500 0 = 2w2 + 4 w − 48 0 = 0.600. Ra − as = − Rs a( R − s ) = − Rs a( R − s ) − Rs = R−s R−s Rs a= s−R 51. there is 1 drivein theater.

it must cost less than Plan B. There were originally 20 people.PreCalculus 4E 57. 000( x + 5) − 6000 x( x + 5) = 600. 000 x = 600.40 x 50 = x The original price is $50. Inc. 000 ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ − 6000 ⎟ = x ( x + 5) x x+5 ⎝ ⎠ 600. . 000. 000 ⎛ 600. 600. 000 x 59. Chapter P Test 242 + x 2 = 262 576 + x 2 = 676 x 2 = 100 x = ±10 The wire should be attached 10 feet up the pole.06 x. 000 x −6000 x 2 − 30. 125 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.06 x 200 < x x > 200 Plan A is a better deal when more than 200 local calls are made per month. 000. 000 x + 3. 000 x + 3.60 x 20 = 0. 000 600. The monthly cost using Plan B is CB = 13 + 0.06 x 12 < 0. 600. 000 − 6000 x 2 − 30. 60. Let x = the original selling price 20 = x − 0. Let x = the number of local calls The monthly cost using Plan A is C A = 25. C A < CB 25 < 13 + 0. 000 = 0 x 2 + 5 x − 500 = 0 ( x + 25)( x − 20) = 0 x − 20 = 0 x + 25 = 0 or x = −25 x = 20 –25 must be rejected. 000 − 6000 = x x+5 600. 58. For Plan A to be better deal.

According to the line graph. 4). Thus. The graph does not cross the x-axis. y = 5 a. y = 2 x = −2. Thus. y = 3 x = 2. the y-intercept is 5. Thus. Inc. 50 ] by distance between y -axis minimum maximum tick y -value y -value marks 2. The meaning of a [−100. y = 6 5.Chapter 1 Functions and Graphs Section 1. [ −100 . the x-intercept is 0 and the y-intercept is 0. x = −4. a. b. 5). the y-intercept is 4. Thus. y = 3 x = −3. d = 4n + 5 d = 4(15) + 5 = 65 65% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. there is no x-intercept. c. x = 0. y = 4 x = 1. y = 1 x = −1. The graph crosses the x-axis at (–3. y = 2 x = 2. .50] by [−100. 10 ] x = −3. y = 7 x = −2. 100 . The graph crosses the y-axis at (0.1 Check Point Exercises 4.100. 60% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. the x-intercept is –3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. y = 0 x = 0. 6. y = 1 x = 1. 100 . x = −1. c. 0).100. 0). The graph crosses the x. The mathematical model overestimates the actual percentage shown in the graph by 5%. Thus. y = 3 126 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1. y = 2 x = 3.and y-axes at the origin (0. y = 1 3.10] viewing rectangle is as follows: distance between x -axis minimum maximum tick marks x -value x -value [ −100 .

8.1 Exercise Set 1. . Inc. 10. 2. 5. 6. 9.1 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 12. 7. 3. 11. 127 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

y = 7 x = 3. y = 2 x = 1. x = –3. . y = 0 x = –1. y = 6 x = 3. y = 3 x = 0. y = −1 x = −1. y = −3 x = 0. y = 1 16. y = −4 x = −1. y = 2 x = 2. y = 2 x = −2. y = 11 128 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 0 x = 3. y = 1 x = 0. Inc. y = 2 x = 1. y = 3 x = 2. y = −1 x = 1. 15. y = −2 x = 0. y = 7 x = −3. x = −3.Functions and Graphs 13. y = 11 x = –2. y = 4 x = 3. y = −2 x = 1. y = −5 x = −2. y = –1 x = –2. y = 6 x = –1. y = −1 x = 2. y = 3 x = 2. y = 5 x = –3. 14.

x = –3. y = –4 x = 1. y = –6 x = 0. y = 3 5 x = –1. 2 20. 19. y = 7 x = 1. y = 2 3 x = 1. y = −5 x = −2. y = –2 x = 2. x = −3. y = 1 x = −1. y = 0 x = 3. y = 3 x = −1. y = −3 x = −3. y = 0 x = 3. y = − 3 2 x = 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. y = 2 x = 0. y = 2 x = 2. y = 1 x = 1.1 17. y = 1 2 x = −2. y = –10 x = –2. . y = 1 1 x = 3. y = −1 18. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 2 x = –3. y = 3 x = 2. y = –8 x = –1. y = 2 7 2 x = –2. y = 5 2 x = 0. y = 129 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = −1 x = 0. y = − 1 x = 3.

y = 6 x = −2. y = 2 x = 0. y = 2 x = 2. y = 2 x = 0. Inc. . 22. y = 1 x = 3. y = 4 x = −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 21. y = 0 x = 2. y = 0 x = 0. y = 0 x = 1. y = 4 24. y = 0 x = 0. y = 4 x = −1. y = 2 x = 2. y = 1 x = 1. y = 2 x = −2. y = 2 130 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = −4 x = 1. y = 3 x = −1. y = −2 x = 2. y = −4 x = −2. x = −3.Functions and Graphs 23. y = −2 x = −1. y = −6 x = 3. x = −3. y = 4 x = 3. y = 6 x = −2. y = −1 x = 1. y = 1 x = −1. y = −6 x = −3. y = 3 x = 3.

( −2. –4. 20. 3. y = −1 x = 0. x = 1. y = −2 x = 0. 29. −1) are on the line y = 2 − x . y-axis tick marks –4. (c) x-axis tick marks –5. 27. x = 0. –20. 34. 1. 20. 4 31. 10. 30. 0. but all are not on any of the others. 2) . . –4. The equation that corresponds to Y1 in the table is (b). Inc. 0. y = 0 x = 2.9) are on the graph y = x 2 . 2. y1 = x 2 . (0. y = −4 is (c). No. 70. 4. We can tell because all of the points ( −3. y = −9 32. 30. x = −2. –10. y = 1 (2. –2. (a) x-axis tick marks –40. y = −9 x = −1. 900. –8. (2. . 0) . –6. 0. y = 8 x = −1.9) . y = −4 x = −1. 0) x = 2. x = −3. y-axis tick marks –1000. –20. ( −1. y-axis tick marks –30. y = −1 x = 1. It passes through the point (0. (d) x-axis tick marks –10. y = 7 x = 2. y = −9 (1. y = 8 x = 1. 10. y = 9 x = 0. 20. 0. –2. (b). 2) . 0) .1 25. 70 x = −3. (0. x-axis tick marks –20. 60. 8. 40. y-axis tick marks are the same. x = 3. 4) . 40. 2. .1) . 50. –3. (2. . y = 0 33. x = −3. 800. 4. 4) . –800. y = −8 x = −1. y = −1 x = 2. 10.1) . 3) . 50. y = 0 x = 3. 60. 6. –900. y = 26 26. (1. –10. We can tell because all of the points (−3. 5) . y = 8 x = 3. –700. but all are not on any of the others. 5. 2. y2 = 2 − x . y = 5 x = 3. –2. 28. . y = 5 x = −2. (−1. and (3. 30. 0. –1. y = 27 131 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 0 37. y = −28 x = −2 . 1000 x = −2. Yes.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 0) . y = −27 35. The equation that corresponds to Y in the table 2 x = 1. It passes through the point (0. 4) . 80. 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 700. (−2. y = 1 36. 40.1) . and (3. y = 0 x = −3.

The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 44. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 5) (2. 1. a. 2). −3 ( −3. 1. 40. 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graphs of Y and Y intersect at the points 1 2 ( −2. 2. 45. 41. −2 ( −2.1) . The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. 2. a. a. b.Functions and Graphs 38. b. a. 0). 46. 2). The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 4) and (1. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. a. 0). 0) and (–2. 5) −1 ( −1. 2) 39. 51. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. The values of Y1 and Y2 are the same when x = −2 and x = 1 . 43. –1. 50. 5) 1 2 (1. x ( x. 0 (0. The graph does not intersect the y-axis. 5) 47. –4. The graph intersects the x-axis at (2. The graph does not intersect the x-axis. a. 0). –2. 132 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 5) 3 (3. y ) none. b. The graph intersect the y-axis at (0. 1). b. Inc. –1. 49. 2).–4). 42. 1. (0. 5) 2. . b. b. 2. 0). The graph intersects the x-axis at (–1. 5) none. 1. 0) and (–1. 0).

y ) −3 ( −3. e. −1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − .2⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . 133 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) x − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 53. M = −0. This underestimates the value in the graph.4(25) + 28 = 18 According to formula. −2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . 18% of seniors used marijuana in 2005. According to the line graph. ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 55. −1) 1 2 (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. Inc. −3 ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . 44% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. −1) 3 (3. c. The minimum for marijuana was reached in 1990.1 54. x −2 −1 − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 ( x. −1) 0 (0. According to the line graph. b. According to the line graph.3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . 2006 is 26 years after 1980.1) ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ 2. A = −n + 70 A = −(26) + 70 = 44 According to formula. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. −2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ (1. about 45% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. a. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. d.3 ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . about 14% of seniors used marijuana in 1990. This underestimates the value in the graph by 2%. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2005. −3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . −1) (2.PreCalculus 4E 52. −1) −1 −1 ( −1. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. ( x. 2005 is 25 years after 1980. −1) −2 −2 ( −2. x Section 1. .1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − .4n + 28 M = −0.2⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ (1. −1) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 2. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( x.

(a) 81. 6 ) ( 2. 0 ) (1. A sample change is: 3(5) − 2(2) ≠ −4. 83. false. y ) ( −2. a. 4 ) 84. about 22% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. 78. M = −0. (c) 82. 75. The difference between the number of awakenings for 25-year-old men and women is about 1. does not make sense. ( x. A sample change is: A point on the x-axis will have y = 0. x y = 2x + 4 –2 y = 2( −2) + 4 = 0 67. Sample explanation: As the time of day goes up. 2 ) ( 0. 70. c. Answers may vary. about 72% of seniors used alcohol in 1980. d. 134 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: These three points are not collinear. false. (a) 76.4n + 28 M = −0. Explanations will vary. false. 1 y = 2(1) = 2 2 y = 2(2) = 4 ( −2. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 60. 71. averaging about 8 awakenings per night. – 66.9. According to the line graph. y ) –2 y = 2( −2) = −4 58. A sample change is: The product of the coordinates of a point in quadrant III is also positive. A = −n + 70 A = −(20) + 70 = 50 According to formula. According to the line graph. men have the greatest number of awakenings.4(20) + 28 = 20 According to formula. This matches the value in the graph. (c) 2000 is 20 years after 1980. Sample explanation: Most graphing utilities do not display numbers an the axes. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 2000 is 20 years after 1980. −2 ) ( 0. b.8) . (d) 77. x y = 2x ( x. (b) 80. 73. 2 ) ( 2. 61. 57. e. This underestimates the value in the graph. averaging about 1 awakening per night.Functions and Graphs 56. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. 0 ) ( −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 0 y = 2(0) = 0 59. Explanations will vary. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. (b) According to the line graph. 79. The difference between the number of awakenings for 18-year-old men and women is about 1. At age 65. women have the least number of awakenings. −4 ) ( −1. Inc. does not make sense. true 74. (b) The maximum for alcohol was reached in 1980. At age 8. 72. 4 ) (1. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. 0 y = 2(0) + 4 = 4 1 y = 2(1) + 4 = 6 2 y = 2(2) + 4 = 8 69.1. makes sense –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 68. Set 1 has each x-coordinate paired with only one ycoordinate. the total calories burned will also go up. Explanations will vary.

2 ) ( 2. −2. 2. y = ± 1 − 02 = ±1 ). the x-coordinates are –3 and 3. a. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y 2 = 1 − x2 4. b. = 42 b. x f ( x) = 2x -2 –4 -1 –2 0 0 1 2 2 4 ( x. −2 ) ( 0. domain: { x −2 < x ≤ 1} or range: { y −1 ≤ y < 2} or f (− x) = (− x) 2 − 2(− x) + 7 c. a. x2 + y 2 = 1 6. f (5) = 400 b. 6. y is a function of x for the graphs in (a) and (b). 0 ) (1.1] . 30. −1} . = x 2 − ( −2 x ) + 7 domain: { x −3 ≤ x < 0} or range: { y y = −3. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. y ) -2 g ( −2 ) = 2( −2) − 3 = −7 -1 g ( −1) = 2( −1) − 3 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 2(0) − 3 = −3 1 g (1) = 2(1) − 3 = −1 2 g ( 2 ) = 2(2) − 3 = 1 ( −2.7. then 7. a. 2x + y = 6 y = −2 x + 6 For each value of x. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. f (9) = 100 c.2 Check Point Exercises 1. The minimum T cell count in the asymptomatic stage is approximately 425. b. g ( x) = 2x − 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 3 units. so the equation defines y as a function of x. a. −7 ) ( −1. x = 9 . The y-coordinates are all real numbers greater than or equal to 1. −4 ) ( −1.1. there is one and only one value for y. f (−5) = (−5)2 − 2(−5) + 7 = 25 − (−10) + 7 8.4}. y = ± 1 − x2 Since there are values of x (all values between – 1 and 1 exclusive) that give more than one value for y (for example. the y-coordinate is 3. Section 1. −3) (1. 36}. 4 ) Section 1. The domain is the set of all first components: {0. 2 ) . 10. [ −1. 20.1] . [0. a.PreCalculus 4E 85. c. The x-coordinates are all real numbers. 3. if x = 0. −1) ( 2.2. ( x. 13. 3] . When the x-coordinate is 2. [ −3. 6) and (5. 17. 8) have the same first component but different second components.1) The graph (c) fails the vertical line test and is therefore not a function. . When the y-coordinate is 4. x [ −2. d. 10.7. = x 2 + 6 x + 15 c. the equation does not define y as a function of x. domain: { x −2 ≤ x ≤ 1} or range: { y 0 ≤ y ≤ 3} or f ( x + 4) = ( x + 4) 2 − 2( x + 4) + 7 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 − 2 x − 8 + 7 b. The range is the set of all second components: {9. −5) ( 0. = x + 2x + 7 2 ( −2. y ) ( −2.2 a. 0 ) . 135 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5. b.

18. 0}. 7) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (6. 3. 7. 11. 7} and the range is {–2. – 1. x + y = 25 y = 25 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6) and (6. 3. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. x 2 + y = 16 y = 16 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 10} and the range is {1. The domain is {1. y is a function of x. 17. 4 x = y2 y = ± 4 x = ±2 x If x = 1. y = ±1. 13. –5. The domain is {–3. x 2 + y 2 = 25 y 2 = 25 − x 2 y = ± 25 − x 2 If x = 0.2 1. The relation is a function since there are no ordered pairs that have the same first component but different second components. 5. 4. –1. x + y = 16 16. 6. y = ±4. y = 16 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. –2. y is a function of x. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {3. 8. The domain is {–7. –3. 6}. 4. y = 5 and y = –5. –5. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {–2. can be obtained for x = 1. Inc. y is a function of x. y = 1 and y = –1. 4} and the range is {4. 4. 6}. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (3. 5)). 5. y = ±5. 7)). –1. then y = ±2. 6} and the range is {1}. can be obtained for one value of x. 12. 6} and the range is {6. The relation is a function since there are no same first components with different second components. The domain is {1} and the range is {4. y = 4 and y = – 4. Since two values. 136 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8}. 5. –2. Since two values. x = y2 y=± x If x = 1. can be obtained for one value of x. can be obtained for x = 1. . Since two values. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {4. 7}. 0} and the range is {–7. 7. 5} and the range is {2. 6) and (5. 4. y is not a function of x. y is not a function of x. The domain is {3. 10. x 2 + y = 25 y = 25 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 5. 8} and the range is {5. 5}. –3. y is a function of x. 9}. 4) and (4. 4) and (3. 9. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. 15. x 2 + y 2 = 16 y 2 = 16 − x 2 y = ± 16 − x 2 If x = 0. The relation is not a function since there are ordered pairs with the same first component and different second components. y = 2 and y = –2.Functions and Graphs Exercise Set 1. 2. 6. y is not a function of x. 0}. 5) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (4. 1. 5. 0} and the range is {–3. 5}. 14. The relation is a function since there are no two ordered pairs that have the same first component and different second components. The domain is {4. The domain is {5. Since two values. y is not a function of x.

a. y is a function of x. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 4 − ( − x ) 2 + 1 = x 4 − x 2 + 1 d. y is a function of x. y = − x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. f(x + 1) = 4(x + 1) + 5 = 4x + 9 c. h(2) = 24 − 22 + 1 = 16 − 4 + 1 = 13 x −y=2 b. f(–x) = 4(–x) + 5 = – 4x + 5 28. a. 31. y is a function of x. b. y = x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. Section 1. a. f(–x) = 3(–x) + 7 = –3x + 7 29. 24. g (− x) = (− x)2 − 10(− x) − 3 = x 2 + 10 x − 3 1 y= x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. g (−1) = (−1)2 + 2(−1) + 3 = 1− 2 + 3 =2 = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + 2 x + 10 + 3 y 3 = 27 − x 23. 20. a. . a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 22. y is a function of x. xy + 2 y = 1 1 x+2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. g ( x + 5) = ( x + 5) 2 + 2( x + 5) + 3 = x 2 + 12 x + 38 y = 3 27 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x.2 27. y is a function of x. x + y 3 = 27 c. Inc. h(3a) = (3a) 4 − (3a) 2 + 1 = 81a 4 − 9a 2 + 1 −y = − x +5 y = x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. f(6) = 4(6) + 5 = 29 x −y=5 c. y is a function of x. y is a function of x. 21. g (−1) = (−1) 2 − 10(−1) − 3 = 1 + 10 − 3 =8 g ( x + 2) = ( x + 2) 2 − 10(8 + 2) − 3 = x 2 + 4 x + 4 − 10 x − 20 − 3 = x 2 − 6 x − 19 xy − 5 y = 1 y ( x − 5) = 1 c. 137 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(4) = 3(4) + 7 = 19 b. 30. g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + 2(− x) + 3 = x2 − 2x + 3 y ( x + 2) = 1 25. 26. x + y3 = 8 y3 = 8 − x f(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) + 7 = 3x + 10 c. y is a function of x. y = 3 8− x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y= b. b.PreCalculus 4E 19. −y = − x + 2 y = x −2 h(−1) = (−1)4 − (−1) 2 + 1 = 1 −1 +1 =1 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x.

f (−24) = 25 − (−24) − 6 = 49 − 6 = 7−6 =1 c. f (−2) = 4(−2) 2 − 1 15 = 4 (−2) 2 c. f (−5) = c. Inc.if x > −6 138 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 32. f (2) = 4(2)2 − 1 15 = 4 22 b. f (2) = f (−6) = −6 + 6 + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3 37. h(−2) = (−2)3 − (−2) + 1 = −8 + 2 + 1 = −5 c. a. b. a. f (−9 − x) = −5 + 3 8 8 = =1 −2 −2 = −9 − x + 3 −9 − x + 3 − x − 6 ⎧ 1. a. 4(2)3 + 1 33 = 23 8 b. f (25 − 2 x) = 25 − (25 − 2 x) − 6 = 2x − 6 35. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 3 − ( − x ) + 1 = − x 3 + x + 1 d. f (r 2 ) = =7 c. f (6) = f (10) = 10 + 6 + 3 = 16 + 3 = 4+3 6 =1 6 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 2 = −1 −2 . a. f ( x − 6) = x − 6 + 6 + 3 = x + 3 f (16) = 25 − 16 − 6 = 9 − 6 = 3 − 6 = −3 38. b. f (− x) = 4(− x)2 − 1 4 x 2 − 1 = (− x) 2 x2 f (5) = −6 −6 = = −1 −6 6 r2 r2 5+3 5+3 = r2 =1 r2 = −5 + 3 b. 34. if x < −6 = =⎨ − x − 6 ⎩−1. a. f (−6) = c. h(3) = 33 − 3 + 1 = 25 36. a. 3 33. f (− x) = 4(− x)3 + 1 −4 x 3 + 1 = (− x)3 − x3 4 x3 − 1 x3 or = 27 a − 3a + 1 b. h(3a) = (3a)3 − (3a) + 1 f (−2) = 4(−2)3 + 1 −31 31 = = −8 8 (−2)3 c.

2 ) ( 0. y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. −6 ) ( −1. −1) ( 0. −2 ) ( 2.3) ( −1. 0 ) (1. 41. 0 ) (1. 2 ) 39. 40. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x − 1 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) − 1 = 3 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) − 1 = 1 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 x f ( x) = x ( x. 4 ) ( −1. y ) 1 g (1) = −2 (1) − 1 = −3 −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) − 1 = −5 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 ( −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1) ( 2. Inc. 2 ) ( 0. −1) ( 0. −3) ( 2.5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 4 units.1) ( −1. y ) ( −2. 139 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3) (1.2 f ( x) = x ( x. −2 ) ( −1. 2 ) x g ( x) = x − 4 ( x. −1) (1. 4 ) ( 2.1) ( 2. y ) ( −2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. x 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 x g ( x) = x + 3 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 3 = 1 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 3 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = 1 + 3 = 4 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 3 = 5 ( x. −2 ) ( −1. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 ( −2.1) ( 0. −4 ) ( x. . −5) ( 0. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 4 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 4 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 4 = −4 1 g (1) = 1 − 4 = −3 2 g ( 2 ) = 2 − 4 = −2 ( −2. −4 ) (1. −5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. −3) ( 2. −2 ) ( x.

140 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) 44. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x + 3 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) + 3 = 7 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) + 3 = 5 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = −2 (1) + 3 = 1 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) + 3 = −1 ( x.1) ( 2. 4 ) ( −1.5 ) ( −1.Functions and Graphs 42.1) ( 2. 43.5 ) ( 0. −2 ) (1. 0 ) (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 ) x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 2 = 2 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = (1) − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 2 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. 2 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units. . ( x.1) ( 0. 2 ) ( 2.1) (1. 4 ) ( −1. y ) ( −2. 7 ) ( −1.3) (1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. y ) ( −2. −4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit. 2 ) ( −1. x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 + 1 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 1 = 5 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 1 = 2 0 g (0) = (0) + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = (1) + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) + 1 = 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. 0 ) (1. −1) ( 0. −2 ) ( 2. 4 ) ( x. 4 ) ( x. y ) ( −2. −1) ( 2. 2 ) ( 0. y ) ( −2. y ) ( −2.1) ( 0. 0 ) (1. Inc. 2 ) ( 0.1) ( 2. 4 ) ( −1. y ) ( −2.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1) ( 0. 0 ) ( −1. 0 ) (1.3) f ( x ) = x3 ( x. −1) ( 2. −2 ) (1. 0 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit. 2 ) ( 0. Section 1.1) ( 2.2 x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 2 = 0 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = 1 − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 2 = 0 ( x.1) ( 0.1) ( 0. 2 ) ( 2. 2 ) ( −1. −1) 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( 0.8) x −2 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 + 2 ( x. Inc.1) ( 2. x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x +1 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 1 = 3 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 1 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 1 = 3 ( x. 2 ) (1.1) ( 2. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 2 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 2 = 1 0 g ( 0) = ( 0) + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = (1) + 2 = 3 2 g ( 2 ) = ( 2 ) + 2 = 10 ( −2.1) (1. y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( x.3) ( 2. 2 ) ( x. 46.1) ( 0. 141 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 45. −8) −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 ( −1.3) ( −1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units.10 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. y ) ( −2. y ) ( −2. . y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1. y ) f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 ( −2. 47. −6 ) ( −1. 2 ) ( −1.

y ) ( −2. 4 ) (1. −1) ( −1. −1) (1. −1) ( 2.5) ( 2. −1) ( 0. y ) ( −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1) ( 0.3) ( 0.Functions and Graphs 48.1) ( 2.5) (1.3) (1. −1) (1. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( −2. −8) ( −1. 4 ) ( −1. −1) x g ( x) = 4 −2 g ( −2 ) = 4 −1 g ( −1) = 4 0 g ( 0) = 4 1 g (1) = 4 2 g ( 2) = 4 ( x. x f ( x ) = −1 ( x. 50. x f ( x ) = x3 ( x. 142 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. 0 ) ( 2.5) ( 0. 49.5) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 5 units. −2 ) ( 0. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 1 = −9 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 1 = −2 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = (1) − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 1 = 7 ( −2. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −1 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0 ) = −1 1 f (1) = −1 2 f ( 2 ) = −1 ( −2. 4 ) ( 2.3) ( x. 4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. 0 ) (1. 4 ) ( 0. y ) ( −2. x f ( x) = 3 −2 f ( −2 ) = 3 −1 f ( −1) = 3 0 f ( 0) = 3 1 f (1) = 3 2 f ( 2) = 3 x g ( x) = 5 −2 g ( −2 ) = 5 −1 g ( −1) = 5 0 g ( 0) = 5 1 g (1) = 5 2 g ( 2) = 5 ( x.5) ( −1.8) 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 − 1 ( x. −9 ) ( −1. .3) ( 2.3) ( −1. Inc.

2 ) (10. 0 ) ( 4. ( x. 5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted right 1 unit.1) ( 4. 0 ) (1. ( x. 2 ) (1.3) ( 4. 0 ) (1. y ) ( 0. Inc. 0 ) (1.3) 53.PreCalculus 4E 51. Section 1.1) ( 5.3) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. 52. y ) ( 0. 2 ) ( 9. y ) ( 0. 2 ) ( 9. 0 ) ( 2. y ) ( 0. y ) (1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units.3) ( x. 2 ) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 1 = 1 5 g ( 5) = 5 − 1 = 2 10 g (10 ) = 10 − 1 = 3 ( x. −1) (1.3) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = 1 + 2 = 3 4 g ( 4) = 4 + 2 = 4 ( x. 2 ) ( 9. y ) ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 143 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1) ( 4.1) ( 9.2 x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 4 g ( 4) = 4 −1 = 1 9 g (9) = 9 −1 = 2 ( x.1) ( 4. 4 ) 9 g (9) = 9 + 2 = 5 (9 .

y ) ( −2. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted left 2 units. y-intercept: –3 e. range: (–∞. y ) ( 0. f (2) = −4 67. When x = 1. g ( 2 ) = −2 73. . function d.Functions and Graphs 54. function c. f ( −2 ) = −4 66. When x = −2. range: [1. 0 ) ( −1. f (−4) = 4 69.1) ( 4. not a function d. f (−2) = 3 and domain: (−∞. y-intercept: 3 59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) b. 2 ) ( 7. not a function e. Inc. g ( −4 ) = 2 ( x. ∞) 62. function 78. function b. ∞) 61. a. 77. a.3) 68. g ( x ) = 1. f ( 4) = 4 f (2) = −5 f (−1) = 2 and f (3) = 4 144 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g (10) = −2 75. range: [−4. g ( x) = −1. g ( −10 ) = 2 74. ∞) c. 60. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 58. a. f (−2) = −3 and f (2) = 5 domain: (–∞.1) ( 2. f ( −3 ) = 0 70. 65. domain: (−∞.3) 72. 4] 57. not a function c. 76. y-intercept: 1 64. function e. not a function 79. function b. f (−1) = 0 71. x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 2 = 0 –1 g ( −1) = −1 + 2 = 1 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 2 = 2 7 g (7) = 7 + 2 = 3 ( x. 2 ) ( 9. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 d. ∞) 55. 0 ) (1. 56. x-intercept: none 63.

y-intercept: –1 e. ∞) b. range: (−∞. x-intercept: –1 d. a. a. domain: [–3. a. 0) ∪ (0. 1. ∞ ) domain: (–∞. f(3) = 2 85. range: [1. range: [0. ∞) c. 4) e.1) ∪ (1.2 domain: (–∞. y-intercept: 0 e. ∞) c. y-intercept: −1 f(2) = 1 b. a. range: [0. domain: (−∞. 90.5 e. range: [–5. ∞) c. f(4) = 3 b. 5) c. 0. 6] domain: (−∞. f(–5) = 2 82.75 d. f(4) = 6 84. range: (0. 0] d. a. a. a. y-intercept: –3 e. ∞) domain: [–1. y-intercept: 1 81. y-intercept: 1. domain: [0. y-intercept: 2 e. x-intercept: { x x ≤ 0} d. domain: [–2. b. y-intercept: –2 b. d. Inc. x-intercept: –3. range: [–2. range: [–3. 88. x-intercept: none d. f(–4) = –5 and f(4) = –2 c. range: [0. f(–1) = 5 domain: {–5. domain: [0. x-intercept: none d. ∞) domain: (−∞. a. − 2] f(3) = 1 c. ∞) b. 5] c. 6] c. x-intercept: none d. ∞) b. x-intercept: 2 d. x-intercept: 4 e. x-intercept: none d. . f(–2) = 0 and f(2) = 4 b. Section 1. 1 2 87. x-intercept: –1 d.PreCalculus 4E 80. ∞) c. –2. y-intercept: 1 e. a. range: [–1. 86. e. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y-intercept: 1 e. 2] b. a. 89. range: {2} c. y-intercept: 4 91. 3} b. x-intercept: none domain: (–6. a. 5) e. ∞) b. x-intercept: − f(–4) = 3 and f(3) = 4 d. ∞) c. a. ∞) c. range: (−∞. f(–2) = –3 b. f (−5) + f (3) = 2 + 2 = 4 145 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 83. y-intercept: 1 e.

a.7 ) . b. ( Finland. New Zealand ) .6 in the domain corresponds to both Finland and New Zealand in the range. 9. 9. ( 9. {( 9. 1. ( 9.6. 4} 92. ( Denmark. Iceland ) . Yes. Inc.Functions and Graphs domain: {–5. . 146 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) + ( − x ) − 5 − ( x3 + x − 5) 3 = − x 3 − x − 5 − x 3 − x + 5 = −2 x 3 − 2 x 98. {( Iceland. 9. range: {–2} c. −4 − ( −1) − ( −3) + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 2 = −4 + 1 − 9 + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 = −3 − 9 + −1 ⋅ −6 = 3 − 9 + 6 = −6 + 6 = 0 97. No. 9. ( 9. Denmark )} d. c. 3 − ( −1) − ( −6 ) + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 2 = 3 + 1 − 36 + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 = 4 − 36 + −1 ⋅ 4 = 2 − 36 + −4 = −34 + −4 = −38 96. f ( g ( −1) ) = f ( −8) = ( −8) − ( −8 ) + 4 2 = 64 + 8 + 4 = 76 95.5 )} b.7. x-intercept: none d.6 ) . f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) − 3 ( − x ) + 7 − ( x 2 − 3x + 7 ) 2 = x 2 + 3x + 7 − x 2 + 3 x − 7 = 6x 99. –2. 0. the relation is not a function.5. a. Finland ) . g (1) = 3 (1) − 5 = 3 − 5 = −2 93.6 ) .6. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range. 9. the relation is a function. y-intercept: –2 f (−5) + f (4) = −2 + (−2) = −4 e. ( New Zealand. f ( g (1) ) = f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) + 4 2 = 4 + 2 + 4 = 10 g ( −1) = 3 ( −1) − 5 = −3 − 5 = −8 94. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

8)} b. 1.6 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91.6(4) + 94 = 91. or 2004. Yes.2 {( Bangladesh. the average number of takeout orders approximately equaled the average number of inrestaurant meals 4 years after 1984. g (90) = 10 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 10%.127). ( Haiti.125(18)2 + 5. This is represented on the graph by the point (20. (1. Chad ) . R( x) = −0.6(20) + 94 = 82 Americans ordered an average of 82 meals in restaurants per person 20 years after 1984. a. (1.7 ) . or 2002. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range.94).126).25 x + 72 T (20) = −0.7 ) . Section 1.25 x + 72 T (18) = −0.6 meals in restaurants per person.125(4)2 + 5. f (70) = 83 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 83%.25(4) + 72 = 91 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91 takeout meals per person. 147 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.25 x + 72 T (4) = −0. According to the graphs. 1. 1.6(0) + 94 = 94 Americans ordered an average of 94 meals in restaurants per person 0 years after 1984.25(20) + 72 = 127 Americans ordered an average of 127 takeout meals per person 20 years after 1984. the relation is a function. a.125(20)2 + 5. b. Myanmar )} d. This is represented on the graph by the point (20.7 in the domain corresponds to both Bangladesh and Chad in the range.6 x + 94 R(20) = −0. g (70) = 76 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 76%. T ( x) = −0. 103. No. {(1. a.6 x + 94 R (4) = −0. a.125 x 2 + 5. R ( x) = −0. or 1984. or 1988. This is represented on the graph by the point (0.82).7. 104. or 2004.8 ) . 101. ( Chad. Bangladesh ) . . T ( x) = −0.7. c. This is represented on the graph by the point (18. Publishing as Prentice Hall.125 x 2 + 5. the relation is not a function. f (90) = 25 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 25%. Function f is the better model. b. Haiti ) . 1.8. 102. 1. b. c.25(18) + 72 = 126 Americans ordered an average of 126 takeout meals per person 18 years after 1984. b. Inc. ( Myanmar. R( x) = −0.125 x 2 + 5. T ( x) = −0. a. Function f is the better model. (1. c.PreCalculus 4E 100.6 x + 94 R(0) = −0.8. c.

Functions and Graphs 105. 2( x + h) 2 + 3( x + h) + 5 − (2 x 2 + 3x + 5) 123. 121. 2 ) . It is not true for f ( x ) = x 2 . f (a + h) = 3(a + h) + 7 = 3a + 3h + 7 f (a ) = 3a + 7 f ( a + h) − f ( a ) h ( 3a + 3h + 7 ) − ( 3a + 7 ) = h 3a + 3h + 7 − 3a − 7 3h = = =3 h h 106. To find f (2) . Sample explanation: The parentheses used in function notation. 000 + 100(90) = $109. Sample explanation: The domain is the number of years worked for the company. 000 It will cost $109. 109. 122.40(t − 60) C (100) = 20 + 0. Explanations will vary. An example is {(1. makes sense 129. rewrite 2 as 1 + 1. false. 107. the monthly cost is $36. false. f (2) = f (1 + 1) = f (1) + f (1) = 3+3 = 6 Similarly: f (3) = f (2 + 1) = f (2) + f (1) = 6+3= 9 f (4) = f (3 + 1) = f (3) + f (1) = 9 + 3 = 12 While f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) is true for this function. Answers may vary.1). Changes to make the statement true will vary. such as f ( x). there will be 15 mL of sodium-iodine in the vaccine. 131.60(50 − x) S (30) = 0. = 2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 − 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x − 3 x + 3h + 5 − 5 124. 120. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the car will be worth $12. V ( x) = 22. – 117. . Inc. your total trip will take 2 hours. false. does not make sense.40(40) = 20 + 16 = 36 For 100 calling minutes. do not imply multiplication. true = 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3h 148 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.60(50 − 30) = 15 When 30 mL of the 10% mixture is mixed with 20 mL of the 60% mixture.10(30) + 0.40(100 − 60) = 20 + 0. 900 After 3 years.500 − 3200(3) = $12. A sample change is: f (0) = 0. 4]. C ( x) = 100. for example. 40 40 + x x + 30 40 40 T ( 30 ) = + 30 30 + 30 80 40 = + 60 60 120 = 60 =2 If you travel 30 mph going and 60 mph returning. Explanations will vary.8 C (90) = 100. 119.1)} 128. 500 − 3200 x V (3) = 22. A sample change is: The domain is [−4. Changes to make the statement true will vary. S ( x) = 0. 118. 108. does not make sense. 000 + 100 x 125. A sample change is: The range is [ −2. does not make sense.(2. it is not true for all functions.000 to produce 90 bicycles. Answers may vary.900. Explanations will vary. It is given that f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) and f (1) = 3 . T ( x) = 127. Sample explanation: This would not be a function because some elements in the domain would correspond to more than one age in the range.10 x + 0. 130. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 126. C (t ) = 20 + 0.

3. C (40) = 20 With 40 calling minutes. ∞) b.3 b. and increasing on the interval (1. a. decreasing: (–1. b. increasing: (–1. the cost is $28. This is represented by ( 40. –1).3 Section 1. decreasing: none c. if t > 60 Since 0 ≤ 40 ≤ 60 . decreasing: none c.40(80 − 60) = 28 With 80 calling minutes.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.3 3. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 + 2 x 2 − x − 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 Exercise Set 1. increasing: (–3. decreasing: (−∞. the cost is $20. constant: none 4. 20 ) . − 1) c. c. g (− x ) = 7(− x)3 − (− x) = −7 x3 + x = − f ( x) The function is odd. 4. ∞) c. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 60 1. increasing: (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –1) b. 2. = The function is increasing on the interval (–∞. Check Point Exercises 1. decreasing on the interval (–1. increasing: none b. f ( x ) = −2 x 2 + x + 5 f ( x + h) = −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) + 5 = −2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + x + h + 5 = −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 6. increasing: (–∞. c. constant: none a. decreasing: (–2. h( − x ) = ( − x )5 + 1 = − x 5 + 1 The function is neither even nor odd. constant: none a. ∞) b. 2. 5. 1). f (− x) = (− x) 2 + 6 = x 2 + 6 = f ( x) The function is even. Inc. C (80) = 20 + 0. This is represented by ( 80. 28 ) . constant: none a. 149 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ) . ⎧ 20 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩ 20 + 0. constant: none a. increasing: (−1.40(t − 60) b. a. ( −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 − −2 x 2 + x + 5 5. a. ∞) b. 6) c. Since 80 > 60 . constant: none a. ∞). 2) b. decreasing: none c.

a. f ( x) = x 3 + x f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 + (− x ) f ( − x ) = − x 3 − x = −( x 3 + x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). relative minimum = –1 24. x = 0. 13.Functions and Graphs 7. even function 16. increasing: (−∞. h( x ) = x 2 − x 4 increasing: (–2. 0) f ( − x ) = − x 3 + x = −( x 3 − x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). increasing: (0. increasing: (−∞. x = −2. h( x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 increasing: none h(− x ) = 2(− x )2 + (− x) 4 b. g ( x) = x 2 − x g ( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − (− x ) g (− x ) = x 2 + x. 0) or (2.5) or (3. 0) or (1. a. constant: none g (− x) = x 2 − x. ∞) a. constant: (−1. increasing: (−5. even function 14. decreasing: (−4. ∞ ) h( − x ) = x 2 − x 4 h(− x) = h( x). . even function 11. a. 1. ∞ ) 12. odd function 18. a. x = −3. relative maximum = 21 f (− x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 b. decreasing: none c. 4) b.5. Inc.5) c. neither 21. 4) h( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − ( − x ) 4 b. relative minimum = 0 f (− x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = f ( x). 19. − 2) or (4. 22. decreasing: (–4. a. relative maximum = 4 f ( x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) 4 + 1 b. constant: (−∞. 3. ∞) b. relative maximum = 2 b. 3) 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8. −2) or (0. decreasing: (0. −4) or (2. x = 4. decreasing: none f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 − ( − x ) c. x =1. h(− x ) = h( x). even function 23. 2) or (4. relative minimum = −6 f (− x) = f ( x). −4) or (−2. a. constant: none 20. 3. a. relative maximum = 30 b. f ( x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 f (− x) = 2(− x) 2 + (− x)4 + 1 15. a. x = 1. 9. odd function a. decreasing: none c. − 1) b. constant: (−∞. constant: (–∞. f ( x) = x3 − x g ( x) = x 2 + x b. 2) h( − x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 c. ∞) g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + (− x) c. x = 0. relative minimum = 3 150 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = −3. neither 10.

4] b. ∞ ) or [ 4. Inc. ∞ ) 5 f (− x) = −(2 x3 − 6 x 5 ) 27. f ( x) = f ( x) = 2 x3 − 6 x 5 f (− x) = 2(− x)3 − 6(− x)5 f ( − x ) = −2 x + 6 x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x). f (− x) ≠ − x domain: 2 ( −∞. f (− x) ≠ − x 2 f(–x) = f(x). The function is neither even nor odd. The function is odd. x = −4 and x = 4 l. f (2) = −2 and f (6) = −2 34. f (−2) = 4 k. odd function 28. y = −4 j. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. ( 4.3 1 6 x − 3x 2 5 1 f (− x) = (− x)6 − 3(− x) 2 5 1 f (− x) = x 6 − 3 x 2 5 f (− x) = f ( x) . ( −∞. x-intercepts: –4. f (−3) = 4 k. The function is odd. neither . ( 0. −2 ) f. 30. f (− x) ≠ x . 31.PreCalculus 4E 25. ( −∞. or ( 0. range: c. The graph is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. 1− (−x) 1− x range: l. −4] h. 32. a. x-intercepts: 1.∞ ) f. 26. even function 29. 4 d. 0 ) g. x = −2 and x = 3 i. ∞ ) b. ∞ ) ( −∞. ( −2. . The graph is not symmetric with respect to the y-axis or the origin. domain: neither . x=4 i. The function is even. even function 33. a. Section 1. y-intercept: 1 e. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (−2) = 4 and f (3) = 2 j. ( −∞. 7 d. 4 ) g. odd function f ( x) = x 1 − x 2 f (− x) = − x 1 − (− x) f (− x) = − x 1 − x 2 ( = − x 1 − x2 ) f (−x) = x 2 2 c. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. ( −∞. ∞ ) 151 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3) or ( 3. 2 f(–x) = – f(x). f (− x) ≠ x . y-intercept: 4 e. 0 ) h. f ( x ) = x2 1 − x2 f (−x) = (−x) [ −4.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. range: [ 0. f (1) = 4 i. Inc. g(–3) = –3 + 3 = 0 e. 3 f (0) = 1 43. ( 2. 6 ) g. a. a. h(5) = 10 zeros of f: –3. no. a. negative. ( −∞. ( −3. a. 0] a. domain: range: ( −∞. f(–2) = 3(–2) + 5 = –1 b.3] 39. ( −2. a. 6] c. x =1 j. f (−1) = +2 36. g(–6) = –(–6 + 3) = –(–3) = 3 ( −∞. f (0) = 3 e. h(5) = 52 − 9 25 − 9 16 = = =8 5−3 2 2 b. 3 d. 2 ) h. ( −∞. f(0) = 7(0) + 3 = 3 c. a. 40. ( −∞. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. f(4) = 7(4) + 3 = 31 b. 3) i. range: c. (1. g(0) = 0 + 3 = 3 f(–3) = 6(–3) – 1 = –19 b.3) ( −∞. g. 44.1] d. a. a. positive. g(0) = 0 + 5 = 5 b. h(0) = 02 − 25 −25 = =5 0−5 −5 c. 152 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 35. 4] b. f(3) = 4(3) + 7 = 19 38. f(0) = 4(0) + 7 = 7 c. a. neither l. g(–6) = –(–6 + 5) = –(–1) = 1 c. x-intercepts: –3. h(3) = 6 42. g(–5) = –5 + 5 = 0 41. h(0) = 0 2 − 9 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 c. −2 ) f. h(7) = 7 2 − 25 49 − 25 24 = = = 12 7 −5 2 2 b. domain: ( −∞. b. 37. c. b. f (4) = −1 k. f(2) is not greater than the function values to the immediate left.1) f. −3] h. . x = −5 and x = 5 j.

b. range: (−∞. 46. ∞) b. 0] ∪ {2} 50. 49. ∞) range: {−3. 48. range: a. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 51. range: ( −∞. 4} a. b. range: (−∞. b. b. ∞ ) a. a. b. b. range: [ 0. 3} a. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. Section 1. 52.PreCalculus 4E 45. . ( −∞. 47. 0] ∪ {3} a. Inc. 0] ∪ [3. a.3 range: {−4. 153 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a.

∞ ) 58. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 7( x + h) − 7 x = h 7 x + 7h − 7 x = h 7h = h =7 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2( x + h) 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 2( x + 2 xh + h 2 ) − 2 x 2 = h 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 4 xh + 2h = h h ( 4 x + 2h ) = h = 4 x + 2h 154 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 55. b. range: [ 0. Inc. a. 56. 59. . range: [ −1. 57. b. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 54. ∞ ) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 3( x + h) + 7 − (3x + 7) = h 3x + 3h + 7 − 3x − 7 = h 3h = h =3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 6( x + h) + 1 − (6 x + 1) = h 6 x + 6h + 1 − 6 x − 1 = h 6h = h =6 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( x + h) 2 − x2 h x + 2 xh + h 2 − x 2 = h 2 2 xh + h = h h ( 2x + h) = h = 2x + h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 4( x + h) − 4 x = h 4 x + 4h − 4 x = h 4h = h =4 2 60.Functions and Graphs 53.

2 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (2 x 2 + x − 1) 2 = f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) − 3 ( x + h ) + 1 − (− x 2 − 3x + 1) 2 = h 2 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h + x + h − 1 − 2 x 2 − x + 1 = h 2 4 xh + 2h + h = h h ( 4 x + 2h + 1) = h = 4 x + 2h + 1 h − x − 2 xh − h − 3 x − 3h + 1 + x 2 + 3x − 1 = h 2 −2 xh − h − 3h = h h ( −2 x − h − 3) = h = −2 x − h − 3 2 2 155 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 63. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 61. 62.3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 4( x + h) + 3 − ( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − 4 x − 4h + 3 − x 2 + 4 x − 3 = h 2 xh + h 2 − 4h = h h(2 x + h − 4) = h = 2x + h − 4 64. 3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) + 5 − (3 x 2 + x + 5) 2 = h 3x 2 + 6 xh + 3h 2 + x + h + 5 − 3x 2 − x − 5 = h 6 xh + 3h 2 + h = h h ( 6 x + 3h + 1) = h = 6 x + 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 5( x + h) + 8 − ( x 2 − 5 x + 8) = h 2 2 x + 2 xh + h − 5 x − 5h + 8 − x 2 + 5 x − 8 = h 2 2 xh + h − 5h = h h ( 2 x + h − 5) = h = 2x + h − 5 65. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 1. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) + 4 − (− x 2 + 2 x + 4) 2 = h − x − 2 xh − h + 2 x + 2h + 4 + x 2 − 2 x − 4 = h 2 −2 xh − h + 2h = h h ( −2 x − h + 2 ) = h = −2 x − h + 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 66.

Functions and Graphs 67. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2 ( x + h ) − ( x + h ) + 3 − (−2 x 2 − x + 3) 2 = h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h − x − h + 3 + 2 x 2 + x − 3 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h − h = h h ( −4 x − 2h − 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h − 1 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − x h x + = h − ( x + h) x + x ( x + h) x ( x + h) = h x−x−h x ( x + h) = h −h x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ x ( x + h) h −1 = x ( x + h) 156 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 70. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 7 − 7 0 = = =0 h h h −3 ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + 2 x − 1) 2 = h 2 2 −3x − 6 xh − 3h + 2 x + 2h − 1 + 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = h 2 −6 xh − 3h + 2h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 2 ) = h = −6 x − 3h + 2 69. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 6 − 6 0 = = =0 h h h 72. Inc. 73. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + x − 1) h −3x 2 − 6 xh − 3h 2 + x + h − 1 + 3 x 2 − x + 1 = h −6 xh − 3h 2 + h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 1) = h = −6 x − 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 71. −2 ( x + h ) + 5 ( x + h ) + 7 − (−2 x 2 + 5 x + 7) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 = 2 = h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + 5 x + 5h + 7 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 7 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + 5h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 5 ) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 5 68. .

30(t − 400) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x+h − x h x+h − x x+h + x ⋅ h x+h + x x+h− x = = = = h h ( ( x+h + x h x+h + x ) ) 1 = 76.30(t − 120) = 30 + 0.9) − [ f (π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f ( −π ) 2 = 1 + 0 − [ −4 ] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ 3 2 = 1 − 16 + ( −1) ⋅ 3 = 1 − 16 − 3 = −18 78. 75.3t − 36 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9) − [ f (−π )] + f (−3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 = 2 − (−2) − [ 3] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ ( −4 ) 2 = 4 − 9 + ( −1)( −4 ) = 2−9+ 4 = −3 79.9) − [ f ( −π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 f (−2. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − 2( x + h) 2 x = h x x+h − 2 x ( x + h) 2 x ( x + h) = h −h 2 x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ 2 x ( x + h) h −1 = 2x ( x + h) 77.30(t − 200) = 40 + 0.5) − f (1.3t − 6 80.PreCalculus 4E 74. ⎧50 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩50 + 0. Inc. f ( −2.3t − 20 81. f ( −1.5) − f (1.5) + f ( −0. 30 + 0.3 x+h + x f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x + h −1 − x −1 h = x + h −1 − x −1 x + h −1 + x −1 ⋅ h x + h −1 + x −1 x + h − 1 − ( x − 1) = = = = = h h h ( ( ( x + h −1 + x −1 x + h −1 − x +1 x + h −1 + x −1 h x + h −1 + x −1 ) ) ) 1 x + h −1 + x −1 157 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 40 + 0. Section 1.3t − 60 = 0. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 400 if t > 400 .

5 ounces is $0. This maximum is 38%. 90. 75) 100.29. 108. 89. The percent body fat in women reaches a maximum at age 55. domain: [25. f (3) = 0. 38] 88.5) = 0.93.50 + 0. 000 − 7825) = 2608. This maximum is 26%. ⎧60 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩60 + 0. 0) or (2. 2) 158 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 − 31.000 owes $2608. which means that the minimum number of doctor visits. The minimum is (20.75 + 0. – 105.8 ounces is $0. 469.25 + 0.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $50. 000) = 782. domain: [25. if t > 450 98.Functions and Graphs 82. 87. . The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. about 4. 107.850) = 8923.93 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3. 96.75. increasing: (25. 55). T (20. 26] The number of doctor visits decreases during childhood and then increases as you get older.35( x − 349. 92. 93. 3.25 + 0. Increasing: (–2.33( x − 160. –2) or (0. 101. 85.35(t − 450) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 450 97. 39.5 ounces is $0.75. range: [34. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. 91. range: [23.76. Answers may vary. Inc. This model describes percent body fat in women. decreasing: (55. 75]. increasing: (25. occurs at around age 20.850) 94. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The percent body fat in men reaches a maximum at age 65.148. 3) T (50.59. 106. 65).75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $20. 000) = 4386. 83. decreasing: (65. This model describes percent body fat in men. 700) 95. 99. 86.15(20. 75) 84.25(50. 75].59. f (3.76 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3 ounces is $0. 1) or (3. Increasing: (−∞.000 owes $8923.99). The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. ∞) Decreasing: (1.

Sample explanation: It’s possible the graph is not defined at a. answers may vary Decreasing: (−∞. Increasing: (–∞. Increasing: (1. 109.3 b. ∞) 113. Inc. − 2) Constant: (–2. ∞) when n is odd. 0) Decreasing: (0. 115. a. Increasing: (2. b. 110. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 111. a. does not make sense. 1) 114. Decreasing: (−∞. f and g are both even: f (– x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) f and g are both odd: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = = h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) h is odd if f is odd and g is even or if f is even and g is odd. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. ∞) 118. ∞) c. makes sense Increasing: (0. makes sense 116. Explanations will vary. . 0) d. 0) 119. 2) Increasing: (0. f is odd and g is even: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x ) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) g ( x) f is even and g is odd: f (– x) f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) 159 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 120. h is even if both f and g are even or if both f and g are odd. answers may vary 112. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. e.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. makes sense 117. f ( x ) = x n is increasing from (–∞.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. –1). 123. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 6( x − 2) 3 x= 2 ⎛3 ⎞ The point is ⎜ .Functions and Graphs 121. 0). Section 1. move 3 units up and 5 units to the right. −1 − (−2) 1 so the slope is –5. m= −2 − 4 −6 = =6 −4 − (−3) −1 b. ⎝2 ⎠ When x = 0 : 4x − 3y − 6 = 0 The slope m is 3 5 and the y-intercept is 1. 1). so one point on the line is (1. 160 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y= y=− −6 − (−1) −5 = = −5 . y = 3 is a horizontal line. −2 ) . Using the point (–2. 0 ⎟ . m= 5 − (−2) 7 7 = =− −1 − 4 −5 5 4x − 6 = 0 4x = 6 2.4 4 −1 3 y2 − y1 = = =3 x2 − x1 −2 − (−3) 1 Check Point Exercises 1. to obtain the point (5. 4). we get the point slope equation: y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − (−1) = −5[ x − (−2)] x = −2 The point is ( 0. . 5. 4(0) − 3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y = 6 y + 1 = −5( x + 2). When y = 0 : 4x − 3 y − 6 = 0 4 x − 3(0) − 6 = 0 a. 124. answers may vary 122. We can find a second point on the line by using the slope m = 35 = Rise : starting at Run 3 x+2 2 the point (0. Inc. y + 5 = 6 x − 12 y = 6 x − 17 3.Solve the equation for y : y + 1 = −5 x − 10 3x + 2 y − 4 = 0 y = −5 x − 11. 2 y = −3 x + 4 −3 x + 4 2 or 4.

1 and the y-intercept is 2. m= 2 −1 1 = .0 Find the temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million. falls 4−6 −2 9. m= −2 − 3 −5 = undefined. m= 4−3 1 = . rises 3−2 1 3. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 57.64 − 57. Section 1. falls −1 − (−2) 1 8.016 x + 52.0 f (600) = 0. rises 2 − (−1) 3 5. m= 4 −1 3 = = 3. m= −1 − 4 −5 = = −5.016(600) + 52.016( x − 317) y − 57. First find the slope. m= −2 − (−4) 2 = = −1. m= 10 − 7 3 = . . Any value can be used for y.072 y = 0. Inc.4 The slope is − 8.4 All ordered pairs that are solutions of x = −3 have a value of x that is always –3. 9. 3x + 6 y − 12 = 0 6 y = −3 x + 12 −3 12 y= x+ 6 6 1 y = − x+2 2 Exercise Set 1. horizontal 3− 4 −1 6. rises 2 − (−2) 4 4.016 x − 5. m= −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. 7.04 = 0.04 0.6°F. 2 Find the x-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3x − 2(0) − 6 = 0 3x − 6 = 0 3x = 6 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3(0) − 2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y = 6 y = −3 1.016 Change in x 354 − 317 37 Use the point-slope form and then find slopeintercept form.968 f ( x) = 0. rises 8−4 4 2.PreCalculus 4E 6. m= 2 − (−2) 0 = = 0. Change in y 57.6 m= = = ≈ 0.016 x + 51. horizontal 3−4 −1 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 The temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million would be 61.016 x + 52. vertical 5−5 0 161 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.04 = 0. f ( x) = 0.0 = 61.

Functions and Graphs 5 − (−4) 9 = undefined. m = −5. 4 1 m = −1. y1 = 5. m= 11. 5 3 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 5 y = −4 x − 16 18. y1 = − . y1 = 0. . m = 4. 3 2 point-slope form: y + 2 = − ( x − 6). slope-intercept form: y = –5x – 22 17. x1 = 1. y1 = −2. y1 = 0. m = 2. y1 = −2. 2 25. x1 = −2. Inc. slope-intercept form: y = −4( x + 4) 3 24. point-slope form: y – 5 = 6(x + 2). x1 = 0. point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x − 0). slope-intercept form: y − 2 = 2 x − 2 or y − 10 = 2 x − 10. x1 = 3. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 6 x + 12 1 22. point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3). 1⎞ ⎛ point-slope form: y + 2 = −1⎜ x + ⎟ . y = 2x 162 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x1 = 0. 12. x1 = −2. 2⎠ ⎝ 1 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x − 2 5 y = −x − 2 10 − 2 8 = = 2. x1 = 0. point-slope form: y + 4 = − ( x − 10). 3 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 3 14. 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 2 m = 6. point-slope form: y + 2 = –5(x + 4). y1 = −3. y1 ) = (1. y1 = −2. point-slope form: y + 3 = –3(x + 2). x1 = 4. 1 ( x − 0). slope-intercept form: y = 8x – 33 m = −3. vertical 3−3 0 10. y1 = −4. m = −1. y1 = 5. or y – 10 = 2(x – 5) using m= ( x1 . x1 = −4. x1 = −4. 5 −1 4 point-slope form: y – 2 = 2(x – 1) using ( x1 . 10) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. slope-intercept form: y = –2x – 3 19. 3 1 m = . x1 = 10. 4 17 slope-intercept form: y = − x − 4 20. y = −3 x − 9 m = −4. y1 = 0. point-slope form: y + 1 = 8(x – 4). 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = y = 6 x + 17 15. y1 = 3. 1 . x1 = 2 m = − . y1 = −1. point-slope form: y – 3 = 4(x – 1). 2) . x1 = −4. slope-intercept form: y = 4x – 1 13. y1 = −3. slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −3 x − 6 23. m = 8. y1 ) = (5. x1 = 6. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 2 x − 6 1 = −1( x + 4). 3 2 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x + 4 3 2 y = − x+2 3 16. 5 3 m = − . point-slope form: y – 0 = –4(x + 4). m= −1 . point-slope form: y + 3 = –2(x – 0) m = −2. point-slope form: y + y = 2x −1 21.

0 − 4 −4 = = 1. − 5) . slope-intercept form: y − 9 = x − 2.or y – 15 = 2(x – 8) using m= 31. so y = −5 35. y1 ) = (−3. 0) . − 5 ) . −2 − 2 −4 point-slope form: y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . − 4 ) . y1 ) = (2. y1 ) = (1.4 15 − 5 10 = =2. 0) . ( x1 . ( x1 . y1 ) = (−3. y1 ) = (2. or y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using m= ( x1 . or y − 6 = ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . 6 − (−2) 8 point-slope form: y + 5 = 0(x + 2) using ( x1 . y1 ) = (0. 3) . m = 1 − (−2) 3 point-slope form: y + 4 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. 3 − (−3) 6 3 4 point-slope form: y − 6 = − ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 .so −1 − (−4) 3 = =1. − 1) slope-intercept form: y = x – 2 −5 − (−5) 0 = =0. . or y + 5 = 0(x – 6) using m= ( x1 . 4 ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . 0 − (−2) 2 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . 4) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6) . or y + 2 = − ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . y1 ) = (−2. y1 ) = ( −2. 27. y1 ) = ( 6. or y – 3 = 1(x – 0) using ( x1 . Section 1. 6 ) . y1 ) = ( −2.5 ) . 2 ) . or y + 1 = 0(x – 4) using m= ( x1 . or y – 2 = 1(x – 0) using m= 32. 3 4 y = x+2 3 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = 2−0 2 = =1. m= 4 − (−1) 5 = =1. − 2 ) . or y = x+2 163 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y1 ) = (−3. Inc. 8−3 5 point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3) using ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y + 1 = 0. 6 − (−2) 8 4 = = . 0 − (−3) 3 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . y1 ) = (3. y1 ) = ( 0. m= 4 −2 − 6 −8 = =− . y1 ) = ( −2.15) . slope-intercept form: y = x + 2 29. slope-intercept form: y + 1 = x + 3or y−4 = x−2 y = x+2 m= 4 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 3 33. − 1) . y1 ) = ( 3. y1 ) = (−3. slope-intercept form: y = x + 3 m= 4 + 4 or 3x 4 y − 6 = x − 4. y1 ) = ( −3. 3− 0 3 = =1. or y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . 0 ) . 2 − (−3) 5 point-slope form: y + 1 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . 4 − (−3) 7 point-slope form: y + 1 = 0(x + 3) using ( x1 . 4) . 30. or y + 1 = 1(x – 1) using y = −1 34. y1 ) = ( 3. slope-intercept form: y = 2x – 1 28.PreCalculus 4E 26. − 1) . y1 ) = ( 8. 3 − (−3) 6 3 point-slope form: y + 2 = ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y + 5 = 0. − 1) . y1 ) = (4. − 2) .

3 3 slope-intercept form: y + 3 = − x + . m = –3. m= 43. or y − 0 = − ( x + 1) using 2 ( x1 . b = 2 4−0 4 = =8. or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) slope-intercept form: y = 8 x + 4 38. y1 ) = ( 0. b = −3 4 −2 − 0 −2 1 = = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4) .Functions and Graphs 36. . y1 ) = ( − 12 . 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x − 2 2 or y + 2 = 39. b = 2 164 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 − ( − 12 ) 12 point-slope form: y – 4 = 8(x – 0) using ( x1 . Inc. m= 42. 1 ( x − 4) using 2 1 ( x − 0) using ( x1 . y1 ) = ( −1. b = 1 40. m = –2. y1 ) = (0. m = 2. − 3) . − 2 ) . b = –2 4 44. b = 1 3 point-slope form: y + 3 = − ( x − 1) using 2 3 ( x1 . y1 ) = ( 4. m = 3. m= 0 − (−3) 3 3 = =− −1 − 1 −2 2 41. 3 m = . 0 ) . 0 ) . 0 − 4 −4 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x1 . 3 m = . or 2 2 3 3 y = − x− 2 2 37. y1 ) = (1.0 ) . or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) using ( x1 .

b=0 2 53.b=0 3 54.PreCalculus 4E 45.4 3 m=− . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 55. 52. b=7 5 49. 48. 1 m=− . . 50. 165 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 1. 46.b=6 5 51. Inc. 2 m=− . 47. 1 m=− .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. a. a. 3x + y − 5 = 0 y − 5 = −3 x y = −3 x + 5 4 x + 6 y + 12 = 0 4 x + 12 = −6 y −6 y = 4 x + 12 4 12 y= x+ −6 −6 2 y = − x−2 3 m = –3. b=6 3 c. 62. b = 6 166 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x + 12 = 0 3x = −12 x = −4 59. . Inc. 3x − 18 = 0 3x = 18 x=6 61.Functions and Graphs 56. a. b. 58. a. b = 5 c. 2 m=− . 57. 60. b. 4x + y − 6 = 0 y − 6 = −4 x y = −4 x + 6 m = −4. b. b = –2 3 c. 2 m = − . 2 x + 3 y − 18 = 0 2 x − 18 = −3 y −3 y = 2 x − 18 2 18 y= x− −3 −3 2 y = − x+6 3 b.

3y − 9 = 0 3y = 9 y=3 b. m = 0. a. Section 1.4 8 x − 4 y − 12 = 0 8 x − 12 = 4 y 4 y = 8 x − 12 8 12 y = x− 4 4 y = 2x − 3 66. a. m = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b = –3 c. 6 x − 2(0) − 12 = 0 6 x − 12 = 0 6 x = 12 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 6(0) − 2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y = 12 y = −6 6 x − 5 y − 20 = 0 6 x − 20 = 5 y 5 y = 6 x − 20 6 20 y = x− 5 5 6 y = x−4 5 b. 167 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. a. 65.PreCalculus 4E 63. a. Inc. b = −7 c. 67. b = −4 5 c. . Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 64. 6 m = . 4 y + 28 = 0 4 y = −28 y = −7 b. b = 3 c. m = 0.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Find the x-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 6 x − 9(0) − 18 = 0 6 x − 18 = 0 6 x = 18 x=3 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 6(0) − 9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y = 18 y = −2 3x + 5(0) + 15 = 0 3x + 15 = 0 3x = −15 x = −5 Find the y-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 3(0) + 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y = −15 y = −3 69. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 70. Inc.Functions and Graphs 68. . Find the x-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 71. Find the x-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8 x − 2(0) + 12 = 0 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x + 3(0) + 6 = 0 2x + 6 = 0 2 x = −6 x = −3 Find the y-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 2(0) + 3 y + 6 = 0 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −6 y = −2 8 x = −12 8 x −12 = 8 8 −3 x= 2 Find the y-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8(0) − 2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y = −12 y = −6 168 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Therefore. − b is a negative. −4 − y 1 = 3 4 − ( −2 ) 6 x − 3(0) + 15 = 0 6 x + 15 = 0 6 x = −15 6 x −15 = 6 6 5 x=− 2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 6(0) − 3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y = −15 y=5 73.4 72. the line falls. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 76. 4− y 1− 3 4− y −3 = −2 6 = 4− y 2 = −y −2 = y 80. B B 78. The line is vertical. . b Therefore. the line rises. Ax = By − C Ax + C = By A C x+ = y B B A C The slope is and the y − intercept is . B B 79. 169 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 74.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. a is positive. m= 0 − a −a a = =− b−0 b b Since a and b are both positive. − 1 −4 − y = 3 4+2 1 −4 − y = 3 6 6 = 3 ( −4 − y ) a is b negative. m= 3x − 4 f ( x ) = 6 −4 f ( x ) = −3 x + 6 c 0 a−a The slope is undefined. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 77. 75. Inc. m= 6 = −12 − 3 y 18 = −3 y −6 = y −b − 0 −b b = =− a 0 − ( −a ) a Since a and b are both positive. Ax + By = C By = − Ax + C A C y = − x+ B B A C The slope is − and the y − intercept is . m= −3 = = f ( x) = 3 3 x− 4 2 (a + c) − c a = a − (a − b) b Since a and b are both positive. the line falls. Therefore. (b + c ) − b 81.

f ( x ) = 0. 6 x − 5 f ( x ) = 20 88.65 ( x − 10 ) or y − 51. f ( 35 ) = 0.65 ( x − 10 ) a. b4 .31.3 y − 31. ages 25 – 29.215 x − 4.45% in 2015.2 6.0 = 0.7 = 78. First. Inc.5 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American females. 170 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 = 0.2 = 0. 45.65 ( x − 20 ) b.6 The life expectancy of American men born in 2020 is expected to be 78.9 ) and (10.3 c. y − 45.78 x + 23.65(35) + 38.7 y − 31.78 ( x − 20 ) b.2 ) .7 f ( x ) = 0. y − 45. y − 70. Change in y 74.9 − 31.3 − 70. f ( 40 ) = 0. m2 .78 ( x − 10 ) or y − 70.65 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form.65 x − 6.1 = 0.7 −1 = −6 + b 5=b 84.7 ) and 51.3 = 54.1 = 0.215 x + 65.5% in 2020.5 = = 0.8 = = 0.0 = 0.1 7.7 E (60) = 0.6.215 Change in x 40 − 20 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= E ( x) = 0.7 − 45. (10.65 x + 38. m3 .Functions and Graphs 82. . find the slope using ( 20. m1 . −3 = b 89.9 = 0.1) . to be 54.38.215 x + 65. 3 ( 2) + b 2 −6 = −3 + b −6 = − 85. to be 61. b3 87. ages 25 – 29.7 = 61.215 x + 65.78 x + 23.78 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form.1 = 0.5 83.65 x + 38. c. b1 .215(60) + 65. 38.78 ( x − 10 ) y = 0.45 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American males. a.215( x − 20) y − 38.78(40) + 23.0 = = 0.2 = 0. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) m= b.7 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.78 x − 7. m4 86. Using the slope-intercept form for the equation of a line: −1 = −2 ( 3) + b y = 0. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 6 x−4 5 m= y − 45.3 c. −5 f ( x ) = −6 x + 20 f ( x) = First. find the slope using ( 20.51. b2 .7 E ( x) = 0. y − 31.8 y = 0. a.

Inc.–10).4 x + 254 Answers may vary for predictions. 230) (60.17 x + 73 E (60) = 0.2.17(60) + 73 = 83.17 x + 73 E ( x) = 0.5). 102. Section 1.7 y = 0. a.7 = ≈ 0.17 x + 73 c.5 3 m= = = 0. 4 E ( x) = 0. – 99. 6) and (10. 110 − 230 120 m= =− = −2. Two points are (0.4 101.7 = 0.5633751 r = −0. 100. b.4( x − 10) y − 230 = −2.75 or .17 Change in x 40 − 10 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 74. Two points are (0.17( x − 10) y − 74. –2) and (10. 103. 92.4) and (10. −10 − (−5) −5 1 m= = =− .PreCalculus 4E 90. b.8428126855 d. Publishing as Prentice Hall.24). (10. 171 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 110) Points may vary.17 x − 1.5 − (−2) 7.7 − 74.2 The life expectancy of American women born in 2020 is expected to be 83. Answers may vary. 24 − 4 20 m= = = 2. Two points are (0. 10 − 0 10 Check: y = mx + b : y = −3x + 6 . Two points are (0. Enter data from table.7 = 0.4 60 − 10 50 y − 230 = −2. 104. 10 − 0 10 c.–5) and (10. 10 − 0 10 2 Change in y 79. 5. .96876741 b = 260. 91. –24). 10 − 0 10 4 3 Check: y = mx + b : y = x − 2 . 5. a = −22. −24 − 6 −30 m= = = −3. a.4 x + 24 y = −2.

does not make sense. We can use the points ( −2. Explanations will vary. makes sense 109. false. 0 ) and ( 0.4 M – 20. the coefficient of x is 1 and the coefficient of y is −2. we can write the line in point-slope form. 113. then m = 2.Functions and Graphs 114. 2 to find the slope. this function has a positive slope. y1 ) = ( 25. 2 We can put this equation in the form ax + by = c to find the missing coefficients. 108. Multiply both sides of −2 x + y = 4 by 3 to obtain 12 on the righthand-side. We are given that the x − intercept is −2 and the y − intercept is 4 . y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − ( −3 ) ) y − 1 = 2 ( x + 3) y − 0 = 2 ( x − ( −2 ) ) y − 1 = 2x + 6 y = 2 ( x + 2) y = 2x + 7 y = 2x + 4 −2 x + y = 4 Find the x– and y–coefficients for the equation of the line with right-hand-side equal to 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −2 x + y = 4 1 119. 125 − 25 100 point-slope form tells us that E – 40 = 2. Explanations will vary. 40) and (125. 0). Using ( x1 . 4−0 4 4 = = =2 0 − ( −2 ) 0 + 2 2 118. Answers may vary.4 . Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: The slope of line’s whose equations are in this form can be determined in several ways. Then 280 − 40 240 m= = = 2. A sample change is: The graph of x = 7 is a vertical line through the point (7. . Inc. Let (25. Equations of this form have undefined slope and cannot be written in slope-intercept form. Vertical lines have equations of the form x = a . 115. does not make sense. 280) be ordered pairs (M. does not make sense. x − 2 y = 12 Therefore. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) Using the slope and one of the intercepts. 4 then m = 4. the coefficient of x is –6 and the coefficient of y is 3. 40 ) .4 (M – 25) or E = 2. Sample explanation: Linear functions never change from increasing to decreasing. true 112. 110. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. Since the slope is the negative reciprocal of − . One such way is to rewrite the equation in slope-intercept form. 4 ) m= 1 . 4 x − y − 17 = 0 172 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Explanations will vary. A sample change is: Slope-intercept form is y = mx + b . slope is 106. Sample explanation: Since college cost are going up. false. 1 y = x−6 2 1 y − x = −6 2 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ y − x ⎟ = 2 ( −6 ) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 y − x = −12 So the equation of the line is y = 107. A sample change is: It is possible for m to equal b. 117. 1 x − 6. 111. Changes to make the statement true will vary. We are given that the y − intercept is − 6 and the 105. Answers may vary. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 4 ( x − 3) y + 5 = 4 x − 12 −4 x + y + 17 = 0 3 ( −2 x + y ) = 3 ( 4 ) −6 x + 3 y = 12 Therefore. E) where M is degrees Madonna and E is degrees Elvis. 116. Since the slope is the same as the slope of y = 2 x + 1.

7 − 9.5)2 = 9 Δs 9 − 4 = = 10 feet per second Δt 1. we know it will have slope m = 2.01 x2 − x1 3 −1 3 −1 6. the equation of the line is f ( x ) = 2 x − 6.5 Check Point Exercises 1.PreCalculus 4E 120. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (1. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y + 6 = 3( x + 2) y + 6 = 3x + 6 −3 x + y = 0 y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form.0804 Δs 4. We are given that it passes through ( 4. Write the equation in slope-intercept form: x + 3 y − 12 = 0 3 y = − x + 12 1 y = − x+4 3 s (1. The slope of this line is − b. 42 − 12 4 −1 15 = 3 =5 a.25 Change in x 2005 − 1990 15 The slope indicates that the number of U. Inc. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Δs 16 − 4 = = 12 feet per second Δt 2 −1 y − 5 = 3 ( x − (−2) ) y − 5 = 3( x + 2) point-slope y − 5 = 3x + 6 b. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. m= y − 2 = 2x − 8 y = 2x − 6 In function notation.5 1. y − (−6) = 3 ( x − (−2) ) Since L is parallel to y = 2 x. Use m = 3 and the point (–2. 173 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.05 − 0.0804 − 4 = = 8. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 23 − 13 8 − 1 = = =7 x2 − x1 2 −1 1 c.5 − 1 c. Section 1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (3) − f (1) 0.5) = 4(1. The slope of the line y = 3 x + 1 is 3.01 − 1 1 thus the slope of 3 any line perpendicular to this line is 3. a. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (2) = 4(2)2 = 16 Change in y 12. a. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 y = 3x + 11 slope-intercept 2.04 feet per second Δt 1. –6) to write the equation.25 million each year.7 = = ≈ 0. .5 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (1) = 4 −1 x2 − x1 4.03 = = = 0. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Exercise Set 1. y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) 3x − y = 0 general form 3. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 03 − (−2)3 8 = = =4 x2 − x1 0 − (−2) 2 = Section 1.0 3. 5.S. Publishing as Prentice Hall.01) = 4(1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 13 − 03 = =1 x2 − x1 1− 0 b. 2 ) .01)2 = 4. men living alone is projected to increase by 0.

3x − 2 y − = 0 −2 y = −3x + 5 3 5 y = x− 2 2 The slope of the given line is 3 3 . we know it will 1 have slope m = − . the equation of the line is 1 f ( x ) = − x + 5. so m = since the 3 3 lines are parallel. y1 = 2 . L will have slope m = −2 . 1 x+7. m = −3 since the line is perpendicular to y = Since L is perpendicular to y = 2 x. 1 y − 2 = ( x − ( −1) ) 2 1 y − 2 = ( x + 1) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. We are given that it passes 2 through (2. x1 = −2. so m = since the 2 2 lines are parallel. 4. 5. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 y − 4 = − ( x − 2) 2 1 y − 4 = − x +1 2 1 y = − x+5 2 In function notation. 3 1 L will have slope m = . point-slope form: y − 2 = −3( x + 4) slope-intercept form: y − 2 = −3x − 12 y = −3x − 10 9. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. 2 ( x + 2) 3 general form: 2 x − 3 y + 10 = 0 point-slope form: y − 2 = 10. point-slope form: y + 10 = –4(x + 8) slope-intercept form: y + 10 = –4x – 32 y = –4x – 42 6. The line passes through (– 2 1. 5 point-slope form: y + 3 = –5(x – 2) slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −5 x + 10 y = −5 x + 7 8. point-slope form: y + 7 = –5(x + 2) slope-intercept form: y + 7 = −5 x − 10 y = −5 x − 17 7. Inc. 2). m = –4 since the line is parallel to y = −4 x + 3. x1 = 2. 3 ( x + 1) 2 general form: 3 x − 2 y + 9 = 0 point-slope form: y − 3 = 174 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4). y − 4 = −2 x + 6 y = −2 x + 10 f ( x ) = −2 x + 10 3. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − 2) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. y1 = −3. Using the point and the slope. we have y − 4 = −2 ( x − 3) .Functions and Graphs 2. y1 = −10. m = –5 since the line is perpendicular to 1 y = x + 6. x1 = −8. Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. y1 = −7 . 1 1 y−2 = x+ 2 2 1 1 y = x+ +2 2 2 1 5 y = x+ 2 2 1 5 f ( x) = x + 2 2 2x − 3y − 7 = 0 −3 y = −2 x + 7 2 7 y = x− 3 3 The slope of the given line is 2 2 . m = –5 since the line is parallel to y = −5 x + 4 . 2 y−4 = − x1 = −4. Use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form.

01)2 = 90. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.5 ) .7212 Δs 108.601 − 90 = = 60. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3. 16. 16 − 9 4 − 3 1 = = 16 − 9 7 7 19. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3. Inc. point-slope form: y + 9 = 7(x – 5) general form: 7 x − y − 44 = 0 13. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (4) = 12(4)2 = 192 Δs 108 − 192 = = 84 feet per second 4−3 Δt b.07201 − 108 = = 72.5 − 2 Δt 52 + 2 ⋅ 5 − (32 + 2 ⋅ 3) 25 + 10 − (9 + 6) = 5−3 2 20 = 2 = 10 2 s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3.5) = 10(3. c. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 general form: 2 x + y − 1 = 0 12.01) = 10(3.5 d.5 x − 2y − 3 = 0 −2 y = − x + 3 1 3 y = x− 2 2 b.001)2 = 108. x + 7 y − 12 = 0 7 y = − x + 12 −1 12 y= x+ 7 7 s (3.12 feet per second 3.PreCalculus 4E 11. Since the line is perpendicular to x = −4 which is a vertical line. so m = –2 since the 2 lines are perpendicular.01 − 3 Δt d.001) = 12(3. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3.1 feet per second 3.001 − 3 Δt 21.01 − 3 Δt 2 17. we know the graph of f is a horizontal s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (4) = 10(4)2 = 160 line with 0 slope. .06 − 90 = = 60. a.5) = 12(3.5 − 3 1 . The graph of f passes through ( −2. so m = 7 since the 7 lines are perpendicular. a. so the equation of 175 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 1.01 feet per second 3.001) = 10(3. The slope of the given line is Δs 122.01 feet per second 3. 6 − 2 ( 6 ) − (3 − 2 ⋅ 3) 36 − 12 − ( 9 − 6 ) 21 = = =7 6−3 3 3 9 − 4 3−2 1 = = 9−4 5 5 18. 6 ) .06 Δs 90. 24 − 0 24 = =6 4−0 4 15. The graph of f passes through ( −1. 20.5)2 = 122.601 Δs 90.5)2 = 147 Δs 147 − 108 = = 78 feet per second 3. 22.01) = 12(3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7212 − 108 = = 72. y + 7 = –2 ( x − 4 ) point-slope form: c.001)2 = 90.01)2 = 108. 15 − 0 15 = =3 5−0 5 14. so the equation of Δs 160 − 90 = = 70 feet per second 4−3 Δt f is f ( x ) = 5. Since the line is perpendicular to x = 6 which is a vertical line.5 − 90 = = 65 feet per second Δt 3. we know the graph of f is a horizontal line with 0 slope.001 − 3 Δt 1 The slope of the given line is − . f is f ( x ) = 6.07201 Δs 108.

it will have slope m = − . −9 ) . 3 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −5) ) 3 1 y − 6 = − ( x + 5) 3 1 5 y−6 = − x− 3 3 1 13 y =− x+ 3 3 1 13 f ( x) = − x + 3 3 y−6 = − 176 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. We use these points to find the slope. 2 1 Use the point ( −6. We use these points to find the slope. 0 ) and ( 0. it will have slope m = − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. m= −9 − 0 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. 6 ) and the slope − 1 to find the equation of the line. 4 ) and the slope − to find the equation of the line. 3 Use the point ( −5. . First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 2 and y − intercept of −4. First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 3 and y − intercept of −9.Functions and Graphs 23. m= −4 − 0 −4 = =2 0 − 2 −2 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. 0 ) and ( 0. Inc. 2 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −6 ) ) 2 1 y − 4 = − ( x + 6) 2 1 y −4 = − x−3 2 1 y = − x +1 2 1 f ( x) = − x +1 2 y−4 = − 24. This line will pass through ( 2. −4 ) . This line will pass through ( 3.

8 − 1067. f ( x) = 1. 2 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. First put the equation 3 x − 2 y − 4 = 0 in slope-intercept form.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1.2 x + 47 28. 1 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 6. a. P( x) = 1. m= 612 − 1273 −661 = ≈ −132 2006 − 2001 5 There was an average decrease of approximately 132 discharges per year. 32.1(0)3 − 35(0)2 + 264(0) + 557 = 557 f (4) = 1. 3x − 2 y − 4 = 0 −2 y = −3 x + 4 y= 3 x−2 2 The equation of f will have slope − 2 since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 3 y − intercept −2. .4 − 557 m= ≈ 142 4−0 b. 177 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 26. 30.1(4)3 − 35(4)2 + 264(4) + 557 = 1123. First put the equation 4 x − y − 6 = 0 in slope-intercept form.3 f (12) = 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. P( x) = −1. Inc.3 x + 23 29.8 585. This underestimates the decrease by 36 discharges per year.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. 31. 4x − y − 6 = 0 − y = −4 x + 6 y = 4x − 6 1 The equation of f will have slope − since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 4 y − intercept −6. 4 27.5 25. m= a.1(7)3 − 35(7) 2 + 264(7) + 557 = 1067.3 m= ≈ −96 12 − 7 b.4 1123.1(12)3 − 35(12) 2 + 264(12) + 557 = 585. f ( x) = 1. This overestimates by 5 discharges per year. 1163 − 617 546 = ≈ 137 1998 − 1994 4 There was an average increase of approximately 137 discharges per year.

Answers may vary.Functions and Graphs 33. Inc. 43. . 1 x +1 3 y = −3x − 2 y= a. This is verified because product of their slopes is –1. This causes the scale of the x–axis to differ from the scale on the y–axis despite using the same scale in the window settings. The zoom square feature compensates for this and in part (c). c. The calculator screen is rectangular and does not have the same width and height. this causes the lines not to appear perpendicular when indeed they are. The lines are perpendicular because their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. the lines appear to be perpendicular. In part (b). The lines do not appear to be perpendicular. Ax + By + C = 0 By = − Ax − C By − Ax C = − B B B A C y = − x− B B The slope of the given line is − A . 40. Sample explanation: Slopes can be used for segments of the graph. makes sense 42. The lines appear to be perpendicular. does not make sense. makes sense 44. A 178 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. – 38. makes sense 41. Write Ax + By + C = 0 in slope-intercept form. 39. Explanations will vary. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. B The slope of any line perpendicular to Ax + By + C = 0 is B .

The range is { y | −1 ≤ y ≤ 2}. 4. The range is {−6. The range is {1. 48. 4 ) b. This line is perpendicular to the line above so its 3 3 3 slope is . 179 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Ax + y − 2 = 0 y = − Ax + 2 So the slope of this line is − A. 7 7 7 has slope m = 46. c. The range is { y | 0 ≤ y ≤ 3}. 4. 4}. Therefore. The domain is {x | −2 ≤ x < 2}. b. 6}. Inc. The domain is {1. The domain is {x | −3 < x ≤ 4}. 2. 2. The relation is a function. 4 − ( −3 ) 4+3 7 7 = = =− −2 − 1 −3 −3 3 Solve Ax + y − 2 = 0 for y to obtain slope-intercept form. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) reflected across the y-axis.3}. a. The relation is not a function. 47. 2}. . − A = so A = − . b. a. The relation is a function. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted down 4 units.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 45. a. c. The domain is {0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The slope of the line containing (1. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted to the right 2 units. The relation is not a function. 3. Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 1. −3) and ( −2. c.

Functions and Graphs 5. The range is { y | y ≥ −1}. x + y2 = 5 y2 = 5 − x y = ± 5− x Since there are values of x that give more than one value for y (for example. f (−7) = −2 and f (3) = −2 20. 7. ∞) 29. f (−2) = 4 18. 4] 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (−4) = 3 19. −1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (−4) −5 − 3 = = = −1 4 − (−4) 4+4 x2 − x1 25. x2 + y = 5 24. The domain is {x | x ≤ 1}. 2}. there is one and only one value for y.3}. 23.1. 8. decreasing: (–2. increasing: (–∞. neither. ( −6. Inc. if x = 4. The relation is a function. Each value of x corresponds to exactly one value of y. −1. y = − x2 + 5 For each value of x. 30. 26. 2 ) 22. ( −∞. Domain: 11. y-intercept: 3 14. ∞ ) 28. –2) 15. The relation is not a function. The domain is {−2. Range: ( −∞. 6. . then y = ± 5 − 4 = ±1 ). The range is {−2. so the equation defines y as a function of x. 27. f (−6) = 0 and f (2) = 0 21. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x 180 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 10.1. 9. f (100) is negative. 0. the equation does not define y as a function of x. x-intercepts: –6 and 2 13. 16. x = −2 17.

36. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x b. 33. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 35. 5 y = 20 y=4 32. f (− x) = −2(− x) 2 − x − 5 = −2 x 2 − x − 5 neither. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 y = −3 x 3 y=− x 5 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) − 5 − (−2 x 2 + x − 5) = h 2 2 −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h − 5 + 2 x 2 − x + 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 181 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 37. 34. . a. 31.

16%. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y − (−4) = 3( x − 3) y + 4 = 3x − 9 y = 3 x − 13 f ( x) = 3 x − 13 45.40(250 − 200) = 50 −5 y −2 x 10 = + −5 −5 −5 2 y = x−2 5 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) The slope of the given line is y − 3 = −2 ( x − (−4) ) m= 5 ( x − (−4) ) 2 5 y + 3 = − x − 10 2 5 y = − x − 13 2 5 f ( x) = − x − 13 2 y − (−3) = − Change in y 1 − (−5) 6 = = =2 Change in x 2 − (−1) 3 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − 2) y − 1 = 2x − 4 y = 2x − 3 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 41. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44.16 Change in x 180 − 80 100 a. if ⎧30 C ( x) = ⎨ ⎩30 + 0. The rate of change is 0. 2 . C (250) = 30 + 0. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (2) − f (−1) = x2 − x1 2 − (−1) = ( 3(2) 2 − 2 ) − ( 3(−1) 2 − (−1) ) =2 182 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m= b. 3x − y − 5 = 0 − y = −3 x + 5 m2 = y = 3x − 5 The slope of the given line is 3. and the lines are parallel. 39. For each minute of brisk walking. so m = 3. 2 +1 .16% per minute of brisk walking. the percentage of patients with depression in remission increased by 0. Inc. C (150) = 30 b. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = −2 x + 10 43. Change in y 42 − 26 16 = = = 0. m1 = Change in y 0 − (−4) 4 = = Change in x 7−2 5 Change in y 6−2 4 = = Change in x 1 − (−4) 5 The slope of the lines are equal thus the lines are parallel. t > 200 a.40(t − 200) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 200 42. and the lines are 5 5 perpendicular. so m = − .Functions and Graphs 38. 2 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 3 = −2( x + 4) y − 3 = −2 x − 8 y = −2 x − 5 f ( x ) = −2 x − 5 40.

reflected about the x-axis.6 Section 1. Vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x . a. Reflect about the x-axis. 4.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Inc. shrunk 1 . 6. Horizontally stretch the graph of y = f ( x ) . The graph of y = f ( x ) is shifted 1 unit left. 183 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Shift to the right 4 units. Shift to the right 1 unit and down 2 units. Reflect about the y-axis. b. 3. 2. Shift up vertically 3 units. by a factor of 5. Horizontally shrink the graph of y = f ( x ) . then 3 shifted down 2 units. 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 Check Point Exercises 1. 8. .

Inc. then shifted up 3 units. 6. 8. 5. 184 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Exercise Set 1. stretched by a factor of 2. 4. The graph of f ( x) = x 2 is shifted 1 unit right.Functions and Graphs 9. 3.6 1. . 9. 7. 2.

11. 185 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 16. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 18. 14. 13.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 15.6 10. 19. 12. 17.

Functions and Graphs 20. 25. 22. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 23. . 26. 24. 186 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 29. 30. 28. 21. 27.

33. 36.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. .6 31. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 35. 37. 38. 34. 32. 40. 187 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 39.

Inc. 42. 47. 49. 48. 50.Functions and Graphs 41. 43. 45. 44. 46. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 188 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .

54. 58. 62. Inc. 60. 57. 189 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 56. 61. 52.6 51. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 55. 59. 53.

70. 72. 66. 68. 65.Functions and Graphs 63. 74. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 190 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 71. Inc. 67. 64. 73. 69.

76. 80. 84. 79. 78. 191 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 83. 82. 77. 75. 85. .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 86.6 81.

. 92. 95. 89. Inc. 91. 88.Functions and Graphs 93. 94. 96. 90. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 98. 192 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 97. 87.

103. 107. 110. 101.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 106. . 108. 109. 104. 105. 193 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 102. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 99. 100.

120. y = x − 2 + 1 194 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 111. 116. 122. 112. 121. 118. 123. 113. Inc. y = x − 2 124. 119. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 125. y = − x 3 + 2 117. 114. y = ( x + 1) 2 − 4 126. 115.

1 − 2.1 x + 19 f (48) = 3. a. = f ( x) = 2.6061 = 10 ≈ 0. Section 1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 135. 0 + 19 ) f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 3.0125 − 40. b.1 units.9.27 − 20.9 ) ( = b.9 0.1 50 + 19 ) 60 − 50 43.1 = 10 ≈ 0. then shift the result up 19 units. f ( x) = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 128.1 129.0 inches per month f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = d.9 0 + 20. First. Answers may vary.9 x + 20.9 50 + 20. a.1 ) ( 60 + 19 − 3. – 134.0 1.5633 − 40. a.2 The model describes the actual data very well.1 48 + 19 ≈ 40. c. Inc. .9203 = 10 ≈ 0. ) 60 + 20. ( 3.1 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 10 − 0 28.9 48 + 20. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 2. 60 − 50 42.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c).5 The model describes the actual data very well.8031 − 19 = 10 ≈ 1.1 ≈ 40. = = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 ( 2.6 First.1.9 inches per month = f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 2.1 10 − 0 29.PreCalculus 4E 127.9 ) ( ) d. then shift the result up 20. 195 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 f (48) = 2.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c). The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference.1 − 2. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 3.1 10 + 19) − ( 3. 10 + 20. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference. b. c.

g ( x) = −( x + 4)2 146. b – 3) 153. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t + 1). Since h( x) = 9 x − 27 contains an even root. ∞ ) . domain of g = ( −∞. These values must be excluded from the domain. 147. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. The denominator equals zero when x = 7 or x = –7. Inc. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 5 + ( x 2 − 1) 1 148. ∞ ) . makes sense = 9 x 2 − 30 x + 30 139. g ( x) = – x – 5 + 1 interval [3. b) 136. 150. (a + 3. a. 143. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. b. Section 1. Explanations will vary. a. A sample change is: The graph of f is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the x-axis. 2 = 3 −1 x 140. the domain of h is {x x ≥ 3} .Functions and Graphs 149. Explanations will vary. false. false. . A sample change is: The stretch will be 5 units and the downward shift will be 10 units. does not make sense. (2 x − 1)( x 2 + x − 2) = 2 x( x 2 + x − 2) − 1( x 2 + x − 2) b. g ( x) = − 16 – x 2 − 1 4 = x − 5 + x2 − 1 = − x2 + x − 6 196 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: The graph of g is a translation of f three units to the left and three units upward. 144. g ( x) = − x − 2 + 2 2. = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − x 2 − x + 2 = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x 2 − 4 x − x + 2 = 2 x3 + x 2 − 5 x + 2 154. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 2b) 151. (a. does not make sense. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( f ( x) ) 2 − 2 f ( x ) + 6 = ( 3x − 4 ) − 2(3 x − 4) + 6 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 − 6 x + 8 + 6 137. b) 152. 1. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 24 x − 6 x + 16 + 8 + 6 138. 9 x − 27 ≥ 0 9 x ≥ 27 x≥3 Thus. or the of g is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the yaxis. the quantity under the radical must be greater than or equal to 0. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t − 1). ∞ ) . false.7 141. (a. Changes to make the statement true will vary. (–a. 2x 2x = 3x − x 3− x x Check Point Exercises 142. true 145. c. Changes to make the statement true will vary. The domain of f is the set of all real numbers or ( −∞. 155. while the graph a. The function f ( x) = x 2 + 3x − 17 contains neither division nor an even root.

Inc. domain: ( −∞. domain of f: (f ( g ) ( x) = f ( g ( x ) ) ) = 5 2 x2 − x − 1 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x − 5 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 b. ∞ ) 3. −8) ∪ ( −8. a. ∞ ) 6. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. the domain of f + g is [3. 2 h ( x ) = f g where f ( x) = x . This value must be excluded from the domain. ∞ ) . The domain = ( −∞. ( fg )( x ) = ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 − 1) = x ( x 2 − 1) − 5 ( x 2 − 1) 6. ∞ ) g ) (−1) = 10(−1) 2 − 5(−1) + 1 = 10 + 5 + 1 = 16 197 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = ( x) g g ⎝ ⎠ x −5 .9 ) ∪ ( 9.3) ∪ ( 3. The function contains neither division nor an even root. ∞ ) 7. g ( x) = x 2 + 5 = x3 − x − 5 x 2 + 5 = x3 − 5 x 2 − x + 5 d. domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. Exercise Set 1. −3) ∪ ( −3. ∞). a.PreCalculus 4E b. = x − 5 − ( x − 1) g )( x) = (f b. . ∞ ) 8. domain: ( −∞. Section 1. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain.7 ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5. 4 4x = 1 1 + 2x +2 x a. The function contains neither division nor an even root. 1⎫ ⎧ domain: ⎨ x x ≠ 0. The domain = ( −∞. x ≠ ±1 = 2 x −1 4. The domain = ( −∞. Thus. 4. The domain = ( −∞.10 ) ∪ (10. (g f ) ( x) = g ( f ( x) ) = 2 (5 x + 6 ) − ( 5x + 6 ) − 1 2 = 2(25 x 2 + 60 x + 36) − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 120 x + 72 − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 115 x + 65 c. ∞ ) 9. 3. The function contains neither division nor an even root. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. ∞) domain of g: x +1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −1 [−1. ∞ ) . ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 3 + x +1 b. This value must be excluded from the domain. domain: ( −∞. (f (f g ) ( x) = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 10. domain: ( −∞. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The denominator equals zero when x = −5. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 [3. 5. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞) The domain of f + g is the set of all real numbers that are common to the domain of f and the domain of g. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. 1. 5 ) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) 2. x ≠ − ⎬ 2⎭ ⎩ = x − 5 − x2 + 1 = − x2 + x − 4 c. The denominator equals zero when x = 4. The function contains neither division nor an even root.

