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PRECALCULUS 4E

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra..................................................... 1

Chapter 1

Functions and Graphs............................................................................................. 126

Chapter 2

Polynomial and Rational Functions ....................................................................... 256

Chapter 3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ................................................................ 411

Chapter 4

Trigonometric Functions........................................................................................ 489

Chapter 5

Analytic Trigonometry........................................................................................... 663

Chapter 6

Additional Topics in Trigonometry ....................................................................... 780

Chapter 7

Systems of Equations and Inequalities................................................................... 944

Chapter 8

Matrices and Determinants .................................................................................. 1076

Chapter 9

Conic Sections and Analytic Geometry ............................................................... 1181

Chapter 10

Sequences, Induction, and Probability................................................................. 1297

Chapter 11

Introduction to Calculus....................................................................................... 1393

iii

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Section P.1

Check Point Exercises

1.

6.

8 + 6( x − 3) 2 = 8 + 6(13 − 3) 2

a.

**Because 2 ≈ 1.4, the number inside the
**

absolute value bars is negative. The absolute

value of x when x < 0 is –x. Thus,

= 8 + 6(10) 2

= 8 + 6(100)

= 8 + 600

= 608

2.

(

b.

**Since 2010 is 10 years after 2000, substitute 10 for x.
**

= 17(10)2 + 261(10) + 3257

= 7567

If trends continue, the tuition and fees will be $7567

5.

**The elements common to {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} and
**

{3, 7, 8, 9} are 3 and 7.

{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∩ {3,7,8,9} = {3, 7}

c.

**The union is the set containing all the elements of
**

either set.

{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∪ {3, 7,8,9} = {3, 4,5, 6, 7,8,9}

π

⎧

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,

2

⎩

9,

x

x

Because x > 0,

Thus,

7.

⎫

10 ⎬

⎭

9 because

π −3

Because π ≈ 3.14, the number inside the

absolute value bars is positive. The absolute

value of a positive number is the number itself.

Thus,

π − 3 = π − 3.

T = 17 x + 261x + 3257

4.

)

1− 2 = − 1− 2 = 2 −1

2

3.

1− 2

x

x

=

x = x.

x

=1

x

−4 − (5) = −9 = 9

The distance between –4 and 5 is 9.

8.

9 =3

a.

Natural numbers:

b.

Whole numbers: 0,

c.

Integers: −9, 0, 9

d.

Rational numbers: −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3,

e.

Irrational numbers:

f.

Real numbers:

π

⎧

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,

2

⎩

7(4 x 2 + 3x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 7(4 x 2 + 3 x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 28 x 2 + 21x + 10 x 2 + 2 x

9

= 38 x 2 + 23x

π

2

,

9.

9

10

9,

⎫

10 ⎬

⎭

6 + 4[7 − ( x − 2)]

= 6 + 4[7 − x + 2)]

= 6 + 4[9 − x]

= 6 + 36 − 4 x

= 42 − 4 x

Exercise Set P.1

1.

7 + 5(10) = 7 + 50 = 57

2.

8 + 6 ( 5 ) = 8 + 30 = 38

3.

6(3) − 8 = 18 − 8 = 10

1

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

4.

8 ( 3) − 4 = 24 − 4 = 20

5.

82 + 3(8) = 64 + 24 = 88

6.

62 + 5 ( 6 ) = 36 + 30 = 66

7.

7 2 − 6(7) + 3 = 49 − 42 + 3 = 7 + 3 = 10

8.

82 − 7 ( 8 ) + 4 = 64 − 56 + 4 = 8 + 4 = 12

9.

4 + 5(9 − 7)3 = 4 + 5(2)3

= 4 + 5(8) = 4 + 40 = 44

10.

6 + 5 (8 − 6 ) = 6 + 5 ( 2 )

3

18.

19.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2 = 4 + 60(2) − 16(2)2

= 4 + 120 − 16(4) = 4 + 120 − 64

= 124 − 64 = 60

Two seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is

60 feet.

20.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2

= 4 + 60(3) − 16(3) 2

= 4 + 180 − 16(9)

= 4 + 180 − 144

= 184 − 144 = 40

Three seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is

40 feet.

3

= 6 + 5 (8)

= 6 + 40 = 46

11.

82 − 3(8 − 2) = 64 − 3(6)

= 64 − 18 = 46

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

21.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∩ {2, 4,5} = {2, 4}

82 − 4 ( 8 − 3) = 64 − 4 ( 5 ) = 64 − 20 = 44

22.

{1,3, 7} ∩ {2,3,8} = {3}

5( x + 2) 5(10 + 2)

=

2 x − 14 2(10) − 14

5(12)

=

6

= 5⋅2

= 10

23.

{s, e, t} ∩ {t , e, s} = {s, e, t}

24.

{r , e, a, l} ∩ {l , e, a, r} = {r , e, a, l}

25.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {2, 4, 6,8,10} = { }

The empty set is also denoted by ∅.

7( x − 3) 7(9 − 3) 7(6)

=

=

= 7 ⋅ 3 = 21

2 x − 16 2(9) − 16

2

2x + 3 y

; x = −2, y = 4

x +1

2 ( −2 ) + 3 ( 4 ) −4 + 12 8

=

=

=

= −8

−2 + 1

−1

−1

2x + y

; x = −2 and y = 4

xy − 2 x

2 ( −2 ) + 4

( −2 )( 4 ) − 2 ( −2 )

17.

5

5

5

C = ( F − 32) = (86 − 32) = (54) = 30

9

9

9

30°C is equivalent to 86°F.

=

−4 + 4 0

= =0

−8 + 4 4

5

5

C = (50 − 32) = (18) = 10

9

9

10°C is equivalent to 50°F.

26.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {−5, −3, −1} = { }

27.

{a, b, c, d} ∩ ∅ = ∅

28.

{w, y, z} ∩ ∅ = ∅

29.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∪ {2, 4,5} = {1, 2,3, 4,5}

30.

{1,3, 7,8} ∪ {2,3,8} = {1, 2,3, 7,8}

31.

{1, 3,5, 7} ∪ {2, 4, 6,8,10}

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,10}

32.

{0,1,3,5} ∪ {2, 4, 6} = {0,1, 2,3, 4,5, 6}

33.

{a, e, i, o, u} ∪ ∅ = {a, e, i, o, u}

34.

{e, m, p, t , y} ∪ ∅

or ∅

= {e, m, p, t , y}

2

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

35. a.

Section P.1

39. 0

100

b.

0, 100

c.

−9, 0, 100

d.

4

−9, − , 0, 0.25, 9.2, 100

5

e.

f.

36. a.

40. Answers may vary. An example is

1

.

2

**41. Answers may vary. An example is 2.
**

42. Answers may vary. An example is −2.

43. true; –13 is to the left of –2 on the number line.

3

44. false; –6 is to the left of 2 on the number line.

4

−9, − , 0, 0.25, 3, 9.2, 100

5

**45. true; 4 is to the right of –7 on the number line.
**

46. true; –13 is to the left of –5 on the number line.

49

47. true; −π = −π

b.

0, 49

c.

−7, 0, 49

d.

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49

**48. true; –3 is to the right of –13 on the number line.
**

49. true; 0 is to the right of –6 on the number line.

e.

f.

37. a.

50

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49, 50

64

b.

0, 64

c.

−11, 0, 64

d.

5

−11, − , 0, 0.75, 64

6

e.

f.

38. a.

5

−11, − , 0, 0.75, 5, π , 64

6

4

0, 4

c.

−5, 0, 4

d.

−5, − 0.3, 0, 4

f.

51.

300 = 300

52.

−203 = 203

53.

12 − π = 12 − π

54.

7−π = 7−π

55.

2 −5 = 5− 2

56.

5 − 13 = 13 − 5

5, π

b.

e.

50. true; 0 is to the right of –13 on the number line.

2

−5, − 0.3, 0, 2, 4

57.

−3 −3

=

= −1

3

−3

58.

−7 −7

=

= −1

7

−7

59.

−3 − −7 = 3 − 7 = −4 = 4

60.

−5 − −13 = 5 − 13 = −8 = 8

61.

x + y = 2 + (−5) = −3 = 3

62.

x − y = 2 − (−5) = 7 = 7

3

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

63.

x + y = 2 + −5 = 2 + 5 = 7

64.

x − y = 2 − −5 = 2 − 5 = −3

65.

y

−5 −5

=

=

= −1

y

−5

5

66.

x

y

2

83.

84.

1

( x + 3) = 1; x ≠ −3 ,

x+3

inverse property of multiplication

( x + 4 ) + ⎡⎣ − ( x + 4 ) ⎤⎦ = 0;

inverse property of addition

85.

−5

2 5

+

= +

= +

= 1 + (−1) = 0

x

y

2 −5 2 −5

5(3 x + 4) − 4 = 5 ⋅ 3x + 5 ⋅ 4 − 4

= 15 x + 20 − 4

= 15 x + 16

67. The distance is 2 − 17 = −15 = 15 .

86.

2(5 x + 4) − 3 = 2 ⋅ 5 x + 2 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 10 x + 8 − 3

68. The distance is 4 − 15 = −11 = 11 .

= 10 x + 5

69. The distance is −2 − 5 = −7 = 7 .

87.

5(3 x − 2) + 12 x = 5 ⋅ 3x − 5 ⋅ 2 + 12 x

= 15 x − 10 + 12 x

70. The distance is −6 − 8 = −14 = 14 .

= 27 x − 10

71. The distance is −19 − (−4) = −19 + 4 = −15 = 15 .

88.

2(5 x − 1) + 14 x = 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅1 + 14 x

= 10 x − 2 + 14 x

72. The distance is −26 − (−3) = −26 + 3 = −23 = 23 .

= 24 x − 2

**73. The distance is
**

−3.6 − (−1.4) = −3.6 + 1.4 = −2.2 = 2.2 .

89.

= 7 ⋅3y − 7 ⋅5 + 2⋅ 4y + 2 ⋅3

= 21y − 35 + 8 y + 6

**74. The distance is
**

−5.4 − (−1.2) = −5.4 + 1.2 = −4.2 = 4.2 .

= 29 y − 29

90.

75. 6 + (–4) = (–4) + 6;

commutative property of addition

= 8 y − 24 + 15 y + 30

= 23 y + 6

91.

77. 6 + (2 + 7) = (6 + 2) + 7;

associative property of addition

5 ( 3 y − 2 ) − ( 7 y + 2 ) = 15 y − 10 − 7 y − 2

= 8 y − 12

92.

6 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 3) = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 2);

commutative property of multiplication

4(5 y − 3) − (6 y + 3) = 20 y − 12 − 6 y − 3

= 14 y − 15

79. (2 + 3) + (4 + 5) = (4 + 5) + (2 + 3);

commutative property of addition

80.

4(2 y − 6) + 3(5 y + 10)

= 4 ⋅ 2 y − 4 ⋅ 6 + 3 ⋅ 5 y + 3 ⋅10

76. 11 ⋅ (7 + 4) = 11 ⋅ 7 + 11 ⋅ 4;

distributive property of multiplication over addition

78.

7(3 y − 5) + 2(4 y + 3)

93.

7 − 4 ⎡⎣3 − ( 4 y − 5 ) ⎤⎦ = 7 − 4 [3 − 4 y + 5]

= 7 − 4 [8 − 4 y ]

7 ⋅ (11⋅ 8) = (11 ⋅ 8) ⋅ 7;

commutative property of multiplication

= 7 − 32 + 16 y

= 16 y − 25

**81. 2 (–8 + 6) = –16 + 12;
**

distributive property of multiplication over addition

82.

**−8(3 + 11) = −24 + (−88) ;
**

distributive property of multiplication over addition

4

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

94.

Section P.1

6 − 5[8 − (2 y − 4)] = 6 − 5 [8 − 2 y + 4]

104. −20

= 6 − 5 [12 − 2 y ]

20

= 6 − 60 + 10 y

95. 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 ( x 2 − 2) + 5⎤⎦

105.

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 12 + 5⎤⎦

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 7⎤⎦

= 18 x 2 + 4 − 6 x 2 + 7

96. 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣7 ( x 2 − 2 ) + 4 ⎤⎦

106.

= 14 x + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 14 + 4 ⎤⎦

2

= 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 10⎤⎦

−0.6

5

2

−2.5

2.5

−2.5

3

= −0.6 .

5

2.5

2.5 = 2.5

= 14 x 2 − 7 x 2 + 5 + 10

Since 2.5 = 2.5,

= (14 − 7 ) x + 15

2

= 7 x 2 + 15

107.

97. –(–14x) = 14x

− ( −17 y ) = 17 y

30 3

−

40 4

30 30

−

40 40

5

= −2.5 .

2

14 15

⋅

15 14

14 15

⋅

15 14

0 1

0 <1

30 3

14 15

Since 0 < 1,

− <

⋅ .

40 4

15 14

99. –(2x – 3y – 6) = –2x + 3y + 6

100. − ( 5 x − 13 y − 1) = −5 x + 13 y + 1

1

(3 x) + [ (4 y ) + (−4 y ) ] = x + 0

3

=x

108.

1

( 2 y ) + ⎣⎡( −7 x ) + 7 x ⎦⎤ = y + 0 = y

2

6

0.6

2.5

= 14 x 2 + 5 − 7 x 2 + 10

103. −6

−0.6

Since 0.6 = 0.6,

= (18 − 6) x 2 + 11 = 12 x 2 + 11

102.

3

5

0.6

0.6

0.6 = 0.6

= 18 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 4 + 7

101.

50

20 < 50

Since 20 < 50, −20 < −50 .

= 10 y − 54

98.

−50

17 18

⋅

18 17

17 18

⋅

18 17

50 5

−

60 6

50 50

−

60 60

1 0

1> 0

17 18

50 5

Since 1 > 0,

⋅

>

− .

18 17

60 6

−3

3

6>3

Since 6 > 3, −6 > −3 .

5

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

109. 8 8

÷

13 13

8 13

⋅

13 8

115. 8 − 3[−2(2 − 5) − 4(8 − 6)] = 8 − 3[−2(−3) − 4(2)]

−1

= 8 − 3[6 − 8]

= 8 − 3[−2]

1

=8+6

1 1

1=1

Since 1 = 1,

110.

= 14

116. 8 − 3[−2(5 − 7) − 5(4 − 2)] = 8 − 3[−2(−2) − 5(2)]

8 8

÷ = −1 .

13 13

= 8 − 3[4 − 10]

= 8 − 3[−6]

4 4

−2

÷

17 17

4 17

2

⋅

17 4

2 1

2 >1

= 8 + 18

= 26

117.

Since 2 > 1, −2 >

4 4

÷ .

17 17

111. 82 − 16 ÷ 22 ⋅ 4 − 3 = 64 − 16 ÷ 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 64 − 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

118.

= 64 − 16 − 3

= 48 − 3

= 45

112. 102 − 100 ÷ 52 ⋅ 2 − 3 = 100 − 100 ÷ 25 ⋅ 2 − 3

119.

= 100 − 4 ⋅ 2 − 3

= 100 − 8 − 3

2(−2) − 4(−3) −4 + 12

=

5−8

−3

8

=

−3

8

=−

3

6(−4) − 5(−3) −24 + 15

=

9 − 10

−1

−9

=

−1

=9

(5 − 6)2 − 2 3 − 7

89 − 3 ⋅ 52

= 92 − 3

= 89

113.

5 ⋅ 2 − 32

2

2

[3 − (−2)]

=

=

=

5⋅2 −9

[9 − (−2)]2

10 − 9

[9 + 2]2

10 − 9

112

1

=

121

114.

10 ÷ 2 + 3 ⋅ 4

(12 − 3 ⋅ 2)

2

=

=

120.

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 22 + 32

7 + 3− 6

2

=

(−1) 2 − 2 −4

89 − 3 ⋅ 25

1 − 2(4)

=

89 − 75

1− 8

=

14

−7

=

14

1

=−

2

=

=

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 4 + 9

7 + 3 − 36

4 ⋅ 5 13

10 − 36

20(13)

=

−26

260

=

−26

= −10

5 + 12

(12 − 6) 2

17

62

17

=

36

121. x − ( x + 4) = x − x − 4 = −4

6

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.1

122. x − ( 8 − x ) = x − 8 + x = 2 x − 8

b.

123. 6 ( −5 x ) = −30 x

124. 10 ( −4 x ) = −40 x

125. 5 x − 2 x = 3 x

126. 6 x − ( −2 x ) = 6 x + 2 x = 8 x

127. 8 x − ( 3x + 6 ) = 8 x − 3x − 6 = 5 x − 6

131. a.

128. 8 − 3 ( x + 6 ) = 8 − 3x − 18 = −3 x − 10

129. a.

b.

130. a.

3

( 220 − a )

5

3

H = ( 220 − 30 )

5

3

= (190 )

5

= 114

The upper limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 114 beats per

minute.

H=

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15, 395 + 988(7) − 2(7)2

= 22, 213

The formula estimates the cost to have been

$22,213 in 2007.

7

( 220 − a )

10

7

H = ( 220 − 20 )

10

7

= ( 200 )

10

= 140

The lower limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 140 beats per

minute.

H=

b.

**This underestimates the value in the graph by
**

$5.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15,395 + 988(10) − 2(10)2

= 25, 075

The formula projects the cost to be $25,075 in

2010.

4

( 220 − a )

5

4

H = ( 220 − 20 )

5

4

= ( 200 )

5

= 160

The upper limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 160 beats per

minute.

H=

132. a.

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15, 395 + 988(6) − 2(6)2

= 21, 251

The formula estimates the cost to have been

$21,251 in 2006.

1

( 220 − a )

2

1

H = ( 220 − 30 )

2

1

= (190 )

2

= 95

The lower limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 95 beats per

minute.

H=

b.

**This underestimates the value in the graph by
**

$16.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15,395 + 988(12) − 2(12)2

= 26, 963

The formula projects the cost to be $26,963 in

2012.

133. a.

0.05 x + 0.12 (10,000 − x )

= 0.05 x + 1200 − 0.12 x

= 1200 − 0.07 x

b.

**1200 − 0.07 x = 1200 − 0.07(6000)
**

= $780

7

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

134. a.

158. −π > −3.5

0.06t + 0.5(50 − t ) = 0.06t + 25 − 0.5t

= 25 − 0.44t

b.

3.14

= −1.57

2

π

− ≈ −1.571

2

−1.57 > −1.571

159. −

0.06(20) + 0.5(50 − 20)

= 1.2 + 0.5(30)

= 1.2 + 15

= 16.2 miles

−

**135. – 144. Answers may vary.
**

145. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

Sample explanation: Models do not always

accurately predict future values.

3.14

π

>−

2

2

160. a.

**146. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: To use the model, substitute 0

for x.

b4 ⋅ b3 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b7

b.

b5 ⋅ b5 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b10

c.

**add the exponents
**

b7

161. a.

147. makes sense

b

**148. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: The commutative property

changes order and the associative property changes

groupings.

b8

b.

b

c.

**149. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: Some rational numbers are not

integers.

162.

3

2

=

b⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b

= b4

b ⋅b ⋅b

=

b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b ⋅b

= b6

b⋅b

subtract the exponents

6.2 × 103 = 6.2 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 6200

It moves the decimal point 3 places to the right.

**150. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: All whole numbers are integers

Section P.2

151. true

Check Point Exercises

**152. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: Some irrational numbers are

negative.

1.

**153. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: The term x has a coefficient of

1.

( 2x y ) = ( 2) ( x ) ( y )

b.

( −6 x y )( 3xy ) = ( −6 ) ⋅ 3 ⋅ x

3

6

2

4

4

5

3

4

6

4

3

= 16 x12 y 24

2

⋅ x ⋅ y5 ⋅ y3

= −18 x 3 y 8

**154. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

5 + 3( x − 4) = 5 + 3 x − 12 = 3x − 7.

c.

**100 x12 y 2 ⎛ 100 ⎞ ⎛ x12 ⎞ ⎛ y 2 ⎞
**

=

⎜

⎟⎜

⎟

20 x16 y −4 ⎜⎝ 20 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x16 ⎠ ⎝ y −4 ⎠

= 5 x12 −16 y 2 − ( −4)

= 5 x −4 y 6

**155. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: − x − x = −2 x.

=

156. true

157.

a.

5 y6

x4

2 ≈ 1.4

1.4 < 1.5

2 < 1.5

8

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

d.

⎛ 5x ⎞

⎜ 4⎟

⎝y ⎠

Section P.2

( 5) ( x )

−2

−2

=

(y )

4

(5) ( x )

=

(y )

4

7.

−2

−2

=

−2

= (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − 02 ]

= 2534.4

The speed of the blood at the central axis of the

artery is 2534.4 centimeters per second.

−2

−2

5−2 x −2

y −8

Exercise Set P.2

y8

52 x 2

y8

=

25 x 2

=

2.

3.

4.

a.

−6

3.017 × 10

a.

5, 210, 000, 000 = 5.21× 10

b.

−0.00000006893 = −6.893 × 10−8

(

= 0.000003017

2.

62 ⋅ 2 = (6 ⋅ 6) ⋅ 2 = 36 ⋅ 2 = 72

3.

(−2)6 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 64

4.

(−2) 4 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 16

5.

−26 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −64

6.

−2 4 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −16

7.

(−3)0 = 1

)

8.

(−9)0 = 1

9.

−30 = −1

10.

−9 0 = −1

11.

4−3 =

1

1

1

=

=

3

4

4 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 4 64

12.

2−6 =

1

1

1

=

=

6

2

2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 64

13.

2 2 ⋅ 23 = 2 2 + 3 = 25 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 32

14.

33 ⋅ 32 = 33+ 2 = 35 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 243

15.

(22 )3 = 22⋅3 = 26 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 64

16.

(33 )2 = 33⋅2 = 36 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 729

17.

28

= 28− 4 = 24 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 16

24

18.

38

= 38 − 4 = 34 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 81

34

19.

3−3 ⋅ 3 = 3−3+1 = 3−2 =

1

1

1

=

=

2

3

3⋅3 9

20.

2−3 ⋅ 2 = 2−3+1 = 2−2 =

1

1

1

=

=

2

2⋅2 4

2

9

410 ×107 = 4.1× 102 × 107

(

= 4.1× 10

)

9

( 7.1×10 )( 5 ×10 )

−7

5

= 7.1 ⋅ 5 × 105 ⋅10−7

= 35.5 × 10−2

(

)

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

(

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

= 3.55 × 10

b.

52 ⋅ 2 = (5 ⋅ 5) ⋅ 2 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 50

−2.6 ×10 = −2, 600, 000, 000

b.

a.

1.

9

= 4.1× 102 × 107

5.

)

−1

1.2 × 106 1.2 106

=

⋅

3 ×10−3

3 10−3

= 0.4 × 106 − ( −3)

= 0.4 × 109

= 4 × 108

6.

S = (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − r 2 ]

13 × 109

13 109

=

⋅

6

5.1 × 10

5.1 106

≈ 2.5 ⋅ 103

≈ 2500

The average Pell grant was $2500 in 2006.

9

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

21.

23

1

1

1

= 23 − 7 = 2 − 4 = 4 =

=

7

2

2

2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 16

22.

34

1

1

1

= 34 − 7 = 3−3 = 3 =

=

37

3

3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 27

23.

x −2 y =

25.

x0 y5 = 1⋅ y5 = y5

26.

x 7 ⋅ y 0 = x 7 ⋅1 = x 7

27.

x 3 ⋅ x 7 = x 3+ 7 = x10

28.

x ⋅x = x

29.

x −5 ⋅ x10 = x −5+10 = x 5

30.

x −6 ⋅ x12 = x −6 +12 = x 6

31.

( x3 )7 = x 3⋅7 = x 21

32.

( x11 )5 = x11⋅5 = x 55

33.

( x −5 )3 = x −5⋅3 = x −15 =

34.

35.

5

11+ 5

42.

⎛ 6⎞

(−6)3

216

⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3

y

y

⎝ y⎠

43.

(−3x 2 y 5 ) 2 = (−3)2 ( x 2 ) 2 ⋅ ( y 5 ) 2

= 9 x 2⋅2 y 5⋅2

= 9 x 4 y10

1

x

=

y3 y3

xy −3 = x ⋅

(−4)3

64

⎛ 4⎞

⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3

x

x

⎝ x⎠

3

1

y

⋅y= 2

x2

x

24.

11

3

41.

44.

**= −27 x 4⋅3 y 6⋅3
**

= −27 x12 y18

=x

45.

(3 x 4 )(2 x 7 ) = 3 ⋅ 2 x 4 ⋅ x 7 = 6 x 4 + 7 = 6 x11

46.

(11x 5 )(9 x12 ) = 11⋅ 9 x 5 x12 = 99 x5 +12 = 99 x17

47.

(−9 x3 y )(−2 x 6 y 4 ) = (−9)(−2) x 3 x 6 yy 4

16

( x −6 ) 4 = x −6⋅4 = x −24 =

= 18 x 3+ 6 y1+ 4

= 18 x 9 y 5

48.

= 30 x11 y12

1

x15

1

x 24

49.

8 x 20 ⎛ 8 ⎞ ⎛ x 20

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

2 x4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ x4

50.

20 x 24 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 24 ⎞

24 − 6

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

= 2 x18

⎟ = 2x

10 x 6 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ x 6 ⎠

x14

= x14 − 7 = x 7

x7

x30

= x 30 −10 = x 20

10

x

38.

⎞

20 − 4

= 4 x16

⎟ = 4x

⎠

25a13 ⋅ b 4 ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎛ a13 ⎞ ⎛ b 4 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟⎜ ⎟

−5a 2 ⋅ b3 ⎝ −5 ⎠ ⎝ a 2 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠

= −5a13 − 2 b 4 − 3

= −5a11b

14

37.

(−5 x 4 y )(−6 x 7 y11 ) = (−5)(−6) x 4 x 7 yy11

= 30 x 4 + 7 y1+11

51.

36.

(−3x 4 y 6 )3 = (−3)3 ( x 4 )3 ( y 6 )3

x

= x14 − ( −7) = x14 + 7 = x 21

x −7

52.

x30

= x30 − ( −10) = x 30 +10 = x 40

x −10

39.

(8 x3 ) 2 = 82 ( x 3 )2 = 82 x 3⋅2 = 64 x 6

40.

(6 x ) = (6) ( x ) = 6 x

4 2

2

4 2

2

4⋅2

= 36 x

35a14 b6 ⎛ 35 ⎞ ⎛ a14 ⎞ ⎛ b6 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟⎜ ⎟

−7a 7 b3 ⎝ −7 ⎠ ⎝ a 7 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠

= −5a14 − 7 b6 − 3

= −5a 7 b3

53.

8

14b7 ⎛ 14 ⎞ ⎛ b 7 ⎞

2

7 −14

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

= 2b −7 = 7

⎟ = 2⋅b

7b14 ⎝ 7 ⎠ ⎝ b14 ⎠

b

10

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

54.

Section P.2

20b10 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ b10 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟

10b 20 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ b 20 ⎠

3

61.

= 2b10 − 20

= 2b

⎛ −3b5 ⎞

=⎜ 6 ⎟

⎝ a ⎠

−27b15

=

a18

−10

2

b10

=

55.

(4 x3 ) −2 = (4−2 )( x 3 ) −2

−2

=4 x

62.

1

42 x6

1

=

16 x 6

1

103 x 6

1

=

1000 x 6

10 x 4 y 9

1

= x 4 −12 y 9 − ( −3)

30 x12 y −3 3

1

= x −8 y12

3

y12

= 8

3x

59.

⎛ 5x ⎞

5 x

y

⎜

⎟ = −2 =

y

25

x6

⎝

⎠

y

−3

−2

−6

⎛ 3x ⎞

⎛ y ⎞

⎜

⎟ =⎜ 4 ⎟

⎝ 3x ⎠

⎝ y ⎠

y3

= 3 4⋅3

3 x

y3

=

27 x12

4

60.

−2

3

3

63.

⎛ 3a −5b 2 ⎞

=1

⎜

3 −4 ⎟

⎝ 12a b ⎠

64.

⎛ 4a −5b3 ⎞

=1

⎜

3 −5 ⎟

⎝ 12a b ⎠

65.

3.8 × 10 2 = 380

66.

9.2 × 10 2 = 920

67.

6 × 10−4 = 0.0006

68.

7 × 10−5 = 0.00007

69.

−7.16 × 106 = −7,160, 000

70.

−8.17 × 106 = −8,170, 000

71.

7.9 × 10−1 = 0.79

72.

6.8 × 10 −1 = 0.68

73.

−4.15 × 10 −3 = −0.00415

74.

−3.14 × 10−3 = −0.00314

75.

−6.00001×1010 = −60, 000,100, 000

76.

−7.00001×1010 = −70, 000,100, 000

77.

32, 000 = 3.2 × 104

78.

64, 000 = 6.4 ×104

0

24 x 3 ⋅ y 5 3 3− 7 5 − ( −9)

= x y

32 x 7 y −9 4

3

= x −4 y14

4

3 y14

= 4

4x

3

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

0

=

58.

⎛ −30a14b8 ⎞ ⎛ −3b8−( −2)

= ⎜⎜ 17−14

⎜

17 −2 ⎟

⎝ 10a b ⎠ ⎝ a

(10 x 2 )−3 = 10−3 x 2⋅( −3)

3

3

⎛ −3b10 ⎞

=⎜

⎟

⎝ a3 ⎠

−27b30

=

a9

= 10−3 x −6

57.

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

3

−6

=

56.

⎛ −15a 4b 2 ⎞ ⎛ −3b 2−( −3)

⎜ 10 −3 ⎟ = ⎜⎜ 10−4

⎝ 5a b ⎠ ⎝ a

2

3

11

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

79.

94.

638, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000

(8.2 ×10 )( 4.6 ×10 )

8

4

= 6.38 ×1017

= 37.72 × 108+ 4 = 37.72 × 1012

80.

579,000, 000, 000, 000, 000 = 5.79 × 1017

= 3.772 × 1013 ≈ 3.77 ×1013

81.

−5716 = −5.716 × 103

82.

−3829 = −3.829 × 103

83.

0.0027 = 2.7 × 10 −3

84.

0.0083 = 8.3 × 10 −3

85.

−0.00000000504 = −5.04 × 10−9

86.

−0.00000000405 = −4.05 × 10−9

87.

(3 × 104 )( 2.1 × 103 ) = (3 × 2.1) (104 × 103 )

( 2 ×10 )( 4.1×10 ) = 8.2 ×10

89.

(1.6 × 10 )( 4 × 10 ) = (1.6 × 4) (10

4

3

(1.4 × 10 )(3 × 10 ) = (1.4 × 3) (10

−11

99.

4.8 × 10−2 4.8 10−2

=

×

2.4 × 106 2.4 106

= 2 × 10−2 − 6 = 2 × 10−8

15

× 10−11 )

100. 7.5 ×10−2

= 3 × 10−2 − 6 = 3 × 10−8

6

2.5 × 10

× 10−4 )

**101. 2.4 × 10−2 2.4 10−2
**

=

×

4.8 ×10−6 4.8 10−6

= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

= 4.2 × 104

(6.1 × 10 )( 2 × 10 ) = (6.1× 2) (10

−8

−4

−8

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 × 103

= 12.2 × 10−8+( −4)

= 12.2 × 10−12

102. 1.5 × 10−2

= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

5 × 10−6

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 ×103

= 1.22 × 10−11

92.

**( 5.1×10 )(3 ×10 ) = 15.3 ×10
**

−8

−4

−12

= 1.53 × 10−11

93.

**103. 480, 000, 000, 000 4.8 × 1011
**

=

0.00012

1.2 ×10−4

4.8 1011

=

×

1.2 10−4

= 4 × 1011− ( −4)

( 4.3 ×10 )(6.2 ×10 )

= ( 4.3 × 6.2) (10 ×10 )

8

4

8

3.6 ×104 3.6 104

=

×

9 10−2

9 × 10−2

= 0.4 ×104 − ( −2)

× 10−11 )

15

= 4.2 × 1015+( −11)

91.

97.

1.2 × 104

= 0.6 × 104 − ( −2) = 0.6 ×106

2 × 10−2

= ( 6 ×10−1 ) ×106 = 6 × 105

= 6.4 × 104

15

6.9 × 108

= 2.3 × 108− 5 = 2.3 × 103

3 ×105

98.

= 6.4 × 1015+ ( −11)

90.

96.

7

−11

15

8.4 × 108 8.4 108

=

×

4 ×105

4 105

= 2.1× 108− 5 = 2.1× 103

= 0.4 ×106 = 4 × 105

= 6.3 × 104+3 = 6.3 × 107

88.

95.

4

= 26.66 × 108+ 4

= 4 × 1015

= 26.66 × 1012

= 2.666 × 1013 ≈ 2.67 × 1013

**104. 282, 000, 000, 000 2.82 × 1011
**

=

0.00141

1.41×10−3

= 2 × 1011− ( −3)

= 2 × 1014

12

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

105.

106.

Section P.2

0.00072 × 0.003

0.00024

7.2

( ×10−4 )(3 ×10−3 )

=

2.4 × 10−4

7.2 × 3 10−4 ⋅10−3

=

×

= 9 × 10−3

2.4

10−4

113.

**( 2−1 x−2 y−1 ) ( 2 x−4 y3 ) (16 x−3 y3 )
**

2

( 2 x−3 y−5 )

( 22 x2 y2 )( 2−2 x8 y−6 )(1)

=

( 22 x−6 y−10 )

−2

=

4

−3

66000 × 0.001 ( 6.6 × 10 )(1× 10 )

=

0.003 × 0.002 ( 3 × 10−3 )( 2 × 10−3 )

114.

6.6 × 10

1− −6

= 1.1× 10 ( )

6 × 10−6

= 1.1× 107

−1

x −3 y −1 )

−2

1

107.

( x y)

(x y )

−3

−2

−1 3

2

=

x 6 y −3

= 6 −3

x y

=

= x 6 − 6 y −3− ( −3) = x 0 y 0 = 1

108.

( xy )

( x y)

−2 −2

−2

−3

= x −2 − 6 y

4 − ( −3)

= x −8 y 7 =

(2

y7

x8

111.

⎛ x y z ⎞

⎜ −3 −4 −5 ⎟

⎝x y z ⎠

3

4 5

−2

−4

−6

y4 )

y −6 )

−2

(9 x

3

y −3 )

0

2

x 6 y 2 )( 2−2 x12 y −8 ) (1)

(2

2

x −8 y −12 )

2.52 × 1012

3 × 108

c.

2.52 × 1012

3 × 108

=

2.52 1012

× 8

3

10

= 0.84 × 104

= 8400

$8400 per American

y

y

=

24 x8 z 6 16 x8 z 6

116. a.

**110. 3 x −4 yz −7 ( 3x )−3 = 3x −4 yz −7 ⋅ 3−3 x ⋅−3
**

(

)

= 3−2 x −7 yz −7 =

(2x

b.

**109. 2 x −3 yz −6 ( 2 x )−5 = 2 x −3 yz −6 ⋅ 2−5 x ⋅−5
**

(

)

= 2−4 x −8 yz −6 =

2

(2x

x 26 y 6

4

115. a.

x −2 y 4

= 6 −3

x y

0

x18 y6

4

(2

=

−2

y

y

=

3 x7 z 7 9 x7 z 7

2

2.27 × 1012

b.

2.98 × 108

c.

2.27 × 1012

2.27 1012

=

×

2.98 108

2.98 × 108

= 0.7617 × 104

= ( x6 y z

)

= 7617

$7617 per American

8 10 −2

= x −12 y −16 z −20 =

1

x y16 z 20

117. 1450 × 109 ⋅ 6.60 = 1.45 × 1012 ⋅ 6.6

12

= 1.45 ⋅ 6.6 × 1012

112. ⎛ x 4 y 5 z 6 ⎞ −4

8 10 12 −4

⎜ −4 −5 −6 ⎟ = ( x y z )

⎝x y z ⎠

= x −32 y −40 z −48 =

= 9.57 × 1012

Box-office receipts were $9.57 × 1012 in 2006.

1

x y 40 z 48

118. 1400 × 109 ⋅ 6.40 = 1.4 × 1012 ⋅ 6.4

32

= 1.4 ⋅ 6.4 × 1012

= 8.96 × 1012

Box-office receipts were $8.96 × 1012 in 2005.

13

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

119. 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 20, 000 = 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 2 × 104

138. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 52 ⋅ 5−2 = 25 ⋅ 2−5.

= 5.3 ⋅ 2 × 10−23 ⋅ 104

= 10.6 × 10−19

**139. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: 534.7 ≠ 5347.

= 1.06 × 101 ⋅ 10−19

**140. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

= 1.06 × 10−18

The mass is 1.06 × 10−18 gram.

8 × 1030

2 × 10−5

120. 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 80, 000 = 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 8 × 104

= 1.67 ⋅ 8 × 10−24 ⋅ 104

**141. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

= 13.36 × 10−20

1

= 1.336 × 10 ⋅ 10

(7 × 105 ) + (2 × 10−3 ) = 700, 000.002.

−20

142. true

= 1.336 × 10−19

**143. The doctor has gathered:
**

1 1

2 1 3

2−1 + 2−2 = +

= + =

2 22 4 4 4

**The mass is 1.336 × 10−19 gram.
**

121. 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 127 = 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 1.27 × 102

= 3.2 ⋅ 1.27 × 107 ⋅ 102

So, 1 −

= 4.064 × 109

3 1

= is remaining.

4 4

144. b A = MN , bC = M , b D = N

Americans eat 4.064 × 109 chickens per year.

b A = bC b D

122. 365 days equals 365 ⋅ 24 or 8760 hours.

A=C+D

**8760 hours equals 8760 ⋅ 60 or 525,600 minutes.
**

525,600 min. equals

525,600 ⋅ 60 or 31,536,000 seconds.

145.

**There are 3.1536 × 107 seconds in a year.
**

123. – 130. Answers may vary.

131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

**Sample explanation: 36( x3 )9 = 36 x 27 not 36 x12 .
**

132. makes sense

**70 bts 60 min 24 hrs 365 days
**

⋅

⋅

⋅

⋅ 80 yrs

hr

day

yr

min

= 70 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 365 ⋅ 80 beats

= 2943360000 beats

= 2.94336 × 109 beats

≈ 2.94 × 109 beats

The heartbeats approximately 2.94 × 109 times over a

lifetime of 80 years.

146. Answers may vary.

**133. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

147. a.

**Sample explanation: 4.6 × 1012 represents over 4
**

trillion. The entire world population is measured in

billions ( 109 ).

134. makes sense

135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 4

= 4 × 1030 − ( −5) = 4 × 1035.

−2

b.

16 ⋅ 4 = 64 = 8

c.

16 ⋅ 4 = 16 ⋅ 4

148. a.

300 ≈ 17.32

b.

10 3 ≈ 17.32

c.

300 = 10 3

−3

>4 .

16 ⋅ 4 = 4 ⋅ 2 = 8

136. true

137. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

1

A sample change is: (−2)4 ≠ 2−4 because 16 ≠ .

16

149. a.

b.

21x + 10 x = 31x

21 2 + 10 2 = 31 2

14

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

Section P.3

5.

a.

**Check Point Exercises
**

1.

5 27 + 12

= 5 9⋅3 + 4⋅3

= 5⋅3 3 + 2 3

a.

81 = 9

b.

− 9 = −3

c.

1

1

=

25 5

d.

36 + 64 = 100 = 10

e.

36 + 64 = 6 + 8 = 14

a.

75 = 25 ⋅ 3 = 25 3 = 5 3

b.

5 x ⋅ 10 x = 5 x ⋅10 x

= 15 3 + 2 3

= (15 + 2) 3

= 17 3

2.

b.

= 6 9 ⋅ 2x − 4 4 ⋅ 2x

= 6 ⋅ 3 2x − 4 ⋅ 2 2x

= 18 2 x − 8 2 x

= (18 − 8) 2 x

= 10 2 x

6.

a.

= 50 x 2

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2

b.

5

3

25

25 5

=

=

16

16 4

150 x 3

2x

=

b.

150 x 3

2x

= 5x 3

3

⋅

12

8 13 + 9 13 = (8 + 9) 3

7.

17 x − 20 17 x

= 1 17 x − 20 17 x

= (1 − 20) 17 x

=

Multiply by

3

=

5 3

9

=

5 3

3

12 ⋅ 3 =

3

3

6

12

⋅

36 = 6. So multiply by 1,

for 1.

3

3

=

6 3

36

=

4− 5

.

4− 5

8

8

4− 5

=

⋅

4+ 5 4+ 5 4− 5

=

= −19 17 x

3

for 1.

**The smallest number that will produce a perfect
**

6

square in the denominator of

is 3

12

6

= 17 13

b.

5

choosing

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 3

a.

=

3

because

= 75 x 2

4.

3

choosing

= 5x 2

a.

**If we multiply numerator and denominator by
**

3, the denominator becomes

3 ⋅ 3 = 9 = 3. Therefore, multiply by 1,

= 25 ⋅ 2 x 2

3.

6 18 x − 4 8 x

8(4 − 5)

42 − ( 5)2

8(4 − 5)

16 − 5

8(4 − 5)

32 − 8 5

or

=

11

11

=

15

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6 3

= 3

6

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

8.

9.

a.

3

40 = 3 8 ⋅ 5 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 5 = 2 3 5

Exercise Set P.3

b.

5

8 ⋅ 5 8 = 5 64 = 5 32 ⋅ 5 2 = 2 5 2

1.

36 = 62 = 6

c.

3

125 3 125 5

= 3

=

27

27 3

2.

25 = 52 = 5

3 3 81 − 4 3 3 = 3 3 27 ⋅ 3 − 4 3 3

3.

− 36 = − 62 = −6

4.

− 25 = − 52 = −5

5.

**−36 , The square root of a negative number is not
**

real.

6.

**−25 , The square root of a negative number is not
**

real.

= 3⋅ 33 3 − 4 3 3

= 93 3 − 43 3

= (9 − 4) 3 3

= 53 3

1

25 2 = 25 = 5

10. a.

1

b.

83 = 3 8 = 2

c.

−814 = − 4 81 = −3

d.

( −8 ) 3

e.

27

1

1

−

1

3

= 3 −8 = −2

1

=

1

1

=

3

27 3

4

(

27 3 =

11. a.

( 4)

2

5

1

32

c.

27

42 =

3

b.

3

−

2

=

3

2

)

4

=

27

1

3

= (3)4 = 81

= (2)3 = 8

=

32 5

1

(

5

32

)

2

1 1

= 2 =

2

4

7.

25 − 16 = 9 = 3

8.

144 + 25 = 169 = 13

9.

25 − 16 = 5 − 4 = 1

10.

144 + 25 = 12 + 5 = 17

11.

(−13) 2 = 169 = 13

12.

(−17)2 = 289 = 17

13.

50 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 25 2 = 5 2

14.

27 = 9 ⋅ 3 = 9 3 = 3 3

15.

45 x 2 = 9 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 9 x2 5

( 2 x )( 5x )

4/3

12. a.

8/3

= 9 x2 5

= 2 ⋅ 5 x 4 / 3 ⋅ x8 / 3

=3 x 5

= 10 x ( 4 / 3) + (8 / 3)

= 10 x12 / 3

= 10 x

16.

4

= 25 x 2 5

20 x 4 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 4 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟

3

5x 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x 2 ⎠

b.

= 25 x 2 5

=5 x 5

4− 3

= 4x ( 2)

8 − 3

= 4 x( 2 ) ( 2 )

= 4x

13.

6

5

17.

2x ⋅ 6x = 2x ⋅ 6x

= 12 x 2

2

= 4x2 ⋅ 3

x3 = x 6 = x 2 = x

3

125 x 2 = 25 x 2 ⋅ 5

1

= 2x 3

16

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

18.

Section P.3

10 x ⋅ 8 x = 10 x ⋅ 8 x

30.

= 80 x 2

24 x 4

=

3x

= 16 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 8 x3

= 4x 5

= 4 x2 ⋅ 2 x

19.

x3 = x 2 ⋅ x = x x

20.

y3 =

21.

2 x2 ⋅ 6 x = 2 x2 ⋅ 6 x

= 2x 2x

31.

y2 ⋅ y = y y

200 x3

10 x −1

= 4 x 2 ⋅ 3x

= 4 ⋅ 5x4

= 2 x2 5

32.

1

1 1

=

=

81

81 9

24.

1

=

49

25.

49

49 7

=

=

16

16 4

26.

121

121 11

=

=

9

3

9

27.

28.

48 x3

=

3x

72 x

3

=

8x

1

7

34.

8 5 + 11 5 = (8 + 11) 5 = 19 5

35.

6 17 x − 8 17 x = (6 − 8) 17 x = −2 17 x

36.

4 13 x − 6 13x = (4 − 6) 13x = −2 13x

= (2 + 3) 2

=5 2

38.

20 + 6 5 = 4 ⋅ 5 + 6 5

= 2 5+6 5

= (2 + 6) 5

=8 5

72 x

= 9 x2 = 3x

8x

150 x

150 x

=

3x

3x

8 + 3 2 = 4⋅2 + 3 2

= 2 2 +3 2

39.

29.

500 x 3

= 50 x 3−( −1)

10 x −1

7 3 + 6 3 = (7 + 6) 3 = 13 3

37.

48 x3

= 16 x 2 = 4 x

3x

4

10 x −1

=

33.

3

=

500 x 3

= 50 x 4 = 25 ⋅ 2 x 4 = 5 x 2 2

= 3x 2x

49

3−( −1)

= 20 x 4

6 x ⋅ 3 x 2 = 6 x ⋅ 3x 2

= 18 x3

1

200 x 3

10 x −1

= 12 x 3

= 9 x2 ⋅ 2 x

23.

=

= 20 x

= 2 x 3x

22.

24 x 4

3x

4

50 x − 8 x = 25 ⋅ 2 x − 4 ⋅ 2 x

= 5 2x − 2 2x

= (5 − 2) 2 x

= 50 x 3

= 3 2x

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2 x

= 5x 2x

17

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

40.

63 x − 28 x = 9 ⋅ 7 x − 4 ⋅ 7 x

49.

= 3 7x − 2 7x

13

3 + 11

= (3 − 2) 7 x

=

=

= 7x

41.

3 18 + 5 50 = 3 9 ⋅ 2 + 5 25 ⋅ 2

= 3⋅3 2 + 5⋅5 2

= 9 2 + 25 2

= (9 + 25) 2

50.

= 34 2

42.

3

3+ 7

= 4⋅ 2 3 − 2⋅5 3

13(3 − 11)

9 − 11

=

13(3 − 11)

−2

=

= −2 3

3 8 − 32 + 3 72 − 75

51.

= 3 4 ⋅ 2 − 16 ⋅ 2 + 3 36 ⋅ 2 − 25 ⋅ 3

7

5−2

= 6 2 − 4 2 + 18 2 − 5 3

=

= 20 2 − 5 3

= 3 9 ⋅ 6 − 2 4 ⋅ 6 − 16 ⋅ 6 + 4 9 ⋅ 7

52.

= 3⋅3 6 − 2⋅ 2 6 − 4 6 + 4 ⋅3 7

5

3 −1

= 9 6 − 4 6 − 4 6 + 12 7

46.

47.

48.

2

2

5

7

3

=

=

=

2

2

5

7

⋅

10

⋅

10

5

5

=

=

5−2

5+2

⋅

5+2

7( 5 + 2)

( 5) 2 − 22

7( 5 + 2)

5−4

5

3 −1

⋅

3 +1

3 +1

5( 3 + 1)

( 3) 2 − 12

5( 3 + 1)

3 −1

5( 3 + 1)

=

2

7

10

7

=

7

=

⋅

=

7

7

7 7

10

3(3 − 7 )

32 − ( 7 )2

=

=

= 6 + 12 7

45.

3− 7

= 7( 5 + 2)

3 54 − 2 24 − 96 + 4 63

1

⋅

3+ 7 3− 7

=

=

= 3⋅ 2 2 − 4 2 + 3⋅ 6 2 − 5 3

1

3

3(3 − 7)

9−7

3(3 − 7)

=

2

= (8 − 10) 3

44.

32 − ( 11)2

=

= 8 3 − 10 3

43.

13(3 − 11)

=

=

4 12 − 2 75 = 4 4 ⋅ 3 − 2 25 ⋅ 3

13

3 − 11

⋅

3 + 11 3 − 11

2 10

10

=

10

5

53.

10

5

6

5+ 3

=

=

=

3

21

⋅

=

3

3 3

6

5+ 3

⋅

5− 3

5− 3

6( 5 − 3)

( 5) 2 − ( 3) 2

6( 5 − 3)

5−3

6( 5 − 3)

2

= 3( 5 − 3)

=

18

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

11

54.

Section P.3

11

=

7− 3

=

7− 3

⋅

7+ 3

5

73.

7+ 3

11( 7 + 3)

74.

11( 7 + 3)

=

7−3

11( 7 + 3)

=

4

125 = 3 53 = 5

55.

3

56.

3

8 = 3 23 = 2

57.

3

−8 = 3 (−2) = −2

3

77.

5 3 16 + 3 54 = 5 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 3 27 ⋅ 2

= 5 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 33 2

= 13 3 2

61.

4

(−3) 4 = −3 = 3

62.

4

(−2) = −2 = 2

63.

5

(−3)5 = −3

64.

5

(−2) = −2

65.

5

67.

3

= 6 3 3 + 33 3

= 93 3

79.

= − y 3 2x

80.

2

24 xy 3 − y 3 81x

= 2 y 3 3 x − 3 y 3 3x

=

6

3

= 3 8 ⋅ 3xy 3 − y 3 27 ⋅ 3x

= − y 3 3x

1

1

1

= 5 − 5 =−

32

2

2

1

54 xy 3 − y 3 128 x

= 3 y 3 2x − 4 y 3 2x

5

6

3

= 3 27 ⋅ 2 xy 3 − y 3 64 ⋅ 2 x

4

6

3 3 24 + 3 81 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 + 3 27 ⋅ 3

= 3 ⋅ 2 3 3 + 33 3

−81 is not a real number.

1

=

64

162 x5 4

= 81x 4 = 3x

2x

6 5 3 + 25 3 = 85 3

−16 is not a real number.

4

6

2x

4

= 10 3 2 + 3 3 2

60.

66.

4

=

76.

−125 = 3 (−5)3 = −5

−

162 x 5

64 x 6 5

= 32 x5 = 2 x

2x

5

4 5 2 + 35 2 = 7 5 2

3

4

59.

2x

=

75.

78.

58.

5

4

( 7 )2 − ( 3) 2

64 x 6

1

2

81.

2+ 3 8 = 2+2

82.

3 + 3 15 will not simplify

83.

32 = 3 8 ⋅ 4 = 3 8 3 4 = 2 ⋅ 3 4

361/ 2 = 36 = 6

**84. 1211/ 2 = 121 = 11
**

68.

3

69.

3

70.

3

71.

3

72.

3

**150 cannot be simplified further.
**

85.

81/ 3 = 3 8 = 2

x 4 = 3 x3 ⋅ x = x ⋅ 3 x

86.

271/ 3 = 3 27 = 3

x5 = 3 x3 x 2 = x 3 x 2

87. 1252 / 3 =

9 ⋅ 3 6 = 3 54 = 3 27 ⋅ 2 = 3 27 3 2 = 3 3 2

88.

12 ⋅ 4 = 48 = 8 ⋅ 6 = 2 6

3

3

3

3

82 / 3 =

(

3

125

( 8)

3

2

)

2

= 52 = 25

=4

19

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

89.

90. 16−5 / 2 =

91.

1

1

1

= 4 =

4/5

32

2

16

32−4 / 5 =

1

1

1

1

=

=

=

165 / 2 ( 16)5 45 1024

( 7 x )( 2 x ) = 7 ⋅ 2 x

1/ 3

1/ 4

1/ 3

⋅ x1/ 4

1/ 3 +1/ 4

= 14 ⋅ x

20 x1/ 2 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x1/ 2 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟

5 x1/ 4 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x1/ 4 ⎠

= 4 ⋅ x1/ 2 −1/ 4

4

x12 = x12 / 4 = x

105.

6

x4 = 6 / 2 x4 / 2 = 3 x2

106.

9

x6 = 9 / 3 x6 / 3 = 3 x 2

107.

9

x6 y 3 = x 9 y 9 = x 3 y 3 = 3 x 2 y

108.

12

x 4 y 8 = x 12 y 12 = x 3 y 3 =

109.

34

110.

3

94.

95.

(x

)

=x

2 / 3⋅3

=x

98.

(125 x9 y 6 )1/ 3 = 1251/ 3 x 9 / 3 y 6 / 3 = 5 x 3 y 2

1

2

x y2

3

3

1000 + 3 216

1/ 2

−2 −1/ 2

4 −1/ 2

1/ 2

1 ( −2)( −1/ 2 ) ( 4)( −1/ 2)

x

y

( xy1/ 2 )

491/ 2

1

1

−2 + 1/ 2

= x1 y −2 ⋅ xy1/ 2 = x1+1 y ( )

7

7

1

x2

= x 2 y −3 / 2 = 3 / 2

7

7y

3

3

112. ( 8 x −6 y 3 )

1/ 3

(x

5/ 6

y −1/ 3 )

6

= 81/ 3 x ( −6)(1/ 3) y ( 3)(1/ 3) x (5 / 6)( 6) y ( −1/ 3)( 6)

= 2 x −2 y1 x5 y −2 = 2 x −2 + 5 y1+ ( −2 )

2

= 27 y 12 = 27 y 3

24 ( y1/ 5 )

−1/ 2

=

⎛ 14 ⎞

3

⎜ 3y ⎟

3 1

⎝

⎠ = 27 y 4 = 27 y 4 − 12

1

1

y 12

y 12

=

169 + 9 +

−1/ 2

(25 x 4 y 6 )1/ 2 = 251/ 2 x 4⋅1/ 2 y 6⋅1/ 2 = 5 x 2 y

y 3 /10

8

( xy )

= ( 49 ) ( x ) ( y ) ( xy )

97.

1/ 5 4

1

16 + 625 = 3 2 + 25 = 3 27 = 3

111. ( 49 x −2 y 4 )

2

( x 4 / 5 )5 = x 4 / 5⋅5 = x 4

(2y )

2

= 3 4+ 4 = 38

=2

⎞

3 / 4 −1/ 3

= 8 x5 /12

⎟ = 8⋅ x

⎠

96.

8

3

= 3 16 + 16

72 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 72 ⎞ ⎛ x 3 / 4

= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1/ 3

9 x1/ 3

⎝ 9 ⎠⎝ x

2/3 3

3

= 3 13 + 3 + 10 + 6

= 4 x1/ 4

100.

104.

4

2 / 3+ 3 / 4

= 12 x17 /12

99.

x6 = x6 / 3 = x 2

(3 x 2 / 3 )(4 x3 / 4 ) = 3 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3 ⋅ x 3 / 4

= 12 ⋅ x

93.

3

6

= 14 x 7 /12

92.

103.

= 2 x3 y −1 =

4

y 3 /10

⎛ x −5 / 4 y1/ 3 ⎞

113. ⎜ −3 / 4 ⎟

⎝ x

⎠

4/5

16 y

= 3 /10 = 16 y 4 / 5− 3 /10 = 16 y1/ 2

y

101.

4

52 = 52 / 4 = 51/ 2 = 5

102.

4

7 2 = 7 2 / 4 = 71/ 2 = 7

2 x3

y

−6

(

= x(

= ( x −2 / 4 y1/ 3 ) = x(

−6

= x3 y −2 =

−5 / 4 ) − ( −3 / 4 )

−2 / 4 )( −6 )

y(

y1/ 3

)

−6

1/ 3)( −6 )

x3

y2

20

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

⎛ x1/ 2 y −7 / 4 ⎞

114. ⎜

⎟

−5 / 4

⎝ y

⎠

−4

= ( x1/ 2 y −2 / 4 )

= x −2 y 2 =

115. a.

(

= x1/ 2 y (

−4

−7 / 4 ) − ( −5 / 4 )

)

−4

⎛v⎞

118. Ra = R f 1 − ⎜ ⎟

⎝c⎠

= x (1/ 2)( −4) y ( −2 / 4)( −4)

⎛ 0.9c ⎞

= Rf 1− ⎜

⎟

⎝ c ⎠

y2

x2

= R f 1 − ( 0.9 )

In 2004, we have x = 5.

Ra = 0.44 R f

44 = 0.44 R f

In 2011, we have x = 12 .

0.44 R f

44

=

0.44

0.44

100 = R f

If you are gone for 44 weeks, then 100 weeks will

have passed for your friend.

119. Perimeter:

P = 2l + 2 w

For 2020: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 125 + 2 ⋅ 2 20

= 5 10 + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 25 ⋅ 5 + 4 4 ⋅ 5

For 2050: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 5 40 + 34.1

= 2⋅5 5 + 4⋅ 2 5

= 5 ⋅ 2 10 + 34.1

= 10 5 + 8 5

= 18 5 feet

Area:

A = lw

= 10 10 + 34.1

Difference:

(10 10 + 34.1) − (5 10 + 34.1)

= 10 10 + 34.1 − 5 10 − 34.1

= 125 ⋅ 2 20

= 10 10 − 5 10 + 34.1 − 34.1

= 2 125 ⋅ 20

= 5 10

= 2 2500

= 2 ⋅ 50

= 100 square feet

The difference is 5 10.

b.

117.

2

≈ 0.44 R f

y = 20.8 12 + 21 ≈ 93.1

According to the model, 93.1% of email will be

spam in 2011.

This overestimates the value given in the bar

graph by 21.1%.

116. a.

2

= R f 0.19

y = 20.8 5 + 21 ≈ 67.5

According to the model, 67.5% of email was

spam in 2004.

This underestimates the actual value shown in

the bar graph by 0.5%.

b.

2

5 10 ≈ 15.8

This underestimates the difference projected by

the graph of 65.8 − 47.3 = 18.5 by 2.7. This

represents a difference of 2.7 million people.

2

5 + 1 2( 5 + 1)

⋅

=

5 −1

5 −1 5 +1

2( 5 + 1)

4

5 +1

=

2

≈ 1.62

About 1.62 to 1.

=

21

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

120. Perimeter:

P = 2l + 2w

13 + 2 +

139.

= 2 ⋅ 4 20 + 2 ⋅ 80

7

= 13 + 2 +

3+ 2

= 8 4 ⋅ 5 + 2 16 ⋅ 5

= 24 5 feet

Area:

A = lw

21 − 7 2

9−2

= 13 + 2 +

21 − 7 2

7

1

1

140. a.

= 4 1600

= 4 ⋅ 40

= 160 square feet

b.

121. – 128. Answers may vary.

3 2 > 33

Calculator Check: 1.7321 > 1.4422

7 + 18 > 7 + 18

Calculator Check: 6.8884 > 5

5

**129. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: The denominator is

rationalized correctly.

141. a.

b.

**131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary. Sample
**

explanation: 2 20 + 4 75 simplifies to 4 5 + 20 3

and thus the radical terms are not common.

2

⋅7

1

2

1

4

−

4

3

3

−

4

+ 2−2

+ 2−1

( 8)

3

=

+

4

1

( 16 )

4

3

= 71 = 7.

136. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

20

5

=

.

8

4

)(5 − 3 ) = 22

25 − 3 = 22

3 =3

25 x 14 = 5 x 7

1

22

+

1 1

+

4

2

4

=

1 1

+

23 2

1 1

+

= 16 4

1 1

+

8 2

5

= 16

5

8

8

=

16

1

=

2

Mom’s portion:

1⎛ 1⎞ 1⎛1⎞ 1

1−

=

=

2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 4

**135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

The cube root of –8 is the real number –2.

138.

5 3 1

+ −

4 4

= 22

Son’s portion:

16

**134. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

1

1

1

1

−

A sample change is: ( 8 ) 3 =

= 3 = .

1

2

8

(8) 3

A sample change is:

3

22 ⋅ 24

1

4

2 ⋅2 ÷2 =

8

**133. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

1

3

4

1

**132. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: Finding the nth root first often

gives smaller numbers on the middle step.

A sample change is: 7

5

2

2

Her son is 8 years old.

130. makes sense

3

3+ 2 3− 2

= 16

=4

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

(

3− 2

= 13 + 2 + 3 − 2

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

137. 5 +

⋅

= 13 + 2 +

= 8⋅ 2 5 + 2⋅ 4 5

= 16 5 + 8 5

7

22

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1

2

= 23 = 8

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

142. (2 x3 y 2 )(5 x 4 y 7 ) = 10 x7 y 9

143. 2 x 4 (8 x 4 + 3x) = 2 x 4 (8 x 4 ) + 2 x 4 (3 x) = 16 x8 + 6 x5

144. 2 x( x 2 + 4 x + 5) + 3( x 2 + 4 x + 5)

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 10 x + 3x 2 + 12 x + 15

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 3x 2 + 10 x + 12 x + 15

= 2 x3 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 15

Section P.4

Check Point Exercises

1.

(−17 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 11x − 5) + (16 x 3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 15)

a.

= (−17 x 3 + 16 x3 ) + (4 x 2 − 3x 2 ) + (−11x + 3x) + (−5 − 15)

= − x 3 + x 2 − 8 x − 20

b.

(13x 2 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) − (−7 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 9)

= (13 x3 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) + (7 x3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 9)

= (13 x3 + 7 x 3 ) + (−9 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (1 − 9)

= 20 x3 − 11x 2 − 2 x − 8

2.

(5 x − 2)(3x 2 − 5 x + 4)

= 5 x(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4) − 2(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4)

= 5 x ⋅ 3x 2 − 5 x ⋅ 5 x + 5 x ⋅ 4 − 2 ⋅ 3 x 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅ 4

= 15 x 3 − 25 x 2 + 20 x − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 8

= 15 x 3 − 31x 2 + 30 x − 8

3.

(7 x − 5)(4 x − 3) = 7 x ⋅ 4 x + 7 x(−3) + (−5)4 x + (−5)(−3)

= 28 x 2 − 21x − 20 x + 15

= 28 x 2 − 41x + 15

4.

a.

(7 x − 6 y )(3x − y ) = (7 x)(3 x) + (7 x)(− y ) + (−6 y )(3x) + (−6 y )(− y )

= 21x 2 − 7 xy − 18 xy + 6 y 2

= 21x 2 − 25 xy + 6 y 2

5.

b.

(2 x + 4 y )2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(4 y ) + (4 y ) 2 = 4 x 2 + 16 xy + 16 y 2

a.

(3 x + 2 + 5y )(3x + 2 − 5y ) = (3x + 2)2 − (5y )2

= 9x 2 + 12 x + 4 − 25y 2

2

2

= 9x + 12 x − 25y + 4

b.

(2 x + y + 3) 2 = (2 x + y )2 + 2(2 x + y )(3) + 32

= 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 12 x + 6y + 9

2

2

= 4 x + 4 xy + 12 x + y + 6y + 9

23

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Exercise Set P.4

1.

yes; 2 x + 3 x 2 − 5 = 3 x 2 + 2 x − 5

2.

no; The term 3x −1 does not have a whole number exponent.

3.

no; The form of a polynomial involves addition and subtraction, not division.

4.

yes; x 2 − x 3 + x 4 − 5 = x 4 − x3 + x 2 − 5

5.

**3x 2 has degree 2
**

−5x has degree 1

4 has degree 0

3 x 2 − 5 x + 4 has degree 2.

6.

**−4x 3 has degree 3
**

7x 2 has degree 2

–11 has degree 0

−4 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 11 has degree 3.

7.

x 2 has degree 2

−4x 3 has degree 3

9x has degree 1

−12x 4 has degree 4

63 has degree 0

x 2 − 4 x 3 + 9 x − 12 x 4 + 63 has degree 4.

8.

x 2 has degree 2

−8x 3 has degree 3

15x 4 has degree 4

91 has degree 0

x 2 − 8 x3 + 15 x 4 + 91 has degree 4.

9.

(−6 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 8 x + 9) + (17 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 13) = (−6 x 3 + 17 x 3 ) + (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 ) + (−8 x − 4 x) + (9 − 13)

= 11x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 4

The degree is 3.

10.

**(−7 x3 + 6 x 2 − 11x + 13) + (19 x3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 17) = (−7 x3 + 19 x3 ) + (6 x 2 − 11x 2 ) + (−11x + 7 x) + (13 − 17)
**

= 12 x3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x − 4

The degree is 3.

11.

(17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) − (5 x3 − 9 x 2 − 8 x + 11) = (17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) + (−5 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 8 x − 11)

= (17 x3 − 5 x3 ) + (−5 x 2 + 9 x 2 ) + (4 x + 8 x) + (−3 − 11)

= 12 x3 + 4 x 2 + 12 x − 14

The degree is 3.

12.

(18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) − (9 x 4 − 6 x3 − 5 x + 7) = (18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) + (−9 x 4 + 6 x3 + 5 x − 7)

= (18 x 4 − 9 x 4 ) + (−2 x3 + 6 x3 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (8 − 7)

= 9 x 4 + 4 x3 − 2 x + 1

The degree is 4.

24

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PreCalculus 4E

13.

Section P.4

(5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) − ( x 2 − 4 x − 3) = (5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) + (− x 2 + 4 x + 3)

= (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 − x 2 ) + (−7 x − 3 x + 4 x) + (−8 + 7 + 3)

= 6x2 − 6x + 2

The degree is 2.

14.

(8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) − (3 x 2 − 4 x) − (−6 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 3) = (8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) + (−3x 2 + 4 x) + (6 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3)

= 6 x 3 + (8 x 2 − 3x 2 + 5 x 2 ) + (7 x + 4 x) + (−5 − 3)

= 6 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 11x − 8

The degree is 3.

15.

( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) = x( x 2 ) − x ⋅ x + x ⋅1 + 1( x 2 ) − 1 ⋅ x + 1 ⋅1

= x3 − x 2 + x + x 2 − x + 1

= x3 + 1

16.

( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 5 x + 25 ) = x( x 2 ) − x(5 x) + x(25) + 5( x 2 ) − 5(5 x) + 5(25)

= x 3 − 5 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125)

= x 3 + 125

17.

(2 x − 3)( x 2 − 3x + 5) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−3x) + (2 x)(5) + (−3)( x 2 ) + (−3)(−3x) + (−3)(5)

= 2 x 3 − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 3x 2 + 9 x − 15

= 2 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 19 x − 15

18.

(2 x − 1)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−4 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−1)( x 2 ) + (−1)(−4 x) + (−1)(3)

= 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − x 2 + 4 x − 3

= 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 10 x − 3

19.

( x + 7)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x + 7 x + 21 = x 2 + 10 x + 21

20.

( x + 8)( x + 5) = x 2 + 5 x + 8 x + 40 = x 2 + 13x + 40

21.

( x − 5)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x − 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 2 x − 15

22.

( x − 1)( x + 2) = x 2 + 2 x − x − 2 = x 2 + x − 2

23.

(3 x + 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + 3 x(1) + 5(2 x) + 5 = 6 x 2 + 3x + 10 x + 5 = 6 x 2 + 13x + 5

24.

(7 x + 4)(3x + 1) = (7 x)(3x) + 7 x(1) + 4(3x) + 4(1) = 21x 2 + 7 x + 12 x + 4 = 21x 2 + 19 x + 4

25.

(2 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (2 x)(5 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−3)(5 x) + (−3)(3) = 10 x 2 + 6 x − 15 x − 9 = 10 x 2 − 9 x − 9

26.

(2 x − 5)(7 x + 2) = (2 x )(7 x) + (2 x)(2) + (−5)(7 x) + (−5)(2) = 14 x 2 + 4 x − 35 x − 10 = 14 x 2 − 31x − 10

27.

(5 x 2 − 4)(3 x 2 − 7) = (5 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (5 x 2 )(−7) + (−4)(3x 2 ) + (−4)(−7) = 15 x 4 − 35 x 2 − 12 x 2 + 28 = 15 x 4 − 47 x 2 + 28

28.

(7 x 2 − 2)(3 x 2 − 5) = (7 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (7 x 2 )(−5) + (−2)(3 x 2 ) + (−2)(−5) = 21x 4 − 35 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 10 = 21x 4 − 41x 2 + 10

29.

(8 x

3

+ 3)( x 2 − 5 ) = ( 8 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 8 x 3 ) ( −5 ) + ( 3) ( x 2 ) + ( 3)( −5 ) = 8 x5 − 40 x 3 + 3 x 2 − 15

25

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

30.

(7x

31.

( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 32 = x 2 − 9

32.

( x + 5)( x − 5) = x 2 − 52 = x 2 − 25

33.

(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) = (3 x) 2 − 22 = 9 x 2 − 4

34.

(2 x + 5)(2 x − 5) = (2 x)2 − 52 = 4 x 2 − 25

35.

(5 − 7 x)(5 + 7 x) = 52 − (7 x) 2 = 25 − 49 x 2

36.

(4 − 3x)(4 + 3x) = 42 − (3x) 2 = 16 − 9 x 2

37.

(4 x 2 + 5 x)(4 x 2 − 5 x) = (4 x 2 ) 2 − (5 x) 2 = 16 x 4 − 25 x 2

38.

(3 x 2 + 4 x)(3x 2 − 4 x) = (3x 2 ) 2 − (4 x) 2 = 9 x 4 − 16 x 2

39.

(1 − y )(1 + y ) = (1) − ( y )

40.

( 2 − y )( 2 + y ) = ( 2 ) − ( y )

41.

( x + 2) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = x 2 + 4 x + 4

42.

( x + 5) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = x 2 + 10 x + 25

43.

(2 x + 3)2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(3) + 32 = 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9

44.

(3 x + 2)2 = (3x) 2 + 2(3x)(2) + 22 = 9 x 2 + 12 x + 4

45.

( x − 3) 2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 3 + 32 = x 2 − 6 x + 9

46.

( x − 4)2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 4 + 42 = x 2 − 8 x + 16

47.

(4 x 2 − 1) 2 = (4 x 2 ) 2 − 2(4 x 2 )(1) + 12 = 16 x 4 − 8 x 2 + 1

48.

(5 x 2 − 3)2 = (5 x 2 ) 2 − 2(5 x 2 )(3) + 32 = 25 x 4 − 30 x 2 + 9

49.

(7 − 2 x)2 = 7 2 − 2(7)(2 x) + (2 x) 2 = 49 − 28 x + 4 x 2 = 4 x 2 − 28 x + 49

50.

(9 − 5 x) 2 = 92 − 2(9)(5 x) + (5 x) 2 = 81 − 90 x + 25 x 2 or 25 x 2 − 90 x + 81

51.

( x + 1)3 = x3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅1 + 3x ⋅12 + 13 = x3 + 3 x 2 + 3 x + 1

52.

( x + 2)3 = x 3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 22 + 23 = x 3 + 6 x 2 + 12 x + 8

53.

(2 x + 3)3 = (2 x)3 + 3 ⋅ (2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x) ⋅ 32 + 33 = 8 x 3 + 36 x 2 + 54 x + 27

3

+ 5 )( x 2 − 2 ) = ( 7 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 7 x 3 ) ( −2 ) + ( 5 ) ( x 2 ) + ( 5 )( −2 ) = 7 x5 − 14 x3 + 5 x 2 − 10

5

5

5 2

2

5

5

2

= 1 − y10

5 2

= 4 − y10

26

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PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

54.

(3 x + 4)3 = (3x)3 + 3(3x) 2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3x) ⋅ 42 + 43 = 27 x 3 + 108 x 2 + 144 x + 64

55.

( x − 3)3 = x3 − 3 ⋅ x 3 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 32 − 33 = x 3 − 9 x 2 + 27 x − 27

56.

( x − 1)3 = x 3 − 3x 2 ⋅1 + 3 x ⋅12 − 13 = x3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1

57.

(3 x − 4)3 = (3x)3 − 3(3 x)2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3 x) ⋅ 42 − 43 = 27 x 3 − 108 x 2 + 144 x − 64

58.

(2 x − 3)3 = (2 x)3 − 3(2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x ) ⋅ 32 − 33 = 8 x3 − 36 x 2 + 54 x − 27

59.

( x + 5 y )(7 x + 3 y ) = x(7 x) + x(3 y ) + (5 y )(7 x) + (5 y )(3 y )

= 7 x 2 + 3 xy + 35 xy + 15 y 2

= 7 x 2 + 38 xy + 15 y 2

60.

( x + 9 y )(6 x + 7 y ) = x(6 x) + x(7 y ) + (9 y )(6 x) + (9 y )(7 y )

= 6 x 2 + 7 xy + 54 xy + 63 y 2

= 6 x 2 + 61xy + 63 y 2

61.

( x − 3 y )(2 x + 7 y ) = x(2 x) + x (7 y ) + (−3 y )(2 x) + (−3 y )(7 y )

= 2 x 2 + 7 xy − 6 xy − 21y 2

= 2 x 2 + xy − 21 y 2

62.

(3 x − y )(2 x + 5 y ) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(5 y ) + (− y )(2 x) + (− y )(5 y )

= 6 x 2 + 15 xy − 2 xy − 5 y 2

= 6 x 2 + 13xy − 5 y 2

63.

(3 xy − 1)(5 xy + 2) = (3xy )(5 xy ) + (3xy )(2) + (−1)(5 xy ) + (−1)(2)

= 15 x 2 y 2 + 6 xy − 5 xy − 2

= 15 x 2 y 2 + xy − 2

64.

(7 x 2 y + 1)(2 x 2 y − 3) = (7 x 2 y )(2 x 2 y ) + (7 x 2 y )(−3) + (1)2 x 2 y + (1)(−3)

= 14 x 4 y 2 − 21x 2 y + 2 x 2 y − 3

= 14 x 4 y 2 − 19 x 2 y − 3

65.

(7 x + 5 y ) 2 = (7 x) 2 + 2(7 x)(5 y ) + (5 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 + 70 xy + 25 y 2

66.

(9 x + 7 y )2 = (9 x)2 + 2(9 x )(7 y ) + (7 y )2 = 81x 2 + 126 xy + 49 y 2

67.

( x 2 y 2 − 3) 2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(3) + 32 = x 4 y 4 − 6 x 2 y 2 + 9

68.

( x 2 y 2 − 5)2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(5) + 52 = x 4 y 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 25

69.

( x − y )( x 2 + xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x( xy ) + x( y 2 ) + (− y )( x 2 ) + (− y )( xy ) + (− y )( y 2 )

= x3 + x 2 y + xy 2 − x 2 y − xy 2 − y 3

= x3 − y 3

27

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

70.

( x + y )( x 2 − xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x(− xy ) + x( y 2 ) + y ( x 2 ) + y (− xy ) + y ( y 2 )

= x 3 − x 2 y + xy 2 + x 2 y − xy 2 + y 3

= x3 + y 3

71.

(3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = (3x) 2 − (5 y )2 = 9 x 2 − 25 y 2

72.

(7 x + 3 y )(7 x − 3 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (3 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 9 y 2

73.

( x + y + 3)( x + y − 3) = ( x + y ) 2 − 32 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 9

74.

( x + y + 5)( x + y − 5) = ( x + y )2 − 52 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 25

75.

(3 x + 7 − 5 y )(3x + 7 + 5 y ) = (3x + 7) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 + 42 x + 49 − 25 y 2

76.

(5 x + 7 y − 2)(5 x + 7 y + 2) = (5 x + 7 y ) 2 − 22 = 25 x 2 + 70 xy + 49 y 2 − 4

77.

[5 y − (2 x + 3)][5 y + (2 x + 3)] = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 3) 2 = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 12 x + 9) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 12 x − 9

78.

[8 y + (7 − 3x)][8 y − (7 − 3x)] = (8 y ) 2 − (7 − 3x) 2 = 64 y 2 − (49 − 42 x + 9 x 2 ) = 64 y 2 − 49 + 42 x − 9 x 2

79.

( x + y + 1) 2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y ) + 1 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 2 x + 2 y + 1

80.

( x + y + 2)2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y )(2) + 22 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 4 y + 4

81.

(2 x + y + 1) 2 = (2 x + y ) 2 + 2(2 x + y ) + 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 2 y + 1

82.

(5 x + 1 + 6 y )2 = (5 x + 1) 2 + 2(5 x + 1)(6 y ) + (6 y )2 = 25 x 2 + 10 x + 60 xy + 1 + 12 y + 36 y 2

83.

(3 x + 4 y )

2

2

2

2

2

2

− ( 3x − 4 y ) = ⎡( 3x ) + 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(3 x ) − 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤

⎣

⎦ ⎣

⎦

(

) (

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 24 xy + 16 y 2

)

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 + 24 xy − 16 y 2

= 48 xy

84.

(5 x + 2 y )

2

2

2

2

2

2

− ( 5 x − 2 y ) = ⎡(5 x ) + 2 ( 5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(5 x ) − 2 (5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤

⎣

⎦ ⎣

⎦

(

) (

= 25 x 2 + 20 xy + 4 y 2 − 25 x 2 − 20 xy + 4 y 2

= 25 x + 20 xy + 4 y − 25 x + 20 xy − 4 y

2

2

2

)

2

= 40 xy

85.

(5 x − 7 )( 3x − 2) − ( 4 x − 5)( 6 x − 1)

2

2

= ⎡15 x − 10 x − 21x + 14⎤ − ⎡24 x − 4 x − 30 x + 5⎤

⎣

(

2

⎦ ⎣

) (

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x − 34 x + 5

2

)

⎦

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x + 34 x − 5

2

= −9 x + 3 x + 9

28

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Inc. = ( 2 x − 7) 2 = ( 2 x ) − 2 ( 2 x )( 7 ) + ( 7 ) 2 2 2 = 4 x − 28 x + 49 ( 5 x − 3) = 5 x − 3 6 − 4 ( ) 4 ( 5 x − 3) 6 90. ( 2 x + 5)( 2 x − 5) ( 4 x 2 + 25) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 2 x ) − 5 ⎤ 4 x + 25 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 4 x ) − ( 25) 2 2 = 4 x − 25 4 x + 25 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 16 x − 625 88. = ( 5 x − 3) 2 = ( 5 x ) − 2 ( 5 x )( 3) + ( 3) 2 2 2 = 25 x − 30 x + 9 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 (3 x + 5)( 2 x − 9) − ( 7 x − 2)( x − 1) ( = (6 x ) ( 2 2 = 6 x − 27 x + 10 x − 45 − 7 x − 7 x − 2 x + 2 2 ) ( 2 − 17 x − 45 − 7 x − 9 x + 2 2 ) ) 2 = 6 x − 17 x − 45 − 7 x + 9 x − 2 2 = − x − 8 x − 47 87. Section P. (3 x + 4)( 3x − 4) (9 x 2 + 16) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 3 x ) − 4 ⎤ 9 x + 16 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 9 x ) − (16 ) 2 2 = 9 x − 16 9 x + 16 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 81x − 256 ( 2 x − 7 ) = 2 x − 7 5 −3 ( ) 3 ( 2 x − 7) 5 89. .PreCalculus 4E 86.

d. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. a. a. b.923.995. W = 255 x 2 − 2956 x + 24. Publishing as Prentice Hall.418. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. d. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14.336 W = 255(18)2 − 2956(18) + 24. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 995(14) + 63. ( x 8 − 2x )(5 − 2 x ) = x ( 40 − 26 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 40 x − 26 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 26 x + 40 x 30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.220 shown in the bar graph by $225. 681 = 15. 404 − 33. 446 + 14. 44. 539 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15. 481 = 10.348 − $10. b. The model overestimates the actual value of $51.316 shown in the bar graph by $2432. M = 177 x 2 + 288 x + 7075 M = 177(16)2 + 288(16) + 7075 = 56. 210 M − W = −35(14)3 + 1373(14) 2 − 15. 336 = 53.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 91. The model underestimates this difference by $15.210 M − W = −35(16)3 + 1373(16) 2 − 15. 92. The model underestimates the actual value of $57. ( x 8 − 2x )(10 − 2 x ) = x ( 80 − 36 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 80 x − 36 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 36 x + 80 x 94. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 210 = 15. 210 = 12. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. Inc. 220 − 41. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. 446 + 14. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 995 The model estimates the median annual income for a man with 16 years of education to be $56. 418 = $121. 57.748 The model estimates the median annual income for a woman with 18 years of education to be $53. 995(16) + 63. 923 = $1425.748. 93.995 x + 63. 348 The difference in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $12. 539 − $15.210 c.539. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. . 995 x + 63. 418 The difference in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15.348. 923 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $10. 210 c. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15.995 x + 63. 995 x + 63. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. The model overestimates this difference by $12.

makes sense 104. does not make sense. . ( x + 4) ( x + 3) − ( x + 2) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − ( x 2 + 3x + 2 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − x 2 − 3x − 2 = 4 x + 10 97. ( x + 3)( x − 1) + (( x + 3) − x)( x − ( x − 1)) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) + 3( x − x + 1) = x 2 − x + 3x − 3 + 3 = x2 + 2 x 108.4 ( x + 9) ( x + 3) − ( x + 5) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − ( x 2 + 6 x + 5 ) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − x 2 − 6 x − 5 = 6 x + 22 96. (2x − 1)x(x + 3) − x(x − 2)x = (2x 2 + 5x − 3)(x + 2) − x 2 (x − 2) 3 2 3 = 2x + 5x − 3x − x + 2x 2 = x 3 + 7x 2 − 3x 109. 105. ( x − 2 )( x − 12) = x 2 − 14 x + 24 113. – 102. Inc. although answers may vary 107. Explanations will vary. makes sense. makes sense 106. Section P. 103. Answers may vary. ( x + 3)( x + 4 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 112.PreCalculus 4E 95. Sample explanation: FOIL is used to multiply two binomials. (x + 5)(2x + 1)(x + 2) − 3 ⋅ x(x + 5) = (2x 2 + 11x + 5)(x + 2) − 3x 2 −15x 3 2 2 = 2x + 15x + 27x + 10 − 3x − 15x = 2x 3 + 12x 2 + 12x + 10 110. (y n + 2)(y n − 2) − (y n − 3)2 = y 2 n − 4 − (y 2 n − 6y n + 9) =y 2n −4 −y 2n n + 6y − 9 = 6y n −13 111. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (4 x + 1)(2 x − 3 ) = 8 x 2 − 10 x − 3 31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

x 2 + 13x + 40 = ( x + 5)( x + 8) or ( x + 8)( x + 5) 4. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (3x − 1)(2 x + 7) or (2 x + 7)(3 x − 1). The required integers are 8 and 5.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Section P. Find two First terms whose product is 6 x 2 . The required integers are –7 and 2. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (6 x )(x ) 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = ( 3x )( 2 x ) Find two Last terms whose product is –7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5. 10 x3 − 4 x 2 = 2 x 2 (5 x) − 2 x 2 (2) = 2 x 2 (5 x − 2) b. x 2 − 5 x − 14 = ( x − 7)( x + 2) or ( x + 2)( x − 7). The possible factors are 1(–7) and –1(7). Inc. Find two numbers whose product is 40 and whose sum is 13. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is 19x. 2. Possible Factors of 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 Sum of Outside and Inside Products (Should Equal 19x) (6 x + 1)( x − 7) −42 x + x = −41x (6 x − 7)( x + 1) 6x − 7x = −x (6 x − 1)( x + 7) 42 x − x = 41x (6 x + 7)( x − 1) −6 x + 7 x = x (3 x + 1)(2 x − 7) −21x + 2 x = −19 x (3 x − 7)(2 x + 1) 3x − 14 x = −11x (3 x − 1)(2 x + 7) 21x − 2 x = 19 x (3 x + 7)(2 x − 1) −3x + 14 x = 11x Thus. Find two numbers whose product is –14 and whose sum is –5. 2 x( x − 7) + 3( x − 7) = ( x − 7)(2 x + 3) x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = ( x3 + 5 x 2 ) − (2 x + 10) = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = ( x + 5)( x 2 − 2) 3. a.5 Check Point Exercises 1. . 32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. Thus.

81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 + 4)(3x + 2)(3x − 2). x 2 + 14 x + 49 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 = ( x + 7) 2 b. 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 42 = (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) The factor 9 x 2 − 4 is the difference of two squares and can be factored. 7. x 2 − 81 = x 2 − 92 = ( x + 9)( x − 9) b. Section P. 10. Thus. and (−4 y )(− y ) . (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) = (9 x 2 + 4) ⎡⎣(3x) 2 − 22 ⎤⎦ = (9 x 2 + 4)(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) Thus. a. 3x 3 − 30 x 2 + 75 x = 3 x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) Factor the perfect square trinomial. Factor out the greatest common factor. 3x 2 − 13xy + 4 y 2 = (3x )(x ) Find two Last terms whose product is 4 y 2 . Since 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 = 56 x. Inc.5 Find two First terms whose product is 3 x 2 . 9. = (4 x − 7) 2 . 8. a.PreCalculus 4E 6. 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 is a perfect square trinomial. 3x 2 − 13xy + y 2 = (3x − y )( x − 4 y ) or ( x − 4 y )(3x − y ). check to see if the middle term can be expressed as twice the product of 4x and 7. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is −13xy . 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 = (4 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 x 3 + 1 = x 3 + 13 = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x ⋅ 1 + 12 ) = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) b. 125 x 3 − 8 = (5 x)3 − 23 = (5 x − 2) ⎡⎣ (5 x)2 + (5 x)(2) + 22 ⎤⎦ = (5 x − 2)(25 x 2 + 10 x + 4) 11. (4 y )( y ) . Since 16 x 2 = (4 x) 2 and 49 = 7 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. (−2 y )(−2 y ) . 36 x 2 − 25 = (6 x) 2 − 52 = (6 x + 5)(6 x − 5) Express 81x 4 − 16 as the difference of two squares and use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . 3x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) = 3x ( x − 5 ) 2 33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Express 9 x 2 − 4 as the difference of two squares and again use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . The possible factors are (2 y )(2 y ) . factored completely. Then use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . Express each term as the square of some monomial. a.

3x 2 – x – 2 = (3x + 2)(x – 1) 24. 15. 4 x − 8 x = 4x(x) + 4x(–2) = 4x(x – 2) 5. ( 2 x − 1) x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 5 = x 2 ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 5 ) 1 2 17. x 2 ( 2 x + 5 ) + 17 ( 2 x + 5) = ( 2 x + 5) ( x 2 + 17 ) 31. 8 x 2 + 33 x + 4 = (8 x + 1)( x + 4) 10.5 1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 12. x 2 − 36a 2 + 20 x + 100 12. 6 x 2 − 17 x + 12 = (2 x − 3)(3x − 4) 8. 16x – 24 = 8(2x) + 8(–3) = 8(2x – 3) 3. x 2 + 5 x + 6 = ( x + 2)( x + 3) 18. 4 x 2 + 16 x + 15 = (2 x + 3)(2 x + 5) 9. 3x + 6 x = 3x ⋅ x + 3x ⋅ 2 = 3x ( x + 2) 4. x 3 − 3x 2 + 4 x − 12 = x 2 ( x − 3) + 4 ( x − 3) 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6x 2 –11x + 4 = (2x – 1)(3x – 4) 7. 2 = ( x + 10 + 6a )( x + 10 − 6a ) x ( x − 1) −1 2 14. = ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 4 ) = x 2 + 20 x + 100 − 36a 2 = ( x 2 + 20 x + 100 ) − 36a 2 13. 9 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = (3 x − 1)(3x − 2) 11. 20 x 2 + 27 x − 8 = (5 x + 8)(4 x − 1) Exercise Set P. 18 x + 27 = 9 ⋅ 2 x + 9 ⋅ 3 = 9(2 x + 3) 2. x 2 − 14 x + 45 = ( x − 5)( x − 9) 23. x 3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 10 = x 2 ( x − 2) + 5( x − 2) 32. x(x + 5) + 3(x + 5) = (x + 5)(x + 3) 28. . 3x 2 − 2 x − 5 = (3x − 5)( x + 1) = 6 x2 ( x2 − 3x + 2 ) 27. 6 x 4 − 18 x 3 + 12 x 2 = 6 x ( x ) + 6 x (−3x) + 6 x (2) 2 2 2 2 = ( x 2 + 5)( x − 2) 34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 9 x 2 + 5 x − 4 = (9 x − 4)( x + 1) 33. 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 = (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 25. Inc. x(2x + 1) + 4(2x + 1) = (2x + 1)(x + 4) 29. 9 x 4 − 18 x3 + 27 x 2 2 2 = 9 x 2 ( x 2 ) + 9 x 2 (−2 x) + 9 x 2 (3) = 9 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 3) 6. x 2 − 4 x − 5 = ( x − 5)( x + 1) 21. x 2 – 2x – 15 = (x – 5)(x + 3) 20. Reorder to write as a difference of squares. x 2 + 8 x + 15 = ( x + 3)( x + 5) 19. = ( x − 1) ⎣⎡ x + ( x − 1) ⎦⎤ ( 2 x − 1) = ( x − 1) 3x 3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x + 4 = x 2 (3x − 2) − 2(3x − 2) = (3x − 2)( x 2 − 2) − 12 − 12 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 2 x − 12 = x 2 ( x + 6 ) − 2 ( x + 6 ) = ( x + 6) ( x2 − 2) 1 + ( x − 1) 2 1− −1 −1 = ( x − 1) 2 ⎡ x + ( x − 1) 2 ( 2 ) ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ = ( x − 1) x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 2 = x 2 ( x − 1) + 2( x − 1) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 2) = ( x + 10 ) − 36a 2 13. x 2 ( x − 3) + 12( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 12) 30. 3x 2 – 25x – 28 = (3x – 28)(x + 1) 26. x 2 – 8x + 15 = (x – 5)(x – 3) 22.

x 2 − 100 = x 2 − 102 = ( x + 10)( x − 10) 56. 3x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 = (3x + y )( x + y ) 37. 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 = (2 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 2 x ⋅1 + 12 36. 64 x 2 − 16 x + 1 = (8 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 8 x ⋅1 + 12 = (8 x − 1) 2 40. 45. . x 2 − 10 x + 25 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = ( x − 5) 2 35. 2 x 2 + 3xy + y 2 = (2 x + y )( x + y ) 53. x 2 − 144 = x 2 − 122 = ( x + 12)( x − 12) 57. = (9 x + 1)[(3 x) − 1 ] 2 x 3 − 27 = x 3 − 33 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 48.5 34. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 2 2 = (4 x + 3)[(4 x) 2 − (4 x)(3) + 32 ] = (9 x + 1)(3x + 1)(3 x − 1) 2 49. 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = (5 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x ⋅1 + 12 = (5 x + 1) 2 55. = ( x + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 3 x + 9) x 4 − 1 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 12 = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) 61. x 2 + 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅1 + 12 = ( x + 1) 2 50. = ( x − 4)( x 2 + 4 x + 16) x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 60. Inc. 8 x 3 + 125 = (2 x)3 + 53 = (2 x + 5)[(2 x)2 − (2 x)(5) + 52 ] = (2 x + 5)(4 x 2 − 10 x + 25) 65. x 2 − 14 x + 49 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 64 x3 + 27 = (4 x)3 + 33 = (4 x + 3)(16 x 2 − 12 x + 9) 64. 9 x 2 − 25 y 2 = (3 x) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = (3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) 36 x 2 − 49 y 2 = (6 x) 2 − (7 y ) 2 = (6 x + 7 y )(6 x − 7 y ) 59. 64 x − 81 = (8 x ) − 9 = (8 x + 9)(8 x − 9) 2 = (2 x + 1) 2 2 2 2 54. 8 x 3 − 1 = (2 x)3 − 13 = (2 x − 1)[(2 x) 2 + (2 x)(1) + 12 ] 47. 9 x 2 − 6 x + 1 = (3x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 3 x ⋅1 + 12 = (3x − 1) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 3x + 9) 2 58. = (4 x + 9)(2 x + 3)(2 x − 3) 2 27 x 3 − 1 = (3x)3 − 13 = (3x − 1)[(3x) 2 + (3 x)(1) + 12 ] = (3x − 1)(9 x 2 + 3 x + 1) 81x 4 − 1 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 12 = (9 x 2 + 1)(9 x 2 − 1) 63. 44. 36 x 2 − 49 = (6 x) 2 − 7 2 = (6 x + 7)(6 x − 7) 42. 15 x 2 − 19 x + 6 = (3x − 2)(5 x − 3) 52.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x 3 − 64 = x3 − 43 = ( x − 4)( x 2 + x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 46. x 3 + 27 = x3 + 33 41. 6 x − 5 xy − 6 y = (3x + 2 y )(2 x − 3 y ) 38. 16 x 4 − 81 = (4 x 2 )2 − 92 = (2 x − 1)(4 x 2 + 2 x + 1) = (4 x 2 + 9)(4 x 2 − 9) = (4 x 2 + 9)[(2 x)2 − 32 ] 62. 6 x 2 − 7 xy − 5 y 2 = (3 x − 5 y )(2 x + y ) 39. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 43. = ( x − 7) 2 3x 3 − 3x = 3x( x 2 − 1) = 3x( x + 1)( x − 1) 35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + 4 x + 4 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = ( x + 2) 2 51.

4 x 2 − 4 x − 24 = 4( x 2 − x − 6) = 4( x + 2)( x − 3) 68. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 78. 36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 9 x3 − 9 x = 9 x( x 2 − 1) = 9 x( x − 1)( x + 1) 77. 5 x 3 − 45 x = 5 x( x 2 − 9) = 5 x( x + 3)( x − 3) 67. Inc. 2 x 2 − 2 x − 112 = 2( x 2 − x − 56) = 2( x − 8)( x + 7) 74. x 2 + 64 is prime. 6 x 2 − 6 x − 12 = 6( x 2 − x − 2) = 6( x − 2)( x + 1) 75. 7 x 4 − 7 = 7( x 4 − 1) = 7[( x 2 ) 2 − 12 ] = 7( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 7( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 71. . 2 x 4 − 162 = 2( x 4 − 81) = 2[( x 2 ) 2 − 92 ] = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 9) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 32 ) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x + 3)( x − 3) 70. 6 x 2 − 18 x − 60 = 6( x 2 − 3 x − 10) = 6( x + 2)( x − 5) 69. x 3 + 3x 2 − 25 x − 75 = ( x 3 + 3x 2 ) − (25 x + 75) = x 2 ( x + 3) − 25( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 25)( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 52 )( x + 3) = ( x − 5)( x + 5)( x + 3) 73. x 2 + 36 is prime. x 3 − 4 x = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x 2 − 22 ) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) 76. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 9 x − 18 = ( x 3 + 2 x 2 ) − (9 x + 18) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 9( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 9)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 32 )( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2) 72.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 66.

x 2 − 10 x + 25 − 36 y 2 = ( x 2 − 10 x + 25) − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5)2 − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5 + 6 y )( x − 5 − 6 y ) 87. x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (− x − 2) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 1)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 12 )( x + 2) = ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x + 2) 81. x 2 − 12 x + 36 − 49 y 2 = ( x 2 − 12 x + 36 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 + 7 y ) ( x − 6 − 7 y ) 2 86. Section P. y 5 − 81y = y ( y 4 − 81) = y[( y 2 )2 − 92 ] = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 9) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 32 ) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y + 3)( y − 3) 82.5 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−4 x − 8) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 4)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 22 )( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)2 80. 20 y 4 − 45 y 2 = 5 y 2 (4 y 2 − 9) = 5 y 2 [(2 y ) 2 − 32 ] = 5 y 2 (2 y + 3)(2 y − 3) 84. y 5 − 16 y = y ( y 4 − 16) = y[( y 2 ) 2 − 42 ] = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 4) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 22 ) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y + 2)( y − 2) 83. Inc. 16a 2 x − 25 y − 25 x + 16a 2 y = (16a 2 x + 16a 2 y ) + ( −25 y − 25 x ) = 16a 2 ( x + y ) − 25 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) (16a 2 − 25 ) = ( x + y )( 4a + 5 )( 4a − 5 ) 89. 12 x 2 y − 27 y − 4 x 2 + 9 = (12 x 2 y − 27 y ) + ( −4 x 2 + 9 ) = 3 y ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) − 1( 4 x 2 − 9 ) = ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) ( 3 y − 1) = ( 2 x + 3)( 2 x − 3)( 3 y − 1) 91. 2 x 3 − 98a 2 x + 28 x 2 + 98 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 49a 2 +14 x + 49 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 +14 x + 49 ) − 49a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 7 ) − 49a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 7 − 7a )( x + 7 + 7a ) ⎣ ⎦ 93. .PreCalculus 4E 79. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x 3 − 8a 2 x + 24 x 2 + 72 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 4a 2 + 12 x + 36 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 + 12 x + 36 ) − 4a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 6 ) − 4a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 6 − 2a )( x + 6 + 2a ) ⎣ ⎦ 92. x 2 y − 16 y + 32 − 2 x 2 = ( x 2 y − 16 y ) + ( −2 x 2 + 32 ) = y ( x 2 − 16 ) − 2 ( x 2 − 16 ) = ( x 2 − 16 ) ( y − 2 ) = ( x + 4 )( x − 4 )( y − 2 ) 90. 3 1 1 1 ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ x 2 − x 2 = x 2 ⎜ x 2 2 ⎟ − 1 = x 2 ( x − 1) ⎝ ⎠ 37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 48 y 4 − 3 y 2 = 3 y 2 (16 y 2 − 1) = 3 y 2 [(4 y )2 − 12 ] = 3 y 2 (4 y + 1)(4 y − 1) 85. 9b 2 x − 16 y − 16 x + 9b 2 y = ( 9b 2 x + 9b 2 y ) + ( −16 x − 16 y ) = 9b 2 ( x + y ) − 16 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) ( 9b 2 − 16 ) = ( x + y )( 3b + 4 )( 3b − 4 ) 88.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. (x 1 1 3 3 1 − 2 ⎣ x2 + 4 2 3 2 ) ( − 12 + 3) + x2 + 4 − ( x + 5) −2 3 7 2 ) ( − 32 + ( x 2 + 3) = x2 + 4 = ( x + 5) −5 3 ) 3 2 1 1 ⎤ 2 ⎡1 − ( x + 3) ⎤ = ( x + 3) 2 ( − x − 2 ) = −( x + 3) 2 ( x + 2) = x + 3 ( ) ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢1 + x 2 + 4 ⎢ ⎣ ( 1 ) 7−3 ⎤ 2 2⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ( = x2 + 4 ) 3 2 ) ( 2⎤ ⎡ 2 2 ⎢1 + x + 4 ⎥ = x + 4 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ( 3 2 ) ( x4 + 8x2 + 17) 1 ⎛ 3⎞ x+4 − 32 ⎡ − −⎜ − ⎟ ⎤ −3 −3 3 ⎢( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − 1⎥ = ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎣⎡( x + 5 ) − 1⎦⎤ = ( x + 5) 2 ( x + 4 ) = ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) 2 = ( x 2 + 3) 5 −5 ⎡ 2 − 2 −⎛⎜ − 5 ⎞⎟ ⎤ x2 + 4 3 ⎢( x + 3) 3 ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ + 1⎥ = ( x 2 + 3)− 3 ⎡( x 2 + 3) + 1⎤ = 5 ⎣ ⎦ ( x 2 + 3) 3 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 1 3 1 ( 4 x − 1) 2 3 1 3 1 1 − ⎤ ⎡ 1 = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎢1 − ( 4 x − 1) 2 2 ⎥ = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎣ 3 ⎦ 101. ( x + 5) 100. 6 x 4 + 35 x 2 − 6 = ( x 2 + 6 )( 6 x 2 − 1) 106.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. ( x + 3) 2 − ( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3) 2 ⎡⎢1 − ( x + 3) 2 98. 12 x − 3 4 1 x4 = 1⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ x 4 4 − 1⎟ = x 4 ⎜ x 2 − 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 8x 3 = 4 x 1 ⎛ 2⎞ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 32 ⎛ −2 4 (1 + 2 x ) ⎜1 + 2 x 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎟ = 4 x 3 (1 + 2 x ) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ x3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 6x 4 = 6x − 3 4 1 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 ⎛ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 6( x + 2) ⎜ 2 + x 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎟ = 6x 4 (2 + x ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ x4 97. −8 ( 4 x + 3) + 10 ( 5 x + 1) (4 x + 3)−1 = 2 ( 4 x + 3) ⎣⎡ −4 + 5 ( 5 x + 1)( 4 x + 3) ⎦⎤ = −2 −2 2(100 x 2 + 95 x + 11) (4 x + 3) 2 103. ( 99. 12 x 2 ( x − 1) − 4 x ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) (12 x 2 − 4 x − 5 ) = ( x − 1)( 6 x − 5 )( 2 x + 1) 105. y 7 + y = y ( y 6 + 1) = y ⎡⎢( y 2 ) + 13 ⎤⎥ = y ( y 2 + 1)( y 4 − y 2 + 1) ⎣ ⎦ 38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 10 x 2 ( x + 1) − 7 x ( x + 1) − 6 ( x + 1) = ( x + 1) (10 x 2 − 7 x − 6 ) = ( x + 1)( 5 x − 6 )( 2 x + 1) 104. 3 x4 95. ( 4 x − 1) 2 − 1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ 2 ⎢⎣1 − 3 ( 4 x − 1) ⎥⎦ = ( 4 x − 1) 1⎤ ⎡ 4 ⎢⎣1 − 3 x + 3 ⎥⎦ 1 −4(4 x − 1) 2 ( x − 1) 4 ⎛4 4 ⎞ = ( 4 x − 1) ⎜ − x ⎟ = (4 x − 1) 2 (1 − x) = 3 3 ⎝3 3 ⎠ 1 1 2 102. . Inc. 4x 1 − x4 − 23 96. 7 x 4 + 34 x 2 − 5 = ( 7 x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 5 ) 3 107.

2 ) − 100 = ( x + y )2 ( x + y − 10 ) ( x + y + 10 ) 2 114. b. . a. ( 3x ) 2 − 4 ⋅ 22 = 9 x 2 − 16 9 x 2 − 16 = ( 3x + 4 ) ( 3 x − 4 ) (7x) 2 − 4 ⋅ 32 = 49 x 2 − 36 49 x 2 − 36 = ( 7 x + 6 ) ( 7 x − 6 ) x ( x + y) − y ( x + y) x ( x + y ) − y ( x + y ) = ( x + y )( x − y ) x 2 + xy + xy + y 2 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 = ( x + y ) 2 39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a.3x ) (1 − 0. 2 x 2 − 7 xy 2 + 3 y 4 = 2 x − y 2 115. ( x + y ) 4 − 100( x + y ) 2 = ( x + y ) )( x − 3 y ) ( )( x + y ) 116. Inc. ( y + 1) 3 Section P.4 ) = ( 0.4 x ) − 0.3 ( x − 0.3x ) = ( x − 0.49 x No. the computer is selling at 49% of its original price.7 ) = 0. a. 117. 2 )( x ) − y 2 = ( x + 2 y )( x − 2 y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 ) − y 2 = ( x + 3 y )( x − 3 y )( x + y )( x − y ) ( x − y )4 − 4 ( x − y )2 2 2 2 = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y )2 − 4 ) = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y ) + 2 ) ( ( x − y ) − 2 ) = ( x − y ) ( x − y + 2 ) ( x − y − 2 ) 112. 2 2 ( x − 0. x 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 9 y 4 = x 2 − 9 y 2 111. 120. a.6 ) = 0. 3x 2 + 5 xy 2 + 2 y 4 = 3 x + 2 y 2 b. ( x − 0.6 x )( 0.5 + 1 = ( y + 1) + 13 = ⎡⎣( y + 1) + 1⎤⎦ ⎡( y + 1) − ( y + 1) + 1⎤ = ( y + 2 ) ⎡⎣( y 2 + 2 y + 1) − y − 1 + 1⎤⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 3 2 = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + 2 y + 1 − y − 1 + 1) = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + y + 1) ( 109. 118.3x ) − 0. b.36 x No. b.PreCalculus 4E 108.4 ( x − 0.4 x )(1 − 0. a. b. 119. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 x ) ( 0. x 4 − 5 x 2 y 2 + 4 y 4 = x 2 − 4 y 2 )( x ( 110. a.3) = ( 0. ( ( x + y) ( 113. b. the computer is selling at 36% of its original price.4 x ) = ( x − 0.

makes sense 134. Inc. false. Sample explanation: 4 x 2 − 100 = 4( x 2 − 25) = 4( x + 5)( x − 5) 133. Changes to make the statement true will vary. x 4 − y 4 − 2 x3 y + 2 xy3 = ( x 4 − y 4 ) + ( −2 x 3 y + 2 xy 3 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) − 2 xy ( x 2 − y 2 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 − 2 xy ) = ( x − y )( x + y ) ( x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 ) = ( x − y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 3 = ( x − y) ( x + y) 40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: x 3 − 64 = ( x − 4 )( x + 4 x + 16 ) 138. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. x 2 n + 6 x n + 8 = ( x n + 4 )( x n + 2 ) 139. does not make sense. – 129. 130. 137. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − x 2 − 4 x + 5 = −1( x 2 + 4 x − 5 ) = −1( x + 5 )( x − 1) = − ( x + 5)( x − 1) 140. A sample change is: The binomial x 2 + 36 is prime.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. false. A sample change is: x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 135. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 4a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 4a = 4a3 − 4ab 2 = 4a ( a 2 − b 2 ) = 4a ( a + b )( a − b ) 122. makes sense 132. false. . true 136. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 3a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 3a = 3a3 − 3ab 2 ( = 3a a 2 − b2 ) = 3a ( a + b )( a − b ) 123. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Answers may vary. makes sense 131.

– 16. x 2 + 6 x + 5 ( x + 5)( x + 1) x + 1 = = x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) x − 5 145. b =16. (8 x − 3) 2 = (8 x)2 − 2(8 x)(3) + (3) 2 = 64 x 2 − 48 x + 9 7. where c > 0 is an integer. or –c(c + 4). 3 12 − 27 = 3 ⋅ 2 3 − 3 3 = 6 3 − 3 3 = 3 3 5. . (3 x + 5) − (4 x − 7) = 3x + 5 − 4 x + 7 = 3x − 4 x + 5 + 7 = − x + 12 6 + 9 6 = 10 6 4. b = 0. 2 1 ( 5 32 ) 2 = 1− 1 ( 2) 2 = 1− 1 3 = 4 4 (2 x − 5) − ( x 2 − 3x + 1) = 2 x − 5 − x 2 + 3x − 1 = − x 2 + 5 x − 6 41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3. (3 x + 5)(4 x − 7) = (3x)(4 x) + (3 x)(−7) + (5)(4 x) + (5)(−7) = 12 x 2 − 21x + 20 x − 35 = 12 x 2 − x − 35 2. 8 or –8 143. Mid-Chapter P Check Point −1 ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5) − 12 1 − ( x + 5) 2 ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) ( x + 5) −3 ⎛ ⎞ 1 −⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞⎟ ⎤ − 12 ⎡ − 1 − ⎜⎜ − 3 ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢( x − 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) −1 ⎡⎣( x − 5) − ( x + 5 ) ⎤⎦ −10 −3 −1 = ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5 ) 2 ( −10 ) = 3 1 ( x − 5) 2 ( x + 5) 2 2 2 142. x 2 + bx + 15 .PreCalculus 4E 141. 7 x + 3[9 − (2 x − 6)] = 7 x + 3[ 9 − 2 x + 6] = 7 x + 3 [15 − 2 x ] = 7 x + 45 − 6 x = x + 45 6. Inc. 1 2 3 4 7 + = + = 2 3 6 6 6 Mid-Chapter P Check Point 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 8 5 4⋅2 1 2 2 ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ = 4 15 4 5 ⋅ 3 1 3 3 146. 144. 4. − ⎛2⎞ 5 ⎜ 7 ⎟ − 32 = 1 − ⎝ ⎠ 6 0 9. 3. 1 1 ⋅ 6 − ⋅6 ⎛ 31 − 12 ⎞ x2 2 −3 ⎜ x y ⎟ = x3 y 2 = x y = 3 y ⎝ ⎠ 8.

h} = {a. d } 15. ( 3x 2 ) ( ) y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 − −2 x 2 y 3 − 3xy + 5 y 2 = 3x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 + 2 x 2 y 3 − xy + 3xy + 4 y 2 − 5 y 2 = 5 x 2 y 3 + 2 xy − y 2 16. 12 x 4 = x 12 = x 3 = 3 x 19. [ 4 y − (3x + 2)][ 4 y + (3x + 2)] = (4 y)2 − (3x + 2)2 = 16 y 2 − (9 x 2 + 12 x + 4) = 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 12 x − 4 20. ( x − 2 y − 1) 2 = x ( x − 2 y − 1) − 2 y ( x − 2 y − 1) − ( x − 2 y − 1) = x 2 − 2 xy − x − 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 2 y − x + 2 y + 1 = x 2 − 4 xy + 4 y 2 − 2 x + 4 y + 1 21. c. f . (9a − 10b)(2a + b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a )(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a)(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = 18a 2 + 9ab − 20ab − 10b 2 = 18a 2 − 11ab − 10b 2 13. {a. 23. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. d . h} 14. 6 y3 ⎛ 1 −5 4 ⎞ −2 −1 −5 − 2 4 −1 ⎜ 3 x y ⎟ 18 x y = 6 x y = x 7 ⎝ ⎠ ( ) 1 4 18. h} = {c.2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. d . Inc. {a. d . e.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10.2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. 24 x 2 y13 12 y15 2 − 5 13 − ( −2) −3 15 12 12 = − = − = − x y x y x3 −2 x 5 y −2 17. f .2 ×10−2 2 ×106 2 106 ( 3 22. e} ∪ {c. f . . d . x 3 + x3 − x3 ⋅ x 3 = 2 x3 − x 6 = − x 6 + 2 x 3 12. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 + 2 x − 5 x 2 + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x 2 + 2 x + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 11x 2 + 17 x − 5 11. 24 × 103 24 103 = ⋅ = 12 ×10−3 = 1. d . 3 32 2 = 3 ) ( ) 32 3 = 16 = 3 24 = 2 3 2 2 ( x 3 + 2)( x 3 − 2) = x 6 − 4 42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. e} ∩ {c.

27. 37. 50 x 3 + 20 x 2 + 2 x = 2 x 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = 2 x ( 5 x + 1) 34. 3 × 1010 3 1010 = ⋅ = 0. .45. x ( ) ( ( ) ) 2 2 − 3 2 − 2x − 1 2 1 + x2 = x 3 2 − (1 − 2 x + x ) = ( 1 − x) 2 2 3 x2 36. x 2 − 2 x + 4 is prime. Inc.5 109 A human brain has 4 times as many neurons as a gorilla brain.4 ×10 = 4 7. Thus x 2 x = − x 2 x = − x3 40. 7 ⎩ − 1 2 ( 1 2 ) ( = x2 + 1 − ) ( 1 2 ) (x ⎡ x 2 + 1 − 10 ⎤ = x 2 + 1 ⎣ ⎦ − 2 x +3 x −3 ) ( )( ) ( x + 1) −9 = 2 1 2 ⎫ 25 ⎬ ⎭ 38.5 ×109 7. 7 x 2 − 22 x + 3 = ( 7 x − 1)( x − 3) 29. 26. − . Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 × 1010 The total annual spending on ice cream is $4. ( x 2 + 2) 2 = ( x 2 ) 2 + 2( x 2 )(2) + (2) 2 = x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4 50 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 12 = 5 ⋅ 2 3 = 10 3 25.0 × 108 = 420 × 108 = 4. 0. 43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Mid-Chapter P Check Point 11 11 3 = 11 7 + 3 77 + 11 3 77 + 11 3 ⋅ = = 49 − 3 46 7− 3 7+ 3 = 7− 3 11 ⋅ 3 3 3 = 11 3 3 28. Since 2 − 13 < 0 then 2 − 13 = 13 − 2 39.PreCalculus 4E 24.2 × 10 2 × 108 = 4. 64 y − y 4 = y 64 − y 3 = y ( 4 − y ) 16 + 4 y + y 2 33. x 2 − 6 x + 9 − 49 y 2 = ( x − 3) − 49 y 2 = ⎡⎣( x − 3) + 7 y ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣( x − 3) − 7 y ⎤⎦ = ( x − 3 + 7 y )( x − 3 − 7 y ) 35. 140 ⋅ 3. 0. Since x < 0 then x = − x . ( ) x2 + 1 1 2 ( ) − 10 x 2 + 1 3 ⎧ ⎨ −11. x 3 + 5 x 2 + 3x + 15 = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 5) 31. 30. 3x 2 − 4 xy − 7 y 2 = ( 3x − 7 y )( x + y ) 32.2 × 1010 41.

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8(0) + 64 N = 64 Model 2: N = −0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 42. 3. Model 1: N = 6.5(0) 2 + 9. . and x + 3. x ≠ −1 Because the denominator has factors of x + 2. b. N = −0. a. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so –6 and 6 must both must be excluded from the domain. and x ≠ −3. x ≠ −1 x +1 x + 3 x2 − x − 6 ⋅ x2 − 4 x2 + 6x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 2) x+3 = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 2) = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x−3 = .5 x 2 + 9.5 x + 62 N = −0.8(10) + 64 N = 132 Model 1 predicts there will be 132 channels in 2010. x ≠ −2.8 x + 64 N = 6. N = 6.5(6) 2 + 9. x ≠ −3 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x2 −1 = 2 x + 2 x + 1 ( x + 1)( x + 1) x −1 = . x 2 − 36 = ( x + 6)( x − 6) The denominator would equal zero if x = −6 or x = 6.5 x + 62 N = −0. b.8 x + 64 N = 6. x − 2. x ≠ 2. so –5 must be excluded from the domain. Section P. The denominator would equal zero if x = −5. b.5 x 2 + 9. x3 + 3x 2 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 x+3 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 = x 2 .5(6) + 62 N = 101 Model 2 underestimates the number of channels in 2006 by 3.5(0) + 62 N = 62 Model 2 best describes the data in 2000. x ≠ −2.6 Check Point Exercises 1. x ≠ −3 Because the denominator is ( x + 1)( x + 1) . 2. x ≠ −3 ( x − 2)( x + 3) Because the denominator is x + 3. a. Inc. c. x ≠ 2.

putting this sum over the least common denominator. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = ( x − 5) 2 2 x − 10 = 2( x − 5) The least common denominator is 2(x – 5)(x – 5). Factor each denominator completely. 6. x x−4 − 2 x − 10 x + 25 2 x − 10 x x−4 = − ( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5) 2x ( x − 4)( x − 5) = − 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) x 3x + 2 x − 3x − 2 − = x +1 x +1 x +1 −2 x − 2 = x +1 −2 ( x + 1) = x +1 = −2. . x ≠ 0. x − 3. Section P. x ≠ 1 x( x + 2) Find the least common denominator. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = 2 x − ( x 2 − 5 x − 4 x + 20) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 . x ≠ 0 1+3 4 + 3x x 4 4x 4x 2 − 3x −4 = 2x . 2 x − ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 3 5 + x + 1 x −1 3x( x − 1) + 5( x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3x − 3 + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 8x + 2 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) . x − 3. = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 9.PreCalculus 4E 4.6 8. x ≠ 0 and x ≠ = 4 + 3x 3 45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. ( x − 3)( x − 3)( x + 3) or ( x − 3)2 ( x + 3) is the least common denominator. x ≠ −1 Add numerators. x ≠ −2. x − 3. x − 3 Add any unlisted factors from the second denominator. x2 − 2x + 1 x2 + x − 2 ÷ 3x2 + 3 x3 + x 2 x − 2 x + 1 3x 2 + 3 = ⋅ 2 x3 + x x +x−2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) 3( x 2 + 1) = ⋅ x( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2)( x − 1) 3( x − 1) = . x ≠ 4 + 3x 3 4x 2 − 3x 4 + 3 x = ÷ 2x 4x 2 − 3x 4 x = ⋅ 2 x 4 + 3x 2 − 3x 4 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 2 2 − 3x 2 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 1 2(2 − 3x) −4 . x + 3 The least common denominator is the product of all factors in the final list. x 2 − 6 x + 9 = ( x − 3) 2 x 2 − 9 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) List the factors of the first denominator. x≠5 2( x − 5) 2 1−3 2 − 3x x 2 = 2x 2x . Write all rational expressions in terms of the least common denominator. x ≠ −1 and x ≠ 1. 7. 5.

–5 2 x − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) 4. ) y 2 − 4 y − 5 ( y − 5 )( y + 1) y − 5 . y ≠ –4. x≠2 = = x − 4 x + 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 2 ) x − 2 9. –1 = = y 2 + 5 y + 4 ( y + 4 )( y + 1) y + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 36 ( x + 6) 2 x+6 = = . 10. 5 x + 4 x − 45 ( x + 9)( x − 5) 2 = x+3 − x 3 x+3 − x x+3 + x = ⋅ 3 x+3 ⋅ x 2 6. = ( x − 7)( x + 7) x 2 − 49 x−7 .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 1 1 . and 7 by x+7 x the least common denominator of x( x + 7). Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3 6 3 x−5 6 x + 9 x − 5 3(2 x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x − 15 4 x + 6 3( x − 5) 2(2 x + 3) 3 = 6 1 = . = = 4 x − 24 4 ( x − 6) 4 2 x≠6 x +1 3/ 2 10. . 13 .x≠3 x−3 15. x ≠ −9. 3 ( x − 3) 3x − 9 = x − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x − 3) x 2 3 . 2 2 ) 12. Multiply each of the three terms. y 2 + 7 y − 18 ( y + 9 )( y − 2 ) y + 9 . x+7 x+7 = . 1 1 x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x+7⎠ ⎝ x⎠ x+7 x = 7 7 x( x + 7) x − ( x + 7) = 7 x( x + 7) −7 = 7 x( x + 7) 1 .6 1. x ≠ 5. Inc. –7 2 x − 49 ( x + 7)( x − 7) 5. x≠4 = = 3x − 12 3( x − 4) 3 11. x 2 − 12 x + 36 ( x − 6 )( x − 6 ) x − 6 . = = y 2 − 3 y + 2 ( y − 2 )( y − 1) y − 1 y ≠ 1. x ≠ 0. –7 13. 12.x≠3 x −3 8. x ≠ −7 =− x( x + 7) x+ 11. 2. 2 ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x − 36 x ≠ 6. 4 ( x − 2) 4x − 8 4 . x 2 − 8 x + 16 ( x − 4 )( x − 4 ) x − 4 . 2 3 x ≠ 5. x −1 x −1 = . = x+7 x ≠ 7. x+5 x+5 = . –10 x + 11x + 10 ( x + 1)( x + 10) 16. x ≠ 7. − 2 46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7 . x−3 x −3 = . . 2 x − 2 2x + 6 x − 2 2( x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x + 9 2 x − 4 3( x + 3) 2( x − 2) 2 1 = = . x ≠ 2. –6 ( x − 7) 2 x 2 − 14 x + 49 14. x ≠ –1. x+ 1 x x = 1 x x x x = = = = ( x+3 3 3 ( ( ) − ( x) x+3 + x x + 3− x x+3 + x 7. x ≠ −9 x+9 3. 1 x+3 + x Exercise Set P.

–2. 2. –1. 18.PreCalculus 4E 17. x ≠ 0. x 2 − 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x+2 ÷ = ÷ x − 2 4x − 8 x−2 4( x − 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) 4( x − 2) = ⋅ x−2 x+2 = 4( x − 2). 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 x + 9 ) x + 3 x − 3 x + 9 x ≠ –3 23. x2 + x x2 − 1 ÷ 2 2 x − 4 x + 5x + 6 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 1) = ÷ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) ( x + 2)( x + 3) x( x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 3) . x ≠ 3. 3 21. 0. x − 4 ÷ x + 2 = ( x − 2)( x + 2) ⋅ x − 2 x x−2 x x+2 2 ( x − 2) = . x 2 − 9 x 2 − 3x ⋅ 2 x2 x + x − 12 x( x − 3) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ 2 ( x + 4)( x − 3) x ( x − 3)( x + 3) = . 1. x −1 . = ( x − 2)( x − 1) x ≠ 2. . 2 3x 28. 28 x ≠ –5 2 25. x2 − 4 2 x − 4 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2( x − 2) ⋅ = ⋅ x − 4x + 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)2 x+2 = 2. −4. –2 x2 − 5x + 6 x2 − 1 ⋅ x2 − 2x − 3 x2 − 4 ( x − 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 1) ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 26. –1. –2 = 2 x3 − 8 x + 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 2 x + 4 ) x + 2 = ⋅ ⋅ 3x x 2 − 4 3x ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) = x + 5 4 x + 20 x + 5 4( x + 5) ÷ = ÷ 7 9 7 9 x+5 9 = ⋅ 7 4( x + 5) 9 = . –2. Inc. 19. x ≠ 2.3 x( x + 4) 24. x ≠ –2. 2 x 2 = 20. x ≠ –2. –3 29. –5 2 x2 + 6 x + 9 1 ⋅ x 3 + 27 x + 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) 1 1 = ⋅ = 2 . x ≠ −1 9 47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 x+2 x2 + 5x + 6 x 2 − 9 ⋅ x2 + x − 6 x2 − x − 6 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 3) x + 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 − 25 x 2 + 10 x + 25 ÷ 2 2x − 2 x + 4x − 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)2 = ÷ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5)( x − 1) ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)( x − 1) = ⋅ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5) 2 x −5 = . x ≠ 1. 4 x 2 + 10 6 x 2 + 15 ÷ 2 x −3 x −9 2 2(2 x + 5) 3(2 x 2 + 5) = ÷ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x−3 2(2 x 2 + 5) ( x − 3)( x + 3) ⋅ 3(2 x 2 + 5) x−3 2( x + 3) . x ≠ 2. 22. = ⋅ = ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) x − 2 27. x ≠ –3. Section P. − 3 = 3 x2 + 2 x + 4 . 2. x ≠ 0. −2.6 x + 1 3x + 3 x + 1 3( x + 1) ÷ = ÷ 3 7 3 7 x +1 7 = ⋅ 3 3( x + 1) 7 = .

3 x + 2 3x + 6 3 x + 2 + 3 x + 6 + = 3x + 4 3x + 4 3x + 4 6x + 8 = 3x + 4 2(3x + 4) = 3x + 4 =2 4 x≠− 3 x2 − 2 x x2 + x x2 − 2 x + x2 + x + = x 2 + 3 x x 2 + 3x x 2 + 3x 2 2x − x = 2 x + 3x x(2 x − 1) = x( x + 3) 2x −1 . 5 32. –5 35. –2. x−2 x≠2 48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x + x − 12 x + 5 x + 6 x+3 ⋅ ÷ x 2 + x − 30 x 2 − 2 x − 3 x 2 + 7 x + 6 ( x + 4 )( x − 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x + 6 )( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ x+3 ( x + 6 )( x − 5 ) ( x + 1)( x − 3) 36. x ≠ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1. x −4 x + 5x + 6 ÷ x + 3 x − 10 x 2 + 8 x + 15 ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) = ÷ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) = ⋅ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) =1 x ≠ 2. = 2 ( x + 4 )( x + 2 ) x−5 x ≠ –6. . 2 2 2 2 31. 5. x ≠ 2 2 x + 3 3 − x 2 x + 3 − (3 − x) − = 3x − 6 3x − 6 3x − 6 2x + 3 − 3 + x = 3x − 6 3x = 3( x − 2) x = . x3 − 25 x 2 x 2 − 2 x2 + 5x ⋅ 2 ÷ 2 4x x − 6x + 5 7x + 7 x ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) 7 ( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ 4 x2 ( x − 1)( x − 5 ) x ( x + 5) = 7 ( x + 1) 37. –3. x−3 x ≠ –2. 3. 3 4 x − 10 x − 4 4 x − 10 − ( x − 4) − = x−2 x−2 x−2 4 x − 10 − x + 4 = x−2 3x − 6 = x−2 3( x − 2) = x−2 = 3. −5 33. 34.1. 2 2 x2 x ≠ 0. –3.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 30. –1. Inc. −3 = x+3 4x − 4 x2 − 4x x2 − 4 x + 4 x − 4 + = x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − 4 = ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 = . 4x + 1 8x + 9 4x + 1 + 8x + 9 + = 6x + 5 6x + 5 6x + 5 12 x + 10 = 6x + 5 2(6 x + 5) 5 = = 2. x ≠ − 6x + 5 6 38.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ –4. x ( − 2 )( x − 3) x+5 x−5 + x −5 x +5 ( x + 5 )( x + 5 ) + ( x − 5 )( x − 5 ) = ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + x 2 − 10 x + 25 ( x − 5)( x + 5) = 2 x 2 + 50 . 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 3x x + 4 3x ( x + 2 ) − ( x + 4 )( x − 3) − = x−3 x +2 ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) = 3x 2 + 6 x − ( x 2 + x − 12 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) 2 x + 5 x + 12 . x ≠ –1. 0 =− x ( x + 1) x ( x + 1) 4 ( x + 3) − 3 x 4 3 − = x x+3 x ( x + 3) x ≠ –3. 3x − 3x − 3 3 . 3 3 3x − 3 ( x + 1) − = x ( x + 1) x +1 x = 44. x ≠ −2. 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5 ) 49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . −4 x−3 43. 9 x + 39 . 0 x2 − 4 x x−6 − 2 2 x − x−6 x − x−6 x 2 − 4 x − ( x − 6) = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 4x − x + 6 = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 5x + 6 = 2 x − x−6 ( x − 2)( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 . = 3 ( x + 5) + 6 ( x + 4) 3 6 + = x+4 x+5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) x ≠ 3. Inc. 47. = 4 x + 12 − 3 x x ( x + 3) = x + 12 x ( x + 3) 2x x + 2 2 x ( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 )( x + 2 ) + = x+2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 2x2 − 4 x + x2 + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 3x2 + 4 . 46. x ≠ –2.PreCalculus 4E 39. –5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) 8 ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 2 ) 8 2 + = x−2 x−3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x ≠ 2. 3 = 8 x − 24 + 2 x − 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) = 10 x − 28 . –2 3x + 15 + 6 x + 24 = ( x + 4 )( x + 5) = 42. Section P. x ≠ –5.6 x 2 + 3x x 2 − 12 − x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + 3 x − ( x 2 − 12) = x 2 + x − 12 2 x + 3 x − x 2 + 12 = x 2 + x − 12 3x + 12 = 2 x + x − 12 3( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 3) 3 = . ( x − 3)( x + 2) 2 41. 3 = x+2 45. x ≠ 3. 40.

