TABLE OF CONTENTS for INSTRUCTOR SOLUTIONS

PRECALCULUS 4E

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra..................................................... 1

Chapter 1

Functions and Graphs............................................................................................. 126

Chapter 2

Polynomial and Rational Functions ....................................................................... 256

Chapter 3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ................................................................ 411

Chapter 4

Trigonometric Functions........................................................................................ 489

Chapter 5

Analytic Trigonometry........................................................................................... 663

Chapter 6

Additional Topics in Trigonometry ....................................................................... 780

Chapter 7

Systems of Equations and Inequalities................................................................... 944

Chapter 8

Matrices and Determinants .................................................................................. 1076

Chapter 9

Conic Sections and Analytic Geometry ............................................................... 1181

Chapter 10

Sequences, Induction, and Probability................................................................. 1297

Chapter 11

Introduction to Calculus....................................................................................... 1393

iii

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter P
Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra
Section P.1
Check Point Exercises
1.

6.

8 + 6( x − 3) 2 = 8 + 6(13 − 3) 2

a.

Because 2 ≈ 1.4, the number inside the
absolute value bars is negative. The absolute
value of x when x < 0 is –x. Thus,

= 8 + 6(10) 2
= 8 + 6(100)
= 8 + 600
= 608
2.

(

b.

Since 2010 is 10 years after 2000, substitute 10 for x.
= 17(10)2 + 261(10) + 3257
= 7567
If trends continue, the tuition and fees will be $7567

5.

The elements common to {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} and
{3, 7, 8, 9} are 3 and 7.
{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∩ {3,7,8,9} = {3, 7}

c.

The union is the set containing all the elements of
either set.
{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∪ {3, 7,8,9} = {3, 4,5, 6, 7,8,9}

π

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,
2

9,

x
x
Because x > 0,
Thus,

7.


10 ⎬

9 because

π −3
Because π ≈ 3.14, the number inside the
absolute value bars is positive. The absolute
value of a positive number is the number itself.
Thus,
π − 3 = π − 3.

T = 17 x + 261x + 3257

4.

)

1− 2 = − 1− 2 = 2 −1

2

3.

1− 2

x
x

=

x = x.

x
=1
x

−4 − (5) = −9 = 9
The distance between –4 and 5 is 9.

8.

9 =3

a.

Natural numbers:

b.

Whole numbers: 0,

c.

Integers: −9, 0, 9

d.

Rational numbers: −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3,

e.

Irrational numbers:

f.

Real numbers:
π

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,
2

7(4 x 2 + 3x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 7(4 x 2 + 3 x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)
= 28 x 2 + 21x + 10 x 2 + 2 x

9

= 38 x 2 + 23x

π
2

,

9.

9

10

9,


10 ⎬

6 + 4[7 − ( x − 2)]
= 6 + 4[7 − x + 2)]
= 6 + 4[9 − x]
= 6 + 36 − 4 x
= 42 − 4 x

Exercise Set P.1
1.

7 + 5(10) = 7 + 50 = 57

2.

8 + 6 ( 5 ) = 8 + 30 = 38

3.

6(3) − 8 = 18 − 8 = 10

1

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

4.

8 ( 3) − 4 = 24 − 4 = 20

5.

82 + 3(8) = 64 + 24 = 88

6.

62 + 5 ( 6 ) = 36 + 30 = 66

7.

7 2 − 6(7) + 3 = 49 − 42 + 3 = 7 + 3 = 10

8.

82 − 7 ( 8 ) + 4 = 64 − 56 + 4 = 8 + 4 = 12

9.

4 + 5(9 − 7)3 = 4 + 5(2)3
= 4 + 5(8) = 4 + 40 = 44

10.

6 + 5 (8 − 6 ) = 6 + 5 ( 2 )
3

18.

19.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2 = 4 + 60(2) − 16(2)2
= 4 + 120 − 16(4) = 4 + 120 − 64
= 124 − 64 = 60
Two seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is
60 feet.

20.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2
= 4 + 60(3) − 16(3) 2
= 4 + 180 − 16(9)
= 4 + 180 − 144
= 184 − 144 = 40
Three seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is
40 feet.

3

= 6 + 5 (8)

= 6 + 40 = 46
11.

82 − 3(8 − 2) = 64 − 3(6)
= 64 − 18 = 46

12.
13.

14.

15.

16.

21.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∩ {2, 4,5} = {2, 4}

82 − 4 ( 8 − 3) = 64 − 4 ( 5 ) = 64 − 20 = 44

22.

{1,3, 7} ∩ {2,3,8} = {3}

5( x + 2) 5(10 + 2)
=
2 x − 14 2(10) − 14
5(12)
=
6
= 5⋅2
= 10

23.

{s, e, t} ∩ {t , e, s} = {s, e, t}

24.

{r , e, a, l} ∩ {l , e, a, r} = {r , e, a, l}

25.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {2, 4, 6,8,10} = { }
The empty set is also denoted by ∅.

7( x − 3) 7(9 − 3) 7(6)
=
=
= 7 ⋅ 3 = 21
2 x − 16 2(9) − 16
2
2x + 3 y
; x = −2, y = 4
x +1
2 ( −2 ) + 3 ( 4 ) −4 + 12 8
=
=
=
= −8
−2 + 1
−1
−1
2x + y
; x = −2 and y = 4
xy − 2 x
2 ( −2 ) + 4

( −2 )( 4 ) − 2 ( −2 )
17.

5
5
5
C = ( F − 32) = (86 − 32) = (54) = 30
9
9
9
30°C is equivalent to 86°F.

=

−4 + 4 0
= =0
−8 + 4 4

5
5
C = (50 − 32) = (18) = 10
9
9
10°C is equivalent to 50°F.

26.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {−5, −3, −1} = { }

27.

{a, b, c, d} ∩ ∅ = ∅

28.

{w, y, z} ∩ ∅ = ∅

29.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∪ {2, 4,5} = {1, 2,3, 4,5}

30.

{1,3, 7,8} ∪ {2,3,8} = {1, 2,3, 7,8}

31.

{1, 3,5, 7} ∪ {2, 4, 6,8,10}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,10}

32.

{0,1,3,5} ∪ {2, 4, 6} = {0,1, 2,3, 4,5, 6}

33.

{a, e, i, o, u} ∪ ∅ = {a, e, i, o, u}

34.

{e, m, p, t , y} ∪ ∅

or ∅

= {e, m, p, t , y}

2
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

35. a.

Section P.1

39. 0

100

b.

0, 100

c.

−9, 0, 100

d.

4
−9, − , 0, 0.25, 9.2, 100
5

e.
f.
36. a.

40. Answers may vary. An example is

1
.
2

41. Answers may vary. An example is 2.
42. Answers may vary. An example is −2.
43. true; –13 is to the left of –2 on the number line.

3

44. false; –6 is to the left of 2 on the number line.

4
−9, − , 0, 0.25, 3, 9.2, 100
5

45. true; 4 is to the right of –7 on the number line.
46. true; –13 is to the left of –5 on the number line.

49

47. true; −π = −π

b.

0, 49

c.

−7, 0, 49

d.

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49

48. true; –3 is to the right of –13 on the number line.
49. true; 0 is to the right of –6 on the number line.

e.
f.
37. a.

50
−7, − 0.6, 0, 49, 50
64

b.

0, 64

c.

−11, 0, 64

d.

5
−11, − , 0, 0.75, 64
6

e.
f.
38. a.

5
−11, − , 0, 0.75, 5, π , 64
6
4
0, 4

c.

−5, 0, 4

d.

−5, − 0.3, 0, 4

f.

51.

300 = 300

52.

−203 = 203

53.

12 − π = 12 − π

54.

7−π = 7−π

55.

2 −5 = 5− 2

56.

5 − 13 = 13 − 5

5, π

b.

e.

50. true; 0 is to the right of –13 on the number line.

2
−5, − 0.3, 0, 2, 4

57.

−3 −3
=
= −1
3
−3

58.

−7 −7
=
= −1
7
−7

59.

−3 − −7 = 3 − 7 = −4 = 4

60.

−5 − −13 = 5 − 13 = −8 = 8

61.

x + y = 2 + (−5) = −3 = 3

62.

x − y = 2 − (−5) = 7 = 7

3
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

63.

x + y = 2 + −5 = 2 + 5 = 7

64.

x − y = 2 − −5 = 2 − 5 = −3

65.

y
−5 −5
=
=
= −1
y
−5
5

66.

x

y

2

83.

84.

1
( x + 3) = 1; x ≠ −3 ,
x+3
inverse property of multiplication

( x + 4 ) + ⎡⎣ − ( x + 4 ) ⎤⎦ = 0;
inverse property of addition

85.

−5

2 5
+
= +
= +
= 1 + (−1) = 0
x
y
2 −5 2 −5

5(3 x + 4) − 4 = 5 ⋅ 3x + 5 ⋅ 4 − 4
= 15 x + 20 − 4
= 15 x + 16

67. The distance is 2 − 17 = −15 = 15 .

86.

2(5 x + 4) − 3 = 2 ⋅ 5 x + 2 ⋅ 4 − 3
= 10 x + 8 − 3

68. The distance is 4 − 15 = −11 = 11 .

= 10 x + 5

69. The distance is −2 − 5 = −7 = 7 .

87.

5(3 x − 2) + 12 x = 5 ⋅ 3x − 5 ⋅ 2 + 12 x
= 15 x − 10 + 12 x

70. The distance is −6 − 8 = −14 = 14 .

= 27 x − 10

71. The distance is −19 − (−4) = −19 + 4 = −15 = 15 .

88.

2(5 x − 1) + 14 x = 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅1 + 14 x
= 10 x − 2 + 14 x

72. The distance is −26 − (−3) = −26 + 3 = −23 = 23 .

= 24 x − 2

73. The distance is
−3.6 − (−1.4) = −3.6 + 1.4 = −2.2 = 2.2 .

89.

= 7 ⋅3y − 7 ⋅5 + 2⋅ 4y + 2 ⋅3
= 21y − 35 + 8 y + 6

74. The distance is
−5.4 − (−1.2) = −5.4 + 1.2 = −4.2 = 4.2 .

= 29 y − 29
90.

75. 6 + (–4) = (–4) + 6;
commutative property of addition

= 8 y − 24 + 15 y + 30
= 23 y + 6
91.

77. 6 + (2 + 7) = (6 + 2) + 7;
associative property of addition

5 ( 3 y − 2 ) − ( 7 y + 2 ) = 15 y − 10 − 7 y − 2
= 8 y − 12

92.

6 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 3) = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 2);
commutative property of multiplication

4(5 y − 3) − (6 y + 3) = 20 y − 12 − 6 y − 3
= 14 y − 15

79. (2 + 3) + (4 + 5) = (4 + 5) + (2 + 3);
commutative property of addition
80.

4(2 y − 6) + 3(5 y + 10)
= 4 ⋅ 2 y − 4 ⋅ 6 + 3 ⋅ 5 y + 3 ⋅10

76. 11 ⋅ (7 + 4) = 11 ⋅ 7 + 11 ⋅ 4;
distributive property of multiplication over addition

78.

7(3 y − 5) + 2(4 y + 3)

93.

7 − 4 ⎡⎣3 − ( 4 y − 5 ) ⎤⎦ = 7 − 4 [3 − 4 y + 5]
= 7 − 4 [8 − 4 y ]

7 ⋅ (11⋅ 8) = (11 ⋅ 8) ⋅ 7;
commutative property of multiplication

= 7 − 32 + 16 y
= 16 y − 25

81. 2 (–8 + 6) = –16 + 12;
distributive property of multiplication over addition
82.

−8(3 + 11) = −24 + (−88) ;
distributive property of multiplication over addition

4

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PreCalculus 4E

94.

Section P.1

6 − 5[8 − (2 y − 4)] = 6 − 5 [8 − 2 y + 4]

104. −20

= 6 − 5 [12 − 2 y ]

20

= 6 − 60 + 10 y

95. 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 ( x 2 − 2) + 5⎤⎦

105.

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 12 + 5⎤⎦
= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 7⎤⎦
= 18 x 2 + 4 − 6 x 2 + 7

96. 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣7 ( x 2 − 2 ) + 4 ⎤⎦

106.

= 14 x + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 14 + 4 ⎤⎦
2

= 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 10⎤⎦

−0.6

5
2

−2.5

2.5

−2.5

3
= −0.6 .
5

2.5
2.5 = 2.5

= 14 x 2 − 7 x 2 + 5 + 10

Since 2.5 = 2.5,

= (14 − 7 ) x + 15
2

= 7 x 2 + 15

107.

97. –(–14x) = 14x

− ( −17 y ) = 17 y

30 3

40 4
30 30

40 40

5
= −2.5 .
2

14 15

15 14
14 15

15 14

0 1
0 <1
30 3
14 15
Since 0 < 1,
− <
⋅ .
40 4
15 14

99. –(2x – 3y – 6) = –2x + 3y + 6
100. − ( 5 x − 13 y − 1) = −5 x + 13 y + 1

1
(3 x) + [ (4 y ) + (−4 y ) ] = x + 0
3
=x

108.

1
( 2 y ) + ⎣⎡( −7 x ) + 7 x ⎦⎤ = y + 0 = y
2

6

0.6

2.5

= 14 x 2 + 5 − 7 x 2 + 10

103. −6

−0.6

Since 0.6 = 0.6,

= (18 − 6) x 2 + 11 = 12 x 2 + 11

102.

3
5

0.6
0.6
0.6 = 0.6

= 18 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 4 + 7

101.

50

20 < 50
Since 20 < 50, −20 < −50 .

= 10 y − 54

98.

−50

17 18

18 17
17 18

18 17

50 5

60 6
50 50

60 60

1 0
1> 0
17 18
50 5
Since 1 > 0,

>
− .
18 17
60 6

−3
3

6>3
Since 6 > 3, −6 > −3 .

5

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

109. 8 8
÷
13 13
8 13

13 8

115. 8 − 3[−2(2 − 5) − 4(8 − 6)] = 8 − 3[−2(−3) − 4(2)]

−1

= 8 − 3[6 − 8]
= 8 − 3[−2]

1

=8+6

1 1
1=1
Since 1 = 1,
110.

= 14
116. 8 − 3[−2(5 − 7) − 5(4 − 2)] = 8 − 3[−2(−2) − 5(2)]

8 8
÷ = −1 .
13 13

= 8 − 3[4 − 10]
= 8 − 3[−6]

4 4
−2
÷
17 17
4 17
2

17 4
2 1
2 >1

= 8 + 18
= 26
117.

Since 2 > 1, −2 >

4 4
÷ .
17 17

111. 82 − 16 ÷ 22 ⋅ 4 − 3 = 64 − 16 ÷ 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 64 − 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

118.

= 64 − 16 − 3
= 48 − 3
= 45
112. 102 − 100 ÷ 52 ⋅ 2 − 3 = 100 − 100 ÷ 25 ⋅ 2 − 3
119.

= 100 − 4 ⋅ 2 − 3
= 100 − 8 − 3

2(−2) − 4(−3) −4 + 12
=
5−8
−3
8
=
−3
8
=−
3
6(−4) − 5(−3) −24 + 15
=
9 − 10
−1
−9
=
−1
=9
(5 − 6)2 − 2 3 − 7
89 − 3 ⋅ 52

= 92 − 3
= 89
113.

5 ⋅ 2 − 32
2

2

[3 − (−2)]

=
=
=

5⋅2 −9
[9 − (−2)]2
10 − 9
[9 + 2]2
10 − 9

112
1
=
121
114.

10 ÷ 2 + 3 ⋅ 4
(12 − 3 ⋅ 2)

2

=
=

120.

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 22 + 32
7 + 3− 6

2

=

(−1) 2 − 2 −4

89 − 3 ⋅ 25
1 − 2(4)
=
89 − 75
1− 8
=
14
−7
=
14
1
=−
2

=
=

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 4 + 9
7 + 3 − 36
4 ⋅ 5 13

10 − 36
20(13)
=
−26
260
=
−26
= −10

5 + 12
(12 − 6) 2
17

62
17
=
36

121. x − ( x + 4) = x − x − 4 = −4

6
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PreCalculus 4E

Section P.1

122. x − ( 8 − x ) = x − 8 + x = 2 x − 8

b.

123. 6 ( −5 x ) = −30 x
124. 10 ( −4 x ) = −40 x
125. 5 x − 2 x = 3 x
126. 6 x − ( −2 x ) = 6 x + 2 x = 8 x
127. 8 x − ( 3x + 6 ) = 8 x − 3x − 6 = 5 x − 6

131. a.

128. 8 − 3 ( x + 6 ) = 8 − 3x − 18 = −3 x − 10
129. a.

b.

130. a.

3
( 220 − a )
5
3
H = ( 220 − 30 )
5
3
= (190 )
5
= 114
The upper limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 114 beats per
minute.
H=

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15, 395 + 988(7) − 2(7)2
= 22, 213
The formula estimates the cost to have been
$22,213 in 2007.

7
( 220 − a )
10
7
H = ( 220 − 20 )
10
7
= ( 200 )
10
= 140
The lower limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 140 beats per
minute.
H=

b.

This underestimates the value in the graph by
$5.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15,395 + 988(10) − 2(10)2
= 25, 075
The formula projects the cost to be $25,075 in
2010.

4
( 220 − a )
5
4
H = ( 220 − 20 )
5
4
= ( 200 )
5
= 160
The upper limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 160 beats per
minute.
H=

132. a.

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15, 395 + 988(6) − 2(6)2
= 21, 251
The formula estimates the cost to have been
$21,251 in 2006.

1
( 220 − a )
2
1
H = ( 220 − 30 )
2
1
= (190 )
2
= 95
The lower limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 95 beats per
minute.
H=

b.

This underestimates the value in the graph by
$16.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15,395 + 988(12) − 2(12)2
= 26, 963
The formula projects the cost to be $26,963 in
2012.

133. a.

0.05 x + 0.12 (10,000 − x )
= 0.05 x + 1200 − 0.12 x
= 1200 − 0.07 x

b.

1200 − 0.07 x = 1200 − 0.07(6000)
= $780

7
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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

134. a.

158. −π > −3.5

0.06t + 0.5(50 − t ) = 0.06t + 25 − 0.5t
= 25 − 0.44t

b.

3.14
= −1.57
2
π
− ≈ −1.571
2
−1.57 > −1.571

159. −

0.06(20) + 0.5(50 − 20)
= 1.2 + 0.5(30)
= 1.2 + 15
= 16.2 miles

135. – 144. Answers may vary.
145. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: Models do not always
accurately predict future values.

3.14
π
>−
2
2

160. a.

146. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: To use the model, substitute 0
for x.

b4 ⋅ b3 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b7

b.

b5 ⋅ b5 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b10

c.

add the exponents
b7

161. a.

147. makes sense

b

148. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: The commutative property
changes order and the associative property changes
groupings.

b8

b.

b
c.

149. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: Some rational numbers are not
integers.

162.

3

2

=

b⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b
= b4
b ⋅b ⋅b

=

b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b ⋅b
= b6
b⋅b

subtract the exponents

6.2 × 103 = 6.2 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 6200
It moves the decimal point 3 places to the right.

150. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: All whole numbers are integers
Section P.2

151. true

Check Point Exercises

152. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: Some irrational numbers are
negative.

1.

153. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: The term x has a coefficient of
1.

( 2x y ) = ( 2) ( x ) ( y )

b.

( −6 x y )( 3xy ) = ( −6 ) ⋅ 3 ⋅ x

3

6

2

4

4

5

3

4

6

4

3

= 16 x12 y 24
2

⋅ x ⋅ y5 ⋅ y3

= −18 x 3 y 8

154. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is:
5 + 3( x − 4) = 5 + 3 x − 12 = 3x − 7.

c.

100 x12 y 2 ⎛ 100 ⎞ ⎛ x12 ⎞ ⎛ y 2 ⎞
=

⎟⎜

20 x16 y −4 ⎜⎝ 20 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x16 ⎠ ⎝ y −4 ⎠

= 5 x12 −16 y 2 − ( −4)
= 5 x −4 y 6

155. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: − x − x = −2 x.

=

156. true
157.

a.

5 y6
x4

2 ≈ 1.4
1.4 < 1.5
2 < 1.5

8

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PreCalculus 4E

d.

⎛ 5x ⎞
⎜ 4⎟
⎝y ⎠

Section P.2

( 5) ( x )
−2

−2

=

(y )
4

(5) ( x )

=

(y )
4

7.

−2

−2

=

−2

= (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − 02 ]
= 2534.4
The speed of the blood at the central axis of the
artery is 2534.4 centimeters per second.

−2

−2

5−2 x −2
y −8

Exercise Set P.2

y8
52 x 2
y8
=
25 x 2
=

2.

3.

4.

a.

−6

3.017 × 10

a.

5, 210, 000, 000 = 5.21× 10

b.

−0.00000006893 = −6.893 × 10−8

(

= 0.000003017

2.

62 ⋅ 2 = (6 ⋅ 6) ⋅ 2 = 36 ⋅ 2 = 72

3.

(−2)6 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 64

4.

(−2) 4 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 16

5.

−26 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −64

6.

−2 4 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −16

7.

(−3)0 = 1

)

8.

(−9)0 = 1

9.

−30 = −1

10.

−9 0 = −1

11.

4−3 =

1
1
1
=
=
3
4
4 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 4 64

12.

2−6 =

1
1
1
=
=
6
2
2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 64

13.

2 2 ⋅ 23 = 2 2 + 3 = 25 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 32

14.

33 ⋅ 32 = 33+ 2 = 35 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 243

15.

(22 )3 = 22⋅3 = 26 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 64

16.

(33 )2 = 33⋅2 = 36 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 729

17.

28
= 28− 4 = 24 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 16
24

18.

38
= 38 − 4 = 34 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 81
34

19.

3−3 ⋅ 3 = 3−3+1 = 3−2 =

1
1
1
=
=
2
3
3⋅3 9

20.

2−3 ⋅ 2 = 2−3+1 = 2−2 =

1
1
1
=
=
2
2⋅2 4
2

9

410 ×107 = 4.1× 102 × 107

(

= 4.1× 10

)

9

( 7.1×10 )( 5 ×10 )
−7

5

= 7.1 ⋅ 5 × 105 ⋅10−7
= 35.5 × 10−2

(

)

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

(

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2
= 3.55 × 10
b.

52 ⋅ 2 = (5 ⋅ 5) ⋅ 2 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 50

−2.6 ×10 = −2, 600, 000, 000

b.

a.

1.

9

= 4.1× 102 × 107

5.

)

−1

1.2 × 106 1.2 106
=

3 ×10−3
3 10−3
= 0.4 × 106 − ( −3)
= 0.4 × 109
= 4 × 108

6.

S = (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − r 2 ]

13 × 109
13 109
=

6
5.1 × 10
5.1 106
≈ 2.5 ⋅ 103
≈ 2500
The average Pell grant was $2500 in 2006.

9

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

21.

23
1
1
1
= 23 − 7 = 2 − 4 = 4 =
=
7
2
2
2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 16

22.

34
1
1
1
= 34 − 7 = 3−3 = 3 =
=
37
3
3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 27

23.

x −2 y =

25.

x0 y5 = 1⋅ y5 = y5

26.

x 7 ⋅ y 0 = x 7 ⋅1 = x 7

27.

x 3 ⋅ x 7 = x 3+ 7 = x10

28.

x ⋅x = x

29.

x −5 ⋅ x10 = x −5+10 = x 5

30.

x −6 ⋅ x12 = x −6 +12 = x 6

31.

( x3 )7 = x 3⋅7 = x 21

32.

( x11 )5 = x11⋅5 = x 55

33.

( x −5 )3 = x −5⋅3 = x −15 =

34.

35.

5

11+ 5

42.

⎛ 6⎞
(−6)3
216
⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3
y
y
⎝ y⎠

43.

(−3x 2 y 5 ) 2 = (−3)2 ( x 2 ) 2 ⋅ ( y 5 ) 2
= 9 x 2⋅2 y 5⋅2
= 9 x 4 y10

1
x
=
y3 y3

xy −3 = x ⋅

(−4)3
64
⎛ 4⎞
⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3
x
x
⎝ x⎠
3

1
y
⋅y= 2
x2
x

24.

11

3

41.

44.

= −27 x 4⋅3 y 6⋅3
= −27 x12 y18

=x

45.

(3 x 4 )(2 x 7 ) = 3 ⋅ 2 x 4 ⋅ x 7 = 6 x 4 + 7 = 6 x11

46.

(11x 5 )(9 x12 ) = 11⋅ 9 x 5 x12 = 99 x5 +12 = 99 x17

47.

(−9 x3 y )(−2 x 6 y 4 ) = (−9)(−2) x 3 x 6 yy 4

16

( x −6 ) 4 = x −6⋅4 = x −24 =

= 18 x 3+ 6 y1+ 4
= 18 x 9 y 5
48.

= 30 x11 y12
1
x15
1
x 24

49.

8 x 20 ⎛ 8 ⎞ ⎛ x 20
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
2 x4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ x4

50.

20 x 24 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 24 ⎞
24 − 6
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
= 2 x18
⎟ = 2x
10 x 6 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ x 6 ⎠

x14
= x14 − 7 = x 7
x7
x30
= x 30 −10 = x 20
10
x

38.


20 − 4
= 4 x16
⎟ = 4x

25a13 ⋅ b 4 ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎛ a13 ⎞ ⎛ b 4 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
⎟⎜ ⎟
−5a 2 ⋅ b3 ⎝ −5 ⎠ ⎝ a 2 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠
= −5a13 − 2 b 4 − 3
= −5a11b

14

37.

(−5 x 4 y )(−6 x 7 y11 ) = (−5)(−6) x 4 x 7 yy11
= 30 x 4 + 7 y1+11

51.
36.

(−3x 4 y 6 )3 = (−3)3 ( x 4 )3 ( y 6 )3

x
= x14 − ( −7) = x14 + 7 = x 21
x −7

52.

x30
= x30 − ( −10) = x 30 +10 = x 40
x −10

39.

(8 x3 ) 2 = 82 ( x 3 )2 = 82 x 3⋅2 = 64 x 6

40.

(6 x ) = (6) ( x ) = 6 x
4 2

2

4 2

2

4⋅2

= 36 x

35a14 b6 ⎛ 35 ⎞ ⎛ a14 ⎞ ⎛ b6 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
⎟⎜ ⎟
−7a 7 b3 ⎝ −7 ⎠ ⎝ a 7 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠
= −5a14 − 7 b6 − 3
= −5a 7 b3

53.

8

14b7 ⎛ 14 ⎞ ⎛ b 7 ⎞
2
7 −14
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
= 2b −7 = 7
⎟ = 2⋅b
7b14 ⎝ 7 ⎠ ⎝ b14 ⎠
b

10

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

54.

Section P.2

20b10 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ b10 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜

10b 20 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ b 20 ⎠

3

61.

= 2b10 − 20
= 2b

⎛ −3b5 ⎞
=⎜ 6 ⎟
⎝ a ⎠
−27b15
=
a18

−10

2
b10

=
55.

(4 x3 ) −2 = (4−2 )( x 3 ) −2
−2

=4 x

62.

1
42 x6
1
=
16 x 6

1
103 x 6
1
=
1000 x 6

10 x 4 y 9
1
= x 4 −12 y 9 − ( −3)
30 x12 y −3 3
1
= x −8 y12
3
y12
= 8
3x

59.

⎛ 5x ⎞
5 x
y

⎟ = −2 =
y
25
x6


y
−3

−2

−6

⎛ 3x ⎞
⎛ y ⎞

⎟ =⎜ 4 ⎟
⎝ 3x ⎠
⎝ y ⎠
y3
= 3 4⋅3
3 x
y3
=
27 x12
4

60.

−2

3

3

63.

⎛ 3a −5b 2 ⎞
=1

3 −4 ⎟
⎝ 12a b ⎠

64.

⎛ 4a −5b3 ⎞
=1

3 −5 ⎟
⎝ 12a b ⎠

65.

3.8 × 10 2 = 380

66.

9.2 × 10 2 = 920

67.

6 × 10−4 = 0.0006

68.

7 × 10−5 = 0.00007

69.

−7.16 × 106 = −7,160, 000

70.

−8.17 × 106 = −8,170, 000

71.

7.9 × 10−1 = 0.79

72.

6.8 × 10 −1 = 0.68

73.

−4.15 × 10 −3 = −0.00415

74.

−3.14 × 10−3 = −0.00314

75.

−6.00001×1010 = −60, 000,100, 000

76.

−7.00001×1010 = −70, 000,100, 000

77.

32, 000 = 3.2 × 104

78.

64, 000 = 6.4 ×104

0

24 x 3 ⋅ y 5 3 3− 7 5 − ( −9)
= x y
32 x 7 y −9 4
3
= x −4 y14
4
3 y14
= 4
4x

3


⎟⎟

0

=

58.

⎛ −30a14b8 ⎞ ⎛ −3b8−( −2)
= ⎜⎜ 17−14

17 −2 ⎟
⎝ 10a b ⎠ ⎝ a

(10 x 2 )−3 = 10−3 x 2⋅( −3)

3

3

⎛ −3b10 ⎞
=⎜

⎝ a3 ⎠
−27b30
=
a9

= 10−3 x −6

57.


⎟⎟

3

−6

=

56.

⎛ −15a 4b 2 ⎞ ⎛ −3b 2−( −3)
⎜ 10 −3 ⎟ = ⎜⎜ 10−4
⎝ 5a b ⎠ ⎝ a

2

3

11

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

79.

94.

638, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000

(8.2 ×10 )( 4.6 ×10 )
8

4

= 6.38 ×1017

= 37.72 × 108+ 4 = 37.72 × 1012

80.

579,000, 000, 000, 000, 000 = 5.79 × 1017

= 3.772 × 1013 ≈ 3.77 ×1013

81.

−5716 = −5.716 × 103

82.

−3829 = −3.829 × 103

83.

0.0027 = 2.7 × 10 −3

84.

0.0083 = 8.3 × 10 −3

85.

−0.00000000504 = −5.04 × 10−9

86.

−0.00000000405 = −4.05 × 10−9

87.

(3 × 104 )( 2.1 × 103 ) = (3 × 2.1) (104 × 103 )

( 2 ×10 )( 4.1×10 ) = 8.2 ×10

89.

(1.6 × 10 )( 4 × 10 ) = (1.6 × 4) (10

4

3

(1.4 × 10 )(3 × 10 ) = (1.4 × 3) (10
−11

99.

4.8 × 10−2 4.8 10−2
=
×
2.4 × 106 2.4 106
= 2 × 10−2 − 6 = 2 × 10−8

15

× 10−11 )

100. 7.5 ×10−2
= 3 × 10−2 − 6 = 3 × 10−8
6
2.5 × 10

× 10−4 )

101. 2.4 × 10−2 2.4 10−2
=
×
4.8 ×10−6 4.8 10−6
= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

= 4.2 × 104

(6.1 × 10 )( 2 × 10 ) = (6.1× 2) (10
−8

−4

−8

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 × 103

= 12.2 × 10−8+( −4)
= 12.2 × 10−12

102. 1.5 × 10−2
= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)
5 × 10−6
= 0.5 × 104 = 5 ×103

= 1.22 × 10−11
92.

( 5.1×10 )(3 ×10 ) = 15.3 ×10
−8

−4

−12

= 1.53 × 10−11
93.

103. 480, 000, 000, 000 4.8 × 1011
=
0.00012
1.2 ×10−4
4.8 1011
=
×
1.2 10−4
= 4 × 1011− ( −4)

( 4.3 ×10 )(6.2 ×10 )
= ( 4.3 × 6.2) (10 ×10 )
8

4

8

3.6 ×104 3.6 104
=
×
9 10−2
9 × 10−2
= 0.4 ×104 − ( −2)

× 10−11 )

15

= 4.2 × 1015+( −11)

91.

97.

1.2 × 104
= 0.6 × 104 − ( −2) = 0.6 ×106
2 × 10−2
= ( 6 ×10−1 ) ×106 = 6 × 105

= 6.4 × 104
15

6.9 × 108
= 2.3 × 108− 5 = 2.3 × 103
3 ×105

98.

= 6.4 × 1015+ ( −11)

90.

96.

7

−11

15

8.4 × 108 8.4 108
=
×
4 ×105
4 105
= 2.1× 108− 5 = 2.1× 103

= 0.4 ×106 = 4 × 105

= 6.3 × 104+3 = 6.3 × 107
88.

95.

4

= 26.66 × 108+ 4

= 4 × 1015

= 26.66 × 1012
= 2.666 × 1013 ≈ 2.67 × 1013

104. 282, 000, 000, 000 2.82 × 1011
=
0.00141
1.41×10−3
= 2 × 1011− ( −3)
= 2 × 1014

12

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

105.

106.

Section P.2

0.00072 × 0.003
0.00024
7.2
( ×10−4 )(3 ×10−3 )
=
2.4 × 10−4
7.2 × 3 10−4 ⋅10−3
=
×
= 9 × 10−3
2.4
10−4

113.

( 2−1 x−2 y−1 ) ( 2 x−4 y3 ) (16 x−3 y3 )
2
( 2 x−3 y−5 )
( 22 x2 y2 )( 2−2 x8 y−6 )(1)
=
( 22 x−6 y−10 )
−2

=

4
−3
66000 × 0.001 ( 6.6 × 10 )(1× 10 )
=
0.003 × 0.002 ( 3 × 10−3 )( 2 × 10−3 )

114.

6.6 × 10
1− −6
= 1.1× 10 ( )
6 × 10−6
= 1.1× 107

−1

x −3 y −1 )

−2

1

107.

( x y)
(x y )

−3

−2

−1 3

2

=

x 6 y −3
= 6 −3
x y

=

= x 6 − 6 y −3− ( −3) = x 0 y 0 = 1
108.

( xy )
( x y)

−2 −2

−2

−3

= x −2 − 6 y

4 − ( −3)

= x −8 y 7 =

(2

y7
x8

111.

⎛ x y z ⎞
⎜ −3 −4 −5 ⎟
⎝x y z ⎠
3

4 5

−2

−4

−6

y4 )

y −6 )

−2

(9 x

3

y −3 )

0

2

x 6 y 2 )( 2−2 x12 y −8 ) (1)

(2

2

x −8 y −12 )

2.52 × 1012
3 × 108

c.

2.52 × 1012
3 × 108

=

2.52 1012
× 8
3
10

= 0.84 × 104
= 8400
$8400 per American

y
y
=
24 x8 z 6 16 x8 z 6

116. a.

110. 3 x −4 yz −7 ( 3x )−3 = 3x −4 yz −7 ⋅ 3−3 x ⋅−3
(
)

= 3−2 x −7 yz −7 =

(2x

b.

109. 2 x −3 yz −6 ( 2 x )−5 = 2 x −3 yz −6 ⋅ 2−5 x ⋅−5
(
)

= 2−4 x −8 yz −6 =

2

(2x

x 26 y 6
4

115. a.

x −2 y 4
= 6 −3
x y

0

x18 y6
4

(2

=

−2

y
y
=
3 x7 z 7 9 x7 z 7
2

2.27 × 1012

b.

2.98 × 108

c.

2.27 × 1012

2.27 1012
=
×
2.98 108
2.98 × 108
= 0.7617 × 104

= ( x6 y z

)

= 7617
$7617 per American

8 10 −2

= x −12 y −16 z −20 =

1
x y16 z 20

117. 1450 × 109 ⋅ 6.60 = 1.45 × 1012 ⋅ 6.6

12

= 1.45 ⋅ 6.6 × 1012
112. ⎛ x 4 y 5 z 6 ⎞ −4
8 10 12 −4
⎜ −4 −5 −6 ⎟ = ( x y z )
⎝x y z ⎠

= x −32 y −40 z −48 =

= 9.57 × 1012
Box-office receipts were $9.57 × 1012 in 2006.

1
x y 40 z 48

118. 1400 × 109 ⋅ 6.40 = 1.4 × 1012 ⋅ 6.4

32

= 1.4 ⋅ 6.4 × 1012
= 8.96 × 1012
Box-office receipts were $8.96 × 1012 in 2005.

13
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

119. 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 20, 000 = 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 2 × 104

138. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 52 ⋅ 5−2 = 25 ⋅ 2−5.

= 5.3 ⋅ 2 × 10−23 ⋅ 104
= 10.6 × 10−19

139. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: 534.7 ≠ 5347.

= 1.06 × 101 ⋅ 10−19

140. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is:

= 1.06 × 10−18
The mass is 1.06 × 10−18 gram.

8 × 1030
2 × 10−5

120. 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 80, 000 = 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 8 × 104

= 1.67 ⋅ 8 × 10−24 ⋅ 104

141. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is:

= 13.36 × 10−20
1

= 1.336 × 10 ⋅ 10

(7 × 105 ) + (2 × 10−3 ) = 700, 000.002.

−20

142. true

= 1.336 × 10−19

143. The doctor has gathered:
1 1
2 1 3
2−1 + 2−2 = +
= + =
2 22 4 4 4

The mass is 1.336 × 10−19 gram.
121. 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 127 = 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 1.27 × 102

= 3.2 ⋅ 1.27 × 107 ⋅ 102

So, 1 −

= 4.064 × 109

3 1
= is remaining.
4 4

144. b A = MN , bC = M , b D = N

Americans eat 4.064 × 109 chickens per year.

b A = bC b D

122. 365 days equals 365 ⋅ 24 or 8760 hours.

A=C+D

8760 hours equals 8760 ⋅ 60 or 525,600 minutes.
525,600 min. equals
525,600 ⋅ 60 or 31,536,000 seconds.

145.

There are 3.1536 × 107 seconds in a year.
123. – 130. Answers may vary.
131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

Sample explanation: 36( x3 )9 = 36 x 27 not 36 x12 .
132. makes sense

70 bts 60 min 24 hrs 365 days



⋅ 80 yrs
hr
day
yr
min
= 70 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 365 ⋅ 80 beats
= 2943360000 beats
= 2.94336 × 109 beats
≈ 2.94 × 109 beats
The heartbeats approximately 2.94 × 109 times over a
lifetime of 80 years.

146. Answers may vary.

133. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
147. a.

Sample explanation: 4.6 × 1012 represents over 4
trillion. The entire world population is measured in
billions ( 109 ).
134. makes sense
135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 4

= 4 × 1030 − ( −5) = 4 × 1035.

−2

b.

16 ⋅ 4 = 64 = 8

c.

16 ⋅ 4 = 16 ⋅ 4

148. a.

300 ≈ 17.32

b.

10 3 ≈ 17.32

c.

300 = 10 3

−3

>4 .

16 ⋅ 4 = 4 ⋅ 2 = 8

136. true
137. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
1
A sample change is: (−2)4 ≠ 2−4 because 16 ≠ .
16

149. a.
b.

21x + 10 x = 31x
21 2 + 10 2 = 31 2

14

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

Section P.3

5.

a.

Check Point Exercises
1.

5 27 + 12
= 5 9⋅3 + 4⋅3
= 5⋅3 3 + 2 3

a.

81 = 9

b.

− 9 = −3

c.

1
1
=
25 5

d.

36 + 64 = 100 = 10

e.

36 + 64 = 6 + 8 = 14

a.

75 = 25 ⋅ 3 = 25 3 = 5 3

b.

5 x ⋅ 10 x = 5 x ⋅10 x

= 15 3 + 2 3
= (15 + 2) 3
= 17 3

2.

b.

= 6 9 ⋅ 2x − 4 4 ⋅ 2x
= 6 ⋅ 3 2x − 4 ⋅ 2 2x
= 18 2 x − 8 2 x
= (18 − 8) 2 x
= 10 2 x
6.

a.

= 50 x 2
= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2

b.

5
3

25
25 5
=
=
16
16 4
150 x 3
2x

=

b.

150 x 3
2x

= 5x 3

3

12

8 13 + 9 13 = (8 + 9) 3
7.

17 x − 20 17 x
= 1 17 x − 20 17 x
= (1 − 20) 17 x

=

Multiply by

3

=

5 3
9

=

5 3
3

12 ⋅ 3 =
3
3
6
12

36 = 6. So multiply by 1,

for 1.
3
3

=

6 3
36

=

4− 5

.
4− 5
8
8
4− 5
=

4+ 5 4+ 5 4− 5
=

= −19 17 x

3

for 1.

The smallest number that will produce a perfect
6
square in the denominator of
is 3
12

6

= 17 13
b.

5

choosing

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 3

a.

=

3

because

= 75 x 2

4.

3

choosing

= 5x 2
a.

If we multiply numerator and denominator by
3, the denominator becomes
3 ⋅ 3 = 9 = 3. Therefore, multiply by 1,

= 25 ⋅ 2 x 2

3.

6 18 x − 4 8 x

8(4 − 5)
42 − ( 5)2

8(4 − 5)
16 − 5
8(4 − 5)
32 − 8 5
or
=
11
11
=

15

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6 3
= 3
6

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

8.

9.

a.

3

40 = 3 8 ⋅ 5 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 5 = 2 3 5

Exercise Set P.3

b.

5

8 ⋅ 5 8 = 5 64 = 5 32 ⋅ 5 2 = 2 5 2

1.

36 = 62 = 6

c.

3

125 3 125 5
= 3
=
27
27 3

2.

25 = 52 = 5

3 3 81 − 4 3 3 = 3 3 27 ⋅ 3 − 4 3 3

3.

− 36 = − 62 = −6

4.

− 25 = − 52 = −5

5.

−36 , The square root of a negative number is not
real.

6.

−25 , The square root of a negative number is not
real.

= 3⋅ 33 3 − 4 3 3
= 93 3 − 43 3
= (9 − 4) 3 3
= 53 3
1

25 2 = 25 = 5

10. a.

1

b.

83 = 3 8 = 2

c.

−814 = − 4 81 = −3

d.

( −8 ) 3

e.

27

1

1

1
3

= 3 −8 = −2
1

=

1

1

=

3

27 3
4

(

27 3 =

11. a.

( 4)

2
5

1

32

c.

27

42 =

3

b.

3

2

=

3

2

)

4

=

27

1
3

= (3)4 = 81

= (2)3 = 8

=

32 5

1

(

5

32

)

2

1 1
= 2 =
2
4

7.

25 − 16 = 9 = 3

8.

144 + 25 = 169 = 13

9.

25 − 16 = 5 − 4 = 1

10.

144 + 25 = 12 + 5 = 17

11.

(−13) 2 = 169 = 13

12.

(−17)2 = 289 = 17

13.

50 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 25 2 = 5 2

14.

27 = 9 ⋅ 3 = 9 3 = 3 3

15.

45 x 2 = 9 x 2 ⋅ 5
= 9 x2 5

( 2 x )( 5x )
4/3

12. a.

8/3

= 9 x2 5

= 2 ⋅ 5 x 4 / 3 ⋅ x8 / 3

=3 x 5

= 10 x ( 4 / 3) + (8 / 3)
= 10 x12 / 3
= 10 x

16.

4

= 25 x 2 5

20 x 4 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 4 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟
3
5x 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x 2 ⎠

b.

= 25 x 2 5
=5 x 5

4− 3
= 4x ( 2)
8 − 3
= 4 x( 2 ) ( 2 )

= 4x
13.

6

5

17.

2x ⋅ 6x = 2x ⋅ 6x
= 12 x 2

2

= 4x2 ⋅ 3

x3 = x 6 = x 2 = x
3

125 x 2 = 25 x 2 ⋅ 5

1

= 2x 3

16
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

18.

Section P.3

10 x ⋅ 8 x = 10 x ⋅ 8 x

30.

= 80 x 2

24 x 4
=
3x

= 16 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 8 x3

= 4x 5

= 4 x2 ⋅ 2 x

19.

x3 = x 2 ⋅ x = x x

20.

y3 =

21.

2 x2 ⋅ 6 x = 2 x2 ⋅ 6 x

= 2x 2x
31.

y2 ⋅ y = y y

200 x3
10 x −1

= 4 x 2 ⋅ 3x

= 4 ⋅ 5x4
= 2 x2 5
32.

1
1 1
=
=
81
81 9

24.

1
=
49

25.

49
49 7
=
=
16
16 4

26.

121
121 11
=
=
9
3
9

27.

28.

48 x3

=

3x
72 x

3

=

8x

1
7

34.

8 5 + 11 5 = (8 + 11) 5 = 19 5

35.

6 17 x − 8 17 x = (6 − 8) 17 x = −2 17 x

36.

4 13 x − 6 13x = (4 − 6) 13x = −2 13x

= (2 + 3) 2
=5 2
38.

20 + 6 5 = 4 ⋅ 5 + 6 5
= 2 5+6 5
= (2 + 6) 5
=8 5

72 x
= 9 x2 = 3x
8x

150 x
150 x
=
3x
3x

8 + 3 2 = 4⋅2 + 3 2
= 2 2 +3 2

39.
29.

500 x 3
= 50 x 3−( −1)
10 x −1

7 3 + 6 3 = (7 + 6) 3 = 13 3

37.

48 x3
= 16 x 2 = 4 x
3x

4

10 x −1

=

33.

3

=

500 x 3

= 50 x 4 = 25 ⋅ 2 x 4 = 5 x 2 2

= 3x 2x

49

3−( −1)

= 20 x 4

6 x ⋅ 3 x 2 = 6 x ⋅ 3x 2
= 18 x3

1

200 x 3
10 x −1

= 12 x 3

= 9 x2 ⋅ 2 x

23.

=

= 20 x

= 2 x 3x
22.

24 x 4
3x

4

50 x − 8 x = 25 ⋅ 2 x − 4 ⋅ 2 x
= 5 2x − 2 2x
= (5 − 2) 2 x

= 50 x 3

= 3 2x

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2 x
= 5x 2x

17
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

40.

63 x − 28 x = 9 ⋅ 7 x − 4 ⋅ 7 x

49.

= 3 7x − 2 7x

13
3 + 11

= (3 − 2) 7 x

=
=

= 7x
41.

3 18 + 5 50 = 3 9 ⋅ 2 + 5 25 ⋅ 2
= 3⋅3 2 + 5⋅5 2
= 9 2 + 25 2
= (9 + 25) 2

50.

= 34 2
42.

3
3+ 7

= 4⋅ 2 3 − 2⋅5 3

13(3 − 11)
9 − 11

=

13(3 − 11)
−2

=

= −2 3
3 8 − 32 + 3 72 − 75

51.

= 3 4 ⋅ 2 − 16 ⋅ 2 + 3 36 ⋅ 2 − 25 ⋅ 3

7
5−2

= 6 2 − 4 2 + 18 2 − 5 3
=

= 20 2 − 5 3

= 3 9 ⋅ 6 − 2 4 ⋅ 6 − 16 ⋅ 6 + 4 9 ⋅ 7

52.

= 3⋅3 6 − 2⋅ 2 6 − 4 6 + 4 ⋅3 7

5
3 −1

= 9 6 − 4 6 − 4 6 + 12 7

46.

47.

48.

2

2
5
7
3

=

=

=

2

2
5
7

10

10
5
5

=

=

5−2

5+2

5+2

7( 5 + 2)
( 5) 2 − 22
7( 5 + 2)
5−4

5
3 −1

3 +1
3 +1

5( 3 + 1)
( 3) 2 − 12

5( 3 + 1)
3 −1
5( 3 + 1)
=
2

7

10

7

=

7
=

=
7
7
7 7

10

3(3 − 7 )
32 − ( 7 )2

=
=

= 6 + 12 7
45.

3− 7

= 7( 5 + 2)

3 54 − 2 24 − 96 + 4 63

1

3+ 7 3− 7

=
=

= 3⋅ 2 2 − 4 2 + 3⋅ 6 2 − 5 3

1

3

3(3 − 7)
9−7
3(3 − 7)
=
2

= (8 − 10) 3

44.

32 − ( 11)2

=

= 8 3 − 10 3

43.

13(3 − 11)

=

=

4 12 − 2 75 = 4 4 ⋅ 3 − 2 25 ⋅ 3

13
3 − 11

3 + 11 3 − 11

2 10
10
=
10
5

53.

10
5

6
5+ 3

=
=
=

3

21

=
3
3 3

6
5+ 3

5− 3
5− 3

6( 5 − 3)
( 5) 2 − ( 3) 2
6( 5 − 3)
5−3

6( 5 − 3)
2
= 3( 5 − 3)
=

18

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

11

54.

Section P.3

11

=

7− 3

=

7− 3

7+ 3

5

73.

7+ 3

11( 7 + 3)
74.

11( 7 + 3)
=
7−3
11( 7 + 3)
=
4
125 = 3 53 = 5

55.

3

56.

3

8 = 3 23 = 2

57.

3

−8 = 3 (−2) = −2

3

77.

5 3 16 + 3 54 = 5 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 3 27 ⋅ 2
= 5 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 33 2
= 13 3 2

61.

4

(−3) 4 = −3 = 3

62.

4

(−2) = −2 = 2

63.

5

(−3)5 = −3

64.

5

(−2) = −2

65.

5

67.

3

= 6 3 3 + 33 3
= 93 3
79.

= − y 3 2x
80.

2

24 xy 3 − y 3 81x

= 2 y 3 3 x − 3 y 3 3x

=

6

3

= 3 8 ⋅ 3xy 3 − y 3 27 ⋅ 3x
= − y 3 3x

1
1
1
= 5 − 5 =−
32
2
2
1

54 xy 3 − y 3 128 x

= 3 y 3 2x − 4 y 3 2x

5

6

3

= 3 27 ⋅ 2 xy 3 − y 3 64 ⋅ 2 x

4

6

3 3 24 + 3 81 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 + 3 27 ⋅ 3
= 3 ⋅ 2 3 3 + 33 3

−81 is not a real number.

1
=
64

162 x5 4
= 81x 4 = 3x
2x

6 5 3 + 25 3 = 85 3

−16 is not a real number.

4

6

2x

4

= 10 3 2 + 3 3 2

60.

66.

4

=

76.

−125 = 3 (−5)3 = −5

162 x 5

64 x 6 5
= 32 x5 = 2 x
2x

5

4 5 2 + 35 2 = 7 5 2

3

4

59.

2x

=

75.

78.
58.

5

4

( 7 )2 − ( 3) 2

64 x 6

1
2

81.

2+ 3 8 = 2+2

82.

3 + 3 15 will not simplify

83.

32 = 3 8 ⋅ 4 = 3 8 3 4 = 2 ⋅ 3 4

361/ 2 = 36 = 6

84. 1211/ 2 = 121 = 11
68.

3

69.

3

70.

3

71.

3

72.

3

150 cannot be simplified further.
85.

81/ 3 = 3 8 = 2

x 4 = 3 x3 ⋅ x = x ⋅ 3 x

86.

271/ 3 = 3 27 = 3

x5 = 3 x3 x 2 = x 3 x 2

87. 1252 / 3 =

9 ⋅ 3 6 = 3 54 = 3 27 ⋅ 2 = 3 27 3 2 = 3 3 2

88.

12 ⋅ 4 = 48 = 8 ⋅ 6 = 2 6
3

3

3

3

82 / 3 =

(

3

125

( 8)
3

2

)

2

= 52 = 25

=4

19

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

89.

90. 16−5 / 2 =

91.

1
1
1
= 4 =
4/5
32
2
16

32−4 / 5 =

1
1
1
1
=
=
=
165 / 2 ( 16)5 45 1024

( 7 x )( 2 x ) = 7 ⋅ 2 x
1/ 3

1/ 4

1/ 3

⋅ x1/ 4

1/ 3 +1/ 4

= 14 ⋅ x

20 x1/ 2 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x1/ 2 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜

5 x1/ 4 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x1/ 4 ⎠
= 4 ⋅ x1/ 2 −1/ 4

4

x12 = x12 / 4 = x

105.

6

x4 = 6 / 2 x4 / 2 = 3 x2

106.

9

x6 = 9 / 3 x6 / 3 = 3 x 2

107.

9

x6 y 3 = x 9 y 9 = x 3 y 3 = 3 x 2 y

108.

12

x 4 y 8 = x 12 y 12 = x 3 y 3 =

109.

34

110.

3

94.

95.

(x

)

=x

2 / 3⋅3

=x

98.

(125 x9 y 6 )1/ 3 = 1251/ 3 x 9 / 3 y 6 / 3 = 5 x 3 y 2

1

2

x y2

3

3

1000 + 3 216

1/ 2

−2 −1/ 2

4 −1/ 2

1/ 2

1 ( −2)( −1/ 2 ) ( 4)( −1/ 2)
x
y
( xy1/ 2 )
491/ 2
1
1
−2 + 1/ 2
= x1 y −2 ⋅ xy1/ 2 = x1+1 y ( )
7
7
1
x2
= x 2 y −3 / 2 = 3 / 2
7
7y

3

3

112. ( 8 x −6 y 3 )

1/ 3

(x

5/ 6

y −1/ 3 )

6

= 81/ 3 x ( −6)(1/ 3) y ( 3)(1/ 3) x (5 / 6)( 6) y ( −1/ 3)( 6)
= 2 x −2 y1 x5 y −2 = 2 x −2 + 5 y1+ ( −2 )

2

= 27 y 12 = 27 y 3
24 ( y1/ 5 )

−1/ 2

=

⎛ 14 ⎞
3
⎜ 3y ⎟
3 1

⎠ = 27 y 4 = 27 y 4 − 12
1
1
y 12
y 12

=

169 + 9 +

−1/ 2

(25 x 4 y 6 )1/ 2 = 251/ 2 x 4⋅1/ 2 y 6⋅1/ 2 = 5 x 2 y

y 3 /10

8

( xy )
= ( 49 ) ( x ) ( y ) ( xy )

97.

1/ 5 4

1

16 + 625 = 3 2 + 25 = 3 27 = 3

111. ( 49 x −2 y 4 )

2

( x 4 / 5 )5 = x 4 / 5⋅5 = x 4

(2y )

2

= 3 4+ 4 = 38
=2


3 / 4 −1/ 3
= 8 x5 /12
⎟ = 8⋅ x

96.

8

3

= 3 16 + 16

72 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 72 ⎞ ⎛ x 3 / 4
= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1/ 3
9 x1/ 3
⎝ 9 ⎠⎝ x
2/3 3

3

= 3 13 + 3 + 10 + 6

= 4 x1/ 4

100.

104.

4

2 / 3+ 3 / 4

= 12 x17 /12

99.

x6 = x6 / 3 = x 2

(3 x 2 / 3 )(4 x3 / 4 ) = 3 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3 ⋅ x 3 / 4
= 12 ⋅ x

93.

3

6

= 14 x 7 /12
92.

103.

= 2 x3 y −1 =

4

y 3 /10

⎛ x −5 / 4 y1/ 3 ⎞
113. ⎜ −3 / 4 ⎟
⎝ x

4/5

16 y
= 3 /10 = 16 y 4 / 5− 3 /10 = 16 y1/ 2
y
101.

4

52 = 52 / 4 = 51/ 2 = 5

102.

4

7 2 = 7 2 / 4 = 71/ 2 = 7

2 x3
y
−6

(

= x(

= ( x −2 / 4 y1/ 3 ) = x(
−6

= x3 y −2 =

−5 / 4 ) − ( −3 / 4 )

−2 / 4 )( −6 )

y(

y1/ 3

)

−6

1/ 3)( −6 )

x3
y2

20
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

⎛ x1/ 2 y −7 / 4 ⎞
114. ⎜

−5 / 4
⎝ y

−4

= ( x1/ 2 y −2 / 4 )
= x −2 y 2 =
115. a.

(

= x1/ 2 y (

−4

−7 / 4 ) − ( −5 / 4 )

)

−4

⎛v⎞
118. Ra = R f 1 − ⎜ ⎟
⎝c⎠

= x (1/ 2)( −4) y ( −2 / 4)( −4)

⎛ 0.9c ⎞
= Rf 1− ⎜

⎝ c ⎠

y2
x2

= R f 1 − ( 0.9 )

In 2004, we have x = 5.

Ra = 0.44 R f
44 = 0.44 R f

In 2011, we have x = 12 .

0.44 R f
44
=
0.44
0.44
100 = R f
If you are gone for 44 weeks, then 100 weeks will
have passed for your friend.
119. Perimeter:
P = 2l + 2 w

For 2020: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 125 + 2 ⋅ 2 20

= 5 10 + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 25 ⋅ 5 + 4 4 ⋅ 5

For 2050: E = 5 x + 34.1
= 5 40 + 34.1

= 2⋅5 5 + 4⋅ 2 5

= 5 ⋅ 2 10 + 34.1

= 10 5 + 8 5
= 18 5 feet
Area:
A = lw

= 10 10 + 34.1
Difference:
(10 10 + 34.1) − (5 10 + 34.1)
= 10 10 + 34.1 − 5 10 − 34.1

= 125 ⋅ 2 20

= 10 10 − 5 10 + 34.1 − 34.1

= 2 125 ⋅ 20

= 5 10

= 2 2500
= 2 ⋅ 50
= 100 square feet

The difference is 5 10.
b.

117.

2

≈ 0.44 R f

y = 20.8 12 + 21 ≈ 93.1
According to the model, 93.1% of email will be
spam in 2011.
This overestimates the value given in the bar
graph by 21.1%.
116. a.

2

= R f 0.19

y = 20.8 5 + 21 ≈ 67.5
According to the model, 67.5% of email was
spam in 2004.
This underestimates the actual value shown in
the bar graph by 0.5%.
b.

2

5 10 ≈ 15.8
This underestimates the difference projected by
the graph of 65.8 − 47.3 = 18.5 by 2.7. This
represents a difference of 2.7 million people.

2
5 + 1 2( 5 + 1)

=
5 −1
5 −1 5 +1
2( 5 + 1)
4
5 +1
=
2
≈ 1.62
About 1.62 to 1.
=

21
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

120. Perimeter:
P = 2l + 2w

13 + 2 +

139.

= 2 ⋅ 4 20 + 2 ⋅ 80

7

= 13 + 2 +

3+ 2

= 8 4 ⋅ 5 + 2 16 ⋅ 5

= 24 5 feet
Area:
A = lw

21 − 7 2
9−2

= 13 + 2 +

21 − 7 2
7

1

1

140. a.

= 4 1600
= 4 ⋅ 40
= 160 square feet

b.

121. – 128. Answers may vary.

3 2 > 33
Calculator Check: 1.7321 > 1.4422
7 + 18 > 7 + 18
Calculator Check: 6.8884 > 5
5

129. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: The denominator is
rationalized correctly.

141. a.

b.

131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary. Sample
explanation: 2 20 + 4 75 simplifies to 4 5 + 20 3
and thus the radical terms are not common.

2

⋅7

1

2

1
4

4
3

3

4

+ 2−2
+ 2−1

( 8)
3

=

+

4

1

( 16 )
4

3

= 71 = 7.

136. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

20
5
=
.
8
4

)(5 − 3 ) = 22
25 − 3 = 22
3 =3

25 x 14 = 5 x 7

1
22

+

1 1
+
4
2
4
=
1 1
+
23 2
1 1
+
= 16 4
1 1
+
8 2
5
= 16
5
8
8
=
16
1
=
2
Mom’s portion:
1⎛ 1⎞ 1⎛1⎞ 1
1−
=
=
2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 4

135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
The cube root of –8 is the real number –2.

138.

5 3 1
+ −
4 4

= 22

Son’s portion:

16

134. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
1
1
1
1

A sample change is: ( 8 ) 3 =
= 3 = .
1
2
8
(8) 3

A sample change is:

3

22 ⋅ 24

1
4

2 ⋅2 ÷2 =

8

133. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
1

3
4

1

132. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: Finding the nth root first often
gives smaller numbers on the middle step.

A sample change is: 7

5
2

2
Her son is 8 years old.

130. makes sense

3

3+ 2 3− 2

= 16
=4

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

(

3− 2

= 13 + 2 + 3 − 2

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

137. 5 +

= 13 + 2 +

= 8⋅ 2 5 + 2⋅ 4 5
= 16 5 + 8 5

7

22
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1
2

= 23 = 8

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

142. (2 x3 y 2 )(5 x 4 y 7 ) = 10 x7 y 9
143. 2 x 4 (8 x 4 + 3x) = 2 x 4 (8 x 4 ) + 2 x 4 (3 x) = 16 x8 + 6 x5
144. 2 x( x 2 + 4 x + 5) + 3( x 2 + 4 x + 5)

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 10 x + 3x 2 + 12 x + 15
= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 3x 2 + 10 x + 12 x + 15
= 2 x3 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 15

Section P.4
Check Point Exercises
1.

(−17 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 11x − 5) + (16 x 3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 15)

a.

= (−17 x 3 + 16 x3 ) + (4 x 2 − 3x 2 ) + (−11x + 3x) + (−5 − 15)
= − x 3 + x 2 − 8 x − 20
b.

(13x 2 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) − (−7 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 9)
= (13 x3 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) + (7 x3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 9)
= (13 x3 + 7 x 3 ) + (−9 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (1 − 9)
= 20 x3 − 11x 2 − 2 x − 8

2.

(5 x − 2)(3x 2 − 5 x + 4)
= 5 x(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4) − 2(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4)
= 5 x ⋅ 3x 2 − 5 x ⋅ 5 x + 5 x ⋅ 4 − 2 ⋅ 3 x 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅ 4
= 15 x 3 − 25 x 2 + 20 x − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 8
= 15 x 3 − 31x 2 + 30 x − 8

3.

(7 x − 5)(4 x − 3) = 7 x ⋅ 4 x + 7 x(−3) + (−5)4 x + (−5)(−3)
= 28 x 2 − 21x − 20 x + 15
= 28 x 2 − 41x + 15

4.

a.

(7 x − 6 y )(3x − y ) = (7 x)(3 x) + (7 x)(− y ) + (−6 y )(3x) + (−6 y )(− y )
= 21x 2 − 7 xy − 18 xy + 6 y 2
= 21x 2 − 25 xy + 6 y 2

5.

b.

(2 x + 4 y )2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(4 y ) + (4 y ) 2 = 4 x 2 + 16 xy + 16 y 2

a.

(3 x + 2 + 5y )(3x + 2 − 5y ) = (3x + 2)2 − (5y )2
= 9x 2 + 12 x + 4 − 25y 2
2

2

= 9x + 12 x − 25y + 4
b.

(2 x + y + 3) 2 = (2 x + y )2 + 2(2 x + y )(3) + 32
= 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 12 x + 6y + 9
2

2

= 4 x + 4 xy + 12 x + y + 6y + 9

23

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Exercise Set P.4
1.

yes; 2 x + 3 x 2 − 5 = 3 x 2 + 2 x − 5

2.

no; The term 3x −1 does not have a whole number exponent.

3.

no; The form of a polynomial involves addition and subtraction, not division.

4.

yes; x 2 − x 3 + x 4 − 5 = x 4 − x3 + x 2 − 5

5.

3x 2 has degree 2
−5x has degree 1
4 has degree 0
3 x 2 − 5 x + 4 has degree 2.

6.

−4x 3 has degree 3
7x 2 has degree 2
–11 has degree 0
−4 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 11 has degree 3.

7.

x 2 has degree 2
−4x 3 has degree 3
9x has degree 1
−12x 4 has degree 4
63 has degree 0
x 2 − 4 x 3 + 9 x − 12 x 4 + 63 has degree 4.

8.

x 2 has degree 2
−8x 3 has degree 3
15x 4 has degree 4
91 has degree 0
x 2 − 8 x3 + 15 x 4 + 91 has degree 4.

9.

(−6 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 8 x + 9) + (17 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 13) = (−6 x 3 + 17 x 3 ) + (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 ) + (−8 x − 4 x) + (9 − 13)
= 11x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 4
The degree is 3.

10.

(−7 x3 + 6 x 2 − 11x + 13) + (19 x3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 17) = (−7 x3 + 19 x3 ) + (6 x 2 − 11x 2 ) + (−11x + 7 x) + (13 − 17)
= 12 x3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x − 4
The degree is 3.

11.

(17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) − (5 x3 − 9 x 2 − 8 x + 11) = (17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) + (−5 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 8 x − 11)
= (17 x3 − 5 x3 ) + (−5 x 2 + 9 x 2 ) + (4 x + 8 x) + (−3 − 11)
= 12 x3 + 4 x 2 + 12 x − 14
The degree is 3.

12.

(18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) − (9 x 4 − 6 x3 − 5 x + 7) = (18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) + (−9 x 4 + 6 x3 + 5 x − 7)
= (18 x 4 − 9 x 4 ) + (−2 x3 + 6 x3 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (8 − 7)
= 9 x 4 + 4 x3 − 2 x + 1
The degree is 4.

24

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PreCalculus 4E

13.

Section P.4

(5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) − ( x 2 − 4 x − 3) = (5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) + (− x 2 + 4 x + 3)
= (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 − x 2 ) + (−7 x − 3 x + 4 x) + (−8 + 7 + 3)
= 6x2 − 6x + 2
The degree is 2.

14.

(8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) − (3 x 2 − 4 x) − (−6 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 3) = (8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) + (−3x 2 + 4 x) + (6 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3)
= 6 x 3 + (8 x 2 − 3x 2 + 5 x 2 ) + (7 x + 4 x) + (−5 − 3)
= 6 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 11x − 8
The degree is 3.

15.

( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) = x( x 2 ) − x ⋅ x + x ⋅1 + 1( x 2 ) − 1 ⋅ x + 1 ⋅1
= x3 − x 2 + x + x 2 − x + 1
= x3 + 1

16.

( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 5 x + 25 ) = x( x 2 ) − x(5 x) + x(25) + 5( x 2 ) − 5(5 x) + 5(25)
= x 3 − 5 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125)
= x 3 + 125

17.

(2 x − 3)( x 2 − 3x + 5) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−3x) + (2 x)(5) + (−3)( x 2 ) + (−3)(−3x) + (−3)(5)
= 2 x 3 − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 3x 2 + 9 x − 15
= 2 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 19 x − 15

18.

(2 x − 1)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−4 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−1)( x 2 ) + (−1)(−4 x) + (−1)(3)
= 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − x 2 + 4 x − 3
= 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 10 x − 3

19.

( x + 7)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x + 7 x + 21 = x 2 + 10 x + 21

20.

( x + 8)( x + 5) = x 2 + 5 x + 8 x + 40 = x 2 + 13x + 40

21.

( x − 5)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x − 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 2 x − 15

22.

( x − 1)( x + 2) = x 2 + 2 x − x − 2 = x 2 + x − 2

23.

(3 x + 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + 3 x(1) + 5(2 x) + 5 = 6 x 2 + 3x + 10 x + 5 = 6 x 2 + 13x + 5

24.

(7 x + 4)(3x + 1) = (7 x)(3x) + 7 x(1) + 4(3x) + 4(1) = 21x 2 + 7 x + 12 x + 4 = 21x 2 + 19 x + 4

25.

(2 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (2 x)(5 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−3)(5 x) + (−3)(3) = 10 x 2 + 6 x − 15 x − 9 = 10 x 2 − 9 x − 9

26.

(2 x − 5)(7 x + 2) = (2 x )(7 x) + (2 x)(2) + (−5)(7 x) + (−5)(2) = 14 x 2 + 4 x − 35 x − 10 = 14 x 2 − 31x − 10

27.

(5 x 2 − 4)(3 x 2 − 7) = (5 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (5 x 2 )(−7) + (−4)(3x 2 ) + (−4)(−7) = 15 x 4 − 35 x 2 − 12 x 2 + 28 = 15 x 4 − 47 x 2 + 28

28.

(7 x 2 − 2)(3 x 2 − 5) = (7 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (7 x 2 )(−5) + (−2)(3 x 2 ) + (−2)(−5) = 21x 4 − 35 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 10 = 21x 4 − 41x 2 + 10

29.

(8 x

3

+ 3)( x 2 − 5 ) = ( 8 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 8 x 3 ) ( −5 ) + ( 3) ( x 2 ) + ( 3)( −5 ) = 8 x5 − 40 x 3 + 3 x 2 − 15

25

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

30.

(7x

31.

( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 32 = x 2 − 9

32.

( x + 5)( x − 5) = x 2 − 52 = x 2 − 25

33.

(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) = (3 x) 2 − 22 = 9 x 2 − 4

34.

(2 x + 5)(2 x − 5) = (2 x)2 − 52 = 4 x 2 − 25

35.

(5 − 7 x)(5 + 7 x) = 52 − (7 x) 2 = 25 − 49 x 2

36.

(4 − 3x)(4 + 3x) = 42 − (3x) 2 = 16 − 9 x 2

37.

(4 x 2 + 5 x)(4 x 2 − 5 x) = (4 x 2 ) 2 − (5 x) 2 = 16 x 4 − 25 x 2

38.

(3 x 2 + 4 x)(3x 2 − 4 x) = (3x 2 ) 2 − (4 x) 2 = 9 x 4 − 16 x 2

39.

(1 − y )(1 + y ) = (1) − ( y )

40.

( 2 − y )( 2 + y ) = ( 2 ) − ( y )

41.

( x + 2) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = x 2 + 4 x + 4

42.

( x + 5) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = x 2 + 10 x + 25

43.

(2 x + 3)2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(3) + 32 = 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9

44.

(3 x + 2)2 = (3x) 2 + 2(3x)(2) + 22 = 9 x 2 + 12 x + 4

45.

( x − 3) 2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 3 + 32 = x 2 − 6 x + 9

46.

( x − 4)2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 4 + 42 = x 2 − 8 x + 16

47.

(4 x 2 − 1) 2 = (4 x 2 ) 2 − 2(4 x 2 )(1) + 12 = 16 x 4 − 8 x 2 + 1

48.

(5 x 2 − 3)2 = (5 x 2 ) 2 − 2(5 x 2 )(3) + 32 = 25 x 4 − 30 x 2 + 9

49.

(7 − 2 x)2 = 7 2 − 2(7)(2 x) + (2 x) 2 = 49 − 28 x + 4 x 2 = 4 x 2 − 28 x + 49

50.

(9 − 5 x) 2 = 92 − 2(9)(5 x) + (5 x) 2 = 81 − 90 x + 25 x 2 or 25 x 2 − 90 x + 81

51.

( x + 1)3 = x3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅1 + 3x ⋅12 + 13 = x3 + 3 x 2 + 3 x + 1

52.

( x + 2)3 = x 3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 22 + 23 = x 3 + 6 x 2 + 12 x + 8

53.

(2 x + 3)3 = (2 x)3 + 3 ⋅ (2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x) ⋅ 32 + 33 = 8 x 3 + 36 x 2 + 54 x + 27

3

+ 5 )( x 2 − 2 ) = ( 7 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 7 x 3 ) ( −2 ) + ( 5 ) ( x 2 ) + ( 5 )( −2 ) = 7 x5 − 14 x3 + 5 x 2 − 10

5

5

5 2

2

5

5

2

= 1 − y10

5 2

= 4 − y10

26

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PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

54.

(3 x + 4)3 = (3x)3 + 3(3x) 2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3x) ⋅ 42 + 43 = 27 x 3 + 108 x 2 + 144 x + 64

55.

( x − 3)3 = x3 − 3 ⋅ x 3 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 32 − 33 = x 3 − 9 x 2 + 27 x − 27

56.

( x − 1)3 = x 3 − 3x 2 ⋅1 + 3 x ⋅12 − 13 = x3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1

57.

(3 x − 4)3 = (3x)3 − 3(3 x)2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3 x) ⋅ 42 − 43 = 27 x 3 − 108 x 2 + 144 x − 64

58.

(2 x − 3)3 = (2 x)3 − 3(2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x ) ⋅ 32 − 33 = 8 x3 − 36 x 2 + 54 x − 27

59.

( x + 5 y )(7 x + 3 y ) = x(7 x) + x(3 y ) + (5 y )(7 x) + (5 y )(3 y )
= 7 x 2 + 3 xy + 35 xy + 15 y 2
= 7 x 2 + 38 xy + 15 y 2

60.

( x + 9 y )(6 x + 7 y ) = x(6 x) + x(7 y ) + (9 y )(6 x) + (9 y )(7 y )
= 6 x 2 + 7 xy + 54 xy + 63 y 2
= 6 x 2 + 61xy + 63 y 2

61.

( x − 3 y )(2 x + 7 y ) = x(2 x) + x (7 y ) + (−3 y )(2 x) + (−3 y )(7 y )
= 2 x 2 + 7 xy − 6 xy − 21y 2
= 2 x 2 + xy − 21 y 2

62.

(3 x − y )(2 x + 5 y ) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(5 y ) + (− y )(2 x) + (− y )(5 y )
= 6 x 2 + 15 xy − 2 xy − 5 y 2
= 6 x 2 + 13xy − 5 y 2

63.

(3 xy − 1)(5 xy + 2) = (3xy )(5 xy ) + (3xy )(2) + (−1)(5 xy ) + (−1)(2)
= 15 x 2 y 2 + 6 xy − 5 xy − 2
= 15 x 2 y 2 + xy − 2

64.

(7 x 2 y + 1)(2 x 2 y − 3) = (7 x 2 y )(2 x 2 y ) + (7 x 2 y )(−3) + (1)2 x 2 y + (1)(−3)
= 14 x 4 y 2 − 21x 2 y + 2 x 2 y − 3
= 14 x 4 y 2 − 19 x 2 y − 3

65.

(7 x + 5 y ) 2 = (7 x) 2 + 2(7 x)(5 y ) + (5 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 + 70 xy + 25 y 2

66.

(9 x + 7 y )2 = (9 x)2 + 2(9 x )(7 y ) + (7 y )2 = 81x 2 + 126 xy + 49 y 2

67.

( x 2 y 2 − 3) 2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(3) + 32 = x 4 y 4 − 6 x 2 y 2 + 9

68.

( x 2 y 2 − 5)2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(5) + 52 = x 4 y 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 25

69.

( x − y )( x 2 + xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x( xy ) + x( y 2 ) + (− y )( x 2 ) + (− y )( xy ) + (− y )( y 2 )
= x3 + x 2 y + xy 2 − x 2 y − xy 2 − y 3
= x3 − y 3

27

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

70.

( x + y )( x 2 − xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x(− xy ) + x( y 2 ) + y ( x 2 ) + y (− xy ) + y ( y 2 )
= x 3 − x 2 y + xy 2 + x 2 y − xy 2 + y 3
= x3 + y 3

71.

(3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = (3x) 2 − (5 y )2 = 9 x 2 − 25 y 2

72.

(7 x + 3 y )(7 x − 3 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (3 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 9 y 2

73.

( x + y + 3)( x + y − 3) = ( x + y ) 2 − 32 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 9

74.

( x + y + 5)( x + y − 5) = ( x + y )2 − 52 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 25

75.

(3 x + 7 − 5 y )(3x + 7 + 5 y ) = (3x + 7) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 + 42 x + 49 − 25 y 2

76.

(5 x + 7 y − 2)(5 x + 7 y + 2) = (5 x + 7 y ) 2 − 22 = 25 x 2 + 70 xy + 49 y 2 − 4

77.

[5 y − (2 x + 3)][5 y + (2 x + 3)] = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 3) 2 = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 12 x + 9) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 12 x − 9

78.

[8 y + (7 − 3x)][8 y − (7 − 3x)] = (8 y ) 2 − (7 − 3x) 2 = 64 y 2 − (49 − 42 x + 9 x 2 ) = 64 y 2 − 49 + 42 x − 9 x 2

79.

( x + y + 1) 2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y ) + 1 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 2 x + 2 y + 1

80.

( x + y + 2)2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y )(2) + 22 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 4 y + 4

81.

(2 x + y + 1) 2 = (2 x + y ) 2 + 2(2 x + y ) + 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 2 y + 1

82.

(5 x + 1 + 6 y )2 = (5 x + 1) 2 + 2(5 x + 1)(6 y ) + (6 y )2 = 25 x 2 + 10 x + 60 xy + 1 + 12 y + 36 y 2

83.

(3 x + 4 y )

2

2
2
2
2
2
− ( 3x − 4 y ) = ⎡( 3x ) + 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(3 x ) − 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤

⎦ ⎣

(

) (

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 24 xy + 16 y 2

)

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 + 24 xy − 16 y 2
= 48 xy
84.

(5 x + 2 y )

2

2
2
2
2
2
− ( 5 x − 2 y ) = ⎡(5 x ) + 2 ( 5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(5 x ) − 2 (5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤

⎦ ⎣

(

) (

= 25 x 2 + 20 xy + 4 y 2 − 25 x 2 − 20 xy + 4 y 2
= 25 x + 20 xy + 4 y − 25 x + 20 xy − 4 y
2

2

2

)

2

= 40 xy
85.

(5 x − 7 )( 3x − 2) − ( 4 x − 5)( 6 x − 1)
2
2
= ⎡15 x − 10 x − 21x + 14⎤ − ⎡24 x − 4 x − 30 x + 5⎤

(

2

⎦ ⎣

) (

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x − 34 x + 5
2

)

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x + 34 x − 5
2

= −9 x + 3 x + 9
28

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PreCalculus 4E 86. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 2 x + 5)( 2 x − 5) ( 4 x 2 + 25) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 2 x ) − 5 ⎤ 4 x + 25 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 4 x ) − ( 25) 2 2 = 4 x − 25 4 x + 25 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 16 x − 625 88. (3 x + 4)( 3x − 4) (9 x 2 + 16) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 3 x ) − 4 ⎤ 9 x + 16 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 9 x ) − (16 ) 2 2 = 9 x − 16 9 x + 16 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 81x − 256 ( 2 x − 7 ) = 2 x − 7 5 −3 ( ) 3 ( 2 x − 7) 5 89. .4 (3 x + 5)( 2 x − 9) − ( 7 x − 2)( x − 1) ( = (6 x ) ( 2 2 = 6 x − 27 x + 10 x − 45 − 7 x − 7 x − 2 x + 2 2 ) ( 2 − 17 x − 45 − 7 x − 9 x + 2 2 ) ) 2 = 6 x − 17 x − 45 − 7 x + 9 x − 2 2 = − x − 8 x − 47 87. Inc. = ( 5 x − 3) 2 = ( 5 x ) − 2 ( 5 x )( 3) + ( 3) 2 2 2 = 25 x − 30 x + 9 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section P. = ( 2 x − 7) 2 = ( 2 x ) − 2 ( 2 x )( 7 ) + ( 7 ) 2 2 2 = 4 x − 28 x + 49 ( 5 x − 3) = 5 x − 3 6 − 4 ( ) 4 ( 5 x − 3) 6 90.

210 M − W = −35(14)3 + 1373(14) 2 − 15. 923 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $10. 995(14) + 63. The model underestimates this difference by $15.748 The model estimates the median annual income for a woman with 18 years of education to be $53. 995(16) + 63. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. a. 220 − 41.418. The model overestimates the actual value of $51.336 W = 255(18)2 − 2956(18) + 24. ( x 8 − 2x )(5 − 2 x ) = x ( 40 − 26 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 40 x − 26 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 26 x + 40 x 30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.995 x + 63. Inc. a. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. ( x 8 − 2x )(10 − 2 x ) = x ( 80 − 36 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 80 x − 36 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 36 x + 80 x 94. The model overestimates this difference by $12. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15.995 x + 63. 348 The difference in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $12. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. 210 c. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 93. The model underestimates the actual value of $57. 923 = $1425. 210 = 12. 681 = 15.316 shown in the bar graph by $2432. W = 255 x 2 − 2956 x + 24. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. b.348. 92. 995 The model estimates the median annual income for a man with 16 years of education to be $56. d. b.539. 418 = $121. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 995 x + 63.748. 481 = 10.348 − $10. 446 + 14.995. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15.210 M − W = −35(16)3 + 1373(16) 2 − 15. . 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. d. 539 − $15.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 91. 336 = 53. 210 = 15. 539 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15.210 c. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. 57. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. 44. 418 The difference in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15. 404 − 33.923. 446 + 14.220 shown in the bar graph by $225. 995 x + 63. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. M = 177 x 2 + 288 x + 7075 M = 177(16)2 + 288(16) + 7075 = 56. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48.

( x − 2 )( x − 12) = x 2 − 14 x + 24 113. (4 x + 1)(2 x − 3 ) = 8 x 2 − 10 x − 3 31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 105. 103. although answers may vary 107. Section P.PreCalculus 4E 95. ( x + 4) ( x + 3) − ( x + 2) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − ( x 2 + 3x + 2 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − x 2 − 3x − 2 = 4 x + 10 97. (y n + 2)(y n − 2) − (y n − 3)2 = y 2 n − 4 − (y 2 n − 6y n + 9) =y 2n −4 −y 2n n + 6y − 9 = 6y n −13 111. . makes sense 106. Sample explanation: FOIL is used to multiply two binomials. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. Inc. ( x + 3)( x − 1) + (( x + 3) − x)( x − ( x − 1)) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) + 3( x − x + 1) = x 2 − x + 3x − 3 + 3 = x2 + 2 x 108. ( x + 3)( x + 4 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 112. Answers may vary. (x + 5)(2x + 1)(x + 2) − 3 ⋅ x(x + 5) = (2x 2 + 11x + 5)(x + 2) − 3x 2 −15x 3 2 2 = 2x + 15x + 27x + 10 − 3x − 15x = 2x 3 + 12x 2 + 12x + 10 110. – 102. (2x − 1)x(x + 3) − x(x − 2)x = (2x 2 + 5x − 3)(x + 2) − x 2 (x − 2) 3 2 3 = 2x + 5x − 3x − x + 2x 2 = x 3 + 7x 2 − 3x 109. makes sense.4 ( x + 9) ( x + 3) − ( x + 5) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − ( x 2 + 6 x + 5 ) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − x 2 − 6 x − 5 = 6 x + 22 96. makes sense 104.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus. . 5. Find two numbers whose product is 40 and whose sum is 13. Find two First terms whose product is 6 x 2 . The required integers are –7 and 2. The possible factors are 1(–7) and –1(7). 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (3x − 1)(2 x + 7) or (2 x + 7)(3 x − 1). 2. 32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Section P. The required integers are 8 and 5.5 Check Point Exercises 1. 10 x3 − 4 x 2 = 2 x 2 (5 x) − 2 x 2 (2) = 2 x 2 (5 x − 2) b. Inc. x 2 + 13x + 40 = ( x + 5)( x + 8) or ( x + 8)( x + 5) 4. Find two numbers whose product is –14 and whose sum is –5. Thus. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (6 x )(x ) 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = ( 3x )( 2 x ) Find two Last terms whose product is –7. 2 x( x − 7) + 3( x − 7) = ( x − 7)(2 x + 3) x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = ( x3 + 5 x 2 ) − (2 x + 10) = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = ( x + 5)( x 2 − 2) 3. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is 19x. Possible Factors of 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 Sum of Outside and Inside Products (Should Equal 19x) (6 x + 1)( x − 7) −42 x + x = −41x (6 x − 7)( x + 1) 6x − 7x = −x (6 x − 1)( x + 7) 42 x − x = 41x (6 x + 7)( x − 1) −6 x + 7 x = x (3 x + 1)(2 x − 7) −21x + 2 x = −19 x (3 x − 7)(2 x + 1) 3x − 14 x = −11x (3 x − 1)(2 x + 7) 21x − 2 x = 19 x (3 x + 7)(2 x − 1) −3x + 14 x = 11x Thus. x 2 − 5 x − 14 = ( x − 7)( x + 2) or ( x + 2)( x − 7). a.

a. 3x 2 − 13xy + y 2 = (3x − y )( x − 4 y ) or ( x − 4 y )(3x − y ). 125 x 3 − 8 = (5 x)3 − 23 = (5 x − 2) ⎡⎣ (5 x)2 + (5 x)(2) + 22 ⎤⎦ = (5 x − 2)(25 x 2 + 10 x + 4) 11. 3x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) = 3x ( x − 5 ) 2 33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 − 81 = x 2 − 92 = ( x + 9)( x − 9) b. x 2 + 14 x + 49 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 = ( x + 7) 2 b. Section P. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is −13xy . 3x 2 − 13xy + 4 y 2 = (3x )(x ) Find two Last terms whose product is 4 y 2 . 10. The possible factors are (2 y )(2 y ) . 36 x 2 − 25 = (6 x) 2 − 52 = (6 x + 5)(6 x − 5) Express 81x 4 − 16 as the difference of two squares and use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . Since 16 x 2 = (4 x) 2 and 49 = 7 2 . = (4 x − 7) 2 . Thus. 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 is a perfect square trinomial. 9. a. Express 9 x 2 − 4 as the difference of two squares and again use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) = (9 x 2 + 4) ⎡⎣(3x) 2 − 22 ⎤⎦ = (9 x 2 + 4)(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. factored completely. 8. 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 42 = (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) The factor 9 x 2 − 4 is the difference of two squares and can be factored. Factor out the greatest common factor. check to see if the middle term can be expressed as twice the product of 4x and 7. Since 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 = 56 x. (4 y )( y ) . and (−4 y )(− y ) .PreCalculus 4E 6. 7.5 Find two First terms whose product is 3 x 2 . Inc. Then use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . (−2 y )(−2 y ) . 3x 3 − 30 x 2 + 75 x = 3 x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) Factor the perfect square trinomial. 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 = (4 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 x 3 + 1 = x 3 + 13 = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x ⋅ 1 + 12 ) = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) b. Express each term as the square of some monomial. 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 + 4)(3x + 2)(3x − 2).

9 x 2 + 5 x − 4 = (9 x − 4)( x + 1) 33. x 2 − 14 x + 45 = ( x − 5)( x − 9) 23. ( 2 x − 1) x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 5 = x 2 ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 5 ) 1 2 17. x 2 ( 2 x + 5 ) + 17 ( 2 x + 5) = ( 2 x + 5) ( x 2 + 17 ) 31. x(2x + 1) + 4(2x + 1) = (2x + 1)(x + 4) 29. 16x – 24 = 8(2x) + 8(–3) = 8(2x – 3) 3. = ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 4 ) = x 2 + 20 x + 100 − 36a 2 = ( x 2 + 20 x + 100 ) − 36a 2 13. Inc. 3x 2 − 2 x − 5 = (3x − 5)( x + 1) = 6 x2 ( x2 − 3x + 2 ) 27.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 12. 9 x 4 − 18 x3 + 27 x 2 2 2 = 9 x 2 ( x 2 ) + 9 x 2 (−2 x) + 9 x 2 (3) = 9 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 3) 6. 15. x 2 + 8 x + 15 = ( x + 3)( x + 5) 19. . x 2 – 2x – 15 = (x – 5)(x + 3) 20. x 2 – 8x + 15 = (x – 5)(x – 3) 22. x 2 ( x − 3) + 12( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 12) 30. x 2 − 4 x − 5 = ( x − 5)( x + 1) 21. 6x 2 –11x + 4 = (2x – 1)(3x – 4) 7. 4 x − 8 x = 4x(x) + 4x(–2) = 4x(x – 2) 5. x 3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 10 = x 2 ( x − 2) + 5( x − 2) 32. 2 = ( x + 10 + 6a )( x + 10 − 6a ) x ( x − 1) −1 2 14. 6 x 4 − 18 x 3 + 12 x 2 = 6 x ( x ) + 6 x (−3x) + 6 x (2) 2 2 2 2 = ( x 2 + 5)( x − 2) 34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 = (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 25. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 x 2 − 17 x + 12 = (2 x − 3)(3x − 4) 8. 20 x 2 + 27 x − 8 = (5 x + 8)(4 x − 1) Exercise Set P. Reorder to write as a difference of squares. = ( x − 1) ⎣⎡ x + ( x − 1) ⎦⎤ ( 2 x − 1) = ( x − 1) 3x 3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x + 4 = x 2 (3x − 2) − 2(3x − 2) = (3x − 2)( x 2 − 2) − 12 − 12 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 2 x − 12 = x 2 ( x + 6 ) − 2 ( x + 6 ) = ( x + 6) ( x2 − 2) 1 + ( x − 1) 2 1− −1 −1 = ( x − 1) 2 ⎡ x + ( x − 1) 2 ( 2 ) ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ = ( x − 1) x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 2 = x 2 ( x − 1) + 2( x − 1) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 2) = ( x + 10 ) − 36a 2 13. 9 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = (3 x − 1)(3x − 2) 11. 4 x 2 + 16 x + 15 = (2 x + 3)(2 x + 5) 9. x(x + 5) + 3(x + 5) = (x + 5)(x + 3) 28. x 2 − 36a 2 + 20 x + 100 12. x 2 + 5 x + 6 = ( x + 2)( x + 3) 18. 3x 2 – x – 2 = (3x + 2)(x – 1) 24.5 1. 8 x 2 + 33 x + 4 = (8 x + 1)( x + 4) 10. 3x + 6 x = 3x ⋅ x + 3x ⋅ 2 = 3x ( x + 2) 4. 3x 2 – 25x – 28 = (3x – 28)(x + 1) 26. 18 x + 27 = 9 ⋅ 2 x + 9 ⋅ 3 = 9(2 x + 3) 2. x 3 − 3x 2 + 4 x − 12 = x 2 ( x − 3) + 4 ( x − 3) 16.

= ( x − 7) 2 3x 3 − 3x = 3x( x 2 − 1) = 3x( x + 1)( x − 1) 35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = (5 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x ⋅1 + 12 = (5 x + 1) 2 55. 45. = (9 x + 1)[(3 x) − 1 ] 2 x 3 − 27 = x 3 − 33 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 48. x 2 − 144 = x 2 − 122 = ( x + 12)( x − 12) 57. 15 x 2 − 19 x + 6 = (3x − 2)(5 x − 3) 52. = ( x + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 3 x + 9) x 4 − 1 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 12 = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) 61. 64 x − 81 = (8 x ) − 9 = (8 x + 9)(8 x − 9) 2 = (2 x + 1) 2 2 2 2 54. x 2 − 100 = x 2 − 102 = ( x + 10)( x − 10) 56. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9 x 2 − 25 y 2 = (3 x) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = (3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) 36 x 2 − 49 y 2 = (6 x) 2 − (7 y ) 2 = (6 x + 7 y )(6 x − 7 y ) 59. 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 = (2 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 2 x ⋅1 + 12 36. 8 x 3 + 125 = (2 x)3 + 53 = (2 x + 5)[(2 x)2 − (2 x)(5) + 52 ] = (2 x + 5)(4 x 2 − 10 x + 25) 65. x 2 + 4 x + 4 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = ( x + 2) 2 51. 36 x 2 − 49 = (6 x) 2 − 7 2 = (6 x + 7)(6 x − 7) 42. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 2 2 = (4 x + 3)[(4 x) 2 − (4 x)(3) + 32 ] = (9 x + 1)(3x + 1)(3 x − 1) 2 49. x 3 + 27 = x3 + 33 41. 9 x 2 − 6 x + 1 = (3x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 3 x ⋅1 + 12 = (3x − 1) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 3x + 9) 2 58. 3x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 = (3x + y )( x + y ) 37. = (4 x + 9)(2 x + 3)(2 x − 3) 2 27 x 3 − 1 = (3x)3 − 13 = (3x − 1)[(3x) 2 + (3 x)(1) + 12 ] = (3x − 1)(9 x 2 + 3 x + 1) 81x 4 − 1 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 12 = (9 x 2 + 1)(9 x 2 − 1) 63. 43. x 2 + 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅1 + 12 = ( x + 1) 2 50.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x 2 − 14 x + 49 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 64 x3 + 27 = (4 x)3 + 33 = (4 x + 3)(16 x 2 − 12 x + 9) 64. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = ( x − 5) 2 35. 6 x 2 − 7 xy − 5 y 2 = (3 x − 5 y )(2 x + y ) 39. x 3 − 64 = x3 − 43 = ( x − 4)( x 2 + x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 46. = ( x − 4)( x 2 + 4 x + 16) x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 60. 44. 2 x 2 + 3xy + y 2 = (2 x + y )( x + y ) 53. 16 x 4 − 81 = (4 x 2 )2 − 92 = (2 x − 1)(4 x 2 + 2 x + 1) = (4 x 2 + 9)(4 x 2 − 9) = (4 x 2 + 9)[(2 x)2 − 32 ] 62. . Inc. 6 x − 5 xy − 6 y = (3x + 2 y )(2 x − 3 y ) 38.5 34. 64 x 2 − 16 x + 1 = (8 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 8 x ⋅1 + 12 = (8 x − 1) 2 40. 8 x 3 − 1 = (2 x)3 − 13 = (2 x − 1)[(2 x) 2 + (2 x)(1) + 12 ] 47.

78. x 3 − 4 x = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x 2 − 22 ) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) 76. x 2 + 36 is prime. 5 x 3 − 45 x = 5 x( x 2 − 9) = 5 x( x + 3)( x − 3) 67. 7 x 4 − 7 = 7( x 4 − 1) = 7[( x 2 ) 2 − 12 ] = 7( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 7( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 71. 2 x 4 − 162 = 2( x 4 − 81) = 2[( x 2 ) 2 − 92 ] = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 9) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 32 ) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x + 3)( x − 3) 70. 6 x 2 − 18 x − 60 = 6( x 2 − 3 x − 10) = 6( x + 2)( x − 5) 69.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 66. x 2 + 64 is prime. 9 x3 − 9 x = 9 x( x 2 − 1) = 9 x( x − 1)( x + 1) 77. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 x 2 − 6 x − 12 = 6( x 2 − x − 2) = 6( x − 2)( x + 1) 75. 36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 3 + 3x 2 − 25 x − 75 = ( x 3 + 3x 2 ) − (25 x + 75) = x 2 ( x + 3) − 25( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 25)( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 52 )( x + 3) = ( x − 5)( x + 5)( x + 3) 73. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 9 x − 18 = ( x 3 + 2 x 2 ) − (9 x + 18) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 9( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 9)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 32 )( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2) 72. Inc. 2 x 2 − 2 x − 112 = 2( x 2 − x − 56) = 2( x − 8)( x + 7) 74. 4 x 2 − 4 x − 24 = 4( x 2 − x − 6) = 4( x + 2)( x − 3) 68.

12 x 2 y − 27 y − 4 x 2 + 9 = (12 x 2 y − 27 y ) + ( −4 x 2 + 9 ) = 3 y ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) − 1( 4 x 2 − 9 ) = ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) ( 3 y − 1) = ( 2 x + 3)( 2 x − 3)( 3 y − 1) 91. . Section P. 20 y 4 − 45 y 2 = 5 y 2 (4 y 2 − 9) = 5 y 2 [(2 y ) 2 − 32 ] = 5 y 2 (2 y + 3)(2 y − 3) 84. y 5 − 81y = y ( y 4 − 81) = y[( y 2 )2 − 92 ] = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 9) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 32 ) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y + 3)( y − 3) 82.5 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−4 x − 8) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 4)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 22 )( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)2 80. y 5 − 16 y = y ( y 4 − 16) = y[( y 2 ) 2 − 42 ] = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 4) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 22 ) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y + 2)( y − 2) 83. x 2 − 10 x + 25 − 36 y 2 = ( x 2 − 10 x + 25) − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5)2 − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5 + 6 y )( x − 5 − 6 y ) 87. 3 1 1 1 ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ x 2 − x 2 = x 2 ⎜ x 2 2 ⎟ − 1 = x 2 ( x − 1) ⎝ ⎠ 37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 79. x 2 y − 16 y + 32 − 2 x 2 = ( x 2 y − 16 y ) + ( −2 x 2 + 32 ) = y ( x 2 − 16 ) − 2 ( x 2 − 16 ) = ( x 2 − 16 ) ( y − 2 ) = ( x + 4 )( x − 4 )( y − 2 ) 90. x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (− x − 2) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 1)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 12 )( x + 2) = ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x + 2) 81. 16a 2 x − 25 y − 25 x + 16a 2 y = (16a 2 x + 16a 2 y ) + ( −25 y − 25 x ) = 16a 2 ( x + y ) − 25 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) (16a 2 − 25 ) = ( x + y )( 4a + 5 )( 4a − 5 ) 89. x 2 − 12 x + 36 − 49 y 2 = ( x 2 − 12 x + 36 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 + 7 y ) ( x − 6 − 7 y ) 2 86. 2 x 3 − 8a 2 x + 24 x 2 + 72 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 4a 2 + 12 x + 36 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 + 12 x + 36 ) − 4a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 6 ) − 4a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 6 − 2a )( x + 6 + 2a ) ⎣ ⎦ 92. 9b 2 x − 16 y − 16 x + 9b 2 y = ( 9b 2 x + 9b 2 y ) + ( −16 x − 16 y ) = 9b 2 ( x + y ) − 16 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) ( 9b 2 − 16 ) = ( x + y )( 3b + 4 )( 3b − 4 ) 88. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x 3 − 98a 2 x + 28 x 2 + 98 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 49a 2 +14 x + 49 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 +14 x + 49 ) − 49a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 7 ) − 49a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 7 − 7a )( x + 7 + 7a ) ⎣ ⎦ 93. 48 y 4 − 3 y 2 = 3 y 2 (16 y 2 − 1) = 3 y 2 [(4 y )2 − 12 ] = 3 y 2 (4 y + 1)(4 y − 1) 85.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. 4x 1 − x4 − 23 96. 10 x 2 ( x + 1) − 7 x ( x + 1) − 6 ( x + 1) = ( x + 1) (10 x 2 − 7 x − 6 ) = ( x + 1)( 5 x − 6 )( 2 x + 1) 104. ( 4 x − 1) 2 − 1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ 2 ⎢⎣1 − 3 ( 4 x − 1) ⎥⎦ = ( 4 x − 1) 1⎤ ⎡ 4 ⎢⎣1 − 3 x + 3 ⎥⎦ 1 −4(4 x − 1) 2 ( x − 1) 4 ⎛4 4 ⎞ = ( 4 x − 1) ⎜ − x ⎟ = (4 x − 1) 2 (1 − x) = 3 3 ⎝3 3 ⎠ 1 1 2 102. −8 ( 4 x + 3) + 10 ( 5 x + 1) (4 x + 3)−1 = 2 ( 4 x + 3) ⎣⎡ −4 + 5 ( 5 x + 1)( 4 x + 3) ⎦⎤ = −2 −2 2(100 x 2 + 95 x + 11) (4 x + 3) 2 103. 12 x 2 ( x − 1) − 4 x ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) (12 x 2 − 4 x − 5 ) = ( x − 1)( 6 x − 5 )( 2 x + 1) 105. (x 1 1 3 3 1 − 2 ⎣ x2 + 4 2 3 2 ) ( − 12 + 3) + x2 + 4 − ( x + 5) −2 3 7 2 ) ( − 32 + ( x 2 + 3) = x2 + 4 = ( x + 5) −5 3 ) 3 2 1 1 ⎤ 2 ⎡1 − ( x + 3) ⎤ = ( x + 3) 2 ( − x − 2 ) = −( x + 3) 2 ( x + 2) = x + 3 ( ) ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢1 + x 2 + 4 ⎢ ⎣ ( 1 ) 7−3 ⎤ 2 2⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ( = x2 + 4 ) 3 2 ) ( 2⎤ ⎡ 2 2 ⎢1 + x + 4 ⎥ = x + 4 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ( 3 2 ) ( x4 + 8x2 + 17) 1 ⎛ 3⎞ x+4 − 32 ⎡ − −⎜ − ⎟ ⎤ −3 −3 3 ⎢( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − 1⎥ = ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎣⎡( x + 5 ) − 1⎦⎤ = ( x + 5) 2 ( x + 4 ) = ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) 2 = ( x 2 + 3) 5 −5 ⎡ 2 − 2 −⎛⎜ − 5 ⎞⎟ ⎤ x2 + 4 3 ⎢( x + 3) 3 ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ + 1⎥ = ( x 2 + 3)− 3 ⎡( x 2 + 3) + 1⎤ = 5 ⎣ ⎦ ( x 2 + 3) 3 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 1 3 1 ( 4 x − 1) 2 3 1 3 1 1 − ⎤ ⎡ 1 = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎢1 − ( 4 x − 1) 2 2 ⎥ = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎣ 3 ⎦ 101. 12 x − 3 4 1 x4 = 1⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ x 4 4 − 1⎟ = x 4 ⎜ x 2 − 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 8x 3 = 4 x 1 ⎛ 2⎞ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 32 ⎛ −2 4 (1 + 2 x ) ⎜1 + 2 x 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎟ = 4 x 3 (1 + 2 x ) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ x3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 6x 4 = 6x − 3 4 1 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 ⎛ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 6( x + 2) ⎜ 2 + x 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎟ = 6x 4 (2 + x ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ x4 97. 3 x4 95. . y 7 + y = y ( y 6 + 1) = y ⎡⎢( y 2 ) + 13 ⎤⎥ = y ( y 2 + 1)( y 4 − y 2 + 1) ⎣ ⎦ 38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 x 4 + 35 x 2 − 6 = ( x 2 + 6 )( 6 x 2 − 1) 106. ( x + 3) 2 − ( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3) 2 ⎡⎢1 − ( x + 3) 2 98. 7 x 4 + 34 x 2 − 5 = ( 7 x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 5 ) 3 107. Inc. ( 99. ( x + 5) 100.

the computer is selling at 49% of its original price. 117.4 ( x − 0. b. a. . ( x + y ) 4 − 100( x + y ) 2 = ( x + y ) )( x − 3 y ) ( )( x + y ) 116. 2 x 2 − 7 xy 2 + 3 y 4 = 2 x − y 2 115.49 x No. a. ( ( x + y) ( 113. Inc. ( x − 0. 118.7 x ) ( 0. 2 2 ( x − 0.3) = ( 0. x 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 9 y 4 = x 2 − 9 y 2 111. 120.PreCalculus 4E 108. ( 3x ) 2 − 4 ⋅ 22 = 9 x 2 − 16 9 x 2 − 16 = ( 3x + 4 ) ( 3 x − 4 ) (7x) 2 − 4 ⋅ 32 = 49 x 2 − 36 49 x 2 − 36 = ( 7 x + 6 ) ( 7 x − 6 ) x ( x + y) − y ( x + y) x ( x + y ) − y ( x + y ) = ( x + y )( x − y ) x 2 + xy + xy + y 2 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 = ( x + y ) 2 39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. ( y + 1) 3 Section P.4 x )(1 − 0. a.3x ) − 0.36 x No. 2 ) − 100 = ( x + y )2 ( x + y − 10 ) ( x + y + 10 ) 2 114. b.3x ) = ( x − 0.4 x ) − 0.4 ) = ( 0.7 ) = 0. the computer is selling at 36% of its original price.6 ) = 0. x 4 − 5 x 2 y 2 + 4 y 4 = x 2 − 4 y 2 )( x ( 110. a. a.3x ) (1 − 0. b. 119.5 + 1 = ( y + 1) + 13 = ⎡⎣( y + 1) + 1⎤⎦ ⎡( y + 1) − ( y + 1) + 1⎤ = ( y + 2 ) ⎡⎣( y 2 + 2 y + 1) − y − 1 + 1⎤⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 3 2 = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + 2 y + 1 − y − 1 + 1) = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + y + 1) ( 109. 2 )( x ) − y 2 = ( x + 2 y )( x − 2 y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 ) − y 2 = ( x + 3 y )( x − 3 y )( x + y )( x − y ) ( x − y )4 − 4 ( x − y )2 2 2 2 = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y )2 − 4 ) = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y ) + 2 ) ( ( x − y ) − 2 ) = ( x − y ) ( x − y + 2 ) ( x − y − 2 ) 112. a.4 x ) = ( x − 0. b. 3x 2 + 5 xy 2 + 2 y 4 = 3 x + 2 y 2 b.3 ( x − 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 x )( 0.

x 4 − y 4 − 2 x3 y + 2 xy3 = ( x 4 − y 4 ) + ( −2 x 3 y + 2 xy 3 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) − 2 xy ( x 2 − y 2 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 − 2 xy ) = ( x − y )( x + y ) ( x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 ) = ( x − y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 3 = ( x − y) ( x + y) 40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: x 3 − 64 = ( x − 4 )( x + 4 x + 16 ) 138. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 3a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 3a = 3a3 − 3ab 2 ( = 3a a 2 − b2 ) = 3a ( a + b )( a − b ) 123. does not make sense. A sample change is: x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 135. false. Inc. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 4a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 4a = 4a3 − 4ab 2 = 4a ( a 2 − b 2 ) = 4a ( a + b )( a − b ) 122. false. x 2 n + 6 x n + 8 = ( x n + 4 )( x n + 2 ) 139. A sample change is: The binomial x 2 + 36 is prime. Changes to make the statement true will vary. . false. − x 2 − 4 x + 5 = −1( x 2 + 4 x − 5 ) = −1( x + 5 )( x − 1) = − ( x + 5)( x − 1) 140. 130. true 136.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. makes sense 132. – 129. 137. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 134. Sample explanation: 4 x 2 − 100 = 4( x 2 − 25) = 4( x + 5)( x − 5) 133. Answers may vary. Explanations will vary. makes sense 131. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Changes to make the statement true will vary.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. . where c > 0 is an integer. x 2 + bx + 15 .PreCalculus 4E 141. (3 x + 5)(4 x − 7) = (3x)(4 x) + (3 x)(−7) + (5)(4 x) + (5)(−7) = 12 x 2 − 21x + 20 x − 35 = 12 x 2 − x − 35 2. 5 8 5 4⋅2 1 2 2 ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ = 4 15 4 5 ⋅ 3 1 3 3 146. 3. – 16. Inc. 1 1 ⋅ 6 − ⋅6 ⎛ 31 − 12 ⎞ x2 2 −3 ⎜ x y ⎟ = x3 y 2 = x y = 3 y ⎝ ⎠ 8. 3. Mid-Chapter P Check Point −1 ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5) − 12 1 − ( x + 5) 2 ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) ( x + 5) −3 ⎛ ⎞ 1 −⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞⎟ ⎤ − 12 ⎡ − 1 − ⎜⎜ − 3 ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢( x − 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) −1 ⎡⎣( x − 5) − ( x + 5 ) ⎤⎦ −10 −3 −1 = ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5 ) 2 ( −10 ) = 3 1 ( x − 5) 2 ( x + 5) 2 2 2 142. 4. 144. x 2 + 6 x + 5 ( x + 5)( x + 1) x + 1 = = x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) x − 5 145. − ⎛2⎞ 5 ⎜ 7 ⎟ − 32 = 1 − ⎝ ⎠ 6 0 9. or –c(c + 4). 3 12 − 27 = 3 ⋅ 2 3 − 3 3 = 6 3 − 3 3 = 3 3 5. 7 x + 3[9 − (2 x − 6)] = 7 x + 3[ 9 − 2 x + 6] = 7 x + 3 [15 − 2 x ] = 7 x + 45 − 6 x = x + 45 6. 2 1 ( 5 32 ) 2 = 1− 1 ( 2) 2 = 1− 1 3 = 4 4 (2 x − 5) − ( x 2 − 3x + 1) = 2 x − 5 − x 2 + 3x − 1 = − x 2 + 5 x − 6 41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b = 0. b =16. (8 x − 3) 2 = (8 x)2 − 2(8 x)(3) + (3) 2 = 64 x 2 − 48 x + 9 7. 1 2 3 4 7 + = + = 2 3 6 6 6 Mid-Chapter P Check Point 1. (3 x + 5) − (4 x − 7) = 3x + 5 − 4 x + 7 = 3x − 4 x + 5 + 7 = − x + 12 6 + 9 6 = 10 6 4. 8 or –8 143.

{a. e} ∩ {c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. e} ∪ {c. d . 23. h} 14. 12 x 4 = x 12 = x 3 = 3 x 19. d } 15. ( 3x 2 ) ( ) y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 − −2 x 2 y 3 − 3xy + 5 y 2 = 3x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 + 2 x 2 y 3 − xy + 3xy + 4 y 2 − 5 y 2 = 5 x 2 y 3 + 2 xy − y 2 16.2 ×10−2 2 ×106 2 106 ( 3 22. ( x − 2 y − 1) 2 = x ( x − 2 y − 1) − 2 y ( x − 2 y − 1) − ( x − 2 y − 1) = x 2 − 2 xy − x − 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 2 y − x + 2 y + 1 = x 2 − 4 xy + 4 y 2 − 2 x + 4 y + 1 21. f . d . x 3 + x3 − x3 ⋅ x 3 = 2 x3 − x 6 = − x 6 + 2 x 3 12. [ 4 y − (3x + 2)][ 4 y + (3x + 2)] = (4 y)2 − (3x + 2)2 = 16 y 2 − (9 x 2 + 12 x + 4) = 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 12 x − 4 20. d . Inc.2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. h} = {c. 6 y3 ⎛ 1 −5 4 ⎞ −2 −1 −5 − 2 4 −1 ⎜ 3 x y ⎟ 18 x y = 6 x y = x 7 ⎝ ⎠ ( ) 1 4 18.2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. f . c. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 + 2 x − 5 x 2 + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x 2 + 2 x + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 11x 2 + 17 x − 5 11. d . (9a − 10b)(2a + b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a )(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a)(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = 18a 2 + 9ab − 20ab − 10b 2 = 18a 2 − 11ab − 10b 2 13.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. h} = {a. . f . c. d . 24 x 2 y13 12 y15 2 − 5 13 − ( −2) −3 15 12 12 = − = − = − x y x y x3 −2 x 5 y −2 17. 3 32 2 = 3 ) ( ) 32 3 = 16 = 3 24 = 2 3 2 2 ( x 3 + 2)( x 3 − 2) = x 6 − 4 42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c. {a. 24 × 103 24 103 = ⋅ = 12 ×10−3 = 1. e.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 64 y − y 4 = y 64 − y 3 = y ( 4 − y ) 16 + 4 y + y 2 33.2 × 1010 The total annual spending on ice cream is $4. x 2 − 6 x + 9 − 49 y 2 = ( x − 3) − 49 y 2 = ⎡⎣( x − 3) + 7 y ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣( x − 3) − 7 y ⎤⎦ = ( x − 3 + 7 y )( x − 3 − 7 y ) 35. 0. 26. x 3 + 5 x 2 + 3x + 15 = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 5) 31.0 × 108 = 420 × 108 = 4.45. 140 ⋅ 3. 3 × 1010 3 1010 = ⋅ = 0. Since 2 − 13 < 0 then 2 − 13 = 13 − 2 39. 50 x 3 + 20 x 2 + 2 x = 2 x 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = 2 x ( 5 x + 1) 34. Since x < 0 then x = − x . 37.PreCalculus 4E 24. Thus x 2 x = − x 2 x = − x3 40. . 27. 3x 2 − 4 xy − 7 y 2 = ( 3x − 7 y )( x + y ) 32.5 109 A human brain has 4 times as many neurons as a gorilla brain.2 × 1010 41. ( ) x2 + 1 1 2 ( ) − 10 x 2 + 1 3 ⎧ ⎨ −11. 7 ⎩ − 1 2 ( 1 2 ) ( = x2 + 1 − ) ( 1 2 ) (x ⎡ x 2 + 1 − 10 ⎤ = x 2 + 1 ⎣ ⎦ − 2 x +3 x −3 ) ( )( ) ( x + 1) −9 = 2 1 2 ⎫ 25 ⎬ ⎭ 38.2 × 10 2 × 108 = 4. Inc. x ( ) ( ( ) ) 2 2 − 3 2 − 2x − 1 2 1 + x2 = x 3 2 − (1 − 2 x + x ) = ( 1 − x) 2 2 3 x2 36. 0. − . x 2 − 2 x + 4 is prime. ( x 2 + 2) 2 = ( x 2 ) 2 + 2( x 2 )(2) + (2) 2 = x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4 50 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 12 = 5 ⋅ 2 3 = 10 3 25. Mid-Chapter P Check Point 11 11 3 = 11 7 + 3 77 + 11 3 77 + 11 3 ⋅ = = 49 − 3 46 7− 3 7+ 3 = 7− 3 11 ⋅ 3 3 3 = 11 3 3 28. 7 x 2 − 22 x + 3 = ( 7 x − 1)( x − 3) 29.5 ×109 7. 43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 30.4 ×10 = 4 7.

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. c. so –5 must be excluded from the domain. so –6 and 6 must both must be excluded from the domain. x ≠ −3 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x2 −1 = 2 x + 2 x + 1 ( x + 1)( x + 1) x −1 = . x ≠ 2. N = −0.5 x + 62 N = −0. b.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 42. and x + 3. x ≠ 2. x ≠ −1 Because the denominator has factors of x + 2. x 2 − 36 = ( x + 6)( x − 6) The denominator would equal zero if x = −6 or x = 6.5 x 2 + 9. Inc. N = 6.5 x + 62 N = −0.8 x + 64 N = 6. x3 + 3x 2 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 x+3 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 = x 2 .8 x + 64 N = 6. Model 1: N = 6.5(6) 2 + 9. . 2. and x ≠ −3.5(0) + 62 N = 62 Model 2 best describes the data in 2000. 3. The denominator would equal zero if x = −5. x ≠ −2.8(10) + 64 N = 132 Model 1 predicts there will be 132 channels in 2010. b. a. a. x ≠ −2.6 Check Point Exercises 1. x ≠ −3 ( x − 2)( x + 3) Because the denominator is x + 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x − 2. Section P. a. x ≠ −3 Because the denominator is ( x + 1)( x + 1) .5(0) 2 + 9.5 x 2 + 9. x ≠ −1 x +1 x + 3 x2 − x − 6 ⋅ x2 − 4 x2 + 6x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 2) x+3 = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 2) = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x−3 = .8(0) + 64 N = 64 Model 2: N = −0.5(6) + 62 N = 101 Model 2 underestimates the number of channels in 2006 by 3.

x ≠ 4 + 3x 3 4x 2 − 3x 4 + 3 x = ÷ 2x 4x 2 − 3x 4 x = ⋅ 2 x 4 + 3x 2 − 3x 4 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 2 2 − 3x 2 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 1 2(2 − 3x) −4 . x 2 − 10 x + 25 = ( x − 5) 2 2 x − 10 = 2( x − 5) The least common denominator is 2(x – 5)(x – 5). x ≠ 0 1+3 4 + 3x x 4 4x 4x 2 − 3x −4 = 2x . Inc. x2 − 2x + 1 x2 + x − 2 ÷ 3x2 + 3 x3 + x 2 x − 2 x + 1 3x 2 + 3 = ⋅ 2 x3 + x x +x−2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) 3( x 2 + 1) = ⋅ x( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2)( x − 1) 3( x − 1) = . x≠5 2( x − 5) 2 1−3 2 − 3x x 2 = 2x 2x . Section P.6 8. x x−4 − 2 x − 10 x + 25 2 x − 10 x x−4 = − ( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5) 2x ( x − 4)( x − 5) = − 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) x 3x + 2 x − 3x − 2 − = x +1 x +1 x +1 −2 x − 2 = x +1 −2 ( x + 1) = x +1 = −2. Factor each denominator completely. . x ≠ 0 and x ≠ = 4 + 3x 3 45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x − 3. x ≠ −2.PreCalculus 4E 4. x − 3. x ≠ 0. Write all rational expressions in terms of the least common denominator. = 2 x − ( x 2 − 5 x − 4 x + 20) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 . x ≠ −1 Add numerators. 5. putting this sum over the least common denominator. x + 3 The least common denominator is the product of all factors in the final list. 6. x 2 − 6 x + 9 = ( x − 3) 2 x 2 − 9 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) List the factors of the first denominator. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ 1 x( x + 2) Find the least common denominator. ( x − 3)( x − 3)( x + 3) or ( x − 3)2 ( x + 3) is the least common denominator. x ≠ −1 and x ≠ 1. = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 9. x − 3. 2 x − ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 3 5 + x + 1 x −1 3x( x − 1) + 5( x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3x − 3 + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 8x + 2 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) . x − 3 Add any unlisted factors from the second denominator. 7.

7 . 1 x+3 + x Exercise Set P. − 2 46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x − 2 2x + 6 x − 2 2( x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x + 9 2 x − 4 3( x + 3) 2( x − 2) 2 1 = = . = = y 2 − 3 y + 2 ( y − 2 )( y − 1) y − 1 y ≠ 1. 10. x+5 x+5 = . x ≠ 7. x ≠ 5. . Inc. –10 x + 11x + 10 ( x + 1)( x + 10) 16. x≠2 = = x − 4 x + 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 2 ) x − 2 9. 12. 2 3 x ≠ 5. –6 ( x − 7) 2 x 2 − 14 x + 49 14. = ( x − 7)( x + 7) x 2 − 49 x−7 . –7 13. x ≠ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 ( x − 2) 4x − 8 4 .x≠3 x −3 8. x+ 1 x x = 1 x x x x = = = = ( x+3 3 3 ( ( ) − ( x) x+3 + x x + 3− x x+3 + x 7. 2 2 ) 12. 5 x + 4 x − 45 ( x + 9)( x − 5) 2 = x+3 − x 3 x+3 − x x+3 + x = ⋅ 3 x+3 ⋅ x 2 6.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 1 1 . 1 1 x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x+7⎠ ⎝ x⎠ x+7 x = 7 7 x( x + 7) x − ( x + 7) = 7 x( x + 7) −7 = 7 x( x + 7) 1 . y ≠ –4. –7 2 x − 49 ( x + 7)( x − 7) 5. = x+7 x ≠ 7. 2. x −1 x −1 = . x 2 − 8 x + 16 ( x − 4 )( x − 4 ) x − 4 . y 2 + 7 y − 18 ( y + 9 )( y − 2 ) y + 9 . x 2 − 12 x + 36 ( x − 6 )( x − 6 ) x − 6 . –5 2 x − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) 4. x≠4 = = 3x − 12 3( x − 4) 3 11. 13 . . Multiply each of the three terms. and 7 by x+7 x the least common denominator of x( x + 7). = = 4 x − 24 4 ( x − 6) 4 2 x≠6 x +1 3/ 2 10. −3 6 3 x−5 6 x + 9 x − 5 3(2 x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x − 15 4 x + 6 3( x − 5) 2(2 x + 3) 3 = 6 1 = . 2 ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x − 36 x ≠ 6. x−3 x −3 = .6 1.x≠3 x−3 15. –1 = = y 2 + 5 y + 4 ( y + 4 )( y + 1) y + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 36 ( x + 6) 2 x+6 = = . x+7 x+7 = . 3 ( x − 3) 3x − 9 = x − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x − 3) x 2 3 . x ≠ −9 x+9 3. x ≠ 0. x ≠ −7 =− x( x + 7) x+ 11. x ≠ −9. ) y 2 − 4 y − 5 ( y − 5 )( y + 1) y − 5 . x ≠ –1.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x −1 . –2. = ( x − 2)( x − 1) x ≠ 2. x − 4 ÷ x + 2 = ( x − 2)( x + 2) ⋅ x − 2 x x−2 x x+2 2 ( x − 2) = . x ≠ −1 9 47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ –2. x ≠ 3. −2. −4. –2 = 2 x3 − 8 x + 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 2 x + 4 ) x + 2 = ⋅ ⋅ 3x x 2 − 4 3x ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) = x + 5 4 x + 20 x + 5 4( x + 5) ÷ = ÷ 7 9 7 9 x+5 9 = ⋅ 7 4( x + 5) 9 = . –5 2 x2 + 6 x + 9 1 ⋅ x 3 + 27 x + 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) 1 1 = ⋅ = 2 . 4 x 2 + 10 6 x 2 + 15 ÷ 2 x −3 x −9 2 2(2 x + 5) 3(2 x 2 + 5) = ÷ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x−3 2(2 x 2 + 5) ( x − 3)( x + 3) ⋅ 3(2 x 2 + 5) x−3 2( x + 3) . x ≠ 1. 3 x+2 x2 + 5x + 6 x 2 − 9 ⋅ x2 + x − 6 x2 − x − 6 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 3) x + 3 . –3 29. x2 − 4 2 x − 4 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2( x − 2) ⋅ = ⋅ x − 4x + 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)2 x+2 = 2. x ≠ 2. 2 x 2 = 20. x ≠ 2. 22. 28 x ≠ –5 2 25. –1. x 2 − 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x+2 ÷ = ÷ x − 2 4x − 8 x−2 4( x − 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) 4( x − 2) = ⋅ x−2 x+2 = 4( x − 2). x ≠ 0. 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 x + 9 ) x + 3 x − 3 x + 9 x ≠ –3 23. 18. x ≠ –3.3 x( x + 4) 24. x ≠ –2. –1. 2. 1. x ≠ 0. –2 x2 − 5x + 6 x2 − 1 ⋅ x2 − 2x − 3 x2 − 4 ( x − 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 1) ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 26. x2 + x x2 − 1 ÷ 2 2 x − 4 x + 5x + 6 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 1) = ÷ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) ( x + 2)( x + 3) x( x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 3) . . 2 3x 28. 0. 2. − 3 = 3 x2 + 2 x + 4 . Inc.PreCalculus 4E 17. 19. x 2 − 9 x 2 − 3x ⋅ 2 x2 x + x − 12 x( x − 3) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ 2 ( x + 4)( x − 3) x ( x − 3)( x + 3) = .6 x + 1 3x + 3 x + 1 3( x + 1) ÷ = ÷ 3 7 3 7 x +1 7 = ⋅ 3 3( x + 1) 7 = . –2. = ⋅ = ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) x − 2 27. x 2 − 25 x 2 + 10 x + 25 ÷ 2 2x − 2 x + 4x − 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)2 = ÷ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5)( x − 1) ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)( x − 1) = ⋅ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5) 2 x −5 = . 3 21. Section P.

–3. .1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 30. 3 4 x − 10 x − 4 4 x − 10 − ( x − 4) − = x−2 x−2 x−2 4 x − 10 − x + 4 = x−2 3x − 6 = x−2 3( x − 2) = x−2 = 3. 2 2 2 2 31. –1. −3 = x+3 4x − 4 x2 − 4x x2 − 4 x + 4 x − 4 + = x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − 4 = ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 = . 5 32. x−3 x ≠ –2. 4x + 1 8x + 9 4x + 1 + 8x + 9 + = 6x + 5 6x + 5 6x + 5 12 x + 10 = 6x + 5 2(6 x + 5) 5 = = 2. x−2 x≠2 48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3. –3. −1. x + x − 12 x + 5 x + 6 x+3 ⋅ ÷ x 2 + x − 30 x 2 − 2 x − 3 x 2 + 7 x + 6 ( x + 4 )( x − 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x + 6 )( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ x+3 ( x + 6 )( x − 5 ) ( x + 1)( x − 3) 36. –2. 3 x + 2 3x + 6 3 x + 2 + 3 x + 6 + = 3x + 4 3x + 4 3x + 4 6x + 8 = 3x + 4 2(3x + 4) = 3x + 4 =2 4 x≠− 3 x2 − 2 x x2 + x x2 − 2 x + x2 + x + = x 2 + 3 x x 2 + 3x x 2 + 3x 2 2x − x = 2 x + 3x x(2 x − 1) = x( x + 3) 2x −1 . = 2 ( x + 4 )( x + 2 ) x−5 x ≠ –6. 5. Inc. x3 − 25 x 2 x 2 − 2 x2 + 5x ⋅ 2 ÷ 2 4x x − 6x + 5 7x + 7 x ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) 7 ( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ 4 x2 ( x − 1)( x − 5 ) x ( x + 5) = 7 ( x + 1) 37. 2 2 x2 x ≠ 0. x ≠ 0. –5 35. x ≠ 2 2 x + 3 3 − x 2 x + 3 − (3 − x) − = 3x − 6 3x − 6 3x − 6 2x + 3 − 3 + x = 3x − 6 3x = 3( x − 2) x = . x −4 x + 5x + 6 ÷ x + 3 x − 10 x 2 + 8 x + 15 ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) = ÷ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) = ⋅ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) =1 x ≠ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 34. −5 33. x ≠ − 6x + 5 6 38.

47. −4 x−3 43. x ≠ 3. 3 3 3x − 3 ( x + 1) − = x ( x + 1) x +1 x = 44. . x ≠ –2. Inc. 3x − 3x − 3 3 . –5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) 8 ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 2 ) 8 2 + = x−2 x−3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x ≠ 2. x ≠ −2. 46.PreCalculus 4E 39. Section P. 0 x2 − 4 x x−6 − 2 2 x − x−6 x − x−6 x 2 − 4 x − ( x − 6) = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 4x − x + 6 = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 5x + 6 = 2 x − x−6 ( x − 2)( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 . x ( − 2 )( x − 3) x+5 x−5 + x −5 x +5 ( x + 5 )( x + 5 ) + ( x − 5 )( x − 5 ) = ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + x 2 − 10 x + 25 ( x − 5)( x + 5) = 2 x 2 + 50 . 3 = x+2 45. = 4 x + 12 − 3 x x ( x + 3) = x + 12 x ( x + 3) 2x x + 2 2 x ( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 )( x + 2 ) + = x+2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 2x2 − 4 x + x2 + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 3x2 + 4 .6 x 2 + 3x x 2 − 12 − x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + 3 x − ( x 2 − 12) = x 2 + x − 12 2 x + 3 x − x 2 + 12 = x 2 + x − 12 3x + 12 = 2 x + x − 12 3( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 3) 3 = . x ≠ –5. x ≠ –1. 3 = 8 x − 24 + 2 x − 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) = 10 x − 28 . ( x − 3)( x + 2) 2 41. 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 3x x + 4 3x ( x + 2 ) − ( x + 4 )( x − 3) − = x−3 x +2 ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) = 3x 2 + 6 x − ( x 2 + x − 12 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) 2 x + 5 x + 12 . –2 3x + 15 + 6 x + 24 = ( x + 4 )( x + 5) = 42. 40. 9 x + 39 . 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5 ) 49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ –4. 0 =− x ( x + 1) x ( x + 1) 4 ( x + 3) − 3 x 4 3 − = x x+3 x ( x + 3) x ≠ –3. = 3 ( x + 5) + 6 ( x + 4) 3 6 + = x+4 x+5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) x ≠ 3.

( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 2 2 x≠− . 2. –1 = 3 ( 5x − 2) + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 15 x − 6 + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 20 x − 6 . Inc. x ≠ –5. 5 5 50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 49. 1. 3 5x 3 5x + = + 2 5 x + 2 25 x − 4 5 x + 2 ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) = = = 3x 2 + 9 x − 2 x 2 − 10 x ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = x2 − x . 50. –3 ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) x x − 2 x − 2 x − 24 x − 7 x + 6 x x = − ( x − 6 )( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x − 1) 2 x ( x − 1) − x ( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) x2 − x − x2 − 4 x ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) 5x . . 6 x x − ( )( − 1)( x + 4 ) x ≠ 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 + 6 x + 9 + x2 − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 2 x 2 + 18 .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. = 53. 2 . –4 4 x + 16 ( x + 3) = =− 4 4 4 4 + = + 2 x + 6 x + 9 x + 3 ( x + 3) x+3 = ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = 2 2 3 x ( x + 3) − 2 x ( x + 5 ) = 5 7 5 7 + = + 2 x + 8 3x + 12 2( x + 4) 3( x + 4) 15 14 = + 6( x + 4) 6( x + 4) 15 + 14 = 6( x + 4) 29 = 6( x + 4) x ≠ –4 4 + 4 ( x + 3) 3x 2x − 2 x + 3x − 10 x + x − 6 3x 2x = − ( x + 5 )( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 2 = 3 2 3 2 + = + 2 x + 4 3x + 6 2( x + 2) 3( x + 2) 9 4 = + 6( x + 2) 6( x + 2) 9+4 = 6( x + 2) 13 = 6( x + 2) x ≠ –2 = 52. x+3 x+2 − x2 − 1 x − 1 x+3 x+2 = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) x − 1 x+3 ( x + 1)( x + 2) = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x+3 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x + 3 − x 2 − 3x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) −x2 − 2x + 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) x ≠ 1. x + 3 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) + ( x − 3)( x − 3) + = x−3 x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) x ≠ –3. ( x − 3)( x + 3) 54. 51. ( x + 3) x ≠ –3 4 + 4 x + 12 ( x + 3) 2 = 55.

x ≠ −5. 3. x ≠ −2. ⎡x ⎤ − 1 3 ⎢⎣ 3 − 1⎥⎦ x −3 1 = = = . = ⎣ x+ y xy [ x + y ] xy ( x + y ) xy 64. ( x + 3) ⎡⎢⎣ x − x +x 3 ⎤⎥⎦ x ( x + 3) − x x− x x+3 = = x+2 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x −1 . 1 3 3 − 1 x ⎡3 − 1 ⎤ 3 x − 1 ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ x 62. . x ≠ –y 4 x 2 + x − 6 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = x 3 2 x 2 + 3x − x x2 + 2 x = ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) x ( x + 2) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x .PreCalculus 4E 56. x ≠ 0. Inc. x ≠ 0. 4 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 ) 4 ⎡⎢ x − 1⎤⎥ ⎣4 ⎦ = x − 4 = 1 . x ≠ 4 4 ( x − 4) 4 ( x − 4) 4 x ≠ 0.6 x + 5 x +1 − x2 − 4 x − 2 x+5 x +1 = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 x+5 ( x + 2)( x + 1) = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x+5 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x + 5 − x − 3x − 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 − x2 − 2 x + 3 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x ≠ 2. x ≠ –2. 1 − 1 x ⎡⎢1 − 1 ⎤⎥ x − 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . y ≠ 0 xy x ( xy ) x2 y 65. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) x + 1 51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 ( x + 1) −3 x ( x + 2 ) 4 x2 + x − 5 + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = = 58. −1 x+2 = 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x + − x 2 + x − 20 x−4 x+5 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x = + − 5 4 4 x x x x + − − +5 ( )( ) = 66. x2 −1 ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x − 1)( x + 1) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎡ ⎤ 1+1 xy ⎢ 1 + 1 ⎥ x y x y ⎦ = y+x = 1 . 1 4 4− x ⎡⎢ 4 − 1 ⎤⎥ 4 x − 1 x x⎦ ⎣ = 57. –2 59. 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 + 3 ( x + 5) − 5 x ( x − 4 ) ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = 6 x + 17 x − 40 + 3x + 15 − 5 x 2 + 20 x ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = x 2 + 40 x − 25 . x≠3 x − 3 3[ x − 3] 3 ( x − 3) 3 60. Section P. –3 x+3 ( x − 2 ) [ x − 3] ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x−3 = = 3 ⎤ x ( x − 2) − 3 ⎡ x− 3 x − 2 ( x − 2) ⎢ x − x − 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ − − x x 2 3 ( )( ) = 2 x − 2x − 3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x − 2 = = . 4 x2 + x − 6 3x 5 − + 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 1 x + 2 4 x2 + x − 6 −3 x 5 = + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) x + 1 x + 2 = 63. x −1 4 = x−4 61. y ≠ 0. x ≠ 2. 8 + 1 x ⎡⎢8 + 1 ⎤⎥ 8 x + 1 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . x ⎡1 + 1 ⎤ 1+ 1 x = ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ = x + 1 . x ≠ 0.

2 7 x +1 x +1 − 2 x−2 x = 3 +1 3 +1 ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 − 4 ⎡ x + 1⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎣⎢ x − 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎡ ⎤ 3 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 + 1⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ( )( ) ⎣ ⎦ = x ( x + 2 ) + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 3 + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 + 2 x + x2 − 4 2 x2 + 2 x – 4 = x 2 –1 3 + x2 − 4 2( x 2 + x – 2) = ( x –1)( x + 1) 2( x + 2)( x –1) 2( x + 2) = = . −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 2. –1. 1 x +1 1 1 + 2 x − 2x − 3 x − 3 = 1 x +1 1 1 + ( x + 1)( x − 3) x − 3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x +1 = ( x + 1)( x − 3) ( x + 1)( x − 3) + x −3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x−3 = 1+ x +1 x −3 = x ≠ −2. 68.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 67. – 2 = 69. x +1 ( x –1)( x + 1) x ≠ 1. 3 − 4 3 − 4 x−2 x+2 = x−2 x+2 7 7 2 x − 2 x + 2) ( )( x −4 ⎡ 3 − 4 ⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 7 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) )( )⎦ ⎣( 3( x + 2) − 4 ( x − 2) 3x + 6 − 4 x + 8 − x + 14 = = = 7 7 7 x − 14 =− x ≠ –2.3 x+2 52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .

−5. Inc. ( x + h)( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x+h x − − x + h +1 x +1 = x + h +1 x +1 h h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) ( x + h)( x + 1) − x( x + h + 1) = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x 2 + x + hx + h − x 2 − hx − x h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) h = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) 1 = ( x + h + 1)( x + 1) = 53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 6 1 6 1 − − + − −3 ( x 5)( x 3) x x + 2 x − 15 x − 3 = 1 1 +1 +1 x+5 x+5 6( x + 5)( x − 3) ( x + 5)( x − 3) − ( x + 5)( x − 3) x −3 = ( x + 5)( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) x+5 6 − ( x + 5) = ( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) 6− x−5 = x − 3 + x 2 + 2 x − 15 1− x = 2 x + 3x − 18 1− x x ≠ −6. 1 1 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 − − ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x2 = 2 2 h hx ( x + h) = x 2 − ( x + h) 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2hx + h 2 ) hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − x 2 − 2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 −2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h) 2 −h(2 x + h) = 2 hx ( x + h) 2 (2 x + h) =− 2 x ( x + h) 2 = 72. 71.PreCalculus 4E Section P.3 = ( x + 6)( x − 3) 2 70. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

( = 1 3 x x x− 1 3 x ) (3 x) 77. 1 4 x ( = x x− 1 4 x ) (4 x) 78.x>0 4x 75. h≠0 x − x+3 3 x x+3 x+5 − x x+5 + x ⋅ 5 x+5 + x ( x + 5) 2 − ( x )2 5( x + 5 + x ) x+5− x 5( x + 5 + x ) 1 x+5 + x x+7 − x x+7 + x ⋅ 7 x+7 + x ( x + 7 )2 − ( x )2 7( x + 7 + x ) x+7− x 7( x + 7 + x ) 1 x+7 + x x+ y x −y 2 2 ⋅ x− y x− y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 5 − x2 2 h x ( x + h) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+3 x x⎠ x+3 x ⎝ x+3 = 3 3 x+3 x = x2 x2 + 2 x − x+h = 3 ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) 1 ( x + y )( x − y ) 54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. x (4 x ) 4x −1 4x 1 = 1− . = 79. x+7 − x = 7 = x2 5 − x2 + 5 − x2 = ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜ 5 − x2 + ⎟ 5 − x2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 5− x ⎠ =⎝ 2 5− x 5 − x2 = 5− x 2 ( = = = ) 81. x (3 x ) 3x − 1 3x 1 = 1− .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra x− 73. x > 0 3x ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+h x x⎠ x+h x ⎝ x+h = h h x+h x = x− 74. x+5 − x = 5 − x2 + 2 = x2 ⎛ ⎜ =⎝ = − x 2 + 2 ⎞⎟ x 2 + 2 ⎠ x2 x2 + 2 = x2 x2 + 2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2) x2 x2 + 2 2 =− 2 x x2 + 2 76. . 80. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 − x2 + x2 (5 − x ) ( x+ y x −y 2 2 = = 5 5 − x2 ) 2 = 5 − x2 5 = (5 − x ) 2 .

. x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x + y ) 1 ( x + y )( x + y ) . 3 ⎞⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ( x + 2) 3 ⎞⎛ ( x − 1) 5 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎜4− ⎟⎜ 1 + ⎟=⎜ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ x + 2 x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 x + 8 − 3 ⎞⎛ x − 1 + 5 ⎞ 4 x + 5 x + 4 ( 4 x + 5 )( x + 4 ) =⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎜ ⎟= ( x + 2 )( x − 1) ⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ x + 2 x − 1 87. x− y x −y 2 2 Section P. ( x 2 − y 2 )( x + y ) 6 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 1) 6 ⎞ ⎛ ( x − 2) 3 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜2− ⎟ ⎜1 + ⎟ = ⎜⎜ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ( x + 1) ( x + 1) ⎠ ⎝ ( x − 2 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 x + 2 − 6 ⎞⎛ x − 2 + 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 x − 4 ⎞ ⎛ x + 1 ⎞ 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) =2 =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟= ⎝ x + 1 ⎠⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ( x + 1) ( x − 2 ) 86. x≠ y ⎛ ( 2 x + 3) ( x + 5 ) ( x − 1) ⎛ 2 x + 3 x2 + 4 x − 5 ⎞ 2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 =⎜ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − ( 2 x + 3) ( x − 1) ⎝ x + 1 2 x + x − 3 ⎠ x + 2 ⎜⎝ x + 1 2 ( x + 1) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 2 ( x + 1) = − = x 1 x 2 x 1 x 2 + + + + ( )( ) ( )( ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎞ ⎟− 2 = x+5 − 2 ⎟ x + 2 x +1 x + 2 ⎠ = x 2 + 2 x + 5 x + 10 − 2 x − 2 x2 + 5x + 8 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎛ ( x + 2) ( x − 4) ⎞ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 ⋅⎜ − ÷ ⎜⎜ − ⎟ ⎟= x − 2 x − 8 ⎝ x − 4 x + 2 ⎠ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎝ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎟⎠ 1 2 ⎛ x+2−x+4 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) 1 1 6 1 ÷ ⎜⎜ ÷ ⎜⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎟ = ⎟⎟ = x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 6 6 ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) 1 = 85. Inc. y −1 − ( y + 5) 5 1 −1 = y − 1 y+5 5 LCD = y ( y + 5) 1 y − ⎛1 1 y+5 5 y ( y + 5) ⎜ = ⎝y − 1 ⎞ ⎟ y +5⎠ y ( y + 5)( 5) = y +5− y 5 y ( y + 5) = 5 5 y ( y + 5) = 1 y ( y + 5) 55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 82. 84.6 x− y = x −y 2 x+ y ⋅ 2 x+ y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 = = = 83. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

the function is not defined. a. = = 86.67 . ab + a 2 − ab + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 = ) ⎞⎟ = ) ⎠⎟ a ab 2 + ab + b2 + a 2 − ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a2 + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 130 x is equal to 100 − x 130 ⋅ 40 130 ⋅ 40 1.000.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 88. y −1 − ( y + 2) 1 −1 y = 2 − 1 y+2 2 LCD = y ( y + 2 ) 1 − y y+2 2 89. b. So it costs an astronomical amount of money to inoculate almost all of the people. 3. c. and $1.670.000 to inoculate 40% of the population against this strain of flu. 100 − 80 20 when x = 80 130 ⋅ 90 130 ⋅ 90 = = 1170 . = = 520 . ⎛1 1 y ( y + 2) ⎜ = ⎝y 1 ⎞ ⎟ y+2⎠ y ( y + 2 )( 2 ) = y+2− y 2 y ( y + 2) = 2 2 y ( y + 2) = 1 y ( y + 2) ⎛ a ( c + d ) − b ( c + d ) ⎞⎟ ac + ad − bc − bd ⎞ c−d 1 c−d ⎛ 1 ⎜ ⋅ − = ⋅ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 1 1 ⎝ a 3 − b3 ⎠ a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ( c + d ) ( a − b ) ⎞⎟ c−d c+d c−d 1 − = − ⋅ =⎜ ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + bd + b 2 1 ⎝ ⎠ c+d −c+d 2d = 2 = a + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 ( ( 90. − ) ) ⎛ a ( c − d ) − b ( c − d ) a 3 + b3 ⎞ ⎛ ac − ad − bc + bd a3 − b3 ⎞ ab + ⎜⎜ ÷ 3 3 ⎟⎟ = 2 + ⎜⎜ ⋅ ⎟ 2 a + ab + b ⎝ ac − ad + bc − bd a + b ⎠ a + ab + b ⎝ a ( c − d ) + b ( c − d ) a3 − b3 ⎟⎠ ab 2 2 ( ( ⎛ ( c − d ) ( a − b ) ( a + b ) a 2 − ab + b 2 = 2 +⎜ ⋅ a + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( c − d ) ( a + b ) ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ab = 91. and it is impossible to inoculate 100% of the population. As x approaches 100. the value of the function increases rapidly. 100 − 40 60 when x = 40 130 ⋅ 80 130 ⋅ 80 2. .000. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. For x = 100. 100 − 90 10 when x = 90 It costs $86. 56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.000 to inoculate 90% of the population.000 to inoculate 80% of the population. and $520.170.

This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 38 calories.PreCalculus 4E 92. 7 93. Substitute 4 for x in the model. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7 Your average speed will be 34 2 miles per hour.6 2d d + r1 d r2 LCD = r1r2 2d d r1 + d ⎛d d ⎞ + ⎜ r r ⎟⎟ 1 ⎝ 2⎠ r1r2 ⎜ r2 = = If r1r2 ( 2d ) = 2r1r2 d r2 d + r1d 2r1r2 d d ( r2 + r1 ) = 2r1r2 r2 + r1 r1 = 40 and r2 = 30. Section P. Substitute 4 for x in the model. the value of this expression will be 2 ⋅ 40 ⋅ 30 2400 = 30 + 40 70 2 = 34 . W = −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 W = −66(4)2 + 526(4) + 1030 W = 2078 According to the model. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 22 calories. W −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 = M −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 = = 2 ( −33x 2 + 263x + 515 ) 2 ( −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 ) −33x 2 + 263x + 515 −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. c. men between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2662 calories per day. b. M = −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 M = −120(4)2 + 998(4) + 590 M = 2662 According to the model. women between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2078 calories per day. . Inc.

Answers may vary. Inc. R= = = 1 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1R2 R3 R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2 4 ⋅8 ⋅12 8⋅12 + 4 ⋅12 + 4 ⋅ 8 384 = 96 + 48 + 32 384 = 176 24 = 11 24 The parallel resistance is ohms. 4 x + 14 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x +5⎠ ⎝ x +6⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+5 x+6 2 x ( x + 6) 2x ( x + ( x + 5)( x + 6) ( x + 5)( x 2 = + 2 2 x + 12 x + 2 x + 10 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 2 = 4 x + 22 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 97. 12) = 95. –108. . 11 R(4. 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x + 3⎠ ⎝ x − 4⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+3 x+4 2 x ( x + 4) 2 x ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x + 4) ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = + 2 2 x + 8x + 2 x + 6 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = 96.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94.

does not make sense. does not make sense.PreCalculus 4E Section P. Explanations will vary. true 116. Sample explanation: The first step is to invert the second fraction. false. false. Sample explanation: The numerator and denominator of 7 do not 14 + x share a common factor. A sample change is: x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) = = x+5 x−5 x−5 114. Sample explanation: 3x − 3 3(1) − 3 0 = = which is undefined. Inc. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 3 2 + 2 + 3 + + 5 4 3 x x x = x x 2 x3 = x + x + x = x x + x + 1 = x3 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 1 + 5 + 6 + 5 + 6 4 4 x x x x x x ( ) 59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 n x −1 − 1 n x +1 − n 1 x 2n −1 = n x +1 x 2n −1 − n = = 118. . A sample change is: 6 + 117. x −1 x 2n 1 x 2n −1 n x +1− x +1−1 x 2n −1 1 x 2n −1 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ x 1 ⎞⎛ x +1 1 ⎞⎛ x + 2 1 ⎞⎛ x + 3 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ − − − ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ x x + x + x + x x x + x + x + x + x + x + 3⎠ 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎛ x − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 1) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 3) − 1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠⎝ x +1 ⎠⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x + 3 ⎠ = 119. Publishing as Prentice Hall. makes sense 113. true 115. It cubes x. Explanations will vary. 4 x( x − 1) 4(1)(1 − 1) 0 110. −1 − 1 6x 1 6x + 1 = + = x x x x ( x − y) −1 + ( x − y) −2 = 1 + x −1 x x +1 x + 2 x −1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = x x +1 x + 2 x + 3 x + 3 1 ( x − y) ( x − y) 2 = ( x − y) 1 x − y +1 + = 2 ( x − y )( x − y ) ( x − y ) ( x − y )2 120. Explanations will vary.6 109. 112. 111.

2( x − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3( x + 2) 2. 12 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 3( x + 2) − 4( x − 1) = 3x + 6 − 4 x + 4 7 x − 21 = −4 x − 10 7 x + 4 x = −10 + 21 11x = 11 11x 11 = 11 11 x =1 Check: x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 1− 3 5 1+ 5 = − 4 14 7 −2 5 6 = − 4 14 7 1 1 − =− 2 2 The solution set is {1}. x=7 . x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 x −3 ⎛ 5 x+5⎞ 28 ⋅ = 28 ⎜ − 4 7 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 14 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 8 x + 4 − 29 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 − 6 x = 6 x − 15 − 6 x 2 x − 25 = −15 2 x − 25 + 25 = −15 + 25 −20 6 5 − = 2 x+3 x−2 x + x−6 −20 6 5 − = x + 3 x − 2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x + 3)( x − 2) 5( x + 3)( x − 2) −20( x + 3)( x − 2) − = x+3 x−2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x − 2) − 5( x + 3) = −20 6 x − 12 − 5 x − 15 = −20 x − 27 = −20 The solution set is {7} . 2(6 − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3(6 + 2) 2(3) − 17 = 13 − 3(8) 6 − 17 = 13 − 24 −11 = −11. Section P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 −b − b 2 − 4ac −(9) − (9) − 4(2)(−5) = 2a 2(2) −9 − 81 + 40 4 −9 − 121 = 4 −9 − 11 = 4 = −5 = 3. 60 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true 7 ( x − 3) = 2(5) − 4 ( x + 5 ) 7 x − 21 = 10 − 4 x − 20 ⎛ x + 2 x −1 ⎞ ⎛ x+2⎞ ⎛ x −1⎞ − = 12 ⎜ − 12 ⎜ 122. Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121.7 Check Point Exercises 1. = − x + 10 123. 2 x = 10 2 x 10 = 2 2 x=5 Check: 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 4[2(5) + 1] − 29 = 3[2(5) − 5] 4[10 + 1] − 29 = 3[10 − 5] 4[11] − 29 = 3[5] 44 − 29 = 15 15 = 15 true The solution set is {5}.

a. ⎩2 ⎭ 8.7 1 4 1 = − x + 2 x2 − 4 x − 2 1 4 1 = − x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 1( x + 2)( x − 2) 4( x + 2)( x − 2) 1( x + 2)( x − 2) = − x+2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x−2 x − 2 = 4 − ( x + 2) x−2=4−x−2 x−2=2−x 2x = 4 x=2 2 must be rejected. 2 x2 + x = 1 b. 5. } The solution set is −5 + 11. . ( x + 5) 2 = 11 x + 5 = ± 11 4 1 − 2 x = 20 x = −5 ± 11 1 − 2x = 5 { 1 − 2x = 5 or 1 − 2 x = −5 −2 x = 4 −2 x = −6 x = −2 x=3 The solution set is {–2. 3x 2 − 9 x = 0 3x( x − 3) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 3 = 0 3 x 2 21 = 3 3 2 x =7 x=± 7 { } The solution set is − 7. 7 . Section P. The solution set is { } .PreCalculus 4E 4.3} . 7. 2 x2 + x − 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 2x = 1 1 x= 2 1 1 1 + = p q f 1 pqf 1 pqf 1 pqf + = p q f qf + pf = pq x = −1 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 3}. a. x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x2 + 4x = 1 x2 + 4 x + 4 = 1 + 4 ( x + 2) 2 =5 x+2= ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1⎬ . 9. 3x 2 − 21 = 0 3x 2 = 21 qf − pq = − pf q( f − p) = − pf − pf q( f − p) = f −p f −p pf q= p− f 6. x=0 x=3 The solution set is {0. 4 1 − 2 x − 20 = 0 b. Inc. −5 − 11 .

2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6x – 3 = 63 6x = 66 x = 11 The solution set is {11}. ⎬. 6(11) − 3 = 63 66 − 3 = 63 63 = 63 3x 2 − 2x + 5 = 0 a = 3. 62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a = = = = = = −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) 7(11) − 5 = 72 −2 ± 4 + 8 4 −2 ± 12 4 −2 ± 2 3 4 2(−1 ± 3) 4 −1 ± 3 2 77 − 5 = 72 72 = 72 The solution set is {11}. x+3 +3 = x x +3 = x−3 ( x+3 ) 2 = ( x − 3) 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 11x − 6 x + 5 = 40 b2 − 4ac = (−2)2 − 4 ⋅3 ⋅5 = 4 − 60 = −56 The discriminant is –56. 12. 2 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 Exercise Set P. . c = −1 1. 7x – 5 = 72 7x = 77 x = 11 Check: 7 x − 5 = 72 Check: 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 2 11(7) − [6(7) − 5] = 40 x + 3 = x2 − 6x + 9 77 − (42 − 5) = 40 0 = x2 − 7 x + 6 0 = ( x − 6)( x − 1) x − 6 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 77 − (37) = 40 40 = 40 x=6 x =1 1 does not check and must be rejected. b = 2. Inc. b = −2. 2. Check: 6 x − 3 = 63 ⎧⎪ −1 + 3 −1 − 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . The equation has two complex imaginary solutions.7 a = 2. c = 5 3.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. 5 x + 5 = 40 5 x = 35 x=7 The solution set is {7}. The solution set is {6} .

Check: 3x + 5 = 2 x + 13 3(8) + 5 = 2(8) + 13 24 + 5 = 16 + 13 29 = 29 Check: 2( x − 1) + 3 = x − 3( x + 1) 2(−1 − 1) + 3 = −1 − 3(−1 + 1) 2(−2) + 3 = −1 − 3(0) − 4 + 3 = −1 + 0 − 1 = −1 63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2(x – 1) + 3 = x – 3(x +1) 2x – 2 + 3 = x – 3x – 3 2x +1 = –2x – 3 4x + 1 = –3 4x = –4 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. 7x + 4 = x + 16 6x + 4 = 16 6x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {2}. 3(x – 2) + 7 = 2(x + 5) 3x – 6 + 7 = 2x + 10 3x + 1 = 2x + 10 x + 1 = 10 x=9 The solution set is {9}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 13x + 14 = 12x – 5 x + 14 = –5 x = –19 The solution set is {–19}. Check: 13 x + 14 = 12 x − 5 9. Check: 7(2) + 4 = 2 + 16 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Section P. ⎤ ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 25 ⎞ 5 ⎜ ⎟ − ⎢ 2 ⎜ ⎟ − 10 ⎥ = 35 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎦ 125 ⎡ 50 ⎤ − − 10⎥ = 35 3 ⎢⎣ 3 ⎦ 125 20 − = 35 3 3 105 = 35 3 35 = 35 13(−19) + 14 = 12(−19) − 5 − 247 + 14 = −228 − 5 − 233 = −233 2x – 7 = 6 + x x–7=6 x = 13 The solution set is {13}. Check: 2(13) − 7 = 6 + 13 Check: 3(9 − 2) + 7 = 2(9 + 5) 26 − 7 = 19 19 = 19 6. .PreCalculus 4E 4. 3(7) + 7 = 2(14) 21 + 7 = 28 3x + 5 = 2x + 13 x + 5 = 13 x=8 The solution set is {8}. Inc. 5. 28 = 28 10.7 5x – (2x – 10) = 35 5x – 2x + 10 = 35 3x + 10 = 35 3x = 25 25 x= 3 7. ⎩3⎭ 14 + 4 = 18 18 = 18 Check: 5 x − (2 x − 10) = 35 8.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. . b. ⎩5⎭ 3x x − 3 x + 2 − = 5 2 3 ⎡ 3x x − 3 x + 2 ⎤ 30 ⎢ − = 2 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣5 18 x − 15 x + 45 = 10 x + 20 3x − 10 x = 20 − 45 x =1 − 7 x = −25 The solution set is {1}. x +3 3 x −5 = + 6 8 4 ⎡ x + 3 3 x − 5⎤ 24 ⎢ = + 8 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 6 4 x + 12 = 9 + 6 x − 30 15. 13. 17. 3x + 4 x = 10 − 3 7x = 7 x +1 x+2 = 5− 3 7 x + 2⎤ ⎡ x +1 21 ⎢ = 5− 7 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 3 7x + 7 = 105 – 3x – 6 7x + 3x = 99 – 7 10x = 92 92 x= 10 46 x= 5 ⎧ 46 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 4 x − 6 x = −21 − 12 − 2 x = −33 33 2 x= ⎧ 33 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩7⎭ x= x x −3 = 2+ 4 3 x − 3⎤ ⎡x 12 ⎢ = 2 + 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣4 3x = 24 + 4x – 12 3x – 4x = 12 –x = 12 x = –12 The solution set is {–12}. 14. x +1 1 2 − x = + 4 6 3 ⎡ x +1 1 2 − x ⎤ 12 ⎢ = + 6 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 4 3x + 3 = 2 + 8 − 4 x 16. 25 7 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩2⎭ 12. 8 x − 3x = 9 − 104 5 x = −95 x = −19 The solution set is {−19} .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11. a. Inc. x−2 x+3 = 3 8 x − 2 x + 3⎤ ⎡ 24 ⎢5 + = 3 8 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 120 + 8 x − 16 = 3 x + 9 5+ 1 11 +5 = ( x ≠ 1) x −1 x −1 1 11 +5 = x −1 x −1 1 + 5( x − 1) = 11 1 + 5 x − 5 = 11 5 x − 4 = 11 5 x = 15 x=3 The solution set is {3}. 64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

7 3 −4 −7 = ( x ≠ −4) x+4 x+4 22. x ≠ 5. ∅. 2 x = − 2 ( x ≠ 2) x−2 x−2 24. 3 5 1 = + x + 3 2( x + 3) x − 2 6( x − 2) = 5( x − 2) + 2( x + 3) 6 x − 12 = 5 x − 10 + 2 x + 6 3 − 7 x − 28 = −4 19. b. x ≠ −5) b. x ≠ 2) x + 3 2x + 6 x − 2 8x 8 = 4− ( x ≠ −1) x +1 x +1 23. b. 1 x−4 − 5 x+2 = 6 ( x − 4)( x + 2) . 20. 4 2 32 + = . a.PreCalculus 4E 18. 2 x = −2 x−2 x−2 2 = x − 2( x − 2) x = 2 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. 8x = 4x + 4 − 8 4 x = −4 2 1 2x − = 2 ( x ≠ 1. 8x 8 = 4− x +1 x +1 8 x = 4( x + 1) − 8 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. 3 1 2 + = 2x − 2 2 x −1 3 1 2 + = 2( x − 1) 2 x − 1 3 + 1( x − 1) = 4 25. 2 = x − 2x + 4 21. a. a. ∅. b. x ≠ −1) x + 1 x −1 x −1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 x2 − 1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2( x − 1) − 1( x + 1) = 2 x 2x − 2 − x −1 = 2x x = −1 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. 3 −4 −7 = x+4 x+4 3 − 7( x + 4) = −4 b. ∅. a. a. x ≠ −2) 1( x + 2) − 5( x − 4) = 6 x + 2 − 5 x + 20 = 6 −4 x = −16 x=4 The solution set is the empty set. b. a. Inc. b. a. 4 2 32 + = x + 5 x − 5 ( x + 5)( x − 5) ( x ≠ 5. −x = 8 −7 x = 21 x = −8 The solution set is {–8}. . 3 5 1 = + ( x ≠ −3. 4) 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 x2 − 2 x − 8 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 ( x − 4)( x + 2) ( x ≠ 4. a. 3 + x −1 = 4 x=2 The solution set is {2}. −5 x + 5 x − 5 x 2 − 25 4( x − 5) + 2( x + 5) = 32 4 x − 20 + 2 x + 10 = 32 3 1 2 + = ( x ≠ 1) 2x − 2 2 x −1 6 x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. ( x ≠ −2. Section P. 65 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −x = 3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}.

29. . P = C + MC P − C = MC P −C =M C markup based on cost 31. a.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 26. 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) A= 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) 2A = a+b h A= 37. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S−P = r. Inc. 28. F S −V B(S − V ) = F B= S −V = T − D pm = m m T −D =p m total of payment 30. 3 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 32. x ≠ −1. C 1− r S (1 − r ) = C C 1− r = S C −r = − 1 S C r = − +1 S markup based on selling price S= IR + Ir = E I (R + r) = E 2A −b = a h area of trapezoid E R+r electric current I= 66 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. T = D + pm T − D = pm F B F S = +V B 36. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S −P = t. 2π circumference of a circle 33. rt interest C = 2πr C r= . 1 2 8 . ∅. 27. Pr interest 35. 2A =a+b h 2A −a=b h area of trapezoid I = Prt I P= . Pt interest 34. 1 2 8 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 1( x + 1) − 2( x − 3) = 8 x + 1 − 2x + 6 = 8 −x + 7 = 8 −x = 1 x = −1 The solution set is the empty set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.

2x −1 = 5 2x – 1 = 5 2x – 1 = –5 2x = 6 2x = –4 x=3 x = –2 The solution set is {3. Inc. 7}. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f − f2 48. 45. 46. −3} f1 = ff 2 f2 − f 49. + = p q f qf + pf = pq f (q + p) = pq pq f = p+q thin lens equation 40. 1 1 1 = + R R R 1 2 R1 R2 = RR2 + RR1 43. 44. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 2 4− f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 4− ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 f − f1 5 x =6 2 4− f 2 ( f − f1 ) = − ff1 = 5 x = 12 2 5 x=6 2 5 − x=2 2 ff 2 − f1 f 2 = − ff1 f 2 ( f − f1 ) 5 x + 6 = 18 2 − ff1 f − f1 x=− ff1 f2 = f1 − f focal length 4 5 or 4 − 5 x = −6 2 5 − x = −10 2 x=4 ⎧ 4 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . ff1 − f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) f − f2 2 4− focal length f = 42. 2|3x – 2| = 14 |3x – 2| = 7 3x – 2 = 7 3x – 2 = −7 3x = 9 3x = −5 x=3 x = −5/3 The solution set is {3. –5}.7 A = 2lw + 2lh + 2 wh A − 2lw = h ( 2l + 2 w ) A − 2lw =h 2l + 2 w surface area 1 1 1 39. R1 R2 − RR1 = RR2 R1 ( R2 − R ) = RR2 R1 = RR2 R2 − R 47. Section P.PreCalculus 4E 38. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −5/3} resistance f = 41. x−2 =7 x – 2 = 7 x – 2 = –7 x=9 x = –5 The solution set is {9. 3|2x – 1| = 21 |2x – 1| = 7 2x – 1 = 7 or 2x – 1 = −7 2x = 8 2x = −6 x=4 x = −3 The solution set is {4. –2}. ⎩ 5 ⎭ 67 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 4 ⎬ . x +1 = 5 x + 1 = 5 x + 1 = –5 x=4 x = –6 The solution set is {–6. 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = −11 2 x = −8 2 x = 14 x = −4 x=7 The solution set is {–4. 4}.

4} . 59. x 2 = 8 x − 15 57. 3x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . |2x – 1| + 3 = 3 |2x – 1| = 0 2x – 1 = 0 2x = 1 x = 1/2 The solution set is {0. |x + 1| + 6 = 2 |x + 1| = −4 The solution set is { }. 68 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. |x + 1| +5 = 3 |x + 1| = −2 No solution The solution set is { }. 5} . ⎩2⎭ 60. 52. 54. x 2 − 13 x + 36 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 9) = 0 x − 4 = 0 or x − 9 = 0 x=4 x=9 61. ⎧1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩3 3 ⎭ 1− x 2 − 8 x + 15 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 5) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x=3 x=5 The solution set is {3. Inc. x 2 + 11x + 10 = 0 ( x + 10)( x + 1) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x = −10 x = −1 The solution set is {−10. −1} . ⎬ . 4 1− 3 x + 7 = 10 4 4 1− 56. 51.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 50. x 2 − 3 x − 10 = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = 0 x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=5 x = −2 The solution set is {−2. 5} . 4} . ⎩3⎭ 55. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎧2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 5 x 2 = 20 x 5 x 2 − 20 x = 0 5 x( x − 4) = 0 5 x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 53. x 2 = −11x − 10 58. 9} . 3 3 x = 4 4 3 3 or 1 − 3 x = − 3 1− x = 4 4 4 4 3 1 3 7 − x=− − x=− 4 4 4 4 1 7 x= x= 3 3 1 7 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 3x − 2 + 4 = 4 3 x 2 = 12 x 3x 2 − 12 x = 0 3x( x − 4) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 3x − 2 = 0 3x − 2 = 0 3x = 2 2 x= 3 The solution set is {0. 3 x =3 4 The solution set is {4.

3 ( x + 4 ) = 21 ( x + 4) 2 =7 2 =± 7 x 2 − 6 x − 11 = 0 x 2 − 6 x = 11 2 ( x + 4) x 2 + 4 x = 12 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 12 + 4 ( x − 4) = 5 ( x − 4) } The solution set is 1 + 3. } The solution set is −4 ± 7 . x = 1± 3 { 70. x2 + 6 x = 7 x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 11 + 9 ( x − 3) 2 = 20 x − 3 = ± 20 x = 3± 2 5 x+4=± 7 x = −4 ± 7 { { } The solution set is 3 + 2 5.7 5 x 2 = 45 67. 69. } The solution set is ± 10 . Inc. The solution set is 4 ± 5 . 63. 5 x 2 + 1 = 51 68. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 x 2 = 50 ( x + 3) 2 = 1 x 2 = ± 10 x = ± 10 x + 3 = ±1 { x = −3 ± 1 The solution set is {–4. 3 − 2 5 . x2 = 9 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 7 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 16 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . x 2 + 6 x = −8 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = −8 + 9 x 2 = 10 64. 2}. 3 ( x − 4 ) = 15 2 x2 − 2 x = 2 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 2 + 1 3x 2 = 48 65. 69 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x 2 − 1 = 47 ( x − 1)2 = 3 x 2 = 16 x −1 = ± 3 x 2 = ± 16 x = ±4 The solution set is {±4} .PreCalculus 4E 62. x + 3 = ±4 x = −3 ± 4 The solution set is {–7. Section P. 2 2 ( x + 2)2 = 16 =± 5 x + 2 = ±4 x = −2 ± 4 The solution set is {–6. x−4=± 5 x = 4± 5 { } 71. 66. –2}. 1}. 1 − 3 . .

x2 + 4 x + 1 = 0 x 2 + 4 x = −1 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = −1 + 4 77. x= x −1 = ± 6 x = 1± 6 { } The solution set is 1 + 6. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ −8 ± 64 − 60 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 −8 ± 2 x= 2 The solution set is {−5. −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(12) 2(1) −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(15) 2(1) ⎧⎪ −5 + 17 −5 − 17 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . –2}. 73. . x − 2x = 5 x 2 + 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x= x − 2x + 1 = 5 +1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 6 −8 ± 64 − 48 2 −8 ± 16 x= 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 The solution set is {–6. − 2 − 3 . 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ x2 + 6 x = 5 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 5 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 14 78. 75. ( x + 2) 2 = 3 x = −2 ± 3 { −5 ± 25 − 12 2 −5 ± 13 x= 2 } x2 + 6 x − 5 = 0 ⎧⎪ −5 + 13 −5 − 13 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . x2 + 5x + 3 = 0 x= x+2= ± 3 74. Inc. x2 − 2 x − 5 = 0 76. 1 − 6 . − 3 − 14 . x + 3 = ± 14 x2 + 5x + 2 = 0 x= x = −3 ± 14 { } The solution set is −3 + 14.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 72. −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) −5 ± 25 − 8 2 −5 ± 17 x= 2 x= x 2 + 8 x + 15 = 0 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(3) 2(1) x= The solution set is −2 + 3. − 3}. ⎬ 6 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 6 70 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x= 79. ⎬. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3x 2 − 3 x − 4 = 0 x= 3 ± (−3)2 − 4(3)(−4) 2(3) 3 ± 9 + 48 6 3 ± 57 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 3 + 57 3 − 57 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬.

3 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 3 71 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 87. (−2) 2 − 4(3)(1) = 4 – 12 = –8. 4 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 4 x= 2 x 2 + 11x − 6 = 0 112 − 4(2)(−6) = 121 + 48 = 169. 2 complex imaginary solutions ⎪⎧ −1 + 41 −1 − 41 ⎪⎫ . . Inc. 4 x2 − 2 x − 7 = 0 2 ± (−2)2 − 4(4)(−7) 2(4) 86.PreCalculus 4E 80. (−4) 2 − 4(1)(−5) = 16 + 20 = 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 unequal real solutions 2 ± 4 + 112 x= 8 2 ± 116 x= 8 2 ± 2 29 x= 8 1 ± 29 x= 4 82.7 5x2 + x − 2 = 0 x= 83. 2 complex imaginary solutions 3x = 6 x − 1 3x − 6 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x= x= 3x 2 = 2 x − 1 3x 2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x2 = 2x − 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 ⎧⎪1 + 29 1 − 29 ⎫⎪ . 1 real solution 88. 2 unequal real solutions 6 ± 36 − 12 6 6 ± 24 6 6±2 6 6 3± 6 3 90. 2 unequal real solutions 4x2 = 2x + 7 x= 4 x2 − 2 x + 3 = 0 (−2) 2 − 4(4)(3) = 4 – 48 = –44. (−2) 2 − 4(1)(1) =4–4 = 0. 2 x 2 − 11x + 3 = 0 (−11) 2 − 4(2)(3) = 121 – 24 = 97. 3x 2 + 4 x − 2 = 0 42 − 4(3)(−2) = 16 + 24 = 40. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 85. 2 unequal real solutions −1 ± 12 − 4(5)(−2) 2(5) −1 ± 1 + 40 10 −1 ± 41 x= 10 x= 84. 10 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 10 81. Section P. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 (−3)2 − 4(1)(−7) = 9 + 28 = 37. x2 − 4 x − 5 = 0 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 89. 2 unequal real solutions ⎧⎪ 3 + 6 3 − 6 ⎫⎪ .

Inc. 1⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. } The solution set is −5 5. (5 x − 2)( x + 3) = 0 5 x − 2 = 0 or x + 3 2 x + 8 x + 3x + 12 = 1 2 2 x 2 + 11x + 11 = 0 5x = 2 2 5 or −3 ± 32 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) x= 5x = 1 x= } The solution set is 1 + 2. (5 x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 2 x 2 + 3x = 1 2 x 2 + 3x − 1 = 0 5 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 1 or x = 2 5 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2 ⎬ . { 2 x 2 = 250 x = ± 125 3x2 − 4x − 4 = 0 2 3 } x 2 = 125 3x 2 − 4 x = 4 x=− { The solution set is −2 5. 95.5 5 . 3x = −2 x2 − 2 x = 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 1 + 1 ( x − 1) 2 = 2 x = −3 or x −1 = ± 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . x = ±5 5 97. 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 72 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎬ . ⎩ 3 ⎭ x = 1± 2 { 5 x 2 − 11x + 2 = 0 98.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 − x = 1 91. 1 − 2 . ⎩ 5⎭ x= ⎪⎧ −11 + 33 −11 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 92. 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 5 x 2 = 6 − 13x 5 x 2 + 13x − 6 = 0 (2 x + 3)( x + 4) = 1 99. 2 5 . ⎩5 ⎭ −3 ± 9 + 8 4 −3 ± 17 x= 4 x= x= ⎪⎧ −3 + 17 −3 − 17 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 5 x 2 + 2 = 11x 94. (3 x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 3x + 2 or x − 2 = 0 93. . ⎬. x 2 = 20 2 x2 − x − 1 = 0 (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = ± 20 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = ±2 5 2 x = −1 96. 3x 2 = 60 x= x = −3 −11 ± 112 − 4(2)(11) 2(2) −11 ± 121 − 88 4 −11 ± 33 x= 4 ⎧ 2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. 2⎬ . 1 x = − or x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − .

x= { } The solution set is 3 ± 2 . 3}. ⎩ 3⎭ { } The solution set is 2 ± 2 . Section P. ⎬ . 2 x 2 − 7 x = 0 9 − 6x + x = 0 x(2 x − 7) = 0 2 x = 0 or 2 x − 7 = 0 2x = 7 x − 6x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 The solution set is {3}. Inc. 4 x 2 − 16 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x − 5x − 5 = 2 4 x 2 = 16 2 x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 x= x2 = 4 x = ±2 The solution set is {−2.PreCalculus 4E 100. 2 x + 7 = ±5 2 x = −7 ± 5 2 x = −12 or 2 x = −2 x=6 or x = −1 The solution set is {–6. 109. (3 x − 4) = 16 2 x2 − 4x + 2 = 0 3x − 4 = ± 16 3x − 4 = ±4 3x = 4 ± 4 3x = 8 or 3x = 0 8 x = or x = 0 3 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 4± 8 2 x = 2± 2 x= ⎧ 8⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. ⎩ 2⎭ x = 0 or x = 73 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎬. 3x 2 − 27 = 0 3 x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎬ . 102. (2 x + 7) 2 = 25 x2 = 6 x − 7 108. –1}. 3x 2 − 12 x + 12 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(7) 2(1) 6± 8 2 x = 3± 2 x= x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x=2 The solution set is {2}. 2 7 2 ⎧ 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. . 101. 4 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 4 x2 = 4 x − 2 107. 3 ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(−7) 2(2) 3 ± 9 + 56 4 3 ± 65 x= 4 x= 106.7 (2 x − 5)( x + 1) = 2 105. x2 − 6 x + 7 = 0 103. 2} . 104. ⎪⎧ 3 + 65 3 − 65 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .

4=2 . −2 x x+2 3 3x + 6 + 3 x = x 2 + 2 x 115. − 1}. 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 2 74 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎬ . The solution set is {2 + 10. 2 x2 + 6 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 5) = 0 The solution set is {−5. ⎬. x ≠ 3. x ≠ 3.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 + 5x = 3 110. 2 − 10}. x ≠ 0. 113. −3 x−3 x +3 x −9 2 x ( x + 3) + 6 ( x − 3) = −28 2 x 2 + 6 x + 6 x − 18 = −28 2 x 2 + 12 x + 10 = 0 −5 ± 25 + 24 x= 4 −5 ± 49 x= 4 −5 ± 7 x= 4 1 x = −3. 5 ± 25 + 48 x= 2 5 ± 73 x= 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 73 5 − 73 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . Inc. 7}. 20 − 8 x = x x 2 + 8 x − 20 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 2) = 0 x + 10 = 0 x−2 = 0 x = −10 0 = x 2 − 5 x − 12 x= 36 = 6 20 − 8 x = x 2 1 1 1 + = . 0 = x2 − 8x + 7 0 = ( x − 7 )( x − 1) x=7 x =1 The solution set is {1. 114. 3 5 x 2 − 20 + = 2 . 2x + 5x − 3 = 0 2 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(2)(−3) 2(2) 2x 6 −28 + = 2 . 3x + 18 = x ( −5 ) − 4 (1)( −12 ) 2 (1) 2 x=2 20 − 8(−10) = −10 20 − 8(2) = 2 20 + 80 = −10 20 − 16 = 2 100 = −10 False The solution set is {2}. 4 x − 3 x − 4 x − 7 x + 12 3x − 12 + 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 20 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. x ≠ 0. −3 x x+3 4 4 x + 12 + 4 x = x 2 + 3x − ( −5 ) ± 18 + 18 = 6 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. 0 = x2 − 4 x − 6 x= − ( −4 ) ± 3 x + 18 = x 2 ( −4 ) − 4 (1)( −6 ) 2 (1) 2 x 2 − 3x − 18 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 6) = 0 x+3=0 x–6=0 x = –3 x=6 3(−3) + 18 = −3 3(6) + 18 = 6 4 ± 16 + 24 2 4 ± 40 x= 2 4 ± 2 10 x= 2 x = 2 ± 10 x= −9 + 18 = −3 116. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 112. 1 1 1 + = . ⎩ 2⎭ 111.

( x − 2)( x − 10) = 0 x − 2 = 0 x − 10 = 0 16 = 4 x=2 2 x + 13 = x + 7 2 x + 13 = ( x + 7) x=8 6(0) + 1 = 0 − 1 x − 5 = 2x + 5 ( x + 1)( x − 6) = 0 x +1 = 0 x − 6 = 0 119. x=0 1 = −1 False The solution set is {8}. 2 x + 10 = x 2 − 4 x + 4 x = −1 6x + 1 = x − 1 6 x + 1 = ( x − 1) 2 2 2 2 x + 13 = x + 14 x + 49 x = 10 2 − 2(2) + 5 = 5 10 − 2(10) + 5 = 5 2− 9 =5 10 − 25 = 5 2 − 3 = 5 False The solution set is {10}. x + 10 = x − 2 118. x2 − 5x − 6 = 0 6(8) + 1 = 8 − 1 0 + 1 = −1 48 + 1 = 7 49 = 7 x − 2x + 5 = 5 ( x − 5) 2 = 2 x + 5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 = 2 x + 5 x=6 −1 + 10 = −1 − 2 x 2 − 12 x + 20 = 0 6 + 10 = 6 − 2 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. x+6 = 0 10 − 5 = 5 x − x + 11 = 1 x − 1 = x + 11 x = −6 ( x − 1) 2 = x + 11 2(−6) + 13 = −6 + 7 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = x + 11 −12 + 13 = 1 x 2 − 3x − 10 = 0 1 =1 The solution set is {–6}. 5−4 =1 . 120. x + 3 = x − 6x + 9 x2 − 7 x + 6 = 0 6 x + 1 = x2 − 2 x + 1 ( x − 1)( x − 6) = 0 x–1=0 x–6=0 x=1 x=6 6+3 = 6−3 1+ 3 = 1− 3 x2 − 8x = 0 x( x − 8) = 0 x −8 = 0 False 9 = 3 4 = −2 The solution set is {6}. 75 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x + 10 = ( x − 2) 121. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x + 2)( x − 5) = 0 x+2=0 x−5 = 0 x = −2 x=5 −2 − −2 + 11 = 1 5 − 5 + 11 = 1 −2 − 9 = 1 5 − 16 = 1 −2 − 3 = 1 False The solution set is {5}. 2 x + 12 x + 36 = 0 2 ( x + 6) 2 = 0 122.7 x+3 = x−3 117. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section P.

The solution set is {–5}. 25 – [2 + 5y – 3(y + 2)] = –3(2y – 5) – [5(y – 1) – 3y + 3] 25 – [2 + 5y – 3y – 6] = –6y + 15 – [5y – 5– 3y + 3] 25 – [2y – 4] = –6y + 15 – [2y – 2] 25 – 2y + 4 = –6y + 15 – 2y + 2 –2y + 29 = –8y + 17 6y = –12 y = –2 The solution set is {–2}. 125. 126. ⎩ 11 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ − 76 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x + 19 = x + 8 ( 2 x + 19 ) 2 = ( x + 8) 2 2 x + 19 = x 2 + 16 x + 64 0 = x 2 + 14 x + 45 0 = ( x + 9)( x + 5) x + 9 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 x = −9 x = −5 –9 does not check and must be rejected.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x + 19 − 8 = x 123. . 45 – [4 – 2y – 4(y + 7)] = –4(1 + 3y) – [4 – 3(y + 2) – 2(2y – 5)] 45 – [4 – 2y – 4y – 28] = –4 – 12y – [4 – 3y – 6 – 4y + 10] 45 – [–6y – 24] = –4 – 12y – [–7y + 8] 45 + 6y + 24 = –4 – 12y + 7y – 8 6y + 69 = –5y – 12 11y = –81 y=− 81 11 ⎧ 81 ⎫ ⎬. Inc. 2 x + 15 = x + 6 ( 2 x + 15 ) 2 = ( x + 6) 2 2 x + 15 = x 2 + 12 x + 36 0 = x 2 + 10 x + 21 0 = ( x + 3)( x + 7) x + 3 = 0 or x + 7 = 0 x = −3 x = −7 –7 does not check and must be rejected. 2 x + 15 − 6 = x 124. The solution set is {–3}. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

128. x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 = −8 x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 3) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −7.1} . 4. and x = 4. 6} . .7 127. The solution set is {−8. The solution set is {−7. 1} . 130. x = 6.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 7 − 7 x = (3x + 2)( x − 1) 7 − 7 x = 3x 2 − x − 2 0 = 3x 2 + 6 x − 9 0 = x2 + 2 x − 3 0 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −3 x =1 The solution set is {−3. Inc.1⎬ . 77 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 129. − 3. x = −6. 10 x − 1 = (2 x + 1) 2 10 x − 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 0 = 4 x2 − 6 x + 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 0 = (2 x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x − 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x= 1 2 x =1 ⎧1 ⎫ ⎩2 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ . − 6. x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = −12 or ( x + 8)( x − 6) = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 4) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and x = 1. x = −3.

Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ x +5 = x −3+ 4 x −3 + 4 x + 5 = x +1+ 4 x − 3 5 = 1+ 4 x − 3 132. 2 x+8 − x−4 = 2 x +8 = x−4 + 2 x + 8 = ( x − 4 + 2) 2 x +8 = x −4+ 4 x −4 + 4 x +8 = x + 4 x − 4 8= 4 x−4 x + 2 = ( x − 1)( x − 2) + 5( x − 1) 2= x−4 x + 2 = x2 − 2 x − x + 2 + 5x − 5 4 = x−4 x + 2 = x2 + 2 x − 3 x=8 0 = x2 + x − 5 8+8 − 8−4 = 2 16 − 4 = 2 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 1 b = 1 c = −5 . Inc. x= 135. 1 1 5 = + 2 x − 3x + 2 x + 2 x − 4 1 1 5 = + ( x − 1)( x − 2) x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. This results in the following: ( x − 3)( x − 1) + x( x − 2) = 1 4 = 4 x −3 1= x −3 1= x −3 x=4 4+5 − 4−3 = 2 9− 1=2 3 −1 = 2 The solution set is {4}. −1 ± 1 − 4 (1)( −5 ) 2 x= = 2 (1) = 4−2 = 2 The solution set is {8}. This results in the following: 133. x − x − 3x + 3 + x − 2 x = 1 2 2 2x − 6x + 3 = 1 2 2 x2 − 6 x + 2 = 0 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 2 b = −6 c = 2 . x − 1 x 1 + = 2 x − 2 x − 3 x − 5x + 6 x −1 x 1 + = x − 2 x − 3 ( x − 2)( x − 3) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x + 2) . 2 x2 + 4 x − 9 = 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4 ( 2 )( 2 ) 2 ( 2) 6 ± 36 − 16 6 ± 20 = 4 4 6 ± 4⋅5 6 ± 2 5 = = 4 4 3± 5 = 2 ⎧⎪ 3 ± 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1 ± 1 − ( −20 ) 2 134. x +5 − x −3 = 2 −1 ± 21 2 x+5 = x −3 + 2 x + 5 = ( x − 3 + 2) 2 ⎪⎧ −1 ± 21 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 131. ( x − 2)( x − 3) . ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ = x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(2)(−9) 2(2) −4 ± 88 4 −4 ± 2 22 x= 4 −2 ± 22 x= 2 x= 78 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

0. f ( x ) = 0.39 and 58.35(200) x + 200 0.35(200) x + 200 x + 0.24 x= W 138.7 136. x + 0.1(500) 0.74 = b.19 x + 25. W − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(6) = 53 2 W − 18 = 53 2 W − 18 + 18 = 53 + 18 2 W = 71 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 71 2 W = 142 According to the formula.26 x −78 = −0.026 1.35(200) 0.013x 2 − 1.19 ) − 4 ( 0. 141.19 ± 0.72 x = −90 −0.026 1.24 0 = 0.74( x + 200) = x + 0.19 ± 1.24 ) 2 ( 0.28 = x + 500 0.19 c = 25. Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded. 33 year olds and 58 year olds are expected to be in 3 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven.013 b = −1.26 x = −78 −0.013) 2 1.72 −0. 2 x2 − 8x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−8) ± (−8) 2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) 139.24 3 = 0. − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(12) = 53 2 W − 36 = 53 2 W − 36 + 36 = 53 + 36 2 W = 89 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 89 2 W = 178 According to the formula.10362 0.31248 0. Thus.15 or 33.19 x + 28.026 ≈ 58.4161 − 1.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0. The function models the actual data well. 0.19 ± 0.013x 2 − 1.72 x −90 = −0.32190 ≈ 0.26 −0.1(500) x + 500 x + 0. = 79 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.15. 8 ± 24 4 8± 2 6 x= 4 4± 6 x= 2 x= 137.013)( 25. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x + 0.19 x + 28. = − ( −1. This is 13 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph.013x 2 − 1.PreCalculus 4E Section P.19 ) ± ( −1.74 x + 148 = x + 70 −0.28 x + 140 = x + 50 −0.39 The solutions are approximately 33. a.28( x + 500) = x + 0. the healthy weight of a person of height 5’6” is 142 pounds.72 x = 125 125 liters of pure peroxide must be added.1(500) C= C= 140. the healthy weight of a person of height 6’ is 178 pounds. This is 6 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph. .26 x = 300 300 liters of pure acid must be added.

false.5 167.7 x + 12. 1. 10 = 0.5 = x 0. A sample change is: (2 x − 3) 2 = 25 (2 x − 3) 2 = ± 25 2 x − 3 = ±5 164.19 ) ± 160.68383 1.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0.19 ± 0.026 1.5 x 2 − 2 x − 15 = 0 3. Inc. A sample change is: Some quadratics have one number in their solution sets. false.5 ⎞ ⎜ 0.026 Evaluate the expression to obtain two solutions. A sample change is: ax 2 + c = 0 can be solved using b = 0 . Answers may vary. 1.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 25 = x There will be 16 cluttered minutes 25 years after 1996.5 = 0. f ( x ) = 0.7 x + 12.19 ) − 4 ( 0.19 c = 18. does not make sense. does not make sense.026 0. M = 0.1 = 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 142.46762 1. Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary.5 15.013 b = −1. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. or 2010.19 − 0.19 x + 28. Drivers of approximately age 19 and age 72 are expected to be involved in 10 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven.50617 x= x= 0. ( ) 145. 143.013) 2 1.026 162. – 158. or 2021.7 x 2.4161 − 0. 2.19 x + 18.68383 ≈ 0. makes sense 161.7 x + 12.19 ± 1.87383 0.19 x + 28. Changes to make the statement true will vary.013x 2 − 1.24 159. true 166. ( −1.013x 2 − 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. M = 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.24 2 0 = 0.5 7x + 4 + 13 = x b 7(−6) + 4 + 13 = −6 b −38 = −19 b −19b = −38 b=2 [ x − (−3)][ x − (5)] = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 5) = 0 16 = 0.6 = x 0. Sample explanation: The factoring method would be quicker.7 2 2 ⎛ 2.013x − 1.6 ⎞ ⎜ 0.94848 0.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 14 ≈ x There will be 15. The formula overestimates the number of fatal accidents. The formula does not model the data very well. 144. 80 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 x ≈ 19 = 163.19 ± 0.24 x= = − ( −1.19 + 0.7 x 3.026 0. ( ) 168.013)(18. . 165.026 x ≈ 72.7 x + 12.6 = 0. Sample explanation: Substitute n = 6 into the equation to find P.24 ) 2 ( 0. Sample explanation: You should substitute into the original equation.68383 x= or x = 0.7 2 2 ⎛ 3. false.026 0.1 cluttered minutes 14 years after 1996.

1 x = 50 33% of female freshmen will respond this way 50 years after 1969. (16 + 2 x )(12 + 2 x) = 320 VL = CL − CN + SN CN − CL = NS − LV C ( N − L ) = NS − LV C ( N − L) NS − LV N −L N −L NS − LV LV − NS or C= N −L L−N = 170.989 6.989 and the average salary for men was $72.30 x = 840 0. 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 037 ) = 130. x − 0. s = −16t 2 + v0 t 0 = −16t 2 + v0 t − s a = −16. 400 a = ±120 –120 must be rejected. 4 x + 400 Section P. c = − s t= t= t= −v0 ± ( v0 ) − 4 ( −16 )( − s ) 2 ( −16 ) −v0 ± ( v0 ) 2 2 − 64s −32 v0 ± v0 2 − 64 s 32 171.1x = 33 − 88 −1.70 x = 840 840 x= 0. 037 = 130. x + 150 172. 5. 81 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section P. Let x = the average salary for women Let x + 14. 20 + 0. . Let x = the width of the court.026. Let x = the computer’s price before the reduction. Let x = the number of years since 1969. The tower is 120 yards tall. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + (50) 2 = (130)2 a 2 + 2500 = 16. or 2019. 4 x 2 + 56 x − 128 = 0 x 2 + 14 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 16)( x − 2) = 0 x + 16 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −16 x=2 –16 must be rejected. 015 x + x + 14. The path must be 2 feet wide.1x = 33 −1. 3. 037 = 72. b = v0 . x + 14. 4. Inc. 900 a 2 = 14. 88 − 1. 037 = 130. 2l + 2 w = P 2( x + 44) + 2 x = 288 2 x + 88 + 2 x = 288 4 x + 88 = 288 4 x = 200 200 x= 4 x = 50 x + 44 = 94 The dimensions of the court are 50 by 94.05x 173. Let x + 44 = the length of the court.1x = −55 −55 x= −1. 015 2 x = 115.026 In 2007 the average teaching salary for women was $57.8 192 + 56 x + 4 x 2 = 320 Check Point Exercises 1. 015 2 x + 14.70 x = 1200 Before the reduction the computer’s price was $1200.978 x = 57.8 C−S N L VL = CL − ( C − S ) N V =C− 169.037 = the average salary for men x + ( x + 14.

000 ⎟ = x( x + 3) x x+3 ⎝ ⎠ 5. The new amount of money per person.9 weeks on vacation and Italians spend an average of 7. 5. 000. Inc. 000 x + 15. 000. 000 − 375. x + ( x + 581) = 2529 x + x + 581 = 2529 2 x + 581 − 581 = 2529 − 581 2 x = 1948 x = 974 x + 581 = 1555 Americans spent 974 hours listening to radio and 1555 hours watching TV.8 − 4 2 x = 7. Let x = number of weeks Americans spend on vacation.125. 000 = x x+3 5. 000 x −375.8 2 x + 4 − 4 = 11. 000. 000. 82 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000. 000 x 7. 000 5. 000. Publishing as Prentice Hall.125. Exercise Set P.8 1. 2. Let x + 581 = the time spent watching TV. 000.9 weeks. 000 x 2 − 1. . 000 x 2 − 1. 000 = 0 x 2 + 3x − 40 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 5) = 0 x + 8 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −8 x=5 –8 must be rejected. x + ( x + 4) = 11. Let x + 4 = number of weeks Italians spend on vacation. 000 ⎞ x( x + 3) ⎜ − 375.8 x + x + 4 = 11. 000 − 375.8 x = 3. 000( x + 3) − 375. 000. 000 x( x + 3) = 5. 000 x = 5.9 x + 4 = 7. 000. Let x = the time spent listening to radio. 000.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra The original amount of money per person.9 Americans spend an average of 3. There were 5 people in the original group. 000 ⎛ 5. reduction per winner 5. 000 x + 15.

000 x= −3000 x=5 The car’s value will drop to $9000 after 5 years.900. y = 45. 000 x = 25 The countries will have the same population 25 years after the year 2000. or 2014. or 2021. 43 + 0.5 x = 38 All American adults will approve 38 years after 1983.300 at that time.420. 200. 000 − 45.6 x = 18 18 x= 0.580 and the average salary for computer programmers is $63.8 Let x = the average salary for carpenters. a. y = 24. 000 x + 2 x − 7740 = 99. 200. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 060 4 x − 3500 = 74. x + (3x − 3500) = 74. Let x = the number of years after 2000 10. Let 2 x − 7740 = the average salary for computer programmers.300 + 1000(9) = 22. 000 The population in the year 2025 will be 9. 83 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 45.760. 060 4 x − 3500 + 3500 = 74. 060 + 3500 4 x = 77. 000 − 5000 x b.5 x = 57 57 x= 1. 000 − 3000 x 9000 = 24. 5. a. or the year 2025. Let x = the average salary for janitors. 000 − 28.6 x = 61 − 43 0.000 after 7 years. 43 + 1.PreCalculus 4E 3. 000 − 5000 x 10. 000 − 3000 x 9000 − 24. 000 − 5000 x 10. Inc. 760 The average salary for janitors is $19. Section P.390 and the average salary for registered nurses is $54. 10. 10.5 x = 100 − 43 1. 200. 9. 600. 000 = −3000 x −15. 000 = −3000 x −15. 000 x = 10. 000 − 3000 x b. 560 x = 19. 000 = 45. 000 = −5000 x −35. or 2016. 000(25) = 10.900.800 − 500(9) = 22. 420 The average salary for carpenters is $35. Let x = the number of years since 1983.300 and 26.6 x = 30 61% of American adults will approve 30 years after 1986. 000 x Let x = the number of years since 1986. 4. 000 = 9. 000 − 12.300 + 1000 x = 26. Let x = the number of years after 2005 13.6 x = 61 0.580 2 x − 7740 = 63. 740 x = 35.800 − 500 x 1500 x = 13. 060 x + 3 x − 3500 = 74. x + (2 x − 7740) = 99. 000 3x − 7740 + 7740 = 99. 7. 000 3 x − 7740 = 99. 000 − 300. 8. 000 = −5000 x −35. . 6. 000 − 12. 13.5 x = 100 1.300 The college’s enrollments will be 22. 390 3 x − 3500 = 54. −16. y = 24. 500 1500 x 13. 000 x = −400. 000 − 12. 000 x = 10. 000 + 7740 3x = 106.000.500 = 1500 1500 x=9 The two colleges will have the same enrollment about 9 years after 2005. 000 x= −5000 x=7 The car’s value will drop to $10. 200. Let 3x − 3500 = the average salary for registered nurses.

The dimensions are 40 feet by 120 feet.30 x = 30. 320 = 2 ( 3w ) + 2 ( w ) 320 = 6w + 2w 320 = 8w 40 = w If w = 40. 19. Inc.80 x = 44 The dictionary’s price before the reduction was $44. 12. Let w = the width of the field Let 2w + 6 = the length of the field 228 = 6w + 12 216 = 6w 36 = w If w = 36 . 2= x The width of the frame is 2 inches. Let 2w – 6 = the length of the pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 13. Let 3w = the length of the swimming pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 21.08 x = 162 x = 150 The nightly cost is $150. Let x = the width of the frame. 14.25c 12 = c The dealer’s cost is $12.08 x = 162 1. the dimensions are 36 feet by 78 feet. Thus.80 0. 0. Let x = the cost of the television set.25c 15 = 1. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. then 2 w + 6 = 2(36) + 6 = 78 . Let x = the cost of the dictionary x − 0.25c 584 = 1. 17. .80 x = 336 x = 420 The television set’s price is $420. Thus. Let w = the width of the swimming pool. 3w = 3(40) = 120.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11. 15.20.05 x = 252 x = 240 The nightly cost is $240.70 x = 30. Total length: 16 + 2x Total width: 12 + 2x P = 2(length) + 2(width) 72 = 2 (16 + 2 x ) + 2 (12 + 2 x ) Let w = the width of the field Let 2w = the length of the field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 72 = 32 + 4 x + 24 + 4 x 72 = 8 x + 56 16 = 8 x 300 = 2 ( 2w) + 2 ( w) 300 = 4 w + 2w 300 = 6w 50 = w If w = 50 . Let w = the width of the pool. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.20 = c The dealer’s cost is $467. 2 w − 6 = 2(23) − 6 = 46 − 6 = 40 The dimensions are 23 meters by 40 meters. 16.05 x = 252 1. Let c = the dealer’s cost 584 = c + 0. 84 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.25c 467. the dimensions are 50 yards by 100 yards. x − 0. 126 = 2 ( 2w − 6 ) + 2 ( w ) 126 = 4w − 12 + 2w 126 = 6 w − 12 138 = 6 w 23 = w Find the length. 20. then 2 w = 100 . Let c = the dealer’s cost 15 = c + 0.20 x = 336 18.

larger square ( x + 3) x=5 The solution set is {−20. 26. Let x = the length of the side of the original square Let x + 3 = the length of the side of the new. Let w = the width Let w +3 = the length Area = lw 27. x + 11 = 0 x −5 = 0 x = −11 x=5 The solution set is {−11. Disregard –20 because we can’t have a negative width measurement. Section P. 180 = w2 + 3w 2 Let x = the width of the path ( 20 + 2 x )(10 + 2 x ) = 600 200 + 40 x + 20 x + 4 x 2 = 600 54 = w2 + 3w 25. 2 = 36 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 36 x 2 + 4 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 4 ) = 0 54 = ( w + 3) w 24. 4 ( x + 20 ) = 0 x −5 = 0 Let w = the width Let w + 3 = the width Area = lw x + 20 = 0 x = −20 180 = ( w + 3) w 0 = w2 + 3w − 180 0 = ( w + 15 )( w − 12 ) 28. ( x + 11)( x − 5) = 0 x=− Apply the zero product principle. 23.PreCalculus 4E 22. This means that x. larger square Let x = the width of the path (12 + 2 x )(15 + 2 x ) = 378 180 + 24 x + 30 x + 4 x 2 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x + 180 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x − 198 = 0 2 ( 2 x 2 + 27 x − 99 ) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33)( x − 3) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33) = 0 = 64 2 x + 33 = 0 2 x = −33 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 64 x 2 + 6 x − 55 = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 33 2 The width of the path is 3 meters. . 4 x 2 + 60 x − 400 = 0 4 ( x 2 + 15 x − 100 ) = 0 4 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. Let x = the side of the original square. ( x + 2) x +8 = 0 x−4 = 0 x=4 x = −8 The length of the side of the original square. Let x + 2 = the side of the new. Disregard –11 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. The width is 6 feet and the length is 6 + 3 = 9 feet.8 Let w = the width of the path Let 40 + 2w = the width of the pool and path Let 60 + 2w = the length of the pool and path 2(40 + 2w) + 2(60 + 2w) = 248 80 + 4w + 120 + 4w = 248 200 + 8w = 248 8w = 48 w=6 The width of the path is 6 feet. Inc. w + 15 = 0 w − 12 = 0 w = 12 w = −15 The width is 12 yards and the length is 12 yards + 3 yards = 15 yards. is 5 inches. is 4 inches. 200 + 60 x + 4 x 2 = 600 4 x + 60 x + 200 = 600 0 = w2 + 3w − 54 2 0 = ( w + 9 )( w − 6 ) w+9 = 0 w−6 = 0 w = −9 w=6 Disregard –9 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. The width of the path is 5 meters. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5} . the length of the side of the original square. 85 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5} .

4 yards. a 2 + b2 = c2 4 x 2 + 44 x − 168 = 0 x 2 + 11x − 42 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 14) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 14 = 0 x=3 x = −14 –14 must be rejected.4 – 92.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 29.2 must be rejected. The building is 28. 86 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.24.09 yd 3x ≈ 87. 36. or about 21. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. (20 + 2 x)(30 + 2 x) − (20)(30) = 336 34.9 feet. A person could save 116. or about 24. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + 152 = 202 a 2 + 225 = 400 a 2 = 175 a = ± 175 a ≈ ±13. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + (3x) 2 = 922 a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + 9 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 102 = 302 10 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 100 = 900 x 2 = 846. The width of the path is 3 feet 31. or about 116. a = ± 800 a ≈ ±28.09 + 87.3 must be rejected.9 feet. Let x be the width.2 feet up the house. The width of the path is 3 feet 30.28 yd The distance along the length and width is about 29. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + b2 = c2 52 + x 2 = ( x + 1) 2 x 2 + 25 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 25 = 2 x + 1 24 = 2 x x = 12 x + 1 = 13 The wire is 13 feet long. x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 642 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 4096 5 x 2 = 4096 4096 x2 = 5 4096 x=± 5 x ≈ 28. 8 x 2 + 25 x − 84 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 28) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 28 = 0 x=3 x = −28 –28 must be rejected.4 x ≈ 29. 600 + 100 x + 4 x 2 − 600 = 336 152 + x 2 = ( x + 4) 2 4 x 2 + 100 x − 336 = 0 x 2 + 225 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 225 = 8 x + 16 209 = 8 x 1 x = 26 8 1 x + 4 = 30 8 1 The wire is 30 feet long.62 feet 2x ≈ 57.9 – 64. 32.4 yards.24 feet The distance along the length and width is about 28. or about 85.2 –13.28.3 feet tall.62 + 57. A person could save 85. 33.4 a 2 = 800 x = ± 846. Let x be the width. (10 + 2 x)(12 + 2 x) − (10)(12) = 168 120 + 44 x + 4 x 2 − 120 = 168 35. The ladder reaches 13.3 –28.

000 x 40. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 4) x x+4 ⎝ ⎠ 480. 000 x 2 − 1. Inc. 000 x = 20. 000 − 500. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 2) x x+2 ⎝ ⎠ 20. 000. 000 x + 1. 87 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 x 37. 000. 000 − 500. 000 x + 40. 000 − 500. 000 x = 480.8 The original amount of money per person. 000 − 32. 000 = x x+2 20. 000 ⎛ 480. The average velocity of the bus is 30 miles per hour. 920. 000 x( x + 2) = 20. 000. 000 ⎛ 20. 000 x 2 − 1. 000. 000 480.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 000( x + 2) − 500. 000. 000 − 32. 000. Let x be the car’s average velocity. 000 x 38. 000 20. 000 x 2 − 128. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 6) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = −10 x=6 –10 must be rejected. 000. . 39. 000 x( x + 4) = 480. 000. The new amount of money per person. 000 x 1. 000 ⎞ x( x + 4) ⎜ − 32. 000 − 32. 000. 20. 000 x 2 − 128. car's time traveled bus's time traveled 300 180 = x x − 20 300( x − 20) = 180 x 300 x − 6000 = 180 x 120 x = 6000 x = 50 x − 20 = 30 The average velocity of the car is 50 miles per hour. There were 6 people in the original group. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 80 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 8) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 8 = 0 x = −10 x=8 –10 must be rejected. There were 8 people in the original group. 000 ⎞ x( x + 2) ⎜ − 500. 480. 000( x + 4) − 32. 920. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 = x x+4 480. 000. reduction per winner 20. 000. 000. 480.

Let x = number of hours 63x = labor cost 63x + 532 = 1603 63x = 1071 x = 17 17 hours were required to repair the yacht. Let x = number of hours 35x = labor cost 35x + 63 = 448 35x = 385 x = 11 It took 11 hours. 5 5 7 + = x+9 x 6 5⎞ 7 ⎛ 5 6 x( x + 9) ⎜ + ⎟ = 6 x( x + 9) 6 ⎝ x+9 x⎠ 30 x + 30( x + 9) = 7 x( x + 9) 46.28 x 3000 + 100 x = 3360 + 28 x 72 x = 360 x=5 You must get 5 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. 41. Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 40. 49. The average velocity of the second engine is 40 miles per hour.30(140 + x) 35 + x = 42 + 0.30. Publishing as Prentice Hall.28(120 + x) 140 x + 700 + 200 x = 9 x 2 + 45 x 0 = 9 x 2 − 295 x − 700 30 + x = 33. . freight train's time traveled 240 160 = x x − 20 240( x − 20) = 160 x 240 x − 4800 = 160 x 80 x = 4800 x = 60 x − 20 = 40 The average velocity of the passenger train is 60 miles per hour. 88 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.30 140 + x 35 + x = 0. The average velocity of the freight train is 40 miles per hour. Answers may vary. Let x be the average velocity on the return trip. 140 200 + =9 x x+5 ⎛ 140 200 ⎞ ⎜ x + x+5⎟ =9 ⎝ ⎠ 140 200 ⎛ ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ + = 9 x( x + 5) x + 5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x 140( x + 5) + 200 x = 9 x( x + 5) 48. Let x be the passenger train’s average velocity. 42. – 52. Let g = the gross amount of the paycheck Yearly Salary = 2 (12 ) g + 750 30 x + 30 x + 270 = 7 x 2 + 63 x 33150 = 24 g + 750 32400 = 24 g 1350 = g The gross amount of each paycheck is $1350.30 x 350 + 10 x = 420 + 3x 7 x = 70 x = 10 You must get 10 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0. Let x = inches over 5 feet 100 + 5x = 135 5x = 35 x=7 A height of 5 feet 7 inches corresponds to 135 pounds.28 120 + x 30 + x = 0. 0 = ( x − 35)(9 x − 20) x − 35 = 0 or 9 x + 20 = 0 x = 35 20 x=− x + 5 = 40 9 20 − must be rejected. 0 = 7 x 2 + 3 x − 270 0 = ( x − 6)(7 x + 45) x − 6 = 0 or 7 x + 45 = 0 x=6 45 x=− 7 45 − must be rejected. The average velocity of the 9 first engine is 35 miles per hour. The average velocity on the 7 return trip is 6 miles per hour. 47. 30 + x = 0. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. passenger train's time traveled 43.6 + 0. 35 + x = 0.28. 45. 44. Let x be the average velocity of the first engine.

6x = price after first reduction 0. x = 36 The thief stole 36 plants. and the girl received $2000. 64.35 x = 780. Let x = the number of plants originally stolen After passing the first security guard. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 4 x−3 ⎟ 1 1 7 x −3−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 4 2 8 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 7 Thus. x − = 1 8 2 x − 28 = 8 58. Let x = original price x – 0. Let x be the length of one leg.4x = 0. Section P. Answers may vary.6x – 0. 3 − 2 x ≤ 11 3 − 2(−1) ≤ 11 3 + 2 ≤ 11 5 ≤ 11. makes sense 55. Explanations will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = woman’s age 3x = Coburn’s age 3x + 20 = 2(x + 20) 3x + 20 = 2x + 40 x + 20 = 40 x = 20 Coburn is 60 years old the woman is 20 years old.24 x = 72 0. does not make sense. Sample explanation: The correct equation is x − 0. 4. 54. 000 The mother received $4000.6 x − 0. Inc. 000 2 x = $4.6x) = price after second reduction 0. Explanations will vary.8 does not make sense.4(0. 62. 63. they cannot guaranty perfect precision.36 x = 72 x = 200 The original price was $200. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + ( x + 1) 2 = [12 − x − ( x + 1) ] 2 x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 1 = [12 − x − x − 1] 2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = (11 − 2 x )2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = 121 − 44 x + 4 x 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 46 x + 120 0 = x 2 − 23x + 60 0 = ( x − 3)( x − 20) x − 3 = 0 or x − 20 = 0 x=3 x = 20 x +1 = 4 12 − (3 + 4) = 5 20 must be rejected. 89 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let x = mother’s amount 2x = boy’s amount x = girl’s amount 2 x x + 2 x + = 14. and 5. true –1 is a solution. makes sense 60. as it is greater than the perimeter. the boy received $8000. 57. 000 2 7 x = 14. 59. Let x = correct answers 26 – x = incorrect answers 8 x − 5(26 − x) = 0 8 x − 130 + 5 x = 0 13x − 130 = 0 13x = 130 x = 10 10 problems were solved correctly. Sample explanation: Though mathematical models can often provide excellent estimates about future attitudes. 56. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 2 x−2 ⎟ 1 1 x−2−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 3 2 ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ After passing the third security guard. the thief has: 1 1 ⎛1 ⎞ x − ⎜ x + 2⎟ = x − x − 2 = x − 2 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ After passing the second security guard. . The lengths of the sides are 3.PreCalculus 4E 53. 61.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.3] and ( 2. Numbers in both [1. x+3 x−2 1 = + 4 3 4 ⎛ x+3⎞ ⎛ x−2 1⎞ 12 ⎜ ⎟ = 12 ⎜ 3 + 4 ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x + 3) = 4( x − 2) + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 8 + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 5 3x − 4 x = −5 − 9 − x = −14 x = 14 The solution set is {14}. 6 ) : To find the intersection. .3] . [−2.5 { } c. 3. −1) = x x < −1 a.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 65. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 66. [1. 5) = x −2 ≤ x < 5 { } b. [−∞. 90 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5] = x 1≤ x ≤ 3. 6 ) : Thus. 6 ) = ( 2. [1.3] ∩ ( 2. Inc.9 Check Point Exercises 1. 2. −2 x − 4 = x + 5 −2 x − x = 5 + 4 −3 x = 9 9 x= −3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. Section P.3] : Graph ( 2. a. { } Graph [1.

∞) . 6 ) . 6. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4.3] ∪ ( 2.4] . 4) .3] : b. 6 ) or both: Thus. [1. Numbers in either [1.PreCalculus 4E Section P. Graph ( 2. ∞ ) . 3.3] or ( 2.9 Graph [1. Inc. 6 ) : To find the union. 3x + 1 > 7 x − 15 −4 x > −16 −4 x −16 < −4 −4 x<4 The solution set is { x x < 4} or ( -∞. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 2 3 6 ⎛ x−4⎞ ⎛ x−2 5⎞ 6⎜ ⎟ ≥ 6⎜ 3 + 6 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x + 1 3x − 2 x ≥ 1 + 12 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} or [13. 1 ≤ 2 x + 3 < 11 −2 ≤ 2 x < 8 −1 ≤ x < 4 The solution set is { x −1 ≤ x < 4} or [−1. 6 ) = [1. 2 − 3x ≤ 5 −3 x ≤ 3 x ≥ −1 The solution set is { x x ≥ −1} or [−1. 5. 91 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .

Publishing as Prentice Hall.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 7. 18 < 6 − 3x 6 − 3x < −18 −3x < −24 −3x −24 > −3 −3 x >8 or 6 − 3x > 18 −3x > 12 −3x 12 < −3 −3 x < −4 The solution set is { x x < −4 or x > 8} or ( −∞. 5 ⎣ 5 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 9.25 x 720 < x Driving more than 720 miles in a week makes Basic the better deal.3⎥ . ∞ ) . x−2 <5 −5 < x − 2 < 5 −3 < x < 7 The solution set is { x −3 < x < 7} or (−3. 10. 8. 260 < 80 + 0. 92 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7) . −3 5 x − 2 + 20 ≥ −19 −3 5 x − 2 ≥ −39 −3 5 x − 2 −39 −3 −3 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 ≤ −13 ≤ 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 −11 ≤ 5 x ≤ 15 −11 5 x 15 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 11 − ≤ x≤3 5 ⎧ 11 ⎫ ⎡ 11 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 3⎬ or ⎢ − . −4 ) ∪ ( 8. . Let x = the number of miles driven in a week.25 x 180 < 0. Inc.

x < 5.9 Exercise Set P.9 1. x ≥ –3 10. –5 ≤ x < 2 4. –2 ≤ x ≤ 5 7. Numbers in both ( −3.5 14. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. x>3 9. 2] : To find the intersection. –3 ≤ x ≤ 1 6. x < 3 12. x ≥ –5 11. 2] = [ −1. 0 ) ∩ [ −1. x>2 8. x < 2 13. 93 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 15. . 2] : Thus. x ≤ 3. 0 ) . 0 ) : Graph [ −1. –4 ≤ x < 3 5. Inc. 0 ) and [ −1. 1<x≤6 2. –2 < x ≤ 4 3. Graph ( −3. ( −3.PreCalculus 4E Section P. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1] : To find the union. 0 ) ∩ [ −2.5 ) ∩ [1.9] : Thus. 0 ) or [ −2.9] : To find the intersection. Graph ( −3.9] = [ 2.5) and [1. 0 ) : Graph [ −2. 2] = ( −3. 2] or both: Thus. 20. 17. 2] . ( −3. 2] : To find the union. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.6 ) . 18. 0 ) .5 ) .1] : Thus. . 0 ) or [ −1.8] : Thus.1] . 6 ) : Graph [ 2.1] or both: Thus. Graph ( −∞.8] : To find the intersection.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Numbers in either ( −4. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 6 ) and [ 2. ( −4. Numbers in both ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ [ −2.1] : To find the intersection. Numbers in both ( −4. ( −4. 6 ) ∩ [ 2. 0 ) : Graph [ −1. ( −∞. 94 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1] = [ −2. Numbers in both ( −∞. 0 ) : Graph [ −2. Numbers in either ( −3. Inc. 0 ) and [ −2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. ( −∞. Graph ( −4. Graph ( −∞.5 ) : Graph [1. Graph ( −4.1] = ( −4.8] = [1. 19. 0 ) ∪ [ −1.

6 ) ∪ [ 2.8] = ( −∞.5 ) ∪ [1. ∞ ) : Graph ( 4. Graph [ 2. ∞ ) or ( 6.9] or both: Thus.9 Graph ( −∞. Numbers in either ( −∞. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. .9] = ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 21. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. ∞ ) : To find the intersection. [3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Numbers in either ( −∞. 6 ) : Graph [ 2. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 25. ∞ ) = ( 6.∞ ) = ( 4. ∞ ) : To find the union. ∞ ) ∪ ( 6. 22.8] or both: Thus. ( −∞. Numbers in either [3. 24. ∞ ) . Inc. ∞ ) and ( 6.9] . ∞ ) : Thus. Graph ( −∞. ∞ ) or both: Thus. Graph [3.∞ ) : To find the intersection. ∞ ) . Numbers in both [3. ∞ ) = [3.5 ) or [1. [3. ∞ ) ∩ ( 6.5 ) : Graph [1. 95 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Numbers in both [ 2. Graph [3.8] . Section P. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. 23.∞ ) : Thus.8] : To find the union. ∞ ) .9] : To find the union. ∞ ) and ( 4. ( −∞. [ 2. ∞ ) ∩ ( 4. 6 ) or [ 2.

. Numbers in either [ 2. 96 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or ⎢ . 27. ∞ ) or ( 4. 28. or ( −∞. 29. Inc. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 3). 2x + 5 < 17 2x < 12 x<6 The solution set is { x x < 6} or (–∞. or (–∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −4] .∞ ) = [ 2.∞ ) : To find the union. [ 2. 6).∞ ) or both: Thus. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . 8x – 2 ≥ 14 8x ≥ 16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x > 2} or [ 2. 3 ⎣3 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 30.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Graph [ 2. ∞ ) : 26. Graph ( 4. –9x ≥ 36 x ≤ –4 The solution set is { x x ≤ −4} . ∞ ⎟ . 32. 31. ∞ ) ∪ ( 4. ∞ ) . –5x ≤ 30 x ≥ –6 The solution set is { x x ≥ −6} or [ −6. 3x – 7 ≥ 13 3x ≥ 20 20 x≥ 3 ⎧ 20 ⎫ ⎡ 20 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > ⎬ . 5x + 11 < 26 5x < 15 x<3 The solution set is { x x < 3} .

8x + 3 > 3(2x + 1) + x + 5 8x + 3 > 6x + 3 + x + 5 8x + 3 > 7x + 8 8x – 7x > 8 – 3 x>5 The solution set is { x x > 5} or (5. − ⎥ . 18x + 45 ≤ 12x – 8 18x – 12x ≤ –8 – 45 6x ≤ –53 53 x≤− 6 ⎧ 53 ⎫ 53 ⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ or ⎜ −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 97 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ). 2x – 11 < – 3(x + 2) 2x – 11 < – 3x – 6 5x < 5 x<1 The solution set is { x x < 1} . or ⎜ −∞. or [0. 6 6⎦ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ 35. 4(x + 1) + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 4 + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 6 ≥ 3x + 6 4x – 3x ≥ 6 – 6 x≥0 The solution set is { x x > 0} . 37. − ⎥ . 8x – 11 ≤ 3x – 13 8x – 3x ≤ –13 + 11 5x ≤ –2 2 x≤− 5 ⎧ 2⎫ 2⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ . –4(x + 2) > 3x + 20 –4x – 8 > 3x + 20 –7x > 28 x < –4 The solution set is { x x < −4} or (–∞. –4). 38.PreCalculus 4E Section P. Inc. . or (–∞. 5⎭ 5⎦ ⎝ ⎩ 34. 36.9 33. ∞). 1).

40. ∞). . or [ −10. x 3 x − ≤ +1 4 2 2 4x 4 ⋅ 3 4 ⋅ x − ≤ + 4 ⋅1 4 2 2 x − 6 ≤ 2x + 4 − x ≤ 10 x ≥ −10 The solution set is { x x ≥ −10} . 41. − 98 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −6} .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 39. 5(3 – x) ≤ 3x – 1 15 – 5x ≤ 3x – 1 –8x ≤ –16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x ≥ 2} or [2. x >4 2 x >3 2 x < –6 The solution set is { x x. ∞). ∞ ) . − 6 ) . or [6. 1 − [ −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 1 – (x + 3) ≥ 4 – 2x 1 – x – 3 ≥ 4 – 2x –x – 2 ≥ 4 – 2x x≥6 The solution set is { x x ≥ 6} . or ( −∞. 3x 1 x +1 ≥ − 10 5 10 ⎛ 3x ⎞ ⎛1 x ⎞ 10 ⎜ + 1⎟ ≥ 10 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 3x + 10 ≥ 2 − x 4 x ≥ −8 x ≥ −2 The solution set is { x x ≥ −2} or 43. ∞ ) . 42.

∞). ∞ ⎟. The solution set is ⎨ x x ≥ ⎬ or ⎢ 6 ⎣ 6 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ x≥− 47. . −2 ) . 4x − 3 2x −1 +2≥ 6 12 2(4 x − 3) + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 8 x − 6 + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 6 x + 18 ≥ −1 6 x ≥ −19 19 6 ⎧ −19 ⎫ ⎡ -19 ⎞ . Inc. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 6 9 18 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 [3( x + 5) + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [ 3( x − 6) − 2(3x − 5) ] < 2(4 x + 3) 3 [3x + 15 + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [3x − 18 − 6 x + 10] < 8 x + 6 3 [11x + 22] + 5 [ −3x − 8] < 8 x + 6 33x + 66 − 15 x − 40 < 8 x + 6 18 x + 26 < 8 x + 6 10 x < −20 x < −2 The solution set is { x x < −2} or [ −∞.PreCalculus 4E 44. 46.9 4 3 7− x < 5 5 4 32 − x<− 5 5 x>8 The solution set is { x x > 8} or (8. or [13. 45. 99 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . Section P.

4 ⎣ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 49. 2⎭ ⎣2 2 ⎠ ⎩ 2 100 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5). 53. 6 < x + 3 < 8 6–3<x+3–3<8–3 3<x<5 The solution set is { x 3 < x < 5} . or (–5. . ∞ ⎟ . 52. –3 ≤ x – 2 < 1 –1 ≤ x < 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x < 3} . –6 < x – 4 ≤ 1 –2 < x ≤ 5 The solution set is {x | −2 < x ≤ 5} or (–2. 3 ≤ 4x – 3 < 19 6 ≤ 4x < 22 6 22 ≤x< 4 4 3 11 ≤x< 2 2 ⎧ 3 11⎫ ⎡ 3 11 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x ≤ x < ⎬ or ⎢ . 7 < x + 5 < 11 7 – 5 < x + 5 – 5 < 11 – 5 2<x<6 The solution set is { x 2 < x < 6} or (2. 54. or [–1. –2]. 3). 51. 6). or (3. –11 < 2x –1 ≤ –5 –10 < 2x ≤ –4 –5 < x ≤ –2 The solution set is { x − 5 < x ≤ −2} . 5]. 50.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 5 [ 3(2 − 3x) − 2(5 − x) ] − 6 [5( x − 2) − 2(4 x − 3) ] < 3x + 19 5 [ 6 − 9 x − 10 + 2 x ] − 6 [5 x − 10 − 8 x + 6] < 3x + 19 5 [ −7 x − 4] − 6 [ −3x − 4] < 3 x + 19 −35 x − 20 + 18 x + 24 < 3x + 19 −17 x + 4 < 3 x + 19 −20 x < 15 −20 x 15 > −20 −20 3 x>− 4 ⎧ 3⎫ ⎡ 3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > − ⎬ or ⎢ − .

60. 1]. |x – 1| ≤ 2 –2 ≤ x – 1 ≤ 2 –1 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x ≤ 3} . 3]. 22 ⎛ 22 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x − < x < 4 ⎬ or ⎜ − . 65.9 63. 3). |3(x – 1) + 2| ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3(x – 1) + 2 ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3x – 1 ≤ 20 –19 ≤ 3x ≤ 21 19 − ≤x≤7 3 ⎧ 19 ⎫ ⎡ 19 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 7 ⎬ or ⎢ − . or (–6. 61. ∞ ) . all x in ( −∞. 6). that is. 0). |2x – 6| < 8 –8 < 2x – 6 < 8 –2 < 2x < 14 –1 < x < 7 The solution set is { x − 1 < x < 7} . ⎠ The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} . that is. Inc. −3 ≤ Section P. 64. −5 ) or ( 5. −6 ≤ x − 4 < −3 2 1 −2 ≤ x < 1 2 −4 ≤ x < 2 The solution set is { x − 4 ≥ x < 2} or [ −4. 2 ) . or [–1. 67. 2≤ [–5. or 2 x − 5 < −1 3 2 x<4 3 3≤x<6 The solution set is { x 3 ≤ x < 6} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5). 62. |x| < 3 –3 < x < 3 The solution set is { x − 3 < x < 3} . 9). 66. 101 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 55. |x| > 3 x > 3 or x < –3 The solution set is { x x > 3 or x < −3} . 3 ⎝ 3 ⎩ ⎭ 68. . 1 56. 3 x + 5 < 17 –17 < 3x + 5 < 17 –22 < 3x < 12 ( −∞. 7). or (–1. 59. |x + 3| ≤ 4 –4 ≤ x + 3 ≤ 4 –7 ≤ x ≤ 1 The solution set is { x −7 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [–7. 3 ( x − 1) 4 −6 < <6 3 ( x − 1) <6 4 –24 < 3x – 3 < 24 –21 < 3x < 27 –7 < x < 9 The solution set is { x − 7 < x < 9} or (–7. 3 ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 57. |x| > 5 x > 5 or x < –5 ⎞ 4⎟ . 58. 7 ⎥ . or (–3. 3]. −3) or ( 3. 2y + 6 <2 3 2y + 6 −2 < <2 3 –6 < 2y + 6 < 6 –12 < 2y < 0 –6 < y < 0 The solution set is { x − 6 < y < 0} . |2(x – 1) + 4| ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2(x – 1) + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x – 2 + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x + 2 ≤ 8 –10 ≤ 2x ≤ 6 –5 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 5 ≤ x ≤ 3} . or [3. ∞ ) . |x| < 5 –5 < x < 5 The solution set is { x − 5 < x < 5} or (–5.

5 x > 15 3x − 3 ≥1 9 3x − 3 3x − 3 ≥ 1 or ≤ −1 9 9 3x − 3 ≥ 9 3 x − 3 ≤ −9 3x ≥ 12 3 x ≤ −6 x≥4 x ≤ −2 x≥3 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ 1 or x ≥ 3} . 75. that is. |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x≥3 74. 77.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 69. 102 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( −∞. that is. 76. 70. The solution set is { x x ≤ −5 or x ≥ 3} . ∞ ) . ∞ ) . −2] or [ 4. The solution set is ⎨ x x < 5 ⎩ ⎭ −11 ⎞ ⎛ that is. . ⎟ or ( 3. −1] or [3. 3|x – 1| + 2 ≥ 8 3|x – 1| ≥ 6 |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x − 1 ≤ −2 2x + 2 ≥2 4 2x + 2 2x + 2 ≥ 2 or ≤ −2 4 4 2x + 2 ≥ 8 2 x + 2 ≤ −8 2x ≥ 6 2 3− x > 5 3 2 2 3 − x > 5 or 3 − x < −5 3 3 2 2 − x>2 − x < −8 3 3 x < −3 x > 12 The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 12} . 3⎠ ⎝ ( −∞. all x in ⎜ −∞. 71. that is. The solution set is { x x ≤ −7 or x ≥ 1} that is. |x + 3| ≥ 4 x + 3 ≥ 4 or x ≥1 x + 3 ≤ −4 x ≤ −7 The solution set is { x x ≤ −2 or x ≥ 4} . ∞ ) 5 ⎠ ⎝ 73. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( −∞. that is. ∞ ) . ⎟ or ( 5. 2 x ≤ −10 x≥3 x ≤ −5 3 3− x > 9 4 3 3 3 − x > 9 or 3 − x < −9 4 4 3 3 − x>6 − x < −12 4 4 x < −8 x > 16 {x x < −8 or x > 16} . ∞ ) . x − 1 ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 3} . ( −∞. ( −∞. that is all x in ( −∞. Inc. or ( −∞. −5] or [3. ∞ ) . −8 ) or (16. 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. −7 ) or (1. |3x – 8| > 7 3x − 8 > 7 or 3x − 8 < −7 3x > 15 3x < 1 1 x>5 x< 3 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 5⎬ . − 3) or (12. −1] or [3. ∞ ) . |5x – 2| > 13 5 x − 2 > 13 or 5 x − 2 < −13 5 x < −11 x>3 x<− 11 5 ⎧ −11 ⎫ or x > 3⎬ . ∞ ) . that is. ∞ ) . 72.

2x +1 ≤ − − x > −2 or x<2 83. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −2 5 − x < −6 5 2 x + 1 ≥ 12 2x +1 ≥ −2 5 − x −6 −2 −2 5− x > 3 12 5 12 5 7 2x ≥ 5 7 x≥ 10 12 5 17 or 2x ≤ − 5 17 x≤− 10 ⎧ 17 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − or x ≥ ⎬ . −4 −2 −2 x−4 ≤ 2 80. Section P. Inc. 81.PreCalculus 4E 78. 2⎭ 5 > 4 − x is equivalent to 4 − x < 5 . −5 < 4 − x < 5 −9 < − x < 1 −9 − x 1 > > −1 −1 −1 9 > x > −1 −1 < x < 9 The solution set is { x −1 < x < 9} . 10 10 ⎭ ⎩ 2x + 1 ≥ 79. −4 1 − x < −16 −4 1 − x −16 > −4 −4 1− x > 4 1− x > 4 1 − x < −4 3 or −x > − x < −5 x < −3 x>5 86. . −2 < 11 − x < 2 −13 < − x < −9 −13 − x −9 > > −1 −1 −1 13 > x > 9 9 < x < 13 The solution set is { x 9 < x < 13}. 2 x ≥ 4 or x≥2 ≤ x >8 2 x − 1 ≤ −3 2 x ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 2} . 103 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. > 5− x > 3 −2 x − 4 ≥ −4 −2 x − 4 −2 5 − x < −6 1⎫ ⎬. −3 x + 7 ≥ −27 −27 −3 −3 x+7 ≤9 ≤ −9 ≤ x + 7 ≤ 9 −16 ≤ x ≤ 2 85. The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 5}. − x < −8 3 ≤ 2x −1 2x −1 ≥ 3 −2 ≤ x − 4 ≤ 2 −3 x + 7 5 − x < −3 The solution set is { x x < 2 or x > 8} . 84. 9 ≤ 4x + 7 4 x + 7 ≥ 9 or 4 x + 7 ≤ −9 4x ≥ 2 4 x ≤ −16 2 x ≤ −4 x≥ 4 1 x≥ 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ −4 or x ≥ ⎩ 2≤ x≤6 The solution set is { x 2 ≤ x ≤ 6} . The solution set is { x −16 ≤ x ≤ 2} . 2 > 11 − x is equivalent to 11 − x < 2 .9 5 2x +1 − 3 ≥ 9 82.

14 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 14 ⎠ y≤0 2 x − 11 + 3( x + 2) ≤ 0 2 x − 11 + 3x + 6 ≤ 0 5x − 5 ≤ 0 11 7 + 3 3 5x ≤ 5 x ≤1 The solution set is ( −∞. ∞ ) . 94. 90. − ⎟ or ⎜ . 1 < 2 − 3x is equivalent to 2 − 3x > 1 . ∞ ). 3 ⎩ ⎭ 88. ∞ ⎟ .8] . 4+ 3− 11 4 > − is true for all x. 3 3 the solution set is { x x is any real number} or (–∞. 75 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 87 ⎞ ⎜ −∞.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 87. −6] or [ 24. ∞ ) . 2−x > 4 or 2 − x < −4 −x > 2 − x < −6 −x 2 < −1 −1 x < −2 − x −6 > −1 −1 x>6 ( −∞. 2 − 3 x < −1 −3 x < −3 x ≥5 3 x x 3 − ≥ 5 or 3 − ≤ −5 3 3 x x − ≥2 − ≤ −8 3 3 x ≤ −6 x ≥ 24 −3 x −3 > −3 −3 x >1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −6 or x ≥ 24} . 92. . 1 < x − x ≥9 3 3− ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 1⎬ . 93. 4 < 2 − x is equivalent to 2 − x > 4 . 6 3 + 7 7 81 6 < −2 x + 7 7 6 81 6 81 −2 x + > or −2 x + < − 7 7 7 7 75 87 −2 x > −2 x < − 7 7 75 87 x<− x> 14 14 ⎧ 75 87 ⎫ or x > ⎬ . 4 11 < x− 3 3 Since x − x −1 ≤ 1 2 x ≤2 2 x −2 ≤ 2 − ≤ 2 2 x −4 ≤ − ≤ 0 2 8≥ x≥0 89. Inc. that is. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 104 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. that is. y≥4 1 − ( x + 3) + 2 x ≥ 4 1 − x − 3 + 2x ≥ 4 x−2≥ 4 x≥6 The solution set is [ 6. 2 − 3x > 1 −3 x > −1 −3x −1 or < −3 −3 1 x< 3 91. The solution set is ⎨ x x < − 14 14 ⎭ ⎩ The solution set is { x 0 ≤ x ≤ 8} or [ 0.1] . 12 < −2 x + − 2− 2− The solution set is { x x < −2 or x > 6} .

2⎭ 9⎦ ⎩ ⎣ x + 2 ≤ −3 2 x + 4 ≤ −6 x≥2 99. 97. 101. −2. − ⎥ ∪ [ 3. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . Let x be the number.5] The solution set is ( −∞.1x + 25. fewer than 38. 109. | 4 − 3 x |≥ 5 or | 3x − 4 |≥ 5 3x − 4 ≤ −5 3 x ≤ −1 1 x≤− 3 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x | x ≤ − or x ≥ 3⎬ or 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1 ⎛ ⎤ ⎜ −∞.40 x − 4 ≤ 40 32 ≤ 0.5 x < 25 or x > 10 1994 + 10 = 2004 In years after 2004. 63% of voters will use electronic systems after 2006. 3. Let x be the number.2 x > 12 Since x is the number of years after 1994.PreCalculus 4E Section P.1 −2. commitment > passion or passion < commitment 105.40 x − 24 ≤ 40 28 ≤ 0. After approximately 5 12 years 107.8 > 63 3.1 < 38. inclusive. 105 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .1% of U. commitment ≥ intimacy or intimacy ≤ commitment − 5 x + 3 ≥ −2 − ( − 5 x + 3 ) ≤ − ( −2 ) 103. 96. [ 0. − ⎥ . 5⎦ ⎣ 104. −10] ∪ [ 2.S.5 x + 63. 9. after 3 years 106.40 ( x − 60 ) ≤ 40 28 ≤ 20 + 0. passion<commitment or commitment > passion 5x + 3 ≤ 2 −2 ≤ 5 x + 3 ≤ 2 −5 ≤ 5 x ≤ −1 −5 5 x −1 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 1 −1 ≤ x ≤ − 5 1⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −1. passion ≤ intimacy or intimacy ≥ passion y≥6 8 − 5x + 3 ≥ 6 102. Inc. 28 ≤ 20 + 0. x ≤ −10 100. 4 ) 108. voters will use punch cards or lever machines.9 y≤4 95. 7− 98. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we calculate 1994+12=2006.40 x ≤ 44 80 ≤ x ≤ 110 Between 80 and 110 ten minutes. | 5 − 4 x |≤ 13 or | 4 x − 5 |≤ 13 x +2 ≤ 4 2 −13 ≤ 4 x − 5 ≤ 13 −8 ≤ 4 x ≤ 18 9 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 x − + 2 ≤ −3 2 x +2 ≥3 2 x +2≥3 or 2 x+4≥ 6 9⎫ 2⎤ ⎧ ⎡ The solution set is ⎨ x | −2 ≤ x ≤ ⎬ or ⎢ −2. 3⎦ ⎝ 3x − 4 ≥ 5 3x ≥ 9 x≥3 ( 0.1x > 37. − ⎥ .

645 5 h − 50 h − 50 ≥ 1. 119. Let x = the grade on the final exam.6 x > 10.225 h ≤ 41.95°F] .5 x 3000 < 2.6 x 10. 117.05x 32000 < x A home assessment of greater than $32.05 x 0. 9 ( 3) ≤ F − 32 ≤ 9 ( 7 ) 27 ≤ F − 32 ≤ 63 59 ≤ F ≤ 95 The range for Fahrenheit temperatures is 59°F to 95°F . 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 90 6 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 540 2 x + 350 ≥ 540 2 x ≥ 190 x ≥ 95 You must receive at least a 95% to earn an A. Let x = the number of hours the mechanic works on the car. 226 ≤ 175 + 34 x ≤ 294 51 ≤ 34 x ≤ 119 1.04 x 300 < x Plan A is a better deal when driving more than 300 miles a month.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 110.40 x 1.775 The number of outcomes would be 59 or more. 111. inclusive or [59°F. 245 + 95 x ≤ 3000 95 x ≤ 2755 x ≤ 29 29 bags or less can be lifted safely. 121.5 ≤ x ≤ 3.225 h ≥ 58. 106 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 1.12 x 12 < 0. 2 x > 10. h − 50 ≥ 1. Inc.5 and at most 3. 120. 113. 115.000 would make the first bill a better deal.5 hours.5 The man will be working on the job at least 1.50x 30 < 0. 15 + 0.645 5 5 h − 50 ≥ 8.5 x 5 ( F − 32 ) ≤ 35 9 9 9 5 9 (15 ) ≤ ⎛⎜ ( F − 32 ) ⎞⎟ ≤ ( 35 ) 5 5⎝9 ⎠ 5 15 ≤ 1200 < x More then 1200 packets of stationary need to be sold each week to make a profit. 118. a.03x <6 x < 200 The credit union is a better deal when writing less than 200 checks. 50 + 0.20x < 20 + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 116. b. 265 + 65 x ≤ 2800 65 x ≤ 2535 x ≤ 39 39 bags or fewer can be lifted safely.645 or ≤ −1. 86 + 88 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 240 x < 66 This will happen if you get a grade less than 66. 000 + 0. 114. 122. 3000 + 3x < 5. 2 + 0. 112.03x < 200 + 0.08 x < 3 + .08x 1600 < 0. or 41 or less. 1800 + 0. 86 + 88 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 270 x ≥ 96 You must get at least a 96.6 x > 6250 More than 6250 tapes need to be sold a week to make a profit.08 x < 8 + 0. 000 > 1. 000 1.3x 100< x Basic Rental is a better deal when driving more than 100 miles per day. .225 h − 50 ≤ −8.

x y = 4− x −3 4 − (−3) = 7 −2 4 − (−2) = 6 The cost with the 6-month pass is C6 = 30. When both sides are multiplied by (y – x) the inequality must be reversed. Changes to make the statement true will vary.50 −2 4 − (−2)2 = 0 −1 4 − (−1)2 = 3 0 4 − (0)2 = 4 1 4 − (1)2 = 3 124. 2 ( 7. x −4 −3 y = x +1 −4 + 1 = 3 −3 + 1 = 2 −2 −1 0 1 2 −2 + 1 = 1 −1 + 1 = 0 0 +1 = 1 1+1 = 2 2 +1 = 3 139. we multiply the cost with the 3month pass by 2. false.50 + 0. true 140. makes sense 145. true 137.50 x ) < 30 15 + x < 30 x < 15 We also must consider the cost without purchasing a pass.3) ∪ ( −∞.9 143. | x − 4 |≥ 3 142.50 + 0. y = 4 − x 123.50 x > 7. . We need this cost to be less than the cost with a 3-month pass.50 x 144. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 4 − x 2 x y = 4 − x2 −3 4 − (−3)2 = −5 2. makes sense 136. 2 4 − (2)2 = 0 132. A sample change is: ( −∞. makes sense 3 4 − (3) 2 = −5 x>3 The 3-month pass is the best deal when making more than 3 but less than 15 crossings per 3month period.50 + 0. Inc. y – x represents a negative number. −2 ) = ( −∞. a. makes sense 135. 107 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 141. Answers may vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary.50 x. Because x > y. – 131. Answers may vary. false. A sample change is: 3x > 6 is equivalent to x > 2. 3) 138. | x − 4 |< 3 b.PreCalculus 4E Section P. −1 4 − (−1) = 5 0 4 − (0) = 4 1 4 − (1) = 3 2 4 − (2) = 2 3 4 − (3) = 1 Because we need to buy two 3-month passes per 6-month pass. y = x + 1 134. 133. Let x = the number of times the bridge is crossed per three month period The cost with the 3-month pass is C3 = 7. 3x > 7.

b. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. associative property of multiplication. e} = {a. 17. 2.015(3600) + 60 + 10 = 54 + 60 + 10 = 124 4. 0. g} ∩ {a. d . −17. d . 0. = 36 − 5(4) 3.55%. 0. 11. 0. 5(2 x − 3) + 7 x = 10 x − 15 + 7 x = 17 x − 15 20. b. c} ∪ {a. 0. c.75. b. a. c} ∩ {a. 1 (5 x) + [ (3 y ) + (−3 y ) ] − (− x) = x + [ 0] + x = 2 x 5 {a. b. e} 6. d . commutative property of multiplication. c. b.75. 3( 5 + 3) = 15 + 3 . 81 d. c} ∪ {a. 2. f . π . b. c} C = {a. b. 3 + 6( x − 2) = 3 + 6(4 − 2) 3 10. − = 10 x 23. 3(4 y − 5) − (7 y + 2) = 12 y − 15 − 7 y − 2 = 5 y − 17 A = {a. 81 13 24. 81 b. commutative property of addition. f .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Chapter P Review Exercises 1. 2 −1 = 2 −1 3 A = {a. commutative property of addition. 81 c. c} C = {a. A = {a. f . (3 ⋅ 7) + (4 ⋅ 7) = (4 ⋅ 7) + (3 ⋅ 7) . g} 21. 18. = 3 + 6(2)3 = 3 + 6(8) = 3 + 48 = 51 2.6(21) − 15 = 38. 3 − 17 = 17 − 3 since 12. 8 − 2[3 − (5 x − 1)] = 8 − 2[3 − 5 x + 1] = 8 − 2[4 − 5 x ] = 36 − 20 = 16 S = 0. 17 is greater than 3. e} = {a. c. b.015(60)2 + (60) + 10 2 = 0. . g} {a. (−3)3 (−2)2 = (−27) ⋅ (4) = −108 9 . g} = {a. distributive property of multiplication over addition.05 x 2 + 3. This overestimates the percent displayed by the bar graph by 3.05(21)2 + 3. 13. d . d . c. c. 3( 5 + 3) = ( 5 + 3) 3 . d . c} B = {a. c} 5. − e. 9. 3 + 17 = 17 + 3. π f. 81 13 −103 = 103 108 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. e} {a.55% of 21 year olds have been tested. c} B = {a. 0. 16. 15. g} 22. 4 − (−17) = 4 + 17 = 21 = 21 x 2 − 5( x − y ) = 62 − 5(6 − 2) 14. 9 . 7. A = {a.015 x + x + 10 S = 0. (6 ⋅ 9) ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅ (6 ⋅ 9) . c} = {a} = 8 − 8 + 10 x 8. e} {a. f . d . (6 ⋅ 3) ⋅ 9 = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 9) .55 38. commutative property of multiplication. b. −17. −17. f . d . d . d . P = −0. Inc.6 x − 15 P = −0. 19. c.

7x y ⎛ 7 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ( x5 −15 )( y 6 − ( −2) ) 28 x15 y −2 ⎝ 28 ⎠ 1 = x −10 y 8 4 y8 = 10 4x 5 = 6 2x = 96 x3 2x = 48 x 2 = 16 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4x 3 3. Inc. 3 3 = (−2)3 x 4⋅3 y 3⋅3 = −8 x12 y 9 29. 257 × 109 = 2.3) × (103 × 102 ) a.57 × 1011 b.25 × 10 −3 109 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 × 102 ) = (3 ×1. 7 5 + 13 5 = (7 + 13) 5 = 20 5 47.45 × 10 = 0.469 × 103 = 1469 8 1. 175 × 106 = 1. 5−3 ⋅ 5 = 5−351 = 5−3+1 27.75 × 10 10 The average tax return cost $1469. Chapter P Review Exercises 1 1 + 24 4 1 1 = + 16 4 1 4 = + 16 16 5 = 16 36. (−2 x y ) = (−2) ( x ) ( y ) 3 3 3 4 3 38.57 × 1011 2. 000 = 3. 39. 40. 33 1 1 = 33− 6 = 3−3 = 3 = 36 3 27 28. 0.9 × 103 ⎛ 6. 000 37. .75 × 108 2.59 × 106 = 16 2 35. 4 43. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 400 46. (−5 x y )(−2 x 3 2 −11 = (−5)(−2) x x 3 6. 10 x ⋅ 2 x = 20 x 2 −2 y ) −11 y 2 y −2 = 10 ⋅ x3−11 y 2 − 2 = 10 x −8 y 0 = 4x2 ⋅ 5 10 = 8 x 30. 32.0000745 = 10 2 + 6 2 34.3 × 10−2 = 0.590. 4 (3 × 103 )(1. 300 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 10 3 41.74 × 104 = 37. 3. 7.PreCalculus 4E 25. = 2x 5 (2 x3 ) −4 = (2)−4 ( x 3 ) −4 = 2−4 x −12 1 2 x12 1 = 16 x12 = 31.75 × 102 ⋅ 106 = 1. 2 50 + 3 8 = 2 25 ⋅ 2 + 3 4 ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅5 2 + 3⋅ 2 2 −5 33.57 1011 ⋅ 8 ≈ 1. 121 121 11 = = 4 2 4 96 x 3 45.00725 = 7.023 1 1 = 5−2 = 2 = 5 25 26. r3 = r 2 ⋅ r = r r 44. 12 x 2 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 2 x 3 42.9 × 105 = 390. 2−4 + 4−1 = = 3.57 × 102 ⋅ 109 = 2.75 1.9 ⎞ 3− 5 =⎜ ⎟ × 10 3 ×105 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 2.

3 y5 = 59. 3 81 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 = = 251/ 2 25 5 1 1 1 = = 271/ 3 3 27 3 65. 2 30 5 = ⋅ = =6 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 3 = 5 6+ 3 = 4 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 53 2 = 83 2 + 53 2 ⋅ = 13 3 2 6− 3 61. y . 4 (−5)4 = 4 625 = 4 54 = 5 57. 4 8 ⋅ 4 10 = 4 80 = 4 16 ⋅ 5 = 4 16 ⋅ 4 5 = 2 4 5 60. 5 3 1 1 1 1 = 3 = 4 = 4/3 4 27 3 81 ( 27) = (5 x 2 )2 3 = 25 x 4 71. 642 / 3 = ( 3 64) 2 = 42 = 16 67. 32 x 5 = 14 3 4 6+ 3 6− 3 52. 30 30 50. 4 3 16 + 5 3 2 = 4 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 5 3 2 = 4⋅6 2 − 2⋅4 3 = 24 2 − 8 3 49. 25−1/ 2 = 64. = 14 7− 5 ⋅ 7+ 5 125 = 5 4 −125 is not a real number. 161/ 2 = 16 = 4 = 5(6 − 3) 33 63.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 56. 53. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 27 −4 / 3 = 68. y3 y 2 = y 3 y 2 6 ⋅ = 3 3 3 = 5 51. 4 72 − 2 48 = 4 36 ⋅ 2 − 2 16 ⋅ 3 58. (5 x 2 / 3 )(4 x1/ 4 ) = 5 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3+1/ 4 = 20 x11/12 69. 15 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 15 ⎞ 3 / 4 −1/ 2 =⎜ ⎟x = 3x1/ 4 5 x1/ 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 70. 27 −1/ 3 = 66. (125 ⋅ x 6 ) 2 / 3 = ( 3 125 x 6 ) 2 −32 = −2 55. 6 y 3 = ( y 3 )1/ 6 = y 3⋅1/ 6 = y1/ 2 = 110 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 4 32 x 5 4 4 = 2x = x 4 2 16 x 62. Inc. 1251/ 3 = 3 125 = 5 7+ 5 14( 7 + 5) = 7−5 14( 7 + 5) = 2 = 7( 7 + 5) 5 16 x = 5(6 − 3) 36 − 3 7− 5 54.

(3 x 2 + 2 y ) 2 = (3 x 2 )2 + 2(3 x 2 )(2 y ) + (2 y ) 2 = 9 x 4 + 12 x 2 y + 4 y 2 84. (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) − (5 x 4 − 3x3 + 2 x 2 − 6) = (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−5 x 4 + 3 x3 − 2 x 2 + 6) = (13x 4 − 5 x 4 ) + (−8 x3 + 3x3 ) + (2 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + 6 = 8x 4 − 5x3 + 6 The degree is 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (3 x − 4) 2 = (3 x) 2 − 2(3 x) ⋅ 4 + (−4) 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 79. (3 x − 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(1) + (−5)(2 x) + (−5)(1) = 6 x 2 + 3 x − 10 x − 5 = 6 x2 − 7 x − 5 76. (3 x − 5 y ) 2 = (3x) 2 − 2(3x)(5 y ) + (−5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 − 30 xy + 25 y 2 83. Chapter P Review Exercises (−6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 9 x + 3) + (14 x3 + 3x 2 − 11x − 7) = (−6 x3 + 14 x3 ) + (7 x 2 + 3x 2 ) + (−9 x − 11x) + (3 − 7) = 8 x 3 + 10 x 2 − 20 x − 4 The degree is 3. (5 x − 2)3 = (5 x)3 − 3(5 x )2 (2) + 3(5 x)(2) 2 − 23 = 125 x 3 − 150 x 2 + 60 x − 8 81. (2 x + 5) 2 = (2 x)2 + 2(2 x) ⋅ 5 + 52 = 4 x 2 + 20 x + 25 78. (4 x + 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x 2 ) − 52 = 16 x 2 − 25 77.PreCalculus 4E 72. ( x + 7 y )(3x − 5 y ) = x(3x ) + ( x)(−5 y ) + (7 y )(3 x) + (7 y )(−5 y ) = 3 x 2 − 5 xy + 21xy − 35 y 2 = 3 x 2 + 16 xy − 35 y 2 82. 74. . (3 x − 2)(4 x 2 + 3x − 5) = (3 x)(4 x 2 ) + (3x)(3x) + (3x)(−5) + (−2)(4 x 2 ) + (−2)(3x) + (−2)(−5) = 12 x3 + 9 x 2 − 15 x − 8 x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 12 x3 + x 2 − 21x + 10 75. (a − b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) = a(a 2 ) + a (ab) + a(b 2 ) + (−b)(a 2 ) +(−b)(ab) + (−b)(b 2 ) = a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 − a 2 b − ab 2 − b3 = a 3 − b3 111 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (2 x + 1)3 = (2 x)3 + 3(2 x) 2 (1) + 3(2 x)(1) 2 + 13 = 8 x3 + 12 x 2 + 6 x + 1 80. Inc. (7 x + 4 y )(7 x − 4 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (4 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 16 y 2 85. 73.

= ( x + 9 − y )( x + 9 + y ) x 2 − 11x + 28 = ( x − 4)( x − 7) 105. 16 x 90. = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 98. 93. x ≠ –2 x+2 x+2 x 2 + 3x − 18 ( x + 6)( x − 3) x − 3 . 3x 4 − 9 x 3 − 30 x 2 = 3 x 2 ( x 2 − 3x − 10) 95. = = ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x 2 − 36 x ≠ –6. 3x 4 − 12 x 2 = 3x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 3x 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) 112 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + 18 x + 81 − y 2 = ( x 2 + 18 x + 81) − y 2 88. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 x2 + 2 x x( x + 2) x . x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 109. 16 x − 40 x + 25 = (4 x − 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x − 5)2 97. 27 x 3 − 125 = (3 x)3 − 53 = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 1) 2 = (3 x − 5)[(3 x)2 + (3x)(5) + 52 ] = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 4 x + 1) = (3 x − 5)(9 x 2 + 15 x + 25) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 4 x − 1 87. 15 x − x − 2 = (3x + 1)(5 x − 2) 2 91. x 5 − x = x( x 4 − 1) = x( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2 y + 4) = ( x + 2 y + 4 )( x + 2 y + 4 ) = x ( x + 2 y + 4) + 2 y ( x + 2 y + 4) + 4 ( x + 2 y + 4) 2 = x( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 + 1) 103. = 3 x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) 94. 15 x + 3 x = 3x ⋅ 5 x + 3x ⋅1 3 2 2 2 = ( x + 9) − y2 2 = 3x (5 x + 1) 2 89. . x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) x3 + 2 x 2 x 2 ( x + 2) = = x 2 . 108. 102.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 86. 4 + 32 x 1 4 = 16 x −3 4 = 1 − ( −3 ) ⎛ 4 4 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ −3 (1 + 2 x ) (1 + 2 x ) = 16 x 16 x 4 3 4 1 106. 99. −3 3 ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 − ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x2 + 3) 2 2 1 = ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎡⎣1 − ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) ⎤⎦ 20 x 7 − 36 x3 = 4 x 3 (5 x 4 − 9) 1 = ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎣⎡1 − ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) ⎦⎤ x 3 − 3x 2 − 9 x + 27 = x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) 1 = ( x 2 − 9)( x − 3) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x 2 + 3) 2 (− x 4 + x 2 + 13) = ( x + 3)( x − 3)( x − 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 2 107. x 2 + 16 is prime. = = x + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2)2 x + 2 x ≠ –2 2 100. 12 x − 1 2 + 6x − 3 2 = 6x − 3 2 ( 2 x + 1) = 6(2 x + 1) 96. 64 − x 2 = 82 − x 2 = (8 − x)(8 + x) 92. 3 x2 2 y 3 − 8 = y 3 − 23 = ( y − 2)( y 2 + 2 y + 4) 110. [5 y − (2 x + 1)][5 y + (2 x + 1)] 101. Inc. x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = x 2 + 2 xy + 4 x + 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 y + 4 x + 8 y + 16 = ( x 2 − 2)( x + 5) = x 2 + 4 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 x + 16 y + 16 104.

( x − 2)2 ( x + 2) x ≠ 2.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 2 2 x+3 111. . − 3 = 2 x2 − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) x ≠ 3. –2 x2 − 2x + x2 + 2 x − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) = 114. 2 x − 7 − x − 10 = 2 x − 7 − ( x − 10) x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 1 = . x−3 x ≠ 3. 6 x + 2 3x 2 + x ÷ x2 − 1 x −1 x(3x + 1) 2(3 x + 1) = ÷ x −1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x −1 2(3 x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 1)( x + 1) x(3 x + 1) 2 = . 2 x x x+2 3x 3x x − 2 + = ⋅ + ⋅ x+2 x−2 x+2 x−2 x−2 x+2 3x2 − 6 x + x 2 + 2 x = ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x2 − 4 x ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x( x − 1) = . x( x + 1) 1 x ≠ 0. –2 112. 2 117. x − 2 x − 2 6 x = ⋅ 1 − x 1 − x 6x 3 6 3 6 6 − 3x = 2 x − x2 −3( x − 2) = − x( x − 2) 3 = . − 3. –3. x x −1 + x2 − 9 x2 − 5x + 6 x x −1 = + ( x − 3)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 3) x x−2 x −1 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x − 2 ( x − 2)( x − 3) x + 3 x ( x − 2) + ( x − 1)( x + 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) 113 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –3 115. (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3 x + 2) 1 2 x ≠ . x−4 x ≠ –3. 113. x x ≠ 0. x + 6 x + 9 ⋅ x + 3 = ( x + 3) ⋅ 2 x −4 x − 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x − 2 = 116. ( x + 3)3 . ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x ≠ 2. x 2 − 5 x − 24 x 2 − 10 x + 16 ÷ 2 x 2 − x − 12 x + x−6 ( x − 8)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 8) = ÷ ( x − 4)( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 2) x −8 x +3 = ⋅ x − 4 x −8 x+3 = . 2. 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 x+3 4x −1 − 2 x2 + 5x − 3 6 x 2 + x − 2 x+3 4x −1 = − (2 x − 1)( x + 3) (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) 4x −1 3x + 2 = ⋅ (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 3x + 2 x+3 x+3 − ⋅ (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) x + 3 = 12 x 2 + 8 x − 3x − 2 − x 2 − 6 x − 9 (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3x + 2) 11x 2 − x − 11 . − 1. − 2 3 = 1 1 1 1 118. 1. Inc.

3 − x + 3 3 − x + 3 x + 3 = ⋅ 3+ 1 3+ 1 x +3 x+3 x+3 3( x + 3) − 1 = 3( x + 3) + 1 3x + 9 − 1 = 3x + 9 + 1 3x + 8 = . 124. 1 – 2(6 – x) = 3x + 2 1 – 12 + 2x = 3x + 2 –11 – x = 2 –x = 13 x = –13 The solution set is {–13}. 4. 2x – 4(5x + 1) = 3x + 17 2x – 20x – 4 = 3x + 17 –18x – 4 = 3x + 17 –21x = 21 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. This is a conditional equation. 3 + x 3 + x x 2 = ⋅ 2 1 − 162 1 − 162 x x x 2 3x + 12 x = 2 x − 16 3x( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 4) 3x . x ≠ –2.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 122. This is a conditional equation. (25 − x 2 )3 25 (25 − x 2 )3 ⋅ 25 − x 2 25 − x 2 25 25 − x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 25 − x 2 (5 − x)2 (5 + x)2 114 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 = = = = = 126. − 3 25 − x 2 + 121 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. = x−4 x ≠ 0. 2( x − 4) + 3( x + 5) = 2 x − 2 2 x − 8 + 3x + 15 = 2 x − 2 5x + 7 = 2 x − 2 3x = −9 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. 125. x ≠ 1. This is a conditional equation. Inc. x ≠ 4 2 30 4 + = x + 2 x − 4 (x + 2)(x − 4) 4(x − 4) + 2(x + 2) = 30 25 − x 2 + x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 25 4x − 16 + 2x + 4 = 30 6x −12 = 30 6x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. 12 12 119. . –4 123. 3 x + 10 10 x ≠ −3. 1 1 120. x ≠ –1 1 1 2 − = 2 x − 1 x + 1 x −1 1 1 2 − = x − 1 x + 1 (x + 1)(x − 1) x + 1 − (x −1) = 2 x2 25 − x 2 x + 1− x + 1 = 2 25 − x 2 ⎛ 25 − x 2 + x ⎞ 25 − 2 x 2 ⎜ ⎟ 25 − x 2 ⎠ =⎝ (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 2 =2 The solution set is all real numbers except 1 and –1.

( x − 3) 2 = ± 24 x − 3 = ±2 6 128. x 2 − 9 = 0 127. ⎬ . 6 6 10 x = . The solution set is {4} . 8 − 2x − x = 0 134. 7 ± (−7)2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 7 ± 49 − 12 6 7 ± 37 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 7 + 37 7 − 37 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . −4 2 x + 1 + 12 = 0 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. 3⎭ ⎩ 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 130. Inc. 3 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 x= 0 = ( x + 2)( x − 4) or x − 4 = 0 –4 must be rejected.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 131. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x − 3)2 − 24 = 0 ( x − 3) 2 = 24 The solution set is {−2. 5⎬ . 8 − 2x = x ( 8 − 2x ) 2 = x2 8 − 2 x = x2 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 ⎧ 10 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 115 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 ⎞ ⎛ x = ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎜ − ⎟ ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎝ x+4 x+2⎠ 2 x = x ( x + 2) − 2( x + 4) (3x + 5)( x − 3) = 5 129. 2 x 2 − 11x + 5 = 0 (2x – 1)(x – 5) = 0 2x – 1 = 0 x – 5 = 0 1 x = or x = 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . .−2 3 x+2=0 x = −2 x= x=4 –2 must be rejected. ⎬. The solution set is {2} . −4 2 x + 1 = −12 2x + 1 = 3 2 x + 1 = 3 or 2 x + 1 = −3 2x = 2 x =1 2 x = −4 x = −2 132. 3x 2 + 5 x − 9 x − 15 = 5 3x 2 − 4 x − 20 = 0 x= 2x = x2 + 2x − 2x − 8 4 ± (−4)2 − 4(3)(−20) 2(3) 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 4 ± 16 + 240 6 4 ± 256 x= 6 4 ± 16 x= 6 20 −12 x= . ⎩2 ⎭ x = 3± 2 6 2x x 2 = − x + 6x + 8 x + 4 x + 2 2x x 2 = − ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 4 x + 2 133.1} . 3}.