∞ ) x= 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Exclude x for x − 1 = 0 . The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. Exclude x for x = 0 . x−2 Exclude x for 14. 4 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ x=4 domain: ( −∞. x −1 = 0 11. Exclude x for x − 2 = 0 . x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 domain: [ −2. . ∞ ) 4 −2 = 0 x −1 4 ⎞ − 2 ⎟ = ( x − 1)( 0 ) ( x − 1) ⎛⎜ ⎝ x −1 ⎠ 13. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. The first denominator cannot equal zero. ∞ ) 16.Functions and Graphs 15. ∞ ) x =1 4 −2= 0.1) ∪ (1. 2 ) ∪ ⎜ 2. x 3 −1 = 0 x ⎛3 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 3− x = 0 4 − 2 ( x − 1) = 0 4 − 2x + 2 = 0 −2 x + 6 = 0 −2 x = −6 x=3 domain: ( −∞. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. 3 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . Exclude x for x = 0 .1) ∪ (1. The first denominator cannot equal zero. The expression under the radical must not be negative. Inc. x−2 = 0 − x = −3 x=3 domain: ( −∞. The expression under the radical must not be negative. x 4 −1 = 0 x ⎛4 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 4−x = 0 4 −3 = 0 x−2 4 ⎞ − 3 ⎟ = ( x − 2 )( 0 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎛⎜ − x 2 ⎝ ⎠ 4 − 3( x − 2) = 0 4 − 3x + 6 = 0 −3 x + 10 = 0 −3x = −10 − x = −4 10 3 ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. ⎟ ∪ ⎜ . domain: ( −∞. x −1 Exclude x for 12. −2 ) ∪ ( −2.3) ∪ ( 3. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) x=2 4 −3 = 0. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) 18. The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. −1) ∪ ( −1.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) 198 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

7 19. −2 ) ∪ ( −2.5) ∪ ( 5.12] 30. The expression under the radical must not be negative. ∞ ) 199 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. and 3 must be excluded. 6 ) ∪ ( 6. domain: ( −∞. 84 − 6 x ≥ 0 = x2 ( x − 2) − 9 ( x − 2) ( = ( x − 2) x2 − 9 −6 x ≥ −84 ) = ( x − 2)( x + 3)( x − 3) –3. 2. x ≥ 3 . and 5 must be excluded. ∞ ) x>3 domain: ( 3. x −3≥ 0 x+4≥0 and x≥3 x ≥ −4 To make both inequalities true. ∞ ) . The expressions under the radicals must not be negative.5 ) ∪ ( 5. x ≥ 2 . Inc. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. 21. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 7 x ≥ 70 29. ∞ ) 20. 7 x − 70 ≥ 0 domain: [3. domain: ( −∞. domain: [3. The expression under the radical must be positive. ∞ ) x≥2 The denominator equals zero when x = 5. ∞ ) x≥3 The denominator equals zero when x = 6. ∞ ) −6 x −84 ≤ −6 −6 x ≤ 14 domain: ( −∞. Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. The expression under the radical must be positive. x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x ≥ 10 domain: [10. The expression under the radical must not be negative. x−2 ≥ 0 x > −2 domain: ( −2.3) ∪ ( 3. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 5 x ≥ −35 28. Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. x −3 > 0 26.14] 25. ∞ ) = x 2 ( x − 5) − 4 ( x − 5 ) 23. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 24 − 2 x ≥ 0 ( = ( x − 5) x 2 − 4 ) = ( x − 5)( x + 2)( x − 2) –2. x−2 ≥ 0 x+3≥ 0 and x≥2 x ≥ −3 To make both inequalities true. −3) ∪ ( −3. domain: [ 2. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 9 x + 18 24.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 2. x −3≥ 0 x ≥ −7 domain: [ −7. The expression under the radical must not be negative. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x+2>0 27. . ∞ ) −2 x ≥ −24 −2 x −24 ≤ −2 −2 x ≤ 12 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . 22. 5 x + 35 ≥ 0 domain: [ 2.

∞ ) 32. ∞) ( f + g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = 2 x − 12 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x – 6)(5 x 2 ) = 5 x 3 – 30 x 2 domain: (–∞. (f + g)(x) = 4x – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) 35. (2 x – 3)( x + 1) = 2x – 3 ( x + 1) domain: ( −∞. ∞) (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = (2x + 3) – (x – 1) =x+4 domain: (−∞. Inc. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 4) – (x + 2) = 2x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 200 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (f + g)(x) = 3x + 2 domain: (−∞. domain: (−∞. ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (2 x 2 – x – 3)( x + 1) = − x 4 − 2 x 3 + 18 x 2 + 6 x − 45 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (6 x 2 − x − 1)( x − 1) = 6 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 1 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x+2 ⎝g⎠ 33. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3 − x2 = ( x ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 2 x − 15 ⎝g⎠ ( f + g )( x) = 5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞.Functions and Graphs 31. −1) ∪ ( −1. .3) ∪ ( 3. ∞) ( f – g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 x – 4 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 36. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = –5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = −3 x 2 + x − 5 domain: (−∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 3x 2 + x − 5 37. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x − 5)(3 x 2 ) = 3x 3 − 15 x 2 domain: (−∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 6 x2 − x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. −5) ∪ ( −5. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = −2 x 2 − 2 x + 18 domain: (–∞. = 2 x3 + x 2 – 4 x – 3 domain: (–∞.1) ∪ (1. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x−6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5x2 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (3 − x 2 )( x 2 + 2 x − 15) ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 3x2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 2 x2 – x – 3 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x +1 ⎝g⎠ ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = (2 x + 3) ⋅ ( x − 1) = 2x2 + x − 3 domain: (−∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = 6 x 2 − 2 x domain: (–∞. ∞) = ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) 2 x + 3 = ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g ( x) x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) (fg)(x) = (3x – 4)(x + 2) = 3x2 + 2x – 8 domain: (–∞.1) ∪ (1. ∞ ) 34. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞.

4 ) ∪ ( 4. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 1 1 2 2x + 2 + = 2+ = x x x x domain: ( −∞. Section 1. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 5 − x2 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 4 x − 12 ⎝g⎠ 2 + 1x ⎛ ⎛f ⎞ 1⎞ ( ) x = = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ x = 2x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x−4 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 2 + = −2 x 2 − 4 x + 17 domain: (–∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 5) domain: [0. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 41. −6 ) ∪ ( −6. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 5 domain: [0. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 1 1 + =6 x x domain: ( −∞. ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 4 domain: [0. ∞ ) 39.7 ( f + g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) = 4x − 7 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 201 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ) ∪ ( 0.PreCalculus 4E 38. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (5 − x 2 )( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 1 ⎞ 1 2 1 2x + 1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ = + 2 = x⎠ x x x x2 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 − 1 1 2 6x − 2 − = 6− = x x x x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −5 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. ∞ ) 40. ∞ ) 6 − 1x ⎛ ⎛ f ⎞ 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 1 = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ x = 6 x − 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 42. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 5 domain: [0. Inc. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 2 + 1 ⎞ 1 6 1 6x −1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ = − 2 = 2 x⎠ x x x x ⎝ domain: ( −∞.5) ∪ ( 5. ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 4 domain: [0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 6 – ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 4) domain: [0. ∞ ) = − x 4 − 4 x3 + 17 x 2 + 20 x − 60 domain: (–∞. 1 1 − =2 x x domain: ( −∞.

Inc. −3) ∪ ( −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and any values that make 2 x − 4 = 0. 5. 12 ) ∪ ( 12 . ∞ ) 4x = 2 1 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2 ⎛f ⎞ x − 25 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2 x − 4 g ⎝ ⎠ x 2 − 25 3x + 1 x 2 − 25 = 2 ⋅ x − 25 2 x − 4 3x + 1 = 2x − 4 The domain must exclude –5.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 x2 − 9 (5 x + 1)(4 x − 2) = 2 ( x2 − 9) ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = = = = 3x + 1 2 x − 4 ⋅ x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 (3 x + 1)(2 x − 4) (x 2 − 25 ) 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 2x − 4 = 0 5x + 1 ⎛f ⎞ x2 − 9 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 4 x − 2 ⎝g⎠ x2 − 9 5x + 1 x 2 − 9 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 4x − 2 5x + 1 = 4x − 2 The domain must exclude –3. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5x + 1 4 x − 2 = 2 − x − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = 2 x −9 1 = x −3 domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 4 − x − 1 domain: [1. ∞ ) x= 45.5 ) ∪ ( 5. −3) ∪ ( −3. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 3x + 1 2 x − 4 = 2 − x − 25 x 2 − 25 x+5 = 2 x − 25 1 = x −5 domain: ( −∞. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 44.Functions and Graphs 43. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.3) ∪ ( 3.3) ∪ ( 3.3) ∪ ( 3. 4x − 2 = 0 2x = 4 x=2 domain: ( −∞. −3) ∪ ( −3.5 ) ∪ ( 5. 3. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞) ( fg )( x) = x + 4 ⋅ x − 1 = x 2 + 3 x − 4 domain: [1. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ( f + g )( x) = x + 4 + x − 1 domain: [1. and any values that make 4 x − 2 = 0. ∞ ) 202 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . −5 ) ∪ ( −5.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −1 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (1. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 + x2 − 9 x2 − 9 9x −1 = 2 x −9 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2x − 4 + x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 5x − 3 = 2 x − 25 domain: ( −∞.5 ) ∪ ( 5. −3) ∪ ( −3.

∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 6 − x − 3 domain: [3. ( f g )( x) = 7(2 x 2 − 9) + 1 = 14 x 2 − 62 b. g(x) = 2x + 1 ( f + g )( x) = x + 6 + x − 3 domain: [3. ( g f )( x) = 3(5 x + 2) − 4 = 15 x + 2 c. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−3 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (3. ( f g )(2) = 3(2) − 15 = −9 ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 2) 2 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 4 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 6 ( f g )( x) = 3( x − 5) = 3 x − 15 b. f(x) = x + 4. ( fg )( x) = x − 5 ⋅ 5 − x = − x 2 + 10 x − 25 domain: {5} ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5− x ⎝g⎠ domain: ∅ 54. g ( x) = 5 x 2 − 2 ( fg )( x ) = x − 2 ⋅ 2 − x = − x 2 + 4 x − 4 domain: {2} ⎛f ⎞ x−2 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 2− x ⎝ ⎠ domain: ∅ 48. f(x) = 2x. ( g f )( x) = 2 x + 7 c. g ( x) = 2 x 2 – 9 49. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( g f )( x) = 3x – 5 c. = 20 x 2 − 11 b. f(x) = 3x. f(x) = 5x + 2 . = 80 x 2 − 120 x + 43 c. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 2) 2 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 4 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 2 c. Section 1. ( f g )(2) = 14(2) 2 − 62 = −6 f ( x) = x 2 + 2. g(x) = x – 5 a. a. ( f g )(2) = 20(2)2 − 11 = 69 f ( x) = 7 x + 1. ( f g )( x) = 5(3x − 4) + 2 = 15 x − 18 b. g(x) = 3x – 4 ( f + g )( x) = x − 2 + 2 − x domain: {2} ( f − g )( x) = x − 2 − 2 − x domain: {2} a. b. ∞) 47. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 5 = 9 52. 55.7 51. ( g f )( x) = 2(7 x + 1)2 − 9 = 2(49 x 2 + 14 x + 1) − 9 = 98 x 2 + 28 x − 7 c.PreCalculus 4E 46. ( f g )(2) = 15(2) − 18 = 12 53. Inc. g ( x) = x 2 − 2 50. ( f g )( x) = 4(5 x 2 − 2) − 3 b. g(x) = x + 7 ( f g )( x) = 2( x + 7) = 2 x + 14 ( g f )( x) = 5(4 x − 3) 2 − 2 = 5(16 x 2 − 24 x + 9) − 2 ( f + g )( x) = x − 5 + 5 − x domain: {5} ( f − g )( x) = x − 5 − 5 − x domain: {5} a. f(x) = 4x – 3. ( f g )( x) = (2 x + 1) + 4 = 2 x + 5 b. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 4(2) 2 + 6 = 6 203 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( g f )( x) = 2( x + 4) + 1 = 2 x + 9 c. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = x + 6 ⋅ x − 3 = x 2 + 3x − 18 domain: [3. . a. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 14 = 18 a.

⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ −3 = x +3−3 = x ⎝ 6 ⎠ b. g(x) = x – 1 a. ( g f )( x) = x + 2 c. ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 3) 2 + 1 f ( x) = x . f(x) = 2x – 3. ( f g )( x) = 4 − ( 2 x 2 + x + 5 ) = 4 − 2 x2 − x − 5 = −2 x − x − 1 2 b. g ( x) = x + 2 a. ( g f )( x) = 2 ( 4 − x ) + ( 4 − x ) + 5 2 c. ( f g )(2) = −2(2) 2 − 2 − 1 = −11 f ( x) = 5 x − 2. 60. ( f g )(2) = 2 − 1 = 1 = 1 1 1 . 63. ( g f )( x) = 1 c. = 32 − 16 x + 2 x 2 + 4 − x + 5 ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 2 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x + 3−3 =x b. ( g f )( x) = − ( 5 x − 2 ) + 4 ( 5 x − 2 ) − 1 = −(25 x 2 − 20 x + 4) + 20 x − 8 − 1 (2 x − 3) + 3 2 x = =x 2 2 ( g f )( x) = 62. . g ( x ) = = x4 + 2 x2 − 2 c. = 2(16 − 8 x + x 2 ) + 4 − x + 5 x+3 2 1 x 1 x =x =x 204 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g ( x) = x x ( f g )( x) = = −25 x 2 + 40 x − 13 59. Inc. g ( x) = 2 x 2 + x + 5 a. a. ( f g )( x) = 5 ( − x 2 + 4 x − 1) − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 5 − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 7 b. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 2 1 b. g ( x) = x 2 − 3 56. ( f g )(2) = 2 ( f g )(2) = −5(2) 2 + 20(2) − 7 = 13 f ( x) = x . ( f g )(2) = 2 + 2 = 4 = 2 = x − 6x + 9 + 1 4 2 = x 4 − 6 x 2 + 10 b. 6x − 3 + 3 6x = =x 6 6 a. ( g f )( x) = c. ( f g )( x) = x − 1 b. g ( x) = − x 2 + 4 x − 1 a. f ( x) = 4 − x . x+3 6 a. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 6 x − 3. ( g f )( x) = x − 1 c. = −25 x 2 + 20 x − 4 + 20 x − 8 − 1 c. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 6(2) 2 + 10 = 2 a. ( f g )( x) = x + 2 b. 58.Functions and Graphs f ( x) = x 2 + 1. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 1) 2 − 3 = x + 2x +1 − 3 4 2 61. g ( x) = = 2 x 2 − 17 x + 41 c. 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

b. Inc. x−2 ≥ 0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . a. 6 6 ⎛6⎞ f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x = 6 ⎝ x⎠ + 5 6 + 5x x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. . domain: 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 4 denominator of f g to be 0. ∞ ) . 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. 2 ⎛1⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = . b. a. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 6 We must exclude − because it causes the 5 denominator of f g to be 0. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. x ≠ −4 = 4+ x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. b. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. =x =x b. ∞ ) . We must exclude −4 because it causes the denominator of f g to be 0. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . 4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 70. f ( x) = Section 1. b.7 2 2 . 6⎞ ⎛ 6 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. 205 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 ⎛4⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝ x ⎠ 4 +1 x ⎛4⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) x = ⎝ ⎠ ⎛4 ⎞ ⎜ + 1⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 4 . ( g f )( x) = 2 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.x ≠ 0 1 x ⎝ ⎠ +3 x 2( x) = ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ + 3⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 2x = 1 + 3x 68. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 3) = x − 3 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. ( f g )(2) = 2 65. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. a. a. a. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0.PreCalculus 4E 64. 2 x 2 x 67. ( −∞. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 2) = x − 2 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 66. g ( x) = x x a. 5⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 5x ⎛1⎞ = f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ x ⎠ 1 + 4 1 + 4x x 69. a. ( f g )( x) = 2 b. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 3 denominator of f g to be 0.

89. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = x 4 . g ( x ) = 5x 2 + 3 92. f ( x) = 1 . (f g )(1) = f ( g (1) ) = f ( −5 ) = 3 f ( x) = 3 x. 1]. f ( x) = 1 . (f g )( −1) = f ( g (−1) ) = f ( −3) = 1 g ( x) = 2x − 5 90. g ( x ) = x2 − 9 91. g ( x ) = 3x − 1 77. 3) g 87. g(x) = 3x – 4 79. g(x) = 2x – 5 78. ( fg )( 2 ) = f ( 2 ) g ( 2 ) = ( −1)(1) = −1 ( f g )( x) = 7 93. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = −5 73. ( ) 2 x − 3x + 8 − 5 = 7 2 2 x 2 − 6 x + 16 − 5 = 7 2 x 2 − 6 x + 11 = 7 2x2 − 6x + 4 = 0 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x =1 x=2 206 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( f g )( x) = f ( 1 − x ) = ( 1− x ) 2 +4 = 1− x + 4 85. a. g ( 3) 0 ⎛g⎞ = =0 ⎜ ⎟ ( 3) = f ( 3) −3 ⎝f ⎠ 86. 76. x g ( x) = 2 x − 3 80. f ( x ) = x3 . 74. The graph of f + g − x ≥ −1 x ≤1 domain: (−∞. 2]. ( f + g )( −3) = f ( −3) + g ( −3) = 4 + 1 = 5 82. = 5− x b. f (x) = |x|. f(x) = |x|. The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. Inc. The domain of f + g is [ −4. ( f g )( x) = f ( 2 − x ) = ( 2−x ) 2 +1 = 2 − x +1 88. 75. The graph of f − g = 3− x b. 2−x ≥ 0 − x ≥ −2 x≤2 domain: (−∞. 1− x ≥ 0 The domain of f is ( −4. . x g ( x ) = 4x + 5 81. 3] . 84. a. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 2 ) = −6 f ( x) = x.Functions and Graphs 71. 72. The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. ( g − f )( −2 ) = g ( −2 ) − f ( −2 ) = 2 − 3 = −1 83.

= 1634. d. ( f g )( x) = 0.6 x − 5 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $5 rebate.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7. 000) − (600. 207 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c. f g because of a $5 rebate. in 2005 is 6573.5 x 2 − 20 x − 2405 = 10.S. a. 2 = 3. ( B − D )( x ) = 10.9(3)2 − 35(3) + 1641 overestimates the actual change in population in the U.51 This is the increase in profits for the second store for each year after 2004. underestimates the actual number of births and deaths in 2005 by 1.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7. 1 − 6 x 2 − 2 x + 2 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 3 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 8 = 0 3x 2 + x − 4 = 0 (3x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 3 x = −4 x =1 4 x=− 3 95.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405 100. (R – C)(30. f )( x ) = 0. 000) 97. 99. (g d.5 The number of births and deaths in the U.1 The change in population in the U.9 x 2 + 5 x + 6451 ( B + D )( 5 ) = 3. since the 25% discount is taken on the regular price first.9(5)2 + 5(5) + 6451 = 6573. ( B + D )( x ) = 3.000) = 65(30.000 + 45(30.044x + 13. in 2003 was 1634. ( Section 1. g gives the price of the computer after a 25% discount. ( R − C )(20.9 x + 5 x + 6451 b.5 thousand.PreCalculus 4E 94. f + g = -. ( g f )( x) = 0.000 since costs exceeded revenues. in 2003 by 0.1 thousand.6x – 3 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $3 rebate. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .1 thousand. f gives the price of the computer after a $400 discount. g )( x ) = 0.000) – (600. 000)) = −200.51x + 11. The slope of g is 0. ( B − D )( x ) = B ( x ) − D ( x) = (7.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) − ( −3. a.S.07x + 24.07 This is the profit for the two stores combined for each year after 2004.75 x − 400 This models the price of a computer after first a 25% discount and then a $400 discount. a. ( B + D )( x ) = B ( x ) + D ( x) = (7. The slope for f is -0. a.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 + 3. b.75( x − 400) This models the price of a computer after first a $400 discount and then a 25% discount.14 = 0.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 ( B − D )( 3) = 10. (f c. 1 − 2 3 x + x − 1 = −5 2 98.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) + ( −3. 96. b.6 ( x − 5 ) = 0. c.000)) =0 The company broke even.7 ( f g )( x) = −5 ) = 65(20. a.76 The slope for f + g is 0.5 thousand. b.44 This is the decrease in profits for the first store for each year after 2004. The function f g models the greater discount. 000 + 45(20.S. ( B − D )( x ) c. 000 The company lost $200.62 + 0.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 b. g gives the cost of a pair of jeans that has been discounted 40%. c.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 − 3. ( B + D )( x ) f gives the cost of a pair of jeans for which a $5 rebate is offered.

−1). Explanations will vary. false. A sample change is: (f g )( x ) = f = ( ( x2 − 4 x2 − 4 ) 2 ) −4 = x2 − 4 − 4 = x2 − 8 208 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (4. makes sense 109. The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. ( f g )( x) = 2 − x The domain of g is [ 0. false. does not make sense. 116. {(4. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: f ( x ) = 2 x. Sample explanation: It is common that f g and g f are not the same. − x ≥ −2 x= 5 +4 y ⎛5 ⎞ y ( x) = y ⎜ + 4 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ xy = 5 + 4 y xy − 4 y = 5 y ( x − 4) = 5 5 y= x−4 x ≤2 x≤4 domain: [ 0. x = y2 − 1 x + 1 = y2 120. Thus. (1. Explanations will vary. 106. ( f g ) ( x ) = f ( g ( x ) ) = f ( 3x ) = 2(3x) = 6 x (g f )( x ) = g ( f ( x ) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( 2 x ) = 6 x 114.Functions and Graphs 113. Answers may vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. the relation is not a function. Inc. – 105. (1. false. makes sense 110. Changes to make the statement true will vary.1). 111. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = x +1 2 112. does not make sense. . ( f g )( x) = ( f g )(− x) f ( g ( x)) = f ( g (− x)) since g is even f ( g ( x)) = f ( g ( x)) so f g is even 117. −2). 2)} The element 1 in the domain corresponds to two elements in the range. 4] 108. true 107. Answers may vary. 2− x ≥ 0 119. g ( x ) = 3x 101. the y value disappears because the function is not defined at x = 0. When your trace reaches x = 0. A sample change is: ( f g ) ( 4) = f ( g ( 4)) = f ( 7) = 5 115. Sample explanation: The diagram illustrates x +1 = y2 x +1 = y g ( f ( x) ) = x + 4. 118.

Inc. .8 Section 1. 0) (0. ⎛ x+7⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−7 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x − 7) + 7 g ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 f ( g ( x) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = x 4. 3 −1 x Interchange x and y: 3 x = −1 y Solve for y: 3 x = −1 y xy = 3 − y xy + y = 3 y ( x + 1) = 3 3 y= x +1 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : y= f ( x) = 2 x + 7 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 2x + 7 Interchange x and y: x = 2y + 7 Solve for y: x = 2y + 7 x − 7 = 2y x−7 =y 2 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f −1 ( x) = 3.1) x +1 4 Alternative form for answer: x +1 3 x +1 f ( x) −1 = 3 = 3 4 4 f −1 ( x) = = = 3 3 x +1 3 2 ⋅3 = 3 4 2 3 2x + 2 2 3 2x + 2 3 8 209 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Find points of f −1 . 2) (2. 2. −2) (−1. The graphs of (b) and (c) pass the horizontal line test and thus have an inverse. 6. −2) (−2. −1) (1.8 Check Point Exercises 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 3 −1 x Replace f ( x) with y: f ( x) = x−7 2 f −1 ( x) = f ( x) = 4 x3 − 1 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 4 x3 − 1 Interchange x and y: x = 4 y3 − 1 Solve for y: x = 4 y3 − 1 x + 1 = 4 y3 x +1 = y3 4 x 1 + 3 =y 4 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : 3 x +1 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) f −1 ( x ) (−2.

g ( x ) = ⎛ x+5⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 5 ⎜ ⎟−9 ⎝ 9 ⎠ 5 x + 25 = −9 9 5 x − 56 = 9 5x − 9 + 5 5x − 4 g ( f ( x)) = = 9 9 f and g are not inverses. 2. f(x) = 5x – 9. y = x2 + 1 Interchange x and y: x = y2 +1 Solve for y: x = y2 + 1 1. x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = x − 1 6. f ( x) = 3 x − 7. g ( x ) = 3 3 . x −8 3 8. f ( x) = 6 x . x − 1 = y2 5. g ( x) = 3 3 x−4 +4 ⎛ x−4⎞ = 3⋅⎜ ⎟+4 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = x−4+4 =x f and g are inverses. ⎛ x −8⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 3 ⎜ ⎟+8 = x −8+8 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ (3x + 8) − 8 3x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 3 3 f and g are inverses. g ( x ) = x+5 9 x+3 7 x + 3 3x + 9 3x − 40 ⎛ ⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ −7 = ⎟−7 = 7 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠ 3x − 7 + 3 3x − 4 g ( f ( x) ) = = 7 7 f and g are not inverses. 2 2 . Exercise Set 1. f ( x) = 4 x + 9. g ( f ( x) ) = 2 2 x −5 210 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g ( x) = 7.8 x 4 ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x =x g ( f ( x)) = 4 f and g are inverses. x 6 f(x) = 3x + 8. f ( x) = x 2 + 1 Replace f ( x) with y: 4. . Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f ( x) = 4 x. g ( x) = + 5 x −5 x 2 2x f ( g ( x )) = 2 = =x ( x + 5) − 5 2 f ( x) = ⎛ x −5⎞ + 5 = 2⎜ ⎟+5 = x−5+5 = x ⎝ 2 ⎠ f and g are inverses. 3. g ( x) = x−9 4 ⎛ x −9⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟+9 = x −9+9 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x + 9) − 9 4 x g ( f ( x) ) = = =x 4 4 f and g are inverses.Functions and Graphs 7. Inc. g ( x) = + 4 x−4 x 3 3 f ( g ( x)) = 3 = 3 =x + − 4 4 x x f ( x) = g ( f ( x)) = ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝6⎠ 6x =x g ( f ( x) ) = 6 f and g are inverses. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

f ( x) = 2 x + 3 x = 2y + 3 −1 f ( f ( x)) = x + 3 − 3 = x b. f ( x) = 3x − 1 y = 2x y = 3x − 1 x = 2y x = 3y −1 x +1 = 3y x 2 x f −1 ( x) = 2 y= b. a. b. f and g are inverses. f −1 ( x ) = x − 5 f ( x) = 2 x 16. g ( x) = − x f ( g ( x)) = −(− x ) = x g ( f ( x)) = −(− x ) = x f and g are inverses.8 f ( x) = − x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 1. a. g ( x) = x 3 + 4 f ( g ( x) ) = 3 x 3 + 4 − 4 = 3 x 3 = x g ( f ( x) ) = ( 3 x−4 ) 3 +4 = x−4+4 = x b. 11. ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 y = 2x + 3 −1 12. . a. f(x) = x + 3 y=x+3 x=y+3 y=x–3 −1 f ( x) = x − 3 15. 14. a. x − 3 = 2y f ( f ( x)) = x − 3 + 3 = x x −3 2 x −3 f −1 ( x) = 2 y= f ( x) = x + 5 y = x+5 x = y+5 y = x−5 b. ⎛ x +1 ⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ −1 = x +1 −1 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3x − 1 + 1 3x = =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 3 211 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. 10. y = 4x x = 4y x 4 x −1 f ( x) = 4 y= f ( x) = 3 x − 4. ⎛ x −3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟+3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x −3+3 =x 2x + 3 − 3 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = = =x 2 2 f ( f −1 ( x) ) = x − 5 + 5 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = x + 5 − 5 = x 13. a. Inc. f ( x) = 4 x x +1 3 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 3 y= ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝2⎠ 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = =x 2 b.PreCalculus 4E 9.

a. 20. x + 1 −1 = x +1−1 =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x 3 − 1 + 1 = 3 x3 = x 19. a. f ( x) = ( x − 1)3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = ( x − 1)3 y = x3 + 2 x = ( y − 1)3 3 x = y3 + 2 x−2 = y 3 3 x = y −1 y = 3 x +1 y = x−2 3 −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 y = ( x + 2)3 x = ( y + 2)3 3 x = y+2 y = 3 x −2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x f −1( f ( x )) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x 212 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 3 1 =x 1 x 1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = = x 1 x f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x 2 y= x 2 x= y xy = 2 f ( x) = 2 x 2 f −1 ( x ) = x y= =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 ( x + 2)3 − 2 = x+2−2 =x b. a. =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x3 + 2 − 2 = 3 x3 = x f ( x) = x3 − 1 y = x3 − 1 x = y3 − 1 f −1 ( x) = 3 x + 1 ( 3 ) 3 b. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ) ( x) 3 x +1 −1 = 1 x 1 y= x 1 x= y xy = 1 f ( x) = y= y = 3 x +1 f ( f −1 ( x)) = 3 1 x 1 −1 f ( x) = x x + 1 = y3 b. Inc. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ( 3 b. a. .Functions and Graphs 17. 22. x−2 ) 3 21. a. ( ( 3 x −2+2 ) = ( x) 3 3 3 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( x − 13 + 1 = x − 1 + 1 = x +2 = x−2+2 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

a. a. f ( f −1 ( x)) = x 2 = x = x for x ≥ 0. a. Section 1. a. xy = 7 − 3 y xy + 3 y = 7 y ( x + 3) = 7 7 x+3 7 −1 f ( x) = x+3 y= b. f ( x) = 25.8 f ( x) = x 4 +9 x 4 y = +9 x 4 x = +9 y xy = 4 + 9 y f ( x) = 26. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 x3 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = ( x) 3 3 =x 7 −3 x 7 y = −3 x 7 x = −3 y 27. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( ( ) 4 +9 = x 4 x−9 4 −1 =x f ( f ( x) ) = 4 +9−9 x f f −1 ( x) = 2x + 1 x−3 2x + 1 y= x−3 2 y +1 x= y −3 x(y – 3) = 2y + 1 xy – 3x = 2y + 1 xy – 2y = 3x + 1 y(x – 2) = 3x + 1 3x + 1 y= x−2 3x + 1 f −1 ( x ) = x−2 f ( x) = ) 7 −3 = x 7 x+3 7 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 7 −3+3 x f f −1 ( x) = 213 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 4 x −9 4 f −1 ( x ) = x −9 y= f ( x) = 3 x y=3x x= y=x 3 f ( x) = x 3 −1 b. −1 xy − 9 y = 4 y ( x − 9) = 4 f ( f ( x)) = ( x ) = x 24. a.PreCalculus 4E 23. y 3 b. . y= x x= y y=x 2 −1 f ( x) = x 2 . x ≥ 0 b. Inc.

so it does not have an inverse function. 2 x + 1 − 2 ( x − 3) 6x + 3 + x − 3 7x = =x 2x +1 − 2x + 6 7 36. x≠2 x−2 f ( x) = 37. a. 32. . 33. The function passes the horizontal line test. 214 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 30. Inc. The function passes the horizontal line test. ) ( 2 −x − 3 − 3 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = −x − 3 +1 x−2 −2 x − 6 − 3x + 6 −5 x = = =x −x − 3 + x − 2 −5 − 2x − 3 − 3 x +1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 2x − 3 − 2 x +1 −2 x + 3 − 3x − 3 −5 x = = =x 2x − 3 − 2x − 2 −5 −1 ( 38.Functions and Graphs b. ) ( 3 2x +1 + 1 x −3 2x + 1 − 2 x−3 3 ( 2 x + 1) + x − 3 35. ) ( 2 3x + 1 + 1 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = 3x + 1 − 3 x−2 2 ( 3x + 1) + x − 2 6 x + 2 + x − 2 = = 3x + 1 − 3 ( x − 2 ) 3x + 1 − 3 x + 6 –1 34. 2x − 3 x +1 2x − 3 y= x +1 2y − 3 x= y +1 xy + x = 2y – 3 y(x – 2) = –x – 3 −x − 3 y= x−2 −x − 3 f −1 ( x ) = . The function fails the horizontal line test. The function passes the horizontal line test. 7x =x 7 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 28. so it does not have an inverse function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so it does have an inverse function. so it does have an inverse function. ) 29. 31. The function fails the horizontal line test. = = = b. The function fails the horizontal line test. so it does not have an inverse function. so it does have an inverse function.

c. ∞ ) [ −4. f ( x) = x 2 − 1 y = x2 − 1 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 y = 2x − 3 x = y2 −1 x +1 = y2 x = 2y −3 − x +1 = y x + 3 = 2y f −1 ( x) = − x + 1 x+3 =y 2 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 2 b. a. Inc. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : ( −∞. c. b. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. c. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞.8 f ( x) = 2 x − 1 y = 2x −1 41. a. b. a. ( −∞. Section 1. 0] range of f : [ −1. a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1.PreCalculus 4E 39. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. f ( x) = x 2 − 4 y = x2 − 4 x = 2 y −1 x = y2 − 4 x +1 = 2y x + 4 = y2 x +1 =y 2 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 2 x+4 = y f −1 ( x) = x + 4 b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. . domain of f : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f : −1 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0] domain of f : 215 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain of f : [ −4. c. 40. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞.

a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c.∞ ) ( −∞. b. a. a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. c. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. domain of f : 46. . ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. ∞ ) c.1] range of f : [ 0.Functions and Graphs 43. c. f ( x) = x3 + 1 y = x3 + 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 + 1 2 x − 1 = y3 x = y −1 3 x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 1 x +1 = y f −1 ( x) = 1 + x b. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f : 216 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 44.1] domain of f : f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) ( −∞.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) f ( x) = x3 − 1 45. Inc. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. domain of f : [1. y = x3 − 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 − 1 2 x + 1 = y3 − x = y −1 3 − x +1 = y x +1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x + 1 −1 f ( x) = 1 − x b.

a. ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. y −1 2 b. x= x = y−2 x−2= x +2 = y y +2 y ( x − 2) = y 2 f −1 ( x ) = 3 x + 2 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 2) 2 b. y = ( x + 2) 49. y = ( x − 2) domain of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) f ( x) = ( x − 2)3 48. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. 3 3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = x +2 x = ( y − 2)3 3 domain of f : [1. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. a. domain of f : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f : c.8 f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 47.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. ∞ ) range of f : −1 217 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c. c. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞.∞ ) 50. a. b. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = x − 1 3 y = x −1 x = ( y + 2)3 3 3 x= x = y+2 x = y −1 x −2 = y x +1 = y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 f −1 ( x ) = x 2 + 1 b. ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f : [ 2. ∞ ) domain of f : c. a. ∞ ) [ 2. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞.

Let f −1 (1) = x . f ( x) = 3 x + 1 y = 3 x +1 x= 3 y +1 x −1 = 3 y ( x − 1)3 = y f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1)3 b. ) . (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 4 ) = 2 57. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. 58. 52. since f ( 2 ) = −1 . 63. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) = 4 ⋅ 3 − 1 = 11 domain of f : 64. Inc. ∞ ) domain of f : x= (g 4x −1 = 7 f ( x) = x + 1 3 4x = 8 x=2 Thus. ( g ( f [ h(1) ]) = g f ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = g ( f (4) ) ) = g ( 2 ⋅ 4 − 5) = g ( 3) c. g −1 ( 7 ) = 2 b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. 53. c. f ( x) = 1 2x − 5 = 1 2x = 6 x=3 Thus. a. ( −∞. ( f ( g [ h(1) ]) = f g ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = f ( g (4) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 4 − 1) = f (15 ) f ( g (1) ) = f (1) = 5 = 2 ⋅ 15 − 5 = 25 f ( g (4) ) = f ( 2 ) = −1 218 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 55. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = 1 56. f −1 (1) = 3 y = 3 x −1 y −1 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 54. 59. Then x3 = y − 1 g ( x) = 7 x +1 = y 3 −1 = g ( 2 ⋅ 0 − 5) 61. f −1 ( g (10) ) = f −1 ( −1) = 2 . since f ( −1) = 1 . Let g −1 ( 7 ) = x . (f g )( 0 ) = f ( g (0) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 0 − 1) = f ( −1) = 2 ( −1) − 5 = −7 60. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. Then f ( x) = 3 x − 1 3 f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( −5 ) = 4 ( −5 ) − 1 = −21 ( −∞. f −1 ( g (1) ) = f −1 (1) = −1 . a.Functions and Graphs 51.

Inc.3) and (19. (50.3) .4).5.17).2.8. (50.8. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. 40). {(17. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0.8). (9. a.7.PreCalculus 4E 65.25) = 15 If there are 15 people in the room.3. (30. 22). Answers may vary. (8.8. not one-to-one 77.8.7) = 30 If there are 30 people in the room. (8. 40). (8. The graph does not represent a one-to-one function. 50). Section 1.5). {(9. – 75. this function does not have an inverse. {(17.7. (40. 9 ⎡5 ⎤ ( x − 32) ⎥ + 32 5 ⎢⎣ 9 ⎦ = x − 32 + 32 f ( g ( x)) = =x f and g are inverses. 68. 9. b. (8. (12. These values can be represented as (12. a. The average happiness level is 3 at 12 noon and at 7 p.17).5) = 21 If there are 21 people in the room.8. (22. 30).3) are an example of two x-values that correspond to the same y-value. 66.5)} b.7).4.8. Thus.8. (60.m. a.3) and (19. 9.50).7). (22. {(9. 70.7.2). 67.5.3)} b. f--1(0. b. (8. (8. (8.4. 22). f--1(0.1). a. 76. (8. f--1(0.3).1.4).25. 60)} f is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of f is not a function. 60)} g is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of g is not a function. (8.3).8. 30). c. (60. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8.8.3. This function fails the horizontal line test.9. one-to-one 219 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 It passes the horizontal line test and is one-to-one. (30. .3. 69.5. (40.

not one-to-one 87.Functions and Graphs 84. false. makes sense 91. so it does not pass the horizontal line test. . f and g are inverses one-to-one 79. not one-to-one 220 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 89. A sample change is: f(x) = 5 is a horizontal line. 92. 2)}. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 81. 86. Changes to make the statement true will vary. x A sample change is: f −1 ( x) = . (7. 85. makes sense 90. 3 94. makes sense 88. Publishing as Prentice Hall. one-to-one 83. true 82. 78. 93. Inc.1). false. false. A sample change is: The inverse is {(4. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 80.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = y+5 ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 = (1 − 7) 2 + (−1 − 2) 2 y = x −5 = (−6) 2 + (−3)2 g −1 ( x) = x − 5 f ( x) = 3x = 36 + 9 = 45 y = 3x =3 5 x = 3y x 3 x −1 f ( x) = 3 101. −1 f −1 ) ( x ) = x x − 15 −5 = 3 3 3x − 2 5x − 3 3x − 2 y= 5x − 3 3y − 2 x= 5y − 3 x(5 y − 3) = 3 y − 2 f ( x) = 102. ( f g )( x) = 3( x + 5) = 3x + 15. Inc. y = x+5 100.8 95. 8 + f −1 ( x − 1) = 10 f −1 ( x − 1) = 2 f (2) = x − 1 6 = x −1 7=x x=7 x = 3 y + 15 y= x − 15 3 (f g ) ( x) = −1 x − 15 3 g ( x) = x + 5 99.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. y 2 − 6 y − 4 = 0 y2 − 6 y =4 y − 6y + 9 = 4 + 9 2 ( y − 3) 2 = 13 y − 3 = ± 13 5 xy − 3x = 3 y − 2 y = 3 ± 13 5 xy − 3 y = 3x − 2 y (5 x − 3) = 3 x − 2 3x − 2 5x − 3 3 x−2 f −1 ( x ) = 5x − 3 Note: An alternative approach is to show that ( f f )( x) = x. there will be 2 times when the spacecraft is at the same height. when it is going up and when it is coming down. No. Answers may vary. y= (g 96. 221 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . y = 3 x + 15 98. y= 97.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. − ⎟ 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ h = 0. k ) = (−3. d = (14 − 2) 2 + (8 − 3)2 x 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 = 122 + 52 ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 4 = 144 + 25 = 169 [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 22 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . d= ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 d= (1 − (−4) ) + ( −3 − 9 ) 2 2 2 (x x2 + y2 + 4x − 4 y −1 = 0 ) + ( y − 4y ) = 0 ( x + 4x + 4) + ( y + 4 y + 4) = 1 + 4 + 4 2 + 4x 2 2 2 ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 9 = 25 + 144 [ x − (− x)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 32 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . k = 2. a.9 ( x − 0)2 + [ y − (−6)]2 = 102 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 5. Exercise Set 1. r = 2. 1) radius: r = 2 d = (8 − 5) 2 + (5 − 1) 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 b. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 42 x 2 + y 2 = 16 h = 0. Inc. = 13 2. d= = ( −6 − 4 ) + ( 3 − (−1) ) 2 ( −10 ) + ( 4 ) 2 2 2 = 100 + 16 = 116 = 2 29 ≈ 10.77 [ −5.Functions and Graphs Section 1.3] c. ⎟ = ⎜ 4. 3. −1] [ −1. r = 3 . we have h = −3. we have = 169 h = −2. 1. r = 4. r = 10. center: (h. k = 0. domain: range: 222 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 + 7 2 + (−3) ⎞ ⎛ 8 −1 ⎞ ⎛ . 3. k = 1. k = −6.9 Check Point Exercises 1. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . = ( 5) + ( −12 ) 2 2 = 13 2. 4. . x2 + y 2 + 4 x − 4 y − 1 = 0 6.

5)2 + (6.6 − 2.54 = 16 + 25 11. 2 .2 − 8.PreCalculus 4E 4.3) = = 25 =5 = 8 2 =2 2 = 36 + 4 ≈ 2. = 16 + 52 = 73 ≈ 8. 2 = 9 + 64 2 7. Inc.40 d = (−3− 0) 2 + (4 − 0) 2 = 3 + ( −4 ) 8.32 9.07 = 25 + 4 = 29 ≈ 5.9 ( −1 − 2 ) + ( 5 − (−3) ) 2 ( −3 ) + ( 8 ) 2 2 10. d = ( 5 − 0)2 + [0 − (− 3)]2 = ( 5) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 5+3 d = [2 − (−4)]2 + [−3 − (−1)]2 = 6 2 + ( −2 ) d = (1.47 2 12. = 9 + 16 ( −1) 2 + ( −7 ) 2 2 = 1 + 49 = 50 d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [−4 − (−6)]2 =5 2 = 52 + 2 2 ≈ 7. d= = 5.83 = 40 = 2 10 ≈ 6.39 13. ( 4 − 0) = 42 + [3 + 2]2 2 = 32 + 42 6. + [3 − ( −2 )]2 = 41 ≈ 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. d= = d = (4 − 0)2 + [1 − (−3)]2 ( ) ( 2 ( 7) 2 + ⎣⎡ − 2 ⎦⎤ 2 = 7+2 = 42 + 4 2 = 9 = 16 + 16 =3 = 32 ) 7 − 0 + ⎡0 − − 2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ =4 2 ≈ 5. d = (−.2) 2 = 9 +16 = (−4) 2 + (−2)2 = 25 =5 = 16 + 4 = 20 d = (3 − 0) 2 + ( −4 − 0 ) =2 5 2 ≈ 4.66 223 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 − 3. d= 14.6) 2 + ( −5. Section 1.7 − 1.

64 16. ⎟ = (6. . ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −5 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 28. ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −8 −10 ⎞ =⎜ . ≈ 2. Inc.5) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2 21.5 5 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( = 2 ≈ 1.09 17. d = (− 3 − 3 3)2 + (4 5 − 5)2 22. d= = ( − 3 − 2 3 ) + (5 ( −3 3 ) + ( 4 6 ) 2 2 6− 6 ) 2 2 24. 2 ⎛1 7⎞ ⎛6 1⎞ d = ⎜ − ⎟ +⎜ − ⎟ ⎝3 3⎠ ⎝5 5⎠ 2 = (−2) 2 + 12 = 4 +1 = 5 2 ⎡ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ d = ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ + ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠⎦ ⎣ 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠⎦ 2 ⎛ 3 1 ⎞ ⎡6 1⎤ = ⎜ + ⎟ +⎢ + ⎥ ⎝ 4 4 ⎠ ⎣7 7⎦ ⎛ −2 + ( −8) −1 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ −10 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ .Functions and Graphs 15. ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ −5 ⎞ = ⎜ . −4 29. 15 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 4 1 3 1⎞ ⎛ 2 1 ⎞ = ⎜− ⋅ . ⎟ = (−4. ⎛ 6 + 2 8 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 12 ⎞ . −2 ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 ⎛ 2⎞ 7 ⎛ 4 ⎞⎞ ⎛ 4 3 ⎞ ⎜ − 5 + ⎜ − 5 ⎟ 15 + ⎜ − 15 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ − ⎝ ⎠. ⎟=⎜ . ⎝ ⎠⎟= 5 . ⎛ −4 + ( −1) −7 + ( −3) ⎞ ⎛ −5 −10 ⎞ . = 123 ≈ 11. . = (−4 3) 2 + (3 5) 2 = 16(3) + 9(5) = 48 + 45 = 93 23. ⎛ 10 + 2 4 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 12 10 ⎞ . −5) ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ) ) ⎛ 18 + 2 −4 + 4 ⎞ . ⋅ ⎟ = ⎜− . ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 2 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ( = 5 3. ⎛ 8 + (−6) 3 5 + 7 5 ⎞ . −6 ⎟ 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 26. ⎛ 7 3 + 3 3 −6 + (−2) ⎞ ⎛ 10 3 −8 ⎞ . 2 ⎟ = ⎜ − . ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛3 2+ 2 0⎞ ⎛4 2 ⎞ . ⎟ = ( −3. ⎜ ⎟=⎜ .0) =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 224 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −12 −8 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 6 −4 ⎞ = ⎜ 2 . ⎟ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ −7 ⎛ 5 ⎞ 3 ⎛ 11 ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠.24 18. ⎟ = ⎜ . ⎟ ⎝ 5 2 15 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 27. 6) 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 20. ⎟ = (4. ⎛ −3 + 6 −4 + (−8) ⎞ . ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . ≈ 9. = 1. ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 = 12 + 12 ⎛ 2 10 5 ⎞ =⎜ . 0 ⎟ = (2 2. ⎛ −2 + (−6) −8 + (−2) ⎞ .41 19. ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 3 −12 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎟ = ⎜ −5. = 9 ⋅ 3 + 16 ⋅ 6 = 27 + 96 25.

1). 4] domain: ( x − 3 ) + ( y − 2 ) = 52 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 2 ) = 25 range: 2 43. 0 ⎟ = 3 2. center = (0.9 ⎛ 50 + 2 −6 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 5 2 + 2 0 ⎞ . r = 6. . 2 ( x + 3) 38. Inc. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = 82 x 2 + y 2 = 64 33. k = 0. 7] domain: range: 225 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. r = 7. center = (3. .9] [ −5. center = (0. r = 4. range: ( x − 2 ) + [ y − (−1)] = 42 2 2 ( x − 2 ) + ( y + 1) = 16 2 [ −4. 37. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = y 2 h = 0. x 2 + y 2 = 49 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 h = 0. ⎟⎟ ⎟=⎜ ⎜⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛6 2 ⎞ . 35. Section 1. radius = 6 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 102 2 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 0 ) = 100 2 [ x − (−2)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 62 2 ( x + 2 ) + y 2 = 36 2 [ −3. 0). 4] [ −4. k = 0. radius = 7 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4 )2 = 22 2 2 ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 4 2 [ x − (−3)] + ( y − 5)2 = 32 2 2 ( x + 3) + ( y − 5 ) = 9 [ x − (−3)] + [ y − (−1)] 2 2 2 ( 3) 2 2 = ( 5) [ −7. radius = 4 ) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 x 2 + y 2 = 49 32. 0). k = 1. + ( y + 3) = 5 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 36 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 62 2 2 h = 3. 34. 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 + y 2 = 16 41.PreCalculus 4E 30. 36. 7] [ −7. 0 =⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( 31. 7] domain: + ( y + 1) = 3 2 2 = 2 [ x − (−5)] + [ y − (−3)] ( x + 5) 39. 2 2 40.

1] [ 0. 7] [ −4. r = 5. 4). r = 1. 2). center = (–4. –5). 2] [ −11. 2] domain: [ −6. center = (–1. r = 6. [ −2. k = −2. radius = 4 45. radius = 2 46. 6] [ −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. k = 3. center = (2.1] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 25 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4)2 = 52 2 2 49. 1). 0] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 4 48. . k = −5. 2 x 2 + ( y − 1) = 1 2 h = 0. −1] [ 0. center = (0. radius = 5 [ −1. [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 22 h = −3. k = 1. Inc.9] range: domain: range: 226 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x − 2) 2 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 47. radius = 2 2 ( x − 2) + ( y − 3)2 = 42 h = 2. 4] [ −1.Functions and Graphs 44. 4] [ −10. r = 2 center = (–2. k = 2. radius = 1 h = −1. [ x − (−2)]2 + [ y − (−2)]2 = 22 h = −2. radius = 6 [ −5. ( x + 2) 2 + ( y + 2)2 = 4 ( x + 4 ) + ( y + 5) = 36 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−5)] = 62 2 h = −4. –2). 3). 0] [ −4. r = 2 center = (–3. r = 4. k = 4.

center = (0.9 x2 + ( y − 2) = 4 2 x2 + y 2 + 6 x + 2 y + 6 = 0 53. r = 4. Inc. –2). k = 2. radius = 2 [ −6. radius = 5 54. 4] domain: range: 51. 2] [ −4.0). r = 2. 4] [ −5. Section 1. radius = 2 [ −2. 5] domain: range: 52. r = 5. (x (x 2 2 − 10 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 30 − 10 x + 25 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 25 + 9 + 30 ( x − 5) 2 + ( y − 3) = 64 2 ( x − 5)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 82 center = (5. k = 0. k = 0. ( x + 2) 2 + y 2 = 16 h = −2. radius = 4 x 2 + y 2 − 10 x − 6 y − 30 = 0 55. 3). radius = 8 [ −6. radius = 2 (x (x 2 2 + 6 x ) + ( y 2 + 2 y ) = −6 + 6 x + 9 ) + ( y 2 + 2 y + 1) = 9 + 1 − 6 ( x + 3) + ( y + 1) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−3)] + [9 − (−1)] = 22 2 2 center = (–3. . 2] [ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 50. h = 0. x 2 + y 2 + 8 x + 4 y + 16 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 8 x ) + ( y 2 + 4 y ) = −16 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y 2 + 4 y + 4 ) = 20 − 16 ( x + 4) + ( y + 2) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−2)] = 22 2 2 center = (–4. –1). center = (–2. ( x + 1) 2 + y 2 = 25 h = −1. 4] domain: range: 227 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0). center = (–1.2).

radius = 4 center = (–4. 1). 3). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3). radius = 4 60. x 2 + y 2 − 4 x − 12 y − 9 = 0 (x (x 2 2 − 4 x ) + ( y 2 − 12 y ) = 9 − 4 x + 4 ) + ( y 2 − 12 y + 36 ) = 4 + 36 + 9 ( x − 2) 2 (x + ( y − 6 ) = 49 (x 2 2 − 2 x ) + y 2 = 15 − 2 x + 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 1 + 0 + 15 2 2 center = (1. 2 2 2 x2 + y 2 + 8x − 2 y − 8 = 0 (x (x ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 16 2 2 ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 42 2 ( x − 2)2 + ( y − 6)2 = 7 2 center = (2. radius = 7 57. x 2 − 2 x + y 2 − 15 = 0 59. . 6). radius = 7 228 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.Functions and Graphs 56. + 8x ) + ( y2 − 2 y ) = 8 x2 + y 2 − 6 y − 7 = 0 x2 + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 7 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y − 2 y + 1) = 16 + 1 + 8 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 1) = 25 2 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 1)2 = 52 2 2 ( x − 0) 2 ( x − 0) 2 = ( y 2 − 6 y + 9) = 0 + 9 + 7 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 3)2 = 42 center = (0. radius = 5 58. 0). x 2 + y 2 + 12 x − 6 y − 4 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 12 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 4 + 12 x + 36 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 36 + 9 + 4 2 [ x − (−6)] + ( y − 3)2 = 72 center = (–6.

⎟ .PreCalculus 4E 61.1⎟ . Inc.9 x2 + y 2 − x + 2 y + 1 = 0 63. Section 1. radius = 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 − x + y 2 + 2 y = −1 1 1 x 2 − x + + y 2 + 2 y + 1 = −1 + + 1 4 4 x 2 + 3x + y 2 − 2 y = 1 9 9 x 2 + 3x + + y 2 − 2 y + 1 = 1 + + 1 4 4 2 2 1⎞ 1 2 ⎛ ⎜ x − ⎟ + ( y + 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 ⎞ 3⎞ 17 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ + ( y − 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 ⎞ 1 center = ⎜ . radius = 2 ⎝ 1 =0 2 1 x2 + x + y 2 + y = 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 x +x+ + y + y+ = + + 4 4 2 4 4 x2 + y 2 + x + y − 2 x 2 + y 2 + 3x − 2 y − 1 = 0 64. − ⎟ . −1⎟ . ⎠ x2 + y 2 + 3x + 5 y + 17 2 9 =0 4 9 4 9 25 9 9 25 2 2 x + 3x + + y + 5 y + =− + + 4 4 4 4 4 x2 + 3x + y 2 + 5 y = − 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜x − ⎟ +⎜ y − ⎟ =1 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 3⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ 25 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ +⎜ y+ ⎟ = 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛ 3 5⎞ 5 center = ⎜ − . radius = 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ center = ⎜ . . radius = 1 ⎝2 2⎠ 229 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. center = ⎜ − .

Intersection points: ( 0. a. 0 ) : = 5 The radius is 0 − ( −4 ) = 4 2 2 230 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.10 ) .0 )} . 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 5 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 10 ⎞ . Using the point ( 3. 0 ) : 2 c. 4 = 4 true Check ( 4.5 ) 2 68. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. −4 ) and ( 4. b.Functions and Graphs 65. −3) : 02 + ( −3) = 9 2 2 = 12 + ( −1) = 1 + 1 2 units. 5 units. + ( y − 10 ) = 2 ( 5) 2 + ( y − 10 ) = 5 Since the line segment passes through the center. ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 7 9 + 11 ⎞ ⎛ 10 20 ⎞ =⎜ . the center is the midpoint of the segment. . The center is ( 5. a. Intersection points: ( 0. we get: d= ( 5 − 3) 2 + (10 − 9 ) Check ( 0. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 5. Inc. ( x − 5) 2 ( x − 5) 2 42 + 02 = 16 4−0 = 4 16 = 16 true 4 = 4 true The solution set is {( 0. −3) . −4 ) . b. 6 ) . = 2 The radius is 0 − ( −3 ) = 3 9 = 9 true Check ( 3.9 ) . 0 )} . 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. we get: d= ( 4 − 3) + ( 5 − 6 ) 2 Check ( 0. ( 3. Using the point ( 3. Since the line segment passes through the center. ( 4. 66. −3) and ( 3. =⎜ ⎟=⎜ . The center is ( 4. the center is the midpoint of the segment. ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . ⎟=⎜ . ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 4.10 ) 67. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 ) . ( 2) ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = 2 2 3 = 3 true 32 + 02 = 9 3−0 = 3 9 = 9 true 3 = 3 true The solution set is {( 0. −4 ) : 02 + ( −4 ) = 16 2 2 16 = 16 true = 22 + 12 = 4 + 1 c.

−1) : ( 2 − 2 ) + ( −1 + 3 ) = 4 2 2 d = (8936 − 8448) 2 + (3542 − 2625)2 ⋅ 0. true + ( 2 + 1) = 9 2 2 = 3 −1 2 = 2 true 0 +3 = 9 9=9 true The solution set is {( 0. Check ( 0. ( 2. −3) : ( 0 − 2 ) + ( −3 + 3) = 9 2 ( −2 ) + 0 2 = 4 2 2 −3 = 0 − 3 −3 = −3 true 73. −2. ( 3. −1) d ≈ 328 The distance between New Orleans and Houston is about 328 miles.4 ) ) + ( y − ( −2. 2 ) 84. 82) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 682 70. 83. – 82. d = 1. then we want the equation of a circle with center at ( −2.1 d = 72. makes sense = 302 + ( y + 2. 2 . 033 ⋅ 0.7 ) and 4=4 radius 30.4 ) −1 = 2 − 3 −1 = −1 true 02 + 22 = 4 4=4 true The solution set is {( 0. 2 ) : ( 3 − 3) 2 85. at the origin. −1) . Inc. −3) . −1) : ( 0 − 3) 2 + ( −1 + 1) = 9 2 ( −3) 2 + 02 = 9 −1 = 0 − 1 −1 = −1 true 9=9 Check ( 3.9 69. 68 + 14) = (0.1 d ≈ 2693 The distance between Boston and San Francisco is about 2693 miles.A. 72. −1)} . 2 231 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x − ( −2.1 Intersection points: ( 0. d = (8495 − 4422) 2 + (8720 − 1241)2 ⋅ 0. Answers may vary.1 2 ( x + 2. C(0. Check ( 0.7 ) = 900 74. 079. If we place L. 2 )} .7 ) ) true Check ( 2. 71. −3) and ( 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 524.4. makes sense 87. 770 ⋅ 0. Intersection points: ( 0. 2 x 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 4624 75. −1) and ( 3. 2 2 86.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.

232 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Both circles have center (2. x ) to midpoint 1 1 2 2 ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 − x1 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ makes sense 2 2 90. a.56 square units. The smaller circle has radius 5 and the larger circle has radius 6. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: This is not an equation for a circle. 91. Changes to make the statement true will vary. The smaller circle is inside of the larger circle. A sample change is: The center is at (3. The distance for A to C: d3 is the distance from ( x1 . A sample change is: The equation would be x 2 + y 2 = 256. 93. y1 ) to ( x2 y2 ) d3 = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 AC = (6 − 1) 2 + [6 + d − (1 + d )]2 d3 = x2 2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 = 52 + 52 d1 + d 2 = d3 because = 25 + 25 = 50 1 1 a+ a= a 2 2 96. . false. ⎛ x + x − 2 x1 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ false. The area between them is given by =5 2 AB + BC = AC 2 2 +3 2 = 5 2 π ( 6 ) − π ( 5 ) = 36π − 25π = 11π 2 5 2 =5 2 2 ≈ 34. y2 ) 2 94. –5). 92. 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ + ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ false. 95. does not make sense. A sample change is: Since r 2 = −36 this is not the equation of a circle. Publishing as Prentice Hall. d is distance from ( x . –3). The distance for A to B: ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d 2 = ⎜ 1 2 − x2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y2 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ AB = (3 − 1) 2 + [3 + d − (1 + d )]2 = 22 + 22 2 2 ⎛ x + x − 2 x2 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 4+4 = 8 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ =2 2 The distance from B to C: BC = (6 − 3) 2 + [3 + d − ( 6 + d )]2 = 32 + ( −3) 2 d1 = d1 = false. 2 2 2 2 d2 = x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 + 4 4 d2 = 1 2 ( x1 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 ) 4 1 x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 2 d1 = d 2 = 9+9 d2 = = 18 =3 2 b.Functions and Graphs 88. x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 + 4 4 d1 = 1 ( x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 ) 4 1 x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 2 d 2 is distance from midpoint to ( x2 . 89. Sample explanation: Since r 2 = −4 this is not the equation of a circle. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary.

000 – 100x b. The domain of V is { x 0 < x < 4} or. 4 ) . 4 98.04x 300 = x The plans cost the same for 300 minutes. d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0 ) Check Point Exercises 1. ( 0.–4) is −4 − 0 4 m=− = − . The slope of the radius with endpoints (0. a. V = πr h p = 2l + 2w = 2(50) + 2(20) = 140 1000 = πr 2 h 1000 =h πr 2 A = lw = (50)(20) = 1000 The perimeter is 140 yd.0).07x + 0. then length = 100 – x A(x) = x(100 – x) = 100x – x2 2 5. I ( x) = 0. 3. π r 2 h = 22 h= V(x) = (15 – 2x)(8 – 2x)x = (120 – 46x +4x2)x = 4x3 – 46x2 + 120x Since x represents the inches to be cut off.10 7.08x = x2 + y2 b. The circle is centered at (0.09(25. the area is 1200 sq yd b. d = x 2 + x3 ( ) 2 2 = x 2 + x6 a. 2l + 2w = 200 2l = 200 – 2w l = 100 – w Let x = width.000x 233 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The line perpendicular to the 3− 0 3 3 3 radius has slope . x > 0. 4. notation.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. so must cut less than 4 off each side. 99. . The tangent line has slope and 4 4 passes through (3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x − 200 a. Inc. so its equation is: 3 y + 4 = ( x − 3).12x 12 = 0.0) and (3. p = 2l + 2w = 2(40) + 2(30) = 140 A = lw = (40)(30) = 1200 The perimeter is 140 yd. 000 − x ) Section 1. in interval A = 2π r2 + 2 πrh 22 1000 2 = 2π r + 2 πr πr 2 2000 = 2π r 2 + r πr2 44 ⎛ 22 ⎞ 2π r 2 + 2π rh = 2π r 2 + 2π r ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2π r 2 + ⎝ πr ⎠ r 6.000 – 100x)x = –100x2 + 18.08x = 3 + 0. N(x) = 8000 – 100(x – 100) = 8000 – 100x + 10000 = 18. 15 + 0. g(x) = 3 + 0.–4). 2. the area is 1000 sq yd 100. R(x) = (18. The smallest side is 8.10 97. f(x) = 15 + 0.12x y = x3 c.

9 x c. 40% of babies born will be out of wedlock.Functions and Graphs 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7.5x = 21+ x 1.4 − 0.9 x c. 000 − 500x + 10000 = 40.4 − 0. 2.25x 860 = x You drove 860 miles for $395.10 1. 000 − 400(x − 15) = 20.5x = 21 x = 14 f (14) = 2. 000 − 500(x − 20) = 30.5x c. g( x) = 40 + 0. 1.25x b. in 2010. $35. 100 + 0. 000 − 400x)x 2 = −400x + 26. 300 + 0.1x 600 = x For $600 worth of merchandise.25x 215 = 0.2 x 1300 = x f (1300) = 300 + 0. f ( x) = 300 + 0. f ( x) = 180 + 0. 40 = 28 + 06x 12 = 0.9(1300) = 1210 You would have to purchase $1300 in merchandise at a total cost of $1210. for either method. f ( x) = 1.7 x = 40 + 0.7x b. 180 = 239.15x 120 = 01.5(28) = 35 If a person crosses the bridge 28 times the cost will be $35 for both options a. 000 − 400x R(x) = (26. 9. a.6 x b.9 x 60 = 0. g( x) = 21+ 0. a.7(1300) = 1210 g(1300) = 40 + 0.25 x 395 = 180 + 0. 000 x 10.3 x b.3x = 59.5 x b. your cost is $580 for both plans a. g( x) = 21+ x c.4 x = 198 198 years after 1954.5x 800 = x 800 miles a. 2.25 x = 21 + 0. R( x) = (40. P( x) = 28 + 0. a. a.75 x = 21 x = 28 f (28) = 1.15x 320 = 200 + 0. 000 − 500 x) x = −500 x 2 + 40. N (x) = 30. b. g( x) = 40 + 0.8 x b. a. a. b. 8. 000 − 500x b. someone will run a 3 minute mile. . in 2152.8x = 40 + 0. M (x ) = 239. 5. 000 − 400x + 6000 = 26. f ( x) = 200 + 0.3 x 0. f ( x) = 2. N (x) = 20. Inc.5(14) = 35 g(14) = 21 + 14 = 35 To cross the bridge 14 times costs the same.6x 20 = x 20 years after 1990. 3. Exercise Set 1.25(28) = 35 g (28) = 21 + 0.5 x 0. 000x 234 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 100 + 0. 4. b. a.9 x 260 = 0.

b. the volume will be 1944 square inches. the volume will be 1728 square inches. the volume will be 864 square inches. V(4) = 4(43 ) −120(4 2 ) + 900(4) = 1936 If 4 inches are cut from each side. 15) 17. you must cut less than 15 inches from each side. the volume will be 980 square inches.10 N (x) = 9000 + 50(150 − x) = 9000 − 50x + 7500 = 16500 − 50x R(x) = (16500 − 50x)x = −50x 2 + 16500x 16. T (x) = (360 − 3x)x = −3x 2 + 360x V(7) = 4(73 ) −120(72 ) + 900(7) = 1792 If 7 inches are cut from each side. 14. V(x) = (30 − 2x)(30 − 2x)x = (900 −120x + 4x 2 )x = 4x 3 − 120x 2 + 900x b. a. 12. a. the volume will be 800 square inches. b. R(x) = (12400 − 60x)x = −60x 2 + 12400x V(3) = 4(33 ) −120(32 ) + 900(3) = 1728 If 3 inches are cut from each side. the volume will be 1024 square inches. x > 0. N (x) = 7. V (3) = 4(3)3 − 96(3)2 + 576(3) = 972 If 3inch squares are cut off each corner. the volume will be 1936 square inches. 0 < x < 12 a. a. 15. Section 1. V(x) = (24 − 2x)(24 − 2x)x 2 = (576 − 96x + 4x )x = 4x 3 − 96x 2 + 576x c. Since x is the number of inches to be cut from each side. If x is the inches to be cut off. you must cut less than 12 inches off each end. b. Since each side is 24. a. 000 + 60(90 − x) = 7000 − 60x + 5400 = 12400 − 60x c. V(5) = 4(5) 3 − 96(5)2 + 576(5) = 980 If 5inch squares are cut off each corner. b. V(2) = 4(2) 3 − 96(2) 2 + 576(2) = 800 If 2-inch squares are cut off each corner. 235 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. V(4) = 4(4) 3 − 96(4)2 + 576(4) = 1024 If 4-inch squares are cut off each corner. the volume will be 972 square inches. Y(x) = 270 − 3(x − 30) = 270 − 3x + 90 = 360 − 3x V(6) = 4(63 ) −120(62 ) + 900(6) = 1944 If 6 inches are cut from each side. 13.PreCalculus 4E 11. a. b. Inc. Y(x) = 320 − 4(x − 50) = 320 − 4x + 200 = 520 − 4x T (x) = (520 − 4x)x = −4x 2 + 520x V(5) = 4(53 ) −120(52 ) + 900(5) = 2000 If 5 inches are cut from each side. 0 < x < 15 or (0. x > 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since each side is 30 inches. . the volume will be 2000 square inches. ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 8− x ⎞ A( x) = ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 2 2 = x 2 64 − 16 x + x 2 + 16 16 = 2 x 2 − 16 x + 64 16 = x 2 − 8 x + 32 8 V(6) = 4(6) 3 − 96(6)2 + 576(6) = 864 If 6inch squares are cut off each corner. A(x) = x(20 − 2x) = −2x 2 + 20x 18. the volume will be 1792 square inches.

4y = 1200 − 2x 1200 − 2x y= 4 1200 − 2x 4 x(1200 − 2x) = 4 2x(600 − x) = 4 x(600 − x) = 2 A(x) = x 236 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x = distance around 2 straight sides π 2r = distance around 2 curved sides 29. A(x) = x(400 − x) = −x 2 + 400x 22. 600 − 2 x = length = 440r A(x) = (600 − 2x)x = −2 x 2 + 600x 25. 2 x + 3 y = 1000 xy = 4000 4000 y= x 3 y = 1000 − 2 x 1000 − 2 x 3 ⎛ 1000 − 2 x ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ x(1000 − 2 x) = 3 2x + 4y = 1200 ⎡ ⎛ 4000 ⎞ ⎤ C ( x) = ⎢ 2 x + 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 175 + 125 x ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ 1. 2x = distance around the 2 straight sides 2πr = distance around the 2 curved sides 2 x + 2π r = 880 Let x = w A(x) = x(800 − 2 x) 2 x = 880 − 2π r x = 440 − π r = −2 x 2 + 800x 24. Inc. 2 w + l = 800 27. P(x) = x(50 − x) = −x 2 + 50 x 21. 000 = 350 x + + 125 x x 1. 400. 2 x + 2π r = 440 2 x = 440 − 2π r x = 220 − π r A(r ) = (220 − π r )2r + π r 2 = 440r − 2π r 2 + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 l = 800 − 2 w 28.Functions and Graphs 19. . A(x) = x(300 − x) = −x 2 + 300x 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 w + l = 600 A( x) = r (440 − π r ) + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 + π r 2 l = 600 − 2 l let x = width. P(x) = x(66 − x) = −x 2 + 66x 20. 400. 000 = 475 x + x y= 26.

2500 = 0.15 x + 3500 − 0.07(50000 – x) 6000 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 37. Let x = amount at 14% 12000 – x = amount at 6% I ( x) = 0.1x + 2250 − 0.15 x + 0. . Section 1.250 at 15% and $18.08 x 10 = x y x2 Let x = amount invested at 15% 50000 – x = amount invested at 7% I(x) = 0.15x + 0. + 29x 36.750 – x = amount at 12% I ( x) = 0. a. b.10 x + 0. 35.14 x + 720 − 0.06(12000 − x) ⎛ 400 ⎞ A = x2 + 5 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x ⎝ x ⎠ 2000 2 =x + x 33. ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 8 x 2 + 16 = x 4 − 7 x 2 + 16 108 = y + 4 x 108 − 4 x = y 40. = 0. A = x (108 − 4 x) 2 d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 = −4 x 3 + 108 x 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 8 ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 16 x 2 + 64 = x 4 − 15 x 2 + 64 237 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.14 x + 0.08 x + 720 39. = w. Inc.02 x = −133 x = 6650 The amount of money to be invested should be $6650 at 10% and $12100 at 12%.PreCalculus 4E 30.750 at 7%.07 x + x + 9x 2 10 a.12 x = 2117 −0.10 x + 0.12(18750 − x) =y b.10 125 = lw 125 l = = 5000 x 5000 x 125 x 50000 − 31250 = 18750 Invest $31. 0.06 x = 0.12x – 0. 300 = y + 4 x d = ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 300 − 4 x = y 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 4 A( x) = x (300 − 4 x) 2 = −4 x3 + 300 x 2 34. Let x = amount invested at 12% 8000 – x = amount invested at 5% loss I(x) = 0. 6000 = 0.07 x(50000 − x) 31250 = x + 20x + 9x ⎛ 10 ⎞ A( x) = x 2 + 4 ⎜ x ⋅ 2 ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ 40 = x2 + x 32.05(8000 – x) 400 = x 2 y 400 x2 =y 38.12(18750 − x) = 2117 0. Let x = amount at 10% 18. let x = l C(x) = 20 2 31.

A( x) = 2 xy 47. + ( x + 2) [ ( x − 5) + ( x + 3) ] = 2 x 4 − x2 b. – 62. a. Road from Town A: c 2 = 62 + x 2 d = ( x − 1) 2 + y 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + ( x) 2 c = 36 + x 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + x Road from Town B: c 2 = 32 + (12 − x) 2 = x − x +1 2 42. A( x) = 12 x 2 − 25 x + 12 x 2 + 23 x + ( x + 2) [ 2 x − 2] P ( x ) = 2(2 x) + 2 y = 4x + 2 4 − x 44. . d = ( x − 2) + y 2 c = 9 + 144 − 24 x + x 2 2 = x2 − 4 x + 4 + ( x) c = x 2 − 24 x + 153 2 f ( x ) = 36 + x 2 + x 2 − 24 x + 153 = x 2 − 3x + 4 43. 64. V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x + 1)( x + 2) − ( x + 5)(3)( x) V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x 2 + 5 x + 2) − 3x( x + 5) x = 36 + x 2 8-foot pole V ( x) = 2 x3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x + 10 − 3x 2 − 15 x V ( x) = 2 x3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x + 10 c 2 = 82 + (10 − x)2 c = 64 + 100 − 20 x + x 2 50.Functions and Graphs 41. b. 238 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. as it suggests a per minute charge of $30. Answers may vary. 46. 63. A( x) = x 2 − x + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 4 2 A( x) = 3x 2 + x − 4 A( x) = 2 xy = 2x 9 − x A( x) = 12 x( x − 5) + 12 x ( x + 3) 48. does not make sense. Inc. V ( x) = ( x)(2 x + 5 x − 3) − x 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x) = 36 + x + x − 20 x + 164 2 V ( x) = ( x)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) − ( x)( x) [ (2 x − 1) − ( x + 1) ] c = x 2 − 20 x + 164 total length 2 V ( x) = 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3x − x3 + 2 x 2 V ( x) = x3 + 7 x 2 − 3x 51. 6-foot pole c 2 = 62 + x 2 49. Explanations will vary. a. Explanations will vary. 2 A( x) = 12 x(2 x) + 12 (6 x − 4 x)( x + 2) + (4 x)( x + 2) + 2 x(8) A( x) = x + x( x + 2) + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x 2 P( x) = 2(2 x) + 2 y A( x) = x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x = 4x + 2 9 − x2 A( x) = 6 x 2 + 26 45. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Sample explanation: This model is not reasonable. Sample explanation: The decrease in passengers is modeled by 60( x − 300). does not make sense.

PreCalculus 4E 65. 1 (π 2r ) 2 12 = 2h + 2r + π r P = 2h + 2r + Chapter 1 Review Exercises 1. y = 4 239 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 2 x = 3. makes sense 2 1 ⎛1 ⎞ = π ⎜ h⎟ h 3 ⎝2 ⎠ 1 1 2 = π h h 3 4 67. 70. y = –4 x = 0. 12 − 2r − π r = 2h 12 − 2r − π r =h 2 1 ⎛ 12 − 2r − π r ⎞ 2 A=⎜ ⎟ 2r + 2 π r 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 + π r 2 2 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 2 ( ) x = –3. 7 + 4 2 2 + 5 2 14 + 35 2 + 8 2 + 40 ⋅ = 2 − 5 2 2 + 5 2 4 + 10 2 − 10 2 − 50 54 + 43 2 −46 54 + 43 2 =− 46 = A( x) = (20 + 2 x)(10 + 2 x) − 10(20) = 4 x 2 + 60 x + 200 − 200 = 4 x 2 + 60 x 69. Chapter 1 Review Exercises does not make sense. . or = 15 x 2 − 29 x − 14 72. y = –8 x = –2. Sample explanation: The area of a rectangle is not solely determined by its perimeter. y = 0 x = 2. 18 − 8 = 9 ⋅ 2 − 4 ⋅ 2 =3 2 −2 2 = 2 4 + x2 6 − x + 2 5 73. Explanations will vary. yet their areas are different from each other. y = –6 x = –1. π 12 h3 (7 − 3x )(−2 − 5 x) = −14 − 35 x + 6 x + 15 x 2 = −14 − 29 x + 15 x 2 4 + x2 2 Distance and time walked: d = 6− x rt = d 5t = 6 − x 6− x t= 5 Total time: t= T ( x) = 68. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = –2 x = 1. Inc. Distance and time rowed: d 2 = 22 + x 2 d = 4 + x2 rt = d = 2t = 4 + x 2 71. r= 1 h 2 1 V ( h) = π r 2 h 3 66. For example: A 4 by 6 rectangle and a 3 by 7 rectangle both have perimeters of 20 units.

11. The top marginal tax rate in 2005 was 35%. y = 1 x = 2. 13} range: {10. y = –2 x = 2. 5} range: {7} x = −3. y = 1 x = 3. 6. 12. 50%). 14. x-scale equal to 10 and with minimum y-value equal to –5. the top marginal tax rate increased about 38%. A portion of Cartesian coordinate plane with minimum x-value equal to –20. y-intercept: 2. . y = 1 x = –1. y = −2 x = 1. 15. y = 0 x = 1. 14} range: {13. x-intercepts: 2. y = 2 x = 3. maximum x-value equal to 40. y = –3 x = –2. x-intercept: –2. The graph does not intersect the yaxis. function domain: {2. y-intercept: –4. y = −1 x = 0. 7. 0) and (2. 9. The coordinates are (1985. 8. During the ten-year period from 1950 to 1960. y = 6 3. The lowest marginal tax rate occurred in 1990 and was about 28%. y = –2 x = –1. 2). not a function domain: {12. 0). During the five-year period from 1930 to 1935. y = –2 x = 0. y = 3 5. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 13. maximum y-value equal to 5. 3. The graph intersects the x-axis at (5. y-intercept: None. 0). 4. –2. y = –3 x = 1. y = 1 240 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = –1 x = 0. y = 6 x = –2. π} x = −1. 19} x = 3. function domain: {1. y = 0 17. x = –3.Functions and Graphs 2. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. The highest marginal tax rate occurred in 1945 and was about 94%. 10. y = 0 16. and y-scale equal to 1. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. 15. y = 1 x = −2. x-intercept: 5. y = −1 x = 2. the top marginal tax rate remained constant at about 91%. 500. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. The graph intercepts the y-axis at (0. –4). 2. x = –3. 0).

a. a. f (2) = 2x + y = 6 (−2) 2 − 1 3 = = −1 −2 − 1 −3 2 y 2 = −2 x + 6 y = ± −2 x + 6 Since more than one value of y can be obtained from some values of x. a. y is a function of x. 29. increasing: (−2. y is a function of x. 19. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. g (0) = 3(0)2 − 5(0) + 2 = 2 b. g (−2) = 3(−2) 2 − 5(−2) + 2 = 12 + 10 + 2 31. x-intercept: –3 d.PreCalculus 4E 18. 20. f(x) = 5 – 7x 22. f ( x + 3) = 5 − 7( x + 3) = 5 − 7 x − 21 28. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(–x) = 5 – 7(–x) = 5 + 7x g ( x) = 3x 2 − 5 x + 2 30. 23. a. g(–3) = 4 – (–3) = 7 24. f (−2) = b. 3x 2 + y = 14 y = −3x 2 + 14 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 2x + y = 8 y = −2 x + 8 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. a. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. 3) g (− x ) = 3(− x) 2 − 5(− x) + 2 f. Inc. − 2) or (0. 0) or (3. b. 21. 5) = 3x 2 − 11x + 10 d. 26. y is not a function of x. = −7 x − 16 c. g(0) = 4 – 0 = 4 c. 5) b. g (13) = 13 − 4 = 9 = 3 decreasing: (−3. 22 − 1 3 = =3 2 −1 1 25. g ( x − 1) = 3( x − 1) 2 − 5( x − 1) + 2 = 3( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 5 x + 5 + 2 domain: [–3. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. b. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. range: [–5. y-intercept: –2 e. f(–2) = –3 and f(3) = –5 = 3x + 5 x + 2 2 241 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. f(1) = 12 c. 0] c. f(4) = 5 – 7(4) = –23 27. = 24 c.

34. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. ∞ ) f. The function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. a. 40. ∞) c. f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 = f ( x) The function is even. 3. b. − 2) or (2. 5} a. . ∞) 37. f ( x) = 2 x 1 − x 2 b. Inc. increasing: (–2. a. − 5) or (0. ∞ ) f. –5 35. −5. ∞) 38. relative maximum −2 39. y-intercept: 0 e. 2] f (− x) = 2(− x) 1 − (− x)2 c. a. relative minimum −3. relative maximum 3 b. range: {–3. x-intercept: 0 = −2 x 1 − x 2 d. a. 0. range: [–2. domain: (−∞. increasing: (–5. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)2 + 1 b. 0) decreasing: (−∞. f(–2) = 0 and f(6) = –3 33. = − f ( x) The function is odd. range: (−∞. f(–9) = –2 and f(14) = 2 = − f ( x) The function is odd. y-intercept: 3 e. relative minimum −6 36. a. −2. x-intercepts: –2 and 3 d. 2) constant: (−∞. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. Publishing as Prentice Hall. domain: (−∞. range: { y y ≤ 0} 242 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 32. 0. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x f (− x) = (− x)3 − 5(− x) = − x3 + 5 x b. b.

3x + y – 9 = 0 y = –3x + 9 m = –3 point-slope form: y + 7 = –3(x – 4) slope-intercept form: y = –3x + 12 – 7 y = –3x + 5 Yes. 3) or (12. Constant: (0. falls 5−3 2 2 46. 6x − y − 4 = 0 − y = −6 x + 4 y = 6x − 4 The slope of the perpendicular line is 6. m= −4 − (−2) −2 = = 1. m= 1 − 2 −1 1 = = − . m= 10 − 5 5 = undefined. Increasing: (17. c. 1 x+4 3 m = –3 point-slope form: y – 6 = –3(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –3x – 9 + 6 y = –3x – 3 53. h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 − x − 10 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h −4 x − 2 h + 1 2 m= 49. the eagle’s height is a function of time since the graph passes the vertical line test. 30) The eagle was ascending. 17) The eagle’s height held steady during the first 3 seconds and the eagle was on the ground for 5 seconds. 6 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44. 48. b. y − (−1) = − 16 ( x − (−12) ) y + 1 = − 16 ( x + 12) y + 1 = − 16 x − 2 45. − 14 0 = = 0. rises −3 − (−1) −2 6 y + 6 = − x − 12 x + 6 y + 18 = 0 243 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. thus the 1 slope of the desired line is m = − . − x − 10 2 d. point-slope form: y – 2 = –6(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –6x – 16 −2( x + h) 2 + ( x + h) + 10 − ( −2 x 2 + x + 10 ) 2 47. Inc. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 8( x + h) − 11 − (8 x − 11) h 8 x + 8h − 11 − 8 x + 11 = h 8h = 8 =8 = −2 ( x + 2 xh + h h 2 ) + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 43.PreCalculus 4E 41. 42. . 1 4 51. Publishing as Prentice Hall. vertical −2 − (−2) 0 2 − 6 −4 = =2 −1 − 1 −2 point-slope form: y – 6 = 2(x – 1) or y – 2 = 2(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 2x + 4 m= 52. a. 12) The eagle descended. horizontal 6 − (−3) 9 50. perpendicular to y = Decreasing: (3. Write 6 x − y − 4 = 0 in slope intercept form.

y − 2.116 90 − 15 75 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 11 = 0. slope: 2 .116 x + 0.116 x − 10. 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 55.7 = = 0. Inc.116 ( x − 90 ) or 57. y-intercept: 5 56.116 x + 0. 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −2 x − 6 2 y = − x−2 3 2 slope: − . slope: –4.000 persons.44 y = 0. y − 11 = 0.3 8. y-intercept: –1 5 58.56 c.Functions and Graphs 54. a. .56 f ( x) = 0.116 ( x − 90 ) y − 11 = 0. y-intercept: –2 3 60.3 = 0. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 Find x-intercept: 2 x − 5(0) − 10 = 0 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 Find y-intercept: 2(0) − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = 10 y = −2 59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 11 − 2. y-intercept: 4 b. 244 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. France has about 5 deaths per 100.116 ( x − 15) 2y −8 = 0 2y = 8 y=4 slope: 0. According to the graph.

3 According to the function.7 deaths per 100. 69. 65.3 deaths per 100. . 2 2 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) [9 − 4 ( 9 )] − [4 − 4 ⋅ 5] = = 10 x2 − x1 9−5 63.PreCalculus 4E d. 67.5 billion per year. 70. 68. Chapter 1 Review Exercises f ( x ) = 0. Inc.5 billion per year. f (32) = 0. S (0) = −16(0)2 + 64(0) + 80 = 80 S (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 80 = 144 144 − 80 = 32 2−0 b. 245 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.116 x + 0. S (4) = −16(4) 2 + 64(4) + 80 = 80 80 − 144 = −32 4−2 c. then it starts to come down. m = = = 182.5 2006 − 2002 4 Corporate profits increased at a rate of $182. The ball is traveling up until 2 seconds. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0. 64. a. 1616 − 886 730 61. The rate of change is $182.000 persons. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 62. France has about 4.116(32) + 0.56 66. 71. The line passes below the point for France.56 = 4.272 ≈ 4.000 persons.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 77.Functions and Graphs 72. 75. 80. 73. 78. 83. 82. 76. 79. . 81. 74. Inc. 246 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

∞ ) 94. ( f g )(3) = 3 + 1 = 4 = 2 247 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(x) = 3x – 1. 8 – 2x ≥ 0 –2x ≥ –8 x≤4 domain: (−∞.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Review Exercises 92. The denominator is zero when x = –7 or x = 3. x–2≥0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. 95. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = x + 7 ⋅ x − 2 88. Inc. ( g f )( x) = 4( x 2 + 3) − 1 = 4 x 2 + 11 91. ∞ ) ( f g )(3) = 16(3) 2 − 8(3) + 4 = 124 f ( x ) = x . g ( x) = x 2 − 1 ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 + x domain: (−∞. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. 4]. 87. x − 1 ≥ 0 and x + 5 ≥ 0 x ≥1 domain: [1. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. 90. The domain is ( −∞.1) ∪ (1. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −5 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. domain: (−∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1) − ( x 2 − 1) = x + 2 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) = x 2 + 5 x − 14 domain: [2. f ( x) = x 2 + x + 1. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. ∞ ) . ( fg )( x ) = (3x − 1)( x − 5) = 3x 2 − 16 x + 5 domain: (−∞. 3) ∪ ( 3. ( f + g )( x) = x + 7 + x − 2 domain: [2. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = x 4 + x3 − x − 1 85. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 1) – (x – 5) = 2x + 4 domain: (−∞. 84. The denominator is zero when x = 7.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ( g f )( x) = x + 1 c. ∞ ) 86. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x2 + x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x2 − 1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x + 7 − x − 2 domain: [2. domain: ( −∞. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. g(x) = x – 5 (f + g)(x) = 4x – 6 domain: (−∞. ( f g )( x) = x + 1 b. ∞) c. ( f g )( x) = (4 x − 1)2 + 3 = 16 x 2 − 8 x + 4 x ≥ −5 b. . g ( x) = x − 2 93. −1) ∪ ( −1. f ( x) = x 2 + 3. ∞) 89. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The denominator is zero when x = 5. g ( x) = 4 x − 1 a.5 ) ∪ ( 5. g ( x) = x + 1 a.∞ ) f ( x) = x + 7. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x+7 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (2.

y = 8 x3 + 1 3 1 5 100. Inc. f ( x) = 3 x 4 f ( x) = 4 x − 3 y = 4x − 3 102.Functions and Graphs 96. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎞⎟ ∪ ⎛⎜ . ∞ ⎞⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ (f x = 4y −3 x+3 4 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 4 y= g )( x ) = f ( x + 3) = x + 3 − 1 = x + 2 x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 98. b. . a. x≠0 1 − 2x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 1 1 ( −∞. g ( x) = 1 ( f g )( x ) = f ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ ⎝x⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ 1 + 1 ⎜ + 1⎟ x 1+ x x ⎠ = x =⎝ = 1 1 1 − 2x − 2 ⎛⎜ − 2 ⎞⎟ x x ⎝x ⎠ b. a. a. ∞) ⎛ x+3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 4 ⎠ = x +3−3 =x (4 x − 3) + 3 4 x f ( f ( x)) = = =x 4 4 g ( x) = x + 2 x − 1 2 −1 g ( x) = 7 x + 4 f ( x) = 8 x3 + 1 103. a. f ( x) = x + . g ( x) = x − 2 5 2 3 3⎛5 ⎞ 1 f ( g ( x)) = ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ + 5⎝3 ⎠ 2 6 1 = x− + 5 2 7 = x− 10 5⎛3 1⎞ g ( f ( x)) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2 3⎝5 2⎠ 5 = x+ −2 6 7 = x− 6 f and g are not inverses of each other. 0 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ 0. b. f ( x) = x 99. f ( x) = 2 − 5 x. 101. x = 8 y3 + 1 x − 1 = 8 y3 x −1 = y3 8 3 3 x −1 =y 8 x −1 =y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x −1 2 248 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. [−2. 2−x 5 ⎛2−x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 2 − 5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = 2 − (2 − x) =x 2 − (2 − 5 x) 5 x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 5 5 f and g are inverses of each other. 97.

x ≥ 1 2 2 +5−5 x 2 = 2 x 2x = 2 =x 105. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 ⎛ 3 x −1 ⎞ f f ( x) = 8 ⎜ +1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x −1 ⎞ = 8⎜ ⎟ +1 ⎝ 8 ⎠ = x −1 +1 ( ) −1 107. The inverse function exists. 249 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 104. a. =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 (8x 3 ) + 1 −1 109. f f −1 ( x) = y = x +1 x= x −1 = f ( f ( x) ) = y +1 y ( x − 1) = y 2 =x −1 f ( x) = x + 1 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 .PreCalculus 4E b. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 106. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. Inc. 2 3 8 x3 2 2x = 2 =x = 110. 2 +5 x 2 y = +5 x 2 x = +5 y xy = 2 + 5 y f ( x) = 1 − x 2 y = 1 − x2 f ( x) = x = 1− y2 y2 = 1− x y = 1− x −1 f ( x) = 1 − x xy − 5 y = 2 y ( x − 5) = 2 2 x −5 2 f −1 ( x) = x −5 y= b. ( ) 2 +5 2 x−5 2( x − 5) = +5 2 = x−5+5 111. . 108. The inverse function exists.

83 x2 − 4 x + 4 + y2 + 2 y + 1 = 4 + 4 + 1 ( x − 2) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 9 center: (2. ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 116. . ⎜ . a. –1).07 x 10 = 0. 3). .Functions and Graphs 119. 122. 0). g ( x) = 5 + 0. x 2 + y 2 = 32 x2 + y 2 = 9 117. −2 ⎟ 115.05 x = 5 + 0. 250 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [9 − (−3)]2 = 52 + 122 = 25 + 144 = 169 = 13 113. center: (–2.02 x 500 = x For 500 minutes. 6] = 22 + 22 domain: = 4+4 range: = 8 x2 + y2 − 4 x + 2 y − 4 = 0 120. W ( x) = 567 + 15 x 702 = 567 + 15 x 135 = 15 x 9=x 9 years after 2000. b. 15 + 0.1] domain: range: f ( x) = 15 + 0. ( x − (−2)) 2 + ( y − 4)2 = 62 [ −1. in 2009.05 x b. radius: 3 112. radius: 1 121. center: (0. .07 x c. =2 2 x2 − 4x + y2 + 2 y = 4 ≈ 2.1] [ −1. the average weekly sales will be $702. d = [−2 − (−4)]2 + ( 5 − 3) 2 [ −5. [ −1. a. radius: 3 ⎛ 2 + ( −12 ) 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ −10 10 ⎞ 114. the two plans cost the same. ⎟ = ( −5.5) ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 + (−15) −6 + 2 ⎞ ⎛ −11 −4 ⎞ ⎛ −11 ⎞ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 2] domain: ( x + 2) + ( y − 4) = 36 2 2 range: 118.1] [ 0.5] [ −4. ⎟=⎜ .

–4) h. 3. ⎛ 8 ⎞ = 2x2 + 4 ⎜ ⎟x ⎝ x2 ⎠ 32 = 2x2 + x 127. 6] c. . 2) 0<x<8 e. –2. f (− x) = f ( x) e. 5] V ( x) = (16 − 2 x)(24 − 2 x) x d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 b. a. a. 124. b. g. f fails the horizontal line test = 640 − 2 x b.PreCalculus 4E 123. 2. 0 d. f(2) = 5 g. range: [–4.08x + 0. f(4) – f(–3) = 3 – (–2) = 5 b. increasing: (–1. Chapter 1 Test N ( x) = 400 − 2( x − 120) Chapter 1 Test = 400 − 2 x + 240 1. 2. y-intercept: –3 a. (b). no. i. 1 c. domain: (–5. and (d) are not functions.12(10. (c). 6) f. –1. Inc. − 1) or (2.000 – x) h. A( x) = 2 x ⋅ x + 4hx f (0) is a relative minimum. 251 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. R( x) = x(640 − 2 x) = −2 x 2 + 640 x w = 16 − 2 x l = 24 − 2 x 125. even. I = 0. x-intercepts: –4. a. 2l + 3w = 400 2l = 400 − 3w 400 − 3w 2 Let x = width l= ⎛ 400 − 3w ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ x(400 − 3w) = 2 126. 1. decreasing: (−5. (–1. V = lwh 8 = x⋅ x⋅h 8 =h x2 f. and 5.

∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: range: 4. domain: ( −∞. 4] domain: 5. ∞ ) {−1. 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2] domain: range: 6. ∞ ) range: {4} [ −6.Functions and Graphs 7. ( −∞. 2] [ −1. ∞ ) domain: range: [ −5. ∞ ) ( −∞. 2] [ −2. i. ( −∞. . 7] domain: range: 252 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) −1 − 0 1 = =− x2 − x1 1 − (−2) 3 ( −∞.1] [ −2. range: 9. j. Inc. 2} domain: range: 10. [ −2.

∞ ) range of f: [ −1. 13. ∞ ) domain of f: domain of f: 12. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. 4] domain of f: domain of f: f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 16. 14. ( −∞. [ 0. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ) . ∞ ) domain of f: f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( ( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 4 − x 2 − x − 4 ) h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − x − h − 4 − x 2 + x + 4 = h 2 xh + h 2 − h = h h ( 2 x + h − 1) = h = 2x + h −1 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. 15. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) range of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. Inc. f ( x − 1) = ( x − 1)2 − ( x − 1) − 4 = x2 − 2 x + 1 − x + 1 − 4 = x2 − 3x − 2 17. ( ( g − f )( x) = 2 x − 6 − x 2 − x − 4 = 2x − 6 − x + x + 4 2 = − x 2 + 3x − 2 253 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 11. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. ∞ ) range of g: [ −2. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞. ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞.