2 . 6 x x − ( )( − 1)( x + 4 ) x ≠ 6. x2 + 6 x + 9 + x2 − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 2 x 2 + 18 . –3 ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) x x − 2 x − 2 x − 24 x − 7 x + 6 x x = − ( x − 6 )( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x − 1) 2 x ( x − 1) − x ( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) x2 − x − x2 − 4 x ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) 5x . 51. x + 3 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) + ( x − 3)( x − 3) + = x−3 x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) x ≠ –3. 2. x ≠ –5. –4 4 x + 16 ( x + 3) = =− 4 4 4 4 + = + 2 x + 6 x + 9 x + 3 ( x + 3) x+3 = ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = 2 2 3 x ( x + 3) − 2 x ( x + 5 ) = 5 7 5 7 + = + 2 x + 8 3x + 12 2( x + 4) 3( x + 4) 15 14 = + 6( x + 4) 6( x + 4) 15 + 14 = 6( x + 4) 29 = 6( x + 4) x ≠ –4 4 + 4 ( x + 3) 3x 2x − 2 x + 3x − 10 x + x − 6 3x 2x = − ( x + 5 )( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 2 = 3 2 3 2 + = + 2 x + 4 3x + 6 2( x + 2) 3( x + 2) 9 4 = + 6( x + 2) 6( x + 2) 9+4 = 6( x + 2) 13 = 6( x + 2) x ≠ –2 = 52. –1 = 3 ( 5x − 2) + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 15 x − 6 + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 20 x − 6 . 1. . 3 5x 3 5x + = + 2 5 x + 2 25 x − 4 5 x + 2 ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) = = = 3x 2 + 9 x − 2 x 2 − 10 x ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = x2 − x . 50.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 2 2 x≠− . ( x − 3)( x + 3) 54. 5 5 50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x + 3) x ≠ –3 4 + 4 x + 12 ( x + 3) 2 = 55. x+3 x+2 − x2 − 1 x − 1 x+3 x+2 = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) x − 1 x+3 ( x + 1)( x + 2) = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x+3 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x + 3 − x 2 − 3x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) −x2 − 2x + 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) x ≠ 1. = 53. 3 49.

6 x + 5 x +1 − x2 − 4 x − 2 x+5 x +1 = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 x+5 ( x + 2)( x + 1) = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x+5 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x + 5 − x − 3x − 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 − x2 − 2 x + 3 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x ≠ 2. 4 x2 + x − 6 3x 5 − + 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 1 x + 2 4 x2 + x − 6 −3 x 5 = + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) x + 1 x + 2 = 63. ( x + 3) ⎡⎢⎣ x − x +x 3 ⎤⎥⎦ x ( x + 3) − x x− x x+3 = = x+2 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x −1 . x ≠ −5. x ≠ 2. 4 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 ) 4 ⎡⎢ x − 1⎤⎥ ⎣4 ⎦ = x − 4 = 1 . 5 ( x + 1) −3 x ( x + 2 ) 4 x2 + x − 5 + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = = 58. 3. = ⎣ x+ y xy [ x + y ] xy ( x + y ) xy 64. − 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) x + 1 51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ 0. 1 3 3 − 1 x ⎡3 − 1 ⎤ 3 x − 1 ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ x 62. x≠3 x − 3 3[ x − 3] 3 ( x − 3) 3 60. Inc. –3 x+3 ( x − 2 ) [ x − 3] ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x−3 = = 3 ⎤ x ( x − 2) − 3 ⎡ x− 3 x − 2 ( x − 2) ⎢ x − x − 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ − − x x 2 3 ( )( ) = 2 x − 2x − 3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x − 2 = = . x ⎡1 + 1 ⎤ 1+ 1 x = ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ = x + 1 . 8 + 1 x ⎡⎢8 + 1 ⎤⎥ 8 x + 1 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 + 3 ( x + 5) − 5 x ( x − 4 ) ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = 6 x + 17 x − 40 + 3x + 15 − 5 x 2 + 20 x ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = x 2 + 40 x − 25 . −1 x+2 = 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x + − x 2 + x − 20 x−4 x+5 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x = + − 5 4 4 x x x x + − − +5 ( )( ) = 66. x2 −1 ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x − 1)( x + 1) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎡ ⎤ 1+1 xy ⎢ 1 + 1 ⎥ x y x y ⎦ = y+x = 1 . Section P. x ≠ 0. .PreCalculus 4E 56. x ≠ 0. 1 − 1 x ⎡⎢1 − 1 ⎤⎥ x − 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . x ≠ −2. ⎡x ⎤ − 1 3 ⎢⎣ 3 − 1⎥⎦ x −3 1 = = = . y ≠ 0 xy x ( xy ) x2 y 65. x −1 4 = x−4 61. 1 4 4− x ⎡⎢ 4 − 1 ⎤⎥ 4 x − 1 x x⎦ ⎣ = 57. –2 59. x ≠ –2. x ≠ –y 4 x 2 + x − 6 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = x 3 2 x 2 + 3x − x x2 + 2 x = ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) x ( x + 2) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x . x ≠ 4 4 ( x − 4) 4 ( x − 4) 4 x ≠ 0. y ≠ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 x+2 52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 68. – 2 = 69. 1 x +1 1 1 + 2 x − 2x − 3 x − 3 = 1 x +1 1 1 + ( x + 1)( x − 3) x − 3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x +1 = ( x + 1)( x − 3) ( x + 1)( x − 3) + x −3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x−3 = 1+ x +1 x −3 = x ≠ −2. 3 − 4 3 − 4 x−2 x+2 = x−2 x+2 7 7 2 x − 2 x + 2) ( )( x −4 ⎡ 3 − 4 ⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 7 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) )( )⎦ ⎣( 3( x + 2) − 4 ( x − 2) 3x + 6 − 4 x + 8 − x + 14 = = = 7 7 7 x − 14 =− x ≠ –2. 2 7 x +1 x +1 − 2 x−2 x = 3 +1 3 +1 ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 − 4 ⎡ x + 1⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎣⎢ x − 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎡ ⎤ 3 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 + 1⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ( )( ) ⎣ ⎦ = x ( x + 2 ) + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 3 + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 + 2 x + x2 − 4 2 x2 + 2 x – 4 = x 2 –1 3 + x2 − 4 2( x 2 + x – 2) = ( x –1)( x + 1) 2( x + 2)( x –1) 2( x + 2) = = . x +1 ( x –1)( x + 1) x ≠ 1. .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 67. Inc. −1. –1. 2.

PreCalculus 4E Section P. Inc. . 1 1 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 − − ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x2 = 2 2 h hx ( x + h) = x 2 − ( x + h) 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2hx + h 2 ) hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − x 2 − 2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 −2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h) 2 −h(2 x + h) = 2 hx ( x + h) 2 (2 x + h) =− 2 x ( x + h) 2 = 72.6 6 1 6 1 − − + − −3 ( x 5)( x 3) x x + 2 x − 15 x − 3 = 1 1 +1 +1 x+5 x+5 6( x + 5)( x − 3) ( x + 5)( x − 3) − ( x + 5)( x − 3) x −3 = ( x + 5)( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) x+5 6 − ( x + 5) = ( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) 6− x−5 = x − 3 + x 2 + 2 x − 15 1− x = 2 x + 3x − 18 1− x x ≠ −6.3 = ( x + 6)( x − 3) 2 70. −5. 71. ( x + h)( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x+h x − − x + h +1 x +1 = x + h +1 x +1 h h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) ( x + h)( x + 1) − x( x + h + 1) = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x 2 + x + hx + h − x 2 − hx − x h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) h = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) 1 = ( x + h + 1)( x + 1) = 53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

.x>0 4x 75. x > 0 3x ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+h x x⎠ x+h x ⎝ x+h = h h x+h x = x− 74. ( = 1 3 x x x− 1 3 x ) (3 x) 77. 1 4 x ( = x x− 1 4 x ) (4 x) 78. x+7 − x = 7 = x2 5 − x2 + 5 − x2 = ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜ 5 − x2 + ⎟ 5 − x2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 5− x ⎠ =⎝ 2 5− x 5 − x2 = 5− x 2 ( = = = ) 81. = 79. x (4 x ) 4x −1 4x 1 = 1− .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra x− 73. Inc. x (3 x ) 3x − 1 3x 1 = 1− . h≠0 x − x+3 3 x x+3 x+5 − x x+5 + x ⋅ 5 x+5 + x ( x + 5) 2 − ( x )2 5( x + 5 + x ) x+5− x 5( x + 5 + x ) 1 x+5 + x x+7 − x x+7 + x ⋅ 7 x+7 + x ( x + 7 )2 − ( x )2 7( x + 7 + x ) x+7− x 7( x + 7 + x ) 1 x+7 + x x+ y x −y 2 2 ⋅ x− y x− y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 5 − x2 2 h x ( x + h) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+3 x x⎠ x+3 x ⎝ x+3 = 3 3 x+3 x = x2 x2 + 2 x − x+h = 3 ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) 1 ( x + y )( x − y ) 54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 80. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 − x2 + x2 (5 − x ) ( x+ y x −y 2 2 = = 5 5 − x2 ) 2 = 5 − x2 5 = (5 − x ) 2 . x+5 − x = 5 − x2 + 2 = x2 ⎛ ⎜ =⎝ = − x 2 + 2 ⎞⎟ x 2 + 2 ⎠ x2 x2 + 2 = x2 x2 + 2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2) x2 x2 + 2 2 =− 2 x x2 + 2 76.

x− y x −y 2 2 Section P.PreCalculus 4E 82.6 x− y = x −y 2 x+ y ⋅ 2 x+ y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 = = = 83. 84. ( x 2 − y 2 )( x + y ) 6 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 1) 6 ⎞ ⎛ ( x − 2) 3 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜2− ⎟ ⎜1 + ⎟ = ⎜⎜ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ( x + 1) ( x + 1) ⎠ ⎝ ( x − 2 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 x + 2 − 6 ⎞⎛ x − 2 + 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 x − 4 ⎞ ⎛ x + 1 ⎞ 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) =2 =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟= ⎝ x + 1 ⎠⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ( x + 1) ( x − 2 ) 86. 3 ⎞⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ( x + 2) 3 ⎞⎛ ( x − 1) 5 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎜4− ⎟⎜ 1 + ⎟=⎜ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ x + 2 x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 x + 8 − 3 ⎞⎛ x − 1 + 5 ⎞ 4 x + 5 x + 4 ( 4 x + 5 )( x + 4 ) =⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎜ ⎟= ( x + 2 )( x − 1) ⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ x + 2 x − 1 87. x≠ y ⎛ ( 2 x + 3) ( x + 5 ) ( x − 1) ⎛ 2 x + 3 x2 + 4 x − 5 ⎞ 2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 =⎜ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − ( 2 x + 3) ( x − 1) ⎝ x + 1 2 x + x − 3 ⎠ x + 2 ⎜⎝ x + 1 2 ( x + 1) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 2 ( x + 1) = − = x 1 x 2 x 1 x 2 + + + + ( )( ) ( )( ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎞ ⎟− 2 = x+5 − 2 ⎟ x + 2 x +1 x + 2 ⎠ = x 2 + 2 x + 5 x + 10 − 2 x − 2 x2 + 5x + 8 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎛ ( x + 2) ( x − 4) ⎞ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 ⋅⎜ − ÷ ⎜⎜ − ⎟ ⎟= x − 2 x − 8 ⎝ x − 4 x + 2 ⎠ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎝ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎟⎠ 1 2 ⎛ x+2−x+4 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) 1 1 6 1 ÷ ⎜⎜ ÷ ⎜⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎟ = ⎟⎟ = x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 6 6 ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) 1 = 85. x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x + y ) 1 ( x + y )( x + y ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. y −1 − ( y + 5) 5 1 −1 = y − 1 y+5 5 LCD = y ( y + 5) 1 y − ⎛1 1 y+5 5 y ( y + 5) ⎜ = ⎝y − 1 ⎞ ⎟ y +5⎠ y ( y + 5)( 5) = y +5− y 5 y ( y + 5) = 5 5 y ( y + 5) = 1 y ( y + 5) 55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .

100 − 80 20 when x = 80 130 ⋅ 90 130 ⋅ 90 = = 1170 . = = 86. 100 − 40 60 when x = 40 130 ⋅ 80 130 ⋅ 80 2. and $520. = = 520 . a.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 88. For x = 100. Inc.000.67 . the value of the function increases rapidly. y −1 − ( y + 2) 1 −1 y = 2 − 1 y+2 2 LCD = y ( y + 2 ) 1 − y y+2 2 89.000 to inoculate 90% of the population. − ) ) ⎛ a ( c − d ) − b ( c − d ) a 3 + b3 ⎞ ⎛ ac − ad − bc + bd a3 − b3 ⎞ ab + ⎜⎜ ÷ 3 3 ⎟⎟ = 2 + ⎜⎜ ⋅ ⎟ 2 a + ab + b ⎝ ac − ad + bc − bd a + b ⎠ a + ab + b ⎝ a ( c − d ) + b ( c − d ) a3 − b3 ⎟⎠ ab 2 2 ( ( ⎛ ( c − d ) ( a − b ) ( a + b ) a 2 − ab + b 2 = 2 +⎜ ⋅ a + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( c − d ) ( a + b ) ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ab = 91. the function is not defined. ab + a 2 − ab + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 = ) ⎞⎟ = ) ⎠⎟ a ab 2 + ab + b2 + a 2 − ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a2 + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 130 x is equal to 100 − x 130 ⋅ 40 130 ⋅ 40 1. 56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.170. c. So it costs an astronomical amount of money to inoculate almost all of the people. 100 − 90 10 when x = 90 It costs $86. .000 to inoculate 40% of the population against this strain of flu.670. and $1. ⎛1 1 y ( y + 2) ⎜ = ⎝y 1 ⎞ ⎟ y+2⎠ y ( y + 2 )( 2 ) = y+2− y 2 y ( y + 2) = 2 2 y ( y + 2) = 1 y ( y + 2) ⎛ a ( c + d ) − b ( c + d ) ⎞⎟ ac + ad − bc − bd ⎞ c−d 1 c−d ⎛ 1 ⎜ ⋅ − = ⋅ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 1 1 ⎝ a 3 − b3 ⎠ a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ( c + d ) ( a − b ) ⎞⎟ c−d c+d c−d 1 − = − ⋅ =⎜ ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + bd + b 2 1 ⎝ ⎠ c+d −c+d 2d = 2 = a + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 ( ( 90. 3. b.000.000 to inoculate 80% of the population. Publishing as Prentice Hall. As x approaches 100. and it is impossible to inoculate 100% of the population.

women between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2078 calories per day. the value of this expression will be 2 ⋅ 40 ⋅ 30 2400 = 30 + 40 70 2 = 34 . men between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2662 calories per day. M = −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 M = −120(4)2 + 998(4) + 590 M = 2662 According to the model. . Section P. Substitute 4 for x in the model.6 2d d + r1 d r2 LCD = r1r2 2d d r1 + d ⎛d d ⎞ + ⎜ r r ⎟⎟ 1 ⎝ 2⎠ r1r2 ⎜ r2 = = If r1r2 ( 2d ) = 2r1r2 d r2 d + r1d 2r1r2 d d ( r2 + r1 ) = 2r1r2 r2 + r1 r1 = 40 and r2 = 30. W = −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 W = −66(4)2 + 526(4) + 1030 W = 2078 According to the model. a. c. Inc. 7 93. b. Substitute 4 for x in the model. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 92. 7 Your average speed will be 34 2 miles per hour. W −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 = M −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 = = 2 ( −33x 2 + 263x + 515 ) 2 ( −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 ) −33x 2 + 263x + 515 −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 22 calories. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 38 calories.

. 4 x + 14 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x +5⎠ ⎝ x +6⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+5 x+6 2 x ( x + 6) 2x ( x + ( x + 5)( x + 6) ( x + 5)( x 2 = + 2 2 x + 12 x + 2 x + 10 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 2 = 4 x + 22 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 97. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 12) = 95. –108. Answers may vary.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. 8. Inc. P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x + 3⎠ ⎝ x − 4⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+3 x+4 2 x ( x + 4) 2 x ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x + 4) ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = + 2 2 x + 8x + 2 x + 6 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = 96. 58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 11 R(4. R= = = 1 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1R2 R3 R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2 4 ⋅8 ⋅12 8⋅12 + 4 ⋅12 + 4 ⋅ 8 384 = 96 + 48 + 32 384 = 176 24 = 11 24 The parallel resistance is ohms.

does not make sense. Inc. A sample change is: 6 + 117. x −1 x 2n 1 x 2n −1 n x +1− x +1−1 x 2n −1 1 x 2n −1 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ x 1 ⎞⎛ x +1 1 ⎞⎛ x + 2 1 ⎞⎛ x + 3 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ − − − ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ x x + x + x + x x x + x + x + x + x + x + 3⎠ 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎛ x − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 1) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 3) − 1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠⎝ x +1 ⎠⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x + 3 ⎠ = 119. makes sense 113. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 109. Sample explanation: The numerator and denominator of 7 do not 14 + x share a common factor. It cubes x. false. 4 x( x − 1) 4(1)(1 − 1) 0 110. 1 n x −1 − 1 n x +1 − n 1 x 2n −1 = n x +1 x 2n −1 − n = = 118. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 111. true 116. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary. A sample change is: x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) = = x+5 x−5 x−5 114. Sample explanation: 3x − 3 3(1) − 3 0 = = which is undefined.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 112. 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 3 2 + 2 + 3 + + 5 4 3 x x x = x x 2 x3 = x + x + x = x x + x + 1 = x3 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 1 + 5 + 6 + 5 + 6 4 4 x x x x x x ( ) 59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Explanations will vary. . true 115. −1 − 1 6x 1 6x + 1 = + = x x x x ( x − y) −1 + ( x − y) −2 = 1 + x −1 x x +1 x + 2 x −1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = x x +1 x + 2 x + 3 x + 3 1 ( x − y) ( x − y) 2 = ( x − y) 1 x − y +1 + = 2 ( x − y )( x − y ) ( x − y ) ( x − y )2 120. Sample explanation: The first step is to invert the second fraction. does not make sense. does not make sense.

Section P. Inc. 2(6 − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3(6 + 2) 2(3) − 17 = 13 − 3(8) 6 − 17 = 13 − 24 −11 = −11.7 Check Point Exercises 1. true 7 ( x − 3) = 2(5) − 4 ( x + 5 ) 7 x − 21 = 10 − 4 x − 20 ⎛ x + 2 x −1 ⎞ ⎛ x+2⎞ ⎛ x −1⎞ − = 12 ⎜ − 12 ⎜ 122. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x=7 .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. 2 −b − b 2 − 4ac −(9) − (9) − 4(2)(−5) = 2a 2(2) −9 − 81 + 40 4 −9 − 121 = 4 −9 − 11 = 4 = −5 = 3. 2( x − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3( x + 2) 2. 2 x = 10 2 x 10 = 2 2 x=5 Check: 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 4[2(5) + 1] − 29 = 3[2(5) − 5] 4[10 + 1] − 29 = 3[10 − 5] 4[11] − 29 = 3[5] 44 − 29 = 15 15 = 15 true The solution set is {5}. 60 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = − x + 10 123. 12 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 3( x + 2) − 4( x − 1) = 3x + 6 − 4 x + 4 7 x − 21 = −4 x − 10 7 x + 4 x = −10 + 21 11x = 11 11x 11 = 11 11 x =1 Check: x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 1− 3 5 1+ 5 = − 4 14 7 −2 5 6 = − 4 14 7 1 1 − =− 2 2 The solution set is {1}. x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 x −3 ⎛ 5 x+5⎞ 28 ⋅ = 28 ⎜ − 4 7 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 14 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 8 x + 4 − 29 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 − 6 x = 6 x − 15 − 6 x 2 x − 25 = −15 2 x − 25 + 25 = −15 + 25 −20 6 5 − = 2 x+3 x−2 x + x−6 −20 6 5 − = x + 3 x − 2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x + 3)( x − 2) 5( x + 3)( x − 2) −20( x + 3)( x − 2) − = x+3 x−2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x − 2) − 5( x + 3) = −20 6 x − 12 − 5 x − 15 = −20 x − 27 = −20 The solution set is {7} .

3}. 9. 3x 2 − 9 x = 0 3x( x − 3) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 3 = 0 3 x 2 21 = 3 3 2 x =7 x=± 7 { } The solution set is − 7. a. 2 x2 + x = 1 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7. −5 − 11 . } The solution set is −5 + 11. −1⎬ . x=0 x=3 The solution set is {0. 2 x2 + x − 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 2x = 1 1 x= 2 1 1 1 + = p q f 1 pqf 1 pqf 1 pqf + = p q f qf + pf = pq x = −1 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 7 .3} . Section P. The solution set is { } . ⎩2 ⎭ 8. a.7 1 4 1 = − x + 2 x2 − 4 x − 2 1 4 1 = − x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 1( x + 2)( x − 2) 4( x + 2)( x − 2) 1( x + 2)( x − 2) = − x+2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x−2 x − 2 = 4 − ( x + 2) x−2=4−x−2 x−2=2−x 2x = 4 x=2 2 must be rejected. 3x 2 − 21 = 0 3x 2 = 21 qf − pq = − pf q( f − p) = − pf − pf q( f − p) = f −p f −p pf q= p− f 6. . 4 1 − 2 x − 20 = 0 b.PreCalculus 4E 4. Inc. ( x + 5) 2 = 11 x + 5 = ± 11 4 1 − 2 x = 20 x = −5 ± 11 1 − 2x = 5 { 1 − 2x = 5 or 1 − 2 x = −5 −2 x = 4 −2 x = −6 x = −2 x=3 The solution set is {–2. x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x2 + 4x = 1 x2 + 4 x + 4 = 1 + 4 ( x + 2) 2 =5 x+2= ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5.

7x – 5 = 72 7x = 77 x = 11 Check: 7 x − 5 = 72 Check: 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 2 11(7) − [6(7) − 5] = 40 x + 3 = x2 − 6x + 9 77 − (42 − 5) = 40 0 = x2 − 7 x + 6 0 = ( x − 6)( x − 1) x − 6 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 77 − (37) = 40 40 = 40 x=6 x =1 1 does not check and must be rejected. c = 5 3. The equation has two complex imaginary solutions. c = −1 1. b = −2. −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a = = = = = = −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) 7(11) − 5 = 72 −2 ± 4 + 8 4 −2 ± 12 4 −2 ± 2 3 4 2(−1 ± 3) 4 −1 ± 3 2 77 − 5 = 72 72 = 72 The solution set is {11}. 2 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 Exercise Set P. x+3 +3 = x x +3 = x−3 ( x+3 ) 2 = ( x − 3) 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 11x − 6 x + 5 = 40 b2 − 4ac = (−2)2 − 4 ⋅3 ⋅5 = 4 − 60 = −56 The discriminant is –56. 6x – 3 = 63 6x = 66 x = 11 The solution set is {11}. b = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Check: 6 x − 3 = 63 ⎧⎪ −1 + 3 −1 − 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . 5 x + 5 = 40 5 x = 35 x=7 The solution set is {7}. Inc. The solution set is {6} . 12. 62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎬.7 a = 2. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 11.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. 6(11) − 3 = 63 66 − 3 = 63 63 = 63 3x 2 − 2x + 5 = 0 a = 3. . 2.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5. . 28 = 28 10. 3(7) + 7 = 2(14) 21 + 7 = 28 3x + 5 = 2x + 13 x + 5 = 13 x=8 The solution set is {8}. Section P. ⎤ ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 25 ⎞ 5 ⎜ ⎟ − ⎢ 2 ⎜ ⎟ − 10 ⎥ = 35 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎦ 125 ⎡ 50 ⎤ − − 10⎥ = 35 3 ⎢⎣ 3 ⎦ 125 20 − = 35 3 3 105 = 35 3 35 = 35 13(−19) + 14 = 12(−19) − 5 − 247 + 14 = −228 − 5 − 233 = −233 2x – 7 = 6 + x x–7=6 x = 13 The solution set is {13}. Check: 2(13) − 7 = 6 + 13 Check: 3(9 − 2) + 7 = 2(9 + 5) 26 − 7 = 19 19 = 19 6. 2(x – 1) + 3 = x – 3(x +1) 2x – 2 + 3 = x – 3x – 3 2x +1 = –2x – 3 4x + 1 = –3 4x = –4 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. Inc. Check: 13 x + 14 = 12 x − 5 9. 3(x – 2) + 7 = 2(x + 5) 3x – 6 + 7 = 2x + 10 3x + 1 = 2x + 10 x + 1 = 10 x=9 The solution set is {9}.7 5x – (2x – 10) = 35 5x – 2x + 10 = 35 3x + 10 = 35 3x = 25 25 x= 3 7. Check: 7(2) + 4 = 2 + 16 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .PreCalculus 4E 4. Check: 3x + 5 = 2 x + 13 3(8) + 5 = 2(8) + 13 24 + 5 = 16 + 13 29 = 29 Check: 2( x − 1) + 3 = x − 3( x + 1) 2(−1 − 1) + 3 = −1 − 3(−1 + 1) 2(−2) + 3 = −1 − 3(0) − 4 + 3 = −1 + 0 − 1 = −1 63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7x + 4 = x + 16 6x + 4 = 16 6x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {2}. ⎩3⎭ 14 + 4 = 18 18 = 18 Check: 5 x − (2 x − 10) = 35 8. 13x + 14 = 12x – 5 x + 14 = –5 x = –19 The solution set is {–19}.

3x + 4 x = 10 − 3 7x = 7 x +1 x+2 = 5− 3 7 x + 2⎤ ⎡ x +1 21 ⎢ = 5− 7 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 3 7x + 7 = 105 – 3x – 6 7x + 3x = 99 – 7 10x = 92 92 x= 10 46 x= 5 ⎧ 46 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11. 17. x +3 3 x −5 = + 6 8 4 ⎡ x + 3 3 x − 5⎤ 24 ⎢ = + 8 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 6 4 x + 12 = 9 + 6 x − 30 15. x +1 1 2 − x = + 4 6 3 ⎡ x +1 1 2 − x ⎤ 12 ⎢ = + 6 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 4 3x + 3 = 2 + 8 − 4 x 16. 8 x − 3x = 9 − 104 5 x = −95 x = −19 The solution set is {−19} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎩2⎭ 12. Inc. ⎩5⎭ 3x x − 3 x + 2 − = 5 2 3 ⎡ 3x x − 3 x + 2 ⎤ 30 ⎢ − = 2 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣5 18 x − 15 x + 45 = 10 x + 20 3x − 10 x = 20 − 45 x =1 − 7 x = −25 The solution set is {1}. 4 x − 6 x = −21 − 12 − 2 x = −33 33 2 x= ⎧ 33 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩7⎭ x= x x −3 = 2+ 4 3 x − 3⎤ ⎡x 12 ⎢ = 2 + 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣4 3x = 24 + 4x – 12 3x – 4x = 12 –x = 12 x = –12 The solution set is {–12}. x−2 x+3 = 3 8 x − 2 x + 3⎤ ⎡ 24 ⎢5 + = 3 8 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 120 + 8 x − 16 = 3 x + 9 5+ 1 11 +5 = ( x ≠ 1) x −1 x −1 1 11 +5 = x −1 x −1 1 + 5( x − 1) = 11 1 + 5 x − 5 = 11 5 x − 4 = 11 5 x = 15 x=3 The solution set is {3}. b. 64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 13. a. 14. 25 7 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . .

∅. 3 5 1 = + ( x ≠ −3. Inc. 3 5 1 = + x + 3 2( x + 3) x − 2 6( x − 2) = 5( x − 2) + 2( x + 3) 6 x − 12 = 5 x − 10 + 2 x + 6 3 − 7 x − 28 = −4 19. 2 = x − 2x + 4 21. x ≠ −1) x + 1 x −1 x −1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 x2 − 1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2( x − 1) − 1( x + 1) = 2 x 2x − 2 − x −1 = 2x x = −1 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. ∅. 4) 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 x2 − 2 x − 8 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 ( x − 4)( x + 2) ( x ≠ 4. a. ∅. a. 65 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 + x −1 = 4 x=2 The solution set is {2}. 8x 8 = 4− x +1 x +1 8 x = 4( x + 1) − 8 b. b. 20. 4 2 32 + = x + 5 x − 5 ( x + 5)( x − 5) ( x ≠ 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 1 2 + = 2x − 2 2 x −1 3 1 2 + = 2( x − 1) 2 x − 1 3 + 1( x − 1) = 4 25. −x = 8 −7 x = 21 x = −8 The solution set is {–8}. a. a. −5 x + 5 x − 5 x 2 − 25 4( x − 5) + 2( x + 5) = 32 4 x − 20 + 2 x + 10 = 32 3 1 2 + = ( x ≠ 1) 2x − 2 2 x −1 6 x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}.7 3 −4 −7 = ( x ≠ −4) x+4 x+4 22. 4 2 32 + = . x ≠ −5) b. 2 x = − 2 ( x ≠ 2) x−2 x−2 24. Section P. x ≠ −2) 1( x + 2) − 5( x − 4) = 6 x + 2 − 5 x + 20 = 6 −4 x = −16 x=4 The solution set is the empty set. x ≠ 2) x + 3 2x + 6 x − 2 8x 8 = 4− ( x ≠ −1) x +1 x +1 23. .PreCalculus 4E 18. a. 1 x−4 − 5 x+2 = 6 ( x − 4)( x + 2) . a. 8x = 4x + 4 − 8 4 x = −4 2 1 2x − = 2 ( x ≠ 1. x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. b. 3 −4 −7 = x+4 x+4 3 − 7( x + 4) = −4 b. b. −x = 3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. ( x ≠ −2. a. b. 2 x = −2 x−2 x−2 2 = x − 2( x − 2) x = 2 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. a. x ≠ 5. b.

a. 2π circumference of a circle 33. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S−P = r. Pt interest 34. 29. rt interest C = 2πr C r= .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 26. 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) A= 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) 2A = a+b h A= 37. 1 2 8 . b. Pr interest 35. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ −1. ∅. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S −P = t. T = D + pm T − D = pm F B F S = +V B 36. 2A =a+b h 2A −a=b h area of trapezoid I = Prt I P= . . 1 2 8 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 1( x + 1) − 2( x − 3) = 8 x + 1 − 2x + 6 = 8 −x + 7 = 8 −x = 1 x = −1 The solution set is the empty set. 27. 3 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 32. Inc. F S −V B(S − V ) = F B= S −V = T − D pm = m m T −D =p m total of payment 30. P = C + MC P − C = MC P −C =M C markup based on cost 31. C 1− r S (1 − r ) = C C 1− r = S C −r = − 1 S C r = − +1 S markup based on selling price S= IR + Ir = E I (R + r) = E 2A −b = a h area of trapezoid E R+r electric current I= 66 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 28.

f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f − f2 48.PreCalculus 4E 38. 45. + = p q f qf + pf = pq f (q + p) = pq pq f = p+q thin lens equation 40. 7}. 4}. R1 R2 − RR1 = RR2 R1 ( R2 − R ) = RR2 R1 = RR2 R2 − R 47. 2|3x – 2| = 14 |3x – 2| = 7 3x – 2 = 7 3x – 2 = −7 3x = 9 3x = −5 x=3 x = −5/3 The solution set is {3. Section P.7 A = 2lw + 2lh + 2 wh A − 2lw = h ( 2l + 2 w ) A − 2lw =h 2l + 2 w surface area 1 1 1 39. 3|2x – 1| = 21 |2x – 1| = 7 2x – 1 = 7 or 2x – 1 = −7 2x = 8 2x = −6 x=4 x = −3 The solution set is {4. 2x −1 = 5 2x – 1 = 5 2x – 1 = –5 2x = 6 2x = –4 x=3 x = –2 The solution set is {3. x−2 =7 x – 2 = 7 x – 2 = –7 x=9 x = –5 The solution set is {9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –2}. −3} f1 = ff 2 f2 − f 49. 4 ⎬ . f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 2 4− f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 4− ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 f − f1 5 x =6 2 4− f 2 ( f − f1 ) = − ff1 = 5 x = 12 2 5 x=6 2 5 − x=2 2 ff 2 − f1 f 2 = − ff1 f 2 ( f − f1 ) 5 x + 6 = 18 2 − ff1 f − f1 x=− ff1 f2 = f1 − f focal length 4 5 or 4 − 5 x = −6 2 5 − x = −10 2 x=4 ⎧ 4 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . . 1 1 1 = + R R R 1 2 R1 R2 = RR2 + RR1 43. Inc. 44. −5/3} resistance f = 41. ⎩ 5 ⎭ 67 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –5}. 46. 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = −11 2 x = −8 2 x = 14 x = −4 x=7 The solution set is {–4. x +1 = 5 x + 1 = 5 x + 1 = –5 x=4 x = –6 The solution set is {–6. ff1 − f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) f − f2 2 4− focal length f = 42.

3 3 x = 4 4 3 3 or 1 − 3 x = − 3 1− x = 4 4 4 4 3 1 3 7 − x=− − x=− 4 4 4 4 1 7 x= x= 3 3 1 7 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎩3 3 ⎭ 1− x 2 − 8 x + 15 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 5) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x=3 x=5 The solution set is {3. Inc. 5} . x 2 − 13 x + 36 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 9) = 0 x − 4 = 0 or x − 9 = 0 x=4 x=9 61. 5} . x 2 + 11x + 10 = 0 ( x + 10)( x + 1) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x = −10 x = −1 The solution set is {−10.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 50. . −1} . ⎬ . 59. 52. x 2 = 8 x − 15 57. 3 x =3 4 The solution set is {4. 3x − 2 + 4 = 4 3 x 2 = 12 x 3x 2 − 12 x = 0 3x( x − 4) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 3x − 2 = 0 3x − 2 = 0 3x = 2 2 x= 3 The solution set is {0. x 2 − 3 x − 10 = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = 0 x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=5 x = −2 The solution set is {−2. ⎧2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 5 x 2 = 20 x 5 x 2 − 20 x = 0 5 x( x − 4) = 0 5 x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 53. 51. 4} . 54. 68 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 1− 3 x + 7 = 10 4 4 1− 56. ⎧1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩2⎭ 60. 3x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . |x + 1| + 6 = 2 |x + 1| = −4 The solution set is { }. |2x – 1| + 3 = 3 |2x – 1| = 0 2x – 1 = 0 2x = 1 x = 1/2 The solution set is {0. 9} . |x + 1| +5 = 3 |x + 1| = −2 No solution The solution set is { }. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎩3⎭ 55. 4} . x 2 = −11x − 10 58.

Section P. } The solution set is −4 ± 7 . –2}. 5 x 2 + 1 = 51 68. . 2 2 ( x + 2)2 = 16 =± 5 x + 2 = ±4 x = −2 ± 4 The solution set is {–6. 3 ( x + 4 ) = 21 ( x + 4) 2 =7 2 =± 7 x 2 − 6 x − 11 = 0 x 2 − 6 x = 11 2 ( x + 4) x 2 + 4 x = 12 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 12 + 4 ( x − 4) = 5 ( x − 4) } The solution set is 1 + 3. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 62. x = 1± 3 { 70. 66. 69 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + 6 x = −8 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = −8 + 9 x 2 = 10 64. 3x 2 − 1 = 47 ( x − 1)2 = 3 x 2 = 16 x −1 = ± 3 x 2 = ± 16 x = ±4 The solution set is {±4} . x−4=± 5 x = 4± 5 { } 71. 1}. } The solution set is ± 10 . x2 + 6 x = 7 x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 11 + 9 ( x − 3) 2 = 20 x − 3 = ± 20 x = 3± 2 5 x+4=± 7 x = −4 ± 7 { { } The solution set is 3 + 2 5. 3 − 2 5 . 69. 2}. 1 − 3 . 5 x 2 = 50 ( x + 3) 2 = 1 x 2 = ± 10 x = ± 10 x + 3 = ±1 { x = −3 ± 1 The solution set is {–4. x + 3 = ±4 x = −3 ± 4 The solution set is {–7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 63. 3 ( x − 4 ) = 15 2 x2 − 2 x = 2 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 2 + 1 3x 2 = 48 65.7 5 x 2 = 45 67. The solution set is 4 ± 5 . x2 = 9 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 7 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 16 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} .

⎬. ⎬ 6 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 6 70 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎬.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 72. 75. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x + 2) 2 = 3 x = −2 ± 3 { −5 ± 25 − 12 2 −5 ± 13 x= 2 } x2 + 6 x − 5 = 0 ⎧⎪ −5 + 13 −5 − 13 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . − 3 − 14 . 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ −8 ± 64 − 60 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 −8 ± 2 x= 2 The solution set is {−5. x + 3 = ± 14 x2 + 5x + 2 = 0 x= x = −3 ± 14 { } The solution set is −3 + 14. −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) −5 ± 25 − 8 2 −5 ± 17 x= 2 x= x 2 + 8 x + 15 = 0 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(3) 2(1) x= The solution set is −2 + 3. x= 79. x2 + 5x + 3 = 0 x= x+2= ± 3 74. x2 − 2 x − 5 = 0 76. . − 2 − 3 . 1 − 6 . −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(12) 2(1) −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(15) 2(1) ⎧⎪ −5 + 17 −5 − 17 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . x= x −1 = ± 6 x = 1± 6 { } The solution set is 1 + 6. − 3}. x − 2x = 5 x 2 + 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x= x − 2x + 1 = 5 +1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 6 −8 ± 64 − 48 2 −8 ± 16 x= 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 The solution set is {–6. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ x2 + 6 x = 5 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 5 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 14 78. –2}. 3x 2 − 3 x − 4 = 0 x= 3 ± (−3)2 − 4(3)(−4) 2(3) 3 ± 9 + 48 6 3 ± 57 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 3 + 57 3 − 57 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . x2 + 4 x + 1 = 0 x 2 + 4 x = −1 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = −1 + 4 77. 73.

. 87. (−2) 2 − 4(3)(1) = 4 – 12 = –8. 85. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 unequal real solutions 2 ± 4 + 112 x= 8 2 ± 116 x= 8 2 ± 2 29 x= 8 1 ± 29 x= 4 82. 4 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 4 x= 2 x 2 + 11x − 6 = 0 112 − 4(2)(−6) = 121 + 48 = 169. 2 unequal real solutions 4x2 = 2x + 7 x= 4 x2 − 2 x + 3 = 0 (−2) 2 − 4(4)(3) = 4 – 48 = –44. (−4) 2 − 4(1)(−5) = 16 + 20 = 36. 2 unequal real solutions ⎧⎪ 3 + 6 3 − 6 ⎫⎪ . 2 complex imaginary solutions 3x = 6 x − 1 3x − 6 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x= x= 3x 2 = 2 x − 1 3x 2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x2 = 2x − 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 ⎧⎪1 + 29 1 − 29 ⎫⎪ . 1 real solution 88. x2 − 4 x − 5 = 0 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 89. 3x 2 + 4 x − 2 = 0 42 − 4(3)(−2) = 16 + 24 = 40. Inc. 2 unequal real solutions −1 ± 12 − 4(5)(−2) 2(5) −1 ± 1 + 40 10 −1 ± 41 x= 10 x= 84. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.7 5x2 + x − 2 = 0 x= 83. 3 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 3 71 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 80. 2 unequal real solutions 6 ± 36 − 12 6 6 ± 24 6 6±2 6 6 3± 6 3 90. 2 x 2 − 11x + 3 = 0 (−11) 2 − 4(2)(3) = 121 – 24 = 97. 2 complex imaginary solutions ⎪⎧ −1 + 41 −1 − 41 ⎪⎫ . (−2) 2 − 4(1)(1) =4–4 = 0. 4 x2 − 2 x − 7 = 0 2 ± (−2)2 − 4(4)(−7) 2(4) 86. 10 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 10 81. x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 (−3)2 − 4(1)(−7) = 9 + 28 = 37. Section P. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.

{ 2 x 2 = 250 x = ± 125 3x2 − 4x − 4 = 0 2 3 } x 2 = 125 3x 2 − 4 x = 4 x=− { The solution set is −2 5. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 92. (5 x − 2)( x + 3) = 0 5 x − 2 = 0 or x + 3 2 x + 8 x + 3x + 12 = 1 2 2 x 2 + 11x + 11 = 0 5x = 2 2 5 or −3 ± 32 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) x= 5x = 1 x= } The solution set is 1 + 2. 95. (3 x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 3x + 2 or x − 2 = 0 93. 1⎬ . ⎩ 5⎭ x= ⎪⎧ −11 + 33 −11 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎩ 3 ⎭ x = 1± 2 { 5 x 2 − 11x + 2 = 0 98.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 − x = 1 91. 3x = −2 x2 − 2 x = 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 1 + 1 ( x − 1) 2 = 2 x = −3 or x −1 = ± 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . x 2 = 20 2 x2 − x − 1 = 0 (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = ± 20 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = ±2 5 2 x = −1 96. ⎬. 5 x 2 + 2 = 11x 94. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 2 5 . } The solution set is −5 5. ⎬. 2 ⎬ .5 5 . 1 − 2 . ⎩5 ⎭ −3 ± 9 + 8 4 −3 ± 17 x= 4 x= x= ⎪⎧ −3 + 17 −3 − 17 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬ . 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 72 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x 2 = 60 x= x = −3 −11 ± 112 − 4(2)(11) 2(2) −11 ± 121 − 88 4 −11 ± 33 x= 4 ⎧ 2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. 2⎬ . (5 x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 2 x 2 + 3x = 1 2 x 2 + 3x − 1 = 0 5 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 1 or x = 2 5 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 1 x = − or x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . Inc. x = ±5 5 97. 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 5 x 2 = 6 − 13x 5 x 2 + 13x − 6 = 0 (2 x + 3)( x + 4) = 1 99.

(3 x − 4) = 16 2 x2 − 4x + 2 = 0 3x − 4 = ± 16 3x − 4 = ±4 3x = 4 ± 4 3x = 8 or 3x = 0 8 x = or x = 0 3 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 4± 8 2 x = 2± 2 x= ⎧ 8⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. 3}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 − 6 x + 7 = 0 103. ⎬ . 102. 104. 3x 2 − 27 = 0 3 x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. (2 x + 7) 2 = 25 x2 = 6 x − 7 108. ⎩ 2⎭ x = 0 or x = 73 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎬ . ⎬. ⎩ 3⎭ { } The solution set is 2 ± 2 . 109. 4 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 4 x2 = 4 x − 2 107. 2 7 2 ⎧ 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. 101. . 2} . 2 x + 7 = ±5 2 x = −7 ± 5 2 x = −12 or 2 x = −2 x=6 or x = −1 The solution set is {–6.PreCalculus 4E 100. Inc. 3x 2 − 12 x + 12 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(7) 2(1) 6± 8 2 x = 3± 2 x= x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x=2 The solution set is {2}. Section P. ⎪⎧ 3 + 65 3 − 65 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 3 ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(−7) 2(2) 3 ± 9 + 56 4 3 ± 65 x= 4 x= 106. x= { } The solution set is 3 ± 2 . 2 x 2 − 7 x = 0 9 − 6x + x = 0 x(2 x − 7) = 0 2 x = 0 or 2 x − 7 = 0 2x = 7 x − 6x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 The solution set is {3}.7 (2 x − 5)( x + 1) = 2 105. 4 x 2 − 16 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x − 5x − 5 = 2 4 x 2 = 16 2 x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 x= x2 = 4 x = ±2 The solution set is {−2. –1}.

2 − 10}. 7}. 0 = x2 − 8x + 7 0 = ( x − 7 )( x − 1) x=7 x =1 The solution set is {1. 4 x − 3 x − 4 x − 7 x + 12 3x − 12 + 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 20 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. ⎩ 2⎭ 111. −3 x−3 x +3 x −9 2 x ( x + 3) + 6 ( x − 3) = −28 2 x 2 + 6 x + 6 x − 18 = −28 2 x 2 + 12 x + 10 = 0 −5 ± 25 + 24 x= 4 −5 ± 49 x= 4 −5 ± 7 x= 4 1 x = −3. 113. −3 x x+3 4 4 x + 12 + 4 x = x 2 + 3x − ( −5 ) ± 18 + 18 = 6 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 + 5x = 3 110. 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 2 74 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4=2 . ⎬ . 114. 112. 5 ± 25 + 48 x= 2 5 ± 73 x= 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 73 5 − 73 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3x + 18 = x ( −5 ) − 4 (1)( −12 ) 2 (1) 2 x=2 20 − 8(−10) = −10 20 − 8(2) = 2 20 + 80 = −10 20 − 16 = 2 100 = −10 False The solution set is {2}. ⎬. 20 − 8 x = x x 2 + 8 x − 20 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 2) = 0 x + 10 = 0 x−2 = 0 x = −10 0 = x 2 − 5 x − 12 x= 36 = 6 20 − 8 x = x 2 1 1 1 + = . 3 5 x 2 − 20 + = 2 . Inc. 1 1 1 + = . −2 x x+2 3 3x + 6 + 3 x = x 2 + 2 x 115. x ≠ 0. The solution set is {2 + 10. x ≠ 3. 0 = x2 − 4 x − 6 x= − ( −4 ) ± 3 x + 18 = x 2 ( −4 ) − 4 (1)( −6 ) 2 (1) 2 x 2 − 3x − 18 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 6) = 0 x+3=0 x–6=0 x = –3 x=6 3(−3) + 18 = −3 3(6) + 18 = 6 4 ± 16 + 24 2 4 ± 40 x= 2 4 ± 2 10 x= 2 x = 2 ± 10 x= −9 + 18 = −3 116. x ≠ 3. 2 x2 + 6 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 5) = 0 The solution set is {−5. 2x + 5x − 3 = 0 2 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(2)(−3) 2(2) 2x 6 −28 + = 2 . − 1}. x ≠ 0.

Inc.7 x+3 = x−3 117. x + 10 = x − 2 118. 2 x + 10 = x 2 − 4 x + 4 x = −1 6x + 1 = x − 1 6 x + 1 = ( x − 1) 2 2 2 2 x + 13 = x + 14 x + 49 x = 10 2 − 2(2) + 5 = 5 10 − 2(10) + 5 = 5 2− 9 =5 10 − 25 = 5 2 − 3 = 5 False The solution set is {10}. x + 10 = ( x − 2) 121. x2 − 5x − 6 = 0 6(8) + 1 = 8 − 1 0 + 1 = −1 48 + 1 = 7 49 = 7 x − 2x + 5 = 5 ( x − 5) 2 = 2 x + 5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 = 2 x + 5 x=6 −1 + 10 = −1 − 2 x 2 − 12 x + 20 = 0 6 + 10 = 6 − 2 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. 75 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x=0 1 = −1 False The solution set is {8}.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 2 x + 12 x + 36 = 0 2 ( x + 6) 2 = 0 122. x+6 = 0 10 − 5 = 5 x − x + 11 = 1 x − 1 = x + 11 x = −6 ( x − 1) 2 = x + 11 2(−6) + 13 = −6 + 7 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = x + 11 −12 + 13 = 1 x 2 − 3x − 10 = 0 1 =1 The solution set is {–6}. 120. 5−4 =1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x + 3 = x − 6x + 9 x2 − 7 x + 6 = 0 6 x + 1 = x2 − 2 x + 1 ( x − 1)( x − 6) = 0 x–1=0 x–6=0 x=1 x=6 6+3 = 6−3 1+ 3 = 1− 3 x2 − 8x = 0 x( x − 8) = 0 x −8 = 0 False 9 = 3 4 = −2 The solution set is {6}. ( x + 2)( x − 5) = 0 x+2=0 x−5 = 0 x = −2 x=5 −2 − −2 + 11 = 1 5 − 5 + 11 = 1 −2 − 9 = 1 5 − 16 = 1 −2 − 3 = 1 False The solution set is {5}. ( x − 2)( x − 10) = 0 x − 2 = 0 x − 10 = 0 16 = 4 x=2 2 x + 13 = x + 7 2 x + 13 = ( x + 7) x=8 6(0) + 1 = 0 − 1 x − 5 = 2x + 5 ( x + 1)( x − 6) = 0 x +1 = 0 x − 6 = 0 119.

The solution set is {–3}. 126. 2 x + 15 = x + 6 ( 2 x + 15 ) 2 = ( x + 6) 2 2 x + 15 = x 2 + 12 x + 36 0 = x 2 + 10 x + 21 0 = ( x + 3)( x + 7) x + 3 = 0 or x + 7 = 0 x = −3 x = −7 –7 does not check and must be rejected. . The solution set is {–5}.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x + 19 − 8 = x 123. 125. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 45 – [4 – 2y – 4(y + 7)] = –4(1 + 3y) – [4 – 3(y + 2) – 2(2y – 5)] 45 – [4 – 2y – 4y – 28] = –4 – 12y – [4 – 3y – 6 – 4y + 10] 45 – [–6y – 24] = –4 – 12y – [–7y + 8] 45 + 6y + 24 = –4 – 12y + 7y – 8 6y + 69 = –5y – 12 11y = –81 y=− 81 11 ⎧ 81 ⎫ ⎬. Inc. 25 – [2 + 5y – 3(y + 2)] = –3(2y – 5) – [5(y – 1) – 3y + 3] 25 – [2 + 5y – 3y – 6] = –6y + 15 – [5y – 5– 3y + 3] 25 – [2y – 4] = –6y + 15 – [2y – 2] 25 – 2y + 4 = –6y + 15 – 2y + 2 –2y + 29 = –8y + 17 6y = –12 y = –2 The solution set is {–2}. ⎩ 11 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ − 76 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x + 15 − 6 = x 124. 2 x + 19 = x + 8 ( 2 x + 19 ) 2 = ( x + 8) 2 2 x + 19 = x 2 + 16 x + 64 0 = x 2 + 14 x + 45 0 = ( x + 9)( x + 5) x + 9 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 x = −9 x = −5 –9 does not check and must be rejected.

. x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = −12 or ( x + 8)( x − 6) = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 4) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −8. Inc. 7 − 7 x = (3x + 2)( x − 1) 7 − 7 x = 3x 2 − x − 2 0 = 3x 2 + 6 x − 9 0 = x2 + 2 x − 3 0 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −3 x =1 The solution set is {−3. 129. The solution set is {−7. x = −6. 130.PreCalculus 4E Section P. and x = 1.7 127.1⎬ . and x = 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 = −8 x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 3) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −7. 1} . 128. 10 x − 1 = (2 x + 1) 2 10 x − 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 0 = 4 x2 − 6 x + 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 0 = (2 x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x − 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x= 1 2 x =1 ⎧1 ⎫ ⎩2 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ . 77 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4. 6} . − 3.1} . The solution set is {−8. x = −3. x = 6. − 6.

This results in the following: 133. x= 135. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x + 2) . x − 1 x 1 + = 2 x − 2 x − 3 x − 5x + 6 x −1 x 1 + = x − 2 x − 3 ( x − 2)( x − 3) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. Inc. 1 1 5 = + 2 x − 3x + 2 x + 2 x − 4 1 1 5 = + ( x − 1)( x − 2) x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ = x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(2)(−9) 2(2) −4 ± 88 4 −4 ± 2 22 x= 4 −2 ± 22 x= 2 x= 78 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x − x − 3x + 3 + x − 2 x = 1 2 2 2x − 6x + 3 = 1 2 2 x2 − 6 x + 2 = 0 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 2 b = −6 c = 2 . Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded. ( x − 2)( x − 3) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1 ± 1 − 4 (1)( −5 ) 2 x= = 2 (1) = 4−2 = 2 The solution set is {8}. x +5 − x −3 = 2 −1 ± 21 2 x+5 = x −3 + 2 x + 5 = ( x − 3 + 2) 2 ⎪⎧ −1 ± 21 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 131. 2 x2 + 4 x − 9 = 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4 ( 2 )( 2 ) 2 ( 2) 6 ± 36 − 16 6 ± 20 = 4 4 6 ± 4⋅5 6 ± 2 5 = = 4 4 3± 5 = 2 ⎧⎪ 3 ± 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 2 x+8 − x−4 = 2 x +8 = x−4 + 2 x + 8 = ( x − 4 + 2) 2 x +8 = x −4+ 4 x −4 + 4 x +8 = x + 4 x − 4 8= 4 x−4 x + 2 = ( x − 1)( x − 2) + 5( x − 1) 2= x−4 x + 2 = x2 − 2 x − x + 2 + 5x − 5 4 = x−4 x + 2 = x2 + 2 x − 3 x=8 0 = x2 + x − 5 8+8 − 8−4 = 2 16 − 4 = 2 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 1 b = 1 c = −5 . 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ x +5 = x −3+ 4 x −3 + 4 x + 5 = x +1+ 4 x − 3 5 = 1+ 4 x − 3 132. This results in the following: ( x − 3)( x − 1) + x( x − 2) = 1 4 = 4 x −3 1= x −3 1= x −3 x=4 4+5 − 4−3 = 2 9− 1=2 3 −1 = 2 The solution set is {4}. −1 ± 1 − ( −20 ) 2 134. .

013x 2 − 1.72 −0.26 x = 300 300 liters of pure acid must be added.74( x + 200) = x + 0.72 x = −90 −0. Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded. Inc. Thus.24 3 = 0.19 x + 28. the healthy weight of a person of height 6’ is 178 pounds.026 1.026 ≈ 58.26 −0.32190 ≈ 0.026 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.28 = x + 500 0.74 = b. .39 and 58.1(500) C= C= 140. 2 x2 − 8x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−8) ± (−8) 2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) 139. This is 13 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph. = 79 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.15. f ( x ) = 0.1(500) 0. The function models the actual data well. − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(12) = 53 2 W − 36 = 53 2 W − 36 + 36 = 53 + 36 2 W = 89 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 89 2 W = 178 According to the formula. x + 0.19 x + 25.4161 − 1.013)( 25.24 x= W 138. 33 year olds and 58 year olds are expected to be in 3 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven. x + 0. 8 ± 24 4 8± 2 6 x= 4 4± 6 x= 2 x= 137.72 x −90 = −0.26 x = −78 −0.19 ) − 4 ( 0.19 ± 0.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0. 141.24 0 = 0.35(200) x + 200 0.7 136.72 x = 125 125 liters of pure peroxide must be added.19 c = 25. W − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(6) = 53 2 W − 18 = 53 2 W − 18 + 18 = 53 + 18 2 W = 71 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 71 2 W = 142 According to the formula. 0.28( x + 500) = x + 0.24 ) 2 ( 0.19 ± 1. 0.26 x −78 = −0.013x 2 − 1.19 x + 28. This is 6 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph.10362 0.PreCalculus 4E Section P.19 ) ± ( −1. = − ( −1.1(500) x + 500 x + 0.74 x + 148 = x + 70 −0.15 or 33.19 ± 0.35(200) 0.39 The solutions are approximately 33. a. the healthy weight of a person of height 5’6” is 142 pounds.28 x + 140 = x + 50 −0.35(200) x + 200 x + 0.013x 2 − 1.013) 2 1.31248 0.013 b = −1.

7 x 2. 80 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.026 162. ( ) 145.7 x + 12. Inc. Changes to make the statement true will vary.7 x + 12.50617 x= x= 0. 165.24 x= = − ( −1.013)(18. The formula overestimates the number of fatal accidents.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 25 = x There will be 16 cluttered minutes 25 years after 1996.7 2 2 ⎛ 2. or 2010.7 2 2 ⎛ 3.87383 0.24 ) 2 ( 0. false.013) 2 1. Explanations will vary. f ( x ) = 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.026 x ≈ 72. false.6 = x 0. 144. Explanations will vary.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 142.5 7x + 4 + 13 = x b 7(−6) + 4 + 13 = −6 b −38 = −19 b −19b = −38 b=2 [ x − (−3)][ x − (5)] = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 5) = 0 16 = 0.7 x 3.7 x + 12. A sample change is: (2 x − 3) 2 = 25 (2 x − 3) 2 = ± 25 2 x − 3 = ±5 164. Sample explanation: Substitute n = 6 into the equation to find P.013x 2 − 1. .026 0.026 0.68383 x= or x = 0.026 0.19 ± 0.19 ) ± 160.5 = x 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 143. M = 0. The formula does not model the data very well. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: The factoring method would be quicker.68383 ≈ 0.013x 2 − 1.4161 − 0.19 ± 1.1 = 0.24 2 0 = 0.013 b = −1. makes sense 161.1 x ≈ 19 = 163.5 15.5 = 0.6 = 0.94848 0.6 ⎞ ⎜ 0. does not make sense.24 159.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0.19 + 0. 1. or 2021. 10 = 0.5 ⎞ ⎜ 0.19 − 0.1 cluttered minutes 14 years after 1996.19 ± 0. true 166. Drivers of approximately age 19 and age 72 are expected to be involved in 10 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven.026 Evaluate the expression to obtain two solutions.19 ) − 4 ( 0.19 c = 18. does not make sense.7 x + 12. does not make sense. false.013x − 1. 2.5 x 2 − 2 x − 15 = 0 3. M = 0. ( ) 168. Answers may vary.68383 1. Sample explanation: You should substitute into the original equation. 1.19 x + 18. – 158.19 x + 28.46762 1.19 x + 28. A sample change is: Some quadratics have one number in their solution sets. Explanations will vary. A sample change is: ax 2 + c = 0 can be solved using b = 0 .026 1. ( −1.5 167.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 14 ≈ x There will be 15.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.05x 173. x + 150 172. 4 x + 400 Section P.1x = 33 −1. 037 ) = 130. 037 = 130.1 x = 50 33% of female freshmen will respond this way 50 years after 1969.989 and the average salary for men was $72. 400 a = ±120 –120 must be rejected. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + (50) 2 = (130)2 a 2 + 2500 = 16. .037 = the average salary for men x + ( x + 14. or 2019. 2l + 2 w = P 2( x + 44) + 2 x = 288 2 x + 88 + 2 x = 288 4 x + 88 = 288 4 x = 200 200 x= 4 x = 50 x + 44 = 94 The dimensions of the court are 50 by 94. The path must be 2 feet wide.8 C−S N L VL = CL − ( C − S ) N V =C− 169. 900 a 2 = 14.PreCalculus 4E Section P.8 192 + 56 x + 4 x 2 = 320 Check Point Exercises 1.026.70 x = 1200 Before the reduction the computer’s price was $1200. 4 x 2 + 56 x − 128 = 0 x 2 + 14 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 16)( x − 2) = 0 x + 16 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −16 x=2 –16 must be rejected. x + 14. Let x + 44 = the length of the court. 88 − 1. 015 x + x + 14. x − 0. 2. 3. Inc.1x = −55 −55 x= −1.30 x = 840 0. Let x = the average salary for women Let x + 14. Let x = the width of the court. Let x = the number of years since 1969.978 x = 57. 5. 015 2 x + 14. 81 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.026 In 2007 the average teaching salary for women was $57. 037 = 130. The tower is 120 yards tall. 4. Let x = the computer’s price before the reduction. 037 = 72. s = −16t 2 + v0 t 0 = −16t 2 + v0 t − s a = −16.989 6.1x = 33 − 88 −1.70 x = 840 840 x= 0. b = v0 . 015 2 x = 115. (16 + 2 x )(12 + 2 x) = 320 VL = CL − CN + SN CN − CL = NS − LV C ( N − L ) = NS − LV C ( N − L) NS − LV N −L N −L NS − LV LV − NS or C= N −L L−N = 170. c = − s t= t= t= −v0 ± ( v0 ) − 4 ( −16 )( − s ) 2 ( −16 ) −v0 ± ( v0 ) 2 2 − 64s −32 v0 ± v0 2 − 64 s 32 171. 20 + 0.

8 1. 2. reduction per winner 5. 000. Exercise Set P.9 x + 4 = 7. 000( x + 3) − 375. 000. 000 x + 15. 000. 000 x −375. 000. 000. 000. 82 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000. 000 − 375.8 − 4 2 x = 7. The new amount of money per person. Inc. 000. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 x 7. 000 x( x + 3) = 5. 000 = 0 x 2 + 3x − 40 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 5) = 0 x + 8 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −8 x=5 –8 must be rejected. x + ( x + 581) = 2529 x + x + 581 = 2529 2 x + 581 − 581 = 2529 − 581 2 x = 1948 x = 974 x + 581 = 1555 Americans spent 974 hours listening to radio and 1555 hours watching TV. 000.8 2 x + 4 − 4 = 11. 000.9 weeks on vacation and Italians spend an average of 7. 000 x + 15. Let x + 4 = number of weeks Italians spend on vacation.9 weeks. 000 − 375.9 Americans spend an average of 3.125.8 x = 3. 5. 000 5. Let x = number of weeks Americans spend on vacation.8 x + x + 4 = 11. 000 x = 5. . 000 ⎛ 5. Let x + 581 = the time spent watching TV.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra The original amount of money per person. 000 ⎞ x( x + 3) ⎜ − 375. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = the time spent listening to radio. x + ( x + 4) = 11.125. 000 = x x+3 5. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 3) x x+3 ⎝ ⎠ 5. There were 5 people in the original group.

000 − 28.580 and the average salary for computer programmers is $63. 000 = −5000 x −35. 000 = −3000 x −15.580 2 x − 7740 = 63.000. 000 x = 10. x + (3x − 3500) = 74.5 x = 100 − 43 1. 8. 9.800 − 500(9) = 22. 000 x Let x = the number of years since 1986. 7. 390 3 x − 3500 = 54. 10. 600. 000 3 x − 7740 = 99.6 x = 61 − 43 0. 000 x = 10. 500 1500 x 13. 000 3x − 7740 + 7740 = 99. Let 2 x − 7740 = the average salary for computer programmers. 83 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 x = 61 0. Let x = the number of years since 1983. 000 x = −400. Let x = the number of years after 2000 10. 200. 000 + 7740 3x = 106.5 x = 38 All American adults will approve 38 years after 1983. 000 − 3000 x 9000 = 24. y = 24. 000 = −3000 x −15.300 at that time.000 after 7 years. 5. 000 − 12. 000 = 45. 000 − 5000 x b. Inc.6 x = 18 18 x= 0. Let x = the number of years after 2005 13. x + (2 x − 7740) = 99.6 x = 30 61% of American adults will approve 30 years after 1986. −16. or the year 2025. Let 3x − 3500 = the average salary for registered nurses.800 − 500 x 1500 x = 13. 740 x = 35. 420 The average salary for carpenters is $35.300 + 1000(9) = 22. 560 x = 19. 000 x= −3000 x=5 The car’s value will drop to $9000 after 5 years. a. or 2021. 000 = −5000 x −35. 060 4 x − 3500 + 3500 = 74. Let x = the average salary for janitors. 10. or 2016.300 The college’s enrollments will be 22. 200. 000 x + 2 x − 7740 = 99. 060 x + 3 x − 3500 = 74.300 and 26. 000 The population in the year 2025 will be 9. 000 − 12. 760 The average salary for janitors is $19. 000 − 3000 x 9000 − 24. y = 45. y = 45. 000 − 5000 x 10. 000 x = 25 The countries will have the same population 25 years after the year 2000. 200. 000(25) = 10. y = 24.760. Publishing as Prentice Hall.390 and the average salary for registered nurses is $54. a.500 = 1500 1500 x=9 The two colleges will have the same enrollment about 9 years after 2005.900. 43 + 1.5 x = 57 57 x= 1. 000 − 3000 x b.420.900. 43 + 0. 200. 13. 000 − 5000 x 10. 000 = 9. 000 − 12. 4.PreCalculus 4E 3. 6.300 + 1000 x = 26. 000 − 45. 000 x= −5000 x=7 The car’s value will drop to $10. 060 + 3500 4 x = 77. Section P. 000 − 300.5 x = 100 1.8 Let x = the average salary for carpenters. or 2014. 060 4 x − 3500 = 74. .

25c 12 = c The dealer’s cost is $12. then 2 w = 100 . 20. x − 0.05 x = 252 1. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. then 2 w + 6 = 2(36) + 6 = 78 . Let w = the width of the pool. Thus.25c 15 = 1.20 x = 336 18.25c 584 = 1.25c 467. 84 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.80 0. 15. Let c = the dealer’s cost 584 = c + 0. the dimensions are 36 feet by 78 feet. 14. 2 w − 6 = 2(23) − 6 = 46 − 6 = 40 The dimensions are 23 meters by 40 meters.20. Let x = the cost of the dictionary x − 0.80 x = 44 The dictionary’s price before the reduction was $44. Inc. Let 2w – 6 = the length of the pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 13. Let w = the width of the swimming pool. 12. 2= x The width of the frame is 2 inches. 17. 19. . Let x = the width of the frame.30 x = 30.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11.08 x = 162 x = 150 The nightly cost is $150.80 x = 336 x = 420 The television set’s price is $420. the dimensions are 50 yards by 100 yards. Let c = the dealer’s cost 15 = c + 0. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. 320 = 2 ( 3w ) + 2 ( w ) 320 = 6w + 2w 320 = 8w 40 = w If w = 40.08 x = 162 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 126 = 2 ( 2w − 6 ) + 2 ( w ) 126 = 4w − 12 + 2w 126 = 6 w − 12 138 = 6 w 23 = w Find the length. 0. 3w = 3(40) = 120.20 = c The dealer’s cost is $467. Total length: 16 + 2x Total width: 12 + 2x P = 2(length) + 2(width) 72 = 2 (16 + 2 x ) + 2 (12 + 2 x ) Let w = the width of the field Let 2w = the length of the field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 72 = 32 + 4 x + 24 + 4 x 72 = 8 x + 56 16 = 8 x 300 = 2 ( 2w) + 2 ( w) 300 = 4 w + 2w 300 = 6w 50 = w If w = 50 . Let 3w = the length of the swimming pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 21. 16. Let x = the cost of the television set. Let w = the width of the field Let 2w + 6 = the length of the field 228 = 6w + 12 216 = 6w 36 = w If w = 36 . Thus.05 x = 252 x = 240 The nightly cost is $240. The dimensions are 40 feet by 120 feet.70 x = 30.

180 = w2 + 3w 2 Let x = the width of the path ( 20 + 2 x )(10 + 2 x ) = 600 200 + 40 x + 20 x + 4 x 2 = 600 54 = w2 + 3w 25.8 Let w = the width of the path Let 40 + 2w = the width of the pool and path Let 60 + 2w = the length of the pool and path 2(40 + 2w) + 2(60 + 2w) = 248 80 + 4w + 120 + 4w = 248 200 + 8w = 248 8w = 48 w=6 The width of the path is 6 feet. 85 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x + 11)( x − 5) = 0 x=− Apply the zero product principle. Let x = the length of the side of the original square Let x + 3 = the length of the side of the new. 23. 2 = 36 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 36 x 2 + 4 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 4 ) = 0 54 = ( w + 3) w 24. Let x = the side of the original square. Disregard –11 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. Let w = the width Let w +3 = the length Area = lw 27. larger square Let x = the width of the path (12 + 2 x )(15 + 2 x ) = 378 180 + 24 x + 30 x + 4 x 2 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x + 180 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x − 198 = 0 2 ( 2 x 2 + 27 x − 99 ) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33)( x − 3) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33) = 0 = 64 2 x + 33 = 0 2 x = −33 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 64 x 2 + 6 x − 55 = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 33 2 The width of the path is 3 meters. The width is 6 feet and the length is 6 + 3 = 9 feet. 4 ( x + 20 ) = 0 x −5 = 0 Let w = the width Let w + 3 = the width Area = lw x + 20 = 0 x = −20 180 = ( w + 3) w 0 = w2 + 3w − 180 0 = ( w + 15 )( w − 12 ) 28. larger square ( x + 3) x=5 The solution set is {−20. Disregard –20 because we can’t have a negative width measurement. Inc. w + 15 = 0 w − 12 = 0 w = 12 w = −15 The width is 12 yards and the length is 12 yards + 3 yards = 15 yards. Let x + 2 = the side of the new. 4 x 2 + 60 x − 400 = 0 4 ( x 2 + 15 x − 100 ) = 0 4 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. ( x + 2) x +8 = 0 x−4 = 0 x=4 x = −8 The length of the side of the original square. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 200 + 60 x + 4 x 2 = 600 4 x + 60 x + 200 = 600 0 = w2 + 3w − 54 2 0 = ( w + 9 )( w − 6 ) w+9 = 0 w−6 = 0 w = −9 w=6 Disregard –9 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. . is 4 inches. is 5 inches.5} .5} . The width of the path is 5 meters. Section P. 26. This means that x. the length of the side of the original square. x + 11 = 0 x −5 = 0 x = −11 x=5 The solution set is {−11.PreCalculus 4E 22.

9 feet.4 yards.9 feet. or about 24. .3 feet tall.28.62 feet 2x ≈ 57.2 –13. or about 21. Let x be the width. Let x be the width. or about 85. A person could save 85. Inc.09 yd 3x ≈ 87.09 + 87. (10 + 2 x)(12 + 2 x) − (10)(12) = 168 120 + 44 x + 4 x 2 − 120 = 168 35.28 yd The distance along the length and width is about 29. x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 642 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 4096 5 x 2 = 4096 4096 x2 = 5 4096 x=± 5 x ≈ 28. The width of the path is 3 feet 30. or about 116.4 a 2 = 800 x = ± 846.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 29. The width of the path is 3 feet 31.4 yards. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + (3x) 2 = 922 a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + 9 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 102 = 302 10 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 100 = 900 x 2 = 846. The building is 28.2 feet up the house.9 – 64. 32. 8 x 2 + 25 x − 84 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 28) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 28 = 0 x=3 x = −28 –28 must be rejected. a 2 + b2 = c2 4 x 2 + 44 x − 168 = 0 x 2 + 11x − 42 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 14) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 14 = 0 x=3 x = −14 –14 must be rejected. 86 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + b2 = c2 52 + x 2 = ( x + 1) 2 x 2 + 25 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 25 = 2 x + 1 24 = 2 x x = 12 x + 1 = 13 The wire is 13 feet long.24. 600 + 100 x + 4 x 2 − 600 = 336 152 + x 2 = ( x + 4) 2 4 x 2 + 100 x − 336 = 0 x 2 + 225 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 225 = 8 x + 16 209 = 8 x 1 x = 26 8 1 x + 4 = 30 8 1 The wire is 30 feet long.3 –28. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 – 92. 33.24 feet The distance along the length and width is about 28.2 must be rejected. A person could save 116.3 must be rejected.4 x ≈ 29. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + 152 = 202 a 2 + 225 = 400 a 2 = 175 a = ± 175 a ≈ ±13.62 + 57. (20 + 2 x)(30 + 2 x) − (20)(30) = 336 34. The ladder reaches 13. a = ± 800 a ≈ ±28. 36.

000 x 2 − 128. There were 8 people in the original group. The new amount of money per person. 87 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The average velocity of the bus is 30 miles per hour. . 20. 000 x 2 − 128. 000 ⎞ x( x + 4) ⎜ − 32. 000 = x x+2 20. 000. 000 ⎞ x( x + 2) ⎜ − 500. 000. 000 ⎛ 20. 000 x 1. 000 x + 40. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 2) x x+2 ⎝ ⎠ 20. 000. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 4) x x+4 ⎝ ⎠ 480. 000 x 37. Publishing as Prentice Hall. There were 6 people in the original group. 000 x + 1. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 − 500. 000 x = 20. 480.8 The original amount of money per person. 000. 000 − 500. 000 − 32. 000. 920. 000 x( x + 2) = 20. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 80 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 8) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 8 = 0 x = −10 x=8 –10 must be rejected. car's time traveled bus's time traveled 300 180 = x x − 20 300( x − 20) = 180 x 300 x − 6000 = 180 x 120 x = 6000 x = 50 x − 20 = 30 The average velocity of the car is 50 miles per hour. 000. 000 20. 000 480. 000 x 2 − 1. 39. Inc. 000( x + 4) − 32. 000( x + 2) − 500. 000 ⎛ 480. 480. 000 − 500. 000. 000 − 32. 000 − 32. 000 x = 480. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 6) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = −10 x=6 –10 must be rejected. 000 x( x + 4) = 480. 000. 000 = x x+4 480.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 000 x 40. 000 x 38. 000. 000. reduction per winner 20. 000. Let x be the car’s average velocity. 000. 920.

30 x 350 + 10 x = 420 + 3x 7 x = 70 x = 10 You must get 10 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0. Inc.30. 0 = 7 x 2 + 3 x − 270 0 = ( x − 6)(7 x + 45) x − 6 = 0 or 7 x + 45 = 0 x=6 45 x=− 7 45 − must be rejected.28(120 + x) 140 x + 700 + 200 x = 9 x 2 + 45 x 0 = 9 x 2 − 295 x − 700 30 + x = 33. Let x be the passenger train’s average velocity.30 140 + x 35 + x = 0. . freight train's time traveled 240 160 = x x − 20 240( x − 20) = 160 x 240 x − 4800 = 160 x 80 x = 4800 x = 60 x − 20 = 40 The average velocity of the passenger train is 60 miles per hour.30(140 + x) 35 + x = 42 + 0. Let x = number of hours 63x = labor cost 63x + 532 = 1603 63x = 1071 x = 17 17 hours were required to repair the yacht. The average velocity of the 9 first engine is 35 miles per hour. The average velocity of the freight train is 40 miles per hour. – 52. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. Let g = the gross amount of the paycheck Yearly Salary = 2 (12 ) g + 750 30 x + 30 x + 270 = 7 x 2 + 63 x 33150 = 24 g + 750 32400 = 24 g 1350 = g The gross amount of each paycheck is $1350. Let x = inches over 5 feet 100 + 5x = 135 5x = 35 x=7 A height of 5 feet 7 inches corresponds to 135 pounds. Let x be the average velocity of the first engine. 0 = ( x − 35)(9 x − 20) x − 35 = 0 or 9 x + 20 = 0 x = 35 20 x=− x + 5 = 40 9 20 − must be rejected.28 120 + x 30 + x = 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 40. passenger train's time traveled 43. Let x be the average velocity on the return trip. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. 45. 44. The average velocity of the second engine is 40 miles per hour. 140 200 + =9 x x+5 ⎛ 140 200 ⎞ ⎜ x + x+5⎟ =9 ⎝ ⎠ 140 200 ⎛ ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ + = 9 x( x + 5) x + 5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x 140( x + 5) + 200 x = 9 x( x + 5) 48. 88 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.28. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 49. Let x = number of hours 35x = labor cost 35x + 63 = 448 35x = 385 x = 11 It took 11 hours. 30 + x = 0. Answers may vary. 41. 42. 47. 35 + x = 0.6 + 0. The average velocity on the 7 return trip is 6 miles per hour. 5 5 7 + = x+9 x 6 5⎞ 7 ⎛ 5 6 x( x + 9) ⎜ + ⎟ = 6 x( x + 9) 6 ⎝ x+9 x⎠ 30 x + 30( x + 9) = 7 x( x + 9) 46.28 x 3000 + 100 x = 3360 + 28 x 72 x = 360 x=5 You must get 5 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0.

makes sense 60. Explanations will vary. 000 2 7 x = 14.4(0.6x) = price after second reduction 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and 5. x = 36 The thief stole 36 plants. 000 The mother received $4000. makes sense 55. Let x = correct answers 26 – x = incorrect answers 8 x − 5(26 − x) = 0 8 x − 130 + 5 x = 0 13x − 130 = 0 13x = 130 x = 10 10 problems were solved correctly. 4.6x – 0. Let x = the number of plants originally stolen After passing the first security guard. Sample explanation: The correct equation is x − 0. 57.6 x − 0. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + ( x + 1) 2 = [12 − x − ( x + 1) ] 2 x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 1 = [12 − x − x − 1] 2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = (11 − 2 x )2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = 121 − 44 x + 4 x 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 46 x + 120 0 = x 2 − 23x + 60 0 = ( x − 3)( x − 20) x − 3 = 0 or x − 20 = 0 x=3 x = 20 x +1 = 4 12 − (3 + 4) = 5 20 must be rejected. Answers may vary. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 2 x−2 ⎟ 1 1 x−2−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 3 2 ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ After passing the third security guard. 59. Sample explanation: Though mathematical models can often provide excellent estimates about future attitudes. Let x = original price x – 0.8 does not make sense. Inc.6x = price after first reduction 0.4x = 0. 54. 000 2 x = $4.35 x = 780. as it is greater than the perimeter. true –1 is a solution. 89 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the thief has: 1 1 ⎛1 ⎞ x − ⎜ x + 2⎟ = x − x − 2 = x − 2 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ After passing the second security guard.36 x = 72 x = 200 The original price was $200. The lengths of the sides are 3. x − = 1 8 2 x − 28 = 8 58. Let x = woman’s age 3x = Coburn’s age 3x + 20 = 2(x + 20) 3x + 20 = 2x + 40 x + 20 = 40 x = 20 Coburn is 60 years old the woman is 20 years old. Let x = mother’s amount 2x = boy’s amount x = girl’s amount 2 x x + 2 x + = 14. Section P. 64. 3 − 2 x ≤ 11 3 − 2(−1) ≤ 11 3 + 2 ≤ 11 5 ≤ 11.PreCalculus 4E 53. 61. . the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 4 x−3 ⎟ 1 1 7 x −3−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 4 2 8 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 7 Thus. they cannot guaranty perfect precision. Explanations will vary. 62.24 x = 72 0. 56. Let x be the length of one leg. and the girl received $2000. 63. does not make sense. the boy received $8000.

3] ∩ ( 2. [1. 5) = x −2 ≤ x < 5 { } b. 90 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. [1. Numbers in both [1. 6 ) : To find the intersection. x+3 x−2 1 = + 4 3 4 ⎛ x+3⎞ ⎛ x−2 1⎞ 12 ⎜ ⎟ = 12 ⎜ 3 + 4 ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x + 3) = 4( x − 2) + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 8 + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 5 3x − 4 x = −5 − 9 − x = −14 x = 14 The solution set is {14}.5] = x 1≤ x ≤ 3. 6 ) : Thus.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 65.5 { } c. 66. .3] and ( 2. 3. { } Graph [1. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. a. 2. Section P. −1) = x x < −1 a. [−∞. −2 x − 4 = x + 5 −2 x − x = 5 + 4 −3 x = 9 9 x= −3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. 6 ) = ( 2.9 Check Point Exercises 1. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. [−2.3] .3] : Graph ( 2.

[1. Numbers in either [1. 2 − 3x ≤ 5 −3 x ≤ 3 x ≥ −1 The solution set is { x x ≥ −1} or [−1. 91 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 ) = [1. 6 ) or both: Thus. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 6. . 6 ) : To find the union. 3.9 Graph [1.4] . x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 2 3 6 ⎛ x−4⎞ ⎛ x−2 5⎞ 6⎜ ⎟ ≥ 6⎜ 3 + 6 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x + 1 3x − 2 x ≥ 1 + 12 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} or [13. 6 ) . 5.3] ∪ ( 2. Inc. 4. 4) . 3x + 1 > 7 x − 15 −4 x > −16 −4 x −16 < −4 −4 x<4 The solution set is { x x < 4} or ( -∞.3] : b. Graph ( 2. ∞) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . 1 ≤ 2 x + 3 < 11 −2 ≤ 2 x < 8 −1 ≤ x < 4 The solution set is { x −1 ≤ x < 4} or [−1.3] or ( 2.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x−2 <5 −5 < x − 2 < 5 −3 < x < 7 The solution set is { x −3 < x < 7} or (−3. 92 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7) . . 8. Inc. 10. −3 5 x − 2 + 20 ≥ −19 −3 5 x − 2 ≥ −39 −3 5 x − 2 −39 −3 −3 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 ≤ −13 ≤ 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 −11 ≤ 5 x ≤ 15 −11 5 x 15 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 11 − ≤ x≤3 5 ⎧ 11 ⎫ ⎡ 11 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 3⎬ or ⎢ − . ∞ ) .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 7.3⎥ .25 x 720 < x Driving more than 720 miles in a week makes Basic the better deal.25 x 180 < 0. 5 ⎣ 5 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 9. 260 < 80 + 0. 18 < 6 − 3x 6 − 3x < −18 −3x < −24 −3x −24 > −3 −3 x >8 or 6 − 3x > 18 −3x > 12 −3x 12 < −3 −3 x < −4 The solution set is { x x < −4 or x > 8} or ( −∞. −4 ) ∪ ( 8. Let x = the number of miles driven in a week.

. x ≥ –5 11. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. x < 3 12. x ≥ –3 10. 2] = [ −1. x>3 9. –2 < x ≤ 4 3.5 15. –3 ≤ x ≤ 1 6. x < 2 13. –5 ≤ x < 2 4.9 1. 1<x≤6 2. 93 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –2 ≤ x ≤ 5 7. x < 5. Numbers in both ( −3. 0 ) : Graph [ −1. Inc. 0 ) and [ −1. 0 ) ∩ [ −1.PreCalculus 4E Section P. ( −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2] : Thus.5 14. 0 ) . Graph ( −3.9 Exercise Set P. –4 ≤ x < 3 5. x ≤ 3. 2] : To find the intersection. x>2 8.

0 ) . 20.9] : Thus. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. Numbers in either ( −3. 0 ) or [ −1.5 ) ∩ [1. Graph ( −3.8] : Thus. 2] : To find the union. 0 ) ∪ [ −1. . 18.1] : To find the intersection. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.9] = [ 2. Graph ( −4. ( −4.5) and [1.8] : To find the intersection.5 ) : Graph [1.1] = [ −2.1] : Thus. 0 ) ∪ [ −2. ( −4. 6 ) and [ 2.9] : To find the intersection. 0 ) : Graph [ −1. 0 ) or [ −2.1] = ( −4. Numbers in both ( −4. 17. Graph ( −∞. 2] .5 ) . 0 ) : Graph [ −2.8] = [1. Graph ( −∞. 19. 0 ) and [ −2.6 ) . take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 16.1] or both: Thus. Graph ( −4. 6 ) ∩ [ 2. 2] = ( −3. 0 ) ∩ [ −2. ( −∞. ( −∞. Numbers in either ( −4. Numbers in both ( −∞. Numbers in both ( −∞.1] : To find the union. Inc. 6 ) : Graph [ 2. ( −3. 0 ) : Graph [ −2.1] . 2] or both: Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 94 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

22.8] = ( −∞. ∞ ) or both: Thus.8] or both: Thus. ∞ ) = [3.∞ ) = ( 4. Section P. [3.9] : To find the union. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. ∞ ) : To find the intersection.9] . ∞ ) ∩ ( 6. Numbers in both [ 2. Numbers in either ( −∞. ∞ ) : Graph ( 4. 23. Graph [ 2. 95 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. [ 2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Graph [3. 6 ) : Graph [ 2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Numbers in either [3. ∞ ) ∪ ( 6. ( −∞. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. 6 ) or [ 2. . Inc.5 ) ∪ [1. Graph ( −∞. ∞ ) ∩ ( 4. 6 ) ∪ [ 2.8] . ∞ ) and ( 6. Numbers in either ( −∞. ∞ ) : Thus.9] = ( −∞. ∞ ) and ( 4. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.9 Graph ( −∞. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. ∞ ) : To find the union. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . Numbers in both [3. ∞ ) or ( 6. ∞ ) . [3.∞ ) : To find the intersection. ( −∞. Graph [3. 24.PreCalculus 4E 21. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.9] or both: Thus.∞ ) : Thus.8] : To find the union. ∞ ) . ∞ ) = ( 6.5 ) or [1.5 ) : Graph [1. 25.

31. 32. ∞ ⎟ . Graph ( 4. 27. 28. Numbers in either [ 2. –9x ≥ 36 x ≤ –4 The solution set is { x x ≤ −4} . –5x ≤ 30 x ≥ –6 The solution set is { x x ≥ −6} or [ −6. 2x + 5 < 17 2x < 12 x<6 The solution set is { x x < 6} or (–∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.∞ ) or both: Thus. . Inc. ∞ ) or ( 4. 6). Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . −4] . or (–∞. or ⎢ . 3 ⎣3 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 30. or ( −∞. 29. 5x + 11 < 26 5x < 15 x<3 The solution set is { x x < 3} .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Graph [ 2. 3).∞ ) = [ 2. 8x – 2 ≥ 14 8x ≥ 16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x > 2} or [ 2. [ 2.∞ ) : To find the union. ∞ ) ∪ ( 4. 3x – 7 ≥ 13 3x ≥ 20 20 x≥ 3 ⎧ 20 ⎫ ⎡ 20 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > ⎬ . ∞ ) : 26. 96 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

6 6⎦ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ 35. 4(x + 1) + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 4 + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 6 ≥ 3x + 6 4x – 3x ≥ 6 – 6 x≥0 The solution set is { x x > 0} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 8x – 11 ≤ 3x – 13 8x – 3x ≤ –13 + 11 5x ≤ –2 2 x≤− 5 ⎧ 2⎫ 2⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ . 18x + 45 ≤ 12x – 8 18x – 12x ≤ –8 – 45 6x ≤ –53 53 x≤− 6 ⎧ 53 ⎫ 53 ⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ or ⎜ −∞. . 36. 8x + 3 > 3(2x + 1) + x + 5 8x + 3 > 6x + 3 + x + 5 8x + 3 > 7x + 8 8x – 7x > 8 – 3 x>5 The solution set is { x x > 5} or (5. or [0. ∞ ). 97 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞). or (–∞.PreCalculus 4E Section P. − ⎥ .9 33. 37. 2x – 11 < – 3(x + 2) 2x – 11 < – 3x – 6 5x < 5 x<1 The solution set is { x x < 1} . –4(x + 2) > 3x + 20 –4x – 8 > 3x + 20 –7x > 28 x < –4 The solution set is { x x < −4} or (–∞. –4). 1). − ⎥ . or ⎜ −∞. 5⎭ 5⎦ ⎝ ⎩ 34. 38.

Inc. 3x 1 x +1 ≥ − 10 5 10 ⎛ 3x ⎞ ⎛1 x ⎞ 10 ⎜ + 1⎟ ≥ 10 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 3x + 10 ≥ 2 − x 4 x ≥ −8 x ≥ −2 The solution set is { x x ≥ −2} or 43. 1 − [ −2. ∞ ) . or ( −∞. − 98 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or [ −10. − 6 ) . 41. ∞). Publishing as Prentice Hall. or [6. 42. x 3 x − ≤ +1 4 2 2 4x 4 ⋅ 3 4 ⋅ x − ≤ + 4 ⋅1 4 2 2 x − 6 ≤ 2x + 4 − x ≤ 10 x ≥ −10 The solution set is { x x ≥ −10} . ∞ ) . −6} . 5(3 – x) ≤ 3x – 1 15 – 5x ≤ 3x – 1 –8x ≤ –16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x ≥ 2} or [2. 1 – (x + 3) ≥ 4 – 2x 1 – x – 3 ≥ 4 – 2x –x – 2 ≥ 4 – 2x x≥6 The solution set is { x x ≥ 6} . ∞). x >4 2 x >3 2 x < –6 The solution set is { x x. 40.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 39. .

9 4 3 7− x < 5 5 4 32 − x<− 5 5 x>8 The solution set is { x x > 8} or (8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ⎟. 4x − 3 2x −1 +2≥ 6 12 2(4 x − 3) + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 8 x − 6 + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 6 x + 18 ≥ −1 6 x ≥ −19 19 6 ⎧ −19 ⎫ ⎡ -19 ⎞ . −2 ) . . 45. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 6 9 18 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} . 99 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 46.PreCalculus 4E 44. 3 [3( x + 5) + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [ 3( x − 6) − 2(3x − 5) ] < 2(4 x + 3) 3 [3x + 15 + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [3x − 18 − 6 x + 10] < 8 x + 6 3 [11x + 22] + 5 [ −3x − 8] < 8 x + 6 33x + 66 − 15 x − 40 < 8 x + 6 18 x + 26 < 8 x + 6 10 x < −20 x < −2 The solution set is { x x < −2} or [ −∞. The solution set is ⎨ x x ≥ ⎬ or ⎢ 6 ⎣ 6 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ x≥− 47. Inc. ∞ ) . Section P. ∞). or [13.

. 6 < x + 3 < 8 6–3<x+3–3<8–3 3<x<5 The solution set is { x 3 < x < 5} . –11 < 2x –1 ≤ –5 –10 < 2x ≤ –4 –5 < x ≤ –2 The solution set is { x − 5 < x ≤ −2} . or (–5. 3). –2].Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. –3 ≤ x – 2 < 1 –1 ≤ x < 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x < 3} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5]. 52. 2⎭ ⎣2 2 ⎠ ⎩ 2 100 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 ⎣ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 49. 5). 51. or [–1. or (3. ⎟ . 50. ∞ ⎟ . 6). 7 < x + 5 < 11 7 – 5 < x + 5 – 5 < 11 – 5 2<x<6 The solution set is { x 2 < x < 6} or (2. Inc. 53. 3 ≤ 4x – 3 < 19 6 ≤ 4x < 22 6 22 ≤x< 4 4 3 11 ≤x< 2 2 ⎧ 3 11⎫ ⎡ 3 11 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x ≤ x < ⎬ or ⎢ . 5 [ 3(2 − 3x) − 2(5 − x) ] − 6 [5( x − 2) − 2(4 x − 3) ] < 3x + 19 5 [ 6 − 9 x − 10 + 2 x ] − 6 [5 x − 10 − 8 x + 6] < 3x + 19 5 [ −7 x − 4] − 6 [ −3x − 4] < 3 x + 19 −35 x − 20 + 18 x + 24 < 3x + 19 −17 x + 4 < 3 x + 19 −20 x < 15 −20 x 15 > −20 −20 3 x>− 4 ⎧ 3⎫ ⎡ 3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > − ⎬ or ⎢ − . –6 < x – 4 ≤ 1 –2 < x ≤ 5 The solution set is {x | −2 < x ≤ 5} or (–2. 54.

60. 7 ⎥ . or (–6.PreCalculus 4E 55. 62. 3 ⎝ 3 ⎩ ⎭ 68. −6 ≤ x − 4 < −3 2 1 −2 ≤ x < 1 2 −4 ≤ x < 2 The solution set is { x − 4 ≥ x < 2} or [ −4. 66. 3 ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 57. |x + 3| ≤ 4 –4 ≤ x + 3 ≤ 4 –7 ≤ x ≤ 1 The solution set is { x −7 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [–7. 64.9 63. 0). |x| > 5 x > 5 or x < –5 ⎞ 4⎟ . all x in ( −∞. 59. |x| > 3 x > 3 or x < –3 The solution set is { x x > 3 or x < −3} . ∞ ) . 3]. −3 ≤ Section P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. or 2 x − 5 < −1 3 2 x<4 3 3≤x<6 The solution set is { x 3 ≤ x < 6} . that is. 61. |2x – 6| < 8 –8 < 2x – 6 < 8 –2 < 2x < 14 –1 < x < 7 The solution set is { x − 1 < x < 7} . 5). 65. 2≤ [–5. 101 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. |x – 1| ≤ 2 –2 ≤ x – 1 ≤ 2 –1 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x ≤ 3} . or (–3. . 67. or (–1. −5 ) or ( 5. 3]. 1 56. 3 x + 5 < 17 –17 < 3x + 5 < 17 –22 < 3x < 12 ( −∞. that is. |x| < 3 –3 < x < 3 The solution set is { x − 3 < x < 3} . ∞ ) . or [–1. |2(x – 1) + 4| ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2(x – 1) + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x – 2 + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x + 2 ≤ 8 –10 ≤ 2x ≤ 6 –5 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 5 ≤ x ≤ 3} . 58. |3(x – 1) + 2| ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3(x – 1) + 2 ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3x – 1 ≤ 20 –19 ≤ 3x ≤ 21 19 − ≤x≤7 3 ⎧ 19 ⎫ ⎡ 19 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 7 ⎬ or ⎢ − . 3). 7). or [3. 3 ( x − 1) 4 −6 < <6 3 ( x − 1) <6 4 –24 < 3x – 3 < 24 –21 < 3x < 27 –7 < x < 9 The solution set is { x − 7 < x < 9} or (–7. Inc. 6). ⎠ The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} . 2 ) . 22 ⎛ 22 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x − < x < 4 ⎬ or ⎜ − . 1]. 9). −3) or ( 3. |x| < 5 –5 < x < 5 The solution set is { x − 5 < x < 5} or (–5. 2y + 6 <2 3 2y + 6 −2 < <2 3 –6 < 2y + 6 < 6 –12 < 2y < 0 –6 < y < 0 The solution set is { x − 6 < y < 0} .

The solution set is { x x ≤ −5 or x ≥ 3} . ( −∞. . ( −∞. or ( −∞. ∞ ) 5 ⎠ ⎝ 73. that is. ( −∞. |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x≥3 74. 3⎠ ⎝ ( −∞.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 69. ∞ ) . Inc. |x + 3| ≥ 4 x + 3 ≥ 4 or x ≥1 x + 3 ≤ −4 x ≤ −7 The solution set is { x x ≤ −2 or x ≥ 4} . that is. −2] or [ 4. 75. ∞ ) . The solution set is ⎨ x x < 5 ⎩ ⎭ −11 ⎞ ⎛ that is. 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. −5] or [3. |5x – 2| > 13 5 x − 2 > 13 or 5 x − 2 < −13 5 x < −11 x>3 x<− 11 5 ⎧ −11 ⎫ or x > 3⎬ . 102 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. that is all x in ( −∞. ⎟ or ( 5. 70. 3|x – 1| + 2 ≥ 8 3|x – 1| ≥ 6 |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x − 1 ≤ −2 2x + 2 ≥2 4 2x + 2 2x + 2 ≥ 2 or ≤ −2 4 4 2x + 2 ≥ 8 2 x + 2 ≤ −8 2x ≥ 6 2 3− x > 5 3 2 2 3 − x > 5 or 3 − x < −5 3 3 2 2 − x>2 − x < −8 3 3 x < −3 x > 12 The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 12} . ∞ ) . 71. that is. ⎟ or ( 3. − 3) or (12. 72. −1] or [3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. |3x – 8| > 7 3x − 8 > 7 or 3x − 8 < −7 3x > 15 3x < 1 1 x>5 x< 3 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 5⎬ . ∞ ) . x − 1 ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 3} . ∞ ) . all x in ⎜ −∞. ∞ ) . 5 x > 15 3x − 3 ≥1 9 3x − 3 3x − 3 ≥ 1 or ≤ −1 9 9 3x − 3 ≥ 9 3 x − 3 ≤ −9 3x ≥ 12 3 x ≤ −6 x≥4 x ≤ −2 x≥3 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ 1 or x ≥ 3} . that is. −8 ) or (16. that is. 2 x ≤ −10 x≥3 x ≤ −5 3 3− x > 9 4 3 3 3 − x > 9 or 3 − x < −9 4 4 3 3 − x>6 − x < −12 4 4 x < −8 x > 16 {x x < −8 or x > 16} . ∞ ) . The solution set is { x x ≤ −7 or x ≥ 1} that is. ( −∞. 77. −7 ) or (1. −1] or [3. ∞ ) . 76.

2 x ≥ 4 or x≥2 ≤ x >8 2 x − 1 ≤ −3 2 x ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 2} . −2 5 − x < −6 5 2 x + 1 ≥ 12 2x +1 ≥ −2 5 − x −6 −2 −2 5− x > 3 12 5 12 5 7 2x ≥ 5 7 x≥ 10 12 5 17 or 2x ≤ − 5 17 x≤− 10 ⎧ 17 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − or x ≥ ⎬ . Inc.9 5 2x +1 − 3 ≥ 9 82. 84. −2 < 11 − x < 2 −13 < − x < −9 −13 − x −9 > > −1 −1 −1 13 > x > 9 9 < x < 13 The solution set is { x 9 < x < 13}. > 5− x > 3 −2 x − 4 ≥ −4 −2 x − 4 −2 5 − x < −6 1⎫ ⎬. 9 ≤ 4x + 7 4 x + 7 ≥ 9 or 4 x + 7 ≤ −9 4x ≥ 2 4 x ≤ −16 2 x ≤ −4 x≥ 4 1 x≥ 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ −4 or x ≥ ⎩ 2≤ x≤6 The solution set is { x 2 ≤ x ≤ 6} . 2x +1 ≤ − − x > −2 or x<2 83. 2 > 11 − x is equivalent to 11 − x < 2 . The solution set is { x −16 ≤ x ≤ 2} . Section P. . 81. −3 x + 7 ≥ −27 −27 −3 −3 x+7 ≤9 ≤ −9 ≤ x + 7 ≤ 9 −16 ≤ x ≤ 2 85. The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 5}. − x < −8 3 ≤ 2x −1 2x −1 ≥ 3 −2 ≤ x − 4 ≤ 2 −3 x + 7 5 − x < −3 The solution set is { x x < 2 or x > 8} . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 78. 103 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −5 < 4 − x < 5 −9 < − x < 1 −9 − x 1 > > −1 −1 −1 9 > x > −1 −1 < x < 9 The solution set is { x −1 < x < 9} . −4 −2 −2 x−4 ≤ 2 80. 2⎭ 5 > 4 − x is equivalent to 4 − x < 5 . 10 10 ⎭ ⎩ 2x + 1 ≥ 79. −4 1 − x < −16 −4 1 − x −16 > −4 −4 1− x > 4 1− x > 4 1 − x < −4 3 or −x > − x < −5 x < −3 x>5 86.

. 92. 2 − 3 x < −1 −3 x < −3 x ≥5 3 x x 3 − ≥ 5 or 3 − ≤ −5 3 3 x x − ≥2 − ≤ −8 3 3 x ≤ −6 x ≥ 24 −3 x −3 > −3 −3 x >1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −6 or x ≥ 24} . 6 3 + 7 7 81 6 < −2 x + 7 7 6 81 6 81 −2 x + > or −2 x + < − 7 7 7 7 75 87 −2 x > −2 x < − 7 7 75 87 x<− x> 14 14 ⎧ 75 87 ⎫ or x > ⎬ . ∞ ) . 93. that is. y≥4 1 − ( x + 3) + 2 x ≥ 4 1 − x − 3 + 2x ≥ 4 x−2≥ 4 x≥6 The solution set is [ 6. ∞ ) . Inc. 14 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 14 ⎠ y≤0 2 x − 11 + 3( x + 2) ≤ 0 2 x − 11 + 3x + 6 ≤ 0 5x − 5 ≤ 0 11 7 + 3 3 5x ≤ 5 x ≤1 The solution set is ( −∞. 3 3 the solution set is { x x is any real number} or (–∞. − ⎟ or ⎜ . −6] or [ 24. 1 < 2 − 3x is equivalent to 2 − 3x > 1 . 3 ⎩ ⎭ 88. 12 < −2 x + − 2− 2− The solution set is { x x < −2 or x > 6} . 4 < 2 − x is equivalent to 2 − x > 4 . 94. 90. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 104 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1] . 1 < x − x ≥9 3 3− ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 1⎬ . ∞ ). that is.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 87. 75 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 87 ⎞ ⎜ −∞. 4+ 3− 11 4 > − is true for all x. 2−x > 4 or 2 − x < −4 −x > 2 − x < −6 −x 2 < −1 −1 x < −2 − x −6 > −1 −1 x>6 ( −∞. The solution set is ⎨ x x < − 14 14 ⎭ ⎩ The solution set is { x 0 ≤ x ≤ 8} or [ 0. 2 − 3x > 1 −3 x > −1 −3x −1 or < −3 −3 1 x< 3 91. 4 11 < x− 3 3 Since x − x −1 ≤ 1 2 x ≤2 2 x −2 ≤ 2 − ≤ 2 2 x −4 ≤ − ≤ 0 2 8≥ x≥0 89. ∞ ⎟ .8] .

inclusive. Let x be the number.40 x ≤ 44 80 ≤ x ≤ 110 Between 80 and 110 ten minutes.1x + 25. − ⎥ .1% of U. ∞ ) .1x > 37. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9. 4 ) 108.1 < 38. 3⎦ ⎝ 3x − 4 ≥ 5 3x ≥ 9 x≥3 ( 0. 3.2 x > 12 Since x is the number of years after 1994. x ≤ −10 100.8 > 63 3. 5⎦ ⎣ 104. 97. 109. 28 ≤ 20 + 0.5 x < 25 or x > 10 1994 + 10 = 2004 In years after 2004. passion<commitment or commitment > passion 5x + 3 ≤ 2 −2 ≤ 5 x + 3 ≤ 2 −5 ≤ 5 x ≤ −1 −5 5 x −1 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 1 −1 ≤ x ≤ − 5 1⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −1. commitment > passion or passion < commitment 105. 7− 98. Let x be the number. Inc.40 ( x − 60 ) ≤ 40 28 ≤ 20 + 0. − ⎥ . 96. | 5 − 4 x |≤ 13 or | 4 x − 5 |≤ 13 x +2 ≤ 4 2 −13 ≤ 4 x − 5 ≤ 13 −8 ≤ 4 x ≤ 18 9 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 x − + 2 ≤ −3 2 x +2 ≥3 2 x +2≥3 or 2 x+4≥ 6 9⎫ 2⎤ ⎧ ⎡ The solution set is ⎨ x | −2 ≤ x ≤ ⎬ or ⎢ −2. 63% of voters will use electronic systems after 2006. − ⎥ ∪ [ 3.9 y≤4 95.5 x + 63. passion ≤ intimacy or intimacy ≥ passion y≥6 8 − 5x + 3 ≥ 6 102.1 −2. we calculate 1994+12=2006. after 3 years 106. [ 0. 2⎭ 9⎦ ⎩ ⎣ x + 2 ≤ −3 2 x + 4 ≤ −6 x≥2 99. −10] ∪ [ 2.5] The solution set is ( −∞. fewer than 38.40 x − 24 ≤ 40 28 ≤ 0. .40 x − 4 ≤ 40 32 ≤ 0. 101.PreCalculus 4E Section P. ∞ ) . commitment ≥ intimacy or intimacy ≤ commitment − 5 x + 3 ≥ −2 − ( − 5 x + 3 ) ≤ − ( −2 ) 103. 105 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. voters will use punch cards or lever machines. −2. | 4 − 3 x |≥ 5 or | 3x − 4 |≥ 5 3x − 4 ≤ −5 3 x ≤ −1 1 x≤− 3 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x | x ≤ − or x ≥ 3⎬ or 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1 ⎛ ⎤ ⎜ −∞. After approximately 5 12 years 107.S.

Let x = the number of hours the mechanic works on the car.6 x > 10.5 and at most 3. 115. 86 + 88 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 240 x < 66 This will happen if you get a grade less than 66.20x < 20 + 0.03x <6 x < 200 The credit union is a better deal when writing less than 200 checks. b.05x 32000 < x A home assessment of greater than $32.225 h ≥ 58.5 x 3000 < 2. 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 90 6 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 540 2 x + 350 ≥ 540 2 x ≥ 190 x ≥ 95 You must receive at least a 95% to earn an A. h − 50 ≥ 1. 000 1. 112.775 The number of outcomes would be 59 or more. 50 + 0. Inc.50x 30 < 0.6 1. 226 ≤ 175 + 34 x ≤ 294 51 ≤ 34 x ≤ 119 1.03x < 200 + 0.04 x 300 < x Plan A is a better deal when driving more than 300 miles a month.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 110.40 x 1.08 x < 3 + . 122.12 x 12 < 0. 9 ( 3) ≤ F − 32 ≤ 9 ( 7 ) 27 ≤ F − 32 ≤ 63 59 ≤ F ≤ 95 The range for Fahrenheit temperatures is 59°F to 95°F . 114. 000 + 0. a. 86 + 88 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 270 x ≥ 96 You must get at least a 96.000 would make the first bill a better deal. 120. 118. 15 + 0.3x 100< x Basic Rental is a better deal when driving more than 100 miles per day.5 hours. inclusive or [59°F. Publishing as Prentice Hall. or 41 or less. .05 x 0. 119. 121. Let x = the grade on the final exam. 3000 + 3x < 5.645 5 h − 50 h − 50 ≥ 1.6 x 10.08x 1600 < 0. 113.08 x < 8 + 0.225 h ≤ 41. 265 + 65 x ≤ 2800 65 x ≤ 2535 x ≤ 39 39 bags or fewer can be lifted safely.225 h − 50 ≤ −8. 111.5 x 5 ( F − 32 ) ≤ 35 9 9 9 5 9 (15 ) ≤ ⎛⎜ ( F − 32 ) ⎞⎟ ≤ ( 35 ) 5 5⎝9 ⎠ 5 15 ≤ 1200 < x More then 1200 packets of stationary need to be sold each week to make a profit. 106 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.95°F] . 1800 + 0.5 The man will be working on the job at least 1. 2 + 0. 2 x > 10. 245 + 95 x ≤ 3000 95 x ≤ 2755 x ≤ 29 29 bags or less can be lifted safely.645 or ≤ −1. 117. 116.645 5 5 h − 50 ≥ 8.5 ≤ x ≤ 3. 000 > 1.6 x > 6250 More than 6250 tapes need to be sold a week to make a profit.

makes sense 136. false. x y = 4− x −3 4 − (−3) = 7 −2 4 − (−2) = 6 The cost with the 6-month pass is C6 = 30. 133.9 143. Answers may vary. 3x > 7. 107 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.50 x > 7. −1 4 − (−1) = 5 0 4 − (0) = 4 1 4 − (1) = 3 2 4 − (2) = 2 3 4 − (3) = 1 Because we need to buy two 3-month passes per 6-month pass. we multiply the cost with the 3month pass by 2. Because x > y.50 + 0.50 + 0. makes sense 135. y – x represents a negative number. Changes to make the statement true will vary. a.PreCalculus 4E Section P.50 x ) < 30 15 + x < 30 x < 15 We also must consider the cost without purchasing a pass. When both sides are multiplied by (y – x) the inequality must be reversed. makes sense 3 4 − (3) 2 = −5 x>3 The 3-month pass is the best deal when making more than 3 but less than 15 crossings per 3month period. makes sense 145.50 x. 3) 138. y = 4 − x 2 x y = 4 − x2 −3 4 − (−3)2 = −5 2. y = 4 − x 123. Inc. Let x = the number of times the bridge is crossed per three month period The cost with the 3-month pass is C3 = 7. | x − 4 |≥ 3 142.50 x 144. We need this cost to be less than the cost with a 3-month pass. – 131. x −4 −3 y = x +1 −4 + 1 = 3 −3 + 1 = 2 −2 −1 0 1 2 −2 + 1 = 1 −1 + 1 = 0 0 +1 = 1 1+1 = 2 2 +1 = 3 139. true 140. false. 2 4 − (2)2 = 0 132. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. true 137. A sample change is: ( −∞. A sample change is: 3x > 6 is equivalent to x > 2.50 −2 4 − (−2)2 = 0 −1 4 − (−1)2 = 3 0 4 − (0)2 = 4 1 4 − (1)2 = 3 124.3) ∪ ( −∞.50 + 0. | x − 4 |< 3 b. −2 ) = ( −∞. 141. y = x + 1 134. 2 ( 7. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Answers may vary.

13.015(60)2 + (60) + 10 2 = 0.55% of 21 year olds have been tested.6 x − 15 P = −0. b. e} {a. (6 ⋅ 9) ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅ (6 ⋅ 9) . b. 0. 9. g} ∩ {a. b. −17. d . c} ∪ {a. 0. 2. 16. 19.55%. commutative property of multiplication. a. 3( 5 + 3) = 15 + 3 .05(21)2 + 3. e} 6. b. c} ∩ {a. 2 −1 = 2 −1 3 A = {a. 17. commutative property of addition. e} = {a. c. −17. 1 (5 x) + [ (3 y ) + (−3 y ) ] − (− x) = x + [ 0] + x = 2 x 5 {a. f . 3 − 17 = 17 − 3 since 12. 81 13 −103 = 103 108 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f . c} ∪ {a. −17.75.015(3600) + 60 + 10 = 54 + 60 + 10 = 124 4. associative property of multiplication. 81 d. b. 18. c. c} 5. π f. d . = 3 + 6(2)3 = 3 + 6(8) = 3 + 48 = 51 2. 81 c. g} 21.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Chapter P Review Exercises 1. 2. 7. d . d . 81 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π . d . 15.55 38. 0. c} B = {a. = 36 − 5(4) 3. d . A = {a.6(21) − 15 = 38. d . b. distributive property of multiplication over addition. c} C = {a. commutative property of addition.05 x 2 + 3. 8 − 2[3 − (5 x − 1)] = 8 − 2[3 − 5 x + 1] = 8 − 2[4 − 5 x ] = 36 − 20 = 16 S = 0. c. 9 . 3(4 y − 5) − (7 y + 2) = 12 y − 15 − 7 y − 2 = 5 y − 17 A = {a. f .75. e} {a. (3 ⋅ 7) + (4 ⋅ 7) = (4 ⋅ 7) + (3 ⋅ 7) . b. f . (−3)3 (−2)2 = (−27) ⋅ (4) = −108 9 . 3 + 17 = 17 + 3. 5(2 x − 3) + 7 x = 10 x − 15 + 7 x = 17 x − 15 20. (6 ⋅ 3) ⋅ 9 = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 9) . This overestimates the percent displayed by the bar graph by 3. f . g} {a. b. d . P = −0. − = 10 x 23. g} 22. 3 + 6( x − 2) = 3 + 6(4 − 2) 3 10. 0. c} B = {a. e} = {a. 4 − (−17) = 4 + 17 = 21 = 21 x 2 − 5( x − y ) = 62 − 5(6 − 2) 14. b. − e.015 x + x + 10 S = 0. b. commutative property of multiplication. 17 is greater than 3. c. c} C = {a. c} = {a} = 8 − 8 + 10 x 8. c. Inc. 11. . 81 13 24. 0. 0. g} = {a. c. 3( 5 + 3) = ( 5 + 3) 3 . A = {a. d . d .

(−5 x y )(−2 x 3 2 −11 = (−5)(−2) x x 3 6.469 × 103 = 1469 8 1. 175 × 106 = 1. 000 = 3.45 × 10 = 0. 39. 0.023 1 1 = 5−2 = 2 = 5 25 26. Inc. (−2 x y ) = (−2) ( x ) ( y ) 3 3 3 4 3 38.3 × 102 ) = (3 ×1.75 × 102 ⋅ 106 = 1. 400 46. 12 x 2 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 2 x 3 42. 3 3 = (−2)3 x 4⋅3 y 3⋅3 = −8 x12 y 9 29. 2 50 + 3 8 = 2 25 ⋅ 2 + 3 4 ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅5 2 + 3⋅ 2 2 −5 33.3) × (103 × 102 ) a. Chapter P Review Exercises 1 1 + 24 4 1 1 = + 16 4 1 4 = + 16 16 5 = 16 36.59 × 106 = 16 2 35. 10 x ⋅ 2 x = 20 x 2 −2 y ) −11 y 2 y −2 = 10 ⋅ x3−11 y 2 − 2 = 10 x −8 y 0 = 4x2 ⋅ 5 10 = 8 x 30.9 ⎞ 3− 5 =⎜ ⎟ × 10 3 ×105 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 2. 33 1 1 = 33− 6 = 3−3 = 3 = 36 3 27 28. 32.75 × 10 10 The average tax return cost $1469. 7 5 + 13 5 = (7 + 13) 5 = 20 5 47. 000 37. 7.9 × 103 ⎛ 6.74 × 104 = 37. = 2x 5 (2 x3 ) −4 = (2)−4 ( x 3 ) −4 = 2−4 x −12 1 2 x12 1 = 16 x12 = 31. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5−3 ⋅ 5 = 5−351 = 5−3+1 27.3 × 10−2 = 0.57 1011 ⋅ 8 ≈ 1. 4 (3 × 103 )(1.75 1. . 7x y ⎛ 7 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ( x5 −15 )( y 6 − ( −2) ) 28 x15 y −2 ⎝ 28 ⎠ 1 = x −10 y 8 4 y8 = 10 4x 5 = 6 2x = 96 x3 2x = 48 x 2 = 16 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4x 3 3. 40. 3.9 × 105 = 390.75 × 108 2. 257 × 109 = 2.PreCalculus 4E 25.590.00725 = 7. r3 = r 2 ⋅ r = r r 44.25 × 10 −3 109 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 121 121 11 = = 4 2 4 96 x 3 45.57 × 1011 2.57 × 1011 b. 300 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 10 3 41. 2−4 + 4−1 = = 3.57 × 102 ⋅ 109 = 2.0000745 = 10 2 + 6 2 34. 4 43.

(5 x 2 / 3 )(4 x1/ 4 ) = 5 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3+1/ 4 = 20 x11/12 69.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 30 30 50. 642 / 3 = ( 3 64) 2 = 42 = 16 67. 4 72 − 2 48 = 4 36 ⋅ 2 − 2 16 ⋅ 3 58. 27 −4 / 3 = 68. 25−1/ 2 = 64. 4 8 ⋅ 4 10 = 4 80 = 4 16 ⋅ 5 = 4 16 ⋅ 4 5 = 2 4 5 60. 4 4 32 x 5 4 4 = 2x = x 4 2 16 x 62. 6 y 3 = ( y 3 )1/ 6 = y 3⋅1/ 6 = y1/ 2 = 110 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 y5 = 59. 15 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 15 ⎞ 3 / 4 −1/ 2 =⎜ ⎟x = 3x1/ 4 5 x1/ 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 70. 2 30 5 = ⋅ = =6 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 3 = 5 6+ 3 = 4 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 53 2 = 83 2 + 53 2 ⋅ = 13 3 2 6− 3 61. y . y3 y 2 = y 3 y 2 6 ⋅ = 3 3 3 = 5 51. 56. 53. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 3 16 + 5 3 2 = 4 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 5 3 2 = 4⋅6 2 − 2⋅4 3 = 24 2 − 8 3 49. 32 x 5 = 14 3 4 6+ 3 6− 3 52. 27 −1/ 3 = 66. (125 ⋅ x 6 ) 2 / 3 = ( 3 125 x 6 ) 2 −32 = −2 55. 161/ 2 = 16 = 4 = 5(6 − 3) 33 63. = 14 7− 5 ⋅ 7+ 5 125 = 5 4 −125 is not a real number. 3 81 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 = = 251/ 2 25 5 1 1 1 = = 271/ 3 3 27 3 65. 4 (−5)4 = 4 625 = 4 54 = 5 57. Inc. 1251/ 3 = 3 125 = 5 7+ 5 14( 7 + 5) = 7−5 14( 7 + 5) = 2 = 7( 7 + 5) 5 16 x = 5(6 − 3) 36 − 3 7− 5 54. 5 3 1 1 1 1 = 3 = 4 = 4/3 4 27 3 81 ( 27) = (5 x 2 )2 3 = 25 x 4 71.

(5 x − 2)3 = (5 x)3 − 3(5 x )2 (2) + 3(5 x)(2) 2 − 23 = 125 x 3 − 150 x 2 + 60 x − 8 81. Inc. (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) − (5 x 4 − 3x3 + 2 x 2 − 6) = (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−5 x 4 + 3 x3 − 2 x 2 + 6) = (13x 4 − 5 x 4 ) + (−8 x3 + 3x3 ) + (2 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + 6 = 8x 4 − 5x3 + 6 The degree is 4. (7 x + 4 y )(7 x − 4 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (4 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 16 y 2 85. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (3 x − 5 y ) 2 = (3x) 2 − 2(3x)(5 y ) + (−5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 − 30 xy + 25 y 2 83. (3 x − 4) 2 = (3 x) 2 − 2(3 x) ⋅ 4 + (−4) 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 79. 73.PreCalculus 4E 72. (2 x + 1)3 = (2 x)3 + 3(2 x) 2 (1) + 3(2 x)(1) 2 + 13 = 8 x3 + 12 x 2 + 6 x + 1 80. (a − b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) = a(a 2 ) + a (ab) + a(b 2 ) + (−b)(a 2 ) +(−b)(ab) + (−b)(b 2 ) = a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 − a 2 b − ab 2 − b3 = a 3 − b3 111 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (4 x + 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x 2 ) − 52 = 16 x 2 − 25 77. (3 x − 2)(4 x 2 + 3x − 5) = (3 x)(4 x 2 ) + (3x)(3x) + (3x)(−5) + (−2)(4 x 2 ) + (−2)(3x) + (−2)(−5) = 12 x3 + 9 x 2 − 15 x − 8 x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 12 x3 + x 2 − 21x + 10 75. (3 x − 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(1) + (−5)(2 x) + (−5)(1) = 6 x 2 + 3 x − 10 x − 5 = 6 x2 − 7 x − 5 76. (3 x 2 + 2 y ) 2 = (3 x 2 )2 + 2(3 x 2 )(2 y ) + (2 y ) 2 = 9 x 4 + 12 x 2 y + 4 y 2 84. ( x + 7 y )(3x − 5 y ) = x(3x ) + ( x)(−5 y ) + (7 y )(3 x) + (7 y )(−5 y ) = 3 x 2 − 5 xy + 21xy − 35 y 2 = 3 x 2 + 16 xy − 35 y 2 82. . 74. Chapter P Review Exercises (−6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 9 x + 3) + (14 x3 + 3x 2 − 11x − 7) = (−6 x3 + 14 x3 ) + (7 x 2 + 3x 2 ) + (−9 x − 11x) + (3 − 7) = 8 x 3 + 10 x 2 − 20 x − 4 The degree is 3. (2 x + 5) 2 = (2 x)2 + 2(2 x) ⋅ 5 + 52 = 4 x 2 + 20 x + 25 78.

3x 4 − 12 x 2 = 3x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 3x 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) 112 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + 16 is prime. = 3 x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) 94. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) x3 + 2 x 2 x 2 ( x + 2) = = x 2 . 6 x2 + 2 x x( x + 2) x . −3 3 ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 − ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x2 + 3) 2 2 1 = ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎡⎣1 − ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) ⎤⎦ 20 x 7 − 36 x3 = 4 x 3 (5 x 4 − 9) 1 = ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎣⎡1 − ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) ⎦⎤ x 3 − 3x 2 − 9 x + 27 = x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) 1 = ( x 2 − 9)( x − 3) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x 2 + 3) 2 (− x 4 + x 2 + 13) = ( x + 3)( x − 3)( x − 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 2 107. [5 y − (2 x + 1)][5 y + (2 x + 1)] 101. = ( x + 9 − y )( x + 9 + y ) x 2 − 11x + 28 = ( x − 4)( x − 7) 105. 16 x 90. = = ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x 2 − 36 x ≠ –6. Inc. 3x 4 − 9 x 3 − 30 x 2 = 3 x 2 ( x 2 − 3x − 10) 95. 102. = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 98.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 86. . 93. 99. x 2 + 18 x + 81 − y 2 = ( x 2 + 18 x + 81) − y 2 88. 12 x − 1 2 + 6x − 3 2 = 6x − 3 2 ( 2 x + 1) = 6(2 x + 1) 96. 108. 15 x + 3 x = 3x ⋅ 5 x + 3x ⋅1 3 2 2 2 = ( x + 9) − y2 2 = 3x (5 x + 1) 2 89. 3 x2 2 y 3 − 8 = y 3 − 23 = ( y − 2)( y 2 + 2 y + 4) 110. 64 − x 2 = 82 − x 2 = (8 − x)(8 + x) 92. x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = x 2 + 2 xy + 4 x + 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 y + 4 x + 8 y + 16 = ( x 2 − 2)( x + 5) = x 2 + 4 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 x + 16 y + 16 104. 27 x 3 − 125 = (3 x)3 − 53 = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 1) 2 = (3 x − 5)[(3 x)2 + (3x)(5) + 52 ] = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 4 x + 1) = (3 x − 5)(9 x 2 + 15 x + 25) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 4 x − 1 87. 15 x − x − 2 = (3x + 1)(5 x − 2) 2 91. x ≠ –2 x+2 x+2 x 2 + 3x − 18 ( x + 6)( x − 3) x − 3 . = = x + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2)2 x + 2 x ≠ –2 2 100. 16 x − 40 x + 25 = (4 x − 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x − 5)2 97. x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 109. 4 + 32 x 1 4 = 16 x −3 4 = 1 − ( −3 ) ⎛ 4 4 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ −3 (1 + 2 x ) (1 + 2 x ) = 16 x 16 x 4 3 4 1 106. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 5 − x = x( x 4 − 1) = x( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2 y + 4) = ( x + 2 y + 4 )( x + 2 y + 4 ) = x ( x + 2 y + 4) + 2 y ( x + 2 y + 4) + 4 ( x + 2 y + 4) 2 = x( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 + 1) 103.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x x −1 + x2 − 9 x2 − 5x + 6 x x −1 = + ( x − 3)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 3) x x−2 x −1 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x − 2 ( x − 2)( x − 3) x + 3 x ( x − 2) + ( x − 1)( x + 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) 113 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1. − 1.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 2 2 x+3 111. –2 112. x x ≠ 0. (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3 x + 2) 1 2 x ≠ . Inc. . –3 115. ( x − 2)2 ( x + 2) x ≠ 2. 8 x+3 4x −1 − 2 x2 + 5x − 3 6 x 2 + x − 2 x+3 4x −1 = − (2 x − 1)( x + 3) (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) 4x −1 3x + 2 = ⋅ (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 3x + 2 x+3 x+3 − ⋅ (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) x + 3 = 12 x 2 + 8 x − 3x − 2 − x 2 − 6 x − 9 (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3x + 2) 11x 2 − x − 11 . ( x + 3)3 . –2 x2 − 2x + x2 + 2 x − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) = 114. 2 x − 7 − x − 10 = 2 x − 7 − ( x − 10) x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 1 = . − 3. ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x ≠ 2. –3. x + 6 x + 9 ⋅ x + 3 = ( x + 3) ⋅ 2 x −4 x − 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x − 2 = 116. 2 x x x+2 3x 3x x − 2 + = ⋅ + ⋅ x+2 x−2 x+2 x−2 x−2 x+2 3x2 − 6 x + x 2 + 2 x = ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x2 − 4 x ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x( x − 1) = . x 2 − 5 x − 24 x 2 − 10 x + 16 ÷ 2 x 2 − x − 12 x + x−6 ( x − 8)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 8) = ÷ ( x − 4)( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 2) x −8 x +3 = ⋅ x − 4 x −8 x+3 = . x−4 x ≠ –3. 2 117. x( x + 1) 1 x ≠ 0. 2. − 3 = 2 x2 − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) x ≠ 3. − 2 3 = 1 1 1 1 118. x − 2 x − 2 6 x = ⋅ 1 − x 1 − x 6x 3 6 3 6 6 − 3x = 2 x − x2 −3( x − 2) = − x( x − 2) 3 = . 4. 6 x + 2 3x 2 + x ÷ x2 − 1 x −1 x(3x + 1) 2(3 x + 1) = ÷ x −1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x −1 2(3 x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 1)( x + 1) x(3 x + 1) 2 = . 113. x−3 x ≠ 3.

2 = = = = = 126. 3 − x + 3 3 − x + 3 x + 3 = ⋅ 3+ 1 3+ 1 x +3 x+3 x+3 3( x + 3) − 1 = 3( x + 3) + 1 3x + 9 − 1 = 3x + 9 + 1 3x + 8 = . 2x – 4(5x + 1) = 3x + 17 2x – 20x – 4 = 3x + 17 –18x – 4 = 3x + 17 –21x = 21 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. x ≠ –1 1 1 2 − = 2 x − 1 x + 1 x −1 1 1 2 − = x − 1 x + 1 (x + 1)(x − 1) x + 1 − (x −1) = 2 x2 25 − x 2 x + 1− x + 1 = 2 25 − x 2 ⎛ 25 − x 2 + x ⎞ 25 − 2 x 2 ⎜ ⎟ 25 − x 2 ⎠ =⎝ (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 2 =2 The solution set is all real numbers except 1 and –1. . = x−4 x ≠ 0. This is a conditional equation. 1 1 120. 3 + x 3 + x x 2 = ⋅ 2 1 − 162 1 − 162 x x x 2 3x + 12 x = 2 x − 16 3x( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 4) 3x . 4. 3 x + 10 10 x ≠ −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ 1. This is a conditional equation. x ≠ 4 2 30 4 + = x + 2 x − 4 (x + 2)(x − 4) 4(x − 4) + 2(x + 2) = 30 25 − x 2 + x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 25 4x − 16 + 2x + 4 = 30 6x −12 = 30 6x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. 125. Inc. –4 123. − 3 25 − x 2 + 121 . 124. 12 12 119.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 122. 1 – 2(6 – x) = 3x + 2 1 – 12 + 2x = 3x + 2 –11 – x = 2 –x = 13 x = –13 The solution set is {–13}. 2( x − 4) + 3( x + 5) = 2 x − 2 2 x − 8 + 3x + 15 = 2 x − 2 5x + 7 = 2 x − 2 3x = −9 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. (25 − x 2 )3 25 (25 − x 2 )3 ⋅ 25 − x 2 25 − x 2 25 25 − x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 25 − x 2 (5 − x)2 (5 + x)2 114 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This is a conditional equation. x ≠ –2.

−2 3 x+2=0 x = −2 x= x=4 –2 must be rejected. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1} . 3}. 2 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 ⎞ ⎛ x = ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎜ − ⎟ ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎝ x+4 x+2⎠ 2 x = x ( x + 2) − 2( x + 4) (3x + 5)( x − 3) = 5 129. The solution set is {2} . 2 x 2 − 11x + 5 = 0 (2x – 1)(x – 5) = 0 2x – 1 = 0 x – 5 = 0 1 x = or x = 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . x 2 − 9 = 0 127. −4 2 x + 1 = −12 2x + 1 = 3 2 x + 1 = 3 or 2 x + 1 = −3 2x = 2 x =1 2 x = −4 x = −2 132. 8 − 2x = x ( 8 − 2x ) 2 = x2 8 − 2 x = x2 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 ⎧ 10 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 131. ⎬ . 3 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 x= 0 = ( x + 2)( x − 4) or x − 4 = 0 –4 must be rejected. 6 6 10 x = . 8 − 2x − x = 0 134. −4 2 x + 1 + 12 = 0 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. 5⎬ . 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 115 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x − 3)2 − 24 = 0 ( x − 3) 2 = 24 The solution set is {−2. 3⎭ ⎩ 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 130. . The solution set is {4} . 7 ± (−7)2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 7 ± 49 − 12 6 7 ± 37 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 7 + 37 7 − 37 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 3x 2 + 5 x − 9 x − 15 = 5 3x 2 − 4 x − 20 = 0 x= 2x = x2 + 2x − 2x − 8 4 ± (−4)2 − 4(3)(−20) 2(3) 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 4 ± 16 + 240 6 4 ± 256 x= 6 4 ± 16 x= 6 20 −12 x= . ( x − 3) 2 = ± 24 x − 3 = ±2 6 128. ⎩2 ⎭ x = 3± 2 6 2x x 2 = − x + 6x + 8 x + 4 x + 2 2x x 2 = − ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 4 x + 2 133. ⎬. Inc.

Let x = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by Japan. x + ( x + 0. 140.5 + 0.3 x + x + 0.5 x + 0.8 = 6. thus the equation has no real solutions.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 135.4 x = 7.1 0.3 million barrels. Let x = the amount sold to earn $800 in one week 800 = 300 + 0. x 2 = 2 x − 19 x 2 − 2 x + 19 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−2) 2 − 4(1)(19) = −72 −72 < 0. thus the equation has one repeated real solution. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . vt + gt 2 = s gt 2 = s − vt 141. gt s − vt = 2 t2 t s − vt g= 2 t 2 137.8 + x + 15 = 32. A− P Pr A− P Pr (T ) = Pr Pr PrT = A − P T= 142.5 million barrels. 000 = x Sales must be $10. 2 The solution set is {2}.6 x = 19 The percentage of people in the U.5 The daily oil consumption of the United States.3 x + 15 = 20. 17. China.05 x 10. respectfully. 9 x 2 − 30 x + 25 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−30)2 − 4(9)(25) = 0 340 = 2 ( 3w − 6 ) + 2w 340 = 6w − 12 + 2 w b 2 − 4ac = 0. Let x = the number of years after 2000.4 x = 25. 2x − 3 + x = 3 2x − 3 = 3 − x 2x − 3 = 9 − 6x + x2 x 2 − 8 x + 12 = 0 x 2 − 8 x = −12 x 2 − 8 x + 16 = −12 + 16 ( x − 4)2 = 4 x − 4 = ±2 x = 4+2 x = 6. and Japan is 20. Let 3w – 6 = the length of the playing field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 139. Let x = the original price of the phone 48 = x − 0. 144. and 5. PrT + P = A P ( rT + 1) = A P= 138.80 x 60 = x The original price is $60. Let w = the width of the playing field. Inc.3 3x = 16.8) + ( x + 15) = 32. 136.000 in one week to earn $800.8 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by China.5 million barrels. 116 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 x = 5.20 x 48 = 0.05 x A 1 + rT 500 = 0. 143.S. Let x + 15 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by the United States.3 3 x + 15. 6. 340 = 8w − 12 352 = 8w 44 = w The dimensions are 44 yards by 126 yards.1% 19 years after 2000. Let x + 0. that will speak a language other than English at home will reach 25.8 = 32. or 2019.

