TABLE OF CONTENTS for INSTRUCTOR SOLUTIONS

PRECALCULUS 4E

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra..................................................... 1

Chapter 1

Functions and Graphs............................................................................................. 126

Chapter 2

Polynomial and Rational Functions ....................................................................... 256

Chapter 3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ................................................................ 411

Chapter 4

Trigonometric Functions........................................................................................ 489

Chapter 5

Analytic Trigonometry........................................................................................... 663

Chapter 6

Additional Topics in Trigonometry ....................................................................... 780

Chapter 7

Systems of Equations and Inequalities................................................................... 944

Chapter 8

Matrices and Determinants .................................................................................. 1076

Chapter 9

Conic Sections and Analytic Geometry ............................................................... 1181

Chapter 10

Sequences, Induction, and Probability................................................................. 1297

Chapter 11

Introduction to Calculus....................................................................................... 1393

iii

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter P
Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra
Section P.1
Check Point Exercises
1.

6.

8 + 6( x − 3) 2 = 8 + 6(13 − 3) 2

a.

Because 2 ≈ 1.4, the number inside the
absolute value bars is negative. The absolute
value of x when x < 0 is –x. Thus,

= 8 + 6(10) 2
= 8 + 6(100)
= 8 + 600
= 608
2.

(

b.

Since 2010 is 10 years after 2000, substitute 10 for x.
= 17(10)2 + 261(10) + 3257
= 7567
If trends continue, the tuition and fees will be $7567

5.

The elements common to {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} and
{3, 7, 8, 9} are 3 and 7.
{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∩ {3,7,8,9} = {3, 7}

c.

The union is the set containing all the elements of
either set.
{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∪ {3, 7,8,9} = {3, 4,5, 6, 7,8,9}

π

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,
2

9,

x
x
Because x > 0,
Thus,

7.


10 ⎬

9 because

π −3
Because π ≈ 3.14, the number inside the
absolute value bars is positive. The absolute
value of a positive number is the number itself.
Thus,
π − 3 = π − 3.

T = 17 x + 261x + 3257

4.

)

1− 2 = − 1− 2 = 2 −1

2

3.

1− 2

x
x

=

x = x.

x
=1
x

−4 − (5) = −9 = 9
The distance between –4 and 5 is 9.

8.

9 =3

a.

Natural numbers:

b.

Whole numbers: 0,

c.

Integers: −9, 0, 9

d.

Rational numbers: −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3,

e.

Irrational numbers:

f.

Real numbers:
π

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,
2

7(4 x 2 + 3x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 7(4 x 2 + 3 x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)
= 28 x 2 + 21x + 10 x 2 + 2 x

9

= 38 x 2 + 23x

π
2

,

9.

9

10

9,


10 ⎬

6 + 4[7 − ( x − 2)]
= 6 + 4[7 − x + 2)]
= 6 + 4[9 − x]
= 6 + 36 − 4 x
= 42 − 4 x

Exercise Set P.1
1.

7 + 5(10) = 7 + 50 = 57

2.

8 + 6 ( 5 ) = 8 + 30 = 38

3.

6(3) − 8 = 18 − 8 = 10

1

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

4.

8 ( 3) − 4 = 24 − 4 = 20

5.

82 + 3(8) = 64 + 24 = 88

6.

62 + 5 ( 6 ) = 36 + 30 = 66

7.

7 2 − 6(7) + 3 = 49 − 42 + 3 = 7 + 3 = 10

8.

82 − 7 ( 8 ) + 4 = 64 − 56 + 4 = 8 + 4 = 12

9.

4 + 5(9 − 7)3 = 4 + 5(2)3
= 4 + 5(8) = 4 + 40 = 44

10.

6 + 5 (8 − 6 ) = 6 + 5 ( 2 )
3

18.

19.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2 = 4 + 60(2) − 16(2)2
= 4 + 120 − 16(4) = 4 + 120 − 64
= 124 − 64 = 60
Two seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is
60 feet.

20.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2
= 4 + 60(3) − 16(3) 2
= 4 + 180 − 16(9)
= 4 + 180 − 144
= 184 − 144 = 40
Three seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is
40 feet.

3

= 6 + 5 (8)

= 6 + 40 = 46
11.

82 − 3(8 − 2) = 64 − 3(6)
= 64 − 18 = 46

12.
13.

14.

15.

16.

21.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∩ {2, 4,5} = {2, 4}

82 − 4 ( 8 − 3) = 64 − 4 ( 5 ) = 64 − 20 = 44

22.

{1,3, 7} ∩ {2,3,8} = {3}

5( x + 2) 5(10 + 2)
=
2 x − 14 2(10) − 14
5(12)
=
6
= 5⋅2
= 10

23.

{s, e, t} ∩ {t , e, s} = {s, e, t}

24.

{r , e, a, l} ∩ {l , e, a, r} = {r , e, a, l}

25.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {2, 4, 6,8,10} = { }
The empty set is also denoted by ∅.

7( x − 3) 7(9 − 3) 7(6)
=
=
= 7 ⋅ 3 = 21
2 x − 16 2(9) − 16
2
2x + 3 y
; x = −2, y = 4
x +1
2 ( −2 ) + 3 ( 4 ) −4 + 12 8
=
=
=
= −8
−2 + 1
−1
−1
2x + y
; x = −2 and y = 4
xy − 2 x
2 ( −2 ) + 4

( −2 )( 4 ) − 2 ( −2 )
17.

5
5
5
C = ( F − 32) = (86 − 32) = (54) = 30
9
9
9
30°C is equivalent to 86°F.

=

−4 + 4 0
= =0
−8 + 4 4

5
5
C = (50 − 32) = (18) = 10
9
9
10°C is equivalent to 50°F.

26.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {−5, −3, −1} = { }

27.

{a, b, c, d} ∩ ∅ = ∅

28.

{w, y, z} ∩ ∅ = ∅

29.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∪ {2, 4,5} = {1, 2,3, 4,5}

30.

{1,3, 7,8} ∪ {2,3,8} = {1, 2,3, 7,8}

31.

{1, 3,5, 7} ∪ {2, 4, 6,8,10}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,10}

32.

{0,1,3,5} ∪ {2, 4, 6} = {0,1, 2,3, 4,5, 6}

33.

{a, e, i, o, u} ∪ ∅ = {a, e, i, o, u}

34.

{e, m, p, t , y} ∪ ∅

or ∅

= {e, m, p, t , y}

2
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

35. a.

Section P.1

39. 0

100

b.

0, 100

c.

−9, 0, 100

d.

4
−9, − , 0, 0.25, 9.2, 100
5

e.
f.
36. a.

40. Answers may vary. An example is

1
.
2

41. Answers may vary. An example is 2.
42. Answers may vary. An example is −2.
43. true; –13 is to the left of –2 on the number line.

3

44. false; –6 is to the left of 2 on the number line.

4
−9, − , 0, 0.25, 3, 9.2, 100
5

45. true; 4 is to the right of –7 on the number line.
46. true; –13 is to the left of –5 on the number line.

49

47. true; −π = −π

b.

0, 49

c.

−7, 0, 49

d.

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49

48. true; –3 is to the right of –13 on the number line.
49. true; 0 is to the right of –6 on the number line.

e.
f.
37. a.

50
−7, − 0.6, 0, 49, 50
64

b.

0, 64

c.

−11, 0, 64

d.

5
−11, − , 0, 0.75, 64
6

e.
f.
38. a.

5
−11, − , 0, 0.75, 5, π , 64
6
4
0, 4

c.

−5, 0, 4

d.

−5, − 0.3, 0, 4

f.

51.

300 = 300

52.

−203 = 203

53.

12 − π = 12 − π

54.

7−π = 7−π

55.

2 −5 = 5− 2

56.

5 − 13 = 13 − 5

5, π

b.

e.

50. true; 0 is to the right of –13 on the number line.

2
−5, − 0.3, 0, 2, 4

57.

−3 −3
=
= −1
3
−3

58.

−7 −7
=
= −1
7
−7

59.

−3 − −7 = 3 − 7 = −4 = 4

60.

−5 − −13 = 5 − 13 = −8 = 8

61.

x + y = 2 + (−5) = −3 = 3

62.

x − y = 2 − (−5) = 7 = 7

3
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

63.

x + y = 2 + −5 = 2 + 5 = 7

64.

x − y = 2 − −5 = 2 − 5 = −3

65.

y
−5 −5
=
=
= −1
y
−5
5

66.

x

y

2

83.

84.

1
( x + 3) = 1; x ≠ −3 ,
x+3
inverse property of multiplication

( x + 4 ) + ⎡⎣ − ( x + 4 ) ⎤⎦ = 0;
inverse property of addition

85.

−5

2 5
+
= +
= +
= 1 + (−1) = 0
x
y
2 −5 2 −5

5(3 x + 4) − 4 = 5 ⋅ 3x + 5 ⋅ 4 − 4
= 15 x + 20 − 4
= 15 x + 16

67. The distance is 2 − 17 = −15 = 15 .

86.

2(5 x + 4) − 3 = 2 ⋅ 5 x + 2 ⋅ 4 − 3
= 10 x + 8 − 3

68. The distance is 4 − 15 = −11 = 11 .

= 10 x + 5

69. The distance is −2 − 5 = −7 = 7 .

87.

5(3 x − 2) + 12 x = 5 ⋅ 3x − 5 ⋅ 2 + 12 x
= 15 x − 10 + 12 x

70. The distance is −6 − 8 = −14 = 14 .

= 27 x − 10

71. The distance is −19 − (−4) = −19 + 4 = −15 = 15 .

88.

2(5 x − 1) + 14 x = 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅1 + 14 x
= 10 x − 2 + 14 x

72. The distance is −26 − (−3) = −26 + 3 = −23 = 23 .

= 24 x − 2

73. The distance is
−3.6 − (−1.4) = −3.6 + 1.4 = −2.2 = 2.2 .

89.

= 7 ⋅3y − 7 ⋅5 + 2⋅ 4y + 2 ⋅3
= 21y − 35 + 8 y + 6

74. The distance is
−5.4 − (−1.2) = −5.4 + 1.2 = −4.2 = 4.2 .

= 29 y − 29
90.

75. 6 + (–4) = (–4) + 6;
commutative property of addition

= 8 y − 24 + 15 y + 30
= 23 y + 6
91.

77. 6 + (2 + 7) = (6 + 2) + 7;
associative property of addition

5 ( 3 y − 2 ) − ( 7 y + 2 ) = 15 y − 10 − 7 y − 2
= 8 y − 12

92.

6 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 3) = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 2);
commutative property of multiplication

4(5 y − 3) − (6 y + 3) = 20 y − 12 − 6 y − 3
= 14 y − 15

79. (2 + 3) + (4 + 5) = (4 + 5) + (2 + 3);
commutative property of addition
80.

4(2 y − 6) + 3(5 y + 10)
= 4 ⋅ 2 y − 4 ⋅ 6 + 3 ⋅ 5 y + 3 ⋅10

76. 11 ⋅ (7 + 4) = 11 ⋅ 7 + 11 ⋅ 4;
distributive property of multiplication over addition

78.

7(3 y − 5) + 2(4 y + 3)

93.

7 − 4 ⎡⎣3 − ( 4 y − 5 ) ⎤⎦ = 7 − 4 [3 − 4 y + 5]
= 7 − 4 [8 − 4 y ]

7 ⋅ (11⋅ 8) = (11 ⋅ 8) ⋅ 7;
commutative property of multiplication

= 7 − 32 + 16 y
= 16 y − 25

81. 2 (–8 + 6) = –16 + 12;
distributive property of multiplication over addition
82.

−8(3 + 11) = −24 + (−88) ;
distributive property of multiplication over addition

4

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PreCalculus 4E

94.

Section P.1

6 − 5[8 − (2 y − 4)] = 6 − 5 [8 − 2 y + 4]

104. −20

= 6 − 5 [12 − 2 y ]

20

= 6 − 60 + 10 y

95. 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 ( x 2 − 2) + 5⎤⎦

105.

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 12 + 5⎤⎦
= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 7⎤⎦
= 18 x 2 + 4 − 6 x 2 + 7

96. 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣7 ( x 2 − 2 ) + 4 ⎤⎦

106.

= 14 x + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 14 + 4 ⎤⎦
2

= 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 10⎤⎦

−0.6

5
2

−2.5

2.5

−2.5

3
= −0.6 .
5

2.5
2.5 = 2.5

= 14 x 2 − 7 x 2 + 5 + 10

Since 2.5 = 2.5,

= (14 − 7 ) x + 15
2

= 7 x 2 + 15

107.

97. –(–14x) = 14x

− ( −17 y ) = 17 y

30 3

40 4
30 30

40 40

5
= −2.5 .
2

14 15

15 14
14 15

15 14

0 1
0 <1
30 3
14 15
Since 0 < 1,
− <
⋅ .
40 4
15 14

99. –(2x – 3y – 6) = –2x + 3y + 6
100. − ( 5 x − 13 y − 1) = −5 x + 13 y + 1

1
(3 x) + [ (4 y ) + (−4 y ) ] = x + 0
3
=x

108.

1
( 2 y ) + ⎣⎡( −7 x ) + 7 x ⎦⎤ = y + 0 = y
2

6

0.6

2.5

= 14 x 2 + 5 − 7 x 2 + 10

103. −6

−0.6

Since 0.6 = 0.6,

= (18 − 6) x 2 + 11 = 12 x 2 + 11

102.

3
5

0.6
0.6
0.6 = 0.6

= 18 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 4 + 7

101.

50

20 < 50
Since 20 < 50, −20 < −50 .

= 10 y − 54

98.

−50

17 18

18 17
17 18

18 17

50 5

60 6
50 50

60 60

1 0
1> 0
17 18
50 5
Since 1 > 0,

>
− .
18 17
60 6

−3
3

6>3
Since 6 > 3, −6 > −3 .

5

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

109. 8 8
÷
13 13
8 13

13 8

115. 8 − 3[−2(2 − 5) − 4(8 − 6)] = 8 − 3[−2(−3) − 4(2)]

−1

= 8 − 3[6 − 8]
= 8 − 3[−2]

1

=8+6

1 1
1=1
Since 1 = 1,
110.

= 14
116. 8 − 3[−2(5 − 7) − 5(4 − 2)] = 8 − 3[−2(−2) − 5(2)]

8 8
÷ = −1 .
13 13

= 8 − 3[4 − 10]
= 8 − 3[−6]

4 4
−2
÷
17 17
4 17
2

17 4
2 1
2 >1

= 8 + 18
= 26
117.

Since 2 > 1, −2 >

4 4
÷ .
17 17

111. 82 − 16 ÷ 22 ⋅ 4 − 3 = 64 − 16 ÷ 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 64 − 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

118.

= 64 − 16 − 3
= 48 − 3
= 45
112. 102 − 100 ÷ 52 ⋅ 2 − 3 = 100 − 100 ÷ 25 ⋅ 2 − 3
119.

= 100 − 4 ⋅ 2 − 3
= 100 − 8 − 3

2(−2) − 4(−3) −4 + 12
=
5−8
−3
8
=
−3
8
=−
3
6(−4) − 5(−3) −24 + 15
=
9 − 10
−1
−9
=
−1
=9
(5 − 6)2 − 2 3 − 7
89 − 3 ⋅ 52

= 92 − 3
= 89
113.

5 ⋅ 2 − 32
2

2

[3 − (−2)]

=
=
=

5⋅2 −9
[9 − (−2)]2
10 − 9
[9 + 2]2
10 − 9

112
1
=
121
114.

10 ÷ 2 + 3 ⋅ 4
(12 − 3 ⋅ 2)

2

=
=

120.

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 22 + 32
7 + 3− 6

2

=

(−1) 2 − 2 −4

89 − 3 ⋅ 25
1 − 2(4)
=
89 − 75
1− 8
=
14
−7
=
14
1
=−
2

=
=

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 4 + 9
7 + 3 − 36
4 ⋅ 5 13

10 − 36
20(13)
=
−26
260
=
−26
= −10

5 + 12
(12 − 6) 2
17

62
17
=
36

121. x − ( x + 4) = x − x − 4 = −4

6
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PreCalculus 4E

Section P.1

122. x − ( 8 − x ) = x − 8 + x = 2 x − 8

b.

123. 6 ( −5 x ) = −30 x
124. 10 ( −4 x ) = −40 x
125. 5 x − 2 x = 3 x
126. 6 x − ( −2 x ) = 6 x + 2 x = 8 x
127. 8 x − ( 3x + 6 ) = 8 x − 3x − 6 = 5 x − 6

131. a.

128. 8 − 3 ( x + 6 ) = 8 − 3x − 18 = −3 x − 10
129. a.

b.

130. a.

3
( 220 − a )
5
3
H = ( 220 − 30 )
5
3
= (190 )
5
= 114
The upper limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 114 beats per
minute.
H=

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15, 395 + 988(7) − 2(7)2
= 22, 213
The formula estimates the cost to have been
$22,213 in 2007.

7
( 220 − a )
10
7
H = ( 220 − 20 )
10
7
= ( 200 )
10
= 140
The lower limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 140 beats per
minute.
H=

b.

This underestimates the value in the graph by
$5.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15,395 + 988(10) − 2(10)2
= 25, 075
The formula projects the cost to be $25,075 in
2010.

4
( 220 − a )
5
4
H = ( 220 − 20 )
5
4
= ( 200 )
5
= 160
The upper limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 160 beats per
minute.
H=

132. a.

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15, 395 + 988(6) − 2(6)2
= 21, 251
The formula estimates the cost to have been
$21,251 in 2006.

1
( 220 − a )
2
1
H = ( 220 − 30 )
2
1
= (190 )
2
= 95
The lower limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 95 beats per
minute.
H=

b.

This underestimates the value in the graph by
$16.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15,395 + 988(12) − 2(12)2
= 26, 963
The formula projects the cost to be $26,963 in
2012.

133. a.

0.05 x + 0.12 (10,000 − x )
= 0.05 x + 1200 − 0.12 x
= 1200 − 0.07 x

b.

1200 − 0.07 x = 1200 − 0.07(6000)
= $780

7
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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

134. a.

158. −π > −3.5

0.06t + 0.5(50 − t ) = 0.06t + 25 − 0.5t
= 25 − 0.44t

b.

3.14
= −1.57
2
π
− ≈ −1.571
2
−1.57 > −1.571

159. −

0.06(20) + 0.5(50 − 20)
= 1.2 + 0.5(30)
= 1.2 + 15
= 16.2 miles

135. – 144. Answers may vary.
145. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: Models do not always
accurately predict future values.

3.14
π
>−
2
2

160. a.

146. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: To use the model, substitute 0
for x.

b4 ⋅ b3 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b7

b.

b5 ⋅ b5 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b10

c.

add the exponents
b7

161. a.

147. makes sense

b

148. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: The commutative property
changes order and the associative property changes
groupings.

b8

b.

b
c.

149. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: Some rational numbers are not
integers.

162.

3

2

=

b⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b
= b4
b ⋅b ⋅b

=

b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b ⋅b
= b6
b⋅b

subtract the exponents

6.2 × 103 = 6.2 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 6200
It moves the decimal point 3 places to the right.

150. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: All whole numbers are integers
Section P.2

151. true

Check Point Exercises

152. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: Some irrational numbers are
negative.

1.

153. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: The term x has a coefficient of
1.

( 2x y ) = ( 2) ( x ) ( y )

b.

( −6 x y )( 3xy ) = ( −6 ) ⋅ 3 ⋅ x

3

6

2

4

4

5

3

4

6

4

3

= 16 x12 y 24
2

⋅ x ⋅ y5 ⋅ y3

= −18 x 3 y 8

154. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is:
5 + 3( x − 4) = 5 + 3 x − 12 = 3x − 7.

c.

100 x12 y 2 ⎛ 100 ⎞ ⎛ x12 ⎞ ⎛ y 2 ⎞
=

⎟⎜

20 x16 y −4 ⎜⎝ 20 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x16 ⎠ ⎝ y −4 ⎠

= 5 x12 −16 y 2 − ( −4)
= 5 x −4 y 6

155. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: − x − x = −2 x.

=

156. true
157.

a.

5 y6
x4

2 ≈ 1.4
1.4 < 1.5
2 < 1.5

8

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PreCalculus 4E

d.

⎛ 5x ⎞
⎜ 4⎟
⎝y ⎠

Section P.2

( 5) ( x )
−2

−2

=

(y )
4

(5) ( x )

=

(y )
4

7.

−2

−2

=

−2

= (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − 02 ]
= 2534.4
The speed of the blood at the central axis of the
artery is 2534.4 centimeters per second.

−2

−2

5−2 x −2
y −8

Exercise Set P.2

y8
52 x 2
y8
=
25 x 2
=

2.

3.

4.

a.

−6

3.017 × 10

a.

5, 210, 000, 000 = 5.21× 10

b.

−0.00000006893 = −6.893 × 10−8

(

= 0.000003017

2.

62 ⋅ 2 = (6 ⋅ 6) ⋅ 2 = 36 ⋅ 2 = 72

3.

(−2)6 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 64

4.

(−2) 4 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 16

5.

−26 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −64

6.

−2 4 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −16

7.

(−3)0 = 1

)

8.

(−9)0 = 1

9.

−30 = −1

10.

−9 0 = −1

11.

4−3 =

1
1
1
=
=
3
4
4 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 4 64

12.

2−6 =

1
1
1
=
=
6
2
2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 64

13.

2 2 ⋅ 23 = 2 2 + 3 = 25 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 32

14.

33 ⋅ 32 = 33+ 2 = 35 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 243

15.

(22 )3 = 22⋅3 = 26 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 64

16.

(33 )2 = 33⋅2 = 36 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 729

17.

28
= 28− 4 = 24 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 16
24

18.

38
= 38 − 4 = 34 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 81
34

19.

3−3 ⋅ 3 = 3−3+1 = 3−2 =

1
1
1
=
=
2
3
3⋅3 9

20.

2−3 ⋅ 2 = 2−3+1 = 2−2 =

1
1
1
=
=
2
2⋅2 4
2

9

410 ×107 = 4.1× 102 × 107

(

= 4.1× 10

)

9

( 7.1×10 )( 5 ×10 )
−7

5

= 7.1 ⋅ 5 × 105 ⋅10−7
= 35.5 × 10−2

(

)

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

(

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2
= 3.55 × 10
b.

52 ⋅ 2 = (5 ⋅ 5) ⋅ 2 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 50

−2.6 ×10 = −2, 600, 000, 000

b.

a.

1.

9

= 4.1× 102 × 107

5.

)

−1

1.2 × 106 1.2 106
=

3 ×10−3
3 10−3
= 0.4 × 106 − ( −3)
= 0.4 × 109
= 4 × 108

6.

S = (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − r 2 ]

13 × 109
13 109
=

6
5.1 × 10
5.1 106
≈ 2.5 ⋅ 103
≈ 2500
The average Pell grant was $2500 in 2006.

9

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

21.

23
1
1
1
= 23 − 7 = 2 − 4 = 4 =
=
7
2
2
2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 16

22.

34
1
1
1
= 34 − 7 = 3−3 = 3 =
=
37
3
3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 27

23.

x −2 y =

25.

x0 y5 = 1⋅ y5 = y5

26.

x 7 ⋅ y 0 = x 7 ⋅1 = x 7

27.

x 3 ⋅ x 7 = x 3+ 7 = x10

28.

x ⋅x = x

29.

x −5 ⋅ x10 = x −5+10 = x 5

30.

x −6 ⋅ x12 = x −6 +12 = x 6

31.

( x3 )7 = x 3⋅7 = x 21

32.

( x11 )5 = x11⋅5 = x 55

33.

( x −5 )3 = x −5⋅3 = x −15 =

34.

35.

5

11+ 5

42.

⎛ 6⎞
(−6)3
216
⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3
y
y
⎝ y⎠

43.

(−3x 2 y 5 ) 2 = (−3)2 ( x 2 ) 2 ⋅ ( y 5 ) 2
= 9 x 2⋅2 y 5⋅2
= 9 x 4 y10

1
x
=
y3 y3

xy −3 = x ⋅

(−4)3
64
⎛ 4⎞
⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3
x
x
⎝ x⎠
3

1
y
⋅y= 2
x2
x

24.

11

3

41.

44.

= −27 x 4⋅3 y 6⋅3
= −27 x12 y18

=x

45.

(3 x 4 )(2 x 7 ) = 3 ⋅ 2 x 4 ⋅ x 7 = 6 x 4 + 7 = 6 x11

46.

(11x 5 )(9 x12 ) = 11⋅ 9 x 5 x12 = 99 x5 +12 = 99 x17

47.

(−9 x3 y )(−2 x 6 y 4 ) = (−9)(−2) x 3 x 6 yy 4

16

( x −6 ) 4 = x −6⋅4 = x −24 =

= 18 x 3+ 6 y1+ 4
= 18 x 9 y 5
48.

= 30 x11 y12
1
x15
1
x 24

49.

8 x 20 ⎛ 8 ⎞ ⎛ x 20
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
2 x4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ x4

50.

20 x 24 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 24 ⎞
24 − 6
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
= 2 x18
⎟ = 2x
10 x 6 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ x 6 ⎠

x14
= x14 − 7 = x 7
x7
x30
= x 30 −10 = x 20
10
x

38.


20 − 4
= 4 x16
⎟ = 4x

25a13 ⋅ b 4 ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎛ a13 ⎞ ⎛ b 4 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
⎟⎜ ⎟
−5a 2 ⋅ b3 ⎝ −5 ⎠ ⎝ a 2 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠
= −5a13 − 2 b 4 − 3
= −5a11b

14

37.

(−5 x 4 y )(−6 x 7 y11 ) = (−5)(−6) x 4 x 7 yy11
= 30 x 4 + 7 y1+11

51.
36.

(−3x 4 y 6 )3 = (−3)3 ( x 4 )3 ( y 6 )3

x
= x14 − ( −7) = x14 + 7 = x 21
x −7

52.

x30
= x30 − ( −10) = x 30 +10 = x 40
x −10

39.

(8 x3 ) 2 = 82 ( x 3 )2 = 82 x 3⋅2 = 64 x 6

40.

(6 x ) = (6) ( x ) = 6 x
4 2

2

4 2

2

4⋅2

= 36 x

35a14 b6 ⎛ 35 ⎞ ⎛ a14 ⎞ ⎛ b6 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
⎟⎜ ⎟
−7a 7 b3 ⎝ −7 ⎠ ⎝ a 7 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠
= −5a14 − 7 b6 − 3
= −5a 7 b3

53.

8

14b7 ⎛ 14 ⎞ ⎛ b 7 ⎞
2
7 −14
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
= 2b −7 = 7
⎟ = 2⋅b
7b14 ⎝ 7 ⎠ ⎝ b14 ⎠
b

10

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

54.

Section P.2

20b10 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ b10 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜

10b 20 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ b 20 ⎠

3

61.

= 2b10 − 20
= 2b

⎛ −3b5 ⎞
=⎜ 6 ⎟
⎝ a ⎠
−27b15
=
a18

−10

2
b10

=
55.

(4 x3 ) −2 = (4−2 )( x 3 ) −2
−2

=4 x

62.

1
42 x6
1
=
16 x 6

1
103 x 6
1
=
1000 x 6

10 x 4 y 9
1
= x 4 −12 y 9 − ( −3)
30 x12 y −3 3
1
= x −8 y12
3
y12
= 8
3x

59.

⎛ 5x ⎞
5 x
y

⎟ = −2 =
y
25
x6


y
−3

−2

−6

⎛ 3x ⎞
⎛ y ⎞

⎟ =⎜ 4 ⎟
⎝ 3x ⎠
⎝ y ⎠
y3
= 3 4⋅3
3 x
y3
=
27 x12
4

60.

−2

3

3

63.

⎛ 3a −5b 2 ⎞
=1

3 −4 ⎟
⎝ 12a b ⎠

64.

⎛ 4a −5b3 ⎞
=1

3 −5 ⎟
⎝ 12a b ⎠

65.

3.8 × 10 2 = 380

66.

9.2 × 10 2 = 920

67.

6 × 10−4 = 0.0006

68.

7 × 10−5 = 0.00007

69.

−7.16 × 106 = −7,160, 000

70.

−8.17 × 106 = −8,170, 000

71.

7.9 × 10−1 = 0.79

72.

6.8 × 10 −1 = 0.68

73.

−4.15 × 10 −3 = −0.00415

74.

−3.14 × 10−3 = −0.00314

75.

−6.00001×1010 = −60, 000,100, 000

76.

−7.00001×1010 = −70, 000,100, 000

77.

32, 000 = 3.2 × 104

78.

64, 000 = 6.4 ×104

0

24 x 3 ⋅ y 5 3 3− 7 5 − ( −9)
= x y
32 x 7 y −9 4
3
= x −4 y14
4
3 y14
= 4
4x

3


⎟⎟

0

=

58.

⎛ −30a14b8 ⎞ ⎛ −3b8−( −2)
= ⎜⎜ 17−14

17 −2 ⎟
⎝ 10a b ⎠ ⎝ a

(10 x 2 )−3 = 10−3 x 2⋅( −3)

3

3

⎛ −3b10 ⎞
=⎜

⎝ a3 ⎠
−27b30
=
a9

= 10−3 x −6

57.


⎟⎟

3

−6

=

56.

⎛ −15a 4b 2 ⎞ ⎛ −3b 2−( −3)
⎜ 10 −3 ⎟ = ⎜⎜ 10−4
⎝ 5a b ⎠ ⎝ a

2

3

11

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

79.

94.

638, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000

(8.2 ×10 )( 4.6 ×10 )
8

4

= 6.38 ×1017

= 37.72 × 108+ 4 = 37.72 × 1012

80.

579,000, 000, 000, 000, 000 = 5.79 × 1017

= 3.772 × 1013 ≈ 3.77 ×1013

81.

−5716 = −5.716 × 103

82.

−3829 = −3.829 × 103

83.

0.0027 = 2.7 × 10 −3

84.

0.0083 = 8.3 × 10 −3

85.

−0.00000000504 = −5.04 × 10−9

86.

−0.00000000405 = −4.05 × 10−9

87.

(3 × 104 )( 2.1 × 103 ) = (3 × 2.1) (104 × 103 )

( 2 ×10 )( 4.1×10 ) = 8.2 ×10

89.

(1.6 × 10 )( 4 × 10 ) = (1.6 × 4) (10

4

3

(1.4 × 10 )(3 × 10 ) = (1.4 × 3) (10
−11

99.

4.8 × 10−2 4.8 10−2
=
×
2.4 × 106 2.4 106
= 2 × 10−2 − 6 = 2 × 10−8

15

× 10−11 )

100. 7.5 ×10−2
= 3 × 10−2 − 6 = 3 × 10−8
6
2.5 × 10

× 10−4 )

101. 2.4 × 10−2 2.4 10−2
=
×
4.8 ×10−6 4.8 10−6
= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

= 4.2 × 104

(6.1 × 10 )( 2 × 10 ) = (6.1× 2) (10
−8

−4

−8

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 × 103

= 12.2 × 10−8+( −4)
= 12.2 × 10−12

102. 1.5 × 10−2
= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)
5 × 10−6
= 0.5 × 104 = 5 ×103

= 1.22 × 10−11
92.

( 5.1×10 )(3 ×10 ) = 15.3 ×10
−8

−4

−12

= 1.53 × 10−11
93.

103. 480, 000, 000, 000 4.8 × 1011
=
0.00012
1.2 ×10−4
4.8 1011
=
×
1.2 10−4
= 4 × 1011− ( −4)

( 4.3 ×10 )(6.2 ×10 )
= ( 4.3 × 6.2) (10 ×10 )
8

4

8

3.6 ×104 3.6 104
=
×
9 10−2
9 × 10−2
= 0.4 ×104 − ( −2)

× 10−11 )

15

= 4.2 × 1015+( −11)

91.

97.

1.2 × 104
= 0.6 × 104 − ( −2) = 0.6 ×106
2 × 10−2
= ( 6 ×10−1 ) ×106 = 6 × 105

= 6.4 × 104
15

6.9 × 108
= 2.3 × 108− 5 = 2.3 × 103
3 ×105

98.

= 6.4 × 1015+ ( −11)

90.

96.

7

−11

15

8.4 × 108 8.4 108
=
×
4 ×105
4 105
= 2.1× 108− 5 = 2.1× 103

= 0.4 ×106 = 4 × 105

= 6.3 × 104+3 = 6.3 × 107
88.

95.

4

= 26.66 × 108+ 4

= 4 × 1015

= 26.66 × 1012
= 2.666 × 1013 ≈ 2.67 × 1013

104. 282, 000, 000, 000 2.82 × 1011
=
0.00141
1.41×10−3
= 2 × 1011− ( −3)
= 2 × 1014

12

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

105.

106.

Section P.2

0.00072 × 0.003
0.00024
7.2
( ×10−4 )(3 ×10−3 )
=
2.4 × 10−4
7.2 × 3 10−4 ⋅10−3
=
×
= 9 × 10−3
2.4
10−4

113.

( 2−1 x−2 y−1 ) ( 2 x−4 y3 ) (16 x−3 y3 )
2
( 2 x−3 y−5 )
( 22 x2 y2 )( 2−2 x8 y−6 )(1)
=
( 22 x−6 y−10 )
−2

=

4
−3
66000 × 0.001 ( 6.6 × 10 )(1× 10 )
=
0.003 × 0.002 ( 3 × 10−3 )( 2 × 10−3 )

114.

6.6 × 10
1− −6
= 1.1× 10 ( )
6 × 10−6
= 1.1× 107

−1

x −3 y −1 )

−2

1

107.

( x y)
(x y )

−3

−2

−1 3

2

=

x 6 y −3
= 6 −3
x y

=

= x 6 − 6 y −3− ( −3) = x 0 y 0 = 1
108.

( xy )
( x y)

−2 −2

−2

−3

= x −2 − 6 y

4 − ( −3)

= x −8 y 7 =

(2

y7
x8

111.

⎛ x y z ⎞
⎜ −3 −4 −5 ⎟
⎝x y z ⎠
3

4 5

−2

−4

−6

y4 )

y −6 )

−2

(9 x

3

y −3 )

0

2

x 6 y 2 )( 2−2 x12 y −8 ) (1)

(2

2

x −8 y −12 )

2.52 × 1012
3 × 108

c.

2.52 × 1012
3 × 108

=

2.52 1012
× 8
3
10

= 0.84 × 104
= 8400
$8400 per American

y
y
=
24 x8 z 6 16 x8 z 6

116. a.

110. 3 x −4 yz −7 ( 3x )−3 = 3x −4 yz −7 ⋅ 3−3 x ⋅−3
(
)

= 3−2 x −7 yz −7 =

(2x

b.

109. 2 x −3 yz −6 ( 2 x )−5 = 2 x −3 yz −6 ⋅ 2−5 x ⋅−5
(
)

= 2−4 x −8 yz −6 =

2

(2x

x 26 y 6
4

115. a.

x −2 y 4
= 6 −3
x y

0

x18 y6
4

(2

=

−2

y
y
=
3 x7 z 7 9 x7 z 7
2

2.27 × 1012

b.

2.98 × 108

c.

2.27 × 1012

2.27 1012
=
×
2.98 108
2.98 × 108
= 0.7617 × 104

= ( x6 y z

)

= 7617
$7617 per American

8 10 −2

= x −12 y −16 z −20 =

1
x y16 z 20

117. 1450 × 109 ⋅ 6.60 = 1.45 × 1012 ⋅ 6.6

12

= 1.45 ⋅ 6.6 × 1012
112. ⎛ x 4 y 5 z 6 ⎞ −4
8 10 12 −4
⎜ −4 −5 −6 ⎟ = ( x y z )
⎝x y z ⎠

= x −32 y −40 z −48 =

= 9.57 × 1012
Box-office receipts were $9.57 × 1012 in 2006.

1
x y 40 z 48

118. 1400 × 109 ⋅ 6.40 = 1.4 × 1012 ⋅ 6.4

32

= 1.4 ⋅ 6.4 × 1012
= 8.96 × 1012
Box-office receipts were $8.96 × 1012 in 2005.

13
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

119. 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 20, 000 = 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 2 × 104

138. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 52 ⋅ 5−2 = 25 ⋅ 2−5.

= 5.3 ⋅ 2 × 10−23 ⋅ 104
= 10.6 × 10−19

139. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: 534.7 ≠ 5347.

= 1.06 × 101 ⋅ 10−19

140. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is:

= 1.06 × 10−18
The mass is 1.06 × 10−18 gram.

8 × 1030
2 × 10−5

120. 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 80, 000 = 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 8 × 104

= 1.67 ⋅ 8 × 10−24 ⋅ 104

141. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is:

= 13.36 × 10−20
1

= 1.336 × 10 ⋅ 10

(7 × 105 ) + (2 × 10−3 ) = 700, 000.002.

−20

142. true

= 1.336 × 10−19

143. The doctor has gathered:
1 1
2 1 3
2−1 + 2−2 = +
= + =
2 22 4 4 4

The mass is 1.336 × 10−19 gram.
121. 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 127 = 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 1.27 × 102

= 3.2 ⋅ 1.27 × 107 ⋅ 102

So, 1 −

= 4.064 × 109

3 1
= is remaining.
4 4

144. b A = MN , bC = M , b D = N

Americans eat 4.064 × 109 chickens per year.

b A = bC b D

122. 365 days equals 365 ⋅ 24 or 8760 hours.

A=C+D

8760 hours equals 8760 ⋅ 60 or 525,600 minutes.
525,600 min. equals
525,600 ⋅ 60 or 31,536,000 seconds.

145.

There are 3.1536 × 107 seconds in a year.
123. – 130. Answers may vary.
131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

Sample explanation: 36( x3 )9 = 36 x 27 not 36 x12 .
132. makes sense

70 bts 60 min 24 hrs 365 days



⋅ 80 yrs
hr
day
yr
min
= 70 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 365 ⋅ 80 beats
= 2943360000 beats
= 2.94336 × 109 beats
≈ 2.94 × 109 beats
The heartbeats approximately 2.94 × 109 times over a
lifetime of 80 years.

146. Answers may vary.

133. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
147. a.

Sample explanation: 4.6 × 1012 represents over 4
trillion. The entire world population is measured in
billions ( 109 ).
134. makes sense
135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 4

= 4 × 1030 − ( −5) = 4 × 1035.

−2

b.

16 ⋅ 4 = 64 = 8

c.

16 ⋅ 4 = 16 ⋅ 4

148. a.

300 ≈ 17.32

b.

10 3 ≈ 17.32

c.

300 = 10 3

−3

>4 .

16 ⋅ 4 = 4 ⋅ 2 = 8

136. true
137. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
1
A sample change is: (−2)4 ≠ 2−4 because 16 ≠ .
16

149. a.
b.

21x + 10 x = 31x
21 2 + 10 2 = 31 2

14

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

Section P.3

5.

a.

Check Point Exercises
1.

5 27 + 12
= 5 9⋅3 + 4⋅3
= 5⋅3 3 + 2 3

a.

81 = 9

b.

− 9 = −3

c.

1
1
=
25 5

d.

36 + 64 = 100 = 10

e.

36 + 64 = 6 + 8 = 14

a.

75 = 25 ⋅ 3 = 25 3 = 5 3

b.

5 x ⋅ 10 x = 5 x ⋅10 x

= 15 3 + 2 3
= (15 + 2) 3
= 17 3

2.

b.

= 6 9 ⋅ 2x − 4 4 ⋅ 2x
= 6 ⋅ 3 2x − 4 ⋅ 2 2x
= 18 2 x − 8 2 x
= (18 − 8) 2 x
= 10 2 x
6.

a.

= 50 x 2
= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2

b.

5
3

25
25 5
=
=
16
16 4
150 x 3
2x

=

b.

150 x 3
2x

= 5x 3

3

12

8 13 + 9 13 = (8 + 9) 3
7.

17 x − 20 17 x
= 1 17 x − 20 17 x
= (1 − 20) 17 x

=

Multiply by

3

=

5 3
9

=

5 3
3

12 ⋅ 3 =
3
3
6
12

36 = 6. So multiply by 1,

for 1.
3
3

=

6 3
36

=

4− 5

.
4− 5
8
8
4− 5
=

4+ 5 4+ 5 4− 5
=

= −19 17 x

3

for 1.

The smallest number that will produce a perfect
6
square in the denominator of
is 3
12

6

= 17 13
b.

5

choosing

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 3

a.

=

3

because

= 75 x 2

4.

3

choosing

= 5x 2
a.

If we multiply numerator and denominator by
3, the denominator becomes
3 ⋅ 3 = 9 = 3. Therefore, multiply by 1,

= 25 ⋅ 2 x 2

3.

6 18 x − 4 8 x

8(4 − 5)
42 − ( 5)2

8(4 − 5)
16 − 5
8(4 − 5)
32 − 8 5
or
=
11
11
=

15

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6 3
= 3
6

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

8.

9.

a.

3

40 = 3 8 ⋅ 5 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 5 = 2 3 5

Exercise Set P.3

b.

5

8 ⋅ 5 8 = 5 64 = 5 32 ⋅ 5 2 = 2 5 2

1.

36 = 62 = 6

c.

3

125 3 125 5
= 3
=
27
27 3

2.

25 = 52 = 5

3 3 81 − 4 3 3 = 3 3 27 ⋅ 3 − 4 3 3

3.

− 36 = − 62 = −6

4.

− 25 = − 52 = −5

5.

−36 , The square root of a negative number is not
real.

6.

−25 , The square root of a negative number is not
real.

= 3⋅ 33 3 − 4 3 3
= 93 3 − 43 3
= (9 − 4) 3 3
= 53 3
1

25 2 = 25 = 5

10. a.

1

b.

83 = 3 8 = 2

c.

−814 = − 4 81 = −3

d.

( −8 ) 3

e.

27

1

1

1
3

= 3 −8 = −2
1

=

1

1

=

3

27 3
4

(

27 3 =

11. a.

( 4)

2
5

1

32

c.

27

42 =

3

b.

3

2

=

3

2

)

4

=

27

1
3

= (3)4 = 81

= (2)3 = 8

=

32 5

1

(

5

32

)

2

1 1
= 2 =
2
4

7.

25 − 16 = 9 = 3

8.

144 + 25 = 169 = 13

9.

25 − 16 = 5 − 4 = 1

10.

144 + 25 = 12 + 5 = 17

11.

(−13) 2 = 169 = 13

12.

(−17)2 = 289 = 17

13.

50 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 25 2 = 5 2

14.

27 = 9 ⋅ 3 = 9 3 = 3 3

15.

45 x 2 = 9 x 2 ⋅ 5
= 9 x2 5

( 2 x )( 5x )
4/3

12. a.

8/3

= 9 x2 5

= 2 ⋅ 5 x 4 / 3 ⋅ x8 / 3

=3 x 5

= 10 x ( 4 / 3) + (8 / 3)
= 10 x12 / 3
= 10 x

16.

4

= 25 x 2 5

20 x 4 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 4 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟
3
5x 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x 2 ⎠

b.

= 25 x 2 5
=5 x 5

4− 3
= 4x ( 2)
8 − 3
= 4 x( 2 ) ( 2 )

= 4x
13.

6

5

17.

2x ⋅ 6x = 2x ⋅ 6x
= 12 x 2

2

= 4x2 ⋅ 3

x3 = x 6 = x 2 = x
3

125 x 2 = 25 x 2 ⋅ 5

1

= 2x 3

16
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

18.

Section P.3

10 x ⋅ 8 x = 10 x ⋅ 8 x

30.

= 80 x 2

24 x 4
=
3x

= 16 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 8 x3

= 4x 5

= 4 x2 ⋅ 2 x

19.

x3 = x 2 ⋅ x = x x

20.

y3 =

21.

2 x2 ⋅ 6 x = 2 x2 ⋅ 6 x

= 2x 2x
31.

y2 ⋅ y = y y

200 x3
10 x −1

= 4 x 2 ⋅ 3x

= 4 ⋅ 5x4
= 2 x2 5
32.

1
1 1
=
=
81
81 9

24.

1
=
49

25.

49
49 7
=
=
16
16 4

26.

121
121 11
=
=
9
3
9

27.

28.

48 x3

=

3x
72 x

3

=

8x

1
7

34.

8 5 + 11 5 = (8 + 11) 5 = 19 5

35.

6 17 x − 8 17 x = (6 − 8) 17 x = −2 17 x

36.

4 13 x − 6 13x = (4 − 6) 13x = −2 13x

= (2 + 3) 2
=5 2
38.

20 + 6 5 = 4 ⋅ 5 + 6 5
= 2 5+6 5
= (2 + 6) 5
=8 5

72 x
= 9 x2 = 3x
8x

150 x
150 x
=
3x
3x

8 + 3 2 = 4⋅2 + 3 2
= 2 2 +3 2

39.
29.

500 x 3
= 50 x 3−( −1)
10 x −1

7 3 + 6 3 = (7 + 6) 3 = 13 3

37.

48 x3
= 16 x 2 = 4 x
3x

4

10 x −1

=

33.

3

=

500 x 3

= 50 x 4 = 25 ⋅ 2 x 4 = 5 x 2 2

= 3x 2x

49

3−( −1)

= 20 x 4

6 x ⋅ 3 x 2 = 6 x ⋅ 3x 2
= 18 x3

1

200 x 3
10 x −1

= 12 x 3

= 9 x2 ⋅ 2 x

23.

=

= 20 x

= 2 x 3x
22.

24 x 4
3x

4

50 x − 8 x = 25 ⋅ 2 x − 4 ⋅ 2 x
= 5 2x − 2 2x
= (5 − 2) 2 x

= 50 x 3

= 3 2x

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2 x
= 5x 2x

17
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

40.

63 x − 28 x = 9 ⋅ 7 x − 4 ⋅ 7 x

49.

= 3 7x − 2 7x

13
3 + 11

= (3 − 2) 7 x

=
=

= 7x
41.

3 18 + 5 50 = 3 9 ⋅ 2 + 5 25 ⋅ 2
= 3⋅3 2 + 5⋅5 2
= 9 2 + 25 2
= (9 + 25) 2

50.

= 34 2
42.

3
3+ 7

= 4⋅ 2 3 − 2⋅5 3

13(3 − 11)
9 − 11

=

13(3 − 11)
−2

=

= −2 3
3 8 − 32 + 3 72 − 75

51.

= 3 4 ⋅ 2 − 16 ⋅ 2 + 3 36 ⋅ 2 − 25 ⋅ 3

7
5−2

= 6 2 − 4 2 + 18 2 − 5 3
=

= 20 2 − 5 3

= 3 9 ⋅ 6 − 2 4 ⋅ 6 − 16 ⋅ 6 + 4 9 ⋅ 7

52.

= 3⋅3 6 − 2⋅ 2 6 − 4 6 + 4 ⋅3 7

5
3 −1

= 9 6 − 4 6 − 4 6 + 12 7

46.

47.

48.

2

2
5
7
3

=

=

=

2

2
5
7

10

10
5
5

=

=

5−2

5+2

5+2

7( 5 + 2)
( 5) 2 − 22
7( 5 + 2)
5−4

5
3 −1

3 +1
3 +1

5( 3 + 1)
( 3) 2 − 12

5( 3 + 1)
3 −1
5( 3 + 1)
=
2

7

10

7

=

7
=

=
7
7
7 7

10

3(3 − 7 )
32 − ( 7 )2

=
=

= 6 + 12 7
45.

3− 7

= 7( 5 + 2)

3 54 − 2 24 − 96 + 4 63

1

3+ 7 3− 7

=
=

= 3⋅ 2 2 − 4 2 + 3⋅ 6 2 − 5 3

1

3

3(3 − 7)
9−7
3(3 − 7)
=
2

= (8 − 10) 3

44.

32 − ( 11)2

=

= 8 3 − 10 3

43.

13(3 − 11)

=

=

4 12 − 2 75 = 4 4 ⋅ 3 − 2 25 ⋅ 3

13
3 − 11

3 + 11 3 − 11

2 10
10
=
10
5

53.

10
5

6
5+ 3

=
=
=

3

21

=
3
3 3

6
5+ 3

5− 3
5− 3

6( 5 − 3)
( 5) 2 − ( 3) 2
6( 5 − 3)
5−3

6( 5 − 3)
2
= 3( 5 − 3)
=

18

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

11

54.

Section P.3

11

=

7− 3

=

7− 3

7+ 3

5

73.

7+ 3

11( 7 + 3)
74.

11( 7 + 3)
=
7−3
11( 7 + 3)
=
4
125 = 3 53 = 5

55.

3

56.

3

8 = 3 23 = 2

57.

3

−8 = 3 (−2) = −2

3

77.

5 3 16 + 3 54 = 5 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 3 27 ⋅ 2
= 5 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 33 2
= 13 3 2

61.

4

(−3) 4 = −3 = 3

62.

4

(−2) = −2 = 2

63.

5

(−3)5 = −3

64.

5

(−2) = −2

65.

5

67.

3

= 6 3 3 + 33 3
= 93 3
79.

= − y 3 2x
80.

2

24 xy 3 − y 3 81x

= 2 y 3 3 x − 3 y 3 3x

=

6

3

= 3 8 ⋅ 3xy 3 − y 3 27 ⋅ 3x
= − y 3 3x

1
1
1
= 5 − 5 =−
32
2
2
1

54 xy 3 − y 3 128 x

= 3 y 3 2x − 4 y 3 2x

5

6

3

= 3 27 ⋅ 2 xy 3 − y 3 64 ⋅ 2 x

4

6

3 3 24 + 3 81 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 + 3 27 ⋅ 3
= 3 ⋅ 2 3 3 + 33 3

−81 is not a real number.

1
=
64

162 x5 4
= 81x 4 = 3x
2x

6 5 3 + 25 3 = 85 3

−16 is not a real number.

4

6

2x

4

= 10 3 2 + 3 3 2

60.

66.

4

=

76.

−125 = 3 (−5)3 = −5

162 x 5

64 x 6 5
= 32 x5 = 2 x
2x

5

4 5 2 + 35 2 = 7 5 2

3

4

59.

2x

=

75.

78.
58.

5

4

( 7 )2 − ( 3) 2

64 x 6

1
2

81.

2+ 3 8 = 2+2

82.

3 + 3 15 will not simplify

83.

32 = 3 8 ⋅ 4 = 3 8 3 4 = 2 ⋅ 3 4

361/ 2 = 36 = 6

84. 1211/ 2 = 121 = 11
68.

3

69.

3

70.

3

71.

3

72.

3

150 cannot be simplified further.
85.

81/ 3 = 3 8 = 2

x 4 = 3 x3 ⋅ x = x ⋅ 3 x

86.

271/ 3 = 3 27 = 3

x5 = 3 x3 x 2 = x 3 x 2

87. 1252 / 3 =

9 ⋅ 3 6 = 3 54 = 3 27 ⋅ 2 = 3 27 3 2 = 3 3 2

88.

12 ⋅ 4 = 48 = 8 ⋅ 6 = 2 6
3

3

3

3

82 / 3 =

(

3

125

( 8)
3

2

)

2

= 52 = 25

=4

19

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

89.

90. 16−5 / 2 =

91.

1
1
1
= 4 =
4/5
32
2
16

32−4 / 5 =

1
1
1
1
=
=
=
165 / 2 ( 16)5 45 1024

( 7 x )( 2 x ) = 7 ⋅ 2 x
1/ 3

1/ 4

1/ 3

⋅ x1/ 4

1/ 3 +1/ 4

= 14 ⋅ x

20 x1/ 2 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x1/ 2 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜

5 x1/ 4 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x1/ 4 ⎠
= 4 ⋅ x1/ 2 −1/ 4

4

x12 = x12 / 4 = x

105.

6

x4 = 6 / 2 x4 / 2 = 3 x2

106.

9

x6 = 9 / 3 x6 / 3 = 3 x 2

107.

9

x6 y 3 = x 9 y 9 = x 3 y 3 = 3 x 2 y

108.

12

x 4 y 8 = x 12 y 12 = x 3 y 3 =

109.

34

110.

3

94.

95.

(x

)

=x

2 / 3⋅3

=x

98.

(125 x9 y 6 )1/ 3 = 1251/ 3 x 9 / 3 y 6 / 3 = 5 x 3 y 2

1

2

x y2

3

3

1000 + 3 216

1/ 2

−2 −1/ 2

4 −1/ 2

1/ 2

1 ( −2)( −1/ 2 ) ( 4)( −1/ 2)
x
y
( xy1/ 2 )
491/ 2
1
1
−2 + 1/ 2
= x1 y −2 ⋅ xy1/ 2 = x1+1 y ( )
7
7
1
x2
= x 2 y −3 / 2 = 3 / 2
7
7y

3

3

112. ( 8 x −6 y 3 )

1/ 3

(x

5/ 6

y −1/ 3 )

6

= 81/ 3 x ( −6)(1/ 3) y ( 3)(1/ 3) x (5 / 6)( 6) y ( −1/ 3)( 6)
= 2 x −2 y1 x5 y −2 = 2 x −2 + 5 y1+ ( −2 )

2

= 27 y 12 = 27 y 3
24 ( y1/ 5 )

−1/ 2

=

⎛ 14 ⎞
3
⎜ 3y ⎟
3 1

⎠ = 27 y 4 = 27 y 4 − 12
1
1
y 12
y 12

=

169 + 9 +

−1/ 2

(25 x 4 y 6 )1/ 2 = 251/ 2 x 4⋅1/ 2 y 6⋅1/ 2 = 5 x 2 y

y 3 /10

8

( xy )
= ( 49 ) ( x ) ( y ) ( xy )

97.

1/ 5 4

1

16 + 625 = 3 2 + 25 = 3 27 = 3

111. ( 49 x −2 y 4 )

2

( x 4 / 5 )5 = x 4 / 5⋅5 = x 4

(2y )

2

= 3 4+ 4 = 38
=2


3 / 4 −1/ 3
= 8 x5 /12
⎟ = 8⋅ x

96.

8

3

= 3 16 + 16

72 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 72 ⎞ ⎛ x 3 / 4
= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1/ 3
9 x1/ 3
⎝ 9 ⎠⎝ x
2/3 3

3

= 3 13 + 3 + 10 + 6

= 4 x1/ 4

100.

104.

4

2 / 3+ 3 / 4

= 12 x17 /12

99.

x6 = x6 / 3 = x 2

(3 x 2 / 3 )(4 x3 / 4 ) = 3 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3 ⋅ x 3 / 4
= 12 ⋅ x

93.

3

6

= 14 x 7 /12
92.

103.

= 2 x3 y −1 =

4

y 3 /10

⎛ x −5 / 4 y1/ 3 ⎞
113. ⎜ −3 / 4 ⎟
⎝ x

4/5

16 y
= 3 /10 = 16 y 4 / 5− 3 /10 = 16 y1/ 2
y
101.

4

52 = 52 / 4 = 51/ 2 = 5

102.

4

7 2 = 7 2 / 4 = 71/ 2 = 7

2 x3
y
−6

(

= x(

= ( x −2 / 4 y1/ 3 ) = x(
−6

= x3 y −2 =

−5 / 4 ) − ( −3 / 4 )

−2 / 4 )( −6 )

y(

y1/ 3

)

−6

1/ 3)( −6 )

x3
y2

20
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

⎛ x1/ 2 y −7 / 4 ⎞
114. ⎜

−5 / 4
⎝ y

−4

= ( x1/ 2 y −2 / 4 )
= x −2 y 2 =
115. a.

(

= x1/ 2 y (

−4

−7 / 4 ) − ( −5 / 4 )

)

−4

⎛v⎞
118. Ra = R f 1 − ⎜ ⎟
⎝c⎠

= x (1/ 2)( −4) y ( −2 / 4)( −4)

⎛ 0.9c ⎞
= Rf 1− ⎜

⎝ c ⎠

y2
x2

= R f 1 − ( 0.9 )

In 2004, we have x = 5.

Ra = 0.44 R f
44 = 0.44 R f

In 2011, we have x = 12 .

0.44 R f
44
=
0.44
0.44
100 = R f
If you are gone for 44 weeks, then 100 weeks will
have passed for your friend.
119. Perimeter:
P = 2l + 2 w

For 2020: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 125 + 2 ⋅ 2 20

= 5 10 + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 25 ⋅ 5 + 4 4 ⋅ 5

For 2050: E = 5 x + 34.1
= 5 40 + 34.1

= 2⋅5 5 + 4⋅ 2 5

= 5 ⋅ 2 10 + 34.1

= 10 5 + 8 5
= 18 5 feet
Area:
A = lw

= 10 10 + 34.1
Difference:
(10 10 + 34.1) − (5 10 + 34.1)
= 10 10 + 34.1 − 5 10 − 34.1

= 125 ⋅ 2 20

= 10 10 − 5 10 + 34.1 − 34.1

= 2 125 ⋅ 20

= 5 10

= 2 2500
= 2 ⋅ 50
= 100 square feet

The difference is 5 10.
b.

117.

2

≈ 0.44 R f

y = 20.8 12 + 21 ≈ 93.1
According to the model, 93.1% of email will be
spam in 2011.
This overestimates the value given in the bar
graph by 21.1%.
116. a.

2

= R f 0.19

y = 20.8 5 + 21 ≈ 67.5
According to the model, 67.5% of email was
spam in 2004.
This underestimates the actual value shown in
the bar graph by 0.5%.
b.

2

5 10 ≈ 15.8
This underestimates the difference projected by
the graph of 65.8 − 47.3 = 18.5 by 2.7. This
represents a difference of 2.7 million people.

2
5 + 1 2( 5 + 1)

=
5 −1
5 −1 5 +1
2( 5 + 1)
4
5 +1
=
2
≈ 1.62
About 1.62 to 1.
=

21
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

120. Perimeter:
P = 2l + 2w

13 + 2 +

139.

= 2 ⋅ 4 20 + 2 ⋅ 80

7

= 13 + 2 +

3+ 2

= 8 4 ⋅ 5 + 2 16 ⋅ 5

= 24 5 feet
Area:
A = lw

21 − 7 2
9−2

= 13 + 2 +

21 − 7 2
7

1

1

140. a.

= 4 1600
= 4 ⋅ 40
= 160 square feet

b.

121. – 128. Answers may vary.

3 2 > 33
Calculator Check: 1.7321 > 1.4422
7 + 18 > 7 + 18
Calculator Check: 6.8884 > 5
5

129. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: The denominator is
rationalized correctly.

141. a.

b.

131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary. Sample
explanation: 2 20 + 4 75 simplifies to 4 5 + 20 3
and thus the radical terms are not common.

2

⋅7

1

2

1
4

4
3

3

4

+ 2−2
+ 2−1

( 8)
3

=

+

4

1

( 16 )
4

3

= 71 = 7.

136. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

20
5
=
.
8
4

)(5 − 3 ) = 22
25 − 3 = 22
3 =3

25 x 14 = 5 x 7

1
22

+

1 1
+
4
2
4
=
1 1
+
23 2
1 1
+
= 16 4
1 1
+
8 2
5
= 16
5
8
8
=
16
1
=
2
Mom’s portion:
1⎛ 1⎞ 1⎛1⎞ 1
1−
=
=
2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 4

135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
The cube root of –8 is the real number –2.

138.

5 3 1
+ −
4 4

= 22

Son’s portion:

16

134. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
1
1
1
1

A sample change is: ( 8 ) 3 =
= 3 = .
1
2
8
(8) 3

A sample change is:

3

22 ⋅ 24

1
4

2 ⋅2 ÷2 =

8

133. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
1

3
4

1

132. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: Finding the nth root first often
gives smaller numbers on the middle step.

A sample change is: 7

5
2

2
Her son is 8 years old.

130. makes sense

3

3+ 2 3− 2

= 16
=4

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

(

3− 2

= 13 + 2 + 3 − 2

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

137. 5 +

= 13 + 2 +

= 8⋅ 2 5 + 2⋅ 4 5
= 16 5 + 8 5

7

22
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1
2

= 23 = 8

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

142. (2 x3 y 2 )(5 x 4 y 7 ) = 10 x7 y 9
143. 2 x 4 (8 x 4 + 3x) = 2 x 4 (8 x 4 ) + 2 x 4 (3 x) = 16 x8 + 6 x5
144. 2 x( x 2 + 4 x + 5) + 3( x 2 + 4 x + 5)

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 10 x + 3x 2 + 12 x + 15
= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 3x 2 + 10 x + 12 x + 15
= 2 x3 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 15

Section P.4
Check Point Exercises
1.

(−17 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 11x − 5) + (16 x 3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 15)

a.

= (−17 x 3 + 16 x3 ) + (4 x 2 − 3x 2 ) + (−11x + 3x) + (−5 − 15)
= − x 3 + x 2 − 8 x − 20
b.

(13x 2 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) − (−7 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 9)
= (13 x3 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) + (7 x3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 9)
= (13 x3 + 7 x 3 ) + (−9 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (1 − 9)
= 20 x3 − 11x 2 − 2 x − 8

2.

(5 x − 2)(3x 2 − 5 x + 4)
= 5 x(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4) − 2(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4)
= 5 x ⋅ 3x 2 − 5 x ⋅ 5 x + 5 x ⋅ 4 − 2 ⋅ 3 x 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅ 4
= 15 x 3 − 25 x 2 + 20 x − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 8
= 15 x 3 − 31x 2 + 30 x − 8

3.

(7 x − 5)(4 x − 3) = 7 x ⋅ 4 x + 7 x(−3) + (−5)4 x + (−5)(−3)
= 28 x 2 − 21x − 20 x + 15
= 28 x 2 − 41x + 15

4.

a.

(7 x − 6 y )(3x − y ) = (7 x)(3 x) + (7 x)(− y ) + (−6 y )(3x) + (−6 y )(− y )
= 21x 2 − 7 xy − 18 xy + 6 y 2
= 21x 2 − 25 xy + 6 y 2

5.

b.

(2 x + 4 y )2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(4 y ) + (4 y ) 2 = 4 x 2 + 16 xy + 16 y 2

a.

(3 x + 2 + 5y )(3x + 2 − 5y ) = (3x + 2)2 − (5y )2
= 9x 2 + 12 x + 4 − 25y 2
2

2

= 9x + 12 x − 25y + 4
b.

(2 x + y + 3) 2 = (2 x + y )2 + 2(2 x + y )(3) + 32
= 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 12 x + 6y + 9
2

2

= 4 x + 4 xy + 12 x + y + 6y + 9

23

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Exercise Set P.4
1.

yes; 2 x + 3 x 2 − 5 = 3 x 2 + 2 x − 5

2.

no; The term 3x −1 does not have a whole number exponent.

3.

no; The form of a polynomial involves addition and subtraction, not division.

4.

yes; x 2 − x 3 + x 4 − 5 = x 4 − x3 + x 2 − 5

5.

3x 2 has degree 2
−5x has degree 1
4 has degree 0
3 x 2 − 5 x + 4 has degree 2.

6.

−4x 3 has degree 3
7x 2 has degree 2
–11 has degree 0
−4 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 11 has degree 3.

7.

x 2 has degree 2
−4x 3 has degree 3
9x has degree 1
−12x 4 has degree 4
63 has degree 0
x 2 − 4 x 3 + 9 x − 12 x 4 + 63 has degree 4.

8.

x 2 has degree 2
−8x 3 has degree 3
15x 4 has degree 4
91 has degree 0
x 2 − 8 x3 + 15 x 4 + 91 has degree 4.

9.

(−6 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 8 x + 9) + (17 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 13) = (−6 x 3 + 17 x 3 ) + (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 ) + (−8 x − 4 x) + (9 − 13)
= 11x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 4
The degree is 3.

10.

(−7 x3 + 6 x 2 − 11x + 13) + (19 x3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 17) = (−7 x3 + 19 x3 ) + (6 x 2 − 11x 2 ) + (−11x + 7 x) + (13 − 17)
= 12 x3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x − 4
The degree is 3.

11.

(17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) − (5 x3 − 9 x 2 − 8 x + 11) = (17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) + (−5 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 8 x − 11)
= (17 x3 − 5 x3 ) + (−5 x 2 + 9 x 2 ) + (4 x + 8 x) + (−3 − 11)
= 12 x3 + 4 x 2 + 12 x − 14
The degree is 3.

12.

(18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) − (9 x 4 − 6 x3 − 5 x + 7) = (18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) + (−9 x 4 + 6 x3 + 5 x − 7)
= (18 x 4 − 9 x 4 ) + (−2 x3 + 6 x3 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (8 − 7)
= 9 x 4 + 4 x3 − 2 x + 1
The degree is 4.

24

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PreCalculus 4E

13.

Section P.4

(5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) − ( x 2 − 4 x − 3) = (5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) + (− x 2 + 4 x + 3)
= (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 − x 2 ) + (−7 x − 3 x + 4 x) + (−8 + 7 + 3)
= 6x2 − 6x + 2
The degree is 2.

14.

(8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) − (3 x 2 − 4 x) − (−6 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 3) = (8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) + (−3x 2 + 4 x) + (6 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3)
= 6 x 3 + (8 x 2 − 3x 2 + 5 x 2 ) + (7 x + 4 x) + (−5 − 3)
= 6 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 11x − 8
The degree is 3.

15.

( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) = x( x 2 ) − x ⋅ x + x ⋅1 + 1( x 2 ) − 1 ⋅ x + 1 ⋅1
= x3 − x 2 + x + x 2 − x + 1
= x3 + 1

16.

( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 5 x + 25 ) = x( x 2 ) − x(5 x) + x(25) + 5( x 2 ) − 5(5 x) + 5(25)
= x 3 − 5 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125)
= x 3 + 125

17.

(2 x − 3)( x 2 − 3x + 5) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−3x) + (2 x)(5) + (−3)( x 2 ) + (−3)(−3x) + (−3)(5)
= 2 x 3 − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 3x 2 + 9 x − 15
= 2 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 19 x − 15

18.

(2 x − 1)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−4 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−1)( x 2 ) + (−1)(−4 x) + (−1)(3)
= 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − x 2 + 4 x − 3
= 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 10 x − 3

19.

( x + 7)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x + 7 x + 21 = x 2 + 10 x + 21

20.

( x + 8)( x + 5) = x 2 + 5 x + 8 x + 40 = x 2 + 13x + 40

21.

( x − 5)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x − 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 2 x − 15

22.

( x − 1)( x + 2) = x 2 + 2 x − x − 2 = x 2 + x − 2

23.

(3 x + 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + 3 x(1) + 5(2 x) + 5 = 6 x 2 + 3x + 10 x + 5 = 6 x 2 + 13x + 5

24.

(7 x + 4)(3x + 1) = (7 x)(3x) + 7 x(1) + 4(3x) + 4(1) = 21x 2 + 7 x + 12 x + 4 = 21x 2 + 19 x + 4

25.

(2 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (2 x)(5 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−3)(5 x) + (−3)(3) = 10 x 2 + 6 x − 15 x − 9 = 10 x 2 − 9 x − 9

26.

(2 x − 5)(7 x + 2) = (2 x )(7 x) + (2 x)(2) + (−5)(7 x) + (−5)(2) = 14 x 2 + 4 x − 35 x − 10 = 14 x 2 − 31x − 10

27.

(5 x 2 − 4)(3 x 2 − 7) = (5 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (5 x 2 )(−7) + (−4)(3x 2 ) + (−4)(−7) = 15 x 4 − 35 x 2 − 12 x 2 + 28 = 15 x 4 − 47 x 2 + 28

28.

(7 x 2 − 2)(3 x 2 − 5) = (7 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (7 x 2 )(−5) + (−2)(3 x 2 ) + (−2)(−5) = 21x 4 − 35 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 10 = 21x 4 − 41x 2 + 10

29.

(8 x

3

+ 3)( x 2 − 5 ) = ( 8 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 8 x 3 ) ( −5 ) + ( 3) ( x 2 ) + ( 3)( −5 ) = 8 x5 − 40 x 3 + 3 x 2 − 15

25

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

30.

(7x

31.

( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 32 = x 2 − 9

32.

( x + 5)( x − 5) = x 2 − 52 = x 2 − 25

33.

(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) = (3 x) 2 − 22 = 9 x 2 − 4

34.

(2 x + 5)(2 x − 5) = (2 x)2 − 52 = 4 x 2 − 25

35.

(5 − 7 x)(5 + 7 x) = 52 − (7 x) 2 = 25 − 49 x 2

36.

(4 − 3x)(4 + 3x) = 42 − (3x) 2 = 16 − 9 x 2

37.

(4 x 2 + 5 x)(4 x 2 − 5 x) = (4 x 2 ) 2 − (5 x) 2 = 16 x 4 − 25 x 2

38.

(3 x 2 + 4 x)(3x 2 − 4 x) = (3x 2 ) 2 − (4 x) 2 = 9 x 4 − 16 x 2

39.

(1 − y )(1 + y ) = (1) − ( y )

40.

( 2 − y )( 2 + y ) = ( 2 ) − ( y )

41.

( x + 2) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = x 2 + 4 x + 4

42.

( x + 5) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = x 2 + 10 x + 25

43.

(2 x + 3)2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(3) + 32 = 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9

44.

(3 x + 2)2 = (3x) 2 + 2(3x)(2) + 22 = 9 x 2 + 12 x + 4

45.

( x − 3) 2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 3 + 32 = x 2 − 6 x + 9

46.

( x − 4)2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 4 + 42 = x 2 − 8 x + 16

47.

(4 x 2 − 1) 2 = (4 x 2 ) 2 − 2(4 x 2 )(1) + 12 = 16 x 4 − 8 x 2 + 1

48.

(5 x 2 − 3)2 = (5 x 2 ) 2 − 2(5 x 2 )(3) + 32 = 25 x 4 − 30 x 2 + 9

49.

(7 − 2 x)2 = 7 2 − 2(7)(2 x) + (2 x) 2 = 49 − 28 x + 4 x 2 = 4 x 2 − 28 x + 49

50.

(9 − 5 x) 2 = 92 − 2(9)(5 x) + (5 x) 2 = 81 − 90 x + 25 x 2 or 25 x 2 − 90 x + 81

51.

( x + 1)3 = x3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅1 + 3x ⋅12 + 13 = x3 + 3 x 2 + 3 x + 1

52.

( x + 2)3 = x 3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 22 + 23 = x 3 + 6 x 2 + 12 x + 8

53.

(2 x + 3)3 = (2 x)3 + 3 ⋅ (2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x) ⋅ 32 + 33 = 8 x 3 + 36 x 2 + 54 x + 27

3

+ 5 )( x 2 − 2 ) = ( 7 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 7 x 3 ) ( −2 ) + ( 5 ) ( x 2 ) + ( 5 )( −2 ) = 7 x5 − 14 x3 + 5 x 2 − 10

5

5

5 2

2

5

5

2

= 1 − y10

5 2

= 4 − y10

26

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PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

54.

(3 x + 4)3 = (3x)3 + 3(3x) 2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3x) ⋅ 42 + 43 = 27 x 3 + 108 x 2 + 144 x + 64

55.

( x − 3)3 = x3 − 3 ⋅ x 3 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 32 − 33 = x 3 − 9 x 2 + 27 x − 27

56.

( x − 1)3 = x 3 − 3x 2 ⋅1 + 3 x ⋅12 − 13 = x3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1

57.

(3 x − 4)3 = (3x)3 − 3(3 x)2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3 x) ⋅ 42 − 43 = 27 x 3 − 108 x 2 + 144 x − 64

58.

(2 x − 3)3 = (2 x)3 − 3(2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x ) ⋅ 32 − 33 = 8 x3 − 36 x 2 + 54 x − 27

59.

( x + 5 y )(7 x + 3 y ) = x(7 x) + x(3 y ) + (5 y )(7 x) + (5 y )(3 y )
= 7 x 2 + 3 xy + 35 xy + 15 y 2
= 7 x 2 + 38 xy + 15 y 2

60.

( x + 9 y )(6 x + 7 y ) = x(6 x) + x(7 y ) + (9 y )(6 x) + (9 y )(7 y )
= 6 x 2 + 7 xy + 54 xy + 63 y 2
= 6 x 2 + 61xy + 63 y 2

61.

( x − 3 y )(2 x + 7 y ) = x(2 x) + x (7 y ) + (−3 y )(2 x) + (−3 y )(7 y )
= 2 x 2 + 7 xy − 6 xy − 21y 2
= 2 x 2 + xy − 21 y 2

62.

(3 x − y )(2 x + 5 y ) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(5 y ) + (− y )(2 x) + (− y )(5 y )
= 6 x 2 + 15 xy − 2 xy − 5 y 2
= 6 x 2 + 13xy − 5 y 2

63.

(3 xy − 1)(5 xy + 2) = (3xy )(5 xy ) + (3xy )(2) + (−1)(5 xy ) + (−1)(2)
= 15 x 2 y 2 + 6 xy − 5 xy − 2
= 15 x 2 y 2 + xy − 2

64.

(7 x 2 y + 1)(2 x 2 y − 3) = (7 x 2 y )(2 x 2 y ) + (7 x 2 y )(−3) + (1)2 x 2 y + (1)(−3)
= 14 x 4 y 2 − 21x 2 y + 2 x 2 y − 3
= 14 x 4 y 2 − 19 x 2 y − 3

65.

(7 x + 5 y ) 2 = (7 x) 2 + 2(7 x)(5 y ) + (5 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 + 70 xy + 25 y 2

66.

(9 x + 7 y )2 = (9 x)2 + 2(9 x )(7 y ) + (7 y )2 = 81x 2 + 126 xy + 49 y 2

67.

( x 2 y 2 − 3) 2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(3) + 32 = x 4 y 4 − 6 x 2 y 2 + 9

68.

( x 2 y 2 − 5)2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(5) + 52 = x 4 y 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 25

69.

( x − y )( x 2 + xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x( xy ) + x( y 2 ) + (− y )( x 2 ) + (− y )( xy ) + (− y )( y 2 )
= x3 + x 2 y + xy 2 − x 2 y − xy 2 − y 3
= x3 − y 3

27

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

70.

( x + y )( x 2 − xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x(− xy ) + x( y 2 ) + y ( x 2 ) + y (− xy ) + y ( y 2 )
= x 3 − x 2 y + xy 2 + x 2 y − xy 2 + y 3
= x3 + y 3

71.

(3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = (3x) 2 − (5 y )2 = 9 x 2 − 25 y 2

72.

(7 x + 3 y )(7 x − 3 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (3 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 9 y 2

73.

( x + y + 3)( x + y − 3) = ( x + y ) 2 − 32 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 9

74.

( x + y + 5)( x + y − 5) = ( x + y )2 − 52 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 25

75.

(3 x + 7 − 5 y )(3x + 7 + 5 y ) = (3x + 7) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 + 42 x + 49 − 25 y 2

76.

(5 x + 7 y − 2)(5 x + 7 y + 2) = (5 x + 7 y ) 2 − 22 = 25 x 2 + 70 xy + 49 y 2 − 4

77.

[5 y − (2 x + 3)][5 y + (2 x + 3)] = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 3) 2 = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 12 x + 9) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 12 x − 9

78.

[8 y + (7 − 3x)][8 y − (7 − 3x)] = (8 y ) 2 − (7 − 3x) 2 = 64 y 2 − (49 − 42 x + 9 x 2 ) = 64 y 2 − 49 + 42 x − 9 x 2

79.

( x + y + 1) 2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y ) + 1 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 2 x + 2 y + 1

80.

( x + y + 2)2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y )(2) + 22 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 4 y + 4

81.

(2 x + y + 1) 2 = (2 x + y ) 2 + 2(2 x + y ) + 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 2 y + 1

82.

(5 x + 1 + 6 y )2 = (5 x + 1) 2 + 2(5 x + 1)(6 y ) + (6 y )2 = 25 x 2 + 10 x + 60 xy + 1 + 12 y + 36 y 2

83.

(3 x + 4 y )

2

2
2
2
2
2
− ( 3x − 4 y ) = ⎡( 3x ) + 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(3 x ) − 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤

⎦ ⎣

(

) (

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 24 xy + 16 y 2

)

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 + 24 xy − 16 y 2
= 48 xy
84.

(5 x + 2 y )

2

2
2
2
2
2
− ( 5 x − 2 y ) = ⎡(5 x ) + 2 ( 5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(5 x ) − 2 (5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤

⎦ ⎣

(

) (

= 25 x 2 + 20 xy + 4 y 2 − 25 x 2 − 20 xy + 4 y 2
= 25 x + 20 xy + 4 y − 25 x + 20 xy − 4 y
2

2

2

)

2

= 40 xy
85.

(5 x − 7 )( 3x − 2) − ( 4 x − 5)( 6 x − 1)
2
2
= ⎡15 x − 10 x − 21x + 14⎤ − ⎡24 x − 4 x − 30 x + 5⎤

(

2

⎦ ⎣

) (

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x − 34 x + 5
2

)

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x + 34 x − 5
2

= −9 x + 3 x + 9
28

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. ( 2 x + 5)( 2 x − 5) ( 4 x 2 + 25) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 2 x ) − 5 ⎤ 4 x + 25 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 4 x ) − ( 25) 2 2 = 4 x − 25 4 x + 25 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 16 x − 625 88. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (3 x + 4)( 3x − 4) (9 x 2 + 16) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 3 x ) − 4 ⎤ 9 x + 16 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 9 x ) − (16 ) 2 2 = 9 x − 16 9 x + 16 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 81x − 256 ( 2 x − 7 ) = 2 x − 7 5 −3 ( ) 3 ( 2 x − 7) 5 89. Section P. Inc. = ( 2 x − 7) 2 = ( 2 x ) − 2 ( 2 x )( 7 ) + ( 7 ) 2 2 2 = 4 x − 28 x + 49 ( 5 x − 3) = 5 x − 3 6 − 4 ( ) 4 ( 5 x − 3) 6 90.PreCalculus 4E 86.4 (3 x + 5)( 2 x − 9) − ( 7 x − 2)( x − 1) ( = (6 x ) ( 2 2 = 6 x − 27 x + 10 x − 45 − 7 x − 7 x − 2 x + 2 2 ) ( 2 − 17 x − 45 − 7 x − 9 x + 2 2 ) ) 2 = 6 x − 17 x − 45 − 7 x + 9 x − 2 2 = − x − 8 x − 47 87. = ( 5 x − 3) 2 = ( 5 x ) − 2 ( 5 x )( 3) + ( 3) 2 2 2 = 25 x − 30 x + 9 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 210 = 12.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 91.316 shown in the bar graph by $2432.995 x + 63.210 c. 446 + 14. 539 − $15.539. Inc. 93. 44. 418 = $121. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48.220 shown in the bar graph by $225.995 x + 63. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15.336 W = 255(18)2 − 2956(18) + 24.995. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14.748. 210 = 15. 57. The model underestimates this difference by $15. 418 The difference in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. 210 c. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. 995 x + 63. ( x 8 − 2x )(5 − 2 x ) = x ( 40 − 26 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 40 x − 26 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 26 x + 40 x 30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 995 x + 63. 336 = 53. The model overestimates the actual value of $51. 404 − 33. d.923. 481 = 10. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. W = 255 x 2 − 2956 x + 24. b. 995 The model estimates the median annual income for a man with 16 years of education to be $56. a. 995(16) + 63. d.348. 539 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15. 446 + 14. 348 The difference in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $12. ( x 8 − 2x )(10 − 2 x ) = x ( 80 − 36 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 80 x − 36 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 36 x + 80 x 94. 995(14) + 63. . 210 M − W = −35(14)3 + 1373(14) 2 − 15. 923 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $10. 220 − 41. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. a.418. 92. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15.210 M − W = −35(16)3 + 1373(16) 2 − 15.748 The model estimates the median annual income for a woman with 18 years of education to be $53. 681 = 15. 923 = $1425. M = 177 x 2 + 288 x + 7075 M = 177(16)2 + 288(16) + 7075 = 56. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48.348 − $10. The model overestimates this difference by $12. b. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. The model underestimates the actual value of $57.

( x + 4) ( x + 3) − ( x + 2) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − ( x 2 + 3x + 2 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − x 2 − 3x − 2 = 4 x + 10 97. – 102. ( x + 3)( x + 4 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 112. makes sense 106. Inc.4 ( x + 9) ( x + 3) − ( x + 5) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − ( x 2 + 6 x + 5 ) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − x 2 − 6 x − 5 = 6 x + 22 96. ( x + 3)( x − 1) + (( x + 3) − x)( x − ( x − 1)) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) + 3( x − x + 1) = x 2 − x + 3x − 3 + 3 = x2 + 2 x 108. (2x − 1)x(x + 3) − x(x − 2)x = (2x 2 + 5x − 3)(x + 2) − x 2 (x − 2) 3 2 3 = 2x + 5x − 3x − x + 2x 2 = x 3 + 7x 2 − 3x 109. . makes sense. Explanations will vary.PreCalculus 4E 95. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section P. although answers may vary 107. (4 x + 1)(2 x − 3 ) = 8 x 2 − 10 x − 3 31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (x + 5)(2x + 1)(x + 2) − 3 ⋅ x(x + 5) = (2x 2 + 11x + 5)(x + 2) − 3x 2 −15x 3 2 2 = 2x + 15x + 27x + 10 − 3x − 15x = 2x 3 + 12x 2 + 12x + 10 110. does not make sense. 103. ( x − 2 )( x − 12) = x 2 − 14 x + 24 113. makes sense 104. Answers may vary. Sample explanation: FOIL is used to multiply two binomials. (y n + 2)(y n − 2) − (y n − 3)2 = y 2 n − 4 − (y 2 n − 6y n + 9) =y 2n −4 −y 2n n + 6y − 9 = 6y n −13 111. 105.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Find two numbers whose product is 40 and whose sum is 13.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Section P. Inc. Find two First terms whose product is 6 x 2 . x 2 + 13x + 40 = ( x + 5)( x + 8) or ( x + 8)( x + 5) 4. a. 2. Possible Factors of 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 Sum of Outside and Inside Products (Should Equal 19x) (6 x + 1)( x − 7) −42 x + x = −41x (6 x − 7)( x + 1) 6x − 7x = −x (6 x − 1)( x + 7) 42 x − x = 41x (6 x + 7)( x − 1) −6 x + 7 x = x (3 x + 1)(2 x − 7) −21x + 2 x = −19 x (3 x − 7)(2 x + 1) 3x − 14 x = −11x (3 x − 1)(2 x + 7) 21x − 2 x = 19 x (3 x + 7)(2 x − 1) −3x + 14 x = 11x Thus. Find two numbers whose product is –14 and whose sum is –5. 5. x 2 − 5 x − 14 = ( x − 7)( x + 2) or ( x + 2)( x − 7). The required integers are –7 and 2. 10 x3 − 4 x 2 = 2 x 2 (5 x) − 2 x 2 (2) = 2 x 2 (5 x − 2) b. Thus. The required integers are 8 and 5. 2 x( x − 7) + 3( x − 7) = ( x − 7)(2 x + 3) x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = ( x3 + 5 x 2 ) − (2 x + 10) = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = ( x + 5)( x 2 − 2) 3. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (3x − 1)(2 x + 7) or (2 x + 7)(3 x − 1). Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is 19x. The possible factors are 1(–7) and –1(7).5 Check Point Exercises 1. Thus. . 32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (6 x )(x ) 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = ( 3x )( 2 x ) Find two Last terms whose product is –7.

10. (4 y )( y ) . 125 x 3 − 8 = (5 x)3 − 23 = (5 x − 2) ⎡⎣ (5 x)2 + (5 x)(2) + 22 ⎤⎦ = (5 x − 2)(25 x 2 + 10 x + 4) 11. = (4 x − 7) 2 . 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 42 = (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) The factor 9 x 2 − 4 is the difference of two squares and can be factored. and (−4 y )(− y ) . 9. 7. a. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is −13xy . 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 is a perfect square trinomial. Express 9 x 2 − 4 as the difference of two squares and again use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 = (4 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 x 3 + 1 = x 3 + 13 = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x ⋅ 1 + 12 ) = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) b. a. check to see if the middle term can be expressed as twice the product of 4x and 7. 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 + 4)(3x + 2)(3x − 2).5 Find two First terms whose product is 3 x 2 . 3x 3 − 30 x 2 + 75 x = 3 x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) Factor the perfect square trinomial.PreCalculus 4E 6. Express each term as the square of some monomial. Then use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . 3x 2 − 13xy + 4 y 2 = (3x )(x ) Find two Last terms whose product is 4 y 2 . x 2 + 14 x + 49 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 = ( x + 7) 2 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The possible factors are (2 y )(2 y ) . 8. Factor out the greatest common factor. factored completely. (−2 y )(−2 y ) . x 2 − 81 = x 2 − 92 = ( x + 9)( x − 9) b. Section P. 36 x 2 − 25 = (6 x) 2 − 52 = (6 x + 5)(6 x − 5) Express 81x 4 − 16 as the difference of two squares and use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . 3x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) = 3x ( x − 5 ) 2 33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 = 56 x. a. Thus. Inc. (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) = (9 x 2 + 4) ⎡⎣(3x) 2 − 22 ⎤⎦ = (9 x 2 + 4)(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) Thus. Since 16 x 2 = (4 x) 2 and 49 = 7 2 . 3x 2 − 13xy + y 2 = (3x − y )( x − 4 y ) or ( x − 4 y )(3x − y ).