2x − 3 + x = 3 2x − 3 = 3 − x 2x − 3 = 9 − 6x + x2 x 2 − 8 x + 12 = 0 x 2 − 8 x = −12 x 2 − 8 x + 16 = −12 + 16 ( x − 4)2 = 4 x − 4 = ±2 x = 4+2 x = 6. . Let x + 15 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by the United States. vt + gt 2 = s gt 2 = s − vt 141.000 in one week to earn $800. and 5.1 0. Inc.6 x = 19 The percentage of people in the U.8 = 32. 116 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 17. or 2019.3 million barrels.05 x A 1 + rT 500 = 0.3 3x = 16. and Japan is 20.4 x = 7.20 x 48 = 0.5 The daily oil consumption of the United States.4 x = 25. A− P Pr A− P Pr (T ) = Pr Pr PrT = A − P T= 142. thus the equation has no real solutions.05 x 10. 140. Let x = the original price of the phone 48 = x − 0. thus the equation has one repeated real solution.8 = 6. 143. 340 = 8w − 12 352 = 8w 44 = w The dimensions are 44 yards by 126 yards.5 + 0. Let x = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by Japan.80 x 60 = x The original price is $60. Let x = the amount sold to earn $800 in one week 800 = 300 + 0.8) + ( x + 15) = 32.5 x = 5.5 million barrels.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 135.S. gt s − vt = 2 t2 t s − vt g= 2 t 2 137. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let 3w – 6 = the length of the playing field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 139.1% 19 years after 2000. x + ( x + 0. PrT + P = A P ( rT + 1) = A P= 138. Let x + 0. 2 The solution set is {2}. 000 = x Sales must be $10.5 x + 0. 6. that will speak a language other than English at home will reach 25. respectfully.5 million barrels.3 3 x + 15. 9 x 2 − 30 x + 25 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−30)2 − 4(9)(25) = 0 340 = 2 ( 3w − 6 ) + 2w 340 = 6w − 12 + 2 w b 2 − 4ac = 0. 144. Let w = the width of the playing field.3 x + 15 = 20.8 + x + 15 = 32. x 2 = 2 x − 19 x 2 − 2 x + 19 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−2) 2 − 4(1)(19) = −72 −72 < 0.3 x + x + 0.8 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by China. China. 136. Let x = the number of years after 2000.

000 5 x 2 = 90. 000 150.100 when x = 12 . The width of the frame is 2 inches. { x −3 ≤ x < 5} 151. b. Chapter P Review Exercises Check some points to determine that y1 = 14. 15 = l ( 2l − 7 ) 15 = 2l 2 − 7l 0 = 2l 2 − 7l − 15 0 = (2l + 3)(l − 5) l =5 2l − 7 = 3 The length is 5 yards. That year the enrollments will be 32. Let x = height of building 2x = shadow height x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 3002 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 90. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 147. 1500 1500 + 100 = x x−4 1500 ⎛ 1500 ⎞ x( x − 4) ⎜ + 100 ⎟ = x( x − 4) x x−4 ⎝ ⎠ 1500( x − 4) + 100 x( x − 4) = 1500 x 1500 x − 6000 + 100 x 2 − 400 x = 1500 x 15 x − 60 + x 2 − 4 x = 15 x A = lw x 2 − 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 10) = 0 x + 6 = 0 or x − 10 = 0 x = −6 x = 10 –6 must be rejected.PreCalculus 4E 145. 000 x ≈ ±134. 117 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.100 + 1500 x and 149. 148. Inc. { x x ≤ 0} x 2 = 18. the two colleges will have the same enrollment in the year 2007 + 12 = 2019 .100 students. There were originally 10 people. The building is approximately 134 meters high. the width is 3 yards. . (10 + 2 x )(16 + 2 x) = 280 160 + 52 x + 4 x 2 = 280 4 x 2 + 52 x − 120 = 0 x 2 + 13x − 30 = 0 ( x + 15)( x − 2) = 0 x + 15 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −15 x=2 –15 must be rejected. { x x > −2} 152.164 Discard negative height. 700 − 800 x . Since y1 = y2 = 32. y2 = 41. 146.

Graph [ −1. 4 ) or both: Thus.3) : 156. [1. 4 ) = [1. [1.3) or both: Thus.3) : To find the intersection.1] : 154. Numbers in either [1.3) .3) and ( 0. Graph ( −2. 4 ) : To find the intersection. 4 ) : Thus. Inc.1] ∪ [ −1. 4 ) = ( 0.3) : Graph ( 0.1] .3) ∪ ( 0. 4 ) . –6x + 3 ≤ 15 –6x ≤ 12 x≥2 The solution set is [ −2. .1] and [ −1.3) : Thus. ( −2. Numbers in both [1.3) = [ −1.1] ∩ [ −1. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Graph [1. Graph [1. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Numbers in either ( −2. 155. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3) ∩ ( 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 153.1] : Graph [ −1.1] or [ −1. ( −2.3) : To find the union. Graph ( −2. 118 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) .3) or ( 0. Graph ( 0.3) . take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 157. 4 ) : To find the union. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.3) = ( −2. Numbers in both ( −2.

167. 6 x − 9 ≥ −4 x − 3 163. 3] 0. −4 x + 2 + 5 ≤ −7 −4 x + 2 ≤ −12 The solution set is ( −3. ⎣5 ⎠ 159. 3(2x – 1) – 2(x – 4) ≥ 7 + 2(3 + 4x) 6x – 3 – 2x + 8 ≥ 7 + 6 + 8x 4x + 5 ≥ 8x + 13 –4x ≥ 8 x ≤ –2 x+2≥3 or x ≥1 x + 2 ≤ −3 x ≤ −5 The solution set is ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 158. x+2 ≥3 161. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . 7 < 2x + 3 ≤ 9 4 < 2x ≤ 6 2<x≤3 (2. 165. ∞ ⎟ .20 x 16 ≤ 0. ⎡3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ .20 x ≤ 16 162. − 3] or [ −2. 6x + 5 > –2(x – 3) – 25 6x + 5 > –2x + 6 – 25 8x + 5 > –19 8x > –24 x > –3 The solution set is ( −∞.6] . 0. − ⎟ .3) .20 x ≤ 80 A customer can drive no more than 80 miles. 2 x + 5 − 7 ≥ −6 2x + 5 ≥ 1 21 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. − 6 ) or ( 0.20 x + 24 ≤ 40 0. The solution set is [ −∞. − 2 ) . The solution set is [ 2. ∞ ) . Inc.20 0. −5] ∪ [1. 166. 2⎠ ⎝ 2x + 5 ≥ 1 or 2x + 5 ≤ –1 2x ≥ –4 2x ≤ –6 x ≥ –2 or x ≤ –3 160. 2 x + 3 ≤ 15 10 x ≥ 6 3 x≥ 5 –15 ≤ 2x + 3 ≤ 15 –18 ≤ 2x ≤ 12 –9 ≤ x ≤ 6 The solution set is [ −9. . 164. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 119 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 3 x − −1 > 3 4 2 ⎛x 3 ⎞ ⎛ x⎞ 12 ⎜ − − 1⎟ > 12 ⎜ ⎟ 3 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4x – 9 – 12 > 6x –21 > 2x 21 − >x 2 2x + 6 >2 3 2x + 6 2x + 6 >2 < –2 3 3 2 x + 6 > 6 2 x + 6 < –6 2x > 0 2 x < −12 x>0 x < −6 The solution set is ( −∞. ∞ ) .

= 4 ⋅5 2 − 3⋅3 2 = 20 2 − 9 2 = 11 2 8. 3 5− 2 5+ 2 5− 2 = 3(5 − 2) 25 − 2 = 3(5 − 2) 23 2 x + 8 x2 + 5x + 4 ÷ x−3 x2 − 9 2( x + 4) ( x + 1)( x + 4) = ÷ x−3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 2( x + 4) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ x − 3 ( x + 1)( x + 4) 2( x + 3) = . –4.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 90 5 400 ≤ 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 450 9. 3.25 × 102 = 2. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = 2 x 3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − 5 x 2 + 20 x − 15 7 + 2[3( x + 1) − 2(3x − 1)] = 7 + 2[3x + 3 − 6 x + 2] = 2 x 3 − 13x 2 + 26 x − 15 13. 2. 7.5} ∪ {5. a} 5. 80 ≤ = 2x 3 2x 10.5} ∩ {5. –3 x 5 + x+3 x−3 x x−3 5 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ x +3 x−3 x −3 x +3 x ( x − 3) + 5( x + 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x + 5 x + 15 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 + 2 x + 15 . Chapter P Test 5(2 x 2 − 6 x) − (4 x 2 − 3x) = 10 x 2 − 30 x − 4 x 2 + 3x = 6 x 2 − 27 x 2. –1. 5 × 10−6 5 10−6 = ⋅ = 0. Inc. . {1. 168. = 7 + 2[−3x + 5] (5 x + 3 y ) 2 = (5 x) 2 + 2(5 x)(3 y ) + (3 y ) 2 = 25 x 2 + 30 xy + 9 y 2 = 7 − 6 x + 10 = −6 x + 17 14. x ≠ 3. 3 5+ 2 = 3 ⋅ 16 x 4 = 3 8 x 3 ⋅ 2 x = 3 8x3 ⋅ 3 2 x 400 ≤ 351 + x < 450 49 ≤ x < 99 A grade of at least 49% but less than 99% will result in a B. x +1 x ≠ 3. 2. − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 3) 120 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 11. 2. 30 x3 y 4 5 y8 = 5 x3 −9 y 4 − ( −4) = 5 x −6 y 8 = 6 9 −4 x 6x y 6.5 × 101 20 × 10−8 20 10−8 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. {1. x 2 + 2 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 . 1.5. 6r ⋅ 3r = 18r 2 = 9r 2 ⋅ 2 = 3r 2 4 50 − 3 18 = 4 25 ⋅ 2 − 3 9 ⋅ 2 15. = = x 2 − 3 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x − 1) x − 2 x ≠ 2. a} = {5} 4. a} = {1.

2003 is 14 years after 1989. 4. R= 121 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.28(25) + 53 2 = 3 Three women will receive bachelor’s degrees for every two men. Chapter P Test 2x + 3 2 − 2 x − 7 x + 12 x − 3 2x + 3 2 = − ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 2x + 3 2 x−4 = − ⋅ ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 x − 4 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) ( ) 36 x 2 − 84 x + 49 = (6 x) 2 − 2(6 x) ⋅ 7 + 7 2 23.28n + 47 0. ⎛ 2 x x 2 + 5 − 2 x ⎞ x2 + 5 ⎜ ⎟ x2 +5 ⎠ =⎝ ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x( x 2 + 5) − 2 x3 ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x3 + 10 x − 2 x3 b.08%. 0. commutative property of addition x +5 = 2 + ( x + 3) 5 = ( x + 3) ( x + 3) 5 3 2 x x 2 + 5 − 22x = 3 5 = ( x + 3) 5 (2 x + 3) = = = − x( x + 2) − x 2 x( x + 2) + ( x + 2) = 18.6 × 109 = 13.PreCalculus 4E 16.6 × 10−4 30. . 3(2 + 5) = 3(5 + 2). x 3 + 2 x 2 + 3 x + 6 = x 2 ( x + 2) + 3( x + 2) = 1 ( 32. R= M −0.28(25) + 47 R= 0. This overestimates the actual percent shown by the bar graph by 0.2 × 109 = 1.08% of bachelor’s degrees were awarded to men. a. ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 10 x c. 19. = ( x + 5)2 − 9 y 2 = ( x + 5 − 3 y )( x + 5 + 3 y ) 1 − x +x 2 ( x + 2) x 1 − x +x 2 = 1 + 1x 1 + 1x ( x + 2) x ( 25 x 2 − 9 = (5 x)2 − 32 = (5 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (6 x − 7) 2 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 2x + 3 − 2x + 8 = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 11 = . 6(7 + 4) = 6 ⋅ 7 + 6 ⋅ 4 distributive property of multiplication over addition x 2 + 2 x − x2 ( x + 1)( x + 2) 2x = 2 . 22. 43. M = −0. x ( x + 3) 26. y 3 − 125 = y 3 − 53 = ( y − 5)( y 2 + 5 y + 25) 24. 5 3 = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 2) = 5 3 1 ( 3 ) 5 27 = 1 ( 3) 5 = 1 243 ) 2 6.28n + 53 −0. ( x − 3)( x − 4) x ≠ 3. 21.28n + 53 −0.32 × 1010 3 ( x + 5) − 27 x2 + 5 2 − 27.28n + 47 = W 0. are rational numbers. 27 31. 3 x 2 − 9 x + 18 = ( x − 3)( x − 6) 20.00076 = 7. This describes the projections exactly. x≠0 x + 3x + 2 29. 0. 4 17. 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 7 28. ( x 2 + 10 x + 25) − 9 y 2 25.25. − . Inc.28n + 47 M = −0.28(14) + 47 = 43.08 In 2003. ) 3 5 − 3 x (x 3) 2x + 3 3 4 22 −7.

x(x – 2) = 4 x2 − 2 x − 4 = 0 7 x − 14 = 4 x − 17 x= 3x = −3 x = −1 The solution set is {–1}. The solution set is {2}. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 –4 does not check and must be rejected.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 33. The solution set is {7}. x= ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −4 ) 2 2 2±2 5 2 x = 1± 5 x= 2x − 3 = 2x − 8 − x −1 The solution set is 1 − 5. x − 3 = x 2 − 10 x + 25 x 2 − 11x + 28 = 0 x= 2 x + 6 − 4 x + 12 = 8 −2 x + 18 = 8 11 ± 121 − 112 2 11 ± 9 x= 2 11 ± 3 x= 2 x = 7 or x = 4 4 does not check and must be rejected. 2⎬ . 1 + 5 . 2 x 2 − 3x − 2 = 0 (2x + 1)(x – 2) = 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x=2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2± 2x − 3 x − 4 x +1 = − 4 2 4 2 x − 3 = 2( x − 4) − ( x + 1) 2x − 3 = x − 9 x = −6 The solution set is {–6}. 2 4 8 − = x − 3 x + 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 35. 34. Inc. . 36. 7( x − 2) = 4( x + 1) − 21 7 x − 14 = 4 x + 4 − 21 38. ⎩ 2 ⎭ ( 3x − 1) 2 40. 37. x=5 The solution set is {5}. 3 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 122 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1± 5 3 3 ⎪⎧1 − 5 3 1 + 5 3 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 8 − 2x − x = 0 8 − 2x = x ( = 75 3x − 1 = ± 75 8 − 2x ) 2 = ( x) 2 8 − 2 x = x2 3x = 1 ± 5 3 x= 11 ± 112 − 4(1)(28) 2(1) x= −2 x = −10 1 2 } x −3 = x −5 2( x + 3) − 4( x − 3) = 8 x=− { x−3 +5 = x 39. ⎬.

45. 4x − 7 = 5 4 x − 7 = −5 or 4 x = 12 4x = 2 x=3 1 x= 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . Chapter P Test 2 x−6 = 2 3 2 2 x−6 = 2 x − 6 = −2 3 3 2 2 x=8 x=4 3 3 x = 12 x=6 The solution set is {6. x = −2 (rejected) The solution set is {4} . . 12]. 1 V = lwh 3 3V = lwh 3V lwh = lw lw 3V =h lw 3V h= lw 44. ⎣8 ⎠ −3 4 x − 7 + 15 = 0 −3 4 x − 7 = −15 4x − 7 = 5 46. − ⎥ ∪ ⎢ . 2x + 5 <6 3 –9 ≤ 2x + 5 < 18 –14 ≤ 2x < 13 13 −7 ≤ x < 2 −3 ≤ 13 ⎞ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −7. ⎟ .PreCalculus 4E 41. x 1 x 3 + ≤ − 6 8 2 4 4 x + 3 ≤ 12 x − 18 −8 x ≤ −21 x≥ 21 8 ⎡ 21 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ⎟ .3⎬ ⎩2 ⎭ 43. 2⎠ ⎣ 2x 2 x + = x2 + 6 x + 8 x + 2 x + 4 2x 2 x + = ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 2 x + 4 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2( x + 4)( x + 2) x( x + 4)( x + 2) + = x+2 x+4 ( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 x + 2( x + 4) = x( x + 2) 47. 123 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 12}. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ 2 x + 2 x + 8 = x2 + 2 x 2 x + 8 = x2 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 0 = ( x − 4)( x + 2) x − 4 = 0 or x=4 x+2 =0 48. ∞ ⎟ . 42. 3(x + 4) ≥ 5x – 12 3x + 12 ≥ 5x – 12 –2x ≥ –24 x ≤ 12 The solution set is (−∞. 3x + 2 ≥ 3 3x + 2 ≥ 3 or 3x + 2 ≤ −3 3x ≥ 1 3 x ≤ −5 1 5 x≥ x≤− 3 3 5⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞.

4 x + 500 1177 = 0.4 x − 677 0 = 0. 17 movie theaters.07 x 2 + 47. 124 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≈ −691 (rejected) The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004.07 x 2 + 47.4) ± (47. Let x + 64 = the number video rental stores.600.07 x 2 + 47. Let x = the number drive-in theaters. Ra − as = − Rs a( R − s ) = − Rs a( R − s ) − Rs = R−s R−s Rs a= s−R 51. The formulas model the data quite well. y − y1 = mx − mx1 54.07)(−677) 2(0. or 2018.S. Publishing as Prentice Hall.07 x 2 + 47. there is 1 drivein theater.4 x − 677 0 = ( w + 6)( w − 4) x= x= 0 = w2 + 2 w − 24 w+6 = 0 w−4 = 0 w = −6 w=4 2 w + 4 = 2(4) + 4 = 12 width is 4 feet. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 53.07) x ≈ 14.4 x + 500 0 = 2w2 + 4 w − 48 0 = 0. and 65 video rental stores. Inc. x + x + 16 + x + 64 = 83 3x + 80 = 83 3x = 3 as a+s R (a + s ) = as Ra + Rs = as R= x =1 x + 16 = 17 x + 64 = 65 For every one million U. . the cost will be $33. residents. length is 12 feet −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(47. 43x + 575 = 1177 43x = 602 56. 52. 55.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 49. 700 + 150 x = 5000 + 1100 x 48 = (2w + 4) w 48 = 2w2 + 4 w B = 0. 24700 = 950 x 26 = x In 26 years. ( x ) + ( x + 16 ) + ( x + 64 ) = 83 −mx = y1 − mx1 − y −mx y1 − mx1 − y = −m −m y − y1 + x1 x= m 50. Let x + 16 = the number movie theaters. or 2018.4)2 − 4(0. 29. l = 2w + 4 A = lw x = 14 The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004.

Let x = the number of local calls The monthly cost using Plan A is C A = 25. Let x = the original selling price 20 = x − 0. 000 − 6000 = x x+5 600.PreCalculus 4E 57. There were originally 20 people. 600. it must cost less than Plan B. 000 x 59. 000 x + 3. 000 − 6000 x 2 − 30. C A < CB 25 < 13 + 0.06 x 12 < 0. For Plan A to be better deal. 000 ⎛ 600. 000. 000 x + 3. 000 x −6000 x 2 − 30.06 x. 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000( x + 5) − 6000 x( x + 5) = 600. 000 x = 600. Chapter P Test 242 + x 2 = 262 576 + x 2 = 676 x 2 = 100 x = ±10 The wire should be attached 10 feet up the pole. .06 x 200 < x x > 200 Plan A is a better deal when more than 200 local calls are made per month. 000 ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ − 6000 ⎟ = x ( x + 5) x x+5 ⎝ ⎠ 600. 000 600.60 x 20 = 0. 600. 000. 125 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 = 0 x 2 + 5 x − 500 = 0 ( x + 25)( x − 20) = 0 x − 20 = 0 x + 25 = 0 or x = −25 x = 20 –25 must be rejected. 58.40 x 50 = x The original price is $50. Inc. The monthly cost using Plan B is CB = 13 + 0.

the x-intercept is 0 and the y-intercept is 0. the y-intercept is 4. c.10] viewing rectangle is as follows: distance between x -axis minimum maximum tick marks x -value x -value [ −100 . 100 . y = 4 x = 1.100. The graph crosses the x-axis at (–3. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. 100 . y = 1 3. 0). a. 10 ] x = −3. According to the line graph. b. [ −100 . y = 5 a. y = 7 x = −2. 6. y = 6 5. the y-intercept is 5. The graph does not cross the x-axis. y = 1 x = −1. there is no x-intercept. 5). Thus. x = −1. the x-intercept is –3.1 Check Point Exercises 4. The meaning of a [−100. The mathematical model overestimates the actual percentage shown in the graph by 5%. . x = −4. Thus. y = 2 x = 2. y = 2 x = 3. y = 2 x = −2. Inc.Chapter 1 Functions and Graphs Section 1.100. x = 0. Thus. y = 0 x = 0. The graph crosses the x. 0). d = 4n + 5 d = 4(15) + 5 = 65 65% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. 50 ] by distance between y -axis minimum maximum tick y -value y -value marks 2. y = 1 x = 1. Thus. y = 3 126 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.50] by [−100. 4).and y-axes at the origin (0. 1. 60% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. b. c. y = 3 x = 2. Thus. y = 3 x = −3. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

11. 9. . 7. 8. 4. 6. 10.1 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2.1 Exercise Set 1. 12. 3. Inc. 127 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.

Functions and Graphs 13. y = 5 x = –3. x = −3. y = −5 x = −2. y = −2 x = 1. y = 2 x = −2. y = −2 x = 0. y = 2 x = 1. x = –3. y = –1 x = –2. y = 11 x = –2. y = −1 x = −1. y = 3 x = 2. y = 11 128 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 14. y = 7 x = 3. y = 6 x = 3. y = −1 x = 2. y = 1 x = 0. y = −1 x = 1. y = 7 x = −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 2 x = 1. y = 4 x = 3. y = 3 x = 0. y = 1 16. y = 2 x = 2. 15. y = 6 x = –1. y = 3 x = 2. Inc. y = 0 x = –1. . y = 0 x = 3. y = −4 x = −1. y = −3 x = 0.

y = −1 18. y = 1 x = −1. Inc. 2 20. y = −1 x = 0. y = 0 x = 3. y = 2 3 x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = −3 x = −3. y = –10 x = –2. y = 5 2 x = 0. y = 3 x = 2. y = 2 x = 0. y = 2 x = –3. y = 2 7 2 x = –2. y = –4 x = 1. y = −5 x = −2. y = 1 x = 1. y = 129 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = − 1 x = 3. y = –6 x = 0. y = 3 5 x = –1. y = –8 x = –1. y = 3 x = −1.1 17. 19. x = −3.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. y = 1 1 x = 3. y = 1 2 x = −2. y = 7 x = 1. y = 0 x = 3. x = –3. y = –2 x = 2. y = 2 x = 2. y = − 3 2 x = 2. .

x = −3. y = 0 x = 1. y = 0 x = 0. y = 2 x = −2. . y = 4 x = −3. y = 1 x = 3. y = 1 x = 1. y = 1 x = −1. 22. y = −1 x = 1. y = 4 x = 3. y = 0 x = 2. Inc. y = −2 x = −1. y = 2 x = 2. y = −2 x = 2. y = −6 x = 3. x = −3. y = 3 x = −1. y = −6 x = −3. y = 2 x = 2. y = 3 x = 3. y = −4 x = 1. y = 4 x = −1. y = 4 24. y = 6 x = −2. y = 2 x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs 23. y = 2 x = 0. 21. y = 0 x = 0. y = −4 x = −2. y = 6 x = −2. y = 2 130 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

60. 800.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. y = 0 x = −3. −1) are on the line y = 2 − x . 1. (d) x-axis tick marks –10.9) . y = −9 x = −1. –10. y = −1 x = 1. y = −9 (1. 20. . 30. 5) . y-axis tick marks are the same. y = 27 131 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 70. and (3. (2. x = 3. 0. y2 = 2 − x .1) . y = 5 x = 3. 4. 2. x = 1. y = −4 x = −1. y1 = x 2 . x = −3. –800. 0) . –20. –2. y = 1 (2. 29. 0. 40. . 4) . 10. ( −2. and (3. x = 0. (−2. 900. y = 0 x = 3. x-axis tick marks –20. 80. (b). 0. 0) . 10. 2) . y = 0 x = 2. y = −27 35. y = −1 x = 0. It passes through the point (0. y = 7 x = 2. y = 1 36. y = 8 x = −1. No. but all are not on any of the others. y = 0 37. 3. 4) . (1. 40. . 50. y-axis tick marks –4.1 25. 20. The equation that corresponds to Y1 in the table is (b). 30. The equation that corresponds to Y in the table 2 x = 1. x = −3. –8. 0. 0) x = 2. (0. 0) . –6. –2. ( −1. 0. 8. –700. 1000 x = −2. 2) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Yes. . y = 26 26. y = −4 is (c). We can tell because all of the points (−3. but all are not on any of the others. 3) . y = 8 x = 1. 30. 34. 0. 700. y = 0 33. 4) . (0. –2.1) . y = 5 x = −2. –4. y-axis tick marks –1000. –3. y = −2 x = 0. 4. –4. 40. 60. 5. 2. y = −9 32. y = 9 x = 0. –900. 28. 4 31. We can tell because all of the points ( −3. –20. 20. 27.9) are on the graph y = x 2 . It passes through the point (0. y = −1 x = 2. –10. Inc. y = −28 x = −2 . y-axis tick marks –30. –1. y = 8 x = 3. 50. . 10. (a) x-axis tick marks –40. 2. 6. x = −2. y = −8 x = −1. (c) x-axis tick marks –5. 70 x = −3. (−1. (2.1) .

5) 1 2 (1. −3 ( −3. 2). 2) 39. a. 1). b. 0). –2. The graphs of Y and Y intersect at the points 1 2 ( −2. 0). 5) none. –1. b. 2. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. The values of Y1 and Y2 are the same when x = −2 and x = 1 . a.Functions and Graphs 38. The graph does not intersect the y-axis. 0). 45. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. −2 ( −2. a. 40. y ) none. –1. 44. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 0) and (–2. 48. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. 0 (0. –4. 1. 43. 2. 50. b. 49. 41. 5) −1 ( −1. 2). b. The graph intersect the y-axis at (0. 5) 3 (3. 4) and (1. 1. (0. b. The graph does not intersect the x-axis.1) . a. 0). 1. 51. Inc. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–1. 0). 46. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. The graph intersects the x-axis at (2. 42. . a.–4). 1. 2). b. 5) 47. 0) and (–1. x ( x. 2. 5) 2. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. 5) (2. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 132 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 55. c. x −2 −1 − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 ( x. −1) −2 −2 ( −2. b. about 14% of seniors used marijuana in 1990.3 ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ .3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ .1) ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ 2. e. −1) 3 (3. .2⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ (1.4n + 28 M = −0. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. 2005 is 25 years after 1980. This underestimates the value in the graph by 2%. −1) 0 (0. −2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ (1. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2005. 2006 is 26 years after 1980.1 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. about 45% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. Inc. d.PreCalculus 4E 52. y ) −3 ( −3.2⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . ( x.1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . −3 ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. This underestimates the value in the graph. −1) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 2. 133 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4(25) + 28 = 18 According to formula. −1) x − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 53. 44% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. A = −n + 70 A = −(26) + 70 = 44 According to formula. According to the line graph. The minimum for marijuana was reached in 1990. According to the line graph. −1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . According to the line graph. −3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . −2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . a. −1) (2. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. x Section 1. 18% of seniors used marijuana in 2005. −1) −1 −1 ( −1. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( x. M = −0. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. −1) 1 2 (1.

Sample explanation: Most graphing utilities do not display numbers an the axes. does not make sense. a. –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 0 y = 2(0) = 0 59. 71. Explanations will vary. true 74. x y = 2x + 4 –2 y = 2( −2) + 4 = 0 67. 4 ) 84. averaging about 8 awakenings per night. about 22% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. −2 ) ( 0. According to the line graph. y ) ( −2. averaging about 1 awakening per night. At age 8.Functions and Graphs 56. x y = 2x ( x. 0 ) ( −1. (a) 81. Explanations will vary. makes sense –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 68. 4 ) (1. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. about 72% of seniors used alcohol in 1980. 2 ) ( 2.1. (d) 77. 72. women have the least number of awakenings. (c) 2000 is 20 years after 1980. Sample explanation: These three points are not collinear. 2 ) ( 0. 6 ) ( 2. 73. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. false. At age 65. This matches the value in the graph.4(20) + 28 = 20 According to formula. – 66. men have the greatest number of awakenings. 60. (b) According to the line graph. Inc. −4 ) ( −1. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2000.9. A = −n + 70 A = −(20) + 70 = 50 According to formula. 1 y = 2(1) = 2 2 y = 2(2) = 4 ( −2. false. ( x. c. M = −0. (c) 82. According to the line graph. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 78. A sample change is: The product of the coordinates of a point in quadrant III is also positive. 0 ) (1. 75. 134 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: As the time of day goes up. (a) 76.4n + 28 M = −0. d. This underestimates the value in the graph. A sample change is: A point on the x-axis will have y = 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. b. 79. Changes to make the statement true will vary. e. does not make sense. (b) The maximum for alcohol was reached in 1980. 57. Set 1 has each x-coordinate paired with only one ycoordinate. (b) 80. The difference between the number of awakenings for 18-year-old men and women is about 1. Answers may vary. the total calories burned will also go up.8) . A sample change is: 3(5) − 2(2) ≠ −4. Changes to make the statement true will vary. The difference between the number of awakenings for 25-year-old men and women is about 1. 2000 is 20 years after 1980. false. y ) –2 y = 2( −2) = −4 58. 70. 61. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. 83. 0 y = 2(0) + 4 = 4 1 y = 2(1) + 4 = 6 2 y = 2(2) + 4 = 8 69.

y 2 = 1 − x2 4. y ) ( −2. 2. the equation does not define y as a function of x. 3. y = ± 1 − x2 Since there are values of x (all values between – 1 and 1 exclusive) that give more than one value for y (for example. −1) ( 2. a. 4 ) Section 1. When the x-coordinate is 2. f (9) = 100 c. [0. d.4}. 10. domain: { x −2 < x ≤ 1} or range: { y −1 ≤ y < 2} or f (− x) = (− x) 2 − 2(− x) + 7 c. The y-coordinates are all real numbers greater than or equal to 1. The range is the set of all second components: {9. The x-coordinates are all real numbers.2. x f ( x) = 2x -2 –4 -1 –2 0 0 1 2 2 4 ( x.1] . The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. −3) (1. y is a function of x for the graphs in (a) and (b).1) The graph (c) fails the vertical line test and is therefore not a function. there is one and only one value for y. 36}.1] . b. 135 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 + y 2 = 1 6. the x-coordinates are –3 and 3. Inc. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components.2 a. = x 2 − ( −2 x ) + 7 domain: { x −3 ≤ x < 0} or range: { y y = −3. y ) -2 g ( −2 ) = 2( −2) − 3 = −7 -1 g ( −1) = 2( −1) − 3 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 2(0) − 3 = −3 1 g (1) = 2(1) − 3 = −1 2 g ( 2 ) = 2(2) − 3 = 1 ( −2. [ −3. domain: { x −2 ≤ x ≤ 1} or range: { y 0 ≤ y ≤ 3} or f ( x + 4) = ( x + 4) 2 − 2( x + 4) + 7 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 − 2 x − 8 + 7 b. x [ −2. When the y-coordinate is 4. −5) ( 0. . 30. a. = x 2 + 6 x + 15 c. 20. f (−5) = (−5)2 − 2(−5) + 7 = 25 − (−10) + 7 8. = 42 b. 2x + y = 6 y = −2 x + 6 For each value of x. 6) and (5. = x + 2x + 7 2 ( −2. −4 ) ( −1.PreCalculus 4E 85. The domain is the set of all first components: {0. b. 3] . The minimum T cell count in the asymptomatic stage is approximately 425. if x = 0. 0 ) . 8) have the same first component but different second components. 13. −7 ) ( −1. x = 9 . c. y = ± 1 − 02 = ±1 ).7.7. 0 ) (1. 2 ) . a. g ( x) = 2x − 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 3 units. 6. b. −2 ) ( 0. −2. 10. f (5) = 400 b. −1} . so the equation defines y as a function of x.2 Check Point Exercises 1. the y-coordinate is 3. 2 ) ( 2. ( x. then 7.1. Section 1. 5. [ −1. a. 17. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {–2. 0} and the range is {–3. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. 5. Inc. 2. y = ±4. y is not a function of x. x + y = 16 16. 7. 0}. y is not a function of x. y = 4 and y = – 4. 1. 9}. x 2 + y 2 = 16 y 2 = 16 − x 2 y = ± 16 − x 2 If x = 0. 5) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (4. x 2 + y = 25 y = 25 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. The domain is {1} and the range is {4. 17. –2. 3. –1. 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –5.2 1. –3. y is a function of x. 8} and the range is {5. x 2 + y = 16 y = 16 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 6} and the range is {1}. 5}. 5. 6}. 6}. 4) and (3. y = 1 and y = –1. can be obtained for one value of x. can be obtained for x = 1. y = 16 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 7. then y = ±2. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {4. 4. 7} and the range is {–2. 4. 0}. –2. The relation is a function since there are no two ordered pairs that have the same first component and different second components. 5} and the range is {2. The relation is not a function since there are ordered pairs with the same first component and different second components. Since two values. x 2 + y 2 = 25 y 2 = 25 − x 2 y = ± 25 − x 2 If x = 0. The domain is {–7. 11. can be obtained for x = 1. 6) and (5. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. Since two values. 6} and the range is {6. The relation is a function since there are no ordered pairs that have the same first component but different second components. 136 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8}. Since two values. The domain is {–3. 7}. y = ±1. – 1. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (3. 4} and the range is {4. The domain is {3. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {3. 5}. –5. 8. –3. 6. The relation is a function since there are no same first components with different second components. x + y = 25 y = 25 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 6) and (6. The domain is {1. 18. y is a function of x. 4 x = y2 y = ± 4 x = ±2 x If x = 1. Since two values. 0} and the range is {–7. –1. 5)). 12. y = 2 and y = –2.Functions and Graphs Exercise Set 1. 3. 15. 6. 13. 5. y is a function of x. . 5. y is not a function of x. y is a function of x. 7) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (6. can be obtained for one value of x. 7)). 9. 14. y = 5 and y = –5. 4. 10} and the range is {1. The domain is {4. y is not a function of x. 4. x = y2 y=± x If x = 1. 4) and (4. y = ±5. 10. The domain is {5.

h(2) = 24 − 22 + 1 = 16 − 4 + 1 = 13 x −y=2 b. f(4) = 3(4) + 7 = 19 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. y = 3 8− x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. Section 1. y is a function of x. g ( x + 5) = ( x + 5) 2 + 2( x + 5) + 3 = x 2 + 12 x + 38 y = 3 27 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. −y = − x + 2 y = x −2 h(−1) = (−1)4 − (−1) 2 + 1 = 1 −1 +1 =1 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y= b. a. f(–x) = 3(–x) + 7 = –3x + 7 29. y is a function of x. a. a. 30. g (− x) = (− x)2 − 10(− x) − 3 = x 2 + 10 x − 3 1 y= x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x.PreCalculus 4E 19. y is a function of x. x + y3 = 8 y3 = 8 − x f(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) + 7 = 3x + 10 c. 24. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 4 − ( − x ) 2 + 1 = x 4 − x 2 + 1 d. f(6) = 4(6) + 5 = 29 x −y=5 c. y is a function of x. y = − x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 31. f(x + 1) = 4(x + 1) + 5 = 4x + 9 c. y is a function of x. h(3a) = (3a) 4 − (3a) 2 + 1 = 81a 4 − 9a 2 + 1 −y = − x +5 y = x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y = x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. x + y 3 = 27 c. a. f(–x) = 4(–x) + 5 = – 4x + 5 28. a. 22.2 27. Inc. g (−1) = (−1)2 + 2(−1) + 3 = 1− 2 + 3 =2 = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + 2 x + 10 + 3 y 3 = 27 − x 23. 21. 26. 137 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. y is a function of x. y is a function of x. . g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + 2(− x) + 3 = x2 − 2x + 3 y ( x + 2) = 1 25. 20. g (−1) = (−1) 2 − 10(−1) − 3 = 1 + 10 − 3 =8 g ( x + 2) = ( x + 2) 2 − 10(8 + 2) − 3 = x 2 + 4 x + 4 − 10 x − 20 − 3 = x 2 − 6 x − 19 xy − 5 y = 1 y ( x − 5) = 1 c. xy + 2 y = 1 1 x+2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x.

f (−6) = c. f (6) = f (10) = 10 + 6 + 3 = 16 + 3 = 4+3 6 =1 6 b. a.if x > −6 138 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. h(3) = 33 − 3 + 1 = 25 36. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. if x < −6 = =⎨ − x − 6 ⎩−1. f (2) = f (−6) = −6 + 6 + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3 37. h(−2) = (−2)3 − (−2) + 1 = −8 + 2 + 1 = −5 c. f (−24) = 25 − (−24) − 6 = 49 − 6 = 7−6 =1 c.Functions and Graphs 32. f (r 2 ) = =7 c. h(3a) = (3a)3 − (3a) + 1 f (−2) = 4(−2)3 + 1 −31 31 = = −8 8 (−2)3 c. f (−9 − x) = −5 + 3 8 8 = =1 −2 −2 = −9 − x + 3 −9 − x + 3 − x − 6 ⎧ 1. a. f (−2) = 4(−2) 2 − 1 15 = 4 (−2) 2 c. a. f (25 − 2 x) = 25 − (25 − 2 x) − 6 = 2x − 6 35. 3 33. 4(2)3 + 1 33 = 23 8 b. f (2) = 4(2)2 − 1 15 = 4 22 b. f (− x) = 4(− x)3 + 1 −4 x 3 + 1 = (− x)3 − x3 4 x3 − 1 x3 or = 27 a − 3a + 1 b. f ( x − 6) = x − 6 + 6 + 3 = x + 3 f (16) = 25 − 16 − 6 = 9 − 6 = 3 − 6 = −3 38. a. b. f (− x) = 4(− x)2 − 1 4 x 2 − 1 = (− x) 2 x2 f (5) = −6 −6 = = −1 −6 6 r2 r2 5+3 5+3 = r2 =1 r2 = −5 + 3 b. a. 34. 2 = −1 −2 . h( − x ) = ( − x ) 3 − ( − x ) + 1 = − x 3 + x + 1 d. f (−5) = c. b.

. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 ( −2. −5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. −2 ) ( −1. 2 ) ( 0. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x − 1 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) − 1 = 3 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) − 1 = 1 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 x f ( x) = x ( x. −6 ) ( −1. −4 ) ( x. 0 ) (1. −1) (1. 4 ) ( −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3) (1.2 f ( x) = x ( x. Inc. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 4 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 4 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 4 = −4 1 g (1) = 1 − 4 = −3 2 g ( 2 ) = 2 − 4 = −2 ( −2.1) ( 2. 0 ) (1. −4 ) (1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. −2 ) ( x. 40. 4 ) ( 2. 139 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 4 units. y ) ( −2. −3) ( 2. −5) ( 0. −2 ) ( −1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. −3) ( 2. 41.1) ( 0. −2 ) ( 2.3) ( −1. 0 ) (1. −1) ( 0. y ) ( −2. y ) 1 g (1) = −2 (1) − 1 = −3 −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) − 1 = −5 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 ( −2. y ) ( −2. −1) ( 0. x 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 x g ( x) = x + 3 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 3 = 1 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 3 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = 1 + 3 = 4 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 3 = 5 ( x.1) ( 2. 2 ) ( 0. 2 ) x g ( x) = x − 4 ( x. 2 ) 39.1) ( −1.

5 ) x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 2 = 2 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = (1) − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 2 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. 4 ) ( x.5 ) ( 0. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. . 4 ) ( −1.1) ( 2. −2 ) ( 2. y ) ( −2. −1) 44. 2 ) ( 0.Functions and Graphs 42.3) (1. y ) ( −2. −4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit.1) (1. 2 ) ( −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 ) ( −1.5 ) ( −1. 4 ) ( x. 0 ) (1.1) ( 0. y ) ( −2. x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 + 1 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 1 = 5 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 1 = 2 0 g (0) = (0) + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = (1) + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) + 1 = 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. Inc. 2 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units. y ) ( −2. 140 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y ) ( −2. ( x. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x + 3 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) + 3 = 7 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) + 3 = 5 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = −2 (1) + 3 = 1 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) + 3 = −1 ( x.1) ( 0. −1) ( 2. 2 ) ( 2.1) ( 2. −1) ( 0. 0 ) (1. y ) ( −2. 4 ) ( −1. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( 0. 43. −2 ) (1. 7 ) ( −1.1) ( 2.

−1) 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( 0. y ) ( −2.1) ( 0. x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x +1 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 1 = 3 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 1 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 1 = 3 ( x. −2 ) (1.PreCalculus 4E 45.1) ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y ) ( −2. 46. 0 ) (1. 0 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit.1) ( 2. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units. 2 ) ( −1. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 2 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 2 = 1 0 g ( 0) = ( 0) + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = (1) + 2 = 3 2 g ( 2 ) = ( 2 ) + 2 = 10 ( −2. 2 ) (1. . 0 ) (1. −1) ( 2.3) ( 2. −1) ( 0.3) f ( x ) = x3 ( x.8) x −2 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 + 2 ( x.2 x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 2 = 0 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = 1 − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 2 = 0 ( x. y ) f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 ( −2. y ) ( −2. −6 ) ( −1. 2 ) ( 2. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( −1. 141 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ) ( x. 0 ) ( −1.10 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. −8) −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 ( −1.1) (1.1) ( 2. 2 ) ( 0. Section 1. 2 ) ( x. y ) ( −2. 47.3) ( −1. Inc.1) ( 2.1) ( 0.

x f ( x ) = −1 ( x. Inc. 4 ) ( 2. y ) ( −2.5) (1. −1) ( 0.1) ( 2.3) ( x. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 1 = −9 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 1 = −2 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = (1) − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 1 = 7 ( −2. −2 ) ( 0. y ) ( −2. −1) x g ( x) = 4 −2 g ( −2 ) = 4 −1 g ( −1) = 4 0 g ( 0) = 4 1 g (1) = 4 2 g ( 2) = 4 ( x. x f ( x) = 3 −2 f ( −2 ) = 3 −1 f ( −1) = 3 0 f ( 0) = 3 1 f (1) = 3 2 f ( 2) = 3 x g ( x) = 5 −2 g ( −2 ) = 5 −1 g ( −1) = 5 0 g ( 0) = 5 1 g (1) = 5 2 g ( 2) = 5 ( x. −9 ) ( −1. −1) (1. 49.5) ( 2. 4 ) ( −1. 4 ) ( 0. −1) (1.3) (1. 4 ) (1. 0 ) ( 2. −8) ( −1. 142 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) ( 2. y ) ( −2. x f ( x ) = x3 ( x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 50. −1) ( −1.3) ( 2.3) ( −1. −1) ( 0.5) ( 0.5) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 5 units. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( −2.3) ( 0.5) ( −1.Functions and Graphs 48. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −1 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0 ) = −1 1 f (1) = −1 2 f ( 2 ) = −1 ( −2. 0 ) (1. . 4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. 7 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units.8) 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 − 1 ( x.

2 ) ( 9. y ) ( 0. 0 ) ( 2. 0 ) (1. y ) (1.1) ( 4.3) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = 1 + 2 = 3 4 g ( 4) = 4 + 2 = 4 ( x.3) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit.3) 53.1) ( 4.PreCalculus 4E 51.1) ( 5. 52. 143 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.2 x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 4 g ( 4) = 4 −1 = 1 9 g (9) = 9 −1 = 2 ( x. y ) ( 0. 2 ) ( 9. 0 ) ( 4.1) ( 9. 2 ) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 1 = 1 5 g ( 5) = 5 − 1 = 2 10 g (10 ) = 10 − 1 = 3 ( x. 2 ) ( 9.3) ( 4. −1) (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y ) ( 0.1) ( 4. 0 ) (1. y ) ( 0. 0 ) (1. 2 ) (1. y ) ( 0. 2 ) (10. 5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted right 1 unit.3) ( x. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. 4 ) 9 g (9) = 9 + 2 = 5 (9 . Section 1. ( x. ( x. .

x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 2 = 0 –1 g ( −1) = −1 + 2 = 1 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 2 = 2 7 g (7) = 7 + 2 = 3 ( x. f (2) = −4 67. function b. f (−4) = 4 69. g ( 2 ) = −2 73. a. ∞) 61. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 58. f ( −3 ) = 0 70. function d. g ( x) = −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 77. 0 ) ( −1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted left 2 units. 65. 60. f (−2) = −3 and f (2) = 5 domain: (–∞. 4] 57. 2 ) ( 9. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 d. not a function 79. y-intercept: 1 64. g ( −4 ) = 2 ( x. function e. function c. a. g (10) = −2 75. g ( x ) = 1. range: [−4. not a function d. f (−1) = 0 71. f ( 4) = 4 f (2) = −5 f (−1) = 2 and f (3) = 4 144 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3) 68. When x = 1. y-intercept: –3 e. f ( −2 ) = −4 66. 0 ) (1. domain: (−∞.1) ( 2. range: (–∞. f (−2) = 3 and domain: (−∞. y ) ( 0. function b. ∞) b. When x = −2. y-intercept: 3 59. a. 56.3) 72. Inc. 76.1) ( 4. x-intercept: none 63. ∞) 62. not a function e. range: [1. not a function c. ∞) 55.Functions and Graphs 54. g ( −10 ) = 2 74. y ) ( −2. ∞) c. function 78. . 2 ) ( 7.

∞) c. x-intercept: − f(–4) = 3 and f(3) = 4 d. f(3) = 2 85. 0. range: {2} c. x-intercept: 2 d. e. range: (−∞. a. ∞) c. 0) ∪ (0. a. a. 90. ∞) domain: [–1. 1. 1 2 87. x-intercept: –1 d. y-intercept: 4 91. y-intercept: 1 81. ∞) b. domain: [–3. − 2] f(3) = 1 c.2 domain: (–∞. 89. ∞) c. a.1) ∪ (1. a. . f(4) = 6 84. x-intercept: { x x ≤ 0} d. range: [–2. Inc. range: [–5. 4) e. x-intercept: none d. ∞) b. domain: [0. ∞ ) domain: (–∞. x-intercept: –3. y-intercept: 2 e. 5) c. y-intercept: 1 e. 83. a. Section 1. a. 6] domain: (−∞. ∞) domain: (−∞. f(–5) = 2 82. y-intercept: 1 e. x-intercept: 4 e. ∞) b. domain: [–2. f (−5) + f (3) = 2 + 2 = 4 145 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d.PreCalculus 4E 80. f(–1) = 5 domain: {–5. f(–4) = –5 and f(4) = –2 c. 86. a. domain: [0. 2] b. 6] c. 5] c.5 e. y-intercept: 1. x-intercept: –1 d. y-intercept: 0 e. 88. 0] d. range: [1. range: (−∞. a. y-intercept: −1 f(2) = 1 b. range: [0. range: [0. a. range: [0. domain: (−∞. a. –2. y-intercept: –1 e. 5) e. 3} b. ∞) c. x-intercept: none d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. ∞) c. f(–2) = 0 and f(2) = 4 b. range: [–3. x-intercept: none d. f(4) = 3 b. range: [–1. x-intercept: none d. a. f(–2) = –3 b. y-intercept: 1 e.75 d. y-intercept: –2 b. x-intercept: none domain: (–6. y-intercept: –3 e. ∞) c. ∞) b. range: (0.

Yes. {( Iceland. 3 − ( −1) − ( −6 ) + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 2 = 3 + 1 − 36 + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 = 4 − 36 + −1 ⋅ 4 = 2 − 36 + −4 = −34 + −4 = −38 96. ( 9. 1. 9. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) + ( − x ) − 5 − ( x3 + x − 5) 3 = − x 3 − x − 5 − x 3 − x + 5 = −2 x 3 − 2 x 98. 9. g (1) = 3 (1) − 5 = 3 − 5 = −2 93.5. 0.6 ) .6. the relation is not a function. ( Finland.7. 9.7 ) . f ( g (1) ) = f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) + 4 2 = 4 + 2 + 4 = 10 g ( −1) = 3 ( −1) − 5 = −3 − 5 = −8 94. range: {–2} c. –2.5 )} b. 9.6 in the domain corresponds to both Finland and New Zealand in the range. y-intercept: –2 f (−5) + f (4) = −2 + (−2) = −4 e. 9. . c. x-intercept: none d. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) − 3 ( − x ) + 7 − ( x 2 − 3x + 7 ) 2 = x 2 + 3x + 7 − x 2 + 3 x − 7 = 6x 99. 146 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −4 − ( −1) − ( −3) + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 2 = −4 + 1 − 9 + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 = −3 − 9 + −1 ⋅ −6 = 3 − 9 + 6 = −6 + 6 = 0 97. {( 9.Functions and Graphs domain: {–5. Denmark )} d. Finland ) . New Zealand ) . ( New Zealand. ( 9. Inc. 4} 92.6 ) . the relation is a function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( Denmark. b. Iceland ) . a. ( 9.6. a. No. f ( g ( −1) ) = f ( −8) = ( −8) − ( −8 ) + 4 2 = 64 + 8 + 4 = 76 95.

a. 1.25 x + 72 T (4) = −0.127). Function f is the better model. ( Myanmar. b.7 in the domain corresponds to both Bangladesh and Chad in the range.2 {( Bangladesh.25 x + 72 T (18) = −0.6(20) + 94 = 82 Americans ordered an average of 82 meals in restaurants per person 20 years after 1984. or 2002. or 2004. a. Section 1. ( Chad. T ( x) = −0.8. 1.7 ) .125(20)2 + 5.25(4) + 72 = 91 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91 takeout meals per person. 147 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 100.7. b. g (90) = 10 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 10%. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1.8 ) . 1. 101.125(4)2 + 5. ( Haiti. b.6 meals in restaurants per person.94).8)} b.82). (1. c.25 x + 72 T (20) = −0. This is represented on the graph by the point (18. a. f (70) = 83 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 83%. Yes. . According to the graphs. No. the relation is not a function.7 ) . R( x) = −0. Myanmar )} d.25(20) + 72 = 127 Americans ordered an average of 127 takeout meals per person 20 years after 1984. (1. a. g (70) = 76 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 76%.25(18) + 72 = 126 Americans ordered an average of 126 takeout meals per person 18 years after 1984.125 x 2 + 5.6 x + 94 R(0) = −0. R ( x) = −0. b. Chad ) .6(4) + 94 = 91. c. or 1984. or 1988. T ( x) = −0. f (90) = 25 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 25%. the average number of takeout orders approximately equaled the average number of inrestaurant meals 4 years after 1984. 1. a.125 x 2 + 5. 104. Function f is the better model. R( x) = −0. T ( x) = −0.126). the relation is a function.6 x + 94 R (4) = −0. Inc.6(0) + 94 = 94 Americans ordered an average of 94 meals in restaurants per person 0 years after 1984.125 x 2 + 5.6 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91. Haiti ) .125(18)2 + 5. {(1. (1.6 x + 94 R(20) = −0. 103. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range. c. 102. This is represented on the graph by the point (20.8.7. This is represented on the graph by the point (0. or 2004. c. This is represented on the graph by the point (20. Bangladesh ) .

10 x + 0. 120. does not make sense. V ( x) = 22. false. f (a + h) = 3(a + h) + 7 = 3a + 3h + 7 f (a ) = 3a + 7 f ( a + h) − f ( a ) h ( 3a + 3h + 7 ) − ( 3a + 7 ) = h 3a + 3h + 7 − 3a − 7 3h = = =3 h h 106. Explanations will vary.Functions and Graphs 105. there will be 15 mL of sodium-iodine in the vaccine.500 − 3200(3) = $12. S ( x) = 0. 000 + 100(90) = $109. 119.900. 000 + 100 x 125. Publishing as Prentice Hall.(2. 130. Changes to make the statement true will vary. – 117. . 000 It will cost $109. An example is {(1.1)} 128. A sample change is: The domain is [−4. true = 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3h 148 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 122. Sample explanation: The parentheses used in function notation. rewrite 2 as 1 + 1. 108.8 C (90) = 100. 118. Explanations will vary. 109. does not make sense. 40 40 + x x + 30 40 40 T ( 30 ) = + 30 30 + 30 80 40 = + 60 60 120 = 60 =2 If you travel 30 mph going and 60 mph returning.40(t − 60) C (100) = 20 + 0. for example. such as f ( x). Explanations will vary. 131. makes sense 129. 2 ) .10(30) + 0. Sample explanation: This would not be a function because some elements in the domain would correspond to more than one age in the range.1). Changes to make the statement true will vary. 107. 900 After 3 years.000 to produce 90 bicycles. do not imply multiplication. your total trip will take 2 hours. false. Sample explanation: The domain is the number of years worked for the company. does not make sense. 121. A sample change is: The range is [ −2. C (t ) = 20 + 0. the car will be worth $12. Inc. To find f (2) . Answers may vary. Answers may vary.60(50 − 30) = 15 When 30 mL of the 10% mixture is mixed with 20 mL of the 60% mixture.60(50 − x) S (30) = 0. 500 − 3200 x V (3) = 22. 126. It is given that f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) and f (1) = 3 . T ( x) = 127. Changes to make the statement true will vary. = 2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 − 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x − 3 x + 3h + 5 − 5 124. It is not true for f ( x ) = x 2 .40(100 − 60) = 20 + 0. false. it is not true for all functions. the monthly cost is $36. 4]. 2( x + h) 2 + 3( x + h) + 5 − (2 x 2 + 3x + 5) 123. A sample change is: f (0) = 0. f (2) = f (1 + 1) = f (1) + f (1) = 3+3 = 6 Similarly: f (3) = f (2 + 1) = f (2) + f (1) = 6+3= 9 f (4) = f (3 + 1) = f (3) + f (1) = 9 + 3 = 12 While f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) is true for this function. C ( x) = 100.40(40) = 20 + 16 = 36 For 100 calling minutes.

C (80) = 20 + 0. increasing: (−1. ∞) c. increasing: (–3. 1). decreasing: (−∞. ∞) b. C (40) = 20 With 40 calling minutes. − 1) c. constant: none a. h( − x ) = ( − x )5 + 1 = − x 5 + 1 The function is neither even nor odd. 5. 3. b. ∞). the cost is $20. constant: none 4. This is represented by ( 40.40(80 − 60) = 28 With 80 calling minutes. constant: none a.3 Section 1. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 + 2 x 2 − x − 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 Exercise Set 1. increasing: (–∞. a. g (− x ) = 7(− x)3 − (− x) = −7 x3 + x = − f ( x) The function is odd. c. 4. This is represented by ( 80. 6) c. constant: none a.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 2. decreasing on the interval (–1. constant: none a. a. = The function is increasing on the interval (–∞. decreasing: none c. –1) b. increasing: none b. decreasing: (–1. f ( x ) = −2 x 2 + x + 5 f ( x + h) = −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) + 5 = −2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + x + h + 5 = −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 6.3 b. Since 80 > 60 .3 3.40(t − 60) b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 60 1. the cost is $28. Check Point Exercises 1. 28 ) . ∞) b. if t > 60 Since 0 ≤ 40 ≤ 60 . 2) b. 20 ) . ) . ⎧ 20 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩ 20 + 0. –1). c. increasing: (0. and increasing on the interval (1. ( −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 − −2 x 2 + x + 5 5. ∞) b. decreasing: none c. decreasing: none c. increasing: (–1. 149 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. constant: none a. decreasing: (–2. Inc. f (− x) = (− x) 2 + 6 = x 2 + 6 = f ( x) The function is even.

odd function a. 2) or (4. a. − 1) b. ∞) g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + (− x) c. h( x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 increasing: none h(− x ) = 2(− x )2 + (− x) 4 b. decreasing: (0. constant: none 20. 0) or (2. even function 11. x = −2. h(− x ) = h( x). a. a. − 2) or (4. odd function 18. ∞) b. neither 21. a. −4) or (−2. even function 23. even function 16. relative maximum = 4 f ( x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) 4 + 1 b. a. 0) f ( − x ) = − x 3 + x = −( x 3 − x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). 3) 17.5) c. 3. a. −4) or (2. decreasing: none f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 − ( − x ) c. increasing: (−∞. 0) or (1. f ( x) = x 3 + x f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 + (− x ) f ( − x ) = − x 3 − x = −( x 3 + x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). even function 14. 8. a.Functions and Graphs 7. decreasing: none c. constant: (−∞. relative minimum = −6 f (− x) = f ( x). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2) h( − x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 c. relative maximum = 21 f (− x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 b. ∞ ) h( − x ) = x 2 − x 4 h(− x) = h( x). relative minimum = 3 150 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 22. 19. −2) or (0. increasing: (−5. 13. 9. neither 10. decreasing: (–4. 3. x = −3. x = 0. a. ∞) a. x =1. increasing: (−∞. relative minimum = 0 f (− x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = f ( x). Inc. relative minimum = –1 24. ∞ ) 12. x = 1.5. f ( x) = x3 − x g ( x) = x 2 + x b. 4) b. constant: none g (− x) = x 2 − x.5) or (3. decreasing: (−4. h( x ) = x 2 − x 4 increasing: (–2. f ( x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 f (− x) = 2(− x) 2 + (− x)4 + 1 15. x = −3. 4) h( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − ( − x ) 4 b. increasing: (0. x = 0. constant: (−1. . constant: (–∞. g ( x) = x 2 − x g ( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − (− x ) g (− x ) = x 2 + x. decreasing: none c. constant: (−∞. relative maximum = 2 b. 1. relative maximum = 30 b. x = 4.

( −2. y-intercept: 4 e. 1− (−x) 1− x range: l. ∞ ) b.3) or ( 3. ( −∞. ( 4. y-intercept: 1 e. 0 ) g. even function 29. x-intercepts: –4. f (− x) ≠ x . The graph is not symmetric with respect to the y-axis or the origin. The function is odd. f (−2) = 4 and f (3) = 2 j. range: c. or ( 0. y = −4 j. Inc. a. ∞ ) 151 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( −∞. f (− x) ≠ − x domain: 2 ( −∞. The function is neither even nor odd. 0 ) h. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. The graph is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. ( −∞. ∞ ) 5 f (− x) = −(2 x3 − 6 x 5 ) 27. x=4 i. 4 ) g. . f (− x) ≠ x .∞ ) f. ( 0. x = −2 and x = 3 i. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x-intercepts: 1. 4 d. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. 32. domain: neither . ∞ ) or [ 4. even function 33. f (− x) ≠ − x 2 f(–x) = f(x). 4] b. 2 f(–x) = – f(x).PreCalculus 4E 25. The function is even. odd function f ( x) = x 1 − x 2 f (− x) = − x 1 − (− x) f (− x) = − x 1 − x 2 ( = − x 1 − x2 ) f (−x) = x 2 2 c. f (2) = −2 and f (6) = −2 34. f (−2) = 4 k. 26. 7 d. 30. f ( x ) = x2 1 − x2 f (−x) = (−x) [ −4. 31.3 1 6 x − 3x 2 5 1 f (− x) = (− x)6 − 3(− x) 2 5 1 f (− x) = x 6 − 3 x 2 5 f (− x) = f ( x) . ( −∞. Section 1. −4] h. ∞ ) ( −∞. a. The function is odd. f (−3) = 4 k. −2 ) f. x = −4 and x = 4 l. odd function 28. f ( x) = f ( x) = 2 x3 − 6 x 5 f (− x) = 2(− x)3 − 6(− x)5 f ( − x ) = −2 x + 6 x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x). neither .

3 d. h(5) = 52 − 9 25 − 9 16 = = =8 5−3 2 2 b. −2 ) f. positive. ( 2. g(0) = 0 + 3 = 3 f(–3) = 6(–3) – 1 = –19 b. a. a. f(–2) = 3(–2) + 5 = –1 b. g(–6) = –(–6 + 3) = –(–3) = 3 ( −∞. h(0) = 02 − 25 −25 = =5 0−5 −5 c. 44. ( −∞. 4] b. 6] c. 3 f (0) = 1 43. g(–5) = –5 + 5 = 0 41. −3] h. h(7) = 7 2 − 25 49 − 25 24 = = = 12 7 −5 2 2 b.3) ( −∞. x-intercepts: –3. x =1 j. c. f(3) = 4(3) + 7 = 19 38. f (−1) = +2 36. ( −2. a. .1] d. 152 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. range: [ 0. domain: range: ( −∞. neither l. 37. 6 ) g. a. ( −∞. f (1) = 4 i. 40. g(0) = 0 + 5 = 5 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. negative. f(0) = 4(0) + 7 = 7 c.3] 39. f(2) is not greater than the function values to the immediate left. a. g(–3) = –3 + 3 = 0 e. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. 2 ) h. x = −5 and x = 5 j. a.1) f. h(5) = 10 zeros of f: –3. f(0) = 7(0) + 3 = 3 c. b. Inc. a. f (0) = 3 e. g. b. domain: ( −∞. h(0) = 0 2 − 9 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 c. b. 3) i.Functions and Graphs 35. a. (1. no. h(3) = 6 42. ( −∞. ( −3. g(–6) = –(–6 + 5) = –(–1) = 1 c. range: c. f (4) = −1 k. f(4) = 7(4) + 3 = 31 b. 0] a.

153 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. Section 1.PreCalculus 4E 45. Inc. range: (−∞. 47. b. 52. b. range: a. a. b. 48. . 49. ( −∞. range: ( −∞. 0] ∪ {3} a. 0] ∪ [3.3 range: {−4. ∞) b. range: [ 0. 0] ∪ {2} 50. 46. b. b. b. range: (−∞. ∞) range: {−3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4} a. a. 3} a. a. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. 51. ∞ ) a.

∞ ) 58. a. Inc. 56. a. 59. 57. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 7( x + h) − 7 x = h 7 x + 7h − 7 x = h 7h = h =7 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2( x + h) 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 2( x + 2 xh + h 2 ) − 2 x 2 = h 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 4 xh + 2h = h h ( 4 x + 2h ) = h = 4 x + 2h 154 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 53. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: [ −1. 55. range: [ 0. b. 54. . ∞ ) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 3( x + h) + 7 − (3x + 7) = h 3x + 3h + 7 − 3x − 7 = h 3h = h =3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 6( x + h) + 1 − (6 x + 1) = h 6 x + 6h + 1 − 6 x − 1 = h 6h = h =6 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( x + h) 2 − x2 h x + 2 xh + h 2 − x 2 = h 2 2 xh + h = h h ( 2x + h) = h = 2x + h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 4( x + h) − 4 x = h 4 x + 4h − 4 x = h 4h = h =4 2 60.

3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 4( x + h) + 3 − ( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − 4 x − 4h + 3 − x 2 + 4 x − 3 = h 2 xh + h 2 − 4h = h h(2 x + h − 4) = h = 2x + h − 4 64.PreCalculus 4E 61. Inc. 62. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) + 4 − (− x 2 + 2 x + 4) 2 = h − x − 2 xh − h + 2 x + 2h + 4 + x 2 − 2 x − 4 = h 2 −2 xh − h + 2h = h h ( −2 x − h + 2 ) = h = −2 x − h + 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 66. 63. 2 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (2 x 2 + x − 1) 2 = f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) − 3 ( x + h ) + 1 − (− x 2 − 3x + 1) 2 = h 2 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h + x + h − 1 − 2 x 2 − x + 1 = h 2 4 xh + 2h + h = h h ( 4 x + 2h + 1) = h = 4 x + 2h + 1 h − x − 2 xh − h − 3 x − 3h + 1 + x 2 + 3x − 1 = h 2 −2 xh − h − 3h = h h ( −2 x − h − 3) = h = −2 x − h − 3 2 2 155 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 1. 3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) + 5 − (3 x 2 + x + 5) 2 = h 3x 2 + 6 xh + 3h 2 + x + h + 5 − 3x 2 − x − 5 = h 6 xh + 3h 2 + h = h h ( 6 x + 3h + 1) = h = 6 x + 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 5( x + h) + 8 − ( x 2 − 5 x + 8) = h 2 2 x + 2 xh + h − 5 x − 5h + 8 − x 2 + 5 x − 8 = h 2 2 xh + h − 5h = h h ( 2 x + h − 5) = h = 2x + h − 5 65.

f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2 ( x + h ) − ( x + h ) + 3 − (−2 x 2 − x + 3) 2 = h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h − x − h + 3 + 2 x 2 + x − 3 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h − h = h h ( −4 x − 2h − 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h − 1 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − x h x + = h − ( x + h) x + x ( x + h) x ( x + h) = h x−x−h x ( x + h) = h −h x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ x ( x + h) h −1 = x ( x + h) 156 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −2 ( x + h ) + 5 ( x + h ) + 7 − (−2 x 2 + 5 x + 7) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 = 2 = h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + 5 x + 5h + 7 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 7 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + 5h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 5 ) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 5 68. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 7 − 7 0 = = =0 h h h −3 ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + 2 x − 1) 2 = h 2 2 −3x − 6 xh − 3h + 2 x + 2h − 1 + 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = h 2 −6 xh − 3h + 2h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 2 ) = h = −6 x − 3h + 2 69. .Functions and Graphs 67. 73. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 6 − 6 0 = = =0 h h h 72. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 70. −3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + x − 1) h −3x 2 − 6 xh − 3h 2 + x + h − 1 + 3 x 2 − x + 1 = h −6 xh − 3h 2 + h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 1) = h = −6 x − 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 71. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

9) − [ f (π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f ( −π ) 2 = 1 + 0 − [ −4 ] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ 3 2 = 1 − 16 + ( −1) ⋅ 3 = 1 − 16 − 3 = −18 78. f ( −1.5) − f (1. Section 1. 30 + 0. f ( −2. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 400 if t > 400 .3t − 6 80.3 x+h + x f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x + h −1 − x −1 h = x + h −1 − x −1 x + h −1 + x −1 ⋅ h x + h −1 + x −1 x + h − 1 − ( x − 1) = = = = = h h h ( ( ( x + h −1 + x −1 x + h −1 − x +1 x + h −1 + x −1 h x + h −1 + x −1 ) ) ) 1 x + h −1 + x −1 157 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9) − [ f ( −π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 f (−2.3t − 60 = 0.9) − [ f (−π )] + f (−3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 = 2 − (−2) − [ 3] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ ( −4 ) 2 = 4 − 9 + ( −1)( −4 ) = 2−9+ 4 = −3 79.5) − f (1. ⎧50 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩50 + 0.30(t − 200) = 40 + 0.30(t − 400) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x+h − x h x+h − x x+h + x ⋅ h x+h + x x+h− x = = = = h h ( ( x+h + x h x+h + x ) ) 1 = 76. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 40 + 0. 75.3t − 36 = 0.5) + f ( −0.30(t − 120) = 30 + 0. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − 2( x + h) 2 x = h x x+h − 2 x ( x + h) 2 x ( x + h) = h −h 2 x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ 2 x ( x + h) h −1 = 2x ( x + h) 77.3t − 20 81.PreCalculus 4E 74.

101. 93. 86.5 ounces is $0. 2) 158 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This maximum is 38%. T (20. range: [23. f (3. 92.850) 94.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $20.5) = 0.25(50. ⎧60 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩60 + 0. Inc.000 owes $2608.35( x − 349. 39. 99. The minimum is (20. 0) or (2. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. 000 − 7825) = 2608.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $50.25 + 0.148.000 owes $8923. 000) = 782. 87. increasing: (25. about 4. decreasing: (55.59. 65). The percent body fat in women reaches a maximum at age 55. 108. 1) or (3. domain: [25.850) = 8923. if t > 450 98.25 + 0.75.59. 75]. .75 + 0. range: [34. Answers may vary. – 105.99). 3.5 ounces is $0.93. domain: [25.Functions and Graphs 82. 83.76 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3 ounces is $0. 469. 96. 700) 95.75. This model describes percent body fat in women. 75) 84. ∞) Decreasing: (1. 75) 100.50 + 0. 55). 107. Increasing: (–2.35(t − 450) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 450 97. 85. 000) = 4386. increasing: (25. 90. This maximum is 26%. occurs at around age 20.33( x − 160. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 89. Increasing: (−∞.8 ounces is $0.76.15(20. 38] 88. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞.29. 3) T (50. –2) or (0. This model describes percent body fat in men. The percent body fat in men reaches a maximum at age 65. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. 106.93 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3. 000 − 31. f (3) = 0. 26] The number of doctor visits decreases during childhood and then increases as you get older. which means that the minimum number of doctor visits. 75]. decreasing: (65. 91.

109. f and g are both even: f (– x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) f and g are both odd: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = = h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) h is odd if f is odd and g is even or if f is even and g is odd.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 0) Decreasing: (0. f is odd and g is even: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x ) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) g ( x) f is even and g is odd: f (– x) f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) 159 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. answers may vary 112. makes sense 117. 115. makes sense Increasing: (0. 110. Inc. Increasing: (1. 0) 119. Explanations will vary.3 b. e. Increasing: (–∞. 111. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. b. h is even if both f and g are even or if both f and g are odd. ∞) 118. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. Sample explanation: It’s possible the graph is not defined at a. 2) Increasing: (0. ∞) when n is odd. − 2) Constant: (–2. a. a. Decreasing: (−∞. ∞) 113. . makes sense 116. Increasing: (2. 1) 114. 120. does not make sense. 0) d. answers may vary Decreasing: (−∞. ∞) c. f ( x ) = x n is increasing from (–∞.

−2 ) . we get the point slope equation: y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − (−1) = −5[ x − (−2)] x = −2 The point is ( 0. answers may vary 122. 0 ⎟ . 5. Inc. so one point on the line is (1. 123.Solve the equation for y : y + 1 = −5 x − 10 3x + 2 y − 4 = 0 y = −5 x − 11. 2 y = −3 x + 4 −3 x + 4 2 or 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 3 is a horizontal line. y + 5 = 6 x − 12 y = 6 x − 17 3.4 4 −1 3 y2 − y1 = = =3 x2 − x1 −2 − (−3) 1 Check Point Exercises 1. When y = 0 : 4x − 3 y − 6 = 0 4 x − 3(0) − 6 = 0 a. Using the point (–2. m= 5 − (−2) 7 7 = =− −1 − 4 −5 5 4x − 6 = 0 4x = 6 2. 1). We can find a second point on the line by using the slope m = 35 = Rise : starting at Run 3 x+2 2 the point (0. −1 − (−2) 1 so the slope is –5. 124. 4).Functions and Graphs 121. ⎝2 ⎠ When x = 0 : 4x − 3y − 6 = 0 The slope m is 3 5 and the y-intercept is 1. to obtain the point (5. 4(0) − 3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y = 6 y + 1 = −5( x + 2). Section 1. y= y=− −6 − (−1) −5 = = −5 . m= −2 − 4 −6 = =6 −4 − (−3) −1 b. –1). 0). y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 6( x − 2) 3 x= 2 ⎛3 ⎞ The point is ⎜ . 160 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. move 3 units up and 5 units to the right. .

rises 2 − (−2) 4 4.016(600) + 52. First find the slope. rises 3−2 1 3.6 m= = = ≈ 0. horizontal 3− 4 −1 6. m= −2 − 3 −5 = undefined. falls −1 − (−2) 1 8. Section 1. Any value can be used for y. rises 8−4 4 2. horizontal 3−4 −1 7. m= −1 − 4 −5 = = −5. vertical 5−5 0 161 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. rises 2 − (−1) 3 5. 9. f ( x) = 0.016( x − 317) y − 57.016 x + 52. 7.4 All ordered pairs that are solutions of x = −3 have a value of x that is always –3.04 = 0.016 Change in x 354 − 317 37 Use the point-slope form and then find slopeintercept form. Change in y 57.968 f ( x) = 0. . 3x + 6 y − 12 = 0 6 y = −3 x + 12 −3 12 y= x+ 6 6 1 y = − x+2 2 Exercise Set 1.6 The temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million would be 61.04 0. m= 4 −1 3 = = 3.4 The slope is − 8. 1 and the y-intercept is 2.0 f (600) = 0. m= 2 −1 1 = .072 y = 0.64 − 57.016 x + 51. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 57.016 x − 5. 2 Find the x-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3x − 2(0) − 6 = 0 3x − 6 = 0 3x = 6 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3(0) − 2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y = 6 y = −3 1.PreCalculus 4E 6.016 x + 52. m= 2 − (−2) 0 = = 0. m= −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0.6°F. m= 10 − 7 3 = .04 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0 Find the temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million. Inc. falls 4−6 −2 9. m= 4−3 1 = . m= −2 − (−4) 2 = = −1.0 = 61.

point-slope form: y + 1 = 8(x – 4). point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x − 0). m = 4. 5 3 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 5 y = −4 x − 16 18. slope-intercept form: y = –5x – 22 17. y1 = −2. m= 11. point-slope form: y – 3 = 4(x – 1). 4 17 slope-intercept form: y = − x − 4 20. x1 = 10. y1 ) = (1. point-slope form: y + 3 = –2(x – 0) m = −2. 4 1 m = −1. x1 = 4. vertical 3−3 0 10. slope-intercept form: y = 4x – 1 13. x1 = 0. 5 −1 4 point-slope form: y – 2 = 2(x – 1) using ( x1 . 2 25. y1 = 0. Inc. y1 = −1. point-slope form: y + 3 = –3(x + 2). slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 2 x − 6 1 = −1( x + 4). 2⎠ ⎝ 1 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x − 2 5 y = −x − 2 10 − 2 8 = = 2. x1 = −4. y1 = 0. point-slope form: y – 0 = –4(x + 4). 3 2 point-slope form: y + 2 = − ( x − 6). 1⎞ ⎛ point-slope form: y + 2 = −1⎜ x + ⎟ . y = 2x 162 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = y = 6 x + 17 15. y1 = 3. 12. slope-intercept form: y = 8x – 33 m = −3. point-slope form: y + 2 = –5(x + 4). m= −1 . x1 = −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x1 = 6. 3 1 m = . point-slope form: y + y = 2x −1 21. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 6 x + 12 1 22. y1 ) = (5. slope-intercept form: y = –2x – 3 19. y1 = 5. y1 = 0. 3 2 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x + 4 3 2 y = − x+2 3 16. slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −3 x − 6 23. y1 = −3. point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3). y1 = − . . y1 = −4. x1 = −2. point-slope form: y – 5 = 6(x + 2). x1 = 0. x1 = −2. y = −3 x − 9 m = −4. m = −1.Functions and Graphs 5 − (−4) 9 = undefined. m = 2. y1 = −3. x1 = 2 m = − . 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 2 m = 6. x1 = 3. 1 . y1 = −2. m = 8. y1 = −2. 10) . slope-intercept form: y = −4( x + 4) 3 24. slope-intercept form: y − 2 = 2 x − 2 or y − 10 = 2 x − 10. x1 = 1. m = −5. point-slope form: y + 4 = − ( x − 10). 3 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 3 14. 5 3 m = − . 2) . 1 ( x − 0). x1 = 0. x1 = −4. or y – 10 = 2(x – 5) using m= ( x1 . y1 = 5.

− 2 ) . − 1) . − 1) .15) . slope-intercept form: y + 1 = x + 3or y−4 = x−2 y = x+2 m= 4 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 3 33. or y + 2 = − ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. slope-intercept form: y + 5 = 0. . y1 ) = (−3. y1 ) = (−3. 0 − 4 −4 = = 1. 4 ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . 6 ) . y1 ) = ( −3. 6 − (−2) 8 4 = = . slope-intercept form: y = 2x – 1 28. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 4 ) . y1 ) = (2. m= 4 − (−1) 5 = =1. y1 ) = (2. Inc. y1 ) = (0. 3 4 y = x+2 3 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = 2−0 2 = =1. y1 ) = ( 3. 0) . − 2) . y1 ) = ( −2. y1 ) = (−3. −2 − 2 −4 point-slope form: y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . so y = −5 35. 6 − (−2) 8 point-slope form: y + 5 = 0(x + 2) using ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y + 1 = 0. 2 − (−3) 5 point-slope form: y + 1 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . 8−3 5 point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3) using ( x1 . − 5 ) . y1 ) = ( −2. 2 ) . 0 ) . 3− 0 3 = =1. or y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . y1 ) = (−3.so −1 − (−4) 3 = =1. or y + 5 = 0(x – 6) using m= ( x1 . or y − 6 = ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . or y + 1 = 1(x – 1) using y = −1 34. y1 ) = (3. ( x1 . or y = x+2 163 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m = 1 − (−2) 3 point-slope form: y + 4 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . 0 − (−2) 2 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 .PreCalculus 4E 26. Section 1.4 15 − 5 10 = =2. y1 ) = ( 0. 3 − (−3) 6 3 point-slope form: y + 2 = ( x1 . or y + 1 = 0(x – 4) using m= ( x1 . 4 − (−3) 7 point-slope form: y + 1 = 0(x + 3) using ( x1 . or y – 3 = 1(x – 0) using ( x1 . 3) . or y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using m= ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y − 9 = x − 2. m= 4 −2 − 6 −8 = =− . 4) . 3 − (−3) 6 3 4 point-slope form: y − 6 = − ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . 0 − (−3) 3 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . − 5) . y1 ) = (−2. 0) . 30. y1 ) = ( 3. y1 ) = (1. 27. 4) . − 1) . y1 ) = ( 8. y1 ) = ( −2.5 ) .or y – 15 = 2(x – 8) using m= 31. y1 ) = (4. 6) . slope-intercept form: y = x + 2 29. − 1) slope-intercept form: y = x – 2 −5 − (−5) 0 = =0. or y – 2 = 1(x – 0) using m= 32. ( x1 . y1 ) = ( 6. slope-intercept form: y = x + 3 m= 4 + 4 or 3x 4 y − 6 = x − 4.

4) . y1 ) = ( −1. y1 ) = (0. b = 1 3 point-slope form: y + 3 = − ( x − 1) using 2 3 ( x1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 m = . 0 ) . m = –2. b = 2 4−0 4 = =8. m= 42.Functions and Graphs 36. 0 − ( − 12 ) 12 point-slope form: y – 4 = 8(x – 0) using ( x1 . − 3) . 3 3 slope-intercept form: y + 3 = − x + . m= 0 − (−3) 3 3 = =− −1 − 1 −2 2 41. y1 ) = (1. or 2 2 3 3 y = − x− 2 2 37. . − 2 ) . m = 2. 0 ) . 3 m = . y1 ) = ( 0. b = 1 40. 0 − 4 −4 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x1 . m = –3. y1 ) = ( 4. or y − 0 = − ( x + 1) using 2 ( x1 . 1 ( x − 4) using 2 1 ( x − 0) using ( x1 . b = –2 4 44. or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) using ( x1 . or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) slope-intercept form: y = 8 x + 4 38. m = 3. Inc. y1 ) = ( − 12 . 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x − 2 2 or y + 2 = 39. b = −3 4 −2 − 0 −2 1 = = . m= 43. b = 2 164 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0 ) .

50. 2 m=− .4 3 m=− . 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 45. 46. 55. Inc. b=7 5 49.b=6 5 51. 47. . 165 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.b=0 2 53. Section 1.b=0 3 54. 1 m=− . 52. 1 m=− .

58. b = 5 c. c. a. 60. b. b. a. 57. Inc. . 2 x + 3 y − 18 = 0 2 x − 18 = −3 y −3 y = 2 x − 18 2 18 y= x− −3 −3 2 y = − x+6 3 b. 3x + y − 5 = 0 y − 5 = −3 x y = −3 x + 5 4 x + 6 y + 12 = 0 4 x + 12 = −6 y −6 y = 4 x + 12 4 12 y= x+ −6 −6 2 y = − x−2 3 m = –3. b = –2 3 c. 2 m = − . b = 6 166 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b=6 3 c. 3x − 18 = 0 3x = 18 x=6 61. 2 m=− . 62. a. b. 4x + y − 6 = 0 y − 6 = −4 x y = −4 x + 6 m = −4.Functions and Graphs 56. 3x + 12 = 0 3x = −12 x = −4 59. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 64. 6 m = . a. b = −4 5 c. b = 3 c. Section 1. m = 2. a. 67. b = –3 c. m = 0. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 65. 6 x − 2(0) − 12 = 0 6 x − 12 = 0 6 x = 12 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 6(0) − 2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y = 12 y = −6 6 x − 5 y − 20 = 0 6 x − 20 = 5 y 5 y = 6 x − 20 6 20 y = x− 5 5 6 y = x−4 5 b.4 8 x − 4 y − 12 = 0 8 x − 12 = 4 y 4 y = 8 x − 12 8 12 y = x− 4 4 y = 2x − 3 66. . a. b. m = 0. a. 167 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 y + 28 = 0 4 y = −28 y = −7 b. b = −7 c. 3y − 9 = 0 3y = 9 y=3 b.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 70. Find the x-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 71. Find the x-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 6 x − 9(0) − 18 = 0 6 x − 18 = 0 6 x = 18 x=3 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 6(0) − 9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y = 18 y = −2 3x + 5(0) + 15 = 0 3x + 15 = 0 3x = −15 x = −5 Find the y-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 3(0) + 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y = −15 y = −3 69.Functions and Graphs 68. Inc. Find the x-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8 x − 2(0) + 12 = 0 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x + 3(0) + 6 = 0 2x + 6 = 0 2 x = −6 x = −3 Find the y-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 2(0) + 3 y + 6 = 0 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −6 y = −2 8 x = −12 8 x −12 = 8 8 −3 x= 2 Find the y-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8(0) − 2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y = −12 y = −6 168 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

b Therefore. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Therefore. . the line falls. m= 0 − a −a a = =− b−0 b b Since a and b are both positive. 169 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m= 3x − 4 f ( x ) = 6 −4 f ( x ) = −3 x + 6 c 0 a−a The slope is undefined. 74. 75. −4 − y 1 = 3 4 − ( −2 ) 6 x − 3(0) + 15 = 0 6 x + 15 = 0 6 x = −15 6 x −15 = 6 6 5 x=− 2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 6(0) − 3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y = −15 y=5 73. − b is a negative. B B 79. − 1 −4 − y = 3 4+2 1 −4 − y = 3 6 6 = 3 ( −4 − y ) a is b negative. Inc. Ax + By = C By = − Ax + C A C y = − x+ B B A C The slope is − and the y − intercept is . The line is vertical. (b + c ) − b 81. m= 6 = −12 − 3 y 18 = −3 y −6 = y −b − 0 −b b = =− a 0 − ( −a ) a Since a and b are both positive.4 72. m= −3 = = f ( x) = 3 3 x− 4 2 (a + c) − c a = a − (a − b) b Since a and b are both positive. 4− y 1− 3 4− y −3 = −2 6 = 4− y 2 = −y −2 = y 80. a is positive. 76. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 77.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. B B 78. the line falls. Therefore. Ax = By − C Ax + C = By A C x+ = y B B A C The slope is and the y − intercept is . the line rises.

215 x + 65.78 x + 23.1 = 0.65 x + 38.2 = 0.7 E (60) = 0.215 x + 65.7 y − 31.78 x + 23.1 7.65 ( x − 10 ) a. 6 x − 5 f ( x ) = 20 88.65 x − 6. c. f ( 35 ) = 0.3 c.65 ( x − 20 ) b.215(60) + 65. a. 38.215( x − 20) y − 38.51. m4 86.7 = 78. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 y − 31.65(35) + 38.78 ( x − 20 ) b. −3 = b 89. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 6 x−4 5 m= y − 45.78(40) + 23.3 = 54.65 x + 38.7 − 45. ages 25 – 29. −5 f ( x ) = −6 x + 20 f ( x) = First.1 = 0. 45.3 c. . y − 45. (10.78 x − 7.6.8 = = 0. y − 31. Change in y 74. find the slope using ( 20.0 = = 0. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) m= b.7 = 0.0 = 0. m3 . find the slope using ( 20. First.1 = 0.78 ( x − 10 ) y = 0.45 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American males. m1 . to be 54. Inc. m2 .38.8 y = 0.31.9 ) and (10.7 E ( x) = 0.7 = 61.5 83.3 − 70.7 −1 = −6 + b 5=b 84.9 − 31.7 f ( x ) = 0.65 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form. 3 ( 2) + b 2 −6 = −3 + b −6 = − 85. to be 61. 170 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.78 ( x − 10 ) or y − 70.1) .9 = 0.Functions and Graphs 82.2 6.215 x − 4.215 x + 65.6 The life expectancy of American men born in 2020 is expected to be 78. b3 87.5 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American females.2 ) . ages 25 – 29.5 = = 0. f ( x ) = 0.5% in 2020. b4 .65 ( x − 10 ) or y − 51. y − 45.0 = 0. y − 70.2 = 0.7 ) and 51. b2 . a.45% in 2015.215 Change in x 40 − 20 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= E ( x) = 0. f ( 40 ) = 0. b1 .78 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form. Using the slope-intercept form for the equation of a line: −1 = −2 ( 3) + b y = 0.2 = 0.

7 − 74. 10 − 0 10 4 3 Check: y = mx + b : y = x − 2 . 110) Points may vary. a = −22. 4 E ( x) = 0. 230) (60.17 x + 73 E (60) = 0.7 = ≈ 0.75 or . −24 − 6 −30 m= = = −3. a. 103. 10 − 0 10 2 Change in y 79.17 Change in x 40 − 10 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 74.17 x + 73 E ( x) = 0.2 The life expectancy of American women born in 2020 is expected to be 83.4( x − 10) y − 230 = −2.5633751 r = −0.PreCalculus 4E 90.17( x − 10) y − 74. Two points are (0.5 − (−2) 7. –2) and (10.7 = 0.4 60 − 10 50 y − 230 = −2. – 99. −10 − (−5) −5 1 m= = =− .–5) and (10.2. . Two points are (0. 92.17 x − 1. Enter data from table.4 101. Section 1. 10 − 0 10 c. 5. 104. b. Inc. 100.4) and (10. Answers may vary.4 x + 24 y = −2. 102.4 x + 254 Answers may vary for predictions. –24). 91.17 x + 73 c. 110 − 230 120 m= =− = −2.5 3 m= = = 0. 6) and (10.7 = 0.–10). 24 − 4 20 m= = = 2.24). a. Two points are (0.7 y = 0. 171 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5).96876741 b = 260. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8428126855 d. Two points are (0. 5.17(60) + 73 = 83. 10 − 0 10 Check: y = mx + b : y = −3x + 6 . (10.

4 M – 20. 2 We can put this equation in the form ax + by = c to find the missing coefficients. Answers may vary. true 112. One such way is to rewrite the equation in slope-intercept form. Since the slope is the same as the slope of y = 2 x + 1. 110. Sample explanation: Linear functions never change from increasing to decreasing. the coefficient of x is 1 and the coefficient of y is −2. 111. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Since the slope is the negative reciprocal of − . Using ( x1 . We are given that the x − intercept is −2 and the y − intercept is 4 . x − 2 y = 12 Therefore. We can use the points ( −2. y1 ) = ( 25. Sample explanation: Since college cost are going up. makes sense 109. 0). Let (25. 40) and (125. false. E) where M is degrees Madonna and E is degrees Elvis. A sample change is: The graph of x = 7 is a vertical line through the point (7. 40 ) . Vertical lines have equations of the form x = a . 115. We are given that the y − intercept is − 6 and the 105. 1 x − 6. Sample explanation: The slope of line’s whose equations are in this form can be determined in several ways. this function has a positive slope. slope is 106. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) Using the slope and one of the intercepts.4 . 108. false. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − ( −3 ) ) y − 1 = 2 ( x + 3) y − 0 = 2 ( x − ( −2 ) ) y − 1 = 2x + 6 y = 2 ( x + 2) y = 2x + 7 y = 2x + 4 −2 x + y = 4 Find the x– and y–coefficients for the equation of the line with right-hand-side equal to 12. 0 ) and ( 0. A sample change is: It is possible for m to equal b.Functions and Graphs 114. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. false. Inc. we can write the line in point-slope form. 113. 4 then m = 4. 2 to find the slope. the coefficient of x is –6 and the coefficient of y is 3.4 (M – 25) or E = 2. does not make sense. 117. 4 ) m= 1 . 125 − 25 100 point-slope form tells us that E – 40 = 2. 280) be ordered pairs (M. Answers may vary. 116. 4 x − y − 17 = 0 172 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 4 ( x − 3) y + 5 = 4 x − 12 −4 x + y + 17 = 0 3 ( −2 x + y ) = 3 ( 4 ) −6 x + 3 y = 12 Therefore. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. −2 x + y = 4 1 119. Explanations will vary. A sample change is: Slope-intercept form is y = mx + b . does not make sense. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Then 280 − 40 240 m= = = 2. 4−0 4 4 = = =2 0 − ( −2 ) 0 + 2 2 118. Equations of this form have undefined slope and cannot be written in slope-intercept form. then m = 2. 1 y = x−6 2 1 y − x = −6 2 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ y − x ⎟ = 2 ( −6 ) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 y − x = −12 So the equation of the line is y = 107. . Multiply both sides of −2 x + y = 4 by 3 to obtain 12 on the righthand-side.

5.S.04 feet per second Δt 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. men living alone is projected to increase by 0.7 = = ≈ 0. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 23 − 13 8 − 1 = = =7 x2 − x1 2 −1 1 c. The slope of this line is − b. Section 1. m= y − 2 = 2x − 8 y = 2x − 6 In function notation.03 = = = 0. Use m = 3 and the point (–2.5 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (1) = 4 −1 x2 − x1 4.01)2 = 4.5) = 4(1. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 y = 3x + 11 slope-intercept 2. The slope of the line y = 3 x + 1 is 3. the equation of the line is f ( x ) = 2 x − 6.01 x2 − x1 3 −1 3 −1 6.5)2 = 9 Δs 9 − 4 = = 10 feet per second Δt 1.7 − 9. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Exercise Set 1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 13 − 03 = =1 x2 − x1 1− 0 b.5 1.01 − 1 1 thus the slope of 3 any line perpendicular to this line is 3.PreCalculus 4E 120.0804 Δs 4. a. –6) to write the equation. Inc. a. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (1. y − (−6) = 3 ( x − (−2) ) Since L is parallel to y = 2 x. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (2) = 4(2)2 = 16 Change in y 12. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Δs 16 − 4 = = 12 feet per second Δt 2 −1 y − 5 = 3 ( x − (−2) ) y − 5 = 3( x + 2) point-slope y − 5 = 3x + 6 b. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y + 6 = 3( x + 2) y + 6 = 3x + 6 −3 x + y = 0 y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. .5 Check Point Exercises 1. Write the equation in slope-intercept form: x + 3 y − 12 = 0 3 y = − x + 12 1 y = − x+4 3 s (1.0804 − 4 = = 8. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 03 − (−2)3 8 = = =4 x2 − x1 0 − (−2) 2 = Section 1. 2 ) .25 million each year.01) = 4(1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (3) − f (1) 0.25 Change in x 2005 − 1990 15 The slope indicates that the number of U. We are given that it passes through ( 4.05 − 0.0 3. we know it will have slope m = 2. 42 − 12 4 −1 15 = 3 =5 a.5 − 1 c. 173 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) 3x − y = 0 general form 3.

the equation of the line is 1 f ( x ) = − x + 5. we have y − 4 = −2 ( x − 3) .Functions and Graphs 2. 5. 1 x+7. x1 = −8. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. y1 = 2 . so m = since the 2 2 lines are parallel. L will have slope m = −2 . x1 = 2. We are given that it passes 2 through (2. 2 ( x + 2) 3 general form: 2 x − 3 y + 10 = 0 point-slope form: y − 2 = 10. 1 y − 4 = − ( x − 2) 2 1 y − 4 = − x +1 2 1 y = − x+5 2 In function notation. m = –4 since the line is parallel to y = −4 x + 3. y1 = −3. m = –5 since the line is parallel to y = −5 x + 4 . point-slope form: y − 2 = −3( x + 4) slope-intercept form: y − 2 = −3x − 12 y = −3x − 10 9. Use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. 3 1 L will have slope m = . The line passes through (– 2 1. 3x − 2 y − = 0 −2 y = −3x + 5 3 5 y = x− 2 2 The slope of the given line is 3 3 . point-slope form: y + 10 = –4(x + 8) slope-intercept form: y + 10 = –4x – 32 y = –4x – 42 6. 2). Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. y1 = −10. 4). we know it will 1 have slope m = − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 ( x + 1) 2 general form: 3 x − 2 y + 9 = 0 point-slope form: y − 3 = 174 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 point-slope form: y + 3 = –5(x – 2) slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −5 x + 10 y = −5 x + 7 8. y1 = −7 . y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − 2) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. Using the point and the slope. x1 = −2. . 2 y−4 = − x1 = −4. 1 1 y−2 = x+ 2 2 1 1 y = x+ +2 2 2 1 5 y = x+ 2 2 1 5 f ( x) = x + 2 2 2x − 3y − 7 = 0 −3 y = −2 x + 7 2 7 y = x− 3 3 The slope of the given line is 2 2 . y − 4 = −2 x + 6 y = −2 x + 10 f ( x ) = −2 x + 10 3. Inc. 1 y − 2 = ( x − ( −1) ) 2 1 y − 2 = ( x + 1) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. m = –5 since the line is perpendicular to 1 y = x + 6. point-slope form: y + 7 = –5(x + 2) slope-intercept form: y + 7 = −5 x − 10 y = −5 x − 17 7. 4. so m = since the 3 3 lines are parallel. m = −3 since the line is perpendicular to y = Since L is perpendicular to y = 2 x.

so m = 7 since the 7 lines are perpendicular.01)2 = 90.06 Δs 90. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (4) = 12(4)2 = 192 Δs 108 − 192 = = 84 feet per second 4−3 Δt b.5) = 10(3.5 x − 2y − 3 = 0 −2 y = − x + 3 1 3 y = x− 2 2 b.01 feet per second 3.001 − 3 Δt 1 The slope of the given line is − . Since the line is perpendicular to x = −4 which is a vertical line.001) = 12(3.01 − 3 Δt d. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3. we know the graph of f is a horizontal line with 0 slope. c. x + 7 y − 12 = 0 7 y = − x + 12 −1 12 y= x+ 7 7 s (3.07201 Δs 108.601 − 90 = = 60.601 Δs 90. so m = –2 since the 2 lines are perpendicular. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.5 − 3 1 . so the equation of 175 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5) = 12(3.5 ) . 15 − 0 15 = =3 5−0 5 14. The graph of f passes through ( −2. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.07201 − 108 = = 72.01)2 = 108.7212 − 108 = = 72.001) = 10(3.5)2 = 122. Publishing as Prentice Hall.01 feet per second 3. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 general form: 2 x + y − 1 = 0 12. y + 7 = –2 ( x − 4 ) point-slope form: c.001)2 = 90.01 − 3 Δt 2 17.06 − 90 = = 60. 24 − 0 24 = =6 4−0 4 15.001 − 3 Δt 21.5 − 90 = = 65 feet per second Δt 3. so the equation of Δs 160 − 90 = = 70 feet per second 4−3 Δt f is f ( x ) = 5. we know the graph of f is a horizontal s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (4) = 10(4)2 = 160 line with 0 slope. 16.7212 Δs 108. a. The graph of f passes through ( −1. a. Since the line is perpendicular to x = 6 which is a vertical line.001)2 = 108.5 d.5 − 2 Δt 52 + 2 ⋅ 5 − (32 + 2 ⋅ 3) 25 + 10 − (9 + 6) = 5−3 2 20 = 2 = 10 2 s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3. f is f ( x ) = 6. Section 1.01) = 12(3.PreCalculus 4E 11. The slope of the given line is Δs 122. 16 − 9 4 − 3 1 = = 16 − 9 7 7 19. 6 − 2 ( 6 ) − (3 − 2 ⋅ 3) 36 − 12 − ( 9 − 6 ) 21 = = =7 6−3 3 3 9 − 4 3−2 1 = = 9−4 5 5 18.1 feet per second 3.12 feet per second 3.5)2 = 147 Δs 147 − 108 = = 78 feet per second 3. . 6 ) . point-slope form: y + 9 = 7(x – 5) general form: 7 x − y − 44 = 0 13. 20. Inc. 22.01) = 10(3. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.

3 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −5) ) 3 1 y − 6 = − ( x + 5) 3 1 5 y−6 = − x− 3 3 1 13 y =− x+ 3 3 1 13 f ( x) = − x + 3 3 y−6 = − 176 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 3 and y − intercept of −9. First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 2 and y − intercept of −4.Functions and Graphs 23. This line will pass through ( 2. . 0 ) and ( 0. 2 1 Use the point ( −6. 0 ) and ( 0. −4 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. We use these points to find the slope. m= −9 − 0 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. it will have slope m = − . 6 ) and the slope − 1 to find the equation of the line. 3 Use the point ( −5. it will have slope m = − . 4 ) and the slope − to find the equation of the line. This line will pass through ( 3. m= −4 − 0 −4 = =2 0 − 2 −2 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. −9 ) . Inc. 2 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −6 ) ) 2 1 y − 4 = − ( x + 6) 2 1 y −4 = − x−3 2 1 y = − x +1 2 1 f ( x) = − x +1 2 y−4 = − 24. We use these points to find the slope.

3x − 2 y − 4 = 0 −2 y = −3 x + 4 y= 3 x−2 2 The equation of f will have slope − 2 since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 3 y − intercept −2. 177 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4x − y − 6 = 0 − y = −4 x + 6 y = 4x − 6 1 The equation of f will have slope − since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 4 y − intercept −6.8 − 1067. P( x) = −1.3 x + 23 29.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. First put the equation 3 x − 2 y − 4 = 0 in slope-intercept form. 2 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 2.5 25. 30. m= a.8 585. 1163 − 617 546 = ≈ 137 1998 − 1994 4 There was an average increase of approximately 137 discharges per year. First put the equation 4 x − y − 6 = 0 in slope-intercept form.3 m= ≈ −96 12 − 7 b. f ( x) = 1.2 x + 47 28. m= 612 − 1273 −661 = ≈ −132 2006 − 2001 5 There was an average decrease of approximately 132 discharges per year. P( x) = 1.1(7)3 − 35(7) 2 + 264(7) + 557 = 1067.1(0)3 − 35(0)2 + 264(0) + 557 = 557 f (4) = 1. 31. a. 32.1(12)3 − 35(12) 2 + 264(12) + 557 = 585.1(4)3 − 35(4)2 + 264(4) + 557 = 1123. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 26. 4 27. Inc. This overestimates by 5 discharges per year.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. . f ( x) = 1. 1 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 6. This underestimates the decrease by 36 discharges per year.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1.4 1123.3 f (12) = 1.4 − 557 m= ≈ 142 4−0 b.

. b. Inc. Ax + By + C = 0 By = − Ax − C By − Ax C = − B B B A C y = − x− B B The slope of the given line is − A . In part (b). The zoom square feature compensates for this and in part (c). c. The lines appear to be perpendicular. This causes the scale of the x–axis to differ from the scale on the y–axis despite using the same scale in the window settings. makes sense 42. does not make sense. A 178 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Write Ax + By + C = 0 in slope-intercept form.Functions and Graphs 33. Answers may vary. – 38. The lines are perpendicular because their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. this causes the lines not to appear perpendicular when indeed they are. Explanations will vary. 1 x +1 3 y = −3x − 2 y= a. makes sense 44. 43. The lines do not appear to be perpendicular. The calculator screen is rectangular and does not have the same width and height. 40. the lines appear to be perpendicular. This is verified because product of their slopes is –1. B The slope of any line perpendicular to Ax + By + C = 0 is B . 39. Sample explanation: Slopes can be used for segments of the graph. makes sense 41. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

The range is { y | −1 ≤ y ≤ 2}. −3) and ( −2. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted to the right 2 units. a. Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 1. This line is perpendicular to the line above so its 3 3 3 slope is .PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 45. The domain is {1. c. The relation is not a function. a. The relation is a function. b. The range is {−6. 4. The domain is {x | −2 ≤ x < 2}. 2}. b. 2. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) reflected across the y-axis. c. The domain is {0. 179 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − A = so A = − . Inc. 3. . The relation is a function. 4 − ( −3 ) 4+3 7 7 = = =− −2 − 1 −3 −3 3 Solve Ax + y − 2 = 0 for y to obtain slope-intercept form. The range is { y | 0 ≤ y ≤ 3}. Ax + y − 2 = 0 y = − Ax + 2 So the slope of this line is − A. 4}. a. 2. The domain is {x | −3 < x ≤ 4}. 4. Therefore. The relation is not a function. 7 7 7 has slope m = 46.3}. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted down 4 units. 6}. The range is {1. 48. 4 ) b. The slope of the line containing (1. 47. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

∞) 29. decreasing: (–2. 23. Inc. the equation does not define y as a function of x. f (−4) = 3 19. −1. 0. 30. −1. x-intercepts: –6 and 2 13. x + y2 = 5 y2 = 5 − x y = ± 5− x Since there are values of x that give more than one value for y (for example. 26. x = −2 17. 7. f (−7) = −2 and f (3) = −2 20. The relation is not a function. 27. there is one and only one value for y. ( −6. Range: ( −∞. The domain is {−2. x2 + y = 5 24. y-intercept: 3 14. ∞ ) 28. 16. –2) 15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9.Functions and Graphs 5.1. 10. The relation is a function. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (−4) −5 − 3 = = = −1 4 − (−4) 4+4 x2 − x1 25. . 8. 6. neither. The domain is {x | x ≤ 1}. f (−6) = 0 and f (2) = 0 21. if x = 4. f (100) is negative. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x 180 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1. 2 ) 22. 2}. ( −∞. Domain: 11. increasing: (–∞. so the equation defines y as a function of x. 4] 12. Each value of x corresponds to exactly one value of y. f (−2) = 4 18. The range is {−2. y = − x2 + 5 For each value of x.3}. then y = ± 5 − 4 = ±1 ). The range is { y | y ≥ −1}.

f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x b. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 33. 5 y = −3 x 3 y=− x 5 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) − 5 − (−2 x 2 + x − 5) = h 2 2 −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h − 5 + 2 x 2 − x + 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 181 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 y = 20 y=4 32. . f (− x) = −2(− x) 2 − x − 5 = −2 x 2 − x − 5 neither.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 35. 34. 31. 37. 36.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. and the lines are parallel.Functions and Graphs 38. C (150) = 30 b. The rate of change is 0.16% per minute of brisk walking. and the lines are 5 5 perpendicular. Inc. m= b. so m = 3. 3x − y − 5 = 0 − y = −3 x + 5 m2 = y = 3x − 5 The slope of the given line is 3. y − (−4) = 3( x − 3) y + 4 = 3x − 9 y = 3 x − 13 f ( x) = 3 x − 13 45. Change in y 42 − 26 16 = = = 0. if ⎧30 C ( x) = ⎨ ⎩30 + 0. C (250) = 30 + 0. 2 . 2 +1 . 2 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 3 = −2( x + 4) y − 3 = −2 x − 8 y = −2 x − 5 f ( x ) = −2 x − 5 40. m1 = Change in y 0 − (−4) 4 = = Change in x 7−2 5 Change in y 6−2 4 = = Change in x 1 − (−4) 5 The slope of the lines are equal thus the lines are parallel.16 Change in x 180 − 80 100 a. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = −2 x + 10 43. t > 200 a. 39. the percentage of patients with depression in remission increased by 0.40(t − 200) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 200 42. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (2) − f (−1) = x2 − x1 2 − (−1) = ( 3(2) 2 − 2 ) − ( 3(−1) 2 − (−1) ) =2 182 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so m = − .40(250 − 200) = 50 −5 y −2 x 10 = + −5 −5 −5 2 y = x−2 5 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) The slope of the given line is y − 3 = −2 ( x − (−4) ) m= 5 ( x − (−4) ) 2 5 y + 3 = − x − 10 2 5 y = − x − 13 2 5 f ( x) = − x − 13 2 y − (−3) = − Change in y 1 − (−5) 6 = = =2 Change in x 2 − (−1) 3 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − 2) y − 1 = 2x − 4 y = 2x − 3 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 41.16%. For each minute of brisk walking. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44.

3. The graph of y = f ( x ) is shifted 1 unit left. . 183 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. then 3 shifted down 2 units. Shift to the right 4 units. Reflect about the y-axis. Vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x . Shift to the right 1 unit and down 2 units. 4. 2. a. Reflect about the x-axis. by a factor of 5. Inc. Shift up vertically 3 units. 6. b.6 Section 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. shrunk 1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Horizontally shrink the graph of y = f ( x ) . Horizontally stretch the graph of y = f ( x ) . 7. 8. reflected about the x-axis.6 Check Point Exercises 1.

9. 2. 6. 7. Inc. 3. 5. Exercise Set 1. .6 1. then shifted up 3 units. 184 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. stretched by a factor of 2. The graph of f ( x) = x 2 is shifted 1 unit right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8. 4.Functions and Graphs 9.

PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 185 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 13. 16. 17. 18. 15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 19. 11. 14. 12.6 10. .

25. 24. Inc. 186 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 21.Functions and Graphs 20. 23. 26. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 27. . 22. 28. 29. 30.

35. 33. 36. 34. Inc. 38. 187 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 40.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 32.6 31. 39. 37. .

Inc. 44. 188 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 45. 43. 46. 42. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs 41. 48. 50. 47. 49.

57. 189 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 54. 56. 59. . 55. 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 62. 61. 58. 53. Inc.6 51. 52.

70. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 67. 190 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 73. 72. 74. Inc. 69. 71. 65. 68.Functions and Graphs 63. 66. 64.

191 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 80. 78.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 83. 79.6 81. 76. Inc. 77. 84. 75. 85. . 82. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 86.

. 88.Functions and Graphs 93. 97. 87. 89. 91. Inc. 98. 96. 95. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 90. 94. 92. 192 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

104. . 101.6 99. 107. 105. 109. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 103. 100. 110.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 193 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 102. 106. 108.

. y = − x 3 + 2 117. y = x − 2 + 1 194 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 111. 115. 119. 123. 116. y = ( x + 1) 2 − 4 126. 113. 112. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 122. y = x − 2 124. 114. 125. 121. 120. 118. Inc.

Answers may vary.1 48 + 19 ≈ 40. a. a.8031 − 19 = 10 ≈ 1.5 The model describes the actual data very well. Section 1. = f ( x) = 2. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 3.1 = 10 ≈ 0.0 inches per month f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = d. – 134.9 ) ( = b.2 The model describes the actual data very well.1.1 ) ( 60 + 19 − 3.9 48 + 20. Inc. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 units. 128.PreCalculus 4E 127. 10 + 20. a. ( 3. b.1 129. First. ) 60 + 20.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c). .1 x + 19 f (48) = 3.9 0 + 20.1 10 − 0 29.1 f (48) = 2.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c).9203 = 10 ≈ 0. c.6 First.9 x + 20.5633 − 40.0125 − 40. c. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference.1 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 10 − 0 28.9 50 + 20. 195 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 ( 2. b. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference.9.27 − 20. then shift the result up 19 units.1 − 2.9 inches per month = f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 2. f ( x) = 3.0 1. then shift the result up 20.1 50 + 19 ) 60 − 50 43.9 0. 0 + 19 ) f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 3. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 135.9 ) ( ) d. 60 − 50 42.1 − 2.1 10 + 19) − ( 3.6061 = 10 ≈ 0.1 ≈ 40.

g ( x) = −( x + 4)2 146. (–a. false. ( f ( x) ) 2 − 2 f ( x ) + 6 = ( 3x − 4 ) − 2(3 x − 4) + 6 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 − 6 x + 8 + 6 137. 1. Changes to make the statement true will vary.Functions and Graphs 149. These values must be excluded from the domain. g ( x) = − 16 – x 2 − 1 4 = x − 5 + x2 − 1 = − x2 + x − 6 196 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: The graph of g is a translation of f three units to the left and three units upward. false. the quantity under the radical must be greater than or equal to 0. The denominator equals zero when x = 7 or x = –7. A sample change is: The stretch will be 5 units and the downward shift will be 10 units. b. = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − x 2 − x + 2 = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x 2 − 4 x − x + 2 = 2 x3 + x 2 − 5 x + 2 154. Since h( x) = 9 x − 27 contains an even root. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t − 1). 147. or the of g is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the yaxis. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. 143. ∞ ) . c. b – 3) 153. does not make sense. domain of g = ( −∞. true 145. Explanations will vary. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 5 + ( x 2 − 1) 1 148. 2x 2x = 3x − x 3− x x Check Point Exercises 142. (a + 3. a. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. ∞ ) . false. . 150. 9 x − 27 ≥ 0 9 x ≥ 27 x≥3 Thus. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t + 1). Inc. (a. while the graph a. 2 = 3 −1 x 140. 155. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. does not make sense. 144. The domain of f is the set of all real numbers or ( −∞. g ( x) = – x – 5 + 1 interval [3. b) 136. a. (a.7 141. A sample change is: The graph of f is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the x-axis. (2 x − 1)( x 2 + x − 2) = 2 x( x 2 + x − 2) − 1( x 2 + x − 2) b. ∞ ) . The function f ( x) = x 2 + 3x − 17 contains neither division nor an even root. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 30 x + 30 139. g ( x) = − x − 2 + 2 2. b) 152. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 24 x − 6 x + 16 + 8 + 6 138. 2b) 151. the domain of h is {x x ≥ 3} . Section 1.

domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) g ) (−1) = 10(−1) 2 − 5(−1) + 1 = 10 + 5 + 1 = 16 197 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = ( x) g g ⎝ ⎠ x −5 . The domain = ( −∞. This value must be excluded from the domain. ∞). The function contains neither division nor an even root.3) ∪ ( 3. −3) ∪ ( −3. The denominator equals zero when x = −5. The domain = ( −∞. ∞) domain of g: x +1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −1 [−1. ∞ ) 3. ( fg )( x ) = ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 − 1) = x ( x 2 − 1) − 5 ( x 2 − 1) 6. ∞ ) 7. ∞) The domain of f + g is the set of all real numbers that are common to the domain of f and the domain of g. ∞ ) . The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. 5 ) ∪ ( 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The function contains neither division nor an even root. 3. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 [3. 4.PreCalculus 4E b. The function contains neither division nor an even root.10 ) ∪ (10. Inc. ∞ ) 8. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. ∞ ) . −4 ) ∪ ( −4. The denominator equals zero when x = 4. x ≠ − ⎬ 2⎭ ⎩ = x − 5 − x2 + 1 = − x2 + x − 4 c. (g f ) ( x) = g ( f ( x) ) = 2 (5 x + 6 ) − ( 5x + 6 ) − 1 2 = 2(25 x 2 + 60 x + 36) − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 120 x + 72 − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 115 x + 65 c. The domain = ( −∞. a. . ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 3 + x +1 b. The function contains neither division nor an even root. Section 1. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. 1. x ≠ ±1 = 2 x −1 4. The domain = ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. (f (f g ) ( x) = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 10. domain of f: (f ( g ) ( x) = f ( g ( x ) ) ) = 5 2 x2 − x − 1 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x − 5 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 b. domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞.7 ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5. 5. = x − 5 − ( x − 1) g )( x) = (f b. ∞ ) 2. domain: ( −∞. −8) ∪ ( −8. Exercise Set 1. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. 2 h ( x ) = f g where f ( x) = x .9 ) ∪ ( 9. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. 4 4x = 1 1 + 2x +2 x a. Thus. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. 1⎫ ⎧ domain: ⎨ x x ≠ 0. This value must be excluded from the domain. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 6. g ( x) = x 2 + 5 = x3 − x − 5 x 2 + 5 = x3 − 5 x 2 − x + 5 d. ∞ ) 9. the domain of f + g is [3. a.

domain: ( −∞. x −1 = 0 11. The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. Inc. x 3 −1 = 0 x ⎛3 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 3− x = 0 4 − 2 ( x − 1) = 0 4 − 2x + 2 = 0 −2 x + 6 = 0 −2 x = −6 x=3 domain: ( −∞. x 4 −1 = 0 x ⎛4 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 4−x = 0 4 −3 = 0 x−2 4 ⎞ − 3 ⎟ = ( x − 2 )( 0 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎛⎜ − x 2 ⎝ ⎠ 4 − 3( x − 2) = 0 4 − 3x + 6 = 0 −3 x + 10 = 0 −3x = −10 − x = −4 10 3 ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 198 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) x=2 4 −3 = 0. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. ⎟ ∪ ⎜ . x−2 Exclude x for 14. The expression under the radical must not be negative. x −1 Exclude x for 12. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ x=4 domain: ( −∞. x−2 = 0 − x = −3 x=3 domain: ( −∞. Exclude x for x = 0 . The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. The expression under the radical must not be negative. Exclude x for x − 2 = 0 . Exclude x for x − 1 = 0 . The first denominator cannot equal zero. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) x= 17. 4 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 .3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) x =1 4 −2= 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. Exclude x for x = 0 . −1) ∪ ( −1. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 .1) ∪ (1. The first denominator cannot equal zero. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) 18.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) 16. 2 ) ∪ ⎜ 2. domain: ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 15. ∞ ) 4 −2 = 0 x −1 4 ⎞ − 2 ⎟ = ( x − 1)( 0 ) ( x − 1) ⎛⎜ ⎝ x −1 ⎠ 13.1) ∪ (1. x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 domain: [ −2. −2 ) ∪ ( −2.

5 ) ∪ ( 5. and 5 must be excluded. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. x+2>0 27. ∞ ) . The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. ∞ ) −6 x −84 ≤ −6 −6 x ≤ 14 domain: ( −∞. . The expression under the radical must not be negative. ∞ ) 199 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 19. 7 x − 70 ≥ 0 domain: [3. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. 84 − 6 x ≥ 0 = x2 ( x − 2) − 9 ( x − 2) ( = ( x − 2) x2 − 9 −6 x ≥ −84 ) = ( x − 2)( x + 3)( x − 3) –3.5) ∪ ( 5. domain: [ 2.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) x>3 domain: ( 3. 2. 2. 24 − 2 x ≥ 0 ( = ( x − 5) x 2 − 4 ) = ( x − 5)( x + 2)( x − 2) –2. 5 x ≥ −35 28. 2 ) ∪ ( 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. domain: ( −∞. The expression under the radical must not be negative. x−2 ≥ 0 x > −2 domain: ( −2. x −3 > 0 26. x−2 ≥ 0 x+3≥ 0 and x≥2 x ≥ −3 To make both inequalities true. ∞ ) −2 x ≥ −24 −2 x −24 ≤ −2 −2 x ≤ 12 domain: ( −∞. The expression under the radical must be positive. ∞ ) x≥3 The denominator equals zero when x = 6. The expression under the radical must not be negative. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 9 x + 18 24. The expression under the radical must not be negative. domain: [3. ∞ ) = x 2 ( x − 5) − 4 ( x − 5 ) 23. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 5 x + 35 ≥ 0 domain: [ 2.14] 25. x ≥ 2 . x −3≥ 0 x+4≥0 and x≥3 x ≥ −4 To make both inequalities true. The expression under the radical must be positive. ∞ ) . Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. Inc. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x ≥ 10 domain: [10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. domain: ( −∞. 6 ) ∪ ( 6. and 3 must be excluded. The expression under the radical must not be negative. −3) ∪ ( −3.12] 30. ∞ ) x≥2 The denominator equals zero when x = 5. 21. 7 x ≥ 70 29. x −3≥ 0 x ≥ −7 domain: [ −7. ∞ ) 20. 22. x ≥ 3 .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( f – g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 x – 4 domain: (–∞. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. ∞) = ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) 2 x + 3 = ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g ( x) x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) (fg)(x) = (3x – 4)(x + 2) = 3x2 + 2x – 8 domain: (–∞. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 4) – (x + 2) = 2x – 6 domain: (–∞. (f + g)(x) = 4x – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 200 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = −3 x 2 + x − 5 domain: (−∞. Inc. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 6 x2 − x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. (2 x – 3)( x + 1) = 2x – 3 ( x + 1) domain: ( −∞. −1) ∪ ( −1. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x+2 ⎝g⎠ 33. ∞ ) 32. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = −2 x 2 − 2 x + 18 domain: (–∞.Functions and Graphs 31. = 2 x3 + x 2 – 4 x – 3 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 36. ∞) 35. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x – 6)(5 x 2 ) = 5 x 3 – 30 x 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = (2x + 3) – (x – 1) =x+4 domain: (−∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x−6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5x2 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = 6 x 2 − 2 x domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (6 x 2 − x − 1)( x − 1) = 6 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 1 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 3x 2 + x − 5 37.1) ∪ (1. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (3 − x 2 )( x 2 + 2 x − 15) ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 3x2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x − 5)(3 x 2 ) = 3x 3 − 15 x 2 domain: (−∞. ∞) ( f + g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = 2 x − 12 domain: (–∞. (f + g)(x) = 3x + 2 domain: (−∞. . ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3 − x2 = ( x ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 2 x − 15 ⎝g⎠ ( f + g )( x) = 5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞.3) ∪ ( 3. −5) ∪ ( −5. domain: (−∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (2 x 2 – x – 3)( x + 1) = − x 4 − 2 x 3 + 18 x 2 + 6 x − 45 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 2 x2 – x – 3 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x +1 ⎝g⎠ ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = (2 x + 3) ⋅ ( x − 1) = 2x2 + x − 3 domain: (−∞. ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 34. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = –5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞.1) ∪ (1. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞.

Section 1. −6 ) ∪ ( −6. ∞ ) 40. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. . ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −5 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (5 − x 2 )( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 1 ⎞ 1 2 1 2x + 1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ = + 2 = x⎠ x x x x2 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 4 domain: [0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 1 1 2 2x + 2 + = 2+ = x x x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 5) domain: [0. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x−4 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. 1 1 − =2 x x domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 41. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 − 1 1 2 6x − 2 − = 6− = x x x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 6 – ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 4) domain: [0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 5 domain: [0. ∞ ) 39. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) 6 − 1x ⎛ ⎛ f ⎞ 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 1 = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ x = 6 x − 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. Inc. ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 4 domain: [0.PreCalculus 4E 38. ∞ ) 42. ∞ ) 201 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) = − x 4 − 4 x3 + 17 x 2 + 20 x − 60 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 2 + 1 ⎞ 1 6 1 6x −1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ = − 2 = 2 x⎠ x x x x ⎝ domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 5 − x2 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 4 x − 12 ⎝g⎠ 2 + 1x ⎛ ⎛f ⎞ 1⎞ ( ) x = = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ x = 2x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞.5) ∪ ( 5. 0 ) ∪ ( 0.7 ( f + g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) = 4x − 7 domain: (–∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 2 + = −2 x 2 − 4 x + 17 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 1 1 + =6 x x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 5 domain: [0.

−3) ∪ ( −3.5 ) ∪ ( 5. 5. ∞ ) 202 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 + x2 − 9 x2 − 9 9x −1 = 2 x −9 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2x − 4 + x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 5x − 3 = 2 x − 25 domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 4 − x − 1 domain: [1.Functions and Graphs 43. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 4x − 2 = 0 2x = 4 x=2 domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3.3) ∪ ( 3. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 44. −3) ∪ ( −3. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −1 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (1. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2 ⎛f ⎞ x − 25 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2 x − 4 g ⎝ ⎠ x 2 − 25 3x + 1 x 2 − 25 = 2 ⋅ x − 25 2 x − 4 3x + 1 = 2x − 4 The domain must exclude –5. and any values that make 2 x − 4 = 0.3) ∪ ( 3.5 ) ∪ ( 5. . 2x − 4 = 0 5x + 1 ⎛f ⎞ x2 − 9 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 4 x − 2 ⎝g⎠ x2 − 9 5x + 1 x 2 − 9 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 4x − 2 5x + 1 = 4x − 2 The domain must exclude –3. −3) ∪ ( −3. ∞) ( fg )( x) = x + 4 ⋅ x − 1 = x 2 + 3 x − 4 domain: [1. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.5 ) ∪ ( 5. and any values that make 4 x − 2 = 0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5x + 1 4 x − 2 = 2 − x − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = 2 x −9 1 = x −3 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 3x + 1 2 x − 4 = 2 − x − 25 x 2 − 25 x+5 = 2 x − 25 1 = x −5 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 x2 − 9 (5 x + 1)(4 x − 2) = 2 ( x2 − 9) ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = = = = 3x + 1 2 x − 4 ⋅ x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 (3 x + 1)(2 x − 4) (x 2 − 25 ) 2 domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3. −3) ∪ ( −3. 12 ) ∪ ( 12 . ( f + g )( x) = x + 4 + x − 1 domain: [1. Inc. ∞ ) x= 45. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 ) ∪ ( 5. 3. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞ ) 4x = 2 1 2 domain: ( −∞. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.

g ( x) = x 2 − 2 50. g ( x) = 2 x 2 – 9 49. g(x) = 2x + 1 ( f + g )( x) = x + 6 + x − 3 domain: [3. a. a.7 51. ( f g )(2) = 3(2) − 15 = −9 ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 2) 2 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 4 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 6 ( f g )( x) = 3( x − 5) = 3 x − 15 b. g ( x) = 5 x 2 − 2 ( fg )( x ) = x − 2 ⋅ 2 − x = − x 2 + 4 x − 4 domain: {2} ⎛f ⎞ x−2 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 2− x ⎝ ⎠ domain: ∅ 48. ∞) 47. g(x) = 3x – 4 ( f + g )( x) = x − 2 + 2 − x domain: {2} ( f − g )( x) = x − 2 − 2 − x domain: {2} a. ( f g )( x) = 7(2 x 2 − 9) + 1 = 14 x 2 − 62 b. . Section 1. ( g f )( x) = 3x – 5 c. f(x) = 3x. ( g f )( x) = 2 x + 7 c. ( g f )( x) = 2( x + 4) + 1 = 2 x + 9 c. ( f g )( x) = (2 x + 1) + 4 = 2 x + 5 b. b. = 80 x 2 − 120 x + 43 c. ( f g )( x) = 4(5 x 2 − 2) − 3 b. f(x) = 4x – 3. ( f g )( x) = 5(3x − 4) + 2 = 15 x − 18 b. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 5 = 9 52. Inc. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−3 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (3.PreCalculus 4E 46. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 6 − x − 3 domain: [3. = 20 x 2 − 11 b. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 14 = 18 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( fg )( x) = x − 5 ⋅ 5 − x = − x 2 + 10 x − 25 domain: {5} ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5− x ⎝g⎠ domain: ∅ 54. g(x) = x – 5 a. f(x) = x + 4. ( f g )(2) = 20(2)2 − 11 = 69 f ( x) = 7 x + 1. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 4(2) 2 + 6 = 6 203 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(x) = 5x + 2 . a. f(x) = 2x. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = x + 6 ⋅ x − 3 = x 2 + 3x − 18 domain: [3. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 2) 2 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 4 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 2 c. ( f g )(2) = 14(2) 2 − 62 = −6 f ( x) = x 2 + 2. ( g f )( x) = 2(7 x + 1)2 − 9 = 2(49 x 2 + 14 x + 1) − 9 = 98 x 2 + 28 x − 7 c. 55. ( f g )(2) = 15(2) − 18 = 12 53. g(x) = x + 7 ( f g )( x) = 2( x + 7) = 2 x + 14 ( g f )( x) = 5(4 x − 3) 2 − 2 = 5(16 x 2 − 24 x + 9) − 2 ( f + g )( x) = x − 5 + 5 − x domain: {5} ( f − g )( x) = x − 5 − 5 − x domain: {5} a. ( g f )( x) = 3(5 x + 2) − 4 = 15 x + 2 c.

Inc. g(x) = x – 1 a. = −25 x 2 + 20 x − 4 + 20 x − 8 − 1 c. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 6 x − 3. ( g f )( x) = x − 1 c. x+3 6 a. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 2 1 b. ( f g )(2) = 2 + 2 = 4 = 2 = x − 6x + 9 + 1 4 2 = x 4 − 6 x 2 + 10 b. ( g f )( x) = c. ( f g )(2) = 2 ( f g )(2) = −5(2) 2 + 20(2) − 7 = 13 f ( x) = x . = 32 − 16 x + 2 x 2 + 4 − x + 5 ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 2 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x + 3−3 =x b. ( f g )( x) = x − 1 b. g ( x ) = = x4 + 2 x2 − 2 c. ( f g )(2) = 2 − 1 = 1 = 1 1 1 . ( f g )( x) = x + 2 b. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ −3 = x +3−3 = x ⎝ 6 ⎠ b. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 1) 2 − 3 = x + 2x +1 − 3 4 2 61. f ( x) = 4 − x . ( f g )(2) = 24 − 6(2) 2 + 10 = 2 a. g ( x) = 2 x 2 + x + 5 a. 6x − 3 + 3 6x = =x 6 6 a. g ( x) = x x ( f g )( x) = = −25 x 2 + 40 x − 13 59. g ( x) = x + 2 a. a. ( g f )( x) = 1 c. 58. ( f g )(2) = −2(2) 2 − 2 − 1 = −11 f ( x) = 5 x − 2. 57. g ( x) = = 2 x 2 − 17 x + 41 c.Functions and Graphs f ( x) = x 2 + 1. ( f g )( x) = 4 − ( 2 x 2 + x + 5 ) = 4 − 2 x2 − x − 5 = −2 x − x − 1 2 b. ( f g )( x) = 5 ( − x 2 + 4 x − 1) − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 5 − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 7 b. g ( x) = − x 2 + 4 x − 1 a. f(x) = 2x – 3. = 2(16 − 8 x + x 2 ) + 4 − x + 5 x+3 2 1 x 1 x =x =x 204 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( g f )( x) = − ( 5 x − 2 ) + 4 ( 5 x − 2 ) − 1 = −(25 x 2 − 20 x + 4) + 20 x − 8 − 1 (2 x − 3) + 3 2 x = =x 2 2 ( g f )( x) = 62. 60. 63. ( g f )( x) = x + 2 c. g ( x) = x 2 − 3 56. ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 3) 2 + 1 f ( x) = x . ( g f )( x) = 2 ( 4 − x ) + ( 4 − x ) + 5 2 c.