000 x ≈ ±134. { x x ≤ 0} x 2 = 18. The width of the frame is 2 inches. 148. 117 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.100 students. 000 150. 146. { x −3 ≤ x < 5} 151. 15 = l ( 2l − 7 ) 15 = 2l 2 − 7l 0 = 2l 2 − 7l − 15 0 = (2l + 3)(l − 5) l =5 2l − 7 = 3 The length is 5 yards.100 when x = 12 . The building is approximately 134 meters high. 000 5 x 2 = 90. b.164 Discard negative height.PreCalculus 4E 145. Since y1 = y2 = 32. the width is 3 yards. There were originally 10 people. Inc. . (10 + 2 x )(16 + 2 x) = 280 160 + 52 x + 4 x 2 = 280 4 x 2 + 52 x − 120 = 0 x 2 + 13x − 30 = 0 ( x + 15)( x − 2) = 0 x + 15 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −15 x=2 –15 must be rejected. Chapter P Review Exercises Check some points to determine that y1 = 14. y2 = 41. 147. Let x = height of building 2x = shadow height x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 3002 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 90. { x x > −2} 152. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 700 − 800 x . That year the enrollments will be 32. 1500 1500 + 100 = x x−4 1500 ⎛ 1500 ⎞ x( x − 4) ⎜ + 100 ⎟ = x( x − 4) x x−4 ⎝ ⎠ 1500( x − 4) + 100 x( x − 4) = 1500 x 1500 x − 6000 + 100 x 2 − 400 x = 1500 x 15 x − 60 + x 2 − 4 x = 15 x A = lw x 2 − 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 10) = 0 x + 6 = 0 or x − 10 = 0 x = −6 x = 10 –6 must be rejected.100 + 1500 x and 149. the two colleges will have the same enrollment in the year 2007 + 12 = 2019 .

3) .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 153. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. [1.1] : Graph [ −1. Graph [1. 4 ) = [1. Numbers in both ( −2. 4 ) = ( 0.3) ∪ ( 0. [1.3) : 156.1] ∪ [ −1. Graph [ −1.1] . take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Inc. Numbers in either [1. 4 ) : To find the union. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.3) and ( 0. ∞ ) .3) : To find the intersection. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Graph ( −2. 157. Graph ( −2. Graph ( 0. ( −2. 118 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1] : 154. 4 ) or both: Thus.3) : To find the union.1] or [ −1.3) = [ −1.3) ∩ ( 0.3) : Thus.1] and [ −1.3) or both: Thus. –6x + 3 ≤ 15 –6x ≤ 12 x≥2 The solution set is [ −2. Numbers in either ( −2.1] ∩ [ −1. 155. Numbers in both [1. 4 ) . 4 ) : To find the intersection.3) : Graph ( 0. 4 ) : Thus.3) . ( −2.3) = ( −2.3) or ( 0. Graph [1. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.

2 x + 5 − 7 ≥ −6 2x + 5 ≥ 1 21 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. ⎣5 ⎠ 159. − 3] or [ −2. 3] 0.20 x + 24 ≤ 40 0. − 2 ) . 6x + 5 > –2(x – 3) – 25 6x + 5 > –2x + 6 – 25 8x + 5 > –19 8x > –24 x > –3 The solution set is ( −∞. ⎡3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . 167. ∞ ) . Inc. − 6 ) or ( 0. 164. 6 x − 9 ≥ −4 x − 3 163. 0.20 0. 7 < 2x + 3 ≤ 9 4 < 2x ≤ 6 2<x≤3 (2. 119 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 3 x − −1 > 3 4 2 ⎛x 3 ⎞ ⎛ x⎞ 12 ⎜ − − 1⎟ > 12 ⎜ ⎟ 3 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4x – 9 – 12 > 6x –21 > 2x 21 − >x 2 2x + 6 >2 3 2x + 6 2x + 6 >2 < –2 3 3 2 x + 6 > 6 2 x + 6 < –6 2x > 0 2 x < −12 x>0 x < −6 The solution set is ( −∞. 2 x + 3 ≤ 15 10 x ≥ 6 3 x≥ 5 –15 ≤ 2x + 3 ≤ 15 –18 ≤ 2x ≤ 12 –9 ≤ x ≤ 6 The solution set is [ −9. −4 x + 2 + 5 ≤ −7 −4 x + 2 ≤ −12 The solution set is ( −3.3) .20 x ≤ 80 A customer can drive no more than 80 miles. x+2 ≥3 161. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is [ −∞. ∞ ) .20 x 16 ≤ 0. −5] ∪ [1.20 x ≤ 16 162. ∞ ) . The solution set is [ 2. 2⎠ ⎝ 2x + 5 ≥ 1 or 2x + 5 ≤ –1 2x ≥ –4 2x ≤ –6 x ≥ –2 or x ≤ –3 160. ∞ ) . ∞ ⎟ . − ⎟ .6] . 165.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 158. 166. 3(2x – 1) – 2(x – 4) ≥ 7 + 2(3 + 4x) 6x – 3 – 2x + 8 ≥ 7 + 6 + 8x 4x + 5 ≥ 8x + 13 –4x ≥ 8 x ≤ –2 x+2≥3 or x ≥1 x + 2 ≤ −3 x ≤ −5 The solution set is ( −∞.

− 3 ( x + 3)( x − 3) 120 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + 2 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 . 3 5− 2 5+ 2 5− 2 = 3(5 − 2) 25 − 2 = 3(5 − 2) 23 2 x + 8 x2 + 5x + 4 ÷ x−3 x2 − 9 2( x + 4) ( x + 1)( x + 4) = ÷ x−3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 2( x + 4) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ x − 3 ( x + 1)( x + 4) 2( x + 3) = . 2. 80 ≤ = 2x 3 2x 10. a} 5. 2. Inc. = 7 + 2[−3x + 5] (5 x + 3 y ) 2 = (5 x) 2 + 2(5 x)(3 y ) + (3 y ) 2 = 25 x 2 + 30 xy + 9 y 2 = 7 − 6 x + 10 = −6 x + 17 14. –4. {1. 7. –3 x 5 + x+3 x−3 x x−3 5 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ x +3 x−3 x −3 x +3 x ( x − 3) + 5( x + 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x + 5 x + 15 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 + 2 x + 15 .5} ∪ {5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 5+ 2 = 3 ⋅ 16 x 4 = 3 8 x 3 ⋅ 2 x = 3 8x3 ⋅ 3 2 x 400 ≤ 351 + x < 450 49 ≤ x < 99 A grade of at least 49% but less than 99% will result in a B.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 90 5 400 ≤ 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 450 9. 1. x +1 x ≠ 3.5} ∩ {5. 1 11. . = 4 ⋅5 2 − 3⋅3 2 = 20 2 − 9 2 = 11 2 8. = = x 2 − 3 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x − 1) x − 2 x ≠ 2.5. {1. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = 2 x 3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − 5 x 2 + 20 x − 15 7 + 2[3( x + 1) − 2(3x − 1)] = 7 + 2[3x + 3 − 6 x + 2] = 2 x 3 − 13x 2 + 26 x − 15 13. 6r ⋅ 3r = 18r 2 = 9r 2 ⋅ 2 = 3r 2 4 50 − 3 18 = 4 25 ⋅ 2 − 3 9 ⋅ 2 15. 168. a} = {5} 4. a} = {1.5 × 101 20 × 10−8 20 10−8 12. 2. 3.25 × 102 = 2. Chapter P Test 5(2 x 2 − 6 x) − (4 x 2 − 3x) = 10 x 2 − 30 x − 4 x 2 + 3x = 6 x 2 − 27 x 2. –1. 30 x3 y 4 5 y8 = 5 x3 −9 y 4 − ( −4) = 5 x −6 y 8 = 6 9 −4 x 6x y 6. 5 × 10−6 5 10−6 = ⋅ = 0. x ≠ 3.

28n + 53 −0. M = −0. This describes the projections exactly. 22. 5 7 28.28n + 47 M = −0. 4.25. R= M −0. 0.28n + 47 = W 0.08%. ( x 2 + 10 x + 25) − 9 y 2 25. 43. ( x − 3)( x − 4) x ≠ 3.08 In 2003. R= 121 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.08% of bachelor’s degrees were awarded to men. 3(2 + 5) = 3(5 + 2). 3 x 2 − 9 x + 18 = ( x − 3)( x − 6) 20.28n + 47 0. 2003 is 14 years after 1989.28(14) + 47 = 43. 27 31. ) 3 5 − 3 x (x 3) 2x + 3 3 4 22 −7. x ( x + 3) 26. commutative property of addition x +5 = 2 + ( x + 3) 5 = ( x + 3) ( x + 3) 5 3 2 x x 2 + 5 − 22x = 3 5 = ( x + 3) 5 (2 x + 3) = = = − x( x + 2) − x 2 x( x + 2) + ( x + 2) = 18. ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 10 x c. Inc. 6(7 + 4) = 6 ⋅ 7 + 6 ⋅ 4 distributive property of multiplication over addition x 2 + 2 x − x2 ( x + 1)( x + 2) 2x = 2 . − .28n + 53 −0. = ( x + 5)2 − 9 y 2 = ( x + 5 − 3 y )( x + 5 + 3 y ) 1 − x +x 2 ( x + 2) x 1 − x +x 2 = 1 + 1x 1 + 1x ( x + 2) x ( 25 x 2 − 9 = (5 x)2 − 32 = (5 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (6 x − 7) 2 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 2x + 3 − 2x + 8 = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 11 = .28(25) + 47 R= 0. 4 17. 0. a. x≠0 x + 3x + 2 29.2 × 109 = 1.6 × 10−4 30.00076 = 7. 19. . Chapter P Test 2x + 3 2 − 2 x − 7 x + 12 x − 3 2x + 3 2 = − ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 2x + 3 2 x−4 = − ⋅ ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 x − 4 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) ( ) 36 x 2 − 84 x + 49 = (6 x) 2 − 2(6 x) ⋅ 7 + 7 2 23. 21.PreCalculus 4E 16. 0. x 3 + 2 x 2 + 3 x + 6 = x 2 ( x + 2) + 3( x + 2) = 1 ( 32.28(25) + 53 2 = 3 Three women will receive bachelor’s degrees for every two men. Publishing as Prentice Hall. are rational numbers. This overestimates the actual percent shown by the bar graph by 0. 5 3 = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 2) = 5 3 1 ( 3 ) 5 27 = 1 ( 3) 5 = 1 243 ) 2 6.6 × 109 = 13. ⎛ 2 x x 2 + 5 − 2 x ⎞ x2 + 5 ⎜ ⎟ x2 +5 ⎠ =⎝ ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x( x 2 + 5) − 2 x3 ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x3 + 10 x − 2 x3 b. y 3 − 125 = y 3 − 53 = ( y − 5)( y 2 + 5 y + 25) 24.32 × 1010 3 ( x + 5) − 27 x2 + 5 2 − 27.

2⎬ . 34.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 33. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 − 2x − x = 0 8 − 2x = x ( = 75 3x − 1 = ± 75 8 − 2x ) 2 = ( x) 2 8 − 2 x = x2 3x = 1 ± 5 3 x= 11 ± 112 − 4(1)(28) 2(1) x= −2 x = −10 1 2 } x −3 = x −5 2( x + 3) − 4( x − 3) = 8 x=− { x−3 +5 = x 39. 36. x= ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −4 ) 2 2 2±2 5 2 x = 1± 5 x= 2x − 3 = 2x − 8 − x −1 The solution set is 1 − 5. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 –4 does not check and must be rejected. x − 3 = x 2 − 10 x + 25 x 2 − 11x + 28 = 0 x= 2 x + 6 − 4 x + 12 = 8 −2 x + 18 = 8 11 ± 121 − 112 2 11 ± 9 x= 2 11 ± 3 x= 2 x = 7 or x = 4 4 does not check and must be rejected. 2± 2x − 3 x − 4 x +1 = − 4 2 4 2 x − 3 = 2( x − 4) − ( x + 1) 2x − 3 = x − 9 x = −6 The solution set is {–6}. . ⎬. The solution set is {2}. 37. 1± 5 3 3 ⎪⎧1 − 5 3 1 + 5 3 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2 4 8 − = x − 3 x + 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 35. x=5 The solution set is {5}. 7( x − 2) = 4( x + 1) − 21 7 x − 14 = 4 x + 4 − 21 38. The solution set is {7}. x(x – 2) = 4 x2 − 2 x − 4 = 0 7 x − 14 = 4 x − 17 x= 3x = −3 x = −1 The solution set is {–1}. 3 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 122 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 + 5 . ⎩ 2 ⎭ ( 3x − 1) 2 40. Inc. 2 x 2 − 3x − 2 = 0 (2x + 1)(x – 2) = 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x=2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − .

3x + 2 ≥ 3 3x + 2 ≥ 3 or 3x + 2 ≤ −3 3x ≥ 1 3 x ≤ −5 1 5 x≥ x≤− 3 3 5⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3(x + 4) ≥ 5x – 12 3x + 12 ≥ 5x – 12 –2x ≥ –24 x ≤ 12 The solution set is (−∞. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ 2 x + 2 x + 8 = x2 + 2 x 2 x + 8 = x2 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 0 = ( x − 4)( x + 2) x − 4 = 0 or x=4 x+2 =0 48. x 1 x 3 + ≤ − 6 8 2 4 4 x + 3 ≤ 12 x − 18 −8 x ≤ −21 x≥ 21 8 ⎡ 21 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . 1 V = lwh 3 3V = lwh 3V lwh = lw lw 3V =h lw 3V h= lw 44. 123 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12]. ⎟ . ∞ ⎟ . 12}.3⎬ ⎩2 ⎭ 43. Inc. ⎣8 ⎠ −3 4 x − 7 + 15 = 0 −3 4 x − 7 = −15 4x − 7 = 5 46. 4x − 7 = 5 4 x − 7 = −5 or 4 x = 12 4x = 2 x=3 1 x= 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 45. . − ⎥ ∪ ⎢ . 42. 2⎠ ⎣ 2x 2 x + = x2 + 6 x + 8 x + 2 x + 4 2x 2 x + = ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 2 x + 4 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2( x + 4)( x + 2) x( x + 4)( x + 2) + = x+2 x+4 ( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 x + 2( x + 4) = x( x + 2) 47.PreCalculus 4E 41. Chapter P Test 2 x−6 = 2 3 2 2 x−6 = 2 x − 6 = −2 3 3 2 2 x=8 x=4 3 3 x = 12 x=6 The solution set is {6. ∞ ⎟ . x = −2 (rejected) The solution set is {4} . 2x + 5 <6 3 –9 ≤ 2x + 5 < 18 –14 ≤ 2x < 13 13 −7 ≤ x < 2 −3 ≤ 13 ⎞ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −7.

and 65 video rental stores. 700 + 150 x = 5000 + 1100 x 48 = (2w + 4) w 48 = 2w2 + 4 w B = 0. 55. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 53.4 x + 500 0 = 2w2 + 4 w − 48 0 = 0. 17 movie theaters. x ≈ −691 (rejected) The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004.07 x 2 + 47. x + x + 16 + x + 64 = 83 3x + 80 = 83 3x = 3 as a+s R (a + s ) = as Ra + Rs = as R= x =1 x + 16 = 17 x + 64 = 65 For every one million U. or 2018.S. ( x ) + ( x + 16 ) + ( x + 64 ) = 83 −mx = y1 − mx1 − y −mx y1 − mx1 − y = −m −m y − y1 + x1 x= m 50. the cost will be $33. l = 2w + 4 A = lw x = 14 The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004.600. Ra − as = − Rs a( R − s ) = − Rs a( R − s ) − Rs = R−s R−s Rs a= s−R 51.4)2 − 4(0. Let x = the number drive-in theaters. Publishing as Prentice Hall. residents.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 49.07)(−677) 2(0. The formulas model the data quite well. y − y1 = mx − mx1 54.07 x 2 + 47.4 x − 677 0 = 0.4) ± (47. there is 1 drivein theater. length is 12 feet −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(47. 24700 = 950 x 26 = x In 26 years. or 2018.07 x 2 + 47. Let x + 64 = the number video rental stores.07) x ≈ 14. 124 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 52. 29. Let x + 16 = the number movie theaters.07 x 2 + 47.4 x + 500 1177 = 0.4 x − 677 0 = ( w + 6)( w − 4) x= x= 0 = w2 + 2 w − 24 w+6 = 0 w−4 = 0 w = −6 w=4 2 w + 4 = 2(4) + 4 = 12 width is 4 feet. . Inc. 43x + 575 = 1177 43x = 602 56.

Chapter P Test 242 + x 2 = 262 576 + x 2 = 676 x 2 = 100 x = ±10 The wire should be attached 10 feet up the pole. 600. 000 − 6000 x 2 − 30. 000 − 6000 = x x+5 600. 000 x = 600. it must cost less than Plan B. 125 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let x = the number of local calls The monthly cost using Plan A is C A = 25. 000 x −6000 x 2 − 30. 600.PreCalculus 4E 57.40 x 50 = x The original price is $50.60 x 20 = 0. There were originally 20 people. . 000 x + 3. 000 x + 3. For Plan A to be better deal. 58. The monthly cost using Plan B is CB = 13 + 0. 000 = 0 x 2 + 5 x − 500 = 0 ( x + 25)( x − 20) = 0 x − 20 = 0 x + 25 = 0 or x = −25 x = 20 –25 must be rejected. Inc. 000 ⎛ 600. 000( x + 5) − 6000 x( x + 5) = 600.06 x 12 < 0. Let x = the original selling price 20 = x − 0. 000 600. 60. 000. 000 x 59.06 x. C A < CB 25 < 13 + 0. 000. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ − 6000 ⎟ = x ( x + 5) x x+5 ⎝ ⎠ 600.06 x 200 < x x > 200 Plan A is a better deal when more than 200 local calls are made per month.

y = 1 3.10] viewing rectangle is as follows: distance between x -axis minimum maximum tick marks x -value x -value [ −100 .100. [ −100 . The meaning of a [−100. y = 6 5.and y-axes at the origin (0. y = 1 x = 1. 10 ] x = −3. 100 . The graph crosses the x. the y-intercept is 5.100. Inc. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. y = 2 x = −2. y = 5 a. y = 3 x = 2. 6. Thus. the x-intercept is –3. the x-intercept is 0 and the y-intercept is 0.1 Check Point Exercises 4. y = 2 x = 2. y = 0 x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the y-intercept is 4. b. 4). 5). The graph crosses the x-axis at (–3. y = 3 126 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c.Chapter 1 Functions and Graphs Section 1. b. y = 7 x = −2. According to the line graph. y = 2 x = 3. y = 3 x = −3. 60% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. x = −4. The mathematical model overestimates the actual percentage shown in the graph by 5%. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. 1.50] by [−100. 50 ] by distance between y -axis minimum maximum tick y -value y -value marks 2. The graph does not cross the x-axis. x = 0. 0). c. Thus. 0). Thus. a. there is no x-intercept. d = 4n + 5 d = 4(15) + 5 = 65 65% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. Thus. 100 . . Thus. x = −1. y = 4 x = 1. y = 1 x = −1.

12. 3. 7.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. . 10. 2. 9. 11. Inc. 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6.1 1. 5. 4. 127 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 Exercise Set 1.

y = 7 x = −3. y = 1 16. y = 3 x = 0. y = −2 x = 0. y = −5 x = −2. y = 1 x = 0. y = 2 x = 1. y = 3 x = 2. y = −2 x = 1. y = 4 x = 3. y = −4 x = −1. y = 6 x = 3. y = −3 x = 0. 15. y = 11 x = –2. y = 3 x = 2. y = −1 x = 1. .Functions and Graphs 13. y = 7 x = 3. y = −1 x = −1. y = 6 x = –1. x = −3. y = 5 x = –3. y = –1 x = –2. x = –3. y = 0 x = –1. Inc. y = 0 x = 3. 14. y = 2 x = 2. y = −1 x = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 11 128 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 2 x = −2. y = 2 x = 1.

y = 2 x = –3. y = 1 x = 1. y = –4 x = 1. y = 2 7 2 x = –2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. y = − 3 2 x = 2. Inc. y = 1 1 x = 3. y = –10 x = –2. y = −5 x = −2. y = –2 x = 2. y = −1 x = 0. y = 129 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = –6 x = 0. y = 1 x = −1. y = 3 x = −1. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 3 x = 2. x = −3. 2 20. x = –3. 19. y = 3 5 x = –1. y = − 1 x = 3. y = 2 x = 2.1 17. y = −3 x = −3. y = 0 x = 3. y = −1 18. y = 0 x = 3. y = 5 2 x = 0. y = 2 3 x = 1. y = 7 x = 1. y = 2 x = 0. y = 1 2 x = −2. y = –8 x = –1.

21. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 0 x = 1. y = 1 x = −1. y = 2 x = 0. y = 4 x = −1. y = 4 24. . x = −3. y = 1 x = 1. y = 3 x = 3. y = 6 x = −2. y = −6 x = 3. y = 0 x = 0. y = 2 x = 2. y = 6 x = −2. y = 4 x = 3. 22. y = 0 x = 0. x = −3. y = 0 x = 2. y = 2 x = −2. y = 1 x = 3. Inc. y = −1 x = 1. y = −6 x = −3. y = 3 x = −1. y = −4 x = −2. y = −2 x = 2. y = −4 x = 1. y = 2 x = 2. y = −2 x = −1. y = 2 130 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 2 x = 0.Functions and Graphs 23. y = 4 x = −3.

(b). –800. 60. x-axis tick marks –20. 0. y = 9 x = 0. 4) . x = 3. y = −9 x = −1. ( −2. 0) . but all are not on any of the others. y = −1 x = 0. 10. 28. y = −27 35. –2. 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y-axis tick marks –4. 0. . 30. 0.1) . 1. 60. We can tell because all of the points ( −3. 30. and (3. y = −9 32. 30. 50. –3. and (3. . 2. 0. −1) are on the line y = 2 − x . (2. 27. The equation that corresponds to Y in the table 2 x = 1. –10. y = −4 is (c). 80. 0. y = −1 x = 1. We can tell because all of the points (−3. 70. y = 0 37. 20. –4. The equation that corresponds to Y1 in the table is (b). y-axis tick marks are the same. y2 = 2 − x . y = 26 26. (0. x = 1. –2. y = −28 x = −2 . y = −8 x = −1. (2. y = 0 x = 2. 2) .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 6. . 40. y = 7 x = 2. 800. 3) . (a) x-axis tick marks –40. (c) x-axis tick marks –5. 700. y = −9 (1. 2. y = 0 x = 3. y = −1 x = 2. –20. 1000 x = −2. 3. 5. Yes. y = 1 36. 4. y = 27 131 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –8. y = −2 x = 0. y-axis tick marks –1000. 5) . –700. 50. y = 0 33. (0. x = 0. –4. (−1. No. 2. –6. 4 31. 70 x = −3. (−2.1) . 20. 0) . 40. –2. It passes through the point (0. y = 0 x = −3. –900. y = −4 x = −1. y1 = x 2 . y = 5 x = −2. but all are not on any of the others. 29. 4.9) . y = 8 x = −1. x = −2. 10. (1. 900. y = 5 x = 3. 0) x = 2. y = 8 x = 1. 10. . 0.9) are on the graph y = x 2 . y = 8 x = 3. .1) . x = −3. It passes through the point (0. –20. y = 1 (2. 34. 4) . (d) x-axis tick marks –10. 4) . 2) . 8. ( −1. –10. x = −3.1 25. 40. Inc. –1. y-axis tick marks –30. 0) .

b. –1. 0) and (–1. b. 0) and (–2. b. b. (0. 2. 5) (2. 2). 5) 3 (3. 0). 4) and (1. a. The graphs of Y and Y intersect at the points 1 2 ( −2. 51. 5) 1 2 (1. 44. a. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 5) 2. 2) 39. 1. b. 46. 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 2). 0). The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. 2).–4). 43. 5) −1 ( −1. 1). 1. 45. The graph intersect the y-axis at (0. 2. 2. 41. 40. –4. . 42. 0).Functions and Graphs 38. 49. a. 0). The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. The values of Y1 and Y2 are the same when x = −2 and x = 1 . The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. The graph does not intersect the y-axis. 48. 50. b. −2 ( −2. a. 5) none. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. The graph intersects the x-axis at (2. 1. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–1. 0 (0. –1. 5) 47. y ) none. a.1) . 0). a. –2. −3 ( −3. x ( x. The graph does not intersect the x-axis. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 132 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

This underestimates the value in the graph. This underestimates the value in the graph by 2%. −2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ (1. According to the line graph. e. d. ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 55. According to the line graph.4(25) + 28 = 18 According to formula. −1) −1 −1 ( −1. b. 18% of seniors used marijuana in 2005.PreCalculus 4E 52. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. −1) x − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 53.1 54. . 44% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. A = −n + 70 A = −(26) + 70 = 44 According to formula. −1) −2 −2 ( −2. −1) 0 (0. a.3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . −3 ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . −1) 1 2 (1. −1) (2. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. about 14% of seniors used marijuana in 1990. y ) −3 ( −3. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2005.3 ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . 2006 is 26 years after 1980. M = −0. x Section 1. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( x.2⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . −1) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 2. x −2 −1 − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 ( x. −1) 3 (3.1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . about 45% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. The minimum for marijuana was reached in 1990. −3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . ( x. c.1) ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 133 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ (1. −2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . −1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . Inc. 2005 is 25 years after 1980. According to the line graph.4n + 28 M = −0. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1.

0 ) (1. 71.4n + 28 M = −0. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. (c) 2000 is 20 years after 1980. men have the greatest number of awakenings. false. does not make sense. −2 ) ( 0. averaging about 8 awakenings per night. 4 ) 84.4(20) + 28 = 20 According to formula. does not make sense. Answers may vary. c. At age 65. 79. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. Explanations will vary. – 66. Set 1 has each x-coordinate paired with only one ycoordinate. A = −n + 70 A = −(20) + 70 = 50 According to formula. the total calories burned will also go up. 78. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. 2 ) ( 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. This matches the value in the graph. (d) 77. 73. about 22% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. Sample explanation: As the time of day goes up. Sample explanation: These three points are not collinear. false. (a) 81. averaging about 1 awakening per night. b. x y = 2x ( x. A sample change is: A point on the x-axis will have y = 0. At age 8. According to the line graph. Inc. 75. 83. women have the least number of awakenings. Changes to make the statement true will vary. The difference between the number of awakenings for 18-year-old men and women is about 1. −4 ) ( −1. makes sense –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 68. 134 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: 3(5) − 2(2) ≠ −4. 4 ) (1. e. Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary. about 72% of seniors used alcohol in 1980. 61. d. The difference between the number of awakenings for 25-year-old men and women is about 1.8) . Changes to make the statement true will vary. (b) 80. (c) 82. 60. 70. This underestimates the value in the graph. (b) According to the line graph. According to the line graph. 6 ) ( 2. x y = 2x + 4 –2 y = 2( −2) + 4 = 0 67. A sample change is: The product of the coordinates of a point in quadrant III is also positive. y ) –2 y = 2( −2) = −4 58. 0 ) ( −1. 1 y = 2(1) = 2 2 y = 2(2) = 4 ( −2. 0 y = 2(0) + 4 = 4 1 y = 2(1) + 4 = 6 2 y = 2(2) + 4 = 8 69. –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 0 y = 2(0) = 0 59. true 74. M = −0. 2 ) ( 0. (a) 76. a. false. 57. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000.Functions and Graphs 56. 72. Sample explanation: Most graphing utilities do not display numbers an the axes.9. ( x. 2000 is 20 years after 1980. y ) ( −2.1. (b) The maximum for alcohol was reached in 1980.

4}. y ) -2 g ( −2 ) = 2( −2) − 3 = −7 -1 g ( −1) = 2( −1) − 3 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 2(0) − 3 = −3 1 g (1) = 2(1) − 3 = −1 2 g ( 2 ) = 2(2) − 3 = 1 ( −2. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. The domain is the set of all first components: {0. 30. x = 9 . g ( x) = 2x − 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 3 units. When the y-coordinate is 4. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. domain: { x −2 < x ≤ 1} or range: { y −1 ≤ y < 2} or f (− x) = (− x) 2 − 2(− x) + 7 c. = x 2 + 6 x + 15 c. 10. 8) have the same first component but different second components. x2 + y 2 = 1 6. 6) and (5. y 2 = 1 − x2 4. 3. a. there is one and only one value for y. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 85. a. [0. y ) ( −2. 2 ) . the equation does not define y as a function of x. −5) ( 0. c. 2x + y = 6 y = −2 x + 6 For each value of x. The minimum T cell count in the asymptomatic stage is approximately 425. b. = 42 b. y is a function of x for the graphs in (a) and (b). 135 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) ( 2. −7 ) ( −1. domain: { x −2 ≤ x ≤ 1} or range: { y 0 ≤ y ≤ 3} or f ( x + 4) = ( x + 4) 2 − 2( x + 4) + 7 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 − 2 x − 8 + 7 b. 2. then 7. d. ( x. y = ± 1 − 02 = ±1 ). −1} . When the x-coordinate is 2. a. so the equation defines y as a function of x. 20. b. b.2. 13. 3] . −2 ) ( 0. 17. 10.1. f (−5) = (−5)2 − 2(−5) + 7 = 25 − (−10) + 7 8.2 Check Point Exercises 1.1] . 0 ) (1. 6. The x-coordinates are all real numbers. −4 ) ( −1. a. The range is the set of all second components: {9.7. = x + 2x + 7 2 ( −2. −2. −3) (1. x f ( x) = 2x -2 –4 -1 –2 0 0 1 2 2 4 ( x. the x-coordinates are –3 and 3. 36}. a. [ −3. if x = 0. f (5) = 400 b.2 a. = x 2 − ( −2 x ) + 7 domain: { x −3 ≤ x < 0} or range: { y y = −3.1] . f (9) = 100 c. 4 ) Section 1. Section 1. 2 ) ( 2. x [ −2. [ −1.7. . 0 ) . The y-coordinates are all real numbers greater than or equal to 1. 5. the y-coordinate is 3.1) The graph (c) fails the vertical line test and is therefore not a function. y = ± 1 − x2 Since there are values of x (all values between – 1 and 1 exclusive) that give more than one value for y (for example. Inc.

8. 6) and (5. 9}. 6} and the range is {1}. 8} and the range is {5. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {4. 6) and (6. Since two values. The domain is {–7. 13. y = ±4. 9. 7. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {–2. 8}. 5. The domain is {1} and the range is {4. –2. 14. x 2 + y = 25 y = 25 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5}. 4 x = y2 y = ± 4 x = ±2 x If x = 1. 0} and the range is {–7. x 2 + y 2 = 25 y 2 = 25 − x 2 y = ± 25 − x 2 If x = 0. The domain is {5. y is a function of x. 6}. 7} and the range is {–2. 17. y = 1 and y = –1. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (3. –2. 5. 4) and (3. 6. x 2 + y 2 = 16 y 2 = 16 − x 2 y = ± 16 − x 2 If x = 0. 4} and the range is {4. –1. 0}. y is not a function of x. The relation is a function since there are no same first components with different second components. 7)). 6}. 7}. 4. 10} and the range is {1. 5. The domain is {1. y is a function of x. 136 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x + y = 25 y = 25 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 0}. 0} and the range is {–3. y = 2 and y = –2. –5. – 1. 15. The relation is a function since there are no two ordered pairs that have the same first component and different second components. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. y = ±5. –1. 2. Inc. 3. 1.2 1. then y = ±2. 11. y is a function of x. 5. can be obtained for x = 1. 6. . The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. y is a function of x. 6} and the range is {6. y = 4 and y = – 4. 7) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (6. y is not a function of x. 5) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (4. The relation is not a function since there are ordered pairs with the same first component and different second components. 7. 4. 18. The domain is {4.Functions and Graphs Exercise Set 1. y is not a function of x. –3. 4. Since two values. x = y2 y=± x If x = 1. can be obtained for one value of x. 5}. –5. The domain is {–3. y = ±1. can be obtained for one value of x. y = 16 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 4. 5. can be obtained for x = 1. –3. x + y = 16 16. The relation is a function since there are no ordered pairs that have the same first component but different second components. 3. Since two values. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {3. 5} and the range is {2. 12. The domain is {3. 4) and (4. Since two values. 10. y is not a function of x. x 2 + y = 16 y = 16 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 5)). y = 5 and y = –5.

y is a function of x. a. f(6) = 4(6) + 5 = 29 x −y=5 c. 137 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 22. f(x + 1) = 4(x + 1) + 5 = 4x + 9 c. h(2) = 24 − 22 + 1 = 16 − 4 + 1 = 13 x −y=2 b. a. Inc. b. a. g (− x) = (− x)2 − 10(− x) − 3 = x 2 + 10 x − 3 1 y= x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + 2(− x) + 3 = x2 − 2x + 3 y ( x + 2) = 1 25. y is a function of x. f(4) = 3(4) + 7 = 19 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y= b. g ( x + 5) = ( x + 5) 2 + 2( x + 5) + 3 = x 2 + 12 x + 38 y = 3 27 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 31. y = 3 8− x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. h(3a) = (3a) 4 − (3a) 2 + 1 = 81a 4 − 9a 2 + 1 −y = − x +5 y = x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. f(–x) = 3(–x) + 7 = –3x + 7 29. y is a function of x. 20. g (−1) = (−1) 2 − 10(−1) − 3 = 1 + 10 − 3 =8 g ( x + 2) = ( x + 2) 2 − 10(8 + 2) − 3 = x 2 + 4 x + 4 − 10 x − 20 − 3 = x 2 − 6 x − 19 xy − 5 y = 1 y ( x − 5) = 1 c. y is a function of x. −y = − x + 2 y = x −2 h(−1) = (−1)4 − (−1) 2 + 1 = 1 −1 +1 =1 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. x + y3 = 8 y3 = 8 − x f(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) + 7 = 3x + 10 c. g (−1) = (−1)2 + 2(−1) + 3 = 1− 2 + 3 =2 = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + 2 x + 10 + 3 y 3 = 27 − x 23.PreCalculus 4E 19. y is a function of x. a. . 30. 24. y is a function of x. Section 1. xy + 2 y = 1 1 x+2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. a. b. x + y 3 = 27 c. f(–x) = 4(–x) + 5 = – 4x + 5 28. 26. y is a function of x. 21. y = x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y = − x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x.2 27. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 4 − ( − x ) 2 + 1 = x 4 − x 2 + 1 d.

f (−6) = c. f (2) = 4(2)2 − 1 15 = 4 22 b. a. f (r 2 ) = =7 c. h(−2) = (−2)3 − (−2) + 1 = −8 + 2 + 1 = −5 c. f ( x − 6) = x − 6 + 6 + 3 = x + 3 f (16) = 25 − 16 − 6 = 9 − 6 = 3 − 6 = −3 38.if x > −6 138 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. f (− x) = 4(− x)3 + 1 −4 x 3 + 1 = (− x)3 − x3 4 x3 − 1 x3 or = 27 a − 3a + 1 b. b. f (6) = f (10) = 10 + 6 + 3 = 16 + 3 = 4+3 6 =1 6 b. 3 33. f (− x) = 4(− x)2 − 1 4 x 2 − 1 = (− x) 2 x2 f (5) = −6 −6 = = −1 −6 6 r2 r2 5+3 5+3 = r2 =1 r2 = −5 + 3 b.Functions and Graphs 32. f (−24) = 25 − (−24) − 6 = 49 − 6 = 7−6 =1 c. a. b. f (2) = f (−6) = −6 + 6 + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3 37. a. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 3 − ( − x ) + 1 = − x 3 + x + 1 d. 34. if x < −6 = =⎨ − x − 6 ⎩−1. f (−2) = 4(−2) 2 − 1 15 = 4 (−2) 2 c. f (−9 − x) = −5 + 3 8 8 = =1 −2 −2 = −9 − x + 3 −9 − x + 3 − x − 6 ⎧ 1. a. 2 = −1 −2 . f (25 − 2 x) = 25 − (25 − 2 x) − 6 = 2x − 6 35. a. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. h(3) = 33 − 3 + 1 = 25 36. 4(2)3 + 1 33 = 23 8 b. h(3a) = (3a)3 − (3a) + 1 f (−2) = 4(−2)3 + 1 −31 31 = = −8 8 (−2)3 c. a. f (−5) = c.

−1) ( 0. −2 ) ( −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3) ( 2. 0 ) (1. −3) ( 2. 0 ) (1. y ) ( −2. −4 ) ( x. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 4 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 4 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 4 = −4 1 g (1) = 1 − 4 = −3 2 g ( 2 ) = 2 − 4 = −2 ( −2.3) ( −1. −5) ( 0. Inc.1) ( −1.1) ( 2.5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 4 units. . −2 ) ( x. 2 ) ( 0. 2 ) x g ( x) = x − 4 ( x.2 f ( x) = x ( x. 4 ) ( 2. −4 ) (1. x 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 x g ( x) = x + 3 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 3 = 1 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 3 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = 1 + 3 = 4 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 3 = 5 ( x. 2 ) 39. −6 ) ( −1. −2 ) ( 2. 40. 139 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1) ( 0. 0 ) (1. −5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. −2 ) ( −1.3) (1. 4 ) ( −1. y ) 1 g (1) = −2 (1) − 1 = −3 −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) − 1 = −5 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 ( −2. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 ( −2.1) ( 2. y ) ( −2. y ) ( −2. 41.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. −1) (1. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x − 1 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) − 1 = 3 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) − 1 = 1 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 x f ( x) = x ( x. 2 ) ( 0. −1) ( 0.

2 ) ( 0. 4 ) ( −1. Inc.5 ) x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 2 = 2 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = (1) − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 2 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. −1) ( 0. x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 + 1 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 1 = 5 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 1 = 2 0 g (0) = (0) + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = (1) + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) + 1 = 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x.Functions and Graphs 42. 2 ) ( −1.1) ( 0. 4 ) ( x. 0 ) (1.3) (1. ( x. y ) ( −2. y ) ( −2.1) ( 2. y ) ( −2. y ) ( −2.5 ) ( 0. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x + 3 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) + 3 = 7 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) + 3 = 5 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = −2 (1) + 3 = 1 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) + 3 = −1 ( x. 0 ) (1. 4 ) ( −1. 140 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. 2 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units. y ) ( −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 ) ( −1. 7 ) ( −1. 43. y ) ( −2. 2 ) ( 0. −4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit. −2 ) (1.1) (1. −2 ) ( 2. 4 ) ( −1.1) ( 2.1) ( 2. −1) ( 2. 4 ) ( x. 2 ) ( 2.1) ( 0. 0 ) (1. −1) 44.

1) ( 0.8) x −2 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 + 2 ( x. x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x +1 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 1 = 3 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 1 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 1 = 3 ( x. 47.3) f ( x ) = x3 ( x. 2 ) (1. 46. −6 ) ( −1.1) ( 2. . −1) ( 2.2 x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 2 = 0 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = 1 − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 2 = 0 ( x. y ) ( −2.1) ( 0.3) ( 2.1) (1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units. 2 ) ( −1. −1) ( 0. Inc. y ) ( −2. 141 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( 0. 0 ) (1.1) ( 2.10 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. 2 ) ( −1. 0 ) (1. −2 ) (1.1) ( 2.1) ( 0.PreCalculus 4E 45. y ) ( −2. Section 1. 2 ) ( x. −8) −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 ( −1. 2 ) ( x. 2 ) ( 2. 0 ) ( −1. y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y ) f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 ( −2. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 2 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 2 = 1 0 g ( 0) = ( 0) + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = (1) + 2 = 3 2 g ( 2 ) = ( 2 ) + 2 = 10 ( −2.3) ( −1. 0 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit.

−1) (1.3) ( x. x f ( x ) = x3 ( x. −1) ( 0.5) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 5 units. −1) ( 0. x f ( x ) = −1 ( x.1) ( 2. x f ( x) = 3 −2 f ( −2 ) = 3 −1 f ( −1) = 3 0 f ( 0) = 3 1 f (1) = 3 2 f ( 2) = 3 x g ( x) = 5 −2 g ( −2 ) = 5 −1 g ( −1) = 5 0 g ( 0) = 5 1 g (1) = 5 2 g ( 2) = 5 ( x.3) (1. −1) x g ( x) = 4 −2 g ( −2 ) = 4 −1 g ( −1) = 4 0 g ( 0) = 4 1 g (1) = 4 2 g ( 2) = 4 ( x. 4 ) ( 2. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −1 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0 ) = −1 1 f (1) = −1 2 f ( 2 ) = −1 ( −2. 4 ) ( −1. −8) ( −1.Functions and Graphs 48. 4 ) ( 0. Inc.3) ( 2.8) 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 − 1 ( x.5) ( −1. 142 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y ) ( −2. 7 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units.5) (1. 4 ) (1. −9 ) ( −1.3) ( 0. 49. −2 ) ( 0. y ) ( −2. −1) (1. . 0 ) (1. y ) ( −2. −1) ( 2. −1) ( −1. 50. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) ( 2.5) ( 2. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( −2.5) ( 0. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 1 = −9 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 1 = −2 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = (1) − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 1 = 7 ( −2. 4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit.3) ( −1.

( x. 2 ) ( 9.PreCalculus 4E 51. y ) (1.1) ( 5.1) ( 4.3) ( 4. 2 ) ( 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1) (1.1) ( 9.3) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = 1 + 2 = 3 4 g ( 4) = 4 + 2 = 4 ( x. 2 ) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 1 = 1 5 g ( 5) = 5 − 1 = 2 10 g (10 ) = 10 − 1 = 3 ( x. 0 ) (1. y ) ( 0. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. 0 ) ( 2. y ) ( 0. 2 ) (1. y ) ( 0. Section 1. 0 ) ( 4.2 x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 4 g ( 4) = 4 −1 = 1 9 g (9) = 9 −1 = 2 ( x. y ) ( 0.3) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. y ) ( 0. 0 ) (1. 143 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1) ( 4. 0 ) (1.3) 53. Inc. 4 ) 9 g (9) = 9 + 2 = 5 (9 . 52. .1) ( 4. ( x. 5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted right 1 unit. 2 ) ( 9.3) ( x. 2 ) (10.

1) ( 4. f (−4) = 4 69. domain: (−∞. g ( −10 ) = 2 74. a.3) 68. . 2 ) ( 9. g (10) = −2 75. y ) ( −2. function d. ∞) 55. range: [−4. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 d. 0 ) ( −1. y-intercept: 3 59. not a function d. 0 ) (1. not a function 79. ∞) 62. 77. f (2) = −4 67. When x = 1. Inc.Functions and Graphs 54. ∞) b. 2 ) ( 7. function e.3) 72. x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 2 = 0 –1 g ( −1) = −1 + 2 = 1 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 2 = 2 7 g (7) = 7 + 2 = 3 ( x. 56. g ( x ) = 1. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 58. f ( −2 ) = −4 66. g ( x) = −1. f ( 4) = 4 f (2) = −5 f (−1) = 2 and f (3) = 4 144 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y ) ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 60. function 78. 76. function b. function c. not a function e. g ( 2 ) = −2 73. f ( −3 ) = 0 70. range: (–∞. y-intercept: –3 e. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted left 2 units. 65. not a function c. function b. 4] 57. a. range: [1. ∞) c. f (−1) = 0 71. a. f (−2) = 3 and domain: (−∞. f (−2) = −3 and f (2) = 5 domain: (–∞. x-intercept: none 63. y-intercept: 1 64. ∞) 61. When x = −2. g ( −4 ) = 2 ( x.1) ( 2.

83. f(–5) = 2 82. y-intercept: 1 e. y-intercept: 1 81. ∞) b. x-intercept: { x x ≤ 0} d. domain: [–2. f(4) = 6 84. a. a. f(–2) = 0 and f(2) = 4 b. 90. ∞) domain: [–1. 89. f(–2) = –3 b. y-intercept: 4 91. a. domain: [0. y-intercept: −1 f(2) = 1 b. x-intercept: 4 e. 86. x-intercept: 2 d. ∞) b. x-intercept: –1 d. 0) ∪ (0. y-intercept: 1 e. range: {2} c. 88. 3} b. ∞ ) domain: (–∞. ∞) c. x-intercept: − f(–4) = 3 and f(3) = 4 d. range: [0. 1. 0. range: [–5. 5] c. x-intercept: none d. a. 5) e. Inc. y-intercept: 0 e. f(4) = 3 b. a. a. a.75 d. range: [–2. range: [1. . ∞) domain: (−∞. 5) c. b. y-intercept: –3 e. x-intercept: –1 d. ∞) c. x-intercept: none d.PreCalculus 4E 80. range: (−∞. Section 1. f(3) = 2 85. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(–1) = 5 domain: {–5. range: (0. 1 2 87. x-intercept: none domain: (–6. ∞) b. x-intercept: none d. 6] domain: (−∞.5 e. − 2] f(3) = 1 c. –2. domain: (−∞.1) ∪ (1. d.2 domain: (–∞. y-intercept: 2 e. ∞) c. f(–4) = –5 and f(4) = –2 c. f (−5) + f (3) = 2 + 2 = 4 145 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2] b. e. ∞) c. y-intercept: 1 e. a. a. x-intercept: –3. a. ∞) c. range: [0. 6] c. 0] d. 4) e. domain: [0. x-intercept: none d. a. ∞) b. ∞) c. y-intercept: –2 b. a. y-intercept: –1 e. range: (−∞. domain: [–3. range: [–3. y-intercept: 1. range: [0. range: [–1.

Finland ) . ( 9. −4 − ( −1) − ( −3) + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 2 = −4 + 1 − 9 + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 = −3 − 9 + −1 ⋅ −6 = 3 − 9 + 6 = −6 + 6 = 0 97. 9. 9. 0. –2. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) + ( − x ) − 5 − ( x3 + x − 5) 3 = − x 3 − x − 5 − x 3 − x + 5 = −2 x 3 − 2 x 98. ( 9. a. y-intercept: –2 f (−5) + f (4) = −2 + (−2) = −4 e.7. 3 − ( −1) − ( −6 ) + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 2 = 3 + 1 − 36 + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 = 4 − 36 + −1 ⋅ 4 = 2 − 36 + −4 = −34 + −4 = −38 96. No. the relation is a function.6. the relation is not a function. range: {–2} c.6 in the domain corresponds to both Finland and New Zealand in the range. x-intercept: none d. Inc. g (1) = 3 (1) − 5 = 3 − 5 = −2 93. Iceland ) . Denmark )} d. 4} 92. Yes. 1. ( 9. 9.6. f ( g ( −1) ) = f ( −8) = ( −8) − ( −8 ) + 4 2 = 64 + 8 + 4 = 76 95. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range. f ( g (1) ) = f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) + 4 2 = 4 + 2 + 4 = 10 g ( −1) = 3 ( −1) − 5 = −3 − 5 = −8 94.5. a. c.Functions and Graphs domain: {–5. b. {( Iceland. 9. {( 9. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) − 3 ( − x ) + 7 − ( x 2 − 3x + 7 ) 2 = x 2 + 3x + 7 − x 2 + 3 x − 7 = 6x 99. Publishing as Prentice Hall. New Zealand ) . ( New Zealand.5 )} b. ( Denmark.7 ) . 146 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 9.6 ) .6 ) . ( Finland.

c.25 x + 72 T (4) = −0.125(18)2 + 5. g (90) = 10 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 10%. . Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range.8 ) .6 x + 94 R(20) = −0.8)} b. This is represented on the graph by the point (20. R( x) = −0. a.7 ) . Section 1.7 ) .126). Yes. This is represented on the graph by the point (20. T ( x) = −0. the relation is a function. a. R ( x) = −0.6 x + 94 R (4) = −0.2 {( Bangladesh. ( Haiti. b. f (70) = 83 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 83%. T ( x) = −0.8. the relation is not a function. 102. 1. 1. 103.25 x + 72 T (18) = −0.125 x 2 + 5. This is represented on the graph by the point (18.125(20)2 + 5.6(0) + 94 = 94 Americans ordered an average of 94 meals in restaurants per person 0 years after 1984. 147 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c.94). Inc. b.6(4) + 94 = 91. ( Chad.6 x + 94 R(0) = −0. According to the graphs. 1. or 1988. c. a.25(18) + 72 = 126 Americans ordered an average of 126 takeout meals per person 18 years after 1984. T ( x) = −0. b. Haiti ) . f (90) = 25 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 25%. 104. or 2004. b. Function f is the better model. c.125(4)2 + 5. R( x) = −0.7.6 meals in restaurants per person. or 1984. No.25(20) + 72 = 127 Americans ordered an average of 127 takeout meals per person 20 years after 1984. the average number of takeout orders approximately equaled the average number of inrestaurant meals 4 years after 1984. (1. 101. a. This is represented on the graph by the point (0. Myanmar )} d.82). ( Myanmar. 1. Chad ) .25 x + 72 T (20) = −0.8.PreCalculus 4E 100. (1. g (70) = 76 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 76%.6(20) + 94 = 82 Americans ordered an average of 82 meals in restaurants per person 20 years after 1984. or 2004.7.125 x 2 + 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91. (1.127).25(4) + 72 = 91 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91 takeout meals per person. Bangladesh ) .125 x 2 + 5. {(1. 1. Function f is the better model. or 2002. a.7 in the domain corresponds to both Bangladesh and Chad in the range.

40(100 − 60) = 20 + 0. Sample explanation: The parentheses used in function notation. does not make sense. An example is {(1. false. Inc. your total trip will take 2 hours. 131.(2. Sample explanation: The domain is the number of years worked for the company. 122.1). 121. 130. Changes to make the statement true will vary. do not imply multiplication. for example. 4]. 119. Explanations will vary. 108. it is not true for all functions. Changes to make the statement true will vary. f (2) = f (1 + 1) = f (1) + f (1) = 3+3 = 6 Similarly: f (3) = f (2 + 1) = f (2) + f (1) = 6+3= 9 f (4) = f (3 + 1) = f (3) + f (1) = 9 + 3 = 12 While f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) is true for this function. false.000 to produce 90 bicycles. such as f ( x). It is not true for f ( x ) = x 2 . rewrite 2 as 1 + 1. . A sample change is: f (0) = 0.500 − 3200(3) = $12. 126. Answers may vary. 118. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall.60(50 − x) S (30) = 0. does not make sense. makes sense 129. there will be 15 mL of sodium-iodine in the vaccine. A sample change is: The range is [ −2. Sample explanation: This would not be a function because some elements in the domain would correspond to more than one age in the range. the car will be worth $12. 2( x + h) 2 + 3( x + h) + 5 − (2 x 2 + 3x + 5) 123. V ( x) = 22.40(t − 60) C (100) = 20 + 0. 000 + 100 x 125. Explanations will vary.Functions and Graphs 105. does not make sense. 500 − 3200 x V (3) = 22. 107. S ( x) = 0. T ( x) = 127. It is given that f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) and f (1) = 3 .900.40(40) = 20 + 16 = 36 For 100 calling minutes. f (a + h) = 3(a + h) + 7 = 3a + 3h + 7 f (a ) = 3a + 7 f ( a + h) − f ( a ) h ( 3a + 3h + 7 ) − ( 3a + 7 ) = h 3a + 3h + 7 − 3a − 7 3h = = =3 h h 106.60(50 − 30) = 15 When 30 mL of the 10% mixture is mixed with 20 mL of the 60% mixture. A sample change is: The domain is [−4. 40 40 + x x + 30 40 40 T ( 30 ) = + 30 30 + 30 80 40 = + 60 60 120 = 60 =2 If you travel 30 mph going and 60 mph returning. false. 109. Answers may vary. the monthly cost is $36. 000 + 100(90) = $109.10 x + 0.8 C (90) = 100. To find f (2) . 120. true = 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3h 148 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 It will cost $109. 2 ) . Explanations will vary.1)} 128. C ( x) = 100. = 2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 − 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x − 3 x + 3h + 5 − 5 124. – 117. C (t ) = 20 + 0. 900 After 3 years.10(30) + 0.

∞) b. 1). Since 80 > 60 . 6) c. and increasing on the interval (1. constant: none 4. Inc. increasing: (–1. ∞) b. increasing: (–3. − 1) c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) = (− x) 2 + 6 = x 2 + 6 = f ( x) The function is even. C (80) = 20 + 0. constant: none a. h( − x ) = ( − x )5 + 1 = − x 5 + 1 The function is neither even nor odd. decreasing: none c. decreasing: (–1. f ( x ) = −2 x 2 + x + 5 f ( x + h) = −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) + 5 = −2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + x + h + 5 = −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 6. 3. g (− x ) = 7(− x)3 − (− x) = −7 x3 + x = − f ( x) The function is odd. constant: none a. constant: none a. constant: none a. increasing: (0. a. ∞) c. decreasing: none c. c. 5. 2) b. ( −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 − −2 x 2 + x + 5 5. the cost is $20. 20 ) . Check Point Exercises 1. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 60 1.3 Section 1. increasing: (–∞. decreasing: (–2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. a.3 b. b. constant: none a. decreasing: none c. This is represented by ( 40. c. a. –1). increasing: none b. ∞). 28 ) . if t > 60 Since 0 ≤ 40 ≤ 60 . 4. = The function is increasing on the interval (–∞.3 3. This is represented by ( 80.40(t − 60) b. increasing: (−1. decreasing on the interval (–1. ∞) b. ) . ⎧ 20 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩ 20 + 0.40(80 − 60) = 28 With 80 calling minutes. the cost is $28. 149 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –1) b. C (40) = 20 With 40 calling minutes. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 + 2 x 2 − x − 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 Exercise Set 1. 2. decreasing: (−∞. 2.

decreasing: (–4. ∞) b. a. 9. even function 16. − 1) b. 1. x = 0. x = 4. relative minimum = 0 f (− x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = f ( x). increasing: (−∞. a. 0) f ( − x ) = − x 3 + x = −( x 3 − x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). relative maximum = 2 b. odd function a. decreasing: none c. 19. neither 21. even function 14. constant: (−∞. decreasing: (−4. 0) or (2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = x3 − x g ( x) = x 2 + x b.5) or (3. −2) or (0. 22. constant: (−1. a. constant: none g (− x) = x 2 − x. neither 10. −4) or (2. decreasing: (0. increasing: (−∞. 13. decreasing: none c. even function 23. 3. odd function 18. x = −2. x =1. x = 0. constant: (−∞. constant: none 20. x = 1. 4) h( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − ( − x ) 4 b. g ( x) = x 2 − x g ( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − (− x ) g (− x ) = x 2 + x. increasing: (−5. ∞ ) h( − x ) = x 2 − x 4 h(− x) = h( x). 2) or (4. 3. a. 2) h( − x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 c. Inc. h( x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 increasing: none h(− x ) = 2(− x )2 + (− x) 4 b. relative minimum = 3 150 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4) b. decreasing: none f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 − ( − x ) c.5. relative minimum = –1 24. ∞) a. even function 11. relative maximum = 4 f ( x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) 4 + 1 b. x = −3. relative minimum = −6 f (− x) = f ( x). h(− x ) = h( x). a.Functions and Graphs 7. ∞) g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + (− x) c. increasing: (0. constant: (–∞. relative maximum = 30 b. − 2) or (4. h( x ) = x 2 − x 4 increasing: (–2. . a. f ( x) = x 3 + x f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 + (− x ) f ( − x ) = − x 3 − x = −( x 3 + x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). x = −3. relative maximum = 21 f (− x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 b. ∞ ) 12. 8. a. 0) or (1. 3) 17.5) c. −4) or (−2. a. f ( x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 f (− x) = 2(− x) 2 + (− x)4 + 1 15.

The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. a. ( −∞. y-intercept: 1 e. ( 4. f (− x) ≠ − x domain: 2 ( −∞. y-intercept: 4 e. range: c. f (− x) ≠ x . y = −4 j. ∞ ) 151 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. x=4 i. Inc. ( 0. x = −4 and x = 4 l. neither . or ( 0. ∞ ) 5 f (− x) = −(2 x3 − 6 x 5 ) 27. x-intercepts: 1. even function 33. 4 ) g. 4] b. a. odd function 28. f (−2) = 4 k. ( −∞. The function is odd. . 31. f ( x) = f ( x) = 2 x3 − 6 x 5 f (− x) = 2(− x)3 − 6(− x)5 f ( − x ) = −2 x + 6 x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x). domain: neither . ( −∞. The function is neither even nor odd. −2 ) f. 0 ) g. 32. f (− x) ≠ x . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7 d. −4] h. 0 ) h. The function is odd.∞ ) f. ∞ ) ( −∞. The function is even. x-intercepts: –4. f (−3) = 4 k.3 1 6 x − 3x 2 5 1 f (− x) = (− x)6 − 3(− x) 2 5 1 f (− x) = x 6 − 3 x 2 5 f (− x) = f ( x) . The graph is not symmetric with respect to the y-axis or the origin. f (− x) ≠ − x 2 f(–x) = f(x). f (−2) = 4 and f (3) = 2 j. 30. x = −2 and x = 3 i. 26. The graph is symmetric with respect to the y-axis.PreCalculus 4E 25. ∞ ) or [ 4. odd function f ( x) = x 1 − x 2 f (− x) = − x 1 − (− x) f (− x) = − x 1 − x 2 ( = − x 1 − x2 ) f (−x) = x 2 2 c. ( −∞. f ( x ) = x2 1 − x2 f (−x) = (−x) [ −4. Section 1. ( −2. 2 f(–x) = – f(x). even function 29. 1− (−x) 1− x range: l. 4 d.3) or ( 3. f (2) = −2 and f (6) = −2 34. ∞ ) b.

44. 0] a. f(3) = 4(3) + 7 = 19 38. 6] c. b. x =1 j. 3 f (0) = 1 43.3) ( −∞. 3 d. 152 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. a. f(2) is not greater than the function values to the immediate left. 40. f(0) = 7(0) + 3 = 3 c. ( −∞. f (4) = −1 k. f (−1) = +2 36. h(3) = 6 42. g(0) = 0 + 5 = 5 b. g(–6) = –(–6 + 3) = –(–3) = 3 ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. domain: range: ( −∞. 3) i. range: [ 0. ( −3. −3] h. h(5) = 10 zeros of f: –3. f(–2) = 3(–2) + 5 = –1 b.1) f. ( 2. h(0) = 0 2 − 9 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 c. a. x = −5 and x = 5 j. b. h(0) = 02 − 25 −25 = =5 0−5 −5 c. (1. a. f(0) = 4(0) + 7 = 7 c. g(–6) = –(–6 + 5) = –(–1) = 1 c. 4] b. f(4) = 7(4) + 3 = 31 b. a. g(0) = 0 + 3 = 3 f(–3) = 6(–3) – 1 = –19 b. x-intercepts: –3. ( −∞. ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 35. f (0) = 3 e. a. 37. negative. f (1) = 4 i. g. g(–5) = –5 + 5 = 0 41. 2 ) h. −2 ) f. g(–3) = –3 + 3 = 0 e.3] 39.1] d. a. h(5) = 52 − 9 25 − 9 16 = = =8 5−3 2 2 b. 6 ) g. range: c. Inc. a. c. positive. Publishing as Prentice Hall. neither l. . ( −2. a. a. h(7) = 7 2 − 25 49 − 25 24 = = = 12 7 −5 2 2 b. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. no.

0] ∪ {2} 50. Inc. a. ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 51. b. 52. range: ( −∞. ∞) range: {−3. range: [ 0. 47. b. range: (−∞. b. range: a. 4} a. ∞ ) a. range: (−∞. . a. b. 3} a.3 range: {−4. 0] ∪ [3. 0] ∪ {3} a. b. ∞) b.PreCalculus 4E 45. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. 153 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 48. Section 1. b. 46. 49. b. a.

range: [ 0. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 7( x + h) − 7 x = h 7 x + 7h − 7 x = h 7h = h =7 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2( x + h) 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 2( x + 2 xh + h 2 ) − 2 x 2 = h 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 4 xh + 2h = h h ( 4 x + 2h ) = h = 4 x + 2h 154 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 53. 59. 56. a. b. Inc. . b. range: [ −1. a. 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 55. ∞ ) 58. 57. ∞ ) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 3( x + h) + 7 − (3x + 7) = h 3x + 3h + 7 − 3x − 7 = h 3h = h =3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 6( x + h) + 1 − (6 x + 1) = h 6 x + 6h + 1 − 6 x − 1 = h 6h = h =6 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( x + h) 2 − x2 h x + 2 xh + h 2 − x 2 = h 2 2 xh + h = h h ( 2x + h) = h = 2x + h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 4( x + h) − 4 x = h 4 x + 4h − 4 x = h 4h = h =4 2 60.

. 63. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (2 x 2 + x − 1) 2 = f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) − 3 ( x + h ) + 1 − (− x 2 − 3x + 1) 2 = h 2 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h + x + h − 1 − 2 x 2 − x + 1 = h 2 4 xh + 2h + h = h h ( 4 x + 2h + 1) = h = 4 x + 2h + 1 h − x − 2 xh − h − 3 x − 3h + 1 + x 2 + 3x − 1 = h 2 −2 xh − h − 3h = h h ( −2 x − h − 3) = h = −2 x − h − 3 2 2 155 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 62. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) + 4 − (− x 2 + 2 x + 4) 2 = h − x − 2 xh − h + 2 x + 2h + 4 + x 2 − 2 x − 4 = h 2 −2 xh − h + 2h = h h ( −2 x − h + 2 ) = h = −2 x − h + 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 66.3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 4( x + h) + 3 − ( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − 4 x − 4h + 3 − x 2 + 4 x − 3 = h 2 xh + h 2 − 4h = h h(2 x + h − 4) = h = 2x + h − 4 64. Section 1.PreCalculus 4E 61. 3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) + 5 − (3 x 2 + x + 5) 2 = h 3x 2 + 6 xh + 3h 2 + x + h + 5 − 3x 2 − x − 5 = h 6 xh + 3h 2 + h = h h ( 6 x + 3h + 1) = h = 6 x + 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 5( x + h) + 8 − ( x 2 − 5 x + 8) = h 2 2 x + 2 xh + h − 5 x − 5h + 8 − x 2 + 5 x − 8 = h 2 2 xh + h − 5h = h h ( 2 x + h − 5) = h = 2x + h − 5 65.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 73.Functions and Graphs 67. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2 ( x + h ) − ( x + h ) + 3 − (−2 x 2 − x + 3) 2 = h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h − x − h + 3 + 2 x 2 + x − 3 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h − h = h h ( −4 x − 2h − 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h − 1 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − x h x + = h − ( x + h) x + x ( x + h) x ( x + h) = h x−x−h x ( x + h) = h −h x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ x ( x + h) h −1 = x ( x + h) 156 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 6 − 6 0 = = =0 h h h 72. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 7 − 7 0 = = =0 h h h −3 ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + 2 x − 1) 2 = h 2 2 −3x − 6 xh − 3h + 2 x + 2h − 1 + 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = h 2 −6 xh − 3h + 2h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 2 ) = h = −6 x − 3h + 2 69. . Inc. −3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + x − 1) h −3x 2 − 6 xh − 3h 2 + x + h − 1 + 3 x 2 − x + 1 = h −6 xh − 3h 2 + h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 1) = h = −6 x − 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 71. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 70. −2 ( x + h ) + 5 ( x + h ) + 7 − (−2 x 2 + 5 x + 7) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 = 2 = h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + 5 x + 5h + 7 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 7 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + 5h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 5 ) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 5 68.

Section 1.9) − [ f ( −π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 f (−2.3 x+h + x f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x + h −1 − x −1 h = x + h −1 − x −1 x + h −1 + x −1 ⋅ h x + h −1 + x −1 x + h − 1 − ( x − 1) = = = = = h h h ( ( ( x + h −1 + x −1 x + h −1 − x +1 x + h −1 + x −1 h x + h −1 + x −1 ) ) ) 1 x + h −1 + x −1 157 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( −2. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 400 if t > 400 . 30 + 0.9) − [ f (π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f ( −π ) 2 = 1 + 0 − [ −4 ] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ 3 2 = 1 − 16 + ( −1) ⋅ 3 = 1 − 16 − 3 = −18 78.30(t − 200) = 40 + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − 2( x + h) 2 x = h x x+h − 2 x ( x + h) 2 x ( x + h) = h −h 2 x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ 2 x ( x + h) h −1 = 2x ( x + h) 77.3t − 6 80.PreCalculus 4E 74.3t − 60 = 0.5) − f (1. ⎧50 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩50 + 0. f ( −1.9) − [ f (−π )] + f (−3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 = 2 − (−2) − [ 3] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ ( −4 ) 2 = 4 − 9 + ( −1)( −4 ) = 2−9+ 4 = −3 79. Inc. 75. 40 + 0.3t − 20 81.5) − f (1.30(t − 400) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x+h − x h x+h − x x+h + x ⋅ h x+h + x x+h− x = = = = h h ( ( x+h + x h x+h + x ) ) 1 = 76.30(t − 120) = 30 + 0.3t − 36 = 0.5) + f ( −0.

Inc. range: [34. range: [23. 000) = 782. if t > 450 98.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $20. 65).33( x − 160. This maximum is 38%.850) 94. Increasing: (−∞.5) = 0.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $50. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞.25 + 0. 1) or (3.35( x − 349. This model describes percent body fat in women. 107.5 ounces is $0. The percent body fat in men reaches a maximum at age 65.93.000 owes $2608.29.25 + 0.75. which means that the minimum number of doctor visits. f (3. 3.15(20. f (3) = 0. 000 − 31. 38] 88. decreasing: (65. increasing: (25. 92. 000) = 4386. 106. 2) 158 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 89. 75].850) = 8923.76.59. 83. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. 39. 700) 95. 85. The percent body fat in women reaches a maximum at age 55. 93. domain: [25. 75]. domain: [25. 101. 55). Publishing as Prentice Hall. . The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. 86. decreasing: (55. – 105. This model describes percent body fat in men. ⎧60 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩60 + 0.59. 90.50 + 0.148. 75) 100. 91. Increasing: (–2. increasing: (25.76 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3 ounces is $0. occurs at around age 20. 0) or (2.8 ounces is $0. 99. 75) 84. 000 − 7825) = 2608.75.35(t − 450) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 450 97. 87.5 ounces is $0. 108. –2) or (0.25(50.99). This maximum is 26%.000 owes $8923. 3) T (50. about 4. 26] The number of doctor visits decreases during childhood and then increases as you get older. 96. 469.Functions and Graphs 82.75 + 0. ∞) Decreasing: (1. The minimum is (20. Answers may vary.93 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3. T (20.

0) d. ∞) 113.3 b. Sample explanation: It’s possible the graph is not defined at a. 115. Inc. 2) Increasing: (0. does not make sense. Increasing: (–∞. Decreasing: (−∞. ∞) c. a. b. f is odd and g is even: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x ) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) g ( x) f is even and g is odd: f (– x) f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) 159 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. e. 0) Decreasing: (0. 120. f and g are both even: f (– x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) f and g are both odd: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = = h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) h is odd if f is odd and g is even or if f is even and g is odd. 109. − 2) Constant: (–2. 110. makes sense 117.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 0) 119. Increasing: (1. ∞) when n is odd. 111. answers may vary Decreasing: (−∞. makes sense 116. . f ( x ) = x n is increasing from (–∞. ∞) 118. 1) 114. Increasing: (2. answers may vary 112. Explanations will vary. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. h is even if both f and g are even or if both f and g are odd. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. makes sense Increasing: (0.

Functions and Graphs 121. . We can find a second point on the line by using the slope m = 35 = Rise : starting at Run 3 x+2 2 the point (0. 160 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. answers may vary 122. Inc. −1 − (−2) 1 so the slope is –5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. m= 5 − (−2) 7 7 = =− −1 − 4 −5 5 4x − 6 = 0 4x = 6 2. 0). 2 y = −3 x + 4 −3 x + 4 2 or 4. we get the point slope equation: y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − (−1) = −5[ x − (−2)] x = −2 The point is ( 0. y= y=− −6 − (−1) −5 = = −5 . −2 ) . m= −2 − 4 −6 = =6 −4 − (−3) −1 b. to obtain the point (5. y + 5 = 6 x − 12 y = 6 x − 17 3.4 4 −1 3 y2 − y1 = = =3 x2 − x1 −2 − (−3) 1 Check Point Exercises 1. so one point on the line is (1. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 6( x − 2) 3 x= 2 ⎛3 ⎞ The point is ⎜ . 5. ⎝2 ⎠ When x = 0 : 4x − 3y − 6 = 0 The slope m is 3 5 and the y-intercept is 1. 123. Using the point (–2. 4(0) − 3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y = 6 y + 1 = −5( x + 2). –1). move 3 units up and 5 units to the right. 4). 0 ⎟ . y = 3 is a horizontal line. When y = 0 : 4x − 3 y − 6 = 0 4 x − 3(0) − 6 = 0 a. 1). Section 1.Solve the equation for y : y + 1 = −5 x − 10 3x + 2 y − 4 = 0 y = −5 x − 11. 124.

First find the slope.072 y = 0. 1 and the y-intercept is 2. m= −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. Section 1. 3x + 6 y − 12 = 0 6 y = −3 x + 12 −3 12 y= x+ 6 6 1 y = − x+2 2 Exercise Set 1.4 The slope is − 8. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 57.016 x − 5. Any value can be used for y. Inc. m= 4 −1 3 = = 3.6 m= = = ≈ 0. rises 2 − (−2) 4 4.016 x + 52.0 = 61.016( x − 317) y − 57.0 f (600) = 0. falls −1 − (−2) 1 8.64 − 57. m= −2 − 3 −5 = undefined. Change in y 57.968 f ( x) = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. rises 2 − (−1) 3 5. rises 3−2 1 3. . rises 8−4 4 2.016 Change in x 354 − 317 37 Use the point-slope form and then find slopeintercept form.4 All ordered pairs that are solutions of x = −3 have a value of x that is always –3. m= 4−3 1 = . 2 Find the x-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3x − 2(0) − 6 = 0 3x − 6 = 0 3x = 6 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3(0) − 2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y = 6 y = −3 1.6 The temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million would be 61. m= −1 − 4 −5 = = −5. f ( x) = 0.016(600) + 52.04 = 0. falls 4−6 −2 9. m= 2 − (−2) 0 = = 0.016 x + 52. m= 2 −1 1 = .04 0.6°F.04 = 0. vertical 5−5 0 161 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. horizontal 3− 4 −1 6. horizontal 3−4 −1 7. m= −2 − (−4) 2 = = −1.PreCalculus 4E 6. 9. m= 10 − 7 3 = .0 Find the temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million. 7.016 x + 51.

slope-intercept form: y − 2 = 2 x − 2 or y − 10 = 2 x − 10. 4 1 m = −1. 10) . 5 3 m = − . m = 4. y1 = 5. slope-intercept form: y = –5x – 22 17. 3 1 m = . point-slope form: y + 3 = –3(x + 2). slope-intercept form: y = 4x – 1 13. y1 = −2. vertical 3−3 0 10. y1 = −1. m= −1 . x1 = 2 m = − . 1⎞ ⎛ point-slope form: y + 2 = −1⎜ x + ⎟ . y1 = −2. 5 −1 4 point-slope form: y – 2 = 2(x – 1) using ( x1 . point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x − 0). 1 . 4 17 slope-intercept form: y = − x − 4 20. 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = y = 6 x + 17 15. x1 = 6. 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 2 m = 6. 2) . 3 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 3 14. x1 = −2. point-slope form: y – 3 = 4(x – 1). y1 = − . x1 = −4. m= 11. y = −3 x − 9 m = −4. y1 = 5. 3 2 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x + 4 3 2 y = − x+2 3 16. x1 = 4. point-slope form: y – 5 = 6(x + 2). y = 2x 162 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y1 = −2. m = −1. 2 25. point-slope form: y + 1 = 8(x – 4). point-slope form: y + 4 = − ( x − 10). 2⎠ ⎝ 1 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x − 2 5 y = −x − 2 10 − 2 8 = = 2. y1 = −3. slope-intercept form: y = –2x – 3 19. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 2 x − 6 1 = −1( x + 4). y1 = 0. x1 = 0. x1 = 10. y1 = 0. y1 ) = (5. 5 3 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 5 y = −4 x − 16 18. x1 = 1. point-slope form: y – 0 = –4(x + 4). 1 ( x − 0). slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −3 x − 6 23. m = 2. slope-intercept form: y = −4( x + 4) 3 24. m = −5. x1 = −4. x1 = −4. x1 = 0. point-slope form: y + y = 2x −1 21. slope-intercept form: y = 8x – 33 m = −3. point-slope form: y + 3 = –2(x – 0) m = −2. or y – 10 = 2(x – 5) using m= ( x1 . x1 = 0. Inc. y1 = −3. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 6 x + 12 1 22. x1 = 3. point-slope form: y + 2 = –5(x + 4). Publishing as Prentice Hall. y1 = 0. y1 ) = (1. x1 = −2. 12. point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3). y1 = −4. . m = 8. y1 = 3. 3 2 point-slope form: y + 2 = − ( x − 6).Functions and Graphs 5 − (−4) 9 = undefined.

y1 ) = (0. y1 ) = (1. so y = −5 35. y1 ) = (−3. 3 4 y = x+2 3 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = 2−0 2 = =1.PreCalculus 4E 26. y1 ) = (3. 0 − (−2) 2 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . m = 1 − (−2) 3 point-slope form: y + 4 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . or y – 3 = 1(x – 0) using ( x1 . 4 ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . m= 4 −2 − 6 −8 = =− . 4 − (−3) 7 point-slope form: y + 1 = 0(x + 3) using ( x1 . y1 ) = (2. 0 − (−3) 3 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . 4) . y1 ) = (2. − 1) . 3− 0 3 = =1.5 ) . or y − 6 = ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . 27. m= 4 − (−1) 5 = =1. 3 − (−3) 6 3 point-slope form: y + 2 = ( x1 . 0) . slope-intercept form: y + 1 = x + 3or y−4 = x−2 y = x+2 m= 4 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 3 33. y1 ) = (4. −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. y1 ) = ( −2. or y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . − 5) . . ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y − 9 = x − 2. slope-intercept form: y = x + 2 29. or y + 1 = 1(x – 1) using y = −1 34. y1 ) = ( −2. slope-intercept form: y = x + 3 m= 4 + 4 or 3x 4 y − 6 = x − 4. y1 ) = (−3. or y + 2 = − ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . − 2) . − 5 ) . y1 ) = (−2.so −1 − (−4) 3 = =1. slope-intercept form: y + 5 = 0. 6 ) . or y – 2 = 1(x – 0) using m= 32. − 4 ) . y1 ) = (−3. 2 ) . 0 − 4 −4 = = 1. − 1) slope-intercept form: y = x – 2 −5 − (−5) 0 = =0.15) . or y = x+2 163 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or y + 1 = 0(x – 4) using m= ( x1 . 8−3 5 point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3) using ( x1 . 4) . y1 ) = ( 8. y1 ) = ( 3. slope-intercept form: y = 2x – 1 28. Inc. slope-intercept form: y + 1 = 0. y1 ) = (−3. 6) . y1 ) = ( 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 15 − 5 10 = =2. − 2 ) . 3) . ( x1 . or y + 5 = 0(x – 6) using m= ( x1 . y1 ) = ( 0. y1 ) = ( −2. 2 − (−3) 5 point-slope form: y + 1 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . − 1) . Section 1.or y – 15 = 2(x – 8) using m= 31. 0 ) . −2 − 2 −4 point-slope form: y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . 30. 0) . y1 ) = ( −3. 3 − (−3) 6 3 4 point-slope form: y − 6 = − ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . 6 − (−2) 8 point-slope form: y + 5 = 0(x + 2) using ( x1 . 6 − (−2) 8 4 = = . or y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using m= ( x1 . y1 ) = ( 3. − 1) .

y1 ) = ( 0. or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) slope-intercept form: y = 8 x + 4 38. .0 ) . 4) . 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x − 2 2 or y + 2 = 39. − 3) . 1 ( x − 4) using 2 1 ( x − 0) using ( x1 . m = –3. − 2 ) . y1 ) = ( 4. 0 − ( − 12 ) 12 point-slope form: y – 4 = 8(x – 0) using ( x1 . 3 3 slope-intercept form: y + 3 = − x + . or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) using ( x1 . y1 ) = ( −1. m = 3. 0 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. b = −3 4 −2 − 0 −2 1 = = . m = –2. m= 0 − (−3) 3 3 = =− −1 − 1 −2 2 41.Functions and Graphs 36. 3 m = . m= 42. y1 ) = (0. m= 43. or 2 2 3 3 y = − x− 2 2 37. 3 m = . m = 2. b = 1 3 point-slope form: y + 3 = − ( x − 1) using 2 3 ( x1 . 0 − 4 −4 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x1 . b = 2 4−0 4 = =8. b = 2 164 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b = 1 40. y1 ) = (1. 0 ) . Inc. y1 ) = ( − 12 . or y − 0 = − ( x + 1) using 2 ( x1 . b = –2 4 44.

2 m=− .b=6 5 51.b=0 3 54. 52.b=0 2 53. 46.PreCalculus 4E 45. 1 m=− . 1 m=− . . b=7 5 49. 47. 50. 55.4 3 m=− . 165 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 48. Section 1.

b = –2 3 c. 3x + y − 5 = 0 y − 5 = −3 x y = −3 x + 5 4 x + 6 y + 12 = 0 4 x + 12 = −6 y −6 y = 4 x + 12 4 12 y= x+ −6 −6 2 y = − x−2 3 m = –3. . 58. a. b=6 3 c. c. 3x + 12 = 0 3x = −12 x = −4 59. Inc. b. 4x + y − 6 = 0 y − 6 = −4 x y = −4 x + 6 m = −4. 60. b = 5 c. 2 m=− . b = 6 166 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 62. 2 m = − . a. a. 57. b. b. 2 x + 3 y − 18 = 0 2 x − 18 = −3 y −3 y = 2 x − 18 2 18 y= x− −3 −3 2 y = − x+6 3 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs 56. a. 3x − 18 = 0 3x = 18 x=6 61.

b = −4 5 c. 6 m = .PreCalculus 4E 63. 6 x − 2(0) − 12 = 0 6 x − 12 = 0 6 x = 12 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 6(0) − 2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y = 12 y = −6 6 x − 5 y − 20 = 0 6 x − 20 = 5 y 5 y = 6 x − 20 6 20 y = x− 5 5 6 y = x−4 5 b. 65. 67. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b = 3 c. . m = 0. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 64. a.4 8 x − 4 y − 12 = 0 8 x − 12 = 4 y 4 y = 8 x − 12 8 12 y = x− 4 4 y = 2x − 3 66. b = −7 c. Section 1. a. a. m = 2. 3y − 9 = 0 3y = 9 y=3 b. Inc. a. 167 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. b = –3 c. m = 0. 4 y + 28 = 0 4 y = −28 y = −7 b.

Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Find the x-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 6 x − 9(0) − 18 = 0 6 x − 18 = 0 6 x = 18 x=3 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 6(0) − 9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y = 18 y = −2 3x + 5(0) + 15 = 0 3x + 15 = 0 3x = −15 x = −5 Find the y-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 3(0) + 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y = −15 y = −3 69. . Find the x-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8 x − 2(0) + 12 = 0 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x + 3(0) + 6 = 0 2x + 6 = 0 2 x = −6 x = −3 Find the y-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 2(0) + 3 y + 6 = 0 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −6 y = −2 8 x = −12 8 x −12 = 8 8 −3 x= 2 Find the y-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8(0) − 2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y = −12 y = −6 168 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Find the x-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 71.Functions and Graphs 68. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 70.

4− y 1− 3 4− y −3 = −2 6 = 4− y 2 = −y −2 = y 80. b Therefore. Therefore. the line rises. m= −3 = = f ( x) = 3 3 x− 4 2 (a + c) − c a = a − (a − b) b Since a and b are both positive. (b + c ) − b 81. the line falls. − b is a negative. the line falls. 75. m= 0 − a −a a = =− b−0 b b Since a and b are both positive. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 76. m= 6 = −12 − 3 y 18 = −3 y −6 = y −b − 0 −b b = =− a 0 − ( −a ) a Since a and b are both positive. . a is positive. Ax + By = C By = − Ax + C A C y = − x+ B B A C The slope is − and the y − intercept is . The line is vertical. −4 − y 1 = 3 4 − ( −2 ) 6 x − 3(0) + 15 = 0 6 x + 15 = 0 6 x = −15 6 x −15 = 6 6 5 x=− 2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 6(0) − 3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y = −15 y=5 73.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 169 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 72. − 1 −4 − y = 3 4+2 1 −4 − y = 3 6 6 = 3 ( −4 − y ) a is b negative. B B 79. Ax = By − C Ax + C = By A C x+ = y B B A C The slope is and the y − intercept is . B B 78. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 77. Inc. m= 3x − 4 f ( x ) = 6 −4 f ( x ) = −3 x + 6 c 0 a−a The slope is undefined. Therefore. 74.

9 ) and (10.Functions and Graphs 82.78 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form. find the slope using ( 20.215(60) + 65. f ( 40 ) = 0. 3 ( 2) + b 2 −6 = −3 + b −6 = − 85.3 y − 31. b2 .215 Change in x 40 − 20 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= E ( x) = 0.65 x − 6.7 f ( x ) = 0.3 c.78 x + 23.215 x + 65.78 x − 7.0 = 0.215 x + 65.215( x − 20) y − 38.3 = 54.7 = 61. Inc.7 − 45. Using the slope-intercept form for the equation of a line: −1 = −2 ( 3) + b y = 0.3 − 70. 38. b4 . a. y − 45. f ( x ) = 0.2 = 0. y − 31. a.7 y − 31.45 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American males.6 The life expectancy of American men born in 2020 is expected to be 78.78 ( x − 10 ) or y − 70.7 ) and 51. to be 54.1 = 0.65(35) + 38. m2 .2 6. Change in y 74.3 c.2 = 0. 45.215 x − 4. (10.65 ( x − 10 ) or y − 51.9 = 0. .7 = 0.1 7. ages 25 – 29.5 = = 0. y − 45.1 = 0.65 ( x − 20 ) b.7 E (60) = 0.1 = 0.0 = 0.5% in 2020. −5 f ( x ) = −6 x + 20 f ( x) = First.45% in 2015.65 x + 38.78(40) + 23.78 x + 23. m1 .51.2 = 0.8 = = 0.78 ( x − 10 ) y = 0. b1 .9 − 31. First.6.31. 6 x − 5 f ( x ) = 20 88. b3 87.5 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American females. m4 86.2 ) . ages 25 – 29. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 6 x−4 5 m= y − 45. c.7 E ( x) = 0. −3 = b 89.65 x + 38.8 y = 0. find the slope using ( 20. 170 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.65 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form. to be 61. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) m= b.65 ( x − 10 ) a.38. m3 .0 = = 0.7 −1 = −6 + b 5=b 84. f ( 35 ) = 0.5 83.7 = 78.215 x + 65.78 ( x − 20 ) b.1) . y − 70.

Two points are (0. Answers may vary.17 Change in x 40 − 10 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 74. 230) (60. 5. 102.4 60 − 10 50 y − 230 = −2.4) and (10. Enter data from table. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −10 − (−5) −5 1 m= = =− .4 x + 24 y = −2. −24 − 6 −30 m= = = −3.5 3 m= = = 0.7 = 0.17 x + 73 E ( x) = 0. a. 92.75 or . b.PreCalculus 4E 90. 91.7 − 74.5633751 r = −0. 10 − 0 10 Check: y = mx + b : y = −3x + 6 . a = −22. (10.17 x − 1. 6) and (10. Two points are (0. .5 − (−2) 7.8428126855 d. 110) Points may vary. a.24). 10 − 0 10 2 Change in y 79. –2) and (10.17( x − 10) y − 74. Two points are (0. –24).5).7 y = 0. Section 1.–10).17 x + 73 c. 4 E ( x) = 0.7 = ≈ 0. 10 − 0 10 4 3 Check: y = mx + b : y = x − 2 . Two points are (0.–5) and (10. Inc.2. 171 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 101. 24 − 4 20 m= = = 2.7 = 0. – 99. 5. 103. 100.4 x + 254 Answers may vary for predictions.2 The life expectancy of American women born in 2020 is expected to be 83. 104.4( x − 10) y − 230 = −2.96876741 b = 260.17 x + 73 E (60) = 0. b. 10 − 0 10 c. 110 − 230 120 m= =− = −2.17(60) + 73 = 83.

2 We can put this equation in the form ax + by = c to find the missing coefficients. Since the slope is the negative reciprocal of − . Changes to make the statement true will vary. Equations of this form have undefined slope and cannot be written in slope-intercept form. Publishing as Prentice Hall. E) where M is degrees Madonna and E is degrees Elvis. 1 x − 6. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 4 ( x − 3) y + 5 = 4 x − 12 −4 x + y + 17 = 0 3 ( −2 x + y ) = 3 ( 4 ) −6 x + 3 y = 12 Therefore. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − ( −3 ) ) y − 1 = 2 ( x + 3) y − 0 = 2 ( x − ( −2 ) ) y − 1 = 2x + 6 y = 2 ( x + 2) y = 2x + 7 y = 2x + 4 −2 x + y = 4 Find the x– and y–coefficients for the equation of the line with right-hand-side equal to 12. We are given that the y − intercept is − 6 and the 105. makes sense 109. this function has a positive slope. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) Using the slope and one of the intercepts. Let (25. false. then m = 2. Explanations will vary. Multiply both sides of −2 x + y = 4 by 3 to obtain 12 on the righthand-side. Answers may vary. We can use the points ( −2. slope is 106. A sample change is: It is possible for m to equal b. 110.4 (M – 25) or E = 2. 115. Then 280 − 40 240 m= = = 2. Changes to make the statement true will vary. we can write the line in point-slope form. x − 2 y = 12 Therefore. 4 then m = 4.4 . 40) and (125. Using ( x1 . the coefficient of x is 1 and the coefficient of y is −2. 0 ) and ( 0. We are given that the x − intercept is −2 and the y − intercept is 4 . . A sample change is: Slope-intercept form is y = mx + b .Functions and Graphs 114. Sample explanation: Since college cost are going up. Answers may vary. A sample change is: The graph of x = 7 is a vertical line through the point (7. false. 116. 4 x − y − 17 = 0 172 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: The slope of line’s whose equations are in this form can be determined in several ways. 4−0 4 4 = = =2 0 − ( −2 ) 0 + 2 2 118. the coefficient of x is –6 and the coefficient of y is 3. Vertical lines have equations of the form x = a . Explanations will vary. Inc. 1 y = x−6 2 1 y − x = −6 2 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ y − x ⎟ = 2 ( −6 ) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 y − x = −12 So the equation of the line is y = 107. 40 ) . 125 − 25 100 point-slope form tells us that E – 40 = 2. 0). does not make sense. Explanations will vary. One such way is to rewrite the equation in slope-intercept form. 280) be ordered pairs (M. false. 2 to find the slope. Sample explanation: Linear functions never change from increasing to decreasing. does not make sense. y1 ) = ( 25. 4 ) m= 1 . 113. 117. Since the slope is the same as the slope of y = 2 x + 1. −2 x + y = 4 1 119. does not make sense. true 112.4 M – 20. 111. 108.

2 ) .05 − 0. m= y − 2 = 2x − 8 y = 2x − 6 In function notation. Inc. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form.03 = = = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0 3.5) = 4(1.25 million each year. a. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Δs 16 − 4 = = 12 feet per second Δt 2 −1 y − 5 = 3 ( x − (−2) ) y − 5 = 3( x + 2) point-slope y − 5 = 3x + 6 b.25 Change in x 2005 − 1990 15 The slope indicates that the number of U. –6) to write the equation. The slope of this line is − b.01 − 1 1 thus the slope of 3 any line perpendicular to this line is 3. .5 Check Point Exercises 1. 5. The slope of the line y = 3 x + 1 is 3. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Exercise Set 1. We are given that it passes through ( 4.01)2 = 4.0804 Δs 4.01 x2 − x1 3 −1 3 −1 6.7 = = ≈ 0.5 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (1) = 4 −1 x2 − x1 4. we know it will have slope m = 2.01) = 4(1.7 − 9. Write the equation in slope-intercept form: x + 3 y − 12 = 0 3 y = − x + 12 1 y = − x+4 3 s (1.5)2 = 9 Δs 9 − 4 = = 10 feet per second Δt 1.S. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 03 − (−2)3 8 = = =4 x2 − x1 0 − (−2) 2 = Section 1. Section 1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 23 − 13 8 − 1 = = =7 x2 − x1 2 −1 1 c. y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) 3x − y = 0 general form 3. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (3) − f (1) 0. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y + 6 = 3( x + 2) y + 6 = 3x + 6 −3 x + y = 0 y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form.PreCalculus 4E 120. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 y = 3x + 11 slope-intercept 2. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (2) = 4(2)2 = 16 Change in y 12. Use m = 3 and the point (–2. the equation of the line is f ( x ) = 2 x − 6.5 − 1 c. 42 − 12 4 −1 15 = 3 =5 a.04 feet per second Δt 1.0804 − 4 = = 8. 173 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. y − (−6) = 3 ( x − (−2) ) Since L is parallel to y = 2 x. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 13 − 03 = =1 x2 − x1 1− 0 b.5 1. men living alone is projected to increase by 0. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (1.

y − 4 = −2 x + 6 y = −2 x + 10 f ( x ) = −2 x + 10 3. 4). 4. L will have slope m = −2 . y1 = 2 . . x1 = −8. x1 = −2. 3 1 L will have slope m = . 2). the equation of the line is 1 f ( x ) = − x + 5. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − 2) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. 1 1 y−2 = x+ 2 2 1 1 y = x+ +2 2 2 1 5 y = x+ 2 2 1 5 f ( x) = x + 2 2 2x − 3y − 7 = 0 −3 y = −2 x + 7 2 7 y = x− 3 3 The slope of the given line is 2 2 . 1 y − 4 = − ( x − 2) 2 1 y − 4 = − x +1 2 1 y = − x+5 2 In function notation. m = –5 since the line is parallel to y = −5 x + 4 . y1 = −3. point-slope form: y + 7 = –5(x + 2) slope-intercept form: y + 7 = −5 x − 10 y = −5 x − 17 7. m = –5 since the line is perpendicular to 1 y = x + 6. Inc. point-slope form: y − 2 = −3( x + 4) slope-intercept form: y − 2 = −3x − 12 y = −3x − 10 9. y1 = −10. The line passes through (– 2 1. 2 ( x + 2) 3 general form: 2 x − 3 y + 10 = 0 point-slope form: y − 2 = 10. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. m = −3 since the line is perpendicular to y = Since L is perpendicular to y = 2 x. Use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. y1 = −7 . we have y − 4 = −2 ( x − 3) .Functions and Graphs 2. 2 y−4 = − x1 = −4. 3 ( x + 1) 2 general form: 3 x − 2 y + 9 = 0 point-slope form: y − 3 = 174 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so m = since the 2 2 lines are parallel. 5 point-slope form: y + 3 = –5(x – 2) slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −5 x + 10 y = −5 x + 7 8. Using the point and the slope. 3x − 2 y − = 0 −2 y = −3x + 5 3 5 y = x− 2 2 The slope of the given line is 3 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. we know it will 1 have slope m = − . 1 y − 2 = ( x − ( −1) ) 2 1 y − 2 = ( x + 1) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. 1 x+7. Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. x1 = 2. so m = since the 3 3 lines are parallel. point-slope form: y + 10 = –4(x + 8) slope-intercept form: y + 10 = –4x – 32 y = –4x – 42 6. m = –4 since the line is parallel to y = −4 x + 3. We are given that it passes 2 through (2. 5.

601 − 90 = = 60. The graph of f passes through ( −2. y + 7 = –2 ( x − 4 ) point-slope form: c.06 Δs 90.5) = 10(3. The graph of f passes through ( −1.5 ) .7212 − 108 = = 72. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.601 Δs 90. c.1 feet per second 3.001 − 3 Δt 21.7212 Δs 108.06 − 90 = = 60. Inc. so m = –2 since the 2 lines are perpendicular. so m = 7 since the 7 lines are perpendicular. so the equation of 175 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 − 2 Δt 52 + 2 ⋅ 5 − (32 + 2 ⋅ 3) 25 + 10 − (9 + 6) = 5−3 2 20 = 2 = 10 2 s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3. we know the graph of f is a horizontal s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (4) = 10(4)2 = 160 line with 0 slope. Since the line is perpendicular to x = −4 which is a vertical line. a. 16 − 9 4 − 3 1 = = 16 − 9 7 7 19. we know the graph of f is a horizontal line with 0 slope.PreCalculus 4E 11. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3.5 x − 2y − 3 = 0 −2 y = − x + 3 1 3 y = x− 2 2 b. 15 − 0 15 = =3 5−0 5 14. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3. a.001)2 = 90. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (4) = 12(4)2 = 192 Δs 108 − 192 = = 84 feet per second 4−3 Δt b. f is f ( x ) = 6.01 − 3 Δt 2 17.001) = 10(3.001)2 = 108.01)2 = 90.5 − 3 1 . 6 ) .5)2 = 122.01) = 12(3.07201 − 108 = = 72.01) = 10(3.5 − 90 = = 65 feet per second Δt 3.5)2 = 147 Δs 147 − 108 = = 78 feet per second 3.07201 Δs 108. 20. Since the line is perpendicular to x = 6 which is a vertical line.01 − 3 Δt d.01 feet per second 3. 24 − 0 24 = =6 4−0 4 15. The slope of the given line is Δs 122.001) = 12(3.5 d.5) = 12(3. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 general form: 2 x + y − 1 = 0 12.12 feet per second 3.01 feet per second 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 22. . Section 1. 6 − 2 ( 6 ) − (3 − 2 ⋅ 3) 36 − 12 − ( 9 − 6 ) 21 = = =7 6−3 3 3 9 − 4 3−2 1 = = 9−4 5 5 18. 16. x + 7 y − 12 = 0 7 y = − x + 12 −1 12 y= x+ 7 7 s (3. so the equation of Δs 160 − 90 = = 70 feet per second 4−3 Δt f is f ( x ) = 5.001 − 3 Δt 1 The slope of the given line is − .01)2 = 108. point-slope form: y + 9 = 7(x – 5) general form: 7 x − y − 44 = 0 13.

m= −9 − 0 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. m= −4 − 0 −4 = =2 0 − 2 −2 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. 6 ) and the slope − 1 to find the equation of the line. it will have slope m = − . 3 Use the point ( −5. −9 ) .Functions and Graphs 23. 4 ) and the slope − to find the equation of the line. 2 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −6 ) ) 2 1 y − 4 = − ( x + 6) 2 1 y −4 = − x−3 2 1 y = − x +1 2 1 f ( x) = − x +1 2 y−4 = − 24. 0 ) and ( 0. This line will pass through ( 2. This line will pass through ( 3. . 0 ) and ( 0. it will have slope m = − . −4 ) . First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 3 and y − intercept of −9. 2 1 Use the point ( −6. 3 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −5) ) 3 1 y − 6 = − ( x + 5) 3 1 5 y−6 = − x− 3 3 1 13 y =− x+ 3 3 1 13 f ( x) = − x + 3 3 y−6 = − 176 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. We use these points to find the slope. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 2 and y − intercept of −4. We use these points to find the slope.

3 26. f ( x) = 1. Inc.1(12)3 − 35(12) 2 + 264(12) + 557 = 585. a. First put the equation 3 x − 2 y − 4 = 0 in slope-intercept form. 30.4 − 557 m= ≈ 142 4−0 b.8 585. f ( x) = 1.3 x + 23 29. 1163 − 617 546 = ≈ 137 1998 − 1994 4 There was an average increase of approximately 137 discharges per year. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 2.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. This underestimates the decrease by 36 discharges per year.1(7)3 − 35(7) 2 + 264(7) + 557 = 1067. 177 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 f (12) = 1. This overestimates by 5 discharges per year. m= a. 31. 1 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 6. P( x) = −1.1(4)3 − 35(4)2 + 264(4) + 557 = 1123. 3x − 2 y − 4 = 0 −2 y = −3 x + 4 y= 3 x−2 2 The equation of f will have slope − 2 since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 3 y − intercept −2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.3 m= ≈ −96 12 − 7 b.5 25.2 x + 47 28. . 4x − y − 6 = 0 − y = −4 x + 6 y = 4x − 6 1 The equation of f will have slope − since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 4 y − intercept −6.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. First put the equation 4 x − y − 6 = 0 in slope-intercept form. 4 27.4 1123. 32.1(0)3 − 35(0)2 + 264(0) + 557 = 557 f (4) = 1.8 − 1067. m= 612 − 1273 −661 = ≈ −132 2006 − 2001 5 There was an average decrease of approximately 132 discharges per year. P( x) = 1.

The lines do not appear to be perpendicular. In part (b). 1 x +1 3 y = −3x − 2 y= a.Functions and Graphs 33. Write Ax + By + C = 0 in slope-intercept form. The zoom square feature compensates for this and in part (c). . A 178 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Explanations will vary. makes sense 41. 43. This is verified because product of their slopes is –1. Ax + By + C = 0 By = − Ax − C By − Ax C = − B B B A C y = − x− B B The slope of the given line is − A . makes sense 42. does not make sense. 39. Inc. Sample explanation: Slopes can be used for segments of the graph. – 38. The lines appear to be perpendicular. b. This causes the scale of the x–axis to differ from the scale on the y–axis despite using the same scale in the window settings. The lines are perpendicular because their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. makes sense 44. the lines appear to be perpendicular. The calculator screen is rectangular and does not have the same width and height. c. 40. B The slope of any line perpendicular to Ax + By + C = 0 is B . this causes the lines not to appear perpendicular when indeed they are.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7 7 7 has slope m = 46. This line is perpendicular to the line above so its 3 3 3 slope is . 3. The domain is {x | −3 < x ≤ 4}. 4. b. Therefore. 47. The relation is not a function. The domain is {0. a. 2. 2. b.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 45. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted down 4 units. The range is { y | 0 ≤ y ≤ 3}. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) reflected across the y-axis. a. c. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted to the right 2 units. The range is {1. a. Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 1. Ax + y − 2 = 0 y = − Ax + 2 So the slope of this line is − A. −3) and ( −2.3}. − A = so A = − . 2}. 4 ) b. c. 48. The range is { y | −1 ≤ y ≤ 2}. The relation is a function. The range is {−6. c. The relation is not a function. 179 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The domain is {x | −2 ≤ x < 2}. The slope of the line containing (1. 4. . 6}. 4 − ( −3 ) 4+3 7 7 = = =− −2 − 1 −3 −3 3 Solve Ax + y − 2 = 0 for y to obtain slope-intercept form. 4}. The relation is a function. The domain is {1. Inc.

f (−2) = 4 18. 23. The relation is a function. −1. ∞) 29. y-intercept: 3 14. ( −∞. –2) 15. so the equation defines y as a function of x. 0. 7. 10. The domain is {−2. 16. 9. x2 + y = 5 24. ∞ ) 28. 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2}. The range is { y | y ≥ −1}. 30. . The domain is {x | x ≤ 1}. 6. The range is {−2. f (−7) = −2 and f (3) = −2 20. f (−4) = 3 19.Functions and Graphs 5.3}. The relation is not a function. y = − x2 + 5 For each value of x. f (−6) = 0 and f (2) = 0 21. if x = 4.1. x = −2 17. there is one and only one value for y. 4] 12. x + y2 = 5 y2 = 5 − x y = ± 5− x Since there are values of x that give more than one value for y (for example. Domain: 11. Range: ( −∞. ( −6. neither. increasing: (–∞.1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (−4) −5 − 3 = = = −1 4 − (−4) 4+4 x2 − x1 25. 26. 27. 2 ) 22. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x 180 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x-intercepts: –6 and 2 13. Each value of x corresponds to exactly one value of y. then y = ± 5 − 4 = ±1 ). decreasing: (–2. −1. Inc. f (100) is negative. the equation does not define y as a function of x.

f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x b. 5 y = 20 y=4 32. 34. 5 y = −3 x 3 y=− x 5 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) − 5 − (−2 x 2 + x − 5) = h 2 2 −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h − 5 + 2 x 2 − x + 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 181 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 31. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 36. 33. 37. .PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 35. a. f (− x) = −2(− x) 2 − x − 5 = −2 x 2 − x − 5 neither.

m1 = Change in y 0 − (−4) 4 = = Change in x 7−2 5 Change in y 6−2 4 = = Change in x 1 − (−4) 5 The slope of the lines are equal thus the lines are parallel.40(t − 200) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 200 42. the percentage of patients with depression in remission increased by 0. The rate of change is 0.Functions and Graphs 38. Change in y 42 − 26 16 = = = 0. C (150) = 30 b. so m = 3. 2 . if ⎧30 C ( x) = ⎨ ⎩30 + 0. 39. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = −2 x + 10 43. Inc.40(250 − 200) = 50 −5 y −2 x 10 = + −5 −5 −5 2 y = x−2 5 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) The slope of the given line is y − 3 = −2 ( x − (−4) ) m= 5 ( x − (−4) ) 2 5 y + 3 = − x − 10 2 5 y = − x − 13 2 5 f ( x) = − x − 13 2 y − (−3) = − Change in y 1 − (−5) 6 = = =2 Change in x 2 − (−1) 3 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − 2) y − 1 = 2x − 4 y = 2x − 3 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 41. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (2) − f (−1) = x2 − x1 2 − (−1) = ( 3(2) 2 − 2 ) − ( 3(−1) 2 − (−1) ) =2 182 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m= b.16%. 3x − y − 5 = 0 − y = −3 x + 5 m2 = y = 3x − 5 The slope of the given line is 3. and the lines are parallel.16 Change in x 180 − 80 100 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44. and the lines are 5 5 perpendicular. y − (−4) = 3( x − 3) y + 4 = 3x − 9 y = 3 x − 13 f ( x) = 3 x − 13 45. 2 +1 . C (250) = 30 + 0. For each minute of brisk walking. t > 200 a. 2 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 3 = −2( x + 4) y − 3 = −2 x − 8 y = −2 x − 5 f ( x ) = −2 x − 5 40. so m = − .16% per minute of brisk walking.

Shift up vertically 3 units. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Horizontally shrink the graph of y = f ( x ) . 2. 3. 6. a. 7.6 Check Point Exercises 1. Horizontally stretch the graph of y = f ( x ) . then 3 shifted down 2 units. by a factor of 5. shrunk 1 . 183 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Shift to the right 1 unit and down 2 units. 8. reflected about the x-axis. The graph of y = f ( x ) is shifted 1 unit left. Reflect about the x-axis. Inc. 4. Reflect about the y-axis. b. Shift to the right 4 units.6 Section 1. .

6 1. The graph of f ( x) = x 2 is shifted 1 unit right. Exercise Set 1. 8. then shifted up 3 units. stretched by a factor of 2. 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs 9. 2. Inc. . 5. 184 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7. 3. 4. 9.

13. 185 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 10. 19. 17.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 16. Inc. 14. . 18. 11. 15.

Inc. 28. 26. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 29. 27. 22. 23. 24. 25. 21. 186 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .Functions and Graphs 20. 30.

32. 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 38.6 31. 33. 39. 37. 35. 40. 34. Inc. 187 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

43. . 45. 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 42. 44. Inc. 50. 47. 188 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 49.Functions and Graphs 41. 46.

6 51. 55. Inc. 53. 57. 61. 60. 54. 62. 56. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 59. 52. .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 58. 189 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

67. 64. 72.Functions and Graphs 63. . Inc. 73. 68. 74. 70. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 66. 65. 69. 71. 190 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

77.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 84. 83. 76. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.6 81. 191 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 86. 79. 82. . 75. 85. 80. 78.

88. . 98. 92. Inc. 91. 192 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 87. 94. 89. 96. 90. 97. 95. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs 93.

6 99. 103. 104. 107. 102. 193 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 101. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 105.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 110. . 100. 108. 106. 109.

y = ( x + 1) 2 − 4 126. y = x − 2 124. 113. 122. 115. y = x − 2 + 1 194 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 121. 118. y = − x 3 + 2 117. 114. 120. 116. 119. 112. 125.Functions and Graphs 111. 123.

9 0. ( 3.1 ) ( 60 + 19 − 3. Answers may vary. First.2 The model describes the actual data very well.1 ≈ 40.1 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 10 − 0 28. b.6 First.0 inches per month f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = d. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference. 60 − 50 42.5633 − 40.1 50 + 19 ) 60 − 50 43.9 50 + 20. 128. – 134.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c).9 0 + 20.1. a.5 The model describes the actual data very well. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference.1 10 + 19) − ( 3. 0 + 19 ) f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 3.9. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 135. 195 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a.1 units.27 − 20. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 2.1 = 10 ≈ 0.0 1. then shift the result up 20.1 x + 19 f (48) = 3. a. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 3.1 f (48) = 2. c.8031 − 19 = 10 ≈ 1.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c).1 − 2. ) 60 + 20. f ( x) = 3.PreCalculus 4E 127.9 inches per month = f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 2. = f ( x) = 2. = = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 ( 2.1 129.6061 = 10 ≈ 0. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 − 2.9 x + 20. c.9 ) ( = b. .9 ) ( ) d.1 10 − 0 29. 10 + 20. b.0125 − 40.9203 = 10 ≈ 0. then shift the result up 19 units.1 48 + 19 ≈ 40.9 48 + 20. Section 1.

Inc. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary.7 141. domain of g = ( −∞. ( f ( x) ) 2 − 2 f ( x ) + 6 = ( 3x − 4 ) − 2(3 x − 4) + 6 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 − 6 x + 8 + 6 137. The function f ( x) = x 2 + 3x − 17 contains neither division nor an even root. Explanations will vary. A sample change is: The stretch will be 5 units and the downward shift will be 10 units. Changes to make the statement true will vary. (2 x − 1)( x 2 + x − 2) = 2 x( x 2 + x − 2) − 1( x 2 + x − 2) b. (a. b) 136. (–a. g ( x) = – x – 5 + 1 interval [3. = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − x 2 − x + 2 = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x 2 − 4 x − x + 2 = 2 x3 + x 2 − 5 x + 2 154. the quantity under the radical must be greater than or equal to 0. 2b) 151. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 30 x + 30 139. g ( x) = − x − 2 + 2 2. 2x 2x = 3x − x 3− x x Check Point Exercises 142. while the graph a. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t + 1). b – 3) 153. The denominator equals zero when x = 7 or x = –7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 1. (a. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. c. ∞ ) . . makes sense = 9 x 2 − 24 x − 6 x + 16 + 8 + 6 138. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 5 + ( x 2 − 1) 1 148. A sample change is: The graph of g is a translation of f three units to the left and three units upward. 155.Functions and Graphs 149. 1. Changes to make the statement true will vary. g ( x) = −( x + 4)2 146. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t − 1). ∞ ) . false. 150. or the of g is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the yaxis. 143. 9 x − 27 ≥ 0 9 x ≥ 27 x≥3 Thus. Since h( x) = 9 x − 27 contains an even root. (a + 3. 2 = 3 −1 x 140. the domain of h is {x x ≥ 3} . 144. The domain of f is the set of all real numbers or ( −∞. false. ∞ ) . a. b. 147. does not make sense. g ( x) = − 16 – x 2 − 1 4 = x − 5 + x2 − 1 = − x2 + x − 6 196 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. false. b) 152. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. true 145. These values must be excluded from the domain. A sample change is: The graph of f is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the x-axis. a.

∞ ) g ) (−1) = 10(−1) 2 − 5(−1) + 1 = 10 + 5 + 1 = 16 197 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The function contains neither division nor an even root. ∞ ) 3. The domain = ( −∞. 4 4x = 1 1 + 2x +2 x a. 5 ) ∪ ( 5. (g f ) ( x) = g ( f ( x) ) = 2 (5 x + 6 ) − ( 5x + 6 ) − 1 2 = 2(25 x 2 + 60 x + 36) − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 120 x + 72 − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 115 x + 65 c. ( fg )( x ) = ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 − 1) = x ( x 2 − 1) − 5 ( x 2 − 1) 6. Section 1. 3. ∞ ) 8.10 ) ∪ (10. 1. = x − 5 − ( x − 1) g )( x) = (f b. domain: ( −∞. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. x ≠ ±1 = 2 x −1 4. ∞ ) . ∞) The domain of f + g is the set of all real numbers that are common to the domain of f and the domain of g. domain: ( −∞. Thus. Exercise Set 1. 5. Inc. ∞ ) 6. The domain = ( −∞. The function contains neither division nor an even root. domain: ( −∞. a. ∞ ) 2. The function contains neither division nor an even root. . a. domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞). 4 ) ∪ ( 4. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. ∞ ) 7. The denominator equals zero when x = 4. 2 h ( x ) = f g where f ( x) = x .9 ) ∪ ( 9. The function contains neither division nor an even root. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 3 + x +1 b. The denominator equals zero when x = −5. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 [3. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. 1⎫ ⎧ domain: ⎨ x x ≠ 0. ∞ ) 9. (f (f g ) ( x) = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 10.3) ∪ ( 3. domain: ( −∞.7 ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5. The domain = ( −∞. −3) ∪ ( −3.PreCalculus 4E b. This value must be excluded from the domain.7 ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = ( x) g g ⎝ ⎠ x −5 . −7 ) ∪ ( −7. The domain = ( −∞. ∞ ) . −4 ) ∪ ( −4. −8) ∪ ( −8. g ( x) = x 2 + 5 = x3 − x − 5 x 2 + 5 = x3 − 5 x 2 − x + 5 d. domain of f: (f ( g ) ( x) = f ( g ( x ) ) ) = 5 2 x2 − x − 1 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x − 5 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 b. This value must be excluded from the domain. the domain of f + g is [3. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. ∞) domain of g: x +1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −1 [−1. domain: ( −∞. x ≠ − ⎬ 2⎭ ⎩ = x − 5 − x2 + 1 = − x2 + x − 4 c. 4.

−2 ) ∪ ( −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. ∞ ) x= 17. x −1 = 0 11. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ x=4 domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 4 −2 = 0 x −1 4 ⎞ − 2 ⎟ = ( x − 1)( 0 ) ( x − 1) ⎛⎜ ⎝ x −1 ⎠ 13.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) 198 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) ∪ ( −1. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. x −1 Exclude x for 12. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. The first denominator cannot equal zero. The first denominator cannot equal zero. Exclude x for x = 0 . The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. Inc. The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. x 3 −1 = 0 x ⎛3 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 3− x = 0 4 − 2 ( x − 1) = 0 4 − 2x + 2 = 0 −2 x + 6 = 0 −2 x = −6 x=3 domain: ( −∞. Exclude x for x − 1 = 0 . x−2 = 0 − x = −3 x=3 domain: ( −∞. x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 domain: [ −2. Exclude x for x − 2 = 0 .Functions and Graphs 15. ∞ ) 16. 3 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . x 4 −1 = 0 x ⎛4 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 4−x = 0 4 −3 = 0 x−2 4 ⎞ − 3 ⎟ = ( x − 2 )( 0 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎛⎜ − x 2 ⎝ ⎠ 4 − 3( x − 2) = 0 4 − 3x + 6 = 0 −3 x + 10 = 0 −3x = −10 − x = −4 10 3 ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. . ⎟ ∪ ⎜ . 2 ) ∪ ( 2.3) ∪ ( 3. Exclude x for x = 0 . 4 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . ∞ ) x=2 4 −3 = 0. The expression under the radical must not be negative. x−2 Exclude x for 14.1) ∪ (1. The expression under the radical must not be negative. ∞ ) 18. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. ∞ ) x =1 4 −2= 0.1) ∪ (1. 2 ) ∪ ⎜ 2.

84 − 6 x ≥ 0 = x2 ( x − 2) − 9 ( x − 2) ( = ( x − 2) x2 − 9 −6 x ≥ −84 ) = ( x − 2)( x + 3)( x − 3) –3. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. 21. 7 x ≥ 70 29. 22.7 19.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) x≥2 The denominator equals zero when x = 5.5) ∪ ( 5. . 5 x ≥ −35 28. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. ∞ ) . x −3≥ 0 x ≥ −7 domain: [ −7.12] 30. Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. 24 − 2 x ≥ 0 ( = ( x − 5) x 2 − 4 ) = ( x − 5)( x + 2)( x − 2) –2. ∞ ) −2 x ≥ −24 −2 x −24 ≤ −2 −2 x ≤ 12 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) .5 ) ∪ ( 5. domain: ( −∞. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 9 x + 18 24. The expression under the radical must not be negative. The expression under the radical must not be negative. domain: ( −∞. x ≥ 3 . 2. x ≥ 2 . −3) ∪ ( −3. The expression under the radical must not be negative. x−2 ≥ 0 x+3≥ 0 and x≥2 x ≥ −3 To make both inequalities true. The expression under the radical must be positive. The expression under the radical must not be negative. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. x −3 > 0 26. 6 ) ∪ ( 6. 5 x + 35 ≥ 0 domain: [ 2. ∞ ) = x 2 ( x − 5) − 4 ( x − 5 ) 23. The expression under the radical must be positive. domain: [3.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. and 5 must be excluded. ∞ ) −6 x −84 ≤ −6 −6 x ≤ 14 domain: ( −∞. 2. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. ∞ ) x>3 domain: ( 3. x−2 ≥ 0 x > −2 domain: ( −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 20. x −3≥ 0 x+4≥0 and x≥3 x ≥ −4 To make both inequalities true. ∞ ) 199 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. The expression under the radical must not be negative. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 7 x − 70 ≥ 0 domain: [3. domain: [ 2.14] 25. Inc. ∞ ) x≥3 The denominator equals zero when x = 6. x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x ≥ 10 domain: [10. and 3 must be excluded. x+2>0 27.

∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x+2 ⎝g⎠ 33. ∞ ) 34. (f + g)(x) = 3x + 2 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) 200 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 4) – (x + 2) = 2x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = –5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 36. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 2 x2 – x – 3 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x +1 ⎝g⎠ ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = (2 x + 3) ⋅ ( x − 1) = 2x2 + x − 3 domain: (−∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x − 5)(3 x 2 ) = 3x 3 − 15 x 2 domain: (−∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = 6 x 2 − 2 x domain: (–∞.Functions and Graphs 31. ∞) ( f + g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = 2 x − 12 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = −3 x 2 + x − 5 domain: (−∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. −1) ∪ ( −1. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 6 x2 − x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) = ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) 2 x + 3 = ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g ( x) x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = (2x + 3) – (x – 1) =x+4 domain: (−∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x – 6)(5 x 2 ) = 5 x 3 – 30 x 2 domain: (–∞. . ∞) ( f – g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 x – 4 domain: (–∞. ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. (f + g)(x) = 4x – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = −2 x 2 − 2 x + 18 domain: (–∞. (2 x – 3)( x + 1) = 2x – 3 ( x + 1) domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (2 x 2 – x – 3)( x + 1) = − x 4 − 2 x 3 + 18 x 2 + 6 x − 45 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3 − x2 = ( x ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 2 x − 15 ⎝g⎠ ( f + g )( x) = 5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x−6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5x2 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3. domain: (−∞. Inc. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0.1) ∪ (1. ∞ ) 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) 35. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 3x 2 + x − 5 37. = 2 x3 + x 2 – 4 x – 3 domain: (–∞. ∞) (fg)(x) = (3x – 4)(x + 2) = 3x2 + 2x – 8 domain: (–∞. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (6 x 2 − x − 1)( x − 1) = 6 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 1 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (3 − x 2 )( x 2 + 2 x − 15) ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 3x2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞.1) ∪ (1. domain: ( −∞. −5) ∪ ( −5.

∞) ⎛f ⎞ 5 − x2 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 4 x − 12 ⎝g⎠ 2 + 1x ⎛ ⎛f ⎞ 1⎞ ( ) x = = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ x = 2x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 4 domain: [0. 1 1 2 2x + 2 + = 2+ = x x x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 42. ∞ ) 1 1 + =6 x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) = − x 4 − 4 x3 + 17 x 2 + 20 x − 60 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x−4 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0.5) ∪ ( 5. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 5 domain: [0. 1 1 − =2 x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 6 − 1x ⎛ ⎛ f ⎞ 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 1 = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ x = 6 x − 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 201 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 2 + = −2 x 2 − 4 x + 17 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (5 − x 2 )( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 1 ⎞ 1 2 1 2x + 1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ = + 2 = x⎠ x x x x2 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 − 1 1 2 6x − 2 − = 6− = x x x x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. Section 1. ∞ ) 39. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 6 – ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 4) domain: [0.PreCalculus 4E 38. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. −6 ) ∪ ( −6. Inc. ∞ ) ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 5) domain: [0. ∞ ) 40. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −5 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 4 domain: [0. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 41. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. .7 ( f + g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) = 4x − 7 domain: (–∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 2 + 1 ⎞ 1 6 1 6x −1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ = − 2 = 2 x⎠ x x x x ⎝ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 5 domain: [0.

−3) ∪ ( −3.5 ) ∪ ( 5.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 3x + 1 2 x − 4 = 2 − x − 25 x 2 − 25 x+5 = 2 x − 25 1 = x −5 domain: ( −∞. .3) ∪ ( 3. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞ ) 4x = 2 1 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 202 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12 ) ∪ ( 12 . ∞) ( fg )( x) = x + 4 ⋅ x − 1 = x 2 + 3 x − 4 domain: [1. −3) ∪ ( −3.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2x − 4 + x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 5x − 3 = 2 x − 25 domain: ( −∞. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −1 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (1. and any values that make 4 x − 2 = 0. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 44. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 + x2 − 9 x2 − 9 9x −1 = 2 x −9 domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3. −3) ∪ ( −3. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2 ⎛f ⎞ x − 25 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2 x − 4 g ⎝ ⎠ x 2 − 25 3x + 1 x 2 − 25 = 2 ⋅ x − 25 2 x − 4 3x + 1 = 2x − 4 The domain must exclude –5. 5.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) x= 45.5 ) ∪ ( 5.Functions and Graphs 43. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ( f + g )( x) = x + 4 + x − 1 domain: [1. 2x − 4 = 0 5x + 1 ⎛f ⎞ x2 − 9 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 4 x − 2 ⎝g⎠ x2 − 9 5x + 1 x 2 − 9 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 4x − 2 5x + 1 = 4x − 2 The domain must exclude –3. Inc. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 4 − x − 1 domain: [1. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5x + 1 4 x − 2 = 2 − x − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = 2 x −9 1 = x −3 domain: ( −∞. 3. 4x − 2 = 0 2x = 4 x=2 domain: ( −∞. −3) ∪ ( −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. and any values that make 2 x − 4 = 0.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 x2 − 9 (5 x + 1)(4 x − 2) = 2 ( x2 − 9) ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = = = = 3x + 1 2 x − 4 ⋅ x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 (3 x + 1)(2 x − 4) (x 2 − 25 ) 2 domain: ( −∞.

( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 5 = 9 52. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−3 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (3. a. = 20 x 2 − 11 b. . ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 6 − x − 3 domain: [3. g(x) = x + 7 ( f g )( x) = 2( x + 7) = 2 x + 14 ( g f )( x) = 5(4 x − 3) 2 − 2 = 5(16 x 2 − 24 x + 9) − 2 ( f + g )( x) = x − 5 + 5 − x domain: {5} ( f − g )( x) = x − 5 − 5 − x domain: {5} a. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = x + 6 ⋅ x − 3 = x 2 + 3x − 18 domain: [3. g ( x) = 2 x 2 – 9 49. ( f g )(2) = 20(2)2 − 11 = 69 f ( x) = 7 x + 1. ( f g )(2) = 14(2) 2 − 62 = −6 f ( x) = x 2 + 2. ( f g )( x) = 5(3x − 4) + 2 = 15 x − 18 b. g ( x) = 5 x 2 − 2 ( fg )( x ) = x − 2 ⋅ 2 − x = − x 2 + 4 x − 4 domain: {2} ⎛f ⎞ x−2 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 2− x ⎝ ⎠ domain: ∅ 48. a. ∞) 47. 55. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 14 = 18 a. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 4(2) 2 + 6 = 6 203 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(x) = 2x. ( f g )(2) = 3(2) − 15 = −9 ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 2) 2 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 4 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 6 ( f g )( x) = 3( x − 5) = 3 x − 15 b. ( g f )( x) = 2 x + 7 c. f(x) = 5x + 2 . ( f g )( x) = 4(5 x 2 − 2) − 3 b. ( f g )(2) = 15(2) − 18 = 12 53. ( f g )( x) = 7(2 x 2 − 9) + 1 = 14 x 2 − 62 b. f(x) = 4x – 3. Inc. ( g f )( x) = 2( x + 4) + 1 = 2 x + 9 c.7 51. g(x) = x – 5 a. = 80 x 2 − 120 x + 43 c. a. g(x) = 3x – 4 ( f + g )( x) = x − 2 + 2 − x domain: {2} ( f − g )( x) = x − 2 − 2 − x domain: {2} a. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 2) 2 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 4 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 2 c. f(x) = x + 4. f(x) = 3x. ( g f )( x) = 2(7 x + 1)2 − 9 = 2(49 x 2 + 14 x + 1) − 9 = 98 x 2 + 28 x − 7 c. ( f g )( x) = (2 x + 1) + 4 = 2 x + 5 b. g ( x) = x 2 − 2 50. ( fg )( x) = x − 5 ⋅ 5 − x = − x 2 + 10 x − 25 domain: {5} ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5− x ⎝g⎠ domain: ∅ 54. b. ( g f )( x) = 3x – 5 c. ( g f )( x) = 3(5 x + 2) − 4 = 15 x + 2 c.PreCalculus 4E 46. g(x) = 2x + 1 ( f + g )( x) = x + 6 + x − 3 domain: [3. Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Inc. ( f g )(2) = −2(2) 2 − 2 − 1 = −11 f ( x) = 5 x − 2. ( g f )( x) = 1 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 6 x − 3. ( g f )( x) = x − 1 c. g ( x) = x x ( f g )( x) = = −25 x 2 + 40 x − 13 59. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 1) 2 − 3 = x + 2x +1 − 3 4 2 61. g(x) = x – 1 a. g ( x) = 2 x 2 + x + 5 a. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 6(2) 2 + 10 = 2 a. g ( x) = x + 2 a. ( g f )( x) = − ( 5 x − 2 ) + 4 ( 5 x − 2 ) − 1 = −(25 x 2 − 20 x + 4) + 20 x − 8 − 1 (2 x − 3) + 3 2 x = =x 2 2 ( g f )( x) = 62. ( g f )( x) = c. = 2(16 − 8 x + x 2 ) + 4 − x + 5 x+3 2 1 x 1 x =x =x 204 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 2 1 b. . ( f g )(2) = 2 − 1 = 1 = 1 1 1 . g ( x) = x 2 − 3 56. f(x) = 2x – 3. ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 3) 2 + 1 f ( x) = x . ( f g )( x) = x − 1 b. ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ −3 = x +3−3 = x ⎝ 6 ⎠ b. = −25 x 2 + 20 x − 4 + 20 x − 8 − 1 c. ( f g )(2) = 2 + 2 = 4 = 2 = x − 6x + 9 + 1 4 2 = x 4 − 6 x 2 + 10 b. g ( x) = = 2 x 2 − 17 x + 41 c. ( g f )( x) = x + 2 c. a. 63. g ( x ) = = x4 + 2 x2 − 2 c.Functions and Graphs f ( x) = x 2 + 1. = 32 − 16 x + 2 x 2 + 4 − x + 5 ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 2 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x + 3−3 =x b. ( g f )( x) = 2 ( 4 − x ) + ( 4 − x ) + 5 2 c. 60. ( f g )( x) = 5 ( − x 2 + 4 x − 1) − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 5 − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 7 b. 6x − 3 + 3 6x = =x 6 6 a. x+3 6 a. ( f g )( x) = x + 2 b. ( f g )(2) = 2 ( f g )(2) = −5(2) 2 + 20(2) − 7 = 13 f ( x) = x . g ( x) = − x 2 + 4 x − 1 a. ( f g )( x) = 4 − ( 2 x 2 + x + 5 ) = 4 − 2 x2 − x − 5 = −2 x − x − 1 2 b. 58. f ( x) = 4 − x . 57.

2 x 2 x 67. 205 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x−2 ≥ 0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. a. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. b. 5⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 5x ⎛1⎞ = f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ x ⎠ 1 + 4 1 + 4x x 69. =x =x b. ∞ ) . domain: 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. 6 6 ⎛6⎞ f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x = 6 ⎝ x⎠ + 5 6 + 5x x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. x ≠ −4 = 4+ x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. . 4 ⎛4⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝ x ⎠ 4 +1 x ⎛4⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) x = ⎝ ⎠ ⎛4 ⎞ ⎜ + 1⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 4 . ∞ ) . We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) . a. a. ( f g )( x) = 2 b. g ( x) = x x a. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . b. 6⎞ ⎛ 6 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. ( −∞. We must exclude −4 because it causes the denominator of f g to be 0. f ( x) = Section 1. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 2) = x − 2 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. a. ( g f )( x) = 2 c. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 3) = x − 3 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. b. 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 66. 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 3 denominator of f g to be 0. 4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 70. 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 4 denominator of f g to be 0.PreCalculus 4E 64. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. b. a. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. Inc. ∞ ) . a.x ≠ 0 1 x ⎝ ⎠ +3 x 2( x) = ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ + 3⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 2x = 1 + 3x 68. b. 2 ⎛1⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = . Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 2 2 . 6 We must exclude − because it causes the 5 denominator of f g to be 0. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . ( f g )(2) = 2 65.