3x 2 − 2 x − 5 = (3x − 5)( x + 1) = 6 x2 ( x2 − 3x + 2 ) 27. 2 = ( x + 10 + 6a )( x + 10 − 6a ) x ( x − 1) −1 2 14. 16x – 24 = 8(2x) + 8(–3) = 8(2x – 3) 3. 6 x 4 − 18 x 3 + 12 x 2 = 6 x ( x ) + 6 x (−3x) + 6 x (2) 2 2 2 2 = ( x 2 + 5)( x − 2) 34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 9 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = (3 x − 1)(3x − 2) 11. 8 x 2 + 33 x + 4 = (8 x + 1)( x + 4) 10. 3x 2 – x – 2 = (3x + 2)(x – 1) 24. 4 x 2 + 16 x + 15 = (2 x + 3)(2 x + 5) 9. x 2 + 5 x + 6 = ( x + 2)( x + 3) 18. x 2 ( x − 3) + 12( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 12) 30. x 2 ( 2 x + 5 ) + 17 ( 2 x + 5) = ( 2 x + 5) ( x 2 + 17 ) 31. x 2 − 36a 2 + 20 x + 100 12. x 2 – 2x – 15 = (x – 5)(x + 3) 20. = ( x − 1) ⎣⎡ x + ( x − 1) ⎦⎤ ( 2 x − 1) = ( x − 1) 3x 3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x + 4 = x 2 (3x − 2) − 2(3x − 2) = (3x − 2)( x 2 − 2) − 12 − 12 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 2 x − 12 = x 2 ( x + 6 ) − 2 ( x + 6 ) = ( x + 6) ( x2 − 2) 1 + ( x − 1) 2 1− −1 −1 = ( x − 1) 2 ⎡ x + ( x − 1) 2 ( 2 ) ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ = ( x − 1) x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 2 = x 2 ( x − 1) + 2( x − 1) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 2) = ( x + 10 ) − 36a 2 13. x 2 − 14 x + 45 = ( x − 5)( x − 9) 23. 9 x 4 − 18 x3 + 27 x 2 2 2 = 9 x 2 ( x 2 ) + 9 x 2 (−2 x) + 9 x 2 (3) = 9 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 3) 6. 3x + 6 x = 3x ⋅ x + 3x ⋅ 2 = 3x ( x + 2) 4. x(2x + 1) + 4(2x + 1) = (2x + 1)(x + 4) 29. 4 x − 8 x = 4x(x) + 4x(–2) = 4x(x – 2) 5. 18 x + 27 = 9 ⋅ 2 x + 9 ⋅ 3 = 9(2 x + 3) 2. x 2 – 8x + 15 = (x – 5)(x – 3) 22. x 2 + 8 x + 15 = ( x + 3)( x + 5) 19. 20 x 2 + 27 x − 8 = (5 x + 8)(4 x − 1) Exercise Set P. 9 x 2 + 5 x − 4 = (9 x − 4)( x + 1) 33. x 3 − 3x 2 + 4 x − 12 = x 2 ( x − 3) + 4 ( x − 3) 16. 15.5 1. 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 = (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 25. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6x 2 –11x + 4 = (2x – 1)(3x – 4) 7. x 2 − 4 x − 5 = ( x − 5)( x + 1) 21. Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 12. x(x + 5) + 3(x + 5) = (x + 5)(x + 3) 28. Reorder to write as a difference of squares. 6 x 2 − 17 x + 12 = (2 x − 3)(3x − 4) 8. = ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 4 ) = x 2 + 20 x + 100 − 36a 2 = ( x 2 + 20 x + 100 ) − 36a 2 13. ( 2 x − 1) x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 5 = x 2 ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 5 ) 1 2 17. . x 3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 10 = x 2 ( x − 2) + 5( x − 2) 32. 3x 2 – 25x – 28 = (3x – 28)(x + 1) 26.

25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = (5 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x ⋅1 + 12 = (5 x + 1) 2 55. Inc. 15 x 2 − 19 x + 6 = (3x − 2)(5 x − 3) 52. x 2 − 100 = x 2 − 102 = ( x + 10)( x − 10) 56. x 2 + 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅1 + 12 = ( x + 1) 2 50. 16 x 4 − 81 = (4 x 2 )2 − 92 = (2 x − 1)(4 x 2 + 2 x + 1) = (4 x 2 + 9)(4 x 2 − 9) = (4 x 2 + 9)[(2 x)2 − 32 ] 62. x 2 + 4 x + 4 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = ( x + 2) 2 51. 9 x 2 − 25 y 2 = (3 x) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = (3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) 36 x 2 − 49 y 2 = (6 x) 2 − (7 y ) 2 = (6 x + 7 y )(6 x − 7 y ) 59. 64 x − 81 = (8 x ) − 9 = (8 x + 9)(8 x − 9) 2 = (2 x + 1) 2 2 2 2 54. = ( x − 4)( x 2 + 4 x + 16) x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 60. 43. x 2 − 144 = x 2 − 122 = ( x + 12)( x − 12) 57. 8 x 3 + 125 = (2 x)3 + 53 = (2 x + 5)[(2 x)2 − (2 x)(5) + 52 ] = (2 x + 5)(4 x 2 − 10 x + 25) 65. = (9 x + 1)[(3 x) − 1 ] 2 x 3 − 27 = x 3 − 33 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 48. 9 x 2 − 6 x + 1 = (3x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 3 x ⋅1 + 12 = (3x − 1) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 3x + 9) 2 58. 6 x − 5 xy − 6 y = (3x + 2 y )(2 x − 3 y ) 38.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 6 x 2 − 7 xy − 5 y 2 = (3 x − 5 y )(2 x + y ) 39. 8 x 3 − 1 = (2 x)3 − 13 = (2 x − 1)[(2 x) 2 + (2 x)(1) + 12 ] 47. 36 x 2 − 49 = (6 x) 2 − 7 2 = (6 x + 7)(6 x − 7) 42. = (4 x + 9)(2 x + 3)(2 x − 3) 2 27 x 3 − 1 = (3x)3 − 13 = (3x − 1)[(3x) 2 + (3 x)(1) + 12 ] = (3x − 1)(9 x 2 + 3 x + 1) 81x 4 − 1 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 12 = (9 x 2 + 1)(9 x 2 − 1) 63. 44. = ( x + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 3 x + 9) x 4 − 1 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 12 = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) 61. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = ( x − 5) 2 35. = ( x − 7) 2 3x 3 − 3x = 3x( x 2 − 1) = 3x( x + 1)( x − 1) 35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 45.5 34. 2 x 2 + 3xy + y 2 = (2 x + y )( x + y ) 53. x 3 + 27 = x3 + 33 41. x 3 − 64 = x3 − 43 = ( x − 4)( x 2 + x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 46. . 3x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 = (3x + y )( x + y ) 37. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 2 2 = (4 x + 3)[(4 x) 2 − (4 x)(3) + 32 ] = (9 x + 1)(3x + 1)(3 x − 1) 2 49. x 2 − 14 x + 49 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 64 x3 + 27 = (4 x)3 + 33 = (4 x + 3)(16 x 2 − 12 x + 9) 64. 64 x 2 − 16 x + 1 = (8 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 8 x ⋅1 + 12 = (8 x − 1) 2 40. 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 = (2 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 2 x ⋅1 + 12 36.

6 x 2 − 6 x − 12 = 6( x 2 − x − 2) = 6( x − 2)( x + 1) 75. 4 x 2 − 4 x − 24 = 4( x 2 − x − 6) = 4( x + 2)( x − 3) 68. Inc. x 2 + 36 is prime. 36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 9 x − 18 = ( x 3 + 2 x 2 ) − (9 x + 18) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 9( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 9)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 32 )( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2) 72. 9 x3 − 9 x = 9 x( x 2 − 1) = 9 x( x − 1)( x + 1) 77. 78. x 3 − 4 x = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x 2 − 22 ) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) 76. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 66. x 3 + 3x 2 − 25 x − 75 = ( x 3 + 3x 2 ) − (25 x + 75) = x 2 ( x + 3) − 25( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 25)( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 52 )( x + 3) = ( x − 5)( x + 5)( x + 3) 73. 2 x 4 − 162 = 2( x 4 − 81) = 2[( x 2 ) 2 − 92 ] = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 9) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 32 ) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x + 3)( x − 3) 70. 2 x 2 − 2 x − 112 = 2( x 2 − x − 56) = 2( x − 8)( x + 7) 74. 6 x 2 − 18 x − 60 = 6( x 2 − 3 x − 10) = 6( x + 2)( x − 5) 69. 5 x 3 − 45 x = 5 x( x 2 − 9) = 5 x( x + 3)( x − 3) 67. 7 x 4 − 7 = 7( x 4 − 1) = 7[( x 2 ) 2 − 12 ] = 7( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 7( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 71. x 2 + 64 is prime. .

9b 2 x − 16 y − 16 x + 9b 2 y = ( 9b 2 x + 9b 2 y ) + ( −16 x − 16 y ) = 9b 2 ( x + y ) − 16 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) ( 9b 2 − 16 ) = ( x + y )( 3b + 4 )( 3b − 4 ) 88. x 2 − 10 x + 25 − 36 y 2 = ( x 2 − 10 x + 25) − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5)2 − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5 + 6 y )( x − 5 − 6 y ) 87. Inc. Section P. 3 1 1 1 ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ x 2 − x 2 = x 2 ⎜ x 2 2 ⎟ − 1 = x 2 ( x − 1) ⎝ ⎠ 37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 16a 2 x − 25 y − 25 x + 16a 2 y = (16a 2 x + 16a 2 y ) + ( −25 y − 25 x ) = 16a 2 ( x + y ) − 25 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) (16a 2 − 25 ) = ( x + y )( 4a + 5 )( 4a − 5 ) 89. 2 x 3 − 98a 2 x + 28 x 2 + 98 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 49a 2 +14 x + 49 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 +14 x + 49 ) − 49a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 7 ) − 49a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 7 − 7a )( x + 7 + 7a ) ⎣ ⎦ 93. x 2 − 12 x + 36 − 49 y 2 = ( x 2 − 12 x + 36 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 + 7 y ) ( x − 6 − 7 y ) 2 86. 2 x 3 − 8a 2 x + 24 x 2 + 72 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 4a 2 + 12 x + 36 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 + 12 x + 36 ) − 4a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 6 ) − 4a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 6 − 2a )( x + 6 + 2a ) ⎣ ⎦ 92. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 20 y 4 − 45 y 2 = 5 y 2 (4 y 2 − 9) = 5 y 2 [(2 y ) 2 − 32 ] = 5 y 2 (2 y + 3)(2 y − 3) 84. y 5 − 16 y = y ( y 4 − 16) = y[( y 2 ) 2 − 42 ] = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 4) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 22 ) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y + 2)( y − 2) 83. y 5 − 81y = y ( y 4 − 81) = y[( y 2 )2 − 92 ] = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 9) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 32 ) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y + 3)( y − 3) 82.5 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−4 x − 8) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 4)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 22 )( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)2 80. 12 x 2 y − 27 y − 4 x 2 + 9 = (12 x 2 y − 27 y ) + ( −4 x 2 + 9 ) = 3 y ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) − 1( 4 x 2 − 9 ) = ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) ( 3 y − 1) = ( 2 x + 3)( 2 x − 3)( 3 y − 1) 91. 48 y 4 − 3 y 2 = 3 y 2 (16 y 2 − 1) = 3 y 2 [(4 y )2 − 12 ] = 3 y 2 (4 y + 1)(4 y − 1) 85.PreCalculus 4E 79. x 2 y − 16 y + 32 − 2 x 2 = ( x 2 y − 16 y ) + ( −2 x 2 + 32 ) = y ( x 2 − 16 ) − 2 ( x 2 − 16 ) = ( x 2 − 16 ) ( y − 2 ) = ( x + 4 )( x − 4 )( y − 2 ) 90. x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (− x − 2) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 1)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 12 )( x + 2) = ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x + 2) 81.

6 x 4 + 35 x 2 − 6 = ( x 2 + 6 )( 6 x 2 − 1) 106. 12 x − 3 4 1 x4 = 1⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ x 4 4 − 1⎟ = x 4 ⎜ x 2 − 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 8x 3 = 4 x 1 ⎛ 2⎞ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 32 ⎛ −2 4 (1 + 2 x ) ⎜1 + 2 x 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎟ = 4 x 3 (1 + 2 x ) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ x3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 6x 4 = 6x − 3 4 1 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 ⎛ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 6( x + 2) ⎜ 2 + x 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎟ = 6x 4 (2 + x ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ x4 97. (x 1 1 3 3 1 − 2 ⎣ x2 + 4 2 3 2 ) ( − 12 + 3) + x2 + 4 − ( x + 5) −2 3 7 2 ) ( − 32 + ( x 2 + 3) = x2 + 4 = ( x + 5) −5 3 ) 3 2 1 1 ⎤ 2 ⎡1 − ( x + 3) ⎤ = ( x + 3) 2 ( − x − 2 ) = −( x + 3) 2 ( x + 2) = x + 3 ( ) ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢1 + x 2 + 4 ⎢ ⎣ ( 1 ) 7−3 ⎤ 2 2⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ( = x2 + 4 ) 3 2 ) ( 2⎤ ⎡ 2 2 ⎢1 + x + 4 ⎥ = x + 4 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ( 3 2 ) ( x4 + 8x2 + 17) 1 ⎛ 3⎞ x+4 − 32 ⎡ − −⎜ − ⎟ ⎤ −3 −3 3 ⎢( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − 1⎥ = ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎣⎡( x + 5 ) − 1⎦⎤ = ( x + 5) 2 ( x + 4 ) = ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) 2 = ( x 2 + 3) 5 −5 ⎡ 2 − 2 −⎛⎜ − 5 ⎞⎟ ⎤ x2 + 4 3 ⎢( x + 3) 3 ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ + 1⎥ = ( x 2 + 3)− 3 ⎡( x 2 + 3) + 1⎤ = 5 ⎣ ⎦ ( x 2 + 3) 3 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 1 3 1 ( 4 x − 1) 2 3 1 3 1 1 − ⎤ ⎡ 1 = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎢1 − ( 4 x − 1) 2 2 ⎥ = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎣ 3 ⎦ 101. . 3 x4 95. 4x 1 − x4 − 23 96. 10 x 2 ( x + 1) − 7 x ( x + 1) − 6 ( x + 1) = ( x + 1) (10 x 2 − 7 x − 6 ) = ( x + 1)( 5 x − 6 )( 2 x + 1) 104.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. −8 ( 4 x + 3) + 10 ( 5 x + 1) (4 x + 3)−1 = 2 ( 4 x + 3) ⎣⎡ −4 + 5 ( 5 x + 1)( 4 x + 3) ⎦⎤ = −2 −2 2(100 x 2 + 95 x + 11) (4 x + 3) 2 103. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 12 x 2 ( x − 1) − 4 x ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) (12 x 2 − 4 x − 5 ) = ( x − 1)( 6 x − 5 )( 2 x + 1) 105. ( x + 3) 2 − ( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3) 2 ⎡⎢1 − ( x + 3) 2 98. ( x + 5) 100. ( 99. 7 x 4 + 34 x 2 − 5 = ( 7 x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 5 ) 3 107. y 7 + y = y ( y 6 + 1) = y ⎡⎢( y 2 ) + 13 ⎤⎥ = y ( y 2 + 1)( y 4 − y 2 + 1) ⎣ ⎦ 38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( 4 x − 1) 2 − 1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ 2 ⎢⎣1 − 3 ( 4 x − 1) ⎥⎦ = ( 4 x − 1) 1⎤ ⎡ 4 ⎢⎣1 − 3 x + 3 ⎥⎦ 1 −4(4 x − 1) 2 ( x − 1) 4 ⎛4 4 ⎞ = ( 4 x − 1) ⎜ − x ⎟ = (4 x − 1) 2 (1 − x) = 3 3 ⎝3 3 ⎠ 1 1 2 102.

( x − 0.3x ) = ( x − 0. 3x 2 + 5 xy 2 + 2 y 4 = 3 x + 2 y 2 b. b. the computer is selling at 49% of its original price.4 x ) − 0. a.3 ( x − 0. Inc.6 ) = 0.3x ) − 0.7 x ) ( 0. 2 )( x ) − y 2 = ( x + 2 y )( x − 2 y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 ) − y 2 = ( x + 3 y )( x − 3 y )( x + y )( x − y ) ( x − y )4 − 4 ( x − y )2 2 2 2 = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y )2 − 4 ) = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y ) + 2 ) ( ( x − y ) − 2 ) = ( x − y ) ( x − y + 2 ) ( x − y − 2 ) 112. a.3x ) (1 − 0.5 + 1 = ( y + 1) + 13 = ⎡⎣( y + 1) + 1⎤⎦ ⎡( y + 1) − ( y + 1) + 1⎤ = ( y + 2 ) ⎡⎣( y 2 + 2 y + 1) − y − 1 + 1⎤⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 3 2 = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + 2 y + 1 − y − 1 + 1) = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + y + 1) ( 109. 117.4 x )(1 − 0. a. 118.4 ( x − 0. the computer is selling at 36% of its original price. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 x ) = ( x − 0. ( ( x + y) ( 113.49 x No. ( y + 1) 3 Section P. b.3) = ( 0. b.4 ) = ( 0. x 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 9 y 4 = x 2 − 9 y 2 111. 2 ) − 100 = ( x + y )2 ( x + y − 10 ) ( x + y + 10 ) 2 114. x 4 − 5 x 2 y 2 + 4 y 4 = x 2 − 4 y 2 )( x ( 110. . b.7 ) = 0. a. 2 x 2 − 7 xy 2 + 3 y 4 = 2 x − y 2 115. a. ( x + y ) 4 − 100( x + y ) 2 = ( x + y ) )( x − 3 y ) ( )( x + y ) 116.36 x No.PreCalculus 4E 108. 120.6 x )( 0. 2 2 ( x − 0. a. 119. ( 3x ) 2 − 4 ⋅ 22 = 9 x 2 − 16 9 x 2 − 16 = ( 3x + 4 ) ( 3 x − 4 ) (7x) 2 − 4 ⋅ 32 = 49 x 2 − 36 49 x 2 − 36 = ( 7 x + 6 ) ( 7 x − 6 ) x ( x + y) − y ( x + y) x ( x + y ) − y ( x + y ) = ( x + y )( x − y ) x 2 + xy + xy + y 2 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 = ( x + y ) 2 39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b.

x 4 − y 4 − 2 x3 y + 2 xy3 = ( x 4 − y 4 ) + ( −2 x 3 y + 2 xy 3 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) − 2 xy ( x 2 − y 2 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 − 2 xy ) = ( x − y )( x + y ) ( x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 ) = ( x − y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 3 = ( x − y) ( x + y) 40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. true 136. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. Inc. − x 2 − 4 x + 5 = −1( x 2 + 4 x − 5 ) = −1( x + 5 )( x − 1) = − ( x + 5)( x − 1) 140. makes sense 131. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 137. false. x 2 n + 6 x n + 8 = ( x n + 4 )( x n + 2 ) 139. A sample change is: x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 135. makes sense 132. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 3a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 3a = 3a3 − 3ab 2 ( = 3a a 2 − b2 ) = 3a ( a + b )( a − b ) 123. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A sample change is: x 3 − 64 = ( x − 4 )( x + 4 x + 16 ) 138. Sample explanation: 4 x 2 − 100 = 4( x 2 − 25) = 4( x + 5)( x − 5) 133. makes sense 134. 130. A sample change is: The binomial x 2 + 36 is prime. .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. Answers may vary. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 4a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 4a = 4a3 − 4ab 2 = 4a ( a 2 − b 2 ) = 4a ( a + b )( a − b ) 122. – 129.

– 16. (3 x + 5) − (4 x − 7) = 3x + 5 − 4 x + 7 = 3x − 4 x + 5 + 7 = − x + 12 6 + 9 6 = 10 6 4. 8 or –8 143. (8 x − 3) 2 = (8 x)2 − 2(8 x)(3) + (3) 2 = 64 x 2 − 48 x + 9 7. 3. 144. 4. Mid-Chapter P Check Point −1 ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5) − 12 1 − ( x + 5) 2 ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) ( x + 5) −3 ⎛ ⎞ 1 −⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞⎟ ⎤ − 12 ⎡ − 1 − ⎜⎜ − 3 ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢( x − 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) −1 ⎡⎣( x − 5) − ( x + 5 ) ⎤⎦ −10 −3 −1 = ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5 ) 2 ( −10 ) = 3 1 ( x − 5) 2 ( x + 5) 2 2 2 142. 5 8 5 4⋅2 1 2 2 ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ = 4 15 4 5 ⋅ 3 1 3 3 146. 3. 2 1 ( 5 32 ) 2 = 1− 1 ( 2) 2 = 1− 1 3 = 4 4 (2 x − 5) − ( x 2 − 3x + 1) = 2 x − 5 − x 2 + 3x − 1 = − x 2 + 5 x − 6 41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (3 x + 5)(4 x − 7) = (3x)(4 x) + (3 x)(−7) + (5)(4 x) + (5)(−7) = 12 x 2 − 21x + 20 x − 35 = 12 x 2 − x − 35 2. b = 0. 1 2 3 4 7 + = + = 2 3 6 6 6 Mid-Chapter P Check Point 1. − ⎛2⎞ 5 ⎜ 7 ⎟ − 32 = 1 − ⎝ ⎠ 6 0 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. where c > 0 is an integer. Inc. . or –c(c + 4). 3 12 − 27 = 3 ⋅ 2 3 − 3 3 = 6 3 − 3 3 = 3 3 5. 7 x + 3[9 − (2 x − 6)] = 7 x + 3[ 9 − 2 x + 6] = 7 x + 3 [15 − 2 x ] = 7 x + 45 − 6 x = x + 45 6.PreCalculus 4E 141. 1 1 ⋅ 6 − ⋅6 ⎛ 31 − 12 ⎞ x2 2 −3 ⎜ x y ⎟ = x3 y 2 = x y = 3 y ⎝ ⎠ 8. x 2 + bx + 15 . x 2 + 6 x + 5 ( x + 5)( x + 1) x + 1 = = x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) x − 5 145. b =16.

d .2 ×10−2 2 ×106 2 106 ( 3 22. {a. (9a − 10b)(2a + b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a )(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a)(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = 18a 2 + 9ab − 20ab − 10b 2 = 18a 2 − 11ab − 10b 2 13. 3 32 2 = 3 ) ( ) 32 3 = 16 = 3 24 = 2 3 2 2 ( x 3 + 2)( x 3 − 2) = x 6 − 4 42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( 3x 2 ) ( ) y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 − −2 x 2 y 3 − 3xy + 5 y 2 = 3x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 + 2 x 2 y 3 − xy + 3xy + 4 y 2 − 5 y 2 = 5 x 2 y 3 + 2 xy − y 2 16. d . d . h} 14. x 3 + x3 − x3 ⋅ x 3 = 2 x3 − x 6 = − x 6 + 2 x 3 12. e} ∩ {c. f . f .2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. e} ∪ {c. e. c. 23. Inc. d . [ 4 y − (3x + 2)][ 4 y + (3x + 2)] = (4 y)2 − (3x + 2)2 = 16 y 2 − (9 x 2 + 12 x + 4) = 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 12 x − 4 20. f . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 24 × 103 24 103 = ⋅ = 12 ×10−3 = 1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10.2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. 24 x 2 y13 12 y15 2 − 5 13 − ( −2) −3 15 12 12 = − = − = − x y x y x3 −2 x 5 y −2 17. . h} = {a. c. {a. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 + 2 x − 5 x 2 + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x 2 + 2 x + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 11x 2 + 17 x − 5 11. 12 x 4 = x 12 = x 3 = 3 x 19. ( x − 2 y − 1) 2 = x ( x − 2 y − 1) − 2 y ( x − 2 y − 1) − ( x − 2 y − 1) = x 2 − 2 xy − x − 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 2 y − x + 2 y + 1 = x 2 − 4 xy + 4 y 2 − 2 x + 4 y + 1 21. 6 y3 ⎛ 1 −5 4 ⎞ −2 −1 −5 − 2 4 −1 ⎜ 3 x y ⎟ 18 x y = 6 x y = x 7 ⎝ ⎠ ( ) 1 4 18. c. d . h} = {c. d } 15.

Mid-Chapter P Check Point 11 11 3 = 11 7 + 3 77 + 11 3 77 + 11 3 ⋅ = = 49 − 3 46 7− 3 7+ 3 = 7− 3 11 ⋅ 3 3 3 = 11 3 3 28. x 2 − 2 x + 4 is prime. 3 × 1010 3 1010 = ⋅ = 0. 3x 2 − 4 xy − 7 y 2 = ( 3x − 7 y )( x + y ) 32.5 109 A human brain has 4 times as many neurons as a gorilla brain. 0. x 3 + 5 x 2 + 3x + 15 = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 5) 31. 30. 26. 7 ⎩ − 1 2 ( 1 2 ) ( = x2 + 1 − ) ( 1 2 ) (x ⎡ x 2 + 1 − 10 ⎤ = x 2 + 1 ⎣ ⎦ − 2 x +3 x −3 ) ( )( ) ( x + 1) −9 = 2 1 2 ⎫ 25 ⎬ ⎭ 38. − . 27.PreCalculus 4E 24. 43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 140 ⋅ 3. x 2 − 6 x + 9 − 49 y 2 = ( x − 3) − 49 y 2 = ⎡⎣( x − 3) + 7 y ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣( x − 3) − 7 y ⎤⎦ = ( x − 3 + 7 y )( x − 3 − 7 y ) 35. ( ) x2 + 1 1 2 ( ) − 10 x 2 + 1 3 ⎧ ⎨ −11. 0. x ( ) ( ( ) ) 2 2 − 3 2 − 2x − 1 2 1 + x2 = x 3 2 − (1 − 2 x + x ) = ( 1 − x) 2 2 3 x2 36.2 × 1010 The total annual spending on ice cream is $4. ( x 2 + 2) 2 = ( x 2 ) 2 + 2( x 2 )(2) + (2) 2 = x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4 50 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 12 = 5 ⋅ 2 3 = 10 3 25.2 × 10 2 × 108 = 4.0 × 108 = 420 × 108 = 4. 37. 7 x 2 − 22 x + 3 = ( 7 x − 1)( x − 3) 29.5 ×109 7.2 × 1010 41.45. Thus x 2 x = − x 2 x = − x3 40. . 50 x 3 + 20 x 2 + 2 x = 2 x 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = 2 x ( 5 x + 1) 34. Inc. 64 y − y 4 = y 64 − y 3 = y ( 4 − y ) 16 + 4 y + y 2 33. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since x < 0 then x = − x .4 ×10 = 4 7. Since 2 − 13 < 0 then 2 − 13 = 13 − 2 39.

x ≠ −3 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x2 −1 = 2 x + 2 x + 1 ( x + 1)( x + 1) x −1 = .5 x 2 + 9. x ≠ 2. b.5(6) + 62 N = 101 Model 2 underestimates the number of channels in 2006 by 3. .5(6) 2 + 9. x3 + 3x 2 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 x+3 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 = x 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The denominator would equal zero if x = −5. 3. and x ≠ −3. Model 1: N = 6.5 x 2 + 9.8(0) + 64 N = 64 Model 2: N = −0. a.8(10) + 64 N = 132 Model 1 predicts there will be 132 channels in 2010. a.8 x + 64 N = 6. Section P.5(0) + 62 N = 62 Model 2 best describes the data in 2000. x ≠ −1 Because the denominator has factors of x + 2. x ≠ −3 Because the denominator is ( x + 1)( x + 1) . x ≠ −2.5 x + 62 N = −0. x ≠ −1 x +1 x + 3 x2 − x − 6 ⋅ x2 − 4 x2 + 6x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 2) x+3 = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 2) = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x−3 = . and x + 3. x ≠ −2.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 42.5 x + 62 N = −0.8 x + 64 N = 6. so –5 must be excluded from the domain. c. 2. x − 2. x 2 − 36 = ( x + 6)( x − 6) The denominator would equal zero if x = −6 or x = 6. b. b.5(0) 2 + 9. Inc.6 Check Point Exercises 1. a. N = −0. x ≠ −3 ( x − 2)( x + 3) Because the denominator is x + 3. x ≠ 2. 44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so –6 and 6 must both must be excluded from the domain. N = 6.

= 2 x − ( x 2 − 5 x − 4 x + 20) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 . Section P. x ≠ 0 1+3 4 + 3x x 4 4x 4x 2 − 3x −4 = 2x . Factor each denominator completely. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x − 3. 7. Write all rational expressions in terms of the least common denominator. x≠5 2( x − 5) 2 1−3 2 − 3x x 2 = 2x 2x . x ≠ 0 and x ≠ = 4 + 3x 3 45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6. x − 3 Add any unlisted factors from the second denominator. ( x − 3)( x − 3)( x + 3) or ( x − 3)2 ( x + 3) is the least common denominator. x ≠ −2. x2 − 2x + 1 x2 + x − 2 ÷ 3x2 + 3 x3 + x 2 x − 2 x + 1 3x 2 + 3 = ⋅ 2 x3 + x x +x−2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) 3( x 2 + 1) = ⋅ x( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2)( x − 1) 3( x − 1) = . putting this sum over the least common denominator. x 2 − 6 x + 9 = ( x − 3) 2 x 2 − 9 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) List the factors of the first denominator.PreCalculus 4E 4.6 8. . x ≠ −1 and x ≠ 1. x ≠ 1 x( x + 2) Find the least common denominator. = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 9. x − 3. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = ( x − 5) 2 2 x − 10 = 2( x − 5) The least common denominator is 2(x – 5)(x – 5). x x−4 − 2 x − 10 x + 25 2 x − 10 x x−4 = − ( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5) 2x ( x − 4)( x − 5) = − 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) x 3x + 2 x − 3x − 2 − = x +1 x +1 x +1 −2 x − 2 = x +1 −2 ( x + 1) = x +1 = −2. x ≠ −1 Add numerators. Inc. x ≠ 4 + 3x 3 4x 2 − 3x 4 + 3 x = ÷ 2x 4x 2 − 3x 4 x = ⋅ 2 x 4 + 3x 2 − 3x 4 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 2 2 − 3x 2 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 1 2(2 − 3x) −4 . x − 3. x ≠ 0. 5. x + 3 The least common denominator is the product of all factors in the final list. 2 x − ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 3 5 + x + 1 x −1 3x( x − 1) + 5( x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3x − 3 + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 8x + 2 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) .

= x+7 x ≠ 7. 7 . –6 ( x − 7) 2 x 2 − 14 x + 49 14. x ≠ 7. –7 2 x − 49 ( x + 7)( x − 7) 5. –10 x + 11x + 10 ( x + 1)( x + 10) 16. x ≠ −9 x+9 3. 5 x + 4 x − 45 ( x + 9)( x − 5) 2 = x+3 − x 3 x+3 − x x+3 + x = ⋅ 3 x+3 ⋅ x 2 6. x ≠ −9. x ≠ −7 =− x( x + 7) x+ 11. 2 2 ) 12. − 2 46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x−3 x −3 = . 1 x+3 + x Exercise Set P. x ≠ 2. x+ 1 x x = 1 x x x x = = = = ( x+3 3 3 ( ( ) − ( x) x+3 + x x + 3− x x+3 + x 7. = = y 2 − 3 y + 2 ( y − 2 )( y − 1) y − 1 y ≠ 1. . 2 ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x − 36 x ≠ 6. Multiply each of the three terms. x 2 − 8 x + 16 ( x − 4 )( x − 4 ) x − 4 .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 1 1 . 4 ( x − 2) 4x − 8 4 . x ≠ 0.x≠3 x−3 15. 2. Inc. 13 . and 7 by x+7 x the least common denominator of x( x + 7). y ≠ –4. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10.6 1. –1 = = y 2 + 5 y + 4 ( y + 4 )( y + 1) y + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 36 ( x + 6) 2 x+6 = = . −3 6 3 x−5 6 x + 9 x − 5 3(2 x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x − 15 4 x + 6 3( x − 5) 2(2 x + 3) 3 = 6 1 = . x+5 x+5 = . 1 1 x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x+7⎠ ⎝ x⎠ x+7 x = 7 7 x( x + 7) x − ( x + 7) = 7 x( x + 7) −7 = 7 x( x + 7) 1 .x≠3 x −3 8. y 2 + 7 y − 18 ( y + 9 )( y − 2 ) y + 9 . 2 3 x ≠ 5. x 2 − 12 x + 36 ( x − 6 )( x − 6 ) x − 6 . x ≠ –1. ) y 2 − 4 y − 5 ( y − 5 )( y + 1) y − 5 . x+7 x+7 = . x≠4 = = 3x − 12 3( x − 4) 3 11. x ≠ 5. x −1 x −1 = . = = 4 x − 24 4 ( x − 6) 4 2 x≠6 x +1 3/ 2 10. 3 ( x − 3) 3x − 9 = x − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x − 3) x 2 3 . = ( x − 7)( x + 7) x 2 − 49 x−7 . –7 13. 2 x − 2 2x + 6 x − 2 2( x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x + 9 2 x − 4 3( x + 3) 2( x − 2) 2 1 = = . x≠2 = = x − 4 x + 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 2 ) x − 2 9. –5 2 x − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) 4. 12.

–3 29. x2 + x x2 − 1 ÷ 2 2 x − 4 x + 5x + 6 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 1) = ÷ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) ( x + 2)( x + 3) x( x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 3) . − 3 = 3 x2 + 2 x + 4 . x 2 − 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x+2 ÷ = ÷ x − 2 4x − 8 x−2 4( x − 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) 4( x − 2) = ⋅ x−2 x+2 = 4( x − 2). x ≠ 1. x ≠ –2.3 x( x + 4) 24. x 2 − 25 x 2 + 10 x + 25 ÷ 2 2x − 2 x + 4x − 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)2 = ÷ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5)( x − 1) ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)( x − 1) = ⋅ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5) 2 x −5 = . –5 2 x2 + 6 x + 9 1 ⋅ x 3 + 27 x + 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) 1 1 = ⋅ = 2 . x ≠ −1 9 47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −2. x ≠ 3. x − 4 ÷ x + 2 = ( x − 2)( x + 2) ⋅ x − 2 x x−2 x x+2 2 ( x − 2) = . 2. 18. 3 21. 2 x 2 = 20. x2 − 4 2 x − 4 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2( x − 2) ⋅ = ⋅ x − 4x + 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)2 x+2 = 2. x 2 − 9 x 2 − 3x ⋅ 2 x2 x + x − 12 x( x − 3) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ 2 ( x + 4)( x − 3) x ( x − 3)( x + 3) = . x ≠ 2. 22. Inc. 3 x+2 x2 + 5x + 6 x 2 − 9 ⋅ x2 + x − 6 x2 − x − 6 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 3) x + 3 . –2. 2. x ≠ 0. 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 x + 9 ) x + 3 x − 3 x + 9 x ≠ –3 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1. = ⋅ = ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) x − 2 27. x −1 .PreCalculus 4E 17.6 x + 1 3x + 3 x + 1 3( x + 1) ÷ = ÷ 3 7 3 7 x +1 7 = ⋅ 3 3( x + 1) 7 = . –2. Section P. 2 3x 28. x ≠ 0. 28 x ≠ –5 2 25. 4 x 2 + 10 6 x 2 + 15 ÷ 2 x −3 x −9 2 2(2 x + 5) 3(2 x 2 + 5) = ÷ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x−3 2(2 x 2 + 5) ( x − 3)( x + 3) ⋅ 3(2 x 2 + 5) x−3 2( x + 3) . = ( x − 2)( x − 1) x ≠ 2. –1. 19. x ≠ 2. . x ≠ –2. x ≠ –3. 0. −4. –2 x2 − 5x + 6 x2 − 1 ⋅ x2 − 2x − 3 x2 − 4 ( x − 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 1) ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 26. –2 = 2 x3 − 8 x + 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 2 x + 4 ) x + 2 = ⋅ ⋅ 3x x 2 − 4 3x ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) = x + 5 4 x + 20 x + 5 4( x + 5) ÷ = ÷ 7 9 7 9 x+5 9 = ⋅ 7 4( x + 5) 9 = . –1.

Inc. . −5 33. –1. x + x − 12 x + 5 x + 6 x+3 ⋅ ÷ x 2 + x − 30 x 2 − 2 x − 3 x 2 + 7 x + 6 ( x + 4 )( x − 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x + 6 )( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ x+3 ( x + 6 )( x − 5 ) ( x + 1)( x − 3) 36. –3. 5 32. 5. x −4 x + 5x + 6 ÷ x + 3 x − 10 x 2 + 8 x + 15 ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) = ÷ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) = ⋅ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) =1 x ≠ 2. x ≠ 0. x3 − 25 x 2 x 2 − 2 x2 + 5x ⋅ 2 ÷ 2 4x x − 6x + 5 7x + 7 x ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) 7 ( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ 4 x2 ( x − 1)( x − 5 ) x ( x + 5) = 7 ( x + 1) 37. 2 2 x2 x ≠ 0. x−3 x ≠ –2. 3. −3 = x+3 4x − 4 x2 − 4x x2 − 4 x + 4 x − 4 + = x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − 4 = ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 = . x−2 x≠2 48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ − 6x + 5 6 38. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –3. –5 35.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 30. = 2 ( x + 4 )( x + 2 ) x−5 x ≠ –6.1. 3 4 x − 10 x − 4 4 x − 10 − ( x − 4) − = x−2 x−2 x−2 4 x − 10 − x + 4 = x−2 3x − 6 = x−2 3( x − 2) = x−2 = 3. x ≠ 2 2 x + 3 3 − x 2 x + 3 − (3 − x) − = 3x − 6 3x − 6 3x − 6 2x + 3 − 3 + x = 3x − 6 3x = 3( x − 2) x = . −1. 2 2 2 2 31. 3 x + 2 3x + 6 3 x + 2 + 3 x + 6 + = 3x + 4 3x + 4 3x + 4 6x + 8 = 3x + 4 2(3x + 4) = 3x + 4 =2 4 x≠− 3 x2 − 2 x x2 + x x2 − 2 x + x2 + x + = x 2 + 3 x x 2 + 3x x 2 + 3x 2 2x − x = 2 x + 3x x(2 x − 1) = x( x + 3) 2x −1 . 4x + 1 8x + 9 4x + 1 + 8x + 9 + = 6x + 5 6x + 5 6x + 5 12 x + 10 = 6x + 5 2(6 x + 5) 5 = = 2. 34. –2.

3 = x+2 45. 0 x2 − 4 x x−6 − 2 2 x − x−6 x − x−6 x 2 − 4 x − ( x − 6) = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 4x − x + 6 = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 5x + 6 = 2 x − x−6 ( x − 2)( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 . ( x − 3)( x + 2) 2 41. x ≠ –4. x ≠ –5. x ≠ –2. –2 3x + 15 + 6 x + 24 = ( x + 4 )( x + 5) = 42. 46. 3 3 3x − 3 ( x + 1) − = x ( x + 1) x +1 x = 44. −4 x−3 43. . 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 3x x + 4 3x ( x + 2 ) − ( x + 4 )( x − 3) − = x−3 x +2 ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) = 3x 2 + 6 x − ( x 2 + x − 12 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) 2 x + 5 x + 12 . Section P. = 4 x + 12 − 3 x x ( x + 3) = x + 12 x ( x + 3) 2x x + 2 2 x ( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 )( x + 2 ) + = x+2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 2x2 − 4 x + x2 + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 3x2 + 4 . x ≠ 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3x − 3x − 3 3 . 9 x + 39 . 0 =− x ( x + 1) x ( x + 1) 4 ( x + 3) − 3 x 4 3 − = x x+3 x ( x + 3) x ≠ –3. 40. Inc. 47. x ≠ –1.6 x 2 + 3x x 2 − 12 − x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + 3 x − ( x 2 − 12) = x 2 + x − 12 2 x + 3 x − x 2 + 12 = x 2 + x − 12 3x + 12 = 2 x + x − 12 3( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 3) 3 = . x ( − 2 )( x − 3) x+5 x−5 + x −5 x +5 ( x + 5 )( x + 5 ) + ( x − 5 )( x − 5 ) = ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + x 2 − 10 x + 25 ( x − 5)( x + 5) = 2 x 2 + 50 . = 3 ( x + 5) + 6 ( x + 4) 3 6 + = x+4 x+5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) x ≠ 3. x ≠ −2. –5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) 8 ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 2 ) 8 2 + = x−2 x−3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x ≠ 2. 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5 ) 49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 39. 3 = 8 x − 24 + 2 x − 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) = 10 x − 28 .

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. –1 = 3 ( 5x − 2) + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 15 x − 6 + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 20 x − 6 . 5 5 50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –3 ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) x x − 2 x − 2 x − 24 x − 7 x + 6 x x = − ( x − 6 )( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x − 1) 2 x ( x − 1) − x ( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) x2 − x − x2 − 4 x ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) 5x . x ≠ –5. = 53. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1. 50. –4 4 x + 16 ( x + 3) = =− 4 4 4 4 + = + 2 x + 6 x + 9 x + 3 ( x + 3) x+3 = ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = 2 2 3 x ( x + 3) − 2 x ( x + 5 ) = 5 7 5 7 + = + 2 x + 8 3x + 12 2( x + 4) 3( x + 4) 15 14 = + 6( x + 4) 6( x + 4) 15 + 14 = 6( x + 4) 29 = 6( x + 4) x ≠ –4 4 + 4 ( x + 3) 3x 2x − 2 x + 3x − 10 x + x − 6 3x 2x = − ( x + 5 )( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 2 = 3 2 3 2 + = + 2 x + 4 3x + 6 2( x + 2) 3( x + 2) 9 4 = + 6( x + 2) 6( x + 2) 9+4 = 6( x + 2) 13 = 6( x + 2) x ≠ –2 = 52. Inc. 6 x x − ( )( − 1)( x + 4 ) x ≠ 6. 3 49. ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 2 2 x≠− . . x + 3 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) + ( x − 3)( x − 3) + = x−3 x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) x ≠ –3. ( x + 3) x ≠ –3 4 + 4 x + 12 ( x + 3) 2 = 55. x2 + 6 x + 9 + x2 − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 2 x 2 + 18 . 2. 2 . 51. x+3 x+2 − x2 − 1 x − 1 x+3 x+2 = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) x − 1 x+3 ( x + 1)( x + 2) = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x+3 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x + 3 − x 2 − 3x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) −x2 − 2x + 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) x ≠ 1. ( x − 3)( x + 3) 54. 3 5x 3 5x + = + 2 5 x + 2 25 x − 4 5 x + 2 ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) = = = 3x 2 + 9 x − 2 x 2 − 10 x ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = x2 − x .

− 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) x + 1 51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 −1 ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x − 1)( x + 1) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎡ ⎤ 1+1 xy ⎢ 1 + 1 ⎥ x y x y ⎦ = y+x = 1 . 4 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 ) 4 ⎡⎢ x − 1⎤⎥ ⎣4 ⎦ = x − 4 = 1 . 4 x2 + x − 6 3x 5 − + 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 1 x + 2 4 x2 + x − 6 −3 x 5 = + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) x + 1 x + 2 = 63. x ≠ 4 4 ( x − 4) 4 ( x − 4) 4 x ≠ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y ≠ 0 xy x ( xy ) x2 y 65. Section P. x ≠ 0. x ≠ –y 4 x 2 + x − 6 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = x 3 2 x 2 + 3x − x x2 + 2 x = ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) x ( x + 2) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x .PreCalculus 4E 56. . x ≠ 0. 5 ( x + 1) −3 x ( x + 2 ) 4 x2 + x − 5 + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = = 58. 3. 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 + 3 ( x + 5) − 5 x ( x − 4 ) ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = 6 x + 17 x − 40 + 3x + 15 − 5 x 2 + 20 x ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = x 2 + 40 x − 25 . = ⎣ x+ y xy [ x + y ] xy ( x + y ) xy 64. x ≠ 0. x ≠ 2. x≠3 x − 3 3[ x − 3] 3 ( x − 3) 3 60. x ⎡1 + 1 ⎤ 1+ 1 x = ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ = x + 1 . x −1 4 = x−4 61.6 x + 5 x +1 − x2 − 4 x − 2 x+5 x +1 = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 x+5 ( x + 2)( x + 1) = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x+5 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x + 5 − x − 3x − 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 − x2 − 2 x + 3 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x ≠ 2. ( x + 3) ⎡⎢⎣ x − x +x 3 ⎤⎥⎦ x ( x + 3) − x x− x x+3 = = x+2 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x −1 . 1 − 1 x ⎡⎢1 − 1 ⎤⎥ x − 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . y ≠ 0. 8 + 1 x ⎡⎢8 + 1 ⎤⎥ 8 x + 1 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . −1 x+2 = 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x + − x 2 + x − 20 x−4 x+5 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x = + − 5 4 4 x x x x + − − +5 ( )( ) = 66. Inc. x ≠ −5. x ≠ –2. 1 3 3 − 1 x ⎡3 − 1 ⎤ 3 x − 1 ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ x 62. –2 59. ⎡x ⎤ − 1 3 ⎢⎣ 3 − 1⎥⎦ x −3 1 = = = . 1 4 4− x ⎡⎢ 4 − 1 ⎤⎥ 4 x − 1 x x⎦ ⎣ = 57. –3 x+3 ( x − 2 ) [ x − 3] ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x−3 = = 3 ⎤ x ( x − 2) − 3 ⎡ x− 3 x − 2 ( x − 2) ⎢ x − x − 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ − − x x 2 3 ( )( ) = 2 x − 2x − 3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x − 2 = = . x ≠ −2.

Inc. . –1. 2.3 x+2 52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x +1 ( x –1)( x + 1) x ≠ 1. – 2 = 69. 2 7 x +1 x +1 − 2 x−2 x = 3 +1 3 +1 ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 − 4 ⎡ x + 1⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎣⎢ x − 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎡ ⎤ 3 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 + 1⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ( )( ) ⎣ ⎦ = x ( x + 2 ) + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 3 + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 + 2 x + x2 − 4 2 x2 + 2 x – 4 = x 2 –1 3 + x2 − 4 2( x 2 + x – 2) = ( x –1)( x + 1) 2( x + 2)( x –1) 2( x + 2) = = . 68. −1. 3 − 4 3 − 4 x−2 x+2 = x−2 x+2 7 7 2 x − 2 x + 2) ( )( x −4 ⎡ 3 − 4 ⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 7 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) )( )⎦ ⎣( 3( x + 2) − 4 ( x − 2) 3x + 6 − 4 x + 8 − x + 14 = = = 7 7 7 x − 14 =− x ≠ –2. 1 x +1 1 1 + 2 x − 2x − 3 x − 3 = 1 x +1 1 1 + ( x + 1)( x − 3) x − 3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x +1 = ( x + 1)( x − 3) ( x + 1)( x − 3) + x −3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x−3 = 1+ x +1 x −3 = x ≠ −2.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 67.

71. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −5. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section P. ( x + h)( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x+h x − − x + h +1 x +1 = x + h +1 x +1 h h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) ( x + h)( x + 1) − x( x + h + 1) = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x 2 + x + hx + h − x 2 − hx − x h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) h = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) 1 = ( x + h + 1)( x + 1) = 53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 6 1 6 1 − − + − −3 ( x 5)( x 3) x x + 2 x − 15 x − 3 = 1 1 +1 +1 x+5 x+5 6( x + 5)( x − 3) ( x + 5)( x − 3) − ( x + 5)( x − 3) x −3 = ( x + 5)( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) x+5 6 − ( x + 5) = ( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) 6− x−5 = x − 3 + x 2 + 2 x − 15 1− x = 2 x + 3x − 18 1− x x ≠ −6.3 = ( x + 6)( x − 3) 2 70. 1 1 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 − − ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x2 = 2 2 h hx ( x + h) = x 2 − ( x + h) 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2hx + h 2 ) hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − x 2 − 2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 −2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h) 2 −h(2 x + h) = 2 hx ( x + h) 2 (2 x + h) =− 2 x ( x + h) 2 = 72. .

h≠0 x − x+3 3 x x+3 x+5 − x x+5 + x ⋅ 5 x+5 + x ( x + 5) 2 − ( x )2 5( x + 5 + x ) x+5− x 5( x + 5 + x ) 1 x+5 + x x+7 − x x+7 + x ⋅ 7 x+7 + x ( x + 7 )2 − ( x )2 7( x + 7 + x ) x+7− x 7( x + 7 + x ) 1 x+7 + x x+ y x −y 2 2 ⋅ x− y x− y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 5 − x2 2 h x ( x + h) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+3 x x⎠ x+3 x ⎝ x+3 = 3 3 x+3 x = x2 x2 + 2 x − x+h = 3 ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) 1 ( x + y )( x − y ) 54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 − x2 + x2 (5 − x ) ( x+ y x −y 2 2 = = 5 5 − x2 ) 2 = 5 − x2 5 = (5 − x ) 2 . x > 0 3x ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+h x x⎠ x+h x ⎝ x+h = h h x+h x = x− 74. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra x− 73. x (3 x ) 3x − 1 3x 1 = 1− .x>0 4x 75. x (4 x ) 4x −1 4x 1 = 1− . ( = 1 3 x x x− 1 3 x ) (3 x) 77. x+5 − x = 5 − x2 + 2 = x2 ⎛ ⎜ =⎝ = − x 2 + 2 ⎞⎟ x 2 + 2 ⎠ x2 x2 + 2 = x2 x2 + 2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2) x2 x2 + 2 2 =− 2 x x2 + 2 76. x+7 − x = 7 = x2 5 − x2 + 5 − x2 = ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜ 5 − x2 + ⎟ 5 − x2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 5− x ⎠ =⎝ 2 5− x 5 − x2 = 5− x 2 ( = = = ) 81. 80. Inc. 1 4 x ( = x x− 1 4 x ) (4 x) 78. . = 79.

6 x− y = x −y 2 x+ y ⋅ 2 x+ y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 = = = 83. y −1 − ( y + 5) 5 1 −1 = y − 1 y+5 5 LCD = y ( y + 5) 1 y − ⎛1 1 y+5 5 y ( y + 5) ⎜ = ⎝y − 1 ⎞ ⎟ y +5⎠ y ( y + 5)( 5) = y +5− y 5 y ( y + 5) = 5 5 y ( y + 5) = 1 y ( y + 5) 55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x + y ) 1 ( x + y )( x + y ) . ( x 2 − y 2 )( x + y ) 6 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 1) 6 ⎞ ⎛ ( x − 2) 3 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜2− ⎟ ⎜1 + ⎟ = ⎜⎜ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ( x + 1) ( x + 1) ⎠ ⎝ ( x − 2 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 x + 2 − 6 ⎞⎛ x − 2 + 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 x − 4 ⎞ ⎛ x + 1 ⎞ 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) =2 =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟= ⎝ x + 1 ⎠⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ( x + 1) ( x − 2 ) 86.PreCalculus 4E 82. x≠ y ⎛ ( 2 x + 3) ( x + 5 ) ( x − 1) ⎛ 2 x + 3 x2 + 4 x − 5 ⎞ 2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 =⎜ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − ( 2 x + 3) ( x − 1) ⎝ x + 1 2 x + x − 3 ⎠ x + 2 ⎜⎝ x + 1 2 ( x + 1) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 2 ( x + 1) = − = x 1 x 2 x 1 x 2 + + + + ( )( ) ( )( ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎞ ⎟− 2 = x+5 − 2 ⎟ x + 2 x +1 x + 2 ⎠ = x 2 + 2 x + 5 x + 10 − 2 x − 2 x2 + 5x + 8 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎛ ( x + 2) ( x − 4) ⎞ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 ⋅⎜ − ÷ ⎜⎜ − ⎟ ⎟= x − 2 x − 8 ⎝ x − 4 x + 2 ⎠ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎝ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎟⎠ 1 2 ⎛ x+2−x+4 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) 1 1 6 1 ÷ ⎜⎜ ÷ ⎜⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎟ = ⎟⎟ = x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 6 6 ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) 1 = 85. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 84. Inc. x− y x −y 2 2 Section P. 3 ⎞⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ( x + 2) 3 ⎞⎛ ( x − 1) 5 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎜4− ⎟⎜ 1 + ⎟=⎜ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ x + 2 x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 x + 8 − 3 ⎞⎛ x − 1 + 5 ⎞ 4 x + 5 x + 4 ( 4 x + 5 )( x + 4 ) =⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎜ ⎟= ( x + 2 )( x − 1) ⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ x + 2 x − 1 87.

c.000 to inoculate 40% of the population against this strain of flu. ab + a 2 − ab + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 = ) ⎞⎟ = ) ⎠⎟ a ab 2 + ab + b2 + a 2 − ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a2 + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 130 x is equal to 100 − x 130 ⋅ 40 130 ⋅ 40 1. For x = 100. and $1.67 .170. So it costs an astronomical amount of money to inoculate almost all of the people.000 to inoculate 90% of the population. y −1 − ( y + 2) 1 −1 y = 2 − 1 y+2 2 LCD = y ( y + 2 ) 1 − y y+2 2 89. a. Inc.670. 3. 100 − 80 20 when x = 80 130 ⋅ 90 130 ⋅ 90 = = 1170 .000.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 88.000. = = 86. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the function is not defined. . 56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. 100 − 90 10 when x = 90 It costs $86. and it is impossible to inoculate 100% of the population. the value of the function increases rapidly.000 to inoculate 80% of the population. ⎛1 1 y ( y + 2) ⎜ = ⎝y 1 ⎞ ⎟ y+2⎠ y ( y + 2 )( 2 ) = y+2− y 2 y ( y + 2) = 2 2 y ( y + 2) = 1 y ( y + 2) ⎛ a ( c + d ) − b ( c + d ) ⎞⎟ ac + ad − bc − bd ⎞ c−d 1 c−d ⎛ 1 ⎜ ⋅ − = ⋅ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 1 1 ⎝ a 3 − b3 ⎠ a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ( c + d ) ( a − b ) ⎞⎟ c−d c+d c−d 1 − = − ⋅ =⎜ ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + bd + b 2 1 ⎝ ⎠ c+d −c+d 2d = 2 = a + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 ( ( 90. As x approaches 100. 100 − 40 60 when x = 40 130 ⋅ 80 130 ⋅ 80 2. and $520. = = 520 . − ) ) ⎛ a ( c − d ) − b ( c − d ) a 3 + b3 ⎞ ⎛ ac − ad − bc + bd a3 − b3 ⎞ ab + ⎜⎜ ÷ 3 3 ⎟⎟ = 2 + ⎜⎜ ⋅ ⎟ 2 a + ab + b ⎝ ac − ad + bc − bd a + b ⎠ a + ab + b ⎝ a ( c − d ) + b ( c − d ) a3 − b3 ⎟⎠ ab 2 2 ( ( ⎛ ( c − d ) ( a − b ) ( a + b ) a 2 − ab + b 2 = 2 +⎜ ⋅ a + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( c − d ) ( a + b ) ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ab = 91.

6 2d d + r1 d r2 LCD = r1r2 2d d r1 + d ⎛d d ⎞ + ⎜ r r ⎟⎟ 1 ⎝ 2⎠ r1r2 ⎜ r2 = = If r1r2 ( 2d ) = 2r1r2 d r2 d + r1d 2r1r2 d d ( r2 + r1 ) = 2r1r2 r2 + r1 r1 = 40 and r2 = 30. Inc. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 22 calories. W = −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 W = −66(4)2 + 526(4) + 1030 W = 2078 According to the model. M = −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 M = −120(4)2 + 998(4) + 590 M = 2662 According to the model. b. 7 93. men between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2662 calories per day.PreCalculus 4E 92. . 7 Your average speed will be 34 2 miles per hour. Substitute 4 for x in the model. a. Substitute 4 for x in the model. W −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 = M −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 = = 2 ( −33x 2 + 263x + 515 ) 2 ( −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 ) −33x 2 + 263x + 515 −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. women between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2078 calories per day. the value of this expression will be 2 ⋅ 40 ⋅ 30 2400 = 30 + 40 70 2 = 34 . Section P. c. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 38 calories. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. . 4 x + 14 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x +5⎠ ⎝ x +6⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+5 x+6 2 x ( x + 6) 2x ( x + ( x + 5)( x + 6) ( x + 5)( x 2 = + 2 2 x + 12 x + 2 x + 10 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 2 = 4 x + 22 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 97. R= = = 1 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1R2 R3 R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2 4 ⋅8 ⋅12 8⋅12 + 4 ⋅12 + 4 ⋅ 8 384 = 96 + 48 + 32 384 = 176 24 = 11 24 The parallel resistance is ohms. –108. P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x + 3⎠ ⎝ x − 4⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+3 x+4 2 x ( x + 4) 2 x ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x + 4) ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = + 2 2 x + 8x + 2 x + 6 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = 96. 58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12) = 95. Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8. Inc. 11 R(4.

Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: 3x − 3 3(1) − 3 0 = = which is undefined. 111. A sample change is: 6 + 117. false. 112. makes sense 113. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. true 115. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: The numerator and denominator of 7 do not 14 + x share a common factor. false. −1 − 1 6x 1 6x + 1 = + = x x x x ( x − y) −1 + ( x − y) −2 = 1 + x −1 x x +1 x + 2 x −1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = x x +1 x + 2 x + 3 x + 3 1 ( x − y) ( x − y) 2 = ( x − y) 1 x − y +1 + = 2 ( x − y )( x − y ) ( x − y ) ( x − y )2 120. true 116. Changes to make the statement true will vary. . Inc. Explanations will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. does not make sense.6 109. It cubes x. 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 3 2 + 2 + 3 + + 5 4 3 x x x = x x 2 x3 = x + x + x = x x + x + 1 = x3 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 1 + 5 + 6 + 5 + 6 4 4 x x x x x x ( ) 59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 n x −1 − 1 n x +1 − n 1 x 2n −1 = n x +1 x 2n −1 − n = = 118. does not make sense. x −1 x 2n 1 x 2n −1 n x +1− x +1−1 x 2n −1 1 x 2n −1 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ x 1 ⎞⎛ x +1 1 ⎞⎛ x + 2 1 ⎞⎛ x + 3 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ − − − ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ x x + x + x + x x x + x + x + x + x + x + 3⎠ 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎛ x − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 1) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 3) − 1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠⎝ x +1 ⎠⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x + 3 ⎠ = 119. 4 x( x − 1) 4(1)(1 − 1) 0 110. Sample explanation: The first step is to invert the second fraction.PreCalculus 4E Section P. A sample change is: x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) = = x+5 x−5 x−5 114.

12 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 3( x + 2) − 4( x − 1) = 3x + 6 − 4 x + 4 7 x − 21 = −4 x − 10 7 x + 4 x = −10 + 21 11x = 11 11x 11 = 11 11 x =1 Check: x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 1− 3 5 1+ 5 = − 4 14 7 −2 5 6 = − 4 14 7 1 1 − =− 2 2 The solution set is {1}. 60 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x = 10 2 x 10 = 2 2 x=5 Check: 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 4[2(5) + 1] − 29 = 3[2(5) − 5] 4[10 + 1] − 29 = 3[10 − 5] 4[11] − 29 = 3[5] 44 − 29 = 15 15 = 15 true The solution set is {5}. 2 −b − b 2 − 4ac −(9) − (9) − 4(2)(−5) = 2a 2(2) −9 − 81 + 40 4 −9 − 121 = 4 −9 − 11 = 4 = −5 = 3. 2( x − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3( x + 2) 2. x=7 .7 Check Point Exercises 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 x −3 ⎛ 5 x+5⎞ 28 ⋅ = 28 ⎜ − 4 7 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 14 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 8 x + 4 − 29 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 − 6 x = 6 x − 15 − 6 x 2 x − 25 = −15 2 x − 25 + 25 = −15 + 25 −20 6 5 − = 2 x+3 x−2 x + x−6 −20 6 5 − = x + 3 x − 2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x + 3)( x − 2) 5( x + 3)( x − 2) −20( x + 3)( x − 2) − = x+3 x−2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x − 2) − 5( x + 3) = −20 6 x − 12 − 5 x − 15 = −20 x − 27 = −20 The solution set is {7} . 2(6 − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3(6 + 2) 2(3) − 17 = 13 − 3(8) 6 − 17 = 13 − 24 −11 = −11. true 7 ( x − 3) = 2(5) − 4 ( x + 5 ) 7 x − 21 = 10 − 4 x − 20 ⎛ x + 2 x −1 ⎞ ⎛ x+2⎞ ⎛ x −1⎞ − = 12 ⎜ − 12 ⎜ 122. Inc. Section P. = − x + 10 123.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121.

3x 2 − 21 = 0 3x 2 = 21 qf − pq = − pf q( f − p) = − pf − pf q( f − p) = f −p f −p pf q= p− f 6. a. 2 x2 + x = 1 b. Section P. 9. 3}.3} . −1⎬ . −5 − 11 . Inc. x=0 x=3 The solution set is {0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is { } . 5. x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x2 + 4x = 1 x2 + 4 x + 4 = 1 + 4 ( x + 2) 2 =5 x+2= ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x + 5) 2 = 11 x + 5 = ± 11 4 1 − 2 x = 20 x = −5 ± 11 1 − 2x = 5 { 1 − 2x = 5 or 1 − 2 x = −5 −2 x = 4 −2 x = −6 x = −2 x=3 The solution set is {–2. 4 1 − 2 x − 20 = 0 b. } The solution set is −5 + 11. 3x 2 − 9 x = 0 3x( x − 3) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 3 = 0 3 x 2 21 = 3 3 2 x =7 x=± 7 { } The solution set is − 7.7 1 4 1 = − x + 2 x2 − 4 x − 2 1 4 1 = − x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 1( x + 2)( x − 2) 4( x + 2)( x − 2) 1( x + 2)( x − 2) = − x+2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x−2 x − 2 = 4 − ( x + 2) x−2=4−x−2 x−2=2−x 2x = 4 x=2 2 must be rejected. 2 x2 + x − 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 2x = 1 1 x= 2 1 1 1 + = p q f 1 pqf 1 pqf 1 pqf + = p q f qf + pf = pq x = −1 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎩2 ⎭ 8. 7 .PreCalculus 4E 4. 7. . a.

−b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a = = = = = = −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) 7(11) − 5 = 72 −2 ± 4 + 8 4 −2 ± 12 4 −2 ± 2 3 4 2(−1 ± 3) 4 −1 ± 3 2 77 − 5 = 72 72 = 72 The solution set is {11}. 6x – 3 = 63 6x = 66 x = 11 The solution set is {11}. b = −2. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 11. c = 5 3. 2. 5 x + 5 = 40 5 x = 35 x=7 The solution set is {7}. 12. Inc. Check: 6 x − 3 = 63 ⎧⎪ −1 + 3 −1 − 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . The solution set is {6} . 6(11) − 3 = 63 66 − 3 = 63 63 = 63 3x 2 − 2x + 5 = 0 a = 3. The equation has two complex imaginary solutions. . c = −1 1. 2 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 Exercise Set P. b = 2. ⎬. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 a = 2.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. 7x – 5 = 72 7x = 77 x = 11 Check: 7 x − 5 = 72 Check: 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 2 11(7) − [6(7) − 5] = 40 x + 3 = x2 − 6x + 9 77 − (42 − 5) = 40 0 = x2 − 7 x + 6 0 = ( x − 6)( x − 1) x − 6 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 77 − (37) = 40 40 = 40 x=6 x =1 1 does not check and must be rejected. 62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x+3 +3 = x x +3 = x−3 ( x+3 ) 2 = ( x − 3) 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 11x − 6 x + 5 = 40 b2 − 4ac = (−2)2 − 4 ⋅3 ⋅5 = 4 − 60 = −56 The discriminant is –56.

Inc. ⎤ ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 25 ⎞ 5 ⎜ ⎟ − ⎢ 2 ⎜ ⎟ − 10 ⎥ = 35 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎦ 125 ⎡ 50 ⎤ − − 10⎥ = 35 3 ⎢⎣ 3 ⎦ 125 20 − = 35 3 3 105 = 35 3 35 = 35 13(−19) + 14 = 12(−19) − 5 − 247 + 14 = −228 − 5 − 233 = −233 2x – 7 = 6 + x x–7=6 x = 13 The solution set is {13}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3(7) + 7 = 2(14) 21 + 7 = 28 3x + 5 = 2x + 13 x + 5 = 13 x=8 The solution set is {8}. ⎩3⎭ 14 + 4 = 18 18 = 18 Check: 5 x − (2 x − 10) = 35 8. Check: 3x + 5 = 2 x + 13 3(8) + 5 = 2(8) + 13 24 + 5 = 16 + 13 29 = 29 Check: 2( x − 1) + 3 = x − 3( x + 1) 2(−1 − 1) + 3 = −1 − 3(−1 + 1) 2(−2) + 3 = −1 − 3(0) − 4 + 3 = −1 + 0 − 1 = −1 63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 4.7 5x – (2x – 10) = 35 5x – 2x + 10 = 35 3x + 10 = 35 3x = 25 25 x= 3 7. Check: 7(2) + 4 = 2 + 16 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 28 = 28 10. . 3(x – 2) + 7 = 2(x + 5) 3x – 6 + 7 = 2x + 10 3x + 1 = 2x + 10 x + 1 = 10 x=9 The solution set is {9}. 7x + 4 = x + 16 6x + 4 = 16 6x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {2}. Check: 2(13) − 7 = 6 + 13 Check: 3(9 − 2) + 7 = 2(9 + 5) 26 − 7 = 19 19 = 19 6. Check: 13 x + 14 = 12 x − 5 9. 13x + 14 = 12x – 5 x + 14 = –5 x = –19 The solution set is {–19}. 2(x – 1) + 3 = x – 3(x +1) 2x – 2 + 3 = x – 3x – 3 2x +1 = –2x – 3 4x + 1 = –3 4x = –4 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. Section P. 5.

13. x +3 3 x −5 = + 6 8 4 ⎡ x + 3 3 x − 5⎤ 24 ⎢ = + 8 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 6 4 x + 12 = 9 + 6 x − 30 15. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 14. 25 7 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . b. a. ⎩2⎭ 12. x +1 1 2 − x = + 4 6 3 ⎡ x +1 1 2 − x ⎤ 12 ⎢ = + 6 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 4 3x + 3 = 2 + 8 − 4 x 16. 17. Inc. 8 x − 3x = 9 − 104 5 x = −95 x = −19 The solution set is {−19} . 3x + 4 x = 10 − 3 7x = 7 x +1 x+2 = 5− 3 7 x + 2⎤ ⎡ x +1 21 ⎢ = 5− 7 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 3 7x + 7 = 105 – 3x – 6 7x + 3x = 99 – 7 10x = 92 92 x= 10 46 x= 5 ⎧ 46 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 x − 6 x = −21 − 12 − 2 x = −33 33 2 x= ⎧ 33 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . x−2 x+3 = 3 8 x − 2 x + 3⎤ ⎡ 24 ⎢5 + = 3 8 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 120 + 8 x − 16 = 3 x + 9 5+ 1 11 +5 = ( x ≠ 1) x −1 x −1 1 11 +5 = x −1 x −1 1 + 5( x − 1) = 11 1 + 5 x − 5 = 11 5 x − 4 = 11 5 x = 15 x=3 The solution set is {3}. ⎩5⎭ 3x x − 3 x + 2 − = 5 2 3 ⎡ 3x x − 3 x + 2 ⎤ 30 ⎢ − = 2 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣5 18 x − 15 x + 45 = 10 x + 20 3x − 10 x = 20 − 45 x =1 − 7 x = −25 The solution set is {1}. ⎩7⎭ x= x x −3 = 2+ 4 3 x − 3⎤ ⎡x 12 ⎢ = 2 + 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣4 3x = 24 + 4x – 12 3x – 4x = 12 –x = 12 x = –12 The solution set is {–12}.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11.

x ≠ 2) x + 3 2x + 6 x − 2 8x 8 = 4− ( x ≠ −1) x +1 x +1 23. 2 x = −2 x−2 x−2 2 = x − 2( x − 2) x = 2 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. 3 1 2 + = 2x − 2 2 x −1 3 1 2 + = 2( x − 1) 2 x − 1 3 + 1( x − 1) = 4 25. 65 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 x−4 − 5 x+2 = 6 ( x − 4)( x + 2) . x ≠ −1) x + 1 x −1 x −1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 x2 − 1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2( x − 1) − 1( x + 1) = 2 x 2x − 2 − x −1 = 2x x = −1 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. 8x 8 = 4− x +1 x +1 8 x = 4( x + 1) − 8 b. 4) 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 x2 − 2 x − 8 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 ( x − 4)( x + 2) ( x ≠ 4. a. 8x = 4x + 4 − 8 4 x = −4 2 1 2x − = 2 ( x ≠ 1. . 2 = x − 2x + 4 21. 4 2 32 + = x + 5 x − 5 ( x + 5)( x − 5) ( x ≠ 5. ∅. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. a. a. x ≠ −5) b. ( x ≠ −2. a. 2 x = − 2 ( x ≠ 2) x−2 x−2 24. a. a. ∅. a. 3 −4 −7 = x+4 x+4 3 − 7( x + 4) = −4 b. b. 4 2 32 + = . b. 3 + x −1 = 4 x=2 The solution set is {2}. −5 x + 5 x − 5 x 2 − 25 4( x − 5) + 2( x + 5) = 32 4 x − 20 + 2 x + 10 = 32 3 1 2 + = ( x ≠ 1) 2x − 2 2 x −1 6 x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}.7 3 −4 −7 = ( x ≠ −4) x+4 x+4 22. 20. −x = 8 −7 x = 21 x = −8 The solution set is {–8}. x ≠ 5. b. b. 3 5 1 = + ( x ≠ −3. ∅. 3 5 1 = + x + 3 2( x + 3) x − 2 6( x − 2) = 5( x − 2) + 2( x + 3) 6 x − 12 = 5 x − 10 + 2 x + 6 3 − 7 x − 28 = −4 19. Inc. x ≠ −2) 1( x + 2) − 5( x − 4) = 6 x + 2 − 5 x + 20 = 6 −4 x = −16 x=4 The solution set is the empty set. Section P. −x = 3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. b. a.PreCalculus 4E 18.

C 1− r S (1 − r ) = C C 1− r = S C −r = − 1 S C r = − +1 S markup based on selling price S= IR + Ir = E I (R + r) = E 2A −b = a h area of trapezoid E R+r electric current I= 66 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. rt interest C = 2πr C r= . S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S −P = t. 27. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S−P = r. 1 2 8 . x ≠ −1. 2A =a+b h 2A −a=b h area of trapezoid I = Prt I P= . b. Inc. T = D + pm T − D = pm F B F S = +V B 36. 28.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 26. P = C + MC P − C = MC P −C =M C markup based on cost 31. 2π circumference of a circle 33. Pr interest 35. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 1 2 8 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 1( x + 1) − 2( x − 3) = 8 x + 1 − 2x + 6 = 8 −x + 7 = 8 −x = 1 x = −1 The solution set is the empty set. ∅. 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) A= 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) 2A = a+b h A= 37. . F S −V B(S − V ) = F B= S −V = T − D pm = m m T −D =p m total of payment 30. 3 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 32. 29. Pt interest 34.

2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = −11 2 x = −8 2 x = 14 x = −4 x=7 The solution set is {–4. Inc. 4}. x−2 =7 x – 2 = 7 x – 2 = –7 x=9 x = –5 The solution set is {9. −5/3} resistance f = 41.PreCalculus 4E 38. −3} f1 = ff 2 f2 − f 49. –2}. 1 1 1 = + R R R 1 2 R1 R2 = RR2 + RR1 43. x +1 = 5 x + 1 = 5 x + 1 = –5 x=4 x = –6 The solution set is {–6. Section P. + = p q f qf + pf = pq f (q + p) = pq pq f = p+q thin lens equation 40. 2x −1 = 5 2x – 1 = 5 2x – 1 = –5 2x = 6 2x = –4 x=3 x = –2 The solution set is {3. ff1 − f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) f − f2 2 4− focal length f = 42.7 A = 2lw + 2lh + 2 wh A − 2lw = h ( 2l + 2 w ) A − 2lw =h 2l + 2 w surface area 1 1 1 39. R1 R2 − RR1 = RR2 R1 ( R2 − R ) = RR2 R1 = RR2 R2 − R 47. 46. 45. . 44. 7}. ⎩ 5 ⎭ 67 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f − f2 48. 3|2x – 1| = 21 |2x – 1| = 7 2x – 1 = 7 or 2x – 1 = −7 2x = 8 2x = −6 x=4 x = −3 The solution set is {4. 2|3x – 2| = 14 |3x – 2| = 7 3x – 2 = 7 3x – 2 = −7 3x = 9 3x = −5 x=3 x = −5/3 The solution set is {3. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 2 4− f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 4− ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 f − f1 5 x =6 2 4− f 2 ( f − f1 ) = − ff1 = 5 x = 12 2 5 x=6 2 5 − x=2 2 ff 2 − f1 f 2 = − ff1 f 2 ( f − f1 ) 5 x + 6 = 18 2 − ff1 f − f1 x=− ff1 f2 = f1 − f focal length 4 5 or 4 − 5 x = −6 2 5 − x = −10 2 x=4 ⎧ 4 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . –5}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 ⎬ .

5} . 5 x 2 = 20 x 5 x 2 − 20 x = 0 5 x( x − 4) = 0 5 x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 53. |2x – 1| + 3 = 3 |2x – 1| = 0 2x – 1 = 0 2x = 1 x = 1/2 The solution set is {0. 52. ⎬ . 3 x =3 4 The solution set is {4. 4} . 3x − 2 + 4 = 4 3 x 2 = 12 x 3x 2 − 12 x = 0 3x( x − 4) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 3x − 2 = 0 3x − 2 = 0 3x = 2 2 x= 3 The solution set is {0. −1} . |x + 1| +5 = 3 |x + 1| = −2 No solution The solution set is { }. 4 1− 3 x + 7 = 10 4 4 1− 56. 51. 3x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . 68 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . x 2 + 11x + 10 = 0 ( x + 10)( x + 1) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x = −10 x = −1 The solution set is {−10. 5} . 59. x 2 = −11x − 10 58. ⎧2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ⎧1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Inc. 9} . 4} . ⎩3⎭ 55. ⎩2⎭ 60. x 2 = 8 x − 15 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall. |x + 1| + 6 = 2 |x + 1| = −4 The solution set is { }. x 2 − 3 x − 10 = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = 0 x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=5 x = −2 The solution set is {−2. 54. ⎩3 3 ⎭ 1− x 2 − 8 x + 15 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 5) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x=3 x=5 The solution set is {3.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 50. x 2 − 13 x + 36 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 9) = 0 x − 4 = 0 or x − 9 = 0 x=4 x=9 61. 3 3 x = 4 4 3 3 or 1 − 3 x = − 3 1− x = 4 4 4 4 3 1 3 7 − x=− − x=− 4 4 4 4 1 7 x= x= 3 3 1 7 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .

x = 1± 3 { 70. 2}. 2 2 ( x + 2)2 = 16 =± 5 x + 2 = ±4 x = −2 ± 4 The solution set is {–6. Section P. 3 − 2 5 . 5 x 2 + 1 = 51 68. 5 x 2 = 50 ( x + 3) 2 = 1 x 2 = ± 10 x = ± 10 x + 3 = ±1 { x = −3 ± 1 The solution set is {–4. 3 ( x + 4 ) = 21 ( x + 4) 2 =7 2 =± 7 x 2 − 6 x − 11 = 0 x 2 − 6 x = 11 2 ( x + 4) x 2 + 4 x = 12 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 12 + 4 ( x − 4) = 5 ( x − 4) } The solution set is 1 + 3. –2}. x−4=± 5 x = 4± 5 { } 71.7 5 x 2 = 45 67. Inc. 1}. } The solution set is ± 10 . x 2 + 6 x = −8 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = −8 + 9 x 2 = 10 64. x + 3 = ±4 x = −3 ± 4 The solution set is {–7. The solution set is 4 ± 5 . 63. x2 + 6 x = 7 x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 11 + 9 ( x − 3) 2 = 20 x − 3 = ± 20 x = 3± 2 5 x+4=± 7 x = −4 ± 7 { { } The solution set is 3 + 2 5. 69 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 69. 1 − 3 . } The solution set is −4 ± 7 . . 66. 3x 2 − 1 = 47 ( x − 1)2 = 3 x 2 = 16 x −1 = ± 3 x 2 = ± 16 x = ±4 The solution set is {±4} . 3 ( x − 4 ) = 15 2 x2 − 2 x = 2 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 2 + 1 3x 2 = 48 65. x2 = 9 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 7 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 16 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} .PreCalculus 4E 62.

Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 72. 3x 2 − 3 x − 4 = 0 x= 3 ± (−3)2 − 4(3)(−4) 2(3) 3 ± 9 + 48 6 3 ± 57 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 3 + 57 3 − 57 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . − 3 − 14 . −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) −5 ± 25 − 8 2 −5 ± 17 x= 2 x= x 2 + 8 x + 15 = 0 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(3) 2(1) x= The solution set is −2 + 3. –2}. ( x + 2) 2 = 3 x = −2 ± 3 { −5 ± 25 − 12 2 −5 ± 13 x= 2 } x2 + 6 x − 5 = 0 ⎧⎪ −5 + 13 −5 − 13 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . x + 3 = ± 14 x2 + 5x + 2 = 0 x= x = −3 ± 14 { } The solution set is −3 + 14. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ x2 + 6 x = 5 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 5 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 14 78. x= x −1 = ± 6 x = 1± 6 { } The solution set is 1 + 6. x − 2x = 5 x 2 + 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x= x − 2x + 1 = 5 +1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 6 −8 ± 64 − 48 2 −8 ± 16 x= 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 The solution set is {–6. − 3}. ⎬ 6 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 6 70 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ −8 ± 64 − 60 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 −8 ± 2 x= 2 The solution set is {−5. ⎬. ⎬. − 2 − 3 . x= 79. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 + 4 x + 1 = 0 x 2 + 4 x = −1 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = −1 + 4 77. x2 + 5x + 3 = 0 x= x+2= ± 3 74. 75. −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(12) 2(1) −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(15) 2(1) ⎧⎪ −5 + 17 −5 − 17 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . x2 − 2 x − 5 = 0 76. 73. 1 − 6 . .

The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 2 x 2 − 11x + 3 = 0 (−11) 2 − 4(2)(3) = 121 – 24 = 97. 2 unequal real solutions ⎧⎪ 3 + 6 3 − 6 ⎫⎪ . 1 real solution 88. 2 unequal real solutions 6 ± 36 − 12 6 6 ± 24 6 6±2 6 6 3± 6 3 90. 4 x2 − 2 x − 7 = 0 2 ± (−2)2 − 4(4)(−7) 2(4) 86. 10 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 10 81. (−2) 2 − 4(1)(1) =4–4 = 0. 2 complex imaginary solutions 3x = 6 x − 1 3x − 6 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x= x= 3x 2 = 2 x − 1 3x 2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x2 = 2x − 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 ⎧⎪1 + 29 1 − 29 ⎫⎪ . x2 − 4 x − 5 = 0 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 89. 85. 2 unequal real solutions 4x2 = 2x + 7 x= 4 x2 − 2 x + 3 = 0 (−2) 2 − 4(4)(3) = 4 – 48 = –44. 2 unequal real solutions −1 ± 12 − 4(5)(−2) 2(5) −1 ± 1 + 40 10 −1 ± 41 x= 10 x= 84. 2 unequal real solutions 2 ± 4 + 112 x= 8 2 ± 116 x= 8 2 ± 2 29 x= 8 1 ± 29 x= 4 82. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. Inc. 2 complex imaginary solutions ⎪⎧ −1 + 41 −1 − 41 ⎪⎫ . Section P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (−4) 2 − 4(1)(−5) = 16 + 20 = 36. x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 (−3)2 − 4(1)(−7) = 9 + 28 = 37.7 5x2 + x − 2 = 0 x= 83. (−2) 2 − 4(3)(1) = 4 – 12 = –8. 4 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 4 x= 2 x 2 + 11x − 6 = 0 112 − 4(2)(−6) = 121 + 48 = 169. 87. . 3 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 3 71 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.PreCalculus 4E 80. 3x 2 + 4 x − 2 = 0 42 − 4(3)(−2) = 16 + 24 = 40.

5 5 . 2 5 . ⎬ . x = ±5 5 97. 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 5 x 2 = 6 − 13x 5 x 2 + 13x − 6 = 0 (2 x + 3)( x + 4) = 1 99. 3x 2 = 60 x= x = −3 −11 ± 112 − 4(2)(11) 2(2) −11 ± 121 − 88 4 −11 ± 33 x= 4 ⎧ 2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. 1 x = − or x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . ⎩ 5⎭ x= ⎪⎧ −11 + 33 −11 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬. 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 72 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 95. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 92. ⎬. Publishing as Prentice Hall. } The solution set is −5 5. ⎩5 ⎭ −3 ± 9 + 8 4 −3 ± 17 x= 4 x= x= ⎪⎧ −3 + 17 −3 − 17 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . (5 x − 2)( x + 3) = 0 5 x − 2 = 0 or x + 3 2 x + 8 x + 3x + 12 = 1 2 2 x 2 + 11x + 11 = 0 5x = 2 2 5 or −3 ± 32 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) x= 5x = 1 x= } The solution set is 1 + 2. 5 x 2 + 2 = 11x 94. 1 − 2 . Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 − x = 1 91. 2 ⎬ . 3x = −2 x2 − 2 x = 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 1 + 1 ( x − 1) 2 = 2 x = −3 or x −1 = ± 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . ⎩ 3 ⎭ x = 1± 2 { 5 x 2 − 11x + 2 = 0 98. 2⎬ . (5 x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 2 x 2 + 3x = 1 2 x 2 + 3x − 1 = 0 5 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 1 or x = 2 5 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . (3 x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 3x + 2 or x − 2 = 0 93. { 2 x 2 = 250 x = ± 125 3x2 − 4x − 4 = 0 2 3 } x 2 = 125 3x 2 − 4 x = 4 x=− { The solution set is −2 5. 1⎬ . . x 2 = 20 2 x2 − x − 1 = 0 (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = ± 20 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = ±2 5 2 x = −1 96.