0 ) ∪ ( 0.PreCalculus 4E 64. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. 6⎞ ⎛ 6 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 4 denominator of f g to be 0. f ( x) = Section 1. ∞ ) . 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 66. 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 3 denominator of f g to be 0. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . 205 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. domain: 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. 6 We must exclude − because it causes the 5 denominator of f g to be 0. =x =x b. x ≠ −4 = 4+ x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. ∞ ) .x ≠ 0 1 x ⎝ ⎠ +3 x 2( x) = ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ + 3⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 2x = 1 + 3x 68. ( f g )(2) = 2 65. a. Inc.7 2 2 . − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 ⎛4⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝ x ⎠ 4 +1 x ⎛4⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) x = ⎝ ⎠ ⎛4 ⎞ ⎜ + 1⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 4 . a. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. . a. We must exclude −4 because it causes the denominator of f g to be 0. a. a. b. ( −∞. a. 5⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 5x ⎛1⎞ = f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ x ⎠ 1 + 4 1 + 4x x 69. 2 ⎛1⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = . f g ( x ) = f ( x − 2) = x − 2 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. g ( x) = x x a. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. 6 6 ⎛6⎞ f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x = 6 ⎝ x⎠ + 5 6 + 5x x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. ∞ ) . b. b. ( f g )( x) = 2 b. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 3) = x − 3 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. 4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 70. 2 x 2 x 67. ( g f )( x) = 2 c. b. x−2 ≥ 0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. ∞ ) . b. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0.

Inc. = 5− x b. g(x) = 3x – 4 79. a. 84. . 3) g 87. (f g )(1) = f ( g (1) ) = f ( −5 ) = 3 f ( x) = 3 x. x g ( x) = 2 x − 3 80. f ( x) = 1 . g ( 3) 0 ⎛g⎞ = =0 ⎜ ⎟ ( 3) = f ( 3) −3 ⎝f ⎠ 86. g ( x ) = 5x 2 + 3 92. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1− x ≥ 0 The domain of f is ( −4. a. f (x) = |x|. 1]. 72. ( f + g )( −3) = f ( −3) + g ( −3) = 4 + 1 = 5 82. The graph of f + g − x ≥ −1 x ≤1 domain: (−∞. g ( x ) = x2 − 9 91. The graph of f − g = 3− x b. f ( x) = 1 . The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. x g ( x ) = 4x + 5 81. ( ) 2 x − 3x + 8 − 5 = 7 2 2 x 2 − 6 x + 16 − 5 = 7 2 x 2 − 6 x + 11 = 7 2x2 − 6x + 4 = 0 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x =1 x=2 206 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 89. f ( x ) = x3 . The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. g ( x ) = 3x − 1 77. 2−x ≥ 0 − x ≥ −2 x≤2 domain: (−∞. 74. f ( x) = x 4 . (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = −5 73. ( fg )( 2 ) = f ( 2 ) g ( 2 ) = ( −1)(1) = −1 ( f g )( x) = 7 93. g(x) = 2x – 5 78. ( f g )( x) = f ( 1 − x ) = ( 1− x ) 2 +4 = 1− x + 4 85. (f g )( −1) = f ( g (−1) ) = f ( −3) = 1 g ( x) = 2x − 5 90. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 2 ) = −6 f ( x) = x.Functions and Graphs 71. 3] . 2]. 76. 75. ( g − f )( −2 ) = g ( −2 ) − f ( −2 ) = 2 − 3 = −1 83. The domain of f + g is [ −4. f(x) = |x|. ( f g )( x) = f ( 2 − x ) = ( 2−x ) 2 +1 = 2 − x +1 88.

(R – C)(30. f )( x ) = 0.000) = 65(30. a.07 This is the profit for the two stores combined for each year after 2004. Publishing as Prentice Hall. in 2003 was 1634. = 1634. ( Section 1. .5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7.76 The slope for f + g is 0. g )( x ) = 0.9 x + 5 x + 6451 b.1 The change in population in the U. ( B + D )( x ) f gives the cost of a pair of jeans for which a $5 rebate is offered. 99.1 thousand. ( R − C )(20.51x + 11. 000 The company lost $200.5 thousand.14 = 0.62 + 0. The slope of g is 0. The function f g models the greater discount.75( x − 400) This models the price of a computer after first a $400 discount and then a 25% discount. a. c.9(3)2 − 35(3) + 1641 overestimates the actual change in population in the U. f + g = -. (f c.1 thousand. 207 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.S.000 + 45(30.5 thousand.9 x 2 + 5 x + 6451 ( B + D )( 5 ) = 3.6 x − 5 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $5 rebate. g gives the price of the computer after a 25% discount. g gives the cost of a pair of jeans that has been discounted 40%. c. ( B + D )( x ) = B ( x ) + D ( x) = (7. in 2003 by 0.7 ( f g )( x) = −5 ) = 65(20.S. ( B + D )( x ) = 3.9(5)2 + 5(5) + 6451 = 6573. ( B − D )( x ) = B ( x ) − D ( x) = (7.6x – 3 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $3 rebate.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7.07x + 24. c.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 ( B − D )( 3) = 10. 000) 97.044x + 13. ( f g )( x) = 0. b. underestimates the actual number of births and deaths in 2005 by 1. 96.PreCalculus 4E 94. since the 25% discount is taken on the regular price first. ( B − D )( x ) c.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) − ( −3. a.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 b. f gives the price of the computer after a $400 discount.000) – (600. a. 2 = 3.5 x 2 − 20 x − 2405 = 10.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405 100.51 This is the increase in profits for the second store for each year after 2004. 1 − 6 x 2 − 2 x + 2 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 3 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 8 = 0 3x 2 + x − 4 = 0 (3x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 3 x = −4 x =1 4 x=− 3 95. b. in 2005 is 6573. 000) − (600. (g d. b. ( g f )( x) = 0. 000)) = −200.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 + 3.6 ( x − 5 ) = 0.000)) =0 The company broke even. ( B − D )( x ) = 10. 000 + 45(20. The slope for f is -0. 1 − 2 3 x + x − 1 = −5 2 98.44 This is the decrease in profits for the first store for each year after 2004. f g because of a $5 rebate.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) + ( −3.75 x − 400 This models the price of a computer after first a 25% discount and then a $400 discount.000 since costs exceeded revenues.S.5 The number of births and deaths in the U. Inc. d. a.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 − 3.

Changes to make the statement true will vary. 106. −2). . ( f g ) ( x ) = f ( g ( x ) ) = f ( 3x ) = 2(3x) = 6 x (g f )( x ) = g ( f ( x ) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( 2 x ) = 6 x 114. 2)} The element 1 in the domain corresponds to two elements in the range. ∞ ) . x = y2 − 1 x + 1 = y2 120. the relation is not a function. − x ≥ −2 x= 5 +4 y ⎛5 ⎞ y ( x) = y ⎜ + 4 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ xy = 5 + 4 y xy − 4 y = 5 y ( x − 4) = 5 5 y= x−4 x ≤2 x≤4 domain: [ 0. (1. A sample change is: (f g )( x ) = f = ( ( x2 − 4 x2 − 4 ) 2 ) −4 = x2 − 4 − 4 = x2 − 8 208 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. When your trace reaches x = 0. does not make sense. 111. g ( x ) = 3x 101. true 107. 4] 108. −1). 116. false. {(4. Sample explanation: It is common that f g and g f are not the same. false. ( f g )( x) = 2 − x The domain of g is [ 0. Inc. does not make sense. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (4. A sample change is: f ( x ) = 2 x. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 110. Answers may vary. Thus. makes sense 109. y = x +1 2 112.Functions and Graphs 113. 118. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. ( f g )( x) = ( f g )(− x) f ( g ( x)) = f ( g (− x)) since g is even f ( g ( x)) = f ( g ( x)) so f g is even 117. Sample explanation: The diagram illustrates x +1 = y2 x +1 = y g ( f ( x) ) = x + 4. (1.1). Answers may vary. the y value disappears because the function is not defined at x = 0. The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. A sample change is: ( f g ) ( 4) = f ( g ( 4)) = f ( 7) = 5 115. false. Explanations will vary. – 105. 2− x ≥ 0 119.

−2) (−2. 2) (2. Find points of f −1 . −2) (−1. f ( x) f −1 ( x ) (−2.1) x +1 4 Alternative form for answer: x +1 3 x +1 f ( x) −1 = 3 = 3 4 4 f −1 ( x) = = = 3 3 x +1 3 2 ⋅3 = 3 4 2 3 2x + 2 2 3 2x + 2 3 8 209 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1) (1.8 Check Point Exercises 1. 6.8 Section 1. 0) (0. 3 −1 x Interchange x and y: 3 x = −1 y Solve for y: 3 x = −1 y xy = 3 − y xy + y = 3 y ( x + 1) = 3 3 y= x +1 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : y= f ( x) = 2 x + 7 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 2x + 7 Interchange x and y: x = 2y + 7 Solve for y: x = 2y + 7 x − 7 = 2y x−7 =y 2 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f −1 ( x) = 3. ⎛ x+7⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−7 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x − 7) + 7 g ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 f ( g ( x) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = x 4. The graphs of (b) and (c) pass the horizontal line test and thus have an inverse. . Inc. 3 −1 x Replace f ( x) with y: f ( x) = x−7 2 f −1 ( x) = f ( x) = 4 x3 − 1 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 4 x3 − 1 Interchange x and y: x = 4 y3 − 1 Solve for y: x = 4 y3 − 1 x + 1 = 4 y3 x +1 = y3 4 x 1 + 3 =y 4 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : 3 x +1 5. 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.

8 x 4 ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x =x g ( f ( x)) = 4 f and g are inverses. f ( x) = 4 x + 9. 2 2 . y = x2 + 1 Interchange x and y: x = y2 +1 Solve for y: x = y2 + 1 1. x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = x − 1 6. x −8 3 8. Exercise Set 1. g ( x) = x−9 4 ⎛ x −9⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟+9 = x −9+9 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x + 9) − 9 4 x g ( f ( x) ) = = =x 4 4 f and g are inverses. x 6 f(x) = 3x + 8. g ( x) = + 5 x −5 x 2 2x f ( g ( x )) = 2 = =x ( x + 5) − 5 2 f ( x) = ⎛ x −5⎞ + 5 = 2⎜ ⎟+5 = x−5+5 = x ⎝ 2 ⎠ f and g are inverses. f ( x) = 3 x − 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g ( x) = + 4 x−4 x 3 3 f ( g ( x)) = 3 = 3 =x + − 4 4 x x f ( x) = g ( f ( x)) = ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝6⎠ 6x =x g ( f ( x) ) = 6 f and g are inverses. g ( f ( x) ) = 2 2 x −5 210 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f ( x) = 4 x. f ( x) = 6 x . g ( x ) = x+5 9 x+3 7 x + 3 3x + 9 3x − 40 ⎛ ⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ −7 = ⎟−7 = 7 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠ 3x − 7 + 3 3x − 4 g ( f ( x) ) = = 7 7 f and g are not inverses. g ( x ) = ⎛ x+5⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 5 ⎜ ⎟−9 ⎝ 9 ⎠ 5 x + 25 = −9 9 5 x − 56 = 9 5x − 9 + 5 5x − 4 g ( f ( x)) = = 9 9 f and g are not inverses. x − 1 = y2 5. g ( x) = 3 3 x−4 +4 ⎛ x−4⎞ = 3⋅⎜ ⎟+4 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = x−4+4 =x f and g are inverses. 3.Functions and Graphs 7. Inc. g ( x) = 7. g ( x ) = 3 3 . . f(x) = 5x – 9. 2. f ( x) = x 2 + 1 Replace f ( x) with y: 4. ⎛ x −8⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 3 ⎜ ⎟+8 = x −8+8 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ (3x + 8) − 8 3x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 3 3 f and g are inverses.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ x +1 ⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ −1 = x +1 −1 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3x − 1 + 1 3x = =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 3 211 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 2 x + 3 x = 2y + 3 −1 f ( f ( x)) = x + 3 − 3 = x b. f(x) = x + 3 y=x+3 x=y+3 y=x–3 −1 f ( x) = x − 3 15. 10. Inc. a. a. Section 1. ⎛ x −3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟+3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x −3+3 =x 2x + 3 − 3 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = = =x 2 2 f ( f −1 ( x) ) = x − 5 + 5 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = x + 5 − 5 = x 13. . f ( x) = 4 x x +1 3 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 3 y= ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝2⎠ 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = =x 2 b. g ( x) = x 3 + 4 f ( g ( x) ) = 3 x 3 + 4 − 4 = 3 x 3 = x g ( f ( x) ) = ( 3 x−4 ) 3 +4 = x−4+4 = x b. 14. ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 y = 2x + 3 −1 12. a.8 f ( x) = − x. f ( x) = 3x − 1 y = 2x y = 3x − 1 x = 2y x = 3y −1 x +1 = 3y x 2 x f −1 ( x) = 2 y= b. g ( x) = − x f ( g ( x)) = −(− x ) = x g ( f ( x)) = −(− x ) = x f and g are inverses. a. f and g are inverses. 11.PreCalculus 4E 9. y = 4x x = 4y x 4 x −1 f ( x) = 4 y= f ( x) = 3 x − 4. a. a. b. f −1 ( x ) = x − 5 f ( x) = 2 x 16. x − 3 = 2y f ( f ( x)) = x − 3 + 3 = x x −3 2 x −3 f −1 ( x) = 2 y= f ( x) = x + 5 y = x+5 x = y+5 y = x−5 b.

22. f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x f −1( f ( x )) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x 212 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. x + 1 −1 = x +1−1 =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x 3 − 1 + 1 = 3 x3 = x 19. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ( 3 b. a. x−2 ) 3 21. 20. Inc. . a.Functions and Graphs 17. a. a. =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x3 + 2 − 2 = 3 x3 = x f ( x) = x3 − 1 y = x3 − 1 x = y3 − 1 f −1 ( x) = 3 x + 1 ( 3 ) 3 b. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ) ( x) 3 x +1 −1 = 1 x 1 y= x 1 x= y xy = 1 f ( x) = y= y = 3 x +1 f ( f −1 ( x)) = 3 1 x 1 −1 f ( x) = x x + 1 = y3 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 3 1 =x 1 x 1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = = x 1 x f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x 2 y= x 2 x= y xy = 2 f ( x) = 2 x 2 f −1 ( x ) = x y= =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 ( x + 2)3 − 2 = x+2−2 =x b. ( ( 3 x −2+2 ) = ( x) 3 3 3 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( x − 13 + 1 = x − 1 + 1 = x +2 = x−2+2 18. f ( x) = ( x − 1)3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = ( x − 1)3 y = x3 + 2 x = ( y − 1)3 3 x = y3 + 2 x−2 = y 3 3 x = y −1 y = 3 x +1 y = x−2 3 −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 y = ( x + 2)3 x = ( y + 2)3 3 x = y+2 y = 3 x −2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. a.

y 3 b. y= x x= y y=x 2 −1 f ( x) = x 2 .PreCalculus 4E 23. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 x3 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = ( x) 3 3 =x 7 −3 x 7 y = −3 x 7 x = −3 y 27. a. x ≥ 0 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( ( ) 4 +9 = x 4 x−9 4 −1 =x f ( f ( x) ) = 4 +9−9 x f f −1 ( x) = 2x + 1 x−3 2x + 1 y= x−3 2 y +1 x= y −3 x(y – 3) = 2y + 1 xy – 3x = 2y + 1 xy – 2y = 3x + 1 y(x – 2) = 3x + 1 3x + 1 y= x−2 3x + 1 f −1 ( x ) = x−2 f ( x) = ) 7 −3 = x 7 x+3 7 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 7 −3+3 x f f −1 ( x) = 213 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. xy = 7 − 3 y xy + 3 y = 7 y ( x + 3) = 7 7 x+3 7 −1 f ( x) = x+3 y= b. Inc. a. −1 xy − 9 y = 4 y ( x − 9) = 4 f ( f ( x)) = ( x ) = x 24. a. 2 4 x −9 4 f −1 ( x ) = x −9 y= f ( x) = 3 x y=3x x= y=x 3 f ( x) = x 3 −1 b. a.8 f ( x) = x 4 +9 x 4 y = +9 x 4 x = +9 y xy = 4 + 9 y f ( x) = 26. f ( f −1 ( x)) = x 2 = x = x for x ≥ 0. f ( x) = 25. . Section 1.

) ( 2 3x + 1 + 1 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = 3x + 1 − 3 x−2 2 ( 3x + 1) + x − 2 6 x + 2 + x − 2 = = 3x + 1 − 3 ( x − 2 ) 3x + 1 − 3 x + 6 –1 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs b. x≠2 x−2 f ( x) = 37. 31. Inc. 2 x + 1 − 2 ( x − 3) 6x + 3 + x − 3 7x = =x 2x +1 − 2x + 6 7 36. ) 29. The function fails the horizontal line test. The function passes the horizontal line test. The function fails the horizontal line test. 214 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The function passes the horizontal line test. ) ( 2 −x − 3 − 3 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = −x − 3 +1 x−2 −2 x − 6 − 3x + 6 −5 x = = =x −x − 3 + x − 2 −5 − 2x − 3 − 3 x +1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 2x − 3 − 2 x +1 −2 x + 3 − 3x − 3 −5 x = = =x 2x − 3 − 2x − 2 −5 −1 ( 38. The function passes the horizontal line test. 30. a. . so it does not have an inverse function. so it does have an inverse function. 2x − 3 x +1 2x − 3 y= x +1 2y − 3 x= y +1 xy + x = 2y – 3 y(x – 2) = –x – 3 −x − 3 y= x−2 −x − 3 f −1 ( x ) = . so it does not have an inverse function. so it does not have an inverse function. = = = b. 32. so it does have an inverse function. so it does have an inverse function. ) ( 3 2x +1 + 1 x −3 2x + 1 − 2 x−3 3 ( 2 x + 1) + x − 3 35. 33. 7x =x 7 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 28. The function fails the horizontal line test.

PreCalculus 4E 39. a. a. c. ∞ ) [ −4.8 f ( x) = 2 x − 1 y = 2x −1 41. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. b. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : −1 42. c. c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. 0] range of f : [ −1. ( −∞. a. . domain of f : [ 0. 40. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. 0] domain of f : 215 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain of f : [ −4. f ( x) = x 2 − 4 y = x2 − 4 x = 2 y −1 x = y2 − 4 x +1 = 2y x + 4 = y2 x +1 =y 2 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 2 x+4 = y f −1 ( x) = x + 4 b. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. Inc. f ( x) = x 2 − 1 y = x2 − 1 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 y = 2x − 3 x = y2 −1 x +1 = y2 x = 2y −3 − x +1 = y x + 3 = 2y f −1 ( x) = − x + 1 x+3 =y 2 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 2 b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. b. c. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞.

. domain of f : 46. f ( x) = x3 + 1 y = x3 + 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 + 1 2 x − 1 = y3 x = y −1 3 x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 1 x +1 = y f −1 ( x) = 1 + x b. c.1] domain of f : f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. a.1] range of f : [ 0. ∞ ) c. ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : 216 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. domain of f : [1. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞.∞ ) ( −∞. c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. a. b. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. y = x3 − 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 − 1 2 x + 1 = y3 − x = y −1 3 − x +1 = y x +1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x + 1 −1 f ( x) = 1 − x b. b. a. f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) f ( x) = x3 − 1 45. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. a. 44. c. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 43.

Inc. y = ( x − 2) domain of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) f ( x) = ( x − 2)3 48. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. . a.8 f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 47. f ( x) = x − 1 3 y = x −1 x = ( y + 2)3 3 3 x= x = y+2 x = y −1 x −2 = y x +1 = y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 f −1 ( x ) = x 2 + 1 b. a. x= x = y−2 x−2= x +2 = y y +2 y ( x − 2) = y 2 f −1 ( x ) = 3 x + 2 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 2) 2 b. ( −∞. y −1 2 b. ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. c. ∞ ) [ 2. a. a. domain of f : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f : c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. y = ( x + 2) 49. c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f : c. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. 3 3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = x +2 x = ( y − 2)3 3 domain of f : [1.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : [ 2.∞ ) 50. ∞ ) range of f : −1 217 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Then f ( x) = 3 x − 1 3 f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( −5 ) = 4 ( −5 ) − 1 = −21 ( −∞. f ( x) = 3 x + 1 y = 3 x +1 x= 3 y +1 x −1 = 3 y ( x − 1)3 = y f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1)3 b. (f g )( 0 ) = f ( g (0) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 0 − 1) = f ( −1) = 2 ( −1) − 5 = −7 60. a. 53. f −1 ( g (1) ) = f −1 (1) = −1 .Functions and Graphs 51. f −1 ( g (10) ) = f −1 ( −1) = 2 . 59. since f ( −1) = 1 . 63. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = 1 56. Let f −1 (1) = x . 58. ( g ( f [ h(1) ]) = g f ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = g ( f (4) ) ) = g ( 2 ⋅ 4 − 5) = g ( 3) c. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. f −1 (1) = 3 y = 3 x −1 y −1 62. Then x3 = y − 1 g ( x) = 7 x +1 = y 3 −1 = g ( 2 ⋅ 0 − 5) 61. Let g −1 ( 7 ) = x . ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. 55. 52. ( f ( g [ h(1) ]) = f g ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = f ( g (4) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 4 − 1) = f (15 ) f ( g (1) ) = f (1) = 5 = 2 ⋅ 15 − 5 = 25 f ( g (4) ) = f ( 2 ) = −1 218 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( −∞. c. 54. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) = 4 ⋅ 3 − 1 = 11 domain of f : 64. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ) . ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : x= (g 4x −1 = 7 f ( x) = x + 1 3 4x = 8 x=2 Thus. g −1 ( 7 ) = 2 b. since f ( 2 ) = −1 . f ( x) = 1 2x − 5 = 1 2x = 6 x=3 Thus. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 4 ) = 2 57.

a.3) are an example of two x-values that correspond to the same y-value. a. 30). 67. {(17.7).4. (9. 60)} g is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of g is not a function. – 75.2). (8. not one-to-one 77. 30). 9. {(9.7.5). f--1(0. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. This function fails the horizontal line test. (60. b.1). 50). one-to-one 219 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.m. 66.4).8.5. The graph does not represent a one-to-one function. 60)} f is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of f is not a function. 76. 9 ⎡5 ⎤ ( x − 32) ⎥ + 32 5 ⎢⎣ 9 ⎦ = x − 32 + 32 f ( g ( x)) = =x f and g are inverses.8.4. b. 68. (12.8).8. (22.17). Thus.5. {(9.4).5. a. a. The average happiness level is 3 at 12 noon and at 7 p.5) = 21 If there are 21 people in the room. (50. (8.3) and (19. 22).8. (8.5)} b.3).25. c. 9.3) .8. (30.25) = 15 If there are 15 people in the room. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. (60.3.3. (22.3).8.7. (8. this function does not have an inverse. (40. 69. {(17. Section 1. 22).8. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. . f--1(0. (30. Answers may vary.17).7) = 30 If there are 30 people in the room.8 It passes the horizontal line test and is one-to-one. Inc.8. (8.8.7). (8.50). Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 65.7. 40).3) and (19.3. (8.1.2. (8.8. (8. 70. (40. f--1(0. These values can be represented as (12.3)} b. (50.9. 40).

92. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 81. A sample change is: The inverse is {(4.1). Changes to make the statement true will vary. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 80. makes sense 89. false. x A sample change is: f −1 ( x) = . not one-to-one 87. makes sense 88. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 86. Inc. makes sense 91. (7. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 85. Changes to make the statement true will vary. one-to-one 83. false. . false. not one-to-one 220 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true 82. 78. makes sense 90. 93. 2)}. f and g are inverses one-to-one 79. 3 94. so it does not pass the horizontal line test.Functions and Graphs 84. A sample change is: f(x) = 5 is a horizontal line.

8 95. x = y+5 ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 = (1 − 7) 2 + (−1 − 2) 2 y = x −5 = (−6) 2 + (−3)2 g −1 ( x) = x − 5 f ( x) = 3x = 36 + 9 = 45 y = 3x =3 5 x = 3y x 3 x −1 f ( x) = 3 101. ( f g )( x) = 3( x + 5) = 3x + 15. when it is going up and when it is coming down. y = x+5 100. Answers may vary. . y= (g 96. there will be 2 times when the spacecraft is at the same height. No. 221 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 8 + f −1 ( x − 1) = 10 f −1 ( x − 1) = 2 f (2) = x − 1 6 = x −1 7=x x=7 x = 3 y + 15 y= x − 15 3 (f g ) ( x) = −1 x − 15 3 g ( x) = x + 5 99. y= 97.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. −1 f −1 ) ( x ) = x x − 15 −5 = 3 3 3x − 2 5x − 3 3x − 2 y= 5x − 3 3y − 2 x= 5y − 3 x(5 y − 3) = 3 y − 2 f ( x) = 102. y = 3 x + 15 98. y 2 − 6 y − 4 = 0 y2 − 6 y =4 y − 6y + 9 = 4 + 9 2 ( y − 3) 2 = 13 y − 3 = ± 13 5 xy − 3x = 3 y − 2 y = 3 ± 13 5 xy − 3 y = 3x − 2 y (5 x − 3) = 3 x − 2 3x − 2 5x − 3 3 x−2 f −1 ( x ) = 5x − 3 Note: An alternative approach is to show that ( f f )( x) = x. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

= ( 5) + ( −12 ) 2 2 = 13 2. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . 1) radius: r = 2 d = (8 − 5) 2 + (5 − 1) 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 b. x2 + y 2 + 4 x − 4 y − 1 = 0 6. 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. domain: range: 222 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. r = 10.9 Check Point Exercises 1. r = 2. d= = ( −6 − 4 ) + ( 3 − (−1) ) 2 ( −10 ) + ( 4 ) 2 2 2 = 100 + 16 = 116 = 2 29 ≈ 10. k = 0. center: (h. we have h = −3. d= ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 d= (1 − (−4) ) + ( −3 − 9 ) 2 2 2 (x x2 + y2 + 4x − 4 y −1 = 0 ) + ( y − 4y ) = 0 ( x + 4x + 4) + ( y + 4 y + 4) = 1 + 4 + 4 2 + 4x 2 2 2 ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 9 = 25 + 144 [ x − (− x)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 32 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 .Functions and Graphs Section 1. Inc. 3. k ) = (−3. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 + 7 2 + (−3) ⎞ ⎛ 8 −1 ⎞ ⎛ . k = −6. − ⎟ 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ h = 0.3] c. a. k = 2. 1. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 42 x 2 + y 2 = 16 h = 0. we have = 169 h = −2. . r = 4. k = 1. r = 3 . ⎟ = ⎜ 4. Exercise Set 1.9 ( x − 0)2 + [ y − (−6)]2 = 102 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 5. −1] [ −1. d = (14 − 2) 2 + (8 − 3)2 x 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 = 122 + 52 ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 4 = 144 + 25 = 169 [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 22 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 .77 [ −5. = 13 2. 4.

PreCalculus 4E 4.5 − 3.2 − 8. Inc.66 223 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 1.3) = = 25 =5 = 8 2 =2 2 = 36 + 4 ≈ 2. d = (−. = 9 + 16 ( −1) 2 + ( −7 ) 2 2 = 1 + 49 = 50 d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [−4 − (−6)]2 =5 2 = 52 + 2 2 ≈ 7. = 16 + 52 = 73 ≈ 8. 2 . d = ( 5 − 0)2 + [0 − (− 3)]2 = ( 5) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 5+3 d = [2 − (−4)]2 + [−3 − (−1)]2 = 6 2 + ( −2 ) d = (1. d= = d = (4 − 0)2 + [1 − (−3)]2 ( ) ( 2 ( 7) 2 + ⎣⎡ − 2 ⎦⎤ 2 = 7+2 = 42 + 4 2 = 9 = 16 + 16 =3 = 32 ) 7 − 0 + ⎡0 − − 2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ =4 2 ≈ 5.39 13.47 2 12.2) 2 = 9 +16 = (−4) 2 + (−2)2 = 25 =5 = 16 + 4 = 20 d = (3 − 0) 2 + ( −4 − 0 ) =2 5 2 ≈ 4. + [3 − ( −2 )]2 = 41 ≈ 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall.40 d = (−3− 0) 2 + (4 − 0) 2 = 3 + ( −4 ) 8.5)2 + (6.9 ( −1 − 2 ) + ( 5 − (−3) ) 2 ( −3 ) + ( 8 ) 2 2 10. d= 14.6) 2 + ( −5.54 = 16 + 25 11.7 − 1. d= = 5. 2 = 9 + 64 2 7.6 − 2.07 = 25 + 4 = 29 ≈ 5.83 = 40 = 2 10 ≈ 6. ( 4 − 0) = 42 + [3 + 2]2 2 = 32 + 42 6.32 9.

0 ⎟ = (2 2. ≈ 2. Inc. ⎛ 8 + (−6) 3 5 + 7 5 ⎞ . ⎛ 10 + 2 4 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 12 10 ⎞ . ⎟ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ −7 ⎛ 5 ⎞ 3 ⎛ 11 ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠. ⎛ −4 + ( −1) −7 + ( −3) ⎞ ⎛ −5 −10 ⎞ . ⎛ −3 + 6 −4 + (−8) ⎞ . = 1. . = 123 ≈ 11. ⎟ = (−4. 15 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 4 1 3 1⎞ ⎛ 2 1 ⎞ = ⎜− ⋅ . ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . ≈ 9. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 2 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ( = 5 3. = (−4 3) 2 + (3 5) 2 = 16(3) + 9(5) = 48 + 45 = 93 23. 2 ⎛1 7⎞ ⎛6 1⎞ d = ⎜ − ⎟ +⎜ − ⎟ ⎝3 3⎠ ⎝5 5⎠ 2 = (−2) 2 + 12 = 4 +1 = 5 2 ⎡ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ d = ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ + ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠⎦ ⎣ 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠⎦ 2 ⎛ 3 1 ⎞ ⎡6 1⎤ = ⎜ + ⎟ +⎢ + ⎥ ⎝ 4 4 ⎠ ⎣7 7⎦ ⎛ −2 + ( −8) −1 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ −10 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ . 2 ⎟ = ⎜ − . = 9 ⋅ 3 + 16 ⋅ 6 = 27 + 96 25.Functions and Graphs 15. ⎟ = (6. −5 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 28. ⎟ = ⎜ −5. ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −12 −8 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 6 −4 ⎞ = ⎜ 2 . ⎜ ⎟=⎜ . ⎛ −2 + (−6) −8 + (−2) ⎞ .5) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2 21. ⎟ = ( −3. −4 29. 6) 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 20. . ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −8 −10 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎝ ⎠⎟= 5 . ⎟ = ⎜ . −6 ⎟ 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 26.5 5 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( = 2 ≈ 1.09 17.0) =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 224 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎟ = (4. −5) ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ) ) ⎛ 18 + 2 −4 + 4 ⎞ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. d= = ( − 3 − 2 3 ) + (5 ( −3 3 ) + ( 4 6 ) 2 2 6− 6 ) 2 2 24.41 19.24 18. ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛3 2+ 2 0⎞ ⎛4 2 ⎞ . ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 = 12 + 12 ⎛ 2 10 5 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ −5 ⎞ = ⎜ . ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 3 −12 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎛ 7 3 + 3 3 −6 + (−2) ⎞ ⎛ 10 3 −8 ⎞ . −2 ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 ⎛ 2⎞ 7 ⎛ 4 ⎞⎞ ⎛ 4 3 ⎞ ⎜ − 5 + ⎜ − 5 ⎟ 15 + ⎜ − 15 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ − ⎝ ⎠. ⋅ ⎟ = ⎜− .64 16. ⎟ ⎝ 5 2 15 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 27. ⎟=⎜ . d = (− 3 − 3 3)2 + (4 5 − 5)2 22. ⎛ 6 + 2 8 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 12 ⎞ .

34. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = y 2 h = 0. Inc. r = 4. x 2 + y 2 = 16 41. radius = 6 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 102 2 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 0 ) = 100 2 [ x − (−2)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 62 2 ( x + 2 ) + y 2 = 36 2 [ −3.9] [ −5. radius = 4 ) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 x 2 + y 2 = 49 32. + ( y + 3) = 5 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 36 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 62 2 2 h = 3. center = (0. 35. r = 7. . ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = 82 x 2 + y 2 = 64 33. 7] domain: range: 225 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. k = 0. x 2 + y 2 = 49 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 h = 0. 7] domain: + ( y + 1) = 3 2 2 = 2 [ x − (−5)] + [ y − (−3)] ( x + 5) 39. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 1.9 ⎛ 50 + 2 −6 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 5 2 + 2 0 ⎞ . 1). 0 ⎟ = 3 2. ⎟⎟ ⎟=⎜ ⎜⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛6 2 ⎞ . 42. center = (0. 37. 36. range: ( x − 2 ) + [ y − (−1)] = 42 2 2 ( x − 2 ) + ( y + 1) = 16 2 [ −4. k = 0. 2 2 40. radius = 7 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4 )2 = 22 2 2 ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 4 2 [ x − (−3)] + ( y − 5)2 = 32 2 2 ( x + 3) + ( y − 5 ) = 9 [ x − (−3)] + [ y − (−1)] 2 2 2 ( 3) 2 2 = ( 5) [ −7. 0). r = 6. 4] [ −4. . 0).PreCalculus 4E 30. 7] [ −7. 2 ( x + 3) 38. 4] domain: ( x − 3 ) + ( y − 2 ) = 52 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 2 ) = 25 range: 2 43. 0 =⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( 31. center = (3. k = 1.

4] [ −10. 7] [ −4. 4] [ −1. radius = 1 h = −1. 6] [ −1. k = −2. 1). 3). Inc. center = (0. center = (2. radius = 6 [ −5. k = 4. k = 2. 4). –2). r = 6. [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 22 h = −3. –5). radius = 2 46.Functions and Graphs 44. 0] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 4 48. −1] [ 0. radius = 5 [ −1. center = (–4. 2] [ −11. 2] domain: [ −6. r = 4.1] [ 0. 2). Publishing as Prentice Hall.1] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 25 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4)2 = 52 2 2 49. r = 5. ( x − 2) 2 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 47. r = 2 center = (–3. . radius = 4 45. [ x − (−2)]2 + [ y − (−2)]2 = 22 h = −2. k = 1. center = (–1. radius = 2 2 ( x − 2) + ( y − 3)2 = 42 h = 2. k = 3. r = 1. 0] [ −4. [ −2. k = −5. ( x + 2) 2 + ( y + 2)2 = 4 ( x + 4 ) + ( y + 5) = 36 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−5)] = 62 2 h = −4.9] range: domain: range: 226 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. r = 2 center = (–2. 2 x 2 + ( y − 1) = 1 2 h = 0.

Inc. –2). radius = 8 [ −6. radius = 2 [ −6.0). . k = 0. center = (–1. Section 1. r = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r = 5. 5] domain: range: 52. 2] [ 0.2). radius = 4 x 2 + y 2 − 10 x − 6 y − 30 = 0 55. r = 4.PreCalculus 4E 50. 2] [ −4. ( x + 2) 2 + y 2 = 16 h = −2. 3). 4] domain: range: 227 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. center = (–2. (x (x 2 2 − 10 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 30 − 10 x + 25 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 25 + 9 + 30 ( x − 5) 2 + ( y − 3) = 64 2 ( x − 5)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 82 center = (5. h = 0. –1). ( x + 1) 2 + y 2 = 25 h = −1.0). k = 0. k = 2. 4] domain: range: 51. radius = 2 [ −2. x 2 + y 2 + 8 x + 4 y + 16 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 8 x ) + ( y 2 + 4 y ) = −16 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y 2 + 4 y + 4 ) = 20 − 16 ( x + 4) + ( y + 2) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−2)] = 22 2 2 center = (–4.9 x2 + ( y − 2) = 4 2 x2 + y 2 + 6 x + 2 y + 6 = 0 53. radius = 2 (x (x 2 2 + 6 x ) + ( y 2 + 2 y ) = −6 + 6 x + 9 ) + ( y 2 + 2 y + 1) = 9 + 1 − 6 ( x + 3) + ( y + 1) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−3)] + [9 − (−1)] = 22 2 2 center = (–3. center = (0. radius = 5 54. 4] [ −5.

6). radius = 4 center = (–4. x 2 + y 2 + 12 x − 6 y − 4 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 12 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 4 + 12 x + 36 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 36 + 9 + 4 2 [ x − (−6)] + ( y − 3)2 = 72 center = (–6. radius = 5 58. Inc. radius = 4 60.Functions and Graphs 56. 3). radius = 7 57. 2 2 2 x2 + y 2 + 8x − 2 y − 8 = 0 (x (x ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 16 2 2 ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 42 2 ( x − 2)2 + ( y − 6)2 = 7 2 center = (2. radius = 7 228 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0). 3). x 2 + y 2 − 4 x − 12 y − 9 = 0 (x (x 2 2 − 4 x ) + ( y 2 − 12 y ) = 9 − 4 x + 4 ) + ( y 2 − 12 y + 36 ) = 4 + 36 + 9 ( x − 2) 2 (x + ( y − 6 ) = 49 (x 2 2 − 2 x ) + y 2 = 15 − 2 x + 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 1 + 0 + 15 2 2 center = (1. 1). + 8x ) + ( y2 − 2 y ) = 8 x2 + y 2 − 6 y − 7 = 0 x2 + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 7 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y − 2 y + 1) = 16 + 1 + 8 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 1) = 25 2 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 1)2 = 52 2 2 ( x − 0) 2 ( x − 0) 2 = ( y 2 − 6 y + 9) = 0 + 9 + 7 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 3)2 = 42 center = (0. x 2 − 2 x + y 2 − 15 = 0 59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .

⎟ . . ⎠ x2 + y 2 + 3x + 5 y + 17 2 9 =0 4 9 4 9 25 9 9 25 2 2 x + 3x + + y + 5 y + =− + + 4 4 4 4 4 x2 + 3x + y 2 + 5 y = − 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜x − ⎟ +⎜ y − ⎟ =1 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 3⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ 25 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ +⎜ y+ ⎟ = 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛ 3 5⎞ 5 center = ⎜ − .PreCalculus 4E 61. x 2 − x + y 2 + 2 y = −1 1 1 x 2 − x + + y 2 + 2 y + 1 = −1 + + 1 4 4 x 2 + 3x + y 2 − 2 y = 1 9 9 x 2 + 3x + + y 2 − 2 y + 1 = 1 + + 1 4 4 2 2 1⎞ 1 2 ⎛ ⎜ x − ⎟ + ( y + 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 ⎞ 3⎞ 17 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ + ( y − 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 ⎞ 1 center = ⎜ . −1⎟ . radius = 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 62. − ⎟ . Section 1. radius = 2 ⎝ 1 =0 2 1 x2 + x + y 2 + y = 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 x +x+ + y + y+ = + + 4 4 2 4 4 x2 + y 2 + x + y − 2 x 2 + y 2 + 3x − 2 y − 1 = 0 64. Inc. radius = 1 ⎝2 2⎠ 229 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. center = ⎜ − .9 x2 + y 2 − x + 2 y + 1 = 0 63.1⎟ . radius = 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ center = ⎜ .

Functions and Graphs 65. Publishing as Prentice Hall. =⎜ ⎟=⎜ . 6 ) . b. Intersection points: ( 0. ( 4.10 ) . ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . = 2 The radius is 0 − ( −3 ) = 3 9 = 9 true Check ( 3. ⎟=⎜ .5 ) . ( 2) ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = 2 2 3 = 3 true 32 + 02 = 9 3−0 = 3 9 = 9 true 3 = 3 true The solution set is {( 0.9 ) . ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 4. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 5. Intersection points: ( 0. Using the point ( 3. we get: d= ( 4 − 3) + ( 5 − 6 ) 2 Check ( 0. . ( 3. 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 7 9 + 11 ⎞ ⎛ 10 20 ⎞ =⎜ . the center is the midpoint of the segment. Inc. 5 units. −4 ) and ( 4.5 ) 2 68. 4 = 4 true Check ( 4. 0 ) : 2 c. b. 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 5 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 10 ⎞ . the center is the midpoint of the segment. −3) : 02 + ( −3) = 9 2 2 = 12 + ( −1) = 1 + 1 2 units. 66. −3) . Using the point ( 3. ( x − 5) 2 ( x − 5) 2 42 + 02 = 16 4−0 = 4 16 = 16 true 4 = 4 true The solution set is {( 0.10 ) 67. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle.0 )} . The center is ( 4. −3) and ( 3. we get: d= ( 5 − 3) 2 + (10 − 9 ) Check ( 0. 0 )} . 0 ) : = 5 The radius is 0 − ( −4 ) = 4 2 2 230 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . Since the line segment passes through the center. −4 ) . + ( y − 10 ) = 2 ( 5) 2 + ( y − 10 ) = 5 Since the line segment passes through the center. a. a. −4 ) : 02 + ( −4 ) = 16 2 2 16 = 16 true = 22 + 12 = 4 + 1 c. The center is ( 5.

2 . then we want the equation of a circle with center at ( −2. 68 + 14) = (0.7 ) = 900 74.7 ) and 4=4 radius 30.1 d = 72. at the origin. ( 3. makes sense = 302 + ( y + 2. 524. 033 ⋅ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 69. makes sense 87. 72.1 2 ( x + 2. 71. −2.4 ) ) + ( y − ( −2. −1) : ( 0 − 3) 2 + ( −1 + 1) = 9 2 ( −3) 2 + 02 = 9 −1 = 0 − 1 −1 = −1 true 9=9 Check ( 3.1 Intersection points: ( 0. −3) : ( 0 − 2 ) + ( −3 + 3) = 9 2 ( −2 ) + 0 2 = 4 2 2 −3 = 0 − 3 −3 = −3 true 73. 82) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 682 70. −3) . Inc. – 82. 2 231 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Answers may vary. C(0. −3) and ( 2. −1) d ≈ 328 The distance between New Orleans and Houston is about 328 miles. −1) and ( 3. 2 )} .4.4 ) −1 = 2 − 3 −1 = −1 true 02 + 22 = 4 4=4 true The solution set is {( 0.1 d ≈ 2693 The distance between Boston and San Francisco is about 2693 miles. 2 2 86. If we place L. −1) : ( 2 − 2 ) + ( −1 + 3 ) = 4 2 2 d = (8936 − 8448) 2 + (3542 − 2625)2 ⋅ 0. 83. 2 ) 84. −1) . d = 1. ( 2. −1)} . ( x − ( −2. 770 ⋅ 0. 2 ) : ( 3 − 3) 2 85. 2 x 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 4624 75.A. d = (8495 − 4422) 2 + (8720 − 1241)2 ⋅ 0.7 ) ) true Check ( 2. Intersection points: ( 0. Check ( 0. 079. true + ( 2 + 1) = 9 2 2 = 3 −1 2 = 2 true 0 +3 = 9 9=9 true The solution set is {( 0. Check ( 0.

Inc. Changes to make the statement true will vary. The smaller circle is inside of the larger circle. . 93. –5). A sample change is: This is not an equation for a circle. y1 ) to ( x2 y2 ) d3 = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 AC = (6 − 1) 2 + [6 + d − (1 + d )]2 d3 = x2 2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 = 52 + 52 d1 + d 2 = d3 because = 25 + 25 = 50 1 1 a+ a= a 2 2 96. Sample explanation: Since r 2 = −4 this is not the equation of a circle. 91. d is distance from ( x . A sample change is: The center is at (3. The distance for A to C: d3 is the distance from ( x1 . x ) to midpoint 1 1 2 2 ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 − x1 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ makes sense 2 2 90. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ x + x − 2 x1 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ false. does not make sense. 89. x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 + 4 4 d1 = 1 ( x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 ) 4 1 x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 2 d 2 is distance from midpoint to ( x2 . A sample change is: The equation would be x 2 + y 2 = 256. 95. The smaller circle has radius 5 and the larger circle has radius 6. The distance for A to B: ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d 2 = ⎜ 1 2 − x2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y2 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ AB = (3 − 1) 2 + [3 + d − (1 + d )]2 = 22 + 22 2 2 ⎛ x + x − 2 x2 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 4+4 = 8 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ =2 2 The distance from B to C: BC = (6 − 3) 2 + [3 + d − ( 6 + d )]2 = 32 + ( −3) 2 d1 = d1 = false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. 2 2 2 2 d2 = x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 + 4 4 d2 = 1 2 ( x1 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 ) 4 1 x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 2 d1 = d 2 = 9+9 d2 = = 18 =3 2 b. The area between them is given by =5 2 AB + BC = AC 2 2 +3 2 = 5 2 π ( 6 ) − π ( 5 ) = 36π − 25π = 11π 2 5 2 =5 2 2 ≈ 34. –3). Changes to make the statement true will vary. y2 ) 2 94. a. A sample change is: Since r 2 = −36 this is not the equation of a circle. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Both circles have center (2. Explanations will vary.Functions and Graphs 88. 92. 232 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.56 square units. 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ + ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ false.

2l + 2w = 200 2l = 200 – 2w l = 100 – w Let x = width. π r 2 h = 22 h= V(x) = (15 – 2x)(8 – 2x)x = (120 – 46x +4x2)x = 4x3 – 46x2 + 120x Since x represents the inches to be cut off. the area is 1200 sq yd b. I ( x) = 0. N(x) = 8000 – 100(x – 100) = 8000 – 100x + 10000 = 18. The line perpendicular to the 3− 0 3 3 3 radius has slope . a. R(x) = (18. The tangent line has slope and 4 4 passes through (3. The slope of the radius with endpoints (0. then length = 100 – x A(x) = x(100 – x) = 100x – x2 2 5. 4.0).000x 233 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.12x y = x3 c. . The circle is centered at (0.–4) is −4 − 0 4 m=− = − . The smallest side is 8. d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0 ) Check Point Exercises 1.10 97. f(x) = 15 + 0. Inc. 4 ) . in interval A = 2π r2 + 2 πrh 22 1000 2 = 2π r + 2 πr πr 2 2000 = 2π r 2 + r πr2 44 ⎛ 22 ⎞ 2π r 2 + 2π rh = 2π r 2 + 2π r ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2π r 2 + ⎝ πr ⎠ r 6. 3.08x = x2 + y2 b.10 7.0) and (3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. V = πr h p = 2l + 2w = 2(50) + 2(20) = 140 1000 = πr 2 h 1000 =h πr 2 A = lw = (50)(20) = 1000 The perimeter is 140 yd.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. the area is 1000 sq yd 100.000 – 100x)x = –100x2 + 18. 99. x − 200 a. x > 0. so must cut less than 4 off each side.000 – 100x b. d = x 2 + x3 ( ) 2 2 = x 2 + x6 a.04x 300 = x The plans cost the same for 300 minutes.–4). 15 + 0. ( 0.07x + 0. The domain of V is { x 0 < x < 4} or.12x 12 = 0. 000 − x ) Section 1.08x = 3 + 0. g(x) = 3 + 0.09(25. notation. p = 2l + 2w = 2(40) + 2(30) = 140 A = lw = (40)(30) = 1200 The perimeter is 140 yd. 2. so its equation is: 3 y + 4 = ( x − 3). 4 98.

40% of babies born will be out of wedlock.7x b. in 2010.6 x b. N (x) = 20.3 x 0.7 x = 40 + 0. 5.25x b. N (x) = 30. 000 − 400x R(x) = (26. 000 − 500 x) x = −500 x 2 + 40.10 1. g( x) = 21+ x c.7(1300) = 1210 g(1300) = 40 + 0. 1.2 x 1300 = x f (1300) = 300 + 0. Exercise Set 1.15x 320 = 200 + 0.5x = 21+ x 1.5x 800 = x 800 miles a. b.5x = 21 x = 14 f (14) = 2. 9.75 x = 21 x = 28 f (28) = 1. g( x) = 21+ 0. a. in 2152. a.4 − 0. 000 − 500x + 10000 = 40.6x 20 = x 20 years after 1990. . 8. for either method.5 x b.4 − 0. 2.25 x = 21 + 0.3 x b. f ( x) = 1.3x = 59.Functions and Graphs 6. a. 000 − 500x b. $35. 100 + 0. 4. 000 − 400x + 6000 = 26.1x 600 = x For $600 worth of merchandise. 000 − 500(x − 20) = 30.9 x c.9 x 60 = 0. a.15x 120 = 01. 300 + 0. g( x) = 40 + 0.9(1300) = 1210 You would have to purchase $1300 in merchandise at a total cost of $1210. your cost is $580 for both plans a.9 x c. b. f ( x) = 100 + 0. f ( x) = 2. a. a.8 x b.4 x = 198 198 years after 1954. f ( x) = 200 + 0. P( x) = 28 + 0. someone will run a 3 minute mile. f ( x) = 300 + 0. 000 − 400x)x 2 = −400x + 26. R( x) = (40.9 x 260 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.8x = 40 + 0.5 x 0. 000 x 10.25 x 395 = 180 + 0. g( x) = 40 + 0.25x 860 = x You drove 860 miles for $395.25x 215 = 0. a. 000 − 400(x − 15) = 20. b.5(14) = 35 g(14) = 21 + 14 = 35 To cross the bridge 14 times costs the same. 2. 40 = 28 + 06x 12 = 0.5(28) = 35 If a person crosses the bridge 28 times the cost will be $35 for both options a.5x c. 3. M (x ) = 239. 7. 000x 234 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.25(28) = 35 g (28) = 21 + 0. 180 = 239. f ( x) = 180 + 0.

the volume will be 1024 square inches. x > 0. 0 < x < 12 a. the volume will be 1944 square inches. Since x is the number of inches to be cut from each side. a. V(x) = (24 − 2x)(24 − 2x)x 2 = (576 − 96x + 4x )x = 4x 3 − 96x 2 + 576x c. V(x) = (30 − 2x)(30 − 2x)x = (900 −120x + 4x 2 )x = 4x 3 − 120x 2 + 900x b. the volume will be 1936 square inches. the volume will be 1792 square inches. A(x) = x(20 − 2x) = −2x 2 + 20x 18. 235 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Y(x) = 320 − 4(x − 50) = 320 − 4x + 200 = 520 − 4x T (x) = (520 − 4x)x = −4x 2 + 520x V(5) = 4(53 ) −120(52 ) + 900(5) = 2000 If 5 inches are cut from each side. Since each side is 30 inches. If x is the inches to be cut off. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the volume will be 1728 square inches. . N (x) = 7. 15) 17. 12. a. V (3) = 4(3)3 − 96(3)2 + 576(3) = 972 If 3inch squares are cut off each corner. b. b. V(4) = 4(43 ) −120(4 2 ) + 900(4) = 1936 If 4 inches are cut from each side. 0 < x < 15 or (0. Inc. V(5) = 4(5) 3 − 96(5)2 + 576(5) = 980 If 5inch squares are cut off each corner. 000 + 60(90 − x) = 7000 − 60x + 5400 = 12400 − 60x c. a. the volume will be 972 square inches. you must cut less than 15 inches from each side. Since each side is 24. R(x) = (12400 − 60x)x = −60x 2 + 12400x V(3) = 4(33 ) −120(32 ) + 900(3) = 1728 If 3 inches are cut from each side. Section 1. Y(x) = 270 − 3(x − 30) = 270 − 3x + 90 = 360 − 3x V(6) = 4(63 ) −120(62 ) + 900(6) = 1944 If 6 inches are cut from each side. the volume will be 2000 square inches. b. the volume will be 980 square inches. V(2) = 4(2) 3 − 96(2) 2 + 576(2) = 800 If 2-inch squares are cut off each corner. b.PreCalculus 4E 11. you must cut less than 12 inches off each end. the volume will be 800 square inches. T (x) = (360 − 3x)x = −3x 2 + 360x V(7) = 4(73 ) −120(72 ) + 900(7) = 1792 If 7 inches are cut from each side.10 N (x) = 9000 + 50(150 − x) = 9000 − 50x + 7500 = 16500 − 50x R(x) = (16500 − 50x)x = −50x 2 + 16500x 16. a. 13. b. x > 0. 14. the volume will be 864 square inches. 15. V(4) = 4(4) 3 − 96(4)2 + 576(4) = 1024 If 4-inch squares are cut off each corner. ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 8− x ⎞ A( x) = ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 2 2 = x 2 64 − 16 x + x 2 + 16 16 = 2 x 2 − 16 x + 64 16 = x 2 − 8 x + 32 8 V(6) = 4(6) 3 − 96(6)2 + 576(6) = 864 If 6inch squares are cut off each corner.

P(x) = x(50 − x) = −x 2 + 50 x 21. . P(x) = x(66 − x) = −x 2 + 66x 20. 400. 2 w + l = 800 27. 2x = distance around the 2 straight sides 2πr = distance around the 2 curved sides 2 x + 2π r = 880 Let x = w A(x) = x(800 − 2 x) 2 x = 880 − 2π r x = 440 − π r = −2 x 2 + 800x 24. 2 x + 2π r = 440 2 x = 440 − 2π r x = 220 − π r A(r ) = (220 − π r )2r + π r 2 = 440r − 2π r 2 + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 l = 800 − 2 w 28.Functions and Graphs 19. A(x) = x(300 − x) = −x 2 + 300x 23. A(x) = x(400 − x) = −x 2 + 400x 22. 400. 2 x + 3 y = 1000 xy = 4000 4000 y= x 3 y = 1000 − 2 x 1000 − 2 x 3 ⎛ 1000 − 2 x ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ x(1000 − 2 x) = 3 2x + 4y = 1200 ⎡ ⎛ 4000 ⎞ ⎤ C ( x) = ⎢ 2 x + 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 175 + 125 x ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ 1. 2 w + l = 600 A( x) = r (440 − π r ) + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 + π r 2 l = 600 − 2 l let x = width. 600 − 2 x = length = 440r A(x) = (600 − 2x)x = −2 x 2 + 600x 25. Inc. 4y = 1200 − 2x 1200 − 2x y= 4 1200 − 2x 4 x(1200 − 2x) = 4 2x(600 − x) = 4 x(600 − x) = 2 A(x) = x 236 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 = 350 x + + 125 x x 1. 2 x = distance around 2 straight sides π 2r = distance around 2 curved sides 29. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 = 475 x + x y= 26.

02 x = −133 x = 6650 The amount of money to be invested should be $6650 at 10% and $12100 at 12%.08 x 10 = x y x2 Let x = amount invested at 15% 50000 – x = amount invested at 7% I(x) = 0. a. = 0.250 at 15% and $18.10 125 = lw 125 l = = 5000 x 5000 x 125 x 50000 − 31250 = 18750 Invest $31. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1x + 2250 − 0.14 x + 720 − 0. = w. 35. Let x = amount invested at 12% 8000 – x = amount invested at 5% loss I(x) = 0.12(18750 − x) =y b. Let x = amount at 14% 12000 – x = amount at 6% I ( x) = 0. A = x (108 − 4 x) 2 d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 = −4 x 3 + 108 x 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 8 ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 16 x 2 + 64 = x 4 − 15 x 2 + 64 237 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.15 x + 3500 − 0. .750 – x = amount at 12% I ( x) = 0. + 29x 36.15 x + 0.07 x + x + 9x 2 10 a.750 at 7%.15x + 0. Section 1.07(50000 – x) 6000 = 0. 37. let x = l C(x) = 20 2 31.05(8000 – x) 400 = x 2 y 400 x2 =y 38. 2500 = 0.10 x + 0.12x – 0. b.06 x = 0. Let x = amount at 10% 18.07 x(50000 − x) 31250 = x + 20x + 9x ⎛ 10 ⎞ A( x) = x 2 + 4 ⎜ x ⋅ 2 ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ 40 = x2 + x 32. 300 = y + 4 x d = ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 300 − 4 x = y 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 4 A( x) = x (300 − 4 x) 2 = −4 x3 + 300 x 2 34. ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 8 x 2 + 16 = x 4 − 7 x 2 + 16 108 = y + 4 x 108 − 4 x = y 40. 6000 = 0.PreCalculus 4E 30.14 x + 0. Inc.08 x + 720 39.10 x + 0.12 x = 2117 −0.06(12000 − x) ⎛ 400 ⎞ A = x2 + 5 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x ⎝ x ⎠ 2000 2 =x + x 33. 0.12(18750 − x) = 2117 0.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. does not make sense. . Inc.Functions and Graphs 41. 64. – 62. + ( x + 2) [ ( x − 5) + ( x + 3) ] = 2 x 4 − x2 b. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: The decrease in passengers is modeled by 60( x − 300). Answers may vary. a. V ( x) = ( x)(2 x + 5 x − 3) − x 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x) = 36 + x + x − 20 x + 164 2 V ( x) = ( x)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) − ( x)( x) [ (2 x − 1) − ( x + 1) ] c = x 2 − 20 x + 164 total length 2 V ( x) = 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3x − x3 + 2 x 2 V ( x) = x3 + 7 x 2 − 3x 51. 2 A( x) = 12 x(2 x) + 12 (6 x − 4 x)( x + 2) + (4 x)( x + 2) + 2 x(8) A( x) = x + x( x + 2) + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x 2 P( x) = 2(2 x) + 2 y A( x) = x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x = 4x + 2 9 − x2 A( x) = 6 x 2 + 26 45. V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x + 1)( x + 2) − ( x + 5)(3)( x) V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x 2 + 5 x + 2) − 3x( x + 5) x = 36 + x 2 8-foot pole V ( x) = 2 x3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x + 10 − 3x 2 − 15 x V ( x) = 2 x3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x + 10 c 2 = 82 + (10 − x)2 c = 64 + 100 − 20 x + x 2 50. A( x) = 12 x 2 − 25 x + 12 x 2 + 23 x + ( x + 2) [ 2 x − 2] P ( x ) = 2(2 x) + 2 y = 4x + 2 4 − x 44. 238 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A( x) = 2 xy 47. Road from Town A: c 2 = 62 + x 2 d = ( x − 1) 2 + y 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + ( x) 2 c = 36 + x 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + x Road from Town B: c 2 = 32 + (12 − x) 2 = x − x +1 2 42. Sample explanation: This model is not reasonable. as it suggests a per minute charge of $30. Explanations will vary. a. A( x) = x 2 − x + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 4 2 A( x) = 3x 2 + x − 4 A( x) = 2 xy = 2x 9 − x A( x) = 12 x( x − 5) + 12 x ( x + 3) 48. d = ( x − 2) + y 2 c = 9 + 144 − 24 x + x 2 2 = x2 − 4 x + 4 + ( x) c = x 2 − 24 x + 153 2 f ( x ) = 36 + x 2 + x 2 − 24 x + 153 = x 2 − 3x + 4 43. does not make sense. 63. 6-foot pole c 2 = 62 + x 2 49. 46.

y = –4 x = 0. For example: A 4 by 6 rectangle and a 3 by 7 rectangle both have perimeters of 20 units. Chapter 1 Review Exercises does not make sense. Explanations will vary. yet their areas are different from each other. 70. 7 + 4 2 2 + 5 2 14 + 35 2 + 8 2 + 40 ⋅ = 2 − 5 2 2 + 5 2 4 + 10 2 − 10 2 − 50 54 + 43 2 −46 54 + 43 2 =− 46 = A( x) = (20 + 2 x)(10 + 2 x) − 10(20) = 4 x 2 + 60 x + 200 − 200 = 4 x 2 + 60 x 69. π 12 h3 (7 − 3x )(−2 − 5 x) = −14 − 35 x + 6 x + 15 x 2 = −14 − 29 x + 15 x 2 4 + x2 2 Distance and time walked: d = 6− x rt = d 5t = 6 − x 6− x t= 5 Total time: t= T ( x) = 68. r= 1 h 2 1 V ( h) = π r 2 h 3 66. y = 2 x = 3. y = 0 x = 2. y = 4 239 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: The area of a rectangle is not solely determined by its perimeter. 18 − 8 = 9 ⋅ 2 − 4 ⋅ 2 =3 2 −2 2 = 2 4 + x2 6 − x + 2 5 73. makes sense 2 1 ⎛1 ⎞ = π ⎜ h⎟ h 3 ⎝2 ⎠ 1 1 2 = π h h 3 4 67. 12 − 2r − π r = 2h 12 − 2r − π r =h 2 1 ⎛ 12 − 2r − π r ⎞ 2 A=⎜ ⎟ 2r + 2 π r 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 + π r 2 2 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 2 ( ) x = –3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = –8 x = –2. or = 15 x 2 − 29 x − 14 72. . Inc.PreCalculus 4E 65. y = –6 x = –1. y = –2 x = 1. Distance and time rowed: d 2 = 22 + x 2 d = 4 + x2 rt = d = 2t = 4 + x 2 71. 1 (π 2r ) 2 12 = 2h + 2r + π r P = 2h + 2r + Chapter 1 Review Exercises 1.

y = 1 x = 2. y = 0 17. 14. 9. x-intercept: 5. x-scale equal to 10 and with minimum y-value equal to –5. function domain: {1. The lowest marginal tax rate occurred in 1990 and was about 28%. 0). The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. 5} range: {7} x = −3. x-intercepts: 2. x = –3. function domain: {2. A portion of Cartesian coordinate plane with minimum x-value equal to –20. 8. y = 6 3. y = 3 5. y-intercept: None. and y-scale equal to 1. y = –2 x = –1. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. 3. 2. y = –1 x = 0. 2). 0). 6. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. The coordinates are (1985. 15. y = 1 240 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = –3. 19} x = 3. 13} range: {10. The highest marginal tax rate occurred in 1945 and was about 94%. y-intercept: –4. y-intercept: 2. y = 0 16. y = 1 x = −2. 12. 4. 50%). The graph intersects the x-axis at (5. 0) and (2. During the ten-year period from 1950 to 1960. Inc. 0). y = –3 x = –2. The graph does not intersect the yaxis. the top marginal tax rate increased about 38%. the top marginal tax rate remained constant at about 91%. 15.Functions and Graphs 2. The graph intercepts the y-axis at (0. 500. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The top marginal tax rate in 2005 was 35%. 10. y = 2 x = 3. y = –3 x = 1. 14} range: {13. not a function domain: {12. y = 6 x = –2. During the five-year period from 1930 to 1935. maximum y-value equal to 5. y = −1 x = 2. –2. y = –2 x = 0. x-intercept: –2. 13. 11. y = 1 x = 3. y = −2 x = 1. y = 1 x = –1. y = −1 x = 0. y = 0 x = 1. 7. π} x = −1. –4). y = –2 x = 2. maximum x-value equal to 40.

g (−2) = 3(−2) 2 − 5(−2) + 2 = 12 + 10 + 2 31.PreCalculus 4E 18. b. 23. . y is a function of x. f(–x) = 5 – 7(–x) = 5 + 7x g ( x) = 3x 2 − 5 x + 2 30. f(1) = 12 c. 19. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. f (2) = 2x + y = 6 (−2) 2 − 1 3 = = −1 −2 − 1 −3 2 y 2 = −2 x + 6 y = ± −2 x + 6 Since more than one value of y can be obtained from some values of x. x-intercept: –3 d. 3) g (− x ) = 3(− x) 2 − 5(− x) + 2 f. 0] c. b. y is not a function of x. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 2x + y = 8 y = −2 x + 8 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. − 2) or (0. a. f(–2) = –3 and f(3) = –5 = 3x + 5 x + 2 2 241 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. Inc. f ( x + 3) = 5 − 7( x + 3) = 5 − 7 x − 21 28. 22 − 1 3 = =3 2 −1 1 25. g(0) = 4 – 0 = 4 c. g (0) = 3(0)2 − 5(0) + 2 = 2 b. 0) or (3. g(–3) = 4 – (–3) = 7 24. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. a. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. g ( x − 1) = 3( x − 1) 2 − 5( x − 1) + 2 = 3( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 5 x + 5 + 2 domain: [–3. a. f (−2) = b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: [–5. a. 20. f(4) = 5 – 7(4) = –23 27. f(x) = 5 – 7x 22. g (13) = 13 − 4 = 9 = 3 decreasing: (−3. 5) = 3x 2 − 11x + 10 d. y-intercept: –2 e. 21. 29. 5) b. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. = −7 x − 16 c. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. = 24 c. 3x 2 + y = 14 y = −3x 2 + 14 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 26. increasing: (−2.

The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. 34. increasing: (–5. The function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis.Functions and Graphs 32. 2) constant: (−∞. range: {–3. relative maximum 3 b. domain: (−∞. − 2) or (2. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)2 + 1 b. a. − 5) or (0. domain: (−∞. Inc. ∞) c. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x f (− x) = (− x)3 − 5(− x) = − x3 + 5 x b. a. increasing: (–2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = − f ( x) The function is odd. ∞ ) f. ∞ ) f. relative maximum −2 39. 3. a. ∞) 37. f ( x) = 2 x 1 − x 2 b. −2. b. x-intercepts: –2 and 3 d. relative minimum −6 36. f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 = f ( x) The function is even. 0. x-intercept: 0 = −2 x 1 − x 2 d. y-intercept: 0 e. . range: { y y ≤ 0} 242 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0. a. f(–9) = –2 and f(14) = 2 = − f ( x) The function is odd. −5. 5} a. 40. relative minimum −3. 0) decreasing: (−∞. a. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. b. range: (−∞. range: [–2. 2] f (− x) = 2(− x) 1 − (− x)2 c. f(–2) = 0 and f(6) = –3 33. –5 35. y-intercept: 3 e. ∞) 38.

perpendicular to y = Decreasing: (3. the eagle’s height is a function of time since the graph passes the vertical line test. 17) The eagle’s height held steady during the first 3 seconds and the eagle was on the ground for 5 seconds.PreCalculus 4E 41. . 48. 30) The eagle was ascending. point-slope form: y – 2 = –6(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –6x – 16 −2( x + h) 2 + ( x + h) + 10 − ( −2 x 2 + x + 10 ) 2 47. 12) The eagle descended. Write 6 x − y − 4 = 0 in slope intercept form. − 14 0 = = 0. 6 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44. y − (−1) = − 16 ( x − (−12) ) y + 1 = − 16 ( x + 12) y + 1 = − 16 x − 2 45. rises −3 − (−1) −2 6 y + 6 = − x − 12 x + 6 y + 18 = 0 243 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Constant: (0. Inc. 1 4 51. − x − 10 2 d. m= 10 − 5 5 = undefined. 42. h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 − x − 10 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h −4 x − 2 h + 1 2 m= 49. 3) or (12. m= −4 − (−2) −2 = = 1. m= 1 − 2 −1 1 = = − . b. 1 x+4 3 m = –3 point-slope form: y – 6 = –3(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –3x – 9 + 6 y = –3x – 3 53. c. 3x + y – 9 = 0 y = –3x + 9 m = –3 point-slope form: y + 7 = –3(x – 4) slope-intercept form: y = –3x + 12 – 7 y = –3x + 5 Yes. Publishing as Prentice Hall. vertical −2 − (−2) 0 2 − 6 −4 = =2 −1 − 1 −2 point-slope form: y – 6 = 2(x – 1) or y – 2 = 2(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 2x + 4 m= 52. horizontal 6 − (−3) 9 50. 6x − y − 4 = 0 − y = −6 x + 4 y = 6x − 4 The slope of the perpendicular line is 6. a. falls 5−3 2 2 46. Increasing: (17. thus the 1 slope of the desired line is m = − . Chapter 1 Review Exercises 8( x + h) − 11 − (8 x − 11) h 8 x + 8h − 11 − 8 x + 11 = h 8h = 8 =8 = −2 ( x + 2 xh + h h 2 ) + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 43.

56 c.7 = = 0.116 x − 10. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 Find x-intercept: 2 x − 5(0) − 10 = 0 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 Find y-intercept: 2(0) − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = 10 y = −2 59. slope: –4. y-intercept: –1 5 58.116 x + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.116 x + 0.116 ( x − 90 ) y − 11 = 0. y-intercept: –2 3 60. 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 55. France has about 5 deaths per 100. slope: 2 .000 persons.116 90 − 15 75 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 11 = 0. According to the graph. y-intercept: 4 b. 244 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −2 x − 6 2 y = − x−2 3 2 slope: − .56 f ( x) = 0.116 ( x − 15) 2y −8 = 0 2y = 8 y=4 slope: 0. y-intercept: 5 56. y − 2. Inc.44 y = 0. a. 11 − 2.3 = 0.3 8.116 ( x − 90 ) or 57. y − 11 = 0.Functions and Graphs 54.

62. France has about 4. The ball is traveling up until 2 seconds. The rate of change is $182. The line passes below the point for France. 71. 67. S (4) = −16(4) 2 + 64(4) + 80 = 80 80 − 144 = −32 4−2 c.7 deaths per 100.000 persons.5 2006 − 2002 4 Corporate profits increased at a rate of $182.56 = 4. . 64. 2 2 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) [9 − 4 ( 9 )] − [4 − 4 ⋅ 5] = = 10 x2 − x1 9−5 63. 65.116(32) + 0. S (0) = −16(0)2 + 64(0) + 80 = 80 S (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 80 = 144 144 − 80 = 32 2−0 b. 69. 245 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.56 66. f (32) = 0.PreCalculus 4E d.116 x + 0. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1616 − 886 730 61.5 billion per year. 70. 68.5 billion per year. a. Chapter 1 Review Exercises f ( x ) = 0. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0.3 According to the function.3 deaths per 100.000 persons. m = = = 182.272 ≈ 4. then it starts to come down.

78. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 80. 73. 246 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 74. 83. 81. 75. 76. 82. 77. Inc. .Functions and Graphs 72. 79.

x − 1 ≥ 0 and x + 5 ≥ 0 x ≥1 domain: [1. g ( x) = x + 1 a. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. 87. 3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x+7 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (2. ∞ ) ( f g )(3) = 16(3) 2 − 8(3) + 4 = 124 f ( x ) = x . x–2≥0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. ∞) 89. f(x) = 3x – 1. −1) ∪ ( −1. The domain is ( −∞. . ∞ ) 86.∞ ) f ( x) = x + 7. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. f ( x) = x 2 + x + 1. ∞ ) . f ( x) = x 2 + 3. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1) − ( x 2 − 1) = x + 2 domain: (−∞. domain: ( −∞. −7 ) ∪ ( −7.5 ) ∪ ( 5. 95. g ( x) = x − 2 93. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 1) – (x – 5) = 2x + 4 domain: (−∞. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = x 4 + x3 − x − 1 85. 90. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( f g )(3) = 3 + 1 = 4 = 2 247 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) c.5 ) ∪ ( 5. 4]. 84.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Review Exercises 92. The denominator is zero when x = 7. ∞ ) 94. ∞ ) = x 2 + 5 x − 14 domain: [2. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = x + 7 ⋅ x − 2 88. g(x) = x – 5 (f + g)(x) = 4x – 6 domain: (−∞. ( f + g )( x) = x + 7 + x − 2 domain: [2. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x + 7 − x − 2 domain: [2.1) ∪ (1. ( fg )( x ) = (3x − 1)( x − 5) = 3x 2 − 16 x + 5 domain: (−∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x2 + x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x2 − 1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. g ( x) = x 2 − 1 ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 + x domain: (−∞. domain: (−∞. ( g f )( x) = 4( x 2 + 3) − 1 = 4 x 2 + 11 91. ( f g )( x) = x + 1 b. g ( x) = 4 x − 1 a. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −5 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. 8 – 2x ≥ 0 –2x ≥ –8 x≤4 domain: (−∞. The denominator is zero when x = 5. Inc. ( f g )( x) = (4 x − 1)2 + 3 = 16 x 2 − 8 x + 4 x ≥ −5 b. ( g f )( x) = x + 1 c. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. The denominator is zero when x = –7 or x = 3.

[−2. g ( x) = 1 ( f g )( x ) = f ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ ⎝x⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ 1 + 1 ⎜ + 1⎟ x 1+ x x ⎠ = x =⎝ = 1 1 1 − 2x − 2 ⎛⎜ − 2 ⎞⎟ x x ⎝x ⎠ b. a.Functions and Graphs 96. a. y = 8 x3 + 1 3 1 5 100. ∞ ⎞⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ (f x = 4y −3 x+3 4 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 4 y= g )( x ) = f ( x + 3) = x + 3 − 1 = x + 2 x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 98. f ( x) = 2 − 5 x. b. f ( x) = 3 x 4 f ( x) = 4 x − 3 y = 4x − 3 102. ∞) ⎛ x+3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 4 ⎠ = x +3−3 =x (4 x − 3) + 3 4 x f ( f ( x)) = = =x 4 4 g ( x) = x + 2 x − 1 2 −1 g ( x) = 7 x + 4 f ( x) = 8 x3 + 1 103. a. b. x = 8 y3 + 1 x − 1 = 8 y3 x −1 = y3 8 3 3 x −1 =y 8 x −1 =y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x −1 2 248 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 101. g ( x) = x − 2 5 2 3 3⎛5 ⎞ 1 f ( g ( x)) = ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ + 5⎝3 ⎠ 2 6 1 = x− + 5 2 7 = x− 10 5⎛3 1⎞ g ( f ( x)) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2 3⎝5 2⎠ 5 = x+ −2 6 7 = x− 6 f and g are not inverses of each other. a. f ( x) = x 99. 0 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ 0. x≠0 1 − 2x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 1 1 ( −∞. 2−x 5 ⎛2−x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 2 − 5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = 2 − (2 − x) =x 2 − (2 − 5 x) 5 x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 5 5 f and g are inverses of each other. ⎞⎟ ∪ ⎛⎜ . . f ( x) = x + . 97. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.

The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. 3 ⎛ 3 x −1 ⎞ f f ( x) = 8 ⎜ +1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x −1 ⎞ = 8⎜ ⎟ +1 ⎝ 8 ⎠ = x −1 +1 ( ) −1 107. 108. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 106. 2 3 8 x3 2 2x = 2 =x = 110. 249 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E b. ( ) 2 +5 2 x−5 2( x − 5) = +5 2 = x−5+5 111. =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 (8x 3 ) + 1 −1 109. 2 +5 x 2 y = +5 x 2 x = +5 y xy = 2 + 5 y f ( x) = 1 − x 2 y = 1 − x2 f ( x) = x = 1− y2 y2 = 1− x y = 1− x −1 f ( x) = 1 − x xy − 5 y = 2 y ( x − 5) = 2 2 x −5 2 f −1 ( x) = x −5 y= b. . The inverse function exists. a. 104. The inverse function exists. Inc. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. f f −1 ( x) = y = x +1 x= x −1 = f ( f ( x) ) = y +1 y ( x − 1) = y 2 =x −1 f ( x) = x + 1 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 . x ≥ 1 2 2 +5−5 x 2 = 2 x 2x = 2 =x 105.

. W ( x) = 567 + 15 x 702 = 567 + 15 x 135 = 15 x 9=x 9 years after 2000.Functions and Graphs 119.1] [ −1.07 x c. ⎟ = ( −5. . radius: 3 112.1] domain: range: f ( x) = 15 + 0. 3). 2] domain: ( x + 2) + ( y − 4) = 36 2 2 range: 118. 15 + 0. g ( x) = 5 + 0. ( x − (−2)) 2 + ( y − 4)2 = 62 [ −1. the average weekly sales will be $702. ⎜ . d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [9 − (−3)]2 = 52 + 122 = 25 + 144 = 169 = 13 113.5) ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 + (−15) −6 + 2 ⎞ ⎛ −11 −4 ⎞ ⎛ −11 ⎞ .83 x2 − 4 x + 4 + y2 + 2 y + 1 = 4 + 4 + 1 ( x − 2) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 9 center: (2. b. –1). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0). =2 2 x2 − 4x + y2 + 2 y = 4 ≈ 2. [ −1.05 x b.5] [ −4. in 2009. center: (0. . 6] = 22 + 22 domain: = 4+4 range: = 8 x2 + y2 − 4 x + 2 y − 4 = 0 120. a. radius: 1 121. x 2 + y 2 = 32 x2 + y 2 = 9 117. radius: 3 ⎛ 2 + ( −12 ) 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ −10 10 ⎞ 114. center: (–2. ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 116.05 x = 5 + 0. −2 ⎟ 115. the two plans cost the same. Inc. ⎟=⎜ .07 x 10 = 0. 122. 250 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. d = [−2 − (−4)]2 + ( 5 − 3) 2 [ −5.1] [ 0.02 x 500 = x For 500 minutes.

f fails the horizontal line test = 640 − 2 x b. 0 d. –4) h. 2. a. R( x) = x(640 − 2 x) = −2 x 2 + 640 x w = 16 − 2 x l = 24 − 2 x 125. –1. 251 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) = f ( x) e. a. (–1. 1 c. 124. 2 b. (b).08x + 0. i. range: [–4. domain: (–5. g. even. f(2) = 5 g.12(10. . − 1) or (2. increasing: (–1. b. x-intercepts: –4. decreasing: (−5. Chapter 1 Test N ( x) = 400 − 2( x − 120) Chapter 1 Test = 400 − 2 x + 240 1. a. I = 0. 5] V ( x) = (16 − 2 x)(24 − 2 x) x d. and 5. ⎛ 8 ⎞ = 2x2 + 4 ⎜ ⎟x ⎝ x2 ⎠ 32 = 2x2 + x 127.000 – x) h. (c). 2) 0<x<8 e. no. 6] c. y-intercept: –3 a. f(4) – f(–3) = 3 – (–2) = 5 b. A( x) = 2 x ⋅ x + 4hx f (0) is a relative minimum. 6) f. and (d) are not functions. V = lwh 8 = x⋅ x⋅h 8 =h x2 f. Inc. 1. –2. 2l + 3w = 400 2l = 400 − 3w 400 − 3w 2 Let x = width l= ⎛ 400 − 3w ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ x(400 − 3w) = 2 126. 2. 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 123.

∞ ) domain: range: [ −5. ∞ ) {−1. ∞ ) range: {4} [ −6. ∞ ) domain: range: 4. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) −1 − 0 1 = =− x2 − x1 1 − (−2) 3 ( −∞. 2] domain: range: 6. i. ∞ ) ( −∞. 2] [ −2.1] [ −2. 4] domain: 5. ( −∞. 7] domain: range: 252 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. j.Functions and Graphs 7. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. [ −2. range: 9. . 2} domain: range: 10. ( −∞. 2] [ −1. domain: ( −∞. 8. ∞ ) ( −∞.

Inc. 15. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 13. f ( x − 1) = ( x − 1)2 − ( x − 1) − 4 = x2 − 2 x + 1 − x + 1 − 4 = x2 − 3x − 2 17. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ) . ∞ ) range of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ( ( g − f )( x) = 2 x − 6 − x 2 − x − 4 = 2x − 6 − x + x + 4 2 = − x 2 + 3x − 2 253 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ∞ ) range of g: [ −2. ∞ ) domain of f: f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( ( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 4 − x 2 − x − 4 ) h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − x − h − 4 − x 2 + x + 4 = h 2 xh + h 2 − h = h h ( 2 x + h − 1) = h = 2x + h −1 18. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 11. ( −∞. [ 0. ∞ ) range of f: [ −1. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. 4] domain of f: domain of f: f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 16. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. 14. ∞ ) domain of f: domain of f: 12.

25. . 486) . 476) and (4. find the slope using the points (2. Write 4 x + 2 y − 5 = 0 in slope intercept form. Publishing as Prentice Hall.S. ∞ ) 2 y = −4 x + 5 y = −2 x + 5 2 The slope of the parallel line is –2.Functions and Graphs 19. 20. g(–1) = 3 – (–1) = 4 g (7) = 7 − 3 = 4 = 2 254 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.000 residents. ( a. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) ) g ( f (−1) ) = 2 (−1) 2 − (−1) − 4 − 6 = 2 (1 + 1 − 4 ) − 6 m= = 2 ( −2 ) − 6 = −4 − 6 y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) = −10 23. = x2 + x − 4 f is neither even nor odd. or y − 476 = 5 ( x − 2 ) f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) − 4 b. thus the slope of the desired line is m = −2. 24. f (10 ) = 5(10) + 466 = 516 The function predicts that in 2010 the number of sentenced inmates in the U. will be 516 per 100. First.3) ∪ ( 3. 4x + 2 y − 5 = 0 ⎛ f ⎞ x2 − x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2x − 6 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ( g f )( x) = g ( f ( x) ) ( y + 10 = −2( x + 7) y + 10 = −2 x − 14 ) = 2 x2 − x − 4 − 6 2 x + y + 24 = 0 = 2x − 2x − 8 − 6 2 27. 1 y = − x + 5 so m = 4 4 point-slope form: y – 6 = 4(x + 4) slope-intercept form: y = 4x + 22 28. = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 14 22. y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) y − 486 = 5 x − 20 y = 5 x + 466 f ( x ) = 5 x + 466 −8 − 1 −9 = =3 −1 − 2 −3 point-slope form: y – 1 = 3(x – 2) or y + 8 = 3(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 3x – 5 m= c. 486 − 476 10 = =5 4−2 2 Then use the slope and a point to write the equation in point-slope form. 26. Inc. 3(10) 2 − 5 − [3(6) 2 − 5] 10 − 6 205 − 103 = 4 192 = 4 = 48 29. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) = (2 x − 6) 2 − (2 x − 6) − 4 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) = 4 x 2 − 24 x + 36 − 2 x + 6 − 4 y − (−10) = −2 ( x − (−7) ) = 4 x 2 − 26 x + 38 21.

T ( x) = 41. 0 ) ∪ ⎜ 0. 2 − 4x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. 255 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.5 x + 45 31. = 95 − 1.7 = 41.∞ ) Y ( x) = 50 − 1. ∞ ) 36. the winning time will be 35. The denominator is zero when x = 1 or x = –5.19 x 35. 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 2 + 5 −2 + 2 ⎞ ⎟=⎜ 2 . f ( x ) = x7 34. T ( x) = x(95 − 1.5 x 2 + 95 x 2l + 2w = 600 2l = 600 − 2w 7 2 −4 x = l = 300 − w 7x 2 − 4x Let x = w A( x) = x(300 − x) = − x 2 + 300 x x ≠ 0.7 seconds.0⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛7 ⎞ The length is 5 and the midpoint is ⎜ .PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 30. ⎟ ∪ ⎜ .5 x 32. b.78 − 0. ( f g )( x) = b. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.19 x 32 = x 32 years after 1980. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎝2 ⎠ 35. a.08 = −0.5( x − 30) = 50 − 1. 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛7 ⎞ = ⎜ . 8000 = x ⋅ x ⋅ h 8000 =h x2 g ( x ) = 2x + 3 d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) = (5 − 2) 2 + ( 2 − (−2) ) V = lwh A( x) = 2 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 2 x2 + 2 8000 x2 32. . 0 ⎟ . 37.000 x = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 ⎜ 2 . ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 33. d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 38.1) ∪ (1.5 x) = −1. x ≥1 domain: [1. x + 5 ≥ 0 and x − 1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −5 a. in 2012. The expressions under each radical must not be negative.78 − 0.19 x −6.

1 Check Point Exercises 1. c = 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 2 ± 4 −8 2 2 ± −4 x= 2 2 ± 2i x= 2 x = 1± i The solution set is {1 + i. a. = i 9 ⋅ 3 + i 16 ⋅ 3 = 3i 3 + 4i 3 = 7i 3 (2 + 6i ) − (12 − i ) = 2 + 6i − 12 + i = (2 − 12) + (6 + 1)i = −10 + 7i b. x= 256 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b = −2. (5 − 2i ) + (3 + 3i ) = 5 − 2i + 3 + 3i = (5 + 3) + (−2 + 3)i = 8+i 4.Chapter 2 Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. −27 + −48 = i 27 + i 48 (5 + 4i )(6 − 7i ) = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28i 2 = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28(−1) = 30 + 28 − 35i + 24i = 58 − 11i 5 + 4i 5 + 4i 4 + i = ⋅ 4−i 4−i 4+i 20 + 5i + 16i + 4i 2 = 16 + 4i − 4i − i 2 20 + 21i − 4 = 16 + 1 16 + 21i = 17 16 21 = + i 17 17 5. 1 − i}. = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3(−1) 7i (2 − 9i ) = 7i (2) − 7i (9i ) = 1 − 4i 3 c. . = 63 + 14i 3. Inc. a. −14 + −12 −14 + i 12 = 2 2 −14 + 2i 3 = 2 −14 2i 3 = + 2 2 = −7 + i 3 x2 − 2x + 2 = 0 a = 1. 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. (−2 + −3) 2 = (−2 + i 3) 2 = (−2) 2 + 2(−2)(i 3) + (i 3) 2 = 14i − 63i 2 = 14i − 63(−1) b. a.

. ( 2 + 3i ) 6 − (−5 + 4i ) − (−13 − i ) = 6 + 5 − 4i + 13 + i = 24 − 3i 7 − (−9 + 2i ) − (−17 − i ) = 7 + 9 − 2i + 17 + i = 33 − i 7. 22. 4. –8i (2i – 7) = −16i 2 + 56i = –16(–1) + 56i = 9 − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 = 34 = 16 + 56i 11. ( 2 + 7i )( 2 − 7i ) = 4 − 49i 2 = 4 + 49 = 53 17.1 1.1 14. 2 = 4 + 12i − 9 = −5 + 12i 10. (−7 + i )(−7 − i ) = 49 + 7i − 7i − i 2 = 49 + 1 = 50 19. (8 – 4i)(–3 + 9i) = −24 + 72i + 12i − 36i 2 = –24 + 36 + 84i = 12 + 84i Exercise Set 2. (7 + 2i) + (1 – 4i) = 7 + 2i + 1 – 4i = 7 + 1 + 2i – 4i = 8 – 2i = 34 (3 + 2i) – (5 – 7i) = 3 – 5 + 2i + 7i = 3 + 2i – 5 + 7i = –2 + 9i (–7 + 5i) – (–9 – 11i) = –7 + 5i + 9 + 11i = –7 + 9 + 5i + 11i = 2 + 16i 16. 8. Inc. 15. (7 – 5i)(–2 – 3i) = −14 − 21i + 10i + 15i 2 = –14 – 15 – 11i = –29 – 11i 2 2 3+i = ⋅ 3−i 3−i 3+i 2(3 + i ) = 9 +1 2 (3 + i ) = 10 3+i = 5 3 1 = + i 5 5 3 3 4−i = ⋅ 4+i 4+i 4−i 3( 4 − i) = 16 − i 2 3( 4 − i) = 17 12 3 = − i 17 17 257 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (3 + 5i )(3 − 5i ) = 9 − 15i + 15i − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 (–2 + 6i) + (4 – i) = –2 + 6i + 4 – i = –2 + 4 + 6i – i = 2 + 5i 6. (−5 + i )(−5 − i ) = 25 + 5i − 5i − i 2 = 25 + 1 = 26 18. 20. = 4 + 12i + 9i 2 ( 5 − 2i ) 2 = 25 − 20i + 4i 2 = 25 − 20i − 4 = 21 − 20i 15i – (12 – 11i) = 15i – 12 + 11i = –12 + 15i + 11i = –12 + 26i 21. (−4 − 8i )(3 + i ) = −12 − 4i − 24i − 8i 2 = −12 − 28i + 8 = −4 − 28i 13. 8i – (14 – 9i) = 8i – 14 + 9i = –14 + 8i + 9i = –14 + 17i 9. –3i(7i – 5) = −21i 2 + 15i = –21(–1) + 15i = 21 + 15i (−5 + 4i )(3 + i ) = −15 − 5i + 12i + 4i 2 = −15 + 7i − 4 = −19 + 7i 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3. 2. 5.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.

5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5i 8 + 3i 18 = 5i 4 ⋅ 2 + 3i 9 ⋅ 2 = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = 19i 2 33. . 25. ( −2 + −11 ) = ( −2 + i 11) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 11 + i 2 (11) = 4 − 11 − 4i 11 = −7 − 4i 11 37. 27. 24. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 29. 28. ( −5 − −9 ) 2 = (−5 − i 9)2 = ( −5 − 3i ) 2 = 25 + 30i + 9i 2 = 25 + 30i – 9 = 16 + 30i 35. ( −2 + −4 ) 2 = ( −2 + 2i ) 2 = 4 − 8i + 4i 2 = 4 – 8i – 4 = –8i 8i 8i 4 + 3i = ⋅ 4 − 3i 4 − 3i 4 + 3i 32i + 24i 2 = 16 + 9 −24 + 32i = 25 24 32 =− + i 25 25 34. 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5(4i) + 3(9i) = 20i + 27i = 47i 5i 5i 2 + i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 10i + 5i 2 = 4 +1 −5 + 10i = 5 = −1 + 2i 32. 26. 2i 2i 1 − i 2i − 2i 2 2 + 2i = ⋅ = = = 1+ i 1+ i 1+ i 1− i 1+1 2 31.Polynomial and Rational Functions 23. 3 − 4i 3 − 4i 4 − 3i = ⋅ 4 + 3i 4 + 3i 4 − 3i 12 − 25i + 12i 2 = 16 + 9 −25i = 25 = −i 38. Inc. −64 − −25 = i 64 − i 25 = 8i − 5i = 3i −8 + −32 −8 + i 32 = 24 24 −8 + i 16 ⋅ 2 = 24 −8 + 4i 2 = 24 1 2 i =− + 3 6 −12 + −28 −12 + i 28 −12 + i 4 ⋅ 7 = = 32 32 32 = −81 − −144 = i 81 − i 144 = 9i – 12i = –3i −12 + 2i 7 3 7 i =− + 32 8 16 258 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 30. −6i −6i 3 − 2i −18i + 12i 2 = ⋅ = 3 + 2i 3 + 2i 3 − 2i 9+4 12 18 −12 − 18i = =− − i 13 13 13 ( −3 − −7 ) = ( −3 − i 7 ) 2 2 = 9 + 6i 7 + i 2 ( 7 ) = 9 − 7 + 6i 7 = 2 + 6i 7 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2+i 2−i 4 + 4i − 3i 2 = 4 +1 7 + 4i = 5 7 4 = + i 5 5 36.

1 ) = (3i 7 )(2i 8) = (3i 7 )(2i 4 ⋅ 2) ( )( ) = 3i 7 4i 2 = 12i 2 14 = −12 14 45. −8 ± 82 − 4(4)(13) 2(4) = −4 − 2 = i 12(i 4 − 2) = 2i 3 2i − 2 4 x 2 + 8 x + 13 = 0 x= = −2 6 − 2i 10 −12 2(1) 2 ± 4 − 68 2 2 ± −64 x= 2 2 ± 8i x= 2 x = 1 ± 4i The solution set is {1 + 4i. 2 ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(17) x= −15 − 3i 2 5 2 i =− − 33 11 11 −8 x 2 − 2 x + 17 = 0 x= −15 − −18 −15 − i 18 −15 − i 9 ⋅ 2 = = 33 33 33 = 41. x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 0 x= 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i The solution set is {3 + i. Section 2. x= 259 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ = 24 15 44. Inc. ( ( ) ) = ( = 4i 2 (3 ) 3 − 2i 6 )( ) ( )( −5 −4 −12 = 3i 5 −8i 3 ) = −24i 2 15 3 3 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1 + i. ( ) 47. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 40.1 − 4i}.PreCalculus 4E 39. 3 − i} . −6 − −12 −6 − i 12 = 48 48 −6 − i 4 ⋅ 3 = 48 −6 − 2i 3 = 48 1 3 i =− − 8 24 46. . − 1 − i ⎬ . (3 )( −7 2 −8 −8 ± 64 − 208 8 −8 ± −144 8 −8 ± 12i = 8 4(−2 ± 3i ) = 8 −2 ± 3i = 2 3 = −1 ± i 2 = −4 3 − 2i 6 43. −3 − 5 = i 8(i 3 − 5) = 2i 2 i 3 − 5 42.

= = = = = = 2(3) 4 ± 16 − 72 6 4 ± −56 6 4 ± 2i 14 6 2(2 ± i 14) 6 2 ± i 14 3 2 14 i ± 3 3 ( 2 − 3i )(1 − i ) − ( 3 − i )( 3 + i ) = ( 2 − 2i − 3i + 3i 2 ) − ( 32 − i 2 ) − ( −8 ) ± (−8) − 4(3)(7) 2 x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(3)(6) 14 2 14 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 2 The solution set is ⎨ + i.Polynomial and Rational Functions 48. ⎧⎪ 4 5 4 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ + i. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x2 + 2 x + 3 = 0 x= 50. 3 3 3 3 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 5 1 5 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 1 The solution set is ⎨ − + i. 3x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 2(3) = 2 − 5i + 3i 2 − 9 + i 2 8 ± 64 − 84 6 8 ± −20 6 8 ± 2i 5 6 2(4 ± i 5) 6 4±i 5 3 4 5 i ± 3 3 = −7 − 5i + 4i 2 = −7 − 5i + 4 ( −1) = −11 − 5i 52. ⎩⎪ 3 3 3 3 ⎪⎭ ( 2 + i ) − (3 − i ) 2 2 = ( 4 + 4i + i 2 ) − ( 9 − 6i + i 2 ) = 4 + 4i + i 2 − 9 + 6i − i 2 = −5 + 10i 260 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . (8 + 9i )( 2 − i ) − (1 − i )(1 + i ) = (16 − 8i + 18i − 9i 2 ) − (12 − i 2 ) = 16 + 10i − 9i 2 − 1 + i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8 ( −1) = 23 + 10i 53. − i⎬. − − i⎬. − i⎬. −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(2)(3) 2(2) x= −2 ± 4 − 24 4 −2 ± −20 = 4 −2 ± 2i 5 = 4 2(−1 ± i 5) = 4 −1 ± i 5 = 2 1 5 i =− ± 2 2 = = = = = = = 3x 2 − 8 x + 7 = 0 51. 2 2 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 49.

f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 2 f ( x) = f ( 4i ) = f (1 + i ) = (1 + i ) − 2 (1 + i ) + 2 2 ( 3i ) 2 + 19 x 2 + 11 3− x ( 4i ) 2 + 11 = 16i 2 + 11 3 − 4i 3 − 4i −16 + 11 = 3 − 4i −5 = 3 − 4i −5 3 + 4i = ⋅ 3 − 4i 3 + 4i −15 − 20i = 9 − 16i 2 −15 − 20i = 9 + 16 −15 − 20i = 25 −15 20 = − i 25 25 3 4 =− − i 5 5 = 1 + 2i + i 2 − 2 − 2i + 2 = 1 + i2 = 1 −1 =0 58. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 ( 4 − i ) − (1 + 2i ) 2 2 59. . Section 2. x 2 + 19 2−x 2 − 3i 9i 2 + 19 = 2 − 3i −9 + 19 = 2 − 3i 10 = 2 − 3i 10 2 + 3i = ⋅ 2 − 3i 2 + 3i 20 + 30i = 4 − 9i 2 20 + 30i = 4+9 20 + 30i = 13 20 30 = + i 13 13 = 15 − 12i − 3i 2 55. = (16 − 8i + i 2 ) − (1 + 4i + 4i 2 ) = 16 − 8i + i − 1 − 4i − 4i 2 f ( 3i ) = 2 = 15 − 12i − 3 ( −1) = 18 − 12i 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5 16 −1 + 3 81 −1 = 5 ⋅ 4i + 3 ⋅ 9i = 20i + 27i = 47i or 0 + 47i 56. 57. Inc. f ( x) = f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 5 f (1 − 2i ) = (1 − 2i ) − 2 (1 − 2i ) + 5 2 = 1 − 4i + 4i 2 − 2 + 4i + 5 = 4 + 4i 2 = 4−4 =0 261 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5 4 2 −1 + 3 9 2 −1 = 5⋅ 2 2 i + 3⋅3 2 i = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = (10 + 9 ) i 2 = 19i 2 or 0 + 19i 2 60.PreCalculus 4E 54.

62. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. 4 6 − 2i + 3i − i 2 4 6 + i +1 4 = 7+i 4 7−i = ⋅ 7+i 7−i 28 − 4i = 49 − i 2 28 − 4i = 49 + 1 28 − 4i = 50 28 4 = − i 50 50 14 2 = − i 25 25 63. 79. Answers may vary. Sample explanation: i = −1 . 75. true 2 81. A sample change is: (3 + 7i)(3 – 7i) = 9 + 49 = 58 which is a real9number. false. E = IR = ( 4 − 5i )( 3 + 7i ) E = 12 + 28i − 15i − 35i E = 12 + 13i − 35 ( −1) E = 12 + 35 + 13i = 47 + 13i The voltage of the circuit is (47 + 13i) volts. Sum: makes sense ( 2 + i )( 3 − i ) = = = 6 + i + 15 = 21 + i The voltage of the circuit is ( 21 + i ) volts. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Inc. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. makes sense 77. It is not a variable in this context. A sample change is: 7 + 3i 7 + 3i 5 − 3i 44 − 6i 22 3 = ⋅ = = − i 5 + 3i 5 + 3i 5 − 3i 34 17 17 80. 73. false. Explanations will vary. 76.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. Sample explanation: Imaginary numbers are not undefined. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 78. 82. Publishing as Prentice Hall. – 72. . 4 1+ i 1− i + 1 + 2i 1 − 2i (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = + (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) + (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) 1 − 2i + i − 2i 2 + 1 + 2i − i − 2i 2 = 1 − 4i 2 1 − 2i + i + 2 + 1 + 2i − i + 2 = 1+ 4 6 = 5 6 = + 0i 5 262 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: All irrational numbers are complex numbers. 74. E = IR = ( 2 − 3i )( 3 + 5i ) = 6 + 10i − 9i − 15i = 6 + i − 15 ( −1) 2 (5 + i 15 ) + (5 − i 15 ) = 5 + i 15 + 5 − i 15 = 5+5 = 10 Product: (5 + i 15 )(5 − i 15 ) = 25 − 5i 15 + 5i 15 − 15i 2 = 25 + 15 = 40 64.

5 85.PreCalculus 4E 83. 4) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 2( x − 3) 2 = 8 ( x − 3) 2 = 4 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 x−3= ± 4 x = 3± 2 x = 1. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 ( x − 1) 2 =4 x − 1 = ±2 x = 1± 2 x = 3 or x = −1 Step 4: find the y-intercept: −x2 − 2x + 1 = 0 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 2 −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 263 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 2 a =−1 0 = −2( x − 3) 2 + 8 84. Step 2: find the vertex: (1.2 Check Point Exercises 1. −(−2) ± (−2) − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) 2 x= 2± 8 2 2±2 2 = 2 = 1± 2 = The solution set is {1 ± 2}. Inc.2 86. 8 i 2 + i i 8 = 2+i i 8i = 2+i 8i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2−i 16i − 8i 2 = 4 − i2 16i + 8 = 4 +1 8 + 16i = 5 8 16 = + i 5 5 = Section 2. 8 2 1+ i Section 2. 2 h P=1 P ⎛ ⎞ kP= 4 f ( x) = − ⎜ x − 1 ⎟ + 4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted 1 unit up and 3 units to the left.

domain: (−∞. Step 2: find the vertex: 4 b x=− =− =2 2a 2(−1) Step 1: The parabola opens up because a > 0. ∞) range: [984. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. 4. Step 4: find the y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 + 4(0) + 1 = 1 x= Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. ∞ ) 264 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) + 1 2 3. 1) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 1 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x ) = − x2 + 4x + 1 f ( 2 ) = −22 + 4(2) + 1 = 5 = −1 The vertex is (2. thus the parabola has no x-intercepts.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. f ( x) = 4 x 2 − 16 x + 1000 a. c. Step 4: find the y-intercept: x= f (0) = (0 − 2) + 1 = 5 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −4 ± 42 − 4(−1)(1) 2(−1) −4 ± 20 −2 x = 2± 5 The x-intercepts are x ≈ −0. Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. 5). Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 and x ≈ −4. 2a 8 f (2) = 4(2) 2 − 16(2) + 1000 = 984 The minimum point is 984 at x = 2 . Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 + 4x + 1 x − 2 = −1 x = 2±i The equation has no real roots. −b 16 x= = =2 b. . Inc. Step 2: find the vertex: (2. a = 4.2 .

b. y = −0. 205 ) . Let x = one of the numbers.PreCalculus 4E 5. The information needed is found at the vertex. . The arrow will hit the ground when the height reaches 0. 2a 2 (1) 2 y-coordinate of vertex f ( 4) = ( 4) − 8 ( 4) 2 2 y = −0. x − 8 = the other number. 265 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since we need an equation in one variable. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 30 feet by 30 feet.005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall.005(200) + 2(200) + 5 = 205 The vertex is (200.005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −2 ± 22 − 4(−0. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x.005) x ≈ −2 or x ≈ 402 The arrow travels 402 feet before hitting the ground. This occurs when the two number are 4 and 4 − 8 = −4 .005 x + 2 x + 5 0 = −0. Inc. 5 ) .005 ) The x-coordinate of the minimum is b −8 −8 x=− =− =− = 4. the width y is y = 60 − x = 60 − 30 = 30. Let y = the width of the rectangle. This occurs 200 feet from its release.005(0)2 + 2(0) + 5 = 5 Since a = −1 is negative.2 6.205). Find the corresponding y-coordinate. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 120 feet of fencing. 2 y = −0. 0 ) .005)(5) 2(−0. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 60 60 b x=− =− =− = 30. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 Plot ( 0. A ( x ) = x ( 60 − x ) = − x 2 + 60 x The starting point occurs when x = 0. and ( 200. 7. When the length x is 30. x-coordinate of vertex −b −2 x= = = 200 2a 2 ( −0. and connect them with a smooth curve. = 16 − 32 = −16 The vertex is ( 4. Rewrite y= A as a function of x. Section 2. The minimum product is −16 . y = −0. Let x = the length of the rectangle. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 8 ) = x 2 − 8 x 120 − 2 x = 60 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 60 − x ) . The maximum height of the arrow is 205 feet. −16 ) . This gives an area of 30 ⋅ 30 = 900 square feet. 2 x + 2 y = 120 2 y = 120 − 2 x x= c. ( 402.

2 17. .2 1. vertex: (–1. 5). –1) j ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 1 2 4. 7). f(x) = –2(x + 1) + 5 h = –1. ∞ ) 266 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 15. f(x) = 2x – 8x + 3 −b 8 x= = =2 2a 4 f(2) = 2(2)2 – 8(2) + 3 = 8 – 16 + 3 = –5 The vertex is at (2. range: [ −1. f(x) = –2x + 8x – 1 −b −8 x= = =2 2 a −4 2 f(2) = –2(2) + 8(2) – 1 = –8 + 16 – 1 = 7 The vertex is at (2. vertex: (1. –1) x-intercepts: 2 The graph is f(x) = –x translated down one. k = 12 The vertex is at (2. f(x) = –3(x – 2) + 12 h = 2. –8). Publishing as Prentice Hall. vertex: (1. 16. –1) f ( x ) = ( x + 1) − 1 2 2 5. 1). 12). 0) is on the graph and g(1) = 0. Inc. 14. k = 5 The vertex is at (–1. k = –8 The vertex is at (–4. 9. f(x) = –2(x + 4) – 8 h = –4. 2 11. k = 1 The vertex is at (3. –11). 9). 1) g ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 1 2 3. vertex: (–1. 2 10. 0) is on the graph and f(–1) = 0. domain: ( −∞. The point (1. The graph is f(x) = x translated down one. f(x) = –x – 2x + 8 −b 2 x= = = −1 2a −2 2 f(–1) = –(–1) – 2(–1) + 8 = –1 + 2 + 8 = 9 The vertex is at (–1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 Exercise Set 2. The point (–1. 1) h ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 1 2 2. f(x) = 2(x – 3) + 1 h = 3. –5). 2 12. f ( x ) = x 2 + 2 x + 1 7. f(x) = 3x – 12x + 1 −b 12 x= = =2 2a 6 f(2) = 3(2)2 – 12(2) + 1 = 12 – 24 + 1 = –11 The vertex is at (2. j ( x ) = − x2 − 1 0 = ( x − 4) −1 2 1 = ( x − 4) 2 2 ±1 = x – 4 x = 3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 4) 2 − 1 = 15 The axis of symmetry is x = 4. g ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x + 1 8. ∞ ) 2 13. h ( x ) = x2 −1 6. f ( x ) = ( x − 4) −1 2 vertex: (4.

∞ ) 267 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2) x-intercepts: 2 y − 1 = ( x − 3) 0 = ( x − 3) + 1 2 = −2 ( x − 3) x − 1 = ± −2 2 = −1 x – 3 = ±i x = 3 ±i No x-intercepts. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 19.∞ ) range: [ 2. 1) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 2 2 ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 3) + 1 vertex: (1. y-intercept: 10 x = 1± i 2 No x-intercepts.2 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 2 2 20. ∞ ) range: [ −2. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) − 2 0 = ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 1) ( x − 3) 2 2 2 =2 2 = −2 x −1 = ± 2 x − 3 = ±i 2 x = 1± 2 y-intercept: x = 3±i 2 No x-intercepts. Section 2. y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 1) 2 + 2 = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) range: [ 2. f ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 2 2 2 vertex: (3. 21. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 3) + 1 = 10 2 range: [1. The axis of symmetry is x = 3.PreCalculus 4E 18. –2) x-intercepts: vertex: (3. domain: ( −∞. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. domain: ( −∞. Inc. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 1) − 2 = –1 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) + 2 = 11 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) + 2 2 vertex: (1.

∞ ) x = 1± i 3 No x-intercepts y-intercept: range: [ −1. ⎟ ⎝2 4⎠ x-intercepts: 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ 0 = −⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. 1 . ⎥ 4⎦ ⎝ 268 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 1) + 3 = 4 2 24. ∞ ) 5⎤ ⎛ range: ⎜ −∞. 2 . 2 y = ( x − 1) + 3 2 vertex: (1. ∞ ) 23. Inc. 1 5 =± 2 2 1± 5 x= 2 y-intercept: x− f ( x) = 2 ( x + 2 ) − 1 2 vertex: (–2. –1) x-intercepts: 0 = 2 ( x + 2) − 1 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f (0) = − ⎜ 0 − ⎟ + = 1 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 ( x + 2) = 1 2 ( x + 2) 2 = x+2= ± x = −2 ± 1 2 1 The axis of symmetry is x = 2 1 2 y-intercept: = −2 ± 2 2 f (0) = 2 ( 0 + 2 ) − 1 = 7 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ range: [3. y − 3 = ( x − 1) The axis of symmetry is x = –2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 3 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −3 x − 1 = ±i 3 domain: ( −∞. f ( x) = The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 5 ⎛ 1⎞ −⎜ x− ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f ( x) = − ⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 5⎞ vertex: ⎜ .

f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 2 =1 x–3=±1 x = 2 or x = 4 y-intercept: 0 = ( x − 1) − 16 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 16 x–1=±4 x = –3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 15 = –15 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. Inc.2 f ( x ) = 4 − ( x − 1) 2 27. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –4) x-intercepts: ( x − 1) 0 = ( x − 1) − 4 2 vertex: (1. ∞ ) f ( x ) = 1 − ( x − 3) 2 28. f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 3 − 1 f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 4 vertex: (1. 4) x-intercepts: 2 2 2 =4 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: ( x − 1) 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. .PreCalculus 4E 25. 1) x-intercepts: f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 16 vertex: (1. domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 f ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x − 15 f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 15 − 1 vertex: (3.1] domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 269 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4] range: [ −4. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 3 ) + 1 = −8 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 3. ∞ ) =4 domain: ( −∞. Section 2. f ( x ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 26. –16) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 ( x − 3) 2 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: –3 f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 3 = −3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) range: [ −16.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = 2x2 − 7 x − 4 7 49 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 2 16 ⎠ 8 ⎝ 9⎞ 9 ⎛ f ( x ) = ⎜ x 2 + 3x + ⎟ − 10 − 4⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ f ( x) = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 7 81 ⎛ ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . 7 . ∞ ) ⎡ 49 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . 4 . f ( x ) = x 2 + 3x − 10 30. − ⎟ ⎝4 8 ⎠ x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 49 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ − . 2 f ( 0 ) = 2 ( 0 ) − 7 ( 0 ) − 4 = –4 2 The axis of symmetry is x = domain: ( −∞. − ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2 x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ 0 =⎜x+ ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ 0 = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ 2⎜ x − ⎟ = 4 8 ⎝ ⎠ 2 3⎞ 49 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 3 7 x+ = ± 2 2 3 7 x=− ± 2 2 x = 2 or x = –5 y-intercept: f ( x ) = 02 + 3 ( 0 ) − 10 = −10 The axis of symmetry is x = − 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 4 ⎠ 16 ⎝ 7 9 x− =± 4 4 7 9 x= ± 4 4 1 x = − or x = 4 2 y-intercept: 3 . ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 8 ⎠ 270 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) ⎡ 81 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . Inc. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ domain: ( −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 29.

9] f ( 0) = 2 ( 0) − ( 0) + 3 = 3 2 33. 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 ( x − 1) 2 =4 domain: ( −∞. Section 2. f ( x) = 5 − 4 x − x 2 f ( x) = − x 2 − 4 x + 5 f ( x) = − ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 ) + 5 + 4 f ( x) = − ( x + 2 ) + 9 2 vertex: (–2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = ( x + 3) − 6 2 vertex: ( −3. ∞ ) x+2=±3 x = –5. Inc. f ( x) = − x + 2 x + 3 2 f ( x) = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) + 4 vertex: (1.2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 + 3 The axis of symmetry is x = –2. 4] 32. −6 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 3) − 6 2 ( x + 3) 2 =6 x+3 = ± 6 x = −3 ± 6 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 6(0) + 3 domain: ( −∞. 1 y-intercept: f (0) = 5 − 4 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) = 5 2 271 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) =9 range: [ −6.PreCalculus 4E 31. f (0) = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = −3 . 9) x-intercepts: 0 = − ( x + 2) + 9 2 ( x + 2) 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. f ( x) = x 2 + 6 x + 3 f ( x) = ( x 2 + 6 x + 9) + 3 − 9 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: range: ( −∞. .

2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ ⎛ 1 13 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . ∞ ) x+2 = ± 5 range: [ −5. . ∞ ) 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 0 = 3⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ range: [ −5. 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 3⎜ x − ⎟ = 3⎠ 3 ⎝ f ( x) = 2 x + 4 x − 3 2 f ( x) = 2( x 2 + 2 x )−3 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 3⎠ 9 ⎝ f ( x) = 2( x + 2 x + 1) − 3 − 2 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 1 13 x− = ± 3 9 vertex: ( −1. The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . − ⎟ ⎝3 3 ⎠ x-intercepts: domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 35.Polynomial and Rational Functions 34. −5) x-intercepts: x= 0 = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 3(0) 2 − 2(0) − 4 2 ( x + 1) = 5 2 ( x + 1) 2 = 5 2 x +1 = ± 1 13 ± 3 3 f (0) = −4 5 2 x = −1 ± 10 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 2(0) 2 + 4(0) − 3 f (0) = −3 272 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 3 x 2 − 2 x − 4 2 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x ⎟ − 4 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2 1⎞ 1 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 3 9 3 ⎝ ⎠ f (0) = −1 The axis of symmetry is x = −2 . ∞ ) x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 4(0) − 1 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −5 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 2) − 5 2 ( x + 2) 2 =5 domain: ( −∞. Inc. f ( x) = x 2 + 4 x − 1 f ( x) = ( x + 4 x + 4) − 1 − 4 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2 ) − 5 2 vertex: ( −2.

x= = =2 2a 6 2 f(2) = 3(2) – 12(2) – 1 = 12 – 24 – 1 = –13 The minimum is –13 at x = 2 . ∞) range: [ −11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a = 2. . domain: (−∞. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) = −2 x − 2 = ±i 2 x = 2±i 2 No x-intercepts y-intercept: ⎡ 13 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . −b 12 b. f(x) = 3x – 12x – 1 a. 3 38. −b 8 b. y-intercept: domain: ( −∞. c. c.2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1 . Inc. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. f ( x) = 6 − 4 x + x 2 f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 6 f ( x) = ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) + 6 − 4 f ( x) = ( x − 2 ) + 2 2 vertex: (2. a = 3. −1] 273 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 40. domain: (−∞. f(x) = 2x – 8x – 3 a.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ∞) range: [ −13. f ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x − 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 2 x + 1) − 2 + 1 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) − 1 vertex: (1. x= = =2 2a 4 2 f(2) = 2(2) – 8(2) – 3 = 8 – 16 – 3 = –11 The minimum is –11 at x = 2 . ∞ ) f (0) = 2 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 2 2 39. 2 f (0) = 6 − 4 ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) = 6 2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 − 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 2. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 2 2 ( x − 2) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) The axis of symmetry is x = 1. –1) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) − 1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −1 x – 1 = ±i x = 1 ±i No x-intercepts. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. ∞ ) range: [ 2. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 3 ⎠ 37.

43. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ 49. . ( h.Polynomial and Rational Functions 41. x= x= 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 6⎜ ⎟ − 6⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 6 3 6 −3 = −3 = − = 4 2 2 2 −3 1 at x = . range: ( −∞. a = 6. Since the parabola opens down. ∞ ) domain: (−∞. a = -4. domain: ( −∞. The parabola opens upward and has minimum value. k ) = ( 5. The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. ∞ ⎟ ⎣2 ⎠ 45. ( h. −b −8 = =1 2a −8 f (1) = −4(1) 2 + 8(1) − 3 f ( x) = 6 x 2 − 6 x a. ∞ ) . The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. k ) = ( −10. −6 ) . k ) = ( 7. range: [ −2. −2 ) is a f ( x) = 5 x 2 − 5 x a. The minimum is 2 2 = −4 + 8 − 3 = 1 The maximum is 1 at x = 1 . The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. −b 5 1 x= = = 2a 10 2 domain: ( −∞.3) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h ) + k = 2 ( x − 5) + 3 50. −6] 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 5⎜ ⎟ − 5⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5 5 10 −5 = − = − = 4 2 4 4 4 −5 1 at x = . 47. The minimum is 2 4 c. −b 6 1 = = 2a 12 2 48. 44. c. minimum point. c. domain: ( −∞. it opens up from the vertex ( −6. range: ( −∞. ( h. f ( x) = −4 x 2 + 8 x − 3 a. Inc. ∞) range: ⎢ . ⎡ −3 ⎞ domain: (−∞. ∞ ) . 4 ) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k = 2 ( x − 7) + 4 51. the vertex ( −1. c. ∞) range: ( −∞. Since the parabola has a maximum. b. Since the parabola opens up. the vertex ( −3. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . it opens down from the vertex (10. b. ∞ ) .1] 42. 21] 46. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ⎡ −5 ⎞ domain: (−∞. −4] a = 5. −5 ) 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−10) ] + (−5) 2 = 2 ( x + 10 ) − 5 274 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since the parabola has a minimum. range: [18. f(x) = –2x2 – 12x + 3 a. ∞) range: ⎢ . −4 ) is a maximum point. ∞) range: ( −∞. domain: (−∞. −b 12 b. x= = = −3 2 a −4 f(–3) = –2(–3)2 – 12(–3) + 3 = –18 + 36 + 3 = 21 The maximum is 21 at x = −3 . a = –2.18) .

1x + 6.3 feet.7 2 − 4(−0.1 feet.7 = = = 35 2a 2 ( −0.04 x 2 + 2.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 77. b = 0.1 = 3 ( x − 11) + 0 2 56.1 = 18. b = 2. f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k = −3[ x − (−2)] + 4 2 = −3 ( x + 2 ) + 4 2 c.01(35) 2 + 0.01) x ≈ 77. k ) = ( −8.01) −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −2.7 x + 6. the parabola opens down and a = −3 . Since the vertex is a maximum. y = −0.1) 2(−0.1 2 = 3( x − 9) + 0 0 = −0. y = −0. = −3 ( x − 5 ) − 7 Since the vertex is a minimum.1x + 6.7.04. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0.1x + 6.7 The maximum height of the shot is about 33. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 2 54.25)2 + 2.01x + 0. y = −0. This occurs 26.1 y = −0.7 x + 6.25) + 6.1 x= 2 y = −0. a. y = −0.04(26.01)(6. ( h. 2 Since the vertex is a minimum.1 ± 2.1(26.01. the parabola opens up and a = 3 . a.12 − 4(−0.1 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k 55.1 = 3( x − 9) 2 a = −0. k ) = ( −2. k ) = ( 9. ( h.01(0) 2 + 0.1.1 a = −0. the parabola opens up and a = 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.04 x 2 + 2. This occurs 35 feet from its point of release. c = 6. y = −0. c = 6.1 a = −0.1) 2(−0.PreCalculus 4E 52.7(0) + 6. 4 ) x= −0. 275 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 55.1 a = −0.3 or x ≈ −2. −6 ) 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−8)] + (−6) 2 = 2 ( x + 8) − 6 b. b = 0. 53.1 = = = 26.04 x 2 + 2.35 feet. 2 = −3 ( x − 5) + ( −7 ) 2 58.04 x 2 + 2.35 The maximum height of the shot is about 18. Inc.25 feet from its point of release.7 ± 0.7. f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 57. the parabola opens down and a = −3 .1 Since the vertex is a maximum.1 = 6. k ) = ( 5. ( h.7 x + 6.01. . c = 6.01x 2 + 0.01x 2 + 0.1x + 6.7 feet.25 2a 2 ( −0.04)(6. 0 ) y-coordinate of vertex f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 y = −0.1 ≈ 33. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −0. k ) = (11.8 feet.7 x + 6. ( h. c = 6.04 ) 2 = 3 ( x − 11) The initial height can be found at x = 0. x= y-coordinate of vertex y = −0.1.8 or x ≈ −7.7(35) + 6. b = 2.7 x + 6.04) x ≈ 55.1 The shot was released at a height of 6.1 0 = −0. 0 ) b. −7 ) y = −0. Section 2.01x 2 + 0.04.2 ( h.01x 2 + 0.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −2.

This seems reasonable as compared to the values in the graph.38 According to the function. U. Inc.048 gallons per U.43 2 a. year = − 62. Let x = one of the numbers Let 20 – x = the other number P ( x ) = x ( 20 − x ) = 20 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 20 x −0. 59.6 The vertex is (8.38 billion movie tickets were sold in 2005. x=− f (12 ) = 0. Movie attendance was at a minimum about 2 years after 2000. f ( x ) = 0. Let x = the larger number. adult in 1992.004 ) Wine consumption was at a minimum about 12 years after 1980.03 billion.43 2 = 1.6 a. The product is minimized when ( −24 ) b =− = 12 x=− 2a 2 (1) Since 12 − ( −12 ) = 24 . Let x = one of the numbers.094(12) + 2. The product of these two numbers is given by P( x) = x ( x − 24 ) = x 2 − 24 x f ( 2 ) = −0.Polynomial and Rational Functions c.03) −64 . This underestimates the graph’s value by 0.094 x + 2. or 1992. The initial height can be found at x = 0.004(12)2 − 0. 63. The maximum product is 64. 16 − x = the other number.6 ≈ 2. 1.04 billion. b. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 8 − 16 = −8 .05 gallon.1 The shot was released at a height of 6. adult wine consumption in 2005 was 2.04 x + 2.1x + 6.S.75 gallons per person. .004(25) 2 − 0. b.75 According to the function. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 16 − 8 = 8 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x − 16 = the other number. The x-coordinate of the minimum is −16 −16 b =− =− = 8.S. f ( 8 ) = −82 + 16 ( 8 ) = −64 + 128 = 64 f ( 25 ) = 0.1 feet. 64.1 = 6. year = − b 20 20 =− =− = 10 −2 2a 2 ( −1) f ( 8 ) = ( 8 ) − 16 ( 8 ) 2 = 64 − 128 = −64 The vertex is ( 8. Then x − 24 is the smaller number. The numbers which maximize the product are 10 and 10. −2 2a 2 ( −1) 2 y = −0.03 x + 0. f ( x ) = x (16 − x ) The product is = 16 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 16 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 16 16 x=− =− =− = 8. This differs from the value in the graph by 0.14 ( 2 ) + 1. x=− 2a 2 (1) 2 f ( 5) = −0. 60.14 =− ≈2 2a 2 ( −0. The maximum product is 10 ⋅10 = 100.1(0) + 6. Wine consumption was about 2. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 16 ) = x 2 − 16 x f ( x ) = −0.04(0)2 + 2. the two numbers whose difference is 24 and whose product is minimized are 12 and −12 .1 y = −0.094 b =− ≈ 12 2a 2 ( 0.094(25) + 2.03 ( 5) + 0.43 2 = 1. = 2. Let x = one of the numbers.14 x + 1.59 billion in 2002. 61. 64).59 Movie attendance was about 1.048 The other number is 20 − x = 20 − 10 = 10. 276 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.004 x 2 − 0. −64 ) . or 2002.14 ( 5 ) + 1. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0. The minimum product is P(12) = 12 (12 − 24 ) = −144 .03 ( 2 ) + 0. The minimum product is b 0.

A ( x ) = x ( 40 − x ) = − x 2 + 40 x x=− b 40 40 =− =− = 20.5 yards by 12.5 ⋅12. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 20 yards by 20 yards. Thus.5. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 yards. b 200 x=− =− = 50 2a 2 ( −2 ) 68. 000 2 = 5000 The maximum area is 5000 square feet when the length is 100 feet and the width is 50 feet.5 = 12. A ( x ) = x ( 25 − x ) = − x 2 + 25 x When the width is x = 150 feet. 66. This gives an area of 20 ⋅ 20 = 400 square yards. The dimensions of the rectangular plot with maximum area are 150 feet by 300 feet. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed along a river with 600 feet of fencing. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 20. 600 − 2 x = the length of the rectangle We need to maximize. 000 square feet. From the diagram.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.25 square yards. the length is 600 − 2 (150 ) = 600 − 300 = 300 feet. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x.5 = 156. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 25 25 x=− =− =− = 12. Rewrite y= A as a function of x. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 50 yards of fencing. This gives an area of 150 ⋅ 300 = 45. the width y is y = 25 − x = 25 − 12. Let x = the width of the rectangle. Since a = −1 is negative. . 2 x + 2 y = 50 = 600 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 600 x Since a = −2 is negative.5. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 12. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 12. Let x = the length of the rectangle. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 600 600 x=− =− =− = 150. the area of the plot is given by A = l ⋅ w = ( 200 − 2 x )( x ) = −2 x 2 + 200 x Since the graph of this equation is a parabola that opens down. Let y = the width of the rectangle. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) 2 y = 50 − 2 x 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 25 − x ) . the area is maximized at the vertex.2 65. we have that x is the width of the rectangular plot and 200 − 2 x is the length. Let x = the length of the rectangle Let y = the width of the rectangle 2 x + 2 y = 80 2 y = 80 − 2 x 80 − 2 x y= 2 y = 40 − x A = −2 ( 50 ) + 200 ( 50 ) = −5000 + 10. A ( x ) = x ( 600 − 2 x ) 67. Inc. the width y is y = 40 − x = 40 − 20 = 20. This gives an area of 12.5. Since we need an equation in one variable. 277 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Rewrite A as a function of x. Since we need an equation in one variable. This occurs when the gutter is 5 inches deep and 10 inches wide. 000 square feet. 3 3 3 3 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with 2 maximum area are 100 feet by 66 feet. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 20 20 x=− =− =− = 5. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 5. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. 3 3 Maximize the area of the playground with 600 feet of fencing. the width is 12 − 2 x = 12 − 2 ( 3) = 12 − 6 = 6. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 150. This occurs when the gutter is 3 inches deep and 6 inches wide. Let x = the length of the rectangle. A ( x ) = x (12 − 2 x ) = 12 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 12 x b 12 12 x=− =− =− =3 −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 3. 70. Since we need an equation in one variable. Maximize the cross-sectional area of the gutter: A ( x ) = x ( 20 − 2 x ) = 20 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 20 x. Since a = −2 is negative. we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 400 400 b x=− =− 3 = − 3 = 100. Maximize the area of the playground with 400 feet of fencing. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 71. Inc. 2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ A ( x ) = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ = − x 2 + 200 x 3 ⎠ 3 ⎝ 2 Since a = − is negative. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 100. 2 x + 3 y = 600 3 y = 600 − 2 x 600 − 2 x y= 3 2 y = 200 − x 3 2 ⎞ ⎛ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ . the width y is 400 2 400 2 200 2 y= − x= − (100) = = 66 . 2 400 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ − x ⎟ = − x2 + x 3 ⎠ 3 3 ⎝ 3 2 Since a = − is negative. the width y is 2 2 y = 200 − x = 200 − (150) = 100. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. 2 x + 3 y = 400 3 y = 400 − 2 x 400 − 2 x y= 3 400 2 y= − x 3 3 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ − x⎟ . the width is 20 − 2 x = 20 − 2 ( 5 ) = 20 − 10 = 10. This gives an area of 150 ⋅100 = 15. Let y = the width of the rectangle. A ( 5 ) = −2 ( 5 ) + 20 ( 5 ) 2 = −2 ( 25 ) + 100 = −50 + 100 = 50 The maximum cross-sectional area is 50 square inches.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. Let y = the width of the rectangle. Let x = the length of the rectangle. This 3 2 2 gives an area of 100 ⋅ 66 = 6666 square feet. 3 ⎠ ⎝ Rewrite A as a function of x. we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 200 200 b x=− =− =− = 150. 278 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with maximum area are 150 feet by 100 feet. 72. A ( 3) = −2 ( 3) + 12 ( 3) = −2 ( 9 ) + 36 2 = −18 + 36 = 18 The maximum cross-sectional area is 18 square inches.