(f g )( −1) = f ( g (−1) ) = f ( −3) = 1 g ( x) = 2x − 5 90. 84. f ( x ) = x3 . ( f g )( x) = f ( 1 − x ) = ( 1− x ) 2 +4 = 1− x + 4 85. f ( x) = 1 . g ( x ) = 3x − 1 77. The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. ( g − f )( −2 ) = g ( −2 ) − f ( −2 ) = 2 − 3 = −1 83. a. f(x) = |x|. f ( x) = x 4 . The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. = 5− x b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2−x ≥ 0 − x ≥ −2 x≤2 domain: (−∞. 76. Inc. ( f g )( x) = f ( 2 − x ) = ( 2−x ) 2 +1 = 2 − x +1 88. f ( x) = 1 . g ( x ) = x2 − 9 91. 1]. 74. f (x) = |x|. The graph of f − g = 3− x b. The graph of f + g − x ≥ −1 x ≤1 domain: (−∞. g(x) = 3x – 4 79. (f g )(1) = f ( g (1) ) = f ( −5 ) = 3 f ( x) = 3 x. . ( ) 2 x − 3x + 8 − 5 = 7 2 2 x 2 − 6 x + 16 − 5 = 7 2 x 2 − 6 x + 11 = 7 2x2 − 6x + 4 = 0 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x =1 x=2 206 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 72. g(x) = 2x – 5 78. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 2 ) = −6 f ( x) = x.Functions and Graphs 71. x g ( x) = 2 x − 3 80. 75. 89. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = −5 73. x g ( x ) = 4x + 5 81. a. 2]. ( f + g )( −3) = f ( −3) + g ( −3) = 4 + 1 = 5 82. 1− x ≥ 0 The domain of f is ( −4. The domain of f + g is [ −4. 3) g 87. ( fg )( 2 ) = f ( 2 ) g ( 2 ) = ( −1)(1) = −1 ( f g )( x) = 7 93. g ( 3) 0 ⎛g⎞ = =0 ⎜ ⎟ ( 3) = f ( 3) −3 ⎝f ⎠ 86. 3] . g ( x ) = 5x 2 + 3 92.

000 The company lost $200. a.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 ( B − D )( 3) = 10. c. ( g f )( x) = 0. The slope for f is -0. ( f g )( x) = 0. 207 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The function f g models the greater discount. f )( x ) = 0. 1 − 2 3 x + x − 1 = −5 2 98.6 ( x − 5 ) = 0.75( x − 400) This models the price of a computer after first a $400 discount and then a 25% discount.07 This is the profit for the two stores combined for each year after 2004.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7.1 The change in population in the U.76 The slope for f + g is 0.6x – 3 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $3 rebate. (g d.044x + 13. . a. ( B + D )( x ) = 3.000 + 45(30. Inc. 000) − (600.9(5)2 + 5(5) + 6451 = 6573.000 since costs exceeded revenues. ( B + D )( x ) f gives the cost of a pair of jeans for which a $5 rebate is offered.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 b. f + g = -. c. g gives the cost of a pair of jeans that has been discounted 40%. b.5 thousand. 000 + 45(20. 99.9 x 2 + 5 x + 6451 ( B + D )( 5 ) = 3. f g because of a $5 rebate.51x + 11. 2 = 3.07x + 24.000) = 65(30. (R – C)(30.6 x − 5 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $5 rebate. ( R − C )(20.7 ( f g )( x) = −5 ) = 65(20. ( B + D )( x ) = B ( x ) + D ( x) = (7. since the 25% discount is taken on the regular price first. b.9(3)2 − 35(3) + 1641 overestimates the actual change in population in the U.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405 100.S.9 x + 5 x + 6451 b.75 x − 400 This models the price of a computer after first a 25% discount and then a $400 discount.1 thousand. g )( x ) = 0. g gives the price of the computer after a 25% discount.5 thousand. a. a. The slope of g is 0. = 1634. in 2005 is 6573.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) + ( −3.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 + 3. 000) 97. ( B − D )( x ) c. a. 96.000)) =0 The company broke even. b. in 2003 by 0. ( B − D )( x ) = 10.5 The number of births and deaths in the U.S. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 − 3. in 2003 was 1634. (f c. c. f gives the price of the computer after a $400 discount.S. 1 − 6 x 2 − 2 x + 2 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 3 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 8 = 0 3x 2 + x − 4 = 0 (3x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 3 x = −4 x =1 4 x=− 3 95.PreCalculus 4E 94. ( B − D )( x ) = B ( x ) − D ( x) = (7. 000)) = −200.51 This is the increase in profits for the second store for each year after 2004.62 + 0. d.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) − ( −3.44 This is the decrease in profits for the first store for each year after 2004.14 = 0.000) – (600.5 x 2 − 20 x − 2405 = 10. underestimates the actual number of births and deaths in 2005 by 1. ( Section 1.1 thousand.

Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: ( f g ) ( 4) = f ( g ( 4)) = f ( 7) = 5 115. (1. the relation is not a function. the y value disappears because the function is not defined at x = 0. −1). does not make sense. Inc. {(4. ( f g )( x) = 2 − x The domain of g is [ 0. Thus. 118. Sample explanation: It is common that f g and g f are not the same.1). 116. 2− x ≥ 0 119. x = y2 − 1 x + 1 = y2 120. ( f g ) ( x ) = f ( g ( x ) ) = f ( 3x ) = 2(3x) = 6 x (g f )( x ) = g ( f ( x ) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( 2 x ) = 6 x 114.Functions and Graphs 113. false. (4. 2)} The element 1 in the domain corresponds to two elements in the range. . Explanations will vary. ∞ ) . When your trace reaches x = 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4] 108. (1. y = x +1 2 112. Answers may vary. ( f g )( x) = ( f g )(− x) f ( g ( x)) = f ( g (− x)) since g is even f ( g ( x)) = f ( g ( x)) so f g is even 117. true 107. Explanations will vary. makes sense 110. g ( x ) = 3x 101. Answers may vary. A sample change is: f ( x ) = 2 x. − x ≥ −2 x= 5 +4 y ⎛5 ⎞ y ( x) = y ⎜ + 4 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ xy = 5 + 4 y xy − 4 y = 5 y ( x − 4) = 5 5 y= x−4 x ≤2 x≤4 domain: [ 0. 106. −2). false. – 105. Sample explanation: The diagram illustrates x +1 = y2 x +1 = y g ( f ( x) ) = x + 4. A sample change is: (f g )( x ) = f = ( ( x2 − 4 x2 − 4 ) 2 ) −4 = x2 − 4 − 4 = x2 − 8 208 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 109. 111. The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative.

8 Check Point Exercises 1. −1) (1. The graphs of (b) and (c) pass the horizontal line test and thus have an inverse. Inc. 6. 2) (2. f ( x) f −1 ( x ) (−2. ⎛ x+7⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−7 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x − 7) + 7 g ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 f ( g ( x) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = x 4.1) x +1 4 Alternative form for answer: x +1 3 x +1 f ( x) −1 = 3 = 3 4 4 f −1 ( x) = = = 3 3 x +1 3 2 ⋅3 = 3 4 2 3 2x + 2 2 3 2x + 2 3 8 209 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −2) (−2. 0) (0. . Find points of f −1 . 2.8 Section 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. −2) (−1. 3 −1 x Interchange x and y: 3 x = −1 y Solve for y: 3 x = −1 y xy = 3 − y xy + y = 3 y ( x + 1) = 3 3 y= x +1 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : y= f ( x) = 2 x + 7 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 2x + 7 Interchange x and y: x = 2y + 7 Solve for y: x = 2y + 7 x − 7 = 2y x−7 =y 2 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f −1 ( x) = 3. 3 −1 x Replace f ( x) with y: f ( x) = x−7 2 f −1 ( x) = f ( x) = 4 x3 − 1 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 4 x3 − 1 Interchange x and y: x = 4 y3 − 1 Solve for y: x = 4 y3 − 1 x + 1 = 4 y3 x +1 = y3 4 x 1 + 3 =y 4 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : 3 x +1 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

. f ( x) = x 2 + 1 Replace f ( x) with y: 4. x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = x − 1 6. y = x2 + 1 Interchange x and y: x = y2 +1 Solve for y: x = y2 + 1 1. f ( x) = 3 x − 7. Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f ( x) = 4 x. g ( x) = 3 3 x−4 +4 ⎛ x−4⎞ = 3⋅⎜ ⎟+4 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = x−4+4 =x f and g are inverses. 2 2 . g ( f ( x) ) = 2 2 x −5 210 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g ( x ) = x+5 9 x+3 7 x + 3 3x + 9 3x − 40 ⎛ ⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ −7 = ⎟−7 = 7 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠ 3x − 7 + 3 3x − 4 g ( f ( x) ) = = 7 7 f and g are not inverses. 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) = 5x – 9.Functions and Graphs 7. g ( x ) = ⎛ x+5⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 5 ⎜ ⎟−9 ⎝ 9 ⎠ 5 x + 25 = −9 9 5 x − 56 = 9 5x − 9 + 5 5x − 4 g ( f ( x)) = = 9 9 f and g are not inverses. x −8 3 8. 2. ⎛ x −8⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 3 ⎜ ⎟+8 = x −8+8 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ (3x + 8) − 8 3x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 3 3 f and g are inverses. f ( x) = 6 x .8 x 4 ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x =x g ( f ( x)) = 4 f and g are inverses. x − 1 = y2 5. Inc. f ( x) = 4 x + 9. g ( x) = x−9 4 ⎛ x −9⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟+9 = x −9+9 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x + 9) − 9 4 x g ( f ( x) ) = = =x 4 4 f and g are inverses. g ( x) = + 5 x −5 x 2 2x f ( g ( x )) = 2 = =x ( x + 5) − 5 2 f ( x) = ⎛ x −5⎞ + 5 = 2⎜ ⎟+5 = x−5+5 = x ⎝ 2 ⎠ f and g are inverses. g ( x) = + 4 x−4 x 3 3 f ( g ( x)) = 3 = 3 =x + − 4 4 x x f ( x) = g ( f ( x)) = ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝6⎠ 6x =x g ( f ( x) ) = 6 f and g are inverses. g ( x ) = 3 3 . Exercise Set 1. x 6 f(x) = 3x + 8. g ( x) = 7.

a. a. 11. Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 4 x x +1 3 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 3 y= ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝2⎠ 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = =x 2 b. Inc. f(x) = x + 3 y=x+3 x=y+3 y=x–3 −1 f ( x) = x − 3 15. g ( x) = − x f ( g ( x)) = −(− x ) = x g ( f ( x)) = −(− x ) = x f and g are inverses. ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 y = 2x + 3 −1 12. a. f −1 ( x ) = x − 5 f ( x) = 2 x 16. y = 4x x = 4y x 4 x −1 f ( x) = 4 y= f ( x) = 3 x − 4. 14. ⎛ x +1 ⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ −1 = x +1 −1 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3x − 1 + 1 3x = =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 3 211 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 9.8 f ( x) = − x. a. x − 3 = 2y f ( f ( x)) = x − 3 + 3 = x x −3 2 x −3 f −1 ( x) = 2 y= f ( x) = x + 5 y = x+5 x = y+5 y = x−5 b. ⎛ x −3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟+3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x −3+3 =x 2x + 3 − 3 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = = =x 2 2 f ( f −1 ( x) ) = x − 5 + 5 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = x + 5 − 5 = x 13. . b. f ( x) = 3x − 1 y = 2x y = 3x − 1 x = 2y x = 3y −1 x +1 = 3y x 2 x f −1 ( x) = 2 y= b. 10. f and g are inverses. a. f ( x) = 2 x + 3 x = 2y + 3 −1 f ( f ( x)) = x + 3 − 3 = x b. a. g ( x) = x 3 + 4 f ( g ( x) ) = 3 x 3 + 4 − 4 = 3 x 3 = x g ( f ( x) ) = ( 3 x−4 ) 3 +4 = x−4+4 = x b.

Inc. a. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ) ( x) 3 x +1 −1 = 1 x 1 y= x 1 x= y xy = 1 f ( x) = y= y = 3 x +1 f ( f −1 ( x)) = 3 1 x 1 −1 f ( x) = x x + 1 = y3 b. x−2 ) 3 21. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ( 3 b. 20. . a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 22. f ( x) = ( x − 1)3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = ( x − 1)3 y = x3 + 2 x = ( y − 1)3 3 x = y3 + 2 x−2 = y 3 3 x = y −1 y = 3 x +1 y = x−2 3 −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 3 1 =x 1 x 1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = = x 1 x f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x 2 y= x 2 x= y xy = 2 f ( x) = 2 x 2 f −1 ( x ) = x y= =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 ( x + 2)3 − 2 = x+2−2 =x b. =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x3 + 2 − 2 = 3 x3 = x f ( x) = x3 − 1 y = x3 − 1 x = y3 − 1 f −1 ( x) = 3 x + 1 ( 3 ) 3 b. ( ( 3 x −2+2 ) = ( x) 3 3 3 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( x − 13 + 1 = x − 1 + 1 = x +2 = x−2+2 18. a. a.Functions and Graphs 17. x + 1 −1 = x +1−1 =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x 3 − 1 + 1 = 3 x3 = x 19. a. f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x f −1( f ( x )) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x 212 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 y = ( x + 2)3 x = ( y + 2)3 3 x = y+2 y = 3 x −2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. a.

2 4 x −9 4 f −1 ( x ) = x −9 y= f ( x) = 3 x y=3x x= y=x 3 f ( x) = x 3 −1 b. y 3 b. Inc. a. a. f ( x) = 25. x ≥ 0 b. y= x x= y y=x 2 −1 f ( x) = x 2 . f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 x3 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = ( x) 3 3 =x 7 −3 x 7 y = −3 x 7 x = −3 y 27.PreCalculus 4E 23. ( ( ) 4 +9 = x 4 x−9 4 −1 =x f ( f ( x) ) = 4 +9−9 x f f −1 ( x) = 2x + 1 x−3 2x + 1 y= x−3 2 y +1 x= y −3 x(y – 3) = 2y + 1 xy – 3x = 2y + 1 xy – 2y = 3x + 1 y(x – 2) = 3x + 1 3x + 1 y= x−2 3x + 1 f −1 ( x ) = x−2 f ( x) = ) 7 −3 = x 7 x+3 7 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 7 −3+3 x f f −1 ( x) = 213 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . xy = 7 − 3 y xy + 3 y = 7 y ( x + 3) = 7 7 x+3 7 −1 f ( x) = x+3 y= b. f ( f −1 ( x)) = x 2 = x = x for x ≥ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. a.8 f ( x) = x 4 +9 x 4 y = +9 x 4 x = +9 y xy = 4 + 9 y f ( x) = 26. Section 1. −1 xy − 9 y = 4 y ( x − 9) = 4 f ( f ( x)) = ( x ) = x 24. a.

so it does not have an inverse function. The function fails the horizontal line test. 2 x + 1 − 2 ( x − 3) 6x + 3 + x − 3 7x = =x 2x +1 − 2x + 6 7 36. The function passes the horizontal line test. The function passes the horizontal line test. so it does not have an inverse function. The function passes the horizontal line test.Functions and Graphs b. 7x =x 7 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 28. 32. 31. 214 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ) ( 2 3x + 1 + 1 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = 3x + 1 − 3 x−2 2 ( 3x + 1) + x − 2 6 x + 2 + x − 2 = = 3x + 1 − 3 ( x − 2 ) 3x + 1 − 3 x + 6 –1 34. The function fails the horizontal line test. so it does not have an inverse function. ) 29. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so it does have an inverse function. 2x − 3 x +1 2x − 3 y= x +1 2y − 3 x= y +1 xy + x = 2y – 3 y(x – 2) = –x – 3 −x − 3 y= x−2 −x − 3 f −1 ( x ) = . . 30. 33. Inc. ) ( 3 2x +1 + 1 x −3 2x + 1 − 2 x−3 3 ( 2 x + 1) + x − 3 35. = = = b. ) ( 2 −x − 3 − 3 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = −x − 3 +1 x−2 −2 x − 6 − 3x + 6 −5 x = = =x −x − 3 + x − 2 −5 − 2x − 3 − 3 x +1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 2x − 3 − 2 x +1 −2 x + 3 − 3x − 3 −5 x = = =x 2x − 3 − 2x − 2 −5 −1 ( 38. so it does have an inverse function. so it does have an inverse function. The function fails the horizontal line test. x≠2 x−2 f ( x) = 37.

c. ∞ ) domain of f : [ −4. c. . ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. domain of f : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1.8 f ( x) = 2 x − 1 y = 2x −1 41. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. 40. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( −∞. a. ∞ ) domain of f : ( −∞. b. c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. f ( x) = x 2 − 1 y = x2 − 1 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 y = 2x − 3 x = y2 −1 x +1 = y2 x = 2y −3 − x +1 = y x + 3 = 2y f −1 ( x) = − x + 1 x+3 =y 2 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 2 b. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) [ −4. ∞ ) domain of f : −1 42. Inc. a.PreCalculus 4E 39. a. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. a. c. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. f ( x) = x 2 − 4 y = x2 − 4 x = 2 y −1 x = y2 − 4 x +1 = 2y x + 4 = y2 x +1 =y 2 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 2 x+4 = y f −1 ( x) = x + 4 b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. b. Section 1. 0] domain of f : 215 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0] range of f : [ −1.

b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ( −∞. . ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. domain of f : 46. a. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. a.1] domain of f : f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 43. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. domain of f : [1.∞ ) ( −∞. f ( x) = x3 + 1 y = x3 + 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 + 1 2 x − 1 = y3 x = y −1 3 x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 1 x +1 = y f −1 ( x) = 1 + x b. a.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. y = x3 − 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 − 1 2 x + 1 = y3 − x = y −1 3 − x +1 = y x +1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x + 1 −1 f ( x) = 1 − x b. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. b. c. c. 44. ∞ ) c. f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) f ( x) = x3 − 1 45.1] range of f : [ 0. a. c. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f : 216 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

a. c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. 3 3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = x +2 x = ( y − 2)3 3 domain of f : [1. y = ( x − 2) domain of f −1 : [ 0. ( −∞. ∞ ) [ 2. c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. y −1 2 b. domain of f : [ 0. y = ( x + 2) 49. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ( −∞. a. f ( x) = x − 1 3 y = x −1 x = ( y + 2)3 3 3 x= x = y+2 x = y −1 x −2 = y x +1 = y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 f −1 ( x ) = x 2 + 1 b. ∞ ) range of f : −1 217 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . x= x = y−2 x−2= x +2 = y y +2 y ( x − 2) = y 2 f −1 ( x ) = 3 x + 2 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 2) 2 b. ∞ ) f ( x) = ( x − 2)3 48. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : [ 2. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. a. b.8 f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 47. ∞ ) domain of f : c. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Inc.∞ ) 50. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. a. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : c.

58. 52. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. since f ( −1) = 1 . 63. (f g )( 0 ) = f ( g (0) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 0 − 1) = f ( −1) = 2 ( −1) − 5 = −7 60. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. f −1 ( g (10) ) = f −1 ( −1) = 2 . c. f −1 ( g (1) ) = f −1 (1) = −1 . ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. a. Then x3 = y − 1 g ( x) = 7 x +1 = y 3 −1 = g ( 2 ⋅ 0 − 5) 61. Inc. a. since f ( 2 ) = −1 . ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. f −1 (1) = 3 y = 3 x −1 y −1 62. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = 1 56. g −1 ( 7 ) = 2 b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. f ( x) = 3 x + 1 y = 3 x +1 x= 3 y +1 x −1 = 3 y ( x − 1)3 = y f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1)3 b.Functions and Graphs 51. ( g ( f [ h(1) ]) = g f ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = g ( f (4) ) ) = g ( 2 ⋅ 4 − 5) = g ( 3) c. 59. ( f ( g [ h(1) ]) = f g ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = f ( g (4) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 4 − 1) = f (15 ) f ( g (1) ) = f (1) = 5 = 2 ⋅ 15 − 5 = 25 f ( g (4) ) = f ( 2 ) = −1 218 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : x= (g 4x −1 = 7 f ( x) = x + 1 3 4x = 8 x=2 Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 54. Then f ( x) = 3 x − 1 3 f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( −5 ) = 4 ( −5 ) − 1 = −21 ( −∞. ) . f ( x) = 1 2x − 5 = 1 2x = 6 x=3 Thus. ∞ ) = 4 ⋅ 3 − 1 = 11 domain of f : 64. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 4 ) = 2 57. Let g −1 ( 7 ) = x . Let f −1 (1) = x . 55. 53.

76.m.25.3) and (19.5)} b. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0.3.3)} b. (30. The average happiness level is 3 at 12 noon and at 7 p. Answers may vary.8. (60. (40.7).3).5) = 21 If there are 21 people in the room.25) = 15 If there are 15 people in the room. one-to-one 219 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 9.8.1). 60)} g is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of g is not a function.8). 60)} f is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of f is not a function. a. (8. not one-to-one 77. (8.3) and (19. (22.8 It passes the horizontal line test and is one-to-one. f--1(0.7. 40). (50. {(17. (22. (8.8.3.8. f--1(0. These values can be represented as (12. 9 ⎡5 ⎤ ( x − 32) ⎥ + 32 5 ⎢⎣ 9 ⎦ = x − 32 + 32 f ( g ( x)) = =x f and g are inverses. (60. (30.8.4). (12. 30). the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. Inc. (8. The graph does not represent a one-to-one function.17). b. this function does not have an inverse. Section 1. Thus.3) . . a. c.8. 70. This function fails the horizontal line test.9. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. (8.7. 30).3. – 75. a. (40. 22).4).17). (8.8. (8.7) = 30 If there are 30 people in the room.5. 50). f--1(0. 69. (8.8.7. (9. 68.5). {(17. 67. 40).1.3) are an example of two x-values that correspond to the same y-value.3). (50. {(9.5.8.5.4.2).PreCalculus 4E 65. 9.50). a. 66.4. b.2. {(9.8. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7). 22). (8.

one-to-one 83. makes sense 88. 3 94. makes sense 89. 2)}. Changes to make the statement true will vary. true 82. makes sense 91. Changes to make the statement true will vary. not one-to-one 220 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 90.1). not one-to-one f and g are inverses 80. not one-to-one 87. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 92. A sample change is: f(x) = 5 is a horizontal line. Changes to make the statement true will vary. f and g are inverses one-to-one 79. false. A sample change is: The inverse is {(4. 85. x A sample change is: f −1 ( x) = . Inc.Functions and Graphs 84. (7. so it does not pass the horizontal line test. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 81. false. . 86. 78. 93.

y= (g 96. 221 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y= 97. there will be 2 times when the spacecraft is at the same height. when it is going up and when it is coming down. y = x+5 100. . −1 f −1 ) ( x ) = x x − 15 −5 = 3 3 3x − 2 5x − 3 3x − 2 y= 5x − 3 3y − 2 x= 5y − 3 x(5 y − 3) = 3 y − 2 f ( x) = 102. ( f g )( x) = 3( x + 5) = 3x + 15. y = 3 x + 15 98. 8 + f −1 ( x − 1) = 10 f −1 ( x − 1) = 2 f (2) = x − 1 6 = x −1 7=x x=7 x = 3 y + 15 y= x − 15 3 (f g ) ( x) = −1 x − 15 3 g ( x) = x + 5 99.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. No.8 95. Inc. y 2 − 6 y − 4 = 0 y2 − 6 y =4 y − 6y + 9 = 4 + 9 2 ( y − 3) 2 = 13 y − 3 = ± 13 5 xy − 3x = 3 y − 2 y = 3 ± 13 5 xy − 3 y = 3x − 2 y (5 x − 3) = 3 x − 2 3x − 2 5x − 3 3 x−2 f −1 ( x ) = 5x − 3 Note: An alternative approach is to show that ( f f )( x) = x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = y+5 ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 = (1 − 7) 2 + (−1 − 2) 2 y = x −5 = (−6) 2 + (−3)2 g −1 ( x) = x − 5 f ( x) = 3x = 36 + 9 = 45 y = 3x =3 5 x = 3y x 3 x −1 f ( x) = 3 101. Answers may vary.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. k = 2. domain: range: 222 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1. d= = ( −6 − 4 ) + ( 3 − (−1) ) 2 ( −10 ) + ( 4 ) 2 2 2 = 100 + 16 = 116 = 2 29 ≈ 10. 1) radius: r = 2 d = (8 − 5) 2 + (5 − 1) 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 b. − ⎟ 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ h = 0. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 + 7 2 + (−3) ⎞ ⎛ 8 −1 ⎞ ⎛ .9 ( x − 0)2 + [ y − (−6)]2 = 102 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 5. d= ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 d= (1 − (−4) ) + ( −3 − 9 ) 2 2 2 (x x2 + y2 + 4x − 4 y −1 = 0 ) + ( y − 4y ) = 0 ( x + 4x + 4) + ( y + 4 y + 4) = 1 + 4 + 4 2 + 4x 2 2 2 ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 9 = 25 + 144 [ x − (− x)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 32 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . k = 0. r = 2. k = 1.77 [ −5. r = 3 . 4. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . we have = 169 h = −2.Functions and Graphs Section 1. x2 + y 2 + 4 x − 4 y − 1 = 0 6. d = (14 − 2) 2 + (8 − 3)2 x 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 = 122 + 52 ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 4 = 144 + 25 = 169 [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 22 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . Inc.3] c. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 42 x 2 + y 2 = 16 h = 0. 3. a. k = −6. center: (h. we have h = −3. = ( 5) + ( −12 ) 2 2 = 13 2. −1] [ −1. Exercise Set 1.9 Check Point Exercises 1. k ) = (−3. . r = 4. = 13 2. 3. ⎟ = ⎜ 4. r = 10.

6) 2 + ( −5. ( 4 − 0) = 42 + [3 + 2]2 2 = 32 + 42 6.07 = 25 + 4 = 29 ≈ 5. 2 .3) = = 25 =5 = 8 2 =2 2 = 36 + 4 ≈ 2. d= = d = (4 − 0)2 + [1 − (−3)]2 ( ) ( 2 ( 7) 2 + ⎣⎡ − 2 ⎦⎤ 2 = 7+2 = 42 + 4 2 = 9 = 16 + 16 =3 = 32 ) 7 − 0 + ⎡0 − − 2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ =4 2 ≈ 5.39 13.5 − 3.47 2 12.2 − 8. Inc. d= = 5.83 = 40 = 2 10 ≈ 6. d = (−. = 16 + 52 = 73 ≈ 8. 2 = 9 + 64 2 7. = 9 + 16 ( −1) 2 + ( −7 ) 2 2 = 1 + 49 = 50 d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [−4 − (−6)]2 =5 2 = 52 + 2 2 ≈ 7.5)2 + (6.7 − 1.9 ( −1 − 2 ) + ( 5 − (−3) ) 2 ( −3 ) + ( 8 ) 2 2 10.54 = 16 + 25 11. Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 − 2.40 d = (−3− 0) 2 + (4 − 0) 2 = 3 + ( −4 ) 8. d= 14.66 223 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. + [3 − ( −2 )]2 = 41 ≈ 6.32 9.PreCalculus 4E 4. d = ( 5 − 0)2 + [0 − (− 3)]2 = ( 5) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 5+3 d = [2 − (−4)]2 + [−3 − (−1)]2 = 6 2 + ( −2 ) d = (1.2) 2 = 9 +16 = (−4) 2 + (−2)2 = 25 =5 = 16 + 4 = 20 d = (3 − 0) 2 + ( −4 − 0 ) =2 5 2 ≈ 4.

d= = ( − 3 − 2 3 ) + (5 ( −3 3 ) + ( 4 6 ) 2 2 6− 6 ) 2 2 24. −5 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 28.0) =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 224 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.41 19. −6 ⎟ 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 26. ⎛ 6 + 2 8 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 12 ⎞ . −5) ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ) ) ⎛ 18 + 2 −4 + 4 ⎞ .5) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2 21. ≈ 2.24 18. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . ⎟ = (4. d = (− 3 − 3 3)2 + (4 5 − 5)2 22. ⎛ −2 + (−6) −8 + (−2) ⎞ . ⎛ 10 + 2 4 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 12 10 ⎞ . ⎟ = ⎜ .09 17. ⎟ = (6. = (−4 3) 2 + (3 5) 2 = 16(3) + 9(5) = 48 + 45 = 93 23. −4 29. 0 ⎟ = (2 2. ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 2 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ( = 5 3. ⎛ 8 + (−6) 3 5 + 7 5 ⎞ . ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −8 −10 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎟ = ( −3. 15 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 4 1 3 1⎞ ⎛ 2 1 ⎞ = ⎜− ⋅ . 6) 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 20. ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛3 2+ 2 0⎞ ⎛4 2 ⎞ . . ⎛ −4 + ( −1) −7 + ( −3) ⎞ ⎛ −5 −10 ⎞ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 = 12 + 12 ⎛ 2 10 5 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎟ = ⎜ −5. . −2 ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 ⎛ 2⎞ 7 ⎛ 4 ⎞⎞ ⎛ 4 3 ⎞ ⎜ − 5 + ⎜ − 5 ⎟ 15 + ⎜ − 15 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ − ⎝ ⎠. ⎛ −3 + 6 −4 + (−8) ⎞ . ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ −5 ⎞ = ⎜ . ⋅ ⎟ = ⎜− . ⎟=⎜ . Inc. ⎟ = (−4. ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 3 −12 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎟ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ −7 ⎛ 5 ⎞ 3 ⎛ 11 ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠. ⎜ ⎟=⎜ . ⎟ ⎝ 5 2 15 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 27. 2 ⎟ = ⎜ − . ⎛ 7 3 + 3 3 −6 + (−2) ⎞ ⎛ 10 3 −8 ⎞ . = 1. = 9 ⋅ 3 + 16 ⋅ 6 = 27 + 96 25. = 123 ≈ 11. 2 ⎛1 7⎞ ⎛6 1⎞ d = ⎜ − ⎟ +⎜ − ⎟ ⎝3 3⎠ ⎝5 5⎠ 2 = (−2) 2 + 12 = 4 +1 = 5 2 ⎡ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ d = ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ + ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠⎦ ⎣ 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠⎦ 2 ⎛ 3 1 ⎞ ⎡6 1⎤ = ⎜ + ⎟ +⎢ + ⎥ ⎝ 4 4 ⎠ ⎣7 7⎦ ⎛ −2 + ( −8) −1 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ −10 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ . ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . ⎝ ⎠⎟= 5 .Functions and Graphs 15. ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −12 −8 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 6 −4 ⎞ = ⎜ 2 . ≈ 9.64 16.5 5 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( = 2 ≈ 1.

range: ( x − 2 ) + [ y − (−1)] = 42 2 2 ( x − 2 ) + ( y + 1) = 16 2 [ −4. k = 1. 7] domain: range: 225 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 34. center = (3. 36. 42.9] [ −5. center = (0. 7] domain: + ( y + 1) = 3 2 2 = 2 [ x − (−5)] + [ y − (−3)] ( x + 5) 39. . 4] domain: ( x − 3 ) + ( y − 2 ) = 52 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 2 ) = 25 range: 2 43. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r = 7. x 2 + y 2 = 49 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 h = 0. + ( y + 3) = 5 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 36 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 62 2 2 h = 3. Section 1. 7] [ −7. 2 ( x + 3) 38. radius = 7 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4 )2 = 22 2 2 ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 4 2 [ x − (−3)] + ( y − 5)2 = 32 2 2 ( x + 3) + ( y − 5 ) = 9 [ x − (−3)] + [ y − (−1)] 2 2 2 ( 3) 2 2 = ( 5) [ −7. . 0 ⎟ = 3 2. r = 4. radius = 4 ) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 x 2 + y 2 = 49 32. k = 0. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = 82 x 2 + y 2 = 64 33. x 2 + y 2 = 16 41. 1). 0). ⎟⎟ ⎟=⎜ ⎜⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛6 2 ⎞ . 0 =⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( 31.PreCalculus 4E 30. radius = 6 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 102 2 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 0 ) = 100 2 [ x − (−2)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 62 2 ( x + 2 ) + y 2 = 36 2 [ −3. Inc. 0). center = (0. 4] [ −4. 35. r = 6. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = y 2 h = 0. 37.9 ⎛ 50 + 2 −6 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 5 2 + 2 0 ⎞ . k = 0. 2 2 40.

4). r = 1. r = 2 center = (–2. . 7] [ −4. center = (–4. 0] [ −4. 2). radius = 2 2 ( x − 2) + ( y − 3)2 = 42 h = 2. k = 1. radius = 2 46. [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 22 h = −3. center = (2. ( x + 2) 2 + ( y + 2)2 = 4 ( x + 4 ) + ( y + 5) = 36 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−5)] = 62 2 h = −4. k = −5.1] [ 0. 6] [ −1. −1] [ 0. r = 6. 2] [ −11. center = (0. k = −2. radius = 6 [ −5. k = 3.Functions and Graphs 44. [ x − (−2)]2 + [ y − (−2)]2 = 22 h = −2. radius = 5 [ −1. k = 4. 3). ( x − 2) 2 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 47. Inc. –2). radius = 1 h = −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r = 4. k = 2.1] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 25 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4)2 = 52 2 2 49. 4] [ −10. –5). 2 x 2 + ( y − 1) = 1 2 h = 0. radius = 4 45. 0] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 4 48. 2] domain: [ −6. r = 5. center = (–1. 1). 4] [ −1.9] range: domain: range: 226 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. r = 2 center = (–3. [ −2.

center = (–1. 2] [ −4. radius = 4 x 2 + y 2 − 10 x − 6 y − 30 = 0 55. –2). x 2 + y 2 + 8 x + 4 y + 16 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 8 x ) + ( y 2 + 4 y ) = −16 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y 2 + 4 y + 4 ) = 20 − 16 ( x + 4) + ( y + 2) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−2)] = 22 2 2 center = (–4. 2] [ 0. center = (–2. 5] domain: range: 52. r = 5.PreCalculus 4E 50.0). h = 0. k = 0. 3). k = 2. radius = 2 [ −2. ( x + 1) 2 + y 2 = 25 h = −1. 4] [ −5. Inc. ( x + 2) 2 + y 2 = 16 h = −2. 4] domain: range: 51.9 x2 + ( y − 2) = 4 2 x2 + y 2 + 6 x + 2 y + 6 = 0 53. (x (x 2 2 − 10 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 30 − 10 x + 25 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 25 + 9 + 30 ( x − 5) 2 + ( y − 3) = 64 2 ( x − 5)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 82 center = (5. r = 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. radius = 2 [ −6.0). k = 0. –1).2). Section 1. 4] domain: range: 227 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . radius = 5 54. radius = 2 (x (x 2 2 + 6 x ) + ( y 2 + 2 y ) = −6 + 6 x + 9 ) + ( y 2 + 2 y + 1) = 9 + 1 − 6 ( x + 3) + ( y + 1) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−3)] + [9 − (−1)] = 22 2 2 center = (–3. radius = 8 [ −6. center = (0. r = 2.

radius = 5 58. 2 2 2 x2 + y 2 + 8x − 2 y − 8 = 0 (x (x ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 16 2 2 ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 42 2 ( x − 2)2 + ( y − 6)2 = 7 2 center = (2. x 2 + y 2 + 12 x − 6 y − 4 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 12 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 4 + 12 x + 36 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 36 + 9 + 4 2 [ x − (−6)] + ( y − 3)2 = 72 center = (–6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 − 2 x + y 2 − 15 = 0 59. 0). radius = 7 57. 3). 1). 6). + 8x ) + ( y2 − 2 y ) = 8 x2 + y 2 − 6 y − 7 = 0 x2 + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 7 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y − 2 y + 1) = 16 + 1 + 8 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 1) = 25 2 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 1)2 = 52 2 2 ( x − 0) 2 ( x − 0) 2 = ( y 2 − 6 y + 9) = 0 + 9 + 7 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 3)2 = 42 center = (0. 3). radius = 4 60. radius = 7 228 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. radius = 4 center = (–4.Functions and Graphs 56. x 2 + y 2 − 4 x − 12 y − 9 = 0 (x (x 2 2 − 4 x ) + ( y 2 − 12 y ) = 9 − 4 x + 4 ) + ( y 2 − 12 y + 36 ) = 4 + 36 + 9 ( x − 2) 2 (x + ( y − 6 ) = 49 (x 2 2 − 2 x ) + y 2 = 15 − 2 x + 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 1 + 0 + 15 2 2 center = (1. Inc. .

⎠ x2 + y 2 + 3x + 5 y + 17 2 9 =0 4 9 4 9 25 9 9 25 2 2 x + 3x + + y + 5 y + =− + + 4 4 4 4 4 x2 + 3x + y 2 + 5 y = − 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜x − ⎟ +⎜ y − ⎟ =1 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 3⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ 25 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ +⎜ y+ ⎟ = 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛ 3 5⎞ 5 center = ⎜ − . ⎟ .PreCalculus 4E 61. . Section 1. radius = 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 62. Inc. center = ⎜ − . −1⎟ .1⎟ . radius = 1 ⎝2 2⎠ 229 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎟ . x 2 − x + y 2 + 2 y = −1 1 1 x 2 − x + + y 2 + 2 y + 1 = −1 + + 1 4 4 x 2 + 3x + y 2 − 2 y = 1 9 9 x 2 + 3x + + y 2 − 2 y + 1 = 1 + + 1 4 4 2 2 1⎞ 1 2 ⎛ ⎜ x − ⎟ + ( y + 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 ⎞ 3⎞ 17 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ + ( y − 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 ⎞ 1 center = ⎜ . radius = 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ center = ⎜ .9 x2 + y 2 − x + 2 y + 1 = 0 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. radius = 2 ⎝ 1 =0 2 1 x2 + x + y 2 + y = 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 x +x+ + y + y+ = + + 4 4 2 4 4 x2 + y 2 + x + y − 2 x 2 + y 2 + 3x − 2 y − 1 = 0 64.

5 ) .5 ) 2 68. ( 3. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 5. we get: d= ( 5 − 3) 2 + (10 − 9 ) Check ( 0. Inc. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. −3) and ( 3. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. + ( y − 10 ) = 2 ( 5) 2 + ( y − 10 ) = 5 Since the line segment passes through the center. the center is the midpoint of the segment. −4 ) : 02 + ( −4 ) = 16 2 2 16 = 16 true = 22 + 12 = 4 + 1 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. −3) . =⎜ ⎟=⎜ . a. 66. 4 = 4 true Check ( 4. Intersection points: ( 0. −3) : 02 + ( −3) = 9 2 2 = 12 + ( −1) = 1 + 1 2 units. we get: d= ( 4 − 3) + ( 5 − 6 ) 2 Check ( 0. 0 ) : = 5 The radius is 0 − ( −4 ) = 4 2 2 230 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 2 The radius is 0 − ( −3 ) = 3 9 = 9 true Check ( 3.10 ) . ( x − 5) 2 ( x − 5) 2 42 + 02 = 16 4−0 = 4 16 = 16 true 4 = 4 true The solution set is {( 0. b.Functions and Graphs 65. 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 5 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 10 ⎞ . . 0 )} . 6 ) . 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 7 9 + 11 ⎞ ⎛ 10 20 ⎞ =⎜ . the center is the midpoint of the segment. Intersection points: ( 0. −4 ) and ( 4.0 )} . ( 2) ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = 2 2 3 = 3 true 32 + 02 = 9 3−0 = 3 9 = 9 true 3 = 3 true The solution set is {( 0. 5 units. 0 ) : 2 c. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 4. ( 4. ⎟=⎜ . Since the line segment passes through the center. ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . The center is ( 5. b.9 ) . −4 ) .10 ) 67. Using the point ( 3. ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . Using the point ( 3. The center is ( 4.

2 231 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 86. Check ( 0. 2 )} . 079. d = 1.4 ) −1 = 2 − 3 −1 = −1 true 02 + 22 = 4 4=4 true The solution set is {( 0. −1) and ( 3. true + ( 2 + 1) = 9 2 2 = 3 −1 2 = 2 true 0 +3 = 9 9=9 true The solution set is {( 0. d = (8495 − 4422) 2 + (8720 − 1241)2 ⋅ 0. −1) : ( 2 − 2 ) + ( −1 + 3 ) = 4 2 2 d = (8936 − 8448) 2 + (3542 − 2625)2 ⋅ 0. Intersection points: ( 0. 72. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 3. Inc. 83. makes sense 87. 2 . 524. −1) : ( 0 − 3) 2 + ( −1 + 1) = 9 2 ( −3) 2 + 02 = 9 −1 = 0 − 1 −1 = −1 true 9=9 Check ( 3.1 Intersection points: ( 0.1 d = 72. −3) and ( 2. If we place L. −1)} . −3) .4.9 69.1 2 ( x + 2.7 ) and 4=4 radius 30. 2 x 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 4624 75.A. then we want the equation of a circle with center at ( −2. at the origin.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 2 ) : ( 3 − 3) 2 85. 2 ) 84. ( 2. Answers may vary. makes sense = 302 + ( y + 2. – 82. 033 ⋅ 0. Check ( 0.4 ) ) + ( y − ( −2.1 d ≈ 2693 The distance between Boston and San Francisco is about 2693 miles. C(0.7 ) ) true Check ( 2. 770 ⋅ 0. 68 + 14) = (0. −3) : ( 0 − 2 ) + ( −3 + 3) = 9 2 ( −2 ) + 0 2 = 4 2 2 −3 = 0 − 3 −3 = −3 true 73. −2. ( x − ( −2. 82) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 682 70. 71. −1) d ≈ 328 The distance between New Orleans and Houston is about 328 miles.7 ) = 900 74. −1) .

92. Changes to make the statement true will vary. The smaller circle has radius 5 and the larger circle has radius 6. The area between them is given by =5 2 AB + BC = AC 2 2 +3 2 = 5 2 π ( 6 ) − π ( 5 ) = 36π − 25π = 11π 2 5 2 =5 2 2 ≈ 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall. false. Explanations will vary. The distance for A to B: ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d 2 = ⎜ 1 2 − x2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y2 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ AB = (3 − 1) 2 + [3 + d − (1 + d )]2 = 22 + 22 2 2 ⎛ x + x − 2 x2 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 4+4 = 8 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ =2 2 The distance from B to C: BC = (6 − 3) 2 + [3 + d − ( 6 + d )]2 = 32 + ( −3) 2 d1 = d1 = false. does not make sense. A sample change is: This is not an equation for a circle. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: The center is at (3. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 2 2 2 2 d2 = x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 + 4 4 d2 = 1 2 ( x1 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 ) 4 1 x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 2 d1 = d 2 = 9+9 d2 = = 18 =3 2 b. x ) to midpoint 1 1 2 2 ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 − x1 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ makes sense 2 2 90. x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 + 4 4 d1 = 1 ( x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 ) 4 1 x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 2 d 2 is distance from midpoint to ( x2 . Sample explanation: Since r 2 = −4 this is not the equation of a circle. ⎛ x + x − 2 x1 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 95. Inc. 89. y2 ) 2 94. Both circles have center (2. The smaller circle is inside of the larger circle. A sample change is: The equation would be x 2 + y 2 = 256. 91. –3). –5). y1 ) to ( x2 y2 ) d3 = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 AC = (6 − 1) 2 + [6 + d − (1 + d )]2 d3 = x2 2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 = 52 + 52 d1 + d 2 = d3 because = 25 + 25 = 50 1 1 a+ a= a 2 2 96. The distance for A to C: d3 is the distance from ( x1 . 232 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: Since r 2 = −36 this is not the equation of a circle.Functions and Graphs 88. 93.56 square units. a. d is distance from ( x . . 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ + ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ false.

d = x 2 + x3 ( ) 2 2 = x 2 + x6 a. 15 + 0. so its equation is: 3 y + 4 = ( x − 3).–4) is −4 − 0 4 m=− = − . 3. d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0 ) Check Point Exercises 1. 4. The slope of the radius with endpoints (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 98. 2l + 2w = 200 2l = 200 – 2w l = 100 – w Let x = width.12x y = x3 c.10 7. The line perpendicular to the 3− 0 3 3 3 radius has slope .0) and (3. the area is 1000 sq yd 100. in interval A = 2π r2 + 2 πrh 22 1000 2 = 2π r + 2 πr πr 2 2000 = 2π r 2 + r πr2 44 ⎛ 22 ⎞ 2π r 2 + 2π rh = 2π r 2 + 2π r ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2π r 2 + ⎝ πr ⎠ r 6.04x 300 = x The plans cost the same for 300 minutes.000 – 100x b.0). so must cut less than 4 off each side. 2. The circle is centered at (0.–4).000 – 100x)x = –100x2 + 18.10 97. π r 2 h = 22 h= V(x) = (15 – 2x)(8 – 2x)x = (120 – 46x +4x2)x = 4x3 – 46x2 + 120x Since x represents the inches to be cut off.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Inc. x − 200 a. x > 0.12x 12 = 0. . The tangent line has slope and 4 4 passes through (3.09(25. p = 2l + 2w = 2(40) + 2(30) = 140 A = lw = (40)(30) = 1200 The perimeter is 140 yd. The smallest side is 8. g(x) = 3 + 0. f(x) = 15 + 0.08x = x2 + y2 b. 4 ) . a. R(x) = (18. 99. V = πr h p = 2l + 2w = 2(50) + 2(20) = 140 1000 = πr 2 h 1000 =h πr 2 A = lw = (50)(20) = 1000 The perimeter is 140 yd. notation.07x + 0. The domain of V is { x 0 < x < 4} or.08x = 3 + 0. N(x) = 8000 – 100(x – 100) = 8000 – 100x + 10000 = 18. ( 0. then length = 100 – x A(x) = x(100 – x) = 100x – x2 2 5. I ( x) = 0. the area is 1200 sq yd b.000x 233 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 − x ) Section 1.

f ( x) = 1.7(1300) = 1210 g(1300) = 40 + 0. 000 − 400x + 6000 = 26.8x = 40 + 0. someone will run a 3 minute mile.3 x 0.6x 20 = x 20 years after 1990. in 2010. f ( x) = 2. 1. your cost is $580 for both plans a. 000 − 400x)x 2 = −400x + 26.5x = 21 x = 14 f (14) = 2. Inc. b. 000 x 10. R( x) = (40. a. a. . Exercise Set 1.5x c. a.5 x b.3 x b.3x = 59.9 x c.Functions and Graphs 6.9(1300) = 1210 You would have to purchase $1300 in merchandise at a total cost of $1210. 000 − 400(x − 15) = 20. 100 + 0. in 2152. N (x) = 30. 000 − 500(x − 20) = 30. f ( x) = 100 + 0. a.1x 600 = x For $600 worth of merchandise.9 x 60 = 0.7 x = 40 + 0.7x b.25 x = 21 + 0. M (x ) = 239.5x = 21+ x 1. N (x) = 20.6 x b. 000x 234 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.25x 860 = x You drove 860 miles for $395. 300 + 0.9 x c. 8. g( x) = 40 + 0. g( x) = 21+ x c. for either method. 3.25(28) = 35 g (28) = 21 + 0. g( x) = 21+ 0. 40 = 28 + 06x 12 = 0. 000 − 500 x) x = −500 x 2 + 40.25 x 395 = 180 + 0. 7.4 − 0.5(28) = 35 If a person crosses the bridge 28 times the cost will be $35 for both options a.10 1. a. f ( x) = 300 + 0. 000 − 500x b.15x 120 = 01. b.4 − 0. 000 − 500x + 10000 = 40.15x 320 = 200 + 0. 40% of babies born will be out of wedlock. a.5(14) = 35 g(14) = 21 + 14 = 35 To cross the bridge 14 times costs the same.9 x 260 = 0. g( x) = 40 + 0. 5. P( x) = 28 + 0.5 x 0. 000 − 400x R(x) = (26. 9.5x 800 = x 800 miles a.25x 215 = 0. 2. 2.4 x = 198 198 years after 1954. f ( x) = 180 + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 x b. f ( x) = 200 + 0. 180 = 239. a.2 x 1300 = x f (1300) = 300 + 0. $35. 4. b.75 x = 21 x = 28 f (28) = 1.25x b.

⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 8− x ⎞ A( x) = ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 2 2 = x 2 64 − 16 x + x 2 + 16 16 = 2 x 2 − 16 x + 64 16 = x 2 − 8 x + 32 8 V(6) = 4(6) 3 − 96(6)2 + 576(6) = 864 If 6inch squares are cut off each corner. a. the volume will be 980 square inches. the volume will be 2000 square inches. V(x) = (24 − 2x)(24 − 2x)x 2 = (576 − 96x + 4x )x = 4x 3 − 96x 2 + 576x c. 15. . 12. 15) 17. 13. Y(x) = 270 − 3(x − 30) = 270 − 3x + 90 = 360 − 3x V(6) = 4(63 ) −120(62 ) + 900(6) = 1944 If 6 inches are cut from each side. x > 0. a. V(x) = (30 − 2x)(30 − 2x)x = (900 −120x + 4x 2 )x = 4x 3 − 120x 2 + 900x b. the volume will be 1792 square inches. b. you must cut less than 12 inches off each end. the volume will be 1024 square inches. 000 + 60(90 − x) = 7000 − 60x + 5400 = 12400 − 60x c. V(2) = 4(2) 3 − 96(2) 2 + 576(2) = 800 If 2-inch squares are cut off each corner. V(4) = 4(4) 3 − 96(4)2 + 576(4) = 1024 If 4-inch squares are cut off each corner. a. N (x) = 7. the volume will be 864 square inches. Section 1. R(x) = (12400 − 60x)x = −60x 2 + 12400x V(3) = 4(33 ) −120(32 ) + 900(3) = 1728 If 3 inches are cut from each side. a. Y(x) = 320 − 4(x − 50) = 320 − 4x + 200 = 520 − 4x T (x) = (520 − 4x)x = −4x 2 + 520x V(5) = 4(53 ) −120(52 ) + 900(5) = 2000 If 5 inches are cut from each side. If x is the inches to be cut off. 235 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the volume will be 1936 square inches. Since x is the number of inches to be cut from each side. b. A(x) = x(20 − 2x) = −2x 2 + 20x 18. Since each side is 24. Inc.10 N (x) = 9000 + 50(150 − x) = 9000 − 50x + 7500 = 16500 − 50x R(x) = (16500 − 50x)x = −50x 2 + 16500x 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. V(5) = 4(5) 3 − 96(5)2 + 576(5) = 980 If 5inch squares are cut off each corner. b. 0 < x < 12 a. b. the volume will be 1944 square inches. the volume will be 1728 square inches. V (3) = 4(3)3 − 96(3)2 + 576(3) = 972 If 3inch squares are cut off each corner. x > 0. 14. b. you must cut less than 15 inches from each side. the volume will be 800 square inches. T (x) = (360 − 3x)x = −3x 2 + 360x V(7) = 4(73 ) −120(72 ) + 900(7) = 1792 If 7 inches are cut from each side. Since each side is 30 inches. the volume will be 972 square inches. 0 < x < 15 or (0. a. V(4) = 4(43 ) −120(4 2 ) + 900(4) = 1936 If 4 inches are cut from each side.PreCalculus 4E 11.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 400. 2 w + l = 600 A( x) = r (440 − π r ) + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 + π r 2 l = 600 − 2 l let x = width. 2 x = distance around 2 straight sides π 2r = distance around 2 curved sides 29. 600 − 2 x = length = 440r A(x) = (600 − 2x)x = −2 x 2 + 600x 25. 4y = 1200 − 2x 1200 − 2x y= 4 1200 − 2x 4 x(1200 − 2x) = 4 2x(600 − x) = 4 x(600 − x) = 2 A(x) = x 236 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A(x) = x(400 − x) = −x 2 + 400x 22. 000 = 475 x + x y= 26. 2 x + 2π r = 440 2 x = 440 − 2π r x = 220 − π r A(r ) = (220 − π r )2r + π r 2 = 440r − 2π r 2 + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 l = 800 − 2 w 28. 2 x + 3 y = 1000 xy = 4000 4000 y= x 3 y = 1000 − 2 x 1000 − 2 x 3 ⎛ 1000 − 2 x ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ x(1000 − 2 x) = 3 2x + 4y = 1200 ⎡ ⎛ 4000 ⎞ ⎤ C ( x) = ⎢ 2 x + 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 175 + 125 x ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ 1. 2 w + l = 800 27. 400. .Functions and Graphs 19. P(x) = x(50 − x) = −x 2 + 50 x 21. P(x) = x(66 − x) = −x 2 + 66x 20. Inc. A(x) = x(300 − x) = −x 2 + 300x 23. 2x = distance around the 2 straight sides 2πr = distance around the 2 curved sides 2 x + 2π r = 880 Let x = w A(x) = x(800 − 2 x) 2 x = 880 − 2π r x = 440 − π r = −2 x 2 + 800x 24. 000 = 350 x + + 125 x x 1.

05(8000 – x) 400 = x 2 y 400 x2 =y 38. ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 8 x 2 + 16 = x 4 − 7 x 2 + 16 108 = y + 4 x 108 − 4 x = y 40. 35. Publishing as Prentice Hall.14 x + 0. = 0.PreCalculus 4E 30. let x = l C(x) = 20 2 31. 37.10 125 = lw 125 l = = 5000 x 5000 x 125 x 50000 − 31250 = 18750 Invest $31.08 x 10 = x y x2 Let x = amount invested at 15% 50000 – x = amount invested at 7% I(x) = 0.250 at 15% and $18. 300 = y + 4 x d = ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 300 − 4 x = y 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 4 A( x) = x (300 − 4 x) 2 = −4 x3 + 300 x 2 34.15 x + 0. Let x = amount at 10% 18.10 x + 0.12(18750 − x) =y b. Let x = amount invested at 12% 8000 – x = amount invested at 5% loss I(x) = 0. 6000 = 0. b.1x + 2250 − 0.15 x + 3500 − 0.15x + 0.06 x = 0. Inc.12 x = 2117 −0.07(50000 – x) 6000 = 0. = w.12x – 0.750 – x = amount at 12% I ( x) = 0. .14 x + 720 − 0. Section 1. A = x (108 − 4 x) 2 d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 = −4 x 3 + 108 x 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 8 ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 16 x 2 + 64 = x 4 − 15 x 2 + 64 237 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.08 x + 720 39. Let x = amount at 14% 12000 – x = amount at 6% I ( x) = 0.12(18750 − x) = 2117 0.07 x(50000 − x) 31250 = x + 20x + 9x ⎛ 10 ⎞ A( x) = x 2 + 4 ⎜ x ⋅ 2 ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ 40 = x2 + x 32. 0.07 x + x + 9x 2 10 a.750 at 7%. 2500 = 0.06(12000 − x) ⎛ 400 ⎞ A = x2 + 5 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x ⎝ x ⎠ 2000 2 =x + x 33. a.02 x = −133 x = 6650 The amount of money to be invested should be $6650 at 10% and $12100 at 12%. + 29x 36.10 x + 0.

6-foot pole c 2 = 62 + x 2 49. 64. 46. d = ( x − 2) + y 2 c = 9 + 144 − 24 x + x 2 2 = x2 − 4 x + 4 + ( x) c = x 2 − 24 x + 153 2 f ( x ) = 36 + x 2 + x 2 − 24 x + 153 = x 2 − 3x + 4 43. 2 A( x) = 12 x(2 x) + 12 (6 x − 4 x)( x + 2) + (4 x)( x + 2) + 2 x(8) A( x) = x + x( x + 2) + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x 2 P( x) = 2(2 x) + 2 y A( x) = x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x = 4x + 2 9 − x2 A( x) = 6 x 2 + 26 45. 238 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: This model is not reasonable. does not make sense. Sample explanation: The decrease in passengers is modeled by 60( x − 300). as it suggests a per minute charge of $30. a. Explanations will vary. Road from Town A: c 2 = 62 + x 2 d = ( x − 1) 2 + y 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + ( x) 2 c = 36 + x 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + x Road from Town B: c 2 = 32 + (12 − x) 2 = x − x +1 2 42. – 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. A( x) = x 2 − x + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 4 2 A( x) = 3x 2 + x − 4 A( x) = 2 xy = 2x 9 − x A( x) = 12 x( x − 5) + 12 x ( x + 3) 48. a. Explanations will vary. + ( x + 2) [ ( x − 5) + ( x + 3) ] = 2 x 4 − x2 b. A( x) = 2 xy 47. Answers may vary. b. V ( x) = ( x)(2 x + 5 x − 3) − x 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x) = 36 + x + x − 20 x + 164 2 V ( x) = ( x)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) − ( x)( x) [ (2 x − 1) − ( x + 1) ] c = x 2 − 20 x + 164 total length 2 V ( x) = 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3x − x3 + 2 x 2 V ( x) = x3 + 7 x 2 − 3x 51. A( x) = 12 x 2 − 25 x + 12 x 2 + 23 x + ( x + 2) [ 2 x − 2] P ( x ) = 2(2 x) + 2 y = 4x + 2 4 − x 44.Functions and Graphs 41. . 63. does not make sense. V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x + 1)( x + 2) − ( x + 5)(3)( x) V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x 2 + 5 x + 2) − 3x( x + 5) x = 36 + x 2 8-foot pole V ( x) = 2 x3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x + 10 − 3x 2 − 15 x V ( x) = 2 x3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x + 10 c 2 = 82 + (10 − x)2 c = 64 + 100 − 20 x + x 2 50.

y = –4 x = 0. .PreCalculus 4E 65. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r= 1 h 2 1 V ( h) = π r 2 h 3 66. y = –6 x = –1. yet their areas are different from each other. Distance and time rowed: d 2 = 22 + x 2 d = 4 + x2 rt = d = 2t = 4 + x 2 71. For example: A 4 by 6 rectangle and a 3 by 7 rectangle both have perimeters of 20 units. or = 15 x 2 − 29 x − 14 72. makes sense 2 1 ⎛1 ⎞ = π ⎜ h⎟ h 3 ⎝2 ⎠ 1 1 2 = π h h 3 4 67. Inc. Explanations will vary. π 12 h3 (7 − 3x )(−2 − 5 x) = −14 − 35 x + 6 x + 15 x 2 = −14 − 29 x + 15 x 2 4 + x2 2 Distance and time walked: d = 6− x rt = d 5t = 6 − x 6− x t= 5 Total time: t= T ( x) = 68. y = 0 x = 2. 12 − 2r − π r = 2h 12 − 2r − π r =h 2 1 ⎛ 12 − 2r − π r ⎞ 2 A=⎜ ⎟ 2r + 2 π r 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 + π r 2 2 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 2 ( ) x = –3. 1 (π 2r ) 2 12 = 2h + 2r + π r P = 2h + 2r + Chapter 1 Review Exercises 1. 18 − 8 = 9 ⋅ 2 − 4 ⋅ 2 =3 2 −2 2 = 2 4 + x2 6 − x + 2 5 73. 70. Sample explanation: The area of a rectangle is not solely determined by its perimeter. y = 2 x = 3. 7 + 4 2 2 + 5 2 14 + 35 2 + 8 2 + 40 ⋅ = 2 − 5 2 2 + 5 2 4 + 10 2 − 10 2 − 50 54 + 43 2 −46 54 + 43 2 =− 46 = A( x) = (20 + 2 x)(10 + 2 x) − 10(20) = 4 x 2 + 60 x + 200 − 200 = 4 x 2 + 60 x 69. y = 4 239 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = –2 x = 1. Chapter 1 Review Exercises does not make sense. y = –8 x = –2.

19} x = 3. y = 1 x = 3. 15. 11. The graph intersects the x-axis at (5. π} x = −1. 10. y = −2 x = 1.Functions and Graphs 2. not a function domain: {12. y-intercept: None. 3. x-intercept: 5. y = 3 5. –2. The top marginal tax rate in 2005 was 35%. The graph does not intersect the yaxis. 2). y = –3 x = –2. y = –2 x = 2. During the ten-year period from 1950 to 1960. y = 6 3. 8. y = –3 x = 1. maximum y-value equal to 5. x-intercepts: 2. The coordinates are (1985. 13. 0). The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. maximum x-value equal to 40. x = –3. 50%). 500. The lowest marginal tax rate occurred in 1990 and was about 28%. During the five-year period from 1930 to 1935. Inc. The highest marginal tax rate occurred in 1945 and was about 94%. y = 1 x = −2. x-scale equal to 10 and with minimum y-value equal to –5. . 14} range: {13. the top marginal tax rate increased about 38%. 2. y = –1 x = 0. y = 1 x = –1. y-intercept: –4. y = –2 x = –1. y = –2 x = 0. 0). 15. 5} range: {7} x = −3. y = −1 x = 0. y = 0 16. 7. y = −1 x = 2. y-intercept: 2. 0) and (2. x = –3. the top marginal tax rate remained constant at about 91%. and y-scale equal to 1. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. 13} range: {10. y = 6 x = –2. function domain: {2. y = 1 x = 2. 12. 4. –4). y = 0 x = 1. 0). The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 9. y = 2 x = 3. y = 0 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6. function domain: {1. x-intercept: –2. The graph intercepts the y-axis at (0. y = 1 240 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 14. A portion of Cartesian coordinate plane with minimum x-value equal to –20.

PreCalculus 4E 18. g (13) = 13 − 4 = 9 = 3 decreasing: (−3. b. a. b. = −7 x − 16 c. x-intercept: –3 d. g ( x − 1) = 3( x − 1) 2 − 5( x − 1) + 2 = 3( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 5 x + 5 + 2 domain: [–3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. increasing: (−2. − 2) or (0. g(–3) = 4 – (–3) = 7 24. y-intercept: –2 e. y is not a function of x. g (−2) = 3(−2) 2 − 5(−2) + 2 = 12 + 10 + 2 31. range: [–5. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 2x + y = 8 y = −2 x + 8 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 5) = 3x 2 − 11x + 10 d. g (0) = 3(0)2 − 5(0) + 2 = 2 b. y is a function of x. 22 − 1 3 = =3 2 −1 1 25. a. a. 20. 21. g(0) = 4 – 0 = 4 c. 29. a. Inc. . The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. f(–x) = 5 – 7(–x) = 5 + 7x g ( x) = 3x 2 − 5 x + 2 30. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. y is a function of x. 23. f(1) = 12 c. 19. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. 3x 2 + y = 14 y = −3x 2 + 14 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. f (2) = 2x + y = 6 (−2) 2 − 1 3 = = −1 −2 − 1 −3 2 y 2 = −2 x + 6 y = ± −2 x + 6 Since more than one value of y can be obtained from some values of x. 26. f (−2) = b. 3) g (− x ) = 3(− x) 2 − 5(− x) + 2 f. = 24 c. a. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. 5) b. f(x) = 5 – 7x 22. f(4) = 5 – 7(4) = –23 27. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. f ( x + 3) = 5 − 7( x + 3) = 5 − 7 x − 21 28. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. 0] c. f(–2) = –3 and f(3) = –5 = 3x + 5 x + 2 2 241 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) or (3.

relative minimum −3. ∞ ) f. 40. f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 = f ( x) The function is even. 34. domain: (−∞. b. b. ∞) 37. range: (−∞. − 5) or (0. x-intercept: 0 = −2 x 1 − x 2 d. increasing: (–5. = − f ( x) The function is odd. 3. 0. ∞) 38. 5} a. a. 2) constant: (−∞. relative maximum 3 b. a.Functions and Graphs 32. range: [–2. x-intercepts: –2 and 3 d. range: {–3. f(–2) = 0 and f(6) = –3 33. The function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. Inc. increasing: (–2. relative minimum −6 36. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. 0) decreasing: (−∞. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. range: { y y ≤ 0} 242 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y-intercept: 0 e. a. y-intercept: 3 e. a. –5 35. 2] f (− x) = 2(− x) 1 − (− x)2 c. ∞) c. a. f(–9) = –2 and f(14) = 2 = − f ( x) The function is odd. relative maximum −2 39. 0. −5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x f (− x) = (− x)3 − 5(− x) = − x3 + 5 x b. f ( x) = 2 x 1 − x 2 b. − 2) or (2. −2. ∞ ) f. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)2 + 1 b. . domain: (−∞.

17) The eagle’s height held steady during the first 3 seconds and the eagle was on the ground for 5 seconds. y − (−1) = − 16 ( x − (−12) ) y + 1 = − 16 ( x + 12) y + 1 = − 16 x − 2 45. Write 6 x − y − 4 = 0 in slope intercept form. b. 30) The eagle was ascending. horizontal 6 − (−3) 9 50. thus the 1 slope of the desired line is m = − . 1 x+4 3 m = –3 point-slope form: y – 6 = –3(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –3x – 9 + 6 y = –3x – 3 53. m= −4 − (−2) −2 = = 1. 48. rises −3 − (−1) −2 6 y + 6 = − x − 12 x + 6 y + 18 = 0 243 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − x − 10 2 d. falls 5−3 2 2 46. 3) or (12. . Chapter 1 Review Exercises 8( x + h) − 11 − (8 x − 11) h 8 x + 8h − 11 − 8 x + 11 = h 8h = 8 =8 = −2 ( x + 2 xh + h h 2 ) + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 43. − 14 0 = = 0. 6 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44. 6x − y − 4 = 0 − y = −6 x + 4 y = 6x − 4 The slope of the perpendicular line is 6. 3x + y – 9 = 0 y = –3x + 9 m = –3 point-slope form: y + 7 = –3(x – 4) slope-intercept form: y = –3x + 12 – 7 y = –3x + 5 Yes. a. 42. vertical −2 − (−2) 0 2 − 6 −4 = =2 −1 − 1 −2 point-slope form: y – 6 = 2(x – 1) or y – 2 = 2(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 2x + 4 m= 52. Constant: (0. 12) The eagle descended. m= 1 − 2 −1 1 = = − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. perpendicular to y = Decreasing: (3. the eagle’s height is a function of time since the graph passes the vertical line test. c.PreCalculus 4E 41. m= 10 − 5 5 = undefined. 1 4 51. point-slope form: y – 2 = –6(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –6x – 16 −2( x + h) 2 + ( x + h) + 10 − ( −2 x 2 + x + 10 ) 2 47. h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 − x − 10 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h −4 x − 2 h + 1 2 m= 49. Increasing: (17.

3 8.116 ( x − 15) 2y −8 = 0 2y = 8 y=4 slope: 0. y-intercept: –2 3 60. y-intercept: –1 5 58. 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −2 x − 6 2 y = − x−2 3 2 slope: − . y − 2. . slope: –4.56 f ( x) = 0. According to the graph. a.116 90 − 15 75 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 11 = 0.7 = = 0. Inc.116 x + 0. y-intercept: 4 b. slope: 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.000 persons.116 ( x − 90 ) y − 11 = 0. y − 11 = 0.Functions and Graphs 54.116 x − 10. 244 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.44 y = 0. 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 55. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 Find x-intercept: 2 x − 5(0) − 10 = 0 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 Find y-intercept: 2(0) − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = 10 y = −2 59.116 x + 0.3 = 0.56 c. y-intercept: 5 56. France has about 5 deaths per 100.116 ( x − 90 ) or 57. 11 − 2.

245 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 71.5 billion per year.5 2006 − 2002 4 Corporate profits increased at a rate of $182. f (32) = 0. France has about 4.56 = 4. 67. then it starts to come down. 65. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0. a. .5 billion per year. 1616 − 886 730 61. S (4) = −16(4) 2 + 64(4) + 80 = 80 80 − 144 = −32 4−2 c. The rate of change is $182.3 According to the function. m = = = 182. Inc.000 persons. 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. S (0) = −16(0)2 + 64(0) + 80 = 80 S (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 80 = 144 144 − 80 = 32 2−0 b. The ball is traveling up until 2 seconds.7 deaths per 100. 68. 69.000 persons. Chapter 1 Review Exercises f ( x ) = 0.3 deaths per 100.272 ≈ 4.56 66. 70.PreCalculus 4E d.116 x + 0. 2 2 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) [9 − 4 ( 9 )] − [4 − 4 ⋅ 5] = = 10 x2 − x1 9−5 63. 64. The line passes below the point for France.116(32) + 0.

81. 78. 79. 80. 74. 73. 76. 82. 246 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 75. . Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs 72. 77. 83.

g ( x) = x − 2 93. . ∞) c. 87. ( f g )(3) = 3 + 1 = 4 = 2 247 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.1) ∪ (1. −1) ∪ ( −1. f ( x) = x 2 + x + 1. domain: (−∞. 8 – 2x ≥ 0 –2x ≥ –8 x≤4 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = x + 7 ⋅ x − 2 88. g ( x) = x + 1 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) = 3x – 1. x–2≥0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. 3) ∪ ( 3. 90. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 1) – (x – 5) = 2x + 4 domain: (−∞.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) ( f g )(3) = 16(3) 2 − 8(3) + 4 = 124 f ( x ) = x . ( f + g )( x) = x + 7 + x − 2 domain: [2. 4]. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. The denominator is zero when x = 7.∞ ) f ( x) = x + 7. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x2 + x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x2 − 1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . ( g f )( x) = 4( x 2 + 3) − 1 = 4 x 2 + 11 91. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. ( f g )( x) = (4 x − 1)2 + 3 = 16 x 2 − 8 x + 4 x ≥ −5 b. g(x) = x – 5 (f + g)(x) = 4x – 6 domain: (−∞. The domain is ( −∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1) − ( x 2 − 1) = x + 2 domain: (−∞. The denominator is zero when x = 5. ( f g )( x) = x + 1 b. ∞ ) 86. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = x 4 + x3 − x − 1 85. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −5 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. g ( x) = 4 x − 1 a. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x+7 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (2. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x + 7 − x − 2 domain: [2. ∞) 89. 84.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ( g f )( x) = x + 1 c. g ( x) = x 2 − 1 ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 + x domain: (−∞. ( fg )( x ) = (3x − 1)( x − 5) = 3x 2 − 16 x + 5 domain: (−∞. 95.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Review Exercises 92. The denominator is zero when x = –7 or x = 3. ∞ ) 94. domain: ( −∞. x − 1 ≥ 0 and x + 5 ≥ 0 x ≥1 domain: [1. f ( x) = x 2 + 3. ∞ ) = x 2 + 5 x − 14 domain: [2.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. g ( x) = x − 2 5 2 3 3⎛5 ⎞ 1 f ( g ( x)) = ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ + 5⎝3 ⎠ 2 6 1 = x− + 5 2 7 = x− 10 5⎛3 1⎞ g ( f ( x)) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2 3⎝5 2⎠ 5 = x+ −2 6 7 = x− 6 f and g are not inverses of each other. 0 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ 0. x = 8 y3 + 1 x − 1 = 8 y3 x −1 = y3 8 3 3 x −1 =y 8 x −1 =y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x −1 2 248 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. [−2. . f ( x) = 3 x 4 f ( x) = 4 x − 3 y = 4x − 3 102. a. ∞) ⎛ x+3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 4 ⎠ = x +3−3 =x (4 x − 3) + 3 4 x f ( f ( x)) = = =x 4 4 g ( x) = x + 2 x − 1 2 −1 g ( x) = 7 x + 4 f ( x) = 8 x3 + 1 103. a. 101. f ( x) = x 99. a. g ( x) = 1 ( f g )( x ) = f ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ ⎝x⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ 1 + 1 ⎜ + 1⎟ x 1+ x x ⎠ = x =⎝ = 1 1 1 − 2x − 2 ⎛⎜ − 2 ⎞⎟ x x ⎝x ⎠ b. ∞ ⎞⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ (f x = 4y −3 x+3 4 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 4 y= g )( x ) = f ( x + 3) = x + 3 − 1 = x + 2 x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 98. ⎞⎟ ∪ ⎛⎜ . b. 2−x 5 ⎛2−x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 2 − 5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = 2 − (2 − x) =x 2 − (2 − 5 x) 5 x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 5 5 f and g are inverses of each other. y = 8 x3 + 1 3 1 5 100. b. 97. Inc. x≠0 1 − 2x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 1 1 ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 96. f ( x) = x + . f ( x) = 2 − 5 x.

3 ⎛ 3 x −1 ⎞ f f ( x) = 8 ⎜ +1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x −1 ⎞ = 8⎜ ⎟ +1 ⎝ 8 ⎠ = x −1 +1 ( ) −1 107. =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 (8x 3 ) + 1 −1 109. 2 +5 x 2 y = +5 x 2 x = +5 y xy = 2 + 5 y f ( x) = 1 − x 2 y = 1 − x2 f ( x) = x = 1− y2 y2 = 1− x y = 1− x −1 f ( x) = 1 − x xy − 5 y = 2 y ( x − 5) = 2 2 x −5 2 f −1 ( x) = x −5 y= b. 2 3 8 x3 2 2x = 2 =x = 110. x ≥ 1 2 2 +5−5 x 2 = 2 x 2x = 2 =x 105. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. . The inverse function exists. f f −1 ( x) = y = x +1 x= x −1 = f ( f ( x) ) = y +1 y ( x − 1) = y 2 =x −1 f ( x) = x + 1 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 . a. 249 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( ) 2 +5 2 x−5 2( x − 5) = +5 2 = x−5+5 111. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E b. 104. The inverse function exists. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. Inc. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 106. 108.

radius: 1 121. d = [−2 − (−4)]2 + ( 5 − 3) 2 [ −5. −2 ⎟ 115. 122.Functions and Graphs 119.1] [ 0. center: (0. the two plans cost the same. 2] domain: ( x + 2) + ( y − 4) = 36 2 2 range: 118. radius: 3 112. g ( x) = 5 + 0. 250 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.05 x b.1] domain: range: f ( x) = 15 + 0. . –1). ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 116. a. ⎟=⎜ . center: (–2. a. x 2 + y 2 = 32 x2 + y 2 = 9 117.02 x 500 = x For 500 minutes. b. ( x − (−2)) 2 + ( y − 4)2 = 62 [ −1.5] [ −4. 3).83 x2 − 4 x + 4 + y2 + 2 y + 1 = 4 + 4 + 1 ( x − 2) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 9 center: (2. d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [9 − (−3)]2 = 52 + 122 = 25 + 144 = 169 = 13 113.5) ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 + (−15) −6 + 2 ⎞ ⎛ −11 −4 ⎞ ⎛ −11 ⎞ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.1] [ −1. in 2009. =2 2 x2 − 4x + y2 + 2 y = 4 ≈ 2.05 x = 5 + 0.07 x 10 = 0. W ( x) = 567 + 15 x 702 = 567 + 15 x 135 = 15 x 9=x 9 years after 2000. 15 + 0. Inc.07 x c. . 6] = 22 + 22 domain: = 4+4 range: = 8 x2 + y2 − 4 x + 2 y − 4 = 0 120. radius: 3 ⎛ 2 + ( −12 ) 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ −10 10 ⎞ 114. ⎟ = ( −5. [ −1. . 0). ⎜ . the average weekly sales will be $702.

PreCalculus 4E 123. decreasing: (−5. 2 b. a. Chapter 1 Test N ( x) = 400 − 2( x − 120) Chapter 1 Test = 400 − 2 x + 240 1. 1. R( x) = x(640 − 2 x) = −2 x 2 + 640 x w = 16 − 2 x l = 24 − 2 x 125.000 – x) h. and 5. ⎛ 8 ⎞ = 2x2 + 4 ⎜ ⎟x ⎝ x2 ⎠ 32 = 2x2 + x 127. even. increasing: (–1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: [–4. f (− x) = f ( x) e. y-intercept: –3 a. V = lwh 8 = x⋅ x⋅h 8 =h x2 f. Inc. − 1) or (2. i. f(2) = 5 g. (c). –2. x-intercepts: –4. 2. 6) f. A( x) = 2 x ⋅ x + 4hx f (0) is a relative minimum. 1 c. f fails the horizontal line test = 640 − 2 x b.12(10. 3. f(4) – f(–3) = 3 – (–2) = 5 b.08x + 0. –1. 2. –4) h. 6] c. I = 0. 251 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and (d) are not functions. 5] V ( x) = (16 − 2 x)(24 − 2 x) x d. 124. a. a. . 2) 0<x<8 e. domain: (–5. 2l + 3w = 400 2l = 400 − 3w 400 − 3w 2 Let x = width l= ⎛ 400 − 3w ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ x(400 − 3w) = 2 126. (b). g. no. 0 d. (–1. b.

∞ ) ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. range: 9. ∞ ) domain: range: [ −5. i. ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2] domain: range: 6. Inc. . [ −2. j. 8. 2] [ −1. ∞ ) range: {4} [ −6.Functions and Graphs 7. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) {−1. 2} domain: range: 10.1] [ −2. 2] [ −2. ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: range: 4. 7] domain: range: 252 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) −1 − 0 1 = =− x2 − x1 1 − (−2) 3 ( −∞. 4] domain: 5.

∞ ) range of f: [ −1. ∞ ) range of g: [ −2. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) range of g: ( −∞. ( ( g − f )( x) = 2 x − 6 − x 2 − x − 4 = 2x − 6 − x + x + 4 2 = − x 2 + 3x − 2 253 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) domain of f: f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( ( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 4 − x 2 − x − 4 ) h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − x − h − 4 − x 2 + x + 4 = h 2 xh + h 2 − h = h h ( 2 x + h − 1) = h = 2x + h −1 18. [ 0. ( −∞. ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 11. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. 13. ) . ∞ ) domain of f: domain of f: 12. 15. 4] domain of f: domain of f: f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 16. Inc. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. 14. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. f ( x − 1) = ( x − 1)2 − ( x − 1) − 4 = x2 − 2 x + 1 − x + 1 − 4 = x2 − 3x − 2 17.

y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) ) g ( f (−1) ) = 2 (−1) 2 − (−1) − 4 − 6 = 2 (1 + 1 − 4 ) − 6 m= = 2 ( −2 ) − 6 = −4 − 6 y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) = −10 23. First. 486 − 476 10 = =5 4−2 2 Then use the slope and a point to write the equation in point-slope form.Functions and Graphs 19. find the slope using the points (2. 3(10) 2 − 5 − [3(6) 2 − 5] 10 − 6 205 − 103 = 4 192 = 4 = 48 29. or y − 476 = 5 ( x − 2 ) f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) − 4 b. 1 y = − x + 5 so m = 4 4 point-slope form: y – 6 = 4(x + 4) slope-intercept form: y = 4x + 22 28. 24. ( a. 486) . ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) = (2 x − 6) 2 − (2 x − 6) − 4 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) = 4 x 2 − 24 x + 36 − 2 x + 6 − 4 y − (−10) = −2 ( x − (−7) ) = 4 x 2 − 26 x + 38 21. y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) y − 486 = 5 x − 20 y = 5 x + 466 f ( x ) = 5 x + 466 −8 − 1 −9 = =3 −1 − 2 −3 point-slope form: y – 1 = 3(x – 2) or y + 8 = 3(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 3x – 5 m= c. . will be 516 per 100. 4x + 2 y − 5 = 0 ⎛ f ⎞ x2 − x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2x − 6 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞.000 residents. 26. Write 4 x + 2 y − 5 = 0 in slope intercept form. f (10 ) = 5(10) + 466 = 516 The function predicts that in 2010 the number of sentenced inmates in the U. ∞ ) 2 y = −4 x + 5 y = −2 x + 5 2 The slope of the parallel line is –2. g(–1) = 3 – (–1) = 4 g (7) = 7 − 3 = 4 = 2 254 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 14 22. = x2 + x − 4 f is neither even nor odd. 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 476) and (4.S.3) ∪ ( 3. Inc. 25. ( g f )( x) = g ( f ( x) ) ( y + 10 = −2( x + 7) y + 10 = −2 x − 14 ) = 2 x2 − x − 4 − 6 2 x + y + 24 = 0 = 2x − 2x − 8 − 6 2 27. thus the slope of the desired line is m = −2.

1) ∪ (1. the winning time will be 35. 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 2 + 5 −2 + 2 ⎞ ⎟=⎜ 2 . a.78 − 0. x + 5 ≥ 0 and x − 1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −5 a. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 33. 0 ⎟ . ∞ ) 36. domain: ( −∞. T ( x) = x(95 − 1. 8000 = x ⋅ x ⋅ h 8000 =h x2 g ( x ) = 2x + 3 d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) = (5 − 2) 2 + ( 2 − (−2) ) V = lwh A( x) = 2 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 2 x2 + 2 8000 x2 32. d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 38. The denominator is zero when x = 1 or x = –5.19 x 35. T ( x) = 41.7 seconds. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ⎟ ∪ ⎜ .78 − 0.∞ ) Y ( x) = 50 − 1.0⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛7 ⎞ The length is 5 and the midpoint is ⎜ . ( f g )( x) = b.5 x 32.08 = −0.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 30. 255 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 = 41.5 x 2 + 95 x 2l + 2w = 600 2l = 600 − 2w 7 2 −4 x = l = 300 − w 7x 2 − 4x Let x = w A( x) = x(300 − x) = − x 2 + 300 x x ≠ 0. x ≥1 domain: [1. in 2012. 37. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.000 x = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 ⎜ 2 . .19 x −6.19 x 32 = x 32 years after 1980.5 x + 45 31. ⎝2 ⎠ 35. 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛7 ⎞ = ⎜ .5 x) = −1. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. = 95 − 1. Inc.5( x − 30) = 50 − 1. 0 ) ∪ ⎜ 0. 2 − 4x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = x7 34.

x= 256 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. = i 9 ⋅ 3 + i 16 ⋅ 3 = 3i 3 + 4i 3 = 7i 3 (2 + 6i ) − (12 − i ) = 2 + 6i − 12 + i = (2 − 12) + (6 + 1)i = −10 + 7i b. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. = 63 + 14i 3.1 Check Point Exercises 1. a. = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3(−1) 7i (2 − 9i ) = 7i (2) − 7i (9i ) = 1 − 4i 3 c. −27 + −48 = i 27 + i 48 (5 + 4i )(6 − 7i ) = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28i 2 = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28(−1) = 30 + 28 − 35i + 24i = 58 − 11i 5 + 4i 5 + 4i 4 + i = ⋅ 4−i 4−i 4+i 20 + 5i + 16i + 4i 2 = 16 + 4i − 4i − i 2 20 + 21i − 4 = 16 + 1 16 + 21i = 17 16 21 = + i 17 17 5. (5 − 2i ) + (3 + 3i ) = 5 − 2i + 3 + 3i = (5 + 3) + (−2 + 3)i = 8+i 4. a. c = 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 2 ± 4 −8 2 2 ± −4 x= 2 2 ± 2i x= 2 x = 1± i The solution set is {1 + i. b = −2.Chapter 2 Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. (−2 + −3) 2 = (−2 + i 3) 2 = (−2) 2 + 2(−2)(i 3) + (i 3) 2 = 14i − 63i 2 = 14i − 63(−1) b. −14 + −12 −14 + i 12 = 2 2 −14 + 2i 3 = 2 −14 2i 3 = + 2 2 = −7 + i 3 x2 − 2x + 2 = 0 a = 1. 1 − i}. b. 2.

3. (−7 + i )(−7 − i ) = 49 + 7i − 7i − i 2 = 49 + 1 = 50 19. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 1. (−4 − 8i )(3 + i ) = −12 − 4i − 24i − 8i 2 = −12 − 28i + 8 = −4 − 28i 13. ( 2 + 7i )( 2 − 7i ) = 4 − 49i 2 = 4 + 49 = 53 17. = 4 + 12i + 9i 2 ( 5 − 2i ) 2 = 25 − 20i + 4i 2 = 25 − 20i − 4 = 21 − 20i 15i – (12 – 11i) = 15i – 12 + 11i = –12 + 15i + 11i = –12 + 26i 21.1 14. 4. Inc. 2 = 4 + 12i − 9 = −5 + 12i 10. 15. –3i(7i – 5) = −21i 2 + 15i = –21(–1) + 15i = 21 + 15i (−5 + 4i )(3 + i ) = −15 − 5i + 12i + 4i 2 = −15 + 7i − 4 = −19 + 7i 12. 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ( 2 + 3i ) 6 − (−5 + 4i ) − (−13 − i ) = 6 + 5 − 4i + 13 + i = 24 − 3i 7 − (−9 + 2i ) − (−17 − i ) = 7 + 9 − 2i + 17 + i = 33 − i 7. 22. . (8 – 4i)(–3 + 9i) = −24 + 72i + 12i − 36i 2 = –24 + 36 + 84i = 12 + 84i Exercise Set 2. (7 – 5i)(–2 – 3i) = −14 − 21i + 10i + 15i 2 = –14 – 15 – 11i = –29 – 11i 2 2 3+i = ⋅ 3−i 3−i 3+i 2(3 + i ) = 9 +1 2 (3 + i ) = 10 3+i = 5 3 1 = + i 5 5 3 3 4−i = ⋅ 4+i 4+i 4−i 3( 4 − i) = 16 − i 2 3( 4 − i) = 17 12 3 = − i 17 17 257 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8i – (14 – 9i) = 8i – 14 + 9i = –14 + 8i + 9i = –14 + 17i 9. –8i (2i – 7) = −16i 2 + 56i = –16(–1) + 56i = 9 − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 = 34 = 16 + 56i 11. (7 + 2i) + (1 – 4i) = 7 + 2i + 1 – 4i = 7 + 1 + 2i – 4i = 8 – 2i = 34 (3 + 2i) – (5 – 7i) = 3 – 5 + 2i + 7i = 3 + 2i – 5 + 7i = –2 + 9i (–7 + 5i) – (–9 – 11i) = –7 + 5i + 9 + 11i = –7 + 9 + 5i + 11i = 2 + 16i 16. (−5 + i )(−5 − i ) = 25 + 5i − 5i − i 2 = 25 + 1 = 26 18. 20. 5. (3 + 5i )(3 − 5i ) = 9 − 15i + 15i − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 (–2 + 6i) + (4 – i) = –2 + 6i + 4 – i = –2 + 4 + 6i – i = 2 + 5i 6. 8.

30. Inc. 28. 3 − 4i 3 − 4i 4 − 3i = ⋅ 4 + 3i 4 + 3i 4 − 3i 12 − 25i + 12i 2 = 16 + 9 −25i = 25 = −i 38. 26. 24. 29. 2i 2i 1 − i 2i − 2i 2 2 + 2i = ⋅ = = = 1+ i 1+ i 1+ i 1− i 1+1 2 31. ( −5 − −9 ) 2 = (−5 − i 9)2 = ( −5 − 3i ) 2 = 25 + 30i + 9i 2 = 25 + 30i – 9 = 16 + 30i 35. −64 − −25 = i 64 − i 25 = 8i − 5i = 3i −8 + −32 −8 + i 32 = 24 24 −8 + i 16 ⋅ 2 = 24 −8 + 4i 2 = 24 1 2 i =− + 3 6 −12 + −28 −12 + i 28 −12 + i 4 ⋅ 7 = = 32 32 32 = −81 − −144 = i 81 − i 144 = 9i – 12i = –3i −12 + 2i 7 3 7 i =− + 32 8 16 258 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −6i −6i 3 − 2i −18i + 12i 2 = ⋅ = 3 + 2i 3 + 2i 3 − 2i 9+4 12 18 −12 − 18i = =− − i 13 13 13 ( −3 − −7 ) = ( −3 − i 7 ) 2 2 = 9 + 6i 7 + i 2 ( 7 ) = 9 − 7 + 6i 7 = 2 + 6i 7 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2+i 2−i 4 + 4i − 3i 2 = 4 +1 7 + 4i = 5 7 4 = + i 5 5 36. ( −2 + −4 ) 2 = ( −2 + 2i ) 2 = 4 − 8i + 4i 2 = 4 – 8i – 4 = –8i 8i 8i 4 + 3i = ⋅ 4 − 3i 4 − 3i 4 + 3i 32i + 24i 2 = 16 + 9 −24 + 32i = 25 24 32 =− + i 25 25 34. ( −2 + −11 ) = ( −2 + i 11) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 11 + i 2 (11) = 4 − 11 − 4i 11 = −7 − 4i 11 37. 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5(4i) + 3(9i) = 20i + 27i = 47i 5i 5i 2 + i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 10i + 5i 2 = 4 +1 −5 + 10i = 5 = −1 + 2i 32. .Polynomial and Rational Functions 23. 27. 25. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5i 8 + 3i 18 = 5i 4 ⋅ 2 + 3i 9 ⋅ 2 = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = 19i 2 33. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1 − 4i}. . 3 − i} . ( ( ) ) = ( = 4i 2 (3 ) 3 − 2i 6 )( ) ( )( −5 −4 −12 = 3i 5 −8i 3 ) = −24i 2 15 3 3 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1 + i. 2 ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(17) x= −15 − 3i 2 5 2 i =− − 33 11 11 −8 x 2 − 2 x + 17 = 0 x= −15 − −18 −15 − i 18 −15 − i 9 ⋅ 2 = = 33 33 33 = 41. Section 2. 40. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ = 24 15 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 1 − i ⎬ . −6 − −12 −6 − i 12 = 48 48 −6 − i 4 ⋅ 3 = 48 −6 − 2i 3 = 48 1 3 i =− − 8 24 46. −8 ± 82 − 4(4)(13) 2(4) = −4 − 2 = i 12(i 4 − 2) = 2i 3 2i − 2 4 x 2 + 8 x + 13 = 0 x= = −2 6 − 2i 10 −12 2(1) 2 ± 4 − 68 2 2 ± −64 x= 2 2 ± 8i x= 2 x = 1 ± 4i The solution set is {1 + 4i.PreCalculus 4E 39. x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 0 x= 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i The solution set is {3 + i. (3 )( −7 2 −8 −8 ± 64 − 208 8 −8 ± −144 8 −8 ± 12i = 8 4(−2 ± 3i ) = 8 −2 ± 3i = 2 3 = −1 ± i 2 = −4 3 − 2i 6 43. x= 259 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. ( ) 47. −3 − 5 = i 8(i 3 − 5) = 2i 2 i 3 − 5 42.1 ) = (3i 7 )(2i 8) = (3i 7 )(2i 4 ⋅ 2) ( )( ) = 3i 7 4i 2 = 12i 2 14 = −12 14 45.

= = = = = = 2(3) 4 ± 16 − 72 6 4 ± −56 6 4 ± 2i 14 6 2(2 ± i 14) 6 2 ± i 14 3 2 14 i ± 3 3 ( 2 − 3i )(1 − i ) − ( 3 − i )( 3 + i ) = ( 2 − 2i − 3i + 3i 2 ) − ( 32 − i 2 ) − ( −8 ) ± (−8) − 4(3)(7) 2 x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(3)(6) 14 2 14 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 2 The solution set is ⎨ + i. 3x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 2(3) = 2 − 5i + 3i 2 − 9 + i 2 8 ± 64 − 84 6 8 ± −20 6 8 ± 2i 5 6 2(4 ± i 5) 6 4±i 5 3 4 5 i ± 3 3 = −7 − 5i + 4i 2 = −7 − 5i + 4 ( −1) = −11 − 5i 52. 3 3 3 3 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 5 1 5 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 1 The solution set is ⎨ − + i. − − i⎬. −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(2)(3) 2(2) x= −2 ± 4 − 24 4 −2 ± −20 = 4 −2 ± 2i 5 = 4 2(−1 ± i 5) = 4 −1 ± i 5 = 2 1 5 i =− ± 2 2 = = = = = = = 3x 2 − 8 x + 7 = 0 51. .Polynomial and Rational Functions 48. 2 2 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 49. ⎧⎪ 4 5 4 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ + i. − i⎬. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. − i⎬. (8 + 9i )( 2 − i ) − (1 − i )(1 + i ) = (16 − 8i + 18i − 9i 2 ) − (12 − i 2 ) = 16 + 10i − 9i 2 − 1 + i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8 ( −1) = 23 + 10i 53. ⎩⎪ 3 3 3 3 ⎪⎭ ( 2 + i ) − (3 − i ) 2 2 = ( 4 + 4i + i 2 ) − ( 9 − 6i + i 2 ) = 4 + 4i + i 2 − 9 + 6i − i 2 = −5 + 10i 260 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x2 + 2 x + 3 = 0 x= 50.

1 ( 4 − i ) − (1 + 2i ) 2 2 59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = (16 − 8i + i 2 ) − (1 + 4i + 4i 2 ) = 16 − 8i + i − 1 − 4i − 4i 2 f ( 3i ) = 2 = 15 − 12i − 3 ( −1) = 18 − 12i 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5 16 −1 + 3 81 −1 = 5 ⋅ 4i + 3 ⋅ 9i = 20i + 27i = 47i or 0 + 47i 56. Section 2. x 2 + 19 2−x 2 − 3i 9i 2 + 19 = 2 − 3i −9 + 19 = 2 − 3i 10 = 2 − 3i 10 2 + 3i = ⋅ 2 − 3i 2 + 3i 20 + 30i = 4 − 9i 2 20 + 30i = 4+9 20 + 30i = 13 20 30 = + i 13 13 = 15 − 12i − 3i 2 55. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5 4 2 −1 + 3 9 2 −1 = 5⋅ 2 2 i + 3⋅3 2 i = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = (10 + 9 ) i 2 = 19i 2 or 0 + 19i 2 60. Inc. .PreCalculus 4E 54. 57. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 2 f ( x) = f ( 4i ) = f (1 + i ) = (1 + i ) − 2 (1 + i ) + 2 2 ( 3i ) 2 + 19 x 2 + 11 3− x ( 4i ) 2 + 11 = 16i 2 + 11 3 − 4i 3 − 4i −16 + 11 = 3 − 4i −5 = 3 − 4i −5 3 + 4i = ⋅ 3 − 4i 3 + 4i −15 − 20i = 9 − 16i 2 −15 − 20i = 9 + 16 −15 − 20i = 25 −15 20 = − i 25 25 3 4 =− − i 5 5 = 1 + 2i + i 2 − 2 − 2i + 2 = 1 + i2 = 1 −1 =0 58. f ( x) = f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 5 f (1 − 2i ) = (1 − 2i ) − 2 (1 − 2i ) + 5 2 = 1 − 4i + 4i 2 − 2 + 4i + 5 = 4 + 4i 2 = 4−4 =0 261 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Sample explanation: i = −1 . Sample explanation: Imaginary numbers are not undefined. 78. A sample change is: 7 + 3i 7 + 3i 5 − 3i 44 − 6i 22 3 = ⋅ = = − i 5 + 3i 5 + 3i 5 − 3i 34 17 17 80. does not make sense. – 72. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Answers may vary. false. 4 6 − 2i + 3i − i 2 4 6 + i +1 4 = 7+i 4 7−i = ⋅ 7+i 7−i 28 − 4i = 49 − i 2 28 − 4i = 49 + 1 28 − 4i = 50 28 4 = − i 50 50 14 2 = − i 25 25 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 62. 75. 73. makes sense 77. true 2 81. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. . does not make sense. A sample change is: All irrational numbers are complex numbers. false. 4 1+ i 1− i + 1 + 2i 1 − 2i (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = + (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) + (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) 1 − 2i + i − 2i 2 + 1 + 2i − i − 2i 2 = 1 − 4i 2 1 − 2i + i + 2 + 1 + 2i − i + 2 = 1+ 4 6 = 5 6 = + 0i 5 262 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 82. E = IR = ( 4 − 5i )( 3 + 7i ) E = 12 + 28i − 15i − 35i E = 12 + 13i − 35 ( −1) E = 12 + 35 + 13i = 47 + 13i The voltage of the circuit is (47 + 13i) volts. A sample change is: (3 + 7i)(3 – 7i) = 9 + 49 = 58 which is a real9number. 74. 76. It is not a variable in this context. Inc. E = IR = ( 2 − 3i )( 3 + 5i ) = 6 + 10i − 9i − 15i = 6 + i − 15 ( −1) 2 (5 + i 15 ) + (5 − i 15 ) = 5 + i 15 + 5 − i 15 = 5+5 = 10 Product: (5 + i 15 )(5 − i 15 ) = 25 − 5i 15 + 5i 15 − 15i 2 = 25 + 15 = 40 64. false. Sum: makes sense ( 2 + i )( 3 − i ) = = = 6 + i + 15 = 21 + i The voltage of the circuit is ( 21 + i ) volts. 79. Changes to make the statement true will vary.

2 86. . 263 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 h P=1 P ⎛ ⎞ kP= 4 f ( x) = − ⎜ x − 1 ⎟ + 4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 8 i 2 + i i 8 = 2+i i 8i = 2+i 8i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2−i 16i − 8i 2 = 4 − i2 16i + 8 = 4 +1 8 + 16i = 5 8 16 = + i 5 5 = Section 2. 5 85. −(−2) ± (−2) − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) 2 x= 2± 8 2 2±2 2 = 2 = 1± 2 = The solution set is {1 ± 2}.PreCalculus 4E 83.2 Check Point Exercises 1. Step 2: find the vertex: (1. 2 a =−1 0 = −2( x − 3) 2 + 8 84. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted 1 unit up and 3 units to the left. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 ( x − 1) 2 =4 x − 1 = ±2 x = 1± 2 x = 3 or x = −1 Step 4: find the y-intercept: −x2 − 2x + 1 = 0 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 2 −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 8 2 1+ i Section 2. 4) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 2( x − 3) 2 = 8 ( x − 3) 2 = 4 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 x−3= ± 4 x = 3± 2 x = 1.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. Step 4: find the y-intercept: x= f (0) = (0 − 2) + 1 = 5 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −4 ± 42 − 4(−1)(1) 2(−1) −4 ± 20 −2 x = 2± 5 The x-intercepts are x ≈ −0. 5). thus the parabola has no x-intercepts. 1) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 1 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x ) = − x2 + 4x + 1 f ( 2 ) = −22 + 4(2) + 1 = 5 = −1 The vertex is (2. domain: (−∞. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) + 1 2 3. 4. Inc. ∞) range: [984. Step 2: find the vertex: (2.2 . ∞ ) 264 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 and x ≈ −4. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. c. f ( x) = 4 x 2 − 16 x + 1000 a. 2a 8 f (2) = 4(2) 2 − 16(2) + 1000 = 984 The minimum point is 984 at x = 2 . Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 + 4x + 1 x − 2 = −1 x = 2±i The equation has no real roots. . −b 16 x= = =2 b. Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. a = 4. Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. Step 4: find the y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 + 4(0) + 1 = 1 x= Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. Step 2: find the vertex: 4 b x=− =− =2 2a 2(−1) Step 1: The parabola opens up because a > 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

005(0)2 + 2(0) + 5 = 5 Since a = −1 is negative.2 6. 2 y = −0. 5 ) . Rewrite y= A as a function of x. 0 ) . −16 ) . = 16 − 32 = −16 The vertex is ( 4. Let x = the length of the rectangle.005(200) + 2(200) + 5 = 205 The vertex is (200.205). The minimum product is −16 . and connect them with a smooth curve. The maximum height of the arrow is 205 feet. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 8 ) = x 2 − 8 x 120 − 2 x = 60 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 60 − x ) . 7. 205 ) . Let y = the width of the rectangle. Publishing as Prentice Hall.005)(5) 2(−0. ( 402. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. The arrow will hit the ground when the height reaches 0. . The information needed is found at the vertex. Section 2. 2 x + 2 y = 120 2 y = 120 − 2 x x= c.PreCalculus 4E 5. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 Plot ( 0. This occurs when the two number are 4 and 4 − 8 = −4 . Let x = one of the numbers. x − 8 = the other number. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 60 60 b x=− =− =− = 30. the width y is y = 60 − x = 60 − 30 = 30. Inc.005) x ≈ −2 or x ≈ 402 The arrow travels 402 feet before hitting the ground. 265 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This gives an area of 30 ⋅ 30 = 900 square feet. x-coordinate of vertex −b −2 x= = = 200 2a 2 ( −0. 2a 2 (1) 2 y-coordinate of vertex f ( 4) = ( 4) − 8 ( 4) 2 2 y = −0.005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −2 ± 22 − 4(−0. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 120 feet of fencing.005 ) The x-coordinate of the minimum is b −8 −8 x=− =− =− = 4. y = −0. and ( 200. This occurs 200 feet from its release. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 30 feet by 30 feet. y = −0.005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 a.005 x + 2 x + 5 0 = −0. Find the corresponding y-coordinate. Since we need an equation in one variable. A ( x ) = x ( 60 − x ) = − x 2 + 60 x The starting point occurs when x = 0. b. When the length x is 30.

vertex: (1. vertex: (1. 9). –11). f(x) = –2(x + 4) – 8 h = –4. ∞ ) 266 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: [ −1. 2 17. f(x) = 2(x – 3) + 1 h = 3. The point (–1. 2 12. –1) f ( x ) = ( x + 1) − 1 2 2 5. k = –8 The vertex is at (–4. 1) h ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 1 2 2. 2 10. 12). f(x) = –3(x – 2) + 12 h = 2. 0) is on the graph and f(–1) = 0.2 1. . h ( x ) = x2 −1 6. g ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x + 1 8. The point (1. –1) j ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 1 2 4. f(x) = –2(x + 1) + 5 h = –1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 15. k = 12 The vertex is at (2. 9. f(x) = 3x – 12x + 1 −b 12 x= = =2 2a 6 f(2) = 3(2)2 – 12(2) + 1 = 12 – 24 + 1 = –11 The vertex is at (2. domain: ( −∞. –5). –1) x-intercepts: 2 The graph is f(x) = –x translated down one. 1). 7). ∞ ) 2 13. 2 11. vertex: (–1. 5). 0) is on the graph and g(1) = 0. f(x) = –x – 2x + 8 −b 2 x= = = −1 2a −2 2 f(–1) = –(–1) – 2(–1) + 8 = –1 + 2 + 8 = 9 The vertex is at (–1. f(x) = 2x – 8x + 3 −b 8 x= = =2 2a 4 f(2) = 2(2)2 – 8(2) + 3 = 8 – 16 + 3 = –5 The vertex is at (2. –8). k = 5 The vertex is at (–1. vertex: (–1. 14. 16. 1) g ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 1 2 3. k = 1 The vertex is at (3. The graph is f(x) = x translated down one. f ( x ) = ( x − 4) −1 2 vertex: (4.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 Exercise Set 2. f ( x ) = x 2 + 2 x + 1 7. j ( x ) = − x2 − 1 0 = ( x − 4) −1 2 1 = ( x − 4) 2 2 ±1 = x – 4 x = 3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 4) 2 − 1 = 15 The axis of symmetry is x = 4. f(x) = –2x + 8x – 1 −b −8 x= = =2 2 a −4 2 f(2) = –2(2) + 8(2) – 1 = –8 + 16 – 1 = 7 The vertex is at (2. Inc.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2) x-intercepts: 2 y − 1 = ( x − 3) 0 = ( x − 3) + 1 2 = −2 ( x − 3) x − 1 = ± −2 2 = −1 x – 3 = ±i x = 3 ±i No x-intercepts. domain: ( −∞. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) − 2 0 = ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 1) ( x − 3) 2 2 2 =2 2 = −2 x −1 = ± 2 x − 3 = ±i 2 x = 1± 2 y-intercept: x = 3±i 2 No x-intercepts. ∞ ) 267 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –2) x-intercepts: vertex: (3. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. domain: ( −∞. . ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) + 2 2 vertex: (1. f ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 2 2 2 vertex: (3. y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 1) 2 + 2 = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1.2 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 2 2 20. y-intercept: 10 x = 1± i 2 No x-intercepts. Section 2. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 1) − 2 = –1 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) + 2 = 11 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) range: [ 2.PreCalculus 4E 18. 1) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 2 2 ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 3) + 1 vertex: (1. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 3) + 1 = 10 2 range: [1. 21. ∞ ) range: [ −2. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞.∞ ) range: [ 2. Inc. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. ∞ ) 19.

1 5 =± 2 2 1± 5 x= 2 y-intercept: x− f ( x) = 2 ( x + 2 ) − 1 2 vertex: (–2. ∞ ) 23. 3) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 3 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −3 x − 1 = ±i 3 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) x = 1± i 3 No x-intercepts y-intercept: range: [ −1. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 1) + 3 = 4 2 24. ⎥ 4⎦ ⎝ 268 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 . 5 ⎛ 1⎞ −⎜ x− ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f ( x) = − ⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 5⎞ vertex: ⎜ . Inc. f ( x) = The axis of symmetry is x = 1. y − 3 = ( x − 1) The axis of symmetry is x = –2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. 2 y = ( x − 1) + 3 2 vertex: (1. ∞ ) 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ range: [3. ∞ ) 5⎤ ⎛ range: ⎜ −∞. 2 . –1) x-intercepts: 0 = 2 ( x + 2) − 1 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f (0) = − ⎜ 0 − ⎟ + = 1 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 ( x + 2) = 1 2 ( x + 2) 2 = x+2= ± x = −2 ± 1 2 1 The axis of symmetry is x = 2 1 2 y-intercept: = −2 ± 2 2 f (0) = 2 ( 0 + 2 ) − 1 = 7 2 domain: ( −∞. ⎟ ⎝2 4⎠ x-intercepts: 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ 0 = −⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ domain: ( −∞.

f ( x ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 26. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 2 =1 x–3=±1 x = 2 or x = 4 y-intercept: 0 = ( x − 1) − 16 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 16 x–1=±4 x = –3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 15 = –15 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 4] range: [ −4. f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 3 − 1 f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 4 vertex: (1. –4) x-intercepts: ( x − 1) 0 = ( x − 1) − 4 2 vertex: (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. 4) x-intercepts: 2 2 2 =4 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: ( x − 1) 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. Inc. . ∞ ) 269 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. –16) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 ( x − 3) 2 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: –3 f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 3 = −3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. f ( x ) = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 f ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x − 15 f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 15 − 1 vertex: (3. ∞ ) =4 domain: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 25. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 3 ) + 1 = −8 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 3. ∞ ) range: [ −16. ∞ ) f ( x ) = 1 − ( x − 3) 2 28. Section 2.2 f ( x ) = 4 − ( x − 1) 2 27.1] domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. 1) x-intercepts: f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 16 vertex: (1. domain: ( −∞.

∞ ) ⎡ 49 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . 4 . − ⎟ ⎝4 8 ⎠ x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 49 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ − . ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = 2x2 − 7 x − 4 7 49 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 2 16 ⎠ 8 ⎝ 9⎞ 9 ⎛ f ( x ) = ⎜ x 2 + 3x + ⎟ − 10 − 4⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ f ( x) = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 7 81 ⎛ ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. 2 f ( 0 ) = 2 ( 0 ) − 7 ( 0 ) − 4 = –4 2 The axis of symmetry is x = domain: ( −∞. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 8 ⎠ 270 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) ⎡ 81 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . f ( x ) = x 2 + 3x − 10 30. 7 . − ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2 x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ 0 =⎜x+ ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ 0 = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ 2⎜ x − ⎟ = 4 8 ⎝ ⎠ 2 3⎞ 49 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 3 7 x+ = ± 2 2 3 7 x=− ± 2 2 x = 2 or x = –5 y-intercept: f ( x ) = 02 + 3 ( 0 ) − 10 = −10 The axis of symmetry is x = − 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 4 ⎠ 16 ⎝ 7 9 x− =± 4 4 7 9 x= ± 4 4 1 x = − or x = 4 2 y-intercept: 3 .

9) x-intercepts: 0 = − ( x + 2) + 9 2 ( x + 2) 2 domain: ( −∞. f ( x) = − x + 2 x + 3 2 f ( x) = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) + 4 vertex: (1. ∞ ) x+2=±3 x = –5. ∞ ) x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: range: ( −∞. 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 ( x − 1) 2 =4 domain: ( −∞.2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 + 3 The axis of symmetry is x = –2.PreCalculus 4E 31.9] f ( 0) = 2 ( 0) − ( 0) + 3 = 3 2 33. Inc. f (0) = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = −3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 y-intercept: f (0) = 5 − 4 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) = 5 2 271 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 2. f ( x ) = ( x + 3) − 6 2 vertex: ( −3. ∞ ) =9 range: [ −6. f ( x) = 5 − 4 x − x 2 f ( x) = − x 2 − 4 x + 5 f ( x) = − ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 ) + 5 + 4 f ( x) = − ( x + 2 ) + 9 2 vertex: (–2. f ( x) = x 2 + 6 x + 3 f ( x) = ( x 2 + 6 x + 9) + 3 − 9 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. −6 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 3) − 6 2 ( x + 3) 2 =6 x+3 = ± 6 x = −3 ± 6 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 6(0) + 3 domain: ( −∞. . 4] 32.

− ⎟ ⎝3 3 ⎠ x-intercepts: domain: ( −∞. −5 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 2) − 5 2 ( x + 2) 2 =5 domain: ( −∞. Inc. −5) x-intercepts: x= 0 = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 3(0) 2 − 2(0) − 4 2 ( x + 1) = 5 2 ( x + 1) 2 = 5 2 x +1 = ± 1 13 ± 3 3 f (0) = −4 5 2 x = −1 ± 10 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 2(0) 2 + 4(0) − 3 f (0) = −3 272 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . .Polynomial and Rational Functions 34. ∞ ) x+2 = ± 5 range: [ −5. 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ ⎛ 1 13 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . f ( x) = 3 x 2 − 2 x − 4 2 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x ⎟ − 4 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2 1⎞ 1 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 3 9 3 ⎝ ⎠ f (0) = −1 The axis of symmetry is x = −2 . f ( x) = x 2 + 4 x − 1 f ( x) = ( x + 4 x + 4) − 1 − 4 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2 ) − 5 2 vertex: ( −2. ∞ ) 35. 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 3⎜ x − ⎟ = 3⎠ 3 ⎝ f ( x) = 2 x + 4 x − 3 2 f ( x) = 2( x 2 + 2 x )−3 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 3⎠ 9 ⎝ f ( x) = 2( x + 2 x + 1) − 3 − 2 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 1 13 x− = ± 3 9 vertex: ( −1. ∞ ) 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 0 = 3⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ range: [ −5. ∞ ) x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 4(0) − 1 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

c. f ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x − 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 2 x + 1) − 2 + 1 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) − 1 vertex: (1. –1) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) − 1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −1 x – 1 = ±i x = 1 ±i No x-intercepts. domain: (−∞. x= = =2 2a 6 2 f(2) = 3(2) – 12(2) – 1 = 12 – 24 – 1 = –13 The minimum is –13 at x = 2 . ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞) range: [ −13. −1] 273 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) range: [ 2. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 2 2 ( x − 2) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞) range: [ −11. domain: (−∞. 2 40. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1 . a = 2. ∞ ) = −2 x − 2 = ±i 2 x = 2±i 2 No x-intercepts y-intercept: ⎡ 13 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . −b 8 b. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. x= = =2 2a 4 2 f(2) = 2(2) – 8(2) – 3 = 8 – 16 – 3 = –11 The minimum is –11 at x = 2 . ∞ ) f (0) = 2 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 2 2 39. 3 38. 2 f (0) = 6 − 4 ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) = 6 2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 − 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 2. Inc. c. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 3 ⎠ 37. f(x) = 2x – 8x – 3 a. f(x) = 3x – 12x – 1 a. −b 12 b. f ( x) = 6 − 4 x + x 2 f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 6 f ( x) = ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) + 6 − 4 f ( x) = ( x − 2 ) + 2 2 vertex: (2. ∞ ) The axis of symmetry is x = 1. y-intercept: domain: ( −∞. a = 3. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.

∞ ) . 4 ) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k = 2 ( x − 7) + 4 51. a = 6. ∞ ) domain: (−∞. The minimum is 2 2 = −4 + 8 − 3 = 1 The maximum is 1 at x = 1 . Since the parabola opens down. −b −8 = =1 2a −8 f (1) = −4(1) 2 + 8(1) − 3 f ( x) = 6 x 2 − 6 x a. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 41. 21] 46. domain: (−∞. Since the parabola opens up. 44. c. x= = = −3 2 a −4 f(–3) = –2(–3)2 – 12(–3) + 3 = –18 + 36 + 3 = 21 The maximum is 21 at x = −3 .3) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h ) + k = 2 ( x − 5) + 3 50. ∞) range: ( −∞. ( h. 47. ∞) range: ⎢ . The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. the vertex ( −3. ∞ ) . domain: ( −∞. x= x= 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 6⎜ ⎟ − 6⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 6 3 6 −3 = −3 = − = 4 2 2 2 −3 1 at x = . The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. it opens down from the vertex (10. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. −b 12 b. Since the parabola has a minimum. −b 5 1 x= = = 2a 10 2 domain: ( −∞. −4 ) is a maximum point. domain: ( −∞. a = -4. domain: ( −∞. −6] 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 5⎜ ⎟ − 5⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5 5 10 −5 = − = − = 4 2 4 4 4 −5 1 at x = . −4] a = 5. ⎡ −3 ⎞ domain: (−∞. k ) = ( −10. −6 ) . a = –2.18) . 43. c. −2 ) is a f ( x) = 5 x 2 − 5 x a. f ( x) = −4 x 2 + 8 x − 3 a. Inc. ∞) range: ( −∞. range: [ −2. k ) = ( 7. ∞) range: ⎢ . ∞ ) . b.1] 42. the vertex ( −1. b. . ∞ ) . −b 6 1 = = 2a 12 2 48. −5 ) 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−10) ] + (−5) 2 = 2 ( x + 10 ) − 5 274 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: ( −∞. ( h. f(x) = –2x2 – 12x + 3 a. ∞ ⎟ ⎣2 ⎠ 45. c. ∞ ) ⎡ −5 ⎞ domain: (−∞. Since the parabola has a maximum. The minimum is 2 4 c. range: [18. ( h. it opens up from the vertex ( −6. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ 49. The parabola opens upward and has minimum value. range: ( −∞. minimum point. k ) = ( 5. b.

01) −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −2.04.1(26.7 ± 0.1 a = −0.25 feet from its point of release. 4 ) x= −0.7.35 feet.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 77.12 − 4(−0.04 ) 2 = 3 ( x − 11) The initial height can be found at x = 0.1 feet. −7 ) y = −0.7 x + 6.1 = 3( x − 9) 2 a = −0. 275 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. k ) = ( 9.04) x ≈ 55. This occurs 35 feet from its point of release.7 x + 6. f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k = −3[ x − (−2)] + 4 2 = −3 ( x + 2 ) + 4 2 c.01(0) 2 + 0.01)(6. the parabola opens up and a = 3 .7. c = 6.04(26. b = 2.7 2 − 4(−0.01x 2 + 0. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0.1x + 6.2 ( h.7 = = = 35 2a 2 ( −0.1 The shot was released at a height of 6. ( h.1 Since the vertex is a maximum. y = −0.3 or x ≈ −2. k ) = ( −8.01. ( h.8 or x ≈ −7. k ) = ( 5. y = −0. k ) = ( −2.8 feet. f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 57. Inc.1 2 = 3( x − 9) + 0 0 = −0.7(35) + 6.01x 2 + 0. ( h.7 feet.1.7 x + 6.01x + 0.1 = = = 26.1 a = −0.PreCalculus 4E 52.01(35) 2 + 0.1 = 3 ( x − 11) + 0 2 56.01x 2 + 0. ( h. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 = 18.35 The maximum height of the shot is about 18.25 2a 2 ( −0.3 feet.1 ± 2.01x 2 + 0.04)(6. 2 Since the vertex is a minimum.25) + 6. 0 ) y-coordinate of vertex f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 y = −0.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 55.1 a = −0.04 x 2 + 2.01. the parabola opens down and a = −3 .1 ≈ 33. c = 6. 2 = −3 ( x − 5) + ( −7 ) 2 58. a.1x + 6. 53. b = 2.1x + 6. the parabola opens up and a = 3 .04 x 2 + 2. y = −0.1x + 6. the parabola opens down and a = −3 . −6 ) 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−8)] + (−6) 2 = 2 ( x + 8) − 6 b. a. b = 0.1 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k 55.1 = 6.1.1 0 = −0. x= y-coordinate of vertex y = −0. k ) = (11. y = −0. b = 0.1) 2(−0.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −0. c = 6.7 The maximum height of the shot is about 33.04 x 2 + 2. Since the vertex is a maximum. y = −0.7(0) + 6.7 x + 6. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0.25)2 + 2.7 x + 6.04 x 2 + 2. 0 ) b.1) 2(−0.1 x= 2 y = −0. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 2 54. Section 2.04. c = 6.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −2. This occurs 26.1 y = −0. . = −3 ( x − 5 ) − 7 Since the vertex is a minimum.01) x ≈ 77.

The product is minimized when ( −24 ) b =− = 12 x=− 2a 2 (1) Since 12 − ( −12 ) = 24 .Polynomial and Rational Functions c.14 ( 5 ) + 1. The minimum product is P(12) = 12 (12 − 24 ) = −144 .38 billion movie tickets were sold in 2005. f ( x ) = x (16 − x ) The product is = 16 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 16 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 16 16 x=− =− =− = 8.75 gallons per person. −2 2a 2 ( −1) 2 y = −0.03 x + 0. x=− 2a 2 (1) 2 f ( 5) = −0. Wine consumption was about 2. adult wine consumption in 2005 was 2. year = − 62.03) −64 .43 2 = 1.094(12) + 2. Let x = the larger number.094(25) + 2.04(0)2 + 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the two numbers whose difference is 24 and whose product is minimized are 12 and −12 . This seems reasonable as compared to the values in the graph.004(25) 2 − 0. 276 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1.75 According to the function. . 64). This occurs when the two number are 8 and 8 − 16 = −8 .14 ( 2 ) + 1. Let x = one of the numbers. adult in 1992. 63.094 b =− ≈ 12 2a 2 ( 0.1 y = −0.14 =− ≈2 2a 2 ( −0. 60.004 ) Wine consumption was at a minimum about 12 years after 1980.43 2 a. year = − b 20 20 =− =− = 10 −2 2a 2 ( −1) f ( 8 ) = ( 8 ) − 16 ( 8 ) 2 = 64 − 128 = −64 The vertex is ( 8.6 a. x − 16 = the other number. The product of these two numbers is given by P( x) = x ( x − 24 ) = x 2 − 24 x f ( 2 ) = −0. 16 − x = the other number. 61. The minimum product is b 0. Let x = one of the numbers. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 16 − 8 = 8 . This underestimates the graph’s value by 0.03 ( 2 ) + 0. x=− f (12 ) = 0.1x + 6.048 The other number is 20 − x = 20 − 10 = 10.04 billion. The initial height can be found at x = 0. 59.S.43 2 = 1. The numbers which maximize the product are 10 and 10. This differs from the value in the graph by 0.004(12)2 − 0. The maximum product is 10 ⋅10 = 100. or 2002. = 2.59 billion in 2002. f ( 8 ) = −82 + 16 ( 8 ) = −64 + 128 = 64 f ( 25 ) = 0.04 x + 2.59 Movie attendance was about 1. −64 ) .6 The vertex is (8. or 1992.6 ≈ 2. 64.03 billion. b.004 x 2 − 0.14 x + 1.1(0) + 6. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 16 ) = x 2 − 16 x f ( x ) = −0. The x-coordinate of the minimum is −16 −16 b =− =− = 8. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0.05 gallon. U.03 ( 5) + 0.1 = 6.1 feet. Let x = one of the numbers Let 20 – x = the other number P ( x ) = x ( 20 − x ) = 20 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 20 x −0.1 The shot was released at a height of 6. b. Inc. Then x − 24 is the smaller number. Movie attendance was at a minimum about 2 years after 2000.S.094 x + 2. The maximum product is 64.048 gallons per U.38 According to the function. f ( x ) = 0.

The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 12. From the diagram. Rewrite y= A as a function of x. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) 2 y = 50 − 2 x 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 25 − x ) . 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 12. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. 277 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 600 600 x=− =− =− = 150. 2 x + 2 y = 50 = 600 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 600 x Since a = −2 is negative.5 yards by 12. Inc. A ( x ) = x ( 40 − x ) = − x 2 + 40 x x=− b 40 40 =− =− = 20. Let x = the length of the rectangle Let y = the width of the rectangle 2 x + 2 y = 80 2 y = 80 − 2 x 80 − 2 x y= 2 y = 40 − x A = −2 ( 50 ) + 200 ( 50 ) = −5000 + 10.5.5 = 12. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 25 25 x=− =− =− = 12. Let x = the length of the rectangle. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 65.5 = 156. 66.5 yards. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 20 yards by 20 yards.5. the area of the plot is given by A = l ⋅ w = ( 200 − 2 x )( x ) = −2 x 2 + 200 x Since the graph of this equation is a parabola that opens down. The dimensions of the rectangular plot with maximum area are 150 feet by 300 feet. This gives an area of 150 ⋅ 300 = 45. b 200 x=− =− = 50 2a 2 ( −2 ) 68. Thus. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed along a river with 600 feet of fencing. 600 − 2 x = the length of the rectangle We need to maximize.5 ⋅12. we have that x is the width of the rectangular plot and 200 − 2 x is the length. the width y is y = 40 − x = 40 − 20 = 20. A ( x ) = x ( 600 − 2 x ) 67. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 50 yards of fencing. Let x = the width of the rectangle. A ( x ) = x ( 25 − x ) = − x 2 + 25 x When the width is x = 150 feet. 000 square feet.25 square yards. 000 2 = 5000 The maximum area is 5000 square feet when the length is 100 feet and the width is 50 feet. Since a = −1 is negative. Since we need an equation in one variable. Let y = the width of the rectangle. This gives an area of 20 ⋅ 20 = 400 square yards. .PreCalculus 4E Section 2. the width y is y = 25 − x = 25 − 12.5. This gives an area of 12. the area is maximized at the vertex. the length is 600 − 2 (150 ) = 600 − 300 = 300 feet.

000 square feet. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. 2 x + 3 y = 400 3 y = 400 − 2 x 400 − 2 x y= 3 400 2 y= − x 3 3 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ − x⎟ . 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 150. 3 3 3 3 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with 2 maximum area are 100 feet by 66 feet. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. 2 x + 3 y = 600 3 y = 600 − 2 x 600 − 2 x y= 3 2 y = 200 − x 3 2 ⎞ ⎛ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ . Let y = the width of the rectangle. we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 400 400 b x=− =− 3 = − 3 = 100. Inc. This 3 2 2 gives an area of 100 ⋅ 66 = 6666 square feet. we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 200 200 b x=− =− =− = 150. A ( 5 ) = −2 ( 5 ) + 20 ( 5 ) 2 = −2 ( 25 ) + 100 = −50 + 100 = 50 The maximum cross-sectional area is 50 square inches. A ( 3) = −2 ( 3) + 12 ( 3) = −2 ( 9 ) + 36 2 = −18 + 36 = 18 The maximum cross-sectional area is 18 square inches. 2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ A ( x ) = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ = − x 2 + 200 x 3 ⎠ 3 ⎝ 2 Since a = − is negative. Maximize the cross-sectional area of the gutter: A ( x ) = x ( 20 − 2 x ) = 20 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 20 x. This gives an area of 150 ⋅100 = 15. the width y is 400 2 400 2 200 2 y= − x= − (100) = = 66 . the width is 12 − 2 x = 12 − 2 ( 3) = 12 − 6 = 6. 72. 2 400 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ − x ⎟ = − x2 + x 3 ⎠ 3 3 ⎝ 3 2 Since a = − is negative. This occurs when the gutter is 3 inches deep and 6 inches wide. A ( x ) = x (12 − 2 x ) = 12 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 12 x b 12 12 x=− =− =− =3 −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 3. 71. Let x = the length of the rectangle. Maximize the area of the playground with 400 feet of fencing. Since a = −2 is negative. 278 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. 70. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 5. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Rewrite A as a function of x. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 20 20 x=− =− =− = 5. This occurs when the gutter is 5 inches deep and 10 inches wide. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 100. Let y = the width of the rectangle. 3 ⎠ ⎝ Rewrite A as a function of x. Since we need an equation in one variable. Let x = the length of the rectangle. 3 3 Maximize the area of the playground with 600 feet of fencing. 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with maximum area are 150 feet by 100 feet. . Since we need an equation in one variable. the width is 20 − 2 x = 20 − 2 ( 5 ) = 20 − 10 = 10. the width y is 2 2 y = 200 − x = 200 − (150) = 100. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

25(80) + 40(80) = 1600 vertex: (80. = 400. x= 2 86. Ymax = 750 d. Maximize A = (30 + x)(200 – 5x) = 6000 + 50x – 5x2 − 50 x= =5 2(−5) Maximum rental = 30 + 5 = $35 Maximum revenue = 35(200 – 5·5) = $6125 ( ) 2 85. The maximum revenue = 65(800 – 100·15) = $422.25x + 40x −b −40 x= = = 80 2a −0.5) c. x= 74. y = –0.5 x= 2a −8 2 y = –4(2. 520) You can only see a little of the parabola.500.5) + 720 = 840. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –120.5 + 50 +160 = 185 The vertex is at (2. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.5 − 1681 + 720 = −120. 76. You can choose Xmin and Xmax so the x-value of the vertex is in the center of the graph.5) 2 − 82(20.5.5. The maximum yield is 60 – 2·5=50 pounds per tree. – 83. x = increase A = (50 + x)(8000 −100x) b. . 1600) 75.5 vertex: (20. 279 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 87. Choose Ymin to include the y-value of the vertex. 185). y = –4x + 20x + 160 −b −20 = = 2.5) + 20(2.5 2 y = –0. y = 2x – 82x + 720 a. b = –82 b −82 x=− =− = 20. 50 x 25 = 1250 pounds. y = 5x + 40x + 600 −b −40 = = −4 x= 2a 10 2 y = 5(–4) + 40(–4) + 600 = 80 – 160 + 600 = 520 vertex: (–4. 2 84. x = increase A = (20 + x)(60 − 2x) = 1200 + 20x − 2x 2 −b −20 = =5 2a 2(−2) The maximum number of trees is 20 + 5 = 25 trees.5) + 160 = –2.5 2a 4 y = 2(20. Maximize A = (30 + x)(50 – x) = 1500 + 20x – x2 −20 x= = 10 2(−1) Maximum number of trees = 30 + 10 = 40 trees Maximum yield = (30 + 10)(50 – 10) = 1600 pounds 77. a =2.2 73. 000 + 3000x −100x 2 −b −3000 = = 15 2a 2(−100) The maximum price is 50 + 15 = $65. Answers may vary.

Explanations will vary. we have f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 4 . 0 = −2 ( x + 4 ) − 8 2 2 ( x + 4 ) = −8 2 ( x + 4) 2 = −4 Because the solutions to the equation are imaginary. 89. which allows us to solve for a. 2 .817 ≈ 13. Publishing as Prentice Hall.170 x + 14. a.6(–30) + 100 = 9 – 18 + 100 = 91 The vertex is at (–30. –2).170) = 17. 96. –2).817 c.6x + 100 −b −0.372 mpg in 1957. Inc. Explanations will vary. −4 ) . false.005) 2 98. Sample explanation: Some parabolas have the y-axis as the axis of symmetry. set y = 0 and solve for x. does not make sense. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. –2) axis: x = –2 (–1. A sample change is: The vertex is ( 5. We also know that the 2 90. makes sense 92. its path will be a line segment. One unit left of (–2. 2) Axis: x = 3 second point (0. ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4 5 The maximum y–value is .372 The worst gas mileage was 13. 99. false. x= 97. true 2 8 = 16a 1 =a 2 Therefore. Vertex (3. We start with the form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k . 94. Changes to make the statement true will vary. –2) is one unit right of (–2. false. b. 4 ) . To find x–intercepts. y = 0. the function is f ( x ) = 280 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 Since we know the vertex is ( h. A sample change is: The graph has no x–intercepts. y = 0. does not make sense. point: (–3. 4 = a (1 + 3) − 4 2 8 = a ( 4) 91. –2) y = 0. 91).005 x 2 − 0.6 = = −30 x= 2a 0. we know that there are no x–intercepts. 1940 + 17 = 1957 2(. (–1. 11) 100. A sample change is: The x-coordinate of the b 1 1 1 maximum is − =− =− = and the y– 2a 2 ( −1) −2 2 coordinate of the vertex of the parabola is ⎛ b ⎞ ⎛1⎞ 5 f ⎜− ⎟ = f ⎜ ⎟ = . 1 2 ( x + 3) − 4 . f(x) = 3(x + 2) – 5.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 88. 4 −(−0. The values of y increase then decrease. −1) . –2) is (–3. 95. Changes to make the statement true will vary.005(17)2 − 0. Sample explanation: If it is thrown vertically.02 2 y = 0.01(–30) + 0.01x + 0. Sample explanation: The football’s path is better described by a quadratic model. 93. graph passes through the point (1. d. Explanations will vary.170(17) + 14. k ) = ( −3.