( a. 486) . f (10 ) = 5(10) + 466 = 516 The function predicts that in 2010 the number of sentenced inmates in the U. 25. = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 14 22. 476) and (4. ( g f )( x) = g ( f ( x) ) ( y + 10 = −2( x + 7) y + 10 = −2 x − 14 ) = 2 x2 − x − 4 − 6 2 x + y + 24 = 0 = 2x − 2x − 8 − 6 2 27. 26. = x2 + x − 4 f is neither even nor odd.000 residents. Write 4 x + 2 y − 5 = 0 in slope intercept form. 486 − 476 10 = =5 4−2 2 Then use the slope and a point to write the equation in point-slope form. 20.S. 1 y = − x + 5 so m = 4 4 point-slope form: y – 6 = 4(x + 4) slope-intercept form: y = 4x + 22 28. will be 516 per 100. ∞ ) 2 y = −4 x + 5 y = −2 x + 5 2 The slope of the parallel line is –2. 4x + 2 y − 5 = 0 ⎛ f ⎞ x2 − x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2x − 6 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. First.Functions and Graphs 19. or y − 476 = 5 ( x − 2 ) f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) − 4 b. 3(10) 2 − 5 − [3(6) 2 − 5] 10 − 6 205 − 103 = 4 192 = 4 = 48 29. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) = (2 x − 6) 2 − (2 x − 6) − 4 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) = 4 x 2 − 24 x + 36 − 2 x + 6 − 4 y − (−10) = −2 ( x − (−7) ) = 4 x 2 − 26 x + 38 21. . g(–1) = 3 – (–1) = 4 g (7) = 7 − 3 = 4 = 2 254 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) ) g ( f (−1) ) = 2 (−1) 2 − (−1) − 4 − 6 = 2 (1 + 1 − 4 ) − 6 m= = 2 ( −2 ) − 6 = −4 − 6 y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) = −10 23. 24. thus the slope of the desired line is m = −2. y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) y − 486 = 5 x − 20 y = 5 x + 466 f ( x ) = 5 x + 466 −8 − 1 −9 = =3 −1 − 2 −3 point-slope form: y – 1 = 3(x – 2) or y + 8 = 3(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 3x – 5 m= c. Inc. find the slope using the points (2.3) ∪ ( 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

19 x 32 = x 32 years after 1980. Inc.19 x 35.5 x + 45 31. 0 ) ∪ ⎜ 0. 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛7 ⎞ = ⎜ . b. x ≥1 domain: [1. 0 ⎟ . ⎟ ∪ ⎜ . The expressions under each radical must not be negative. ∞ ) 36.5 x 32. d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 38.000 x = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 ⎜ 2 .1) ∪ (1.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 30. .7 = 41. ⎝2 ⎠ 35. 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 2 + 5 −2 + 2 ⎞ ⎟=⎜ 2 . 8000 = x ⋅ x ⋅ h 8000 =h x2 g ( x ) = 2x + 3 d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) = (5 − 2) 2 + ( 2 − (−2) ) V = lwh A( x) = 2 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 2 x2 + 2 8000 x2 32.08 = −0.7 seconds. domain: ( −∞.78 − 0. 37. = 95 − 1. the winning time will be 35. T ( x) = x(95 − 1. T ( x) = 41. ( f g )( x) = b.∞ ) Y ( x) = 50 − 1.5 x) = −1.5 x 2 + 95 x 2l + 2w = 600 2l = 600 − 2w 7 2 −4 x = l = 300 − w 7x 2 − 4x Let x = w A( x) = x(300 − x) = − x 2 + 300 x x ≠ 0. x + 5 ≥ 0 and x − 1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −5 a. f ( x ) = x7 34. a. 2 − 4x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.19 x −6. in 2012.5( x − 30) = 50 − 1. The denominator is zero when x = 1 or x = –5.78 − 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛7 ⎞ The length is 5 and the midpoint is ⎜ . ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 33. 255 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

1 Check Point Exercises 1.Chapter 2 Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. b. (−2 + −3) 2 = (−2 + i 3) 2 = (−2) 2 + 2(−2)(i 3) + (i 3) 2 = 14i − 63i 2 = 14i − 63(−1) b. a. x= 256 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. −27 + −48 = i 27 + i 48 (5 + 4i )(6 − 7i ) = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28i 2 = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28(−1) = 30 + 28 − 35i + 24i = 58 − 11i 5 + 4i 5 + 4i 4 + i = ⋅ 4−i 4−i 4+i 20 + 5i + 16i + 4i 2 = 16 + 4i − 4i − i 2 20 + 21i − 4 = 16 + 1 16 + 21i = 17 16 21 = + i 17 17 5. = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3(−1) 7i (2 − 9i ) = 7i (2) − 7i (9i ) = 1 − 4i 3 c. . 1 − i}. = 63 + 14i 3. −14 + −12 −14 + i 12 = 2 2 −14 + 2i 3 = 2 −14 2i 3 = + 2 2 = −7 + i 3 x2 − 2x + 2 = 0 a = 1. a. b = −2. c = 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 2 ± 4 −8 2 2 ± −4 x= 2 2 ± 2i x= 2 x = 1± i The solution set is {1 + i. (5 − 2i ) + (3 + 3i ) = 5 − 2i + 3 + 3i = (5 + 3) + (−2 + 3)i = 8+i 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. = i 9 ⋅ 3 + i 16 ⋅ 3 = 3i 3 + 4i 3 = 7i 3 (2 + 6i ) − (12 − i ) = 2 + 6i − 12 + i = (2 − 12) + (6 + 1)i = −10 + 7i b. a.

22. 2. ( 2 + 7i )( 2 − 7i ) = 4 − 49i 2 = 4 + 49 = 53 17. (7 – 5i)(–2 – 3i) = −14 − 21i + 10i + 15i 2 = –14 – 15 – 11i = –29 – 11i 2 2 3+i = ⋅ 3−i 3−i 3+i 2(3 + i ) = 9 +1 2 (3 + i ) = 10 3+i = 5 3 1 = + i 5 5 3 3 4−i = ⋅ 4+i 4+i 4−i 3( 4 − i) = 16 − i 2 3( 4 − i) = 17 12 3 = − i 17 17 257 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8. –8i (2i – 7) = −16i 2 + 56i = –16(–1) + 56i = 9 − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 = 34 = 16 + 56i 11. Inc. 20. 8i – (14 – 9i) = 8i – 14 + 9i = –14 + 8i + 9i = –14 + 17i 9. 5. (−5 + i )(−5 − i ) = 25 + 5i − 5i − i 2 = 25 + 1 = 26 18. (−4 − 8i )(3 + i ) = −12 − 4i − 24i − 8i 2 = −12 − 28i + 8 = −4 − 28i 13. (7 + 2i) + (1 – 4i) = 7 + 2i + 1 – 4i = 7 + 1 + 2i – 4i = 8 – 2i = 34 (3 + 2i) – (5 – 7i) = 3 – 5 + 2i + 7i = 3 + 2i – 5 + 7i = –2 + 9i (–7 + 5i) – (–9 – 11i) = –7 + 5i + 9 + 11i = –7 + 9 + 5i + 11i = 2 + 16i 16.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.1 14. –3i(7i – 5) = −21i 2 + 15i = –21(–1) + 15i = 21 + 15i (−5 + 4i )(3 + i ) = −15 − 5i + 12i + 4i 2 = −15 + 7i − 4 = −19 + 7i 12. = 4 + 12i + 9i 2 ( 5 − 2i ) 2 = 25 − 20i + 4i 2 = 25 − 20i − 4 = 21 − 20i 15i – (12 – 11i) = 15i – 12 + 11i = –12 + 15i + 11i = –12 + 26i 21. 4.1 1. (3 + 5i )(3 − 5i ) = 9 − 15i + 15i − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 (–2 + 6i) + (4 – i) = –2 + 6i + 4 – i = –2 + 4 + 6i – i = 2 + 5i 6. 3. (−7 + i )(−7 − i ) = 49 + 7i − 7i − i 2 = 49 + 1 = 50 19. 15. (8 – 4i)(–3 + 9i) = −24 + 72i + 12i − 36i 2 = –24 + 36 + 84i = 12 + 84i Exercise Set 2. ( 2 + 3i ) 6 − (−5 + 4i ) − (−13 − i ) = 6 + 5 − 4i + 13 + i = 24 − 3i 7 − (−9 + 2i ) − (−17 − i ) = 7 + 9 − 2i + 17 + i = 33 − i 7. 2 = 4 + 12i − 9 = −5 + 12i 10. .

28. 3 − 4i 3 − 4i 4 − 3i = ⋅ 4 + 3i 4 + 3i 4 − 3i 12 − 25i + 12i 2 = 16 + 9 −25i = 25 = −i 38. Inc. 2i 2i 1 − i 2i − 2i 2 2 + 2i = ⋅ = = = 1+ i 1+ i 1+ i 1− i 1+1 2 31. 30. 25. 29. . ( −2 + −11 ) = ( −2 + i 11) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 11 + i 2 (11) = 4 − 11 − 4i 11 = −7 − 4i 11 37. −64 − −25 = i 64 − i 25 = 8i − 5i = 3i −8 + −32 −8 + i 32 = 24 24 −8 + i 16 ⋅ 2 = 24 −8 + 4i 2 = 24 1 2 i =− + 3 6 −12 + −28 −12 + i 28 −12 + i 4 ⋅ 7 = = 32 32 32 = −81 − −144 = i 81 − i 144 = 9i – 12i = –3i −12 + 2i 7 3 7 i =− + 32 8 16 258 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 23. ( −5 − −9 ) 2 = (−5 − i 9)2 = ( −5 − 3i ) 2 = 25 + 30i + 9i 2 = 25 + 30i – 9 = 16 + 30i 35. −6i −6i 3 − 2i −18i + 12i 2 = ⋅ = 3 + 2i 3 + 2i 3 − 2i 9+4 12 18 −12 − 18i = =− − i 13 13 13 ( −3 − −7 ) = ( −3 − i 7 ) 2 2 = 9 + 6i 7 + i 2 ( 7 ) = 9 − 7 + 6i 7 = 2 + 6i 7 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2+i 2−i 4 + 4i − 3i 2 = 4 +1 7 + 4i = 5 7 4 = + i 5 5 36. 26. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5i 8 + 3i 18 = 5i 4 ⋅ 2 + 3i 9 ⋅ 2 = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = 19i 2 33. 27. 24. 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5(4i) + 3(9i) = 20i + 27i = 47i 5i 5i 2 + i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 10i + 5i 2 = 4 +1 −5 + 10i = 5 = −1 + 2i 32. ( −2 + −4 ) 2 = ( −2 + 2i ) 2 = 4 − 8i + 4i 2 = 4 – 8i – 4 = –8i 8i 8i 4 + 3i = ⋅ 4 − 3i 4 − 3i 4 + 3i 32i + 24i 2 = 16 + 9 −24 + 32i = 25 24 32 =− + i 25 25 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

2 ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(17) x= −15 − 3i 2 5 2 i =− − 33 11 11 −8 x 2 − 2 x + 17 = 0 x= −15 − −18 −15 − i 18 −15 − i 9 ⋅ 2 = = 33 33 33 = 41. −6 − −12 −6 − i 12 = 48 48 −6 − i 4 ⋅ 3 = 48 −6 − 2i 3 = 48 1 3 i =− − 8 24 46. . x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 0 x= 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i The solution set is {3 + i. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ = 24 15 44. − 1 − i ⎬ . −3 − 5 = i 8(i 3 − 5) = 2i 2 i 3 − 5 42. Section 2. 40. (3 )( −7 2 −8 −8 ± 64 − 208 8 −8 ± −144 8 −8 ± 12i = 8 4(−2 ± 3i ) = 8 −2 ± 3i = 2 3 = −1 ± i 2 = −4 3 − 2i 6 43. ( ) 47. −8 ± 82 − 4(4)(13) 2(4) = −4 − 2 = i 12(i 4 − 2) = 2i 3 2i − 2 4 x 2 + 8 x + 13 = 0 x= = −2 6 − 2i 10 −12 2(1) 2 ± 4 − 68 2 2 ± −64 x= 2 2 ± 8i x= 2 x = 1 ± 4i The solution set is {1 + 4i. ( ( ) ) = ( = 4i 2 (3 ) 3 − 2i 6 )( ) ( )( −5 −4 −12 = 3i 5 −8i 3 ) = −24i 2 15 3 3 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1 + i. 3 − i} . Inc.1 ) = (3i 7 )(2i 8) = (3i 7 )(2i 4 ⋅ 2) ( )( ) = 3i 7 4i 2 = 12i 2 14 = −12 14 45. x= 259 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 39.1 − 4i}. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 48. (8 + 9i )( 2 − i ) − (1 − i )(1 + i ) = (16 − 8i + 18i − 9i 2 ) − (12 − i 2 ) = 16 + 10i − 9i 2 − 1 + i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8 ( −1) = 23 + 10i 53. −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(2)(3) 2(2) x= −2 ± 4 − 24 4 −2 ± −20 = 4 −2 ± 2i 5 = 4 2(−1 ± i 5) = 4 −1 ± i 5 = 2 1 5 i =− ± 2 2 = = = = = = = 3x 2 − 8 x + 7 = 0 51. − i⎬. 2 2 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 49. − − i⎬. 2 x2 + 2 x + 3 = 0 x= 50. − i⎬. = = = = = = 2(3) 4 ± 16 − 72 6 4 ± −56 6 4 ± 2i 14 6 2(2 ± i 14) 6 2 ± i 14 3 2 14 i ± 3 3 ( 2 − 3i )(1 − i ) − ( 3 − i )( 3 + i ) = ( 2 − 2i − 3i + 3i 2 ) − ( 32 − i 2 ) − ( −8 ) ± (−8) − 4(3)(7) 2 x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(3)(6) 14 2 14 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 2 The solution set is ⎨ + i. ⎧⎪ 4 5 4 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ + i. . ⎩⎪ 3 3 3 3 ⎪⎭ ( 2 + i ) − (3 − i ) 2 2 = ( 4 + 4i + i 2 ) − ( 9 − 6i + i 2 ) = 4 + 4i + i 2 − 9 + 6i − i 2 = −5 + 10i 260 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 3 3 3 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 5 1 5 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 1 The solution set is ⎨ − + i. 3x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 2(3) = 2 − 5i + 3i 2 − 9 + i 2 8 ± 64 − 84 6 8 ± −20 6 8 ± 2i 5 6 2(4 ± i 5) 6 4±i 5 3 4 5 i ± 3 3 = −7 − 5i + 4i 2 = −7 − 5i + 4 ( −1) = −11 − 5i 52. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.

. f ( x) = f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 5 f (1 − 2i ) = (1 − 2i ) − 2 (1 − 2i ) + 5 2 = 1 − 4i + 4i 2 − 2 + 4i + 5 = 4 + 4i 2 = 4−4 =0 261 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = (16 − 8i + i 2 ) − (1 + 4i + 4i 2 ) = 16 − 8i + i − 1 − 4i − 4i 2 f ( 3i ) = 2 = 15 − 12i − 3 ( −1) = 18 − 12i 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5 16 −1 + 3 81 −1 = 5 ⋅ 4i + 3 ⋅ 9i = 20i + 27i = 47i or 0 + 47i 56.1 ( 4 − i ) − (1 + 2i ) 2 2 59.PreCalculus 4E 54. 57. x 2 + 19 2−x 2 − 3i 9i 2 + 19 = 2 − 3i −9 + 19 = 2 − 3i 10 = 2 − 3i 10 2 + 3i = ⋅ 2 − 3i 2 + 3i 20 + 30i = 4 − 9i 2 20 + 30i = 4+9 20 + 30i = 13 20 30 = + i 13 13 = 15 − 12i − 3i 2 55. Section 2. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5 4 2 −1 + 3 9 2 −1 = 5⋅ 2 2 i + 3⋅3 2 i = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = (10 + 9 ) i 2 = 19i 2 or 0 + 19i 2 60. Inc. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 2 f ( x) = f ( 4i ) = f (1 + i ) = (1 + i ) − 2 (1 + i ) + 2 2 ( 3i ) 2 + 19 x 2 + 11 3− x ( 4i ) 2 + 11 = 16i 2 + 11 3 − 4i 3 − 4i −16 + 11 = 3 − 4i −5 = 3 − 4i −5 3 + 4i = ⋅ 3 − 4i 3 + 4i −15 − 20i = 9 − 16i 2 −15 − 20i = 9 + 16 −15 − 20i = 25 −15 20 = − i 25 25 3 4 =− − i 5 5 = 1 + 2i + i 2 − 2 − 2i + 2 = 1 + i2 = 1 −1 =0 58.

Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. A sample change is: All irrational numbers are complex numbers. 74. . 76. 82. 79. Sum: makes sense ( 2 + i )( 3 − i ) = = = 6 + i + 15 = 21 + i The voltage of the circuit is ( 21 + i ) volts. A sample change is: 7 + 3i 7 + 3i 5 − 3i 44 − 6i 22 3 = ⋅ = = − i 5 + 3i 5 + 3i 5 − 3i 34 17 17 80. Answers may vary. does not make sense. 78. Sample explanation: Imaginary numbers are not undefined. false. Explanations will vary. 4 1+ i 1− i + 1 + 2i 1 − 2i (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = + (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) + (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) 1 − 2i + i − 2i 2 + 1 + 2i − i − 2i 2 = 1 − 4i 2 1 − 2i + i + 2 + 1 + 2i − i + 2 = 1+ 4 6 = 5 6 = + 0i 5 262 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: i = −1 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. false. Inc. 75. Changes to make the statement true will vary. – 72. E = IR = ( 4 − 5i )( 3 + 7i ) E = 12 + 28i − 15i − 35i E = 12 + 13i − 35 ( −1) E = 12 + 35 + 13i = 47 + 13i The voltage of the circuit is (47 + 13i) volts. It is not a variable in this context. makes sense 77. E = IR = ( 2 − 3i )( 3 + 5i ) = 6 + 10i − 9i − 15i = 6 + i − 15 ( −1) 2 (5 + i 15 ) + (5 − i 15 ) = 5 + i 15 + 5 − i 15 = 5+5 = 10 Product: (5 + i 15 )(5 − i 15 ) = 25 − 5i 15 + 5i 15 − 15i 2 = 25 + 15 = 40 64. Publishing as Prentice Hall. false. 62. A sample change is: (3 + 7i)(3 – 7i) = 9 + 49 = 58 which is a real9number. 73. 4 6 − 2i + 3i − i 2 4 6 + i +1 4 = 7+i 4 7−i = ⋅ 7+i 7−i 28 − 4i = 49 − i 2 28 − 4i = 49 + 1 28 − 4i = 50 28 4 = − i 50 50 14 2 = − i 25 25 63. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. true 2 81.

The graph of g is the graph of f shifted 1 unit up and 3 units to the left. Step 2: find the vertex: (1. 2 h P=1 P ⎛ ⎞ kP= 4 f ( x) = − ⎜ x − 1 ⎟ + 4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. 2 a =−1 0 = −2( x − 3) 2 + 8 84. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 ( x − 1) 2 =4 x − 1 = ±2 x = 1± 2 x = 3 or x = −1 Step 4: find the y-intercept: −x2 − 2x + 1 = 0 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 2 −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 4) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 2( x − 3) 2 = 8 ( x − 3) 2 = 4 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 x−3= ± 4 x = 3± 2 x = 1. −(−2) ± (−2) − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) 2 x= 2± 8 2 2±2 2 = 2 = 1± 2 = The solution set is {1 ± 2}.2 Check Point Exercises 1. 8 2 1+ i Section 2.2 86. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 5 85. . 263 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8 i 2 + i i 8 = 2+i i 8i = 2+i 8i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2−i 16i − 8i 2 = 4 − i2 16i + 8 = 4 +1 8 + 16i = 5 8 16 = + i 5 5 = Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 83.

Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 + 4x + 1 x − 2 = −1 x = 2±i The equation has no real roots. Inc. 1) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 1 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x ) = − x2 + 4x + 1 f ( 2 ) = −22 + 4(2) + 1 = 5 = −1 The vertex is (2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) range: [984. . −b 16 x= = =2 b. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) + 1 2 3. 5). ∞ ) 264 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4.2 . Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0.2 and x ≈ −4. Step 4: find the y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 + 4(0) + 1 = 1 x= Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. a = 4. c. Step 4: find the y-intercept: x= f (0) = (0 − 2) + 1 = 5 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −4 ± 42 − 4(−1)(1) 2(−1) −4 ± 20 −2 x = 2± 5 The x-intercepts are x ≈ −0. thus the parabola has no x-intercepts. Step 2: find the vertex: (2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. 2a 8 f (2) = 4(2) 2 − 16(2) + 1000 = 984 The minimum point is 984 at x = 2 . The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. domain: (−∞. f ( x) = 4 x 2 − 16 x + 1000 a. Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. Step 2: find the vertex: 4 b x=− =− =2 2a 2(−1) Step 1: The parabola opens up because a > 0.

Section 2. 205 ) .205). Find the corresponding y-coordinate. The minimum product is −16 . 2 x + 2 y = 120 2 y = 120 − 2 x x= c. Let x = one of the numbers. Rewrite y= A as a function of x. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 Plot ( 0. A ( x ) = x ( 60 − x ) = − x 2 + 60 x The starting point occurs when x = 0. the width y is y = 60 − x = 60 − 30 = 30. Inc.005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −2 ± 22 − 4(−0. 265 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 16 − 32 = −16 The vertex is ( 4. 0 ) .005 ) The x-coordinate of the minimum is b −8 −8 x=− =− =− = 4. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 60 60 b x=− =− =− = 30. Let x = the length of the rectangle.005(0)2 + 2(0) + 5 = 5 Since a = −1 is negative. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 30 feet by 30 feet. y = −0. and ( 200. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 8 ) = x 2 − 8 x 120 − 2 x = 60 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 60 − x ) . This occurs when the two number are 4 and 4 − 8 = −4 . The information needed is found at the vertex. .PreCalculus 4E 5. and connect them with a smooth curve. x-coordinate of vertex −b −2 x= = = 200 2a 2 ( −0. When the length x is 30. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 y = −0. The maximum height of the arrow is 205 feet. −16 ) .005) x ≈ −2 or x ≈ 402 The arrow travels 402 feet before hitting the ground. b. The arrow will hit the ground when the height reaches 0. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. 2a 2 (1) 2 y-coordinate of vertex f ( 4) = ( 4) − 8 ( 4) 2 2 y = −0. x − 8 = the other number. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 120 feet of fencing.2 6.005 x + 2 x + 5 0 = −0. 5 ) .005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 a. Let y = the width of the rectangle. ( 402.005(200) + 2(200) + 5 = 205 The vertex is (200. 7. This gives an area of 30 ⋅ 30 = 900 square feet. Since we need an equation in one variable.005)(5) 2(−0. This occurs 200 feet from its release. y = −0.

–5). 14. f(x) = –2(x + 4) – 8 h = –4. –1) j ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 1 2 4. k = 1 The vertex is at (3. 9. . g ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x + 1 8. f ( x ) = x 2 + 2 x + 1 7. 7). The graph is f(x) = x translated down one. Inc. f(x) = 2x – 8x + 3 −b 8 x= = =2 2a 4 f(2) = 2(2)2 – 8(2) + 3 = 8 – 16 + 3 = –5 The vertex is at (2. –8). f(x) = 2(x – 3) + 1 h = 3. vertex: (–1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) = 3x – 12x + 1 −b 12 x= = =2 2a 6 f(2) = 3(2)2 – 12(2) + 1 = 12 – 24 + 1 = –11 The vertex is at (2. vertex: (1. domain: ( −∞. –1) x-intercepts: 2 The graph is f(x) = –x translated down one. 2 17. 2 10. –1) f ( x ) = ( x + 1) − 1 2 2 5. 16.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 Exercise Set 2. ∞ ) 266 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. h ( x ) = x2 −1 6. 2 11. ∞ ) 2 13. 1) g ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 1 2 3. 5). j ( x ) = − x2 − 1 0 = ( x − 4) −1 2 1 = ( x − 4) 2 2 ±1 = x – 4 x = 3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 4) 2 − 1 = 15 The axis of symmetry is x = 4. vertex: (1. f(x) = –2(x + 1) + 5 h = –1. 0) is on the graph and g(1) = 0. vertex: (–1. 1) h ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 1 2 2. k = 12 The vertex is at (2. 2 12. 2 15. The point (–1. f(x) = –2x + 8x – 1 −b −8 x= = =2 2 a −4 2 f(2) = –2(2) + 8(2) – 1 = –8 + 16 – 1 = 7 The vertex is at (2.2 1. –11). 12). f(x) = –x – 2x + 8 −b 2 x= = = −1 2a −2 2 f(–1) = –(–1) – 2(–1) + 8 = –1 + 2 + 8 = 9 The vertex is at (–1. f(x) = –3(x – 2) + 12 h = 2. k = –8 The vertex is at (–4. k = 5 The vertex is at (–1. 1). range: [ −1. 0) is on the graph and f(–1) = 0. 9). f ( x ) = ( x − 4) −1 2 vertex: (4. The point (1.

∞ ) range: [ 2. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. . 2) x-intercepts: 2 y − 1 = ( x − 3) 0 = ( x − 3) + 1 2 = −2 ( x − 3) x − 1 = ± −2 2 = −1 x – 3 = ±i x = 3 ±i No x-intercepts. The axis of symmetry is x = 3.PreCalculus 4E 18. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) − 2 0 = ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 1) ( x − 3) 2 2 2 =2 2 = −2 x −1 = ± 2 x − 3 = ±i 2 x = 1± 2 y-intercept: x = 3±i 2 No x-intercepts. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) + 2 2 vertex: (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 267 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 2 2 ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 3) + 1 vertex: (1. –2) x-intercepts: vertex: (3. f ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 2 2 2 vertex: (3. ∞ ) 19. y-intercept: 10 x = 1± i 2 No x-intercepts. 21.∞ ) range: [ 2. Inc. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 1) − 2 = –1 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) + 2 = 11 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 1) 2 + 2 = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. ∞ ) range: [ −2. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 3) + 1 = 10 2 range: [1. Section 2.2 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 2 2 20.

y − 3 = ( x − 1) The axis of symmetry is x = –2. 1 5 =± 2 2 1± 5 x= 2 y-intercept: x− f ( x) = 2 ( x + 2 ) − 1 2 vertex: (–2. 5 ⎛ 1⎞ −⎜ x− ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f ( x) = − ⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 5⎞ vertex: ⎜ . ∞ ) 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ range: [3. ∞ ) x = 1± i 3 No x-intercepts y-intercept: range: [ −1. ⎟ ⎝2 4⎠ x-intercepts: 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ 0 = −⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. f ( x) = The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 1) + 3 = 4 2 24. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. –1) x-intercepts: 0 = 2 ( x + 2) − 1 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f (0) = − ⎜ 0 − ⎟ + = 1 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 ( x + 2) = 1 2 ( x + 2) 2 = x+2= ± x = −2 ± 1 2 1 The axis of symmetry is x = 2 1 2 y-intercept: = −2 ± 2 2 f (0) = 2 ( 0 + 2 ) − 1 = 7 2 domain: ( −∞. 2 . ⎥ 4⎦ ⎝ 268 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 5⎤ ⎛ range: ⎜ −∞. Inc. 3) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 3 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −3 x − 1 = ±i 3 domain: ( −∞. 2 y = ( x − 1) + 3 2 vertex: (1. ∞ ) 23.

4) x-intercepts: 2 2 2 =4 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: ( x − 1) 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) range: ( −∞.2 f ( x ) = 4 − ( x − 1) 2 27. ∞ ) 269 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 3 ) + 1 = −8 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 3. Section 2. 1) x-intercepts: f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 16 vertex: (1. f ( x ) = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 f ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x − 15 f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 15 − 1 vertex: (3. domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 26. –16) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 ( x − 3) 2 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: –3 f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 3 = −3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) range: [ −16. . Inc. –4) x-intercepts: ( x − 1) 0 = ( x − 1) − 4 2 vertex: (1. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) =4 domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 2 =1 x–3=±1 x = 2 or x = 4 y-intercept: 0 = ( x − 1) − 16 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 16 x–1=±4 x = –3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 15 = –15 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) f ( x ) = 1 − ( x − 3) 2 28.PreCalculus 4E 25. 4] range: [ −4. domain: ( −∞.1] domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 3 − 1 f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 4 vertex: (1.

2 f ( 0 ) = 2 ( 0 ) − 7 ( 0 ) − 4 = –4 2 The axis of symmetry is x = domain: ( −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 8 ⎠ 270 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎟ ⎝4 8 ⎠ x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 49 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ − . ∞ ) ⎡ 49 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . − ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2 x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ 0 =⎜x+ ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ 0 = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ 2⎜ x − ⎟ = 4 8 ⎝ ⎠ 2 3⎞ 49 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 3 7 x+ = ± 2 2 3 7 x=− ± 2 2 x = 2 or x = –5 y-intercept: f ( x ) = 02 + 3 ( 0 ) − 10 = −10 The axis of symmetry is x = − 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 4 ⎠ 16 ⎝ 7 9 x− =± 4 4 7 9 x= ± 4 4 1 x = − or x = 4 2 y-intercept: 3 . 4 . ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = 2x2 − 7 x − 4 7 49 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 2 16 ⎠ 8 ⎝ 9⎞ 9 ⎛ f ( x ) = ⎜ x 2 + 3x + ⎟ − 10 − 4⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ f ( x) = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 7 81 ⎛ ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . ∞ ) ⎡ 81 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . f ( x ) = x 2 + 3x − 10 30. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 7 .

PreCalculus 4E 31.9] f ( 0) = 2 ( 0) − ( 0) + 3 = 3 2 33. f ( x) = 5 − 4 x − x 2 f ( x) = − x 2 − 4 x + 5 f ( x) = − ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 ) + 5 + 4 f ( x) = − ( x + 2 ) + 9 2 vertex: (–2. ∞ ) x+2=±3 x = –5. −6 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 3) − 6 2 ( x + 3) 2 =6 x+3 = ± 6 x = −3 ± 6 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 6(0) + 3 domain: ( −∞. 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 ( x − 1) 2 =4 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) range: ( −∞.2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 + 3 The axis of symmetry is x = –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = − x + 2 x + 3 2 f ( x) = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) + 4 vertex: (1. ∞ ) =9 range: [ −6. ∞ ) x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: range: ( −∞. 4] 32. . Inc. f (0) = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = −3 . f ( x ) = ( x + 3) − 6 2 vertex: ( −3. Section 2. 1 y-intercept: f (0) = 5 − 4 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) = 5 2 271 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = x 2 + 6 x + 3 f ( x) = ( x 2 + 6 x + 9) + 3 − 9 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 9) x-intercepts: 0 = − ( x + 2) + 9 2 ( x + 2) 2 domain: ( −∞.

. ∞ ) 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 0 = 3⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ range: [ −5. −5) x-intercepts: x= 0 = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 3(0) 2 − 2(0) − 4 2 ( x + 1) = 5 2 ( x + 1) 2 = 5 2 x +1 = ± 1 13 ± 3 3 f (0) = −4 5 2 x = −1 ± 10 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 2(0) 2 + 4(0) − 3 f (0) = −3 272 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ ⎛ 1 13 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . −5 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 2) − 5 2 ( x + 2) 2 =5 domain: ( −∞. 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 3⎜ x − ⎟ = 3⎠ 3 ⎝ f ( x) = 2 x + 4 x − 3 2 f ( x) = 2( x 2 + 2 x )−3 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 3⎠ 9 ⎝ f ( x) = 2( x + 2 x + 1) − 3 − 2 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 1 13 x− = ± 3 9 vertex: ( −1. ∞ ) x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 4(0) − 1 36. ∞ ) x+2 = ± 5 range: [ −5. f ( x) = x 2 + 4 x − 1 f ( x) = ( x + 4 x + 4) − 1 − 4 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2 ) − 5 2 vertex: ( −2. − ⎟ ⎝3 3 ⎠ x-intercepts: domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 35. f ( x) = 3 x 2 − 2 x − 4 2 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x ⎟ − 4 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2 1⎞ 1 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 3 9 3 ⎝ ⎠ f (0) = −1 The axis of symmetry is x = −2 . Inc. The axis of symmetry is x = −1 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

∞ ) = −2 x − 2 = ±i 2 x = 2±i 2 No x-intercepts y-intercept: ⎡ 13 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . −b 12 b. 3 38. ∞) range: [ −11. f(x) = 3x – 12x – 1 a. 2 f (0) = 6 − 4 ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) = 6 2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 − 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. –1) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) − 1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −1 x – 1 = ±i x = 1 ±i No x-intercepts. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. ∞ ) f (0) = 2 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 2 2 39. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 3 ⎠ 37. x= = =2 2a 4 2 f(2) = 2(2) – 8(2) – 3 = 8 – 16 – 3 = –11 The minimum is –11 at x = 2 . f(x) = 2x – 8x – 3 a. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. a = 2. f ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x − 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 2 x + 1) − 2 + 1 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) − 1 vertex: (1. . The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value.2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1 . ∞ ) range: [ 2. x= = =2 2a 6 2 f(2) = 3(2) – 12(2) – 1 = 12 – 24 – 1 = –13 The minimum is –13 at x = 2 . domain: (−∞. c. Inc. −1] 273 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) range: [ −13. ∞ ) The axis of symmetry is x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. domain: (−∞. −b 8 b. c. y-intercept: domain: ( −∞. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 2 2 ( x − 2) domain: ( −∞. a = 3. 2 40. f ( x) = 6 − 4 x + x 2 f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 6 f ( x) = ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) + 6 − 4 f ( x) = ( x − 2 ) + 2 2 vertex: (2.

b. c. x= x= 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 6⎜ ⎟ − 6⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 6 3 6 −3 = −3 = − = 4 2 2 2 −3 1 at x = . domain: ( −∞. range: [ −2. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ 49. b. The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. −4 ) is a maximum point. The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. k ) = ( −10. range: ( −∞. The parabola opens upward and has minimum value. 44. ∞ ) . it opens up from the vertex ( −6. k ) = ( 5. Inc. The minimum is 2 4 c. 4 ) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k = 2 ( x − 7) + 4 51. the vertex ( −3. 47. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. the vertex ( −1. ( h. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −5 ) 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−10) ] + (−5) 2 = 2 ( x + 10 ) − 5 274 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) range: ⎢ . Since the parabola has a minimum. Since the parabola opens up. −b −8 = =1 2a −8 f (1) = −4(1) 2 + 8(1) − 3 f ( x) = 6 x 2 − 6 x a.18) . Since the parabola opens down. ∞ ) domain: (−∞. f ( x) = −4 x 2 + 8 x − 3 a.Polynomial and Rational Functions 41. The minimum is 2 2 = −4 + 8 − 3 = 1 The maximum is 1 at x = 1 . −2 ) is a f ( x) = 5 x 2 − 5 x a. ∞) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) ⎡ −5 ⎞ domain: (−∞. −6 ) . −b 6 1 = = 2a 12 2 48. range: ( −∞. ∞) range: ⎢ . c. minimum point. 21] 46. ∞ ) . ( h. 43. −b 5 1 x= = = 2a 10 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . c. domain: ( −∞. range: [18. f(x) = –2x2 – 12x + 3 a. ∞ ⎟ ⎣2 ⎠ 45. ∞) range: ( −∞. −b 12 b. −6] 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 5⎜ ⎟ − 5⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5 5 10 −5 = − = − = 4 2 4 4 4 −5 1 at x = . a = 6. Since the parabola has a maximum. x= = = −3 2 a −4 f(–3) = –2(–3)2 – 12(–3) + 3 = –18 + 36 + 3 = 21 The maximum is 21 at x = −3 . domain: ( −∞. ⎡ −3 ⎞ domain: (−∞. ( h.1] 42. a = –2. b. −4] a = 5. it opens down from the vertex (10. .3) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h ) + k = 2 ( x − 5) + 3 50. k ) = ( 7. a = -4. ∞ ) . domain: (−∞.

1) 2(−0.7 x + 6.7 x + 6.35 The maximum height of the shot is about 18.1 ≈ 33. the parabola opens down and a = −3 . Section 2. c = 6.04. This occurs 26.7. the parabola opens up and a = 3 . The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0.04) x ≈ 55.01.1 a = −0.04(26. = −3 ( x − 5 ) − 7 Since the vertex is a minimum.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 55.1 0 = −0.8 or x ≈ −7.1 = 3 ( x − 11) + 0 2 56.12 − 4(−0.8 feet.7 x + 6.25) + 6.35 feet.7 feet.25 2a 2 ( −0.7 The maximum height of the shot is about 33.1x + 6.01x 2 + 0.1(26. Since the vertex is a maximum.1 y = −0. c = 6.01(35) 2 + 0. y = −0.1 ± 2. k ) = (11.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 77.01x + 0.25 feet from its point of release. y = −0.7 2 − 4(−0. a.1 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k 55. b = 0. . the parabola opens up and a = 3 . c = 6. 2 = −3 ( x − 5) + ( −7 ) 2 58.7 x + 6. Inc.1x + 6. a. 0 ) b.7. −6 ) 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−8)] + (−6) 2 = 2 ( x + 8) − 6 b.01. y = −0. −7 ) y = −0. f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k = −3[ x − (−2)] + 4 2 = −3 ( x + 2 ) + 4 2 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = −0. b = 2.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −0. ( h.1x + 6.1 Since the vertex is a maximum.1 a = −0.01x 2 + 0. k ) = ( 5. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 2 54.7(0) + 6.01)(6.1 = = = 26.1 = 6.1. This occurs 35 feet from its point of release.1x + 6. 275 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 = 3( x − 9) 2 a = −0.01x 2 + 0.04 x 2 + 2.7(35) + 6.01x 2 + 0. 2 Since the vertex is a minimum. ( h.7 ± 0.04 x 2 + 2.04 x 2 + 2.7 = = = 35 2a 2 ( −0. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0.1 The shot was released at a height of 6. 4 ) x= −0.PreCalculus 4E 52.25)2 + 2.3 feet.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −2. y = −0. x= y-coordinate of vertex y = −0. c = 6.1) 2(−0.3 or x ≈ −2.04 ) 2 = 3 ( x − 11) The initial height can be found at x = 0.7 x + 6. f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 57. k ) = ( 9.04)(6. k ) = ( −8.01) x ≈ 77. b = 0.01) −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −2.2 ( h. 53.01(0) 2 + 0.1 feet. ( h. 0 ) y-coordinate of vertex f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 y = −0.04 x 2 + 2. b = 2.1 2 = 3( x − 9) + 0 0 = −0.1 = 18. the parabola opens down and a = −3 . k ) = ( −2.1.1 x= 2 y = −0.04.1 a = −0. ( h.

This occurs when the two number are 8 and 16 − 8 = 8 .04 x + 2.6 a.048 The other number is 20 − x = 20 − 10 = 10. 61. = 2.14 ( 5 ) + 1.03 x + 0.004(12)2 − 0. This differs from the value in the graph by 0. the two numbers whose difference is 24 and whose product is minimized are 12 and −12 . Let x = one of the numbers. year = − b 20 20 =− =− = 10 −2 2a 2 ( −1) f ( 8 ) = ( 8 ) − 16 ( 8 ) 2 = 64 − 128 = −64 The vertex is ( 8. f ( x ) = 0.094 x + 2.6 The vertex is (8. −64 ) . x=− f (12 ) = 0.S. The product is minimized when ( −24 ) b =− = 12 x=− 2a 2 (1) Since 12 − ( −12 ) = 24 .75 gallons per person.38 According to the function. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 16 ) = x 2 − 16 x f ( x ) = −0. 276 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( 8 ) = −82 + 16 ( 8 ) = −64 + 128 = 64 f ( 25 ) = 0. U.1 = 6. 60. The maximum product is 10 ⋅10 = 100.6 ≈ 2.048 gallons per U.38 billion movie tickets were sold in 2005.03 ( 2 ) + 0.03 billion. 64).04(0)2 + 2. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0. 63. This seems reasonable as compared to the values in the graph. x − 16 = the other number. Movie attendance was at a minimum about 2 years after 2000. The x-coordinate of the minimum is −16 −16 b =− =− = 8. The initial height can be found at x = 0.03) −64 . b.1x + 6. 16 − x = the other number.1 y = −0. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 8 − 16 = −8 .094(12) + 2. Then x − 24 is the smaller number. x=− 2a 2 (1) 2 f ( 5) = −0. Let x = one of the numbers. year = − 62.03 ( 5) + 0.1 feet. 59. Let x = the larger number.004 x 2 − 0.05 gallon. f ( x ) = x (16 − x ) The product is = 16 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 16 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 16 16 x=− =− =− = 8.094 b =− ≈ 12 2a 2 ( 0. 1.1 The shot was released at a height of 6.Polynomial and Rational Functions c. 64. b.59 billion in 2002.75 According to the function. The numbers which maximize the product are 10 and 10. Let x = one of the numbers Let 20 – x = the other number P ( x ) = x ( 20 − x ) = 20 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 20 x −0. adult wine consumption in 2005 was 2.59 Movie attendance was about 1. or 1992.43 2 a. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0.04 billion.43 2 = 1.14 =− ≈2 2a 2 ( −0. The minimum product is P(12) = 12 (12 − 24 ) = −144 . The minimum product is b 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.14 x + 1. Wine consumption was about 2. Inc. .094(25) + 2. −2 2a 2 ( −1) 2 y = −0.14 ( 2 ) + 1. The maximum product is 64.43 2 = 1. or 2002.S.004(25) 2 − 0.004 ) Wine consumption was at a minimum about 12 years after 1980. The product of these two numbers is given by P( x) = x ( x − 24 ) = x 2 − 24 x f ( 2 ) = −0.1(0) + 6. adult in 1992.

Since we need an equation in one variable. 2 x + 2 y = 50 = 600 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 600 x Since a = −2 is negative. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 600 600 x=− =− =− = 150. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. This gives an area of 150 ⋅ 300 = 45. the area of the plot is given by A = l ⋅ w = ( 200 − 2 x )( x ) = −2 x 2 + 200 x Since the graph of this equation is a parabola that opens down. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 25 25 x=− =− =− = 12. 66. 277 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A ( x ) = x ( 25 − x ) = − x 2 + 25 x When the width is x = 150 feet.5 yards by 12. Thus. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 20 yards by 20 yards. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 50 yards of fencing. Rewrite y= A as a function of x.5. the width y is y = 40 − x = 40 − 20 = 20.25 square yards. 000 2 = 5000 The maximum area is 5000 square feet when the length is 100 feet and the width is 50 feet. A ( x ) = x ( 600 − 2 x ) 67.5 = 156. The dimensions of the rectangular plot with maximum area are 150 feet by 300 feet. Let x = the length of the rectangle.5 ⋅12. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 12. the area is maximized at the vertex. Let y = the width of the rectangle. we have that x is the width of the rectangular plot and 200 − 2 x is the length. Let x = the length of the rectangle Let y = the width of the rectangle 2 x + 2 y = 80 2 y = 80 − 2 x 80 − 2 x y= 2 y = 40 − x A = −2 ( 50 ) + 200 ( 50 ) = −5000 + 10. This gives an area of 12.5 = 12. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 20. Let x = the width of the rectangle. 000 square feet. Since a = −1 is negative.5 yards.5. the width y is y = 25 − x = 25 − 12. From the diagram. the length is 600 − 2 (150 ) = 600 − 300 = 300 feet. This gives an area of 20 ⋅ 20 = 400 square yards. A ( x ) = x ( 40 − x ) = − x 2 + 40 x x=− b 40 40 =− =− = 20.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 12. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) 2 y = 50 − 2 x 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 25 − x ) .5. .2 65. Inc. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed along a river with 600 feet of fencing. 600 − 2 x = the length of the rectangle We need to maximize. b 200 x=− =− = 50 2a 2 ( −2 ) 68.

we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 200 200 b x=− =− =− = 150. the width y is 2 2 y = 200 − x = 200 − (150) = 100. Maximize the area of the playground with 400 feet of fencing. 3 ⎠ ⎝ Rewrite A as a function of x. 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with maximum area are 150 feet by 100 feet. 2 x + 3 y = 400 3 y = 400 − 2 x 400 − 2 x y= 3 400 2 y= − x 3 3 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ − x⎟ . Since we need an equation in one variable. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. the width is 20 − 2 x = 20 − 2 ( 5 ) = 20 − 10 = 10. 000 square feet. Since we need an equation in one variable. we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 400 400 b x=− =− 3 = − 3 = 100. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 5. This occurs when the gutter is 3 inches deep and 6 inches wide. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. 72. Let y = the width of the rectangle. 3 3 Maximize the area of the playground with 600 feet of fencing. 2 400 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ − x ⎟ = − x2 + x 3 ⎠ 3 3 ⎝ 3 2 Since a = − is negative. This 3 2 2 gives an area of 100 ⋅ 66 = 6666 square feet. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 150. Let x = the length of the rectangle. . 3 3 3 3 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with 2 maximum area are 100 feet by 66 feet. This occurs when the gutter is 5 inches deep and 10 inches wide. 278 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A ( 3) = −2 ( 3) + 12 ( 3) = −2 ( 9 ) + 36 2 = −18 + 36 = 18 The maximum cross-sectional area is 18 square inches. 2 x + 3 y = 600 3 y = 600 − 2 x 600 − 2 x y= 3 2 y = 200 − x 3 2 ⎞ ⎛ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ . A ( x ) = x (12 − 2 x ) = 12 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 12 x b 12 12 x=− =− =− =3 −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 3. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 100. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Rewrite A as a function of x. Let y = the width of the rectangle. 70. Inc. the width is 12 − 2 x = 12 − 2 ( 3) = 12 − 6 = 6. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 20 20 x=− =− =− = 5. A ( 5 ) = −2 ( 5 ) + 20 ( 5 ) 2 = −2 ( 25 ) + 100 = −50 + 100 = 50 The maximum cross-sectional area is 50 square inches. Maximize the cross-sectional area of the gutter: A ( x ) = x ( 20 − 2 x ) = 20 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 20 x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. This gives an area of 150 ⋅100 = 15. the width y is 400 2 400 2 200 2 y= − x= − (100) = = 66 . Let x = the length of the rectangle. 2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ A ( x ) = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ = − x 2 + 200 x 3 ⎠ 3 ⎝ 2 Since a = − is negative. 71. Since a = −2 is negative.

2 87. 2 84. – 83.500. Answers may vary.5) + 160 = –2. The maximum revenue = 65(800 – 100·15) = $422. Choose Ymin to include the y-value of the vertex. –120. 50 x 25 = 1250 pounds.25x + 40x −b −40 x= = = 80 2a −0. Ymax = 750 d. 1600) 75.2 73. = 400. y = –4x + 20x + 160 −b −20 = = 2. y = 2x – 82x + 720 a.5) + 20(2. 185). Publishing as Prentice Hall. x= 74.5) 2 − 82(20. 279 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a =2. x = increase A = (20 + x)(60 − 2x) = 1200 + 20x − 2x 2 −b −20 = =5 2a 2(−2) The maximum number of trees is 20 + 5 = 25 trees.5 2a 4 y = 2(20. 000 + 3000x −100x 2 −b −3000 = = 15 2a 2(−100) The maximum price is 50 + 15 = $65. 76.5 − 1681 + 720 = −120. .PreCalculus 4E Section 2.5. x = increase A = (50 + x)(8000 −100x) b. Maximize A = (30 + x)(200 – 5x) = 6000 + 50x – 5x2 − 50 x= =5 2(−5) Maximum rental = 30 + 5 = $35 Maximum revenue = 35(200 – 5·5) = $6125 ( ) 2 85.5 + 50 +160 = 185 The vertex is at (2.5 2 y = –0. y = –0. y = 5x + 40x + 600 −b −40 = = −4 x= 2a 10 2 y = 5(–4) + 40(–4) + 600 = 80 – 160 + 600 = 520 vertex: (–4. 520) You can only see a little of the parabola. Maximize A = (30 + x)(50 – x) = 1500 + 20x – x2 −20 x= = 10 2(−1) Maximum number of trees = 30 + 10 = 40 trees Maximum yield = (30 + 10)(50 – 10) = 1600 pounds 77. x= 2 86.5 x= 2a −8 2 y = –4(2.5. You can choose Xmin and Xmax so the x-value of the vertex is in the center of the graph. The maximum yield is 60 – 2·5=50 pounds per tree.5 vertex: (20.5) c.25(80) + 40(80) = 1600 vertex: (80. Inc. b = –82 b −82 x=− =− = 20.5) + 720 = 840.

A sample change is: The vertex is ( 5. k ) = ( −3. makes sense 92. false. Explanations will vary.170(17) + 14. –2) axis: x = –2 (–1. set y = 0 and solve for x. Sample explanation: If it is thrown vertically.372 mpg in 1957. 96. a. b.01x + 0. Vertex (3. Changes to make the statement true will vary.005) 2 98. we know that there are no x–intercepts. 1 2 ( x + 3) − 4 . 89.817 ≈ 13. does not make sense. graph passes through the point (1.005 x 2 − 0. 99. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –2). Sample explanation: Some parabolas have the y-axis as the axis of symmetry. –2). x= 97. Explanations will vary. 2 . 4 = a (1 + 3) − 4 2 8 = a ( 4) 91. 2 Since we know the vertex is ( h. 91).170 x + 14. the function is f ( x ) = 280 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6(–30) + 100 = 9 – 18 + 100 = 91 The vertex is at (–30. Sample explanation: The football’s path is better described by a quadratic model. 95. The values of y increase then decrease. Changes to make the statement true will vary.372 The worst gas mileage was 13. does not make sense. y = 0.6 = = −30 x= 2a 0. does not make sense. Explanations will vary.170) = 17. 93. –2) y = 0. A sample change is: The x-coordinate of the b 1 1 1 maximum is − =− =− = and the y– 2a 2 ( −1) −2 2 coordinate of the vertex of the parabola is ⎛ b ⎞ ⎛1⎞ 5 f ⎜− ⎟ = f ⎜ ⎟ = . Changes to make the statement true will vary. 94. −4 ) . 11) 100. –2) is one unit right of (–2. 4 −(−0. 0 = −2 ( x + 4 ) − 8 2 2 ( x + 4 ) = −8 2 ( x + 4) 2 = −4 Because the solutions to the equation are imaginary.005(17)2 − 0. 2) Axis: x = 3 second point (0. 4 ) . true 2 8 = 16a 1 =a 2 Therefore. false. A sample change is: The graph has no x–intercepts. Inc. (–1. false. y = 0. We start with the form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k . which allows us to solve for a. To find x–intercepts. –2) is (–3. point: (–3. One unit left of (–2. 1940 + 17 = 1957 2(.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 88. its path will be a line segment.02 2 y = 0. −1) .6x + 100 −b −0. ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4 5 The maximum y–value is .817 c. f(x) = 3(x + 2) – 5. d. We also know that the 2 90. we have f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 4 .01(–30) + 0.

so the equation is of the 440 = 2 x + π y 104. the maximum profit is –3(15)2 + 9(15) + 21000 = $21.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 105. 2 x + y − 2 = 0 y = 2 − 2x d = x + (2 − 2x) π =− −440 440 2 − −3 = a (1) − 1 2 − π 106. it must cross the x-axis somewhere between 2 and 3 to get from one of these points to the other. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 2 x + 440 π x = 110 π 220 π The dimensions are 110 yards by 2 220 π yards. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 5 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 5 = −1 f (3) = (3)3 − 2(3) − 5 = 16 The graph passes through (2. 103. Thus. Inc. ⎛4⎞ 2 y = 2 − 2⎜ ⎟ = ⎝5⎠ 5 ⎛4 2⎞ ⎜5. 102.675. which is above the x-axis. −1) .00. Answers may vary. and (3.5⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 108. the graph is symmetric with respect to the yaxis. −3) on the graph to determine the value of a: f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 1 2 x= −3 = a ( −2 + 3) − 1 2 2 2 π π = − π 440 − 2(110) −3 = a − 1 −2 = a Thus. x 3 + 3 x 2 − x − 3 = x 2 ( x + 3) − 1( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 1) = ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 1) d = x 2 + 4 − 8x + 4x 2 d = 5x 2 − 8x + 4 Minimize 5x2 – 8x + 4 −(−8) 4 x= = 2(5) 5 107. which is below the x-axis. the function is even. x= 281 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. k ) = ( −3.2 101. 2 = −3x + 90 x + 21000 −b −90 3 = = = 15 2 a 2 (−3) 2 The maximum charge is 80 + 15 = $95. f ( x) = (80 + x)(300 − 3x ) − 10(300 − 3x ) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x) 2 + 1 2 = 24000 + 60 x − 3x − 3000 + 30 x = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 Since f (− x) = f ( x). –1). 440 − 2 x = π y form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k 2 440 − 2 x = a ⎡⎣ x − ( −3) ⎤⎦ + ( −1) 2 π = a ( x + 3) − 1 =y 440 − 2 x 2 Maximize A = x We use the point ( −2. the equation of the parabola is 2 π = 4 = 440 4 f ( x ) = −2 ( x + 3 ) − 1 . Since the graph of f is continuous. 16). We know ( h.

Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. the graph 2 touches the x-axis and turns around at this zero. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 2 x4 − 4 x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 x = 0 or x = –2 or x = 2 The zeros are 0. polynomial function. The graph does not show the function’s end behavior. Check Point Exercises 1. the graph rises to the left and to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8. the function falls to the right. 1 Because the multiplicity of − is even. f (− x) = (− x)3 − 3(− x) 2 = − x 3 − 3x 2 No symmetry. 4. . degree: 5 4. the graph should fall to the left. not a polynomial function 6. Inc. Because the multiplicity of 5 is odd. degree: 3 2. f ( x) = 2 x3 ( x − 1)( x + 5) is of odd degree with a positive leading coefficient.3 1 The zeros are − . the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. the graph crosses the x-axis at this zero. f ( x) = x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 0 = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) 0 = ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) 0 = ( x + 2) 2 ( x − 2) x = 2 or x = –2 The zeros are 2 and –2. not a polynomial function 282 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5. We can find the degree of the polynomial by adding the degrees of each of its degree 3 degree 1 degree 1 P P factors. Since n is even and an > 0.3 2 7. Since n is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. 3. 6. and 2. f (−3) = 3(−3)3 − 10(–3) + 9 = −42 f (−2) = 3(−2)3 − 10(−2) + 9 = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between –3 and –2. Since an > 0 and n is odd. Exercise Set 2. x3 − 3x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 x = 0 or x = 3 The x-intercepts are 0 and 3. with multiplicity 2. and 5. 2. f (0) = 03 − 3(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. polynomial function. degree: 7 5. polynomial function. Since the ratio cannot be negative. the model won’t be appropriate. degree: 4 3. Thus its graph falls to the left and rises to the right. f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 Since an > 0 and n is odd. It is not necessary to multiply out the polynomial to determine its degree. 9. polynomial function. 1⎞ 3 ⎛ f ( x ) = −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 2 1⎞ 3 ⎛ −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 x = − or x = 5 2 1. –2. with 2 multiplicity 3. f ( x) = 2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5) has degree 3 + 1 + 1 = 5.

x = –2 has multiplicity 2. f ( x) = 3( x + 5)( x + 2)2 x = –5 has multiplicity 1. 26. (a) 18. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. polynomial function.3 7. The graph crosses the x-axis. . The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. 2 The graph crosses the x-axis. 22. f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 + 4 x = x ( x2 + 4 x + 4) f ( x) = 11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. x = –2 and x = –7 have multiplicity 1. not a polynomial function 8. (c) 17. 283 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 16. The graph crosses the x-axis. 20. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. 3 29. (d) 19. The graph crosses the x-axis. 21. x = 1 has multiplicity 2. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 − 4 x − 28 = x 2 ( x + 7) − 4( x + 7) f ( x) = −11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( x) = 5 x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is odd. 13. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. polynomial function 15. = x( x + 2) 2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. The graph crosses the x-axis. 31. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. Not a polynomial function because graph is not continuous. (b) 28. 11. = ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x + 7) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 7) x = 2. The graph crosses the x-axis. x = 4 has multiplicity 3. 1⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = −3 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 4)3 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x = − has multiplicity 1. f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an < 0 and n is even. not a polynomial function 10. f ( x) = 11x − 6 x + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is odd. x = –6 has multiplicity 3. f ( x) = 5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is even. Inc. The graph crosses the x-axis. 23. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. f ( x) = x3 − 2 x 2 + x = x ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) 2 = x( x − 1)2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. f ( x) = 4( x − 3)( x + 6)3 x = 3 has multiplicity 1. f ( x) = 2( x − 5)( x + 4) 2 x = 5 has multiplicity 1. 24. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. 14. polynomial function 12. 27. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. not a polynomial function 9. 30. x = –4 has multiplicity 2. degree: 2 25. The graph crosses the x-axis. The graph crosses the x-axis.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. Not a polynomial function because graph is not smooth.

f ( x ) = x3 − x − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x ) = 2 x4 − 4 x2 + 1 f(–1) = –1 f(0) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 37. d. f (0) = (0)3 + 2(0)2 − 0 − 2 = −2 The y-intercept is –2. 39. f ( x ) = x 5 − x3 − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 23 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. e. f ( x) = x 3 + 5 x 2 − 9 x − 45 40. = x 2 ( x + 5) − 9( x + 5) = ( x 2 − 9 ) ( x + 5) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 5) x = 3. and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. f ( x ) = x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 a. f ( x) = x + x − 2x + 1 f(–3) = –11 f(–2) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. –1. f ( x ) = x 4 + 6 x 3 − 18 x 2 f(2) = –8 f(3) = 81 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. 2 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. Inc. x = –1 The zeros at –2. 34. ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = –2. b. x = 1. 35. 3 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 ( x + 2) − ( x + 2) = 0 f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 + 2 f(0) = 2 f(1) = –1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f (− x) = (− x) + 2(− x) 2 − (− x) − 2 = − x3 + 2 x 2 + x − 2 − f ( x) = − x 3 − 2 x 2 + x + 2 The graph has neither origin symmetry nor yaxis symmetry. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 38. Since an > 0 and n is odd. c. x = –3 and x = –5 have multiplicity 1. 41. 33. . f ( x ) = 3x3 − 10 x + 9 f(–3) = –42 f(–2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 36. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 8 x 2 + x + 2 f(2) = –4 f(3) = 14 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. The graph crosses the x-axis. 284 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

43. f (− x) = x 4 − x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. f ( x ) = x4 − x2 c.3 f ( x ) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. x4 − x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. f(x) rises to the left and the right. The xintercepts are –2. x = –3 The zeros at –3 and 3 have odd multiplicity. f (0) = (0) 4 − (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. Section 2. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. f (0) = 03 + (0) 2 − 4(0) − 4 = −4 The y-intercept is –4. 285 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and 2. e. b. e. x4 − 9 x2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 0. Since an > 0 and n is even. or x = –2 The zeros at –2. x = –1 f touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. or x = 2. f(x) rises to the left and the right. Inc. x = 3. . x = 0. d. f ( x ) = x4 − 9 x2 a. b. a. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. 44. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0. 2 ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 x = –1. Since an > 0 and n is even. Since an > 0 and n is odd. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points.PreCalculus 4E 42. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. x + x − 4x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) = 0 3 d. f (− x) = − x 3 + x 2 + 4 x − 4 − f ( x) = − x 3 − x 2 + 4 x + 4 neither symmetry e. x = 1. –1. f (− x) = x 4 − 9 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. d. –1 and 2 have odd multiplicity. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. c.

x = 4. Since an < 0 and n is even. – x 4 + 16 x 2 = 0 x 2 ( − x 2 + 16 ) = 0 x 2 ( 4 − x )( 4 + x ) = 0 x = 0. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 16 x 2 a. x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 2 x = 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. b. x = –4 The zeros at –4 and 4 have odd multiplicity. d. Since an > 0 and n is even. . f(x) falls to the left and the right. Since an < 0 and n is even. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f ( x ) = − x4 + 4 x2 a. x = 2. f (0) = (0) 4 − 2(0)3 + (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. − x4 + 4x2 = 0 x 2 (4 − x 2 ) = 0 x 2 ( 2 − x )( 2 + x ) = 0 48. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. x = 1 The zeros at 1 and 0 have even multiplicity. b. x = 0. Since an > 0 and n is even. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. f (− x) = − x 4 + 4 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. c. f ( x ) = x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 a. f (− x) = − x + 16 x f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. x = –2 The x-intercepts are –2. and 2. 46. f (0) = −(0)4 + 4(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. e. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f (− x) = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. it touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. Inc. x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 2 x = 0. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0 and 1. c. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. d. f ( x ) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 a. 286 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 47.Polynomial and Rational Functions 45. b. e. d. Since f has a double root at 0. c. so f(x) touches the xaxis at 0. b. e.0. x = 3 The zeros at 3 and 0 have even multiplicity.

d. x = ± 3 The root at 0 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at (0. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 2 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 287 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (0) = (0) 4 − 6(0)3 + 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. e. Since an < 0 and n is odd. x = 0. b. −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 4 ) = 0 c. x = 1 The zeros at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity. 0).3 50. x = 0. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. Inc. e. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 2 ) = 0 The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. d. f(x) falls to the left and the right. b. f (− x) = x 5 − 6 x 3 + 9 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 a. d. f(x) falls to the left and the right. b. f ( x ) = 6 x3 − 9 x − x 5 x = 0. x = 2 The zeros at 0 and 2 have odd multiplicity. − x 5 + 6 x3 − 9 x = 0 − x ( x4 − 6 x2 + 9) = 0 − x ( x 2 − 3)( x 2 − 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 4 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. a. f (0) = −(0)5 + 6(0)3 − 9(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. 51. 49. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 a. f (0) = −2(0) 4 + 4(0)3 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. The y-intercept is 0. The zeros at – 3 and 3 have even multiplicity so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and − 3 .PreCalculus 4E c. Section 2. c. Since an < 0 and n is even. . The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 4 – 1. c. e. f (− x) = x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. d. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points.

d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. − x5 − x 3 + 6 x = 0 54. 1 1 1 f (0) = − (0)4 + = 2 2 2 1 The y-intercept is . − x ( x4 + x2 − 6) = 0 − x ( x 2 + 3)( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = a. 0. 288 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0). d.Polynomial and Rational Functions e. c. The graph has 4 turning point and 4 ≤ 5 – 1. Inc. d. c. x = 0. e. c. Since an < 0 and n is odd. f ( x ) = 6 x − x3 − x 5 a. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. x = 0. f (0) = −(0)5 − (0)3 + 6(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. . e. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 5 – 1. f (− x) = The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f (− x) = x 3 + 3x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. 2 1 1 4 − x 2 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. f(x) falls to the left and the right. − x3 + 3x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 1 1 4 − x 2 2 Since an < 0 and n is even. 52. 53. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. The graph has 2 turning point and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. 1 1 − x4 + = 0 2 2 1 − ( x 4 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1) ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x = ±1 The zeros at –1 and 1 have odd multiplicity. b. a. x = 3 The zero at 3 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at that point. f (0) = −(0)3 + 3(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f ( x ) = 3x 2 − x 3 e. and 2 have odd multiplicity. f (− x) = x5 + x3 − 6 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. b. Since an < 0 and n is odd. x = ± 2 The zeros at − 2 .

b. x = –5. Since an > 0 and n is even. The root at 1 has even multiplicity. f(x) rises to the left and the right.PreCalculus 4E 55. x = 0. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2 x = 1. c. −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 2 x = 4. f (0) = −2(0 − 4) 2 (02 − 25) = −2(16)(−25) = 800 The y-intercept is 800. f (− x) = −3(− x − 1) 2 ( x 2 − 4 ) f ( x ) = x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 3 a. 289 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. 56. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. Since an < 0 and n is even. 0). The root at 4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the xaxis at (4. b. Inc. x = –2. c. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f ( 0 ) = 03 ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. b. x = 2 The zeros at –2 and 2 have odd multiplicity. f(x) falls to the left and the right. 0).3 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) e. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. f(x) rises to the left and the right. d. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. f (0) = 02 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 The y-intercept is 0. Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 5 The zeros at –5 and 5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 58. f ( − x ) = x 2 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 2 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. so f(x) touches the xaxis at (1. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. 0). 0). f (− x) = −2(− x − 4) 2 ( x 2 − 2 ) f ( x ) = x 3 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 a. e. x = –2. d. x = –1 The roots at 0 and –1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. 2 a. x = 0. e. The root at –2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–2. Section 2. f ( x ) = −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25) 2 a. Since an > 0 and n is even. c. 57. x = 1. f(x) falls to the left and the right. b. d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (0) = −3(0 − 1) 2 (02 − 4)3 = −3(1)(−4) = 12 The y-intercept is 12. c. .

The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. e. e. b. 61. d. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. e. 0). f ( − x ) = 2 x3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 5 ) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = –2 The zeros at 2 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = 1. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. e. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. . b. 290 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0). f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 − 1)( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( x ) = −2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5 ) 2 a. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 2 ) = 0 d. x = 0. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) a. x = 1. 59. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 6 – 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) falls to the left and the right. 0). f ( − x ) = − x3 ( − x + 2 ) ( − x + 1) 2 c. b. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 3) a. Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x − 1)( − x + 3) The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = 0. x = 2. The y-intercept is 0. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. c. x = –5 The roots at 0 and –5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f(x) falls to the left and the right. c. 60. Since an < 0 and n is even. d. The y-intercept is 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions d. Inc. x = 0. Since an < 0 and n is even. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f ( 0 ) = −2(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 5 ) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. x = –3 The zeros at 1 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x + 2 )( − x − 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 (−1) ( x − 2 ) (−1) ( x + 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry.

3 ≤ 4 – 1. . Section 2. 2 The y-intercept is 0. c. x = –3. 65.3 f ( x ) = −3x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 3) 2 a. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. 1. f ( 0 ) = −3(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = 3x 3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 3) f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x + 1) ( x + 4 ) 3 a. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. x = 1 The zeros at –4 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. b. The root at 2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (2. e. x = 1. e. c. x − 1 . From the end behavior. Inc. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1)( 0 − 4 ) = 8 291 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since an > 0 and n is odd. 0). d. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. Thus. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 2 ) ( 0 + 4 )( 0 − 1) = −16 2 b. d. x = –3 The roots at 0 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = 0. x = –4 The zeros at all have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. all three have odd multiplicity. The graph has 2 turning points f ( − x ) = ( − x − 2 ) ( − x + 4 )( − x − 1) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. and 4. f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. d. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 4 )( x − 1) a. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 + 1) ( 0 + 4 ) = 12 3 The y-intercept is 12. and 4 are the zeros. x + 2 . c. f ( − x ) = ( − x + 3)( − x + 1) ( − x + 4 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. e. a. so they are the zeros. x = –1. and x − 4 are factors of the function. 63. 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. b. The graph has 3 turning points and The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. Since the graph has two turning points. Since an < 0 and n is even. 0). f(x) falls to the left and the right. f(x) rises to the left and rises the right. x = 2. Since −2 . Since an > 0 and n is even.PreCalculus 4E 62. c. b. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) . x = –4. the function must be at least of degree 3. 64. The y-intercept is –16. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 .

The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. the function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) . Since −1 and 4 are the zeros. The function is is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1) . 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 − 2 )( 0 − 5 ) = 30 67. is f ( x ) = ( x + 1)( x − 3) . Since −2 and 1 are the zeros. c. x + 3 . Since the graph has three turning points. x − 2 . 2 f ( x ) = ( x + 2) f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1) = 2 2 c. −1 . 2 b. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 3. x + 3 and x − 2 are factors of the function. Thus. the function must be at least of degree 4. the function 2 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 4 ) = −16 2 2 71. x + 1 and x − 4 are factors of the function. 2 68. 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3 . the function The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 and 2. a. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. x + 2 and x − 1 are factors of the function. and 1 are the zeros. From the end behavior. 69. Since −3 and 2 are the zeros. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 66. and 5 are the zeros. Since −3 . and 1. However. a. b. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. 3 . c. b. the function must be at least of degree 3. b. The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 3. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. 2. the function must be at least of degree 6. so they are the zeros. a. From the end behavior. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −2 . so they are the zeros. c. so they are the zeros. Since the graph has two turning points. and x − 1 are factors of the function. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 3) ( 0 − 2 ) = −36 70. x + 2 . From the end behavior. the function must be at least of degree 3. Thus. 2 function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) ( x − 4 ) . Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 . From the end behavior. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 3) = 9 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 and 1. so they are the zeros. so they are the zeros. a. From the end behavior. Since the graph has five turning points. Since the graph has two turning points. −1 . Since −2 . and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. and 5. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 and 1. and x − 5 are factors of the function. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. so they are the zeros. Thus. a. the function must be at least of degree 3. the function must be at least of degree 3. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x − 2 )( x − 5) . it has even multiplicity. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 . Thus. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. it has odd multiplicity. they both have odd multiplicity. 2. a. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 1. Since the graph has two turning points. x + 1 . f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 1) = −4 2 292 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. Since −1 and 3 are the zeros. From the end behavior. 2 c. both have even multiplicity. it has even multiplicity. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −3 and 2. b. The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 . The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. it has odd multiplicity. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. it has even multiplicity. Thus. 2 The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 4. Since the graph has two turning points. both have even multiplicity. one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. the 2 c. x + 1 and x − 3 are factors of the function. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −1 and 4. to reach degree 6. Inc. all three have odd multiplicity.

x + 1 . The woman’s heart rate reached a minimum of about 64 ± 1 beats per minute. Since there were 3 turning points. a. f ( x) = −3402 x + 42. e. 203(3) + 308. 324 x 2 + 107. 453 = 404. 94. 324(3) 2 + 107. −1 . 453 f. The leading coefficient should be negative. 931 The percentage reached a maximum of about 69 ± 1% in 2000. 453 2 g (5) = 2769(5)3 − 28. 2 ( x − 1) 3 . 203x + 308. The leading coefficient should be negative. 73. 324(5) 2 + 107. b. Since the graph has five turning points. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. 203(5) + 308. Based on the end behavior. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 and 1. Inc.3 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . There were 3 turning points during the 12 minutes. c. 931 76. 74. Function g provides a better description of the actual number.PreCalculus 4E 72. and x − 1 are factors of the function. it has even multiplicity. 731 77. e. b. f (5) = −3402(5) 2 + 42. However. The percentage reached a minimum of about 18 ± 1% in 1960. 418 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. b. the function must be at least of degree 6. f. the graph rises to the right. a. 203 x + 308. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. b. . 555(3) + 261. and 1. 293 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 931 = 404. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. Since there were 3 turning points. 324 x 2 + 107. the graph falls to the right. 453 f (3) = −3402(3)2 + 42. and 1 are the zeros. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 . The function will not be a useful model over an extended period of time because it will eventually give negative values. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. Section 2. g. The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was decreasing from 1975 through 1985 and from 2000 through 2005. From the end behavior. Since −2 . This occurred after 8 minutes. Since the degree of f is even and the leading coefficient is negative. The woman’s heart rate was decreasing from 4 through 8 minutes and from 10 through 12 minutes. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 1) = −2 2 3 f ( x) = −3402 x 2 + 42. The woman’s heart rate reached a maximum of about 116 ± 1 beats per minute. There were 3 turning points during the period shown. 931 = 437. one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. they both have odd multiplicity. x + 2 . b. 444 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. to reach degree 6.555 x + 261. The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was increasing from 1960 through 1975 and from 1985 through 2000. a. Answers may vary. 75. g (3) = 2769(3)3 − 28. −1 . 443 Function f provides a better description of the actual number. = 434. Since the degree of g is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. g. The function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 1) c. – 93. The graph falls to the left and to the right. the function will be a useful model over an extended period of time. The graph falls to the left and to the right. d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. d. a. so they are the zeros. This occurred after 10 minutes.555(5) + 261. c.555 x + 261. The woman’s heart rate was increasing from 1 through 4 minutes and from 8 through 10 minutes. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. a.

99. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: A forth degree function has at most 3 turning points. 108. Section 2. Explanations will vary. 110. 1 . false. A sample change is: f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. Sample explanation: Since ( x + 2) is raised to an odd power. 6 x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 4 112. makes sense 3x 2 − 11x 101. Inc. the graph crosses the x-axis at –2. false. 1 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 + 103. 1. x−3 . 95. does not make sense. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 107. Changes to make the statement true will vary. true 294 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 x − 3 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 7 2 x3 − 6 x 2 100. x+5 x + 9 x 2 + 14 x + 45 x2 + 9 x 5 x + 45 5 x + 45 0 The answer is x + 5. 737 2 = 35 + 21 21 111. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 104. 3x 2 − 9 x − 2x + 7 −2 x + 6 102. or rises to the left and falls to the right. 2. A sample change is: A function with origin symmetry either falls to the left and rises to the right. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. f(x) = x3 – 2x2 96. 106. 105.4 Check Point Exercises 98. f ( x) = x 3 + x 2 − 12 x 109. false. A sample change is: Such a function falls to the right and will eventually have negative values. 2 x 3 − x 2 − 11x + 6 = ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3 x − 2) = ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) 97.

4 9 x2 − 3x 15 x − 5 15 x − 5 0 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3 x + 5. 7 x3 + 0 x 2 7 x 3 − 14 x 2 14 x 2 − 7 x 14 x 2 − 28 x x 2 + 3x + 1 21x − 10 21x − 10 . –2 1 1 0 –7 –6 –2 4 6 –2 –3 0 3. 3 x2 − 2x 2 x 4 − 4 x3 5 x − 10 5 x − 10 0 The answer is x + 5.PreCalculus 4E 3. The answer is 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 + 2 x − 2x 4. –1 15 15 14 –3 –2 –15 1 2 –1 –2 0 x 2 − 3x − 2x + 6 −2 x + 6 0 15 x − x − 2 = 0 2 The answer is x 2 + x − 2. –4 3 3 f(–4) = –105 4 –5 3 –12 32 –108 –8 27 x + 2 x3 + 5 x 2 + 7 x + 2 x3 + 2 x 2 2 5.4 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 x − 2 x 2 x + 3x + 0 x 2 − 7 x − 10 2 4 2. x+3 1. Section 2. ⎬ . The answer is x − 2 x − 3 . –105 x2 + x − 2 x − 3 x − 2x − 5x + 6 3 2 x3 − 3x 2 x2 − 5x 6. (3 x + 1)(5 x − 2) = 0 1 2 x=− or x = 3 5 1 2⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. 6 x3 − 2 x 2 9 x 2 + 12 x Exercise Set 2. 295 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 3 5⎭ ⎩ 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 5. − . 3x 2 + 7 x 3x 2 + 6 x x+2 x+2 0 2 The answer is x + 3 x + 1. 3x − 1 6 x3 + 7 x 2 + 12 x − 5 x + 5 x 2 + 8 x + 15 x2 + 5x 3 x + 15 3x + 15 0 The answer is x + 3. x+5 x − 2 x 2 + 3x − 10 4.

− 6x + 6 x − 3 x4 3 The answer is 2 x − 3 + − 81 x − 3x 4 3 . Inc. 2 3x − 2 11. 3x − 2 246 x 246 x − 984 3 2x −1 984 The answer is 2 x − 1 4 x2 − 8x + 6 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 4 x2 − 2 x − 6x + 6 x 3 + 3x 2 + 9 x + 27 12. 984 x−4 x − 4 4 x4 − 4 x2 + 6x 4 x 4 − 16 x 3 12 x 2 − 8 x 9x − 4 9x − 6 2 16 x 3 − 4 x 2 16 x 3 − 64 x 2 60 x 2 + 6 x The answer is 4 x + 3 + 2x − 3 + 26 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 26 x −3 3x + 7 + 2 60 x 2 − 240 x 2 . 2x −1 984 . 3 x 2 + 3x 2 6 x − 20 6 x + 18 − 38 The answer is 2 x 2 + x + 6 − 38 . 2 4x + 3 + 7. x+3 296 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x −3 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 3x − 2 12 x 2 + x − 4 8. . 9 x2 38 x+3 9 x 2 − 27 x 27 x − 81 x + 3 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 + 9 x − 20 2x + 6x 3 27 x − 81 2 0 x2 + 9 x The answer is x + 3x + 9 x + 27. x−4 3 3x3 3x 2 − 9 x 2 2 x2 + x + 6 − 9. 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 3x + 4 6 x + 17 x + 27 x + 20 3 10. 6 x3 + 8 x 2 x − 3 3x2 − 2 x + 5 9 x 2 + 27 x 3x2 − 9 x 7x + 5 9 x 2 + 12 x 15 x + 20 15 x + 20 0 7 x − 21 26 The answer is 3x + 7 + The answer is 2 x + 3x + 5.Polynomial and Rational Functions 6.

2 x3 + 1 297 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 17. 18 x 4 + 6 x 2 9 x3 − 3x 2 ( 5x 5 − 3x 2 − 3 x 5 − 3x 2 − 1 − 3x + 1 12 –8 –15 81 –27 73 The answer is 5 x − 27 + The answer is 6 x 2 + 3 x − 1 − 3x − 1 . 0 14. 3 . 3x2 + 1 21. x3 + x 2 − 2 x 15.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. x2 − 4x + 1 (4x 3 2 x5 + x 2 4 4 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 73 . 4 + x − 2 ) ÷ ( x − 1) 2 1 x 2 + x − 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 4 x 2 − 5x − 6 The answer is x 2 + x − 3 − –10 The answer is 2 x + 5 . 18. −3x − 3x + 6 2 − 12 ( 3x 5 0 1 –2 1 2 2 0 + 7 x − 20 ) ÷ ( x + 5 ) 2 –5 12 . x2 + x − 3 (x 1 x 4 + x3 − 2 x 2 1 x3 − 2 x 2 − 5x − 3 x 2 − 3x − 6 19. x+5 − 12 x − 8 ) ÷ ( x + 3) 2 –3 9 x3 + 3x 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 3x − x − 3 6 x + 13 x − 11x − 15 2 3 (2x 2 2 + x − 10 ) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 2 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 The answer is 2 x + 5. 10 The answer is x + 2. x + x−2 3 3 2 7 –20 –15 40 –8 20 The answer is 3x − 8 + 6 x2 + 3x − 1 3x 2 + 1 18 x 4 + 9 x 3 + 3 x 2 20. x −1 . 1 4x −1 . x+3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1) ÷ ( x − 1) 1 2 x 3 + 1 2 x5 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 + x 2 –3 3 –1 4 1 4 1 4 3 The answer is 4 x 2 + x + 4 + −8 x 4 − 4 x 2 x3 + 4 x 2 x3 + 1 4x −1 The answer is x 2 − 4 x + 1 + 20 .4 2x + 5 13.

x −3 (x (x 1 x5 + x3 − 2 x −1 1 + 4 x 4 − 3 x 2 + 2 x + 3) ÷ ( x − 3) 1 7 The answer is –6 The answer is x 3 − 12 x 2 + 73x − 444 + 4 1 1 1 –2 3 25. x−2 The answer is 5 x 2 + 4 x + 11 + 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x 7 − 128 x−2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 –128 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 1 2 4 8 16 32 The answer is x 6 + 2 x5 + 4 x 4 + 8 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 32 x + 64. x−2 2 4 28. 187 . Inc. x+6 0 1 0 0 –2 1 1 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 3 2 1 0 1 –2 4 –2 5 0 –10 0 0 12 –10 20 –20 40 –80 –10 10 –20 40 –68 The answer is x − 2 x 5 + 5 x 4 − 10 x3 + 10 x 2 68 −20 x + 40 − . 2 33 . –5 1 0 –5 50 –255 1300 1 –10 The answer is 51 –260 1300 x 4 − 256 x−4 4 1 1 1300 x − 10 x + 51x − 260 + . x+2 6 29. –6 3 11 10 8 22 4 11 33 (6x 5 6 5 –3 1 12 24 44 96 186 6 12 The answer is 22 48 93 187 27. ( 5x − 6 x 2 + 3x + 11) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 3 2 5 5 26. . − 6 x3 + x 2 − 6 x ) ÷ ( x + 6 ) –6 0 6 x 4 + 12 x3 + 22 x 2 + 48 x + 93 + (x 4 − 6 x − 6 x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 6 + x ) ⇒ − 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x + 1) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 24.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. (x (x 0 0 0 –256 4 16 64 256 16 64 0 4 The answer is x + 4 x + 16 x + 64 . x+5 3 0 x 7 + x 5 − 10 x 3 + 12 x+2 1 –5 –6 The answer is x + x + 2 x + 2 x + 2 . − 5 x3 + x 2 − 5 x ) ÷ ( x + 5) 1 –6 4 − 5x − 5x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 5 + x ) ⇒ –5 1 1 549 x 4 + 7 x 3 + 21x 2 + 60 x + 182 + . 64 0 298 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 0 –3 2 3 3 21 63 180 546 21 60 182 549 –2 72 –438 2664 –12 73 –444 2664 2664 . 2 3 30.

2 −5 −1 −1 8 −12 −20 −3 −5 −25 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 5 x 3 − x 2 + 3x + 2 −1 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 5 4 6 0 f ( 2) = 0 The answer is x 4 − x 2 + x + 1 + 33. 5 −6 5 2 −6 −2 1 −3 −1 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − x 3 + 3x 2 − x + 1 x−2 2 −6 3 24 87 246 1 8 29 82 240 129 2 x 4 − 7 x 3 + 15 x 2 − 31x + 64 − . 1 −5 2 1 1 –2 –1 3 –1 1 2 0 –2 2 2 0 –1 1 1 3 39. Inc. 2 −11 7 2 −6 3 . x−2 3 1 −7 5 40. 3 f − 1 =1 f ( 4 ) = −25 34. Dividend: x 3 – 4 x 2 + x + 6 Divisor: x + 1 −6 f ( x ) = 3x 3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x + 5 3 3 −1 −1 −4 −4 − f ( 3) = −27 −3 2 ( 2) 3 −12 −21 1 −4 −7 −27 35. 3}. 2 41. x = 2. x+2 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 5 −6 −4 −8 4 −3 1 2 3 2 f ( −3) = −133 −2 2 7 9 1 −9 48 −138 3 −16 46 −133 36. . Section 2. f ( x ) = x 4 + 5x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 6 3 –3 1 –1 2 –1 –4 14 –30 62 –128 2 –7 The answer is 15 –31 64 –129 f ( 3) = 240 38. x = 3 The solution set is {–1. −5 − 23 6 10 6 f ( − 32 ) = −7 −2 –1 6 4 1 5 1 1 − 92 1 3 7 9 1 –4 1 6 –1 5 –6 6 0 –5 The quotient is x − 5 x + 6. ( x + 1)( x 2 – 5 x + 6) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 3) = 0 x = –1. 2.PreCalculus 4E 31. 5 −5 1 5 6 0 0 −4 f ( −2 ) = −4 299 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 2 x5 − 3x 4 + x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 1 x+2 –2 2 37.

2 ⎭ ⎩ x = –2. 2} . 2 ⎩ ⎭ 2 44. x= 2 3 2 ⎧ 3 1 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 –3 3 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 22 x − 8 = 0 − 13 2 x − 3 x − 11x + 6 = 0 3 –5 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ (12 x − 2 x − 2) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ 2 ( 6 x − x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 2(3x + 1)(2 x – 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 1 1 x=– . 2 2 –3 –11 6 –4 14 –6 –7 3 0 3 3 –18 3 3 –2 –2 0 7 –22 –8 –1 –2 8 6 –24 0 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3x + 6 x − 24 = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1 x = –4. 2 ⎬ . x=− . ( x + 1)( x 2 − 3x + 2) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 1) = 0 x = –1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 42. − . ⎬ . x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 3 2⎭ ⎩ 2 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 2 16 12 The quotient is x 2 − 3 x + 2.x=3 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −2. 12 x3 + 16 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 2 2 –5 1 2 4 –2 –2 –1 –1 0 46. x = 2. x = 1 The solution set is {–1. x = − 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −4. 300 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ⎬ . x = − . x = 2. 1 . −1. 2 1 2 −5 −6 2 8 6 1 4 3 0 The remainder is 0. Dividend: x 3 − 2 x 2 − x + 2 Divisor: x + 1 –1 1 –2 –1 2 –1 3 –2 1 –3 2 0 45. 43. − . 3⎬ . so 2 is a solution. 12 – 32 (x + 2) (2 x − 7 x + 3) = 0 2 (x + 2) ( 2 x − 1)( x − 3) = 0 47. ( x – 2)(2 x − x − 1) = 0 (x – 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) = 0 1 x = 2. or {−3. Inc. and −1 . x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 6 = 0 ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 + 4 x + 3) = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 3)( x + 1) = 0 The solutions are 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = The graph indicates that 2 is a solution to the equation. . 1. −3 . . 2. 1}.

It can be used to find other solutions (if they exist). The dimensions are 2 inches by 4 inches by 9 inches. and −6 . so −3 is a solution. 1 6 −11 6 −1 6 75 = ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) 2 { 42 The remainder is 0 so 3 is a solution.1⎬ . or 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎨ −6. a. . 2 . Inc. 177 We need to find x when f ( x ) = 211. 301 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 48. the width is 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 inches and the length is 2 + 7 = 9 inches. Section 2. 72 = 2h3 + 14h 2 2 x3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 0 = 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 ( x − 1) ( 2 x 2 + 13 x + 6 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( 2 x + 1)( x + 6 ) = 0 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) ( 0 = ( h − 2 ) 2 ( h 2 + 9h + 18 ) 1 The solutions are 1. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 The solutions are 1. 6 −5 1 −5 1 0 13 −6 2 13 6 0 0 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 0 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 This is the equation obtained in part a. −3 2 1 −13 6 −6 15 −6 2 −5 2 0 51. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) = 0 The polynomial 14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 cannot be factored. or −3. 2 2 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. so the only solution is x = 3. V = lwh 72 = ( h + 7 )( 2h )( h ) The remainder is 0. and 2. a. − . 1 2 11 −7 −6 2 59 211 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 50. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 3 14 −17 −16 −177 72 0 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) b. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 The remainder is 0.4 The graph indicates that −3 is a solution to the equation. b.1⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. One solution is 3. 1 . 2 0 −72 2 14 4 36 2 18 36 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. 2 x 3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 = 0 The solutions are −3 . so 1 is a solution. The female moth’s abdominal width is 3 millimeters. or ⎨ . − . } 1 . and . 14 ( x + 3) ( 2 x − 5 x + 2 ) = 0 ( x + 3)( 2 x − 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 49. 25 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 The remainder is 0. 2 ⎭ ⎩ ) 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2 ( h + 6 )( h + 3) ) 0 = 2 ( h − 2 )( h + 6 )( h + 3) 2 ( h − 2) = 0 h + 6 = 0 h + 3 = 0 h−2 = 0 h=2 h = −6 h = −3 The height is 2 inches. 1 1 ⎧1 1 ⎫ . 2 3 ⎩3 2 ⎭ 52. . so 1 is a solution.

true 72. f (x) is not a polynomial function. Sample explanation: The division must account for the zero coefficients on the x 4 .08 −0.3 units. 70) same answer as in a. −0. −0. 70) At a 30% tax rate.5 x 2 − 0. c. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials. 302 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Explanations will vary. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials. true 73. b.06 0. x 71. the length of the rectangle is 0. Sample explanation: The zeros of f are the same as the solutions of f ( x) = 0. 0.57 ten billion. the government’s revenue is $68. (30.1 0. f (30) = c. Sample explanation: The remainder theorem provides an alternative method for evaluating a function at a given value.06 0. makes sense 68.06 l= = w x + 0. Explanations will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. does not make sense. .2 0.3 110 0 −6 −5 3 −6 9 −3 8 −12 4 0 80 a. does not make sense.22 56. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 54. -8000 8800 80 800 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 = 70 f (30) = 80 + 80 − 110 (30. Inc. 80(30) − 8000 = 70 30 − 110 80 800 57. 69. the government tax revenue will be $70 ten billion.3x 2 + 0. A sample change is: The degree of the quotient is 3.5 x3 − 0.4 x + 0. false. f (40) = (40. Answers may vary. the length of the rectangle is 8 x 2 − 12 x + 4 units.4 a. x3 .57) At a 40% tax rate. does not make sense. x 2 and x terms.3 0. 66.22 x + 0. 110 -8000 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 f (40) = 80 + 40 − 110 = 68. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 67. A sample change is: The divisor is a factor of the divided only if the remainder is the whole number 0. 70. Therefore. Explanations will vary. A 8 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x + 3 l= = 3 w x+ 4 − 34 8 80(40) − 8000 = 68. f (x) is not a polynomial function. 55.57 Therefore.2 53.5 −0.Polynomial and Rational Functions A = l ⋅ w so A 0.5 −0. – 65.57 40 − 110 b. 80 8800 A = l ⋅ w so. 68. x6 since 3 = x 3 .

PreCalculus 4E 74. 3 x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 = 0 5 1 −4 −9 16 20 5 20 x3 + 15 x 2 1 8 x 2 − 10 − 16 x + k −16 x − 12 0 To solve the equation.5} . x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 8x2 + 6x 75. we set it equal to zero and factor.4 5x2 + 2 x − 4 4 x + 3 20 x + 23x 2 − 10 x + k 78. Section 2. –1. ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) ) = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 )( x + 1)( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = d ( x) ⋅ q( x) + r ( x) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 9 = d ( x )(2 x − 3) + 3 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x)(2 x − 3) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x) Apply the zero product principle. 2 x − 4 = 2( x − 2) Use synthetic division to divide by x – 2. 1 −4 The remainder is zero and 5 is a solution to the equation. x 2n − x n + 1 +1 x 3n + x 2 n − x 2n x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4)2 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −4 ± 20 2 −4 ± 2 5 x= 2 x = −2 ± 5 − x 2n − x n x= xn +1 xn +1 0 { } The solution set is −2 ± 5 . Then divide the quotient by 2. 77. 2 and 5 and the solution set is {−2. 5 −20 −20 79. k = –12 76. 303 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x −5 = 0 x +1 = 0 2x − 3 x=5 x = −1 x+2=0 x−2 = 0 x−2 2 x − 3 2 x2 − 7 x + 6 2 x2 − 3x x = −2 x=2 The solutions are –2. − 4x + 6 −4 x + 6 The polynomial is x – 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. Inc. −1. x n + 1 x 3n −4 = ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) To get a remainder of zero. . k must equal –12.

−5}. ⎬. x 2 + 3x + 1 = 0 an ( 50 ) = −150 an = −3 x= Section 2. 17 –13 0 q : ± 1. ± . 1 5. 1 1 5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a double root. . x= 304 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + 9 x + 20 = 0 20 0 −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(1)(6) x= 2(1) −4 ± −8 2 −4 ± 2i 2 x= 2 x = −2 ± i 2 x= ( x + 4)( x + 5) = 0 x = −4 or x = −5 { The solution set is {1. ± 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 81. 2. ± 3. f ( x) = an ( x 4 − 3 x 2 − 4) ( 1 ±1. ± 2. = p : ± 1. ± 6 q : ±1 -5 –2 2 6 2 3 1 0 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(1) 2(1) −3 ± 5 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 5 −3 − 5 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ 2. } The solution set is −2 ± i 2 . Inc. 2 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ p : ± 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. −4. ± 20 are possible rational zeros 1 8 11 –20 1 9 20 1 9 1 is a zero. ± 3. 4. 2 – 3i}. ± . ±1. ± 4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. 1 p : ± 1. . 2 + 3i. ± 2. ± 10. −b ± b − 4ac 2a 2 x= ±1. ± . ± 2 are possible rational zeros f (3) = −150 2 1 ) an (3) − 3(3) − 4 = −150 4 2 an ( 81 − 27 − 4 ) = −150 1 2 is a zero.5 x= Check Point Exercises 1. x 2 − 4 x + 13 = 0 0 4 ± 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = = 2 + 3i 2 2 The solution set is{1. ± 3. ± 2. x2 + 4 x + 6 = 0 3. ± 4. ± 6 q are the possible rational zeros. ± 3 1 –6 22 –30 13 1 –5 17 –13 1 –5 1 is a zero. ± q 2 4 2 4 are the possible rational zeros. ± 2. ± 13 are possible rational zeros.

± 2.PreCalculus 4E 6. ± 4. ± 4 q p : ± 1. f ( x) = x 5 − x 4 − 7 x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 12 p : ± 1. –2. ± . ± 2. –1}. ± . ± 4 q : ±1 2 x − 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 x +1 = 0 x = 2. ± 2 4 q f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 p : ± 1. 4. ± 8 q 3. ±3. ± 2.5 ( x + 3)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) 6. ±3. ± 2. ± . ±4. ± 2. ± 8 q : ±1 b. ±4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. or 0 positive real zeros. ± . ± . ± q 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 0 2 is a zero. Inc. ± 5. –2. there are 4. ± . ±3. ± 6. ± 4 Exercise Set 2. ± . ± 2. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 6 x − 8 p : ± 1. f ( x) = 4 x5 − 8 x 4 − x + 2 p : ± 1. p : ± 1. 2. p : ± 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2. p : ± 1. ± 4. ±2. ± 6. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 f ( x) = an ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) f (1) = an (1 + 3)(12 + 1) = 8an = 8 an = 1 f ( x) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) or x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3 7. ±3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ± 2. ± 8. 5. ±5. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p: ±1. f ( x) = x 4 − 14 x 3 + 71x 2 − 154 x + 120 q : ±1 f (− x) = x 4 + 14 x 3 + 71x 2 + 154 x + 120 Since f(x) has 4 changes of sign. Since f(–x) has no changes of sign. p 1 1 : ± 1. ±6 q: ±1. ± q 3 3 4 p : ± 1. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. ± . there are no negative real zeros. ± 3. ±2. ±15 q: ±1. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 8 p: ±1. ± 15. ± 2. 1 1 –4 –4 2 6 4 x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x 2 + 3 x + 2) = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x + 3x − 11x − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. x = −1 The solution set is {2. ± . ± 2 q : ± 1. –1 are rational zeros. ± 2.5 1. f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. ± 3. ±6 q: ±1. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 q 8. . ± 4. x = −2. ±2. ±2. f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 p: ±1. ± . ± 3. ± q 3 3 3 3 7. ± 4 q 2. Section 2. ± 2. ± q 2 4 2 4 305 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± . 2. c. ±8 q: ±1. ± 2. ± 2. ± 4 q : ±1 9.

⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(−6) 2(1) −3 ± 33 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 33 −3 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −1. –3. a. –3. 2 b. 1 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 c. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ 306 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = −3. − 2 ⎬ . ± 3. ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3x − 2) = 0 ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x − 6 p: ±1. x = . ± 2. 1 are rational zeros. c. − . f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 11x + 12 p: ±1. ±3. 2 1 2 –3 0 4 is a zero. ± 6 q : ± 1. ±2 q: ±1. x = − . ±2. 4. ± 4. 2 c. ±2. b. ( x − 4) ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 x = 4. 11. . . –3 –11 6 6 9 –6 2 3 –2 0 3 is a zero. 1 3. x = 1 The solution set is{4. 0 x 2 + 3x − 6 = 0 x= 1 x = 3. –5 2 –1 –1 0 2 is a zero. ±2. ±3. ±3. ± 3. ± q 2 2 b. x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ 2. ± 12 q 4 1 12. ±6 q: ±1 p : ±1. ± 2. a. . 1 are rational zeros. Inc. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 b. –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 5 x 2 + x + 2 p: ±1. − 2 are rational zeros. − . ±4. . a. ± 6. ± . 1}. ± q 2 2 3 2 ( x − 2) ( 2 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 6 a. 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 11x + 6 = 0 c. 1 2. x = −2 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨3. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. ± 6. 2 13. 4 –2 –2 ( x − 2) (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 1 x = 2. ⎬. 1⎬ . ± 2. ± 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. ± 2 p 1 3 : ± 1. ±6 q –1 4 –3 –6 –1 –3 6 1 3 –6 –1 is a rational zero. ±12 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 3. ±6. 2 ⎭ ⎩ p : ± 1.

a. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 307 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 2 x2 + 2 x + 1 = 0 c. ± q 2 1 2 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . ± q 2 –2 2 2(2) −2 ± −4 4 −2 ± 2i = 4 −1 ± i = 2 2 x2 + 2 x − 2 = 0 x= −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(1) = 1 is a rational zero. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 2 c. . ⎬. ±2 q: ±1. ⎧⎪ 1 −1 + 5 −1 − 5 ⎫⎪ . ±5 q: ±1 p : ± 1. Section 2. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 15. ⎬. ± 5 q 1 b. x= x= 1 –3 1 1 1 –1 2 –2 0 −1 + i −1 − i ⎫ ⎧ . 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ x2 + x − 1 = 0 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 16. 0 x 2 − 3x + 5 = 0 x= 6 1 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) 3 ± −11 2 3 ± i 11 = 2 = ⎧⎪ 3 + i 11 3 − i 11 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨1. −1 ± 12 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −1 ± 5 2 f ( x) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 8 x − 5 p: ±1. ± 2. f ( x) = 2 x3 + 6 x 2 + 5 x + 2 p: ±1. b. 0 –4 8 –5 1 –3 5 1 –3 5 1 is a rational zero. The solution set is ⎨ −2.5 f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 3 x + 1 p: ±1 q: ±1. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. a. The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬.PreCalculus 4E 14. Inc. a. 5 2 –4 –4 –2 2 2 1 –2 is a rational zero. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a c.

19. 2 + 3i. Inc. ± 13 q 1 b. ± 3. ± 6. . 308 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 4. ± 3. –10 } The solution set is −2. ± 4. 4 + 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = 2 2 4 ± 6i = = 2 ± 3i 2 The solution set is {1. –2 –7 –4 4 8 4 1 2 1 4 is a root. p : ± 1. 1 –12 –2 4 12 1 –2 –6 –2 is a rational root. ± 3. −1} . p : ± 1. ± 2. ± 6. 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 0 ( x − 4) x = 4. ± 12 q : ±1 p : ± 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. ± 12 q b. 1 2 ± 4 + 24 2 ± 28 = 2 2 2±2 7 = = 1± 7 2 ( x − 4)( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 18. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 a. ±4 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 4}. 1. 0 x3 + 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 c. –3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. q : ±1 p : ± 1. ±13 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 0 { 20. ± 4. ± 12 q x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 p: ±1. 4 are rational roots. 2. 4 1 –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 b. –2 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 2 x − 6) = 0 c. ±2. ± 4 q 4 0 x= x − 4 = 0 x + 3 = 0 x −1 = 0 b. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 c. ± 4. x=4 x = −3 x = 1 The solution set is {–3. −3i}. ± 2. a. ± 3. ± 2. 1 –5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a rational root. 1 + 7. ± 6. ( x + 1) 2 x = −1 x= The solution set is {4. ± 2. ± 12 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 a. x3 − 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. ± 2. ± 6. 4 are rational roots. 1 2 –3 0 4 is a root. –1. a. 1. c. 1 − 7 .

6 –5 1 0 –5 is a root. 2 c. ±5. x = . ± . ± 4 q b. b. 2 are rational roots. ±15 q: ±1 p : ± 1. −2. 1 − 5 ⎬ . x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 p: ±1. are rational roots. 2 3 c. 2 2 –2 –5 8 4 2 0 –10 –4 1 0 –5 –2 2 is a root. ± 5. Inc. 2 3⎭ ⎩ 22. 6 x + 25 x − 24 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 5)(6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 3 c. . ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 2± 4+4 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 2 2 2 = 1± 2 The solution set is x= {−2. ± 2. 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 –2 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 p: ±1. ± . ±2. 1 + –5 –6 4 1 –2 –4 –4 –8 0 24.3 are rational roots. x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −5. ± 2 ± 4 ± q 2 1 2 2 ( x − 2)( x3 − 5 x − 2) = 0 ( x + 5)(2 x − 1)(3x − 1) = 0 x + 5 = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 3x − 1 = 0 1 1 x = −5. 1 + 5. . ± .PreCalculus 4E 21. 23.5 6 x 3 + 25 x 2 − 24 x + 5 = 0 a. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. ± q 2 2 3 3 6 6 –5 6 25 –24 5 –30 25 –5 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 a. ± . . 1 is a rational root. 2 b. ±3. ± 2. 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 1 ( x − ) ( 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8) = 0 2 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x2 − 2 x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ } 2. 1 − 2 . a. ⎩2 ⎭ x= 309 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 3. ⎬ . ± 2. 0 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 1 1 –2 is a zero of x3 0 –5 –2 –2 4 2 –2 –1 0 – 5x –2 = 0. p : ± 1. ± . −1. ±4 q: ±1. ± 3 ± 5 ± 15 q 3 1 0 –2 –16 –15 3 9 21 15 1 3 7 3 is a root. 1 1 −5. p : ± 1. ± 5 q : ± 1. ± 6 p 1 5 1 5 1 5 : ± 1. Section 2. ± 4 q : ±1 p : ± 1. b. a. 5 0 2± 2 5 = 1± 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .

. (x – i)(x + i)(x – 3i)(x + 3i) = ( x 2 − i 2 )( x 2 − 9i 2 ) f (−1) = an (−1 − 4 − 4 − 16) = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 9 ) −50 = an (−25) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 f ( x) = an ( x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9) an = 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) f (–1) = an ((–1) 4 + 10(–1) 2 + 9) f ( x) = 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x − 32 20 = an (20) an = 1 f ( x ) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 310 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 1 + 2i. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 27.Polynomial and Rational Functions c. − 1. ) f ( x ) = 1( x3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 ) f ( x ) = x 3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 28. ( x − 3) ( x + 3x + 7 x + 5 ) = 0 3 –1 2 1 3 7 5 –1 –2 –5 2 5 0 1 −3ix + 12i − 9i 2 ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 8 x + 25 ) = ( x3 − 8 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 40 x + 125 ) = x 3 − 3 x 2 − 15 x + 125 –1 is a root of x 3 + 3 x 2 + 7 x + 5 f ( x) = an ( x 3 – 3x 2 –15 x + 125) ( x − 3) ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 2 x + 5) ( f (2) = an 23 − 3 ( 2 ) − 15 ( 2 ) + 125 –2 ± 4 − 20 –2 ± −16 = x= 2 2 −2 ± 4i = = −1 ± 2i 2 The solution set is {3. = ( x − 1) ( x 2 + 25 ) ( x − 6) ( x + 5 + 2i ) ( x + 5 − 2i ) = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 5 x − 2ix + 5 x + 25 − 10i + 2ix + 10i − 4i 2 ) = x3 + 25 x − x 2 − 25 = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 10 x + 29 ) = x3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 ) = x 3 + 10 x 2 + 29 x − 6 x 2 − 60 x − 174 = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 f (−1) = an (−1 − 1 − 25 − 25) f ( x) = an ( x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) −104 = an (−52) an = 2 f (2) = an (8 + 16 − 62 − 174) f ( x) = 2 ( x − x + 25 x − 25) 26. 2 91 = an (91) an = 1 ( x − 1) ( x + 5i ) ( x − 5i ) 3 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 − 3i )( x − 4 + 3i ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 3ix − 4 x + 16 − 12i −636 = an (−212) 2 an = 3 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 2 x 2 + 50 x − 50 ( x − 4) ( x + 2i ) ( x − 2i ) f ( x) = 3 ( x3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) = ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 4 ) f ( x) = 3 x3 + 12 x 2 − 93 x − 522 = x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) 29. − 1 − 2i} . 25.

2 or 0 positive real roots exist. Since f(–x) has no sign variations. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist.5 1⎞ ⎟ ( x − i )( x + i ) 2⎠ 5 ⎛ ⎞ = ⎜ x 2 + x + 1⎟ ( x 2 + 1) 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 = x 4 + x 2 + x3 + x + x 2 + 1 2 2 5 5 = x 4 + x3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1 2 2 5 ⎛ 4 5 3 ⎞ f ( x ) = an ⎜ x + x + 2 x 2 + x + 1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 3 2 ⎡ 4 ⎤ f (1) = an ⎢(1) + (1) + 2 (1) + (1) + 1⎥ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ 18 = an (9) an = 2 f ( x) = x 3 + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 4 Since f(x) has no sign variations. f ( − x ) = 2 x 4 + 5 x3 − x 2 + 6 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 2 sign variations. f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. 38. ( x + 2 ) ⎛⎜ x + ⎝ Section 2. . ( x + 2) ( x − 5) ( x − 3 + 2i ) ( x − 3 − 2i ) ( = (x )( − 3 x − 10 ) ( x = x 2 − 3 x − 10 x 2 − 3 x − 2ix − 3x + 9 + 6i + 2ix − 6i − 4i 2 2 2 − 6 x + 13 ) ) 36. f (− x) = − x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 7 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. f ( x) = 2 x 4 − 5 x3 − x 2 − 6 x + 4 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. f ( x) = −2 x 3 + x 2 − x + 7 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. 37. 1 negative real roots exist. = x 4 − 6 x + 13x 2 − 3 x3 + 18 x 2 − 39 x − 10 x 2 + 60 x − 130 = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ( f ( x) = an x 4 − 9 x3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ) f (1) = an (1 − 9 + 21 + 21 − 130) −96 = an (−96) an = 1 f ( x) = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 32. ( x + 4) (3x − 1) ( x − 2 + 3i ) ( x − 2 − 3i ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 2 x − 3ix − 2 x + 4 + 6i + 3ix − 6i − 9i 2 ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 3 x 4 − 12 x 3 + 39 x 2 + 11x3 − 44 x 2 + 143x − 4 x 2 + 16 x − 52 = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 f ( x) = an ( 3x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 ) f (1) = an (3 − 1 − 9 + 159 − 52) 100 = an (100 ) an = 1 f ( x) = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 311 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. no negative real roots exist. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 + x + 7 Since f(x) has no sign variations no positive real roots exist. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. Inc. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 + x 2 + x + 7 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. f(x) = 5 x 3 − 3 x 2 + 3 x − 1 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. no positive real roots exist. f ( − x ) = − x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. no negative real roots exist. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 34. 2 or 0 negative real roots exist.PreCalculus 4E 30. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + x 3 + 5 x 2 + 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 1 sign variations. 35. 33. f ( − x ) = −5 x3 − 3 x 2 − 3x − 1 5 5 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x 4 + x 3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 5x3 + 4 x 2 + 5 x + 2 31. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist.

x = 1 The solution set is{–2. f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 11x + 10 ) = ( x + 1)( x + 10)( x + 1) x = −1. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. 5 0 41. ± q 3 3 3 3 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. ± 2. ±10 q: ±1. 1 –1 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ 2 ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ = ( x + 2)( x − 5)( x − 1) x = –2. q : ± 1. 3 x 3 − 8 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. The solution set is ⎨ − . ± 2 ± 5 ± 10 q 12 21 10 –1 –11 –10 1 11 –1 is a zero. ± 2. f (− x) = − x 3 + 12 x 2 − 21x + 10 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. 1}. –10}. 2 x= f ( x) = x 3 + 12 x 2 + 2 x + 10 p: ±1. exactly one negative real zeros exists. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 42. ±2. ± 2. x = 5. f ( x) = x3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10 p : ± 1. Inc. f (− x) = −2 x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 4 2 or no negative real roots exist. 3 or 1 negative zeros exist. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. p : ± 1. ± 5. ± 10 q Since f(x) has 2 sign variations.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. 5. –1 2 –1 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x + 5) 40. ±8 q: ±1. f ( − x ) = − x3 − 4 x 2 + 7 x + 10 Since f(–x) has 1 sign variation. ±5. 2 − –9 –4 –1 1 4 –2 –8 0 1 is a root. –2 1 –4 –7 10 –2 12 –10 1 –6 –2 is a zero. ± . x = −10 The solution set is {–1. Since f(x) has no sign variations. ± 10 q : ±1 p : ± 1. 312 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± . ± . 10 0 1 ± 1 + 16 1 ± 17 = 2 2 ⎪⎧ 1 1 + 17 1 − 17 ⎪⎫ . 2 x3 − x 2 − 9 x − 4 = 0 p : ± 1. ⎬. ± 5. 0 or 2 positive real zeros exist. no positive zeros exist. 2 or no positive real roots exist. ±2. ± 2. ±4. . exactly 1 negative real zero exists. ± 4 f (− x) = –3 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 1 sign changes. ± 4 ± q 2 1 positive real root exists. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

±2. . ⎩3 ⎭ 43. –1 −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(8) x= 2(1) 1 1 4 ± 16 − 32 x= 2 4 ± −16 x= 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i The solution set is { –1. 0 or 2 positive roots exist. Inc. ±5. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist.1 − 5 ⎬ . –3 –20 –24 –8 –1 4 16 8 –16 –8 0 –4 ( x + 1) ( x − 4 x − 16 x − 8 ) = 0 3 2 313 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 + i} 45. x 4 − 3 x 3 − 20 x 2 − 24 x − 8 = 0 p : ± 1. 2 – 2i}. –1. ±2.1 + 5. ±5. 3 –1 2⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 − 6 x − 12 ) 3⎠ ⎝ 6 ± 36 + 144 6 ± 6 5 = 6 6 = 1± 5 –1 x= x= q : ±1 –1 –8 1 –3 4 8 0 1 –3 4 8 –1 4 –8 –4 8 0 1 2 0 = x − 4x + 8 10 –1 5 -4 -10 1 -5 4 10 0 1 -5 4 10 –1 6 –10 -6 10 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) x =1 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 − 12 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 2 sign changes. ± 4. ± 2. 2 + 2i. –1 1 –2 1 12 8 –4 14 x= p : ±1. ± 4. ± 4.5 3 2 3 3 –8 –8 8 2 –4 –8 –6 –12 0 44. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)3 + (− x) 2 − 12 x + 8 4 -1 f ( x) = ( x − 1)( x − 1)( x 2 − 6 x + 10) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 + 12 x + 8 p : ±1. ±10 q 2 is a zero.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ± 2. ± 8 q : ±1 p : ± 1. 0 or 2 negative roots exist. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x3 − x 2 + 14 x + 10 p: ±1. ±10 q: ±1 p : ±1. 1 The solution set is {–1. ± 8 q Since f(x) has 2 sign changes. ± 2. ± 4 ± 8 q 1 positive real root exists. 3 – i. ± 8 –1 -4 1 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .

± q 3 3 2 or no positive real zeros exists. ± . ±15 q: ±1. . ( x + 1)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x − 4 ) = 0 6 ± 36 + 16 6 ± 52 = 2 2 6 ± 2 13 3 ± 13 = = 2 2 The solution set is x= {−1. 3 − 13 . x = 2 x = − . ± 3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8 q 1 negative real root exists. ± q 2 2 2 2 2 or no positive real zeros exist. ±8 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 3⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − 3x 3 − 11x 2 + 9 x + 15 2 or no negative real zeros exist. ± 3. 2i.Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 1 1 –4 –16 –8 –2 12 8 –6 –4 0 47. ± . Inc. ± 3. 4 3 –1 2 1 1 2 1 1 ( x + 1) 2 3 3 19 6 –3 14 –13 –6 –14 13 6 0 –14 13 6 6 –16 –6 –8 –3 0 –1 2 –4 –8 f ( x) = ( x + 1)( x − 2) ( 3x 2 − 8 x − 3) –1 2 –4 8 = ( x + 1)( x − 2)(3x + 1)( x − 3) –2 4 –8 0 1 x = −1. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. ± 2. ±3. 3 46. x = 3 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. q : ± 1. ± 2. − 2. 2. ± 6. 0 (x 2 + 4) x + 1 = 0 x − 2 = 0 x2 + 4 = 0 x = –1 –1 f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( 3x 3 − 14 x 2 + 13x + 6 ) ( x + 1) ( x − 2 x + 4 x − 8 ) 3 –11 x=2 x 2 = −4 x = ±2i The solution set is {−1. ± . 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 4 –8 2 0 8 0 4 ( x − 2) 48. ± . 1 2 2 3 –11 –9 15 2 5 –6 –15 –6 –15 0 5 f ( x) = ( x − 1) ( 2 x + 5 x − 6 x − 15 ) 3 − 52 2 2 2 5 –6 –15 –5 0 15 0 –6 0 314 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. ±5. ±4. 3 ± f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p : ± 1. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + 3x 3 − 11x 2 − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. ±2. f (− x) = 3x 4 + 11x 3 − x 2 − 19 x + 6 2 or no negative real zeros exist. ± 15. x − x + 2x − 4x − 8 = 0 p: ±1. ± 3. ± 6 –1 3 } 13. − 2i} . − . ± 5.

4 8 −1 ± 1 − 4 −1 ± i 3 = 2 2 ⎧⎪ 2 −1 + i 3 −1 − i 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨4. ± 8 q : ± 1. . ± 4. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 49. ± . . i 2. − i 2 ⎬ . 51. x2 − 3 = 0 x2 = 3 x=± 3 5 x = 1. 3. f (− x) = 3 x 4 + 11x3 − 3 x 2 + 6 x + 8 2 or no negative real roots exist. ± 2. x 2 = −2 –2 x = ±i 2 2 3 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. ± . 4 p 1 3 1 3 : ± 1. ±8 q: ±1. x = − 3 2 ⎧ 5 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. x = − . 4 ⎩ ⎭ 7 0 –18 –4 2 3 –8 8 –6 12 12 –8 –6 –6 4 0 ( x + 2)(2 x + 3x − 6 x − 6 x + 4) = 0 4 3 2 4 x 3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. ± q 2 2 or no positive real roots exists. Inc. ± . ± 8. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ± q 2 2 4 4 3 or 1 positive real roots exists. 2 3 4 –11 ( x − 4) ( 3x 3 + x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 q : ± 1. − . − . ± 2. . ± 3. ± .5 5⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 6 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 5⎞ ⎛ = 2( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 − 3) 2⎠ ⎝ 50. 3 or 1 negative real root exist. ± q 3 3 3 3 2 or no positive real roots exist. 3⎞ ⎛ ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 4 x 2 + 8 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ 4( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 2 x +2 =0 2 x 5 + 7 x 4 − 18 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p : ± 1. 4 –1 5 –2 –6 4 3 8 6 3 8 6 0 12 4 4 –8 1 1 –2 0 3 8 6 –3 0 –6 0 8 0 1 1 –2 2 2 2 3 3 0 x= 4 x + 3 x + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. 315 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 4 3 3 3 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 = 0 p : ± 1. ± 3. x = 3. ±4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2. ⎬. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. ± 6. ± . 1 negative real root exists. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 2 4 –6 2⎞ ⎛ ( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 + 3x + 3) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2⎞ ⎛ 3( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2 − 34 3 3 ( x − 1)(4 x + 3x + 8 x + 6) = 0 3 –3 Another positive real root must exist. ± 2. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. − 3 ⎬ . ± 4. ± 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ± . ±2. ± 6 1 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3 x 2 − 6 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1.

±2. ±8. . ± 6. ± 2. 3 16 0 x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x = −4 x =1 The zeros are −4 . We verify this below: −4 −1 1 16 −16 4 −20 −1 5 −4 x2 = 2 x=± 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. 2 2⎭ ⎩ 1⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2)2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2( x + 2) 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x −2 = 0 53. ± 4. ±4 p 1 3 : ± 1. ±2. ±4. b. ±3. . ±6. ±24 q: ±1. From the graph provided. ± .± 4 4 2 or no positive real roots exist. ± 8. ± . − ⎬ . x=4 . Thus. and 4. Inc. 2. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 52. 4 4 12 –41 –99 10 24 12 72 93 –18 –24 24 31 –6 –8 0 − x 3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 = 0 ( x + 4) ( − x2 + 5x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 ) ( x2 − 5x + 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) = 0 4 x 5 + 12 x 4 − 41x3 − 99 x 2 + 10 x + 24 = 0 p: ±1. 1. ± 12. q 2 2 1 3 ± .Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 2 2 3 –6 –6 4 –4 2 8 –4 –1 –4 2 0 ( x − 3)( x + 2)( x + 4) ( 4 x 2 − 1) = 0 4 x2 −1 = 0 4 x2 = 1 1 x2 = 4 1 x=± 2 ( x + 2) 2 (2 x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 2) 2 1 2 –1 –4 2 1 0 2 0 –4 0 2 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨3. − 4. ± 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x − 3) ( 4 x + 24 x + 31x − 6 x − 8) = 0 4 –2 3 2 24 31 –6 –8 –8 –32 2 8 –1 –4 0 4 4 16 ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( 4 x + 16 x − x − 4 ) = 0 3 –4 4 4 2 16 –1 4 –16 0 4 0 –1 0 316 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±12. f ( x ) = − x3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 a. − 2. − 2 ⎬ . f (− x) = −4 x5 + 12 x 4 + 41x3 − 99 x 2 − 10 x + 24 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. we can see that −4 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. ± 24.

We verify this below: 1 3 3 2 2 −1 From the graph provided. Section 2. Inc.5 f ( x ) = − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. 2 317 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2x − 3 = 0 2x = 3 x= The zeros are −1 and 3 2 3 .PreCalculus 4E 54. 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3 x + 3 x + 3) = 0 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 55. . b. so we use the quadratic formula: 1 or x 2 + x + 1 = 0 x− =0 3 a =1 b =1 c =1 1 x= 3 f ( x ) = 4 x3 − 8x 2 − 3x + 9 a. From the graph provided. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 is an x3 intercept and is thus a zero of the function. Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. From the graph provided. We verify this below: −1 4 −8 −3 9 x= −4 12 −9 4 −12 Thus. ( x + 1) ( − x 2 + 4 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) = 0 56. We verify this below: −1 −1 3 0 −4 1 −4 −1 4 −4 4 0 − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 = 0 Thus. 9 −1 ± −3 2 1 3 −1 ± 3i i = =− ± 2 2 2 1 3 1 i. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. b. The zeros are and − ± 2 2 3 4 x3 − 8 x 2 − 3x + 9 = 0 ( x + 1)( 2 x − 3) = 0 or ( 2 x − 3) 2 = 0 2 x = −1 2 (1) = 0 ( x + 1) ( 4 x 2 − 12 x + 9 ) = 0 x +1 = 0 −1 ± 12 − 4 (1)(1) b. we can see that 1 1 1 3 3 3 0 Thus. f ( x ) = 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 a. − ( x + 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 2 x +1 = 0 or x = −1 ( x − 2) 2 =0 x−2 = 0 x=2 The zeros are −1 and 2.

1. ± 2. so we use the quadratic formula: a =1 b = 2 c = 2 x = 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 57. ± 6 = Factors of 1 ±1 = ±1. b. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. we can see that 1 −1 −2 ± −4 −2 ± 2i = = −1 ± i 2 2 1 The zeros are . f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 2 x 3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 a. ± 3. ± 2. − 2 . so 3 is a zero of f. x= 1 is an 2 x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. 3. Inc. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −22 −18 36 Factors of − 6 ±1. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −3 −7 −8 6 −2 ± 22 − 4 (1)( 2 ) 2 (1) From the graph provided. . 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 Test 3: 3 4 −18 −36 2 2 4 −18 −36 The possible rational zeros are: Thus. 318 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 2 x + 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. we can see that 1 and 3 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. Factors of the constant term −6 : ±1. 36 12 0 2 x + 2 x − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 = 0 4 3 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( 2 x 2 + 10 x + 12 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( x 2 + 5 x + 6 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = 0 The remainder is 0. ± 2. One possibility is shown next: = ( x − 1) ( 2 x3 + 4 x 2 − 18 x − 36 ) 3 2 6 6 2 2 0 30 2 10 1 −1 −4 −6 1 4 −18 −36 6 3 0 Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and 3. x = −3. ± 6 We test values from above until we find a zero. 0 2 x − 3x − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 4 Thus. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 58. ± 3. x = 3. ± 3. x = −2 The zeros are −3. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 a. 2 = −4 −6 2 −2 −8 −12 b. and −1 ± i . From the graph provided. 3 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 To factor x − x 2 − 4 x − 6 .

± 2. x = − . ± . ± 5 5 5 We test values from above until we find a zero. 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 2 x = 1. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. We verify this below: 1 −5 4 −19 16 4 −5 −1 −20 −4 −5 −1 −20 −4 0 Thus. ± 2. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 5: ±1.5 f ( x ) = 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 a. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. One possibility is shown next: 319 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. ± 4 = Factors of 3 ±1. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. ± 3 3 3 We test values from above until we find a zero. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± . 3 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) 2 3 5 −10 −20 −8 6 22 3 11 24 12 8 4 b. ± . .PreCalculus 4E 59. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. we can see that 1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. ± . so −1 is a zero of f. One possibility is shown next: Test −1 : − 1 3 11 12 4 8 4 From the graph provided. ± 4 = Factors of 5 ±1. ± 4. ± 5 −3 −8 −4 3 f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 4 x3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 0 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. ± 2. x = −2 3 2 The zeros are −2 . 3x + 2 x − 15 x − 10 x + 12 x + 8 5 4 3 2 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) = ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) To factor 3 x 3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 . ± 2. −1 . x = −1. −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 To factor 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 . Section 2. The remainder is 0. ± 2. we can see that 1 and 2 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. 0 Thus. We verify this below: 1 3 2 −15 −10 12 8 ( x − 1) ( 3 x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1) ( 3x 2 + 8 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1)( 3 x + 2 )( x + 2 ) = 0 5 −10 −20 −8 3 3 5 −10 −20 −8 0 Thus. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 3: ±1. ± 5 1 2 4 = ±1. Inc. − . ± 2. 1 and 2. a. x = 2. ± 3 60. ± 3 1 2 4 = ±1. We can now finish the factoring: 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 = 0 From the graph provided. ± 4.

and ±2i . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = − . reject the negative value. 5 1 −5 −150 750 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x + 2i )( x − 2i ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1 x = 1. 2000). Answers may vary.2. 5 −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 The remainder is 0. 320 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(0) ± (0)2 − 4(1)(−150) 2(1) x ≈ −12. 15).2. The answers correspond to the points (7. x= 61. 1. 12. a. 0 65.8. so − ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 62. a. 0 −4 0 20 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 0 1 is a zero of f. V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 2000 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 63. The depth can be 10 inches or 7. 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 2000 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 1000 = 0 Find the roots. 1⎞ ⎛ − ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 5 x 2 + 20 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 4 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 1500 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 750 = 0 Find the roots. The range is (0. 7.2 Since the depth must be positive. 1500). b. Inc. x = −2i. 10 1 −5 −150 1000 10 1 64. x= 4 −(5) ± (5)2 − 4(1)(−100) 2(1) x ≈ −12. x = 2i 5 1 The zeros are − . reject the negative value.2 inches to obtain a volume of 1500 cubic inches.8 Since the depth must be positive. 15).8 inches to obtain a volume of 2000 cubic inches. 2000 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x b. 1500) and (12. The depth can be 5 inches or 12.Polynomial and Rational Functions 1 Test − : 5 − 15 5 1 20 −1 5 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. . x= b. 50 −1000 5 −100 The range is (0. 2000) and (10. – 71. 5 5 1 0 −750 0 −150 0 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots.8. The answers correspond to the points (5.

we see that the solutions are 1 2 . Section 2. ±3. or 1 positive real roots exist. 2 78. The polynomial’s graph doesn’t intersect the x-axis. Even functions do not. ±2. f ( x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(x) has no sign variations. ± 2. 2 3 and 2. ±9. ±6 1 1 2 4 1 p : ± 1. ±3. ± 2. 321 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3. ± q 2 2 2 f ( x ) = x 5 − x 4 + x3 − x 2 + x − 8 f(x) has 5 sign variations. ±18. 2. ± 3. f ( − x ) = − x5 − x 4 − x3 − x 2 − x − 8 f(–x) has no sign variations. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±18 From the graph. ±4 1 1 p : ± 1. ±2. ±2 1 3 5 15 p : ± 1. ±2. ±2 q: ±1. ± . ± . we see that there are no real solutions. ± q 2 4 100 0 From the graph. ± 5. we see that the solutions are 1 1 − and . ± . no negative roots exist. ± . 74. q : ± 1. ± . From the graph we see that the solutions are 1 − . − 1. ±3. ± .PreCalculus 4E 72. so either 5. ± q 2 3 3 3 6 76. ±2. . ±9. ±5. From the graph we see the solutions are 3 −3. ±6. ± 4. 2 x 4 + 7 x 3 − 4 x 2 − 27 x − 18 = 0 p : ± 1. ± . ±2. ±2 77. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. 2 73.5 2 x 3 − 15 x 2 + 22 x + 15 = 0 p: ±1. so no negative real roots exist. ± . From the graph. ±6. ±3. Odd functions must have at least one real zero. 3 and 5. 2 2 6 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. ± q 2 2 2 2 75. − . ± . ± . Inc. ±15 q: ±1. it has no positive real roots. 1 3 9 p : ± 1. 40 0 4 x 4 + 4 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 p: ±1. ± 15. ±4 q: ±1.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Because the polynomial has no obvious changes of direction but the graph is obviously not linear. A sample change is: The equation has 0 sign variations. false. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 2 92. The equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 0. 85. 3 f ( x) = 3 x 4 + 4 x3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x − 3 1 1 6 6 –99 3 27 99 9 33 0 x + 9 x + 33 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = −51 x = 3 in. makes sense 100. Two roots appear twice. 87. false. 86. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. does not make sense. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 + 6 x3 − 4 x 2 − 24 x + 16 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 3x ( x + 5 ) = 208 ( 2 x 2 + 11x + 5) ( x + 2 ) − 3x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 5 x +10 − 3 x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x − 3 x 2 − 15 x − 198 = 0 2 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x − 198 = 0 2 ( x 3 + 6 x 2 + 6 x − 99 ) = 0 3 real zeros 2 nonreal complex zeros 81. 94. Sample explanation: The quadratic formula is can be applied only of equations of degree 2. The function is undefined at x = 1 and x = 2. Answers will vary 82. true 90. 84. so no positive roots exist. 97. A sample change is: Polynonials of degree n have at most n distinct solutions. f ( x) = x 3 − 6 x − 9 88. 98. 1 real zero 2 nonreal complex zeros 80. The equation of the vertical asymptote is x = 1. the smallest degree is 5. A sample change is: Descartes’ Rule gives the maximum possible number of real roots. 95. the smallest degree is 5. the smallest degree is 3. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Answers may vary. makes sense 99. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction and two roots have multiplicity 2. 322 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 91. 2 real zeros 4 nonreal complex zeros 83. makes sense 96. f ( x) = x 6 − 64 93. the smallest degree is 3. 89.

Inc. ∞) range: ( −∞. The vertex is (–2. 2 =4 x−3 = ± 4 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i + i + i2 = ⋅ = 1− i 1− i 1+ i 1 − i2 1 + 2i − 1 = 1+1 2i = 2 =i x = 3± 2 The equation has x-intercepts at x = 1 and x = 5 . 5). 9. –4). .PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 3) − 4 2 ( x − 3) = 4+i+3= 7+i 4. 3i (2 + i ) = 6i + 3i 2 = −3 + 6i 3. 5] 323 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6. x-intercepts: 2 x 2 − 3 x = −4 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 = 0 x= f ( x ) = 5 − ( x + 2) 0 = 5 − ( x + 2) −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a ( x + 2) −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(4) x= 2(2) 2 2 =5 x+2 = ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: 3 ± −23 x= 4 3 23 x= ± i 4 4 f ( 0) = 5 − ( 0 + 2) = 1 2 domain: (−∞. (1 + i )(4 − 3i ) = 4 − 3i + 4i − 3i 2 8. (6 − 2i ) − (7 − i ) = 6 − 2i − 7 + i = −1 − i 2. 5. The vertex is (3. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) − 4 = 5 2 domain: (−∞. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) − 4 2 The parabola opens up because a > 0. x(2 x − 3) = −4 2 The parabola opens down because a < 0. ∞) range: [ −4. ∞ ) −75 − −12 = 5i 3 − 2i 3 = 3i 3 (2 − −3 ) = (2 − i 3) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 − 3 = 1 − 4i 3 7.

∞) range: ( −∞. is positive. ∞) range: [ −2. x-intercepts: 0 = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−6) ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) x= 6 ± 24 6 x= 3± 6 3 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. 2(−1) 2 ( x + 1) 3 =0 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 4 ± 36 −2 x = −2 ± 3 The x-intercepts are x = 1 and x = −5 . domain: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9] 11. b −6 =− =1 vertex: x = − 2a 2(3) f (1) = 3(1)2 − 6(1) + 1 = −2 The vertex is (1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 − 4(0) + 5 = 5 x= 3 Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 3 f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 The parabola opens up because a > 0. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. Inc. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 2 since the zero has multiplicity 2. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 324 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 9). b −4 vertex: x = − =− = −2 2a 2(−1) domain: (−∞. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. –2). 1. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. and since the leading coefficient. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at −1 . ∞ ) f ( −2 ) = −(−2) 2 − 4(−2) + 5 = 9 The vertex is (–2. degree 5. x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 − 4 x + 5 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(−1)(5) 12. since the zero has multiplicity 3. . f ( x ) = − x2 − 4 x + 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 3(0)2 − 6(0) + 1 = 1 The parabola opens down because a < 0.

is positive. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. −1 . is negative. since all have multiplicity 1. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. and since the leading coefficient. is negative. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. −1 . Apply the zero-product principle: x + 2 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −2 x=2 x =1 The zeros are −2 . f ( x ) = x4 − 5x2 + 4 (x Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 2 − 4 )( x 2 − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and 2. x4 − 5x2 + 4 = 0 2 ( x + 1) 6 =0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 The zero is are −1 . −1 . Since f is an even-degree polynomial. 1. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around both at −1 and 2 since both zeros have multiplicity 2. degree 4. f ( x ) = x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 16. is positive. 1. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. degree 6. 1. x = −2. and since the leading coefficient. x = 2. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and 2. and since the leading coefficient. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. 1. x = −1. and since the leading coefficient. Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point f ( x ) = − ( x − 2) − ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 =0 2 15. Inc. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) 6 − ( x + 1) = 0 6 ( x − 1) − 4 ( x − 1) = 0 ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. and 2. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. since all have multiplicity 1. 325 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 since the zero has multiplicity 6. −2 . x = 1 The zeros are −2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. degree 4. degree 3. −1 . 14. . the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. the graph rises to the left and rises to the right. and 2. −2 ..PreCalculus 4E 13. 1. 1. The graph crosses the x-axis at all four zeros.

Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. since all have multiplicity 1. c = 26 The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. Publishing as Prentice Hall. is negative. degree 3. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. 3 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x x3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x = 0 x ( x 2 − 2 x + 26 ) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x + 26 does not factor. ± . so 1 is a zero. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of − 6 ±1. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 List all factors of the leading coefficient −6 : ±1. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 −6 7 0 −1 −6 −6 1 1 1 1 0 f ( x ) = 2 x3 − 2 x The remainder is 0. . and 1. ± 3. ± 2. and 1. and 1. ± 2 3 6 We test values from the above list until we find a zero. = 326 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so we use the quadratic formula: x = 0 or x 2 − 2 x + 26 = 0 a = 1. is positive. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. ± 2. x = − . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and since the leading coefficient. 2. − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( 26 ) 2 (1) 2 2 ± −100 2 ± 10i = = 1 ± 5i 2 2 The zeros are 0 and 1 ± 5i . Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. 1 1 − . Thus. x =1 The zeros are −1 . degree 3. x = 3 2 1 1 The zeros are − .Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. Inc. ± 6 2 x ( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 x ( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle: x = 0. since all have multiplicity 1. ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. −6 . ± 3. 2 x3 − 2 x = 0 To find the zeros. and 1. ± . the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. x = −1. since it has multiplicity 1. . 0. Apply the zero-product property: 1 1 x = 1. −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −6 x 2 + x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 − ( x − 1)( 3x + 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 19. b = −2. 3 2 x= Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. . The graph of f crosses the x-axis at 0 (the only real zero). and since the leading coefficient. −1 . 0. f ( x ) = −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 18.

1} . ± 2 Factors of 1 ±1 Factors of − 3 ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 21. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. degree 3. 1. ± 3 = = ±1. Thus. and since the leading coefficient. Thus. Factors of the constant term 2: ±1. 327 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c = −1 = 0 The remainder is 0. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. so 1 is a root of the equation. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. degree 3. ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −1) 2 (1) 2 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 1± 2 2 2 The zeros are 3 and 1 ± 2 . −1 . f ( x ) = − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 To find the zeros. − ( −2 ) ± x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 3 Factors of − 1 ±1 We test values from above until we find a root. . so we use the quadratic formula: x − 3 = 0 or x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 0 x=3 a = 1. and the solution set is {−2. ± 2 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Apply the zero-product property: 2 ( x − 1) = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = −2 x −1 = 0 x =1 The solutions are −2 and 1.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. so 3 is a zero. is positive. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. One is shown next: We test values from the previous list until we find a zero. ± 2 = = ±1. 20. Inc. x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 x= 2 1 −2 1 1 −2 The remainder is 0. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −3 : ±1. 3 and 1 ± 2 . and since the leading coefficient. since all have multiplicity 1. ± 3 List all factors of the leading coefficient −1 : ±1 The possible rational zeros are: The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 2 ±1. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. is negative. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 1 0 −3 Test 3: −1 3 −1 1 5 −5 −3 −3 6 3 2 1 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 2 )( x − 1) = 0 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) = 0 ( x − 3) ( − x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 3) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x − 1 does not factor. b = −2.

and the solution 2 5 ⎧ ⎫ set is ⎨ −10. Test 1: 1 6 −11 6 We test values from above until we find a root. Thus. ± 5. ± . and the solution set is 3 2 ⎧1 1 ⎫ ⎨ . . Factors of 2 ±10. ± 500 Factors of the leading coefficient 2: ±1. and 10 . ± 20. ± 10. ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of 6 ±1. ± 4. and 1. ±50. so 1 is a root of the equation. ± 25. ± 50. ± 125. 1⎬ . ± 100. ± 2. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 5 −200 −500 20 250 500 2 25 50 0 ( x − 10 ) ( 2 x 2 + 25 x + 50 ) = 0 ( x − 10 )( 2 x + 5 )( x + 10 ) = 0 Apply the zero-product property: x − 1 = 0 or 3 x − 1 = 0 or 2 x − 1 = 0 x =1 2 The remainder is 0. 2 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. One is shown next: 6 −1 6 −5 −5 1 1 Test 10: 0 10 The remainder is 0. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. Factors of the constant term −500 : ±1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. and the solution set he solutions are − . One is shown next: 1 5 25 125 ±250. ± 2. . ± 250. 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 x= 3 2 1 1 The solutions are . ± 500. ± 2. ± 20. ± 2 3 6 The possible rational zeros are: We test values from above until we find a root. ⎩3 2 ⎭ 23. ± . ± 3. − . Thus. Inc. . Factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 Factors of the leading coefficient 6: ±1. 2 3 2 ⎧ 1 2 7⎫ is ⎨ − . ± 2. ± 100. ± 6 24. ± . ± 5. ± 4. ± . ± 125. 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( 2 x + 1)( 3x − 2 ) ( 2 x − 7 ) = 0 3 Apply the zero-product property: 2x +1 = 0 1 x=− 2 or (3x − 2) 3 = 0 or 3x − 2 = 0 x= 2 3 x = −10 2x − 7 = 0 7 T x= 2 1 2 7 and . ± 25. ⎩ 2 3 2⎭ 328 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − . ± 3. ± . 10 ⎬ . x= Apply the zero-product property: x − 10 = 0 or 2 x + 5 = 0 or x + 10 = 0 x = 10 x=− 5 2 5 The solutions are −10. ± 2 2 2 2 Factors of 500 = ±1. so 10 is a root of the equation.

Factors of the constant term −12 : ±1. ± 2. Factors of the constant term 6: ±1. ± 2 1 are roots of 2 the equation. we have 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 ( x + 3) ( 2 x3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 x = −1 2 ( x + 3) ⎛⎜ x − x = ± −1 = ± i 26.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point x − x − 11x − x − 12 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. we know that x − 1 is a factor. Inc. 4 3 2 −3 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 12 Factors of 1 ±1. c = −2 At this point. ± 2. 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We test values from this list we find a root. Using the Factor Theorem. ± 4. As this point we know that −3 and 4 are roots of the equation. Using the Factor Theorem. we know that −3 and The possible rational roots are: 329 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 6. ± 2. we know that x + 3 is a factor of the polynomial. ± 3. and ±i . ± 4. ± 6. 15 −2 To solve the equation above. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 4: ±1. ± . One possibility is shown next: −3 1 −17 −4 2 ⎝ 1⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2x − 4x − 4) = 0 2⎠ The roots are −3 . ± 12 12 1 −4 1 −4 0 Test The remainder is 0. ± 3. 4. ± 3. One possibility is shown next: Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Test −3 : x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 = x + 12 25. so 1 1 is a zero and x − is a 2 2 factor. ± 6. Thus. Note that x 2 + 1 does not factor. ± 12 = ±1 = ±1. ± 2 1 3 = ±1. and the solution set is {−3. 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 3) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 x − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x 4 + x3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 3. ± 2. so −3 is a root of the equation. Thus. x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 − x − 12 = 0 1 2 6 −6 2 0 1 : 2 2 −5 −2 2 1 −2 −2 ( x + 3) ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 3) ⎡⎣ x 2 ( x − 4 ) + 1( x − 4 )⎤⎦ = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 1) = 0 2 −4 −4 0 The remainder is 0. b = −2. We continue testing potential roots: 1 −1 −11 −1 −12 12 −3 −6 2 −5 ( x + 3) ( 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 Test −3 : −3 6 The remainder is 0. Note that x 2 − 2 x − 2 does not factor. ± 12 Factors of 6 ±1. so we use the quadratic formula: x2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 a = 1. ± i} . 4. . ± 4. ± 2. ± 3. ± 6. so −3 is a root. ± 2. so we use the square-root principle: x 2 + 1 = 0 Summarizing our findings so far. ± 2 2 We test values from above until we find a root. we need to factor 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 . ± 6 = Factors of 2 ±1. ± 3.

f ( x) = x 3 − x − 5 f (1) = 13 − 1 − 5 = −5 f (2) = 23 − 2 − 5 = 1 Yes. Inc. f (0) = an (0 − 2)(0 − 2)(02 + 9) 36 = 36an an = 1 Let x = height of triangle. 3 ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x − 3i )( x + 3i ) = ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) The vertex is ( −9. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 27. −18 − x = the other number The product is f ( x ) = x ( −18 − x ) = − x 2 − 18 x 32. = −9 ( −18 + 9 ) = −9 ( −9 ) = 81 29. 2 2 –13 17 18 –24 8 -20 –12 24 6 0 –5 –3 The quotient is 2 x − 5 x − 3 x + 6 . 2a 2 ( −1) −2 28. the function must have a real zero between 1 and 2 because f (1) and f (2) have opposite signs. and the 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ solution set is ⎨ −3. 330 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2a 2 ( −1) f ( x) = 1( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 3 + 13x 2 − 36 x + 36 34.Polynomial and Rational Functions x= − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −2 ) 2 (1) 2 30. The maximum daily profit is $1200. P ( 75 ) = −752 + 150(75) − 4425 (2x 4 +3 x +1 x +1 3x2 − 1 − 13x 3 + 17 x 2 + 18 x − 24 ) ÷ ( x − 4 ) 4 = −5625 + 11. This occurs when the two number are −9 and −18 − (−9) = −9 . 1 ± 3 ⎬ . +x 2 Since a = −1 is negative. 2 ( x − 1)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f ( x) = an ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f (−1) = an (−1 − 1) ( (−1) 2 + 1) = −4an = 8 The x-coordinate of the maximum is b −18 −18 x=− =− =− = −9. − 2 x2 6 x4 2 ± 4 + 8 2 ± 12 2 ± 2 3 = = = = 1± 3 2 2 2 1 The solutions are −3 . 3 Let x = one of the numbers.81) . . . 40 − 2x = base of triangle 1 1 A = bh = x(40 − 2 x) 2 2 A( x) = 20 x − x 2 The height at which the triangle will have 20 b maximum area is x = − =− = 10. we know the function opens down and has a maximum at b 150 150 x=− =− =− = 75 . A(10) = 20(10) − (10) 2 = 100 The maximum area is 100 squares inches. 250 − 4425 = 1200 The company will maximize its profit by manufacturing and selling 75 cabinets per day. The maximum product is f ( x) = an ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) 81. 2 x2 − x − 3 3x − 1 6 x − 3x − 11x 2 + 2 x + 4 2 4 − 3 x3 − 9 x 2 + 2 x −3 x 3 − 9x + x + 4 −9 x 2 P ( x ) = − x 2 + 150 x − 4425 2 x2 − x − 3 + 31. and 1 ± 3 . 2a 2 ( −1) −2 an = −2 f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) or − 2 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 2 x + 2 f ( −9 ) = −9 ⎡⎣ −18 − ( −9 ) ⎤⎦ 33. .

PreCalculus 4E Section 2. . 2 3x − 3 = 0 3x = 3 x =1 The x-intercept is 1. c. Shift the graph 1 unit down by subtracting 1 from each y-coordinate. Check Point Exercises 1. Vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: 3 y= =3 1 f ( x) = x −1 x −1 1 = = 2 x − 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x + 1 x = −1 3. c.6 5. c. Begin with the graph of f ( x) = 6. Since n > m. x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = 1. x = −1 b. The denominator cannot equal zero. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since n = m. y = 9 =3 3 y = 3 is a horizontal asymptote. g ( x) = 3x − 3 x−2 3(− x) − 3 −3 x − 3 3x + 3 = = f (− x) = −x − 2 −x − 2 x+2 no symmetry 3(0) − 3 3 f (0) = = 0−2 2 3 The y-intercept is . Since n < m. All real numbers. 4. f ( x) = Shift the graph 2 units to the left by subtracting 2 from each x-coordinate. there is no horizontal asymptote. 2 x2 = 0 x=0 The x-intercept is 0. No vertical asymptotes. The denominator cannot equal zero. 1 . b. x ≠ −5} 2.6 Section 2. x 2 − 25 = 0 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 {x | x ≠ 5. 331 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. x 2x2 x2 − 9 2(− x)2 2x2 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 The y-axis symmetry. y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. 2(0) 2 f (0) = 2 =0 0 −9 The y-intercept is 0. x −5 = 0 x=5 { x x ≠ 5} b. a. a. Inc.

000 + 400 x b.000. f ( x) = 5x x−4 { x x ≠ 4} 2. and $405. g ( x) = 2 x2 ( x − 2)( x + 6) { x x ≠ 2. 000) = 500.000 wheelchairs is $900. 2 –1 5 the equation of the slant asymptote is y = 2x – 1.6 x 2 = −2 no vertical asymptotes horizontal asymptote: Since n > m. 000 + 400(10. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: 2 y= =2 1 9. 000 + 400(100.Polynomial and Rational Functions vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 x = 3. C ( x) = 500. 000) 100. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 000) 10. 10. x=0 The x-intercept is 0. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 20 20 T (x) = + . 000 + 400 x x 500. y= x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. C (100. 000) = 7. and 100. f ( x) = 7x x −8 { x x ≠ 8} 3. $450. x x − 10 Exercise Set 2. x ≠ −6} 332 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 = 405 The average cost per wheelchair of producing 1000. a. 000 = 450 C (10. 1. x ≠ −4} 4. there is no horizontal asymptote. vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 = 0 400 = 400 1 The cost per wheelchair approaches $400 as more wheelchairs are produced. x4 x2 + 2 (− x)4 x4 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x) 2 + 2 x 2 + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 f (0) = 2 =0 0 +2 The y-intercept is 0. x4 = 0 f ( x) = d. 8. C ( x) = 500. 000 + 400(1000) 1000 = 900 C (1000) = c. 500. 2 2 –5 7 4 –2 g ( x) = 3x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 4) { x x ≠ 5. 10. respectively. Inc.

x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. 12 =4 3 . −∞ 17. x+8 x + 64 all real numbers f ( x) = 9. x = 3 g ( x) = x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = −4 2 13. −∞ 12. +∞ 26. 1 21. +∞ 11. { x x ≠ 8. x = 3 vertical asymptotes: x = 0.PreCalculus 4E 5. +∞ 27. x 1 = x( x + 4) x + 4 x+4=0 h( x ) = x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 14. x ≠ −7} 6. x ≠ −8} 7. x +8 x 2 − 64 x 2 − 64 = ( x − 8)( x + 8) h( x ) = 24. f ( x) = 15 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 x 22. x = −4 g ( x) = x x+4 x+4=0 x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = –4 f ( x) = 30. 16. f ( x) = x−3 x−3 = 0 x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 31. x+3 x( x + 4) x( x + 4) = 0 x = 0. 8. 0 +∞ x+3 x( x − 3) x( x − 3) = 0 x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r ( x) = f ( x) = 2 12 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 20. 19. 1 x 1 = x( x − 3) x − 3 x −3 = 0 h( x ) = x x +4 x 2 + 4 has no real zeros There are no vertical asymptotes. r ( x) = 2 x x +3 x 2 + 3 has no real zeros There is no vertical asymptotes. { x x ≠ 7. x+7 x 2 + 49 all real numbers f ( x) = 25.6 x+7 x 2 − 49 2 x − 49 = ( x − 7)( x + 7) h( x ) = 23. 12 x 2 3x 2 + 1 horizontal asymptote: y = 333 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 15. g ( x) = n = m. 28. −∞ 10. 29. −∞ 18. Section 2. Inc.

f ( x) = n=m 39. x 12 x3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 34.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. h( x ) = g ( x) = 3 5 1 x −1 40. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit to the right. . x 2 3 −3 x + 7 5x − 2 n=m s f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 37. Inc. h( x ) = g ( x) = 1 x−2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 15 =5 3 1 2 units to the right. −2 x + 1 3x + 5 1 2 units up. Publishing as Prentice Hall. horizontal asymptote: y = 33. h( x ) = 15 x 3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 35. g ( x) = n=m 15 x 2 3x 2 + 1 38. 1 +2 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 36. x 334 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x h( x ) = 1 +1 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit up.

1 −2 x+2 46. x2 335 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 1 2 units left. g ( x) = 1 −4 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 units left and 2 units x down. h( x ) = 1 ( x + 2) 2 h( x ) = 1 −3 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 4 units down. 1 3 units down. x2 down. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 41.6 1 −2 x +1 44. 43. 42. g ( x) = Section 2. x2 . g ( x) = 45. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left and 2 units x g ( x) = 1 ( x + 1) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left.

Inc. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0 −1 x-intercept: 3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x −1 = 0 f ( x) = x =1 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 4(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0−2 x-intercept: 4x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 336 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so y = = 3 1 4x x−2 4(− x) 4x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 2 x + 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 48. 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 3 units right and 2 units x up. h( x ) = vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 1 +1 ( x − 3) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = x=2 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. h( x ) = 1 +2 ( x − 3) 2 50.Polynomial and Rational Functions 47. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = = 4 1 1 3 units right and 1 unit x2 up. . 3x x −1 3(− x ) 3x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 1 x + 1 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 49.

f ( x) = 4x x2 −1 4 (−x) 4x f (−x) = =− 2 = –f(x) 2 ( −x) −1 x −1 Origin symmetry 4 ( 0) =0 y-intercept: 2 0 −1 x-intercept:4x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 f ( x) = 337 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = = 2 1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 52.PreCalculus 4E 51. Section 2. 2 x2 x2 −1 f (−x) = 2 (−x) (−x) 2 2 −1 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 2x2 = f ( x) x2 − 1 2 (0) 2 02 − 1 = x-intercept: 2 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x2 −1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. 0 =0 1 .6 2x 2 x −4 2 (−x) 2x = –f(x) =− 2 f (−x) = 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 Origin symmetry 2 ( 0) 0 y-intercept: 2 = =0 0 − 4 −4 x-intercept: 2x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 53.

so y = 1 −x x +1 − (−x) x f (−x) = = (−x) +1 −x +1 f ( x) = f(–x) ≠ f(x). .Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. so y = 1 4 x2 x2 − 9 f (−x) = 4(−x) (−x) 2 2 −9 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 4 ( 0) 4 x2 = f ( x) x2 − 9 2 02 − 9 =0 x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = ±3 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. 56. f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: −1 = −1 n = m. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry y-intercept: −3 ( 0 ) y= =0 0+2 x-intercept: –3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 horizontal asymptote: −3 = −3 n = m. Inc. so y = = 4 1 55. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry − ( 0) 0 y-intercept: y = = =0 0 +1 1 x-intercept: –x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 338 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3 x x+2 −3 ( − x ) 3x f (−x) = = (−x) + 2 −x + 2 f ( x) = f–x) ≠ f(x).

. Section 2. 58. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry −2 =1 y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 2 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 x = 2. 2 (−x) 2 −1 =− 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).6 1 x −4 1 1 f (−x) = − =− 2 = f(x) 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 y-axis symmetry 1 1 = y-intercept: y = – 2 0 −4 4 x-intercept: –1 ≠ 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x2 = 4 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m or y = 0 f ( x) = − f ( x) = − 59.PreCalculus 4E 57. x = 1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 2 f (−x) = − 2 x + x−2 2 2 f (−x) = − = 2 2 (−x) − x − 2 x − x − 2 f ( x) = 2 = f(x) x −1 2 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: 2 2 y=− 2 =− =2 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: –2 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 (x – 1)(x + 1) x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m. Inc. x = −1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 339 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 x −1 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = 0 −2 x −x−2 −2 −2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x ) − (− x ) − 2 x + x − 2 f ( x) = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 2 2 y-intercept: y = 2 = = −1 0 + 0 − 2 −2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 2 = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1) = 0 x = −2.

so y = = 2 1 f ( x) = 63. Inc. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0+2 2 1 =− =− y-intercept: y = 2 0 +0−6 6 3 x-intercept: x+2=0 x = –2 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) x = −3. x = 2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. 62. x+2 x + x−6 −x + 2 −x + 2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( −x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). . 2 x2 x2 + 4 2(− x) 2 2 x2 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) + 4 x + 4 y axis symmetry 2(0) 2 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +4 x-intercept: 2 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = = 4 1 f ( x) = 340 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so y = 0 f ( x) = 2 4 x2 x2 + 1 4(− x) 2 4 x2 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 ( −x) +1 x +1 y axis symmetry 4(0) 2 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +1 x-intercept: 4 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m.

f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0−4 2 = y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−6 3 x-intercept: x − 4 = 0.6 x−4 2 x − x−6 x+4 −x − 4 f (−x) = =− 2 2 (−x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). so y = 0 67. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 64. ( x − 3)( x + 2) x = 3. Section 2. x = 4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 f ( x) = 66. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 + 0 − 12 =3 y-intercept: y = 02 − 4 x-intercept: x 2 + x − 12 = 0 2 ( x − 3)( x + 4) = 0 x = 3. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 2. so none f ( x) = x 2 + x − 12 x2 − 4 (− x) 2 − x − 12 x 2 − x − 12 f (−x) = = 2 x2 − 4 (−x) − 4 f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x). x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. . x = −2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. so none f ( x) = 2 x4 x2 + 1 2(− x) 4 2 x4 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) +1 x +1 y-axis symmetry 2 ( 04 ) y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +2 x-intercept: 2 x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m. 65. Inc. so y = = 1 1 341 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x4 x +2 (− x) 4 x4 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 (−x) + 2 x + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +2 x-intercept: x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m.

2 x = 5 5 2 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m.x =1 3 ( x + 1) 2 =0 x = –1 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. x = 0 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 x= ( x + 3)( x − 2) = 0 x = −3. so y = = 1 1 342 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +0−6 x-intercept: x 2 = 0. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) 2 + 0 − 4 −4 = y-intercept: y = 0 2(0) 2 − 5(0) no y-intercept x-intercepts: 3x2 + x − 4 = 0 (3 x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 x − 1 = 0 3x = −4 4 x = − . so y = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). x = 2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 02 − 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = =3 2 1 ( 0 + 1) x-intercept: x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = 3 and x = 1 vertical asymptote: 3x 2 + x − 4 2 x2 − 5x 3(− x) 2 − x − 4 3 x 2 − x − 4 f (−x) = = 2 2 x2 + 5x 2 ( − x ) + 5x f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x).Polynomial and Rational Functions 68. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(–x) ≠ f(x). . vertical asymptotes: 2 x2 − 5x = 0 x(2 x − 5) = 0 x2 x2 + x − 6 (− x) 2 x2 f (−x) = = 2 2 (−x) − x − 6 x − x − 6 f ( x) = x = 0. Inc. f ( x) = x2 − 4 x + 3 ( x + 1)2 ( − x ) − 4 ( − x ) + 3 x2 + 4 x + 3 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x + 1) ( − x + 1) 2 69. so y = = 1 1 70.

so none exist.6 horizontal asymptote: n > m. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = 72. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. Section 2. slant asymptote: 4 f ( x) = x – x y=x f (−x) = (−x) 2 +1 x2 − 4 x (−x) 2 −4 = x2 + 1 = − f ( x) −x −x Origin symmetry 02 + 1 1 = y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m. a. b. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x – x y=x f ( x) = b. x2 − 4 x f ( x) = x2 + 1 x = x2 − 4 = − f ( x) −x −x origin symmetry 02 − 4 4 =− y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 vertical asymptote: x = 0 343 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 − 1 x ( − x ) − 1 x2 − 1 = = − f ( x) −x (−x) 2 f (−x) = Origin symmetry y-intercept: y = 0 2 − 1 −1 = 0 0 73. no y-intercept x-intercepts: x 2 − 1 = 0 x = ±1 vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n < m.PreCalculus 4E 71. so none exist. a. . Inc. so none exist. f ( x) = a.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 74. x2 − x + 1 x −1 slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = x + x –1 y=x f ( x) = x2 − x − 1 x −1 (−x) − (−x) +1 2 f (−x) = 75. a. f (–x) ≠ –g(x) 02 − 0 + 1 1 = = −1 y-intercept: y = 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: x2 − x + 1 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x–1=0 x=1 horizontal asymptote: n > m. x2 + 4 x slant asymptote: 4 g ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + 4 x (−x) 2 +4 −x origin symmetry y-intercept: y = = x2 + 4 = − f ( x) −x 02 + 4 4 = 0 0 76. so none Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 4 + = = x2 − x − 6 −x − 3 −x − 3 f(–x) ≠ g(x). g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry 0 2 + 0 − 6 −6 y-intercept: y = = =2 0−3 −3 x-intercept: x2 + x − 6 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 x = –3 and x = 2 344 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. . f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + x − 6 x−3 (−x) 2 + (−x) − 6 x2 + x + 1 −x −1 −x −1 no symmetry f (–x) ≠ f (x). Publishing as Prentice Hall. so none exist. no y-intercept x2 + 4 = 0 x 2 = −4 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m. b. 6 x –3 y=x+4 b. b. so none exist. f ( x) = a. f ( x) = a. Inc.

6 x3 + 1 x2 + 2 x 78. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = ( − x )3 − 1 − x 3 − 1 = (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f ( x) = a. slant asymptote: x−2 x 2 + 2 x x3 f ( x) = a. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n > m. +1 x + 2x 3 2 x3 − 1 x2 − 9 slant asymptote: 9x −1 x+ 2 x −9 x 2 − 9 x3 x − 9x 9x −1 − 2 x2 −2 x 2 + 4 x − 4x + 1 y=x y = x−2 b.PreCalculus 4E 77. Section 2. so none x = −1 vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x = 0 x( x + 2) = 0 x = 0. −1 3 b. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = no symmetry no symmetry y-intercept: y = 03 + 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 = 0 + 2(0) 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x3 + 1 = 0 x 3 = −1 03 − 1 1 = 02 − 9 9 x-intercept: x3 – 1 = 0 x3 = 1 x =1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3. Inc. . so none 345 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (− x)3 + 1 − x3 + 1 = 2 2 (− x) + 2(− x) x − 2 x f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. 5x2 x2 + 4 x + 4 ⋅ x2 − 4 10 x 3 = 5 x2 ( x + 2) ( x − 2) ⋅ 81. ( x + 2) 2 10 x 3 1 2 x+2 = 2x ( x − 2) x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 = − 2 ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x+2 So. Inc. f ( x ) = ⋅ 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) 346 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x−6 2 ( x − 3) x −5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 ÷ 10 x − 2 25 x 2 − 1 x −5 25 x 2 − 1 = ⋅ 2 10 x − 2 x − 10 x + 25 = ( 5 x + 1) ( 5 x − 1) 2 2 ( 5 x − 1) ( x − 5) = 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) x −5 So. f ( x ) = 80. . f ( x ) = 2x ( x − 2) x ( x − 3) − 9 ( 2 ) 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x − 18 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = ( x − 6 ) ( x + 3) x−6 = x − 3) 2 ( 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 ) So. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

f ( x ) = x 2 +1 x− 347 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 82.6 2 4 − 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 4 x + 3 2 4 = − x + 2 x + 1 x + 3 ( )( ) ( )( x + 1) = 83. . Inc. Section 2. f ( x ) = −2 So. 1 x x 2 +1 x 2 +1 x+ x ( x − 1)( x + 1) So. 2 ( x + 3) − 4 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) x 2 − 4 − 3x + 6 x2 − 4 + x + 2 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 2 x + x−2 2x + 6 − 4x − 8 = ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = 3 3 1− x+2 = x + 2 ⋅ ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1 1 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1+ 1+ x−2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) − 3 ( x − 2 ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 ) 1− 2 = −2 x − 2 ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = −2 ( x + 1) −2 = = ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) ( x + 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) ( x − 1) So. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 3) = x−2 x+2 x−2 x+2 1 2 x ⋅ x = x − 1 = ( x − 1)( x + 1) 84.

000) = 33 100. 100(1000) + 100. a. a. it costs $330 to manufacture each.000 shoes are manufactured. it costs $125 to manufacture each. c. 86. the average cost approaches $100. g ( x) = 3x + 7 1 = +3 x+2 x+2 d. g ( x) = 2x + 7 1 = +2 x+3 x+3 89. C (500) = 100 = 100 . The average cost decreases as the number of bicycles manufactured increases. g ( x) = −1 2x − 9 = +2 x−4 x−4 C= 300. 000 C (2000 ) = = $150 2000 When 2000 bicycles are manufactured. . 100 (2000 ) + 100. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. it costs $300 to manufacture each. The average cost decreases as the number of shoes manufactured increases. C(1000) = 300. 300000 + 30(10000) C(10000) = = 60 10000 When 10. 000 When 100. 100(4000) + 100. it costs $33 to manufacture each. C(x) = 30x + 300. it costs $60 to manufacture each. so y = 90. 000 = $300 500 When 500 bicycles are manufactured.000 b. it costs $150 to manufacture each. 000 + 30x x 300000 + 30(1000) = 330 1000 When 1000 shoes are manufactured. 87. it costs $200 to manufacture each. b. 000 + 30(100.000 C ( x) = 100x +100. n = m. 1 As greater numbers of shoes are manufactured.Polynomial and Rational Functions 85. 1 As greater numbers of bicycles are manufactured. Inc. C(100. 88. 000 C (1000 ) = = $200 1000 When 1000 bicycles are manufactured. g ( x) = −1 3x − 7 = +3 x−2 x−2 C ( x ) = 100 x + 100 .000 shoes are manufactured. 30 = 30 . the average cost approaches $30. 00) = d. so y = 348 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.000 x 100 (500 ) + 100. n = m. 000 C (4000 ) = = $125 4000 When 4000 bicycles are manufactured.

and then slowly begins to approach the normal level. y = 6. Inc. x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. the pH level is lowest after about 6 minutes. a.5. From the graph.e. 100%. The horizontal asymptote is y = 11 .2 or about 63% 2708. c.8. 96. e. the percent of death approaches.5 3 + 1 10 This verifies that the drug’s concentration after 3 hours will be 1.7 of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. y = 100 As incidence of the diseases increases. 90% of the deaths are smoking related.6 From the graph the pH level of the human mouth 42 minutes after a person eats food containing sugar will be about 6. but never reaches 100%.5 ( 6 ) − 20.5 Over time. the drug’s concentration after three hours appears to be about 1.0. the percentage approaches 100%. This overestimates the actual percent found in the graph by 1%. the pH level rises back to the normal level. 5 ( 3) b. P. 94. c. From the graph.5 milligrams per liter. No. 12 11 or about 92% of federal 12 expenditures will spent on human resources over time. 6. A = xy = 2500 2500 y= x P(9) = T (x) = 5000 2500 = 2x + x x The perimeter of the floor. 98. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 600 600 + . 93. T (x) = x x − 10 100(10 − 1) = 90 (10.4 ( 6 ) + 234 2 f (6) = 62 + 36 97. Section 2. but never gets to be. 95.PreCalculus 4E 91.5 as time goes by. a. and hiking is T (x) = x x P(10) = 99. Therefore. According to the graph. 2 f ( x) = 11x 2 + 40 x + 1040 12 x 2 + 230 x + 2190 1707.8 The pH level after 6 minutes (i. From the graph. x is P(x) = 2 x + x P = 2x + 2y = 2x + 2 349 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. the pH level appears to approach 6. 90 5 10 5 + = + 9x x x x The function that expresses the total time for driving 10 5 + . Over time. 100(9 − 1) = 89 (9. 92. so the the horizontal asymptote is y = 0 . 90) 10 For a disease that smokers are 10 times more likely to contact than non-smokers. b. d. as a function of the 5000 . 89% of the deaths are smoking related. 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. C ( 3) = a. 11(36) 2 + 40(36) + 1040 16736 f (36) = = or 12(36) 2 + 230(36) + 2190 26022 about 64% of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. If trends continue. 2. 100. the drug’s concentration will approach 0 milligrams per liter. 15 = 1. = 4. the pH level drops quickly below normal. is less than the degree of the denominator. the lowest pH level) is 4. . According to the function. During the first hour. width.5 milligrams per liter. 89) 9 For a disease that smokers are 9 times more likely to have than non-smokers. d. = The degree of the numerator. the normal pH level must be 6.

does not make sense. c. 119. true 123. 102.Polynomial and Rational Functions 101. f (x) = 50 +2 x 27725(x − 14) − 5x x2 + 9 w=x+1 50 A= + 2 (x + 1) x 50 + 2x + 2 x 50 + 52 = 2x + x The total area of the page is 50 A(x) = 2 x + + 52. Sample explanation: A rational function can have at most one horizontal asymptote. false. Explanations will vary. . 128. true 114. 2 x 2 + x = 15 2 x 2 + x − 15 = 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) = 0 2x − 5 = 0 or x+3= 0 x= 5 2 x = −3 5⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −3. 112. Answers may vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. ⎬ . x = 2. The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. A sample change is: The graph of a rational function may have both a vertical asymptote and a horizontal asymptote. – 111. g(x) is the graph of a line where f(x) is the graph of a rational function with a slant asymptote. the average cost for a company to produce each unit of its product decreases. x – 2 is a factor of x 2 − 5x + 6 . a. 118. Explanations will vary. There are about 356 arrests for every 100. Sample explanation: As production level increases. 121. Answers may vary. Inc. At age 25 the highest number arrests occurs. makes sense The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. In g(x). – 127. 2⎭ ⎩ 350 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 120. does not make sense. 122. 117. and then the number of arrests decreases. The graph increases from late teens until about the age of 25. Explanations will vary. 113. does not make sense. 116. A = lw xy = 50 l=y+2= 115. x = 50 + b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Sample explanation: The function has one vertical asymptote. true 124.000 drivers.

7 x3 + x 2 = 4 x + 4 129.7 Check Point Exercises 1. Test Test Test Interval Number (−5) 2 − (−5) > 20 –5 ( −∞. Inc. true 2 2 Conclusion ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is ( −∞. 2} . 130. x 2 − x > 20 x 2 − x − 20 > 0 ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. ( −4. true ( −4. −4 ) ∪ ( 5.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. −1. 351 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x + 4 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −4 x=5 The boundary points are –2 and 4. x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4( x + 1) = 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 − 4) = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 The solution set is {−2. ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. ∞ ) 0 (0) − (0) > 20 0 > 20. ∞ ) or { x x < −4 or x > 5} . false 10 (10) − (10) > 20 90 > 20. −4 ) 30 > 20. ( 5. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 5 ) does not belong to the solution set. 5 ) ( 5. −4 ) belongs to the solution set. . x +1 x + 1 2( x + 3) −2= − x+3 x+3 x+3 x + 1 2x + 6 = − x+3 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 = x+3 −x − 5 x+5 = or − x+3 x+3 Section 2.

−1) –2 ( −1. −3) −16 ≤ −1 true belongs to the solution set. [1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2x ≥1 x +1 2x −1 ≥ 0 x +1 x −1 ≥0 x +1 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x =1 x = −1 Test Test Interval Number ( −∞. The solution set is ( −∞. −1] does not belong to the solution (−2)3 + 3(−2) 2 ≤ (−2) + 3 4 ≤ 1 false set. 352 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1] does not belong to the solution set. x3 + 3x 2 ≤ x + 3 x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3 ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x = −1 Test Interval x =1 Test Number ( −∞.1] or { x x ≤ −3 or − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1} . Inc. ( −1. . −3] ∪ [ −1. −1] –2 x+3=0 x = −3 Test (−4)3 + 3(−4) 2 ≤ (−4) + 3 0 [1. true 3 ( −∞. true 2(0) ≥1 0 +1 0 ≥ 1. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or x ≥ 1} . ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 2(−2) ≥1 −2 + 1 4 ≥ 1. −3) -4 ( −3.1] 0 ≤ 3 true ( 6 + 3)( 6 − 5 ) > 0 [1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. does not belong to the solution true set. ∞ ) 2 ( −∞. −1) ∪ [1. (0) + 3(0) ≤ (0) + 3 3 [ −1. false 2(2) ≥1 2 +1 4 ≥ 1.1] Conclusion 2 [ −1. 3. ( −3. The solution set is ( −∞. −1) belongs to the solution set.1] 0 [1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2.

true Conclusion ( −∞. − 3) or (5.1) 0 (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 353 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The object will be more than 64 feet above the ground between 1 and 4 seconds. belongs to the solution set.1) (1. ∞) 2. Inc. − 2) or (4.7 1.7 −16t 2 + 80t > 64 −16t 2 + 80t − 64 > 0 −16(t − 1)(t − 4) > 0 t − 1 = 0 or t − 4 = 0 t =1 t=4 Test Interval Test Number Test −16(0) + 80(0) > 64 0 > 64. 4 ) 2 −16(2) 2 + 80(2) > 64 96 > 64. −16(5) 2 + 80(5) > 64 ( 4. ∞ ) 5 Exercise Set 2. false 2 ( −∞. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 4. ∞ ) does not belong to the 0 > 64. ( 4. 4 ) does not belong to the solution set. false solution set. ∞). . (x + 3)(x – 5) > 0 x = –3 or x = 5 T F T –3 5 Test –4: (–4 + 3)(–4 – 5) > 0 9 > 0 True Test 0: (0 + 3)(0 – 5) > 0 –15 > 0 False Test 6: (6 + 3)(6 – 5) > 0 18 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. (x – 4)(x + 2) > 0 x = 4 or x = –2 T F T –2 4 Test –3: (–3 – 4)(–3 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True Test 0: (0 – 4)(0 + 2) > 0 –8 > 0 False Test 5: (5 – 4)(5 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True (−∞.

3). 5. 7. ∞) . ∞). 4. 7]. 3 x2 + 5x + 4 > 0 ( x + 1)( x + 4) > 0 x = –1 or x = –4 T F –4 T –1 Test –5: (−5) + 5(−5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True Test –3: (−3)2 + 5(−3) + 4 > 0 –2 > 0 False Test 0: 02 + 5(0) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. T F –3 7 Test –4: (–4 – 7)(–4 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 – 7)(0 + 3) ≤ 0 –21 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 – 7)(8 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–3. T T 2 (x + 1)(x – 7) ≤ 0 x = –1 or x = 7 F x2 − 4 x + 3 < 0 ( x − 1)( x − 3) < 0 x = 1 or x = 3 x =1 8. 1) or (4.Polynomial and Rational Functions 3. F –3 T 2 Test –4: (−4) − 4 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True Test 0: (0) 2 + 0 − 6 > 0 –6 > 0 False Test 3: 32 + 3 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. − 4) or (−1. − 3) or (2. Inc. ∞) . F 1 F –1 7 Test –2: (–2 + 1)(–2 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 + 1)(0 – 7) ≤ 0 –7 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 + 1)(8 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–1. . 7]. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x2 − 5x + 4 > 0 ( x − 4)( x − 1) > 0 x = 4 or F Test 0: 0 − 4(0) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False Test 2: 22 − 4(2) + 3 < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 4: 42 − 4(4) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (1. T F 1 T 4 Test 0: 0 − 5(0) + 4 > 0 x2 + x − 6 > 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) > 0 x = –3 or x = 2 2 T 4 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 5(2) + 4 > 0 −2 > 0 False 2 Test 5: 5 − 5(5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. (x – 7)(x + 3) ≤ 0 x = 7 or x = –3 F 6. 2 354 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ T 1 13. . 2⎠ ⎝ F 2 3 Test –5: 3(−5)2 + 10(−5) − 8 ≤ 0 17 ≤ 0 False Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 10(0) − 8 ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 True Test 1: 3(1) + 10(1) − 8 ≤ 0 2 5 ≤ 0 False 2⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −4. ∞ ⎟ . 9 x2 + 3x − 2 ≥ 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) ≥ 0 3 x = 1 3 x = −2 2 x 2 + x − 15 < 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) < 0 2 x − 5 = 0 or x+3=0 2x = 5 5 x= x = −3 or 2 3x 2 + 10 x − 8 ≤ 0 (3 x − 2)( x + 4) ≤ 0 F T –4 T –3 2 x = or x = −4 3 F 2 x 2 + x < 15 F 5 2 Test –4: 2(−4) 2 + (−4) < 15 28 < 15 False Test 0: 2(0) 2 + 0 < 15 0 < 15 True Test 3: 2(3) 2 + 3 < 15 21 < 15 False 5⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −3. 10. Section 2. ⎥ .PreCalculus 4E 9. ∅. F −2 3 x2 − 2x + 1 > 0 ( x − 1)( x − 1) > 0 x=1 T 1 −2 x= 3 3 T Test 0: 02 − 6(0) + 9 < 0 9 < 0 False 2 Test 4: 4 − 6(4) + 9 < 0 1 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1) or (1. ⎥ or ⎢ .7 x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) < 0 x=3 F 12. Test 0: 0 − 2(0) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 2(2) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. Inc. 3⎦ ⎣ 355 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 11. x= F 3 T 1 3 Test –1: 9(−1) 2 + 3(−1) − 2 ≥ 0 4 ≥ 0 True Test 0: 9(0)2 + 3(0) − 2 ≥ 0 –2 ≥ 0 False Test 1: 9(1) 2 + 3(1) − 2 ≤ 0 10 ≥ 0 True −2 ⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. ∞).

4⎠ ⎝ x = −2 F 1 3 Test –3: 5(−3) ≤ 2 − 3(−3) 2 –15 ≤ –25 False Test 0: 5(0) ≤ 2 − 3(0) 2 0 ≤ 2 True Test 1: 5(1) ≤ 2 − 3(1) 2 5 ≤ –1 False ⎡ 1⎤ The solution set is ⎢ −2. Inc. 3⎠ ⎝ 4 x 2 + 7 x < −3 T T –5 1 3 F x = −5 1 3 F T Test –1: 6(−1) 2 + (−1) > 1 5 > 1 True Test 0: 6(0) 2 + 0 > 1 0 > 1 False Test 1: 6(1)2 + 1 > 1 7 > 1 True 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. . 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ 15. ⎥ . − ⎟ .Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. 3x 2 + 16 x < −5 1 or 3 F Test –2: 4(−2) 2 + 7(−2) < −3 2 < −3 False T –2 2 7 ⎛ 7⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ Test − : 4 ⎜ − ⎟ + 7 ⎜ − ⎟ < −3 8 ⎝ 8⎠ ⎝ 8⎠ 49 49 − < −3 16 8 49 − < −3 True 16 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 7(0) < −3 0 < −3 False 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −1. ⎣ 3⎦ 356 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − ⎟ or ⎜ . 4 x2 + 7 x + 3 < 0 (4 x + 3)( x + 1) < 0 4x + 3 = 0 or x +1=0 4 x-3=0 3 or x=− x = −1 4 3x2 + 5x − 2 ≤ 0 (3 x − 1)( x + 2) ≤ 0 3x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 3x − 1=0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 x= F − 34 –1 F Test –6: 3(−6) 2 + 16(−6) < −5 12 < –5 False Test –2: 3(−2) 2 + 16(−2) < −5 –20 < –5 True Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 16(0) < −5 0 < –5 False 1⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −5. ∞ ⎟ . 3x 2 + 16 x + 5 < 0 6 x2 + x − 1 > 0 (3 x + 1)( x + 5) < 0 3x + 1 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 (2 x + 1)(3x − 1) > 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or 3x − 1 = 0 2 x = −1 1 x=− 2 3x = −1 3x = 1 1 x= 3 T F − 12 x=− − 13 5 x ≤ 2 − 3x 2 17. − ⎟ . 6 x2 + x > 1 16.

21. 2⎠ ⎝ Test –1: (−1) 2 − 4(−1) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 − 4(1) ≥ 0 −3 ≥ 0 False 0 ≤ 2 True Test 5: 52 − 4(5) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 19. ∞). ∞ ).7 4 x2 + 1 ≥ 4 x 20. Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. ∞).PreCalculus 4E 18. 0). 0] or [4. . x2 − 4 x ≥ 0 x( x − 4) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x . − ⎟ or (0. 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) ≥ 0 2x −1 = 0 1 x= 2 x2 + 2x < 0 x( x + 2) < 0 x = 0 or x = –2 F T –2 F 0 Test –3: (−3) + 2(−3) < 0 3 < 0 False Test –1: (−1) 2 + 2(−1) < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 + 2(1) < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (–2. 2 T T 1 2 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(0) 1 ≥ 0 True Test 1: 4(1) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(1) 5 ≥ 4 True The solution set is (−∞.4 = 0 x=4 2 x 2 + 3x > 0 x(2 x + 3) > 0 x = 0 or x = − 3 2 T T F 0 T F − 32 4 T 0 Test –2: 2(−2) 2 + 3(−2) > 0 2 > 0 True Test –1: 2(−1)2 + 3(−1) > 0 –1 > 0 False Test 1: 2(1) 2 + 3(1) > 0 5 > 0 True 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 357 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

59 3. 5 3 − x2 + 2 x ≥ 0 x(− x + 2) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x = 2 F F T F 0 T F 0 2 Test –1: −(−1) + 2(−1) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False Test 1: −(1) 2 + 2(1) ≥ 0 1 ≥ 0 True Test 3: −(3)2 + 2(3) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0.41 The solution set is ⎡⎣ 2 − 2.59 or x ≈ 3. . x2 − 4 x + 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 4 x + 2 = 0 23. ⎣ 3⎦ x2 ≤ 4 x − 2 25. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1]. ⎥ . 2 5 3 Test –1: 3(−1)2 − 5(−1) ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 False Test 1: 3(1)2 − 5(1) ≤ 0 –2 ≤ 0 True Test 2: 3(2)2 − 5(2) ≤ 0 2 ≤ 0 False ⎡ 5⎤ The solution set is ⎢0. 3x 2 − 5 x ≤ 0 x(3x − 5) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 24. 2].41 = F 1 Test –1: −(−1) + (−1) ≥ 0 −2 ≥ 0 False 2 F T F 2 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ Test : − ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 1 ≥ 0 True 4 Test 2: −(2) 2 + 2 ≥ 0 0. 3.59. 358 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −x2 + x ≥ 0 x= x2 − x ≤ 0 x( x − 1) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 1 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) F T 0 4± 8 2 = 2± 2 x ≈ 0. Inc. −2 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22.41] . 2 + 2 ⎤⎦ or [ 0.

and –3 Test one value in each interval.73 F –3 2. 3 30. ∞ ). 3. The solution set is ⎡⎣1 − 3. .73 2 The solution set is [1. x(4 − x)( x − 6) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. and 5 Test one value in each interval. ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x + 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –1. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 1. x(3 − x)( x − 5) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. ∅. x − 2x − 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) 1 2 ± 12 2 = 1± 3 x ≈ −0. 3. ∞). 359 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞). ∞). 2. ∞).PreCalculus 4E Section 2. –2] ∪ [–1. 32. –2 T The solution set is [–3.73 0 x=3 3 T 5 The solution set is [0.73. F T F T –0. = F T 6 The solution set is [0. and 5 Test one value in each interval.73 or x ≈ 2.1 + 3 ⎤⎦ or [ −0. F T F x2 ≤ 2x + 2 26. 3] ∪ [5. 2] ∪ [3. –2. F T F x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 Solve x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 ( x − 3)2 = 0 28. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 2 T 4 T T 1 2 The solution set is (−∞. 27.73] . F F 3 The solution set is the empty set. and 3 Test one value in each interval. 4] ∪ [6. Inc.7 29. 2. F T F 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 0 (2 x − 1)2 = 0 x= –1 31.

2 ) ∪ 2. 36. Inc. F T 1 The solution set is (1. and 2 Test one value in each interval. –1 The solution set is (−1. x 3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) ≥ 0 ( F x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 9 > 0 x 2 ( x − 1) + 9 ( x − 1) ≥ 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 9) ≥ 0 Boundary point: 1. ( ) 34. (5 − x)2 x − 13 <0 2 Boundary points: 5. −2] ∪ [2. ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x + 2)( x − 2) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. 13 2 Test one value in each interval. F T F –2 –1 39. and 38. ∞). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 –7 –1 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. x3 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 > 0 x 2 ( x + 1) + 4( x + 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 + 4) ≥ 0 Boundary point: –1 Test one value in each interval. ∞ ). T F T 13 2 5 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 7 < 0 x 2 ( x + 7) − ( x + 7) < 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. 360 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3]. –1. 13 . F T T 2 The solution set is [–2. 7 2 Boundary points: 2. 35. 72 . and ( x − 3)( x 2 − 9) ≥ 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –3 and 3 Test one value in each interval. 1). –1 and 1 Test one value in each interval. and 2 Test one value in each interval.Polynomial and Rational Functions ( ) 33. F F T –2 1 The solution set is (–∞ . ∞). (2 − x)2 x − 72 < 0 37. 2 The solution set is [ −2. ∞).5 ) ∪ 5. T T F ( x + 7)( x 2 − 1) < 0 ( x + 7)( x + 1)( x − 1) < 0 Boundary points: –7. T F F Test one value in each interval. –7) ∪ (–1. –3 3 The solution set is (−∞. –1] ∪ [1. . T T F 7 2 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) ≥ 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 ) 40. Test one value in each interval.

∞). ⎟ ∪ [2. –2). 44. − 3) ∪ (4. x − 4x ≤ 0 x 2 ( x − 4) ≤ 0 2 Boundary points: 0 and 4. –2 4 − 2x ≤0 3x + 4 4 3 T F − 43 F –5 T x+3 <0 x+4 x = −3 or F x = −4 T T 2 −4 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 42. 0 4 The solution set is (–∞. –3). Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 0] ∪ [9. 361 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is ( −∞. 47. T T x = 2 or x = − x+5 >0 x−2 x = –5 or x = 2 T F The solution set is (−∞. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2 The solution set is (−∞. 4). 9 The solution set is [ 0. ∞ ). ∞).PreCalculus 4E 41. ∞). F –5 –2 The solution set is (–5.7 x3 − 9 x 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 9) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 0 and 9 Test one value in each interval. 3 x+5 <0 x+2 x = –5 or x = –2 F T F –4 –3 The solution set is (–4. 4]. T –3 x=4 –3 −x + 2 ≥0 x−4 x = 2 or x = 4 F 2 4 The solution set is [2. 45. Test one value in each interval. F F T 0 46. T T F 48. 43. x−4 >0 x+3 x−4 = 0 x+3 = 0 x = −3 T F −x − 3 ≤0 x+2 x = –3 or x = –2 T F 4 49. Section 2. . − 5) ∪ (2. ∞). − 3] ∪ (−2.

∞). T − F –3 3 5 3 55. 3 ⎟ . ⎡ 5 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −4] ∪ ( −2. therefore must be included in the solution set. x >2 x −1 56. − 4) ∪ (0. 2). ( x + 4)( x − 1) ≤0 x+2 x = −4 or x = −2 or x = 1 . 0) ∪ (3.1] x = 2 or x = 1 F T 1 2 The solution set is (1. therefore must be included in the solution set. x+4 >0 x x = –4 or x = 0 T –1 F –5 T –4 2 x +1 <2 x+3 x +1 −2<0 x+3 x + 1 − 2( x + 3) <0 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 <0 x+3 −x − 5 <0 x+3 x = or x = –3 T F F Values of x = −3 or x = 2 result in f ( x) = 0 and. 2]. 0 The solution set is ( −∞. − 3] ∪ (−1. T F T T –3 The solution set is (−∞. x >0 x−3 x = 0 or x = 3 T F 0 T 3 The solution set is (−∞. − 5) ∪ (−3. 53. 3x + 5 ≥0 6 − 2x 5 x = − or x = 3 3 F 54. Inc. ∞). F . The solution set is (−∞. ( x + 3)( x − 2) ≤0 x +1 x = −3 or x = −1 or x = 2 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 50. 362 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is ( −∞. ∞) . 52. ⎣ 3 ⎠ 51. T F –4 T –2 x −2>0 x −1 x 2( x − 1) − >0 x −1 x −1 x − 2x + 2 >0 x −1 −x + 2 >0 x −1 F 1 Values of x = −4 or x = 1 result in f ( x) = 0 and.

PreCalculus 4E 57. 2⎦ ⎝ 363 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 61. ∞).7 x+4 ≤3 2x − 1 x+4 −3≤ 0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 3 ( 2 x − 1) ≤0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 6x + 3 ≤0 2x − 1 −5 x + 7 ≤0 2x − 1 x= 7 or 5 x= T 59. ⎥ ∪ [ 2. x = −6 or 1 2 F T T -2 The solution set is (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . x −2≥0 x+2 x 2( x + 2) − ≥0 x+2 x+2 x − 2x − 4 ≥0 x+2 −x − 4 ≥0 x+2 1 −1 < 0 x −3 1 x−3 − <0 x−3 x−3 1− x + 3 <0 x −3 −x + 4 <0 x−3 x = –4 or x = –2 x = 4 or x = 3 F F 3 F -6 7 5 1 <1 x−3 T x = −2 T 1 2 58. 4 The solution set is (−∞. Section 2. − 6] ∪ (−2. –2). ∞ ) . ∞). Inc. x−2 ≤2 x+2 x−2 −2≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2 ( x + 2) ≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2x − 4 ≤0 x+2 −x − 6 ≤0 x+2 T T F –4 –2 The solution set is [–4. 3) ∪ (4. f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 2 x2 − 5x + 2 ≥ 0 Solve 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 2 T F 1 2 T 2 1⎤ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. x ≥2 x+2 60.

− 1) ∪ [1. thus. thus.Polynomial and Rational Functions 62. f ( x) = x −1 2x − 1 x −x + 1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 2x − 1 2x − 1 1 x= or x = 1 2 The domain of this function requires that F T 1 2 F 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. 4⎠ ⎝ 63. The domain is ( −∞. it must be included in the domain. it must be included in the domain. f ( x) = 2x −1 x +1 The domain of this function requires that T F 2x x −1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 x +1 x +1 x = −1 or x = 1 T -1 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. ⎝2 ⎦ 364 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 64. ⎟ ∪ ( 2. 1⎥ . ⎛1 ⎤ The domain is ⎜ . Inc. 1 f ( x) = 4x − 9x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 > 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(4 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 4 2 T F 1 4 T 2 1⎞ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) .

−3. x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 or x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 ( x + 6 )( x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 8 )( x − 6 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −8 ) −9 ( −9 ) 2 x=6 Test Conclusion + 2 ( −9 ) − 36 > 12 ( −∞.7 x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 2 x − 36 < −12 or x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 x 2 + 2 x − 24 < 0 x 2 + 2 x − 48 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. −8 ) ∪ ( −6. 4 ) 0 36 > 12. ∞ ) or { x x < −8 or − 6 < x < 4 or x > 6} . False to the solution set. 6 ) solution set. ( 6. 6 ) does not belong 1 > 12. − 6. and 1 . The solution set is ( −∞. 66. False ( −6. Inc. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. −6 ) does not belong to the solution set. ( 4. 4 ) belongs to the 02 + 2 ( 0 ) − 36 > 12 ( 4. −6 ) −7 ( −7 ) 2 + 2 ( −7 ) − 36 > 12 1 > 12. True solution set. ( −6. 365 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. True ( −8. ∞ ) belongs to the 2 27 > 12. x2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 6 x + 1 < −8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 x2 + 6 x + 9 < 0 x2 + 6 x − 7 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. 4 and 6 . −8) belongs to the 27 > 12. 4 ) ∪ ( 6. solution set.PreCalculus 4E 65. x + 6 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 or x + 8 = 0 or x−6 = 0 x = −6 x=4 x = −8 The boundary points are −8. x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 or x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 ( x + 3) 2 =0 ( x + 7 )( x − 1) = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x + 3 = ± 0 or x + 7 = 0 3 0 7 x+ = x=− x =1 x = −3 The boundary points are −7. ∞ ) 7 7 + 2 ( 7 ) − 36 > 12 ( −8. True 5 52 + 2 ( 5) − 36 > 12 ( 6. .

∞ ) or { x x < −7 or x > 1} . −7 ) ∪ (1. False 2 3 3 ( −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 67. −3) ( −3. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. 3 1 > − . 1 ≥ 8. False (1. ∞ ) (1. 2 ) or { x −3 < x < 2} . True ( −7. 366 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. False 2 The solution set is ( −3.Polynomial and Rational Functions Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. . 1 −3 > . 3 3 − >0 x+3 x−2 3( x − 2) 3 ( x + 3) − >0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 3x − 6 − 3x − 9 <0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) −15 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) <0 Find the values of x that make the denominator zero. −7 ) belongs to the 17 ≥ 8. False ( −3. 2 ) 0 ( 2. 17 ≥ 8.1) does not belong 02 + 6 ( 0 ) + 1 > 8 0 solution set. −7 ) −8 ( −8 ) 2 Test Conclusion + 6 ( −8 ) + 1 > 8 ( −∞. ( −3. x+3 = 0 x−2=0 x = −3 x=2 The boundary points are −3 and 2. solution set. True 2 3 3 ( 2. −3) −5 ( −5 ) 2 ( −7. ∞ ) does not belong > 3+3 3− 2 to the solution set. −3) does not belong > −4 + 3 −4 − 2 to the solution set. Inc. ∞ ) belongs to the 22 + 6 ( 2 ) + 1 > 8 2 to the solution set. −3) does not belong + 6 ( −5 ) + 1 > 8 4 ≥ 8. True The solution set is ( −∞.1) to the solution set. 1 > 3. ∞ ) 3 Test Conclusion 3 3 ( −∞. 2 ) belongs to the > 0+3 0−2 solution set. 3 3 > x+3 x−2 Express the inequality so that one side is zero.