1600) 75. 520) You can only see a little of the parabola. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 73.5. y = –0. You can choose Xmin and Xmax so the x-value of the vertex is in the center of the graph.5 2a 4 y = 2(20. a =2. x = increase A = (20 + x)(60 − 2x) = 1200 + 20x − 2x 2 −b −20 = =5 2a 2(−2) The maximum number of trees is 20 + 5 = 25 trees. 50 x 25 = 1250 pounds. = 400. 185). 2 87.500. Ymax = 750 d. Maximize A = (30 + x)(50 – x) = 1500 + 20x – x2 −20 x= = 10 2(−1) Maximum number of trees = 30 + 10 = 40 trees Maximum yield = (30 + 10)(50 – 10) = 1600 pounds 77. y = 2x – 82x + 720 a.5) + 20(2.5 + 50 +160 = 185 The vertex is at (2.5) c. y = –4x + 20x + 160 −b −20 = = 2.5 x= 2a −8 2 y = –4(2. Answers may vary.5) + 720 = 840. – 83.5 vertex: (20.5 2 y = –0.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 76. 2 84. Inc.25(80) + 40(80) = 1600 vertex: (80. x = increase A = (50 + x)(8000 −100x) b.25x + 40x −b −40 x= = = 80 2a −0.5) + 160 = –2. –120. .5. x= 74. y = 5x + 40x + 600 −b −40 = = −4 x= 2a 10 2 y = 5(–4) + 40(–4) + 600 = 80 – 160 + 600 = 520 vertex: (–4. b = –82 b −82 x=− =− = 20. 000 + 3000x −100x 2 −b −3000 = = 15 2a 2(−100) The maximum price is 50 + 15 = $65. Maximize A = (30 + x)(200 – 5x) = 6000 + 50x – 5x2 − 50 x= =5 2(−5) Maximum rental = 30 + 5 = $35 Maximum revenue = 35(200 – 5·5) = $6125 ( ) 2 85. The maximum revenue = 65(800 – 100·15) = $422. x= 2 86. 279 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 − 1681 + 720 = −120. The maximum yield is 60 – 2·5=50 pounds per tree. Choose Ymin to include the y-value of the vertex.5) 2 − 82(20.

its path will be a line segment. 2 . true 2 8 = 16a 1 =a 2 Therefore. k ) = ( −3. –2) is (–3. graph passes through the point (1. Explanations will vary. we know that there are no x–intercepts. point: (–3. Explanations will vary. 1 2 ( x + 3) − 4 . A sample change is: The vertex is ( 5.6x + 100 −b −0.170(17) + 14.01x + 0. Sample explanation: If it is thrown vertically. –2) axis: x = –2 (–1. −4 ) .6(–30) + 100 = 9 – 18 + 100 = 91 The vertex is at (–30. 1940 + 17 = 1957 2(. –2). ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4 5 The maximum y–value is . makes sense 92. Vertex (3.170 x + 14. y = 0. 4 = a (1 + 3) − 4 2 8 = a ( 4) 91. the function is f ( x ) = 280 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) . We also know that the 2 90. The values of y increase then decrease.6 = = −30 x= 2a 0. which allows us to solve for a.005 x 2 − 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. To find x–intercepts. does not make sense. We start with the form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k . false.005) 2 98. set y = 0 and solve for x. One unit left of (–2. –2). A sample change is: The x-coordinate of the b 1 1 1 maximum is − =− =− = and the y– 2a 2 ( −1) −2 2 coordinate of the vertex of the parabola is ⎛ b ⎞ ⎛1⎞ 5 f ⎜− ⎟ = f ⎜ ⎟ = . we have f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 4 . does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary.372 mpg in 1957. 93.817 ≈ 13. 99. b. d. 94. Explanations will vary. 89.372 The worst gas mileage was 13. 2 Since we know the vertex is ( h. false. does not make sense. Sample explanation: The football’s path is better described by a quadratic model. 95.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 88. Sample explanation: Some parabolas have the y-axis as the axis of symmetry.02 2 y = 0. 2) Axis: x = 3 second point (0. 4 −(−0. 4 ) .005(17)2 − 0. 11) 100. 0 = −2 ( x + 4 ) − 8 2 2 ( x + 4 ) = −8 2 ( x + 4) 2 = −4 Because the solutions to the equation are imaginary. Inc. false. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –2) y = 0.170) = 17. 96. y = 0. 91).817 c. (–1.01(–30) + 0. –2) is one unit right of (–2. Changes to make the statement true will vary. x= 97. A sample change is: The graph has no x–intercepts. f(x) = 3(x + 2) – 5.

Inc.675. 2 = −3x + 90 x + 21000 −b −90 3 = = = 15 2 a 2 (−3) 2 The maximum charge is 80 + 15 = $95. the maximum profit is –3(15)2 + 9(15) + 21000 = $21. 440 − 2 x = π y form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k 2 440 − 2 x = a ⎡⎣ x − ( −3) ⎤⎦ + ( −1) 2 π = a ( x + 3) − 1 =y 440 − 2 x 2 Maximize A = x We use the point ( −2.2 101. x 3 + 3 x 2 − x − 3 = x 2 ( x + 3) − 1( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 1) = ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 1) d = x 2 + 4 − 8x + 4x 2 d = 5x 2 − 8x + 4 Minimize 5x2 – 8x + 4 −(−8) 4 x= = 2(5) 5 107. 102.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. which is below the x-axis. the function is even.5⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 108. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the equation of the parabola is 2 π = 4 = 440 4 f ( x ) = −2 ( x + 3 ) − 1 . 2 x + 440 π x = 110 π 220 π The dimensions are 110 yards by 2 220 π yards. 105. Answers may vary. ⎛4⎞ 2 y = 2 − 2⎜ ⎟ = ⎝5⎠ 5 ⎛4 2⎞ ⎜5. Thus. . k ) = ( −3. −1) .00. –1). −3) on the graph to determine the value of a: f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 1 2 x= −3 = a ( −2 + 3) − 1 2 2 2 π π = − π 440 − 2(110) −3 = a − 1 −2 = a Thus. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 5 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 5 = −1 f (3) = (3)3 − 2(3) − 5 = 16 The graph passes through (2. so the equation is of the 440 = 2 x + π y 104. f ( x) = (80 + x)(300 − 3x ) − 10(300 − 3x ) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x) 2 + 1 2 = 24000 + 60 x − 3x − 3000 + 30 x = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 Since f (− x) = f ( x). x= 281 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. We know ( h. 16). which is above the x-axis. the graph is symmetric with respect to the yaxis. Since the graph of f is continuous. 2 x + y − 2 = 0 y = 2 − 2x d = x + (2 − 2x) π =− −440 440 2 − −3 = a (1) − 1 2 − π 106. and (3. 103. it must cross the x-axis somewhere between 2 and 3 to get from one of these points to the other.

f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 Since an > 0 and n is odd. the graph crosses the x-axis at this zero. with multiplicity 2. the graph rises to the left and to the right. Since an > 0 and n is odd. f ( x) = x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 0 = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) 0 = ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) 0 = ( x + 2) 2 ( x − 2) x = 2 or x = –2 The zeros are 2 and –2. and 2. Thus its graph falls to the left and rises to the right. polynomial function. not a polynomial function 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. not a polynomial function 282 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) = (− x)3 − 3(− x) 2 = − x 3 − 3x 2 No symmetry. the function falls to the right. the graph 2 touches the x-axis and turns around at this zero. Inc. 1 Because the multiplicity of − is even. 2. with 2 multiplicity 3. and 5. We can find the degree of the polynomial by adding the degrees of each of its degree 3 degree 1 degree 1 P P  factors. Check Point Exercises 1. the graph should fall to the left. f (0) = 03 − 3(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. degree: 3 2. polynomial function. f (−3) = 3(−3)3 − 10(–3) + 9 = −42 f (−2) = 3(−2)3 − 10(−2) + 9 = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between –3 and –2. the model won’t be appropriate. Exercise Set 2. . f ( x) = 2 x3 ( x − 1)( x + 5) is of odd degree with a positive leading coefficient. polynomial function. degree: 5 4.Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. Since the ratio cannot be negative. 5. 6. x3 − 3x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 x = 0 or x = 3 The x-intercepts are 0 and 3.3 1 The zeros are − . Since n is even and an > 0. It is not necessary to multiply out the polynomial to determine its degree. 3. 8. 9. polynomial function. Since n is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. The graph does not show the function’s end behavior. –2.3 2 7. degree: 7 5. 4. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 2 x4 − 4 x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 x = 0 or x = –2 or x = 2 The zeros are 0. f ( x) = 2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5) has degree 3 + 1 + 1 = 5. Because the multiplicity of 5 is odd. 1⎞ 3 ⎛ f ( x ) = −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 2 1⎞ 3 ⎛ −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 x = − or x = 5 2 1. degree: 4 3.

11. The graph crosses the x-axis. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 − 4 x − 28 = x 2 ( x + 7) − 4( x + 7) f ( x) = −11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an < 0 and n is even. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. not a polynomial function 8. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. The graph crosses the x-axis. The graph crosses the x-axis. 31. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. x = –2 and x = –7 have multiplicity 1. f ( x) = 2( x − 5)( x + 4) 2 x = 5 has multiplicity 1. polynomial function 12. f ( x) = 3( x + 5)( x + 2)2 x = –5 has multiplicity 1. x = 4 has multiplicity 3. (c) 17. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. x = –6 has multiplicity 3. f ( x) = 4( x − 3)( x + 6)3 x = 3 has multiplicity 1. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. 20. Inc. 3 29. 16. not a polynomial function 10. f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 + 4 x = x ( x2 + 4 x + 4) f ( x) = 11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. 13. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. Not a polynomial function because graph is not continuous. polynomial function. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. f ( x) = 11x − 6 x + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is odd. 30. 24. 22. 23. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. 2 The graph crosses the x-axis. = ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x + 7) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 7) x = 2. 21. The graph crosses the x-axis.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 283 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = −3 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 4)3 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x = − has multiplicity 1. f ( x) = 5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is even. The graph crosses the x-axis. f ( x) = 5 x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is odd. The graph crosses the x-axis. f ( x) = x3 − 2 x 2 + x = x ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) 2 = x( x − 1)2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. polynomial function 15.3 7. 27. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (d) 19. x = –4 has multiplicity 2. = x( x + 2) 2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. 14. . not a polynomial function 9. The graph crosses the x-axis. The graph crosses the x-axis. (a) 18. Not a polynomial function because graph is not smooth. degree: 2 25. x = 1 has multiplicity 2. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an < 0 and n is even. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. (b) 28. 26.

284 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 33. b. 39. 2 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. f ( x ) = x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 a. 34. 36. f ( x ) = x 5 − x3 − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 23 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x) = x 3 + 5 x 2 − 9 x − 45 40. f ( x ) = x3 − x − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 37. ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = –2. and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 38. x = –1 The zeros at –2. c. e. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 10 x + 9 f(–3) = –42 f(–2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 3 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 ( x + 2) − ( x + 2) = 0 f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 + 2 f(0) = 2 f(1) = –1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. The graph crosses the x-axis. d. 35. f (− x) = (− x) + 2(− x) 2 − (− x) − 2 = − x3 + 2 x 2 + x − 2 − f ( x) = − x 3 − 2 x 2 + x + 2 The graph has neither origin symmetry nor yaxis symmetry. f ( x) = x + x − 2x + 1 f(–3) = –11 f(–2) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 1. f ( x ) = x 4 + 6 x 3 − 18 x 2 f(2) = –8 f(3) = 81 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. –1. 41. Inc. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 8 x 2 + x + 2 f(2) = –4 f(3) = 14 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x ) = 2 x4 − 4 x2 + 1 f(–1) = –1 f(0) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. Since an > 0 and n is odd. . f (0) = (0)3 + 2(0)2 − 0 − 2 = −2 The y-intercept is –2. x = –3 and x = –5 have multiplicity 1. = x 2 ( x + 5) − 9( x + 5) = ( x 2 − 9 ) ( x + 5) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 5) x = 3.

x = 1. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. Since an > 0 and n is odd. x4 − x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. x + x − 4x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) = 0 3 d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. or x = –2 The zeros at –2. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. Since an > 0 and n is even. e. c. Section 2. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. a. –1. Since an > 0 and n is even. x4 − 9 x2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 0. f (0) = 03 + (0) 2 − 4(0) − 4 = −4 The y-intercept is –4. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. d. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. x = 0. b. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 285 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = –1 f touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. f (− x) = − x 3 + x 2 + 4 x − 4 − f ( x) = − x 3 − x 2 + 4 x + 4 neither symmetry e. or x = 2. . x = 3. f ( x ) = x4 − 9 x2 a. c. b. f (− x) = x 4 − x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. 2 ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 x = –1. and 2.3 f ( x ) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a.PreCalculus 4E 42. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. The xintercepts are –2. 43. e. b. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0. f ( x ) = x4 − x2 c. f(x) rises to the left and the right. Inc. 44. d. –1 and 2 have odd multiplicity. f (0) = (0) 4 − (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. x = –3 The zeros at –3 and 3 have odd multiplicity. f (− x) = x 4 − 9 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry.

Since an > 0 and n is even. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. b. e. 4 47. f (− x) = − x 4 + 4 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. f ( x ) = − x4 + 4 x2 a. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 45. Since an < 0 and n is even. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 2 x = 0. x = 2. d. so f(x) touches the xaxis at 0. b. d. Inc. − x4 + 4x2 = 0 x 2 (4 − x 2 ) = 0 x 2 ( 2 − x )( 2 + x ) = 0 48. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1.0. f ( x ) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 a. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0 and 1. x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 2 x = 0. . c. and 2. f(x) falls to the left and the right. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. 46. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f (0) = −(0)4 + 4(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. it touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. f (− x) = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = –4 The zeros at –4 and 4 have odd multiplicity. f(x) rises to the left and the right. c. x = 3 The zeros at 3 and 0 have even multiplicity. Since f has a double root at 0. Since an > 0 and n is even. e. f(x) falls to the left and the right. c. e. x = 1 The zeros at 1 and 0 have even multiplicity. – x 4 + 16 x 2 = 0 x 2 ( − x 2 + 16 ) = 0 x 2 ( 4 − x )( 4 + x ) = 0 x = 0. Since an < 0 and n is even. b. 286 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 a. f (− x) = − x + 16 x f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. d. f (0) = (0) 4 − 2(0)3 + (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. x = 4. x = 0. x = –2 The x-intercepts are –2. b. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 16 x 2 a.

x = 2 The zeros at 0 and 2 have odd multiplicity. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (0) = −(0)5 + 6(0)3 − 9(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. e. f (0) = (0) 4 − 6(0)3 + 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. d. Since an < 0 and n is even. −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 2 ) = 0 The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 a. . f (− x) = x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. d. Inc. Since an < 0 and n is even.PreCalculus 4E c. c.3 50. −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 4 ) = 0 c. d. c. The zeros at – 3 and 3 have even multiplicity so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and − 3 . e. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. Section 2. b. 49. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. 51. d. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 287 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = ± 3 The root at 0 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at (0. f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 2 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 a. f (− x) = x 5 − 6 x 3 + 9 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. x = 0. a. x = 1 The zeros at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity. x = 0. The y-intercept is 0. e. 0). f ( x ) = 6 x3 − 9 x − x 5 x = 0. − x 5 + 6 x3 − 9 x = 0 − x ( x4 − 6 x2 + 9) = 0 − x ( x 2 − 3)( x 2 − 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 4 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f(x) falls to the left and the right. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 4 – 1. b. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. f (0) = −2(0) 4 + 4(0)3 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. Since an < 0 and n is odd. b.

x = 3 The zero at 3 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at that point. e. d. f ( x ) = 6 x − x3 − x 5 a. f (− x) = x5 + x3 − 6 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. x = ± 2 The zeros at − 2 . f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. Inc. c. The graph has 2 turning point and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. 0). The graph has 4 turning point and 4 ≤ 5 – 1. f ( x ) = 3x 2 − x 3 e. 1 1 − x4 + = 0 2 2 1 − ( x 4 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1) ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x = ±1 The zeros at –1 and 1 have odd multiplicity. Since an < 0 and n is odd. − x5 − x 3 + 6 x = 0 54. f (− x) = The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. d. x = 0. x = 0. 52. . − x ( x4 + x2 − 6) = 0 − x ( x 2 + 3)( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = a.Polynomial and Rational Functions e. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. b. 2 1 1 4 − x 2 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. b. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 5 – 1. 288 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d. f (0) = −(0)5 − (0)3 + 6(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. c. 53. 1 1 1 f (0) = − (0)4 + = 2 2 2 1 The y-intercept is . f(x) falls to the left and the right. c. f (− x) = x 3 + 3x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Since an < 0 and n is odd. b. and 2 have odd multiplicity. 0. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f (0) = −(0)3 + 3(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − x3 + 3x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 1 1 4 − x 2 2 Since an < 0 and n is even. e. a.

58. x = 1. c. . f ( − x ) = x 2 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 2 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. e. b. f (0) = −2(0 − 4) 2 (02 − 25) = −2(16)(−25) = 800 The y-intercept is 800. x = 0. c. c. −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 2 x = 4. x = 0. Since an > 0 and n is even. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. b.PreCalculus 4E 55. x = –5. f (− x) = −2(− x − 4) 2 ( x 2 − 2 ) f ( x ) = x 3 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 a. x = –2. Since an < 0 and n is even. The root at 4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the xaxis at (4. 57. 0). 0). The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. d. d. f (− x) = −3(− x − 1) 2 ( x 2 − 4 ) f ( x ) = x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 3 a. f(x) rises to the left and the right. f ( x ) = −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25) 2 a. b. b. −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2 x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. Since an < 0 and n is even. 0). f(x) falls to the left and the right. f(x) falls to the left and the right. The root at 1 has even multiplicity. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 289 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 56. Section 2.3 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) e. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. c. x = –1 The roots at 0 and –1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = 2 The zeros at –2 and 2 have odd multiplicity. x = 5 The zeros at –5 and 5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. Inc. x = –2. Since an > 0 and n is even. The root at –2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–2. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. 0). The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. f ( 0 ) = 03 ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. so f(x) touches the xaxis at (1. d. 2 a. f (0) = 02 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 The y-intercept is 0. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f (0) = −3(0 − 1) 2 (02 − 4)3 = −3(1)(−4) = 12 The y-intercept is 12. e.

x = 0. 61. e. 0). f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x + 2 )( − x − 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 (−1) ( x − 2 ) (−1) ( x + 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 − 1)( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( x ) = −2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5 ) 2 a. The y-intercept is 0. b. d. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. c. Since an < 0 and n is even. x = –2 The zeros at 2 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f(x) falls to the left and the right. Inc. Since an < 0 and n is even. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 6 – 1. b. x = 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions d. x = –3 The zeros at 1 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. d. x = 2. e. 59. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x − 1)( − x + 3) The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( − x ) = − x3 ( − x + 2 ) ( − x + 1) 2 c. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) a. f(x) falls to the left and the right. e. The y-intercept is 0. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 5 ) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. x = 1. f ( 0 ) = −2(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 5 ) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. b. x = –5 The roots at 0 and –5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. 0). The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. x = 1. . c. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 2 ) = 0 d. 0). The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. x = 0. Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 3) a. e. 60. 290 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

x − 1 . The graph has 3 turning points and The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. 0). f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 2 ) ( 0 + 4 )( 0 − 1) = −16 2 b. 2 The y-intercept is 0. x = –3 The roots at 0 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . 1. e. x = 1. d. Since an > 0 and n is odd. 1. f(x) rises to the left and rises the right. b. all three have odd multiplicity. x = –4. x = –1. Since an > 0 and n is even. f(x) falls to the left and the right. Since −2 . f ( − x ) = ( − x + 3)( − x + 1) ( − x + 4 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. . From the end behavior. e. x = 1 The zeros at –4 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 4 )( x − 1) a.PreCalculus 4E 62. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) . The y-intercept is –16. 3 ≤ 4 – 1. and x − 4 are factors of the function. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. x + 2 . c. f ( 0 ) = −3(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = 3x 3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 3) f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x + 1) ( x + 4 ) 3 a. 63. 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 + 1) ( 0 + 4 ) = 12 3 The y-intercept is 12. c. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. so they are the zeros. Section 2. d.3 f ( x ) = −3x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 3) 2 a. The graph has 2 turning points f ( − x ) = ( − x − 2 ) ( − x + 4 )( − x − 1) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 64. d. and 4. Inc. 65. c. x = 2. x = –4 The zeros at all have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. Thus. The root at 2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (2. Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 0. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1)( 0 − 4 ) = 8 291 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since the graph has two turning points. b. x = –3. a. e. and 4 are the zeros. 0). b. the function must be at least of degree 3. c.

2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. the function must be at least of degree 6. Since −2 . Thus. and 1 are the zeros. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 1) = −4 2 292 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so they are the zeros. one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 and 1. and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. c. 2 The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 4. all three have odd multiplicity. However. so they are the zeros. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. Since −1 and 4 are the zeros. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. they both have odd multiplicity. both have even multiplicity. it has even multiplicity. 2 function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) ( x − 4 ) . we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 1. a. and 5. 69. Since −3 and 2 are the zeros. From the end behavior. 2. x + 1 . Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −3 and 2. and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. the function must be at least of degree 3. and x − 5 are factors of the function. b. Since the graph has two turning points. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. a. it has even multiplicity. the function must be at least of degree 4. b. x + 1 and x − 4 are factors of the function. and 1. c. Since the graph has two turning points. Since the graph has five turning points. b. 2 b. so they are the zeros. Thus. 2 68. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 3) ( 0 − 2 ) = −36 70. Since −2 and 1 are the zeros. so they are the zeros. Since the graph has two turning points. 2 f ( x ) = ( x + 2) f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1) = 2 2 c.Polynomial and Rational Functions 66. a. From the end behavior. 3 . Since −1 and 3 are the zeros. −1 . Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 3. it has odd multiplicity. The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 3. it has odd multiplicity. the function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) . The lowest even multiplicity is 2. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. Since the graph has three turning points. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −2 . x + 2 . The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 . a. and 5 are the zeros. x + 3 . From the end behavior. and x − 1 are factors of the function. c. From the end behavior. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 3) = 9 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 and 1. 2. is f ( x ) = ( x + 1)( x − 3) . The lowest even multiplicity is 2. the function must be at least of degree 3. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . so they are the zeros. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. so they are the zeros. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 . a. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. x + 1 and x − 3 are factors of the function. From the end behavior. the function must be at least of degree 3. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −1 and 4. Since −3 . it has even multiplicity. The function is is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1) . the 2 c. 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 − 2 )( 0 − 5 ) = 30 67. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. a. b. Since the graph has two turning points. Thus. x + 2 and x − 1 are factors of the function. 2 c. b. the function must be at least of degree 3. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x − 2 )( x − 5) . x − 2 . The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. −1 . Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 . both have even multiplicity. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. Inc. to reach degree 6. Thus. the function The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 and 2. From the end behavior. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. the function 2 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 4 ) = −16 2 2 71. Thus. x + 3 and x − 2 are factors of the function.

203 x + 308. 443 Function f provides a better description of the actual number. 94. The function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 1) c. The graph falls to the left and to the right. The woman’s heart rate reached a minimum of about 64 ± 1 beats per minute. Since the graph has five turning points. a. e.555 x + 261. 453 f. – 93. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. Since there were 3 turning points. From the end behavior. it has even multiplicity. 453 = 404. Since there were 3 turning points. 731 77. c. b. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 and 1.PreCalculus 4E 72. to reach degree 6. g. so they are the zeros. a. they both have odd multiplicity. The leading coefficient should be negative. The leading coefficient should be negative.555(5) + 261. Based on the end behavior. b.3 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . 324 x 2 + 107. Function g provides a better description of the actual number. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. the function will be a useful model over an extended period of time. d. a. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. However. The function will not be a useful model over an extended period of time because it will eventually give negative values. Inc. Since the degree of f is even and the leading coefficient is negative. There were 3 turning points during the period shown. the graph rises to the right. 203x + 308. e. 931 = 437. 73. 293 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 324(3) 2 + 107. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 . The woman’s heart rate was decreasing from 4 through 8 minutes and from 10 through 12 minutes.555 x + 261. Answers may vary. and 1. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 1) = −2 2 3 f ( x) = −3402 x 2 + 42. b. f (5) = −3402(5) 2 + 42. 418 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. b. c. Since −2 . 324 x 2 + 107. f ( x) = −3402 x + 42. 555(3) + 261. −1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. = 434. . a. −1 . and 1 are the zeros. x + 2 . The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was increasing from 1960 through 1975 and from 1985 through 2000. 74. 2 ( x − 1) 3 . Section 2. 453 f (3) = −3402(3)2 + 42. The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was decreasing from 1975 through 1985 and from 2000 through 2005. 931 = 404. 203(3) + 308. There were 3 turning points during the 12 minutes. 324(5) 2 + 107. 931 The percentage reached a maximum of about 69 ± 1% in 2000. This occurred after 8 minutes. and x − 1 are factors of the function. The woman’s heart rate was increasing from 1 through 4 minutes and from 8 through 10 minutes. b. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. x + 1 . 931 76. The graph falls to the left and to the right. 203(5) + 308. The percentage reached a minimum of about 18 ± 1% in 1960. the graph falls to the right. d. the function must be at least of degree 6. one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. 453 2 g (5) = 2769(5)3 − 28. g. a. 75. Since the degree of g is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. This occurred after 10 minutes. The woman’s heart rate reached a maximum of about 116 ± 1 beats per minute. f. g (3) = 2769(3)3 − 28. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. 444 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28.

106. f ( x) = x 3 + x 2 − 12 x 109. false.Polynomial and Rational Functions 107. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. 1 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 + 103. Sample explanation: Since ( x + 2) is raised to an odd power. 737 2 = 35 + 21 21 111. 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 x − 3 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 7 2 x3 − 6 x 2 100. false. f(x) = x3 – 2x2 96. does not make sense. 3x 2 − 9 x − 2x + 7 −2 x + 6 102. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. x−3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 . 99. or rises to the left and falls to the right. 105. Section 2. A sample change is: A function with origin symmetry either falls to the left and rises to the right. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 95. makes sense 3x 2 − 11x 101. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 2 x 3 − x 2 − 11x + 6 = ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3 x − 2) = ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) 97. 1. Explanations will vary. false. makes sense 104. 2. the graph crosses the x-axis at –2. x+5 x + 9 x 2 + 14 x + 45 x2 + 9 x 5 x + 45 5 x + 45 0 The answer is x + 5. 6 x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 4 112.4 Check Point Exercises 98. true 294 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: A forth degree function has at most 3 turning points. Inc. A sample change is: Such a function falls to the right and will eventually have negative values. 110. 108.

3 5⎭ ⎩ 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 5. Section 2. x+5 x − 2 x 2 + 3x − 10 4. 7 x3 + 0 x 2 7 x 3 − 14 x 2 14 x 2 − 7 x 14 x 2 − 28 x x 2 + 3x + 1 21x − 10 21x − 10 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎬ . . 295 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 x − 2 x 2 x + 3x + 0 x 2 − 7 x − 10 2 4 2. (3 x + 1)(5 x − 2) = 0 1 2 x=− or x = 3 5 1 2⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. − . –105 x2 + x − 2 x − 3 x − 2x − 5x + 6 3 2 x3 − 3x 2 x2 − 5x 6. 3x 2 + 7 x 3x 2 + 6 x x+2 x+2 0 2 The answer is x + 3 x + 1. 6 x3 − 2 x 2 9 x 2 + 12 x Exercise Set 2.4 9 x2 − 3x 15 x − 5 15 x − 5 0 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3 x + 5. x+3 1. The answer is x − 2 x − 3 . –2 1 1 0 –7 –6 –2 4 6 –2 –3 0 3. –4 3 3 f(–4) = –105 4 –5 3 –12 32 –108 –8 27 x + 2 x3 + 5 x 2 + 7 x + 2 x3 + 2 x 2 2 5. The answer is 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 + 2 x − 2x 4. 3x − 1 6 x3 + 7 x 2 + 12 x − 5 x + 5 x 2 + 8 x + 15 x2 + 5x 3 x + 15 3x + 15 0 The answer is x + 3. 3 x2 − 2x 2 x 4 − 4 x3 5 x − 10 5 x − 10 0 The answer is x + 5. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 3. –1 15 15 14 –3 –2 –15 1 2 –1 –2 0 x 2 − 3x − 2x + 6 −2 x + 6 0 15 x − x − 2 = 0 2 The answer is x 2 + x − 2.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 6. − 6x + 6 x − 3 x4 3 The answer is 2 x − 3 + − 81 x − 3x 4 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 3x + 4 6 x + 17 x + 27 x + 20 3 10. x−4 3 3x3 3x 2 − 9 x 2 2 x2 + x + 6 − 9. 2x −1 984 . x+3 296 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x −3 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 3x − 2 12 x 2 + x − 4 8. 2 4x + 3 + 7. 6 x3 + 8 x 2 x − 3 3x2 − 2 x + 5 9 x 2 + 27 x 3x2 − 9 x 7x + 5 9 x 2 + 12 x 15 x + 20 15 x + 20 0 7 x − 21 26 The answer is 3x + 7 + The answer is 2 x + 3x + 5. 3 x 2 + 3x 2 6 x − 20 6 x + 18 − 38 The answer is 2 x 2 + x + 6 − 38 . 2 3x − 2 11. 9 x2 38 x+3 9 x 2 − 27 x 27 x − 81 x + 3 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 + 9 x − 20 2x + 6x 3 27 x − 81 2 0 x2 + 9 x The answer is x + 3x + 9 x + 27. 984 x−4 x − 4 4 x4 − 4 x2 + 6x 4 x 4 − 16 x 3 12 x 2 − 8 x 9x − 4 9x − 6 2 16 x 3 − 4 x 2 16 x 3 − 64 x 2 60 x 2 + 6 x The answer is 4 x + 3 + 2x − 3 + 26 . 3x − 2 246 x 246 x − 984 3 2x −1 984 The answer is 2 x − 1 4 x2 − 8x + 6 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 4 x2 − 2 x − 6x + 6 x 3 + 3x 2 + 9 x + 27 12. Inc. 26 x −3 3x + 7 + 2 60 x 2 − 240 x 2 . .

x −1 . x2 + x − 3 (x 1 x 4 + x3 − 2 x 2 1 x3 − 2 x 2 − 5x − 3 x 2 − 3x − 6 19. x+5 − 12 x − 8 ) ÷ ( x + 3) 2 –3 9 x3 + 3x 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 14. x+3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1) ÷ ( x − 1) 1 2 x 3 + 1 2 x5 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 + x 2 –3 3 –1 4 1 4 1 4 3 The answer is 4 x 2 + x + 4 + −8 x 4 − 4 x 2 x3 + 4 x 2 x3 + 1 4x −1 The answer is x 2 − 4 x + 1 + 20 . 10 The answer is x + 2. 4 + x − 2 ) ÷ ( x − 1) 2 1 x 2 + x − 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 4 x 2 − 5x − 6 The answer is x 2 + x − 3 − –10 The answer is 2 x + 5 . 1 4x −1 . 2 x3 + 1 297 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x2 + 1 21. x + x−2 3 3 2 7 –20 –15 40 –8 20 The answer is 3x − 8 + 6 x2 + 3x − 1 3x 2 + 1 18 x 4 + 9 x 3 + 3 x 2 20. 18. 18 x 4 + 6 x 2 9 x3 − 3x 2 ( 5x 5 − 3x 2 − 3 x 5 − 3x 2 − 1 − 3x + 1 12 –8 –15 81 –27 73 The answer is 5 x − 27 + The answer is 6 x 2 + 3 x − 1 − 3x − 1 . 17.4 2x + 5 13. Inc. x3 + x 2 − 2 x 15. 3 . 3x − x − 3 6 x + 13 x − 11x − 15 2 3 (2x 2 2 + x − 10 ) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 2 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 The answer is 2 x + 5.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. x2 − 4x + 1 (4x 3 2 x5 + x 2 4 4 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 73 . −3x − 3x + 6 2 − 12 ( 3x 5 0 1 –2 1 2 2 0 + 7 x − 20 ) ÷ ( x + 5 ) 2 –5 12 .

187 . Inc. x−2 2 4 28. 2 33 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. –6 3 11 10 8 22 4 11 33 (6x 5 6 5 –3 1 12 24 44 96 186 6 12 The answer is 22 48 93 187 27. − 6 x3 + x 2 − 6 x ) ÷ ( x + 6 ) –6 0 6 x 4 + 12 x3 + 22 x 2 + 48 x + 93 + (x 4 − 6 x − 6 x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 6 + x ) ⇒ − 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x + 1) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 24.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. x+6 0 1 0 0 –2 1 1 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 3 2 1 0 1 –2 4 –2 5 0 –10 0 0 12 –10 20 –20 40 –80 –10 10 –20 40 –68 The answer is x − 2 x 5 + 5 x 4 − 10 x3 + 10 x 2 68 −20 x + 40 − . 4 0 –3 2 3 3 21 63 180 546 21 60 182 549 –2 72 –438 2664 –12 73 –444 2664 2664 . x−2 The answer is 5 x 2 + 4 x + 11 + 23. 2 3 30. x −3 (x (x 1 x5 + x3 − 2 x −1 1 + 4 x 4 − 3 x 2 + 2 x + 3) ÷ ( x − 3) 1 7 The answer is –6 The answer is x 3 − 12 x 2 + 73x − 444 + 4 1 1 1 –2 3 25. − 5 x3 + x 2 − 5 x ) ÷ ( x + 5) 1 –6 4 − 5x − 5x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 5 + x ) ⇒ –5 1 1 549 x 4 + 7 x 3 + 21x 2 + 60 x + 182 + . –5 1 0 –5 50 –255 1300 1 –10 The answer is 51 –260 1300 x 4 − 256 x−4 4 1 1 1300 x − 10 x + 51x − 260 + . 64 0 298 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (x (x 0 0 0 –256 4 16 64 256 16 64 0 4 The answer is x + 4 x + 16 x + 64 . x+2 6 29. ( 5x − 6 x 2 + 3x + 11) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 3 2 5 5 26. 2 x 7 − 128 x−2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 –128 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 1 2 4 8 16 32 The answer is x 6 + 2 x5 + 4 x 4 + 8 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 32 x + 64. . x+5 3 0 x 7 + x 5 − 10 x 3 + 12 x+2 1 –5 –6 The answer is x + x + 2 x + 2 x + 2 .

Inc.4 2 x5 − 3x 4 + x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 1 x+2 –2 2 37. 2. 5 −5 1 5 6 0 0 −4 f ( −2 ) = −4 299 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = x 4 + 5x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 6 3 –3 1 –1 2 –1 –4 14 –30 62 –128 2 –7 The answer is 15 –31 64 –129 f ( 3) = 240 38. x = 3 The solution set is {–1. . 3}. x = 2. x+2 32. 2 −5 −1 −1 8 −12 −20 −3 −5 −25 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 5 x 3 − x 2 + 3x + 2 −1 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 5 4 6 0 f ( 2) = 0 The answer is x 4 − x 2 + x + 1 + 33. ( x + 1)( x 2 – 5 x + 6) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 3) = 0 x = –1. Section 2. 5 −6 5 2 −6 −2 1 −3 −1 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − x 3 + 3x 2 − x + 1 x−2 2 −6 3 24 87 246 1 8 29 82 240 129 2 x 4 − 7 x 3 + 15 x 2 − 31x + 64 − . 2 41. −5 − 23 6 10 6 f ( − 32 ) = −7 −2 –1 6 4 1 5 1 1 − 92 1 3 7 9 1 –4 1 6 –1 5 –6 6 0 –5 The quotient is x − 5 x + 6. Dividend: x 3 – 4 x 2 + x + 6 Divisor: x + 1 −6 f ( x ) = 3x 3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x + 5 3 3 −1 −1 −4 −4 − f ( 3) = −27 −3 2 ( 2) 3 −12 −21 1 −4 −7 −27 35. 5 5 −6 −4 −8 4 −3 1 2 3 2 f ( −3) = −133 −2 2 7 9 1 −9 48 −138 3 −16 46 −133 36. 1 −5 2 1 1 –2 –1 3 –1 1 2 0 –2 2 2 0 –1 1 1 3 39. 3 f − 1 =1 f ( 4 ) = −25 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 −11 7 2 −6 3 .PreCalculus 4E 31. x−2 3 1 −7 5 40.

3 2⎭ ⎩ 2 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 2 16 12 The quotient is x 2 − 3 x + 2. 2} . ⎬ . 2 ⎭ ⎩ x = –2. 2 1 2 −5 −6 2 8 6 1 4 3 0 The remainder is 0. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 2 44. 2 ⎬ . x = 2. 1 . x=− . −3 . x= 2 3 2 ⎧ 3 1 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . −1. . Inc. 43. x = − 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −4. 2 2 –3 –11 6 –4 14 –6 –7 3 0 3 3 –18 3 3 –2 –2 0 7 –22 –8 –1 –2 8 6 –24 0 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3x + 6 x − 24 = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1 x = –4. ( x + 1)( x 2 − 3x + 2) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 1) = 0 x = –1. 2 ⎬ . 1. x = 1 The solution set is {–1. 2. x = − .Polynomial and Rational Functions 42. − . − . . x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 6 = 0 ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 + 4 x + 3) = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 3)( x + 1) = 0 The solutions are 2. x = The graph indicates that 2 is a solution to the equation. so 2 is a solution. 3⎬ . 1}. 12 x3 + 16 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 2 2 –5 1 2 4 –2 –2 –1 –1 0 46. 300 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x – 2)(2 x − x − 1) = 0 (x – 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) = 0 1 x = 2.x=3 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −2. 12 – 32 (x + 2) (2 x − 7 x + 3) = 0 2 (x + 2) ( 2 x − 1)( x − 3) = 0 47. Dividend: x 3 − 2 x 2 − x + 2 Divisor: x + 1 –1 1 –2 –1 2 –1 3 –2 1 –3 2 0 45. x = 2. x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 –3 3 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 22 x − 8 = 0 − 13 2 x − 3 x − 11x + 6 = 0 3 –5 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ (12 x − 2 x − 2) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ 2 ( 6 x − x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 2(3x + 1)(2 x – 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 1 1 x=– . Publishing as Prentice Hall. and −1 . or {−3.

and . 14 ( x + 3) ( 2 x − 5 x + 2 ) = 0 ( x + 3)( 2 x − 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 49. The dimensions are 2 inches by 4 inches by 9 inches. so 1 is a solution. and −6 . 1 1 ⎧1 1 ⎫ . the width is 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 inches and the length is 2 + 7 = 9 inches. and 2. . 2 3 ⎩3 2 ⎭ 52. so the only solution is x = 3. or ⎨ . 2 2 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. 25 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 The remainder is 0. } 1 . One solution is 3. Inc.1⎬ . 72 = 2h3 + 14h 2 2 x3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 0 = 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 ( x − 1) ( 2 x 2 + 13 x + 6 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( 2 x + 1)( x + 6 ) = 0 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) ( 0 = ( h − 2 ) 2 ( h 2 + 9h + 18 ) 1 The solutions are 1. 1 . 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) = 0 The polynomial 14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 cannot be factored. so −3 is a solution. 2 0 −72 2 14 4 36 2 18 36 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. 301 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 The graph indicates that −3 is a solution to the equation.1⎬ . 177 We need to find x when f ( x ) = 211. 1 2 11 −7 −6 2 59 211 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 50. so 1 is a solution. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 3 14 −17 −16 −177 72 0 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ⎭ ⎩ ) 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2 ( h + 6 )( h + 3) ) 0 = 2 ( h − 2 )( h + 6 )( h + 3) 2 ( h − 2) = 0 h + 6 = 0 h + 3 = 0 h−2 = 0 h=2 h = −6 h = −3 The height is 2 inches. It can be used to find other solutions (if they exist). or 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎨ −6. − . or −3. . a. 6 −5 1 −5 1 0 13 −6 2 13 6 0 0 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 0 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 This is the equation obtained in part a. − .PreCalculus 4E 48. −3 2 1 −13 6 −6 15 −6 2 −5 2 0 51. a. b. 2 . 2 x 3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 = 0 The solutions are −3 . Section 2. 1 6 −11 6 −1 6 75 = ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) 2 { 42 The remainder is 0 so 3 is a solution. The female moth’s abdominal width is 3 millimeters. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 The remainder is 0. V = lwh 72 = ( h + 7 )( 2h )( h ) The remainder is 0. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 The solutions are 1.

Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary.3 units. true 73.06 0. the length of the rectangle is 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions A = l ⋅ w so A 0. 67. false. 69.5 −0. the government tax revenue will be $70 ten billion. f (x) is not a polynomial function. Changes to make the statement true will vary.06 0.2 0. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials.5 −0. true 72.57 40 − 110 b. −0. A 8 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x + 3 l= = 3 w x+ 4 − 34 8 80(40) − 8000 = 68. – 65. 0. Sample explanation: The division must account for the zero coefficients on the x 4 . Therefore. does not make sense.5 x 2 − 0. -8000 8800 80 800 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 = 70 f (30) = 80 + 80 − 110 (30. 70.57 ten billion. c. (30. does not make sense. Inc. 302 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.57 Therefore. . x 2 and x terms. Changes to make the statement true will vary. x3 .3x 2 + 0. 110 -8000 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 f (40) = 80 + 40 − 110 = 68. x 71. the government’s revenue is $68.4 a.2 53.22 56. Sample explanation: The remainder theorem provides an alternative method for evaluating a function at a given value. 80(30) − 8000 = 70 30 − 110 80 800 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall. does not make sense.5 x3 − 0.57) At a 40% tax rate. Answers may vary. 80 8800 A = l ⋅ w so. 68. f (40) = (40. Sample explanation: The zeros of f are the same as the solutions of f ( x) = 0. f (30) = c.3 0. 70) same answer as in a. A sample change is: The divisor is a factor of the divided only if the remainder is the whole number 0. A sample change is: The degree of the quotient is 3.08 −0. 55. x6 since 3 = x 3 . It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials.1 0.3 110 0 −6 −5 3 −6 9 −3 8 −12 4 0 80 a. makes sense 68. −0. 70) At a 30% tax rate. Explanations will vary.06 l= = w x + 0. b.22 x + 0. 66. false.4 x + 0. 54. the length of the rectangle is 8 x 2 − 12 x + 4 units. f (x) is not a polynomial function.

x −5 = 0 x +1 = 0 2x − 3 x=5 x = −1 x+2=0 x−2 = 0 x−2 2 x − 3 2 x2 − 7 x + 6 2 x2 − 3x x = −2 x=2 The solutions are –2. ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) ) = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 )( x + 1)( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = d ( x) ⋅ q( x) + r ( x) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 9 = d ( x )(2 x − 3) + 3 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x)(2 x − 3) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x) Apply the zero product principle. 77.4 5x2 + 2 x − 4 4 x + 3 20 x + 23x 2 − 10 x + k 78. −1. 303 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. 5 −20 −20 79. 2 and 5 and the solution set is {−2. Section 2. 3 x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 = 0 5 1 −4 −9 16 20 5 20 x3 + 15 x 2 1 8 x 2 − 10 − 16 x + k −16 x − 12 0 To solve the equation. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . x n + 1 x 3n −4 = ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) To get a remainder of zero. 1 −4 The remainder is zero and 5 is a solution to the equation.5} . x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 8x2 + 6x 75. Inc. we set it equal to zero and factor. x 2n − x n + 1 +1 x 3n + x 2 n − x 2n x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4)2 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −4 ± 20 2 −4 ± 2 5 x= 2 x = −2 ± 5 − x 2n − x n x= xn +1 xn +1 0 { } The solution set is −2 ± 5 . k = –12 76. Then divide the quotient by 2.PreCalculus 4E 74. 2 x − 4 = 2( x − 2) Use synthetic division to divide by x – 2. − 4x + 6 −4 x + 6 The polynomial is x – 2. k must equal –12. –1.

⎬. 1 p : ± 1. ± 4. ± 5. ± 2. 2 – 3i}. } The solution set is −2 ± i 2 . x 2 − 4 x + 13 = 0 0 4 ± 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = = 2 + 3i 2 2 The solution set is{1. 1 5.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. ± 2. f ( x) = an ( x 4 − 3 x 2 − 4) ( 1 ±1. . ± q 2 4 2 4 are the possible rational zeros. ± 3. 2 + 3i. x 2 + 9 x + 20 = 0 20 0 −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(1)(6) x= 2(1) −4 ± −8 2 −4 ± 2i 2 x= 2 x = −2 ± i 2 x= ( x + 4)( x + 5) = 0 x = −4 or x = −5 { The solution set is {1. x= 304 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± . 2 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ p : ± 1. ± 3. −4.5 x= Check Point Exercises 1. x2 + 4 x + 6 = 0 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 1 5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a double root. −5}. ± . ±1. ± 3 1 –6 22 –30 13 1 –5 17 –13 1 –5 1 is a zero. ± 6 q : ±1 -5 –2 2 6 2 3 1 0 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(1) 2(1) −3 ± 5 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 5 −3 − 5 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ 2. 17 –13 0 q : ± 1. ± 2. ± 3. ± . ± 10. . ± 6 q are the possible rational zeros. ± 2 are possible rational zeros f (3) = −150 2 1 ) an (3) − 3(3) − 4 = −150 4 2 an ( 81 − 27 − 4 ) = −150 1 2 is a zero. = p : ± 1. ± 2. ± 13 are possible rational zeros. −b ± b − 4ac 2a 2 x= ±1. 4. Inc. 2. 81. ± 20 are possible rational zeros 1 8 11 –20 1 9 20 1 9 1 is a zero. x 2 + 3x + 1 = 0 an ( 50 ) = −150 an = −3 x= Section 2. ± 4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1.

± . ± 2 4 q f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 p : ± 1. ±3. Section 2. f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 p: ±1. ± 2. ±3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ±3. ±5. ± 2. ± . ± 3. ± 2 q : ± 1. f ( x) = 4 x5 − 8 x 4 − x + 2 p : ± 1. ± . ± 2. ± 4.PreCalculus 4E 6. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 8 p: ±1. ± 4. ± . ± 4 Exercise Set 2. –2. ±2. ± 2. f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. 5. ± . ± 2. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 f ( x) = an ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) f (1) = an (1 + 3)(12 + 1) = 8an = 8 an = 1 f ( x) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) or x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3 7. –2. ± . ± 8 q : ±1 b. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ± 3. ±2. ± 2. ± 8 q 3. or 0 positive real zeros. c. ±8 q: ±1. –1 are rational zeros. ± . 1 1 –4 –4 2 6 4 x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x 2 + 3 x + 2) = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x + 3x − 11x − 9 x + 15 p: ±1.5 ( x + 3)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) 6. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p: ±1. ± q 2 4 2 4 305 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = −1 The solution set is {2. ±15 q: ±1. ± 5. ± 2. ± 6. ± 4 q : ±1 9. p : ± 1. ±6 q: ±1. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 q 8. ±6 q: ±1. ± 2. ± 4 q : ±1 2 x − 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 x +1 = 0 x = 2. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. ±2. p : ± 1. . f ( x) = x 5 − x 4 − 7 x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 12 p : ± 1. ± . ± 2. 4. ± 2. ± 4 q 2. x = −2. ± 2. ±2. ± 4. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 6 x − 8 p : ± 1. ± 4 q p : ± 1. ± .5 1. ± 2. Since f(–x) has no changes of sign. ± . p 1 1 : ± 1. ± 15. p : ± 1. ±4. 2. f ( x) = x 4 − 14 x 3 + 71x 2 − 154 x + 120 q : ±1 f (− x) = x 4 + 14 x 3 + 71x 2 + 154 x + 120 Since f(x) has 4 changes of sign. ± q 3 3 4 p : ± 1. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. –1}. ±3. there are 4. 2. ± . there are no negative real zeros. ± 8. ± 3. ± q 3 3 3 3 7. ± 2. ± q 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 0 2 is a zero. ± 6.

4 –2 –2 ( x − 2) (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 1 x = 2. . . ±12 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 4. –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 5 x 2 + x + 2 p: ±1. 1 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 c. 1}. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 11x + 12 p: ±1. ± 2 p 1 3 : ± 1. ± 6. ±3. ± q 2 2 3 2 ( x − 2) ( 2 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 6 a. –3. 11. 1 2. a. ±3. ± 2. − 2 are rational zeros. ± 2. –3. ± 3. . 2 ⎭ ⎩ p : ± 1. 1 3. 1 are rational zeros. ± 12 q 4 1 12. ± 3. b. 2 13. –5 2 –1 –1 0 2 is a zero. ±2. ± 3. − 2 ⎬ .Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. x = −2 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨3. –3 –11 6 6 9 –6 2 3 –2 0 3 is a zero. c. ±2. ± 6 q : ± 1. 2 b. ±4. a. 2 c. ±6. ±2 q: ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎬. ±6 q –1 4 –3 –6 –1 –3 6 1 3 –6 –1 is a rational zero. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(−6) 2(1) −3 ± 33 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 33 −3 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −1. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. ±6 q: ±1 p : ±1. ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3x − 2) = 0 ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x − 6 p: ±1. x = . ± 2. x = − . ±3. 0 x 2 + 3x − 6 = 0 x= 1 x = 3. ±2. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 b. ± 6. x = −3. − . 2 1 2 –3 0 4 is a zero. Inc. x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ 2. 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 11x + 6 = 0 c. 4. a. ± q 2 2 b. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ 306 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2. − . . ( x − 4) ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 x = 4. 1⎬ . 1 are rational zeros. x = 1 The solution set is{4. ± .

a. b. 0 –4 8 –5 1 –3 5 1 –3 5 1 is a rational zero. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 15. The solution set is ⎨ −2. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a c. ± q 2 1 2 b. ± 2. ±2 q: ±1. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ x2 + x − 1 = 0 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 16. 2 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . ±2 p 1 : ± 1. ⎬. x= x= 1 –3 1 1 1 –1 2 –2 0 −1 + i −1 − i ⎫ ⎧ . a. ± 5 q 1 b. ⎬. Inc. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 307 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. f ( x) = 2 x3 + 6 x 2 + 5 x + 2 p: ±1. 2 2 2 x2 + 2 x + 1 = 0 c.5 f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 3 x + 1 p: ±1 q: ±1.PreCalculus 4E 14. ± q 2 –2 2 2(2) −2 ± −4 4 −2 ± 2i = 4 −1 ± i = 2 2 x2 + 2 x − 2 = 0 x= −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(1) = 1 is a rational zero. a. ⎧⎪ 1 −1 + 5 −1 − 5 ⎫⎪ . 5 2 –4 –4 –2 2 2 1 –2 is a rational zero. Section 2. ⎬. ±5 q: ±1 p : ± 1. . −1 ± 12 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −1 ± 5 2 f ( x) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 8 x − 5 p: ±1. The solution set is ⎨ . 0 x 2 − 3x + 5 = 0 x= 6 1 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) 3 ± −11 2 3 ± i 11 = 2 = ⎧⎪ 3 + i 11 3 − i 11 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨1.

p : ± 1. q : ±1 p : ± 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 x3 + 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 c. 308 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –2 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 2 x − 6) = 0 c. ( x + 1) 2 x = −1 x= The solution set is {4. –2 –7 –4 4 8 4 1 2 1 4 is a root. ± 4 q 4 0 x= x − 4 = 0 x + 3 = 0 x −1 = 0 b. x3 − 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. 2 + 3i. –10 } The solution set is −2. 4 are rational roots. 1 –5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a rational root. x=4 x = −3 x = 1 The solution set is {–3. –1. ±13 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 12 q : ±1 p : ± 1. −3i}. 19. 4 1 –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 b. ± 12 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 a. 4 + 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = 2 2 4 ± 6i = = 2 ± 3i 2 The solution set is {1. ±2. 1 + 7. ± 3. 1. ± 2. ± 6. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 c. ± 4. 1 –12 –2 4 12 1 –2 –6 –2 is a rational root. 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 0 ( x − 4) x = 4. a. ± 2. c. ± 4. ± 6. ± 3. ± 4. 0 { 20. 1 2 –3 0 4 is a root.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. ± 13 q 1 b. −1} . Inc. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 a. ±4 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 2. 1. ± 2. 4 are rational roots. ± 12 q x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 p: ±1. ± 6. a. ± 12 q b. ± 2. ± 6. 1 2 ± 4 + 24 2 ± 28 = 2 2 2±2 7 = = 1± 7 2 ( x − 4)( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 18. 4}. p : ± 1. ± 3. ± 4. –3. . 1 − 7 . ± 3. ± 2.

± 5 q : ± 1. 6 –5 1 0 –5 is a root. ± 3. ± . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 1 ( x − ) ( 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8) = 0 2 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x2 − 2 x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ } 2. 0 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 1 1 –2 is a zero of x3 0 –5 –2 –2 4 2 –2 –1 0 – 5x –2 = 0. ±2. 2 2 –2 –5 8 4 2 0 –10 –4 1 0 –5 –2 2 is a root. p : ± 1. are rational roots. 1 is a rational root. ±3. 1 + –5 –6 4 1 –2 –4 –4 –8 0 24. ± . ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 2± 4+4 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 2 2 2 = 1± 2 The solution set is x= {−2. 2 are rational roots. ± 2. 2. ±15 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 4 q : ±1 p : ± 1. ⎬ . Section 2. 1 1 −5. 1 − 2 . 2 3 c. p : ± 1. 1 –2 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 p: ±1. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 2 3⎭ ⎩ 22. ± . x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −5. a. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 p: ±1. ± 2. ±5.5 6 x 3 + 25 x 2 − 24 x + 5 = 0 a. ⎩2 ⎭ x= 309 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 21. ± q 2 2 3 3 6 6 –5 6 25 –24 5 –30 25 –5 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 a. −1. 6 x + 25 x − 24 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 5)(6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 3 c. ± 4 q b. 2 c. ± . 2 b. −2. 1 + 5. ± 5.3 are rational roots. a. ±4 q: ±1. ± 2. 1 − 5 ⎬ . 5 0 2± 2 5 = 1± 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . . . b. ± 3 ± 5 ± 15 q 3 1 0 –2 –16 –15 3 9 21 15 1 3 7 3 is a root. ± 2 ± 4 ± q 2 1 2 2 ( x − 2)( x3 − 5 x − 2) = 0 ( x + 5)(2 x − 1)(3x − 1) = 0 x + 5 = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 3x − 1 = 0 1 1 x = −5. 23. . ± 6 p 1 5 1 5 1 5 : ± 1. b. x = . Inc. ± .

Polynomial and Rational Functions c. Inc. ) f ( x ) = 1( x3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 ) f ( x ) = x 3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 28. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 27. ( x − 3) ( x + 3x + 7 x + 5 ) = 0 3 –1 2 1 3 7 5 –1 –2 –5 2 5 0 1 −3ix + 12i − 9i 2 ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 8 x + 25 ) = ( x3 − 8 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 40 x + 125 ) = x 3 − 3 x 2 − 15 x + 125 –1 is a root of x 3 + 3 x 2 + 7 x + 5 f ( x) = an ( x 3 – 3x 2 –15 x + 125) ( x − 3) ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 2 x + 5) ( f (2) = an 23 − 3 ( 2 ) − 15 ( 2 ) + 125 –2 ± 4 − 20 –2 ± −16 = x= 2 2 −2 ± 4i = = −1 ± 2i 2 The solution set is {3. = ( x − 1) ( x 2 + 25 ) ( x − 6) ( x + 5 + 2i ) ( x + 5 − 2i ) = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 5 x − 2ix + 5 x + 25 − 10i + 2ix + 10i − 4i 2 ) = x3 + 25 x − x 2 − 25 = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 10 x + 29 ) = x3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 ) = x 3 + 10 x 2 + 29 x − 6 x 2 − 60 x − 174 = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 f (−1) = an (−1 − 1 − 25 − 25) f ( x) = an ( x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) −104 = an (−52) an = 2 f (2) = an (8 + 16 − 62 − 174) f ( x) = 2 ( x − x + 25 x − 25) 26. − 1. (x – i)(x + i)(x – 3i)(x + 3i) = ( x 2 − i 2 )( x 2 − 9i 2 ) f (−1) = an (−1 − 4 − 4 − 16) = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 9 ) −50 = an (−25) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 f ( x) = an ( x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9) an = 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) f (–1) = an ((–1) 4 + 10(–1) 2 + 9) f ( x) = 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x − 32 20 = an (20) an = 1 f ( x ) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 310 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 91 = an (91) an = 1 ( x − 1) ( x + 5i ) ( x − 5i ) 3 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 − 3i )( x − 4 + 3i ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 3ix − 4 x + 16 − 12i −636 = an (−212) 2 an = 3 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 2 x 2 + 50 x − 50 ( x − 4) ( x + 2i ) ( x − 2i ) f ( x) = 3 ( x3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) = ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 4 ) f ( x) = 3 x3 + 12 x 2 − 93 x − 522 = x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) 29. 25. − 1 − 2i} . − 1 + 2i.

35. = x 4 − 6 x + 13x 2 − 3 x3 + 18 x 2 − 39 x − 10 x 2 + 60 x − 130 = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ( f ( x) = an x 4 − 9 x3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ) f (1) = an (1 − 9 + 21 + 21 − 130) −96 = an (−96) an = 1 f ( x) = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 32. f ( x) = −2 x 3 + x 2 − x + 7 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. f ( x) = 2 x 4 − 5 x3 − x 2 − 6 x + 4 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 + x + 7 Since f(x) has no sign variations no positive real roots exist. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. f ( − x ) = 2 x 4 + 5 x3 − x 2 + 6 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 2 sign variations. f (− x) = − x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 7 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. 2 or 0 positive real roots exist. 37. f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. 33. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. f(x) = 5 x 3 − 3 x 2 + 3 x − 1 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. Inc. no negative real roots exist. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. 34. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 + x 2 + x + 7 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. 2 or 0 negative real roots exist. f ( − x ) = − x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. Since f(–x) has no sign variations. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. . ( x + 4) (3x − 1) ( x − 2 + 3i ) ( x − 2 − 3i ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 2 x − 3ix − 2 x + 4 + 6i + 3ix − 6i − 9i 2 ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 3 x 4 − 12 x 3 + 39 x 2 + 11x3 − 44 x 2 + 143x − 4 x 2 + 16 x − 52 = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 f ( x) = an ( 3x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 ) f (1) = an (3 − 1 − 9 + 159 − 52) 100 = an (100 ) an = 1 f ( x) = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 311 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( − x ) = −5 x3 − 3 x 2 − 3x − 1 5 5 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x 4 + x 3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 5x3 + 4 x 2 + 5 x + 2 31. ( x + 2 ) ⎛⎜ x + ⎝ Section 2. ( x + 2) ( x − 5) ( x − 3 + 2i ) ( x − 3 − 2i ) ( = (x )( − 3 x − 10 ) ( x = x 2 − 3 x − 10 x 2 − 3 x − 2ix − 3x + 9 + 6i + 2ix − 6i − 4i 2 2 2 − 6 x + 13 ) ) 36. no positive real roots exist.5 1⎞ ⎟ ( x − i )( x + i ) 2⎠ 5 ⎛ ⎞ = ⎜ x 2 + x + 1⎟ ( x 2 + 1) 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 = x 4 + x 2 + x3 + x + x 2 + 1 2 2 5 5 = x 4 + x3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1 2 2 5 ⎛ 4 5 3 ⎞ f ( x ) = an ⎜ x + x + 2 x 2 + x + 1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 3 2 ⎡ 4 ⎤ f (1) = an ⎢(1) + (1) + 2 (1) + (1) + 1⎥ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ 18 = an (9) an = 2 f ( x) = x 3 + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 4 Since f(x) has no sign variations. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + x 3 + 5 x 2 + 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 1 sign variations. no negative real roots exist.PreCalculus 4E 30. 1 negative real roots exist. 38.

f (− x) = − x 3 + 12 x 2 − 21x + 10 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. The solution set is ⎨ − . ± 2 ± 5 ± 10 q 12 21 10 –1 –11 –10 1 11 –1 is a zero. x = 1 The solution set is{–2. 0 or 2 positive real zeros exist. –10}. ± . x = −10 The solution set is {–1. ± 10 q Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. ± 5. ± 2. 10 0 1 ± 1 + 16 1 ± 17 = 2 2 ⎪⎧ 1 1 + 17 1 − 17 ⎪⎫ . ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. ± q 3 3 3 3 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. Inc. q : ± 1. 2 − –9 –4 –1 1 4 –2 –8 0 1 is a root. –1 2 –1 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x + 5) 40. ± 5. . 1}. 3 or 1 negative zeros exist. ± 2. ± . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. Since f(x) has no sign variations. exactly one negative real zeros exists. ± 4 ± q 2 1 positive real root exists. 2 x3 − x 2 − 9 x − 4 = 0 p : ± 1. ± . ±10 q: ±1. 5 0 41. 2 x= f ( x) = x 3 + 12 x 2 + 2 x + 10 p: ±1. ± 4 f (− x) = –3 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 1 sign changes. 3 x 3 − 8 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. p : ± 1. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ±8 q: ±1. ±2. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 42. f ( x) = x3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10 p : ± 1. ±2. ± 10 q : ±1 p : ± 1. ± 2. –2 1 –4 –7 10 –2 12 –10 1 –6 –2 is a zero. ±4. 5. ⎬. ± 2. 1 –1 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ 2 ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ = ( x + 2)( x − 5)( x − 1) x = –2. x = 5. ±5. f ( − x ) = − x3 − 4 x 2 + 7 x + 10 Since f(–x) has 1 sign variation. 312 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 or no positive real roots exist. exactly 1 negative real zero exists. no positive zeros exist. f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 11x + 10 ) = ( x + 1)( x + 10)( x + 1) x = −1. f (− x) = −2 x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 4 2 or no negative real roots exist.

f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)3 + (− x) 2 − 12 x + 8 4 -1 f ( x) = ( x − 1)( x − 1)( x 2 − 6 x + 10) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 + 12 x + 8 p : ±1.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ± 2. 0 or 2 positive roots exist. ± 2. x 4 − 3 x 3 − 20 x 2 − 24 x − 8 = 0 p : ± 1. 3 – i. ± 4. . ±5. ± 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 − 5 ⎬ . 3 –1 2⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 − 6 x − 12 ) 3⎠ ⎝ 6 ± 36 + 144 6 ± 6 5 = 6 6 = 1± 5 –1 x= x= q : ±1 –1 –8 1 –3 4 8 0 1 –3 4 8 –1 4 –8 –4 8 0 1 2 0 = x − 4x + 8 10 –1 5 -4 -10 1 -5 4 10 0 1 -5 4 10 –1 6 –10 -6 10 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) x =1 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 − 12 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 2 sign changes. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x3 − x 2 + 14 x + 10 p: ±1. ±2. –3 –20 –24 –8 –1 4 16 8 –16 –8 0 –4 ( x + 1) ( x − 4 x − 16 x − 8 ) = 0 3 2 313 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 + 2i. ± 4. ± 8 –1 -4 1 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .5 3 2 3 3 –8 –8 8 2 –4 –8 –6 –12 0 44. ± 8 q : ±1 p : ± 1. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. ± 2. 2 – 2i}. 1 The solution set is {–1. ±2.1 + 5. ±10 q 2 is a zero. ⎩3 ⎭ 43. ±5. –1 −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(8) x= 2(1) 1 1 4 ± 16 − 32 x= 2 4 ± −16 x= 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i The solution set is { –1. 3 + i} 45. ± 2. ± 4 ± 8 q 1 positive real root exists. –1 1 –2 1 12 8 –4 14 x= p : ±1. 0 or 2 negative roots exist. ± 8 q Since f(x) has 2 sign changes. –1. Inc. ±10 q: ±1 p : ±1.

x = 2 x = − . 2i. ± 3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. ±4. 0 (x 2 + 4) x + 1 = 0 x − 2 = 0 x2 + 4 = 0 x = –1 –1 f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( 3x 3 − 14 x 2 + 13x + 6 ) ( x + 1) ( x − 2 x + 4 x − 8 ) 3 –11 x=2 x 2 = −4 x = ±2i The solution set is {−1. 4 3 –1 2 1 1 2 1 1 ( x + 1) 2 3 3 19 6 –3 14 –13 –6 –14 13 6 0 –14 13 6 6 –16 –6 –8 –3 0 –1 2 –4 –8 f ( x) = ( x + 1)( x − 2) ( 3x 2 − 8 x − 3) –1 2 –4 8 = ( x + 1)( x − 2)(3x + 1)( x − 3) –2 4 –8 0 1 x = −1. 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 4 –8 2 0 8 0 4 ( x − 2) 48. 3⎬ . 1 2 2 3 –11 –9 15 2 5 –6 –15 –6 –15 0 5 f ( x) = ( x − 1) ( 2 x + 5 x − 6 x − 15 ) 3 − 52 2 2 2 5 –6 –15 –5 0 15 0 –6 0 314 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±8 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 3 ± f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p : ± 1. Inc. ± . f (− x) = 3x 4 + 11x 3 − x 2 − 19 x + 6 2 or no negative real zeros exist. ± . − 2i} . ±2. ± q 2 2 2 2 2 or no positive real zeros exist. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + 3x 3 − 11x 2 − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. 2. ± 6. ±3. ( x + 1)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x − 4 ) = 0 6 ± 36 + 16 6 ± 52 = 2 2 6 ± 2 13 3 ± 13 = = 2 2 The solution set is x= {−1. ± 3. − 2. ± q 3 3 2 or no positive real zeros exists. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 3 − 13 . ±5. ± 2. ± . 2. q : ± 1. ± 6 –1 3 } 13. x − x + 2x − 4x − 8 = 0 p: ±1. x = 3 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. ± 5. − . ± 2. ± . ± 3. ± 15.Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 1 1 –4 –16 –8 –2 12 8 –6 –4 0 47. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − 3x 3 − 11x 2 + 9 x + 15 2 or no negative real zeros exist. ± 3. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8 q 1 negative real root exists. ±15 q: ±1. 3 46.

x = − . − 3 ⎬ . ± . 2 ⎩ ⎭ 49. 2 3 4 –11 ( x − 4) ( 3x 3 + x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 q : ± 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ± . ± 4 3 3 3 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 = 0 p : ± 1. ±2. ± 2. 3. 4 –1 5 –2 –6 4 3 8 6 3 8 6 0 12 4 4 –8 1 1 –2 0 3 8 6 –3 0 –6 0 8 0 1 1 –2 2 2 2 3 3 0 x= 4 x + 3 x + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. 51. . ± 2. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. 4 8 −1 ± 1 − 4 −1 ± i 3 = 2 2 ⎧⎪ 2 −1 + i 3 −1 − i 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨4. ± 2. ±4. i 2. − . 4 p 1 3 1 3 : ± 1. 4 ⎩ ⎭ 7 0 –18 –4 2 3 –8 8 –6 12 12 –8 –6 –6 4 0 ( x + 2)(2 x + 3x − 6 x − 6 x + 4) = 0 4 3 2 4 x 3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. ± . ± 4. x = − 3 2 ⎧ 5 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. ± q 3 3 3 3 2 or no positive real roots exist. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. ±8 q: ±1. ± 8 q : ± 1. 3⎞ ⎛ ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 4 x 2 + 8 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ 4( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 2 x +2 =0 2 x 5 + 7 x 4 − 18 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p : ± 1. . x2 − 3 = 0 x2 = 3 x=± 3 5 x = 1. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 2 4 –6 2⎞ ⎛ ( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 + 3x + 3) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2⎞ ⎛ 3( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2 − 34 3 3 ( x − 1)(4 x + 3x + 8 x + 6) = 0 3 –3 Another positive real root must exist.5 5⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 6 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 5⎞ ⎛ = 2( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 − 3) 2⎠ ⎝ 50. ± q 2 2 4 4 3 or 1 positive real roots exists. 315 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 4. ± . ± 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 3. 3 or 1 negative real root exist. . ⎬. x = 3. ± . ± 6. ± 2. ± 8. ± q 2 2 or no positive real roots exists. Inc. − . f (− x) = 3 x 4 + 11x3 − 3 x 2 + 6 x + 8 2 or no negative real roots exist. 1 negative real root exists. ± . ± 3. − i 2 ⎬ . ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ± 6 1 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3 x 2 − 6 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. x 2 = −2 –2 x = ±i 2 2 3 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1.

Thus. ±6. 3 16 0 x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x = −4 x =1 The zeros are −4 . ± . ±12. f (− x) = −4 x5 + 12 x 4 + 41x3 − 99 x 2 − 10 x + 24 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. ±2. Inc. − 2 ⎬ . ± 2. ± . b.± 4 4 2 or no positive real roots exist. ±4. − ⎬ . ± 4. We verify this below: −4 −1 1 16 −16 4 −20 −1 5 −4 x2 = 2 x=± 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. − 4. and 4.Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 2 2 3 –6 –6 4 –4 2 8 –4 –1 –4 2 0 ( x − 3)( x + 2)( x + 4) ( 4 x 2 − 1) = 0 4 x2 −1 = 0 4 x2 = 1 1 x2 = 4 1 x=± 2 ( x + 2) 2 (2 x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 2) 2 1 2 –1 –4 2 1 0 2 0 –4 0 2 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨3. ± 6. ± 8. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 52. − 2. we can see that −4 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. q 2 2 1 3 ± . 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±4 p 1 3 : ± 1. ± 24. . . f ( x ) = − x3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 a. From the graph provided. ±2. 1. x=4 . ±24 q: ±1. ±3. ( x − 3) ( 4 x + 24 x + 31x − 6 x − 8) = 0 4 –2 3 2 24 31 –6 –8 –8 –32 2 8 –1 –4 0 4 4 16 ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( 4 x + 16 x − x − 4 ) = 0 3 –4 4 4 2 16 –1 4 –16 0 4 0 –1 0 316 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 4 12 –41 –99 10 24 12 72 93 –18 –24 24 31 –6 –8 0 − x 3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 = 0 ( x + 4) ( − x2 + 5x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 ) ( x2 − 5x + 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) = 0 4 x 5 + 12 x 4 − 41x3 − 99 x 2 + 10 x + 24 = 0 p: ±1. 2 2⎭ ⎩ 1⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2)2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2( x + 2) 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x −2 = 0 53. ± 3. ± 12. ±8.

Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9 −1 ± −3 2 1 3 −1 ± 3i i = =− ± 2 2 2 1 3 1 i. b. 2x − 3 = 0 2x = 3 x= The zeros are −1 and 3 2 3 . 1 is an x3 intercept and is thus a zero of the function. We verify this below: 1 3 3 2 2 −1 From the graph provided. We verify this below: −1 −1 3 0 −4 1 −4 −1 4 −4 4 0 − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 = 0 Thus. we can see that 1 1 1 3 3 3 0 Thus.PreCalculus 4E 54. The zeros are and − ± 2 2 3 4 x3 − 8 x 2 − 3x + 9 = 0 ( x + 1)( 2 x − 3) = 0 or ( 2 x − 3) 2 = 0 2 x = −1 2 (1) = 0 ( x + 1) ( 4 x 2 − 12 x + 9 ) = 0 x +1 = 0 −1 ± 12 − 4 (1)(1) b. Inc. From the graph provided. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. f ( x ) = 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 a. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. b. so we use the quadratic formula: 1 or x 2 + x + 1 = 0 x− =0 3 a =1 b =1 c =1 1 x= 3 f ( x ) = 4 x3 − 8x 2 − 3x + 9 a. ( x + 1) ( − x 2 + 4 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) = 0 56. − ( x + 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 2 x +1 = 0 or x = −1 ( x − 2) 2 =0 x−2 = 0 x=2 The zeros are −1 and 2. . 2 317 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. From the graph provided. 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3 x + 3 x + 3) = 0 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 55. We verify this below: −1 4 −8 −3 9 x= −4 12 −9 4 −12 Thus.5 f ( x ) = − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 a.

From the graph provided. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. x = −2 The zeros are −3. and 3. x = −3. x = 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 57. 36 12 0 2 x + 2 x − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 = 0 4 3 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( 2 x 2 + 10 x + 12 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( x 2 + 5 x + 6 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = 0 The remainder is 0. 0 2 x − 3x − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 4 Thus. ± 2. ± 6 We test values from above until we find a zero. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −3 −7 −8 6 −2 ± 22 − 4 (1)( 2 ) 2 (1) From the graph provided. 3 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 To factor x − x 2 − 4 x − 6 . b. 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 2 x + 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. Factors of the constant term −6 : ±1. One possibility is shown next: = ( x − 1) ( 2 x3 + 4 x 2 − 18 x − 36 ) 3 2 6 6 2 2 0 30 2 10 1 −1 −4 −6 1 4 −18 −36 6 3 0 Thus. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −22 −18 36 Factors of − 6 ±1. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 58. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 a. 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 Test 3: 3 4 −18 −36 2 2 4 −18 −36 The possible rational zeros are: Thus. 318 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1. ± 6 = Factors of 1 ±1 = ±1. x= 1 is an 2 x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. 2 = −4 −6 2 −2 −8 −12 b. so 3 is a zero of f. − 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 3. ± 3. so we use the quadratic formula: a =1 b = 2 c = 2 x = 1. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 2 x 3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 a. ± 3. we can see that 1 −1 −2 ± −4 −2 ± 2i = = −1 ± i 2 2 1 The zeros are . and −1 ± i . 3. . ± 2. ± 2. we can see that 1 and 3 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. Inc.

3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 2 x = 1. ± 2. We verify this below: 1 −5 4 −19 16 4 −5 −1 −20 −4 −5 −1 −20 −4 0 Thus. ± 5 1 2 4 = ±1. 1 and 2. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 5: ±1. ± . We can now finish the factoring: 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 = 0 From the graph provided. ± . 3x + 2 x − 15 x − 10 x + 12 x + 8 5 4 3 2 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) = ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) To factor 3 x 3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 . One possibility is shown next: Test −1 : − 1 3 11 12 4 8 4 From the graph provided. ± 5 5 5 We test values from above until we find a zero. a. 3 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) 2 3 5 −10 −20 −8 6 22 3 11 24 12 8 4 b. ± 2. Inc. ± 3 1 2 4 = ±1. Section 2. . The remainder is 0. we can see that 1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. x = − . ± . −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 To factor 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 . ± 4. ± 2. we can see that 1 and 2 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. 0 Thus. ± 2. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 3: ±1. ± 5 −3 −8 −4 3 f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 4 x3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 0 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1.PreCalculus 4E 59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = −2 3 2 The zeros are −2 . ± 4 = Factors of 3 ±1. − . −1 . x = 2.5 f ( x ) = 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 a. One possibility is shown next: 319 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. We verify this below: 1 3 2 −15 −10 12 8 ( x − 1) ( 3 x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1) ( 3x 2 + 8 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1)( 3 x + 2 )( x + 2 ) = 0 5 −10 −20 −8 3 3 5 −10 −20 −8 0 Thus. x = −1. ± 4. ± 4 = Factors of 5 ±1. ± 2. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. ± 3 3 3 We test values from above until we find a zero. ± 2. so −1 is a zero of f. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. ± . ± 3 60.

x= 61. a. The answers correspond to the points (5. x= b.8 inches to obtain a volume of 2000 cubic inches. The depth can be 5 inches or 12. 15). 5 5 1 0 −750 0 −150 0 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. 1500). The depth can be 10 inches or 7. 320 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1500) and (12. . reject the negative value. Inc. 2000) and (10. The range is (0. a. 7.8. 5 1 −5 −150 750 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x + 2i )( x − 2i ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1 x = 1. 0 −4 0 20 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 0 1 is a zero of f. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = − . x = −2i.8 Since the depth must be positive. so − ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 62. reject the negative value. The answers correspond to the points (7. 15). x = 2i 5 1 The zeros are − .8. 1⎞ ⎛ − ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 5 x 2 + 20 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 4 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 1500 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 750 = 0 Find the roots. Answers may vary.2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 1 Test − : 5 − 15 5 1 20 −1 5 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. – 71. 10 1 −5 −150 1000 10 1 64. 0 65. 2000 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x b. 2000). x= 4 −(5) ± (5)2 − 4(1)(−100) 2(1) x ≈ −12.2 Since the depth must be positive. b. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(0) ± (0)2 − 4(1)(−150) 2(1) x ≈ −12. 12.2. and ±2i . 50 −1000 5 −100 The range is (0. 1.2 inches to obtain a volume of 1500 cubic inches. 5 −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 The remainder is 0. V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 2000 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 63. 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 2000 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 1000 = 0 Find the roots.

± . ±3. 321 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2. − . ± 5. ± q 2 3 3 3 6 76. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. ± . ±9. we see that there are no real solutions. so either 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 78. Odd functions must have at least one real zero. ±2. ±6. ±2. ±18. 1 3 9 p : ± 1. − 1. ± . ± . ± q 2 4 100 0 From the graph. so no negative real roots exist. q : ± 1. ± q 2 2 2 2 75. Section 2. ±15 q: ±1. it has no positive real roots. ± . The polynomial’s graph doesn’t intersect the x-axis. 2. ±2. ±5. ± q 2 2 2 f ( x ) = x 5 − x 4 + x3 − x 2 + x − 8 f(x) has 5 sign variations. ±4 q: ±1. ±3. ±6. 2 x 4 + 7 x 3 − 4 x 2 − 27 x − 18 = 0 p : ± 1. ± 2. ±2 77. ±4 1 1 p : ± 1.PreCalculus 4E 72. Inc. we see that the solutions are 1 1 − and . f ( − x ) = − x5 − x 4 − x3 − x 2 − x − 8 f(–x) has no sign variations.5 2 x 3 − 15 x 2 + 22 x + 15 = 0 p: ±1. we see that the solutions are 1 2 . 2 73. ±2 q: ±1. 3. ± . ±2 1 3 5 15 p : ± 1. ±9. 40 0 4 x 4 + 4 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 p: ±1. ±3. 74. f ( x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(x) has no sign variations. no negative roots exist. ± . ±2. ±2. ± 4. ± . or 1 positive real roots exist. ± . From the graph we see the solutions are 3 −3. 2 2 6 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. From the graph. From the graph we see that the solutions are 1 − . . ±3. ±6 1 1 2 4 1 p : ± 1. ± 3. ± . ±18 From the graph. ± 15. 3 and 5. Even functions do not. 2 3 and 2.

A sample change is: The equation has 0 sign variations. Sample explanation: The quadratic formula is can be applied only of equations of degree 2. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Inc. makes sense 100. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 + 6 x3 − 4 x 2 − 24 x + 16 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 3x ( x + 5 ) = 208 ( 2 x 2 + 11x + 5) ( x + 2 ) − 3x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 5 x +10 − 3 x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x − 3 x 2 − 15 x − 198 = 0 2 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x − 198 = 0 2 ( x 3 + 6 x 2 + 6 x − 99 ) = 0 3 real zeros 2 nonreal complex zeros 81. 95. false. 86. 2 real zeros 4 nonreal complex zeros 83. does not make sense. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction. so no positive roots exist. The equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 0. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction and two roots have multiplicity 2. the smallest degree is 5. false. 91. . A sample change is: Descartes’ Rule gives the maximum possible number of real roots. makes sense 96. 85. 84. f ( x) = x 6 − 64 93. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. The equation of the vertical asymptote is x = 1. f ( x) = x 3 − 6 x − 9 88. true 90. the smallest degree is 3. 89. 97. The function is undefined at x = 1 and x = 2. the smallest degree is 3. A sample change is: Polynonials of degree n have at most n distinct solutions.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. 1 real zero 2 nonreal complex zeros 80. 98. 2 92. Explanations will vary. 87. false. Answers will vary 82. 3 f ( x) = 3 x 4 + 4 x3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x − 3 1 1 6 6 –99 3 27 99 9 33 0 x + 9 x + 33 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = −51 x = 3 in. makes sense 99. Answers may vary. Two roots appear twice. the smallest degree is 5. 322 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 94. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the polynomial has no obvious changes of direction but the graph is obviously not linear.

∞) range: [ −4. ∞ ) −75 − −12 = 5i 3 − 2i 3 = 3i 3 (2 − −3 ) = (2 − i 3) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 − 3 = 1 − 4i 3 7. 5). x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 3) − 4 2 ( x − 3) = 4+i+3= 7+i 4. The vertex is (–2. 5] 323 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 =4 x−3 = ± 4 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i + i + i2 = ⋅ = 1− i 1− i 1+ i 1 − i2 1 + 2i − 1 = 1+1 2i = 2 =i x = 3± 2 The equation has x-intercepts at x = 1 and x = 5 . ∞) range: ( −∞. . y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) − 4 = 5 2 domain: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x(2 x − 3) = −4 2 The parabola opens down because a < 0. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) − 4 2 The parabola opens up because a > 0. 6.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point 1. 5. –4). Inc. (1 + i )(4 − 3i ) = 4 − 3i + 4i − 3i 2 8. 3i (2 + i ) = 6i + 3i 2 = −3 + 6i 3. x-intercepts: 2 x 2 − 3 x = −4 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 = 0 x= f ( x ) = 5 − ( x + 2) 0 = 5 − ( x + 2) −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a ( x + 2) −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(4) x= 2(2) 2 2 =5 x+2 = ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: 3 ± −23 x= 4 3 23 x= ± i 4 4 f ( 0) = 5 − ( 0 + 2) = 1 2 domain: (−∞. The vertex is (3. 9. (6 − 2i ) − (7 − i ) = 6 − 2i − 7 + i = −1 − i 2.

9). is positive. 2(−1) 2 ( x + 1) 3 =0 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 4 ± 36 −2 x = −2 ± 3 The x-intercepts are x = 1 and x = −5 . The graph of f crosses the x-axis at −1 . ∞) range: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x-intercepts: 0 = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−6) ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) x= 6 ± 24 6 x= 3± 6 3 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. 9] 11. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. b −6 =− =1 vertex: x = − 2a 2(3) f (1) = 3(1)2 − 6(1) + 1 = −2 The vertex is (1. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. 1. since the zero has multiplicity 3. . domain: (−∞. ∞ ) f ( −2 ) = −(−2) 2 − 4(−2) + 5 = 9 The vertex is (–2. –2). y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 − 4(0) + 5 = 5 x= 3 Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 3 f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 The parabola opens up because a > 0. b −4 vertex: x = − =− = −2 2a 2(−1) domain: (−∞. and since the leading coefficient. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 324 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) range: [ −2. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 2 since the zero has multiplicity 2. f ( x ) = − x2 − 4 x + 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 3(0)2 − 6(0) + 1 = 1 The parabola opens down because a < 0. degree 5. x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 − 4 x + 5 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(−1)(5) 12.

is negative. x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) 6 − ( x + 1) = 0 6 ( x − 1) − 4 ( x − 1) = 0 ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. x = 2. f ( x ) = x4 − 5x2 + 4 (x Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 2 − 4 )( x 2 − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle. 14. x = −2. degree 4. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. and since the leading coefficient. 1. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around both at −1 and 2 since both zeros have multiplicity 2. is positive. −1 . 325 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and 2. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. since all have multiplicity 1. 1. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. The graph crosses the x-axis at all four zeros. degree 6. −1 . Since f is an even-degree polynomial. and since the leading coefficient. 1. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. and since the leading coefficient. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. 1. and 2. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 since the zero has multiplicity 6.. −2 . x4 − 5x2 + 4 = 0 2 ( x + 1) 6 =0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 The zero is are −1 . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. f ( x ) = x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 16. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. −1 . the graph rises to the left and rises to the right. and 2. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. −2 . 1. .PreCalculus 4E 13. Apply the zero-product principle: x + 2 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −2 x=2 x =1 The zeros are −2 . since all have multiplicity 1. x = 1 The zeros are −2 . Inc. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. x = −1. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point f ( x ) = − ( x − 2) − ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 =0 2 15. −1 . degree 3. degree 4. is positive. 1. is negative. and since the leading coefficient. and 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

± 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. degree 3. −1 . since all have multiplicity 1. ± 2. ± 6 2 x ( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 x ( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle: x = 0. since it has multiplicity 1. c = 26 The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. 2 x3 − 2 x = 0 To find the zeros. . ± . . x = −1. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. Thus. ± 3. and since the leading coefficient. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. −6 . ± 2. is positive. ± 2 3 6 We test values from the above list until we find a zero. is negative. 0. 3 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x x3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x = 0 x ( x 2 − 2 x + 26 ) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x + 26 does not factor. ± .Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. x = 3 2 1 1 The zeros are − . the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. degree 3. so 1 is a zero. = 326 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( 26 ) 2 (1) 2 2 ± −100 2 ± 10i = = 1 ± 5i 2 2 The zeros are 0 and 1 ± 5i . The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of − 6 ±1. and 1. Apply the zero-product property: 1 1 x = 1. ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 List all factors of the leading coefficient −6 : ±1. and 1. f ( x ) = −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 18. x =1 The zeros are −1 . 3 2 x= Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. x = − . The graph of f crosses the x-axis at 0 (the only real zero). and 1. so we use the quadratic formula: x = 0 or x 2 − 2 x + 26 = 0 a = 1. 0. Inc. −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −6 x 2 + x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 − ( x − 1)( 3x + 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 19. b = −2. 1 1 − . and since the leading coefficient. . since all have multiplicity 1. 2. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. and 1. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 −6 7 0 −1 −6 −6 1 1 1 1 0 f ( x ) = 2 x3 − 2 x The remainder is 0.

± 3 = = ±1. since all have multiplicity 1. ± 2 = = ±1. so we use the quadratic formula: x − 3 = 0 or x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 0 x=3 a = 1. degree 3. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. is positive. x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 x= 2 1 −2 1 1 −2 The remainder is 0. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −3 : ±1. 20. and since the leading coefficient. b = −2. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 1 0 −3 Test 3: −1 3 −1 1 5 −5 −3 −3 6 3 2 1 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 2 )( x − 1) = 0 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) = 0 ( x − 3) ( − x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 3) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x − 1 does not factor. 21. so 3 is a zero. 1.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. ± 2 Factors of 1 ±1 Factors of − 3 ±1. ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −1) 2 (1) 2 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 1± 2 2 2 The zeros are 3 and 1 ± 2 . is negative. so 1 is a root of the equation. ± 2 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Apply the zero-product property: 2 ( x − 1) = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = −2 x −1 = 0 x =1 The solutions are −2 and 1. 327 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. Factors of the constant term 2: ±1. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. and the solution set is {−2. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. −1 . Inc. ± 3 List all factors of the leading coefficient −1 : ±1 The possible rational zeros are: The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 2 ±1. − ( −2 ) ± x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 3 Factors of − 1 ±1 We test values from above until we find a root. . c = −1 = 0 The remainder is 0. degree 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. One is shown next: We test values from the previous list until we find a zero. and since the leading coefficient. 3 and 1 ± 2 . Thus. Thus. f ( x ) = − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 To find the zeros.1} . The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros.

and the solution 2 5 ⎧ ⎫ set is ⎨ −10. ± 10. and the solution set he solutions are − . One is shown next: 1 5 25 125 ±250. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎬ . ± 100. ⎩ 2 3 2⎭ 328 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 Factors of the leading coefficient 6: ±1. ± 125. so 1 is a root of the equation. ± 250. ± 25. ± 500. ± 3. ± 2. Factors of 2 ±10.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. ± 4. 10 ⎬ . and the solution set is 3 2 ⎧1 1 ⎫ ⎨ . ± . ± 2 3 6 The possible rational zeros are: We test values from above until we find a root. ± 3. ± 25. 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 x= 3 2 1 1 The solutions are . One is shown next: 6 −1 6 −5 −5 1 1 Test 10: 0 10 The remainder is 0. so 10 is a root of the equation. − . ± 4. x= Apply the zero-product property: x − 10 = 0 or 2 x + 5 = 0 or x + 10 = 0 x = 10 x=− 5 2 5 The solutions are −10. ± 2. 1⎬ . ± 100. ± 6 24. ± 125. ± 20. ± 20. and 1. . 2 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. 2 3 2 ⎧ 1 2 7⎫ is ⎨ − . ± . ± 2 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of 6 ±1. and 10 . ± 5. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 500 Factors of the leading coefficient 2: ±1. Inc. . ± 2 2 2 2 Factors of 500 = ±1. ± . ± . ± 2. Test 1: 1 6 −11 6 We test values from above until we find a root. Thus. 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( 2 x + 1)( 3x − 2 ) ( 2 x − 7 ) = 0 3 Apply the zero-product property: 2x +1 = 0 1 x=− 2 or (3x − 2) 3 = 0 or 3x − 2 = 0 x= 2 3 x = −10 2x − 7 = 0 7 T x= 2 1 2 7 and . ± 2. ⎩3 2 ⎭ 23. Factors of the constant term −500 : ±1. ± 50. ±50. ± . − . Thus. ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. ± 5. . 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 5 −200 −500 20 250 500 2 25 50 0 ( x − 10 ) ( 2 x 2 + 25 x + 50 ) = 0 ( x − 10 )( 2 x + 5 )( x + 10 ) = 0 Apply the zero-product property: x − 1 = 0 or 3 x − 1 = 0 or 2 x − 1 = 0 x =1 2 The remainder is 0.

1⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 3) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 x − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x 4 + x3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 2 1 are roots of 2 the equation. ± 3. Factors of the constant term −12 : ±1. so 1 1 is a zero and x − is a 2 2 factor. ± 2. ± 3. Inc. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 4: ±1. One possibility is shown next: Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Test −3 : x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 = x + 12 25. 4 3 2 −3 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 12 Factors of 1 ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we have 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 ( x + 3) ( 2 x3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 x = −1 2 ( x + 3) ⎛⎜ x − x = ± −1 = ± i 26. and the solution set is {−3. ± 2 2 We test values from above until we find a root. ± 12 = ±1 = ±1. One possibility is shown next: −3 1 −17 −4 2 ⎝ 1⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2x − 4x − 4) = 0 2⎠ The roots are −3 . Note that x 2 + 1 does not factor. b = −2. ± 4. As this point we know that −3 and 4 are roots of the equation. ± 6. ± 4. Using the Factor Theorem. and ±i . we need to factor 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 . ± 6. ± 2 1 3 = ±1. x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 − x − 12 = 0 1 2 6 −6 2 0 1 : 2 2 −5 −2 2 1 −2 −2 ( x + 3) ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 3) ⎡⎣ x 2 ( x − 4 ) + 1( x − 4 )⎤⎦ = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 1) = 0 2 −4 −4 0 The remainder is 0. ± 2. c = −2 At this point. ± 6 = Factors of 2 ±1. ± 3. ± . we know that −3 and The possible rational roots are: 329 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. We continue testing potential roots: 1 −1 −11 −1 −12 12 −3 −6 2 −5 ( x + 3) ( 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 Test −3 : −3 6 The remainder is 0. ± 12 Factors of 6 ±1. so we use the square-root principle: x 2 + 1 = 0 Summarizing our findings so far. ± 2. we know that x − 1 is a factor. Factors of the constant term 6: ±1. 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We test values from this list we find a root. ± 2. Note that x 2 − 2 x − 2 does not factor. ± 12 12 1 −4 1 −4 0 Test The remainder is 0.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point x − x − 11x − x − 12 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 6. ± 2. . ± 3. ± 6. 4. ± 4. ± 2. Using the Factor Theorem. so −3 is a root of the equation. ± 3. ± 3. ± i} . 4. so −3 is a root. we know that x + 3 is a factor of the polynomial. so we use the quadratic formula: x2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 a = 1. Thus. Thus. 15 −2 To solve the equation above.

81) . The maximum product is f ( x) = an ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) 81. and 1 ± 3 . 1 ± 3 ⎬ . the function must have a real zero between 1 and 2 because f (1) and f (2) have opposite signs. = −9 ( −18 + 9 ) = −9 ( −9 ) = 81 29. . 2a 2 ( −1) −2 an = −2 f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) or − 2 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 2 x + 2 f ( −9 ) = −9 ⎡⎣ −18 − ( −9 ) ⎤⎦ 33. 2 ( x − 1)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f ( x) = an ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f (−1) = an (−1 − 1) ( (−1) 2 + 1) = −4an = 8 The x-coordinate of the maximum is b −18 −18 x=− =− =− = −9. 3 Let x = one of the numbers. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and the 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ solution set is ⎨ −3. Inc. 2 x2 − x − 3 3x − 1 6 x − 3x − 11x 2 + 2 x + 4 2 4 − 3 x3 − 9 x 2 + 2 x −3 x 3 − 9x + x + 4 −9 x 2 P ( x ) = − x 2 + 150 x − 4425 2 x2 − x − 3 + 31. −18 − x = the other number The product is f ( x ) = x ( −18 − x ) = − x 2 − 18 x 32. 3 ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x − 3i )( x + 3i ) = ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) The vertex is ( −9. 2a 2 ( −1) f ( x) = 1( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 3 + 13x 2 − 36 x + 36 34. 330 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This occurs when the two number are −9 and −18 − (−9) = −9 . 40 − 2x = base of triangle 1 1 A = bh = x(40 − 2 x) 2 2 A( x) = 20 x − x 2 The height at which the triangle will have 20 b maximum area is x = − =− = 10.Polynomial and Rational Functions x= − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −2 ) 2 (1) 2 30. A(10) = 20(10) − (10) 2 = 100 The maximum area is 100 squares inches. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 27. . − 2 x2 6 x4 2 ± 4 + 8 2 ± 12 2 ± 2 3 = = = = 1± 3 2 2 2 1 The solutions are −3 . . f (0) = an (0 − 2)(0 − 2)(02 + 9) 36 = 36an an = 1 Let x = height of triangle. 250 − 4425 = 1200 The company will maximize its profit by manufacturing and selling 75 cabinets per day. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 28. f ( x) = x 3 − x − 5 f (1) = 13 − 1 − 5 = −5 f (2) = 23 − 2 − 5 = 1 Yes. 2 2 –13 17 18 –24 8 -20 –12 24 6 0 –5 –3 The quotient is 2 x − 5 x − 3 x + 6 . P ( 75 ) = −752 + 150(75) − 4425 (2x 4 +3 x +1 x +1 3x2 − 1 − 13x 3 + 17 x 2 + 18 x − 24 ) ÷ ( x − 4 ) 4 = −5625 + 11. we know the function opens down and has a maximum at b 150 150 x=− =− =− = 75 . +x 2 Since a = −1 is negative. The maximum daily profit is $1200.

6 Section 2. No vertical asymptotes. f ( x) = Shift the graph 2 units to the left by subtracting 2 from each x-coordinate. 1 .PreCalculus 4E Section 2. Begin with the graph of f ( x) = 6. x = −1 b. Inc. Check Point Exercises 1. 2 x2 = 0 x=0 The x-intercept is 0. b. x 2x2 x2 − 9 2(− x)2 2x2 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 The y-axis symmetry. Since n < m. Since n = m. . y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. c. Since n > m. 2(0) 2 f (0) = 2 =0 0 −9 The y-intercept is 0. The denominator cannot equal zero. x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = 1. a. The denominator cannot equal zero. 4. All real numbers. a.6 5. x ≠ −5} 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. 331 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g ( x) = 3x − 3 x−2 3(− x) − 3 −3 x − 3 3x + 3 = = f (− x) = −x − 2 −x − 2 x+2 no symmetry 3(0) − 3 3 f (0) = = 0−2 2 3 The y-intercept is . c. Shift the graph 1 unit down by subtracting 1 from each y-coordinate. there is no horizontal asymptote. y = 9 =3 3 y = 3 is a horizontal asymptote. Vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: 3 y= =3 1 f ( x) = x −1 x −1 1 = = 2 x − 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x + 1 x = −1 3. x −5 = 0 x=5 { x x ≠ 5} b. a. x 2 − 25 = 0 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 {x | x ≠ 5. 2 3x − 3 = 0 3x = 3 x =1 The x-intercept is 1.

000 = 450 C (10. 10. 000 + 400 x x 500. and 100. a. C (100.Polynomial and Rational Functions vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 x = 3. C ( x) = 500. f ( x) = 7x x −8 { x x ≠ 8} 3. vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 = 0 400 = 400 1 The cost per wheelchair approaches $400 as more wheelchairs are produced. 000) 10. 2 2 –5 7 4 –2 g ( x) = 3x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 4) { x x ≠ 5. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: 2 y= =2 1 9. y= x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. f ( x) = 5x x−4 { x x ≠ 4} 2. 000 + 400(100.000. $450. 000 = 405 The average cost per wheelchair of producing 1000. C ( x) = 500. 1. and $405.000 wheelchairs is $900. 000) 100. 8. 500. x x − 10 Exercise Set 2.6 x 2 = −2 no vertical asymptotes horizontal asymptote: Since n > m. x=0 The x-intercept is 0. Inc. . 000 + 400 x b. 000) = 500. x4 x2 + 2 (− x)4 x4 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x) 2 + 2 x 2 + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 f (0) = 2 =0 0 +2 The y-intercept is 0. x ≠ −4} 4. 10. respectively. there is no horizontal asymptote. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x4 = 0 f ( x) = d. 2 –1 5 the equation of the slant asymptote is y = 2x – 1. 000 + 400(10. x ≠ −6} 332 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g ( x) = 2 x2 ( x − 2)( x + 6) { x x ≠ 2. 000 + 400(1000) 1000 = 900 C (1000) = c. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 20 20 T (x) = + . 000) = 7.

1 x 1 = x( x − 3) x − 3 x −3 = 0 h( x ) = x x +4 x 2 + 4 has no real zeros There are no vertical asymptotes. 28. 19. x = 3 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. x+8 x + 64 all real numbers f ( x) = 9. { x x ≠ 7.6 x+7 x 2 − 49 2 x − 49 = ( x − 7)( x + 7) h( x ) = 23. +∞ 27. x +8 x 2 − 64 x 2 − 64 = ( x − 8)( x + 8) h( x ) = 24. 29. 16. +∞ 11. 0 15. r ( x) = f ( x) = 2 12 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 20. +∞ 26. f ( x) = 15 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 x 22. 8. −∞ 17. { x x ≠ 8. 1 21. x 1 = x( x + 4) x + 4 x+4=0 h( x ) = x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 14. x+3 x( x + 4) x( x + 4) = 0 x = 0. 12 x 2 3x 2 + 1 horizontal asymptote: y = 333 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ −8} 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = −4 g ( x) = x x+4 x+4=0 x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = –4 f ( x) = 30. x+7 x 2 + 49 all real numbers f ( x) = 25. x ≠ −7} 6. Inc. f ( x) = x−3 x−3 = 0 x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 31.PreCalculus 4E 5. Section 2. x = 3 g ( x) = x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = −4 2 13. 0 +∞ x+3 x( x − 3) x( x − 3) = 0 x = 0. 12 =4 3 . −∞ 10. g ( x) = n = m. −∞ 12. −∞ 18. r ( x) = 2 x x +3 x 2 + 3 has no real zeros There is no vertical asymptotes.

horizontal asymptote: y = 33.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. h( x ) = g ( x) = 3 5 1 x −1 40. f ( x) = n=m 39. −2 x + 1 3x + 5 1 2 units up. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x h( x ) = 1 +1 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit up. g ( x) = n=m 15 x 2 3x 2 + 1 38. h( x ) = 15 x 3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 35. h( x ) = g ( x) = 1 x−2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 15 =5 3 1 2 units to the right. 1 +2 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 36. . x 2 3 −3 x + 7 5x − 2 n=m s f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 37. Inc. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit to the right. x 334 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 12 x3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 34.

Inc.6 1 −2 x +1 44. x2 1 2 units left. g ( x) = 45.PreCalculus 4E 41. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 3 units down. 43. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left and 2 units x g ( x) = 1 ( x + 1) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left. 1 −2 x+2 46. h( x ) = 1 ( x + 2) 2 h( x ) = 1 −3 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 4 units down. x2 335 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 42. g ( x) = 1 −4 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 units left and 2 units x down. g ( x) = Section 2. x2 down. x2 .

1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 3 units right and 2 units x up. Inc. 3x x −1 3(− x ) 3x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 1 x + 1 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). h( x ) = vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 1 +1 ( x − 3) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = x=2 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. 49. so y = = 3 1 4x x−2 4(− x) 4x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 2 x + 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Publishing as Prentice Hall. . f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0 −1 x-intercept: 3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x −1 = 0 f ( x) = x =1 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 4(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0−2 x-intercept: 4x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 336 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 47. 48. h( x ) = 1 +2 ( x − 3) 2 50. so y = = 4 1 1 3 units right and 1 unit x2 up.

2 x2 x2 −1 f (−x) = 2 (−x) (−x) 2 2 −1 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 2x2 = f ( x) x2 − 1 2 (0) 2 02 − 1 = x-intercept: 2 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x2 −1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. Section 2. so y = = 2 1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 52. 0 =0 1 .PreCalculus 4E 51.6 2x 2 x −4 2 (−x) 2x = –f(x) =− 2 f (−x) = 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 Origin symmetry 2 ( 0) 0 y-intercept: 2 = =0 0 − 4 −4 x-intercept: 2x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 53. Inc. f ( x) = 4x x2 −1 4 (−x) 4x f (−x) = =− 2 = –f(x) 2 ( −x) −1 x −1 Origin symmetry 4 ( 0) =0 y-intercept: 2 0 −1 x-intercept:4x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 f ( x) = 337 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

56. −3 x x+2 −3 ( − x ) 3x f (−x) = = (−x) + 2 −x + 2 f ( x) = f–x) ≠ f(x). . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. so y = 1 4 x2 x2 − 9 f (−x) = 4(−x) (−x) 2 2 −9 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 4 ( 0) 4 x2 = f ( x) x2 − 9 2 02 − 9 =0 x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = ±3 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. so y = = 4 1 55.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry − ( 0) 0 y-intercept: y = = =0 0 +1 1 x-intercept: –x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 338 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: −1 = −1 n = m. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry y-intercept: −3 ( 0 ) y= =0 0+2 x-intercept: –3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 horizontal asymptote: −3 = −3 n = m. so y = 1 −x x +1 − (−x) x f (−x) = = (−x) +1 −x +1 f ( x) = f(–x) ≠ f(x).

x = −1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 339 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 2. . f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 2 2 y-intercept: y = 2 = = −1 0 + 0 − 2 −2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 2 = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1) = 0 x = −2. 2 2 x −1 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 2 f (−x) = − 2 x + x−2 2 2 f (−x) = − = 2 2 (−x) − x − 2 x − x − 2 f ( x) = 2 = f(x) x −1 2 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: 2 2 y=− 2 =− =2 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: –2 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 (x – 1)(x + 1) x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m. 58.PreCalculus 4E 57. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry −2 =1 y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 2 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 x = 2. Inc.6 1 x −4 1 1 f (−x) = − =− 2 = f(x) 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 y-axis symmetry 1 1 = y-intercept: y = – 2 0 −4 4 x-intercept: –1 ≠ 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x2 = 4 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m or y = 0 f ( x) = − f ( x) = − 59. so y = 0 −2 x −x−2 −2 −2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x ) − (− x ) − 2 x + x − 2 f ( x) = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 2 (−x) 2 −1 =− 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).

x+2 x + x−6 −x + 2 −x + 2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( −x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = 0 f ( x) = 2 4 x2 x2 + 1 4(− x) 2 4 x2 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 ( −x) +1 x +1 y axis symmetry 4(0) 2 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +1 x-intercept: 4 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. . so y = = 2 1 f ( x) = 63. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0+2 2 1 =− =− y-intercept: y = 2 0 +0−6 6 3 x-intercept: x+2=0 x = –2 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) x = −3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. 2 x2 x2 + 4 2(− x) 2 2 x2 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) + 4 x + 4 y axis symmetry 2(0) 2 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +4 x-intercept: 2 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. 62. so y = = 4 1 f ( x) = 340 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. Inc.

f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 + 0 − 12 =3 y-intercept: y = 02 − 4 x-intercept: x 2 + x − 12 = 0 2 ( x − 3)( x + 4) = 0 x = 3. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x4 x +2 (− x) 4 x4 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 (−x) + 2 x + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +2 x-intercept: x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0−4 2 = y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−6 3 x-intercept: x − 4 = 0. ( x − 3)( x + 2) x = 3. so y = = 1 1 341 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 f ( x) = 66. 65. . x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. so none f ( x) = x 2 + x − 12 x2 − 4 (− x) 2 − x − 12 x 2 − x − 12 f (−x) = = 2 x2 − 4 (−x) − 4 f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Inc. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 2.PreCalculus 4E 64. so y = 0 67.6 x−4 2 x − x−6 x+4 −x − 4 f (−x) = =− 2 2 (−x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). so none f ( x) = 2 x4 x2 + 1 2(− x) 4 2 x4 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) +1 x +1 y-axis symmetry 2 ( 04 ) y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +2 x-intercept: 2 x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m. Section 2.

so y = = 1 1 342 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. vertical asymptotes: 2 x2 − 5x = 0 x(2 x − 5) = 0 x2 x2 + x − 6 (− x) 2 x2 f (−x) = = 2 2 (−x) − x − 6 x − x − 6 f ( x) = x = 0. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) 2 + 0 − 4 −4 = y-intercept: y = 0 2(0) 2 − 5(0) no y-intercept x-intercepts: 3x2 + x − 4 = 0 (3 x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 x − 1 = 0 3x = −4 4 x = − . f ( x) = x2 − 4 x + 3 ( x + 1)2 ( − x ) − 4 ( − x ) + 3 x2 + 4 x + 3 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x + 1) ( − x + 1) 2 69. 2 x = 5 5 2 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. f(–x) ≠ f(x). so y = = 1 1 70. so y = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).Polynomial and Rational Functions 68.x =1 3 ( x + 1) 2 =0 x = –1 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +0−6 x-intercept: x 2 = 0. x = 2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 02 − 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = =3 2 1 ( 0 + 1) x-intercept: x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = 3 and x = 1 vertical asymptote: 3x 2 + x − 4 2 x2 − 5x 3(− x) 2 − x − 4 3 x 2 − x − 4 f (−x) = = 2 2 x2 + 5x 2 ( − x ) + 5x f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Inc. x = 0 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 x= ( x + 3)( x − 2) = 0 x = −3. .

Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = 72. Section 2. Inc. slant asymptote: 4 f ( x) = x – x y=x f (−x) = (−x) 2 +1 x2 − 4 x (−x) 2 −4 = x2 + 1 = − f ( x) −x −x Origin symmetry 02 + 1 1 = y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m.6 horizontal asymptote: n > m. b. x2 − 1 x ( − x ) − 1 x2 − 1 = = − f ( x) −x (−x) 2 f (−x) = Origin symmetry y-intercept: y = 0 2 − 1 −1 = 0 0 73. a. a. so none exist. no y-intercept x-intercepts: x 2 − 1 = 0 x = ±1 vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n < m. f ( x) = a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . so none exist.PreCalculus 4E 71. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x – x y=x f ( x) = b. b. so none exist. x2 − 4 x f ( x) = x2 + 1 x = x2 − 4 = − f ( x) −x −x origin symmetry 02 − 4 4 =− y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 vertical asymptote: x = 0 343 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

. f ( x) = a. so none exist. so none exist. b. 6 x –3 y=x+4 b. f ( x) = a. no y-intercept x2 + 4 = 0 x 2 = −4 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m. f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + x − 6 x−3 (−x) 2 + (−x) − 6 x2 + x + 1 −x −1 −x −1 no symmetry f (–x) ≠ f (x). Inc. x2 + 4 x slant asymptote: 4 g ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + 4 x (−x) 2 +4 −x origin symmetry y-intercept: y = = x2 + 4 = − f ( x) −x 02 + 4 4 = 0 0 76. a. vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry 0 2 + 0 − 6 −6 y-intercept: y = = =2 0−3 −3 x-intercept: x2 + x − 6 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 x = –3 and x = 2 344 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (–x) ≠ –g(x) 02 − 0 + 1 1 = = −1 y-intercept: y = 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: x2 − x + 1 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x–1=0 x=1 horizontal asymptote: n > m. x2 − x + 1 x −1 slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = x + x –1 y=x f ( x) = x2 − x − 1 x −1 (−x) − (−x) +1 2 f (−x) = 75.Polynomial and Rational Functions 74. b. so none Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 4 + = = x2 − x − 6 −x − 3 −x − 3 f(–x) ≠ g(x).

. slant asymptote: x−2 x 2 + 2 x x3 f ( x) = a.PreCalculus 4E 77. f ( x) = a. so none 345 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n > m. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 x3 + 1 x2 + 2 x 78. −1 3 b. Section 2. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = no symmetry no symmetry y-intercept: y = 03 + 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 = 0 + 2(0) 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x3 + 1 = 0 x 3 = −1 03 − 1 1 = 02 − 9 9 x-intercept: x3 – 1 = 0 x3 = 1 x =1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = ( − x )3 − 1 − x 3 − 1 = (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). (− x)3 + 1 − x3 + 1 = 2 2 (− x) + 2(− x) x − 2 x f (− x) ≠ f ( x). +1 x + 2x 3 2 x3 − 1 x2 − 9 slant asymptote: 9x −1 x+ 2 x −9 x 2 − 9 x3 x − 9x 9x −1 − 2 x2 −2 x 2 + 4 x − 4x + 1 y=x y = x−2 b. so none x = −1 vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x = 0 x( x + 2) = 0 x = 0. Inc.

5x2 x2 + 4 x + 4 ⋅ x2 − 4 10 x 3 = 5 x2 ( x + 2) ( x − 2) ⋅ 81. ( x + 2) 2 10 x 3 1 2 x+2 = 2x ( x − 2) x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 = − 2 ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x+2 So. f ( x ) = ⋅ 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) 346 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. f ( x ) = 80. f ( x ) = 2x ( x − 2) x ( x − 3) − 9 ( 2 ) 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x − 18 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = ( x − 6 ) ( x + 3) x−6 = x − 3) 2 ( 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 ) So. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x−6 2 ( x − 3) x −5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 ÷ 10 x − 2 25 x 2 − 1 x −5 25 x 2 − 1 = ⋅ 2 10 x − 2 x − 10 x + 25 = ( 5 x + 1) ( 5 x − 1) 2 2 ( 5 x − 1) ( x − 5) = 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) x −5 So.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 2 ( x + 3) − 4 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) x 2 − 4 − 3x + 6 x2 − 4 + x + 2 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 2 x + x−2 2x + 6 − 4x − 8 = ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = 3 3 1− x+2 = x + 2 ⋅ ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1 1 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1+ 1+ x−2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) − 3 ( x − 2 ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 ) 1− 2 = −2 x − 2 ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = −2 ( x + 1) −2 = = ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) ( x + 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) ( x − 1) So. Section 2. f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 3) = x−2 x+2 x−2 x+2 1 2 x ⋅ x = x − 1 = ( x − 1)( x + 1) 84. f ( x ) = −2 So.6 2 4 − 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 4 x + 3 2 4 = − x + 2 x + 1 x + 3 ( )( ) ( )( x + 1) = 83. f ( x ) = x 2 +1 x− 347 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 82. 1 x x 2 +1 x 2 +1 x+ x ( x − 1)( x + 1) So. Inc.

it costs $125 to manufacture each. g ( x) = −1 3x − 7 = +3 x−2 x−2 C ( x ) = 100 x + 100 . g ( x) = 2x + 7 1 = +2 x+3 x+3 89. 100 (2000 ) + 100. n = m. C(1000) = 300. 000 C (1000 ) = = $200 1000 When 1000 bicycles are manufactured. . 000) = 33 100.000 x 100 (500 ) + 100. it costs $200 to manufacture each. a. The average cost decreases as the number of shoes manufactured increases. 00) = d. C(100. b. it costs $60 to manufacture each. 87. it costs $300 to manufacture each. a. 1 As greater numbers of bicycles are manufactured. c. 88.000 shoes are manufactured. 000 + 30(100. C (500) = 100 = 100 . it costs $330 to manufacture each. g ( x) = −1 2x − 9 = +2 x−4 x−4 C= 300. 000 When 100. C(x) = 30x + 300. 000 C (4000 ) = = $125 4000 When 4000 bicycles are manufactured.000 b. so y = 90. so y = 348 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The average cost decreases as the number of bicycles manufactured increases. 000 C (2000 ) = = $150 2000 When 2000 bicycles are manufactured. c.000 shoes are manufactured. 30 = 30 .000 C ( x) = 100x +100. 300000 + 30(10000) C(10000) = = 60 10000 When 10. it costs $33 to manufacture each. 000 = $300 500 When 500 bicycles are manufactured. Inc. it costs $150 to manufacture each. 100(1000) + 100. g ( x) = 3x + 7 1 = +3 x+2 x+2 d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 As greater numbers of shoes are manufactured. 000 + 30x x 300000 + 30(1000) = 330 1000 When 1000 shoes are manufactured. the average cost approaches $100.Polynomial and Rational Functions 85. the average cost approaches $30. 86. n = m. 100(4000) + 100.

e. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. the pH level appears to approach 6. Section 2. If trends continue. 2. a. During the first hour. d. the lowest pH level) is 4. A = xy = 2500 2500 y= x P(9) = T (x) = 5000 2500 = 2x + x x The perimeter of the floor. but never gets to be. the normal pH level must be 6. This overestimates the actual percent found in the graph by 1%. 94. the percentage approaches 100%.2 or about 63% 2708. c. 11(36) 2 + 40(36) + 1040 16736 f (36) = = or 12(36) 2 + 230(36) + 2190 26022 about 64% of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. 95. but never reaches 100%. 2 f ( x) = 11x 2 + 40 x + 1040 12 x 2 + 230 x + 2190 1707. as a function of the 5000 . x is P(x) = 2 x + x P = 2x + 2y = 2x + 2 349 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 600 600 + . 5 ( 3) b. 15 = 1.0. 1. is less than the degree of the denominator. The horizontal asymptote is y = 11 .5 milligrams per liter. b. a. P. the pH level is lowest after about 6 minutes. b. 100. Therefore. According to the graph. 93. From the graph. From the graph.PreCalculus 4E 91. 6. From the graph. y = 100 As incidence of the diseases increases. d. 90) 10 For a disease that smokers are 10 times more likely to contact than non-smokers.6 From the graph the pH level of the human mouth 42 minutes after a person eats food containing sugar will be about 6.8 The pH level after 6 minutes (i.5 Over time.5 ( 6 ) − 20.7 of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006.8. 100%.5 milligrams per liter. c. Inc. width. .4 ( 6 ) + 234 2 f (6) = 62 + 36 97. C ( 3) = a. 100(9 − 1) = 89 (9. the percent of death approaches. and hiking is T (x) = x x P(10) = 99. the pH level rises back to the normal level. T (x) = x x − 10 100(10 − 1) = 90 (10. 89% of the deaths are smoking related.e. the pH level drops quickly below normal. 98. No. the drug’s concentration will approach 0 milligrams per liter. 12 11 or about 92% of federal 12 expenditures will spent on human resources over time. and then slowly begins to approach the normal level. = The degree of the numerator. y = 6. 89) 9 For a disease that smokers are 9 times more likely to have than non-smokers. 90% of the deaths are smoking related. so the the horizontal asymptote is y = 0 .5 3 + 1 10 This verifies that the drug’s concentration after 3 hours will be 1. Over time. the drug’s concentration after three hours appears to be about 1. 90 5 10 5 + = + 9x x x x The function that expresses the total time for driving 10 5 + . = 4.5. According to the function.5 as time goes by. 92. 96.

In g(x). The graph increases from late teens until about the age of 25. A = lw xy = 50 l=y+2= 115. c. does not make sense. – 111. 113. 120. and then the number of arrests decreases. f (x) = 50 +2 x 27725(x − 14) − 5x x2 + 9 w=x+1 50 A= + 2 (x + 1) x 50 + 2x + 2 x 50 + 52 = 2x + x The total area of the page is 50 A(x) = 2 x + + 52. g(x) is the graph of a line where f(x) is the graph of a rational function with a slant asymptote. Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2⎭ ⎩ 350 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 102. Answers may vary. – 127. There are about 356 arrests for every 100. false. does not make sense. true 114. 116. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 112. a. 122. Sample explanation: A rational function can have at most one horizontal asymptote. Explanations will vary. x = 50 + b. A sample change is: The graph of a rational function may have both a vertical asymptote and a horizontal asymptote. true 123. Sample explanation: The function has one vertical asymptote. Explanations will vary. . x = 2. 117.Polynomial and Rational Functions 101. the average cost for a company to produce each unit of its product decreases. 2 x 2 + x = 15 2 x 2 + x − 15 = 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) = 0 2x − 5 = 0 or x+3= 0 x= 5 2 x = −3 5⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −3. Sample explanation: As production level increases. x – 2 is a factor of x 2 − 5x + 6 . At age 25 the highest number arrests occurs. Inc. 119. true 124. Explanations will vary. makes sense The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. 121.000 drivers. ⎬ . 118. 128. does not make sense.

. 130. 5 ) does not belong to the solution set. 351 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. −4 ) belongs to the solution set. 5 ) ( 5. ( 5. x +1 x + 1 2( x + 3) −2= − x+3 x+3 x+3 x + 1 2x + 6 = − x+3 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 = x+3 −x − 5 x+5 = or − x+3 x+3 Section 2. Test Test Test Interval Number (−5) 2 − (−5) > 20 –5 ( −∞. ∞ ) 0 (0) − (0) > 20 0 > 20. false 10 (10) − (10) > 20 90 > 20. The solution set is ( −∞.7 Check Point Exercises 1. ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4( x + 1) = 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 − 4) = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 The solution set is {−2. −4 ) ∪ ( 5. ( −4. x 2 − x > 20 x 2 − x − 20 > 0 ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. true 2 2 Conclusion ( −∞. −1. −4 ) 30 > 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x + 4 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −4 x=5 The boundary points are –2 and 4. true ( −4. 2} .7 x3 + x 2 = 4 x + 4 129. ∞ ) or { x x < −4 or x > 5} .

1] does not belong to the solution set. −1) –2 ( −1. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1] 0 ≤ 3 true ( 6 + 3)( 6 − 5 ) > 0 [1. −3] ∪ [ −1. ( −3.1] or { x x ≤ −3 or − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1} . true 2(0) ≥1 0 +1 0 ≥ 1. [1.1] 0 [1. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 2(−2) ≥1 −2 + 1 4 ≥ 1. 352 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. true 3 ( −∞. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or x ≥ 1} . −3) -4 ( −3. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. . 2x ≥1 x +1 2x −1 ≥ 0 x +1 x −1 ≥0 x +1 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x =1 x = −1 Test Test Interval Number ( −∞. −1) ∪ [1. The solution set is ( −∞. false 2(2) ≥1 2 +1 4 ≥ 1. does not belong to the solution true set. (0) + 3(0) ≤ (0) + 3 3 [ −1. −1] –2 x+3=0 x = −3 Test (−4)3 + 3(−4) 2 ≤ (−4) + 3 0 [1. ( −1. 3. −1) belongs to the solution set.1] Conclusion 2 [ −1. x3 + 3x 2 ≤ x + 3 x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3 ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x = −1 Test Interval x =1 Test Number ( −∞. The solution set is ( −∞. −1] does not belong to the solution (−2)3 + 3(−2) 2 ≤ (−2) + 3 4 ≤ 1 false set. ∞ ) 2 ( −∞. −3) −16 ≤ −1 true belongs to the solution set.

. ∞) 2.7 1. false solution set. ∞ ) 5 Exercise Set 2. ( 4. 4 ) does not belong to the solution set. − 3) or (5.PreCalculus 4E 4. (x + 3)(x – 5) > 0 x = –3 or x = 5 T F T –3 5 Test –4: (–4 + 3)(–4 – 5) > 0 9 > 0 True Test 0: (0 + 3)(0 – 5) > 0 –15 > 0 False Test 6: (6 + 3)(6 – 5) > 0 18 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. Section 2. 4 ) 2 −16(2) 2 + 80(2) > 64 96 > 64. Inc. −16(5) 2 + 80(5) > 64 ( 4. false 2 ( −∞.1) (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 353 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (x – 4)(x + 2) > 0 x = 4 or x = –2 T F T –2 4 Test –3: (–3 – 4)(–3 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True Test 0: (0 – 4)(0 + 2) > 0 –8 > 0 False Test 5: (5 – 4)(5 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True (−∞. ∞). true Conclusion ( −∞. − 2) or (4.1) 0 (1.7 −16t 2 + 80t > 64 −16t 2 + 80t − 64 > 0 −16(t − 1)(t − 4) > 0 t − 1 = 0 or t − 4 = 0 t =1 t=4 Test Interval Test Number Test −16(0) + 80(0) > 64 0 > 64. belongs to the solution set. The object will be more than 64 feet above the ground between 1 and 4 seconds. ∞ ) does not belong to the 0 > 64.

3). 7. 2 x2 − 5x + 4 > 0 ( x − 4)( x − 1) > 0 x = 4 or F Test 0: 0 − 4(0) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False Test 2: 22 − 4(2) + 3 < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 4: 42 − 4(4) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (1. ∞) . 2 354 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 x2 + 5x + 4 > 0 ( x + 1)( x + 4) > 0 x = –1 or x = –4 T F –4 T –1 Test –5: (−5) + 5(−5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True Test –3: (−3)2 + 5(−3) + 4 > 0 –2 > 0 False Test 0: 02 + 5(0) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. − 3) or (2. ∞). 4. 5. T T 2 (x + 1)(x – 7) ≤ 0 x = –1 or x = 7 F x2 − 4 x + 3 < 0 ( x − 1)( x − 3) < 0 x = 1 or x = 3 x =1 8. 1) or (4. . 7].Polynomial and Rational Functions 3. T F 1 T 4 Test 0: 0 − 5(0) + 4 > 0 x2 + x − 6 > 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) > 0 x = –3 or x = 2 2 T 4 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 5(2) + 4 > 0 −2 > 0 False 2 Test 5: 5 − 5(5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. F 1 F –1 7 Test –2: (–2 + 1)(–2 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 + 1)(0 – 7) ≤ 0 –7 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 + 1)(8 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–1. (x – 7)(x + 3) ≤ 0 x = 7 or x = –3 F 6. T F –3 7 Test –4: (–4 – 7)(–4 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 – 7)(0 + 3) ≤ 0 –21 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 – 7)(8 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–3. ∞) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. − 4) or (−1. F –3 T 2 Test –4: (−4) − 4 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True Test 0: (0) 2 + 0 − 6 > 0 –6 > 0 False Test 3: 32 + 3 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 7].

∞). x= F 3 T 1 3 Test –1: 9(−1) 2 + 3(−1) − 2 ≥ 0 4 ≥ 0 True Test 0: 9(0)2 + 3(0) − 2 ≥ 0 –2 ≥ 0 False Test 1: 9(1) 2 + 3(1) − 2 ≤ 0 10 ≥ 0 True −2 ⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. ∞ ⎟ .PreCalculus 4E 9. Test 0: 0 − 2(0) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 2(2) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 9 x2 + 3x − 2 ≥ 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) ≥ 0 3 x = 1 3 x = −2 2 x 2 + x − 15 < 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) < 0 2 x − 5 = 0 or x+3=0 2x = 5 5 x= x = −3 or 2 3x 2 + 10 x − 8 ≤ 0 (3 x − 2)( x + 4) ≤ 0 F T –4 T –3 2 x = or x = −4 3 F 2 x 2 + x < 15 F 5 2 Test –4: 2(−4) 2 + (−4) < 15 28 < 15 False Test 0: 2(0) 2 + 0 < 15 0 < 15 True Test 3: 2(3) 2 + 3 < 15 21 < 15 False 5⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −3. ⎥ . Section 2. 2 11. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ T 1 13. ∅. 2⎠ ⎝ F 2 3 Test –5: 3(−5)2 + 10(−5) − 8 ≤ 0 17 ≤ 0 False Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 10(0) − 8 ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 True Test 1: 3(1) + 10(1) − 8 ≤ 0 2 5 ≤ 0 False 2⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10. 3⎦ ⎣ 355 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎟ . . F −2 3 x2 − 2x + 1 > 0 ( x − 1)( x − 1) > 0 x=1 T 1 −2 x= 3 3 T Test 0: 02 − 6(0) + 9 < 0 9 < 0 False 2 Test 4: 4 − 6(4) + 9 < 0 1 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. Inc. ⎥ or ⎢ .7 x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) < 0 x=3 F 12. 1) or (1.