⎛4⎞ 2 y = 2 − 2⎜ ⎟ = ⎝5⎠ 5 ⎛4 2⎞ ⎜5. so the equation is of the 440 = 2 x + π y 104. Inc. x 3 + 3 x 2 − x − 3 = x 2 ( x + 3) − 1( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 1) = ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 1) d = x 2 + 4 − 8x + 4x 2 d = 5x 2 − 8x + 4 Minimize 5x2 – 8x + 4 −(−8) 4 x= = 2(5) 5 107. We know ( h. which is below the x-axis. the graph is symmetric with respect to the yaxis. which is above the x-axis. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 101. −3) on the graph to determine the value of a: f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 1 2 x= −3 = a ( −2 + 3) − 1 2 2 2 π π = − π 440 − 2(110) −3 = a − 1 −2 = a Thus.5⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 108. 16).00. 103. the function is even. 105. −1) .PreCalculus 4E Section 2. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 5 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 5 = −1 f (3) = (3)3 − 2(3) − 5 = 16 The graph passes through (2. it must cross the x-axis somewhere between 2 and 3 to get from one of these points to the other. 2 x + 440 π x = 110 π 220 π The dimensions are 110 yards by 2 220 π yards.675. –1). the maximum profit is –3(15)2 + 9(15) + 21000 = $21. x= 281 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x + y − 2 = 0 y = 2 − 2x d = x + (2 − 2x) π =− −440 440 2 − −3 = a (1) − 1 2 − π 106. and (3. . 2 = −3x + 90 x + 21000 −b −90 3 = = = 15 2 a 2 (−3) 2 The maximum charge is 80 + 15 = $95. Since the graph of f is continuous. k ) = ( −3. 102. f ( x) = (80 + x)(300 − 3x ) − 10(300 − 3x ) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x) 2 + 1 2 = 24000 + 60 x − 3x − 3000 + 30 x = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 Since f (− x) = f ( x). Answers may vary. Thus. 440 − 2 x = π y form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k 2 440 − 2 x = a ⎡⎣ x − ( −3) ⎤⎦ + ( −1) 2 π = a ( x + 3) − 1 =y 440 − 2 x 2 Maximize A = x We use the point ( −2. the equation of the parabola is 2 π = 4 = 440 4 f ( x ) = −2 ( x + 3 ) − 1 .

Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. the graph 2 touches the x-axis and turns around at this zero. Because the multiplicity of 5 is odd. Check Point Exercises 1. Since n is even and an > 0. degree: 3 2. polynomial function. It is not necessary to multiply out the polynomial to determine its degree. not a polynomial function 6. x3 − 3x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 x = 0 or x = 3 The x-intercepts are 0 and 3. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 2 x4 − 4 x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 x = 0 or x = –2 or x = 2 The zeros are 0. 5. 6. the model won’t be appropriate. polynomial function. –2. The graph does not show the function’s end behavior. f ( x) = x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 0 = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) 0 = ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) 0 = ( x + 2) 2 ( x − 2) x = 2 or x = –2 The zeros are 2 and –2. Thus its graph falls to the left and rises to the right. f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 Since an > 0 and n is odd. 3. Since the ratio cannot be negative. degree: 4 3. 9. f ( x) = 2 x3 ( x − 1)( x + 5) is of odd degree with a positive leading coefficient. f ( x) = 2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5) has degree 3 + 1 + 1 = 5. the graph crosses the x-axis at this zero. 8. f (−3) = 3(−3)3 − 10(–3) + 9 = −42 f (−2) = 3(−2)3 − 10(−2) + 9 = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between –3 and –2. Since an > 0 and n is odd. 1⎞ 3 ⎛ f ( x ) = −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 2 1⎞ 3 ⎛ −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 x = − or x = 5 2 1. f (0) = 03 − 3(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 4. degree: 5 4. f (− x) = (− x)3 − 3(− x) 2 = − x 3 − 3x 2 No symmetry. the graph should fall to the left. with 2 multiplicity 3. We can find the degree of the polynomial by adding the degrees of each of its degree 3 degree 1 degree 1 P P factors.3 1 The zeros are − .3 2 7. the graph rises to the left and to the right. with multiplicity 2. Exercise Set 2. and 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and 5. polynomial function. 1 Because the multiplicity of − is even. Inc. degree: 7 5. the function falls to the right. 2. Since n is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. not a polynomial function 282 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . polynomial function.

The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. polynomial function 15. The graph crosses the x-axis. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. f ( x) = 2( x − 5)( x + 4) 2 x = 5 has multiplicity 1. (d) 19. The graph crosses the x-axis. 11. = x( x + 2) 2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1.3 7. 3 29. Not a polynomial function because graph is not continuous. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. polynomial function. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. The graph crosses the x-axis. The graph crosses the x-axis. 21. x = –4 has multiplicity 2. f ( x) = 4( x − 3)( x + 6)3 x = 3 has multiplicity 1. 30. The graph crosses the x-axis. 23. 16. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. The graph crosses the x-axis. f ( x) = 5 x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is odd. Inc. polynomial function 12. 14. x = –2 and x = –7 have multiplicity 1. 13. not a polynomial function 9. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 − 4 x − 28 = x 2 ( x + 7) − 4( x + 7) f ( x) = −11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an < 0 and n is even. 1⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = −3 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 4)3 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x = − has multiplicity 1. 22. x = 4 has multiplicity 3. 20. not a polynomial function 8. degree: 2 25. 283 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 The graph crosses the x-axis. f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an < 0 and n is even. (c) 17. f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 + 4 x = x ( x2 + 4 x + 4) f ( x) = 11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. . f ( x) = 5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is even. 24. (a) 18. 31. The graph crosses the x-axis. 26. f ( x) = x3 − 2 x 2 + x = x ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) 2 = x( x − 1)2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. (b) 28. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. x = 1 has multiplicity 2. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. The graph crosses the x-axis. not a polynomial function 10. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. Not a polynomial function because graph is not smooth. f ( x) = 3( x + 5)( x + 2)2 x = –5 has multiplicity 1. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. = ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x + 7) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 7) x = 2. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = –6 has multiplicity 3.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 27. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. f ( x) = 11x − 6 x + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is odd.

f ( x ) = 2 x4 − 4 x2 + 1 f(–1) = –1 f(0) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 36. d.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. 39. 284 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = –1 The zeros at –2. c. –1. The graph crosses the x-axis. and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 35. x = 1. Since an > 0 and n is odd. 37. 2 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. b. f (− x) = (− x) + 2(− x) 2 − (− x) − 2 = − x3 + 2 x 2 + x − 2 − f ( x) = − x 3 − 2 x 2 + x + 2 The graph has neither origin symmetry nor yaxis symmetry. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 10 x + 9 f(–3) = –42 f(–2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x) = x 3 + 5 x 2 − 9 x − 45 40. 33. f ( x) = x + x − 2x + 1 f(–3) = –11 f(–2) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 41. f ( x ) = x 4 + 6 x 3 − 18 x 2 f(2) = –8 f(3) = 81 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x ) = x 5 − x3 − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 23 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. e. 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = x3 − x − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. . f ( x ) = x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 a. Inc. ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = –2. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 8 x 2 + x + 2 f(2) = –4 f(3) = 14 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. = x 2 ( x + 5) − 9( x + 5) = ( x 2 − 9 ) ( x + 5) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 5) x = 3. 3 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 ( x + 2) − ( x + 2) = 0 f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 + 2 f(0) = 2 f(1) = –1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. 38. x = –3 and x = –5 have multiplicity 1. f (0) = (0)3 + 2(0)2 − 0 − 2 = −2 The y-intercept is –2.

–1. f (0) = 03 + (0) 2 − 4(0) − 4 = −4 The y-intercept is –4. c. x = –3 The zeros at –3 and 3 have odd multiplicity. 44. x4 − x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. f (− x) = x 4 − x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0. e. 285 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) = x 4 − 9 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. 43.3 f ( x ) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. or x = –2 The zeros at –2. x = 3. x4 − 9 x2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 0. c. f ( x ) = x4 − x2 c. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. Since an > 0 and n is even. and 2. x = 1. Since an > 0 and n is even. x + x − 4x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) = 0 3 d. f(x) rises to the left and the right. x = –1 f touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. d. The xintercepts are –2. 2 ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 x = –1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (0) = (0) 4 − (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. x = 0. b. . f(x) rises to the left and the right. b. f ( x ) = x4 − 9 x2 a. e. Inc. b. –1 and 2 have odd multiplicity. a. Section 2. f (− x) = − x 3 + x 2 + 4 x − 4 − f ( x) = − x 3 − x 2 + 4 x + 4 neither symmetry e. d. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0.PreCalculus 4E 42. Since an > 0 and n is odd. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. or x = 2.

e. c. d. e. f (0) = −(0)4 + 4(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. b. and 2. x = 1 The zeros at 1 and 0 have even multiplicity. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f (− x) = − x + 16 x f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. x = 2. Since f has a double root at 0. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 16 x 2 a. f ( x ) = − x4 + 4 x2 a. it touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. – x 4 + 16 x 2 = 0 x 2 ( − x 2 + 16 ) = 0 x 2 ( 4 − x )( 4 + x ) = 0 x = 0. x = 0. c. x = –2 The x-intercepts are –2. Since an > 0 and n is even. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0 and 1. f (− x) = − x 4 + 4 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. f ( x ) = x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 a. f(x) rises to the left and the right. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f ( x ) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 a. c. x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 2 x = 0. b. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 3 The zeros at 3 and 0 have even multiplicity. f (− x) = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f(x) falls to the left and the right. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. e. b.Polynomial and Rational Functions 45. Since an > 0 and n is even. x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 2 x = 0. 286 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = –4 The zeros at –4 and 4 have odd multiplicity. .0. Since an < 0 and n is even. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. d. f (0) = (0) 4 − 2(0)3 + (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. 46. x = 4. Inc. f(x) falls to the left and the right. b. 4 47. − x4 + 4x2 = 0 x 2 (4 − x 2 ) = 0 x 2 ( 2 − x )( 2 + x ) = 0 48. d. so f(x) touches the xaxis at 0.

e. f(x) falls to the left and the right. Since an < 0 and n is odd. a. d. d. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. x = 0. 0). x = ± 3 The root at 0 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at (0. c. b. b. Since an < 0 and n is even. f (0) = −2(0) 4 + 4(0)3 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 2 ) = 0 The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) = x 5 − 6 x 3 + 9 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. − x 5 + 6 x3 − 9 x = 0 − x ( x4 − 6 x2 + 9) = 0 − x ( x 2 − 3)( x 2 − 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 4 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Section 2. f (− x) = x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. . f(x) falls to the left and the right. x = 1 The zeros at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity. d. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 49. b. f (0) = (0) 4 − 6(0)3 + 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f ( x ) = 6 x3 − 9 x − x 5 x = 0. e. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. x = 2 The zeros at 0 and 2 have odd multiplicity. f (0) = −(0)5 + 6(0)3 − 9(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 4 ) = 0 c. f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 2 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry.PreCalculus 4E c. x = 0. The y-intercept is 0. d. e. c. 287 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right.3 50. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 a. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 a. Inc. Since an < 0 and n is even. The zeros at – 3 and 3 have even multiplicity so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and − 3 . 51. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 4 – 1.

2 1 1 4 − x 2 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. 0). and 2 have odd multiplicity. 1 1 − x4 + = 0 2 2 1 − ( x 4 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1) ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x = ±1 The zeros at –1 and 1 have odd multiplicity.Polynomial and Rational Functions e. − x ( x4 + x2 − 6) = 0 − x ( x 2 + 3)( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = a. x = ± 2 The zeros at − 2 . d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 0. x = 3 The zero at 3 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at that point. e. Inc. . The graph has 4 turning point and 4 ≤ 5 – 1. c. 0. The graph has 2 turning point and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. b. − x3 + 3x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 1 1 4 − x 2 2 Since an < 0 and n is even. 1 1 1 f (0) = − (0)4 + = 2 2 2 1 The y-intercept is . d. b. − x5 − x 3 + 6 x = 0 54. f ( x ) = 3x 2 − x 3 e. f (0) = −(0)5 − (0)3 + 6(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f (0) = −(0)3 + 3(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. Since an < 0 and n is odd. c. b. 288 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. f (− x) = The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. c. f ( x ) = 6 x − x3 − x 5 a. a. 53. Since an < 0 and n is odd. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. x = 0. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. f (− x) = x 3 + 3x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. e. f (− x) = x5 + x3 − 6 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. 52. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 5 – 1. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right.

b. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. 289 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since an > 0 and n is even. 0). b. c. The root at 4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the xaxis at (4. 2 a. so f(x) touches the xaxis at (1. x = –2. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 0). Section 2. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 0. 0). d. b. f (0) = −2(0 − 4) 2 (02 − 25) = −2(16)(−25) = 800 The y-intercept is 800. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = 1. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. . 56. The root at –2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–2. The root at 1 has even multiplicity. f ( 0 ) = 03 ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2 x = 1. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. x = –5. x = 0. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points.3 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) e. f (0) = 02 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 The y-intercept is 0. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 55. c. x = 5 The zeros at –5 and 5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. e. 58. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Since an > 0 and n is even. x = –2. f(x) falls to the left and the right. c. d. −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 2 x = 4. Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( x ) = −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25) 2 a. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f ( − x ) = x 2 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 2 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f (0) = −3(0 − 1) 2 (02 − 4)3 = −3(1)(−4) = 12 The y-intercept is 12. x = 2 The zeros at –2 and 2 have odd multiplicity. f(x) rises to the left and the right. f (− x) = −2(− x − 4) 2 ( x 2 − 2 ) f ( x ) = x 3 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 a. 0). 57. e. d. c. x = –1 The roots at 0 and –1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. Since an < 0 and n is even. f (− x) = −3(− x − 1) 2 ( x 2 − 4 ) f ( x ) = x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 3 a. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1.

d. f(x) falls to the left and the right. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. 60. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 3) a. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. 290 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c. x = –5 The roots at 0 and –5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( − x ) = − x3 ( − x + 2 ) ( − x + 1) 2 c. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x − 1)( − x + 3) The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. e. b. The y-intercept is 0. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. Inc. 61. x = –3 The zeros at 1 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. d. x = –2 The zeros at 2 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 6 – 1. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. . f ( 0 ) = −2(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 5 ) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. The y-intercept is 0. x = 0. b. 0). Since an < 0 and n is even. 0). 59. f(x) falls to the left and the right. Since an < 0 and n is even.Polynomial and Rational Functions d. x = 0. x = 1. e. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = 1. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 5 ) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. b. 0). e. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. e. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x + 2 )( − x − 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 (−1) ( x − 2 ) (−1) ( x + 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. x = 0. x = 2. Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 2 ) = 0 d. c. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 − 1)( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( x ) = −2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5 ) 2 a. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) a.

f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1)( 0 − 4 ) = 8 291 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The root at 2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (2. Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 2 ) ( 0 + 4 )( 0 − 1) = −16 2 b. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 + 1) ( 0 + 4 ) = 12 3 The y-intercept is 12. and 4 are the zeros. d. e. f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. Since an > 0 and n is even. c. x + 2 . 63. x = –3 The roots at 0 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = 0. 1. x = –4. f ( − x ) = ( − x + 3)( − x + 1) ( − x + 4 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 65. f(x) falls to the left and the right. x = –4 The zeros at all have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . Inc. From the end behavior. so they are the zeros. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. Since the graph has two turning points.3 f ( x ) = −3x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 3) 2 a. 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. e. x = 1 The zeros at –4 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. a. the function must be at least of degree 3. 0). Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. The y-intercept is –16. The graph has 3 turning points and The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. b. x = 2. 2 The y-intercept is 0. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 62. 1. and 4. all three have odd multiplicity. 64. f(x) rises to the left and rises the right. b. b. f ( 0 ) = −3(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = 3x 3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 3) f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x + 1) ( x + 4 ) 3 a. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. x − 1 . Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) . The graph has 2 turning points f ( − x ) = ( − x − 2 ) ( − x + 4 )( − x − 1) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 3 ≤ 4 – 1. Since an > 0 and n is odd. d. 0). c. Thus. c. x = –1. Since −2 . e. x = 1. d. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 4 )( x − 1) a. and x − 4 are factors of the function. . x = –3.

a. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 3) = 9 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 and 1. Thus. and 5. Since −1 and 4 are the zeros. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since the graph has two turning points. b. Since −1 and 3 are the zeros. and x − 1 are factors of the function. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 1. Since −2 and 1 are the zeros. 2 68. Thus. and x − 5 are factors of the function. a. a. the function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) . Since the graph has two turning points. x + 2 . Since −2 . 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 − 2 )( 0 − 5 ) = 30 67. a. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −1 and 4. and 5 are the zeros. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. all three have odd multiplicity. x + 3 . and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. the function must be at least of degree 3. x + 1 and x − 4 are factors of the function. Since the graph has two turning points. From the end behavior. so they are the zeros. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 . From the end behavior. Since the graph has two turning points. 2 f ( x ) = ( x + 2) f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1) = 2 2 c. is f ( x ) = ( x + 1)( x − 3) . 69. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 3. 2 function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) ( x − 4 ) . so they are the zeros. 2. the function 2 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 4 ) = −16 2 2 71. Inc. both have even multiplicity. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. they both have odd multiplicity. −1 . From the end behavior. both have even multiplicity. However. x + 2 and x − 1 are factors of the function. the function must be at least of degree 3. From the end behavior. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 and 1. Since −3 and 2 are the zeros. The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 3. The function is is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1) . we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. Thus. 2. so they are the zeros. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 66. Since −3 . 2 c. 2 The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 4. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. a. c. x + 1 and x − 3 are factors of the function. Since the graph has five turning points. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. it has odd multiplicity. the function must be at least of degree 6. the function The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 and 2. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −3 and 2. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. Since the graph has three turning points. the function must be at least of degree 3. the 2 c. the function must be at least of degree 3. 2 b. 3 . 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3 . so they are the zeros. b. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 . one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 3) ( 0 − 2 ) = −36 70. so they are the zeros. −1 . f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 1) = −4 2 292 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. From the end behavior. Thus. b. b. to reach degree 6. x + 3 and x − 2 are factors of the function. x − 2 . we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. and 1 are the zeros. it has odd multiplicity. and 1. it has even multiplicity. Thus. a. so they are the zeros. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x − 2 )( x − 5) . c. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. x + 1 . From the end behavior. and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 . it has even multiplicity. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −2 . b. it has even multiplicity. the function must be at least of degree 4.

Since −2 . 453 f (3) = −3402(3)2 + 42. 74. the graph rises to the right. 931 = 404. the graph falls to the right. g (3) = 2769(3)3 − 28. a. so they are the zeros. Since the graph has five turning points. 324 x 2 + 107. From the end behavior. The leading coefficient should be negative.555 x + 261. = 434. 324(3) 2 + 107. 203x + 308. c.555(5) + 261. the function must be at least of degree 6. one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. they both have odd multiplicity. 2 ( x − 1) 3 . The percentage reached a minimum of about 18 ± 1% in 1960. 931 = 437. Publishing as Prentice Hall. d. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. Since there were 3 turning points. 443 Function f provides a better description of the actual number. f (5) = −3402(5) 2 + 42. However.555 x + 261. f ( x) = −3402 x + 42. 203(3) + 308. Section 2. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. 453 2 g (5) = 2769(5)3 − 28. Inc. a.3 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . The function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 1) c. The woman’s heart rate reached a maximum of about 116 ± 1 beats per minute. b. g. the function will be a useful model over an extended period of time. 453 f. 73. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 1) = −2 2 3 f ( x) = −3402 x 2 + 42. x + 1 . b. 324(5) 2 + 107. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. a. Answers may vary. e. 555(3) + 261. x + 2 . The woman’s heart rate was increasing from 1 through 4 minutes and from 8 through 10 minutes. 931 76. b. to reach degree 6. The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was decreasing from 1975 through 1985 and from 2000 through 2005. −1 . and 1. a. The leading coefficient should be negative. There were 3 turning points during the 12 minutes. and x − 1 are factors of the function. 731 77. Function g provides a better description of the actual number. Since the degree of f is even and the leading coefficient is negative. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit.PreCalculus 4E 72. 444 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. 203(5) + 308. e. Since there were 3 turning points. b. The woman’s heart rate reached a minimum of about 64 ± 1 beats per minute. 75. 418 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. 293 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph falls to the left and to the right. – 93. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 . Based on the end behavior. . 324 x 2 + 107. 203 x + 308. f. The function will not be a useful model over an extended period of time because it will eventually give negative values. c. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 and 1. This occurred after 10 minutes. The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was increasing from 1960 through 1975 and from 1985 through 2000. g. The woman’s heart rate was decreasing from 4 through 8 minutes and from 10 through 12 minutes. d. a. b. This occurred after 8 minutes. −1 . and 1 are the zeros. 931 The percentage reached a maximum of about 69 ± 1% in 2000. Since the degree of g is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. The graph falls to the left and to the right. There were 3 turning points during the period shown. 94. 453 = 404. it has even multiplicity.

105. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: Since ( x + 2) is raised to an odd power. 2 x 3 − x 2 − 11x + 6 = ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3 x − 2) = ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) 97. makes sense 3x 2 − 11x 101. 1. A sample change is: A function with origin symmetry either falls to the left and rises to the right. x−3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x+5 x + 9 x 2 + 14 x + 45 x2 + 9 x 5 x + 45 5 x + 45 0 The answer is x + 5. 3x 2 − 9 x − 2x + 7 −2 x + 6 102. 110. 106. makes sense 104. 737 2 = 35 + 21 21 111. Sample explanation: A forth degree function has at most 3 turning points. 99. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. true 294 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. false.4 Check Point Exercises 98.Polynomial and Rational Functions 107. does not make sense. Section 2. 1 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 + 103. 2. 108. f(x) = x3 – 2x2 96. A sample change is: Such a function falls to the right and will eventually have negative values. Changes to make the statement true will vary. or rises to the left and falls to the right. the graph crosses the x-axis at –2. 6 x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 4 112. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. 95. false. f ( x) = x 3 + x 2 − 12 x 109. A sample change is: f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 x − 3 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 7 2 x3 − 6 x 2 100. Explanations will vary. Inc. 1 .

x+5 x − 2 x 2 + 3x − 10 4. 6 x3 − 2 x 2 9 x 2 + 12 x Exercise Set 2. The answer is x − 2 x − 3 . . (3 x + 1)(5 x − 2) = 0 1 2 x=− or x = 3 5 1 2⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. 3 5⎭ ⎩ 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 5. –105 x2 + x − 2 x − 3 x − 2x − 5x + 6 3 2 x3 − 3x 2 x2 − 5x 6.PreCalculus 4E 3. Section 2. –4 3 3 f(–4) = –105 4 –5 3 –12 32 –108 –8 27 x + 2 x3 + 5 x 2 + 7 x + 2 x3 + 2 x 2 2 5. x+3 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎬ . 3 x2 − 2x 2 x 4 − 4 x3 5 x − 10 5 x − 10 0 The answer is x + 5. 3x − 1 6 x3 + 7 x 2 + 12 x − 5 x + 5 x 2 + 8 x + 15 x2 + 5x 3 x + 15 3x + 15 0 The answer is x + 3. − . The answer is 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 + 2 x − 2x 4. 7 x3 + 0 x 2 7 x 3 − 14 x 2 14 x 2 − 7 x 14 x 2 − 28 x x 2 + 3x + 1 21x − 10 21x − 10 . –2 1 1 0 –7 –6 –2 4 6 –2 –3 0 3. 3x 2 + 7 x 3x 2 + 6 x x+2 x+2 0 2 The answer is x + 3 x + 1.4 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 x − 2 x 2 x + 3x + 0 x 2 − 7 x − 10 2 4 2.4 9 x2 − 3x 15 x − 5 15 x − 5 0 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3 x + 5. 295 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. –1 15 15 14 –3 –2 –15 1 2 –1 –2 0 x 2 − 3x − 2x + 6 −2 x + 6 0 15 x − x − 2 = 0 2 The answer is x 2 + x − 2.

984 x−4 x − 4 4 x4 − 4 x2 + 6x 4 x 4 − 16 x 3 12 x 2 − 8 x 9x − 4 9x − 6 2 16 x 3 − 4 x 2 16 x 3 − 64 x 2 60 x 2 + 6 x The answer is 4 x + 3 + 2x − 3 + 26 . 2x −1 984 . 2 4x + 3 + 7. 3 x 2 + 3x 2 6 x − 20 6 x + 18 − 38 The answer is 2 x 2 + x + 6 − 38 . x+3 296 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 3x + 4 6 x + 17 x + 27 x + 20 3 10. 6 x3 + 8 x 2 x − 3 3x2 − 2 x + 5 9 x 2 + 27 x 3x2 − 9 x 7x + 5 9 x 2 + 12 x 15 x + 20 15 x + 20 0 7 x − 21 26 The answer is 3x + 7 + The answer is 2 x + 3x + 5. x −3 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 3x − 2 12 x 2 + x − 4 8. . 3x − 2 246 x 246 x − 984 3 2x −1 984 The answer is 2 x − 1 4 x2 − 8x + 6 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 4 x2 − 2 x − 6x + 6 x 3 + 3x 2 + 9 x + 27 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 6. 26 x −3 3x + 7 + 2 60 x 2 − 240 x 2 . − 6x + 6 x − 3 x4 3 The answer is 2 x − 3 + − 81 x − 3x 4 3 . Inc. 9 x2 38 x+3 9 x 2 − 27 x 27 x − 81 x + 3 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 + 9 x − 20 2x + 6x 3 27 x − 81 2 0 x2 + 9 x The answer is x + 3x + 9 x + 27. 2 3x − 2 11. x−4 3 3x3 3x 2 − 9 x 2 2 x2 + x + 6 − 9.

x+5 − 12 x − 8 ) ÷ ( x + 3) 2 –3 9 x3 + 3x 16. 2 x3 + 1 297 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x + x−2 3 3 2 7 –20 –15 40 –8 20 The answer is 3x − 8 + 6 x2 + 3x − 1 3x 2 + 1 18 x 4 + 9 x 3 + 3 x 2 20. 1 4x −1 . 3x2 + 1 21. x3 + x 2 − 2 x 15. 17. x2 − 4x + 1 (4x 3 2 x5 + x 2 4 4 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 73 . 3 . 4 + x − 2 ) ÷ ( x − 1) 2 1 x 2 + x − 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 4 x 2 − 5x − 6 The answer is x 2 + x − 3 − –10 The answer is 2 x + 5 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 18 x 4 + 6 x 2 9 x3 − 3x 2 ( 5x 5 − 3x 2 − 3 x 5 − 3x 2 − 1 − 3x + 1 12 –8 –15 81 –27 73 The answer is 5 x − 27 + The answer is 6 x 2 + 3 x − 1 − 3x − 1 . 18. Inc. 0 14. 10 The answer is x + 2. x2 + x − 3 (x 1 x 4 + x3 − 2 x 2 1 x3 − 2 x 2 − 5x − 3 x 2 − 3x − 6 19. 3x − x − 3 6 x + 13 x − 11x − 15 2 3 (2x 2 2 + x − 10 ) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 2 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 The answer is 2 x + 5. x+3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1) ÷ ( x − 1) 1 2 x 3 + 1 2 x5 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 + x 2 –3 3 –1 4 1 4 1 4 3 The answer is 4 x 2 + x + 4 + −8 x 4 − 4 x 2 x3 + 4 x 2 x3 + 1 4x −1 The answer is x 2 − 4 x + 1 + 20 . −3x − 3x + 6 2 − 12 ( 3x 5 0 1 –2 1 2 2 0 + 7 x − 20 ) ÷ ( x + 5 ) 2 –5 12 .4 2x + 5 13. x −1 .PreCalculus 4E Section 2.

− 6 x3 + x 2 − 6 x ) ÷ ( x + 6 ) –6 0 6 x 4 + 12 x3 + 22 x 2 + 48 x + 93 + (x 4 − 6 x − 6 x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 6 + x ) ⇒ − 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x + 1) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 24. x+5 3 0 x 7 + x 5 − 10 x 3 + 12 x+2 1 –5 –6 The answer is x + x + 2 x + 2 x + 2 . x−2 2 4 28. 2 x 7 − 128 x−2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 –128 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 1 2 4 8 16 32 The answer is x 6 + 2 x5 + 4 x 4 + 8 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 32 x + 64. x+2 6 29. 187 . 2 3 30. − 5 x3 + x 2 − 5 x ) ÷ ( x + 5) 1 –6 4 − 5x − 5x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 5 + x ) ⇒ –5 1 1 549 x 4 + 7 x 3 + 21x 2 + 60 x + 182 + .Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. –5 1 0 –5 50 –255 1300 1 –10 The answer is 51 –260 1300 x 4 − 256 x−4 4 1 1 1300 x − 10 x + 51x − 260 + . (x (x 0 0 0 –256 4 16 64 256 16 64 0 4 The answer is x + 4 x + 16 x + 64 . 64 0 298 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 0 –3 2 3 3 21 63 180 546 21 60 182 549 –2 72 –438 2664 –12 73 –444 2664 2664 . . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x−2 The answer is 5 x 2 + 4 x + 11 + 23. x+6 0 1 0 0 –2 1 1 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 3 2 1 0 1 –2 4 –2 5 0 –10 0 0 12 –10 20 –20 40 –80 –10 10 –20 40 –68 The answer is x − 2 x 5 + 5 x 4 − 10 x3 + 10 x 2 68 −20 x + 40 − . 2 33 . ( 5x − 6 x 2 + 3x + 11) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 3 2 5 5 26. –6 3 11 10 8 22 4 11 33 (6x 5 6 5 –3 1 12 24 44 96 186 6 12 The answer is 22 48 93 187 27. x −3 (x (x 1 x5 + x3 − 2 x −1 1 + 4 x 4 − 3 x 2 + 2 x + 3) ÷ ( x − 3) 1 7 The answer is –6 The answer is x 3 − 12 x 2 + 73x − 444 + 4 1 1 1 –2 3 25. Inc.

2 −11 7 2 −6 3 . 3}. x = 3 The solution set is {–1. 5 −6 5 2 −6 −2 1 −3 −1 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − x 3 + 3x 2 − x + 1 x−2 2 −6 3 24 87 246 1 8 29 82 240 129 2 x 4 − 7 x 3 + 15 x 2 − 31x + 64 − .4 2 x5 − 3x 4 + x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 1 x+2 –2 2 37. 3 f − 1 =1 f ( 4 ) = −25 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 5 −6 −4 −8 4 −3 1 2 3 2 f ( −3) = −133 −2 2 7 9 1 −9 48 −138 3 −16 46 −133 36. . x = 2. 1 −5 2 1 1 –2 –1 3 –1 1 2 0 –2 2 2 0 –1 1 1 3 39. x−2 3 1 −7 5 40. 2 41. −5 − 23 6 10 6 f ( − 32 ) = −7 −2 –1 6 4 1 5 1 1 − 92 1 3 7 9 1 –4 1 6 –1 5 –6 6 0 –5 The quotient is x − 5 x + 6. Section 2. f ( x ) = x 4 + 5x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 6 3 –3 1 –1 2 –1 –4 14 –30 62 –128 2 –7 The answer is 15 –31 64 –129 f ( 3) = 240 38. 2 −5 −1 −1 8 −12 −20 −3 −5 −25 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 5 x 3 − x 2 + 3x + 2 −1 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 5 4 6 0 f ( 2) = 0 The answer is x 4 − x 2 + x + 1 + 33. ( x + 1)( x 2 – 5 x + 6) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 3) = 0 x = –1. 5 −5 1 5 6 0 0 −4 f ( −2 ) = −4 299 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Dividend: x 3 – 4 x 2 + x + 6 Divisor: x + 1 −6 f ( x ) = 3x 3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x + 5 3 3 −1 −1 −4 −4 − f ( 3) = −27 −3 2 ( 2) 3 −12 −21 1 −4 −7 −27 35.PreCalculus 4E 31. x+2 32. 2. Inc.

and −1 . x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 6 = 0 ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 + 4 x + 3) = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 3)( x + 1) = 0 The solutions are 2. ( x + 1)( x 2 − 3x + 2) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 1) = 0 x = –1. Inc. x= 2 3 2 ⎧ 3 1 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . or {−3. − . ( x – 2)(2 x − x − 1) = 0 (x – 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) = 0 1 x = 2. 2 ⎬ . so 2 is a solution. 12 – 32 (x + 2) (2 x − 7 x + 3) = 0 2 (x + 2) ( 2 x − 1)( x − 3) = 0 47. 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 –3 3 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 22 x − 8 = 0 − 13 2 x − 3 x − 11x + 6 = 0 3 –5 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ (12 x − 2 x − 2) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ 2 ( 6 x − x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 2(3x + 1)(2 x – 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 1 1 x=– . 1. 2. Dividend: x 3 − 2 x 2 − x + 2 Divisor: x + 1 –1 1 –2 –1 2 –1 3 –2 1 –3 2 0 45. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 2 44. x = − . 1 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 42. x = 2. . 43. 3⎬ .x=3 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −2. x = − 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −4. 2 ⎬ . 12 x3 + 16 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 2 2 –5 1 2 4 –2 –2 –1 –1 0 46. 2 ⎭ ⎩ x = –2. 2 1 2 −5 −6 2 8 6 1 4 3 0 The remainder is 0. 1}. 3 2⎭ ⎩ 2 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 2 16 12 The quotient is x 2 − 3 x + 2. x = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . −1. 300 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . x = The graph indicates that 2 is a solution to the equation. ⎬ . 2} . x = 1 The solution set is {–1. x=− . − . −3 . 2 2 –3 –11 6 –4 14 –6 –7 3 0 3 3 –18 3 3 –2 –2 0 7 –22 –8 –1 –2 8 6 –24 0 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3x + 6 x − 24 = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1 x = –4.

so −3 is a solution. V = lwh 72 = ( h + 7 )( 2h )( h ) The remainder is 0. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 3 14 −17 −16 −177 72 0 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) b. 2 2 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. 1 2 11 −7 −6 2 59 211 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 50. 72 = 2h3 + 14h 2 2 x3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 0 = 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 ( x − 1) ( 2 x 2 + 13 x + 6 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( 2 x + 1)( x + 6 ) = 0 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) ( 0 = ( h − 2 ) 2 ( h 2 + 9h + 18 ) 1 The solutions are 1. so 1 is a solution. } 1 . so 1 is a solution. or −3. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 48. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 The solutions are 1. and 2. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 The remainder is 0. or 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎨ −6. The female moth’s abdominal width is 3 millimeters. Inc. . The dimensions are 2 inches by 4 inches by 9 inches. or ⎨ . 25 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 The remainder is 0. a. b. and −6 . It can be used to find other solutions (if they exist). and .1⎬ . a. 2 0 −72 2 14 4 36 2 18 36 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. 14 ( x + 3) ( 2 x − 5 x + 2 ) = 0 ( x + 3)( 2 x − 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 49.4 The graph indicates that −3 is a solution to the equation. 1 6 −11 6 −1 6 75 = ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) 2 { 42 The remainder is 0 so 3 is a solution.1⎬ . 1 1 ⎧1 1 ⎫ . 2 . 2 ⎭ ⎩ ) 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2 ( h + 6 )( h + 3) ) 0 = 2 ( h − 2 )( h + 6 )( h + 3) 2 ( h − 2) = 0 h + 6 = 0 h + 3 = 0 h−2 = 0 h=2 h = −6 h = −3 The height is 2 inches. One solution is 3. 1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 3 ⎩3 2 ⎭ 52. so the only solution is x = 3. 2 x 3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 = 0 The solutions are −3 . . − . 301 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 −5 1 −5 1 0 13 −6 2 13 6 0 0 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 0 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 This is the equation obtained in part a. −3 2 1 −13 6 −6 15 −6 2 −5 2 0 51. − . the width is 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 inches and the length is 2 + 7 = 9 inches. 177 We need to find x when f ( x ) = 211. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) = 0 The polynomial 14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 cannot be factored.

f (30) = c. Sample explanation: The zeros of f are the same as the solutions of f ( x) = 0. true 72. .57 40 − 110 b.2 53. x3 .57 ten billion.3x 2 + 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions A = l ⋅ w so A 0.1 0.08 −0. does not make sense.06 0. x6 since 3 = x 3 . 80(30) − 8000 = 70 30 − 110 80 800 57. false.5 −0. 110 -8000 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 f (40) = 80 + 40 − 110 = 68. 70) same answer as in a. Changes to make the statement true will vary.22 56. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials. the government’s revenue is $68. the government tax revenue will be $70 ten billion. b. 302 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0. f (x) is not a polynomial function. Explanations will vary. false. f (x) is not a polynomial function. 80 8800 A = l ⋅ w so. 66. A 8 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x + 3 l= = 3 w x+ 4 − 34 8 80(40) − 8000 = 68. 69. Answers may vary.5 x3 − 0.22 x + 0. Explanations will vary. 70. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Inc. Explanations will vary. −0. x 2 and x terms. the length of the rectangle is 8 x 2 − 12 x + 4 units. the length of the rectangle is 0.3 110 0 −6 −5 3 −6 9 −3 8 −12 4 0 80 a. f (40) = (40.5 −0. (30. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials. – 65.3 units. 54.2 0. makes sense 68. Therefore. 70) At a 30% tax rate.06 l= = w x + 0.57 Therefore. Sample explanation: The division must account for the zero coefficients on the x 4 . 55. 67. −0. 68. A sample change is: The degree of the quotient is 3. c. -8000 8800 80 800 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 = 70 f (30) = 80 + 80 − 110 (30.4 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. true 73.57) At a 40% tax rate.4 x + 0. does not make sense. Sample explanation: The remainder theorem provides an alternative method for evaluating a function at a given value. does not make sense. x 71.5 x 2 − 0.06 0.3 0. A sample change is: The divisor is a factor of the divided only if the remainder is the whole number 0.

k = –12 76. Inc. we set it equal to zero and factor. Then divide the quotient by 2.PreCalculus 4E 74.4 5x2 + 2 x − 4 4 x + 3 20 x + 23x 2 − 10 x + k 78. x 2n − x n + 1 +1 x 3n + x 2 n − x 2n x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4)2 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −4 ± 20 2 −4 ± 2 5 x= 2 x = −2 ± 5 − x 2n − x n x= xn +1 xn +1 0 { } The solution set is −2 ± 5 . . 303 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –1. 77. k must equal –12.5} . 1 −4 The remainder is zero and 5 is a solution to the equation. 5 −20 −20 79. 3 x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 = 0 5 1 −4 −9 16 20 5 20 x3 + 15 x 2 1 8 x 2 − 10 − 16 x + k −16 x − 12 0 To solve the equation. ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) ) = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 )( x + 1)( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = d ( x) ⋅ q( x) + r ( x) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 9 = d ( x )(2 x − 3) + 3 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x)(2 x − 3) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x) Apply the zero product principle. 2 x − 4 = 2( x − 2) Use synthetic division to divide by x – 2. x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 8x2 + 6x 75. 2 and 5 and the solution set is {−2. − 4x + 6 −4 x + 6 The polynomial is x – 2. 2. x n + 1 x 3n −4 = ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) To get a remainder of zero. Section 2. x −5 = 0 x +1 = 0 2x − 3 x=5 x = −1 x+2=0 x−2 = 0 x−2 2 x − 3 2 x2 − 7 x + 6 2 x2 − 3x x = −2 x=2 The solutions are –2. −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

± 6 q : ±1 -5 –2 2 6 2 3 1 0 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(1) 2(1) −3 ± 5 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 5 −3 − 5 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ 2. ± . 4. 1 5. 17 –13 0 q : ± 1. 1 1 5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a double root. ± 2. ±1. ± 6 q are the possible rational zeros. ± 10. 2 – 3i}. .Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. 2 + 3i. −b ± b − 4ac 2a 2 x= ±1. Inc. 2. ± . } The solution set is −2 ± i 2 . −4. ⎬.5 x= Check Point Exercises 1. ± . x 2 + 3x + 1 = 0 an ( 50 ) = −150 an = −3 x= Section 2. ± 3. x= 304 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2. x 2 + 9 x + 20 = 0 20 0 −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(1)(6) x= 2(1) −4 ± −8 2 −4 ± 2i 2 x= 2 x = −2 ± i 2 x= ( x + 4)( x + 5) = 0 x = −4 or x = −5 { The solution set is {1. ± 20 are possible rational zeros 1 8 11 –20 1 9 20 1 9 1 is a zero. ± 2 are possible rational zeros f (3) = −150 2 1 ) an (3) − 3(3) − 4 = −150 4 2 an ( 81 − 27 − 4 ) = −150 1 2 is a zero. ± 5. ± q 2 4 2 4 are the possible rational zeros. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2. ± 4. x 2 − 4 x + 13 = 0 0 4 ± 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = = 2 + 3i 2 2 The solution set is{1. = p : ± 1. f ( x) = an ( x 4 − 3 x 2 − 4) ( 1 ±1. ± 3. ± 3 1 –6 22 –30 13 1 –5 17 –13 1 –5 1 is a zero. ± 4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. −5}. . 2 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ p : ± 1. 1 p : ± 1. ± 3. 81. ± 2. x2 + 4 x + 6 = 0 3. ± 13 are possible rational zeros.

± . there are 4. ± 2. ±4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1.5 ( x + 3)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) 6. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ± 4 q : ±1 9. ±6 q: ±1. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p: ±1. ±15 q: ±1. ± 4. ±5.5 1. ±2. ±3. x = −2. ±3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ± . ± 4 q 2. ± 3. f ( x) = 4 x5 − 8 x 4 − x + 2 p : ± 1. ± 2. ± 2. . f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 p: ±1. Section 2. ± q 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 0 2 is a zero. ± 2. 2. ± 4 q p : ± 1. ± . ±2. ± . 2. or 0 positive real zeros. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. ± 4. p : ± 1. ± 2 4 q f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 p : ± 1. 4. ±2.PreCalculus 4E 6. ±8 q: ±1. ±4. f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. ± 8 q 3. f ( x) = x 4 − 14 x 3 + 71x 2 − 154 x + 120 q : ±1 f (− x) = x 4 + 14 x 3 + 71x 2 + 154 x + 120 Since f(x) has 4 changes of sign. ± 2. ± q 3 3 4 p : ± 1. ± 2. ± 2. ± 8. ± q 3 3 3 3 7. ± . ±3. ± 2. ± 5. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 6 x − 8 p : ± 1. ± 6. f ( x) = x 5 − x 4 − 7 x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 12 p : ± 1. ± . –2. p 1 1 : ± 1. ± . ± . ± 3. –1}. Inc. ± 15. –1 are rational zeros. –2. c. ±3. ±6 q: ±1. Since f(–x) has no changes of sign. ± 4 Exercise Set 2. there are no negative real zeros. ± 2. ± 2. ± 4. ± q 2 4 2 4 305 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. p : ± 1. ± 6. ± 3. 5. x = −1 The solution set is {2. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 f ( x) = an ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) f (1) = an (1 + 3)(12 + 1) = 8an = 8 an = 1 f ( x) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) or x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3 7. ± 2. ± . ±2. ± 8 q : ±1 b. ± 2 q : ± 1. ± 4 q : ±1 2 x − 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 x +1 = 0 x = 2. ± 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 8 p: ±1. 1 1 –4 –4 2 6 4 x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x 2 + 3 x + 2) = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x + 3x − 11x − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 q 8. ± . ± . p : ± 1.

± 6. 2 b. 11. ± q 2 2 b. 1 are rational zeros. . 4. ± 2. ± . ±2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±2 q: ±1. x = 1 The solution set is{4. ± 3. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. ± 2 p 1 3 : ± 1. ( x − 4) ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 x = 4. − 2 are rational zeros. –3 –11 6 6 9 –6 2 3 –2 0 3 is a zero. 1}. ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3x − 2) = 0 ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x − 6 p: ±1. ± 12 q 4 1 12. –3. 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 11x + 6 = 0 c. b. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ 306 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . a. a. ±6. Inc. 1⎬ . ⎬. ±12 q: ±1 p : ± 1. a. ± 3. 1 2. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 b. –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 5 x 2 + x + 2 p: ±1. x = −3. ± 3. ±3. ± 2. 2 1 2 –3 0 4 is a zero. –5 2 –1 –1 0 2 is a zero. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(−6) 2(1) −3 ± 33 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 33 −3 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −1. ±3. ± 2. 1 are rational zeros. x = −2 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨3. . 4 –2 –2 ( x − 2) (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 1 x = 2. 2 ⎭ ⎩ p : ± 1. − . –3. x = . − 2 ⎬ . ±2. ± 4. x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ 2. ± 6. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 11x + 12 p: ±1. ±4. − . c. 1 3. ± 2. 2 13. ±6 q –1 4 –3 –6 –1 –3 6 1 3 –6 –1 is a rational zero. ±2. ±3. 1 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 c. ± 6 q : ± 1. x = − .Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. ±6 q: ±1 p : ±1. ± q 2 2 3 2 ( x − 2) ( 2 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 6 a. . 0 x 2 + 3x − 6 = 0 x= 1 x = 3. 2 c.

The solution set is ⎨ −2. 2 2 2 x2 + 2 x + 1 = 0 c. a. ±2 q: ±1. f ( x) = 2 x3 + 6 x 2 + 5 x + 2 p: ±1. ⎬. ± 2. Section 2. 2 c. b. ⎬. . ± 5 q 1 b. ⎧⎪ 1 −1 + 5 −1 − 5 ⎫⎪ . ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 15. Inc. a. 0 x 2 − 3x + 5 = 0 x= 6 1 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) 3 ± −11 2 3 ± i 11 = 2 = ⎧⎪ 3 + i 11 3 − i 11 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨1. ⎬. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a c. .PreCalculus 4E 14.5 f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 3 x + 1 p: ±1 q: ±1. The solution set is ⎨ . 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 307 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x= x= 1 –3 1 1 1 –1 2 –2 0 −1 + i −1 − i ⎫ ⎧ . ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 5 2 –4 –4 –2 2 2 1 –2 is a rational zero. −1 ± 12 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −1 ± 5 2 f ( x) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 8 x − 5 p: ±1. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ x2 + x − 1 = 0 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 16. ±5 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± q 2 –2 2 2(2) −2 ± −4 4 −2 ± 2i = 4 −1 ± i = 2 2 x2 + 2 x − 2 = 0 x= −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(1) = 1 is a rational zero. 0 –4 8 –5 1 –3 5 1 –3 5 1 is a rational zero. ± q 2 1 2 b. a.

−3i}. ± 12 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 a. ( x + 1) 2 x = −1 x= The solution set is {4. ± 6. 19. 0 x3 + 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 c. ± 4. ± 3. c. 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 0 ( x − 4) x = 4. ±13 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 1. 4 are rational roots. –2 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 2 x − 6) = 0 c. 2. p : ± 1. . ± 2. ± 3. ± 4. ± 13 q 1 b. –2 –7 –4 4 8 4 1 2 1 4 is a root. a. ±2. 1. 1 2 –3 0 4 is a root. 4 + 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = 2 2 4 ± 6i = = 2 ± 3i 2 The solution set is {1. ± 2. ± 4. p : ± 1. ± 6. ± 3. 0 { 20. ± 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. ± 12 q b. 1 + 7. ± 4 q 4 0 x= x − 4 = 0 x + 3 = 0 x −1 = 0 b. ± 4. ± 12 q x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 p: ±1. –10 } The solution set is −2. –3. 4 1 –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 b. ± 2. 1 − 7 . x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 a. 308 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 + 3i. ±4 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 3. x=4 x = −3 x = 1 The solution set is {–3. 1 2 ± 4 + 24 2 ± 28 = 2 2 2±2 7 = = 1± 7 2 ( x − 4)( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 18. −1} . ± 2. a. 4}. ± 12 q : ±1 p : ± 1. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 c. ± 6. 4 are rational roots. –1. q : ±1 p : ± 1. Inc. ± 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 –12 –2 4 12 1 –2 –6 –2 is a rational root. x3 − 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. 1 –5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a rational root.

± 4 q b. ± q 2 2 3 3 6 6 –5 6 25 –24 5 –30 25 –5 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 a. ± . b. ⎬ . 6 x + 25 x − 24 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 5)(6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 3 c. a. −2. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 p: ±1. ±5. ± 2 ± 4 ± q 2 1 2 2 ( x − 2)( x3 − 5 x − 2) = 0 ( x + 5)(2 x − 1)(3x − 1) = 0 x + 5 = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 3x − 1 = 0 1 1 x = −5. −1. ±15 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 2 c. ± 3 ± 5 ± 15 q 3 1 0 –2 –16 –15 3 9 21 15 1 3 7 3 is a root. x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −5. ±2. . p : ± 1. 6 –5 1 0 –5 is a root. 0 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 1 1 –2 is a zero of x3 0 –5 –2 –2 4 2 –2 –1 0 – 5x –2 = 0. 23. ⎩2 ⎭ x= 309 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. x = . ± 2. ± 5. ±3. 2 3 c. ± 2. 1 − 5 ⎬ . 2 b. 1 –2 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 p: ±1. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 are rational roots. 2 3⎭ ⎩ 22. 2. ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 2± 4+4 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 2 2 2 = 1± 2 The solution set is x= {−2. ± 3. ± . ± . ± 6 p 1 5 1 5 1 5 : ± 1.5 6 x 3 + 25 x 2 − 24 x + 5 = 0 a. 1 − 2 . 5 0 2± 2 5 = 1± 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .PreCalculus 4E 21. ± 2. a.3 are rational roots. . 1 1 −5. 1 + –5 –6 4 1 –2 –4 –4 –8 0 24. . are rational roots. p : ± 1. 1 + 5. ±4 q: ±1. 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 1 ( x − ) ( 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8) = 0 2 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x2 − 2 x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ } 2. 1 is a rational root. Inc. 2 2 –2 –5 8 4 2 0 –10 –4 1 0 –5 –2 2 is a root. Section 2. ± 5 q : ± 1. ± . ± . ± 4 q : ±1 p : ± 1.

2 91 = an (91) an = 1 ( x − 1) ( x + 5i ) ( x − 5i ) 3 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 − 3i )( x − 4 + 3i ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 3ix − 4 x + 16 − 12i −636 = an (−212) 2 an = 3 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 2 x 2 + 50 x − 50 ( x − 4) ( x + 2i ) ( x − 2i ) f ( x) = 3 ( x3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) = ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 4 ) f ( x) = 3 x3 + 12 x 2 − 93 x − 522 = x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) 29. 25. (x – i)(x + i)(x – 3i)(x + 3i) = ( x 2 − i 2 )( x 2 − 9i 2 ) f (−1) = an (−1 − 4 − 4 − 16) = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 9 ) −50 = an (−25) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 f ( x) = an ( x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9) an = 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) f (–1) = an ((–1) 4 + 10(–1) 2 + 9) f ( x) = 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x − 32 20 = an (20) an = 1 f ( x ) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 310 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x − 3) ( x + 3x + 7 x + 5 ) = 0 3 –1 2 1 3 7 5 –1 –2 –5 2 5 0 1 −3ix + 12i − 9i 2 ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 8 x + 25 ) = ( x3 − 8 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 40 x + 125 ) = x 3 − 3 x 2 − 15 x + 125 –1 is a root of x 3 + 3 x 2 + 7 x + 5 f ( x) = an ( x 3 – 3x 2 –15 x + 125) ( x − 3) ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 2 x + 5) ( f (2) = an 23 − 3 ( 2 ) − 15 ( 2 ) + 125 –2 ± 4 − 20 –2 ± −16 = x= 2 2 −2 ± 4i = = −1 ± 2i 2 The solution set is {3. − 1 − 2i} . − 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions c. − 1 + 2i. . x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 27. = ( x − 1) ( x 2 + 25 ) ( x − 6) ( x + 5 + 2i ) ( x + 5 − 2i ) = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 5 x − 2ix + 5 x + 25 − 10i + 2ix + 10i − 4i 2 ) = x3 + 25 x − x 2 − 25 = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 10 x + 29 ) = x3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 ) = x 3 + 10 x 2 + 29 x − 6 x 2 − 60 x − 174 = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 f (−1) = an (−1 − 1 − 25 − 25) f ( x) = an ( x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) −104 = an (−52) an = 2 f (2) = an (8 + 16 − 62 − 174) f ( x) = 2 ( x − x + 25 x − 25) 26. ) f ( x ) = 1( x3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 ) f ( x ) = x 3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 28.

( x + 4) (3x − 1) ( x − 2 + 3i ) ( x − 2 − 3i ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 2 x − 3ix − 2 x + 4 + 6i + 3ix − 6i − 9i 2 ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 3 x 4 − 12 x 3 + 39 x 2 + 11x3 − 44 x 2 + 143x − 4 x 2 + 16 x − 52 = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 f ( x) = an ( 3x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 ) f (1) = an (3 − 1 − 9 + 159 − 52) 100 = an (100 ) an = 1 f ( x) = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 311 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since f(–x) has no sign variations. 37. = x 4 − 6 x + 13x 2 − 3 x3 + 18 x 2 − 39 x − 10 x 2 + 60 x − 130 = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ( f ( x) = an x 4 − 9 x3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ) f (1) = an (1 − 9 + 21 + 21 − 130) −96 = an (−96) an = 1 f ( x) = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 32. no negative real roots exist. Inc. 33. f (− x) = − x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 7 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. f(x) = 5 x 3 − 3 x 2 + 3 x − 1 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. f ( − x ) = 2 x 4 + 5 x3 − x 2 + 6 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 2 sign variations.PreCalculus 4E 30. no positive real roots exist. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 + x + 7 Since f(x) has no sign variations no positive real roots exist. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 or 0 positive real roots exist. . f ( x) = 2 x 4 − 5 x3 − x 2 − 6 x + 4 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. ( x + 2) ( x − 5) ( x − 3 + 2i ) ( x − 3 − 2i ) ( = (x )( − 3 x − 10 ) ( x = x 2 − 3 x − 10 x 2 − 3 x − 2ix − 3x + 9 + 6i + 2ix − 6i − 4i 2 2 2 − 6 x + 13 ) ) 36. f ( x) = −2 x 3 + x 2 − x + 7 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. f ( − x ) = −5 x3 − 3 x 2 − 3x − 1 5 5 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x 4 + x 3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 5x3 + 4 x 2 + 5 x + 2 31. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + x 3 + 5 x 2 + 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 1 sign variations. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. 35. no negative real roots exist. f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. 2 or 0 negative real roots exist.5 1⎞ ⎟ ( x − i )( x + i ) 2⎠ 5 ⎛ ⎞ = ⎜ x 2 + x + 1⎟ ( x 2 + 1) 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 = x 4 + x 2 + x3 + x + x 2 + 1 2 2 5 5 = x 4 + x3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1 2 2 5 ⎛ 4 5 3 ⎞ f ( x ) = an ⎜ x + x + 2 x 2 + x + 1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 3 2 ⎡ 4 ⎤ f (1) = an ⎢(1) + (1) + 2 (1) + (1) + 1⎥ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ 18 = an (9) an = 2 f ( x) = x 3 + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 4 Since f(x) has no sign variations. ( x + 2 ) ⎛⎜ x + ⎝ Section 2. f ( − x ) = − x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. 1 negative real roots exist. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 + x 2 + x + 7 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. 34. 38.

. 2 x= f ( x) = x 3 + 12 x 2 + 2 x + 10 p: ±1. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ⎬. 3 or 1 negative zeros exist. The solution set is ⎨ − . 0 or 2 positive real zeros exist. ± . –2 1 –4 –7 10 –2 12 –10 1 –6 –2 is a zero. 3 x 3 − 8 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. exactly 1 negative real zero exists. ± 5. ±2. x = 1 The solution set is{–2. x = 5. 10 0 1 ± 1 + 16 1 ± 17 = 2 2 ⎪⎧ 1 1 + 17 1 − 17 ⎪⎫ . ± 10 q : ±1 p : ± 1. 2 − –9 –4 –1 1 4 –2 –8 0 1 is a root. f (− x) = −2 x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 4 2 or no negative real roots exist. 2 or no positive real roots exist. p : ± 1. ± 4 ± q 2 1 positive real root exists. no positive zeros exist. ± 2. f ( x) = x3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10 p : ± 1. ±5. ±2. 2 x3 − x 2 − 9 x − 4 = 0 p : ± 1. ± 10 q Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. Inc. ±8 q: ±1. f ( − x ) = − x3 − 4 x 2 + 7 x + 10 Since f(–x) has 1 sign variation. ±10 q: ±1. ± . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 5. 1}. 5. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 42. –10}. ± 4 f (− x) = –3 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 1 sign changes. 5 0 41. ± 2 ± 5 ± 10 q 12 21 10 –1 –11 –10 1 11 –1 is a zero. ± 2. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. x = −10 The solution set is {–1. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. ± q 3 3 3 3 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. Since f(x) has no sign variations. ± 2. f (− x) = − x 3 + 12 x 2 − 21x + 10 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. 1 –1 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ 2 ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ = ( x + 2)( x − 5)( x − 1) x = –2. q : ± 1. f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 11x + 10 ) = ( x + 1)( x + 10)( x + 1) x = −1. ± 2. ±4. –1 2 –1 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x + 5) 40. 312 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. exactly one negative real zeros exists. ± .

±5. ± 4. 3 – i. 2 + 2i. –1 −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(8) x= 2(1) 1 1 4 ± 16 − 32 x= 2 4 ± −16 x= 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i The solution set is { –1. ± 2. 3 + i} 45. ±5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎩3 ⎭ 43. 1 The solution set is {–1.1 + 5. ± 4. . 0 or 2 positive roots exist. ± 8 q : ±1 p : ± 1. ±10 q 2 is a zero. ± 8 –1 -4 1 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . –3 –20 –24 –8 –1 4 16 8 –16 –8 0 –4 ( x + 1) ( x − 4 x − 16 x − 8 ) = 0 3 2 313 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 4. –1. ±2.1 − 5 ⎬ . 3 –1 2⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 − 6 x − 12 ) 3⎠ ⎝ 6 ± 36 + 144 6 ± 6 5 = 6 6 = 1± 5 –1 x= x= q : ±1 –1 –8 1 –3 4 8 0 1 –3 4 8 –1 4 –8 –4 8 0 1 2 0 = x − 4x + 8 10 –1 5 -4 -10 1 -5 4 10 0 1 -5 4 10 –1 6 –10 -6 10 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) x =1 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 − 12 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 2 sign changes. ± 8 q Since f(x) has 2 sign changes. ± 2. ± 4 ± 8 q 1 positive real root exists.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 0 or 2 negative roots exist. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x3 − x 2 + 14 x + 10 p: ±1. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)3 + (− x) 2 − 12 x + 8 4 -1 f ( x) = ( x − 1)( x − 1)( x 2 − 6 x + 10) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 + 12 x + 8 p : ±1.5 3 2 3 3 –8 –8 8 2 –4 –8 –6 –12 0 44. ±10 q: ±1 p : ±1. x 4 − 3 x 3 − 20 x 2 − 24 x − 8 = 0 p : ± 1. ±2. ± 2. ± 2. –1 1 –2 1 12 8 –4 14 x= p : ±1. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. Inc. 2 – 2i}.

0 (x 2 + 4) x + 1 = 0 x − 2 = 0 x2 + 4 = 0 x = –1 –1 f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( 3x 3 − 14 x 2 + 13x + 6 ) ( x + 1) ( x − 2 x + 4 x − 8 ) 3 –11 x=2 x 2 = −4 x = ±2i The solution set is {−1. ± . ± . ± 6 –1 3 } 13. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + 3x 3 − 11x 2 − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. ±5. 3 46. Inc. ±2. 3 − 13 . ±3. x = 2 x = − . ± 3. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. 1 2 2 3 –11 –9 15 2 5 –6 –15 –6 –15 0 5 f ( x) = ( x − 1) ( 2 x + 5 x − 6 x − 15 ) 3 − 52 2 2 2 5 –6 –15 –5 0 15 0 –6 0 314 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2. x = 3 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − 3x 3 − 11x 2 + 9 x + 15 2 or no negative real zeros exist. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8 q 1 negative real root exists. 2. ± 3. − . ± 3. − 2. ± q 3 3 2 or no positive real zeros exists. ± 6. ( x + 1)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x − 4 ) = 0 6 ± 36 + 16 6 ± 52 = 2 2 6 ± 2 13 3 ± 13 = = 2 2 The solution set is x= {−1.Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 1 1 –4 –16 –8 –2 12 8 –6 –4 0 47. ± . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x − x + 2x − 4x − 8 = 0 p: ±1. 2i. ± . . ± 2. q : ± 1. ± q 2 2 2 2 2 or no positive real zeros exist. 3⎬ . ±4. ±8 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 4 3 –1 2 1 1 2 1 1 ( x + 1) 2 3 3 19 6 –3 14 –13 –6 –14 13 6 0 –14 13 6 6 –16 –6 –8 –3 0 –1 2 –4 –8 f ( x) = ( x + 1)( x − 2) ( 3x 2 − 8 x − 3) –1 2 –4 8 = ( x + 1)( x − 2)(3x + 1)( x − 3) –2 4 –8 0 1 x = −1. 2. 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 4 –8 2 0 8 0 4 ( x − 2) 48. ± 3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ± 5. ±15 q: ±1. − 2i} . f (− x) = 3x 4 + 11x 3 − x 2 − 19 x + 6 2 or no negative real zeros exist. ± 15. 3 ± f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p : ± 1.

± 4. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. − i 2 ⎬ . 4 –1 5 –2 –6 4 3 8 6 3 8 6 0 12 4 4 –8 1 1 –2 0 3 8 6 –3 0 –6 0 8 0 1 1 –2 2 2 2 3 3 0 x= 4 x + 3 x + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. ± 2. . 3⎞ ⎛ ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 4 x 2 + 8 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ 4( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 2 x +2 =0 2 x 5 + 7 x 4 − 18 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p : ± 1. ± q 2 2 4 4 3 or 1 positive real roots exists. . − . ± 8. 4 8 −1 ± 1 − 4 −1 ± i 3 = 2 2 ⎧⎪ 2 −1 + i 3 −1 − i 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨4. ± . ± 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2. ± 2. ± 6. 315 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 − 3 = 0 x2 = 3 x=± 3 5 x = 1. ±2. f (− x) = 3 x 4 + 11x3 − 3 x 2 + 6 x + 8 2 or no negative real roots exist. ± 8 q : ± 1. 3 or 1 negative real root exist. i 2. ± 4. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 2 4 –6 2⎞ ⎛ ( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 + 3x + 3) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2⎞ ⎛ 3( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2 − 34 3 3 ( x − 1)(4 x + 3x + 8 x + 6) = 0 3 –3 Another positive real root must exist. 51. Inc. ± 4 3 3 3 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 = 0 p : ± 1. 3. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. ± . ±8 q: ±1. ± . x 2 = −2 –2 x = ±i 2 2 3 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. x = 3. ± 2. 4 ⎩ ⎭ 7 0 –18 –4 2 3 –8 8 –6 12 12 –8 –6 –6 4 0 ( x + 2)(2 x + 3x − 6 x − 6 x + 4) = 0 4 3 2 4 x 3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. ± . ± q 2 2 or no positive real roots exists. ± 6 1 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3 x 2 − 6 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. ± q 3 3 3 3 2 or no positive real roots exist. 2 3 4 –11 ( x − 4) ( 3x 3 + x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 q : ± 1. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 49. x = − 3 2 ⎧ 5 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. ± . ⎬. x = − .5 5⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 6 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 5⎞ ⎛ = 2( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 − 3) 2⎠ ⎝ 50. ± 3. . − 3 ⎬ . ±4. ± 2. ± . 1 negative real root exists. − . 4 p 1 3 1 3 : ± 1.

± 24. ± .Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 2 2 3 –6 –6 4 –4 2 8 –4 –1 –4 2 0 ( x − 3)( x + 2)( x + 4) ( 4 x 2 − 1) = 0 4 x2 −1 = 0 4 x2 = 1 1 x2 = 4 1 x=± 2 ( x + 2) 2 (2 x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 2) 2 1 2 –1 –4 2 1 0 2 0 –4 0 2 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨3. ±4 p 1 3 : ± 1. ± 4. x=4 . ± 3. Thus. . 2 ⎩ ⎭ 52. − 4. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x − 3) ( 4 x + 24 x + 31x − 6 x − 8) = 0 4 –2 3 2 24 31 –6 –8 –8 –32 2 8 –1 –4 0 4 4 16 ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( 4 x + 16 x − x − 4 ) = 0 3 –4 4 4 2 16 –1 4 –16 0 4 0 –1 0 316 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. ±24 q: ±1. f (− x) = −4 x5 + 12 x 4 + 41x3 − 99 x 2 − 10 x + 24 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. we can see that −4 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. 1. ±8. ± . f ( x ) = − x3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 a. . − ⎬ . 4 4 12 –41 –99 10 24 12 72 93 –18 –24 24 31 –6 –8 0 − x 3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 = 0 ( x + 4) ( − x2 + 5x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 ) ( x2 − 5x + 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) = 0 4 x 5 + 12 x 4 − 41x3 − 99 x 2 + 10 x + 24 = 0 p: ±1. ± 2. ± 12. ±2. ± 6. ±3. ±2. ±6.± 4 4 2 or no positive real roots exist. From the graph provided. ±12. 3 16 0 x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x = −4 x =1 The zeros are −4 . 2 2⎭ ⎩ 1⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2)2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2( x + 2) 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x −2 = 0 53. Inc. ± 8. and 4. We verify this below: −4 −1 1 16 −16 4 −20 −1 5 −4 x2 = 2 x=± 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. − 2 ⎬ . q 2 2 1 3 ± . ±4. − 2.

Section 2. ( x + 1) ( − x 2 + 4 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) = 0 56. Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. b. We verify this below: −1 −1 3 0 −4 1 −4 −1 4 −4 4 0 − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 = 0 Thus. . From the graph provided. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 54. so we use the quadratic formula: 1 or x 2 + x + 1 = 0 x− =0 3 a =1 b =1 c =1 1 x= 3 f ( x ) = 4 x3 − 8x 2 − 3x + 9 a. From the graph provided. − ( x + 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 2 x +1 = 0 or x = −1 ( x − 2) 2 =0 x−2 = 0 x=2 The zeros are −1 and 2. Inc. We verify this below: 1 3 3 2 2 −1 From the graph provided. 2x − 3 = 0 2x = 3 x= The zeros are −1 and 3 2 3 . we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3 x + 3 x + 3) = 0 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 55. 2 317 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 9 −1 ± −3 2 1 3 −1 ± 3i i = =− ± 2 2 2 1 3 1 i. f ( x ) = 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 a.5 f ( x ) = − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. b. The zeros are and − ± 2 2 3 4 x3 − 8 x 2 − 3x + 9 = 0 ( x + 1)( 2 x − 3) = 0 or ( 2 x − 3) 2 = 0 2 x = −1 2 (1) = 0 ( x + 1) ( 4 x 2 − 12 x + 9 ) = 0 x +1 = 0 −1 ± 12 − 4 (1)(1) b. 1 is an x3 intercept and is thus a zero of the function. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. we can see that 1 1 1 3 3 3 0 Thus. We verify this below: −1 4 −8 −3 9 x= −4 12 −9 4 −12 Thus.

x = −2 The zeros are −3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 57. 318 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 2 x − 3x − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 4 Thus. so 3 is a zero of f. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 58. ± 6 = Factors of 1 ±1 = ±1. Inc. ± 6 We test values from above until we find a zero. 2 = −4 −6 2 −2 −8 −12 b. 36 12 0 2 x + 2 x − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 = 0 4 3 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( 2 x 2 + 10 x + 12 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( x 2 + 5 x + 6 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = 0 The remainder is 0. 1. and 3. x = 3. ± 3. x= 1 is an 2 x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 Test 3: 3 4 −18 −36 2 2 4 −18 −36 The possible rational zeros are: Thus. Factors of the constant term −6 : ±1. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 a. 3 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 To factor x − x 2 − 4 x − 6 . ± 2. we can see that 1 −1 −2 ± −4 −2 ± 2i = = −1 ± i 2 2 1 The zeros are . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3. 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 2 x + 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. ± 2. so we use the quadratic formula: a =1 b = 2 c = 2 x = 1. ± 3. we can see that 1 and 3 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. . − 2 . and −1 ± i . ± 3. x = −3. One possibility is shown next: = ( x − 1) ( 2 x3 + 4 x 2 − 18 x − 36 ) 3 2 6 6 2 2 0 30 2 10 1 −1 −4 −6 1 4 −18 −36 6 3 0 Thus. b. From the graph provided. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −3 −7 −8 6 −2 ± 22 − 4 (1)( 2 ) 2 (1) From the graph provided. ± 2. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 2 x 3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 a. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −22 −18 36 Factors of − 6 ±1.

we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. ± 4 = Factors of 5 ±1. ± 4. we can see that 1 and 2 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± . ± 2. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. The remainder is 0. x = −2 3 2 The zeros are −2 . a. ± 5 1 2 4 = ±1. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. x = 2. we can see that 1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. ± 4. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 3: ±1. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 5: ±1. ± 4 = Factors of 3 ±1. ± 2. One possibility is shown next: Test −1 : − 1 3 11 12 4 8 4 From the graph provided. ± 3 60. 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 2 x = 1. x = − . 3 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) 2 3 5 −10 −20 −8 6 22 3 11 24 12 8 4 b.5 f ( x ) = 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 a. ± 2. 1 and 2. ± . Inc. .PreCalculus 4E 59. −1 . ± . We can now finish the factoring: 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 = 0 From the graph provided. 3x + 2 x − 15 x − 10 x + 12 x + 8 5 4 3 2 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) = ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) To factor 3 x 3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 . ± 2. ± . ± 5 5 5 We test values from above until we find a zero. − . ± 5 −3 −8 −4 3 f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 4 x3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 0 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. We verify this below: 1 −5 4 −19 16 4 −5 −1 −20 −4 −5 −1 −20 −4 0 Thus. 0 Thus. ± 2. −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 To factor 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 . so −1 is a zero of f. ± 3 3 3 We test values from above until we find a zero. ± 3 1 2 4 = ±1. We verify this below: 1 3 2 −15 −10 12 8 ( x − 1) ( 3 x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1) ( 3x 2 + 8 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1)( 3 x + 2 )( x + 2 ) = 0 5 −10 −20 −8 3 3 5 −10 −20 −8 0 Thus. One possibility is shown next: 319 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = −1. ± 2.

1.8 Since the depth must be positive. 1500). 320 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 65. – 71. The depth can be 5 inches or 12. 2000) and (10. 1500) and (12. 5 1 −5 −150 750 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x + 2i )( x − 2i ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1 x = 1. 50 −1000 5 −100 The range is (0. .2 inches to obtain a volume of 1500 cubic inches. 12. 5 −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 The remainder is 0. 7.2.2.8. The range is (0.8 inches to obtain a volume of 2000 cubic inches. 2000 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x b. x= 61.2 Since the depth must be positive. so − ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 62. x= 4 −(5) ± (5)2 − 4(1)(−100) 2(1) x ≈ −12. 15). 0 −4 0 20 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 0 1 is a zero of f. The answers correspond to the points (7. The depth can be 10 inches or 7. Inc. The answers correspond to the points (5. V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 2000 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 63. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(0) ± (0)2 − 4(1)(−150) 2(1) x ≈ −12. 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 2000 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 1000 = 0 Find the roots. x= b. b. 1⎞ ⎛ − ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 5 x 2 + 20 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 4 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 1500 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 750 = 0 Find the roots. x = 2i 5 1 The zeros are − .8.Polynomial and Rational Functions 1 Test − : 5 − 15 5 1 20 −1 5 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. 5 5 1 0 −750 0 −150 0 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. reject the negative value. x = − . a. and ±2i . 2000). Answers may vary. 15). reject the negative value. a. x = −2i. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10 1 −5 −150 1000 10 1 64.

± . − . 1 3 9 p : ± 1. ±3. ±6. ± q 2 2 2 f ( x ) = x 5 − x 4 + x3 − x 2 + x − 8 f(x) has 5 sign variations. we see that the solutions are 1 1 − and .5 2 x 3 − 15 x 2 + 22 x + 15 = 0 p: ±1.PreCalculus 4E 72. ± . ±18 From the graph. ± 5. 3 and 5. ±6. 2 3 and 2. From the graph we see that the solutions are 1 − . ±3. 2. f ( − x ) = − x5 − x 4 − x3 − x 2 − x − 8 f(–x) has no sign variations. ± 4. ± q 2 4 100 0 From the graph. ± 2. Odd functions must have at least one real zero. 2 78. ± . so either 5. ±6 1 1 2 4 1 p : ± 1. we see that there are no real solutions. ±15 q: ±1. ±2. ± q 2 2 2 2 75. or 1 positive real roots exist. ± . 321 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± . Inc. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. ±5. . ±4 1 1 p : ± 1. 40 0 4 x 4 + 4 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 p: ±1. ±2 1 3 5 15 p : ± 1. ± q 2 3 3 3 6 76. it has no positive real roots. ±9. ±2 q: ±1. Section 2. 2 x 4 + 7 x 3 − 4 x 2 − 27 x − 18 = 0 p : ± 1. ±4 q: ±1. so no negative real roots exist. ± 15. ± . 74. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±2. ±18. The polynomial’s graph doesn’t intersect the x-axis. ± . ± . Even functions do not. no negative roots exist. ± . ±3. f ( x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(x) has no sign variations. From the graph we see the solutions are 3 −3. 3. q : ± 1. ±2 77. we see that the solutions are 1 2 . 2 73. ±2. ±9. − 1. 2 2 6 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. From the graph. ± 3. ±2. ± . ±3. ±2. ± 2.

false. Because the polynomial has no obvious changes of direction but the graph is obviously not linear. The function is undefined at x = 1 and x = 2. Explanations will vary. so no positive roots exist. 2 real zeros 4 nonreal complex zeros 83. A sample change is: Descartes’ Rule gives the maximum possible number of real roots. 87. 84. makes sense 100. 94. true 90. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 98. the smallest degree is 5. 89. Inc. the smallest degree is 5. the smallest degree is 3. does not make sense. Answers will vary 82. f ( x) = x 3 − 6 x − 9 88. the smallest degree is 3. Answers may vary. f ( x) = x 6 − 64 93. makes sense 99. A sample change is: Polynonials of degree n have at most n distinct solutions. Publishing as Prentice Hall. makes sense 96. A sample change is: The equation has 0 sign variations. 1 real zero 2 nonreal complex zeros 80. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 + 6 x3 − 4 x 2 − 24 x + 16 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 3x ( x + 5 ) = 208 ( 2 x 2 + 11x + 5) ( x + 2 ) − 3x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 5 x +10 − 3 x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x − 3 x 2 − 15 x − 198 = 0 2 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x − 198 = 0 2 ( x 3 + 6 x 2 + 6 x − 99 ) = 0 3 real zeros 2 nonreal complex zeros 81. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 3 f ( x) = 3 x 4 + 4 x3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x − 3 1 1 6 6 –99 3 27 99 9 33 0 x + 9 x + 33 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = −51 x = 3 in. 91. Two roots appear twice. Changes to make the statement true will vary. .Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction and two roots have multiplicity 2. 86. The equation of the vertical asymptote is x = 1. The equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 0. false. 95. Sample explanation: The quadratic formula is can be applied only of equations of degree 2. false. 97. 85. 2 92. 322 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction.

PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point 1. (1 + i )(4 − 3i ) = 4 − 3i + 4i − 3i 2 8. 9. 5). 5. 2 =4 x−3 = ± 4 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i + i + i2 = ⋅ = 1− i 1− i 1+ i 1 − i2 1 + 2i − 1 = 1+1 2i = 2 =i x = 3± 2 The equation has x-intercepts at x = 1 and x = 5 . 5] 323 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The vertex is (–2. ∞ ) −75 − −12 = 5i 3 − 2i 3 = 3i 3 (2 − −3 ) = (2 − i 3) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 − 3 = 1 − 4i 3 7. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) − 4 2 The parabola opens up because a > 0. –4). Inc. . 6. x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 3) − 4 2 ( x − 3) = 4+i+3= 7+i 4. 3i (2 + i ) = 6i + 3i 2 = −3 + 6i 3. ∞) range: ( −∞. (6 − 2i ) − (7 − i ) = 6 − 2i − 7 + i = −1 − i 2. x(2 x − 3) = −4 2 The parabola opens down because a < 0. x-intercepts: 2 x 2 − 3 x = −4 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 = 0 x= f ( x ) = 5 − ( x + 2) 0 = 5 − ( x + 2) −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a ( x + 2) −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(4) x= 2(2) 2 2 =5 x+2 = ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: 3 ± −23 x= 4 3 23 x= ± i 4 4 f ( 0) = 5 − ( 0 + 2) = 1 2 domain: (−∞. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) − 4 = 5 2 domain: (−∞. ∞) range: [ −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The vertex is (3.

Inc. x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 − 4 x + 5 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(−1)(5) 12. ∞ ) f ( −2 ) = −(−2) 2 − 4(−2) + 5 = 9 The vertex is (–2. since the zero has multiplicity 3. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. b −4 vertex: x = − =− = −2 2a 2(−1) domain: (−∞. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 − 4(0) + 5 = 5 x= 3 Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 3 f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 The parabola opens up because a > 0. 1. 9] 11. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. ∞) range: [ −2. degree 5. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 2 since the zero has multiplicity 2. 9). 2(−1) 2 ( x + 1) 3 =0 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 4 ± 36 −2 x = −2 ± 3 The x-intercepts are x = 1 and x = −5 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 324 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and since the leading coefficient. ∞) range: ( −∞. domain: (−∞. f ( x ) = − x2 − 4 x + 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 3(0)2 − 6(0) + 1 = 1 The parabola opens down because a < 0. x-intercepts: 0 = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−6) ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) x= 6 ± 24 6 x= 3± 6 3 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. –2). is positive. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at −1 . b −6 =− =1 vertex: x = − 2a 2(3) f (1) = 3(1)2 − 6(1) + 1 = −2 The vertex is (1. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. .Polynomial and Rational Functions 10.

since all have multiplicity 1. and since the leading coefficient. and 2. Apply the zero-product principle: x + 2 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −2 x=2 x =1 The zeros are −2 . x = −2. and since the leading coefficient. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. 1. and since the leading coefficient. is negative. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. Inc. is negative. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point f ( x ) = − ( x − 2) − ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 =0 2 15. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. is positive. 1. and 2. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around both at −1 and 2 since both zeros have multiplicity 2. 14. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. −1 . and 2. 325 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and 2. 1. −2 . is positive. −1 . the graph rises to the left and rises to the right. x = 2. x4 − 5x2 + 4 = 0 2 ( x + 1) 6 =0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 The zero is are −1 . f ( x ) = x4 − 5x2 + 4 (x Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 2 − 4 )( x 2 − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle. The graph crosses the x-axis at all four zeros. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. and since the leading coefficient. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. −2 .. f ( x ) = x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 16. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) 6 − ( x + 1) = 0 6 ( x − 1) − 4 ( x − 1) = 0 ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. since all have multiplicity 1. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. −1 . degree 3. 1. 1. x = −1. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 since the zero has multiplicity 6. x = 1 The zeros are −2 . . degree 4. degree 6.PreCalculus 4E 13. −1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. degree 4. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 1.

± 2. ± . −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −6 x 2 + x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 − ( x − 1)( 3x + 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 19. Inc. ± 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of − 6 ±1. b = −2. and since the leading coefficient. f ( x ) = −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 18. 0. since all have multiplicity 1. 3 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x x3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x = 0 x ( x 2 − 2 x + 26 ) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x + 26 does not factor.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. Apply the zero-product property: 1 1 x = 1. ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. 0. Thus. ± 3. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. is positive. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 −6 7 0 −1 −6 −6 1 1 1 1 0 f ( x ) = 2 x3 − 2 x The remainder is 0. 2. and 1. since all have multiplicity 1. c = 26 The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. and since the leading coefficient. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. ± . and 1. x = −1. and 1. −1 . ± 6 2 x ( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 x ( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle: x = 0. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. . − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( 26 ) 2 (1) 2 2 ± −100 2 ± 10i = = 1 ± 5i 2 2 The zeros are 0 and 1 ± 5i . since it has multiplicity 1. ± 2. ± 2 3 6 We test values from the above list until we find a zero. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. degree 3. degree 3. x = − . x = 3 2 1 1 The zeros are − . . 2 x3 − 2 x = 0 To find the zeros. −6 . 3 2 x= Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at 0 (the only real zero). = 326 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so 1 is a zero. and 1. x =1 The zeros are −1 . . Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. is negative. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 List all factors of the leading coefficient −6 : ±1. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. 1 1 − . so we use the quadratic formula: x = 0 or x 2 − 2 x + 26 = 0 a = 1.

so 3 is a zero.1} . is positive. ± 3 = = ±1.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. 3 and 1 ± 2 . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. − ( −2 ) ± x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 3 List all factors of the leading coefficient −1 : ±1 The possible rational zeros are: The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 2 ±1. . ± 2 = = ±1. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 1 0 −3 Test 3: −1 3 −1 1 5 −5 −3 −3 6 3 2 1 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 2 )( x − 1) = 0 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) = 0 ( x − 3) ( − x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 3) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x − 1 does not factor. Factors of the constant term 2: ±1. degree 3. f ( x ) = − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 To find the zeros. is negative. so we use the quadratic formula: x − 3 = 0 or x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 0 x=3 a = 1. Thus. One is shown next: We test values from the previous list until we find a zero. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. 327 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. since all have multiplicity 1. and since the leading coefficient. c = −1 = 0 The remainder is 0. degree 3. so 1 is a root of the equation. Inc. 21. Thus. ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −1) 2 (1) 2 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 1± 2 2 2 The zeros are 3 and 1 ± 2 . 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 3 Factors of − 1 ±1 We test values from above until we find a root. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. ± 2 Factors of 1 ±1 Factors of − 3 ±1. −1 . b = −2. x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 x= 2 1 −2 1 1 −2 The remainder is 0. and since the leading coefficient. 1. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −3 : ±1. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. ± 2 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Apply the zero-product property: 2 ( x − 1) = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = −2 x −1 = 0 x =1 The solutions are −2 and 1. and the solution set is {−2.

⎩3 2 ⎭ 23. x= Apply the zero-product property: x − 10 = 0 or 2 x + 5 = 0 or x + 10 = 0 x = 10 x=− 5 2 5 The solutions are −10. . ± 2 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of 6 ±1. ± . Inc. ± 25. ± 6 24. so 1 is a root of the equation. ± 125. ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. 2 3 2 ⎧ 1 2 7⎫ is ⎨ − . ± . ±50. Factors of the constant term −500 : ±1. ± 2. and 10 . . One is shown next: 1 5 25 125 ±250. 1⎬ . 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 x= 3 2 1 1 The solutions are . Test 1: 1 6 −11 6 We test values from above until we find a root. ± 20. 10 ⎬ . . 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 5 −200 −500 20 250 500 2 25 50 0 ( x − 10 ) ( 2 x 2 + 25 x + 50 ) = 0 ( x − 10 )( 2 x + 5 )( x + 10 ) = 0 Apply the zero-product property: x − 1 = 0 or 3 x − 1 = 0 or 2 x − 1 = 0 x =1 2 The remainder is 0. ± . ± 3. Thus. ± 10. Factors of 2 ±10. 2 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 100. ± 2 3 6 The possible rational zeros are: We test values from above until we find a root. ± 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. ± 4. ± 100. ± 2 2 2 2 Factors of 500 = ±1. ± 2. Thus. so 10 is a root of the equation. ± 2. ± 250. ± 25. and 1. and the solution set is 3 2 ⎧1 1 ⎫ ⎨ . One is shown next: 6 −1 6 −5 −5 1 1 Test 10: 0 10 The remainder is 0. 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( 2 x + 1)( 3x − 2 ) ( 2 x − 7 ) = 0 3 Apply the zero-product property: 2x +1 = 0 1 x=− 2 or (3x − 2) 3 = 0 or 3x − 2 = 0 x= 2 3 x = −10 2x − 7 = 0 7 T x= 2 1 2 7 and . and the solution set he solutions are − . ± . and the solution 2 5 ⎧ ⎫ set is ⎨ −10. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. − . ± 20. ± . ± 125. Factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 Factors of the leading coefficient 6: ±1. ⎩ 2 3 2⎭ 328 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − . ⎬ . ± 5. ± 50. ± 500 Factors of the leading coefficient 2: ±1. ± 5. ± 4. ± 500.

As this point we know that −3 and 4 are roots of the equation. We continue testing potential roots: 1 −1 −11 −1 −12 12 −3 −6 2 −5 ( x + 3) ( 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 Test −3 : −3 6 The remainder is 0. ± 2 1 are roots of 2 the equation. One possibility is shown next: Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Test −3 : x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 = x + 12 25. so we use the square-root principle: x 2 + 1 = 0 Summarizing our findings so far. c = −2 At this point. ± 6. ± i} . ± 2. so −3 is a root of the equation. 4. Thus. and the solution set is {−3.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point x − x − 11x − x − 12 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. Note that x 2 − 2 x − 2 does not factor. Note that x 2 + 1 does not factor. ± 3. we know that −3 and The possible rational roots are: 329 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b = −2. ± 3. ± . we know that x − 1 is a factor. ± 12 = ±1 = ±1. ± 2. Thus. Using the Factor Theorem. ± 6. so −3 is a root. Using the Factor Theorem. ± 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2. Factors of the constant term 6: ±1. ± 3. 4. ± 2. 4 3 2 −3 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 12 Factors of 1 ±1. ± 2 2 We test values from above until we find a root. . and ±i . Factors of the constant term −12 : ±1. ± 2. ± 6. One possibility is shown next: −3 1 −17 −4 2 ⎝ 1⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2x − 4x − 4) = 0 2⎠ The roots are −3 . 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We test values from this list we find a root. we have 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 ( x + 3) ( 2 x3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 x = −1 2 ( x + 3) ⎛⎜ x − x = ± −1 = ± i 26. ± 2 1 3 = ±1. ± 12 Factors of 6 ±1. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 4: ±1. ± 3. ± 2. ± 4. we need to factor 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 . ± 6. ± 3. ± 3. ± 4. Inc. x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 − x − 12 = 0 1 2 6 −6 2 0 1 : 2 2 −5 −2 2 1 −2 −2 ( x + 3) ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 3) ⎡⎣ x 2 ( x − 4 ) + 1( x − 4 )⎤⎦ = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 1) = 0 2 −4 −4 0 The remainder is 0. so 1 1 is a zero and x − is a 2 2 factor. so we use the quadratic formula: x2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 a = 1. ± 6 = Factors of 2 ±1. we know that x + 3 is a factor of the polynomial. 15 −2 To solve the equation above. ± 12 12 1 −4 1 −4 0 Test The remainder is 0. 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 3) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 x − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x 4 + x3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots.

2a 2 ( −1) −2 an = −2 f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) or − 2 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 2 x + 2 f ( −9 ) = −9 ⎡⎣ −18 − ( −9 ) ⎤⎦ 33. = −9 ( −18 + 9 ) = −9 ( −9 ) = 81 29. . 1 ± 3 ⎬ . 2 ( x − 1)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f ( x) = an ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f (−1) = an (−1 − 1) ( (−1) 2 + 1) = −4an = 8 The x-coordinate of the maximum is b −18 −18 x=− =− =− = −9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 27. A(10) = 20(10) − (10) 2 = 100 The maximum area is 100 squares inches. The maximum daily profit is $1200. Inc.81) . P ( 75 ) = −752 + 150(75) − 4425 (2x 4 +3 x +1 x +1 3x2 − 1 − 13x 3 + 17 x 2 + 18 x − 24 ) ÷ ( x − 4 ) 4 = −5625 + 11. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 28. +x 2 Since a = −1 is negative. and 1 ± 3 . . 40 − 2x = base of triangle 1 1 A = bh = x(40 − 2 x) 2 2 A( x) = 20 x − x 2 The height at which the triangle will have 20 b maximum area is x = − =− = 10. 3 Let x = one of the numbers. . f (0) = an (0 − 2)(0 − 2)(02 + 9) 36 = 36an an = 1 Let x = height of triangle. This occurs when the two number are −9 and −18 − (−9) = −9 . 2 2 –13 17 18 –24 8 -20 –12 24 6 0 –5 –3 The quotient is 2 x − 5 x − 3 x + 6 . we know the function opens down and has a maximum at b 150 150 x=− =− =− = 75 . 2a 2 ( −1) f ( x) = 1( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 3 + 13x 2 − 36 x + 36 34. and the 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ solution set is ⎨ −3. − 2 x2 6 x4 2 ± 4 + 8 2 ± 12 2 ± 2 3 = = = = 1± 3 2 2 2 1 The solutions are −3 . the function must have a real zero between 1 and 2 because f (1) and f (2) have opposite signs. 2 x2 − x − 3 3x − 1 6 x − 3x − 11x 2 + 2 x + 4 2 4 − 3 x3 − 9 x 2 + 2 x −3 x 3 − 9x + x + 4 −9 x 2 P ( x ) = − x 2 + 150 x − 4425 2 x2 − x − 3 + 31. 3 ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x − 3i )( x + 3i ) = ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) The vertex is ( −9.Polynomial and Rational Functions x= − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −2 ) 2 (1) 2 30. 250 − 4425 = 1200 The company will maximize its profit by manufacturing and selling 75 cabinets per day. 330 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −18 − x = the other number The product is f ( x ) = x ( −18 − x ) = − x 2 − 18 x 32. The maximum product is f ( x) = an ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) 81. f ( x) = x 3 − x − 5 f (1) = 13 − 1 − 5 = −5 f (2) = 23 − 2 − 5 = 1 Yes.

y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. 1 . Begin with the graph of f ( x) = 6. x −5 = 0 x=5 { x x ≠ 5} b. 2 3x − 3 = 0 3x = 3 x =1 The x-intercept is 1. f ( x) = Shift the graph 2 units to the left by subtracting 2 from each x-coordinate. Since n > m. x 2 − 25 = 0 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 {x | x ≠ 5. Since n = m. x = −1 b. 331 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 Section 2. All real numbers. g ( x) = 3x − 3 x−2 3(− x) − 3 −3 x − 3 3x + 3 = = f (− x) = −x − 2 −x − 2 x+2 no symmetry 3(0) − 3 3 f (0) = = 0−2 2 3 The y-intercept is . 2(0) 2 f (0) = 2 =0 0 −9 The y-intercept is 0. x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = 1. Vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: 3 y= =3 1 f ( x) = x −1 x −1 1 = = 2 x − 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x + 1 x = −1 3.6 5. Check Point Exercises 1. Since n < m. 2 x2 = 0 x=0 The x-intercept is 0. x ≠ −5} 2. The denominator cannot equal zero. c. Inc. y = 9 =3 3 y = 3 is a horizontal asymptote. . a. Shift the graph 1 unit down by subtracting 1 from each y-coordinate. a. The denominator cannot equal zero. x 2x2 x2 − 9 2(− x)2 2x2 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 The y-axis symmetry. Publishing as Prentice Hall. No vertical asymptotes.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. c. a. 4. b. c. there is no horizontal asymptote.

x x − 10 Exercise Set 2. 2 2 –5 7 4 –2 g ( x) = 3x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 4) { x x ≠ 5. . C ( x) = 500. and 100. 10. 8. 000 + 400(100.Polynomial and Rational Functions vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 x = 3. vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 = 0 400 = 400 1 The cost per wheelchair approaches $400 as more wheelchairs are produced. Inc. 000 + 400(10. C ( x) = 500. 000) = 500. respectively. 1. 10. y= x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. 2 –1 5 the equation of the slant asymptote is y = 2x – 1.000 wheelchairs is $900. 000 = 405 The average cost per wheelchair of producing 1000. a. x ≠ −6} 332 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. there is no horizontal asymptote. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 20 20 T (x) = + . $450. and $405. 000 + 400 x x 500. x4 x2 + 2 (− x)4 x4 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x) 2 + 2 x 2 + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 f (0) = 2 =0 0 +2 The y-intercept is 0. x=0 The x-intercept is 0. f ( x) = 5x x−4 { x x ≠ 4} 2. 500. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 + 400(1000) 1000 = 900 C (1000) = c. C (100. 000) 100. 000) = 7.000. x ≠ −4} 4. g ( x) = 2 x2 ( x − 2)( x + 6) { x x ≠ 2. x4 = 0 f ( x) = d.6 x 2 = −2 no vertical asymptotes horizontal asymptote: Since n > m. 000 + 400 x b. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: 2 y= =2 1 9. 000 = 450 C (10. 000) 10. f ( x) = 7x x −8 { x x ≠ 8} 3.

x ≠ −8} 7. −∞ 18. x = 3 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. x+7 x 2 + 49 all real numbers f ( x) = 25. x+3 x( x + 4) x( x + 4) = 0 x = 0. r ( x) = f ( x) = 2 12 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 20. Section 2. −∞ 12. 28. Inc. 12 x 2 3x 2 + 1 horizontal asymptote: y = 333 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. +∞ 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 x+7 x 2 − 49 2 x − 49 = ( x − 7)( x + 7) h( x ) = 23. x = 3 g ( x) = x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = −4 2 13. −∞ 17. x = −4 g ( x) = x x+4 x+4=0 x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = –4 f ( x) = 30. 12 =4 3 . { x x ≠ 8. r ( x) = 2 x x +3 x 2 + 3 has no real zeros There is no vertical asymptotes. x ≠ −7} 6. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. 8. f ( x) = 15 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 x 22. +∞ 27. 16. −∞ 10.PreCalculus 4E 5. x+8 x + 64 all real numbers f ( x) = 9. 29. x 1 = x( x + 4) x + 4 x+4=0 h( x ) = x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 14. g ( x) = n = m. 19. { x x ≠ 7. x +8 x 2 − 64 x 2 − 64 = ( x − 8)( x + 8) h( x ) = 24. 0 +∞ x+3 x( x − 3) x( x − 3) = 0 x = 0. 0 15. 1 21. +∞ 26. 1 x 1 = x( x − 3) x − 3 x −3 = 0 h( x ) = x x +4 x 2 + 4 has no real zeros There are no vertical asymptotes. f ( x) = x−3 x−3 = 0 x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 31.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. x 2 3 −3 x + 7 5x − 2 n=m s f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 37. x 334 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit to the right. . x h( x ) = 1 +1 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit up. Inc. −2 x + 1 3x + 5 1 2 units up. h( x ) = 15 x 3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 35. g ( x) = n=m 15 x 2 3x 2 + 1 38. x 12 x3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 34. 1 +2 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 36. h( x ) = g ( x) = 3 5 1 x −1 40. f ( x) = n=m 39. h( x ) = g ( x) = 1 x−2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 15 =5 3 1 2 units to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. horizontal asymptote: y = 33.

42. Publishing as Prentice Hall. h( x ) = 1 ( x + 2) 2 h( x ) = 1 −3 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 4 units down. g ( x) = Section 2. x2 down. 1 −2 x+2 46.6 1 −2 x +1 44. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left and 2 units x g ( x) = 1 ( x + 1) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left. x2 1 2 units left. 1 3 units down. 43. x2 335 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 .PreCalculus 4E 41. g ( x) = 45. Inc. g ( x) = 1 −4 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 units left and 2 units x down.

h( x ) = vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 1 +1 ( x − 3) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = x=2 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. so y = = 4 1 1 3 units right and 1 unit x2 up. . 49.Polynomial and Rational Functions 47. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 4(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0−2 x-intercept: 4x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 336 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. h( x ) = 1 +2 ( x − 3) 2 50. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0 −1 x-intercept: 3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x −1 = 0 f ( x) = x =1 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. 48. 3x x −1 3(− x ) 3x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 1 x + 1 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 3 units right and 2 units x up. so y = = 3 1 4x x−2 4(− x) 4x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 2 x + 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

f ( x) = 4x x2 −1 4 (−x) 4x f (−x) = =− 2 = –f(x) 2 ( −x) −1 x −1 Origin symmetry 4 ( 0) =0 y-intercept: 2 0 −1 x-intercept:4x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 f ( x) = 337 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 =0 1 . 2 x2 x2 −1 f (−x) = 2 (−x) (−x) 2 2 −1 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 2x2 = f ( x) x2 − 1 2 (0) 2 02 − 1 = x-intercept: 2 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x2 −1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. Inc.6 2x 2 x −4 2 (−x) 2x = –f(x) =− 2 f (−x) = 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 Origin symmetry 2 ( 0) 0 y-intercept: 2 = =0 0 − 4 −4 x-intercept: 2x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 53. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 51. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = = 2 1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 52.

−3 x x+2 −3 ( − x ) 3x f (−x) = = (−x) + 2 −x + 2 f ( x) = f–x) ≠ f(x). . f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry − ( 0) 0 y-intercept: y = = =0 0 +1 1 x-intercept: –x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 338 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 56. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry y-intercept: −3 ( 0 ) y= =0 0+2 x-intercept: –3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 horizontal asymptote: −3 = −3 n = m. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. so y = 1 4 x2 x2 − 9 f (−x) = 4(−x) (−x) 2 2 −9 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 4 ( 0) 4 x2 = f ( x) x2 − 9 2 02 − 9 =0 x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = ±3 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. so y = = 4 1 55. f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: −1 = −1 n = m. so y = 1 −x x +1 − (−x) x f (−x) = = (−x) +1 −x +1 f ( x) = f(–x) ≠ f(x).

f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 2 2 y-intercept: y = 2 = = −1 0 + 0 − 2 −2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 2 = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1) = 0 x = −2. 2 2 x −1 60. 2 (−x) 2 −1 =− 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 58. x = 1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 2 f (−x) = − 2 x + x−2 2 2 f (−x) = − = 2 2 (−x) − x − 2 x − x − 2 f ( x) = 2 = f(x) x −1 2 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: 2 2 y=− 2 =− =2 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: –2 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 (x – 1)(x + 1) x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = −1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 339 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry −2 =1 y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 2 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 x = 2.6 1 x −4 1 1 f (−x) = − =− 2 = f(x) 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 y-axis symmetry 1 1 = y-intercept: y = – 2 0 −4 4 x-intercept: –1 ≠ 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x2 = 4 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m or y = 0 f ( x) = − f ( x) = − 59. .PreCalculus 4E 57. so y = 0 −2 x −x−2 −2 −2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x ) − (− x ) − 2 x + x − 2 f ( x) = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Inc. Section 2.

. x = 2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0+2 2 1 =− =− y-intercept: y = 2 0 +0−6 6 3 x-intercept: x+2=0 x = –2 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) x = −3. Inc. x+2 x + x−6 −x + 2 −x + 2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( −x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). so y = 0 f ( x) = 2 4 x2 x2 + 1 4(− x) 2 4 x2 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 ( −x) +1 x +1 y axis symmetry 4(0) 2 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +1 x-intercept: 4 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. 2 x2 x2 + 4 2(− x) 2 2 x2 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) + 4 x + 4 y axis symmetry 2(0) 2 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +4 x-intercept: 2 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. 62. so y = = 4 1 f ( x) = 340 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = = 2 1 f ( x) = 63.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61.

f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 + 0 − 12 =3 y-intercept: y = 02 − 4 x-intercept: x 2 + x − 12 = 0 2 ( x − 3)( x + 4) = 0 x = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = 0 67. so none f ( x) = x 2 + x − 12 x2 − 4 (− x) 2 − x − 12 x 2 − x − 12 f (−x) = = 2 x2 − 4 (−x) − 4 f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x). x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 64. ( x − 3)( x + 2) x = 3. Inc. so y = = 1 1 341 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 2.6 x−4 2 x − x−6 x+4 −x − 4 f (−x) = =− 2 2 (−x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0−4 2 = y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−6 3 x-intercept: x − 4 = 0. so none f ( x) = 2 x4 x2 + 1 2(− x) 4 2 x4 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) +1 x +1 y-axis symmetry 2 ( 04 ) y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +2 x-intercept: 2 x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m. x = 4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 f ( x) = 66. 65. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. x4 x +2 (− x) 4 x4 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 (−x) + 2 x + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +2 x-intercept: x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m. .

f(–x) ≠ f(x). so y = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). x = 2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. x = 0 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 x= ( x + 3)( x − 2) = 0 x = −3. so y = = 1 1 70.x =1 3 ( x + 1) 2 =0 x = –1 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) 2 + 0 − 4 −4 = y-intercept: y = 0 2(0) 2 − 5(0) no y-intercept x-intercepts: 3x2 + x − 4 = 0 (3 x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 x − 1 = 0 3x = −4 4 x = − .Polynomial and Rational Functions 68. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 02 − 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = =3 2 1 ( 0 + 1) x-intercept: x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = 3 and x = 1 vertical asymptote: 3x 2 + x − 4 2 x2 − 5x 3(− x) 2 − x − 4 3 x 2 − x − 4 f (−x) = = 2 2 x2 + 5x 2 ( − x ) + 5x f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 2 x = 5 5 2 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. so y = = 1 1 342 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Inc. f ( x) = x2 − 4 x + 3 ( x + 1)2 ( − x ) − 4 ( − x ) + 3 x2 + 4 x + 3 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x + 1) ( − x + 1) 2 69. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +0−6 x-intercept: x 2 = 0. vertical asymptotes: 2 x2 − 5x = 0 x(2 x − 5) = 0 x2 x2 + x − 6 (− x) 2 x2 f (−x) = = 2 2 (−x) − x − 6 x − x − 6 f ( x) = x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

b.PreCalculus 4E 71. slant asymptote: 4 f ( x) = x – x y=x f (−x) = (−x) 2 +1 x2 − 4 x (−x) 2 −4 = x2 + 1 = − f ( x) −x −x Origin symmetry 02 + 1 1 = y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m. Section 2. b. a. . so none exist. x2 − 4 x f ( x) = x2 + 1 x = x2 − 4 = − f ( x) −x −x origin symmetry 02 − 4 4 =− y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 vertical asymptote: x = 0 343 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = 72. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 − 1 x ( − x ) − 1 x2 − 1 = = − f ( x) −x (−x) 2 f (−x) = Origin symmetry y-intercept: y = 0 2 − 1 −1 = 0 0 73. no y-intercept x-intercepts: x 2 − 1 = 0 x = ±1 vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n < m. so none exist.6 horizontal asymptote: n > m. f ( x) = a. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x – x y=x f ( x) = b. so none exist. Inc.

f ( x) = a. so none exist. so none exist. b. so none Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 4 + = = x2 − x − 6 −x − 3 −x − 3 f(–x) ≠ g(x). g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry 0 2 + 0 − 6 −6 y-intercept: y = = =2 0−3 −3 x-intercept: x2 + x − 6 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 x = –3 and x = 2 344 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 6 x –3 y=x+4 b. b. f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + x − 6 x−3 (−x) 2 + (−x) − 6 x2 + x + 1 −x −1 −x −1 no symmetry f (–x) ≠ f (x). f (–x) ≠ –g(x) 02 − 0 + 1 1 = = −1 y-intercept: y = 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: x2 − x + 1 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x–1=0 x=1 horizontal asymptote: n > m. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. x2 + 4 x slant asymptote: 4 g ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + 4 x (−x) 2 +4 −x origin symmetry y-intercept: y = = x2 + 4 = − f ( x) −x 02 + 4 4 = 0 0 76. f ( x) = a. x2 − x + 1 x −1 slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = x + x –1 y=x f ( x) = x2 − x − 1 x −1 (−x) − (−x) +1 2 f (−x) = 75.Polynomial and Rational Functions 74. vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. no y-intercept x2 + 4 = 0 x 2 = −4 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m.

x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n > m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = ( − x )3 − 1 − x 3 − 1 = (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). . −1 3 b. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = no symmetry no symmetry y-intercept: y = 03 + 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 = 0 + 2(0) 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x3 + 1 = 0 x 3 = −1 03 − 1 1 = 02 − 9 9 x-intercept: x3 – 1 = 0 x3 = 1 x =1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3.6 x3 + 1 x2 + 2 x 78. so none x = −1 vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x = 0 x( x + 2) = 0 x = 0. Inc. slant asymptote: x−2 x 2 + 2 x x3 f ( x) = a. (− x)3 + 1 − x3 + 1 = 2 2 (− x) + 2(− x) x − 2 x f (− x) ≠ f ( x). +1 x + 2x 3 2 x3 − 1 x2 − 9 slant asymptote: 9x −1 x+ 2 x −9 x 2 − 9 x3 x − 9x 9x −1 − 2 x2 −2 x 2 + 4 x − 4x + 1 y=x y = x−2 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. f ( x) = a. so none 345 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 77.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. f ( x ) = ⋅ 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) 346 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. x−6 2 ( x − 3) x −5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 ÷ 10 x − 2 25 x 2 − 1 x −5 25 x 2 − 1 = ⋅ 2 10 x − 2 x − 10 x + 25 = ( 5 x + 1) ( 5 x − 1) 2 2 ( 5 x − 1) ( x − 5) = 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) x −5 So. f ( x ) = 80. ( x + 2) 2 10 x 3 1 2 x+2 = 2x ( x − 2) x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 = − 2 ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x+2 So. . f ( x ) = 2x ( x − 2) x ( x − 3) − 9 ( 2 ) 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x − 18 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = ( x − 6 ) ( x + 3) x−6 = x − 3) 2 ( 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 ) So. 5x2 x2 + 4 x + 4 ⋅ x2 − 4 10 x 3 = 5 x2 ( x + 2) ( x − 2) ⋅ 81. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 3) = x−2 x+2 x−2 x+2 1 2 x ⋅ x = x − 1 = ( x − 1)( x + 1) 84. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = −2 So. . 1 x x 2 +1 x 2 +1 x+ x ( x − 1)( x + 1) So. Inc.6 2 4 − 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 4 x + 3 2 4 = − x + 2 x + 1 x + 3 ( )( ) ( )( x + 1) = 83. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 82. 2 ( x + 3) − 4 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) x 2 − 4 − 3x + 6 x2 − 4 + x + 2 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 2 x + x−2 2x + 6 − 4x − 8 = ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = 3 3 1− x+2 = x + 2 ⋅ ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1 1 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1+ 1+ x−2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) − 3 ( x − 2 ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 ) 1− 2 = −2 x − 2 ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = −2 ( x + 1) −2 = = ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) ( x + 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) ( x − 1) So. f ( x ) = x 2 +1 x− 347 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

b.Polynomial and Rational Functions 85. The average cost decreases as the number of bicycles manufactured increases. 100 (2000 ) + 100. the average cost approaches $30. c. 000 C (4000 ) = = $125 4000 When 4000 bicycles are manufactured. . Inc. n = m. 88. C(100. 30 = 30 . 000) = 33 100. 1 As greater numbers of shoes are manufactured. 87. C (500) = 100 = 100 . the average cost approaches $100. 300000 + 30(10000) C(10000) = = 60 10000 When 10. 000 + 30x x 300000 + 30(1000) = 330 1000 When 1000 shoes are manufactured. a.000 shoes are manufactured. g ( x) = 3x + 7 1 = +3 x+2 x+2 d. a. it costs $300 to manufacture each. 000 C (2000 ) = = $150 2000 When 2000 bicycles are manufactured. 000 = $300 500 When 500 bicycles are manufactured. 00) = d. C(x) = 30x + 300. it costs $330 to manufacture each. so y = 90. g ( x) = −1 3x − 7 = +3 x−2 x−2 C ( x ) = 100 x + 100 .000 shoes are manufactured. c. 000 + 30(100. The average cost decreases as the number of shoes manufactured increases.000 x 100 (500 ) + 100. 86.000 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 As greater numbers of bicycles are manufactured. 100(4000) + 100. g ( x) = 2x + 7 1 = +2 x+3 x+3 89. so y = 348 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. it costs $150 to manufacture each. it costs $33 to manufacture each.000 C ( x) = 100x +100. g ( x) = −1 2x − 9 = +2 x−4 x−4 C= 300. n = m. 100(1000) + 100. 000 C (1000 ) = = $200 1000 When 1000 bicycles are manufactured. C(1000) = 300. it costs $60 to manufacture each. it costs $125 to manufacture each. it costs $200 to manufacture each. 000 When 100.

1. No. as a function of the 5000 .5 milligrams per liter. width. 100%. 90 5 10 5 + = + 9x x x x The function that expresses the total time for driving 10 5 + . P. and hiking is T (x) = x x P(10) = 99. 100(9 − 1) = 89 (9.2 or about 63% 2708. c.5 as time goes by. 89% of the deaths are smoking related. the pH level is lowest after about 6 minutes. 98. 15 = 1. A = xy = 2500 2500 y= x P(9) = T (x) = 5000 2500 = 2x + x x The perimeter of the floor. e. 95. Inc. the normal pH level must be 6. but never reaches 100%. y = 6. 2.5 ( 6 ) − 20.6 From the graph the pH level of the human mouth 42 minutes after a person eats food containing sugar will be about 6. a. y = 100 As incidence of the diseases increases.5 3 + 1 10 This verifies that the drug’s concentration after 3 hours will be 1. 90) 10 For a disease that smokers are 10 times more likely to contact than non-smokers. b. a. 94. x is P(x) = 2 x + x P = 2x + 2y = 2x + 2 349 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 96. The horizontal asymptote is y = 11 . 12 11 or about 92% of federal 12 expenditures will spent on human resources over time.5 Over time. This overestimates the actual percent found in the graph by 1%. the lowest pH level) is 4. Section 2. so the the horizontal asymptote is y = 0 .8.4 ( 6 ) + 234 2 f (6) = 62 + 36 97. the pH level appears to approach 6. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 600 600 + . but never gets to be. If trends continue. the pH level drops quickly below normal.5. the drug’s concentration after three hours appears to be about 1. c. 100.5 milligrams per liter. C ( 3) = a. According to the function. 2 f ( x) = 11x 2 + 40 x + 1040 12 x 2 + 230 x + 2190 1707. 92. 11(36) 2 + 40(36) + 1040 16736 f (36) = = or 12(36) 2 + 230(36) + 2190 26022 about 64% of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. the percentage approaches 100%. From the graph. = 4.0. b. the pH level rises back to the normal level. From the graph. the drug’s concentration will approach 0 milligrams per liter. Over time. 6. 90% of the deaths are smoking related. x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. d. During the first hour.e. 93. = The degree of the numerator. From the graph.PreCalculus 4E 91. is less than the degree of the denominator. d. According to the graph. Therefore. T (x) = x x − 10 100(10 − 1) = 90 (10. 89) 9 For a disease that smokers are 9 times more likely to have than non-smokers. 5 ( 3) b. the percent of death approaches. and then slowly begins to approach the normal level.8 The pH level after 6 minutes (i. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .7 of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006.

the average cost for a company to produce each unit of its product decreases. Sample explanation: The function has one vertical asymptote. 122. 2 x 2 + x = 15 2 x 2 + x − 15 = 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) = 0 2x − 5 = 0 or x+3= 0 x= 5 2 x = −3 5⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −3.000 drivers. . false. true 124. – 127. At age 25 the highest number arrests occurs. g(x) is the graph of a line where f(x) is the graph of a rational function with a slant asymptote. true 114. ⎬ . 128. 120. There are about 356 arrests for every 100. 113. 121. does not make sense. makes sense The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. – 111. Answers may vary. 117.Polynomial and Rational Functions 101. x = 50 + b. 118. f (x) = 50 +2 x 27725(x − 14) − 5x x2 + 9 w=x+1 50 A= + 2 (x + 1) x 50 + 2x + 2 x 50 + 52 = 2x + x The total area of the page is 50 A(x) = 2 x + + 52. Explanations will vary. The graph increases from late teens until about the age of 25. x – 2 is a factor of x 2 − 5x + 6 . c. does not make sense. A sample change is: The graph of a rational function may have both a vertical asymptote and a horizontal asymptote. a. true 123. Sample explanation: As production level increases. Answers may vary. Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary. The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. Inc. x = 2. does not make sense. 116. 2⎭ ⎩ 350 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and then the number of arrests decreases. Sample explanation: A rational function can have at most one horizontal asymptote. 112. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A = lw xy = 50 l=y+2= 115. 119. 102. In g(x).

−4 ) belongs to the solution set. Test Test Test Interval Number (−5) 2 − (−5) > 20 –5 ( −∞. −4 ) ∪ ( 5. x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4( x + 1) = 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 − 4) = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 The solution set is {−2. −1. 5 ) ( 5. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. x +1 x + 1 2( x + 3) −2= − x+3 x+3 x+3 x + 1 2x + 6 = − x+3 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 = x+3 −x − 5 x+5 = or − x+3 x+3 Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. 2} . ( 5. ( −4. x + 4 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −4 x=5 The boundary points are –2 and 4. . ∞ ) or { x x < −4 or x > 5} .7 x3 + x 2 = 4 x + 4 129. x 2 − x > 20 x 2 − x − 20 > 0 ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. true ( −4. The solution set is ( −∞. 5 ) does not belong to the solution set. 351 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true 2 2 Conclusion ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. Inc. 130. −4 ) 30 > 20.7 Check Point Exercises 1. false 10 (10) − (10) > 20 90 > 20. ∞ ) 0 (0) − (0) > 20 0 > 20.

−1) –2 ( −1. .1] Conclusion 2 [ −1. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 2(−2) ≥1 −2 + 1 4 ≥ 1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. −1] does not belong to the solution (−2)3 + 3(−2) 2 ≤ (−2) + 3 4 ≤ 1 false set. true 3 ( −∞. x3 + 3x 2 ≤ x + 3 x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3 ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x = −1 Test Interval x =1 Test Number ( −∞. ∞ ) 2 ( −∞. −3) -4 ( −3. −1) belongs to the solution set. 352 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (0) + 3(0) ≤ (0) + 3 3 [ −1. false 2(2) ≥1 2 +1 4 ≥ 1. −1) ∪ [1.1] 0 [1.1] does not belong to the solution set. [1. 2x ≥1 x +1 2x −1 ≥ 0 x +1 x −1 ≥0 x +1 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x =1 x = −1 Test Test Interval Number ( −∞. true 2(0) ≥1 0 +1 0 ≥ 1. −1] –2 x+3=0 x = −3 Test (−4)3 + 3(−4) 2 ≤ (−4) + 3 0 [1. −3] ∪ [ −1. The solution set is ( −∞. −3) −16 ≤ −1 true belongs to the solution set. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. does not belong to the solution true set.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. ( −1. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or x ≥ 1} . Inc. The solution set is ( −∞.1] or { x x ≤ −3 or − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1} . 3.1] 0 ≤ 3 true ( 6 + 3)( 6 − 5 ) > 0 [1. ( −3.

false 2 ( −∞.1) 0 (1. belongs to the solution set. Inc. −16(5) 2 + 80(5) > 64 ( 4. The object will be more than 64 feet above the ground between 1 and 4 seconds. Section 2.7 −16t 2 + 80t > 64 −16t 2 + 80t − 64 > 0 −16(t − 1)(t − 4) > 0 t − 1 = 0 or t − 4 = 0 t =1 t=4 Test Interval Test Number Test −16(0) + 80(0) > 64 0 > 64. ( 4.PreCalculus 4E 4. − 2) or (4. 4 ) 2 −16(2) 2 + 80(2) > 64 96 > 64. (x – 4)(x + 2) > 0 x = 4 or x = –2 T F T –2 4 Test –3: (–3 – 4)(–3 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True Test 0: (0 – 4)(0 + 2) > 0 –8 > 0 False Test 5: (5 – 4)(5 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True (−∞. ∞) 2. false solution set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 5 Exercise Set 2.1) (1.7 1. . 4 ) does not belong to the solution set. ∞ ) does not belong to the 0 > 64. ∞). (x + 3)(x – 5) > 0 x = –3 or x = 5 T F T –3 5 Test –4: (–4 + 3)(–4 – 5) > 0 9 > 0 True Test 0: (0 + 3)(0 – 5) > 0 –15 > 0 False Test 6: (6 + 3)(6 – 5) > 0 18 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 353 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 3) or (5. true Conclusion ( −∞.

T F 1 T 4 Test 0: 0 − 5(0) + 4 > 0 x2 + x − 6 > 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) > 0 x = –3 or x = 2 2 T 4 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 5(2) + 4 > 0 −2 > 0 False 2 Test 5: 5 − 5(5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. . 3). 2 x2 − 5x + 4 > 0 ( x − 4)( x − 1) > 0 x = 4 or F Test 0: 0 − 4(0) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False Test 2: 22 − 4(2) + 3 < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 4: 42 − 4(4) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) . F 1 F –1 7 Test –2: (–2 + 1)(–2 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 + 1)(0 – 7) ≤ 0 –7 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 + 1)(8 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–1. 5. 7]. ∞). Inc. − 4) or (−1. T F –3 7 Test –4: (–4 – 7)(–4 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 – 7)(0 + 3) ≤ 0 –21 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 – 7)(8 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–3. − 3) or (2. T T 2 (x + 1)(x – 7) ≤ 0 x = –1 or x = 7 F x2 − 4 x + 3 < 0 ( x − 1)( x − 3) < 0 x = 1 or x = 3 x =1 8. 7]. F –3 T 2 Test –4: (−4) − 4 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True Test 0: (0) 2 + 0 − 6 > 0 –6 > 0 False Test 3: 32 + 3 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 3. 7. 4. ∞) . 2 354 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1) or (4. 3 x2 + 5x + 4 > 0 ( x + 1)( x + 4) > 0 x = –1 or x = –4 T F –4 T –1 Test –5: (−5) + 5(−5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True Test –3: (−3)2 + 5(−3) + 4 > 0 –2 > 0 False Test 0: 02 + 5(0) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. (x – 7)(x + 3) ≤ 0 x = 7 or x = –3 F 6.

x= F 3 T 1 3 Test –1: 9(−1) 2 + 3(−1) − 2 ≥ 0 4 ≥ 0 True Test 0: 9(0)2 + 3(0) − 2 ≥ 0 –2 ≥ 0 False Test 1: 9(1) 2 + 3(1) − 2 ≤ 0 10 ≥ 0 True −2 ⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 2 11. ⎟ . 10. F −2 3 x2 − 2x + 1 > 0 ( x − 1)( x − 1) > 0 x=1 T 1 −2 x= 3 3 T Test 0: 02 − 6(0) + 9 < 0 9 < 0 False 2 Test 4: 4 − 6(4) + 9 < 0 1 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. ∞). . Section 2.7 x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) < 0 x=3 F 12. ⎥ or ⎢ . 2⎠ ⎝ F 2 3 Test –5: 3(−5)2 + 10(−5) − 8 ≤ 0 17 ≤ 0 False Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 10(0) − 8 ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 True Test 1: 3(1) + 10(1) − 8 ≤ 0 2 5 ≤ 0 False 2⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −4. Inc. ∅. Test 0: 0 − 2(0) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 2(2) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ T 1 13. 9 x2 + 3x − 2 ≥ 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) ≥ 0 3 x = 1 3 x = −2 2 x 2 + x − 15 < 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) < 0 2 x − 5 = 0 or x+3=0 2x = 5 5 x= x = −3 or 2 3x 2 + 10 x − 8 ≤ 0 (3 x − 2)( x + 4) ≤ 0 F T –4 T –3 2 x = or x = −4 3 F 2 x 2 + x < 15 F 5 2 Test –4: 2(−4) 2 + (−4) < 15 28 < 15 False Test 0: 2(0) 2 + 0 < 15 0 < 15 True Test 3: 2(3) 2 + 3 < 15 21 < 15 False 5⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −3. ⎥ . 3⎦ ⎣ 355 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1) or (1. ∞ ⎟ .PreCalculus 4E 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

− ⎟ . 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ 15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 x2 + 7 x + 3 < 0 (4 x + 3)( x + 1) < 0 4x + 3 = 0 or x +1=0 4 x-3=0 3 or x=− x = −1 4 3x2 + 5x − 2 ≤ 0 (3 x − 1)( x + 2) ≤ 0 3x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 3x − 1=0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 x= F − 34 –1 F Test –6: 3(−6) 2 + 16(−6) < −5 12 < –5 False Test –2: 3(−2) 2 + 16(−2) < −5 –20 < –5 True Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 16(0) < −5 0 < –5 False 1⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −5. 3x 2 + 16 x < −5 1 or 3 F Test –2: 4(−2) 2 + 7(−2) < −3 2 < −3 False T –2 2 7 ⎛ 7⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ Test − : 4 ⎜ − ⎟ + 7 ⎜ − ⎟ < −3 8 ⎝ 8⎠ ⎝ 8⎠ 49 49 − < −3 16 8 49 − < −3 True 16 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 7(0) < −3 0 < −3 False 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −1. − ⎟ or ⎜ . 3x 2 + 16 x + 5 < 0 6 x2 + x − 1 > 0 (3 x + 1)( x + 5) < 0 3x + 1 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 (2 x + 1)(3x − 1) > 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or 3x − 1 = 0 2 x = −1 1 x=− 2 3x = −1 3x = 1 1 x= 3 T F − 12 x=− − 13 5 x ≤ 2 − 3x 2 17. . ∞ ⎟ . 6 x2 + x > 1 16. ⎣ 3⎦ 356 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎟ . Inc. ⎥ . 3⎠ ⎝ 4 x 2 + 7 x < −3 T T –5 1 3 F x = −5 1 3 F T Test –1: 6(−1) 2 + (−1) > 1 5 > 1 True Test 0: 6(0) 2 + 0 > 1 0 > 1 False Test 1: 6(1)2 + 1 > 1 7 > 1 True 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. 4⎠ ⎝ x = −2 F 1 3 Test –3: 5(−3) ≤ 2 − 3(−3) 2 –15 ≤ –25 False Test 0: 5(0) ≤ 2 − 3(0) 2 0 ≤ 2 True Test 1: 5(1) ≤ 2 − 3(1) 2 5 ≤ –1 False ⎡ 1⎤ The solution set is ⎢ −2.

Inc. ∞ ). 21. 19. Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − ⎟ or (0. 2⎠ ⎝ Test –1: (−1) 2 − 4(−1) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 − 4(1) ≥ 0 −3 ≥ 0 False 0 ≤ 2 True Test 5: 52 − 4(5) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 0] or [4.PreCalculus 4E 18. 0). x2 − 4 x ≥ 0 x( x − 4) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x . . 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) ≥ 0 2x −1 = 0 1 x= 2 x2 + 2x < 0 x( x + 2) < 0 x = 0 or x = –2 F T –2 F 0 Test –3: (−3) + 2(−3) < 0 3 < 0 False Test –1: (−1) 2 + 2(−1) < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 + 2(1) < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (–2. 2 T T 1 2 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(0) 1 ≥ 0 True Test 1: 4(1) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(1) 5 ≥ 4 True The solution set is (−∞.4 = 0 x=4 2 x 2 + 3x > 0 x(2 x + 3) > 0 x = 0 or x = − 3 2 T T F 0 T F − 32 4 T 0 Test –2: 2(−2) 2 + 3(−2) > 0 2 > 0 True Test –1: 2(−1)2 + 3(−1) > 0 –1 > 0 False Test 1: 2(1) 2 + 3(1) > 0 5 > 0 True 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. ∞). ∞). 357 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 4 x2 + 1 ≥ 4 x 20.

−x2 + x ≥ 0 x= x2 − x ≤ 0 x( x − 1) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 1 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) F T 0 4± 8 2 = 2± 2 x ≈ 0. ⎣ 3⎦ x2 ≤ 4 x − 2 25. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.59 3. 2]. .41 = F 1 Test –1: −(−1) + (−1) ≥ 0 −2 ≥ 0 False 2 F T F 2 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ Test : − ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 1 ≥ 0 True 4 Test 2: −(2) 2 + 2 ≥ 0 0. 3x 2 − 5 x ≤ 0 x(3x − 5) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 24. 2 + 2 ⎤⎦ or [ 0. 2 5 3 Test –1: 3(−1)2 − 5(−1) ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 False Test 1: 3(1)2 − 5(1) ≤ 0 –2 ≤ 0 True Test 2: 3(2)2 − 5(2) ≤ 0 2 ≤ 0 False ⎡ 5⎤ The solution set is ⎢0. x2 − 4 x + 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 4 x + 2 = 0 23. ⎥ .41] .41 The solution set is ⎡⎣ 2 − 2. 3. 5 3 − x2 + 2 x ≥ 0 x(− x + 2) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x = 2 F F T F 0 T F 0 2 Test –1: −(−1) + 2(−1) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False Test 1: −(1) 2 + 2(1) ≥ 0 1 ≥ 0 True Test 3: −(3)2 + 2(3) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0.59.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. 358 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.59 or x ≈ 3. 1]. −2 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0.

–2 T The solution set is [–3. 2. x(4 − x)( x − 6) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. 3] ∪ [5.73 F –3 2.73 0 x=3 3 T 5 The solution set is [0. F T F x2 ≤ 2x + 2 26. ∞).7 29. ∞). F T F x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 Solve x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 ( x − 3)2 = 0 28. 359 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.73 2 The solution set is [1. ∞). 4] ∪ [6. 3. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 1. 3. x − 2x − 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) 1 2 ± 12 2 = 1± 3 x ≈ −0.73 or x ≈ 2. and 5 Test one value in each interval. 27. –2. 2. –2] ∪ [–1.73.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. and 5 Test one value in each interval.73] . = F T 6 The solution set is [0.1 + 3 ⎤⎦ or [ −0. Inc. F T F T –0. ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x + 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. F T F 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 0 (2 x − 1)2 = 0 x= –1 31. 2] ∪ [3. F F 3 The solution set is the empty set. 3 30. and –3 Test one value in each interval. 32. The solution set is ⎡⎣1 − 3. ∞). ∞ ). and 3 Test one value in each interval. . ∅. x(3 − x)( x − 5) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. 1 2 T 4 T T 1 2 The solution set is (−∞.

and ( x − 3)( x 2 − 9) ≥ 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –3 and 3 Test one value in each interval. –1 The solution set is (−1. ∞). 360 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and 38. x 3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) ≥ 0 ( F x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 9 > 0 x 2 ( x − 1) + 9 ( x − 1) ≥ 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 9) ≥ 0 Boundary point: 1. 13 2 Test one value in each interval. ( ) 34. –1 and 1 Test one value in each interval. . 2 –7 –1 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. –3 3 The solution set is (−∞. 72 .5 ) ∪ 5.Polynomial and Rational Functions ( ) 33. 36. F F T –2 1 The solution set is (–∞ . T T F ( x + 7)( x 2 − 1) < 0 ( x + 7)( x + 1)( x − 1) < 0 Boundary points: –7. (2 − x)2 x − 72 < 0 37. 35. Publishing as Prentice Hall. F T F –2 –1 39. ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x + 2)( x − 2) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. ∞). F T T 2 The solution set is [–2. and 2 Test one value in each interval. −3]. x3 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 > 0 x 2 ( x + 1) + 4( x + 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 + 4) ≥ 0 Boundary point: –1 Test one value in each interval. 1). T F T 13 2 5 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 7 < 0 x 2 ( x + 7) − ( x + 7) < 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. F T 1 The solution set is (1. 7 2 Boundary points: 2. –7) ∪ (–1. 2 ) ∪ 2. –1] ∪ [1. –1. 2 The solution set is [ −2. T T F 7 2 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) ≥ 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. 13 . (5 − x)2 x − 13 <0 2 Boundary points: 5. Test one value in each interval. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 ) 40. ∞). ∞ ). −2] ∪ [2. T F F Test one value in each interval. and 2 Test one value in each interval. Inc.