⎩ 2⎭ x = 0 or x = 73 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x= { } The solution set is 3 ± 2 . ⎩ 3⎭ { } The solution set is 2 ± 2 . Section P.PreCalculus 4E 100. 2 x + 7 = ±5 2 x = −7 ± 5 2 x = −12 or 2 x = −2 x=6 or x = −1 The solution set is {–6. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 (2 x − 5)( x + 1) = 2 105. 104. 2 7 2 ⎧ 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. 2 x 2 − 7 x = 0 9 − 6x + x = 0 x(2 x − 7) = 0 2 x = 0 or 2 x − 7 = 0 2x = 7 x − 6x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 The solution set is {3}. ⎬ . 3x 2 − 12 x + 12 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(7) 2(1) 6± 8 2 x = 3± 2 x= x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x=2 The solution set is {2}. ⎬ . ⎬. 3x 2 − 27 = 0 3 x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. ⎪⎧ 3 + 65 3 − 65 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . . (3 x − 4) = 16 2 x2 − 4x + 2 = 0 3x − 4 = ± 16 3x − 4 = ±4 3x = 4 ± 4 3x = 8 or 3x = 0 8 x = or x = 0 3 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 4± 8 2 x = 2± 2 x= ⎧ 8⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. Inc. 4 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 4 x2 = 4 x − 2 107. 3 ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(−7) 2(2) 3 ± 9 + 56 4 3 ± 65 x= 4 x= 106. (2 x + 7) 2 = 25 x2 = 6 x − 7 108. 109. 4 x 2 − 16 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x − 5x − 5 = 2 4 x 2 = 16 2 x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 x= x2 = 4 x = ±2 The solution set is {−2. x2 − 6 x + 7 = 0 103. 3}. 101. –1}. 102. 2} .

x ≠ 0. 4 x − 3 x − 4 x − 7 x + 12 3x − 12 + 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 20 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 + 5x = 3 110. 20 − 8 x = x x 2 + 8 x − 20 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 2) = 0 x + 10 = 0 x−2 = 0 x = −10 0 = x 2 − 5 x − 12 x= 36 = 6 20 − 8 x = x 2 1 1 1 + = . The solution set is {2 + 10. 112. Inc. ⎩ 2⎭ 111. 5 ± 25 + 48 x= 2 5 ± 73 x= 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 73 5 − 73 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . x ≠ 3. 0 = x2 − 4 x − 6 x= − ( −4 ) ± 3 x + 18 = x 2 ( −4 ) − 4 (1)( −6 ) 2 (1) 2 x 2 − 3x − 18 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 6) = 0 x+3=0 x–6=0 x = –3 x=6 3(−3) + 18 = −3 3(6) + 18 = 6 4 ± 16 + 24 2 4 ± 40 x= 2 4 ± 2 10 x= 2 x = 2 ± 10 x= −9 + 18 = −3 116. 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 2 74 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎬. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ 0. −3 x x+3 4 4 x + 12 + 4 x = x 2 + 3x − ( −5 ) ± 18 + 18 = 6 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. 4=2 . 2x + 5x − 3 = 0 2 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(2)(−3) 2(2) 2x 6 −28 + = 2 . 114. − 1}. ⎬ . 0 = x2 − 8x + 7 0 = ( x − 7 )( x − 1) x=7 x =1 The solution set is {1. −3 x−3 x +3 x −9 2 x ( x + 3) + 6 ( x − 3) = −28 2 x 2 + 6 x + 6 x − 18 = −28 2 x 2 + 12 x + 10 = 0 −5 ± 25 + 24 x= 4 −5 ± 49 x= 4 −5 ± 7 x= 4 1 x = −3. 1 1 1 + = . −2 x x+2 3 3x + 6 + 3 x = x 2 + 2 x 115. 7}. 2 x2 + 6 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 5) = 0 The solution set is {−5. 3x + 18 = x ( −5 ) − 4 (1)( −12 ) 2 (1) 2 x=2 20 − 8(−10) = −10 20 − 8(2) = 2 20 + 80 = −10 20 − 16 = 2 100 = −10 False The solution set is {2}. 113. 3 5 x 2 − 20 + = 2 . 2 − 10}. x ≠ 3.

x + 10 = ( x − 2) 121. ( x − 2)( x − 10) = 0 x − 2 = 0 x − 10 = 0 16 = 4 x=2 2 x + 13 = x + 7 2 x + 13 = ( x + 7) x=8 6(0) + 1 = 0 − 1 x − 5 = 2x + 5 ( x + 1)( x − 6) = 0 x +1 = 0 x − 6 = 0 119. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x + 3 = x − 6x + 9 x2 − 7 x + 6 = 0 6 x + 1 = x2 − 2 x + 1 ( x − 1)( x − 6) = 0 x–1=0 x–6=0 x=1 x=6 6+3 = 6−3 1+ 3 = 1− 3 x2 − 8x = 0 x( x − 8) = 0 x −8 = 0 False 9 = 3 4 = −2 The solution set is {6}. 75 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x2 − 5x − 6 = 0 6(8) + 1 = 8 − 1 0 + 1 = −1 48 + 1 = 7 49 = 7 x − 2x + 5 = 5 ( x − 5) 2 = 2 x + 5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 = 2 x + 5 x=6 −1 + 10 = −1 − 2 x 2 − 12 x + 20 = 0 6 + 10 = 6 − 2 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. x + 10 = x − 2 118.7 x+3 = x−3 117. 2 x + 12 x + 36 = 0 2 ( x + 6) 2 = 0 122. 120. x+6 = 0 10 − 5 = 5 x − x + 11 = 1 x − 1 = x + 11 x = −6 ( x − 1) 2 = x + 11 2(−6) + 13 = −6 + 7 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = x + 11 −12 + 13 = 1 x 2 − 3x − 10 = 0 1 =1 The solution set is {–6}. Inc. x=0 1 = −1 False The solution set is {8}. 2 x + 10 = x 2 − 4 x + 4 x = −1 6x + 1 = x − 1 6 x + 1 = ( x − 1) 2 2 2 2 x + 13 = x + 14 x + 49 x = 10 2 − 2(2) + 5 = 5 10 − 2(10) + 5 = 5 2− 9 =5 10 − 25 = 5 2 − 3 = 5 False The solution set is {10}. ( x + 2)( x − 5) = 0 x+2=0 x−5 = 0 x = −2 x=5 −2 − −2 + 11 = 1 5 − 5 + 11 = 1 −2 − 9 = 1 5 − 16 = 1 −2 − 3 = 1 False The solution set is {5}. 5−4 =1 .

. The solution set is {–5}. 2 x + 19 = x + 8 ( 2 x + 19 ) 2 = ( x + 8) 2 2 x + 19 = x 2 + 16 x + 64 0 = x 2 + 14 x + 45 0 = ( x + 9)( x + 5) x + 9 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 x = −9 x = −5 –9 does not check and must be rejected. Inc. 126. 2 x + 15 = x + 6 ( 2 x + 15 ) 2 = ( x + 6) 2 2 x + 15 = x 2 + 12 x + 36 0 = x 2 + 10 x + 21 0 = ( x + 3)( x + 7) x + 3 = 0 or x + 7 = 0 x = −3 x = −7 –7 does not check and must be rejected. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {–3}. 2 x + 15 − 6 = x 124. ⎩ 11 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ − 76 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 45 – [4 – 2y – 4(y + 7)] = –4(1 + 3y) – [4 – 3(y + 2) – 2(2y – 5)] 45 – [4 – 2y – 4y – 28] = –4 – 12y – [4 – 3y – 6 – 4y + 10] 45 – [–6y – 24] = –4 – 12y – [–7y + 8] 45 + 6y + 24 = –4 – 12y + 7y – 8 6y + 69 = –5y – 12 11y = –81 y=− 81 11 ⎧ 81 ⎫ ⎬.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x + 19 − 8 = x 123. 125. 25 – [2 + 5y – 3(y + 2)] = –3(2y – 5) – [5(y – 1) – 3y + 3] 25 – [2 + 5y – 3y – 6] = –6y + 15 – [5y – 5– 3y + 3] 25 – [2y – 4] = –6y + 15 – [2y – 2] 25 – 2y + 4 = –6y + 15 – 2y + 2 –2y + 29 = –8y + 17 6y = –12 y = –2 The solution set is {–2}.

129. The solution set is {−8. 1} .PreCalculus 4E Section P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 130. 6} . . and x = 4. x = 6. x = −6. 10 x − 1 = (2 x + 1) 2 10 x − 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 0 = 4 x2 − 6 x + 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 0 = (2 x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x − 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x= 1 2 x =1 ⎧1 ⎫ ⎩2 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ .1} . 128. and x = 1. x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 = −8 x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 3) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −7. Inc. 7 − 7 x = (3x + 2)( x − 1) 7 − 7 x = 3x 2 − x − 2 0 = 3x 2 + 6 x − 9 0 = x2 + 2 x − 3 0 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −3 x =1 The solution set is {−3. − 6. x = −3. − 3.1⎬ .7 127. x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = −12 or ( x + 8)( x − 6) = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 4) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −8. 4. 77 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is {−7.

x= 135. ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ = x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(2)(−9) 2(2) −4 ± 88 4 −4 ± 2 22 x= 4 −2 ± 22 x= 2 x= 78 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This results in the following: 133. This results in the following: ( x − 3)( x − 1) + x( x − 2) = 1 4 = 4 x −3 1= x −3 1= x −3 x=4 4+5 − 4−3 = 2 9− 1=2 3 −1 = 2 The solution set is {4}. x − x − 3x + 3 + x − 2 x = 1 2 2 2x − 6x + 3 = 1 2 2 x2 − 6 x + 2 = 0 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 2 b = −6 c = 2 . ( x − 2)( x − 3) . x +5 − x −3 = 2 −1 ± 21 2 x+5 = x −3 + 2 x + 5 = ( x − 3 + 2) 2 ⎪⎧ −1 ± 21 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 2 x2 + 4 x − 9 = 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4 ( 2 )( 2 ) 2 ( 2) 6 ± 36 − 16 6 ± 20 = 4 4 6 ± 4⋅5 6 ± 2 5 = = 4 4 3± 5 = 2 ⎧⎪ 3 ± 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. . Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded. −1 ± 1 − 4 (1)( −5 ) 2 x= = 2 (1) = 4−2 = 2 The solution set is {8}.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 131. Inc. 1 1 5 = + 2 x − 3x + 2 x + 2 x − 4 1 1 5 = + ( x − 1)( x − 2) x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ x +5 = x −3+ 4 x −3 + 4 x + 5 = x +1+ 4 x − 3 5 = 1+ 4 x − 3 132. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x + 2) . 2 x+8 − x−4 = 2 x +8 = x−4 + 2 x + 8 = ( x − 4 + 2) 2 x +8 = x −4+ 4 x −4 + 4 x +8 = x + 4 x − 4 8= 4 x−4 x + 2 = ( x − 1)( x − 2) + 5( x − 1) 2= x−4 x + 2 = x2 − 2 x − x + 2 + 5x − 5 4 = x−4 x + 2 = x2 + 2 x − 3 x=8 0 = x2 + x − 5 8+8 − 8−4 = 2 16 − 4 = 2 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 1 b = 1 c = −5 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1 ± 1 − ( −20 ) 2 134. x − 1 x 1 + = 2 x − 2 x − 3 x − 5x + 6 x −1 x 1 + = x − 2 x − 3 ( x − 2)( x − 3) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator.

− 3H = 53 2 W − 3(12) = 53 2 W − 36 = 53 2 W − 36 + 36 = 53 + 36 2 W = 89 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 89 2 W = 178 According to the formula.24 ) 2 ( 0.24 0 = 0. W − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(6) = 53 2 W − 18 = 53 2 W − 18 + 18 = 53 + 18 2 W = 71 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 71 2 W = 142 According to the formula.74 = b. x + 0. .72 x −90 = −0. 0.28( x + 500) = x + 0. Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded.31248 0.10362 0.15. 0.19 x + 28.19 ± 0.19 ± 0.26 x = 300 300 liters of pure acid must be added.026 1.026 ≈ 58. the healthy weight of a person of height 6’ is 178 pounds.26 x −78 = −0.26 −0.1(500) x + 500 x + 0. 2 x2 − 8x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−8) ± (−8) 2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) 139.013)( 25.013x 2 − 1.39 The solutions are approximately 33.72 −0. = 79 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.72 x = 125 125 liters of pure peroxide must be added.19 c = 25.74 x + 148 = x + 70 −0.4161 − 1.19 ) ± ( −1.7 136.013x 2 − 1. 33 year olds and 58 year olds are expected to be in 3 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven.26 x = −78 −0.19 ) − 4 ( 0.PreCalculus 4E Section P.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0.39 and 58.28 = x + 500 0. Inc.35(200) x + 200 x + 0.013 b = −1. 8 ± 24 4 8± 2 6 x= 4 4± 6 x= 2 x= 137. x + 0. This is 6 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph. = − ( −1.013x 2 − 1. the healthy weight of a person of height 5’6” is 142 pounds.35(200) 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1(500) 0. The function models the actual data well.013) 2 1. Thus.19 x + 25. a. This is 13 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph.19 x + 28.32190 ≈ 0.72 x = −90 −0. f ( x ) = 0.19 ± 1.28 x + 140 = x + 50 −0.15 or 33.24 x= W 138. 141.35(200) x + 200 0.026 1.74( x + 200) = x + 0.1(500) C= C= 140.24 3 = 0.

87383 0.7 x 3. M = 0. or 2021. The formula does not model the data very well.68383 x= or x = 0.7 2 2 ⎛ 3.68383 1. does not make sense. Explanations will vary.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 25 = x There will be 16 cluttered minutes 25 years after 1996.24 ) 2 ( 0.1 x ≈ 19 = 163.5 = 0. M = 0.19 ) ± 160. The formula overestimates the number of fatal accidents.7 x 2. Drivers of approximately age 19 and age 72 are expected to be involved in 10 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven. ( ) 145. 10 = 0.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0.1 cluttered minutes 14 years after 1996.24 2 0 = 0.013x − 1.5 167. Sample explanation: You should substitute into the original equation.013) 2 1.026 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary.19 ± 1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 142.026 0.026 1. A sample change is: ax 2 + c = 0 can be solved using b = 0 .013 b = −1. 1.7 2 2 ⎛ 2.6 = 0. 165.24 x= = − ( −1.026 Evaluate the expression to obtain two solutions. f ( x ) = 0. 143. Inc.46762 1. false. or 2010. 1.013)(18.7 x + 12. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary.68383 ≈ 0.19 x + 18.1 = 0.7 x + 12.19 x + 28. 2.7 x + 12. Explanations will vary.50617 x= x= 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.5 x 2 − 2 x − 15 = 0 3. Sample explanation: The factoring method would be quicker. 80 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 7x + 4 + 13 = x b 7(−6) + 4 + 13 = −6 b −38 = −19 b −19b = −38 b=2 [ x − (−3)][ x − (5)] = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 5) = 0 16 = 0.19 + 0. Explanations will vary. – 158. A sample change is: (2 x − 3) 2 = 25 (2 x − 3) 2 = ± 25 2 x − 3 = ±5 164. Sample explanation: Substitute n = 6 into the equation to find P.19 − 0. A sample change is: Some quadratics have one number in their solution sets.6 ⎞ ⎜ 0.19 x + 28.5 15.94848 0.026 x ≈ 72.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 14 ≈ x There will be 15.5 ⎞ ⎜ 0. does not make sense.026 0.013x 2 − 1.19 ) − 4 ( 0.5 = x 0.4161 − 0. makes sense 161.6 = x 0. does not make sense.7 x + 12.19 c = 18.013x 2 − 1.19 ± 0.19 ± 0. true 166. Changes to make the statement true will vary.24 159. ( ) 168.026 162. . 144. false. ( −1.

x + 14. 015 x + x + 14. 81 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 x = 50 33% of female freshmen will respond this way 50 years after 1969.30 x = 840 0.026. 4. 20 + 0.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 3. The path must be 2 feet wide. 2l + 2 w = P 2( x + 44) + 2 x = 288 2 x + 88 + 2 x = 288 4 x + 88 = 288 4 x = 200 200 x= 4 x = 50 x + 44 = 94 The dimensions of the court are 50 by 94. (16 + 2 x )(12 + 2 x) = 320 VL = CL − CN + SN CN − CL = NS − LV C ( N − L ) = NS − LV C ( N − L) NS − LV N −L N −L NS − LV LV − NS or C= N −L L−N = 170.8 C−S N L VL = CL − ( C − S ) N V =C− 169. x + 150 172. Let x = the average salary for women Let x + 14. 4 x + 400 Section P.1x = 33 − 88 −1. 037 = 72. 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 015 2 x + 14. s = −16t 2 + v0 t 0 = −16t 2 + v0 t − s a = −16.8 192 + 56 x + 4 x 2 = 320 Check Point Exercises 1.026 In 2007 the average teaching salary for women was $57. The tower is 120 yards tall. b = v0 . 400 a = ±120 –120 must be rejected. . x − 0.70 x = 840 840 x= 0.989 6. 88 − 1. Let x + 44 = the length of the court. Let x = the computer’s price before the reduction. 037 ) = 130.978 x = 57.989 and the average salary for men was $72. Let x = the width of the court. 4 x 2 + 56 x − 128 = 0 x 2 + 14 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 16)( x − 2) = 0 x + 16 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −16 x=2 –16 must be rejected. 900 a 2 = 14.1x = −55 −55 x= −1. or 2019. 015 2 x = 115. 037 = 130.1x = 33 −1. Let x = the number of years since 1969. Inc.037 = the average salary for men x + ( x + 14. 5. c = − s t= t= t= −v0 ± ( v0 ) − 4 ( −16 )( − s ) 2 ( −16 ) −v0 ± ( v0 ) 2 2 − 64s −32 v0 ± v0 2 − 64 s 32 171.05x 173. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + (50) 2 = (130)2 a 2 + 2500 = 16. 037 = 130.70 x = 1200 Before the reduction the computer’s price was $1200.

reduction per winner 5.8 x + x + 4 = 11.8 1. 000. 000 x + 15.9 Americans spend an average of 3. 000. 5. x + ( x + 4) = 11. 000 x 2 − 1. 000. 000 − 375. 000. 000. 000( x + 3) − 375. 000 x = 5.8 x = 3. 000. Let x = the time spent listening to radio. 000 x( x + 3) = 5.8 − 4 2 x = 7. Inc.125. 000. Let x + 4 = number of weeks Italians spend on vacation. Exercise Set P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 5.9 x + 4 = 7.8 2 x + 4 − 4 = 11. 000 x −375. 000 x 7. 000. 000 − 375.9 weeks. 000 ⎞ x( x + 3) ⎜ − 375. 000 x + 15. 2. Let x + 581 = the time spent watching TV. x + ( x + 581) = 2529 x + x + 581 = 2529 2 x + 581 − 581 = 2529 − 581 2 x = 1948 x = 974 x + 581 = 1555 Americans spent 974 hours listening to radio and 1555 hours watching TV. 000. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 3) x x+3 ⎝ ⎠ 5.125. The new amount of money per person. There were 5 people in the original group. 000 = 0 x 2 + 3x − 40 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 5) = 0 x + 8 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −8 x=5 –8 must be rejected. 000 ⎛ 5. 000 x 2 − 1. 82 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 = x x+3 5.9 weeks on vacation and Italians spend an average of 7. . Let x = number of weeks Americans spend on vacation.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra The original amount of money per person. 000.

800 − 500(9) = 22.300 at that time. 000 = −3000 x −15.300 and 26. Let x = the number of years since 1983.420. 200.8 Let x = the average salary for carpenters.300 + 1000(9) = 22. 000 = −3000 x −15. Let x = the number of years after 2005 13. Let 2 x − 7740 = the average salary for computer programmers. or 2016. 000 The population in the year 2025 will be 9. 060 + 3500 4 x = 77. Section P. 13. 000 = 9. 060 4 x − 3500 + 3500 = 74. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.580 and the average salary for computer programmers is $63. 000 x= −5000 x=7 The car’s value will drop to $10. 000 + 7740 3x = 106. 000 − 3000 x 9000 = 24. . Let x = the average salary for janitors.5 x = 100 1. a.5 x = 100 − 43 1. 420 The average salary for carpenters is $35. 000(25) = 10. 000 − 12.5 x = 38 All American adults will approve 38 years after 1983.900. 000 = −5000 x −35. 200. 6. y = 24. 000 x = 25 The countries will have the same population 25 years after the year 2000. y = 24. 560 x = 19. 740 x = 35. 8. 10. 43 + 0. x + (3x − 3500) = 74. a. 000 − 12. Let x = the number of years after 2000 10. x + (2 x − 7740) = 99. 000 − 12. 000 3 x − 7740 = 99.300 The college’s enrollments will be 22.5 x = 57 57 x= 1.6 x = 61 0. 000 − 5000 x b.800 − 500 x 1500 x = 13. 060 x + 3 x − 3500 = 74. 5. or 2021.580 2 x − 7740 = 63. 200. y = 45.760. or 2014. 000 = −5000 x −35. Let 3x − 3500 = the average salary for registered nurses. 4. 000 x = 10. y = 45.390 and the average salary for registered nurses is $54. 000 − 3000 x b.900. 10. or the year 2025. 43 + 1. 000 − 28. 060 4 x − 3500 = 74.6 x = 61 − 43 0.500 = 1500 1500 x=9 The two colleges will have the same enrollment about 9 years after 2005.000 after 7 years.000. 000 − 45. 9. 000 x = −400. 000 − 5000 x 10.6 x = 18 18 x= 0. 000 − 300.6 x = 30 61% of American adults will approve 30 years after 1986. 000 − 5000 x 10. 000 − 3000 x 9000 − 24. 000 x Let x = the number of years since 1986. 7. 200. 500 1500 x 13. 000 x + 2 x − 7740 = 99.PreCalculus 4E 3.300 + 1000 x = 26. 000 x = 10. −16. 83 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 600. 760 The average salary for janitors is $19. 000 3x − 7740 + 7740 = 99. 000 = 45. 390 3 x − 3500 = 54. 000 x= −3000 x=5 The car’s value will drop to $9000 after 5 years.

15.80 x = 44 The dictionary’s price before the reduction was $44.08 x = 162 x = 150 The nightly cost is $150. Let x = the cost of the dictionary x − 0. The dimensions are 40 feet by 120 feet. 20.20. 16. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0.70 x = 30. Let c = the dealer’s cost 15 = c + 0.25c 12 = c The dealer’s cost is $12. Let w = the width of the pool. the dimensions are 36 feet by 78 feet. 320 = 2 ( 3w ) + 2 ( w ) 320 = 6w + 2w 320 = 8w 40 = w If w = 40.08 x = 162 1.80 0. 3w = 3(40) = 120. x − 0. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. Let w = the width of the field Let 2w + 6 = the length of the field 228 = 6w + 12 216 = 6w 36 = w If w = 36 . 2 w − 6 = 2(23) − 6 = 46 − 6 = 40 The dimensions are 23 meters by 40 meters. 17. 19.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11. Let x = the width of the frame.20 x = 336 18. Thus. Inc.30 x = 30. then 2 w + 6 = 2(36) + 6 = 78 . Total length: 16 + 2x Total width: 12 + 2x P = 2(length) + 2(width) 72 = 2 (16 + 2 x ) + 2 (12 + 2 x ) Let w = the width of the field Let 2w = the length of the field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 72 = 32 + 4 x + 24 + 4 x 72 = 8 x + 56 16 = 8 x 300 = 2 ( 2w) + 2 ( w) 300 = 4 w + 2w 300 = 6w 50 = w If w = 50 . 2= x The width of the frame is 2 inches.20 = c The dealer’s cost is $467. 0.25c 467. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Let w = the width of the swimming pool. Let 3w = the length of the swimming pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 21. then 2 w = 100 . 84 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let c = the dealer’s cost 584 = c + 0. the dimensions are 50 yards by 100 yards. Let x = the cost of the television set.80 x = 336 x = 420 The television set’s price is $420. Let 2w – 6 = the length of the pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 13. 12.05 x = 252 1. Thus.25c 584 = 1. 126 = 2 ( 2w − 6 ) + 2 ( w ) 126 = 4w − 12 + 2w 126 = 6 w − 12 138 = 6 w 23 = w Find the length. 14.25c 15 = 1.05 x = 252 x = 240 The nightly cost is $240.

larger square Let x = the width of the path (12 + 2 x )(15 + 2 x ) = 378 180 + 24 x + 30 x + 4 x 2 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x + 180 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x − 198 = 0 2 ( 2 x 2 + 27 x − 99 ) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33)( x − 3) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33) = 0 = 64 2 x + 33 = 0 2 x = −33 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 64 x 2 + 6 x − 55 = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 33 2 The width of the path is 3 meters. The width is 6 feet and the length is 6 + 3 = 9 feet. Section P.PreCalculus 4E 22. 200 + 60 x + 4 x 2 = 600 4 x + 60 x + 200 = 600 0 = w2 + 3w − 54 2 0 = ( w + 9 )( w − 6 ) w+9 = 0 w−6 = 0 w = −9 w=6 Disregard –9 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. Let x + 2 = the side of the new. 26. ( x + 2) x +8 = 0 x−4 = 0 x=4 x = −8 The length of the side of the original square. w + 15 = 0 w − 12 = 0 w = 12 w = −15 The width is 12 yards and the length is 12 yards + 3 yards = 15 yards. larger square ( x + 3) x=5 The solution set is {−20. Let w = the width Let w +3 = the length Area = lw 27.8 Let w = the width of the path Let 40 + 2w = the width of the pool and path Let 60 + 2w = the length of the pool and path 2(40 + 2w) + 2(60 + 2w) = 248 80 + 4w + 120 + 4w = 248 200 + 8w = 248 8w = 48 w=6 The width of the path is 6 feet. the length of the side of the original square. 2 = 36 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 36 x 2 + 4 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 4 ) = 0 54 = ( w + 3) w 24. Inc. Let x = the length of the side of the original square Let x + 3 = the length of the side of the new. 85 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 180 = w2 + 3w 2 Let x = the width of the path ( 20 + 2 x )(10 + 2 x ) = 600 200 + 40 x + 20 x + 4 x 2 = 600 54 = w2 + 3w 25. 23.5} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The width of the path is 5 meters. Disregard –11 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. x + 11 = 0 x −5 = 0 x = −11 x=5 The solution set is {−11. This means that x. 4 ( x + 20 ) = 0 x −5 = 0 Let w = the width Let w + 3 = the width Area = lw x + 20 = 0 x = −20 180 = ( w + 3) w 0 = w2 + 3w − 180 0 = ( w + 15 )( w − 12 ) 28. . is 4 inches. Let x = the side of the original square. ( x + 11)( x − 5) = 0 x=− Apply the zero product principle.5} . is 5 inches. 4 x 2 + 60 x − 400 = 0 4 ( x 2 + 15 x − 100 ) = 0 4 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. Disregard –20 because we can’t have a negative width measurement.

a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + (3x) 2 = 922 a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + 9 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 102 = 302 10 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 100 = 900 x 2 = 846.2 –13.4 yards. x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 642 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 4096 5 x 2 = 4096 4096 x2 = 5 4096 x=± 5 x ≈ 28. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + b2 = c2 52 + x 2 = ( x + 1) 2 x 2 + 25 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 25 = 2 x + 1 24 = 2 x x = 12 x + 1 = 13 The wire is 13 feet long. 32.24. A person could save 116.4 a 2 = 800 x = ± 846. A person could save 85.4 x ≈ 29. or about 21. 8 x 2 + 25 x − 84 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 28) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 28 = 0 x=3 x = −28 –28 must be rejected. or about 24.3 feet tall. The building is 28. The width of the path is 3 feet 30.62 + 57. (20 + 2 x)(30 + 2 x) − (20)(30) = 336 34.09 yd 3x ≈ 87. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 33. or about 85.4 – 92. a = ± 800 a ≈ ±28. 86 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 must be rejected.4 yards. Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 29.28 yd The distance along the length and width is about 29. The width of the path is 3 feet 31. 36. (10 + 2 x)(12 + 2 x) − (10)(12) = 168 120 + 44 x + 4 x 2 − 120 = 168 35. a 2 + b2 = c2 4 x 2 + 44 x − 168 = 0 x 2 + 11x − 42 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 14) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 14 = 0 x=3 x = −14 –14 must be rejected.3 must be rejected.09 + 87.28.24 feet The distance along the length and width is about 28. 600 + 100 x + 4 x 2 − 600 = 336 152 + x 2 = ( x + 4) 2 4 x 2 + 100 x − 336 = 0 x 2 + 225 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 225 = 8 x + 16 209 = 8 x 1 x = 26 8 1 x + 4 = 30 8 1 The wire is 30 feet long. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + 152 = 202 a 2 + 225 = 400 a 2 = 175 a = ± 175 a ≈ ±13. .62 feet 2x ≈ 57. Let x be the width.2 feet up the house.9 – 64. Let x be the width.9 feet.9 feet.3 –28. or about 116. The ladder reaches 13.

000 − 500. 000 x + 40. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 x 38. The average velocity of the bus is 30 miles per hour. 920. 480. Inc. Let x be the car’s average velocity. 000 ⎞ x( x + 2) ⎜ − 500.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 80 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 8) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 8 = 0 x = −10 x=8 –10 must be rejected. 000 20. 39. 000( x + 2) − 500. 000 ⎛ 20. 87 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000. 000. 000. 000 ⎞ x( x + 4) ⎜ − 32. 000 x 40. 000( x + 4) − 32. 000. 000 − 32. 000 − 500. 000 x( x + 4) = 480. 000 x = 20. The new amount of money per person. 000 = x x+2 20. 000. 000 x + 1. 000. 000 x( x + 2) = 20. There were 8 people in the original group. There were 6 people in the original group. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000. 000 x 2 − 1. reduction per winner 20. 000 − 32. 000 ⎛ 480. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 4) x x+4 ⎝ ⎠ 480. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 2) x x+2 ⎝ ⎠ 20. 20. 000. 000. 920. 000. 000 x 37. car's time traveled bus's time traveled 300 180 = x x − 20 300( x − 20) = 180 x 300 x − 6000 = 180 x 120 x = 6000 x = 50 x − 20 = 30 The average velocity of the car is 50 miles per hour. 000 480. 000. 000 x 2 − 128.8 The original amount of money per person. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 6) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = −10 x=6 –10 must be rejected. 000 = x x+4 480. 000 x = 480. 480. 000. 000 − 32. 000 − 500. . 000 x 1. 000 x 2 − 128.

6 + 0. Let x = number of hours 35x = labor cost 35x + 63 = 448 35x = 385 x = 11 It took 11 hours. Let x be the number of consecutive hits.30(140 + x) 35 + x = 42 + 0.30 140 + x 35 + x = 0. 35 + x = 0. The average velocity of the second engine is 40 miles per hour.28. Let g = the gross amount of the paycheck Yearly Salary = 2 (12 ) g + 750 30 x + 30 x + 270 = 7 x 2 + 63 x 33150 = 24 g + 750 32400 = 24 g 1350 = g The gross amount of each paycheck is $1350. 30 + x = 0. 140 200 + =9 x x+5 ⎛ 140 200 ⎞ ⎜ x + x+5⎟ =9 ⎝ ⎠ 140 200 ⎛ ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ + = 9 x( x + 5) x + 5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x 140( x + 5) + 200 x = 9 x( x + 5) 48. Let x = number of hours 63x = labor cost 63x + 532 = 1603 63x = 1071 x = 17 17 hours were required to repair the yacht. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. Inc. 44. Let x be the average velocity of the first engine. Let x = inches over 5 feet 100 + 5x = 135 5x = 35 x=7 A height of 5 feet 7 inches corresponds to 135 pounds. 0 = ( x − 35)(9 x − 20) x − 35 = 0 or 9 x + 20 = 0 x = 35 20 x=− x + 5 = 40 9 20 − must be rejected. – 52.28(120 + x) 140 x + 700 + 200 x = 9 x 2 + 45 x 0 = 9 x 2 − 295 x − 700 30 + x = 33.28 x 3000 + 100 x = 3360 + 28 x 72 x = 360 x=5 You must get 5 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0. passenger train's time traveled 43. Answers may vary.28 120 + x 30 + x = 0.30. . 5 5 7 + = x+9 x 6 5⎞ 7 ⎛ 5 6 x( x + 9) ⎜ + ⎟ = 6 x( x + 9) 6 ⎝ x+9 x⎠ 30 x + 30( x + 9) = 7 x( x + 9) 46. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 88 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 42. 49. Let x be the passenger train’s average velocity. 47. 41. 0 = 7 x 2 + 3 x − 270 0 = ( x − 6)(7 x + 45) x − 6 = 0 or 7 x + 45 = 0 x=6 45 x=− 7 45 − must be rejected.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 40. Let x be the average velocity on the return trip. The average velocity of the freight train is 40 miles per hour. The average velocity of the 9 first engine is 35 miles per hour.30 x 350 + 10 x = 420 + 3x 7 x = 70 x = 10 You must get 10 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0. 45. The average velocity on the 7 return trip is 6 miles per hour. freight train's time traveled 240 160 = x x − 20 240( x − 20) = 160 x 240 x − 4800 = 160 x 80 x = 4800 x = 60 x − 20 = 40 The average velocity of the passenger train is 60 miles per hour.

Let x = correct answers 26 – x = incorrect answers 8 x − 5(26 − x) = 0 8 x − 130 + 5 x = 0 13x − 130 = 0 13x = 130 x = 10 10 problems were solved correctly. the thief has: 1 1 ⎛1 ⎞ x − ⎜ x + 2⎟ = x − x − 2 = x − 2 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ After passing the second security guard. 3 − 2 x ≤ 11 3 − 2(−1) ≤ 11 3 + 2 ≤ 11 5 ≤ 11. 61. they cannot guaranty perfect precision. 57. 000 2 x = $4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. does not make sense. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 2 x−2 ⎟ 1 1 x−2−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 3 2 ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ After passing the third security guard. . Sample explanation: Though mathematical models can often provide excellent estimates about future attitudes.PreCalculus 4E 53. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + ( x + 1) 2 = [12 − x − ( x + 1) ] 2 x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 1 = [12 − x − x − 1] 2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = (11 − 2 x )2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = 121 − 44 x + 4 x 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 46 x + 120 0 = x 2 − 23x + 60 0 = ( x − 3)( x − 20) x − 3 = 0 or x − 20 = 0 x=3 x = 20 x +1 = 4 12 − (3 + 4) = 5 20 must be rejected. 63. Inc. 64. 54. and the girl received $2000.6x) = price after second reduction 0. 000 The mother received $4000. makes sense 55. Let x = the number of plants originally stolen After passing the first security guard. and 5.4x = 0. 62.36 x = 72 x = 200 The original price was $200.35 x = 780.6x = price after first reduction 0. makes sense 60. 000 2 7 x = 14.6x – 0. the boy received $8000. 59. 56. Section P.8 does not make sense. Sample explanation: The correct equation is x − 0. Explanations will vary. x − = 1 8 2 x − 28 = 8 58. Let x be the length of one leg.6 x − 0. Let x = mother’s amount 2x = boy’s amount x = girl’s amount 2 x x + 2 x + = 14.24 x = 72 0. The lengths of the sides are 3. as it is greater than the perimeter.4(0. Let x = woman’s age 3x = Coburn’s age 3x + 20 = 2(x + 20) 3x + 20 = 2x + 40 x + 20 = 40 x = 20 Coburn is 60 years old the woman is 20 years old. 4. Let x = original price x – 0. 89 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 4 x−3 ⎟ 1 1 7 x −3−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 4 2 8 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 7 Thus. true –1 is a solution. x = 36 The thief stole 36 plants. Explanations will vary.

90 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 { } c. . take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.3] . 6 ) : To find the intersection. [1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 65. a. 3.5] = x 1≤ x ≤ 3. 2. [−∞.3] : Graph ( 2. Inc.9 Check Point Exercises 1.3] and ( 2. [−2.3] ∩ ( 2. −1) = x x < −1 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Numbers in both [1. { } Graph [1. 6 ) : Thus. x+3 x−2 1 = + 4 3 4 ⎛ x+3⎞ ⎛ x−2 1⎞ 12 ⎜ ⎟ = 12 ⎜ 3 + 4 ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x + 3) = 4( x − 2) + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 8 + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 5 3x − 4 x = −5 − 9 − x = −14 x = 14 The solution set is {14}. Section P. 5) = x −2 ≤ x < 5 { } b. 6 ) = ( 2. 66. [1. −2 x − 4 = x + 5 −2 x − x = 5 + 4 −3 x = 9 9 x= −3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}.

take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 3. [1. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 2 3 6 ⎛ x−4⎞ ⎛ x−2 5⎞ 6⎜ ⎟ ≥ 6⎜ 3 + 6 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x + 1 3x − 2 x ≥ 1 + 12 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} or [13. Numbers in either [1. 6 ) or both: Thus. 91 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 ≤ 2 x + 3 < 11 −2 ≤ 2 x < 8 −1 ≤ x < 4 The solution set is { x −1 ≤ x < 4} or [−1. 5.9 Graph [1. ∞ ) . 3x + 1 > 7 x − 15 −4 x > −16 −4 x −16 < −4 −4 x<4 The solution set is { x x < 4} or ( -∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 6 ) . 4) . ∞) . 2 − 3x ≤ 5 −3 x ≤ 3 x ≥ −1 The solution set is { x x ≥ −1} or [−1. 6 ) = [1.4] .3] : b. 6 ) : To find the union. Graph ( 2. 6. Inc.3] or ( 2.3] ∪ ( 2.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 4.

8.3⎥ . −3 5 x − 2 + 20 ≥ −19 −3 5 x − 2 ≥ −39 −3 5 x − 2 −39 −3 −3 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 ≤ −13 ≤ 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 −11 ≤ 5 x ≤ 15 −11 5 x 15 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 11 − ≤ x≤3 5 ⎧ 11 ⎫ ⎡ 11 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 3⎬ or ⎢ − . x−2 <5 −5 < x − 2 < 5 −3 < x < 7 The solution set is { x −3 < x < 7} or (−3. Let x = the number of miles driven in a week. ∞ ) .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 7. 7) .25 x 720 < x Driving more than 720 miles in a week makes Basic the better deal. 92 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.25 x 180 < 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −4 ) ∪ ( 8. . 260 < 80 + 0. Inc. 18 < 6 − 3x 6 − 3x < −18 −3x < −24 −3x −24 > −3 −3 x >8 or 6 − 3x > 18 −3x > 12 −3x 12 < −3 −3 x < −4 The solution set is { x x < −4 or x > 8} or ( −∞. 10. 5 ⎣ 5 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 9.

1<x≤6 2. 2] : Thus. –5 ≤ x < 2 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –2 ≤ x ≤ 5 7. 2] = [ −1.5 14. –4 ≤ x < 3 5.5 15. x ≥ –5 11. 2] : To find the intersection. x ≥ –3 10. –2 < x ≤ 4 3. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. ( −3. –3 ≤ x ≤ 1 6. . x < 2 13. Inc. Numbers in both ( −3. x < 5. 93 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x>2 8. 0 ) .9 Exercise Set P. 0 ) : Graph [ −1.9 1. 0 ) and [ −1.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x ≤ 3. x < 3 12. x>3 9. 0 ) ∩ [ −1. Graph ( −3.

9] = [ 2. Numbers in both ( −4. 0 ) ∪ [ −1. 0 ) : Graph [ −2. 20. 0 ) ∪ [ −2.5 ) ∩ [1.8] : Thus. Graph ( −3. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 17. 19. 6 ) and [ 2.1] : Thus.1] = [ −2.9] : Thus. 0 ) or [ −2. 94 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Numbers in both ( −∞.5 ) : Graph [1. Numbers in either ( −3. Graph ( −∞. 6 ) : Graph [ 2.5) and [1. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.9] : To find the intersection. Numbers in both ( −∞. Graph ( −∞. Graph ( −4. 0 ) .8] = [1. 0 ) or [ −1. ( −3. Numbers in either ( −4. ( −4.1] . 2] or both: Thus. Inc.1] or both: Thus. 2] : To find the union.5 ) . . 6 ) ∩ [ 2. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 0 ) ∩ [ −2. ( −4. ( −∞. Graph ( −4. 18. ( −∞.1] = ( −4. 2] .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 16.8] : To find the intersection. 0 ) : Graph [ −1. 2] = ( −3.1] : To find the intersection. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 0 ) : Graph [ −2. 0 ) and [ −2.1] : To find the union.6 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

∞ ) and ( 6. 22.8] : To find the union. [3. ∞ ) : Thus.8] = ( −∞. ∞ ) or both: Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) : Graph ( 4. 25. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. ∞ ) = ( 6. ∞ ) .9 Graph ( −∞. ∞ ) ∪ ( 6. [ 2.9] : To find the union. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.5 ) or [1. ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) or ( 6. ( −∞. Graph [3.∞ ) : Thus.5 ) ∪ [1. [3.9] or both: Thus. 6 ) or [ 2.5 ) : Graph [1. ∞ ) and ( 4.9] = ( −∞. Graph ( −∞. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 24. Graph [ 2. Inc. ∞ ) ∩ ( 4.PreCalculus 4E 21. 95 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. 23.8] . Numbers in both [3. . Section P. Graph [3. Numbers in either [3.9] . Numbers in either ( −∞. ∞ ) = [3. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6.∞ ) = ( 4. Numbers in either ( −∞. ∞ ) : To find the union. ∞ ) : To find the intersection. 6 ) : Graph [ 2. ∞ ) ∩ ( 6. 6 ) ∪ [ 2.∞ ) : To find the intersection.8] or both: Thus. ∞ ) . take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Numbers in both [ 2.

Graph ( 4. Inc. 96 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or (–∞. or ⎢ . ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 29. or ( −∞. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. ∞ ) . 27. 31. Numbers in either [ 2.∞ ) : To find the union. –5x ≤ 30 x ≥ –6 The solution set is { x x ≥ −6} or [ −6. 5x + 11 < 26 5x < 15 x<3 The solution set is { x x < 3} . ∞ ) : 26. –9x ≥ 36 x ≤ –4 The solution set is { x x ≤ −4} .∞ ) or both: Thus. 6). 3x – 7 ≥ 13 3x ≥ 20 20 x≥ 3 ⎧ 20 ⎫ ⎡ 20 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > ⎬ . ∞ ) . 3 ⎣3 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 30. ∞ ⎟ . ∞ ) or ( 4. .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Graph [ 2. 32.∞ ) = [ 2. 28. 8x – 2 ≥ 14 8x ≥ 16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x > 2} or [ 2. 3). 2x + 5 < 17 2x < 12 x<6 The solution set is { x x < 6} or (–∞. −4] . ∞ ) ∪ ( 4. [ 2.

− ⎥ . 4(x + 1) + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 4 + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 6 ≥ 3x + 6 4x – 3x ≥ 6 – 6 x≥0 The solution set is { x x > 0} . 97 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎥ .9 33. or [0.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 6 6⎦ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ 35. or (–∞. Inc. ∞). 38. or ⎜ −∞. –4). 2x – 11 < – 3(x + 2) 2x – 11 < – 3x – 6 5x < 5 x<1 The solution set is { x x < 1} . 5⎭ 5⎦ ⎝ ⎩ 34. 36. 37. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ). 18x + 45 ≤ 12x – 8 18x – 12x ≤ –8 – 45 6x ≤ –53 53 x≤− 6 ⎧ 53 ⎫ 53 ⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ or ⎜ −∞. 1). 8x + 3 > 3(2x + 1) + x + 5 8x + 3 > 6x + 3 + x + 5 8x + 3 > 7x + 8 8x – 7x > 8 – 3 x>5 The solution set is { x x > 5} or (5. . –4(x + 2) > 3x + 20 –4x – 8 > 3x + 20 –7x > 28 x < –4 The solution set is { x x < −4} or (–∞. 8x – 11 ≤ 3x – 13 8x – 3x ≤ –13 + 11 5x ≤ –2 2 x≤− 5 ⎧ 2⎫ 2⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ .

Inc. 5(3 – x) ≤ 3x – 1 15 – 5x ≤ 3x – 1 –8x ≤ –16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x ≥ 2} or [2. 1 – (x + 3) ≥ 4 – 2x 1 – x – 3 ≥ 4 – 2x –x – 2 ≥ 4 – 2x x≥6 The solution set is { x x ≥ 6} . x >4 2 x >3 2 x < –6 The solution set is { x x. ∞ ) . 40. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 3 x − ≤ +1 4 2 2 4x 4 ⋅ 3 4 ⋅ x − ≤ + 4 ⋅1 4 2 2 x − 6 ≤ 2x + 4 − x ≤ 10 x ≥ −10 The solution set is { x x ≥ −10} . 3x 1 x +1 ≥ − 10 5 10 ⎛ 3x ⎞ ⎛1 x ⎞ 10 ⎜ + 1⎟ ≥ 10 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 3x + 10 ≥ 2 − x 4 x ≥ −8 x ≥ −2 The solution set is { x x ≥ −2} or 43. or ( −∞. 1 − [ −2.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 39. − 6 ) . 41. ∞ ) . −6} . or [ −10. ∞). or [6. 42. . − 98 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞).

9 4 3 7− x < 5 5 4 32 − x<− 5 5 x>8 The solution set is { x x > 8} or (8. or [13. ∞ ⎟. 46. −2 ) . The solution set is ⎨ x x ≥ ⎬ or ⎢ 6 ⎣ 6 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ x≥− 47. ∞ ) . . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section P. Inc. 4x − 3 2x −1 +2≥ 6 12 2(4 x − 3) + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 8 x − 6 + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 6 x + 18 ≥ −1 6 x ≥ −19 19 6 ⎧ −19 ⎫ ⎡ -19 ⎞ . ∞).PreCalculus 4E 44. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 6 9 18 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} . 99 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 45. 3 [3( x + 5) + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [ 3( x − 6) − 2(3x − 5) ] < 2(4 x + 3) 3 [3x + 15 + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [3x − 18 − 6 x + 10] < 8 x + 6 3 [11x + 22] + 5 [ −3x − 8] < 8 x + 6 33x + 66 − 15 x − 40 < 8 x + 6 18 x + 26 < 8 x + 6 10 x < −20 x < −2 The solution set is { x x < −2} or [ −∞.

or [–1. –6 < x – 4 ≤ 1 –2 < x ≤ 5 The solution set is {x | −2 < x ≤ 5} or (–2. –2]. 6). 7 < x + 5 < 11 7 – 5 < x + 5 – 5 < 11 – 5 2<x<6 The solution set is { x 2 < x < 6} or (2. 53. 50. 5 [ 3(2 − 3x) − 2(5 − x) ] − 6 [5( x − 2) − 2(4 x − 3) ] < 3x + 19 5 [ 6 − 9 x − 10 + 2 x ] − 6 [5 x − 10 − 8 x + 6] < 3x + 19 5 [ −7 x − 4] − 6 [ −3x − 4] < 3 x + 19 −35 x − 20 + 18 x + 24 < 3x + 19 −17 x + 4 < 3 x + 19 −20 x < 15 −20 x 15 > −20 −20 3 x>− 4 ⎧ 3⎫ ⎡ 3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > − ⎬ or ⎢ − . or (–5.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 ⎣ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 49. 51. 2⎭ ⎣2 2 ⎠ ⎩ 2 100 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or (3. 54. 3 ≤ 4x – 3 < 19 6 ≤ 4x < 22 6 22 ≤x< 4 4 3 11 ≤x< 2 2 ⎧ 3 11⎫ ⎡ 3 11 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x ≤ x < ⎬ or ⎢ . 6 < x + 3 < 8 6–3<x+3–3<8–3 3<x<5 The solution set is { x 3 < x < 5} . 5). 5]. ⎟ . Inc. . –11 < 2x –1 ≤ –5 –10 < 2x ≤ –4 –5 < x ≤ –2 The solution set is { x − 5 < x ≤ −2} . 3). 52. ∞ ⎟ . –3 ≤ x – 2 < 1 –1 ≤ x < 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x < 3} .

7 ⎥ . Inc. |2x – 6| < 8 –8 < 2x – 6 < 8 –2 < 2x < 14 –1 < x < 7 The solution set is { x − 1 < x < 7} . |x| < 3 –3 < x < 3 The solution set is { x − 3 < x < 3} . ⎠ The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} . |x| < 5 –5 < x < 5 The solution set is { x − 5 < x < 5} or (–5. 61. 3 ( x − 1) 4 −6 < <6 3 ( x − 1) <6 4 –24 < 3x – 3 < 24 –21 < 3x < 27 –7 < x < 9 The solution set is { x − 7 < x < 9} or (–7. |x| > 5 x > 5 or x < –5 ⎞ 4⎟ . 60. 65. 64. 0). 1]. 22 ⎛ 22 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x − < x < 4 ⎬ or ⎜ − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . or (–6. 3 ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 57. all x in ( −∞. 3). 9). 101 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. |x| > 3 x > 3 or x < –3 The solution set is { x x > 3 or x < −3} . that is. −5 ) or ( 5. 2y + 6 <2 3 2y + 6 −2 < <2 3 –6 < 2y + 6 < 6 –12 < 2y < 0 –6 < y < 0 The solution set is { x − 6 < y < 0} . .9 63. 7). 67. |x – 1| ≤ 2 –2 ≤ x – 1 ≤ 2 –1 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x ≤ 3} . or [–1. −3 ≤ Section P. 3 ⎝ 3 ⎩ ⎭ 68. or [3. 59. 3 x + 5 < 17 –17 < 3x + 5 < 17 –22 < 3x < 12 ( −∞. 5). |3(x – 1) + 2| ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3(x – 1) + 2 ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3x – 1 ≤ 20 –19 ≤ 3x ≤ 21 19 − ≤x≤7 3 ⎧ 19 ⎫ ⎡ 19 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 7 ⎬ or ⎢ − . −3) or ( 3. |2(x – 1) + 4| ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2(x – 1) + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x – 2 + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x + 2 ≤ 8 –10 ≤ 2x ≤ 6 –5 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 5 ≤ x ≤ 3} . 6). or (–1.PreCalculus 4E 55. −6 ≤ x − 4 < −3 2 1 −2 ≤ x < 1 2 −4 ≤ x < 2 The solution set is { x − 4 ≥ x < 2} or [ −4. that is. 3]. ∞ ) . 66. 62. 2 ) . 3]. |x + 3| ≤ 4 –4 ≤ x + 3 ≤ 4 –7 ≤ x ≤ 1 The solution set is { x −7 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [–7. or (–3. 1 56. 58. 2≤ [–5. or 2 x − 5 < −1 3 2 x<4 3 3≤x<6 The solution set is { x 3 ≤ x < 6} .

The solution set is ⎨ x x < 5 ⎩ ⎭ −11 ⎞ ⎛ that is. that is. |3x – 8| > 7 3x − 8 > 7 or 3x − 8 < −7 3x > 15 3x < 1 1 x>5 x< 3 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 5⎬ . ( −∞. that is all x in ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . or ( −∞.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 69. Inc. that is. that is. 2 x ≤ −10 x≥3 x ≤ −5 3 3− x > 9 4 3 3 3 − x > 9 or 3 − x < −9 4 4 3 3 − x>6 − x < −12 4 4 x < −8 x > 16 {x x < −8 or x > 16} . 72. ∞ ) . The solution set is { x x ≤ −5 or x ≥ 3} . that is. x − 1 ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 3} . |5x – 2| > 13 5 x − 2 > 13 or 5 x − 2 < −13 5 x < −11 x>3 x<− 11 5 ⎧ −11 ⎫ or x > 3⎬ . ⎟ or ( 5. −2] or [ 4. that is. −5] or [3. 75. 70. − 3) or (12. ( −∞. 3⎠ ⎝ ( −∞. |x + 3| ≥ 4 x + 3 ≥ 4 or x ≥1 x + 3 ≤ −4 x ≤ −7 The solution set is { x x ≤ −2 or x ≥ 4} . −8 ) or (16. −1] or [3. ( −∞. |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x≥3 74. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 5 ⎠ ⎝ 73. ⎟ or ( 3. 77. ∞ ) . −7 ) or (1. The solution set is { x x ≤ −7 or x ≥ 1} that is. ( −∞. 3|x – 1| + 2 ≥ 8 3|x – 1| ≥ 6 |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x − 1 ≤ −2 2x + 2 ≥2 4 2x + 2 2x + 2 ≥ 2 or ≤ −2 4 4 2x + 2 ≥ 8 2 x + 2 ≤ −8 2x ≥ 6 2 3− x > 5 3 2 2 3 − x > 5 or 3 − x < −5 3 3 2 2 − x>2 − x < −8 3 3 x < −3 x > 12 The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 12} . ∞ ) . 71. 5 x > 15 3x − 3 ≥1 9 3x − 3 3x − 3 ≥ 1 or ≤ −1 9 9 3x − 3 ≥ 9 3 x − 3 ≤ −9 3x ≥ 12 3 x ≤ −6 x≥4 x ≤ −2 x≥3 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ 1 or x ≥ 3} . 102 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. ∞ ) . 76. all x in ⎜ −∞. −1] or [3. ∞ ) .

−4 1 − x < −16 −4 1 − x −16 > −4 −4 1− x > 4 1− x > 4 1 − x < −4 3 or −x > − x < −5 x < −3 x>5 86. . The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 5}. 81. −2 < 11 − x < 2 −13 < − x < −9 −13 − x −9 > > −1 −1 −1 13 > x > 9 9 < x < 13 The solution set is { x 9 < x < 13}.9 5 2x +1 − 3 ≥ 9 82. 2 x ≥ 4 or x≥2 ≤ x >8 2 x − 1 ≤ −3 2 x ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 2} . Inc. > 5− x > 3 −2 x − 4 ≥ −4 −2 x − 4 −2 5 − x < −6 1⎫ ⎬. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section P. 9 ≤ 4x + 7 4 x + 7 ≥ 9 or 4 x + 7 ≤ −9 4x ≥ 2 4 x ≤ −16 2 x ≤ −4 x≥ 4 1 x≥ 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ −4 or x ≥ ⎩ 2≤ x≤6 The solution set is { x 2 ≤ x ≤ 6} . 103 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2x +1 ≤ − − x > −2 or x<2 83. 2 > 11 − x is equivalent to 11 − x < 2 . 10 10 ⎭ ⎩ 2x + 1 ≥ 79. −4 −2 −2 x−4 ≤ 2 80. 84. − x < −8 3 ≤ 2x −1 2x −1 ≥ 3 −2 ≤ x − 4 ≤ 2 −3 x + 7 5 − x < −3 The solution set is { x x < 2 or x > 8} . 2⎭ 5 > 4 − x is equivalent to 4 − x < 5 . −3 x + 7 ≥ −27 −27 −3 −3 x+7 ≤9 ≤ −9 ≤ x + 7 ≤ 9 −16 ≤ x ≤ 2 85. The solution set is { x −16 ≤ x ≤ 2} .PreCalculus 4E 78. −5 < 4 − x < 5 −9 < − x < 1 −9 − x 1 > > −1 −1 −1 9 > x > −1 −1 < x < 9 The solution set is { x −1 < x < 9} . −2 5 − x < −6 5 2 x + 1 ≥ 12 2x +1 ≥ −2 5 − x −6 −2 −2 5− x > 3 12 5 12 5 7 2x ≥ 5 7 x≥ 10 12 5 17 or 2x ≤ − 5 17 x≤− 10 ⎧ 17 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − or x ≥ ⎬ .

104 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y≥4 1 − ( x + 3) + 2 x ≥ 4 1 − x − 3 + 2x ≥ 4 x−2≥ 4 x≥6 The solution set is [ 6. ∞ ). 2−x > 4 or 2 − x < −4 −x > 2 − x < −6 −x 2 < −1 −1 x < −2 − x −6 > −1 −1 x>6 ( −∞. −6] or [ 24. 1 < x − x ≥9 3 3− ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 1⎬ . 2 − 3x > 1 −3 x > −1 −3x −1 or < −3 −3 1 x< 3 91. ∞ ) .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 87.1] . 12 < −2 x + − 2− 2− The solution set is { x x < −2 or x > 6} . ∞ ) . 6 3 + 7 7 81 6 < −2 x + 7 7 6 81 6 81 −2 x + > or −2 x + < − 7 7 7 7 75 87 −2 x > −2 x < − 7 7 75 87 x<− x> 14 14 ⎧ 75 87 ⎫ or x > ⎬ . . The solution set is ⎨ x x < − 14 14 ⎭ ⎩ The solution set is { x 0 ≤ x ≤ 8} or [ 0. that is. 75 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 87 ⎞ ⎜ −∞. 2 − 3 x < −1 −3 x < −3 x ≥5 3 x x 3 − ≥ 5 or 3 − ≤ −5 3 3 x x − ≥2 − ≤ −8 3 3 x ≤ −6 x ≥ 24 −3 x −3 > −3 −3 x >1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −6 or x ≥ 24} . 4+ 3− 11 4 > − is true for all x. 90. 93.8] . 4 < 2 − x is equivalent to 2 − x > 4 . 3 3 the solution set is { x x is any real number} or (–∞. 1 < 2 − 3x is equivalent to 2 − 3x > 1 . − ⎟ or ⎜ . 92. 3 ⎩ ⎭ 88. ∞ ⎟ . 94. 4 11 < x− 3 3 Since x − x −1 ≤ 1 2 x ≤2 2 x −2 ≤ 2 − ≤ 2 2 x −4 ≤ − ≤ 0 2 8≥ x≥0 89. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 14 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 14 ⎠ y≤0 2 x − 11 + 3( x + 2) ≤ 0 2 x − 11 + 3x + 6 ≤ 0 5x − 5 ≤ 0 11 7 + 3 3 5x ≤ 5 x ≤1 The solution set is ( −∞. Inc. that is.

1 −2. we calculate 1994+12=2006. | 4 − 3 x |≥ 5 or | 3x − 4 |≥ 5 3x − 4 ≤ −5 3 x ≤ −1 1 x≤− 3 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x | x ≤ − or x ≥ 3⎬ or 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1 ⎛ ⎤ ⎜ −∞. −10] ∪ [ 2. 63% of voters will use electronic systems after 2006. After approximately 5 12 years 107. 3. 101. −2.5] The solution set is ( −∞. 28 ≤ 20 + 0. 97.5 x + 63.1% of U.S.40 x − 24 ≤ 40 28 ≤ 0. ∞ ) . passion ≤ intimacy or intimacy ≥ passion y≥6 8 − 5x + 3 ≥ 6 102. voters will use punch cards or lever machines. 3⎦ ⎝ 3x − 4 ≥ 5 3x ≥ 9 x≥3 ( 0. Let x be the number. commitment > passion or passion < commitment 105. 9.1x + 25. fewer than 38. − ⎥ ∪ [ 3.1 < 38. [ 0.PreCalculus 4E Section P. − ⎥ . commitment ≥ intimacy or intimacy ≤ commitment − 5 x + 3 ≥ −2 − ( − 5 x + 3 ) ≤ − ( −2 ) 103.2 x > 12 Since x is the number of years after 1994.9 y≤4 95.40 x ≤ 44 80 ≤ x ≤ 110 Between 80 and 110 ten minutes. inclusive. | 5 − 4 x |≤ 13 or | 4 x − 5 |≤ 13 x +2 ≤ 4 2 −13 ≤ 4 x − 5 ≤ 13 −8 ≤ 4 x ≤ 18 9 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 x − + 2 ≤ −3 2 x +2 ≥3 2 x +2≥3 or 2 x+4≥ 6 9⎫ 2⎤ ⎧ ⎡ The solution set is ⎨ x | −2 ≤ x ≤ ⎬ or ⎢ −2. after 3 years 106.1x > 37. 109. 4 ) 108. Let x be the number. 105 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . passion<commitment or commitment > passion 5x + 3 ≤ 2 −2 ≤ 5 x + 3 ≤ 2 −5 ≤ 5 x ≤ −1 −5 5 x −1 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 1 −1 ≤ x ≤ − 5 1⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −1. 5⎦ ⎣ 104. − ⎥ .40 ( x − 60 ) ≤ 40 28 ≤ 20 + 0.8 > 63 3.5 x < 25 or x > 10 1994 + 10 = 2004 In years after 2004. 2⎭ 9⎦ ⎩ ⎣ x + 2 ≤ −3 2 x + 4 ≤ −6 x≥2 99. 96. Inc. 7− 98.40 x − 4 ≤ 40 32 ≤ 0. x ≤ −10 100. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

116. or 41 or less. Let x = the grade on the final exam. a. 119. 226 ≤ 175 + 34 x ≤ 294 51 ≤ 34 x ≤ 119 1. 1800 + 0.225 h ≥ 58. 2 + 0.20x < 20 + 0. Let x = the number of hours the mechanic works on the car.12 x 12 < 0. 15 + 0.3x 100< x Basic Rental is a better deal when driving more than 100 miles per day.03x < 200 + 0. 86 + 88 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 270 x ≥ 96 You must get at least a 96. 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 90 6 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 540 2 x + 350 ≥ 540 2 x ≥ 190 x ≥ 95 You must receive at least a 95% to earn an A.05 x 0. 112.08 x < 3 + . 115. . 2 x > 10. 120. 50 + 0.5 The man will be working on the job at least 1.6 1. 265 + 65 x ≤ 2800 65 x ≤ 2535 x ≤ 39 39 bags or fewer can be lifted safely.5 hours.03x <6 x < 200 The credit union is a better deal when writing less than 200 checks.5 ≤ x ≤ 3.5 and at most 3.08x 1600 < 0. 106 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 > 1.645 or ≤ −1.645 5 5 h − 50 ≥ 8.6 x 10.000 would make the first bill a better deal. 000 + 0. 121. 113. 122.95°F] .08 x < 8 + 0. Inc.40 x 1. 114. 245 + 95 x ≤ 3000 95 x ≤ 2755 x ≤ 29 29 bags or less can be lifted safely. 111. 117. 86 + 88 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 240 x < 66 This will happen if you get a grade less than 66. h − 50 ≥ 1. 000 1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 110. inclusive or [59°F.05x 32000 < x A home assessment of greater than $32.645 5 h − 50 h − 50 ≥ 1. b.6 x > 6250 More than 6250 tapes need to be sold a week to make a profit.6 x > 10.775 The number of outcomes would be 59 or more.225 h ≤ 41. 118.5 x 3000 < 2. 9 ( 3) ≤ F − 32 ≤ 9 ( 7 ) 27 ≤ F − 32 ≤ 63 59 ≤ F ≤ 95 The range for Fahrenheit temperatures is 59°F to 95°F .04 x 300 < x Plan A is a better deal when driving more than 300 miles a month. 3000 + 3x < 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall.225 h − 50 ≤ −8.5 x 5 ( F − 32 ) ≤ 35 9 9 9 5 9 (15 ) ≤ ⎛⎜ ( F − 32 ) ⎞⎟ ≤ ( 35 ) 5 5⎝9 ⎠ 5 15 ≤ 1200 < x More then 1200 packets of stationary need to be sold each week to make a profit.50x 30 < 0.

133. We need this cost to be less than the cost with a 3-month pass. −2 ) = ( −∞. – 131. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y – x represents a negative number. y = 4 − x 2 x y = 4 − x2 −3 4 − (−3)2 = −5 2.9 143. 141. makes sense 136. y = 4 − x 123. When both sides are multiplied by (y – x) the inequality must be reversed.50 x > 7. 3x > 7. Changes to make the statement true will vary.50 + 0.50 + 0.3) ∪ ( −∞.50 x ) < 30 15 + x < 30 x < 15 We also must consider the cost without purchasing a pass. | x − 4 |≥ 3 142.PreCalculus 4E Section P. .50 x. makes sense 3 4 − (3) 2 = −5 x>3 The 3-month pass is the best deal when making more than 3 but less than 15 crossings per 3month period. 2 4 − (2)2 = 0 132. y = x + 1 134. Let x = the number of times the bridge is crossed per three month period The cost with the 3-month pass is C3 = 7. 107 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true 137. Answers may vary. true 140. x y = 4− x −3 4 − (−3) = 7 −2 4 − (−2) = 6 The cost with the 6-month pass is C6 = 30. false. makes sense 135. Answers may vary. false. A sample change is: ( −∞. makes sense 145.50 x 144. Inc. x −4 −3 y = x +1 −4 + 1 = 3 −3 + 1 = 2 −2 −1 0 1 2 −2 + 1 = 1 −1 + 1 = 0 0 +1 = 1 1+1 = 2 2 +1 = 3 139.50 −2 4 − (−2)2 = 0 −1 4 − (−1)2 = 3 0 4 − (0)2 = 4 1 4 − (1)2 = 3 124. a. Because x > y. 2 ( 7. we multiply the cost with the 3month pass by 2. 3) 138. A sample change is: 3x > 6 is equivalent to x > 2. −1 4 − (−1) = 5 0 4 − (0) = 4 1 4 − (1) = 3 2 4 − (2) = 2 3 4 − (3) = 1 Because we need to buy two 3-month passes per 6-month pass. | x − 4 |< 3 b.50 + 0.

11. −17. c. 0. This overestimates the percent displayed by the bar graph by 3. b. commutative property of multiplication. A = {a. Inc. 3( 5 + 3) = 15 + 3 . b. f . 1 (5 x) + [ (3 y ) + (−3 y ) ] − (− x) = x + [ 0] + x = 2 x 5 {a. g} ∩ {a. d . 3( 5 + 3) = ( 5 + 3) 3 . b. b. 3(4 y − 5) − (7 y + 2) = 12 y − 15 − 7 y − 2 = 5 y − 17 A = {a. b.75. 81 c. 5(2 x − 3) + 7 x = 10 x − 15 + 7 x = 17 x − 15 20. d . commutative property of multiplication. 19. g} 21.015(60)2 + (60) + 10 2 = 0. c} B = {a. e} {a. 0. A = {a. f . d . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . g} 22. (−3)3 (−2)2 = (−27) ⋅ (4) = −108 9 . c.6(21) − 15 = 38. 3 + 17 = 17 + 3.05 x 2 + 3. c. 81 d. 9 . 13. d . 9. e} {a. 3 − 17 = 17 − 3 since 12. 0. e} = {a.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Chapter P Review Exercises 1. 81 13 −103 = 103 108 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c. c. 0. d . c} = {a} = 8 − 8 + 10 x 8. 81 13 24. 2. 0.55 38. c} C = {a. f . (6 ⋅ 9) ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅ (6 ⋅ 9) . 17 is greater than 3. d .55%. c} ∪ {a. b. 3 + 6( x − 2) = 3 + 6(4 − 2) 3 10. π . 16. c} ∪ {a.015(3600) + 60 + 10 = 54 + 60 + 10 = 124 4.015 x + x + 10 S = 0.6 x − 15 P = −0. c. (6 ⋅ 3) ⋅ 9 = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 9) . d .55% of 21 year olds have been tested. c} C = {a.05(21)2 + 3. d . c} ∩ {a. π f. b. (3 ⋅ 7) + (4 ⋅ 7) = (4 ⋅ 7) + (3 ⋅ 7) . 4 − (−17) = 4 + 17 = 21 = 21 x 2 − 5( x − y ) = 62 − 5(6 − 2) 14. c} 5. − = 10 x 23. d . commutative property of addition. 15. = 3 + 6(2)3 = 3 + 6(8) = 3 + 48 = 51 2. 81 b. = 36 − 5(4) 3. d .75. a. distributive property of multiplication over addition. 8 − 2[3 − (5 x − 1)] = 8 − 2[3 − 5 x + 1] = 8 − 2[4 − 5 x ] = 36 − 20 = 16 S = 0. 2. 18. 0. − e. b. f . g} = {a. associative property of multiplication. commutative property of addition. b. −17. 2 −1 = 2 −1 3 A = {a. e} 6. f . −17. 17. c} B = {a. b. 7. g} {a. e} = {a. P = −0.

7 5 + 13 5 = (7 + 13) 5 = 20 5 47.023 1 1 = 5−2 = 2 = 5 25 26. 12 x 2 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 2 x 3 42.25 × 10 −3 109 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.59 × 106 = 16 2 35.57 1011 ⋅ 8 ≈ 1.75 × 102 ⋅ 106 = 1.590. 40. 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 300 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 10 3 41. 2−4 + 4−1 = = 3. = 2x 5 (2 x3 ) −4 = (2)−4 ( x 3 ) −4 = 2−4 x −12 1 2 x12 1 = 16 x12 = 31. .75 × 108 2. r3 = r 2 ⋅ r = r r 44. 39. 10 x ⋅ 2 x = 20 x 2 −2 y ) −11 y 2 y −2 = 10 ⋅ x3−11 y 2 − 2 = 10 x −8 y 0 = 4x2 ⋅ 5 10 = 8 x 30. 7x y ⎛ 7 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ( x5 −15 )( y 6 − ( −2) ) 28 x15 y −2 ⎝ 28 ⎠ 1 = x −10 y 8 4 y8 = 10 4x 5 = 6 2x = 96 x3 2x = 48 x 2 = 16 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4x 3 3. 175 × 106 = 1.57 × 1011 2.75 × 10 10 The average tax return cost $1469.PreCalculus 4E 25.45 × 10 = 0. 7.0000745 = 10 2 + 6 2 34.75 1. 3 3 = (−2)3 x 4⋅3 y 3⋅3 = −8 x12 y 9 29. 000 37.3) × (103 × 102 ) a. 32.00725 = 7. 4 43.9 × 103 ⎛ 6. 121 121 11 = = 4 2 4 96 x 3 45. 000 = 3.74 × 104 = 37. 0. Chapter P Review Exercises 1 1 + 24 4 1 1 = + 16 4 1 4 = + 16 16 5 = 16 36. Inc. 2 50 + 3 8 = 2 25 ⋅ 2 + 3 4 ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅5 2 + 3⋅ 2 2 −5 33.469 × 103 = 1469 8 1. 257 × 109 = 2. 4 (3 × 103 )(1.9 ⎞ 3− 5 =⎜ ⎟ × 10 3 ×105 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 2. 33 1 1 = 33− 6 = 3−3 = 3 = 36 3 27 28.57 × 102 ⋅ 109 = 2.3 × 102 ) = (3 ×1. (−5 x y )(−2 x 3 2 −11 = (−5)(−2) x x 3 6. 5−3 ⋅ 5 = 5−351 = 5−3+1 27.57 × 1011 b. 400 46.3 × 10−2 = 0.9 × 105 = 390. (−2 x y ) = (−2) ( x ) ( y ) 3 3 3 4 3 38.

4 (−5)4 = 4 625 = 4 54 = 5 57. 4 72 − 2 48 = 4 36 ⋅ 2 − 2 16 ⋅ 3 58. 15 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 15 ⎞ 3 / 4 −1/ 2 =⎜ ⎟x = 3x1/ 4 5 x1/ 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 70. 27 −1/ 3 = 66. 27 −4 / 3 = 68. (5 x 2 / 3 )(4 x1/ 4 ) = 5 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3+1/ 4 = 20 x11/12 69. 642 / 3 = ( 3 64) 2 = 42 = 16 67. y3 y 2 = y 3 y 2 6 ⋅ = 3 3 3 = 5 51. 4 4 32 x 5 4 4 = 2x = x 4 2 16 x 62. 30 30 50. y . 4 3 16 + 5 3 2 = 4 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 5 3 2 = 4⋅6 2 − 2⋅4 3 = 24 2 − 8 3 49.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 3 y5 = 59. 2 30 5 = ⋅ = =6 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 3 = 5 6+ 3 = 4 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 53 2 = 83 2 + 53 2 ⋅ = 13 3 2 6− 3 61. 53. = 14 7− 5 ⋅ 7+ 5 125 = 5 4 −125 is not a real number. Inc. (125 ⋅ x 6 ) 2 / 3 = ( 3 125 x 6 ) 2 −32 = −2 55. 5 3 1 1 1 1 = 3 = 4 = 4/3 4 27 3 81 ( 27) = (5 x 2 )2 3 = 25 x 4 71. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 56. 6 y 3 = ( y 3 )1/ 6 = y 3⋅1/ 6 = y1/ 2 = 110 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 81 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 = = 251/ 2 25 5 1 1 1 = = 271/ 3 3 27 3 65. 1251/ 3 = 3 125 = 5 7+ 5 14( 7 + 5) = 7−5 14( 7 + 5) = 2 = 7( 7 + 5) 5 16 x = 5(6 − 3) 36 − 3 7− 5 54. 161/ 2 = 16 = 4 = 5(6 − 3) 33 63. 25−1/ 2 = 64. 4 8 ⋅ 4 10 = 4 80 = 4 16 ⋅ 5 = 4 16 ⋅ 4 5 = 2 4 5 60. 32 x 5 = 14 3 4 6+ 3 6− 3 52.

(5 x − 2)3 = (5 x)3 − 3(5 x )2 (2) + 3(5 x)(2) 2 − 23 = 125 x 3 − 150 x 2 + 60 x − 8 81. (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) − (5 x 4 − 3x3 + 2 x 2 − 6) = (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−5 x 4 + 3 x3 − 2 x 2 + 6) = (13x 4 − 5 x 4 ) + (−8 x3 + 3x3 ) + (2 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + 6 = 8x 4 − 5x3 + 6 The degree is 4. (3 x − 5 y ) 2 = (3x) 2 − 2(3x)(5 y ) + (−5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 − 30 xy + 25 y 2 83. (3 x 2 + 2 y ) 2 = (3 x 2 )2 + 2(3 x 2 )(2 y ) + (2 y ) 2 = 9 x 4 + 12 x 2 y + 4 y 2 84. . (7 x + 4 y )(7 x − 4 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (4 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 16 y 2 85. (a − b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) = a(a 2 ) + a (ab) + a(b 2 ) + (−b)(a 2 ) +(−b)(ab) + (−b)(b 2 ) = a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 − a 2 b − ab 2 − b3 = a 3 − b3 111 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 72. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. (2 x + 5) 2 = (2 x)2 + 2(2 x) ⋅ 5 + 52 = 4 x 2 + 20 x + 25 78. 73. (3 x − 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(1) + (−5)(2 x) + (−5)(1) = 6 x 2 + 3 x − 10 x − 5 = 6 x2 − 7 x − 5 76. ( x + 7 y )(3x − 5 y ) = x(3x ) + ( x)(−5 y ) + (7 y )(3 x) + (7 y )(−5 y ) = 3 x 2 − 5 xy + 21xy − 35 y 2 = 3 x 2 + 16 xy − 35 y 2 82. (3 x − 2)(4 x 2 + 3x − 5) = (3 x)(4 x 2 ) + (3x)(3x) + (3x)(−5) + (−2)(4 x 2 ) + (−2)(3x) + (−2)(−5) = 12 x3 + 9 x 2 − 15 x − 8 x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 12 x3 + x 2 − 21x + 10 75. 74. Chapter P Review Exercises (−6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 9 x + 3) + (14 x3 + 3x 2 − 11x − 7) = (−6 x3 + 14 x3 ) + (7 x 2 + 3x 2 ) + (−9 x − 11x) + (3 − 7) = 8 x 3 + 10 x 2 − 20 x − 4 The degree is 3. (3 x − 4) 2 = (3 x) 2 − 2(3 x) ⋅ 4 + (−4) 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 79. (2 x + 1)3 = (2 x)3 + 3(2 x) 2 (1) + 3(2 x)(1) 2 + 13 = 8 x3 + 12 x 2 + 6 x + 1 80. (4 x + 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x 2 ) − 52 = 16 x 2 − 25 77.

x 2 + 16 is prime. = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 98. 27 x 3 − 125 = (3 x)3 − 53 = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 1) 2 = (3 x − 5)[(3 x)2 + (3x)(5) + 52 ] = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 4 x + 1) = (3 x − 5)(9 x 2 + 15 x + 25) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 4 x − 1 87. 6 x2 + 2 x x( x + 2) x . 3x 4 − 9 x 3 − 30 x 2 = 3 x 2 ( x 2 − 3x − 10) 95. 102. [5 y − (2 x + 1)][5 y + (2 x + 1)] 101. x 5 − x = x( x 4 − 1) = x( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2 y + 4) = ( x + 2 y + 4 )( x + 2 y + 4 ) = x ( x + 2 y + 4) + 2 y ( x + 2 y + 4) + 4 ( x + 2 y + 4) 2 = x( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 + 1) 103. = = x + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2)2 x + 2 x ≠ –2 2 100. = = ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x 2 − 36 x ≠ –6. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) x3 + 2 x 2 x 2 ( x + 2) = = x 2 . x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = x 2 + 2 xy + 4 x + 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 y + 4 x + 8 y + 16 = ( x 2 − 2)( x + 5) = x 2 + 4 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 x + 16 y + 16 104. 16 x − 40 x + 25 = (4 x − 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x − 5)2 97. = 3 x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) 94. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 93. x 2 + 18 x + 81 − y 2 = ( x 2 + 18 x + 81) − y 2 88. x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 109. −3 3 ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 − ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x2 + 3) 2 2 1 = ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎡⎣1 − ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) ⎤⎦ 20 x 7 − 36 x3 = 4 x 3 (5 x 4 − 9) 1 = ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎣⎡1 − ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) ⎦⎤ x 3 − 3x 2 − 9 x + 27 = x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) 1 = ( x 2 − 9)( x − 3) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x 2 + 3) 2 (− x 4 + x 2 + 13) = ( x + 3)( x − 3)( x − 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 2 107. 12 x − 1 2 + 6x − 3 2 = 6x − 3 2 ( 2 x + 1) = 6(2 x + 1) 96. = ( x + 9 − y )( x + 9 + y ) x 2 − 11x + 28 = ( x − 4)( x − 7) 105. 15 x + 3 x = 3x ⋅ 5 x + 3x ⋅1 3 2 2 2 = ( x + 9) − y2 2 = 3x (5 x + 1) 2 89. 3x 4 − 12 x 2 = 3x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 3x 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) 112 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 86. 108. x ≠ –2 x+2 x+2 x 2 + 3x − 18 ( x + 6)( x − 3) x − 3 . 15 x − x − 2 = (3x + 1)(5 x − 2) 2 91. 64 − x 2 = 82 − x 2 = (8 − x)(8 + x) 92. 4 + 32 x 1 4 = 16 x −3 4 = 1 − ( −3 ) ⎛ 4 4 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ −3 (1 + 2 x ) (1 + 2 x ) = 16 x 16 x 4 3 4 1 106. 99. 3 x2 2 y 3 − 8 = y 3 − 23 = ( y − 2)( y 2 + 2 y + 4) 110. 16 x 90.

x − 2 x − 2 6 x = ⋅ 1 − x 1 − x 6x 3 6 3 6 6 − 3x = 2 x − x2 −3( x − 2) = − x( x − 2) 3 = . . 8 x+3 4x −1 − 2 x2 + 5x − 3 6 x 2 + x − 2 x+3 4x −1 = − (2 x − 1)( x + 3) (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) 4x −1 3x + 2 = ⋅ (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 3x + 2 x+3 x+3 − ⋅ (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) x + 3 = 12 x 2 + 8 x − 3x − 2 − x 2 − 6 x − 9 (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3x + 2) 11x 2 − x − 11 . 2 x − 7 − x − 10 = 2 x − 7 − ( x − 10) x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 1 = . x x −1 + x2 − 9 x2 − 5x + 6 x x −1 = + ( x − 3)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 3) x x−2 x −1 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x − 2 ( x − 2)( x − 3) x + 3 x ( x − 2) + ( x − 1)( x + 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) 113 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 2 3 = 1 1 1 1 118. –2 112. 4. x−3 x ≠ 3. 2. − 1. x + 6 x + 9 ⋅ x + 3 = ( x + 3) ⋅ 2 x −4 x − 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x − 2 = 116. ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x ≠ 2. 2 x x x+2 3x 3x x − 2 + = ⋅ + ⋅ x+2 x−2 x+2 x−2 x−2 x+2 3x2 − 6 x + x 2 + 2 x = ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x2 − 4 x ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x( x − 1) = . − 3. –3 115. –3. ( x + 3)3 . ( x − 2)2 ( x + 2) x ≠ 2. Inc. x( x + 1) 1 x ≠ 0. 1. x−4 x ≠ –3. (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3 x + 2) 1 2 x ≠ . 6 x + 2 3x 2 + x ÷ x2 − 1 x −1 x(3x + 1) 2(3 x + 1) = ÷ x −1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x −1 2(3 x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 1)( x + 1) x(3 x + 1) 2 = . –2 x2 − 2x + x2 + 2 x − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) = 114. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 3 = 2 x2 − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) x ≠ 3. x x ≠ 0. 113.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 2 2 x+3 111. x 2 − 5 x − 24 x 2 − 10 x + 16 ÷ 2 x 2 − x − 12 x + x−6 ( x − 8)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 8) = ÷ ( x − 4)( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 2) x −8 x +3 = ⋅ x − 4 x −8 x+3 = . 2 117.

2 = = = = = 126. Inc. x ≠ 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 3 25 − x 2 + 121 . 2( x − 4) + 3( x + 5) = 2 x − 2 2 x − 8 + 3x + 15 = 2 x − 2 5x + 7 = 2 x − 2 3x = −9 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. This is a conditional equation. –4 123. This is a conditional equation. This is a conditional equation. 12 12 119. x ≠ –1 1 1 2 − = 2 x − 1 x + 1 x −1 1 1 2 − = x − 1 x + 1 (x + 1)(x − 1) x + 1 − (x −1) = 2 x2 25 − x 2 x + 1− x + 1 = 2 25 − x 2 ⎛ 25 − x 2 + x ⎞ 25 − 2 x 2 ⎜ ⎟ 25 − x 2 ⎠ =⎝ (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 2 =2 The solution set is all real numbers except 1 and –1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 122. 3 − x + 3 3 − x + 3 x + 3 = ⋅ 3+ 1 3+ 1 x +3 x+3 x+3 3( x + 3) − 1 = 3( x + 3) + 1 3x + 9 − 1 = 3x + 9 + 1 3x + 8 = . 2x – 4(5x + 1) = 3x + 17 2x – 20x – 4 = 3x + 17 –18x – 4 = 3x + 17 –21x = 21 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. . 1 1 120. x ≠ –2. 3 x + 10 10 x ≠ −3. (25 − x 2 )3 25 (25 − x 2 )3 ⋅ 25 − x 2 25 − x 2 25 25 − x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 25 − x 2 (5 − x)2 (5 + x)2 114 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 + x 3 + x x 2 = ⋅ 2 1 − 162 1 − 162 x x x 2 3x + 12 x = 2 x − 16 3x( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 4) 3x . = x−4 x ≠ 0. 124. 1 – 2(6 – x) = 3x + 2 1 – 12 + 2x = 3x + 2 –11 – x = 2 –x = 13 x = –13 The solution set is {–13}. 125. 4. x ≠ 4 2 30 4 + = x + 2 x − 4 (x + 2)(x − 4) 4(x − 4) + 2(x + 2) = 30 25 − x 2 + x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 25 4x − 16 + 2x + 4 = 30 6x −12 = 30 6x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}.

1} . 5⎬ . ( x − 3) 2 = ± 24 x − 3 = ±2 6 128. 6 6 10 x = . 8 − 2x − x = 0 134. 7 ± (−7)2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 7 ± 49 − 12 6 7 ± 37 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 7 + 37 7 − 37 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .−2 3 x+2=0 x = −2 x= x=4 –2 must be rejected. The solution set is {4} . . x 2 − 9 = 0 127. ( x − 3)2 − 24 = 0 ( x − 3) 2 = 24 The solution set is {−2. 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 115 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 x= 0 = ( x + 2)( x − 4) or x − 4 = 0 –4 must be rejected. 2 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 ⎞ ⎛ x = ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎜ − ⎟ ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎝ x+4 x+2⎠ 2 x = x ( x + 2) − 2( x + 4) (3x + 5)( x − 3) = 5 129. 3x 2 + 5 x − 9 x − 15 = 5 3x 2 − 4 x − 20 = 0 x= 2x = x2 + 2x − 2x − 8 4 ± (−4)2 − 4(3)(−20) 2(3) 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 4 ± 16 + 240 6 4 ± 256 x= 6 4 ± 16 x= 6 20 −12 x= .PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 131. 2 x 2 − 11x + 5 = 0 (2x – 1)(x – 5) = 0 2x – 1 = 0 x – 5 = 0 1 x = or x = 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . Inc. ⎬ . ⎩2 ⎭ x = 3± 2 6 2x x 2 = − x + 6x + 8 x + 4 x + 2 2x x 2 = − ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 4 x + 2 133. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −4 2 x + 1 + 12 = 0 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. 3⎭ ⎩ 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 130. −4 2 x + 1 = −12 2x + 1 = 3 2 x + 1 = 3 or 2 x + 1 = −3 2x = 2 x =1 2 x = −4 x = −2 132. 3}. ⎬. 8 − 2x = x ( 8 − 2x ) 2 = x2 8 − 2 x = x2 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 ⎧ 10 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. The solution set is {2} .

9 x 2 − 30 x + 25 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−30)2 − 4(9)(25) = 0 340 = 2 ( 3w − 6 ) + 2w 340 = 6w − 12 + 2 w b 2 − 4ac = 0.4 x = 7. 340 = 8w − 12 352 = 8w 44 = w The dimensions are 44 yards by 126 yards. A− P Pr A− P Pr (T ) = Pr Pr PrT = A − P T= 142. 136.5 million barrels.1 0. or 2019.8 + x + 15 = 32.8 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by China. Inc.3 x + 15 = 20.5 x + 0.5 x = 5. .000 in one week to earn $800. that will speak a language other than English at home will reach 25.05 x A 1 + rT 500 = 0. respectfully. and Japan is 20. 2x − 3 + x = 3 2x − 3 = 3 − x 2x − 3 = 9 − 6x + x2 x 2 − 8 x + 12 = 0 x 2 − 8 x = −12 x 2 − 8 x + 16 = −12 + 16 ( x − 4)2 = 4 x − 4 = ±2 x = 4+2 x = 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 = 2 x − 19 x 2 − 2 x + 19 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−2) 2 − 4(1)(19) = −72 −72 < 0.20 x 48 = 0. 144.3 3x = 16. gt s − vt = 2 t2 t s − vt g= 2 t 2 137. 000 = x Sales must be $10.4 x = 25.3 x + x + 0. Let w = the width of the playing field.1% 19 years after 2000. PrT + P = A P ( rT + 1) = A P= 138.8) + ( x + 15) = 32.3 3 x + 15.80 x 60 = x The original price is $60. Let x = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by Japan. Let 3w – 6 = the length of the playing field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 139. Let x = the amount sold to earn $800 in one week 800 = 300 + 0. 143.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 135. 17. Let x + 15 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by the United States. Let x + 0.5 million barrels. x + ( x + 0. vt + gt 2 = s gt 2 = s − vt 141.6 x = 19 The percentage of people in the U.05 x 10. 6.8 = 6. thus the equation has no real solutions. and 5. 140. thus the equation has one repeated real solution. Let x = the number of years after 2000.5 The daily oil consumption of the United States.5 + 0.S. 2 The solution set is {2}.3 million barrels. Let x = the original price of the phone 48 = x − 0. 116 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. China.8 = 32.