2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ 15. 4⎠ ⎝ x = −2 F 1 3 Test –3: 5(−3) ≤ 2 − 3(−3) 2 –15 ≤ –25 False Test 0: 5(0) ≤ 2 − 3(0) 2 0 ≤ 2 True Test 1: 5(1) ≤ 2 − 3(1) 2 5 ≤ –1 False ⎡ 1⎤ The solution set is ⎢ −2. 4 x2 + 7 x + 3 < 0 (4 x + 3)( x + 1) < 0 4x + 3 = 0 or x +1=0 4 x-3=0 3 or x=− x = −1 4 3x2 + 5x − 2 ≤ 0 (3 x − 1)( x + 2) ≤ 0 3x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 3x − 1=0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 x= F − 34 –1 F Test –6: 3(−6) 2 + 16(−6) < −5 12 < –5 False Test –2: 3(−2) 2 + 16(−2) < −5 –20 < –5 True Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 16(0) < −5 0 < –5 False 1⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −5.Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. Inc. − ⎟ . ∞ ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎥ . 3x 2 + 16 x < −5 1 or 3 F Test –2: 4(−2) 2 + 7(−2) < −3 2 < −3 False T –2 2 7 ⎛ 7⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ Test − : 4 ⎜ − ⎟ + 7 ⎜ − ⎟ < −3 8 ⎝ 8⎠ ⎝ 8⎠ 49 49 − < −3 16 8 49 − < −3 True 16 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 7(0) < −3 0 < −3 False 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −1. . 3x 2 + 16 x + 5 < 0 6 x2 + x − 1 > 0 (3 x + 1)( x + 5) < 0 3x + 1 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 (2 x + 1)(3x − 1) > 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or 3x − 1 = 0 2 x = −1 1 x=− 2 3x = −1 3x = 1 1 x= 3 T F − 12 x=− − 13 5 x ≤ 2 − 3x 2 17. − ⎟ . 6 x2 + x > 1 16. ⎣ 3⎦ 356 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎟ or ⎜ . 3⎠ ⎝ 4 x 2 + 7 x < −3 T T –5 1 3 F x = −5 1 3 F T Test –1: 6(−1) 2 + (−1) > 1 5 > 1 True Test 0: 6(0) 2 + 0 > 1 0 > 1 False Test 1: 6(1)2 + 1 > 1 7 > 1 True 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞.

. ∞ ). 19. 2⎠ ⎝ Test –1: (−1) 2 − 4(−1) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 − 4(1) ≥ 0 −3 ≥ 0 False 0 ≤ 2 True Test 5: 52 − 4(5) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 2 T T 1 2 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(0) 1 ≥ 0 True Test 1: 4(1) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(1) 5 ≥ 4 True The solution set is (−∞. 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) ≥ 0 2x −1 = 0 1 x= 2 x2 + 2x < 0 x( x + 2) < 0 x = 0 or x = –2 F T –2 F 0 Test –3: (−3) + 2(−3) < 0 3 < 0 False Test –1: (−1) 2 + 2(−1) < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 + 2(1) < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (–2. Inc. 0). − ⎟ or (0. Section 2. 0] or [4. 357 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞).PreCalculus 4E 18. 21. x2 − 4 x ≥ 0 x( x − 4) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x . ∞).7 4 x2 + 1 ≥ 4 x 20.4 = 0 x=4 2 x 2 + 3x > 0 x(2 x + 3) > 0 x = 0 or x = − 3 2 T T F 0 T F − 32 4 T 0 Test –2: 2(−2) 2 + 3(−2) > 0 2 > 0 True Test –1: 2(−1)2 + 3(−1) > 0 –1 > 0 False Test 1: 2(1) 2 + 3(1) > 0 5 > 0 True 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

59.41 = F 1 Test –1: −(−1) + (−1) ≥ 0 −2 ≥ 0 False 2 F T F 2 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ Test : − ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 1 ≥ 0 True 4 Test 2: −(2) 2 + 2 ≥ 0 0.59 or x ≈ 3.59 3. ⎣ 3⎦ x2 ≤ 4 x − 2 25. 3x 2 − 5 x ≤ 0 x(3x − 5) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 24. 5 3 − x2 + 2 x ≥ 0 x(− x + 2) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x = 2 F F T F 0 T F 0 2 Test –1: −(−1) + 2(−1) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False Test 1: −(1) 2 + 2(1) ≥ 0 1 ≥ 0 True Test 3: −(3)2 + 2(3) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0. 358 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 5 3 Test –1: 3(−1)2 − 5(−1) ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 False Test 1: 3(1)2 − 5(1) ≤ 0 –2 ≤ 0 True Test 2: 3(2)2 − 5(2) ≤ 0 2 ≤ 0 False ⎡ 5⎤ The solution set is ⎢0. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 3. ⎥ . −2 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0.41 The solution set is ⎡⎣ 2 − 2.41] .Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. 2 + 2 ⎤⎦ or [ 0. 1]. 2]. x2 − 4 x + 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 4 x + 2 = 0 23. −x2 + x ≥ 0 x= x2 − x ≤ 0 x( x − 1) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 1 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) F T 0 4± 8 2 = 2± 2 x ≈ 0.

x(4 − x)( x − 6) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. F T F T –0. The solution set is ⎡⎣1 − 3. x(3 − x)( x − 5) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. and 3 Test one value in each interval. 3. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 1. ∞). 27. ∞). –2. ∅. and 5 Test one value in each interval.73 2 The solution set is [1. F T F x2 ≤ 2x + 2 26. F F 3 The solution set is the empty set. 32. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. 2. F T F x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 Solve x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 ( x − 3)2 = 0 28. –2] ∪ [–1. = F T 6 The solution set is [0. 1 2 T 4 T T 1 2 The solution set is (−∞.1 + 3 ⎤⎦ or [ −0. ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x + 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –1. ∞ ).73 or x ≈ 2. ∞). 3] ∪ [5. F T F 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 0 (2 x − 1)2 = 0 x= –1 31.73. and –3 Test one value in each interval. and 5 Test one value in each interval. 3.73 0 x=3 3 T 5 The solution set is [0. –2 T The solution set is [–3.7 29. 4] ∪ [6. 2] ∪ [3.73] . ∞). . 359 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 30. x − 2x − 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) 1 2 ± 12 2 = 1± 3 x ≈ −0.73 F –3 2.

∞ ). −3]. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 ) 40. ∞). and 2 Test one value in each interval. F T 1 The solution set is (1. T F T 13 2 5 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 7 < 0 x 2 ( x + 7) − ( x + 7) < 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. F F T –2 1 The solution set is (–∞ . and ( x − 3)( x 2 − 9) ≥ 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –3 and 3 Test one value in each interval. ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x + 2)( x − 2) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. 360 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 The solution set is [ −2. 13 . T T F 7 2 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) ≥ 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. x 3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) ≥ 0 ( F x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 9 > 0 x 2 ( x − 1) + 9 ( x − 1) ≥ 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 9) ≥ 0 Boundary point: 1. (2 − x)2 x − 72 < 0 37. T T F ( x + 7)( x 2 − 1) < 0 ( x + 7)( x + 1)( x − 1) < 0 Boundary points: –7. ( ) 34. . 72 . –1] ∪ [1. –1 The solution set is (−1. 2 –7 –1 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. and 2 Test one value in each interval. −2] ∪ [2. ∞).5 ) ∪ 5. 35. Inc. 1). Test one value in each interval. –7) ∪ (–1. –3 3 The solution set is (−∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions ( ) 33. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 36. F T T 2 The solution set is [–2. (5 − x)2 x − 13 <0 2 Boundary points: 5. 2 ) ∪ 2. T F F Test one value in each interval. F T F –2 –1 39. 13 2 Test one value in each interval. –1 and 1 Test one value in each interval. 7 2 Boundary points: 2. and 38. ∞). x3 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 > 0 x 2 ( x + 1) + 4( x + 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 + 4) ≥ 0 Boundary point: –1 Test one value in each interval. –1.

∞). T T x = 2 or x = − x+5 >0 x−2 x = –5 or x = 2 T F The solution set is (−∞. 9 The solution set is [ 0. 4]. –3). 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2 The solution set is (−∞. 45. ∞). Inc. . 361 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –2). –2 4 − 2x ≤0 3x + 4 4 3 T F − 43 F –5 T x+3 <0 x+4 x = −3 or F x = −4 T T 2 −4 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. ∞). The solution set is ( −∞. 0 4 The solution set is (–∞. 42. F –5 –2 The solution set is (–5. − 5) ∪ (2. x−4 >0 x+3 x−4 = 0 x+3 = 0 x = −3 T F −x − 3 ≤0 x+2 x = –3 or x = –2 T F 4 49. x − 4x ≤ 0 x 2 ( x − 4) ≤ 0 2 Boundary points: 0 and 4. T T F 48. ∞ ).PreCalculus 4E 41. ⎟ ∪ [2. Test one value in each interval. 3 x+5 <0 x+2 x = –5 or x = –2 F T F –4 –3 The solution set is (–4. 47. T –3 x=4 –3 −x + 2 ≥0 x−4 x = 2 or x = 4 F 2 4 The solution set is [2. − 3) ∪ (4. 4). 0] ∪ [9. − 3] ∪ (−2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 44. Section 2.7 x3 − 9 x 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 9) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 0 and 9 Test one value in each interval. 43. ∞). F F T 0 46.

⎡ 5 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ − . F . x >0 x−3 x = 0 or x = 3 T F 0 T 3 The solution set is (−∞. 3 ⎟ . 0 The solution set is ( −∞. T − F –3 3 5 3 55. T F T T –3 The solution set is (−∞.1] x = 2 or x = 1 F T 1 2 The solution set is (1. ⎣ 3 ⎠ 51. Inc. 362 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 5) ∪ (−3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3x + 5 ≥0 6 − 2x 5 x = − or x = 3 3 F 54. x+4 >0 x x = –4 or x = 0 T –1 F –5 T –4 2 x +1 <2 x+3 x +1 −2<0 x+3 x + 1 − 2( x + 3) <0 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 <0 x+3 −x − 5 <0 x+3 x = or x = –3 T F F Values of x = −3 or x = 2 result in f ( x) = 0 and. The solution set is (−∞. 53. 52.Polynomial and Rational Functions 50. The solution set is ( −∞. ∞) . ( x + 4)( x − 1) ≤0 x+2 x = −4 or x = −2 or x = 1 . ( x + 3)( x − 2) ≤0 x +1 x = −3 or x = −1 or x = 2 . 0) ∪ (3. ∞). therefore must be included in the solution set. − 3] ∪ (−1. − 4) ∪ (0. 2). −4] ∪ ( −2. T F –4 T –2 x −2>0 x −1 x 2( x − 1) − >0 x −1 x −1 x − 2x + 2 >0 x −1 −x + 2 >0 x −1 F 1 Values of x = −4 or x = 1 result in f ( x) = 0 and. 2]. x >2 x −1 56. ∞). therefore must be included in the solution set.

⎥ ∪ [ 2. x = −6 or 1 2 F T T -2 The solution set is (−∞. –2). ∞ ) . x−2 ≤2 x+2 x−2 −2≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2 ( x + 2) ≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2x − 4 ≤0 x+2 −x − 6 ≤0 x+2 T T F –4 –2 The solution set is [–4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3) ∪ (4. Inc. f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 2 x2 − 5x + 2 ≥ 0 Solve 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 2 T F 1 2 T 2 1⎤ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. x ≥2 x+2 60. Section 2.7 x+4 ≤3 2x − 1 x+4 −3≤ 0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 3 ( 2 x − 1) ≤0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 6x + 3 ≤0 2x − 1 −5 x + 7 ≤0 2x − 1 x= 7 or 5 x= T 59. ∞). .PreCalculus 4E 57. 2⎦ ⎝ 363 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x −2≥0 x+2 x 2( x + 2) − ≥0 x+2 x+2 x − 2x − 4 ≥0 x+2 −x − 4 ≥0 x+2 1 −1 < 0 x −3 1 x−3 − <0 x−3 x−3 1− x + 3 <0 x −3 −x + 4 <0 x−3 x = –4 or x = –2 x = 4 or x = 3 F F 3 F -6 7 5 1 <1 x−3 T x = −2 T 1 2 58. 4 The solution set is (−∞. ∞). 61. − 6] ∪ (−2.

f ( x) = 2x −1 x +1 The domain of this function requires that T F 2x x −1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 x +1 x +1 x = −1 or x = 1 T -1 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. ⎛1 ⎤ The domain is ⎜ . it must be included in the domain. thus. f ( x) = x −1 2x − 1 x −x + 1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 2x − 1 2x − 1 1 x= or x = 1 2 The domain of this function requires that F T 1 2 F 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. ⎟ ∪ ( 2. 1⎥ . ∞ ) . 64. . The domain is ( −∞. 4⎠ ⎝ 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 62. ∞ ) . − 1) ∪ [1. ⎝2 ⎦ 364 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. thus. 1 f ( x) = 4x − 9x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 > 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(4 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 4 2 T F 1 4 T 2 1⎞ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. Inc. it must be included in the domain.

365 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −8 ) ∪ ( −6. The solution set is ( −∞. 6 ) does not belong 1 > 12. True solution set. Section 2. . x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 or x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 ( x + 6 )( x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 8 )( x − 6 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. True 5 52 + 2 ( 5) − 36 > 12 ( 6. 4 ) belongs to the 02 + 2 ( 0 ) − 36 > 12 ( 4. False to the solution set. 4 and 6 . ( 4. 66. −8 ) −9 ( −9 ) 2 x=6 Test Conclusion + 2 ( −9 ) − 36 > 12 ( −∞. ∞ ) belongs to the 2 27 > 12.PreCalculus 4E 65. ( 6. 4 ) 0 36 > 12. ( −6. x2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 6 x + 1 < −8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 x2 + 6 x + 9 < 0 x2 + 6 x − 7 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. Inc. −6 ) does not belong to the solution set. −3. and 1 . −6 ) −7 ( −7 ) 2 + 2 ( −7 ) − 36 > 12 1 > 12. −8) belongs to the 27 > 12. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. solution set. ∞ ) 7 7 + 2 ( 7 ) − 36 > 12 ( −8. 6 ) solution set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. False ( −6. ∞ ) or { x x < −8 or − 6 < x < 4 or x > 6} . 4 ) ∪ ( 6. − 6. True ( −8. x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 or x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 ( x + 3) 2 =0 ( x + 7 )( x − 1) = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x + 3 = ± 0 or x + 7 = 0 3 0 7 x+ = x=− x =1 x = −3 The boundary points are −7. x + 6 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 or x + 8 = 0 or x−6 = 0 x = −6 x=4 x = −8 The boundary points are −8.7 x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 2 x − 36 < −12 or x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 x 2 + 2 x − 24 < 0 x 2 + 2 x − 48 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations.

1 −3 > . ∞ ) (1. −7 ) ∪ (1. False 2 3 3 ( −3. ∞ ) belongs to the 22 + 6 ( 2 ) + 1 > 8 2 to the solution set. x+3 = 0 x−2=0 x = −3 x=2 The boundary points are −3 and 2. 2 ) belongs to the > 0+3 0−2 solution set. False 2 The solution set is ( −3. −7 ) −8 ( −8 ) 2 Test Conclusion + 6 ( −8 ) + 1 > 8 ( −∞. 2 ) 0 ( 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. 1 ≥ 8. 3 1 > − . −7 ) belongs to the 17 ≥ 8. −3) does not belong > −4 + 3 −4 − 2 to the solution set. −3) ( −3. 3 3 > x+3 x−2 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. ∞ ) 3 Test Conclusion 3 3 ( −∞.1) to the solution set. 2 ) or { x −3 < x < 2} . ∞ ) or { x x < −7 or x > 1} .1) does not belong 02 + 6 ( 0 ) + 1 > 8 0 solution set. 67. False ( −3. 17 ≥ 8. −3) −5 ( −5 ) 2 ( −7. solution set. . Inc. −3) does not belong + 6 ( −5 ) + 1 > 8 4 ≥ 8. True 2 3 3 ( 2. ∞ ) does not belong > 3+3 3− 2 to the solution set. 1 > 3. False (1. 366 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. True ( −7. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. ( −3. True The solution set is ( −∞. 3 3 − >0 x+3 x−2 3( x − 2) 3 ( x + 3) − >0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 3x − 6 − 3x − 9 <0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) −15 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) <0 Find the values of x that make the denominator zero.

Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. False 3 The solution set is ( −∞. Inc.1) 0 (1. False 3 1 2 ( −3.7 1 2 > x + 1 x −1 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. 1 > −2. and 1. 1 2 − >0 x + 1 x −1 2 ( x + 1) x −1 − >0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) x −1 − 2x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) <0 −x − 3 <0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . −3) ∪ ( −1. −1 .1) or { x x < −3 or − 1 < x < 1} . −1) does not belong > −2 + 1 −2 − 1 to the solution set. −x − 3 = 0 x +1 = 0 x −1 = 0 −3 = x x = −1 x =1 The boundary points are −3 . −1) −2 ( −1. True 3 2 1 2 ( −3. 1 1 − > − . 1 > 1. 367 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1) belongs to the > 0 + 1 0 −1 solution set. Section 2. ∞ ) does not belong > 2 + 1 2 −1 to the solution set. 2 −1 > − . −3) belongs to the > −4 + 1 −3 − 1 solution set. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 1 2 ( −∞. −3) ( −3.PreCalculus 4E 68. True 1 2 (1.

1) Conclusion ( −∞. 2 ) belongs to the solution set. x2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle.52 − 4 (1. True 3 The solution set is ( −∞.52 − 1.5 4 ( −1. 7 > 0. 10 > 0. 4 > 0. True 15 0 02 − 0 − 2 >0 0 − 4 (0) + 3 2 (1. 368 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. True 3 2. −1) ∪ (1. x2 − x − 2 >0 x2 − 4 x + 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1) does not belong (1. x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 x=3 x =1 The boundary points are −1 . False 3 1.5 2.5 ) + 3 − ( 3.3) does not belong to the solution set. Test Interval Test Number Test 2 −2 ( −∞. ( 2. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . 2 − > 0. 1.3) 1.5 − 2 >0 2. False 3 42 − 4 − 2 >0 4 − 4 ( 4) + 3 2 ( 3. 2 ) ( 2.5 − 2 >0 1. 2 and 3. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. −1) ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) − 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 4 ( −2 ) + 3 ( −1. . −1) belongs to the solution set. ∞ ) to the solution set. Inc.52 − 4 ( 2.5 ) + 3 5 > 0. 2 ) ∪ ( 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69.52 − 2.

2 and 3. 6 > 0. 1. True 15 2.5 ) − 3 ( 2. x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x=2 x =1 x=3 The boundary points are −1 .52 − 2 (1. 2 ) ∪ ( 3. ( 3. −1) ∪ (1. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . False 7 >0 solution set.3) − ( 3.52 − 3 ( 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 12 > 0.5 ) + 2 >0 1.52 − 2 ( 2. −1) Test Number −2 x − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 2 ( −1. Section 2.52 − 3 (1. 1. True 5 02 − 3 ( 0 ) + 2 0 − 2 ( 0) − 3 2 >0 ( −1. Test Interval ( −∞.3) does not belong − (1.1) 0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 Test Conclusion ( −∞.7 x2 − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. 369 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 1 > 0. False 3 1.1) does not belong to the solution set.PreCalculus 4E 70. Inc.5) + 2 >0 2. 2 ) belongs to the 2. −1) belongs to the ( −2 ) − 3 ( −2 ) + 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 2 ( −2 ) − 3 2 solution set.5 2 > 0. 2 ) ( 2. .5 ) − 3 (1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. True 5 The solution set is ( −∞. x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 x2 − 2x − 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. to the solution set. ∞ ) 4 42 − 3 ( 4 ) + 2 4 − 2 ( 4) − 3 2 3 > 0.

Inc. These intervals are The graph of f ( x ) = indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. + = = = = 4 ( x + 2 ) 4 ( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x 2 − 4 x +1 crosses the x-axis at −1 . We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≥ 0 . Thus. Thus.Polynomial and Rational Functions 71. and 1. the solution set is { x x < −2 or − 1 ≤ x < 2} or ( −∞. Now. ∞ ) . −2 ) ∪ [ −1. These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. the solution set is ⎨ x − 6 ≤ x ≤ − or x ≥ 1⎬ or ⎢ −6. and 1.1⎟ . 2 2⎦ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ 72. and has vertical asymptotes at x = −2 and x = 2 . 2 x 3 + 11x 2 ≥ 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 ≥ 0 1 The graph of f ( x ) = 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 appears to cross the x-axis at −6 . − . − . the boundaries are −6 . Now. . we verified that the boundaries are −6 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. the solution set is ⎨ x x < −6 or − < x < 1⎬ or 2 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( −∞. the curve is above the x-axis when −6 < x < − 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ and when x > 1 . Now. − ⎥ ∪ [1. the curve is below the x-axis when x < −6 and when − 1 ⎧ 1 ⎫ < x < 1 . − . 1 3 ≤− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + ≤0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) Simplify the left side of the inequality: 3( x + 2) 4 ( x + 1) x−2 x − 2 + 3x + 6 4x + 4 x +1 . These intervals are 2 1 indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. −6 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞ . We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≤ 0 . and 1. the curve is below the x-axis when x < −2 and when −1 < x < 2 . ⎝ 2 ⎠ 73. Thus. and 1. 2 ) . x2 − 4 the boundaries are −2 . We need to find the intervals on which 2 f ( x ) < 0 . −1 . 370 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. We verify this 2 numerically by substituting these values into the function: f ( −6 ) = 2 ( −6 ) + 11( −6 ) − 7 ( −6 ) − 6 = 2 ( −216 ) + 11( 36 ) − ( −42 ) − 6 = −432 + 396 + 42 − 6 = 0 3 2 3 2 1 11 7 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ − ⎟ − 7 ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = − + + − 6 = 0 2 2 2 2 8 4 2 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ f (1) = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 (1) − 6 = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 − 6 = 2 + 11 − 7 − 6 = 0 3 2 1 Thus. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 < 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 < 0 1 In Problem 63.

The function values and the data are identical. 75. Testing each interval shows that the ball will be higher than the rooftop for the first three seconds after the throw. the solution set is { x −2 < x < −1 or x > 2} or ( −2. Testing each interval shows that the diver will be higher than the cliff for the first half 2 ⎛ 1⎞ second after beginning the jump. −1) ∪ ( 2.6 a. Inc. The curve is above the x-axis when −2 < x < −1 and when x > 2 . s (t ) = −16t 2 + 48t + 160 The ball’s height will exceed that of the rooftop when s (t ) > 160 −16t 2 + 48t + 160 > 160 −16t 2 + 48t > 0 −16t (t − 3) > 0 The boundaries are 0 and 3. −1 .6 g ( x) = 0. The interval is ( 0.4(35) + 66. Section 2.0875 x 2 − 0.4 x + 66. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) > 0 . ⎝ 2⎠ The boundaries are 0 and 76. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 8t + 87 The diver’s height will exceed that of the cliff when s (t ) > 87 −16t 2 + 8t + 87 > 87 −16t 2 + 8t > 0 −8t (2t − 1) > 0 1 . ⎟ .7 1 3 >− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + >0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) x +1 >0 ( x + 2)( x − 2) The boundaries are −2 . .9 x + 11.PreCalculus 4E 74. These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. Thus.0875(35) 2 + 1. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well. 77. f (35) = 0. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall.0875 x 2 + 1. and 2. 371 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3) .6 ≈ 160 feet g (35) = 0. The interval is ⎜ 0. f ( x) = 0.6 ≈ 185 feet b.0875(35)2 − 0.9(35) + 11.

4 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0.0875 x 2 − 0.6 > 540 901.0875(55)2 + 1.0875 x 2 + 1. ∞ ) 100 0.4) 2(0.4 x + 66.0875 x 2 + 1.9(55) + 11. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c.9 x + 11. False ( 76.9 x + 528.6 ≈ 309 feet g (55) = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we must test the following intervals.6 > 540 0.0875(50)2 − 0.4 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(1.4(100) + 66.Polynomial and Rational Functions d. 0.0875(100)2 − 0. ( 76.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.4)2 − 4(0. 0.0875)(528.4 x + 66.9) ± (1.0875 x 2 + 1.6 > 540 265. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 76 miles per hour.0875 x 2 − 0.4) 2(0. .4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. x= Interval Test Value 50 ( 30.4 x + 473. This is represented on graph (b) to the right of point (76. f (55) = 0. f ( x) = 0.9 x + 11. True ( 30.9)2 − 4(0.4(55) + 66.0875 x 2 − 0. 540).0875)(473.6 > 540.0875(55)2 − 0. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well. 76 ) does not belong to the solution set.4) ± (−0. On dry pavement. Inc.6 ≈ 381 feet b.0875) x ≈ −71 or 76 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30. 0.4(50) + 66. 0.0875 x 2 + 1.0875 x 2 − 0. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.6 a.9 x + 528.6 g ( x) = 0.0875) x ≈ −89 or 68 372 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d.6 > 540 0.35 > 540. 78.4 x + 473. 76 ) Test Conclusion 0.

True to the solution set.68) Test Conclusion ( 30.0875(50) + 1. True solution set. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞.6 > 540. Thus. 68) does not belong 2 0. False ( 68. then the width is 19 feet. 6 ) belongs to the 25 ( 0 ) − 0 ≤ 114 2 0 ≤ 114.6 > 540 1076. ( 6. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 68 miles per hour. the length of the shorter side must be 6 feet or less. then the width is greater than 19 feet. if the area of the rectangle is not to exceed 114 square feet. A = ( length )( width ) .6 > 540 325. 6 ) 0 Test Conclusion ( −∞. On wet pavement. we must test the following intervals.7 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 79. ∞ ) 100 0. we know 50 = 2 x + 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 Now. ∞ ) 20 solution set. 373 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. True ( 6. ∞ ) belongs to the 25 ( 20 ) − 20 ≤ 114 2 100 ≤ 114.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. If the length is less than 6 feet. Since Perimeter = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) .19 ) 10 (19.19 ) does not belong 25 (10 ) − 10 ≤ 114 2 150 ≤ 114. 540).9(50) + 11. ( 68. If the length is 6 feet. .35 > 540. Interval Test Value 50 ( 30. (19. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. False to the solution set.9(100) + 11.0875(100)2 + 1. so we have that width = A ( x ) ≤ 114 x ( 25 − x ) ≤ 114 25 x − x 2 ≤ 114 Solve the related equation 25 x − x 2 = 114 0 = x 2 − 25 x + 114 0 = ( x − 19 )( x − 6 ) Apply the zero product principle: x − 19 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = 19 x=6 The boundary points are 6 and 19. Let x = the length of the rectangle. This is represented on graph (a) to the right of point (68.

we ignore the larger solution. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Test Test Test Conclusion Interval Number ( 0. -5) ∪ (2. A ≤ 800 l ⋅ w ≤ 800 ( 90 − w ) w ≤ 800 90w − w2 ≤ 800 − w2 + 90w − 800 ≤ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 ≥ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 = 0 ( w − 80 )( w − 10 ) = 0 w − 80 = 0 or w − 10 = 0 w = 80 w = 10 Assuming the width is the shorter side. The length of the shorter side cannot exceed 10 feet. Inc. That is.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. 86. The solution set is (−∞. ⎥ . Answers may vary.10] .10 ) (10.10 ) is part of the solution set (10. . 2l + 2w = P 2l + 2w = 180 2l = 180 − 2w l = 90 − w We want to restrict the area to 800 square feet. ∞). 45) 5 90 ( 5 ) − ( 5 ) ≤ 800 true 20 90 ( 20 ) − ( 20 ) ≤ 800 false 2 2 ( 0. – 85. 2⎭ 2⎦ ⎣ 374 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 87. 81. 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x − 3 ≤ x ≤ ⎩ 1⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ ⎬ or ⎢ −3. 45 ) is not part of the solution set The solution set is {w | 0 < w ≤ 10} or ( 0. The graph is below or equal to the x-axis for −3 ≤ x ≤ . Graph y1 = 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 in a standard window.

The solution set is (–2. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞).3) ∪ [8. 90.1125) x ≈ −59 or 60 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0. Graph y1 = 1 < x ≤ 4. The graph is below the x-axis for x −1 The solution set is (1. . x+2 and y2 = 2 x−3 y1 less than or equal to y2 for x < 3 or x ≥ 8 .PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 91.1 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.1) ± (−0.1x + 399.1)2 − 4(0.1125 x 2 − 0.9 b. −1) ∪ [ 2.1125 x 2 − 0.1125 x 2 − 0. f ( x) = 0. ∞ ) 92. 89.1x + 399. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −∞.1x + 55. 4].7 88.1 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. 0.9 > 455 0. we must test the following intervals. Inc.1125)(399.1) 2(0.1x + 55. x−4 in a standard viewing window. 0. x= 375 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –1) or (2. ∞ ) 1 2 and y2 = x +1 x+4 y1 less than or equal to y2 for −4 < x < −1 or x ≥ 2 . a.1125 x 2 − 0.

8 > 446. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 95.2 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. ∞ ) . does not make sense. Explanations will vary.8 > 446 1482. −5) ∪ ( 5. ( 60. 98. true 376 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 x + 37. Thus.15 > 455.55 > 446.1375 x 2 + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. Sample explanation: To solve this inequality you must first subtract 2 from both sides.1125(100) − 0.1375 x 2 + 0. 101. f ( x) = 0.1375 x 2 + 0.2 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(0.8 > 446 0. 93.1(50) + 55. does not make sense. makes sense 97. 99. A sample change is: The inequalities have different solution sets.7 x + 408. 60 ) does not belong to the solution set. 100. True ( 0.7(100) + 37. is included in the domain of the first inequality.1375)(408. A sample change is: The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} or ( −∞. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 60 ) Test Conclusion 2 0. ( 52. false.1375) x ≈ −57 or 52 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0. 0. stopping distances will exceed 446 feet for speeds exceeding 52 miles per hour.8 > 446 58. . ∞ ) 100 2 0. Sample explanation: Polynomials are defined for all values. The value. a. false. 1. ∞ ) 100 0. On wet pavement.7 x + 37.Polynomial and Rational Functions Interval Test Value 50 ( 0.1375(10) + 0. 94. we would not know whether or not to reverse the order of the inequality. On dry pavement. Changes to make the statement true will vary.9 > 455 1170.7)2 − 4(0.9 > 455 332. Explanations will vary.9 > 455.1375 x 2 + 0. False ( 52. 96.1125(50) − 0.8 b. Interval Test Value 10 ( 0. but not included in the domain of the second inequality. We do not know if x + 3 is positive or negative.7 x + 408. stopping distances will exceed 455 feet for speeds exceeding 60 miles per hour. false. Inc. False ( 60.7) ± (0.52 ) does not belong to the solution set. A sample change is: The inequality cannot be solved by multiplying both sides by x + 3.2) 2(0.7(10) + 37.1375(100)2 + 0. 0. we must test the following intervals. True ( 0.52 ) Test Conclusion 2 0.1(100) + 55.

x= 110. y = kx 2 64 = k ⋅ 22 64 = 4k 16 = k b. b. Because any number squared is positive. ∅. 108. 3]. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 y = 16 ⋅ 52 y = 400 377 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . c. the solution is the empty set. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 4 x2 − 8x + 7 < 0 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 = 7 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. the solution includes only 2. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and the reciprocal of zero is undefined. 105. 3 2 Test 0: 27 − 3(0) 2 ≥ 0 27 ≥ 0 True Test 4: 27 − 3(4)2 ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 8 ± (−8) 2 − 4(4)(7) x= 2(4) −21 ≥ 0 no graph -imaginary The solution set is [–3. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. Test –4: −21 ≥ 0 no graph. the solution is all real numbers except 2. a.7 102. T –3 106. 4 x2 − 8x + 7 > 0 27 − 3(−4) ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 107. Because any non-zero number squared is positive. the solution is all real numbers except 2. ∅. c. 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 x−3 103. 8 ± 64 − 112 8 8 ± −48 ⇒ imaginary x= 8 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 > 0 7 > 0 True The inequality is true for all numbers.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.imaginary The solution set is all real numbers. The solution set is the empty set. a. Inc. One possible solution: ≥0 x+4 9 − x2 ≥ 0 (3 − x)(3 + x) ≥ 0 3− x = 0 3+ x = 0 x = 3 or x = −3 104. One possible solution: x 2 − 2 x − 15 ≤ 0 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 109.

6(25)3 = 9375 The 25-foot long shark was 9375 pounds. varies inversely as the frequency. 378 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use the given values to find k . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The volume of water. 000 12.6l 3 = 0. 000 ⋅ 40 =k 60. b. Section 2. varies directly as the time. y varies directly as the cube of x is expressed as y = kx3 . f Use the given values to find k . Inc. x The length. . 000 8=k 3. k L= f 5120 L= f Use the equation to find f when L = 10 . w = 0. L . a. y varies directly as x is expressed as y = kx.6 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. = 6(11) = 66 A shower lasting 11 minutes will use 66 gallons of water. Use the given values to find k . W = kt 30 = k (5) 6=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. t can be expressed as W = kt . varies directly as the cube of the length.6l 3 Use the equation to find w when l = 25. W = 6t f = 512 A 10 inch violin string will have a frequency of 512 cycles per second.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. W = kt k .8 Check Point Exercises 1. w = 0. k L= f k 8= 640 5120 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. 000 = 40 12. W . f k can be expressed as L = . The weight. l can be expressed as w = kl 2 . w . P k ⋅ 60. k x k 12 = 8 96 = k y= 111. kA S= 112. w = kl 3 96 x 96 y= 3 y = 32 y= c. y varies inversely as x is expressed as y = 5120 f 5120 10 = f 10 f = 5120 L= W = 6t Use the equation to find W when t = 11 . w = kl 3 k x 96 y= x y= 2025 = k (15)3 0.

x 60 When x = 2. y = 13 x = 13 ⋅12 = 156. 2 8Q P 8(24) M = 8 M = 24 It will take 24 minutes for 8 people to solve 24 problems. k . kQ M = P 8Q M = P Use the equation to find M when P = 8 and Q = 24 . we have y = 1 2 hr . k y= x k 12 = 5 k 5 ⋅12 = 5 ⋅ 5 60 = k 60 The equation becomes y = . V varies jointly with h and r 2 and can be modeled as V = khr 2 .8 1.PreCalculus 4E 4. Use the given values to find k. y = kx 65 = k ⋅ 5 65 k ⋅ 5 = 5 5 13 = k The equation becomes y = 13 x. Section 2. Use the given values to find k. V = khr 2 4.8 let M represent the number of minutes let Q represent the number of problems let P represent the number of people M varies directly as Q and inversely as P is expressed kQ . M = 5. y = = 30. 2. as M = P Use the given values to find k . Publishing as Prentice Hall. When x = 12. kQ M = P k (16) 32 = 4 8=k Exercise Set 2. 120π = k (10)(6)2 π 3 =k Therefore. Use the given values to find k. the volume equation is V = V= π 3 Since y varies inversely with x. Inc. y = 9 x = 9 ⋅13 = 117 3. x . y = kx 45 = k ⋅ 5 9=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. 3 (2)(12) 2 = 96π cubic feet k x k 6= 3 18 = k y= y= 18 =2 9 379 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

y = ( 8 )(12 ) = 240. 10 x 10 ( 3) 10 ( 3) 30 5 y= 2 = 2 = = = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 5 When x = 8 and z = 12. 3 c 9 y= kmn 2 p k (2)(1) 2 6 2k 15 = 6 2k 15(6) = (6) 6 90 = 2k 15 = 25 = k ( 2 )( 5 ) 25 = k (10 ) 25 k (10 ) = 10 10 5 =k 2 k = 45 5 xz. b = 3. The equation becomes y = c When a = 5. we have y = c Use the given values to find k. 2 The equation becomes y = y= 45mn 2 45(3)(4) 2 2160 = = = 216 10 10 p 380 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = kxz 1 14400 = 300 ( 2400 )( 6 ) = 48 48 Since y varies jointly as a and b and inversely as kab . z 6 36 36 6 6. kab y= c k (3)(2) 12 = 25 k (6) 12 = 5 k (6) 12(5) = (5) 5 60 = 6k 60 6k = 6 6 10 = k 10ab . 175 = k ( 2100 )( 4 ) 175 = k ( 8400 ) 1 =k 48 C= 9. we have y = 2 . z2 When x = 3 and z = 6. we have y = kxz. a= 7= 7= kb c2 k (9) ( 6) k (9) 2 36 k 7= 4 28 = k a= 7. Inc. kx y= 2 z k ( 50 ) 20 = 52 k ( 50 ) 20 = 25 20 = 2k 8. z Use the given values to find k. c = 9. . 10 = k The equation becomes y = 10 x . Since y varies jointly as x and z. Use the given values to find k.Polynomial and Rational Functions 5. the square root of c. 10ab 10(5)(3) 150 y= = = = 50 . 28 ( 4 ) ( 8) 2 = 28 ( 4 ) 64 = C = kAT 7 4 10. Since y varies inversely as x and inversely as the kx square of z.

. kz yz x y= kz x= kyz . Solving for y: x = kz ( y + w) x= xy = y ⋅ x= x = kzy + kzw kz 3 y x − kzw = kzy x − kzw kzy = kz kz x − kzw y= kz xy = kz 3 xy kz 3 = x x kz 3 y= x 14. x = kz ( y − w) x = kzy − kzw k3 z x= y x + kzw = kzy x + kzw kzy = kz kz x + kzw y= kz k3 z yx = y ⋅ y yx = k 3 z yx k 3 z = x x y= k3 z x 381 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = kz ( y + w) .8 x = kyz . x kyz = . x = kyz 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Solving for y: x = kyz 15. Inc. Solving for y : y= x = kyz 2 x kyz 2 = 2 2 kz kz x y= 2 kz 13. x w kz 18. w Solving for y: kyz x= w x ( w ) = ( w ) kyzw x w = kyz x w kyz = kz kz 12. kz 3 . Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 11. kyz w2 ⎛ w2 ⎞ w2 kyz ⎜ ⎟x = kz w2 ⎝ kz ⎠ xw2 y= kz 17. y Solving for y kz 3 x= y 16.

When B = 56 . x= 23. When B = 6 . 3 w = 0. When h = 107.75 f = 0. Since a man’s weight varies directly as the cube of his height. yx + xw = kz yx = kz − xw yx kz − xw = x x kz − xw y= x 15 = 0.4 k (12 ) = 12 12 8. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 .7 12 The equation becomes B = 0. 1 (186 ) = 31 6 A person who weighs 186 pounds on Earth will weigh 31 pounds on the moon.6 k (4) = 4 4 0. 043) ≈ 607. 000 ) k ( 343. Inc.75 0.7 It was dropped from 80 inches. Use the given values to find k.000496 (1. The tail length is 5.4 feet. x= 56 0.4 = k (12 ) 8. Since B varies directly as D. T = kB 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 19.75 f 15 0. w = kh3 3. 382 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 21.9 B .7 56 D= = 80 0. Since T varies directly as B.9(6) = 5. B = kD kz . kz y+w ( y + w) x = ( y + w) kz y+w 24. we have T = kB .9 = k The equation becomes T = 0. 56 = 0. 225.75 f = 0. Use the given values to find k.000496 = k The equation becomes w = 0.6 = k (4) 25.000496 (107 ) M = kE 60 = k ( 360 ) 60 k ( 360 ) = 360 360 1 =k 6 M = d = kf 9 = k (12) 9 k (12) = 12 12 0. 22. 000 0.7 D.4 k= = 0. 000 ) 170 = 343. y−w Solving for y: kz x= y−w ( y − w) x = ( y − w) 8.75 20 = f A force of 20 pounds is needed.7 D = 0. 170 = k ( 70 ) 3 170 = k ( 343.75 = k d = 0.000496h 3 .7 D kz y−w xy − wx = kz xy = kz + wx xy kz + wx = x x xw + kz y= x 20. Use the given values to find k. 000 343. we have w = kh 3 . T = 0. Robert Wadlow’s weight was approximately 607 pounds. we have B = kD.7 0.

we have B = .5d 2 1250 = 0. we have pressure.4 = (1000) k 1000 4400 = k 4400 4400 = = 0.5 = k 562. d k 62. i= k d k 1000 (1000)4. 50 = k ⋅ 10 0. Inc. B = = = 32 . b.75 = 2 40 k 3.5 = 2 3 k 62. r 3.5d 2 d 2 = 625 d = 625 d = 25 A water pipe with a 25 centimeter diameter can serve 1250 houses.5 feet.4 = 30. t= 383 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5(30) 2 h = 450 A water pipe with a 30 centimeter diameter can serve 450 houses. Publishing as Prentice Hall.25 The intensity is 90 milliroentgens per hour.5 = 9 ⎛k ⎞ 9 ( 62. Since the banking angle varies inversely as k the turning radius. 2 h = 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.88 d 5000 The water temperature is 0. t= 4.52 6.5 .5 = k 29.5 ) = 9 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ 562.5 . r Use the given values to find k.5d 2 h = 0. . h = 0.5 When d = 2. k I= 2. 28.88 Celsius at a depth of 5000 meters.5 The banking angle is 32 when the turning radius is 3. d Use the given values to find k. I = = = 90 2. Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance.5 562.75 = 1600 i= (1600)3. The equation becomes B = r 112 112 When r = 3.4 foot-candles at a distance of 50 feet.8 h = kd 2 26. k B= r k 28 = 4 ⎛k⎞ 28 ( 4 ) = 28 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4⎠ 112 = k 112 . h = 0. we have k I= .75 = (1600) k 1600 6000 = k 6000 6000 6000 = = = 2. 27.5 . k d2 k 3.4 d2 502 2500 The illumination is 2. The equation becomes I = d2 562.5d 2 a.

5(4)(36) = 72 A mass of 4 grams and velocity of 6 centimeters per second has a kinetic energy of 72 ergs. h Use the given values to find k. Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the sound source.15 = 3600 k (180) (3600)35. 3 The heat loss is 1800 Btu . h When w = 170 and h = 70. 34. 4 k a k 1 k t= = ⋅ 3a 3 a t= A year will seem to be 1 of a year. If you move to a seat twice as d far. k= 32. km c k (25) 125 = 20 k (25) 20(125) = (20) 20 2500 = 25k 2500 25k = 25 25 100 = k i= 35. Since heat loss varies jointly as the area and temperature difference. The intensity will I= = = ⋅ (2d ) 2 4d 2 4 d 2 100m c 100(40) 80 = c 4000 80 = c 4000 80c = c ⋅ c 80c = 4000 80c 4000 = 80 80 c = 50 The chronological age is 50.4. L = 10 ( 9 ⋅ 6 ) (10) = 1800 . Inc. Since index varies directly as weight and inversely as the square of one’s height. i= be multiplied by a factor of intensity is 36. e = kmv 2 36 = k (8)(3) 2 36 = k (8)(9) 36 = 72k 36 72k = 72 72 k = 0. So we have k k 1 k .15 = 3600 126540 = k (180) 1200 = k (3 ⋅ 6)(20) 1200 = 360k 1200 360k = 360 360 10 k= 3 The equation becomes L = 10 AD 3 When A = 6 ⋅ 9 = 54 . (70)2 This person has a BMI of 24. we k have I = 2 . 1 .5(4)(6) 2 = 0. kw I= 2 h k (180 ) 35.5mv 2 = 0. we have L = kAD . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . L = kAD 31. then d = 2d .4 and is not overweight.Polynomial and Rational Functions 33. Use the given values to find k. D = 10 .5 e = 0. So the sound 4 1 of what it was originally. 126540 = 703 180 703w The equation becomes I = 2 .15 = 602 k (180) 35. 703(170) I= ≈ 24. we kw have I = 2 . 3 384 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

a. d2 0. makes sense 53. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Explanations will vary.02 ≈ k The equation becomes C = c. 000 = 326. 2 49.5) = (0.02 P1 P2 . 38.27k 0. 000) 326. Using one of I the given ordered pairs to find k . d b. Pressure. Use the given values to find k. we have kP P C = 12 2 . . the independent variable can not be zero.PreCalculus 4E 37. c.875 daily phone calls. 50. Since the average number of phone calls varies jointly as the product of the populations and inversely as the square of the distance. Current varies inversely as resistance.02(650.875 There are approximately 17. k 12 = 0. 385 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. C= f = kas 2 b. 51.5) 0. Answers may vary. 0. v. makes sense 52.5 k =6 6 The equation becomes R = . Inc. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. does not make sense. the wind will exert a force of 360 pounds on the window. Section 2. 000) (400) 2 = 17. 000)(220. Sample explanation: For an inverse variation.87 × 1012 ) 176. 150 = k (4 ⋅ 5)(30) 150 = k (20)(900) 150 = 18000k 150 18000k = 18000 150 1 =k 120 1 1 (3 ⋅ 4)(60) 2 f = as 2 = 120 120 1 (12)(3600) = 120 = 360 Yes. Sample explanation: A direct variation with a positive constant of variation will have both variables increase simultaneously. 2 k ( 2. Answers will vary. kP P C = 12 2 d k ( 777.5 k 12(0. – 48. 000 = 16269841. 000 ) (3. Since the current varies inversely as k resistance we have R = . 000 = ( 420 ) 39. varies directly as the square of wind velocity. If v = x then P = k ( x) 2 = kx 2 If v = 2 x then P = k (2 x) 2 = 4kx 2 If the wind speed doubles the pressure is 4 times more destructive. can be modeled as P = kv 2 . 695. 400 326. P. I 40.8 a.

Illumination. Answers may vary. (3 − 4i ) 2 = 32 + 2 ⋅ 3(−4i ) + (−4i )2 = 9 − 24i − 16 = −7 − 24i 57. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. 55. = 7 ⋅ 2 + 7(3i ) + (−i )(2) + (−i )(3i ) k . x 1 1 k x= 2 ⇒d = x then 50 50 d (7 − i )(2 + 3i ) = 14 + 21i − 2i + 3 = 17 + 19i 50k k = 50 . can be modeled as I = 2 . 6. Illumination. 59. Since 50 ≈ 7 . . d If I = x then x = 1. d. Inc. 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. v. Chapter 2 Review Exercises If I = k ⇒d= d2 (8 – 3i) – (17 – 7i) = 8 – 3i – 17 + 7i = –9 + 4i 2. d. I. and inversely as the resistance. (7 + 8i )(7 − 8i ) = 7 2 + 82 = 49 + 64 = 113 58. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. kv 2 H= r If the voltage remains constant. x x 4. d k k If d = 15 then I = 2 = 15 225 k k If d = 30 then I = 2 = 30 900 900 =4 Note that 225 If the distance doubles the illumination is 4 times less intense.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. 4i (3i − 2) = (4i )(3i ) + (4i )(−2) = 12i 2 − 8i = −12 − 8i 56. The Heat. r. I. 6 6 5−i = ⋅ 5+i 5+i 5−i 30 − 6i = 25 + 1 30 − 6i = 26 15 − 3i = 13 15 3 = − i 13 13 386 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. varies directly as the square of the voltage. to triple the heat the resistant must be reduced by a multiple of 3. the Hubble telescope is able to see about 7 times farther than a ground-based telescope. H. can be modeled as I = 2 . 5. 3.

8. + i ⎬ . 4 + −8 4 + i 8 4 + 2i 2 = = = 2+i 2 2 2 2 11. 4] } The solution set is 1 − i 3 . 2 ± −12 2 2 ± 2i 3 x= 2 x= x =1 ±i 3 { domain: (−∞. 387 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Chapter 2 Review Exercises 3 + 4i 3 + 4i 4 + 2i = ⋅ 4 − 2i 4 − 2i 4 + 2i 12 + 6i + 16i + 8i 2 = 16 − 4i 2 12 + 22i − 8 = 16 + 4 4 + 22i = 20 1 11 = + i 5 10 12. (−2 + −100) = (−2 + i 100) −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) x= −32 − −18 = i 32 − i 18 = i 16 ⋅ 2 − i 9 ⋅ 2 2 2 2x − 6x + 5 = 0 2 = (−2 + 10i ) 2 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. 2 x − 2x + 4 = 0 2 =4 x + 1 = ±2 x = −1 ± 2 x = −3 or x = 1 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) + 4 = 3 2 x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(4) 2(1) x= 2 ± 4 − 16 2 The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x + 1) + 4 2 = 4 − 40i + (10i ) 2 = 4 − 40i − 100 = −96 − 40i ( x + 1) 10. 9. 1 + i 3 . ∞) range: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 7. Inc. ⎩2 2 2 2 ⎭ = (4i − 3i ) 2 =i 2 13. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x= 6 ± 36 − 40 4 6 ± −4 x= 4 6 ± 2i x= 4 6 2i x= ± 4 4 3 1 = ± i 2 2 = 4i 2 − 3i 2 ⎧3 1 3 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − i. .

Publishing as Prentice Hall.025(0) 2 + (0) + 6 = 6 The ball was tossed at a height of 6 feet. Since a < 0 the parabola opens down with the maximum value occurring at 14 b x=− =− =7. 4] b. f ( x) = −0. −57 ] f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 12 x + 703 a. a. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 18. 2a 2(−1) The maximum value is f (7). –2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 4)2 − 2 16. f ( x ) = 2 x2 − 4 x − 6 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 6 − 2 2 ( x − 1) − 8 2 ( x + 4)2 = 2 x+4=± 2 x = −4 ± 2 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 4)2 − 2 = 14 = –1 axis of symmetry: x = 1 domain: (−∞. ∞) range: ( −∞.025(20) 2 + (20) + 6 = 16 The maximum height of 16 feet occurs when the ball is 20 yards downfield. f ( x) = −0.025 x 2 + x + 6 f (0) = −0. f (−3) = 2(−3) 2 + 12(−3) + 703 = 685 domain: (−∞. b. The axis of symmetry is x = –4. 2a 2(2) The minimum value is f (−3). f ( x) = − x 2 + 14 x − 106 a. ∞ ) 17. ∞) range: [ 685.Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. ∞) range: ( −∞. domain: (−∞.025 x 2 + x + 6 1 b x=− =− = 20 2a 2(−0. f (x) = (x + 4)2 − 2 vertex: (–4. 19. domain: (−∞. ∞) range: [ −2. Since a > 0 the parabola opens up with the minimum value occurring at 12 b x=− =− = −3 .025) f (20) = −0. f ( x ) = − x + 2x + 3 f (7) = −(7) 2 + 14(7) − 106 = −57 2 = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 b. domain: (−∞. ∞) range: [ −8. ∞ ) 15. ∞ ) The maximum height will occur at the vertex. Inc. 388 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .

3(reject) The ball will hit the ground 45. 3x + 4y = 1000 4y = 1000 – 3x 1000 − 3x y= 4 A=x =− x= 20. 000. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 1000 1000 b x=− =− =− = 250.025)(6) x= 2(−0.7 feet will maximize the area. The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. We need to minimize the function P ( x ) = x (14 + x ) 0 = −0. The maximum area is A ( 250 ) = 250 (1000 − 2 ( 250 ) ) −b −10 5 = = = 1. A ( x ) = x (1000 − 2 x ) 1000 − 3x 4 3 2 x + 250x 4 −b −250 = = 125 2a 3 2 − 4 1000 − 3(125) = 166. .000 square yards when the width is 250 yards and the length is 1000 − 2 ⋅ 250 = 500 yards.3.3 yards downfield. y = 36(150 – 4x) = 36(150 – 4·1) = 5256 The maximum yield will be 5256 pounds. The minimum is at b 14 14 x=− =− = − = −7.025 x 2 + x + 6 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = 14 x + x 2 = x 2 + 14 x. 2a 2 ( −2 ) −4 23. Chapter 2 Review Exercises The ball is at a height of 0 when it hits the ground.25 or 1 tree 2a 2(−4) 4 The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. y= A ( x ) = −2 x + 1000 x 2 Since a = −2 is negative. − 5. The area is maximized at 125. Inc. y = (35 + x)(150 – 4x) 2 y = 5250 + 10x − 4x The maximum area is achieved when the width is 250 yards. 389 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E c. x= = 250 (1000 − 500 ) = 250 ( 500 ) = 125. f ( x ) = − x3 + 12 x 2 − x The graph rises to the left and falls to the right and goes through the origin.025) x ≈ 45. f ( x) = −0. 24. d. The numbers which minimize the product are 7 and −7 . Let x = one of the numbers Let 14 + x = the other number The other number is 14 + x = 14 + ( −7 ) = 7.025 x 2 + x + 6 21. so graph (c) is the best match. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 4 125 feet by 166. The football’s path: 22. 2a 2 (1) 2 −(1) ± (1) 2 − 4(−0. The minimum product is −7 ⋅ 7 = −49. Maximize the area using A = lw.

b. 27. 32. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c. so graph (b) is the best match. Inc. Applying the Leading Coefficient Test. This function is not useful in modeling the number of thefts over an extended period of time. 1 leading coefficient is –1 and the degree is 4. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. This means that the graph will fall to the right. we know that the elk population will die out over time. –2 = x 2 ( x − 5) − 25( x − 5) = ( x 2 − 25)( x − 5) = ( x + 5)( x − 5) 2 x = –5. − 3. f ( x) = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) zeros: x = 0. the graph touches the x-axis 390 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = x3 − x 2 − 9 x + 9 33. This is impossible. In the polynomial. the number of thefts would be negative. multiplicity 1. f ( x ) = x3 − 2 x − 1 f (1) = (1)3 − 2(1) − 1 = −2 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 1 = 3 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. The model predicts that eventually.87 and the degree is 3. multiplicity 2. f (− x) = (− x )3 − (− x) 2 − 9(− x) + 9 = − x3 − x 2 + 9 x + 9 28. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f ( − x ) = −4 x + x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x) origin symmetry c. Since the graph falls to the right. the graph crosses the x-axis x = 5. . f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 ( x + 5)3 x = 1. b. the graph touches the x-axis x = –5. 26. 30. f ( x) = − x 4 + 1 f(x) falls to the left and to the right so graph (d) is the best match. The leading coefficient is –0. the graph crosses the x-axis 34. so graph (a) is the best match. multiplicity 2. Since n is odd and an < 0. multiplicity 1. multiplicity 5. Since n is odd and an > 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 25. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 21x 2 + 100. the graph crosses the x-axis x = –2. g ( x ) = x6 − 6 x 4 + 9 x 2 The graph rises to the left and rises to the right. a. 2. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125 f ( x) = 4 x − x3 a. we know that even-degree polynomials with negative leading coefficient will fall to the left and to the right. 29. h ( x ) = x5 − 5 x 3 + 4 x The graph falls to the left and rises to the right and crosses the y-axis at zero. 31. the f ( x) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 1) zeros: 3.

the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. − 2 c. c. g ( x ) = − x 4 + 25 x 2 38. f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 15 x 3 a. 3 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 35. 5 − x 2 ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = –5. b. f (− x) = − f ( x) no symmetry f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry f(x) = (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x + 3) 3 zeros: x = 2. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c 3 x 4 − 15 x3 = 0 − x 4 + 25 x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 3x3 ( x − 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = 0. b. = − x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 zeros: x = 0. −2. f (− x) = 3(− x)4 − 15(− x) 2 = 3x 4 + 15 x 3 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 6(− x)3 − 9(− x) = − x 4 − 6 x3 − 9 x 2 f (− x ) ≠ f ( x ) f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f (− x) = −2 x3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x − 12 The graph falls to the left and to the right. Since h is odd and an > 0. The graph falls to the left and to the right. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 6 x3 − 9 x 2 a. b. 5 391 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 25(− x) 2 = − x 4 + 25 x 2 = f ( x) y-axis symmetry c. a. . Inc. 37. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x 3 + 3x 2 − 8 x − 12 a. b. The graph rises to the left and to the right. 0.

The root at –4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–4. x = 0. Inc. f (0) = −(0)3 ( 0 + 4 ) ( 0 − 1) = 0 (3 x 4 + 11x 3 − 20 x3 + 7 x + 35) ÷ ( x + 5) 2 –5 The y-intercept is 0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. x = 1. 2 4x − 7x + 5 x + 1 4 x3 − 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 3 0 –2 –10 0 6 12 20 20 6 10 10 20 2 3 Quotient: 3x 3 + 6 x 2 + 10 x + 10 + 4 x3 + 4 x 2 − 7 x2 − 2 x −7 x 2 − 7 x 46. f(x) rises to the left and the right. f ( x ) = 2 x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 42. 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. . − 10 Quotient: 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 − 2 x2 + 3x − 1 2 x + 1 4 x + 6 x + 3x − 1 2 43. x = 1 The roots at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. 5x + 1 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 7 x 2 + 9 x − 3 –13 5x + 5 2 −4 Quotient: 4 x 2 − 7 x + 5 − 2 4 x +1 20 x−2 –7 9 –3 –26 429 –5694 –33 438 –5697 Quotient: f (–13) = –5697 392 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) 2 x2 − 4x + 1 5 x − 3 10 x 3 − 26 x 2 + 17 x − 13 10 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 20 x 2 + 17 x − 20 x 2 + 12 x 5 x − 13 f (0) = 2(0) 2 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 5x − 3 The y-intercept is 0. 10 5x − 3 4 3 4 x2 + 2 x2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 + 3 x 40. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. x = 0. x = –4. 3 3 11 –20 7 35 –15 20 0 –35 –4 0 7 0 Quotient: 3 x − 4 x + 7 3 45. 0) − 2 x2 − 1 −2 x 2 − 1 0 44. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f ( x ) = − x 3 ( x + 4 ) ( x − 1) 2 6 x2 + 3x Since an < 0 and n is even. (3 x 4 − 2 x 2 − 10 x) ÷ ( x − 2) 2 41.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39.

± 5 q a. 1 negative real zero. 1 –13 6 4 10 –6 5 –3 0 f ( x ) = f ( − x ) = 2 x4 + 6 x2 + 8 No sign variations exist for either f(x) or f(–x). f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. ± 2. ± . 1. −3 2 48. f(–x) has no sign variations. 52. . 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 4 x + 4) = 0 p: ±1 q: ±1. . so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 positive solutions. ± 8. d. −2 + 5. ± 8 b. 3 2 f ( x) = 2 x 5 – 3 x3 – 5 x 2 + 3x – 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 12 x − 8 p : ± 1. f ( − x ) = −6 x 3 + x 2 + 4 x + 1 f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 2 x3 − 8 x + 5 1 sign variation. ± 3 51. ± 2. ± 4. 1 sign variation ⇒ 1 positive real zero f (− x) = − x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 2 sign variations ⇒ 2 or no negative real zeros ( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 = 0 f ( x) = x − 6 x + 14 x − 14 x + 5 p : ± 1. –2 are rational zeros. f ( x) = ( x − 2)(2 x + 5 x − 3) 2 q : ±1 = ( x − 2)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) p : ± 1. 2 or 0 positive real zeros.PreCalculus 4E 47. are rational zeros. ± 5 4 p : ± 1. −2 − 5 . Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 2 2 2 53. p 8 4 2 1 : ± 1. ±2. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 2 x3 + x + 5 c. 393 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 q : ± 1. . ± . 1 x = 1 or x = –2 The solution set is{1. 3 2 55. ± . 54. ± q 3 3 3 3 3 0 –4 1 4 –4 1 4 4 1 is a zero. f(x) has 2 sign variations. x 3 − 17 x + 4 = 0 4 1 1 0 –17 4 4 16 –4 4 –1 0 c. so f(x) = 0 has 3 or 1 positive real roots. ± 4. ± . 1 1 −1. ± 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so no real roots exist. Inc. ±3. ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 4 x − 1) = 0 −4 ± 16 + 4 −4 ± 2 5 x= = = −2 ± 5 2 2 { } The solution set is 4. ±6 p 1 1 1 : ± 1. f ( − x ) = −2 x 5 + 3 x3 − 5 x 2 − 3x − 1 f(–x) has 2 sign variations. p : ± 1. ± . ± q 2 3 6 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 2 sign variations. q : ±1 50. –2}. ± 2. b. ± 4 q 1 Zeros: x = 2. so f(x) = 0 has no negative solutions. 49. so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 negative solutions. ± 4 –1 6 1 –4 1 –6 5 –1 6 –5 1 0 –1 is a zero.

8 9 –7 1 1 5 –1 10 –2 0 –36 46 –15 4 –16 15 –32 30 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 d. ( x + 1)(6 x 2 – 5 x + 1) = 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 a. . 2 2 2 −5 ± 29 2 ⎪⎧ 1 −5 + 29 −5 − 29 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . p: ±1 q: ±1. 2 1 3 5 .± 8 2 4 8 b. ± 2. 3 2⎭ ⎩ x = –1 or x = 56.± . ± . f ( − x ) = −8 x3 − 36 x 2 − 46 x − 15 c. ± q 2 formula gives x = 1 is a zero. f ( x ) = 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 2 sign variations. p: ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( − x ) = x 4 + x3 − 7 x 2 − x + 6 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (2 x – 5)(2 x – 3) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1 5 3 x = or x = or x = 2 2 2 ⎧1 3 5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ± 15. ( x + 1)(3x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 or x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. ±4. . . 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 58. ⎬. ±2. no negative real solutions. 8 2 1 is a rational zero. f ( x ) = x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 2 sign variations.± . ±3. ±5. .± . 2 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 1 2 1 2 2 3 sign variations. ± .± . ±2 1 p : ± 1. 394 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±8 1 1 1 p : ± 1. ⎬ . x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 p : ± 1. 3 or 1 positive real solutions. ± . 3 3 3 5 5 ± .± . 2 or 0 positive real zeros.± . 2 4 8 2 4 5 15 15 15 ± . b. d. 1 sign variation. ± 3. ± 6 q 8 x 3 – 36 x 2 + 46 x – 15 = 0 a. ± 5. 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x – ⎟ (8 x – 32 x + 30) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (4 x – 16 x + 15) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ p= b. 2 or 0 positive real zeros.Polynomial and Rational Functions 6 x3 + x 2 – 4 x + 1 = 0 d. q 2 4 8 c. 57. are rational zeros. 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ (2 x + 10 x − 2) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + 5 x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Solving x 2 + 5 x − 1 = 0 using the quadratic 0 sign variations. . ⎬ . 1 negative real zero. ±15 q: ±1. ± 3. Inc. ⎩2 2 2⎭ 2 sign variations. 2 or 0 negative real zeros. f ( − x ) = −2 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 7 x + 1 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 a.

2 or 0 negative real zeros. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + 7 x 2 − 2 1 sign variation. ±4 p 1 1 : ± 1. ⎩ 2 2 ⎭ 1 –1 –6 0 − 2. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. ±4 q: ±1. ± 2. 1. c. 1. ± q 2 4 b. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. p: ±1. 1 2 4 0 7 0 –2 2 1 4 2 2 8 4 0 –1 2 1 –9 –4 4 4 10 2 –4 2 5 1 –2 0 2 5 1 –2 –2 –3 2 3 –2 0 4 4 2 8 4 –2 0 –4 0 8 0 1 . 1 negative real zero. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 a. 1 sign variation. ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 6) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x − 3)( x + 2) = 0 The solution set is 59. 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 a.PreCalculus 4E c. ± 2. are rational zeros. . d. 3 are rational zeros. x = −2 or x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ − 2. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. ±2. f ( x ) = 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 c. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. p: ±1. 2 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 − 2. 2 2 395 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 4. −1. { − 2. 2i. −1. x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 d. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 1 –1 Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 –1 –7 1 6 1 0 –7 –6 1 0 –7 –6 0 1 0 –7 –6 –1 1 6 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟⎜ x + ⎟ (4 x + 8) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎜ x − ⎟ ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 Solving x + 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula gives x = ±2i ⎧ 1 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . −1. 60. ± q 2 b. ±2 q: ±1. Inc. −1. − 2i ⎬ . 3} . 1 positive real zero. 2 ⎭ ⎩ 1 1 − . . ± . 2 are rational zeros. 2 ⎬ . 1 2 2 2 4 − 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 d. ±2.

one with multiplicity two f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 3x3 + 3x − 2 p: ±1. 4 2 f ( x ) = an ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 3) 1 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 12 x3 + 20 x 2 + 12 x + 18 –8 –16 –7 8 16 0 2 –7 8 16 –1 8 –16 –8 16 0 2 65. ± 2. one with multiplicity two. ±2 q: ±1. ±16 q: ±1 p : ± 1. f ( x) = an ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) f (1) = an (1 − 2 ) ⎡⎣12 − 4 (1) + 13⎤⎦ −10 = −10an an = 1 g ( x) = x 4 − 6 x 3 + x 2 + 24 x + 16 p: ±1. 4 real zeros. ±2 1 p : ± 1. ±8. 1 real zero. ±2. 2 nonreal complex zeros 68. 2 nonreal complex zeros 67. ± q 2 2 7 ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 = 0 x = –1 or x = 4 g ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 + x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 0 –1 ( x + 1) ( x – 8 x + 16) = 0 f ( x ) = 2 ( x + 1)( x + 6 x + 9 ) 3 1 2 2 2 3 –1 an = 2 –2 16 ( x + 1)( x3 – 7 x 2 + 8 x + 16) = 0 2 2 f ( −1) = an ⎡( −1) + 1⎤ ⎡( −1) + 6 ( −1) + 9 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ 16 = 8an 63. ± 2. . 4 nonreal complex zeros 3 –2 –4 2 –4 2 –1 2 –1 0 69. f ( x) = an ( x – 2)( x – 2 + 3i )( x – 2 – 3i ) 64. g ( x) = 1 −1 ( x + 2) 2 2 x + 3x + 3x – 2 = 0 4 3 ( x + 2)(2 x3 – x 2 + 2 x –1) = 0 ( x + 2)[ x 2 (2 x –1) + (2 x –1)] = 0 ( x + 2)(2 x –1)( x 2 + 1) = 0 1 x = –2. x = or x = ±i 2 1 The zeros are –2. 2 f ( x) = ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 2 )( 2 x − 1) 396 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. 3 real zeros. ±i. ± 8. ± 4. Inc. 24 2 f ( x ) = an ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 2 1 x – 6 x + x + 24 x + 16 = 0 f ( x ) = x − 6 x + 21x − 26 3 –6 66. 2 real zeros. ±4. . ± 16 q –1 1 f ( x ) = 1( x − 2 ) ( x − 4 x + 13) 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 13 x − 2 x 2 + 8 x − 26 1 62.

h( x ) = Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 +3 x −1 72. so y = = 2 1 2 Symmetry: f (– x) = – origin symmetry x-intercept: 2x 0= 2 x −9 2x = 0 x=0 y-intercept: y = 2 ( 0) 02 − 9 Vertical asymptote: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3 and x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. so y = 0 2x = – f ( x) x –9 2 =0 397 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g ( x) = 2x − 4 x+3 –2 x – 4 x+3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 2x x −9 Vertical asymptote: x+3=0 x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 2x – 4 = 0 x=2 2 (0) − 4 4 y-intercept: y = =− 0 + 3 3 ( ) Symmetry: g (– x) = 71.PreCalculus 4E 70. Inc.

h ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. so y = = 1 1 x 2 − 3x − 4 x2 − x − 6 x 2 + 3x – 4 x2 + x – 6 h(–x) ≠ h(x).Polynomial and Rational Functions 73. so y = = 1 1 74. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r(–x) ≠ –r(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 4 x + 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x + 1) = 0 x = –3. Slant asymptote: 1 y = x –1+ x +1 y=x–1 x2 + 4 x + 3 ( x + 2) x2 x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. Inc. h(–x) ≠ –h(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x 2 − 3x − 4 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 1) x = 4 x = –1 02 − 3 ( 0 ) − 4 2 y-intercept: y = = 02 − 0 − 6 3 Vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 2) = 0 x = 3. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x2 = 0 x=0 02 y-intercept: y = =0 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 n > m. no horizontal asymptote. –1 02 + 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = 2 4 (0 + 2) Vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 Symmetry: r (– x) = 398 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . r ( x) = x2 – x +1 f(–x) ≠ f(x). –2 Symmetry: h(– x) = 75. y= 2 x2 – 4 x + 3 (– x + 2) 2 r(–x) ≠ r(x).

f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = –3. f ( x) = 2 = – f ( x) x2 + 1 Origin symmetry x-intercept: −2 x 3 = 0 x=0 −2 ( 0 ) 3 y-intercept: y = = 0 =0 1 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 No vertical asymptote. so no horizontal asymptote. so no horizontal asymptote. . so no horizontal asymptote. y= Chapter 2 Review Exercises x2 + 2x − 3 x−3 f ( x) = –2 x + 2x x +1 2 y = –2x x2 – 2 x – 3 –x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). Symmetry: f (– x) = 78. Slant asymptote: 2 16 3 Vertical asymptote: 2x – 3 = 0 3 x= 2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m.PreCalculus 4E 76. 1 0 2 + 2 ( 0 ) − 3 −3 y-intercept: y = = =1 0−3 −3 Vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 = 0 g ( x) = 4 ( x − 2) = 0 2 x=2 y-intercept: 4 ( 0 ) − 16 ( 0 ) + 16 2 y= 77. Horizontal asymptote: n > m. Slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = 2 x – 5 + 2x – 3 y = 2x – 5 −2 x 3 x2 + 1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 ( 0) − 3 =− 399 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Slant asymptote: 12 y = x+5+ x −3 y = x+5 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 2x − 3 4 x 2 + 16 x + 16 Symmetry: g (– x) = –2 x – 3 g(–x) ≠ g(x).

50 to manufacture each. so y = 86. 1000 = lw 1000 =l w 25(50) + 50. 000 C (1000) = = 75 1000 When 1. 25(1000) + 50. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 ≥ 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.58 x + 114.900 100 x 2 + 729 n < m so y = 0 As the number of years of education increases the percentage rate of unemployment approaches zero. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ( 2 x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 The boundary points are −3 and f ( x) = 82. Inc. n = m. 25(100. T (x) = 25 x + 50. 000 C (100) = = 525 100 When 100 calculators are manufactured.05 The number of fish available in the pond approaches 3000. 25(100) + 50.06 Over time.58 x + 114.000 When 100. 80. 000 = 1025 50 When 50 calculators are manufactured. . d. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 1 ( −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79.S.000 calculators are manufactured. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 < 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. a.4 = P( x) 3. it costs $525 to manufacture each. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −3. 2 1⎞ ⎛ Testing each interval gives a solution set of ⎜ −3. 000 C (100. b. population will approach 52%. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 + 1. 000) = = 25.06 x + 235 1. b. c. ∞ ) = 3. x3 + 2 x 2 = 3x x 3 + 2 x 2 − 3x = 0 x ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 P( x) = M ( x) + F ( x) = 1. y= 400 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the percentage of men in the U. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 150 x + 120 0. a. 72.000 + 25x C ( x) = 83.52 3.05 x + 1 150 n = m. it costs $1025 to manufacture each.5 100. it costs $75 to manufacture each. Minimum costs will approach $25. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 = 0 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 4 ) = 0 The boundary points are −4 and − 12 . and 1. ∞ ⎞⎟ ⎣ 2 ⎠ P ( x) = R( x) = 1 .58 ≈ 0. C (50) = 1000 x 2000 P = 2x + x P = 2x + 2 85. 000) + 50.48 x + 120. so y = = 3000 0. 0 ) ∪ (1.6 x ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 The boundary points are −3 . 4 2 + x+3 x M ( x) 1. 81.000 x 84. C(x) = 50. it costs $25.06 x + 235 c. −4] ∪ ⎡⎢− . 87.000 calculators are manufactured. x3 + 2 x 2 > 3x Solve the related equation. 0. 25 = 25 is the horizontal 1 asymptote.

125)(−168) 2(0.125 x 2 − 0.4 cubic centimeters of water. w = 0.125 x 2 − 0.112s. f ( x) = 0. 4 ) ∪ ⎢⎡ .3(35) + 27 ≈ 261 The stopping distance on wet pavement for a motorcycle traveling 35 miles per hour is about 261 feet. 0.PreCalculus 4E 88. x= ( x + 1)( x − 2) ≥0 x −1 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.112(1200) = 134.8 x − 168 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. 1 and 2.125 x 2 − 0. We exclude 1 from the solution set.6. since this would make the denominator zero. 1) ∪ [ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.125) x = −33.8) 2 − 4(0.125(35) 2 + 2.8) ± (−0. −33. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 23 ( −∞. w = 0. g ( x) = 0.8 x − 168 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. The boundary points are –2 and 6. Testing each interval gives a solution set of [ −1. 91.4 1200 cubic centimeters of melting snow will produce 134. 89. 40 Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. ∞ ) . speeds exceeding 40 miles per hour on dry pavement will require over 267 feet of stopping distance. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. 92.3x + 27 93. w = ks 28 = k ⋅ 250 0. x+3 −5 ≤ 0 x−4 x + 3 5 ( x − 4) − ≤0 x−4 x−4 −4 x + 23 ≤0 x−4 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. s = −16t 2 + v0 t + s0 32 < −16t 2 + 48t + 0 0 < −16t 2 + 48t − 32 x+3 ≤5 x−4 Express the inequality so that one side is zero.8 x + 99 > 267 0. 600 ft 401 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 ) ∪ ( 40. ∞ ⎞⎟ .125 x 2 + 2. d = kt2 144 = k (3) 2 k = 16 d = 16t 2 g (35) = 0. ⎣4 ⎠ a. This overestimates the distance shown in the graph by 1 foot. . 90. Chapter 2 Review Exercises x−6 >0 x+2 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. ∞ ) . We exclude 4 4 from the solution set. Thus. 0.125 x 2 − 0. The boundary points are –1. ∞ ) . 94. d = 16(10) 2 = 1. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. Inc. b.112=k Thus. since this would make the denominator zero. 23 The boundary points are 4 and .8 x + 99 0 < −16 ( t 2 − 3t + 2 ) 0 < –16(t – 2)(t – 1) F T F 1 2 The projectile’s height exceeds 32 feet during the time period from 1 to 2 seconds.

97. L= Chapter 2 Test 1. R Use L = This is an approximate model. 5 5 2+i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 5(2 + i ) = 4 +1 5(2 + i ) = 5 = 2+i 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 95. 1890 R 1890 L= = 70 27 The average life span of an elephant is 70 years. k d2 k 28 = 2 8 k = 1792 1792 l= 2 d 1792 l = 2 = 112 decibels 4 l= b. . L = . c. 1056 . V = khB 175 = k ⋅15 ⋅ 35 1 3 1 V = hB 3 1 V = ⋅ 20 ⋅120 = 800 ft 3 3 k= 402 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 1056 = k p= Thus. (6 − 7i )(2 + 5i ) = 12 + 30i − 14i − 35i 2 = 12 + 16i + 35 = 47 + 16i 2. p = 99. w 1056 = 440 2. p= 96. 2 −49 + 3 −64 = 2(7i ) + 3(8i ) = 14i + 24i = 38i h=2 2c w 2(40) = 16 hours t= 5 t= 98. a. k w k 660 = 1.4 The pitch is 440 vibrations per second. kc w k ⋅ 30 10 = 6 10 = 5h t= k to find k. R k L= R k 30 = 63 k 63 ⋅ 30 = 63 ⋅ 63 1890 = k 1890 Thus.

2) domain: ( −∞. f ( x) = −2 x 2 + 12 x − 16 Since the coefficient of x2 is negative. –4) axis of symmetry x = 1 x-intercepts: x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 x = 3 or x = –1 x2 − 4 x + 8 = 0 x= x= −b ± b − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(1)(8) 2(1) 2 4 ± −16 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i x= 5. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 8. ∞ ) . 2] domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 7. Inc. the graph of f(x) opens down and f(x) has a maximum point. x=− f ( 23) = − ( 23) + 46 ( 23) − 360 = 169 2 Maximum daily profit = $16. f ( x) = x 2 − 2 x − 3 y-intercept: f (0) = 02 − 2(0) − 3 = −3 f ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. −12 x= =3 2(−2) f (3) = −2(3) 2 + 12(3) − 16 = −18 + 36 − 16 =2 Maximum point: (3. 6. ∞ ) . range: [ 4. . −b 2 = =1 2a 2 f (1) = 12 − 2(1) − 3 = −4 vertex: (1. 4) axis of symmetry: x = –1 x-intercepts: ( x + 1) 2 + 4 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 −2 ± 4 − 20 = −1 ± 2i 2 no x-intercepts y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 1)2 + 4 = 5 x= domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = − x 2 + 46 x − 360 b −46 = = 23 2a −2 23 computers will maximize profit. range: ( −∞. range: [ −4.900. 403 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 2 Test x2 = 4 x − 8 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

± 5. −3 + 11 . 15. ± 6. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 a. 2. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. ± . ± 3. 11. a. b. b. x 3 + 9 x 2 + 16 x − 6 = 0 Since the leading coefficient is 1. ±3. 49). Let x = one of the numbers. f ( x ) = 3x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 + x − 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. ± 3. 6 6 –19 16 –4 12 –14 4 –7 2 0 x= −(6) ± (6) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) −6 ± 44 2 = −3 ± 11 The zeros are −3 . ±15. 16. ± 2. –3 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. Solve the quotient x 2 + 6 x − 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula to find the remaining roots. ± q 2 2 14. a. 14 − x = the other number. . ±2. –2}. the graph of f should fall to the left and rise to the right. This occurs when the two number are 7 and 14 − 7 = 7 . ±6 q: ±1. There are 3 or 1 positive real solutions and no negative real solutions. 2. ±3. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. ±5. ± q 2 2 2 2 6x − 7x + 2 = 0 (3x – 2)(2x – 1) = 0 2 1 x = or x = 3 2 2 The other two roots are −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = The integral root is 2. ± 6 q f ( 7 ) = −7 2 + 14 ( 7 ) = 49 The vertex is (7. 1 1 9 16 –6 –3 –18 6 6 –2 0 Thus x = 3 is a root. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and −3 − 11 . 2 x= 1 2 and . ± . f ( x ) = x5 − x Since the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. the possible rational zeros are the factors of 6 p p = : ± 1. The product is f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) = − x 2 + 14 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 14 14 x=− =− =− = 7. ± 15 q : ± 1. ± . ±2 1 3 p : ± 1. ± 2 1 3 5 15 p : ±1. Inc. f ( x ) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x − 5 x − 4 x + 20 = 0 3 2 x 2 ( x − 5) − 4( x − 5) = 0 ( x − 5)( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 5. 2 3 404 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –2 The solution set is {5. The maximum product is 49. 10. The x-intercepts should be –1 and 1. Possible rational zeros are: p : ± 1. ± . ± 3. 12. ± 2. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 13. f ( − x ) = −3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 − x − 1 f(–x) has no sign variations.Polynomial and Rational Functions 9.

and ± 5 . −1 and are zeros.PreCalculus 4E b. Use synthetic division to verify this root. f ( x) = a0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + i )( x − i ) f ( x) = a0 ( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) = a0 ( x 4 − 1) Since f (3) = 160 . f(x) has zeros at –2 and 1. the graph: −1 2 −1 −13 5 15 –1 −2 3 10 −15 2 −3 −10 15 0 3 2 f ( x ) = −3 x 3 − 4 x 2 + x + 2 The graph shows a root at x = −1 . −3 x 2 − x + 2 = 0 0 −15 3 2 15 –4 0 −(3x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 3 Thus. Inc. x 3 + 3x 2 – 4 = ( x – 1)( x + 2) 2 18. Chapter 2 Test Verify that −1 and 3 are zeros as it appears in 2 19. 3 The zeros are −1 . −3) ∪ ( −3. –3 –3 2 −3 −10 0 −10 1 2 3 1 4 –1 2 0 Factor the quotient to find the remaining zeros. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The zero at –2 has multiplicity of 2. 3 The y-intercept is f (0) = 2 ( x + 1) ( 2 x3 − 3x 2 − 10 x + 15) = 0 ( x + 1) ⎛⎜ x − 3⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2 x − 10 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Find the remaining zeros by solving: 2 x 2 − 10 = 0 2 x 2 = 10 x2 = 5 x=± 5 20. . then a0 (34 − 1) = 160 a0 (80) = 160 160 80 a0 = 2 a0 = f ( x) = 2( x 4 − 1) = 2 x 4 − 2 405 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and the polynomial 2 factors as follows: 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 = 0 The zeros (x-intercepts) are –1 and 2 . ∞ ) 17. . 2 f ( x) = 1 ( x + 3) 2 domain: {x | x ≠ –3} or ( −∞.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 21. 5 Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 2 – x–2 y = x +2 Symmetry: f (– x) = 22. so no horizontal asymptote exists.1) ∪ (1. . 1 +2 x −1 domain: {x | x ≠ 1} or ( −∞. x x 2 − 16 domain: {x | x ≠ 4. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = 3. Inc. –4 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. ∞ ) f ( x) = 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 406 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 − 9 x−2 domain: {x | x ≠ 2} f ( x) = x2 – 9 –x – 2 f(–x) ≠ f(x). so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. –3 02 − 9 9 y-intercept: y = = 0−2 2 Vertical asymptote: x–2=0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. x ≠ –4} –x = – f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 16 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: x = 0 0 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 − 16 Vertical asymptotes: x 2 − 16 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 4) = 0 x = 4.

4 ) 4 x2 x2 + 3 domain: all real numbers 4 x2 = f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x +3 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 f ( x) = y-intercept: y = 4 ( 0) 28. Vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x –3.3) ∪ [10. Since the degree of the numerator equals the degree of the denominator. 300. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 24. a. . b. =0 2x + 1 ≤3 x−3 2x + 1 −3 ≤ 0 x−3 10 − x ≤0 x −3 Boundary values: 3 and 10 Solution set: ( −∞. the horizontal 10 = 10 . so y = = 4 is the horizontal asymptote. Inc. 1 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. ∞ ) 407 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 02 + 3 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 3 = 0 x 2 = −3 No vertical asymptote. Chapter 2 Test x +1 x + 2x − 3 x 2 + 2 x − 3 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) domain: {x | x ≠ –3. 27. 000 + 10x x x 2 < x + 12 x − x − 12 < 0 2 25. ( x + 3)( x − 4) < 0 Boundary values: –3 and 4 Solution set: ( −3. 1 2 C ( x) = 26. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. x ≠ 1} –x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 2x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). the production cost approaches $10 per radio. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x+1=0 x = –1 0 +1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 =− 0 + 2 (0) − 3 3 f ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. asymptote is x = 1 This represents the fact that as the number of satellite radio players produced increases.

⎟ . . 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 x= 5⎞ ⎛5 ⎛ ⎞ Test intervals are (–∞. 3⎠ ⎝3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛5 ⎞ Testing points. The zero at –1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. The zero at 1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. 1) or (4. ∞ ⎟ . ⎜ .Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (f 5. 3 2 = x x2 9 x 2 + 3x = 2 9 x2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) = 0 3x − 1 = 0 3x + 2 = 0 1 2 or x = − x= 3 3 2⎫ ⎧1 The solution set is ⎨ . ∞ ) 10. ±3. ⎝3 ⎠ 408 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. domain: (−2. ⎬. k d2 k 20 = 2 15 4500 = k i= 9. –1). Inc. 2. 4. |2x – 1| = 3 2x −1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 2 x − 1 = −3 2 x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {2. –1. ±6 q: ±1 p : ± 1. There is a relative maximum at the point (0. 2}. ± 3. − ⎬ . 3⎭ ⎩3 4500 4500 = = 45 foot-candles d2 102 i= 9+ 12. ± 6 q –3 6. 1 f )(−1) = f ( f (−1) ) = f (0) = 3 f ( x) → ∞ as x → −2+ or as 1 2 –5 –6 –3 3 6 –1 –2 0 x + 2 x – 5x – 6 = 0 3 x → 2− 2 ( x + 3)( x 2 – x – 2) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 x = –3 or x = –1 or x = 2 The solution set is {–3. 3). 11. ±2. ⎜ –1. 7. ± 2. 2) range: [ 0. x3 + 2 x 2 − 5x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. 2x − 5 > 3 2x − 5 > 3 2x > 8 x>4 2 x − 5 < −3 2x < 2 x <1 (−∞. –1}. ∞) 3x 2 > 2 x + 5 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 > 0 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 = 0 (3 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = –1 3 3x 2 − 5 x + 1 = 0 5 ± 25 − 12 5 ± 13 = 6 6 ⎪⎧ 5 + 13 5 − 13 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . the solution is (– ∞. Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–2) 1. –1) or ⎜ . 3. ∞ ⎟ .

4 x-intercepts: f ( 0 ) = 03 − 4(0) 2 − 0 + 4 = 4 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 13. 1. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 14. f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x − 8 −b −2 = = −1 x= 2a 2 f (−1) = (−1) 2 + 2(−1) − 8 = 1 − 2 − 8 = −9 vertex: (–1. ( x − 4)( x 2 − 1) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = –1. Cumulative Review Exercises f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 x-intercepts: x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 = 0 15. Inc. . –9) x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 8 = 0 ( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 x = –4 or x = 2 x −1 x−2 vertical asymptote: x = 2 horizontal asymptote: y = 1 x-intercept: x = 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 f ( x) = 17. x 2 ( x − 4) − 1( x − 4) = 0 f ( x) = x 2 ( x − 3) zeros: x = 0 (multiplicity 2) and x = 3 y-intercept: y = 0 f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 n = 3. 16. y-intercept: f(0) = –8 409 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. an = 0 so the graph falls to the left and rises to the right.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 18. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) ( f g )( x) = 2(4 x − 1) 2 − (4 x − 1) − 1 = 32 x 2 − 20 x + 2 20. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ⎡ 2( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 1⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ 2 x 2 − x − 1⎤⎦ =⎣ h 2 2 2 x + 4hx − x + 2h − h − 1 − 2 x 2 + x + 1 = h 2 4hx + 2h − h = h = 4 x + 2h − 1 410 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 19. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .

Note that the function g ( x) = 3x −1 has the general form g ( x) = b x + c where c = −1 . Because c < 0. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g. . we Plot these points. connecting them with a continuous curve. f (3) = 42. connecting them with a continuous curve. This overestimates the actual amount shown by $11.2(1.56) x Plot these points. graph g ( x) = 3x −1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 3x one unit to the right. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates.1 Check Point Exercises 1. 2. the average amount spent after three hours of shopping at the mall is $160. x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 f ( x ) = 3x f (−3) = 3−3 = 1 27 1 9 1 3 f (−2) = 3−2 = f (−1) = 3−1 = f (0) = 30 = 1 f (1) = 31 = 3 f (2) = 32 = 9 f (3) = 33 = 27 4.Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Section 3. f ( x) = 42. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates.20876 ≈ 160 According to the function. x f ( x ) = ( 13 ) −2 ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 91 −1 0 1 2 f ( x ) = 3x 3−2 = 19 3−1 = 13 30 = 1 31 = 3 32 = 9 g ( x) = 3x −1 3−2 −1 = 3−3 = 271 3−1−1 = 3−2 = 19 30 −1 = 3−1 = 13 31−1 = 30 = 1 32 −1 = 31 = 3 x −2 411 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.56)3 ≈ 160.2(1. x −2 −1 0 1 2 3.

Note that the function g ( x) = 2 x + 1 has the general form g ( x ) = b x + c where c = 1.3 ≈ 9.859. 7.472 f ( x ) = 4x 4−2 = 161 4−1 = 14 40 = 1 41 = 4 42 = 16 2012 is 34 years after 1978. 918. x f ( x) − 2 −2 2−2 = 14 −1 2−1 = 12 0 20 = 1 1 21 = 2 2 22 = 4 6.242 412 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 ≈ 29. r⎞ ⎛ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ a.125 6. 5 3 ≈ 16. x g ( x) = 2 + 1 2−2 + 1 = 14 + 1 = 54 2−1 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 23 20 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2 21 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3 22 + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5 x 5. e 3.1 1.08 ⎞ A = 10. 23⋅4 ≈ 10. we graph g ( x) = 2 x + 1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 2 x up one unit.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5.08(5) = $14. Because c > 0. 4(5) x g ( x) = 5x −2 5−2 = 251 −1 5−1 = 15 0 50 = 1 1 51 = 5 2 52 = 25 Exercise Set 3. 3 5 ≈ 11. −1. 000e0.042(34) ≈ 4446 In 2012 the gray wolf population of the Western Great Lakes is projected to be about 4446. f ( x) = 1066e0.964 9. 4 −1. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g.95 10. . 6 7.665 4.967 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 12.556 2.116 ≈ 0.75 x −2 −1 0 1 2 ≈ 0.2 −0.387 ≈ 0. nt ⎛ 0.5 = 0. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ = $14. Inc. 32.974 8.4 ≈ 13.47 A = Pe rt A = 10. e 11.042 x f (34) = 1066e0.25 b. e –0. e 2.

Inc. . −2 −1 0 1 2 14. −2 −1 0 1 2 x 16. ( 34 ) = 169 −1 ( 43 ) = 43 0 ( 43 ) = 1 1 ( 43 ) = 43 2 ( 43 ) = 169 −2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 h ( x ) = ( 12 ) x ( 12 ) = 4 −1 ( 12 ) = 2 0 ( 12 ) = 1 1 ( 12 ) = 12 2 ( 12 ) = 14 −2 h ( x ) = ( 13 ) x ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 19 −2 413 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x −2 −1 0 1 2 Section 3.1 g ( x) = ( 32 ) x ( 32 ) = 49 −1 ( 32 ) = 23 0 ( 32 ) = 1 1 ( 32 ) = 32 2 ( 32 ) = 94 −2 g ( x) = ( 43 ) x 15.PreCalculus 4E x 13.

x f ( x) = (0.25 0 (0. 24.36 the graph of f ( x) = 2 x one unit to the left.5625 −1 (0.6) −1 = 1. This is the graph of f ( x) = 3x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.6)0 = 1 1 (0. Inc.8) −2 26. asymptote: y = −1 23. = 1. 414 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8) 2 = 0. . The graph of g ( x) = 2 x − 1 can be obtained by 19. so the function is H ( x) = −3− x. range: ( 0.8) −2 (0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions x 17. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the y- axis. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x +! can be obtained by shifting x −2 (0.6 ) 25. range: ( 0.6 2 (0. so the function is F ( x) = −3x. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit to the right. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the x- axis.6)−2 = 2. ∞ ) .64 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.8 2 (0. range: ( −1. so the function is h( x) = 3x − 1.8) −1 = 1. This is the graph of f(x) = 3x.8)0 = 1 1 (0. ∞ ) 27. f ( x ) = ( 0. shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x downward one unit.6)1 = 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit domain: ( −∞. so the function is g ( x) = 3x −1.8)1 = 0.6)2 = 0. 21. ∞ ) 18.7 −1 (0.6 0 (0. ∞ ) downward. 22. 20. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by shifting x the graph of f ( x) = 2 x two units to the left. so the function is G ( x) = 3− x.

x reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the y-axis. ∞ ) . range: ( 2. ∞ ) . range: ( −1. asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = 2 ⋅ 2 x can be obtained by vertically stretching the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of two. range: ( 0. two units to the asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x ) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by 31. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) 415 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = 2− x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 one unit to the left and one unit downward. ∞ ) 30. range: ( 0. The graph of h ( x ) = 2 x +1 − 1 can be obtained by 32. ∞ ) . range: ( −∞. The graph of h( x) = 2 x + 2 − 1 can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 left and one unit downward. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 33. reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the x-axis. range: ( −1.1 28.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ∞ ) . . asymptote: y = 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 0 ) 29. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x ) = −2 x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x two units upward.

34. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right and 2 units up. range: ( 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 37. range: ( 0. The graph of g ( x) = e x −1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right. Inc. The graph of g ( x ) = e x + 2 can be obtained by 1 x ⋅ 2 can be obtained by 2 vertically shrinking the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of one-half. 36. ∞ ) . range: ( 2. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 38. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . 35. . range: ( −1. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = e x −1 + 2 can be obtained by asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = e x − 1 can be obtained by domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 39. The graph of g ( x) = e x +1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left. The graph of g ( x ) = moving f ( x) = e x 2 units up. ∞ ) . ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit down. ∞ ) 416 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. asymptote: y = −1 domain: ( −∞. range: ( 0. range: ( 2. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞.

Inc. 1 x e can be obtained by 2 shrinking f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 1 . asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. stretching f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 2. range: ( −∞. ∞ ) . range: (1. 0 ) asymptote: y = 1 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 45. range: ( 0. ∞ ) 417 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = −e x can be obtained by reflecting f ( x) = e x about the x-axis. ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = e 2 x + 1 can be obtained by stretching f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 2 and then moving the graph up 1 unit. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = f ( x) = e x about the y-axis. range: ( 0. The graph of h( x) = e x+1 − 1 can be obtained by 43. range: ( −1. ∞ ) 42. . ∞ ) 41. ∞ ) . range: ( 0. The graph of h( x) = e − x can be obtained by reflecting 44. The graph of g ( x) = 2e x can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left and 1 unit down.1 40. asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.

asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 1 418 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 48. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and one space up. ∞ ) 47. range: ( 2. Inc.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 1 49. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 50. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the x-axis. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by horizontally stretching f(x) by a factor of 3. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by vertically shrinking f(x) by a factor of 13 . The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the y-axis. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 51.. ∞ ) . . The graph of h( x) = e 2 + 2 can be obtained by shrinking f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 1 2 and then moving the graph up 2 units. x 46.

51 ⎛ 0.116.055 ⎞ A = 10.92 ≈ 9577. d.84 (8.065 ⎞ b.70 419 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12(3) 55.04 g ( x) = 2− x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 A = 10. .065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ d. ≈ $9527. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13. ⎛ 0.67 2(5) 57.0825 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $8317. a. ⎛ 0.055 ⎞ A = 10. 54.64 (8.157. Publishing as Prentice Hall.000 for 3 years at 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return.3% yield) Investing $6000 for 4 years at 8.1) .67 (6.083 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $ 8306. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 14.055(5) ≈ $13. 4( 4 ) 56.31 ⎛ 0.1 52.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.25% yield) 2( 4) ⎛ 0.25% compounded quarterly yields the greater return.055 ⎞ A = 10.19 The point of intersection is ( 0. 000e0. 000e0.140.065(10) ≈ = $9560. 737. ⎛ 0. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and two spaces up. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.85% yield) Investing $12. 0 f ( x) = 2 x 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 2 4 x −2 −1 4(5) 12(5) c. Inc. ⎛ 0.79 12(10) c. A = 5000 ( e ) 0. A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2(10) 410 ⋅ ≈ $9479. a.07 ⎞ A = 12.0685(3) ≈ 14. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 2 53.165.11 (7% yield) A = 12. 795. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ⎛ 0. b.

–e) to find b. The graph is of the form y = b x . −1 0 1 f ( x) = 2 x +1 1 2 1 2 4 2 8 x −2 60. y = bx 6 = b1 6=b The equation of the graph is y = 6 x 63. 4) to find b. 2 ) . 6) to find b. 59.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 58. g ( x) = 2− x +1 8 4 2 1 1 2 The point of intersection is ( 0. Substitute values from the point (1. Substitute values from the point (1. Substitute values from the point (1. The graph is of the form y = b x . The graph is of the form y = −b x . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. y = 2x 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 x y = 3x 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 x x = 3y 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 y 61. y = −b x −e = −b1 e=b The equation of the graph is y = −e x 420 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . y = bx x = 2y 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 y 4 = b1 4=b The equation of the graph is y = 4 x 62.

Inc. b.5 kilograms of cesium-137 in Chernobyl’s atmosphere.321880096 21.026 ) ≈ 2295 .1 ≈ 8.1 64.9 million words in the federal tax code in 2005. India’s population in 2055 will be 4590 million. 744 10 68. f ( 27 ) = 574 (1.141593 ≈ 8.73 ≈ 3. S = 510.249009585 21.824961595 India’s population in 1974 was 574 million.7320508 ≈ 3.03) = 510.14159 ≈ 8. f ( x) = 0.15 x + 1. India’s population in 2028 will be 2295 million.815240927 23.321997085 The closer the exponent is to 3 . 81 e. 230 421 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.06 ) ≈ $832. India’s population appears to be doubling every 27 years.4 million words in the federal tax code in 2005.44 c.026 ) ≈ 1148 India’s population in 2001 will be 1148 million. 000 (1 + 0. e = b −1 1 e= b eb = 1 1 b= e ≈ 3.824979946 27 2π ≈ 8.4 According to the exponential model.321995226 21. the closer the 3 value is to 2 .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. g ( x) = 1.06 ) 10 The linear model is the better model for the data in 2005. f ( 0 ) = 574 (1. ⎛1⎞ The equation of the graph is y = ⎜ ⎟ = e − x ⎝e⎠ a. 3 2 x 65. the closer the value is to 2π. 000 (1.03) 5 5 ≈ $591. 2005 is 50 years after 1955.14 ≈ 8. find 23. 2005 is 50 years after 1955.1415 ≈ 8.15(50) + 1. a.5741877 70. f ( 80 ) = 1000 ( 0.317278183 21. = 157. there were about 10.7 ≈ 3. 2055 − 1974 = 81 .732 ≈ 3. = 465. Since 2028 − 1974 = 54 . Substitute values from the point (–1. 000 (1.141 ≈ 8.824977827 The closer the exponent gets to π.821353305 0 23. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1.73205 ≈ 3. f (50) = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. there were about 8.87e0. 54 71.5) 80 30 b.026 ) 23 ≈ 8 23. 21. The graph is of the form y = b x . 67. find d. . 000 (1 + 0. There will still be 157. c.87e0.9 According to the linear model.321997068 23.0344 x g (50) = 1. y = bx 69.026 ) ≈ 4590 .824411082 = 574 (1) = 574 23.49 Chernobyl will not be safe for human habitation by 2066.44 ≈ 8. 66. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1. e) to find b. S = 465.0344(50) ≈ 10.

there were about 4. 74. 83.360. ( 24 1 + 0.5 68.8% of the material is remembered 4 week after it is first learned. f ( x) = 0. 5% compounded quarterly offers the better return. 422 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.15(20) + 1. 1975 is 20 years after 1955. b. f ( x) = 6. Explanations will vary.052(40) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 21. f ( x) = 6.7 million words in the federal tax code in 1975.5% of the material is remembered 1 week after it is first learned.19(1.0344(20) ≈ 3.029)56 ≈ 30. Answers may vary.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 72. a.19(1. Answers may vary. 794 c. g ( x) = 1.44 f (20) = 0.8 30. .3 g ( x) = 1 + 6.917.0 in 2006. f (52) = 80e −0. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ = 80e 0 + 20 = 80(1) + 20 = 100 100% of the material is remembered at the moment it is first learned.3 in 1990. – 80. a.0344 x g (20) = 1.7 According to the exponential model.5(1) + 20 ≈ 68.4 million words in the federal tax code in 1975.1e −0. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.045 ⎞ A = 10. 1975 is 20 years after 1955.19(1.052(56) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 28. ≈ $3. does not make sense. 074.1e−0.1e−0. f (1) = 80e−0. Inc. Sample explanation: The horizontal asymptote is y = 0. 753 24e0.1 1 + 6.3 g (40) = ≈ 21.87e0. b. a.7 37. there were about 3.1e −0. 81.05 ⎞ A = 10.4 According to the linear model.029)40 ≈ 19.029) x 76. b. ⎛ 0. b.05 12 ) 12(379) 4t 12 t f (0) = 80e −0. d.5(52) + 20 ≈ 20 20% of the material is remembered 1 year after it is first learned. 75. 662. a. The exponential model is the better model for the data in 1975. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (40) = 6.052 x 37.05(379) ≈ $4.4 37.052 x 37.3 g (56) = ≈ 27. a. 77.19(1. d.15 x + 1. b.44 ≈ 4. 73. 82.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6.9 1 + 6.87e0.029) x f (56) = 6. c.5(4) + 20 ≈ 30. f (4) = 80e −0.5(0) + 20 c.

false. y increases as x increases. ? (cosh x) 2 − (sinh x) 2 = 1 2 of y = 3x about the x-axis. b3 = 27 means 3 = log b 27. y = 3x is (d). 90. 2 = log b 25 means b 2 = 25. ∞ ) . 92. 25 = x means 5 = log 2 x. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. y = 1 3 94.2 Check Point Exercises 93. c.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. makes sense 87. x is (a). Section 3. true 91. A sample change is: The amount of money will not increase without bound. log 4 26 = y means 4 y = 26. A sample change is: The functions do not have the same graph. false. A sample change is: If f ( x) = 2 x then f (a + b) = f (a ) ⋅ f (b).3) ∪ ( 3. a. y= 5x is () (c). 251/ 2 = 5 2 96. f ( x) = 3− x reflects the graph of y = 3x b. y = 1 is the 5 5 –x same as y = 5 . 95. a. b. 3 = log 7 x means 73 = x. Note that the boundary value x = 3 does not satisfy the inequality. a. y = 1 is (b). Sample explanation: An exponential model is better than a linear model. x is the same as y = () x 3–x.e. 88. Solving the related equation. Explanations will vary. −x 1. so it is (c) reflected about the y-axis. 86. e y = 33 means y = log e 33. gives x = 3. makes sense 85. Inc. We do not know how to solve x = 2 y for y. false. e− x − e−( − x ) 2 e− x − e x = 2 − −e − x + e x = 2 e x − e− x =− 2 = − sinh x sinh(− x) = ( c. does not make sense. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 so it is (d) reflected () x about the y-axis.2 84. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 1 . . Changes to make the statement true will vary. ) 2. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 . Changes to make the statement true will vary. 423 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −(− x) e +e 2 −x e + ex = 2 e x + e− x = 2 = cosh x cosh(− x) = 2 ⎛ e x + e− x ⎞ ⎛ e x − e− x ⎞ ? ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ =1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x e 2 x − 2 + e −2 x ? − =1 4 4 e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x − e 2 x + 2 − e −2 x ? =1 4 4? =1 4 1=1 about the y-axis while f ( x) = −3x reflects the graph 89. i. but not as quickly as y = () y= 1 3 5x . c.

6 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 3 x. a. for x and evaluate the function at 10. b. we conclude log 9 9 = 1. Because I = 10. 7. Because log b b = x.4 ln x − 11. Exercise Set 3. The domain of f consists of all x for which 4 – x > 0. we obtain x < 4. The domain of g consists of all x for which x 2 > 0. Because blogb x = x.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 3. 7 a. 1. b3 = 27 7.6 First. Because log b b = 1. Thus. f (10) = 29 + 48. 2 4 = 16 2. we conclude log 7 7 = 8. ∞).4 ln 30 − 11. the domain of h is (5. 000 I 0 R = log I0 1 ? 125 1 1 1 log 5 = −3 because 5−3 = 3 = .000 I0. 4) b. Solving this inequality for x. 5 y = 125 9. a.8 log(10 + 1) = 29 + 48. 6. . x f ( x ) = 3x 10. Question: 5 to what power gives c. Because log b 1 = 0. ∞). Find the temperature increase after 30 minutes by substituting 30 for x and evaluating the function at 30. 10. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 9 27 9 3 f (30) = 13.0 on the Richter scale.2 The domain of h consists of all x for which x − 5 > 0. the domain of f is (−∞. Solving this inequality for x. 8 x 11. 92 = x 5. Inc. Question: 3 to what power gives 1 log 3 7 3 = because 31 7 = 7 3. 125 5 125 7 = log 10. 26 = 64 3. 5. 000 3? =4 The earthquake registered 4. log28 = 3 424 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) ∪ (0. we obtain x < 0 or x > 0. we conclude 3log3 17 = 17. Substitute the boy’s age. 4. Thus the domain of g is (−∞.8 log(11) ≈ 80 Thus. Question: 10 to what power gives 100? log10 100 = 2 because 10 2 = 100. f ( x) = 13. 6y = 216 8. a. we obtain x > 5. b5 = 32 6. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 3x. b. ≈ 34 The function models the actual increase shown in the graph quite well. 1 1 x 1 3 9 27 9 3 g ( x) = log 3 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 The graph of the inverse can also be drawn by reflecting the graph of f ( x) = 3x about the line y = x. 9. 32 = x 4. a 10-year-old boy is approximately 80% of his adult height. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus. 10. we conclude log8 1 = 0. 8. Solving this inequality for x. Question: 36 to what power gives 6? 1 log 36 6 = because 361/ 2 = 36 = 6 2 d.

42. 41. log7200 = y 40. Because blogb x = x. we conclude log 6 1 = 0. log 3 − 1 1 1 . we conclude 7 log 723 = 23. log15 x = 2 37. 14. log 6 6 = 1 because 6 2 = 6. 6 6 27. log 6 1 1 = −1 because 6−1 = . set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 4 x. log 2 1 1 = −3 because 2−3 = . 2 43. 2 3 . log b 343 = 3 39. we conclude log 5 57 = 7. log8 300 = y 21. 2 30.2 10. we conclude log 4 1 = 0. 8 8 28. we conclude 8log8 19 = 19. 38. log13x = 2 16. log 2 12. Because log b b = 1. 20. 9 9 −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 4 x 1 16 1 4 log 7 7 = 1 because 7 2 = 7. log 3 27 = 3 because 33 = 27. Because blogb x = x. First. 2 22. Because log b b x = x. 31. Because log b b x = x. log 7 49 = 2 because 7 = 49. log 2 64 = 6 because 2 = 64. x g ( x) = log 4 x 1 16 1 4 1 4 16 64 −2 −1 0 1 1 29. we conclude log 5 5 = 1. Because log b 1 = 0. log 5 1 1 = −1 because 5−1 = .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. logb1000 = 3 18. 23. log 5 1 1 = −4 16 − 1 1 1 . Because log b b = 1. log 4 16 = 2 because 4 = 16. log 2 1 15. 17. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 5 625 = 4 11. 36. 19. 5 5 26. 2 1 1 because 81 2 = 81 = 9. 1 3 log81 9 = 1 1 because 64 2 = 64 = 8. = − because 3 2 = 2 3 3 33. 2 1 425 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 24. 13. 25. 2 35. we conclude log11 11 = 1. Because log b 1 = 0. we conclude log 4 46 = 6. = − because 2 2 = 2 2 2 32. log 3 1 1 = –2 because 3−2 = . 2 3 1 4 16 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 4 x. log 64 8 = 1 = −3 125 log8 2 = 1 3 log 64 4 = 34.

This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 44. First. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . Inc. ∞) 426 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 5 x 1 25 1 5 2 x ⎛1⎞ 46. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 51. ⎝4⎠ x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 3 1 5 25 125 f ( x) = ( 14 ) Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 5 x. 53. 1 5 25 125 g ( x) = log 5 x −2 −1 0 1 x 3 1 4 1 16 1 64 g ( x) = log 1 4 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x 16 4 1 x ⎛1⎞ 45. ⎝2⎠ 47. 1 25 x 1 5 2 16 4 1 4 1 1 16 1 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 1 4 x. so the function is F ( x) = − log 3 x. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x. x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 48. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x f ( x) = ( 12 ) x 4 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 8 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log1 2 x. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted right one unit. ∞) . 52. so the function is g ( x) = log 3 ( x − 1). This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis and shifted up one unit. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 5 x. 1 8 49. vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. so the function is H ( x) = 1 − log 3 x. so the function is h( x) = log3 x − 1. so the function is G ( x ) = log 3 (− x). First. . First. range: (−∞. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the y-axis. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted down one g ( x) = log1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 unit. 50.

∞) 59. range: (−∞. ∞) 60. ∞ ) . 56. 55.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. ∞) 57. ∞ ) .2 54. ∞) . 58. range: (−∞. ∞) 427 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: (2. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = 1 domain: (1. ∞ ) . ∞) . ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. ∞) 61. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. Inc. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. . range: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . range: (−∞.

∞ ) . ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞) 63. vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. ∞) 65. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: (−∞. ∞) . Inc. . 66. ∞) 428 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 69. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. ∞) . ∞ ) . ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. range: (−∞.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 62. 68. range: (−∞. ∞) 64. 67. ∞ ) . ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1.

the domain of f is (–6. we conclude log108 = 8. we obtain x < 2 or x > 2. Thus. range: (−∞. the domain of f is (−∞. 78. the domain of f is (–∞. Solving this inequality for x. ∞). ∞ ) . ∞ ) . range: (−∞. 85. the domain of f is (–∞. 73. 84. ∞) 75. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 77.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ∞). range: (−∞. 74. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. the domain of f is (–4. we obtain x < 7. Because log10 x = x. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. Thus. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 6 > 0. Thus. range: (−∞. Because log10 x = x. we conclude 10log 53 = 53. 79. ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. log1000 = log10 1000 = 3 because 103 = 1000. 82. we conclude log107 = 7. ∞) 81. 7) or (7. range: (−∞. 80. ∞ ) . Solving this inequality for x. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 7)2 > 0. ∞). 7). Solving this inequality for x. 2) or (2. Solving this inequality for x. Solving this inequality for x. 83. ∞) 86. Because 10log x = x. The domain of f consists of all x for which (x – 2)2 > 0.2 70. we obtain x < 2. . 2). ∞). The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 4 > 0. ∞) 76. The domain of f consists of all x for which 7 − x > 0. The domain of f consists of all x for which 2 – x > 0. 71. Inc. log100 = log10 100 = 2 because 102 = 100. we obtain x < 7 or x > 7. 0) . we conclude 10log33 = 33. 429 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because 10logx = x. ∞) 72. Thus. the domain of f is (−∞. we obtain x > –6. Solving this inequality for x. Thus. Thus. we obtain x > –4.

x 2 − 4 x − 12 > 0 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 3 ( log 7 7 ) = log 3 1 = 0 1 92. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. 110. x − 5 > 0 . 108. 89. Because eln x = x. log ( log 32 ) = log ( log 25 ) = log 5 = 1 5 2 5 2 5 107. . and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ∞ ) . For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − x − 2) to be real. log ( log 81) = log ( log 34 ) 2 3 2 3 93. we conclude eln 300 = 300. Because ln e x = x. 10 = x The solution is 10. Because eln x = x. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − 4 x − 12) to be real. 5 − x ⎝ ⎠ The boundary points are –1 and 5. Because eln x = x. 91. 4−3 = x 88. we conclude eln 5 x = 5 x 2 . e ln log 64 x = 2 3 2 64 3 = x x= ( 3 64 ) 2 = 42 = 16 The solution is 16. 2 97. Inc. 103. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 94. 102. 104.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 87. we conclude ln e7 = 7. Because ln e x = x. 2 98. we conclude e 1 ln e−7 = −7. −1) ∪ ( 5. ln 7 = ln e −7 Because ln e x = x. log 5 ( x + 4 ) = 2 52 = x + 4 25 = x + 4 21 = x The solution is 21. we conclude 10log 100. 101. x 2 − x − 2 > 0 . log 3 ( x − 1) = 2 32 = x − 1 9 = x −1 ( x + 2)( x − 6) = 0 The boundary points are –2 and 6. −1) ∪ ( 2. 105. ( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 The boundary points are –1 and 2. 109. log ( ln e ) = log1 = 0 95. The solution is 64 ⎩ 64 ⎭ x= Because ln e x = x. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ ⎟ to be real. e 106. so ln 6 = −6. 1 = ln e −6 e6 Because ln e x = x we conclude 1 ln e −6 = −6. Because eln x = x. and the solution set is {16}. x +1 ⎛ x +1 ⎞ 111. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. Because 10log x = x. 430 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 4 x = −3 ln1 = 0 because e0 = 1 . Because ln e x = x. 90. we conclude ln e13 x = 13 x. we conclude lne9x = 9x. and the solution set is {10}. 99. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 = 3 x. ∞ ) . ln e = log e e = 1 because e1 = e. we conclude 10log x 3 x = x. we conclude eln125 = 125. and the solution set is {21}. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. we conclude ln e6 = 6. Because 10log x = x. ∞ ) . so ln 7 = −7. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x2 − x − 2 = 0 96. we conclude eln 7 x = 7 x 2 . 1 1 = 43 64 1 ⎧1⎫ .

2 x−2 ⎛ x−2⎞ >0. −5) ∪ ( 2. and after one year was about 49.2 According to the function.8. f(0) = 88–15ln(0 + 1) = 88 The average score on the original exam was 88. g(x) is f(x) shifted right 2 units and upward 1 unit.2% of first-year college men will express antifeminist views in 2010. 130. – 127.5 f(4) = 88–15ln(4 + 1) = 63. after 10 months was about 52. b. after 8 months was about 55.49 ln 35 + 53 ≈ 26. f ( 35 ) = −7. 431 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 f ( 41) = −4.86 ln x + 32.86 ln 35 + 32. Inc. Answers may vary.5. 25.2% of first-year college women expressed antifeminist views in 2004. 131.2 According to the function. f(2) = 88–15ln(2 + 1) = 71. 119.9 f(6) = 88–15ln(6 + 1) = 58. the sound can rupture the human eardrum.5 ≈ 15. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 (6.49 ln 41 + 53 ≈ 25. after 4 months was about 63. ∞ ) . This underestimates the value in the graph by 1%. f ( x ) = −7. 2004 is 35 years after 1969. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0. f ( x ) = −4. a.5% of first-year college women will express antifeminist views in 2010.2. 118.86 ln x + 32. f (10) = 62 + 35 log(10 − 4) ≈ 89. 2010 is 41 years after 1969. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 ( 3. f ( x ) = −4. She is approximately 89.4% of her adult height. b.49 ln x + 53 f ( 41) = −7. 2004 is 35 years after 1969.49 ln x + 53 120. b. 117. f(13) = 62 + 35log(13–4) ≈ 95. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞.05 A normal conversation is about 65 decibels.9.2% of her adult height. .5 ≈ 14.4% of first-year college men expressed antifeminist views in 2004. 15. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ to be real.4 She is approximately 95. 115.8 f(8) = 88–15ln(8 + 1) = 55 f(10) = 88–15ln(10 + 1) = 52 f(12) = 88–15ln(12 + 1) = 49. 114.86 ln 41 + 32. 14.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.5 f ( 35 ) = −4.4 According to the function. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units upward. 128. 129. a. 113. g(x) is f(x) reflected about the x-axis. a. after 6 months was about 58.2 ×10−6 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 65. 26. f ( x ) = −7.3 × 106 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 188 Yes. 2010 is 41 years after 1969.5 According to the function. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units left. 112.5 The average score after 2 months was about 71.5. ⎟ x+5 ⎝ x+5⎠ The boundary points are –5 and 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6%. 116.

log 2 32 − log 2 2 = log 2 25 − log 2 2 = 5 − 1 = 4 c. Sample explanation: An earthquake of magnitude 8 on the Richter scale is 108− 4 = 104 = 10. . false. y = x. y = x . false. a. They are the same. a. log 4 60 < log 4 64 = 3 so log 4 60 < 3. Changes to make the statement true will vary. log 2 (8 ⋅ 4) = log 2 8 + log 2 4 148. log3 81 = log3 34 = 4 b. ∞ ) . 000 times as intense as an earthquake of magnitude 4. a. log 3 81 − logπ 1 4−0 4 = = log 2 2 8 − log 0. 146. Explanations will vary. 141. A sample change is: We cannot take the log of a negative number. 2 log3 9 = 2 log3 32 = 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 c. Inc. y = xx 135. log 2 8 + log 2 4 = log 2 23 + log 2 22 = 3 + 2 = 5 c.001 2 − (−3) 5 144. 140. log 2 8 3 = A sample change is: log 2 4 2 132. logbMN = logbM + logbN The sum of the logarithms of its factors. 145. The score falls below 65 after 9 months. log 2 32 = log 2 25 = 5 134. y = ln x . a. ⎛ 32 ⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 − log 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ y = x2. log 4 60 < 3 < log3 40 log3 40 > log 4 60 d e. makes sense 149. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = ex. Answers may vary. 147. true 143. is ( 0. false. A sample change is: The domain of f ( x ) = log 2 x 133. log3 92 = 2 log3 9 432 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense log 2 16 = log 2 24 = 4 136. b. 142. 137.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 139. log 4 ⎡log 3 ( log 2 8) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = log 4 ⎡⎣ log3 ( log 2 23 ) ⎤⎦ = log 4 [ log 3 3] = log 4 1 = 0 c. Changes to make the statement true will vary. b. b. makes sense 138. log 3 40 > log 3 27 = 3 so log3 40 > 3.

Inc. a. log b x 4 3 y = log x 4 y1/3 b = log x 4 + log y1/3 b b 1 = 4 log x + log y b 3 b b. log(1000x) = log1000 + log x = 3 + log x 6. log 6 3 = 9 log 6 3 b. 000 + log x = 4 + log x 7. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log100 = log x − 2 ⎝ 100 ⎠ 1/ 2 = log5 x 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − log5 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − ( log 5 52 + log 5 y 3 ) = 12 log 5 x − log 5 52 − log 5 y 3 = 12 log 5 x − 2 log 5 5 − 3log 5 y = 12 log 5 x − 2 − 3log 5 y 5.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ( x − 3)2 x 1 log x − 2 log 5 − 10 log y b b 4 b 1/ 4 2 = logb x − log b 5 − log b y10 = logb x1/ 4 − ( logb 25 − log b y10 ) a. 4.3 x log 5 25 y 3 1. log 5 (7 ⋅ 3) = log 5 7 + log 5 3 2.02 log 7 8. log(10. . log 7 2506 = log 2506 ≈ 4. = 2 + log x 2. a. log( x + 4) 2 = 2 log( x + 4) a. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 7 (7 x) = log 7 7 + log 7 x = 1 + log 7 x 4. log 7 2506 = ln 2506 ≈ 4. log 6 (7 ⋅ 11) = log 6 7 + log 6 11 b.3 6. 1 ln x 2 + ln( x + 5) 3 = ln x 2 + ln( x + 5)1/ 3 9 = logb x1/ 4 − log b 25 y10 = logb x1/ 4 25 y10 4 or log b 7. 2 log( x − 3) − log x = log( x − 3) 2 − log x ⎛ 23 ⎞ log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 23 − log8 x ⎝ x ⎠ = log ⎛ e5 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e5 − ln11 ⎝ 11 ⎠ = 5 − ln11 c. 1 ln 3 x = ln x1/ 3 = ln x 3 c. a. log8 (13 ⋅ 7) = log8 13 + log8 7 3. b.3 Section 3. log(100 x) = log100 + log x = ln x 2 ( x + 5)1/ 3 = ln x 2 3 x + 5 b. 000 x) = log10. log 25 + log 4 = log(25 ⋅ 4) = log100 = 2 b. ⎛7⎞ log 7 ⎜ ⎟ = log 7 7 − log 7 x = 1 − log 7 x ⎝ x⎠ 8. log(7 x + 6) − log x = log 7x + 6 x 433 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.02 ln 7 x 25 y10 Exercise Set 3. log 9 9x =log 9 9+log9 x = 1+log 9 x 5. 3. ⎛9⎞ log 9 ⎜ ⎟ = log 9 9 − log 9 x = 1 − log 9 x ⎝ x⎠ 9. Check Point Exercises 1.

ln 7 x = ln x 7 = 21. ⎛ 64 ⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ = log 4 64 − log 4 y ⎝ y ⎠ = 3 − log 4 y 27. log N–6 = –6log N log M −8 = −8log M 19. 29. 12. ⎛ e4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 4 − ln 8 = 4 ln e − ln 8 = 4 − ln 8 ⎝8⎠ 28. log b xy 3 = log b x + log b y 3 = log b x + 3log b y 1 1 ln x 7 23. log 3 ⎛ x = log ⎜ y ⎝ 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢ log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 3 1 1 = log x − log y 3 3 ⎛ 36 ⎞ 1/ 2 log 6 ⎜ ⎟ = log 6 36 − log 6 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log 6 ( x + 1) 2 434 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log b x 2 y = logb x 2 + log b y = 2 log b x + log b y 22. ln ex = ln(ex) 17. ⎛ x2 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = log b ( x 2 y ) − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = log b x 2 + log b y − log b z 2 = 2 log b x + log b y − 2 log b z 15. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1/ 2 log 4 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 4 x − log 4 64 = log 4 x − 3 64 2 ⎝ ⎠ 24. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb ( x 3 y ) − logb z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb x 3 + log b y − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = 3log b x + log b y − 2 log b z log b x 7 = 7 log b x 18. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1 log 5 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 5 x 2 − log 5 25 = log 5 x − 2 25 2 ⎝ ⎠ 25. 1 ln 5 x = ln x (1/ 5) = ln x 5 20. logbx3 = 3logbx 16. 11. log 100 x = log(100 x )1/ 2 1 = log(100 x) 2 1 = (log100 + log x) 2 1 = (2 + log x) 2 1 = 1 + log x 2 30. ⎛ e2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 2 − ln 5 = 2 ln e − ln 5 = 2 − ln 5 ⎝5⎠ 14. ⎛ 64 ⎞ 1 2 log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 64 − log8 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log8 ( x + 1) 2 1 2 1 ln(ex) 2 1 = (ln e + ln x) 2 1 = (1 + ln x) 2 1 1 = + ln x 2 2 = 31.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 10. . ⎛ 125 ⎞ log 5 ⎜ ⎟ = log 5 125 − log 5 y = 3 − log 5 y ⎝ y ⎠ 13. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log1000 = log x − 3 ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 26.

33. ⎛ 2x + 5 ⎞ log(2 x + 5) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ⎡ x3 x 2 + 1 ⎤ ln ⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ( x + 1) ⎦⎥ 48. ⎛ 96 ⎞ log 2 96 − log 2 3 = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 = 5 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 46. ln x + ln 3 = ln(3x) 45. ⎡100 x 3 3 5 − x ⎤ log ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ 3( x + 7) ⎦ = log100 + log x3 + log ( 5 − x ) 3 − log 3 − log ( x + 7 ) 1 xy 4 16 = log 2 x1/ 5 + log 2 y 4 / 5 − log 2 161/ 5 41. ⎡10 x 2 3 1 − x ⎤ log ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 7( x + 1) ⎦ 1 = 1 + 2 log x + log(1 − x) − log 7 − 2 log( x + 1) 3 3 5 5 = log10 + log x 2 + log 3 1 − x − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 2 1 = log5 x + log5 y − log5 52 / 3 3 3 2 1 2 = log5 x + log5 y − 3 3 3 36. log x + 7 log y = log x + log y 7 = log( xy 7 ) 435 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ 3x + 7 ⎞ log(3x + 7) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ = ln x3 + ln x 2 + 1 − ln( x + 1) 4 1 = 3ln x + ln( x 2 + 1) − 4 ln( x + 1) 2 49. 1 4 1 = log 2 x + log 2 y − log 2 16 5 5 5 1 4 4 = log 2 x + log 2 y − 5 5 5 37. 38. 2 . ln x + ln 7 = ln(7 x) 44. ⎛ x⎞ x log 5 = log ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 5 1 1 = log x − log y 5 5 log b 1/ 2 39. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 2 x y4 z5 = log x1/ 3 + log b y 4 − log b z 5 b 1 = log b x + 4 log b y − 5log b z 3 40. 5 ⎛ 405 ⎞ log 3 405 − log 3 5 = log 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = log3 81 =4 47. log x + 3 log y = log x + log y 3 = log( xy 3 ) 50. 1 = 2 + 3log x + log(5 − x) − log 3 − 2 log( x + 7) 3 log 5 + log 2 = log(5 ⋅ 2) = log10 = 1 42. x y3 log b 3 z = logb x1/ 2 + log b y 3 − log b z 3 = 34.3 1 32.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. − ln ( x + 3) 1 = 4 ln x + ln ( x 2 + 3) − 5 ln ( x + 3) 2 x2 y 25 = log5 x 2 / 3 + log 5 y1/ 3 − log 5 251/ 3 log 5 ⎡ x4 x2 + 3 ⎤ ln ⎢ 5 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ( x + 3) ⎥⎦ ⎡ x 4 ( x 2 + 3)1/ 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ( x + 3) ⎦ = ln x 4 + ln ( x 2 + 3) 1 logb x + 3log b y − 3logb z 2 3 35. log 250 + log 4 = log1000 = 3 43. Inc.