44. T –3 x=4 –3 −x + 2 ≥0 x−4 x = 2 or x = 4 F 2 4 The solution set is [2. F F T 0 46. − 3) ∪ (4. T T F 48. ∞ ). ∞). − 3] ∪ (−2. 361 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –2). –2 4 − 2x ≤0 3x + 4 4 3 T F − 43 F –5 T x+3 <0 x+4 x = −3 or F x = −4 T T 2 −4 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 3 x+5 <0 x+2 x = –5 or x = –2 F T F –4 –3 The solution set is (–4.7 x3 − 9 x 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 9) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 0 and 9 Test one value in each interval. ∞). The solution set is ( −∞. 9 The solution set is [ 0. 45. 47. F –5 –2 The solution set is (–5. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2 The solution set is (−∞. Section 2. 0] ∪ [9. − 5) ∪ (2. 4]. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞). T T x = 2 or x = − x+5 >0 x−2 x = –5 or x = 2 T F The solution set is (−∞. x−4 >0 x+3 x−4 = 0 x+3 = 0 x = −3 T F −x − 3 ≤0 x+2 x = –3 or x = –2 T F 4 49. 4). . Test one value in each interval. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 41. 43. x − 4x ≤ 0 x 2 ( x − 4) ≤ 0 2 Boundary points: 0 and 4. 0 4 The solution set is (–∞. ∞). ⎟ ∪ [2. 42. –3).

3x + 5 ≥0 6 − 2x 5 x = − or x = 3 3 F 54.1] x = 2 or x = 1 F T 1 2 The solution set is (1. therefore must be included in the solution set. 0 The solution set is ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x >2 x −1 56. ∞). ∞). − 3] ∪ (−1. 0) ∪ (3. 2]. ⎣ 3 ⎠ 51. T − F –3 3 5 3 55. 2). 52. The solution set is (−∞. − 4) ∪ (0. −4] ∪ ( −2. ∞) . x >0 x−3 x = 0 or x = 3 T F 0 T 3 The solution set is (−∞. F . T F –4 T –2 x −2>0 x −1 x 2( x − 1) − >0 x −1 x −1 x − 2x + 2 >0 x −1 −x + 2 >0 x −1 F 1 Values of x = −4 or x = 1 result in f ( x) = 0 and. 3 ⎟ . 53. ( x + 4)( x − 1) ≤0 x+2 x = −4 or x = −2 or x = 1 . 362 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎡ 5 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ − . ( x + 3)( x − 2) ≤0 x +1 x = −3 or x = −1 or x = 2 . T F T T –3 The solution set is (−∞. Inc. therefore must be included in the solution set.Polynomial and Rational Functions 50. x+4 >0 x x = –4 or x = 0 T –1 F –5 T –4 2 x +1 <2 x+3 x +1 −2<0 x+3 x + 1 − 2( x + 3) <0 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 <0 x+3 −x − 5 <0 x+3 x = or x = –3 T F F Values of x = −3 or x = 2 result in f ( x) = 0 and. − 5) ∪ (−3. The solution set is ( −∞.

Inc. x−2 ≤2 x+2 x−2 −2≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2 ( x + 2) ≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2x − 4 ≤0 x+2 −x − 6 ≤0 x+2 T T F –4 –2 The solution set is [–4. 4 The solution set is (−∞. x = −6 or 1 2 F T T -2 The solution set is (−∞. . − 6] ∪ (−2.PreCalculus 4E 57. ∞ ) . 61. –2). x −2≥0 x+2 x 2( x + 2) − ≥0 x+2 x+2 x − 2x − 4 ≥0 x+2 −x − 4 ≥0 x+2 1 −1 < 0 x −3 1 x−3 − <0 x−3 x−3 1− x + 3 <0 x −3 −x + 4 <0 x−3 x = –4 or x = –2 x = 4 or x = 3 F F 3 F -6 7 5 1 <1 x−3 T x = −2 T 1 2 58. 2⎦ ⎝ 363 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3) ∪ (4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞). Section 2.7 x+4 ≤3 2x − 1 x+4 −3≤ 0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 3 ( 2 x − 1) ≤0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 6x + 3 ≤0 2x − 1 −5 x + 7 ≤0 2x − 1 x= 7 or 5 x= T 59. ⎥ ∪ [ 2. ∞). x ≥2 x+2 60. f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 2 x2 − 5x + 2 ≥ 0 Solve 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 2 T F 1 2 T 2 1⎤ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞.

− 1) ∪ [1. Inc. 1 f ( x) = 4x − 9x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 > 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(4 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 4 2 T F 1 4 T 2 1⎞ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. thus. f ( x) = 2x −1 x +1 The domain of this function requires that T F 2x x −1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 x +1 x +1 x = −1 or x = 1 T -1 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. thus. 4⎠ ⎝ 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . f ( x) = x −1 2x − 1 x −x + 1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 2x − 1 2x − 1 1 x= or x = 1 2 The domain of this function requires that F T 1 2 F 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. it must be included in the domain. ∞ ) .Polynomial and Rational Functions 62. The domain is ( −∞. 1⎥ . ⎛1 ⎤ The domain is ⎜ . . 64. it must be included in the domain. ⎟ ∪ ( 2. ⎝2 ⎦ 364 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

−8) belongs to the 27 > 12. ( 6. solution set. ( 4. − 6. −6 ) −7 ( −7 ) 2 + 2 ( −7 ) − 36 > 12 1 > 12. and 1 . x2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 6 x + 1 < −8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 x2 + 6 x + 9 < 0 x2 + 6 x − 7 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. x + 6 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 or x + 8 = 0 or x−6 = 0 x = −6 x=4 x = −8 The boundary points are −8. 4 and 6 .7 x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 2 x − 36 < −12 or x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 x 2 + 2 x − 24 < 0 x 2 + 2 x − 48 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. ∞ ) belongs to the 2 27 > 12. Section 2. 66. Inc. False to the solution set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 365 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. True 5 52 + 2 ( 5) − 36 > 12 ( 6. x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 or x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 ( x + 3) 2 =0 ( x + 7 )( x − 1) = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x + 3 = ± 0 or x + 7 = 0 3 0 7 x+ = x=− x =1 x = −3 The boundary points are −7. ∞ ) or { x x < −8 or − 6 < x < 4 or x > 6} . x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 or x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 ( x + 6 )( x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 8 )( x − 6 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. 4 ) 0 36 > 12. ∞ ) 7 7 + 2 ( 7 ) − 36 > 12 ( −8. 6 ) does not belong 1 > 12. −3. 6 ) solution set.PreCalculus 4E 65. 4 ) belongs to the 02 + 2 ( 0 ) − 36 > 12 ( 4. . The solution set is ( −∞. True solution set. −8 ) −9 ( −9 ) 2 x=6 Test Conclusion + 2 ( −9 ) − 36 > 12 ( −∞. True ( −8. −6 ) does not belong to the solution set. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. 4 ) ∪ ( 6. −8 ) ∪ ( −6. False ( −6. ( −6.

∞ ) belongs to the 22 + 6 ( 2 ) + 1 > 8 2 to the solution set. x+3 = 0 x−2=0 x = −3 x=2 The boundary points are −3 and 2. 17 ≥ 8. 1 ≥ 8. ∞ ) does not belong > 3+3 3− 2 to the solution set. 2 ) or { x −3 < x < 2} .1) does not belong 02 + 6 ( 0 ) + 1 > 8 0 solution set. 2 ) 0 ( 2. True The solution set is ( −∞. −7 ) belongs to the 17 ≥ 8. True 2 3 3 ( 2. False (1. .Polynomial and Rational Functions Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. 1 −3 > . solution set. 1 > 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 3 Test Conclusion 3 3 ( −∞. −7 ) −8 ( −8 ) 2 Test Conclusion + 6 ( −8 ) + 1 > 8 ( −∞. False 2 The solution set is ( −3. 366 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 67. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. −3) −5 ( −5 ) 2 ( −7. ∞ ) (1. 2 ) belongs to the > 0+3 0−2 solution set. −3) does not belong > −4 + 3 −4 − 2 to the solution set. False ( −3. True ( −7. −3) does not belong + 6 ( −5 ) + 1 > 8 4 ≥ 8. −3) ( −3. 3 3 > x+3 x−2 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. False 2 3 3 ( −3. ( −3. ∞ ) or { x x < −7 or x > 1} . 3 3 − >0 x+3 x−2 3( x − 2) 3 ( x + 3) − >0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 3x − 6 − 3x − 9 <0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) −15 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) <0 Find the values of x that make the denominator zero. Inc. 3 1 > − . −7 ) ∪ (1.1) to the solution set.

False 3 The solution set is ( −∞. Inc. and 1.1) belongs to the > 0 + 1 0 −1 solution set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3) ∪ ( −1. 1 > −2. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. −x − 3 = 0 x +1 = 0 x −1 = 0 −3 = x x = −1 x =1 The boundary points are −3 . −1) −2 ( −1. False 3 1 2 ( −3. True 1 2 (1. 1 > 1. Section 2. 1 1 − > − .1) or { x x < −3 or − 1 < x < 1} .PreCalculus 4E 68. . −1 . True 3 2 1 2 ( −3. −1) does not belong > −2 + 1 −2 − 1 to the solution set. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 1 2 ( −∞. 367 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3) belongs to the > −4 + 1 −3 − 1 solution set. −3) ( −3.7 1 2 > x + 1 x −1 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. ∞ ) does not belong > 2 + 1 2 −1 to the solution set.1) 0 (1. 2 −1 > − . 1 2 − >0 x + 1 x −1 2 ( x + 1) x −1 − >0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) x −1 − 2x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) <0 −x − 3 <0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.

5 − 2 >0 2. False 3 42 − 4 − 2 >0 4 − 4 ( 4) + 3 2 ( 3. 4 > 0.52 − 4 ( 2. True 3 The solution set is ( −∞.3) 1.1) does not belong (1. 7 > 0. 2 − > 0.5 − 2 >0 1. 368 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ) ( 2. −1) ∪ (1.5 2.1) Conclusion ( −∞. Inc. −1) ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) − 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 4 ( −2 ) + 3 ( −1. .52 − 2. False 3 1. 2 and 3. True 3 2.52 − 4 (1.5 ) + 3 5 > 0. x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 x=3 x =1 The boundary points are −1 .5 4 ( −1.3) does not belong to the solution set. 1. 2 ) belongs to the solution set. 10 > 0. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ) ∪ ( 3. x2 − x − 2 >0 x2 − 4 x + 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. −1) belongs to the solution set. x2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. ∞ ) to the solution set. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.52 − 1. Test Interval Test Number Test 2 −2 ( −∞. True 15 0 02 − 0 − 2 >0 0 − 4 (0) + 3 2 (1.5 ) + 3 − ( 3. ( 2.

1. 369 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) ∪ (1.52 − 3 (1. 12 > 0.3) − ( 3.5 ) + 2 >0 1.5) + 2 >0 2. Test Interval ( −∞. −1) Test Number −2 x − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 2 ( −1. ( 3. 1.5 1 > 0. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . Inc. False 3 1. . to the solution set.5 ) − 3 ( 2.52 − 2 (1.5 2 > 0.7 x2 − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 x2 − 2x − 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle.52 − 2 ( 2.5 ) − 3 (1.52 − 3 ( 2. True 5 02 − 3 ( 0 ) + 2 0 − 2 ( 0) − 3 2 >0 ( −1. 2 ) ( 2.1) 0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 Test Conclusion ( −∞. −1) belongs to the ( −2 ) − 3 ( −2 ) + 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 2 ( −2 ) − 3 2 solution set. 2 ) ∪ ( 3. 2 and 3. True 15 2. x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x=2 x =1 x=3 The boundary points are −1 . Section 2. 6 > 0.PreCalculus 4E 70. 2 ) belongs to the 2.1) does not belong to the solution set. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. False 7 >0 solution set.3) does not belong − (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 4 42 − 3 ( 4 ) + 2 4 − 2 ( 4) − 3 2 3 > 0. True 5 The solution set is ( −∞.

−2 ) ∪ [ −1. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 73. we verified that the boundaries are −6 . These intervals are The graph of f ( x ) = indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. Thus. − . and 1. . These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. −1 . 2 2⎦ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ 72. and 1. Now. Thus. and 1. Now. Now. − ⎥ ∪ [1. the solution set is { x x < −2 or − 1 ≤ x < 2} or ( −∞. the curve is above the x-axis when −6 < x < − 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ and when x > 1 . and has vertical asymptotes at x = −2 and x = 2 . 2 ) . These intervals are 2 1 indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. the curve is below the x-axis when x < −2 and when −1 < x < 2 . ∞ ) . the boundaries are −6 . We verify this 2 numerically by substituting these values into the function: f ( −6 ) = 2 ( −6 ) + 11( −6 ) − 7 ( −6 ) − 6 = 2 ( −216 ) + 11( 36 ) − ( −42 ) − 6 = −432 + 396 + 42 − 6 = 0 3 2 3 2 1 11 7 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ − ⎟ − 7 ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = − + + − 6 = 0 2 2 2 2 8 4 2 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ f (1) = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 (1) − 6 = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 − 6 = 2 + 11 − 7 − 6 = 0 3 2 1 Thus. − . We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≥ 0 . −6 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞ . and 1. Inc. We need to find the intervals on which 2 f ( x ) < 0 . the curve is below the x-axis when x < −6 and when − 1 ⎧ 1 ⎫ < x < 1 . + = = = = 4 ( x + 2 ) 4 ( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x 2 − 4 x +1 crosses the x-axis at −1 . 1 3 ≤− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + ≤0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) Simplify the left side of the inequality: 3( x + 2) 4 ( x + 1) x−2 x − 2 + 3x + 6 4x + 4 x +1 . − . 2 x 3 + 11x 2 ≥ 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 ≥ 0 1 The graph of f ( x ) = 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 appears to cross the x-axis at −6 . We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≤ 0 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus. Thus. the solution set is ⎨ x − 6 ≤ x ≤ − or x ≥ 1⎬ or ⎢ −6.1⎟ . 370 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the solution set is ⎨ x x < −6 or − < x < 1⎬ or 2 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( −∞. x2 − 4 the boundaries are −2 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 71. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 < 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 < 0 1 In Problem 63.

6 g ( x) = 0. Testing each interval shows that the ball will be higher than the rooftop for the first three seconds after the throw. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c.6 ≈ 185 feet b.0875 x 2 − 0.6 ≈ 160 feet g (35) = 0.4(35) + 66. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 48t + 160 The ball’s height will exceed that of the rooftop when s (t ) > 160 −16t 2 + 48t + 160 > 160 −16t 2 + 48t > 0 −16t (t − 3) > 0 The boundaries are 0 and 3. and 2. .PreCalculus 4E 74. The function values and the data are identical. ⎟ . The interval is ( 0. Section 2. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 8t + 87 The diver’s height will exceed that of the cliff when s (t ) > 87 −16t 2 + 8t + 87 > 87 −16t 2 + 8t > 0 −8t (2t − 1) > 0 1 .4 x + 66.0875(35)2 − 0.7 1 3 >− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + >0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) x +1 >0 ( x + 2)( x − 2) The boundaries are −2 . 3) . 371 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9 x + 11. −1) ∪ ( 2.9(35) + 11. f (35) = 0. 75. −1 . The interval is ⎜ 0. ⎝ 2⎠ The boundaries are 0 and 76. Thus.0875 x 2 + 1. the solution set is { x −2 < x < −1 or x > 2} or ( −2. ∞ ) . f ( x) = 0.0875(35) 2 + 1.6 a. 77. Publishing as Prentice Hall. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) > 0 . The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well. These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. The curve is above the x-axis when −2 < x < −1 and when x > 2 . Testing each interval shows that the diver will be higher than the cliff for the first half 2 ⎛ 1⎞ second after beginning the jump. Inc.

On dry pavement. True ( 30.9)2 − 4(0.4(50) + 66.0875 x 2 + 1.9 x + 528. we must test the following intervals.4 x + 473.6 > 540.4 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0.0875 x 2 + 1. False ( 76.4) 2(0.9(55) + 11.6 g ( x) = 0.6 > 540 0. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c.6 > 540 265.6 ≈ 381 feet b. This is represented on graph (b) to the right of point (76.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. 0. ∞ ) 100 0.0875(55)2 + 1.4 x + 473.6 > 540 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions d.6 > 540 901.4 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(1.0875 x 2 − 0.4 x + 66. f (55) = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0875(50)2 − 0. 0.6 a.4(100) + 66.0875 x 2 + 1. f ( x) = 0.6 ≈ 309 feet g (55) = 0. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 0.0875) x ≈ −71 or 76 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30.0875 x 2 − 0.9 x + 528.0875)(528.0875 x 2 − 0. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well. 78.0875 x 2 + 1. x= Interval Test Value 50 ( 30.9 x + 11. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 76 miles per hour.0875) x ≈ −89 or 68 372 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 76 ) Test Conclusion 0. 76 ) does not belong to the solution set.0875)(473.9 x + 11.4) 2(0. 0.9) ± (1. 540). d. ( 76.0875(100)2 − 0.0875(55)2 − 0.4(55) + 66.35 > 540. .0875 x 2 − 0.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. Inc.4 x + 66.4) ± (−0.4)2 − 4(0.

so we have that width = A ( x ) ≤ 114 x ( 25 − x ) ≤ 114 25 x − x 2 ≤ 114 Solve the related equation 25 x − x 2 = 114 0 = x 2 − 25 x + 114 0 = ( x − 19 )( x − 6 ) Apply the zero product principle: x − 19 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = 19 x=6 The boundary points are 6 and 19. 6 ) 0 Test Conclusion ( −∞. True to the solution set. (19. 68) does not belong 2 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 373 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. then the width is 19 feet.35 > 540. ( 68. ∞ ) belongs to the 25 ( 20 ) − 20 ≤ 114 2 100 ≤ 114. . 540). This is represented on graph (a) to the right of point (68. Thus.19 ) 10 (19. we know 50 = 2 x + 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 Now.6 > 540 1076. Publishing as Prentice Hall. If the length is less than 6 feet.6 > 540. ( 6. Interval Test Value 50 ( 30. 6 ) belongs to the 25 ( 0 ) − 0 ≤ 114 2 0 ≤ 114. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. Let x = the length of the rectangle. Since Perimeter = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) . False to the solution set.19 ) does not belong 25 (10 ) − 10 ≤ 114 2 150 ≤ 114. False ( 68. On wet pavement.9(50) + 11.0875(100)2 + 1. the length of the shorter side must be 6 feet or less. 79.68) Test Conclusion ( 30. then the width is greater than 19 feet.9(100) + 11.7 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 68 miles per hour. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. If the length is 6 feet. True solution set. ∞ ) 20 solution set. Inc. ∞ ) 100 0.6 > 540 325. A = ( length )( width ) . if the area of the rectangle is not to exceed 114 square feet. True ( 6. we must test the following intervals.0875(50) + 1.

∞). – 85. The graph is below or equal to the x-axis for −3 ≤ x ≤ . Test Test Test Conclusion Interval Number ( 0. Graph y1 = 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 in a standard window. 2l + 2w = P 2l + 2w = 180 2l = 180 − 2w l = 90 − w We want to restrict the area to 800 square feet. 86. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A ≤ 800 l ⋅ w ≤ 800 ( 90 − w ) w ≤ 800 90w − w2 ≤ 800 − w2 + 90w − 800 ≤ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 ≥ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 = 0 ( w − 80 )( w − 10 ) = 0 w − 80 = 0 or w − 10 = 0 w = 80 w = 10 Assuming the width is the shorter side. 1 87. 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x − 3 ≤ x ≤ ⎩ 1⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ ⎬ or ⎢ −3.10 ) (10. That is. Inc. 45) 5 90 ( 5 ) − ( 5 ) ≤ 800 true 20 90 ( 20 ) − ( 20 ) ≤ 800 false 2 2 ( 0. The length of the shorter side cannot exceed 10 feet. 81.10 ) is part of the solution set (10. . Answers may vary. 2⎭ 2⎦ ⎣ 374 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we ignore the larger solution. ⎥ . The solution set is (−∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80.10] . 45 ) is not part of the solution set The solution set is {w | 0 < w ≤ 10} or ( 0. -5) ∪ (2.

1)2 − 4(0. f ( x) = 0.1125 x 2 − 0.3) ∪ [8.1x + 55. we must test the following intervals. –1) or (2.9 b. 90. The graph is below the x-axis for x −1 The solution set is (1.1125)(399. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −∞. x−4 in a standard viewing window. The solution set is (–2. ∞).PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 89.7 88.1125 x 2 − 0. ∞ ) 92.1) 2(0.1x + 399. 91.1125 x 2 − 0.9 > 455 0. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −4.1x + 399.1 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. . 0.1125) x ≈ −59 or 60 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0. 0. −1) ∪ [ 2. a.1125 x 2 − 0. x= 375 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x+2 and y2 = 2 x−3 y1 less than or equal to y2 for x < 3 or x ≥ 8 . ∞ ) 1 2 and y2 = x +1 x+4 y1 less than or equal to y2 for −4 < x < −1 or x ≥ 2 .1 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. 4].1) ± (−0.1x + 55. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Graph y1 = 1 < x ≤ 4. Inc.

True ( 0.1125(100) − 0. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: To solve this inequality you must first subtract 2 from both sides. A sample change is: The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} or ( −∞. stopping distances will exceed 455 feet for speeds exceeding 60 miles per hour. we must test the following intervals.1375 x 2 + 0. Sample explanation: Polynomials are defined for all values.1(50) + 55. 101. A sample change is: The inequality cannot be solved by multiplying both sides by x + 3.1375) x ≈ −57 or 52 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0. True ( 0.7) ± (0.55 > 446. Changes to make the statement true will vary.7 x + 37. We do not know if x + 3 is positive or negative. 100.8 b.9 > 455 1170.9 > 455. 0. but not included in the domain of the second inequality.1375 x 2 + 0. 99. False ( 52. ∞ ) . 1. makes sense 95. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.7(10) + 37. A sample change is: The inequalities have different solution sets.1375(10) + 0. 0. f ( x) = 0. false. false. Thus.8 > 446. Explanations will vary.7 x + 408. False ( 60.2 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(0. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.52 ) does not belong to the solution set.7)2 − 4(0.2 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. ∞ ) 100 0. makes sense 97. 94.1375)(408.7 x + 408.52 ) Test Conclusion 2 0.1375 x 2 + 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions Interval Test Value 50 ( 0.1125(50) − 0.15 > 455. −5) ∪ ( 5. On wet pavement. On dry pavement. a.1375(100)2 + 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. ∞ ) 100 2 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2) 2(0. Interval Test Value 10 ( 0. 60 ) Test Conclusion 2 0. 96. false.8 > 446 1482.7(100) + 37. 60 ) does not belong to the solution set. ( 60. 93.8 > 446 0. ( 52. is included in the domain of the first inequality.1375 x 2 + 0. The value.1(100) + 55. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. . Inc.9 > 455 332. 98.8 > 446 58.7 x + 37. we would not know whether or not to reverse the order of the inequality. stopping distances will exceed 446 feet for speeds exceeding 52 miles per hour. true 376 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Because any number squared is positive. c. 105. a. The solution set is the empty set.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. . 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 x−3 103. 4 x2 − 8x + 7 > 0 27 − 3(−4) ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 107. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. Test –4: −21 ≥ 0 no graph.imaginary The solution set is all real numbers. the solution is all real numbers except 2. a. One possible solution: ≥0 x+4 9 − x2 ≥ 0 (3 − x)(3 + x) ≥ 0 3− x = 0 3+ x = 0 x = 3 or x = −3 104. 3 2 Test 0: 27 − 3(0) 2 ≥ 0 27 ≥ 0 True Test 4: 27 − 3(4)2 ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 8 ± (−8) 2 − 4(4)(7) x= 2(4) −21 ≥ 0 no graph -imaginary The solution set is [–3. c. 3]. ∅. ∅. Because any non-zero number squared is positive. the solution includes only 2. the solution is the empty set.7 102. x= 110. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 108. y = kx 2 64 = k ⋅ 22 64 = 4k 16 = k b. b. and the reciprocal of zero is undefined. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 4 x2 − 8x + 7 < 0 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 = 7 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. Inc. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. 8 ± 64 − 112 8 8 ± −48 ⇒ imaginary x= 8 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 > 0 7 > 0 True The inequality is true for all numbers. the solution is all real numbers except 2. One possible solution: x 2 − 2 x − 15 ≤ 0 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 109. T –3 106. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 y = 16 ⋅ 52 y = 400 377 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

W . y varies directly as x is expressed as y = kx. y varies directly as the cube of x is expressed as y = kx3 . l can be expressed as w = kl 2 . = 6(11) = 66 A shower lasting 11 minutes will use 66 gallons of water. t can be expressed as W = kt . 000 12. w = 0. 000 8=k 3. The volume of water. Use the given values to find k . varies directly as the time.6(25)3 = 9375 The 25-foot long shark was 9375 pounds. W = kt k .Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. k L= f 5120 L= f Use the equation to find f when L = 10 . 378 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x The length. b. Section 2. Use the given values to find k . y varies inversely as x is expressed as y = 5120 f 5120 10 = f 10 f = 5120 L= W = 6t Use the equation to find W when t = 11 . w = 0. The weight. W = 6t f = 512 A 10 inch violin string will have a frequency of 512 cycles per second. k x k 12 = 8 96 = k y= 111. w . k L= f k 8= 640 5120 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. varies inversely as the frequency. f k can be expressed as L = . varies directly as the cube of the length. kA S= 112.6l 3 Use the equation to find w when l = 25. w = kl 3 96 x 96 y= 3 y = 32 y= c.8 Check Point Exercises 1. W = kt 30 = k (5) 6=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. P k ⋅ 60. Inc. . L . w = kl 3 k x 96 y= x y= 2025 = k (15)3 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 ⋅ 40 =k 60.6l 3 = 0.6 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. f Use the given values to find k . a. 000 = 40 12.

2 8Q P 8(24) M = 8 M = 24 It will take 24 minutes for 8 people to solve 24 problems. Inc. Use the given values to find k.PreCalculus 4E 4. Use the given values to find k. x 60 When x = 2. 3 (2)(12) 2 = 96π cubic feet k x k 6= 3 18 = k y= y= 18 =2 9 379 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 9 x = 9 ⋅13 = 117 3. k . When x = 12. we have y = 1 2 hr . k y= x k 12 = 5 k 5 ⋅12 = 5 ⋅ 5 60 = k 60 The equation becomes y = . V = khr 2 4. V varies jointly with h and r 2 and can be modeled as V = khr 2 .8 1. Use the given values to find k. kQ M = P k (16) 32 = 4 8=k Exercise Set 2. the volume equation is V = V= π 3 Since y varies inversely with x. M = 5. kQ M = P 8Q M = P Use the equation to find M when P = 8 and Q = 24 . 2. as M = P Use the given values to find k . 120π = k (10)(6)2 π 3 =k Therefore. y = kx 45 = k ⋅ 5 9=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. y = = 30. x . Section 2. y = 13 x = 13 ⋅12 = 156.8 let M represent the number of minutes let Q represent the number of problems let P represent the number of people M varies directly as Q and inversely as P is expressed kQ . y = kx 65 = k ⋅ 5 65 k ⋅ 5 = 5 5 13 = k The equation becomes y = 13 x.

Use the given values to find k. 28 ( 4 ) ( 8) 2 = 28 ( 4 ) 64 = C = kAT 7 4 10. z Use the given values to find k. 2 5 When x = 8 and z = 12. we have y = kxz. . y = kxz 1 14400 = 300 ( 2400 )( 6 ) = 48 48 Since y varies jointly as a and b and inversely as kab . 10ab 10(5)(3) 150 y= = = = 50 . b = 3. y = ( 8 )(12 ) = 240. the square root of c. 10 x 10 ( 3) 10 ( 3) 30 5 y= 2 = 2 = = = . 3 c 9 y= kmn 2 p k (2)(1) 2 6 2k 15 = 6 2k 15(6) = (6) 6 90 = 2k 15 = 25 = k ( 2 )( 5 ) 25 = k (10 ) 25 k (10 ) = 10 10 5 =k 2 k = 45 5 xz. c = 9. kab y= c k (3)(2) 12 = 25 k (6) 12 = 5 k (6) 12(5) = (5) 5 60 = 6k 60 6k = 6 6 10 = k 10ab . kx y= 2 z k ( 50 ) 20 = 52 k ( 50 ) 20 = 25 20 = 2k 8. Since y varies jointly as x and z. Since y varies inversely as x and inversely as the kx square of z. a= 7= 7= kb c2 k (9) ( 6) k (9) 2 36 k 7= 4 28 = k a= 7. 10 = k The equation becomes y = 10 x . The equation becomes y = c When a = 5. z 6 36 36 6 6.Polynomial and Rational Functions 5. Inc. we have y = c Use the given values to find k. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 175 = k ( 2100 )( 4 ) 175 = k ( 8400 ) 1 =k 48 C= 9. we have y = 2 . 2 The equation becomes y = y= 45mn 2 45(3)(4) 2 2160 = = = 216 10 10 p 380 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. z2 When x = 3 and z = 6.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 x = kyz .PreCalculus 4E 11. x = kz ( y − w) x = kzy − kzw k3 z x= y x + kzw = kzy x + kzw kzy = kz kz x + kzw y= kz k3 z yx = y ⋅ y yx = k 3 z yx k 3 z = x x y= k3 z x 381 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Solving for y : y= x = kyz 2 x kyz 2 = 2 2 kz kz x y= 2 kz 13. kz 3 . kyz w2 ⎛ w2 ⎞ w2 kyz ⎜ ⎟x = kz w2 ⎝ kz ⎠ xw2 y= kz 17. w Solving for y: kyz x= w x ( w ) = ( w ) kyzw x w = kyz x w kyz = kz kz 12. x = kz ( y + w) . y Solving for y kz 3 x= y 16. Inc. . x kyz = . kz yz x y= kz x= kyz . Solving for y: x = kyz 15. Section 2. x = kyz 2 . Solving for y: x = kz ( y + w) x= xy = y ⋅ x= x = kzy + kzw kz 3 y x − kzw = kzy x − kzw kzy = kz kz x − kzw y= kz xy = kz 3 xy kz 3 = x x kz 3 y= x 14. x w kz 18.

When B = 6 . we have T = kB . Robert Wadlow’s weight was approximately 607 pounds. When B = 56 .9(6) = 5. 21.75 f 15 0. The tail length is 5. Inc. x= 56 0.7 56 D= = 80 0.4 feet.Polynomial and Rational Functions 19. Since T varies directly as B.7 D = 0. x= 23.000496h 3 .4 k= = 0. Since B varies directly as D. 000 0.000496 (107 ) M = kE 60 = k ( 360 ) 60 k ( 360 ) = 360 360 1 =k 6 M = d = kf 9 = k (12) 9 k (12) = 12 12 0.75 20 = f A force of 20 pounds is needed.9 = k The equation becomes T = 0.9 B . we have B = kD. Use the given values to find k. T = kB 3.000496 = k The equation becomes w = 0. 043) ≈ 607.7 0. 225. 170 = k ( 70 ) 3 170 = k ( 343.75 = k d = 0.75 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 22. 3 w = 0.7 12 The equation becomes B = 0. kz y+w ( y + w) x = ( y + w) kz y+w 24.7 D. Use the given values to find k.7 It was dropped from 80 inches. we have w = kh 3 . 56 = 0.6 k (4) = 4 4 0. w = kh3 3. yx + xw = kz yx = kz − xw yx kz − xw = x x kz − xw y= x 15 = 0. When h = 107. y−w Solving for y: kz x= y−w ( y − w) x = ( y − w) 8. . 000 ) 170 = 343. Use the given values to find k.000496 (1. 1 (186 ) = 31 6 A person who weighs 186 pounds on Earth will weigh 31 pounds on the moon.4 k (12 ) = 12 12 8.4 . 000 343. 382 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 = k (12 ) 8. T = 0. 000 ) k ( 343.7 D kz y−w xy − wx = kz xy = kz + wx xy kz + wx = x x xw + kz y= x 20. Since a man’s weight varies directly as the cube of his height.75 f = 0.75 f = 0.6 = k (4) 25. B = kD kz .

5 562. we have pressure.88 d 5000 The water temperature is 0.75 = 1600 i= (1600)3. I = = = 90 2.5 . k d2 k 3. h = 0.4 = (1000) k 1000 4400 = k 4400 4400 = = 0.4 foot-candles at a distance of 50 feet. we have B = .4 d2 502 2500 The illumination is 2.5 . t= 383 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 50 = k ⋅ 10 0. The equation becomes I = d2 562.5(30) 2 h = 450 A water pipe with a 30 centimeter diameter can serve 450 houses. t= 4. B = = = 32 . 27. d Use the given values to find k.5 = k 29. .5d 2 h = 0. k I= 2.75 = (1600) k 1600 6000 = k 6000 6000 6000 = = = 2.5d 2 1250 = 0.5 .5 = k 562. r Use the given values to find k.5d 2 d 2 = 625 d = 625 d = 25 A water pipe with a 25 centimeter diameter can serve 1250 houses. h = 0.75 = 2 40 k 3.88 Celsius at a depth of 5000 meters. Since the banking angle varies inversely as k the turning radius.4 = 30. i= k d k 1000 (1000)4. The equation becomes B = r 112 112 When r = 3. r 3.52 6. k B= r k 28 = 4 ⎛k⎞ 28 ( 4 ) = 28 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4⎠ 112 = k 112 . Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance.8 h = kd 2 26.5 = 9 ⎛k ⎞ 9 ( 62. we have k I= . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 h = 0. d k 62. b.5 feet. 28.5 ) = 9 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ 562. Inc.5 When d = 2.5d 2 a.5 = 2 3 k 62.5 The banking angle is 32 when the turning radius is 3.25 The intensity is 90 milliroentgens per hour.

703(170) I= ≈ 24. 1 . Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the sound source. we have L = kAD .15 = 3600 k (180) (3600)35. we k have I = 2 . Inc. 4 k a k 1 k t= = ⋅ 3a 3 a t= A year will seem to be 1 of a year. then d = 2d . km c k (25) 125 = 20 k (25) 20(125) = (20) 20 2500 = 25k 2500 25k = 25 25 100 = k i= 35. 34.4 and is not overweight.5 e = 0. we kw have I = 2 . Use the given values to find k. . L = kAD 31.4. 126540 = 703 180 703w The equation becomes I = 2 . e = kmv 2 36 = k (8)(3) 2 36 = k (8)(9) 36 = 72k 36 72k = 72 72 k = 0.5(4)(36) = 72 A mass of 4 grams and velocity of 6 centimeters per second has a kinetic energy of 72 ergs.15 = 602 k (180) 35. i= be multiplied by a factor of intensity is 36. h When w = 170 and h = 70.5mv 2 = 0. Since index varies directly as weight and inversely as the square of one’s height. L = 10 ( 9 ⋅ 6 ) (10) = 1800 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.15 = 3600 126540 = k (180) 1200 = k (3 ⋅ 6)(20) 1200 = 360k 1200 360k = 360 360 10 k= 3 The equation becomes L = 10 AD 3 When A = 6 ⋅ 9 = 54 . 3 The heat loss is 1800 Btu . So the sound 4 1 of what it was originally. h Use the given values to find k. So we have k k 1 k . The intensity will I= = = ⋅ (2d ) 2 4d 2 4 d 2 100m c 100(40) 80 = c 4000 80 = c 4000 80c = c ⋅ c 80c = 4000 80c 4000 = 80 80 c = 50 The chronological age is 50.5(4)(6) 2 = 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 33. D = 10 . 3 384 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. If you move to a seat twice as d far. (70)2 This person has a BMI of 24. kw I= 2 h k (180 ) 35. Since heat loss varies jointly as the area and temperature difference. k= 32.

2 k ( 2. 38. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: A direct variation with a positive constant of variation will have both variables increase simultaneously. P. Using one of I the given ordered pairs to find k . a. d b. makes sense 52. 50.02 ≈ k The equation becomes C = c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. If v = x then P = k ( x) 2 = kx 2 If v = 2 x then P = k (2 x) 2 = 4kx 2 If the wind speed doubles the pressure is 4 times more destructive.5 k 12(0. 385 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. – 48. Current varies inversely as resistance. 150 = k (4 ⋅ 5)(30) 150 = k (20)(900) 150 = 18000k 150 18000k = 18000 150 1 =k 120 1 1 (3 ⋅ 4)(60) 2 f = as 2 = 120 120 1 (12)(3600) = 120 = 360 Yes. d2 0. 000 = 16269841. Answers will vary.PreCalculus 4E 37.5) = (0. 000 = 326. the independent variable can not be zero. 000) (400) 2 = 17. 000 = ( 420 ) 39. Explanations will vary. 695. does not make sense. Pressure. the wind will exert a force of 360 pounds on the window. Section 2. Sample explanation: For an inverse variation. 000) 326. 51.875 daily phone calls.875 There are approximately 17. we have kP P C = 12 2 . does not make sense. Since the current varies inversely as k resistance we have R = . Inc. Answers may vary. kP P C = 12 2 d k ( 777. makes sense 53.02 P1 P2 . . 000)(220.5 k =6 6 The equation becomes R = . 0. I 40. 2 49.27k 0.02(650. 400 326. varies directly as the square of wind velocity. C= f = kas 2 b.5) 0. Use the given values to find k. 000 ) (3. c. can be modeled as P = kv 2 . Since the average number of phone calls varies jointly as the product of the populations and inversely as the square of the distance.87 × 1012 ) 176.8 a. k 12 = 0. v.

d If I = x then x = 1. 60. Answers may vary. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. kv 2 H= r If the voltage remains constant. to triple the heat the resistant must be reduced by a multiple of 3. 59. 6 6 5−i = ⋅ 5+i 5+i 5−i 30 − 6i = 25 + 1 30 − 6i = 26 15 − 3i = 13 15 3 = − i 13 13 386 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and inversely as the resistance. The Heat. x x 4. 5. 3. (3 − 4i ) 2 = 32 + 2 ⋅ 3(−4i ) + (−4i )2 = 9 − 24i − 16 = −7 − 24i 57. Since 50 ≈ 7 . 55. r. Illumination. v. (7 + 8i )(7 − 8i ) = 7 2 + 82 = 49 + 64 = 113 58. d k k If d = 15 then I = 2 = 15 225 k k If d = 30 then I = 2 = 30 900 900 =4 Note that 225 If the distance doubles the illumination is 4 times less intense. varies directly as the square of the voltage. d. . = 7 ⋅ 2 + 7(3i ) + (−i )(2) + (−i )(3i ) k . Illumination.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. Chapter 2 Review Exercises If I = k ⇒d= d2 (8 – 3i) – (17 – 7i) = 8 – 3i – 17 + 7i = –9 + 4i 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6. the Hubble telescope is able to see about 7 times farther than a ground-based telescope. x 1 1 k x= 2 ⇒d = x then 50 50 d (7 − i )(2 + 3i ) = 14 + 21i − 2i + 3 = 17 + 19i 50k k = 50 . Inc. can be modeled as I = 2 . can be modeled as I = 2 . d. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. I. 4i (3i − 2) = (4i )(3i ) + (4i )(−2) = 12i 2 − 8i = −12 − 8i 56. H. I.

Inc. ⎩2 2 2 2 ⎭ = (4i − 3i ) 2 =i 2 13. x= 6 ± 36 − 40 4 6 ± −4 x= 4 6 ± 2i x= 4 6 2i x= ± 4 4 3 1 = ± i 2 2 = 4i 2 − 3i 2 ⎧3 1 3 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − i. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4] } The solution set is 1 − i 3 . (−2 + −100) = (−2 + i 100) −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) x= −32 − −18 = i 32 − i 18 = i 16 ⋅ 2 − i 9 ⋅ 2 2 2 2x − 6x + 5 = 0 2 = (−2 + 10i ) 2 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x + 1) + 4 2 = 4 − 40i + (10i ) 2 = 4 − 40i − 100 = −96 − 40i ( x + 1) 10. . ∞) range: ( −∞. Chapter 2 Review Exercises 3 + 4i 3 + 4i 4 + 2i = ⋅ 4 − 2i 4 − 2i 4 + 2i 12 + 6i + 16i + 8i 2 = 16 − 4i 2 12 + 22i − 8 = 16 + 4 4 + 22i = 20 1 11 = + i 5 10 12. 2 ± −12 2 2 ± 2i 3 x= 2 x= x =1 ±i 3 { domain: (−∞. 9. 387 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 + i 3 . 8. + i ⎬ .PreCalculus 4E 7. 2 x − 2x + 4 = 0 2 =4 x + 1 = ±2 x = −1 ± 2 x = −3 or x = 1 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) + 4 = 3 2 x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(4) 2(1) x= 2 ± 4 − 16 2 The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . 4 + −8 4 + i 8 4 + 2i 2 = = = 2+i 2 2 2 2 11.

2a 2(−1) The maximum value is f (7). Publishing as Prentice Hall. domain: (−∞. f ( x) = −0. –2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 4)2 − 2 16.025 x 2 + x + 6 f (0) = −0. ∞) range: [ −2. b. f ( x) = −0. f ( x ) = 2 x2 − 4 x − 6 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 6 − 2 2 ( x − 1) − 8 2 ( x + 4)2 = 2 x+4=± 2 x = −4 ± 2 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 4)2 − 2 = 14 = –1 axis of symmetry: x = 1 domain: (−∞. f (−3) = 2(−3) 2 + 12(−3) + 703 = 685 domain: (−∞. f ( x ) = − x + 2x + 3 f (7) = −(7) 2 + 14(7) − 106 = −57 2 = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 b. ∞) range: ( −∞. a. ∞ ) The maximum height will occur at the vertex.025 x 2 + x + 6 1 b x=− =− = 20 2a 2(−0. f ( x) = − x 2 + 14 x − 106 a.025(0) 2 + (0) + 6 = 6 The ball was tossed at a height of 6 feet. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 18. domain: (−∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. Since a < 0 the parabola opens down with the maximum value occurring at 14 b x=− =− =7. domain: (−∞. 2a 2(2) The minimum value is f (−3). Inc. 388 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) range: [ 685. Since a > 0 the parabola opens up with the minimum value occurring at 12 b x=− =− = −3 .025) f (20) = −0. f (x) = (x + 4)2 − 2 vertex: (–4. ∞ ) 17. . ∞) range: ( −∞. 4] b. ∞ ) 15. The axis of symmetry is x = –4. 19. −57 ] f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 12 x + 703 a.025(20) 2 + (20) + 6 = 16 The maximum height of 16 feet occurs when the ball is 20 yards downfield. ∞) range: [ −8.

7 4 125 feet by 166. 3x + 4y = 1000 4y = 1000 – 3x 1000 − 3x y= 4 A=x =− x= 20. The numbers which minimize the product are 7 and −7 .3(reject) The ball will hit the ground 45. 000. The area is maximized at 125. Inc. 2a 2 (1) 2 −(1) ± (1) 2 − 4(−0.7 feet will maximize the area.25 or 1 tree 2a 2(−4) 4 The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees.3 yards downfield. d.025 x 2 + x + 6 21. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 1000 1000 b x=− =− =− = 250.PreCalculus 4E c. so graph (c) is the best match.025)(6) x= 2(−0. The football’s path: 22. The minimum product is −7 ⋅ 7 = −49. The maximum area is A ( 250 ) = 250 (1000 − 2 ( 250 ) ) −b −10 5 = = = 1. The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. A ( x ) = x (1000 − 2 x ) 1000 − 3x 4 3 2 x + 250x 4 −b −250 = = 125 2a 3 2 − 4 1000 − 3(125) = 166. We need to minimize the function P ( x ) = x (14 + x ) 0 = −0. 389 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3. The minimum is at b 14 14 x=− =− = − = −7. y = (35 + x)(150 – 4x) 2 y = 5250 + 10x − 4x The maximum area is achieved when the width is 250 yards. Chapter 2 Review Exercises The ball is at a height of 0 when it hits the ground.025 x 2 + x + 6 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = 14 x + x 2 = x 2 + 14 x. y= A ( x ) = −2 x + 1000 x 2 Since a = −2 is negative. . f ( x) = −0. 24. f ( x ) = − x3 + 12 x 2 − x The graph rises to the left and falls to the right and goes through the origin. 2a 2 ( −2 ) −4 23. y = 36(150 – 4x) = 36(150 – 4·1) = 5256 The maximum yield will be 5256 pounds. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = one of the numbers Let 14 + x = the other number The other number is 14 + x = 14 + ( −7 ) = 7.000 square yards when the width is 250 yards and the length is 1000 − 2 ⋅ 250 = 500 yards. x= = 250 (1000 − 500 ) = 250 ( 500 ) = 125. Maximize the area using A = lw. − 5.025) x ≈ 45.

29. multiplicity 2. the graph touches the x-axis x = –5. This is impossible. h ( x ) = x5 − 5 x 3 + 4 x The graph falls to the left and rises to the right and crosses the y-axis at zero. Applying the Leading Coefficient Test. This means that the graph will fall to the right. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 21x 2 + 100. f ( x) = x3 − x 2 − 9 x + 9 33. . g ( x ) = x6 − 6 x 4 + 9 x 2 The graph rises to the left and rises to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Inc. Since n is odd and an < 0. the graph crosses the x-axis x = 5. 2. 1 leading coefficient is –1 and the degree is 4. f ( x ) = x3 − 2 x − 1 f (1) = (1)3 − 2(1) − 1 = −2 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 1 = 3 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. b. we know that even-degree polynomials with negative leading coefficient will fall to the left and to the right. f ( x) = − x 4 + 1 f(x) falls to the left and to the right so graph (d) is the best match. f ( x) = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) zeros: x = 0. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. the graph crosses the x-axis x = –2. This function is not useful in modeling the number of thefts over an extended period of time.87 and the degree is 3. multiplicity 5. we know that the elk population will die out over time. The leading coefficient is –0. The model predicts that eventually. − 3. –2 = x 2 ( x − 5) − 25( x − 5) = ( x 2 − 25)( x − 5) = ( x + 5)( x − 5) 2 x = –5. 27. 26. 30. multiplicity 1. the number of thefts would be negative. f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 ( x + 5)3 x = 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 25. the graph crosses the x-axis 34. In the polynomial. 31. a. 32. the graph touches the x-axis 390 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so graph (b) is the best match. f ( − x ) = −4 x + x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x) origin symmetry c. multiplicity 2. so graph (a) is the best match. Since n is odd and an > 0. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c. the f ( x) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 1) zeros: 3. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125 f ( x) = 4 x − x3 a. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. Since the graph falls to the right. f (− x) = (− x )3 − (− x) 2 − 9(− x) + 9 = − x3 − x 2 + 9 x + 9 28. multiplicity 1. b.

The graph rises to the left and to the right. . 3 36. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 25(− x) 2 = − x 4 + 25 x 2 = f ( x) y-axis symmetry c. The graph falls to the left and to the right. b. − 2 c. f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 15 x 3 a. 37. b.PreCalculus 4E 35. f (− x) = −2 x3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x − 12 The graph falls to the left and to the right. f (− x) = − f ( x) no symmetry f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry f(x) = (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x + 3) 3 zeros: x = 2. 5 391 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c. Since h is odd and an > 0. f (− x) = 3(− x)4 − 15(− x) 2 = 3x 4 + 15 x 3 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f ( x ) = − x 4 + 6 x3 − 9 x 2 a. 5 − x 2 ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = –5. g ( x ) = − x 4 + 25 x 2 38. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 6(− x)3 − 9(− x) = − x 4 − 6 x3 − 9 x 2 f (− x ) ≠ f ( x ) f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 0. = − x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 zeros: x = 0. −2. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. b. b. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c 3 x 4 − 15 x3 = 0 − x 4 + 25 x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 3x3 ( x − 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = 0. Inc. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x 3 + 3x 2 − 8 x − 12 a.

x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = 0. x = –4. 5x + 1 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 7 x 2 + 9 x − 3 –13 5x + 5 2 −4 Quotient: 4 x 2 − 7 x + 5 − 2 4 x +1 20 x−2 –7 9 –3 –26 429 –5694 –33 438 –5697 Quotient: f (–13) = –5697 392 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 1 The roots at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f ( x ) = − x 3 ( x + 4 ) ( x − 1) 2 6 x2 + 3x Since an < 0 and n is even. − 10 Quotient: 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 − 2 x2 + 3x − 1 2 x + 1 4 x + 6 x + 3x − 1 2 43.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. Inc. f(x) rises to the left and the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 4x − 7x + 5 x + 1 4 x3 − 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 3 0 –2 –10 0 6 12 20 20 6 10 10 20 2 3 Quotient: 3x 3 + 6 x 2 + 10 x + 10 + 4 x3 + 4 x 2 − 7 x2 − 2 x −7 x 2 − 7 x 46. x = 0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. 3 3 11 –20 7 35 –15 20 0 –35 –4 0 7 0 Quotient: 3 x − 4 x + 7 3 45. The root at –4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–4. f ( x ) = 2 x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 42. (3 x 4 − 2 x 2 − 10 x) ÷ ( x − 2) 2 41. 10 5x − 3 4 3 4 x2 + 2 x2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 + 3 x 40. f (0) = −(0)3 ( 0 + 4 ) ( 0 − 1) = 0 (3 x 4 + 11x 3 − 20 x3 + 7 x + 35) ÷ ( x + 5) 2 –5 The y-intercept is 0. 0) 2 x2 − 4x + 1 5 x − 3 10 x 3 − 26 x 2 + 17 x − 13 10 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 20 x 2 + 17 x − 20 x 2 + 12 x 5 x − 13 f (0) = 2(0) 2 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 5x − 3 The y-intercept is 0. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. x = 1. 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. . 0) − 2 x2 − 1 −2 x 2 − 1 0 44.

± . so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 negative solutions. −3 2 48. d. so no real roots exist. ±2. –2 are rational zeros.PreCalculus 4E 47. so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 positive solutions. ± . 1 sign variation ⇒ 1 positive real zero f (− x) = − x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 2 sign variations ⇒ 2 or no negative real zeros ( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 = 0 f ( x) = x − 6 x + 14 x − 14 x + 5 p : ± 1. so f(x) = 0 has 3 or 1 positive real roots. 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 4 x + 4) = 0 p: ±1 q: ±1. ± 5 q a. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(–x) has no sign variations. p : ± 1. f ( − x ) = −2 x 5 + 3 x3 − 5 x 2 − 3x − 1 f(–x) has 2 sign variations. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 2 x3 + x + 5 c. ±3. ± 2. are rational zeros. . −2 + 5. 1 –13 6 4 10 –6 5 –3 0 f ( x ) = f ( − x ) = 2 x4 + 6 x2 + 8 No sign variations exist for either f(x) or f(–x). ± 4 q 1 Zeros: x = 2. p 8 4 2 1 : ± 1. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. f ( − x ) = −6 x 3 + x 2 + 4 x + 1 f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 2 x3 − 8 x + 5 1 sign variation. –2}. 3 2 f ( x) = 2 x 5 – 3 x3 – 5 x 2 + 3x – 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. ± 2. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 2 2 2 53. 54. ± . 49. ± 3 51. ± 4 –1 6 1 –4 1 –6 5 –1 6 –5 1 0 –1 is a zero. . 1 x = 1 or x = –2 The solution set is{1. ± . ± 2. 3 2 55. q : ±1 50. ± 8 b. 1 negative real zero. 52. 393 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. f(x) has 2 sign variations. x 3 − 17 x + 4 = 0 4 1 1 0 –17 4 4 16 –4 4 –1 0 c. ± 4. ± 2. ± q 3 3 3 3 3 0 –4 1 4 –4 1 4 4 1 is a zero. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. f ( x) = ( x − 2)(2 x + 5 x − 3) 2 q : ±1 = ( x − 2)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) p : ± 1. 1 1 −1. . f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 12 x − 8 p : ± 1. ± . 1 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 q : ± 1. so f(x) = 0 has no negative solutions. −2 − 5 . ± 8. ± 4. ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 4 x − 1) = 0 −4 ± 16 + 4 −4 ± 2 5 x= = = −2 ± 5 2 2 { } The solution set is 4. ± q 2 3 6 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 2 sign variations. ± 5 4 p : ± 1. 1. ±6 p 1 1 1 : ± 1.

2 2 2 −5 ± 29 2 ⎪⎧ 1 −5 + 29 −5 − 29 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . d. f ( − x ) = x 4 + x3 − 7 x 2 − x + 6 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (2 x – 5)(2 x – 3) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1 5 3 x = or x = or x = 2 2 2 ⎧1 3 5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . q 2 4 8 c. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 58. ⎬.± . p: ±1. ± 3. Inc. . ± 5. ⎩2 2 2⎭ 2 sign variations. ±8 1 1 1 p : ± 1. . ( x + 1)(3x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 or x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. ±5. x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 p : ± 1. are rational zeros. ± 15.± . 57. ± 2. 2 1 3 5 . ⎬ . 2 4 8 2 4 5 15 15 15 ± . ±3. b. ⎬ . ±2. 1 negative real zero.± . 3 2⎭ ⎩ x = –1 or x = 56. f ( − x ) = −2 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 7 x + 1 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 a. no negative real solutions. 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ (2 x + 10 x − 2) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + 5 x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Solving x 2 + 5 x − 1 = 0 using the quadratic 0 sign variations. . ± 3.± .± . ± q 2 formula gives x = 1 is a zero. 8 2 1 is a rational zero.± . p: ±1 q: ±1. ( x + 1)(6 x 2 – 5 x + 1) = 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 a. ±2 1 p : ± 1. 3 or 1 positive real solutions. ± .Polynomial and Rational Functions 6 x3 + x 2 – 4 x + 1 = 0 d. 8 9 –7 1 1 5 –1 10 –2 0 –36 46 –15 4 –16 15 –32 30 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 d.± 8 2 4 8 b. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±15 q: ±1. ± . 3 3 3 5 5 ± . 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x – ⎟ (8 x – 32 x + 30) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (4 x – 16 x + 15) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ p= b. ± . 2 or 0 negative real zeros. f ( − x ) = −8 x3 − 36 x 2 − 46 x − 15 c. ± 6 q 8 x 3 – 36 x 2 + 46 x – 15 = 0 a. f ( x ) = 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 2 sign variations. 1 sign variation. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. . f ( x ) = x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 2 sign variations. 394 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±4. 2 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 1 2 1 2 2 3 sign variations.

x = −2 or x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ − 2.PreCalculus 4E c. −1. −1. ±2. ⎩ 2 2 ⎭ 1 –1 –6 0 − 2. { − 2. 1 negative real zero. x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 d. ± q 2 b. ± q 2 4 b. 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 a. 2 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 − 2. 2 or 0 negative real zeros. ±2. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 1 sign variation. . p: ±1. 2 ⎬ . d. are rational zeros. ±4 p 1 1 : ± 1. 3 are rational zeros. ± 2. 1. −1. 1 2 2 2 4 − 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 d. 1 positive real zero. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. . f (− x) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. −1. ±2 q: ±1. ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 6) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x − 3)( x + 2) = 0 The solution set is 59. ±4 q: ±1. ± . 2 are rational zeros. 2 ⎭ ⎩ 1 1 − . ± 4. 60. 1 2 4 0 7 0 –2 2 1 4 2 2 8 4 0 –1 2 1 –9 –4 4 4 10 2 –4 2 5 1 –2 0 2 5 1 –2 –2 –3 2 3 –2 0 4 4 2 8 4 –2 0 –4 0 8 0 1 . Inc. p: ±1. 1 –1 Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 –1 –7 1 6 1 0 –7 –6 1 0 –7 –6 0 1 0 –7 –6 –1 1 6 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟⎜ x + ⎟ (4 x + 8) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎜ x − ⎟ ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 Solving x + 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula gives x = ±2i ⎧ 1 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . . − 2i ⎬ . c. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2. 3} . f (− x) = 4 x 4 + 7 x 2 − 2 1 sign variation. f ( x ) = 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 c. 1. 2 2 395 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2i.

x = or x = ±i 2 1 The zeros are –2. ±4. ±2 q: ±1. ±2. 24 2 f ( x ) = an ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 2 1 x – 6 x + x + 24 x + 16 = 0 f ( x ) = x − 6 x + 21x − 26 3 –6 66. ± 4. 2 nonreal complex zeros 67. ±8. ± 2. 2 nonreal complex zeros 68. ±2 1 p : ± 1. 3 real zeros. ± q 2 2 7 ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 = 0 x = –1 or x = 4 g ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 + x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 0 –1 ( x + 1) ( x – 8 x + 16) = 0 f ( x ) = 2 ( x + 1)( x + 6 x + 9 ) 3 1 2 2 2 3 –1 an = 2 –2 16 ( x + 1)( x3 – 7 x 2 + 8 x + 16) = 0 2 2 f ( −1) = an ⎡( −1) + 1⎤ ⎡( −1) + 6 ( −1) + 9 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ 16 = 8an 63.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. ± 2. 1 real zero. 4 real zeros. Inc. 4 2 f ( x ) = an ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 3) 1 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 12 x3 + 20 x 2 + 12 x + 18 –8 –16 –7 8 16 0 2 –7 8 16 –1 8 –16 –8 16 0 2 65. ±i. f ( x) = an ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) f (1) = an (1 − 2 ) ⎡⎣12 − 4 (1) + 13⎤⎦ −10 = −10an an = 1 g ( x) = x 4 − 6 x 3 + x 2 + 24 x + 16 p: ±1. g ( x) = 1 −1 ( x + 2) 2 2 x + 3x + 3x – 2 = 0 4 3 ( x + 2)(2 x3 – x 2 + 2 x –1) = 0 ( x + 2)[ x 2 (2 x –1) + (2 x –1)] = 0 ( x + 2)(2 x –1)( x 2 + 1) = 0 1 x = –2. 2 f ( x) = ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 2 )( 2 x − 1) 396 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . one with multiplicity two. ± 16 q –1 1 f ( x ) = 1( x − 2 ) ( x − 4 x + 13) 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 13 x − 2 x 2 + 8 x − 26 1 62. 2 real zeros. 4 nonreal complex zeros 3 –2 –4 2 –4 2 –1 2 –1 0 69. f ( x) = an ( x – 2)( x – 2 + 3i )( x – 2 – 3i ) 64. . ± 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±16 q: ±1 p : ± 1. one with multiplicity two f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 3x3 + 3x − 2 p: ±1.

PreCalculus 4E 70. so y = 0 2x = – f ( x) x –9 2 =0 397 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 2x x −9 Vertical asymptote: x+3=0 x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. Inc. . g ( x) = 2x − 4 x+3 –2 x – 4 x+3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). h( x ) = Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 +3 x −1 72. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 2x – 4 = 0 x=2 2 (0) − 4 4 y-intercept: y = =− 0 + 3 3 ( ) Symmetry: g (– x) = 71. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = = 2 1 2 Symmetry: f (– x) = – origin symmetry x-intercept: 2x 0= 2 x −9 2x = 0 x=0 y-intercept: y = 2 ( 0) 02 − 9 Vertical asymptote: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3 and x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: n < m.

. Slant asymptote: 1 y = x –1+ x +1 y=x–1 x2 + 4 x + 3 ( x + 2) x2 x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. y= 2 x2 – 4 x + 3 (– x + 2) 2 r(–x) ≠ r(x). Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 73. h(–x) ≠ –h(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x 2 − 3x − 4 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 1) x = 4 x = –1 02 − 3 ( 0 ) − 4 2 y-intercept: y = = 02 − 0 − 6 3 Vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 2) = 0 x = 3. h ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. no horizontal asymptote. r(–x) ≠ –r(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 4 x + 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x + 1) = 0 x = –3. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x2 = 0 x=0 02 y-intercept: y = =0 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 n > m. Inc. so y = = 1 1 x 2 − 3x − 4 x2 − x − 6 x 2 + 3x – 4 x2 + x – 6 h(–x) ≠ h(x). r ( x) = x2 – x +1 f(–x) ≠ f(x). –1 02 + 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = 2 4 (0 + 2) Vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 Symmetry: r (– x) = 398 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so y = = 1 1 74. –2 Symmetry: h(– x) = 75.

Slant asymptote: 2 16 3 Vertical asymptote: 2x – 3 = 0 3 x= 2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. y= Chapter 2 Review Exercises x2 + 2x − 3 x−3 f ( x) = –2 x + 2x x +1 2 y = –2x x2 – 2 x – 3 –x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). Slant asymptote: 12 y = x+5+ x −3 y = x+5 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 2x − 3 4 x 2 + 16 x + 16 Symmetry: g (– x) = –2 x – 3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). so no horizontal asymptote. f ( x) = 2 = – f ( x) x2 + 1 Origin symmetry x-intercept: −2 x 3 = 0 x=0 −2 ( 0 ) 3 y-intercept: y = = 0 =0 1 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 No vertical asymptote. Inc. so no horizontal asymptote. 1 0 2 + 2 ( 0 ) − 3 −3 y-intercept: y = = =1 0−3 −3 Vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. Slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = 2 x – 5 + 2x – 3 y = 2x – 5 −2 x 3 x2 + 1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 ( 0) − 3 =− 399 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = –3. Horizontal asymptote: n > m. so no horizontal asymptote. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 = 0 g ( x) = 4 ( x − 2) = 0 2 x=2 y-intercept: 4 ( 0 ) − 16 ( 0 ) + 16 2 y= 77. . Symmetry: f (– x) = 78.PreCalculus 4E 76. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

000) + 50. C(x) = 50.000 + 25x C ( x) = 83.4 = P( x) 3. and 1.48 x + 120. 000 C (1000) = = 75 1000 When 1. . ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 150 x + 120 0. y= 400 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x3 + 2 x 2 > 3x Solve the related equation. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 = 0 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 4 ) = 0 The boundary points are −4 and − 12 . 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 ≥ 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.6 x ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 The boundary points are −3 .50 to manufacture each. x3 + 2 x 2 = 3x x 3 + 2 x 2 − 3x = 0 x ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 P( x) = M ( x) + F ( x) = 1. b. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 < 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. 80. 000 = 1025 50 When 50 calculators are manufactured. Publishing as Prentice Hall.000 calculators are manufactured.S. 000) = = 25.05 The number of fish available in the pond approaches 3000.58 x + 114.000 When 100. c. T (x) = 25 x + 50. population will approach 52%. 25(100. 0.52 3. it costs $25. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ( 2 x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 The boundary points are −3 and f ( x) = 82. Minimum costs will approach $25. 25 = 25 is the horizontal 1 asymptote. so y = = 3000 0.05 x + 1 150 n = m. 4 2 + x+3 x M ( x) 1.5 100. 1000 = lw 1000 =l w 25(50) + 50. Inc.06 Over time. ∞ ⎞⎟ ⎣ 2 ⎠ P ( x) = R( x) = 1 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. b. ∞ ) = 3. it costs $1025 to manufacture each.4 + 1. 72. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −3. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 1 ( −∞. 000 C (100.000 calculators are manufactured. C (50) = 1000 x 2000 P = 2x + x P = 2x + 2 85. a. 000 C (100) = = 525 100 When 100 calculators are manufactured. the percentage of men in the U. 2 1⎞ ⎛ Testing each interval gives a solution set of ⎜ −3.06 x + 235 c.58 ≈ 0.000 x 84. so y = 86.58 x + 114. it costs $75 to manufacture each. n = m. d. 25(100) + 50. a. it costs $525 to manufacture each. −4] ∪ ⎡⎢− . 87. 0 ) ∪ (1.06 x + 235 1.900 100 x 2 + 729 n < m so y = 0 As the number of years of education increases the percentage rate of unemployment approaches zero. 81. 25(1000) + 50.

We exclude 4 4 from the solution set. Testing each interval gives a solution set of [ −1.PreCalculus 4E 88.8) 2 − 4(0. ∞ ) . 40 Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞.125) x = −33. The boundary points are –2 and 6. 90. g ( x) = 0. 94. 1 and 2. w = ks 28 = k ⋅ 250 0.4 cubic centimeters of water.8 x + 99 > 267 0. x= ( x + 1)( x − 2) ≥0 x −1 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.125 x 2 − 0. b.8) ± (−0. Inc. d = 16(10) 2 = 1.8 x − 168 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. ∞ ) . We exclude 1 from the solution set.112s. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 23 ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1) ∪ [ 2. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞.125(35) 2 + 2. ⎣4 ⎠ a. w = 0. . 600 ft 401 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 92. 0. Chapter 2 Review Exercises x−6 >0 x+2 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. since this would make the denominator zero.125)(−168) 2(0.3x + 27 93. 91.125 x 2 − 0. w = 0. 89.8 x − 168 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. x+3 −5 ≤ 0 x−4 x + 3 5 ( x − 4) − ≤0 x−4 x−4 −4 x + 23 ≤0 x−4 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.125 x 2 + 2.6 ) ∪ ( 40.125 x 2 − 0. s = −16t 2 + v0 t + s0 32 < −16t 2 + 48t + 0 0 < −16t 2 + 48t − 32 x+3 ≤5 x−4 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. 23 The boundary points are 4 and .3(35) + 27 ≈ 261 The stopping distance on wet pavement for a motorcycle traveling 35 miles per hour is about 261 feet.112=k Thus. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. speeds exceeding 40 miles per hour on dry pavement will require over 267 feet of stopping distance. d = kt2 144 = k (3) 2 k = 16 d = 16t 2 g (35) = 0.6.4 1200 cubic centimeters of melting snow will produce 134. −33. ∞ ⎞⎟ . f ( x) = 0. Thus.125 x 2 − 0. 4 ) ∪ ⎢⎡ . The boundary points are –1.8 x + 99 0 < −16 ( t 2 − 3t + 2 ) 0 < –16(t – 2)(t – 1) F T F 1 2 The projectile’s height exceeds 32 feet during the time period from 1 to 2 seconds.112(1200) = 134. ∞ ) . since this would make the denominator zero. 0. This overestimates the distance shown in the graph by 1 foot.

L = . a. R Use L = This is an approximate model. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. p= 96. 1890 R 1890 L= = 70 27 The average life span of an elephant is 70 years. 97. 2 −49 + 3 −64 = 2(7i ) + 3(8i ) = 14i + 24i = 38i h=2 2c w 2(40) = 16 hours t= 5 t= 98. 1056 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 95. (6 − 7i )(2 + 5i ) = 12 + 30i − 14i − 35i 2 = 12 + 16i + 35 = 47 + 16i 2. w 1056 = 440 2. p = 99.4 The pitch is 440 vibrations per second.6 1056 = k p= Thus. R k L= R k 30 = 63 k 63 ⋅ 30 = 63 ⋅ 63 1890 = k 1890 Thus. 5 5 2+i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 5(2 + i ) = 4 +1 5(2 + i ) = 5 = 2+i 3. k d2 k 28 = 2 8 k = 1792 1792 l= 2 d 1792 l = 2 = 112 decibels 4 l= b. . kc w k ⋅ 30 10 = 6 10 = 5h t= k to find k. L= Chapter 2 Test 1. c. k w k 660 = 1. V = khB 175 = k ⋅15 ⋅ 35 1 3 1 V = hB 3 1 V = ⋅ 20 ⋅120 = 800 ft 3 3 k= 402 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

f ( x) = x 2 − 2 x − 3 y-intercept: f (0) = 02 − 2(0) − 3 = −3 f ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. 403 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x=− f ( 23) = − ( 23) + 46 ( 23) − 360 = 169 2 Maximum daily profit = $16. Inc. −b 2 = =1 2a 2 f (1) = 12 − 2(1) − 3 = −4 vertex: (1. ∞ ) 8. the graph of f(x) opens down and f(x) has a maximum point. 6. . ∞ ) . ∞ ) . range: [ −4. ∞ ) . range: ( −∞. f ( x) = −2 x 2 + 12 x − 16 Since the coefficient of x2 is negative. 2) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 7.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 2 Test x2 = 4 x − 8 4. –4) axis of symmetry x = 1 x-intercepts: x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 x = 3 or x = –1 x2 − 4 x + 8 = 0 x= x= −b ± b − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(1)(8) 2(1) 2 4 ± −16 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i x= 5. f ( x ) = − x 2 + 46 x − 360 b −46 = = 23 2a −2 23 computers will maximize profit. 4) axis of symmetry: x = –1 x-intercepts: ( x + 1) 2 + 4 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 −2 ± 4 − 20 = −1 ± 2i 2 no x-intercepts y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 1)2 + 4 = 5 x= domain: ( −∞.900. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2] domain: ( −∞. −12 x= =3 2(−2) f (3) = −2(3) 2 + 12(3) − 16 = −18 + 36 − 16 =2 Maximum point: (3. range: [ 4.

the graph of f should fall to the left and rise to the right. 6 6 –19 16 –4 12 –14 4 –7 2 0 x= −(6) ± (6) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) −6 ± 44 2 = −3 ± 11 The zeros are −3 . 14 − x = the other number. ±6 q: ±1. f ( − x ) = −3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 − x − 1 f(–x) has no sign variations. ± . ±3. ± . This occurs when the two number are 7 and 14 − 7 = 7 . ±2. −3 + 11 . 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. f ( x ) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x − 5 x − 4 x + 20 = 0 3 2 x 2 ( x − 5) − 4( x − 5) = 0 ( x − 5)( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 5. ± 6 q f ( 7 ) = −7 2 + 14 ( 7 ) = 49 The vertex is (7. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 a. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 13. x 3 + 9 x 2 + 16 x − 6 = 0 Since the leading coefficient is 1. The product is f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) = − x 2 + 14 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 14 14 x=− =− =− = 7. 12. b. ± q 2 2 2 2 6x − 7x + 2 = 0 (3x – 2)(2x – 1) = 0 2 1 x = or x = 3 2 2 The other two roots are −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = The integral root is 2. –3 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. ± 2. 16. a. ± q 2 2 14. There are 3 or 1 positive real solutions and no negative real solutions. 15. ± . ± 2. a. 2 x= 1 2 and . The maximum product is 49. b. The x-intercepts should be –1 and 1. 1 1 9 16 –6 –3 –18 6 6 –2 0 Thus x = 3 is a root. 10. ± 3. 49). ±3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 3 404 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 15 q : ± 1. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. ±15.Polynomial and Rational Functions 9. ± . Let x = one of the numbers. Inc. f ( x ) = 3x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 + x − 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. . –2}. ± 2 1 3 5 15 p : ±1. Possible rational zeros are: p : ± 1. ±2 1 3 p : ± 1. ± 3. 2. ± 6. f ( x ) = x5 − x Since the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. Solve the quotient x 2 + 6 x − 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula to find the remaining roots. ± 3. 11. the possible rational zeros are the factors of 6 p p = : ± 1. ± 5. and −3 − 11 . 2. –2 The solution set is {5. ±5.

. 3 The zeros are −1 . −3 x 2 − x + 2 = 0 0 −15 3 2 15 –4 0 −(3x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 3 Thus. f ( x) = a0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + i )( x − i ) f ( x) = a0 ( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) = a0 ( x 4 − 1) Since f (3) = 160 . and the polynomial 2 factors as follows: 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 = 0 The zeros (x-intercepts) are –1 and 2 . the graph: −1 2 −1 −13 5 15 –1 −2 3 10 −15 2 −3 −10 15 0 3 2 f ( x ) = −3 x 3 − 4 x 2 + x + 2 The graph shows a root at x = −1 . and ± 5 . The zero at –2 has multiplicity of 2. −1 and are zeros. x 3 + 3x 2 – 4 = ( x – 1)( x + 2) 2 18. . Chapter 2 Test Verify that −1 and 3 are zeros as it appears in 2 19. 3 The y-intercept is f (0) = 2 ( x + 1) ( 2 x3 − 3x 2 − 10 x + 15) = 0 ( x + 1) ⎛⎜ x − 3⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2 x − 10 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Find the remaining zeros by solving: 2 x 2 − 10 = 0 2 x 2 = 10 x2 = 5 x=± 5 20. –3 –3 2 −3 −10 0 −10 1 2 3 1 4 –1 2 0 Factor the quotient to find the remaining zeros. Inc. Use synthetic division to verify this root.PreCalculus 4E b. ∞ ) 17. then a0 (34 − 1) = 160 a0 (80) = 160 160 80 a0 = 2 a0 = f ( x) = 2( x 4 − 1) = 2 x 4 − 2 405 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 f ( x) = 1 ( x + 3) 2 domain: {x | x ≠ –3} or ( −∞. −3) ∪ ( −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) has zeros at –2 and 1.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. –3 02 − 9 9 y-intercept: y = = 0−2 2 Vertical asymptote: x–2=0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. . x ≠ –4} –x = – f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 16 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: x = 0 0 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 − 16 Vertical asymptotes: x 2 − 16 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 4) = 0 x = 4. f ( x) = 406 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = 3. 1 +2 x −1 domain: {x | x ≠ 1} or ( −∞. ∞ ) f ( x) = 23. 5 Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 2 – x–2 y = x +2 Symmetry: f (– x) = 22.1) ∪ (1. so no horizontal asymptote exists. –4 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. Inc. x x 2 − 16 domain: {x | x ≠ 4.Polynomial and Rational Functions 21. x2 − 9 x−2 domain: {x | x ≠ 2} f ( x) = x2 – 9 –x – 2 f(–x) ≠ f(x).

so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. a. 27. ∞ ) 407 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 24. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x+1=0 x = –1 0 +1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 =− 0 + 2 (0) − 3 3 f ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. Chapter 2 Test x +1 x + 2x − 3 x 2 + 2 x − 3 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) domain: {x | x ≠ –3. 1 2 C ( x) = 26.3) ∪ [10. . Inc. b. the horizontal 10 = 10 . 000 + 10x x x 2 < x + 12 x − x − 12 < 0 2 25. 300. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. Vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x –3. x ≠ 1} –x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 2x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). =0 2x + 1 ≤3 x−3 2x + 1 −3 ≤ 0 x−3 10 − x ≤0 x −3 Boundary values: 3 and 10 Solution set: ( −∞. 4 ) 4 x2 x2 + 3 domain: all real numbers 4 x2 = f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x +3 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 f ( x) = y-intercept: y = 4 ( 0) 28. asymptote is x = 1 This represents the fact that as the number of satellite radio players produced increases. so y = = 4 is the horizontal asymptote. 2 02 + 3 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 3 = 0 x 2 = −3 No vertical asymptote. Since the degree of the numerator equals the degree of the denominator. ( x + 3)( x − 4) < 0 Boundary values: –3 and 4 Solution set: ( −3. the production cost approaches $10 per radio.

the solution is (– ∞. ± 2. 1) or (4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –1}. domain: (−2. . ⎟ . –1) or ⎜ . 2. 1 f )(−1) = f ( f (−1) ) = f (0) = 3 f ( x) → ∞ as x → −2+ or as 1 2 –5 –6 –3 3 6 –1 –2 0 x + 2 x – 5x – 6 = 0 3 x → 2− 2 ( x + 3)( x 2 – x – 2) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 x = –3 or x = –1 or x = 2 The solution set is {–3. 3⎭ ⎩3 4500 4500 = = 45 foot-candles d2 102 i= 9+ 12. 7. ∞ ) 10. 3). − ⎬ . (f 5. x3 + 2 x 2 − 5x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. The zero at –1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. 3 2 = x x2 9 x 2 + 3x = 2 9 x2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) = 0 3x − 1 = 0 3x + 2 = 0 1 2 or x = − x= 3 3 2⎫ ⎧1 The solution set is ⎨ . 11. ∞ ⎟ . k d2 k 20 = 2 15 4500 = k i= 9. 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 x= 5⎞ ⎛5 ⎛ ⎞ Test intervals are (–∞. ±6 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ±3. 4. Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–2) 1. Inc. 8. 2}. 3. ± 3. There is a relative maximum at the point (0. |2x – 1| = 3 2x −1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 2 x − 1 = −3 2 x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {2. –1). 3⎠ ⎝3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛5 ⎞ Testing points. ± 6 q –3 6. ⎜ –1. ⎜ . ∞) 3x 2 > 2 x + 5 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 > 0 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 = 0 (3 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = –1 3 3x 2 − 5 x + 1 = 0 5 ± 25 − 12 5 ± 13 = 6 6 ⎪⎧ 5 + 13 5 − 13 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬. The zero at 1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. ∞ ⎟ . ±2. 2x − 5 > 3 2x − 5 > 3 2x > 8 x>4 2 x − 5 < −3 2x < 2 x <1 (−∞. ⎝3 ⎠ 408 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. –1. 2) range: [ 0.

1. f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x − 8 −b −2 = = −1 x= 2a 2 f (−1) = (−1) 2 + 2(−1) − 8 = 1 − 2 − 8 = −9 vertex: (–1. x 2 ( x − 4) − 1( x − 4) = 0 f ( x) = x 2 ( x − 3) zeros: x = 0 (multiplicity 2) and x = 3 y-intercept: y = 0 f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 n = 3. an = 0 so the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 14. 4 x-intercepts: f ( 0 ) = 03 − 4(0) 2 − 0 + 4 = 4 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. Inc. Cumulative Review Exercises f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 x-intercepts: x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 = 0 15. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y-intercept: f(0) = –8 409 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 16. –9) x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 8 = 0 ( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 x = –4 or x = 2 x −1 x−2 vertical asymptote: x = 2 horizontal asymptote: y = 1 x-intercept: x = 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 f ( x) = 17. ( x − 4)( x 2 − 1) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = –1. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right.PreCalculus 4E 13.

f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ⎡ 2( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 1⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ 2 x 2 − x − 1⎤⎦ =⎣ h 2 2 2 x + 4hx − x + 2h − h − 1 − 2 x 2 + x + 1 = h 2 4hx + 2h − h = h = 4 x + 2h − 1 410 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) ( f g )( x) = 2(4 x − 1) 2 − (4 x − 1) − 1 = 32 x 2 − 20 x + 2 20. .Polynomial and Rational Functions 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 19. Inc.

Note that the function g ( x) = 3x −1 has the general form g ( x) = b x + c where c = −1 .2(1.Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Section 3.2(1.1 Check Point Exercises 1. we Plot these points. 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates. graph g ( x) = 3x −1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 3x one unit to the right.56) x Plot these points. f (3) = 42. Because c < 0. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates. This overestimates the actual amount shown by $11.20876 ≈ 160 According to the function. x f ( x ) = ( 13 ) −2 ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 91 −1 0 1 2 f ( x ) = 3x 3−2 = 19 3−1 = 13 30 = 1 31 = 3 32 = 9 g ( x) = 3x −1 3−2 −1 = 3−3 = 271 3−1−1 = 3−2 = 19 30 −1 = 3−1 = 13 31−1 = 30 = 1 32 −1 = 31 = 3 x −2 411 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the average amount spent after three hours of shopping at the mall is $160. . f ( x) = 42. Inc. x −2 −1 0 1 2 3. connecting them with a continuous curve. connecting them with a continuous curve. x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 f ( x ) = 3x f (−3) = 3−3 = 1 27 1 9 1 3 f (−2) = 3−2 = f (−1) = 3−1 = f (0) = 30 = 1 f (1) = 31 = 3 f (2) = 32 = 9 f (3) = 33 = 27 4.56)3 ≈ 160.

08 ⎞ A = 10. −1. x f ( x) − 2 −2 2−2 = 14 −1 2−1 = 12 0 20 = 1 1 21 = 2 2 22 = 4 6.964 9. e 11. Inc.967 3.125 6.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5. 5 3 ≈ 16.25 b.5 = 0. 4(5) x g ( x) = 5x −2 5−2 = 251 −1 5−1 = 15 0 50 = 1 1 51 = 5 2 52 = 25 Exercise Set 3. 12.042(34) ≈ 4446 In 2012 the gray wolf population of the Western Great Lakes is projected to be about 4446. x g ( x) = 2 + 1 2−2 + 1 = 14 + 1 = 54 2−1 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 23 20 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2 21 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3 22 + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5 x 5.116 ≈ 0.859.95 10. 6 7.242 412 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 32. r⎞ ⎛ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ a.556 2.47 A = Pe rt A = 10. 000e0. 23⋅4 ≈ 10. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g. e –0. 3 5 ≈ 11. 7.08(5) = $14.387 ≈ 0. f ( x) = 1066e0.2 −0. Because c > 0.042 x f (34) = 1066e0. 4 −1.974 8. e 2.1 1.3 ≈ 9.75 x −2 −1 0 1 2 ≈ 0. e 3. we graph g ( x) = 2 x + 1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 2 x up one unit. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ = $14. . nt ⎛ 0. 918.472 f ( x ) = 4x 4−2 = 161 4−1 = 14 40 = 1 41 = 4 42 = 16 2012 is 34 years after 1978. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 ≈ 13. Note that the function g ( x) = 2 x + 1 has the general form g ( x ) = b x + c where c = 1.4 ≈ 29.665 4.

( 34 ) = 169 −1 ( 43 ) = 43 0 ( 43 ) = 1 1 ( 43 ) = 43 2 ( 43 ) = 169 −2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 h ( x ) = ( 12 ) x ( 12 ) = 4 −1 ( 12 ) = 2 0 ( 12 ) = 1 1 ( 12 ) = 12 2 ( 12 ) = 14 −2 h ( x ) = ( 13 ) x ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 19 −2 413 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Inc. x −2 −1 0 1 2 Section 3.1 g ( x) = ( 32 ) x ( 32 ) = 49 −1 ( 32 ) = 23 0 ( 32 ) = 1 1 ( 32 ) = 32 2 ( 32 ) = 94 −2 g ( x) = ( 43 ) x 15.PreCalculus 4E x 13. −2 −1 0 1 2 x 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −2 −1 0 1 2 14.

Inc.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions x 17. .6 2 (0. f ( x ) = ( 0. ∞ ) 18. 414 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so the function is H ( x) = −3− x.6)2 = 0.8)0 = 1 1 (0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the x- axis.8) −1 = 1.36 the graph of f ( x) = 2 x one unit to the left.8 2 (0. 20.7 −1 (0. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x +! can be obtained by shifting x −2 (0. ∞ ) . so the function is F ( x) = −3x.8) 2 = 0. ∞ ) . 22. shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x downward one unit. so the function is G ( x) = 3− x. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by shifting x the graph of f ( x) = 2 x two units to the left. so the function is h( x) = 3x − 1. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 27.6 0 (0.6)−2 = 2.25 0 (0. ∞ ) downward. x f ( x) = (0.8) −2 (0.64 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. range: ( −1. so the function is g ( x) = 3x −1.6)1 = 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: ( 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the y- axis. ∞ ) .6 ) 25. = 1.5625 −1 (0. range: ( 0. asymptote: y = −1 23. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x − 1 can be obtained by 19. This is the graph of f(x) = 3x. This is the graph of f ( x) = 3x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis.6)0 = 1 1 (0. 21. 24. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit to the right.8) −2 26.6) −1 = 1.8)1 = 0.

∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x ) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by 31. The graph of g ( x ) = −2 x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x two units upward. range: ( −1. . ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. x 33. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 415 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph of g ( x) = 2− x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 one unit to the left and one unit downward. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . 0 ) 29. The graph of h( x) = 2 x + 2 − 1 can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 left and one unit downward. range: ( −∞.1 28. The graph of h ( x ) = 2 x +1 − 1 can be obtained by 32. The graph of g ( x) = 2 ⋅ 2 x can be obtained by vertically stretching the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of two. ∞ ) 30. ∞ ) . asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the x-axis. asymptote: y = 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . range: ( 0. x reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the y-axis. range: ( 2. ∞ ) . two units to the asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. range: ( 0. range: ( −1.

range: ( 0. . ∞ ) . range: ( 2. ∞ ) 416 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph of g ( x) = e x +1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left. range: ( 2. The graph of g ( x ) = e x + 2 can be obtained by 1 x ⋅ 2 can be obtained by 2 vertically shrinking the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of one-half. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x) = e x −1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 37. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 38. The graph of g ( x) = e x − 1 can be obtained by domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right and 2 units up. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. range: ( 0. ∞ ) . 36. The graph of g ( x ) = moving f ( x) = e x 2 units up. ∞ ) . asymptote: y = −1 domain: ( −∞. 34. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = e x −1 + 2 can be obtained by asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 39. range: ( 0. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit down. range: ( −1. 35.

45. 1 x e can be obtained by 2 shrinking f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 1 . ∞ ) . 0 ) asymptote: y = 1 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = e 2 x + 1 can be obtained by stretching f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 2 and then moving the graph up 1 unit. The graph of h( x) = −e x can be obtained by reflecting f ( x) = e x about the x-axis. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. range: ( −∞. The graph of h( x) = e x+1 − 1 can be obtained by 43. 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph of g ( x) = f ( x) = e x about the y-axis. range: ( 0. ∞ ) 417 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: (1. range: ( 0. ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = e − x can be obtained by reflecting 44. range: ( 0. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ∞ ) . range: ( −1.1 40. ∞ ) 42. stretching f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 2. The graph of g ( x) = 2e x can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left and 1 unit down. ∞ ) . . ∞ ) 41.

48. x 46. . ∞ ) 47. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the x-axis. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 50. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. range: ( 2. ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = e 2 + 2 can be obtained by shrinking f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 1 2 and then moving the graph up 2 units.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 1 49. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by vertically shrinking f(x) by a factor of 13 . asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 1 418 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and one space up. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the y-axis. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by horizontally stretching f(x) by a factor of 3.. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 51.

a. Inc.70 419 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.64 (8.055 ⎞ A = 10.065 ⎞ b. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and two spaces up. 000e0.140. 4( 4 ) 56.84 (8.165. 54.19 The point of intersection is ( 0. b. ⎛ 0.3% yield) Investing $6000 for 4 years at 8.11 (7% yield) A = 12.055 ⎞ A = 10. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13. 12(3) 55. .000 for 3 years at 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 14.055 ⎞ A = 10. ⎛ 0. 737.0685(3) ≈ 14.083 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $ 8306. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13. 000e0. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.1 52. a. A = 5000 ( e ) 0. ⎛ 0.1) .79 12(10) c.055(5) ≈ $13.67 (6.157. ⎛ 0. A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2(10) 410 ⋅ ≈ $9479. 0 f ( x) = 2 x 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 2 4 x −2 −1 4(5) 12(5) c. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ⎛ 0.85% yield) Investing $12. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 2 53.065(10) ≈ = $9560.116.67 2(5) 57. d.31 ⎛ 0.92 ≈ 9577.04 g ( x) = 2− x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 A = 10.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ d.51 ⎛ 0.07 ⎞ A = 12.0825 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $8317.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.25% compounded quarterly yields the greater return.25% yield) 2( 4) ⎛ 0. ≈ $9527. 795.

g ( x) = 2− x +1 8 4 2 1 1 2 The point of intersection is ( 0. –e) to find b. 4) to find b. The graph is of the form y = b x . . 6) to find b. Inc. The graph is of the form y = −b x . 59. Substitute values from the point (1. y = bx x = 2y 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 y 4 = b1 4=b The equation of the graph is y = 4 x 62. Substitute values from the point (1. y = 2x 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 x y = 3x 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 x x = 3y 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 y 61. y = −b x −e = −b1 e=b The equation of the graph is y = −e x 420 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ) . −1 0 1 f ( x) = 2 x +1 1 2 1 2 4 2 8 x −2 60. The graph is of the form y = b x . y = bx 6 = b1 6=b The equation of the graph is y = 6 x 63. Substitute values from the point (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 58.

67. there were about 10. 54 71. Since 2028 − 1974 = 54 . find 23. There will still be 157.249009585 21. 81 e. .06 ) 10 The linear model is the better model for the data in 2005. 000 (1 + 0.321995226 21.87e0.317278183 21.14 ≈ 8.15 x + 1.1 ≈ 8. India’s population appears to be doubling every 27 years.321997068 23. the closer the value is to 2π.321997085 The closer the exponent is to 3 . S = 465.026 ) ≈ 1148 India’s population in 2001 will be 1148 million. = 465. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 According to the linear model. g ( x) = 1. 000 (1.49 Chernobyl will not be safe for human habitation by 2066.5) 80 30 b.4 According to the exponential model. 21. ⎛1⎞ The equation of the graph is y = ⎜ ⎟ = e − x ⎝e⎠ a. = 157.14159 ≈ 8. e) to find b. the closer the 3 value is to 2 . 2055 − 1974 = 81 . there were about 8. b.03) 5 5 ≈ $591.0344(50) ≈ 10.7320508 ≈ 3. f (50) = 0.824411082 = 574 (1) = 574 23.026 ) 23 ≈ 8 23.732 ≈ 3.141593 ≈ 8.5 kilograms of cesium-137 in Chernobyl’s atmosphere.824979946 27 2π ≈ 8.73205 ≈ 3. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1. India’s population in 2055 will be 4590 million.026 ) ≈ 2295 . f ( 0 ) = 574 (1.44 c.87e0. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1.15(50) + 1.821353305 0 23. find d. S = 510.03) = 510. y = bx 69.815240927 23.321880096 21. e = b −1 1 e= b eb = 1 1 b= e ≈ 3.5741877 70.0344 x g (50) = 1.73 ≈ 3. a.824961595 India’s population in 1974 was 574 million.44 ≈ 8. 000 (1.141 ≈ 8. f ( 80 ) = 1000 ( 0.7 ≈ 3.824977827 The closer the exponent gets to π. 2005 is 50 years after 1955. 744 10 68.1415 ≈ 8.9 million words in the federal tax code in 2005. The graph is of the form y = b x . c. 000 (1 + 0. 3 2 x 65. f ( 27 ) = 574 (1. 66.4 million words in the federal tax code in 2005.026 ) ≈ 4590 . 2005 is 50 years after 1955.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. Inc. 230 421 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.06 ) ≈ $832.1 64. India’s population in 2028 will be 2295 million. Substitute values from the point (–1. f ( x) = 0.

794 c. a.15 x + 1. d. c. g ( x) = 1.5% of the material is remembered 1 week after it is first learned. a.05 12 ) 12(379) 4t 12 t f (0) = 80e −0.3 g (40) = ≈ 21. a. f (52) = 80e −0.15(20) + 1. 83. The exponential model is the better model for the data in 1975.87e0.5 68.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6. 422 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.19(1.19(1. .4 According to the linear model.0344(20) ≈ 3.7 37.045 ⎞ A = 10. b.029) x 76.44 f (20) = 0.1e −0. a.5(1) + 20 ≈ 68. 82. 662.05 ⎞ A = 10.8% of the material is remembered 4 week after it is first learned. f (1) = 80e−0.5(4) + 20 ≈ 30.1e−0.1 1 + 6.5(0) + 20 c.19(1. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ = 80e 0 + 20 = 80(1) + 20 = 100 100% of the material is remembered at the moment it is first learned. f ( x) = 6. ⎛ 0.029)56 ≈ 30.8 30.052 x 37.4 37. Inc. a. d.052(40) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 21. 81.7 million words in the federal tax code in 1975. 074.4 million words in the federal tax code in 1975. b.7 According to the exponential model.5(52) + 20 ≈ 20 20% of the material is remembered 1 year after it is first learned.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 72. – 80.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6. b. f ( x) = 6. ( 24 1 + 0. 5% compounded quarterly offers the better return. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ≈ $3.1e −0. f (40) = 6. 1975 is 20 years after 1955.0344 x g (20) = 1.029) x f (56) = 6. f (4) = 80e −0.0 in 2006. 753 24e0.19(1.44 ≈ 4.029)40 ≈ 19. 74. Answers may vary.1e−0. Sample explanation: The horizontal asymptote is y = 0.052(56) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 28. there were about 3. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.360. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. 75. b.917. there were about 4.9 1 + 6. Answers may vary.3 g (56) = ≈ 27. f ( x) = 0. 73.052 x 37. b.3 in 1990. 77. 1975 is 20 years after 1955.05(379) ≈ $4.87e0.

false. x is the same as y = () x 3–x. false. does not make sense. c. 1 . 423 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 86. y = 1 3 94. Explanations will vary. ? (cosh x) 2 − (sinh x) 2 = 1 2 of y = 3x about the x-axis. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Solving the related equation. −x 1. 90. 3 = log 7 x means 73 = x. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. x is (a). makes sense 87.e. 88. c.2 84. y = 1 is the 5 5 –x same as y = 5 . a. Sample explanation: An exponential model is better than a linear model. y = 3x is (d).3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) . false. b. 251/ 2 = 5 2 96. −(− x) e +e 2 −x e + ex = 2 e x + e− x = 2 = cosh x cosh(− x) = 2 ⎛ e x + e− x ⎞ ⎛ e x − e− x ⎞ ? ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ =1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x e 2 x − 2 + e −2 x ? − =1 4 4 e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x − e 2 x + 2 − e −2 x ? =1 4 4? =1 4 1=1 about the y-axis while f ( x) = −3x reflects the graph 89. a. but not as quickly as y = () y= 1 3 5x . i. b3 = 27 means 3 = log b 27. 95. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 1 is (b). y increases as x increases.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. log 4 26 = y means 4 y = 26. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 . A sample change is: The functions do not have the same graph. gives x = 3. Note that the boundary value x = 3 does not satisfy the inequality. makes sense 85. Changes to make the statement true will vary.2 Check Point Exercises 93. ) 2. . A sample change is: The amount of money will not increase without bound. We do not know how to solve x = 2 y for y. f ( x) = 3− x reflects the graph of y = 3x b. 25 = x means 5 = log 2 x. 2 = log b 25 means b 2 = 25. true 91. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 so it is (d) reflected () x about the y-axis. y= 5x is () (c). so it is (c) reflected about the y-axis. Inc. e− x − e−( − x ) 2 e− x − e x = 2 − −e − x + e x = 2 e x − e− x =− 2 = − sinh x sinh(− x) = ( c. Changes to make the statement true will vary. e y = 33 means y = log e 33. a. A sample change is: If f ( x) = 2 x then f (a + b) = f (a ) ⋅ f (b). 92. b. Section 3.

b. b3 = 27 7. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 3x.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 3. Question: 3 to what power gives 1 log 3 7 3 = because 31 7 = 7 3. 125 5 125 7 = log 10. 4. a. 5. The domain of g consists of all x for which x 2 > 0. Question: 36 to what power gives 6? 1 log 36 6 = because 361/ 2 = 36 = 6 2 d. 7 a. Solving this inequality for x.2 The domain of h consists of all x for which x − 5 > 0.000 I0. 6. . Because I = 10. 6y = 216 8. 4) b. f ( x) = 13. Exercise Set 3. ≈ 34 The function models the actual increase shown in the graph quite well. ∞). Because log b 1 = 0. Substitute the boy’s age. 32 = x 4. ∞). a. 92 = x 5. 26 = 64 3. we conclude log 9 9 = 1.4 ln 30 − 11. The domain of f consists of all x for which 4 – x > 0. b. 10. Question: 10 to what power gives 100? log10 100 = 2 because 10 2 = 100. 8. 000 3? =4 The earthquake registered 4. Thus.6 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 3 x. a.8 log(10 + 1) = 29 + 48. 0) ∪ (0. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 9 27 9 3 f (30) = 13. 5 y = 125 9. log28 = 3 424 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 10. Inc. Solving this inequality for x. we obtain x < 0 or x > 0. b.8 log(11) ≈ 80 Thus. 9. x f ( x ) = 3x 10. 1 1 x 1 3 9 27 9 3 g ( x) = log 3 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 The graph of the inverse can also be drawn by reflecting the graph of f ( x) = 3x about the line y = x. b5 = 32 6. Because blogb x = x. we conclude log8 1 = 0. Because log b b = 1. Because log b b = x. 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Solving this inequality for x.4 ln x − 11. f (10) = 29 + 48. we conclude log 7 7 = 8. Thus. the domain of h is (5. the domain of f is (−∞.0 on the Richter scale.6 First. Find the temperature increase after 30 minutes by substituting 30 for x and evaluating the function at 30. 000 I 0 R = log I0 1 ? 125 1 1 1 log 5 = −3 because 5−3 = 3 = . 2 4 = 16 2. Question: 5 to what power gives c. a 10-year-old boy is approximately 80% of his adult height. Thus the domain of g is (−∞. we conclude 3log3 17 = 17. we obtain x < 4. for x and evaluate the function at 10. 1. 8 x 11. we obtain x > 5.

13. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 17. we conclude log 4 46 = 6. 31. log15 x = 2 37. log 5 625 = 4 11. 42. Because log b 1 = 0. 1 3 log81 9 = 1 1 because 64 2 = 64 = 8. Because log b 1 = 0. log 2 64 = 6 because 2 = 64. log 4 16 = 2 because 4 = 16. log 6 6 = 1 because 6 2 = 6. 2 1 1 because 81 2 = 81 = 9. 8 8 28. Because blogb x = x. 36. log 3 27 = 3 because 33 = 27. we conclude log 5 57 = 7. 19. 14.2 10. we conclude log 5 5 = 1. log7200 = y 40. log 2 1 15. Inc. we conclude log 6 1 = 0. = − because 3 2 = 2 3 3 33. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 4 x. Because log b b x = x. log b 343 = 3 39. log 7 49 = 2 because 7 = 49. 6 24. 2 35. log 2 12. 23. First. 2 30. 38. log 2 1 1 = −3 because 2−3 = . 20. Because log b b = 1. we conclude log11 11 = 1. Because log b b = 1. 6 6 27. we conclude 8log8 19 = 19. log8 300 = y 21. we conclude log 4 1 = 0. Because blogb x = x. 25. Because log b b x = x. 41. 2 3 . logb1000 = 3 18. 5 5 26. 2 3 1 4 16 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 4 x. x g ( x) = log 4 x 1 16 1 4 1 4 16 64 −2 −1 0 1 1 29. we conclude 7 log 723 = 23. 9 9 −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 4 x 1 16 1 4 log 7 7 = 1 because 7 2 = 7. 2 43. 2 1 425 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 3 − 1 1 1 . log 3 1 1 = –2 because 3−2 = . log 5 1 1 = −1 because 5−1 = . = − because 2 2 = 2 2 2 32.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. log 64 8 = 1 = −3 125 log8 2 = 1 3 log 64 4 = 34. log 6 1 1 = −1 because 6−1 = . 2 22. log13x = 2 16. log 5 1 1 = −4 16 − 1 1 1 .

so the function is g ( x) = log 3 ( x − 1). 53. ⎝2⎠ 47. First. x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 48. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted right one unit. 1 5 25 125 g ( x) = log 5 x −2 −1 0 1 x 3 1 4 1 16 1 64 g ( x) = log 1 4 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x 16 4 1 x ⎛1⎞ 45. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 50. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the y-axis. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . so the function is G ( x ) = log 3 (− x). 1 8 49. ⎝4⎠ x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 3 1 5 25 125 f ( x) = ( 14 ) Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 5 x. vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 5 x 1 25 1 5 2 x ⎛1⎞ 46. ∞) . so the function is F ( x) = − log 3 x. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x f ( x) = ( 12 ) x 4 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 8 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log1 2 x. range: (−∞. First. Inc. First. so the function is H ( x) = 1 − log 3 x. 51. . 52. 1 25 x 1 5 2 16 4 1 4 1 1 16 1 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 1 4 x.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 44. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis and shifted up one unit. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted down one g ( x) = log1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 unit. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 5 x. ∞) 426 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so the function is h( x) = log3 x − 1.

range: (−∞. ∞) 57. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. ∞ ) . ∞) 427 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. Inc. range: (−∞.2 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 58. ∞) 60. 55. range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) . vertical asymptote: x = 1 domain: (1. ∞) 61. ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: (2. . 56. ∞) 59. ∞) . range: (−∞.

∞) 64. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) 65. range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞) . ∞ ) . ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. 67. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 68. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. ∞) 428 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . Inc. 66. ∞) 63. . ∞) .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 69. range: (−∞.

the domain of f is (–∞. ∞ ) . Thus. ∞) 75. 77. 83. ∞) 72. Solving this inequality for x. ∞). we conclude log107 = 7. 73. range: (−∞. Solving this inequality for x. . the domain of f is (–∞. ∞). The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 6 > 0. Solving this inequality for x. Solving this inequality for x. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (−∞. we conclude 10log 53 = 53. ∞ ) . Thus. we obtain x > –4. Because log10 x = x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 71. 7) or (7. 2). Because 10log x = x. The domain of f consists of all x for which 2 – x > 0. Thus. Solving this inequality for x. 85. 82. 7). The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 4 > 0. range: (−∞. ∞) 86. log1000 = log10 1000 = 3 because 103 = 1000. we obtain x < 2. 79. ∞ ) . Thus. we conclude log108 = 8. we obtain x < 7. 84. Because 10logx = x. ∞) 76. the domain of f is (–4. ∞ ) . 0) . range: (−∞. the domain of f is (−∞. Solving this inequality for x. we obtain x < 7 or x > 7. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 80.2 70. ∞). The domain of f consists of all x for which (x – 2)2 > 0. range: (−∞. ∞). 2) or (2. 78. we conclude 10log33 = 33. the domain of f is (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. 74. ∞) 81. Thus. 429 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because log10 x = x. log100 = log10 100 = 2 because 102 = 100. Thus. we obtain x < 2 or x > 2. we obtain x > –6. the domain of f is (–6. The domain of f consists of all x for which 7 − x > 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. Inc. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 7)2 > 0. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0.

log 3 ( log 7 7 ) = log 3 1 = 0 1 92. x − 5 > 0 . and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Because 10log x = x. 5 − x ⎝ ⎠ The boundary points are –1 and 5. we conclude ln e7 = 7. x +1 ⎛ x +1 ⎞ 111. Because ln e x = x. Inc. 105. we conclude ln e6 = 6. we conclude eln 7 x = 7 x 2 . we conclude 10log x 3 x = x. 89. 430 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 3 ( x − 1) = 2 32 = x − 1 9 = x −1 ( x + 2)( x − 6) = 0 The boundary points are –2 and 6. 101. Because ln e x = x. we conclude ln e13 x = 13 x. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − x − 2) to be real. ∞ ) . 4−3 = x 88. 103. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − 4 x − 12) to be real. 91. ( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 The boundary points are –1 and 2. and the solution set is {10}. log ( log 81) = log ( log 34 ) 2 3 2 3 93. Because eln x = x. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ ⎟ to be real. 1 1 = 43 64 1 ⎧1⎫ . ∞ ) . x 2 − 4 x − 12 > 0 . and the solution set is {21}. . 110. Because 10log x = x. we conclude 10log 100. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 = 3 x. log ( log 32 ) = log ( log 25 ) = log 5 = 1 5 2 5 2 5 107. 2 97. log 5 ( x + 4 ) = 2 52 = x + 4 25 = x + 4 21 = x The solution is 21. x 2 − x − 2 > 0 . 108. we conclude lne9x = 9x. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. log ( ln e ) = log1 = 0 95. The solution is 64 ⎩ 64 ⎭ x= Because ln e x = x. 104. 2 98. e 106. Because ln e x = x. e ln log 64 x = 2 3 2 64 3 = x x= ( 3 64 ) 2 = 42 = 16 The solution is 16. ln e = log e e = 1 because e1 = e. Because eln x = x. so ln 7 = −7. and the solution set is {16}. so ln 6 = −6. = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 94. 99. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. log 4 x = −3 ln1 = 0 because e0 = 1 . we conclude e 1 ln e−7 = −7. 90. 1 = ln e −6 e6 Because ln e x = x we conclude 1 ln e −6 = −6. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because eln x = x. we conclude eln125 = 125. Because eln x = x. 109. 10 = x The solution is 10. we conclude eln 5 x = 5 x 2 . we conclude eln 300 = 300. ∞ ) . Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x2 − x − 2 = 0 96. ln 7 = ln e −7 Because ln e x = x. 102.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 87. −1) ∪ ( 5. −1) ∪ ( 2. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞.

2 According to the function. after 6 months was about 58. and after one year was about 49. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units left.2 According to the function.2. Inc. 129.5 The average score after 2 months was about 71. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 (6. f ( x ) = −4. f ( x ) = −4.9 f(6) = 88–15ln(6 + 1) = 58.86 ln x + 32. 15. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units upward. f (10) = 62 + 35 log(10 − 4) ≈ 89. 2004 is 35 years after 1969. . Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. b. 130. f(2) = 88–15ln(2 + 1) = 71.5.5 f ( 35 ) = −4. 115. Publishing as Prentice Hall. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 ( 3. b.5. 131.2% of first-year college men will express antifeminist views in 2010. −5) ∪ ( 2.2 ×10−6 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 65.6%. 26.49 ln x + 53 f ( 41) = −7. ∞ ) .8.4% of her adult height.4 She is approximately 95.49 ln x + 53 120.86 ln 41 + 32. b.86 ln x + 32. 119. after 8 months was about 55.4% of first-year college men expressed antifeminist views in 2004. g(x) is f(x) shifted right 2 units and upward 1 unit.2 x−2 ⎛ x−2⎞ >0. 118. 2010 is 41 years after 1969. after 4 months was about 63.5 ≈ 15. 113. f(0) = 88–15ln(0 + 1) = 88 The average score on the original exam was 88. a. 25. Answers may vary. This underestimates the value in the graph by 1%. 114. after 10 months was about 52.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.5 f(4) = 88–15ln(4 + 1) = 63. f ( x ) = −7.5 f ( 41) = −4. 128. the sound can rupture the human eardrum. 2010 is 41 years after 1969.5 ≈ 14.5 According to the function. 116. f ( 35 ) = −7. 112.2% of her adult height.2% of first-year college women expressed antifeminist views in 2004. a. 431 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. – 127. She is approximately 89. a. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0.86 ln 35 + 32. f ( x ) = −7. ⎟ x+5 ⎝ x+5⎠ The boundary points are –5 and 2.05 A normal conversation is about 65 decibels.5% of first-year college women will express antifeminist views in 2010. 2004 is 35 years after 1969.49 ln 35 + 53 ≈ 26.9. 14.49 ln 41 + 53 ≈ 25.3 × 106 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 188 Yes.4 According to the function.8 f(8) = 88–15ln(8 + 1) = 55 f(10) = 88–15ln(10 + 1) = 52 f(12) = 88–15ln(12 + 1) = 49. g(x) is f(x) reflected about the x-axis. 117. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ to be real. f(13) = 62 + 35log(13–4) ≈ 95.

does not make sense. The score falls below 65 after 9 months. y = ln x . 137. y = x. 142. Answers may vary. makes sense log 2 16 = log 2 24 = 4 136.001 2 − (−3) 5 144. logbMN = logbM + logbN The sum of the logarithms of its factors. false. is ( 0. makes sense 138. 000 times as intense as an earthquake of magnitude 4. log3 92 = 2 log3 9 432 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 2 32 − log 2 2 = log 2 25 − log 2 2 = 5 − 1 = 4 c. log 2 8 + log 2 4 = log 2 23 + log 2 22 = 3 + 2 = 5 c. log3 81 = log3 34 = 4 b. 147. b. true 143. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. They are the same. A sample change is: We cannot take the log of a negative number. A sample change is: The domain of f ( x ) = log 2 x 133. log 3 40 > log 3 27 = 3 so log3 40 > 3. Explanations will vary. 2 log3 9 = 2 log3 32 = 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 c. log 2 (8 ⋅ 4) = log 2 8 + log 2 4 148. ⎛ 32 ⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 − log 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ y = x2. b. y = ex. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 140. ∞ ) . Sample explanation: An earthquake of magnitude 8 on the Richter scale is 108− 4 = 104 = 10.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 139. y = x . log 4 60 < 3 < log3 40 log3 40 > log 4 60 d e. log 4 ⎡log 3 ( log 2 8) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = log 4 ⎡⎣ log3 ( log 2 23 ) ⎤⎦ = log 4 [ log 3 3] = log 4 1 = 0 c. Inc. 141. log 2 32 = log 2 25 = 5 134. a. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. log 4 60 < log 4 64 = 3 so log 4 60 < 3. . false. y = xx 135. log 3 81 − logπ 1 4−0 4 = = log 2 2 8 − log 0. 145. log 2 8 3 = A sample change is: log 2 4 2 132. 146. Changes to make the statement true will vary. a. b. makes sense 149.

3. log 5 (7 ⋅ 3) = log 5 7 + log 5 3 2. log 6 (7 ⋅ 11) = log 6 7 + log 6 11 b. log(7 x + 6) − log x = log 7x + 6 x 433 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 7 2506 = log 2506 ≈ 4.3 x log 5 25 y 3 1. log 7 (7 x) = log 7 7 + log 7 x = 1 + log 7 x 4. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log100 = log x − 2 ⎝ 100 ⎠ 1/ 2 = log5 x 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − log5 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − ( log 5 52 + log 5 y 3 ) = 12 log 5 x − log 5 52 − log 5 y 3 = 12 log 5 x − 2 log 5 5 − 3log 5 y = 12 log 5 x − 2 − 3log 5 y 5. a. 1 ln 3 x = ln x1/ 3 = ln x 3 c. log( x + 4) 2 = 2 log( x + 4) a. = 2 + log x 2. log(10. a.02 ln 7 x 25 y10 Exercise Set 3. . 1 ln x 2 + ln( x + 5) 3 = ln x 2 + ln( x + 5)1/ 3 9 = logb x1/ 4 − log b 25 y10 = logb x1/ 4 25 y10 4 or log b 7. ( x − 3)2 x 1 log x − 2 log 5 − 10 log y b b 4 b 1/ 4 2 = logb x − log b 5 − log b y10 = logb x1/ 4 − ( logb 25 − log b y10 ) a. a. ⎛9⎞ log 9 ⎜ ⎟ = log 9 9 − log 9 x = 1 − log 9 x ⎝ x⎠ 9.02 log 7 8.3 6. log(1000x) = log1000 + log x = 3 + log x 6. log 25 + log 4 = log(25 ⋅ 4) = log100 = 2 b. b. a. ⎛7⎞ log 7 ⎜ ⎟ = log 7 7 − log 7 x = 1 − log 7 x ⎝ x⎠ 8. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 000 + log x = 4 + log x 7. 2 log( x − 3) − log x = log( x − 3) 2 − log x ⎛ 23 ⎞ log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 23 − log8 x ⎝ x ⎠ = log ⎛ e5 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e5 − ln11 ⎝ 11 ⎠ = 5 − ln11 c. 000 x) = log10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Check Point Exercises 1. 4. log 6 3 = 9 log 6 3 b.3 Section 3. log8 (13 ⋅ 7) = log8 13 + log8 7 3. log 9 9x =log 9 9+log9 x = 1+log 9 x 5. log 7 2506 = ln 2506 ≈ 4. log(100 x) = log100 + log x = ln x 2 ( x + 5)1/ 3 = ln x 2 3 x + 5 b. log b x 4 3 y = log x 4 y1/3 b = log x 4 + log y1/3 b b 1 = 4 log x + log y b 3 b b.

1 ln 5 x = ln x (1/ 5) = ln x 5 20. ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb ( x 3 y ) − logb z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb x 3 + log b y − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = 3log b x + log b y − 2 log b z log b x 7 = 7 log b x 18. ln 7 x = ln x 7 = 21. . ⎛ 64 ⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ = log 4 64 − log 4 y ⎝ y ⎠ = 3 − log 4 y 27. log 3 ⎛ x = log ⎜ y ⎝ 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢ log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 3 1 1 = log x − log y 3 3 ⎛ 36 ⎞ 1/ 2 log 6 ⎜ ⎟ = log 6 36 − log 6 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log 6 ( x + 1) 2 434 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 10. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1 log 5 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 5 x 2 − log 5 25 = log 5 x − 2 25 2 ⎝ ⎠ 25. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1/ 2 log 4 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 4 x − log 4 64 = log 4 x − 3 64 2 ⎝ ⎠ 24. ⎛ x2 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = log b ( x 2 y ) − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = log b x 2 + log b y − log b z 2 = 2 log b x + log b y − 2 log b z 15. log N–6 = –6log N log M −8 = −8log M 19. ⎛ 125 ⎞ log 5 ⎜ ⎟ = log 5 125 − log 5 y = 3 − log 5 y ⎝ y ⎠ 13. Inc. 29. logbx3 = 3logbx 16. log 100 x = log(100 x )1/ 2 1 = log(100 x) 2 1 = (log100 + log x) 2 1 = (2 + log x) 2 1 = 1 + log x 2 30. ⎛ e2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 2 − ln 5 = 2 ln e − ln 5 = 2 − ln 5 ⎝5⎠ 14. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log1000 = log x − 3 ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 26. log b x 2 y = logb x 2 + log b y = 2 log b x + log b y 22. 11. log b xy 3 = log b x + log b y 3 = log b x + 3log b y 1 1 ln x 7 23. ⎛ e4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 4 − ln 8 = 4 ln e − ln 8 = 4 − ln 8 ⎝8⎠ 28. ⎛ 64 ⎞ 1 2 log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 64 − log8 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log8 ( x + 1) 2 1 2 1 ln(ex) 2 1 = (ln e + ln x) 2 1 = (1 + ln x) 2 1 1 = + ln x 2 2 = 31. ln ex = ln(ex) 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 12.

1 = 2 + 3log x + log(5 − x) − log 3 − 2 log( x + 7) 3 log 5 + log 2 = log(5 ⋅ 2) = log10 = 1 42. log 2 x y4 z5 = log x1/ 3 + log b y 4 − log b z 5 b 1 = log b x + 4 log b y − 5log b z 3 40. Inc. ⎛ x⎞ x log 5 = log ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 5 1 1 = log x − log y 5 5 log b 1/ 2 39. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x y3 log b 3 z = logb x1/ 2 + log b y 3 − log b z 3 = 34. 33. ⎛ 96 ⎞ log 2 96 − log 2 3 = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 = 5 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 46. log x + 7 log y = log x + log y 7 = log( xy 7 ) 435 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 4 1 = log 2 x + log 2 y − log 2 16 5 5 5 1 4 4 = log 2 x + log 2 y − 5 5 5 37. ⎡10 x 2 3 1 − x ⎤ log ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 7( x + 1) ⎦ 1 = 1 + 2 log x + log(1 − x) − log 7 − 2 log( x + 1) 3 3 5 5 = log10 + log x 2 + log 3 1 − x − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 2 1 = log5 x + log5 y − log5 52 / 3 3 3 2 1 2 = log5 x + log5 y − 3 3 3 36. ⎛ 2x + 5 ⎞ log(2 x + 5) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ⎡ x3 x 2 + 1 ⎤ ln ⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ( x + 1) ⎦⎥ 48. 5 ⎛ 405 ⎞ log 3 405 − log 3 5 = log 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = log3 81 =4 47. − ln ( x + 3) 1 = 4 ln x + ln ( x 2 + 3) − 5 ln ( x + 3) 2 x2 y 25 = log5 x 2 / 3 + log 5 y1/ 3 − log 5 251/ 3 log 5 ⎡ x4 x2 + 3 ⎤ ln ⎢ 5 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ( x + 3) ⎥⎦ ⎡ x 4 ( x 2 + 3)1/ 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ( x + 3) ⎦ = ln x 4 + ln ( x 2 + 3) 1 logb x + 3log b y − 3logb z 2 3 35. ⎡100 x 3 3 5 − x ⎤ log ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ 3( x + 7) ⎦ = log100 + log x3 + log ( 5 − x ) 3 − log 3 − log ( x + 7 ) 1 xy 4 16 = log 2 x1/ 5 + log 2 y 4 / 5 − log 2 161/ 5 41. log x + 3 log y = log x + log y 3 = log( xy 3 ) 50. 38. ln x + ln 3 = ln(3x) 45. ln x + ln 7 = ln(7 x) 44. log 250 + log 4 = log1000 = 3 43. ⎛ 3x + 7 ⎞ log(3x + 7) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ = ln x3 + ln x 2 + 1 − ln( x + 1) 4 1 = 3ln x + ln( x 2 + 1) − 4 ln( x + 1) 2 49. 2 .PreCalculus 4E Section 3.3 1 32.

x4 y7 z3 = log xy = logb ( x 5 y 6 ) 58. 66. 61. 4 ln x + 7 ln y − 3ln z ( x + 9)8 x4 ⎤ ( x + 1) 2 ⎥ ⎥⎦ = log 4 ⎡( x + 1) 2 3 xy ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 3ln x + 5 ln y − 6 ln z = ln x3 + ln y 5 − ln z 6 = ln x3 y 5 z6 436 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5log b x + 6 log b y = log b x 5 + log b y 6 55. = ln x 4 + ln y 7 − ln z 3 ) = ln 63. 1 3ln x − ln y = ln x 3 − ln y1/ 3 3 64. ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎛ x2 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1 ⎟ or ln ⎜ 2 ⎜ y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln( x + 6) − 3ln x = ln( x + 6) 4 − ln x3 = ln 60. 2logbx + 3logby = logbx2 + logby3 = logb(x2y3) 54. 1 1 ln x + ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 3 ( 62. 4 x3 ) 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 (log 5 x + log 5 y ) − 2 log 5 ( x + 1) 2 1 = log5 xy − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 xy ( x + 1) 2 1 ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) + 2log 4 ( x + 1) 3 1 x = log 4 + log 4 ( x + 1)2 3 y ⎡⎛ x ⎞ = log 4 ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎣⎝ y ⎠ 1/ 3 8 ln (x +9) − 4 ln x = ln( x + 9)8 − ln x 4 = ln ( 1 log x − log y 4 4 3 x 1 = log 4 y 3 x = log 3 4 y 1 1 2 ln x − ln y = ln x 2 − ln y 2 2 ( x + 6) 1 ( log x + log y ) 2 1 = (log xy ) 2 = log( xy )1/ 2 ⎛ = log ⎜ 4 ⎝ ⎛ x3 ⎞ ⎛ x3 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1/ 3 ⎟ or ln ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 59.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 51. ( ) = ln x 3 y or ln y 3 x 1 ) 53. 65. 1 ln x + ln y = ln x1/ 2 + ln y 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ln ⎜ x 2 y ⎟ or ln y x ⎝ ⎠ ( 52. . Inc. ⎛ x7 ⎞ 7 ln x − 3ln y = ln x 7 − ln y 3 = ln ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 57. ⎛ x5 ⎞ 5 ln x − 2 ln y = ln x5 − ln y 2 = ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 56. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

5937 log 5 437 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 ≈ 1. y = log3 x = log x log 3 80. logπ 400 = 79.3 77.5 = ln 87. y = log 2 ( x + 2) = ln 400 ≈ 5.4595 ln16 75.1 76.2304 log 0.3 1 [2 ln( x + 5) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 = [ln( x + 5) 2 − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 ⎡ ( x + 5)2 ⎤ = ⎢ ln 3 ⎣ x( x 2 − 4) ⎥⎦ ⎡ ( x + 5) 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 4) ⎦ 1/ 3 ( x + 5) 2 = ln 3 x( x 2 − 4) 68. y = log15 x = log x log15 81. logπ 63 = ln 63 ≈ 3. log14 87.4456 log 0.3 19 = log19 ≈ −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 0.5812 log 6 72. Inc.2 ≈ 1. log 6 17 = 73. log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − log15 − log( x + 2) = log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − ( log15 + log( x + 2) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 4 ) − log (15( x + 2) ) x ( x − 4) 2 = log 15( x + 2) x( x + 2)( x − 2) = log 15( x + 2) x( x − 2) = log 15 71.1 17 = log17 ≈ −1. 1 ⎡5ln( x + 6) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 25) ⎤⎦ 3⎣ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ ⎥ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎢ x( x 2 − 25) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ 3 = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 25) ⎦ 69. log 5 13 = log( x + 2) log 2 log13 ≈ 1. .6193 ln π 78.6944 ln14 74. log x + log ( x − 1) − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 log17 ≈ 1.2 = ln 57.PreCalculus 4E 67. log 0. log16 57.2340 ln π = log x + log ( x 2 − 1) − ( log 7 + log( x + 1) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) − log ( 7( x + 1) ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) 7( x + 1) x( x + 1)( x − 1) = log 7( x + 1) x( x − 1) = log 7 70. Section 3.

03 ⎝ 35 ⎠ t ≈ 20. false. a. x log10 x = x ⋅ x = x 2 94. log( x + 3) − log(2 x) = log = log b 2 + log b 3 = A + C 98. true.03 ⎢⎣ 65 − 30 ⎥⎦ 1 ⎛ 65 ⎞ t= ln ⎜ ⎟ 0. log b 6 = log b ( 2 ⋅ 3) 97. log 4 ( 2 x ) = 3log 4 ( 2 x ) 3 1 ⎛ A ⎞ t = ln ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ A− N ⎠ 1 ⎡ 65 ⎤ ln 0. This means that the 100 times louder sound will be 20 decibels louder. 88. log b 8 = log b 23 = 3log b 2 = 3 A 99. false. false. log x+2 = log( x + 2) − log( x − 1) x −1 85. false. log 3 7 = 1 87. ln 8 x3 = ln 23 x3 = ln ( 2 x ) = 3ln ( 2 x ) log( x − 2) log 3 3 93. . t= 438 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. false. true. a. false. x+3 2x x ⎛ I ⎞ D = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ ⎛ 100 I ⎞ D1 = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ = 10 log (100 I − I 0 ) = 10 log100 + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 = 10(2) + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 = log b ⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎟⎟ 16 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ I ⎞ = 20 + 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ This is 20 more than the loudness level of the softer sound. true. = log b 3 − logb 4 1 = log b 3 2 − log 22 1 log b 3 − 2 log 2 2 1 = C − 2A 2 = 104. 89. ln(5 x) + ln1 = ln 5 x + 0 = ln 5 x 96.5 weeks to master 30 signs. y = log3 ( x − 2) = ( ) ( ) 92. ln ee = 0 91. b. true. Publishing as Prentice Hall. e x = ln ee 103. ln x + ln(2 x) = ln ( x ⋅ 2 x) ) = ln 2 x 2 3 = log b 3 − log b 2 = C − A 2 83. log b 84. b. true. Inc. product rule 101. ln( x ⋅ 1) = ln x + ln1 95. true.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 82. log b 81 = log b 34 = 4log b 3 = 4C 100. false. ln e = 1 90. log b log b 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞2 = logb ⎜ ⎟ 27 ⎝ 27 ⎠ 1 ⎛2⎞ = log b ⎜ 3 ⎟ 2 ⎝3 ⎠ 1 = ( logb 2 − log b 33 ) 2 1 = ( logb 2 − 3log b 3) 2 1 3 = log b 2 − log b 3 2 2 1 3 = A− C 2 2 log 7 1 1 = log 3 = log 3 log 7 log 7 3 102. quotient rule 86. false.63 It will take the chimpanzee a little more than 20.

PreCalculus 4E Section 3. these two graphs are log 7 49 − log 7 7 = 2 − 1 = 1 . Explanations will vary. 1 To obtain the graph of y = 2 + log3x. – 120. Answers may vary. we would have been able to simplify as follows. false. log 25 log x log100 x = log100 115. To obtain the graph of y = log3(x + 2). reflect the graph of y = log3x about the x-axis. Changes to make the statement true will vary. shift the graph of y = log3x two units left. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Answers may vary. ( log x log 3 x = . false. 121. log 3 log x log 25 x = . . does not make sense. the graph of the equation with the largest b will be on the top in the interval (0. To obtain the graph of y = –log3x. Inc. A sample change is: logb ( xy ) = 5logb ( xy ) 5 = 5 ( logb x + logb y ) a.1x) = log x − 1. just vertical shifts of y = log x. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 125. 116. top graph: y = log 3 x bottom graph: y = log100 x ln x ln 3 Comparing graphs of log b x for b > 1. ( ) logb x3 y 3 = logb x3 + logb y 3 = 3logb x + 3logb y 128. If we were taking the logarithm of a product and not a sum. c. log(10 x) = log x + 1 and l log(0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. but log 7 7 1 Using the product rule. makes sense 124. ⎛ x ⎞2 x = log 4 ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ Sample explanation: log 4 ⎛x⎞ 1 log 4 ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ y⎠ 1 = ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) 2 1 1 = log 4 x − log 4 y 2 2 = 114. y = log 3 x = b.3 105. Hence. ) A sample change is: logb x3 + y 3 cannot be simplified. 127. a. shift the graph of y = log3x two units upward. makes sense b. 1) and on the bottom in the interval (1. makes sense 123. A sample change is: log 7 49 log 7 49 = = log 7 49 = 2 . – 112. = 5logb x + 5logb y top graph: y = log100 x bottom graph: y = log 3 x 439 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞). 122. true 126. 113.

( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0. log 7 9 = ⎛ 8x ⎞ ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ = e ⎝ 2x ⎠ x2 + 2 x = 4 x + 3 x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x +1 = 0 or x−3= 0 x = −1 x=3 5 131. 2 x − 7x = 3 2 x − 7x − 3 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−7) ± (−7) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) x= 7 ± 61 2 ⎪⎧ 7 ± 61 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. . ∞ ) 2. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = x( x − 7) = 3 134. ∞ ) 440 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) ( −3.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 129.3} . 1/ h x⎞ ⎛ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ h⎠ 133. ⎪⎩ 2 ⎪⎭ asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. e 132. Inc. ln 8 x5 − ln 2 x 2 =e ln ( 4 x 3 ) x+2 1 = 4x + 3 x ⎛ x+2 ⎞ ⎛1⎞ x(4 x + 3) ⎜ ⎟ = x(4 x + 3) ⎜ x ⎟ x 4 + 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ x( x + 2) = 4 x + 3 = 4 x3 log b ( x + h) − log b x h x+h log b x = h ⎛ h⎞ log b ⎜1 + ⎟ x⎠ ⎝ = h 1 ⎛ h⎞ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ h x⎠ ⎝ The solution set is {−1. a( x − 2) = b(2 x + 3) ax − 2a = 2bx + 3b ax − 2bx = 2a + 3b x(a − 2b) = 2a + 3b 2a + 3b x= a − 2b asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −3 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. log 9 log 32 2 log 3 = = log 7 log 7 log 7 2A = B 130. log e = log10 e = ln e 1 = ln10 ln10 135. Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 1.

f ( x ) = log 3 ( x + 6 ) The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x+6 > 0 x > −6 domain: {x | x > −6} or ( −6. except when 4. log 3 10 = log10 3 = 14. ∞ ) 2 The argument of the logarithm must be positive. ∞ ) . Let log100 10 = y range of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) 11. 10. log 3 ( x + 6 ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) 441 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 3. 2 x = −6 domain: {x | x ≠ 0} or ( −∞. log 2 ( log 3 81) = log 2 ( log 3 34 ) = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 range of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) . domain of g = (1. ∞ ) . Inc. log 2 8 + log 5 25 = log 2 23 + log5 52 = 3+ 2 = 5 asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 1 domain of f = ( 0. Now ( x + 6 ) is always positive. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6. f ( x ) = log 3 x + 6 The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x>0 domain: {x | x > 0} or ( 0. . 8. ∞ ) . ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. −6 ) ∪ ( −6. 9. 2 y = 101 102 y = 101 2y = 1 y= asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. 7. ∞ ) 1 2 1 1 3 13. ∞ ) log 3 1 1 = log 3 2 = log 3 3−2 = −2 9 3 12. f ( x ) = 3x + 6 domain: {x | x is a real number} or ( −∞. ∞ ) 100 y = 10 (10 ) 5.