1) or { x x < −3 or − 1 < x < 1} . 1 > 1.PreCalculus 4E 68. 1 1 − > − . −x − 3 = 0 x +1 = 0 x −1 = 0 −3 = x x = −1 x =1 The boundary points are −3 . −3) belongs to the > −4 + 1 −3 − 1 solution set. −1) does not belong > −2 + 1 −2 − 1 to the solution set. −1 .1) 0 (1.7 1 2 > x + 1 x −1 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. True 1 2 (1. True 3 2 1 2 ( −3. Inc. . −3) ∪ ( −1. Section 2. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. 367 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) −2 ( −1. False 3 The solution set is ( −∞. and 1. ∞ ) does not belong > 2 + 1 2 −1 to the solution set. −3) ( −3.1) belongs to the > 0 + 1 0 −1 solution set. False 3 1 2 ( −3. 2 −1 > − . 1 2 − >0 x + 1 x −1 2 ( x + 1) x −1 − >0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) x −1 − 2x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) <0 −x − 3 <0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. 1 > −2. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 1 2 ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

4 > 0. x2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. 7 > 0. 2 ) ( 2. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . ( 2. −1) belongs to the solution set. . False 3 42 − 4 − 2 >0 4 − 4 ( 4) + 3 2 ( 3. False 3 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69.1) Conclusion ( −∞. 2 − > 0.52 − 2.5 ) + 3 − ( 3.52 − 1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.3) does not belong to the solution set. Inc.3) 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 x=3 x =1 The boundary points are −1 . True 3 2. 2 ) belongs to the solution set.52 − 4 (1. 2 ) ∪ ( 3. True 15 0 02 − 0 − 2 >0 0 − 4 (0) + 3 2 (1. 1.5 ) + 3 5 > 0.5 2. 2 and 3. 10 > 0.5 − 2 >0 1.5 4 ( −1.52 − 4 ( 2. 368 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. True 3 The solution set is ( −∞. ∞ ) to the solution set.5 − 2 >0 2. −1) ∪ (1.1) does not belong (1. −1) ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) − 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 4 ( −2 ) + 3 ( −1. Test Interval Test Number Test 2 −2 ( −∞. x2 − x − 2 >0 x2 − 4 x + 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.

3) does not belong − (1. 2 ) ∪ ( 3. 1.52 − 3 (1.1) does not belong to the solution set. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 ) + 2 >0 1. 6 > 0. 2 and 3. . 2 ) ( 2.5 ) − 3 ( 2. Section 2. x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x=2 x =1 x=3 The boundary points are −1 .5 1 > 0.5 ) − 3 (1. 2 ) belongs to the 2. Test Interval ( −∞. ( 3. −1) ∪ (1.5 2 > 0. ∞ ) 4 42 − 3 ( 4 ) + 2 4 − 2 ( 4) − 3 2 3 > 0.PreCalculus 4E 70. True 5 The solution set is ( −∞. 12 > 0. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . 369 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. −1) Test Number −2 x − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 2 ( −1. False 3 1. 1.52 − 3 ( 2. −1) belongs to the ( −2 ) − 3 ( −2 ) + 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 2 ( −2 ) − 3 2 solution set.52 − 2 (1. x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 x2 − 2x − 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. to the solution set.5) + 2 >0 2. False 7 >0 solution set. True 5 02 − 3 ( 0 ) + 2 0 − 2 ( 0) − 3 2 >0 ( −1. True 15 2.52 − 2 ( 2.3) − ( 3.1) 0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 Test Conclusion ( −∞. Inc.7 x2 − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.

∞ ) . Now. 2 2⎦ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ 72. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 73. 2 ) . the solution set is ⎨ x − 6 ≤ x ≤ − or x ≥ 1⎬ or ⎢ −6. − . x2 − 4 the boundaries are −2 . 370 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and 1. . Now. and 1. − ⎥ ∪ [1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Now. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≤ 0 . we verified that the boundaries are −6 . We verify this 2 numerically by substituting these values into the function: f ( −6 ) = 2 ( −6 ) + 11( −6 ) − 7 ( −6 ) − 6 = 2 ( −216 ) + 11( 36 ) − ( −42 ) − 6 = −432 + 396 + 42 − 6 = 0 3 2 3 2 1 11 7 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ − ⎟ − 7 ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = − + + − 6 = 0 2 2 2 2 8 4 2 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ f (1) = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 (1) − 6 = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 − 6 = 2 + 11 − 7 − 6 = 0 3 2 1 Thus. 1 3 ≤− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + ≤0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) Simplify the left side of the inequality: 3( x + 2) 4 ( x + 1) x−2 x − 2 + 3x + 6 4x + 4 x +1 . Inc. Thus. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 ≥ 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 ≥ 0 1 The graph of f ( x ) = 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 appears to cross the x-axis at −6 . and 1. the solution set is ⎨ x x < −6 or − < x < 1⎬ or 2 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( −∞. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≥ 0 . the curve is below the x-axis when x < −6 and when − 1 ⎧ 1 ⎫ < x < 1 . −1 . −6 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞ . + = = = = 4 ( x + 2 ) 4 ( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x 2 − 4 x +1 crosses the x-axis at −1 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 71. Thus. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 < 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 < 0 1 In Problem 63. These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. −2 ) ∪ [ −1. the solution set is { x x < −2 or − 1 ≤ x < 2} or ( −∞. Thus. the curve is below the x-axis when x < −2 and when −1 < x < 2 . Thus. These intervals are The graph of f ( x ) = indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. and 1.1⎟ . We need to find the intervals on which 2 f ( x ) < 0 . − . − . the boundaries are −6 . and has vertical asymptotes at x = −2 and x = 2 . These intervals are 2 1 indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. the curve is above the x-axis when −6 < x < − 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ and when x > 1 .

0875(35)2 − 0.4(35) + 66.0875 x 2 + 1. 77. The interval is ⎜ 0. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) > 0 . ⎟ .7 1 3 >− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + >0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) x +1 >0 ( x + 2)( x − 2) The boundaries are −2 . The function values and the data are identical. Thus.0875(35) 2 + 1. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well. These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. 3) . Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c. 75. ∞ ) . ⎝ 2⎠ The boundaries are 0 and 76.6 ≈ 185 feet b.6 ≈ 160 feet g (35) = 0.9 x + 11. 371 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Testing each interval shows that the diver will be higher than the cliff for the first half 2 ⎛ 1⎞ second after beginning the jump. The curve is above the x-axis when −2 < x < −1 and when x > 2 . Inc.PreCalculus 4E 74. the solution set is { x −2 < x < −1 or x > 2} or ( −2. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 8t + 87 The diver’s height will exceed that of the cliff when s (t ) > 87 −16t 2 + 8t + 87 > 87 −16t 2 + 8t > 0 −8t (2t − 1) > 0 1 .6 a. −1 . f (35) = 0. f ( x) = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 g ( x) = 0. and 2. The interval is ( 0. Section 2.0875 x 2 − 0. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 48t + 160 The ball’s height will exceed that of the rooftop when s (t ) > 160 −16t 2 + 48t + 160 > 160 −16t 2 + 48t > 0 −16t (t − 3) > 0 The boundaries are 0 and 3. Testing each interval shows that the ball will be higher than the rooftop for the first three seconds after the throw. −1) ∪ ( 2.4 x + 66.9(35) + 11.

On dry pavement.4 x + 66.4(50) + 66.0875) x ≈ −89 or 68 372 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 x + 473.4) 2(0.6 a.0875)(528.0875 x 2 − 0.4 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(1. f (55) = 0.0875) x ≈ −71 or 76 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30.0875 x 2 + 1.0875)(473.9 x + 11. x= Interval Test Value 50 ( 30.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.6 g ( x) = 0.0875(55)2 + 1.6 > 540.9 x + 528.4 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. f ( x) = 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions d. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. we must test the following intervals.6 > 540 901. 78. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well. 0.4(100) + 66. 540).0875 x 2 + 1. 0.6 > 540 265. This is represented on graph (b) to the right of point (76.0875(55)2 − 0.4(55) + 66.4 x + 66.9 x + 528.35 > 540.4) 2(0.0875(100)2 − 0. 0. ( 76.0875 x 2 + 1.9 x + 11.4) ± (−0.6 > 540 0.0875 x 2 − 0. 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .6 ≈ 381 feet b. 76 ) does not belong to the solution set.4 x + 473. ∞ ) 100 0.6 > 540 0. 76 ) Test Conclusion 0. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c.9) ± (1. True ( 30.0875 x 2 − 0.0875 x 2 − 0. Inc. d.6 ≈ 309 feet g (55) = 0. False ( 76. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 76 miles per hour.4)2 − 4(0.9(55) + 11.0875(50)2 − 0.9)2 − 4(0.0875 x 2 + 1.

6 ) belongs to the 25 ( 0 ) − 0 ≤ 114 2 0 ≤ 114. if the area of the rectangle is not to exceed 114 square feet. False ( 68. Let x = the length of the rectangle. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. ∞ ) 100 0. This is represented on graph (a) to the right of point (68. 79. the length of the shorter side must be 6 feet or less. True to the solution set.6 > 540 325. so we have that width = A ( x ) ≤ 114 x ( 25 − x ) ≤ 114 25 x − x 2 ≤ 114 Solve the related equation 25 x − x 2 = 114 0 = x 2 − 25 x + 114 0 = ( x − 19 )( x − 6 ) Apply the zero product principle: x − 19 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = 19 x=6 The boundary points are 6 and 19.6 > 540. ∞ ) belongs to the 25 ( 20 ) − 20 ≤ 114 2 100 ≤ 114. 68) does not belong 2 0. we must test the following intervals.35 > 540. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 68. ∞ ) 20 solution set. ( 6. On wet pavement. True solution set. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. then the width is 19 feet.0875(100)2 + 1. A = ( length )( width ) .PreCalculus 4E Section 2. False to the solution set. Interval Test Value 50 ( 30. 540). 373 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9(100) + 11. Since Perimeter = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) . we know 50 = 2 x + 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 Now. True ( 6. If the length is less than 6 feet. then the width is greater than 19 feet.19 ) does not belong 25 (10 ) − 10 ≤ 114 2 150 ≤ 114. 6 ) 0 Test Conclusion ( −∞.68) Test Conclusion ( 30.7 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30. If the length is 6 feet. Inc.19 ) 10 (19.0875(50) + 1.9(50) + 11. Thus. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 68 miles per hour. (19. .6 > 540 1076.

-5) ∪ (2. Answers may vary. . 81. The graph is below or equal to the x-axis for −3 ≤ x ≤ . The solution set is (−∞. Graph y1 = 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 in a standard window. ∞). 2l + 2w = P 2l + 2w = 180 2l = 180 − 2w l = 90 − w We want to restrict the area to 800 square feet. ⎥ . Test Test Test Conclusion Interval Number ( 0. A ≤ 800 l ⋅ w ≤ 800 ( 90 − w ) w ≤ 800 90w − w2 ≤ 800 − w2 + 90w − 800 ≤ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 ≥ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 = 0 ( w − 80 )( w − 10 ) = 0 w − 80 = 0 or w − 10 = 0 w = 80 w = 10 Assuming the width is the shorter side. Inc. 86.10 ) (10. 2⎭ 2⎦ ⎣ 374 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.10 ) is part of the solution set (10.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. – 85. 1 87. That is. The length of the shorter side cannot exceed 10 feet. 45 ) is not part of the solution set The solution set is {w | 0 < w ≤ 10} or ( 0. 45) 5 90 ( 5 ) − ( 5 ) ≤ 800 true 20 90 ( 20 ) − ( 20 ) ≤ 800 false 2 2 ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we ignore the larger solution.10] . 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x − 3 ≤ x ≤ ⎩ 1⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ ⎬ or ⎢ −3.

1 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.1125) x ≈ −59 or 60 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0.1) ± (−0. The solution set is (–2.9 > 455 0. −1) ∪ [ 2.1x + 399. x−4 in a standard viewing window.9 b.7 88.1125 x 2 − 0. 90. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −∞. 91. ∞).1x + 399. Inc. Graph y1 = 1 < x ≤ 4. x= 375 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .1125)(399.1125 x 2 − 0. ∞ ) 1 2 and y2 = x +1 x+4 y1 less than or equal to y2 for −4 < x < −1 or x ≥ 2 . a. 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4]. x+2 and y2 = 2 x−3 y1 less than or equal to y2 for x < 3 or x ≥ 8 . 89. f ( x) = 0.1) 2(0. 0.1)2 − 4(0.1x + 55.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.1x + 55. The graph is below the x-axis for x −1 The solution set is (1.1125 x 2 − 0. we must test the following intervals. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −4.1125 x 2 − 0.3) ∪ [8. –1) or (2. ∞ ) 92.1 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0.

makes sense 95.8 > 446. We do not know if x + 3 is positive or negative. On dry pavement. Inc.9 > 455 1170. we must test the following intervals.7(100) + 37. f ( x) = 0.55 > 446.7 x + 408.8 b.2) 2(0. True ( 0.1(50) + 55.2 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. A sample change is: The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} or ( −∞. On wet pavement.1125(100) − 0. we would not know whether or not to reverse the order of the inequality. does not make sense. −5) ∪ ( 5.1(100) + 55.7(10) + 37. 1. does not make sense.52 ) Test Conclusion 2 0.7 x + 37. ∞ ) 100 0.9 > 455. a.1375 x 2 + 0. 94. A sample change is: The inequalities have different solution sets. The value. but not included in the domain of the second inequality. Sample explanation: To solve this inequality you must first subtract 2 from both sides. 101. Changes to make the statement true will vary.52 ) does not belong to the solution set. false. Explanations will vary.1375(10) + 0.1375) x ≈ −57 or 52 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.1375 x 2 + 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 93. ( 52. 98. ∞ ) 100 2 0.8 > 446 1482.1125(50) − 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. False ( 52. ∞ ) .Polynomial and Rational Functions Interval Test Value 50 ( 0. Explanations will vary. ( 60. 0. makes sense 97. Thus. 0. A sample change is: The inequality cannot be solved by multiplying both sides by x + 3. .1375 x 2 + 0. stopping distances will exceed 446 feet for speeds exceeding 52 miles per hour.7)2 − 4(0. 99.8 > 446 0. false.15 > 455. 60 ) Test Conclusion 2 0. true 376 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 > 446 58.7) ± (0. false.9 > 455 332. 60 ) does not belong to the solution set.7 x + 408. 100.1375 x 2 + 0. Sample explanation: Polynomials are defined for all values.1375(100)2 + 0.1375)(408. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. is included in the domain of the first inequality. False ( 60. True ( 0. Interval Test Value 10 ( 0. stopping distances will exceed 455 feet for speeds exceeding 60 miles per hour. 96.7 x + 37.

y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 y = 16 ⋅ 52 y = 400 377 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. c.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. the solution is all real numbers except 2. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 4 x2 − 8x + 7 < 0 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 = 7 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. One possible solution: ≥0 x+4 9 − x2 ≥ 0 (3 − x)(3 + x) ≥ 0 3− x = 0 3+ x = 0 x = 3 or x = −3 104. the solution is the empty set. 108. .imaginary The solution set is all real numbers. the solution is all real numbers except 2. ∅. 4 x2 − 8x + 7 > 0 27 − 3(−4) ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 107. Test –4: −21 ≥ 0 no graph. T –3 106. 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 x−3 103. c. and the reciprocal of zero is undefined. a. x= 110. the solution includes only 2. One possible solution: x 2 − 2 x − 15 ≤ 0 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 109. 3]. Inc. 8 ± 64 − 112 8 8 ± −48 ⇒ imaginary x= 8 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 > 0 7 > 0 True The inequality is true for all numbers. b. 3 2 Test 0: 27 − 3(0) 2 ≥ 0 27 ≥ 0 True Test 4: 27 − 3(4)2 ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 8 ± (−8) 2 − 4(4)(7) x= 2(4) −21 ≥ 0 no graph -imaginary The solution set is [–3.7 102. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. y = kx 2 64 = k ⋅ 22 64 = 4k 16 = k b. 105. Because any number squared is positive. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because any non-zero number squared is positive. a. ∅. The solution set is the empty set.

W = 6t f = 512 A 10 inch violin string will have a frequency of 512 cycles per second. 000 ⋅ 40 =k 60.6(25)3 = 9375 The 25-foot long shark was 9375 pounds. W = kt 30 = k (5) 6=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. f k can be expressed as L = .6l 3 Use the equation to find w when l = 25. a.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. 000 8=k 3. l can be expressed as w = kl 2 . y varies directly as x is expressed as y = kx. Inc. P k ⋅ 60. t can be expressed as W = kt . w = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6l 3 = 0. y varies inversely as x is expressed as y = 5120 f 5120 10 = f 10 f = 5120 L= W = 6t Use the equation to find W when t = 11 .8 Check Point Exercises 1. w = kl 3 k x 96 y= x y= 2025 = k (15)3 0. w . varies directly as the time. 000 12. Section 2. x The length. 000 = 40 12. W = kt k . = 6(11) = 66 A shower lasting 11 minutes will use 66 gallons of water. Use the given values to find k . k x k 12 = 8 96 = k y= 111. k L= f k 8= 640 5120 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. The weight. L . w = kl 3 96 x 96 y= 3 y = 32 y= c. k L= f 5120 L= f Use the equation to find f when L = 10 . w = 0. 378 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use the given values to find k .6 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. y varies directly as the cube of x is expressed as y = kx3 . f Use the given values to find k . varies directly as the cube of the length. W . The volume of water. b. varies inversely as the frequency. kA S= 112. .

as M = P Use the given values to find k . y = 13 x = 13 ⋅12 = 156. k .8 1. we have y = 1 2 hr . Inc. Use the given values to find k. When x = 12. 120π = k (10)(6)2 π 3 =k Therefore. y = 9 x = 9 ⋅13 = 117 3. Use the given values to find k. kQ M = P k (16) 32 = 4 8=k Exercise Set 2. k y= x k 12 = 5 k 5 ⋅12 = 5 ⋅ 5 60 = k 60 The equation becomes y = . V varies jointly with h and r 2 and can be modeled as V = khr 2 . 2 8Q P 8(24) M = 8 M = 24 It will take 24 minutes for 8 people to solve 24 problems. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 4.8 let M represent the number of minutes let Q represent the number of problems let P represent the number of people M varies directly as Q and inversely as P is expressed kQ . Use the given values to find k. y = kx 65 = k ⋅ 5 65 k ⋅ 5 = 5 5 13 = k The equation becomes y = 13 x. V = khr 2 4. 3 (2)(12) 2 = 96π cubic feet k x k 6= 3 18 = k y= y= 18 =2 9 379 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the volume equation is V = V= π 3 Since y varies inversely with x. y = kx 45 = k ⋅ 5 9=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. y = = 30. x 60 When x = 2. kQ M = P 8Q M = P Use the equation to find M when P = 8 and Q = 24 . x . 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. M = 5.

y = kxz 1 14400 = 300 ( 2400 )( 6 ) = 48 48 Since y varies jointly as a and b and inversely as kab . Inc. Since y varies jointly as x and z. b = 3. we have y = 2 . kx y= 2 z k ( 50 ) 20 = 52 k ( 50 ) 20 = 25 20 = 2k 8.Polynomial and Rational Functions 5. 2 The equation becomes y = y= 45mn 2 45(3)(4) 2 2160 = = = 216 10 10 p 380 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a= 7= 7= kb c2 k (9) ( 6) k (9) 2 36 k 7= 4 28 = k a= 7. we have y = c Use the given values to find k. The equation becomes y = c When a = 5. y = ( 8 )(12 ) = 240. we have y = kxz. Since y varies inversely as x and inversely as the kx square of z. 10 x 10 ( 3) 10 ( 3) 30 5 y= 2 = 2 = = = . 2 5 When x = 8 and z = 12. z Use the given values to find k. z2 When x = 3 and z = 6. kab y= c k (3)(2) 12 = 25 k (6) 12 = 5 k (6) 12(5) = (5) 5 60 = 6k 60 6k = 6 6 10 = k 10ab . 175 = k ( 2100 )( 4 ) 175 = k ( 8400 ) 1 =k 48 C= 9. Use the given values to find k. c = 9. the square root of c. 28 ( 4 ) ( 8) 2 = 28 ( 4 ) 64 = C = kAT 7 4 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. z 6 36 36 6 6. 3 c 9 y= kmn 2 p k (2)(1) 2 6 2k 15 = 6 2k 15(6) = (6) 6 90 = 2k 15 = 25 = k ( 2 )( 5 ) 25 = k (10 ) 25 k (10 ) = 10 10 5 =k 2 k = 45 5 xz. 10ab 10(5)(3) 150 y= = = = 50 . 10 = k The equation becomes y = 10 x . .

Solving for y: x = kz ( y + w) x= xy = y ⋅ x= x = kzy + kzw kz 3 y x − kzw = kzy x − kzw kzy = kz kz x − kzw y= kz xy = kz 3 xy kz 3 = x x kz 3 y= x 14. Solving for y : y= x = kyz 2 x kyz 2 = 2 2 kz kz x y= 2 kz 13. Section 2.8 x = kyz . x = kz ( y + w) . x = kz ( y − w) x = kzy − kzw k3 z x= y x + kzw = kzy x + kzw kzy = kz kz x + kzw y= kz k3 z yx = y ⋅ y yx = k 3 z yx k 3 z = x x y= k3 z x 381 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x kyz = . Inc. x = kyz 2 .PreCalculus 4E 11. y Solving for y kz 3 x= y 16. w Solving for y: kyz x= w x ( w ) = ( w ) kyzw x w = kyz x w kyz = kz kz 12. Solving for y: x = kyz 15. . kyz w2 ⎛ w2 ⎞ w2 kyz ⎜ ⎟x = kz w2 ⎝ kz ⎠ xw2 y= kz 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall. kz yz x y= kz x= kyz . kz 3 . x w kz 18.

4 k (12 ) = 12 12 8.9 = k The equation becomes T = 0. 22. y−w Solving for y: kz x= y−w ( y − w) x = ( y − w) 8. Since T varies directly as B. Use the given values to find k.75 20 = f A force of 20 pounds is needed. When h = 107.000496 (1.75 f = 0. Use the given values to find k. 225. T = kB 3.9 B . we have T = kB . w = kh3 3.4 .4 k= = 0. . we have w = kh 3 .7 D = 0.6 k (4) = 4 4 0.75 f 15 0. B = kD kz .75 0.4 = k (12 ) 8. T = 0. 170 = k ( 70 ) 3 170 = k ( 343.7 56 D= = 80 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 D kz y−w xy − wx = kz xy = kz + wx xy kz + wx = x x xw + kz y= x 20. When B = 6 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 19. 382 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use the given values to find k. The tail length is 5. yx + xw = kz yx = kz − xw yx kz − xw = x x kz − xw y= x 15 = 0. 56 = 0.75 f = 0. When B = 56 . 1 (186 ) = 31 6 A person who weighs 186 pounds on Earth will weigh 31 pounds on the moon.000496h 3 . Robert Wadlow’s weight was approximately 607 pounds. Inc. kz y+w ( y + w) x = ( y + w) kz y+w 24.7 12 The equation becomes B = 0. 043) ≈ 607.7 0.000496 (107 ) M = kE 60 = k ( 360 ) 60 k ( 360 ) = 360 360 1 =k 6 M = d = kf 9 = k (12) 9 k (12) = 12 12 0. x= 56 0. 000 ) k ( 343.6 = k (4) 25.7 D.7 It was dropped from 80 inches. x= 23.4 feet.75 = k d = 0. Since B varies directly as D. 000 0. 000 343. we have B = kD. 000 ) 170 = 343.000496 = k The equation becomes w = 0.9(6) = 5. 21. 3 w = 0. Since a man’s weight varies directly as the cube of his height.

we have k I= .5 When d = 2. i= k d k 1000 (1000)4. The equation becomes I = d2 562. d k 62.5 = k 562.4 = (1000) k 1000 4400 = k 4400 4400 = = 0.5 562. k B= r k 28 = 4 ⎛k⎞ 28 ( 4 ) = 28 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4⎠ 112 = k 112 .5d 2 d 2 = 625 d = 625 d = 25 A water pipe with a 25 centimeter diameter can serve 1250 houses. 28.4 d2 502 2500 The illumination is 2. 50 = k ⋅ 10 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.5 = 9 ⎛k ⎞ 9 ( 62. Inc. k I= 2. h = 0.5d 2 h = 0. k d2 k 3. d Use the given values to find k.5 The banking angle is 32 when the turning radius is 3.5 ) = 9 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ 562. Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance.5 . The equation becomes B = r 112 112 When r = 3.5 = 2 3 k 62.5 . Since the banking angle varies inversely as k the turning radius. b.52 6. t= 4. we have pressure.5d 2 a. h = 0.8 h = kd 2 26.5 = k 29. r Use the given values to find k. we have B = .75 = 2 40 k 3. r 3.88 d 5000 The water temperature is 0.5 feet.5d 2 1250 = 0.4 foot-candles at a distance of 50 feet. 2 h = 0.25 The intensity is 90 milliroentgens per hour. .75 = (1600) k 1600 6000 = k 6000 6000 6000 = = = 2.5(30) 2 h = 450 A water pipe with a 30 centimeter diameter can serve 450 houses.88 Celsius at a depth of 5000 meters.5 .4 = 30. 27. t= 383 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.75 = 1600 i= (1600)3. I = = = 90 2. B = = = 32 .

126540 = 703 180 703w The equation becomes I = 2 . we k have I = 2 .4. h When w = 170 and h = 70. we kw have I = 2 . km c k (25) 125 = 20 k (25) 20(125) = (20) 20 2500 = 25k 2500 25k = 25 25 100 = k i= 35. 4 k a k 1 k t= = ⋅ 3a 3 a t= A year will seem to be 1 of a year. 1 . kw I= 2 h k (180 ) 35. 3 384 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. h Use the given values to find k. If you move to a seat twice as d far. Inc. D = 10 . e = kmv 2 36 = k (8)(3) 2 36 = k (8)(9) 36 = 72k 36 72k = 72 72 k = 0. The intensity will I= = = ⋅ (2d ) 2 4d 2 4 d 2 100m c 100(40) 80 = c 4000 80 = c 4000 80c = c ⋅ c 80c = 4000 80c 4000 = 80 80 c = 50 The chronological age is 50. (70)2 This person has a BMI of 24. k= 32. 3 The heat loss is 1800 Btu . So we have k k 1 k . So the sound 4 1 of what it was originally. Since index varies directly as weight and inversely as the square of one’s height. then d = 2d . i= be multiplied by a factor of intensity is 36.5(4)(6) 2 = 0. Use the given values to find k.15 = 3600 k (180) (3600)35.15 = 3600 126540 = k (180) 1200 = k (3 ⋅ 6)(20) 1200 = 360k 1200 360k = 360 360 10 k= 3 The equation becomes L = 10 AD 3 When A = 6 ⋅ 9 = 54 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 33.4 and is not overweight. we have L = kAD . 34.15 = 602 k (180) 35.5(4)(36) = 72 A mass of 4 grams and velocity of 6 centimeters per second has a kinetic energy of 72 ergs. L = 10 ( 9 ⋅ 6 ) (10) = 1800 . Since heat loss varies jointly as the area and temperature difference. L = kAD 31. Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the sound source. . 703(170) I= ≈ 24.5mv 2 = 0.5 e = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Current varies inversely as resistance. 51. 000 = ( 420 ) 39. the wind will exert a force of 360 pounds on the window. does not make sense. 000)(220. Answers will vary. If v = x then P = k ( x) 2 = kx 2 If v = 2 x then P = k (2 x) 2 = 4kx 2 If the wind speed doubles the pressure is 4 times more destructive. varies directly as the square of wind velocity. makes sense 53. 000 = 326.02 P1 P2 . v. P. 0. 000 ) (3. Sample explanation: A direct variation with a positive constant of variation will have both variables increase simultaneously. kP P C = 12 2 d k ( 777.5 k 12(0.87 × 1012 ) 176. Inc. 150 = k (4 ⋅ 5)(30) 150 = k (20)(900) 150 = 18000k 150 18000k = 18000 150 1 =k 120 1 1 (3 ⋅ 4)(60) 2 f = as 2 = 120 120 1 (12)(3600) = 120 = 360 Yes. can be modeled as P = kv 2 . k 12 = 0. 38. Using one of I the given ordered pairs to find k . Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 k =6 6 The equation becomes R = .8 a.5) = (0. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 37.27k 0. d b. Since the average number of phone calls varies jointly as the product of the populations and inversely as the square of the distance. makes sense 52. Since the current varies inversely as k resistance we have R = .875 There are approximately 17. I 40. .5) 0.02 ≈ k The equation becomes C = c. 000) 326. 400 326. c. d2 0. 695. Explanations will vary. a. 000 = 16269841. Use the given values to find k. Sample explanation: For an inverse variation.875 daily phone calls. 385 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. C= f = kas 2 b. the independent variable can not be zero. 000) (400) 2 = 17. Answers may vary. 2 k ( 2. Pressure. 2 49. Explanations will vary. 50. does not make sense. – 48. we have kP P C = 12 2 .02(650.

Inc. the Hubble telescope is able to see about 7 times farther than a ground-based telescope. = 7 ⋅ 2 + 7(3i ) + (−i )(2) + (−i )(3i ) k . I. (3 − 4i ) 2 = 32 + 2 ⋅ 3(−4i ) + (−4i )2 = 9 − 24i − 16 = −7 − 24i 57. 6 6 5−i = ⋅ 5+i 5+i 5−i 30 − 6i = 25 + 1 30 − 6i = 26 15 − 3i = 13 15 3 = − i 13 13 386 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The Heat. I. Illumination. r. Answers may vary. can be modeled as I = 2 . x x 4. kv 2 H= r If the voltage remains constant. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. can be modeled as I = 2 . to triple the heat the resistant must be reduced by a multiple of 3. 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (7 + 8i )(7 − 8i ) = 7 2 + 82 = 49 + 64 = 113 58. 4i (3i − 2) = (4i )(3i ) + (4i )(−2) = 12i 2 − 8i = −12 − 8i 56. 59. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. d If I = x then x = 1. d k k If d = 15 then I = 2 = 15 225 k k If d = 30 then I = 2 = 30 900 900 =4 Note that 225 If the distance doubles the illumination is 4 times less intense. x 1 1 k x= 2 ⇒d = x then 50 50 d (7 − i )(2 + 3i ) = 14 + 21i − 2i + 3 = 17 + 19i 50k k = 50 . d. Since 50 ≈ 7 . . d. 60. H. 55. and inversely as the resistance. 3. v.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. Illumination. 5. Chapter 2 Review Exercises If I = k ⇒d= d2 (8 – 3i) – (17 – 7i) = 8 – 3i – 17 + 7i = –9 + 4i 2. varies directly as the square of the voltage.

⎩2 2 2 2 ⎭ = (4i − 3i ) 2 =i 2 13. 2 ± −12 2 2 ± 2i 3 x= 2 x= x =1 ±i 3 { domain: (−∞. 2 x − 2x + 4 = 0 2 =4 x + 1 = ±2 x = −1 ± 2 x = −3 or x = 1 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) + 4 = 3 2 x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(4) 2(1) x= 2 ± 4 − 16 2 The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) range: ( −∞. Chapter 2 Review Exercises 3 + 4i 3 + 4i 4 + 2i = ⋅ 4 − 2i 4 − 2i 4 + 2i 12 + 6i + 16i + 8i 2 = 16 − 4i 2 12 + 22i − 8 = 16 + 4 4 + 22i = 20 1 11 = + i 5 10 12. x= 6 ± 36 − 40 4 6 ± −4 x= 4 6 ± 2i x= 4 6 2i x= ± 4 4 3 1 = ± i 2 2 = 4i 2 − 3i 2 ⎧3 1 3 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − i. + i ⎬ . 9. 8. Inc. (−2 + −100) = (−2 + i 100) −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) x= −32 − −18 = i 32 − i 18 = i 16 ⋅ 2 − i 9 ⋅ 2 2 2 2x − 6x + 5 = 0 2 = (−2 + 10i ) 2 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. 4 + −8 4 + i 8 4 + 2i 2 = = = 2+i 2 2 2 2 11. . 4] } The solution set is 1 − i 3 . 1 + i 3 .PreCalculus 4E 7. 387 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x + 1) + 4 2 = 4 − 40i + (10i ) 2 = 4 − 40i − 100 = −96 − 40i ( x + 1) 10.

The axis of symmetry is x = –4. . ∞) range: ( −∞. ∞) range: [ −2.025) f (20) = −0. f (−3) = 2(−3) 2 + 12(−3) + 703 = 685 domain: (−∞. –2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 4)2 − 2 16. 2a 2(2) The minimum value is f (−3). −57 ] f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 12 x + 703 a.025 x 2 + x + 6 1 b x=− =− = 20 2a 2(−0. ∞) range: [ 685. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 18. a. f ( x) = −0.025 x 2 + x + 6 f (0) = −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4] b. domain: (−∞. f ( x) = −0. 2a 2(−1) The maximum value is f (7). ∞) range: [ −8. f ( x ) = 2 x2 − 4 x − 6 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 6 − 2 2 ( x − 1) − 8 2 ( x + 4)2 = 2 x+4=± 2 x = −4 ± 2 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 4)2 − 2 = 14 = –1 axis of symmetry: x = 1 domain: (−∞. Inc. Since a > 0 the parabola opens up with the minimum value occurring at 12 b x=− =− = −3 . 388 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. ∞ ) 17.025(20) 2 + (20) + 6 = 16 The maximum height of 16 feet occurs when the ball is 20 yards downfield. Since a < 0 the parabola opens down with the maximum value occurring at 14 b x=− =− =7. ∞ ) 15. f ( x) = − x 2 + 14 x − 106 a. f (x) = (x + 4)2 − 2 vertex: (–4. domain: (−∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. ∞) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) The maximum height will occur at the vertex. 19. f ( x ) = − x + 2x + 3 f (7) = −(7) 2 + 14(7) − 106 = −57 2 = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 b. domain: (−∞.025(0) 2 + (0) + 6 = 6 The ball was tossed at a height of 6 feet.

PreCalculus 4E c. y= A ( x ) = −2 x + 1000 x 2 Since a = −2 is negative. 24. x= = 250 (1000 − 500 ) = 250 ( 500 ) = 125. The minimum product is −7 ⋅ 7 = −49.7 4 125 feet by 166. so graph (c) is the best match. − 5.025 x 2 + x + 6 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = 14 x + x 2 = x 2 + 14 x.3 yards downfield. The numbers which minimize the product are 7 and −7 . The maximum area is A ( 250 ) = 250 (1000 − 2 ( 250 ) ) −b −10 5 = = = 1. . f ( x ) = − x3 + 12 x 2 − x The graph rises to the left and falls to the right and goes through the origin. 2a 2 ( −2 ) −4 23. A ( x ) = x (1000 − 2 x ) 1000 − 3x 4 3 2 x + 250x 4 −b −250 = = 125 2a 3 2 − 4 1000 − 3(125) = 166. The area is maximized at 125. The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees.25 or 1 tree 2a 2(−4) 4 The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. Maximize the area using A = lw.7 feet will maximize the area. 2a 2 (1) 2 −(1) ± (1) 2 − 4(−0. y = 36(150 – 4x) = 36(150 – 4·1) = 5256 The maximum yield will be 5256 pounds. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = −0. 3x + 4y = 1000 4y = 1000 – 3x 1000 − 3x y= 4 A=x =− x= 20. We need to minimize the function P ( x ) = x (14 + x ) 0 = −0.025)(6) x= 2(−0. 000.000 square yards when the width is 250 yards and the length is 1000 − 2 ⋅ 250 = 500 yards.3(reject) The ball will hit the ground 45.3. Let x = one of the numbers Let 14 + x = the other number The other number is 14 + x = 14 + ( −7 ) = 7.025 x 2 + x + 6 21. 389 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 1000 1000 b x=− =− =− = 250. Chapter 2 Review Exercises The ball is at a height of 0 when it hits the ground. y = (35 + x)(150 – 4x) 2 y = 5250 + 10x − 4x The maximum area is achieved when the width is 250 yards. Inc. The minimum is at b 14 14 x=− =− = − = −7. The football’s path: 22.025) x ≈ 45. d.

f (− x) ≠ f ( x). This function is not useful in modeling the number of thefts over an extended period of time. 26. b. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. f ( x ) = x3 − 2 x − 1 f (1) = (1)3 − 2(1) − 1 = −2 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 1 = 3 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 21x 2 + 100. Since the graph falls to the right. the number of thefts would be negative. Since n is odd and an < 0. multiplicity 5. f ( x) = x3 − x 2 − 9 x + 9 33. Publishing as Prentice Hall. In the polynomial. 2. we know that the elk population will die out over time. h ( x ) = x5 − 5 x 3 + 4 x The graph falls to the left and rises to the right and crosses the y-axis at zero. the f ( x) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 1) zeros: 3. multiplicity 1. multiplicity 2. 29. the graph touches the x-axis 390 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( − x ) = −4 x + x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x) origin symmetry c. a. This means that the graph will fall to the right. f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 ( x + 5)3 x = 1. –2 = x 2 ( x − 5) − 25( x − 5) = ( x 2 − 25)( x − 5) = ( x + 5)( x − 5) 2 x = –5. 1 leading coefficient is –1 and the degree is 4. f ( x) = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) zeros: x = 0. − 3. we know that even-degree polynomials with negative leading coefficient will fall to the left and to the right. Inc. Since n is odd and an > 0. f ( x) = − x 4 + 1 f(x) falls to the left and to the right so graph (d) is the best match. 32. The leading coefficient is –0. 27. Applying the Leading Coefficient Test. the graph crosses the x-axis x = 5. so graph (b) is the best match.Polynomial and Rational Functions 25. 31. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c. The model predicts that eventually. b. This is impossible. multiplicity 1. g ( x ) = x6 − 6 x 4 + 9 x 2 The graph rises to the left and rises to the right. . f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125 f ( x) = 4 x − x3 a. the graph touches the x-axis x = –5. the graph crosses the x-axis 34. 30. the graph crosses the x-axis x = –2. f (− x) = (− x )3 − (− x) 2 − 9(− x) + 9 = − x3 − x 2 + 9 x + 9 28. multiplicity 2. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. so graph (a) is the best match.87 and the degree is 3.

Inc. c. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 25(− x) 2 = − x 4 + 25 x 2 = f ( x) y-axis symmetry c. f (− x) = 3(− x)4 − 15(− x) 2 = 3x 4 + 15 x 3 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 5 391 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 2 c. 3 36.PreCalculus 4E 35. = − x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 zeros: x = 0. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c 3 x 4 − 15 x3 = 0 − x 4 + 25 x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 3x3 ( x − 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = 0. 5 − x 2 ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = –5. The graph rises to the left and to the right. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. a. f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 15 x 3 a. . f (− x) = −2 x3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x − 12 The graph falls to the left and to the right. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 6(− x)3 − 9(− x) = − x 4 − 6 x3 − 9 x 2 f (− x ) ≠ f ( x ) f (− x) ≠ f ( x). b. Since h is odd and an > 0. −2. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x 3 + 3x 2 − 8 x − 12 a. The graph falls to the left and to the right. b. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 6 x3 − 9 x 2 a. g ( x ) = − x 4 + 25 x 2 38. 0. 37. f (− x) = − f ( x) no symmetry f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry f(x) = (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x + 3) 3 zeros: x = 2.

x = 1 The roots at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. 5x + 1 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 7 x 2 + 9 x − 3 –13 5x + 5 2 −4 Quotient: 4 x 2 − 7 x + 5 − 2 4 x +1 20 x−2 –7 9 –3 –26 429 –5694 –33 438 –5697 Quotient: f (–13) = –5697 392 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(x) falls to the left and the right. 2 4x − 7x + 5 x + 1 4 x3 − 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 3 0 –2 –10 0 6 12 20 20 6 10 10 20 2 3 Quotient: 3x 3 + 6 x 2 + 10 x + 10 + 4 x3 + 4 x 2 − 7 x2 − 2 x −7 x 2 − 7 x 46. (3 x 4 − 2 x 2 − 10 x) ÷ ( x − 2) 2 41. f (0) = −(0)3 ( 0 + 4 ) ( 0 − 1) = 0 (3 x 4 + 11x 3 − 20 x3 + 7 x + 35) ÷ ( x + 5) 2 –5 The y-intercept is 0. x = 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. The root at –4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–4. 3 3 11 –20 7 35 –15 20 0 –35 –4 0 7 0 Quotient: 3 x − 4 x + 7 3 45. 0) 2 x2 − 4x + 1 5 x − 3 10 x 3 − 26 x 2 + 17 x − 13 10 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 20 x 2 + 17 x − 20 x 2 + 12 x 5 x − 13 f (0) = 2(0) 2 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 5x − 3 The y-intercept is 0. 0) − 2 x2 − 1 −2 x 2 − 1 0 44. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) rises to the left and the right. f ( x ) = 2 x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 42. − 10 Quotient: 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 − 2 x2 + 3x − 1 2 x + 1 4 x + 6 x + 3x − 1 2 43. x = –4. 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. Inc. 10 5x − 3 4 3 4 x2 + 2 x2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 + 3 x 40. f ( x ) = − x 3 ( x + 4 ) ( x − 1) 2 6 x2 + 3x Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 0. x = 1.

f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. 1 x = 1 or x = –2 The solution set is{1. −3 2 48. –2}. so f(x) = 0 has no negative solutions. ± q 3 3 3 3 3 0 –4 1 4 –4 1 4 4 1 is a zero. ± 8. ± 4. ± 2. ± 2. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 2 x3 + x + 5 c. so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 positive solutions. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 2 2 2 53. 3 2 55. so f(x) = 0 has 3 or 1 positive real roots. 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. are rational zeros. 1 sign variation ⇒ 1 positive real zero f (− x) = − x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 2 sign variations ⇒ 2 or no negative real zeros ( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 = 0 f ( x) = x − 6 x + 14 x − 14 x + 5 p : ± 1. 1 –13 6 4 10 –6 5 –3 0 f ( x ) = f ( − x ) = 2 x4 + 6 x2 + 8 No sign variations exist for either f(x) or f(–x). f ( x) = ( x − 2)(2 x + 5 x − 3) 2 q : ±1 = ( x − 2)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) p : ± 1. q : ±1 50. ± 8 b. 1 negative real zero. ± 3 51. Inc. x 3 − 17 x + 4 = 0 4 1 1 0 –17 4 4 16 –4 4 –1 0 c. 52. f ( − x ) = −2 x 5 + 3 x3 − 5 x 2 − 3x − 1 f(–x) has 2 sign variations. ± 5 4 p : ± 1. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. f(–x) has no sign variations. 49. ± 4 –1 6 1 –4 1 –6 5 –1 6 –5 1 0 –1 is a zero. . ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 4 x − 1) = 0 −4 ± 16 + 4 −4 ± 2 5 x= = = −2 ± 5 2 2 { } The solution set is 4. 1 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 q : ± 1. ± 4 q 1 Zeros: x = 2. 393 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± . ± 5 q a. ± 2. ± q 2 3 6 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 2 sign variations. ±3. ± . f(x) has 2 sign variations. . so no real roots exist. ± 2. ± . ±2. −2 − 5 . so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 negative solutions. p 8 4 2 1 : ± 1. ± . 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 4 x + 4) = 0 p: ±1 q: ±1. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 12 x − 8 p : ± 1. 1. b. 1 1 −1. ± . . f ( − x ) = −6 x 3 + x 2 + 4 x + 1 f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 2 x3 − 8 x + 5 1 sign variation. –2 are rational zeros. 3 2 f ( x) = 2 x 5 – 3 x3 – 5 x 2 + 3x – 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. d.PreCalculus 4E 47. ±6 p 1 1 1 : ± 1. ± 4. −2 + 5. p : ± 1.

±15 q: ±1. 2 2 2 −5 ± 29 2 ⎪⎧ 1 −5 + 29 −5 − 29 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎩2 2 2⎭ 2 sign variations.± . ± . ± 6 q 8 x 3 – 36 x 2 + 46 x – 15 = 0 a. ± 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±8 1 1 1 p : ± 1. 1 sign variation. ± 3. 8 9 –7 1 1 5 –1 10 –2 0 –36 46 –15 4 –16 15 –32 30 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 d. ( x + 1)(3x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 or x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. 394 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d. f ( x ) = x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 2 sign variations.± .± . ± 3. 2 or 0 negative real zeros. . 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ (2 x + 10 x − 2) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + 5 x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Solving x 2 + 5 x − 1 = 0 using the quadratic 0 sign variations. . 1 negative real zero. ± . 2 4 8 2 4 5 15 15 15 ± . ± 5. f ( − x ) = x 4 + x3 − 7 x 2 − x + 6 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (2 x – 5)(2 x – 3) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1 5 3 x = or x = or x = 2 2 2 ⎧1 3 5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . f ( x ) = 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 2 sign variations. ⎬ . . f ( − x ) = −2 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 7 x + 1 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 a. 3 or 1 positive real solutions. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 p : ± 1. ±5. . ±3.± . b. 8 2 1 is a rational zero. . 2 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 1 2 1 2 2 3 sign variations. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 58. 57. 3 3 3 5 5 ± . ±4.Polynomial and Rational Functions 6 x3 + x 2 – 4 x + 1 = 0 d. ⎬ .± .± 8 2 4 8 b.± . ± . p: ±1. Inc. are rational zeros. ±2 1 p : ± 1. ± 15. ⎬. f ( − x ) = −8 x3 − 36 x 2 − 46 x − 15 c. 3 2⎭ ⎩ x = –1 or x = 56. ( x + 1)(6 x 2 – 5 x + 1) = 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 a. p: ±1 q: ±1. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. q 2 4 8 c. 2 1 3 5 . 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x – ⎟ (8 x – 32 x + 30) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (4 x – 16 x + 15) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ p= b. no negative real solutions. ± q 2 formula gives x = 1 is a zero. ±2.

Inc. 2i. 1 positive real zero. { − 2. −1. p: ±1. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. are rational zeros. x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 d. 1. ± . p: ±1. ±2. f ( x ) = 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 c. c. ⎩ 2 2 ⎭ 1 –1 –6 0 − 2. −1. 1. . −1. ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 6) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x − 3)( x + 2) = 0 The solution set is 59. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. ±2 q: ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1. 3 are rational zeros. ± q 2 4 b. ±4 p 1 1 : ± 1. 1 sign variation. ± 4. 60. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 a. 2 are rational zeros. 1 2 4 0 7 0 –2 2 1 4 2 2 8 4 0 –1 2 1 –9 –4 4 4 10 2 –4 2 5 1 –2 0 2 5 1 –2 –2 –3 2 3 –2 0 4 4 2 8 4 –2 0 –4 0 8 0 1 . f (− x) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. ±2. 2 2 395 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 or 0 negative real zeros. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + 7 x 2 − 2 1 sign variation. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. 2 ⎭ ⎩ 1 1 − . 1 2 2 2 4 − 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 d. 2 ⎬ . d. 2 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 − 2. . 3} . x = −2 or x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ − 2. ± q 2 b. . − 2i ⎬ . ±4 q: ±1. ± 2.PreCalculus 4E c. 1 negative real zero. 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 a. 1 –1 Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 –1 –7 1 6 1 0 –7 –6 1 0 –7 –6 0 1 0 –7 –6 –1 1 6 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟⎜ x + ⎟ (4 x + 8) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎜ x − ⎟ ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 Solving x + 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula gives x = ±2i ⎧ 1 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . ± 2.

2 nonreal complex zeros 67. ±4. ±i. 4 2 f ( x ) = an ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 3) 1 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 12 x3 + 20 x 2 + 12 x + 18 –8 –16 –7 8 16 0 2 –7 8 16 –1 8 –16 –8 16 0 2 65. . ±2. ± 8. x = or x = ±i 2 1 The zeros are –2. 3 real zeros. 2 real zeros. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. one with multiplicity two. f ( x) = an ( x – 2)( x – 2 + 3i )( x – 2 – 3i ) 64. one with multiplicity two f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 3x3 + 3x − 2 p: ±1. ± q 2 2 7 ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 = 0 x = –1 or x = 4 g ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 + x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 0 –1 ( x + 1) ( x – 8 x + 16) = 0 f ( x ) = 2 ( x + 1)( x + 6 x + 9 ) 3 1 2 2 2 3 –1 an = 2 –2 16 ( x + 1)( x3 – 7 x 2 + 8 x + 16) = 0 2 2 f ( −1) = an ⎡( −1) + 1⎤ ⎡( −1) + 6 ( −1) + 9 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ 16 = 8an 63. f ( x) = an ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) f (1) = an (1 − 2 ) ⎡⎣12 − 4 (1) + 13⎤⎦ −10 = −10an an = 1 g ( x) = x 4 − 6 x 3 + x 2 + 24 x + 16 p: ±1. 1 real zero. ±16 q: ±1 p : ± 1. . 2 f ( x) = ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 2 )( 2 x − 1) 396 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 real zeros. 2 nonreal complex zeros 68. ±8. ±2 1 p : ± 1. 24 2 f ( x ) = an ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 2 1 x – 6 x + x + 24 x + 16 = 0 f ( x ) = x − 6 x + 21x − 26 3 –6 66. ± 2. ±2 q: ±1. ± 4. ± 2. 4 nonreal complex zeros 3 –2 –4 2 –4 2 –1 2 –1 0 69. g ( x) = 1 −1 ( x + 2) 2 2 x + 3x + 3x – 2 = 0 4 3 ( x + 2)(2 x3 – x 2 + 2 x –1) = 0 ( x + 2)[ x 2 (2 x –1) + (2 x –1)] = 0 ( x + 2)(2 x –1)( x 2 + 1) = 0 1 x = –2. ± 16 q –1 1 f ( x ) = 1( x − 2 ) ( x − 4 x + 13) 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 13 x − 2 x 2 + 8 x − 26 1 62.

PreCalculus 4E 70. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 2x x −9 Vertical asymptote: x+3=0 x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. Inc. g ( x) = 2x − 4 x+3 –2 x – 4 x+3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). so y = = 2 1 2 Symmetry: f (– x) = – origin symmetry x-intercept: 2x 0= 2 x −9 2x = 0 x=0 y-intercept: y = 2 ( 0) 02 − 9 Vertical asymptote: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3 and x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. so y = 0 2x = – f ( x) x –9 2 =0 397 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . h( x ) = Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 +3 x −1 72. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 2x – 4 = 0 x=2 2 (0) − 4 4 y-intercept: y = =− 0 + 3 3 ( ) Symmetry: g (– x) = 71.

–2 Symmetry: h(– x) = 75. h(–x) ≠ –h(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x 2 − 3x − 4 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 1) x = 4 x = –1 02 − 3 ( 0 ) − 4 2 y-intercept: y = = 02 − 0 − 6 3 Vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 2) = 0 x = 3. Inc. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x2 = 0 x=0 02 y-intercept: y = =0 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 n > m. so y = = 1 1 74. Publishing as Prentice Hall. h ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. so y = = 1 1 x 2 − 3x − 4 x2 − x − 6 x 2 + 3x – 4 x2 + x – 6 h(–x) ≠ h(x). r ( x) = x2 – x +1 f(–x) ≠ f(x). no horizontal asymptote. r(–x) ≠ –r(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 4 x + 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x + 1) = 0 x = –3. y= 2 x2 – 4 x + 3 (– x + 2) 2 r(–x) ≠ r(x).Polynomial and Rational Functions 73. Slant asymptote: 1 y = x –1+ x +1 y=x–1 x2 + 4 x + 3 ( x + 2) x2 x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. –1 02 + 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = 2 4 (0 + 2) Vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 Symmetry: r (– x) = 398 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .

Symmetry: f (– x) = 78. Inc. so no horizontal asymptote. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = –3. so no horizontal asymptote. Slant asymptote: 2 16 3 Vertical asymptote: 2x – 3 = 0 3 x= 2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. Horizontal asymptote: n > m. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 = 0 g ( x) = 4 ( x − 2) = 0 2 x=2 y-intercept: 4 ( 0 ) − 16 ( 0 ) + 16 2 y= 77. Slant asymptote: 12 y = x+5+ x −3 y = x+5 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 2x − 3 4 x 2 + 16 x + 16 Symmetry: g (– x) = –2 x – 3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). 1 0 2 + 2 ( 0 ) − 3 −3 y-intercept: y = = =1 0−3 −3 Vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. Slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = 2 x – 5 + 2x – 3 y = 2x – 5 −2 x 3 x2 + 1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 ( 0) − 3 =− 399 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 2 = – f ( x) x2 + 1 Origin symmetry x-intercept: −2 x 3 = 0 x=0 −2 ( 0 ) 3 y-intercept: y = = 0 =0 1 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 No vertical asymptote. .PreCalculus 4E 76. so no horizontal asymptote. y= Chapter 2 Review Exercises x2 + 2x − 3 x−3 f ( x) = –2 x + 2x x +1 2 y = –2x x2 – 2 x – 3 –x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x).

58 ≈ 0. ∞ ⎞⎟ ⎣ 2 ⎠ P ( x) = R( x) = 1 .06 Over time. the percentage of men in the U. Inc.4 + 1. it costs $25. 72. Publishing as Prentice Hall. C (50) = 1000 x 2000 P = 2x + x P = 2x + 2 85. 80. c. so y = 86.06 x + 235 1. a. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ( 2 x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 The boundary points are −3 and f ( x) = 82.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 = 0 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 4 ) = 0 The boundary points are −4 and − 12 . 2 x2 + 5x − 3 < 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 1 ( −∞. it costs $525 to manufacture each.000 calculators are manufactured. 000 C (100) = = 525 100 When 100 calculators are manufactured. ∞ ) = 3.6 x ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 The boundary points are −3 . ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 150 x + 120 0. 25(1000) + 50. it costs $1025 to manufacture each. population will approach 52%. x3 + 2 x 2 = 3x x 3 + 2 x 2 − 3x = 0 x ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 P( x) = M ( x) + F ( x) = 1. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 ≥ 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.900 100 x 2 + 729 n < m so y = 0 As the number of years of education increases the percentage rate of unemployment approaches zero. 25 = 25 is the horizontal 1 asymptote.5 100. b. it costs $75 to manufacture each. 87. −4] ∪ ⎡⎢− .05 x + 1 150 n = m.4 = P( x) 3.48 x + 120. and 1. 4 2 + x+3 x M ( x) 1.S. 2 1⎞ ⎛ Testing each interval gives a solution set of ⎜ −3. 1000 = lw 1000 =l w 25(50) + 50. so y = = 3000 0. n = m. 25(100. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −3. 000) = = 25. 81. C(x) = 50. 0. y= 400 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x3 + 2 x 2 > 3x Solve the related equation. a.52 3.000 When 100.50 to manufacture each. .58 x + 114. d. T (x) = 25 x + 50.05 The number of fish available in the pond approaches 3000. 0 ) ∪ (1. 25(100) + 50. 000) + 50.000 x 84.000 + 25x C ( x) = 83. Minimum costs will approach $25. 000 = 1025 50 When 50 calculators are manufactured.58 x + 114. b.06 x + 235 c. 000 C (100. 000 C (1000) = = 75 1000 When 1.000 calculators are manufactured.

3(35) + 27 ≈ 261 The stopping distance on wet pavement for a motorcycle traveling 35 miles per hour is about 261 feet.112(1200) = 134.125 x 2 − 0. 40 Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞.8 x + 99 > 267 0. d = 16(10) 2 = 1. 4 ) ∪ ⎢⎡ . 89. 23 The boundary points are 4 and . 1) ∪ [ 2.8) 2 − 4(0.8 x + 99 0 < −16 ( t 2 − 3t + 2 ) 0 < –16(t – 2)(t – 1) F T F 1 2 The projectile’s height exceeds 32 feet during the time period from 1 to 2 seconds.125)(−168) 2(0.125(35) 2 + 2.8 x − 168 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. The boundary points are –1.125 x 2 − 0. 0. d = kt2 144 = k (3) 2 k = 16 d = 16t 2 g (35) = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 88. ∞ ) .125 x 2 − 0. s = −16t 2 + v0 t + s0 32 < −16t 2 + 48t + 0 0 < −16t 2 + 48t − 32 x+3 ≤5 x−4 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. since this would make the denominator zero. 92.125) x = −33.6.112=k Thus.8) ± (−0. ∞ ) . w = 0. ∞ ) . −2 ) ∪ ( 6. w = 0. 600 ft 401 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Chapter 2 Review Exercises x−6 >0 x+2 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. Thus.4 cubic centimeters of water.4 1200 cubic centimeters of melting snow will produce 134. 91. w = ks 28 = k ⋅ 250 0. b. 90.3x + 27 93. 0. The boundary points are –2 and 6. ⎣4 ⎠ a. x+3 −5 ≤ 0 x−4 x + 3 5 ( x − 4) − ≤0 x−4 x−4 −4 x + 23 ≤0 x−4 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. f ( x) = 0. since this would make the denominator zero.125 x 2 + 2.8 x − 168 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−0.125 x 2 − 0. −33. This overestimates the distance shown in the graph by 1 foot. ∞ ⎞⎟ . Testing each interval gives a solution set of [ −1. x= ( x + 1)( x − 2) ≥0 x −1 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. g ( x) = 0. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 23 ( −∞. . We exclude 1 from the solution set. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. 1 and 2. 94.112s.6 ) ∪ ( 40. We exclude 4 4 from the solution set. Inc. speeds exceeding 40 miles per hour on dry pavement will require over 267 feet of stopping distance.

kc w k ⋅ 30 10 = 6 10 = 5h t= k to find k. . 5 5 2+i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 5(2 + i ) = 4 +1 5(2 + i ) = 5 = 2+i 3. c. 1056 . R Use L = This is an approximate model. k w k 660 = 1. V = khB 175 = k ⋅15 ⋅ 35 1 3 1 V = hB 3 1 V = ⋅ 20 ⋅120 = 800 ft 3 3 k= 402 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. w 1056 = 440 2. R k L= R k 30 = 63 k 63 ⋅ 30 = 63 ⋅ 63 1890 = k 1890 Thus. p = 99.6 1056 = k p= Thus. k d2 k 28 = 2 8 k = 1792 1792 l= 2 d 1792 l = 2 = 112 decibels 4 l= b.Polynomial and Rational Functions 95.4 The pitch is 440 vibrations per second. L= Chapter 2 Test 1. L = . p= 96. (6 − 7i )(2 + 5i ) = 12 + 30i − 14i − 35i 2 = 12 + 16i + 35 = 47 + 16i 2. 1890 R 1890 L= = 70 27 The average life span of an elephant is 70 years. 2 −49 + 3 −64 = 2(7i ) + 3(8i ) = 14i + 24i = 38i h=2 2c w 2(40) = 16 hours t= 5 t= 98. a. Inc. 97.

−12 x= =3 2(−2) f (3) = −2(3) 2 + 12(3) − 16 = −18 + 36 − 16 =2 Maximum point: (3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 7. −b 2 = =1 2a 2 f (1) = 12 − 2(1) − 3 = −4 vertex: (1.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 2 Test x2 = 4 x − 8 4. x=− f ( 23) = − ( 23) + 46 ( 23) − 360 = 169 2 Maximum daily profit = $16. ∞ ) . . f ( x) = x 2 − 2 x − 3 y-intercept: f (0) = 02 − 2(0) − 3 = −3 f ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1.900. f ( x) = −2 x 2 + 12 x − 16 Since the coefficient of x2 is negative. 4) axis of symmetry: x = –1 x-intercepts: ( x + 1) 2 + 4 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 −2 ± 4 − 20 = −1 ± 2i 2 no x-intercepts y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 1)2 + 4 = 5 x= domain: ( −∞. range: ( −∞. 2] domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 8. Inc. f ( x ) = − x 2 + 46 x − 360 b −46 = = 23 2a −2 23 computers will maximize profit. –4) axis of symmetry x = 1 x-intercepts: x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 x = 3 or x = –1 x2 − 4 x + 8 = 0 x= x= −b ± b − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(1)(8) 2(1) 2 4 ± −16 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i x= 5. range: [ 4. 6. 2) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . 403 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the graph of f(x) opens down and f(x) has a maximum point. range: [ −4. ∞ ) .

± . Possible rational zeros are: p : ± 1. Solve the quotient x 2 + 6 x − 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula to find the remaining roots. ±2 1 3 p : ± 1. ± 3. ±5. and −3 − 11 . ± q 2 2 2 2 6x − 7x + 2 = 0 (3x – 2)(2x – 1) = 0 2 1 x = or x = 3 2 2 The other two roots are −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = The integral root is 2. ± 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 9. 12. ±15. ±6 q: ±1. a. ± 5. 49). −3 + 11 . ± 2. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. ± 15 q : ± 1. 1 1 9 16 –6 –3 –18 6 6 –2 0 Thus x = 3 is a root. –2}. b. This occurs when the two number are 7 and 14 − 7 = 7 . ±3. ± 2 1 3 5 15 p : ±1. Let x = one of the numbers. f ( − x ) = −3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 − x − 1 f(–x) has no sign variations. ± 6. ± 3. x 3 + 9 x 2 + 16 x − 6 = 0 Since the leading coefficient is 1. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 a. 2. ±3. f ( x ) = 3x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 + x − 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. the graph of f should fall to the left and rise to the right. ± . There are 3 or 1 positive real solutions and no negative real solutions. 14 − x = the other number. 16. The x-intercepts should be –1 and 1. the possible rational zeros are the factors of 6 p p = : ± 1. ± 3. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 13. 2. 2 3 404 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 10. 6 6 –19 16 –4 12 –14 4 –7 2 0 x= −(6) ± (6) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) −6 ± 44 2 = −3 ± 11 The zeros are −3 . ± q 2 2 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 6 q f ( 7 ) = −7 2 + 14 ( 7 ) = 49 The vertex is (7. f ( x ) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x − 5 x − 4 x + 20 = 0 3 2 x 2 ( x − 5) − 4( x − 5) = 0 ( x − 5)( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 5. 2 x= 1 2 and . b. Inc. ± . –3 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. The product is f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) = − x 2 + 14 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 14 14 x=− =− =− = 7. a. ±2. ± . 11. –2 The solution set is {5. The maximum product is 49. 15. f ( x ) = x5 − x Since the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive.

. Chapter 2 Test Verify that −1 and 3 are zeros as it appears in 2 19. and ± 5 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 17. The zero at –2 has multiplicity of 2. f(x) has zeros at –2 and 1. x 3 + 3x 2 – 4 = ( x – 1)( x + 2) 2 18. Inc.PreCalculus 4E b. 3 The zeros are −1 . −1 and are zeros. 3 The y-intercept is f (0) = 2 ( x + 1) ( 2 x3 − 3x 2 − 10 x + 15) = 0 ( x + 1) ⎛⎜ x − 3⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2 x − 10 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Find the remaining zeros by solving: 2 x 2 − 10 = 0 2 x 2 = 10 x2 = 5 x=± 5 20. Use synthetic division to verify this root. −3 x 2 − x + 2 = 0 0 −15 3 2 15 –4 0 −(3x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 3 Thus. f ( x) = a0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + i )( x − i ) f ( x) = a0 ( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) = a0 ( x 4 − 1) Since f (3) = 160 . the graph: −1 2 −1 −13 5 15 –1 −2 3 10 −15 2 −3 −10 15 0 3 2 f ( x ) = −3 x 3 − 4 x 2 + x + 2 The graph shows a root at x = −1 . then a0 (34 − 1) = 160 a0 (80) = 160 160 80 a0 = 2 a0 = f ( x) = 2( x 4 − 1) = 2 x 4 − 2 405 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –3 –3 2 −3 −10 0 −10 1 2 3 1 4 –1 2 0 Factor the quotient to find the remaining zeros. and the polynomial 2 factors as follows: 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 = 0 The zeros (x-intercepts) are –1 and 2 . −3) ∪ ( −3. 2 f ( x) = 1 ( x + 3) 2 domain: {x | x ≠ –3} or ( −∞. .

f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 21. x2 − 9 x−2 domain: {x | x ≠ 2} f ( x) = x2 – 9 –x – 2 f(–x) ≠ f(x). f ( x) = 406 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. .1) ∪ (1. –4 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. 1 +2 x −1 domain: {x | x ≠ 1} or ( −∞. x x 2 − 16 domain: {x | x ≠ 4. –3 02 − 9 9 y-intercept: y = = 0−2 2 Vertical asymptote: x–2=0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. 5 Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 2 – x–2 y = x +2 Symmetry: f (– x) = 22. so no horizontal asymptote exists. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. ∞ ) f ( x) = 23. x ≠ –4} –x = – f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 16 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: x = 0 0 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 − 16 Vertical asymptotes: x 2 − 16 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 4) = 0 x = 4.

PreCalculus 4E 24. Chapter 2 Test x +1 x + 2x − 3 x 2 + 2 x − 3 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) domain: {x | x ≠ –3. Inc. 300. x ≠ 1} –x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 2x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). 2 02 + 3 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 3 = 0 x 2 = −3 No vertical asymptote. ( x + 3)( x − 4) < 0 Boundary values: –3 and 4 Solution set: ( −3. . the horizontal 10 = 10 . 27. 1 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. =0 2x + 1 ≤3 x−3 2x + 1 −3 ≤ 0 x−3 10 − x ≤0 x −3 Boundary values: 3 and 10 Solution set: ( −∞. a. b. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x+1=0 x = –1 0 +1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 =− 0 + 2 (0) − 3 3 f ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. 1 2 C ( x) = 26. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. 000 + 10x x x 2 < x + 12 x − x − 12 < 0 2 25.3) ∪ [10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 ) 4 x2 x2 + 3 domain: all real numbers 4 x2 = f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x +3 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 f ( x) = y-intercept: y = 4 ( 0) 28. the production cost approaches $10 per radio. so y = = 4 is the horizontal asymptote. asymptote is x = 1 This represents the fact that as the number of satellite radio players produced increases. Vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x –3. ∞ ) 407 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since the degree of the numerator equals the degree of the denominator.

6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 x= 5⎞ ⎛5 ⎛ ⎞ Test intervals are (–∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. –1) or ⎜ . 2) range: [ 0. k d2 k 20 = 2 15 4500 = k i= 9. (f 5. 7. ± 3. . There is a relative maximum at the point (0. ⎜ –1. 1 f )(−1) = f ( f (−1) ) = f (0) = 3 f ( x) → ∞ as x → −2+ or as 1 2 –5 –6 –3 3 6 –1 –2 0 x + 2 x – 5x – 6 = 0 3 x → 2− 2 ( x + 3)( x 2 – x – 2) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 x = –3 or x = –1 or x = 2 The solution set is {–3. ±6 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 3⎭ ⎩3 4500 4500 = = 45 foot-candles d2 102 i= 9+ 12. Inc. 11. ∞ ) 10. Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–2) 1. x3 + 2 x 2 − 5x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. ⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ⎟ . 8. ⎟ . 3. 4. domain: (−2. 3⎠ ⎝3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛5 ⎞ Testing points. The zero at –1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. –1}. − ⎬ . the solution is (– ∞. The zero at 1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. ∞ ⎟ . ± 6 q –3 6. –1). 2. 3). ⎝3 ⎠ 408 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2x − 5 > 3 2x − 5 > 3 2x > 8 x>4 2 x − 5 < −3 2x < 2 x <1 (−∞. ⎬. ∞) 3x 2 > 2 x + 5 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 > 0 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 = 0 (3 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = –1 3 3x 2 − 5 x + 1 = 0 5 ± 25 − 12 5 ± 13 = 6 6 ⎪⎧ 5 + 13 5 − 13 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2}. 1) or (4. ± 2. |2x – 1| = 3 2x −1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 2 x − 1 = −3 2 x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {2. –1. 3 2 = x x2 9 x 2 + 3x = 2 9 x2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) = 0 3x − 1 = 0 3x + 2 = 0 1 2 or x = − x= 3 3 2⎫ ⎧1 The solution set is ⎨ . ±3. ±2.

Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. –9) x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 8 = 0 ( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 x = –4 or x = 2 x −1 x−2 vertical asymptote: x = 2 horizontal asymptote: y = 1 x-intercept: x = 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 f ( x) = 17. ( x − 4)( x 2 − 1) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = –1. 16. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y-intercept: f(0) = –8 409 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 14. Inc. Cumulative Review Exercises f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 x-intercepts: x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 = 0 15. 4 x-intercepts: f ( 0 ) = 03 − 4(0) 2 − 0 + 4 = 4 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. x 2 ( x − 4) − 1( x − 4) = 0 f ( x) = x 2 ( x − 3) zeros: x = 0 (multiplicity 2) and x = 3 y-intercept: y = 0 f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 n = 3.PreCalculus 4E 13. 1. an = 0 so the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x − 8 −b −2 = = −1 x= 2a 2 f (−1) = (−1) 2 + 2(−1) − 8 = 1 − 2 − 8 = −9 vertex: (–1.

. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 18. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) ( f g )( x) = 2(4 x − 1) 2 − (4 x − 1) − 1 = 32 x 2 − 20 x + 2 20. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ⎡ 2( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 1⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ 2 x 2 − x − 1⎤⎦ =⎣ h 2 2 2 x + 4hx − x + 2h − h − 1 − 2 x 2 + x + 1 = h 2 4hx + 2h − h = h = 4 x + 2h − 1 410 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 19.

Begin by setting up a table of coordinates. connecting them with a continuous curve. connecting them with a continuous curve.20876 ≈ 160 According to the function. we Plot these points. 2.56)3 ≈ 160. . x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 f ( x ) = 3x f (−3) = 3−3 = 1 27 1 9 1 3 f (−2) = 3−2 = f (−1) = 3−1 = f (0) = 30 = 1 f (1) = 31 = 3 f (2) = 32 = 9 f (3) = 33 = 27 4. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates. f ( x) = 42.2(1.Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Section 3. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g.2(1. f (3) = 42. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 Check Point Exercises 1. graph g ( x) = 3x −1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 3x one unit to the right. This overestimates the actual amount shown by $11. the average amount spent after three hours of shopping at the mall is $160. x f ( x ) = ( 13 ) −2 ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 91 −1 0 1 2 f ( x ) = 3x 3−2 = 19 3−1 = 13 30 = 1 31 = 3 32 = 9 g ( x) = 3x −1 3−2 −1 = 3−3 = 271 3−1−1 = 3−2 = 19 30 −1 = 3−1 = 13 31−1 = 30 = 1 32 −1 = 31 = 3 x −2 411 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x −2 −1 0 1 2 3.56) x Plot these points. Note that the function g ( x) = 3x −1 has the general form g ( x) = b x + c where c = −1 . Because c < 0.

125 6. −1. Because c > 0. 6 7. e 2. 4(5) x g ( x) = 5x −2 5−2 = 251 −1 5−1 = 15 0 50 = 1 1 51 = 5 2 52 = 25 Exercise Set 3.3 ≈ 9. Inc. 5 3 ≈ 16.242 412 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.967 3. e 11. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g.08(5) = $14.47 A = Pe rt A = 10.08 ⎞ A = 10.95 10.665 4. 918.4 ≈ 29.5 = 0. Note that the function g ( x) = 2 x + 1 has the general form g ( x ) = b x + c where c = 1.387 ≈ 0.2 −0. .042(34) ≈ 4446 In 2012 the gray wolf population of the Western Great Lakes is projected to be about 4446. f ( x) = 1066e0.116 ≈ 0.1 1. 7. e –0.25 b. x g ( x) = 2 + 1 2−2 + 1 = 14 + 1 = 54 2−1 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 23 20 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2 21 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3 22 + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5 x 5. we graph g ( x) = 2 x + 1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 2 x up one unit. nt ⎛ 0.472 f ( x ) = 4x 4−2 = 161 4−1 = 14 40 = 1 41 = 4 42 = 16 2012 is 34 years after 1978. e 3. 000e0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 12.4 ≈ 13. r⎞ ⎛ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ a.974 8. x f ( x) − 2 −2 2−2 = 14 −1 2−1 = 12 0 20 = 1 1 21 = 2 2 22 = 4 6.859. 4 −1.556 2.964 9. 3 5 ≈ 11. 23⋅4 ≈ 10.75 x −2 −1 0 1 2 ≈ 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5. 32. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ = $14.042 x f (34) = 1066e0.

−2 −1 0 1 2 14. Inc. ( 34 ) = 169 −1 ( 43 ) = 43 0 ( 43 ) = 1 1 ( 43 ) = 43 2 ( 43 ) = 169 −2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 h ( x ) = ( 12 ) x ( 12 ) = 4 −1 ( 12 ) = 2 0 ( 12 ) = 1 1 ( 12 ) = 12 2 ( 12 ) = 14 −2 h ( x ) = ( 13 ) x ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 19 −2 413 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E x 13.1 g ( x) = ( 32 ) x ( 32 ) = 49 −1 ( 32 ) = 23 0 ( 32 ) = 1 1 ( 32 ) = 32 2 ( 32 ) = 94 −2 g ( x) = ( 43 ) x 15. . x −2 −1 0 1 2 Section 3. −2 −1 0 1 2 x 16.

∞ ) . = 1. x f ( x) = (0.6) −1 = 1.8) −2 26. ∞ ) downward. range: ( −1.7 −1 (0.8 2 (0. so the function is H ( x) = −3− x.64 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.6)1 = 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the x- axis. Inc. ∞ ) . 21.6 ) 25. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.6)2 = 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit to the right. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the y- axis. so the function is h( x) = 3x − 1.6 2 (0. so the function is G ( x) = 3− x. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x +! can be obtained by shifting x −2 (0.8)1 = 0. f ( x ) = ( 0. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by shifting x the graph of f ( x) = 2 x two units to the left. 24.36 the graph of f ( x) = 2 x one unit to the left. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so the function is g ( x) = 3x −1.25 0 (0. ∞ ) .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions x 17. 20. This is the graph of f(x) = 3x. 22. ∞ ) 18.5625 −1 (0. so the function is F ( x) = −3x. .6)0 = 1 1 (0. range: ( 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit domain: ( −∞. This is the graph of f ( x) = 3x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis. asymptote: y = −1 23.8) 2 = 0. range: ( 0. ∞ ) 27.8) −1 = 1. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x − 1 can be obtained by 19.8) −2 (0.6)−2 = 2.8)0 = 1 1 (0.6 0 (0. 414 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x downward one unit.

The graph of h( x) = 2 x + 2 − 1 can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 left and one unit downward. range: ( −1. Inc. reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the x-axis. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . x reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the y-axis. range: ( 0. 0 ) 29. The graph of g ( x ) = −2 x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x two units upward. The graph of g ( x) = 2 ⋅ 2 x can be obtained by vertically stretching the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of two. The graph of h ( x ) = 2 x +1 − 1 can be obtained by 32. ∞ ) 415 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. range: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. range: ( 2. ∞ ) 30. The graph of g ( x) = 2− x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 one unit to the left and one unit downward. range: ( 0. range: ( −1. two units to the asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. asymptote: y = 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. x 33. The graph of g ( x ) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by 31. ∞ ) . ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E Section 3.1 28. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞.

34. range: ( 2. The graph of h( x) = e x −1 + 2 can be obtained by asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. asymptote: y = −1 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 38. ∞ ) .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 37. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x ) = moving f ( x) = e x 2 units up. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right and 2 units up. ∞ ) . 35. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . range: ( 2. The graph of g ( x) = e x +1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left. . ∞ ) . asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 416 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. range: ( 0. ∞ ) 39. The graph of g ( x) = e x − 1 can be obtained by domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x ) = e x + 2 can be obtained by 1 x ⋅ 2 can be obtained by 2 vertically shrinking the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of one-half. range: ( 0. The graph of g ( x) = e x −1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit down. range: ( 0. range: ( −1. 36.

0 ) asymptote: y = 1 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 41. The graph of g ( x) = 2e x can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left and 1 unit down. range: ( 0. Inc. ∞ ) . 45. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.1 40. The graph of h( x) = e 2 x + 1 can be obtained by stretching f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 2 and then moving the graph up 1 unit. ∞ ) . ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. range: ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: ( 0. range: ( −1. ∞ ) 417 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph of h( x) = e x+1 − 1 can be obtained by 43. asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. stretching f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 2. The graph of g ( x) = f ( x) = e x about the y-axis. range: ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 42. The graph of h( x) = e − x can be obtained by reflecting 44. ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = −e x can be obtained by reflecting f ( x) = e x about the x-axis. 1 x e can be obtained by 2 shrinking f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 1 . range: (1. .

asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 51.. Inc. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 46. . asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 1 418 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 1 49. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the x-axis. ∞ ) 47. The graph of h( x) = e 2 + 2 can be obtained by shrinking f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 1 2 and then moving the graph up 2 units. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the y-axis. range: ( 2. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by horizontally stretching f(x) by a factor of 3. 48. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 50. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by vertically shrinking f(x) by a factor of 13 . The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and one space up.

67 (6. 000e0.000 for 3 years at 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return. ⎛ 0. 000e0. a.1 52.055(5) ≈ $13. 795. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.055 ⎞ A = 10. Inc.07 ⎞ A = 12. ⎛ 0.70 419 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12(3) 55. 4( 4 ) 56.3% yield) Investing $6000 for 4 years at 8.116.065 ⎞ b.0685(3) ≈ 14.1) .79 12(10) c. b.055 ⎞ A = 10. ⎛ 0.19 The point of intersection is ( 0.055 ⎞ A = 10.083 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $ 8306.0825 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $8317.157. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 14.84 (8.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ d.04 g ( x) = 2− x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 A = 10.25% yield) 2( 4) ⎛ 0. ⎛ 0. 0 f ( x) = 2 x 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 2 4 x −2 −1 4(5) 12(5) c.51 ⎛ 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.64 (8.11 (7% yield) A = 12.065(10) ≈ = $9560. ≈ $9527.85% yield) Investing $12.165.25% compounded quarterly yields the greater return. a. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.140.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0. 737. . d.31 ⎛ 0. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 2 53.92 ≈ 9577.67 2(5) 57. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and two spaces up. A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2(10) 410 ⋅ ≈ $9479. 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A = 5000 ( e ) 0. ⎛ 0.

2 ) . Substitute values from the point (1. g ( x) = 2− x +1 8 4 2 1 1 2 The point of intersection is ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1 0 1 f ( x) = 2 x +1 1 2 1 2 4 2 8 x −2 60. y = −b x −e = −b1 e=b The equation of the graph is y = −e x 420 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . The graph is of the form y = b x . Substitute values from the point (1. Inc. The graph is of the form y = b x . y = 2x 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 x y = 3x 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 x x = 3y 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 y 61. Substitute values from the point (1. The graph is of the form y = −b x . y = bx x = 2y 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 y 4 = b1 4=b The equation of the graph is y = 4 x 62. 4) to find b.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 58. 6) to find b. 59. –e) to find b. y = bx 6 = b1 6=b The equation of the graph is y = 6 x 63.

the closer the 3 value is to 2 .0344 x g (50) = 1.824411082 = 574 (1) = 574 23. Inc.9 million words in the federal tax code in 2005.15 x + 1.06 ) ≈ $832. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g ( x) = 1.4 million words in the federal tax code in 2005. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1. f ( 0 ) = 574 (1.49 Chernobyl will not be safe for human habitation by 2066.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.321997085 The closer the exponent is to 3 .1415 ≈ 8.9 According to the linear model. e) to find b.026 ) ≈ 2295 .87e0. There will still be 157.321880096 21. 000 (1 + 0. = 157.815240927 23. = 465.5741877 70.026 ) 23 ≈ 8 23. India’s population in 2055 will be 4590 million.824961595 India’s population in 1974 was 574 million. India’s population appears to be doubling every 27 years. find d. 3 2 x 65.87e0.03) = 510.1 64. there were about 10.321995226 21.321997068 23. 000 (1 + 0. f (50) = 0.026 ) ≈ 1148 India’s population in 2001 will be 1148 million. S = 510.249009585 21. The graph is of the form y = b x . 2005 is 50 years after 1955. f ( x) = 0. f ( 27 ) = 574 (1. the closer the value is to 2π.4 According to the exponential model.141593 ≈ 8.14 ≈ 8. Substitute values from the point (–1.732 ≈ 3.824977827 The closer the exponent gets to π. 2055 − 1974 = 81 .821353305 0 23. 000 (1. 744 10 68. 2005 is 50 years after 1955. . e = b −1 1 e= b eb = 1 1 b= e ≈ 3. 21. there were about 8. 54 71.1 ≈ 8. a. 000 (1. S = 465. 66. 81 e.15(50) + 1.141 ≈ 8. b.44 c.03) 5 5 ≈ $591. find 23.5 kilograms of cesium-137 in Chernobyl’s atmosphere.73205 ≈ 3. 230 421 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0344(50) ≈ 10.14159 ≈ 8. ⎛1⎞ The equation of the graph is y = ⎜ ⎟ = e − x ⎝e⎠ a.44 ≈ 8.317278183 21. India’s population in 2028 will be 2295 million. Since 2028 − 1974 = 54 .824979946 27 2π ≈ 8.7320508 ≈ 3.06 ) 10 The linear model is the better model for the data in 2005. 67.026 ) ≈ 4590 .7 ≈ 3.5) 80 30 b. c.73 ≈ 3. y = bx 69. f ( 80 ) = 1000 ( 0.

b.1e −0.1e−0. f (40) = 6.44 ≈ 4.1 1 + 6. 5% compounded quarterly offers the better return.5(52) + 20 ≈ 20 20% of the material is remembered 1 year after it is first learned. g ( x) = 1.7 According to the exponential model.19(1. c. 82.4 37.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6. 1975 is 20 years after 1955. 753 24e0.15(20) + 1. d. 77. a.87e0.05 12 ) 12(379) 4t 12 t f (0) = 80e −0.029)40 ≈ 19. 81. d.0 in 2006. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ = 80e 0 + 20 = 80(1) + 20 = 100 100% of the material is remembered at the moment it is first learned.3 g (56) = ≈ 27.1e−0.052 x 37.05 ⎞ A = 10.4 According to the linear model. Sample explanation: The horizontal asymptote is y = 0. b. 1975 is 20 years after 1955. a.029)56 ≈ 30.360. b.15 x + 1. – 80.19(1. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0. a. does not make sense. f (1) = 80e−0. a.052(40) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 21.3 g (40) = ≈ 21. 662. there were about 4. Answers may vary. f ( x) = 6.5(1) + 20 ≈ 68. ( 24 1 + 0. Explanations will vary.05(379) ≈ $4. f (52) = 80e −0.1e −0. b.4 million words in the federal tax code in 1975. f ( x) = 6.052(56) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 28. f (4) = 80e −0.0344 x g (20) = 1.029) x 76.19(1. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.029) x f (56) = 6.8 30. 794 c.7 million words in the federal tax code in 1975. f ( x) = 0. a. 74.5% of the material is remembered 1 week after it is first learned.7 37. Answers may vary. ≈ $3.19(1.045 ⎞ A = 10.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6.052 x 37. 83.0344(20) ≈ 3. 074.87e0. Inc.8% of the material is remembered 4 week after it is first learned.5(0) + 20 c.3 in 1990.5(4) + 20 ≈ 30. 422 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The exponential model is the better model for the data in 1975.917.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 72.9 1 + 6. 73. there were about 3.44 f (20) = 0.5 68. . 75. ⎛ 0.

Sample explanation: An exponential model is better than a linear model. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. i. 95. −x 1.3) ∪ ( 3. a. −(− x) e +e 2 −x e + ex = 2 e x + e− x = 2 = cosh x cosh(− x) = 2 ⎛ e x + e− x ⎞ ⎛ e x − e− x ⎞ ? ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ =1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x e 2 x − 2 + e −2 x ? − =1 4 4 e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x − e 2 x + 2 − e −2 x ? =1 4 4? =1 4 1=1 about the y-axis while f ( x) = −3x reflects the graph 89. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 so it is (d) reflected () x about the y-axis. y = 1 3 94. We do not know how to solve x = 2 y for y. false. b3 = 27 means 3 = log b 27.2 84. does not make sense. makes sense 87. . 88. Inc. y = 3x is (d). 92. e y = 33 means y = log e 33. Explanations will vary. gives x = 3. Changes to make the statement true will vary. b. 3 = log 7 x means 73 = x. 86. 2 = log b 25 means b 2 = 25.e. a. y = 1 is (b). true 91. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 251/ 2 = 5 2 96. ? (cosh x) 2 − (sinh x) 2 = 1 2 of y = 3x about the x-axis. ∞ ) . y= 5x is () (c). b. Solving the related equation. f ( x) = 3− x reflects the graph of y = 3x b. ) 2. 25 = x means 5 = log 2 x.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. makes sense 85. a. y = 1 is the 5 5 –x same as y = 5 . 90. 423 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: The functions do not have the same graph. false. x is the same as y = () x 3–x. e− x − e−( − x ) 2 e− x − e x = 2 − −e − x + e x = 2 e x − e− x =− 2 = − sinh x sinh(− x) = ( c. Note that the boundary value x = 3 does not satisfy the inequality. A sample change is: The amount of money will not increase without bound. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A sample change is: If f ( x) = 2 x then f (a + b) = f (a ) ⋅ f (b). log 4 26 = y means 4 y = 26. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 . y increases as x increases. Section 3. but not as quickly as y = () y= 1 3 5x . Changes to make the statement true will vary. 1 .2 Check Point Exercises 93. false. c. c. so it is (c) reflected about the y-axis. x is (a).

∞). 92 = x 5. Thus. 10. 7 a. for x and evaluate the function at 10.6 First. b5 = 32 6. Because log b b = x. 0) ∪ (0. Question: 10 to what power gives 100? log10 100 = 2 because 10 2 = 100. 9. we conclude log 9 9 = 1.2 The domain of h consists of all x for which x − 5 > 0. . b3 = 27 7. 4) b. x f ( x ) = 3x 10. 4. Because I = 10. Question: 3 to what power gives 1 log 3 7 3 = because 31 7 = 7 3.4 ln 30 − 11. a. 32 = x 4. 6. a. the domain of f is (−∞. Thus the domain of g is (−∞. 8. 6y = 216 8. f ( x) = 13.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 3. 000 I 0 R = log I0 1 ? 125 1 1 1 log 5 = −3 because 5−3 = 3 = . 8 x 11. Thus. a. b. 1 1 x 1 3 9 27 9 3 g ( x) = log 3 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 The graph of the inverse can also be drawn by reflecting the graph of f ( x) = 3x about the line y = x. Solving this inequality for x. a 10-year-old boy is approximately 80% of his adult height. Because log b 1 = 0. Solving this inequality for x. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 9 27 9 3 f (30) = 13. The domain of g consists of all x for which x 2 > 0. Substitute the boy’s age. we conclude 3log3 17 = 17. Solving this inequality for x. Question: 5 to what power gives c. we obtain x < 0 or x > 0. we conclude log 7 7 = 8. Because log b b = 1.4 ln x − 11. Inc. b. we obtain x > 5. 26 = 64 3. ∞). Find the temperature increase after 30 minutes by substituting 30 for x and evaluating the function at 30. 10. Question: 36 to what power gives 6? 1 log 36 6 = because 361/ 2 = 36 = 6 2 d. 000 3? =4 The earthquake registered 4. the domain of h is (5. b. 5.6 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 3 x. 2 4 = 16 2.0 on the Richter scale. Because blogb x = x. we obtain x < 4. we conclude log8 1 = 0. 125 5 125 7 = log 10. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 3x. log28 = 3 424 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (10) = 29 + 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall.000 I0. 1. The domain of f consists of all x for which 4 – x > 0. ≈ 34 The function models the actual increase shown in the graph quite well. 5 y = 125 9.8 log(10 + 1) = 29 + 48. 7. Exercise Set 3.8 log(11) ≈ 80 Thus.

14. log 5 625 = 4 11. 6 6 27. = − because 3 2 = 2 3 3 33. 2 1 1 because 81 2 = 81 = 9. log 2 12. log 5 1 1 = −1 because 5−1 = . = − because 2 2 = 2 2 2 32. we conclude log 4 46 = 6. we conclude 7 log 723 = 23. Because log b b x = x. Because blogb x = x. log 6 6 = 1 because 6 2 = 6. log 5 1 1 = −4 16 − 1 1 1 . we conclude log 5 57 = 7. 2 30. 6 24. log 4 16 = 2 because 4 = 16. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 4 x. log15 x = 2 37. log7200 = y 40. Because log b 1 = 0. 20. log 7 49 = 2 because 7 = 49. 42. 19. 2 1 425 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 17. 41. 2 43. log 6 1 1 = −1 because 6−1 = . 38. First. 1 3 log81 9 = 1 1 because 64 2 = 64 = 8. 2 3 . log 2 1 1 = −3 because 2−3 = . Because log b 1 = 0. log 2 1 15. log b 343 = 3 39. we conclude 8log8 19 = 19. 25. 9 9 −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 4 x 1 16 1 4 log 7 7 = 1 because 7 2 = 7. 2 3 1 4 16 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 4 x. Because blogb x = x. Because log b b = 1. 2 35. we conclude log 5 5 = 1. logb1000 = 3 18. log 3 1 1 = –2 because 3−2 = . 23. log13x = 2 16. 31. 13. Because log b b x = x.2 10. 2 22. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we conclude log11 11 = 1. log 64 8 = 1 = −3 125 log8 2 = 1 3 log 64 4 = 34. we conclude log 4 1 = 0. log 3 27 = 3 because 33 = 27. 5 5 26. 8 8 28. 36. log8 300 = y 21. we conclude log 6 1 = 0. log 2 64 = 6 because 2 = 64. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. log 3 − 1 1 1 . Because log b b = 1. x g ( x) = log 4 x 1 16 1 4 1 4 16 64 −2 −1 0 1 1 29.

This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 44. 50. 1 25 x 1 5 2 16 4 1 4 1 1 16 1 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 1 4 x. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 5 x. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x. so the function is h( x) = log3 x − 1. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the y-axis. 51. ⎝4⎠ x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 3 1 5 25 125 f ( x) = ( 14 ) Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 5 x. so the function is H ( x) = 1 − log 3 x. ∞) 426 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 5 x 1 25 1 5 2 x ⎛1⎞ 46. x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 48. 53. 52. First. so the function is G ( x ) = log 3 (− x). ∞) . 1 8 49. so the function is F ( x) = − log 3 x. Inc. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis and shifted up one unit. First. Publishing as Prentice Hall. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted right one unit. range: (−∞. ⎝2⎠ 47. 1 5 25 125 g ( x) = log 5 x −2 −1 0 1 x 3 1 4 1 16 1 64 g ( x) = log 1 4 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x 16 4 1 x ⎛1⎞ 45. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . First. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x f ( x) = ( 12 ) x 4 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 8 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log1 2 x. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted down one g ( x) = log1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 unit. vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. so the function is g ( x) = log 3 ( x − 1). .

range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 1 domain: (1. range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞) 60. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. ∞) 57. ∞) 427 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) 61. . ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. Inc. range: (−∞. 55. ∞) . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 58. ∞) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. ∞ ) .2 54. ∞) 59. 56. vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: (2. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0.

68. ∞) . range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. 67. Inc. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 66. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) . ∞ ) . ∞) 64. ∞) 63. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 69. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: (−∞. ∞) 428 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . ∞) 65. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 62. range: (−∞.

we obtain x > –4. ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. Solving this inequality for x.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. Thus. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 6 > 0. we obtain x < 2. the domain of f is (−∞. The domain of f consists of all x for which 2 – x > 0. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . . Thus. The domain of f consists of all x for which 7 − x > 0. 2) or (2. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 7)2 > 0. 84. the domain of f is (–6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞). the domain of f is (–∞. 83. we obtain x < 2 or x > 2. range: (−∞. the domain of f is (–∞. we conclude 10log33 = 33. The domain of f consists of all x for which (x – 2)2 > 0. we conclude log108 = 8. Solving this inequality for x. ∞ ) . Solving this inequality for x. ∞ ) . ∞) 72. 85. we conclude log107 = 7. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 77. range: (−∞. log100 = log10 100 = 2 because 102 = 100. range: (−∞. 429 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Solving this inequality for x. ∞). we obtain x < 7. ∞) 81. 73. the domain of f is (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. we obtain x < 7 or x > 7. we conclude 10log 53 = 53. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 4 > 0. ∞) 76. 0) . Because 10logx = x. Thus. ∞). 78. 82. Inc. 71. we obtain x > –6. Solving this inequality for x. ∞) 75. 7). Because log10 x = x. Solving this inequality for x. range: (−∞. the domain of f is (–4. ∞). 2). Thus. ∞) 86.2 70. 7) or (7. Because 10log x = x. range: (−∞. log1000 = log10 1000 = 3 because 103 = 1000. 79. 74. Because log10 x = x. Thus. 80. Thus.

we conclude 10log 100. Because ln e x = x. we conclude eln125 = 125. 101. we conclude ln e13 x = 13 x. and the solution set is {21}. 1 1 = 43 64 1 ⎧1⎫ . x 2 − x − 2 > 0 . 90. we conclude 10log x 3 x = x. 430 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 10 = x The solution is 10. 104. Because ln e x = x. Because eln x = x. x − 5 > 0 . Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. x +1 ⎛ x +1 ⎞ 111. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − 4 x − 12) to be real. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. we conclude ln e7 = 7. 1 = ln e −6 e6 Because ln e x = x we conclude 1 ln e −6 = −6. 103. we conclude eln 7 x = 7 x 2 . we conclude lne9x = 9x. . and the solution set is {10}. 102. log ( log 81) = log ( log 34 ) 2 3 2 3 93. −1) ∪ ( 2. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because eln x = x. e ln log 64 x = 2 3 2 64 3 = x x= ( 3 64 ) 2 = 42 = 16 The solution is 16. 99. 2 97. ∞ ) . Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x2 − x − 2 = 0 96. log 5 ( x + 4 ) = 2 52 = x + 4 25 = x + 4 21 = x The solution is 21. we conclude eln 300 = 300. Because 10log x = x. = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 94. Because ln e x = x. ∞ ) . 110. 2 98. 89. log ( ln e ) = log1 = 0 95. we conclude ln e6 = 6. we conclude e 1 ln e−7 = −7. e 106. 91. 108. Because 10log x = x. ln e = log e e = 1 because e1 = e. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ ⎟ to be real. 109. 5 − x ⎝ ⎠ The boundary points are –1 and 5. so ln 6 = −6. we conclude eln 5 x = 5 x 2 . The solution is 64 ⎩ 64 ⎭ x= Because ln e x = x. log 3 ( x − 1) = 2 32 = x − 1 9 = x −1 ( x + 2)( x − 6) = 0 The boundary points are –2 and 6. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − x − 2) to be real. ( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 The boundary points are –1 and 2. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 = 3 x.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 87. ln 7 = ln e −7 Because ln e x = x. log 3 ( log 7 7 ) = log 3 1 = 0 1 92. Because eln x = x. Because eln x = x. and the solution set is {16}. −1) ∪ ( 5. log 4 x = −3 ln1 = 0 because e0 = 1 . so ln 7 = −7. x 2 − 4 x − 12 > 0 . log ( log 32 ) = log ( log 25 ) = log 5 = 1 5 2 5 2 5 107. 105. ∞ ) . Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. 4−3 = x 88.