100 students.100 + 1500 x and 149. 146. b. 000 x ≈ ±134. 15 = l ( 2l − 7 ) 15 = 2l 2 − 7l 0 = 2l 2 − 7l − 15 0 = (2l + 3)(l − 5) l =5 2l − 7 = 3 The length is 5 yards.100 when x = 12 . 147. y2 = 41. Inc. Since y1 = y2 = 32. . Let x = height of building 2x = shadow height x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 3002 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 90. The width of the frame is 2 inches. 1500 1500 + 100 = x x−4 1500 ⎛ 1500 ⎞ x( x − 4) ⎜ + 100 ⎟ = x( x − 4) x x−4 ⎝ ⎠ 1500( x − 4) + 100 x( x − 4) = 1500 x 1500 x − 6000 + 100 x 2 − 400 x = 1500 x 15 x − 60 + x 2 − 4 x = 15 x A = lw x 2 − 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 10) = 0 x + 6 = 0 or x − 10 = 0 x = −6 x = 10 –6 must be rejected. the two colleges will have the same enrollment in the year 2007 + 12 = 2019 .PreCalculus 4E 145. 000 5 x 2 = 90. The building is approximately 134 meters high.164 Discard negative height. { x −3 ≤ x < 5} 151. 000 150. 148. the width is 3 yards. 700 − 800 x . That year the enrollments will be 32. (10 + 2 x )(16 + 2 x) = 280 160 + 52 x + 4 x 2 = 280 4 x 2 + 52 x − 120 = 0 x 2 + 13x − 30 = 0 ( x + 15)( x − 2) = 0 x + 15 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −15 x=2 –15 must be rejected. Chapter P Review Exercises Check some points to determine that y1 = 14. { x x ≤ 0} x 2 = 18. { x x > −2} 152. There were originally 10 people. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 117 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

118 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3) : To find the union.3) or ( 0. 4 ) . take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Numbers in both ( −2.3) ∩ ( 0.3) . take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 153. [1.3) : Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1] and [ −1.1] or [ −1. Graph ( −2. 4 ) = ( 0.1] : 154.1] ∩ [ −1. 4 ) : To find the union. . Numbers in either ( −2.1] : Graph [ −1. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. Numbers in either [1. 155. 157. Graph ( −2. [1.3) : To find the intersection. 4 ) = [1. Graph [1. 4 ) or both: Thus.1] . ( −2.1] ∪ [ −1.3) = ( −2. 4 ) : To find the intersection. ∞ ) .3) = [ −1.3) or both: Thus. Graph ( 0.3) . Graph [1.3) : 156. Graph [ −1.3) : Graph ( 0. 4 ) : Thus. Inc.3) ∪ ( 0. –6x + 3 ≤ 15 –6x ≤ 12 x≥2 The solution set is [ −2.3) and ( 0. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Numbers in both [1. ( −2.

6] . Inc. ∞ ) . ⎣5 ⎠ 159. x 3 x − −1 > 3 4 2 ⎛x 3 ⎞ ⎛ x⎞ 12 ⎜ − − 1⎟ > 12 ⎜ ⎟ 3 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4x – 9 – 12 > 6x –21 > 2x 21 − >x 2 2x + 6 >2 3 2x + 6 2x + 6 >2 < –2 3 3 2 x + 6 > 6 2 x + 6 < –6 2x > 0 2 x < −12 x>0 x < −6 The solution set is ( −∞. 165.20 0. 164. ∞ ) .20 x ≤ 80 A customer can drive no more than 80 miles.3) . − 3] or [ −2. − ⎟ . ∞ ⎟ . 166. −5] ∪ [1. 2 x + 3 ≤ 15 10 x ≥ 6 3 x≥ 5 –15 ≤ 2x + 3 ≤ 15 –18 ≤ 2x ≤ 12 –9 ≤ x ≤ 6 The solution set is [ −9. 119 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 158. − 6 ) or ( 0. 3(2x – 1) – 2(x – 4) ≥ 7 + 2(3 + 4x) 6x – 3 – 2x + 8 ≥ 7 + 6 + 8x 4x + 5 ≥ 8x + 13 –4x ≥ 8 x ≤ –2 x+2≥3 or x ≥1 x + 2 ≤ −3 x ≤ −5 The solution set is ( −∞. 3] 0. 2⎠ ⎝ 2x + 5 ≥ 1 or 2x + 5 ≤ –1 2x ≥ –4 2x ≤ –6 x ≥ –2 or x ≤ –3 160. .20 x 16 ≤ 0. 167.20 x + 24 ≤ 40 0. 2 x + 5 − 7 ≥ −6 2x + 5 ≥ 1 21 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. ∞ ) . ⎡3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . ∞ ) . The solution set is [ 2. − 2 ) . 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x+2 ≥3 161. 6 x − 9 ≥ −4 x − 3 163. −4 x + 2 + 5 ≤ −7 −4 x + 2 ≤ −12 The solution set is ( −3. 7 < 2x + 3 ≤ 9 4 < 2x ≤ 6 2<x≤3 (2. The solution set is [ −∞. 6x + 5 > –2(x – 3) – 25 6x + 5 > –2x + 6 – 25 8x + 5 > –19 8x > –24 x > –3 The solution set is ( −∞.20 x ≤ 16 162.

25 × 102 = 2. a} = {5} 4. = 7 + 2[−3x + 5] (5 x + 3 y ) 2 = (5 x) 2 + 2(5 x)(3 y ) + (3 y ) 2 = 25 x 2 + 30 xy + 9 y 2 = 7 − 6 x + 10 = −6 x + 17 14. x ≠ 3. 2. 3. {1. − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 3) 120 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a} = {1. 2.5} ∪ {5. 1 11. 5 × 10−6 5 10−6 = ⋅ = 0.5. 3 5− 2 5+ 2 5− 2 = 3(5 − 2) 25 − 2 = 3(5 − 2) 23 2 x + 8 x2 + 5x + 4 ÷ x−3 x2 − 9 2( x + 4) ( x + 1)( x + 4) = ÷ x−3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 2( x + 4) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ x − 3 ( x + 1)( x + 4) 2( x + 3) = . Chapter P Test 5(2 x 2 − 6 x) − (4 x 2 − 3x) = 10 x 2 − 30 x − 4 x 2 + 3x = 6 x 2 − 27 x 2.5 × 101 20 × 10−8 20 10−8 12. –3 x 5 + x+3 x−3 x x−3 5 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ x +3 x−3 x −3 x +3 x ( x − 3) + 5( x + 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x + 5 x + 15 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 + 2 x + 15 . –4.5} ∩ {5. . a} 5. = = x 2 − 3 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x − 1) x − 2 x ≠ 2. 168. x 2 + 2 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. {1. x +1 x ≠ 3. 3 5+ 2 = 3 ⋅ 16 x 4 = 3 8 x 3 ⋅ 2 x = 3 8x3 ⋅ 3 2 x 400 ≤ 351 + x < 450 49 ≤ x < 99 A grade of at least 49% but less than 99% will result in a B. 7. 1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 90 5 400 ≤ 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 450 9. –1. 30 x3 y 4 5 y8 = 5 x3 −9 y 4 − ( −4) = 5 x −6 y 8 = 6 9 −4 x 6x y 6. 80 ≤ = 2x 3 2x 10. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = 2 x 3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − 5 x 2 + 20 x − 15 7 + 2[3( x + 1) − 2(3x − 1)] = 7 + 2[3x + 3 − 6 x + 2] = 2 x 3 − 13x 2 + 26 x − 15 13. Inc. 6r ⋅ 3r = 18r 2 = 9r 2 ⋅ 2 = 3r 2 4 50 − 3 18 = 4 25 ⋅ 2 − 3 9 ⋅ 2 15. 2. = 4 ⋅5 2 − 3⋅3 2 = 20 2 − 9 2 = 11 2 8.

0. commutative property of addition x +5 = 2 + ( x + 3) 5 = ( x + 3) ( x + 3) 5 3 2 x x 2 + 5 − 22x = 3 5 = ( x + 3) 5 (2 x + 3) = = = − x( x + 2) − x 2 x( x + 2) + ( x + 2) = 18.28n + 53 −0. ( x − 3)( x − 4) x ≠ 3. 0. 4. 43. x≠0 x + 3x + 2 29.28(25) + 53 2 = 3 Three women will receive bachelor’s degrees for every two men. Inc. 0. 5 3 = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 2) = 5 3 1 ( 3 ) 5 27 = 1 ( 3) 5 = 1 243 ) 2 6. 3 x 2 − 9 x + 18 = ( x − 3)( x − 6) 20. are rational numbers. .2 × 109 = 1. Chapter P Test 2x + 3 2 − 2 x − 7 x + 12 x − 3 2x + 3 2 = − ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 2x + 3 2 x−4 = − ⋅ ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 x − 4 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) ( ) 36 x 2 − 84 x + 49 = (6 x) 2 − 2(6 x) ⋅ 7 + 7 2 23. This describes the projections exactly. x ( x + 3) 26. 22.32 × 1010 3 ( x + 5) − 27 x2 + 5 2 − 27. 3(2 + 5) = 3(5 + 2).08%. 21.28n + 47 0. y 3 − 125 = y 3 − 53 = ( y − 5)( y 2 + 5 y + 25) 24.08% of bachelor’s degrees were awarded to men. R= 121 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6(7 + 4) = 6 ⋅ 7 + 6 ⋅ 4 distributive property of multiplication over addition x 2 + 2 x − x2 ( x + 1)( x + 2) 2x = 2 . − .6 × 109 = 13. ( x 2 + 10 x + 25) − 9 y 2 25.28(14) + 47 = 43. This overestimates the actual percent shown by the bar graph by 0.08 In 2003. M = −0. 19. R= M −0.28n + 47 = W 0.28n + 47 M = −0. ⎛ 2 x x 2 + 5 − 2 x ⎞ x2 + 5 ⎜ ⎟ x2 +5 ⎠ =⎝ ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x( x 2 + 5) − 2 x3 ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x3 + 10 x − 2 x3 b. 2003 is 14 years after 1989.6 × 10−4 30. = ( x + 5)2 − 9 y 2 = ( x + 5 − 3 y )( x + 5 + 3 y ) 1 − x +x 2 ( x + 2) x 1 − x +x 2 = 1 + 1x 1 + 1x ( x + 2) x ( 25 x 2 − 9 = (5 x)2 − 32 = (5 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (6 x − 7) 2 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 2x + 3 − 2x + 8 = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 11 = . ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 10 x c. 27 31.PreCalculus 4E 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall.00076 = 7.28n + 53 −0.28(25) + 47 R= 0. ) 3 5 − 3 x (x 3) 2x + 3 3 4 22 −7. x 3 + 2 x 2 + 3 x + 6 = x 2 ( x + 2) + 3( x + 2) = 1 ( 32. 4 17. a.25. 5 7 28.

x − 3 = x 2 − 10 x + 25 x 2 − 11x + 28 = 0 x= 2 x + 6 − 4 x + 12 = 8 −2 x + 18 = 8 11 ± 121 − 112 2 11 ± 9 x= 2 11 ± 3 x= 2 x = 7 or x = 4 4 does not check and must be rejected. The solution set is {7}. The solution set is {2}. 2 4 8 − = x − 3 x + 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 35. 2⎬ . 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎬. x=5 The solution set is {5}. 2± 2x − 3 x − 4 x +1 = − 4 2 4 2 x − 3 = 2( x − 4) − ( x + 1) 2x − 3 = x − 9 x = −6 The solution set is {–6}. 3 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 122 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 –4 does not check and must be rejected. 37. . 34. Inc. x= ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −4 ) 2 2 2±2 5 2 x = 1± 5 x= 2x − 3 = 2x − 8 − x −1 The solution set is 1 − 5. 2 x 2 − 3x − 2 = 0 (2x + 1)(x – 2) = 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x=2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . x(x – 2) = 4 x2 − 2 x − 4 = 0 7 x − 14 = 4 x − 17 x= 3x = −3 x = −1 The solution set is {–1}. 8 − 2x − x = 0 8 − 2x = x ( = 75 3x − 1 = ± 75 8 − 2x ) 2 = ( x) 2 8 − 2 x = x2 3x = 1 ± 5 3 x= 11 ± 112 − 4(1)(28) 2(1) x= −2 x = −10 1 2 } x −3 = x −5 2( x + 3) − 4( x − 3) = 8 x=− { x−3 +5 = x 39. 1± 5 3 3 ⎪⎧1 − 5 3 1 + 5 3 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 1 + 5 . 7( x − 2) = 4( x + 1) − 21 7 x − 14 = 4 x + 4 − 21 38. ⎩ 2 ⎭ ( 3x − 1) 2 40.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 33.

⎟ . 45.PreCalculus 4E 41. 1 V = lwh 3 3V = lwh 3V lwh = lw lw 3V =h lw 3V h= lw 44. 3(x + 4) ≥ 5x – 12 3x + 12 ≥ 5x – 12 –2x ≥ –24 x ≤ 12 The solution set is (−∞. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ 2 x + 2 x + 8 = x2 + 2 x 2 x + 8 = x2 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 0 = ( x − 4)( x + 2) x − 4 = 0 or x=4 x+2 =0 48. . Inc. 12]. Chapter P Test 2 x−6 = 2 3 2 2 x−6 = 2 x − 6 = −2 3 3 2 2 x=8 x=4 3 3 x = 12 x=6 The solution set is {6. − ⎥ ∪ ⎢ . 12}. 4x − 7 = 5 4 x − 7 = −5 or 4 x = 12 4x = 2 x=3 1 x= 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . x = −2 (rejected) The solution set is {4} . ∞ ⎟ . 2⎠ ⎣ 2x 2 x + = x2 + 6 x + 8 x + 2 x + 4 2x 2 x + = ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 2 x + 4 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2( x + 4)( x + 2) x( x + 4)( x + 2) + = x+2 x+4 ( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 x + 2( x + 4) = x( x + 2) 47. 123 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎣8 ⎠ −3 4 x − 7 + 15 = 0 −3 4 x − 7 = −15 4x − 7 = 5 46.3⎬ ⎩2 ⎭ 43. 2x + 5 <6 3 –9 ≤ 2x + 5 < 18 –14 ≤ 2x < 13 13 −7 ≤ x < 2 −3 ≤ 13 ⎞ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −7. x 1 x 3 + ≤ − 6 8 2 4 4 x + 3 ≤ 12 x − 18 −8 x ≤ −21 x≥ 21 8 ⎡ 21 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . ∞ ⎟ . 3x + 2 ≥ 3 3x + 2 ≥ 3 or 3x + 2 ≤ −3 3x ≥ 1 3 x ≤ −5 1 5 x≥ x≤− 3 3 5⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

or 2018. . and 65 video rental stores. 700 + 150 x = 5000 + 1100 x 48 = (2w + 4) w 48 = 2w2 + 4 w B = 0. or 2018.600. y − y1 = mx − mx1 54.07) x ≈ 14.07 x 2 + 47.07)(−677) 2(0.4 x + 500 1177 = 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 49. Let x + 16 = the number movie theaters.4 x − 677 0 = ( w + 6)( w − 4) x= x= 0 = w2 + 2 w − 24 w+6 = 0 w−4 = 0 w = −6 w=4 2 w + 4 = 2(4) + 4 = 12 width is 4 feet. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 53. Let x = the number drive-in theaters. ( x ) + ( x + 16 ) + ( x + 64 ) = 83 −mx = y1 − mx1 − y −mx y1 − mx1 − y = −m −m y − y1 + x1 x= m 50. residents.07 x 2 + 47. Inc. length is 12 feet −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(47. 17 movie theaters. Ra − as = − Rs a( R − s ) = − Rs a( R − s ) − Rs = R−s R−s Rs a= s−R 51.4) ± (47. 55.4 x + 500 0 = 2w2 + 4 w − 48 0 = 0.4)2 − 4(0. the cost will be $33.4 x − 677 0 = 0. x + x + 16 + x + 64 = 83 3x + 80 = 83 3x = 3 as a+s R (a + s ) = as Ra + Rs = as R= x =1 x + 16 = 17 x + 64 = 65 For every one million U. l = 2w + 4 A = lw x = 14 The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004. Publishing as Prentice Hall.07 x 2 + 47. there is 1 drivein theater. 29. 52.S. Let x + 64 = the number video rental stores. 124 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≈ −691 (rejected) The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004. 24700 = 950 x 26 = x In 26 years. The formulas model the data quite well.07 x 2 + 47. 43x + 575 = 1177 43x = 602 56.

Let x = the original selling price 20 = x − 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The monthly cost using Plan B is CB = 13 + 0. For Plan A to be better deal. 000 x + 3.06 x 12 < 0. 000 − 6000 = x x+5 600. Let x = the number of local calls The monthly cost using Plan A is C A = 25. 000 x = 600. Inc. 600. it must cost less than Plan B.40 x 50 = x The original price is $50.06 x 200 < x x > 200 Plan A is a better deal when more than 200 local calls are made per month.06 x. C A < CB 25 < 13 + 0. 000 ⎛ 600. 60. 000 − 6000 x 2 − 30. 58. 000( x + 5) − 6000 x( x + 5) = 600. 000. 000 = 0 x 2 + 5 x − 500 = 0 ( x + 25)( x − 20) = 0 x − 20 = 0 x + 25 = 0 or x = −25 x = 20 –25 must be rejected. There were originally 20 people.60 x 20 = 0. 125 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 x −6000 x 2 − 30. 000 x 59. Chapter P Test 242 + x 2 = 262 576 + x 2 = 676 x 2 = 100 x = ±10 The wire should be attached 10 feet up the pole. 000. . 000 x + 3. 000 ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ − 6000 ⎟ = x ( x + 5) x x+5 ⎝ ⎠ 600.PreCalculus 4E 57. 600. 000 600.

y = 1 x = −1. c. 1. 0). x = 0. [ −100 . The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. d = 4n + 5 d = 4(15) + 5 = 65 65% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage.50] by [−100. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 100 . The graph crosses the x-axis at (–3. x = −4. y = 2 x = 3. 0). 5). The mathematical model overestimates the actual percentage shown in the graph by 5%. 6. The meaning of a [−100.100. y = 2 x = 2.10] viewing rectangle is as follows: distance between x -axis minimum maximum tick marks x -value x -value [ −100 . the x-intercept is 0 and the y-intercept is 0. x = −1. y = 4 x = 1. Thus. 100 . Thus. y = 1 x = 1. Thus. y = 1 3.Chapter 1 Functions and Graphs Section 1. y = 3 x = −3. the y-intercept is 4. Thus.100. y = 2 x = −2. a. y = 5 a. y = 3 x = 2. 10 ] x = −3. y = 7 x = −2. b.1 Check Point Exercises 4. the x-intercept is –3. y = 0 x = 0. The graph does not cross the x-axis. y = 3 126 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 6 5. the y-intercept is 5. Thus. 50 ] by distance between y -axis minimum maximum tick y -value y -value marks 2. c. b. there is no x-intercept. . Inc. According to the line graph.and y-axes at the origin (0. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. The graph crosses the x. 60% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. 4).

PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 7. 8.1 Exercise Set 1. 2. 11. 9. 12. 10. 4. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 5. 3.1 1. 127 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6.

y = 3 x = 0. y = –1 x = –2. y = 11 128 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 1 16. y = −3 x = 0. y = 6 x = –1. Inc. y = 2 x = 1. y = −5 x = −2.Functions and Graphs 13. y = −2 x = 1. y = 3 x = 2. 14. y = 1 x = 0. y = 0 x = 3. y = −1 x = 2. y = 7 x = 3. y = −1 x = 1. y = 2 x = 2. y = 4 x = 3. y = −4 x = −1. y = 3 x = 2. . y = 7 x = −3. y = 2 x = 1. y = 5 x = –3. x = −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 15. y = 11 x = –2. y = 0 x = –1. y = 6 x = 3. y = −2 x = 0. y = −1 x = −1. y = 2 x = −2. x = –3.

y = 1 2 x = −2. y = 0 x = 3. y = –10 x = –2. y = 0 x = 3. y = –8 x = –1. y = −1 x = 0. y = 1 x = −1. y = 1 1 x = 3. y = 2 3 x = 1. . 2 20. Inc. y = −5 x = −2. y = –4 x = 1. y = −3 x = −3. y = 3 x = −1. y = 2 x = 2. y = –2 x = 2. y = 3 5 x = –1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = –3. y = –6 x = 0. y = 2 x = –3.1 17. y = 7 x = 1. y = 2 7 2 x = –2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. x = −3. y = 5 2 x = 0. y = −1 18. y = − 3 2 x = 2. y = 1 x = 1. y = 3 x = 2. 19. y = 129 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 2 x = 0. y = − 1 x = 3.

y = −6 x = 3. y = 1 x = 1. y = 4 x = −1. y = 0 x = 0. y = 2 x = −2. Inc. . y = 1 x = −1. 22. 21. y = −2 x = 2. x = −3. y = 2 x = 0. y = 2 x = 0. y = 4 x = 3. y = 3 x = −1. y = 2 x = 2. y = 2 x = 2.Functions and Graphs 23. y = −4 x = 1. y = −1 x = 1. y = 6 x = −2. y = 0 x = 2. y = 2 130 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 0 x = 0. y = 0 x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = −6 x = −3. x = −3. y = 4 24. y = 1 x = 3. y = 3 x = 3. y = −2 x = −1. y = 6 x = −2. y = 4 x = −3. y = −4 x = −2.

x-axis tick marks –20. 20. (d) x-axis tick marks –10. x = 0. x = 3.1) . –20. 60. y = −9 x = −1. and (3. 40. y1 = x 2 . . 20. ( −1. –700. We can tell because all of the points ( −3. y = −28 x = −2 . 60. –1. y = 8 x = −1. 0. 3. (b). –2. 40. y = 0 x = 2. (−1. y = −9 32. 2. but all are not on any of the others. y-axis tick marks –30. (a) x-axis tick marks –40. (0. 50. (2. (−2. 70. 4 31. 0) . 10. 30. –8. 0) . ( −2. 0. 6. –3. 28. 0) . y = 1 36. and (3. y = 0 x = −3. 2) . y = 9 x = 0. y = −2 x = 0. y = −9 (1. (2. –10. y2 = 2 − x . . y-axis tick marks –4. 1.9) are on the graph y = x 2 . y = −27 35. –4. y = 1 (2. 2. 8. 5) . 800.1) . 29. . It passes through the point (0. . y = 0 x = 3. y = 26 26. 70 x = −3. –6. (1.1) . 4) .9) . y = 0 37. 5. y = 27 131 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 10. The equation that corresponds to Y in the table 2 x = 1. 50. 10. x = 1. –800. –2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 2. 0. 30. 40. y = −1 x = 0. 1000 x = −2. 0) x = 2. 27. 0. y = 8 x = 1. –20. –4. 0.1 25. The equation that corresponds to Y1 in the table is (b). 20. 3) . y = −1 x = 1. y = −1 x = 2. Inc. No. We can tell because all of the points (−3. but all are not on any of the others. y = 5 x = 3. 80. 4) . x = −2. –2. (c) x-axis tick marks –5. It passes through the point (0. Yes. 2) . y = 7 x = 2. 4. y = −8 x = −1. y = −4 is (c). −1) are on the line y = 2 − x . y-axis tick marks –1000. y = 8 x = 3. y = 0 33. . 4) . y = 5 x = −2. –10. y-axis tick marks are the same. x = −3. 34. y = −4 x = −1. –900. 0. (0. 700. x = −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4. 30. 900.

The graph intersects the x-axis at (2. 48. −3 ( −3. a. The graph intersect the y-axis at (0. 5) 1 2 (1. b. b. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 0) and (–2. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. 0). –1. −2 ( −2.–4). Inc. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 2). 1). 132 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y ) none. 4) and (1. 0 (0. The values of Y1 and Y2 are the same when x = −2 and x = 1 . –1. 0). 5) −1 ( −1. b. 45. 1. The graph does not intersect the x-axis. a. –2. 0). –4. a. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–1. 1. 1. 5) none.1) . b. 1. b. a. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 40. . a. b. 43.Functions and Graphs 38. 44. 2). a. 5) 3 (3. 2. 0) and (–1. 42. 2. 5) (2. 0). The graphs of Y and Y intersect at the points 1 2 ( −2. 51. 5) 2. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. x ( x. 2) 39. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. The graph does not intersect the y-axis. (0. 2). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. 49. 46. 0). 5) 47. 41. 50.

( x. This underestimates the value in the graph by 2%. −1) (2.2⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . −2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . According to the line graph. d. y ) −3 ( −3. ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 55. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1.4n + 28 M = −0. According to the line graph. 2006 is 26 years after 1980. −1) x − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 53. x −2 −1 − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 ( x. −1) 3 (3. −1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . −1) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 2. −1) 1 2 (1. c. This underestimates the value in the graph. −1) 0 (0.4(25) + 28 = 18 According to formula.2⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ (1. .1) ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ 2. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2005. A = −n + 70 A = −(26) + 70 = 44 According to formula. about 14% of seniors used marijuana in 1990. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( x. 44% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. −1) −2 −2 ( −2. e. The minimum for marijuana was reached in 1990.1 54. x Section 1. −2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ (1. Inc. 2005 is 25 years after 1980. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. According to the line graph. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. −1) −1 −1 ( −1. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2.3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. −3 ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . about 45% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. 18% of seniors used marijuana in 2005. 133 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. M = −0.PreCalculus 4E 52.1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − .3 ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . a. −3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ .

– 66. false. (d) 77. A sample change is: A point on the x-axis will have y = 0. d. Explanations will vary. A = −n + 70 A = −(20) + 70 = 50 According to formula. 73. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y ) ( −2. e. Sample explanation: These three points are not collinear. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. This underestimates the value in the graph. false. −4 ) ( −1. Set 1 has each x-coordinate paired with only one ycoordinate. Sample explanation: Most graphing utilities do not display numbers an the axes. 2 ) ( 2. 2 ) ( 0. At age 8. the total calories burned will also go up. Changes to make the statement true will vary. about 72% of seniors used alcohol in 1980. Inc. x y = 2x ( x.9. According to the line graph. (b) 80. The difference between the number of awakenings for 25-year-old men and women is about 1. 2000 is 20 years after 1980. 61. makes sense –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 68. 79. 75. –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 0 y = 2(0) = 0 59. 70.1. 4 ) (1. c.4n + 28 M = −0. (c) 82. y ) –2 y = 2( −2) = −4 58.Functions and Graphs 56. 72. Changes to make the statement true will vary. The difference between the number of awakenings for 18-year-old men and women is about 1. A sample change is: 3(5) − 2(2) ≠ −4.8) . 0 ) ( −1. 60. does not make sense. about 22% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. 83. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. true 74. false. does not make sense. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. does not make sense. 0 ) (1. averaging about 8 awakenings per night. women have the least number of awakenings. 4 ) 84. 57. 134 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (c) 2000 is 20 years after 1980. Explanations will vary.4(20) + 28 = 20 According to formula. This matches the value in the graph. a. (b) According to the line graph. 6 ) ( 2. According to the line graph. 78. ( x. (a) 81. men have the greatest number of awakenings. averaging about 1 awakening per night. (a) 76. Answers may vary. −2 ) ( 0. b. x y = 2x + 4 –2 y = 2( −2) + 4 = 0 67. M = −0. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. 0 y = 2(0) + 4 = 4 1 y = 2(1) + 4 = 6 2 y = 2(2) + 4 = 8 69. At age 65. Sample explanation: As the time of day goes up. (b) The maximum for alcohol was reached in 1980. A sample change is: The product of the coordinates of a point in quadrant III is also positive. 1 y = 2(1) = 2 2 y = 2(2) = 4 ( −2. 71.

a. c.2 Check Point Exercises 1. 0 ) .7. [ −3. 10. then 7.1. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. ( x. = 42 b. 20. 0 ) (1. domain: { x −2 < x ≤ 1} or range: { y −1 ≤ y < 2} or f (− x) = (− x) 2 − 2(− x) + 7 c.1] . b. the x-coordinates are –3 and 3. b. x = 9 . 3. y is a function of x for the graphs in (a) and (b). The y-coordinates are all real numbers greater than or equal to 1.1] . 2 ) ( 2. 2. = x 2 − ( −2 x ) + 7 domain: { x −3 ≤ x < 0} or range: { y y = −3. −1) ( 2. the equation does not define y as a function of x. 10. 3] . 36}. 17. The range is the set of all second components: {9.7. y = ± 1 − 02 = ±1 ). 135 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −4 ) ( −1. −2 ) ( 0. the y-coordinate is 3. if x = 0. y = ± 1 − x2 Since there are values of x (all values between – 1 and 1 exclusive) that give more than one value for y (for example. −5) ( 0. x f ( x) = 2x -2 –4 -1 –2 0 0 1 2 2 4 ( x.PreCalculus 4E 85. −2. x [ −2. .2 a. g ( x) = 2x − 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 3 units. y 2 = 1 − x2 4. f (−5) = (−5)2 − 2(−5) + 7 = 25 − (−10) + 7 8. Inc. [ −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. When the y-coordinate is 4. 30. 6. −1} . d. 5. 13. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. 8) have the same first component but different second components. f (9) = 100 c. b. 2 ) . Section 1. there is one and only one value for y. domain: { x −2 ≤ x ≤ 1} or range: { y 0 ≤ y ≤ 3} or f ( x + 4) = ( x + 4) 2 − 2( x + 4) + 7 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 − 2 x − 8 + 7 b. a. a. When the x-coordinate is 2. The domain is the set of all first components: {0. The x-coordinates are all real numbers.4}. 2x + y = 6 y = −2 x + 6 For each value of x. [0. f (5) = 400 b. −3) (1. a. = x + 2x + 7 2 ( −2.1) The graph (c) fails the vertical line test and is therefore not a function. x2 + y 2 = 1 6. so the equation defines y as a function of x. The minimum T cell count in the asymptomatic stage is approximately 425. y ) ( −2. = x 2 + 6 x + 15 c. y ) -2 g ( −2 ) = 2( −2) − 3 = −7 -1 g ( −1) = 2( −1) − 3 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 2(0) − 3 = −3 1 g (1) = 2(1) − 3 = −1 2 g ( 2 ) = 2(2) − 3 = 1 ( −2. −7 ) ( −1. a.2. 6) and (5. 4 ) Section 1.

Functions and Graphs Exercise Set 1. The relation is a function since there are no ordered pairs that have the same first component but different second components. y is a function of x. x + y = 16 16. 3. 136 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8}. 0}. 4) and (3. can be obtained for x = 1. 8} and the range is {5. y = ±1.2 1. x 2 + y 2 = 25 y 2 = 25 − x 2 y = ± 25 − x 2 If x = 0. 6} and the range is {6. y is a function of x. y = ±5. – 1. The relation is a function since there are no two ordered pairs that have the same first component and different second components. The domain is {1} and the range is {4. 4} and the range is {4. 14. 0} and the range is {–7. 5. 5. . 5} and the range is {2. y is a function of x. The domain is {1. 5) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (4. 1. 15. 10. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (3. 3. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. 6) and (6. 13. Since two values. can be obtained for one value of x. 6} and the range is {1}. 12. x 2 + y = 16 y = 16 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 4 and y = – 4. 4) and (4. 18. 4. –5. 6}. can be obtained for one value of x. –1. can be obtained for x = 1. y is not a function of x. x 2 + y = 25 y = 25 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 4 x = y2 y = ± 4 x = ±2 x If x = 1. 5. then y = ±2. y is not a function of x. 0}. 5. y = 1 and y = –1. –2. Since two values. 4. y is a function of x. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {3. 11. –3. The domain is {4. y = 2 and y = –2. 17. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {4. 6. Inc. 5)). The domain is {–7. y = 5 and y = –5. 6. 8. 7) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (6. –5. 5}. 5}. 7)). The relation is a function since there are no same first components with different second components. 0} and the range is {–3. –3. The domain is {5. 7} and the range is {–2. –2. 7. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. y is not a function of x. 7}. 9}. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {–2. 2. x = y2 y=± x If x = 1. y = ±4. 7. The domain is {–3. y is not a function of x. 9. 4. y = 16 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. x 2 + y 2 = 16 y 2 = 16 − x 2 y = ± 16 − x 2 If x = 0. x + y = 25 y = 25 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. Since two values. Since two values. The domain is {3. 5. 6) and (5. 6}. –1. 10} and the range is {1. The relation is not a function since there are ordered pairs with the same first component and different second components. 4.

g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + 2(− x) + 3 = x2 − 2x + 3 y ( x + 2) = 1 25. y = − x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 31. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 4 − ( − x ) 2 + 1 = x 4 − x 2 + 1 d. y is a function of x. g (−1) = (−1) 2 − 10(−1) − 3 = 1 + 10 − 3 =8 g ( x + 2) = ( x + 2) 2 − 10(8 + 2) − 3 = x 2 + 4 x + 4 − 10 x − 20 − 3 = x 2 − 6 x − 19 xy − 5 y = 1 y ( x − 5) = 1 c. x + y3 = 8 y3 = 8 − x f(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) + 7 = 3x + 10 c. f(–x) = 3(–x) + 7 = –3x + 7 29. g ( x + 5) = ( x + 5) 2 + 2( x + 5) + 3 = x 2 + 12 x + 38 y = 3 27 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. g (−1) = (−1)2 + 2(−1) + 3 = 1− 2 + 3 =2 = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + 2 x + 10 + 3 y 3 = 27 − x 23. f(–x) = 4(–x) + 5 = – 4x + 5 28. y = 3 8− x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. 26. h(2) = 24 − 22 + 1 = 16 − 4 + 1 = 13 x −y=2 b. 22.PreCalculus 4E 19. Section 1. Inc. h(3a) = (3a) 4 − (3a) 2 + 1 = 81a 4 − 9a 2 + 1 −y = − x +5 y = x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. a. x + y 3 = 27 c. .2 27. a. 21. −y = − x + 2 y = x −2 h(−1) = (−1)4 − (−1) 2 + 1 = 1 −1 +1 =1 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. a. y is a function of x. y= b. f(x + 1) = 4(x + 1) + 5 = 4x + 9 c. b. 20. xy + 2 y = 1 1 x+2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. y is a function of x. a. a. 30. b. f(6) = 4(6) + 5 = 29 x −y=5 c. 24. y = x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. f(4) = 3(4) + 7 = 19 b. g (− x) = (− x)2 − 10(− x) − 3 = x 2 + 10 x − 3 1 y= x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 137 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

a. 4(2)3 + 1 33 = 23 8 b. h(3) = 33 − 3 + 1 = 25 36. 3 33. a. f (2) = f (−6) = −6 + 6 + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3 37. if x < −6 = =⎨ − x − 6 ⎩−1. f ( x − 6) = x − 6 + 6 + 3 = x + 3 f (16) = 25 − 16 − 6 = 9 − 6 = 3 − 6 = −3 38. f (−5) = c. f (− x) = 4(− x)3 + 1 −4 x 3 + 1 = (− x)3 − x3 4 x3 − 1 x3 or = 27 a − 3a + 1 b. b. f (−9 − x) = −5 + 3 8 8 = =1 −2 −2 = −9 − x + 3 −9 − x + 3 − x − 6 ⎧ 1. a. 34. f (−2) = 4(−2) 2 − 1 15 = 4 (−2) 2 c. f (6) = f (10) = 10 + 6 + 3 = 16 + 3 = 4+3 6 =1 6 b. f (r 2 ) = =7 c. f (−6) = c. a.Functions and Graphs 32. f (− x) = 4(− x)2 − 1 4 x 2 − 1 = (− x) 2 x2 f (5) = −6 −6 = = −1 −6 6 r2 r2 5+3 5+3 = r2 =1 r2 = −5 + 3 b. h(−2) = (−2)3 − (−2) + 1 = −8 + 2 + 1 = −5 c. 2 = −1 −2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. a. f (25 − 2 x) = 25 − (25 − 2 x) − 6 = 2x − 6 35.if x > −6 138 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. Inc. a. h(3a) = (3a)3 − (3a) + 1 f (−2) = 4(−2)3 + 1 −31 31 = = −8 8 (−2)3 c. f (2) = 4(2)2 − 1 15 = 4 22 b. f (−24) = 25 − (−24) − 6 = 49 − 6 = 7−6 =1 c. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 3 − ( − x ) + 1 = − x 3 + x + 1 d.

y ) ( −2.1) ( −1. −4 ) (1. −1) (1. Inc. −6 ) ( −1. −2 ) ( x.1) ( 2. 4 ) ( −1. −2 ) ( −1.1) ( 2. −2 ) ( −1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −5) ( 0.3) (1. −4 ) ( x.3) ( −1. .1) ( 0. 0 ) (1. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 ( −2. −1) ( 0.2 f ( x) = x ( x. 2 ) ( 0. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 4 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 4 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 4 = −4 1 g (1) = 1 − 4 = −3 2 g ( 2 ) = 2 − 4 = −2 ( −2. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. −5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. y ) ( −2. 2 ) ( 0. 0 ) (1. 41. −3) ( 2. −1) ( 0. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x − 1 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) − 1 = 3 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) − 1 = 1 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 x f ( x) = x ( x. y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1. 2 ) x g ( x) = x − 4 ( x. −2 ) ( 2. 40. 4 ) ( 2. 139 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 x g ( x) = x + 3 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 3 = 1 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 3 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = 1 + 3 = 4 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 3 = 5 ( x.5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 4 units. −3) ( 2. y ) 1 g (1) = −2 (1) − 1 = −3 −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) − 1 = −5 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 ( −2. 2 ) 39.

1) ( 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x + 3 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) + 3 = 7 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) + 3 = 5 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = −2 (1) + 3 = 1 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) + 3 = −1 ( x.1) (1. −2 ) ( 2.5 ) ( −1. y ) ( −2.1) ( 2. 0 ) (1. 2 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units.5 ) x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 2 = 2 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = (1) − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 2 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. 4 ) ( −1. y ) ( −2. −2 ) (1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. −1) ( 0. 43. 140 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 ) ( −1.Functions and Graphs 42. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( −1. x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 + 1 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 1 = 5 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 1 = 2 0 g (0) = (0) + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = (1) + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) + 1 = 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x.3) (1. 7 ) ( −1.1) ( 0. 2 ) ( 2. −1) 44. 2 ) ( 0. 4 ) ( x.5 ) ( 0. 4 ) ( −1. y ) ( −2.1) ( 0. Inc. 2 ) ( 0. y ) ( −2. . −4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit. y ) ( −2. 4 ) ( x. 0 ) (1. y ) ( −2.1) ( 2. ( x. −1) ( 2.

Section 1. 47.PreCalculus 4E 45. −8) −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 ( −1.1) ( 0. 2 ) ( x.1) ( 2. 2 ) ( 2. −2 ) (1. 2 ) ( −1. y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1. 0 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit. 0 ) (1. 141 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y ) ( −2. 2 ) ( 0.1) ( 2. 46. 2 ) (1.8) x −2 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 + 2 ( x.3) f ( x ) = x3 ( x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units. −1) ( 0. y ) ( −2. x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x +1 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 1 = 3 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 1 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 1 = 3 ( x.10 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. 2 ) ( x. −6 ) ( −1.1) ( 0. −1) ( 2. Inc.3) ( −1.2 x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 2 = 0 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = 1 − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 2 = 0 ( x. y ) ( −2.1) (1. . y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 2 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 2 = 1 0 g ( 0) = ( 0) + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = (1) + 2 = 3 2 g ( 2 ) = ( 2 ) + 2 = 10 ( −2. −1) 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( 0. 0 ) ( −1.1) ( 0. 2 ) ( −1.3) ( 2. y ) f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 ( −2.1) ( 2. 0 ) (1.

y ) ( −2. 50. −1) (1. 4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit.5) ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5) (1. 4 ) ( 0.8) 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 − 1 ( x.5) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 5 units.Functions and Graphs 48.1) ( 2. 4 ) ( −1. −1) ( 2.3) ( 0.5) ( 2. 49. −1) ( 0.3) ( −1. Inc. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( −2. −8) ( −1. x f ( x) = 3 −2 f ( −2 ) = 3 −1 f ( −1) = 3 0 f ( 0) = 3 1 f (1) = 3 2 f ( 2) = 3 x g ( x) = 5 −2 g ( −2 ) = 5 −1 g ( −1) = 5 0 g ( 0) = 5 1 g (1) = 5 2 g ( 2) = 5 ( x. x f ( x ) = −1 ( x. −9 ) ( −1. x f ( x ) = x3 ( x. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 1 = −9 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 1 = −2 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = (1) − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 1 = 7 ( −2. y ) ( −2. 0 ) ( 2.3) ( 2. −1) x g ( x) = 4 −2 g ( −2 ) = 4 −1 g ( −1) = 4 0 g ( 0) = 4 1 g (1) = 4 2 g ( 2) = 4 ( x.5) ( −1. 142 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) ( −1. 4 ) (1.3) ( x. 4 ) ( 2. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −1 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0 ) = −1 1 f (1) = −1 2 f ( 2 ) = −1 ( −2. −1) (1. . 0 ) (1.3) (1. 7 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. −2 ) ( 0. y ) ( −2. −1) ( 0.

( x. y ) (1.3) 53. Inc. y ) ( 0.PreCalculus 4E 51.3) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. y ) ( 0.1) ( 4. . 4 ) 9 g (9) = 9 + 2 = 5 (9 . 0 ) ( 2. y ) ( 0. y ) ( 0. 2 ) (1. 0 ) ( 4. 2 ) ( 9. 0 ) (1. 2 ) (10.1) ( 4. 2 ) ( 9.3) ( x. 0 ) (1. y ) ( 0.1) ( 4.3) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = 1 + 2 = 3 4 g ( 4) = 4 + 2 = 4 ( x.1) ( 9. Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 52. 143 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) (1.3) ( 4.2 x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 4 g ( 4) = 4 −1 = 1 9 g (9) = 9 −1 = 2 ( x. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. 0 ) (1. 5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted right 1 unit. 2 ) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 1 = 1 5 g ( 5) = 5 − 1 = 2 10 g (10 ) = 10 − 1 = 3 ( x.1) ( 5. 2 ) ( 9. ( x.

56. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3) 68.3) 72. 4] 57. f (−1) = 0 71. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted left 2 units. 2 ) ( 7. 76. not a function 79. 60. . a. g ( x ) = 1. y-intercept: –3 e. function b. f (−4) = 4 69.Functions and Graphs 54. function 78. range: [−4. y ) ( 0. a. f (−2) = 3 and domain: (−∞. not a function c. ∞) 61. f ( 4) = 4 f (2) = −5 f (−1) = 2 and f (3) = 4 144 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (2) = −4 67. range: [1. 77. 2 ) ( 9. g (10) = −2 75. ∞) 55. x-intercept: none 63. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 d. function d. ∞) c. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 58. x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 2 = 0 –1 g ( −1) = −1 + 2 = 1 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 2 = 2 7 g (7) = 7 + 2 = 3 ( x. not a function d. f ( −3 ) = 0 70. y ) ( −2. function b. 65. g ( x) = −1.1) ( 4. y-intercept: 3 59. When x = −2. 0 ) ( −1. f (−2) = −3 and f (2) = 5 domain: (–∞. 0 ) (1. g ( 2 ) = −2 73. range: (–∞. not a function e. a. y-intercept: 1 64. Inc. function c. function e. When x = 1. domain: (−∞. ∞) b. ∞) 62. g ( −10 ) = 2 74. f ( −2 ) = −4 66.1) ( 2. g ( −4 ) = 2 ( x.

88.PreCalculus 4E 80. b. ∞) c. f (−5) + f (3) = 2 + 2 = 4 145 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 86. ∞) c. range: [–3. range: [0. range: (−∞. 3} b. f(–2) = –3 b. f(4) = 3 b.5 e. y-intercept: −1 f(2) = 1 b. ∞) b. a. x-intercept: none d. 89. y-intercept: –2 b. a. a. 2] b. 5) c. e. x-intercept: –3. range: (−∞. f(–4) = –5 and f(4) = –2 c. y-intercept: 1. a. a. y-intercept: 0 e. 90. range: {2} c. 5] c. ∞) b. f(–1) = 5 domain: {–5. x-intercept: 2 d. f(3) = 2 85. y-intercept: 1 e. Section 1.1) ∪ (1. ∞) b. d. 6] domain: (−∞. x-intercept: none d. –2. Inc.2 domain: (–∞. a. domain: [–3. f(–5) = 2 82. y-intercept: 2 e. ∞) domain: [–1. 4) e. y-intercept: –1 e. ∞) b. ∞) c. 1. a. range: [–5. domain: [–2. domain: [0. 1 2 87. a. 83. ∞ ) domain: (–∞. x-intercept: –1 d. 5) e. y-intercept: 1 81. x-intercept: none d. a. x-intercept: 4 e. ∞) c. ∞) c. y-intercept: 1 e. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(4) = 6 84. x-intercept: none d. range: (0. a. x-intercept: { x x ≤ 0} d. y-intercept: 1 e. range: [–2. ∞) c. x-intercept: − f(–4) = 3 and f(3) = 4 d. . x-intercept: –1 d.75 d. f(–2) = 0 and f(2) = 4 b. 0) ∪ (0. y-intercept: –3 e. x-intercept: none domain: (–6. y-intercept: 4 91. 0. ∞) domain: (−∞. range: [1. domain: [0. a. a. 6] c. range: [–1. range: [0. range: [0. domain: (−∞. − 2] f(3) = 1 c. 0] d.

( New Zealand. Finland ) . f ( g (1) ) = f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) + 4 2 = 4 + 2 + 4 = 10 g ( −1) = 3 ( −1) − 5 = −3 − 5 = −8 94.7 ) . the relation is not a function. g (1) = 3 (1) − 5 = 3 − 5 = −2 93. range: {–2} c. c. Inc.6 in the domain corresponds to both Finland and New Zealand in the range. 9. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range. a.6. the relation is a function.5 )} b. ( Finland. a. 9.7. ( 9. −4 − ( −1) − ( −3) + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 2 = −4 + 1 − 9 + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 = −3 − 9 + −1 ⋅ −6 = 3 − 9 + 6 = −6 + 6 = 0 97.5. ( 9. ( 9. 1.6 ) . 9. 146 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( g ( −1) ) = f ( −8) = ( −8) − ( −8 ) + 4 2 = 64 + 8 + 4 = 76 95. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) + ( − x ) − 5 − ( x3 + x − 5) 3 = − x 3 − x − 5 − x 3 − x + 5 = −2 x 3 − 2 x 98. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) − 3 ( − x ) + 7 − ( x 2 − 3x + 7 ) 2 = x 2 + 3x + 7 − x 2 + 3 x − 7 = 6x 99. Denmark )} d.6 ) . 3 − ( −1) − ( −6 ) + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 2 = 3 + 1 − 36 + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 = 4 − 36 + −1 ⋅ 4 = 2 − 36 + −4 = −34 + −4 = −38 96. x-intercept: none d. y-intercept: –2 f (−5) + f (4) = −2 + (−2) = −4 e. 9. {( 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9. 4} 92. Iceland ) . New Zealand ) . ( Denmark. Yes.6. No. 0. b. {( Iceland. .Functions and Graphs domain: {–5. –2.

Function f is the better model.125(18)2 + 5.6 x + 94 R(20) = −0.25 x + 72 T (4) = −0.6(20) + 94 = 82 Americans ordered an average of 82 meals in restaurants per person 20 years after 1984. 1. R ( x) = −0. ( Myanmar.94). No. (1. a.8.7 in the domain corresponds to both Bangladesh and Chad in the range.6 x + 94 R (4) = −0. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range. Yes. b.125 x 2 + 5. a. Bangladesh ) . This is represented on the graph by the point (18.6 x + 94 R(0) = −0.7. or 1988.7. c. T ( x) = −0. 1. {(1. the relation is a function. 1.25(20) + 72 = 127 Americans ordered an average of 127 takeout meals per person 20 years after 1984. b. 104. or 2004.8 ) . This is represented on the graph by the point (0. 1.6(4) + 94 = 91. f (90) = 25 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 25%. 102. Function f is the better model. or 1984. b. 103.25 x + 72 T (20) = −0.PreCalculus 4E 100.2 {( Bangladesh.125(20)2 + 5. g (90) = 10 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 10%. 1. ( Chad.127).6 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91. This is represented on the graph by the point (20. (1.6(0) + 94 = 94 Americans ordered an average of 94 meals in restaurants per person 0 years after 1984. c. Myanmar )} d. a.8.7 ) . c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 101. 147 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8)} b. . a. or 2002. or 2004.126).82). ( Haiti.125 x 2 + 5. Haiti ) .125 x 2 + 5.25(18) + 72 = 126 Americans ordered an average of 126 takeout meals per person 18 years after 1984. c. T ( x) = −0.25 x + 72 T (18) = −0.7 ) .25(4) + 72 = 91 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91 takeout meals per person. This is represented on the graph by the point (20. b. the relation is not a function. Inc. Section 1. a. g (70) = 76 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 76%. Chad ) . T ( x) = −0. R( x) = −0. (1. the average number of takeout orders approximately equaled the average number of inrestaurant meals 4 years after 1984. According to the graphs.125(4)2 + 5. f (70) = 83 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 83%.6 meals in restaurants per person. R( x) = −0.

121. 118. 4]. A sample change is: The domain is [−4. f (2) = f (1 + 1) = f (1) + f (1) = 3+3 = 6 Similarly: f (3) = f (2 + 1) = f (2) + f (1) = 6+3= 9 f (4) = f (3 + 1) = f (3) + f (1) = 9 + 3 = 12 While f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) is true for this function. Changes to make the statement true will vary.000 to produce 90 bicycles. T ( x) = 127. do not imply multiplication. = 2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 − 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x − 3 x + 3h + 5 − 5 124. Explanations will vary. true = 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3h 148 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. To find f (2) . It is given that f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) and f (1) = 3 . 500 − 3200 x V (3) = 22.10 x + 0. 900 After 3 years. 000 + 100(90) = $109. does not make sense. makes sense 129.(2. 40 40 + x x + 30 40 40 T ( 30 ) = + 30 30 + 30 80 40 = + 60 60 120 = 60 =2 If you travel 30 mph going and 60 mph returning. the monthly cost is $36. C ( x) = 100. An example is {(1.40(40) = 20 + 16 = 36 For 100 calling minutes. 000 It will cost $109. 000 + 100 x 125.60(50 − x) S (30) = 0. A sample change is: The range is [ −2. does not make sense. your total trip will take 2 hours. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 109. S ( x) = 0. Explanations will vary. V ( x) = 22. Sample explanation: This would not be a function because some elements in the domain would correspond to more than one age in the range. does not make sense.40(t − 60) C (100) = 20 + 0.1). for example. there will be 15 mL of sodium-iodine in the vaccine. – 117. Explanations will vary.40(100 − 60) = 20 + 0.Functions and Graphs 105.500 − 3200(3) = $12. it is not true for all functions. C (t ) = 20 + 0. 131.10(30) + 0.60(50 − 30) = 15 When 30 mL of the 10% mixture is mixed with 20 mL of the 60% mixture. . Answers may vary. 2 ) . Sample explanation: The parentheses used in function notation. It is not true for f ( x ) = x 2 . Inc. 107. Sample explanation: The domain is the number of years worked for the company. f (a + h) = 3(a + h) + 7 = 3a + 3h + 7 f (a ) = 3a + 7 f ( a + h) − f ( a ) h ( 3a + 3h + 7 ) − ( 3a + 7 ) = h 3a + 3h + 7 − 3a − 7 3h = = =3 h h 106.8 C (90) = 100. A sample change is: f (0) = 0. 130. 108.900. 2( x + h) 2 + 3( x + h) + 5 − (2 x 2 + 3x + 5) 123. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. the car will be worth $12.1)} 128. Answers may vary. rewrite 2 as 1 + 1. 120. false. false. 119. Changes to make the statement true will vary. such as f ( x). 126. 122.

6) c. g (− x ) = 7(− x)3 − (− x) = −7 x3 + x = − f ( x) The function is odd. increasing: none b. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 60 1. Since 80 > 60 . decreasing: (–2. − 1) c. constant: none 4. 2. 4. Inc. b. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 + 2 x 2 − x − 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 Exercise Set 1. c. constant: none a. Check Point Exercises 1. decreasing: none c. 1). a. f (− x) = (− x) 2 + 6 = x 2 + 6 = f ( x) The function is even.40(80 − 60) = 28 With 80 calling minutes. the cost is $28.3 Section 1. decreasing on the interval (–1. the cost is $20. decreasing: (–1. = The function is increasing on the interval (–∞. decreasing: none c.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. h( − x ) = ( − x )5 + 1 = − x 5 + 1 The function is neither even nor odd. ∞) c. ∞) b. ∞) b. This is represented by ( 40. 2. ) . decreasing: (−∞.3 b. 149 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. increasing: (0. constant: none a. constant: none a. 3. if t > 60 Since 0 ≤ 40 ≤ 60 . constant: none a. increasing: (–∞. 2) b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 20 ) . –1) b. a. ⎧ 20 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩ 20 + 0. constant: none a. f ( x ) = −2 x 2 + x + 5 f ( x + h) = −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) + 5 = −2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + x + h + 5 = −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 6. 5. increasing: (−1. decreasing: none c. ∞). This is represented by ( 80. ( −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 − −2 x 2 + x + 5 5. increasing: (–1.40(t − 60) b. 28 ) . c. C (40) = 20 With 40 calling minutes. C (80) = 20 + 0. increasing: (–3.3 3. ∞) b. a. and increasing on the interval (1. –1).

f ( x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 f (− x) = 2(− x) 2 + (− x)4 + 1 15. 22. h( x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 increasing: none h(− x ) = 2(− x )2 + (− x) 4 b. . ∞) g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + (− x) c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2) h( − x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 c. relative minimum = –1 24. 3) 17. 3. relative maximum = 4 f ( x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) 4 + 1 b. constant: (−∞. increasing: (−∞. decreasing: (−4. constant: (−∞. neither 21. 9. 3. x = −2. x = −3. decreasing: (–4. − 1) b. −4) or (2. relative maximum = 2 b. g ( x) = x 2 − x g ( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − (− x ) g (− x ) = x 2 + x. even function 16. constant: (−1. odd function a. a. decreasing: none f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 − ( − x ) c. 4) b. f ( x) = x 3 + x f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 + (− x ) f ( − x ) = − x 3 − x = −( x 3 + x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). a. 1. a. constant: none g (− x) = x 2 − x. Inc. increasing: (−5. a. x = 4. a. f ( x) = x3 − x g ( x) = x 2 + x b. a. ∞) b. 0) f ( − x ) = − x 3 + x = −( x 3 − x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). neither 10. x = 0. 2) or (4. decreasing: (0. a. h( x ) = x 2 − x 4 increasing: (–2. even function 14. even function 11. x = 0. x = 1. x =1. decreasing: none c.5. − 2) or (4. increasing: (−∞. h(− x ) = h( x). relative minimum = −6 f (− x) = f ( x). 0) or (1. −2) or (0. 8. relative minimum = 3 150 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) h( − x ) = x 2 − x 4 h(− x) = h( x). odd function 18. 19. 13.Functions and Graphs 7. −4) or (−2. 0) or (2. x = −3. a. ∞ ) 12. increasing: (0. constant: (–∞. relative minimum = 0 f (− x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = f ( x). 4) h( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − ( − x ) 4 b. even function 23. relative maximum = 21 f (− x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 b. relative maximum = 30 b. constant: none 20.5) c.5) or (3. decreasing: none c. ∞) a.

x = −4 and x = 4 l.∞ ) f. ∞ ) b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = x2 1 − x2 f (−x) = (−x) [ −4. f (2) = −2 and f (6) = −2 34. x=4 i. ( −∞. 4 d. f (−2) = 4 k. ( 4. 2 f(–x) = – f(x). The function is odd. The graph is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. 31. odd function f ( x) = x 1 − x 2 f (− x) = − x 1 − (− x) f (− x) = − x 1 − x 2 ( = − x 1 − x2 ) f (−x) = x 2 2 c. Inc. even function 29. a. f (− x) ≠ − x 2 f(–x) = f(x). x-intercepts: –4. ∞ ) 151 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = −2 and x = 3 i. 32. ( −2. range: c. x-intercepts: 1. ( −∞. 4 ) g. The function is odd. −4] h.3) or ( 3. 30. The function is neither even nor odd. ∞ ) 5 f (− x) = −(2 x3 − 6 x 5 ) 27. 0 ) g. y = −4 j. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. ( 0. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) or [ 4. 7 d. y-intercept: 4 e. The graph is not symmetric with respect to the y-axis or the origin. odd function 28. ( −∞. 1− (−x) 1− x range: l. −2 ) f. The function is even. f ( x) = f ( x) = 2 x3 − 6 x 5 f (− x) = 2(− x)3 − 6(− x)5 f ( − x ) = −2 x + 6 x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x). 4] b. f (−2) = 4 and f (3) = 2 j. even function 33. 26. a. 0 ) h. . y-intercept: 1 e.3 1 6 x − 3x 2 5 1 f (− x) = (− x)6 − 3(− x) 2 5 1 f (− x) = x 6 − 3 x 2 5 f (− x) = f ( x) . f (− x) ≠ x . domain: neither . or ( 0. Section 1. neither .PreCalculus 4E 25. ( −∞. f (− x) ≠ − x domain: 2 ( −∞. f (−3) = 4 k. f (− x) ≠ x .

f (4) = −1 k. h(7) = 7 2 − 25 49 − 25 24 = = = 12 7 −5 2 2 b. ( −∞. domain: range: ( −∞. f(–2) = 3(–2) + 5 = –1 b. f(3) = 4(3) + 7 = 19 38. f (0) = 3 e. Inc.3) ( −∞. . g(–5) = –5 + 5 = 0 41. h(0) = 02 − 25 −25 = =5 0−5 −5 c. a. ( −3. 3 f (0) = 1 43. a. 2 ) h. x = −5 and x = 5 j. a. a. f(2) is not greater than the function values to the immediate left. a. −2 ) f. a. a. (1. g(0) = 0 + 3 = 3 f(–3) = 6(–3) – 1 = –19 b. 3 d. 44. a. 0] a. ( −∞. b. neither l. b. −3] h. range: c. ( −∞. g(–3) = –3 + 3 = 0 e.1) f. g(–6) = –(–6 + 5) = –(–1) = 1 c.3] 39. h(3) = 6 42. g(–6) = –(–6 + 3) = –(–3) = 3 ( −∞. g(0) = 0 + 5 = 5 b. 3) i.Functions and Graphs 35. 37. 6 ) g. f (−1) = +2 36. ( 2. b. h(5) = 10 zeros of f: –3. x =1 j. positive. 40. range: [ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. h(0) = 0 2 − 9 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 c. h(5) = 52 − 9 25 − 9 16 = = =8 5−3 2 2 b. 4] b. g.1] d. ( −2. negative. no. f(0) = 4(0) + 7 = 7 c. f(0) = 7(0) + 3 = 3 c. f(4) = 7(4) + 3 = 31 b. 152 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c. a. 6] c. f (1) = 4 i. domain: ( −∞. x-intercepts: –3. ∞ ) range: ( −∞.

PreCalculus 4E 45. b. b. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. 52. ∞) range: {−3. 48. 4} a. a. range: (−∞. a. 51. ∞ ) a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3} a. b. ∞) b. b. 49. range: ( −∞. range: [ 0. Inc. range: (−∞. 153 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. range: a.3 range: {−4. . 0] ∪ [3. 46. Section 1. a. 0] ∪ {3} a. b. ( −∞. 0] ∪ {2} 50. b. 47.

∞ ) 58. range: [ 0. b.Functions and Graphs 53. 59. 55. a. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 3( x + h) + 7 − (3x + 7) = h 3x + 3h + 7 − 3x − 7 = h 3h = h =3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 6( x + h) + 1 − (6 x + 1) = h 6 x + 6h + 1 − 6 x − 1 = h 6h = h =6 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( x + h) 2 − x2 h x + 2 xh + h 2 − x 2 = h 2 2 xh + h = h h ( 2x + h) = h = 2x + h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 4( x + h) − 4 x = h 4 x + 4h − 4 x = h 4h = h =4 2 60. 54. b. range: [ −1. Inc. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 7( x + h) − 7 x = h 7 x + 7h − 7 x = h 7h = h =7 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2( x + h) 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 2( x + 2 xh + h 2 ) − 2 x 2 = h 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 4 xh + 2h = h h ( 4 x + 2h ) = h = 4 x + 2h 154 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 56. 57. a.

f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) + 4 − (− x 2 + 2 x + 4) 2 = h − x − 2 xh − h + 2 x + 2h + 4 + x 2 − 2 x − 4 = h 2 −2 xh − h + 2h = h h ( −2 x − h + 2 ) = h = −2 x − h + 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 66.PreCalculus 4E 61. Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 2 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (2 x 2 + x − 1) 2 = f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) − 3 ( x + h ) + 1 − (− x 2 − 3x + 1) 2 = h 2 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h + x + h − 1 − 2 x 2 − x + 1 = h 2 4 xh + 2h + h = h h ( 4 x + 2h + 1) = h = 4 x + 2h + 1 h − x − 2 xh − h − 3 x − 3h + 1 + x 2 + 3x − 1 = h 2 −2 xh − h − 3h = h h ( −2 x − h − 3) = h = −2 x − h − 3 2 2 155 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 62. Inc. 3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) + 5 − (3 x 2 + x + 5) 2 = h 3x 2 + 6 xh + 3h 2 + x + h + 5 − 3x 2 − x − 5 = h 6 xh + 3h 2 + h = h h ( 6 x + 3h + 1) = h = 6 x + 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 5( x + h) + 8 − ( x 2 − 5 x + 8) = h 2 2 x + 2 xh + h − 5 x − 5h + 8 − x 2 + 5 x − 8 = h 2 2 xh + h − 5h = h h ( 2 x + h − 5) = h = 2x + h − 5 65. 63.3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 4( x + h) + 3 − ( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − 4 x − 4h + 3 − x 2 + 4 x − 3 = h 2 xh + h 2 − 4h = h h(2 x + h − 4) = h = 2x + h − 4 64.

f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 6 − 6 0 = = =0 h h h 72. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 7 − 7 0 = = =0 h h h −3 ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + 2 x − 1) 2 = h 2 2 −3x − 6 xh − 3h + 2 x + 2h − 1 + 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = h 2 −6 xh − 3h + 2h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 2 ) = h = −6 x − 3h + 2 69. −3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + x − 1) h −3x 2 − 6 xh − 3h 2 + x + h − 1 + 3 x 2 − x + 1 = h −6 xh − 3h 2 + h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 1) = h = −6 x − 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 71.Functions and Graphs 67. Inc. 73. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −2 ( x + h ) + 5 ( x + h ) + 7 − (−2 x 2 + 5 x + 7) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 = 2 = h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + 5 x + 5h + 7 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 7 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + 5h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 5 ) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 5 68. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2 ( x + h ) − ( x + h ) + 3 − (−2 x 2 − x + 3) 2 = h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h − x − h + 3 + 2 x 2 + x − 3 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h − h = h h ( −4 x − 2h − 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h − 1 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − x h x + = h − ( x + h) x + x ( x + h) x ( x + h) = h x−x−h x ( x + h) = h −h x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ x ( x + h) h −1 = x ( x + h) 156 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 70.

3 x+h + x f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x + h −1 − x −1 h = x + h −1 − x −1 x + h −1 + x −1 ⋅ h x + h −1 + x −1 x + h − 1 − ( x − 1) = = = = = h h h ( ( ( x + h −1 + x −1 x + h −1 − x +1 x + h −1 + x −1 h x + h −1 + x −1 ) ) ) 1 x + h −1 + x −1 157 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 400 if t > 400 . 30 + 0. 75. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − 2( x + h) 2 x = h x x+h − 2 x ( x + h) 2 x ( x + h) = h −h 2 x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ 2 x ( x + h) h −1 = 2x ( x + h) 77. 40 + 0.5) + f ( −0.30(t − 120) = 30 + 0.5) − f (1.9) − [ f (π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f ( −π ) 2 = 1 + 0 − [ −4 ] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ 3 2 = 1 − 16 + ( −1) ⋅ 3 = 1 − 16 − 3 = −18 78. Inc.3t − 6 80.5) − f (1.30(t − 400) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x+h − x h x+h − x x+h + x ⋅ h x+h + x x+h− x = = = = h h ( ( x+h + x h x+h + x ) ) 1 = 76.30(t − 200) = 40 + 0.3t − 60 = 0. f ( −1. Section 1.3t − 20 81.PreCalculus 4E 74.3t − 36 = 0.9) − [ f (−π )] + f (−3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 = 2 − (−2) − [ 3] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ ( −4 ) 2 = 4 − 9 + ( −1)( −4 ) = 2−9+ 4 = −3 79. ⎧50 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩50 + 0.9) − [ f ( −π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 f (−2. f ( −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $20.50 + 0. 000) = 4386. 700) 95. ∞) Decreasing: (1. – 105.5 ounces is $0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 96. 26] The number of doctor visits decreases during childhood and then increases as you get older. Inc. . which means that the minimum number of doctor visits. 89. 87.5) = 0.93 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3. 55). This maximum is 26%. The percent body fat in men reaches a maximum at age 65. decreasing: (55.59. 000) = 782. 99.15(20. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. 85. This model describes percent body fat in women.000 owes $2608. 0) or (2. 93. f (3. decreasing: (65.25 + 0. about 4.5 ounces is $0. 1) or (3.59. 3) T (50. 65).35( x − 349.148. 92. 39.93. range: [23. increasing: (25. The percent body fat in women reaches a maximum at age 55. The minimum is (20. 90.99). 75) 84. 000 − 7825) = 2608.75. 75) 100. 3.76 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3 ounces is $0. 107. 101. domain: [25.850) = 8923. 75]. range: [34.75. 106.25(50.75 + 0. This maximum is 38%.000 owes $8923. –2) or (0. increasing: (25.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $50. occurs at around age 20.8 ounces is $0. f (3) = 0. if t > 450 98. 75].Functions and Graphs 82. 83.29. Increasing: (−∞.33( x − 160. 91. 108.850) 94. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1.35(t − 450) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 450 97. 86. 38] 88. 469. ⎧60 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩60 + 0. 2) 158 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. T (20. This model describes percent body fat in men.25 + 0. domain: [25. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. 000 − 31. Increasing: (–2.76. Answers may vary.

1) 114.3 b. ∞) when n is odd. ∞) 113. Sample explanation: It’s possible the graph is not defined at a. e. 109. a. f and g are both even: f (– x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) f and g are both odd: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = = h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) h is odd if f is odd and g is even or if f is even and g is odd. Decreasing: (−∞. Increasing: (–∞. does not make sense. 111. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. ∞) 118. a. 2) Increasing: (0. b. Inc. f ( x ) = x n is increasing from (–∞. 120. makes sense 116. answers may vary 112. makes sense 117. ∞) c. 110. Increasing: (1. 0) 119. Explanations will vary. answers may vary Decreasing: (−∞. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. 115.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. makes sense Increasing: (0. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) d. − 2) Constant: (–2. h is even if both f and g are even or if both f and g are odd. f is odd and g is even: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x ) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) g ( x) f is even and g is odd: f (– x) f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) 159 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Increasing: (2. 0) Decreasing: (0.

124. When y = 0 : 4x − 3 y − 6 = 0 4 x − 3(0) − 6 = 0 a. 2 y = −3 x + 4 −3 x + 4 2 or 4. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 6( x − 2) 3 x= 2 ⎛3 ⎞ The point is ⎜ . answers may vary 122. m= −2 − 4 −6 = =6 −4 − (−3) −1 b. 160 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4).Solve the equation for y : y + 1 = −5 x − 10 3x + 2 y − 4 = 0 y = −5 x − 11. Section 1. −1 − (−2) 1 so the slope is –5. y= y=− −6 − (−1) −5 = = −5 . y = 3 is a horizontal line. 0 ⎟ . ⎝2 ⎠ When x = 0 : 4x − 3y − 6 = 0 The slope m is 3 5 and the y-intercept is 1. 4(0) − 3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y = 6 y + 1 = −5( x + 2). Inc. 0). 5. We can find a second point on the line by using the slope m = 35 = Rise : starting at Run 3 x+2 2 the point (0. 123. –1). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1). −2 ) . so one point on the line is (1. to obtain the point (5. we get the point slope equation: y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − (−1) = −5[ x − (−2)] x = −2 The point is ( 0.Functions and Graphs 121. y + 5 = 6 x − 12 y = 6 x − 17 3.4 4 −1 3 y2 − y1 = = =3 x2 − x1 −2 − (−3) 1 Check Point Exercises 1. Using the point (–2. move 3 units up and 5 units to the right. m= 5 − (−2) 7 7 = =− −1 − 4 −5 5 4x − 6 = 0 4x = 6 2. .

m= −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. vertical 5−5 0 161 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Any value can be used for y. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 57. m= −2 − 3 −5 = undefined.0 Find the temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million. rises 2 − (−2) 4 4. 3x + 6 y − 12 = 0 6 y = −3 x + 12 −3 12 y= x+ 6 6 1 y = − x+2 2 Exercise Set 1. rises 3−2 1 3. m= 10 − 7 3 = . falls 4−6 −2 9.4 All ordered pairs that are solutions of x = −3 have a value of x that is always –3.64 − 57.016( x − 317) y − 57.072 y = 0. m= 2 −1 1 = . m= −1 − 4 −5 = = −5.04 0. Change in y 57.016 x + 52.6 m= = = ≈ 0.0 = 61. falls −1 − (−2) 1 8.0 f (600) = 0.6°F. m= 2 − (−2) 0 = = 0.016 x + 51. m= 4−3 1 = . rises 8−4 4 2. f ( x) = 0. Inc. Section 1. m= −2 − (−4) 2 = = −1. 9.016 Change in x 354 − 317 37 Use the point-slope form and then find slopeintercept form.04 = 0. 7. First find the slope.4 The slope is − 8.016 x + 52.016(600) + 52.016 x − 5. rises 2 − (−1) 3 5. 2 Find the x-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3x − 2(0) − 6 = 0 3x − 6 = 0 3x = 6 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3(0) − 2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y = 6 y = −3 1. horizontal 3− 4 −1 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 and the y-intercept is 2.6 The temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million would be 61. m= 4 −1 3 = = 3.04 = 0. horizontal 3−4 −1 7.968 f ( x) = 0.PreCalculus 4E 6. .

y1 = −1. 3 1 m = . y1 = −2. y1 = −3. . m = 8. slope-intercept form: y = –2x – 3 19. y1 = − . 4 17 slope-intercept form: y = − x − 4 20. point-slope form: y + 1 = 8(x – 4). slope-intercept form: y = 4x – 1 13. m = −1. 1 ( x − 0). slope-intercept form: y = −4( x + 4) 3 24. x1 = −4. point-slope form: y – 3 = 4(x – 1). y1 ) = (5. 2 25. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 2 x − 6 1 = −1( x + 4). 5 3 m = − . x1 = −4. 3 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 3 14. y1 = −2. slope-intercept form: y = –5x – 22 17. x1 = 4. x1 = 10. m= −1 . y1 = 5. 3 2 point-slope form: y + 2 = − ( x − 6). point-slope form: y + y = 2x −1 21. y1 = −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10) . x1 = 0. point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3). x1 = 6. y1 = −4. y1 = 0. 1⎞ ⎛ point-slope form: y + 2 = −1⎜ x + ⎟ . y = 2x 162 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y1 = 0. point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x − 0). y1 = 3. m = 4. 1 . 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 2 m = 6. 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = y = 6 x + 17 15.Functions and Graphs 5 − (−4) 9 = undefined. slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −3 x − 6 23. m = −5. 2) . slope-intercept form: y = 8x – 33 m = −3. y1 = −3. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 6 x + 12 1 22. point-slope form: y + 3 = –3(x + 2). 2⎠ ⎝ 1 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x − 2 5 y = −x − 2 10 − 2 8 = = 2. 4 1 m = −1. x1 = 2 m = − . vertical 3−3 0 10. or y – 10 = 2(x – 5) using m= ( x1 . 5 −1 4 point-slope form: y – 2 = 2(x – 1) using ( x1 . m = 2. point-slope form: y + 4 = − ( x − 10). x1 = −4. y1 ) = (1. x1 = −2. x1 = 0. x1 = 3. x1 = −2. y1 = 5. m= 11. x1 = 0. point-slope form: y + 3 = –2(x – 0) m = −2. 5 3 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 5 y = −4 x − 16 18. 12. point-slope form: y – 5 = 6(x + 2). point-slope form: y – 0 = –4(x + 4). point-slope form: y + 2 = –5(x + 4). x1 = 1. y1 = 0. y = −3 x − 9 m = −4. Inc. slope-intercept form: y − 2 = 2 x − 2 or y − 10 = 2 x − 10. 3 2 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x + 4 3 2 y = − x+2 3 16.

4 15 − 5 10 = =2. slope-intercept form: y + 1 = x + 3or y−4 = x−2 y = x+2 m= 4 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 3 33. − 2) . or y – 3 = 1(x – 0) using ( x1 . 4) . y1 ) = ( −2. y1 ) = ( 6. y1 ) = ( −3. or y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using m= ( x1 . 4 − (−3) 7 point-slope form: y + 1 = 0(x + 3) using ( x1 . − 1) . or y = x+2 163 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 27. or y – 2 = 1(x – 0) using m= 32. y1 ) = ( 3. − 2 ) . − 5) . y1 ) = ( −2. y1 ) = (0. 4) . . slope-intercept form: y + 1 = 0. 8−3 5 point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3) using ( x1 . 3− 0 3 = =1. 0) . − 1) . or y + 1 = 1(x – 1) using y = −1 34. Section 1. 6) .5 ) . m= 4 −2 − 6 −8 = =− . y1 ) = (2. y1 ) = (−3. ( x1 . m= 4 − (−1) 5 = =1. slope-intercept form: y − 9 = x − 2. 6 − (−2) 8 4 = = . y1 ) = (−3. 0 − (−2) 2 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 .15) . 2 ) . y1 ) = ( 8. y1 ) = (4. 30. y1 ) = ( 0. y1 ) = ( 3. slope-intercept form: y = x + 3 m= 4 + 4 or 3x 4 y − 6 = x − 4. − 1) . or y + 2 = − ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . y1 ) = (−3. y1 ) = (−3. − 1) slope-intercept form: y = x – 2 −5 − (−5) 0 = =0. ( x1 . y1 ) = ( −2. − 4 ) . slope-intercept form: y = x + 2 29. y1 ) = (3. 2 − (−3) 5 point-slope form: y + 1 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . 4 ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . 0) . 3) .PreCalculus 4E 26. y1 ) = (2. 6 ) . or y + 1 = 0(x – 4) using m= ( x1 . or y − 6 = ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . or y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . 0 − 4 −4 = = 1. −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. 0 − (−3) 3 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . 0 ) . or y + 5 = 0(x – 6) using m= ( x1 . 6 − (−2) 8 point-slope form: y + 5 = 0(x + 2) using ( x1 . −2 − 2 −4 point-slope form: y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . 3 4 y = x+2 3 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = 2−0 2 = =1. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = −5 35. slope-intercept form: y + 5 = 0.so −1 − (−4) 3 = =1. 3 − (−3) 6 3 point-slope form: y + 2 = ( x1 . y1 ) = (−2. − 5 ) . y1 ) = (1. slope-intercept form: y = 2x – 1 28. m = 1 − (−2) 3 point-slope form: y + 4 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 .or y – 15 = 2(x – 8) using m= 31. 3 − (−3) 6 3 4 point-slope form: y − 6 = − ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 .

b = 1 40. − 3) .Functions and Graphs 36. b = –2 4 44. 3 m = . 0 − 4 −4 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x1 . 1 ( x − 4) using 2 1 ( x − 0) using ( x1 . m= 42. m= 43. or 2 2 3 3 y = − x− 2 2 37. b = 2 4−0 4 = =8. 4) . y1 ) = ( −1. or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) slope-intercept form: y = 8 x + 4 38. y1 ) = ( − 12 . 3 3 slope-intercept form: y + 3 = − x + . m = –3. b = 1 3 point-slope form: y + 3 = − ( x − 1) using 2 3 ( x1 . 0 − ( − 12 ) 12 point-slope form: y – 4 = 8(x – 0) using ( x1 . or y − 0 = − ( x + 1) using 2 ( x1 . m = –2. y1 ) = ( 4. y1 ) = (0. 0 ) . Inc. or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) using ( x1 . 3 m = . m = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y1 ) = ( 0.0 ) . y1 ) = (1. 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x − 2 2 or y + 2 = 39. b = 2 164 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m= 0 − (−3) 3 3 = =− −1 − 1 −2 2 41. b = −3 4 −2 − 0 −2 1 = = . m = 3. − 2 ) . . 0 ) .

52.b=0 3 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 55. b=7 5 49. 47. Inc. Section 1. 48.b=6 5 51.4 3 m=− . 165 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 46. 1 m=− . 1 m=− .PreCalculus 4E 45. 50. 2 m=− .b=0 2 53.

c. 58. b = 5 c.Functions and Graphs 56. 4x + y − 6 = 0 y − 6 = −4 x y = −4 x + 6 m = −4. b = 6 166 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x + 12 = 0 3x = −12 x = −4 59. a. 3x + y − 5 = 0 y − 5 = −3 x y = −3 x + 5 4 x + 6 y + 12 = 0 4 x + 12 = −6 y −6 y = 4 x + 12 4 12 y= x+ −6 −6 2 y = − x−2 3 m = –3. 62. b=6 3 c. 2 m=− . 2 m = − . b. 2 x + 3 y − 18 = 0 2 x − 18 = −3 y −3 y = 2 x − 18 2 18 y= x− −3 −3 2 y = − x+6 3 b. b. . a. b = –2 3 c. a. 3x − 18 = 0 3x = 18 x=6 61. a. 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 60. b.

m = 2. a. 6 m = . 6 x − 2(0) − 12 = 0 6 x − 12 = 0 6 x = 12 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 6(0) − 2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y = 12 y = −6 6 x − 5 y − 20 = 0 6 x − 20 = 5 y 5 y = 6 x − 20 6 20 y = x− 5 5 6 y = x−4 5 b. 65. Inc. Section 1. b = –3 c. b = −7 c. 3y − 9 = 0 3y = 9 y=3 b. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 64.4 8 x − 4 y − 12 = 0 8 x − 12 = 4 y 4 y = 8 x − 12 8 12 y = x− 4 4 y = 2x − 3 66. 67. b = −4 5 c. . a. 167 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m = 0.PreCalculus 4E 63. a. b = 3 c. b. 4 y + 28 = 0 4 y = −28 y = −7 b. m = 0. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Find the x-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 71. Find the x-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8 x − 2(0) + 12 = 0 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x + 3(0) + 6 = 0 2x + 6 = 0 2 x = −6 x = −3 Find the y-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 2(0) + 3 y + 6 = 0 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −6 y = −2 8 x = −12 8 x −12 = 8 8 −3 x= 2 Find the y-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8(0) − 2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y = −12 y = −6 168 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Find the x-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 6 x − 9(0) − 18 = 0 6 x − 18 = 0 6 x = 18 x=3 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 6(0) − 9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y = 18 y = −2 3x + 5(0) + 15 = 0 3x + 15 = 0 3x = −15 x = −5 Find the y-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 3(0) + 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y = −15 y = −3 69.Functions and Graphs 68. Inc. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 70. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .

m= −3 = = f ( x) = 3 3 x− 4 2 (a + c) − c a = a − (a − b) b Since a and b are both positive. m= 6 = −12 − 3 y 18 = −3 y −6 = y −b − 0 −b b = =− a 0 − ( −a ) a Since a and b are both positive. Therefore. B B 79. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 77. 74.4 72. . Inc. 4− y 1− 3 4− y −3 = −2 6 = 4− y 2 = −y −2 = y 80. (b + c ) − b 81. Ax + By = C By = − Ax + C A C y = − x+ B B A C The slope is − and the y − intercept is . 75. B B 78. Therefore. − b is a negative. m= 3x − 4 f ( x ) = 6 −4 f ( x ) = −3 x + 6 c 0 a−a The slope is undefined. Ax = By − C Ax + C = By A C x+ = y B B A C The slope is and the y − intercept is . a is positive. the line falls. the line rises. m= 0 − a −a a = =− b−0 b b Since a and b are both positive. the line falls.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The line is vertical. − 1 −4 − y = 3 4+2 1 −4 − y = 3 6 6 = 3 ( −4 − y ) a is b negative. −4 − y 1 = 3 4 − ( −2 ) 6 x − 3(0) + 15 = 0 6 x + 15 = 0 6 x = −15 6 x −15 = 6 6 5 x=− 2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 6(0) − 3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y = −15 y=5 73. b Therefore. 169 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 76.

b3 87.78 ( x − 10 ) y = 0.65 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form.78 ( x − 10 ) or y − 70. Change in y 74.9 = 0.7 ) and 51. 170 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.45 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American males.3 − 70. y − 45.2 6. m2 . First. a.8 y = 0.65 x + 38.2 = 0.5 83. m1 . ages 25 – 29.7 E (60) = 0. find the slope using ( 20.215 x + 65.65 x − 6. find the slope using ( 20.1 = 0.8 = = 0. f ( x ) = 0. y − 70. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 6 x−4 5 m= y − 45. y − 45. f ( 35 ) = 0.Functions and Graphs 82.65(35) + 38. b1 .3 c.215 Change in x 40 − 20 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= E ( x) = 0.65 ( x − 10 ) a. b4 . 3 ( 2) + b 2 −6 = −3 + b −6 = − 85. −5 f ( x ) = −6 x + 20 f ( x) = First.38. y − 31. Inc.6.1 = 0.0 = 0.65 ( x − 20 ) b. m3 .51. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Using the slope-intercept form for the equation of a line: −1 = −2 ( 3) + b y = 0.6 The life expectancy of American men born in 2020 is expected to be 78. 6 x − 5 f ( x ) = 20 88.2 = 0. to be 61. a.215( x − 20) y − 38. f ( 40 ) = 0.215 x − 4. to be 54. 45.5 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American females.7 −1 = −6 + b 5=b 84.7 E ( x) = 0.7 f ( x ) = 0.9 ) and (10.1) .78 ( x − 20 ) b.3 y − 31.65 x + 38. ages 25 – 29.1 7.31. b2 .2 ) . 38.215(60) + 65.78 x − 7.3 c. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) m= b. (10. m4 86.7 = 61.7 = 78.7 − 45.78 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form.3 = 54. c.215 x + 65.0 = = 0.78 x + 23.9 − 31.1 = 0.7 = 0. .215 x + 65.78(40) + 23. −3 = b 89.5 = = 0.78 x + 23.2 = 0.65 ( x − 10 ) or y − 51.45% in 2015.0 = 0.5% in 2020.7 y − 31.

PreCalculus 4E 90.4( x − 10) y − 230 = −2. 5.4 101.4 x + 254 Answers may vary for predictions. a. Enter data from table. 110 − 230 120 m= =− = −2.96876741 b = 260. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Two points are (0.4 60 − 10 50 y − 230 = −2.4) and (10. Two points are (0.17 x + 73 c.7 = 0.2. −10 − (−5) −5 1 m= = =− .17 x + 73 E (60) = 0. b. Answers may vary.5 3 m= = = 0. 110) Points may vary.17 x − 1.17 Change in x 40 − 10 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 74. 171 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 − (−2) 7. 10 − 0 10 4 3 Check: y = mx + b : y = x − 2 . −24 − 6 −30 m= = = −3.17(60) + 73 = 83.2 The life expectancy of American women born in 2020 is expected to be 83. 102.4 x + 24 y = −2.7 y = 0. (10. 91.7 = 0. Two points are (0.24). 4 E ( x) = 0. 6) and (10. Two points are (0. 230) (60. 103. 10 − 0 10 2 Change in y 79. – 99. a.8428126855 d.–5) and (10.5633751 r = −0.17 x + 73 E ( x) = 0. 10 − 0 10 c. 10 − 0 10 Check: y = mx + b : y = −3x + 6 . –24). –2) and (10. 5. Inc.7 = ≈ 0.75 or .5). Section 1.17( x − 10) y − 74.7 − 74. . 104. b. 100.–10). 24 − 4 20 m= = = 2. a = −22. 92.