Inc. log100 0. 7 log 5 x + 2 log 5 x = log5 x 7 + log 5 x 2 = log5 ( x 7 ⋅ x 2 ) = 7 7 = log5 x9 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = log 3 ( log 2 2−3 ) = log 3 ( −3) 1 1 8 log 7 x − log 7 y = log 7 x8 − log 7 y 3 3 ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ y3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = not possible This expression is impossible to evaluate.162 10. .08 ⎞ Monthly: A = 8000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 10. ln e 24. 1 ln x − 3ln y − ln ( z − 2 ) 2 ln ( e19 x 20 ) = ln e19 + ln x 20 = 19 + 20 ln x 442 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.08(3) = π ≈ 10. 16. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ log 3 ⎜ log 2 ⎟ = log 3 ⎜ log 2 3 ⎟ 8⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 23.162 = 8 Interest returned will be $8 more if compounded continuously. logπ π 21. 6log6 5 = 5 17.170 12⋅3 ( ⎛ 0. 10log13 = 13 19.170 − 10.1 = y 25. ⎛ xy ⎞ log ⎜ = log ⎜ 1000 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 26.1 (10 ) 2 y 102 y = ln x 2 − ln y 3 − ln ( z − 2 ) 1 1 10 = 10−1 = = ln x − ⎡⎣ ln y 3 + ln ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ = ln x − ln ⎡⎣ y 3 ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ 2 y = −1 ⎡ x ⎤ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎣ y ( z − 2) ⎦ 1 y=− 2 π 20.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 15. Continuously: A = 8000e0. 100 y = 0. ) xy − log1000 = log ( xy ) 2 − log103 1 1 log ( xy ) − 3 2 1 = ( log x + log y ) − 3 2 1 1 = log x + log y − 3 2 2 = 22.

e 2 x − 8e x + 7 = 0 5. approximately 3. log 2 ( x − 4) = 3 a. 3x + 6 = 2x − 6 2. 443 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.11 8 x + 2 = 4 x −3 (2 ) 3 2 x+2 3 x +6 ( ) = 22 x= x −3 = 2 2 x −6 (e x = −12 a. a. ln7}.10. 6. The solutions are 0 and (approximately) 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.90 The solution set is {log 8000} . Publishing as Prentice Hall.04. x ex − 7 = 0 x b. 32 x −1 = 7 x +1 ln 32 x −1 = ln 7 x +1 4. 3 10 x = 8000 log10 x = log 8000 x log10 = log 8000 x = log 8000 ≈ 3.90. ⎩ ln 5 ⎭ approximately 3. 5x = 134 ln 5 = ln134 x ln 5 = ln134 ln134 x= ≈ 3. . 5 = 125 3 x −6 5 = 53 (2 x − 1) ln 3 = ( x + 1) ln 7 3x − 6 = 3 3x = 9 x=3 b.04 ln 5 ⎧ ln134 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. Inc. 3 x−6 7e 2 x = 63 e2 x = 9 ln e 2 x = ln 9 2 x = ln 9 ln 9 ≈ 1.4 Section 3. 2 = x−4 8= x−4 12 = x Check: log ( x − 4) = 3 2 log (12 − 4) = 3 2 log 8 = 3 2 3=3 The solution set is {12}. ⎩ 2 ⎭ approximately 1.95.4 Check Point Exercises 1. 3. 2 x ln 3 − ln 3 = x ln 7 + ln 7 2 x ln 3 − x ln 7 = ln 3 + ln 7 x(2 ln 3 − ln 7) = ln 3 + ln 7 ln 3 + ln 7 2 ln 3 − ln 7 x ≈ 12. − 7 )( e x − 1) = 0 or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 7 ex = 1 ln e = ln 7 ln e x = ln1 x x = ln 7 x=0 The solution set is {0.10 x= 2 ⎧ ln 9 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.

02) 4t = 3600 (1.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎛7⎞ 12. the $1000 will grow to an accumulated value of $3600.77 For a blood alcohol concentration of 0. ⎩3⎭ approximately 2.08 ⎞ 3600 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4t 4t ⎛ 0. The solution set is {4. 2 10.6 4t ln(1.02) 4t = ln 3. 0 = x − 3x − 10 0 = ( x − 5)( x + 2) x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = 5 or x = −2 Check Checking 5: log 5 + log(5 − 3) = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 1=1 Checking –2: log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log(−2) + log(−2 − 3) 0 1 Negative numbers do not have logarithms so –2 does not check.46.6 ln 3. ⎧ e2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . The solution set is {5}.08 ⎞ 1000 ⎜1_ ⎟ = 3600 4 ⎠ ⎝ 1000(1 + 0.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log x( x − 3) = 1 101 = x( x − 3) 10 = x 2 − 3x x= ln ( 76 ) ≈ 0. the risk of a car accident is 7%.02 ≈ 16. ln( x − 3) = ln(7 x − 23) − ln( x + 1) 7 x − 23 ln( x − 3) = ln x +1 7 x − 23 x−3= x +1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 7 x − 23 For a risk of 7%. 4 ln 3x = 8 8.6 4 ln1. ln 3x = 2 eln 3 x = e 2 3x = e2 x= e2 ≈ 2. let R = 7 in R = 6e12. ⎛ r⎞ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ nt ⎛ 0.2 After approximately 16.02) = ln 3.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions b.02) 4t = 3600 1000(1. Inc.46 3 x 2 − 2 x − 3 = 7 x − 23 Check 4 ln 3x = 8 x 2 − 9 x + 20 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 0 x = 4 or x = 5 Both values produce true statements.77 x 6e12.77 x = 7 e12.01.77 x = 7 6 ⎛7⎞ ln e12.01 12. 5} ⎛ e2 ⎞ 4 ln 3 ⎜ ⎟ = 8 ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln e2 = 8 4(2) = 8 8=8 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .2 years. 7. t= 444 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

8. 3x = 81 ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 5x = 3 3 x= 5 The solution is 5 = 625 x 5 x = 54 x=4 The solution set is {4}.8 x = e 12. 1.277 An annual income of approximately $11.8 −29. Section 3. Inc.000 corresponds to 25% of Americans reporting fair or poor health.8 ln x = −12. Solve equation when f ( x) = 25 . x= 5 2 ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .3ln x = 25 32 x +1 = 33 2x + 1 = 3 2x = 2 x =1 The solution set is {1}. ⎩2⎭ 445 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and the solution set is {6} . 29. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 53 x −1 = 125 53 x −1 = 53 3x − 1 = 3 3x = 4 4 x= 3 x 3x = 34 x=4 The solution set is {4}.8 − 12. 3 ⎧3⎫ .3ln x = −29.3 7. −12. 42 x −1 = 64 42 x −1 = 43 2x − 1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 The solution is 2.4 2. 3.3 x ≈ 11.PreCalculus 4E 11. and the solution set is {2} . Exercise Set 3. 5. 4. ⎩3⎭ 2 = 64 9. 32 x +1 = 27 10. and the solution set is {3} . 2 x = 26 x=6 The solution is 6. . 5 ⎩5⎭ 4 x = 32 (2 ) 2 x = 25 2 2 x = 25 22 x −1 = 32 2x = 5 22 x −1 = 25 2x − 1 = 5 2x = 6 x=3 The solution is 3. and the solution set is {3} .3 29.4 f ( x) = 54. 32 x = 8 (2 ) 5 x = 23 5x = 125 2 5 x = 23 5x = 53 x=3 The solution is 3. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .8 − 12.3 ln x 6. 54.8 log e x = 12.

9 x = 27 (3 ) 2 x 15. 7 7 4 3 x−2 6 x−2 6 = 7 1 = 72 x−2 1 = 6 2 2 ( x − 2 ) = 6 (1) ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 ⎩ 4⎭ 2x = − 1 125 1 2− x 5 = 3 5 52− x = 5−3 2 − x = −3 − x = −5 x=5 The solution set is {5}. ⎩ 6⎭ 2x = − 446 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 54 x= = 6 6 = 62 x −3 1 = 4 2 2 ( x − 3) = 4 (1) 125 x = 625 (5 ) x −3 4 x −3 4 32 x = 33 2x = 3 3 x= 2 The solution is 6 x=5 The solution set is {5}.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. Inc. = 33 12. 3 = 27 1 31− x = 3 3 31− x = 3−3 1 − x = −3 − x = −4 x=4 The solution set is {4}. and the solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . 52 − x = 18. 17. 2 ⎩2⎭ 53 x = 54 3x = 4 16. 4x = (2 ) 2 x = 1 2 1 1 22 22 x = 2 − 12 1 2 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 2⎠ 4 1 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution is − . . 9x = (3 ) 2 x = 1 3 3 1 1 33 − 13 32 x = 3 1 3 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 3⎠ 6 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . 2 x = 10 1− x 14. 1 2x − 6 = 4 2 x = 10 x=5 The solution is 5. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . and the solution set is {5}. 3 x 3 ⎧3⎫ . ⎩3⎭ 2x − 4 = 6 1 13.

74 23 x + 9 = 2 4 x − 4 3x + 9 = 4 x − 4 26.91 x ln e5 x = ln 659 ln10 = ln 3. x −1 ln e x = 5.07 x= ≈ 0.91 x x= x ln10 = ln 3. e x = 0.83 ln e x = ln 0.07 ln 8. ⎩ 5⎭ 21.07 ln10 x = ln 8. 13 = x The solution set is {13} .91 x= 3e5 x = 1977 ln 659 ≈ 1. 5x = 17 28. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (2 ) 3 x +3 ( ) = 24 25.91 ≈ 0.83 x = ln 0.7 31.59 ln10 24.69 ln19 1 5 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .4 8 x +3 = 16 x −1 19. e5 x = 659 10 = 3. 10 x = 8. 27.91 ln10 447 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 19 x = 143 x ln 19 = ln 143 ln143 x= ≈ 1.7 x = ln 5.19 ln 5 x = ln17 x ln 5 = ln17 ln17 x= ≈ 1. ⎩ 3⎭ 23.83 ≈ –0. 29. .30 5 ln 3.53 5 1 e2 x x+4 e = e −2 x x + 4 = −2 x 3 x = −4 4 x=− 3 30.76 ln 5 x+2 23−3 x = 22 x + 4 x=− e x = 5. (2 ) 3 1− x ( ) = 22 3 − 3x = 2 x + 4 −5 x = 1 22.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.07 x ln10 = ln 8.48 9 e x +1 = e x+4 = ⎧ 4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . Inc.7 ≈ 1. 1 e x +1 e = e −1 x + 1 = −1 x = −2 The solution set is {−2} . 81− x = 4 x + 2 20. 5e x = 23 23 ex = 5 23 ln e x = ln 5 23 x = ln ≈ 1. 9e x = 107 107 ex = 9 107 ln e x = ln 9 107 x = ln ≈ 2.

273 ⎞ x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 1.14 5 39.2 7 x ln 3 = 7 ln 0.2 ln 3x / 7 = ln 0.3 x = 813 3x / 7 = 0. 476 e5 x − 3 = 10. 478 70. 273 10. 478 (5 x − 3) ln e = ln10. .00 8 x= 7 x + 2 = 410 ln10. 250 ln e 4 x − 5 = ln11. 273 e7 x = 4 ⎛ 10. 478 + 3 36. Inc.45 5 e 4 x − 5 − 7 = 11. 4e7 x = 10. 478 + 3 ≈ 2.48 0. 478 ln e5 x − 3 = ln10.06 ln 5 ln 70. 243 e 4 x – 5 = 11. 52x + 3 = 3x 2–x1+ 3 ln 5 = ln 3x −1 5 x − 3 = ln10. e5 x − 3 − 2 = 10. 1 – ln 793 ≈ –1. 40. 5 x− 3 = 137 ln 5 x− 3 = ln137 (x – 3) ln 5 = ln 137 ln137 x −3 = ln 5 ln137 x = 3+ ≈ 6. 250 (4x – 5)ln e = ln 11. 273 ⎞ 7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 1 ⎛ 10.58 4 448 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ln 7 x + 2 = ln 410 ( x + 2) ln 7 = ln 410 ln 410 x+2= ln 7 ln 410 x= − 2 ≈ 1.2 x ln 3 = ln 0. 33.12 7 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 37. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 7 ln 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 32. 250 + 5 x= ≈ 3. 478 (2 x + 3) ln 5 = ( x − 1) ln 3 2 x ln 5 + 3ln 5 = x ln 3 − ln 3 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x ln 3 − 2 x ln 5 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x(ln 3 − 2 ln 5) 3ln 5 + ln 3 =x ln 3 − 2ln 5 −2. 273 ⎞ ln e7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎛ 10.3x ln 7 = ln 813 ln 813 x= ≈ 11.3ln 7 e1−8 x = 7957 ln e1−8 x = ln 7957 (1 – 8x) ln e = ln 7957 1 – 8x = ln 7957 8x = 1 – ln 7957 1 – ln 7957 x= ≈ –1.250 ln11.250 4x – 5 = ln 11.25 ln 3 41. e1− 5 x = 793 ln e1− 5 x = ln 793 (1 − 5 x)(ln e) = ln 793 1 − 5 x = ln 793 5 x = 1 − ln 793 x= 34.2 x= ≈ –10.80 ≈ x 5 x = ln10. 35.09 ln 7 38.3 x = ln 813 0.

log 3 x = 4 34 = x 81 = x e 4 x + 5e 2 x − 24 = 0 2x 2x − 3 = 0 x= x = ln 3 no solution The solution set is {ln 3}.4 7 2 x +1 = 3 x + 2 ln 7 2 x +1 = ln 3x + 2 46. 22 x + 2 x − 12 = 0 (2 x + 4)(2 x − 3) = 0 e 2 x − 2e x − 3 = 0 x 3x − 1 = 0 3 x = −2 x = ln 2 x=0 The solution set is {0. .90 x= 2 e 2 x − 3e x + 2 = 0 43.39 ≈ x 52. ln x = 3 e3 = x 20.PreCalculus 4E 42. 45. ln 6 ≈ 0. Section 3. (2 x + 1) ln 7 = ( x + 2) ln 3 ln 3 2 x + 1 = ( x + 2) ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x + 1 = x + ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x − x = −1 ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 ⎞ 2 ln 3 ⎛ −1 x⎜2 − ⎟= ln 7 ⎠ ln 7 ⎝ 2 ln 3 −1 ≈ 0. e 4 x − 3e 2 x − 18 = 0 ( e2 x − 6 )( e2 x + 3) = 0 + 8 )( e 2 x − 3) = 0 50.69. Inc.09 ≈ x 449 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.10. ln 2). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 48. 44. 2x + 4 = 0 2 x = −4 ln 2 x = ln ( −4 ) − 3)( e x + 1) = 0 ex − 3 = 0 does not exist or e x + 1 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −1 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x = ln(−1) (e 2x = 3 ln 2 x = ln 3 x ln 2 = ln 3 ln 3 ln 2 x ≈ 1.55 2 125 = x 51. log 5 x = 3 53 = x e2 x + 8 = 0 e 2 x = −8 ln e 2 x = ln(−8) 2 x = ln(−8) or e 2 x − 3 = 0 e2 x = 3 ln e 2 x = ln 3 2 x = ln 3 ln 3 ln(−8) does not exist x= 2 ln 3 x= ≈ 0. The solutions are 0 and approximately 0. The solutions is approximately 1. or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 2 ex = 1 ln e x = ln 2 ln e x = ln1 3x + 2 = 0 (e 3x = 1 log 3x = log(−2) log 3x = log1 does not exist log 3 = 0 0 x= log 3 x=0 The solution set is {0}. ln x = 2 e2 = x 7. 32 x + 3x − 2 = 0 (3x + 2)(3x − 1) = 0 − 2 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 2 = 0 e2 x = −3 ln e 2 x = ln 6 ln e 2 x = ln(−3) 2 x = ln 6 ln(−3) does not exist.58 49.09 x = ln 7 ln 3 2− ln 7 (e e 2 x − 6 = 0 or e 2 x + 3 = 0 e2 x = 6 x 47.

⎩4⎭ 5 ln 2 x = 20 ln 2 x = 4 eln 2 x = e4 2 x = e4 x= 7 + 3ln x = 6 3ln x = −1 x+2 64 = 3x + 2 59. 3−3 = 1 = 27 1 4 = 27 4. 1 2 eln x = e −1/ 2 43 = 3 x + 2 58. . Inc. 6 + 2 ln x = 5 2 ln x = −1 x−4 7 −2 = 1 = 49 48 −1 = 49 −1. log 4 ( x + 5) = 3 60. 61. log 3 ( x − 4) = −3 e5 ≈ 74.61 x 62. 32 = 4 x + 1 31 = 4 x 31 =x 4 7.67 ≈ x 64.04 ≈ 56. 4 = x+5 3 e ln 2 x = e5 59 = x 54. ln x = − x−4 x x = e −1/ 2 ≈ 0. log 7 ( x + 2) = −2 1 3 ln x = − x+2 eln x = e − x=e x 63.75 = x 65.30 2 450 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.98 ≈ 57. ln x + 4 = 1 eln x+4 = e1 x+4 =e log 2 (4 x + 1) = 5 x + 4 = e2 2 = 4x + 1 5 x = e 2 − 4 ≈ 3. ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .39 62 = 3x 62 =x 3 20. log 5 x + log 5 ( 4 x − 1) = 1 log 5 ( 4 x 2 − x ) = 1 4 x2 − x = 5 4 x2 − x − 5 = 0 (4 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = −1 4 x = –1 does not check because log 5 (−1) does not exist. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 ln 2 x = 30 ln 2 x = 5 2 x = e5 log 5 ( x − 7) = 2 x= 5 = x−7 2 32 = x 55.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 53. x 1 −1 3 3 ≈ 0.39.72 ln x + 3 = 1 eln log 4 (3 x + 2) = 3 x+3 = e1 x+3 = e x + 3 = e2 x = e 2 − 3 ≈ 4.21 2 e4 ≈ 27.

log 2 ( x − 6) + log 2 ( x − 4) − log 2 x = 2 log 2 log 2 ( x + 2 ) − log 2 ( x − 5 ) = 3 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟=3 ⎝ x−5⎠ x+2 = 23 x−5 x+2 =8 x−5 x + 2 = 8( x − 5) ( x − 6)( x − 4) =2 x ( x − 6)( x − 4) = 22 x x 2 − 10 x + 24 = 4 x x 2 − 14 x + 24 = 0 x − 12 = 0 or ( x − 12)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {12} since log2 (2−6) = log2 (−4) is not possible. The solution set is {3}. x + 2 = 8 x − 40 7 x = 42 x=6 451 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 68. The solution set is {6}. log 4 ( x + 2 ) − log 4 ( x − 1) = 1 log 3 ( x − 5 ) + log 3 ( x + 3) = 2 71.4 log 6 ( x + 5 ) + log 6 x = 2 70. Inc. . log 3 ⎣⎡( x − 5)( x + 3) ⎦⎤ = 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = log 3 9 + 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 + 2 ( x − 5)( x + 3) = 32 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 4 x 2 – 2 x – 15 = 9 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 24 = 0 32 = x + 4 ( x − 6)( x + 4) = 0 9= x+4 x = 6 or x = −4 x = –4 does not check because log 3 (−4 − 5) does not exist. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 6 x( x + 5) = 2 x( x + 5) = 6 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ x −1 ⎠ x+2 = 41 x −1 x+2 =4 x −1 x + 2 = 4(x – 1) x + 2 = 4x – 4 3x = 6 x=2 2 x 2 + 5 x = 36 x 2 + 5 x − 36 = 0 (x + 9)(x – 4) = 0 x = –9 or x = 4 x = –9 does not check because log 6 (−9 + 5) does not exist. Section 3. 5= x 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − log 2 4 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − 2 log 2 ( x − 1) + log 2 ( x + 1) = 3 log 2 ⎡⎣( x − 1)( x + 1) ⎤⎦ = 3 72. 2 69. 3= x 73. The solution set is {4}.PreCalculus 4E 66. 67. 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 3 log 2 ( x − 1) = 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 23 21 = x − 1 x −1 = 8 x2 = 9 x = 3 or x = –3 x = –3 does not check because log 2 (−3 − 1) does not exist.

2 log(5 x + 1) = log(2 x + 3) + log 2 log(5 x + 1) = log(4 x + 6) 5x + 1 = 4x + 6 x=5 x= 83. x+4 = log(5 x + 1) 2 x+4 = 5x + 1 2 x + 4 = 10 x + 2 { }. The solution set is {5}.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 74. 4 x + 8 = x − 3x 2 log( x + 4) − log 2 = log(5 x + 1) log 0 = x − 7x − 8 2 0 = ( x + 1)( x − 8) x +1 = 0 or x−8 = 0 x = −1 x=8 log2 (−1−3) = log2(−4) does not exist. log( x − 2) + log 5 = log100 log(5 x − 10) = log100 5 x − 10 = 100 5 x = 110 2 log x = log 25 x = 22 log x = log 25 2 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 –5 is rejected. The solution set is x+7 = log(7 x + 1) 3 x+7 = 7x + 1 3 x + 7 = 21x + 3 −20 x = −4 log(3x − 3) = log(4 x + 4) 78.22 x= log( x + 4) = log x + log 4 log( x + 4) = log 4 x 82. . Inc. The solution set is {28}. ⎩3⎭ 76. The solution set is 2 log x − log 7 = log112 log x 2 − log 7 = log112 log(3x − 3) = log( x + 1) + log 4 −7 = x This value is rejected. −10 = x This value is rejected. −9 x = −2 2 9 x ≈ 0. log(2 x − 1) = log( x + 3) + log 3 84. x + 4 = 4x 4 = 3x 4 x= 3 77. log(2 x − 1) = log(3x + 9) 2 x − 1 = 3x + 9 79. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 1 5 x ≈ 0. log 3x − 3 = 4 x + 4 { }. so the solution set is {8} 75. log 2 ( x − 3) + log 2 x − log 2 ( x + 2) = 2 log 2 80. ( x − 3) x =2 ( x + 2) log x3 = log125 x3 = 125 x − 3x x+2 4( x + 2) = x 2 − 3x 22 = 3log x = log125 2 x=5 81. 452 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 = log112 7 x2 = 112 7 x 2 = 784 x = ±28 –28 is rejected. log( x + 7) − log 3 = log(7 x + 1) log ⎧4⎫ This value is rejected. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

86. x −5 x −1 = ln x+4 x+2 x − 5 x −1 = x+4 x+2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = ( x + 4)( x − 1) ln ln( x − 4) + ln( x + 1) = ln( x − 8) ln( x 2 − 3 x − 4) = ln( x − 8) x 2 − 3x − 10 = x 2 + 3x − 4 x 2 − 3x − 4 = x − 8 −6 x = 6 x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 x = −1 –1 is rejected. 1 2 x + 2)+ x = 34 32 x + 2 = 34 2x + 2 = 4 2x = 2 x =1 93. ln x + 3x = 10 2 x + 3 x − 10 = 0 2 ( x + 5)( x − 2) = 0 x = −5 or x = 2 –5 is rejected. 2 ln x − 6 = 0 2 ln x = 6 ln x = 3 ln x = 3 x=e x ≈ 20. The solution set is {2}. 87.PreCalculus 4E 85. ln( x − 5) − ln( x + 4) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 2) 91.67 x= log( x 2 + x − 6) = log14 x 2 + x − 6 = 14 x 2 + x − 20 = 0 90. The solution set is {3}. The solution set is { }. Section 3.09 3 or ln x = −3 x = e −3 x ≈ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x + 5)( x − 4) = 0 x = −5 or x = 4 –5 is rejected. The solution set is {4}. The solution set is { }. . 88. 3x + 2 ⋅ 3x = 81 3( x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x = −1 or x = 3 –1 is rejected. 52 x ⋅ 54 x = 125 52 x + 4 x = 53 ⎛1⎞ log 2 ( x − 1) − log 2 ( x + 3) = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝x⎠ x −1 ⎛1⎞ = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ log 2 x+3 ⎝x⎠ x −1 1 = x+3 x x2 − x = x + 3 56 x = 53 6x = 3 x= 92. ln( x − 2) − ln( x + 3) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 7) x−2 x −1 = ln x+3 x+7 x − 2 x −1 = x+3 x+7 ( x − 2)( x + 7) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) log( x + 3x) = log10 2 x 2 + 5 x − 14 = x 2 + 2 x − 3 3 x = 11 log( x + 3) + log( x − 2) = log14 11 3 x ≈ 3. Inc.05 453 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 log x + log( x + 3) = log10 89. ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x=2 2 is rejected.

01 x = 102 x = 100 95.86 ln 3 x=± −(−5) ± (−5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 5 ± 37 2 5 + 37 x= ≈ 5. ln 3 − ln( x + 5) − ln x = 0 ln 96.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 94. x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 98. ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ x = 10−2 x = 0.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. Publishing as Prentice Hall.54 2 5 − 37 x= ≈ −0. 2 ⎩⎪ ⎭⎪ x= x2 − 5x − 3 = 0 454 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ −5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.56 ln 5 x=± 97. x2 + 5x = 3 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − 2 ln x = 0 x= ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − ln x = 0 2 ln 3 =0 x( x + 5) (2 x + 1)( x − 3) =0 x2 (2 x + 1)( x − 3) = e0 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 =1 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 = x2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2 x + 5x − 3 = 0 2a −(5) ± (5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) −5 ± 37 2 −5 + 37 x= ≈ 0. 3 log x − 6 = 0 x= 3 log x = 6 log x = 2 log x = 2 or log x = −2 2(1) x= 2 3x = 45 2 ln 3x = ln 45 x 2 ln 3 = ln 45 ln 45 x2 = ln 3 ln 45 ≈ ±1. Inc. . x2 5 = 50 3 x( x + 5) 3 1= x( x + 5) x( x + 5) = 3 e0 = 2 ln 5 x = ln 50 x 2 ln 5 = ln 50 ln 50 x2 = ln 5 ln 50 ≈ ±1.54 2 −5 − 37 x= ≈ −5.

0183t 22.1 40 0.975) x Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 1 = 0. ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 27 = e0.0183t ) 2 2x A = 22.1). f ( x) = 20(0. a.1 40 = ln e0. 6} .1 40 ln 36.1e0.0183t 27 = 22.0126t A = 36. 6} .0126t ln 36.3).975 ln 20 3 ln 20 x= ln 0.0126t 40 = 36. A = 22. This is represented by the point (118. 5x 5 5 Section 3.0183t = ln 22.975 x ≈ 75 There is 3% of surface sunlight at 75 feet.1e0.9e0. A = 36. f ( x) = 20(0. = 252 x = (5 =5 A = 22.1 ≈8 t= 0.9e0. 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 = 92 x = ( 32 ) 2x = 34 x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 103.4 2 −12 x 2 −12 x 2 −12 102.975 x ln 20 3 = x ln 0. Inc. A = 36. 100.9 27 ln t = 22. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 99. b. 2005 is 0 years after 2005.9 27 0.975 ln 20 1 ln 20 x= ln 0. or 2014.975) x 40 = e0.1e0.975) x ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 1 = 20(0. 455 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0183t ln 22. x = −2 The solution set is {−2.0126t 104.1 The population of California was 36. x = −2 The solution set is {−2.1 million in 2005.975 x ≈ 118 There is 1% of surface sunlight at 118 feet.0183t Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 2005 is 0 years after 2005.0126(0) = 36.975) x 3 = 0.0183(0) = 22. This is represented by the point (75.9 ≈ 9 0.0126t 36. 4x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 b.9 The population of Texas was 22.9e0.1e0.0183 The population of Texas will reach 27 million about 9 years after 2005.0126t = ln 36.9 million in 2005.0126 The population of California will reach 40 million about 8 years after 2005.9e0. or 2013 3 = 20(0. .975 x 20 3 = ln 0. 101.9 27 = ln e0. a.975 x 20 1 = ln 0.975 x ln 20 1 = x ln 0.

014375 8. Inc.08t = ln 2 0.0575 ⎞ 105. 500(1.7% 456 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.08t = ln 2 360⋅2 ln 2 0. . ( 360 ⋅ 4 ) 1440 r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ (1.4 720 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.8 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = ln1.014375) 4t = 1.8 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 1440 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.6 106.4 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 720 e ln(1+ r 360 ) 1+ =e r = e(ln1.203 2 20.7 The amount would double in 8.8) /1440 1+ 60 29 ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln(1.2 years 12 ln1. 000 ln 1+ r e ( 360 ) = e(ln1.00541667 107.5 r ⎞ ln1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ⎛ 0.8) /1440 − 1 ≈ 0.157 7 15.5 ≈ 0.000 16.005416667) = 15. 12.3% r = e(ln1.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = e(ln1.08 t ≈ 8.005416667)12t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ ⎛ 60 ⎞ 12t ln(1.6 t= r ⎞ ⎛ 9000 = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 108.065 ⎞ 15.014375) = ln1. = 1.08t e0.2 years r ⎞ ln1.5 ln e 2 r = ln1.00541667) = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ (1.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1. accumulated amount = 3(2350) = 7050 7050 = 2350er ⋅7 ≈ 0. 000 = 7250 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 12 t 7250(1.4) / 720 ln1.4) / 720) − 1 111. 000 = 8000e r ⋅ 2 e 2 r = 1. t= 720 = 1.5 2r = ln1.8% ln e7 r = ln 3 7r = ln 3 r= ln 3 ≈ 0.08t = 2 ln e0.6 1440 ln1.2 4 ln1.005416667)12t = r ⎞ ⎛ 1400 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 109. 000 4t ln(1. 000 = 12.6 ≈ 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 360 ⎝ ⎠ 4t ln(1.014375) 4t = ln1.8 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 1440 12 t ⎛ 0. 500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12. r= (ln1.168 e7 r = 3 16. 000 = 8000e 0.7% ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ t= ≈ 11. 20. accumulated amount = 2(8000) = 16.4 360 ⎝ ⎠ 110.147 14.7 years.4 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 720 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.014375) 4t = 20.4) / 720 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.

0425t = 697 ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln e0. 10−2.6 mole per liter.2 10 The concentration of the acidic rainfall in part (b) is 103.0425 113. or 2013. 0) 117. pH = − log x 2.8. 0 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 95 2007 is 5 years after 2002.8 Only half the students recall the important features of the lecture after 2.0.2 times greater than the normal rainfall in part (a).6 = log x 79 = 38 ln x x = 10−5.5 ≈ 2. a.4 −5.4 2006 is 4 years after 2002. 000 = 17. (2.6 79 = ln x 38 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−5. 425e0.4 = log x x = 10−2. x≈8 If the trend continues. This overestimates the value shown in the graph by 1%.4 −( −5. This underestimates the value shown in the graph by 2%.6 = − log x 87 = 8 + 38ln x 114. pH = − log x 5.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 50) P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 116. 79 x = e 38 b. b. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x 100 = 8 + 38ln x 92 = 38 ln x 92 = ln x 38 x= 92 e 38 x ≈ 11 If the trend continues. 61% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2006. a.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 697 ⎠ t= ⎝ ≈ 8.5 years 0. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x log 2 x = f (5) = 8 + 38 ln 5 ≈ 69 According to the function.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ 0. 100% of new cellphones will have cameras 11 years after 2002.6 = 10−2. 95 30 c. .4 mole per liter.0425t 1000 e0. b.5 x = 21. a.0 ≈ x (9. 40 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 45 log 2 x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 69% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2007. Inc. 25. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2.8 days.4 = − log x −2. 457 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 115.6) = 103. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x −5. 95 2 30 = x 9. or 2010.4 112. 87% of new cellphones will have cameras 8 years after 2002. f (4) = 8 + 38 ln 4 ≈ 61 According to the function.

– 122. 9). Verify x = 1: 3x +1 = 9 pH = − log x b.3 mole per liter.3 125.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions pH = − log x 118. 10 The concentration of the acidic stomach in part (b) is 101.3 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2. . Verify: x = 4 123. 2). The intersection point is (2.3 9=9 The solution set is {1}. Verify: x = 2 2 2 x +1 =8 2 +1 =2 126. 458 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. = 10−1−( −2. 119. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 .3 times greater than the lemon juice in part (a). −2. 124. Answers may vary. The intersection point is (4. a. 3 11 Verify: x = 3 11 ⎛ ⎞ log 3 ⎜ 3 ⋅ − 2 ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ log 3 (11-2) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {113} . 23 = 8 8=8 The solution set is {2}.3 = − log x −2. {1} The intersection point is (1. 8). 10−1 c.3 = log x x = 10−2. ( ) The intersection point is 11 . 1 = − log x −1 = log x x = 10 31+1 = 9 32 = 9 −1 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−1 mole per liter.3) = 101. log 3 (4 ⋅ 4 − 7) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {4}.

2).2793139 = 3(1.2793139) + 4 7.371158 The solution set is {–1.6855579) + 3 6.291641.21678798) and (1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. approximately (−1.291641 = 3(−1. 51. . The intersection point is (2. As the distance from the eye increases. 459 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1.837941942 ≈ 7. 130.2167879803 ≈ 0. Verify: x = 2 There are 2 points of intersection. 131. 132.8379417 The solution set is {–1.24 0.291641 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 5x = 3x + 4 1=1 The solution set is {2}.5. 29 = 0.5 The barometric air pressure is 29 inches of mercury at a distance of about 63.3711158). 129. Verify x ≈ −1.291641) + 4 0. approximately (–1.24 − 1 ≈ 63.291641.6855579 3x = 2x + 3 31. Verify x = 20: log (x – 15) + log x = 2 log (20 – 15) + log 20 = 2 log 5 + log 20 = 2 log 100 = 2 100 = 102 100 = 100 The solution set is {20}. leveling off at about 30 inches of mercury. 29).2793139 128. 0.2793139.48ln( x + 1) + 27 0.391606. barometric air pressure increases. 7. 1.6855579}.391606 3x = 2x + 3 3-1. The intersection point is (20. Verify:x ≈ −1.6855579 ≈ 2(1.216788 Verify x ≈ 1.391606) + 3 0. 5−1.24 x +1 = e 1 x=e 1 0.24 1 e ln( x +1) = e 0. 1).391606 ≈ 2(−1. There are 2 points of intersection.6855579.5 miles from the eye of a hurricane.2793139}.12507831) and log(2 + 3) + log 2 = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 (1.1250782178 ≈ 0.4 127. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6.37111582 ≈ 6.391606.125077 Verify:x ≈ 1.48ln( x + 1) = 2 1 ln( x + 1) = 0.8379416). 0. Inc. The point of intersection is approximately (63.

Inc. 1⋅t 135.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. 142. A sample change is: If log ( x + 3) = 2. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 460 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. false.05 ⎠ t ⎛ 1. 7x + 3 ⎛ 7x + 3 ⎞ 4 then log ⎜ ⎟ = 4.03 ⎞ t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0.03)t = 2000(1. true 134.5 t= ≈ 36 ⎛ 1.05)t ln 2 x = ln15 x ln 2 = ln15 ln15 x= ln 2 t ⎛ 1. false.9 minutes. because there is not a variable in an exponent.05 ⎠ ⎛ 1. Changes to make the statement true will vary.03)t = 0. Account paying 3% interest: 1⋅t ⎛ 0. and 10 = 2 x + 5 . 2 x = 15 (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The second equation is solved by using the one-to-one property of logarithms. so it will take about 7.9 minutes. does not make sense. . 141. Changes to make the statement true will vary.5 ⎝ 1.5 ⎝ 1. Verify: 70 = 45e −0. Explanations will vary.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 137. t ≈ 7. A sample change is: If log ( 7 x + 3) − log ( 2 x + 5 ) = 4. Sample explanation: The first equation is solved by rewriting it in exponential form. false.5 ⎝ 1.05 ⎞ A = 2000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ The two accounts will have the same balance when 4000(1. Explanations will vary. 2 = 16 can be solved by rewriting 16 as 24.03 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0. A sample change is: x10 = 5.03 ⎞ A = 4000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ Account paying 5% interest: An adult female elephant weighing 1800 kilograms is about 20 years old.9) 140. 2 x + 5 ⎝ ⎠ 70 ≈ 70. makes sense 139. then 102 = x + 3.5(1. 2 x = 16 2 x = 24 x=4 136. 138. does not make sense.05 ⎠ The accounts will have the same balance in about 36 years. Sample x ⎛ 0.05)t x explanation: 2 = 15 requires logarithms.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0.9. makes sense 133. When P = 70.10076749 The runner’s pulse will be 70 beats per minute after about 7.05 ⎠ ln 0.71 is not an exponential equation.092(7. 143.

2 ( log10 ) (2 log10 3/ 2 3/ 2 + 1) = 6 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 ⋅ + 1⎟ = 6 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (3 + 1) = 6 ⎝2⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (4) = 6 ⎝2⎠ 6=6 Check with graphing utility: 146.91 million b. There are two points of intersection: (1.003(3) ≈ 9. An exponential function is the best choice. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 148.3890566099. 2006: A = 10e−0. . 4).97 million x = 10 10 2008: A = 10e−0. so the solution set is {1. The population is decreasing. the graph verifies x = 1 and x = e2. 461 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Check by direct substitution: Check:x = 10 10 = 103 / 2 (log x)(2log x + 1) = 6 (ln x) = 2 ln x 2 (ln x ) − 2 ln x = 0 ln x(ln x − 2) = 0 ln x = 2 ln x = 0 eln x = e 2 or x =1 x = e2 The solution set is {1. x = 10−2 3 2 x= 147.003(0) = 10 million 2007: A = 10e−0.003(1) ≈ 9. (log x)(2 log x + 1) = 6 2(log x) 2 + log x − 6 = 0 (2 log x − 3)(log x + 2) = 0 2 log x − 3 = 0 or log x + 2 = 0 2 log x = 3 log x = −2 log x = 3 2 x = 10 The graph of ln(ln(x)) crosses the graph y = 0 at approximately 2. Inc. Since e2 ≈ 7.003t a.003(2) ≈ 9. 0) and approximately (7. The solution set is ⎨⎩100 ⎭ 2009: A = 10e−0. 1 100 A = 10e−0.718. 145.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.4 (ln x) 2 = ln x 2 144.94 million ⎧ 1 ⎫ . ln(ln x) = 0 eln(ln x ) = e0 ln x = 1 eln x = e1 x=e The solution set is {e}. 10 10 ⎬ . e 2 } .3890561. e2} as determined algebraically.

021t ⎝ 643 ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 54 t= ⎝ 0.021t 3.0248t eln 3 = 3 b.0248t = 1 6 1 −0. (e ) ln 3 x = 3x e(ln 3) x = 3x Section 3. a. A = 906. In the logistic growth model. 10 = 60e −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2(0) The proportion of correct responses prior to learning trials was 0.8 f (0) = = 0. The time prior to learning trials corresponds to t = 0.2(10) The proportion of correct responses after 10 learning trials was 0.4. 1 6 ln e −0. substitute 4. Since 2006 is 16 years after 1990. Substitute 10 for t in the model: 0.0248t = ln 6 ln 16 t= ≈ 72 −0. T = C + (To – C)ekt 2000 = e0.5 Check Point Exercises 1. the growth function is A = 643e0. 2000 = 643e0.0248t = ln ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 16k ⎝ 643 ⎠ b. A0 = 643 . c.021t a. c . Substitute 60 for A0 and 10 for A in the model from part (a) and solve for t.4 1 + e −0.0248 The strontium-90 will decay to a level of 10 grams about 72 years after the accident. when t = 16 . 0.021 Africa’s population will reach 2000 million approximately 54 years after 1990. b. A = 643e0. The limiting size of the proportion of correct responses as continued learning trials take place is 0. 2. A = A0 ekt 906 = 643ek (16) 906 = e16k 643 ⎛ 906 ⎞ 16 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 643 ⎠ e = −0.021 k= ⎝ 16 Thus.021t 643 ⎛ 2000 ⎞ 0.8 f (10) = ≈ 0. or 2044. b. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain. a.7. a.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 149. ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 0. f (t ) = a. eln 3 = 3 A0 = A0 e k ⋅28 2 1 e 28 k = 2 1 ln e 28 k = ln 2 1 28k = ln 2 ln1/ 2 k= ≈ −0. A0 for A since the amount present 2 after 28 years is half the original amount.021t .7 1 + e−0.0248t In the exponential decay model A = A0 e kt . Inc. 462 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .021t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 643 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0.0248 28 So the exponential decay model is A = A0 e −0.8.

Russia has a decreasing population.027t A = 26. The population is dropping at of 0.0673 39 ≈ t The temperature will reach 35o after 39 min.5 80 = 30 + (100 − 30)e k5 80 = 30 + 70e 5k 50 = 70 e 6. For y = 4(7. Rounded to three decimal places.0673t ln 14 1 = −0.0673t 7.5 In 2006. the shape suggests that an exponential function is a good choice for modeling the data.5e0. Thus. the temperature will be 48o.0673t b.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 463 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006.004 . Since k = −0.001t A = 127. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.5e0 A = 127.5 1. 4. Because the data in the scatter plot increase rapidly at first and then begin to level off. 5. the population of Japan was 127. the population of Iraq was 26.4% per year.0673 ≈ k Because the data in the scatter plot appear to increase more and more rapidly.8e 0. 1 = e −0. the model is approximately equivalent to y = 4e2.027( 0 ) A = 26. y = 4(7. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006.0673(20) ≈ 48o After 20 minutes. Inc.8)x is equivalent to y = 4e(ln 7.8e0.8 million. Scatter plot: Exercise Set 3.8. find A when t = 0 : A = 26. Iraq has the greatest growth rate at 2.001( 0 ) A = 127.5 million. 5k 5 = e 5k 7 5 ln = ln e 5 k 7 5 ln = 5 k 7 5 ln 7 =k 5 −0. y = ab x is equivalent to y = ae(ln b ) x .0673t 5 = 70 e −0.8) x .0673t 14 1 = ln e −0. 3.5 (1) A = 127.5e 0. find A when t = 0 : A = 127.8 (1) A = 26. b = 7.8) x in terms of a natural logarithm.054 x . c.8 In 2006.7% per year. T = 30 + 70e-0. 35 = 30 + 70e—0.0673t ln 14 1 ln 14 = t −0. Scatter plot: 2. the shape suggests that a logarithmic function is a good choice for modeling the data.8e0 A = 26. a = 4. T = 30 + 70e −0.

04 ⎠ k= ⎝ ≈ 0.2e0. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040.026 Now.1e0.04 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0. a.4 1416 ln = 0.7 The population is projected to be 118.7 million in 2025.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5. 6. 464 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6.026 k= ⎝ 50 Thus. .014t 1095. a.026t = 9 9 3.2ek (50) 12 = e50 k 3.014t 1095. Inc.2 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 3. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.4 1238 ln 1095. Substitute A = 1238 into the model for India and solve for t: 1238 = 1095. 9.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.01 Now.4 1238 ln = ln e0. or 2024.014t 1095.01 50 Thus.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.04 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0.04 .1e0.04 ⎠ 0.014t 1095. A0 = 3.014t 1095.04 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0. Substitute A = 1416 into the model for India and solve for t: 1416 = e0.2 . A = 10 .0147(18) P(18) = 91.014 The population of India will be 1416 million approximately 18 years after 2006.4e0.014t 1238 = e0. when t = 50 .04e0.01t .026t = ln ⎛⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3. 2000 + 40 = 2040.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 6. A = A0 ekt 3. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.4 t= ≈9 0.0147t P(18) = 91.014t 1095.014t 7.2 ⎠ ≈ 0.2e0.1e0.04 ⎛ 10 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6. A = 12 . the growth function is A = 3.2 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0. the growth function is A = 6. when t = 50 .4 1416 ln = ln e0.014 The population of India will be 1238 million approximately 9 years after 2006. ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6.01t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6.4 1238 ln = 0.026t . P( x) = 91.0147(18) ≈ 118. A0 = 6.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 3. e0. 9 = 6.4e b. A = A0 e kt 12 = 3.026t = 10 = 6. 1416 = 1095. 2000 + 40 = 2040. 9 = e0.026t = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3. or 2015.04e k (50) 10 = e50 k 6.4 1416 ln 1095. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040 8.04e0.4 t= ≈ 18 0.01t b.01t ⎝ 6.2 9 ⎞ ln e0.01t 6.

4e18k 55.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.430 years.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0.0285 The growth rate is 0.000121t A = 16e −0.3e18k 6. P( x) = 44.0157(18) 40.0121. 11.0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 40.3 18k =e 7.000121t A = 16e −0.PreCalculus 4E 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0053.691515 A ≈ 8.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.2 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 44.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.4 ⎛ 55.000121(11430) A = 16e −1.5 million in 2025.38303 A ≈ 4.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 7. A = 16e −0. P( x) = 19.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.4ekt 32.5 P( x) = 164. .0e18k 40.0 ⎠ ⎛ 40.0 ⎛ 40.4 = 19.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0. P(18) = 164.7e0.3 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.000121(5715) A = 16e −0.0ekt 14. 15. Section 3.4 ⎛ 32.01 Approximately 8 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 5715 years.0 = 44. 16.0082 The growth rate is –0.3ekt 6.0285.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.2 = e18k 44.4 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 19.0082.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 7.3 = 7.0 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 44. P( x) = 7.7e0. P( x) = 44. P(18) = 164.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 19. 12. A = 16e −0.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.0 18k =e 44.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.7e0. Inc.4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 32.0157(18) ≈ 218.3 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 7.4 18k =e 19.4 ⎠ ⎛ 32.0121 The growth rate is 0. 465 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 = 44.0157t 13.0053 The growth rate is –0.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 19.4ekt 55.5 The population is projected to be 218.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.3 ⎛ 6.01 Approximately 4 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 11.0 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.4e18k 32.

5 = 1620k A = A0 e −0.055t ln 0.5k ln 0. the skeletons were approximately 1056 years old.5 = 4560k −0.000121 The paintings are approximately 15.000428 The decay rate is 0.5 = e −0.0428% per year. 2 1 1 there will be 1 ⋅ = gram present.000121t 100 ln 0.000121t ln 0.063 t ≈ 11.5 = e kt 24.000121t 88 = e −0. 0. there 2 1 1 will be 1 ⋅ = gram present.5 = e kt 0. After 100.5 = ln e17.15 t= ≈ 15.039608 The decay rate is 3.000 years.063t ln 0. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present.0 The half-life is 11.5 k ≈ −0.000121t ln 0.5 = 17. 0.000 years.063t ln 0.000 years. After 20 seconds. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present. After 50 seconds.000121t 15 = e −0. 0.5 =t −0. 2 2 After 25. 20.5 =k 1620 k ≈ −0. After 75.15 = ln e −0.000121 In 1989. 88 = 100e −0.000121t 100 ln 0.5 = e4560 k ln 0.5k ln 0.055t ln 0. 22.5 = ln e4560 k ln 0.000121t ln 0.000121t A = A0 e 0. 19. 679 −0. 23.0 years.055t ln 0.000 years.055 t ≈ 12.5 = −0.88 = −0. After 50. there 2 1 will be 2 ⋅ = 1 gram present.5 = e1620 k ln 0.5 =t −0.679 years old. 0.88 = ln e −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present.5 = e17.5 = ekt 0. 466 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .0152% per year.6 years.15 = −0.5 = −0.5 = ln e−0. there will 2 1 be 2 ⋅ = 1 grams present. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present. there will be 16 ⋅ ln 0.000 years. 25.5 =k 4560 k ≈ −0. After 10 seconds.5 = e −0. there will be 16 ⋅ 0.063t ln 0.000121t ln 0. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present.5 = ekt 0. Inc.5 = ln e −0.5k ln 0. 2 2 21.6 The half-life is 12. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 17.5 =k 17.88 t= ≈ 1056 −0. After 40 seconds.5 = ekt 0.9608% per day.5 = ln e1620 k ln 0. After 30 seconds. After 125. 15 = 100e−0. 18.000152 The decay rate is 0.000121t ln 0.

5 =k 7340 k ≈ −0. A = e−0.8 = −0. A = e−0. 0.945 t= ≈ 0.5 = ekt 26.5 = ln e7340 k ln 0.2 = −0.8 =t −0.900.8 = e−0.31 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.000094t ln 0.5 = e22 k 0.52912 1.945 = e−0.5 28.52912 t 0.52912t .945 = ln e −0. 1 = 1e k 1.5 = ekt −0. 0.000094t 0.5 = 113k ln 0. b.031507t ln 0.1069 billion or 106.031507t Next use the decay equation answer question. A = e−0. Inc. 467 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1069 −0.031507 t ≈ 7.5 = e113k 0.31 2 1 ln = ln e1.5 = e7340k ln 0.5 = ekt 0.5 = ln e22k ln 0.7 years.5 =k 113 k ≈ −0.031507 ln 0.945 A0 = A0 e 0.5 = ln e113k ln 0.2 =t −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. A = A0 e −0.7 It will take 17121.5 =k 22 k ≈ −0.000094t ln 0.6134% per hour. First find the decay equation.000094t ln 0.5 = 7340k ln 0.31k 2 1 ln = 1.2 = e−0.006134 The decay rate is 0.031507t ln 0. 27.000094 t ≈ 17121.000 years old.1 It will take 7.8 = ln e−0. .PreCalculus 4E Section 3.031507t 0.31k 2 1 ln k = 2 ≈ −0.52912t ln 0.5 = 22k ln 0.000094 ln 0. 29.031507t ln 0.000094t Next use the decay equation answer question. A = e−0.52912t 0.52912 The age of the dinosaur ones is approximately 0.2 = ln e−0.52912t ln 0.1 years.945 = −0. First find the decay equation.52912t ln 0.

0673t .2 It will take 6.5 = e36k 33.7 =t −0. k .5 =k 36 k ≈ −0.9 =t −0. Inc.019254 t ≈ 5.5 = 36k ln 0. 31. ln 3 years. First find the decay equation.0673t 10 1 ln 10 t= ≈ 34.057762t ln 0.057762t ln 0.019254 ln 2 = ln e kt ln 2 = kt A = e−0.057762t ln 0.7 = ln e−0.019254t 34. 0. 32.5 It will take 5.9 = ln e−0. k A = A0 ekt 3 A0 = A0 ekt ln 0.0673t 100 = e −0.9 = e−0.7 = −0. The population will double in t = 2 = e kt t= ln 2 k A = e−0.2 −0.0673 The population will drop below 100 birds approximately 34 years from now.5 =k 12 k ≈ −0.057762 A = e−0.7 = e−0.0673t 10 1 ln = −0. 3 = e kt ln 3 = ln e kt ln 3 = kt t= ln 3 k The population will triple in t = 468 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 36k 2 A0 = A0 e kt ln 0.5 hours.019254t 0. 0.5 = ekt 0.2 hours.5 = ln e12 k ln 0.0673 5 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.5 = 12k ln 0.9 = −0.) A = e−0.019254t ln 0. 100 = 1000e −0.5 = e12k ln 0.019254t ln 0.0673t 1000 1 ln = ln e −0. First find the decay equation. A = A0 e kt 1000 = 1400e k 5 1000 = e5k 1400 5 ln = 5k 7 5 ln k = 7 ≈ −0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 30.5 = ekt 0.057762t Next use the decay equation answer question.019254t Next use the decay equation answer question.057762t 0. (This is 39 years from the time the population was 1400.5 = ln e ln 0.057762 t ≈ 6. ln 2 years.

or 2012. 38.01t a.81e −0.81e −0. A = 107. The limiting size of the population that becomes ill is 100.027(51) The function models the data very well.027( x ) ) = 11.01 . b.67 4.0 1 + 3. e −0. so Mexico’s growth rate is 1. 11.01t ln 2 = ln e0.82 −0. 100.81e −0. Inc.027( x ) = ln 26.67 x= −0.027( x ) = 11. A = 107.027( x ) = 3. 100. t = 0. 11. .027 x ≈ 63 The world population will reach 7 billion 63 years after 1949.01t ln 2 = 0.67 4.027( x ) 11. 000 f (0) = ≈ 20 1 + 5000e0 Twenty people became ill when the epidemic began.82 26.01t 2 ⋅ 4. k = 0.82 f (54) = ≈ 6.027( x ) 8 (1 + 3.82 f ( x) = 8 + 30.5 A = 4. Section 3. 11.82 7= 1 + 3.82 k = 0. 41.82 −0.2%. or 2026.82 f (51) = ≈ 6.1e0.012t 37.027( x ) = 4. b.012 Mexico’s population will double in approximately 58 years.82 1 + 3.82 ln 30.82 1 + 3.67 4.012t b.82 1 + 3.4e0.027( x ) 7 (1 + 3.1e0.1e0. c f (t ) = . 469 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 7 + 26.82 3.82 ln 26.027( x ) = In the logistic growth model. so New Zealand’s growth rate is 1%.81e −0.5 1 + 3. 2 ⋅107.48 x= −0. t= c.82 ln e −0.012t ln 2 ≈ 58 0.027 x = ln 26.027 x ≈ 77 The world population will reach 8 billion 77 years after 1949.81e −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4e0.4 = 107.01 New Zealand’s population will double in approximately 69 years.01t ln 2 ≈ 69 0.48 3.027( x ) ln e = ln 30.012 .81e −0.027(57) The function models the data very well.1 = 4.027( x ) = 11.027( x ) 11.48 3. 000 ≈ 1080 1 + 5. e −0.000 people.82 2 = e0. 11.027( x ) ) = 11. A = 4.027( x ) = ln 2 = ln e0. 000e −4 About 1080 people were ill at the end of the fourth week. 40.027( x ) 11. a. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.81e −0.82 −0.027( x ) 11.48 3.4e0.48e −0.012t ln 2 = 0.012t a. 0.67e −0.027 x = ln 30.81e −0.67e −0.82 30.81e −0.82 f ( x) = 26.81e −0.82 f ( 4) = 30.82 1 + 3.82 8= 1 + 3.48e −0.012t 4. t= 36.PreCalculus 4E 35.01t 2=e 39. f ( x) = When the epidemic began.

5 (1 + 271e −0.122t ) = 0. P(80) = T = 45 + 25e−0.0916t 5 1 ln = ln e−0.9 c. the limiting size of this function is 11.8 ln 271 t= ≈ 48 −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 23 = e5k 38 23 = ln e5k ln 38 23 = 5k ln 38 23 ln 38 = k 5 −0.122t 0.122 x = ln 1897 2 ln 1897 x= −0.122 t ln e = ln 271 0.7%. T = 45 + 25e-0.1004t b. 271e −0. the exponent of e will decrease.122 x = 7 2 − x 0.8 0.122 x ≈ 56 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 70% at about age 56.8 e −0.0916 ≈ k 90 ≈ 3. 470 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.122t = ln 271 0.8 70 = 50 = 45 + 25e—0. f ( x) = 2 10k =e 5 2 ln = ln e10k 5 2 ln = 10k 5 2 ln 5 =k 10 −0.7 1 + 271e −0.82 billion.6%.1004(20) ≈ 121o After 20 minutes.0916(15) ≈51o After 15 minutes. P(20) = 90 ≈ 88. T = 70 + 380ke-0.122 x ) = 90 90 1 + 271e−0.122(80) The probability that an 80-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 88.82 1 + 3.0916 18 ≈ t The temperature will reach 50o after 18 min. 0. 43. 90 1 + 271e−0. the temperature will be 121o.0916t b.027( x ) become very close to 0 and make the denominator become very close to 1.122(20) The probability that a 20-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 3. a.122 x = 70 2 271e−0. This will make e −0. Thus.0916t 5 1 ln = −0.1004 ≈ k T = 70 + 380e−0.122 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 50% at about age 48. 55 = 45 + (70 – 45)ek10 10 = 25e10k 48.0916t 5 = 25e−0. 11.122 = e 1897 2 −0. 47.0916t 5 1 ln 5 =t −0. 45.0916t 1 = e−0. 44.81e −0.9 0.5 = 1 + 271e−0.122 x T = C + (To – C)ekt 300 = 70 + (450 − 70)ek 5 230 = 380e5k 70(1 + 271e−0. the temperature will be 51o.122t = 1. . a. 1 + 271e −0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. Inc.8 −0.122t = 0. 46.6 1 + 271e −0.8 −0.122t = 271 0.027( x ) As x increases.

Inc. 471 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0158t 41 20 = ln e −0.0158t −20 = −41e−0.0158t ln 41 20 = −0.0239 ≈ k T = 75 − 47e−0.0158 ≈ k T = 65 − 41e−0. 49.PreCalculus 4E c. Section 3.0239t −25 = −47e−0.0239 26 = t The temperature will reach 50o after 26 min.1004t 38 7 = ln e−0.1004t 70 = 380e−0.1004t ln 38 7 ln 38 = t −0.0239t ln 47 25 = −0.0239t −47 25 = ln e−0. 50 = 75 − 47e−0.0158t −37 = −47e10k −37 10k =e −47 37 = ln e10k ln 47 37 = 10k ln 47 37 ln 47 = k 10 −0.1004t ln 38 7 = −0.0239t ln 47 17 ln 47 = t −0.1004t 7 = e−0. −35 = −41e10k 35 10k =e 41 35 = ln e10k ln 41 35 = 10k ln 41 35 ln 41 = k 10 −0. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.0158t T = C + (To – C)ekt 38 = 75 + (28 − 75)ek10 45 = 65 – 41e—0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. −25 = e−0.0158t ln 41 20 ln 41 = t −0. . a.0158 45 ≈ t The temperature will reach 45o after 45 min.0239t 20 = e−0.1004 17 ≈ t The temperature will reach 140o after 17 min.0239t 51.5 140 = 70 + 380e—0. T = C + (To – C)ekt 30 = 65 + (24 − 65)ek10 50.

y = 200. b. – 67.574 ln x .357 x . Using ln 0. Answers may vary. 55. the model fits the data well. y = 100e1.5e −0.9e( 54.7 ) x . 68. y = 2. y = 1000e1. 58.988 x .0109 . 69. 52.988.357.6 ≈ 1. a. The linear model is y = 2.5e( ln 0.3 ≈ 1.9 (1.9 (1.3)x is equivalent to y = 1000e( ln 7.097 .16 + 23. y = 2.6)x is equivalent to y = 4. y = 1000(7. the model fits the data okay. a. 71.901.9e0.7 ≈ −0. Using ln 4. but not great. the population of the United States is increasing by about 1% each year.878 is fairly close to 1. The logarithmic model is y = 193. a.871x0. b.997 is close to 1. The power regression model is y = 195. Since r ≈ 0.011) x y = 200.526. 70. Since r = 0. a. y = 100(4.5e( ln 0.5(0.6)x is equivalent to y = 100e( ln 4.5(0.6) x . b. 57. Using ln 7. 53. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. x Since r ≈ 0.6 ≈ –0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The exponential model is y = 200. 472 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.999 is very close to 1.011) . Inc. y = 4.015 . b.526 x . Using ln 0.511x .511. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. the model fits the data fairly well.654 x + 198.5e −0. y = 4. Since r = 0. the model fits the data very well.7)x is equivalent to y = 2. x ln1. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.6) x .011) y = 200.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 56. 59.3) x .0109 x Since k = . .

Growth rate measures how fast a population is growing relative to that population.985 x= ≈ 44 2. does not make sense. Sample explanation: Since the car’s value is decreasing (depreciating).011) ln1.985 = 2. population will reach 315 million around the year 2010.46(1.078 ) x Exercise 52: y = 2896. makes sense 79. Explanations will vary. Using the exponential model: 315 = 200. .015 315 = 2. the better model is y = 3. population will reach 315 million around the year 2013. model y = 200.011) ⎟ ⎝ 200. the model of best fit is the exponential b. true Exponential Regression: 82.9 ⎠ Exercise 51: y = 1. According to the linear model.629 + 13.9 (1.752ln x − 26. Inc. makes sense 78.02 ) x y = 3.015 116.654 x + 198. r ≈ 0.46(1.5 72.056 ) ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = x ln (1.972.654 x 116.02) x . r ≈ 0. Both results are reasonably close to the result found in Example 1 (2010).S. y = 3.9 ⎠ ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ 200. Thus.02 x The 65-and-over population is increasing by approximately 2% each year. x y = 3.402 (1. true 80.9 ⎟⎠ x= ⎝ ≈ 41 ln (1. 473 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.994 Logarithmic Regression: y = 14. 77. the U. Using r. true y = 3.015 . the U. Publishing as Prentice Hall.673 Linear Regression: y = 0.S.011) 1969 + 41 = 2010 Using the linear model: y = 2. 76. the growth rate is negative. Sample models are provided 315 x = (1. 73.02) x x Exercise 53: y = 120 + 4. x 74.011) .02) x .011) ⎝ 200. true 81.011) 200.512.557 x − 10. It does not indicate how the size of a population compares to the size of another population. Explanations will vary.46e0. Explanations will vary.947 The exponential model has an r value closer to 1. Models and predictions will vary. a.343ln x Exercise 54: y = −11.9 ⎛ 315 ⎞ x ln ⎜ = ln (1.9 (1.7 (1.654 1969 + 44 = 2013 According to the exponential model. Sample explanation: This is not necessarily so. r ≈ 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. does not make sense.424 ln x 75.46e( The model of second best fit is the linear model y = 2.654 x + 198.46(1.654 x + 198.

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 83. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x. so the function is g ( x ) = 4− x.0069 ≈ k Use k to write equation.6 = e−0.6e−0. so the function is r ( x) = −4− x + 3.7 = e30k 15. 3. 84. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis then shifted upward 3 units.0069t 28. so the function is h ( x ) = −4 − x . . 87.6 = ln e−0. 4.0069 88 ≈ t The death occurred at 88 minutes before 9:30.6 15.6 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 = t −0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis.0069 ln 28.0069t 15.7 ln 15.6 15. The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit to the right.7 = 15. range of f = range of g = ( 0. 5π = 2π x 4 5π 2π x = 4 ⋅ 2π 2π 5 =x 8 asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. 2.7 ln = 30k 15.0069t ln 28. Answers may vary. ∞ ) 17π 17π 12π − 2π = − 6 6 6 17π − 12π = 6 5π = 6 474 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or 8:22 am. − π 12 π 24π + 12 12 −π + 24π = 12 23π = 12 + 2π = − Chapter 3 Review Exercises 1.7 ln = ln e30k 15. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the yaxis. 827 = 70 + (85.6 12.6 = 70 + (98.6 − 70)ek 30 12.6 − 70)e−0. Use data to find k.6e30k 12. 85.6 12.6 ln 28.6 15.6 = 28.0069t 15. Inc. 5. ∞ ) ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩8 ⎭ 86. 85.6 = −0.6 = k 30 −0.

. Chapter 3 Review Exercises The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit down. 5. 0 ) 10. 475 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5% compounded semiannually: 2⋅5 ⎛ 0. 8. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) 7. ∞ ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 range of f = ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the y – axis.0525 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6497. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −1 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the x – axis. ∞ ) range of g = ( −1. ∞ ) range of g = ( −∞.25% compounded monthly: 12⋅5 ⎛ 0.5% compounded semiannually yields the greater return.055 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6558. 9.26 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 6. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. range of f = range of g = ( 0.16 12 ⎠ ⎝ 5. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 The graph of g(x) vertically stretches the graph of f(x) by a factor of 2. ∞ ) range of f = ( 0. Inc. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0.

0685(10 ) A = 14. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. log 3 27. we conclude log17 17 = 1. log 3 (log8 8) = log 3 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. log13 874 = y 19. we conclude log8 8 = 1. 2 22. log 6 216 = 3 17. 20. the temperature of the coffee was 200°.04855( 20 ) T = 70 + 130e ≈ 119. 12. Because log b = 1. ∞ ) 31. 43 = x 15. log 4 64 = 3 because 43 = 64. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x reflected about the Because ln e x = x. −0.81 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. ln 28. log 3 ( −9 ) cannot be evaluated since log b x 26. 32. the temperature of the coffee was about 120°. 476 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. When first taken out of the microwave. 1 because 161/ 2 = 16 = 4. b. log 3 (log8 8) = 0.26 ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 6. c. so the function is g ( x) = log(− x).23 Using a calculator. 000 ⎜ 1 + ≈ 28. Inc. . 491/ 2 = 7 14. y-axis. 1 1 = −2 because 5−2 = . 3 y = 81 16. log 5 21.07 ⎞ A = 14. Because logb b x = x. log − 1 1 1 = log 3 1 = log3 3 2 = − 2 3 32 1 = ln e−2 = −2 e2 1 1 = log 3 = log10−3 = −3 1000 10 29. log16 4 = 23. 13.135. 25. The coffee will cool to about 70°. 25 25 is defined only for x > 0. Because log b 1 = 0 we conclude log 3 1 = 0. 30. After 20 minutes. So. we conclude ln e5 = 5. The temperature of the room is 70°. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) we conclude log 3 38 = 8. log b 625 = 4 18. 7% compounded monthly: 1 12⋅10 ⎛ 0. 24. 772. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. 000e ≈ 27. Because log b b = 1. Therefore.85% compounded continuously: 0. the temperature is about 119°.

0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 40. so the function is h( x) = log(2 − x) . ∞ ) range: ( −∞. so the function is r ( x) = 1 + log(2 − x). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: ( 2. ∞ ) 39. Thus the domain of f is ( −5. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 5 > 0. then shifted upward one unit. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = −3 domain of f = ( 0. 0 ) 36. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. 34. range: ( −∞. reflected about the y-axis. x-intercept: (2. shifted left 2 units. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. we obtain x > −5. x-intercept: (3. . domain of g = ( −3. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x shifted left 2 units then reflected about the y-axis.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 33. ∞ ) 477 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x 38. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( 0. ∞ ) 41. Inc. ∞ ) 37. Solving this inequality for x. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x. 35. x-intercept: (–1.

b. Thus. we conclude ln e6 x = 6 x. a. and 12 months. ∞). 2 xy 2 = log 2 xy 2 − log 2 64 64 = log 2 x + log 2 y 2 − log 2 64 46. 1 ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 8. log 4 52. Because e ln x = x. Solving this inequality for x. 53. 1) ∪ (1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. 59. Inc. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 1)2 > 0.0.06 ⎝ 12 − 5 ⎠ It will take about 9 weeks. log 2 x 1 = log 4 x 2 − log 4 64 64 1 = log 4 x − 3 2 44. .3) . and 56. 49. log 6 ( 36 x 3 ) = log 6 36 + log 6 x3 = log 6 36 + 3log 6 x = 2 + 3log 6 x 43. = log 2 x + 2 log 2 y − 6 1000 I 0 = log1000 = 3 I0 The Richter scale magnitude is 3. 4. 45. 47. Because 10log x = x. = log 56. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. f (2) = 76 − 18log ( 2 + 1) ≈ 67 f (4) = 76 − 18log ( 4 + 1) ≈ 63 f (6) = 76 − 18log ( 6 + 1) ≈ 61 f (8) = 76 − 18log ( 8 + 1) ≈ 59 54. Solving this inequality for x. f (12 ) = 76 − 18log (12 + 1) ≈ 56 After 2. respectively. 63. 8. 50. 51. ln 3 x e 1 ⎛ x⎞ = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝e⎠ 1 = [ ln x − ln e] 3 1 1 = ln x − ln e 3 3 1 1 = ln x − 3 3 f ( 0 ) = 76 − 18log ( 0 + 1) = 76 When first given. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus. we conclude 10log 4 x = 4 x 2 . 1 ln x − ln y 2 1 = ln x 2 − ln y = ln t= x y 478 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the average scores are about 67. R = log 48. Retention decreases as time passes. 3 log b 7 + log b 3 = log b (7 ⋅ 3) = log b 21 55. Because ln e x = x. we obtain x < 1 or x > 1. 6. 3 x3 3ln x + 4 ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 4 = ln ( x3 y 4 ) 57. we obtain x < 3. the domain of f is (−∞. the domain of f is ( −∞. 61.98 0. we conclude e ln x = x. log 3 − 3log x = log 3 − log x 3 c. the average score was 76.

43 5 4x − 2 = 6 4x = 8 x=2 65. ln e x = x ln e 64.27 9 x + 2 = 27 − x x+2 54 x+ 2 = 37. 500 − 2 ln 5 x= ≈ 1.500 4 x ln 5 = ln 37. .348 = 59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 6 72. true.143 ln 8x = ln12.14 4 ln 5 log10 x = log 7000 x log10 = log 7000 x = log 7000 x ≈ 3. 53 x = 52 3x = 2 2 x= 3 4 x ln 5 + 2 ln 5 = ln 37. 2 4 x− 2 = 64 2 4 x −2 = 26 ln e12−5 x = ln130 12–5 x = ln 130 5 x = 12– ln 130 12– ln130 x= ≈ 1. log 4 0.500 ( 4 x + 2 ) ln 5 = ln 37. 9e5 x = 1269 e5 x = 141 ln 0. 70. log( x + 9) − log( x + 1) = log ( x + 9) ( x + 1) ln e5 x = ln141 5 x = ln141 ln141 ≈ 0.143 ln12. false. (ln x )(ln1) = (ln x )(0) = 0 61. log 2 x 4 = 4 log 2 x 63.52 ln 8 69. false. 125 x = 25 (5 ) 3 x = 52 71. 72.500 ln 54 x + 2 = ln 37.143 x ln 8 = ln 12.500 10 x = 7000 66.863 ≈ −0. true.500 − 2 ln 5 ln 37.863 = log 72.143 x= ≈ 4.1063 ln 4 60.99 x= 5 62.348 ≈ 6. e12 − 5 x − 7 = 123 e12−5 x = 130 −x 2 x+4 3 = 3−3 x 2 x + 4 = −3 x 5 x = −4 4 x=− 5 479 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 58. (3 ) 2 ( ) = 33 3x + 4 = 7 2 x −1 ln 3x + 4 = ln 7 2 x −1 ( x + 4) ln 3 = (2 x − 1) ln 7 x ln 3 + 4 ln 3 = 2 x ln 7 − ln 7 x ln 3 − 2 x ln 7 = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x(ln 3 − 2 ln 7) = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x= ln 3 − 2 ln 7 4 ln 3 + ln 7 x= 2 ln 7 − ln 3 x ≈ 2.85 67.2448 log 6 68. 8 x = 12.

. log 3 e x − 3 = 0 or e x + 2 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −2 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x − ln(−2) x = ln 3 x = ln(−2) x = ln 3 ≈ 1. 78. log 3 ( x − 1) − log 3 ( x + 2 ) = 2 log 2 ( x + 3) + log 2 ( x − 3) = 4 79. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is ∅. 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 x − 15 16 = x 2 x 2 = 16 x = ±4 x = −4 does not check and must be rejected. The solution set is {ln 3} . − 3)( e + 2 ) = 0 x x −1 =2 x+2 x −1 = 32 x−2 x −1 =9 x+2 x – 1 = 9(x + 2) x – 1 = 9x + 18 8x = –19 19 x=− 8 19 ⎛ 19 ⎞ x=− does not check because log 3 ⎜ − − 1⎟ 8 ⎝ 8 ⎠ does not exist. 75. The solution set is {2}. 3 + 4 ln(2 x) = 15 4 ln(2 x) = 12 ln(2 x) = 3 ln ( x + 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln x x+4 = ln x x +1 x+4 =x x +1 x( x + 1) = x + 4 ln 2 x = e3 e3 2 x ≈ 10.10.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 73. The solution set is {5}. log 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 2 ( x 2 − 9) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) x 2 − 9 = 24 x 2 − 9 = 16 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 x = –5 does not check because log 2 (−5 + 3) does not exist. 480 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is {4}. 74. approximately 1. e2 x − e x − 6 = 0 (e x 77.099 ln(−2) does not exist.04 x= x2 + x = x + 4 x2 = 4 x = ±2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. ⎧e ⎫ The solutions set is ⎨ ⎬ . Inc. log 4 ( 3x − 5 ) = 3 3x – 5 = 43 3x – 5 = 64 3x = 69 x = 23 The solutions set is {23}. ⎩2⎭ 3 76.

005 ) t 560 = 364 (1.005 364 560 ln 364 ≈ 86. 82.075 It will take about 14. 3P = Pe5 r e5 r = 3 ln e5 r = ln 3 5r = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 0.3 ln 22. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 t= ln1.7 4. 000e0.7 4.6 = 14.4 = k 10 0. 000 e0.37 ln x + 0. the population will be about 55.3 = 22.4e0.075t = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 14. .05 3.4 35.01625) 4t = 1. 000 = 12.005 ) t ln(1. or 8.103.5 miles above sea level.005 The carbon dioxide concentration will be double the pre-industrial level approximately 86 years after the year 2000 in the year 2086.21x 14.6 years. 81.21x ln 14. t= 560 t = (1. 4t (1.075 = 3 ln e0. When an investment value triples. 000 = 50.000.075t = ln 3 0.005 ) 364 560 ln = t ln1.6 = e −0.01625) 4t = 20.05 a. 481 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.01625 It will take about 7.7e −0.6 The peak of Mt.045 ≈ k 3.500(1.6 = ln e −0.075t = 150.6 ln 14.01625) 4t = ln1.4 35.4e0.2197 5 The interest rate would need to be about 22% r= 86.PreCalculus 4E 80.6 0.3 = e10 k 22.7 t= ≈ 5.6 ln1.33 = 0. 4.045(20) ≈ 55.38 = 0.1 million.21x ln 14.4e k 10 35. A = 22.4 35.3 = ln e10 k ln 22. 3 ⋅ 50.01625 = ln1.7 4.37 ln x 3.6 4t ln1.21 f ( t ) = 364 (1.3 4 ln1.065 ⎞ 20. A = 3P.6 ≈ 7.1 In 2010.3 = 10k ln 22.045t b.7e −0. 35.075t 50.5 −0. 000 85.500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12.005) 364 560 t ln = ln (1.33 = ln x 0.6 = −0. 000e0. t= 84.21x 83. ⎛ 0. Everest is about 5.3 years.37 9 = ln x e9 = eln x x = e9 ≈ 8103 The population of New York City is approximately 8103 thousand.37 ln x + 0. Inc. A = 22. W ( x ) = 0. Chapter 3 Review Exercises P ( x ) = 14.21x 4.

1438t 40 = 120e−0.045t c. 105 = 65 + 120e—0.92(6) 1 + 2499e 45.410 were ill after 6 weeks.2 = −0. A logarithmic function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data. b.1438 7. Use the half-life of 140 days to find k.004951 t ≈ 325 It will take about 325 days for the substance to decay to 20% of its original amount.4 60 ln = 0.2 −0.4e0.4 60 ln 22.004951t ln 0. T = 65 + 120e−0.045t 22. 500. in 2012. t= 88. 90. 000 = 200 1 + 2499e −0.6 ≈ t The temperature will reach 105o after 8 min.1438t 3 1 ln = ln e−0. 000 = 45.004951 Use A = A0 e kt to find t.1438t 1 = e−0.1438t 3 1 ln = −0. A = A0 e −0.92(0) 200 people became ill when the epidemic began. f (0) = 500.2 = e −0.004951t ln 0. A = A0 e kt 1 2 = e k ⋅140 1 2 = e140 k T = C + (To – C)ekt b. ln 12 = ln e140 k ln 12 = 140k ln 12 =k 140 k ≈ −0. 411 −0.1438 ≈ k The population will reach 60 million about 22 years after 1990. Inc.045t 22.045 22 ≈ t 90 = e 2k 120 3 ln = ln e2k 4 3 ln = 2k 4 3 ln 4 =k 2 −0.004951t 0.1438t 3 1 ln 3 =t −0.000 people 482 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a.4 = t 0. c.004951t ln 0. 150 = 65 + (185 − 65)ek 2 90 = 120e2k 60 = e0. f (6) = b. a.1438t 87. . a.2 = ln e −0. 89.045t 22.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 60 = 22.4 60 ln = ln e0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 500.

log 36 6 = 5. 6 log x + 2 log y = log x 6 + log y 2 ln 2.5e 1 x = log3 x 3 − log 3 81 81 1 = log3 x − 4 3 3 7. 2. 5 x = 1.4 x ln 5 = ln1. 6.005 x = 1600 e0.PreCalculus 4E 91.5741 log15 3x −2 = 9 x + 4 ( ) 3x −2 = 32 x+ 4 3x −2 = 32 x +8 x − 2 = 2x + 8 − x = 10 x = −10 12. b.4 x= 13. the domain of f is (−∞. Chapter 3 Test a. ln1.5e −0.3). Answers may vary.4 ≈ 0.005 x = 4 ln e0.6 ) x y = 6.005 x = ln 4 0.005 x = ln 4 3. y = 73 ( 2.956 x 93. Chapter 3 Test 1. log 71 ≈ 1.2091 ln 5 400e0. Thus.4 ln 5 x = ln1. we obtain x < 3. log 4 ( 64 x 5 ) = log 4 64 + log 4 x5 An exponential function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data.844 x 9.5 ( 0.6 ) 1 2 4.2589 0.43) y = 6. log15 71 = 94. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 = 125 3 x= ln 4 ≈ 277. Inc. . Solving this inequality for x. ln 7 − 3ln x = ln 7 − ln x 3 7 = ln 3 x 10. x = log ( x 6 y 2 ) ( ln 0. 92.005 483 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 11. y = 73e0. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. y = 73e( = 3 + 5 log 4 x x log 3 8.43) x y = 6.

217 = 54. 4 x − 1 = 63 22.0125 ) ln 2 = 4 ln (1.1994 3 17.5% compounded semiannually: log 6 ( 4 x − 1) = 3 4 x = 217 x= 16. e4 x= ≈ 18. 6.0125 ) 4t ln 2 = ln (1.9 4 ln (1.0125) 4000 4t 2 = (1. 000 ⎜1 + ≈ $5.36 6. .05 ⎞ 8000 = 4000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 8000 4t = (1 + 0.6094 x=0 20. Inc. Since ln e x = x. 15.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 14. ln ≈ 1. 466.51 ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 6% compounded continuously: 0.06 10 A = 3. ln 2 = ln e10 r ln 2 = 10r ln 2 r= ≈ 0. 4t 2 x + 15 x − 100 = 0 2 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 x + 20 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = –20 x=5 x = –20 does not check because log(−20) does not exist. e 2 x − 6e x + 5 = 0 (e x 19. log 6 1 = 0 because 60 = 1 .5% compounded semiannually yields about $221 more than 6% compounded continuously.0125 ) ln 2 = 4t ln (1. 484 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0125) ln 2 t= ≈ 13. ln ( x − 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln 6 2 = 1er10 2 = e10 r x−4 = ln 6 ln x +1 x−4 =6 x +1 6( x + 1) = x − 4 6x + 6 = x − 4 5 x = −10 x = −2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. log x + log ( x + 15 ) = 2 log ( x 2 + 15 x ) = 2 x + 15 x = 10 2 ⎛ 0. The solution set is {0.0125 ) 4ln (1. ln 5} .25 4 2 ln 3x = 8 ln 3x = 4 3x = e4 24. The solution set is { }.069 10 The money will double in 10 years with an interest rate of approximately 6.9%. The solution set is {5}.6094. 2(10 ) ⎛ 0. 18. ex −1 = 0 ex = 5 D = 10log 25.0125 ) 4t ln (1. log b b = 1 because b1 = b . 4 x − 1 = 216 23.9 years for the money to grow to $8000. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 5 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 5 = 0 or ex = 1 ln e x = ln 5 ln e x = ln1 x = ln 5 x = ln1 x ≈ 1. ln e5 x = 5 x.065 ⎞ A = 3.0125 ) It will take approximately 13. 1012 I 0 I0 = 10log1012 = 10 ⋅12 = 120 The loudness of the sound is 120 decibels. 000e ( ) ≈ $5. 687. 21.

f (10 ) = 140 b.4e ≈ 82.002( 0 ) A = 82.4 ≈ 5 −0.5 =k 7.165( 0 ) 1 + 9e Fourteen elk were initially introduced to the habitat. 0. ≈ 51 −0. A = 82.002( x ) 28. 485 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .4e Chapter 3 Test −0. t = 2000 – 1990 = 10 and A = 729.5 = 82. The limiting size of the elk population is 140 elk.002t 82. 729 = 509ek 10 729 = e10 k 509 729 ln = ln e10 k 509 729 ln = 10k 509 729 ln 509 = k 10 0. c.4e−0.096270t ln 0.5 = ekt −0.096270t ln 0.5 = e −0.5 = e7.4 81.002 The population of Germany will be 81. In 1990.4 81. b.096270 t ≈ 12. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.036 ≈ k The exponential growth function is A = 509e0. t = 0 and A0 = 509 In 2000.036t . Inc.096270t 0. y 5 −5 5 x −5 The values appear to belong to a linear function.5 ln = −0.002. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 k ln 0. a.096270 A = e−0.4 In 2006.002t ln 0. A = e−0.4 81. 27.5 = ln e7.5 days. c.3 = e−0. a.5 ln t = 82. First find the decay equation. We can tell because the model has a negative k = −0.3 = ln e−0.002t 82.PreCalculus 4E 26. the population of Germany was 82.2 k ln 0. c f (t ) = .2 k ≈ −0.5 ln = ln e −0. Plot the ordered pairs. 81.3 =t −0. 81.165(10 ) 1 + 9e After 10 years. 0. f (0) = 140 = 14 −0.096270t Next use the decay equation answer question.5 = 7.3 = −0.4 million.5 It will take 12. about 51 elk are expected. 30. 29.2k The population of Germany is decreasing.5 million approximately 5 years after 2006 in the year 2011.096270t ln 0.002t 82. In the logistic growth model.

x 4 + x3 − 3x 2 − x + 2 = 0 p: ±1. y = 96e −0. 1 y 1 –3 –1 2 –2 2 2 –2 –1 1 0 –1 ( x + 2)( x – x – x + 1) = 0 3 16 2 ( x + 2)[ x 2 ( x – 1) − ( x – 1)] = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1)( x – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 −5 5 x ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x – 1) 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 The values appear to belong to a quadratic function. Plot the ordered pairs. y 900 3. Inc.38 ) x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {–2. 1}. . ⎩3 ⎭ 486 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±2 q: ±1 p : ± 1. x y = 96e( ln 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.968 x x =1 e5 x − 32 = 96 e5 x = 128 ln e5 x = ln128 5 x = ln128 Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–3) 1. 32. y 5 27 x −3 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) −2 ± −16 2 −2 ± 4i x= 2 x = −1 ± 2i The solution set is {−1 ± 2i} . 2 ⎬ . approximately 0. Plot the ordered pairs. x= −5 The values appear to belong to a logarithmic function. ⎩ 5 ⎭ x= 3x − 4 = 2 3x – 4 = 2 or 3x = 6 3x – 4 = –2 3x = 2 2 x=2 x= 3 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .38) x 4. y = 96 ( 0. Plot the ordered pairs.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 31. –1. 34.9704 5 ⎧ ln128 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ln128 ≈ 0. 2. ± 2 q –2 1 33. −5 5 x The values appear to belong to an exponential function.9704.

The solution set is { }. 0 ) and ( −1. Cumulative Review Exercises log 2 ( x + 5) + log 2 ( x − 1) = 4 10. 0 ) . The solution set is {3}. 11.3] . 7. ln ( x + 4 ) + ln ( x + 1) = 2 ln ( x + 3) ln ( ( x + 4 )( x + 1) ) = ln ( x + 3) ( x + 4 )( x + 1) = ( x + 3) 2 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 2 x2 = 4 x2 + 5x + 4 = x2 + 6 x + 9 x = ±2 The vertical asymptotes are x = 2 and x = –2. Horizontal asymptote: y 5 1 5x + 4 = 6x + 9 −x = 5 x = −5 x = −5 does not check and must be rejected. or x = −1 The x-intercepts are ( 2. –2) and radius of 2 487 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2x − 4 ≤ 2 2 x − 4 ≤ 2 and 2 x − 4 ≥ −2 2x ≤ 6 2x ≥ 2 x≤3 12. 6. 0 ) . –1) log 2 [( x + 5)( x − 1)] = 4 ( x + 5)( x − 1) = 24 x 2 + 4 x − 5 = 16 x 2 + 4 x − 21 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 3) = 0 x + 7 = 0 or x − 3 = 0 x = −7 x=3 x = –7 does not check because log 2 (–7 + 5) does not exist. Inc. 4] . 9. Circle with center: (3. . 0 ) and ( −1. 8. 14 − 5 x ≥ −6 −5 x ≥ −20 x≤4 The solution set is ( −∞. x-intercepts: x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 The x-intercepts are (1. Parabola with vertex: (2. x-intercepts: x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 and x ≥ 1 x=2 The solution set is [1.PreCalculus 4E 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

C can be expressed k as H = 2 . 32 H= 2 C 32 H= 2 4 H =2 If 4 cups of coffee are consumed you should expect to sleep 2 hours. vary inversely as the square of the number of cups of coffee. (f −(64) ± (64)2 − 4(−16)(5) 2(−16) t ≈ 4. 15. 18.1 seconds. = x2 + 2 40 x + 10 (1. s (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 5 = 69 feet. Inc. 3 − (−3) 6 = = −3 1− 3 −2 Using (1. The ball hits the ground after about 4. 0 = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Use the quadratic formula to solve. slope-intercept form: y − 3 = −3( x − 1) t= y − 3 = −3 x + 3 y = −3 x + 6 16. 14. t= 2a 2(−16) The maximum height is s (2) . H . s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 The ball reaches its maximum height at −b −(64) = = 2 seconds.1. k H= 2 C 32 H= 2 C Use the equation to find H when C = 4 . 3) point-slope form: y − 3 = −3 ( x − 1) m= 19. Publishing as Prentice Hall. C Use the given values to find k . y varies inversely as the square of x is expressed as k y= 2.5 x ) = 660 40 x + 15 x = 660 55 x = 660 x = 12 Your normal hourly salary is $12 per hour. x The hours. t ≈ −0. Substitute the value of k into the equation. 2 = x2 + 4 x + 4 (g −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a t= g )( x ) = f ( x + 2 ) = ( x + 2) s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Let s (t ) = 0 : f )( x ) = g ( x 2 ) 20. .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 13. 17.1 The negative value is rejected. k H= 2 C k 8= 2 2 32 = k 488 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

s 42 feet θ= = = 3. π radians 4 o 180 4 ⋅ c. For a –135º angle. add 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. the radian measure of θ is 3. a. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. Now use the formula for radian measure to find the radian measure of θ . The circle’s radius is 12 feet: r = 12 feet. − π 15 + 2π = − π 15 + 489 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −300° = −300° ⋅ c. 4. 2. The radian measure of a central angle is the length of the intercepted arc. divided by the circle’s radius. a. The length of the intercepted arc is 42 feet: s = 42 feet. 13π 13π 10π 3π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 b. radians b.Chapter 4 Trigonometric Functions Section 4. a. 180o π radians = 45o 4π 4π radians 180o ⋅ radians = − 3 3 π 4 ⋅180o =− = −240o 3 6 radians = 6 radians ⋅ = 6 ⋅180o π 5. s. –135o + 360o = 225o 180o π radians ≈ 343. subtract 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. 270π radians 180 = −300π radians 180 d. 60π radians 180 = π radians 270° = 270° ⋅ π − b. = 180° 3π = radians 2 π radians 180° 5π =− radians 3 4 radians = = b.8o 6. 60° = 60° ⋅ = 3. 400o – 360o = 40o b.1 Check Point Exercises 1. 30π 29π = 15 15 .5 r 12 feet Thus. a. r.5 π 3 π radians 180° c. For a 400º angle.

ω = 45 revolutions per minute We use the formula ν = rω to find v. 180° π radians 45 45° = 45° ⋅ π radians = 180° 180 = π radians 4 Now we can use the formula s = rθ to find the length of the arc. θ= s 400 centimeters = = 4 radians r 100 centimeters 12. The circle’s radius is 6 inches : r = 6 inches. which is approximately 424 inches per minute. The length of the arc intercepted by this 4 4 central angle is ⎛ π ⎞ 6π inches ≈ 4. we begin by converting π radians 45° to radians. acute 5. the linear speed.Trigonometric Functions 7. θ= s 600 centimeters = = 6 radians r 100 centimeters 13. θ= s 30 feet = = 6 radians r 5 feet 9. θ= s 40 inches = = 4 radians r 10 inches 8. 135° = 135° ⋅ π radians 180° 135π radians 180 3π radians = 4 = 490 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The measure of the central angle in radians is 9. 45° = 45° ⋅ 25π 25π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 6 6 25π 36π 11π =− + = 6 6 6 − c. 45 revolutions 2π radians ⋅ ω= 1 minute 1 revolution 90π radians = 1 minute The angular speed of the propeller is 90π radians per minute. we must express ω in radians per minute. 18° = 18° ⋅ = = π radians 180° 18π radians 180 π 10 radians 15. θ= s 18 yards = = 2. π :θ = π . b. s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝4⎠ 4 We are given ω . 8. the angular speed.71 inches. acute 4. Exercise Set 4. Before applying the formula. obtuse 2. . Thus. θ= s 8 yards 4 = = radians r 6 yards 3 10. Multiply by . The linear speed is 90π 135π inches = ν = rω = 1.5 inches ⋅ 1 minute minute The linear speed is 135π inches per minute. π radians 180° 45π radians 180 π = radians 4 = 14. 855° − 360° ⋅ 2 = 855° − 720° = 135° The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. Inc. straight 6. a.1 17π 17π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π 3 3 17π 12π 5π = − = 3 3 3 1. obtuse 3.25 radians r 8 yards 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. right 7.

33 radians π radians 180° 40π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. 150° = 150° ⋅ π radians 23.1 16. 20. 180° 76π = radians 180 ≈ 1. 2 π 9 radians = 28. 2 o 180 = 2 = 90o radians = = π radians 9 o 180 9 180o = −4 ⋅180o = −720o π radians π radians 180° 18π = radians 180 ≈ 0. 180° 300π radians = 180 5π radians = 3 25. −3π radians = −3π radians ⋅ 22. 18.31 radians 180° ⋅ −4π radians ⋅ 29. 3π radians 1800 3 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 135o 4 4 π radians π radians 180° 225π radians =− 180 5π radians =− 4 −270° = −270° ⋅ 2π 2π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 3 3 π radians o 2 ⋅180 = 3 = 120o 76° = 76° ⋅ 31. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. . π radians 300° = 300° ⋅ 24. 19. 18° = 18° ⋅ π radians π radians 180o π radians = −3 ⋅180o = −540o 270π radians 180 3π radians =− 2 π 7π 7π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 6 6 π radians o 7 ⋅180 = 6 = 210o 26. 180° 150π radians = 180 5π radians = 6 17.70 radians 491 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −40° = −40° ⋅ 180o π radians 180o ⋅ π radians = 20o π radians 30. π radians 330° = 330° ⋅ 180° 330π radians = 180 11π radians = 6 −225° = −225° ⋅ 11π radians 180o 11 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 330o 6 6 π radians 27.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. =− 21.

13 π 17 180o 3 ⋅180o = ≈ 171. Inc. 180° 50π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. −5.85o radians ⋅ ⋅ 180o π radians 45.8 ⋅180o 46.36 radians 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ = 2 ⋅180o 43. 35. 3 radians ⋅ 37. −50° = −50° ⋅ 33.59o π radians 17 −4.89o π radians π radians = π radians 13 180o = 13 ≈ 13. 39. 250° = 250° ⋅ π radians 180° 250π = radians 180 ≈ 4. 180o π radians 44. π 38.Trigonometric Functions 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 200° = 200° ⋅ π radians 41. π ≈ 114.59o 36.2 ⋅180o 180o = π radians π ≈ −297.49 radians = 34. 180o 180o = ≈ 10. −5.8 radians ⋅ = −4.02o 40.87 radians π radians 180° 42. 200π radians 180 ≈ 3.94o 492 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 180o π radians π ≈ −275. .8 radians = −4.2 radians ⋅ 47.

− 53. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 69. −150° + 360° = 210° 60. 54. Inc. 25π 25π 25π 24π π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 6 6 6 6 6 67. 50. 57. 52. 395° − 360° = 35° 58. 19π 19π 12π 7π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 64. 55. − 68. −765° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −765° + 1080° = 315° 62. 49.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. −760° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −760° + 1080° = 320° 63. −160° + 360° = 200° 61. 17π 17π 10π 7π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 65. . 56. 51. 415° − 360° = 55° 59. π 50 π 40 + 2π = − + 2π = − π 50 π 40 + 100π 99π = 50 50 + 80π 79π = 40 40 31π 31π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 7 7 31π 42π 11π =− + = 7 7 7 493 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 48. 23π 23π 23π 20π 3π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 5 5 5 5 5 66.

75. π radians 7π = 315° = 315° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . 7π 63π s = rθ = 9 ⋅ = yards ≈ 49. 6 revolutions per second 6 revolutions 2π radians 12π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolutions 1 seconds = 12π radians per second 1 π revolution is equivalent to 60° or 6 3 radians. 74. θ = 60° Begin by converting 60° to radians. π radians 5π = 225° = 225° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . − 3π 5π and 4 4 80.48 yards 4 4 1 ⋅ 360° = 60° 6 Now. 4 minutes and 25 seconds equals 265 seconds. θ = 225° Begin by converting 225° to radians. 220 22π ⋅ 2π = 60 3 r = 8 feet. 55 11π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 84. 71. 5π s = rθ = 8 ⋅ = 10π feet ≈ 31.42 feet 4 86. π radians π = radians 45° = 45° ⋅ 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . 73. π 4 = 3π inches ≈ 9. − π 4 π 2 and 7π 4 and 3π 2 82. −π and π 83.76 inches 3 3 77. − 7π 5π and 6 6 79. in order to use the formula s = rθ . convert to degrees. convert 60° to radians. π radians 60π = 60° = 60° ⋅ radians 180° 180 = = π 3 radians Therefore.42 inches r = 16 inches. 35 7π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 85. . θ = 45° Begin by converting 45° to radians. − 4π 2π and 3 3 78. π 16π s = rθ = 16 ⋅ = inches ≈ 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. First. Inc. 76. 20 revolutions per second 20 revolutions 2π radians 40π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolution 1 second = 40π radians per second 494 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. θ = 315° Begin by converting 315° to radians. 265 53π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 87. − 81. π radians π = radians 60° = 60° ⋅ 180° 3 Now use the formula s = rθ . 3 minutes and 40 seconds equals 220 seconds. 1 1 360° revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution r = 9 yards.Trigonometric Functions 70. in order to use the formula s = rθ . in order to use the formula s = rθ . s = rθ = 12 ⋅ 72. 38π 38π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 9 9 38π 54π 16π =− + = 9 9 9 − r = 12 inches. in order to use the formula s = rθ .

We are given that r = 6 inches. we begin by finding r and θ .5 radians r 4000 miles Now. 92. Since s = rθ . 000 miles θ= = = 2. 1 1 360o revolutions = revolutions ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 1 o o = ⋅ 360 = 120 3 Now. Recall that θ = radians 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 8π s = rθ = (8 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = inches ⎝3⎠ 3 ≈ 8. convert 120° to radians. Publishing as Prentice Hall. revolution is equivalent to 120° or 3 3 radians. Recall that θ = 495 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = radians 2 The length of each arc is ⎛π ⎞ s = rθ = (24 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = 12π inches ⎝2⎠ ≈ 37. The minute hand moves from 12 to 4 1 o’clock. convert to degrees. s. π radians 120π = 120° = 120° ⋅ radians 180° 180 2π = radians 3 1 2π Therefore.1 91. . We are given that r = 8 inches. First.57 inches. We must convert revolution to radians.78 centimeters.5 radians to degrees. We are given that r = 80 centimeters and θ = 60°. convert 6 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution = π = π radians 3 The length that the wheel moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 80π s = rθ = (80 centimeters) ⎜ ⎟ = centimeters 3 ⎝3⎠ ≈ 83. s 8000 miles θ= = = 2 radians r 4000 miles Now.38 inches. π radians 60π 60° = 60° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 89. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. Inc. The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length. 90. 3 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 2π radians = 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ 2π ⎞ 12π s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ inches ⎟= 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 4π inches ≈ 12.70 inches. We are given that r = 24 inches and θ = 90°. 180o 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.5 radians ⋅ ≈ 143. The distance that the wheel moves is given by s = rθ . s. We are given that r s = 10. or of a 6 complete revolution.000 miles and r = 4000 miles. π s . s . The 1 minute hand moves from 12 to 2 o'clock. The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length. convert 2. We must 1 revolution to radians. Since s = rθ . We are given that r s = 8000 miles and r = 4000 miles.59o π radians 93. π radians 90π 90° = 90° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 88. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. convert 2 radians to degrees. we begin by finding r and θ . s 10. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians.24o 2π radians 94. 180o 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ ≈ 114. or of a complete revolution. The formula 3 s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in 1 radians. The length of each arc is given by s = rθ .

Begin by converting 2. We need to convert 3 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. . Linear speed is given by ν = rω . 96. 114. Recall that s = rθ . Recall that s = rθ . 20 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 20 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution radians = 40π radians per minute ν = rω = (12 feet)(40π ) ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 2094 miles ⎝6⎠ To the nearest mile. = 6π radians per minute ν = rω = (25 feet)(6π ) ≈ 471 feet per minute The linear speed of the Ferris wheel is about 471 feet per minute.08 feet per minute. the distance from A to B is 698 miles. We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 30° . 3 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 3 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution 115. 113. ⎛π ⎞ ν = rω = (4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ 4000π = miles per hour 12 ≈ 1047 miles per hour The linear speed is about 1047 miles per hour. We can only use the formula s = rθ when θ is expressed in radians. Answers may vary. π radians 30π 30° = 30° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 π = 6 99. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π radians 10π 10° = 10° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 = π 18 100. radians per hour and 12 r = 4000 miles. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians.Trigonometric Functions 95.5 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution = 5π radians per minute The linear speed of the animals in the outer rows is ν = rω = (20 feet)(5π ) ≈ 100 feet per minute The linear speed of the animals in the inner rows is ν = rω = (10 feet)(5π ) ≈ 50 feet per minute The difference is 100π − 50π = 50π feet per minute or about 157. 97. Linear speed is given by ν = rω .5 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 2. Inc. 98.5 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. 2. Therefore. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . the distance from A to B is 2094 miles. We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 10° . 496 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. We are given that ω= π 101. – 112. ≈ 1508 feet per minute The linear speed of the wheel is about 1508 feet per minute. We are given that r = 12 feet and the wheel rotates at 20 revolutions per minute. 116. We are given that r = 25 feet and the wheel rotates at 3 revolutions per minute. radians ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 698 miles ⎝ 18 ⎠ To the nearest mile.

2 3 If θ = radians = 1. Explanations will vary.5 radians. makes sense 120. 122.2 125. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π 3 2 tan t = ≈ 286 miles To the nearest mile. 2. does not make sense. x = − . 26° = 26° ⋅ 3 3 =− 3 3 13π radians 90 180° 13π s =4000 ⋅ 90 ≈ 1815 miles To the nearest mile. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 26° to radians. Miami. 1 3 126.1] 118. sin π = y = 0 cos π = x = −1 0 y tan π = = =0 x −1 1 1 sec π = = = −1 x −1 x −1 cot π = = = undefined y 0 1 1 cscπ = = = undefined y 0 497 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1] 117. Use x = –1 and y = 0 to find the values of the trigonometric functions. Explanations will vary. domain: { x −1 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [ −1. Sample explanation: It is possible for π to be used in an angle measured using degrees. ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 sin t = y = 2 cos t = x = = 1 2 3 2 y = x csc t = 1 =2 y = 3 3 1 2 3 = x 3 x cot t = = 3 y sec t = 123.2 radians ≈ 1. does not make sense. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 20° to radians. does not make sense. 124. 0). Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. θ is smaller than a 2 right angle. Sample explanation: That will not be possible if the angle is a multiple of 2π . . 20° = 20° ⋅ 100= r= π r 9 900 π π 180° = π 9 radians ⎛ 3 1⎞ P⎜ . a radius of 286 miles should be used. Florida is 1815 miles north of the equator. range: { y −1 ≤ y ≤ 1} or [ −1. Sample explanation: Angles greater than π will exceed a straight angle.57 radians. Explanations will vary. A right angle measures 90° and 90° = π Section 4. Check Point Exercises 1. 121. y = 2 2 1 − x 1 1 = 2 =− =− y 3 3 3 2 119. The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to t = π has coordinates (–1.

3 5 5 1 1 5 = = 2 tan θ 2 5 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 15 8 ⎛ 15 8 ⎞ ⎜ − 17 . cot b. . π π 4 = x = y 1 y 1 2 6. 8 sin t = y = 17 15 cos t = x = − 17 8 tan t = 8 y = 1715 = − 15 x − 17 1 17 = y 8 1 17 sec t = = − x 15 x 15 cot t = = − y 8 csc t = 498 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7071 Exercise Set 4. 1 1 3 = = sin θ 2 2 3 1 1 3 = = sec θ = cos θ 5 5 3 csc θ = = cot θ = 3 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 1 4 3 3 = 4 2 cos t = a. ⎛ 9π cos ⎜ − ⎝ 4 a. 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ a. Use x = − 17 and y = 17 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions.5 ≈ 1.Trigonometric Functions 3. ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ π 1 csc = = 2 4 y π 1 sec = = 2 4 x t= cot 4. csc 1. P⎜ . 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ − ⎟ = − sin ⎜ ⎟ = − 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < 7. 2 ⎛1⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ cos 2 t = 1 − =1 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = sec ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝4⎠ b. = 1 π . 17 ⎟ . 2 sin θ = 3 tan θ = cos θ 5 3 2 3 2 = ⋅ = 3 5 5 2 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 2 5 5 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. sin b.2 1.0025 π 4 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = cos ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ≈ 0. ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ . 5. cos t is positive.0≤t < 2 2 sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 sin t = π 2 . Inc.

sin π 6. Section 4. cos 5π 3 =− 6 2 8. csc 4π 1 −2 3 = = 3 3 3 − 2 13. Inc. 2 sin t = y = 2 2 cos t = x = − 2 x=− 1 13 =− 12 y 1 13 sec t = = − x 5 x 5 cot t = = y 12 csc t = 3. tan 0 = 0 =0 1 11. . − 13 ⎟ Use x = − 13 and y = − 13 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions. 12 sin t = y = − 13 5 cos t = x = − 13 12 − 12 y tan t = = 13 = 5 5 x − 13 4. sin π 7. tan π = 0 =0 −1 10. 2 2 and y = to find the values of the 2 2 trigonometric functions.2 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 5 12 ⎛ 5 12 ⎞ ⎜ − 13 . The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 3π 2 2⎞ t= . sec 11π 1 2 3 = = 3 6 3 sin t = y = − tan t = y − = x 2 2 2 2 y = 2 = −1 x − 2 2 = −1 1 =− 2 y 1 sec t = = 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = 6 3 = = 1 2 3 2 2 499 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use x = t = − has coordinates ⎜⎜ 4 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 and y = − to find the values of the trigonometric 2 functions. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 2 2 cos t = x = 2 5. cos 2π 1 =− 3 2 9.PreCalculus 4E 2. Use has coordinates ⎜ − ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ 2 tan t = 1 = 2 y 1 sec t = = − 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 2 2 2⎞ π . csc 7π 1 = 1 = −2 6 −2 12. .− ⎟⎟ .

tan 5π ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 3 = 3 ⎠ 500 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 2 tan 8 15 3 5 4 5 = 3 4 5 3 5 sec t = 4 4 cot t = 3 5π 1 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 6 = − 2 ⎠ 27. 22. sec 5π 1 = 1 =2 3 2 24. tan 3π = undefined 2 b. a. b. a. cos t = 17 17 17 8 17 sec t = 15 15 cot t = 8 π 1 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 3 3 2 ⎝ ⎠ sin sin t = 11π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 6 = 3 ⎠ csc t = π 3 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 6 6 2 ⎝ ⎠ cos ⎛ 11π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 tan t = 3 2 = 11π − 12 3 = =− 3 6 3 2 15. 1 2 2 sin t = . π 3 = 26. 23. cos t = 5 5 tan t = 5π 1 = 6 2 ⎛ 5π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 6 8 15 . a. 21. Inc. cos π 6 b.Trigonometric Functions 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. cos 3π =0 2 17. a. 19. cos t = 3 3 tan t = 1 3 2 2 3 = 2 4 csc t = 3 2π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 3 = − 2 ⎠ 3 2 4 cot t = 2 2 sec t = 3 5π − 2 = 1 =− 3 3 2 ⎛ 5π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 3 = csc t = 2π 3 = sin 3 2 ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 8 17 15 17 3 4 sin t = . b. 25. sin 3π = −1 2 16. b. a. 20. b. a. sec 3π = undefined 2 18. .

sin 2 π 2 15 15 = 64 8 π 33. sin t = tan t = Section 4. cos t is positive. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 ⎛6⎞ 2 ⎜ 7 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < π 2 2 36 49 cos t = .7 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ sin1.3 sec 2. sin 2 π 36.7 csc1. cos t = 3 3 2 3 5 3 = 31.7 ⎠ 34. ⎛ 1 ⎞ cos 2. 0 ≤ t < 8 2 cos t = 2 21 π . = 1 because sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1. 0 ≤ t < 7 2 32. 2 ⎛7⎞ 2 ⎜ 8 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ π 21 25 4 2 = 25 5 cos 2 t = 1 − sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 Because 0 ≤ t < . 2 .3 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ cos 2.2 2 5 . 37.3 = cos 2. cos t is positive. = 1 because 1 + cot 2 t = csc 2 t. cos t is positive. cos t is positive. Publishing as Prentice Hall. sec2 π 38.3 ⎠ 35. Because 0 ≤ t < 49 cos t = 1 − 64 2 .0≤t < 8 2 sin t = 6 3 + cos 2 + cos 2 π 2 π 3 = 1 by the Pythagorean identity.7 = sin1. ⎛ 21 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 5 ⎝ ⎠ 7 π sin t = .0≤t < 5 2 sin t = 13 13 = 49 7 cos t = π sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 cos 2 t = 1 − 30. 501 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. csc2 π 3 6 − tan 2 − cot 2 π 3 π 6 = 1 because 1 + tan 2 t = sec 2 t. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 5 5 2 ⎛ 39 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 8 ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 3 5 sec t = 5 csc t = cot t = 29.PreCalculus 4E 28. . ⎛ 1 ⎞ sin1. 39 π . 39 64 25 5 = 64 8 cos 2 t = 1 − cos t = 5 2 Because 0 ≤ t < 6 π sin t = .

51. ⎛ 5π cot ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎟ = cot ⎜ 4 − 2π ⎟ = cot 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 46. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 53. a. a. a. . sin π 2 =1 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 4π ⎟ = sin = 1 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 502 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ 9π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 4 + 3π ⎟ = tan 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 47. sin 3π 2 = 4 2 b. cos ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 π 2 =0 9π ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 4π ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎡π ⎤ = cos ⎢ + 2(2π ) ⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ = cos π 2 =0 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 56. ⎛ 9π sec ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sec ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sec 4 = 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 43. cos 3π 2 =− 4 2 π ⎛π ⎞ − tan ⎜ + 15π ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝4 ⎠ b. a. Inc. cot 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 45. 49. cos 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos =− 4 4 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ π ⎛π ⎞ − cot ⎜ + 17π ⎟ = − cot = −1 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 55. 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Trigonometric Functions 39. csc 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = csc ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = csc = 2 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 41. cos b. 52. cos 9π π 2 ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 40. 50. tan 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = tan ⎜ + π ⎟ = tan = 1 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 44. sin 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = sin = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 54. sin b. ⎛ 9π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π 2 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sin 4 = − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 42.

tan 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 tan π = 57. cot 71. 3cos( −t ) − cos t = 3cos t − cos t = 2cos t = 2b 75. b. . a. 4 cos(−t ) − cos t = 4 cos t − cos t = 3cos t = 3b 74. sin(−t ) − sin t = − sin t − sin t = −2sin t = −2a 72.6713 = a −b+c 47π ⎛ 7π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 10π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 76. sin(−t − 2π ) − cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) = −a − b + c 7π 2 = 4 2 78.7174 cos t + cos(t + 1000π ) − tan t − tan(t + 999π ) − sin t + 4sin(t − 1000π ) 62.8253 = cos t + cos t − tan t − tan t − sin t + 4sin t 63. 61. cos 68.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. ≈ 3. tan( −t ) − tan t = − tan t − tan t = −2 tan t = −2c 73.8508 67.1884 = − cos t + 7 cos t + tan t + tan t + sin t + sin t 66. sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) 12 π 18 ≈ 5. cos 0. 0 =0 −1 tan17π = tan(π + 16π ) b. sin π 10 − cos t + 7 cos(t + 1000π ) + tan t + tan(t + 999π ) = 6 cos t + 2 tan t + 2sin t = 2a + 6b + 2c ≈ 0. sec 1 ≈ 1. sin(−t − 2π ) + cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) + cos(t ) + tan(t ) 47π 7π 2 ⎛ 7π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 10π ⎟ = cos = cos 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ = −a + b + c 79.7321 cot = sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) ⎡ 7π ⎤ = sin ⎢ + 5 ( 2π ) ⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎦ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 60. cot cot π 2 = 0 =0 1 15π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + 7π ⎟ = cot = 0 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 7π 2 =− sin 4 2 sin b. sin 0.4 ≈ 0.9511 3π ≈ 0.6247 80. a. Inc.6 ≈ 0. 59. cos 70. a.2643 = 3a + 2b − 2c = 2 cos t − 2 tan t + 3sin t 64. + sin t + sin(t − 1000π ) 65. b. tan 3. π 69.8090 10 503 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 ≈ 0. a. sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) − tan(t + π ) = sin(t ) + cos(t ) − tan(t ) = a+b−c 77. csc 1 ≈ 1.7 ≈ 0. = tan[π + 8(2π )] = tan π =0 58.

a. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8.3sin1.. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8.3998 There are about 14.7339 ⋅ 7 = sin π 2 =1 b. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin1.M. 504 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c. ≈ 9. a.5837 = 10 + 4sin π 6 ⋅3 π = 10 + 4(1) = 14 2 The height is 14 feet. . ≈ 20. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅0 6 = 10 + 4sin 0 = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.3 There are about 20.3sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ = 12 + 8. At midnight. t = 18. c. t = 0. E = sin ⋅ 35 = sin Because E(35) = E(7) = 1. π ⋅14 = sin π = 0 ⋅ 21 = sin 3π = −1 2 ⋅ 28 = sin 2π = sin 0 = 0 5π π = sin = 1 14 2 2 Observations may vary. 82.3 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on June 21. ≈ 14. For t = 7.7339 π 6 ⋅6 = 10 + 4sin π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.3sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8. π For t = 14. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ 12 + 24sin 0 = 12 + 24(0) = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in San Diego on March 21.3sin 0 = 12 + 8.3sin 4.6 hours of daylight in San Diego on December 21.M. ≈ 3.6 There are about 9. E = sin b. b. At 6 P. At noon. a. a. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin 4. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. t = 12.7 There are about 3..M. 14 14 For t = 21. the period is 35 – 7 = 28 or 28 days.3(0) 83.Trigonometric Functions 81. E = sin = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on March 21. At 6 A. t = 3. E = sin π 14 For t = 35. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 84..3sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅12 6 = 10 + 4sin 2π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.7 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on December 21.5837 E = sin π π 14 For t = 28.4 hours of daylight in San Diego on June 21. t = 6. Inc. At 9 A.

M. a period of 2π we also find a maximum at 2 π 5π or t = 15. At 3 A. 2 100. makes sense 505 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. t is in the third quadrant therefore sin t < 0. tan t > 0. – 96. Sample explanation: Cosine is not an odd function.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. t = 21. Thus. Answers may vary. high tide is at 9 A. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 104. From part a. Thus.7 You are about 16. This 6 2 value of t corresponds to 9 a. and ends at t = 2π 6 2 6 or t = 12. and 9 P. the height at 9 A. and 3 P. starts at t= c 2 = 169 c = 13 Next write the ratio. . 101.m. Inc. The sine function has a minimum at h = 10 + 4sin π 3π .58 < −1.M. Explanations will vary. This value of t corresponds to 3 P. Explanations will vary.M. f ( x) = sin x and f (a) = 1 ⎛1⎞ − 2⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝4⎠ 1 =− 4 f(–a) = –f(a) because sin (–x) = –sin x.7 feet above the ground. The height is given by h = 45 + 40 sin(t – 90°) h(765°) = 45 + 40sin(765° − 90°) ≈ 16. From part a. First find the hypotenuse. We find another high tide at t = 6 2 This value of t corresponds to 9 P. Thus. H = 10 + 4sin 99. 2π ] . does not make sense. c2 = a2 + b2 The period of the sine function is 2π or on the interval [0. the period is 12 hours.M. = . The cycle of the sine function π c 2 = 52 + 122 c 2 = 25 + 144 5π π or t = 0. π or t = 3. 105.M. which means high and low tides occur every 12 hours. ⋅18 6 = 10 + 4sin 3π = 10 + 4 sin π Note that − = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. b. π ⋅9 6 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 2 The height is 6 feet.2 H = 10 + 4sin π 98. we find a high tide at π t= π 2 1 4 f (a) + 2 f (−a) = f (a) − 2 f (a) 103. Thus. only choice (c) is true. π ⋅ 21 6 7π 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4sin 2 2 = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 The height is 6 feet. makes sense 3π or 6 2 t = 9. 2 1 4 f (a) + f (a + 2π ) + f (a + 4π ) + f (a + 6π ) 102. For t = 9. c. the height at 3 A.M. low tide is at 3 A. Because the sine has 5π .M. a 5 = c 13 85.M. f ( x) = sin x and f (a ) = ⎛1⎞ = 4 f (a) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 because sin x has a ⎝4⎠ period of 2π . and cot t > 0.. t= The sine function has a maximum at 10 ≈ −1. Thus. Thus. Sample explanation: sin t cannot be less than −1. Sine is an odd function. 97. is 14 feet.M. we find a low tide at does not make sense. is also 6 feet.

we have opposite 3 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 adjacent 4 = cos θ = hypotenuse 5 opposite 3 = tan θ = adjacent 4 hypotenuse 5 = csc θ = opposite 3 hypotenuse 5 = sec θ = adjacent 4 adjacent 4 = cot θ = opposite 3 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ 107. a2 + b2 c2 Use the Pythagorean Theorem. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. and hypotenuse. adjacent.3 2 Check Point Exercises c 2 = 12 + 12 1. to find b.Trigonometric Functions 106. a 1 = c 2 = 1 2 ⋅ 2 2 = 2 2 2 c 2 = a 2 + b 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 c = 25 = 5 Referring to these lengths as opposite. a = 3. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . 2 2 c = a +b Section 4. continue simplifying by substituting c 2 for a 2 + b2 . opposite 1 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 cos θ = adjacent 2 6 = hypotenuse 5 opposite 1 6 = = adjacent 2 6 12 hypotenuse 5 = =5 csc θ = opposite 1 tan θ = sec θ = hypotenuse 5 5 6 = = adjacent 12 2 6 cot θ = adjacent 2 6 = =2 6 opposite 1 506 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . 2 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ ⎜ c ⎟ +⎜ c ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ c c = 2. First find the hypotenuse. ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝c⎠ ⎝c⎠ c c = a 2 + b2 c2 Since c 2 = a 2 + b2 . c2 = 1 + 1 c2 = 2 c= 2 Next write the ratio and simplify. to find c. b = 4 c 2 a + b2 1 + b 2 = 25 c2 b 2 = 24 c2 = 2 c =1 b = 24 = 2 6 Note that side a is opposite θ and side b is adjacent to θ . a 2 + b2 = c2 12 + b 2 = 52 2 = Use the Pythagorean Theorem.

cot π ⎛π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ 12 ⎝ 2 12 ⎠ ⎛ 6π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 12 ⎠ 5π = tan 12 Because we have a known angle.3 Apply the definitions of these three trigonometric functions. . tan 60° = length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 3 = 3 1 length of side opposite 30° tan 30° = length of side adjacent to 30° = 1 = 5. we select the tangent function. 6. Section 4. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. sin 46o = cos(90o − 46o ) = cos 44o b. and a known adjacent side. 507 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 = 1 3 ⋅ 3 3 = 3 3 a.PreCalculus 4E 3. length of hypotenuse csc 45° = length of side opposite 45° 2 = 2 1 length of hypotenuse sec 45° = length of side adjacent to 45° = 2 = 2 1 length of side adjacent to 45° cot 45° = length of side opposite 45° 1 = =1 1 = 4. an unknown opposite side.4452) ≈ 334 The distance across the lake is approximately 334 yards. a tan 240 = 750 a = 750 tan 240 a ≈ 750(0.

Inc. . c 2 = 62 + 82 = 100 c = 100 = 10 opposite 6 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 10 adjacent 8 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 10 opposite 6 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 8 4 hypotenuse 10 csc θ = = = opposite 6 hypotenuse 10 sec θ = = = adjacent 8 adjacent 8 4 cot θ = = = opposite 6 3 3 5 4 5 5 3 5 4 508 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. tan θ = Many Graphing Calculators Many Scientific Calculators TAN −1 ( 14 ÷ 10 ) TAN ( 14 ÷ 10 ) ENTER ENTER The display should show approximately 54. c 2 = 92 + 122 = 225 c = 225 = 15 opposite 9 3 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 adjacent 12 4 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 opposite 9 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 12 4 hypotenuse 15 5 csc θ = = = opposite 9 3 hypotenuse 15 5 sec θ = = = adjacent 12 4 adjacent 12 4 cot θ = = = opposite 9 3 2. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 54°.Trigonometric Functions 7. Exercise Set 4. side opposite 14 = side adjacent 10 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .3 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

. Section 4. a 2 = 841 − 441 = 400 b 2 = 676 − 100 = 576 a = 400 = 20 opposite 20 = = hypotenuse 29 adjacent 21 = = hypotenuse 29 opposite 20 = = adjacent 21 hypotenuse 29 = = opposite 20 hypotenuse 29 = = adjacent 21 adjacent 21 = = opposite 20 b = 576 = 24 opposite 10 5 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 adjacent 24 12 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 opposite 10 5 = = = adjacent 24 12 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = opposite 10 5 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = adjacent 24 12 adjacent 24 12 = = = opposite 10 5 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ a 2 + 152 = 17 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 102 + b 2 = 262 6.PreCalculus 4E 3. a 2 + 212 = 292 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 4. a 2 + 402 = 412 a 2 = 289 − 225 = 64 a 2 = 1681 − 1600 = 81 a = 64 = 8 opposite 8 = = hypotenuse 17 adjacent 15 = = hypotenuse 17 opposite 8 = = adjacent 15 hypotenuse 17 = = opposite 8 hypotenuse 17 = = adjacent 15 adjacent 15 = = opposite 8 a = 81 = 9 opposite 9 = = hypotenuse 41 adjacent 40 = = hypotenuse 41 opposite 9 = = adjacent 40 hypotenuse 41 = = opposite 9 hypotenuse 41 = = adjacent 40 adjacent 40 = = opposite 9 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 509 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 5.

a = 1225 − 441 = 784 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 8. tan 30° = = π 3 2 = 2 1 = tan 60° = 14.Trigonometric Functions 7. length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 1 3 − cos = π 4 1 3 17. Inc. = 10. csc θ sec θ cot θ 9. b = 49 = 7 opposite 24 = = hypotenuse 25 adjacent 7 = = hypotenuse 25 opposite 24 = = adjacent 7 hypotenuse 25 = = opposite 24 hypotenuse 25 = = adjacent 7 adjacent 7 = = opposite 24 cos 30° = tan = b = 625 − 576 = 49 tan θ length of hypotenuse length of side opposite 45° csc 45° = = 2 cos θ 2 = 2 1 = 242 + b 2 = 252 sin θ length of hypotenuse length of side adjacent to 45° sec 45° = cot π 3 sin π 4 3 = 3 1 = cot 60° = = 15. a 2 + 212 = 352 11. . 13. tan π 4 + csc π 6 ⋅ 1 2 3 3 ⋅ 3 3 = − 1 2 =0 ⎞ ⎟⎟ − 1 ⎠ 6 −1 4 6 −4 = 4 = length of side opposite 30° length of side adjacent to 30° 1 3 3 1 2 = + = 1+ 2 = 3 1 1 π π π ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 sin cos − tan = ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 4 4 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 3 2 = 3 = = tan 45° + csc 30° length of side adjacent to 30° length of hypotenuse 1 3 = sin 45° − cos 45° = 16. cos π 3 sec π 3 − cot π 3 = 1− 3 3− 3 = 3 3 3 3 510 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. length of side adjacent to 60° length of side opposite 60° 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a = 784 = 28 opposite 28 4 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 adjacent 21 3 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 opposite 28 4 = = = adjacent 21 3 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = opposite 28 4 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = adjacent 21 3 adjacent 21 3 = = = opposite 28 4 12.

cos 30. sin 23° = c= 5π ⎞ ⎟ = cot 14 ⎠ 34. csc 35° = sec(90° − 35°) = sec55° 25.PreCalculus 4E 19. Inc. 2π ⎛ π 2π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 5 ⎝2 5 ⎠ ⎛ 5π 4π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 10 ⎠ = sin a 13 a = 13sin 34° sin 34° = 16 16 ≈ ≈ 41 m sin 23° 0.3907 tan 44° = b= 16 c 23 b 23 23 ≈ ≈ 24 yd tan 44° 0. ⎛π π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝2 9⎠ ⎛ 9π 2π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 18 18 ⎠ 7π = cot 18 π ⎛π π ⎞ ⎛ 7π 2π = cot ⎜ − ⎟ = cot ⎜ − 7 ⎝2 7⎠ ⎝ 14 14 a ≈ 13(0. ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 3 ⎞ = 6(1) + ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 6 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 6 = 6+ 6 =7 sin 7° = cos(90° − 7°) = cos83° 22. tan 27. 6 6 12 3 + 6 = 6 =2 3+ 20. . tan 26.7536) ≈ 188 cm π 21.3 + cos π tan 4 π 6 =2 ⎛ 2 ⎝ 2 ( 3 ) + ⎜⎜ ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 28.5592) ≈ 7 m 33. 2 tan π 3 Section 4.8040) ≈ 18 cm 31. csc 25° = sec(90° – 25 ) = sec 65° 24. o 23.8290) ≈ 182 in. a 10 a = 10 tan 61° tan 61° = a ≈ 10(1. cos π 9 32. sin19° = cos ( 90° − 19° ) = cos 71° 3π π ⎛ π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 4π 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − − ⎟ = sin ⎜ ⎟ = sin 8 8 ⎠ 8 ⎝2 8 ⎠ ⎝ 8 a 250 a = 250 tan 37° tan 37° = a ≈ 250(0.9657 π 10 511 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 tan π 4 + sin π 3 sec 29. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b 220 b = 220 cos 34° cos 34° = b ≈ 220(0.

Scientific Calculator . then θ = 0.6252. Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) TAN −1 .9499 SIN-1 SIN-1 . then θ ≈ 0.5117. then θ = 1. then θ ≈ 78°.9499 ENTER If sin θ = 0.2974. 40. then θ ≈ 1.395 Scientific Calculator . then θ ≈ 29° .4169 ENTER . Publishing as Prentice Hall.473 If tan θ = 0.877 COS-1 COS-1 . Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) SIN −1 . Inc.473 512 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Trigonometric Functions 35. . Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .6252 ENTER 78 If tan θ = 4.253 If tan θ = 0.9499.0307 TAN-1 If tan θ = 26. 42.2974 ENTER 17 Scientific Calculator . Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator . 37.877 ENTER Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 29 If cos θ = 0.4112.0307 ENTER Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) COS−1 .0307. 38. Graphing Calculator TAN-1 26.253 radians.4112 ENTER 1.4169 TAN −1 Display (rounded to three places) 1.5117 TAN −1 Graphing Calculator TAN −1 .5117 ENTER Display (rounded to three places) .877. 39.147 radians.6252 TAN −1 TAN −1 4.2974 SIN −1 If sin θ = 0. 41.147 Scientific Calculator . Scientific Calculator 26.4112 COS−1 Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 88 If cos θ = 0.4169. then θ ≈ 17°. then θ ≈ 88°. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 4. 36.395 radians.

csc 37° sec 53° − tan 53° cot 37° = sec 53° sec 53° − tan 53° tan 53° = sec 2 53° − tan 2 53° =1 48.3 π 3 − 1 sec π = 3 1 − 1 2 π cos 6 = 6 3 1 − 1 2 3 2 3 3 − 2 2 =0 = 44.PreCalculus 4E tan 43. cos12° sin 78° + cos 78° sin12° = sin 78° sin 78° + cos 78° cos 78° = sin 2 78° + cos 2 78° =1 513 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 − tan 2 10° + csc 2 80° = 1 − cot 2 80° + csc2 80° = 1 + csc 2 80° − cot 2 80° = 1+1 =2 47. 1 cot π 4 − 2 csc π = 1 1 tan 6 = 1 1 1 − π 1 sin 4 − 2 π 6 2 1 1 2 1 2 = − 1 2 = 1−1 =0 45. . Inc. 2 Section 4. 1 + sin 2 40° + sin 2 50° = 1 + sin 2 (90° − 50°) + sin 2 50° = 1 + cos 2 50° + sin 2 50° = 1+1 =2 46. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

55. 54. 514 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. tan θ = Many Scientific Calculators 125 ÷ 172 = TAN −1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN −1 ( 125 ÷ 172 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 36. f (θ ) = 2 cos θ − cos 2θ π ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ π⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 cos − cos ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎟ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 6⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝3⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 50. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 36°. h 35 h = 35 tan 40° tan 40° = h ≈ 35(0. .8391) ≈ 29 The tree’s height is approximately 29 feet. 1 ⎛π ⎞ tan ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cot θ = 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ 52.Trigonometric Functions 49. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 125 172 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Thus. 1 1 ⎛π ⎞ csc ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sec θ = = 1 =3 θ 2 cos ⎝ ⎠ 3 53. a 630 a = 630 tan 40° tan 40° = a ≈ 630(0. f (θ ) = 2 sin θ − sin θ 2 π π ⎛π ⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 sin − sin 3 3 2 ⎝3⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 51.8391) ≈ 529 The distance across the lake is approximately 529 yards.