4% of her adult height.5 ≈ 15. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. f ( x ) = −7. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0.4 According to the function.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.2% of first-year college women expressed antifeminist views in 2004.49 ln x + 53 120. 26. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 ( 3.5.3 × 106 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 188 Yes.86 ln x + 32. after 4 months was about 63. 2004 is 35 years after 1969. a.2 x−2 ⎛ x−2⎞ >0.5 According to the function. 113.5 f ( 41) = −4. Answers may vary. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units left. b.5 f ( 35 ) = −4. 15. 128. 131. 130. b. f(13) = 62 + 35log(13–4) ≈ 95. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 (6. f(2) = 88–15ln(2 + 1) = 71. 114. Inc. f ( x ) = −4. a.86 ln 41 + 32.5% of first-year college women will express antifeminist views in 2010.2 According to the function.5.49 ln 41 + 53 ≈ 25. after 10 months was about 52.9.4% of first-year college men expressed antifeminist views in 2004. – 127. b.2 ×10−6 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 65. g(x) is f(x) reflected about the x-axis.6%. 115.2% of first-year college men will express antifeminist views in 2010. This underestimates the value in the graph by 1%.5 f(4) = 88–15ln(4 + 1) = 63. f ( 35 ) = −7.5 The average score after 2 months was about 71. She is approximately 89. 2004 is 35 years after 1969.9 f(6) = 88–15ln(6 + 1) = 58. the sound can rupture the human eardrum. 14.86 ln 35 + 32. f (10) = 62 + 35 log(10 − 4) ≈ 89. 431 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 f(8) = 88–15ln(8 + 1) = 55 f(10) = 88–15ln(10 + 1) = 52 f(12) = 88–15ln(12 + 1) = 49. −5) ∪ ( 2. 116. a. f(0) = 88–15ln(0 + 1) = 88 The average score on the original exam was 88.2.05 A normal conversation is about 65 decibels. 2010 is 41 years after 1969.2% of her adult height. after 6 months was about 58.2 According to the function. g(x) is f(x) shifted right 2 units and upward 1 unit. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ to be real. 129.49 ln x + 53 f ( 41) = −7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2010 is 41 years after 1969. 117. 118.5 ≈ 14. f ( x ) = −7. 25.49 ln 35 + 53 ≈ 26. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units upward. f ( x ) = −4.86 ln x + 32. ∞ ) . 112. ⎟ x+5 ⎝ x+5⎠ The boundary points are –5 and 2. .8.4 She is approximately 95. 119. after 8 months was about 55. and after one year was about 49.

logbMN = logbM + logbN The sum of the logarithms of its factors. makes sense 149. 141. log 2 8 + log 2 4 = log 2 23 + log 2 22 = 3 + 2 = 5 c. log 2 8 3 = A sample change is: log 2 4 2 132. false. log3 92 = 2 log3 9 432 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. b. makes sense log 2 16 = log 2 24 = 4 136. 146. true 143. log 3 40 > log 3 27 = 3 so log3 40 > 3. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: We cannot take the log of a negative number. does not make sense.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 139. log 2 32 = log 2 25 = 5 134. The score falls below 65 after 9 months. 142. false. y = ex. a. 140. Changes to make the statement true will vary. log 4 60 < log 4 64 = 3 so log 4 60 < 3. A sample change is: The domain of f ( x ) = log 2 x 133. They are the same. 137. b. y = xx 135. . log 4 60 < 3 < log3 40 log3 40 > log 4 60 d e. ⎛ 32 ⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 − log 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ y = x2. log 4 ⎡log 3 ( log 2 8) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = log 4 ⎡⎣ log3 ( log 2 23 ) ⎤⎦ = log 4 [ log 3 3] = log 4 1 = 0 c. log 2 32 − log 2 2 = log 2 25 − log 2 2 = 5 − 1 = 4 c. y = ln x . a. Inc. Answers may vary. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. y = x. makes sense 138. 000 times as intense as an earthquake of magnitude 4. y = x . log 3 81 − logπ 1 4−0 4 = = log 2 2 8 − log 0. 2 log3 9 = 2 log3 32 = 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 c.001 2 − (−3) 5 144. log 2 (8 ⋅ 4) = log 2 8 + log 2 4 148. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. false. 147. log3 81 = log3 34 = 4 b. is ( 0. 145. ∞ ) . b. Sample explanation: An earthquake of magnitude 8 on the Richter scale is 108− 4 = 104 = 10.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. a.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. log 25 + log 4 = log(25 ⋅ 4) = log100 = 2 b. Check Point Exercises 1. log 7 2506 = ln 2506 ≈ 4. log 7 2506 = log 2506 ≈ 4. ( x − 3)2 x 1 log x − 2 log 5 − 10 log y b b 4 b 1/ 4 2 = logb x − log b 5 − log b y10 = logb x1/ 4 − ( logb 25 − log b y10 ) a. log 6 (7 ⋅ 11) = log 6 7 + log 6 11 b.3 Section 3. 4. a. 3. . log(10. log(1000x) = log1000 + log x = 3 + log x 6. Inc. b. = 2 + log x 2. a.02 log 7 8. log 9 9x =log 9 9+log9 x = 1+log 9 x 5. log 7 (7 x) = log 7 7 + log 7 x = 1 + log 7 x 4. log(100 x) = log100 + log x = ln x 2 ( x + 5)1/ 3 = ln x 2 3 x + 5 b. 2 log( x − 3) − log x = log( x − 3) 2 − log x ⎛ 23 ⎞ log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 23 − log8 x ⎝ x ⎠ = log ⎛ e5 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e5 − ln11 ⎝ 11 ⎠ = 5 − ln11 c. log8 (13 ⋅ 7) = log8 13 + log8 7 3. 000 x) = log10. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log100 = log x − 2 ⎝ 100 ⎠ 1/ 2 = log5 x 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − log5 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − ( log 5 52 + log 5 y 3 ) = 12 log 5 x − log 5 52 − log 5 y 3 = 12 log 5 x − 2 log 5 5 − 3log 5 y = 12 log 5 x − 2 − 3log 5 y 5. log( x + 4) 2 = 2 log( x + 4) a. ⎛7⎞ log 7 ⎜ ⎟ = log 7 7 − log 7 x = 1 − log 7 x ⎝ x⎠ 8. 000 + log x = 4 + log x 7.3 6. log(7 x + 6) − log x = log 7x + 6 x 433 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 x log 5 25 y 3 1. log 6 3 = 9 log 6 3 b. log 5 (7 ⋅ 3) = log 5 7 + log 5 3 2. 1 ln x 2 + ln( x + 5) 3 = ln x 2 + ln( x + 5)1/ 3 9 = logb x1/ 4 − log b 25 y10 = logb x1/ 4 25 y10 4 or log b 7.02 ln 7 x 25 y10 Exercise Set 3. a. log b x 4 3 y = log x 4 y1/3 b = log x 4 + log y1/3 b b 1 = 4 log x + log y b 3 b b. ⎛9⎞ log 9 ⎜ ⎟ = log 9 9 − log 9 x = 1 − log 9 x ⎝ x⎠ 9. 1 ln 3 x = ln x1/ 3 = ln x 3 c.

⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log1000 = log x − 3 ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 26. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1/ 2 log 4 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 4 x − log 4 64 = log 4 x − 3 64 2 ⎝ ⎠ 24. ln ex = ln(ex) 17. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1 log 5 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 5 x 2 − log 5 25 = log 5 x − 2 25 2 ⎝ ⎠ 25. log b x 2 y = logb x 2 + log b y = 2 log b x + log b y 22. 1 ln 5 x = ln x (1/ 5) = ln x 5 20. ⎛ x2 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = log b ( x 2 y ) − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = log b x 2 + log b y − log b z 2 = 2 log b x + log b y − 2 log b z 15. Inc. log 100 x = log(100 x )1/ 2 1 = log(100 x) 2 1 = (log100 + log x) 2 1 = (2 + log x) 2 1 = 1 + log x 2 30. logbx3 = 3logbx 16. . 11. ⎛ 64 ⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ = log 4 64 − log 4 y ⎝ y ⎠ = 3 − log 4 y 27. ⎛ 64 ⎞ 1 2 log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 64 − log8 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log8 ( x + 1) 2 1 2 1 ln(ex) 2 1 = (ln e + ln x) 2 1 = (1 + ln x) 2 1 1 = + ln x 2 2 = 31. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ e2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 2 − ln 5 = 2 ln e − ln 5 = 2 − ln 5 ⎝5⎠ 14. ⎛ 125 ⎞ log 5 ⎜ ⎟ = log 5 125 − log 5 y = 3 − log 5 y ⎝ y ⎠ 13. ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb ( x 3 y ) − logb z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb x 3 + log b y − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = 3log b x + log b y − 2 log b z log b x 7 = 7 log b x 18. log b xy 3 = log b x + log b y 3 = log b x + 3log b y 1 1 ln x 7 23. ⎛ e4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 4 − ln 8 = 4 ln e − ln 8 = 4 − ln 8 ⎝8⎠ 28. log N–6 = –6log N log M −8 = −8log M 19. 29.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 10. log 3 ⎛ x = log ⎜ y ⎝ 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢ log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 3 1 1 = log x − log y 3 3 ⎛ 36 ⎞ 1/ 2 log 6 ⎜ ⎟ = log 6 36 − log 6 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log 6 ( x + 1) 2 434 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ln 7 x = ln x 7 = 21. 12.

ln x + ln 7 = ln(7 x) 44.3 1 32. 2 .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. − ln ( x + 3) 1 = 4 ln x + ln ( x 2 + 3) − 5 ln ( x + 3) 2 x2 y 25 = log5 x 2 / 3 + log 5 y1/ 3 − log 5 251/ 3 log 5 ⎡ x4 x2 + 3 ⎤ ln ⎢ 5 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ( x + 3) ⎥⎦ ⎡ x 4 ( x 2 + 3)1/ 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ( x + 3) ⎦ = ln x 4 + ln ( x 2 + 3) 1 logb x + 3log b y − 3logb z 2 3 35. log x + 7 log y = log x + log y 7 = log( xy 7 ) 435 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ 96 ⎞ log 2 96 − log 2 3 = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 = 5 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 46. x y3 log b 3 z = logb x1/ 2 + log b y 3 − log b z 3 = 34. Inc. ⎡10 x 2 3 1 − x ⎤ log ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 7( x + 1) ⎦ 1 = 1 + 2 log x + log(1 − x) − log 7 − 2 log( x + 1) 3 3 5 5 = log10 + log x 2 + log 3 1 − x − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 2 1 = log5 x + log5 y − log5 52 / 3 3 3 2 1 2 = log5 x + log5 y − 3 3 3 36. ln x + ln 3 = ln(3x) 45. ⎛ x⎞ x log 5 = log ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 5 1 1 = log x − log y 5 5 log b 1/ 2 39. ⎛ 3x + 7 ⎞ log(3x + 7) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ = ln x3 + ln x 2 + 1 − ln( x + 1) 4 1 = 3ln x + ln( x 2 + 1) − 4 ln( x + 1) 2 49. 1 = 2 + 3log x + log(5 − x) − log 3 − 2 log( x + 7) 3 log 5 + log 2 = log(5 ⋅ 2) = log10 = 1 42. 5 ⎛ 405 ⎞ log 3 405 − log 3 5 = log 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = log3 81 =4 47. 33. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 38. ⎛ 2x + 5 ⎞ log(2 x + 5) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ⎡ x3 x 2 + 1 ⎤ ln ⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ( x + 1) ⎦⎥ 48. log 2 x y4 z5 = log x1/ 3 + log b y 4 − log b z 5 b 1 = log b x + 4 log b y − 5log b z 3 40. ⎡100 x 3 3 5 − x ⎤ log ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ 3( x + 7) ⎦ = log100 + log x3 + log ( 5 − x ) 3 − log 3 − log ( x + 7 ) 1 xy 4 16 = log 2 x1/ 5 + log 2 y 4 / 5 − log 2 161/ 5 41. 1 4 1 = log 2 x + log 2 y − log 2 16 5 5 5 1 4 4 = log 2 x + log 2 y − 5 5 5 37. log 250 + log 4 = log1000 = 3 43. log x + 3 log y = log x + log y 3 = log( xy 3 ) 50.

5log b x + 6 log b y = log b x 5 + log b y 6 55. 66. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 61. 65. 2logbx + 3logby = logbx2 + logby3 = logb(x2y3) 54. ( ) = ln x 3 y or ln y 3 x 1 ) 53. Inc. ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎛ x2 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1 ⎟ or ln ⎜ 2 ⎜ y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln( x + 6) − 3ln x = ln( x + 6) 4 − ln x3 = ln 60. ⎛ x7 ⎞ 7 ln x − 3ln y = ln x 7 − ln y 3 = ln ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 57. 1 ln x + ln y = ln x1/ 2 + ln y 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ln ⎜ x 2 y ⎟ or ln y x ⎝ ⎠ ( 52. x4 y7 z3 = log xy = logb ( x 5 y 6 ) 58. . 4 x3 ) 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 (log 5 x + log 5 y ) − 2 log 5 ( x + 1) 2 1 = log5 xy − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 xy ( x + 1) 2 1 ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) + 2log 4 ( x + 1) 3 1 x = log 4 + log 4 ( x + 1)2 3 y ⎡⎛ x ⎞ = log 4 ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎣⎝ y ⎠ 1/ 3 8 ln (x +9) − 4 ln x = ln( x + 9)8 − ln x 4 = ln ( 1 log x − log y 4 4 3 x 1 = log 4 y 3 x = log 3 4 y 1 1 2 ln x − ln y = ln x 2 − ln y 2 2 ( x + 6) 1 ( log x + log y ) 2 1 = (log xy ) 2 = log( xy )1/ 2 ⎛ = log ⎜ 4 ⎝ ⎛ x3 ⎞ ⎛ x3 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1/ 3 ⎟ or ln ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 59.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 51. 1 1 ln x + ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 3 ( 62. ⎛ x5 ⎞ 5 ln x − 2 ln y = ln x5 − ln y 2 = ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 56. 1 3ln x − ln y = ln x 3 − ln y1/ 3 3 64. 4 ln x + 7 ln y − 3ln z ( x + 9)8 x4 ⎤ ( x + 1) 2 ⎥ ⎥⎦ = log 4 ⎡( x + 1) 2 3 xy ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 3ln x + 5 ln y − 6 ln z = ln x3 + ln y 5 − ln z 6 = ln x3 y 5 z6 436 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = ln x 4 + ln y 7 − ln z 3 ) = ln 63.

Inc. log 5 13 = log( x + 2) log 2 log13 ≈ 1. log14 87. log 0. log 6 17 = 73. log16 57.4456 log 0.5 ≈ 1. Section 3. log x + log ( x − 1) − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 log17 ≈ 1. y = log15 x = log x log15 81.2 = ln 57.5812 log 6 72.3 19 = log19 ≈ −2.3 77. y = log3 x = log x log 3 80. 1 ⎡5ln( x + 6) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 25) ⎤⎦ 3⎣ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ ⎥ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎢ x( x 2 − 25) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ 3 = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 25) ⎦ 69.4595 ln16 75.1 76.5 = ln 87.2304 log 0.3 1 [2 ln( x + 5) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 = [ln( x + 5) 2 − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 ⎡ ( x + 5)2 ⎤ = ⎢ ln 3 ⎣ x( x 2 − 4) ⎥⎦ ⎡ ( x + 5) 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 4) ⎦ 1/ 3 ( x + 5) 2 = ln 3 x( x 2 − 4) 68.1 17 = log17 ≈ −1.PreCalculus 4E 67. logπ 400 = 79.2 ≈ 1.2340 ln π = log x + log ( x 2 − 1) − ( log 7 + log( x + 1) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) − log ( 7( x + 1) ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) 7( x + 1) x( x + 1)( x − 1) = log 7( x + 1) x( x − 1) = log 7 70. logπ 63 = ln 63 ≈ 3. . y = log 2 ( x + 2) = ln 400 ≈ 5.6193 ln π 78. log 0.5937 log 5 437 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − log15 − log( x + 2) = log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − ( log15 + log( x + 2) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 4 ) − log (15( x + 2) ) x ( x − 4) 2 = log 15( x + 2) x( x + 2)( x − 2) = log 15( x + 2) x( x − 2) = log 15 71.6944 ln14 74.

This means that the 100 times louder sound will be 20 decibels louder. log 3 7 = 1 87. ln( x ⋅ 1) = ln x + ln1 95. false. log x+2 = log( x + 2) − log( x − 1) x −1 85. 88. false. ln(5 x) + ln1 = ln 5 x + 0 = ln 5 x 96.03 ⎝ 35 ⎠ t ≈ 20. ln 8 x3 = ln 23 x3 = ln ( 2 x ) = 3ln ( 2 x ) log( x − 2) log 3 3 93. = log b 3 − logb 4 1 = log b 3 2 − log 22 1 log b 3 − 2 log 2 2 1 = C − 2A 2 = 104. log 4 ( 2 x ) = 3log 4 ( 2 x ) 3 1 ⎛ A ⎞ t = ln ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ A− N ⎠ 1 ⎡ 65 ⎤ ln 0. Inc. true. false. false. true. false. log b 8 = log b 23 = 3log b 2 = 3 A 99. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log b 6 = log b ( 2 ⋅ 3) 97.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 82. y = log3 ( x − 2) = ( ) ( ) 92. true. . x log10 x = x ⋅ x = x 2 94. log( x + 3) − log(2 x) = log = log b 2 + log b 3 = A + C 98.03 ⎢⎣ 65 − 30 ⎥⎦ 1 ⎛ 65 ⎞ t= ln ⎜ ⎟ 0.63 It will take the chimpanzee a little more than 20. log b 81 = log b 34 = 4log b 3 = 4C 100. false. a. false. ln e = 1 90.5 weeks to master 30 signs. true. log b 84. b. quotient rule 86. true. ln x + ln(2 x) = ln ( x ⋅ 2 x) ) = ln 2 x 2 3 = log b 3 − log b 2 = C − A 2 83. log b log b 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞2 = logb ⎜ ⎟ 27 ⎝ 27 ⎠ 1 ⎛2⎞ = log b ⎜ 3 ⎟ 2 ⎝3 ⎠ 1 = ( logb 2 − log b 33 ) 2 1 = ( logb 2 − 3log b 3) 2 1 3 = log b 2 − log b 3 2 2 1 3 = A− C 2 2 log 7 1 1 = log 3 = log 3 log 7 log 7 3 102. true. t= 438 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. false. product rule 101. 89. x+3 2x x ⎛ I ⎞ D = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ ⎛ 100 I ⎞ D1 = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ = 10 log (100 I − I 0 ) = 10 log100 + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 = 10(2) + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 = log b ⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎟⎟ 16 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ I ⎞ = 20 + 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ This is 20 more than the loudness level of the softer sound. ln ee = 0 91. e x = ln ee 103. a.

log(10 x) = log x + 1 and l log(0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. makes sense 123. false. 127. Answers may vary. makes sense b. – 120. reflect the graph of y = log3x about the x-axis. a. To obtain the graph of y = log3(x + 2). we would have been able to simplify as follows. ⎛ x ⎞2 x = log 4 ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ Sample explanation: log 4 ⎛x⎞ 1 log 4 ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ y⎠ 1 = ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) 2 1 1 = log 4 x − log 4 y 2 2 = 114. just vertical shifts of y = log x. If we were taking the logarithm of a product and not a sum. makes sense 124. ( log x log 3 x = . Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. 113. 116. .3 105. shift the graph of y = log3x two units upward. ( ) logb x3 y 3 = logb x3 + logb y 3 = 3logb x + 3logb y 128. – 112. shift the graph of y = log3x two units left. 1 To obtain the graph of y = 2 + log3x. A sample change is: log 7 49 log 7 49 = = log 7 49 = 2 .1x) = log x − 1. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Answers may vary. 1) and on the bottom in the interval (1. A sample change is: logb ( xy ) = 5logb ( xy ) 5 = 5 ( logb x + logb y ) a. log 3 log x log 25 x = . true 126. false. c. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 122. To obtain the graph of y = –log3x. ) A sample change is: logb x3 + y 3 cannot be simplified. these two graphs are log 7 49 − log 7 7 = 2 − 1 = 1 . = 5logb x + 5logb y top graph: y = log100 x bottom graph: y = log 3 x 439 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 121. but log 7 7 1 Using the product rule. top graph: y = log 3 x bottom graph: y = log100 x ln x ln 3 Comparing graphs of log b x for b > 1. does not make sense. Hence.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ∞). Inc. log 25 log x log100 x = log100 115. 125. y = log 3 x = b. the graph of the equation with the largest b will be on the top in the interval (0. false.

( 0. e 132. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 1. . ∞ ) 2. log 7 9 = ⎛ 8x ⎞ ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ = e ⎝ 2x ⎠ x2 + 2 x = 4 x + 3 x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x +1 = 0 or x−3= 0 x = −1 x=3 5 131. 1/ h x⎞ ⎛ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ h⎠ 133. ∞ ) 440 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 129. log 9 log 32 2 log 3 = = log 7 log 7 log 7 2A = B 130. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = x( x − 7) = 3 134. 2 x − 7x = 3 2 x − 7x − 3 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−7) ± (−7) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) x= 7 ± 61 2 ⎪⎧ 7 ± 61 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. ln 8 x5 − ln 2 x 2 =e ln ( 4 x 3 ) x+2 1 = 4x + 3 x ⎛ x+2 ⎞ ⎛1⎞ x(4 x + 3) ⎜ ⎟ = x(4 x + 3) ⎜ x ⎟ x 4 + 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ x( x + 2) = 4 x + 3 = 4 x3 log b ( x + h) − log b x h x+h log b x = h ⎛ h⎞ log b ⎜1 + ⎟ x⎠ ⎝ = h 1 ⎛ h⎞ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ h x⎠ ⎝ The solution set is {−1. log e = log10 e = ln e 1 = ln10 ln10 135. a( x − 2) = b(2 x + 3) ax − 2a = 2bx + 3b ax − 2bx = 2a + 3b x(a − 2b) = 2a + 3b 2a + 3b x= a − 2b asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −3 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.3} . ⎪⎩ 2 ⎪⎭ asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0. Inc. ∞ ) ( −3.

log 2 ( log 3 81) = log 2 ( log 3 34 ) = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 range of f = range of g = ( −∞. 9. f ( x ) = log 3 x + 6 The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x>0 domain: {x | x > 0} or ( 0. 2 x = −6 domain: {x | x ≠ 0} or ( −∞. Now ( x + 6 ) is always positive. domain of g = (1. −6 ) ∪ ( −6. ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6. 7. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 1 2 1 1 3 13. ∞ ) 100 y = 10 (10 ) 5. 2 y = 101 102 y = 101 2y = 1 y= asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. 8. f ( x ) = 3x + 6 domain: {x | x is a real number} or ( −∞. ∞ ) 11. log 3 ( x + 6 ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) log 3 1 1 = log 3 2 = log 3 3−2 = −2 9 3 12. f ( x ) = log 3 ( x + 6 ) The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x+6 > 0 x > −6 domain: {x | x > −6} or ( −6. . log 2 8 + log 5 25 = log 2 23 + log5 52 = 3+ 2 = 5 asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 1 domain of f = ( 0. ∞ ) 441 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. except when 4. 10. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. Let log100 10 = y range of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) 2 The argument of the logarithm must be positive. log 3 10 = log10 3 = 14. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . Inc.

16.08 ⎞ Monthly: A = 8000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 10. log100 0. ) xy − log1000 = log ( xy ) 2 − log103 1 1 log ( xy ) − 3 2 1 = ( log x + log y ) − 3 2 1 1 = log x + log y − 3 2 2 = 22.162 10. ln e 24. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ log 3 ⎜ log 2 ⎟ = log 3 ⎜ log 2 3 ⎟ 8⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 23. 10log13 = 13 19.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 15.1 = y 25.170 − 10. logπ π 21. . Inc.08(3) = π ≈ 10. ⎛ xy ⎞ log ⎜ = log ⎜ 1000 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 26. = log 3 ( log 2 2−3 ) = log 3 ( −3) 1 1 8 log 7 x − log 7 y = log 7 x8 − log 7 y 3 3 ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ y3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = not possible This expression is impossible to evaluate. 6log6 5 = 5 17. 1 ln x − 3ln y − ln ( z − 2 ) 2 ln ( e19 x 20 ) = ln e19 + ln x 20 = 19 + 20 ln x 442 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.162 = 8 Interest returned will be $8 more if compounded continuously. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7 log 5 x + 2 log 5 x = log5 x 7 + log 5 x 2 = log5 ( x 7 ⋅ x 2 ) = 7 7 = log5 x9 18. Continuously: A = 8000e0.170 12⋅3 ( ⎛ 0. 100 y = 0.1 (10 ) 2 y 102 y = ln x 2 − ln y 3 − ln ( z − 2 ) 1 1 10 = 10−1 = = ln x − ⎡⎣ ln y 3 + ln ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ = ln x − ln ⎡⎣ y 3 ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ 2 y = −1 ⎡ x ⎤ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎣ y ( z − 2) ⎦ 1 y=− 2 π 20.

The solutions are 0 and (approximately) 1. 3. 443 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.11 8 x + 2 = 4 x −3 (2 ) 3 2 x+2 3 x +6 ( ) = 22 x= x −3 = 2 2 x −6 (e x = −12 a. 3 x−6 7e 2 x = 63 e2 x = 9 ln e 2 x = ln 9 2 x = ln 9 ln 9 ≈ 1.10.4 Check Point Exercises 1. Inc. ⎩ ln 5 ⎭ approximately 3.04.4 Section 3. approximately 3. ⎩ 2 ⎭ approximately 1. ln7}.90. x ex − 7 = 0 x b. 5 = 125 3 x −6 5 = 53 (2 x − 1) ln 3 = ( x + 1) ln 7 3x − 6 = 3 3x = 9 x=3 b.95. 2 = x−4 8= x−4 12 = x Check: log ( x − 4) = 3 2 log (12 − 4) = 3 2 log 8 = 3 2 3=3 The solution set is {12}. 32 x −1 = 7 x +1 ln 32 x −1 = ln 7 x +1 4. − 7 )( e x − 1) = 0 or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 7 ex = 1 ln e = ln 7 ln e x = ln1 x x = ln 7 x=0 The solution set is {0. 3x + 6 = 2x − 6 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 3 10 x = 8000 log10 x = log 8000 x log10 = log 8000 x = log 8000 ≈ 3. e 2 x − 8e x + 7 = 0 5. . 2 x ln 3 − ln 3 = x ln 7 + ln 7 2 x ln 3 − x ln 7 = ln 3 + ln 7 x(2 ln 3 − ln 7) = ln 3 + ln 7 ln 3 + ln 7 2 ln 3 − ln 7 x ≈ 12. 6. a. 5x = 134 ln 5 = ln134 x ln 5 = ln134 ln134 x= ≈ 3.10 x= 2 ⎧ ln 9 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. log 2 ( x − 4) = 3 a.04 ln 5 ⎧ ln134 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.90 The solution set is {log 8000} .

77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log x( x − 3) = 1 101 = x( x − 3) 10 = x 2 − 3x x= ln ( 76 ) ≈ 0.2 After approximately 16. ln( x − 3) = ln(7 x − 23) − ln( x + 1) 7 x − 23 ln( x − 3) = ln x +1 7 x − 23 x−3= x +1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 7 x − 23 For a risk of 7%.77 For a blood alcohol concentration of 0. .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions b.01 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall.77 x = 7 6 ⎛7⎞ ln e12. let R = 7 in R = 6e12.46 3 x 2 − 2 x − 3 = 7 x − 23 Check 4 ln 3x = 8 x 2 − 9 x + 20 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 0 x = 4 or x = 5 Both values produce true statements.77 x 6e12. ln 3x = 2 eln 3 x = e 2 3x = e2 x= e2 ≈ 2.02) 4t = 3600 (1.02) 4t = 3600 1000(1. 7.02) = ln 3.6 4 ln1. 0 = x − 3x − 10 0 = ( x − 5)( x + 2) x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = 5 or x = −2 Check Checking 5: log 5 + log(5 − 3) = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 1=1 Checking –2: log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log(−2) + log(−2 − 3) 0 1 Negative numbers do not have logarithms so –2 does not check. The solution set is {5}. ⎛ r⎞ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ nt ⎛ 0.6 ln 3. 2 10. ⎩3⎭ approximately 2. 5} ⎛ e2 ⎞ 4 ln 3 ⎜ ⎟ = 8 ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln e2 = 8 4(2) = 8 8=8 9.08 ⎞ 3600 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4t 4t ⎛ 0.6 4t ln(1. 4 ln 3x = 8 8. ⎧ e2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .77 x = 7 e12.2 years.02) 4t = ln 3. Inc.01. the risk of a car accident is 7%. The solution set is {4.08 ⎞ 1000 ⎜1_ ⎟ = 3600 4 ⎠ ⎝ 1000(1 + 0. t= 444 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the $1000 will grow to an accumulated value of $3600.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎛7⎞ 12.02 ≈ 16.46.

277 An annual income of approximately $11.3 ln x 6. . 3.4 2.8 ln x = −12.PreCalculus 4E 11.3 29. x= 5 2 ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . and the solution set is {2} .8 − 12. 53 x −1 = 125 53 x −1 = 53 3x − 1 = 3 3x = 4 4 x= 3 x 3x = 34 x=4 The solution set is {4}. 3 ⎧3⎫ . 5x = 3 3 x= 5 The solution is 5 = 625 x 5 x = 54 x=4 The solution set is {4}. 2 x = 26 x=6 The solution is 6. 4.3 x ≈ 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and the solution set is {3} . 8.3ln x = 25 32 x +1 = 33 2x + 1 = 3 2x = 2 x =1 The solution set is {1}.3 7. Solve equation when f ( x) = 25 .000 corresponds to 25% of Americans reporting fair or poor health. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . −12. 54. 1.8 log e x = 12. Inc. and the solution set is {3} .4 f ( x) = 54. 5 ⎩5⎭ 4 x = 32 (2 ) 2 x = 25 2 2 x = 25 22 x −1 = 32 2x = 5 22 x −1 = 25 2x − 1 = 5 2x = 6 x=3 The solution is 3. 32 x +1 = 27 10. Section 3. 32 x = 8 (2 ) 5 x = 23 5x = 125 2 5 x = 23 5x = 53 x=3 The solution is 3.3ln x = −29. 5. 29.8 −29. ⎩3⎭ 2 = 64 9. Exercise Set 3.8 x = e 12. ⎩2⎭ 445 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x = 81 ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .8 − 12. 42 x −1 = 64 42 x −1 = 43 2x − 1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 The solution is 2. and the solution set is {6} .

= 54 x= = 6 6 = 62 x −3 1 = 4 2 2 ( x − 3) = 4 (1) 125 x = 625 (5 ) x −3 4 x −3 4 32 x = 33 2x = 3 3 x= 2 The solution is 6 x=5 The solution set is {5}. 1 2x − 6 = 4 2 x = 10 x=5 The solution is 5. 9x = (3 ) 2 x = 1 3 3 1 1 33 − 13 32 x = 3 1 3 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 3⎠ 6 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . 3 = 27 1 31− x = 3 3 31− x = 3−3 1 − x = −3 − x = −4 x=4 The solution set is {4}. ⎩3⎭ 2x − 4 = 6 1 13. 9 x = 27 (3 ) 2 x 15. and the solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . ⎩ 6⎭ 2x = − 446 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 33 12. . Inc. 2 ⎩2⎭ 53 x = 54 3x = 4 16. 4x = (2 ) 2 x = 1 2 1 1 22 22 x = 2 − 12 1 2 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 2⎠ 4 1 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution is − . and the solution set is {5}. 52 − x = 18. 2 x = 10 1− x 14. 4 ⎩ 4⎭ 2x = − 1 125 1 2− x 5 = 3 5 52− x = 5−3 2 − x = −3 − x = −5 x=5 The solution set is {5}. 3 x 3 ⎧3⎫ . and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 17. 7 7 4 3 x−2 6 x−2 6 = 7 1 = 72 x−2 1 = 6 2 2 ( x − 2 ) = 6 (1) ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

e x = 0. 5e x = 23 23 ex = 5 23 ln e x = ln 5 23 x = ln ≈ 1.19 ln 5 x = ln17 x ln 5 = ln17 ln17 x= ≈ 1.7 ≈ 1.83 x = ln 0.07 x= ≈ 0. x −1 ln e x = 5.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.30 5 ln 3.07 ln 8. 9e x = 107 107 ex = 9 107 ln e x = ln 9 107 x = ln ≈ 2. (2 ) 3 x +3 ( ) = 24 25. 5x = 17 28. 19 x = 143 x ln 19 = ln 143 ln143 x= ≈ 1. 1 e x +1 e = e −1 x + 1 = −1 x = −2 The solution set is {−2} .53 5 1 e2 x x+4 e = e −2 x x + 4 = −2 x 3 x = −4 4 x=− 3 30. e5 x = 659 10 = 3. Inc.07 ln10 x = ln 8. ⎩ 5⎭ 21.83 ln e x = ln 0.91 ≈ 0.7 x = ln 5. 27. 29. . ⎩ 3⎭ 23.91 x x= x ln10 = ln 3.59 ln10 24.48 9 e x +1 = e x+4 = ⎧ 4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .83 ≈ –0.91 x ln e5 x = ln 659 ln10 = ln 3.4 8 x +3 = 16 x −1 19.07 x ln10 = ln 8. 10 x = 8. (2 ) 3 1− x ( ) = 22 3 − 3x = 2 x + 4 −5 x = 1 22. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 13 = x The solution set is {13} .69 ln19 1 5 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .76 ln 5 x+2 23−3 x = 22 x + 4 x=− e x = 5.91 x= 3e5 x = 1977 ln 659 ≈ 1.74 23 x + 9 = 2 4 x − 4 3x + 9 = 4 x − 4 26. 81− x = 4 x + 2 20.91 ln10 447 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 31.

4e7 x = 10. 1 – ln 793 ≈ –1. 478 (5 x − 3) ln e = ln10.58 4 448 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.48 0.2 7 ln 0. 52x + 3 = 3x 2–x1+ 3 ln 5 = ln 3x −1 5 x − 3 = ln10.25 ln 3 41. 250 + 5 x= ≈ 3.250 4x – 5 = ln 11. e5 x − 3 − 2 = 10. 250 (4x – 5)ln e = ln 11. 5 x− 3 = 137 ln 5 x− 3 = ln137 (x – 3) ln 5 = ln 137 ln137 x −3 = ln 5 ln137 x = 3+ ≈ 6. .00 8 x= 7 x + 2 = 410 ln10.14 5 39. 273 10. 478 ln e5 x − 3 = ln10.3 x = ln 813 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 32. 243 e 4 x – 5 = 11. 478 + 3 36.45 5 e 4 x − 5 − 7 = 11. 478 (2 x + 3) ln 5 = ( x − 1) ln 3 2 x ln 5 + 3ln 5 = x ln 3 − ln 3 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x ln 3 − 2 x ln 5 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x(ln 3 − 2 ln 5) 3ln 5 + ln 3 =x ln 3 − 2ln 5 −2.06 ln 5 ln 70. ln 7 x + 2 = ln 410 ( x + 2) ln 7 = ln 410 ln 410 x+2= ln 7 ln 410 x= − 2 ≈ 1. 40. 478 70. 33. 273 e7 x = 4 ⎛ 10.2 x ln 3 = ln 0. 273 ⎞ x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 1. 476 e5 x − 3 = 10.80 ≈ x 5 x = ln10. Inc.12 7 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 37.3x ln 7 = ln 813 ln 813 x= ≈ 11.2 x= ≈ –10. 35. 250 ln e 4 x − 5 = ln11.250 ln11.09 ln 7 38. 478 + 3 ≈ 2. 273 ⎞ ln e7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎛ 10. e1− 5 x = 793 ln e1− 5 x = ln 793 (1 − 5 x)(ln e) = ln 793 1 − 5 x = ln 793 5 x = 1 − ln 793 x= 34. 273 ⎞ 7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 1 ⎛ 10.3 x = 813 3x / 7 = 0.2 7 x ln 3 = 7 ln 0.3ln 7 e1−8 x = 7957 ln e1−8 x = ln 7957 (1 – 8x) ln e = ln 7957 1 – 8x = ln 7957 8x = 1 – ln 7957 1 – ln 7957 x= ≈ –1.2 ln 3x / 7 = ln 0.

22 x + 2 x − 12 = 0 (2 x + 4)(2 x − 3) = 0 e 2 x − 2e x − 3 = 0 x 3x − 1 = 0 3 x = −2 x = ln 2 x=0 The solution set is {0.09 x = ln 7 ln 3 2− ln 7 (e e 2 x − 6 = 0 or e 2 x + 3 = 0 e2 x = 6 x 47. Section 3. 2x + 4 = 0 2 x = −4 ln 2 x = ln ( −4 ) − 3)( e x + 1) = 0 ex − 3 = 0 does not exist or e x + 1 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −1 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x = ln(−1) (e 2x = 3 ln 2 x = ln 3 x ln 2 = ln 3 ln 3 ln 2 x ≈ 1.PreCalculus 4E 42. 32 x + 3x − 2 = 0 (3x + 2)(3x − 1) = 0 − 2 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 2 = 0 e2 x = −3 ln e 2 x = ln 6 ln e 2 x = ln(−3) 2 x = ln 6 ln(−3) does not exist.39 ≈ x 52. ln 2).4 7 2 x +1 = 3 x + 2 ln 7 2 x +1 = ln 3x + 2 46.58 49. Inc. 45.90 x= 2 e 2 x − 3e x + 2 = 0 43. The solutions are 0 and approximately 0.69. ln x = 2 e2 = x 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 48.10. .55 2 125 = x 51. ln x = 3 e3 = x 20. e 4 x − 3e 2 x − 18 = 0 ( e2 x − 6 )( e2 x + 3) = 0 + 8 )( e 2 x − 3) = 0 50. or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 2 ex = 1 ln e x = ln 2 ln e x = ln1 3x + 2 = 0 (e 3x = 1 log 3x = log(−2) log 3x = log1 does not exist log 3 = 0 0 x= log 3 x=0 The solution set is {0}. ln 6 ≈ 0. The solutions is approximately 1. log 5 x = 3 53 = x e2 x + 8 = 0 e 2 x = −8 ln e 2 x = ln(−8) 2 x = ln(−8) or e 2 x − 3 = 0 e2 x = 3 ln e 2 x = ln 3 2 x = ln 3 ln 3 ln(−8) does not exist x= 2 ln 3 x= ≈ 0. log 3 x = 4 34 = x 81 = x e 4 x + 5e 2 x − 24 = 0 2x 2x − 3 = 0 x= x = ln 3 no solution The solution set is {ln 3}.09 ≈ x 449 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (2 x + 1) ln 7 = ( x + 2) ln 3 ln 3 2 x + 1 = ( x + 2) ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x + 1 = x + ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x − x = −1 ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 ⎞ 2 ln 3 ⎛ −1 x⎜2 − ⎟= ln 7 ⎠ ln 7 ⎝ 2 ln 3 −1 ≈ 0. 44.

log 3 ( x − 4) = −3 e5 ≈ 74. log 4 ( x + 5) = 3 60. 4 = x+5 3 e ln 2 x = e5 59 = x 54. 6 + 2 ln x = 5 2 ln x = −1 x−4 7 −2 = 1 = 49 48 −1 = 49 −1.67 ≈ x 64.30 2 450 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 61.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 53.21 2 e4 ≈ 27.04 ≈ 56. log 5 x + log 5 ( 4 x − 1) = 1 log 5 ( 4 x 2 − x ) = 1 4 x2 − x = 5 4 x2 − x − 5 = 0 (4 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = −1 4 x = –1 does not check because log 5 (−1) does not exist. 32 = 4 x + 1 31 = 4 x 31 =x 4 7.39.61 x 62.98 ≈ 57. 1 2 eln x = e −1/ 2 43 = 3 x + 2 58. ln x + 4 = 1 eln x+4 = e1 x+4 =e log 2 (4 x + 1) = 5 x + 4 = e2 2 = 4x + 1 5 x = e 2 − 4 ≈ 3. Inc.75 = x 65. ⎩4⎭ 5 ln 2 x = 20 ln 2 x = 4 eln 2 x = e4 2 x = e4 x= 7 + 3ln x = 6 3ln x = −1 x+2 64 = 3x + 2 59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 7 ( x + 2) = −2 1 3 ln x = − x+2 eln x = e − x=e x 63. 6 ln 2 x = 30 ln 2 x = 5 2 x = e5 log 5 ( x − 7) = 2 x= 5 = x−7 2 32 = x 55. x 1 −1 3 3 ≈ 0.72 ln x + 3 = 1 eln log 4 (3 x + 2) = 3 x+3 = e1 x+3 = e x + 3 = e2 x = e 2 − 3 ≈ 4. ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . . 3−3 = 1 = 27 1 4 = 27 4. ln x = − x−4 x x = e −1/ 2 ≈ 0.39 62 = 3x 62 =x 3 20.

Inc. The solution set is {3}. 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 3 log 2 ( x − 1) = 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 23 21 = x − 1 x −1 = 8 x2 = 9 x = 3 or x = –3 x = –3 does not check because log 2 (−3 − 1) does not exist.4 log 6 ( x + 5 ) + log 6 x = 2 70. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 66. log 4 ( x + 2 ) − log 4 ( x − 1) = 1 log 3 ( x − 5 ) + log 3 ( x + 3) = 2 71. 68. x + 2 = 8 x − 40 7 x = 42 x=6 451 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3= x 73. log 2 ( x − 6) + log 2 ( x − 4) − log 2 x = 2 log 2 log 2 ( x + 2 ) − log 2 ( x − 5 ) = 3 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟=3 ⎝ x−5⎠ x+2 = 23 x−5 x+2 =8 x−5 x + 2 = 8( x − 5) ( x − 6)( x − 4) =2 x ( x − 6)( x − 4) = 22 x x 2 − 10 x + 24 = 4 x x 2 − 14 x + 24 = 0 x − 12 = 0 or ( x − 12)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {12} since log2 (2−6) = log2 (−4) is not possible. The solution set is {6}. . 5= x 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − log 2 4 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − 2 log 2 ( x − 1) + log 2 ( x + 1) = 3 log 2 ⎡⎣( x − 1)( x + 1) ⎤⎦ = 3 72. Section 3. log 3 ⎣⎡( x − 5)( x + 3) ⎦⎤ = 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = log 3 9 + 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 + 2 ( x − 5)( x + 3) = 32 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 4 x 2 – 2 x – 15 = 9 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 24 = 0 32 = x + 4 ( x − 6)( x + 4) = 0 9= x+4 x = 6 or x = −4 x = –4 does not check because log 3 (−4 − 5) does not exist. 2 69. 67. log 6 x( x + 5) = 2 x( x + 5) = 6 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ x −1 ⎠ x+2 = 41 x −1 x+2 =4 x −1 x + 2 = 4(x – 1) x + 2 = 4x – 4 3x = 6 x=2 2 x 2 + 5 x = 36 x 2 + 5 x − 36 = 0 (x + 9)(x – 4) = 0 x = –9 or x = 4 x = –9 does not check because log 6 (−9 + 5) does not exist. The solution set is {4}.

The solution set is x+7 = log(7 x + 1) 3 x+7 = 7x + 1 3 x + 7 = 21x + 3 −20 x = −4 log(3x − 3) = log(4 x + 4) 78. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x + 4 = 4x 4 = 3x 4 x= 3 77. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .2 log(5 x + 1) = log(2 x + 3) + log 2 log(5 x + 1) = log(4 x + 6) 5x + 1 = 4x + 6 x=5 x= 83. x2 = log112 7 x2 = 112 7 x 2 = 784 x = ±28 –28 is rejected. log(2 x − 1) = log( x + 3) + log 3 84. x+4 = log(5 x + 1) 2 x+4 = 5x + 1 2 x + 4 = 10 x + 2 { }. −10 = x This value is rejected. 1 5 x ≈ 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 74. log( x + 7) − log 3 = log(7 x + 1) log ⎧4⎫ This value is rejected. log 3x − 3 = 4 x + 4 { }. so the solution set is {8} 75. log 2 ( x − 3) + log 2 x − log 2 ( x + 2) = 2 log 2 80. ⎩3⎭ 76. 452 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x − 3) x =2 ( x + 2) log x3 = log125 x3 = 125 x − 3x x+2 4( x + 2) = x 2 − 3x 22 = 3log x = log125 2 x=5 81. The solution set is 2 log x − log 7 = log112 log x 2 − log 7 = log112 log(3x − 3) = log( x + 1) + log 4 −7 = x This value is rejected. log(2 x − 1) = log(3x + 9) 2 x − 1 = 3x + 9 79. . −9 x = −2 2 9 x ≈ 0. The solution set is {5}. 4 x + 8 = x − 3x 2 log( x + 4) − log 2 = log(5 x + 1) log 0 = x − 7x − 8 2 0 = ( x + 1)( x − 8) x +1 = 0 or x−8 = 0 x = −1 x=8 log2 (−1−3) = log2(−4) does not exist. log( x − 2) + log 5 = log100 log(5 x − 10) = log100 5 x − 10 = 100 5 x = 110 2 log x = log 25 x = 22 log x = log 25 2 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 –5 is rejected. The solution set is {28}.22 x= log( x + 4) = log x + log 4 log( x + 4) = log 4 x 82. Inc.

52 x ⋅ 54 x = 125 52 x + 4 x = 53 ⎛1⎞ log 2 ( x − 1) − log 2 ( x + 3) = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝x⎠ x −1 ⎛1⎞ = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ log 2 x+3 ⎝x⎠ x −1 1 = x+3 x x2 − x = x + 3 56 x = 53 6x = 3 x= 92. ln x + 3x = 10 2 x + 3 x − 10 = 0 2 ( x + 5)( x − 2) = 0 x = −5 or x = 2 –5 is rejected.PreCalculus 4E 85. ln( x − 5) − ln( x + 4) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 2) 91. The solution set is {3}. 1 2 x + 2)+ x = 34 32 x + 2 = 34 2x + 2 = 4 2x = 2 x =1 93. 88.67 x= log( x 2 + x − 6) = log14 x 2 + x − 6 = 14 x 2 + x − 20 = 0 90. The solution set is {2}. ( x + 5)( x − 4) = 0 x = −5 or x = 4 –5 is rejected. Section 3. The solution set is {4}. ln( x − 2) − ln( x + 3) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 7) x−2 x −1 = ln x+3 x+7 x − 2 x −1 = x+3 x+7 ( x − 2)( x + 7) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) log( x + 3x) = log10 2 x 2 + 5 x − 14 = x 2 + 2 x − 3 3 x = 11 log( x + 3) + log( x − 2) = log14 11 3 x ≈ 3. x −5 x −1 = ln x+4 x+2 x − 5 x −1 = x+4 x+2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = ( x + 4)( x − 1) ln ln( x − 4) + ln( x + 1) = ln( x − 8) ln( x 2 − 3 x − 4) = ln( x − 8) x 2 − 3x − 10 = x 2 + 3x − 4 x 2 − 3x − 4 = x − 8 −6 x = 6 x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 x = −1 –1 is rejected. 3x + 2 ⋅ 3x = 81 3( x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x = −1 or x = 3 –1 is rejected. The solution set is { }. .4 log x + log( x + 3) = log10 89. 87. Inc.09 3 or ln x = −3 x = e −3 x ≈ 0. 2 ln x − 6 = 0 2 ln x = 6 ln x = 3 ln x = 3 x=e x ≈ 20. The solution set is { }. ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x=2 2 is rejected. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 86.05 453 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

x2 5 = 50 3 x( x + 5) 3 1= x( x + 5) x( x + 5) = 3 e0 = 2 ln 5 x = ln 50 x 2 ln 5 = ln 50 ln 50 x2 = ln 5 ln 50 ≈ ±1. ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ x = 10−2 x = 0.54 2 −5 − 37 x= ≈ −5.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 94.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ −5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.01 x = 102 x = 100 95. 2 ⎩⎪ ⎭⎪ x= x2 − 5x − 3 = 0 454 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ln 3 − ln( x + 5) − ln x = 0 ln 96. x2 + 5x = 3 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − 2 ln x = 0 x= ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − ln x = 0 2 ln 3 =0 x( x + 5) (2 x + 1)( x − 3) =0 x2 (2 x + 1)( x − 3) = e0 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 =1 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 = x2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2 x + 5x − 3 = 0 2a −(5) ± (5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) −5 ± 37 2 −5 + 37 x= ≈ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.86 ln 3 x=± −(−5) ± (−5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 5 ± 37 2 5 + 37 x= ≈ 5.54 2 5 − 37 x= ≈ −0. 3 log x − 6 = 0 x= 3 log x = 6 log x = 2 log x = 2 or log x = −2 2(1) x= 2 3x = 45 2 ln 3x = ln 45 x 2 ln 3 = ln 45 ln 45 x2 = ln 3 ln 45 ≈ ±1.56 ln 5 x=± 97. x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 98. . Inc.

0183t 22.1e0.1e0.1 40 ln 36. This is represented by the point (118.PreCalculus 4E 99.9 27 = ln e0.975 x ln 20 1 = x ln 0. or 2013 3 = 20(0.975 x ≈ 118 There is 1% of surface sunlight at 118 feet.0183t = ln 22. a.975) x Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 1 = 0.9 27 ln t = 22.975 ln 20 1 ln 20 x= ln 0.3).1 40 0.9e0.0183(0) = 22.0126t = ln 36. b. 6} .9 27 0. This is represented by the point (75.975) x ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 1 = 20(0. 100.9e0.9e0.0183t ln 22. or 2014.9 ≈ 9 0. a.1 ≈8 t= 0. Inc. A = 36. 2005 is 0 years after 2005. 455 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1e0.975 x ln 20 3 = x ln 0.0183t 27 = 22.1).975 ln 20 3 ln 20 x= ln 0. 6} . f ( x) = 20(0. 4x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 b.0126(0) = 36.1e0. x = −2 The solution set is {−2.0126t ln 36.0126t 40 = 36. x = −2 The solution set is {−2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9e0. = 252 x = (5 =5 A = 22. 101. ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 27 = e0.0126t A = 36.1 million in 2005.4 2 −12 x 2 −12 x 2 −12 102. 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 = 92 x = ( 32 ) 2x = 34 x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 103. f ( x) = 20(0.0126 The population of California will reach 40 million about 8 years after 2005. . A = 22.0183t Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 2005 is 0 years after 2005.975) x 3 = 0.975 x 20 1 = ln 0.975) x 40 = e0. A = 36.0183 The population of Texas will reach 27 million about 9 years after 2005.0126t 36. 5x 5 5 Section 3.9 The population of Texas was 22.975 x 20 3 = ln 0.0126t 104.0183t ) 2 2x A = 22.1 40 = ln e0.1 The population of California was 36.975 x ≈ 75 There is 3% of surface sunlight at 75 feet.9 million in 2005.

( 360 ⋅ 4 ) 1440 r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ (1.8% ln e7 r = ln 3 7r = ln 3 r= ln 3 ≈ 0. .8 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = ln1.8) /1440 1+ 60 29 ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln(1.5 ln e 2 r = ln1.2 years 12 ln1.014375 8.5 2r = ln1.4) / 720) − 1 111.6 106. 000 = 7250 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 12 t 7250(1.8 360 ⎝ ⎠ 4t ln(1.7% 456 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12.147 14.014375) 4t = ln1.157 7 15.8 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 1440 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1. 000 = 8000e 0.08t e0.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = e(ln1. 000 = 8000e r ⋅ 2 e 2 r = 1. t= 720 = 1.005416667)12t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ ⎛ 60 ⎞ 12t ln(1. 000 4t ln(1.005416667) = 15.08t = ln 2 360⋅2 ln 2 0. Inc. r= (ln1.6 1440 ln1. 000 = 12. accumulated amount = 2(8000) = 16.8 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 1440 12 t ⎛ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.08 t ≈ 8.4 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 720 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.7 years.4 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 720 e ln(1+ r 360 ) 1+ =e r = e(ln1.5 r ⎞ ln1. = 1.6 ≈ 8.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ⎛ 0.5 ≈ 0.6 t= r ⎞ ⎛ 9000 = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 108. accumulated amount = 3(2350) = 7050 7050 = 2350er ⋅7 ≈ 0. 000 ln 1+ r e ( 360 ) = e(ln1.000 16.4) / 720 ln1.005416667)12t = r ⎞ ⎛ 1400 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 109.168 e7 r = 3 16.014375) = ln1. 20.08t = 2 ln e0.4 720 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.2 years r ⎞ ln1.065 ⎞ 15.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.0575 ⎞ 105.014375) 4t = 1. 500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12. 500(1.7% ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ t= ≈ 11.00541667) = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ (1.7 The amount would double in 8.08t = ln 2 0.8) /1440 − 1 ≈ 0.014375) 4t = 20.3% r = e(ln1.00541667 107.4) / 720 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.4 360 ⎝ ⎠ 110.2 4 ln1.203 2 20.

This underestimates the value shown in the graph by 2%.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ 0. pH = − log x 5.0 ≈ x (9. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2.4 2006 is 4 years after 2002.4 = log x x = 10−2. 425e0. 61% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2006.6 = log x 79 = 38 ln x x = 10−5. 95 30 c. 000 = 17. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x log 2 x = f (5) = 8 + 38 ln 5 ≈ 69 According to the function.6 mole per liter. .4 −5.2 10 The concentration of the acidic rainfall in part (b) is 103. 40 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 45 log 2 x = 1. 79 x = e 38 b.5 years 0.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 697 ⎠ t= ⎝ ≈ 8. 100% of new cellphones will have cameras 11 years after 2002. b.0425 113. 10−2. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x 100 = 8 + 38ln x 92 = 38 ln x 92 = ln x 38 x= 92 e 38 x ≈ 11 If the trend continues.2 times greater than the normal rainfall in part (a). Inc. or 2013. 95 2 30 = x 9. x≈8 If the trend continues. 87% of new cellphones will have cameras 8 years after 2002. pH = − log x 2.6 = − log x 87 = 8 + 38ln x 114. f (4) = 8 + 38 ln 4 ≈ 61 According to the function. a. This overestimates the value shown in the graph by 1%.4 −( −5.6 79 = ln x 38 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−5.0425t 1000 e0. 25. a. 50) P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 116.8 Only half the students recall the important features of the lecture after 2. 69% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2007.6) = 103.8 days.0425t = 697 ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln e0.4 mole per liter. (2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 457 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 = 10−2.4 = − log x −2. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x −5. b. 0) 117.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 0 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 95 2007 is 5 years after 2002.5 x = 21. P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 115. or 2010.0.8.5 ≈ 2.4 112.

2 . The intersection point is (2. {1} The intersection point is (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. Verify: x = 4 123. 9). 8). 3 11 Verify: x = 3 11 ⎛ ⎞ log 3 ⎜ 3 ⋅ − 2 ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ log 3 (11-2) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {113} .3 125. Inc. . 23 = 8 8=8 The solution set is {2}.3 mole per liter. 1 = − log x −1 = log x x = 10 31+1 = 9 32 = 9 −1 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−1 mole per liter.3 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2. = 10−1−( −2. ( ) The intersection point is 11 . −2. 2). – 122.3 9=9 The solution set is {1}. 124. a. 119. Verify x = 1: 3x +1 = 9 pH = − log x b. The intersection point is (4. 458 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 3 (4 ⋅ 4 − 7) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {4}. 10 The concentration of the acidic stomach in part (b) is 101.3 times greater than the lemon juice in part (a).3 = − log x −2.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions pH = − log x 118.3) = 101. Verify: x = 2 2 2 x +1 =8 2 +1 =2 126. 2. 10−1 c.3 = log x x = 10−2.

.291641) + 4 0.291641.8379417 The solution set is {–1.391606. barometric air pressure increases.6855579 3x = 2x + 3 31. As the distance from the eye increases. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 5−1.371158 The solution set is {–1.2793139 = 3(1.12507831) and log(2 + 3) + log 2 = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 (1. 1).391606 3x = 2x + 3 3-1.4 127.2793139}.3711158).5 miles from the eye of a hurricane. leveling off at about 30 inches of mercury. 0. 129. 29 = 0.24 1 e ln( x +1) = e 0.2167879803 ≈ 0.216788 Verify x ≈ 1.6855579 ≈ 2(1. The intersection point is (20.24 x +1 = e 1 x=e 1 0.8379416).837941942 ≈ 7. 7.6855579.2793139) + 4 7. 131.291641. approximately (−1.391606. Verify x ≈ −1. 29).1250782178 ≈ 0.24 0.48ln( x + 1) = 2 1 ln( x + 1) = 0. Verify x = 20: log (x – 15) + log x = 2 log (20 – 15) + log 20 = 2 log 5 + log 20 = 2 log 100 = 2 100 = 102 100 = 100 The solution set is {20}. 1.6855579}.48ln( x + 1) + 27 0.5 The barometric air pressure is 29 inches of mercury at a distance of about 63.21678798) and (1. 1.37111582 ≈ 6. Verify: x = 2 There are 2 points of intersection.391606) + 3 0.125077 Verify:x ≈ 1. 6.291641 = 3(−1. Verify:x ≈ −1.6855579) + 3 6. 2). 51. 0.2793139 128. 132.2793139. approximately (–1. 130.291641 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 5x = 3x + 4 1=1 The solution set is {2}.24 − 1 ≈ 63. The intersection point is (2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 459 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.391606 ≈ 2(−1. The point of intersection is approximately (63.5. There are 2 points of intersection.

2 x = 15 (1. makes sense 133.05 ⎠ t ⎛ 1. A sample change is: If log ( 7 x + 3) − log ( 2 x + 5 ) = 4. t ≈ 7. false. 141.5 ⎝ 1. A sample change is: If log ( x + 3) = 2.03 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.092(7.9 minutes. because there is not a variable in an exponent.5 t= ≈ 36 ⎛ 1.05 ⎞ A = 2000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ The two accounts will have the same balance when 4000(1. A sample change is: x10 = 5.71 is not an exponential equation.05 ⎠ ln 0. 1⋅t 135. Explanations will vary.9. Changes to make the statement true will vary.03 ⎞ A = 4000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ Account paying 5% interest: An adult female elephant weighing 1800 kilograms is about 20 years old. Changes to make the statement true will vary.9 minutes. does not make sense.5(1.10076749 The runner’s pulse will be 70 beats per minute after about 7.05 ⎠ ⎛ 1. 2 = 16 can be solved by rewriting 16 as 24. and 10 = 2 x + 5 . Sample x ⎛ 0. . true 134. makes sense 139. Inc. Sample explanation: The first equation is solved by rewriting it in exponential form. 460 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7x + 3 ⎛ 7x + 3 ⎞ 4 then log ⎜ ⎟ = 4. Verify: 70 = 45e −0.05 ⎠ The accounts will have the same balance in about 36 years.05)t ln 2 x = ln15 x ln 2 = ln15 ln15 x= ln 2 t ⎛ 1. The second equation is solved by using the one-to-one property of logarithms. 2 x = 16 2 x = 24 x=4 136.03 ⎞ t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0. so it will take about 7.5 ⎝ 1. Account paying 3% interest: 1⋅t ⎛ 0.5 ⎝ 1. Changes to make the statement true will vary.03)t = 2000(1. false. 138.05)t x explanation: 2 = 15 requires logarithms.9) 140.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0. 143. When P = 70. false.03)t = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. then 102 = x + 3.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 137.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. 2 x + 5 ⎝ ⎠ 70 ≈ 70. 142.

The solution set is ⎨⎩100 ⎭ 2009: A = 10e−0. An exponential function is the best choice. x = 10−2 3 2 x= 147. (log x)(2 log x + 1) = 6 2(log x) 2 + log x − 6 = 0 (2 log x − 3)(log x + 2) = 0 2 log x − 3 = 0 or log x + 2 = 0 2 log x = 3 log x = −2 log x = 3 2 x = 10 The graph of ln(ln(x)) crosses the graph y = 0 at approximately 2. the graph verifies x = 1 and x = e2.003(3) ≈ 9.003(2) ≈ 9. 145.3890566099. Inc. 0) and approximately (7. . Check by direct substitution: Check:x = 10 10 = 103 / 2 (log x)(2log x + 1) = 6 (ln x) = 2 ln x 2 (ln x ) − 2 ln x = 0 ln x(ln x − 2) = 0 ln x = 2 ln x = 0 eln x = e 2 or x =1 x = e2 The solution set is {1.003(1) ≈ 9.91 million b. e 2 } . so the solution set is {1. 1 100 A = 10e−0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ln(ln x) = 0 eln(ln x ) = e0 ln x = 1 eln x = e1 x=e The solution set is {e}.4 (ln x) 2 = ln x 2 144.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.718.003(0) = 10 million 2007: A = 10e−0. 4).003t a. 2 ( log10 ) (2 log10 3/ 2 3/ 2 + 1) = 6 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 ⋅ + 1⎟ = 6 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (3 + 1) = 6 ⎝2⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (4) = 6 ⎝2⎠ 6=6 Check with graphing utility: 146. 148. The population is decreasing. 461 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.94 million ⎧ 1 ⎫ . Since e2 ≈ 7. e2} as determined algebraically.3890561. There are two points of intersection: (1. 10 10 ⎬ .97 million x = 10 10 2008: A = 10e−0. 2006: A = 10e−0.

0248t = ln ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 16k ⎝ 643 ⎠ b.2(0) The proportion of correct responses prior to learning trials was 0. substitute 4. A = 906. or 2044.021t . T = C + (To – C)ekt 2000 = e0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.021t a.021 k= ⎝ 16 Thus. Inc. a. Substitute 10 for t in the model: 0.0248 The strontium-90 will decay to a level of 10 grams about 72 years after the accident. A0 = 643 .0248t In the exponential decay model A = A0 e kt . In the logistic growth model. A0 for A since the amount present 2 after 28 years is half the original amount. eln 3 = 3 A0 = A0 e k ⋅28 2 1 e 28 k = 2 1 ln e 28 k = ln 2 1 28k = ln 2 ln1/ 2 k= ≈ −0.8 f (0) = = 0. a. 1 6 ln e −0.0248t = ln 6 ln 16 t= ≈ 72 −0. . A = A0 ekt 906 = 643ek (16) 906 = e16k 643 ⎛ 906 ⎞ 16 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 643 ⎠ e = −0. 2.2(10) The proportion of correct responses after 10 learning trials was 0.021t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 643 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0.4 1 + e −0.0248 28 So the exponential decay model is A = A0 e −0. 0. the growth function is A = 643e0.0248t = 1 6 1 −0. c. b. a. ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 0. Substitute 60 for A0 and 10 for A in the model from part (a) and solve for t. (e ) ln 3 x = 3x e(ln 3) x = 3x Section 3.021 Africa’s population will reach 2000 million approximately 54 years after 1990. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain. c . 10 = 60e −0. A = 643e0.4. The limiting size of the proportion of correct responses as continued learning trials take place is 0.7.8.0248t eln 3 = 3 b.8 f (10) = ≈ 0. 2000 = 643e0.7 1 + e−0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 149. 462 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.021t 643 ⎛ 2000 ⎞ 0. Since 2006 is 16 years after 1990.5 Check Point Exercises 1. f (t ) = a.021t ⎝ 643 ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 54 t= ⎝ 0.021t 3. when t = 16 . The time prior to learning trials corresponds to t = 0. b.

Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006. Russia has a decreasing population. 35 = 30 + 70e—0.0673(20) ≈ 48o After 20 minutes.0673t 7.5e0.0673t ln 14 1 ln 14 = t −0. Inc.5 80 = 30 + (100 − 30)e k5 80 = 30 + 70e 5k 50 = 70 e 6. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006.054 x . 463 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 = e −0. For y = 4(7. c.0673t ln 14 1 = −0. the model is approximately equivalent to y = 4e2. The population is dropping at of 0.5e0 A = 127. Because the data in the scatter plot increase rapidly at first and then begin to level off. Iraq has the greatest growth rate at 2. Scatter plot: 2.001( 0 ) A = 127.8 (1) A = 26.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.5 million. T = 30 + 70e-0.5e 0.8e0.0673t 14 1 = ln e −0.027t A = 26.5 (1) A = 127.7% per year. Thus.8)x is equivalent to y = 4e(ln 7. find A when t = 0 : A = 26. 5k 5 = e 5k 7 5 ln = ln e 5 k 7 5 ln = 5 k 7 5 ln 7 =k 5 −0.0673 39 ≈ t The temperature will reach 35o after 39 min.001t A = 127. the population of Iraq was 26.0673t 5 = 70 e −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the shape suggests that an exponential function is a good choice for modeling the data.8e0 A = 26.8 million. .027( 0 ) A = 26.0673 ≈ k Because the data in the scatter plot appear to increase more and more rapidly.5 1. Rounded to three decimal places. y = 4(7. 3. a = 4.8) x . b = 7.4% per year.8e 0. find A when t = 0 : A = 127. Scatter plot: Exercise Set 3. y = ab x is equivalent to y = ae(ln b ) x .8 In 2006. the temperature will be 48o. T = 30 + 70e −0. Since k = −0. the shape suggests that a logarithmic function is a good choice for modeling the data.0673t b. the population of Japan was 127. 5. 4.8.8) x in terms of a natural logarithm.5 In 2006.004 .

a. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000. P( x) = 91. 464 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A = 10 . or 2024.4 1416 ln 1095.04 ⎛ 10 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6.014 The population of India will be 1238 million approximately 9 years after 2006.04 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0.026t . Inc.4e b. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040 8. 9. the growth function is A = 3.04e k (50) 10 = e50 k 6. A = A0 e kt 12 = 3.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 6. 1416 = 1095. A = 12 .0147t P(18) = 91.026t = 10 = 6.4 t= ≈ 18 0.4e0.2 ⎠ ≈ 0.014t 1095.014t 1095.01t 6.026 k= ⎝ 50 Thus.4 1416 ln = ln e0.04 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0. when t = 50 . A = A0 ekt 3.0147(18) ≈ 118.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.4 1238 ln = ln e0.04 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0.1e0.04e0. A0 = 6.4 t= ≈9 0.2ek (50) 12 = e50 k 3.4 1238 ln = 0.01t b.04 .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5.2 .026t = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3.04 ⎠ k= ⎝ ≈ 0.4 1238 ln 1095.2 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 3.7 million in 2025. Substitute A = 1416 into the model for India and solve for t: 1416 = e0.1e0.014t 1238 = e0.014 The population of India will be 1416 million approximately 18 years after 2006. the growth function is A = 6. 2000 + 40 = 2040.01t .2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3. 9 = e0.01t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040.2 9 ⎞ ln e0. A0 = 3.01t ⎝ 6.014t 7.01 Now. e0. or 2015. .026t = ln ⎛⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3.026t = 9 9 3. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.2 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0. Substitute A = 1238 into the model for India and solve for t: 1238 = 1095.014t 1095.014t 1095. 9 = 6.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 3. ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6. 6.026 Now.0147(18) P(18) = 91.04e0. a.7 The population is projected to be 118.04 ⎠ 0. 2000 + 40 = 2040.1e0.014t 1095.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6.2e0.014t 1095.2e0. when t = 50 .01 50 Thus.4 1416 ln = 0.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

4ekt 55.0 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 44.3 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.3 = 7.0082. 11.4 ⎛ 55. 16.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.38303 A ≈ 4.4 = 19. P( x) = 44.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0. P( x) = 19.5 million in 2025. A = 16e −0.2 = e18k 44.0285. .0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.7e0.PreCalculus 4E 10.0053.0121.0 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.0157t 13.4 ⎛ 32.0082 The growth rate is –0.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.5 P( x) = 164.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.430 years.000121t A = 16e −0.2 = 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall. P(18) = 164.0 18k =e 44.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 7.000121(5715) A = 16e −0.4e18k 55.0 ⎛ 40. P(18) = 164.4 18k =e 19.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 7.0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 40.01 Approximately 4 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 11. 12.691515 A ≈ 8.000121t A = 16e −0.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0.7e0.0 = 44.3 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 7.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.0285 The growth rate is 0.0157(18) ≈ 218.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.0e18k 40.3ekt 6.0 ⎠ ⎛ 40.3e18k 6.0157(18) 40.0ekt 14. P( x) = 44. Inc. 465 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 3. A = 16e −0.4e18k 32.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 19.3 ⎛ 6.2 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 44.0053 The growth rate is –0.4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 32.3 18k =e 7.0121 The growth rate is 0.4 ⎠ ⎛ 32. 15.000121(11430) A = 16e −1.5 The population is projected to be 218.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.4ekt 32.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 19.01 Approximately 8 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 5715 years.7e0. P( x) = 7.4 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 19.

5k ln 0.5 = −0. there 2 1 will be 2 ⋅ = 1 gram present.000121t ln 0.5 = ln e4560 k ln 0. After 100.5 = ln e−0.063t ln 0.055t ln 0.000121t 15 = e −0. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present. After 125. there will be 16 ⋅ 0. After 50.0428% per year. 2 1 1 there will be 1 ⋅ = gram present.5 = ekt 0. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present. 0.000121t ln 0. After 20 seconds.000121 The paintings are approximately 15. 20. After 75. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present.000 years.039608 The decay rate is 3.000 years.5 =k 17. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present. 23.5 =k 4560 k ≈ −0.0 The half-life is 11.000121t ln 0.000121 In 1989.88 = ln e −0. 679 −0.000 years. there will be 16 ⋅ ln 0.5 = e4560 k ln 0.15 = ln e −0.5 = ln e1620 k ln 0. After 40 seconds.5 = e kt 0.5 = e1620 k ln 0.679 years old.5 = 4560k −0.5 = e −0. 19. 0.88 t= ≈ 1056 −0.5 = −0. 15 = 100e−0.5 =t −0. After 50 seconds. the skeletons were approximately 1056 years old. After 30 seconds.9608% per day.5k ln 0. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 17.0152% per year.15 = −0.000152 The decay rate is 0.6 years.000121t ln 0.15 t= ≈ 15. there 2 1 1 will be 1 ⋅ = gram present.5 = ln e −0.000121t 88 = e −0. 25. Inc.063t ln 0.055t ln 0. 2 2 After 25.055 t ≈ 12.000 years. 0. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present.0 years. there will 2 1 be 2 ⋅ = 1 grams present.5 = ekt 0.063 t ≈ 11. .000121t ln 0.5 = ekt 0. 0.000121t 100 ln 0.5 =t −0. 88 = 100e −0. 22. After 10 seconds.000 years. 18.000121t 100 ln 0.055t ln 0.000121t A = A0 e 0. 466 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 = ln e17.6 The half-life is 12.88 = −0.5 = e17.5 =k 1620 k ≈ −0.000428 The decay rate is 0.063t ln 0.5 = 1620k A = A0 e −0.5k ln 0.5 = e kt 24.5 = 17.5 = e −0. 2 2 21.5 k ≈ −0.

5 = e113k 0.1 years. 467 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 =k 22 k ≈ −0.7 It will take 17121.945 = ln e −0.031507t Next use the decay equation answer question.2 =t −0.5 = ln e7340 k ln 0.5 = 22k ln 0.52912 The age of the dinosaur ones is approximately 0.31 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.031507 t ≈ 7.5 = e22 k 0.5 = e7340k ln 0.31k 2 1 ln k = 2 ≈ −0. 1 = 1e k 1. A = e−0.5 =k 7340 k ≈ −0.000094t ln 0.031507t ln 0.8 = ln e−0.5 = 7340k ln 0.52912t ln 0.945 = e−0.31 2 1 ln = ln e1.000094t ln 0. A = e−0.031507 ln 0.52912 t 0.000094t 0.000094t ln 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 = ln e−0.8 = −0.000094 ln 0.5 28.000094 t ≈ 17121.7 years. 27.031507t 0.5 =k 113 k ≈ −0.031507t ln 0. First find the decay equation.52912t 0.31k 2 1 ln = 1.6134% per hour. Inc.2 = −0.945 = −0. A = e−0.52912 1.006134 The decay rate is 0. . First find the decay equation. b.8 = e−0.1069 −0.5 = ln e22k ln 0.900.5 = 113k ln 0. 0.000094t Next use the decay equation answer question.52912t ln 0.5 = ekt 26.1 It will take 7.031507t ln 0.000 years old. 0. A = A0 e −0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.52912t .52912t ln 0.945 t= ≈ 0. a.1069 billion or 106.5 = ekt −0.2 = e−0.8 =t −0.5 = ekt 0.5 = ln e113k ln 0. 29.945 A0 = A0 e 0. A = e−0.

5 = 12k ln 0. k . 0.5 = ln e12 k ln 0.019254 t ≈ 5.5 = ekt 0. The population will double in t = 2 = e kt t= ln 2 k A = e−0.019254t 34. A = A0 e kt 1000 = 1400e k 5 1000 = e5k 1400 5 ln = 5k 7 5 ln k = 7 ≈ −0.7 = e−0.057762t ln 0.2 −0. 3 = e kt ln 3 = ln e kt ln 3 = kt t= ln 3 k The population will triple in t = 468 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 It will take 5.057762t ln 0.057762t 0.057762 t ≈ 6.7 = −0.0673t 100 = e −0. Inc. ln 3 years. 31. First find the decay equation.0673t 1000 1 ln = ln e −0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 30.7 = ln e−0.5 = e36k 33. 0.0673t .5 hours.0673t 10 1 ln 10 t= ≈ 34.019254t 0.9 = e−0. First find the decay equation.019254t ln 0. 32.5 = ln e ln 0.9 =t −0.0673t 10 1 ln = −0.0673 5 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.2 It will take 6. ln 2 years.019254t Next use the decay equation answer question.0673 The population will drop below 100 birds approximately 34 years from now.019254 ln 2 = ln e kt ln 2 = kt A = e−0. (This is 39 years from the time the population was 1400.5 =k 36 k ≈ −0.7 =t −0.5 = ekt 0.019254t ln 0. 36k 2 A0 = A0 e kt ln 0.5 = 36k ln 0.057762t Next use the decay equation answer question.5 = e12k ln 0.5 =k 12 k ≈ −0.057762 A = e−0.2 hours.) A = e−0.9 = ln e−0.9 = −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. k A = A0 ekt 3 A0 = A0 ekt ln 0.057762t ln 0. 100 = 1000e −0.

01t ln 2 = 0.027( x ) 7 (1 + 3.81e −0.5 1 + 3. 11.1e0. A = 4. so New Zealand’s growth rate is 1%.82 3. 000 f (0) = ≈ 20 1 + 5000e0 Twenty people became ill when the epidemic began.5 A = 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.027 x ≈ 77 The world population will reach 8 billion 77 years after 1949.027( x ) = ln 2 = ln e0.012t a. 100. Inc.82 −0. 0. or 2026.027( x ) ) = 11.01t 2=e 39.81e −0. 2 ⋅107.4e0.027( x ) 11.82 k = 0. e −0.1e0.81e −0. Section 3.027( x ) = 3.67 x= −0.01t 2 ⋅ 4.027( x ) 11. c f (t ) = .027 x = ln 26. 000e −4 About 1080 people were ill at the end of the fourth week.01t ln 2 = ln e0.82 ln 30.4e0. .012t ln 2 = 0.82 1 + 3.027( x ) 11. so Mexico’s growth rate is 1.48 3.82 2 = e0. t= 36.1e0.82 1 + 3.01 New Zealand’s population will double in approximately 69 years. 40.82 ln 26.4e0.PreCalculus 4E 35. 11.012t ln 2 ≈ 58 0. 11.82 −0. b.027 x = ln 30.67 4.027( x ) = In the logistic growth model.4 = 107.82 f (54) = ≈ 6.81e −0. t = 0.1 = 4.027( x ) ln e = ln 30.027( x ) = 11.82 8= 1 + 3.82 f ( x) = 8 + 30.81e −0. 469 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.027( x ) 8 (1 + 3. 100. t= c.82 f ( 4) = 30.01 . f ( x) = When the epidemic began. 11.82 7= 1 + 3.012t 4.82 1 + 3.48e −0.81e −0. f ( x) = 7 + 26.027(57) The function models the data very well. 38.027( x ) = ln 26.01t a.012t 37. k = 0.027( x ) ) = 11. e −0.82 f (51) = ≈ 6.67e −0.82 30. 000 ≈ 1080 1 + 5.82 1 + 3. A = 107. b.012 Mexico’s population will double in approximately 58 years.48 3.82 ln e −0.2%.01t ln 2 ≈ 69 0.67e −0. A = 107.81e −0.48 x= −0.027(51) The function models the data very well.81e −0.81e −0.027( x ) 11.82 f ( x) = 26.67 4. The limiting size of the population that becomes ill is 100. a.012t b.012 .81e −0. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.027( x ) = 4.48e −0. 41.67 4.0 1 + 3.027 x ≈ 63 The world population will reach 7 billion 63 years after 1949.000 people. or 2012.82 26.48 3.027( x ) = 11.82 −0.

8 −0.7 1 + 271e −0.1004(20) ≈ 121o After 20 minutes.122 x = 70 2 271e−0.0916t 1 = e−0.7%. P(20) = 90 ≈ 88. 470 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0916t 5 1 ln = ln e−0.8 ln 271 t= ≈ 48 −0.8 e −0.122(20) The probability that a 20-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 3. f ( x) = 2 10k =e 5 2 ln = ln e10k 5 2 ln = 10k 5 2 ln 5 =k 10 −0.122t = 271 0. Inc.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. T = 70 + 380ke-0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 90 1 + 271e−0.8 −0. . a. 46.122 x T = C + (To – C)ekt 300 = 70 + (450 − 70)ek 5 230 = 380e5k 70(1 + 271e−0.122t ) = 0. the temperature will be 51o. 271e −0. 11. 55 = 45 + (70 – 45)ek10 10 = 25e10k 48. 43.122t 0. a.82 billion.9 c. This will make e −0.82 1 + 3.8 70 = 50 = 45 + 25e—0.0916(15) ≈51o After 15 minutes.122 x = ln 1897 2 ln 1897 x= −0.0916 ≈ k 90 ≈ 3.122t = ln 271 0.0916t 5 = 25e−0. the limiting size of this function is 11. 44.1004 ≈ k T = 70 + 380e−0.0916t b.122 x = 7 2 − x 0. 1 + 271e −0. P(80) = T = 45 + 25e−0.9 0.027( x ) become very close to 0 and make the denominator become very close to 1. 23 = e5k 38 23 = ln e5k ln 38 23 = 5k ln 38 23 ln 38 = k 5 −0.122t = 1.0916t 5 1 ln = −0. the exponent of e will decrease.0916 18 ≈ t The temperature will reach 50o after 18 min. 45. 0.6 1 + 271e −0.122 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 50% at about age 48.122 = e 1897 2 −0.027( x ) As x increases. the temperature will be 121o.122(80) The probability that an 80-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 88.81e −0. Thus.5 (1 + 271e −0.122 t ln e = ln 271 0.8 0.122 x ≈ 56 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 70% at about age 56.1004t b. T = 45 + 25e-0.5 = 1 + 271e−0. 47.122t = 0.6%.122 x ) = 90 90 1 + 271e−0.0916t 5 1 ln 5 =t −0.

−25 = e−0. Inc.0158 45 ≈ t The temperature will reach 45o after 45 min. .1004t 70 = 380e−0.0158t 41 20 = ln e −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 140 = 70 + 380e—0.0158t T = C + (To – C)ekt 38 = 75 + (28 − 75)ek10 45 = 65 – 41e—0.0239 ≈ k T = 75 − 47e−0.0239t ln 47 25 = −0.0158 ≈ k T = 65 − 41e−0.0158t ln 41 20 = −0.1004t ln 38 7 ln 38 = t −0. a. 49. Section 3.0239t 20 = e−0. 471 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. T = C + (To – C)ekt 30 = 65 + (24 − 65)ek10 50.0239t 51.1004t 7 = e−0. 50 = 75 − 47e−0. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.1004 17 ≈ t The temperature will reach 140o after 17 min. b.0158t −20 = −41e−0.1004t 38 7 = ln e−0.0158t −37 = −47e10k −37 10k =e −47 37 = ln e10k ln 47 37 = 10k ln 47 37 ln 47 = k 10 −0. −35 = −41e10k 35 10k =e 41 35 = ln e10k ln 41 35 = 10k ln 41 35 ln 41 = k 10 −0.0158t ln 41 20 ln 41 = t −0.1004t ln 38 7 = −0.0239 26 = t The temperature will reach 50o after 26 min.0239t −47 25 = ln e−0.PreCalculus 4E c.0239t ln 47 17 ln 47 = t −0.0239t −25 = −47e−0.

011) . a. y = 100e1. b. 58.654 x + 198. y = 1000(7. the model fits the data fairly well. b. Answers may vary. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. y = 4.7)x is equivalent to y = 2. 59.574 ln x . a.9e0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 56.999 is very close to 1. y = 2. y = 200.015 . y = 2. y = 4.0109 .7 ≈ −0.357 x .3)x is equivalent to y = 1000e( ln 7. Using ln 0.5(0.511x .5(0. the model fits the data well. The linear model is y = 2. 472 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 ≈ –0.988.3) x . 57. x ln1. 55. x Since r ≈ 0.0109 x Since k = . Since r = 0.011) x y = 200.6) x . The power regression model is y = 195.3 ≈ 1.357.6)x is equivalent to y = 4. but not great.997 is close to 1. Using ln 7. a.9 (1. 71. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. y = 1000e1. Since r = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 52.6) x .011) y = 200. the model fits the data okay. The exponential model is y = 200.878 is fairly close to 1.526 x .988 x .6)x is equivalent to y = 100e( ln 4. 68. the population of the United States is increasing by about 1% each year. 53. b.9 (1. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.7 ) x .097 .5e −0.5e( ln 0. .901. Since r ≈ 0.9e( 54. the model fits the data very well. y = 100(4. Using ln 0. 70. Inc. 69.5e −0. The logarithmic model is y = 193.526.16 + 23.871x0.511.5e( ln 0. Using ln 4.6 ≈ 1. – 67. b.

02 x The 65-and-over population is increasing by approximately 2% each year. does not make sense.654 1969 + 44 = 2013 According to the exponential model.02) x x Exercise 53: y = 120 + 4. x 74.654 x + 198.343ln x Exercise 54: y = −11.947 The exponential model has an r value closer to 1.015 116.9 ⎠ ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ 200. r ≈ 0. a. Thus. Using r. r ≈ 0. 77. the better model is y = 3.557 x − 10.011) .011) ln1. Inc.673 Linear Regression: y = 0. Using the exponential model: 315 = 200.985 = 2.9 ⎟⎠ x= ⎝ ≈ 41 ln (1. makes sense 78. Sample explanation: Since the car’s value is decreasing (depreciating). does not make sense. true Exponential Regression: 82. population will reach 315 million around the year 2013.654 x + 198.S.015 315 = 2.752ln x − 26. 76.011) 200.654 x + 198. y = 3. Explanations will vary.011) ⎝ 200.9 (1. the U. 473 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.011) 1969 + 41 = 2010 Using the linear model: y = 2. It does not indicate how the size of a population compares to the size of another population. the growth rate is negative. true 80.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. Sample explanation: This is not necessarily so. the U. the model of best fit is the exponential b.02) x . Growth rate measures how fast a population is growing relative to that population.9 ⎠ Exercise 51: y = 1. true 81.9 (1.S. population will reach 315 million around the year 2010.7 (1. 73.46(1. makes sense 79. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .011) ⎟ ⎝ 200.015 .629 + 13. true y = 3.078 ) x Exercise 52: y = 2896.424 ln x 75.402 (1. According to the linear model. Explanations will vary. Sample models are provided 315 x = (1.46e0.46(1.02 ) x y = 3.46e( The model of second best fit is the linear model y = 2.5 72. Explanations will vary.994 Logarithmic Regression: y = 14. Models and predictions will vary.972. r ≈ 0.512.985 x= ≈ 44 2. model y = 200. x y = 3.46(1.056 ) ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = x ln (1.02) x .654 x 116. Both results are reasonably close to the result found in Example 1 (2010).9 ⎛ 315 ⎞ x ln ⎜ = ln (1.

85. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis then shifted upward 3 units. Use data to find k.7 ln 15.0069t ln 28.6 15.0069t 15.6 = ln e−0.6 = 70 + (98.6 = 28. ⎩8 ⎭ 86. The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 = e−0.6 15. so the function is h ( x ) = −4 − x . 84.6 12. 2. Inc.6 = t −0.0069t 15.7 = 15.0069t 28.6 = k 30 −0.6 15. 87.6e−0.7 ln = ln e30k 15. 827 = 70 + (85.6e30k 12.6 = −0.7 ln = 30k 15. − π 12 π 24π + 12 12 −π + 24π = 12 23π = 12 + 2π = − Chapter 3 Review Exercises 1. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis.7 = e30k 15.6 − 70)ek 30 12.6 ln 28. range of f = range of g = ( 0. so the function is g ( x ) = 4− x.6 − 70)e−0. 5. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x. 4. Answers may vary.0069 ≈ k Use k to write equation. 85.0069 ln 28. so the function is r ( x) = −4− x + 3.0069 88 ≈ t The death occurred at 88 minutes before 9:30. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the yaxis. 5π = 2π x 4 5π 2π x = 4 ⋅ 2π 2π 5 =x 8 asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 83.6 12.6 12. ∞ ) ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . or 8:22 am. ∞ ) 17π 17π 12π − 2π = − 6 6 6 17π − 12π = 6 5π = 6 474 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3. .

∞ ) range of g = ( −∞. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −1 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.25% compounded monthly: 12⋅5 ⎛ 0. ∞ ) The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the y – axis. range of f = range of g = ( 0.PreCalculus 4E 6. ∞ ) range of g = ( −1. ∞ ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 range of f = ( 0. Inc. 475 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the x – axis. ∞ ) range of f = ( 0.0525 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6497. Chapter 3 Review Exercises The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit down.055 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6558.16 12 ⎠ ⎝ 5. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. 0 ) 10.5% compounded semiannually yields the greater return. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0.26 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5. 8.5% compounded semiannually: 2⋅5 ⎛ 0. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. 5. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 The graph of g(x) vertically stretches the graph of f(x) by a factor of 2. ∞ ) 7. . ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. 9.

a. Because log b b = 1. log 3 (log8 8) = log 3 1. we conclude log8 8 = 1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. y-axis. 772. 25 25 is defined only for x > 0. log 4 64 = 3 because 43 = 64. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. 1 1 = −2 because 5−2 = . The temperature of the room is 70°. 3 y = 81 16.85% compounded continuously: 0.07 ⎞ A = 14. 12. log b 625 = 4 18. log 5 21. 476 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 24. log13 874 = y 19. When first taken out of the microwave. The coffee will cool to about 70°. ∞ ) 31. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. log16 4 = 23. log − 1 1 1 = log 3 1 = log3 3 2 = − 2 3 32 1 = ln e−2 = −2 e2 1 1 = log 3 = log10−3 = −3 1000 10 29. 2 22. . the temperature of the coffee was about 120°.26 ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 6.135.81 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return. Because log b = 1. log 3 ( −9 ) cannot be evaluated since log b x 26. 25. Because log b 1 = 0 we conclude log 3 1 = 0. ∞ ) we conclude log 3 38 = 8.23 Using a calculator. 000 ⎜ 1 + ≈ 28. log 3 (log8 8) = 0. −0. 30. After 20 minutes. 43 = x 15. So. 000e ≈ 27. so the function is g ( x) = log(− x). 1 because 161/ 2 = 16 = 4. the temperature of the coffee was 200°. 7% compounded monthly: 1 12⋅10 ⎛ 0. Because logb b x = x.0685(10 ) A = 14. 20. we conclude ln e5 = 5. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. Inc. 13. log 6 216 = 3 17. b. ln 28. c. the temperature is about 119°.04855( 20 ) T = 70 + 130e ≈ 119. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x reflected about the Because ln e x = x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 32. 491/ 2 = 7 14. log 3 27. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. we conclude log17 17 = 1. Therefore.

∞ ) 40. ∞ ) 39. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x. 35. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. we obtain x > −5. x-intercept: (3. shifted left 2 units. 34. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. reflected about the y-axis. domain of g = ( −3. Solving this inequality for x. then shifted upward one unit. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x shifted left 2 units then reflected about the y-axis. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: ( 2. x-intercept: (–1. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( −∞. so the function is h( x) = log(2 − x) . ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) 37. . Thus the domain of f is ( −5. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x 38.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 33. ∞ ) 477 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( 0. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = −3 domain of f = ( 0. ∞ ) 41. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. 0 ) 36. x-intercept: (2. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. range: ( −∞. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 5 > 0. so the function is r ( x) = 1 + log(2 − x).

1 ln x − ln y 2 1 = ln x 2 − ln y = ln t= x y 478 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. 2 xy 2 = log 2 xy 2 − log 2 64 64 = log 2 x + log 2 y 2 − log 2 64 46. b. the domain of f is ( −∞. 6. 1 ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 8. Retention decreases as time passes. Because ln e x = x.0. Solving this inequality for x. = log 56. we obtain x < 3. ln 3 x e 1 ⎛ x⎞ = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝e⎠ 1 = [ ln x − ln e] 3 1 1 = ln x − ln e 3 3 1 1 = ln x − 3 3 f ( 0 ) = 76 − 18log ( 0 + 1) = 76 When first given. we conclude ln e6 x = 6 x. Thus. 49. 4. the average score was 76. ∞). log 4 52. Thus.98 0. we conclude 10log 4 x = 4 x 2 . the domain of f is (−∞. . and 12 months. Because e ln x = x. Inc. 1) ∪ (1. 3 x3 3ln x + 4 ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 4 = ln ( x3 y 4 ) 57. the average scores are about 67. f (2) = 76 − 18log ( 2 + 1) ≈ 67 f (4) = 76 − 18log ( 4 + 1) ≈ 63 f (6) = 76 − 18log ( 6 + 1) ≈ 61 f (8) = 76 − 18log ( 8 + 1) ≈ 59 54. 61. f (12 ) = 76 − 18log (12 + 1) ≈ 56 After 2. and 56. Solving this inequality for x. log 3 − 3log x = log 3 − log x 3 c. 51. log 2 x 1 = log 4 x 2 − log 4 64 64 1 = log 4 x − 3 2 44. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 1)2 > 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. 59. 45. 8.06 ⎝ 12 − 5 ⎠ It will take about 9 weeks. 47. = log 2 x + 2 log 2 y − 6 1000 I 0 = log1000 = 3 I0 The Richter scale magnitude is 3. we obtain x < 1 or x > 1. 50. log 6 ( 36 x 3 ) = log 6 36 + log 6 x3 = log 6 36 + 3log 6 x = 2 + 3log 6 x 43. Because 10log x = x. 53. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3) . 63. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. 3 log b 7 + log b 3 = log b (7 ⋅ 3) = log b 21 55. respectively. we conclude e ln x = x. R = log 48.

log 2 x 4 = 4 log 2 x 63.500 4 x ln 5 = ln 37. 53 x = 52 3x = 2 2 x= 3 4 x ln 5 + 2 ln 5 = ln 37. 2 4 x− 2 = 64 2 4 x −2 = 26 ln e12−5 x = ln130 12–5 x = ln 130 5 x = 12– ln 130 12– ln130 x= ≈ 1.143 x ln 8 = ln 12. false.99 x= 5 62.500 ( 4 x + 2 ) ln 5 = ln 37.143 ln 8x = ln12.348 ≈ 6. log 6 72.863 = log 72. Publishing as Prentice Hall.500 − 2 ln 5 ln 37. log( x + 9) − log( x + 1) = log ( x + 9) ( x + 1) ln e5 x = ln141 5 x = ln141 ln141 ≈ 0.500 10 x = 7000 66.863 ≈ −0.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 58.143 ln12.1063 ln 4 60. 9e5 x = 1269 e5 x = 141 ln 0. (ln x )(ln1) = (ln x )(0) = 0 61. true. 72. log 4 0. 125 x = 25 (5 ) 3 x = 52 71.27 9 x + 2 = 27 − x x+2 54 x+ 2 = 37.52 ln 8 69.43 5 4x − 2 = 6 4x = 8 x=2 65.348 = 59.500 ln 54 x + 2 = ln 37. Inc. . (3 ) 2 ( ) = 33 3x + 4 = 7 2 x −1 ln 3x + 4 = ln 7 2 x −1 ( x + 4) ln 3 = (2 x − 1) ln 7 x ln 3 + 4 ln 3 = 2 x ln 7 − ln 7 x ln 3 − 2 x ln 7 = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x(ln 3 − 2 ln 7) = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x= ln 3 − 2 ln 7 4 ln 3 + ln 7 x= 2 ln 7 − ln 3 x ≈ 2.2448 log 6 68.85 67.143 x= ≈ 4. e12 − 5 x − 7 = 123 e12−5 x = 130 −x 2 x+4 3 = 3−3 x 2 x + 4 = −3 x 5 x = −4 4 x=− 5 479 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. false. 70. true. 500 − 2 ln 5 x= ≈ 1. ln e x = x ln e 64.14 4 ln 5 log10 x = log 7000 x log10 = log 7000 x = log 7000 x ≈ 3. 8 x = 12.