110. Vertical lines have equations of the form x = a . Sample explanation: The slope of line’s whose equations are in this form can be determined in several ways. false. E) where M is degrees Madonna and E is degrees Elvis. does not make sense. 280) be ordered pairs (M. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 4 ( x − 3) y + 5 = 4 x − 12 −4 x + y + 17 = 0 3 ( −2 x + y ) = 3 ( 4 ) −6 x + 3 y = 12 Therefore. slope is 106. we can write the line in point-slope form. does not make sense. makes sense 109. A sample change is: It is possible for m to equal b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since the slope is the negative reciprocal of − . 0). then m = 2. Equations of this form have undefined slope and cannot be written in slope-intercept form. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Multiply both sides of −2 x + y = 4 by 3 to obtain 12 on the righthand-side. . does not make sense. Let (25. 40 ) . 0 ) and ( 0. Inc. Explanations will vary.4 (M – 25) or E = 2. 4 x − y − 17 = 0 172 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: Linear functions never change from increasing to decreasing. the coefficient of x is –6 and the coefficient of y is 3. 113. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 125 − 25 100 point-slope form tells us that E – 40 = 2. 1 y = x−6 2 1 y − x = −6 2 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ y − x ⎟ = 2 ( −6 ) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 y − x = −12 So the equation of the line is y = 107. We are given that the y − intercept is − 6 and the 105.4 . Answers may vary. 115. Using ( x1 . Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: Since college cost are going up. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) Using the slope and one of the intercepts. A sample change is: Slope-intercept form is y = mx + b . y1 ) = ( 25. this function has a positive slope. Explanations will vary. true 112. 4 ) m= 1 . 4 then m = 4. 4−0 4 4 = = =2 0 − ( −2 ) 0 + 2 2 118. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − ( −3 ) ) y − 1 = 2 ( x + 3) y − 0 = 2 ( x − ( −2 ) ) y − 1 = 2x + 6 y = 2 ( x + 2) y = 2x + 7 y = 2x + 4 −2 x + y = 4 Find the x– and y–coefficients for the equation of the line with right-hand-side equal to 12. 1 x − 6. Since the slope is the same as the slope of y = 2 x + 1. Answers may vary.Functions and Graphs 114. 116. We can use the points ( −2. A sample change is: The graph of x = 7 is a vertical line through the point (7. Then 280 − 40 240 m= = = 2. false. 111. the coefficient of x is 1 and the coefficient of y is −2. 117. 2 We can put this equation in the form ax + by = c to find the missing coefficients.4 M – 20. −2 x + y = 4 1 119. false. 108. 40) and (125. One such way is to rewrite the equation in slope-intercept form. We are given that the x − intercept is −2 and the y − intercept is 4 . 2 to find the slope. Explanations will vary. x − 2 y = 12 Therefore.

s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (2) = 4(2)2 = 16 Change in y 12. a. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (3) − f (1) 0.05 − 0.25 Change in x 2005 − 1990 15 The slope indicates that the number of U.5) = 4(1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 23 − 13 8 − 1 = = =7 x2 − x1 2 −1 1 c.01) = 4(1. y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) 3x − y = 0 general form 3.5)2 = 9 Δs 9 − 4 = = 10 feet per second Δt 1. 173 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 − 1 c.01)2 = 4. a. –6) to write the equation. Write the equation in slope-intercept form: x + 3 y − 12 = 0 3 y = − x + 12 1 y = − x+4 3 s (1.0804 Δs 4. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Δs 16 − 4 = = 12 feet per second Δt 2 −1 y − 5 = 3 ( x − (−2) ) y − 5 = 3( x + 2) point-slope y − 5 = 3x + 6 b. Section 1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 03 − (−2)3 8 = = =4 x2 − x1 0 − (−2) 2 = Section 1.5 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (1) = 4 −1 x2 − x1 4. we know it will have slope m = 2.04 feet per second Δt 1.PreCalculus 4E 120. m= y − 2 = 2x − 8 y = 2x − 6 In function notation.0804 − 4 = = 8. y − (−6) = 3 ( x − (−2) ) Since L is parallel to y = 2 x. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 13 − 03 = =1 x2 − x1 1− 0 b.01 x2 − x1 3 −1 3 −1 6. 5.03 = = = 0. the equation of the line is f ( x ) = 2 x − 6. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (1.7 − 9. 42 − 12 4 −1 15 = 3 =5 a. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y + 6 = 3( x + 2) y + 6 = 3x + 6 −3 x + y = 0 y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form.25 million each year.0 3. Use m = 3 and the point (–2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. We are given that it passes through ( 4. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Exercise Set 1. men living alone is projected to increase by 0. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. 2 ) . The slope of this line is − b.5 Check Point Exercises 1.7 = = ≈ 0.01 − 1 1 thus the slope of 3 any line perpendicular to this line is 3. The slope of the line y = 3 x + 1 is 3.5 1. Inc. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 y = 3x + 11 slope-intercept 2. .S.

2 y−4 = − x1 = −4. so m = since the 3 3 lines are parallel.Functions and Graphs 2. We are given that it passes 2 through (2. point-slope form: y + 7 = –5(x + 2) slope-intercept form: y + 7 = −5 x − 10 y = −5 x − 17 7. y1 = 2 . 3 1 L will have slope m = . x1 = −8. 3x − 2 y − = 0 −2 y = −3x + 5 3 5 y = x− 2 2 The slope of the given line is 3 3 . x1 = 2. 3 ( x + 1) 2 general form: 3 x − 2 y + 9 = 0 point-slope form: y − 3 = 174 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so m = since the 2 2 lines are parallel. 1 y − 2 = ( x − ( −1) ) 2 1 y − 2 = ( x + 1) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. 1 1 y−2 = x+ 2 2 1 1 y = x+ +2 2 2 1 5 y = x+ 2 2 1 5 f ( x) = x + 2 2 2x − 3y − 7 = 0 −3 y = −2 x + 7 2 7 y = x− 3 3 The slope of the given line is 2 2 . We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. m = –5 since the line is perpendicular to 1 y = x + 6. we know it will 1 have slope m = − . m = −3 since the line is perpendicular to y = Since L is perpendicular to y = 2 x. 1 x+7. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − 2) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y1 = −3. point-slope form: y − 2 = −3( x + 4) slope-intercept form: y − 2 = −3x − 12 y = −3x − 10 9. Inc. y1 = −10. Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. The line passes through (– 2 1. 2). 5. Use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. 5 point-slope form: y + 3 = –5(x – 2) slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −5 x + 10 y = −5 x + 7 8. point-slope form: y + 10 = –4(x + 8) slope-intercept form: y + 10 = –4x – 32 y = –4x – 42 6. the equation of the line is 1 f ( x ) = − x + 5. x1 = −2. 4). we have y − 4 = −2 ( x − 3) . L will have slope m = −2 . m = –5 since the line is parallel to y = −5 x + 4 . m = –4 since the line is parallel to y = −4 x + 3. 2 ( x + 2) 3 general form: 2 x − 3 y + 10 = 0 point-slope form: y − 2 = 10. 1 y − 4 = − ( x − 2) 2 1 y − 4 = − x +1 2 1 y = − x+5 2 In function notation. . y − 4 = −2 x + 6 y = −2 x + 10 f ( x ) = −2 x + 10 3. 4. Using the point and the slope. y1 = −7 .

01)2 = 108. Inc. The slope of the given line is Δs 122. The graph of f passes through ( −1.07201 − 108 = = 72.5 − 2 Δt 52 + 2 ⋅ 5 − (32 + 2 ⋅ 3) 25 + 10 − (9 + 6) = 5−3 2 20 = 2 = 10 2 s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3.01 feet per second 3. so m = –2 since the 2 lines are perpendicular. so m = 7 since the 7 lines are perpendicular. c.01)2 = 90. Since the line is perpendicular to x = 6 which is a vertical line. Section 1.5 ) .07201 Δs 108.5) = 12(3. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.7212 − 108 = = 72. f is f ( x ) = 6.06 − 90 = = 60. we know the graph of f is a horizontal s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (4) = 10(4)2 = 160 line with 0 slope.01 − 3 Δt d.7212 Δs 108. a. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.01 feet per second 3.PreCalculus 4E 11. 20.001)2 = 108. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (4) = 12(4)2 = 192 Δs 108 − 192 = = 84 feet per second 4−3 Δt b.01) = 10(3.601 Δs 90. 24 − 0 24 = =6 4−0 4 15. we know the graph of f is a horizontal line with 0 slope.601 − 90 = = 60. point-slope form: y + 9 = 7(x – 5) general form: 7 x − y − 44 = 0 13.5 − 3 1 . The graph of f passes through ( −2. 22. 6 ) .1 feet per second 3.5 − 90 = = 65 feet per second Δt 3. Since the line is perpendicular to x = −4 which is a vertical line.001) = 10(3.001) = 12(3.001)2 = 90.01 − 3 Δt 2 17. a. 6 − 2 ( 6 ) − (3 − 2 ⋅ 3) 36 − 12 − ( 9 − 6 ) 21 = = =7 6−3 3 3 9 − 4 3−2 1 = = 9−4 5 5 18.06 Δs 90.5 x − 2y − 3 = 0 −2 y = − x + 3 1 3 y = x− 2 2 b.5) = 10(3.5)2 = 122.12 feet per second 3. . 15 − 0 15 = =3 5−0 5 14. x + 7 y − 12 = 0 7 y = − x + 12 −1 12 y= x+ 7 7 s (3.01) = 12(3. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 general form: 2 x + y − 1 = 0 12. y + 7 = –2 ( x − 4 ) point-slope form: c. so the equation of Δs 160 − 90 = = 70 feet per second 4−3 Δt f is f ( x ) = 5.001 − 3 Δt 21. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3.5)2 = 147 Δs 147 − 108 = = 78 feet per second 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so the equation of 175 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 16. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3. 16 − 9 4 − 3 1 = = 16 − 9 7 7 19.001 − 3 Δt 1 The slope of the given line is − .5 d.

We use these points to find the slope. 4 ) and the slope − to find the equation of the line. it will have slope m = − . 3 Use the point ( −5. 0 ) and ( 0. −9 ) . m= −4 − 0 −4 = =2 0 − 2 −2 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. m= −9 − 0 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. This line will pass through ( 2. First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 3 and y − intercept of −9. −4 ) . Inc.Functions and Graphs 23. 2 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −6 ) ) 2 1 y − 4 = − ( x + 6) 2 1 y −4 = − x−3 2 1 y = − x +1 2 1 f ( x) = − x +1 2 y−4 = − 24. 6 ) and the slope − 1 to find the equation of the line. 0 ) and ( 0. it will have slope m = − . First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 2 and y − intercept of −4. 3 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −5) ) 3 1 y − 6 = − ( x + 5) 3 1 5 y−6 = − x− 3 3 1 13 y =− x+ 3 3 1 13 f ( x) = − x + 3 3 y−6 = − 176 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. We use these points to find the slope. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 1 Use the point ( −6. This line will pass through ( 3. .

1 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 6. 3 26.1(7)3 − 35(7) 2 + 264(7) + 557 = 1067. f ( x) = 1.3 m= ≈ −96 12 − 7 b. 32. 31.2 x + 47 28. 4x − y − 6 = 0 − y = −4 x + 6 y = 4x − 6 1 The equation of f will have slope − since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 4 y − intercept −6.1(4)3 − 35(4)2 + 264(4) + 557 = 1123.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.4 1123. 2 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 2.1(0)3 − 35(0)2 + 264(0) + 557 = 557 f (4) = 1. First put the equation 3 x − 2 y − 4 = 0 in slope-intercept form.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. This overestimates by 5 discharges per year.1(12)3 − 35(12) 2 + 264(12) + 557 = 585. Inc.3 f (12) = 1.4 − 557 m= ≈ 142 4−0 b. P( x) = 1.8 − 1067. 30. 177 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This underestimates the decrease by 36 discharges per year.5 25. .3 x + 23 29.8 585. P( x) = −1. m= a. 3x − 2 y − 4 = 0 −2 y = −3 x + 4 y= 3 x−2 2 The equation of f will have slope − 2 since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 3 y − intercept −2.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. m= 612 − 1273 −661 = ≈ −132 2006 − 2001 5 There was an average decrease of approximately 132 discharges per year. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1163 − 617 546 = ≈ 137 1998 − 1994 4 There was an average increase of approximately 137 discharges per year. 4 27. f ( x) = 1. a. First put the equation 4 x − y − 6 = 0 in slope-intercept form.

makes sense 42. this causes the lines not to appear perpendicular when indeed they are. Sample explanation: Slopes can be used for segments of the graph.Functions and Graphs 33. A 178 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . the lines appear to be perpendicular. 1 x +1 3 y = −3x − 2 y= a. does not make sense. Ax + By + C = 0 By = − Ax − C By − Ax C = − B B B A C y = − x− B B The slope of the given line is − A . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 39. This causes the scale of the x–axis to differ from the scale on the y–axis despite using the same scale in the window settings. The lines appear to be perpendicular. Inc. 43. In part (b). This is verified because product of their slopes is –1. Write Ax + By + C = 0 in slope-intercept form. The lines do not appear to be perpendicular. makes sense 41. The lines are perpendicular because their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. The zoom square feature compensates for this and in part (c). 40. B The slope of any line perpendicular to Ax + By + C = 0 is B . makes sense 44. b. Explanations will vary. The calculator screen is rectangular and does not have the same width and height. – 38. c. Answers may vary.

Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 1. 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. 2}. 4 ) b. 4}. c. c. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted down 4 units. The range is { y | −1 ≤ y ≤ 2}. The relation is a function. The domain is {1. −3) and ( −2. The domain is {x | −3 < x ≤ 4}. 4 − ( −3 ) 4+3 7 7 = = =− −2 − 1 −3 −3 3 Solve Ax + y − 2 = 0 for y to obtain slope-intercept form. The relation is a function. − A = so A = − . 2. 3. 47. . b. Therefore. The domain is {0. 4. The domain is {x | −2 ≤ x < 2}. 179 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. Inc. Ax + y − 2 = 0 y = − Ax + 2 So the slope of this line is − A. 6}. c. 2. The range is {1. 4. a.3}. The slope of the line containing (1. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted to the right 2 units. This line is perpendicular to the line above so its 3 3 3 slope is . a. The range is {−6. The relation is not a function. 7 7 7 has slope m = 46.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 45. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) reflected across the y-axis. The range is { y | 0 ≤ y ≤ 3}. The relation is not a function.

The domain is {x | x ≤ 1}. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (−4) −5 − 3 = = = −1 4 − (−4) 4+4 x2 − x1 25. f (−6) = 0 and f (2) = 0 21. −1. x + y2 = 5 y2 = 5 − x y = ± 5− x Since there are values of x that give more than one value for y (for example. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x 180 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the equation does not define y as a function of x. ∞ ) 28. 16. 2 ) 22. 8. The range is { y | y ≥ −1}. −1. 30. 26. The relation is not a function. Domain: 11. then y = ± 5 − 4 = ±1 ).1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The range is {−2. f (100) is negative.3}. x-intercepts: –6 and 2 13.Functions and Graphs 5. f (−7) = −2 and f (3) = −2 20. decreasing: (–2. 7. Range: ( −∞. .1. The domain is {−2. ( −6. 10. ∞) 29. increasing: (–∞. 6. f (−4) = 3 19. 9. there is one and only one value for y. y-intercept: 3 14. 2}. x = −2 17. ( −∞. so the equation defines y as a function of x. Inc. x2 + y = 5 24. –2) 15. 4] 12. 23. y = − x2 + 5 For each value of x. if x = 4. The relation is a function. neither. f (−2) = 4 18. 27. Each value of x corresponds to exactly one value of y. 0.

31.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 35. 37. f (− x) = −2(− x) 2 − x − 5 = −2 x 2 − x − 5 neither. 36. 33. 5 y = 20 y=4 32. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. Inc. . 34. 5 y = −3 x 3 y=− x 5 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) − 5 − (−2 x 2 + x − 5) = h 2 2 −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h − 5 + 2 x 2 − x + 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 181 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

For each minute of brisk walking. t > 200 a. m= b. The rate of change is 0. m1 = Change in y 0 − (−4) 4 = = Change in x 7−2 5 Change in y 6−2 4 = = Change in x 1 − (−4) 5 The slope of the lines are equal thus the lines are parallel. so m = − . 39. the percentage of patients with depression in remission increased by 0. 3x − y − 5 = 0 − y = −3 x + 5 m2 = y = 3x − 5 The slope of the given line is 3. and the lines are parallel. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 +1 .Functions and Graphs 38. if ⎧30 C ( x) = ⎨ ⎩30 + 0.16 Change in x 180 − 80 100 a.16% per minute of brisk walking. y − (−4) = 3( x − 3) y + 4 = 3x − 9 y = 3 x − 13 f ( x) = 3 x − 13 45. so m = 3. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = −2 x + 10 43. 2 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 3 = −2( x + 4) y − 3 = −2 x − 8 y = −2 x − 5 f ( x ) = −2 x − 5 40. Change in y 42 − 26 16 = = = 0. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (2) − f (−1) = x2 − x1 2 − (−1) = ( 3(2) 2 − 2 ) − ( 3(−1) 2 − (−1) ) =2 182 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.40(t − 200) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 200 42. C (150) = 30 b.40(250 − 200) = 50 −5 y −2 x 10 = + −5 −5 −5 2 y = x−2 5 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) The slope of the given line is y − 3 = −2 ( x − (−4) ) m= 5 ( x − (−4) ) 2 5 y + 3 = − x − 10 2 5 y = − x − 13 2 5 f ( x) = − x − 13 2 y − (−3) = − Change in y 1 − (−5) 6 = = =2 Change in x 2 − (−1) 3 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − 2) y − 1 = 2x − 4 y = 2x − 3 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 41. C (250) = 30 + 0. and the lines are 5 5 perpendicular. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44.16%. 2 .

Shift up vertically 3 units. 2.6 Check Point Exercises 1. reflected about the x-axis. Publishing as Prentice Hall. then 3 shifted down 2 units. 183 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.6 Section 1. a. 4. Shift to the right 1 unit and down 2 units. b. Reflect about the x-axis. Shift to the right 4 units. 7. The graph of y = f ( x ) is shifted 1 unit left. 6. Horizontally shrink the graph of y = f ( x ) . by a factor of 5. Vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x . shrunk 1 . 8.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 3. Horizontally stretch the graph of y = f ( x ) . . Reflect about the y-axis.

7. 9. The graph of f ( x) = x 2 is shifted 1 unit right.Functions and Graphs 9. 8. stretched by a factor of 2. 2. 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 4. Exercise Set 1. then shifted up 3 units. 184 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3. .6 1. 5.

15. 14. 18. 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 13. 17. .6 10. Inc. 12. 16.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 19. 185 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

28. Inc. 22. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 27. 21. 29. 24. 25. 23. 26.Functions and Graphs 20. 30. 186 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

37. 34. 40. 33.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 39. 36. 187 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 32. 38. 35.6 31.

45. Inc. 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 50. 46. 188 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 43.Functions and Graphs 41. 42. 47. 49. 44.

55. 62. 189 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 57. 56. 54.6 51.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 58. 53. 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 61. Inc. 52. . 59.

74.Functions and Graphs 63. 190 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 69. 71. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 68. 70. 66. 73. 65. 72. 67. 64.

78. 80. 84. 77. 85. 76. 79. 191 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 82.6 81. . 75. 83. 86. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.

91. 95. 97. 90. Inc. 87. . 192 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 94. 98. 92. 88. 89.Functions and Graphs 93. 96. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 100.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 106. 107. 110. 193 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 109. 104. 108. 105. 101. . 103.6 99. 102.

y = x − 2 + 1 194 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = ( x + 1) 2 − 4 126.Functions and Graphs 111. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 123. 120. 116. y = − x 3 + 2 117. . 122. 119. 113. 125. 112. 118. 114. y = x − 2 124. 121. 115.

9 ) ( ) d.PreCalculus 4E 127.1 ) ( 60 + 19 − 3.1 − 2. c. a. a. = = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 ( 2.9 0 + 20.6 First. Section 1.1 10 + 19) − ( 3. 60 − 50 42.5 The model describes the actual data very well.1 ≈ 40. First.9 x + 20.1 129. ) 60 + 20. = f ( x) = 2.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c).1 10 − 0 29. a.1.9.5633 − 40.0125 − 40.9 50 + 20. .1 f (48) = 2. c.1 50 + 19 ) 60 − 50 43. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 − 2.1 x + 19 f (48) = 3. 10 + 20. ( 3. Inc.1 units. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 3.2 The model describes the actual data very well. then shift the result up 19 units. b. then shift the result up 20.9 ) ( = b.9 inches per month = f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 2.0 1. – 134. 0 + 19 ) f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 3.1 48 + 19 ≈ 40. 128. 195 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 10 − 0 28.8031 − 19 = 10 ≈ 1. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 2. Answers may vary. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference.9 48 + 20.9 0. f ( x) = 3. b.9203 = 10 ≈ 0. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c).0 inches per month f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = d. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 135.6061 = 10 ≈ 0.27 − 20.1 = 10 ≈ 0.

Changes to make the statement true will vary. the domain of h is {x x ≥ 3} .Functions and Graphs 149. b) 136. Explanations will vary. false. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. ( f ( x) ) 2 − 2 f ( x ) + 6 = ( 3x − 4 ) − 2(3 x − 4) + 6 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 − 6 x + 8 + 6 137. g ( x) = − 16 – x 2 − 1 4 = x − 5 + x2 − 1 = − x2 + x − 6 196 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. These values must be excluded from the domain. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 24 x − 6 x + 16 + 8 + 6 138. The domain of f is the set of all real numbers or ( −∞. 2b) 151. (a. A sample change is: The graph of g is a translation of f three units to the left and three units upward. (2 x − 1)( x 2 + x − 2) = 2 x( x 2 + x − 2) − 1( x 2 + x − 2) b. while the graph a. Since h( x) = 9 x − 27 contains an even root. The function f ( x) = x 2 + 3x − 17 contains neither division nor an even root. c. does not make sense. Section 1. ∞ ) . 1. b – 3) 153. A sample change is: The graph of f is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the x-axis. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t − 1). 143. a. g ( x) = −( x + 4)2 146. . −7 ) ∪ ( −7. g ( x) = – x – 5 + 1 interval [3. A sample change is: The stretch will be 5 units and the downward shift will be 10 units. (a. b) 152. 2 = 3 −1 x 140. Explanations will vary. ∞ ) . = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − x 2 − x + 2 = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x 2 − 4 x − x + 2 = 2 x3 + x 2 − 5 x + 2 154. the quantity under the radical must be greater than or equal to 0. or the of g is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the yaxis. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9 x − 27 ≥ 0 9 x ≥ 27 x≥3 Thus. The denominator equals zero when x = 7 or x = –7. ∞ ) . b. 150. true 145. (–a. a.7 141. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 5 + ( x 2 − 1) 1 148. 155. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 30 x + 30 139. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t + 1). g ( x) = − x − 2 + 2 2. Inc. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. (a + 3. 2x 2x = 3x − x 3− x x Check Point Exercises 142. does not make sense. false. 144. 147. domain of g = ( −∞.

1⎫ ⎧ domain: ⎨ x x ≠ 0. ∞ ) 9. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. The function contains neither division nor an even root. ∞ ) 2. ∞ ) g ) (−1) = 10(−1) 2 − 5(−1) + 1 = 10 + 5 + 1 = 16 197 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. 4 ) ∪ ( 4.10 ) ∪ (10. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. domain of f: (f ( g ) ( x) = f ( g ( x ) ) ) = 5 2 x2 − x − 1 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x − 5 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 b. ∞). a. the domain of f + g is [3. domain: ( −∞. Inc. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. ∞ ) 7. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 3 + x +1 b.9 ) ∪ ( 9. ∞ ) 3. = x − 5 − ( x − 1) g )( x) = (f b. domain: ( −∞. ( fg )( x ) = ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 − 1) = x ( x 2 − 1) − 5 ( x 2 − 1) 6. 4. ∞) domain of g: x +1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −1 [−1. The denominator equals zero when x = −5. Section 1. (f (f g ) ( x) = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 10. This value must be excluded from the domain.3) ∪ ( 3. The function contains neither division nor an even root. 2 h ( x ) = f g where f ( x) = x . ∞) The domain of f + g is the set of all real numbers that are common to the domain of f and the domain of g. 1. ∞ ) . g ( x) = x 2 + 5 = x3 − x − 5 x 2 + 5 = x3 − 5 x 2 − x + 5 d. 3. The denominator equals zero when x = 4. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 8. Exercise Set 1. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. −8) ∪ ( −8. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. Thus.PreCalculus 4E b. −3) ∪ ( −3. 5. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. domain: ( −∞. The domain = ( −∞. The function contains neither division nor an even root. 5 ) ∪ ( 5. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 [3.7 ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = ( x) g g ⎝ ⎠ x −5 . The function contains neither division nor an even root. .7 ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5. The domain = ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. The domain = ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. This value must be excluded from the domain. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. x ≠ − ⎬ 2⎭ ⎩ = x − 5 − x2 + 1 = − x2 + x − 4 c. (g f ) ( x) = g ( f ( x) ) = 2 (5 x + 6 ) − ( 5x + 6 ) − 1 2 = 2(25 x 2 + 60 x + 36) − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 120 x + 72 − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 115 x + 65 c. The domain = ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 4x = 1 1 + 2x +2 x a. x ≠ ±1 = 2 x −1 4. ∞ ) 6. ∞ ) .

2 ) ∪ ( 2. −1) ∪ ( −1. The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. ∞ ) x=2 4 −3 = 0. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ x=4 domain: ( −∞. The expression under the radical must not be negative. Exclude x for x = 0 . 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 4 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) 18. domain: ( −∞. x 3 −1 = 0 x ⎛3 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 3− x = 0 4 − 2 ( x − 1) = 0 4 − 2x + 2 = 0 −2 x + 6 = 0 −2 x = −6 x=3 domain: ( −∞. Exclude x for x − 1 = 0 . x −1 = 0 11. Inc.3) ∪ ( 3. domain: ( −∞. 2 ) ∪ ⎜ 2.Functions and Graphs 15. ∞ ) x= 17. 3 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . ∞ ) 16. The first denominator cannot equal zero. ∞ ) 4 −2 = 0 x −1 4 ⎞ − 2 ⎟ = ( x − 1)( 0 ) ( x − 1) ⎛⎜ ⎝ x −1 ⎠ 13. Exclude x for x − 2 = 0 . x 4 −1 = 0 x ⎛4 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 4−x = 0 4 −3 = 0 x−2 4 ⎞ − 3 ⎟ = ( x − 2 )( 0 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎛⎜ − x 2 ⎝ ⎠ 4 − 3( x − 2) = 0 4 − 3x + 6 = 0 −3 x + 10 = 0 −3x = −10 − x = −4 10 3 ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. x −1 Exclude x for 12. . Exclude x for x = 0 . ⎟ ∪ ⎜ . x−2 = 0 − x = −3 x=3 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) x =1 4 −2= 0. The expression under the radical must not be negative. The first denominator cannot equal zero.1) ∪ (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 198 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x−2 Exclude x for 14.3) ∪ ( 3.1) ∪ (1. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 domain: [ −2. The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain.

∞ ) .3) ∪ ( 3. x −3≥ 0 x+4≥0 and x≥3 x ≥ −4 To make both inequalities true. The expression under the radical must be positive. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. x−2 ≥ 0 x+3≥ 0 and x≥2 x ≥ −3 To make both inequalities true. ∞ ) x>3 domain: ( 3. The expression under the radical must not be negative. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. 2. x −3≥ 0 x ≥ −7 domain: [ −7. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. and 3 must be excluded. ∞ ) 199 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x −3 > 0 26. 6 ) ∪ ( 6. ∞ ) −2 x ≥ −24 −2 x −24 ≤ −2 −2 x ≤ 12 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) x≥3 The denominator equals zero when x = 6. . and 5 must be excluded. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 7 x − 70 ≥ 0 domain: [3. 7 x ≥ 70 29. ∞ ) = x 2 ( x − 5) − 4 ( x − 5 ) 23. 84 − 6 x ≥ 0 = x2 ( x − 2) − 9 ( x − 2) ( = ( x − 2) x2 − 9 −6 x ≥ −84 ) = ( x − 2)( x + 3)( x − 3) –3.5) ∪ ( 5. x ≥ 3 .7 19. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. 24 − 2 x ≥ 0 ( = ( x − 5) x 2 − 4 ) = ( x − 5)( x + 2)( x − 2) –2.14] 25. x+2>0 27. 5 x ≥ −35 28. 5 x + 35 ≥ 0 domain: [ 2. 2 ) ∪ ( 2.5 ) ∪ ( 5. Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 2. ∞ ) −6 x −84 ≤ −6 −6 x ≤ 14 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 20. Inc. domain: [ 2. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . The expression under the radical must not be negative. 21. −3) ∪ ( −3. ∞ ) x≥2 The denominator equals zero when x = 5. 22. The expression under the radical must be positive.12] 30. Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. x−2 ≥ 0 x > −2 domain: ( −2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x ≥ 10 domain: [10. The expression under the radical must not be negative. domain: ( −∞. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 9 x + 18 24. Publishing as Prentice Hall. domain: [3. x ≥ 2 . The expression under the radical must not be negative.

∞) ( fg )( x ) = (2 x 2 – x – 3)( x + 1) = − x 4 − 2 x 3 + 18 x 2 + 6 x − 45 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 36. Inc. −5) ∪ ( −5. −1) ∪ ( −1. . domain: (−∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (3 − x 2 )( x 2 + 2 x − 15) ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 3x2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( f + g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = 2 x − 12 domain: (–∞. = 2 x3 + x 2 – 4 x – 3 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x − 5)(3 x 2 ) = 3x 3 − 15 x 2 domain: (−∞. ∞) ( f – g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 x – 4 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 34. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 2 x2 – x – 3 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x +1 ⎝g⎠ ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = (2 x + 3) ⋅ ( x − 1) = 2x2 + x − 3 domain: (−∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) 32. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3 − x2 = ( x ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 2 x − 15 ⎝g⎠ ( f + g )( x) = 5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞) 35. ∞) (fg)(x) = (3x – 4)(x + 2) = 3x2 + 2x – 8 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (6 x 2 − x − 1)( x − 1) = 6 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 1 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 200 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = 6 x 2 − 2 x domain: (–∞. (f + g)(x) = 3x + 2 domain: (−∞. (2 x – 3)( x + 1) = 2x – 3 ( x + 1) domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. (f + g)(x) = 4x – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 4) – (x + 2) = 2x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 6 x2 − x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞.1) ∪ (1. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 3x 2 + x − 5 37. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3.1) ∪ (1.Functions and Graphs 31. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x – 6)(5 x 2 ) = 5 x 3 – 30 x 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x−6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5x2 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) = ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) 2 x + 3 = ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g ( x) x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = (2x + 3) – (x – 1) =x+4 domain: (−∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x+2 ⎝g⎠ 33. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = −3 x 2 + x − 5 domain: (−∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = −2 x 2 − 2 x + 18 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = –5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞.

0 ) ∪ ( 0.5) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 2 + 1 ⎞ 1 6 1 6x −1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ = − 2 = 2 x⎠ x x x x ⎝ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 5 domain: [0. ∞ ) 6 − 1x ⎛ ⎛ f ⎞ 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 1 = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ x = 6 x − 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. Section 1. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −5 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. ∞ ) 42. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (5 − x 2 )( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 1 ⎞ 1 2 1 2x + 1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ = + 2 = x⎠ x x x x2 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) = − x 4 − 4 x3 + 17 x 2 + 20 x − 60 domain: (–∞. ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 4 domain: [0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 2 + = −2 x 2 − 4 x + 17 domain: (–∞.7 ( f + g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) = 4x − 7 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 − 1 1 2 6x − 2 − = 6− = x x x x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 6 – ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 4) domain: [0. Inc. −6 ) ∪ ( −6. ∞ ) 1 1 + =6 x x domain: ( −∞. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 5) domain: [0. ∞ ) 40. ∞ ) 201 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x−4 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0.PreCalculus 4E 38. ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 4 domain: [0. 1 1 − =2 x x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 5 − x2 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 4 x − 12 ⎝g⎠ 2 + 1x ⎛ ⎛f ⎞ 1⎞ ( ) x = = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ x = 2x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 41. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 5 domain: [0. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. 1 1 2 2x + 2 + = 2+ = x x x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 39. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .

4x − 2 = 0 2x = 4 x=2 domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 4 − x − 1 domain: [1. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 3x + 1 2 x − 4 = 2 − x − 25 x 2 − 25 x+5 = 2 x − 25 1 = x −5 domain: ( −∞. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 + x2 − 9 x2 − 9 9x −1 = 2 x −9 domain: ( −∞. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) x= 45. −3) ∪ ( −3. 2x − 4 = 0 5x + 1 ⎛f ⎞ x2 − 9 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 4 x − 2 ⎝g⎠ x2 − 9 5x + 1 x 2 − 9 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 4x − 2 5x + 1 = 4x − 2 The domain must exclude –3. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3. and any values that make 4 x − 2 = 0. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. 12 ) ∪ ( 12 .3) ∪ ( 3. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.5 ) ∪ ( 5.5 ) ∪ ( 5.3) ∪ ( 3. 3. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −1 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (1. ∞) ( fg )( x) = x + 4 ⋅ x − 1 = x 2 + 3 x − 4 domain: [1. 5. . ∞ ) 3x + 1 2x − 4 + x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 5x − 3 = 2 x − 25 domain: ( −∞. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. and any values that make 2 x − 4 = 0. −3) ∪ ( −3.5 ) ∪ ( 5. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞ ) 202 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2 ⎛f ⎞ x − 25 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2 x − 4 g ⎝ ⎠ x 2 − 25 3x + 1 x 2 − 25 = 2 ⋅ x − 25 2 x − 4 3x + 1 = 2x − 4 The domain must exclude –5.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5x + 1 4 x − 2 = 2 − x − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = 2 x −9 1 = x −3 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 4x = 2 1 2 domain: ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 43. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 x2 − 9 (5 x + 1)(4 x − 2) = 2 ( x2 − 9) ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = = = = 3x + 1 2 x − 4 ⋅ x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 (3 x + 1)(2 x − 4) (x 2 − 25 ) 2 domain: ( −∞. ( f + g )( x) = x + 4 + x − 1 domain: [1. −3) ∪ ( −3.3) ∪ ( 3. Inc. −3) ∪ ( −3.

g(x) = 2x + 1 ( f + g )( x) = x + 6 + x − 3 domain: [3. a. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 4(2) 2 + 6 = 6 203 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 80 x 2 − 120 x + 43 c. Section 1. 55. g(x) = x + 7 ( f g )( x) = 2( x + 7) = 2 x + 14 ( g f )( x) = 5(4 x − 3) 2 − 2 = 5(16 x 2 − 24 x + 9) − 2 ( f + g )( x) = x − 5 + 5 − x domain: {5} ( f − g )( x) = x − 5 − 5 − x domain: {5} a. f(x) = 5x + 2 . ∞) ( fg )( x ) = x + 6 ⋅ x − 3 = x 2 + 3x − 18 domain: [3. ( g f )( x) = 2(7 x + 1)2 − 9 = 2(49 x 2 + 14 x + 1) − 9 = 98 x 2 + 28 x − 7 c. ( f g )( x) = 5(3x − 4) + 2 = 15 x − 18 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) = 4x – 3. . ( f g )( x) = 4(5 x 2 − 2) − 3 b. g(x) = x – 5 a. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 5 = 9 52. a. ( f g )(2) = 20(2)2 − 11 = 69 f ( x) = 7 x + 1. g ( x) = 2 x 2 – 9 49. ( f g )( x) = 7(2 x 2 − 9) + 1 = 14 x 2 − 62 b. b. ( f g )( x) = (2 x + 1) + 4 = 2 x + 5 b.PreCalculus 4E 46. g ( x) = x 2 − 2 50. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 2) 2 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 4 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 2 c. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 6 − x − 3 domain: [3. ( fg )( x) = x − 5 ⋅ 5 − x = − x 2 + 10 x − 25 domain: {5} ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5− x ⎝g⎠ domain: ∅ 54. ( f g )(2) = 15(2) − 18 = 12 53. ( g f )( x) = 2( x + 4) + 1 = 2 x + 9 c. g(x) = 3x – 4 ( f + g )( x) = x − 2 + 2 − x domain: {2} ( f − g )( x) = x − 2 − 2 − x domain: {2} a. ( g f )( x) = 3x – 5 c. ( f g )(2) = 3(2) − 15 = −9 ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 2) 2 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 4 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 6 ( f g )( x) = 3( x − 5) = 3 x − 15 b. ( f g )(2) = 14(2) 2 − 62 = −6 f ( x) = x 2 + 2. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 14 = 18 a. ( g f )( x) = 3(5 x + 2) − 4 = 15 x + 2 c. ∞) 47. f(x) = 2x. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−3 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (3. a. g ( x) = 5 x 2 − 2 ( fg )( x ) = x − 2 ⋅ 2 − x = − x 2 + 4 x − 4 domain: {2} ⎛f ⎞ x−2 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 2− x ⎝ ⎠ domain: ∅ 48. = 20 x 2 − 11 b.7 51. ( g f )( x) = 2 x + 7 c. f(x) = x + 4. Inc. f(x) = 3x.

( f g )( x) = x − 1 b. g ( x) = − x 2 + 4 x − 1 a. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 2 1 b. = −25 x 2 + 20 x − 4 + 20 x − 8 − 1 c. 6x − 3 + 3 6x = =x 6 6 a. ( f g )( x) = 4 − ( 2 x 2 + x + 5 ) = 4 − 2 x2 − x − 5 = −2 x − x − 1 2 b. ( g f )( x) = x − 1 c. ( g f )( x) = x + 2 c. = 2(16 − 8 x + x 2 ) + 4 − x + 5 x+3 2 1 x 1 x =x =x 204 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( g f )( x) = 2 ( 4 − x ) + ( 4 − x ) + 5 2 c. a. ( f g )(2) = 2 − 1 = 1 = 1 1 1 . 57. f ( x) = 4 − x . = 32 − 16 x + 2 x 2 + 4 − x + 5 ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 2 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x + 3−3 =x b. g ( x) = x x ( f g )( x) = = −25 x 2 + 40 x − 13 59. g(x) = x – 1 a. ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ −3 = x +3−3 = x ⎝ 6 ⎠ b. ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 3) 2 + 1 f ( x) = x . x+3 6 a. ( g f )( x) = c.Functions and Graphs f ( x) = x 2 + 1. ( g f )( x) = − ( 5 x − 2 ) + 4 ( 5 x − 2 ) − 1 = −(25 x 2 − 20 x + 4) + 20 x − 8 − 1 (2 x − 3) + 3 2 x = =x 2 2 ( g f )( x) = 62. ( g f )( x) = 1 c. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 6 x − 3. g ( x) = = 2 x 2 − 17 x + 41 c. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 1) 2 − 3 = x + 2x +1 − 3 4 2 61. ( f g )(2) = −2(2) 2 − 2 − 1 = −11 f ( x) = 5 x − 2. ( f g )(2) = 2 + 2 = 4 = 2 = x − 6x + 9 + 1 4 2 = x 4 − 6 x 2 + 10 b. f(x) = 2x – 3. g ( x) = x 2 − 3 56. 58. ( f g )(2) = 2 ( f g )(2) = −5(2) 2 + 20(2) − 7 = 13 f ( x) = x . ( f g )(2) = 24 − 6(2) 2 + 10 = 2 a. 63. Inc. ( f g )( x) = 5 ( − x 2 + 4 x − 1) − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 5 − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 7 b. g ( x) = x + 2 a. ( f g )( x) = x + 2 b. . g ( x) = 2 x 2 + x + 5 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g ( x ) = = x4 + 2 x2 − 2 c. 60.

1 We must exclude − because it causes the 3 denominator of f g to be 0. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. b. Inc. 6 6 ⎛6⎞ f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x = 6 ⎝ x⎠ + 5 6 + 5x x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. ( f g )( x) = 2 b. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 3) = x − 3 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. a. 4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 70. 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 66. 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 4 denominator of f g to be 0.PreCalculus 4E 64. ∞ ) . 2 x 2 x 67. ∞ ) . a. 5⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 5x ⎛1⎞ = f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ x ⎠ 1 + 4 1 + 4x x 69. x ≠ −4 = 4+ x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. g ( x) = x x a. x−2 ≥ 0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . a. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . a. ∞ ) . f ( x) = Section 1. domain: 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞.x ≠ 0 1 x ⎝ ⎠ +3 x 2( x) = ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ + 3⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 2x = 1 + 3x 68. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. ( f g )(2) = 2 65. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . a. =x =x b. b. 205 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( g f )( x) = 2 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . a. We must exclude −4 because it causes the denominator of f g to be 0. b. ∞ ) . 6 We must exclude − because it causes the 5 denominator of f g to be 0. b. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 2) = x − 2 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. ∞ ) . 2 ⎛1⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = . x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. 6⎞ ⎛ 6 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. ( −∞. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 4 ⎛4⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝ x ⎠ 4 +1 x ⎛4⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) x = ⎝ ⎠ ⎛4 ⎞ ⎜ + 1⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 4 . 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0.7 2 2 . ∞ ) . 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. b.

Functions and Graphs 71. f (x) = |x|. 89. 74. g ( x ) = 3x − 1 77. g(x) = 3x – 4 79. 1]. f(x) = |x|. 75. f ( x) = 1 . 3) g 87. = 5− x b. ( fg )( 2 ) = f ( 2 ) g ( 2 ) = ( −1)(1) = −1 ( f g )( x) = 7 93. The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. g ( x ) = 5x 2 + 3 92. f ( x) = 1 . ( ) 2 x − 3x + 8 − 5 = 7 2 2 x 2 − 6 x + 16 − 5 = 7 2 x 2 − 6 x + 11 = 7 2x2 − 6x + 4 = 0 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x =1 x=2 206 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( g − f )( −2 ) = g ( −2 ) − f ( −2 ) = 2 − 3 = −1 83. g ( x ) = x2 − 9 91. 84. (f g )( −1) = f ( g (−1) ) = f ( −3) = 1 g ( x) = 2x − 5 90. 3] . (f g )(1) = f ( g (1) ) = f ( −5 ) = 3 f ( x) = 3 x. x g ( x) = 2 x − 3 80. 72. ( f g )( x) = f ( 1 − x ) = ( 1− x ) 2 +4 = 1− x + 4 85. . f ( x) = x 4 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. g(x) = 2x – 5 78. 76. g ( 3) 0 ⎛g⎞ = =0 ⎜ ⎟ ( 3) = f ( 3) −3 ⎝f ⎠ 86. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = −5 73. 1− x ≥ 0 The domain of f is ( −4. ( f g )( x) = f ( 2 − x ) = ( 2−x ) 2 +1 = 2 − x +1 88. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 2 ) = −6 f ( x) = x. a. x g ( x ) = 4x + 5 81. The graph of f − g = 3− x b. f ( x ) = x3 . a. ( f + g )( −3) = f ( −3) + g ( −3) = 4 + 1 = 5 82. 2−x ≥ 0 − x ≥ −2 x≤2 domain: (−∞. The domain of f + g is [ −4. The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. 2]. Inc. The graph of f + g − x ≥ −1 x ≤1 domain: (−∞.

4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) + ( −3.5 The number of births and deaths in the U.5 thousand. c. ( B + D )( x ) = B ( x ) + D ( x) = (7. 207 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. d.6x – 3 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $3 rebate. a.9 x + 5 x + 6451 b. = 1634. The function f g models the greater discount.044x + 13.5 thousand.07 This is the profit for the two stores combined for each year after 2004.9(5)2 + 5(5) + 6451 = 6573. a.14 = 0. Inc.S.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 b. f g because of a $5 rebate. ( B − D )( x ) c. b. The slope of g is 0. .4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 − 3.51 This is the increase in profits for the second store for each year after 2004.000)) =0 The company broke even.9(3)2 − 35(3) + 1641 overestimates the actual change in population in the U.6 x − 5 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $5 rebate. 000) 97. ( B + D )( x ) f gives the cost of a pair of jeans for which a $5 rebate is offered. 2 = 3. b. 1 − 2 3 x + x − 1 = −5 2 98. 1 − 6 x 2 − 2 x + 2 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 3 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 8 = 0 3x 2 + x − 4 = 0 (3x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 3 x = −4 x =1 4 x=− 3 95.S. ( g f )( x) = 0. f )( x ) = 0.1 thousand.07x + 24.5 x 2 − 20 x − 2405 = 10. 000) − (600. ( B + D )( x ) = 3.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405 100. 000 + 45(20.000 since costs exceeded revenues. g )( x ) = 0.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7.PreCalculus 4E 94.1 thousand. a. b.1 The change in population in the U.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 + 3. (g d.62 + 0. (R – C)(30.6 ( x − 5 ) = 0. The slope for f is -0.76 The slope for f + g is 0. in 2005 is 6573. 000 The company lost $200. since the 25% discount is taken on the regular price first.75 x − 400 This models the price of a computer after first a 25% discount and then a $400 discount.44 This is the decrease in profits for the first store for each year after 2004. a.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7. c. underestimates the actual number of births and deaths in 2005 by 1.000) = 65(30. (f c.000 + 45(30. ( B − D )( x ) = 10.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) − ( −3. ( B − D )( x ) = B ( x ) − D ( x) = (7. f gives the price of the computer after a $400 discount. g gives the price of the computer after a 25% discount.75( x − 400) This models the price of a computer after first a $400 discount and then a 25% discount. ( R − C )(20.000) – (600. 96. g gives the cost of a pair of jeans that has been discounted 40%. 99.S. f + g = -.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 ( B − D )( 3) = 10. 000)) = −200. ( Section 1. in 2003 was 1634.7 ( f g )( x) = −5 ) = 65(20. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 x 2 + 5 x + 6451 ( B + D )( 5 ) = 3.51x + 11. in 2003 by 0. ( f g )( x) = 0. c.

116. The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. makes sense 110. x = y2 − 1 x + 1 = y2 120. A sample change is: f ( x ) = 2 x. 106. does not make sense. Answers may vary. y = x +1 2 112. 2− x ≥ 0 119. {(4. 118. Explanations will vary. A sample change is: ( f g ) ( 4) = f ( g ( 4)) = f ( 7) = 5 115. the y value disappears because the function is not defined at x = 0. (1. 111. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. Sample explanation: It is common that f g and g f are not the same. Changes to make the statement true will vary. – 105. ( f g ) ( x ) = f ( g ( x ) ) = f ( 3x ) = 2(3x) = 6 x (g f )( x ) = g ( f ( x ) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( 2 x ) = 6 x 114. (1. g ( x ) = 3x 101. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. false. ( f g )( x) = ( f g )(− x) f ( g ( x)) = f ( g (− x)) since g is even f ( g ( x)) = f ( g ( x)) so f g is even 117. ( f g )( x) = 2 − x The domain of g is [ 0. A sample change is: (f g )( x ) = f = ( ( x2 − 4 x2 − 4 ) 2 ) −4 = x2 − 4 − 4 = x2 − 8 208 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4] 108. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (4. true 107. makes sense 109. Sample explanation: The diagram illustrates x +1 = y2 x +1 = y g ( f ( x) ) = x + 4.Functions and Graphs 113. Answers may vary. − x ≥ −2 x= 5 +4 y ⎛5 ⎞ y ( x) = y ⎜ + 4 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ xy = 5 + 4 y xy − 4 y = 5 y ( x − 4) = 5 5 y= x−4 x ≤2 x≤4 domain: [ 0. the relation is not a function. Thus.1). 2)} The element 1 in the domain corresponds to two elements in the range. −1). false. ∞ ) . Inc. −2). . When your trace reaches x = 0.

6.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 2. −2) (−2.1) x +1 4 Alternative form for answer: x +1 3 x +1 f ( x) −1 = 3 = 3 4 4 f −1 ( x) = = = 3 3 x +1 3 2 ⋅3 = 3 4 2 3 2x + 2 2 3 2x + 2 3 8 209 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 Check Point Exercises 1. f ( x) f −1 ( x ) (−2. Inc. 3 −1 x Interchange x and y: 3 x = −1 y Solve for y: 3 x = −1 y xy = 3 − y xy + y = 3 y ( x + 1) = 3 3 y= x +1 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : y= f ( x) = 2 x + 7 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 2x + 7 Interchange x and y: x = 2y + 7 Solve for y: x = 2y + 7 x − 7 = 2y x−7 =y 2 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f −1 ( x) = 3. The graphs of (b) and (c) pass the horizontal line test and thus have an inverse. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −2) (−1. 0) (0. . 3 −1 x Replace f ( x) with y: f ( x) = x−7 2 f −1 ( x) = f ( x) = 4 x3 − 1 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 4 x3 − 1 Interchange x and y: x = 4 y3 − 1 Solve for y: x = 4 y3 − 1 x + 1 = 4 y3 x +1 = y3 4 x 1 + 3 =y 4 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : 3 x +1 5. ⎛ x+7⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−7 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x − 7) + 7 g ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 f ( g ( x) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = x 4.8 Section 1. −1) (1. 2) (2. Find points of f −1 .

x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = x − 1 6. . x − 1 = y2 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = x2 + 1 Interchange x and y: x = y2 +1 Solve for y: x = y2 + 1 1. Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f ( x) = 4 x. g ( x) = x−9 4 ⎛ x −9⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟+9 = x −9+9 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x + 9) − 9 4 x g ( f ( x) ) = = =x 4 4 f and g are inverses. g ( x) = + 4 x−4 x 3 3 f ( g ( x)) = 3 = 3 =x + − 4 4 x x f ( x) = g ( f ( x)) = ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝6⎠ 6x =x g ( f ( x) ) = 6 f and g are inverses. f ( x) = 3 x − 7. g ( x ) = 3 3 . 3. f ( x) = 4 x + 9. Exercise Set 1. g ( f ( x) ) = 2 2 x −5 210 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g ( x ) = ⎛ x+5⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 5 ⎜ ⎟−9 ⎝ 9 ⎠ 5 x + 25 = −9 9 5 x − 56 = 9 5x − 9 + 5 5x − 4 g ( f ( x)) = = 9 9 f and g are not inverses. f ( x) = x 2 + 1 Replace f ( x) with y: 4. g ( x) = 7. x 6 f(x) = 3x + 8. f(x) = 5x – 9. f ( x) = 6 x . g ( x) = 3 3 x−4 +4 ⎛ x−4⎞ = 3⋅⎜ ⎟+4 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = x−4+4 =x f and g are inverses.Functions and Graphs 7. g ( x ) = x+5 9 x+3 7 x + 3 3x + 9 3x − 40 ⎛ ⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ −7 = ⎟−7 = 7 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠ 3x − 7 + 3 3x − 4 g ( f ( x) ) = = 7 7 f and g are not inverses.8 x 4 ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x =x g ( f ( x)) = 4 f and g are inverses. 2 2 . g ( x) = + 5 x −5 x 2 2x f ( g ( x )) = 2 = =x ( x + 5) − 5 2 f ( x) = ⎛ x −5⎞ + 5 = 2⎜ ⎟+5 = x−5+5 = x ⎝ 2 ⎠ f and g are inverses. ⎛ x −8⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 3 ⎜ ⎟+8 = x −8+8 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ (3x + 8) − 8 3x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 3 3 f and g are inverses. Inc. x −8 3 8. 2.

a. 10. a.8 f ( x) = − x. g ( x) = − x f ( g ( x)) = −(− x ) = x g ( f ( x)) = −(− x ) = x f and g are inverses. ⎛ x +1 ⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ −1 = x +1 −1 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3x − 1 + 1 3x = =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 3 211 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 2 x + 3 x = 2y + 3 −1 f ( f ( x)) = x + 3 − 3 = x b. Inc. ⎛ x −3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟+3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x −3+3 =x 2x + 3 − 3 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = = =x 2 2 f ( f −1 ( x) ) = x − 5 + 5 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = x + 5 − 5 = x 13. Section 1. g ( x) = x 3 + 4 f ( g ( x) ) = 3 x 3 + 4 − 4 = 3 x 3 = x g ( f ( x) ) = ( 3 x−4 ) 3 +4 = x−4+4 = x b. b. a. a. x − 3 = 2y f ( f ( x)) = x − 3 + 3 = x x −3 2 x −3 f −1 ( x) = 2 y= f ( x) = x + 5 y = x+5 x = y+5 y = x−5 b. 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 11. f −1 ( x ) = x − 5 f ( x) = 2 x 16. a.PreCalculus 4E 9. . ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 y = 2x + 3 −1 12. y = 4x x = 4y x 4 x −1 f ( x) = 4 y= f ( x) = 3 x − 4. f ( x) = 3x − 1 y = 2x y = 3x − 1 x = 2y x = 3y −1 x +1 = 3y x 2 x f −1 ( x) = 2 y= b. f ( x) = 4 x x +1 3 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 3 y= ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝2⎠ 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = =x 2 b. f(x) = x + 3 y=x+3 x=y+3 y=x–3 −1 f ( x) = x − 3 15. a. f and g are inverses.

a. a. . 20. ( ( 3 x −2+2 ) = ( x) 3 3 3 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( x − 13 + 1 = x − 1 + 1 = x +2 = x−2+2 18. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 3 1 =x 1 x 1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = = x 1 x f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x 2 y= x 2 x= y xy = 2 f ( x) = 2 x 2 f −1 ( x ) = x y= =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 ( x + 2)3 − 2 = x+2−2 =x b. x + 1 −1 = x +1−1 =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x 3 − 1 + 1 = 3 x3 = x 19. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ) ( x) 3 x +1 −1 = 1 x 1 y= x 1 x= y xy = 1 f ( x) = y= y = 3 x +1 f ( f −1 ( x)) = 3 1 x 1 −1 f ( x) = x x + 1 = y3 b. 22. a. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ( 3 b. =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x3 + 2 − 2 = 3 x3 = x f ( x) = x3 − 1 y = x3 − 1 x = y3 − 1 f −1 ( x) = 3 x + 1 ( 3 ) 3 b. a. x−2 ) 3 21. f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 y = ( x + 2)3 x = ( y + 2)3 3 x = y+2 y = 3 x −2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x f −1( f ( x )) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x 212 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = ( x − 1)3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = ( x − 1)3 y = x3 + 2 x = ( y − 1)3 3 x = y3 + 2 x−2 = y 3 3 x = y −1 y = 3 x +1 y = x−2 3 −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. a. a.Functions and Graphs 17. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E 23. a. y 3 b. Inc. a.8 f ( x) = x 4 +9 x 4 y = +9 x 4 x = +9 y xy = 4 + 9 y f ( x) = 26. Section 1. ( ( ) 4 +9 = x 4 x−9 4 −1 =x f ( f ( x) ) = 4 +9−9 x f f −1 ( x) = 2x + 1 x−3 2x + 1 y= x−3 2 y +1 x= y −3 x(y – 3) = 2y + 1 xy – 3x = 2y + 1 xy – 2y = 3x + 1 y(x – 2) = 3x + 1 3x + 1 y= x−2 3x + 1 f −1 ( x ) = x−2 f ( x) = ) 7 −3 = x 7 x+3 7 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 7 −3+3 x f f −1 ( x) = 213 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. y= x x= y y=x 2 −1 f ( x) = x 2 . . 2 4 x −9 4 f −1 ( x ) = x −9 y= f ( x) = 3 x y=3x x= y=x 3 f ( x) = x 3 −1 b. a. xy = 7 − 3 y xy + 3 y = 7 y ( x + 3) = 7 7 x+3 7 −1 f ( x) = x+3 y= b. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 x3 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = ( x) 3 3 =x 7 −3 x 7 y = −3 x 7 x = −3 y 27. f ( f −1 ( x)) = x 2 = x = x for x ≥ 0. −1 xy − 9 y = 4 y ( x − 9) = 4 f ( f ( x)) = ( x ) = x 24. f ( x) = 25. a. x ≥ 0 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

so it does not have an inverse function. . The function passes the horizontal line test. 2 x + 1 − 2 ( x − 3) 6x + 3 + x − 3 7x = =x 2x +1 − 2x + 6 7 36. ) ( 3 2x +1 + 1 x −3 2x + 1 − 2 x−3 3 ( 2 x + 1) + x − 3 35. so it does not have an inverse function. 33. 31. ) ( 2 −x − 3 − 3 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = −x − 3 +1 x−2 −2 x − 6 − 3x + 6 −5 x = = =x −x − 3 + x − 2 −5 − 2x − 3 − 3 x +1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 2x − 3 − 2 x +1 −2 x + 3 − 3x − 3 −5 x = = =x 2x − 3 − 2x − 2 −5 −1 ( 38. 2x − 3 x +1 2x − 3 y= x +1 2y − 3 x= y +1 xy + x = 2y – 3 y(x – 2) = –x – 3 −x − 3 y= x−2 −x − 3 f −1 ( x ) = . 30. ) ( 2 3x + 1 + 1 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = 3x + 1 − 3 x−2 2 ( 3x + 1) + x − 2 6 x + 2 + x − 2 = = 3x + 1 − 3 ( x − 2 ) 3x + 1 − 3 x + 6 –1 34. so it does have an inverse function. 32. The function fails the horizontal line test. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ) 29. The function passes the horizontal line test.Functions and Graphs b. a. so it does have an inverse function. 7x =x 7 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 28. so it does not have an inverse function. The function fails the horizontal line test. 214 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x≠2 x−2 f ( x) = 37. so it does have an inverse function. The function passes the horizontal line test. The function fails the horizontal line test. Inc. = = = b.

∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. c. a. . ∞ ) domain of f : ( −∞. f ( x) = x 2 − 1 y = x2 − 1 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 y = 2x − 3 x = y2 −1 x +1 = y2 x = 2y −3 − x +1 = y x + 3 = 2y f −1 ( x) = − x + 1 x+3 =y 2 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 2 b. c. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. 40. ∞ ) domain of f : [ −4. b.8 f ( x) = 2 x − 1 y = 2x −1 41. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. a. b.PreCalculus 4E 39. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. 0] domain of f : 215 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain of f : −1 42. c. ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 1. a. Inc. 0] range of f : [ −1. c. a. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) [ −4. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. f ( x) = x 2 − 4 y = x2 − 4 x = 2 y −1 x = y2 − 4 x +1 = 2y x + 4 = y2 x +1 =y 2 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 2 x+4 = y f −1 ( x) = x + 4 b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. domain of f : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞.

a. domain of f : 46. f ( x) = x3 + 1 y = x3 + 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 + 1 2 x − 1 = y3 x = y −1 3 x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 1 x +1 = y f −1 ( x) = 1 + x b. ( −∞. . ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0.∞ ) range of f : [ 0.1] range of f : [ 0. b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. c. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : 216 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. a. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. a. domain of f : [1. y = x3 − 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 − 1 2 x + 1 = y3 − x = y −1 3 − x +1 = y x +1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x + 1 −1 f ( x) = 1 − x b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. c. ∞ ) c.1] domain of f : f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) ( −∞. 44. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) f ( x) = x3 − 1 45. a. c. b.∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 43. Inc.

3 3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = x +2 x = ( y − 2)3 3 domain of f : [1.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f : c. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞.8 f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 47. ∞ ) domain of f : c. b. . y = ( x + 2) 49.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. domain of f : [ 0. y = ( x − 2) domain of f −1 : [ 0. a.∞ ) 50. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. x= x = y−2 x−2= x +2 = y y +2 y ( x − 2) = y 2 f −1 ( x ) = 3 x + 2 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 2) 2 b. ∞ ) range of f : −1 217 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. ∞ ) f ( x) = ( x − 2)3 48. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. ( −∞. ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : [ 2. f ( x) = x − 1 3 y = x −1 x = ( y + 2)3 3 3 x= x = y+2 x = y −1 x −2 = y x +1 = y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 f −1 ( x ) = x 2 + 1 b. ∞ ) [ 2. Inc. c. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. y −1 2 b. a. c.

f −1 ( g (10) ) = f −1 ( −1) = 2 . ∞ ) = 4 ⋅ 3 − 1 = 11 domain of f : 64. g −1 ( 7 ) = 2 b. 52. ( f ( g [ h(1) ]) = f g ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = f ( g (4) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 4 − 1) = f (15 ) f ( g (1) ) = f (1) = 5 = 2 ⋅ 15 − 5 = 25 f ( g (4) ) = f ( 2 ) = −1 218 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let g −1 ( 7 ) = x . since f ( 2 ) = −1 . 54. a. Inc. ( −∞. f ( x) = 1 2x − 5 = 1 2x = 6 x=3 Thus. Then x3 = y − 1 g ( x) = 7 x +1 = y 3 −1 = g ( 2 ⋅ 0 − 5) 61. Then f ( x) = 3 x − 1 3 f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( −5 ) = 4 ( −5 ) − 1 = −21 ( −∞. 55. f ( x) = 3 x + 1 y = 3 x +1 x= 3 y +1 x −1 = 3 y ( x − 1)3 = y f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1)3 b. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. a. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 4 ) = 2 57. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. f −1 (1) = 3 y = 3 x −1 y −1 62. c. ∞ ) domain of f : x= (g 4x −1 = 7 f ( x) = x + 1 3 4x = 8 x=2 Thus. f −1 ( g (1) ) = f −1 (1) = −1 . ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ( g ( f [ h(1) ]) = g f ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = g ( f (4) ) ) = g ( 2 ⋅ 4 − 5) = g ( 3) c. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ) . 58. since f ( −1) = 1 .Functions and Graphs 51. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = 1 56. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 59. 63. (f g )( 0 ) = f ( g (0) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 0 − 1) = f ( −1) = 2 ( −1) − 5 = −7 60. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. Let f −1 (1) = x . 53. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞.

this function does not have an inverse.8. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0.25) = 15 If there are 15 people in the room.4). {(17.8.8. Inc.3).3.3) and (19. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0.3) and (19.5. (8. {(9. 67. 9. (8. 9 ⎡5 ⎤ ( x − 32) ⎥ + 32 5 ⎢⎣ 9 ⎦ = x − 32 + 32 f ( g ( x)) = =x f and g are inverses.5)} b. 40). a.2). Publishing as Prentice Hall. (12. (8. 60)} g is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of g is not a function.8. a. (8.8.PreCalculus 4E 65.2. (8.7. (30. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0.50). b. 30). (9. 40). These values can be represented as (12. f--1(0.7. {(17.3) .1. – 75. 60)} f is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of f is not a function.m. .7). 66. a.8 It passes the horizontal line test and is one-to-one. f--1(0.1). Answers may vary.4. a. 76.7) = 30 If there are 30 people in the room.7. (50.8.3)} b. 68. (8. 9.8.5. 50).4). c. (22. 70.8. (30.8). 22).5) = 21 If there are 21 people in the room.3). (40.25.3) are an example of two x-values that correspond to the same y-value.3.17). This function fails the horizontal line test.8. Thus. (8. 22).4. f--1(0. (8. {(9. b.7). (8. (50. (60.5.9.17). The graph does not represent a one-to-one function. (60. (40.3.8. one-to-one 219 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The average happiness level is 3 at 12 noon and at 7 p. 69. 30). not one-to-one 77. (22. Section 1.5).

2)}. f and g are inverses one-to-one 79. x A sample change is: f −1 ( x) = . A sample change is: f(x) = 5 is a horizontal line. 85. 93. not one-to-one 87. one-to-one 83. 3 94. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. . makes sense 88. A sample change is: The inverse is {(4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 80. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 81.1).Functions and Graphs 84. so it does not pass the horizontal line test. makes sense 89. false. Inc. makes sense 90. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 91. 92. not one-to-one 220 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Changes to make the statement true will vary. true 82. 78. 86. false. (7.

x = y+5 ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 = (1 − 7) 2 + (−1 − 2) 2 y = x −5 = (−6) 2 + (−3)2 g −1 ( x) = x − 5 f ( x) = 3x = 36 + 9 = 45 y = 3x =3 5 x = 3y x 3 x −1 f ( x) = 3 101. 8 + f −1 ( x − 1) = 10 f −1 ( x − 1) = 2 f (2) = x − 1 6 = x −1 7=x x=7 x = 3 y + 15 y= x − 15 3 (f g ) ( x) = −1 x − 15 3 g ( x) = x + 5 99.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. when it is going up and when it is coming down. Inc.8 95. y= (g 96. −1 f −1 ) ( x ) = x x − 15 −5 = 3 3 3x − 2 5x − 3 3x − 2 y= 5x − 3 3y − 2 x= 5y − 3 x(5 y − 3) = 3 y − 2 f ( x) = 102. . ( f g )( x) = 3( x + 5) = 3x + 15. y= 97. y = 3 x + 15 98. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = x+5 100. 221 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. there will be 2 times when the spacecraft is at the same height. Answers may vary. No. y 2 − 6 y − 4 = 0 y2 − 6 y =4 y − 6y + 9 = 4 + 9 2 ( y − 3) 2 = 13 y − 3 = ± 13 5 xy − 3x = 3 y − 2 y = 3 ± 13 5 xy − 3 y = 3x − 2 y (5 x − 3) = 3 x − 2 3x − 2 5x − 3 3 x−2 f −1 ( x ) = 5x − 3 Note: An alternative approach is to show that ( f f )( x) = x.

r = 10. − ⎟ 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ h = 0. x2 + y 2 + 4 x − 4 y − 1 = 0 6. Exercise Set 1. domain: range: 222 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. center: (h. k = −6. 3.9 ( x − 0)2 + [ y − (−6)]2 = 102 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 5. . = ( 5) + ( −12 ) 2 2 = 13 2. ⎟ = ⎜ 4. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 42 x 2 + y 2 = 16 h = 0. Inc. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 + 7 2 + (−3) ⎞ ⎛ 8 −1 ⎞ ⎛ . k = 1.77 [ −5. −1] [ −1. we have h = −3. we have = 169 h = −2. r = 4. k ) = (−3.9 Check Point Exercises 1. r = 3 . 1) radius: r = 2 d = (8 − 5) 2 + (5 − 1) 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 b. 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a.3] c. = 13 2. r = 2. k = 0. d= = ( −6 − 4 ) + ( 3 − (−1) ) 2 ( −10 ) + ( 4 ) 2 2 2 = 100 + 16 = 116 = 2 29 ≈ 10. 3. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . d= ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 d= (1 − (−4) ) + ( −3 − 9 ) 2 2 2 (x x2 + y2 + 4x − 4 y −1 = 0 ) + ( y − 4y ) = 0 ( x + 4x + 4) + ( y + 4 y + 4) = 1 + 4 + 4 2 + 4x 2 2 2 ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 9 = 25 + 144 [ x − (− x)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 32 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . k = 2. d = (14 − 2) 2 + (8 − 3)2 x 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 = 122 + 52 ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 4 = 144 + 25 = 169 [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 22 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . 1.Functions and Graphs Section 1.

Inc.66 223 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 16 + 52 = 73 ≈ 8. 2 = 9 + 64 2 7. = 9 + 16 ( −1) 2 + ( −7 ) 2 2 = 1 + 49 = 50 d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [−4 − (−6)]2 =5 2 = 52 + 2 2 ≈ 7.9 ( −1 − 2 ) + ( 5 − (−3) ) 2 ( −3 ) + ( 8 ) 2 2 10.39 13.47 2 12.2 − 8.40 d = (−3− 0) 2 + (4 − 0) 2 = 3 + ( −4 ) 8.PreCalculus 4E 4. d= = d = (4 − 0)2 + [1 − (−3)]2 ( ) ( 2 ( 7) 2 + ⎣⎡ − 2 ⎦⎤ 2 = 7+2 = 42 + 4 2 = 9 = 16 + 16 =3 = 32 ) 7 − 0 + ⎡0 − − 2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ =4 2 ≈ 5.6) 2 + ( −5.54 = 16 + 25 11.6 − 2. ( 4 − 0) = 42 + [3 + 2]2 2 = 32 + 42 6.2) 2 = 9 +16 = (−4) 2 + (−2)2 = 25 =5 = 16 + 4 = 20 d = (3 − 0) 2 + ( −4 − 0 ) =2 5 2 ≈ 4. d = (−.5)2 + (6. Section 1. d = ( 5 − 0)2 + [0 − (− 3)]2 = ( 5) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 5+3 d = [2 − (−4)]2 + [−3 − (−1)]2 = 6 2 + ( −2 ) d = (1.83 = 40 = 2 10 ≈ 6.32 9. 2 .3) = = 25 =5 = 8 2 =2 2 = 36 + 4 ≈ 2. d= = 5. + [3 − ( −2 )]2 = 41 ≈ 6.07 = 25 + 4 = 29 ≈ 5. d= 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 − 1.5 − 3.

6) 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 20. ⎛ 6 + 2 8 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 12 ⎞ . = 9 ⋅ 3 + 16 ⋅ 6 = 27 + 96 25.0) =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 224 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 5 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( = 2 ≈ 1. ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛3 2+ 2 0⎞ ⎛4 2 ⎞ . ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ .09 17. ⎟ = (4.5) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2 21. ⎟ = ⎜ . ≈ 2. 15 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 4 1 3 1⎞ ⎛ 2 1 ⎞ = ⎜− ⋅ . ⎛ −2 + (−6) −8 + (−2) ⎞ . = 123 ≈ 11. d = (− 3 − 3 3)2 + (4 5 − 5)2 22. ⎛ 8 + (−6) 3 5 + 7 5 ⎞ . d= = ( − 3 − 2 3 ) + (5 ( −3 3 ) + ( 4 6 ) 2 2 6− 6 ) 2 2 24. ⎟ ⎝ 5 2 15 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 27. ≈ 9. = (−4 3) 2 + (3 5) 2 = 16(3) + 9(5) = 48 + 45 = 93 23. 2 ⎛1 7⎞ ⎛6 1⎞ d = ⎜ − ⎟ +⎜ − ⎟ ⎝3 3⎠ ⎝5 5⎠ 2 = (−2) 2 + 12 = 4 +1 = 5 2 ⎡ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ d = ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ + ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠⎦ ⎣ 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠⎦ 2 ⎛ 3 1 ⎞ ⎡6 1⎤ = ⎜ + ⎟ +⎢ + ⎥ ⎝ 4 4 ⎠ ⎣7 7⎦ ⎛ −2 + ( −8) −1 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ −10 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ . ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ −5 ⎞ = ⎜ . ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 3 −12 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ =⎜ . −6 ⎟ 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 26. ⎝ ⎠⎟= 5 . ⎟ = ⎜ −5. ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 = 12 + 12 ⎛ 2 10 5 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎟ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ −7 ⎛ 5 ⎞ 3 ⎛ 11 ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠. −5 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 28. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . −4 29. . = 1. ⎟ = ( −3. ⎛ 7 3 + 3 3 −6 + (−2) ⎞ ⎛ 10 3 −8 ⎞ . ⎜ ⎟=⎜ . ⋅ ⎟ = ⎜− . .64 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 2 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ( = 5 3.Functions and Graphs 15. 2 ⎟ = ⎜ − . ⎛ −3 + 6 −4 + (−8) ⎞ .41 19. −2 ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 ⎛ 2⎞ 7 ⎛ 4 ⎞⎞ ⎛ 4 3 ⎞ ⎜ − 5 + ⎜ − 5 ⎟ 15 + ⎜ − 15 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ − ⎝ ⎠. Inc. ⎟ = (6. ⎛ −4 + ( −1) −7 + ( −3) ⎞ ⎛ −5 −10 ⎞ . 0 ⎟ = (2 2. ⎟ = (−4. ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −8 −10 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎟=⎜ . ⎛ 10 + 2 4 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 12 10 ⎞ .24 18. ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −12 −8 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 6 −4 ⎞ = ⎜ 2 . −5) ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ) ) ⎛ 18 + 2 −4 + 4 ⎞ .

r = 4. center = (0. 1). 2 2 40. 2 ( x + 3) 38. x 2 + y 2 = 49 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 h = 0. 37. 36. 42. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = y 2 h = 0. r = 6. . x 2 + y 2 = 16 41. 4] domain: ( x − 3 ) + ( y − 2 ) = 52 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 2 ) = 25 range: 2 43. 0 =⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( 31. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4] [ −4. center = (3. 0). k = 0. + ( y + 3) = 5 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 36 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 62 2 2 h = 3. 34. 0). radius = 6 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 102 2 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 0 ) = 100 2 [ x − (−2)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 62 2 ( x + 2 ) + y 2 = 36 2 [ −3. radius = 4 ) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 x 2 + y 2 = 49 32. ⎟⎟ ⎟=⎜ ⎜⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛6 2 ⎞ . 35. 7] domain: + ( y + 1) = 3 2 2 = 2 [ x − (−5)] + [ y − (−3)] ( x + 5) 39. r = 7. . center = (0. Inc. Section 1. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = 82 x 2 + y 2 = 64 33. range: ( x − 2 ) + [ y − (−1)] = 42 2 2 ( x − 2 ) + ( y + 1) = 16 2 [ −4. radius = 7 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4 )2 = 22 2 2 ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 4 2 [ x − (−3)] + ( y − 5)2 = 32 2 2 ( x + 3) + ( y − 5 ) = 9 [ x − (−3)] + [ y − (−1)] 2 2 2 ( 3) 2 2 = ( 5) [ −7. 7] [ −7.9] [ −5.9 ⎛ 50 + 2 −6 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 5 2 + 2 0 ⎞ .PreCalculus 4E 30. k = 0. k = 1. 7] domain: range: 225 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ⎟ = 3 2.

4). radius = 6 [ −5. k = 2. k = −5. 1).Functions and Graphs 44. ( x − 2) 2 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 47. r = 2 center = (–3. 3). r = 4. 2] domain: [ −6. radius = 2 46. –2). center = (2. radius = 1 h = −1. k = 4. ( x + 2) 2 + ( y + 2)2 = 4 ( x + 4 ) + ( y + 5) = 36 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−5)] = 62 2 h = −4. 7] [ −4. r = 6. 4] [ −1. 2 x 2 + ( y − 1) = 1 2 h = 0. center = (–4. center = (0. Inc. r = 2 center = (–2. 0] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 4 48. 0] [ −4.1] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 25 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4)2 = 52 2 2 49. radius = 5 [ −1. 4] [ −10. 2] [ −11. r = 1. radius = 4 45. k = 3.9] range: domain: range: 226 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1] [ 0. . [ −2. k = −2.1] [ 0. center = (–1. radius = 2 2 ( x − 2) + ( y − 3)2 = 42 h = 2. [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 22 h = −3. 2). [ x − (−2)]2 + [ y − (−2)]2 = 22 h = −2. r = 5. 6] [ −1. –5). k = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

4] [ −5. h = 0.0). –2). radius = 2 [ −2. k = 0. x 2 + y 2 + 8 x + 4 y + 16 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 8 x ) + ( y 2 + 4 y ) = −16 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y 2 + 4 y + 4 ) = 20 − 16 ( x + 4) + ( y + 2) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−2)] = 22 2 2 center = (–4. radius = 4 x 2 + y 2 − 10 x − 6 y − 30 = 0 55. . k = 2. 2] [ 0.2). k = 0.PreCalculus 4E 50. Section 1. r = 5. ( x + 2) 2 + y 2 = 16 h = −2. 4] domain: range: 227 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (x (x 2 2 − 10 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 30 − 10 x + 25 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 25 + 9 + 30 ( x − 5) 2 + ( y − 3) = 64 2 ( x − 5)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 82 center = (5. radius = 2 [ −6. ( x + 1) 2 + y 2 = 25 h = −1. Inc. 5] domain: range: 52. center = (0. 3). r = 4. 4] domain: range: 51. center = (–1. radius = 5 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 x2 + ( y − 2) = 4 2 x2 + y 2 + 6 x + 2 y + 6 = 0 53. r = 2. 2] [ −4.0). radius = 2 (x (x 2 2 + 6 x ) + ( y 2 + 2 y ) = −6 + 6 x + 9 ) + ( y 2 + 2 y + 1) = 9 + 1 − 6 ( x + 3) + ( y + 1) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−3)] + [9 − (−1)] = 22 2 2 center = (–3. –1). radius = 8 [ −6. center = (–2.

Functions and Graphs 56. 2 2 2 x2 + y 2 + 8x − 2 y − 8 = 0 (x (x ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 16 2 2 ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 42 2 ( x − 2)2 + ( y − 6)2 = 7 2 center = (2. radius = 7 57. Inc. x 2 − 2 x + y 2 − 15 = 0 59. x 2 + y 2 − 4 x − 12 y − 9 = 0 (x (x 2 2 − 4 x ) + ( y 2 − 12 y ) = 9 − 4 x + 4 ) + ( y 2 − 12 y + 36 ) = 4 + 36 + 9 ( x − 2) 2 (x + ( y − 6 ) = 49 (x 2 2 − 2 x ) + y 2 = 15 − 2 x + 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 1 + 0 + 15 2 2 center = (1. x 2 + y 2 + 12 x − 6 y − 4 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 12 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 4 + 12 x + 36 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 36 + 9 + 4 2 [ x − (−6)] + ( y − 3)2 = 72 center = (–6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3). 6). 0). radius = 5 58. radius = 4 center = (–4. radius = 7 228 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. + 8x ) + ( y2 − 2 y ) = 8 x2 + y 2 − 6 y − 7 = 0 x2 + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 7 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y − 2 y + 1) = 16 + 1 + 8 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 1) = 25 2 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 1)2 = 52 2 2 ( x − 0) 2 ( x − 0) 2 = ( y 2 − 6 y + 9) = 0 + 9 + 7 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 3)2 = 42 center = (0. 1). . radius = 4 60. 3).

radius = 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ center = ⎜ .9 x2 + y 2 − x + 2 y + 1 = 0 63. radius = 1 ⎝2 2⎠ 229 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. ⎠ x2 + y 2 + 3x + 5 y + 17 2 9 =0 4 9 4 9 25 9 9 25 2 2 x + 3x + + y + 5 y + =− + + 4 4 4 4 4 x2 + 3x + y 2 + 5 y = − 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜x − ⎟ +⎜ y − ⎟ =1 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 3⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ 25 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ +⎜ y+ ⎟ = 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛ 3 5⎞ 5 center = ⎜ − . radius = 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 62. −1⎟ . center = ⎜ − .1⎟ . x 2 − x + y 2 + 2 y = −1 1 1 x 2 − x + + y 2 + 2 y + 1 = −1 + + 1 4 4 x 2 + 3x + y 2 − 2 y = 1 9 9 x 2 + 3x + + y 2 − 2 y + 1 = 1 + + 1 4 4 2 2 1⎞ 1 2 ⎛ ⎜ x − ⎟ + ( y + 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 ⎞ 3⎞ 17 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ + ( y − 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 ⎞ 1 center = ⎜ . radius = 2 ⎝ 1 =0 2 1 x2 + x + y 2 + y = 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 x +x+ + y + y+ = + + 4 4 2 4 4 x2 + y 2 + x + y − 2 x 2 + y 2 + 3x − 2 y − 1 = 0 64. Section 1. − ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 61. . ⎟ .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.5 ) . The center is ( 4. ( 2) ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = 2 2 3 = 3 true 32 + 02 = 9 3−0 = 3 9 = 9 true 3 = 3 true The solution set is {( 0. ( x − 5) 2 ( x − 5) 2 42 + 02 = 16 4−0 = 4 16 = 16 true 4 = 4 true The solution set is {( 0. ⎟=⎜ . b. 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 7 9 + 11 ⎞ ⎛ 10 20 ⎞ =⎜ . Since the line segment passes through the center. Using the point ( 3. −4 ) : 02 + ( −4 ) = 16 2 2 16 = 16 true = 22 + 12 = 4 + 1 c. + ( y − 10 ) = 2 ( 5) 2 + ( y − 10 ) = 5 Since the line segment passes through the center. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. ( 4. ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . we get: d= ( 5 − 3) 2 + (10 − 9 ) Check ( 0.Functions and Graphs 65. the center is the midpoint of the segment. the center is the midpoint of the segment. a.5 ) 2 68.9 ) . The center is ( 5. Intersection points: ( 0.10 ) . ( 3. = 2 The radius is 0 − ( −3 ) = 3 9 = 9 true Check ( 3. 66. −3) : 02 + ( −3) = 9 2 2 = 12 + ( −1) = 1 + 1 2 units.0 )} . Inc. 0 ) : 2 c. . −3) and ( 3. a. Using the point ( 3. −3) . 5 units. =⎜ ⎟=⎜ . 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 5 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 10 ⎞ .10 ) 67. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 5. 0 )} . 0 ) : = 5 The radius is 0 − ( −4 ) = 4 2 2 230 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Intersection points: ( 0. −4 ) and ( 4. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 4. −4 ) . 4 = 4 true Check ( 4. 6 ) . ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . we get: d= ( 4 − 3) + ( 5 − 6 ) 2 Check ( 0.

1 d = 72. 079. 82) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 682 70. −2. ( x − ( −2.4. 71. 033 ⋅ 0. 2 x 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 4624 75. −1)} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1) . at the origin. −3) . −1) d ≈ 328 The distance between New Orleans and Houston is about 328 miles.1 d ≈ 2693 The distance between Boston and San Francisco is about 2693 miles. 83. then we want the equation of a circle with center at ( −2. d = 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. −1) and ( 3. 770 ⋅ 0.7 ) ) true Check ( 2.4 ) −1 = 2 − 3 −1 = −1 true 02 + 22 = 4 4=4 true The solution set is {( 0. −3) and ( 2. 2 ) : ( 3 − 3) 2 85. 524. 2 . makes sense = 302 + ( y + 2. Answers may vary. 2 ) 84. Check ( 0.7 ) and 4=4 radius 30.1 2 ( x + 2. 2 2 86.7 ) = 900 74. Inc. – 82. ( 3. −3) : ( 0 − 2 ) + ( −3 + 3) = 9 2 ( −2 ) + 0 2 = 4 2 2 −3 = 0 − 3 −3 = −3 true 73. Check ( 0. d = (8495 − 4422) 2 + (8720 − 1241)2 ⋅ 0. Intersection points: ( 0. ( 2.9 69.1 Intersection points: ( 0. true + ( 2 + 1) = 9 2 2 = 3 −1 2 = 2 true 0 +3 = 9 9=9 true The solution set is {( 0. 2 231 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 ) ) + ( y − ( −2. 68 + 14) = (0. 2 )} . makes sense 87. 72. −1) : ( 2 − 2 ) + ( −1 + 3 ) = 4 2 2 d = (8936 − 8448) 2 + (3542 − 2625)2 ⋅ 0.A. C(0. −1) : ( 0 − 3) 2 + ( −1 + 1) = 9 2 ( −3) 2 + 02 = 9 −1 = 0 − 1 −1 = −1 true 9=9 Check ( 3. If we place L.