1 3ln x − ln y = ln x 3 − ln y1/ 3 3 64. 1 1 ln x + ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 3 ( 62. 65. 4 x3 ) 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 (log 5 x + log 5 y ) − 2 log 5 ( x + 1) 2 1 = log5 xy − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 xy ( x + 1) 2 1 ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) + 2log 4 ( x + 1) 3 1 x = log 4 + log 4 ( x + 1)2 3 y ⎡⎛ x ⎞ = log 4 ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎣⎝ y ⎠ 1/ 3 8 ln (x +9) − 4 ln x = ln( x + 9)8 − ln x 4 = ln ( 1 log x − log y 4 4 3 x 1 = log 4 y 3 x = log 3 4 y 1 1 2 ln x − ln y = ln x 2 − ln y 2 2 ( x + 6) 1 ( log x + log y ) 2 1 = (log xy ) 2 = log( xy )1/ 2 ⎛ = log ⎜ 4 ⎝ ⎛ x3 ⎞ ⎛ x3 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1/ 3 ⎟ or ln ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 59. ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎛ x2 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1 ⎟ or ln ⎜ 2 ⎜ y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln( x + 6) − 3ln x = ln( x + 6) 4 − ln x3 = ln 60. 4 ln x + 7 ln y − 3ln z ( x + 9)8 x4 ⎤ ( x + 1) 2 ⎥ ⎥⎦ = log 4 ⎡( x + 1) 2 3 xy ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 3ln x + 5 ln y − 6 ln z = ln x3 + ln y 5 − ln z 6 = ln x3 y 5 z6 436 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 ln x + ln y = ln x1/ 2 + ln y 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ln ⎜ x 2 y ⎟ or ln y x ⎝ ⎠ ( 52. ( ) = ln x 3 y or ln y 3 x 1 ) 53. ⎛ x5 ⎞ 5 ln x − 2 ln y = ln x5 − ln y 2 = ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 56. ⎛ x7 ⎞ 7 ln x − 3ln y = ln x 7 − ln y 3 = ln ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 57.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 51. 61. 5log b x + 6 log b y = log b x 5 + log b y 6 55. 2logbx + 3logby = logbx2 + logby3 = logb(x2y3) 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. x4 y7 z3 = log xy = logb ( x 5 y 6 ) 58. = ln x 4 + ln y 7 − ln z 3 ) = ln 63. . 66.

log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − log15 − log( x + 2) = log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − ( log15 + log( x + 2) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 4 ) − log (15( x + 2) ) x ( x − 4) 2 = log 15( x + 2) x( x + 2)( x − 2) = log 15( x + 2) x( x − 2) = log 15 71. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 5 13 = log( x + 2) log 2 log13 ≈ 1.2304 log 0.6944 ln14 74. log 6 17 = 73.5 ≈ 1.2340 ln π = log x + log ( x 2 − 1) − ( log 7 + log( x + 1) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) − log ( 7( x + 1) ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) 7( x + 1) x( x + 1)( x − 1) = log 7( x + 1) x( x − 1) = log 7 70. y = log15 x = log x log15 81.PreCalculus 4E 67.3 1 [2 ln( x + 5) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 = [ln( x + 5) 2 − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 ⎡ ( x + 5)2 ⎤ = ⎢ ln 3 ⎣ x( x 2 − 4) ⎥⎦ ⎡ ( x + 5) 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 4) ⎦ 1/ 3 ( x + 5) 2 = ln 3 x( x 2 − 4) 68.4456 log 0. log16 57. logπ 400 = 79.2 ≈ 1. log x + log ( x − 1) − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 log17 ≈ 1.5812 log 6 72.5 = ln 87. y = log 2 ( x + 2) = ln 400 ≈ 5.4595 ln16 75.1 17 = log17 ≈ −1. logπ 63 = ln 63 ≈ 3. log 0. log14 87.5937 log 5 437 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 ⎡5ln( x + 6) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 25) ⎤⎦ 3⎣ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ ⎥ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎢ x( x 2 − 25) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ 3 = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 25) ⎦ 69.2 = ln 57. Inc.1 76. y = log3 x = log x log 3 80.3 77. log 0. . Section 3.6193 ln π 78.3 19 = log19 ≈ −2.

log b 8 = log b 23 = 3log b 2 = 3 A 99. false. t= 438 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. false. ln ee = 0 91. false. log x+2 = log( x + 2) − log( x − 1) x −1 85. false. log b 84. true. a. true. true. true. e x = ln ee 103. true. ln e = 1 90. false. false. 88. ln(5 x) + ln1 = ln 5 x + 0 = ln 5 x 96. product rule 101.5 weeks to master 30 signs.03 ⎢⎣ 65 − 30 ⎥⎦ 1 ⎛ 65 ⎞ t= ln ⎜ ⎟ 0.63 It will take the chimpanzee a little more than 20. ln( x ⋅ 1) = ln x + ln1 95. true. quotient rule 86. log 3 7 = 1 87. log b log b 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞2 = logb ⎜ ⎟ 27 ⎝ 27 ⎠ 1 ⎛2⎞ = log b ⎜ 3 ⎟ 2 ⎝3 ⎠ 1 = ( logb 2 − log b 33 ) 2 1 = ( logb 2 − 3log b 3) 2 1 3 = log b 2 − log b 3 2 2 1 3 = A− C 2 2 log 7 1 1 = log 3 = log 3 log 7 log 7 3 102. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = log b 3 − logb 4 1 = log b 3 2 − log 22 1 log b 3 − 2 log 2 2 1 = C − 2A 2 = 104. log 4 ( 2 x ) = 3log 4 ( 2 x ) 3 1 ⎛ A ⎞ t = ln ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ A− N ⎠ 1 ⎡ 65 ⎤ ln 0. Inc. b. This means that the 100 times louder sound will be 20 decibels louder.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 82. 89. false. y = log3 ( x − 2) = ( ) ( ) 92. log( x + 3) − log(2 x) = log = log b 2 + log b 3 = A + C 98. false. x log10 x = x ⋅ x = x 2 94. ln 8 x3 = ln 23 x3 = ln ( 2 x ) = 3ln ( 2 x ) log( x − 2) log 3 3 93. . ln x + ln(2 x) = ln ( x ⋅ 2 x) ) = ln 2 x 2 3 = log b 3 − log b 2 = C − A 2 83. log b 81 = log b 34 = 4log b 3 = 4C 100.03 ⎝ 35 ⎠ t ≈ 20. log b 6 = log b ( 2 ⋅ 3) 97. a. x+3 2x x ⎛ I ⎞ D = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ ⎛ 100 I ⎞ D1 = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ = 10 log (100 I − I 0 ) = 10 log100 + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 = 10(2) + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 = log b ⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎟⎟ 16 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ I ⎞ = 20 + 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ This is 20 more than the loudness level of the softer sound. b.

3 105. log 25 log x log100 x = log100 115. c. ) A sample change is: logb x3 + y 3 cannot be simplified. If we were taking the logarithm of a product and not a sum. A sample change is: logb ( xy ) = 5logb ( xy ) 5 = 5 ( logb x + logb y ) a. just vertical shifts of y = log x. ∞). – 120. A sample change is: log 7 49 log 7 49 = = log 7 49 = 2 . . does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense b. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 121. reflect the graph of y = log3x about the x-axis. makes sense 123. 122. Inc. Answers may vary. ( log x log 3 x = . top graph: y = log 3 x bottom graph: y = log100 x ln x ln 3 Comparing graphs of log b x for b > 1. ( ) logb x3 y 3 = logb x3 + logb y 3 = 3logb x + 3logb y 128. the graph of the equation with the largest b will be on the top in the interval (0. Explanations will vary. makes sense 124. but log 7 7 1 Using the product rule. 127. false. log(10 x) = log x + 1 and l log(0. false. these two graphs are log 7 49 − log 7 7 = 2 − 1 = 1 . Changes to make the statement true will vary.1x) = log x − 1. – 112. y = log 3 x = b. 125. ⎛ x ⎞2 x = log 4 ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ Sample explanation: log 4 ⎛x⎞ 1 log 4 ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ y⎠ 1 = ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) 2 1 1 = log 4 x − log 4 y 2 2 = 114. true 126. false. = 5logb x + 5logb y top graph: y = log100 x bottom graph: y = log 3 x 439 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 113. 1 To obtain the graph of y = 2 + log3x. shift the graph of y = log3x two units upward. Hence. To obtain the graph of y = –log3x. To obtain the graph of y = log3(x + 2). 116. 1) and on the bottom in the interval (1. we would have been able to simplify as follows. shift the graph of y = log3x two units left. Answers may vary. log 3 log x log 25 x = .PreCalculus 4E Section 3.

∞ ) 440 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) ( −3.3} . Inc. log 9 log 32 2 log 3 = = log 7 log 7 log 7 2A = B 130. Publishing as Prentice Hall. e 132.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 129. ⎪⎩ 2 ⎪⎭ asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ( 0. 1/ h x⎞ ⎛ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ h⎠ 133. log 7 9 = ⎛ 8x ⎞ ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ = e ⎝ 2x ⎠ x2 + 2 x = 4 x + 3 x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x +1 = 0 or x−3= 0 x = −1 x=3 5 131. Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 1. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = x( x − 7) = 3 134. log e = log10 e = ln e 1 = ln10 ln10 135. a( x − 2) = b(2 x + 3) ax − 2a = 2bx + 3b ax − 2bx = 2a + 3b x(a − 2b) = 2a + 3b 2a + 3b x= a − 2b asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −3 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) 2. ln 8 x5 − ln 2 x 2 =e ln ( 4 x 3 ) x+2 1 = 4x + 3 x ⎛ x+2 ⎞ ⎛1⎞ x(4 x + 3) ⎜ ⎟ = x(4 x + 3) ⎜ x ⎟ x 4 + 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ x( x + 2) = 4 x + 3 = 4 x3 log b ( x + h) − log b x h x+h log b x = h ⎛ h⎞ log b ⎜1 + ⎟ x⎠ ⎝ = h 1 ⎛ h⎞ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ h x⎠ ⎝ The solution set is {−1. 2 x − 7x = 3 2 x − 7x − 3 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−7) ± (−7) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) x= 7 ± 61 2 ⎪⎧ 7 ± 61 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. . ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0.

. Now ( x + 6 ) is always positive. f ( x ) = log 3 x + 6 The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x>0 domain: {x | x > 0} or ( 0. ∞ ) 2 The argument of the logarithm must be positive. ∞ ) . domain of g = (1. 9. f ( x ) = 3x + 6 domain: {x | x is a real number} or ( −∞. 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 y = 101 102 y = 101 2y = 1 y= asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. log 3 ( x + 6 ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. f ( x ) = log 3 ( x + 6 ) The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x+6 > 0 x > −6 domain: {x | x > −6} or ( −6. ∞ ) 1 2 1 1 3 13. ∞ ) . 10. ∞ ) 100 y = 10 (10 ) 5. log 3 10 = log10 3 = 14. Let log100 10 = y range of f = range of g = ( −∞. log 2 ( log 3 81) = log 2 ( log 3 34 ) = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 range of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. Inc. 2 x = −6 domain: {x | x ≠ 0} or ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 441 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 3. log 2 8 + log 5 25 = log 2 23 + log5 52 = 3+ 2 = 5 asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 1 domain of f = ( 0. ∞ ) . −6 ) ∪ ( −6. 7. except when 4. ∞ ) 11. ∞ ) log 3 1 1 = log 3 2 = log 3 3−2 = −2 9 3 12.

ln e 24.08 ⎞ Monthly: A = 8000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 10.170 12⋅3 ( ⎛ 0.162 10.1 (10 ) 2 y 102 y = ln x 2 − ln y 3 − ln ( z − 2 ) 1 1 10 = 10−1 = = ln x − ⎡⎣ ln y 3 + ln ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ = ln x − ln ⎡⎣ y 3 ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ 2 y = −1 ⎡ x ⎤ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎣ y ( z − 2) ⎦ 1 y=− 2 π 20.162 = 8 Interest returned will be $8 more if compounded continuously. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ log 3 ⎜ log 2 ⎟ = log 3 ⎜ log 2 3 ⎟ 8⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 23.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 15. . 1 ln x − 3ln y − ln ( z − 2 ) 2 ln ( e19 x 20 ) = ln e19 + ln x 20 = 19 + 20 ln x 442 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ) xy − log1000 = log ( xy ) 2 − log103 1 1 log ( xy ) − 3 2 1 = ( log x + log y ) − 3 2 1 1 = log x + log y − 3 2 2 = 22. logπ π 21. Continuously: A = 8000e0.08(3) = π ≈ 10.1 = y 25. = log 3 ( log 2 2−3 ) = log 3 ( −3) 1 1 8 log 7 x − log 7 y = log 7 x8 − log 7 y 3 3 ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ y3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = not possible This expression is impossible to evaluate. ⎛ xy ⎞ log ⎜ = log ⎜ 1000 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 26. 100 y = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 7 log 5 x + 2 log 5 x = log5 x 7 + log 5 x 2 = log5 ( x 7 ⋅ x 2 ) = 7 7 = log5 x9 18. log100 0. 16. 6log6 5 = 5 17.170 − 10. 10log13 = 13 19.

04 ln 5 ⎧ ln134 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. . approximately 3. ln7}.4 Check Point Exercises 1.10. The solutions are 0 and (approximately) 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.10 x= 2 ⎧ ln 9 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 2 x ln 3 − ln 3 = x ln 7 + ln 7 2 x ln 3 − x ln 7 = ln 3 + ln 7 x(2 ln 3 − ln 7) = ln 3 + ln 7 ln 3 + ln 7 2 ln 3 − ln 7 x ≈ 12. 443 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x + 6 = 2x − 6 2.04. x ex − 7 = 0 x b. − 7 )( e x − 1) = 0 or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 7 ex = 1 ln e = ln 7 ln e x = ln1 x x = ln 7 x=0 The solution set is {0.4 Section 3.90 The solution set is {log 8000} . 3 x−6 7e 2 x = 63 e2 x = 9 ln e 2 x = ln 9 2 x = ln 9 ln 9 ≈ 1. Inc. 5 = 125 3 x −6 5 = 53 (2 x − 1) ln 3 = ( x + 1) ln 7 3x − 6 = 3 3x = 9 x=3 b. log 2 ( x − 4) = 3 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. e 2 x − 8e x + 7 = 0 5. 5x = 134 ln 5 = ln134 x ln 5 = ln134 ln134 x= ≈ 3. 3. a. 6.11 8 x + 2 = 4 x −3 (2 ) 3 2 x+2 3 x +6 ( ) = 22 x= x −3 = 2 2 x −6 (e x = −12 a.95. 32 x −1 = 7 x +1 ln 32 x −1 = ln 7 x +1 4. ⎩ 2 ⎭ approximately 1. ⎩ ln 5 ⎭ approximately 3. 3 10 x = 8000 log10 x = log 8000 x log10 = log 8000 x = log 8000 ≈ 3.90. 2 = x−4 8= x−4 12 = x Check: log ( x − 4) = 3 2 log (12 − 4) = 3 2 log 8 = 3 2 3=3 The solution set is {12}.

.02) 4t = 3600 1000(1.02 ≈ 16. 7. ln( x − 3) = ln(7 x − 23) − ln( x + 1) 7 x − 23 ln( x − 3) = ln x +1 7 x − 23 x−3= x +1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 7 x − 23 For a risk of 7%.6 4t ln(1. The solution set is {4.46.77 x 6e12.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions b. t= 444 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 After approximately 16.6 ln 3.08 ⎞ 3600 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4t 4t ⎛ 0. ln 3x = 2 eln 3 x = e 2 3x = e2 x= e2 ≈ 2.01. ⎧ e2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 0 = x − 3x − 10 0 = ( x − 5)( x + 2) x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = 5 or x = −2 Check Checking 5: log 5 + log(5 − 3) = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 1=1 Checking –2: log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log(−2) + log(−2 − 3) 0 1 Negative numbers do not have logarithms so –2 does not check.08 ⎞ 1000 ⎜1_ ⎟ = 3600 4 ⎠ ⎝ 1000(1 + 0. ⎩3⎭ approximately 2.02) = ln 3.01 12. let R = 7 in R = 6e12.77 x = 7 6 ⎛7⎞ ln e12.02) 4t = ln 3. 2 10.6 4 ln1.77 x = 7 e12.2 years. The solution set is {5}. 5} ⎛ e2 ⎞ 4 ln 3 ⎜ ⎟ = 8 ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln e2 = 8 4(2) = 8 8=8 9.02) 4t = 3600 (1.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log x( x − 3) = 1 101 = x( x − 3) 10 = x 2 − 3x x= ln ( 76 ) ≈ 0. the risk of a car accident is 7%. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ r⎞ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ nt ⎛ 0.77 For a blood alcohol concentration of 0. the $1000 will grow to an accumulated value of $3600. 4 ln 3x = 8 8.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎛7⎞ 12. Inc.46 3 x 2 − 2 x − 3 = 7 x − 23 Check 4 ln 3x = 8 x 2 − 9 x + 20 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 0 x = 4 or x = 5 Both values produce true statements.

Inc. 42 x −1 = 64 42 x −1 = 43 2x − 1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 The solution is 2. 32 x +1 = 27 10.8 ln x = −12.3 29.8 − 12.4 2. 2 x = 26 x=6 The solution is 6. 5x = 3 3 x= 5 The solution is 5 = 625 x 5 x = 54 x=4 The solution set is {4}. 29.3 x ≈ 11. and the solution set is {6} . 5.8 log e x = 12.8 −29. 3x = 81 ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . and the solution set is {3} . Section 3. . ⎩2⎭ 445 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and the solution set is {2} .8 − 12. 4. 32 x = 8 (2 ) 5 x = 23 5x = 125 2 5 x = 23 5x = 53 x=3 The solution is 3. 53 x −1 = 125 53 x −1 = 53 3x − 1 = 3 3x = 4 4 x= 3 x 3x = 34 x=4 The solution set is {4}.3ln x = −29. x= 5 2 ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3ln x = 25 32 x +1 = 33 2x + 1 = 3 2x = 2 x =1 The solution set is {1}. 5 ⎩5⎭ 4 x = 32 (2 ) 2 x = 25 2 2 x = 25 22 x −1 = 32 2x = 5 22 x −1 = 25 2x − 1 = 5 2x = 6 x=3 The solution is 3. Solve equation when f ( x) = 25 .4 f ( x) = 54. −12.8 x = e 12. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .3 ln x 6. ⎩3⎭ 2 = 64 9.277 An annual income of approximately $11. 3. 3 ⎧3⎫ . and the solution set is {3} . 54.3 7.000 corresponds to 25% of Americans reporting fair or poor health. 8.PreCalculus 4E 11. Exercise Set 3.

⎩ 6⎭ 2x = − 446 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7 7 4 3 x−2 6 x−2 6 = 7 1 = 72 x−2 1 = 6 2 2 ( x − 2 ) = 6 (1) ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 2 ⎩2⎭ 53 x = 54 3x = 4 16. 3 x 3 ⎧3⎫ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 52 − x = 18. and the solution set is {5}. = 33 12. .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 17. 3 = 27 1 31− x = 3 3 31− x = 3−3 1 − x = −3 − x = −4 x=4 The solution set is {4}. ⎩3⎭ 2x − 4 = 6 1 13. 4x = (2 ) 2 x = 1 2 1 1 22 22 x = 2 − 12 1 2 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 2⎠ 4 1 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution is − . 4 ⎩ 4⎭ 2x = − 1 125 1 2− x 5 = 3 5 52− x = 5−3 2 − x = −3 − x = −5 x=5 The solution set is {5}. 2 x = 10 1− x 14. Inc. 9x = (3 ) 2 x = 1 3 3 1 1 33 − 13 32 x = 3 1 3 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 3⎠ 6 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . = 54 x= = 6 6 = 62 x −3 1 = 4 2 2 ( x − 3) = 4 (1) 125 x = 625 (5 ) x −3 4 x −3 4 32 x = 33 2x = 3 3 x= 2 The solution is 6 x=5 The solution set is {5}. 1 2x − 6 = 4 2 x = 10 x=5 The solution is 5. 9 x = 27 (3 ) 2 x 15. and the solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .

(2 ) 3 x +3 ( ) = 24 25.48 9 e x +1 = e x+4 = ⎧ 4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .83 x = ln 0. 5x = 17 28.83 ≈ –0.69 ln19 1 5 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .83 ln e x = ln 0.53 5 1 e2 x x+4 e = e −2 x x + 4 = −2 x 3 x = −4 4 x=− 3 30.59 ln10 24. x −1 ln e x = 5.76 ln 5 x+2 23−3 x = 22 x + 4 x=− e x = 5. 9e x = 107 107 ex = 9 107 ln e x = ln 9 107 x = ln ≈ 2. 19 x = 143 x ln 19 = ln 143 ln143 x= ≈ 1.30 5 ln 3.07 ln 8.4 8 x +3 = 16 x −1 19. .91 x ln e5 x = ln 659 ln10 = ln 3.7 x = ln 5. ⎩ 5⎭ 21.07 ln10 x = ln 8. 13 = x The solution set is {13} . e x = 0.07 x ln10 = ln 8.91 ln10 447 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10 x = 8. 81− x = 4 x + 2 20.7 ≈ 1. e5 x = 659 10 = 3.91 ≈ 0. 27.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.7 31. ⎩ 3⎭ 23.74 23 x + 9 = 2 4 x − 4 3x + 9 = 4 x − 4 26. 5e x = 23 23 ex = 5 23 ln e x = ln 5 23 x = ln ≈ 1. (2 ) 3 1− x ( ) = 22 3 − 3x = 2 x + 4 −5 x = 1 22.07 x= ≈ 0. 1 e x +1 e = e −1 x + 1 = −1 x = −2 The solution set is {−2} .91 x x= x ln10 = ln 3.19 ln 5 x = ln17 x ln 5 = ln17 ln17 x= ≈ 1. 29. Inc.91 x= 3e5 x = 1977 ln 659 ≈ 1.

2 7 ln 0. 33. 273 ⎞ x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 1. 5 x− 3 = 137 ln 5 x− 3 = ln137 (x – 3) ln 5 = ln 137 ln137 x −3 = ln 5 ln137 x = 3+ ≈ 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall.80 ≈ x 5 x = ln10.2 ln 3x / 7 = ln 0. Inc. 476 e5 x − 3 = 10. 40. 250 (4x – 5)ln e = ln 11. 1 – ln 793 ≈ –1. 250 ln e 4 x − 5 = ln11.09 ln 7 38. ln 7 x + 2 = ln 410 ( x + 2) ln 7 = ln 410 ln 410 x+2= ln 7 ln 410 x= − 2 ≈ 1. e5 x − 3 − 2 = 10. .58 4 448 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.14 5 39.25 ln 3 41. 478 (2 x + 3) ln 5 = ( x − 1) ln 3 2 x ln 5 + 3ln 5 = x ln 3 − ln 3 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x ln 3 − 2 x ln 5 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x(ln 3 − 2 ln 5) 3ln 5 + ln 3 =x ln 3 − 2ln 5 −2. 478 + 3 ≈ 2.250 ln11. 4e7 x = 10. 478 ln e5 x − 3 = ln10.48 0.2 7 x ln 3 = 7 ln 0. 478 (5 x − 3) ln e = ln10.00 8 x= 7 x + 2 = 410 ln10.2 x= ≈ –10.3 x = 813 3x / 7 = 0. 52x + 3 = 3x 2–x1+ 3 ln 5 = ln 3x −1 5 x − 3 = ln10.2 x ln 3 = ln 0. 243 e 4 x – 5 = 11. 35. 250 + 5 x= ≈ 3.3ln 7 e1−8 x = 7957 ln e1−8 x = ln 7957 (1 – 8x) ln e = ln 7957 1 – 8x = ln 7957 8x = 1 – ln 7957 1 – ln 7957 x= ≈ –1. 478 + 3 36. e1− 5 x = 793 ln e1− 5 x = ln 793 (1 − 5 x)(ln e) = ln 793 1 − 5 x = ln 793 5 x = 1 − ln 793 x= 34.45 5 e 4 x − 5 − 7 = 11. 273 ⎞ 7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 1 ⎛ 10.12 7 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 37.3 x = ln 813 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 32. 478 70. 273 e7 x = 4 ⎛ 10.06 ln 5 ln 70. 273 10.3x ln 7 = ln 813 ln 813 x= ≈ 11.250 4x – 5 = ln 11. 273 ⎞ ln e7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎛ 10.

4 7 2 x +1 = 3 x + 2 ln 7 2 x +1 = ln 3x + 2 46. ln x = 3 e3 = x 20. 45.PreCalculus 4E 42.58 49. or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 2 ex = 1 ln e x = ln 2 ln e x = ln1 3x + 2 = 0 (e 3x = 1 log 3x = log(−2) log 3x = log1 does not exist log 3 = 0 0 x= log 3 x=0 The solution set is {0}. 48. 32 x + 3x − 2 = 0 (3x + 2)(3x − 1) = 0 − 2 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 2 = 0 e2 x = −3 ln e 2 x = ln 6 ln e 2 x = ln(−3) 2 x = ln 6 ln(−3) does not exist.69. ln x = 2 e2 = x 7. e 4 x − 3e 2 x − 18 = 0 ( e2 x − 6 )( e2 x + 3) = 0 + 8 )( e 2 x − 3) = 0 50.09 x = ln 7 ln 3 2− ln 7 (e e 2 x − 6 = 0 or e 2 x + 3 = 0 e2 x = 6 x 47. Inc. 2x + 4 = 0 2 x = −4 ln 2 x = ln ( −4 ) − 3)( e x + 1) = 0 ex − 3 = 0 does not exist or e x + 1 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −1 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x = ln(−1) (e 2x = 3 ln 2 x = ln 3 x ln 2 = ln 3 ln 3 ln 2 x ≈ 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 3 x = 4 34 = x 81 = x e 4 x + 5e 2 x − 24 = 0 2x 2x − 3 = 0 x= x = ln 3 no solution The solution set is {ln 3}. log 5 x = 3 53 = x e2 x + 8 = 0 e 2 x = −8 ln e 2 x = ln(−8) 2 x = ln(−8) or e 2 x − 3 = 0 e2 x = 3 ln e 2 x = ln 3 2 x = ln 3 ln 3 ln(−8) does not exist x= 2 ln 3 x= ≈ 0.09 ≈ x 449 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.39 ≈ x 52.55 2 125 = x 51. ln 2).90 x= 2 e 2 x − 3e x + 2 = 0 43.10. (2 x + 1) ln 7 = ( x + 2) ln 3 ln 3 2 x + 1 = ( x + 2) ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x + 1 = x + ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x − x = −1 ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 ⎞ 2 ln 3 ⎛ −1 x⎜2 − ⎟= ln 7 ⎠ ln 7 ⎝ 2 ln 3 −1 ≈ 0. 22 x + 2 x − 12 = 0 (2 x + 4)(2 x − 3) = 0 e 2 x − 2e x − 3 = 0 x 3x − 1 = 0 3 x = −2 x = ln 2 x=0 The solution set is {0. Section 3. . ln 6 ≈ 0. The solutions are 0 and approximately 0. The solutions is approximately 1. 44.

32 = 4 x + 1 31 = 4 x 31 =x 4 7. log 7 ( x + 2) = −2 1 3 ln x = − x+2 eln x = e − x=e x 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 4 ( x + 5) = 3 60. Inc.39. ⎩4⎭ 5 ln 2 x = 20 ln 2 x = 4 eln 2 x = e4 2 x = e4 x= 7 + 3ln x = 6 3ln x = −1 x+2 64 = 3x + 2 59.39 62 = 3x 62 =x 3 20.75 = x 65. ln x + 4 = 1 eln x+4 = e1 x+4 =e log 2 (4 x + 1) = 5 x + 4 = e2 2 = 4x + 1 5 x = e 2 − 4 ≈ 3. 61. x 1 −1 3 3 ≈ 0. log 5 x + log 5 ( 4 x − 1) = 1 log 5 ( 4 x 2 − x ) = 1 4 x2 − x = 5 4 x2 − x − 5 = 0 (4 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = −1 4 x = –1 does not check because log 5 (−1) does not exist. ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .61 x 62. 1 2 eln x = e −1/ 2 43 = 3 x + 2 58. 6 + 2 ln x = 5 2 ln x = −1 x−4 7 −2 = 1 = 49 48 −1 = 49 −1.30 2 450 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 53.67 ≈ x 64. log 3 ( x − 4) = −3 e5 ≈ 74.21 2 e4 ≈ 27. 4 = x+5 3 e ln 2 x = e5 59 = x 54.72 ln x + 3 = 1 eln log 4 (3 x + 2) = 3 x+3 = e1 x+3 = e x + 3 = e2 x = e 2 − 3 ≈ 4.98 ≈ 57. 6 ln 2 x = 30 ln 2 x = 5 2 x = e5 log 5 ( x − 7) = 2 x= 5 = x−7 2 32 = x 55. . ln x = − x−4 x x = e −1/ 2 ≈ 0. 3−3 = 1 = 27 1 4 = 27 4.04 ≈ 56.

Inc. log 3 ⎣⎡( x − 5)( x + 3) ⎦⎤ = 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = log 3 9 + 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 + 2 ( x − 5)( x + 3) = 32 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 4 x 2 – 2 x – 15 = 9 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 24 = 0 32 = x + 4 ( x − 6)( x + 4) = 0 9= x+4 x = 6 or x = −4 x = –4 does not check because log 3 (−4 − 5) does not exist. Section 3. The solution set is {3}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 69. 5= x 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − log 2 4 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − 2 log 2 ( x − 1) + log 2 ( x + 1) = 3 log 2 ⎡⎣( x − 1)( x + 1) ⎤⎦ = 3 72. x + 2 = 8 x − 40 7 x = 42 x=6 451 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3= x 73. log 4 ( x + 2 ) − log 4 ( x − 1) = 1 log 3 ( x − 5 ) + log 3 ( x + 3) = 2 71. 68. log 2 ( x − 6) + log 2 ( x − 4) − log 2 x = 2 log 2 log 2 ( x + 2 ) − log 2 ( x − 5 ) = 3 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟=3 ⎝ x−5⎠ x+2 = 23 x−5 x+2 =8 x−5 x + 2 = 8( x − 5) ( x − 6)( x − 4) =2 x ( x − 6)( x − 4) = 22 x x 2 − 10 x + 24 = 4 x x 2 − 14 x + 24 = 0 x − 12 = 0 or ( x − 12)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {12} since log2 (2−6) = log2 (−4) is not possible. The solution set is {4}. The solution set is {6}. 67. 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 3 log 2 ( x − 1) = 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 23 21 = x − 1 x −1 = 8 x2 = 9 x = 3 or x = –3 x = –3 does not check because log 2 (−3 − 1) does not exist.4 log 6 ( x + 5 ) + log 6 x = 2 70. . log 6 x( x + 5) = 2 x( x + 5) = 6 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ x −1 ⎠ x+2 = 41 x −1 x+2 =4 x −1 x + 2 = 4(x – 1) x + 2 = 4x – 4 3x = 6 x=2 2 x 2 + 5 x = 36 x 2 + 5 x − 36 = 0 (x + 9)(x – 4) = 0 x = –9 or x = 4 x = –9 does not check because log 6 (−9 + 5) does not exist.PreCalculus 4E 66.

⎩3⎭ 76. 1 5 x ≈ 0. x + 4 = 4x 4 = 3x 4 x= 3 77. Inc. x2 = log112 7 x2 = 112 7 x 2 = 784 x = ±28 –28 is rejected. log 3x − 3 = 4 x + 4 { }. x+4 = log(5 x + 1) 2 x+4 = 5x + 1 2 x + 4 = 10 x + 2 { }. 452 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x − 3) x =2 ( x + 2) log x3 = log125 x3 = 125 x − 3x x+2 4( x + 2) = x 2 − 3x 22 = 3log x = log125 2 x=5 81.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 74.22 x= log( x + 4) = log x + log 4 log( x + 4) = log 4 x 82. The solution set is {28}. −9 x = −2 2 9 x ≈ 0. so the solution set is {8} 75. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 4 x + 8 = x − 3x 2 log( x + 4) − log 2 = log(5 x + 1) log 0 = x − 7x − 8 2 0 = ( x + 1)( x − 8) x +1 = 0 or x−8 = 0 x = −1 x=8 log2 (−1−3) = log2(−4) does not exist. log 2 ( x − 3) + log 2 x − log 2 ( x + 2) = 2 log 2 80. The solution set is x+7 = log(7 x + 1) 3 x+7 = 7x + 1 3 x + 7 = 21x + 3 −20 x = −4 log(3x − 3) = log(4 x + 4) 78. .2 log(5 x + 1) = log(2 x + 3) + log 2 log(5 x + 1) = log(4 x + 6) 5x + 1 = 4x + 6 x=5 x= 83. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {5}. log(2 x − 1) = log(3x + 9) 2 x − 1 = 3x + 9 79. log( x − 2) + log 5 = log100 log(5 x − 10) = log100 5 x − 10 = 100 5 x = 110 2 log x = log 25 x = 22 log x = log 25 2 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 –5 is rejected. log(2 x − 1) = log( x + 3) + log 3 84. The solution set is 2 log x − log 7 = log112 log x 2 − log 7 = log112 log(3x − 3) = log( x + 1) + log 4 −7 = x This value is rejected. −10 = x This value is rejected. log( x + 7) − log 3 = log(7 x + 1) log ⎧4⎫ This value is rejected.

x −5 x −1 = ln x+4 x+2 x − 5 x −1 = x+4 x+2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = ( x + 4)( x − 1) ln ln( x − 4) + ln( x + 1) = ln( x − 8) ln( x 2 − 3 x − 4) = ln( x − 8) x 2 − 3x − 10 = x 2 + 3x − 4 x 2 − 3x − 4 = x − 8 −6 x = 6 x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 x = −1 –1 is rejected. The solution set is {2}. The solution set is { }.67 x= log( x 2 + x − 6) = log14 x 2 + x − 6 = 14 x 2 + x − 20 = 0 90. Inc. 86.09 3 or ln x = −3 x = e −3 x ≈ 0. 2 ln x − 6 = 0 2 ln x = 6 ln x = 3 ln x = 3 x=e x ≈ 20. 52 x ⋅ 54 x = 125 52 x + 4 x = 53 ⎛1⎞ log 2 ( x − 1) − log 2 ( x + 3) = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝x⎠ x −1 ⎛1⎞ = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ log 2 x+3 ⎝x⎠ x −1 1 = x+3 x x2 − x = x + 3 56 x = 53 6x = 3 x= 92. ln x + 3x = 10 2 x + 3 x − 10 = 0 2 ( x + 5)( x − 2) = 0 x = −5 or x = 2 –5 is rejected. 3x + 2 ⋅ 3x = 81 3( x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x = −1 or x = 3 –1 is rejected. ( x + 5)( x − 4) = 0 x = −5 or x = 4 –5 is rejected. 87. The solution set is { }. Publishing as Prentice Hall.05 453 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x=2 2 is rejected. . 1 2 x + 2)+ x = 34 32 x + 2 = 34 2x + 2 = 4 2x = 2 x =1 93. 88. The solution set is {4}.PreCalculus 4E 85.4 log x + log( x + 3) = log10 89. ln( x − 5) − ln( x + 4) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 2) 91. ln( x − 2) − ln( x + 3) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 7) x−2 x −1 = ln x+3 x+7 x − 2 x −1 = x+3 x+7 ( x − 2)( x + 7) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) log( x + 3x) = log10 2 x 2 + 5 x − 14 = x 2 + 2 x − 3 3 x = 11 log( x + 3) + log( x − 2) = log14 11 3 x ≈ 3. The solution set is {3}. Section 3.

54 2 5 − 37 x= ≈ −0. x2 5 = 50 3 x( x + 5) 3 1= x( x + 5) x( x + 5) = 3 e0 = 2 ln 5 x = ln 50 x 2 ln 5 = ln 50 ln 50 x2 = ln 5 ln 50 ≈ ±1. ln 3 − ln( x + 5) − ln x = 0 ln 96.01 x = 102 x = 100 95. Publishing as Prentice Hall.56 ln 5 x=± 97. x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 98.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ −5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 3 log x − 6 = 0 x= 3 log x = 6 log x = 2 log x = 2 or log x = −2 2(1) x= 2 3x = 45 2 ln 3x = ln 45 x 2 ln 3 = ln 45 ln 45 x2 = ln 3 ln 45 ≈ ±1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 94.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. x2 + 5x = 3 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − 2 ln x = 0 x= ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − ln x = 0 2 ln 3 =0 x( x + 5) (2 x + 1)( x − 3) =0 x2 (2 x + 1)( x − 3) = e0 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 =1 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 = x2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2 x + 5x − 3 = 0 2a −(5) ± (5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) −5 ± 37 2 −5 + 37 x= ≈ 0. ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ x = 10−2 x = 0. 2 ⎩⎪ ⎭⎪ x= x2 − 5x − 3 = 0 454 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .54 2 −5 − 37 x= ≈ −5. Inc.86 ln 3 x=± −(−5) ± (−5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 5 ± 37 2 5 + 37 x= ≈ 5.

0126(0) = 36. This is represented by the point (118. f ( x) = 20(0.1 40 = ln e0.0183t 22.0183t 27 = 22.0183 The population of Texas will reach 27 million about 9 years after 2005. ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 27 = e0.9e0. A = 36.0126t 104. = 252 x = (5 =5 A = 22. This is represented by the point (75.975 ln 20 3 ln 20 x= ln 0. b.975) x ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 1 = 20(0.1 The population of California was 36.975) x 3 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1e0.0126t 36. Inc.1 ≈8 t= 0.9e0. 6} .9 The population of Texas was 22. x = −2 The solution set is {−2.9 27 ln t = 22.0126t A = 36.1e0.0126t ln 36.0126t = ln 36. 6} . .9 million in 2005.975 x ≈ 118 There is 1% of surface sunlight at 118 feet.975 x 20 3 = ln 0.975) x Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 1 = 0.975 x 20 1 = ln 0.9 ≈ 9 0. 2005 is 0 years after 2005.0183t ) 2 2x A = 22. x = −2 The solution set is {−2. 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 = 92 x = ( 32 ) 2x = 34 x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 103.1 40 ln 36.3).975 x ≈ 75 There is 3% of surface sunlight at 75 feet. 455 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1).1 40 0. a. 5x 5 5 Section 3.0126t 40 = 36. or 2014.975) x 40 = e0.975 x ln 20 1 = x ln 0. 101.1e0.0126 The population of California will reach 40 million about 8 years after 2005.0183(0) = 22.9 27 0. f ( x) = 20(0. a.PreCalculus 4E 99. 100.9 27 = ln e0.1e0.9e0.0183t ln 22. 4x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 b.975 x ln 20 3 = x ln 0.9e0. or 2013 3 = 20(0.1 million in 2005.0183t = ln 22.4 2 −12 x 2 −12 x 2 −12 102. A = 36. A = 22.975 ln 20 1 ln 20 x= ln 0.0183t Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 2005 is 0 years after 2005.

005416667)12t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ ⎛ 60 ⎞ 12t ln(1. Inc.5 r ⎞ ln1.6 ≈ 8.8 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = ln1.5 ln e 2 r = ln1.5 2r = ln1.7% 456 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.08t = 2 ln e0.2 years 12 ln1.08t e0.00541667) = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ (1.7% ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ t= ≈ 11.3% r = e(ln1.005416667)12t = r ⎞ ⎛ 1400 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 109.4 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 720 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.7 The amount would double in 8.005416667) = 15. 20.6 106. .8 360 ⎝ ⎠ 4t ln(1. accumulated amount = 2(8000) = 16.000 16. 000 = 8000e 0. 000 4t ln(1.4 720 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.147 14.014375) 4t = 1.2 4 ln1.2 years r ⎞ ln1. r= (ln1.5 ≈ 0.014375) 4t = ln1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ⎛ 0. 500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12. 12.6 1440 ln1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8) /1440 − 1 ≈ 0.4) / 720 ln1.08 t ≈ 8. 000 ln 1+ r e ( 360 ) = e(ln1. 000 = 12.065 ⎞ 15.4 360 ⎝ ⎠ 110. 000 = 7250 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 12 t 7250(1.08t = ln 2 0.08t = ln 2 360⋅2 ln 2 0. accumulated amount = 3(2350) = 7050 7050 = 2350er ⋅7 ≈ 0.8 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 1440 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.203 2 20.4) / 720 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.014375) 4t = 20.4) / 720) − 1 111.00541667 107.8) /1440 1+ 60 29 ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln(1. = 1.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = e(ln1. t= 720 = 1. ( 360 ⋅ 4 ) 1440 r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ (1. 000 = 8000e r ⋅ 2 e 2 r = 1.157 7 15.8% ln e7 r = ln 3 7r = ln 3 r= ln 3 ≈ 0.8 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 1440 12 t ⎛ 0.6 t= r ⎞ ⎛ 9000 = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 108. 500(1.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.014375 8.4 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 720 e ln(1+ r 360 ) 1+ =e r = e(ln1.014375) = ln1.168 e7 r = 3 16.0575 ⎞ 105.7 years.

x≈8 If the trend continues. . 457 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x −5. 40 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 45 log 2 x = 1.6 = log x 79 = 38 ln x x = 10−5. pH = − log x 5. or 2013.5 x = 21. a.4 2006 is 4 years after 2002.5 ≈ 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ 0. 10−2.0 ≈ x (9. a. 95 30 c.2 10 The concentration of the acidic rainfall in part (b) is 103. 69% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2007. 50) P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 116.0425t = 697 ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln e0. 100% of new cellphones will have cameras 11 years after 2002.6 = 10−2. 0) 117.4 112. (2. or 2010.6) = 103.8.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 697 ⎠ t= ⎝ ≈ 8. 25. P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 115. 425e0.8 days. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 = − log x −2.4 = log x x = 10−2.4 mole per liter.5 years 0.6 = − log x 87 = 8 + 38ln x 114. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x 100 = 8 + 38ln x 92 = 38 ln x 92 = ln x 38 x= 92 e 38 x ≈ 11 If the trend continues.4 −5. 0 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 95 2007 is 5 years after 2002. This underestimates the value shown in the graph by 2%. b. 79 x = e 38 b.6 79 = ln x 38 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−5. 87% of new cellphones will have cameras 8 years after 2002.8 Only half the students recall the important features of the lecture after 2. pH = − log x 2.6 mole per liter. Inc. a. f (4) = 8 + 38 ln 4 ≈ 61 According to the function. 61% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2006. 000 = 17.2 times greater than the normal rainfall in part (a).4 −( −5. This overestimates the value shown in the graph by 1%. b.0.0425t 1000 e0.0425 113. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x log 2 x = f (5) = 8 + 38 ln 5 ≈ 69 According to the function. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2. 95 2 30 = x 9.

3 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2. = 10−1−( −2. 458 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 = − log x −2. 8). 10 The concentration of the acidic stomach in part (b) is 101. .3) = 101. Inc. a. 23 = 8 8=8 The solution set is {2}.3 9=9 The solution set is {1}. {1} The intersection point is (1. Verify: x = 2 2 2 x +1 =8 2 +1 =2 126. 119. 1 = − log x −1 = log x x = 10 31+1 = 9 32 = 9 −1 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−1 mole per liter.3 times greater than the lemon juice in part (a). – 122.3 = log x x = 10−2. −2.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions pH = − log x 118. The intersection point is (4. 10−1 c. 2). 2 . log 3 (4 ⋅ 4 − 7) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {4}. Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The intersection point is (2. Verify: x = 4 123. 124.3 mole per liter. Verify x = 1: 3x +1 = 9 pH = − log x b. 9). 2. 3 11 Verify: x = 3 11 ⎛ ⎞ log 3 ⎜ 3 ⋅ − 2 ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ log 3 (11-2) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {113} .3 125. ( ) The intersection point is 11 .

459 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 130.24 − 1 ≈ 63. Verify:x ≈ −1. 131. 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 5−1. 1.391606.48ln( x + 1) + 27 0.371158 The solution set is {–1.48ln( x + 1) = 2 1 ln( x + 1) = 0.291641.6855579 3x = 2x + 3 31. 29).6855579) + 3 6.391606) + 3 0.5 The barometric air pressure is 29 inches of mercury at a distance of about 63. 2).24 1 e ln( x +1) = e 0.6855579. 132. 29 = 0. 51. approximately (–1.12507831) and log(2 + 3) + log 2 = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. approximately (−1.24 x +1 = e 1 x=e 1 0.8379417 The solution set is {–1. 7.125077 Verify:x ≈ 1.4 127.2167879803 ≈ 0.391606. leveling off at about 30 inches of mercury.1250782178 ≈ 0.291641 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 5x = 3x + 4 1=1 The solution set is {2}. Verify x = 20: log (x – 15) + log x = 2 log (20 – 15) + log 20 = 2 log 5 + log 20 = 2 log 100 = 2 100 = 102 100 = 100 The solution set is {20}.5 miles from the eye of a hurricane.2793139) + 4 7. .391606 ≈ 2(−1. barometric air pressure increases. 129. Verify x ≈ −1.5. There are 2 points of intersection.837941942 ≈ 7. The intersection point is (2. The point of intersection is approximately (63.6855579 ≈ 2(1. 0.2793139 128.291641 = 3(−1.216788 Verify x ≈ 1.2793139 = 3(1. As the distance from the eye increases. Verify: x = 2 There are 2 points of intersection.391606 3x = 2x + 3 3-1.3711158).2793139}.21678798) and (1. 6.6855579}. 0.8379416). The intersection point is (20.291641. 1).24 0.291641) + 4 0.37111582 ≈ 6.2793139.

05 ⎠ ⎛ 1. makes sense 133.5 ⎝ 1.5 ⎝ 1.9 minutes.05 ⎞ A = 2000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ The two accounts will have the same balance when 4000(1.9) 140. false. makes sense 139. 138.5 ⎝ 1. 7x + 3 ⎛ 7x + 3 ⎞ 4 then log ⎜ ⎟ = 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 = 16 can be solved by rewriting 16 as 24. Sample explanation: The first equation is solved by rewriting it in exponential form.05 ⎠ The accounts will have the same balance in about 36 years. 2 x = 16 2 x = 24 x=4 136. 2 x = 15 (1. A sample change is: If log ( x + 3) = 2. Inc. false. 2 x + 5 ⎝ ⎠ 70 ≈ 70. Explanations will vary.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0. Account paying 3% interest: 1⋅t ⎛ 0. 142. Verify: 70 = 45e −0. 1⋅t 135. Explanations will vary.03)t = 2000(1. The second equation is solved by using the one-to-one property of logarithms.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.05 ⎠ t ⎛ 1.03)t = 0. false. does not make sense.9. When P = 70. A sample change is: If log ( 7 x + 3) − log ( 2 x + 5 ) = 4.71 is not an exponential equation. true 134.9 minutes.05 ⎠ ln 0. so it will take about 7.10076749 The runner’s pulse will be 70 beats per minute after about 7.05)t ln 2 x = ln15 x ln 2 = ln15 ln15 x= ln 2 t ⎛ 1.5 t= ≈ 36 ⎛ 1.5(1. A sample change is: x10 = 5. 141.03 ⎞ A = 4000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ Account paying 5% interest: An adult female elephant weighing 1800 kilograms is about 20 years old. 460 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. does not make sense.03 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 137. Changes to make the statement true will vary.05)t x explanation: 2 = 15 requires logarithms. then 102 = x + 3. and 10 = 2 x + 5 .03 ⎞ t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0. 143. Changes to make the statement true will vary. . because there is not a variable in an exponent. t ≈ 7.092(7. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample x ⎛ 0.

e2} as determined algebraically. 2 ( log10 ) (2 log10 3/ 2 3/ 2 + 1) = 6 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 ⋅ + 1⎟ = 6 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (3 + 1) = 6 ⎝2⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (4) = 6 ⎝2⎠ 6=6 Check with graphing utility: 146. e 2 } . (log x)(2 log x + 1) = 6 2(log x) 2 + log x − 6 = 0 (2 log x − 3)(log x + 2) = 0 2 log x − 3 = 0 or log x + 2 = 0 2 log x = 3 log x = −2 log x = 3 2 x = 10 The graph of ln(ln(x)) crosses the graph y = 0 at approximately 2. Since e2 ≈ 7.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.003t a. .3890566099. 10 10 ⎬ . ln(ln x) = 0 eln(ln x ) = e0 ln x = 1 eln x = e1 x=e The solution set is {e}. The population is decreasing. An exponential function is the best choice.003(0) = 10 million 2007: A = 10e−0. 145. The solution set is ⎨⎩100 ⎭ 2009: A = 10e−0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.94 million ⎧ 1 ⎫ . Inc. the graph verifies x = 1 and x = e2. 148. so the solution set is {1.4 (ln x) 2 = ln x 2 144. 2006: A = 10e−0. 461 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. There are two points of intersection: (1.003(3) ≈ 9.718. 0) and approximately (7. x = 10−2 3 2 x= 147.003(1) ≈ 9. 1 100 A = 10e−0.97 million x = 10 10 2008: A = 10e−0. Check by direct substitution: Check:x = 10 10 = 103 / 2 (log x)(2log x + 1) = 6 (ln x) = 2 ln x 2 (ln x ) − 2 ln x = 0 ln x(ln x − 2) = 0 ln x = 2 ln x = 0 eln x = e 2 or x =1 x = e2 The solution set is {1.3890561.003(2) ≈ 9. 4).91 million b.

A0 for A since the amount present 2 after 28 years is half the original amount.7 1 + e−0. the growth function is A = 643e0. c. ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 0.4 1 + e −0.5 Check Point Exercises 1.021t a. 0.0248t = ln ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 16k ⎝ 643 ⎠ b. The time prior to learning trials corresponds to t = 0.0248t In the exponential decay model A = A0 e kt .021 Africa’s population will reach 2000 million approximately 54 years after 1990. (e ) ln 3 x = 3x e(ln 3) x = 3x Section 3.0248 28 So the exponential decay model is A = A0 e −0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 149. f (t ) = a. A = 643e0. substitute 4. 1 6 ln e −0.0248t = 1 6 1 −0. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain. Substitute 10 for t in the model: 0.8 f (0) = = 0. A = A0 ekt 906 = 643ek (16) 906 = e16k 643 ⎛ 906 ⎞ 16 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 643 ⎠ e = −0. a. Inc.021 k= ⎝ 16 Thus. 2000 = 643e0.0248 The strontium-90 will decay to a level of 10 grams about 72 years after the accident. T = C + (To – C)ekt 2000 = e0. 2. Since 2006 is 16 years after 1990.0248t = ln 6 ln 16 t= ≈ 72 −0. a.8.021t .7.021t 643 ⎛ 2000 ⎞ 0. A0 = 643 .0248t eln 3 = 3 b. b. eln 3 = 3 A0 = A0 e k ⋅28 2 1 e 28 k = 2 1 ln e 28 k = ln 2 1 28k = ln 2 ln1/ 2 k= ≈ −0. Substitute 60 for A0 and 10 for A in the model from part (a) and solve for t. . when t = 16 . In the logistic growth model.2(0) The proportion of correct responses prior to learning trials was 0. or 2044. 10 = 60e −0.2(10) The proportion of correct responses after 10 learning trials was 0. a.021t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 643 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0.021t 3.8 f (10) = ≈ 0. A = 906. 462 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4. The limiting size of the proportion of correct responses as continued learning trials take place is 0. b.021t ⎝ 643 ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 54 t= ⎝ 0. c . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

8 million. the population of Iraq was 26. Inc. 5. the shape suggests that a logarithmic function is a good choice for modeling the data. Thus. the model is approximately equivalent to y = 4e2. y = ab x is equivalent to y = ae(ln b ) x . Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006. Iraq has the greatest growth rate at 2. The population is dropping at of 0.0673t 5 = 70 e −0.001( 0 ) A = 127.8)x is equivalent to y = 4e(ln 7.0673t ln 14 1 = −0.5e0.8e0. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006.8 (1) A = 26.5 million.0673 ≈ k Because the data in the scatter plot appear to increase more and more rapidly.7% per year. Since k = −0.5e0 A = 127.5 1. T = 30 + 70e-0. 5k 5 = e 5k 7 5 ln = ln e 5 k 7 5 ln = 5 k 7 5 ln 7 =k 5 −0.001t A = 127. find A when t = 0 : A = 26. c.0673 39 ≈ t The temperature will reach 35o after 39 min. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the data in the scatter plot increase rapidly at first and then begin to level off.0673t ln 14 1 ln 14 = t −0.5e 0. find A when t = 0 : A = 127. y = 4(7.8) x . For y = 4(7. Russia has a decreasing population.4% per year.027t A = 26.004 .0673(20) ≈ 48o After 20 minutes.5 80 = 30 + (100 − 30)e k5 80 = 30 + 70e 5k 50 = 70 e 6. T = 30 + 70e −0.054 x . 35 = 30 + 70e—0.0673t b.8e 0. 4.5 (1) A = 127. b = 7. a = 4. .8e0 A = 26.0673t 14 1 = ln e −0. the temperature will be 48o. Scatter plot: 2. the population of Japan was 127.027( 0 ) A = 26.8) x in terms of a natural logarithm.8.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 1 = e −0. Rounded to three decimal places. 3. Scatter plot: Exercise Set 3. 463 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0673t 7.8 In 2006.5 In 2006. the shape suggests that an exponential function is a good choice for modeling the data.

4e0. when t = 50 . A0 = 6. the growth function is A = 6. or 2015.04 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0.01t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6. ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6.4 t= ≈ 18 0.1e0.014t 1095. 9 = e0.1e0.01 50 Thus.04 ⎠ 0. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040. 9.026t = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3. Substitute A = 1238 into the model for India and solve for t: 1238 = 1095.4 1416 ln 1095.1e0. P( x) = 91. A = A0 e kt 12 = 3.0147(18) P(18) = 91. when t = 50 .2 ⎠ ≈ 0.7 million in 2025.01t . Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.014t 7.01t b. or 2024. A = 12 .026 Now.01t 6. 9 = 6.014t 1095. A0 = 3.04e k (50) 10 = e50 k 6.014t 1095. 464 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.2 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 3.014 The population of India will be 1416 million approximately 18 years after 2006. 6. Inc.4 t= ≈9 0. A = 10 .026 k= ⎝ 50 Thus.4 1238 ln = 0.7 The population is projected to be 118.04 .2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 3.026t .2 .2e0. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040 8.4 1416 ln = 0.0147t P(18) = 91.014t 1095.026t = 10 = 6. a.4e b.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5.014t 1095.04 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0.04 ⎛ 10 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6.01 Now.026t = ln ⎛⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3. e0. A = A0 ekt 3.04 ⎠ k= ⎝ ≈ 0.014t 1238 = e0.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6.026t = 9 9 3.2e0.2ek (50) 12 = e50 k 3.0147(18) ≈ 118.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0.4 1416 ln = ln e0. the growth function is A = 3. 2000 + 40 = 2040.04 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0.014 The population of India will be 1238 million approximately 9 years after 2006.4 1238 ln 1095.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.04e0.014t 1095.2 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1416 = 1095.01t ⎝ 6.2 9 ⎞ ln e0.04e0. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000. Substitute A = 1416 into the model for India and solve for t: 1416 = e0. . a.4 1238 ln = ln e0. 2000 + 40 = 2040.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 6.

2 = 44.0157(18) ≈ 218.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.0 ⎠ ⎛ 40. P( x) = 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4e18k 55. P( x) = 44.01 Approximately 8 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 5715 years.2 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 44. 465 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.01 Approximately 4 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 11.5 P( x) = 164.0121. Section 3.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44. 16. P( x) = 7.4 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 19. 11.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.0082 The growth rate is –0. .4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0.0 ⎛ 40.3ekt 6.0 = 44.4ekt 55. Inc. A = 16e −0.7e0.0157(18) 40.3e18k 6.0 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 44.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.5 million in 2025.4e18k 32.3 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 7.4ekt 32.PreCalculus 4E 10.4 = 19.000121(5715) A = 16e −0.000121t A = 16e −0. P( x) = 19.4 ⎠ ⎛ 32.2 = e18k 44.7e0.0 18k =e 44.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 7.38303 A ≈ 4. P(18) = 164.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 19.0121 The growth rate is 0. A = 16e −0.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 7.7e0.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.000121(11430) A = 16e −1.4 ⎛ 32.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 19.691515 A ≈ 8.0053 The growth rate is –0.4 18k =e 19.0ekt 14.430 years.0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 40.4 ⎛ 55.0053.4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 32. 12.3 18k =e 7.0157t 13.0285 The growth rate is 0.5 The population is projected to be 218.0e18k 40.3 ⎛ 6.0 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.3 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0. 15.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.3 = 7.0285.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.000121t A = 16e −0. P(18) = 164.0082.

5 =k 1620 k ≈ −0.88 = ln e −0. there will be 16 ⋅ 0.000428 The decay rate is 0. 23.000152 The decay rate is 0. 0.15 = ln e −0. 22.063t ln 0.0 years.5 = ln e4560 k ln 0.5 = −0. 15 = 100e−0. After 75.88 t= ≈ 1056 −0.5 =t −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.063 t ≈ 11.5 = ekt 0.000121t ln 0.6 The half-life is 12.039608 The decay rate is 3. the skeletons were approximately 1056 years old.5 = ln e −0. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present.000 years. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present. 20.055t ln 0.000 years.5 = 17.000121t 88 = e −0.000 years.88 = −0.5 =t −0.5 =k 17. there 2 1 will be 2 ⋅ = 1 gram present.000121t 15 = e −0.000121t ln 0.055t ln 0.5 = e17.5 = e kt 0.055 t ≈ 12.0152% per year.5 = ekt 0. After 50.5 k ≈ −0. After 10 seconds.063t ln 0. After 20 seconds.5 = −0.0 The half-life is 11.5 = 4560k −0. 2 1 1 there will be 1 ⋅ = gram present.055t ln 0.5 = 1620k A = A0 e −0.5 = e1620 k ln 0.000121t A = A0 e 0.15 = −0. there will be 16 ⋅ ln 0.5k ln 0.000 years. 466 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 18.000 years.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 17. After 50 seconds.0428% per year.5k ln 0. 0.5 = ln e17.5 = e4560 k ln 0.6 years.5 =k 4560 k ≈ −0.000121 In 1989. . 19.5k ln 0.5 = e kt 24.5 = ln e−0.5 = e −0. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present. 0. After 40 seconds. 0.000121t 100 ln 0. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present. 25.9608% per day. 2 2 21.000121 The paintings are approximately 15.000121t ln 0.063t ln 0. 2 2 After 25.5 = ekt 0. After 30 seconds.5 = ln e1620 k ln 0.000121t ln 0.679 years old. 679 −0.15 t= ≈ 15.000121t 100 ln 0. 88 = 100e −0. there will 2 1 be 2 ⋅ = 1 grams present. Inc. there 2 1 1 will be 1 ⋅ = gram present. After 100.5 = e −0. After 125.000121t ln 0. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present.

945 = −0.8 =t −0. 1 = 1e k 1.5 = e22 k 0. b.000094t Next use the decay equation answer question. a.52912 1.006134 The decay rate is 0.31 2 1 ln = ln e1. .52912t ln 0.2 =t −0. First find the decay equation.5 = 7340k ln 0.5 = ln e7340 k ln 0.945 = e−0.31 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.000094 ln 0.5 = ln e22k ln 0. 467 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1069 −0. A = e−0.2 = e−0.8 = e−0.52912t ln 0.52912 The age of the dinosaur ones is approximately 0. A = e−0. A = e−0.900. 29.52912t .5 = ekt −0.000094t ln 0.5 = e7340k ln 0.945 t= ≈ 0.031507t ln 0.000094t ln 0.2 = ln e−0. 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.7 It will take 17121. 27.7 years.5 = e113k 0. A = e−0.031507t ln 0.1 years.5 = 113k ln 0.000094t 0.1 It will take 7.031507t 0.5 =k 22 k ≈ −0.945 A0 = A0 e 0.8 = −0.031507t ln 0.8 = ln e−0.031507 t ≈ 7.52912t 0.5 = 22k ln 0.000 years old.31k 2 1 ln = 1. Inc.031507 ln 0.31k 2 1 ln k = 2 ≈ −0.945 = ln e −0.2 = −0.5 = ln e113k ln 0.5 =k 113 k ≈ −0.5 = ekt 26.6134% per hour.1069 billion or 106.000094 t ≈ 17121.000094t ln 0.52912t ln 0.52912 t 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 = ekt 0.5 28. A = A0 e −0.031507t Next use the decay equation answer question. First find the decay equation.5 =k 7340 k ≈ −0. 0.

0673t 1000 1 ln = ln e −0.019254t ln 0.057762t 0.5 = ln e ln 0.2 It will take 6.5 = ekt 0.5 = e36k 33.5 = e12k ln 0.7 = ln e−0.0673 The population will drop below 100 birds approximately 34 years from now. ln 2 years.5 =k 36 k ≈ −0.9 =t −0.9 = −0. Inc.057762 t ≈ 6.019254t Next use the decay equation answer question.5 = 12k ln 0. 3 = e kt ln 3 = ln e kt ln 3 = kt t= ln 3 k The population will triple in t = 468 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. First find the decay equation.9 = ln e−0.019254 t ≈ 5.9 = e−0.7 = e−0.) A = e−0.057762t Next use the decay equation answer question.5 = ln e12 k ln 0. 32.0673t 10 1 ln 10 t= ≈ 34.5 = ekt 0. 0.019254t 0.0673 5 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.5 It will take 5.019254t ln 0. k A = A0 ekt 3 A0 = A0 ekt ln 0.0673t 10 1 ln = −0.019254 ln 2 = ln e kt ln 2 = kt A = e−0.2 hours. 100 = 1000e −0. 36k 2 A0 = A0 e kt ln 0.7 = −0. A = A0 e kt 1000 = 1400e k 5 1000 = e5k 1400 5 ln = 5k 7 5 ln k = 7 ≈ −0. First find the decay equation. Publishing as Prentice Hall.057762 A = e−0.057762t ln 0. (This is 39 years from the time the population was 1400.5 hours. 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 30.0673t 100 = e −0. The population will double in t = 2 = e kt t= ln 2 k A = e−0.057762t ln 0. 31.019254t 34.7 =t −0. ln 3 years. k .5 =k 12 k ≈ −0.2 −0.5 = 36k ln 0.0673t .057762t ln 0.

4e0.012t ln 2 = 0.81e −0. 469 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.81e −0.027( x ) = In the logistic growth model.82 1 + 3. Inc.82 f (51) = ≈ 6. e −0.027( x ) 11.4 = 107.81e −0. 000 f (0) = ≈ 20 1 + 5000e0 Twenty people became ill when the epidemic began.027( x ) = ln 2 = ln e0.012t ln 2 ≈ 58 0. 2 ⋅107.82 30. so New Zealand’s growth rate is 1%.027(57) The function models the data very well.82 f ( x) = 26.027 x ≈ 63 The world population will reach 7 billion 63 years after 1949.82 2 = e0.027 x = ln 26.82 f ( x) = 8 + 30.81e −0.01t 2=e 39.027 x ≈ 77 The world population will reach 8 billion 77 years after 1949. t = 0.81e −0.48 3.82 −0. 000 ≈ 1080 1 + 5.1e0.82 −0.027( x ) = 3. c f (t ) = . a. k = 0.82 1 + 3.012 Mexico’s population will double in approximately 58 years. b.82 8= 1 + 3.5 A = 4.67e −0.01t ln 2 ≈ 69 0.012t b.2%. 11.027( x ) ln e = ln 30. t= c.67 4.01 New Zealand’s population will double in approximately 69 years.82 k = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.000 people.PreCalculus 4E 35.01 .82 1 + 3.027( x ) = 4. 40. t= 36.67 4.027( x ) ) = 11.012 . 38.48e −0.027( x ) 7 (1 + 3.81e −0. 000e −4 About 1080 people were ill at the end of the fourth week.027( x ) 11.01t a.01t 2 ⋅ 4.82 7= 1 + 3.1e0.48 x= −0.0 1 + 3.81e −0.48 3.027 x = ln 30. 11. A = 4. A = 107.82 26.012t a.1e0.027( x ) 8 (1 + 3. A = 107. 100.48e −0.5 1 + 3.82 1 + 3. or 2012. so Mexico’s growth rate is 1.67 4. 100. 41.82 −0. 11.027( x ) = 11.4e0.027( x ) = 11.027(51) The function models the data very well. or 2026. 11.01t ln 2 = ln e0.027( x ) ) = 11.012t 37. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.81e −0.81e −0.67e −0.82 ln 26.48 3.4e0.82 ln e −0.027( x ) 11. e −0.01t ln 2 = 0. f ( x) = 7 + 26.82 f ( 4) = 30. f ( x) = When the epidemic began.012t 4.67 x= −0.81e −0.027( x ) 11.1 = 4. .027( x ) = ln 26.82 ln 30. Section 3. The limiting size of the population that becomes ill is 100.82 f (54) = ≈ 6.82 3. 0.

P(20) = 90 ≈ 88. 47.0916 ≈ k 90 ≈ 3. 55 = 45 + (70 – 45)ek10 10 = 25e10k 48.8 70 = 50 = 45 + 25e—0. 0.8 e −0.9 0.122(80) The probability that an 80-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 88.82 billion. Inc. the temperature will be 121o.122 = e 1897 2 −0. 470 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.122 x = 7 2 − x 0. 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall.122 x T = C + (To – C)ekt 300 = 70 + (450 − 70)ek 5 230 = 380e5k 70(1 + 271e−0.82 1 + 3. the limiting size of this function is 11.0916t 1 = e−0. 45.122 x ≈ 56 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 70% at about age 56.122t ) = 0.122t 0. Thus. T = 70 + 380ke-0.122 t ln e = ln 271 0.122t = 0.5 = 1 + 271e−0.0916t 5 1 ln 5 =t −0. 1 + 271e −0.1004t b.8 0.5 (1 + 271e −0. the exponent of e will decrease. 43.0916 18 ≈ t The temperature will reach 50o after 18 min.8 −0. T = 45 + 25e-0. 271e −0.122 x ) = 90 90 1 + 271e−0.0916t 5 1 ln = −0. a.027( x ) become very close to 0 and make the denominator become very close to 1.6 1 + 271e −0.122(20) The probability that a 20-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 3.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. P(80) = T = 45 + 25e−0.7%. 11. . a. 23 = e5k 38 23 = ln e5k ln 38 23 = 5k ln 38 23 ln 38 = k 5 −0.1004(20) ≈ 121o After 20 minutes.7 1 + 271e −0.122 x = ln 1897 2 ln 1897 x= −0.8 −0.9 c.0916t 5 1 ln = ln e−0.122t = ln 271 0.0916(15) ≈51o After 15 minutes.8 ln 271 t= ≈ 48 −0. 90 1 + 271e−0. This will make e −0.6%. f ( x) = 2 10k =e 5 2 ln = ln e10k 5 2 ln = 10k 5 2 ln 5 =k 10 −0.122t = 271 0.122 x = 70 2 271e−0.1004 ≈ k T = 70 + 380e−0.122t = 1.122 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 50% at about age 48.81e −0.0916t b.027( x ) As x increases.0916t 5 = 25e−0. the temperature will be 51o. 46.

Section 3.0239t ln 47 17 ln 47 = t −0. 49.0158t −37 = −47e10k −37 10k =e −47 37 = ln e10k ln 47 37 = 10k ln 47 37 ln 47 = k 10 −0.1004t ln 38 7 = −0.0239 ≈ k T = 75 − 47e−0.0158t ln 41 20 ln 41 = t −0.1004t ln 38 7 ln 38 = t −0.1004 17 ≈ t The temperature will reach 140o after 17 min.1004t 7 = e−0. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.0158 45 ≈ t The temperature will reach 45o after 45 min.0239t ln 47 25 = −0.0158 ≈ k T = 65 − 41e−0.0158t −20 = −41e−0. −35 = −41e10k 35 10k =e 41 35 = ln e10k ln 41 35 = 10k ln 41 35 ln 41 = k 10 −0. 471 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0158t T = C + (To – C)ekt 38 = 75 + (28 − 75)ek10 45 = 65 – 41e—0.5 140 = 70 + 380e—0. 50 = 75 − 47e−0.0239t −25 = −47e−0. b.0239t 51.0158t ln 41 20 = −0. Inc.0239t 20 = e−0. T = C + (To – C)ekt 30 = 65 + (24 − 65)ek10 50.0239 26 = t The temperature will reach 50o after 26 min. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0239t −47 25 = ln e−0. a. .1004t 38 7 = ln e−0.0158t 41 20 = ln e −0.1004t 70 = 380e−0.PreCalculus 4E c. −25 = e−0.

the model fits the data well.015 . 69.526. 59. a. Answers may vary. 52.5(0. Using ln 0.574 ln x . y = 1000e1. 55.011) .16 + 23. b.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 56. the population of the United States is increasing by about 1% each year.3 ≈ 1. The exponential model is y = 200.6 ≈ –0. 472 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.097 .011) x y = 200.7)x is equivalent to y = 2.6) x .6)x is equivalent to y = 100e( ln 4.988. y = 2. Since r ≈ 0.5e −0.871x0. y = 1000(7.0109 . 68. a. The power regression model is y = 195. The logarithmic model is y = 193.5e −0. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.526 x . the model fits the data okay. Using ln 4. The linear model is y = 2. 58. Since r = 0.878 is fairly close to 1. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.6) x . Using ln 0. the model fits the data very well.511x .3) x . y = 4.9 (1.5e( ln 0. b.9 (1. 57. but not great. Inc.5e( ln 0. x Since r ≈ 0.999 is very close to 1. – 67.997 is close to 1. b. Using ln 7. a.9e0. 70.7 ≈ −0.988 x .9e( 54. Since r = 0. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. y = 2.357 x .901. y = 100e1.011) y = 200. a. 71. y = 100(4. . 53.5(0. y = 4.357. x ln1. the model fits the data fairly well.7 ) x . Publishing as Prentice Hall.3)x is equivalent to y = 1000e( ln 7.654 x + 198.6)x is equivalent to y = 4. y = 200.511.0109 x Since k = .6 ≈ 1. b.

654 1969 + 44 = 2013 According to the exponential model.02 x The 65-and-over population is increasing by approximately 2% each year. Explanations will vary.011) 200.654 x + 198. the better model is y = 3. makes sense 79. Sample explanation: This is not necessarily so. y = 3.343ln x Exercise 54: y = −11. r ≈ 0. x 74.9 ⎠ Exercise 51: y = 1. Both results are reasonably close to the result found in Example 1 (2010). Growth rate measures how fast a population is growing relative to that population.S.557 x − 10.011) ⎟ ⎝ 200.056 ) ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = x ln (1.673 Linear Regression: y = 0. a.424 ln x 75.994 Logarithmic Regression: y = 14.5 72. r ≈ 0.654 x 116.9 (1.011) .46(1. true Exponential Regression: 82.015 315 = 2.015 .015 116.985 x= ≈ 44 2.078 ) x Exercise 52: y = 2896.947 The exponential model has an r value closer to 1.512. the U. 77. x y = 3.654 x + 198. makes sense 78. population will reach 315 million around the year 2013. Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary. Models and predictions will vary. the U. Using the exponential model: 315 = 200.011) ⎝ 200.7 (1. Inc. true 80.02 ) x y = 3.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 73. Sample models are provided 315 x = (1.S. Using r.9 ⎛ 315 ⎞ x ln ⎜ = ln (1. Thus. 76.654 x + 198. Publishing as Prentice Hall.02) x x Exercise 53: y = 120 + 4. r ≈ 0. does not make sense.629 + 13. population will reach 315 million around the year 2010. the growth rate is negative.972. 473 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. According to the linear model.9 (1.9 ⎠ ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ 200. true 81. Sample explanation: Since the car’s value is decreasing (depreciating). does not make sense. model y = 200. .402 (1.9 ⎟⎠ x= ⎝ ≈ 41 ln (1.46e( The model of second best fit is the linear model y = 2.985 = 2. It does not indicate how the size of a population compares to the size of another population. true y = 3.46e0.46(1.46(1.011) ln1.011) 1969 + 41 = 2010 Using the linear model: y = 2.752ln x − 26.02) x . the model of best fit is the exponential b.02) x .

0069 ≈ k Use k to write equation. 5π = 2π x 4 5π 2π x = 4 ⋅ 2π 2π 5 =x 8 asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. so the function is r ( x) = −4− x + 3.6 − 70)ek 30 12.6 = e−0. ⎩8 ⎭ 86. so the function is h ( x ) = −4 − x .7 ln = ln e30k 15. Inc.7 = e30k 15. 2. ∞ ) ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis then shifted upward 3 units.7 ln = 30k 15.6 15. or 8:22 am.7 ln 15.6 = −0.0069 88 ≈ t The death occurred at 88 minutes before 9:30.0069t ln 28.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 83. Answers may vary. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the yaxis. so the function is g ( x ) = 4− x. 4.7 = 15.6 = 70 + (98.0069t 28. . range of f = range of g = ( 0.6 12. Use data to find k. 87. 85. 85.0069t 15.6 − 70)e−0. ∞ ) 17π 17π 12π − 2π = − 6 6 6 17π − 12π = 6 5π = 6 474 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0069t 15.6 12. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis. The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit to the right. 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 = k 30 −0. 827 = 70 + (85. 84.6 = ln e−0. − π 12 π 24π + 12 12 −π + 24π = 12 23π = 12 + 2π = − Chapter 3 Review Exercises 1.6 12.6 ln 28. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x.6 15. 3.0069 ln 28.6 = 28.6e30k 12.6 15.6e−0.6 = t −0.

Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) 10. 475 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.0525 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6497.PreCalculus 4E 6. ∞ ) The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the y – axis.055 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6558.16 12 ⎠ ⎝ 5. 5. ∞ ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 range of f = ( 0. ∞ ) range of f = ( 0. The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the x – axis. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0. 9. . 8. ∞ ) 7. ∞ ) range of g = ( −1. range of f = range of g = ( 0. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 The graph of g(x) vertically stretches the graph of f(x) by a factor of 2.25% compounded monthly: 12⋅5 ⎛ 0.5% compounded semiannually yields the greater return. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −1 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. Chapter 3 Review Exercises The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit down. ∞ ) range of g = ( −∞.5% compounded semiannually: 2⋅5 ⎛ 0.26 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.

so the function is g ( x) = log(− x). . log 3 (log8 8) = 0. 25. 20. log 3 ( −9 ) cannot be evaluated since log b x 26.135. log 6 216 = 3 17. log 5 21. 491/ 2 = 7 14. 000 ⎜ 1 + ≈ 28.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. Therefore. b. The temperature of the room is 70°. log 4 64 = 3 because 43 = 64. 3 y = 81 16. 32. 25 25 is defined only for x > 0. the temperature is about 119°. log b 625 = 4 18. Because log b 1 = 0 we conclude log 3 1 = 0. 12. ∞ ) 31. log13 874 = y 19. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. 7% compounded monthly: 1 12⋅10 ⎛ 0.0685(10 ) A = 14. c. Because logb b x = x. we conclude log17 17 = 1. The coffee will cool to about 70°. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) we conclude log 3 38 = 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 13. So. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. After 20 minutes.23 Using a calculator.26 ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 6. 24. ln 28.81 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return. a. log − 1 1 1 = log 3 1 = log3 3 2 = − 2 3 32 1 = ln e−2 = −2 e2 1 1 = log 3 = log10−3 = −3 1000 10 29. 43 = x 15. Because log b = 1. Inc. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x reflected about the Because ln e x = x.04855( 20 ) T = 70 + 130e ≈ 119. 30. 1 1 = −2 because 5−2 = . log16 4 = 23. −0.85% compounded continuously: 0. 476 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. log 3 27. 000e ≈ 27. Because log b b = 1. When first taken out of the microwave. we conclude log8 8 = 1. 1 because 161/ 2 = 16 = 4.07 ⎞ A = 14. the temperature of the coffee was about 120°. log 3 (log8 8) = log 3 1. y-axis. the temperature of the coffee was 200°. 772. 2 22. we conclude ln e5 = 5.

x-intercept: (–1. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x 38. ∞ ) 477 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 39. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( −∞. then shifted upward one unit. 35. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: ( 2. shifted left 2 units. ∞ ) 41. . The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 5 > 0. so the function is h( x) = log(2 − x) . This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x shifted left 2 units then reflected about the y-axis. domain of g = ( −3. we obtain x > −5. 0 ) 36. so the function is r ( x) = 1 + log(2 − x). x-intercept: (2. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. reflected about the y-axis. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. x-intercept: (3. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 33. Inc. ∞ ) 37. range: ( −∞. Solving this inequality for x. Thus the domain of f is ( −5. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) 40. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = −3 domain of f = ( 0. 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0.

and 12 months. and 56. we conclude 10log 4 x = 4 x 2 . 3 x3 3ln x + 4 ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 4 = ln ( x3 y 4 ) 57. R = log 48. the average score was 76.0. 45. the domain of f is (−∞. 51. 53. a. log 3 − 3log x = log 3 − log x 3 c. b. f (2) = 76 − 18log ( 2 + 1) ≈ 67 f (4) = 76 − 18log ( 4 + 1) ≈ 63 f (6) = 76 − 18log ( 6 + 1) ≈ 61 f (8) = 76 − 18log ( 8 + 1) ≈ 59 54. 2 xy 2 = log 2 xy 2 − log 2 64 64 = log 2 x + log 2 y 2 − log 2 64 46. = log 56. 49. Retention decreases as time passes. ln 3 x e 1 ⎛ x⎞ = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝e⎠ 1 = [ ln x − ln e] 3 1 1 = ln x − ln e 3 3 1 1 = ln x − 3 3 f ( 0 ) = 76 − 18log ( 0 + 1) = 76 When first given. 61. = log 2 x + 2 log 2 y − 6 1000 I 0 = log1000 = 3 I0 The Richter scale magnitude is 3. respectively. 1) ∪ (1. 59. 1 ln x − ln y 2 1 = ln x 2 − ln y = ln t= x y 478 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we conclude e ln x = x. Thus. 4. Thus. 3 log b 7 + log b 3 = log b (7 ⋅ 3) = log b 21 55. f (12 ) = 76 − 18log (12 + 1) ≈ 56 After 2. we obtain x < 1 or x > 1. we obtain x < 3. log 6 ( 36 x 3 ) = log 6 36 + log 6 x3 = log 6 36 + 3log 6 x = 2 + 3log 6 x 43. the average scores are about 67. Solving this inequality for x. Because ln e x = x. Because 10log x = x. Inc.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42.3) . log 4 52. 1 ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 8. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Solving this inequality for x. 50. ∞). log 2 x 1 = log 4 x 2 − log 4 64 64 1 = log 4 x − 3 2 44. Because e ln x = x. 47. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 1)2 > 0. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. 6.98 0. the domain of f is ( −∞.06 ⎝ 12 − 5 ⎠ It will take about 9 weeks. 63. 8. we conclude ln e6 x = 6 x.

PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 58.348 ≈ 6.99 x= 5 62. ln e x = x ln e 64. 72. 9e5 x = 1269 e5 x = 141 ln 0. true.27 9 x + 2 = 27 − x x+2 54 x+ 2 = 37.52 ln 8 69. 53 x = 52 3x = 2 2 x= 3 4 x ln 5 + 2 ln 5 = ln 37.143 x= ≈ 4.143 ln12. 70.143 ln 8x = ln12. log 2 x 4 = 4 log 2 x 63.1063 ln 4 60.863 ≈ −0.500 4 x ln 5 = ln 37.500 ( 4 x + 2 ) ln 5 = ln 37.500 10 x = 7000 66. 8 x = 12. log 6 72.14 4 ln 5 log10 x = log 7000 x log10 = log 7000 x = log 7000 x ≈ 3. false. log 4 0. (3 ) 2 ( ) = 33 3x + 4 = 7 2 x −1 ln 3x + 4 = ln 7 2 x −1 ( x + 4) ln 3 = (2 x − 1) ln 7 x ln 3 + 4 ln 3 = 2 x ln 7 − ln 7 x ln 3 − 2 x ln 7 = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x(ln 3 − 2 ln 7) = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x= ln 3 − 2 ln 7 4 ln 3 + ln 7 x= 2 ln 7 − ln 3 x ≈ 2. 125 x = 25 (5 ) 3 x = 52 71. 2 4 x− 2 = 64 2 4 x −2 = 26 ln e12−5 x = ln130 12–5 x = ln 130 5 x = 12– ln 130 12– ln130 x= ≈ 1. (ln x )(ln1) = (ln x )(0) = 0 61. log( x + 9) − log( x + 1) = log ( x + 9) ( x + 1) ln e5 x = ln141 5 x = ln141 ln141 ≈ 0. e12 − 5 x − 7 = 123 e12−5 x = 130 −x 2 x+4 3 = 3−3 x 2 x + 4 = −3 x 5 x = −4 4 x=− 5 479 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true.143 x ln 8 = ln 12.500 ln 54 x + 2 = ln 37.863 = log 72.85 67. Inc. .348 = 59. 500 − 2 ln 5 x= ≈ 1.2448 log 6 68.43 5 4x − 2 = 6 4x = 8 x=2 65. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall.500 − 2 ln 5 ln 37.

log 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 2 ( x 2 − 9) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) x 2 − 9 = 24 x 2 − 9 = 16 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 x = –5 does not check because log 2 (−5 + 3) does not exist.10. The solution set is ∅. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {4}. 78. . 74. 75. The solution set is {5}. 480 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎧e ⎫ The solutions set is ⎨ ⎬ . approximately 1. e2 x − e x − 6 = 0 (e x 77. ⎩2⎭ 3 76. Inc. 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 x − 15 16 = x 2 x 2 = 16 x = ±4 x = −4 does not check and must be rejected. log 3 ( x − 1) − log 3 ( x + 2 ) = 2 log 2 ( x + 3) + log 2 ( x − 3) = 4 79.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 73. log 3 e x − 3 = 0 or e x + 2 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −2 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x − ln(−2) x = ln 3 x = ln(−2) x = ln 3 ≈ 1.04 x= x2 + x = x + 4 x2 = 4 x = ±2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. − 3)( e + 2 ) = 0 x x −1 =2 x+2 x −1 = 32 x−2 x −1 =9 x+2 x – 1 = 9(x + 2) x – 1 = 9x + 18 8x = –19 19 x=− 8 19 ⎛ 19 ⎞ x=− does not check because log 3 ⎜ − − 1⎟ 8 ⎝ 8 ⎠ does not exist. 3 + 4 ln(2 x) = 15 4 ln(2 x) = 12 ln(2 x) = 3 ln ( x + 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln x x+4 = ln x x +1 x+4 =x x +1 x( x + 1) = x + 4 ln 2 x = e3 e3 2 x ≈ 10. The solution set is {ln 3} .099 ln(−2) does not exist. log 4 ( 3x − 5 ) = 3 3x – 5 = 43 3x – 5 = 64 3x = 69 x = 23 The solutions set is {23}. The solution set is {2}.

045 ≈ k 3.21x 83.7 t= ≈ 5.4 35.005) 364 560 t ln = ln (1.33 = 0.01625) 4t = ln1. When an investment value triples. 4t (1.4 t= ln1. W ( x ) = 0. 000 = 50. 3P = Pe5 r e5 r = 3 ln e5 r = ln 3 5r = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 0.7 4.3 = e10 k 22.075 It will take about 14.6 ln 14.01625 It will take about 7.PreCalculus 4E 80. 82.075t = ln 3 0.4 = k 10 0. 481 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.37 9 = ln x e9 = eln x x = e9 ≈ 8103 The population of New York City is approximately 8103 thousand.6 = −0. the population will be about 55.3 = ln e10 k ln 22.500(1. Everest is about 5.005 ) t ln(1. t= 84.6 years. A = 22.33 = ln x 0.3 ln 22.4 35.6 4t ln1. 35. or 8.3 years.103.6 ln1.01625) 4t = 1.2197 5 The interest rate would need to be about 22% r= 86.37 ln x + 0.4e0. Inc.7 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 4 ln1.7 4.3 = 10k ln 22. A = 3P. 3 ⋅ 50.075t = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 14.6 = 14.21 f ( t ) = 364 (1.4e k 10 35.005 ) t 560 = 364 (1. ⎛ 0.37 ln x + 0.21x 4. 000e0. A = 22.37 ln x 3.38 = 0. 000 85. 000 e0.6 ≈ 7.21x ln 14.075 = 3 ln e0.05 a.4e0.01625 = ln1.1 million. Chapter 3 Review Exercises P ( x ) = 14.1 In 2010. t= 560 t = (1.005 The carbon dioxide concentration will be double the pre-industrial level approximately 86 years after the year 2000 in the year 2086.21x 14.005 ) 364 560 ln = t ln1.075t = 150.6 = e −0.5 −0. 4.045t b.7e −0. 000 = 12.045(20) ≈ 55.5 miles above sea level. .05 3.065 ⎞ 20.6 0.7e −0.6 The peak of Mt.500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12.21x ln 14.01625) 4t = 20.005 364 560 ln 364 ≈ 86. 000e0.000.075t 50. 81.6 = ln e −0.3 = 22.4 35.

000 = 200 1 + 2499e −0. 500.2 = −0.1438t 87.045 22 ≈ t 90 = e 2k 120 3 ln = ln e2k 4 3 ln = 2k 4 3 ln 4 =k 2 −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1438t 40 = 120e−0.045t 22.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 60 = 22.4e0. 105 = 65 + 120e—0.004951t 0. a. in 2012. 411 −0. 150 = 65 + (185 − 65)ek 2 90 = 120e2k 60 = e0.004951t ln 0. f (6) = b. 89.4 60 ln = ln e0. t= 88. . f (0) = 500.1438t 3 1 ln = −0.4 60 ln 22.045t 22. 500.2 = e −0.92(0) 200 people became ill when the epidemic began.004951 t ≈ 325 It will take about 325 days for the substance to decay to 20% of its original amount. T = 65 + 120e−0.045t c. A = A0 e −0.4 60 ln = 0.004951t ln 0.2 = ln e −0. a.1438t 1 = e−0. Inc. b.1438t 3 1 ln = ln e−0.2 −0.1438 7. A = A0 e kt 1 2 = e k ⋅140 1 2 = e140 k T = C + (To – C)ekt b. c. 000 = 45. A logarithmic function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data.045t 22. ln 12 = ln e140 k ln 12 = 140k ln 12 =k 140 k ≈ −0.6 ≈ t The temperature will reach 105o after 8 min.410 were ill after 6 weeks.004951 Use A = A0 e kt to find t. Use the half-life of 140 days to find k.1438 ≈ k The population will reach 60 million about 22 years after 1990. a.000 people 482 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 = t 0.004951t ln 0.92(6) 1 + 2499e 45.1438t 3 1 ln 3 =t −0. 90.

6 ) 1 2 4. 6 log x + 2 log y = log x 6 + log y 2 ln 2. b.005 x = 1600 e0. Inc. Thus.2091 ln 5 400e0. .5e 1 x = log3 x 3 − log 3 81 81 1 = log3 x − 4 3 3 7.6 ) x y = 6. the domain of f is (−∞. Answers may vary. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. y = 73e( = 3 + 5 log 4 x x log 3 8. y = 73e0. 5 = 125 3 x= ln 4 ≈ 277.4 x ln 5 = ln1.956 x 93. ln 7 − 3ln x = ln 7 − ln x 3 7 = ln 3 x 10.4 ≈ 0.005 483 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.005 x = ln 4 3.3).005 x = ln 4 0.005 x = 4 ln e0. log15 71 = 94.5 ( 0. ln1. 92. log 4 ( 64 x 5 ) = log 4 64 + log 4 x5 An exponential function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data. 2.PreCalculus 4E 91.43) y = 6. Chapter 3 Test a. 5 x = 1.4 ln 5 x = ln1. Solving this inequality for x.5e −0.844 x 9. we obtain x < 3.5741 log15 3x −2 = 9 x + 4 ( ) 3x −2 = 32 x+ 4 3x −2 = 32 x +8 x − 2 = 2x + 8 − x = 10 x = −10 12. y = 73 ( 2. log 36 6 = 5.4 x= 13. x = log ( x 6 y 2 ) ( ln 0. Chapter 3 Test 1. 6.2589 0.43) x y = 6. log 71 ≈ 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 11.

The solution set is {0.0125 ) ln 2 = 4 ln (1.25 4 2 ln 3x = 8 ln 3x = 4 3x = e4 24.51 ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 6% compounded continuously: 0.9 years for the money to grow to $8000. 000e ( ) ≈ $5. 15.0125 ) ln 2 = 4t ln (1. 18. ln 2 = ln e10 r ln 2 = 10r ln 2 r= ≈ 0. ln ≈ 1.069 10 The money will double in 10 years with an interest rate of approximately 6. Since ln e x = x.0125 ) It will take approximately 13.0125 ) 4ln (1.06 10 A = 3.0125 ) 4t ln 2 = ln (1. log b b = 1 because b1 = b .05 ⎞ 8000 = 4000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 8000 4t = (1 + 0.6094. 687.0125) 4000 4t 2 = (1.0125 ) 4t ln (1. ex −1 = 0 ex = 5 D = 10log 25. 466. 4t 2 x + 15 x − 100 = 0 2 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 x + 20 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = –20 x=5 x = –20 does not check because log(−20) does not exist. Publishing as Prentice Hall. e 2 x − 6e x + 5 = 0 (e x 19. e4 x= ≈ 18.5% compounded semiannually yields about $221 more than 6% compounded continuously. Inc. ln 5} .9 4 ln (1. The solution set is {5}.9%.1994 3 17.065 ⎞ A = 3.5% compounded semiannually: log 6 ( 4 x − 1) = 3 4 x = 217 x= 16. log x + log ( x + 15 ) = 2 log ( x 2 + 15 x ) = 2 x + 15 x = 10 2 ⎛ 0. − 5 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 5 = 0 or ex = 1 ln e x = ln 5 ln e x = ln1 x = ln 5 x = ln1 x ≈ 1.36 6. The solution set is { }. 4 x − 1 = 216 23. 1012 I 0 I0 = 10log1012 = 10 ⋅12 = 120 The loudness of the sound is 120 decibels.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 14. 217 = 54. ln ( x − 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln 6 2 = 1er10 2 = e10 r x−4 = ln 6 ln x +1 x−4 =6 x +1 6( x + 1) = x − 4 6x + 6 = x − 4 5 x = −10 x = −2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. 6. log 6 1 = 0 because 60 = 1 . 000 ⎜1 + ≈ $5. ln e5 x = 5 x. 21. .6094 x=0 20. 2(10 ) ⎛ 0.0125) ln 2 t= ≈ 13. 4 x − 1 = 63 22. 484 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

0. In the logistic growth model.3 =t −0. We can tell because the model has a negative k = −0.4e−0.002( x ) 28.5 It will take 12.096270 A = e−0.2 k ln 0.3 = ln e−0. In 1990.5 = 82. c.002t 82. 0.096270t Next use the decay equation answer question.5 =k 7. A = e−0.4 million. 81. f (0) = 140 = 14 −0.5 ln = −0. ≈ 51 −0.5 = ln e7. t = 0 and A0 = 509 In 2000. c. the population of Germany was 82. Plot the ordered pairs.4 81.3 = −0. b.096270t 0.4e ≈ 82.2 k ln 0. First find the decay equation.5 days. 81.002 The population of Germany will be 81.002. 729 = 509ek 10 729 = e10 k 509 729 ln = ln e10 k 509 729 ln = 10k 509 729 ln 509 = k 10 0.3 = e−0. c f (t ) = . Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 million approximately 5 years after 2006 in the year 2011.5 ln = ln e −0.5 = 7. 27. The limiting size of the elk population is 140 elk. 29. f (10 ) = 140 b. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.002t 82.002t 82.165(10 ) 1 + 9e After 10 years. Inc.096270t ln 0.036t .4 81.5 = e −0. .4e Chapter 3 Test −0. about 51 elk are expected. a. a. t = 2000 – 1990 = 10 and A = 729.4 81.096270t ln 0.5 = ekt −0.4 ≈ 5 −0.2 k ≈ −0.2k The population of Germany is decreasing. 30.096270t ln 0. A = 82.096270 t ≈ 12.036 ≈ k The exponential growth function is A = 509e0.PreCalculus 4E 26.165( 0 ) 1 + 9e Fourteen elk were initially introduced to the habitat. 485 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y 5 −5 5 x −5 The values appear to belong to a linear function.002( 0 ) A = 82.5 ln t = 82.002t ln 0.4 In 2006.5 = e7.

34. Plot the ordered pairs. y = 96 ( 0. Plot the ordered pairs. x= −5 The values appear to belong to a logarithmic function. x 4 + x3 − 3x 2 − x + 2 = 0 p: ±1. 1 y 1 –3 –1 2 –2 2 2 –2 –1 1 0 –1 ( x + 2)( x – x – x + 1) = 0 3 16 2 ( x + 2)[ x 2 ( x – 1) − ( x – 1)] = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1)( x – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 −5 5 x ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x – 1) 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 The values appear to belong to a quadratic function. 1}.9704. ⎩ 5 ⎭ x= 3x − 4 = 2 3x – 4 = 2 or 3x = 6 3x – 4 = –2 3x = 2 2 x=2 x= 3 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . Plot the ordered pairs. 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 96e −0.9704 5 ⎧ ln128 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . approximately 0. y 900 3. y 5 27 x −3 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) −2 ± −16 2 −2 ± 4i x= 2 x = −1 ± 2i The solution set is {−1 ± 2i} . 2 ⎬ . Inc.38) x 4.968 x x =1 e5 x − 32 = 96 e5 x = 128 ln e5 x = ln128 5 x = ln128 Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–3) 1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 31. –1. −5 5 x The values appear to belong to an exponential function. ⎩3 ⎭ 486 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2 q –2 1 33. 2. x y = 96e( ln 0.38 ) x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {–2. ln128 ≈ 0. ±2 q: ±1 p : ± 1. .

Horizontal asymptote: y 5 1 5x + 4 = 6x + 9 −x = 5 x = −5 x = −5 does not check and must be rejected. . Circle with center: (3. Parabola with vertex: (2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –2) and radius of 2 487 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is { }. 2x − 4 ≤ 2 2 x − 4 ≤ 2 and 2 x − 4 ≥ −2 2x ≤ 6 2x ≥ 2 x≤3 12. 11.3] . The solution set is {3}. 8. or x = −1 The x-intercepts are ( 2. x-intercepts: x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 and x ≥ 1 x=2 The solution set is [1. 4] . x-intercepts: x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 The x-intercepts are (1.PreCalculus 4E 5. –1) log 2 [( x + 5)( x − 1)] = 4 ( x + 5)( x − 1) = 24 x 2 + 4 x − 5 = 16 x 2 + 4 x − 21 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 3) = 0 x + 7 = 0 or x − 3 = 0 x = −7 x=3 x = –7 does not check because log 2 (–7 + 5) does not exist. 6. 0 ) . 0 ) . Inc. 9. 0 ) and ( −1. ln ( x + 4 ) + ln ( x + 1) = 2 ln ( x + 3) ln ( ( x + 4 )( x + 1) ) = ln ( x + 3) ( x + 4 )( x + 1) = ( x + 3) 2 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 2 x2 = 4 x2 + 5x + 4 = x2 + 6 x + 9 x = ±2 The vertical asymptotes are x = 2 and x = –2. 0 ) and ( −1. 7. Cumulative Review Exercises log 2 ( x + 5) + log 2 ( x − 1) = 4 10. 14 − 5 x ≥ −6 −5 x ≥ −20 x≤4 The solution set is ( −∞.

1. t= 2a 2(−16) The maximum height is s (2) . s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 The ball reaches its maximum height at −b −(64) = = 2 seconds.5 x ) = 660 40 x + 15 x = 660 55 x = 660 x = 12 Your normal hourly salary is $12 per hour. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 14. Substitute the value of k into the equation. x The hours. k H= 2 C k 8= 2 2 32 = k 488 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Use the quadratic formula to solve. = x2 + 2 40 x + 10 (1. . vary inversely as the square of the number of cups of coffee. Inc. H . slope-intercept form: y − 3 = −3( x − 1) t= y − 3 = −3 x + 3 y = −3 x + 6 16. The ball hits the ground after about 4. 2 = x2 + 4 x + 4 (g −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a t= g )( x ) = f ( x + 2 ) = ( x + 2) s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Let s (t ) = 0 : f )( x ) = g ( x 2 ) 20. 3) point-slope form: y − 3 = −3 ( x − 1) m= 19. t ≈ −0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 13. 3 − (−3) 6 = = −3 1− 3 −2 Using (1. y varies inversely as the square of x is expressed as k y= 2.1 seconds. s (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 5 = 69 feet. C Use the given values to find k . (f −(64) ± (64)2 − 4(−16)(5) 2(−16) t ≈ 4.1 The negative value is rejected. 17. C can be expressed k as H = 2 . 15. k H= 2 C 32 H= 2 C Use the equation to find H when C = 4 . 18. 32 H= 2 C 32 H= 2 4 H =2 If 4 cups of coffee are consumed you should expect to sleep 2 hours.

The circle’s radius is 12 feet: r = 12 feet. radians b. = 180° 3π = radians 2 π radians 180° 5π =− radians 3 4 radians = = b. Inc. 400o – 360o = 40o b. 2. the radian measure of θ is 3. 60° = 60° ⋅ = 3.8o 6. 270π radians 180 = −300π radians 180 d.5 r 12 feet Thus. 30π 29π = 15 15 . r. s 42 feet θ= = = 3. Now use the formula for radian measure to find the radian measure of θ . π radians 4 o 180 4 ⋅ c. For a –135º angle. The length of the intercepted arc is 42 feet: s = 42 feet. 60π radians 180 = π radians 270° = 270° ⋅ π − b. a.1 Check Point Exercises 1. a. For a 400º angle. add 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. 13π 13π 10π 3π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 b. a.Chapter 4 Trigonometric Functions Section 4. –135o + 360o = 225o 180o π radians ≈ 343. The radian measure of a central angle is the length of the intercepted arc. a. subtract 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. −300° = −300° ⋅ c. divided by the circle’s radius.5 π 3 π radians 180° c. 180o π radians = 45o 4π 4π radians 180o ⋅ radians = − 3 3 π 4 ⋅180o =− = −240o 3 6 radians = 6 radians ⋅ = 6 ⋅180o π 5. − π 15 + 2π = − π 15 + 489 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. s.

Exercise Set 4. Before applying the formula. which is approximately 424 inches per minute. 135° = 135° ⋅ π radians 180° 135π radians 180 3π radians = 4 = 490 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.25 radians r 8 yards 11. acute 4. θ= s 400 centimeters = = 4 radians r 100 centimeters 12. obtuse 3. The measure of the central angle in radians is 9. θ= s 18 yards = = 2.71 inches. obtuse 2. 18° = 18° ⋅ = = π radians 180° 18π radians 180 π 10 radians 15. . the angular speed. The circle’s radius is 6 inches : r = 6 inches. s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝4⎠ 4 We are given ω .1 17π 17π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π 3 3 17π 12π 5π = − = 3 3 3 1. 45° = 45° ⋅ 25π 25π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 6 6 25π 36π 11π =− + = 6 6 6 − c.Trigonometric Functions 7. θ= s 40 inches = = 4 radians r 10 inches 8. b. θ= s 30 feet = = 6 radians r 5 feet 9. right 7.5 inches ⋅ 1 minute minute The linear speed is 135π inches per minute. ω = 45 revolutions per minute We use the formula ν = rω to find v. we begin by converting π radians 45° to radians. Multiply by . 855° − 360° ⋅ 2 = 855° − 720° = 135° The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. 45 revolutions 2π radians ⋅ ω= 1 minute 1 revolution 90π radians = 1 minute The angular speed of the propeller is 90π radians per minute. 8. acute 5. θ= s 8 yards 4 = = radians r 6 yards 3 10. Thus. π radians 180° 45π radians 180 π = radians 4 = 14. θ= s 600 centimeters = = 6 radians r 100 centimeters 13. a. The length of the arc intercepted by this 4 4 central angle is ⎛ π ⎞ 6π inches ≈ 4. 180° π radians 45 45° = 45° ⋅ π radians = 180° 180 = π radians 4 Now we can use the formula s = rθ to find the length of the arc. we must express ω in radians per minute. the linear speed. π :θ = π . The linear speed is 90π 135π inches = ν = rω = 1. Inc. straight 6.

20.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 150° = 150° ⋅ π radians 23.31 radians 180° ⋅ −4π radians ⋅ 29. =− 21. π radians 300° = 300° ⋅ 24. π radians 330° = 330° ⋅ 180° 330π radians = 180 11π radians = 6 −225° = −225° ⋅ 11π radians 180o 11 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 330o 6 6 π radians 27. 2 o 180 = 2 = 90o radians = = π radians 9 o 180 9 180o = −4 ⋅180o = −720o π radians π radians 180° 18π = radians 180 ≈ 0. 180° 76π = radians 180 ≈ 1. . −40° = −40° ⋅ 180o π radians 180o ⋅ π radians = 20o π radians 30. 18° = 18° ⋅ π radians π radians 180o π radians = −3 ⋅180o = −540o 270π radians 180 3π radians =− 2 π 7π 7π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 6 6 π radians o 7 ⋅180 = 6 = 210o 26. 19. 18. 3π radians 1800 3 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 135o 4 4 π radians π radians 180° 225π radians =− 180 5π radians =− 4 −270° = −270° ⋅ 2π 2π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 3 3 π radians o 2 ⋅180 = 3 = 120o 76° = 76° ⋅ 31. 180° 150π radians = 180 5π radians = 6 17. −3π radians = −3π radians ⋅ 22.33 radians π radians 180° 40π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. 180° 300π radians = 180 5π radians = 3 25. Inc.70 radians 491 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 16. 2 π 9 radians = 28. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

39. . −5. 35.59o π radians 17 −4.85o radians ⋅ ⋅ 180o π radians 45.8 radians = −4. Inc. −5.Trigonometric Functions 32. π ≈ 114. 250° = 250° ⋅ π radians 180° 250π = radians 180 ≈ 4. 3 radians ⋅ 37. 200π radians 180 ≈ 3. 180o π radians π ≈ −275. 180° 50π =− radians 180 ≈ −0.2 ⋅180o 180o = π radians π ≈ −297. π 38. 180o π radians 44.02o 40.36 radians 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ = 2 ⋅180o 43.8 radians ⋅ = −4.59o 36.2 radians ⋅ 47.87 radians π radians 180° 42.94o 492 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.89o π radians π radians = π radians 13 180o = 13 ≈ 13.49 radians = 34.8 ⋅180o 46. 13 π 17 180o 3 ⋅180o = ≈ 171. 180o 180o = ≈ 10. −50° = −50° ⋅ 33. 200° = 200° ⋅ π radians 41.

. 56. 50. π 50 π 40 + 2π = − + 2π = − π 50 π 40 + 100π 99π = 50 50 + 80π 79π = 40 40 31π 31π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 7 7 31π 42π 11π =− + = 7 7 7 493 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 52.1 48.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. − 53. 51. 17π 17π 10π 7π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 65. 54. − 68. 57. 19π 19π 12π 7π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 64. 415° − 360° = 55° 59. 49. − 69. −760° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −760° + 1080° = 320° 63. 55. Inc. −160° + 360° = 200° 61. 23π 23π 23π 20π 3π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 5 5 5 5 5 66. −765° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −765° + 1080° = 315° 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 395° − 360° = 35° 58. −150° + 360° = 210° 60. 25π 25π 25π 24π π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 6 6 6 6 6 67.

π radians 60π = 60° = 60° ⋅ radians 180° 180 = = π 3 radians Therefore. π radians π = radians 45° = 45° ⋅ 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . θ = 45° Begin by converting 45° to radians. 35 7π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 85. 76. s = rθ = 12 ⋅ 72. − π 4 π 2 and 7π 4 and 3π 2 82. 75. 220 22π ⋅ 2π = 60 3 r = 8 feet.42 inches r = 16 inches. convert to degrees. convert 60° to radians. 55 11π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 84. θ = 225° Begin by converting 225° to radians. First. in order to use the formula s = rθ . π radians 5π = 225° = 225° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . 7π 63π s = rθ = 9 ⋅ = yards ≈ 49. in order to use the formula s = rθ . in order to use the formula s = rθ . π radians 7π = 315° = 315° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.48 yards 4 4 1 ⋅ 360° = 60° 6 Now.76 inches 3 3 77. 5π s = rθ = 8 ⋅ = 10π feet ≈ 31. . 4 minutes and 25 seconds equals 265 seconds. 1 1 360° revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution r = 9 yards. 38π 38π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 9 9 38π 54π 16π =− + = 9 9 9 − r = 12 inches. 6 revolutions per second 6 revolutions 2π radians 12π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolutions 1 seconds = 12π radians per second 1 π revolution is equivalent to 60° or 6 3 radians. 265 53π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 87. π 4 = 3π inches ≈ 9. −π and π 83. − 3π 5π and 4 4 80. Inc. − 7π 5π and 6 6 79. θ = 60° Begin by converting 60° to radians. 3 minutes and 40 seconds equals 220 seconds. 73. in order to use the formula s = rθ .Trigonometric Functions 70. 74. − 4π 2π and 3 3 78. θ = 315° Begin by converting 315° to radians.42 feet 4 86. π 16π s = rθ = 16 ⋅ = inches ≈ 16. 71. 20 revolutions per second 20 revolutions 2π radians 40π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolution 1 second = 40π radians per second 494 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π radians π = radians 60° = 60° ⋅ 180° 3 Now use the formula s = rθ . − 81.

57 inches. 000 miles θ= = = 2. convert to degrees. Recall that θ = 495 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. revolution is equivalent to 120° or 3 3 radians. π radians 60π 60° = 60° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 89. First. 1 1 360o revolutions = revolutions ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 1 o o = ⋅ 360 = 120 3 Now. 3 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 2π radians = 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ 2π ⎞ 12π s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ inches ⎟= 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 4π inches ≈ 12. We must 1 revolution to radians. We are given that r = 24 inches and θ = 90°. We are given that r s = 8000 miles and r = 4000 miles. We are given that r = 8 inches. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians.5 radians r 4000 miles Now. = radians 2 The length of each arc is ⎛π ⎞ s = rθ = (24 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = 12π inches ⎝2⎠ ≈ 37. We must convert revolution to radians. 90. s. . Recall that θ = radians 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 8π s = rθ = (8 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = inches ⎝3⎠ 3 ≈ 8. The 1 minute hand moves from 12 to 2 o'clock. The formula 3 s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in 1 radians. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. Since s = rθ . π s .000 miles and r = 4000 miles. or of a complete revolution. or of a 6 complete revolution. We are given that r = 80 centimeters and θ = 60°. The length of each arc is given by s = rθ . 180o 2. Inc. s 10. Since s = rθ . The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians.5 radians ⋅ ≈ 143. The minute hand moves from 12 to 4 1 o’clock.38 inches.24o 2π radians 94.59o π radians 93.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The distance that the wheel moves is given by s = rθ . convert 2 radians to degrees. we begin by finding r and θ . The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length. convert 2. The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length. we begin by finding r and θ . We are given that r = 6 inches. convert 120° to radians. s. 92. π radians 120π = 120° = 120° ⋅ radians 180° 180 2π = radians 3 1 2π Therefore. convert 6 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution = π = π radians 3 The length that the wheel moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 80π s = rθ = (80 centimeters) ⎜ ⎟ = centimeters 3 ⎝3⎠ ≈ 83. s 8000 miles θ= = = 2 radians r 4000 miles Now. 180o 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ ≈ 114. π radians 90π 90° = 90° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 88.70 inches.78 centimeters. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 radians to degrees. s .1 91. We are given that r s = 10.

.08 feet per minute. We are given that ω= π 101. – 112. Recall that s = rθ .Trigonometric Functions 95. π radians 10π 10° = 10° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 = π 18 100. Answers may vary. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. 97. the distance from A to B is 2094 miles. the distance from A to B is 698 miles. π radians 30π 30° = 30° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 π = 6 99. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 96. ≈ 1508 feet per minute The linear speed of the wheel is about 1508 feet per minute. We are given that r = 25 feet and the wheel rotates at 3 revolutions per minute. radians per hour and 12 r = 4000 miles. 114. We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 10° . radians ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 698 miles ⎝ 18 ⎠ To the nearest mile. 98. Inc. We are given that r = 12 feet and the wheel rotates at 20 revolutions per minute. Recall that s = rθ . Therefore. ⎛π ⎞ ν = rω = (4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ 4000π = miles per hour 12 ≈ 1047 miles per hour The linear speed is about 1047 miles per hour. We need to convert 3 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . Begin by converting 2.5 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. 3 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 3 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution 115.5 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution = 5π radians per minute The linear speed of the animals in the outer rows is ν = rω = (20 feet)(5π ) ≈ 100 feet per minute The linear speed of the animals in the inner rows is ν = rω = (10 feet)(5π ) ≈ 50 feet per minute The difference is 100π − 50π = 50π feet per minute or about 157. 2. 116. 113. 496 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 30° . = 6π radians per minute ν = rω = (25 feet)(6π ) ≈ 471 feet per minute The linear speed of the Ferris wheel is about 471 feet per minute. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . 20 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 20 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution radians = 40π radians per minute ν = rω = (12 feet)(40π ) ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 2094 miles ⎝6⎠ To the nearest mile.5 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 2. We can only use the formula s = rθ when θ is expressed in radians.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Florida is 1815 miles north of the equator. 1 3 126. Use x = –1 and y = 0 to find the values of the trigonometric functions. does not make sense. 121. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 20° to radians. x = − . Sample explanation: Angles greater than π will exceed a straight angle. θ is smaller than a 2 right angle. π 3 2 tan t = ≈ 286 miles To the nearest mile. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 26° to radians.57 radians. Inc.5 radians. range: { y −1 ≤ y ≤ 1} or [ −1.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 26° = 26° ⋅ 3 3 =− 3 3 13π radians 90 180° 13π s =4000 ⋅ 90 ≈ 1815 miles To the nearest mile. domain: { x −1 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [ −1. A right angle measures 90° and 90° = π Section 4. 124. 20° = 20° ⋅ 100= r= π r 9 900 π π 180° = π 9 radians ⎛ 3 1⎞ P⎜ . does not make sense. Miami. Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary.2 125. Sample explanation: It is possible for π to be used in an angle measured using degrees. makes sense 120. Check Point Exercises 1. y = 2 2 1 − x 1 1 = 2 =− =− y 3 3 3 2 119. 2.1] 118.1] 117. 122. The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to t = π has coordinates (–1. 2 3 If θ = radians = 1. ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 sin t = y = 2 cos t = x = = 1 2 3 2 y = x csc t = 1 =2 y = 3 3 1 2 3 = x 3 x cot t = = 3 y sec t = 123. does not make sense.2 radians ≈ 1. sin π = y = 0 cos π = x = −1 0 y tan π = = =0 x −1 1 1 sec π = = = −1 x −1 x −1 cot π = = = undefined y 0 1 1 cscπ = = = undefined y 0 497 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: That will not be possible if the angle is a multiple of 2π . . Explanations will vary. 0). a radius of 286 miles should be used.

Inc. P⎜ . cot b. 17 ⎟ .2 1.5 ≈ 1. 5.7071 Exercise Set 4. cos t is positive. sin b. ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ π 1 csc = = 2 4 y π 1 sec = = 2 4 x t= cot 4. = 1 π .0025 π 4 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = cos ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ≈ 0. ⎛ 9π cos ⎜ − ⎝ 4 a. 1 1 3 = = sin θ 2 2 3 1 1 3 = = sec θ = cos θ 5 5 3 csc θ = = cot θ = 3 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 1 4 3 3 = 4 2 cos t = a.Trigonometric Functions 3. 2 sin θ = 3 tan θ = cos θ 5 3 2 3 2 = ⋅ = 3 5 5 2 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 2 5 5 8. Use x = − 17 and y = 17 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions. ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ . csc 1. 2 ⎛1⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ cos 2 t = 1 − =1 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = sec ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝4⎠ b. 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π π 4 = x = y 1 y 1 2 6. 8 sin t = y = 17 15 cos t = x = − 17 8 tan t = 8 y = 1715 = − 15 x − 17 1 17 = y 8 1 17 sec t = = − x 15 x 15 cot t = = − y 8 csc t = 498 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 5 5 1 1 5 = = 2 tan θ 2 5 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 15 8 ⎛ 15 8 ⎞ ⎜ − 17 . 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ − ⎟ = − sin ⎜ ⎟ = − 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < 7.0≤t < 2 2 sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 sin t = π 2 . .

− 13 ⎟ Use x = − 13 and y = − 13 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions. tan π = 0 =0 −1 10.2 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 5 12 ⎛ 5 12 ⎞ ⎜ − 13 . Inc. Section 4. sin π 6. sin π 7. sec 11π 1 2 3 = = 3 6 3 sin t = y = − tan t = y − = x 2 2 2 2 y = 2 = −1 x − 2 2 = −1 1 =− 2 y 1 sec t = = 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = 6 3 = = 1 2 3 2 2 499 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12 sin t = y = − 13 5 cos t = x = − 13 12 − 12 y tan t = = 13 = 5 5 x − 13 4. csc 7π 1 = 1 = −2 6 −2 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 sin t = y = 2 2 cos t = x = − 2 x=− 1 13 =− 12 y 1 13 sec t = = − x 5 x 5 cot t = = y 12 csc t = 3. tan 0 = 0 =0 1 11. Use has coordinates ⎜ − ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ 2 tan t = 1 = 2 y 1 sec t = = − 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 2 2 2⎞ π . 2 2 2 cos t = x = 2 5. Use x = t = − has coordinates ⎜⎜ 4 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 and y = − to find the values of the trigonometric 2 functions. cos 2π 1 =− 3 2 9. cos 5π 3 =− 6 2 8. csc 4π 1 −2 3 = = 3 3 3 − 2 13. 2 2 and y = to find the values of the 2 2 trigonometric functions.− ⎟⎟ .PreCalculus 4E 2. The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 3π 2 2⎞ t= . . .

sec 5π 1 = 1 =2 3 2 24. a. a. cos 3π =0 2 17. sin 3π = −1 2 16. 21. b. cos π 6 b. b. a. 1 2 tan 8 15 3 5 4 5 = 3 4 5 3 5 sec t = 4 4 cot t = 3 5π 1 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 6 = − 2 ⎠ 27. b. tan 3π = undefined 2 b. cos t = 3 3 tan t = 1 3 2 2 3 = 2 4 csc t = 3 2π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 3 = − 2 ⎠ 3 2 4 cot t = 2 2 sec t = 3 5π − 2 = 1 =− 3 3 2 ⎛ 5π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 3 = csc t = 2π 3 = sin 3 2 ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 8 17 15 17 3 4 sin t = . 22. cos t = 17 17 17 8 17 sec t = 15 15 cot t = 8 π 1 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 3 3 2 ⎝ ⎠ sin sin t = 11π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 6 = 3 ⎠ csc t = π 3 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 6 6 2 ⎝ ⎠ cos ⎛ 11π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 tan t = 3 2 = 11π − 12 3 = =− 3 6 3 2 15. a. . 20. 19. 1 2 2 sin t = . a. sec 3π = undefined 2 18. a. Inc. cos t = 5 5 tan t = 5π 1 = 6 2 ⎛ 5π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 6 8 15 . 25. π 3 = 26. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 23.Trigonometric Functions 14. b. tan 5π ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 3 = 3 ⎠ 500 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

3 = cos 2. cos t is positive. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0≤t < 5 2 sin t = 13 13 = 49 7 cos t = π sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 cos 2 t = 1 − 30. ⎛ 1 ⎞ cos 2.7 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ sin1. 2 ⎛7⎞ 2 ⎜ 8 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ π 21 25 4 2 = 25 5 cos 2 t = 1 − sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 Because 0 ≤ t < . = 1 because 1 + cot 2 t = csc 2 t. sin 2 π 36. 2 . cos t is positive. = 1 because sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1. csc2 π 3 6 − tan 2 − cot 2 π 3 π 6 = 1 because 1 + tan 2 t = sec 2 t.0≤t < 8 2 sin t = 6 3 + cos 2 + cos 2 π 2 π 3 = 1 by the Pythagorean identity.PreCalculus 4E 28. 501 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. cos t = 3 3 2 3 5 3 = 31. cos t is positive. sin t = tan t = Section 4. ⎛ 21 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 5 ⎝ ⎠ 7 π sin t = . 37.3 ⎠ 35. .7 ⎠ 34. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 5 5 2 ⎛ 39 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 8 ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 3 5 sec t = 5 csc t = cot t = 29. 0 ≤ t < 7 2 32. 39 π .7 csc1.3 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ cos 2. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 ⎛6⎞ 2 ⎜ 7 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < π 2 2 36 49 cos t = . Inc. cos t is positive. ⎛ 1 ⎞ sin1.3 sec 2. Because 0 ≤ t < 49 cos t = 1 − 64 2 . 0 ≤ t < 8 2 cos t = 2 21 π . 39 64 25 5 = 64 8 cos 2 t = 1 − cos t = 5 2 Because 0 ≤ t < 6 π sin t = .7 = sin1.2 2 5 . sec2 π 38. sin 2 π 2 15 15 = 64 8 π 33.

sin 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = sin = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 54. a. cos 3π 2 =− 4 2 π ⎛π ⎞ − tan ⎜ + 15π ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝4 ⎠ b.Trigonometric Functions 39. csc 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = csc ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = csc = 2 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 41. 48. sin b. 49. ⎛ 9π sec ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sec ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sec 4 = 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 43. Inc. tan 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = tan ⎜ + π ⎟ = tan = 1 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 44. cos 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos =− 4 4 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ π ⎛π ⎞ − cot ⎜ + 17π ⎟ = − cot = −1 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 55. Publishing as Prentice Hall. sin 3π 2 = 4 2 b. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 53. ⎛ 5π cot ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎟ = cot ⎜ 4 − 2π ⎟ = cot 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 46. cos ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 π 2 =0 9π ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 4π ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎡π ⎤ = cos ⎢ + 2(2π ) ⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ = cos π 2 =0 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 56. 50. cos 9π π 2 ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 40. cos b. 52. ⎛ 9π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π 2 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sin 4 = − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 42. . a. a. sin π 2 =1 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 4π ⎟ = sin = 1 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 502 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ 9π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 4 + 3π ⎟ = tan 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 47. 51. a. cot 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 45.

sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) − tan(t + π ) = sin(t ) + cos(t ) − tan(t ) = a+b−c 77. b.8090 10 503 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6713 = a −b+c 47π ⎛ 7π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 10π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 76. a. cos 70.2 tan π = 57. tan 3.8253 = cos t + cos t − tan t − tan t − sin t + 4sin t 63.9511 3π ≈ 0. + sin t + sin(t − 1000π ) 65. a. 0 =0 −1 tan17π = tan(π + 16π ) b. cos 0. 4 cos(−t ) − cos t = 4 cos t − cos t = 3cos t = 3b 74.2643 = 3a + 2b − 2c = 2 cos t − 2 tan t + 3sin t 64.4 ≈ 0. sin 0. a. sin π 10 − cos t + 7 cos(t + 1000π ) + tan t + tan(t + 999π ) = 6 cos t + 2 tan t + 2sin t = 2a + 6b + 2c ≈ 0. .7321 cot = sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) ⎡ 7π ⎤ = sin ⎢ + 5 ( 2π ) ⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎦ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 60. π 69. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 ≈ 0.6247 80. cos 68. cot 71. tan 3. sin(−t − 2π ) + cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) + cos(t ) + tan(t ) 47π 7π 2 ⎛ 7π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 10π ⎟ = cos = cos 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ = −a + b + c 79.8 ≈ 0. sin(−t ) − sin t = − sin t − sin t = −2sin t = −2a 72. 59. 61. csc 1 ≈ 1. ≈ 3. cot cot π 2 = 0 =0 1 15π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + 7π ⎟ = cot = 0 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 7π 2 =− sin 4 2 sin b. tan( −t ) − tan t = − tan t − tan t = −2 tan t = −2c 73. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. = tan[π + 8(2π )] = tan π =0 58. a. sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) 12 π 18 ≈ 5.7174 cos t + cos(t + 1000π ) − tan t − tan(t + 999π ) − sin t + 4sin(t − 1000π ) 62. sin(−t − 2π ) − cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) = −a − b + c 7π 2 = 4 2 78. b. 3cos( −t ) − cos t = 3cos t − cos t = 2cos t = 2b 75. sec 1 ≈ 1.8508 67.1884 = − cos t + 7 cos t + tan t + tan t + sin t + sin t 66.7 ≈ 0.

t = 0. a. 82. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. ≈ 9.7339 π 6 ⋅6 = 10 + 4sin π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.Trigonometric Functions 81. ≈ 3. a. a.3998 There are about 14.3sin 0 = 12 + 8.3sin1. π ⋅14 = sin π = 0 ⋅ 21 = sin 3π = −1 2 ⋅ 28 = sin 2π = sin 0 = 0 5π π = sin = 1 14 2 2 Observations may vary. 14 14 For t = 21.7 There are about 3. At 6 A. ≈ 14. At 9 A.M.7339 ⋅ 7 = sin π 2 =1 b. t = 12. For t = 7. E = sin ⋅ 35 = sin Because E(35) = E(7) = 1. .M.4 hours of daylight in San Diego on June 21. E = sin = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on March 21. b..7 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on December 21. At midnight. E = sin π 14 For t = 35.5837 E = sin π π 14 For t = 28.3(0) 83. Publishing as Prentice Hall.M. Inc... t = 6. 504 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5837 = 10 + 4sin π 6 ⋅3 π = 10 + 4(1) = 14 2 The height is 14 feet.3sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8.3 There are about 20. a. t = 3.3sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ = 12 + 8. π For t = 14. At noon. t = 18.6 There are about 9. At 6 P. ≈ 20. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin 4. the period is 35 – 7 = 28 or 28 days. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅12 6 = 10 + 4sin 2π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.3sin 4. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. c. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅0 6 = 10 + 4sin 0 = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. 84. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ 12 + 24sin 0 = 12 + 24(0) = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in San Diego on March 21. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin1. E = sin b.3sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8. c.6 hours of daylight in San Diego on December 21.3 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on June 21.

M.M. is 14 feet. First find the hypotenuse. the period is 12 hours. c. At 3 A. tan t > 0.M. Thus.M. The sine function has a minimum at h = 10 + 4sin π 3π . 2 100. We find another high tide at t = 6 2 This value of t corresponds to 9 P. low tide is at 3 A. and 3 P. t is in the third quadrant therefore sin t < 0. π ⋅ 21 6 7π 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4sin 2 2 = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 The height is 6 feet. The height is given by h = 45 + 40 sin(t – 90°) h(765°) = 45 + 40sin(765° − 90°) ≈ 16. and cot t > 0.M. 2π ] .M. f ( x) = sin x and f (a) = 1 ⎛1⎞ − 2⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝4⎠ 1 =− 4 f(–a) = –f(a) because sin (–x) = –sin x. b. makes sense 505 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a period of 2π we also find a maximum at 2 π 5π or t = 15. the height at 9 A.. 101. Answers may vary. only choice (c) is true. a 5 = c 13 85. which means high and low tides occur every 12 hours. the height at 3 A. high tide is at 9 A. Thus. Explanations will vary.7 feet above the ground. Sample explanation: Cosine is not an odd function. π or t = 3.2 H = 10 + 4sin π 98. 104. . f ( x) = sin x and f (a ) = ⎛1⎞ = 4 f (a) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 because sin x has a ⎝4⎠ period of 2π . From part a. we find a high tide at π t= π 2 1 4 f (a) + 2 f (−a) = f (a) − 2 f (a) 103. and 9 P. Because the sine has 5π . Explanations will vary. is also 6 feet. Inc. does not make sense. 105.M. Thus. Thus.7 You are about 16.M. Thus. starts at t= c 2 = 169 c = 13 Next write the ratio.m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. – 96. 97.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. ⋅18 6 = 10 + 4sin 3π = 10 + 4 sin π Note that − = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. t = 21. Sine is an odd function. t= The sine function has a maximum at 10 ≈ −1. The cycle of the sine function π c 2 = 52 + 122 c 2 = 25 + 144 5π π or t = 0. This value of t corresponds to 3 P. Sample explanation: sin t cannot be less than −1. makes sense 3π or 6 2 t = 9.M. For t = 9. This 6 2 value of t corresponds to 9 a. H = 10 + 4sin 99. we find a low tide at does not make sense. Thus. = . c2 = a2 + b2 The period of the sine function is 2π or on the interval [0. From part a. and ends at t = 2π 6 2 6 or t = 12. π ⋅9 6 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 2 The height is 6 feet. 2 1 4 f (a) + f (a + 2π ) + f (a + 4π ) + f (a + 6π ) 102.58 < −1.

adjacent. we have opposite 3 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 adjacent 4 = cos θ = hypotenuse 5 opposite 3 = tan θ = adjacent 4 hypotenuse 5 = csc θ = opposite 3 hypotenuse 5 = sec θ = adjacent 4 adjacent 4 = cot θ = opposite 3 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ 107. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . opposite 1 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 cos θ = adjacent 2 6 = hypotenuse 5 opposite 1 6 = = adjacent 2 6 12 hypotenuse 5 = =5 csc θ = opposite 1 tan θ = sec θ = hypotenuse 5 5 6 = = adjacent 12 2 6 cot θ = adjacent 2 6 = =2 6 opposite 1 506 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 c = a +b Section 4. b = 4 c   2 a + b2 1 + b 2 = 25 c2 b 2 = 24 c2 = 2 c =1 b = 24 = 2 6 Note that side a is opposite θ and side b is adjacent to θ . First find the hypotenuse. continue simplifying by substituting c 2 for a 2 + b2 . 2 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ ⎜ c ⎟ +⎜ c ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ c c = 2. .3 2 Check Point Exercises c 2 = 12 + 12 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝c⎠ ⎝c⎠ c c = a 2 + b2 c2 Since c 2 = a 2 + b2 . a = 3. a2 + b2 c2 Use the Pythagorean Theorem. a 2 + b2 = c2 12 + b 2 = 52 2 = Use the Pythagorean Theorem. a 1 = c 2 = 1 2 ⋅ 2 2 = 2 2 2 c 2 = a 2 + b 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 c = 25 = 5 Referring to these lengths as opposite. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . to find b.Trigonometric Functions 106. to find c. Inc. and hypotenuse. c2 = 1 + 1 c2 = 2 c= 2 Next write the ratio and simplify.

Section 4. sin 46o = cos(90o − 46o ) = cos 44o b. 6.PreCalculus 4E 3. and a known adjacent side.4452) ≈ 334 The distance across the lake is approximately 334 yards. . cot π ⎛π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ 12 ⎝ 2 12 ⎠ ⎛ 6π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 12 ⎠ 5π = tan 12 Because we have a known angle. length of hypotenuse csc 45° = length of side opposite 45° 2 = 2 1 length of hypotenuse sec 45° = length of side adjacent to 45° = 2 = 2 1 length of side adjacent to 45° cot 45° = length of side opposite 45° 1 = =1 1 = 4. Inc. we select the tangent function. 507 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 Apply the definitions of these three trigonometric functions. 3 = 1 3 ⋅ 3 3 = 3 3 a. an unknown opposite side. a tan 240 = 750 a = 750 tan 240 a ≈ 750(0. tan 60° = length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 3 = 3 1 length of side opposite 30° tan 30° = length of side adjacent to 30° = 1 = 5.

c 2 = 92 + 122 = 225 c = 225 = 15 opposite 9 3 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 adjacent 12 4 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 opposite 9 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 12 4 hypotenuse 15 5 csc θ = = = opposite 9 3 hypotenuse 15 5 sec θ = = = adjacent 12 4 adjacent 12 4 cot θ = = = opposite 9 3 2. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 54°. side opposite 14 = side adjacent 10 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.Trigonometric Functions 7. Exercise Set 4.3 1. Thus. tan θ = Many Graphing Calculators Many Scientific Calculators TAN −1 ( 14 ÷ 10 ) TAN ( 14 ÷ 10 ) ENTER ENTER The display should show approximately 54. c 2 = 62 + 82 = 100 c = 100 = 10 opposite 6 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 10 adjacent 8 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 10 opposite 6 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 8 4 hypotenuse 10 csc θ = = = opposite 6 hypotenuse 10 sec θ = = = adjacent 8 adjacent 8 4 cot θ = = = opposite 6 3 3 5 4 5 5 3 5 4 508 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .

Section 4. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 3. Inc. a 2 + 212 = 292 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 4.3 5. a 2 = 841 − 441 = 400 b 2 = 676 − 100 = 576 a = 400 = 20 opposite 20 = = hypotenuse 29 adjacent 21 = = hypotenuse 29 opposite 20 = = adjacent 21 hypotenuse 29 = = opposite 20 hypotenuse 29 = = adjacent 21 adjacent 21 = = opposite 20 b = 576 = 24 opposite 10 5 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 adjacent 24 12 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 opposite 10 5 = = = adjacent 24 12 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = opposite 10 5 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = adjacent 24 12 adjacent 24 12 = = = opposite 10 5 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ a 2 + 152 = 17 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 102 + b 2 = 262 6. a 2 + 402 = 412 a 2 = 289 − 225 = 64 a 2 = 1681 − 1600 = 81 a = 64 = 8 opposite 8 = = hypotenuse 17 adjacent 15 = = hypotenuse 17 opposite 8 = = adjacent 15 hypotenuse 17 = = opposite 8 hypotenuse 17 = = adjacent 15 adjacent 15 = = opposite 8 a = 81 = 9 opposite 9 = = hypotenuse 41 adjacent 40 = = hypotenuse 41 opposite 9 = = adjacent 40 hypotenuse 41 = = opposite 9 hypotenuse 41 = = adjacent 40 adjacent 40 = = opposite 9 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 509 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

tan 30° = = π 3 2 = 2 1 = tan 60° = 14. a = 1225 − 441 = 784 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 8. a = 784 = 28 opposite 28 4 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 adjacent 21 3 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 opposite 28 4 = = = adjacent 21 3 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = opposite 28 4 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = adjacent 21 3 adjacent 21 3 = = = opposite 28 4 12. a 2 + 212 = 352 11. cos π 3 sec π 3 − cot π 3 = 1− 3 3− 3 = 3 3 3 3 510 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . = 10.Trigonometric Functions 7. length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 1 3 − cos = π 4 1 3 17. length of side adjacent to 60° length of side opposite 60° 18. tan π 4 + csc π 6 ⋅ 1 2 3 3 ⋅ 3 3 = − 1 2 =0 ⎞ ⎟⎟ − 1 ⎠ 6 −1 4 6 −4 = 4 = length of side opposite 30° length of side adjacent to 30° 1 3 3 1 2 = + = 1+ 2 = 3 1 1 π π π ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 sin cos − tan = ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 4 4 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 3 2 = 3 = = tan 45° + csc 30° length of side adjacent to 30° length of hypotenuse 1 3 = sin 45° − cos 45° = 16. 13. b = 49 = 7 opposite 24 = = hypotenuse 25 adjacent 7 = = hypotenuse 25 opposite 24 = = adjacent 7 hypotenuse 25 = = opposite 24 hypotenuse 25 = = adjacent 7 adjacent 7 = = opposite 24 cos 30° = tan = b = 625 − 576 = 49 tan θ length of hypotenuse length of side opposite 45° csc 45° = = 2 cos θ 2 = 2 1 = 242 + b 2 = 252 sin θ length of hypotenuse length of side adjacent to 45° sec 45° = cot π 3 sin π 4 3 = 3 1 = cot 60° = = 15. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. csc θ sec θ cot θ 9.

.8040) ≈ 18 cm 31. Inc. ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 3 ⎞ = 6(1) + ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 6 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 6 = 6+ 6 =7 sin 7° = cos(90° − 7°) = cos83° 22. 6 6 12 3 + 6 = 6 =2 3+ 20.7536) ≈ 188 cm π 21. a 10 a = 10 tan 61° tan 61° = a ≈ 10(1.9657 π 10 511 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. sin 23° = c= 5π ⎞ ⎟ = cot 14 ⎠ 34. 2 tan π 3 Section 4.8290) ≈ 182 in.PreCalculus 4E 19. cos 30.5592) ≈ 7 m 33. 6 tan π 4 + sin π 3 sec 29.3 + cos π tan 4 π 6 =2 ⎛ 2 ⎝ 2 ( 3 ) + ⎜⎜ ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 28. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b 220 b = 220 cos 34° cos 34° = b ≈ 220(0. ⎛π π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝2 9⎠ ⎛ 9π 2π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 18 18 ⎠ 7π = cot 18 π ⎛π π ⎞ ⎛ 7π 2π = cot ⎜ − ⎟ = cot ⎜ − 7 ⎝2 7⎠ ⎝ 14 14 a ≈ 13(0. cos π 9 32. tan 27. csc 25° = sec(90° – 25 ) = sec 65° 24. sin19° = cos ( 90° − 19° ) = cos 71° 3π π ⎛ π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 4π 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − − ⎟ = sin ⎜ ⎟ = sin 8 8 ⎠ 8 ⎝2 8 ⎠ ⎝ 8 a 250 a = 250 tan 37° tan 37° = a ≈ 250(0. csc 35° = sec(90° − 35°) = sec55° 25. 2π ⎛ π 2π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 5 ⎝2 5 ⎠ ⎛ 5π 4π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 10 ⎠ = sin a 13 a = 13sin 34° sin 34° = 16 16 ≈ ≈ 41 m sin 23° 0. o 23.3907 tan 44° = b= 16 c 23 b 23 23 ≈ ≈ 24 yd tan 44° 0. tan 26.

9499 SIN-1 SIN-1 .2974.253 radians. Publishing as Prentice Hall.253 If tan θ = 0. then θ = 0. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .473 If tan θ = 0.2974 ENTER 17 Scientific Calculator .Trigonometric Functions 35. 41.4169 TAN −1 Display (rounded to three places) 1. . then θ ≈ 29° .147 radians. 39.877 COS-1 COS-1 .0307.4112.4112 ENTER 1. then θ ≈ 0.6252 TAN −1 TAN −1 4.877.395 Scientific Calculator . Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) SIN −1 . Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .5117 TAN −1 Graphing Calculator TAN −1 . then θ ≈ 88°. then θ ≈ 78°.147 Scientific Calculator . Scientific Calculator . Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) TAN −1 . 42.4169 ENTER .4112 COS−1 Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 88 If cos θ = 0. Inc. 40. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 4.6252 ENTER 78 If tan θ = 4.5117.0307 ENTER Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) COS−1 . 38. then θ = 1. Scientific Calculator 26. 36.5117 ENTER Display (rounded to three places) .877 ENTER Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 29 If cos θ = 0.473 512 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0307 TAN-1 If tan θ = 26. then θ ≈ 17°.9499 ENTER If sin θ = 0.4169. Graphing Calculator TAN-1 26.9499. 37.2974 SIN −1 If sin θ = 0.6252. then θ ≈ 1.395 radians.

Inc. 1 cot π 4 − 2 csc π = 1 1 tan 6 = 1 1 1 − π 1 sin 4 − 2 π 6 2 1 1 2 1 2 = − 1 2 = 1−1 =0 45. 1 + sin 2 40° + sin 2 50° = 1 + sin 2 (90° − 50°) + sin 2 50° = 1 + cos 2 50° + sin 2 50° = 1+1 =2 46. csc 37° sec 53° − tan 53° cot 37° = sec 53° sec 53° − tan 53° tan 53° = sec 2 53° − tan 2 53° =1 48.PreCalculus 4E tan 43. . 1 − tan 2 10° + csc 2 80° = 1 − cot 2 80° + csc2 80° = 1 + csc 2 80° − cot 2 80° = 1+1 =2 47. 2 Section 4. cos12° sin 78° + cos 78° sin12° = sin 78° sin 78° + cos 78° cos 78° = sin 2 78° + cos 2 78° =1 513 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 π 3 − 1 sec π = 3 1 − 1 2 π cos 6 = 6 3 1 − 1 2 3 2 3 3 − 2 2 =0 = 44.

1 ⎛π ⎞ tan ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cot θ = 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ 52. 125 172 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . 514 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 36°. f (θ ) = 2 cos θ − cos 2θ π ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ π⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 cos − cos ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎟ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 6⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝3⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 50. a 630 a = 630 tan 40° tan 40° = a ≈ 630(0.8391) ≈ 529 The distance across the lake is approximately 529 yards. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 55. f (θ ) = 2 sin θ − sin θ 2 π π ⎛π ⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 sin − sin 3 3 2 ⎝3⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 51. 54. tan θ = Many Scientific Calculators 125 ÷ 172 = TAN −1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN −1 ( 125 ÷ 172 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 36. .8391) ≈ 29 The tree’s height is approximately 29 feet.Trigonometric Functions 49. 1 1 ⎛π ⎞ csc ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sec θ = = 1 =3 θ 2 cos ⎝ ⎠ 3 53. Inc. Thus. h 35 h = 35 tan 40° tan 40° = h ≈ 35(0.

9736 0. tan Many Scientific Calculators 555 ÷ 1320 = TAN-1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN-1 ( 555 ÷ 1320 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 23.0998 0.2 0. 59.1987 0. θ 0. 68. 57. cos θ = 61. – 67.1 0.0099998 sin θ 0. Many Scientific Calculators Many Graphing Calculators -1 55 ÷ 80 = COS COS-1 ( 55 ÷ 80 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 47. Thus. sin10° = 500 c 500 500 ≈ ≈ 2880 sin10° 0.9851 0.0001 9.2955 0. sin 5° = 60 75 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 47°.0872) = 436 The driver’s increase in altitude was approximately 436 feet.00001 1 × 10 −5 1 .3 555 1320 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .9983 0.9933 0.1736 The plane has flown approximately 2880 feet. Inc.001 0. c= 58.PreCalculus 4E 56. 55 80 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .999998 × 10 −4 9.01 sinθ 0. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 37°. cos θ = Many Scientific Calculators 60 ÷ 75 = COS Many Graphing Calculators −1 COS−1 ( 60 ÷ 75 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 37. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 4. 0.4 0. 60.9999998 0.99999998 × 10 −5 0. the angle of elevation is approximately 23°.99998 θ sin θ approaches 1 as θ approaches 0. Thus.999999998 515 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3894 0.3 0. θ 0. a 5000 a = 5000sin 5° ≈ 5000(0. Answers may vary.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.005 0. does not make sense. θ 0.99500 0. Inc. The sine and cosine are not reciprocals of each other. Explanations will vary.1 0.148878 –0.9999 tanθ 1.4 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.9999995 0. Explanations will vary. At 90°. A sample change is: sin 45° + cos 45° = 77. Therefore both 1 2 + 1 2 = 2 2 ≠1 opposite adjacent and must be hypotenuse hypotenuse less than 1 for an acute angle in a right triangle. tanθ is undefined. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. Irrational numbers are rounded on calculators. 72.00001 0.00005 0 θ cos θ − 1 θ approaches 0 as θ approaches 0.001 0. 516 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: 75.999 89.99995 cos θ − 1 –0. 70. Then use the table to describe what happens to the tangent of an acute angle as the angle gets close to 90°.04996 –0. In a right triangle. Sample explanation: This value is irrational. 73. 79. Use a calculator in degree mode to generate the following table.01 cos θ 0. true tan 45° ⎛ 45° ⎞ ≠ tan ⎜ ⎟ tan15° ⎝ 15° ⎠ 78.9 89.7475 5. false.2 0.7321 2. does not make sense.99 89. makes sense 74.0001 0. Explanations will vary. false. .Trigonometric Functions 69. tanθ increases without bound.999999995 –0.92106 0. 71.98007 0. Sample explanation: The sine and cosine are cofunctions of each other.099667 –0.6713 57 573 5730 57. Sample explanation: An increase in the size of a triangle does not affect the ratios of the sides.3 0. θ 60 70 80 89 89.0005 1 –0.296 572.19735 –0.95534 0.958 As θ approaches 90°. true 76. the hypotenuse is greater than either other side.

a. r = x2 + y2 π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive y-axis. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. y = 1. 2. a. Inc. y −3 3 10 = =− r 10 10 cos θ = 144 + 250 = 394 The plane is approximately 394 feet above the water. θ = 90° = x r First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = 34 x −3 −3 34 −3 34 = = ⋅ = . r = 12 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. b.1): x = 0. y. 250 tan 35° = a 250 250 a= ≈ ≈ 357 tan 35° 0. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ .PreCalculus 4E 80. x 1 cos 0° = cos 0 = = = 1 r 1 r 1 csc 0° = csc 0 = = . which is positive. a. θ = 0° = 0 radians The terminal side of the angle is on the positive x-axis. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 0.7002 The ship is approximately 357 feet from the lighthouse. . undefined y 0 b. b. 81. r 5 82. b tan 22° = 357 b = 357 tan 22° ≈ 357(0. x 1 10 = = r 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = = −3 x 1 r 10 10 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 y r r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = (−3) 2 + 42 r =5 y 4 = .4 Check Point Exercises 1. Select the point P = (0. r = (−3)2 + 52 83. π x 0 cos 90° = cos = = = 0 2 r 1 π r 1 csc 90° = csc = = = 1 2 y 1 517 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. θ ′ = 360D − 345D = 15D b. Section 4. b. Let b = the plane’s height above the lighthouse.4 Let a = distance of the ship from the lighthouse. Select the point P = (1.4040) ≈ 144 sin θ = a. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. and r. θ′ = π − 5π 6π 5π π = − = 6 6 6 6 10 = 10 1 1 1 =− −3 3 a. Section 4. which is r 34 34 34 34 negative.0): x = 1.

and r. π 3 . Inc. sin 300° = − sin 60° = − b. Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. Select the point P = (0. 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. Thus. sin θ is positive in quadrant II. y.6 − π ≈ 0. 3. The reference angle is 4 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = . d. θ = 270° = 6. 5π π = + tan = 1 . 3π x 0 cos 270° = cos = = =0 2 r 1 3π r 1 csc 270° = csc = = = −1 2 y −1 c. thus the reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 305° = 55° .Trigonometric Functions c.14 and 3π ≈ 4. 7. Select the point P = (–1. with sin θ < 0. θ cannot lie in quadrant II.46 . θ lies in quadrant II. Publishing as Prentice Hall. it is in quadrant IV. The reference angle is θ = 240 − 180 = 60° . we can find sin θ and sec θ . r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. Because 3. Furthermore.0): x = −1. θ cannot lie in quadrant I. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = 3 x −3 x = −3. Because 8π . 4 4 4 4 2π = 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative y-axis. x is negative and y is positive. y = 1 Furthermore. 300° lies in quadrant IV. tan 4 4 tan 518 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which cosine is negative and the sine is negative. Thus. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. thus the reference − angle is θ ′ = Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. 4 4 4 4 π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. Because sin θ < 0. Because –240° lies between –180° and –270°. y = 0. 15π 15π 8π 7π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 This angle is in quadrant IV. sin 60° = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. d. c. undefined y 0 5. 665° − 360° = 305° This angle is in quadrant IV. it is in quadrant III. thus the reference 7π 8π 7π π = − = . x −1 cos180° = cos π = = = −1 r 1 r 1 csc180° = csc π = = . 4. it is in quadrant III. a. θ = 180° = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative x-axis.71 . The reference 2 angle is θ ′ = 3. . y 1 1 10 10 sin θ = = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 sec θ = 7π 3π 6π = and lies between 4 2 4 r 10 10 = =− x 3 −3 3 . The reference 4 7π 8π 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = − = . 2 5π lies in quadrant III. all the functions are positive in quadrant I. angle is θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 11π 11π 12π π + 2 ⋅ 2π = − + = 3 3 3 3 This angle is in quadrant I. a.6 lies between π ≈ 3. y = −1. it is in quadrant II. a. b. In quadrant II.–1): x = 0.

and r. Because P = (–4. y. 6 3 ⎝ 6⎠ 8. sin We need values for x. and r. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + 52 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. y. Inc. x = −12 and y = 5 . x = −4 and y = 3 . y. 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ .4 Exercise Set 4. 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. 6 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. cos cos b. − π Section 4. . 5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . and r.4 lies in quadrant IV. The reference angle is 6 θ′ = π 6 1. = r 5 5 = =− 4 x −4 4 x −4 cot θ = = =− 3 3 y sec θ = 17π 5π π 3 = cos = − cos = − . sec r = x 2 + y 2 = (−4)2 + 32 = 16 + 9 = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. 2. The reference angle is θ ′ = π − = .PreCalculus 4E c. 6 6 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 . Because P = (–12. y. Furthermore. y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 cos θ = = =− 5 5 r 3 3 y tan θ = = =− 4 x −4 r 5 csc θ = = y 3 π 2 3 ⎛ π⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = + sec = . and r. Furthermore. We need values for x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = lies in quadrant 6 6 6 6 5π π II. The reference angle is 2π π = . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . π 2 3 = 6 3 Because the secant is positive in quadrant IV. 6 6 6 2 −22π −22π 24π 2π + 8π = + = lies in 3 3 3 3 quadrant II. y 5 sin θ = = r 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− 13 13 r 5 5 y tan θ = = =− 12 x −12 −22π 2π π 3 = sin = sin = . θ′ = π − 3 3 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 sin = . . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . a. 3 3 3 2 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = − 5 5 y csc θ = 519 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

–5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . 7) is a point on the terminal side of θ . y. 3 3 58 3 58 x = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 y 7 tan θ = = x 3 58 r csc θ = = 7 y sin θ = cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y We need values for x. y. y. We need values for x. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . and r. 5. y. Furthermore. y. and r. and r. 3 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 3 2 2 2 y −3 = −1 tan θ = = x 3 r 3 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −3 y r 3 2 = = 2 3 x 3 x = −1 cot θ = = y −3 sec θ = 2 3 We need values for x.Trigonometric Functions 3. 3 7 r 5 2 = = 2 5 x 5 x = −1 cot θ = = y −5 sec θ = 520 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Furthermore. Because P = (3. 2 sin θ = 2 2 2 = 18 = 3 2 Now that we know x. . 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Because P = (2. x = 2 and y = 3 . and r. Furthermore. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + 7 2 = 9 + 49 = 58 Now that we know x. x = 3 and y = 7 . x = 5 and y = –5 . Furthermore. and r. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because P = (5. 6. r = x 2 + y 2 = 5 + (−5)2 = 25 + 25 = 50 7 7 58 7 58 y = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 −5 −1 2 2 y = = ⋅ =− 2 r 5 2 2 2 5 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 5 2 2 2 y −5 = −1 tan θ = = 5 x r 5 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −5 y cos θ = 58 3 sec θ = −3 −1 2 2 y = =− ⋅ =− 2 r 3 2 2 2 cos θ = 13 2 sec θ = We need values for x. y. y. x = 3 and y = −3 . Because P = (3. and r. sin θ = =5 2 Now that we know x. and r. 3 3 13 3 13 y = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 sin θ = 2 2 13 2 13 x = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 y 3 tan θ = = x 2 13 r csc θ = = 3 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y 4. Inc. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + (−3) 2 = 9 + 9 r = x + y = 2 + 3 = 4 + 9 = 13 Now that we know x. and r.

sin θ = tangent function. Inc. Select the point P = (0. x −1 cos π = = = −1 r 1 3π y −1 = = . undefined x 0 2 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. x = −2 and y = −5 . r = 1 Apply the definition of the θ= 10 = − 10 −1 −1 1 = −3 3 15. = x 0 = =0 y 1 . r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosecant function. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. and r.4 We need values for x. Select the point P = (–1. 0): x = −1. Because P = (–2. and r. y. tan −3 −3 10 3 10 y = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 14. –1): x = 0. –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . y. and r. Select the point P = (–1. r 1 = −1 sec π = = x −1 12. y = –1. y. y 0 =0 tan π = = x −1 11. 29 29 =− −2 2 −2 2 = −5 5 We need values for x. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. Because P = (–1. Furthermore. Select the point P = (–1. y. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Select the point P = (–1. r = 1 Apply the definition of the secant function. y = 0. Furthermore. x = –1 and y = –3 . 10. 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. 3π x 0 = = =0 cos 2 r 1 θ= θ= π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. and r. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . r 1 csc π = = . θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis.PreCalculus 4E 7. −1 −1 10 10 x cos θ = = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = =3 x −1 10 10 r =− csc θ = = −3 3 y r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 9. y = −1. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. Select the point P = (0. cot π 2 521 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. undefined y 0 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−2) 2 + (−5) 2 = 4 + 25 = 29 Now that we know x. –1): x = 0. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−1) 2 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. y = 0. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cotangent function. Section 4. r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. 0): x = −1. 13. Select the point P = (0. 1): x = 0. y = 0. y = 0. 0): x = −1. 0): x = −1. sin θ = −5 −5 29 5 29 y = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 −2 −2 29 2 29 x = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 y −5 5 tan θ = = = x −2 2 29 29 r =− csc θ = = −5 5 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 8. y = 1.

Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. and r. with sin θ > 0. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant III. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant I. with sin θ < 0. with tan θ < 0. Thus. x2 + y 2 = r 2 20. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 x −3 cosθ = − = = . x is negative and y is negative. Because sin θ < 0. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. with cot θ > 0. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the sine is negative and the tangent is negative. θ= π 22. x −5 5 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 y −12 12 tan θ = = = x −5 5 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −12 12 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −5 5 x −5 5 cot θ = = = y −12 12 21. In quadrant III. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. y = 1. y. Thus. 1): x = 0. Thus. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. with sin θ < 0. θ cannot lie in quadrant III or quadrant IV. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. Because tan θ < 0. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. We are also given that cos θ > 0. π y 1 tan = = . the tangent function is positive in those quadrants. 52 = (−3) 2 + y 2 y 2 = 25 − 9 = 16 y = − 16 = −4 Now that we know x. the cotangent function is negative in those two quadrants. with tan θ < 0. Because sin θ < 0. Because quadrant I is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and sine is positive. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant II. Thus. Thus. 13 r 13 Furthermore. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. y = −12. In quadrant III x is negative and y is negative. θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. x = –3. Thus. 24. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant II. undefined 2 x 0 23. the sine function is negative in those quadrants. We are also given that sec θ < 0 . x 2 + (−12) 2 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 144 = 25 x = − 25 = −5 Now that we know x. Thus. y. r = 5. Thus. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the secant is negative and the cotangent is positive. 522 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Because tan θ < 0. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. Because cot θ > 0. Furthermore. Select the point P = (0. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. 19. 12 y −12 sin θ = − = = . the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. r = 13 . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . We are also given that cos θ > 0 . r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. Because sin θ > 0. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . the tangent function is positive in those two quadrants. 5 r 5 r 2 = x2 + y2 17.Trigonometric Functions 16. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. We are also given that sin θ < 0 . radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. 4 y −4 sin θ = = =− 5 5 r y −4 4 tan θ = = = x −3 3 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 3 x −3 3 = cot θ = = y −4 4 18. and r. Because quadrant II is the only quadrant in which the cosine is negative and the tangent is negative. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. θ cannot lie in quadrant II or quadrant IV. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ .

In quadrant II x is negative and y is positive. In quadrant IV x is positive and y is negative. Furthermore x2 + y 2 = r 2 25. y. r = 5 . Thus. Because 270° < θ < 360°. Because 270° < θ < 360°. x is positive and y is negative. x is positive and y is negative. 8 x cos θ = = . 13 r x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + 52 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 25 = 144 82 + y 2 = 17 2 x = − 144 = −12 Now that we know x. In quadrant IV. and r. 1 x cos θ = = . x = 4.4 27. and r. sin θ = y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 tan θ = y −2 2 = = −2 2 x 1 r 3 3 2 3 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 r 3 sec θ = = = 3 x 1 csc θ = cot θ = x 1 1 2 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 523 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 17 r r = 17. y. Thus. x = 1. y. Thus. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Furthermore. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 3 r 2 2 x + y = r2 42 + y 2 = 52 y 2 = 25 − 16 = 9 12 + y 2 = 32 y = − 9 = −3 Now that we know x. . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. cos θ = tan θ = csc θ = sec θ = cot θ = y 2 = 289 − 64 = 225 y = − 225 = −15 Now that we know x. x = 8. y = 5. 4 x cos θ = = . and r.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. r = 13 . Thus. y −15 15 sin θ = = =− r 17 17 y −15 15 tan θ = = =− x 8 8 r 17 17 csc θ = = =− y −15 15 r 17 sec θ = = x 8 x 8 8 cot θ = = =− y −15 15 x −12 12 = =− r 13 13 y 5 5 = =− x −12 12 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 = =− y 5 5 26. Furthermore. θ is in quadrant IV. Furthermore. y −3 3 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 y −3 3 tan θ = = =− x 4 4 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 r 5 sec θ = = x 4 x 4 4 cot θ = = =− y −3 3 y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. Inc. and r. 5 y sin θ = = . y. In quadrant IV. θ is in quadrant IV. 5 r 2 2 x + y = r2 28. r = 3 .

y = 2. x = −12. Thus. Thus. tan θ = = = 3 x −3 x = –3. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. and r. x = −3 . sin θ = y 2 2 13 2 13 = = ⋅ = r 13 13 13 13 cos θ = −3 −3 13 x 3 13 = = ⋅ =− r 13 13 13 13 csc θ = r 13 = y 2 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. y. 12 x −12 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. Inc. y. 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = . Furthermore. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . x is 4 y −4 . θ lies in quadrant II. 5 y −5 tan θ = = = . y. . and r. y. In quadrant III. In quadrant II. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. y = –4. Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . θ lies in quadrant III. x is negative and y is positive. and r. Furthermore. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y −5 5 sin θ = = =− r 13 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −5 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = = y −5 5 10 10 =− −3 3 −3 = −3 1 524 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = −5 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. θ lies in quadrant III. 3 x −3 32. negative and y is negative. Furthermore. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + (−4)2 = 9 + 16 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 22 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. Furthermore. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ .Trigonometric Functions 29. x = −3. Thus. In quadrant II. sin θ = y 1 1 10 10 = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 cos θ = −3 −3 x 10 3 10 = = ⋅ =− r 10 10 10 10 csc θ = r 10 = = 10 y 1 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + (−5)2 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. and r. 2 y 2 tan θ = − = = . y = 1. Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. In quadrant III. x is negative and y is negative. θ lies in quadrant II. y −4 4 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 x −3 3 cos θ = = =− r 5 5 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 x −3 3 cot θ = = = y −4 4 13 13 =− −3 3 −3 3 =− 2 2 30. 3 x −3 31. x is negative and y is positive. Thus.

−150° + 360° = 210° Because the angle is in quadrant III. it 4 2 4 4 is in quadrant IV. Thus. 36. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . r 3 3 2 3 2 csc θ = = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 cot θ = x 1 2 2 −1 = = ⋅ = y −2 2 2 2 2 4 7π 3π 6π 8π lies between = and 2π = . The reference angle is 7π 8π 7π π = − = . Because 34. Because the cosecant is negative and the tangent is positive. . r 3 sec θ = −3 = = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° . Because 170° lies between 90° and 180°. it is in quadrant II. y = −1. Because x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + (−1) 2 = 42 x 2 = 16 − 1 = 15 5π π 3π 6π lies between = and π = . (−1)2 + y 2 = 32 37. it is 6 2 6 6 in quadrant II. Inc. 38. θ′ = π − 6 6 6 6 x = − 15 Now that we know x. Furthermore. θ lies in quadrant III. y. Because 160° lies between 90° and 180°. The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 160° = 20° . it is in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 355° = 5° . r 4 csc θ = −4 = = . y −1 1 sin θ = = =− r 4 4 x − 15 15 cos θ = = =− r 4 4 y 1 15 15 −1 tan θ = = = ⋅ = x − 15 15 15 15 sec θ = r 4 4 15 4 15 = =− ⋅ =− x − 15 15 15 15 cot θ = x − 15 = = 15 y −1 43. θ′ = π − 7 7 7 7 π= 45. Because 44. The reference angle is 5π 6π 5π π = − = . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The reference angle is 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = . x −1 x2 + y 2 = r 2 35. y. 4 4 4 4 42. x = −1. it is in quadrant IV.4 33. Publishing as Prentice Hall. it is in quadrant III. y −2 2 = =2 2 x −1 40. r = 4 . In quadrant III. the reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. Because 205° lies between 180° and 270°. The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 170° = 10° . Furthermore. y −1 5π 4π 3π 6π lies between π = and = . it is in quadrant II. y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. and r. it is in quadrant IV. 525 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. it is in quadrant III. x is negative and y is negative. Because 351° lies between 270° and 360°. In quadrant III. Because 355° lies between 270° and 360°. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 351° = 9° . Because the secant is negative and the tangent is positive. Thus. r = 3 . and r. The reference angle is 14 5π 7π 5π 2π = − = . Because 5π 10π π 7π = lies between = and 2 14 7 14 14π . y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 x −1 1 cos θ = = =− r 3 3 sin θ = tan θ = 39. x is negative and y is negative. it 4 4 2 4 is in quadrant III. θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 41. θ lies in quadrant III.

56 . 3π ≈ 4. tan 30° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 4π = − = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV.71 . −359° + 360° = 1° Because the angle is in quadrant I. 3 3 tan 210°= tan 30° = 3 . 6 6 − 13π 13π 18π 5π + 6π = − + = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. 565° − 360° = 205° Because the angle is in quadrant III. .5 ≈ 0.7 − π ≈ 1. 60. 11π 11π 8π 3π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 2π − 5. The reference angle is θ ′ = 4. 6 6 − 25π 25π 36π 11π + 6π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. Because 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 it is in quadrant IV. the reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° . is in quadrant III. the reference 3π π angle is θ ′ = π − = . the reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 110° = 70° . 58. 3 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. 210° lies in quadrant III.7 lies between π ≈ 3. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . 225° lies in quadrant III. 48. 2 63. 4 4 − 17π 17π 24π 7π + 4π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant III.78 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . 3 3 − 61. 49. 553° − 360° = 193° Because the angle is in quadrant III. 53. 2 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant III. the reference angle is θ ′ = 193° − 180° = 13° . the reference 11π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . 54. 300° lies in quadrant IV. 3 526 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 4 3 . 50. 6 6 cos 225°= − cos 45°= − 2 . 55. the reference angle is θ ′ = 1° .28 .71 and 2π ≈ 6. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = −π = . 47. 11π 11π 16π 5π + 4π = − + = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant III. 4 4 sin 60° = sin 300° = − sin 60° = − 23π 23π 16π 7π − 4π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. Because 4. 57. the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = −π = . the reference angle is θ ′ = 25° . 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. it 2 59. The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45° . Inc. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = π − = .14 and 3π ≈ 4.Trigonometric Functions 46. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = .5 lies between 51. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . −250° + 360° = 110° Because the angle is in quadrant II. −335° + 360° = 25° Because the angle is in quadrant I. cos 45° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant II. 56. 2 62. 52.

2 2 2 2 π 9π is also Because tan is undefined. tan 2 2 undefined. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . cos 9π lies on the positive y-axis. 2 sin 45° = π =2 6 Because the cosecant is negative in quadrant III. sec 60° = 2 Because the secant is negative in quadrant III. 405° lies in quadrant I. 4 4 4 4 π 2 cos = 4 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. 7π π csc = − csc = −2 . θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 65. 67. sec 240° = − sec 60° − 2 . tan 60° = 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. –225° lies in quadrant II. θ′ = 4 4 4 4 tan 2π lies in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . tan 420°= tan 60°= 3 . 2 sin(−225°) = sin 45° = . 3 3 3 3 sin π =1 4 Because the cotangent is negative in quadrant IV. π 69. tan 405°=tan45°=1 . 73. sin 9π lies in quadrant I. The reference angle is 4 9π 9π 8π π − 2π = − = . 7π π cot = − cot = −1 . The reference angle is 4 3π 4π 3π π θ′ = π − = − = . tan 45° = 1 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. The reference angle is 2 9π 9π 8π π θ′ = − 4π = − = . =– cos = − 4 4 2 3 . 9π π tan =tan = 1 4 4 3 = 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. 6 6 csc π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. 71. 4 4 cot 527 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2π π 3 =sin = . 2 74. 420° lies in quadrant I. 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II.4 64. 7π lies in quadrant IV. The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45°. sin 60° = sin(−240°)= sin 60°= 3π π 2 . 70. The reference angle is θ ′ = 405° − 360° = 45° . 7π lies in quadrant III. . 240° lies in quadrant III. 72. 68. Inc. 66. The reference angle is 3 2π 3π 2π π θ′ = π − = − = . 3 3 2 3π lies in quadrant II. The reference angle is 6 7π 7π 6π π −π = − = .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The reference angle is 4 7π 8π 7π π = − = . –240° lies in quadrant II. θ′ = 6 6 6 6 2 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The reference angle is θ ′ = 420° − 360° = 60° .

Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − π 87. 17π 5π 17π 5π cos sin + cos 3 4 3 4 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 2⎞ = ⎜− − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6− 2 = 4 = 7π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = tan 6 = 3 ⎠ π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = sin 3 = 2 ⎠ 528 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. cos 23π 7π 2 = cos = 4 4 2 82. π 1 ⎛ 35π ⎞ = sin = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 6 2 ⎝ 6 ⎠ 90. cot 13π π 3 = cot = 3 3 3 81. π ⎛ 11π ⎞ = tan = 1 tan ⎜ − ⎟ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 85. − π 6 π cos π − cos π 3 sin 3π 2 3 1 + 2 2 1− 3 = 2 88. 6 3 ⎝ ⎠ 77. ⎛ 17π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 84.Trigonometric Functions 75. =1 4 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. The reference angle is π 3 =− π . lies in quadrant IV. θ= π ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 − −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ . 19π 7π = cot = 3 6 6 11π 5π 11π 5π cos sin + cos 4 6 4 6 ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ =⎜ − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6+ 2 =− 4 =− 80. lies in quadrant IV. π ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝ 4⎠ tan sin 89. cot π 4 cos 0 − sin π 6 cos π 2 1 + 2 2 2 +1 = 2 = 3 ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − . . cos 35π 11π 3 = cos = 6 6 2 83. ⎛ 17π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 86. The reference angle is 4 θ′ = π 4 76. 2 3 sec 510° = sec150° = − 3 79. sin ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 1 − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ 3 6 6 3 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. tan = sec 495° = sec135° = − 2 78.

m= f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ − sin ⎜ 4 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 3π 5π − 2 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ 4π π ⎞ ⎛ 4π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ f⎜ + ⎟+ f ⎜ +f⎜ ⎟ ⎟ 6⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝6⎠ 4 π π 4 π π ⎛ ⎞ = sin ⎜ + ⎟ + sin + sin 6⎠ 3 6 ⎝ 3 3π 4π π = sin + sin + sin 2 3 6 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠ =− ⎞⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ cos ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎛1⎞ = 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ =1 sin =− 3− ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎟ = h⎜ g ⎜ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ π 4 2 −1 + 2 = 3 +1 2 π 4 ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎛ 5π π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ + ⎟+ g⎜ g⎜ ⎟+ g⎜ 6 ⎟ 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π π ⎛ 5π π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + ⎟ + cos + cos 6 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ π 5π = cos π + cos + cos 6 6 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 3 3⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = −1 = ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2 2 −4 π 529 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 4.4 3π ⎛ 15π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − − cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1)(1) − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 1 = −1 − 2 2 1 =− − 2 2 3 =− 2 sin 95. 17π ⎝ 3 ( h D g ) ⎛⎜ 96. f ( x2 ) ) 2 3 3 − 2 2 3 3 =− 2 =− 93. f ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 .PreCalculus 4E 91. Inc. . ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ 11π ⎞ = h⎜ f ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ sin ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ( h D f ) ⎛⎜ 3π ⎛ 8π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − + cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ = ( −1) 3 + ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2⎞ = 2⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) = 2 3 2 97. 92. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . 94.

Trigonometric Functions 98. 3 3 π 4 = π 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is 3 2 in quadrants II or III. does not make sense. 3 3 100. Explanations will vary. 6 6 π 5π 3 π 3 2π = 3 2π 5π θ= . 4 4 4 = π = π ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ QIV 3 θ = 2π − π 6 11π = 6 105. tan θ = − π QII 3 5π 3 θ =π − QIV π 6 5π = 6 5π 11π θ= . 4 θ =π − 4 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is in 3 2 quadrants I or IV. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . QII QIII sin θ = θ= θ = 2π − 102. QI QIV π θ = 2π − 3 = θ= . 110. tan θ = − 3 when the reference angle is 3π = 4 θ= π 3 2π = 3 2π 4π θ= . Inc. Answers may vary. sin θ = − g ( x2 ) − g ( x1 ) x2 − x1 QIII ⎛ 3π ⎞ cos (π ) − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ = 3π π− 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = θ =π + 99. Publishing as Prentice Hall. – 109. QII π π 3π 4 4 103. cos θ = − 2 2 −4 π 4 5π 4 5π 7π θ= . . QI QII θ =π − . g ( x2 ) ) m= 2 π when the reference angle is and 4 2 θ is in quadrants III or IV. π 3 4π = 3 π 3 and θ is QIV θ = 2π − π 3 5π = 3 3 π when the reference angle is and 6 3 θ is in quadrants II or IV. g ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . 101. ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ θ =π − 2 π when the reference angle is and θ is 4 2 in quadrants I or II. Sample explanation: Sine is defined for all values of the angle. cos θ = θ= 7π 4 θ =π + in quadrants II or IV. 530 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 104.

a.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 111. 113. 10° = 10° ⋅ = 112. the reference angle 4 5π 5π 4π π −π = − = is 4 4 4 4 Since 531 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. Inc. y = cos(4 x + π ) 2 x − π π radians 13π 12 −4 4π 3 0 13π 13π radians 180o radians = − ⋅ π radians 20 20 o = −117 11π 11π 6π 5π − 2π = − = 3 3 3 3 b. . 5π is in quadrant III. y = 4 sin ⎜ 2 x − 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x = radians =− 0 8 18 180° −105° = −105° ⋅ 1 114. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Sample explanation: Sine and cosecant have the same sign within any quadrant because they are reciprocals of each other. − 5. Sample explanation: It is also possible that y = −3 and x = −5. the reference angle 3 5π 6π 5π π is 2π − = − = 3 3 3 3 c. Since a. y = 3sin x 0 y 0 7π 12 4 π 2 5π 6 0 10π radians 180 π radians 180° =− 105π radians 180 7π radians 12 π π 3. x 1 5 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 7 3 3 0 − 2 2 11 4 3 3 −3 − 0 2 3 6. does not make sense. 0 2π ⎞ ⎛ 115. Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary. 5π is in quadrant IV. makes sense π − 4 1 2 y π 0 1 − 2 y π 3 0 116. does not make sense. 8 4 1 2 5π 5π radians 180o radians = ⋅ = 75o 12 12 π radians 4. − 19π 19π 24π 5π + 6π = − + = 4 4 4 4 b. Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 1.

Trigonometric Functions 7. and r. sin θ = −2 2 13 y = =− 13 r 13 3 3 13 x = = 13 r 13 2 y −2 tan θ = = =− 3 3 x 13 13 r =− csc θ = = −2 2 y cos θ = 13 r = 3 x 3 3 x =− cot θ = = 2 y −2 sec θ = 532 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 52 + b 2 = 62 25 + b 2 = 36 b 2 = 11 c. 4 − y 4 sin θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 3 − x 3 cos θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 4 − y 4 tan θ = = 5 = 3 3 x − 5 r 1 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 5 r 1 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 5 3 − x 3 cot θ = = 5 = 4 y − 4 5 10. sec θ = hypotenuse 6 6 11 = = adjacent 11 11 cot θ = adjacent 11 = opposite 5 r = x2 + y2 r = 32 + (−2) 2 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 8. y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Use the Pythagorean theorem to find b. y. b = 11 opposite 5 = sin θ = hypotenuse 6 Since 150° is in quadrant II. 510° − 360° = 150° 9. . and r. a. a 2 + b2 = c2 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. the reference angle is 180° − 150° = 30° cos θ = r = x2 + y2 2 adjacent 11 = hypotenuse 6 opposite 5 11 = adjacent 11 hypotenuse 6 = csc θ = opposite 5 tan θ = 2 9 16 25 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 4⎞ r = ⎜− ⎟ +⎜− ⎟ = + = =1 5 5 25 25 25 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Now that we know x.

Furthermore. θ is in quadrant II. x = 1. y. sec 20. r = 7 . x = −4. y. 4 y 13. Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. Since cos θ = 1 x = .PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 11. x is negative and y is positive. In quadrant II. side opposite θ side adjacent θ a tan 41° = 60 a = 60 tan 41° tan θ = r 2 = x2 + y2 r = (−3) + 4 2 2 a ≈ 52 cm 2 14. x is positive and y is negative. sin 2 11π = 6 π 7 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 = = = = 11π π 3 3 3 cos cos 6 6 2 + cos 2 π 7 =1 533 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 3 . cot120° = 1 1 1 3 = = =− tan120° − tan 60° − 3 3 18. Furthermore. 6 r x2 + y2 = r 2 12 + y 2 = 62 1 + y 2 = 36 y 2 = 35 y = ± 35 3 x = . In quadrant IV. Furthermore. r = 6 . y = + 35 = 35 y 35 ⎛π ⎞ = 35 cot ⎜ − θ ⎟ = tan θ = = x 1 ⎝2 ⎠ x2 + y2 = r 2 32 + y 2 = 72 9 + y 2 = 49 y 2 = 40 y = ± 40 = ±2 10 Because the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. and r to find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Inc. Therefore y = −2 10 Use x. 3 x tan θ = − = . tan 30° = 3 3 17. . Thus. θ is in quadrant IV. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . sin θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− r 7 7 tan θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− x 3 3 r 7 7 10 = =− y −2 10 20 r 7 sec θ = = x 3 x 3 3 10 cot θ = = =− y −2 10 20 csc θ = 16. r 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 r =5 Now that we know x. and r. Since cos θ = side adjacent θ hypotenuse 250 cos 72° = c 250 c= cos 72° c ≈ 809 m cos θ = 15. x = 3. y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 =− cos θ = = 5 5 r r 5 csc θ = = y 3 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 4 x −3 4 =− cot θ = = y 4 3 12. 7 r Since θ is acute. cos 240° = − cos 60° = − 19.

7 feet per minute T he linear speed of the horse is about 502. − cos π = (1) − (−1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ + 2π n ⎟ + tan ⎜ + nπ ⎟ cos ⎜ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π 5π π π = cos + tan = − cos − tan 6 6 6 6 3 3 3 3 2 3 =− − =− − 2 3 6 6 5 3 =− 6 side opposite θ hypotenuse h sin 6° = 5280 h = 5280sin 6° h ≈ 551. 26. . Begin by converting from degrees to radians. ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 3 + 2π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4π π = sin = − sin 3 3 27. 8 revolutions per minute 4π ⎞ ⎛ 22π ⎞ ⎟ = csc ⎜ 3 − 6π ⎟ = csc 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1 = = = 4π π 3 − sin sin − 3 3 2 =− π 3 3 30. cos 495° = cos ( 495° − 360° ) = cos135° = tan = 8π ≈ 25. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Convert 8 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . Inc. 25.7 feet per minute. ⎛ 22π csc ⎜ ⎝ 3 23. 2 3 =− 24. 7π ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎛ 17π ⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 6 + 4π ⎟ = tan 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 2 π 2 π 6 = 2π radians 1 revolution = 16π radians per minute ν = rω = (10)(16π ) = 160π ≈ 502.9 feet sin θ = side opposite θ side adjacent θ 50 tan θ = 60 ⎛ 50 ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 60 ⎠ θ ≈ 40° tan θ = 534 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 29. It is given that r = 10 feet and the merry-go-round rotates at 8 revolutions per minute. π radians π 36° = 36° ⋅ = radians 180° 5 s = rθ = 40 ⋅ 3 =− 2 22.Trigonometric Functions 21.13 cm = 8 revolutions per minute ⋅ 2 3 3 = − cos 45° = − 5 28.

0) 1 π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − ⋅1 = − 2 2 π π 1 y = − sin π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (π .3 π y = 3sin x = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π .periods. 2π . Inc. We find the three x–intercepts. The period for both y = − sin x 2 2 2 and y = sin x is 2π . by 4. 2 . period 2π π = = . Thus. 0) 2 π 2 π 2 = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= coordinates = 3 ⋅1 = 3 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 2 π x=π+ x= y = 3sin 1 The equation y = − sin x is of the form y = Asin x 2 1 with A = − . 0) π 2 0 . then by 4 4 2 adding quarter. 2π] by dividing the period. 0) 3π 2 3π y = 3 sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 3π . and the minimum point on the interval [0. 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. −3 2 2π y = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π .− 1 2 .5 Check Point Exercises 1. Thus. Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 2π π the period. 1 y = − sin x 2 535 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. by 4. The equation y = 3sin x is of the form y = A sin x with A = 3. the amplitude is 2 1 1 1 A = − = . 2. 0) 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sinx. then by adding quarter-periods to 4 4 2 generate x-values for each of the key points. 2 2 2π 1 y = − sin 2π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (2 π . 0) 3π 2 1 3π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − (−1) = 2 2 3π 1 .5 Section 4. the maximum point. The five x-values are x=0 π 1 y = − sin 0 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 coordinates (0. the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 The period for both y = 3sin x and y = sinx is 2π. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The five x-values are x=0 x = 0+ x= π 2 π + x =π + = 2 π 2 π 2 π x=0+ 2 =π = x= 3π 2 2 + x y = 3sin x 0 y = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π π 2 x (0. 2π.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. = = .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = π 6 . then by adding the period. 2π 2π = 1 = 4π . − 2 ) 3π 2 = 2 ⋅ (−1) = −2 = 2 sin 4π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . 2 Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 4π = = π . The five x-values are x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. Inc. 0 ) = 2 sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3. 2) begins. 2 The amplitude is A = 2 = 2 . and C = = 2 sin 0 π The equation y = 3 sin 2 x − (2 π . 2π 2π The period is = =π. by 4. π (0. 0) = 2 sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 536 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅3π 2 (3π . 4 4 adding quarter-periods. The C 3 π 1 π = = ⋅ = . . B 2 coordinates 1 ⋅0 2 π y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3. x 0 y = 2sin y = 2 sin 1 x 2 4. 0) = 2 sin 2π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 (π . 1 x is of the form 2 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . 4π . 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle = 2 ⋅0 = 0 y = 2 sin 3 amplitude is A = 3 = 3 . by 4. Extend the pattern of each graph to the left and right as desired.Trigonometric Functions Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . then by the period. π . B = 2. = 2 ⋅1 = 2 1 ⋅2π 2 is of the form π 3 . The period is B The equation y = 2sin Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the right. The phase shift is B 2 3 2 6 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π = .

−3 12 7π 6 y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ 7π π − 6 3 The equation y = −4 cos π x is of the form y = Acos Bx with A = −4. π π 3 6 .0 6 ⎛ 1⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ = −4 cos 6π = 3 sin 2π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 = 3 sin π 2 1 .0 2 =0 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 1) = −4 cos π = 4 537 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Inc. 2π 2π = = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0 3 11π 12 ⎛ 11π π ⎞ − ⎟ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 9π 3π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ( −1) = −3 11π . Thus. (1. x= π x π 6 y = 3sin 2x − y = 3sin 2 ⋅ π 6 π coordinates 3 − 5. –4) = −4 cos 0 = −4 1 2 7π . the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . x=0+ x y = −4 cos πx 0 y = −4 cos (π ⋅ 0 ) coordinates (0.3 12 2π 3 ⎛ 2π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ 3 3⎠ ⎝ 3π = 3sin = 3sin π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 2π . and B = π . = = .0 = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 5π 12 ⎛ 5π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 3π π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 5π . The five x-values are x= π 6 π 2π 3π 5π + = + = 6 4 12 12 12 5π π 5π 3π 8π 2π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 3 2π π 8π 3π 11π x= + = + = 3 4 12 12 12 11π π 11π 3π 14 π 7π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 6 Evaluate the function at each value of x. by 4.5 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph. 2. 4) . The period is B π Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period 2 1 the period. then by adding 4 4 2 quarter periods to the value of x where the cycle begins. The five x-values are x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.

− π 4 3 2 . x = − 3 cos(2 x + π ) 2 π 3 cos − + π 2 2 3 cos(0 + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅ −1 = − 2 2 = π 3 cos + π 2 2 x=− y= π x=− 2 2 π 4 x=0+ x= π + + + π 4 π π 4 π 4 = = =− .Trigonometric Functions ⎛ 3⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 3π = −4 cos =0 2 3 2 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 2) 2 3 . . 3 3 cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π )) 2 2 The equation is of the form y = Acos(Bx − C) with 3 A = . and C = −π . 2 B 2 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π the period. 2 2 2π 2π The period is = =π. π π π − π 3 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 .0 2 x − π 2 (2. − π 4 y= 3 cos(−π + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 y= y= = 0 π 4 6. 2 π 4 2 . B = 2 . Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the left. 538 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π .0 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 2 2 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph. then by adding 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle y= begins. 2 The five x-values are x=− − 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 y= y= coordinates π 4 =0 π 4 π 4 4 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. by 4.0 3 π 3 cos(π + π ) . Inc. –4) = −4 cos 2π = −4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. B 2 π C −π The phase shift is = =− . the amplitude is A = = . 2 3 3 Thus. = .

we obtain one period of the graph. −1) = 2 ⋅(−1) + 1 = −1 3π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 y = 2 cos2π + 1 Because the hours of daylight ranges from a minimum of 10 hours to a maximum of 14 hours. 2 B π 2π = 2 B πB = 4 π π 2 2π π = 12 6 The graph shows that the starting point of the cycle is C shifted from 0 to 3. π 2π A = 4 . . The number of hours of daylight is modeled by (2 π . or 12 2π months. Inc. The cycle begins at x = 0. x y = 2 cosx + 1 coordinates 0 y = 2 cos0 + 1 (0. and period = . The phase shift. Add quarter4 2 periods to generate x-values for the key points. D = 12. Thus. The quarter-period is 2π π or . The period for both functions is 2π . B C 3= B C 3= π B= . π B=4 Substitute these values into y = A sin Bx . the amplitude. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 8. the curve oscillates about the middle value.1 (π . is the maximum value of y. The period is . 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 By connecting the points with a smooth curve. Thus. The graph shows that this maximum value is 4. The maximum number of hours is 2 hours above 12 hours. Section 4. A = 2. 12 = B 12B = 2π 3π . Thus. 12 hours. The period is 12.5 The graph of y = 2 cosx + 1 is the graph of y = 2 cosx shifted one unit upwards. 3π 2 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The graph is modeled by y = 4 sin 4 x . 2 =π = 9. Thus. 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 π 2 y = 2 cos π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 π y = 2 cos π + 1 3π 2 y = 2 cos 2π A.PreCalculus 4E 7. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. . y = 2sin π 6 x− π 2 + 12 . Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 539 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 2 6 π =C 2 Substitute these values into y = Asin(Bx − C) + D . is 3.

x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = x=0+ π x= 2 =π = y = 4 sin x 0 y = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin 2 + π 2 = 4 ⋅1 = 4 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = 5sin x coordinates 0 y = 5sin 0 = 5⋅ 0 = 0 (0. 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0.5 1. 540 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. 2π π or . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) π 2 . The period is 2π . the amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . The equation y = 4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 4. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. π The equation y = 5 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 5. 3π 2 x 2 π x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Thus. . 2π π The period is 2π .4 π y = 5sin π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . Thus. The quarter-period is or . 0) π π 2 y = 5sin π 2 coordinates = 5 ⋅1 = 5 . 0) 3π . x=0 3π = 5(−1) = −5 2 (0. Inc. −5 2 (2 π . Exercise Set 4. −4 2 2π y = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . 0) 3π 2 y = 5sin 2π y = 5sin 2π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 π y = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = 4 sin 3π .Trigonometric Functions 2. 0) 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 (π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.

The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus. 0) y= 1 sin x 3 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 y= π y= 3π 2 y= 1 3π sin 2 3 1 1 = (−1) = − 3 3 y= + 2 = coordinates x 2π 2 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) 1 3π . 0) 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 3 3 3 π 1 π 2 3 y= 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 4 4 4 π 1 2 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 (π . with A = .5 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 3 1 1 1 = . Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . with A = .− 2 3 3π 2 y= 1 3π 1 1 sin = (−1) = − 2 4 4 4 1 3π . (2 π . 541 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 π 2 π 2 π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= x y= 1 sin x 4 (0. Inc. 2 π x=π+ x= π 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 4 1 1 1 = . . Section 4. x=0 The equation y = 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 . The period is 2π . 0) 2 . 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . the amplitude is A = 4 4 4 2π π or .PreCalculus 4E 3. 0) π y= 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) coordinates (0. Thus. the amplitude is A = 3 3 3 2π π or . x=0 The equation y = x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π 2 = 4. The period is 2π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.− 2 4 2π y= 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (2 π . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0.

4 2 (2 π . 2π π or . 0) y = −4 sin π 2 coordinates = −4 ⋅1 = −4 π y = −4 sin π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −4 sin 2π y = −4 sin 2π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = −4(−1) = 4 2 (0. Thus.Trigonometric Functions 5. 2π π or . 0) 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = −4 sin x 0 y = −4 sin 0 = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 2 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) π 2 . π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 x y = −3sin x 0 y = −3 sin x = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 y = −3 sin π 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 π y = −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −3sin 2π y = −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 = −3(−1) = 3 π 2 (0. The period is 2π . x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 6. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . π The equation y = −4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the amplitude is A = −3 = 3. Inc. 542 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. −3 (π . 3π . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. x=0 . Thus. −4 (π .3 2 (2 π . coordinates π + x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. . The equation y = −3sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –3. The period is 2π . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . 0) 3π .

5 The equation y = sin 2x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 2. The period is = = π . The period is B 4 2 coordinates π 8 π 4 = sin 2 =1 = sin π = 0 3π 8 π 8 π 4 . 0) 0 y = sin(4 ⋅ 0) = sin 0 = 0 π 4 π . Inc. x=0 quarter-period is 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. π . 0) π (0. 543 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The B 2 quarter-period is π 8. −1 8 3π = −1 2 y = sin 2π = 0 2 (π . The A = 1 = 1. the amplitude is 2π 2π π = = .1 8 π π 2 2 y = sin(2 ⋅ π ) = sin 2π = 0 = 4 3π x= + = 4 8 8 3π π π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. −1 4 π 3π = sin = −1 2 π ⋅ coordinates π 3π y = sin 2 ⋅ 4 π 1 π = sin π = 0 3π 4 = π =1 y = sin 2 ⋅ 2 . Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . x y = sin 2x 0 y = sin 2 ⋅ 0 = sin 0 = 0 π 4 y = sin 2 ⋅ = sin π 2 π 2 π 4 π π 8 + π 8 π 8 = = π 8 π x y = sin 4x (0.PreCalculus 4E 7.1 .0 3π .0 y = sin 4 ⋅ 4 y = sin 4 ⋅ 3π 8 y = sin 4 ⋅ = sin 3π . 0) π 2 . Thus. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 1 = 1. Section 4. The cycle begins at 4 2 4 8 x = 0. x=0 x=0+ The equation y = sin 4x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 4. The cycle begins at x = 0. Add x= π 4 + π x=0+ 4 π 4 = π x= 2 π π 3π x= + = 2 4 4 3π π x= + =π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. .

0) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The equation y = 3sin 1 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 2 1 x is of the form 4 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . − 3) 3π = 3sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 4π 0 (π . 0) = 2sin 0 = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 = 2sin (2 π . x=0 x = 0 + 2π = 2π x = 2π + 2π = 4π x = 4π + 2 π = 6π x = 6π + 2 π = 8π Evaluate the function at each value of x. The equation y = 2sin 1 . The period is 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π . Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. the 4 amplitude is A = 2 = 2. 0) (6π . Inc. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 3) = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π y = 2sin (0. The quarter-period is B 10. coordinates 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 0 2 y = 3sin = 3sin 2π 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 2π y = 2sin = 3 ⋅1 = 3 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 2π 2 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 3π 2 y = 3sin y = 2sin 1 x 4 1 ⋅0 4 coordinates (0. Thus. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The cycle begins at x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Add quarter4 periods to generate x-values for the key points. The quarterThe period is B with A = 3 and B = 2 4π period is = π . − 2) (8π . . The cycle begins at x = 0. 2) = 2 ⋅1 = 2 4π y = 2sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 6π y = 2sin 8π y = 2sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = 2(−1) = −2 2 (4π . 0) (3π . 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π x 1 ⋅ 2π 4 π 2 (2 π . x 0 y = 3sin 1 x 2 4 8π = 2 π . x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . 544 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π .Trigonometric Functions 9.

The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 4 = 4. −4 2 = 4 sin 2 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ coordinates y = 3sin 2π ⋅ = 3sin 1 (2.4 2 = 3sin = 4(1) = 4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅1) = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin π ⋅ 3 2 1 2 (1. The B π 2 1 quarter-period is = . The equation y = −3 sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –3 and B = 2π .3 4 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ 1 2 1 . 13. The amplitude 2π 2π = = 1. The amplitude 545 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 11. −3 4 3π = 3(−1) = −3 2 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅1) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (1. 4 2 Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) 3 4 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 2) = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 1 4 (0. x=0+ x=0+ x y = 4 sin πx 0 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 0) = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 2 y = 4 sin π ⋅ = 4 sin 1 3 2 π 2 1 2 coordinates x y = 3sin 2πx (0. The equation y = 4 sin πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 4 and B = π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The equation y = 3sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 3 and B = 2π . . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The cycle begins at x = 0.0 2 = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 . 1 1 = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) 0 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 4 1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The period is = = 2 . 0) 3 4 3 . The is A = 3 = 3. x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. x=0 12. Inc. The period is B 2π 1 quarter-period is .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 0) 1 .

15.3 4 coordinates y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin = −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 4 x 1 2 1 . x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. π 2 1 2 (0. The amplitude 546 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) y = −2 sin π x 0 y = −2 sin(π ⋅ 0) = −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 1 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 2 1 . 0) 3 . 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.0 2 3 2 3 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 2 3π = −3sin 2 = −3(−1) = 3 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅1) 1 (1. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The period is 2π 2π = = 1. 1 . The equation y = −2 sin π x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –2 and B = π .2 2 3π = −2(−1) = 2 2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅2) = −2 sin 2π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The cycle begins at x = 0. 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. y = −3 sin 2πx x coordinates quarter-period is 0 1 4 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = −3sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 = −3sin quarter-period is (0.Trigonometric Functions is A = −3 = 3. The period is 2 1 = . −2 2 = −2 ⋅1 = −2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅1) = −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin 3 . The equation y = − sin 2 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 3 2 . −3 4 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 1 2 2π 2π = = 2 . The B 2π is A = −2 = 2 . Inc. 0) 1 . 0) = −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The B π 3 2 (1. with A = –1 and B = 14. x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. .

B 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1. 0) = − sin 0 = 0 (3π . The equation y = − sin x y = − sin 0 y = − sin 4 x 3 4 ⋅0 3 = coordinates (0.1 4 3π = − sin 2 = −(−1) = 1 3π y = − sin 2 ⋅ 3π 3 3π 2 3π 1 3π ⋅ = . 3 3π . x=0 3π 3π x=0+ = 4 4 3π 3π 3π x= + = 4 4 2 3π 3π 9π x= + = 2 4 4 9π 3π x= + = 3π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. x=0 3π 3π = x=0+ 8 8 3π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 4 3π 3π 9π x= + = 4 8 8 9π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.0 2 = − sin π = 0 9π 4 y = − sin 2 9π ⋅ 3 4 9π . 0) 3π . −1 4 = −1 2 3π ⋅ 3 2 3π . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.5 The period is 2π 2π 3 = 2 = 2π ⋅ = 3π . 3π . 0) 3π 8 = − sin 2π = 0 y = − sin = − sin 3π 4 y = − sin 4 3π ⋅ 3 8 π 2 3π . Inc. The period is B 4 2 16.0 4 . −1 8 = −1 4 3π ⋅ 3 4 = − sin π = 0 547 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The cycle begins at x = 0. 3 3π 2π 2π = 4 = 2π ⋅ = . The quarter-period is 2 x 3 x y = − sin 0 2 y = − sin ⋅ 0 3 coordinates 3 y = − sin = − sin 3π 2 y = − sin 2 3π ⋅ 3 4 π 2 (0. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 4 2 4 8 The cycle begins at x = 0. The quarter-period is = − sin 0 = 0 3π 4 4 x is of the form 3 4 y = Asin Bx with A = –1 and B = .

Trigonometric Functions


8

y = − sin

4 9π

3 8


,1
8


= − sin
= −(−1) = 1
2

2

4 3π
y = − sin ⋅
3 2


,0
2

x

y = sin(x − π )

coordinates

π

y = sin(π − π )

(π , 0)


2

y = sin

= sin 0 = 0

= sin

= − sin 2π = 0
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.


−π
2

π
2


,1
2

=1

y = sin(2 π − π )


2

y = sin

(2 π , 0)

= sin π = 0

= sin


−π
2


, −1
2


= −1
2

y = sin(3π − π )

(3π , 0 )
= sin 2π = 0
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

17. The equation y = sin(x − π ) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C = π . The
amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
C π
2π 2π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
= = π . The
B
1
B 1
2π π
= . The cycle begins at x = π .
quarter-period is
4
2
Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=π

18. The equation y = sin x −

π


x=π+ =
2
2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
π 5π
x = 2π + =
2
2
5π π
x=
+ = 3π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π
2

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C =

π
2

. The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
π

2π 2π
C 2 π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
= = . The
B
1
B 1 2
2π π
= . The cycle begins at
quarter-period is
4
2
x=

π

. Add quarter-periods to generate
2
x-values for the key points.

548
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x=
x=

Section 4.5
19. The equation y = sin(2 x − π ) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C = π . The
amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
2π 2π
C π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= . The quarterB
2
B 2

π
2

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2


=


2

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
π 5π
x = 2π + =
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=

x

π

π

y = sin x −

π

2

y = sin

π

y = sin π −


2

y = sin

2

π

x=
x=

= sin 0 = 0

2

π
2

= sin

3π π

2
2

π
2

=1

π
2

,0

(π , 1)

y = sin 2π −


,0
2

y = sin

2

π

+

x

π
2

π
2

(2 π , −1)

5π π

2
2

π

=


4

y = sin(2 x − π )
y = sin 2 ⋅

π
2

−π

coordinates

π
2

,0

= sin(π − π )
= sin 0 = 0


= −1
= sin
2

2

π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= sin π = 0

π

2 4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4
4
2

coordinates

2

π

. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
2
periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is


4


,0
2

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin

= sin 2π = 0

= sin

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π


−π
4


,1
4


−π
2

π
2

=1

y = sin(2 ⋅ π − π )
= sin(2 π − π )
= sin π = 0

549

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(π , 0)

Trigonometric Functions


4

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin
= sin


2


−π
4


, −1
4

x


−π
2

π
4


= −1
2

y = sin 2 ⋅

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin


−π
2


,0
2

π

= sin(3π − π )
= sin 2π = 0

2

π
2

y = sin 2 ⋅


4

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin

coordinates

2

π

4

π

π

2

4

π

2

,0

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

= sin π −
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

y = sin 2x −

π

π

π

2

2

= sin

2

3π π

4 2

π
2

,1

=1

,0
4

3π π

2
2

= sin π = 0

20. The equation y = sin 2x −

π
2

π
is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C =

π
2

= sin 2π −
. The

= sin

amplitude is A = 1 = 1.
2π 2π
=
=π.
The period is
B
2


4

π

The phase shift is

C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = .
B 2 2 2 4

The quarter-period is

π

4

The cycle begins at x =

x=

2

π
2

5π π

4 2

5π π

2
2

4
4

+

π

=

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

4


,0
4

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
π

(π , −1)

= sin 2π = 0
. Add quarter-periods to

4
generate x-values for the key points.
x=

π


= −1
2

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin

.

π

y = sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

550
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

21. The equation y = 3sin(2x − π ) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C = π . The
amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is
2π 2π
C π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= . The quarterB
2
B 2

π

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
2
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
period is

x=
x=

π
2

π

+

π

=


4

22. The equation y = 3 sin 2 x −

2 4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4
4
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

π
2

y = 3sin(2x − π )
y = 3sin 2 ⋅

π
2

−π

y = 3sin 2 ⋅


−π
4

,0

π


4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅
= 3 sin


−π
4

π

4

The cycle begins at x =
x=


,3
4

x=

π
4

+

π

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

(π , 0)

4

=

π


, −3
4


2
= 3(−1) = −3

−π
2

π

4


−π
2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

.

π

= 3 sin

2

.

. Add quarter-periods to
4
generate x-values for the key points.

π

= 3 ⋅1 = 3
2
y = 3sin(2 ⋅ π − π )
= 3sin(2 π − π )
= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π


−π
= 3sin
2
= 3sin

π

C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = .
The phase shift is
B 2 2 2 4

= 3sin(π − π )
= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

4

is of the form

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .
2π 2π
=
=π.
The period is
B
2

The quarter-period is

2

2

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C =

coordinates

π

π


,0
2

= 3 sin(3π − π )
= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

551
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

y = 3 sin 2 x −

π

π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅
= sin

π
2

4

π

23.

coordinates

2

π

π

2

4

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

,0

= 3 sin π −
= 3 sin

4

π
2

π

π

2

2

,3

π
2

. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
2
the key points.

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π π
y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

4 2

= 3 sin 2π −
= 3 sin

4

2

π
2

x=0+
x=

(π , − 3)

π
2

+

+

π
2

π
2

2

x

,0
4

π
2

5π π

2
2

π

π
2
=

=0

π
2


2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=π+

π

5π π

4 2

2

x=−


= 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3
2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅
= 3 sin

π

π

x=−


,0
4

= 3 sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0
y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

x=−

3π π
= 3 sin

2
2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A =

2

2

1
π
sin x − −
2
2

1
π
, B = 1, and C = − .
2
2
1
1
The amplitude is A =
= . The period is
2
2
π
2π 2π
C −2
π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
=
=− .
B
B
1
1
2
2π π
The quarter-period is
= . The cycle begins at
4
2

π

π

1
π
π
1
sin x +
= sin x − −
2
2
2
2

The equation y =

= 3 sin 0 = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y=

=

y=

π
1
sin x +
2
2

y=

1
π π
sin − +
2
2 2

=

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0
0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=
=

π
2

y=
=

coordinates

π
2

,0

1
1
sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2
1
π
sin 0 +
2
2

0,

1
2

1
1
π 1
sin = ⋅1 =
2
2
2 2
1
π π
sin
+
2
2 2
1
1
sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

552

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

π
2

,0

PreCalculus 4E

π

Section 4.5

y=

1
π
sin π +
2
2

π, −

1
2

1

sin
2
2
1
1
= ⋅(−1) = −
2
2

=


2

y=

1
3π π
sin
+
2
2
2


,0
2

x

y=

−π

y=

1
sin 2π
2
1
= ⋅0 = 0
2
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
2

=

1
sin(− π + π )
2
1
1
= sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

y=
=

0

π
2

24.

1
1
sin(x + π ) = sin( x − (− π ))
2
2
1
The equation y = sin(x − (−π )) is of the form
2
1
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = , B = 1, and C = −π .
2
1
1
The amplitude is A =
= . The period is
2
2
2π 2π
C −π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
=
= −π .
B
B
1
1
2π π
The quarter-period is
= . The cycle begins at
4
2
x = −π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
the key points.
x = −π
y=

x = −π +
x=−

π
2

x=0+

π

π
2

+

π
2

π
2
=

=−

1
π
sin − + π
2
2

1
sin(0 + π )
2
1
1
= sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

y=

1
π
sin

2
2

(−π , 0 )

π 1
2

,

2

(0, 0)

π
2

,−

1
2

1
3π 1
1
sin
= ⋅ (−1) = −
2
2
2
2

1
sin(π + π )
2
1
1
= sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

y=

(π , 0)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
2

=0

π
2

π

+ =π
2 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=

coordinates

1
1
π 1
sin = ⋅1 =
2
2
2 2

y=

=

π

1
sin(x + π )
2

553

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

25.

y = −2 sin 2x +

π
2

= −2 sin 2 x − −

The equation y = −2 sin 2x − −

π
2

π

x

2

is of the form

π
4

π
2

= −2 sin −

. The amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is
π

0

x=−
x=−

4

x=0+
x=

π
4

+

+

π
4

π

π

=
=

4

=0

π

π
4

,0

2

π
2

(0, –2)

π
2

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅
= −2 sin

4

π
2

π
4

+

π

π

2

4

π

π

2

2

,0

π

+

2

= −2 sin π
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4

π

4

4

2

2
= −2 ⋅1 = −2

4

π

π

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −2 sin

π
π

+

4

+

2

= −2 sin 0 +

π

. The cycle begins at x = − . Add
4
4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.

period is

π

= −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π 2π
=
= π . The
B
2

π 1
π
C −2
=
= − ⋅ = − . The quarterphase shift is
B
2
2 2
4
π

π

coordinates

2

y = −2 sin 2⋅ −

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2,
B = 2, and C = −

π

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

π
2

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

π
2

= −2 sin π +

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

+

,2

π
2


2
= −2(−1) = 2
= −2 sin


4

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅
= −2 sin

3π π
+
4 2


,0
4

3π π
+
2 2

= −2 sin 2π
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

554

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

26.

Section 4.5

y = −3sin 2x +

π
2

= −3sin 2x − −

The equation y = −3sin 2x − −

π
2

π

π

2

4

= −3sin

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2, and C = −

π
2

π
2


π
C
π 1
π
2
=
= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is .
2
2 2
4
4
B

π

4

π
4

+

+

π
4

π
4

π
4
=
=

=0

π
4

x

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

,0

+

π

π

2

2

,3

π
2


,0
4

3π π
+
2
2

π
2

π
4

+

+

π
2

π
4

,0

π
2

= −3sin 0 = −3⋅ 0 = 0
y = −3sin 2 ⋅ 0 +
= −3sin 0 +
= −3sin

4

3π π
+
4 2

coordinates

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ −
= −3sin −

0

2

2

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

4

π

π

+

π

π

π

π

= −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

+


= −3⋅ (−1) = 3
2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅
= −3sin

4

x=0+
x=


4

π
π

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

. Add quarter-periods to
4
generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

2

4

= −3sin π +

π

x=−

π

π

= −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

.

The amplitude is A = −3 = 3. The period is
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
B
2

The cycle begins at x = −

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

π
2

π
2

(0, –3)

π
2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

555
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

27.

y = 3sin(π x + 2)
The equation y = 3sin(π x − (−2)) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = π , and C = –2.
The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is
C −2
2
2π 2π
=
= 2 . The phase shift is
=
= − . The
B π
B
π
π
2 1
quarter-period is = . The cycle begins at
4 2
2
x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 4
3π − 4
y = 3sin π
+2

π

2π − 2

1 π −4
x=− + =
π 2

π − 4 1 π −2
x=
+ =
π
2

π − 2 1 3π − 4
x=
+ =
π
2

3π − 4 1 2π − 2
x=
+ =
π
2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.
2

2

π

y = 3sin π −

2

π

= 3sin


−2 +2
2


2
= 3(−1) = −3

π

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

3π − 4
+2
2

= 3sin

the key points.
2
x=−

x

= 3sin

π

y = 3sin π

2π − 2

π

= 3sin
= 3sin
= 3sin

π −4
2

π
2

2

π

,0

π−4
,3

+2

−2 + 2

π

2
= 3⋅1 = 3

π −2
π −2
π y = 3sin π π + 2

2π − 2

π

,0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

= 3sin(−2 + 2)
= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

π −4
π −4
2π y = 3sin π 2π + 2

+2

= 3sin(2 π − 2 + 2)
= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

coordinates
+2


, −3
4

π −2
,0
π

= 3sin(π − 2 + 2)
= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

556
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

28.

Section 4.5

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4) = 3sin(2π x − (−4))
The equation y = 3sin(2 πx − (−4)) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2π , and
C = –4. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period
C −4
2
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
=
=− .
is
B 2π
B 2π
π
1
The quarter-period is . The cycle begins at
4
2
x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 8
3π − 8
y = 3sin 2π
+4

the key points.
2
x=−

π − 2 y = 3sin 2π π − 2 + 4
π
π
= 3sin(2 π − 4 + 4)
= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π
π

1 π −8
=
4

π −8 1 π − 4
x=
+ =
4


π − 4 1 3π − 8
x=
+ =
4


3π − 8 1 π − 2
x=
+ =
π
4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=−

2

π

x

2

π

+

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4)
y = 3sin 2π −

2

π

= 3sin
= 3sin

2

π
2

π
2

= 3sin


− 4+4
2

= 3sin


= 3(−1) = −3
2

π −2
,0
π

coordinates
+4

π −8
π −8
+4
y = 3sin 2π


π −8

3π − 8
+4
2

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

2

π

,0

29.

= 3sin(−4 + 4)
= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

= 3sin

= 3sin

3π − 8
, −3

π −8
,3

+4

−4 + 4
= 3 ⋅1 = 3

π −4
π−4
2π y = 3sin 2π 2 π + 4

π−4
,0

= 3sin(π − 4 + 4)
= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π ) = −2sin(2π x − (−4π ))
The equation y = −2 sin(2π x − (−4π )) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2, B = 2π , and
C = −4 π . The amplitude is A = −2 = 2 . The
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
period is
B 2π
1
C −4 π
=
= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

4
B
begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x = −2
7
1
x = −2 + = −
4
4
7 1
3
x=− + =−
4 4
2
3 1
5
x=− + =−
2 4
4
5 1
x = − + = −1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

557
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π )

coordinates

–2 y = −2 sin(2π (−2) + 4 π )
= −2 sin(−4π + 4π )
= −2 sin 0
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

(–2, 0)

x

7
7
4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

π
2

7
, −2
4


+ 4π
2

= −2 sin −
= −2 sin

30.

1
7
=−
4
4
7 1
3
x=− + =−
4 4
2
3 1
5
x=− + =−
2 4
4
5 1
x = − + = −1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x = −2 +

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

3
3
2 y = −2 sin 2π − 2 + 4 π

3
− ,0
2

= −2 sin(−3π + 4π )
= −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

5
5
4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π
= −2 sin −

y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π ) = −3 sin(2π x − (−4π ))
The equation y = −3 sin(2 πx − (−4 π )) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2π , and
C = −4π . The amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The
2π 2π
=
= 1 . The phase shift is
period is
B 2π
C −4π
1
=
= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2π
4
begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x = −2

5
,2
4


+ 4π
2

x

y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π )

–2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−2) + 4π )

(–2, 0)

= −3 sin( −4 π + 4π )
= −3 sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0


2
= −2 (−1) = 2
= −2 sin

–1 y = −2 sin(2π (−1) + 4 π )
= −2 sin(−2π + 4π )

coordinates

7
7
4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

(–1, 0)

= −3 sin −

= −2 sin 2π

= −3 sin

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
2

7
, −3
4


+ 4π
2
= −3 ⋅1 = −3

3
3
2 y = −3 sin 2π − 2 + 4π

3
− ,0
2

= −3 sin( −3π + 4π )
= −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

5
5
4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π
= −3 sin −
= −3 sin

–1

5
,3
4


+ 4π
2


= −3(−1) = 3
2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−1) + 4π )
= −3 sin( −2 π + 4π )
= −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

558
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(–1, 0)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

the graph of y = 2 cosx .

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

32. The equation y = 3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
with A = 3. Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .
π

or .
The period is 2π . The quarter-period is
4
2
The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

31. The equation y = 2 cosx is of the form y = Acos x
with A = 2. Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2 .
π

or .
The period is 2π . The quarter-period is
4
2
The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

π
2

π
2

=

x=0+

π

x=

2

y = 2 cosx

2

π

y = 2 cos

π

2
= 2⋅0 = 0

y = 2 cos π

2

,0

(π , − 2)

= 2 ⋅(−1) = −2


2

y = 2 cos


2
= 2⋅0 = 0


,0
2

y = 2 cos2π

(2 π , 2 )

π
2


=


2

y = 3 cos x

0

y = 3 cos 0 = 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

(0, 2)

π

2

2

x

π

coordinates

y = 2 cos0

π

π

x=

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

π

+

2

=

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.


x=π+ =
2
2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

0

2

x=π+

π

x

π

π

y = 3 cos

π
2

coordinates

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = 3 cos π = 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3


2

y = 3 cos

y = 3 cos2 π = 3 ⋅1 = 3


= 3⋅ 0 = 0
2

(0, 3)

π
2

,0

(π , − 3)

,0
2
(2 π , 3)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
and graph one complete cycle of the given function
with the graph of y = cos x .

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function with

559

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions
33. The equation y = −2 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
with A = –2. Thus, the amplitude is
A = −2 = 2 . The period is 2π . The quarterπ

or . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add
period is
4
2
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

π

=

2

π
2

34. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
with A = –3. Thus, the amplitude is A = −3 = 3 .
π

or .
The period is 2π . The quarter-period is
4
2
The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+

π
2

x=


x=π+ =
2
2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

coordinates

0

y = −2 cos 0

(0, –2)

2

π

y = −2 cos

π

2
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = −2 cos π

y = −2 cos

y = −2 cos 2π


2
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

π
2


=


2

y = −3 cos x

0

y = −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

π

,0

(π , 2)

= −2 ⋅ (−1) = 2


2

π

=

x

2

π

+

2

2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

π

2

x=π+

π

y = −2 cos x

π

π


,0
2

y = −3 cos

π
2

coordinates

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3


2

y = −3 cos

y = −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3


= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0
2

(0, –3)

π
2

,0

(π , 3)

,0
2
(2 π , − 3)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function with
the graph of y = cos x .

(2 π , − 2)

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function with
the graph of y = cos x .

560

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

35. The equation y = cos2 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
with A = 1 and B = 2. Thus, the amplitude is
2π 2π
A = 1 = 1. The period is
=
= π . The
B
2

quarter-period is

π

36. The equation y = cos 4 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
with A = 1 and B = 4. Thus, the amplitude is
2π 2π π
A = 1 = 1. The period is
=
= . The
B
4
2
π

. The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=0
x=0+
x=

π
4

+

π
4

π
4

=
=

π

x=0+

4

π

x=

2
π π 3π
x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

y = cos2 x

0

y = cos(2 ⋅ 0)

4

y = cos 2 ⋅
= cos

π
2

π
2

π
8

(0, 1)

π

4

4

π

2

2

y = cos 2 ⋅


4

y = cos(2 ⋅ π )

+

π
8

π

, −1

8

=
=

π
8

π

0

y = cos(4 ⋅ 0) = cos 0 = 1

8

,0

y = cos 4 ⋅

4

y = cos 4 ⋅


8

y = cos 4 ⋅
= cos


,0
4

π


=0
= cos
2

π

π

y = cos 4 x

= cos π = −1

4

=

x

π

π

π

π

=0

y = cos 2 ⋅

π 1

π

coordinates

π

=

4

x= + =
4 8
8
3π π π
x=
+ =
8
8 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= cos 0 = 1

π

2

. The cycle begins at
4 2 4 8
x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
the key points.
x=0

quarter-period is

2

coordinates

π
8

π
4

= cos

π
2

=0

= cos π = −1


8

(0, 1)

π
8

π
4

,0

, −1


,0
8


=0
2

y = cos 4 ⋅

π
2

= cos2 π = 1

π
2

,1

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

(π , 1)

= cos2 π = 1
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

561

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions
37. The equation y = 4 cos2 πx is of the form
y = Acos Bx with A = 4 and B = 2π . Thus, the
amplitude is A = 4 = 4 . The period is
2π 2π
1
=
= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2π
4
begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x=0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

x

y = 4 cos2 πx

0

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

38. The equation y = 5 cos2 πx is of the form
y = Acos Bx with A = 5 and B = 2π . Thus, the
amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . The period is
2π 2π
1
=
= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2π
4
begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x=0

coordinates

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

(0, 4)

= 4 cos 0
= 4 ⋅1 = 4
1
4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅
= 4 cos

1
4

1
,0
4

π

2
= 4 ⋅0 = 0
1
2

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

1
2

1
, −4
2

3
4

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅
= 5 cos

3
,0
4


2
= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1
2

= 4 cos

1

0
1
4

= 4 ⋅ (−1) = −4
y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

y = 5 cos2 πx

coordinates
(0, 5)

= 5 cos 0 = 5 ⋅1 = 5

= 4 cos π
3
4

x

π
2

1
4

1
,0
4

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

1
2

1
, −5
2

= 5 cos π = 5 ⋅ (−1) = −5

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅1)

(1, 4)

3
4

= 4 cos2 π
= 4 ⋅1 = 4

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅
= 5 cos

1


4

3
,0
4


= 5⋅ 0 = 0
2

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅1)
= 5 cos2 π = 5 ⋅1 = 5

562

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(1, 5)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y = −4 cos

1
⋅ 3π
2

(3π , 0 )


2
= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0
= −4 cos

y = −4 cos

1
⋅ 4π
2

(4π , – 4)

= −4 cos 2π
= −4 ⋅1 = −4

1
x is of the form
2
1
y = Acos Bx with A = –4 and B = . Thus, the
2
amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . The period is
2π 2π
= 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . The quarter-period is
B

39. The equation y = −4 cos

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

2


= π . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0
x = 0 +π = π

1
40. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form
3
1
y = Acos Bx with A = –3 and B = . Thus, the
3
amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The period is
2π 2π
= 1 = 2π ⋅3 = 6π . The quarter-period is
B

x = π + π = 2π
x = 2π + π = 3π
x = 3π + π = 4 π
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x
0

y = −4 cos
y = −4 cos

1
x
2
1
⋅0
2

coordinates

3

6π 3π
=
. The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4
2
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

(0, –4)

= −4 cos 0

3π 3π
=
2
2
3π 3π
x=
+
= 3π
2
2
3π 9π
x = 3π +
=
2
2
9π 3π
x=
+
= 6π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

π

y = −4 cos
= −4 cos

1
⋅π
2

x=0+

(π , 0)

π

2
= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

y = −4 cos

1
⋅ 2π
2

(2 π , 4)

= −4 cos π
= −4 ⋅ (−1) = 4

563

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

1
y = −3 cos x
3

0

y = −3 cos

x=0
coordinates

1
⋅0
3

3 3
=
2 2
3 3
x = + =3
2 2
3 9
x= 3+ =
2 2
9 3
x = + =6
2 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

(0, –3)

= −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

2

y = −3 cos
= −3 cos

1 3π

3 2

π
2

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

1
y = −3 cos ⋅ 3π
3


,0
2

(3π , 3)

= −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

2

y = −3 cos
= −3 cos

y = −3 cos

1 9π

3 2

x

y=−

π
1
cos x
3
2

0

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅ 0
3
2


,0
2

0, −

1
2

1
cos0
2
1
1
= − ⋅1 = −
2
2
=−


= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0
2
1
⋅ 6π
3

coordinates

3
2

(6π , − 3)

y=−

π 3
1
cos ⋅
3 2
2

3
,0
2

π
1
cos
2
2
1
= − ⋅0 = 0
2

= −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

=−

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.
3

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅3
3
2

3,

1
2

1
cos π
2
1
1
= − ⋅(−1) =
2
2

=−

9
2

π
1
cos x is of the form
3
2
π
1
y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the
3
2
1
1
= . The period is
amplitude is A = −
2
2
2π 2π
3
6 3
= π = 2π ⋅ = 6 . The quarter-period is = .
B
π
4 2

41. The equation y = −

y=−

1
π 9
cos ⋅
3 2
2

9
,0
2


1
cos
2
2
1
= − ⋅0 = 0
2

=−

6

3

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅6
3
2

1
cos2π
2
1
1
= − ⋅1 = −
2
2

=−

The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.

564

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6, −

1
2

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=−

6

=−
y=−

8

1
π
cos ⋅6
4
2

(6, 0)


1
1
cos
= − ⋅0 = 0
2
2
2

π
1
cos ⋅8
4
2

8, −

1
2

1
1
1
cos2π = − ⋅1 = −
2
2
2
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.
=−

π
1
cos x is of the form
4
2
π
1
y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the
4
2
1
1
= . The period is
amplitude is A = −
2
2
2π 2π
4
8
= π = 2π ⋅ = 8 . The quarter-period is 4 = 2 .
B
π

42. The equation y = −

4

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

π⎞

43. The equation y = cos ⎜ x − ⎟ is of the form
2⎠

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

x = 0 +2 = 2
x= 2+ 2 = 4

π

x = 4 +2 = 6

C=

x = 6 +2 = 8
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

period is

x

y=−

1
π
cos x
2
4

0

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅ 0
4
2

=−
2

y=−
=−

4

=−

1
2

cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter-periods to
2
generate x-values for the key points.
x=

(2, 0)

x=

π
1
1
cos = − ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2
2

π
1
y = − cos ⋅ 4
4
2

2π 2π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
B
1

2π π
C 2 π
=
= . The quarter-period is
= . The
4
2
B 1 2

1
1
1
cos0 = − ⋅1 = −
2
2
2

π
1
cos ⋅2
4
2

A = 1 = 1 . The

π

coordinates
0, −

. Thus, the amplitude is

2

π
2

π
2

+

x =π +

π
2

π


=


2

2
3π π
+ = 2π
x=
2
2
π 5π
x = 2π + =
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1
4,
2

1
1
1
cos π = − ⋅ (−1) =
2
2
2

565

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

π

x

coordinates

π
2

⎛π ⎞
⎜ 2 , 1⎟

x=−

π

(π , 0 )

x =0+


2

⎛ 3π

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

( 2π , 0 )


2

⎛ 5π ⎞
⎜ 2 , 1⎟

x=−

x=

2

period is

π
2

π

+

2

π
2

π
2
=

=0

π
2


=
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

. Thus, the amplitude is

π

x

coordinates

π

⎛ π ⎞
⎜ − 2 , 1⎟

π⎞

44. The equation y = cos ⎜ x + ⎟ is of the form
2⎠

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and
π

+

2

x =π +

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

C=−

2

π

2

0

( 0, 0 )

π
2

⎛π

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

π

(π , 0 )


2

⎛ 3π ⎞
⎜ 2 , 1⎟

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

A = 1 = 1 . The

2π 2π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
B
1

π


2π π
C
π
= 2 = − . The quarter-period is
= . The
4
2
B
1
2
cycle begins at x = −

π

. Add quarter-periods to
2
generate x-values for the key points.

566
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PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

45. The equation y = 3cos(2x − π ) is of the form
y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 3, and B = 2, and

46. The equation y = 4 cos(2x − π ) is of the form
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 4, and B = 2, and C = π .
Thus, the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. The period is
C π
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= . The
B 2
B
2

C = π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The
C π
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= .
period is
B 2
B
2
The quarter-period is

π

. The cycle begins at x =

π

4
2
Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=
x=

π

x=

2

π

+

π

=

π

π

. The cycle begins at x = . Add
4
2
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.

quarter-period is

.

π
2

π 3π
+ =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4 4
2


4

x=

2 4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4 4
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

coordinates

π

π

2

2

x

,3

coordinates

π

π

2

2

,4


4


,0
4


4


,0
4

π

(π , − 3)

π

(π , − 4)


4


,0
4


4


,0
4


2


,4
2


2


,3
2

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

567
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

47.

1
1
π
π
= cos 3x − −
cos 3x +
2
2
2
2

y=

The equation y =

1
π
cos 3x − −
2
2

is of the form

1
, and B = 3, and
2
1
1
π
= . The
C = − . Thus, the amplitude is A =
2
2
2
2π 2π
=
. The phase shift is
period is
B
3
π
π 1
π
C −2
=
= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is
3
2 3
6
B
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A =

π

1
1
cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π ))
2
2
1
The equation y = cos(2 x − (−π )) is of the form
2
1
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = , and B = 2, and
2
1
1
C = −π . Thus, the amplitude is A =
= . The
2
2
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
period is
B
2
C −π
π
π
=
= − . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2
2
4

6

begins at x = −

48.


3

π
2π 1 π
=
⋅ = . The cycle begins at x = − . Add
4
3 4 6
6
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=−
x=−

π
6

π
6

x=0+

π

x=

6

π

x=

+
+

π

+

=0

6

π

=

6

π
6

π

=
=

π
6

3

π

x=−

0

x=−

π 1
,
6 2

π

6

6

,−

π

π

3

3

π
2

π
2

π
4

x=0+

(0, 0)

π

π

x=−

coordinates

π

. Add quarter-periods to generate x2
values for the key points.

π

3 6 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

y=

x=

π

+
+

π
4

π

π
4

π
4
=

=−

π
4

=0

π
4

π

+ =
4 4 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1
2

,0

π 1

,
2 2
2
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

568
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x

π
2

π
4

Section 4.5

49. The equation y = −3 cos 2x −


π 1
,
2 2

π
4

B = 2, and C =

,0

π
2

. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −3 = 3. The period is
π

0

1
0, −
2

π

π

4

4

π 1
2

,

. The cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter4
4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.

,0

2

π

2π 2π
=
= π . The
B
2

C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period
B 2 2 2 4

phase shift is
is

π

π

is of the form
2
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –3, and

coordinates

x=

2

x=

π
4

π

π

π

x

4

=

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

4

+

π

coordinates

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −3

,0


4


,3
4

π

(π , 0)


4


, −3
4

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

569
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

50. The equation y = −4 cos 2x −

π

51.

is of the form

2
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –4, and B = 2, and

C=

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 .

The period is
π

2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
B
2

π
C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period is . The
4
B 2 2 2 4
cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter-periods to
4
generate x-values for the key points.
x=
x=

π
4

π
4

+

π

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

x

4

=

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −4


,4
4

π

(π , 0)


4


, −4
4

coordinates

–4

(–4, 2)

15
4

7
2

7
− , −2
2

13
4

,0


4

x

coordinates

π

y = 2 cos(2π x + 8π ) = 2 cos(2πx − (−8π ))
The equation y = 2 cos(2π x − (−8π )) is of the form
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 2, B = 2π , and C = −8π .
Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2. The period is
C −8π
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
=
= −4 . The
B 2π
B 2π
1
quarter-period is . The cycle begins at x = –4. Add
4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x = −4
1
15
x = −4 + = −
4
4
15 1
7
x=− + =−
4 4
2
7 1
13
x=− + =−
2 4
4
13 1
x = − + = −3
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

–3

15
,0
4

13
,0
4

(–3, 2)

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
and graph one complete cycle of the given function.

570
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

52.

Section 4.5

y = 3cos(2πx + 4 π ) = 3 cos(2πx − (−4π ))
The equation y = 3cos(2πx − (−4π )) is of the form
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 3, and B = 2π , and
C = −4π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
period is
B 2π
1
C −4π
=
= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
4
B 2π
begins at x = –2. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x = −2
1
7
x = −2 + = −
4
4
7 1
3
x=− + =−
4 4
2
3 1
5
x=− + =−
2 4
4
5 1
x = − + = −1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x
–2

53. The graph of y = sin x + 2 is the graph of y = sin x
shifted up 2 units upward. The period for both

π
functions is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The
4
2
cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2

π
2

=

π
2


=


2

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=

x

y = sin x + 2

coordinates

0

y = sin 0 + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

(0, 2)

coordinates

π

(–2, 3)

2

7
,0
4

π

y = sin π + 2
= 0 +2 = 2


2

y = sin

y = sin 2π + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

7
4

3
2

3
− , −3
2

5
4


,0
4

–1
(–1, 3)
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

+2
2
=1 +2 = 3

y = sin


+2
2
= −1 + 2 = 1

π
2

,3

(π , 2)

,1
2

(2 π , 2 )

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

571
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions
54. The graph of y = sin x − 2 is the graph of y = sin x
shifted 2 units downward. The period for both

π
functions is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The
4
2
cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2

π
2

=

55. The graph of y = cos x − 3 is the graph of y = cos x
shifted 3 units downward. The period for both

π
functions is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The
4
2
cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

π

x=0+

2


=

x=


2

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

y = sin x − 2

0

y = sin 0 − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

2

y = sin

2

+

x=π+

π
2

π

y = sin π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2


2

y = sin

y = sin 2π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2


− 2 = −1 − 2 = −3
2

π
2

π
2

π
2


=


2

x=

coordinates

− 2 = 1 − 2 = −1

2

=

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

π

π

π

(0, –2)

π
4

, −1

x

y = cos x − 3

coordinates

0

y = cos 0 − 3
= 1 − 3 = −2

(0, –2)

π

y = cos

π

−3
2
= 0 − 3 = −3

(π , − 2)

2


, −3
2

π

y = cos π − 3
= −1 − 3 = − 4


2

y = cos

y = cos2 π − 3
= 1 − 3 = −2

(2 π , − 2)

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.


−3
2
= 0 − 3 = −3

π
2

, −3

(π , − 4)

, −3
2

(2 π , − 2)

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

572
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

x=0
x = 0 +π = π
x = π + π = 2π
x = 2π + π = 3π
x = 3π + π = 4 π
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

56. The graph of y = cos x + 3 is the graph of y = cos x
shifted 3 units upward. The period for both functions

π
is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The cycle
4
2
begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2

π
2

=

π
2


=

x

y = 2sin

0

y = 2sin


2

x

y = cos x + 3

0

y = cos 0 + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

2

(0, 1)

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

y = cos

1
⋅0 +1
2

coordinates

= 2sin 0 + 1

x=

π

1
x +1
2

π
2

π

= 2sin

(0, 4)

π
2

,3

π

y = cos π + 3 = −1 + 3 = 2

(π , 2)


2

y = cos


+3 = 0 + 3 = 3
2


,3
2

y = cos2 π + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

(2 π , 4)

1
⋅π + 1
2

(π , 3)

π

+1
2
= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

coordinates

+3 = 0+ 3= 3

y = 2sin

y = 2sin

1
⋅ 2π + 1
2

(2 π , 1)

= 2sin π + 1
= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

y = 2sin

1
⋅ 3π + 1
2

(3π , − 1)


+1
2
= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1
= −2 + 1 = −1
= 2sin

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

y = 2sin

1
⋅ 4π + 1
2

(4π , 1)

= 2sin 2π + 1
= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1
By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.
1

57. The graph of y = 2sin 2 x + 1 is the graph
1

of y = 2sin 2 x shifted one unit upward. The
amplitude for both functions is 2 = 2. The period

for both functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter2


period is
= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add
4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.

573
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

1
58. The graph of y = 2 cos x + 1 is the graph of
2
1
y = 2 cos x shifted one unit upward. The amplitude
2
for both functions is 2 = 2. The period for both

functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter-period is
2


= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0
x = 0 +π = π
x = π + π = 2π
x = 2π + π = 3π
x = 3π + π = 4 π
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

1
y = 2 cos x + 1
2

0

y = 2 cos

1
⋅0 +1
2

59. The graph of y = −3 cos2 πx + 2 is the graph of
y = −3 cos2 πx shifted 2 units upward. The amplitude
for both functions is −3 = 3. The period for both
1

= 1. The quarter-period is . The
functions is
4

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

coordinates

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

(0, 3)

= 2 cos0 + 1
= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

π

y = 2 cos
= 2 cos

1
⋅π + 1
2

(π , 1)

π

+1
2
= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

y = 2 cos

1
⋅ 2π + 1
2

x

y = −3 cos2 πx + 2

0

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 0) + 2
= −3 cos 0 + 2
= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2
= −3 + 2 = −1

(2 π , − 1)

= 2 cos π + 1
= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1 = − 2 + 1 = −1

y = 2 cos

1
⋅ 3π + 1
2

1
4
(3π , 1)

= −3 cos

y = 2 cos

1
⋅ 4π + 1
2

π

2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

(4π , 3)
1
2

= 2 cos2π + 1
= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

1
+2
4

coordinates
(0, –1)

1
,2
4

+2

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

1
+2
2

= −3 cos π + 2
= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2
= 3 +2 = 5

574
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1
,5
2

PreCalculus 4E

3
4

Section 4.5

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

3
+2
4

3
,2
4


+2
2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

x

y = −3sin 2πx + 2

0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) + 2
= −3sin 0 + 2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

= −3 cos

1

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 1) + 2
= −3 cos2 π + 2
= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2
= −3 + 2 = −1

1
4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

(1, –1)

= −3sin

1
+2
4

coordinates
(0, 2)

1
, −1
4

π

+2
2
= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2 = −3 + 2 = −1

1
2

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

1
+2
2

1
,2
2

= −3sin π + 2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

3
4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

3
+2
4

3
,5
4


+2
2
= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5
= −3sin

1

60. The graph of y = −3sin 2πx + 2 is the graph of
y = −3 sin 2πx shifted two units upward. The
amplitude for both functions is A = −3 = 3. The

= 1. The quarterperiod for both functions is

1
period is . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter–
4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 1) + 2
= −3sin 2π + 2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

(1, 2)

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

61. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 ,
The period is 4π and thus

2π 1
B=
=
=
period 4π 2
y = A cos Bx

y = 3cos

1
x
2

575
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

62. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 , The
period is 4π and thus

2π 1
=
=
B=
period 4π 2
y = A sin Bx

y = 3sin

67.

1
x
2

63. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,
The period is π and thus


=
=2
B=
period π
y = A sin Bx

68.

y = −2sin 2 x
64. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,
The period is 4π and thus


=
=2
B=
period π
y = A cos Bx

69.

y = −2cos 2 x
65. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 , The
period is 4 and thus

2π π
=
=
B=
period
4
2

70.

y = A sin Bx
⎛π
y = 2sin ⎜
⎝2


x⎟

66. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 ,
The period is 4 and thus

2π π
=
=
B=
period
4
2
y = A cos Bx

71.

⎛π ⎞
y = 2 cos ⎜ x ⎟
⎝2 ⎠

72.

576
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(3. (0.M. 38) corresponds to 9 P. (9. 79.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.M. 2π y = 3sin ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(1) + 12 81. In the month of March. The period of the physical cycle is 33 days. B 2π 365 y = 15 There will be 15 hours of daylight. Extend the graph one cycle to the right to graph the information for 0 ≤ x ≤ 24. By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph information from noon to midnight. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(−1) + 12 y = 3sin y=9 There will be 9 hours of daylight. The period of the intellectual cycle is 23 days.. The amplitude is b. (12. the author should not run in a marathon on February 18. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The shortest day of the year will have the least hours of daylight. 2π . (6. The period is c. 74.. March 21 would be the best day to meet an on-line friend for the first time. 73.5 84. 77. 53) corresponds to 6 P. The period of the emotional cycle is 28 days. Answers may vary. 76. the author should begin writing the on February 11. The information gives the five key points of the graph. a. This occurs when the sine function equals –1. The longest day of the year will have the most hours of daylight. d. In the month of February. This occurs when the sine function equals 1. 38) corresponds to 3 P. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 is of the form 365 C⎞ ⎛ y = A sin B ⎜ x − ⎟ + D with B⎠ ⎝ 85.M. (6. Answers may vary. 83. 365 2π 2π 365 = 2π = 2π ⋅ = 365 . 14) corresponds to June. In the month of February.. (9. 577 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 82. 12) corresponds to September. (0. 23) corresponds to Noon. (12. . The information gives the five key point of the graph. Thus. A = 3 and B = 80. 12) corresponds to March. 10) corresponds to December. because the emotional cycle is at a maximum. A = 3 = 3. 23) corresponds to Midnight. 75. The function y = 3sin 78. the physical cycle is at a minimum on February 18. the intellectual cycle is at a maximum on February 11. (3. Thus. 14) corresponds to June By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph the information from June of one year to June of the following year.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 + 91. Add 4 quarter-periods to find the x-values of the key points. 9) (365. along with x = 1 and x = 12. The phase B π 6 and C = C = shift is B 2π 3 π 6 B= 2π π = 12 6 Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . 12) (170. Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 6 feet to a maximum of 12 feet. we will evaluate the function for the three x-values between 1 and 12. 56) (10.25 . or 12 hours. Add quarter4 periods to find the x-values for the key points. 578 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The period is 365.25 x = 170. The cycle begins at x = 79. 3 2π 2π 6 The period is = π = 2π ⋅ = 12 . Thus. x=4 The amplitude is 3. Using a calculator we have the following points. (0. The cycle begins at x = 4. 9.75. D = 9.Trigonometric Functions e.1) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain the graph for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . 24) (4. 40) (12. 9 feet. Thus. 15) (261. The quarter-period is B 365 = 91.75 + 91. The maximum depth of the water is 3 feet above 9 feet. the curve oscillates about the middle value.25. 2π . 26. Thus. The function y = 16 sin ⎜ x − 3 ⎝6 87.25 = 261. 40) (7. 9. πx 6 +9.25 + 91. (1. The amplitude is A = 16 = 16 .25 = 352. x = 4+3 = 7 x = 7 + 3 = 10 x = 10 + 3 = 13 x = 13 + 3 = 16 Because we are graphing for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 .25 = 170.25 = 444 Because we are graphing for 0 ≤ x ≤ 365 . . Using a calculator we have the following points.75 x = 352.07) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain one period of the graph.5 x = 261.07) (79. x = 79 x = 79 + 91. B = π 6 . we will evaluate the function for the first four xvalues along with x = 0 and x = 365. 2π ⎛π 86. The highest average monthly temperature is 56° in July. The quarter-period is 3 π 12 = 3 . Inc. starting on January 1.5. 12) (352. The C phase shift is = 79 . The depth of the water is modeled by y = 3cos 2π 6 = ⋅ = 4 . A = 3. 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π ⎞ ⎟ + 40 is in the ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) + D with A = 16. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12-0. The period is 12.

and −1 ≤ y ≤ 1 for our graph. The +4. π⎞ ⎛ 102. The period is 12. and 0 ≤ y ≤ 10 for upward.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The amplitude is period is 2π π = 12 6 at x = πx 6 2π 2π 10 = π = 2π ⋅ = 20 . The function y = −2 cos ⎜ 2π x − ⎟ is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx − C ) with A = –2. The function y = 3sin(2 x + π ) = 3sin(2 x − (−π )) is of 104. The function y = 3sin(2 x − π ) + 5 is of the form the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 3. Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 3 feet to a maximum of 5 feet. Thus. The cycle begins at B 2 C −π π π 3π x= = = − . B = 2. B = C = −π . C = π . 89. The cycle begins B π 10 C −π 10 = π = −π ⋅ = −10 . The period is 105.2sin ⎜ x − (−π ) ⎟ is of the ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 0. We choose − ≤ x ≤ . period is C π 2π 2π = = π . B = 2. A = 1. We choose ≤ x ≤ . We choose ≤ x ≤ 2 2 our graph. 4 4 B 2π 2 2π 4 and −3 ≤ y ≤ 3 for our graph. A = −2 = 2 . The cycle begins at x = = . Answers may vary. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. or 12 hours. 4 feet. the curve oscillates about the middle value. and B 2 2 2 2 −4 ≤ y ≤ 4 for our graph. and C= π 2 .2 = 0.2. B = 2π . The function ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ y = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graphs appear to be the same from − x= 579 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The amplitude is period is A = 3 = 3 . π 2 to π 2 . B 2 B 2 Because D = 5. and 10 A = 0. We choose B π 10 −10 ≤ x ≤ 30 . 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π B= 103. Inc. 101. the graph has a vertical shift 5 units π 5π . The amplitude is 2π 2π = = π .5 88. – 100. and C = −π . and A = 3 = 3 . The D = 5. The maximum depth of the water is 1 foot above 4 feet. Thus. . The depth of the water is modeled by y = cos π . The 2π 2π = = 1 .2 sin ⎜ x + π ⎟ = 0. Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . The amplitude is y = A cos( Bx − C ) + D with A = 3.2 . Thus. D = 4. The cycle begins at B 2π π C π 1 1 1 9 = 2 = ⋅ = .

Since A = 3 and D = −2. 106. ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ The graph is very similar to y = sin x . the maximum will occur at 3 − 2 = 1 and the minimum will occur at −3 − 2 = −5 . Thus the range is [ −3. −1. . 111. makes sense 107. 114. except the amplitude is greater and the curve is less smooth. the maximum will occur at 1 − 2 = −1 and the minimum will occur at −1 − 2 = −3 . b.1] The graph is similar to y = sin x . ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ 108.17 y = π cos(2π x + 4π ) or y = π cos [ 2π ( x + 2) ] 580 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1] ⎡ π 7π π ⎤ .1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . ⎥ by [ −5. b. except not smooth.50 x − 2.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . Since A = 1 and D = −2. Answers may vary. Inc.Trigonometric Functions 110. Explanations will vary.1. . makes sense The graphs appear to be the same from − π 2 to π 2 112. makes sense 115. A = π 109.61sin(0. Sample explanation: It may be easier to start at the highest point.04) + 57. 116. does not make sense. 113. B= 2π 2π = = 2π period 1 C C = = −2 B 2π C = −4π y = A cos( Bx − C ) y = 22. ⎡ π 23π π ⎤ . ⎥ by [ −3. Thus the range is [ −5. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a.

2 119. y = sin 2 x = 1 1 − cos 2 x 2 2 − 121. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. . y = cos x = + cos 2 x 2 2 The reciprocal function is undefined. 3π π 2π π + − − 4 4 = 4 = 2 = −π 2 2 2 4 122. − π 2 − π π 2 < x+ < x+ π π 4 − < π π 2 < π − π 4 4 4 2 4 2π π 2π π − − <x< − 4 4 4 4 π 3π − <x< 4 4 ⎧ 3π π⎫ ⎛ 3π π ⎞ . ⎟ < x < ⎬ or ⎜ − ⎨x − 4 4 ⎝ 4 4⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 581 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. Answers may vary.5 117. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. − 120. 1 1 118.

− π An x-intercept is π 3. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − . 0). 0 ⎟ . Continue the pattern 2⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. to graph one full period of y = cot x . In order to graph for 3π <x< . Solve the equations π 2 x = 0 and x=0 π 2 x =π x= π π 2 2. An xintercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. Midway between x = 0 and x = 2 is x = 1. Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. and the points midway between to graph one period π 4 to π 4 and the graph passes through π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. to graph one full period of π Thus. the x-intercept. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. The 2 2 curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. x = 0 and x = π . x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Midway between these asymptotes is x = 4 0. x = 0 and x 2 1 π = 2. 4 π of y = 3 tan 2 x from − 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ 2 . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . Solve the equations x− π 2 =− x= π π and 2 π x− π 2 = π 2 π π x= + − 2 2 2 2 x=0 x =π Thus.Trigonometric Functions Section 4. ⎝ ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 . 0+π π x-intercept = = 2 2 582 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use the two asymptotes.6 Check Point Exercises 1. . Inc. 0). 1 Because the coefficient of the cotangent is . Solve the equations 2 x = − x= − π and 2 π 2x = x= 4 and x = 2 π 4 π . An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0.

4⎠ ⎝ 1. π π⎞ ⎛ is y = tan ⎜ x + ⎟ . 5. C π π . (π . Use the and extend the graph − 4 graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0 ⎟ . 2 2 B C C = = −π B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = tan( x + π ) . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. 2. Inc. 2) . Thus. . The graph has an asymptote at π . 0 ⎟ . −2 ⎟ . C π π The phase shift. .PreCalculus 4E 4. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Thus. y = 2 cos 2 x . and use them as guides to graph y = 2sec 2 x . the x-values are π π 3π 0. ⎜ . The graph has an asymptote at x = 0 . from to − is −π units. 2 C C There is no phase shift. 2 2 B C C π = =− 2 B 1 3. ⎜ . Section 4. to find x-values for the five 4 key points. Thus. . . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2 2⎠ ⎝ The graph has an asymptote at x = π . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 C=− 2π 2π period: = =π B 2 π 2 The function with C = − π . ⎜ .6 π⎞ ⎛ The x-intercepts of y = sin ⎜ x + ⎟ correspond to 4⎠ ⎝ Exercise Set 4. π= C= π 2 +C π 2 π⎞ ⎛ The function is y = − tan ⎜ x − ⎟ . Use quarter-periods. The graph has an asymptote at x = − The phase shift.6 π⎞ ⎛ vertical asymptotes of y = csc ⎜ x + ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2). = =0 B 1 C =0 The function with C = 0 is y = − tan x . Evaluating the function at each 4 2 4 value of x. from to 0 is − units. Starting with x = 0. . In order to 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 3π 3π ≤x≤ . 2⎠ ⎝ 4. π 2 . Use the first four points graph for − 4 4 3π units to the left. 583 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and π . The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 2.

0). the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 4 .Trigonometric Functions 5. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. x = − and 4 2 π 1 x = . . Inc. to graph one full period of y = tan 2 x from 2 4 x-intercept = 6. 584 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 0). −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. to graph one full period of y = 3 tan from 4 −2π to 2π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 π . −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. x = −2π and x = 2π . Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Solve the equations 2 x = − π 2 − π2 x= 2 x=− Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. π 4 and 2 x = x= x= π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. π Solve the equations π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ Solve the equations x = ⎜ − ⎟ 4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. Because the coefficient of the tangent is . 0). two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 7. x = −2π and x x = 2π . x from −2π to 4 2π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. − π π to .

0). two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. to graph one full period of y = −2 tan x 2 from −π to π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− and x= 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x=π Thus. x = −π and x = π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is –3. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. 0). to graph one full 1 period of y = −3 tan x from −π to π . Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− x= and 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x =π Thus. Continue 2 the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Solve the equations 2x = − x= π and 2 x = 2 −2 2 π x=− x= π x= 4 π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. 0). the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2.PreCalculus 4E 8. to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 2 x from π to . . Inc. −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 π 4 . −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 585 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = − x= − π π 4 π 4 10. 9.6 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. x = −π and 1 x = π . 4 4 Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. and . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. Because the coefficient of the tangent is –2. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . Section 4. Use the two consecutive asymptotes.

B 1 2 π Thus. Solve the equations x− π 4 =− π and 2 2π π + x=− 4 4 x=− π 4 x− π 4 = 2 2π π + x= 4 4 3π x= 4 3π and x = . . Continue the pattern 4⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. C π π . and x = 2 x-intercept = 4 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . and x = 13. An x-intercept is π π 2 Thus. Thus. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − π C= π 2 The function with C = π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = − cot ⎜ x − ⎟ . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0 ⎟ . The graph has an asymptote at 12. from 0 to is units. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 π 2 and 1. 0) . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = and the graph passes through and 1. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = π 4 3π .Trigonometric Functions 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Solve the equations x −π = − x=− x= π and 2 π 2 +π x −π = 13. A = –1. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. Inc. There is no phase shift. to graph one full period of and x = 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . The phase shift. 4 − x-intercept = π 4 2 . 2⎠ ⎝ 4 3π 2π 4 = 4 =π 2 2 4 + 586 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 14. B 2 2 C C π = = Thus. x = − π 2 + 32π 42π 4π = = =π 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π and the graph passes through (π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. 3π . C C = =0 B 1 C =0 Because the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. The function with C = 0 and A = –1 is y = − cot x . ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 2 π +π 2 3π x= 2 x= π π 2 3π . Continue the pattern y = tan( x − π ) from 2 2 and extend the graph another full period to the right. to graph one full period of 2 π 3π to .

consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . x = 0 and x = π . . to graph one full period of y = 2 cot x . The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. B 1 2 B 2 2 C=− The function with C = − π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . π and the graph passes through intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 17. B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = cot( x + π ) . The graph has an asymptote at −π . 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. 0 +π π x-intercept = = 2 2 . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. from 0 to − is − units. x-intercept = π and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 2⎠ ⎝ An x-intercept is 0+π π = 2 2 2 1 2 1 and − . The graph has an asymptote at − π 18. 587 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. B C C = = −π Thus.6 15. Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π . 0 ⎟ . x = 0 2 1 and x = π . from 0 to −π is −π units. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. the points on the graph midway between an x2 16. The phase shift. The phase shift. 0 ⎟ . C . Inc. Thus. 2 C π π C C π = =− . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 1 . Two An x-intercept is 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . to graph one full period of y = cot x . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.

π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . Solve the equations 2 x = 0 x=0 and 2x = π x= π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . to graph one full period of y = cot 2 x . x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. The curve is repeated along the x-axis 2 one full period as shown. 2 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 20. 0 ⎟ . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 1 .Trigonometric Functions 19. 0 ⎟ . x = 0 and x = 2. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is –3. x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . the points on the graph midway between an x2 21. Solve the equations π 2 x=0 x=0 and π 2 x =π x= π π 2 1 intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 1 and − . x = 0 2 π 1 and x = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Solve the equations 2 x = 0 and x=0 2x = π x= The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 2. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. to graph one full period of y = 2 cot 2 x . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0+2 2 x-intercept = = =1 2 2 An x-intercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. 588 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 0). to graph one full period of y = −3cot π x . Inc. x = 0 and x = π 2 .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) . to graph one full period of y = −2cot π 24. Solve the equations π 4 π x = 0 and 4 x=0 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 3.6 22. 4 x-intercept = 23. x = 0 and x = 4 . 0 ⎟ . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. x = − π 4 3π and x = . Solve the equations x+ π 4 =0 and x =0− x . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. x+ π π 4 =π x =π − 4 π π 4 3π x= 4 4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π 2 =0 and x =0− x=− π 2 π 2 x+ π 2 x= π π 2 4 and the graph passes through and –3. The curve is repeated along the x- x=− 4 axis one full period as shown. π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is – 2. Solve the equations π π and 2 π π⎞ ⎛ x = . − π2 + π2 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. x = − 2 2 π 2 and . x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0+4 4 x-intercept = = =2 2 2 An x-intercept is 2 and the graph passes through ( 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2 2⎠ ⎝ 589 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 3. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. to graph one full period of y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . . 0). Inc. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 =π x =π − and − π4 + 34π 24π π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is x+ 4 3π . to graph one full period of 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . The curve is repeated along the x4⎠ ⎝ axis one full period as shown. x =π x= π π 4 x=4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 4.

Use ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ these key points to graph y = 3sin x from 0 to 2π . and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = 3csc 4 x . . Evaluating the function at 0. − 3 ⎟ . Graph the reciprocal sine function. π 2 x. π . ⎜ . (π . The x-intercepts of y = 3sin 4 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = 3csc 4 x . and use them as a guide to 1 sketch the graph of y = sec 2π x . 2 2 each value of x. 0) . the x-values are π 3π . and use them as guides to graph y = 3csc x . Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. The x-intercepts of y = 590 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 3sin x . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. and (2π . The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 3 and B = 1. Draw the vertical asymptotes. ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ . π .Trigonometric Functions 1 x 25. 2 27. and use them as a guide to 1 x sketch the graph of y = − csc . 2 2 28. 3 ⎟ . to find x-values for the 2 five key points. Inc. amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. 0). the key points are (0. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. 26. Starting with x = 0. and 2π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. . Draw the 2 2 vertical asymptotes. The x-intercepts of y = − sin corresponds to 2 2 1 x vertical asymptotes of y = − csc . The x-intercepts of y = −3cos π 2 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = −3sec π x . and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = −3sec 29. 1 cos 2π x corresponds to 2 1 vertical asymptotes of y = sec 2π x . 0).

− ⎟ . Graph the reciprocal sine function. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. (2π . . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 3π . 2π . Use these 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 4π . 4π . and (8π . ⎜ . − 2 ⎟ . The Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 0). Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. . the x-values are 0. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. 4 3 3 = amplitude: A = 2 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π period: B 4 Use quarter-periods. 2 ⎟ . 0). y = Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Evaluating the function at each value of x. π . ⎜ 3π . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. 0). 32. (π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. the key points are (0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. and use 1 x them as guides to graph y = csc . 2π .6 30. the x-values are π 3π 0. (4π . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. y = 1 x sin . and 2π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. ⎜ 6π . 2 2 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. and use them as guides to graph y = 2cscx. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Inc. 0). . 0) . The 2 4 3 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . Starting with x = 0. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0) . the key points are 3⎞ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎛ (0. and (2π . and 8π . to find x-values for the five key points. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Starting with x = 0. The 2 2 1 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. and (4π . π . ⎜ . 0) . π . ⎟ . the x-values are 0. 2π . ⎜ 2π . Evaluating the function at each value of x. 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ π . Starting with x = 0. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. 2 2 31. ⎟ . 6π . 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 x Use these key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 2 4 8π . 0). 3 x sin . and 4π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2 1 1 amplitude: A = = 2 2 2π 2π period: = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. and use them as guides to graph 3 x y = csc . 0). 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Use these key points to graph y = 2sin x from 0 to 2π . to find x-values for the five key points. π . y = 2sin x . 2 4 591 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎟ .

y = cos . π 3π . The 3 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . 0 ⎟ . 3 amplitude: B= period: A = 1 =1 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 3 = 6π B 3 6π 3π = . the x-values are 0. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 3 Use quarter-periods. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. and (6π . 0 ⎟ . (2π . π . − 3). − 2). Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. y = 2 cos x . π. y = 3cos x . (π . 2π . and use them as x guides to graph y = sec . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. π . The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 3 and B = 1 . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: Use these key points to graph y = 3cos x from 0 to 2π . . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. 3π . ⎝2 ⎠ 3 π ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Extend the 3 graph one cycle to the right. Starting with x = 0. 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 9π ⎞ . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec x . the key points are (0. ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ x points to graph y = cos from 0 to 6π . . 0 ⎟ . Starting with x = 0. Use these key (3π . 2 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ at each value of x. the x-values 3π 9π . Evaluating the function at each value 2 2 ⎛π ⎞ of x. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. ⎜ . x 35. π . and (2π . . 0 ⎟ . ⎜ . and 2π . ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 592 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the x-values are π 3π 0. and use them as guides to graph y = 3sec x . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. 1). 3) . 2) . . to find x-values for 4 2 the five key points. ⎜ . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. and 6π .Trigonometric Functions 33. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Starting with x = 0. Inc. 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. − 1). 2). 1) . ⎜ . the key points are (0. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Evaluating the function are 0. (π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 3). 34. . Use these key points to ⎝ 2 ⎠ graph y = 2 cos x from 0 to 2π .

Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Use these key 2 ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ points to graph y = −2sin π x from 0 to 2. and (2. and 2. 2 Use quarter-periods. the x-values are 1 3 0. Starting with x = 0. and (2. amplitude: A = −2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 B= 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. Graph the reciprocal sine function. y = cos . 0). Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2π . period: 1 38. The 2 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. and (4π . the key points are (0. The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . 2 ⎟ . . . ⎜ . (1. 1 and use them as guides to graph y = − csc π x . 2 The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with x from 0 to 2 4π . 0). and 4π . ( 3π . 37. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Evaluating the function at each value of x. 0 ) . 1) . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. 1). π . (1. x and use them as guides to graph y = sec . and 2 . to find x-values for the five key points.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. . 3π . Starting with x = 0. to find 4 2 x-values for the five key points. 0) . − 1). Use quarter-periods. 2 A=− Use these key points to graph y = cos 1 and B = π . (π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. x 36. 0) . . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Evaluating the 2 2 function at each value of x. Inc. 593 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1. . 0). Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. ⎜ . − ⎟ . 1 3 the x-values are 0. − 2 ⎟ . y = − sin π x . the key points are (0. ⎜ . Starting with x = 0. 0). ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ . the x-values are 0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. (2π . 1.6 Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. and use them as guides to graph y = −2 csc π x . 2 amplitude: A = − period: 1 1 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . the key points are 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎛3 1⎞ (0. y = −2sin π x . 0 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎝2 2⎠ 1 Use these key points to graph y = − sin π x from 0 2 to 2 . Graph the reciprocal sine function. π . ⎟ .

594 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Starting with x = 0. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ value of x. ⎜ 2. 2 amplitude: A = − 2π 2π = =2 B π period: 2 1 = . − ⎟ . 3 and use them as guides to graph y = − sec π x . ⎜ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. 0 ⎟ . the key points are 3⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0. . ⎟ . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. Inc. Extend 2 the graph one cycle to the right. 2 amplitude: period: A = − A=− 1 1 = 2 2 3 and B = π . Starting with x = 0. y = − cos π x . . 0 ⎟ . ⎜1. . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 1. 0 ⎟ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Use these key 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 to 2. . 1. and 2. the x-values are 1 3 0. ⎜ 2. − ⎟ . the x-values are 1 3 0. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. and 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 3 3 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x.Trigonometric Functions 1 39. 0 ⎟ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A=− 3 40. ⎜ . 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 Use these key points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 2 to 2 . y = − cos π x . 2 Use quarter-periods. ⎜ . ⎜1. the key points are ⎜ 0. 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ . ⎟ . − ⎟ . 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with 1 and B = π . and use them as guides to graph 1 y = − sec π x . − ⎟ . Use quarter-periods. .

. 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π2 π = = phase shift: B 1 2 period: Use quarter-periods. Use these key points to graph 2 ⎝ ⎠ y = sin( x − π ) from π to 3π . Inc. Graph the reciprocal sine function. 1⎟ . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 0) . 2⎠ ⎝ . π⎞ ⎛ 42. the key ⎛ 3π ⎞ points are (π . and C = 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π = =π phase shift: B 1 2π π = . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . 0 ⎟ . − 1) . 3π 5π . amplitude: A = 1 = 1 A = 1 . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . 0). 2 2 Evaluating the function at each value of x. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 0 ⎟ . 2⎠ ⎝ The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 1. and . and C = π . Starting with x = π . B = 1 . and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = csc ⎜ x − ⎟ . ⎜ . the x-values are 3π 5π . (2π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. (3π . 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. to find x-values for the five key points. π 2 . − 1⎟ . and ⎜ . Starting with x = π π 2 . y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ . ( 2π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. y = sin( x − π ) . 1) . the x-values are π . and 3π . 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 5π to . π 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 period: . to find Use quarter-periods. and B = 1. π. 2π . . and use them as guides to graph y = csc( x − π ) . 595 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 2 x-values for the five key points. 0).6 41. Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. 0 ⎟ .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. ⎜ . (π .

B = 1. π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. (π . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. . the key points are (−π . 2 ⎟ . and π . . ( 0. and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 sec ⎜ x + ⎟ . 0 ) . 2) . 0 ⎟ . y = 2 cos( x + π ) . and C=− π 2 . ( 0. − π π . ⎜ . and . the x-values are π 3π . y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2. The equation is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2 and B = 1 . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec( x + π ) . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Evaluating the function 2 2 at each value of x.Trigonometric Functions 43. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ − . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. to find x-values for the five − π . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 3π − to . Use these ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ key points to graph y = 2 cos( x + π ) from −π to π . 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 amplitude: A = 2 = 2 46. 2 ⎟ . 0. and (π . ⎜ . 0 ⎟ . 44. Starting with x = −π . 0 ) . Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. π 45. − 2 ) . . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. the x-values π 2 key points. 0. the key points are ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ − . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Inc. The equation is of the form Use quarter-periods. π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ . Starting with x = − A = 2 =2 period: are −π . 2). to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. ⎜ . − 2 ⎟ . = . and C = −π . 2⎠ ⎝ 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C −π = = −π phase shift: B 1 2π π Use quarter-periods. amplitude: . 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C − π2 π = =− phase shift: B 1 2 period: 596 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ sin x and y2 = 1 . . x = −2π . 5π π 3π 7π . For the window use Xmin = −2π . For the window use Xmin = −2π . − 0. 2π 52. Inc. 1. x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. 56.93. . − . Use a graphing utility with y1 = tan x and y2 = −1 . and Ymax = 2 . 3π π . x=− 2 2 x ≈ −4. Xmax = 2π . 48.28.36.71. x ≈ −6. and Ymax = 2 . Ymin = −2 .79.50 50. − 0. Ymin = −2 . For the window use Xmin = −2π . 53. 5. 2. . π⎞ ⎛ y = ( f h ) ( x) = f (h( x)) = 2 sec ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 54. Ymin = −2 .57 51.93. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ cos x and y2 = 1 .50 49. Xmax = 2π . − .79. Ymin = −2 . 2. 5π π 3π 7π . and Ymax = 2 . Xmax = 2π . 0. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ tan x and y2 = −1 . 57. 5.36.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. π⎞ ⎛ y = ( g h ) ( x) = g (h( x)) = −2 tan ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 55. For the window use Xmin = −2π .28 597 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0. and Ymax = 2 . 6. Xmax = 2π . 58. x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3.6 47.

Solve the equations 2π t = − π and 2π t = x = π .25. the adjacent leg is the distance d. y = 10 cos x . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2.75. use the x-values − ⎛ π ⎞ find the key points ⎜ − . 0 ⎟ . In a right triangle the angle of elevation is one of the acute angles. π π The function is undefined for t = 0.25. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. and 1. amplitude: A = 10 = 10 period: b. 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the secant function. and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Midway between x = 0 and x = π is x = π 2 2 π − π2 t= t= 2 2π 2π 1 1 t=− t= 4 4 Thus. and use ⎡ π π⎤ them as guides to graph d = 10sec x on ⎢ − . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have ycoordinates of –12 and 12. and the opposite leg is 2 mi. 0. d sec x = 10 d = 10 sec x Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 2]. 2].) An x-intercept is 2 2 . and ⎜ . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 12. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 10 and B = 1.75. For − π 2 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 <x< π 2 . to graph y = 2 cot x for 0 < x < π . x = − and x = . 61. d cot x = 2 d = 2 cot x Use the equations x = 0 and x = π . π π to 2 ⎛π ⎞ (0. to 4 4 graph one full period of d = 12 tan 2π t . continue the pattern and extend the graph to 2. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Use the function that relates the acute angle with the hypotenuse and the adjacent leg. ⎥ . ⎝ 2 ⎠ 60. 1. Use the two 1 1 consecutive asymptotes. (Do not use the left hand side of the first period of the graph on [0. and Connect these points with a smooth curve. The beam is shining parallel to the wall at these times. 4 4 − 14 + 14 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. To graph on [0. 10). two consecutive asymptotes occur at 1 1 x = − and x = . ⎣ 2 2⎦ 598 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ⎟ . . x = 0 and x = π . Inc. 0). 0 ⎟ .Trigonometric Functions 59. ⎝2 ⎠ 2 . then draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Use the cotangent function. Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and d = 12 tan 2π t a.

6 62.85 ≤ x ≤ 1. 81. period: π