The solution set is {4}. log 4 ( 3x − 5 ) = 3 3x – 5 = 43 3x – 5 = 64 3x = 69 x = 23 The solutions set is {23}. ⎧e ⎫ The solutions set is ⎨ ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. approximately 1. The solution set is {2}. The solution set is {5}. log 3 e x − 3 = 0 or e x + 2 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −2 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x − ln(−2) x = ln 3 x = ln(−2) x = ln 3 ≈ 1.099 ln(−2) does not exist. Inc. log 3 ( x − 1) − log 3 ( x + 2 ) = 2 log 2 ( x + 3) + log 2 ( x − 3) = 4 79. 480 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 3)( e + 2 ) = 0 x x −1 =2 x+2 x −1 = 32 x−2 x −1 =9 x+2 x – 1 = 9(x + 2) x – 1 = 9x + 18 8x = –19 19 x=− 8 19 ⎛ 19 ⎞ x=− does not check because log 3 ⎜ − − 1⎟ 8 ⎝ 8 ⎠ does not exist. ⎩2⎭ 3 76.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 73. The solution set is {ln 3} . 74.10. . 3 + 4 ln(2 x) = 15 4 ln(2 x) = 12 ln(2 x) = 3 ln ( x + 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln x x+4 = ln x x +1 x+4 =x x +1 x( x + 1) = x + 4 ln 2 x = e3 e3 2 x ≈ 10. e2 x − e x − 6 = 0 (e x 77. 78.04 x= x2 + x = x + 4 x2 = 4 x = ±2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. The solution set is ∅. 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 x − 15 16 = x 2 x 2 = 16 x = ±4 x = −4 does not check and must be rejected. 75. log 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 2 ( x 2 − 9) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) x 2 − 9 = 24 x 2 − 9 = 16 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 x = –5 does not check because log 2 (−5 + 3) does not exist.

000.075 = 3 ln e0.PreCalculus 4E 80. 35.7 4.4 35.3 ln 22.6 4t ln1.37 ln x 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.21 f ( t ) = 364 (1.075t = ln 3 0.4 = k 10 0.005 ) t 560 = 364 (1. A = 3P.045 ≈ k 3.005 The carbon dioxide concentration will be double the pre-industrial level approximately 86 years after the year 2000 in the year 2086.37 9 = ln x e9 = eln x x = e9 ≈ 8103 The population of New York City is approximately 8103 thousand. Everest is about 5.6 = 14.01625 = ln1.7e −0. 000e0.005 ) t ln(1.01625 It will take about 7.37 ln x + 0. 81. Chapter 3 Review Exercises P ( x ) = 14.4 35. 000 = 12.3 years. When an investment value triples.05 a.5 −0.38 = 0.6 The peak of Mt.500(1.33 = ln x 0.01625) 4t = ln1. the population will be about 55. 3 ⋅ 50. 000 e0. 000e0.5 miles above sea level. A = 22. ⎛ 0.21x ln 14. 4.6 = −0. or 8.6 0.6 = e −0.21x 4.21x 83.3 4 ln1.075t = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 14.3 = 22. .6 = ln e −0.7 t= ≈ 5.4 35.37 ln x + 0.4e0.21x ln 14.7 4.33 = 0. 481 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 In 2010.3 = ln e10 k ln 22. t= 560 t = (1.005 364 560 ln 364 ≈ 86.075 It will take about 14.05 3.6 ≈ 7.065 ⎞ 20.01625) 4t = 20. t= 84. 82. Inc.4 t= ln1.2197 5 The interest rate would need to be about 22% r= 86.7 4.005 ) 364 560 ln = t ln1.01625) 4t = 1.075t = 150. A = 22. 4t (1. 000 85.4e0. W ( x ) = 0.045t b.6 ln 14. 3P = Pe5 r e5 r = 3 ln e5 r = ln 3 5r = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 0.6 years.005) 364 560 t ln = ln (1.500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12.7e −0.075t 50.045(20) ≈ 55.21x 14.1 million. 000 = 50.103.4e k 10 35.3 = 10k ln 22.3 = e10 k 22.6 ln1.

000 people 482 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 = e −0.92(6) 1 + 2499e 45.004951 t ≈ 325 It will take about 325 days for the substance to decay to 20% of its original amount.1438t 1 = e−0.045t 22. 90. Use the half-life of 140 days to find k. in 2012. 500.004951 Use A = A0 e kt to find t. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. t= 88. 105 = 65 + 120e—0.004951t ln 0.1438 7.4 = t 0. 500. f (0) = 500. T = 65 + 120e−0.4 60 ln = 0.045t 22. f (6) = b.4e0. Inc.004951t ln 0. A logarithmic function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data.92(0) 200 people became ill when the epidemic began. b.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 60 = 22. 000 = 45. . a.004951t 0.1438t 40 = 120e−0. c. 89. 000 = 200 1 + 2499e −0. a.1438t 3 1 ln = −0.4 60 ln = ln e0. ln 12 = ln e140 k ln 12 = 140k ln 12 =k 140 k ≈ −0.1438t 87.1438 ≈ k The population will reach 60 million about 22 years after 1990. A = A0 e kt 1 2 = e k ⋅140 1 2 = e140 k T = C + (To – C)ekt b. 150 = 65 + (185 − 65)ek 2 90 = 120e2k 60 = e0.410 were ill after 6 weeks.045t c.2 −0.2 = −0.4 60 ln 22.045 22 ≈ t 90 = e 2k 120 3 ln = ln e2k 4 3 ln = 2k 4 3 ln 4 =k 2 −0.1438t 3 1 ln = ln e−0. A = A0 e −0.6 ≈ t The temperature will reach 105o after 8 min.1438t 3 1 ln 3 =t −0.045t 22.2 = ln e −0.004951t ln 0. 411 −0.

y = 73e( = 3 + 5 log 4 x x log 3 8. log15 71 = 94. Chapter 3 Test a. x = log ( x 6 y 2 ) ( ln 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 ln 5 x = ln1.5 ( 0.6 ) 1 2 4. Inc.3).005 x = ln 4 0.5e 1 x = log3 x 3 − log 3 81 81 1 = log3 x − 4 3 3 7. log 4 ( 64 x 5 ) = log 4 64 + log 4 x5 An exponential function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data.43) x y = 6. ln 7 − 3ln x = ln 7 − ln x 3 7 = ln 3 x 10.005 483 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.005 x = 1600 e0. Solving this inequality for x.4 ≈ 0.6 ) x y = 6.PreCalculus 4E 91.2589 0.5741 log15 3x −2 = 9 x + 4 ( ) 3x −2 = 32 x+ 4 3x −2 = 32 x +8 x − 2 = 2x + 8 − x = 10 x = −10 12. b.844 x 9.956 x 93. 6. the domain of f is (−∞. ln1. 5 = 125 3 x= ln 4 ≈ 277.43) y = 6. Answers may vary. . The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. 11. 5 x = 1. y = 73e0. Thus. log 36 6 = 5.4 x= 13. 2.5e −0. 92. y = 73 ( 2. we obtain x < 3. Chapter 3 Test 1. log 71 ≈ 1.005 x = ln 4 3. 6 log x + 2 log y = log x 6 + log y 2 ln 2.005 x = 4 ln e0.4 x ln 5 = ln1.2091 ln 5 400e0.

Inc. ln e5 x = 5 x. 18.1994 3 17. 000e ( ) ≈ $5. 000 ⎜1 + ≈ $5.5% compounded semiannually yields about $221 more than 6% compounded continuously. e4 x= ≈ 18. e 2 x − 6e x + 5 = 0 (e x 19.0125 ) 4t ln (1.6094. ln 2 = ln e10 r ln 2 = 10r ln 2 r= ≈ 0. Since ln e x = x.069 10 The money will double in 10 years with an interest rate of approximately 6. 4t 2 x + 15 x − 100 = 0 2 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 x + 20 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = –20 x=5 x = –20 does not check because log(−20) does not exist. 4 x − 1 = 216 23.0125 ) It will take approximately 13. log 6 1 = 0 because 60 = 1 .9%. ex −1 = 0 ex = 5 D = 10log 25.0125 ) ln 2 = 4 ln (1. ln ≈ 1. ln ( x − 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln 6 2 = 1er10 2 = e10 r x−4 = ln 6 ln x +1 x−4 =6 x +1 6( x + 1) = x − 4 6x + 6 = x − 4 5 x = −10 x = −2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. log x + log ( x + 15 ) = 2 log ( x 2 + 15 x ) = 2 x + 15 x = 10 2 ⎛ 0. 2(10 ) ⎛ 0.05 ⎞ 8000 = 4000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 8000 4t = (1 + 0. 484 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.51 ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 6% compounded continuously: 0.6094 x=0 20. 4 x − 1 = 63 22.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 14.06 10 A = 3. 466. The solution set is {5}. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 years for the money to grow to $8000. 217 = 54.065 ⎞ A = 3. log b b = 1 because b1 = b . 6. 21. The solution set is { }.0125 ) 4t ln 2 = ln (1.9 4 ln (1. 1012 I 0 I0 = 10log1012 = 10 ⋅12 = 120 The loudness of the sound is 120 decibels.0125) ln 2 t= ≈ 13. The solution set is {0. 687.25 4 2 ln 3x = 8 ln 3x = 4 3x = e4 24.36 6.5% compounded semiannually: log 6 ( 4 x − 1) = 3 4 x = 217 x= 16. ln 5} .0125 ) ln 2 = 4t ln (1. .0125 ) 4ln (1. − 5 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 5 = 0 or ex = 1 ln e x = ln 5 ln e x = ln1 x = ln 5 x = ln1 x ≈ 1. 15.0125) 4000 4t 2 = (1.

5 =k 7. ≈ 51 −0. In the logistic growth model.5 = e −0.096270t ln 0. We can tell because the model has a negative k = −0.002( 0 ) A = 82. t = 0 and A0 = 509 In 2000.4 million. 485 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 It will take 12. the population of Germany was 82.5 days.4e−0.096270t Next use the decay equation answer question.002( x ) 28. 81.002t ln 0. 81.165(10 ) 1 + 9e After 10 years.4e ≈ 82.3 = e−0.096270 t ≈ 12.096270t ln 0.002.002t 82.2 k ln 0. y 5 −5 5 x −5 The values appear to belong to a linear function.4 In 2006. A = e−0. t = 2000 – 1990 = 10 and A = 729.5 = 82.4e Chapter 3 Test −0.PreCalculus 4E 26.5 ln t = 82. 0.002t 82.036t . In 1990. Plot the ordered pairs. c f (t ) = . First find the decay equation.4 ≈ 5 −0. 27.5 = ekt −0. 30.2 k ≈ −0. Inc.5 = 7.036 ≈ k The exponential growth function is A = 509e0.5 ln = ln e −0.096270t 0.096270t ln 0.2k The population of Germany is decreasing.3 = −0. f (0) = 140 = 14 −0.5 = ln e7. about 51 elk are expected.2 k ln 0. 729 = 509ek 10 729 = e10 k 509 729 ln = ln e10 k 509 729 ln = 10k 509 729 ln 509 = k 10 0.3 =t −0.002 The population of Germany will be 81.4 81. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.002t 82. Publishing as Prentice Hall.165( 0 ) 1 + 9e Fourteen elk were initially introduced to the habitat. c. a. f (10 ) = 140 b. 29.5 ln = −0. 0.4 81. The limiting size of the elk population is 140 elk.3 = ln e−0.5 = e7. A = 82.4 81. c.5 million approximately 5 years after 2006 in the year 2011. a. b. .096270 A = e−0.

2 ⎬ . ⎩ 5 ⎭ x= 3x − 4 = 2 3x – 4 = 2 or 3x = 6 3x – 4 = –2 3x = 2 2 x=2 x= 3 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . . 1}.9704. 2. ±2 q: ±1 p : ± 1. y = 96e −0.38) x 4.38 ) x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {–2. ln128 ≈ 0. y 5 27 x −3 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) −2 ± −16 2 −2 ± 4i x= 2 x = −1 ± 2i The solution set is {−1 ± 2i} . Inc. approximately 0. Plot the ordered pairs. y 900 3.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 31. ± 2 q –2 1 33. y = 96 ( 0. Plot the ordered pairs. Plot the ordered pairs. x 4 + x3 − 3x 2 − x + 2 = 0 p: ±1. 1 y 1 –3 –1 2 –2 2 2 –2 –1 1 0 –1 ( x + 2)( x – x – x + 1) = 0 3 16 2 ( x + 2)[ x 2 ( x – 1) − ( x – 1)] = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1)( x – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 −5 5 x ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x – 1) 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 The values appear to belong to a quadratic function. ⎩3 ⎭ 486 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −5 5 x The values appear to belong to an exponential function. 34.9704 5 ⎧ ln128 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . –1. 32.968 x x =1 e5 x − 32 = 96 e5 x = 128 ln e5 x = ln128 5 x = ln128 Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–3) 1. x= −5 The values appear to belong to a logarithmic function. x y = 96e( ln 0.

The solution set is { }. x-intercepts: x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 and x ≥ 1 x=2 The solution set is [1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x-intercepts: x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 The x-intercepts are (1. Parabola with vertex: (2. 4] . Horizontal asymptote: y 5 1 5x + 4 = 6x + 9 −x = 5 x = −5 x = −5 does not check and must be rejected. Cumulative Review Exercises log 2 ( x + 5) + log 2 ( x − 1) = 4 10. 0 ) . 8. 6. 0 ) and ( −1. 14 − 5 x ≥ −6 −5 x ≥ −20 x≤4 The solution set is ( −∞. 7. Inc. 9. Circle with center: (3. 11. ln ( x + 4 ) + ln ( x + 1) = 2 ln ( x + 3) ln ( ( x + 4 )( x + 1) ) = ln ( x + 3) ( x + 4 )( x + 1) = ( x + 3) 2 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 2 x2 = 4 x2 + 5x + 4 = x2 + 6 x + 9 x = ±2 The vertical asymptotes are x = 2 and x = –2. 0 ) .PreCalculus 4E 5.3] . . or x = −1 The x-intercepts are ( 2. –1) log 2 [( x + 5)( x − 1)] = 4 ( x + 5)( x − 1) = 24 x 2 + 4 x − 5 = 16 x 2 + 4 x − 21 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 3) = 0 x + 7 = 0 or x − 3 = 0 x = −7 x=3 x = –7 does not check because log 2 (–7 + 5) does not exist. 0 ) and ( −1. 2x − 4 ≤ 2 2 x − 4 ≤ 2 and 2 x − 4 ≥ −2 2x ≤ 6 2x ≥ 2 x≤3 12. The solution set is {3}. –2) and radius of 2 487 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

k H= 2 C k 8= 2 2 32 = k 488 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x The hours. vary inversely as the square of the number of cups of coffee. s (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 5 = 69 feet. y varies inversely as the square of x is expressed as k y= 2. 3) point-slope form: y − 3 = −3 ( x − 1) m= 19. 3 − (−3) 6 = = −3 1− 3 −2 Using (1. Inc. 14. Substitute the value of k into the equation. 15. k H= 2 C 32 H= 2 C Use the equation to find H when C = 4 .1 seconds. 18. t= 2a 2(−16) The maximum height is s (2) .1. (f −(64) ± (64)2 − 4(−16)(5) 2(−16) t ≈ 4. 17. . s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 The ball reaches its maximum height at −b −(64) = = 2 seconds. 32 H= 2 C 32 H= 2 4 H =2 If 4 cups of coffee are consumed you should expect to sleep 2 hours.5 x ) = 660 40 x + 15 x = 660 55 x = 660 x = 12 Your normal hourly salary is $12 per hour. 0 = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Use the quadratic formula to solve. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 The negative value is rejected. The ball hits the ground after about 4. slope-intercept form: y − 3 = −3( x − 1) t= y − 3 = −3 x + 3 y = −3 x + 6 16. = x2 + 2 40 x + 10 (1. H . t ≈ −0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 13. 2 = x2 + 4 x + 4 (g −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a t= g )( x ) = f ( x + 2 ) = ( x + 2) s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Let s (t ) = 0 : f )( x ) = g ( x 2 ) 20. C Use the given values to find k . C can be expressed k as H = 2 .

−300° = −300° ⋅ c. a. The length of the intercepted arc is 42 feet: s = 42 feet. 400o – 360o = 40o b. a. subtract 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. The radian measure of a central angle is the length of the intercepted arc. 13π 13π 10π 3π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 b. –135o + 360o = 225o 180o π radians ≈ 343. 2. the radian measure of θ is 3.Chapter 4 Trigonometric Functions Section 4. a. Inc. 30π 29π = 15 15 . The circle’s radius is 12 feet: r = 12 feet. 60π radians 180 = π radians 270° = 270° ⋅ π − b. a. For a 400º angle. s.1 Check Point Exercises 1. a. 270π radians 180 = −300π radians 180 d. s 42 feet θ= = = 3. = 180° 3π = radians 2 π radians 180° 5π =− radians 3 4 radians = = b. divided by the circle’s radius. radians b. Now use the formula for radian measure to find the radian measure of θ .8o 6. add 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − π 15 + 2π = − π 15 + 489 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 180o π radians = 45o 4π 4π radians 180o ⋅ radians = − 3 3 π 4 ⋅180o =− = −240o 3 6 radians = 6 radians ⋅ = 6 ⋅180o π 5.5 r 12 feet Thus.5 π 3 π radians 180° c. 4. For a –135º angle. π radians 4 o 180 4 ⋅ c. r. 60° = 60° ⋅ = 3.

855° − 360° ⋅ 2 = 855° − 720° = 135° The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. θ= s 8 yards 4 = = radians r 6 yards 3 10. Thus. The circle’s radius is 6 inches : r = 6 inches.5 inches ⋅ 1 minute minute The linear speed is 135π inches per minute. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Exercise Set 4. right 7. Before applying the formula.Trigonometric Functions 7. θ= s 18 yards = = 2. θ= s 30 feet = = 6 radians r 5 feet 9. acute 5. . Inc. ω = 45 revolutions per minute We use the formula ν = rω to find v. a. π :θ = π .1 17π 17π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π 3 3 17π 12π 5π = − = 3 3 3 1. θ= s 600 centimeters = = 6 radians r 100 centimeters 13. θ= s 40 inches = = 4 radians r 10 inches 8. straight 6. the linear speed.71 inches. we begin by converting π radians 45° to radians. 45 revolutions 2π radians ⋅ ω= 1 minute 1 revolution 90π radians = 1 minute The angular speed of the propeller is 90π radians per minute. π radians 180° 45π radians 180 π = radians 4 = 14.25 radians r 8 yards 11. which is approximately 424 inches per minute. s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝4⎠ 4 We are given ω . we must express ω in radians per minute. Multiply by . 180° π radians 45 45° = 45° ⋅ π radians = 180° 180 = π radians 4 Now we can use the formula s = rθ to find the length of the arc. θ= s 400 centimeters = = 4 radians r 100 centimeters 12. acute 4. 45° = 45° ⋅ 25π 25π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 6 6 25π 36π 11π =− + = 6 6 6 − c. The linear speed is 90π 135π inches = ν = rω = 1. 18° = 18° ⋅ = = π radians 180° 18π radians 180 π 10 radians 15. The length of the arc intercepted by this 4 4 central angle is ⎛ π ⎞ 6π inches ≈ 4. obtuse 2. 8. 135° = 135° ⋅ π radians 180° 135π radians 180 3π radians = 4 = 490 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the angular speed. The measure of the central angle in radians is 9. obtuse 3. b.

18° = 18° ⋅ π radians π radians 180o π radians = −3 ⋅180o = −540o 270π radians 180 3π radians =− 2 π 7π 7π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 6 6 π radians o 7 ⋅180 = 6 = 210o 26. −3π radians = −3π radians ⋅ 22.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 180° 300π radians = 180 5π radians = 3 25. 2 π 9 radians = 28.1 16. 18. 150° = 150° ⋅ π radians 23. 20.70 radians 491 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π radians 300° = 300° ⋅ 24. 19. −40° = −40° ⋅ 180o π radians 180o ⋅ π radians = 20o π radians 30.31 radians 180° ⋅ −4π radians ⋅ 29. . π radians 330° = 330° ⋅ 180° 330π radians = 180 11π radians = 6 −225° = −225° ⋅ 11π radians 180o 11 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 330o 6 6 π radians 27. =− 21. 2 o 180 = 2 = 90o radians = = π radians 9 o 180 9 180o = −4 ⋅180o = −720o π radians π radians 180° 18π = radians 180 ≈ 0.33 radians π radians 180° 40π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3π radians 1800 3 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 135o 4 4 π radians π radians 180° 225π radians =− 180 5π radians =− 4 −270° = −270° ⋅ 2π 2π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 3 3 π radians o 2 ⋅180 = 3 = 120o 76° = 76° ⋅ 31. Inc. 180° 150π radians = 180 5π radians = 6 17. 180° 76π = radians 180 ≈ 1.

π 38.8 radians = −4.8 ⋅180o 46. −5.59o 36. 180o 180o = ≈ 10. Inc.94o 492 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 35. 250° = 250° ⋅ π radians 180° 250π = radians 180 ≈ 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.36 radians 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ = 2 ⋅180o 43. 3 radians ⋅ 37.49 radians = 34. −50° = −50° ⋅ 33. 200° = 200° ⋅ π radians 41. 180o π radians 44. 180o π radians π ≈ −275. 13 π 17 180o 3 ⋅180o = ≈ 171. 180° 50π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. .2 ⋅180o 180o = π radians π ≈ −297.02o 40.59o π radians 17 −4.Trigonometric Functions 32. 200π radians 180 ≈ 3.87 radians π radians 180° 42.2 radians ⋅ 47.89o π radians π radians = π radians 13 180o = 13 ≈ 13. −5.85o radians ⋅ ⋅ 180o π radians 45. π ≈ 114. 39.8 radians ⋅ = −4.

395° − 360° = 35° 58. − 68. . 51. 23π 23π 23π 20π 3π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 5 5 5 5 5 66. 50. − 69. −765° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −765° + 1080° = 315° 62. 49. π 50 π 40 + 2π = − + 2π = − π 50 π 40 + 100π 99π = 50 50 + 80π 79π = 40 40 31π 31π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 7 7 31π 42π 11π =− + = 7 7 7 493 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 17π 17π 10π 7π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 65.1 48. 54. − 53. −760° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −760° + 1080° = 320° 63. Inc. −150° + 360° = 210° 60. 56. 52. 25π 25π 25π 24π π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 6 6 6 6 6 67. 19π 19π 12π 7π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 64. 55.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 57. 415° − 360° = 55° 59. −160° + 360° = 200° 61.

−π and π 83. First. 76. π radians π = radians 60° = 60° ⋅ 180° 3 Now use the formula s = rθ . s = rθ = 12 ⋅ 72. convert 60° to radians. in order to use the formula s = rθ . 55 11π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 84. π 16π s = rθ = 16 ⋅ = inches ≈ 16. π radians 5π = 225° = 225° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . in order to use the formula s = rθ . 20 revolutions per second 20 revolutions 2π radians 40π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolution 1 second = 40π radians per second 494 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 220 22π ⋅ 2π = 60 3 r = 8 feet. − π 4 π 2 and 7π 4 and 3π 2 82. . − 3π 5π and 4 4 80. 74. 3 minutes and 40 seconds equals 220 seconds.42 inches r = 16 inches. 38π 38π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 9 9 38π 54π 16π =− + = 9 9 9 − r = 12 inches. 7π 63π s = rθ = 9 ⋅ = yards ≈ 49. convert to degrees. 35 7π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 85. 1 1 360° revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution r = 9 yards. 71. π 4 = 3π inches ≈ 9. 6 revolutions per second 6 revolutions 2π radians 12π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolutions 1 seconds = 12π radians per second 1 π revolution is equivalent to 60° or 6 3 radians.42 feet 4 86.76 inches 3 3 77. θ = 315° Begin by converting 315° to radians.Trigonometric Functions 70. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 4π 2π and 3 3 78. θ = 45° Begin by converting 45° to radians. π radians 7π = 315° = 315° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . − 7π 5π and 6 6 79. in order to use the formula s = rθ . 73. Inc.48 yards 4 4 1 ⋅ 360° = 60° 6 Now. 265 53π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 87. − 81. θ = 225° Begin by converting 225° to radians. 4 minutes and 25 seconds equals 265 seconds. π radians π = radians 45° = 45° ⋅ 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . in order to use the formula s = rθ . π radians 60π = 60° = 60° ⋅ radians 180° 180 = = π 3 radians Therefore. θ = 60° Begin by converting 60° to radians. 5π s = rθ = 8 ⋅ = 10π feet ≈ 31. 75.

π radians 120π = 120° = 120° ⋅ radians 180° 180 2π = radians 3 1 2π Therefore. The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length. convert 6 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution = π = π radians 3 The length that the wheel moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 80π s = rθ = (80 centimeters) ⎜ ⎟ = centimeters 3 ⎝3⎠ ≈ 83. we begin by finding r and θ . convert to degrees. we begin by finding r and θ . Inc. s 10. s 8000 miles θ= = = 2 radians r 4000 miles Now. We are given that r = 24 inches and θ = 90°. Since s = rθ . convert 2. First. We are given that r s = 10.5 radians to degrees. Since s = rθ . revolution is equivalent to 120° or 3 3 radians. 180o 2. The distance that the wheel moves is given by s = rθ . π radians 90π 90° = 90° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 88. π radians 60π 60° = 60° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 89.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. convert 2 radians to degrees. 000 miles θ= = = 2. 92. The formula 3 s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in 1 radians. We are given that r = 8 inches. π s .1 91.38 inches. 90. We must 1 revolution to radians. Recall that θ = radians 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 8π s = rθ = (8 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = inches ⎝3⎠ 3 ≈ 8. We are given that r = 80 centimeters and θ = 60°. or of a 6 complete revolution.000 miles and r = 4000 miles. 1 1 360o revolutions = revolutions ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 1 o o = ⋅ 360 = 120 3 Now. = radians 2 The length of each arc is ⎛π ⎞ s = rθ = (24 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = 12π inches ⎝2⎠ ≈ 37.24o 2π radians 94.57 inches. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 radians r 4000 miles Now. s. We are given that r s = 8000 miles and r = 4000 miles. We must convert revolution to radians.78 centimeters. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. s. convert 120° to radians.5 radians ⋅ ≈ 143. or of a complete revolution. The length of each arc is given by s = rθ .70 inches. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. 3 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 2π radians = 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ 2π ⎞ 12π s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ inches ⎟= 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 4π inches ≈ 12. 180o 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ ≈ 114. s .59o π radians 93. The 1 minute hand moves from 12 to 2 o'clock. The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. The minute hand moves from 12 to 4 1 o’clock. We are given that r = 6 inches. . Recall that θ = 495 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

the distance from A to B is 2094 miles. 3 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 3 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution 115. Linear speed is given by ν = rω .Trigonometric Functions 95. Recall that s = rθ . We can only use the formula s = rθ when θ is expressed in radians. Begin by converting 2. π radians 10π 10° = 10° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 = π 18 100.5 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 2. 20 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 20 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution radians = 40π radians per minute ν = rω = (12 feet)(40π ) ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 2094 miles ⎝6⎠ To the nearest mile. radians ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 698 miles ⎝ 18 ⎠ To the nearest mile. Inc. We are given that r = 12 feet and the wheel rotates at 20 revolutions per minute.5 revolutions per minute to radians per minute.5 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution = 5π radians per minute The linear speed of the animals in the outer rows is ν = rω = (20 feet)(5π ) ≈ 100 feet per minute The linear speed of the animals in the inner rows is ν = rω = (10 feet)(5π ) ≈ 50 feet per minute The difference is 100π − 50π = 50π feet per minute or about 157. We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 30° . The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . 2. We need to convert 3 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. . 113. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π radians 30π 30° = 30° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 π = 6 99. radians per hour and 12 r = 4000 miles. We are given that ω= π 101. Recall that s = rθ . 97. ≈ 1508 feet per minute The linear speed of the wheel is about 1508 feet per minute. We are given that r = 25 feet and the wheel rotates at 3 revolutions per minute. We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 10° . 116. – 112. 98. Answers may vary. Therefore. = 6π radians per minute ν = rω = (25 feet)(6π ) ≈ 471 feet per minute The linear speed of the Ferris wheel is about 471 feet per minute. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . ⎛π ⎞ ν = rω = (4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ 4000π = miles per hour 12 ≈ 1047 miles per hour The linear speed is about 1047 miles per hour.08 feet per minute. 96. the distance from A to B is 698 miles. 114. 496 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

does not make sense. Explanations will vary. Miami. Sample explanation: That will not be possible if the angle is a multiple of 2π . Explanations will vary. domain: { x −1 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [ −1. a radius of 286 miles should be used. 124. A right angle measures 90° and 90° = π Section 4.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 2 2 1 − x 1 1 = 2 =− =− y 3 3 3 2 119. x = − .1] 117. does not make sense. 122. Florida is 1815 miles north of the equator. Check Point Exercises 1. π 3 2 tan t = ≈ 286 miles To the nearest mile.1] 118. Sample explanation: It is possible for π to be used in an angle measured using degrees. 2. The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to t = π has coordinates (–1.5 radians. sin π = y = 0 cos π = x = −1 0 y tan π = = =0 x −1 1 1 sec π = = = −1 x −1 x −1 cot π = = = undefined y 0 1 1 cscπ = = = undefined y 0 497 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 20° to radians. 20° = 20° ⋅ 100= r= π r 9 900 π π 180° = π 9 radians ⎛ 3 1⎞ P⎜ . makes sense 120. Inc.2 125. ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 sin t = y = 2 cos t = x = = 1 2 3 2 y = x csc t = 1 =2 y = 3 3 1 2 3 = x 3 x cot t = = 3 y sec t = 123. Explanations will vary. 1 3 126.2 radians ≈ 1. 26° = 26° ⋅ 3 3 =− 3 3 13π radians 90 180° 13π s =4000 ⋅ 90 ≈ 1815 miles To the nearest mile. 121. Sample explanation: Angles greater than π will exceed a straight angle. range: { y −1 ≤ y ≤ 1} or [ −1.57 radians. Use x = –1 and y = 0 to find the values of the trigonometric functions. does not make sense. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 26° to radians. 2 3 If θ = radians = 1. 0). θ is smaller than a 2 right angle. .

2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ − ⎟ = − sin ⎜ ⎟ = − 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < 7. ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ π 1 csc = = 2 4 y π 1 sec = = 2 4 x t= cot 4.7071 Exercise Set 4. 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ a.0≤t < 2 2 sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 sin t = π 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5.5 ≈ 1. P⎜ . csc 1.0025 π 4 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = cos ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ≈ 0. 1 1 3 = = sin θ 2 2 3 1 1 3 = = sec θ = cos θ 5 5 3 csc θ = = cot θ = 3 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 1 4 3 3 = 4 2 cos t = a. = 1 π . 2 sin θ = 3 tan θ = cos θ 5 3 2 3 2 = ⋅ = 3 5 5 2 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 2 5 5 8. cot b. 17 ⎟ . Inc.2 1. Use x = − 17 and y = 17 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions. 3 5 5 1 1 5 = = 2 tan θ 2 5 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 15 8 ⎛ 15 8 ⎞ ⎜ − 17 . 2 ⎛1⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ cos 2 t = 1 − =1 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = sec ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝4⎠ b. sin b. π π 4 = x = y 1 y 1 2 6. ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ . ⎛ 9π cos ⎜ − ⎝ 4 a. cos t is positive. . 8 sin t = y = 17 15 cos t = x = − 17 8 tan t = 8 y = 1715 = − 15 x − 17 1 17 = y 8 1 17 sec t = = − x 15 x 15 cot t = = − y 8 csc t = 498 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Trigonometric Functions 3.

Inc. Use x = t = − has coordinates ⎜⎜ 4 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 and y = − to find the values of the trigonometric 2 functions. . tan π = 0 =0 −1 10. The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 3π 2 2⎞ t= . Publishing as Prentice Hall. tan 0 = 0 =0 1 11. 2 2 and y = to find the values of the 2 2 trigonometric functions.PreCalculus 4E 2. sin π 7. 12 sin t = y = − 13 5 cos t = x = − 13 12 − 12 y tan t = = 13 = 5 5 x − 13 4. − 13 ⎟ Use x = − 13 and y = − 13 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions.− ⎟⎟ . csc 7π 1 = 1 = −2 6 −2 12. 2 sin t = y = 2 2 cos t = x = − 2 x=− 1 13 =− 12 y 1 13 sec t = = − x 5 x 5 cot t = = y 12 csc t = 3. sin π 6. Use has coordinates ⎜ − ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ 2 tan t = 1 = 2 y 1 sec t = = − 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 2 2 2⎞ π . cos 2π 1 =− 3 2 9. 2 2 2 cos t = x = 2 5. Section 4.2 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 5 12 ⎛ 5 12 ⎞ ⎜ − 13 . csc 4π 1 −2 3 = = 3 3 3 − 2 13. cos 5π 3 =− 6 2 8. sec 11π 1 2 3 = = 3 6 3 sin t = y = − tan t = y − = x 2 2 2 2 y = 2 = −1 x − 2 2 = −1 1 =− 2 y 1 sec t = = 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = 6 3 = = 1 2 3 2 2 499 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .

b. cos t = 17 17 17 8 17 sec t = 15 15 cot t = 8 π 1 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 3 3 2 ⎝ ⎠ sin sin t = 11π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 6 = 3 ⎠ csc t = π 3 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 6 6 2 ⎝ ⎠ cos ⎛ 11π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 tan t = 3 2 = 11π − 12 3 = =− 3 6 3 2 15. cos t = 5 5 tan t = 5π 1 = 6 2 ⎛ 5π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 6 8 15 . cos 3π =0 2 17. a. 19. a. . 20.Trigonometric Functions 14. b. tan 3π = undefined 2 b. 1 2 2 sin t = . tan 5π ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 3 = 3 ⎠ 500 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. a. cos t = 3 3 tan t = 1 3 2 2 3 = 2 4 csc t = 3 2π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 3 = − 2 ⎠ 3 2 4 cot t = 2 2 sec t = 3 5π − 2 = 1 =− 3 3 2 ⎛ 5π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 3 = csc t = 2π 3 = sin 3 2 ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 8 17 15 17 3 4 sin t = . a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. sec 5π 1 = 1 =2 3 2 24. 21. sin 3π = −1 2 16. 22. a. sec 3π = undefined 2 18. 23. b. b. a. 1 2 tan 8 15 3 5 4 5 = 3 4 5 3 5 sec t = 4 4 cot t = 3 5π 1 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 6 = − 2 ⎠ 27. 25. cos π 6 b. π 3 = 26.

39 64 25 5 = 64 8 cos 2 t = 1 − cos t = 5 2 Because 0 ≤ t < 6 π sin t = .3 sec 2. cos t is positive.7 ⎠ 34. cos t = 3 3 2 3 5 3 = 31. 0 ≤ t < 7 2 32.0≤t < 5 2 sin t = 13 13 = 49 7 cos t = π sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 cos 2 t = 1 − 30. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 5 5 2 ⎛ 39 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 8 ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 3 5 sec t = 5 csc t = cot t = 29. csc2 π 3 6 − tan 2 − cot 2 π 3 π 6 = 1 because 1 + tan 2 t = sec 2 t. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = 1 because 1 + cot 2 t = csc 2 t. ⎛ 1 ⎞ cos 2. sec2 π 38. sin 2 π 2 15 15 = 64 8 π 33.0≤t < 8 2 sin t = 6 3 + cos 2 + cos 2 π 2 π 3 = 1 by the Pythagorean identity. ⎛ 1 ⎞ sin1. cos t is positive. sin 2 π 36. 39 π .7 csc1. 2 . . cos t is positive. cos t is positive. 2 ⎛7⎞ 2 ⎜ 8 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ π 21 25 4 2 = 25 5 cos 2 t = 1 − sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 Because 0 ≤ t < .2 2 5 . = 1 because sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1. Because 0 ≤ t < 49 cos t = 1 − 64 2 .3 = cos 2. Inc. 37.PreCalculus 4E 28.7 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ sin1.3 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ cos 2. 501 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 ⎛6⎞ 2 ⎜ 7 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < π 2 2 36 49 cos t = . ⎛ 21 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 5 ⎝ ⎠ 7 π sin t = .3 ⎠ 35.7 = sin1. 0 ≤ t < 8 2 cos t = 2 21 π . sin t = tan t = Section 4.

⎛ 9π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 4 + 3π ⎟ = tan 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 47. ⎛ 9π sec ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sec ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sec 4 = 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 43. csc 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = csc ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = csc = 2 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 41. a. 49. a. cos 9π π 2 ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 40. cos ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 π 2 =0 9π ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 4π ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎡π ⎤ = cos ⎢ + 2(2π ) ⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ = cos π 2 =0 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 56. ⎛ 5π cot ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎟ = cot ⎜ 4 − 2π ⎟ = cot 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 46. cos 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos =− 4 4 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ π ⎛π ⎞ − cot ⎜ + 17π ⎟ = − cot = −1 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 55. a.Trigonometric Functions 39. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 53. sin 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = sin = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. cos b. sin b. ⎛ 9π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π 2 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sin 4 = − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 42. . 52. tan 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = tan ⎜ + π ⎟ = tan = 1 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 44. sin 3π 2 = 4 2 b. cos 3π 2 =− 4 2 π ⎛π ⎞ − tan ⎜ + 15π ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝4 ⎠ b. sin π 2 =1 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 4π ⎟ = sin = 1 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 502 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. cot 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 45. 50. 48. 51. a. Inc.

6247 80. π 69. = tan[π + 8(2π )] = tan π =0 58. ≈ 3. a.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. sin(−t − 2π ) − cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) = −a − b + c 7π 2 = 4 2 78. 3cos( −t ) − cos t = 3cos t − cos t = 2cos t = 2b 75. tan( −t ) − tan t = − tan t − tan t = −2 tan t = −2c 73. sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) − tan(t + π ) = sin(t ) + cos(t ) − tan(t ) = a+b−c 77.8508 67. sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) 12 π 18 ≈ 5. 4 cos(−t ) − cos t = 4 cos t − cos t = 3cos t = 3b 74. b.9511 3π ≈ 0. 59. cot 71.6 ≈ 0. + sin t + sin(t − 1000π ) 65.8253 = cos t + cos t − tan t − tan t − sin t + 4sin t 63.6713 = a −b+c 47π ⎛ 7π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 10π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 76. Inc.1884 = − cos t + 7 cos t + tan t + tan t + sin t + sin t 66. b. tan 3. sec 1 ≈ 1.7174 cos t + cos(t + 1000π ) − tan t − tan(t + 999π ) − sin t + 4sin(t − 1000π ) 62. sin 0. 0 =0 −1 tan17π = tan(π + 16π ) b. 61. sin π 10 − cos t + 7 cos(t + 1000π ) + tan t + tan(t + 999π ) = 6 cos t + 2 tan t + 2sin t = 2a + 6b + 2c ≈ 0. tan 3. sin(−t ) − sin t = − sin t − sin t = −2sin t = −2a 72. . a. cot cot π 2 = 0 =0 1 15π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + 7π ⎟ = cot = 0 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 7π 2 =− sin 4 2 sin b.7 ≈ 0.2643 = 3a + 2b − 2c = 2 cos t − 2 tan t + 3sin t 64. sin(−t − 2π ) + cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) + cos(t ) + tan(t ) 47π 7π 2 ⎛ 7π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 10π ⎟ = cos = cos 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ = −a + b + c 79.8090 10 503 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. cos 70. a.8 ≈ 0.4 ≈ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. csc 1 ≈ 1. a. cos 68.7321 cot = sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) ⎡ 7π ⎤ = sin ⎢ + 5 ( 2π ) ⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎦ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 60. cos 0.2 tan π = 57.

≈ 9. a. Inc.3 There are about 20. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. E = sin π 14 For t = 35. At 9 A. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. t = 18.7 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on December 21. b.Trigonometric Functions 81..3(0) 83. . H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅12 6 = 10 + 4sin 2π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. c. t = 6. ≈ 3. π For t = 14. 504 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin1.7 There are about 3. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8.4 hours of daylight in San Diego on June 21. ≈ 20. 14 14 For t = 21. E = sin b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3sin 0 = 12 + 8.5837 E = sin π π 14 For t = 28. π ⋅14 = sin π = 0 ⋅ 21 = sin 3π = −1 2 ⋅ 28 = sin 2π = sin 0 = 0 5π π = sin = 1 14 2 2 Observations may vary.M. t = 12. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin 4.M. At noon. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅0 6 = 10 + 4sin 0 = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.. t = 3. t = 0.5837 = 10 + 4sin π 6 ⋅3 π = 10 + 4(1) = 14 2 The height is 14 feet.3sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8.7339 π 6 ⋅6 = 10 + 4sin π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.3sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ = 12 + 8.3sin1. c. 84. At 6 A. the period is 35 – 7 = 28 or 28 days.M. E = sin = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on March 21. ≈ 14.7339 ⋅ 7 = sin π 2 =1 b.3 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on June 21.3998 There are about 14. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ 12 + 24sin 0 = 12 + 24(0) = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in San Diego on March 21. a. At midnight.3sin 4.6 hours of daylight in San Diego on December 21.. 82. E = sin ⋅ 35 = sin Because E(35) = E(7) = 1. For t = 7.3sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8. a.6 There are about 9. a. At 6 P.

and 3 P. 2 1 4 f (a) + f (a + 2π ) + f (a + 4π ) + f (a + 6π ) 102. 104. and cot t > 0. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. t is in the third quadrant therefore sin t < 0. At 3 A. and ends at t = 2π 6 2 6 or t = 12. 101.M. high tide is at 9 A. Thus.m. the height at 3 A.M. 2π ] . makes sense 505 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. – 96. Explanations will vary.7 You are about 16.M. f ( x) = sin x and f (a) = 1 ⎛1⎞ − 2⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝4⎠ 1 =− 4 f(–a) = –f(a) because sin (–x) = –sin x. = . a period of 2π we also find a maximum at 2 π 5π or t = 15. low tide is at 3 A. Explanations will vary. Inc. 105. First find the hypotenuse. The cycle of the sine function π c 2 = 52 + 122 c 2 = 25 + 144 5π π or t = 0. 97. ⋅18 6 = 10 + 4sin 3π = 10 + 4 sin π Note that − = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. tan t > 0. t= The sine function has a maximum at 10 ≈ −1. Because the sine has 5π . Thus. only choice (c) is true. H = 10 + 4sin 99. Sine is an odd function. From part a. The height is given by h = 45 + 40 sin(t – 90°) h(765°) = 45 + 40sin(765° − 90°) ≈ 16. we find a low tide at does not make sense. π ⋅9 6 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 2 The height is 6 feet. This value of t corresponds to 3 P.7 feet above the ground.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. . Sample explanation: sin t cannot be less than −1. From part a. b. we find a high tide at π t= π 2 1 4 f (a) + 2 f (−a) = f (a) − 2 f (a) 103. and 9 P. the period is 12 hours.M. The sine function has a minimum at h = 10 + 4sin π 3π . starts at t= c 2 = 169 c = 13 Next write the ratio. 2 100. does not make sense. is 14 feet. Thus.M. f ( x) = sin x and f (a ) = ⎛1⎞ = 4 f (a) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 because sin x has a ⎝4⎠ period of 2π . Sample explanation: Cosine is not an odd function. Thus. c. This 6 2 value of t corresponds to 9 a.M. π ⋅ 21 6 7π 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4sin 2 2 = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 The height is 6 feet. is also 6 feet. a 5 = c 13 85. π or t = 3.. makes sense 3π or 6 2 t = 9.58 < −1. c2 = a2 + b2 The period of the sine function is 2π or on the interval [0.2 H = 10 + 4sin π 98. Answers may vary. the height at 9 A. We find another high tide at t = 6 2 This value of t corresponds to 9 P.M. For t = 9. which means high and low tides occur every 12 hours.M.M. t = 21.

continue simplifying by substituting c 2 for a 2 + b2 . . and hypotenuse. opposite 1 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 cos θ = adjacent 2 6 = hypotenuse 5 opposite 1 6 = = adjacent 2 6 12 hypotenuse 5 = =5 csc θ = opposite 1 tan θ = sec θ = hypotenuse 5 5 6 = = adjacent 12 2 6 cot θ = adjacent 2 6 = =2 6 opposite 1 506 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. to find b. we have opposite 3 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 adjacent 4 = cos θ = hypotenuse 5 opposite 3 = tan θ = adjacent 4 hypotenuse 5 = csc θ = opposite 3 hypotenuse 5 = sec θ = adjacent 4 adjacent 4 = cot θ = opposite 3 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ 107. adjacent.3 2 Check Point Exercises c 2 = 12 + 12 1. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . 2 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ ⎜ c ⎟ +⎜ c ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ c c = 2. First find the hypotenuse. to find c. a 1 = c 2 = 1 2 ⋅ 2 2 = 2 2 2 c 2 = a 2 + b 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 c = 25 = 5 Referring to these lengths as opposite. ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝c⎠ ⎝c⎠ c c = a 2 + b2 c2 Since c 2 = a 2 + b2 . c2 = 1 + 1 c2 = 2 c= 2 Next write the ratio and simplify. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . 2 2 c = a +b Section 4.Trigonometric Functions 106. a = 3. b = 4 c 2 a + b2 1 + b 2 = 25 c2 b 2 = 24 c2 = 2 c =1 b = 24 = 2 6 Note that side a is opposite θ and side b is adjacent to θ . a 2 + b2 = c2 12 + b 2 = 52 2 = Use the Pythagorean Theorem. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. a2 + b2 c2 Use the Pythagorean Theorem.

6. 507 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.3 Apply the definitions of these three trigonometric functions. . we select the tangent function. 3 = 1 3 ⋅ 3 3 = 3 3 a. cot π ⎛π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ 12 ⎝ 2 12 ⎠ ⎛ 6π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 12 ⎠ 5π = tan 12 Because we have a known angle. a tan 240 = 750 a = 750 tan 240 a ≈ 750(0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and a known adjacent side. Section 4.PreCalculus 4E 3. length of hypotenuse csc 45° = length of side opposite 45° 2 = 2 1 length of hypotenuse sec 45° = length of side adjacent to 45° = 2 = 2 1 length of side adjacent to 45° cot 45° = length of side opposite 45° 1 = =1 1 = 4. sin 46o = cos(90o − 46o ) = cos 44o b. tan 60° = length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 3 = 3 1 length of side opposite 30° tan 30° = length of side adjacent to 30° = 1 = 5.4452) ≈ 334 The distance across the lake is approximately 334 yards. an unknown opposite side.

c 2 = 62 + 82 = 100 c = 100 = 10 opposite 6 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 10 adjacent 8 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 10 opposite 6 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 8 4 hypotenuse 10 csc θ = = = opposite 6 hypotenuse 10 sec θ = = = adjacent 8 adjacent 8 4 cot θ = = = opposite 6 3 3 5 4 5 5 3 5 4 508 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Exercise Set 4.Trigonometric Functions 7. Inc. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 54°. tan θ = Many Graphing Calculators Many Scientific Calculators TAN −1 ( 14 ÷ 10 ) TAN ( 14 ÷ 10 ) ENTER ENTER The display should show approximately 54.3 1. Thus. side opposite 14 = side adjacent 10 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. c 2 = 92 + 122 = 225 c = 225 = 15 opposite 9 3 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 adjacent 12 4 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 opposite 9 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 12 4 hypotenuse 15 5 csc θ = = = opposite 9 3 hypotenuse 15 5 sec θ = = = adjacent 12 4 adjacent 12 4 cot θ = = = opposite 9 3 2. .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. a 2 + 212 = 292 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 4.3 5. Inc. a 2 + 402 = 412 a 2 = 289 − 225 = 64 a 2 = 1681 − 1600 = 81 a = 64 = 8 opposite 8 = = hypotenuse 17 adjacent 15 = = hypotenuse 17 opposite 8 = = adjacent 15 hypotenuse 17 = = opposite 8 hypotenuse 17 = = adjacent 15 adjacent 15 = = opposite 8 a = 81 = 9 opposite 9 = = hypotenuse 41 adjacent 40 = = hypotenuse 41 opposite 9 = = adjacent 40 hypotenuse 41 = = opposite 9 hypotenuse 41 = = adjacent 40 adjacent 40 = = opposite 9 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 509 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Section 4.PreCalculus 4E 3. a 2 = 841 − 441 = 400 b 2 = 676 − 100 = 576 a = 400 = 20 opposite 20 = = hypotenuse 29 adjacent 21 = = hypotenuse 29 opposite 20 = = adjacent 21 hypotenuse 29 = = opposite 20 hypotenuse 29 = = adjacent 21 adjacent 21 = = opposite 20 b = 576 = 24 opposite 10 5 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 adjacent 24 12 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 opposite 10 5 = = = adjacent 24 12 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = opposite 10 5 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = adjacent 24 12 adjacent 24 12 = = = opposite 10 5 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ a 2 + 152 = 17 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 102 + b 2 = 262 6.

a = 1225 − 441 = 784 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 8. a 2 + 212 = 352 11. a = 784 = 28 opposite 28 4 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 adjacent 21 3 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 opposite 28 4 = = = adjacent 21 3 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = opposite 28 4 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = adjacent 21 3 adjacent 21 3 = = = opposite 28 4 12.Trigonometric Functions 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. cos π 3 sec π 3 − cot π 3 = 1− 3 3− 3 = 3 3 3 3 510 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. tan π 4 + csc π 6 ⋅ 1 2 3 3 ⋅ 3 3 = − 1 2 =0 ⎞ ⎟⎟ − 1 ⎠ 6 −1 4 6 −4 = 4 = length of side opposite 30° length of side adjacent to 30° 1 3 3 1 2 = + = 1+ 2 = 3 1 1 π π π ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 sin cos − tan = ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 4 4 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 3 2 = 3 = = tan 45° + csc 30° length of side adjacent to 30° length of hypotenuse 1 3 = sin 45° − cos 45° = 16. length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 1 3 − cos = π 4 1 3 17. 13. length of side adjacent to 60° length of side opposite 60° 18. b = 49 = 7 opposite 24 = = hypotenuse 25 adjacent 7 = = hypotenuse 25 opposite 24 = = adjacent 7 hypotenuse 25 = = opposite 24 hypotenuse 25 = = adjacent 7 adjacent 7 = = opposite 24 cos 30° = tan = b = 625 − 576 = 49 tan θ length of hypotenuse length of side opposite 45° csc 45° = = 2 cos θ 2 = 2 1 = 242 + b 2 = 252 sin θ length of hypotenuse length of side adjacent to 45° sec 45° = cot π 3 sin π 4 3 = 3 1 = cot 60° = = 15. . csc θ sec θ cot θ 9. Inc. tan 30° = = π 3 2 = 2 1 = tan 60° = 14. = 10.

PreCalculus 4E 19. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b 220 b = 220 cos 34° cos 34° = b ≈ 220(0. ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 3 ⎞ = 6(1) + ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 6 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 6 = 6+ 6 =7 sin 7° = cos(90° − 7°) = cos83° 22. .3907 tan 44° = b= 16 c 23 b 23 23 ≈ ≈ 24 yd tan 44° 0. 6 tan π 4 + sin π 3 sec 29.8290) ≈ 182 in. a 10 a = 10 tan 61° tan 61° = a ≈ 10(1. cos 30.5592) ≈ 7 m 33. sin19° = cos ( 90° − 19° ) = cos 71° 3π π ⎛ π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 4π 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − − ⎟ = sin ⎜ ⎟ = sin 8 8 ⎠ 8 ⎝2 8 ⎠ ⎝ 8 a 250 a = 250 tan 37° tan 37° = a ≈ 250(0.7536) ≈ 188 cm π 21.8040) ≈ 18 cm 31. Inc. 6 6 12 3 + 6 = 6 =2 3+ 20.3 + cos π tan 4 π 6 =2 ⎛ 2 ⎝ 2 ( 3 ) + ⎜⎜ ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 28. tan 27. csc 25° = sec(90° – 25 ) = sec 65° 24. 2 tan π 3 Section 4. 2π ⎛ π 2π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 5 ⎝2 5 ⎠ ⎛ 5π 4π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 10 ⎠ = sin a 13 a = 13sin 34° sin 34° = 16 16 ≈ ≈ 41 m sin 23° 0. cos π 9 32. csc 35° = sec(90° − 35°) = sec55° 25. tan 26. o 23.9657 π 10 511 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. sin 23° = c= 5π ⎞ ⎟ = cot 14 ⎠ 34. ⎛π π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝2 9⎠ ⎛ 9π 2π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 18 18 ⎠ 7π = cot 18 π ⎛π π ⎞ ⎛ 7π 2π = cot ⎜ − ⎟ = cot ⎜ − 7 ⎝2 7⎠ ⎝ 14 14 a ≈ 13(0.

then θ ≈ 78°. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .0307. 41.0307 ENTER Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) COS−1 .5117 ENTER Display (rounded to three places) .395 radians. then θ ≈ 88°.6252.253 radians. then θ ≈ 29° .6252 ENTER 78 If tan θ = 4. . then θ ≈ 17°.0307 TAN-1 If tan θ = 26.2974 SIN −1 If sin θ = 0. 37. Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) TAN −1 . then θ = 0. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .9499.395 Scientific Calculator . Inc. then θ ≈ 0.147 Scientific Calculator .147 radians.4169 ENTER .2974 ENTER 17 Scientific Calculator . 42.9499 SIN-1 SIN-1 .Trigonometric Functions 35.877 COS-1 COS-1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 39. 38.473 512 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5117.5117 TAN −1 Graphing Calculator TAN −1 . Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) SIN −1 .253 If tan θ = 0.4112 ENTER 1.4169 TAN −1 Display (rounded to three places) 1. 40.473 If tan θ = 0. Scientific Calculator .877 ENTER Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 29 If cos θ = 0.4112 COS−1 Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 88 If cos θ = 0. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 4. Graphing Calculator TAN-1 26.9499 ENTER If sin θ = 0.6252 TAN −1 TAN −1 4. then θ ≈ 1. 36. then θ = 1.4112.877.4169.2974. Scientific Calculator 26.

1 − tan 2 10° + csc 2 80° = 1 − cot 2 80° + csc2 80° = 1 + csc 2 80° − cot 2 80° = 1+1 =2 47. Inc. 1 cot π 4 − 2 csc π = 1 1 tan 6 = 1 1 1 − π 1 sin 4 − 2 π 6 2 1 1 2 1 2 = − 1 2 = 1−1 =0 45. cos12° sin 78° + cos 78° sin12° = sin 78° sin 78° + cos 78° cos 78° = sin 2 78° + cos 2 78° =1 513 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. csc 37° sec 53° − tan 53° cot 37° = sec 53° sec 53° − tan 53° tan 53° = sec 2 53° − tan 2 53° =1 48.3 π 3 − 1 sec π = 3 1 − 1 2 π cos 6 = 6 3 1 − 1 2 3 2 3 3 − 2 2 =0 = 44.PreCalculus 4E tan 43. . 1 + sin 2 40° + sin 2 50° = 1 + sin 2 (90° − 50°) + sin 2 50° = 1 + cos 2 50° + sin 2 50° = 1+1 =2 46. 2 Section 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

tan θ = Many Scientific Calculators 125 ÷ 172 = TAN −1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN −1 ( 125 ÷ 172 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 36. 514 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 125 172 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Thus. 54.Trigonometric Functions 49. . Inc.8391) ≈ 529 The distance across the lake is approximately 529 yards.8391) ≈ 29 The tree’s height is approximately 29 feet. a 630 a = 630 tan 40° tan 40° = a ≈ 630(0. 55. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 1 ⎛π ⎞ csc ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sec θ = = 1 =3 θ 2 cos ⎝ ⎠ 3 53. 1 ⎛π ⎞ tan ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cot θ = 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ 52. f (θ ) = 2 cos θ − cos 2θ π ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ π⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 cos − cos ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎟ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 6⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝3⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 50. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 36°. f (θ ) = 2 sin θ − sin θ 2 π π ⎛π ⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 sin − sin 3 3 2 ⎝3⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 51. h 35 h = 35 tan 40° tan 40° = h ≈ 35(0.

the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 47°.PreCalculus 4E 56. θ 0.3 555 1320 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . sin10° = 500 c 500 500 ≈ ≈ 2880 sin10° 0.99999998 × 10 −5 0.2 0.9983 0.9851 0.01 sinθ 0.001 0. tan Many Scientific Calculators 555 ÷ 1320 = TAN-1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN-1 ( 555 ÷ 1320 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 23.0001 9.99998 θ sin θ approaches 1 as θ approaches 0.4 0.9736 0. Many Scientific Calculators Many Graphing Calculators -1 55 ÷ 80 = COS COS-1 ( 55 ÷ 80 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 47. cos θ = 61.0998 0.00001 1 × 10 −5 1 . Answers may vary. 59.9933 0. 55 80 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Thus.0099998 sin θ 0. Thus.999999998 515 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 68. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.3 0. 57.1 0. c= 58.2955 0.1736 The plane has flown approximately 2880 feet.999998 × 10 −4 9. – 67.0872) = 436 The driver’s increase in altitude was approximately 436 feet. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 37°.1987 0.9999998 0. θ 0. sin 5° = 60 75 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . the angle of elevation is approximately 23°. 0. a 5000 a = 5000sin 5° ≈ 5000(0. 60. Thus.3894 0. cos θ = Many Scientific Calculators 60 ÷ 75 = COS Many Graphing Calculators −1 COS−1 ( 60 ÷ 75 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 37. Section 4.

Explanations will vary. .00001 0. 73.92106 0.0005 1 –0. The sine and cosine are not reciprocals of each other. Irrational numbers are rounded on calculators.3 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary.7321 2. A sample change is: sin 45° + cos 45° = 77.7475 5.0001 0. θ 60 70 80 89 89.999 89. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 79. Use a calculator in degree mode to generate the following table.1 0. false. In a right triangle.9999 tanθ 1. does not make sense. makes sense 74. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary.958 As θ approaches 90°.6713 57 573 5730 57. 516 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: 75. true tan 45° ⎛ 45° ⎞ ≠ tan ⎜ ⎟ tan15° ⎝ 15° ⎠ 78. 70. At 90°.19735 –0.005 0.00005 0 θ cos θ − 1 θ approaches 0 as θ approaches 0.Trigonometric Functions 69.9999995 0.99995 cos θ − 1 –0. tanθ is undefined. true 76.9 89.2 0. Therefore both 1 2 + 1 2 = 2 2 ≠1 opposite adjacent and must be hypotenuse hypotenuse less than 1 for an acute angle in a right triangle. θ 0.99 89.4 0.04996 –0.001 0.099667 –0. Then use the table to describe what happens to the tangent of an acute angle as the angle gets close to 90°. 72.95534 0. tanθ increases without bound.01 cos θ 0. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. Sample explanation: An increase in the size of a triangle does not affect the ratios of the sides.148878 –0. false. the hypotenuse is greater than either other side.99500 0.296 572.999999995 –0. Inc. Sample explanation: The sine and cosine are cofunctions of each other. Sample explanation: This value is irrational. 71.98007 0.

x 1 10 = = r 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = = −3 x 1 r 10 10 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 y r r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = (−3) 2 + 42 r =5 y 4 = .4 Let a = distance of the ship from the lighthouse. which is r 34 34 34 34 negative. θ ′ = 360D − 345D = 15D b. y = 0. Inc. which is positive. r = x2 + y2 π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive y-axis. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 1.7002 The ship is approximately 357 feet from the lighthouse.0): x = 1. π x 0 cos 90° = cos = = = 0 2 r 1 π r 1 csc 90° = csc = = = 1 2 y 1 517 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 4. x 1 cos 0° = cos 0 = = = 1 r 1 r 1 csc 0° = csc 0 = = . θ = 90° = x r First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = 34 x −3 −3 34 −3 34 = = ⋅ = . θ = 0° = 0 radians The terminal side of the angle is on the positive x-axis. b. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . b tan 22° = 357 b = 357 tan 22° ≈ 357(0. θ′ = π − 5π 6π 5π π = − = 6 6 6 6 10 = 10 1 1 1 =− −3 3 a. r 5 82. a. a. undefined y 0 b. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. Select the point P = (0. . 250 tan 35° = a 250 250 a= ≈ ≈ 357 tan 35° 0. 2. y −3 3 10 = =− r 10 10 cos θ = 144 + 250 = 394 The plane is approximately 394 feet above the water. and r.PreCalculus 4E 80. Section 4. a. 81.4 Check Point Exercises 1. b. r = 12 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. r = (−3)2 + 52 83. Let b = the plane’s height above the lighthouse.1): x = 0. Select the point P = (1. b. y. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions.4040) ≈ 144 sin θ = a.

6 − π ≈ 0.0): x = −1. sin θ is positive in quadrant II. In quadrant II.71 . 15π 15π 8π 7π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 This angle is in quadrant IV. all the functions are positive in quadrant I. we can find sin θ and sec θ . 7. sin 60° = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x.46 . π 3 . We are also given that cos θ < 0 . it is in quadrant IV. it is in quadrant II. thus the reference 7π 8π 7π π = − = . Because sin θ < 0. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. y = 1 Furthermore. 4 4 4 4 π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. and r. 300° lies in quadrant IV. c. Select the point P = (0. y. The reference angle is θ = 240 − 180 = 60° . r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. Because 8π . The reference 4 7π 8π 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = − = . x −1 cos180° = cos π = = = −1 r 1 r 1 csc180° = csc π = = . The reference angle is 4 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = . sin 300° = − sin 60° = − b. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which cosine is negative and the sine is negative. it is in quadrant III. Inc. b. 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = 3 x −3 x = −3. θ = 270° = 6. 2 5π lies in quadrant III. x is negative and y is positive. d. Because 3. Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. 3π x 0 cos 270° = cos = = =0 2 r 1 3π r 1 csc 270° = csc = = = −1 2 y −1 c. 665° − 360° = 305° This angle is in quadrant IV. θ = 180° = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative x-axis. it is in quadrant III. Because –240° lies between –180° and –270°. thus the reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 305° = 55° . angle is θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 11π 11π 12π π + 2 ⋅ 2π = − + = 3 3 3 3 This angle is in quadrant I. b. thus the reference − angle is θ ′ = Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. d. a. with sin θ < 0. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . θ cannot lie in quadrant II. 4. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. Thus. Thus. Select the point P = (–1. θ lies in quadrant II. undefined y 0 5. θ cannot lie in quadrant I. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . 4 4 4 4 2π = 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative y-axis. The reference 2 angle is θ ′ = 3. tan 4 4 tan 518 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3.–1): x = 0. Furthermore.6 lies between π ≈ 3.Trigonometric Functions c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 0. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. a. 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. 5π π = + tan = 1 . y 1 1 10 10 sin θ = = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 sec θ = 7π 3π 6π = and lies between 4 2 4 r 10 10 = =− x 3 −3 3 . a.14 and 3π ≈ 4. . y = −1.

y. Furthermore. y.4 lies in quadrant IV. The reference angle is θ ′ = π − = . The reference angle is 2π π = . 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = lies in quadrant 6 6 6 6 5π π II. cos cos b. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 6 6 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 . We need values for x. π 2 3 = 6 3 Because the secant is positive in quadrant IV. x = −4 and y = 3 . y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. 6 6 6 2 −22π −22π 24π 2π + 8π = + = lies in 3 3 3 3 quadrant II. and r. 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 cos θ = = =− 5 5 r 3 3 y tan θ = = =− 4 x −4 r 5 csc θ = = y 3 π 2 3 ⎛ π⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = + sec = . Because P = (–4.PreCalculus 4E c. . 6 3 ⎝ 6⎠ 8. θ′ = π − 3 3 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 sin = . . and r. x = −12 and y = 5 . The reference angle is 6 θ′ = π 6 1. 2. − π Section 4. Furthermore. 5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . y. 6 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. and r. 3 3 3 2 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = − 5 5 y csc θ = 519 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y 5 sin θ = = r 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− 13 13 r 5 5 y tan θ = = =− 12 x −12 −22π 2π π 3 = sin = sin = . r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + 52 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. Inc. sin We need values for x. a.4 Exercise Set 4. sec r = x 2 + y 2 = (−4)2 + 32 = 16 + 9 = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. and r. Because P = (–12. = r 5 5 = =− 4 x −4 4 x −4 cot θ = = =− 3 3 y sec θ = 17π 5π π 3 = cos = − cos = − .

y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 3 7 r 5 2 = = 2 5 x 5 x = −1 cot θ = = y −5 sec θ = 520 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y. Because P = (3. y. x = 2 and y = 3 . and r. We need values for x. y. 3 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 3 2 2 2 y −3 = −1 tan θ = = x 3 r 3 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −3 y r 3 2 = = 2 3 x 3 x = −1 cot θ = = y −3 sec θ = 2 3 We need values for x. y. and r. Because P = (3. 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . and r. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Inc. 7) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Furthermore. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Because P = (5. y. 3 3 13 3 13 y = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 sin θ = 2 2 13 2 13 x = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 y 3 tan θ = = x 2 13 r csc θ = = 3 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y 4. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 6. and r. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . x = 5 and y = –5 . and r. r = x 2 + y 2 = 5 + (−5)2 = 25 + 25 = 50 7 7 58 7 58 y = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 −5 −1 2 2 y = = ⋅ =− 2 r 5 2 2 2 5 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 5 2 2 2 y −5 = −1 tan θ = = 5 x r 5 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −5 y cos θ = 58 3 sec θ = −3 −1 2 2 y = =− ⋅ =− 2 r 3 2 2 2 cos θ = 13 2 sec θ = We need values for x. 3 3 58 3 58 x = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 y 7 tan θ = = x 3 58 r csc θ = = 7 y sin θ = cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y We need values for x. y. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + (−3) 2 = 9 + 9 r = x + y = 2 + 3 = 4 + 9 = 13 Now that we know x.Trigonometric Functions 3. Furthermore. 2 sin θ = 2 2 2 = 18 = 3 2 Now that we know x. and r. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + 7 2 = 9 + 49 = 58 Now that we know x. . sin θ = =5 2 Now that we know x. y. Furthermore. and r. x = 3 and y = 7 . Furthermore. 5. Because P = (2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 3 and y = −3 . and r.

0): x = −1. y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . r = x 2 + y 2 = (−1) 2 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. x = −2 and y = −5 . r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis.PreCalculus 4E 7. Section 4. undefined x 0 2 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. Select the point P = (–1. tan −3 −3 10 3 10 y = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 14.4 We need values for x. –1): x = 0. –1): x = 0. Select the point P = (0. 3π x 0 = = =0 cos 2 r 1 θ= θ= π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. −1 −1 10 10 x cos θ = = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = =3 x −1 10 10 r =− csc θ = = −3 3 y r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 9. 1): x = 0. y = 0. y = 0. Select the point P = (–1. sin θ = tangent function. x = –1 and y = –3 . r 1 csc π = = . and r. Because P = (–2. Select the point P = (–1. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosecant function. sin θ = −5 −5 29 5 29 y = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 −2 −2 29 2 29 x = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 y −5 5 tan θ = = = x −2 2 29 29 r =− csc θ = = −5 5 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 8. and r. 29 29 =− −2 2 −2 2 = −5 5 We need values for x. Furthermore. y. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. y 0 =0 tan π = = x −1 11. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. Select the point P = (0. y = 0. Select the point P = (–1. cot π 2 521 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and r. r = 1 Apply the definition of the secant function. y = −1. y. Select the point P = (0. Because P = (–1. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. 0): x = −1. y = 1. = x 0 = =0 y 1 . y = 0. undefined y 0 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−2) 2 + (−5) 2 = 4 + 25 = 29 Now that we know x. 0): x = −1. 0): x = −1. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cotangent function. 13. Inc. r = 1 Apply the definition of the θ= 10 = − 10 −1 −1 1 = −3 3 15. y = –1. 10. Furthermore. and r. r 1 = −1 sec π = = x −1 12. x −1 cos π = = = −1 r 1 3π y −1 = = . r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y.

Thus. with sin θ < 0. In quadrant III x is negative and y is negative. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. Thus. y = −12. with cot θ > 0. radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. x2 + y 2 = r 2 20. We are also given that cos θ > 0. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. 12 y −12 sin θ = − = = . Because cot θ > 0. 1): x = 0. with tan θ < 0. θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. . Because tan θ < 0. Because quadrant I is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and sine is positive. the sine function is negative in those quadrants. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the secant is negative and the cotangent is positive. x −5 5 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 y −12 12 tan θ = = = x −5 5 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −12 12 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −5 5 x −5 5 cot θ = = = y −12 12 21. Because sin θ > 0. Thus. Thus. 52 = (−3) 2 + y 2 y 2 = 25 − 9 = 16 y = − 16 = −4 Now that we know x. the tangent function is positive in those two quadrants. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. with sin θ < 0. 3 x −3 cosθ = − = = . the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . we conclude that θ lies in quadrant I. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant II. Because sin θ < 0. y = 1. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. x = –3. r = 5. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. Thus. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . We are also given that sec θ < 0 . we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the sine is negative and the tangent is negative. r = 13 .Trigonometric Functions 16. with sin θ > 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. and r. the cotangent function is negative in those two quadrants. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . Select the point P = (0. θ cannot lie in quadrant III or quadrant IV. Thus. 24. Because quadrant II is the only quadrant in which the cosine is negative and the tangent is negative. θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. π y 1 tan = = . Thus. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. x is negative and y is negative. We are also given that sin θ < 0 . Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. x 2 + (−12) 2 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 144 = 25 x = − 25 = −5 Now that we know x. Because sin θ < 0. 19. and r. y. r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. 5 r 5 r 2 = x2 + y2 17. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant II. Furthermore. 4 y −4 sin θ = = =− 5 5 r y −4 4 tan θ = = = x −3 3 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 3 x −3 3 = cot θ = = y −4 4 18. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. 522 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. We are also given that cos θ > 0 . 13 r 13 Furthermore. In quadrant III. θ= π 22. with tan θ < 0. the tangent function is positive in those quadrants. Because tan θ < 0. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. undefined 2 x 0 23. Thus. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant III. θ cannot lie in quadrant II or quadrant IV. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV.

x = 8. y. Furthermore. Furthermore x2 + y 2 = r 2 25. In quadrant IV. cos θ = tan θ = csc θ = sec θ = cot θ = y 2 = 289 − 64 = 225 y = − 225 = −15 Now that we know x. Inc. 3 r 2 2 x + y = r2 42 + y 2 = 52 y 2 = 25 − 16 = 9 12 + y 2 = 32 y = − 9 = −3 Now that we know x. In quadrant IV. Furthermore. Thus. y −15 15 sin θ = = =− r 17 17 y −15 15 tan θ = = =− x 8 8 r 17 17 csc θ = = =− y −15 15 r 17 sec θ = = x 8 x 8 8 cot θ = = =− y −15 15 x −12 12 = =− r 13 13 y 5 5 = =− x −12 12 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 = =− y 5 5 26. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y. . θ is in quadrant IV. r = 5 . In quadrant IV x is positive and y is negative. 4 x cos θ = = . Thus. and r. and r. sin θ = y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 tan θ = y −2 2 = = −2 2 x 1 r 3 3 2 3 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 r 3 sec θ = = = 3 x 1 csc θ = cot θ = x 1 1 2 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 523 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 x cos θ = = . x = 4. 17 r r = 17.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 13 r x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + 52 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 25 = 144 82 + y 2 = 17 2 x = − 144 = −12 Now that we know x. 5 y sin θ = = . and r. and r. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . r = 3 . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Because 270° < θ < 360°. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . In quadrant II x is negative and y is positive.4 27. y = 5. y. x is positive and y is negative. 1 x cos θ = = . Thus. x is positive and y is negative. y −3 3 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 y −3 3 tan θ = = =− x 4 4 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 r 5 sec θ = = x 4 x 4 4 cot θ = = =− y −3 3 y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. x = 1. Thus. Furthermore. r = 13 . Because 270° < θ < 360°. y. θ is in quadrant IV. 5 r 2 2 x + y = r2 28.

we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 3 x −3 31. y. x = −3. and r. In quadrant II. Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. Furthermore. y. 5 y −5 tan θ = = = . x = −12. θ lies in quadrant III.Trigonometric Functions 29. Thus. y −4 4 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 x −3 3 cos θ = = =− r 5 5 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 x −3 3 cot θ = = = y −4 4 13 13 =− −3 3 −3 3 =− 2 2 30. θ lies in quadrant II. x is negative and y is negative. and r. y = –4. In quadrant II. sin θ = y 1 1 10 10 = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 cos θ = −3 −3 x 10 3 10 = = ⋅ =− r 10 10 10 10 csc θ = r 10 = = 10 y 1 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + (−5)2 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. θ lies in quadrant III. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Furthermore. and r. Thus. Furthermore. Thus. negative and y is negative. In quadrant III. and r. x is 4 y −4 . r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + (−4)2 = 9 + 16 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 22 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. y = 2. y. tan θ = = = 3 x −3 x = –3. Thus. 3 x −3 32. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. y = −5 . x = −3 . 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = . y. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 2 y 2 tan θ = − = = . x is negative and y is positive. Furthermore. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 12 x −12 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. In quadrant III. θ lies in quadrant II. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. sin θ = y 2 2 13 2 13 = = ⋅ = r 13 13 13 13 cos θ = −3 −3 13 x 3 13 = = ⋅ =− r 13 13 13 13 csc θ = r 13 = y 2 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. x is negative and y is positive. Inc. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. y = 1. . y −5 5 sin θ = = =− r 13 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −5 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = = y −5 5 10 10 =− −3 3 −3 = −3 1 524 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

The reference angle is 14 5π 7π 5π 2π = − = . 36.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. it 4 4 2 4 is in quadrant III. x = −1. The reference angle is 5π 6π 5π π = − = . it is in quadrant III. The reference angle is 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = . it is 6 2 6 6 in quadrant II. Furthermore. θ′ = π − 6 6 6 6 x = − 15 Now that we know x. y −1 5π 4π 3π 6π lies between π = and = . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. Because the cosecant is negative and the tangent is positive. Because 351° lies between 270° and 360°. y. x −1 x2 + y 2 = r 2 35. Publishing as Prentice Hall. it is in quadrant IV. Because 34. Because the secant is negative and the tangent is positive. y = −1. The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 160° = 20° . y −1 1 sin θ = = =− r 4 4 x − 15 15 cos θ = = =− r 4 4 y 1 15 15 −1 tan θ = = = ⋅ = x − 15 15 15 15 sec θ = r 4 4 15 4 15 = =− ⋅ =− x − 15 15 15 15 cot θ = x − 15 = = 15 y −1 43. Because 355° lies between 270° and 360°. (−1)2 + y 2 = 32 37. it is in quadrant II. . Inc. The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 170° = 10° . The reference angle is 7π 8π 7π π = − = . it 4 2 4 4 is in quadrant IV. r 3 3 2 3 2 csc θ = = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 cot θ = x 1 2 2 −1 = = ⋅ = y −2 2 2 2 2 4 7π 3π 6π 8π lies between = and 2π = . θ′ = π − 7 7 7 7 π= 45. Because 44. 525 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 38. Because 160° lies between 90° and 180°. θ lies in quadrant III. r = 4 . Because 5π 10π π 7π = lies between = and 2 14 7 14 14π . y −2 2 = =2 2 x −1 40. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . The reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° . The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 351° = 9° . y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. x is negative and y is negative. Thus. Thus. it is in quadrant II. y. x is negative and y is negative. θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 41. r 3 sec θ = −3 = = . Because x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + (−1) 2 = 42 x 2 = 16 − 1 = 15 5π π 3π 6π lies between = and π = . r = 3 . it is in quadrant III. Furthermore. 4 4 4 4 42. Because 205° lies between 180° and 270°.4 33. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . −150° + 360° = 210° Because the angle is in quadrant III. r 4 csc θ = −4 = = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 355° = 5° . Because 170° lies between 90° and 180°. it is in quadrant II. θ lies in quadrant III. it is in quadrant IV. In quadrant III. the reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 x −1 1 cos θ = = =− r 3 3 sin θ = tan θ = 39. In quadrant III. and r. and r.

71 .5 lies between 51.78 . 2 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant III. the reference 3π π angle is θ ′ = π − = . 300° lies in quadrant IV. 3 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III.71 and 2π ≈ 6. tan 30° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 4π = − = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV.14 and 3π ≈ 4. 54. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = −π = . 225° lies in quadrant III. 48. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . 50. the reference angle is θ ′ = 1° .28 . the reference 11π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° .56 . Inc.7 − π ≈ 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 6 − 25π 25π 36π 11π + 6π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. 4 4 − 17π 17π 24π 7π + 4π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant III. 210° lies in quadrant III. 6 6 cos 225°= − cos 45°= − 2 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 4. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . cos 45° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant II. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . 58. 4 4 3 . 55. 2 62. 56. the reference angle is θ ′ = 25° . −335° + 360° = 25° Because the angle is in quadrant I. 2 it is in quadrant IV. The reference angle is θ ′ = 2π − 5. it 2 59.7 lies between π ≈ 3. the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45° . Because 5. 3π ≈ 4. 6 6 − 13π 13π 18π 5π + 6π = − + = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. 4 4 sin 60° = sin 300° = − sin 60° = − 23π 23π 16π 7π − 4π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. is in quadrant III.Trigonometric Functions 46. −359° + 360° = 1° Because the angle is in quadrant I. 52. the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = −π = . 47. 57. the reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° . the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = π − = .5 ≈ 0. . 3 526 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 3 − 61. the reference angle is θ ′ = 193° − 180° = 13° . 553° − 360° = 193° Because the angle is in quadrant III. 3 3 tan 210°= tan 30° = 3 . 53. 11π 11π 8π 3π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant II. the reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 110° = 70° . 60. 565° − 360° = 205° Because the angle is in quadrant III. −250° + 360° = 110° Because the angle is in quadrant II. 2 63. 11π 11π 16π 5π + 4π = − + = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant III. 49. Because 4.

–225° lies in quadrant II. θ′ = 4 4 4 4 tan 2π lies in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Inc. cos 9π lies on the positive y-axis. 4 4 cot 527 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7π π cot = − cot = −1 . sec 60° = 2 Because the secant is negative in quadrant III. The reference angle is θ ′ = 405° − 360° = 45° . 68. 2π π 3 =sin = . –240° lies in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . 66. The reference angle is θ ′ = 420° − 360° = 60° . The reference angle is 4 3π 4π 3π π θ′ = π − = − = . 2 sin(−225°) = sin 45° = . θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 65. The reference angle is 4 9π 9π 8π π − 2π = − = . tan 60° = 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. sec 240° = − sec 60° − 2 . 67. . 7π lies in quadrant IV. 4 4 4 4 π 2 cos = 4 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. sin 60° = sin(−240°)= sin 60°= 3π π 2 . 2 2 2 2 π 9π is also Because tan is undefined. 6 6 csc π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. 71. 240° lies in quadrant III. 72. 405° lies in quadrant I. 7π lies in quadrant III. π 69. The reference angle is 2 9π 9π 8π π θ′ = − 4π = − = . tan 420°= tan 60°= 3 . 2 74. The reference angle is 3 2π 3π 2π π θ′ = π − = − = . 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. tan 405°=tan45°=1 .4 64. tan 2 2 undefined. 9π π tan =tan = 1 4 4 3 = 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. 3 3 2 3π lies in quadrant II. 73. tan 45° = 1 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. =– cos = − 4 4 2 3 . The reference angle is 6 7π 7π 6π π −π = − = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45°. 3 3 3 3 sin π =1 4 Because the cotangent is negative in quadrant IV. 7π π csc = − csc = −2 . 70. 420° lies in quadrant I. sin 9π lies in quadrant I. The reference angle is 4 7π 8π 7π π = − = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. θ′ = 6 6 6 6 2 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. 2 sin 45° = π =2 6 Because the cosecant is negative in quadrant III.

The reference angle is π 3 =− π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. lies in quadrant IV. The reference angle is 4 θ′ = π 4 76. − π 6 π cos π − cos π 3 sin 3π 2 3 1 + 2 2 1− 3 = 2 88. cot π 4 cos 0 − sin π 6 cos π 2 1 + 2 2 2 +1 = 2 = 3 ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − . 2 3 sec 510° = sec150° = − 3 79. =1 4 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. 19π 7π = cot = 3 6 6 11π 5π 11π 5π cos sin + cos 4 6 4 6 ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ =⎜ − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6+ 2 =− 4 =− 80.Trigonometric Functions 75. π ⎛ 11π ⎞ = tan = 1 tan ⎜ − ⎟ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 85. tan = sec 495° = sec135° = − 2 78. cos 35π 11π 3 = cos = 6 6 2 83. ⎛ 17π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 84. π 1 ⎛ 35π ⎞ = sin = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 6 2 ⎝ 6 ⎠ 90. sin ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 1 − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ 3 6 6 3 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. 17π 5π 17π 5π cos sin + cos 3 4 3 4 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 2⎞ = ⎜− − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6− 2 = 4 = 7π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = tan 6 = 3 ⎠ π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = sin 3 = 2 ⎠ 528 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ 17π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 86. π ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝ 4⎠ tan sin 89. cos 23π 7π 2 = cos = 4 4 2 82. cot 13π π 3 = cot = 3 3 3 81. . Inc. θ= π ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 − −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ . lies in quadrant IV. 6 3 ⎝ ⎠ 77. − π 87.

f ( x2 ) ) 2 3 3 − 2 2 3 3 =− 2 =− 93. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ 11π ⎞ = h⎜ f ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ sin ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ( h D f ) ⎛⎜ 3π ⎛ 8π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − + cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ = ( −1) 3 + ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2⎞ = 2⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) = 2 3 2 97. 17π ⎝ 3 ( h D g ) ⎛⎜ 96.PreCalculus 4E 91. Section 4. Inc. 92. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . 94. . f ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . m= f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ − sin ⎜ 4 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 3π 5π − 2 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ 4π π ⎞ ⎛ 4π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ f⎜ + ⎟+ f ⎜ +f⎜ ⎟ ⎟ 6⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝6⎠ 4 π π 4 π π ⎛ ⎞ = sin ⎜ + ⎟ + sin + sin 6⎠ 3 6 ⎝ 3 3π 4π π = sin + sin + sin 2 3 6 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠ =− ⎞⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ cos ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎛1⎞ = 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ =1 sin =− 3− ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎟ = h⎜ g ⎜ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ π 4 2 −1 + 2 = 3 +1 2 π 4 ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎛ 5π π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ + ⎟+ g⎜ g⎜ ⎟+ g⎜ 6 ⎟ 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π π ⎛ 5π π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + ⎟ + cos + cos 6 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ π 5π = cos π + cos + cos 6 6 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 3 3⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = −1 = ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2 2 −4 π 529 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 3π ⎛ 15π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − − cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1)(1) − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 1 = −1 − 2 2 1 =− − 2 2 3 =− 2 sin 95.

Sample explanation: Sine is defined for all values of the angle. 101. QII QIII sin θ = θ= θ = 2π − 102. 530 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 110. g ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . tan θ = − 3 when the reference angle is 3π = 4 θ= π 3 2π = 3 2π 4π θ= . 4 θ =π − 4 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is in 3 2 quadrants I or IV. ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ θ =π − 2 π when the reference angle is and θ is 4 2 in quadrants I or II. QII π π 3π 4 4 103. 3 3 π 4 = π 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is 3 2 in quadrants II or III. Explanations will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. does not make sense. π 3 4π = 3 π 3 and θ is QIV θ = 2π − π 3 5π = 3 3 π when the reference angle is and 6 3 θ is in quadrants II or IV. sin θ = − g ( x2 ) − g ( x1 ) x2 − x1 QIII ⎛ 3π ⎞ cos (π ) − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ = 3π π− 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = θ =π + 99. QI QII θ =π − . g ( x2 ) ) m= 2 π when the reference angle is and 4 2 θ is in quadrants III or IV. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . cos θ = − 2 2 −4 π 4 5π 4 5π 7π θ= . tan θ = − π QII 3 5π 3 θ =π − QIV π 6 5π = 6 5π 11π θ= . QI QIV π θ = 2π − 3 = θ= . 3 3 100.Trigonometric Functions 98. 6 6 π 5π 3 π 3 2π = 3 2π 5π θ= . – 109. 104. cos θ = θ= 7π 4 θ =π + in quadrants II or IV. 4 4 4 = π = π ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ QIV 3 θ = 2π − π 6 11π = 6 105. . Inc. Answers may vary.

5π is in quadrant III. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 4 sin ⎜ 2 x − 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x = radians =− 0 8 18 180° −105° = −105° ⋅ 1 114. c. 113. Sample explanation: Sine and cosecant have the same sign within any quadrant because they are reciprocals of each other. Explanations will vary. Inc. y = 3sin x 0 y 0 7π 12 4 π 2 5π 6 0 10π radians 180 π radians 180° =− 105π radians 180 7π radians 12 π π 3.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 111. makes sense π − 4 1 2 y π 0 1 − 2 y π 3 0 116. . Since a. 2. − 5. 0 2π ⎞ ⎛ 115. 10° = 10° ⋅ = 112. y = cos(4 x + π ) 2 x − π π radians 13π 12 −4 4π 3 0 13π 13π radians 180o radians = − ⋅ π radians 20 20 o = −117 11π 11π 6π 5π − 2π = − = 3 3 3 3 b. the reference angle 4 5π 5π 4π π −π = − = is 4 4 4 4 Since 531 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 1. 5π is in quadrant IV. does not make sense. x 1 5 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 7 3 3 0 − 2 2 11 4 3 3 −3 − 0 2 3 6. does not make sense. 8 4 1 2 5π 5π radians 180o radians = ⋅ = 75o 12 12 π radians 4. Sample explanation: It is also possible that y = −3 and x = −5. Explanations will vary. a. the reference angle 3 5π 6π 5π π is 2π − = − = 3 3 3 3 c. − 19π 19π 24π 5π + 6π = − + = 4 4 4 4 b.

52 + b 2 = 62 25 + b 2 = 36 b 2 = 11 c. and r.Trigonometric Functions 7. sin θ = −2 2 13 y = =− 13 r 13 3 3 13 x = = 13 r 13 2 y −2 tan θ = = =− 3 3 x 13 13 r =− csc θ = = −2 2 y cos θ = 13 r = 3 x 3 3 x =− cot θ = = 2 y −2 sec θ = 532 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and r. Inc. the reference angle is 180° − 150° = 30° cos θ = r = x2 + y2 2 adjacent 11 = hypotenuse 6 opposite 5 11 = adjacent 11 hypotenuse 6 = csc θ = opposite 5 tan θ = 2 9 16 25 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 4⎞ r = ⎜− ⎟ +⎜− ⎟ = + = =1 5 5 25 25 25 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Now that we know x. 510° − 360° = 150° 9. y. Use the Pythagorean theorem to find b. 8. b = 11 opposite 5 = sin θ = hypotenuse 6 Since 150° is in quadrant II. a 2 + b2 = c2 b. . sec θ = hypotenuse 6 6 11 = = adjacent 11 11 cot θ = adjacent 11 = opposite 5 r = x2 + y2 r = 32 + (−2) 2 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 − y 4 sin θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 3 − x 3 cos θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 4 − y 4 tan θ = = 5 = 3 3 x − 5 r 1 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 5 r 1 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 5 3 − x 3 cot θ = = 5 = 4 y − 4 5 10. y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ .

4 y 13. sin θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− r 7 7 tan θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− x 3 3 r 7 7 10 = =− y −2 10 20 r 7 sec θ = = x 3 x 3 3 10 cot θ = = =− y −2 10 20 csc θ = 16. x = 1. x is positive and y is negative. 7 r Since θ is acute. In quadrant IV. x is negative and y is positive. Since cos θ = side adjacent θ hypotenuse 250 cos 72° = c 250 c= cos 72° c ≈ 809 m cos θ = 15. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 6 r x2 + y2 = r 2 12 + y 2 = 62 1 + y 2 = 36 y 2 = 35 y = ± 35 3 x = . Inc.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 11. θ is in quadrant II. and r. y = + 35 = 35 y 35 ⎛π ⎞ = 35 cot ⎜ − θ ⎟ = tan θ = = x 1 ⎝2 ⎠ x2 + y2 = r 2 32 + y 2 = 72 9 + y 2 = 49 y 2 = 40 y = ± 40 = ±2 10 Because the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. r = 7 . y = 3 . cos 240° = − cos 60° = − 19. side opposite θ side adjacent θ a tan 41° = 60 a = 60 tan 41° tan θ = r 2 = x2 + y2 r = (−3) + 4 2 2 a ≈ 52 cm 2 14. 3 x tan θ = − = . r = 6 . In quadrant II. r 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 r =5 Now that we know x. θ is in quadrant IV. Furthermore. and r to find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Furthermore. tan 30° = 3 3 17. y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 =− cos θ = = 5 5 r r 5 csc θ = = y 3 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 4 x −3 4 =− cot θ = = y 4 3 12. x = −4. y. cot120° = 1 1 1 3 = = =− tan120° − tan 60° − 3 3 18. sin 2 11π = 6 π 7 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 = = = = 11π π 3 3 3 cos cos 6 6 2 + cos 2 π 7 =1 533 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. Since cos θ = 1 x = . Furthermore. . y. sec 20. Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 3. Therefore y = −2 10 Use x.

7π ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎛ 17π ⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 6 + 4π ⎟ = tan 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 2 π 2 π 6 = 2π radians 1 revolution = 16π radians per minute ν = rω = (10)(16π ) = 160π ≈ 502. 2 2 29. ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 3 + 2π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4π π = sin = − sin 3 3 27. ⎛ 22π csc ⎜ ⎝ 3 23. It is given that r = 10 feet and the merry-go-round rotates at 8 revolutions per minute. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − cos π = (1) − (−1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ + 2π n ⎟ + tan ⎜ + nπ ⎟ cos ⎜ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π 5π π π = cos + tan = − cos − tan 6 6 6 6 3 3 3 3 2 3 =− − =− − 2 3 6 6 5 3 =− 6 side opposite θ hypotenuse h sin 6° = 5280 h = 5280sin 6° h ≈ 551. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . 25. 8 revolutions per minute 4π ⎞ ⎛ 22π ⎞ ⎟ = csc ⎜ 3 − 6π ⎟ = csc 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1 = = = 4π π 3 − sin sin − 3 3 2 =− π 3 3 30. π radians π 36° = 36° ⋅ = radians 180° 5 s = rθ = 40 ⋅ 3 =− 2 22. .Trigonometric Functions 21. Begin by converting from degrees to radians.7 feet per minute. Inc. cos 495° = cos ( 495° − 360° ) = cos135° = tan = 8π ≈ 25. 26.7 feet per minute T he linear speed of the horse is about 502.9 feet sin θ = side opposite θ side adjacent θ 50 tan θ = 60 ⎛ 50 ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 60 ⎠ θ ≈ 40° tan θ = 534 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Convert 8 revolutions per minute to radians per minute.13 cm = 8 revolutions per minute ⋅ 2 3 3 = − cos 45° = − 5 28. 2 3 =− 24.

5 Section 4. Thus. The five x-values are x=0 π 1 y = − sin 0 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 coordinates (0. 1 y = − sin x 2 535 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The period for both y = − sin x 2 2 2 and y = sin x is 2π . then by adding quarter-periods to 4 4 2 generate x-values for each of the key points. 0) 1 π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − ⋅1 = − 2 2 π π 1 y = − sin π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (π . by 4. 2 . 0) 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sinx. Thus.− 1 2 . We find the three x–intercepts. 0) 3π 2 3π y = 3 sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 3π . 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. then by 4 4 2 adding quarter. 2π . 2π] by dividing the period. the amplitude is 2 1 1 1 A = − = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. the maximum point. 2π. Inc. The five x-values are x=0 x = 0+ x= π 2 π + x =π + = 2 π 2 π 2 π x=0+ 2 =π = x= 3π 2 2 + x y = 3sin x 0 y = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π π 2 x (0. 2 π x=π+ x= y = 3sin 1 The equation y = − sin x is of the form y = Asin x 2 1 with A = − . 2 2 2π 1 y = − sin 2π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (2 π . 0) 3π 2 1 3π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − (−1) = 2 2 3π 1 . −3 2 2π y = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π .5 Check Point Exercises 1. the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 The period for both y = 3sin x and y = sinx is 2π. 0) 2 π 2 π 2 = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= coordinates = 3 ⋅1 = 3 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The equation y = 3sin x is of the form y = A sin x with A = 3.periods. period 2π π = = . 0) π 2 0 . 2. Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 2π π the period.3 π y = 3sin x = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . = = . by 4. and the minimum point on the interval [0.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.