A sample change is: This is not an equation for a circle. A sample change is: The center is at (3. 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ + ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ false. 232 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. does not make sense. ⎛ x + x − 2 x1 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ false. d is distance from ( x . A sample change is: The equation would be x 2 + y 2 = 256. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. 2 2 2 2 d2 = x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 + 4 4 d2 = 1 2 ( x1 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 ) 4 1 x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 2 d1 = d 2 = 9+9 d2 = = 18 =3 2 b. y2 ) 2 94.56 square units. a. –5). 91. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. x ) to midpoint 1 1 2 2 ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 − x1 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ makes sense 2 2 90. y1 ) to ( x2 y2 ) d3 = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 AC = (6 − 1) 2 + [6 + d − (1 + d )]2 d3 = x2 2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 = 52 + 52 d1 + d 2 = d3 because = 25 + 25 = 50 1 1 a+ a= a 2 2 96. Publishing as Prentice Hall. A sample change is: Since r 2 = −36 this is not the equation of a circle. 89. 93. 92. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: Since r 2 = −4 this is not the equation of a circle. The distance for A to C: d3 is the distance from ( x1 . The smaller circle has radius 5 and the larger circle has radius 6. The smaller circle is inside of the larger circle. . The area between them is given by =5 2 AB + BC = AC 2 2 +3 2 = 5 2 π ( 6 ) − π ( 5 ) = 36π − 25π = 11π 2 5 2 =5 2 2 ≈ 34. x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 + 4 4 d1 = 1 ( x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 ) 4 1 x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 2 d 2 is distance from midpoint to ( x2 .Functions and Graphs 88. –3). Inc. Changes to make the statement true will vary. The distance for A to B: ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d 2 = ⎜ 1 2 − x2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y2 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ AB = (3 − 1) 2 + [3 + d − (1 + d )]2 = 22 + 22 2 2 ⎛ x + x − 2 x2 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 4+4 = 8 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ =2 2 The distance from B to C: BC = (6 − 3) 2 + [3 + d − ( 6 + d )]2 = 32 + ( −3) 2 d1 = d1 = false. 95. Both circles have center (2.

the area is 1200 sq yd b. The smallest side is 8.08x = x2 + y2 b. The circle is centered at (0. 2. The tangent line has slope and 4 4 passes through (3. I ( x) = 0. in interval A = 2π r2 + 2 πrh 22 1000 2 = 2π r + 2 πr πr 2 2000 = 2π r 2 + r πr2 44 ⎛ 22 ⎞ 2π r 2 + 2π rh = 2π r 2 + 2π r ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2π r 2 + ⎝ πr ⎠ r 6. The domain of V is { x 0 < x < 4} or. 4 ) . 15 + 0.04x 300 = x The plans cost the same for 300 minutes. 4. p = 2l + 2w = 2(40) + 2(30) = 140 A = lw = (40)(30) = 1200 The perimeter is 140 yd. g(x) = 3 + 0.10 7. 3. d = x 2 + x3 ( ) 2 2 = x 2 + x6 a.–4) is −4 − 0 4 m=− = − . R(x) = (18. π r 2 h = 22 h= V(x) = (15 – 2x)(8 – 2x)x = (120 – 46x +4x2)x = 4x3 – 46x2 + 120x Since x represents the inches to be cut off.000 – 100x)x = –100x2 + 18.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 2l + 2w = 200 2l = 200 – 2w l = 100 – w Let x = width. f(x) = 15 + 0. so its equation is: 3 y + 4 = ( x − 3).000 – 100x b. x − 200 a. a.12x y = x3 c. ( 0. 4 98. d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0 ) Check Point Exercises 1.000x 233 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .10 97. x > 0.0). N(x) = 8000 – 100(x – 100) = 8000 – 100x + 10000 = 18. V = πr h p = 2l + 2w = 2(50) + 2(20) = 140 1000 = πr 2 h 1000 =h πr 2 A = lw = (50)(20) = 1000 The perimeter is 140 yd. The slope of the radius with endpoints (0. The line perpendicular to the 3− 0 3 3 3 radius has slope . 000 − x ) Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. then length = 100 – x A(x) = x(100 – x) = 100x – x2 2 5. 99.09(25.12x 12 = 0. the area is 1000 sq yd 100.07x + 0. so must cut less than 4 off each side.–4). notation.08x = 3 + 0.0) and (3.

2 x 1300 = x f (1300) = 300 + 0. a.15x 120 = 01.7 x = 40 + 0.9 x 60 = 0.25x 215 = 0. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5x = 21+ x 1.6x 20 = x 20 years after 1990. f ( x) = 1. f ( x) = 300 + 0. 40% of babies born will be out of wedlock. . g( x) = 40 + 0. 000 − 400x)x 2 = −400x + 26. b.6 x b. N (x) = 20. Exercise Set 1.5x 800 = x 800 miles a. b.4 − 0.7x b. 40 = 28 + 06x 12 = 0. R( x) = (40. 9.Functions and Graphs 6.9(1300) = 1210 You would have to purchase $1300 in merchandise at a total cost of $1210. g( x) = 21+ x c. in 2152.25 x = 21 + 0. f ( x) = 200 + 0. $35.8 x b.25 x 395 = 180 + 0. a. P( x) = 28 + 0.9 x c. 300 + 0. 7. f ( x) = 100 + 0.8x = 40 + 0. 1.25(28) = 35 g (28) = 21 + 0.7(1300) = 1210 g(1300) = 40 + 0. f ( x) = 180 + 0. M (x ) = 239.1x 600 = x For $600 worth of merchandise.5x c. 000 − 400x R(x) = (26. b. for either method. 2. 3.75 x = 21 x = 28 f (28) = 1.4 − 0. your cost is $580 for both plans a.3x = 59. g( x) = 21+ 0. f ( x) = 2. a. 100 + 0. 4. 8.5(14) = 35 g(14) = 21 + 14 = 35 To cross the bridge 14 times costs the same.9 x 260 = 0. 000 − 500x b. 180 = 239. 000 − 500 x) x = −500 x 2 + 40. a.25x 860 = x You drove 860 miles for $395. Inc.3 x 0.3 x b. 000 − 500x + 10000 = 40. a. 000 − 400(x − 15) = 20.25x b.5 x 0.10 1.5(28) = 35 If a person crosses the bridge 28 times the cost will be $35 for both options a. a.4 x = 198 198 years after 1954. g( x) = 40 + 0. N (x) = 30. someone will run a 3 minute mile.5 x b.9 x c.15x 320 = 200 + 0. 2. 000 − 500(x − 20) = 30. in 2010. 000 − 400x + 6000 = 26.5x = 21 x = 14 f (14) = 2. 000x 234 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 x 10. 5.

b. 15. the volume will be 980 square inches. Since each side is 30 inches. the volume will be 2000 square inches. a. V(4) = 4(43 ) −120(4 2 ) + 900(4) = 1936 If 4 inches are cut from each side. Since each side is 24. 000 + 60(90 − x) = 7000 − 60x + 5400 = 12400 − 60x c. Inc. b. Y(x) = 270 − 3(x − 30) = 270 − 3x + 90 = 360 − 3x V(6) = 4(63 ) −120(62 ) + 900(6) = 1944 If 6 inches are cut from each side. 15) 17. the volume will be 1024 square inches. Since x is the number of inches to be cut from each side. 14. the volume will be 1944 square inches. T (x) = (360 − 3x)x = −3x 2 + 360x V(7) = 4(73 ) −120(72 ) + 900(7) = 1792 If 7 inches are cut from each side. 0 < x < 12 a. the volume will be 972 square inches. the volume will be 800 square inches. 235 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 13. V(4) = 4(4) 3 − 96(4)2 + 576(4) = 1024 If 4-inch squares are cut off each corner. b. the volume will be 1792 square inches. you must cut less than 15 inches from each side. x > 0.PreCalculus 4E 11. Section 1. the volume will be 1936 square inches. V (3) = 4(3)3 − 96(3)2 + 576(3) = 972 If 3inch squares are cut off each corner. . ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 8− x ⎞ A( x) = ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 2 2 = x 2 64 − 16 x + x 2 + 16 16 = 2 x 2 − 16 x + 64 16 = x 2 − 8 x + 32 8 V(6) = 4(6) 3 − 96(6)2 + 576(6) = 864 If 6inch squares are cut off each corner.10 N (x) = 9000 + 50(150 − x) = 9000 − 50x + 7500 = 16500 − 50x R(x) = (16500 − 50x)x = −50x 2 + 16500x 16. V(x) = (30 − 2x)(30 − 2x)x = (900 −120x + 4x 2 )x = 4x 3 − 120x 2 + 900x b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. you must cut less than 12 inches off each end. a. the volume will be 864 square inches. a. V(5) = 4(5) 3 − 96(5)2 + 576(5) = 980 If 5inch squares are cut off each corner. R(x) = (12400 − 60x)x = −60x 2 + 12400x V(3) = 4(33 ) −120(32 ) + 900(3) = 1728 If 3 inches are cut from each side. V(x) = (24 − 2x)(24 − 2x)x 2 = (576 − 96x + 4x )x = 4x 3 − 96x 2 + 576x c. a. b. A(x) = x(20 − 2x) = −2x 2 + 20x 18. Y(x) = 320 − 4(x − 50) = 320 − 4x + 200 = 520 − 4x T (x) = (520 − 4x)x = −4x 2 + 520x V(5) = 4(53 ) −120(52 ) + 900(5) = 2000 If 5 inches are cut from each side. a. 12. 0 < x < 15 or (0. the volume will be 1728 square inches. V(2) = 4(2) 3 − 96(2) 2 + 576(2) = 800 If 2-inch squares are cut off each corner. If x is the inches to be cut off. x > 0. N (x) = 7.

2 w + l = 600 A( x) = r (440 − π r ) + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 + π r 2 l = 600 − 2 l let x = width. P(x) = x(50 − x) = −x 2 + 50 x 21. 2x = distance around the 2 straight sides 2πr = distance around the 2 curved sides 2 x + 2π r = 880 Let x = w A(x) = x(800 − 2 x) 2 x = 880 − 2π r x = 440 − π r = −2 x 2 + 800x 24. 2 x + 2π r = 440 2 x = 440 − 2π r x = 220 − π r A(r ) = (220 − π r )2r + π r 2 = 440r − 2π r 2 + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 l = 800 − 2 w 28. 4y = 1200 − 2x 1200 − 2x y= 4 1200 − 2x 4 x(1200 − 2x) = 4 2x(600 − x) = 4 x(600 − x) = 2 A(x) = x 236 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x + 3 y = 1000 xy = 4000 4000 y= x 3 y = 1000 − 2 x 1000 − 2 x 3 ⎛ 1000 − 2 x ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ x(1000 − 2 x) = 3 2x + 4y = 1200 ⎡ ⎛ 4000 ⎞ ⎤ C ( x) = ⎢ 2 x + 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 175 + 125 x ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ 1. 000 = 475 x + x y= 26. 2 x = distance around 2 straight sides π 2r = distance around 2 curved sides 29. P(x) = x(66 − x) = −x 2 + 66x 20. . 2 w + l = 800 27.Functions and Graphs 19. 000 = 350 x + + 125 x x 1. 400. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 600 − 2 x = length = 440r A(x) = (600 − 2x)x = −2 x 2 + 600x 25. Inc. 400. A(x) = x(300 − x) = −x 2 + 300x 23. A(x) = x(400 − x) = −x 2 + 400x 22.

= 0. 35. Section 1.250 at 15% and $18. 300 = y + 4 x d = ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 300 − 4 x = y 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 4 A( x) = x (300 − 4 x) 2 = −4 x3 + 300 x 2 34.06(12000 − x) ⎛ 400 ⎞ A = x2 + 5 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x ⎝ x ⎠ 2000 2 =x + x 33. 6000 = 0.15 x + 0.06 x = 0. A = x (108 − 4 x) 2 d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 = −4 x 3 + 108 x 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 8 ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 16 x 2 + 64 = x 4 − 15 x 2 + 64 237 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 30. Let x = amount at 14% 12000 – x = amount at 6% I ( x) = 0.750 at 7%. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.750 – x = amount at 12% I ( x) = 0. Let x = amount at 10% 18.15x + 0.10 x + 0. 0.15 x + 3500 − 0. 37.07 x(50000 − x) 31250 = x + 20x + 9x ⎛ 10 ⎞ A( x) = x 2 + 4 ⎜ x ⋅ 2 ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ 40 = x2 + x 32. Let x = amount invested at 12% 8000 – x = amount invested at 5% loss I(x) = 0.12(18750 − x) =y b.1x + 2250 − 0.10 x + 0. + 29x 36.10 125 = lw 125 l = = 5000 x 5000 x 125 x 50000 − 31250 = 18750 Invest $31.08 x + 720 39.05(8000 – x) 400 = x 2 y 400 x2 =y 38.07 x + x + 9x 2 10 a.08 x 10 = x y x2 Let x = amount invested at 15% 50000 – x = amount invested at 7% I(x) = 0.07(50000 – x) 6000 = 0. = w. ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 8 x 2 + 16 = x 4 − 7 x 2 + 16 108 = y + 4 x 108 − 4 x = y 40. 2500 = 0. a.12(18750 − x) = 2117 0.12 x = 2117 −0.12x – 0. let x = l C(x) = 20 2 31.02 x = −133 x = 6650 The amount of money to be invested should be $6650 at 10% and $12100 at 12%.14 x + 0. . Inc.14 x + 720 − 0.

A( x) = x 2 − x + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 4 2 A( x) = 3x 2 + x − 4 A( x) = 2 xy = 2x 9 − x A( x) = 12 x( x − 5) + 12 x ( x + 3) 48. A( x) = 12 x 2 − 25 x + 12 x 2 + 23 x + ( x + 2) [ 2 x − 2] P ( x ) = 2(2 x) + 2 y = 4x + 2 4 − x 44. Road from Town A: c 2 = 62 + x 2 d = ( x − 1) 2 + y 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + ( x) 2 c = 36 + x 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + x Road from Town B: c 2 = 32 + (12 − x) 2 = x − x +1 2 42. Sample explanation: The decrease in passengers is modeled by 60( x − 300). 63. 64. V ( x) = ( x)(2 x + 5 x − 3) − x 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x) = 36 + x + x − 20 x + 164 2 V ( x) = ( x)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) − ( x)( x) [ (2 x − 1) − ( x + 1) ] c = x 2 − 20 x + 164 total length 2 V ( x) = 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3x − x3 + 2 x 2 V ( x) = x3 + 7 x 2 − 3x 51.Functions and Graphs 41. 238 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A( x) = 2 xy 47. Explanations will vary. Inc. + ( x + 2) [ ( x − 5) + ( x + 3) ] = 2 x 4 − x2 b. as it suggests a per minute charge of $30. does not make sense. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. . 46. Explanations will vary. a. d = ( x − 2) + y 2 c = 9 + 144 − 24 x + x 2 2 = x2 − 4 x + 4 + ( x) c = x 2 − 24 x + 153 2 f ( x ) = 36 + x 2 + x 2 − 24 x + 153 = x 2 − 3x + 4 43. does not make sense. 6-foot pole c 2 = 62 + x 2 49. – 62. Sample explanation: This model is not reasonable. b. 2 A( x) = 12 x(2 x) + 12 (6 x − 4 x)( x + 2) + (4 x)( x + 2) + 2 x(8) A( x) = x + x( x + 2) + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x 2 P( x) = 2(2 x) + 2 y A( x) = x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x = 4x + 2 9 − x2 A( x) = 6 x 2 + 26 45. a. V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x + 1)( x + 2) − ( x + 5)(3)( x) V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x 2 + 5 x + 2) − 3x( x + 5) x = 36 + x 2 8-foot pole V ( x) = 2 x3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x + 10 − 3x 2 − 15 x V ( x) = 2 x3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x + 10 c 2 = 82 + (10 − x)2 c = 64 + 100 − 20 x + x 2 50.

Distance and time rowed: d 2 = 22 + x 2 d = 4 + x2 rt = d = 2t = 4 + x 2 71. Sample explanation: The area of a rectangle is not solely determined by its perimeter. or = 15 x 2 − 29 x − 14 72. Explanations will vary. 7 + 4 2 2 + 5 2 14 + 35 2 + 8 2 + 40 ⋅ = 2 − 5 2 2 + 5 2 4 + 10 2 − 10 2 − 50 54 + 43 2 −46 54 + 43 2 =− 46 = A( x) = (20 + 2 x)(10 + 2 x) − 10(20) = 4 x 2 + 60 x + 200 − 200 = 4 x 2 + 60 x 69. y = 0 x = 2. 1 (π 2r ) 2 12 = 2h + 2r + π r P = 2h + 2r + Chapter 1 Review Exercises 1. y = –6 x = –1. y = –8 x = –2. y = –2 x = 1. 70.PreCalculus 4E 65. y = 4 239 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. For example: A 4 by 6 rectangle and a 3 by 7 rectangle both have perimeters of 20 units. makes sense 2 1 ⎛1 ⎞ = π ⎜ h⎟ h 3 ⎝2 ⎠ 1 1 2 = π h h 3 4 67. y = 2 x = 3. r= 1 h 2 1 V ( h) = π r 2 h 3 66. 12 − 2r − π r = 2h 12 − 2r − π r =h 2 1 ⎛ 12 − 2r − π r ⎞ 2 A=⎜ ⎟ 2r + 2 π r 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 + π r 2 2 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 2 ( ) x = –3. 18 − 8 = 9 ⋅ 2 − 4 ⋅ 2 =3 2 −2 2 = 2 4 + x2 6 − x + 2 5 73. . Chapter 1 Review Exercises does not make sense. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. yet their areas are different from each other. y = –4 x = 0. π 12 h3 (7 − 3x )(−2 − 5 x) = −14 − 35 x + 6 x + 15 x 2 = −14 − 29 x + 15 x 2 4 + x2 2 Distance and time walked: d = 6− x rt = d 5t = 6 − x 6− x t= 5 Total time: t= T ( x) = 68.

y = 2 x = 3. The highest marginal tax rate occurred in 1945 and was about 94%. the top marginal tax rate increased about 38%. function domain: {1. x-intercept: –2. y = 1 x = 3. y = –2 x = 0. 5} range: {7} x = −3. –4). y = 0 16. not a function domain: {12. The coordinates are (1985. x-intercepts: 2. y = –3 x = 1. y = 1 x = −2. y = –3 x = –2. 2). 2. 13. 0). Publishing as Prentice Hall. π} x = −1. –2. x = –3. x = –3. y = 0 17. y = −1 x = 0. y-intercept: None. 15. y-intercept: 2. y = –2 x = –1. y = 6 x = –2. 50%). maximum y-value equal to 5. 13} range: {10. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. y = 3 5. x-scale equal to 10 and with minimum y-value equal to –5. the top marginal tax rate remained constant at about 91%. 11. . 7. y = –2 x = 2. y = 1 x = 2. 9. y = −2 x = 1. 14} range: {13. 500. The graph does not intersect the yaxis. and y-scale equal to 1. During the ten-year period from 1950 to 1960. 0). y = −1 x = 2. y = 1 240 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A portion of Cartesian coordinate plane with minimum x-value equal to –20. Inc. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. y = –1 x = 0. 15. 4. function domain: {2. The graph intersects the x-axis at (5. 12. 6. 14. 10. During the five-year period from 1930 to 1935. 19} x = 3. y-intercept: –4. The top marginal tax rate in 2005 was 35%. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. y = 6 3. y = 1 x = –1. 0) and (2. 3. x-intercept: 5. 8. 0). The lowest marginal tax rate occurred in 1990 and was about 28%. The graph intercepts the y-axis at (0. y = 0 x = 1.Functions and Graphs 2. maximum x-value equal to 40.

b. 26.PreCalculus 4E 18. = −7 x − 16 c. g (−2) = 3(−2) 2 − 5(−2) + 2 = 12 + 10 + 2 31. 22 − 1 3 = =3 2 −1 1 25. y-intercept: –2 e. f ( x + 3) = 5 − 7( x + 3) = 5 − 7 x − 21 28. range: [–5. g ( x − 1) = 3( x − 1) 2 − 5( x − 1) + 2 = 3( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 5 x + 5 + 2 domain: [–3. g (13) = 13 − 4 = 9 = 3 decreasing: (−3. 20. x-intercept: –3 d. − 2) or (0. a. f (2) = 2x + y = 6 (−2) 2 − 1 3 = = −1 −2 − 1 −3 2 y 2 = −2 x + 6 y = ± −2 x + 6 Since more than one value of y can be obtained from some values of x. f(4) = 5 – 7(4) = –23 27. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. Inc. f(x) = 5 – 7x 22. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. 21. g(0) = 4 – 0 = 4 c. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. 5) b. 0) or (3. g(–3) = 4 – (–3) = 7 24. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 2x + y = 8 y = −2 x + 8 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. = 24 c. increasing: (−2. y is a function of x. 23. a. f(–x) = 5 – 7(–x) = 5 + 7x g ( x) = 3x 2 − 5 x + 2 30. 29. y is a function of x. 19. . The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. a. 3x 2 + y = 14 y = −3x 2 + 14 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. b. 5) = 3x 2 − 11x + 10 d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. g (0) = 3(0)2 − 5(0) + 2 = 2 b. a. f (−2) = b. f(1) = 12 c. f(–2) = –3 and f(3) = –5 = 3x + 5 x + 2 2 241 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3) g (− x ) = 3(− x) 2 − 5(− x) + 2 f. y is not a function of x. 0] c.

x-intercepts: –2 and 3 d. 34. domain: (−∞. ∞ ) f. relative maximum −2 39. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)2 + 1 b. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. a. a. f ( x) = 2 x 1 − x 2 b. relative minimum −6 36. increasing: (–2. y-intercept: 0 e. relative maximum 3 b. 40. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. 5} a. x-intercept: 0 = −2 x 1 − x 2 d. range: {–3. y-intercept: 3 e. increasing: (–5. ∞ ) f. range: { y y ≤ 0} 242 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) 37. 2) constant: (−∞. . f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x f (− x) = (− x)3 − 5(− x) = − x3 + 5 x b. = − f ( x) The function is odd. ∞) 38. –5 35. − 2) or (2. 0. range: (−∞. 0) decreasing: (−∞. −5. range: [–2. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 5) or (0. a. The function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. −2.Functions and Graphs 32. a. ∞) c. 2] f (− x) = 2(− x) 1 − (− x)2 c. relative minimum −3. f(–9) = –2 and f(14) = 2 = − f ( x) The function is odd. b. 3. a. Inc. f(–2) = 0 and f(6) = –3 33. domain: (−∞. 0. f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 = f ( x) The function is even.

thus the 1 slope of the desired line is m = − . y − (−1) = − 16 ( x − (−12) ) y + 1 = − 16 ( x + 12) y + 1 = − 16 x − 2 45. h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 − x − 10 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h −4 x − 2 h + 1 2 m= 49.PreCalculus 4E 41. rises −3 − (−1) −2 6 y + 6 = − x − 12 x + 6 y + 18 = 0 243 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 48. 30) The eagle was ascending. 12) The eagle descended. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 8( x + h) − 11 − (8 x − 11) h 8 x + 8h − 11 − 8 x + 11 = h 8h = 8 =8 = −2 ( x + 2 xh + h h 2 ) + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 43. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. vertical −2 − (−2) 0 2 − 6 −4 = =2 −1 − 1 −2 point-slope form: y – 6 = 2(x – 1) or y – 2 = 2(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 2x + 4 m= 52. 6 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44. Constant: (0. . the eagle’s height is a function of time since the graph passes the vertical line test. perpendicular to y = Decreasing: (3. m= 10 − 5 5 = undefined. Write 6 x − y − 4 = 0 in slope intercept form. c. 3x + y – 9 = 0 y = –3x + 9 m = –3 point-slope form: y + 7 = –3(x – 4) slope-intercept form: y = –3x + 12 – 7 y = –3x + 5 Yes. Inc. m= 1 − 2 −1 1 = = − . horizontal 6 − (−3) 9 50. 42. 17) The eagle’s height held steady during the first 3 seconds and the eagle was on the ground for 5 seconds. m= −4 − (−2) −2 = = 1. 3) or (12. falls 5−3 2 2 46. a. − 14 0 = = 0. 1 x+4 3 m = –3 point-slope form: y – 6 = –3(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –3x – 9 + 6 y = –3x – 3 53. 6x − y − 4 = 0 − y = −6 x + 4 y = 6x − 4 The slope of the perpendicular line is 6. point-slope form: y – 2 = –6(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –6x – 16 −2( x + h) 2 + ( x + h) + 10 − ( −2 x 2 + x + 10 ) 2 47. 1 4 51. − x − 10 2 d. Increasing: (17.

116 ( x − 90 ) y − 11 = 0.116 x − 10. y-intercept: –1 5 58. According to the graph.000 persons.44 y = 0.3 = 0. Inc. slope: 2 . 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 55.116 x + 0. 244 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. France has about 5 deaths per 100.116 x + 0.56 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. slope: –4.116 ( x − 15) 2y −8 = 0 2y = 8 y=4 slope: 0. y-intercept: 5 56.56 f ( x) = 0.Functions and Graphs 54. y − 11 = 0. y-intercept: –2 3 60. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 Find x-intercept: 2 x − 5(0) − 10 = 0 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 Find y-intercept: 2(0) − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = 10 y = −2 59. 11 − 2.116 90 − 15 75 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 11 = 0.3 8. 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −2 x − 6 2 y = − x−2 3 2 slope: − .116 ( x − 90 ) or 57. y − 2. . y-intercept: 4 b.7 = = 0.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. . S (4) = −16(4) 2 + 64(4) + 80 = 80 80 − 144 = −32 4−2 c.272 ≈ 4.5 2006 − 2002 4 Corporate profits increased at a rate of $182.5 billion per year. f (32) = 0.000 persons. 64. a.56 = 4. The rate of change is $182. 67.PreCalculus 4E d. 68. 69. m = = = 182. Inc.000 persons.116 x + 0. The ball is traveling up until 2 seconds. S (0) = −16(0)2 + 64(0) + 80 = 80 S (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 80 = 144 144 − 80 = 32 2−0 b.56 66. 71.7 deaths per 100. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0. The line passes below the point for France. then it starts to come down. France has about 4. 62.116(32) + 0.3 According to the function. 245 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 deaths per 100. Chapter 1 Review Exercises f ( x ) = 0. 70.5 billion per year. 1616 − 886 730 61. 2 2 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) [9 − 4 ( 9 )] − [4 − 4 ⋅ 5] = = 10 x2 − x1 9−5 63. 65.

Inc. 79. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 75. 77. 246 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 80. 76. 82. 83. 74. 81.Functions and Graphs 72. 78. 73.

f(x) = 3x – 1. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 1) – (x – 5) = 2x + 4 domain: (−∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1) − ( x 2 − 1) = x + 2 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) . −1) ∪ ( −1. 4]. domain: (−∞. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. g ( x) = x 2 − 1 ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 + x domain: (−∞. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = x + 7 ⋅ x − 2 88.5 ) ∪ ( 5. 8 – 2x ≥ 0 –2x ≥ –8 x≤4 domain: (−∞. g ( x) = x − 2 93. 87. ( f g )( x) = (4 x − 1)2 + 3 = 16 x 2 − 8 x + 4 x ≥ −5 b. ( g f )( x) = 4( x 2 + 3) − 1 = 4 x 2 + 11 91. ( f + g )( x) = x + 7 + x − 2 domain: [2.∞ ) f ( x) = x + 7. f ( x) = x 2 + 3. f ( x) = x 2 + x + 1. 3) ∪ ( 3. The denominator is zero when x = 5. ∞ ) ( f g )(3) = 16(3) 2 − 8(3) + 4 = 124 f ( x ) = x . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −5 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. ( g f )( x) = x + 1 c. ( fg )( x ) = (3x − 1)( x − 5) = 3x 2 − 16 x + 5 domain: (−∞. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. 84. ( f g )( x) = x + 1 b. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = x 4 + x3 − x − 1 85. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x2 + x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x2 − 1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 94.1) ∪ (1. ∞ ) = x 2 + 5 x − 14 domain: [2.5 ) ∪ ( 5. 90. g ( x) = x + 1 a. g ( x) = 4 x − 1 a. x–2≥0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x + 7 − x − 2 domain: [2. The denominator is zero when x = 7. g(x) = x – 5 (f + g)(x) = 4x – 6 domain: (−∞. The domain is ( −∞. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. ( f g )(3) = 3 + 1 = 4 = 2 247 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) 89. x − 1 ≥ 0 and x + 5 ≥ 0 x ≥1 domain: [1. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x+7 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (2. ∞ ) 86. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. The denominator is zero when x = –7 or x = 3. ∞) c. . −7 ) ∪ ( −7. 95.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Review Exercises 92.

y = 8 x3 + 1 3 1 5 100. Inc. 0 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ 0. x≠0 1 − 2x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 1 1 ( −∞. a. [−2. 97. f ( x) = x 99. ∞ ⎞⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ (f x = 4y −3 x+3 4 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 4 y= g )( x ) = f ( x + 3) = x + 3 − 1 = x + 2 x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 98. . 2−x 5 ⎛2−x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 2 − 5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = 2 − (2 − x) =x 2 − (2 − 5 x) 5 x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 5 5 f and g are inverses of each other. f ( x) = x + . x = 8 y3 + 1 x − 1 = 8 y3 x −1 = y3 8 3 3 x −1 =y 8 x −1 =y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x −1 2 248 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. b. b. g ( x) = x − 2 5 2 3 3⎛5 ⎞ 1 f ( g ( x)) = ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ + 5⎝3 ⎠ 2 6 1 = x− + 5 2 7 = x− 10 5⎛3 1⎞ g ( f ( x)) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2 3⎝5 2⎠ 5 = x+ −2 6 7 = x− 6 f and g are not inverses of each other. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 101. f ( x) = 3 x 4 f ( x) = 4 x − 3 y = 4x − 3 102. f ( x) = 2 − 5 x. ⎞⎟ ∪ ⎛⎜ . a. a. ∞) ⎛ x+3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 4 ⎠ = x +3−3 =x (4 x − 3) + 3 4 x f ( f ( x)) = = =x 4 4 g ( x) = x + 2 x − 1 2 −1 g ( x) = 7 x + 4 f ( x) = 8 x3 + 1 103.Functions and Graphs 96. g ( x) = 1 ( f g )( x ) = f ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ ⎝x⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ 1 + 1 ⎜ + 1⎟ x 1+ x x ⎠ = x =⎝ = 1 1 1 − 2x − 2 ⎛⎜ − 2 ⎞⎟ x x ⎝x ⎠ b.

( ) 2 +5 2 x−5 2( x − 5) = +5 2 = x−5+5 111. . =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 (8x 3 ) + 1 −1 109.PreCalculus 4E b. f f −1 ( x) = y = x +1 x= x −1 = f ( f ( x) ) = y +1 y ( x − 1) = y 2 =x −1 f ( x) = x + 1 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 . 104. 249 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 2 +5 x 2 y = +5 x 2 x = +5 y xy = 2 + 5 y f ( x) = 1 − x 2 y = 1 − x2 f ( x) = x = 1− y2 y2 = 1− x y = 1− x −1 f ( x) = 1 − x xy − 5 y = 2 y ( x − 5) = 2 2 x −5 2 f −1 ( x) = x −5 y= b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. x ≥ 1 2 2 +5−5 x 2 = 2 x 2x = 2 =x 105. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 106. 108. 3 ⎛ 3 x −1 ⎞ f f ( x) = 8 ⎜ +1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x −1 ⎞ = 8⎜ ⎟ +1 ⎝ 8 ⎠ = x −1 +1 ( ) −1 107. The inverse function exists. The inverse function exists. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. a. 2 3 8 x3 2 2x = 2 =x = 110.

( x − (−2)) 2 + ( y − 4)2 = 62 [ −1. ⎜ .83 x2 − 4 x + 4 + y2 + 2 y + 1 = 4 + 4 + 1 ( x − 2) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 9 center: (2. W ( x) = 567 + 15 x 702 = 567 + 15 x 135 = 15 x 9=x 9 years after 2000. 2] domain: ( x + 2) + ( y − 4) = 36 2 2 range: 118.02 x 500 = x For 500 minutes. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −2 ⎟ 115. . 0). radius: 1 121.5] [ −4. Inc. radius: 3 112. d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [9 − (−3)]2 = 52 + 122 = 25 + 144 = 169 = 13 113.5) ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 + (−15) −6 + 2 ⎞ ⎛ −11 −4 ⎞ ⎛ −11 ⎞ .1] [ −1. 6] = 22 + 22 domain: = 4+4 range: = 8 x2 + y2 − 4 x + 2 y − 4 = 0 120. [ −1.1] [ 0.05 x = 5 + 0. –1). g ( x) = 5 + 0. 122. ⎟ = ( −5. a. 15 + 0. the average weekly sales will be $702. a. 3). . center: (–2. 250 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 116.Functions and Graphs 119. center: (0.07 x 10 = 0.1] domain: range: f ( x) = 15 + 0. x 2 + y 2 = 32 x2 + y 2 = 9 117. d = [−2 − (−4)]2 + ( 5 − 3) 2 [ −5. the two plans cost the same. radius: 3 ⎛ 2 + ( −12 ) 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ −10 10 ⎞ 114.07 x c. . b. ⎟=⎜ .05 x b. =2 2 x2 − 4x + y2 + 2 y = 4 ≈ 2. in 2009.

f (− x) = f ( x) e. f(4) – f(–3) = 3 – (–2) = 5 b. f fails the horizontal line test = 640 − 2 x b. y-intercept: –3 a.PreCalculus 4E 123. no. 1. x-intercepts: –4. 2. (–1.08x + 0. 6) f. A( x) = 2 x ⋅ x + 4hx f (0) is a relative minimum. Inc. − 1) or (2. (c). (b). I = 0. V = lwh 8 = x⋅ x⋅h 8 =h x2 f. 124. Publishing as Prentice Hall.000 – x) h. 2. R( x) = x(640 − 2 x) = −2 x 2 + 640 x w = 16 − 2 x l = 24 − 2 x 125. –1. 2l + 3w = 400 2l = 400 − 3w 400 − 3w 2 Let x = width l= ⎛ 400 − 3w ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ x(400 − 3w) = 2 126. 251 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. increasing: (–1. 2 b. even. ⎛ 8 ⎞ = 2x2 + 4 ⎜ ⎟x ⎝ x2 ⎠ 32 = 2x2 + x 127. decreasing: (−5.12(10. 5] V ( x) = (16 − 2 x)(24 − 2 x) x d. 0 d. –2. 1 c. a. range: [–4. a. and (d) are not functions. . 6] c. and 5. g. 2) 0<x<8 e. –4) h. Chapter 1 Test N ( x) = 400 − 2( x − 120) Chapter 1 Test = 400 − 2 x + 240 1. 3. i. b. domain: (–5. f(2) = 5 g.

2] [ −1.1] [ −2. 8. ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞. 2] [ −2. ( −∞. . range: 9. 2} domain: range: 10. ∞ ) {−1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) range: {4} [ −6. Inc. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) −1 − 0 1 = =− x2 − x1 1 − (−2) 3 ( −∞. [ −2. 7] domain: range: 252 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain: range: 4.Functions and Graphs 7. 4] domain: 5. j. ∞ ) domain: range: [ −5. domain: ( −∞. i. 2] domain: range: 6.

13. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. 14. 4] domain of f: domain of f: f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 16. f ( x − 1) = ( x − 1)2 − ( x − 1) − 4 = x2 − 2 x + 1 − x + 1 − 4 = x2 − 3x − 2 17. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 11. ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f: domain of f: 12. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. ( ( g − f )( x) = 2 x − 6 − x 2 − x − 4 = 2x − 6 − x + x + 4 2 = − x 2 + 3x − 2 253 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of g: [ −2. ∞ ) range of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f: f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( ( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 4 − x 2 − x − 4 ) h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − x − h − 4 − x 2 + x + 4 = h 2 xh + h 2 − h = h h ( 2 x + h − 1) = h = 2x + h −1 18. 15. [ 0. Inc. ) . ∞ ) range of f: [ −1. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞.

First. f (10 ) = 5(10) + 466 = 516 The function predicts that in 2010 the number of sentenced inmates in the U. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) ) g ( f (−1) ) = 2 (−1) 2 − (−1) − 4 − 6 = 2 (1 + 1 − 4 ) − 6 m= = 2 ( −2 ) − 6 = −4 − 6 y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) = −10 23.3) ∪ ( 3.S.Functions and Graphs 19. = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 14 22.000 residents. Write 4 x + 2 y − 5 = 0 in slope intercept form. thus the slope of the desired line is m = −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 25. 3(10) 2 − 5 − [3(6) 2 − 5] 10 − 6 205 − 103 = 4 192 = 4 = 48 29. or y − 476 = 5 ( x − 2 ) f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) − 4 b. = x2 + x − 4 f is neither even nor odd. 20. 4x + 2 y − 5 = 0 ⎛ f ⎞ x2 − x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2x − 6 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. g(–1) = 3 – (–1) = 4 g (7) = 7 − 3 = 4 = 2 254 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 y = − x + 5 so m = 4 4 point-slope form: y – 6 = 4(x + 4) slope-intercept form: y = 4x + 22 28. y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) y − 486 = 5 x − 20 y = 5 x + 466 f ( x ) = 5 x + 466 −8 − 1 −9 = =3 −1 − 2 −3 point-slope form: y – 1 = 3(x – 2) or y + 8 = 3(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 3x – 5 m= c. Inc. 26. ( g f )( x) = g ( f ( x) ) ( y + 10 = −2( x + 7) y + 10 = −2 x − 14 ) = 2 x2 − x − 4 − 6 2 x + y + 24 = 0 = 2x − 2x − 8 − 6 2 27. 476) and (4. find the slope using the points (2. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) = (2 x − 6) 2 − (2 x − 6) − 4 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) = 4 x 2 − 24 x + 36 − 2 x + 6 − 4 y − (−10) = −2 ( x − (−7) ) = 4 x 2 − 26 x + 38 21. ∞ ) 2 y = −4 x + 5 y = −2 x + 5 2 The slope of the parallel line is –2. 486 − 476 10 = =5 4−2 2 Then use the slope and a point to write the equation in point-slope form. will be 516 per 100. ( a. 24. . 486) .

08 = −0. . a.78 − 0.000 x = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 ⎜ 2 . x + 5 ≥ 0 and x − 1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −5 a. 37.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 30. ⎝2 ⎠ 35.78 − 0.5 x) = −1. f ( x ) = x7 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 − 4x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ domain: ( −∞.0⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛7 ⎞ The length is 5 and the midpoint is ⎜ . 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛7 ⎞ = ⎜ . in 2012. ⎟ ∪ ⎜ .19 x 32 = x 32 years after 1980.5( x − 30) = 50 − 1.5 x 2 + 95 x 2l + 2w = 600 2l = 600 − 2w 7 2 −4 x = l = 300 − w 7x 2 − 4x Let x = w A( x) = x(300 − x) = − x 2 + 300 x x ≠ 0.7 seconds. ∞ ) 36. b.19 x −6.5 x + 45 31. Inc.5 x 32.1) ∪ (1. x ≥1 domain: [1. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. the winning time will be 35. ( f g )( x) = b. domain: ( −∞. = 95 − 1. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 33. 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 2 + 5 −2 + 2 ⎞ ⎟=⎜ 2 . 0 ) ∪ ⎜ 0. 0 ⎟ . The expressions under each radical must not be negative. d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 38. 8000 = x ⋅ x ⋅ h 8000 =h x2 g ( x ) = 2x + 3 d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) = (5 − 2) 2 + ( 2 − (−2) ) V = lwh A( x) = 2 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 2 x2 + 2 8000 x2 32. T ( x) = x(95 − 1.7 = 41.19 x 35. T ( x) = 41.∞ ) Y ( x) = 50 − 1. The denominator is zero when x = 1 or x = –5. 255 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

1 Check Point Exercises 1. a. . −27 + −48 = i 27 + i 48 (5 + 4i )(6 − 7i ) = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28i 2 = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28(−1) = 30 + 28 − 35i + 24i = 58 − 11i 5 + 4i 5 + 4i 4 + i = ⋅ 4−i 4−i 4+i 20 + 5i + 16i + 4i 2 = 16 + 4i − 4i − i 2 20 + 21i − 4 = 16 + 1 16 + 21i = 17 16 21 = + i 17 17 5. c = 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 2 ± 4 −8 2 2 ± −4 x= 2 2 ± 2i x= 2 x = 1± i The solution set is {1 + i. (−2 + −3) 2 = (−2 + i 3) 2 = (−2) 2 + 2(−2)(i 3) + (i 3) 2 = 14i − 63i 2 = 14i − 63(−1) b. Inc. 1 − i}. −14 + −12 −14 + i 12 = 2 2 −14 + 2i 3 = 2 −14 2i 3 = + 2 2 = −7 + i 3 x2 − 2x + 2 = 0 a = 1. (5 − 2i ) + (3 + 3i ) = 5 − 2i + 3 + 3i = (5 + 3) + (−2 + 3)i = 8+i 4. b. = i 9 ⋅ 3 + i 16 ⋅ 3 = 3i 3 + 4i 3 = 7i 3 (2 + 6i ) − (12 − i ) = 2 + 6i − 12 + i = (2 − 12) + (6 + 1)i = −10 + 7i b. = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3(−1) 7i (2 − 9i ) = 7i (2) − 7i (9i ) = 1 − 4i 3 c. x= 256 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. b = −2. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2.Chapter 2 Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. = 63 + 14i 3.

Inc. 4. 5. = 4 + 12i + 9i 2 ( 5 − 2i ) 2 = 25 − 20i + 4i 2 = 25 − 20i − 4 = 21 − 20i 15i – (12 – 11i) = 15i – 12 + 11i = –12 + 15i + 11i = –12 + 26i 21.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ( 2 + 3i ) 6 − (−5 + 4i ) − (−13 − i ) = 6 + 5 − 4i + 13 + i = 24 − 3i 7 − (−9 + 2i ) − (−17 − i ) = 7 + 9 − 2i + 17 + i = 33 − i 7. 8i – (14 – 9i) = 8i – 14 + 9i = –14 + 8i + 9i = –14 + 17i 9. (3 + 5i )(3 − 5i ) = 9 − 15i + 15i − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 (–2 + 6i) + (4 – i) = –2 + 6i + 4 – i = –2 + 4 + 6i – i = 2 + 5i 6. (8 – 4i)(–3 + 9i) = −24 + 72i + 12i − 36i 2 = –24 + 36 + 84i = 12 + 84i Exercise Set 2. (−7 + i )(−7 − i ) = 49 + 7i − 7i − i 2 = 49 + 1 = 50 19.1 14. –8i (2i – 7) = −16i 2 + 56i = –16(–1) + 56i = 9 − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 = 34 = 16 + 56i 11.1 1. 8. (7 – 5i)(–2 – 3i) = −14 − 21i + 10i + 15i 2 = –14 – 15 – 11i = –29 – 11i 2 2 3+i = ⋅ 3−i 3−i 3+i 2(3 + i ) = 9 +1 2 (3 + i ) = 10 3+i = 5 3 1 = + i 5 5 3 3 4−i = ⋅ 4+i 4+i 4−i 3( 4 − i) = 16 − i 2 3( 4 − i) = 17 12 3 = − i 17 17 257 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 20. –3i(7i – 5) = −21i 2 + 15i = –21(–1) + 15i = 21 + 15i (−5 + 4i )(3 + i ) = −15 − 5i + 12i + 4i 2 = −15 + 7i − 4 = −19 + 7i 12. 22. 2 = 4 + 12i − 9 = −5 + 12i 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (−4 − 8i )(3 + i ) = −12 − 4i − 24i − 8i 2 = −12 − 28i + 8 = −4 − 28i 13. 3. 15. (−5 + i )(−5 − i ) = 25 + 5i − 5i − i 2 = 25 + 1 = 26 18. (7 + 2i) + (1 – 4i) = 7 + 2i + 1 – 4i = 7 + 1 + 2i – 4i = 8 – 2i = 34 (3 + 2i) – (5 – 7i) = 3 – 5 + 2i + 7i = 3 + 2i – 5 + 7i = –2 + 9i (–7 + 5i) – (–9 – 11i) = –7 + 5i + 9 + 11i = –7 + 9 + 5i + 11i = 2 + 16i 16. ( 2 + 7i )( 2 − 7i ) = 4 − 49i 2 = 4 + 49 = 53 17. 2.

( −2 + −4 ) 2 = ( −2 + 2i ) 2 = 4 − 8i + 4i 2 = 4 – 8i – 4 = –8i 8i 8i 4 + 3i = ⋅ 4 − 3i 4 − 3i 4 + 3i 32i + 24i 2 = 16 + 9 −24 + 32i = 25 24 32 =− + i 25 25 34.Polynomial and Rational Functions 23. 30. 28. 2i 2i 1 − i 2i − 2i 2 2 + 2i = ⋅ = = = 1+ i 1+ i 1+ i 1− i 1+1 2 31. −6i −6i 3 − 2i −18i + 12i 2 = ⋅ = 3 + 2i 3 + 2i 3 − 2i 9+4 12 18 −12 − 18i = =− − i 13 13 13 ( −3 − −7 ) = ( −3 − i 7 ) 2 2 = 9 + 6i 7 + i 2 ( 7 ) = 9 − 7 + 6i 7 = 2 + 6i 7 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2+i 2−i 4 + 4i − 3i 2 = 4 +1 7 + 4i = 5 7 4 = + i 5 5 36. 26. −64 − −25 = i 64 − i 25 = 8i − 5i = 3i −8 + −32 −8 + i 32 = 24 24 −8 + i 16 ⋅ 2 = 24 −8 + 4i 2 = 24 1 2 i =− + 3 6 −12 + −28 −12 + i 28 −12 + i 4 ⋅ 7 = = 32 32 32 = −81 − −144 = i 81 − i 144 = 9i – 12i = –3i −12 + 2i 7 3 7 i =− + 32 8 16 258 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 27. 29. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5(4i) + 3(9i) = 20i + 27i = 47i 5i 5i 2 + i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 10i + 5i 2 = 4 +1 −5 + 10i = 5 = −1 + 2i 32. 25. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5i 8 + 3i 18 = 5i 4 ⋅ 2 + 3i 9 ⋅ 2 = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = 19i 2 33. . 24. ( −2 + −11 ) = ( −2 + i 11) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 11 + i 2 (11) = 4 − 11 − 4i 11 = −7 − 4i 11 37. Inc. ( −5 − −9 ) 2 = (−5 − i 9)2 = ( −5 − 3i ) 2 = 25 + 30i + 9i 2 = 25 + 30i – 9 = 16 + 30i 35. 3 − 4i 3 − 4i 4 − 3i = ⋅ 4 + 3i 4 + 3i 4 − 3i 12 − 25i + 12i 2 = 16 + 9 −25i = 25 = −i 38.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 ) = (3i 7 )(2i 8) = (3i 7 )(2i 4 ⋅ 2) ( )( ) = 3i 7 4i 2 = 12i 2 14 = −12 14 45. 2 ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(17) x= −15 − 3i 2 5 2 i =− − 33 11 11 −8 x 2 − 2 x + 17 = 0 x= −15 − −18 −15 − i 18 −15 − i 9 ⋅ 2 = = 33 33 33 = 41. . Section 2. −3 − 5 = i 8(i 3 − 5) = 2i 2 i 3 − 5 42.1 − 4i}. ( ) 47. x= 259 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 1 − i ⎬ . Inc. ( ( ) ) = ( = 4i 2 (3 ) 3 − 2i 6 )( ) ( )( −5 −4 −12 = 3i 5 −8i 3 ) = −24i 2 15 3 3 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1 + i. −8 ± 82 − 4(4)(13) 2(4) = −4 − 2 = i 12(i 4 − 2) = 2i 3 2i − 2 4 x 2 + 8 x + 13 = 0 x= = −2 6 − 2i 10 −12 2(1) 2 ± 4 − 68 2 2 ± −64 x= 2 2 ± 8i x= 2 x = 1 ± 4i The solution set is {1 + 4i. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ = 24 15 44.PreCalculus 4E 39. −6 − −12 −6 − i 12 = 48 48 −6 − i 4 ⋅ 3 = 48 −6 − 2i 3 = 48 1 3 i =− − 8 24 46. 40. x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 0 x= 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i The solution set is {3 + i. 3 − i} . (3 )( −7 2 −8 −8 ± 64 − 208 8 −8 ± −144 8 −8 ± 12i = 8 4(−2 ± 3i ) = 8 −2 ± 3i = 2 3 = −1 ± i 2 = −4 3 − 2i 6 43.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(2)(3) 2(2) x= −2 ± 4 − 24 4 −2 ± −20 = 4 −2 ± 2i 5 = 4 2(−1 ± i 5) = 4 −1 ± i 5 = 2 1 5 i =− ± 2 2 = = = = = = = 3x 2 − 8 x + 7 = 0 51. − i⎬. − − i⎬. ⎧⎪ 4 5 4 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ + i. 3x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 2(3) = 2 − 5i + 3i 2 − 9 + i 2 8 ± 64 − 84 6 8 ± −20 6 8 ± 2i 5 6 2(4 ± i 5) 6 4±i 5 3 4 5 i ± 3 3 = −7 − 5i + 4i 2 = −7 − 5i + 4 ( −1) = −11 − 5i 52. = = = = = = 2(3) 4 ± 16 − 72 6 4 ± −56 6 4 ± 2i 14 6 2(2 ± i 14) 6 2 ± i 14 3 2 14 i ± 3 3 ( 2 − 3i )(1 − i ) − ( 3 − i )( 3 + i ) = ( 2 − 2i − 3i + 3i 2 ) − ( 32 − i 2 ) − ( −8 ) ± (−8) − 4(3)(7) 2 x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(3)(6) 14 2 14 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 2 The solution set is ⎨ + i.Polynomial and Rational Functions 48. 2 2 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 49. 2 x2 + 2 x + 3 = 0 x= 50. 3 3 3 3 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 5 1 5 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 1 The solution set is ⎨ − + i. ⎩⎪ 3 3 3 3 ⎪⎭ ( 2 + i ) − (3 − i ) 2 2 = ( 4 + 4i + i 2 ) − ( 9 − 6i + i 2 ) = 4 + 4i + i 2 − 9 + 6i − i 2 = −5 + 10i 260 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . − i⎬. Inc. (8 + 9i )( 2 − i ) − (1 − i )(1 + i ) = (16 − 8i + 18i − 9i 2 ) − (12 − i 2 ) = 16 + 10i − 9i 2 − 1 + i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8 ( −1) = 23 + 10i 53.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 5 f (1 − 2i ) = (1 − 2i ) − 2 (1 − 2i ) + 5 2 = 1 − 4i + 4i 2 − 2 + 4i + 5 = 4 + 4i 2 = 4−4 =0 261 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 2.1 ( 4 − i ) − (1 + 2i ) 2 2 59. . f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 2 f ( x) = f ( 4i ) = f (1 + i ) = (1 + i ) − 2 (1 + i ) + 2 2 ( 3i ) 2 + 19 x 2 + 11 3− x ( 4i ) 2 + 11 = 16i 2 + 11 3 − 4i 3 − 4i −16 + 11 = 3 − 4i −5 = 3 − 4i −5 3 + 4i = ⋅ 3 − 4i 3 + 4i −15 − 20i = 9 − 16i 2 −15 − 20i = 9 + 16 −15 − 20i = 25 −15 20 = − i 25 25 3 4 =− − i 5 5 = 1 + 2i + i 2 − 2 − 2i + 2 = 1 + i2 = 1 −1 =0 58. = (16 − 8i + i 2 ) − (1 + 4i + 4i 2 ) = 16 − 8i + i − 1 − 4i − 4i 2 f ( 3i ) = 2 = 15 − 12i − 3 ( −1) = 18 − 12i 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5 16 −1 + 3 81 −1 = 5 ⋅ 4i + 3 ⋅ 9i = 20i + 27i = 47i or 0 + 47i 56. 57. Inc. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5 4 2 −1 + 3 9 2 −1 = 5⋅ 2 2 i + 3⋅3 2 i = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = (10 + 9 ) i 2 = 19i 2 or 0 + 19i 2 60. x 2 + 19 2−x 2 − 3i 9i 2 + 19 = 2 − 3i −9 + 19 = 2 − 3i 10 = 2 − 3i 10 2 + 3i = ⋅ 2 − 3i 2 + 3i 20 + 30i = 4 − 9i 2 20 + 30i = 4+9 20 + 30i = 13 20 30 = + i 13 13 = 15 − 12i − 3i 2 55.PreCalculus 4E 54.

Sum: makes sense ( 2 + i )( 3 − i ) = = = 6 + i + 15 = 21 + i The voltage of the circuit is ( 21 + i ) volts. E = IR = ( 2 − 3i )( 3 + 5i ) = 6 + 10i − 9i − 15i = 6 + i − 15 ( −1) 2 (5 + i 15 ) + (5 − i 15 ) = 5 + i 15 + 5 − i 15 = 5+5 = 10 Product: (5 + i 15 )(5 − i 15 ) = 25 − 5i 15 + 5i 15 − 15i 2 = 25 + 15 = 40 64. makes sense 77. 74. Sample explanation: i = −1 . false. 82. 75. A sample change is: (3 + 7i)(3 – 7i) = 9 + 49 = 58 which is a real9number. 62. does not make sense. 73. Changes to make the statement true will vary.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. . It is not a variable in this context. Publishing as Prentice Hall. E = IR = ( 4 − 5i )( 3 + 7i ) E = 12 + 28i − 15i − 35i E = 12 + 13i − 35 ( −1) E = 12 + 35 + 13i = 47 + 13i The voltage of the circuit is (47 + 13i) volts. A sample change is: 7 + 3i 7 + 3i 5 − 3i 44 − 6i 22 3 = ⋅ = = − i 5 + 3i 5 + 3i 5 − 3i 34 17 17 80. does not make sense. false. Sample explanation: Imaginary numbers are not undefined. Explanations will vary. Answers may vary. 4 6 − 2i + 3i − i 2 4 6 + i +1 4 = 7+i 4 7−i = ⋅ 7+i 7−i 28 − 4i = 49 − i 2 28 − 4i = 49 + 1 28 − 4i = 50 28 4 = − i 50 50 14 2 = − i 25 25 63. true 2 81. Inc. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. 76. false. A sample change is: All irrational numbers are complex numbers. 79. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 78. 4 1+ i 1− i + 1 + 2i 1 − 2i (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = + (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) + (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) 1 − 2i + i − 2i 2 + 1 + 2i − i − 2i 2 = 1 − 4i 2 1 − 2i + i + 2 + 1 + 2i − i + 2 = 1+ 4 6 = 5 6 = + 0i 5 262 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. – 72.

The graph of g is the graph of f shifted 1 unit up and 3 units to the left. 2 h P=1 P ⎛ ⎞ kP= 4 f ( x) = − ⎜ x − 1 ⎟ + 4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. −(−2) ± (−2) − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) 2 x= 2± 8 2 2±2 2 = 2 = 1± 2 = The solution set is {1 ± 2}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Step 2: find the vertex: (1. 263 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 a =−1 0 = −2( x − 3) 2 + 8 84. 8 2 1+ i Section 2. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 ( x − 1) 2 =4 x − 1 = ±2 x = 1± 2 x = 3 or x = −1 Step 4: find the y-intercept: −x2 − 2x + 1 = 0 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 2 −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 1. . 5 85.PreCalculus 4E 83.2 86. 4) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 2( x − 3) 2 = 8 ( x − 3) 2 = 4 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 x−3= ± 4 x = 3± 2 x = 1. Inc. 8 i 2 + i i 8 = 2+i i 8i = 2+i 8i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2−i 16i − 8i 2 = 4 − i2 16i + 8 = 4 +1 8 + 16i = 5 8 16 = + i 5 5 = Section 2.2 Check Point Exercises 1.

Inc. 1) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 1 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x ) = − x2 + 4x + 1 f ( 2 ) = −22 + 4(2) + 1 = 5 = −1 The vertex is (2. Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. . f ( x ) = ( x − 2) + 1 2 3. ∞) range: [984. Step 2: find the vertex: 4 b x=− =− =2 2a 2(−1) Step 1: The parabola opens up because a > 0. thus the parabola has no x-intercepts. Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. −b 16 x= = =2 b. domain: (−∞.2 and x ≈ −4. ∞ ) 264 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Step 4: find the y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 + 4(0) + 1 = 1 x= Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. 4.2 . 5). a = 4. Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 + 4x + 1 x − 2 = −1 x = 2±i The equation has no real roots. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. 2a 8 f (2) = 4(2) 2 − 16(2) + 1000 = 984 The minimum point is 984 at x = 2 . Step 2: find the vertex: (2. Step 4: find the y-intercept: x= f (0) = (0 − 2) + 1 = 5 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −4 ± 42 − 4(−1)(1) 2(−1) −4 ± 20 −2 x = 2± 5 The x-intercepts are x ≈ −0. f ( x) = 4 x 2 − 16 x + 1000 a. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value.

Since we need an equation in one variable. The information needed is found at the vertex. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 8 ) = x 2 − 8 x 120 − 2 x = 60 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 60 − x ) . Let y = the width of the rectangle. The maximum height of the arrow is 205 feet.2 6. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 60 60 b x=− =− =− = 30. b.005(200) + 2(200) + 5 = 205 The vertex is (200. When the length x is 30. and ( 200. A ( x ) = x ( 60 − x ) = − x 2 + 60 x The starting point occurs when x = 0. the width y is y = 60 − x = 60 − 30 = 30. x-coordinate of vertex −b −2 x= = = 200 2a 2 ( −0. 2a 2 (1) 2 y-coordinate of vertex f ( 4) = ( 4) − 8 ( 4) 2 2 y = −0. and connect them with a smooth curve. Inc. Section 2. −16 ) . x − 8 = the other number. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 120 feet of fencing.205). This occurs when the two number are 4 and 4 − 8 = −4 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = −0. = 16 − 32 = −16 The vertex is ( 4. ( 402. 5 ) . 2a 2 ( −1) −2 Plot ( 0. 2 x + 2 y = 120 2 y = 120 − 2 x x= c. 205 ) .005)(5) 2(−0. Let x = one of the numbers.005(0)2 + 2(0) + 5 = 5 Since a = −1 is negative. . Find the corresponding y-coordinate. Let x = the length of the rectangle. The minimum product is −16 .005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 a. 265 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. The arrow will hit the ground when the height reaches 0. y = −0.005 ) The x-coordinate of the minimum is b −8 −8 x=− =− =− = 4.PreCalculus 4E 5. 2 y = −0. Rewrite y= A as a function of x. This occurs 200 feet from its release.005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −2 ± 22 − 4(−0. 0 ) .005) x ≈ −2 or x ≈ 402 The arrow travels 402 feet before hitting the ground.005 x + 2 x + 5 0 = −0. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 30 feet by 30 feet. This gives an area of 30 ⋅ 30 = 900 square feet. 7.

1) g ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 1 2 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 Exercise Set 2. f(x) = –2(x + 4) – 8 h = –4. –1) j ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 1 2 4. –1) f ( x ) = ( x + 1) − 1 2 2 5. 2 15. domain: ( −∞. 1). vertex: (–1. f(x) = 2(x – 3) + 1 h = 3. vertex: (–1. ∞ ) 266 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: [ −1. 9. k = 1 The vertex is at (3. 2 11. f(x) = –3(x – 2) + 12 h = 2. vertex: (1. j ( x ) = − x2 − 1 0 = ( x − 4) −1 2 1 = ( x − 4) 2 2 ±1 = x – 4 x = 3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 4) 2 − 1 = 15 The axis of symmetry is x = 4. 9). f ( x ) = ( x − 4) −1 2 vertex: (4. g ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x + 1 8. Inc. –8). Publishing as Prentice Hall. –1) x-intercepts: 2 The graph is f(x) = –x translated down one. 0) is on the graph and f(–1) = 0. 0) is on the graph and g(1) = 0. f(x) = 2x – 8x + 3 −b 8 x= = =2 2a 4 f(2) = 2(2)2 – 8(2) + 3 = 8 – 16 + 3 = –5 The vertex is at (2. k = 12 The vertex is at (2. 16. vertex: (1. h ( x ) = x2 −1 6. 2 10. The point (–1. The graph is f(x) = x translated down one. k = –8 The vertex is at (–4. 12). f ( x ) = x 2 + 2 x + 1 7. 14.2 1. f(x) = 3x – 12x + 1 −b 12 x= = =2 2a 6 f(2) = 3(2)2 – 12(2) + 1 = 12 – 24 + 1 = –11 The vertex is at (2. –5). 7). . –11). 2 17. The point (1. 1) h ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 1 2 2. f(x) = –2(x + 1) + 5 h = –1. f(x) = –2x + 8x – 1 −b −8 x= = =2 2 a −4 2 f(2) = –2(2) + 8(2) – 1 = –8 + 16 – 1 = 7 The vertex is at (2. 5). 2 12. ∞ ) 2 13. f(x) = –x – 2x + 8 −b 2 x= = = −1 2a −2 2 f(–1) = –(–1) – 2(–1) + 8 = –1 + 2 + 8 = 9 The vertex is at (–1. k = 5 The vertex is at (–1.

∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) range: [ −2. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 18. ∞ ) range: [ 2.∞ ) range: [ 2. domain: ( −∞.2 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 2 2 20. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 1) − 2 = –1 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) + 2 = 11 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) − 2 0 = ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 1) ( x − 3) 2 2 2 =2 2 = −2 x −1 = ± 2 x − 3 = ±i 2 x = 1± 2 y-intercept: x = 3±i 2 No x-intercepts. –2) x-intercepts: vertex: (3. 21. 2) x-intercepts: 2 y − 1 = ( x − 3) 0 = ( x − 3) + 1 2 = −2 ( x − 3) x − 1 = ± −2 2 = −1 x – 3 = ±i x = 3 ±i No x-intercepts. Inc. . ∞ ) 19. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) + 2 2 vertex: (1. 1) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 2 2 ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 3) + 1 vertex: (1. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 3) + 1 = 10 2 range: [1. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. ∞ ) 267 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 1) 2 + 2 = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. y-intercept: 10 x = 1± i 2 No x-intercepts. f ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 2 2 2 vertex: (3.

–1) x-intercepts: 0 = 2 ( x + 2) − 1 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f (0) = − ⎜ 0 − ⎟ + = 1 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 ( x + 2) = 1 2 ( x + 2) 2 = x+2= ± x = −2 ± 1 2 1 The axis of symmetry is x = 2 1 2 y-intercept: = −2 ± 2 2 f (0) = 2 ( 0 + 2 ) − 1 = 7 2 domain: ( −∞. Inc. 1 . ∞ ) x = 1± i 3 No x-intercepts y-intercept: range: [ −1. 3) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 3 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −3 x − 1 = ±i 3 domain: ( −∞. 5 ⎛ 1⎞ −⎜ x− ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f ( x) = − ⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 5⎞ vertex: ⎜ . ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 1) + 3 = 4 2 24. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 y = ( x − 1) + 3 2 vertex: (1. ∞ ) 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ range: [3. f ( x) = The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ⎥ 4⎦ ⎝ 268 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 . ∞ ) 23.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. y − 3 = ( x − 1) The axis of symmetry is x = –2. 1 5 =± 2 2 1± 5 x= 2 y-intercept: x− f ( x) = 2 ( x + 2 ) − 1 2 vertex: (–2. ⎟ ⎝2 4⎠ x-intercepts: 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ 0 = −⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 5⎤ ⎛ range: ⎜ −∞.

domain: ( −∞. –16) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 ( x − 3) 2 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: –3 f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 3 = −3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) =4 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) f ( x ) = 1 − ( x − 3) 2 28. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 26. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 3 ) + 1 = −8 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 3. 4) x-intercepts: 2 2 2 =4 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: ( x − 1) 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. –4) x-intercepts: ( x − 1) 0 = ( x − 1) − 4 2 vertex: (1.1] domain: ( −∞. .PreCalculus 4E 25. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) range: [ −16. domain: ( −∞.2 f ( x ) = 4 − ( x − 1) 2 27. ∞ ) 269 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 2 =1 x–3=±1 x = 2 or x = 4 y-intercept: 0 = ( x − 1) − 16 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 16 x–1=±4 x = –3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 15 = –15 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 4] range: [ −4. Section 2. f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 3 − 1 f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 4 vertex: (1. f ( x ) = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 f ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x − 15 f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 15 − 1 vertex: (3. 1) x-intercepts: f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 16 vertex: (1. ∞ ) range: ( −∞.

7 . − ⎟ ⎝4 8 ⎠ x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 49 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ − . ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 8 ⎠ 270 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = 2x2 − 7 x − 4 7 49 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 2 16 ⎠ 8 ⎝ 9⎞ 9 ⎛ f ( x ) = ⎜ x 2 + 3x + ⎟ − 10 − 4⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ f ( x) = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 7 81 ⎛ ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . 4 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. − ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2 x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ 0 =⎜x+ ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ 0 = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ 2⎜ x − ⎟ = 4 8 ⎝ ⎠ 2 3⎞ 49 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 3 7 x+ = ± 2 2 3 7 x=− ± 2 2 x = 2 or x = –5 y-intercept: f ( x ) = 02 + 3 ( 0 ) − 10 = −10 The axis of symmetry is x = − 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 4 ⎠ 16 ⎝ 7 9 x− =± 4 4 7 9 x= ± 4 4 1 x = − or x = 4 2 y-intercept: 3 . ∞ ) ⎡ 49 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . f ( x ) = x 2 + 3x − 10 30. ∞ ) ⎡ 81 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 f ( 0 ) = 2 ( 0 ) − 7 ( 0 ) − 4 = –4 2 The axis of symmetry is x = domain: ( −∞. Inc.

9) x-intercepts: 0 = − ( x + 2) + 9 2 ( x + 2) 2 domain: ( −∞. f ( x) = − x + 2 x + 3 2 f ( x) = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) + 4 vertex: (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9] f ( 0) = 2 ( 0) − ( 0) + 3 = 3 2 33. f (0) = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = −3 . 1 y-intercept: f (0) = 5 − 4 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) = 5 2 271 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 ( x − 1) 2 =4 domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = ( x + 3) − 6 2 vertex: ( −3.PreCalculus 4E 31. ∞ ) =9 range: [ −6. f ( x) = x 2 + 6 x + 3 f ( x) = ( x 2 + 6 x + 9) + 3 − 9 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. −6 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 3) − 6 2 ( x + 3) 2 =6 x+3 = ± 6 x = −3 ± 6 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 6(0) + 3 domain: ( −∞. f ( x) = 5 − 4 x − x 2 f ( x) = − x 2 − 4 x + 5 f ( x) = − ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 ) + 5 + 4 f ( x) = − ( x + 2 ) + 9 2 vertex: (–2. Inc.2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 + 3 The axis of symmetry is x = –2. . ∞ ) x+2=±3 x = –5. 4] 32. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. Section 2. ∞ ) x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: range: ( −∞.

∞ ) x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 4(0) − 1 36. . 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 3⎜ x − ⎟ = 3⎠ 3 ⎝ f ( x) = 2 x + 4 x − 3 2 f ( x) = 2( x 2 + 2 x )−3 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 3⎠ 9 ⎝ f ( x) = 2( x + 2 x + 1) − 3 − 2 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 1 13 x− = ± 3 9 vertex: ( −1. f ( x) = x 2 + 4 x − 1 f ( x) = ( x + 4 x + 4) − 1 − 4 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2 ) − 5 2 vertex: ( −2. ∞ ) 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 0 = 3⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ range: [ −5. ∞ ) x+2 = ± 5 range: [ −5. − ⎟ ⎝3 3 ⎠ x-intercepts: domain: ( −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . −5 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 2) − 5 2 ( x + 2) 2 =5 domain: ( −∞. Inc. 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ ⎛ 1 13 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . f ( x) = 3 x 2 − 2 x − 4 2 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x ⎟ − 4 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2 1⎞ 1 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 3 9 3 ⎝ ⎠ f (0) = −1 The axis of symmetry is x = −2 . ∞ ) 35. −5) x-intercepts: x= 0 = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 3(0) 2 − 2(0) − 4 2 ( x + 1) = 5 2 ( x + 1) 2 = 5 2 x +1 = ± 1 13 ± 3 3 f (0) = −4 5 2 x = −1 ± 10 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 2(0) 2 + 4(0) − 3 f (0) = −3 272 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

∞ ) f (0) = 2 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 2 2 39. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. a = 3. f ( x) = 6 − 4 x + x 2 f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 6 f ( x) = ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) + 6 − 4 f ( x) = ( x − 2 ) + 2 2 vertex: (2. 2 f (0) = 6 − 4 ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) = 6 2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 − 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 2. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 3 ⎠ 37. .PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 3 38. ∞) range: [ −13. –1) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) − 1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −1 x – 1 = ±i x = 1 ±i No x-intercepts. 2 40. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. x= = =2 2a 4 2 f(2) = 2(2) – 8(2) – 3 = 8 – 16 – 3 = –11 The minimum is –11 at x = 2 . −b 12 b. f(x) = 3x – 12x – 1 a. −1] 273 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(x) = 2x – 8x – 3 a. x= = =2 2a 6 2 f(2) = 3(2) – 12(2) – 1 = 12 – 24 – 1 = –13 The minimum is –13 at x = 2 . y-intercept: domain: ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) The axis of symmetry is x = 1. domain: (−∞. a = 2. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 2 2 ( x − 2) domain: ( −∞.2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1 . The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. c. −b 8 b. f ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x − 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 2 x + 1) − 2 + 1 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) − 1 vertex: (1. ∞) range: [ −11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) = −2 x − 2 = ±i 2 x = 2±i 2 No x-intercepts y-intercept: ⎡ 13 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . domain: (−∞. c. ∞ ) range: [ 2.

k ) = ( −10. a = 6. ∞) range: ( −∞. −6 ) . a = -4. ⎡ −3 ⎞ domain: (−∞. f(x) = –2x2 – 12x + 3 a. f ( x) = −4 x 2 + 8 x − 3 a. b. ∞ ⎟ ⎣2 ⎠ 45. a = –2. domain: ( −∞. −b −8 = =1 2a −8 f (1) = −4(1) 2 + 8(1) − 3 f ( x) = 6 x 2 − 6 x a. Inc. the vertex ( −1. 43. −b 5 1 x= = = 2a 10 2 domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. c.1] 42. −b 6 1 = = 2a 12 2 48. 44. . ∞ ) . The minimum is 2 2 = −4 + 8 − 3 = 1 The maximum is 1 at x = 1 . domain: (−∞. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. k ) = ( 5. The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value.18) . b. −b 12 b. range: ( −∞. ∞) range: ( −∞. range: [ −2. −2 ) is a f ( x) = 5 x 2 − 5 x a. ( h. ∞ ) domain: (−∞. it opens up from the vertex ( −6. −4 ) is a maximum point. range: ( −∞. minimum point. c. The minimum is 2 4 c. ( h.Polynomial and Rational Functions 41. b. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ 49. the vertex ( −3. x= = = −3 2 a −4 f(–3) = –2(–3)2 – 12(–3) + 3 = –18 + 36 + 3 = 21 The maximum is 21 at x = −3 . ∞ ) . ∞) range: ⎢ . range: [18. The parabola opens upward and has minimum value. −6] 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 5⎜ ⎟ − 5⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5 5 10 −5 = − = − = 4 2 4 4 4 −5 1 at x = . −5 ) 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−10) ] + (−5) 2 = 2 ( x + 10 ) − 5 274 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since the parabola has a maximum. 21] 46. 47. domain: ( −∞. 4 ) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k = 2 ( x − 7) + 4 51. ∞ ) ⎡ −5 ⎞ domain: (−∞. The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. Since the parabola opens down. k ) = ( 7. it opens down from the vertex (10. x= x= 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 6⎜ ⎟ − 6⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 6 3 6 −3 = −3 = − = 4 2 2 2 −3 1 at x = . ∞ ) . ( h. −4] a = 5. ∞) range: ⎢ . Since the parabola has a minimum. c. Since the parabola opens up.3) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h ) + k = 2 ( x − 5) + 3 50. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

04 x 2 + 2.1.7 ± 0.7 x + 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = −0.1x + 6.7(0) + 6.1x + 6.1) 2(−0. 0 ) y-coordinate of vertex f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 y = −0. 53.1 a = −0. a.01(35) 2 + 0. y = −0.1 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k 55.7 x + 6.04.1 a = −0.04 x 2 + 2.1 a = −0. c = 6. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0. Section 2. 2 Since the vertex is a minimum.04(26.PreCalculus 4E 52.1 Since the vertex is a maximum.3 feet.7 x + 6.04 x 2 + 2.01(0) 2 + 0.1x + 6. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0.7 x + 6. Since the vertex is a maximum. ( h.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −0. b = 0. ( h.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −2.7 x + 6.01x + 0. −7 ) y = −0.04 x 2 + 2.04 ) 2 = 3 ( x − 11) The initial height can be found at x = 0. the parabola opens up and a = 3 . the parabola opens down and a = −3 . c = 6.7 = = = 35 2a 2 ( −0.04) x ≈ 55.01x 2 + 0. b = 2. f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 57. 4 ) x= −0.2 ( h.04. −6 ) 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−8)] + (−6) 2 = 2 ( x + 8) − 6 b. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 2 54. .01) x ≈ 77.1 The shot was released at a height of 6.01x 2 + 0.01x 2 + 0.7. 275 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. k ) = ( 9.1 ≈ 33. y = −0.7 2 − 4(−0.7 The maximum height of the shot is about 33.25 2a 2 ( −0. 0 ) b.1 2 = 3( x − 9) + 0 0 = −0.3 or x ≈ −2.7 feet. y = −0.1 feet. c = 6. k ) = ( −8.1 ± 2.01.1 = 18.01) −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −2.12 − 4(−0.7. c = 6. Inc.7(35) + 6.1 y = −0. ( h.1x + 6. k ) = (11. This occurs 26. y = −0. = −3 ( x − 5 ) − 7 Since the vertex is a minimum.1 x= 2 y = −0.01.1 = 3( x − 9) 2 a = −0. the parabola opens down and a = −3 .8 The maximum horizontal distance is 77.1) 2(−0. b = 0.01x 2 + 0.35 feet.25) + 6.01)(6. 2 = −3 ( x − 5) + ( −7 ) 2 58.04)(6.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 55.1(26. k ) = ( −2. a. k ) = ( 5.1. This occurs 35 feet from its point of release.1 = 3 ( x − 11) + 0 2 56.1 = 6. b = 2. the parabola opens up and a = 3 .25)2 + 2.8 or x ≈ −7.8 feet. ( h.25 feet from its point of release.35 The maximum height of the shot is about 18.1 0 = −0. x= y-coordinate of vertex y = −0. f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k = −3[ x − (−2)] + 4 2 = −3 ( x + 2 ) + 4 2 c.1 = = = 26.

14 x + 1.S.03 x + 0. x − 16 = the other number. f ( x ) = x (16 − x ) The product is = 16 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 16 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 16 16 x=− =− =− = 8.05 gallon. 64). Let x = one of the numbers.03 ( 5) + 0. The product is minimized when ( −24 ) b =− = 12 x=− 2a 2 (1) Since 12 − ( −12 ) = 24 .6 a. year = − b 20 20 =− =− = 10 −2 2a 2 ( −1) f ( 8 ) = ( 8 ) − 16 ( 8 ) 2 = 64 − 128 = −64 The vertex is ( 8.1 y = −0. This differs from the value in the graph by 0. 1. 59. Movie attendance was at a minimum about 2 years after 2000. −2 2a 2 ( −1) 2 y = −0.6 ≈ 2.03 ( 2 ) + 0. Let x = one of the numbers Let 20 – x = the other number P ( x ) = x ( 20 − x ) = 20 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 20 x −0. U.43 2 = 1.094 b =− ≈ 12 2a 2 ( 0.6 The vertex is (8. Wine consumption was about 2. This seems reasonable as compared to the values in the graph.1(0) + 6. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 8 − 16 = −8 .43 2 = 1.1 feet. 63.1x + 6. f ( 8 ) = −82 + 16 ( 8 ) = −64 + 128 = 64 f ( 25 ) = 0.14 ( 5 ) + 1. x=− 2a 2 (1) 2 f ( 5) = −0.75 gallons per person. The maximum product is 10 ⋅10 = 100. Then x − 24 is the smaller number. x=− f (12 ) = 0.004 x 2 − 0. The product of these two numbers is given by P( x) = x ( x − 24 ) = x 2 − 24 x f ( 2 ) = −0. The x-coordinate of the minimum is −16 −16 b =− =− = 8.43 2 a. The maximum product is 64. 276 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. f ( x ) = 0. year = − 62. The minimum product is P(12) = 12 (12 − 24 ) = −144 .S. Let x = one of the numbers.04(0)2 + 2. The numbers which maximize the product are 10 and 10.Polynomial and Rational Functions c.38 billion movie tickets were sold in 2005.14 ( 2 ) + 1.094(12) + 2. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0. 60. 16 − x = the other number.048 The other number is 20 − x = 20 − 10 = 10. The initial height can be found at x = 0.59 billion in 2002. = 2. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 16 − 8 = 8 . −64 ) .04 billion.004 ) Wine consumption was at a minimum about 12 years after 1980. b. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 16 ) = x 2 − 16 x f ( x ) = −0. the two numbers whose difference is 24 and whose product is minimized are 12 and −12 .1 = 6.094 x + 2. The minimum product is b 0.048 gallons per U.094(25) + 2.004(12)2 − 0. adult in 1992. 64.04 x + 2.03) −64 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. .03 billion. Inc.59 Movie attendance was about 1. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0. 61.004(25) 2 − 0. Let x = the larger number. or 2002.1 The shot was released at a height of 6.14 =− ≈2 2a 2 ( −0.38 According to the function. adult wine consumption in 2005 was 2.75 According to the function. or 1992.

A ( x ) = x ( 25 − x ) = − x 2 + 25 x When the width is x = 150 feet. the area of the plot is given by A = l ⋅ w = ( 200 − 2 x )( x ) = −2 x 2 + 200 x Since the graph of this equation is a parabola that opens down.5 yards by 12. 000 2 = 5000 The maximum area is 5000 square feet when the length is 100 feet and the width is 50 feet.5 ⋅12. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 600 600 x=− =− =− = 150. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 50 yards of fencing. 000 square feet. Since a = −1 is negative. Let x = the width of the rectangle. 66. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Let x = the length of the rectangle.5. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 20 yards by 20 yards. the width y is y = 40 − x = 40 − 20 = 20. From the diagram.5. Rewrite y= A as a function of x.25 square yards. Let x = the length of the rectangle Let y = the width of the rectangle 2 x + 2 y = 80 2 y = 80 − 2 x 80 − 2 x y= 2 y = 40 − x A = −2 ( 50 ) + 200 ( 50 ) = −5000 + 10. the area is maximized at the vertex. b 200 x=− =− = 50 2a 2 ( −2 ) 68. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed along a river with 600 feet of fencing. The dimensions of the rectangular plot with maximum area are 150 feet by 300 feet. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 25 25 x=− =− =− = 12. This gives an area of 150 ⋅ 300 = 45. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. the length is 600 − 2 (150 ) = 600 − 300 = 300 feet. 2 x + 2 y = 50 = 600 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 600 x Since a = −2 is negative. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 12. A ( x ) = x ( 600 − 2 x ) 67. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 20.5 = 12. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) 2 y = 50 − 2 x 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 25 − x ) .5 = 156. the width y is y = 25 − x = 25 − 12. Since we need an equation in one variable.5 yards.5. Thus. This gives an area of 20 ⋅ 20 = 400 square yards.2 65. 277 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we have that x is the width of the rectangular plot and 200 − 2 x is the length. 600 − 2 x = the length of the rectangle We need to maximize. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. A ( x ) = x ( 40 − x ) = − x 2 + 40 x x=− b 40 40 =− =− = 20. This gives an area of 12. Let y = the width of the rectangle. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 12.

the width is 20 − 2 x = 20 − 2 ( 5 ) = 20 − 10 = 10. Inc. 2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ A ( x ) = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ = − x 2 + 200 x 3 ⎠ 3 ⎝ 2 Since a = − is negative. 2 x + 3 y = 600 3 y = 600 − 2 x 600 − 2 x y= 3 2 y = 200 − x 3 2 ⎞ ⎛ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since we need an equation in one variable. we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 200 200 b x=− =− =− = 150. 2 400 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ − x ⎟ = − x2 + x 3 ⎠ 3 3 ⎝ 3 2 Since a = − is negative. Maximize the area of the playground with 400 feet of fencing. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. Since a = −2 is negative. 3 ⎠ ⎝ Rewrite A as a function of x. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 100. the width y is 400 2 400 2 200 2 y= − x= − (100) = = 66 . .Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. 000 square feet. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Rewrite A as a function of x. 3 3 Maximize the area of the playground with 600 feet of fencing. 70. Let y = the width of the rectangle. 278 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let x = the length of the rectangle. Maximize the cross-sectional area of the gutter: A ( x ) = x ( 20 − 2 x ) = 20 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 20 x. This 3 2 2 gives an area of 100 ⋅ 66 = 6666 square feet. This occurs when the gutter is 3 inches deep and 6 inches wide. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 150. This occurs when the gutter is 5 inches deep and 10 inches wide. the width y is 2 2 y = 200 − x = 200 − (150) = 100. the width is 12 − 2 x = 12 − 2 ( 3) = 12 − 6 = 6. 2 x + 3 y = 400 3 y = 400 − 2 x 400 − 2 x y= 3 400 2 y= − x 3 3 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ − x⎟ . 3 3 3 3 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with 2 maximum area are 100 feet by 66 feet. Let y = the width of the rectangle. A ( 5 ) = −2 ( 5 ) + 20 ( 5 ) 2 = −2 ( 25 ) + 100 = −50 + 100 = 50 The maximum cross-sectional area is 50 square inches. Since we need an equation in one variable. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. A ( 3) = −2 ( 3) + 12 ( 3) = −2 ( 9 ) + 36 2 = −18 + 36 = 18 The maximum cross-sectional area is 18 square inches. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 5. we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 400 400 b x=− =− 3 = − 3 = 100. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 20 20 x=− =− =− = 5. 72. This gives an area of 150 ⋅100 = 15. 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with maximum area are 150 feet by 100 feet. 71. A ( x ) = x (12 − 2 x ) = 12 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 12 x b 12 12 x=− =− =− =3 −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 3. Let x = the length of the rectangle.