55 80 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .01 sinθ 0.2955 0. Answers may vary. 60. a 5000 a = 5000sin 5° ≈ 5000(0. sin 5° = 60 75 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . sin10° = 500 c 500 500 ≈ ≈ 2880 sin10° 0.0001 9.999999998 515 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.99998 θ sin θ approaches 1 as θ approaches 0.2 0.0872) = 436 The driver’s increase in altitude was approximately 436 feet.0998 0. Inc.1 0.999998 × 10 −4 9.3 555 1320 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .9933 0. – 67. 68.00001 1 × 10 −5 1 . 0. cos θ = 61. 59. 57. θ 0. Section 4. Many Scientific Calculators Many Graphing Calculators -1 55 ÷ 80 = COS COS-1 ( 55 ÷ 80 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 47.PreCalculus 4E 56. cos θ = Many Scientific Calculators 60 ÷ 75 = COS Many Graphing Calculators −1 COS−1 ( 60 ÷ 75 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 37. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 0. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 37°. θ 0.0099998 sin θ 0.1736 The plane has flown approximately 2880 feet.9983 0. Thus. Thus.3894 0.001 0.1987 0. c= 58. Thus.9736 0. the angle of elevation is approximately 23°. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 47°.99999998 × 10 −5 0.9851 0.3 0.9999998 0. tan Many Scientific Calculators 555 ÷ 1320 = TAN-1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN-1 ( 555 ÷ 1320 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 23.

false. Explanations will vary.00001 0.00005 0 θ cos θ − 1 θ approaches 0 as θ approaches 0. At 90°.0005 1 –0.999999995 –0. true 76. Explanations will vary. .1 0. does not make sense.99500 0.9999 tanθ 1. θ 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: 75. true tan 45° ⎛ 45° ⎞ ≠ tan ⎜ ⎟ tan15° ⎝ 15° ⎠ 78.9 89.958 As θ approaches 90°. Sample explanation: The sine and cosine are cofunctions of each other.19735 –0. 70. tanθ is undefined.2 0.0001 0.99 89. tanθ increases without bound.099667 –0. Irrational numbers are rounded on calculators.04996 –0. Use a calculator in degree mode to generate the following table. 79. Sample explanation: This value is irrational. makes sense 74. θ 60 70 80 89 89.001 0.9999995 0. does not make sense. 516 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the hypotenuse is greater than either other side. does not make sense. Sample explanation: An increase in the size of a triangle does not affect the ratios of the sides.92106 0. The sine and cosine are not reciprocals of each other.01 cos θ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 0. Explanations will vary.95534 0.Trigonometric Functions 69. 73. Inc. A sample change is: sin 45° + cos 45° = 77. 72.148878 –0. false.6713 57 573 5730 57.7321 2.999 89. 71. Therefore both 1 2 + 1 2 = 2 2 ≠1 opposite adjacent and must be hypotenuse hypotenuse less than 1 for an acute angle in a right triangle. In a right triangle.99995 cos θ − 1 –0.7475 5.98007 0.296 572. Then use the table to describe what happens to the tangent of an acute angle as the angle gets close to 90°.005 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.3 0.

Select the point P = (1. b. Section 4. Inc. y. which is r 34 34 34 34 negative. b. y = 0. θ = 90° = x r First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = 34 x −3 −3 34 −3 34 = = ⋅ = . b.4 Let a = distance of the ship from the lighthouse.4040) ≈ 144 sin θ = a. θ = 0° = 0 radians The terminal side of the angle is on the positive x-axis.4 Check Point Exercises 1. Select the point P = (0.7002 The ship is approximately 357 feet from the lighthouse. 81. and r. Let b = the plane’s height above the lighthouse. a. x 1 cos 0° = cos 0 = = = 1 r 1 r 1 csc 0° = csc 0 = = . θ′ = π − 5π 6π 5π π = − = 6 6 6 6 10 = 10 1 1 1 =− −3 3 a. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. r = x2 + y2 π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive y-axis. x 1 10 = = r 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = = −3 x 1 r 10 10 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 y r r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = (−3) 2 + 42 r =5 y 4 = . r 5 82. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . which is positive. 250 tan 35° = a 250 250 a= ≈ ≈ 357 tan 35° 0. Section 4. a.PreCalculus 4E 80. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions.0): x = 1. undefined y 0 b. a. . θ ′ = 360D − 345D = 15D b. y = 1. 2.1): x = 0. b tan 22° = 357 b = 357 tan 22° ≈ 357(0. r = 12 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. y −3 3 10 = =− r 10 10 cos θ = 144 + 250 = 394 The plane is approximately 394 feet above the water. r = (−3)2 + 52 83. π x 0 cos 90° = cos = = = 0 2 r 1 π r 1 csc 90° = csc = = = 1 2 y 1 517 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Because –240° lies between –180° and –270°. with sin θ < 0. Select the point P = (–1.14 and 3π ≈ 4. 15π 15π 8π 7π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 This angle is in quadrant IV. d. 3π x 0 cos 270° = cos = = =0 2 r 1 3π r 1 csc 270° = csc = = = −1 2 y −1 c. thus the reference − angle is θ ′ = Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. thus the reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 305° = 55° . θ cannot lie in quadrant I. tan 4 4 tan 518 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 665° − 360° = 305° This angle is in quadrant IV. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . 5π π = + tan = 1 . In quadrant II.0): x = −1. y. a. y = 0. thus the reference 7π 8π 7π π = − = . We are also given that cos θ < 0 . y = 1 Furthermore. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. . all the functions are positive in quadrant I. it is in quadrant III. we can find sin θ and sec θ .6 − π ≈ 0. c. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which cosine is negative and the sine is negative. it is in quadrant II.6 lies between π ≈ 3. b. Furthermore. y 1 1 10 10 sin θ = = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 sec θ = 7π 3π 6π = and lies between 4 2 4 r 10 10 = =− x 3 −3 3 . undefined y 0 5. sin 60° = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. and r. The reference angle is 4 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = . 4 4 4 4 2π = 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative y-axis. y = −1. Because 8π . 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = 3 x −3 x = −3. a. Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. a. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. Thus. angle is θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 11π 11π 12π π + 2 ⋅ 2π = − + = 3 3 3 3 This angle is in quadrant I. 2 5π lies in quadrant III. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. The reference angle is θ = 240 − 180 = 60° . it is in quadrant IV. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . θ cannot lie in quadrant II. sin θ is positive in quadrant II. x is negative and y is positive. 7. 4. it is in quadrant III. The reference 4 7π 8π 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = − = .Trigonometric Functions c.71 . The reference 2 angle is θ ′ = 3. 4 4 4 4 π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. x −1 cos180° = cos π = = = −1 r 1 r 1 csc180° = csc π = = . π 3 . Because 3. Select the point P = (0. Because sin θ < 0. 300° lies in quadrant IV. θ = 180° = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative x-axis. sin 300° = − sin 60° = − b. θ lies in quadrant II. 3.46 . b. d. Thus.–1): x = 0. θ = 270° = 6.

and r. Because P = (–4.4 Exercise Set 4. sin We need values for x. y. Furthermore. = r 5 5 = =− 4 x −4 4 x −4 cot θ = = =− 3 3 y sec θ = 17π 5π π 3 = cos = − cos = − . y. x = −4 and y = 3 . 6 3 ⎝ 6⎠ 8. and r. Publishing as Prentice Hall. We need values for x. y. 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = lies in quadrant 6 6 6 6 5π π II. . y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 cos θ = = =− 5 5 r 3 3 y tan θ = = =− 4 x −4 r 5 csc θ = = y 3 π 2 3 ⎛ π⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = + sec = . The reference angle is 2π π = . π 2 3 = 6 3 Because the secant is positive in quadrant IV. Because P = (–12. 6 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. a. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + 52 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . 5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . y 5 sin θ = = r 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− 13 13 r 5 5 y tan θ = = =− 12 x −12 −22π 2π π 3 = sin = sin = . . and r. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Furthermore. sec r = x 2 + y 2 = (−4)2 + 32 = 16 + 9 = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. 6 6 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 . The reference angle is 6 θ′ = π 6 1. θ′ = π − 3 3 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 sin = . − π Section 4. 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II.4 lies in quadrant IV. Inc. 3 3 3 2 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = − 5 5 y csc θ = 519 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E c. 6 6 6 2 −22π −22π 24π 2π + 8π = + = lies in 3 3 3 3 quadrant II. y. cos cos b. 2. The reference angle is θ ′ = π − = . and r. x = −12 and y = 5 .

3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . x = 5 and y = –5 . 5. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Furthermore. and r. and r. y. and r. r = x 2 + y 2 = 5 + (−5)2 = 25 + 25 = 50 7 7 58 7 58 y = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 −5 −1 2 2 y = = ⋅ =− 2 r 5 2 2 2 5 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 5 2 2 2 y −5 = −1 tan θ = = 5 x r 5 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −5 y cos θ = 58 3 sec θ = −3 −1 2 2 y = =− ⋅ =− 2 r 3 2 2 2 cos θ = 13 2 sec θ = We need values for x. Because P = (5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y. Inc. and r. 2 sin θ = 2 2 2 = 18 = 3 2 Now that we know x. and r. y. 6. Furthermore. sin θ = =5 2 Now that we know x. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 3 3 58 3 58 x = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 y 7 tan θ = = x 3 58 r csc θ = = 7 y sin θ = cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y We need values for x. 3 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 3 2 2 2 y −3 = −1 tan θ = = x 3 r 3 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −3 y r 3 2 = = 2 3 x 3 x = −1 cot θ = = y −3 sec θ = 2 3 We need values for x. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Furthermore. x = 2 and y = 3 . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . and r. We need values for x. Because P = (3. y. y. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + 7 2 = 9 + 49 = 58 Now that we know x. . Furthermore. Because P = (3. 3 7 r 5 2 = = 2 5 x 5 x = −1 cot θ = = y −5 sec θ = 520 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y. and r. 3 3 13 3 13 y = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 sin θ = 2 2 13 2 13 x = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 y 3 tan θ = = x 2 13 r csc θ = = 3 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y 4. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + (−3) 2 = 9 + 9 r = x + y = 2 + 3 = 4 + 9 = 13 Now that we know x. Because P = (2. 7) is a point on the terminal side of θ . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . y.Trigonometric Functions 3. and r. x = 3 and y = 7 . y. x = 3 and y = −3 . –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ .

Select the point P = (–1. cot π 2 521 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . x −1 cos π = = = −1 r 1 3π y −1 = = . x = −2 and y = −5 . y. r 1 csc π = = . Because P = (–2. 0): x = −1. y = –1. 10. 0): x = −1. 13. y. x = –1 and y = –3 . Section 4. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. 29 29 =− −2 2 −2 2 = −5 5 We need values for x. y. y = 0. 0): x = −1. tan −3 −3 10 3 10 y = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 14. Furthermore. Select the point P = (–1. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosecant function. r = 1 Apply the definition of the θ= 10 = − 10 −1 −1 1 = −3 3 15. y 0 =0 tan π = = x −1 11. and r.4 We need values for x. y = −1. –1): x = 0. Select the point P = (–1. r = 1 Apply the definition of the secant function. Select the point P = (–1. = x 0 = =0 y 1 . –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . y = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. Select the point P = (0. sin θ = tangent function. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−1) 2 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. 0): x = −1. sin θ = −5 −5 29 5 29 y = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 −2 −2 29 2 29 x = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 y −5 5 tan θ = = = x −2 2 29 29 r =− csc θ = = −5 5 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 8.PreCalculus 4E 7. 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. Furthermore. y = 0. y = 0. −1 −1 10 10 x cos θ = = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = =3 x −1 10 10 r =− csc θ = = −3 3 y r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 9. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . y. r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. 3π x 0 = = =0 cos 2 r 1 θ= θ= π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. Select the point P = (0. –1): x = 0. undefined x 0 2 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. and r. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . 1): x = 0. undefined y 0 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−2) 2 + (−5) 2 = 4 + 25 = 29 Now that we know x. and r. y = 1. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cotangent function. Because P = (–1. Select the point P = (0. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. Inc. and r. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. r 1 = −1 sec π = = x −1 12.

θ cannot lie in quadrant III or quadrant IV. with sin θ < 0. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. x = –3. r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. Because tan θ < 0. Thus. π y 1 tan = = . Inc. Because quadrant I is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and sine is positive. the cotangent function is negative in those two quadrants. with sin θ > 0. x is negative and y is negative. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. Because tan θ < 0. In quadrant III x is negative and y is negative. x2 + y 2 = r 2 20. 24. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant II. Because cot θ > 0. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. We are also given that sec θ < 0 . x −5 5 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 y −12 12 tan θ = = = x −5 5 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −12 12 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −5 5 x −5 5 cot θ = = = y −12 12 21. y. the sine function is negative in those quadrants. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. 4 y −4 sin θ = = =− 5 5 r y −4 4 tan θ = = = x −3 3 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 3 x −3 3 = cot θ = = y −4 4 18. 5 r 5 r 2 = x2 + y2 17. We are also given that sin θ < 0 . we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. 52 = (−3) 2 + y 2 y 2 = 25 − 9 = 16 y = − 16 = −4 Now that we know x. Because sin θ < 0. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants.Trigonometric Functions 16. with cot θ > 0. Thus. r = 5. In quadrant III. Because quadrant II is the only quadrant in which the cosine is negative and the tangent is negative. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the secant is negative and the cotangent is positive. with tan θ < 0. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. Thus. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. We are also given that cos θ > 0. with sin θ < 0. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . and r. the tangent function is positive in those two quadrants. Because sin θ < 0. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. y. Thus. 1): x = 0. 13 r 13 Furthermore. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant II. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. θ cannot lie in quadrant II or quadrant IV. x 2 + (−12) 2 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 144 = 25 x = − 25 = −5 Now that we know x. θ= π 22. 522 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant I. θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant III. y = 1. Select the point P = (0. Because sin θ > 0. Thus. 19. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. Thus. 3 x −3 cosθ = − = = . Furthermore. y = −12. 12 y −12 sin θ = − = = . the tangent function is positive in those quadrants. undefined 2 x 0 23. radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the sine is negative and the tangent is negative. with tan θ < 0. θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. Thus. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. and r. r = 13 . We are also given that cos θ > 0 . Thus. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. .

we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. In quadrant IV. x = 4. y. and r. y = 5. Furthermore. and r. 1 x cos θ = = . Thus. y. 5 y sin θ = = . y. r = 13 . Because 270° < θ < 360°. r = 3 . y −3 3 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 y −3 3 tan θ = = =− x 4 4 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 r 5 sec θ = = x 4 x 4 4 cot θ = = =− y −3 3 y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. sin θ = y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 tan θ = y −2 2 = = −2 2 x 1 r 3 3 2 3 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 r 3 sec θ = = = 3 x 1 csc θ = cot θ = x 1 1 2 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 523 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because 270° < θ < 360°. Furthermore. Thus. Furthermore. Inc. 5 r 2 2 x + y = r2 28. x = 1. . and r. 3 r 2 2 x + y = r2 42 + y 2 = 52 y 2 = 25 − 16 = 9 12 + y 2 = 32 y = − 9 = −3 Now that we know x. Thus. Furthermore x2 + y 2 = r 2 25. Publishing as Prentice Hall. In quadrant IV x is positive and y is negative. cos θ = tan θ = csc θ = sec θ = cot θ = y 2 = 289 − 64 = 225 y = − 225 = −15 Now that we know x. x is positive and y is negative. θ is in quadrant IV. 13 r x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + 52 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 25 = 144 82 + y 2 = 17 2 x = − 144 = −12 Now that we know x. r = 5 . Thus. y. and r. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 8 x cos θ = = . y −15 15 sin θ = = =− r 17 17 y −15 15 tan θ = = =− x 8 8 r 17 17 csc θ = = =− y −15 15 r 17 sec θ = = x 8 x 8 8 cot θ = = =− y −15 15 x −12 12 = =− r 13 13 y 5 5 = =− x −12 12 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 = =− y 5 5 26. In quadrant II x is negative and y is positive. 17 r r = 17. x is positive and y is negative. 4 x cos θ = = . x = 8.4 27. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . θ is in quadrant IV. In quadrant IV.

Furthermore. θ lies in quadrant II. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + (−4)2 = 9 + 16 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 22 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. y = –4. tan θ = = = 3 x −3 x = –3. x is negative and y is positive. Thus. and r. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y. θ lies in quadrant III. 2 y 2 tan θ = − = = . Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. Thus. sin θ = y 2 2 13 2 13 = = ⋅ = r 13 13 13 13 cos θ = −3 −3 13 x 3 13 = = ⋅ =− r 13 13 13 13 csc θ = r 13 = y 2 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 2. Inc. y = 1. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Thus. y. negative and y is negative. x is 4 y −4 . 5 y −5 tan θ = = = . sin θ = y 1 1 10 10 = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 cos θ = −3 −3 x 10 3 10 = = ⋅ =− r 10 10 10 10 csc θ = r 10 = = 10 y 1 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + (−5)2 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. and r. θ lies in quadrant III. In quadrant III. x = −3 . θ lies in quadrant II. y. Furthermore. x = −3. In quadrant III. y. and r. In quadrant II. x is negative and y is negative. x = −12. y −5 5 sin θ = = =− r 13 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −5 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = = y −5 5 10 10 =− −3 3 −3 = −3 1 524 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 3 x −3 31. and r. 3 x −3 32. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . x is negative and y is positive.Trigonometric Functions 29. Furthermore. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. . y −4 4 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 x −3 3 cos θ = = =− r 5 5 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 x −3 3 cot θ = = = y −4 4 13 13 =− −3 3 −3 3 =− 2 2 30. Thus. 12 x −12 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = . y = −5 . Furthermore. In quadrant II.

y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 x −1 1 cos θ = = =− r 3 3 sin θ = tan θ = 39. Because 44. it is in quadrant IV. Thus. The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 160° = 20° . r 3 3 2 3 2 csc θ = = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 cot θ = x 1 2 2 −1 = = ⋅ = y −2 2 2 2 2 4 7π 3π 6π 8π lies between = and 2π = . Furthermore. Because 160° lies between 90° and 180°. (−1)2 + y 2 = 32 37. Thus. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 351° = 9° . it 4 4 2 4 is in quadrant III. it is in quadrant IV. y −1 5π 4π 3π 6π lies between π = and = . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y −1 1 sin θ = = =− r 4 4 x − 15 15 cos θ = = =− r 4 4 y 1 15 15 −1 tan θ = = = ⋅ = x − 15 15 15 15 sec θ = r 4 4 15 4 15 = =− ⋅ =− x − 15 15 15 15 cot θ = x − 15 = = 15 y −1 43. Because the cosecant is negative and the tangent is positive. The reference angle is 14 5π 7π 5π 2π = − = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 170° = 10° . and r. it is in quadrant II. r 4 csc θ = −4 = = . y. Furthermore. and r. Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. Because 355° lies between 270° and 360°. 38. x is negative and y is negative. The reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° . y −2 2 = =2 2 x −1 40. it is in quadrant III. −150° + 360° = 210° Because the angle is in quadrant III. r = 3 . . 4 4 4 4 42. it is in quadrant III. The reference angle is 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = .4 33. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 36. it is in quadrant II. Because 351° lies between 270° and 360°. Because 170° lies between 90° and 180°. Because x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + (−1) 2 = 42 x 2 = 16 − 1 = 15 5π π 3π 6π lies between = and π = . x −1 x2 + y 2 = r 2 35. x is negative and y is negative. Inc. r 3 sec θ = −3 = = . it 4 2 4 4 is in quadrant IV. it is in quadrant II. Because 5π 10π π 7π = lies between = and 2 14 7 14 14π . The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . θ lies in quadrant III. y = −1. The reference angle is 7π 8π 7π π = − = . θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 41. 525 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. it is 6 2 6 6 in quadrant II. y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. In quadrant III. θ lies in quadrant III. θ′ = π − 7 7 7 7 π= 45. θ′ = π − 6 6 6 6 x = − 15 Now that we know x. Because 34. r = 4 . In quadrant III. the reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . Because the secant is negative and the tangent is positive.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y. Because 205° lies between 180° and 270°. The reference angle is 5π 6π 5π π = − = . x = −1. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 355° = 5° .

tan 30° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 4π = − = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. 11π 11π 16π 5π + 4π = − + = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant III. the reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 110° = 70° .78 . . The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = π − = . 553° − 360° = 193° Because the angle is in quadrant III. 52.71 . 3π ≈ 4. 3 3 − 61. the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = −π = . the reference 3π π angle is θ ′ = π − = . 210° lies in quadrant III. −250° + 360° = 110° Because the angle is in quadrant II. Because 4. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . 3 526 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 58. 6 6 cos 225°= − cos 45°= − 2 . −359° + 360° = 1° Because the angle is in quadrant I. 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. 60.Trigonometric Functions 46. it 2 59.5 lies between 51. 47.28 . the reference angle is θ ′ = 25° . The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . 57.56 . the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . cos 45° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45° . 3 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III.71 and 2π ≈ 6. 300° lies in quadrant IV. 49. 4 4 − 17π 17π 24π 7π + 4π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant III. The reference angle is θ ′ = 2π − 5. 2 it is in quadrant IV. the reference angle is θ ′ = 1° . 3 3 tan 210°= tan 30° = 3 . the reference angle is θ ′ = 193° − 180° = 13° . 6 6 − 25π 25π 36π 11π + 6π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. 50. the reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° . Because 5. 565° − 360° = 205° Because the angle is in quadrant III. 56. 53. 54. 2 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant III.14 and 3π ≈ 4. −335° + 360° = 25° Because the angle is in quadrant I. 4 4 3 . the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = −π = . 48. The reference angle is θ ′ = 4. 2 62. is in quadrant III. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 ≈ 0. 4 4 sin 60° = sin 300° = − sin 60° = − 23π 23π 16π 7π − 4π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant IV.7 − π ≈ 1. Inc. 11π 11π 8π 3π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant II. 6 6 − 13π 13π 18π 5π + 6π = − + = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. the reference 11π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = .7 lies between π ≈ 3. 225° lies in quadrant III. 55. 2 63. the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = .

240° lies in quadrant III. –225° lies in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . sin 9π lies in quadrant I. The reference angle is 4 3π 4π 3π π θ′ = π − = − = . 2 sin(−225°) = sin 45° = . θ′ = 4 4 4 4 tan 2π lies in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 420° − 360° = 60° . The reference angle is 3 2π 3π 2π π θ′ = π − = − = . 420° lies in quadrant I. 3 3 3 3 sin π =1 4 Because the cotangent is negative in quadrant IV. 2 74. 7π π csc = − csc = −2 . 7π π cot = − cot = −1 . 6 6 csc π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. 7π lies in quadrant IV. tan 405°=tan45°=1 . 4 4 4 4 π 2 cos = 4 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. =– cos = − 4 4 2 3 . 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. sec 60° = 2 Because the secant is negative in quadrant III. cos 9π lies on the positive y-axis. 2 2 2 2 π 9π is also Because tan is undefined. 2 sin 45° = π =2 6 Because the cosecant is negative in quadrant III. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . 67. 73. The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45°. . –240° lies in quadrant II. 4 4 cot 527 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 3 2 3π lies in quadrant II. 68.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2π π 3 =sin = . The reference angle is 4 9π 9π 8π π − 2π = − = . θ′ = 6 6 6 6 2 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. 405° lies in quadrant I. 66.4 64. tan 60° = 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. tan 2 2 undefined. θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 65. The reference angle is 2 9π 9π 8π π θ′ = − 4π = − = . Inc. sin 60° = sin(−240°)= sin 60°= 3π π 2 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 405° − 360° = 45° . 71. sec 240° = − sec 60° − 2 . The reference angle is 4 7π 8π 7π π = − = . tan 420°= tan 60°= 3 . 70. tan 45° = 1 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. π 69. 72. 7π lies in quadrant III. The reference angle is 6 7π 7π 6π π −π = − = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9π π tan =tan = 1 4 4 3 = 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II.

⎛ 17π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 86. 2 3 sec 510° = sec150° = − 3 79. lies in quadrant IV. π ⎛ 11π ⎞ = tan = 1 tan ⎜ − ⎟ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 85. The reference angle is 4 θ′ = π 4 76. − π 87. 19π 7π = cot = 3 6 6 11π 5π 11π 5π cos sin + cos 4 6 4 6 ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ =⎜ − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6+ 2 =− 4 =− 80. cos 23π 7π 2 = cos = 4 4 2 82. Inc. cos 35π 11π 3 = cos = 6 6 2 83. tan = sec 495° = sec135° = − 2 78. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝ 4⎠ tan sin 89. =1 4 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. 17π 5π 17π 5π cos sin + cos 3 4 3 4 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 2⎞ = ⎜− − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6− 2 = 4 = 7π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = tan 6 = 3 ⎠ π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = sin 3 = 2 ⎠ 528 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . θ= π ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 − −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ . lies in quadrant IV. − π 6 π cos π − cos π 3 sin 3π 2 3 1 + 2 2 1− 3 = 2 88. cot π 4 cos 0 − sin π 6 cos π 2 1 + 2 2 2 +1 = 2 = 3 ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − .Trigonometric Functions 75. 6 3 ⎝ ⎠ 77. ⎛ 17π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 84. The reference angle is π 3 =− π . cot 13π π 3 = cot = 3 3 3 81. sin ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 1 − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ 3 6 6 3 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. π 1 ⎛ 35π ⎞ = sin = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 6 2 ⎝ 6 ⎠ 90.

⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ 11π ⎞ = h⎜ f ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ sin ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ( h D f ) ⎛⎜ 3π ⎛ 8π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − + cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ = ( −1) 3 + ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2⎞ = 2⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) = 2 3 2 97.PreCalculus 4E 91. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x2 ) ) 2 3 3 − 2 2 3 3 =− 2 =− 93. f ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 .4 3π ⎛ 15π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − − cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1)(1) − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 1 = −1 − 2 2 1 =− − 2 2 3 =− 2 sin 95. 94. 92. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . Inc. 17π ⎝ 3 ( h D g ) ⎛⎜ 96. m= f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ − sin ⎜ 4 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 3π 5π − 2 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ 4π π ⎞ ⎛ 4π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ f⎜ + ⎟+ f ⎜ +f⎜ ⎟ ⎟ 6⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝6⎠ 4 π π 4 π π ⎛ ⎞ = sin ⎜ + ⎟ + sin + sin 6⎠ 3 6 ⎝ 3 3π 4π π = sin + sin + sin 2 3 6 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠ =− ⎞⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ cos ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎛1⎞ = 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ =1 sin =− 3− ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎟ = h⎜ g ⎜ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ π 4 2 −1 + 2 = 3 +1 2 π 4 ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎛ 5π π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ + ⎟+ g⎜ g⎜ ⎟+ g⎜ 6 ⎟ 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π π ⎛ 5π π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + ⎟ + cos + cos 6 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ π 5π = cos π + cos + cos 6 6 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 3 3⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = −1 = ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2 2 −4 π 529 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 4. .

tan θ = − 3 when the reference angle is 3π = 4 θ= π 3 2π = 3 2π 4π θ= . – 109. Explanations will vary. QII π π 3π 4 4 103. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 3 π 4 = π 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is 3 2 in quadrants II or III. QI QII θ =π − . 6 6 π 5π 3 π 3 2π = 3 2π 5π θ= . g ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . Answers may vary. Inc. 3 3 100. QI QIV π θ = 2π − 3 = θ= . tan θ = − π QII 3 5π 3 θ =π − QIV π 6 5π = 6 5π 11π θ= . 104. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ θ =π − 2 π when the reference angle is and θ is 4 2 in quadrants I or II.Trigonometric Functions 98. 110. Sample explanation: Sine is defined for all values of the angle. . cos θ = − 2 2 −4 π 4 5π 4 5π 7π θ= . 530 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g ( x2 ) ) m= 2 π when the reference angle is and 4 2 θ is in quadrants III or IV. does not make sense. cos θ = θ= 7π 4 θ =π + in quadrants II or IV. 4 4 4 = π = π ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ QIV 3 θ = 2π − π 6 11π = 6 105. 101. sin θ = − g ( x2 ) − g ( x1 ) x2 − x1 QIII ⎛ 3π ⎞ cos (π ) − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ = 3π π− 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = θ =π + 99. QII QIII sin θ = θ= θ = 2π − 102. 4 θ =π − 4 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is in 3 2 quadrants I or IV. π 3 4π = 3 π 3 and θ is QIV θ = 2π − π 3 5π = 3 3 π when the reference angle is and 6 3 θ is in quadrants II or IV.

0 2π ⎞ ⎛ 115. Since a. 5π is in quadrant III. the reference angle 3 5π 6π 5π π is 2π − = − = 3 3 3 3 c. y = 4 sin ⎜ 2 x − 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x = radians =− 0 8 18 180° −105° = −105° ⋅ 1 114. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. y = 3sin x 0 y 0 7π 12 4 π 2 5π 6 0 10π radians 180 π radians 180° =− 105π radians 180 7π radians 12 π π 3. Sample explanation: It is also possible that y = −3 and x = −5. Explanations will vary. − 19π 19π 24π 5π + 6π = − + = 4 4 4 4 b. 113. . y = cos(4 x + π ) 2 x − π π radians 13π 12 −4 4π 3 0 13π 13π radians 180o radians = − ⋅ π radians 20 20 o = −117 11π 11π 6π 5π − 2π = − = 3 3 3 3 b. x 1 5 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 7 3 3 0 − 2 2 11 4 3 3 −3 − 0 2 3 6. does not make sense. 8 4 1 2 5π 5π radians 180o radians = ⋅ = 75o 12 12 π radians 4. 2. 10° = 10° ⋅ = 112. a. the reference angle 4 5π 5π 4π π −π = − = is 4 4 4 4 Since 531 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense π − 4 1 2 y π 0 1 − 2 y π 3 0 116. Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 1. Sample explanation: Sine and cosecant have the same sign within any quadrant because they are reciprocals of each other. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 111. 5π is in quadrant IV. − 5. c.

y. Use the Pythagorean theorem to find b. and r. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . sec θ = hypotenuse 6 6 11 = = adjacent 11 11 cot θ = adjacent 11 = opposite 5 r = x2 + y2 r = 32 + (−2) 2 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. sin θ = −2 2 13 y = =− 13 r 13 3 3 13 x = = 13 r 13 2 y −2 tan θ = = =− 3 3 x 13 13 r =− csc θ = = −2 2 y cos θ = 13 r = 3 x 3 3 x =− cot θ = = 2 y −2 sec θ = 532 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the reference angle is 180° − 150° = 30° cos θ = r = x2 + y2 2 adjacent 11 = hypotenuse 6 opposite 5 11 = adjacent 11 hypotenuse 6 = csc θ = opposite 5 tan θ = 2 9 16 25 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 4⎞ r = ⎜− ⎟ +⎜− ⎟ = + = =1 5 5 25 25 25 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Now that we know x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 52 + b 2 = 62 25 + b 2 = 36 b 2 = 11 c. 4 − y 4 sin θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 3 − x 3 cos θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 4 − y 4 tan θ = = 5 = 3 3 x − 5 r 1 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 5 r 1 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 5 3 − x 3 cot θ = = 5 = 4 y − 4 5 10. a. and r. . Inc. y. a 2 + b2 = c2 b. 8. b = 11 opposite 5 = sin θ = hypotenuse 6 Since 150° is in quadrant II.Trigonometric Functions 7. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 510° − 360° = 150° 9.

Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. x is positive and y is negative. y = + 35 = 35 y 35 ⎛π ⎞ = 35 cot ⎜ − θ ⎟ = tan θ = = x 1 ⎝2 ⎠ x2 + y2 = r 2 32 + y 2 = 72 9 + y 2 = 49 y 2 = 40 y = ± 40 = ±2 10 Because the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. x = 1. Furthermore. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . θ is in quadrant IV. sec 20. θ is in quadrant II. cos 240° = − cos 60° = − 19. 7 r Since θ is acute. 3 x tan θ = − = . sin θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− r 7 7 tan θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− x 3 3 r 7 7 10 = =− y −2 10 20 r 7 sec θ = = x 3 x 3 3 10 cot θ = = =− y −2 10 20 csc θ = 16. x = 3. and r to find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . and r. Furthermore. 6 r x2 + y2 = r 2 12 + y 2 = 62 1 + y 2 = 36 y 2 = 35 y = ± 35 3 x = . Therefore y = −2 10 Use x. In quadrant II. r = 7 . tan 30° = 3 3 17. Since cos θ = 1 x = . Since cos θ = side adjacent θ hypotenuse 250 cos 72° = c 250 c= cos 72° c ≈ 809 m cos θ = 15. Thus. In quadrant IV. y. y. x = −4. 4 y 13. sin 2 11π = 6 π 7 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 = = = = 11π π 3 3 3 cos cos 6 6 2 + cos 2 π 7 =1 533 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Inc.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 11. y = 3 . Furthermore. side opposite θ side adjacent θ a tan 41° = 60 a = 60 tan 41° tan θ = r 2 = x2 + y2 r = (−3) + 4 2 2 a ≈ 52 cm 2 14. x is negative and y is positive. y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 =− cos θ = = 5 5 r r 5 csc θ = = y 3 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 4 x −3 4 =− cot θ = = y 4 3 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r = 6 . cot120° = 1 1 1 3 = = =− tan120° − tan 60° − 3 3 18. r 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 r =5 Now that we know x.

7 feet per minute T he linear speed of the horse is about 502. 7π ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎛ 17π ⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 6 + 4π ⎟ = tan 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 2 π 2 π 6 = 2π radians 1 revolution = 16π radians per minute ν = rω = (10)(16π ) = 160π ≈ 502. 25. ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 3 + 2π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4π π = sin = − sin 3 3 27. 8 revolutions per minute 4π ⎞ ⎛ 22π ⎞ ⎟ = csc ⎜ 3 − 6π ⎟ = csc 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1 = = = 4π π 3 − sin sin − 3 3 2 =− π 3 3 30. Begin by converting from degrees to radians. 2 2 29. 26.13 cm = 8 revolutions per minute ⋅ 2 3 3 = − cos 45° = − 5 28. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . cos 495° = cos ( 495° − 360° ) = cos135° = tan = 8π ≈ 25. 2 3 =− 24. Convert 8 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. π radians π 36° = 36° ⋅ = radians 180° 5 s = rθ = 40 ⋅ 3 =− 2 22. It is given that r = 10 feet and the merry-go-round rotates at 8 revolutions per minute. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 feet sin θ = side opposite θ side adjacent θ 50 tan θ = 60 ⎛ 50 ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 60 ⎠ θ ≈ 40° tan θ = 534 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ 22π csc ⎜ ⎝ 3 23. . Inc. − cos π = (1) − (−1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ + 2π n ⎟ + tan ⎜ + nπ ⎟ cos ⎜ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π 5π π π = cos + tan = − cos − tan 6 6 6 6 3 3 3 3 2 3 =− − =− − 2 3 6 6 5 3 =− 6 side opposite θ hypotenuse h sin 6° = 5280 h = 5280sin 6° h ≈ 551.7 feet per minute.Trigonometric Functions 21.

= = . 2 . period 2π π = = . 0) π 2 0 .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 0) 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sinx. 2 2 2π 1 y = − sin 2π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (2 π .− 1 2 .5 Section 4. 2π] by dividing the period. 0) 2 π 2 π 2 = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= coordinates = 3 ⋅1 = 3 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. −3 2 2π y = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . the maximum point. Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 2π π the period. The five x-values are x=0 x = 0+ x= π 2 π + x =π + = 2 π 2 π 2 π x=0+ 2 =π = x= 3π 2 2 + x y = 3sin x 0 y = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π π 2 x (0. We find the three x–intercepts. 2π. 0) 3π 2 3π y = 3 sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 3π . the amplitude is 2 1 1 1 A = − = . Thus. 2. 2π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 The period for both y = 3sin x and y = sinx is 2π. by 4.periods. 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. then by 4 4 2 adding quarter. 2 π x=π+ x= y = 3sin 1 The equation y = − sin x is of the form y = Asin x 2 1 with A = − . The five x-values are x=0 π 1 y = − sin 0 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 coordinates (0. Inc. Thus. 0) 3π 2 1 3π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − (−1) = 2 2 3π 1 . by 4. The equation y = 3sin x is of the form y = A sin x with A = 3. and the minimum point on the interval [0. 0) 1 π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − ⋅1 = − 2 2 π π 1 y = − sin π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (π .3 π y = 3sin x = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π .5 Check Point Exercises 1. then by adding quarter-periods to 4 4 2 generate x-values for each of the key points. 1 y = − sin x 2 535 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The period for both y = − sin x 2 2 2 and y = sin x is 2π .

2) begins. 3π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅3π 2 (3π . Extend the pattern of each graph to the left and right as desired. 2π 2π The period is = =π. 0) = 2 sin 2π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 (π . The C 3 π 1 π = = ⋅ = . = 2 ⋅1 = 2 1 ⋅2π 2 is of the form π 3 . Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the right. 4π . then by adding the period. The period is B The equation y = 2sin Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. then by the period. and C = = 2 sin 0 π The equation y = 3 sin 2 x − (2 π . 0) = 2 sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 536 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle = 2 ⋅0 = 0 y = 2 sin 3 amplitude is A = 3 = 3 . B = 2. x = π 6 . 2 The amplitude is A = 2 = 2 . π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. π (0. 0 ) = 2 sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3. 2 Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 4π = = π .Trigonometric Functions Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . The phase shift is B 2 3 2 6 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π = . by 4. 4 4 adding quarter-periods. x 0 y = 2sin y = 2 sin 1 x 2 4. by 4. 2π 2π = 1 = 4π . The five x-values are x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. 1 x is of the form 2 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . . − 2 ) 3π 2 = 2 ⋅ (−1) = −2 = 2 sin 4π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . Inc. B 2 coordinates 1 ⋅0 2 π y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3.

0 6 ⎛ 1⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ = −4 cos 6π = 3 sin 2π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 = 3 sin π 2 1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. −3 12 7π 6 y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ 7π π − 6 3 The equation y = −4 cos π x is of the form y = Acos Bx with A = −4. = = . and B = π . the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . π π 3 6 . by 4.3 12 2π 3 ⎛ 2π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ 3 3⎠ ⎝ 3π = 3sin = 3sin π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 2π . 2π 2π = = 2. (1.0 3 11π 12 ⎛ 11π π ⎞ − ⎟ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 9π 3π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ( −1) = −3 11π .0 2 =0 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 1) = −4 cos π = 4 537 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. x= π x π 6 y = 3sin 2x − y = 3sin 2 ⋅ π 6 π coordinates 3 − 5. 4) . Thus. then by adding 4 4 2 quarter periods to the value of x where the cycle begins. The five x-values are x= π 6 π 2π 3π 5π + = + = 6 4 12 12 12 5π π 5π 3π 8π 2π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 3 2π π 8π 3π 11π x= + = + = 3 4 12 12 12 11π π 11π 3π 14 π 7π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 6 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The five x-values are x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. –4) = −4 cos 0 = −4 1 2 7π . x=0+ x y = −4 cos πx 0 y = −4 cos (π ⋅ 0 ) coordinates (0.0 = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 5π 12 ⎛ 5π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 3π π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 5π . The period is B π Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period 2 1 the period.5 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph.

. by 4. Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the left. 538 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 3 3 Thus.0 0.0 2 x − π 2 (2. –4) = −4 cos 2π = −4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.Trigonometric Functions ⎛ 3⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 3π = −4 cos =0 2 3 2 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 2) 2 3 . 2 The five x-values are x=− − 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 y= y= coordinates π 4 =0 π 4 π 4 4 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. − π 4 3 2 . then by adding 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle y= begins. B 2 π C −π The phase shift is = =− . the amplitude is A = = .0 3 π 3 cos(π + π ) . 2 2 2π 2π The period is = =π. B = 2 . π π π − π 3 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 . − π 4 y= 3 cos(−π + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 y= y= = 0 π 4 6. and C = −π . π . x = − 3 cos(2 x + π ) 2 π 3 cos − + π 2 2 3 cos(0 + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅ −1 = − 2 2 = π 3 cos + π 2 2 x=− y= π x=− 2 2 π 4 x=0+ x= π + + + π 4 π π 4 π 4 = = =− . 2 2 2 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph. = . 3 3 cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π )) 2 2 The equation is of the form y = Acos(Bx − C) with 3 A = . 2 B 2 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π the period. 2 π 4 2 . Inc.

PreCalculus 4E 7. the amplitude. or 12 2π months. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 8. y = 2sin π 6 x− π 2 + 12 . 2 =π = 9. Thus.1 (π . The graph is modeled by y = 4 sin 4 x .5 The graph of y = 2 cosx + 1 is the graph of y = 2 cosx shifted one unit upwards. The phase shift. A = 2. The quarter-period is 2π π or . π 2π A = 4 . 3π 2 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Thus. 12 hours. 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 π 2 y = 2 cos π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 π y = 2 cos π + 1 3π 2 y = 2 cos 2π A. π B=4 Substitute these values into y = A sin Bx . Thus. Thus. 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 By connecting the points with a smooth curve. Section 4. Inc. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. . 12 = B 12B = 2π 3π . B C 3= B C 3= π B= . 539 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The period is . 2 B π 2π = 2 B πB = 4 π π 2 2π π = 12 6 The graph shows that the starting point of the cycle is C shifted from 0 to 3. is the maximum value of y. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x y = 2 cosx + 1 coordinates 0 y = 2 cos0 + 1 (0. is 3. The number of hours of daylight is modeled by (2 π . −1) = 2 ⋅(−1) + 1 = −1 3π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 y = 2 cos2π + 1 Because the hours of daylight ranges from a minimum of 10 hours to a maximum of 14 hours. The period for both functions is 2π . The maximum number of hours is 2 hours above 12 hours. The period is 12. Add quarter4 2 periods to generate x-values for the key points. . the curve oscillates about the middle value. D = 12. and period = .1 2 6 π =C 2 Substitute these values into y = Asin(Bx − C) + D . The graph shows that this maximum value is 4. we obtain one period of the graph. The cycle begins at x = 0.

Exercise Set 4. Thus. the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. 0) π 2 . The period is 2π . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 3π 2 x 2 π x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.5 (π . 2π π or . The equation y = 4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 4. 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. 2π π The period is 2π .4 π y = 5sin π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = x=0+ π x= 2 =π = y = 4 sin x 0 y = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin 2 + π 2 = 4 ⋅1 = 4 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = 5sin x coordinates 0 y = 5sin 0 = 5⋅ 0 = 0 (0. The quarter-period is or . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x=0 3π = 5(−1) = −5 2 (0. 0) 3π . the amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . 0) π π 2 y = 5sin π 2 coordinates = 5 ⋅1 = 5 . −5 2 (2 π . Thus.Trigonometric Functions 2. 540 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π The equation y = 5 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 5. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . Inc. −4 2 2π y = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. .5 1. 0) 3π 2 y = 5sin 2π y = 5sin 2π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 π y = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = 4 sin 3π . Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . 0) 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.

4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 3 3 3 π 1 π 2 3 y= 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 4 4 4 π 1 2 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 (π . 2 π x=π+ x= π 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 4 1 1 1 = .PreCalculus 4E 3. 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 π 2 π 2 π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= x y= 1 sin x 4 (0. the amplitude is A = 3 3 3 2π π or .5 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 3 1 1 1 = . The period is 2π . The period is 2π . Inc. Thus. 0) 1 3π . Section 4.− 2 4 2π y= 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (2 π . 0) y= 1 sin x 3 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 y= π y= 3π 2 y= 1 3π sin 2 3 1 1 = (−1) = − 3 3 y= + 2 = coordinates x 2π 2 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) coordinates (0. 541 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. with A = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. .− 2 3 3π 2 y= 1 3π 1 1 sin = (−1) = − 2 4 4 4 1 3π . Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. x=0 The equation y = 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 . Thus. (2 π . 0) π y= 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (π . with A = . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. the amplitude is A = 4 4 4 2π π or . x=0 The equation y = x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π 2 = 4. 0) 2 .

0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π The equation y = −4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –4.4 2 (2 π . x=0 . coordinates π + x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. the amplitude is A = −3 = 3. 2π π or . 0) 3π . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. 3π . The period is 2π . . 2π π or . −3 (π . 0) π 2 . Thus. The equation y = −3sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –3. Inc. The period is 2π . 542 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) y = −4 sin π 2 coordinates = −4 ⋅1 = −4 π y = −4 sin π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −4 sin 2π y = −4 sin 2π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = −4(−1) = 4 2 (0.3 2 (2 π . the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 x y = −3sin x 0 y = −3 sin x = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 y = −3 sin π 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 π y = −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −3sin 2π y = −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 = −3(−1) = 3 π 2 (0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. −4 (π .Trigonometric Functions 5. 0) 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = −4 sin x 0 y = −4 sin 0 = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 2 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 6. Thus. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x .

x y = sin 2x 0 y = sin 2 ⋅ 0 = sin 0 = 0 π 4 y = sin 2 ⋅ = sin π 2 π 2 π 4 π π 8 + π 8 π 8 = = π 8 π x y = sin 4x (0. The cycle begins at x = 0.1 8 π π 2 2 y = sin(2 ⋅ π ) = sin 2π = 0 = 4 3π x= + = 4 8 8 3π π π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Add x= π 4 + π x=0+ 4 π 4 = π x= 2 π π 3π x= + = 2 4 4 3π π x= + =π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x.5 The equation y = sin 2x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 2. The period is B 4 2 coordinates π 8 π 4 = sin 2 =1 = sin π = 0 3π 8 π 8 π 4 .PreCalculus 4E 7. Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) π 2 . The period is = = π .1 . The A = 1 = 1. Thus. The B 2 quarter-period is π 8.0 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.0 3π . Inc.0 y = sin 4 ⋅ 4 y = sin 4 ⋅ 3π 8 y = sin 4 ⋅ = sin 3π . Section 4. 0) 0 y = sin(4 ⋅ 0) = sin 0 = 0 π 4 π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x=0 quarter-period is 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. . x=0 x=0+ The equation y = sin 4x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 4. 543 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 1 = 1. π . −1 4 π 3π = sin = −1 2 π ⋅ coordinates π 3π y = sin 2 ⋅ 4 π 1 π = sin π = 0 3π 4 = π =1 y = sin 2 ⋅ 2 . 0) π (0. −1 8 3π = −1 2 y = sin 2π = 0 2 (π . The cycle begins at 4 2 4 8 x = 0. the amplitude is 2π 2π π = = .

the 4 amplitude is A = 2 = 2. 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π x 1 ⋅ 2π 4 π 2 (2 π . x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. 0) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The quarter-period is B 10. Add quarter4 periods to generate x-values for the key points. The quarterThe period is B with A = 3 and B = 2 4π period is = π . Inc. x=0 x = 0 + 2π = 2π x = 2π + 2π = 4π x = 4π + 2 π = 6π x = 6π + 2 π = 8π Evaluate the function at each value of x. − 3) 3π = 3sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 4π 0 (π . The cycle begins at x = 0. . 0) (3π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) (6π . 544 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 0 y = 3sin 1 x 2 4 8π = 2 π . Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) = 2sin 0 = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 = 2sin (2 π . 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . coordinates 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 0 2 y = 3sin = 3sin 2π 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 2π y = 2sin = 3 ⋅1 = 3 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 2π 2 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 3π 2 y = 3sin y = 2sin 1 x 4 1 ⋅0 4 coordinates (0. The equation y = 2sin 1 . The equation y = 3sin 1 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 2 1 x is of the form 4 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . 2) = 2 ⋅1 = 2 4π y = 2sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 6π y = 2sin 8π y = 2sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = 2(−1) = −2 2 (4π .Trigonometric Functions 9. − 2) (8π . The period is 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π . The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 3) = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π y = 2sin (0. 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . Thus.

13. 0) 1 . The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 4 = 4.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The equation y = 4 sin πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 4 and B = π . . The amplitude 2π 2π = = 1. The period is = = 2 . 4 2 Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) 3 4 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 2) = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 1 4 (0. x=0+ x=0+ x y = 4 sin πx 0 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 0) = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 2 y = 4 sin π ⋅ = 4 sin 1 3 2 π 2 1 2 coordinates x y = 3sin 2πx (0. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.5 11. Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. −4 2 = 4 sin 2 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ coordinates y = 3sin 2π ⋅ = 3sin 1 (2. x=0 12. The amplitude 545 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3 4 3π = 3(−1) = −3 2 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅1) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (1. The period is B 2π 1 quarter-period is . 0) 3 4 3 . The equation y = −3 sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –3 and B = 2π . The cycle begins at x = 0. The equation y = 3sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 3 and B = 2π .4 2 = 3sin = 4(1) = 4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅1) = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin π ⋅ 3 2 1 2 (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The B π 2 1 quarter-period is = . 0) 0 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 4 1 . The is A = 3 = 3.0 2 = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 . Inc. 1 1 = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The cycle begins at x = 0.3 4 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ 1 2 1 .

0 2 3 2 3 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 2 3π = −3sin 2 = −3(−1) = 3 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅1) 1 (1. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.3 4 coordinates y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin = −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 4 x 1 2 1 . The B π 3 2 (1. . 1 . Inc. −2 2 = −2 ⋅1 = −2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅1) = −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin 3 . with A = –1 and B = 14. 0) 3 . x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The B 2π is A = −2 = 2 . −3 4 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 1 2 2π 2π = = 2 . The cycle begins at x = 0. 15. 0) 1 . The period is 2 1 = . 0) = −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.2 2 3π = −2(−1) = 2 2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅2) = −2 sin 2π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. The equation y = − sin 2 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 3 2 .Trigonometric Functions is A = −3 = 3. π 2 1 2 (0. x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) y = −2 sin π x 0 y = −2 sin(π ⋅ 0) = −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 1 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 2 1 . The amplitude 546 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The equation y = −2 sin π x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1. The period is 2π 2π = = 1. y = −3 sin 2πx x coordinates quarter-period is 0 1 4 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = −3sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 = −3sin quarter-period is (0.

The equation y = − sin x y = − sin 0 y = − sin 4 x 3 4 ⋅0 3 = coordinates (0. 3 3π . 0) = − sin 0 = 0 (3π . −1 4 = −1 2 3π ⋅ 3 2 3π .0 4 .1 4 3π = − sin 2 = −(−1) = 1 3π y = − sin 2 ⋅ 3π 3 3π 2 3π 1 3π ⋅ = . 3 3π 2π 2π = 4 = 2π ⋅ = . x=0 3π 3π = x=0+ 8 8 3π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 4 3π 3π 9π x= + = 4 8 8 9π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 3π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1. The period is B 4 2 16. 4 2 4 8 The cycle begins at x = 0. The cycle begins at x = 0. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. −1 8 = −1 4 3π ⋅ 3 4 = − sin π = 0 547 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x=0 3π 3π x=0+ = 4 4 3π 3π 3π x= + = 4 4 2 3π 3π 9π x= + = 2 4 4 9π 3π x= + = 3π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The quarter-period is = − sin 0 = 0 3π 4 4 x is of the form 3 4 y = Asin Bx with A = –1 and B = . Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. B 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) 3π 8 = − sin 2π = 0 y = − sin = − sin 3π 4 y = − sin 4 3π ⋅ 3 8 π 2 3π . The quarter-period is 2 x 3 x y = − sin 0 2 y = − sin ⋅ 0 3 coordinates 3 y = − sin = − sin 3π 2 y = − sin 2 3π ⋅ 3 4 π 2 (0.5 The period is 2π 2π 3 = 2 = 2π ⋅ = 3π . 0) 3π .0 2 = − sin π = 0 9π 4 y = − sin 2 9π ⋅ 3 4 9π .

Trigonometric Functions

9π

8

y = − sin

4 9π

⋅

3 8

9π

,1

8

3π

= − sin

= −(−1) = 1

2

3π

2

4 3π

y = − sin ⋅

3 2

3π

,0

2

x

y = sin(x − π )

coordinates

π

y = sin(π − π )

(π , 0)

3π

2

y = sin

= sin 0 = 0

= sin

= − sin 2π = 0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

−π

2

π

2

3π

,1

2

=1

2π

y = sin(2 π − π )

5π

2

y = sin

(2 π , 0)

= sin π = 0

= sin

5π

−π

2

5π

, −1

2

3π

= −1

2

y = sin(3π − π )

(3π , 0 )

= sin 2π = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

**17. The equation y = sin(x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is

C π

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

= = π . The

B

1

B 1

2π π

= . The cycle begins at x = π .

quarter-period is

4

2

Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=π

18. The equation y = sin x −

π

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

5π π

x=

+ = 3π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

2

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C =

π

2

. The

**amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
**

π

2π 2π

C 2 π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

= = . The

B

1

B 1 2

2π π

= . The cycle begins at

quarter-period is

4

2

x=

π

**. Add quarter-periods to generate
**

2

x-values for the key points.

548

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x=

x=

Section 4.5

19. The equation y = sin(2 x − π ) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is

2π 2π

C π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The quarterB

2

B 2

π

2

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

x

π

π

y = sin x −

π

2

y = sin

π

y = sin π −

3π

2

y = sin

2

π

−

x=

x=

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

2

= sin

3π π

−

2

2

π

2

=1

π

2

,0

(π , 1)

y = sin 2π −

3π

,0

2

y = sin

2

π

+

x

π

2

π

2

(2 π , −1)

5π π

−

2

2

π

=

3π

4

y = sin(2 x − π )

y = sin 2 ⋅

π

2

−π

coordinates

π

2

,0

= sin(π − π )

= sin 0 = 0

3π

= −1

= sin

2

5π

2

π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= sin π = 0

2π

π

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4

4

2

coordinates

2

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
**

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is

3π

4

5π

,0

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

= sin 2π = 0

= sin

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

3π

−π

4

3π

,1

4

3π

−π

2

π

2

=1

y = sin(2 ⋅ π − π )

= sin(2 π − π )

= sin π = 0

549

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(π , 0)

Trigonometric Functions

5π

4

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

= sin

3π

2

5π

−π

4

5π

, −1

4

x

5π

−π

2

π

4

3π

= −1

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

3π

−π

2

3π

,0

2

π

= sin(3π − π )

= sin 2π = 0

2

π

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

3π

4

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

coordinates

2

π

−

4

π

π

2

4

π

−

2

,0

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

= sin π −

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

y = sin 2x −

−

π

π

π

2

2

= sin

2

3π π

−

4 2

π

2

,1

=1

3π

,0

4

3π π

−

2

2

= sin π = 0

20. The equation y = sin 2x −

π

2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C =

π

2

= sin 2π −

. The

= sin

amplitude is A = 1 = 1.

2π 2π

=

=π.

The period is

B

2

5π

4

π

The phase shift is

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = .

B 2 2 2 4

The quarter-period is

π

4

The cycle begins at x =

x=

2

π

2

5π π

−

4 2

5π π

−

2

2

4

4

+

π

=

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

4

5π

,0

4

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

π

(π , −1)

= sin 2π = 0

. Add quarter-periods to

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

π

3π

= −1

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

.

π

y = sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

550

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**21. The equation y = 3sin(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is

2π 2π

C π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The quarterB

2

B 2

π

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
**

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is

x=

x=

π

2

π

+

π

=

3π

4

22. The equation y = 3 sin 2 x −

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4

4

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

π

2

y = 3sin(2x − π )

y = 3sin 2 ⋅

π

2

−π

y = 3sin 2 ⋅

3π

−π

4

,0

π

5π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= 3 sin

5π

−π

4

π

4

**The cycle begins at x =
**

x=

3π

,3

4

x=

π

4

+

π

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

(π , 0)

4

=

π

5π

, −3

4

3π

2

= 3(−1) = −3

3π

−π

2

π

4

5π

−π

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

.

π

= 3 sin

3π

2

.

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

π

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

y = 3sin(2 ⋅ π − π )

= 3sin(2 π − π )

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

3π

−π

= 3sin

2

= 3sin

π

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = .

The phase shift is

B 2 2 2 4

= 3sin(π − π )

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

3π

4

is of the form

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .

2π 2π

=

=π.

The period is

B

2

The quarter-period is

2

2

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C =

coordinates

π

π

3π

,0

2

= 3 sin(3π − π )

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

551

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

y = 3 sin 2 x −

π

π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= sin

π

2

−

4

π

23.

coordinates

2

−

π

π

2

4

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

,0

= 3 sin π −

= 3 sin

3π

4

π

2

−

π

π

2

2

,3

π

2

**. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
**

2

the key points.

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π π

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

−

4 2

= 3 sin 2π −

= 3 sin

5π

4

2

π

2

x=0+

x=

(π , − 3)

π

2

+

+

π

2

π

2

2

x

5π

,0

4

−

π

2

5π π

−

2

2

π

π

2

=

=0

π

2

=π

3π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=π+

π

5π π

−

4 2

2

x=−

3π

= 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= 3 sin

π

π

x=−

3π

,0

4

= 3 sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

x=−

3π π

= 3 sin

−

2

2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A =

2

2

1

π

sin x − −

2

2

1

π

, B = 1, and C = − .

2

2

1

1

The amplitude is A =

= . The period is

2

2

π

2π 2π

C −2

π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

=

=− .

B

B

1

1

2

2π π

The quarter-period is

= . The cycle begins at

4

2

π

π

1

π

π

1

sin x +

= sin x − −

2

2

2

2

The equation y =

= 3 sin 0 = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y=

=

y=

π

1

sin x +

2

2

y=

1

π π

sin − +

2

2 2

=

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

0

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=

=

π

2

y=

=

coordinates

−

π

2

,0

1

1

sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

1

π

sin 0 +

2

2

0,

1

2

1

1

π 1

sin = ⋅1 =

2

2

2 2

1

π π

sin

+

2

2 2

1

1

sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

552

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π

2

,0

PreCalculus 4E

π

Section 4.5

y=

1

π

sin π +

2

2

π, −

1

2

1

3π

sin

2

2

1

1

= ⋅(−1) = −

2

2

=

3π

2

y=

1

3π π

sin

+

2

2

2

3π

,0

2

x

y=

−π

y=

−

1

sin 2π

2

1

= ⋅0 = 0

2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

2

=

1

sin(− π + π )

2

1

1

= sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

=

0

π

2

24.

1

1

sin(x + π ) = sin( x − (− π ))

2

2

1

The equation y = sin(x − (−π )) is of the form

2

1

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = , B = 1, and C = −π .

2

1

1

The amplitude is A =

= . The period is

2

2

2π 2π

C −π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

=

= −π .

B

B

1

1

2π π

The quarter-period is

= . The cycle begins at

4

2

x = −π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

the key points.

x = −π

y=

x = −π +

x=−

π

2

x=0+

π

π

2

+

π

2

π

2

=

=−

1

π

sin − + π

2

2

1

sin(0 + π )

2

1

1

= sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

1

π

sin

+π

2

2

(−π , 0 )

−

π 1

2

,

2

(0, 0)

π

2

,−

1

2

1

3π 1

1

sin

= ⋅ (−1) = −

2

2

2

2

1

sin(π + π )

2

1

1

= sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

(π , 0)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

2

=0

π

2

π

+ =π

2 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

coordinates

1

1

π 1

sin = ⋅1 =

2

2

2 2

y=

=

π

1

sin(x + π )

2

553

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

25.

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

2

= −2 sin 2 x − −

The equation y = −2 sin 2x − −

π

2

π

x

2

−

is of the form

π

4

π

2

= −2 sin −

. The amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is

π

0

x=−

x=−

4

x=0+

x=

π

4

+

+

π

4

π

π

=

=

4

=0

π

−

π

4

,0

2

π

2

(0, –2)

π

2

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

= −2 sin

4

π

2

π

4

+

π

π

2

4

π

π

2

2

,0

π

+

2

= −2 sin π

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

π

4

4

2

2

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

4

π

π

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −2 sin

π

π

+

4

+

2

= −2 sin 0 +

π

**. The cycle begins at x = − . Add
**

4

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

period is

π

= −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π 2π

=

= π . The

B

2

π 1

π

C −2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarterphase shift is

B

2

2 2

4

π

π

coordinates

2

y = −2 sin 2⋅ −

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2,

B = 2, and C = −

π

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

π

2

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

π

2

= −2 sin π +

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

+

,2

π

2

3π

2

= −2(−1) = 2

= −2 sin

3π

4

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

= −2 sin

3π π

+

4 2

3π

,0

4

3π π

+

2 2

= −2 sin 2π

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

554

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

26.

Section 4.5

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

= −3sin 2x − −

The equation y = −3sin 2x − −

π

2

π

π

2

4

= −3sin

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2, and C = −

π

2

π

2

−

π

C

π 1

π

2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is .

2

2 2

4

4

B

π

4

π

4

+

+

π

4

π

4

π

4

=

=

=0

π

4

x

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

,0

+

π

π

2

2

,3

π

2

3π

,0

4

3π π

+

2

2

π

2

π

4

+

+

π

2

−

π

4

,0

π

2

= −3sin 0 = −3⋅ 0 = 0

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −3sin 0 +

= −3sin

4

3π π

+

4 2

coordinates

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ −

= −3sin −

0

2

2

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

4

π

π

+

π

π

π

π

= −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

−

+

3π

= −3⋅ (−1) = 3

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

4

x=0+

x=

3π

4

π

π

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

2

4

= −3sin π +

π

x=−

π

π

= −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

.

**The amplitude is A = −3 = 3. The period is
**

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

B

2

The cycle begins at x = −

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

π

2

π

2

(0, –3)

π

2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

555

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

27.

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

The equation y = 3sin(π x − (−2)) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = π , and C = –2.

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is

C −2

2

2π 2π

=

= 2 . The phase shift is

=

= − . The

B π

B

π

π

2 1

quarter-period is = . The cycle begins at

4 2

2

x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 4

3π − 4

y = 3sin π

+2

2π

2π

π

2π − 2

1 π −4

x=− + =

π 2

2π

π − 4 1 π −2

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

π − 2 1 3π − 4

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

3π − 4 1 2π − 2

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

2

−

2

π

y = 3sin π −

2

π

= 3sin

3π

−2 +2

2

3π

2

= 3(−1) = −3

π

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

3π − 4

+2

2

= 3sin

**the key points.
**

2

x=−

x

= 3sin

π

y = 3sin π

2π − 2

π

−

= 3sin

= 3sin

= 3sin

π −4

2

π

2

2

π

,0

π−4

,3

2π

+2

−2 + 2

π

2

= 3⋅1 = 3

π −2

π −2

π y = 3sin π π + 2

2π − 2

π

,0

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

= 3sin(−2 + 2)

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

π −4

π −4

2π y = 3sin π 2π + 2

+2

= 3sin(2 π − 2 + 2)

= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

coordinates

+2

5π

, −3

4

π −2

,0

π

= 3sin(π − 2 + 2)

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

556

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

28.

Section 4.5

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4) = 3sin(2π x − (−4))

The equation y = 3sin(2 πx − (−4)) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2π , and

C = –4. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period

C −4

2

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

=

=− .

is

B 2π

B 2π

π

1

The quarter-period is . The cycle begins at

4

2

x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 8

3π − 8

y = 3sin 2π

+4

4π

4π

**the key points.
**

2

x=−

π − 2 y = 3sin 2π π − 2 + 4

π

π

= 3sin(2 π − 4 + 4)

= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

π

1 π −8

=

4

4π

π −8 1 π − 4

x=

+ =

4

4π

2π

π − 4 1 3π − 8

x=

+ =

4

2π

4π

3π − 8 1 π − 2

x=

+ =

π

4

4π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=−

2

π

x

−

2

π

+

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4)

y = 3sin 2π −

2

π

= 3sin

= 3sin

2

π

2

π

2

= 3sin

3π

− 4+4

2

= 3sin

3π

= 3(−1) = −3

2

π −2

,0

π

coordinates

+4

π −8

π −8

+4

y = 3sin 2π

4π

4π

π −8

3π − 8

+4

2

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

−

2

π

,0

29.

= 3sin(−4 + 4)

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

= 3sin

= 3sin

3π − 8

, −3

4π

π −8

,3

4π

+4

−4 + 4

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

π −4

π−4

2π y = 3sin 2π 2 π + 4

π−4

,0

2π

= 3sin(π − 4 + 4)

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

**y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π ) = −2sin(2π x − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = −2 sin(2π x − (−4π )) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2, B = 2π , and

C = −4 π . The amplitude is A = −2 = 2 . The

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

1

C −4 π

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

2π

4

B

begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

7

1

x = −2 + = −

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

557

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π )

coordinates

–2 y = −2 sin(2π (−2) + 4 π )

= −2 sin(−4π + 4π )

= −2 sin 0

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

(–2, 0)

x

−

7

7

4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

−

π

2

7

, −2

4

7π

+ 4π

2

= −2 sin −

= −2 sin

−

30.

1

7

=−

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x = −2 +

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

3

3

2 y = −2 sin 2π − 2 + 4 π

3

− ,0

2

= −2 sin(−3π + 4π )

= −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

−

5

5

4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

= −2 sin −

**y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π ) = −3 sin(2π x − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = −3 sin(2 πx − (−4 π )) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2π , and

C = −4π . The amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The

2π 2π

=

= 1 . The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

C −4π

1

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

−

5

,2

4

5π

+ 4π

2

x

y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π )

–2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−2) + 4π )

(–2, 0)

= −3 sin( −4 π + 4π )

= −3 sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

3π

2

= −2 (−1) = 2

= −2 sin

−

–1 y = −2 sin(2π (−1) + 4 π )

= −2 sin(−2π + 4π )

coordinates

7

7

4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

(–1, 0)

= −3 sin −

= −2 sin 2π

= −3 sin

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

−

π

2

−

7

, −3

4

7π

+ 4π

2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

3

3

2 y = −3 sin 2π − 2 + 4π

3

− ,0

2

= −3 sin( −3π + 4π )

= −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

−

5

5

4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

= −3 sin −

= −3 sin

–1

−

5

,3

4

5π

+ 4π

2

3π

= −3(−1) = 3

2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−1) + 4π )

= −3 sin( −2 π + 4π )

= −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

558

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(–1, 0)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

the graph of y = 2 cosx .

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

**32. The equation y = 3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = 3. Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

**31. The equation y = 2 cosx is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = 2. Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

π

2

π

2

=

x=0+

π

x=

2

y = 2 cosx

2

π

y = 2 cos

π

2

= 2⋅0 = 0

y = 2 cos π

2

,0

(π , − 2)

= 2 ⋅(−1) = −2

3π

2

y = 2 cos

3π

2

= 2⋅0 = 0

3π

,0

2

2π

y = 2 cos2π

(2 π , 2 )

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

y = 3 cos x

0

y = 3 cos 0 = 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

(0, 2)

π

2

2

x

π

coordinates

y = 2 cos0

π

π

x=

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

π

+

2

=

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

0

2

x=π+

=π

π

x

π

π

y = 3 cos

π

2

coordinates

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = 3 cos π = 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3

3π

2

y = 3 cos

2π

y = 3 cos2 π = 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

2

(0, 3)

π

2

,0

(π , − 3)

3π

,0

2

(2 π , 3)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
**

and graph one complete cycle of the given function

with the graph of y = cos x .

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

559

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

33. The equation y = −2 cos x is of the form y = Acos x

with A = –2. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is 2π . The quarterπ

2π

or . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

period is

4

2

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

π

=

2

π

2

**34. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = –3. Thus, the amplitude is A = −3 = 3 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

π

2

x=

=π

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

coordinates

0

y = −2 cos 0

(0, –2)

2

π

y = −2 cos

π

2

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = −2 cos π

y = −2 cos

2π

y = −2 cos 2π

3π

2

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

y = −3 cos x

0

y = −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

π

,0

(π , 2)

= −2 ⋅ (−1) = 2

3π

2

π

=

x

2

π

+

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

π

2

x=π+

π

y = −2 cos x

π

π

3π

,0

2

y = −3 cos

π

2

coordinates

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

3π

2

y = −3 cos

2π

y = −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

3π

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

(0, –3)

π

2

,0

(π , 3)

3π

,0

2

(2 π , − 3)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

the graph of y = cos x .

(2 π , − 2)

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

the graph of y = cos x .

560

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**35. The equation y = cos2 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
**

with A = 1 and B = 2. Thus, the amplitude is

2π 2π

A = 1 = 1. The period is

=

= π . The

B

2

quarter-period is

π

**36. The equation y = cos 4 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
**

with A = 1 and B = 4. Thus, the amplitude is

2π 2π π

A = 1 = 1. The period is

=

= . The

B

4

2

π

. The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

4

+

π

4

π

4

=

=

π

x=0+

4

π

x=

2

π π 3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y = cos2 x

0

y = cos(2 ⋅ 0)

4

y = cos 2 ⋅

= cos

π

2

π

2

π

8

(0, 1)

π

4

4

π

2

2

y = cos 2 ⋅

3π

4

y = cos(2 ⋅ π )

+

π

8

π

, −1

8

=

=

π

8

π

0

y = cos(4 ⋅ 0) = cos 0 = 1

8

,0

y = cos 4 ⋅

4

y = cos 4 ⋅

3π

8

y = cos 4 ⋅

= cos

3π

,0

4

π

3π

=0

= cos

2

π

π

y = cos 4 x

= cos π = −1

3π

4

=

x

π

π

⋅

π

π

=0

y = cos 2 ⋅

π 1

π

coordinates

π

=

4

3π

x= + =

4 8

8

3π π π

x=

+ =

8

8 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= cos 0 = 1

π

2

**. The cycle begins at
**

4 2 4 8

x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

the key points.

x=0

quarter-period is

2

coordinates

π

8

π

4

= cos

π

2

=0

= cos π = −1

3π

8

(0, 1)

π

8

π

4

,0

, −1

3π

,0

8

3π

=0

2

y = cos 4 ⋅

π

2

= cos2 π = 1

π

2

,1

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

(π , 1)

= cos2 π = 1

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

561

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

37. The equation y = 4 cos2 πx is of the form

y = Acos Bx with A = 4 and B = 2π . Thus, the

amplitude is A = 4 = 4 . The period is

2π 2π

1

=

= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

x

y = 4 cos2 πx

0

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

**38. The equation y = 5 cos2 πx is of the form
**

y = Acos Bx with A = 5 and B = 2π . Thus, the

amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . The period is

2π 2π

1

=

= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

coordinates

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, 4)

= 4 cos 0

= 4 ⋅1 = 4

1

4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

= 4 cos

1

4

1

,0

4

π

2

= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1

2

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

1

2

1

, −4

2

3

4

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

= 5 cos

3

,0

4

3π

2

= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1

2

= 4 cos

1

0

1

4

= 4 ⋅ (−1) = −4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

y = 5 cos2 πx

coordinates

(0, 5)

= 5 cos 0 = 5 ⋅1 = 5

= 4 cos π

3

4

x

π

2

1

4

1

,0

4

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

1

2

1

, −5

2

= 5 cos π = 5 ⋅ (−1) = −5

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅1)

(1, 4)

3

4

= 4 cos2 π

= 4 ⋅1 = 4

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

= 5 cos

1

3π

4

3

,0

4

3π

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅1)

= 5 cos2 π = 5 ⋅1 = 5

562

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(1, 5)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 3π

2

(3π , 0 )

3π

2

= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

= −4 cos

4π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 4π

2

(4π , – 4)

= −4 cos 2π

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

1

x is of the form

2

1

y = Acos Bx with A = –4 and B = . Thus, the

2

amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . The period is

2π 2π

= 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . The quarter-period is

B

39. The equation y = −4 cos

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

2

4π

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

1

40. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form

3

1

y = Acos Bx with A = –3 and B = . Thus, the

3

amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The period is

2π 2π

= 1 = 2π ⋅3 = 6π . The quarter-period is

B

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

0

y = −4 cos

y = −4 cos

1

x

2

1

⋅0

2

coordinates

3

6π 3π

=

. The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

(0, –4)

= −4 cos 0

3π 3π

=

2

2

3π 3π

x=

+

= 3π

2

2

3π 9π

x = 3π +

=

2

2

9π 3π

x=

+

= 6π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

π

y = −4 cos

= −4 cos

1

⋅π

2

x=0+

(π , 0)

π

2

= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 2π

2

(2 π , 4)

= −4 cos π

= −4 ⋅ (−1) = 4

563

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

1

y = −3 cos x

3

0

y = −3 cos

x=0

coordinates

1

⋅0

3

3 3

=

2 2

3 3

x = + =3

2 2

3 9

x= 3+ =

2 2

9 3

x = + =6

2 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, –3)

= −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

3π

2

y = −3 cos

= −3 cos

1 3π

⋅

3 2

π

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

1

y = −3 cos ⋅ 3π

3

3π

3π

,0

2

(3π , 3)

= −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

9π

2

y = −3 cos

= −3 cos

6π

y = −3 cos

1 9π

⋅

3 2

x

y=−

π

1

cos x

3

2

0

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅ 0

3

2

9π

,0

2

0, −

1

2

1

cos0

2

1

1

= − ⋅1 = −

2

2

=−

3π

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

1

⋅ 6π

3

coordinates

3

2

(6π , − 3)

y=−

π 3

1

cos ⋅

3 2

2

3

,0

2

π

1

cos

2

2

1

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

= −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

=−

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅3

3

2

3,

1

2

1

cos π

2

1

1

= − ⋅(−1) =

2

2

=−

9

2

π

1

cos x is of the form

3

2

π

1

y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the

3

2

1

1

= . The period is

amplitude is A = −

2

2

2π 2π

3

6 3

= π = 2π ⋅ = 6 . The quarter-period is = .

B

π

4 2

41. The equation y = −

y=−

1

π 9

cos ⋅

3 2

2

9

,0

2

3π

1

cos

2

2

1

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

=−

6

3

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅6

3

2

1

cos2π

2

1

1

= − ⋅1 = −

2

2

=−

**The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to
**

generate x-values for the key points.

564

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6, −

1

2

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=−

6

=−

y=−

8

1

π

cos ⋅6

4

2

(6, 0)

3π

1

1

cos

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

2

2

π

1

cos ⋅8

4

2

8, −

1

2

1

1

1

cos2π = − ⋅1 = −

2

2

2

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

=−

π

1

cos x is of the form

4

2

π

1

y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the

4

2

1

1

= . The period is

amplitude is A = −

2

2

2π 2π

4

8

= π = 2π ⋅ = 8 . The quarter-period is 4 = 2 .

B

π

42. The equation y = −

4

**The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
**

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

π⎞

⎛

43. The equation y = cos ⎜ x − ⎟ is of the form

2⎠

⎝

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

x = 0 +2 = 2

x= 2+ 2 = 4

π

x = 4 +2 = 6

C=

x = 6 +2 = 8

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

period is

x

y=−

1

π

cos x

2

4

0

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅ 0

4

2

=−

2

y=−

=−

4

=−

1

2

cycle begins at x =

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

2

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

(2, 0)

x=

π

1

1

cos = − ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

2

π

1

y = − cos ⋅ 4

4

2

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

B

1

2π π

C 2 π

=

= . The quarter-period is

= . The

4

2

B 1 2

1

1

1

cos0 = − ⋅1 = −

2

2

2

π

1

cos ⋅2

4

2

A = 1 = 1 . The

π

coordinates

0, −

. Thus, the amplitude is

2

π

2

π

2

+

x =π +

π

2

π

=π

=

3π

2

2

3π π

+ = 2π

x=

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1

4,

2

1

1

1

cos π = − ⋅ (−1) =

2

2

2

565

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

π

x

coordinates

π

2

⎛π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

x=−

π

(π , 0 )

x =0+

3π

2

⎛ 3π

⎞

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

⎝

⎠

2π

( 2π , 0 )

5π

2

⎛ 5π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

x=−

x=

2

period is

π

2

π

+

2

π

2

π

2

=

=0

π

2

=π

3π

=

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

. Thus, the amplitude is

π

x

coordinates

π

⎛ π ⎞

⎜ − 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

−

π⎞

⎛

44. The equation y = cos ⎜ x + ⎟ is of the form

2⎠

⎝

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

π

+

2

x =π +

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

C=−

2

π

2

0

( 0, 0 )

π

2

⎛π

⎞

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

⎝

⎠

π

(π , 0 )

3π

2

⎛ 3π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

A = 1 = 1 . The

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

B

1

π

−

2π π

C

π

= 2 = − . The quarter-period is

= . The

4

2

B

1

2

cycle begins at x = −

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

2

generate x-values for the key points.

566

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**45. The equation y = 3cos(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 3, and B = 2, and

**46. The equation y = 4 cos(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 4, and B = 2, and C = π .

Thus, the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. The period is

C π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The

B 2

B

2

**C = π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The
**

C π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= .

period is

B 2

B

2

The quarter-period is

π

. The cycle begins at x =

π

4

2

Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=

x=

π

x=

2

π

+

π

=

π

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add
**

4

2

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

quarter-period is

.

π

2

π 3π

+ =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4 4

2

3π

4

x=

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4 4

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

**Evaluate the function at each value of x.
**

x

coordinates

π

π

2

2

x

,3

coordinates

π

π

2

2

,4

3π

4

3π

,0

4

3π

4

3π

,0

4

π

(π , − 3)

π

(π , − 4)

5π

4

5π

,0

4

5π

4

5π

,0

4

3π

2

3π

,4

2

3π

2

3π

,3

2

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

567

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

47.

1

1

π

π

= cos 3x − −

cos 3x +

2

2

2

2

y=

The equation y =

1

π

cos 3x − −

2

2

is of the form

1

, and B = 3, and

2

1

1

π

= . The

C = − . Thus, the amplitude is A =

2

2

2

2π 2π

=

. The phase shift is

period is

B

3

π

π 1

π

C −2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is

3

2 3

6

B

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A =

π

1

1

cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π ))

2

2

1

The equation y = cos(2 x − (−π )) is of the form

2

1

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = , and B = 2, and

2

1

1

C = −π . Thus, the amplitude is A =

= . The

2

2

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

period is

B

2

C −π

π

π

=

= − . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2

2

4

6

begins at x = −

48.

2π

3

π

2π 1 π

=

⋅ = . The cycle begins at x = − . Add

4

3 4 6

6

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

x=−

π

6

π

6

x=0+

π

x=

6

π

x=

+

+

π

+

=0

6

π

=

6

π

6

π

=

=

−

π

6

3

π

x=−

0

x=−

π 1

,

6 2

π

6

6

,−

π

π

3

3

π

2

π

2

π

4

x=0+

(0, 0)

π

π

x=−

coordinates

−

π

**. Add quarter-periods to generate x2
**

values for the key points.

π

3 6 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y=

x=

π

+

+

π

4

π

π

4

π

4

=

=−

π

4

=0

π

4

π

+ =

4 4 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1

2

,0

π 1

,

2 2

2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function

568

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x

−

−

π

2

π

4

Section 4.5

49. The equation y = −3 cos 2x −

−

−

π 1

,

2 2

π

4

B = 2, and C =

,0

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −3 = 3. The period is

π

0

1

0, −

2

π

π

4

4

π 1

2

,

. The cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter4

4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

,0

2

π

2π 2π

=

= π . The

B

2

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period

B 2 2 2 4

phase shift is

is

π

π

**is of the form
**

2

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –3, and

coordinates

x=

2

x=

π

4

π

π

π

x

4

=

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

4

+

π

coordinates

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −3

,0

3π

4

3π

,3

4

π

(π , 0)

5π

4

5π

, −3

4

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

569

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

50. The equation y = −4 cos 2x −

π

51.

is of the form

2

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –4, and B = 2, and

C=

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 .

The period is

π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

B

2

π

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period is . The

4

B 2 2 2 4

cycle begins at x =

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

x=

π

4

π

4

+

π

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

x

4

=

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −4

3π

,4

4

π

(π , 0)

5π

4

5π

, −4

4

coordinates

–4

(–4, 2)

15

4

−

7

2

7

− , −2

2

13

4

−

−

,0

3π

4

x

−

coordinates

π

**y = 2 cos(2π x + 8π ) = 2 cos(2πx − (−8π ))
**

The equation y = 2 cos(2π x − (−8π )) is of the form

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 2, B = 2π , and C = −8π .

Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2. The period is

C −8π

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

=

= −4 . The

B 2π

B 2π

1

quarter-period is . The cycle begins at x = –4. Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x = −4

1

15

x = −4 + = −

4

4

15 1

7

x=− + =−

4 4

2

7 1

13

x=− + =−

2 4

4

13 1

x = − + = −3

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

−

–3

15

,0

4

13

,0

4

(–3, 2)

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
**

and graph one complete cycle of the given function.

570

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

52.

Section 4.5

**y = 3cos(2πx + 4 π ) = 3 cos(2πx − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = 3cos(2πx − (−4π )) is of the form

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 3, and B = 2π , and

C = −4π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

1

C −4π

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

4

B 2π

begins at x = –2. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

1

7

x = −2 + = −

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

–2

**53. The graph of y = sin x + 2 is the graph of y = sin x
**

shifted up 2 units upward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

x

y = sin x + 2

coordinates

0

y = sin 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

(0, 2)

coordinates

π

(–2, 3)

2

7

,0

4

π

y = sin π + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

3π

2

y = sin

2π

y = sin 2π + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

−

7

4

−

−

3

2

3

− , −3

2

−

5

4

−

5π

,0

4

–1

(–1, 3)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

+2

2

=1 +2 = 3

y = sin

3π

+2

2

= −1 + 2 = 1

π

2

,3

(π , 2)

3π

,1

2

(2 π , 2 )

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

571

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

54. The graph of y = sin x − 2 is the graph of y = sin x

shifted 2 units downward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

**55. The graph of y = cos x − 3 is the graph of y = cos x
**

shifted 3 units downward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

π

x=0+

2

=π

=

x=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y = sin x − 2

0

y = sin 0 − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

2

y = sin

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

y = sin π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

3π

2

y = sin

2π

y = sin 2π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

3π

− 2 = −1 − 2 = −3

2

π

2

π

2

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

x=

coordinates

− 2 = 1 − 2 = −1

2

=

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

π

π

π

(0, –2)

π

4

, −1

x

y = cos x − 3

coordinates

0

y = cos 0 − 3

= 1 − 3 = −2

(0, –2)

π

y = cos

π

−3

2

= 0 − 3 = −3

(π , − 2)

2

3π

, −3

2

π

y = cos π − 3

= −1 − 3 = − 4

3π

2

y = cos

2π

y = cos2 π − 3

= 1 − 3 = −2

(2 π , − 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

3π

−3

2

= 0 − 3 = −3

π

2

, −3

(π , − 4)

3π

, −3

2

(2 π , − 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

572

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

**56. The graph of y = cos x + 3 is the graph of y = cos x
**

shifted 3 units upward. The period for both functions

2π

π

is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The cycle

4

2

begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

π

2

=π

=

x

y = 2sin

0

y = 2sin

3π

2

x

y = cos x + 3

0

y = cos 0 + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

2

(0, 1)

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

y = cos

1

⋅0 +1

2

coordinates

= 2sin 0 + 1

x=

π

1

x +1

2

π

2

π

= 2sin

(0, 4)

π

2

2π

,3

π

y = cos π + 3 = −1 + 3 = 2

(π , 2)

3π

2

y = cos

3π

+3 = 0 + 3 = 3

2

3π

,3

2

2π

y = cos2 π + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

(2 π , 4)

1

⋅π + 1

2

(π , 3)

π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

coordinates

+3 = 0+ 3= 3

y = 2sin

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 2π + 1

2

(2 π , 1)

= 2sin π + 1

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 3π + 1

2

(3π , − 1)

3π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1

= −2 + 1 = −1

= 2sin

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

4π

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 4π + 1

2

(4π , 1)

= 2sin 2π + 1

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we

obtain one period of the graph.

1

**57. The graph of y = 2sin 2 x + 1 is the graph
**

1

**of y = 2sin 2 x shifted one unit upward. The
**

amplitude for both functions is 2 = 2. The period

2π

for both functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter2

4π

period is

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

573

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

1

58. The graph of y = 2 cos x + 1 is the graph of

2

1

y = 2 cos x shifted one unit upward. The amplitude

2

for both functions is 2 = 2. The period for both

2π

functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter-period is

2

4π

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

1

y = 2 cos x + 1

2

0

y = 2 cos

1

⋅0 +1

2

**59. The graph of y = −3 cos2 πx + 2 is the graph of
**

y = −3 cos2 πx shifted 2 units upward. The amplitude

for both functions is −3 = 3. The period for both

1

2π

= 1. The quarter-period is . The

functions is

4

2π

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

coordinates

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, 3)

= 2 cos0 + 1

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

π

y = 2 cos

= 2 cos

1

⋅π + 1

2

(π , 1)

π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

2π

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 2π + 1

2

x

y = −3 cos2 πx + 2

0

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 0) + 2

= −3 cos 0 + 2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2

= −3 + 2 = −1

(2 π , − 1)

= 2 cos π + 1

= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1 = − 2 + 1 = −1

3π

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 3π + 1

2

1

4

(3π , 1)

= −3 cos

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 4π + 1

2

π

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

4π

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

(4π , 3)

1

2

= 2 cos2π + 1

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

1

+2

4

coordinates

(0, –1)

1

,2

4

+2

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

1

+2

2

= −3 cos π + 2

= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2

= 3 +2 = 5

574

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1

,5

2

PreCalculus 4E

3

4

Section 4.5

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

3

+2

4

3

,2

4

3π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

x

y = −3sin 2πx + 2

0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) + 2

= −3sin 0 + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

= −3 cos

1

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 1) + 2

= −3 cos2 π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2

= −3 + 2 = −1

1

4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

(1, –1)

= −3sin

1

+2

4

coordinates

(0, 2)

1

, −1

4

π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2 = −3 + 2 = −1

1

2

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

1

+2

2

1

,2

2

= −3sin π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

3

4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

3

+2

4

3

,5

4

3π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5

= −3sin

1

**60. The graph of y = −3sin 2πx + 2 is the graph of
**

y = −3 sin 2πx shifted two units upward. The

amplitude for both functions is A = −3 = 3. The

2π

= 1. The quarterperiod for both functions is

2π

1

period is . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter–

4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 1) + 2

= −3sin 2π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

(1, 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

**61. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 ,
**

The period is 4π and thus

2π

2π 1

B=

=

=

period 4π 2

y = A cos Bx

y = 3cos

1

x

2

575

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

**62. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 , The
**

period is 4π and thus

2π

2π 1

=

=

B=

period 4π 2

y = A sin Bx

y = 3sin

67.

1

x

2

**63. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,
**

The period is π and thus

2π

2π

=

=2

B=

period π

y = A sin Bx

68.

y = −2sin 2 x

64. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,

The period is 4π and thus

2π

2π

=

=2

B=

period π

y = A cos Bx

69.

y = −2cos 2 x

65. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 , The

period is 4 and thus

2π

2π π

=

=

B=

period

4

2

70.

y = A sin Bx

⎛π

y = 2sin ⎜

⎝2

⎞

x⎟

⎠

**66. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 ,
**

The period is 4 and thus

2π

2π π

=

=

B=

period

4

2

y = A cos Bx

71.

⎛π ⎞

y = 2 cos ⎜ x ⎟

⎝2 ⎠

72.

576

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

a. the author should not run in a marathon on February 18. By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph information from noon to midnight. A = 3 and B = 80. 75. Inc. (0. (12.5 84. 2π y = 3sin ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(1) + 12 81.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 365 2π 2π 365 = 2π = 2π ⋅ = 365 . 82. 10) corresponds to December. The longest day of the year will have the most hours of daylight. B 2π 365 y = 15 There will be 15 hours of daylight. because the emotional cycle is at a maximum. 577 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. In the month of March. Extend the graph one cycle to the right to graph the information for 0 ≤ x ≤ 24. March 21 would be the best day to meet an on-line friend for the first time. (9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 23) corresponds to Noon. The information gives the five key point of the graph. (3. 12) corresponds to March. (3. 77. The period of the intellectual cycle is 23 days. The shortest day of the year will have the least hours of daylight. 38) corresponds to 9 P. Answers may vary. The period is c. 38) corresponds to 3 P. A = 3 = 3. . This occurs when the sine function equals 1. the author should begin writing the on February 11. the intellectual cycle is at a maximum on February 11. 14) corresponds to June. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(−1) + 12 y = 3sin y=9 There will be 9 hours of daylight.M. In the month of February. 2π . 83. The amplitude is b. Answers may vary. In the month of February. 14) corresponds to June By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph the information from June of one year to June of the following year. 23) corresponds to Midnight. The period of the physical cycle is 33 days. 12) corresponds to September. Thus.M. (6. 76. Thus. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 is of the form 365 C⎞ ⎛ y = A sin B ⎜ x − ⎟ + D with B⎠ ⎝ 85. (12. 53) corresponds to 6 P.. 79. (0. the physical cycle is at a minimum on February 18. The function y = 3sin 78. (9. 74.. The information gives the five key points of the graph. The period of the emotional cycle is 28 days. (6. 73. d.M. This occurs when the sine function equals –1..

we will evaluate the function for the three x-values between 1 and 12. we will evaluate the function for the first four xvalues along with x = 0 and x = 365. B = π 6 .25 . x = 4+3 = 7 x = 7 + 3 = 10 x = 10 + 3 = 13 x = 13 + 3 = 16 Because we are graphing for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.25 = 170.5 + 91. 3 2π 2π 6 The period is = π = 2π ⋅ = 12 .Trigonometric Functions e. 12) (170. 578 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2π . πx 6 +9.75 x = 352. The quarter-period is B 365 = 91. 9) (365. Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 6 feet to a maximum of 12 feet. Using a calculator we have the following points. Thus. 56) (10.07) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain one period of the graph. 15) (261. The depth of the water is modeled by y = 3cos 2π 6 = ⋅ = 4 . (1. Thus. 40) (7. the curve oscillates about the middle value. 2π ⎛π 86. x = 79 x = 79 + 91.5. 9 feet. The period is 365. 24) (4. 40) (12.25 = 261.25. 9. The amplitude is A = 16 = 16 .75. D = 9. 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π ⎞ ⎟ + 40 is in the ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) + D with A = 16. The C phase shift is = 79 . The function y = 16 sin ⎜ x − 3 ⎝6 87.25 = 444 Because we are graphing for 0 ≤ x ≤ 365 . A = 3. starting on January 1.07) (79. Inc.5 x = 261. The period is 12. Add quarter4 periods to find the x-values for the key points.25 = 352. along with x = 1 and x = 12. The cycle begins at x = 79. or 12 hours. Using a calculator we have the following points.1) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain the graph for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . The cycle begins at x = 4. 26. The quarter-period is 3 π 12 = 3 . Add 4 quarter-periods to find the x-values of the key points. 9. . x=4 The amplitude is 3. The maximum depth of the water is 3 feet above 9 feet. 12) (352.25 + 91.25 x = 170. The highest average monthly temperature is 56° in July. The phase B π 6 and C = C = shift is B 2π 3 π 6 B= 2π π = 12 6 Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . Thus. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12-0. (0.75 + 91.

π⎞ ⎛ 102. A = −2 = 2 . the graph has a vertical shift 5 units π 5π . We choose B π 10 −10 ≤ x ≤ 30 . Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 3 feet to a maximum of 5 feet. or 12 hours.2. Inc. The 2π 2π = = 1 . The cycle begins B π 10 C −π 10 = π = −π ⋅ = −10 . period is C π 2π 2π = = π . 101. The cycle begins at B 2 C −π π π 3π x= = = − . The period is 12. and A = 3 = 3 . and 10 A = 0. π 2 to π 2 . The function y = −2 cos ⎜ 2π x − ⎟ is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx − C ) with A = –2. The amplitude is y = A cos( Bx − C ) + D with A = 3. We choose ≤ x ≤ . B = 2π . The amplitude is period is 2π π = 12 6 at x = πx 6 2π 2π 10 = π = 2π ⋅ = 20 . . A = 1. The amplitude is period is A = 3 = 3 . Answers may vary. Thus.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Thus. Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . and C= π 2 . The amplitude is 2π 2π = = π . The maximum depth of the water is 1 foot above 4 feet.2 = 0. 4 feet. The D = 5. The function y = 3sin(2 x − π ) + 5 is of the form the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 3. The graphs appear to be the same from − x= 579 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The function ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ y = 0. and −1 ≤ y ≤ 1 for our graph. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0.2 .2sin ⎜ x − (−π ) ⎟ is of the ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 0. C = π . We choose − ≤ x ≤ . B 2 B 2 Because D = 5. and B 2 2 2 2 −4 ≤ y ≤ 4 for our graph. The +4. The depth of the water is modeled by y = cos π . – 100.5 88. D = 4. B = C = −π . B = 2. and C = −π . The period is 105. 4 4 B 2π 2 2π 4 and −3 ≤ y ≤ 3 for our graph. The cycle begins at B 2π π C π 1 1 1 9 = 2 = ⋅ = . The function y = 3sin(2 x + π ) = 3sin(2 x − (−π )) is of 104. B = 2. and 0 ≤ y ≤ 10 for upward. We choose ≤ x ≤ 2 2 our graph. 89. The cycle begins at x = = . Thus. the curve oscillates about the middle value. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 sin ⎜ x + π ⎟ = 0. 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π B= 103.

Thus the range is [ −5. ⎡ π 23π π ⎤ .Trigonometric Functions 110. makes sense 107. ⎥ by [ −5. A = π 109. Since A = 1 and D = −2. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since A = 3 and D = −2.50 x − 2. 111.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . b. . Explanations will vary. 116.17 y = π cos(2π x + 4π ) or y = π cos [ 2π ( x + 2) ] 580 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.61sin(0. 114. Sample explanation: It may be easier to start at the highest point. Inc. ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ 108. ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ The graph is very similar to y = sin x . the maximum will occur at 1 − 2 = −1 and the minimum will occur at −1 − 2 = −3 . does not make sense.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . the maximum will occur at 3 − 2 = 1 and the minimum will occur at −3 − 2 = −5 . except not smooth. −1. 113. B= 2π 2π = = 2π period 1 C C = = −2 B 2π C = −4π y = A cos( Bx − C ) y = 22.04) + 57. Answers may vary. a. ⎥ by [ −3. b. a.1. −1] ⎡ π 7π π ⎤ . except the amplitude is greater and the curve is less smooth. makes sense The graphs appear to be the same from − π 2 to π 2 112. Thus the range is [ −3. makes sense 115.1] The graph is similar to y = sin x . 106.

3π π 2π π + − − 4 4 = 4 = 2 = −π 2 2 2 4 122. ⎟ < x < ⎬ or ⎜ − ⎨x − 4 4 ⎝ 4 4⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 581 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Answers may vary. . Inc. − 120. y = cos x = + cos 2 x 2 2 The reciprocal function is undefined.5 117. a.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2 119. 1 1 118. y = sin 2 x = 1 1 − cos 2 x 2 2 − 121. − π 2 − π π 2 < x+ < x+ π π 4 − < π π 2 < π − π 4 4 4 2 4 2π π 2π π − − <x< − 4 4 4 4 π 3π − <x< 4 4 ⎧ 3π π⎫ ⎛ 3π π ⎞ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.

0+π π x-intercept = = 2 2 582 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The 2 2 curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. to graph one full period of y = cot x . the x-intercept. Use the two asymptotes. 0).6 Check Point Exercises 1. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. and the points midway between to graph one period π 4 to π 4 and the graph passes through π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . x = 0 and x = π . 1 Because the coefficient of the cotangent is . . x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Midway between these asymptotes is x = 4 0. An xintercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 . Solve the equations 2 x = − x= − π and 2 π 2x = x= 4 and x = 2 π 4 π . − π An x-intercept is π 3.Trigonometric Functions Section 4. Continue the pattern 2⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . In order to graph for 3π <x< . Solve the equations x− π 2 =− x= π π and 2 π x− π 2 = π 2 π π x= + − 2 2 2 2 x=0 x =π Thus. Solve the equations π 2 x = 0 and x=0 π 2 x =π x= π π 2 2. An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. x = 0 and x 2 1 π = 2. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − . 4 π of y = 3 tan 2 x from − 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ 2 . to graph one full period of π Thus. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. ⎝ ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Midway between x = 0 and x = 2 is x = 1. Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. Inc. 0 ⎟ . 0). the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3.

the x-values are π π 3π 0. . Section 4. C π π The phase shift. . (π . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. Use quarter-periods. and π . 2) . to find x-values for the five 4 key points. 4⎠ ⎝ 1. Evaluating the function at each 4 2 4 value of x. 583 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. y = 2 cos 2 x . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 2 C C There is no phase shift. 0 ⎟ . The graph has an asymptote at x = 0 . from to − is −π units. Publishing as Prentice Hall. C π π . . The graph has an asymptote at π . and use them as guides to graph y = 2sec 2 x . Inc. ⎜ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. = =0 B 1 C =0 The function with C = 0 is y = − tan x . 2). Starting with x = 0. 2 2 B C C = = −π B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = tan( x + π ) . π 2 .PreCalculus 4E 4. −2 ⎟ . 5.6 π⎞ ⎛ The x-intercepts of y = sin ⎜ x + ⎟ correspond to 4⎠ ⎝ Exercise Set 4. ⎜ . 2⎠ ⎝ 4. Use the and extend the graph − 4 graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Thus. 2 2⎠ ⎝ The graph has an asymptote at x = π . 2 2 B C C π = =− 2 B 1 3. π= C= π 2 +C π 2 π⎞ ⎛ The function is y = − tan ⎜ x − ⎟ . . π π⎞ ⎛ is y = tan ⎜ x + ⎟ . Use the first four points graph for − 4 4 3π units to the left. The graph has an asymptote at x = − The phase shift. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 2. ⎜ . . from to 0 is − units. Thus. Thus.6 π⎞ ⎛ vertical asymptotes of y = csc ⎜ x + ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . In order to 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 3π 3π ≤x≤ . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 C=− 2π 2π period: = =π B 2 π 2 The function with C = − π .

Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. 1 0). two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. x = − and 4 2 π 1 x = . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2.Trigonometric Functions 5. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. x = −2π and x = 2π . π Solve the equations π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 4 . Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. 0). Use the two consecutive asymptotes. π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ Solve the equations x = ⎜ − ⎟ 4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. to graph one full period of y = 3 tan from 4 −2π to 2π . Inc. 0). the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 7. . Solve the equations 2 x = − π 2 − π2 x= 2 x=− Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. − π π to . Because the coefficient of the tangent is . −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. to graph one full period of y = tan 2 x from 2 4 x-intercept = 6. π 4 and 2 x = x= x= π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. x = −2π and x x = 2π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 π . − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. 584 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x from −2π to 4 2π .

to graph one full 1 period of y = −3 tan x from −π to π . x = −π and x = π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− x= and 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x =π Thus. Because the coefficient of the tangent is –3. x = − x= − π π 4 π 4 10. −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 585 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− and x= 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x=π Thus. 4 4 Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. 0). Section 4. 9. 0). the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 π 4 . 0).6 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes.PreCalculus 4E 8. − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. Because the coefficient of the tangent is –2. to graph one full period of y = −2 tan x 2 from −π to π . Solve the equations 2x = − x= π and 2 x = 2 −2 2 π x=− x= π x= 4 π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. and . Inc. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. x = −π and 1 x = π . . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Continue 2 the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 2 x from π to . −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0.

The phase shift. The function with C = 0 and A = –1 is y = − cot x . 14. C C = =0 B 1 C =0 Because the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. 3π . and x = 2 x-intercept = 4 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . to graph one full period of and x = 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . from 0 to is units. B 2 2 C C π = = Thus. 2⎠ ⎝ 4 3π 2π 4 = 4 =π 2 2 4 + 586 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. to graph one full period of 2 π 3π to . x = − π 2 + 32π 42π 4π = = =π 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π and the graph passes through (π . Inc. The graph has an asymptote at 12.Trigonometric Functions 11. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. C π π . There is no phase shift. B 1 2 π Thus. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. An x-intercept is π π 2 Thus. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = π 4 3π . 4 − x-intercept = π 4 2 . Continue the pattern y = tan( x − π ) from 2 2 and extend the graph another full period to the right. 0 ⎟ . . 0) . ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 2 π +π 2 3π x= 2 x= π π 2 3π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 π 2 and 1. Thus. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − π C= π 2 The function with C = π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = − cot ⎜ x − ⎟ . Solve the equations x− π 4 =− π and 2 2π π + x=− 4 4 x=− π 4 x− π 4 = 2 2π π + x= 4 4 3π x= 4 3π and x = . and x = 13. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = and the graph passes through and 1. A = –1. Solve the equations x −π = − x=− x= π and 2 π 2 +π x −π = 13. Continue the pattern 4⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right.

the points on the graph midway between an x2 16. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x-intercept = π and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . . The graph has an asymptote at −π . Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . B C C = = −π Thus. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 1 . x = 0 2 1 and x = π . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. to graph one full period of y = 2 cot x .6 15. The phase shift. Inc. Thus. 2 2⎠ ⎝ An x-intercept is 0+π π = 2 2 2 1 2 1 and − . B 1 2 B 2 2 C=− The function with C = − π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = cot( x + π ) . The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π . 587 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π and the graph passes through intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 17. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. from 0 to −π is −π units. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ⎟ . The graph has an asymptote at − π 18. 2 C π π C C π = =− . C . 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. 0 +π π x-intercept = = 2 2 . The phase shift. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . from 0 to − is − units. 0 ⎟ . x = 0 and x = π . Two An x-intercept is 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . to graph one full period of y = cot x .

0 ⎟ . 20. The curve is repeated along the x-axis 2 one full period as shown. π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . x = 0 and x = π 2 .Trigonometric Functions 19. to graph one full period of y = 2 cot 2 x . 588 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . the points on the graph midway between an x2 21. Publishing as Prentice Hall. to graph one full period of y = −3cot π x . Inc. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is –3. 2 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Solve the equations 2 x = 0 and x=0 2x = π x= The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . x = 0 2 π 1 and x = . 0). ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. Solve the equations 2 x = 0 x=0 and 2x = π x= π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 1 . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. x = 0 and x = 2. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 2. Solve the equations π 2 x=0 x=0 and π 2 x =π x= π π 2 1 intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 1 and − . 0 ⎟ . to graph one full period of y = cot 2 x . . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0+2 2 x-intercept = = =1 2 2 An x-intercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. Use the two consecutive asymptotes.

Solve the equations x+ π 4 =0 and x =0− x . x = 0 and x = 4 . 0+4 4 x-intercept = = =2 2 2 An x-intercept is 2 and the graph passes through ( 2. The curve is repeated along the x4⎠ ⎝ axis one full period as shown. Inc. π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. to graph one full period of y = −2cot π 24. The curve is repeated along the x- x=− 4 axis one full period as shown. to graph one full period of y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is – 2. 0 ⎟ . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 3. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Solve the equations π 4 π x = 0 and 4 x=0 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = − 2 2 π 2 and . to graph one full period of 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 =π x =π − and − π4 + 34π 24π π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is x+ 4 3π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x+ π π 4 =π x =π − 4 π π 4 3π x= 4 4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π 2 =0 and x =0− x=− π 2 π 2 x+ π 2 x= π π 2 4 and the graph passes through and –3. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 3. Solve the equations π π and 2 π π⎞ ⎛ x = .6 22.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 0 ) . x = − π 4 3π and x = . . 0). 2 2⎠ ⎝ 589 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x =π x= π π 4 x=4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 4. 4 x-intercept = 23. − π2 + π2 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0.

0). the key points are (0. The x-intercepts of y = −3cos π 2 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = −3sec π x . 2 2 each value of x. The x-intercepts of y = − sin corresponds to 2 2 1 x vertical asymptotes of y = − csc . Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. Draw the 2 2 vertical asymptotes. Evaluating the function at 0. the x-values are π 3π . ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ . π . The x-intercepts of y = 3sin 4 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = 3csc 4 x . 0). − 3 ⎟ .Trigonometric Functions 1 x 25. π 2 x. Starting with x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . The x-intercepts of y = 590 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 3sin x . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. Use ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ these key points to graph y = 3sin x from 0 to 2π . and use them as guides to graph y = 3csc x . Draw the vertical asymptotes. and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = −3sec 29. and use them as a guide to 1 sketch the graph of y = sec 2π x . and (2π . 2 2 28. ⎜ . amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. Graph the reciprocal sine function. and use them as a guide to 1 x sketch the graph of y = − csc . The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 3 and B = 1. 2 27. (π . Inc. π . 3 ⎟ . and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = 3csc 4 x . Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. 26. 0) . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. to find x-values for the 2 five key points. and 2π . 1 cos 2π x corresponds to 2 1 vertical asymptotes of y = sec 2π x . .

Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 4 3 3 = amplitude: A = 2 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π period: B 4 Use quarter-periods. . 2π . Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. and (4π . 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Use these key points to graph y = 2sin x from 0 to 2π . The Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Evaluating the function at each value of x. 6π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Starting with x = 0. 2 1 1 amplitude: A = = 2 2 2π 2π period: = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. ⎜ . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. and 8π . Use these 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 4π . y = Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. to find x-values for the five key points. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. the x-values are 0. − 2 ⎟ . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. . . The 2 2 1 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . 3 x sin . 0). Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2 2 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. π . π . ⎟ . and 4π . 2 ⎟ . Evaluating the function at each value of x. π . ⎜ 6π . − ⎟ . to find x-values for the five key points. π . Starting with x = 0. (2π . The 2 4 3 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . the x-values are 0. y = 2sin x . 2 4 591 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. to find x-values for the five 2 key points. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. 0). and (8π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 1 x sin . 0). 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ π . and 2π . and use 1 x them as guides to graph y = csc . 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 x Use these key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 2 4 8π . 0). ⎟ . and use them as guides to graph y = 2cscx. Graph the reciprocal sine function. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2π .6 30. Starting with x = 0. the key points are (0. and use them as guides to graph 3 x y = csc . 0). Graph the reciprocal sine function. 2π . Inc. − ⎟ . ⎜ . the key points are 3⎞ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎛ (0. 4π . ⎜ 3π . 0). Graph the reciprocal sine function. (π . the x-values are π 3π 0. 0) . (4π . 0) . 0) . and (2π . 3π . 32. ⎜ 2π . 2 2 31.

The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. 3) . and (2π . Starting with x = 0. 2 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ at each value of x. . and (6π . − 3). π. 3). ⎜ . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. 3 amplitude: B= period: A = 1 =1 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 3 = 6π B 3 6π 3π = . (π . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. π . 2π . Evaluating the function are 0. . 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. ⎜ . (π . 0 ⎟ . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. 1) . and 2π . Use these key (3π . x 35. − 1). 34. ⎜ . the key points are (0. to find x-values for 4 2 the five key points. Starting with x = 0. . Inc. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 3 Use quarter-periods. 1). 0 ⎟ . y = 2 cos x . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. . Extend the 3 graph one cycle to the right. and use them as x guides to graph y = sec . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0 ⎟ . π 3π . ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 592 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the x-values are π 3π 0. − 2). ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ x points to graph y = cos from 0 to 6π . (2π . Starting with x = 0. and use them as guides to graph y = 3sec x . the key points are (0. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 3 and B = 1 . Use these key points to ⎝ 2 ⎠ graph y = 2 cos x from 0 to 2π . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: Use these key points to graph y = 3cos x from 0 to 2π . amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 0 ⎟ . π . π . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 0 ⎟ . the x-values are 0. and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec x . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. y = 3cos x . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3π . ⎝2 ⎠ 3 π ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. y = cos . Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x.Trigonometric Functions 33. and 6π . the x-values 3π 9π . 0 ⎟ . Evaluating the function at each value 2 2 ⎛π ⎞ of x. 2). The 3 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 9π ⎞ . 2) . . ⎜ .

Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Starting with x = 0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. and (2. π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 1 and use them as guides to graph y = − csc π x . y = cos . 1 3 the x-values are 0. Starting with x = 0. the key points are (0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. (1. 2 The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with x from 0 to 2 4π . 0) . and (2. (2π . ⎜ . 2 ⎟ . period: 1 38. 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 B= 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. 37. 0).PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. to find x-values for the five key points. Starting with x = 0. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2π . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. and (4π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 0). Use these key 2 ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ points to graph y = −2sin π x from 0 to 2. the x-values are 1 3 0. y = −2sin π x . − 1). − ⎟ . 1. 2 Use quarter-periods. and 2. 2 A=− Use these key points to graph y = cos 1 and B = π . The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . 1) . 0) . 2 amplitude: A = − period: 1 1 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . ⎜ . 0 ) . x and use them as guides to graph y = sec . and 4π . ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ . 0).6 Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 0 ) . π . and use them as guides to graph y = −2 csc π x . Inc. . the x-values are 0. Evaluating the function at each value of x. 593 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Graph the reciprocal sine function. Evaluating the 2 2 function at each value of x. . y = − sin π x . ( 3π . . the key points are (0. The 2 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎝2 2⎠ 1 Use these key points to graph y = − sin π x from 0 2 to 2 . . − 2 ⎟ . Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. 3π . the key points are 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎛3 1⎞ (0. x 36. (π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. Use quarter-periods. to find 4 2 x-values for the five key points. amplitude: A = −2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. ⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1. ⎟ . 0). 1). and 2 . (1.

and 2 .Trigonometric Functions 1 39. . Starting with x = 0. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. ⎜ . 0 ⎟ . the key points are ⎜ 0. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0 ⎟ . Starting with x = 0. ⎜ . − ⎟ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. ⎟ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. ⎜ 2. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. the key points are 3⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0. . ⎜1. ⎜ 2. 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 Use these key points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 2 to 2 . ⎟ . . − ⎟ . y = − cos π x . 0 ⎟ . 1. 594 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A=− 3 40. Use these key 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 to 2. Use quarter-periods. ⎜1. − ⎟ . y = − cos π x . ⎜ . 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ . 2 amplitude: A = − 2π 2π = =2 B π period: 2 1 = . Inc. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. . Evaluating the function at each 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ value of x. the x-values are 1 3 0. the x-values are 1 3 0. 2 Use quarter-periods. 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with 1 and B = π . 2 amplitude: period: A = − A=− 1 1 = 2 2 3 and B = π . 0 ⎟ . 1. and use them as guides to graph 1 y = − sec π x . 3 and use them as guides to graph y = − sec π x . Extend 2 the graph one cycle to the right. and 2. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. − ⎟ . 2 3 3 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points.

and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = csc ⎜ x − ⎟ . Use these key points to graph 2 ⎝ ⎠ y = sin( x − π ) from π to 3π . 0). 0 ⎟ . 2⎠ ⎝ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. ⎜ . 2⎠ ⎝ The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 1. 1) . ⎜ . 2π . . Publishing as Prentice Hall. to find Use quarter-periods. 0) . ( 2π . (π . − 1) . 0 ⎟ . Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. Starting with x = π π 2 . Inc. (2π . to find x-values for the five key points. y = sin( x − π ) . 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π2 π = = phase shift: B 1 2 period: Use quarter-periods. Starting with x = π .6 41. 0). the key ⎛ 3π ⎞ points are (π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. and B = 1. and . and 3π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 5π to . π. and C = π . 3π 5π . 2 2 Evaluating the function at each value of x. the x-values are 3π 5π . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . and use them as guides to graph y = csc( x − π ) . 0 ⎟ . 595 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Graph the reciprocal sine function. 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. B = 1 . y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ . − 1⎟ . the x-values are π . π 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 period: . (3π . . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 1⎟ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 4 2 x-values for the five key points. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. π 2 . π⎞ ⎛ 42. amplitude: A = 1 = 1 A = 1 . and C = 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π = =π phase shift: B 1 2π π = . 2π . and ⎜ .

Starting with x = − A = 2 =2 period: are −π . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec( x + π ) . ⎜ . B = 1. 2 ⎟ . π 45. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 0 ⎟ . 2 amplitude: A = 2 = 2 46. − 2 ) . amplitude: . Inc. the x-values are π 3π . and π . 2). and C=− π 2 . The equation is of the form Use quarter-periods. . The equation is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2 and B = 1 . Evaluating the function 2 2 at each value of x. and (π . . 0 ⎟ . 2) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. − 2 ⎟ . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C − π2 π = =− phase shift: B 1 2 period: 596 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2. Starting with x = −π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. − π π . and C = −π . and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 sec ⎜ x + ⎟ . the key points are (−π . Use these ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ key points to graph y = 2 cos( x + π ) from −π to π . 0 ) . 0 ) . 0. = . the key points are ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ − . ⎜ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 44. 0. . (π . to find x-values for the five − π . 2 ⎟ . π . ( 0. 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 2⎠ ⎝ 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C −π = = −π phase shift: B 1 2π π Use quarter-periods. ⎜ . and .Trigonometric Functions 43. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 3π − to . ( 0. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ − . y = 2 cos( x + π ) . π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ . the x-values π 2 key points. Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x.

− 0. . Xmax = 2π . . and Ymax = 2 . Ymin = −2 . Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ cos x and y2 = 1 .79. 5.28 597 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. 5π π 3π 7π .28. For the window use Xmin = −2π . 1.71. 57.36. x = −2π . Ymin = −2 . 5π π 3π 7π . 6. Inc. 2π 52. x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. − .6 47. 56. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ sin x and y2 = 1 .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 0.50 49. Ymin = −2 . π⎞ ⎛ y = ( g h ) ( x) = g (h( x)) = −2 tan ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 55. π⎞ ⎛ y = ( f h ) ( x) = f (h( x)) = 2 sec ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 54. and Ymax = 2 .36. 0. For the window use Xmin = −2π . Use a graphing utility with y1 = tan x and y2 = −1 . Ymin = −2 . x=− 2 2 x ≈ −4. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ tan x and y2 = −1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. and Ymax = 2 . 48. Xmax = 2π .93. 53.93. 3π π . and Ymax = 2 .79. For the window use Xmin = −2π . x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. − 0. 58. .57 51. − .50 50. Xmax = 2π . Xmax = 2π . x ≈ −6. 2. For the window use Xmin = −2π . 5.

75. and ⎜ . 0 ⎟ . the secant function. For − π 2 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 <x< π 2 . 0. Use the two 1 1 consecutive asymptotes. 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Use the cotangent function. π π The function is undefined for t = 0. ⎥ . to 4 4 graph one full period of d = 12 tan 2π t . (Do not use the left hand side of the first period of the graph on [0. and Connect these points with a smooth curve.25. y = 10 cos x . Solve the equations 2π t = − π and 2π t = x = π . ⎝2 ⎠ 2 . the adjacent leg is the distance d. . use the x-values − ⎛ π ⎞ find the key points ⎜ − . and 1. Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and d = 12 tan 2π t a. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. d sec x = 10 d = 10 sec x Graph the reciprocal cosine function. and use ⎡ π π⎤ them as guides to graph d = 10sec x on ⎢ − . amplitude: A = 10 = 10 period: b. x = 0 and x = π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at 1 1 x = − and x = . Inc. The beam is shining parallel to the wall at these times. and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ .) An x-intercept is 2 2 .75. d cot x = 2 d = 2 cot x Use the equations x = 0 and x = π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 12. 4 4 − 14 + 14 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. 10). In a right triangle the angle of elevation is one of the acute angles. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 10 and B = 1. then draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. continue the pattern and extend the graph to 2. 2]. 0 ⎟ . 1. 61. 0 ⎟ .25. to graph y = 2 cot x for 0 < x < π . ⎣ 2 2⎦ 598 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0). Use the function that relates the acute angle with the hypotenuse and the adjacent leg.Trigonometric Functions 59. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. π π to 2 ⎛π ⎞ (0. To graph on [0. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 60. Midway between x = 0 and x = π is x = π 2 2 π − π2 t= t= 2 2π 2π 1 1 t=− t= 4 4 Thus. 2]. x = − and x = . and the opposite leg is 2 mi. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have ycoordinates of –12 and 12.

Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. – 76.2 .82 ≤ x ≤ 1. 77. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 62. and graph for −0. we include −0. Answers may vary. Solve the equations π x +1 = − πx= − x= 78. period: π B Graph y = = π =1 π 1 tan π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 .82 . period: π B = π and π x + 1 = 2 π −1 2 −π 2 −1 π −π − 2 x= 2π π 4 Graph y = tan 4 x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π 2 x ≈ −0. 2 65. period: π = π =1 π πx = x= x= π 2 π 2 π 2 −1 −1 π π −2 2π x ≈ 0. 63. period: π 80. 2 64.85 ≤ x ≤ 1. period: π = π B 2 Graph y = cot 2 x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π .18 in our graph of 1 y = tan(π x + 1) . Graphs will vary. period: π B = π 1 4 Graph y = tan = π ⋅ 4 = 4π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 8π . B = π 1 2 Graph y = cot = π ⋅ 2 = 2π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 4π . . Graphs will vary. 4 82. 2 599 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 79.18 B Thus. 81.

85. makes sense 91. A = 1. Inc. period: 3π 3 = 2π 2 The points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 1 and –1. The oscillation is faster as x gets closer to 0. makes sense 90. Sample explanation: To obtain a cosecant graph. 2π 2π 3 = π = 2π ⋅ = 6 B π 3 Graph the functions for 0 ≤ x ≤ 12 . 3 C = 0. we include y = sin 25π in our graph. and graph Thus. The graph has the shape of a cotangent function with consecutive asymptotes at 2π 2π 2π x = 0 and x = . . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 88. 2 1 x The graph is oscillating between 1 and –1. use sine or cosine. An equation for this graph is y = cot x . but over all the concentration increased from 1990 to 2008. 3 3 3 π 2π = B 3 2π B = 3π 2π 2π = =2 B π C π6 π 1 1 = = ⋅ = phase shift: B π 6 π 6 1 25 in our graph. 92. 2 86. Explanations will vary. Thus. There is no phase shift. and 12 89. 2 B= 600 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The period is −0 = . 84. does not make sense. 87. Explanations will vary. Explanations may vary. Thus. period: Thus. 93.Trigonometric Functions 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Graph the functions for 0 ≤ x ≤ 8π . does not make sense. period: 2π 2π = =π B 2 C π6 π phase shift: = = B 2 12 π ≤x≤ 12 5π graph for 0 ≤ x ≤ . 83. we include ≤ x ≤ 6 6 9 for 0 ≤ x ≤ . you can use a sine graph. Sample explanation: To model a cyclical temperature. Thus. period: The graph shows that carbon dioxide concentration rises and falls each year.

PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The range shows that A = π . The graph has the shape of a secant function. 1⎞ ⎛ π This is represented by the point ⎜ − . − 3 ⎟ . The angle is − π 3 . . Explanations will vary. An equation for 3 the reciprocal function is y = cos x . −1] ∪ [1. 8π 2π 8π .1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . ⎝ 6 2⎠ 95. = 3 B 3 8π B = 6π 6π 3 = 8π 4 There is no phase shift. The angle is 5π . a. the coefficient of x is given 2π = 3π by B where B 2π = 3π B 3Bπ = 2π B= b. C = 0 . The range shows that A = 2. yes. a. yes. 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2− x decreases the amplitude as x gets larger. Thus. 6 ⎛ 5π 3⎞ This is represented by the point ⎜ . the range is ( −∞. 100. −x y = 2 sin x b. ⎜ 6 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 101.1⎥ by [ −6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 601 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ π ⎞ This is represented by the point ⎜ − . yes. − ⎟ . 3. ∞ ) ⎡ 1 7 ⎤ Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . Since A=3. Inc. ∞ ) 7π ⎤ ⎡ π by [ −3. B =π Thus. a.6 94. c. Examples may vary.1] ⎣ 2 2 ⎦ 98. The period is 99. Thus. 2 3 Thus. π . Since the period is 3π . 6. the coefficient of x is given by 2π =2 B where B 2π =2 B 2 B = 2π b.− ⎟. Thus. c. y = 2 csc 2x 3 96. an 4 3 equation for this graph is y = sec x . the range is ( −∞. Since the period is 2. a. 6 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 6 b. The angle is − π 6 . The reciprocal function has amplitude A = 1 . Explanations will vary. . Explanations will vary. Since A=1. 4 B= c. −3] ∪ [3. y = π csc π x 97.

4. tan −1 (−35.85 Display (rounded to four places) Keystrokes + − COS−1 1. Thus. ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = −1 is − . then sin θ = . ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 π π 2⎞ π ⎡ π π⎤ The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . The only angle in the interval [0. π ] that satisfies cos θ = − is . 2 2 3 π π 3 π ⎡ π π⎤ is . then cos θ = − . Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode a. or cos −1 ⎜ − ⎟ = . then sin θ = − . or sin −1 = . . θ= 3 ⎝ 2⎠ 3 π ⎛ π π⎞ Let θ = tan −1 (−1) . θ = .2310 –1. 2 2 3 ⎝ 2⎠ 2π ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2π .85 ENTER 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎥ that satisfies cos θ = − is − . Thus.5429 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode a. or sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟⎟ = − . ⎛ 2 2⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − . ⎛1⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ Radian 1 ÷ 3 = b.Trigonometric Functions Section 4. 5. Thus 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ θ =− π 4 or tan −1 θ = − π 4 .5429 602 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . Inc. ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 2 3 3 3 ⎣ 2 2⎦ 2.85) Radian 35. then tan θ = −1 . ⎛1⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ Radian b. ⎜ 2 4 4 4 ⎣ 2 2⎦ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3. 1 1 2π ⎛ 1⎞ Let θ = cos −1 ⎜ − ⎟ .85) Radian Display (rounded to four places) Keystrokes COS−1 TAN −1 ( 1 ÷ 3 ) ENTER − 35. Let θ = sin −1 3 3 . Thus θ = − . tan −1 (−35. The only angle in the interval ⎜ − .7 Check Point Exercises 1.2310 TAN −1 –1.

7) = 0. 3⎞ side opposite θ 3 ⎛ = sin ⎜ tan −1 ⎟ = sin θ = 4 hypotenuse 5 ⎝ ⎠ 8. then tan θ = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x is in [–1. θ is in the first quadrant. .1] so cos ( cos −1 π ) is not defined. Because tan θ is positive. θ is in quadrant IV. x ⎡ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ cos ⎢sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥ = cos θ = = 2 r 2 ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 603 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + (−1) 2 = 22 x2 + 1 = 4 x2 = 3 x= 3 Use values for x and r to find the exact value. cos ( cos −1 π ) x = π . so sin −1 (sin π ) = sin −1 (0) = 0 ⎣ 2 2⎦ c. 7. 2 ⎝ 2⎠ Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find x. x is not in ⎢ − . 4 ⎝4⎠ Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find r.7 cos ( cos −1 0. 3 ⎛3⎞ Let θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ . x is not in [–1. Inc. x is in the domain of sin x. sin −1 (sin π ) ⎡ π π⎤ x = π . a.PreCalculus 4E 6.7 ) x = 0. 1 ⎛ 1⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ . Because sin θ is negative.1] so cos(cos −1 0. Section 4. then sin θ = − .7 b.7 . r 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 r = 25 = 5 Use the right triangle to find the exact value. ⎥ .

The only angle in the interval 2 2 . Thus. then sin θ = . ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 0 is 0. The only angle in the interval 2 2 . Thus ⎣ ⎦ 3 π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . θ= 4. 2 6 Let θ = sin −1 π 4 π 3 2 2 . θ = 6 . then sin θ = − . 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 is 6 . 2 3 1 ⎛ 1⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ . The only angle in the interval 2 ⎝ 2⎠ π π ⎛ 1⎞ θ = − . then sin θ = . 1 Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the third side. 1 π = . 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = − 2 is − 6 . 3. or sin −1 2 π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . or ⎣ 2 2⎦ −1 sin 0 = 0 . The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . a. 2 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ 1 π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . Let θ = sin −1 sin −1 2. Inc. then tan θ =x = x . . or ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ π π⎤ Let θ = sin −1 0 . 2 4 3 3 . sec ( tan −1 x ) = sec θ = x2 + 1 = x2 + 1 1 Exercise Set 4. Let θ = tan −1 x . or sin −1 Let θ = sin −1 θ= 5.7 1. a 2 = x 2 + 12 a = x2 + 1 Use the right triangle to write the algebraic expression. Thus ⎣ ⎦ 604 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Trigonometric Functions 9. then sin θ = . The only angle in the interval 2 2 2 π = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. or sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ = − . 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 is 4 . 1 1 . then sin θ = 0 . Thus ⎣ ⎦ 3 π = . Thus θ = 0 . 1 π π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 is 3 .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. or cos −1 ⎜ − . or cos −1 ⎜ − = . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . π ] that satisfies cos θ = 1 is 0 . 3 6 π ⎛ π π⎞ 14. 605 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or tan −1 1 = π 4 . Thus θ = 0 . The only angle in the interval [0. Let θ = cos −1 ⎜ − . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = is . 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 2 π π . 12. π ] that satisfies cos θ = − is . The only angle in the interval [0. Thus 3 3 3 6 ⎝ 2 2⎠ . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = 1 is . 9. Let θ = cos −1 0 . 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ Thus θ = π 4 . ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ The only angle in the interval [ 0. 2 2 2 3 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ 3⎞ π =− . Thus θ = . Let θ = tan −1 θ= π 6 3 3 3 π ⎛ π π⎞ . then sin θ = − . then cos θ = − . then tan θ = 1 . Thus θ = . ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = − is − . π ] that satisfies cos θ = 0 is Thus θ = π 2 π . Thus ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 3π 2 ⎞ 3π . 2 6 Let θ = cos −1 or cos −1 3 3 3 π π . Let θ = cos −1 or cos −1 8. . Thus θ = − . The only angle in the interval [ 0. π ] that satisfies cos θ = is . 2 4 ⎛ 2 2 2⎞ 3π Let θ = cos −1 ⎜ − . 3 π = . or cos −1 0 = 2 π 2 . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . . Inc. or tan −1 3 π = . π ] that satisfies cos θ = − ⎛ 3 5π 5π 3 ⎞ 5π is . Section 4. θ= ⎟⎟ = ⎜ 4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 4 ⎛ 3 3⎞ 10. ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 3 π π ⎡ π π⎤ The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . Thus θ = . The only angle in the interval [0.PreCalculus 4E 6. π ] that satisfies cos θ = is . then cos θ = − . 13. then cos θ = . then tan θ = . ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 6 2 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ 11. The only angle in the interval [ 0. or cos −1 1 = 0 . Let θ = cos −1 1 . then cos θ = 0 . 2 2 2 4 4 2 π = . then cos θ = . then cos θ = 1 . Let θ = tan −1 1 .7 ⎛ 3 3⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − . or sin −1 ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 7.

The only angle in the interval ⎜ − .3 SIN −1 Display (rounded to two places) 0. π ⎛ π π⎞ 16. π ⎛ π π⎞ 17. ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = − 3 is − .47 ENTER 0. Thus θ = 0 .49 606 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The only angle in the interval ⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ π 3⎞ π Thus θ = − . then tan θ = − .47 SIN −1 Display (rounded to two places) 0.47 Radian 0. The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . or tan −1 − 3 = − π 3 . Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes sin −1 0. .3 ENTER 0. ⎜ − . Thus 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ θ =− π 4 . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . then tan θ = −1 . Let θ = tan −1 ⎜ − . ⎛ 3⎞ 3 18. ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = − 3 6 ⎝ 2 2⎠ Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes sin −1 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = 0 is 0.3 Radian SIN −1 0. ⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ 19.30 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes Display (rounded to two places) sin −1 0. then tan θ = − 3 .Trigonometric Functions ⎛ π π⎞ 15. Let θ = tan −1 0 . Let θ = tan −1 (−1) . 3 π ⎛ π π⎞ is − . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = −1 is − .3 Radian 0. 3 ⎝ 2 2⎠ ( Thus θ = − π 3 ) ( ) . or tan −1 ⎜ − =− .47 Radian SIN −1 0.30 20. or tan −1 (−1) = − π 4 . or ⎝ 2 2⎠ tan −1 0 = 0 . Inc. then tan θ = 0 . Let θ = tan −1 − 3 .49 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes Display (rounded to two places) sin −1 0.

625 ENTER –0.32) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes + 0. Function Mode ⎛3⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝8⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes 3 ÷ 8 = COS−1 1.625) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes 0.11 607 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.19 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode ⎛3⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝8⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 ( 3 ÷ 8 ) ENTER 1.625) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes SIN −1 − 0. Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode sin −1 (−0.7 21.68 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode sin −1 (−0.32) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes SIN −1 − 0.11 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode ⎛4⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 ( 4 ÷ 9 ) ENTER 1.33 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode sin −1 (−0.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Inc.33 Scientific Calculator Solution 22.32 ENTER –0.19 Scientific Calculator Solution 24.32 − SIN −1 –0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .68 Scientific Calculator Solution 23.625 + − SIN −1 –0. Function Mode ⎛4⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes 4 ÷ 9 = COS−1 1. Function Mode sin −1 (−0.

52 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode tan −1 (−20) Radian Display (rounded to two places)