0 ) = 2 sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3. 4 4 adding quarter-periods. 4π . π . 3π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅3π 2 (3π .Trigonometric Functions Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . . x 0 y = 2sin y = 2 sin 1 x 2 4. then by the period. The five x-values are x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. then by adding the period. Extend the pattern of each graph to the left and right as desired. π (0. and C = = 2 sin 0 π The equation y = 3 sin 2 x − (2 π . 2π 2π The period is = =π. Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the right. 0) = 2 sin 2π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 (π . 0) = 2 sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 536 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. B 2 coordinates 1 ⋅0 2 π y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3. 2 The amplitude is A = 2 = 2 . 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle = 2 ⋅0 = 0 y = 2 sin 3 amplitude is A = 3 = 3 . The C 3 π 1 π = = ⋅ = . x = π 6 . by 4. Inc. The period is B The equation y = 2sin Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. − 2 ) 3π 2 = 2 ⋅ (−1) = −2 = 2 sin 4π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . = 2 ⋅1 = 2 1 ⋅2π 2 is of the form π 3 . 1 x is of the form 2 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . B = 2. 2 Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 4π = = π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2) begins. The phase shift is B 2 3 2 6 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π = . by 4. 2π 2π = 1 = 4π .

= = . Inc. x= π x π 6 y = 3sin 2x − y = 3sin 2 ⋅ π 6 π coordinates 3 − 5. π π 3 6 . then by adding 4 4 2 quarter periods to the value of x where the cycle begins. Thus. 4) . and B = π . the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 .0 3 11π 12 ⎛ 11π π ⎞ − ⎟ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 9π 3π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ( −1) = −3 11π .0 2 =0 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 1) = −4 cos π = 4 537 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (1.0 = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 5π 12 ⎛ 5π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 3π π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 5π .3 12 2π 3 ⎛ 2π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ 3 3⎠ ⎝ 3π = 3sin = 3sin π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 2π . x=0+ x y = −4 cos πx 0 y = −4 cos (π ⋅ 0 ) coordinates (0. The five x-values are x= π 6 π 2π 3π 5π + = + = 6 4 12 12 12 5π π 5π 3π 8π 2π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 3 2π π 8π 3π 11π x= + = + = 3 4 12 12 12 11π π 11π 3π 14 π 7π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 6 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The period is B π Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period 2 1 the period. –4) = −4 cos 0 = −4 1 2 7π . by 4. The five x-values are x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.5 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2π 2π = = 2. −3 12 7π 6 y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ 7π π − 6 3 The equation y = −4 cos π x is of the form y = Acos Bx with A = −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0 6 ⎛ 1⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ = −4 cos 6π = 3 sin 2π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 = 3 sin π 2 1 . 2.

2 3 3 Thus. π . 2 The five x-values are x=− − 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 y= y= coordinates π 4 =0 π 4 π 4 4 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Inc. = . 2 2 2π 2π The period is = =π. 538 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the left. − π 4 y= 3 cos(−π + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 y= y= = 0 π 4 6. by 4. the amplitude is A = = .0 3 π 3 cos(π + π ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. B 2 π C −π The phase shift is = =− . B = 2 . 2 π 4 2 . 2 2 2 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph. 3 3 cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π )) 2 2 The equation is of the form y = Acos(Bx − C) with 3 A = .Trigonometric Functions ⎛ 3⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 3π = −4 cos =0 2 3 2 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 2) 2 3 . then by adding 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle y= begins.0 0. 2 B 2 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π the period. and C = −π .0 2 x − π 2 (2. π π π − π 3 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 . − π 4 3 2 . x = − 3 cos(2 x + π ) 2 π 3 cos − + π 2 2 3 cos(0 + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅ −1 = − 2 2 = π 3 cos + π 2 2 x=− y= π x=− 2 2 π 4 x=0+ x= π + + + π 4 π π 4 π 4 = = =− . –4) = −4 cos 2π = −4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.

Thus. π 2π A = 4 . 12 = B 12B = 2π 3π . 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 π 2 y = 2 cos π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 π y = 2 cos π + 1 3π 2 y = 2 cos 2π A.1 (π . Thus. we obtain one period of the graph. −1) = 2 ⋅(−1) + 1 = −1 3π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 y = 2 cos2π + 1 Because the hours of daylight ranges from a minimum of 10 hours to a maximum of 14 hours. 2 =π = 9. 2 B π 2π = 2 B πB = 4 π π 2 2π π = 12 6 The graph shows that the starting point of the cycle is C shifted from 0 to 3. The graph is modeled by y = 4 sin 4 x .1 2 6 π =C 2 Substitute these values into y = Asin(Bx − C) + D . The period for both functions is 2π . The phase shift. y = 2sin π 6 x− π 2 + 12 .5 The graph of y = 2 cosx + 1 is the graph of y = 2 cosx shifted one unit upwards.PreCalculus 4E 7. Inc. A = 2. The number of hours of daylight is modeled by (2 π . Thus. 12 hours. or 12 2π months. 3π 2 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Thus. B C 3= B C 3= π B= . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. . Thus. is the maximum value of y. 539 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Add quarter4 2 periods to generate x-values for the key points. x y = 2 cosx + 1 coordinates 0 y = 2 cos0 + 1 (0. The maximum number of hours is 2 hours above 12 hours. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 8. the curve oscillates about the middle value. and period = . the amplitude. The graph shows that this maximum value is 4. is 3. D = 12. The quarter-period is 2π π or . The period is 12. π B=4 Substitute these values into y = A sin Bx . The period is . 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 By connecting the points with a smooth curve. The cycle begins at x = 0. . Section 4.

The equation y = 4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 4. −5 2 (2 π . Inc. 2π π or . π The equation y = 5 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 5. 0) π 2 . The quarter-period is or . the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. 3π 2 x 2 π x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.4 π y = 5sin π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . 0) 3π 2 y = 5sin 2π y = 5sin 2π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 π y = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = 4 sin 3π .Trigonometric Functions 2. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = x=0+ π x= 2 =π = y = 4 sin x 0 y = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin 2 + π 2 = 4 ⋅1 = 4 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = 5sin x coordinates 0 y = 5sin 0 = 5⋅ 0 = 0 (0. 0) π π 2 y = 5sin π 2 coordinates = 5 ⋅1 = 5 .5 1. −4 2 2π y = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 2π π The period is 2π . 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Thus. x=0 3π = 5(−1) = −5 2 (0. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . 0) 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Exercise Set 4.5 (π . The period is 2π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . . 540 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . 0) 3π .

Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Section 4.− 2 4 2π y= 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (2 π . 0) 2 . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Thus. with A = . 0) coordinates (0. (2 π . 0) y= 1 sin x 3 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 y= π y= 3π 2 y= 1 3π sin 2 3 1 1 = (−1) = − 3 3 y= + 2 = coordinates x 2π 2 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. the amplitude is A = 3 3 3 2π π or . x=0 The equation y = 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 . with A = . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the amplitude is A = 4 4 4 2π π or . 2 π x=π+ x= π 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 4 1 1 1 = . The period is 2π . x=0 The equation y = x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π 2 = 4. Inc. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0.− 2 3 3π 2 y= 1 3π 1 1 sin = (−1) = − 2 4 4 4 1 3π . 0) 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 3 3 3 π 1 π 2 3 y= 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 4 4 4 π 1 2 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 (π . π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 π 2 π 2 π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= x y= 1 sin x 4 (0. 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The period is 2π . Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . . 541 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus.5 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 3 1 1 1 = . 0) 1 3π . 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . 0) π y= 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (π .PreCalculus 4E 3.

0) 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = −4 sin x 0 y = −4 sin 0 = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 2 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 542 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . Inc. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. −4 (π . the amplitude is A = −3 = 3. The equation y = −3sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –3.Trigonometric Functions 5. 0) 3π .4 2 (2 π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x=0 . . coordinates π + x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) y = −4 sin π 2 coordinates = −4 ⋅1 = −4 π y = −4 sin π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −4 sin 2π y = −4 sin 2π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = −4(−1) = 4 2 (0. Thus. Thus. π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 x y = −3sin x 0 y = −3 sin x = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 y = −3 sin π 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 π y = −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −3sin 2π y = −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 = −3(−1) = 3 π 2 (0. 2π π or . π The equation y = −4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –4. The period is 2π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The period is 2π .3 2 (2 π . 3π . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) π 2 . −3 (π . the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . 2π π or . x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 6.

−1 4 π 3π = sin = −1 2 π ⋅ coordinates π 3π y = sin 2 ⋅ 4 π 1 π = sin π = 0 3π 4 = π =1 y = sin 2 ⋅ 2 . the amplitude is 2π 2π π = = . .1 .0 y = sin 4 ⋅ 4 y = sin 4 ⋅ 3π 8 y = sin 4 ⋅ = sin 3π .0 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. −1 8 3π = −1 2 y = sin 2π = 0 2 (π . 0) π (0. x y = sin 2x 0 y = sin 2 ⋅ 0 = sin 0 = 0 π 4 y = sin 2 ⋅ = sin π 2 π 2 π 4 π π 8 + π 8 π 8 = = π 8 π x y = sin 4x (0. The A = 1 = 1. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Section 4. x=0 quarter-period is 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Thus. The B 2 quarter-period is π 8. Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The cycle begins at 4 2 4 8 x = 0. . Inc.1 8 π π 2 2 y = sin(2 ⋅ π ) = sin 2π = 0 = 4 3π x= + = 4 8 8 3π π π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Add x= π 4 + π x=0+ 4 π 4 = π x= 2 π π 3π x= + = 2 4 4 3π π x= + =π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The period is = = π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The cycle begins at x = 0.PreCalculus 4E 7. x=0 x=0+ The equation y = sin 4x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 4. 0) 0 y = sin(4 ⋅ 0) = sin 0 = 0 π 4 π .0 3π .5 The equation y = sin 2x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 2. 0) π 2 . π . 543 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 1 = 1. The period is B 4 2 coordinates π 8 π 4 = sin 2 =1 = sin π = 0 3π 8 π 8 π 4 .

3) = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π y = 2sin (0. Inc.Trigonometric Functions 9. 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. 0) (3π . The cycle begins at x = 0. The equation y = 3sin 1 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 2 1 x is of the form 4 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . Add quarter4 periods to generate x-values for the key points. . 0) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. 2) = 2 ⋅1 = 2 4π y = 2sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 6π y = 2sin 8π y = 2sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = 2(−1) = −2 2 (4π . 0) (6π . The cycle begins at x = 0. 544 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The equation y = 2sin 1 . coordinates 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 0 2 y = 3sin = 3sin 2π 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 2π y = 2sin = 3 ⋅1 = 3 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 2π 2 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 3π 2 y = 3sin y = 2sin 1 x 4 1 ⋅0 4 coordinates (0. the 4 amplitude is A = 2 = 2. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) = 2sin 0 = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 = 2sin (2 π . The period is 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π . 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π x 1 ⋅ 2π 4 π 2 (2 π . − 2) (8π . Thus. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The quarterThe period is B with A = 3 and B = 2 4π period is = π . − 3) 3π = 3sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 4π 0 (π . The quarter-period is B 10. x 0 y = 3sin 1 x 2 4 8π = 2 π . x=0 x = 0 + 2π = 2π x = 2π + 2π = 4π x = 4π + 2 π = 6π x = 6π + 2 π = 8π Evaluate the function at each value of x.

4 2 = 3sin = 4(1) = 4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅1) = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin π ⋅ 3 2 1 2 (1. 0) 0 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 4 1 . The period is B 2π 1 quarter-period is .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. x=0 12.5 11.0 2 = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 . The cycle begins at x = 0. 1 1 = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. −3 4 3π = 3(−1) = −3 2 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅1) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (1. The equation y = −3 sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –3 and B = 2π . 0) 3 4 3 . x=0+ x=0+ x y = 4 sin πx 0 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 0) = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 2 y = 4 sin π ⋅ = 4 sin 1 3 2 π 2 1 2 coordinates x y = 3sin 2πx (0. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The amplitude 2π 2π = = 1. 13. Inc. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 4 = 4. x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) 3 4 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 2) = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 1 4 (0. 0) 1 . The cycle begins at x = 0. The amplitude 545 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The equation y = 4 sin πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 4 and B = π . The equation y = 3sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 3 and B = 2π . −4 2 = 4 sin 2 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ coordinates y = 3sin 2π ⋅ = 3sin 1 (2. The period is = = 2 . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The is A = 3 = 3. 4 2 Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.3 4 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ 1 2 1 . The B π 2 1 quarter-period is = . Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.

Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) = −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 0) 3 . Inc. x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 1 .2 2 3π = −2(−1) = 2 2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅2) = −2 sin 2π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2. The equation y = − sin 2 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 3 2 . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) 1 . 0) y = −2 sin π x 0 y = −2 sin(π ⋅ 0) = −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 1 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 2 1 . The equation y = −2 sin π x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . π 2 1 2 (0. y = −3 sin 2πx x coordinates quarter-period is 0 1 4 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = −3sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 = −3sin quarter-period is (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The amplitude 546 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The B 2π is A = −2 = 2 . with A = –1 and B = 14. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.3 4 coordinates y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin = −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 4 x 1 2 1 . The period is 2 1 = . 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. . 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1. x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x.Trigonometric Functions is A = −3 = 3. 15. −2 2 = −2 ⋅1 = −2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅1) = −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin 3 . −3 4 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 1 2 2π 2π = = 2 . The period is 2π 2π = = 1.0 2 3 2 3 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 2 3π = −3sin 2 = −3(−1) = 3 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅1) 1 (1. The B π 3 2 (1.

The quarter-period is = − sin 0 = 0 3π 4 4 x is of the form 3 4 y = Asin Bx with A = –1 and B = . The equation y = − sin x y = − sin 0 y = − sin 4 x 3 4 ⋅0 3 = coordinates (0.0 4 . Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) = − sin 0 = 0 (3π . B 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The cycle begins at x = 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.5 The period is 2π 2π 3 = 2 = 2π ⋅ = 3π . The period is B 4 2 16. x=0 3π 3π x=0+ = 4 4 3π 3π 3π x= + = 4 4 2 3π 3π 9π x= + = 2 4 4 9π 3π x= + = 3π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 3 3π . 0) 3π 8 = − sin 2π = 0 y = − sin = − sin 3π 4 y = − sin 4 3π ⋅ 3 8 π 2 3π .0 2 = − sin π = 0 9π 4 y = − sin 2 9π ⋅ 3 4 9π . 3 3π 2π 2π = 4 = 2π ⋅ = . x=0 3π 3π = x=0+ 8 8 3π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 4 3π 3π 9π x= + = 4 8 8 9π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Inc.1 4 3π = − sin 2 = −(−1) = 1 3π y = − sin 2 ⋅ 3π 3 3π 2 3π 1 3π ⋅ = . 0) 3π . 3π . −1 8 = −1 4 3π ⋅ 3 4 = − sin π = 0 547 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 2 4 8 The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The quarter-period is 2 x 3 x y = − sin 0 2 y = − sin ⋅ 0 3 coordinates 3 y = − sin = − sin 3π 2 y = − sin 2 3π ⋅ 3 4 π 2 (0. −1 4 = −1 2 3π ⋅ 3 2 3π .

Trigonometric Functions

9π

8

y = − sin

4 9π

⋅

3 8

9π

,1

8

3π

= − sin

= −(−1) = 1

2

3π

2

4 3π

y = − sin ⋅

3 2

3π

,0

2

x

y = sin(x − π )

coordinates

π

y = sin(π − π )

(π , 0)

3π

2

y = sin

= sin 0 = 0

= sin

= − sin 2π = 0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

−π

2

π

2

3π

,1

2

=1

2π

y = sin(2 π − π )

5π

2

y = sin

(2 π , 0)

= sin π = 0

= sin

5π

−π

2

5π

, −1

2

3π

= −1

2

y = sin(3π − π )

(3π , 0 )

= sin 2π = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

**17. The equation y = sin(x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is

C π

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

= = π . The

B

1

B 1

2π π

= . The cycle begins at x = π .

quarter-period is

4

2

Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=π

18. The equation y = sin x −

π

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

5π π

x=

+ = 3π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

2

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C =

π

2

. The

**amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
**

π

2π 2π

C 2 π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

= = . The

B

1

B 1 2

2π π

= . The cycle begins at

quarter-period is

4

2

x=

π

**. Add quarter-periods to generate
**

2

x-values for the key points.

548

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x=

x=

Section 4.5

19. The equation y = sin(2 x − π ) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is

2π 2π

C π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The quarterB

2

B 2

π

2

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

x

π

π

y = sin x −

π

2

y = sin

π

y = sin π −

3π

2

y = sin

2

π

−

x=

x=

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

2

= sin

3π π

−

2

2

π

2

=1

π

2

,0

(π , 1)

y = sin 2π −

3π

,0

2

y = sin

2

π

+

x

π

2

π

2

(2 π , −1)

5π π

−

2

2

π

=

3π

4

y = sin(2 x − π )

y = sin 2 ⋅

π

2

−π

coordinates

π

2

,0

= sin(π − π )

= sin 0 = 0

3π

= −1

= sin

2

5π

2

π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= sin π = 0

2π

π

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4

4

2

coordinates

2

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
**

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is

3π

4

5π

,0

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

= sin 2π = 0

= sin

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

3π

−π

4

3π

,1

4

3π

−π

2

π

2

=1

y = sin(2 ⋅ π − π )

= sin(2 π − π )

= sin π = 0

549

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(π , 0)

Trigonometric Functions

5π

4

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

= sin

3π

2

5π

−π

4

5π

, −1

4

x

5π

−π

2

π

4

3π

= −1

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

3π

−π

2

3π

,0

2

π

= sin(3π − π )

= sin 2π = 0

2

π

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

3π

4

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

coordinates

2

π

−

4

π

π

2

4

π

−

2

,0

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

= sin π −

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

y = sin 2x −

−

π

π

π

2

2

= sin

2

3π π

−

4 2

π

2

,1

=1

3π

,0

4

3π π

−

2

2

= sin π = 0

20. The equation y = sin 2x −

π

2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C =

π

2

= sin 2π −

. The

= sin

amplitude is A = 1 = 1.

2π 2π

=

=π.

The period is

B

2

5π

4

π

The phase shift is

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = .

B 2 2 2 4

The quarter-period is

π

4

The cycle begins at x =

x=

2

π

2

5π π

−

4 2

5π π

−

2

2

4

4

+

π

=

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

4

5π

,0

4

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

π

(π , −1)

= sin 2π = 0

. Add quarter-periods to

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

π

3π

= −1

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

.

π

y = sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

550

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**21. The equation y = 3sin(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is

2π 2π

C π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The quarterB

2

B 2

π

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
**

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is

x=

x=

π

2

π

+

π

=

3π

4

22. The equation y = 3 sin 2 x −

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4

4

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

π

2

y = 3sin(2x − π )

y = 3sin 2 ⋅

π

2

−π

y = 3sin 2 ⋅

3π

−π

4

,0

π

5π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= 3 sin

5π

−π

4

π

4

**The cycle begins at x =
**

x=

3π

,3

4

x=

π

4

+

π

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

(π , 0)

4

=

π

5π

, −3

4

3π

2

= 3(−1) = −3

3π

−π

2

π

4

5π

−π

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

.

π

= 3 sin

3π

2

.

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

π

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

y = 3sin(2 ⋅ π − π )

= 3sin(2 π − π )

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

3π

−π

= 3sin

2

= 3sin

π

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = .

The phase shift is

B 2 2 2 4

= 3sin(π − π )

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

3π

4

is of the form

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .

2π 2π

=

=π.

The period is

B

2

The quarter-period is

2

2

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C =

coordinates

π

π

3π

,0

2

= 3 sin(3π − π )

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

551

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

y = 3 sin 2 x −

π

π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= sin

π

2

−

4

π

23.

coordinates

2

−

π

π

2

4

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

,0

= 3 sin π −

= 3 sin

3π

4

π

2

−

π

π

2

2

,3

π

2

**. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
**

2

the key points.

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π π

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

−

4 2

= 3 sin 2π −

= 3 sin

5π

4

2

π

2

x=0+

x=

(π , − 3)

π

2

+

+

π

2

π

2

2

x

5π

,0

4

−

π

2

5π π

−

2

2

π

π

2

=

=0

π

2

=π

3π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=π+

π

5π π

−

4 2

2

x=−

3π

= 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= 3 sin

π

π

x=−

3π

,0

4

= 3 sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

x=−

3π π

= 3 sin

−

2

2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A =

2

2

1

π

sin x − −

2

2

1

π

, B = 1, and C = − .

2

2

1

1

The amplitude is A =

= . The period is

2

2

π

2π 2π

C −2

π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

=

=− .

B

B

1

1

2

2π π

The quarter-period is

= . The cycle begins at

4

2

π

π

1

π

π

1

sin x +

= sin x − −

2

2

2

2

The equation y =

= 3 sin 0 = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y=

=

y=

π

1

sin x +

2

2

y=

1

π π

sin − +

2

2 2

=

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

0

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=

=

π

2

y=

=

coordinates

−

π

2

,0

1

1

sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

1

π

sin 0 +

2

2

0,

1

2

1

1

π 1

sin = ⋅1 =

2

2

2 2

1

π π

sin

+

2

2 2

1

1

sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

552

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π

2

,0

PreCalculus 4E

π

Section 4.5

y=

1

π

sin π +

2

2

π, −

1

2

1

3π

sin

2

2

1

1

= ⋅(−1) = −

2

2

=

3π

2

y=

1

3π π

sin

+

2

2

2

3π

,0

2

x

y=

−π

y=

−

1

sin 2π

2

1

= ⋅0 = 0

2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

2

=

1

sin(− π + π )

2

1

1

= sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

=

0

π

2

24.

1

1

sin(x + π ) = sin( x − (− π ))

2

2

1

The equation y = sin(x − (−π )) is of the form

2

1

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = , B = 1, and C = −π .

2

1

1

The amplitude is A =

= . The period is

2

2

2π 2π

C −π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

=

= −π .

B

B

1

1

2π π

The quarter-period is

= . The cycle begins at

4

2

x = −π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

the key points.

x = −π

y=

x = −π +

x=−

π

2

x=0+

π

π

2

+

π

2

π

2

=

=−

1

π

sin − + π

2

2

1

sin(0 + π )

2

1

1

= sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

1

π

sin

+π

2

2

(−π , 0 )

−

π 1

2

,

2

(0, 0)

π

2

,−

1

2

1

3π 1

1

sin

= ⋅ (−1) = −

2

2

2

2

1

sin(π + π )

2

1

1

= sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

(π , 0)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

2

=0

π

2

π

+ =π

2 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

coordinates

1

1

π 1

sin = ⋅1 =

2

2

2 2

y=

=

π

1

sin(x + π )

2

553

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

25.

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

2

= −2 sin 2 x − −

The equation y = −2 sin 2x − −

π

2

π

x

2

−

is of the form

π

4

π

2

= −2 sin −

. The amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is

π

0

x=−

x=−

4

x=0+

x=

π

4

+

+

π

4

π

π

=

=

4

=0

π

−

π

4

,0

2

π

2

(0, –2)

π

2

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

= −2 sin

4

π

2

π

4

+

π

π

2

4

π

π

2

2

,0

π

+

2

= −2 sin π

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

π

4

4

2

2

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

4

π

π

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −2 sin

π

π

+

4

+

2

= −2 sin 0 +

π

**. The cycle begins at x = − . Add
**

4

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

period is

π

= −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π 2π

=

= π . The

B

2

π 1

π

C −2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarterphase shift is

B

2

2 2

4

π

π

coordinates

2

y = −2 sin 2⋅ −

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2,

B = 2, and C = −

π

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

π

2

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

π

2

= −2 sin π +

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

+

,2

π

2

3π

2

= −2(−1) = 2

= −2 sin

3π

4

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

= −2 sin

3π π

+

4 2

3π

,0

4

3π π

+

2 2

= −2 sin 2π

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

554

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

26.

Section 4.5

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

= −3sin 2x − −

The equation y = −3sin 2x − −

π

2

π

π

2

4

= −3sin

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2, and C = −

π

2

π

2

−

π

C

π 1

π

2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is .

2

2 2

4

4

B

π

4

π

4

+

+

π

4

π

4

π

4

=

=

=0

π

4

x

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

,0

+

π

π

2

2

,3

π

2

3π

,0

4

3π π

+

2

2

π

2

π

4

+

+

π

2

−

π

4

,0

π

2

= −3sin 0 = −3⋅ 0 = 0

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −3sin 0 +

= −3sin

4

3π π

+

4 2

coordinates

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ −

= −3sin −

0

2

2

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

4

π

π

+

π

π

π

π

= −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

−

+

3π

= −3⋅ (−1) = 3

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

4

x=0+

x=

3π

4

π

π

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

2

4

= −3sin π +

π

x=−

π

π

= −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

.

**The amplitude is A = −3 = 3. The period is
**

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

B

2

The cycle begins at x = −

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

π

2

π

2

(0, –3)

π

2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

555

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

27.

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

The equation y = 3sin(π x − (−2)) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = π , and C = –2.

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is

C −2

2

2π 2π

=

= 2 . The phase shift is

=

= − . The

B π

B

π

π

2 1

quarter-period is = . The cycle begins at

4 2

2

x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 4

3π − 4

y = 3sin π

+2

2π

2π

π

2π − 2

1 π −4

x=− + =

π 2

2π

π − 4 1 π −2

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

π − 2 1 3π − 4

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

3π − 4 1 2π − 2

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

2

−

2

π

y = 3sin π −

2

π

= 3sin

3π

−2 +2

2

3π

2

= 3(−1) = −3

π

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

3π − 4

+2

2

= 3sin

**the key points.
**

2

x=−

x

= 3sin

π

y = 3sin π

2π − 2

π

−

= 3sin

= 3sin

= 3sin

π −4

2

π

2

2

π

,0

π−4

,3

2π

+2

−2 + 2

π

2

= 3⋅1 = 3

π −2

π −2

π y = 3sin π π + 2

2π − 2

π

,0

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

= 3sin(−2 + 2)

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

π −4

π −4

2π y = 3sin π 2π + 2

+2

= 3sin(2 π − 2 + 2)

= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

coordinates

+2

5π

, −3

4

π −2

,0

π

= 3sin(π − 2 + 2)

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

556

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

28.

Section 4.5

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4) = 3sin(2π x − (−4))

The equation y = 3sin(2 πx − (−4)) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2π , and

C = –4. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period

C −4

2

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

=

=− .

is

B 2π

B 2π

π

1

The quarter-period is . The cycle begins at

4

2

x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 8

3π − 8

y = 3sin 2π

+4

4π

4π

**the key points.
**

2

x=−

π − 2 y = 3sin 2π π − 2 + 4

π

π

= 3sin(2 π − 4 + 4)

= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

π

1 π −8

=

4

4π

π −8 1 π − 4

x=

+ =

4

4π

2π

π − 4 1 3π − 8

x=

+ =

4

2π

4π

3π − 8 1 π − 2

x=

+ =

π

4

4π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=−

2

π

x

−

2

π

+

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4)

y = 3sin 2π −

2

π

= 3sin

= 3sin

2

π

2

π

2

= 3sin

3π

− 4+4

2

= 3sin

3π

= 3(−1) = −3

2

π −2

,0

π

coordinates

+4

π −8

π −8

+4

y = 3sin 2π

4π

4π

π −8

3π − 8

+4

2

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

−

2

π

,0

29.

= 3sin(−4 + 4)

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

= 3sin

= 3sin

3π − 8

, −3

4π

π −8

,3

4π

+4

−4 + 4

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

π −4

π−4

2π y = 3sin 2π 2 π + 4

π−4

,0

2π

= 3sin(π − 4 + 4)

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

**y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π ) = −2sin(2π x − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = −2 sin(2π x − (−4π )) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2, B = 2π , and

C = −4 π . The amplitude is A = −2 = 2 . The

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

1

C −4 π

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

2π

4

B

begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

7

1

x = −2 + = −

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

557

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π )

coordinates

–2 y = −2 sin(2π (−2) + 4 π )

= −2 sin(−4π + 4π )

= −2 sin 0

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

(–2, 0)

x

−

7

7

4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

−

π

2

7

, −2

4

7π

+ 4π

2

= −2 sin −

= −2 sin

−

30.

1

7

=−

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x = −2 +

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

3

3

2 y = −2 sin 2π − 2 + 4 π

3

− ,0

2

= −2 sin(−3π + 4π )

= −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

−

5

5

4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

= −2 sin −

**y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π ) = −3 sin(2π x − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = −3 sin(2 πx − (−4 π )) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2π , and

C = −4π . The amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The

2π 2π

=

= 1 . The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

C −4π

1

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

−

5

,2

4

5π

+ 4π

2

x

y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π )

–2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−2) + 4π )

(–2, 0)

= −3 sin( −4 π + 4π )

= −3 sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

3π

2

= −2 (−1) = 2

= −2 sin

−

–1 y = −2 sin(2π (−1) + 4 π )

= −2 sin(−2π + 4π )

coordinates

7

7

4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

(–1, 0)

= −3 sin −

= −2 sin 2π

= −3 sin

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

−

π

2

−

7

, −3

4

7π

+ 4π

2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

3

3

2 y = −3 sin 2π − 2 + 4π

3

− ,0

2

= −3 sin( −3π + 4π )

= −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

−

5

5

4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

= −3 sin −

= −3 sin

–1

−

5

,3

4

5π

+ 4π

2

3π

= −3(−1) = 3

2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−1) + 4π )

= −3 sin( −2 π + 4π )

= −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

558

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(–1, 0)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

the graph of y = 2 cosx .

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

**32. The equation y = 3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = 3. Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

**31. The equation y = 2 cosx is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = 2. Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

π

2

π

2

=

x=0+

π

x=

2

y = 2 cosx

2

π

y = 2 cos

π

2

= 2⋅0 = 0

y = 2 cos π

2

,0

(π , − 2)

= 2 ⋅(−1) = −2

3π

2

y = 2 cos

3π

2

= 2⋅0 = 0

3π

,0

2

2π

y = 2 cos2π

(2 π , 2 )

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

y = 3 cos x

0

y = 3 cos 0 = 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

(0, 2)

π

2

2

x

π

coordinates

y = 2 cos0

π

π

x=

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

π

+

2

=

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

0

2

x=π+

=π

π

x

π

π

y = 3 cos

π

2

coordinates

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = 3 cos π = 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3

3π

2

y = 3 cos

2π

y = 3 cos2 π = 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

2

(0, 3)

π

2

,0

(π , − 3)

3π

,0

2

(2 π , 3)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
**

and graph one complete cycle of the given function

with the graph of y = cos x .

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

559

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

33. The equation y = −2 cos x is of the form y = Acos x

with A = –2. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is 2π . The quarterπ

2π

or . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

period is

4

2

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

π

=

2

π

2

**34. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = –3. Thus, the amplitude is A = −3 = 3 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

π

2

x=

=π

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

coordinates

0

y = −2 cos 0

(0, –2)

2

π

y = −2 cos

π

2

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = −2 cos π

y = −2 cos

2π

y = −2 cos 2π

3π

2

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

y = −3 cos x

0

y = −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

π

,0

(π , 2)

= −2 ⋅ (−1) = 2

3π

2

π

=

x

2

π

+

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

π

2

x=π+

π

y = −2 cos x

π

π

3π

,0

2

y = −3 cos

π

2

coordinates

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

3π

2

y = −3 cos

2π

y = −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

3π

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

(0, –3)

π

2

,0

(π , 3)

3π

,0

2

(2 π , − 3)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

the graph of y = cos x .

(2 π , − 2)

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

the graph of y = cos x .

560

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**35. The equation y = cos2 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
**

with A = 1 and B = 2. Thus, the amplitude is

2π 2π

A = 1 = 1. The period is

=

= π . The

B

2

quarter-period is

π

**36. The equation y = cos 4 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
**

with A = 1 and B = 4. Thus, the amplitude is

2π 2π π

A = 1 = 1. The period is

=

= . The

B

4

2

π

. The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

4

+

π

4

π

4

=

=

π

x=0+

4

π

x=

2

π π 3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y = cos2 x

0

y = cos(2 ⋅ 0)

4

y = cos 2 ⋅

= cos

π

2

π

2

π

8

(0, 1)

π

4

4

π

2

2

y = cos 2 ⋅

3π

4

y = cos(2 ⋅ π )

+

π

8

π

, −1

8

=

=

π

8

π

0

y = cos(4 ⋅ 0) = cos 0 = 1

8

,0

y = cos 4 ⋅

4

y = cos 4 ⋅

3π

8

y = cos 4 ⋅

= cos

3π

,0

4

π

3π

=0

= cos

2

π

π

y = cos 4 x

= cos π = −1

3π

4

=

x

π

π

⋅

π

π

=0

y = cos 2 ⋅

π 1

π

coordinates

π

=

4

3π

x= + =

4 8

8

3π π π

x=

+ =

8

8 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= cos 0 = 1

π

2

**. The cycle begins at
**

4 2 4 8

x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

the key points.

x=0

quarter-period is

2

coordinates

π

8

π

4

= cos

π

2

=0

= cos π = −1

3π

8

(0, 1)

π

8

π

4

,0

, −1

3π

,0

8

3π

=0

2

y = cos 4 ⋅

π

2

= cos2 π = 1

π

2

,1

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

(π , 1)

= cos2 π = 1

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

561

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

37. The equation y = 4 cos2 πx is of the form

y = Acos Bx with A = 4 and B = 2π . Thus, the

amplitude is A = 4 = 4 . The period is

2π 2π

1

=

= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

x

y = 4 cos2 πx

0

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

**38. The equation y = 5 cos2 πx is of the form
**

y = Acos Bx with A = 5 and B = 2π . Thus, the

amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . The period is

2π 2π

1

=

= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

coordinates

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, 4)

= 4 cos 0

= 4 ⋅1 = 4

1

4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

= 4 cos

1

4

1

,0

4

π

2

= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1

2

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

1

2

1

, −4

2

3

4

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

= 5 cos

3

,0

4

3π

2

= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1

2

= 4 cos

1

0

1

4

= 4 ⋅ (−1) = −4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

y = 5 cos2 πx

coordinates

(0, 5)

= 5 cos 0 = 5 ⋅1 = 5

= 4 cos π

3

4

x

π

2

1

4

1

,0

4

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

1

2

1

, −5

2

= 5 cos π = 5 ⋅ (−1) = −5

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅1)

(1, 4)

3

4

= 4 cos2 π

= 4 ⋅1 = 4

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

= 5 cos

1

3π

4

3

,0

4

3π

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅1)

= 5 cos2 π = 5 ⋅1 = 5

562

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(1, 5)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 3π

2

(3π , 0 )

3π

2

= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

= −4 cos

4π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 4π

2

(4π , – 4)

= −4 cos 2π

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

1

x is of the form

2

1

y = Acos Bx with A = –4 and B = . Thus, the

2

amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . The period is

2π 2π

= 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . The quarter-period is

B

39. The equation y = −4 cos

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

2

4π

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

1

40. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form

3

1

y = Acos Bx with A = –3 and B = . Thus, the

3

amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The period is

2π 2π

= 1 = 2π ⋅3 = 6π . The quarter-period is

B

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

0

y = −4 cos

y = −4 cos

1

x

2

1

⋅0

2

coordinates

3

6π 3π

=

. The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

(0, –4)

= −4 cos 0

3π 3π

=

2

2

3π 3π

x=

+

= 3π

2

2

3π 9π

x = 3π +

=

2

2

9π 3π

x=

+

= 6π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

π

y = −4 cos

= −4 cos

1

⋅π

2

x=0+

(π , 0)

π

2

= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 2π

2

(2 π , 4)

= −4 cos π

= −4 ⋅ (−1) = 4

563

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

1

y = −3 cos x

3

0

y = −3 cos

x=0

coordinates

1

⋅0

3

3 3

=

2 2

3 3

x = + =3

2 2

3 9

x= 3+ =

2 2

9 3

x = + =6

2 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, –3)

= −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

3π

2

y = −3 cos

= −3 cos

1 3π

⋅

3 2

π

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

1

y = −3 cos ⋅ 3π

3

3π

3π

,0

2

(3π , 3)

= −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

9π

2

y = −3 cos

= −3 cos

6π

y = −3 cos

1 9π

⋅

3 2

x

y=−

π

1

cos x

3

2

0

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅ 0

3

2

9π

,0

2

0, −

1

2

1

cos0

2

1

1

= − ⋅1 = −

2

2

=−

3π

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

1

⋅ 6π

3

coordinates

3

2

(6π , − 3)

y=−

π 3

1

cos ⋅

3 2

2

3

,0

2

π

1

cos

2

2

1

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

= −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

=−

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅3

3

2

3,

1

2

1

cos π

2

1

1

= − ⋅(−1) =

2

2

=−

9

2

π

1

cos x is of the form

3

2

π

1

y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the

3

2

1

1

= . The period is

amplitude is A = −

2

2

2π 2π

3

6 3

= π = 2π ⋅ = 6 . The quarter-period is = .

B

π

4 2

41. The equation y = −

y=−

1

π 9

cos ⋅

3 2

2

9

,0

2

3π

1

cos

2

2

1

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

=−

6

3

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅6

3

2

1

cos2π

2

1

1

= − ⋅1 = −

2

2

=−

**The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to
**

generate x-values for the key points.

564

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6, −

1

2

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=−

6

=−

y=−

8

1

π

cos ⋅6

4

2

(6, 0)

3π

1

1

cos

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

2

2

π

1

cos ⋅8

4

2

8, −

1

2

1

1

1

cos2π = − ⋅1 = −

2

2

2

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

=−

π

1

cos x is of the form

4

2

π

1

y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the

4

2

1

1

= . The period is

amplitude is A = −

2

2

2π 2π

4

8

= π = 2π ⋅ = 8 . The quarter-period is 4 = 2 .

B

π

42. The equation y = −

4

**The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
**

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

π⎞

⎛

43. The equation y = cos ⎜ x − ⎟ is of the form

2⎠

⎝

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

x = 0 +2 = 2

x= 2+ 2 = 4

π

x = 4 +2 = 6

C=

x = 6 +2 = 8

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

period is

x

y=−

1

π

cos x

2

4

0

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅ 0

4

2

=−

2

y=−

=−

4

=−

1

2

cycle begins at x =

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

2

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

(2, 0)

x=

π

1

1

cos = − ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

2

π

1

y = − cos ⋅ 4

4

2

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

B

1

2π π

C 2 π

=

= . The quarter-period is

= . The

4

2

B 1 2

1

1

1

cos0 = − ⋅1 = −

2

2

2

π

1

cos ⋅2

4

2

A = 1 = 1 . The

π

coordinates

0, −

. Thus, the amplitude is

2

π

2

π

2

+

x =π +

π

2

π

=π

=

3π

2

2

3π π

+ = 2π

x=

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1

4,

2

1

1

1

cos π = − ⋅ (−1) =

2

2

2

565

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

π

x

coordinates

π

2

⎛π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

x=−

π

(π , 0 )

x =0+

3π

2

⎛ 3π

⎞

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

⎝

⎠

2π

( 2π , 0 )

5π

2

⎛ 5π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

x=−

x=

2

period is

π

2

π

+

2

π

2

π

2

=

=0

π

2

=π

3π

=

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

. Thus, the amplitude is

π

x

coordinates

π

⎛ π ⎞

⎜ − 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

−

π⎞

⎛

44. The equation y = cos ⎜ x + ⎟ is of the form

2⎠

⎝

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

π

+

2

x =π +

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

C=−

2

π

2

0

( 0, 0 )

π

2

⎛π

⎞

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

⎝

⎠

π

(π , 0 )

3π

2

⎛ 3π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

A = 1 = 1 . The

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

B

1

π

−

2π π

C

π

= 2 = − . The quarter-period is

= . The

4

2

B

1

2

cycle begins at x = −

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

2

generate x-values for the key points.

566

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**45. The equation y = 3cos(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 3, and B = 2, and

**46. The equation y = 4 cos(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 4, and B = 2, and C = π .

Thus, the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. The period is

C π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The

B 2

B

2

**C = π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The
**

C π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= .

period is

B 2

B

2

The quarter-period is

π

. The cycle begins at x =

π

4

2

Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=

x=

π

x=

2

π

+

π

=

π

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add
**

4

2

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

quarter-period is

.

π

2

π 3π

+ =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4 4

2

3π

4

x=

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4 4

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

**Evaluate the function at each value of x.
**

x

coordinates

π

π

2

2

x

,3

coordinates

π

π

2

2

,4

3π

4

3π

,0

4

3π

4

3π

,0

4

π

(π , − 3)

π

(π , − 4)

5π

4

5π

,0

4

5π

4

5π

,0

4

3π

2

3π

,4

2

3π

2

3π

,3

2

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

567

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

47.

1

1

π

π

= cos 3x − −

cos 3x +

2

2

2

2

y=

The equation y =

1

π

cos 3x − −

2

2

is of the form

1

, and B = 3, and

2

1

1

π

= . The

C = − . Thus, the amplitude is A =

2

2

2

2π 2π

=

. The phase shift is

period is

B

3

π

π 1

π

C −2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is

3

2 3

6

B

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A =

π

1

1

cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π ))

2

2

1

The equation y = cos(2 x − (−π )) is of the form

2

1

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = , and B = 2, and

2

1

1

C = −π . Thus, the amplitude is A =

= . The

2

2

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

period is

B

2

C −π

π

π

=

= − . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2

2

4

6

begins at x = −

48.

2π

3

π

2π 1 π

=

⋅ = . The cycle begins at x = − . Add

4

3 4 6

6

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

x=−

π

6

π

6

x=0+

π

x=

6

π

x=

+

+

π

+

=0

6

π

=

6

π

6

π

=

=

−

π

6

3

π

x=−

0

x=−

π 1

,

6 2

π

6

6

,−

π

π

3

3

π

2

π

2

π

4

x=0+

(0, 0)

π

π

x=−

coordinates

−

π

**. Add quarter-periods to generate x2
**

values for the key points.

π

3 6 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y=

x=

π

+

+

π

4

π

π

4

π

4

=

=−

π

4

=0

π

4

π

+ =

4 4 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1

2

,0

π 1

,

2 2

2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function

568

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x

−

−

π

2

π

4

Section 4.5

49. The equation y = −3 cos 2x −

−

−

π 1

,

2 2

π

4

B = 2, and C =

,0

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −3 = 3. The period is

π

0

1

0, −

2

π

π

4

4

π 1

2

,

. The cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter4

4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

,0

2

π

2π 2π

=

= π . The

B

2

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period

B 2 2 2 4

phase shift is

is

π

π

**is of the form
**

2

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –3, and

coordinates

x=

2

x=

π

4

π

π

π

x

4

=

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

4

+

π

coordinates

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −3

,0

3π

4

3π

,3

4

π

(π , 0)

5π

4

5π

, −3

4

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

569

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

50. The equation y = −4 cos 2x −

π

51.

is of the form

2

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –4, and B = 2, and

C=

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 .

The period is

π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

B

2

π

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period is . The

4

B 2 2 2 4

cycle begins at x =

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

x=

π

4

π

4

+

π

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

x

4

=

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −4

3π

,4

4

π

(π , 0)

5π

4

5π

, −4

4

coordinates

–4

(–4, 2)

15

4

−

7

2

7

− , −2

2

13

4

−

−

,0

3π

4

x

−

coordinates

π

**y = 2 cos(2π x + 8π ) = 2 cos(2πx − (−8π ))
**

The equation y = 2 cos(2π x − (−8π )) is of the form

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 2, B = 2π , and C = −8π .

Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2. The period is

C −8π

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

=

= −4 . The

B 2π

B 2π

1

quarter-period is . The cycle begins at x = –4. Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x = −4

1

15

x = −4 + = −

4

4

15 1

7

x=− + =−

4 4

2

7 1

13

x=− + =−

2 4

4

13 1

x = − + = −3

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

−

–3

15

,0

4

13

,0

4

(–3, 2)

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
**

and graph one complete cycle of the given function.

570

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

52.

Section 4.5

**y = 3cos(2πx + 4 π ) = 3 cos(2πx − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = 3cos(2πx − (−4π )) is of the form

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 3, and B = 2π , and

C = −4π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

1

C −4π

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

4

B 2π

begins at x = –2. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

1

7

x = −2 + = −

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

–2

**53. The graph of y = sin x + 2 is the graph of y = sin x
**

shifted up 2 units upward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

x

y = sin x + 2

coordinates

0

y = sin 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

(0, 2)

coordinates

π

(–2, 3)

2

7

,0

4

π

y = sin π + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

3π

2

y = sin

2π

y = sin 2π + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

−

7

4

−

−

3

2

3

− , −3

2

−

5

4

−

5π

,0

4

–1

(–1, 3)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

+2

2

=1 +2 = 3

y = sin

3π

+2

2

= −1 + 2 = 1

π

2

,3

(π , 2)

3π

,1

2

(2 π , 2 )

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

571

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

54. The graph of y = sin x − 2 is the graph of y = sin x

shifted 2 units downward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

**55. The graph of y = cos x − 3 is the graph of y = cos x
**

shifted 3 units downward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

π

x=0+

2

=π

=

x=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y = sin x − 2

0

y = sin 0 − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

2

y = sin

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

y = sin π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

3π

2

y = sin

2π

y = sin 2π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

3π

− 2 = −1 − 2 = −3

2

π

2

π

2

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

x=

coordinates

− 2 = 1 − 2 = −1

2

=

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

π

π

π

(0, –2)

π

4

, −1

x

y = cos x − 3

coordinates

0

y = cos 0 − 3

= 1 − 3 = −2

(0, –2)

π

y = cos

π

−3

2

= 0 − 3 = −3

(π , − 2)

2

3π

, −3

2

π

y = cos π − 3

= −1 − 3 = − 4

3π

2

y = cos

2π

y = cos2 π − 3

= 1 − 3 = −2

(2 π , − 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

3π

−3

2

= 0 − 3 = −3

π

2

, −3

(π , − 4)

3π

, −3

2

(2 π , − 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

572

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

**56. The graph of y = cos x + 3 is the graph of y = cos x
**

shifted 3 units upward. The period for both functions

2π

π

is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The cycle

4

2

begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

π

2

=π

=

x

y = 2sin

0

y = 2sin

3π

2

x

y = cos x + 3

0

y = cos 0 + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

2

(0, 1)

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

y = cos

1

⋅0 +1

2

coordinates

= 2sin 0 + 1

x=

π

1

x +1

2

π

2

π

= 2sin

(0, 4)

π

2

2π

,3

π

y = cos π + 3 = −1 + 3 = 2

(π , 2)

3π

2

y = cos

3π

+3 = 0 + 3 = 3

2

3π

,3

2

2π

y = cos2 π + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

(2 π , 4)

1

⋅π + 1

2

(π , 3)

π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

coordinates

+3 = 0+ 3= 3

y = 2sin

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 2π + 1

2

(2 π , 1)

= 2sin π + 1

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 3π + 1

2

(3π , − 1)

3π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1

= −2 + 1 = −1

= 2sin

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

4π

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 4π + 1

2

(4π , 1)

= 2sin 2π + 1

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we

obtain one period of the graph.

1

**57. The graph of y = 2sin 2 x + 1 is the graph
**

1

**of y = 2sin 2 x shifted one unit upward. The
**

amplitude for both functions is 2 = 2. The period

2π

for both functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter2

4π

period is

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

573

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

1

58. The graph of y = 2 cos x + 1 is the graph of

2

1

y = 2 cos x shifted one unit upward. The amplitude

2

for both functions is 2 = 2. The period for both

2π

functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter-period is

2

4π

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

1

y = 2 cos x + 1

2

0

y = 2 cos

1

⋅0 +1

2

**59. The graph of y = −3 cos2 πx + 2 is the graph of
**

y = −3 cos2 πx shifted 2 units upward. The amplitude

for both functions is −3 = 3. The period for both

1

2π

= 1. The quarter-period is . The

functions is

4

2π

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

coordinates

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, 3)

= 2 cos0 + 1

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

π

y = 2 cos

= 2 cos

1

⋅π + 1

2

(π , 1)

π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

2π

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 2π + 1

2

x

y = −3 cos2 πx + 2

0

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 0) + 2

= −3 cos 0 + 2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2

= −3 + 2 = −1

(2 π , − 1)

= 2 cos π + 1

= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1 = − 2 + 1 = −1

3π

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 3π + 1

2

1

4

(3π , 1)

= −3 cos

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 4π + 1

2

π

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

4π

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

(4π , 3)

1

2

= 2 cos2π + 1

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

1

+2

4

coordinates

(0, –1)

1

,2

4

+2

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

1

+2

2

= −3 cos π + 2

= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2

= 3 +2 = 5

574

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1

,5

2

PreCalculus 4E

3

4

Section 4.5

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

3

+2

4

3

,2

4

3π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

x

y = −3sin 2πx + 2

0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) + 2

= −3sin 0 + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

= −3 cos

1

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 1) + 2

= −3 cos2 π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2

= −3 + 2 = −1

1

4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

(1, –1)

= −3sin

1

+2

4

coordinates

(0, 2)

1

, −1

4

π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2 = −3 + 2 = −1

1

2

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

1

+2

2

1

,2

2

= −3sin π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

3

4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

3

+2

4

3

,5

4

3π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5

= −3sin

1

**60. The graph of y = −3sin 2πx + 2 is the graph of
**

y = −3 sin 2πx shifted two units upward. The

amplitude for both functions is A = −3 = 3. The

2π

= 1. The quarterperiod for both functions is

2π

1

period is . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter–

4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 1) + 2

= −3sin 2π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

(1, 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

**61. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 ,
**

The period is 4π and thus

2π

2π 1

B=

=

=

period 4π 2

y = A cos Bx

y = 3cos

1

x

2

575

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

**62. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 , The
**

period is 4π and thus

2π

2π 1

=

=

B=

period 4π 2

y = A sin Bx

y = 3sin

67.

1

x

2

**63. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,
**

The period is π and thus

2π

2π

=

=2

B=

period π

y = A sin Bx

68.

y = −2sin 2 x

64. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,

The period is 4π and thus

2π

2π

=

=2

B=

period π

y = A cos Bx

69.

y = −2cos 2 x

65. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 , The

period is 4 and thus

2π

2π π

=

=

B=

period

4

2

70.

y = A sin Bx

⎛π

y = 2sin ⎜

⎝2

⎞

x⎟

⎠

**66. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 ,
**

The period is 4 and thus

2π

2π π

=

=

B=

period

4

2

y = A cos Bx

71.

⎛π ⎞

y = 2 cos ⎜ x ⎟

⎝2 ⎠

72.

576

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

2π ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(−1) + 12 y = 3sin y=9 There will be 9 hours of daylight. (6.M. Inc. (9. The period is c.. Answers may vary. 12) corresponds to September. 2π y = 3sin ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(1) + 12 81. The longest day of the year will have the most hours of daylight. March 21 would be the best day to meet an on-line friend for the first time.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Thus. This occurs when the sine function equals –1. (3. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 is of the form 365 C⎞ ⎛ y = A sin B ⎜ x − ⎟ + D with B⎠ ⎝ 85. The period of the emotional cycle is 28 days. In the month of February. The period of the physical cycle is 33 days.5 84. 12) corresponds to March. 365 2π 2π 365 = 2π = 2π ⋅ = 365 . B 2π 365 y = 15 There will be 15 hours of daylight. 23) corresponds to Noon. 79. the physical cycle is at a minimum on February 18.M. This occurs when the sine function equals 1. 10) corresponds to December. because the emotional cycle is at a maximum. 82. A = 3 = 3. The information gives the five key point of the graph. the intellectual cycle is at a maximum on February 11. 38) corresponds to 3 P. 23) corresponds to Midnight. the author should not run in a marathon on February 18. Answers may vary. a. 14) corresponds to June. (0. Thus. 2π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right to graph the information for 0 ≤ x ≤ 24. 74. 73. 76. 75. The shortest day of the year will have the least hours of daylight. The function y = 3sin 78. 77. In the month of March. The information gives the five key points of the graph.. (3. A = 3 and B = 80. 38) corresponds to 9 P. the author should begin writing the on February 11. (12.. .M. In the month of February. (0. (9. (12. 53) corresponds to 6 P. d. 14) corresponds to June By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph the information from June of one year to June of the following year. The amplitude is b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 577 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 83. By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph information from noon to midnight. (6. The period of the intellectual cycle is 23 days.

Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 6 feet to a maximum of 12 feet. 24) (4. B = π 6 .25 x = 170. The period is 365. The cycle begins at x = 4. x = 79 x = 79 + 91. The C phase shift is = 79 . Add 4 quarter-periods to find the x-values of the key points. 12) (352. (0. we will evaluate the function for the first four xvalues along with x = 0 and x = 365. 3 2π 2π 6 The period is = π = 2π ⋅ = 12 . Using a calculator we have the following points. 9. Inc.07) (79. 12) (170.25 = 352. 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π ⎞ ⎟ + 40 is in the ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) + D with A = 16. we will evaluate the function for the three x-values between 1 and 12. Thus. The cycle begins at x = 79. (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.25 + 91. 15) (261. The quarter-period is B 365 = 91. 40) (12.25 = 444 Because we are graphing for 0 ≤ x ≤ 365 . 9 feet.25 . Add quarter4 periods to find the x-values for the key points. x=4 The amplitude is 3.Trigonometric Functions e. The amplitude is A = 16 = 16 . 9) (365.1) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain the graph for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . along with x = 1 and x = 12. 56) (10. Using a calculator we have the following points. 26. 578 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. starting on January 1. πx 6 +9.5 x = 261. The highest average monthly temperature is 56° in July. 9. The depth of the water is modeled by y = 3cos 2π 6 = ⋅ = 4 .5. D = 9.5 + 91. Thus. The function y = 16 sin ⎜ x − 3 ⎝6 87. 40) (7.75 + 91. The period is 12.07) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain one period of the graph. 2π ⎛π 86. A = 3.25 = 170.25. the curve oscillates about the middle value. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12-0. .25 = 261.75. x = 4+3 = 7 x = 7 + 3 = 10 x = 10 + 3 = 13 x = 13 + 3 = 16 Because we are graphing for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . or 12 hours. The maximum depth of the water is 3 feet above 9 feet. 2π . Thus.75 x = 352. The phase B π 6 and C = C = shift is B 2π 3 π 6 B= 2π π = 12 6 Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . The quarter-period is 3 π 12 = 3 .

B = 2. The +4. Answers may vary.5 88. The maximum depth of the water is 1 foot above 4 feet. Thus. B = 2π . and 0 ≤ y ≤ 10 for upward. The period is 12. The cycle begins at B 2π π C π 1 1 1 9 = 2 = ⋅ = . We choose ≤ x ≤ . and 10 A = 0.2 . The depth of the water is modeled by y = cos π . The function y = 3sin(2 x − π ) + 5 is of the form the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 3. Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 3 feet to a maximum of 5 feet. The function y = −2 cos ⎜ 2π x − ⎟ is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx − C ) with A = –2. 4 4 B 2π 2 2π 4 and −3 ≤ y ≤ 3 for our graph. B = C = −π . the curve oscillates about the middle value. The graphs appear to be the same from − x= 579 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The amplitude is y = A cos( Bx − C ) + D with A = 3.2. π 2 to π 2 . Thus. The amplitude is period is A = 3 = 3 . The amplitude is 2π 2π = = π . A = 1. Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 = 0. The amplitude is period is 2π π = 12 6 at x = πx 6 2π 2π 10 = π = 2π ⋅ = 20 . The cycle begins at B 2 C −π π π 3π x= = = − . B 2 B 2 Because D = 5. We choose B π 10 −10 ≤ x ≤ 30 . The function ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ y = 0. We choose − ≤ x ≤ . and C = −π . The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. The cycle begins B π 10 C −π 10 = π = −π ⋅ = −10 . 89. the graph has a vertical shift 5 units π 5π . We choose ≤ x ≤ 2 2 our graph. The function y = 3sin(2 x + π ) = 3sin(2 x − (−π )) is of 104.2 sin ⎜ x + π ⎟ = 0. π⎞ ⎛ 102. . Thus. Inc. The cycle begins at x = = . The 2π 2π = = 1 . or 12 hours. D = 4. and A = 3 = 3 . – 100.2sin ⎜ x − (−π ) ⎟ is of the ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 0. 4 feet. A = −2 = 2 . 101. C = π . and C= π 2 . period is C π 2π 2π = = π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The D = 5. and −1 ≤ y ≤ 1 for our graph. B = 2. and B 2 2 2 2 −4 ≤ y ≤ 4 for our graph. The period is 105. 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π B= 103.

A = π 109. except the amplitude is greater and the curve is less smooth. Thus the range is [ −5.17 y = π cos(2π x + 4π ) or y = π cos [ 2π ( x + 2) ] 580 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 106.04) + 57.1] The graph is similar to y = sin x . except not smooth. a. 113. makes sense 107. the maximum will occur at 3 − 2 = 1 and the minimum will occur at −3 − 2 = −5 .50 x − 2. does not make sense. . Sample explanation: It may be easier to start at the highest point. b. Inc.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . −1. Explanations will vary. ⎥ by [ −5. 111. 116. the maximum will occur at 1 − 2 = −1 and the minimum will occur at −1 − 2 = −3 . Since A = 3 and D = −2. b.1.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . B= 2π 2π = = 2π period 1 C C = = −2 B 2π C = −4π y = A cos( Bx − C ) y = 22. ⎡ π 23π π ⎤ . ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ 108. Thus the range is [ −3. makes sense 115. ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ The graph is very similar to y = sin x . −1] ⎡ π 7π π ⎤ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since A = 1 and D = −2. ⎥ by [ −3. 114. . a.Trigonometric Functions 110.61sin(0. Answers may vary. makes sense The graphs appear to be the same from − π 2 to π 2 112.

PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Answers may vary. . y = sin 2 x = 1 1 − cos 2 x 2 2 − 121. 2 119. a. b. 3π π 2π π + − − 4 4 = 4 = 2 = −π 2 2 2 4 122.5 117. ⎟ < x < ⎬ or ⎜ − ⎨x − 4 4 ⎝ 4 4⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 581 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 1 118. − 120. y = cos x = + cos 2 x 2 2 The reciprocal function is undefined. − π 2 − π π 2 < x+ < x+ π π 4 − < π π 2 < π − π 4 4 4 2 4 2π π 2π π − − <x< − 4 4 4 4 π 3π − <x< 4 4 ⎧ 3π π⎫ ⎛ 3π π ⎞ . Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. Solve the equations π 2 x = 0 and x=0 π 2 x =π x= π π 2 2. Solve the equations 2 x = − x= − π and 2 π 2x = x= 4 and x = 2 π 4 π . ⎝ ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1.Trigonometric Functions Section 4. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0). and the points midway between to graph one period π 4 to π 4 and the graph passes through π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . the x-intercept. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Midway between these asymptotes is x = 4 0. 0 ⎟ . − π An x-intercept is π 3. In order to graph for 3π <x< . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. 0+π π x-intercept = = 2 2 582 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 Because the coefficient of the cotangent is . the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 . Inc. Use the two asymptotes. The 2 2 curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − . Continue the pattern 2⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. to graph one full period of π Thus. Solve the equations x− π 2 =− x= π π and 2 π x− π 2 = π 2 π π x= + − 2 2 2 2 x=0 x =π Thus. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . x = 0 and x = π . 0). An xintercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. 4 π of y = 3 tan 2 x from − 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ 2 . An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. to graph one full period of y = cot x .6 Check Point Exercises 1. Midway between x = 0 and x = 2 is x = 1. x = 0 and x 2 1 π = 2.

y = 2 cos 2 x . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 2) . π 2 . Starting with x = 0. and use them as guides to graph y = 2sec 2 x . the x-values are π π 3π 0. 2 2 B C C π = =− 2 B 1 3. . C π π .6 π⎞ ⎛ vertical asymptotes of y = csc ⎜ x + ⎟ . C π π The phase shift. 5. from to − is −π units.PreCalculus 4E 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. ⎜ . The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 2. . Use the first four points graph for − 4 4 3π units to the left. 4⎠ ⎝ 1. Use the and extend the graph − 4 graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. and π . . The graph has an asymptote at x = 0 . to find x-values for the five 4 key points. 2 2 B C C = = −π B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = tan( x + π ) . (π . ⎜ . π π⎞ ⎛ is y = tan ⎜ x + ⎟ . The graph has an asymptote at x = − The phase shift. Use quarter-periods. . Thus. Inc. −2 ⎟ . 2 2⎠ ⎝ The graph has an asymptote at x = π . = =0 B 1 C =0 The function with C = 0 is y = − tan x . 0 ⎟ . 2 C C There is no phase shift. Evaluating the function at each 4 2 4 value of x. 0 ⎟ . . 2). Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. Thus. amplitude: A = 2 = 2 C=− 2π 2π period: = =π B 2 π 2 The function with C = − π . Section 4. The graph has an asymptote at π . π= C= π 2 +C π 2 π⎞ ⎛ The function is y = − tan ⎜ x − ⎟ . Thus. In order to 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 3π 3π ≤x≤ . 583 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2⎠ ⎝ 4. ⎜ .6 π⎞ ⎛ The x-intercepts of y = sin ⎜ x + ⎟ correspond to 4⎠ ⎝ Exercise Set 4. from to 0 is − units.

Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = − and 4 2 π 1 x = . 0). the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 π . −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Inc. x = −2π and x = 2π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. to graph one full period of y = tan 2 x from 2 4 x-intercept = 6. 1 0). two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 4 .Trigonometric Functions 5. −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. − π π to . x = −2π and x x = 2π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 7. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. 0). − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. 584 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because the coefficient of the tangent is . . Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. π Solve the equations π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. to graph one full period of y = 3 tan from 4 −2π to 2π . π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ Solve the equations x = ⎜ − ⎟ 4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. π 4 and 2 x = x= x= π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. x from −2π to 4 2π . Solve the equations 2 x = − π 2 − π2 x= 2 x=− Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3.

the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. Because the coefficient of the tangent is –2. Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Because the coefficient of the tangent is –3. Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− x= and 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x =π Thus. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 π 4 . to graph one full 1 period of y = −3 tan x from −π to π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = −π and 1 x = π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . Continue 2 the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. 0). 0). − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0). −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 585 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 2 x from π to . x = − x= − π π 4 π 4 10. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . Solve the equations 2x = − x= π and 2 x = 2 −2 2 π x=− x= π x= 4 π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus.6 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes.PreCalculus 4E 8. Section 4. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. to graph one full period of y = −2 tan x 2 from −π to π . Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− and x= 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x=π Thus. 4 4 Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. and . Inc. . 9. x = −π and x = π .

two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = and the graph passes through and 1. There is no phase shift. ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 2 π +π 2 3π x= 2 x= π π 2 3π . Solve the equations x− π 4 =− π and 2 2π π + x=− 4 4 x=− π 4 x− π 4 = 2 2π π + x= 4 4 3π x= 4 3π and x = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph has an asymptote at 12.Trigonometric Functions 11. 0 ⎟ . and x = 13. Solve the equations x −π = − x=− x= π and 2 π 2 +π x −π = 13. . 14. Continue the pattern y = tan( x − π ) from 2 2 and extend the graph another full period to the right. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − π C= π 2 The function with C = π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = − cot ⎜ x − ⎟ . 3π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = − π 2 + 32π 42π 4π = = =π 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π and the graph passes through (π . to graph one full period of 2 π 3π to . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. A = –1. x = π 4 3π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. An x-intercept is π π 2 Thus. The phase shift. Thus. from 0 to is units. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 π 2 and 1. to graph one full period of and x = 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . C π π . and x = 2 x-intercept = 4 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . 0) . The function with C = 0 and A = –1 is y = − cot x . Inc. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. 2⎠ ⎝ 4 3π 2π 4 = 4 =π 2 2 4 + 586 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. B 2 2 C C π = = Thus. Continue the pattern 4⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. B 1 2 π Thus. C C = =0 B 1 C =0 Because the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. 4 − x-intercept = π 4 2 .

consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . x-intercept = π and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . B C C = = −π Thus. x = 0 and x = π . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. Inc. Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . 0 +π π x-intercept = = 2 2 . to graph one full period of y = 2 cot x .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π . The phase shift. x = 0 2 1 and x = π . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. The phase shift. . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. 587 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the points on the graph midway between an x2 16. Two An x-intercept is 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . to graph one full period of y = cot x . 2 2⎠ ⎝ An x-intercept is 0+π π = 2 2 2 1 2 1 and − . B 1 2 B 2 2 C=− The function with C = − π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . C . The graph has an asymptote at −π . B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = cot( x + π ) . π and the graph passes through intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 17. 2 C π π C C π = =− . Publishing as Prentice Hall. from 0 to −π is −π units. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 1 . Thus. from 0 to − is − units.6 15. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0 ⎟ . The graph has an asymptote at − π 18. 0 ⎟ .

Solve the equations 2 x = 0 and x=0 2x = π x= The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. 588 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 0 and x = 2. to graph one full period of y = cot 2 x . x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. Solve the equations π 2 x=0 x=0 and π 2 x =π x= π π 2 1 intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 1 and − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is –3. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. x = 0 2 π 1 and x = . 2 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. . to graph one full period of y = −3cot π x . 0 ⎟ . x = 0 and x = π 2 . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 2. 0+2 2 x-intercept = = =1 2 2 An x-intercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. 0 ⎟ . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 1 . Inc. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. to graph one full period of y = 2 cot 2 x .Trigonometric Functions 19. x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . 0). 20. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Solve the equations 2 x = 0 x=0 and 2x = π x= π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . the points on the graph midway between an x2 21. The curve is repeated along the x-axis 2 one full period as shown.

Inc. 0 ⎟ . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 =π x =π − and − π4 + 34π 24π π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is x+ 4 3π . 4 x-intercept = 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. to graph one full period of y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 3. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 3. 0 ) . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0). to graph one full period of y = −2cot π 24.6 22. x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = − π 4 3π and x = . Solve the equations π π and 2 π π⎞ ⎛ x = . Solve the equations x+ π 4 =0 and x =0− x . 0+4 4 x-intercept = = =2 2 2 An x-intercept is 2 and the graph passes through ( 2. to graph one full period of 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . x =π x= π π 4 x=4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 4. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is – 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. Solve the equations π 4 π x = 0 and 4 x=0 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. The curve is repeated along the x4⎠ ⎝ axis one full period as shown. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. x+ π π 4 =π x =π − 4 π π 4 3π x= 4 4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π 2 =0 and x =0− x=− π 2 π 2 x+ π 2 x= π π 2 4 and the graph passes through and –3. x = − 2 2 π 2 and . π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . − π2 + π2 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. . x = 0 and x = 4 . 2 2⎠ ⎝ 589 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The curve is repeated along the x- x=− 4 axis one full period as shown.

Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. . and use them as guides to graph y = 3csc x . y = 3sin x . and 2π . 2 2 28. the x-values are π 3π . π . 26. The x-intercepts of y = − sin corresponds to 2 2 1 x vertical asymptotes of y = − csc . Use ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ these key points to graph y = 3sin x from 0 to 2π . Draw the vertical asymptotes. and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = 3csc 4 x . π . the key points are (0. 3 ⎟ . and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = −3sec 29. Evaluating the function at 0. Inc.Trigonometric Functions 1 x 25. 2 2 each value of x. π 2 x. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Draw the 2 2 vertical asymptotes. Graph the reciprocal sine function. amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. − 3 ⎟ . ⎜ . 2 27. to find x-values for the 2 five key points. Starting with x = 0. The x-intercepts of y = 590 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . and (2π . and use them as a guide to 1 sketch the graph of y = sec 2π x . Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 3 and B = 1. and use them as a guide to 1 x sketch the graph of y = − csc . 1 cos 2π x corresponds to 2 1 vertical asymptotes of y = sec 2π x . The x-intercepts of y = 3sin 4 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = 3csc 4 x . 0). (π . The x-intercepts of y = −3cos π 2 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = −3sec π x . 0) . ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ . 0).

Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Graph the reciprocal sine function. Evaluating the function at each value of x. Evaluating the function at each value of x. the x-values are 0. ⎟ . − 2 ⎟ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. ⎟ . to find x-values for the five key points. ⎜ . 0). 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ π . Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. and use them as guides to graph 3 x y = csc . (2π . and use them as guides to graph y = 2cscx. 4 3 3 = amplitude: A = 2 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π period: B 4 Use quarter-periods. the x-values are 0. y = 2sin x . (4π . . 0). Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 0) . 6π . and use 1 x them as guides to graph y = csc . 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Use these key points to graph y = 2sin x from 0 to 2π . 0). Use these 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 4π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 3π . − ⎟ . and (4π . and (2π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. the key points are (0. to find x-values for the five key points. and 2π . The 2 4 3 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . the x-values are π 3π 0. 32. ⎜ 2π . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. 2 1 1 amplitude: A = = 2 2 2π 2π period: = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. Starting with x = 0. 2 4 591 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Graph the reciprocal sine function. − ⎟ . 2 2 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. 0). 2 ⎟ . Inc. 0) . 0). ⎜ . . 2π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts.6 30. 4π . π . and 4π . π . the key points are 3⎞ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎛ (0. The Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. (π . π . 0). ⎜ 3π . Starting with x = 0. 2π . π . and (8π . Starting with x = 0. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 3 x sin . y = 1 x sin . 2 2 31. y = Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 x Use these key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 2 4 8π . ⎜ 6π . and 8π . The 2 2 1 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. 0) . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. .

(π . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 592 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. x 35. 3π . 34. y = 3cos x . 1). (π . amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. Evaluating the function are 0. amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: Use these key points to graph y = 3cos x from 0 to 2π . ⎜ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. . Evaluating the function at each value 2 2 ⎛π ⎞ of x. the key points are (0. to find x-values for 4 2 the five key points. the x-values 3π 9π . and use them as x guides to graph y = sec . The 3 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . and (6π . 3 Use quarter-periods. 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. 3) . ⎜ . 2 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ at each value of x. π 3π . 3). Graph the reciprocal cosine function. π . Starting with x = 0. Starting with x = 0.Trigonometric Functions 33. Use these key (3π . y = cos . . the x-values are 0. π . ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ x points to graph y = cos from 0 to 6π . 0 ⎟ . (2π . 0 ⎟ . 2π . the x-values are π 3π 0. Use these key points to ⎝ 2 ⎠ graph y = 2 cos x from 0 to 2π . and 2π . 3 amplitude: B= period: A = 1 =1 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 3 = 6π B 3 6π 3π = . 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. ⎜ . − 3). The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 3 and B = 1 . The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. − 1). Extend the graph one cycle to the right. ⎝2 ⎠ 3 π ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . 0 ⎟ . π. Starting with x = 0. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 9π ⎞ . y = 2 cos x . and 6π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. π . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. 2) . Inc. . the key points are (0. and (2π . ⎜ . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec x . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Extend the 3 graph one cycle to the right. − 2). 2). . and use them as guides to graph y = 3sec x . 1) .

Graph the reciprocal sine function. 1. . − ⎟ . Evaluating the function at each value of x. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. (π . 2 A=− Use these key points to graph y = cos 1 and B = π . ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ . 0). the x-values are 0. and (2. and (2. Starting with x = 0. The 2 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . . to find x-values for the five key points. x and use them as guides to graph y = sec . 0). − 1). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ⎟ . ⎜ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. x 36. (1. 0) . − 2 ⎟ . 593 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and 2. 0 ) . π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 1) . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Use quarter-periods. 37. the key points are (0. y = cos . Inc. period: 1 38. to find 4 2 x-values for the five key points. 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 B= 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. ⎜ . ⎟ . Use these key 2 ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ points to graph y = −2sin π x from 0 to 2. 2 The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with x from 0 to 2 4π . 3π . 1). Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. amplitude: A = −2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 0). the x-values are 1 3 0. Evaluating the 2 2 function at each value of x. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. y = − sin π x . the key points are (0. 0). Starting with x = 0. . Graph the reciprocal sine function. π . and (4π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 1 3 the x-values are 0. The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . y = −2sin π x . 2 Use quarter-periods.6 Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. the key points are 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎛3 1⎞ (0. 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎝2 2⎠ 1 Use these key points to graph y = − sin π x from 0 2 to 2 . ( 3π . and 2 . (1. Starting with x = 0. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. 1. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 0) . ⎜ . 2 amplitude: A = − period: 1 1 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . and use them as guides to graph y = −2 csc π x . . 1 and use them as guides to graph y = − csc π x . and 4π . 0 ) . (2π .

Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Inc. the key points are ⎜ 0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A=− 3 40. ⎜ 2. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 594 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 0 ⎟ . 1. − ⎟ . 2 Use quarter-periods. 3 and use them as guides to graph y = − sec π x . Extend 2 the graph one cycle to the right. 2 amplitude: A = − 2π 2π = =2 B π period: 2 1 = . . and use them as guides to graph 1 y = − sec π x . y = − cos π x . − ⎟ . the x-values are 1 3 0. 2 3 3 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. y = − cos π x . ⎜ 2. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ value of x. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2 amplitude: period: A = − A=− 1 1 = 2 2 3 and B = π . . the key points are 3⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0. 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. . Use quarter-periods. 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 Use these key points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 2 to 2 . − ⎟ . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . ⎟ . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 1. 0 ⎟ . 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with 1 and B = π .Trigonometric Functions 1 39. Starting with x = 0. − ⎟ . ⎜1. ⎟ . the x-values are 1 3 0. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. and 2. ⎜ . Starting with x = 0. Use these key 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 to 2. and 2 . ⎜ . ⎜ . ⎜1.

to find x-values for the five key points. (2π . 2π .6 41. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . ( 2π . ⎜ . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. (3π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. − 1⎟ . Starting with x = π π 2 . 3π 5π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. − 1) . 4 2 x-values for the five key points. 1⎟ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. and 3π . the key ⎛ 3π ⎞ points are (π . . 0). Publishing as Prentice Hall. and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = csc ⎜ x − ⎟ . 595 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ⎟ . 2⎠ ⎝ . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. 0 ⎟ . Use these key points to graph 2 ⎝ ⎠ y = sin( x − π ) from π to 3π . and B = 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. π 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 period: . 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π2 π = = phase shift: B 1 2 period: Use quarter-periods. 1) . and ⎜ . y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ . Inc. 0) . π. Starting with x = π . the x-values are 3π 5π . 0). to find Use quarter-periods. B = 1 . 0 ⎟ . ⎜ . and . 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. and C = 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π = =π phase shift: B 1 2π π = . Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. 2π . π⎞ ⎛ 42. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2 2 Evaluating the function at each value of x. and use them as guides to graph y = csc( x − π ) . . π 2 . amplitude: A = 1 = 1 A = 1 . (π . and C = π . 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 5π to . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 2⎠ ⎝ The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 1. the x-values are π . y = sin( x − π ) .

and (π . . and C=− π 2 . 2 ⎟ . = . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ − . 0 ) . Starting with x = − A = 2 =2 period: are −π . 2). and . 0 ⎟ . π . 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎜ . y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2. Use these ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ key points to graph y = 2 cos( x + π ) from −π to π . Inc. Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. B = 1. 0 ⎟ . . 2 amplitude: A = 2 = 2 46. 2⎠ ⎝ 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C −π = = −π phase shift: B 1 2π π Use quarter-periods. Evaluating the function 2 2 at each value of x. the key points are ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ − . 44. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. ⎜ . The equation is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2 and B = 1 . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. y = 2 cos( x + π ) . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 3π − to . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec( x + π ) . and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 sec ⎜ x + ⎟ . π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ . − 2 ⎟ . 2 ⎟ . and π . . (π . ( 0. ( 0. amplitude: . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. the x-values π 2 key points. and C = −π . the x-values are π 3π . The equation is of the form Use quarter-periods. 2) . ⎜ . to find x-values for the five − π . − π π . 0.Trigonometric Functions 43. π 45. the key points are (−π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Starting with x = −π . − 2 ) . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0 ) . 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C − π2 π = =− phase shift: B 1 2 period: 596 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

5π π 3π 7π .93. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 0.71.50 50. 2. For the window use Xmin = −2π . Xmax = 2π . 48. and Ymax = 2 . Ymin = −2 . For the window use Xmin = −2π . 2π 52. Inc. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ sin x and y2 = 1 . and Ymax = 2 .79. x = −2π . π⎞ ⎛ y = ( f h ) ( x) = f (h( x)) = 2 sec ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 54.79. − . . For the window use Xmin = −2π . Xmax = 2π .57 51. 58. 57. x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3.36.6 47.50 49. 6. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ tan x and y2 = −1 . 0. x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. x=− 2 2 x ≈ −4. π⎞ ⎛ y = ( g h ) ( x) = g (h( x)) = −2 tan ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 55. and Ymax = 2 . Ymin = −2 . 0.28 597 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and Ymax = 2 .28. Ymin = −2 . 5π π 3π 7π . Ymin = −2 . 2. Xmax = 2π . 5. 53. Use a graphing utility with y1 = tan x and y2 = −1 . For the window use Xmin = −2π .93. 5. . 3π π . − .36. Xmax = 2π . 56. .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. − 0. 1. x ≈ −6. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ cos x and y2 = 1 .

Midway between x = 0 and x = π is x = π 2 2 π − π2 t= t= 2 2π 2π 1 1 t=− t= 4 4 Thus. π π to 2 ⎛π ⎞ (0. and the opposite leg is 2 mi. ⎝2 ⎠ 2 . use the x-values − ⎛ π ⎞ find the key points ⎜ − . 0 ⎟ . 0. Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and d = 12 tan 2π t a. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. In a right triangle the angle of elevation is one of the acute angles.75. x = 0 and x = π . Use the function that relates the acute angle with the hypotenuse and the adjacent leg. 0 ⎟ . π π The function is undefined for t = 0. Use the two 1 1 consecutive asymptotes. 4 4 − 14 + 14 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. (Do not use the left hand side of the first period of the graph on [0. then draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Solve the equations 2π t = − π and 2π t = x = π . amplitude: A = 10 = 10 period: b. 1. to 4 4 graph one full period of d = 12 tan 2π t . The beam is shining parallel to the wall at these times. 0). 61. d cot x = 2 d = 2 cot x Use the equations x = 0 and x = π . x = − and x = . y = 10 cos x . ⎥ . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have ycoordinates of –12 and 12. To graph on [0. the adjacent leg is the distance d. 2]. .75. 0. and 1.25. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 10 and B = 1. d sec x = 10 d = 10 sec x Graph the reciprocal cosine function. and use ⎡ π π⎤ them as guides to graph d = 10sec x on ⎢ − . the secant function. Inc. ⎣ 2 2⎦ 598 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Trigonometric Functions 59. 0 ⎟ . ⎝ 2 ⎠ 60. For − π 2 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 <x< π 2 . to graph y = 2 cot x for 0 < x < π . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. two consecutive asymptotes occur at 1 1 x = − and x = . Use the cotangent function. continue the pattern and extend the graph to 2. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 12. and ⎜ . 2]. and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ .) An x-intercept is 2 2 . and Connect these points with a smooth curve. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2.25. 10).

Inc. period: π = π B 2 Graph y = cot 2 x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π . period: π B = π and π x + 1 = 2 π −1 2 −π 2 −1 π −π − 2 x= 2π π 4 Graph y = tan 4 x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π 2 x ≈ −0. period: π 80. 2 64. 2 65.2 . – 76. period: π B Graph y = = π =1 π 1 tan π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 . 77. B = π 1 2 Graph y = cot = π ⋅ 2 = 2π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 4π . 81. we include −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.85 ≤ x ≤ 1. 2 599 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Graphs will vary.82 ≤ x ≤ 1.82 .18 in our graph of 1 y = tan(π x + 1) . 63. Graphs will vary. period: π = π =1 π πx = x= x= π 2 π 2 π 2 −1 −1 π π −2 2π x ≈ 0. . Solve the equations π x +1 = − πx= − x= 78.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.18 B Thus. 79. and graph for −0. Answers may vary. period: π B = π 1 4 Graph y = tan = π ⋅ 4 = 4π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 8π . 4 82.6 62.

Thus. we include ≤ x ≤ 6 6 9 for 0 ≤ x ≤ . Inc. The period is −0 = . period: The graph shows that carbon dioxide concentration rises and falls each year. Thus. makes sense 90. 83. 85. . 2π 2π 3 = π = 2π ⋅ = 6 B π 3 Graph the functions for 0 ≤ x ≤ 12 . There is no phase shift. you can use a sine graph. and 12 89. 92. makes sense 91. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and graph Thus. Explanations may vary. 3 3 3 π 2π = B 3 2π B = 3π 2π 2π = =2 B π C π6 π 1 1 = = ⋅ = phase shift: B π 6 π 6 1 25 in our graph. 87. does not make sense. Thus. 2 86.Trigonometric Functions 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Graph the functions for 0 ≤ x ≤ 8π . 3 C = 0. The graph has the shape of a cotangent function with consecutive asymptotes at 2π 2π 2π x = 0 and x = . use sine or cosine. A = 1. 2 B= 600 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. but over all the concentration increased from 1990 to 2008. 2 1 x The graph is oscillating between 1 and –1. 84. Sample explanation: To model a cyclical temperature. An equation for this graph is y = cot x . Explanations will vary. 88. period: Thus. does not make sense. period: 3π 3 = 2π 2 The points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 1 and –1. Explanations will vary. The oscillation is faster as x gets closer to 0. we include y = sin 25π in our graph. period: 2π 2π = =π B 2 C π6 π phase shift: = = B 2 12 π ≤x≤ 12 5π graph for 0 ≤ x ≤ . Sample explanation: To obtain a cosecant graph. 93.

− 3 ⎟ . ∞ ) 7π ⎤ ⎡ π by [ −3. 4 B= c. . ⎜ 6 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 101. ⎛ π ⎞ This is represented by the point ⎜ − . 1⎞ ⎛ π This is represented by the point ⎜ − . a. Explanations will vary. Examples may vary. Since the period is 3π . Thus. . c. 6 ⎛ 5π 3⎞ This is represented by the point ⎜ . B =π Thus. The angle is 5π .1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . The range shows that A = 2. Inc. π . 6. The reciprocal function has amplitude A = 1 . C = 0 . 3. = 3 B 3 8π B = 6π 6π 3 = 8π 4 There is no phase shift. c. The range shows that A = π . y = π csc π x 97. − ⎟ . yes. Since A=1. Explanations will vary. the coefficient of x is given 2π = 3π by B where B 2π = 3π B 3Bπ = 2π B= b. ∞ ) ⎡ 1 7 ⎤ Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . An equation for 3 the reciprocal function is y = cos x . 6 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 6 b.6 94. Since A=3. a. Thus. the coefficient of x is given by 2π =2 B where B 2π =2 B 2 B = 2π b. 601 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 3 Thus. a. a. Since the period is 2. 100.1⎥ by [ −6. −1] ∪ [1.1] ⎣ 2 2 ⎦ 98. yes. The graph has the shape of a secant function. The period is 99. ⎝ 6 2⎠ 95. an 4 3 equation for this graph is y = sec x . 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2− x decreases the amplitude as x gets larger. The angle is − π 6 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. the range is ( −∞. The angle is − π 3 . −x y = 2 sin x b.− ⎟. the range is ( −∞. Explanations will vary.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 8π 2π 8π . y = 2 csc 2x 3 96. yes. Thus. −3] ∪ [3.

⎛ 2 2⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − . or cos −1 ⎜ − ⎟ = . 2 2 3 π π 3 π ⎡ π π⎤ is . The only angle in the interval [0. then cos θ = − . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = −1 is − . . Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode a. ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 2 3 3 3 ⎣ 2 2⎦ 2. 2 2 3 ⎝ 2⎠ 2π ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2π . 1 1 2π ⎛ 1⎞ Let θ = cos −1 ⎜ − ⎟ . ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 π π 2⎞ π ⎡ π π⎤ The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . 4. ⎥ that satisfies cos θ = − is − . Inc. Thus. Let θ = sin −1 3 3 . ⎛1⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ Radian 1 ÷ 3 = b.85 ENTER 1. tan −1 (−35. ⎜ 2 4 4 4 ⎣ 2 2⎦ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3. tan −1 (−35. or sin −1 = .5429 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode a.7 Check Point Exercises 1. then sin θ = − . Thus 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ θ =− π 4 or tan −1 θ = − π 4 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.Trigonometric Functions Section 4. or sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟⎟ = − .85) Radian 35.2310 –1.85 Display (rounded to four places) Keystrokes + − COS−1 1. 5. θ= 3 ⎝ 2⎠ 3 π ⎛ π π⎞ Let θ = tan −1 (−1) . Thus θ = − .85) Radian Display (rounded to four places) Keystrokes COS−1 TAN −1 ( 1 ÷ 3 ) ENTER − 35.5429 602 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . θ = . then tan θ = −1 .2310 TAN −1 –1. Thus. ⎛1⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ Radian b. π ] that satisfies cos θ = − is . then sin θ = .

a. r 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 r = 25 = 5 Use the right triangle to find the exact value.7 ) x = 0. x is not in ⎢ − . θ is in quadrant IV. Because tan θ is positive. 2 ⎝ 2⎠ Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find x. x is in [–1. x 2 + (−1) 2 = 22 x2 + 1 = 4 x2 = 3 x= 3 Use values for x and r to find the exact value. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 .1] so cos(cos −1 0. 7. so sin −1 (sin π ) = sin −1 (0) = 0 ⎣ 2 2⎦ c.1] so cos ( cos −1 π ) is not defined. x is not in [–1. ⎥ .7) = 0. Inc. θ is in the first quadrant.PreCalculus 4E 6.7 cos ( cos −1 0. Section 4. then sin θ = − . sin −1 (sin π ) ⎡ π π⎤ x = π . cos ( cos −1 π ) x = π .7 b. x is in the domain of sin x. 1 ⎛ 1⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ . then tan θ = . 3 ⎛3⎞ Let θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ . . 4 ⎝4⎠ Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find r. Because sin θ is negative. 3⎞ side opposite θ 3 ⎛ = sin ⎜ tan −1 ⎟ = sin θ = 4 hypotenuse 5 ⎝ ⎠ 8. x ⎡ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ cos ⎢sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥ = cos θ = = 2 r 2 ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 603 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

The only angle in the interval 2 ⎝ 2⎠ π π ⎛ 1⎞ θ = − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 3 1 ⎛ 1⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ . then sin θ = . then sin θ = 0 . Thus ⎣ ⎦ 3 π = . 2 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ 1 π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . θ = 6 . then sin θ = . 1 1 . 3. Thus θ = 0 . then sin θ = − .7 1. The only angle in the interval 2 2 2 π = .Trigonometric Functions 9. Thus ⎣ ⎦ 604 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let θ = tan −1 x . then tan θ =x = x . 1 π = . or sin −1 Let θ = sin −1 θ= 5. Thus. a. . or ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ π π⎤ Let θ = sin −1 0 . Inc. 1 Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the third side. 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 is 4 . The only angle in the interval 2 2 . then sin θ = . The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . Let θ = sin −1 sin −1 2. 2 6 Let θ = sin −1 π 4 π 3 2 2 . or sin −1 2 π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . a 2 = x 2 + 12 a = x2 + 1 Use the right triangle to write the algebraic expression. Thus ⎣ ⎦ 3 π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . or sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ = − . θ= 4. 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 is 3 . 1 π π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . 2 4 3 3 . 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = − 2 is − 6 . The only angle in the interval 2 2 . 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 is 6 . ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 0 is 0. sec ( tan −1 x ) = sec θ = x2 + 1 = x2 + 1 1 Exercise Set 4. or ⎣ 2 2⎦ −1 sin 0 = 0 .

2 4 ⎛ 2 2 2⎞ 3π Let θ = cos −1 ⎜ − . The only angle in the interval [0. The only angle in the interval [ 0. 12. π ] that satisfies cos θ = is . ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 6 2 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ 11. π ] that satisfies cos θ = − is . 3 π = . Thus θ = .7 ⎛ 3 3⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − . then cos θ = . Let θ = tan −1 θ= π 6 3 3 3 π ⎛ π π⎞ . ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 3 π π ⎡ π π⎤ The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . then tan θ = 1 . 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ Thus θ = π 4 . Thus θ = − . Thus θ = . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . 9. Thus ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 3π 2 ⎞ 3π . Thus θ = . Let θ = cos −1 ⎜ − . then sin θ = − . then cos θ = − . Let θ = cos −1 or cos −1 8. ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = is . 13. or cos −1 0 = 2 π 2 . . Let θ = tan −1 1 . then cos θ = 1 . π ] that satisfies cos θ = is . Let θ = cos −1 0 . 2 6 Let θ = cos −1 or cos −1 3 3 3 π π . π ] that satisfies cos θ = 1 is 0 . 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 2 π π . then cos θ = − . or tan −1 3 π = . or cos −1 ⎜ − . θ= ⎟⎟ = ⎜ 4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 4 ⎛ 3 3⎞ 10. The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ The only angle in the interval [ 0. . or tan −1 1 = π 4 . or cos −1 ⎜ − = . Let θ = cos −1 1 . Thus θ = 0 . 3 6 π ⎛ π π⎞ 14. 2 2 2 4 4 2 π = . 605 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or sin −1 ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 7. ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = − is − . Section 4. π ] that satisfies cos θ = − ⎛ 3 5π 5π 3 ⎞ 5π is .PreCalculus 4E 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 2 2 2 3 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ 3⎞ π =− . The only angle in the interval [0. The only angle in the interval [0. Thus 3 3 3 6 ⎝ 2 2⎠ . then tan θ = . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = 1 is . The only angle in the interval [ 0. π ] that satisfies cos θ = 0 is Thus θ = π 2 π . or cos −1 1 = 0 . then cos θ = . then cos θ = 0 .

then tan θ = − . then tan θ = 0 . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . ⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ 19. ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = − 3 is − . Let θ = tan −1 ⎜ − . or ⎝ 2 2⎠ tan −1 0 = 0 . or tan −1 ⎜ − =− . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . The only angle in the interval ⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ π 3⎞ π Thus θ = − . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = − 3 6 ⎝ 2 2⎠ Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes sin −1 0.49 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes Display (rounded to two places) sin −1 0.47 SIN −1 Display (rounded to two places) 0.47 ENTER 0.30 20. The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . ⎛ 3⎞ 3 18.47 Radian 0. Let θ = tan −1 − 3 . Let θ = tan −1 0 . ⎜ − . or tan −1 (−1) = − π 4 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. or tan −1 − 3 = − π 3 . then tan θ = −1 . Thus θ = 0 .Trigonometric Functions ⎛ π π⎞ 15. then tan θ = − 3 . .49 606 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes sin −1 0.47 Radian SIN −1 0. π ⎛ π π⎞ 16. Thus 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ θ =− π 4 . 3 ⎝ 2 2⎠ ( Thus θ = − π 3 ) ( ) . π ⎛ π π⎞ 17.3 Radian 0. Inc. 3 π ⎛ π π⎞ is − .3 Radian SIN −1 0.30 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes Display (rounded to two places) sin −1 0. Let θ = tan −1 (−1) . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = 0 is 0.3 ENTER 0. ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = −1 is − .3 SIN −1 Display (rounded to two places) 0.

11 607 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .625) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes 0. Function Mode ⎛3⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝8⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes 3 ÷ 8 = COS−1 1. Function Mode sin −1 (−0. Inc.11 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode ⎛4⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 ( 4 ÷ 9 ) ENTER 1.19 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode ⎛3⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝8⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 ( 3 ÷ 8 ) ENTER 1. Function Mode ⎛4⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes 4 ÷ 9 = COS−1 1.32 − SIN −1 –0.32 ENTER –0.33 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode sin −1 (−0.33 Scientific Calculator Solution 22.625) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes SIN −1 − 0.68 Scientific Calculator Solution 23.19 Scientific Calculator Solution 24.68 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode sin −1 (−0.7 21.625 ENTER –0.32) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes SIN −1 − 0.32) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes + 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode sin −1 (−0.625 + − SIN −1 –0.

52 Scientific Calculator Solution 28. Function Mode tan −1 (−30) Radian Keystrokes + 30 − TAN −1 Display (rounded to two places) –1.54 608 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.25 Scientific Calculator Solution Function cos −1 7 10 Mode Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes ÷ 10 = 7 COS−1 1. Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 5 ÷ 7 ) ( ENTER 1.52 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode tan −1 (−20) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes TAN −1 − 20 ENTER –1.54 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode tan −1 (−30) Radian Keystrokes TAN −1 − 30 ENTER Display (rounded to two places) –1. Inc.30 Graphing Calculator Solution Function cos −1 7 10 Mode Radian 27.Trigonometric Functions 25. Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 7 ÷ 10 ) ( ENTER 1.30 Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode tan −1 (−20) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes + 20 − TAN −1 –1. Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode 5 7 Radian cos −1 Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 ÷ 7 = 5 1.25 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode 5 7 Radian cos −1 26. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

x is not in 6 5π ⎞ π ⎡ π π⎤ −1 ⎛ −1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎢ − 2 .57. x is in the