2 84.5.5 2 y = –0. y = –4x + 20x + 160 −b −20 = = 2. y = 2x – 82x + 720 a. x = increase A = (50 + x)(8000 −100x) b. x= 2 86. 000 + 3000x −100x 2 −b −3000 = = 15 2a 2(−100) The maximum price is 50 + 15 = $65.5 2a 4 y = 2(20. Answers may vary. x = increase A = (20 + x)(60 − 2x) = 1200 + 20x − 2x 2 −b −20 = =5 2a 2(−2) The maximum number of trees is 20 + 5 = 25 trees. = 400. 279 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Maximize A = (30 + x)(200 – 5x) = 6000 + 50x – 5x2 − 50 x= =5 2(−5) Maximum rental = 30 + 5 = $35 Maximum revenue = 35(200 – 5·5) = $6125 ( ) 2 85. The maximum yield is 60 – 2·5=50 pounds per tree. Choose Ymin to include the y-value of the vertex. b = –82 b −82 x=− =− = 20. Ymax = 750 d.5 vertex: (20. – 83.2 73.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. The maximum revenue = 65(800 – 100·15) = $422. Maximize A = (30 + x)(50 – x) = 1500 + 20x – x2 −20 x= = 10 2(−1) Maximum number of trees = 30 + 10 = 40 trees Maximum yield = (30 + 10)(50 – 10) = 1600 pounds 77. 520) You can only see a little of the parabola. 2 87. a =2. y = –0.5) + 20(2. Inc. –120.5) 2 − 82(20.5.500. y = 5x + 40x + 600 −b −40 = = −4 x= 2a 10 2 y = 5(–4) + 40(–4) + 600 = 80 – 160 + 600 = 520 vertex: (–4.5 − 1681 + 720 = −120.5 + 50 +160 = 185 The vertex is at (2.25x + 40x −b −40 x= = = 80 2a −0. 76. . 1600) 75. You can choose Xmin and Xmax so the x-value of the vertex is in the center of the graph.5) + 720 = 840.5) + 160 = –2.5 x= 2a −8 2 y = –4(2.5) c. 50 x 25 = 1250 pounds. x= 74. 185).25(80) + 40(80) = 1600 vertex: (80. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

We start with the form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k . the function is f ( x ) = 280 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. graph passes through the point (1.6x + 100 −b −0. y = 0. we have f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 4 . b. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: The football’s path is better described by a quadratic model. 91).005) 2 98. ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4 5 The maximum y–value is . One unit left of (–2. 4 −(−0. Explanations will vary. 4 = a (1 + 3) − 4 2 8 = a ( 4) 91. (–1.817 ≈ 13. 95.6 = = −30 x= 2a 0. 96.170(17) + 14.6(–30) + 100 = 9 – 18 + 100 = 91 The vertex is at (–30. which allows us to solve for a. Vertex (3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.817 c. 94. 2) Axis: x = 3 second point (0. d. The values of y increase then decrease. –2) y = 0. A sample change is: The x-coordinate of the b 1 1 1 maximum is − =− =− = and the y– 2a 2 ( −1) −2 2 coordinate of the vertex of the parabola is ⎛ b ⎞ ⎛1⎞ 5 f ⎜− ⎟ = f ⎜ ⎟ = . We also know that the 2 90. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. –2) is (–3.372 The worst gas mileage was 13. false.02 2 y = 0. To find x–intercepts.01x + 0. f(x) = 3(x + 2) – 5. –2). A sample change is: The vertex is ( 5. true 2 8 = 16a 1 =a 2 Therefore. y = 0. 11) 100.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 88. A sample change is: The graph has no x–intercepts. Sample explanation: Some parabolas have the y-axis as the axis of symmetry. 93. k ) = ( −3. 89. makes sense 92. −4 ) . point: (–3. its path will be a line segment. −1) . does not make sense. 1940 + 17 = 1957 2(. 99. Inc. Explanations will vary. we know that there are no x–intercepts. –2) is one unit right of (–2. –2) axis: x = –2 (–1. false. Explanations will vary. a.005 x 2 − 0. 4 ) . 1 2 ( x + 3) − 4 . 2 . 0 = −2 ( x + 4 ) − 8 2 2 ( x + 4 ) = −8 2 ( x + 4) 2 = −4 Because the solutions to the equation are imaginary.01(–30) + 0. –2).170 x + 14. does not make sense. 2 Since we know the vertex is ( h. x= 97.170) = 17. false.372 mpg in 1957. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: If it is thrown vertically. set y = 0 and solve for x.005(17)2 − 0.

which is below the x-axis.00. the function is even. 16). –1). −1) . 440 − 2 x = π y form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k 2 440 − 2 x = a ⎡⎣ x − ( −3) ⎤⎦ + ( −1) 2 π = a ( x + 3) − 1 =y 440 − 2 x 2 Maximize A = x We use the point ( −2. 102. it must cross the x-axis somewhere between 2 and 3 to get from one of these points to the other. We know ( h. the maximum profit is –3(15)2 + 9(15) + 21000 = $21. 105. −3) on the graph to determine the value of a: f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 1 2 x= −3 = a ( −2 + 3) − 1 2 2 2 π π = − π 440 − 2(110) −3 = a − 1 −2 = a Thus.5⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 108. Answers may vary. the equation of the parabola is 2 π = 4 = 440 4 f ( x ) = −2 ( x + 3 ) − 1 . k ) = ( −3. x= 281 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 101. Since the graph of f is continuous. Thus. .675. the graph is symmetric with respect to the yaxis. Inc. 2 x + y − 2 = 0 y = 2 − 2x d = x + (2 − 2x) π =− −440 440 2 − −3 = a (1) − 1 2 − π 106. x 3 + 3 x 2 − x − 3 = x 2 ( x + 3) − 1( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 1) = ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 1) d = x 2 + 4 − 8x + 4x 2 d = 5x 2 − 8x + 4 Minimize 5x2 – 8x + 4 −(−8) 4 x= = 2(5) 5 107. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 5 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 5 = −1 f (3) = (3)3 − 2(3) − 5 = 16 The graph passes through (2. so the equation is of the 440 = 2 x + π y 104. 103. 2 x + 440 π x = 110 π 220 π The dimensions are 110 yards by 2 220 π yards. f ( x) = (80 + x)(300 − 3x ) − 10(300 − 3x ) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x) 2 + 1 2 = 24000 + 60 x − 3x − 3000 + 30 x = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 Since f (− x) = f ( x). Publishing as Prentice Hall. which is above the x-axis. and (3. 2 = −3x + 90 x + 21000 −b −90 3 = = = 15 2 a 2 (−3) 2 The maximum charge is 80 + 15 = $95.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ⎛4⎞ 2 y = 2 − 2⎜ ⎟ = ⎝5⎠ 5 ⎛4 2⎞ ⎜5.

and 5. Exercise Set 2. f (− x) = (− x)3 − 3(− x) 2 = − x 3 − 3x 2 No symmetry. Since an > 0 and n is odd. the graph rises to the left and to the right. . degree: 7 5. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 2 x4 − 4 x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 x = 0 or x = –2 or x = 2 The zeros are 0. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right.Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. The graph does not show the function’s end behavior. x3 − 3x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 x = 0 or x = 3 The x-intercepts are 0 and 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the graph crosses the x-axis at this zero. not a polynomial function 6. 1 Because the multiplicity of − is even. with 2 multiplicity 3. 9. f (0) = 03 − 3(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0.3 2 7. degree: 3 2. Since n is even and an > 0. 3. 8. polynomial function. Because the multiplicity of 5 is odd. degree: 5 4. –2. 4. Since the ratio cannot be negative. Inc. 6. polynomial function. not a polynomial function 282 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 0 = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) 0 = ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) 0 = ( x + 2) 2 ( x − 2) x = 2 or x = –2 The zeros are 2 and –2. polynomial function. the graph 2 touches the x-axis and turns around at this zero. Check Point Exercises 1. 2.3 1 The zeros are − . and 2. polynomial function. f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 Since an > 0 and n is odd. f ( x) = 2 x3 ( x − 1)( x + 5) is of odd degree with a positive leading coefficient. We can find the degree of the polynomial by adding the degrees of each of its degree 3 degree 1 degree 1 P P  factors. Thus its graph falls to the left and rises to the right. degree: 4 3. f ( x) = 2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5) has degree 3 + 1 + 1 = 5. f (−3) = 3(−3)3 − 10(–3) + 9 = −42 f (−2) = 3(−2)3 − 10(−2) + 9 = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between –3 and –2. Since n is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. It is not necessary to multiply out the polynomial to determine its degree. the function falls to the right. the model won’t be appropriate. with multiplicity 2. 1⎞ 3 ⎛ f ( x ) = −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 2 1⎞ 3 ⎛ −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 x = − or x = 5 2 1. 5. the graph should fall to the left.

= x( x + 2) 2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. 21. (a) 18. 2 The graph crosses the x-axis. f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 + 4 x = x ( x2 + 4 x + 4) f ( x) = 11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. 14. f ( x) = 4( x − 3)( x + 6)3 x = 3 has multiplicity 1. f ( x) = 5 x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is odd. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. 1⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = −3 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 4)3 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x = − has multiplicity 1. 22. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 13. The graph crosses the x-axis. 283 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Not a polynomial function because graph is not smooth. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. not a polynomial function 9. The graph crosses the x-axis. The graph crosses the x-axis. x = –6 has multiplicity 3. not a polynomial function 8. The graph crosses the x-axis. 24. f ( x) = 5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is even. f ( x) = 2( x − 5)( x + 4) 2 x = 5 has multiplicity 1. 23. (c) 17. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. 16. f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an < 0 and n is even. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. not a polynomial function 10. f ( x) = 11x − 6 x + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is odd. 27. Inc. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. degree: 2 25. 11. = ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x + 7) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 7) x = 2. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 − 4 x − 28 = x 2 ( x + 7) − 4( x + 7) f ( x) = −11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an < 0 and n is even. 3 29. polynomial function 15. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. f ( x) = x3 − 2 x 2 + x = x ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) 2 = x( x − 1)2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. (b) 28. f ( x) = 3( x + 5)( x + 2)2 x = –5 has multiplicity 1. polynomial function 12. x = 4 has multiplicity 3. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. x = –4 has multiplicity 2. x = 1 has multiplicity 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 30. The graph crosses the x-axis. The graph crosses the x-axis. x = –2 and x = –7 have multiplicity 1. (d) 19. polynomial function. 31. 20. 26. The graph crosses the x-axis. Not a polynomial function because graph is not continuous.3 7. The graph crosses the x-axis.

x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 39. = x 2 ( x + 5) − 9( x + 5) = ( x 2 − 9 ) ( x + 5) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 5) x = 3. Since an > 0 and n is odd. f ( x ) = x 4 + 6 x 3 − 18 x 2 f(2) = –8 f(3) = 81 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 37. b. c. f ( x) = x + x − 2x + 1 f(–3) = –11 f(–2) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x ) = x3 − x − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 35. 3 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 ( x + 2) − ( x + 2) = 0 f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 + 2 f(0) = 2 f(1) = –1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. d. f ( x ) = 2 x4 − 4 x2 + 1 f(–1) = –1 f(0) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 2 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. The graph crosses the x-axis. f (− x) = (− x) + 2(− x) 2 − (− x) − 2 = − x3 + 2 x 2 + x − 2 − f ( x) = − x 3 − 2 x 2 + x + 2 The graph has neither origin symmetry nor yaxis symmetry. and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. –1. 36. x = –3 and x = –5 have multiplicity 1. Inc. 284 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 38. 33. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 8 x 2 + x + 2 f(2) = –4 f(3) = 14 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. f ( x ) = x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 a. x = –1 The zeros at –2. 41. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. f ( x) = x 3 + 5 x 2 − 9 x − 45 40. e. f (0) = (0)3 + 2(0)2 − 0 − 2 = −2 The y-intercept is –2. . f ( x ) = x 5 − x3 − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 23 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 34. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 10 x + 9 f(–3) = –42 f(–2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = –2.

The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. b.PreCalculus 4E 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) = x 4 − x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. x = 1. Inc. c. c. x4 − 9 x2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 0. or x = –2 The zeros at –2. Section 2. x4 − x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 44. d. 285 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) = − x 3 + x 2 + 4 x − 4 − f ( x) = − x 3 − x 2 + 4 x + 4 neither symmetry e. and 2. f (0) = (0) 4 − (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. . The xintercepts are –2. Since an > 0 and n is even. x = 0. x + x − 4x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) = 0 3 d. f (0) = 03 + (0) 2 − 4(0) − 4 = −4 The y-intercept is –4. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f ( x ) = x4 − x2 c. 43. d.3 f ( x ) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. f(x) rises to the left and the right. a. –1. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. b. Since an > 0 and n is odd. or x = 2. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f ( x ) = x4 − 9 x2 a. e. –1 and 2 have odd multiplicity. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. b. x = –3 The zeros at –3 and 3 have odd multiplicity. e. 2 ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 x = –1. Since an > 0 and n is even. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. f (− x) = x 4 − 9 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. x = 3. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0. x = –1 f touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0.

4 47. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 16 x 2 a. x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 2 x = 0. f ( x ) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 a. . f ( x ) = x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 2 x = 0. so f(x) touches the xaxis at 0. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1.0. x = –2 The x-intercepts are –2. Inc. c. x = 1 The zeros at 1 and 0 have even multiplicity. f(x) rises to the left and the right. x = 0. Since an > 0 and n is even. b. f(x) rises to the left and the right. Since an < 0 and n is even. c.Polynomial and Rational Functions 45. 46. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f (− x) = − x 4 + 4 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. e. e. b. x = 2. – x 4 + 16 x 2 = 0 x 2 ( − x 2 + 16 ) = 0 x 2 ( 4 − x )( 4 + x ) = 0 x = 0. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. and 2. x = 4. d. c. b. − x4 + 4x2 = 0 x 2 (4 − x 2 ) = 0 x 2 ( 2 − x )( 2 + x ) = 0 48. f(x) falls to the left and the right. Since f has a double root at 0. f (− x) = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and 0. f (0) = −(0)4 + 4(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. d. Since an < 0 and n is even. f (0) = (0) 4 − 2(0)3 + (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. b. d. 286 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 3 The zeros at 3 and 0 have even multiplicity. Since an > 0 and n is even. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f (− x) = − x + 16 x f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f ( x ) = − x4 + 4 x2 a. x = –4 The zeros at –4 and 4 have odd multiplicity. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0 and 1. e. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. it touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0.

c. Since an < 0 and n is odd. − x 5 + 6 x3 − 9 x = 0 − x ( x4 − 6 x2 + 9) = 0 − x ( x 2 − 3)( x 2 − 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 4 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = 0. Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 a. f (0) = −2(0) 4 + 4(0)3 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. Since an < 0 and n is even. f (0) = −(0)5 + 6(0)3 − 9(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. f (0) = (0) 4 − 6(0)3 + 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. b. f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 2 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 2 ) = 0 The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. b. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. e. d. The zeros at – 3 and 3 have even multiplicity so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and − 3 . e. 51. x = 2 The zeros at 0 and 2 have odd multiplicity. −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 4 ) = 0 c.3 50. The y-intercept is 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0). f(x) falls to the left and the right. b. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 49. x = ± 3 The root at 0 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at (0. 287 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E c. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 4 – 1. d. x = 1 The zeros at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity. . Inc. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. a. d. f (− x) = x 5 − 6 x 3 + 9 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f ( x ) = 6 x3 − 9 x − x 5 x = 0. Section 2. d. e. f (− x) = x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. c. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 a. x = 0.

b. 1 1 − x4 + = 0 2 2 1 − ( x 4 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1) ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x = ±1 The zeros at –1 and 1 have odd multiplicity. The graph has 4 turning point and 4 ≤ 5 – 1. d. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 5 – 1. Inc. − x3 + 3x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 1 1 4 − x 2 2 Since an < 0 and n is even. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions e. x = ± 2 The zeros at − 2 . f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. f (0) = −(0)3 + 3(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f ( x ) = 6 x − x3 − x 5 a. x = 0. 288 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d. and 2 have odd multiplicity. f (0) = −(0)5 − (0)3 + 6(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. 0). c. b. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 53. e. Since an < 0 and n is odd. x = 0. f (− x) = The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. a. f ( x ) = 3x 2 − x 3 e. − x5 − x 3 + 6 x = 0 54. c. b. − x ( x4 + x2 − 6) = 0 − x ( x 2 + 3)( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = a. Since an < 0 and n is odd. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. 1 1 1 f (0) = − (0)4 + = 2 2 2 1 The y-intercept is . c. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f (− x) = x5 + x3 − 6 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. . The graph has 2 turning point and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. 52. 0. e. x = 3 The zero at 3 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at that point. 2 1 1 4 − x 2 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. f (− x) = x 3 + 3x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. d.

0). Inc. 58. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = 0. x = –5. c. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. f ( − x ) = x 2 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 2 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = 5 The zeros at –5 and 5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 57. c. 0). f(x) rises to the left and the right. Since an > 0 and n is even. f(x) falls to the left and the right. 2 a. c. 0). so f(x) touches the xaxis at (1. f (0) = −2(0 − 4) 2 (02 − 25) = −2(16)(−25) = 800 The y-intercept is 800. Since an < 0 and n is even. 0). x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. d. f ( x ) = −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25) 2 a. −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2 x = 1. x = –2. f (0) = −3(0 − 1) 2 (02 − 4)3 = −3(1)(−4) = 12 The y-intercept is 12. The root at 1 has even multiplicity. d. Section 2. . The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. d. b. The root at 4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the xaxis at (4. Since an < 0 and n is even. b. f (− x) = −3(− x − 1) 2 ( x 2 − 4 ) f ( x ) = x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 3 a. e. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. x = 1. b. f ( 0 ) = 03 ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. f (− x) = −2(− x − 4) 2 ( x 2 − 2 ) f ( x ) = x 3 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 a. e. x = 0. Since an > 0 and n is even. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 289 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 2 x = 4. x = 2 The zeros at –2 and 2 have odd multiplicity.3 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) e. The root at –2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–2. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f (0) = 02 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 The y-intercept is 0. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. x = –2. c.PreCalculus 4E 55. 56. b. x = –1 The roots at 0 and –1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) falls to the left and the right.

x = 0. e. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. f(x) falls to the left and the right. Since an < 0 and n is even. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. c. b. 59. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) a. Since an < 0 and n is even. d. The y-intercept is 0. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 2 ) = 0 d. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. 60. x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 1. 0). e. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. . f ( − x ) = − x3 ( − x + 2 ) ( − x + 1) 2 c. 0). b. f ( 0 ) = −2(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 5 ) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. x = –2 The zeros at 2 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x + 2 )( − x − 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 (−1) ( x − 2 ) (−1) ( x + 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 6 – 1. c. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x − 1)( − x + 3) The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = 2. 290 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. e. x = –3 The zeros at 1 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. Inc. 61. d. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 − 1)( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( x ) = −2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5 ) 2 a. x = –5 The roots at 0 and –5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = 0. The y-intercept is 0. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 5 ) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 3) a. e. x = 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions d. 0). Since an < 0 and n is even.

2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Since −2 . Since an > 0 and n is even. 1. b. 3 ≤ 4 – 1. d. x = 1. e. Section 2. c. f ( 0 ) = −3(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = 3x 3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 3) f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x + 1) ( x + 4 ) 3 a.3 f ( x ) = −3x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 3) 2 a. b. c. and 4 are the zeros. f(x) rises to the left and rises the right. From the end behavior. Since an > 0 and n is odd. a. f(x) falls to the left and the right. x − 1 . 63. Inc. x = –4 The zeros at all have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. x = –4. so they are the zeros. The root at 2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (2. 0). c. x = –1. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. x = –3. f ( − x ) = ( − x + 3)( − x + 1) ( − x + 4 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Thus. Since an < 0 and n is even. and x − 4 are factors of the function. e. x = 1 The zeros at –4 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. 1. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 + 1) ( 0 + 4 ) = 12 3 The y-intercept is 12. f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. x = 2. 64. Since the graph has two turning points. The graph has 2 turning points f ( − x ) = ( − x − 2 ) ( − x + 4 )( − x − 1) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. c. 65. b. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1)( 0 − 4 ) = 8 291 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 The y-intercept is 0. d. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. The y-intercept is –16. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) . and 4. d. x = –3 The roots at 0 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. . 0). f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 2 ) ( 0 + 4 )( 0 − 1) = −16 2 b. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 4 )( x − 1) a. e. all three have odd multiplicity. The graph has 3 turning points and The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 .PreCalculus 4E 62. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x + 2 . the function must be at least of degree 3.

is f ( x ) = ( x + 1)( x − 3) . Since the graph has five turning points. it has odd multiplicity. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 1) = −4 2 292 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since the graph has two turning points. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. 2 68. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. the function 2 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 4 ) = −16 2 2 71. c. 3 . so they are the zeros. a. Since −2 and 1 are the zeros. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. x − 2 . Since −1 and 4 are the zeros. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −2 . Thus. and x − 1 are factors of the function. and x − 5 are factors of the function. c. a. the function must be at least of degree 3. x + 2 and x − 1 are factors of the function. 2. c. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −3 and 2. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. 2 f ( x ) = ( x + 2) f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1) = 2 2 c. so they are the zeros. the function must be at least of degree 3. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. so they are the zeros. it has even multiplicity. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 1. x + 1 and x − 3 are factors of the function. it has even multiplicity. and 5 are the zeros. a. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. both have even multiplicity. x + 1 and x − 4 are factors of the function. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 3) ( 0 − 2 ) = −36 70. The function is is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1) . x + 3 and x − 2 are factors of the function. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. the function must be at least of degree 3. 2 function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) ( x − 4 ) . the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x − 2 )( x − 5) . Since the graph has two turning points. Since −3 and 2 are the zeros. Thus. b. From the end behavior. x + 1 . they both have odd multiplicity. and 5. −1 . and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. 2 b. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. the function must be at least of degree 3. Thus. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. 2. From the end behavior. the function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) . and 1. 2 The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 4. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −1 and 4. 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 − 2 )( 0 − 5 ) = 30 67. The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 3. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . b. so they are the zeros. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 . Since −2 . we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. Since −1 and 3 are the zeros. a. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. From the end behavior. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 3) = 9 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 and 1. −1 . The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 . to reach degree 6. a. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 and 1. b. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the 2 c. and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. Since the graph has two turning points.Polynomial and Rational Functions 66. From the end behavior. so they are the zeros. it has even multiplicity. all three have odd multiplicity. Inc. it has odd multiplicity. Thus. the function The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 and 2. b. 2 c. the function must be at least of degree 4. and 1 are the zeros. x + 3 . one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. Since −3 . both have even multiplicity. so they are the zeros. the function must be at least of degree 6. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 . 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3 . From the end behavior. Since the graph has three turning points. Thus. From the end behavior. a. b. 69. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. x + 2 . However. Since the graph has two turning points.

The woman’s heart rate was decreasing from 4 through 8 minutes and from 10 through 12 minutes. and 1. x + 2 . Since the graph has five turning points. f (5) = −3402(5) 2 + 42. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. so they are the zeros. a. 203x + 308. b. Section 2. d. Since −2 . Function g provides a better description of the actual number. to reach degree 6. From the end behavior. 73. However. Inc. Since the degree of g is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. The leading coefficient should be negative. the function will be a useful model over an extended period of time. . e. b. 453 f (3) = −3402(3)2 + 42. e. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. The graph falls to the left and to the right. x + 1 . one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. a. a. f. Answers may vary. −1 . Since the degree of f is even and the leading coefficient is negative. This occurred after 8 minutes. The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was increasing from 1960 through 1975 and from 1985 through 2000. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. The woman’s heart rate reached a maximum of about 116 ± 1 beats per minute. g. This occurred after 10 minutes. = 434. 731 77. Since there were 3 turning points. 444 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. 443 Function f provides a better description of the actual number. The function will not be a useful model over an extended period of time because it will eventually give negative values. g. the function must be at least of degree 6. c. and 1 are the zeros. 2 ( x − 1) 3 .PreCalculus 4E 72.555 x + 261. 931 76. b. −1 . 293 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. The function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 1) c. 931 = 437. 324(5) 2 + 107. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 .555(5) + 261. b. 324 x 2 + 107. 453 2 g (5) = 2769(5)3 − 28. 453 f. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 1) = −2 2 3 f ( x) = −3402 x 2 + 42. a. The woman’s heart rate reached a minimum of about 64 ± 1 beats per minute. – 93. 555(3) + 261. The graph falls to the left and to the right. 324(3) 2 + 107. 324 x 2 + 107. The percentage reached a minimum of about 18 ± 1% in 1960. a.555 x + 261. the graph falls to the right. Since there were 3 turning points. There were 3 turning points during the 12 minutes. c. 203(5) + 308. 418 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. 203 x + 308. 94. The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was decreasing from 1975 through 1985 and from 2000 through 2005. 931 The percentage reached a maximum of about 69 ± 1% in 2000. b. 74. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. The woman’s heart rate was increasing from 1 through 4 minutes and from 8 through 10 minutes. f ( x) = −3402 x + 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 and 1. 931 = 404. The leading coefficient should be negative. 75. 453 = 404. the graph rises to the right. d. Based on the end behavior. it has even multiplicity. 203(3) + 308. and x − 1 are factors of the function. they both have odd multiplicity. g (3) = 2769(3)3 − 28. There were 3 turning points during the period shown.

3x 2 − 9 x − 2x + 7 −2 x + 6 102. 1. 106. does not make sense. x−3 . Inc. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 99. 105. 95. x+5 x + 9 x 2 + 14 x + 45 x2 + 9 x 5 x + 45 5 x + 45 0 The answer is x + 5. 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 x − 3 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 7 2 x3 − 6 x 2 100. A sample change is: A function with origin symmetry either falls to the left and rises to the right. 737 2 = 35 + 21 21 111. Section 2. Sample explanation: Since ( x + 2) is raised to an odd power. false. or rises to the left and falls to the right. 110. Explanations will vary. makes sense 104. f(x) = x3 – 2x2 96. Changes to make the statement true will vary.4 Check Point Exercises 98. 2 x 3 − x 2 − 11x + 6 = ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3 x − 2) = ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) 97.Polynomial and Rational Functions 107. Sample explanation: A forth degree function has at most 3 turning points. 6 x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 4 112. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. false. 1 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 + 103. true 294 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. does not make sense. A sample change is: Such a function falls to the right and will eventually have negative values. f ( x) = x 3 + x 2 − 12 x 109. the graph crosses the x-axis at –2. false. makes sense 3x 2 − 11x 101. 108. 2. 1 .

The answer is x − 2 x − 3 . 6 x3 − 2 x 2 9 x 2 + 12 x Exercise Set 2.4 9 x2 − 3x 15 x − 5 15 x − 5 0 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3 x + 5. –1 15 15 14 –3 –2 –15 1 2 –1 –2 0 x 2 − 3x − 2x + 6 −2 x + 6 0 15 x − x − 2 = 0 2 The answer is x 2 + x − 2. 3x − 1 6 x3 + 7 x 2 + 12 x − 5 x + 5 x 2 + 8 x + 15 x2 + 5x 3 x + 15 3x + 15 0 The answer is x + 3. (3 x + 1)(5 x − 2) = 0 1 2 x=− or x = 3 5 1 2⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. 3x 2 + 7 x 3x 2 + 6 x x+2 x+2 0 2 The answer is x + 3 x + 1. –105 x2 + x − 2 x − 3 x − 2x − 5x + 6 3 2 x3 − 3x 2 x2 − 5x 6. Inc.4 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 x − 2 x 2 x + 3x + 0 x 2 − 7 x − 10 2 4 2. x+5 x − 2 x 2 + 3x − 10 4. x+3 1. 3 5⎭ ⎩ 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The answer is 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 + 2 x − 2x 4.PreCalculus 4E 3. –4 3 3 f(–4) = –105 4 –5 3 –12 32 –108 –8 27 x + 2 x3 + 5 x 2 + 7 x + 2 x3 + 2 x 2 2 5. 3 x2 − 2x 2 x 4 − 4 x3 5 x − 10 5 x − 10 0 The answer is x + 5. ⎬ . –2 1 1 0 –7 –6 –2 4 6 –2 –3 0 3. . − . 295 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 2. 7 x3 + 0 x 2 7 x 3 − 14 x 2 14 x 2 − 7 x 14 x 2 − 28 x x 2 + 3x + 1 21x − 10 21x − 10 .

− 6x + 6 x − 3 x4 3 The answer is 2 x − 3 + − 81 x − 3x 4 3 . x+3 296 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 x 2 + 3x 2 6 x − 20 6 x + 18 − 38 The answer is 2 x 2 + x + 6 − 38 . Inc. 3x − 2 246 x 246 x − 984 3 2x −1 984 The answer is 2 x − 1 4 x2 − 8x + 6 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 4 x2 − 2 x − 6x + 6 x 3 + 3x 2 + 9 x + 27 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x−4 3 3x3 3x 2 − 9 x 2 2 x2 + x + 6 − 9. 26 x −3 3x + 7 + 2 60 x 2 − 240 x 2 . 2 3x − 2 11. 6 x3 + 8 x 2 x − 3 3x2 − 2 x + 5 9 x 2 + 27 x 3x2 − 9 x 7x + 5 9 x 2 + 12 x 15 x + 20 15 x + 20 0 7 x − 21 26 The answer is 3x + 7 + The answer is 2 x + 3x + 5. 2 4x + 3 + 7. . 9 x2 38 x+3 9 x 2 − 27 x 27 x − 81 x + 3 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 + 9 x − 20 2x + 6x 3 27 x − 81 2 0 x2 + 9 x The answer is x + 3x + 9 x + 27. x −3 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 3x − 2 12 x 2 + x − 4 8.Polynomial and Rational Functions 6. 984 x−4 x − 4 4 x4 − 4 x2 + 6x 4 x 4 − 16 x 3 12 x 2 − 8 x 9x − 4 9x − 6 2 16 x 3 − 4 x 2 16 x 3 − 64 x 2 60 x 2 + 6 x The answer is 4 x + 3 + 2x − 3 + 26 . 2x −1 984 . 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 3x + 4 6 x + 17 x + 27 x + 20 3 10.

3x − x − 3 6 x + 13 x − 11x − 15 2 3 (2x 2 2 + x − 10 ) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 2 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 The answer is 2 x + 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3x − 3x + 6 2 − 12 ( 3x 5 0 1 –2 1 2 2 0 + 7 x − 20 ) ÷ ( x + 5 ) 2 –5 12 . 17. x+5 − 12 x − 8 ) ÷ ( x + 3) 2 –3 9 x3 + 3x 16. x2 + x − 3 (x 1 x 4 + x3 − 2 x 2 1 x3 − 2 x 2 − 5x − 3 x 2 − 3x − 6 19. 18 x 4 + 6 x 2 9 x3 − 3x 2 ( 5x 5 − 3x 2 − 3 x 5 − 3x 2 − 1 − 3x + 1 12 –8 –15 81 –27 73 The answer is 5 x − 27 + The answer is 6 x 2 + 3 x − 1 − 3x − 1 . 0 14. 18. 4 + x − 2 ) ÷ ( x − 1) 2 1 x 2 + x − 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 4 x 2 − 5x − 6 The answer is x 2 + x − 3 − –10 The answer is 2 x + 5 .4 2x + 5 13. x2 − 4x + 1 (4x 3 2 x5 + x 2 4 4 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 73 . Inc. 10 The answer is x + 2. 2 x3 + 1 297 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 4x −1 . x + x−2 3 3 2 7 –20 –15 40 –8 20 The answer is 3x − 8 + 6 x2 + 3x − 1 3x 2 + 1 18 x 4 + 9 x 3 + 3 x 2 20. 3x2 + 1 21. x −1 . 3 . x+3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1) ÷ ( x − 1) 1 2 x 3 + 1 2 x5 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 + x 2 –3 3 –1 4 1 4 1 4 3 The answer is 4 x 2 + x + 4 + −8 x 4 − 4 x 2 x3 + 4 x 2 x3 + 1 4x −1 The answer is x 2 − 4 x + 1 + 20 .PreCalculus 4E Section 2. x3 + x 2 − 2 x 15.

2 33 . Inc. − 6 x3 + x 2 − 6 x ) ÷ ( x + 6 ) –6 0 6 x 4 + 12 x3 + 22 x 2 + 48 x + 93 + (x 4 − 6 x − 6 x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 6 + x ) ⇒ − 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x + 1) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 24. 64 0 298 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 187 . 4 0 –3 2 3 3 21 63 180 546 21 60 182 549 –2 72 –438 2664 –12 73 –444 2664 2664 . x+6 0 1 0 0 –2 1 1 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 3 2 1 0 1 –2 4 –2 5 0 –10 0 0 12 –10 20 –20 40 –80 –10 10 –20 40 –68 The answer is x − 2 x 5 + 5 x 4 − 10 x3 + 10 x 2 68 −20 x + 40 − . x−2 2 4 28. − 5 x3 + x 2 − 5 x ) ÷ ( x + 5) 1 –6 4 − 5x − 5x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 5 + x ) ⇒ –5 1 1 549 x 4 + 7 x 3 + 21x 2 + 60 x + 182 + . 2 x 7 − 128 x−2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 –128 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 1 2 4 8 16 32 The answer is x 6 + 2 x5 + 4 x 4 + 8 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 32 x + 64. 2 3 30. x−2 The answer is 5 x 2 + 4 x + 11 + 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –5 1 0 –5 50 –255 1300 1 –10 The answer is 51 –260 1300 x 4 − 256 x−4 4 1 1 1300 x − 10 x + 51x − 260 + . ( 5x − 6 x 2 + 3x + 11) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 3 2 5 5 26.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. (x (x 0 0 0 –256 4 16 64 256 16 64 0 4 The answer is x + 4 x + 16 x + 64 . x+5 3 0 x 7 + x 5 − 10 x 3 + 12 x+2 1 –5 –6 The answer is x + x + 2 x + 2 x + 2 . x −3 (x (x 1 x5 + x3 − 2 x −1 1 + 4 x 4 − 3 x 2 + 2 x + 3) ÷ ( x − 3) 1 7 The answer is –6 The answer is x 3 − 12 x 2 + 73x − 444 + 4 1 1 1 –2 3 25. . –6 3 11 10 8 22 4 11 33 (6x 5 6 5 –3 1 12 24 44 96 186 6 12 The answer is 22 48 93 187 27. x+2 6 29.

Section 2. . Dividend: x 3 – 4 x 2 + x + 6 Divisor: x + 1 −6 f ( x ) = 3x 3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x + 5 3 3 −1 −1 −4 −4 − f ( 3) = −27 −3 2 ( 2) 3 −12 −21 1 −4 −7 −27 35. 5 −5 1 5 6 0 0 −4 f ( −2 ) = −4 299 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. x+2 32. 2. f ( x ) = x 4 + 5x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 6 3 –3 1 –1 2 –1 –4 14 –30 62 –128 2 –7 The answer is 15 –31 64 –129 f ( 3) = 240 38. 2 41. 1 −5 2 1 1 –2 –1 3 –1 1 2 0 –2 2 2 0 –1 1 1 3 39.PreCalculus 4E 31. x = 2. 2 −5 −1 −1 8 −12 −20 −3 −5 −25 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 5 x 3 − x 2 + 3x + 2 −1 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 5 4 6 0 f ( 2) = 0 The answer is x 4 − x 2 + x + 1 + 33. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −5 − 23 6 10 6 f ( − 32 ) = −7 −2 –1 6 4 1 5 1 1 − 92 1 3 7 9 1 –4 1 6 –1 5 –6 6 0 –5 The quotient is x − 5 x + 6. ( x + 1)( x 2 – 5 x + 6) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 3) = 0 x = –1.4 2 x5 − 3x 4 + x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 1 x+2 –2 2 37. x−2 3 1 −7 5 40. 2 −11 7 2 −6 3 . 3}. 5 5 −6 −4 −8 4 −3 1 2 3 2 f ( −3) = −133 −2 2 7 9 1 −9 48 −138 3 −16 46 −133 36. 5 −6 5 2 −6 −2 1 −3 −1 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − x 3 + 3x 2 − x + 1 x−2 2 −6 3 24 87 246 1 8 29 82 240 129 2 x 4 − 7 x 3 + 15 x 2 − 31x + 64 − . 3 f − 1 =1 f ( 4 ) = −25 34. x = 3 The solution set is {–1.

−1. so 2 is a solution. x=− .Polynomial and Rational Functions 42. 1 . 1. 12 – 32 (x + 2) (2 x − 7 x + 3) = 0 2 (x + 2) ( 2 x − 1)( x − 3) = 0 47. 2 ⎭ ⎩ x = –2. x = 2. 3 2⎭ ⎩ 2 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 2 16 12 The quotient is x 2 − 3 x + 2. x = 1 The solution set is {–1. or {−3. ( x – 2)(2 x − x − 1) = 0 (x – 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) = 0 1 x = 2. 2 ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3 . 2 ⎬ . 2} . x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 6 = 0 ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 + 4 x + 3) = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 3)( x + 1) = 0 The solutions are 2. 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 –3 3 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 22 x − 8 = 0 − 13 2 x − 3 x − 11x + 6 = 0 3 –5 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ (12 x − 2 x − 2) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ 2 ( 6 x − x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 2(3x + 1)(2 x – 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 1 1 x=– . . ⎬ . − . 300 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = − . − . 1}. and −1 . 3⎬ . x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 43. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 2 44. ( x + 1)( x 2 − 3x + 2) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 1) = 0 x = –1. Dividend: x 3 − 2 x 2 − x + 2 Divisor: x + 1 –1 1 –2 –1 2 –1 3 –2 1 –3 2 0 45. 12 x3 + 16 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 2 2 –5 1 2 4 –2 –2 –1 –1 0 46. Inc. x = The graph indicates that 2 is a solution to the equation. 2 2 –3 –11 6 –4 14 –6 –7 3 0 3 3 –18 3 3 –2 –2 0 7 –22 –8 –1 –2 8 6 –24 0 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3x + 6 x − 24 = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1 x = –4. x = 2. 2 1 2 −5 −6 2 8 6 1 4 3 0 The remainder is 0. x = − 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −4. x= 2 3 2 ⎧ 3 1 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − .x=3 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −2. . 2.

a. or 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎨ −6. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) = 0 The polynomial 14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 cannot be factored. 2 . so 1 is a solution. 25 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 The remainder is 0. 1 6 −11 6 −1 6 75 = ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) 2 { 42 The remainder is 0 so 3 is a solution. 1 1 ⎧1 1 ⎫ . and −6 . a. 2 3 ⎩3 2 ⎭ 52. Section 2. 72 = 2h3 + 14h 2 2 x3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 0 = 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 ( x − 1) ( 2 x 2 + 13 x + 6 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( 2 x + 1)( x + 6 ) = 0 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) ( 0 = ( h − 2 ) 2 ( h 2 + 9h + 18 ) 1 The solutions are 1. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 The solutions are 1. One solution is 3. 2 x 3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 = 0 The solutions are −3 . or ⎨ . 6 −5 1 −5 1 0 13 −6 2 13 6 0 0 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 0 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 This is the equation obtained in part a. 1 . 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 The remainder is 0. . so 1 is a solution. the width is 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 inches and the length is 2 + 7 = 9 inches.PreCalculus 4E 48.1⎬ . − . − . 2 ⎭ ⎩ ) 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2 ( h + 6 )( h + 3) ) 0 = 2 ( h − 2 )( h + 6 )( h + 3) 2 ( h − 2) = 0 h + 6 = 0 h + 3 = 0 h−2 = 0 h=2 h = −6 h = −3 The height is 2 inches. 1 2 11 −7 −6 2 59 211 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 50. or −3. 177 We need to find x when f ( x ) = 211. . and 2. so −3 is a solution. so the only solution is x = 3. The dimensions are 2 inches by 4 inches by 9 inches.1⎬ . V = lwh 72 = ( h + 7 )( 2h )( h ) The remainder is 0. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 3 14 −17 −16 −177 72 0 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) b.4 The graph indicates that −3 is a solution to the equation. 2 0 −72 2 14 4 36 2 18 36 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. Publishing as Prentice Hall. } 1 . and . It can be used to find other solutions (if they exist). 301 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3 2 1 −13 6 −6 15 −6 2 −5 2 0 51. 14 ( x + 3) ( 2 x − 5 x + 2 ) = 0 ( x + 3)( 2 x − 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 49. b. The female moth’s abdominal width is 3 millimeters. Inc. 2 2 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation.

A 8 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x + 3 l= = 3 w x+ 4 − 34 8 80(40) − 8000 = 68. the length of the rectangle is 0. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials. x 71.3 110 0 −6 −5 3 −6 9 −3 8 −12 4 0 80 a. does not make sense.5 x 2 − 0.57 40 − 110 b. Sample explanation: The remainder theorem provides an alternative method for evaluating a function at a given value. .57 ten billion. 55. -8000 8800 80 800 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 = 70 f (30) = 80 + 80 − 110 (30. 80 8800 A = l ⋅ w so. the length of the rectangle is 8 x 2 − 12 x + 4 units. f (40) = (40. 68. Explanations will vary. A sample change is: The degree of the quotient is 3. 70. Changes to make the statement true will vary.3x 2 + 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: The divisor is a factor of the divided only if the remainder is the whole number 0. Answers may vary.3 0.57) At a 40% tax rate. Therefore. 0. Explanations will vary.3 units. 70) At a 30% tax rate. does not make sense.5 x3 − 0. Sample explanation: The division must account for the zero coefficients on the x 4 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.22 56. x 2 and x terms.5 −0. 110 -8000 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 f (40) = 80 + 40 − 110 = 68. b. true 72. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials.4 a.08 −0.2 53. f (30) = c. Explanations will vary. f (x) is not a polynomial function. 80(30) − 8000 = 70 30 − 110 80 800 57. f (x) is not a polynomial function.22 x + 0. −0. false.06 l= = w x + 0. Sample explanation: The zeros of f are the same as the solutions of f ( x) = 0.5 −0.06 0. 67.4 x + 0.1 0. (30.06 0. Inc.57 Therefore.2 0. true 73. −0. the government tax revenue will be $70 ten billion. 70) same answer as in a. does not make sense. c. 69. the government’s revenue is $68. makes sense 68. 54. – 65. 66.Polynomial and Rational Functions A = l ⋅ w so A 0. x3 . 302 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. false. x6 since 3 = x 3 .

k must equal –12. Inc. Section 2. ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) ) = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 )( x + 1)( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = d ( x) ⋅ q( x) + r ( x) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 9 = d ( x )(2 x − 3) + 3 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x)(2 x − 3) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x) Apply the zero product principle. 1 −4 The remainder is zero and 5 is a solution to the equation. x 2n − x n + 1 +1 x 3n + x 2 n − x 2n x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4)2 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −4 ± 20 2 −4 ± 2 5 x= 2 x = −2 ± 5 − x 2n − x n x= xn +1 xn +1 0 { } The solution set is −2 ± 5 . 3 x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 = 0 5 1 −4 −9 16 20 5 20 x3 + 15 x 2 1 8 x 2 − 10 − 16 x + k −16 x − 12 0 To solve the equation. − 4x + 6 −4 x + 6 The polynomial is x – 2. 303 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we set it equal to zero and factor. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x −5 = 0 x +1 = 0 2x − 3 x=5 x = −1 x+2=0 x−2 = 0 x−2 2 x − 3 2 x2 − 7 x + 6 2 x2 − 3x x = −2 x=2 The solutions are –2. 77. k = –12 76.4 5x2 + 2 x − 4 4 x + 3 20 x + 23x 2 − 10 x + k 78.5} . −1. 2 x − 4 = 2( x − 2) Use synthetic division to divide by x – 2.PreCalculus 4E 74. Then divide the quotient by 2. . x n + 1 x 3n −4 = ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) To get a remainder of zero. 5 −20 −20 79. x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 8x2 + 6x 75. –1. 2. 2 and 5 and the solution set is {−2.

x2 + 4 x + 6 = 0 3. 2 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ p : ± 1. . ± 4. ± 4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. ⎬. . 81. ± 6 q are the possible rational zeros.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. 4. 2. ± 10. ± 20 are possible rational zeros 1 8 11 –20 1 9 20 1 9 1 is a zero. x= 304 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −5}. ± 13 are possible rational zeros. 2 + 3i. ± 2. ±1. ± 2. x 2 + 9 x + 20 = 0 20 0 −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(1)(6) x= 2(1) −4 ± −8 2 −4 ± 2i 2 x= 2 x = −2 ± i 2 x= ( x + 4)( x + 5) = 0 x = −4 or x = −5 { The solution set is {1. ± 2. ± 3. = p : ± 1. ± . 1 1 5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a double root. 1 p : ± 1. x 2 − 4 x + 13 = 0 0 4 ± 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = = 2 + 3i 2 2 The solution set is{1.5 x= Check Point Exercises 1. 17 –13 0 q : ± 1. Inc. −b ± b − 4ac 2a 2 x= ±1. ± 2. −4. ± q 2 4 2 4 are the possible rational zeros. ± 6 q : ±1 -5 –2 2 6 2 3 1 0 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(1) 2(1) −3 ± 5 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 5 −3 − 5 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± . ± . 2 – 3i}. x 2 + 3x + 1 = 0 an ( 50 ) = −150 an = −3 x= Section 2. ± 3. ± 3. ± 5. } The solution set is −2 ± i 2 . ± 3 1 –6 22 –30 13 1 –5 17 –13 1 –5 1 is a zero. 1 5. ± 2 are possible rational zeros f (3) = −150 2 1 ) an (3) − 3(3) − 4 = −150 4 2 an ( 81 − 27 − 4 ) = −150 1 2 is a zero. f ( x) = an ( x 4 − 3 x 2 − 4) ( 1 ±1.

±15 q: ±1. p : ± 1. ± 4 q p : ± 1. ± 4 q 2. ± 2 4 q f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 p : ± 1. 5. ± . x = −2. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 6 x − 8 p : ± 1. ± 5. ±5. ± 4 q : ±1 9. ± q 2 4 2 4 305 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 6. or 0 positive real zeros. ± q 3 3 4 p : ± 1. . ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 f ( x) = an ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) f (1) = an (1 + 3)(12 + 1) = 8an = 8 an = 1 f ( x) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) or x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3 7. p : ± 1. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. –2. ±3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ± 2. 1 1 –4 –4 2 6 4 x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x 2 + 3 x + 2) = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x + 3x − 11x − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 8 p: ±1. ± 6. ±6 q: ±1. ± 4 Exercise Set 2. ±4. Since f(–x) has no changes of sign. ± 3. ± 15. ± q 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 0 2 is a zero. ± . ±2. ± . Inc.5 1. ± 3. Section 2. –1}. ± 2. ± . ± 2. ± 2. ± . f ( x) = 4 x5 − 8 x 4 − x + 2 p : ± 1. ± . 2. ± 4. there are no negative real zeros. ±2. ± 6. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. 4. ±4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. ± . ± 2. ± 8. –1 are rational zeros. ± 2. f ( x) = x 4 − 14 x 3 + 71x 2 − 154 x + 120 q : ±1 f (− x) = x 4 + 14 x 3 + 71x 2 + 154 x + 120 Since f(x) has 4 changes of sign. ± 4 q : ±1 2 x − 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 x +1 = 0 x = 2. ± 2. ± 4. there are 4. c. –2. ±3. ± q 3 3 3 3 7. ±2.5 ( x + 3)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) 6. ± 4. ± 2. ± 2 q : ± 1. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 q 8. ± . ± 3. ±6 q: ±1. f ( x) = x 5 − x 4 − 7 x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 12 p : ± 1. p 1 1 : ± 1. ± 2. p : ± 1. f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 p: ±1. ± . ±3. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p: ±1. ± 8 q 3. f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. ±8 q: ±1. ± 2. ± . 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±3. x = −1 The solution set is {2. ± 2. ± 8 q : ±1 b. ± 2. ± 2. ±2. ± .

–3. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 11x + 12 p: ±1. ±2. . ± 12 q 4 1 12. ±2. 1⎬ . 2 1 2 –3 0 4 is a zero. . x = − . ±3. ± . 2 ⎭ ⎩ p : ± 1. x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ 2. ± 3. a. ± 6. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 b. . 2 b. ± 2. ±12 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 3. 4 –2 –2 ( x − 2) (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 1 x = 2. ± 4.Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. 2 c. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ 306 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 6. x = 1 The solution set is{4. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(−6) 2(1) −3 ± 33 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 33 −3 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −1. 1 are rational zeros. a. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. . ±2 q: ±1. ± q 2 2 3 2 ( x − 2) ( 2 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 6 a. –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 5 x 2 + x + 2 p: ±1. ±6 q –1 4 –3 –6 –1 –3 6 1 3 –6 –1 is a rational zero. ± 2 p 1 3 : ± 1. x = . 4. ± 2. ±2. ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3x − 2) = 0 ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x − 6 p: ±1. ± 6 q : ± 1. 2 13. ± 2. 1}. ±6. 1 3. ⎬. − 2 ⎬ . 1 are rational zeros. ±3. ±3. − 2 are rational zeros. ( x − 4) ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 x = 4. Inc. b. –5 2 –1 –1 0 2 is a zero. 0 x 2 + 3x − 6 = 0 x= 1 x = 3. − . c. ±4. x = −2 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨3. − . ± 3. 1 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 c. –3. a. ± q 2 2 b. –3 –11 6 6 9 –6 2 3 –2 0 3 is a zero. 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 11x + 6 = 0 c. 1 2. ±6 q: ±1 p : ±1. x = −3. ± 2.

. a.PreCalculus 4E 14. ⎬. f ( x) = 2 x3 + 6 x 2 + 5 x + 2 p: ±1. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 5 2 –4 –4 –2 2 2 1 –2 is a rational zero. ± 5 q 1 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 2. ± 2. ⎬. b. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a c. The solution set is ⎨ −2. ± q 2 –2 2 2(2) −2 ± −4 4 −2 ± 2i = 4 −1 ± i = 2 2 x2 + 2 x − 2 = 0 x= −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(1) = 1 is a rational zero. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 15. . 2 2 2 x2 + 2 x + 1 = 0 c. ±2 q: ±1. ⎧⎪ 1 −1 + 5 −1 − 5 ⎫⎪ . ± q 2 1 2 b. Inc. 0 x 2 − 3x + 5 = 0 x= 6 1 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) 3 ± −11 2 3 ± i 11 = 2 = ⎧⎪ 3 + i 11 3 − i 11 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨1. 2 c. ±5 q: ±1 p : ± 1.5 f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 3 x + 1 p: ±1 q: ±1. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 307 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1 ± 12 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −1 ± 5 2 f ( x) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 8 x − 5 p: ±1. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ x2 + x − 1 = 0 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 16. The solution set is ⎨ . a. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. ⎬. a. 0 –4 8 –5 1 –3 5 1 –3 5 1 is a rational zero. x= x= 1 –3 1 1 1 –1 2 –2 0 −1 + i −1 − i ⎫ ⎧ .

± 4. ± 2. 1 − 7 . 4}. ± 12 q x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 p: ±1. ± 12 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 a. 1. ± 4. −1} . ± 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 a. . Inc. 1 –12 –2 4 12 1 –2 –6 –2 is a rational root. 1 –5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a rational root. ± 3. 2. 19. 4 + 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = 2 2 4 ± 6i = = 2 ± 3i 2 The solution set is {1. ±4 q: ±1 p : ± 1. –3. ± 6. ± 12 q : ±1 p : ± 1. ± 6. 4 are rational roots. ± 4. p : ± 1. a. ( x + 1) 2 x = −1 x= The solution set is {4. −3i}. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 c. ±2. ± 2. –1. –10 } The solution set is −2. ± 13 q 1 b. ± 3. 0 { 20. 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 0 ( x − 4) x = 4. –2 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 2 x − 6) = 0 c. c. 1 + 7. ± 6. –2 –7 –4 4 8 4 1 2 1 4 is a root. 1. ± 2. ± 3. 4 1 –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 b. 1 2 ± 4 + 24 2 ± 28 = 2 2 2±2 7 = = 1± 7 2 ( x − 4)( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 18. 0 x3 + 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 c. 308 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. q : ±1 p : ± 1. 1 2 –3 0 4 is a root. x3 − 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. p : ± 1. 4 are rational roots.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. ± 3. x=4 x = −3 x = 1 The solution set is {–3. ± 12 q b. ± 4. 2 + 3i. ±13 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 2. ± 4 q 4 0 x= x − 4 = 0 x + 3 = 0 x −1 = 0 b. ± 2. a.

.PreCalculus 4E 21. 0 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 1 1 –2 is a zero of x3 0 –5 –2 –2 4 2 –2 –1 0 – 5x –2 = 0. 1 − 2 . . ⎬ . 1 + –5 –6 4 1 –2 –4 –4 –8 0 24. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 p: ±1. 2 b. ± 4 q : ±1 p : ± 1. x = . ± q 2 2 3 3 6 6 –5 6 25 –24 5 –30 25 –5 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 a. p : ± 1.3 are rational roots. b. ± 2. ±15 q: ±1 p : ± 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. are rational roots. a. 5 0 2± 2 5 = 1± 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ± 2. ± . ±4 q: ±1. 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 1 ( x − ) ( 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8) = 0 2 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x2 − 2 x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ } 2. . ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 6 x + 25 x − 24 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 5)(6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 3 c. 2 3 c. ± 2 ± 4 ± q 2 1 2 2 ( x − 2)( x3 − 5 x − 2) = 0 ( x + 5)(2 x − 1)(3x − 1) = 0 x + 5 = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 3x − 1 = 0 1 1 x = −5. 2 are rational roots. 2 3⎭ ⎩ 22. ± 2. Section 2. x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −5. 2 c. ± . ± 5 q : ± 1. 1 − 5 ⎬ . ± 4 q b. ± 6 p 1 5 1 5 1 5 : ± 1. 2. ± 3. ±2. 1 is a rational root. 23. ±3.5 6 x 3 + 25 x 2 − 24 x + 5 = 0 a. a. ± . b. ± 5. −1. 1 –2 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 p: ±1. ⎩2 ⎭ x= 309 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 –2 –5 8 4 2 0 –10 –4 1 0 –5 –2 2 is a root. ± . 1 1 −5. −2. 1 + 5. ± . ±5. p : ± 1. ± 3 ± 5 ± 15 q 3 1 0 –2 –16 –15 3 9 21 15 1 3 7 3 is a root. Inc. 6 –5 1 0 –5 is a root. ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 2± 4+4 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 2 2 2 = 1± 2 The solution set is x= {−2.

− 1. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 27. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 25. − 1 − 2i} . . 2 91 = an (91) an = 1 ( x − 1) ( x + 5i ) ( x − 5i ) 3 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 − 3i )( x − 4 + 3i ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 3ix − 4 x + 16 − 12i −636 = an (−212) 2 an = 3 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 2 x 2 + 50 x − 50 ( x − 4) ( x + 2i ) ( x − 2i ) f ( x) = 3 ( x3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) = ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 4 ) f ( x) = 3 x3 + 12 x 2 − 93 x − 522 = x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) 29. − 1 + 2i. = ( x − 1) ( x 2 + 25 ) ( x − 6) ( x + 5 + 2i ) ( x + 5 − 2i ) = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 5 x − 2ix + 5 x + 25 − 10i + 2ix + 10i − 4i 2 ) = x3 + 25 x − x 2 − 25 = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 10 x + 29 ) = x3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 ) = x 3 + 10 x 2 + 29 x − 6 x 2 − 60 x − 174 = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 f (−1) = an (−1 − 1 − 25 − 25) f ( x) = an ( x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) −104 = an (−52) an = 2 f (2) = an (8 + 16 − 62 − 174) f ( x) = 2 ( x − x + 25 x − 25) 26.Polynomial and Rational Functions c. (x – i)(x + i)(x – 3i)(x + 3i) = ( x 2 − i 2 )( x 2 − 9i 2 ) f (−1) = an (−1 − 4 − 4 − 16) = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 9 ) −50 = an (−25) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 f ( x) = an ( x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9) an = 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) f (–1) = an ((–1) 4 + 10(–1) 2 + 9) f ( x) = 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x − 32 20 = an (20) an = 1 f ( x ) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 310 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ) f ( x ) = 1( x3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 ) f ( x ) = x 3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 28. ( x − 3) ( x + 3x + 7 x + 5 ) = 0 3 –1 2 1 3 7 5 –1 –2 –5 2 5 0 1 −3ix + 12i − 9i 2 ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 8 x + 25 ) = ( x3 − 8 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 40 x + 125 ) = x 3 − 3 x 2 − 15 x + 125 –1 is a root of x 3 + 3 x 2 + 7 x + 5 f ( x) = an ( x 3 – 3x 2 –15 x + 125) ( x − 3) ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 2 x + 5) ( f (2) = an 23 − 3 ( 2 ) − 15 ( 2 ) + 125 –2 ± 4 − 20 –2 ± −16 = x= 2 2 −2 ± 4i = = −1 ± 2i 2 The solution set is {3.

( x + 2 ) ⎛⎜ x + ⎝ Section 2. 33. . f ( − x ) = − x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist.PreCalculus 4E 30. 37. ( x + 2) ( x − 5) ( x − 3 + 2i ) ( x − 3 − 2i ) ( = (x )( − 3 x − 10 ) ( x = x 2 − 3 x − 10 x 2 − 3 x − 2ix − 3x + 9 + 6i + 2ix − 6i − 4i 2 2 2 − 6 x + 13 ) ) 36. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 + x + 7 Since f(x) has no sign variations no positive real roots exist. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. Inc. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. 34. ( x + 4) (3x − 1) ( x − 2 + 3i ) ( x − 2 − 3i ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 2 x − 3ix − 2 x + 4 + 6i + 3ix − 6i − 9i 2 ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 3 x 4 − 12 x 3 + 39 x 2 + 11x3 − 44 x 2 + 143x − 4 x 2 + 16 x − 52 = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 f ( x) = an ( 3x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 ) f (1) = an (3 − 1 − 9 + 159 − 52) 100 = an (100 ) an = 1 f ( x) = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 311 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 + x 2 + x + 7 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. 2 or 0 positive real roots exist. f ( − x ) = 2 x 4 + 5 x3 − x 2 + 6 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 2 sign variations. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + x 3 + 5 x 2 + 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 1 sign variations. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) = − x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 7 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. 38. no negative real roots exist. f ( x) = 2 x 4 − 5 x3 − x 2 − 6 x + 4 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations.5 1⎞ ⎟ ( x − i )( x + i ) 2⎠ 5 ⎛ ⎞ = ⎜ x 2 + x + 1⎟ ( x 2 + 1) 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 = x 4 + x 2 + x3 + x + x 2 + 1 2 2 5 5 = x 4 + x3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1 2 2 5 ⎛ 4 5 3 ⎞ f ( x ) = an ⎜ x + x + 2 x 2 + x + 1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 3 2 ⎡ 4 ⎤ f (1) = an ⎢(1) + (1) + 2 (1) + (1) + 1⎥ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ 18 = an (9) an = 2 f ( x) = x 3 + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 4 Since f(x) has no sign variations. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. no positive real roots exist. f ( x) = −2 x 3 + x 2 − x + 7 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. no negative real roots exist. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. 35. 1 negative real roots exist. Since f(–x) has no sign variations. f(x) = 5 x 3 − 3 x 2 + 3 x − 1 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. 2 or 0 negative real roots exist. = x 4 − 6 x + 13x 2 − 3 x3 + 18 x 2 − 39 x − 10 x 2 + 60 x − 130 = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ( f ( x) = an x 4 − 9 x3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ) f (1) = an (1 − 9 + 21 + 21 − 130) −96 = an (−96) an = 1 f ( x) = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 32. f ( − x ) = −5 x3 − 3 x 2 − 3x − 1 5 5 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x 4 + x 3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 5x3 + 4 x 2 + 5 x + 2 31. f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations.

x = 1 The solution set is{–2. f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 11x + 10 ) = ( x + 1)( x + 10)( x + 1) x = −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2. ±10 q: ±1. ± 4 ± q 2 1 positive real root exists. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 42. f ( − x ) = − x3 − 4 x 2 + 7 x + 10 Since f(–x) has 1 sign variation.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. f (− x) = −2 x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 4 2 or no negative real roots exist. 1 –1 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ 2 ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ = ( x + 2)( x − 5)( x − 1) x = –2. The solution set is ⎨ − . ±2. ± 2. ± . 0 or 2 positive real zeros exist. ± 2. 1}. ±4. exactly one negative real zeros exists. ± 10 q Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. 2 or no positive real roots exist. p : ± 1. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. 5 0 41. ± . exactly 1 negative real zero exists. x = −10 The solution set is {–1. 3 or 1 negative zeros exist. 312 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± . 5. ± 2. 10 0 1 ± 1 + 16 1 ± 17 = 2 2 ⎪⎧ 1 1 + 17 1 − 17 ⎪⎫ . f ( x) = x3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10 p : ± 1. f (− x) = − x 3 + 12 x 2 − 21x + 10 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. ± 5. ± 10 q : ±1 p : ± 1. . x = 5. q : ± 1. ±2. –1 2 –1 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x + 5) 40. –10}. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. ⎬. ± 4 f (− x) = –3 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 1 sign changes. –2 1 –4 –7 10 –2 12 –10 1 –6 –2 is a zero. ± q 3 3 3 3 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. 3 x 3 − 8 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. 2 x3 − x 2 − 9 x − 4 = 0 p : ± 1. ±5. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. ± 5. Inc. Since f(x) has no sign variations. no positive zeros exist. ±8 q: ±1. ± 2 ± 5 ± 10 q 12 21 10 –1 –11 –10 1 11 –1 is a zero. 2 − –9 –4 –1 1 4 –2 –8 0 1 is a root. 2 x= f ( x) = x 3 + 12 x 2 + 2 x + 10 p: ±1.

1 − 5 ⎬ . 2 – 2i}.5 3 2 3 3 –8 –8 8 2 –4 –8 –6 –12 0 44. 2 + 2i. –1 −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(8) x= 2(1) 1 1 4 ± 16 − 32 x= 2 4 ± −16 x= 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i The solution set is { –1. ±2. 3 + i} 45. ±5. –3 –20 –24 –8 –1 4 16 8 –16 –8 0 –4 ( x + 1) ( x − 4 x − 16 x − 8 ) = 0 3 2 313 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –1. ±10 q 2 is a zero. 3 – i. ⎩3 ⎭ 43. ± 4. x 4 − 3 x 3 − 20 x 2 − 24 x − 8 = 0 p : ± 1. ± 2. –1 1 –2 1 12 8 –4 14 x= p : ±1. 0 or 2 positive roots exist. . ± 8 q : ±1 p : ± 1. ± 2. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. ± 4. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)3 + (− x) 2 − 12 x + 8 4 -1 f ( x) = ( x − 1)( x − 1)( x 2 − 6 x + 10) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 + 12 x + 8 p : ±1. ±2. 0 or 2 negative roots exist. ±5. 1 The solution set is {–1. ±10 q: ±1 p : ±1. ± 4. ± 8 q Since f(x) has 2 sign changes.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ± 2. 3 –1 2⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 − 6 x − 12 ) 3⎠ ⎝ 6 ± 36 + 144 6 ± 6 5 = 6 6 = 1± 5 –1 x= x= q : ±1 –1 –8 1 –3 4 8 0 1 –3 4 8 –1 4 –8 –4 8 0 1 2 0 = x − 4x + 8 10 –1 5 -4 -10 1 -5 4 10 0 1 -5 4 10 –1 6 –10 -6 10 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) x =1 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 − 12 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 2 sign changes. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x3 − x 2 + 14 x + 10 p: ±1. ± 2. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 + 5. ± 4 ± 8 q 1 positive real root exists. ± 8 –1 -4 1 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .

± q 2 2 2 2 2 or no positive real zeros exist. q : ± 1. 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 1 1 –4 –16 –8 –2 12 8 –6 –4 0 47. 4 3 –1 2 1 1 2 1 1 ( x + 1) 2 3 3 19 6 –3 14 –13 –6 –14 13 6 0 –14 13 6 6 –16 –6 –8 –3 0 –1 2 –4 –8 f ( x) = ( x + 1)( x − 2) ( 3x 2 − 8 x − 3) –1 2 –4 8 = ( x + 1)( x − 2)(3x + 1)( x − 3) –2 4 –8 0 1 x = −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x + 1)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x − 4 ) = 0 6 ± 36 + 16 6 ± 52 = 2 2 6 ± 2 13 3 ± 13 = = 2 2 The solution set is x= {−1. ± 2. − 2. ± 6. 0 (x 2 + 4) x + 1 = 0 x − 2 = 0 x2 + 4 = 0 x = –1 –1 f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( 3x 3 − 14 x 2 + 13x + 6 ) ( x + 1) ( x − 2 x + 4 x − 8 ) 3 –11 x=2 x 2 = −4 x = ±2i The solution set is {−1. 3 ± f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p : ± 1. ± 6 –1 3 } 13. ± 15. ± . f (− x) = 3x 4 + 11x 3 − x 2 − 19 x + 6 2 or no negative real zeros exist. ± . f ( x) = 2 x 4 + 3x 3 − 11x 2 − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. ±2. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − 3x 3 − 11x 2 + 9 x + 15 2 or no negative real zeros exist. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. ± q 3 3 2 or no positive real zeros exists. 3⎬ . ± 3. ±4. ± 3 p 1 2 : ± 1. x = 3 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. x = 2 x = − . ± 3. x − x + 2x − 4x − 8 = 0 p: ±1. − . 2i. ± 2. ± 5. 1 2 2 3 –11 –9 15 2 5 –6 –15 –6 –15 0 5 f ( x) = ( x − 1) ( 2 x + 5 x − 6 x − 15 ) 3 − 52 2 2 2 5 –6 –15 –5 0 15 0 –6 0 314 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±15 q: ±1. ±8 q: ±1 p : ± 1. . ± 3. 2. 3 46. 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 4 –8 2 0 8 0 4 ( x − 2) 48. Inc. ± . − 2i} . ± 2 ± 4 ± 8 q 1 negative real root exists. 3 − 13 . ±5. ±3. ± .

Inc. 1 negative real root exists. ± 2. − 3 ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± q 3 3 3 3 2 or no positive real roots exist. ± 8 q : ± 1. x 2 = −2 –2 x = ±i 2 2 3 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. x = 3. 4 –1 5 –2 –6 4 3 8 6 3 8 6 0 12 4 4 –8 1 1 –2 0 3 8 6 –3 0 –6 0 8 0 1 1 –2 2 2 2 3 3 0 x= 4 x + 3 x + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. . − . − . − i 2 ⎬ . x = − .PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. i 2. ± 3. ± q 2 2 or no positive real roots exists. 315 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± . ± 6 1 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3 x 2 − 6 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. . . 2 ⎩ ⎭ 49. x2 − 3 = 0 x2 = 3 x=± 3 5 x = 1. x = − 3 2 ⎧ 5 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. 4 p 1 3 1 3 : ± 1. ± 4. ±2. ± . 3 or 1 negative real root exist. ± 6. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 2 4 –6 2⎞ ⎛ ( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 + 3x + 3) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2⎞ ⎛ 3( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2 − 34 3 3 ( x − 1)(4 x + 3x + 8 x + 6) = 0 3 –3 Another positive real root must exist. ± 4 3 3 3 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 = 0 p : ± 1. ±8 q: ±1. ±4. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1.5 5⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 6 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 5⎞ ⎛ = 2( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 − 3) 2⎠ ⎝ 50. ± 4. 4 ⎩ ⎭ 7 0 –18 –4 2 3 –8 8 –6 12 12 –8 –6 –6 4 0 ( x + 2)(2 x + 3x − 6 x − 6 x + 4) = 0 4 3 2 4 x 3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. ± . ⎬. ± . 4 8 −1 ± 1 − 4 −1 ± i 3 = 2 2 ⎧⎪ 2 −1 + i 3 −1 − i 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨4. f (− x) = 3 x 4 + 11x3 − 3 x 2 + 6 x + 8 2 or no negative real roots exist. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. ± . ± 3. ± 2. ± 2. ± 2. ± . 51. ± 8. ± q 2 2 4 4 3 or 1 positive real roots exists. 2 3 4 –11 ( x − 4) ( 3x 3 + x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 q : ± 1. ± 2. 3. 3⎞ ⎛ ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 4 x 2 + 8 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ 4( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 2 x +2 =0 2 x 5 + 7 x 4 − 18 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p : ± 1.

±8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 24. ± . 1. f (− x) = −4 x5 + 12 x 4 + 41x3 − 99 x 2 − 10 x + 24 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. ± 3. and 4. 3 16 0 x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x = −4 x =1 The zeros are −4 . ± 2. . We verify this below: −4 −1 1 16 −16 4 −20 −1 5 −4 x2 = 2 x=± 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. 2 2⎭ ⎩ 1⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2)2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2( x + 2) 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x −2 = 0 53. ±4 p 1 3 : ± 1. ±2. ± 4. Thus. 2.± 4 4 2 or no positive real roots exist. . − 2. we can see that −4 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. ± 8.Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 2 2 3 –6 –6 4 –4 2 8 –4 –1 –4 2 0 ( x − 3)( x + 2)( x + 4) ( 4 x 2 − 1) = 0 4 x2 −1 = 0 4 x2 = 1 1 x2 = 4 1 x=± 2 ( x + 2) 2 (2 x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 2) 2 1 2 –1 –4 2 1 0 2 0 –4 0 2 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨3. ±2. b. ±6. ±12. − 2 ⎬ . 2 ⎩ ⎭ 52. − ⎬ . ±4. ( x − 3) ( 4 x + 24 x + 31x − 6 x − 8) = 0 4 –2 3 2 24 31 –6 –8 –8 –32 2 8 –1 –4 0 4 4 16 ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( 4 x + 16 x − x − 4 ) = 0 3 –4 4 4 2 16 –1 4 –16 0 4 0 –1 0 316 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. From the graph provided. Inc. q 2 2 1 3 ± . x=4 . ±24 q: ±1. ± 6. 4 4 12 –41 –99 10 24 12 72 93 –18 –24 24 31 –6 –8 0 − x 3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 = 0 ( x + 4) ( − x2 + 5x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 ) ( x2 − 5x + 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) = 0 4 x 5 + 12 x 4 − 41x3 − 99 x 2 + 10 x + 24 = 0 p: ±1. f ( x ) = − x3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 a. ± 12. − 4. ± . ±3.

so we use the quadratic formula: 1 or x 2 + x + 1 = 0 x− =0 3 a =1 b =1 c =1 1 x= 3 f ( x ) = 4 x3 − 8x 2 − 3x + 9 a. 9 −1 ± −3 2 1 3 −1 ± 3i i = =− ± 2 2 2 1 3 1 i. Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2x − 3 = 0 2x = 3 x= The zeros are −1 and 3 2 3 . From the graph provided. ( x + 1) ( − x 2 + 4 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) = 0 56. b. . b. f ( x ) = 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 a. Section 2. 2 317 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The zeros are and − ± 2 2 3 4 x3 − 8 x 2 − 3x + 9 = 0 ( x + 1)( 2 x − 3) = 0 or ( 2 x − 3) 2 = 0 2 x = −1 2 (1) = 0 ( x + 1) ( 4 x 2 − 12 x + 9 ) = 0 x +1 = 0 −1 ± 12 − 4 (1)(1) b.5 f ( x ) = − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. − ( x + 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 2 x +1 = 0 or x = −1 ( x − 2) 2 =0 x−2 = 0 x=2 The zeros are −1 and 2. We verify this below: −1 4 −8 −3 9 x= −4 12 −9 4 −12 Thus. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3 x + 3 x + 3) = 0 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 55. Inc. From the graph provided.PreCalculus 4E 54. We verify this below: 1 3 3 2 2 −1 From the graph provided. 1 is an x3 intercept and is thus a zero of the function. we can see that 1 1 1 3 3 3 0 Thus. We verify this below: −1 −1 3 0 −4 1 −4 −1 4 −4 4 0 − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 = 0 Thus. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function.

± 6 = Factors of 1 ±1 = ±1. 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 2 x + 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −3 −7 −8 6 −2 ± 22 − 4 (1)( 2 ) 2 (1) From the graph provided. Factors of the constant term −6 : ±1. b. x = −2 The zeros are −3. ± 6 We test values from above until we find a zero.Polynomial and Rational Functions 57. and 3. so 3 is a zero of f. and −1 ± i . 318 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 3. 3 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 To factor x − x 2 − 4 x − 6 . so we use the quadratic formula: a =1 b = 2 c = 2 x = 1. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −22 −18 36 Factors of − 6 ±1. One possibility is shown next: = ( x − 1) ( 2 x3 + 4 x 2 − 18 x − 36 ) 3 2 6 6 2 2 0 30 2 10 1 −1 −4 −6 1 4 −18 −36 6 3 0 Thus. 36 12 0 2 x + 2 x − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 = 0 4 3 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( 2 x 2 + 10 x + 12 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( x 2 + 5 x + 6 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = 0 The remainder is 0. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 2 x 3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 a. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 58. ± 2. 0 2 x − 3x − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 4 Thus. ± 3. . Inc. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. we can see that 1 −1 −2 ± −4 −2 ± 2i = = −1 ± i 2 2 1 The zeros are . ± 2. ± 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. From the graph provided. − 2 . x= 1 is an 2 x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 a. x = −3. 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 Test 3: 3 4 −18 −36 2 2 4 −18 −36 The possible rational zeros are: Thus. 2 = −4 −6 2 −2 −8 −12 b. we can see that 1 and 3 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. 1. ± 2. x = 3. 3.

we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 To factor 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 . Inc. ± . One possibility is shown next: 319 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 2. −1 . ± 4 = Factors of 5 ±1. We can now finish the factoring: 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 = 0 From the graph provided. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. ± 2. ± . ± 2. 0 Thus. − . ± 5 5 5 We test values from above until we find a zero. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 5: ±1. ± 3 1 2 4 = ±1.PreCalculus 4E 59. The remainder is 0. ± . so −1 is a zero of f. x = −2 3 2 The zeros are −2 . ± 2. x = − . 1 and 2. . ± 4 = Factors of 3 ±1. ± 5 1 2 4 = ±1. ± 3 3 3 We test values from above until we find a zero. We verify this below: 1 −5 4 −19 16 4 −5 −1 −20 −4 −5 −1 −20 −4 0 Thus. One possibility is shown next: Test −1 : − 1 3 11 12 4 8 4 From the graph provided. ± 2. x = −1. a. we can see that 1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. ± 5 −3 −8 −4 3 f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 4 x3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 0 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. 3x + 2 x − 15 x − 10 x + 12 x + 8 5 4 3 2 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) = ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) To factor 3 x 3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 . ± 2. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. We verify this below: 1 3 2 −15 −10 12 8 ( x − 1) ( 3 x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1) ( 3x 2 + 8 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1)( 3 x + 2 )( x + 2 ) = 0 5 −10 −20 −8 3 3 5 −10 −20 −8 0 Thus.5 f ( x ) = 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 a. ± 3 60. ± . Section 2. ± 4. ± 2. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 2 x = 1. ± 4. we can see that 1 and 2 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. 3 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) 2 3 5 −10 −20 −8 6 22 3 11 24 12 8 4 b. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 3: ±1.

The answers correspond to the points (7. 1500) and (12. The depth can be 10 inches or 7. a.8 inches to obtain a volume of 2000 cubic inches. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(0) ± (0)2 − 4(1)(−150) 2(1) x ≈ −12. Answers may vary. 0 65. and ±2i . The range is (0. 1⎞ ⎛ − ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 5 x 2 + 20 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 4 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 1500 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 750 = 0 Find the roots.2 Since the depth must be positive. x = 2i 5 1 The zeros are − .2. . 15). a. The answers correspond to the points (5. 1500). 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 2000 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 1000 = 0 Find the roots. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 The remainder is 0. x= 4 −(5) ± (5)2 − 4(1)(−100) 2(1) x ≈ −12. x = − . x= 61. 320 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2000). reject the negative value. x= b. – 71. 5 5 1 0 −750 0 −150 0 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots.8 Since the depth must be positive.Polynomial and Rational Functions 1 Test − : 5 − 15 5 1 20 −1 5 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. 2000 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x b. 10 1 −5 −150 1000 10 1 64. V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 2000 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 63. Inc. 12. b.8. 50 −1000 5 −100 The range is (0. 5 1 −5 −150 750 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x + 2i )( x − 2i ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1 x = 1. 15). The depth can be 5 inches or 12. so − ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 62. 7. x = −2i. 0 −4 0 20 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 0 1 is a zero of f. reject the negative value.2 inches to obtain a volume of 1500 cubic inches.2.8. 1. 2000) and (10.

± . q : ± 1. 2 2 6 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. ± q 2 2 2 2 75. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±2. 40 0 4 x 4 + 4 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 p: ±1. we see that there are no real solutions. 2 x 4 + 7 x 3 − 4 x 2 − 27 x − 18 = 0 p : ± 1. ± 3. ± 4. ±18. . ± q 2 4 100 0 From the graph. ±4 1 1 p : ± 1. ± . ±6 1 1 2 4 1 p : ± 1. ± 5. From the graph we see the solutions are 3 −3. ±5. Inc. ±2. ±6. ± . 1 3 9 p : ± 1. 2 73. ±2 77. 2. ±3. so no negative real roots exist. ±2 1 3 5 15 p : ± 1. − 1. so either 5. ±4 q: ±1. From the graph we see that the solutions are 1 − . 321 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± q 2 2 2 f ( x ) = x 5 − x 4 + x3 − x 2 + x − 8 f(x) has 5 sign variations. ±2. we see that the solutions are 1 1 − and . ±15 q: ±1. ± . ± . ± 2. 3. ±9. ±18 From the graph. Section 2. ± 2. 2 3 and 2. − . 2 78. ± . ±2. it has no positive real roots. 3 and 5. f ( x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(x) has no sign variations. From the graph. ±3. f ( − x ) = − x5 − x 4 − x3 − x 2 − x − 8 f(–x) has no sign variations.PreCalculus 4E 72. 74. ±3. ± q 2 3 3 3 6 76. we see that the solutions are 1 2 . f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. ±3. or 1 positive real roots exist. ± 15. Odd functions must have at least one real zero. The polynomial’s graph doesn’t intersect the x-axis.5 2 x 3 − 15 x 2 + 22 x + 15 = 0 p: ±1. ±9. Even functions do not. no negative roots exist. ± . ±6. ± . ±2. ± . ± . ±2 q: ±1.

A sample change is: The equation has 0 sign variations. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Answers may vary. false. Answers will vary 82. 87. Changes to make the statement true will vary. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 + 6 x3 − 4 x 2 − 24 x + 16 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 3x ( x + 5 ) = 208 ( 2 x 2 + 11x + 5) ( x + 2 ) − 3x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 5 x +10 − 3 x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x − 3 x 2 − 15 x − 198 = 0 2 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x − 198 = 0 2 ( x 3 + 6 x 2 + 6 x − 99 ) = 0 3 real zeros 2 nonreal complex zeros 81. the smallest degree is 5. makes sense 100. makes sense 99. Because the polynomial has no obvious changes of direction but the graph is obviously not linear. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Explanations will vary. false. 89. 2 real zeros 4 nonreal complex zeros 83. 84. 2 92. The function is undefined at x = 1 and x = 2. 322 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 real zero 2 nonreal complex zeros 80. 97. Inc. the smallest degree is 3. 85. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction. true 90. the smallest degree is 3. 98. the smallest degree is 5. 94. 3 f ( x) = 3 x 4 + 4 x3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x − 3 1 1 6 6 –99 3 27 99 9 33 0 x + 9 x + 33 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = −51 x = 3 in. A sample change is: Descartes’ Rule gives the maximum possible number of real roots. 91. A sample change is: Polynonials of degree n have at most n distinct solutions. f ( x) = x 6 − 64 93. The equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 0. makes sense 96. so no positive roots exist. 95. Sample explanation: The quadratic formula is can be applied only of equations of degree 2. false. 86. The equation of the vertical asymptote is x = 1. f ( x) = x 3 − 6 x − 9 88. . Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction and two roots have multiplicity 2. Two roots appear twice.

∞) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) −75 − −12 = 5i 3 − 2i 3 = 3i 3 (2 − −3 ) = (2 − i 3) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 − 3 = 1 − 4i 3 7. (1 + i )(4 − 3i ) = 4 − 3i + 4i − 3i 2 8. 5). 5.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point 1. The vertex is (3. 9. 5] 323 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3i (2 + i ) = 6i + 3i 2 = −3 + 6i 3. Inc. x-intercepts: 2 x 2 − 3 x = −4 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 = 0 x= f ( x ) = 5 − ( x + 2) 0 = 5 − ( x + 2) −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a ( x + 2) −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(4) x= 2(2) 2 2 =5 x+2 = ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: 3 ± −23 x= 4 3 23 x= ± i 4 4 f ( 0) = 5 − ( 0 + 2) = 1 2 domain: (−∞. 6. x(2 x − 3) = −4 2 The parabola opens down because a < 0. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) − 4 = 5 2 domain: (−∞. –4). Publishing as Prentice Hall. x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 3) − 4 2 ( x − 3) = 4+i+3= 7+i 4. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) − 4 2 The parabola opens up because a > 0. The vertex is (–2. . 2 =4 x−3 = ± 4 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i + i + i2 = ⋅ = 1− i 1− i 1+ i 1 − i2 1 + 2i − 1 = 1+1 2i = 2 =i x = 3± 2 The equation has x-intercepts at x = 1 and x = 5 . (6 − 2i ) − (7 − i ) = 6 − 2i − 7 + i = −1 − i 2. ∞) range: [ −4.

Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. is positive. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 324 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. degree 5. . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and since the leading coefficient. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 2 since the zero has multiplicity 2. 9] 11. Inc. ∞) range: ( −∞. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at −1 . b −6 =− =1 vertex: x = − 2a 2(3) f (1) = 3(1)2 − 6(1) + 1 = −2 The vertex is (1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. x-intercepts: 0 = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−6) ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) x= 6 ± 24 6 x= 3± 6 3 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. –2). 2(−1) 2 ( x + 1) 3 =0 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 4 ± 36 −2 x = −2 ± 3 The x-intercepts are x = 1 and x = −5 . b −4 vertex: x = − =− = −2 2a 2(−1) domain: (−∞. 1. ∞ ) f ( −2 ) = −(−2) 2 − 4(−2) + 5 = 9 The vertex is (–2. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 − 4(0) + 5 = 5 x= 3 Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 3 f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 The parabola opens up because a > 0. ∞) range: [ −2. f ( x ) = − x2 − 4 x + 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 3(0)2 − 6(0) + 1 = 1 The parabola opens down because a < 0. x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 − 4 x + 5 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(−1)(5) 12. since the zero has multiplicity 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9). the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. domain: (−∞.

The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. and 2. 14. degree 4. −1 . Inc. f ( x ) = x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 16. −2 . 325 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and since the leading coefficient. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1. x = −1. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. is negative. degree 4. x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) 6 − ( x + 1) = 0 6 ( x − 1) − 4 ( x − 1) = 0 ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2.PreCalculus 4E 13. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. 1. x = 1 The zeros are −2 .. since all have multiplicity 1. Apply the zero-product principle: x + 2 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −2 x=2 x =1 The zeros are −2 . Since f is an even-degree polynomial. x4 − 5x2 + 4 = 0 2 ( x + 1) 6 =0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 The zero is are −1 . degree 3. Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point f ( x ) = − ( x − 2) − ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 =0 2 15. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and since the leading coefficient. The graph crosses the x-axis at all four zeros. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. and 2. x = 2. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. −2 . and 2. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. is negative. is positive. 1. and since the leading coefficient. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 since the zero has multiplicity 6. since all have multiplicity 1. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and 2. 1. x = −2. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around both at −1 and 2 since both zeros have multiplicity 2. 1. −1 . is positive. 1. the graph rises to the left and rises to the right. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. −1 . and since the leading coefficient. f ( x ) = x4 − 5x2 + 4 (x Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 2 − 4 )( x 2 − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle. . −1 . degree 6.

. 0. and 1. Thus. ± 3. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. ± 6 2 x ( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 x ( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle: x = 0. x = − . − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( 26 ) 2 (1) 2 2 ± −100 2 ± 10i = = 1 ± 5i 2 2 The zeros are 0 and 1 ± 5i . 1 1 − . 2. . ± 2. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 List all factors of the leading coefficient −6 : ±1. c = 26 The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. x =1 The zeros are −1 . ± 3. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. since all have multiplicity 1. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. and 1. f ( x ) = −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 18. ± . −1 . The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 −6 7 0 −1 −6 −6 1 1 1 1 0 f ( x ) = 2 x3 − 2 x The remainder is 0. x = −1. 3 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x x3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x = 0 x ( x 2 − 2 x + 26 ) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x + 26 does not factor. so 1 is a zero. degree 3. and since the leading coefficient. Apply the zero-product property: 1 1 x = 1. and 1. since all have multiplicity 1. 2 x3 − 2 x = 0 To find the zeros. 0. degree 3. x = 3 2 1 1 The zeros are − . so we use the quadratic formula: x = 0 or x 2 − 2 x + 26 = 0 a = 1. and 1. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. = 326 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. ± . since it has multiplicity 1. is negative. −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −6 x 2 + x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 − ( x − 1)( 3x + 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 19. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at 0 (the only real zero). ± 2 3 6 We test values from the above list until we find a zero. −6 . ± 2. . 3 2 x= Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of − 6 ±1. is positive.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. and since the leading coefficient. b = −2.

Factors of the constant term 2: ±1. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. degree 3. − ( −2 ) ± x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. Thus. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 1 0 −3 Test 3: −1 3 −1 1 5 −5 −3 −3 6 3 2 1 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 2 )( x − 1) = 0 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) = 0 ( x − 3) ( − x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 3) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x − 1 does not factor. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. 20. and since the leading coefficient. b = −2. so we use the quadratic formula: x − 3 = 0 or x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 0 x=3 a = 1. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. since all have multiplicity 1. and the solution set is {−2. ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −1) 2 (1) 2 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 1± 2 2 2 The zeros are 3 and 1 ± 2 . Thus. ± 2 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Apply the zero-product property: 2 ( x − 1) = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = −2 x −1 = 0 x =1 The solutions are −2 and 1. ± 3 Factors of − 1 ±1 We test values from above until we find a root. c = −1 = 0 The remainder is 0. 327 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1} . ± 2 Factors of 1 ±1 Factors of − 3 ±1. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. and since the leading coefficient. so 1 is a root of the equation. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2 = = ±1. f ( x ) = − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 To find the zeros. is negative. ± 3 = = ±1. 3 and 1 ± 2 . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. 1.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. is positive. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −3 : ±1. −1 . degree 3. ± 3 List all factors of the leading coefficient −1 : ±1 The possible rational zeros are: The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 2 ±1. One is shown next: We test values from the previous list until we find a zero. 21. so 3 is a zero. x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 x= 2 1 −2 1 1 −2 The remainder is 0. Inc.

± 125. ± 4. x= Apply the zero-product property: x − 10 = 0 or 2 x + 5 = 0 or x + 10 = 0 x = 10 x=− 5 2 5 The solutions are −10. 2 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. and the solution 2 5 ⎧ ⎫ set is ⎨ −10. ± 10. . so 10 is a root of the equation. ± 100. ⎩3 2 ⎭ 23. Factors of the constant term −500 : ±1. ± 20. ± 2 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of 6 ±1. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 6 24. ± . One is shown next: 1 5 25 125 ±250. and 1. ± 5. so 1 is a root of the equation. ± 2. . 1⎬ . ± 4. One is shown next: 6 −1 6 −5 −5 1 1 Test 10: 0 10 The remainder is 0. ±50. 2 3 2 ⎧ 1 2 7⎫ is ⎨ − . and the solution set he solutions are − . ± 50. ± 2 3 6 The possible rational zeros are: We test values from above until we find a root. ± 2 2 2 2 Factors of 500 = ±1. ± 250. ± 500. ± . ± 25. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎩ 2 3 2⎭ 328 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Factors of 2 ±10. ± 125. ± . Inc. . ± 100. ± 20. 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 x= 3 2 1 1 The solutions are . ± 2. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 5 −200 −500 20 250 500 2 25 50 0 ( x − 10 ) ( 2 x 2 + 25 x + 50 ) = 0 ( x − 10 )( 2 x + 5 )( x + 10 ) = 0 Apply the zero-product property: x − 1 = 0 or 3 x − 1 = 0 or 2 x − 1 = 0 x =1 2 The remainder is 0. ± 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. 10 ⎬ . − . ± . and 10 . ± 25. − . ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. Thus. ± 2. ⎬ . Test 1: 1 6 −11 6 We test values from above until we find a root. and the solution set is 3 2 ⎧1 1 ⎫ ⎨ . ± 5. ± 2. ± 500 Factors of the leading coefficient 2: ±1. Factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 Factors of the leading coefficient 6: ±1. 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( 2 x + 1)( 3x − 2 ) ( 2 x − 7 ) = 0 3 Apply the zero-product property: 2x +1 = 0 1 x=− 2 or (3x − 2) 3 = 0 or 3x − 2 = 0 x= 2 3 x = −10 2x − 7 = 0 7 T x= 2 1 2 7 and . ± . Thus. ± 3.

we know that x + 3 is a factor of the polynomial. ± i} .PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point x − x − 11x − x − 12 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 6 = Factors of 2 ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. One possibility is shown next: Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Test −3 : x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 = x + 12 25. Inc. we know that −3 and The possible rational roots are: 329 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2. ± 3. ± 3. ± 2 1 are roots of 2 the equation. and ±i . 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We test values from this list we find a root. ± 12 = ±1 = ±1. Note that x 2 + 1 does not factor. ± 6. b = −2. ± . . ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 4: ±1. ± 3. we need to factor 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 . 4. so we use the square-root principle: x 2 + 1 = 0 Summarizing our findings so far. Thus. we know that x − 1 is a factor. ± 12 Factors of 6 ±1. 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 3) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 x − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x 4 + x3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 2. so −3 is a root of the equation. ± 3. we have 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 ( x + 3) ( 2 x3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 x = −1 2 ( x + 3) ⎛⎜ x − x = ± −1 = ± i 26. ± 3. ± 3. One possibility is shown next: −3 1 −17 −4 2 ⎝ 1⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2x − 4x − 4) = 0 2⎠ The roots are −3 . As this point we know that −3 and 4 are roots of the equation. and the solution set is {−3. 15 −2 To solve the equation above. We continue testing potential roots: 1 −1 −11 −1 −12 12 −3 −6 2 −5 ( x + 3) ( 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 Test −3 : −3 6 The remainder is 0. ± 12 12 1 −4 1 −4 0 Test The remainder is 0. ± 2. 4. ± 2 2 We test values from above until we find a root. so −3 is a root. ± 6. so 1 1 is a zero and x − is a 2 2 factor. ± 4. Using the Factor Theorem. 4 3 2 −3 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 12 Factors of 1 ±1. Factors of the constant term 6: ±1. x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 − x − 12 = 0 1 2 6 −6 2 0 1 : 2 2 −5 −2 2 1 −2 −2 ( x + 3) ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 3) ⎡⎣ x 2 ( x − 4 ) + 1( x − 4 )⎤⎦ = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 1) = 0 2 −4 −4 0 The remainder is 0. so we use the quadratic formula: x2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 a = 1. ± 4. ± 2. c = −2 At this point. Thus. Note that x 2 − 2 x − 2 does not factor. ± 4. Factors of the constant term −12 : ±1. Using the Factor Theorem. ± 6. ± 2 1 3 = ±1. ± 6. ± 2. ± 2.

A(10) = 20(10) − (10) 2 = 100 The maximum area is 100 squares inches. P ( 75 ) = −752 + 150(75) − 4425 (2x 4 +3 x +1 x +1 3x2 − 1 − 13x 3 + 17 x 2 + 18 x − 24 ) ÷ ( x − 4 ) 4 = −5625 + 11. +x 2 Since a = −1 is negative. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The maximum product is f ( x) = an ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) 81. − 2 x2 6 x4 2 ± 4 + 8 2 ± 12 2 ± 2 3 = = = = 1± 3 2 2 2 1 The solutions are −3 .81) . 2a 2 ( −1) f ( x) = 1( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 3 + 13x 2 − 36 x + 36 34. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 an = −2 f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) or − 2 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 2 x + 2 f ( −9 ) = −9 ⎡⎣ −18 − ( −9 ) ⎤⎦ 33. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 27. the function must have a real zero between 1 and 2 because f (1) and f (2) have opposite signs. 3 ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x − 3i )( x + 3i ) = ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) The vertex is ( −9.Polynomial and Rational Functions x= − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −2 ) 2 (1) 2 30. 2 x2 − x − 3 3x − 1 6 x − 3x − 11x 2 + 2 x + 4 2 4 − 3 x3 − 9 x 2 + 2 x −3 x 3 − 9x + x + 4 −9 x 2 P ( x ) = − x 2 + 150 x − 4425 2 x2 − x − 3 + 31. and the 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ solution set is ⎨ −3. 250 − 4425 = 1200 The company will maximize its profit by manufacturing and selling 75 cabinets per day. 2 2 –13 17 18 –24 8 -20 –12 24 6 0 –5 –3 The quotient is 2 x − 5 x − 3 x + 6 . and 1 ± 3 . 3 Let x = one of the numbers. 1 ± 3 ⎬ . we know the function opens down and has a maximum at b 150 150 x=− =− =− = 75 . 330 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 28. This occurs when the two number are −9 and −18 − (−9) = −9 . The maximum daily profit is $1200. 40 − 2x = base of triangle 1 1 A = bh = x(40 − 2 x) 2 2 A( x) = 20 x − x 2 The height at which the triangle will have 20 b maximum area is x = − =− = 10. . f ( x) = x 3 − x − 5 f (1) = 13 − 1 − 5 = −5 f (2) = 23 − 2 − 5 = 1 Yes. f (0) = an (0 − 2)(0 − 2)(02 + 9) 36 = 36an an = 1 Let x = height of triangle. 2 ( x − 1)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f ( x) = an ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f (−1) = an (−1 − 1) ( (−1) 2 + 1) = −4an = 8 The x-coordinate of the maximum is b −18 −18 x=− =− =− = −9. = −9 ( −18 + 9 ) = −9 ( −9 ) = 81 29. Inc. −18 − x = the other number The product is f ( x ) = x ( −18 − x ) = − x 2 − 18 x 32. . .

6 5. Since n < m. . 2 3x − 3 = 0 3x = 3 x =1 The x-intercept is 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. g ( x) = 3x − 3 x−2 3(− x) − 3 −3 x − 3 3x + 3 = = f (− x) = −x − 2 −x − 2 x+2 no symmetry 3(0) − 3 3 f (0) = = 0−2 2 3 The y-intercept is . y = 9 =3 3 y = 3 is a horizontal asymptote. b. c. The denominator cannot equal zero. 331 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2(0) 2 f (0) = 2 =0 0 −9 The y-intercept is 0. x 2x2 x2 − 9 2(− x)2 2x2 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 The y-axis symmetry. there is no horizontal asymptote. x = −1 b. 1 . Shift the graph 1 unit down by subtracting 1 from each y-coordinate. Begin with the graph of f ( x) = 6. 2 x2 = 0 x=0 The x-intercept is 0.6 Section 2. c. x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = 1. a. a. Inc. 4. y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. x −5 = 0 x=5 { x x ≠ 5} b. The denominator cannot equal zero. x 2 − 25 = 0 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 {x | x ≠ 5. No vertical asymptotes. Vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: 3 y= =3 1 f ( x) = x −1 x −1 1 = = 2 x − 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x + 1 x = −1 3. a. Check Point Exercises 1. Since n = m. c. f ( x) = Shift the graph 2 units to the left by subtracting 2 from each x-coordinate. Since n > m. x ≠ −5} 2. All real numbers.

000 + 400(10. 000 + 400 x b. 000) 10. 000) 100. 1. 2 2 –5 7 4 –2 g ( x) = 3x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 4) { x x ≠ 5. x ≠ −6} 332 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 x = 3. y= x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10. and 100. 000) = 7. 000) = 500. Inc. f ( x) = 5x x−4 { x x ≠ 4} 2.000 wheelchairs is $900. there is no horizontal asymptote. 000 + 400(1000) 1000 = 900 C (1000) = c. 8. g ( x) = 2 x2 ( x − 2)( x + 6) { x x ≠ 2. 10. 000 + 400(100. x4 x2 + 2 (− x)4 x4 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x) 2 + 2 x 2 + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 f (0) = 2 =0 0 +2 The y-intercept is 0. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 20 20 T (x) = + . x4 = 0 f ( x) = d. 500. 000 + 400 x x 500.000. x x − 10 Exercise Set 2. 2 –1 5 the equation of the slant asymptote is y = 2x – 1. and $405.6 x 2 = −2 no vertical asymptotes horizontal asymptote: Since n > m. . respectively. 000 = 405 The average cost per wheelchair of producing 1000. C (100. x ≠ −4} 4. a. vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 = 0 400 = 400 1 The cost per wheelchair approaches $400 as more wheelchairs are produced. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: 2 y= =2 1 9. C ( x) = 500. 000 = 450 C (10. $450. f ( x) = 7x x −8 { x x ≠ 8} 3. x=0 The x-intercept is 0. C ( x) = 500.

−∞ 17. x+3 x( x + 4) x( x + 4) = 0 x = 0. 1 21. r ( x) = f ( x) = 2 12 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 20. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. x 1 = x( x + 4) x + 4 x+4=0 h( x ) = x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 14. f ( x) = x−3 x−3 = 0 x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 31. x = 3 vertical asymptotes: x = 0.6 x+7 x 2 − 49 2 x − 49 = ( x − 7)( x + 7) h( x ) = 23. 0 15. x ≠ −7} 6. 12 =4 3 . x +8 x 2 − 64 x 2 − 64 = ( x − 8)( x + 8) h( x ) = 24.PreCalculus 4E 5. x = −4 g ( x) = x x+4 x+4=0 x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = –4 f ( x) = 30. r ( x) = 2 x x +3 x 2 + 3 has no real zeros There is no vertical asymptotes. −∞ 12. Section 2. 28. 16. 12 x 2 3x 2 + 1 horizontal asymptote: y = 333 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 +∞ x+3 x( x − 3) x( x − 3) = 0 x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 x 1 = x( x − 3) x − 3 x −3 = 0 h( x ) = x x +4 x 2 + 4 has no real zeros There are no vertical asymptotes. { x x ≠ 8. g ( x) = n = m. 8. 19. 29. Inc. −∞ 10. x+8 x + 64 all real numbers f ( x) = 9. { x x ≠ 7. +∞ 27. −∞ 18. x+7 x 2 + 49 all real numbers f ( x) = 25. f ( x) = 15 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 x 22. x ≠ −8} 7. x = 3 g ( x) = x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = −4 2 13. +∞ 11. +∞ 26.

f ( x) = n=m 39. x 334 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit to the right. x h( x ) = 1 +1 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit up. 1 +2 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 36. g ( x) = n=m 15 x 2 3x 2 + 1 38. h( x ) = g ( x) = 3 5 1 x −1 40. −2 x + 1 3x + 5 1 2 units up.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. x 12 x3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 34. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. h( x ) = 15 x 3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 35. x 2 3 −3 x + 7 5x − 2 n=m s f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 37. horizontal asymptote: y = 33. h( x ) = g ( x) = 1 x−2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 15 =5 3 1 2 units to the right.

g ( x) = Section 2. x2 . x2 335 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g ( x) = 45.6 1 −2 x +1 44. x2 1 2 units left. 42. x2 down. 1 −2 x+2 46. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left and 2 units x g ( x) = 1 ( x + 1) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left. g ( x) = 1 −4 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 units left and 2 units x down. 43. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 3 units down. h( x ) = 1 ( x + 2) 2 h( x ) = 1 −3 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 4 units down.PreCalculus 4E 41. Inc.

h( x ) = 1 +2 ( x − 3) 2 50. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0 −1 x-intercept: 3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x −1 = 0 f ( x) = x =1 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. so y = = 4 1 1 3 units right and 1 unit x2 up. 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 3 units right and 2 units x up. 48. . h( x ) = vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 1 +1 ( x − 3) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = x=2 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. Inc. 49. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 47. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 4(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0−2 x-intercept: 4x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 336 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so y = = 3 1 4x x−2 4(− x) 4x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 2 x + 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 3x x −1 3(− x ) 3x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 1 x + 1 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).

Inc. 0 =0 1 . so y = = 2 1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 52. 2 x2 x2 −1 f (−x) = 2 (−x) (−x) 2 2 −1 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 2x2 = f ( x) x2 − 1 2 (0) 2 02 − 1 = x-intercept: 2 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x2 −1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m.PreCalculus 4E 51. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 4x x2 −1 4 (−x) 4x f (−x) = =− 2 = –f(x) 2 ( −x) −1 x −1 Origin symmetry 4 ( 0) =0 y-intercept: 2 0 −1 x-intercept:4x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 f ( x) = 337 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 2x 2 x −4 2 (−x) 2x = –f(x) =− 2 f (−x) = 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 Origin symmetry 2 ( 0) 0 y-intercept: 2 = =0 0 − 4 −4 x-intercept: 2x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 53. Section 2.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. Inc. so y = 1 −x x +1 − (−x) x f (−x) = = (−x) +1 −x +1 f ( x) = f(–x) ≠ f(x). so y = = 4 1 55. 56. so y = 1 4 x2 x2 − 9 f (−x) = 4(−x) (−x) 2 2 −9 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 4 ( 0) 4 x2 = f ( x) x2 − 9 2 02 − 9 =0 x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = ±3 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry − ( 0) 0 y-intercept: y = = =0 0 +1 1 x-intercept: –x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 338 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: −1 = −1 n = m. −3 x x+2 −3 ( − x ) 3x f (−x) = = (−x) + 2 −x + 2 f ( x) = f–x) ≠ f(x). f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry y-intercept: −3 ( 0 ) y= =0 0+2 x-intercept: –3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 horizontal asymptote: −3 = −3 n = m.

f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 2 2 y-intercept: y = 2 = = −1 0 + 0 − 2 −2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 2 = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1) = 0 x = −2.PreCalculus 4E 57. so y = 0 −2 x −x−2 −2 −2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x ) − (− x ) − 2 x + x − 2 f ( x) = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).6 1 x −4 1 1 f (−x) = − =− 2 = f(x) 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 y-axis symmetry 1 1 = y-intercept: y = – 2 0 −4 4 x-intercept: –1 ≠ 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x2 = 4 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m or y = 0 f ( x) = − f ( x) = − 59. 58. 2 2 x −1 60. x = 1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 2 f (−x) = − 2 x + x−2 2 2 f (−x) = − = 2 2 (−x) − x − 2 x − x − 2 f ( x) = 2 = f(x) x −1 2 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: 2 2 y=− 2 =− =2 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: –2 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 (x – 1)(x + 1) x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m. x = −1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 339 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 2 (−x) 2 −1 =− 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry −2 =1 y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 2 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 x = 2. Inc. Section 2.

so y = = 2 1 f ( x) = 63.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 62. so y = = 4 1 f ( x) = 340 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 2 x2 x2 + 4 2(− x) 2 2 x2 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) + 4 x + 4 y axis symmetry 2(0) 2 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +4 x-intercept: 2 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0+2 2 1 =− =− y-intercept: y = 2 0 +0−6 6 3 x-intercept: x+2=0 x = –2 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) x = −3. x+2 x + x−6 −x + 2 −x + 2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( −x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). . x = 2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. so y = 0 f ( x) = 2 4 x2 x2 + 1 4(− x) 2 4 x2 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 ( −x) +1 x +1 y axis symmetry 4(0) 2 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +1 x-intercept: 4 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 + 0 − 12 =3 y-intercept: y = 02 − 4 x-intercept: x 2 + x − 12 = 0 2 ( x − 3)( x + 4) = 0 x = 3. 65. so none f ( x) = x 2 + x − 12 x2 − 4 (− x) 2 − x − 12 x 2 − x − 12 f (−x) = = 2 x2 − 4 (−x) − 4 f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x).PreCalculus 4E 64. Section 2. so y = = 1 1 341 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 x−4 2 x − x−6 x+4 −x − 4 f (−x) = =− 2 2 (−x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). ( x − 3)( x + 2) x = 3. so none f ( x) = 2 x4 x2 + 1 2(− x) 4 2 x4 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) +1 x +1 y-axis symmetry 2 ( 04 ) y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +2 x-intercept: 2 x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 2. . x4 x +2 (− x) 4 x4 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 (−x) + 2 x + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +2 x-intercept: x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m. Inc. so y = 0 67. x = 4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 f ( x) = 66. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0−4 2 = y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−6 3 x-intercept: x − 4 = 0. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(–x) ≠ f(x). f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +0−6 x-intercept: x 2 = 0.x =1 3 ( x + 1) 2 =0 x = –1 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. so y = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). so y = = 1 1 70. 2 x = 5 5 2 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. f ( x) = x2 − 4 x + 3 ( x + 1)2 ( − x ) − 4 ( − x ) + 3 x2 + 4 x + 3 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x + 1) ( − x + 1) 2 69. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) 2 + 0 − 4 −4 = y-intercept: y = 0 2(0) 2 − 5(0) no y-intercept x-intercepts: 3x2 + x − 4 = 0 (3 x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 x − 1 = 0 3x = −4 4 x = − . x = 0 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 x= ( x + 3)( x − 2) = 0 x = −3. Inc. x = 2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. so y = = 1 1 342 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . vertical asymptotes: 2 x2 − 5x = 0 x(2 x − 5) = 0 x2 x2 + x − 6 (− x) 2 x2 f (−x) = = 2 2 (−x) − x − 6 x − x − 6 f ( x) = x = 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 68. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 02 − 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = =3 2 1 ( 0 + 1) x-intercept: x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = 3 and x = 1 vertical asymptote: 3x 2 + x − 4 2 x2 − 5x 3(− x) 2 − x − 4 3 x 2 − x − 4 f (−x) = = 2 2 x2 + 5x 2 ( − x ) + 5x f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x).

Publishing as Prentice Hall. so none exist. slant asymptote: 4 f ( x) = x – x y=x f (−x) = (−x) 2 +1 x2 − 4 x (−x) 2 −4 = x2 + 1 = − f ( x) −x −x Origin symmetry 02 + 1 1 = y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m.PreCalculus 4E 71. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = 72. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x – x y=x f ( x) = b. x2 − 1 x ( − x ) − 1 x2 − 1 = = − f ( x) −x (−x) 2 f (−x) = Origin symmetry y-intercept: y = 0 2 − 1 −1 = 0 0 73. f ( x) = a. . Section 2. so none exist. b.6 horizontal asymptote: n > m. a. b. so none exist. no y-intercept x-intercepts: x 2 − 1 = 0 x = ±1 vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n < m. a. x2 − 4 x f ( x) = x2 + 1 x = x2 − 4 = − f ( x) −x −x origin symmetry 02 − 4 4 =− y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 vertical asymptote: x = 0 343 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 74. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = a. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry 0 2 + 0 − 6 −6 y-intercept: y = = =2 0−3 −3 x-intercept: x2 + x − 6 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 x = –3 and x = 2 344 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. . so none exist. x2 − x + 1 x −1 slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = x + x –1 y=x f ( x) = x2 − x − 1 x −1 (−x) − (−x) +1 2 f (−x) = 75. no y-intercept x2 + 4 = 0 x 2 = −4 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m. f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + x − 6 x−3 (−x) 2 + (−x) − 6 x2 + x + 1 −x −1 −x −1 no symmetry f (–x) ≠ f (x). b. x2 + 4 x slant asymptote: 4 g ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + 4 x (−x) 2 +4 −x origin symmetry y-intercept: y = = x2 + 4 = − f ( x) −x 02 + 4 4 = 0 0 76. so none exist. vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. f (–x) ≠ –g(x) 02 − 0 + 1 1 = = −1 y-intercept: y = 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: x2 − x + 1 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x–1=0 x=1 horizontal asymptote: n > m. 6 x –3 y=x+4 b. Inc. so none Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 4 + = = x2 − x − 6 −x − 3 −x − 3 f(–x) ≠ g(x). f ( x) = a.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = ( − x )3 − 1 − x 3 − 1 = (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). so none 345 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Section 2. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = no symmetry no symmetry y-intercept: y = 03 + 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 = 0 + 2(0) 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x3 + 1 = 0 x 3 = −1 03 − 1 1 = 02 − 9 9 x-intercept: x3 – 1 = 0 x3 = 1 x =1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3. slant asymptote: x−2 x 2 + 2 x x3 f ( x) = a. (− x)3 + 1 − x3 + 1 = 2 2 (− x) + 2(− x) x − 2 x f (− x) ≠ f ( x).PreCalculus 4E 77. +1 x + 2x 3 2 x3 − 1 x2 − 9 slant asymptote: 9x −1 x+ 2 x −9 x 2 − 9 x3 x − 9x 9x −1 − 2 x2 −2 x 2 + 4 x − 4x + 1 y=x y = x−2 b. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n > m. −1 3 b. f ( x) = a. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. .6 x3 + 1 x2 + 2 x 78. so none x = −1 vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x = 0 x( x + 2) = 0 x = 0.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. . f ( x ) = 2x ( x − 2) x ( x − 3) − 9 ( 2 ) 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x − 18 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = ( x − 6 ) ( x + 3) x−6 = x − 3) 2 ( 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 ) So. 5x2 x2 + 4 x + 4 ⋅ x2 − 4 10 x 3 = 5 x2 ( x + 2) ( x − 2) ⋅ 81. ( x + 2) 2 10 x 3 1 2 x+2 = 2x ( x − 2) x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 = − 2 ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x+2 So. f ( x ) = ⋅ 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) 346 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x−6 2 ( x − 3) x −5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 ÷ 10 x − 2 25 x 2 − 1 x −5 25 x 2 − 1 = ⋅ 2 10 x − 2 x − 10 x + 25 = ( 5 x + 1) ( 5 x − 1) 2 2 ( 5 x − 1) ( x − 5) = 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) x −5 So. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. f ( x ) = 80.

6 2 4 − 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 4 x + 3 2 4 = − x + 2 x + 1 x + 3 ( )( ) ( )( x + 1) = 83.PreCalculus 4E 82. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 x x 2 +1 x 2 +1 x+ x ( x − 1)( x + 1) So. f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 3) = x−2 x+2 x−2 x+2 1 2 x ⋅ x = x − 1 = ( x − 1)( x + 1) 84. Inc. 2 ( x + 3) − 4 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) x 2 − 4 − 3x + 6 x2 − 4 + x + 2 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 2 x + x−2 2x + 6 − 4x − 8 = ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = 3 3 1− x+2 = x + 2 ⋅ ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1 1 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1+ 1+ x−2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) − 3 ( x − 2 ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 ) 1− 2 = −2 x − 2 ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = −2 ( x + 1) −2 = = ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) ( x + 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) ( x − 1) So. f ( x ) = −2 So. Section 2. f ( x ) = x 2 +1 x− 347 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

g ( x) = 2x + 7 1 = +2 x+3 x+3 89. 000 C (1000 ) = = $200 1000 When 1000 bicycles are manufactured. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 88.000 b. it costs $200 to manufacture each. so y = 348 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.000 C ( x) = 100x +100. 30 = 30 . it costs $125 to manufacture each. C(1000) = 300. it costs $150 to manufacture each. Inc. The average cost decreases as the number of bicycles manufactured increases. . so y = 90.000 shoes are manufactured. C(100. 86. n = m. 100 (2000 ) + 100. b. 00) = d. 000 C (4000 ) = = $125 4000 When 4000 bicycles are manufactured. g ( x) = 3x + 7 1 = +3 x+2 x+2 d. 000 + 30(100. 000) = 33 100. 87. a. it costs $33 to manufacture each. 100(1000) + 100.000 shoes are manufactured. c. g ( x) = −1 2x − 9 = +2 x−4 x−4 C= 300. a. n = m. c. it costs $300 to manufacture each. 000 C (2000 ) = = $150 2000 When 2000 bicycles are manufactured. 000 When 100. 000 = $300 500 When 500 bicycles are manufactured. it costs $330 to manufacture each. the average cost approaches $100. The average cost decreases as the number of shoes manufactured increases. C (500) = 100 = 100 . 300000 + 30(10000) C(10000) = = 60 10000 When 10. 000 + 30x x 300000 + 30(1000) = 330 1000 When 1000 shoes are manufactured. 1 As greater numbers of bicycles are manufactured. 100(4000) + 100.Polynomial and Rational Functions 85.000 x 100 (500 ) + 100. C(x) = 30x + 300. the average cost approaches $30. 1 As greater numbers of shoes are manufactured. g ( x) = −1 3x − 7 = +3 x−2 x−2 C ( x ) = 100 x + 100 . it costs $60 to manufacture each.

5 Over time. y = 100 As incidence of the diseases increases. During the first hour. 89% of the deaths are smoking related. From the graph. y = 6. No. the pH level is lowest after about 6 minutes. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 98. = 4.5 3 + 1 10 This verifies that the drug’s concentration after 3 hours will be 1.5. Section 2. 2 f ( x) = 11x 2 + 40 x + 1040 12 x 2 + 230 x + 2190 1707. d. 93. From the graph. and hiking is T (x) = x x P(10) = 99. A = xy = 2500 2500 y= x P(9) = T (x) = 5000 2500 = 2x + x x The perimeter of the floor. The horizontal asymptote is y = 11 . 95. b. This overestimates the actual percent found in the graph by 1%. x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. 6. Over time. If trends continue.0. so the the horizontal asymptote is y = 0 . e. Therefore. 100%. as a function of the 5000 . 1. the drug’s concentration will approach 0 milligrams per liter. 5 ( 3) b. According to the graph. the pH level appears to approach 6. the lowest pH level) is 4. 90 5 10 5 + = + 9x x x x The function that expresses the total time for driving 10 5 + . width. 2. but never gets to be. From the graph.5 ( 6 ) − 20. c. 12 11 or about 92% of federal 12 expenditures will spent on human resources over time. the pH level rises back to the normal level. According to the function. and then slowly begins to approach the normal level.8. d. but never reaches 100%.8 The pH level after 6 minutes (i.4 ( 6 ) + 234 2 f (6) = 62 + 36 97. c. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 600 600 + .7 of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. 90) 10 For a disease that smokers are 10 times more likely to contact than non-smokers. the pH level drops quickly below normal. 94. 100(9 − 1) = 89 (9.PreCalculus 4E 91. the percent of death approaches. Inc.5 milligrams per liter.5 milligrams per liter. = The degree of the numerator. a. the percentage approaches 100%. 89) 9 For a disease that smokers are 9 times more likely to have than non-smokers. x is P(x) = 2 x + x P = 2x + 2y = 2x + 2 349 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 100. the drug’s concentration after three hours appears to be about 1. is less than the degree of the denominator. 92. 90% of the deaths are smoking related.6 From the graph the pH level of the human mouth 42 minutes after a person eats food containing sugar will be about 6. 11(36) 2 + 40(36) + 1040 16736 f (36) = = or 12(36) 2 + 230(36) + 2190 26022 about 64% of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. a. the normal pH level must be 6. T (x) = x x − 10 100(10 − 1) = 90 (10. b. 15 = 1.2 or about 63% 2708. P.5 as time goes by. .e. 96. C ( 3) = a.

117.Polynomial and Rational Functions 101. true 123. 2 x 2 + x = 15 2 x 2 + x − 15 = 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) = 0 2x − 5 = 0 or x+3= 0 x= 5 2 x = −3 5⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −3. Changes to make the statement true will vary. the average cost for a company to produce each unit of its product decreases. 116. false. Explanations will vary. 122. x = 2. 102. true 114. 118. In g(x). 120. does not make sense. Answers may vary. – 111. The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. true 124. g(x) is the graph of a line where f(x) is the graph of a rational function with a slant asymptote. . Explanations will vary. 2⎭ ⎩ 350 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.000 drivers. A sample change is: The graph of a rational function may have both a vertical asymptote and a horizontal asymptote. and then the number of arrests decreases. makes sense The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. – 127. c. Sample explanation: A rational function can have at most one horizontal asymptote. f (x) = 50 +2 x 27725(x − 14) − 5x x2 + 9 w=x+1 50 A= + 2 (x + 1) x 50 + 2x + 2 x 50 + 52 = 2x + x The total area of the page is 50 A(x) = 2 x + + 52. A = lw xy = 50 l=y+2= 115. Explanations will vary. 112. ⎬ . Sample explanation: The function has one vertical asymptote. x – 2 is a factor of x 2 − 5x + 6 . 121. does not make sense. At age 25 the highest number arrests occurs. 113. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. There are about 356 arrests for every 100. The graph increases from late teens until about the age of 25. x = 50 + b. a. Sample explanation: As production level increases. 119. does not make sense. 128. Answers may vary.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. −4 ) 30 > 20. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. x 2 − x > 20 x 2 − x − 20 > 0 ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. true ( −4. true 2 2 Conclusion ( −∞. x +1 x + 1 2( x + 3) −2= − x+3 x+3 x+3 x + 1 2x + 6 = − x+3 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 = x+3 −x − 5 x+5 = or − x+3 x+3 Section 2. . 5 ) does not belong to the solution set.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4( x + 1) = 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 − 4) = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 The solution set is {−2. ( −4. 130. ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. −4 ) ∪ ( 5. ( 5. x + 4 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −4 x=5 The boundary points are –2 and 4. Inc. Test Test Test Interval Number (−5) 2 − (−5) > 20 –5 ( −∞. ∞ ) or { x x < −4 or x > 5} .7 x3 + x 2 = 4 x + 4 129. −4 ) belongs to the solution set. ∞ ) 0 (0) − (0) > 20 0 > 20. 5 ) ( 5. The solution set is ( −∞. false 10 (10) − (10) > 20 90 > 20. 2} . −1.7 Check Point Exercises 1. 351 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

∞ ) 2 ( −∞.1] 0 [1. The solution set is ( −∞. −1) –2 ( −1. −3) -4 ( −3. (0) + 3(0) ≤ (0) + 3 3 [ −1. −3] ∪ [ −1. true 2(0) ≥1 0 +1 0 ≥ 1. −3) −16 ≤ −1 true belongs to the solution set. 2x ≥1 x +1 2x −1 ≥ 0 x +1 x −1 ≥0 x +1 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x =1 x = −1 Test Test Interval Number ( −∞. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or x ≥ 1} .1] does not belong to the solution set. does not belong to the solution true set. true 3 ( −∞. −1) ∪ [1. 352 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( −3.1] Conclusion 2 [ −1. −1) belongs to the solution set. .Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. ( −1. −1] does not belong to the solution (−2)3 + 3(−2) 2 ≤ (−2) + 3 4 ≤ 1 false set. 3. [1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 2(−2) ≥1 −2 + 1 4 ≥ 1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. The solution set is ( −∞. Inc.1] or { x x ≤ −3 or − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1} . x3 + 3x 2 ≤ x + 3 x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3 ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x = −1 Test Interval x =1 Test Number ( −∞. −1] –2 x+3=0 x = −3 Test (−4)3 + 3(−4) 2 ≤ (−4) + 3 0 [1. false 2(2) ≥1 2 +1 4 ≥ 1.1] 0 ≤ 3 true ( 6 + 3)( 6 − 5 ) > 0 [1.

false 2 ( −∞. (x + 3)(x – 5) > 0 x = –3 or x = 5 T F T –3 5 Test –4: (–4 + 3)(–4 – 5) > 0 9 > 0 True Test 0: (0 + 3)(0 – 5) > 0 –15 > 0 False Test 6: (6 + 3)(6 – 5) > 0 18 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. (x – 4)(x + 2) > 0 x = 4 or x = –2 T F T –2 4 Test –3: (–3 – 4)(–3 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True Test 0: (0 – 4)(0 + 2) > 0 –8 > 0 False Test 5: (5 – 4)(5 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True (−∞.PreCalculus 4E 4.1) 0 (1. . true Conclusion ( −∞. false solution set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 2) or (4. The object will be more than 64 feet above the ground between 1 and 4 seconds.1) (1.7 −16t 2 + 80t > 64 −16t 2 + 80t − 64 > 0 −16(t − 1)(t − 4) > 0 t − 1 = 0 or t − 4 = 0 t =1 t=4 Test Interval Test Number Test −16(0) + 80(0) > 64 0 > 64. 4 ) does not belong to the solution set. 4 ) 2 −16(2) 2 + 80(2) > 64 96 > 64. ( 4. ∞ ) 5 Exercise Set 2. Section 2.7 1. 353 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. belongs to the solution set. ∞). Inc. ∞ ) does not belong to the 0 > 64. −16(5) 2 + 80(5) > 64 ( 4. ∞) 2. − 3) or (5.

7]. 1) or (4. − 3) or (2. 3). − 4) or (−1. T T 2 (x + 1)(x – 7) ≤ 0 x = –1 or x = 7 F x2 − 4 x + 3 < 0 ( x − 1)( x − 3) < 0 x = 1 or x = 3 x =1 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (x – 7)(x + 3) ≤ 0 x = 7 or x = –3 F 6. 4.Polynomial and Rational Functions 3. F –3 T 2 Test –4: (−4) − 4 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True Test 0: (0) 2 + 0 − 6 > 0 –6 > 0 False Test 3: 32 + 3 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. F 1 F –1 7 Test –2: (–2 + 1)(–2 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 + 1)(0 – 7) ≤ 0 –7 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 + 1)(8 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–1. T F –3 7 Test –4: (–4 – 7)(–4 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 – 7)(0 + 3) ≤ 0 –21 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 – 7)(8 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–3. 7. 2 354 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . ∞). 2 x2 − 5x + 4 > 0 ( x − 4)( x − 1) > 0 x = 4 or F Test 0: 0 − 4(0) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False Test 2: 22 − 4(2) + 3 < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 4: 42 − 4(4) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (1. 7]. ∞) . T F 1 T 4 Test 0: 0 − 5(0) + 4 > 0 x2 + x − 6 > 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) > 0 x = –3 or x = 2 2 T 4 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 5(2) + 4 > 0 −2 > 0 False 2 Test 5: 5 − 5(5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 3 x2 + 5x + 4 > 0 ( x + 1)( x + 4) > 0 x = –1 or x = –4 T F –4 T –1 Test –5: (−5) + 5(−5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True Test –3: (−3)2 + 5(−3) + 4 > 0 –2 > 0 False Test 0: 02 + 5(0) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. ∞) . 5. Inc.

Test 0: 0 − 2(0) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 2(2) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. . Inc.PreCalculus 4E 9.7 x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) < 0 x=3 F 12. F −2 3 x2 − 2x + 1 > 0 ( x − 1)( x − 1) > 0 x=1 T 1 −2 x= 3 3 T Test 0: 02 − 6(0) + 9 < 0 9 < 0 False 2 Test 4: 4 − 6(4) + 9 < 0 1 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9 x2 + 3x − 2 ≥ 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) ≥ 0 3 x = 1 3 x = −2 2 x 2 + x − 15 < 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) < 0 2 x − 5 = 0 or x+3=0 2x = 5 5 x= x = −3 or 2 3x 2 + 10 x − 8 ≤ 0 (3 x − 2)( x + 4) ≤ 0 F T –4 T –3 2 x = or x = −4 3 F 2 x 2 + x < 15 F 5 2 Test –4: 2(−4) 2 + (−4) < 15 28 < 15 False Test 0: 2(0) 2 + 0 < 15 0 < 15 True Test 3: 2(3) 2 + 3 < 15 21 < 15 False 5⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −3. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ T 1 13. 1) or (1. x= F 3 T 1 3 Test –1: 9(−1) 2 + 3(−1) − 2 ≥ 0 4 ≥ 0 True Test 0: 9(0)2 + 3(0) − 2 ≥ 0 –2 ≥ 0 False Test 1: 9(1) 2 + 3(1) − 2 ≤ 0 10 ≥ 0 True −2 ⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. ∞ ⎟ . ⎥ . Section 2. 2 11. ⎥ or ⎢ . 3⎦ ⎣ 355 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞). 10. 2⎠ ⎝ F 2 3 Test –5: 3(−5)2 + 10(−5) − 8 ≤ 0 17 ≤ 0 False Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 10(0) − 8 ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 True Test 1: 3(1) + 10(1) − 8 ≤ 0 2 5 ≤ 0 False 2⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −4. ⎟ . ∅.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. ⎣ 3⎦ 356 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎟ or ⎜ . 3x 2 + 16 x + 5 < 0 6 x2 + x − 1 > 0 (3 x + 1)( x + 5) < 0 3x + 1 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 (2 x + 1)(3x − 1) > 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or 3x − 1 = 0 2 x = −1 1 x=− 2 3x = −1 3x = 1 1 x= 3 T F − 12 x=− − 13 5 x ≤ 2 − 3x 2 17. − ⎟ . 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ 15. − ⎟ . ⎥ . ∞ ⎟ . 6 x2 + x > 1 16. 3⎠ ⎝ 4 x 2 + 7 x < −3 T T –5 1 3 F x = −5 1 3 F T Test –1: 6(−1) 2 + (−1) > 1 5 > 1 True Test 0: 6(0) 2 + 0 > 1 0 > 1 False Test 1: 6(1)2 + 1 > 1 7 > 1 True 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 4 x2 + 7 x + 3 < 0 (4 x + 3)( x + 1) < 0 4x + 3 = 0 or x +1=0 4 x-3=0 3 or x=− x = −1 4 3x2 + 5x − 2 ≤ 0 (3 x − 1)( x + 2) ≤ 0 3x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 3x − 1=0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 x= F − 34 –1 F Test –6: 3(−6) 2 + 16(−6) < −5 12 < –5 False Test –2: 3(−2) 2 + 16(−2) < −5 –20 < –5 True Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 16(0) < −5 0 < –5 False 1⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −5. 3x 2 + 16 x < −5 1 or 3 F Test –2: 4(−2) 2 + 7(−2) < −3 2 < −3 False T –2 2 7 ⎛ 7⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ Test − : 4 ⎜ − ⎟ + 7 ⎜ − ⎟ < −3 8 ⎝ 8⎠ ⎝ 8⎠ 49 49 − < −3 16 8 49 − < −3 True 16 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 7(0) < −3 0 < −3 False 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −1. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 4⎠ ⎝ x = −2 F 1 3 Test –3: 5(−3) ≤ 2 − 3(−3) 2 –15 ≤ –25 False Test 0: 5(0) ≤ 2 − 3(0) 2 0 ≤ 2 True Test 1: 5(1) ≤ 2 − 3(1) 2 5 ≤ –1 False ⎡ 1⎤ The solution set is ⎢ −2.

21. .7 4 x2 + 1 ≥ 4 x 20.PreCalculus 4E 18. 19. ∞). − ⎟ or (0.4 = 0 x=4 2 x 2 + 3x > 0 x(2 x + 3) > 0 x = 0 or x = − 3 2 T T F 0 T F − 32 4 T 0 Test –2: 2(−2) 2 + 3(−2) > 0 2 > 0 True Test –1: 2(−1)2 + 3(−1) > 0 –1 > 0 False Test 1: 2(1) 2 + 3(1) > 0 5 > 0 True 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 0). 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) ≥ 0 2x −1 = 0 1 x= 2 x2 + 2x < 0 x( x + 2) < 0 x = 0 or x = –2 F T –2 F 0 Test –3: (−3) + 2(−3) < 0 3 < 0 False Test –1: (−1) 2 + 2(−1) < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 + 2(1) < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (–2. Section 2. ∞). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 T T 1 2 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(0) 1 ≥ 0 True Test 1: 4(1) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(1) 5 ≥ 4 True The solution set is (−∞. 357 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 − 4 x ≥ 0 x( x − 4) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x . 0] or [4. Inc. ∞ ). 2⎠ ⎝ Test –1: (−1) 2 − 4(−1) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 − 4(1) ≥ 0 −3 ≥ 0 False 0 ≤ 2 True Test 5: 52 − 4(5) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True The solution set is (−∞.

41 The solution set is ⎡⎣ 2 − 2.41] . 2 + 2 ⎤⎦ or [ 0. . ⎥ . x2 − 4 x + 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 4 x + 2 = 0 23. −2 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0. 5 3 − x2 + 2 x ≥ 0 x(− x + 2) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x = 2 F F T F 0 T F 0 2 Test –1: −(−1) + 2(−1) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False Test 1: −(1) 2 + 2(1) ≥ 0 1 ≥ 0 True Test 3: −(3)2 + 2(3) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0.59 3.41 = F 1 Test –1: −(−1) + (−1) ≥ 0 −2 ≥ 0 False 2 F T F 2 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ Test : − ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 1 ≥ 0 True 4 Test 2: −(2) 2 + 2 ≥ 0 0. 2 5 3 Test –1: 3(−1)2 − 5(−1) ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 False Test 1: 3(1)2 − 5(1) ≤ 0 –2 ≤ 0 True Test 2: 3(2)2 − 5(2) ≤ 0 2 ≤ 0 False ⎡ 5⎤ The solution set is ⎢0. ⎣ 3⎦ x2 ≤ 4 x − 2 25.59.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. 3. 358 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.59 or x ≈ 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −x2 + x ≥ 0 x= x2 − x ≤ 0 x( x − 1) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 1 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) F T 0 4± 8 2 = 2± 2 x ≈ 0. 3x 2 − 5 x ≤ 0 x(3x − 5) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 24. 2]. 1]. Inc.

x − 2x − 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) 1 2 ± 12 2 = 1± 3 x ≈ −0.73 or x ≈ 2. and 5 Test one value in each interval. and 3 Test one value in each interval. ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x + 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –1. F T F T –0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ). x(4 − x)( x − 6) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.73 0 x=3 3 T 5 The solution set is [0. 359 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 27. . 2] ∪ [3. The solution set is ⎡⎣1 − 3. 3. 3. F T F x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 Solve x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 ( x − 3)2 = 0 28. –2] ∪ [–1. 2. F F 3 The solution set is the empty set. and –3 Test one value in each interval. ∅. ∞).73 2 The solution set is [1. and 5 Test one value in each interval.1 + 3 ⎤⎦ or [ −0. Inc.73] . F T F x2 ≤ 2x + 2 26. 4] ∪ [6. ∞). 32.73. x(3 − x)( x − 5) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 1. F T F 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 0 (2 x − 1)2 = 0 x= –1 31. ∞). 3] ∪ [5.73 F –3 2. = F T 6 The solution set is [0. –2. –2 T The solution set is [–3. 2. 1 2 T 4 T T 1 2 The solution set is (−∞. ∞).7 29. 3 30.

T T F 7 2 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) ≥ 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. x3 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 > 0 x 2 ( x + 1) + 4( x + 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 + 4) ≥ 0 Boundary point: –1 Test one value in each interval. −2] ∪ [2. 2 –7 –1 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 72 . x 3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) ≥ 0 ( F x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 9 > 0 x 2 ( x − 1) + 9 ( x − 1) ≥ 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 9) ≥ 0 Boundary point: 1. 7 2 Boundary points: 2. –1 and 1 Test one value in each interval. –7) ∪ (–1. 13 .Polynomial and Rational Functions ( ) 33. –1 The solution set is (−1. −3]. and 38. (5 − x)2 x − 13 <0 2 Boundary points: 5. . T T F ( x + 7)( x 2 − 1) < 0 ( x + 7)( x + 1)( x − 1) < 0 Boundary points: –7.5 ) ∪ 5. F T F –2 –1 39. 36. and ( x − 3)( x 2 − 9) ≥ 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –3 and 3 Test one value in each interval. –1. ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x + 2)( x − 2) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. 1). x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 ) 40. (2 − x)2 x − 72 < 0 37. ( ) 34. ∞). Test one value in each interval. and 2 Test one value in each interval. and 2 Test one value in each interval. Inc. T F F Test one value in each interval. –1] ∪ [1. F T T 2 The solution set is [–2. 2 ) ∪ 2. F T 1 The solution set is (1. ∞). F F T –2 1 The solution set is (–∞ . 360 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –3 3 The solution set is (−∞. T F T 13 2 5 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 7 < 0 x 2 ( x + 7) − ( x + 7) < 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. ∞ ). ∞). 2 The solution set is [ −2. 13 2 Test one value in each interval. 35.

∞). 4]. T T F 48. ∞). The solution set is ( −∞. 47. 43.PreCalculus 4E 41. 45. − 3] ∪ (−2. 0 4 The solution set is (–∞. Section 2. Inc. 361 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞). ∞ ). − 5) ∪ (2. x−4 >0 x+3 x−4 = 0 x+3 = 0 x = −3 T F −x − 3 ≤0 x+2 x = –3 or x = –2 T F 4 49. 9 The solution set is [ 0. –2 4 − 2x ≤0 3x + 4 4 3 T F − 43 F –5 T x+3 <0 x+4 x = −3 or F x = −4 T T 2 −4 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 42. F F T 0 46. Test one value in each interval. 0] ∪ [9.7 x3 − 9 x 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 9) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 0 and 9 Test one value in each interval. F –5 –2 The solution set is (–5. ∞). ⎟ ∪ [2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –3). –2). x − 4x ≤ 0 x 2 ( x − 4) ≤ 0 2 Boundary points: 0 and 4. T –3 x=4 –3 −x + 2 ≥0 x−4 x = 2 or x = 4 F 2 4 The solution set is [2. T T x = 2 or x = − x+5 >0 x−2 x = –5 or x = 2 T F The solution set is (−∞. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2 The solution set is (−∞. 3 x+5 <0 x+2 x = –5 or x = –2 F T F –4 –3 The solution set is (–4. 44. − 3) ∪ (4. . 4).

0) ∪ (3. −4] ∪ ( −2. F . The solution set is ( −∞. x >2 x −1 56. 2]. therefore must be included in the solution set. − 5) ∪ (−3. ( x + 3)( x − 2) ≤0 x +1 x = −3 or x = −1 or x = 2 . The solution set is (−∞. ⎣ 3 ⎠ 51. 362 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. therefore must be included in the solution set. 0 The solution set is ( −∞. 3x + 5 ≥0 6 − 2x 5 x = − or x = 3 3 F 54. ( x + 4)( x − 1) ≤0 x+2 x = −4 or x = −2 or x = 1 . 53. 3 ⎟ .Polynomial and Rational Functions 50.1] x = 2 or x = 1 F T 1 2 The solution set is (1. T − F –3 3 5 3 55. ∞) . Inc. T F T T –3 The solution set is (−∞. ⎡ 5 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ − . ∞). x+4 >0 x x = –4 or x = 0 T –1 F –5 T –4 2 x +1 <2 x+3 x +1 −2<0 x+3 x + 1 − 2( x + 3) <0 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 <0 x+3 −x − 5 <0 x+3 x = or x = –3 T F F Values of x = −3 or x = 2 result in f ( x) = 0 and. 2). T F –4 T –2 x −2>0 x −1 x 2( x − 1) − >0 x −1 x −1 x − 2x + 2 >0 x −1 −x + 2 >0 x −1 F 1 Values of x = −4 or x = 1 result in f ( x) = 0 and. x >0 x−3 x = 0 or x = 3 T F 0 T 3 The solution set is (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞). − 4) ∪ (0. 52. − 3] ∪ (−1.

x−2 ≤2 x+2 x−2 −2≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2 ( x + 2) ≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2x − 4 ≤0 x+2 −x − 6 ≤0 x+2 T T F –4 –2 The solution set is [–4. . x = −6 or 1 2 F T T -2 The solution set is (−∞. 3) ∪ (4. − 6] ∪ (−2. –2). x −2≥0 x+2 x 2( x + 2) − ≥0 x+2 x+2 x − 2x − 4 ≥0 x+2 −x − 4 ≥0 x+2 1 −1 < 0 x −3 1 x−3 − <0 x−3 x−3 1− x + 3 <0 x −3 −x + 4 <0 x−3 x = –4 or x = –2 x = 4 or x = 3 F F 3 F -6 7 5 1 <1 x−3 T x = −2 T 1 2 58. f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 2 x2 − 5x + 2 ≥ 0 Solve 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 2 T F 1 2 T 2 1⎤ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. ∞). 61. 2⎦ ⎝ 363 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≥2 x+2 60. ∞). Inc. ∞ ) .7 x+4 ≤3 2x − 1 x+4 −3≤ 0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 3 ( 2 x − 1) ≤0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 6x + 3 ≤0 2x − 1 −5 x + 7 ≤0 2x − 1 x= 7 or 5 x= T 59. 4 The solution set is (−∞. Section 2. ⎥ ∪ [ 2.PreCalculus 4E 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1 f ( x) = 4x − 9x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 > 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(4 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 4 2 T F 1 4 T 2 1⎞ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. thus. The domain is ( −∞. it must be included in the domain. ∞ ) . it must be included in the domain. ⎝2 ⎦ 364 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 1) ∪ [1. f ( x) = 2x −1 x +1 The domain of this function requires that T F 2x x −1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 x +1 x +1 x = −1 or x = 1 T -1 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎟ ∪ ( 2. 4⎠ ⎝ 63.Polynomial and Rational Functions 62. Inc. f ( x) = x −1 2x − 1 x −x + 1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 2x − 1 2x − 1 1 x= or x = 1 2 The domain of this function requires that F T 1 2 F 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. . ∞ ) . 1⎥ . ⎛1 ⎤ The domain is ⎜ . 64. thus.

−6 ) −7 ( −7 ) 2 + 2 ( −7 ) − 36 > 12 1 > 12. 66. −3. 4 ) 0 36 > 12. −6 ) does not belong to the solution set. x2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 6 x + 1 < −8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 x2 + 6 x + 9 < 0 x2 + 6 x − 7 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. ∞ ) 7 7 + 2 ( 7 ) − 36 > 12 ( −8. . ∞ ) belongs to the 2 27 > 12. ( −6. ∞ ) or { x x < −8 or − 6 < x < 4 or x > 6} . x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 or x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 ( x + 3) 2 =0 ( x + 7 )( x − 1) = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x + 3 = ± 0 or x + 7 = 0 3 0 7 x+ = x=− x =1 x = −3 The boundary points are −7. solution set. The solution set is ( −∞. −8 ) ∪ ( −6. False to the solution set. False ( −6. x + 6 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 or x + 8 = 0 or x−6 = 0 x = −6 x=4 x = −8 The boundary points are −8. 4 and 6 . 4 ) belongs to the 02 + 2 ( 0 ) − 36 > 12 ( 4. 6 ) solution set. x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 or x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 ( x + 6 )( x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 8 )( x − 6 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. − 6. True ( −8. 6 ) does not belong 1 > 12. −8) belongs to the 27 > 12. 365 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 ) ∪ ( 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −8 ) −9 ( −9 ) 2 x=6 Test Conclusion + 2 ( −9 ) − 36 > 12 ( −∞. Section 2. True 5 52 + 2 ( 5) − 36 > 12 ( 6.PreCalculus 4E 65. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. ( 6. and 1 . True solution set.7 x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 2 x − 36 < −12 or x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 x 2 + 2 x − 24 < 0 x 2 + 2 x − 48 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. Inc. ( 4.

False 2 3 3 ( −3. 2 ) 0 ( 2. True ( −7. −3) does not belong > −4 + 3 −4 − 2 to the solution set. 17 ≥ 8. Inc. 366 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −7 ) −8 ( −8 ) 2 Test Conclusion + 6 ( −8 ) + 1 > 8 ( −∞. False 2 The solution set is ( −3. 3 3 > x+3 x−2 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. False ( −3.1) does not belong 02 + 6 ( 0 ) + 1 > 8 0 solution set. −3) −5 ( −5 ) 2 ( −7. False (1. 67. 2 ) or { x −3 < x < 2} . .1) to the solution set. 1 > 3. −3) ( −3. ∞ ) (1. −7 ) belongs to the 17 ≥ 8.Polynomial and Rational Functions Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. 2 ) belongs to the > 0+3 0−2 solution set. 3 3 − >0 x+3 x−2 3( x − 2) 3 ( x + 3) − >0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 3x − 6 − 3x − 9 <0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) −15 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) <0 Find the values of x that make the denominator zero. x+3 = 0 x−2=0 x = −3 x=2 The boundary points are −3 and 2. ∞ ) belongs to the 22 + 6 ( 2 ) + 1 > 8 2 to the solution set. −7 ) ∪ (1. 1 −3 > . 3 1 > − . ∞ ) 3 Test Conclusion 3 3 ( −∞. 1 ≥ 8. True The solution set is ( −∞. ( −3. True 2 3 3 ( 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. solution set. ∞ ) or { x x < −7 or x > 1} . ∞ ) does not belong > 3+3 3− 2 to the solution set. −3) does not belong + 6 ( −5 ) + 1 > 8 4 ≥ 8.

1) or { x x < −3 or − 1 < x < 1} . −3) ∪ ( −1. −3) belongs to the > −4 + 1 −3 − 1 solution set. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 1 2 ( −∞. 1 2 − >0 x + 1 x −1 2 ( x + 1) x −1 − >0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) x −1 − 2x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) <0 −x − 3 <0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. Publishing as Prentice Hall. False 3 The solution set is ( −∞. 2 −1 > − . ∞ ) does not belong > 2 + 1 2 −1 to the solution set. −3) ( −3. True 1 2 (1. −1) −2 ( −1. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞.1) belongs to the > 0 + 1 0 −1 solution set. 1 1 − > − . Inc. 1 > 1.PreCalculus 4E 68.7 1 2 > x + 1 x −1 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. True 3 2 1 2 ( −3.1) 0 (1. Section 2. and 1. −1 . . 1 > −2. −1) does not belong > −2 + 1 −2 − 1 to the solution set. −x − 3 = 0 x +1 = 0 x −1 = 0 −3 = x x = −1 x =1 The boundary points are −3 . 367 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. False 3 1 2 ( −3.

368 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1) does not belong (1.5 − 2 >0 2. False 3 1.3) does not belong to the solution set. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. −1) ∪ (1. 2 and 3. Test Interval Test Number Test 2 −2 ( −∞.5 2. 7 > 0. True 3 The solution set is ( −∞. . 2 − > 0. −1) ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) − 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 4 ( −2 ) + 3 ( −1.5 ) + 3 5 > 0. 2 ) ∪ ( 3.5 − 2 >0 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. 1.3) 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.52 − 2. Inc. x2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle.5 4 ( −1. 4 > 0. x2 − x − 2 >0 x2 − 4 x + 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. 2 ) ( 2. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} .52 − 4 ( 2. False 3 42 − 4 − 2 >0 4 − 4 ( 4) + 3 2 ( 3. ∞ ) to the solution set.52 − 1. −1) belongs to the solution set. x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 x=3 x =1 The boundary points are −1 . 2 ) belongs to the solution set. True 15 0 02 − 0 − 2 >0 0 − 4 (0) + 3 2 (1.52 − 4 (1. ( 2.5 ) + 3 − ( 3. True 3 2. 10 > 0.1) Conclusion ( −∞.

∞ ) 4 42 − 3 ( 4 ) + 2 4 − 2 ( 4) − 3 2 3 > 0.7 x2 − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.5 ) − 3 ( 2. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. True 5 The solution set is ( −∞. −1) ∪ (1. 2 ) ∪ ( 3. Section 2. −1) belongs to the ( −2 ) − 3 ( −2 ) + 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 2 ( −2 ) − 3 2 solution set.1) 0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 Test Conclusion ( −∞. True 15 2. 369 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 x2 − 2x − 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle.5 ) − 3 (1. ( 3.5) + 2 >0 2.3) − ( 3. to the solution set. −1) Test Number −2 x − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 2 ( −1.5 2 > 0.1) does not belong to the solution set.52 − 2 (1.PreCalculus 4E 70. False 7 >0 solution set. 6 > 0. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . 2 ) belongs to the 2. Inc.52 − 3 ( 2. False 3 1. 2 and 3.3) does not belong − (1. x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x=2 x =1 x=3 The boundary points are −1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.52 − 3 (1. 12 > 0.5 1 > 0. 1. 2 ) ( 2. .5 ) + 2 >0 1.52 − 2 ( 2. 1. True 5 02 − 3 ( 0 ) + 2 0 − 2 ( 0) − 3 2 >0 ( −1. Test Interval ( −∞.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 71. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 73. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≥ 0 . Now. we verified that the boundaries are −6 . 2 x 3 + 11x 2 < 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 < 0 1 In Problem 63. .1⎟ . Thus. − . 370 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . These intervals are 2 1 indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. + = = = = 4 ( x + 2 ) 4 ( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x 2 − 4 x +1 crosses the x-axis at −1 . and 1. the solution set is { x x < −2 or − 1 ≤ x < 2} or ( −∞. 1 3 ≤− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + ≤0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) Simplify the left side of the inequality: 3( x + 2) 4 ( x + 1) x−2 x − 2 + 3x + 6 4x + 4 x +1 . We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≤ 0 . the solution set is ⎨ x x < −6 or − < x < 1⎬ or 2 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( −∞. −2 ) ∪ [ −1. and 1. Inc. − . x2 − 4 the boundaries are −2 . 2 x 3 + 11x 2 ≥ 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 ≥ 0 1 The graph of f ( x ) = 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 appears to cross the x-axis at −6 . and 1. − ⎥ ∪ [1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. These intervals are The graph of f ( x ) = indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. 2 ) . −1 . the curve is below the x-axis when x < −6 and when − 1 ⎧ 1 ⎫ < x < 1 . Thus. Thus. Now. We need to find the intervals on which 2 f ( x ) < 0 . 2 2⎦ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ 72. Thus. Now. the solution set is ⎨ x − 6 ≤ x ≤ − or x ≥ 1⎬ or ⎢ −6. − . the boundaries are −6 . the curve is below the x-axis when x < −2 and when −1 < x < 2 . −6 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞ . and 1. the curve is above the x-axis when −6 < x < − 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ and when x > 1 . We verify this 2 numerically by substituting these values into the function: f ( −6 ) = 2 ( −6 ) + 11( −6 ) − 7 ( −6 ) − 6 = 2 ( −216 ) + 11( 36 ) − ( −42 ) − 6 = −432 + 396 + 42 − 6 = 0 3 2 3 2 1 11 7 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ − ⎟ − 7 ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = − + + − 6 = 0 2 2 2 2 8 4 2 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ f (1) = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 (1) − 6 = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 − 6 = 2 + 11 − 7 − 6 = 0 3 2 1 Thus. and has vertical asymptotes at x = −2 and x = 2 .

6 ≈ 185 feet b.4 x + 66.6 ≈ 160 feet g (35) = 0. 3) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The interval is ⎜ 0.0875(35)2 − 0. The interval is ( 0. f ( x) = 0.6 a. These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. 371 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The curve is above the x-axis when −2 < x < −1 and when x > 2 . We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) > 0 .0875(35) 2 + 1.6 g ( x) = 0.0875 x 2 − 0. . ⎟ . f (35) = 0. 75. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 48t + 160 The ball’s height will exceed that of the rooftop when s (t ) > 160 −16t 2 + 48t + 160 > 160 −16t 2 + 48t > 0 −16t (t − 3) > 0 The boundaries are 0 and 3. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well. Testing each interval shows that the diver will be higher than the cliff for the first half 2 ⎛ 1⎞ second after beginning the jump.PreCalculus 4E 74. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 8t + 87 The diver’s height will exceed that of the cliff when s (t ) > 87 −16t 2 + 8t + 87 > 87 −16t 2 + 8t > 0 −8t (2t − 1) > 0 1 . Thus. Section 2.9(35) + 11. and 2. −1) ∪ ( 2. The function values and the data are identical. 77.0875 x 2 + 1. Inc. −1 .4(35) + 66. the solution set is { x −2 < x < −1 or x > 2} or ( −2. ⎝ 2⎠ The boundaries are 0 and 76. ∞ ) .9 x + 11. Testing each interval shows that the ball will be higher than the rooftop for the first three seconds after the throw.7 1 3 >− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + >0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) x +1 >0 ( x + 2)( x − 2) The boundaries are −2 .

4(55) + 66.0875 x 2 − 0.4) 2(0.4 x + 66. False ( 76.0875(55)2 + 1.9 x + 11.0875 x 2 + 1. .4 x + 473. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well. This is represented on graph (b) to the right of point (76.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. 76 ) Test Conclusion 0. 0.6 ≈ 309 feet g (55) = 0. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 76 miles per hour.0875)(528.6 a.0875 x 2 + 1.4 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0.6 > 540 901.9 x + 528. ( 76.35 > 540.9)2 − 4(0.0875)(473.6 ≈ 381 feet b.4) 2(0.9(55) + 11.0875(55)2 − 0.4(100) + 66. ∞ ) 100 0. On dry pavement.4 x + 66.4(50) + 66.4)2 − 4(0.9 x + 11.4) ± (−0. we must test the following intervals. 78.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.0875) x ≈ −89 or 68 372 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0875 x 2 − 0. Inc.0875(50)2 − 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions d.6 > 540 0. d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c.0875(100)2 − 0.0875 x 2 − 0. 0. f ( x) = 0.0875 x 2 − 0.0875 x 2 + 1.0875) x ≈ −71 or 76 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30.0875 x 2 + 1.6 > 540. x= Interval Test Value 50 ( 30.9) ± (1.6 g ( x) = 0.4 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(1. 0.6 > 540 265. 76 ) does not belong to the solution set. f (55) = 0. True ( 30. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 540).6 > 540 0.4 x + 473.9 x + 528. 0.

373 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we know 50 = 2 x + 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 Now. False to the solution set.0875(100)2 + 1. if the area of the rectangle is not to exceed 114 square feet. ( 68. This is represented on graph (a) to the right of point (68. ∞ ) 20 solution set. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. the length of the shorter side must be 6 feet or less. ∞ ) 100 0.35 > 540. Let x = the length of the rectangle. If the length is less than 6 feet. If the length is 6 feet. Since Perimeter = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) .7 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30.9(100) + 11.6 > 540 1076. 6 ) 0 Test Conclusion ( −∞. True to the solution set. Interval Test Value 50 ( 30. . ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.6 > 540 325. 6 ) belongs to the 25 ( 0 ) − 0 ≤ 114 2 0 ≤ 114. Inc.19 ) does not belong 25 (10 ) − 10 ≤ 114 2 150 ≤ 114. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 68 miles per hour. 68) does not belong 2 0.9(50) + 11. True solution set. (19. ( 6.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. A = ( length )( width ) . so we have that width = A ( x ) ≤ 114 x ( 25 − x ) ≤ 114 25 x − x 2 ≤ 114 Solve the related equation 25 x − x 2 = 114 0 = x 2 − 25 x + 114 0 = ( x − 19 )( x − 6 ) Apply the zero product principle: x − 19 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = 19 x=6 The boundary points are 6 and 19. 79. 540). Publishing as Prentice Hall. True ( 6. Thus.6 > 540.68) Test Conclusion ( 30. False ( 68. then the width is greater than 19 feet. then the width is 19 feet.19 ) 10 (19. we must test the following intervals.0875(50) + 1. ∞ ) belongs to the 25 ( 20 ) − 20 ≤ 114 2 100 ≤ 114. On wet pavement.

A ≤ 800 l ⋅ w ≤ 800 ( 90 − w ) w ≤ 800 90w − w2 ≤ 800 − w2 + 90w − 800 ≤ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 ≥ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 = 0 ( w − 80 )( w − 10 ) = 0 w − 80 = 0 or w − 10 = 0 w = 80 w = 10 Assuming the width is the shorter side. The length of the shorter side cannot exceed 10 feet.10] . That is. 86. Inc. 81. 45 ) is not part of the solution set The solution set is {w | 0 < w ≤ 10} or ( 0. Test Test Test Conclusion Interval Number ( 0. we ignore the larger solution. – 85. 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x − 3 ≤ x ≤ ⎩ 1⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ ⎬ or ⎢ −3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. 1 87. 45) 5 90 ( 5 ) − ( 5 ) ≤ 800 true 20 90 ( 20 ) − ( 20 ) ≤ 800 false 2 2 ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Graph y1 = 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 in a standard window.10 ) (10. The solution set is (−∞. The graph is below or equal to the x-axis for −3 ≤ x ≤ .10 ) is part of the solution set (10. ⎥ . Answers may vary. -5) ∪ (2. 2l + 2w = P 2l + 2w = 180 2l = 180 − 2w l = 90 − w We want to restrict the area to 800 square feet. 2⎭ 2⎦ ⎣ 374 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞).

Graph y1 = 1 < x ≤ 4.1x + 399. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 1 2 and y2 = x +1 x+4 y1 less than or equal to y2 for −4 < x < −1 or x ≥ 2 .1125)(399. ∞).1 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −∞.1125 x 2 − 0. 91.1 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. a. 0.1) ± (−0.3) ∪ [8.1x + 55. .1125 x 2 − 0. x= 375 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we must test the following intervals. ∞ ) 92.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 89.1125) x ≈ −59 or 60 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0.7 88. −1) ∪ [ 2.9 > 455 0.1125 x 2 − 0.1x + 55. 4]. The solution set is (–2.1)2 − 4(0.9 b. x+2 and y2 = 2 x−3 y1 less than or equal to y2 for x < 3 or x ≥ 8 . –1) or (2.1) 2(0.1x + 399. The graph is below the x-axis for x −1 The solution set is (1.1125 x 2 − 0. Inc. 0. 90. x−4 in a standard viewing window. f ( x) = 0. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −4.

1375(100)2 + 0. Explanations will vary. we must test the following intervals.7 x + 408. Thus. Sample explanation: To solve this inequality you must first subtract 2 from both sides. . A sample change is: The inequalities have different solution sets. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 98. 96. false. stopping distances will exceed 455 feet for speeds exceeding 60 miles per hour.1375 x 2 + 0. is included in the domain of the first inequality. ∞ ) 100 0. does not make sense. ∞ ) . 0.8 > 446.55 > 446.1375)(408. Changes to make the statement true will vary. True ( 0.1125(50) − 0.7)2 − 4(0.1375) x ≈ −57 or 52 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0. we would not know whether or not to reverse the order of the inequality.7 x + 408. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. 93.8 > 446 58.15 > 455. 1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.9 > 455. f ( x) = 0. a.2 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(0.9 > 455 332.2) 2(0. On dry pavement.7 x + 37. Explanations will vary.7(10) + 37. On wet pavement. The value.7(100) + 37.52 ) does not belong to the solution set. 0. Inc. False ( 52.7) ± (0.1125(100) − 0. 101. stopping distances will exceed 446 feet for speeds exceeding 52 miles per hour. Sample explanation: Polynomials are defined for all values. A sample change is: The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} or ( −∞. 94.8 > 446 1482. A sample change is: The inequality cannot be solved by multiplying both sides by x + 3. makes sense 95.9 > 455 1170.1(50) + 55. −5) ∪ ( 5. but not included in the domain of the second inequality. ∞ ) 100 2 0. 99. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 100. Changes to make the statement true will vary.1(100) + 55.8 > 446 0.1375 x 2 + 0. true 376 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. 60 ) does not belong to the solution set.52 ) Test Conclusion 2 0. does not make sense.1375(10) + 0. True ( 0. Interval Test Value 10 ( 0.7 x + 37. makes sense 97. false. We do not know if x + 3 is positive or negative. False ( 60.8 b. 60 ) Test Conclusion 2 0.1375 x 2 + 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions Interval Test Value 50 ( 0. ( 52. ( 60.1375 x 2 + 0.

the solution is all real numbers except 2. and the reciprocal of zero is undefined. The solution set is the empty set. Because any non-zero number squared is positive. 108. 3]. Because any number squared is positive. 105. One possible solution: ≥0 x+4 9 − x2 ≥ 0 (3 − x)(3 + x) ≥ 0 3− x = 0 3+ x = 0 x = 3 or x = −3 104. a. the solution is the empty set.imaginary The solution set is all real numbers. Test –4: −21 ≥ 0 no graph. 4 x2 − 8x + 7 > 0 27 − 3(−4) ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 107. 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 x−3 103. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. ∅. a. x= 110. . T –3 106. y = kx 2 64 = k ⋅ 22 64 = 4k 16 = k b. One possible solution: x 2 − 2 x − 15 ≤ 0 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 109. c. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. the solution includes only 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 3 2 Test 0: 27 − 3(0) 2 ≥ 0 27 ≥ 0 True Test 4: 27 − 3(4)2 ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 8 ± (−8) 2 − 4(4)(7) x= 2(4) −21 ≥ 0 no graph -imaginary The solution set is [–3.7 102. 8 ± 64 − 112 8 8 ± −48 ⇒ imaginary x= 8 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 > 0 7 > 0 True The inequality is true for all numbers. ∅. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 y = 16 ⋅ 52 y = 400 377 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 4 x2 − 8x + 7 < 0 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 = 7 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. the solution is all real numbers except 2.

6(25)3 = 9375 The 25-foot long shark was 9375 pounds. W = kt k .6l 3 = 0. y varies directly as x is expressed as y = kx. The volume of water. 000 8=k 3. Use the given values to find k . k L= f 5120 L= f Use the equation to find f when L = 10 . k x k 12 = 8 96 = k y= 111. 378 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 ⋅ 40 =k 60. t can be expressed as W = kt . x The length. y varies directly as the cube of x is expressed as y = kx3 . W . kA S= 112. = 6(11) = 66 A shower lasting 11 minutes will use 66 gallons of water. W = kt 30 = k (5) 6=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. w = kl 3 k x 96 y= x y= 2025 = k (15)3 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. w . Use the given values to find k . b. l can be expressed as w = kl 2 . 000 = 40 12. varies directly as the time. 000 12. varies inversely as the frequency. L . a. P k ⋅ 60. f Use the given values to find k . f k can be expressed as L = .6l 3 Use the equation to find w when l = 25. w = kl 3 96 x 96 y= 3 y = 32 y= c. . k L= f k 8= 640 5120 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. The weight.6 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. varies directly as the cube of the length. y varies inversely as x is expressed as y = 5120 f 5120 10 = f 10 f = 5120 L= W = 6t Use the equation to find W when t = 11 . W = 6t f = 512 A 10 inch violin string will have a frequency of 512 cycles per second. w = 0. Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. w = 0.8 Check Point Exercises 1. Inc.

k . Use the given values to find k. Use the given values to find k. k y= x k 12 = 5 k 5 ⋅12 = 5 ⋅ 5 60 = k 60 The equation becomes y = . Inc. V = khr 2 4. Section 2. x 60 When x = 2. y = kx 45 = k ⋅ 5 9=k Substitute the value of k into the equation.8 let M represent the number of minutes let Q represent the number of problems let P represent the number of people M varies directly as Q and inversely as P is expressed kQ . y = 13 x = 13 ⋅12 = 156. x . 2.8 1. kQ M = P 8Q M = P Use the equation to find M when P = 8 and Q = 24 . V varies jointly with h and r 2 and can be modeled as V = khr 2 . the volume equation is V = V= π 3 Since y varies inversely with x.PreCalculus 4E 4. as M = P Use the given values to find k . y = = 30. 2 8Q P 8(24) M = 8 M = 24 It will take 24 minutes for 8 people to solve 24 problems. 120π = k (10)(6)2 π 3 =k Therefore. Use the given values to find k. 3 (2)(12) 2 = 96π cubic feet k x k 6= 3 18 = k y= y= 18 =2 9 379 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 9 x = 9 ⋅13 = 117 3. we have y = 1 2 hr . M = 5. y = kx 65 = k ⋅ 5 65 k ⋅ 5 = 5 5 13 = k The equation becomes y = 13 x. kQ M = P k (16) 32 = 4 8=k Exercise Set 2. When x = 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

kab y= c k (3)(2) 12 = 25 k (6) 12 = 5 k (6) 12(5) = (5) 5 60 = 6k 60 6k = 6 6 10 = k 10ab . kx y= 2 z k ( 50 ) 20 = 52 k ( 50 ) 20 = 25 20 = 2k 8. y = ( 8 )(12 ) = 240. b = 3. 28 ( 4 ) ( 8) 2 = 28 ( 4 ) 64 = C = kAT 7 4 10. z2 When x = 3 and z = 6. 3 c 9 y= kmn 2 p k (2)(1) 2 6 2k 15 = 6 2k 15(6) = (6) 6 90 = 2k 15 = 25 = k ( 2 )( 5 ) 25 = k (10 ) 25 k (10 ) = 10 10 5 =k 2 k = 45 5 xz.Polynomial and Rational Functions 5. 2 The equation becomes y = y= 45mn 2 45(3)(4) 2 2160 = = = 216 10 10 p 380 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we have y = 2 . the square root of c. z Use the given values to find k. 10ab 10(5)(3) 150 y= = = = 50 . Since y varies jointly as x and z. z 6 36 36 6 6. The equation becomes y = c When a = 5. 2 5 When x = 8 and z = 12. 10 = k The equation becomes y = 10 x . we have y = c Use the given values to find k. y = kxz 1 14400 = 300 ( 2400 )( 6 ) = 48 48 Since y varies jointly as a and b and inversely as kab . Inc. 175 = k ( 2100 )( 4 ) 175 = k ( 8400 ) 1 =k 48 C= 9. . Use the given values to find k. we have y = kxz. a= 7= 7= kb c2 k (9) ( 6) k (9) 2 36 k 7= 4 28 = k a= 7. Since y varies inversely as x and inversely as the kx square of z. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c = 9. 10 x 10 ( 3) 10 ( 3) 30 5 y= 2 = 2 = = = .

Solving for y : y= x = kyz 2 x kyz 2 = 2 2 kz kz x y= 2 kz 13. Solving for y: x = kyz 15. x w kz 18. Solving for y: x = kz ( y + w) x= xy = y ⋅ x= x = kzy + kzw kz 3 y x − kzw = kzy x − kzw kzy = kz kz x − kzw y= kz xy = kz 3 xy kz 3 = x x kz 3 y= x 14.PreCalculus 4E 11. x kyz = . w Solving for y: kyz x= w x ( w ) = ( w ) kyzw x w = kyz x w kyz = kz kz 12. y Solving for y kz 3 x= y 16. Inc. Section 2. . x = kz ( y − w) x = kzy − kzw k3 z x= y x + kzw = kzy x + kzw kzy = kz kz x + kzw y= kz k3 z yx = y ⋅ y yx = k 3 z yx k 3 z = x x y= k3 z x 381 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. kz yz x y= kz x= kyz . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = kyz 2 . x = kz ( y + w) . kz 3 .8 x = kyz . kyz w2 ⎛ w2 ⎞ w2 kyz ⎜ ⎟x = kz w2 ⎝ kz ⎠ xw2 y= kz 17.

we have T = kB . 21.7 D. 56 = 0. yx + xw = kz yx = kz − xw yx kz − xw = x x kz − xw y= x 15 = 0.75 = k d = 0. When h = 107.7 0. 000 ) 170 = 343. 170 = k ( 70 ) 3 170 = k ( 343. .9 = k The equation becomes T = 0.000496 = k The equation becomes w = 0.4 = k (12 ) 8.9(6) = 5. T = kB 3.75 f = 0.75 20 = f A force of 20 pounds is needed.75 f 15 0. x= 23.75 0. 000 343. 1 (186 ) = 31 6 A person who weighs 186 pounds on Earth will weigh 31 pounds on the moon.7 56 D= = 80 0.9 B . 043) ≈ 607.4 . Since a man’s weight varies directly as the cube of his height. 000 0.7 D = 0. 000 ) k ( 343. we have w = kh 3 . Use the given values to find k.000496 (107 ) M = kE 60 = k ( 360 ) 60 k ( 360 ) = 360 360 1 =k 6 M = d = kf 9 = k (12) 9 k (12) = 12 12 0. Inc.000496 (1. The tail length is 5. Robert Wadlow’s weight was approximately 607 pounds. 22.4 k= = 0. Use the given values to find k. When B = 6 . w = kh3 3.7 It was dropped from 80 inches.6 k (4) = 4 4 0. 225. kz y+w ( y + w) x = ( y + w) kz y+w 24.000496h 3 . B = kD kz . Since B varies directly as D. Since T varies directly as B. we have B = kD.7 12 The equation becomes B = 0. T = 0. Use the given values to find k. y−w Solving for y: kz x= y−w ( y − w) x = ( y − w) 8.6 = k (4) 25. 382 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x= 56 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 19. When B = 56 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 w = 0.4 feet.4 k (12 ) = 12 12 8.75 f = 0.7 D kz y−w xy − wx = kz xy = kz + wx xy kz + wx = x x xw + kz y= x 20.

t= 383 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 d2 502 2500 The illumination is 2.5d 2 d 2 = 625 d = 625 d = 25 A water pipe with a 25 centimeter diameter can serve 1250 houses. h = 0.5d 2 1250 = 0. 2 h = 0. B = = = 32 . k I= 2.75 = 1600 i= (1600)3. we have B = .4 = 30.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.5 feet. The equation becomes I = d2 562.4 foot-candles at a distance of 50 feet. t= 4.88 d 5000 The water temperature is 0. we have pressure. 28.5d 2 h = 0.5 = k 562. Since the banking angle varies inversely as k the turning radius. The equation becomes B = r 112 112 When r = 3. r Use the given values to find k.25 The intensity is 90 milliroentgens per hour. k B= r k 28 = 4 ⎛k⎞ 28 ( 4 ) = 28 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4⎠ 112 = k 112 .5 ) = 9 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ 562. d k 62. Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance.5 When d = 2.5 = k 29. r 3. k d2 k 3. i= k d k 1000 (1000)4. I = = = 90 2.52 6.75 = 2 40 k 3. 27. d Use the given values to find k.5 .5 The banking angle is 32 when the turning radius is 3.5 = 9 ⎛k ⎞ 9 ( 62. we have k I= . b.4 = (1000) k 1000 4400 = k 4400 4400 = = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5d 2 a.5 . 50 = k ⋅ 10 0.75 = (1600) k 1600 6000 = k 6000 6000 6000 = = = 2.5 562.5(30) 2 h = 450 A water pipe with a 30 centimeter diameter can serve 450 houses. h = 0. Inc.88 Celsius at a depth of 5000 meters.8 h = kd 2 26. .5 .5 = 2 3 k 62.

5(4)(36) = 72 A mass of 4 grams and velocity of 6 centimeters per second has a kinetic energy of 72 ergs.15 = 3600 k (180) (3600)35. i= be multiplied by a factor of intensity is 36. Since index varies directly as weight and inversely as the square of one’s height. 1 . 3 The heat loss is 1800 Btu . . then d = 2d . we kw have I = 2 . e = kmv 2 36 = k (8)(3) 2 36 = k (8)(9) 36 = 72k 36 72k = 72 72 k = 0. L = kAD 31. So the sound 4 1 of what it was originally. 3 384 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (70)2 This person has a BMI of 24. kw I= 2 h k (180 ) 35.5(4)(6) 2 = 0. h Use the given values to find k. If you move to a seat twice as d far. The intensity will I= = = ⋅ (2d ) 2 4d 2 4 d 2 100m c 100(40) 80 = c 4000 80 = c 4000 80c = c ⋅ c 80c = 4000 80c 4000 = 80 80 c = 50 The chronological age is 50.5 e = 0. Since heat loss varies jointly as the area and temperature difference.15 = 602 k (180) 35. Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the sound source.15 = 3600 126540 = k (180) 1200 = k (3 ⋅ 6)(20) 1200 = 360k 1200 360k = 360 360 10 k= 3 The equation becomes L = 10 AD 3 When A = 6 ⋅ 9 = 54 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 126540 = 703 180 703w The equation becomes I = 2 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 33.5mv 2 = 0. h When w = 170 and h = 70.4 and is not overweight. 34. L = 10 ( 9 ⋅ 6 ) (10) = 1800 . k= 32. km c k (25) 125 = 20 k (25) 20(125) = (20) 20 2500 = 25k 2500 25k = 25 25 100 = k i= 35. Use the given values to find k.4. 4 k a k 1 k t= = ⋅ 3a 3 a t= A year will seem to be 1 of a year. 703(170) I= ≈ 24. we k have I = 2 . D = 10 . we have L = kAD . So we have k k 1 k . Inc.

d2 0. does not make sense. varies directly as the square of wind velocity. kP P C = 12 2 d k ( 777. 0. Sample explanation: For an inverse variation. makes sense 52. Explanations will vary. c. 2 49. k 12 = 0. does not make sense. Section 2. Answers may vary. 51. Inc. 695.27k 0. Since the average number of phone calls varies jointly as the product of the populations and inversely as the square of the distance.875 daily phone calls.5 k 12(0. the wind will exert a force of 360 pounds on the window.5 k =6 6 The equation becomes R = . I 40. Using one of I the given ordered pairs to find k .PreCalculus 4E 37.87 × 1012 ) 176. 000 = ( 420 ) 39. 2 k ( 2. 000)(220. Sample explanation: A direct variation with a positive constant of variation will have both variables increase simultaneously. a.02 P1 P2 . Answers will vary. 000) (400) 2 = 17. If v = x then P = k ( x) 2 = kx 2 If v = 2 x then P = k (2 x) 2 = 4kx 2 If the wind speed doubles the pressure is 4 times more destructive. 50. we have kP P C = 12 2 . Use the given values to find k. 000) 326. Current varies inversely as resistance. Explanations will vary. 385 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d b. 000 = 16269841.8 a. 38. 000 = 326. .5) = (0.02 ≈ k The equation becomes C = c. 000 ) (3.5) 0. v. can be modeled as P = kv 2 . C= f = kas 2 b. makes sense 53.02(650.875 There are approximately 17. – 48. 150 = k (4 ⋅ 5)(30) 150 = k (20)(900) 150 = 18000k 150 18000k = 18000 150 1 =k 120 1 1 (3 ⋅ 4)(60) 2 f = as 2 = 120 120 1 (12)(3600) = 120 = 360 Yes. Since the current varies inversely as k resistance we have R = . 400 326. P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Pressure. the independent variable can not be zero.

Answers may vary. Illumination. Since 50 ≈ 7 . x x 4. to triple the heat the resistant must be reduced by a multiple of 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. the Hubble telescope is able to see about 7 times farther than a ground-based telescope. and inversely as the resistance. (3 − 4i ) 2 = 32 + 2 ⋅ 3(−4i ) + (−4i )2 = 9 − 24i − 16 = −7 − 24i 57. d k k If d = 15 then I = 2 = 15 225 k k If d = 30 then I = 2 = 30 900 900 =4 Note that 225 If the distance doubles the illumination is 4 times less intense. d. can be modeled as I = 2 . d. varies directly as the square of the voltage. 60. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. (7 + 8i )(7 − 8i ) = 7 2 + 82 = 49 + 64 = 113 58. = 7 ⋅ 2 + 7(3i ) + (−i )(2) + (−i )(3i ) k . I. I. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. 5. 55. x 1 1 k x= 2 ⇒d = x then 50 50 d (7 − i )(2 + 3i ) = 14 + 21i − 2i + 3 = 17 + 19i 50k k = 50 . Illumination. Chapter 2 Review Exercises If I = k ⇒d= d2 (8 – 3i) – (17 – 7i) = 8 – 3i – 17 + 7i = –9 + 4i 2. 4i (3i − 2) = (4i )(3i ) + (4i )(−2) = 12i 2 − 8i = −12 − 8i 56. 59. v. r. H. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . The Heat. 6. 3. can be modeled as I = 2 . 6 6 5−i = ⋅ 5+i 5+i 5−i 30 − 6i = 25 + 1 30 − 6i = 26 15 − 3i = 13 15 3 = − i 13 13 386 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d If I = x then x = 1. kv 2 H= r If the voltage remains constant.

∞) range: ( −∞. Inc. 387 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 + −8 4 + i 8 4 + 2i 2 = = = 2+i 2 2 2 2 11. ⎩2 2 2 2 ⎭ = (4i − 3i ) 2 =i 2 13. Chapter 2 Review Exercises 3 + 4i 3 + 4i 4 + 2i = ⋅ 4 − 2i 4 − 2i 4 + 2i 12 + 6i + 16i + 8i 2 = 16 − 4i 2 12 + 22i − 8 = 16 + 4 4 + 22i = 20 1 11 = + i 5 10 12. 2 x − 2x + 4 = 0 2 =4 x + 1 = ±2 x = −1 ± 2 x = −3 or x = 1 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) + 4 = 3 2 x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(4) 2(1) x= 2 ± 4 − 16 2 The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . . 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x + 1) + 4 2 = 4 − 40i + (10i ) 2 = 4 − 40i − 100 = −96 − 40i ( x + 1) 10. 9. 8. 1 + i 3 . + i ⎬ . (−2 + −100) = (−2 + i 100) −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) x= −32 − −18 = i 32 − i 18 = i 16 ⋅ 2 − i 9 ⋅ 2 2 2 2x − 6x + 5 = 0 2 = (−2 + 10i ) 2 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1.PreCalculus 4E 7. 2 ± −12 2 2 ± 2i 3 x= 2 x= x =1 ±i 3 { domain: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x= 6 ± 36 − 40 4 6 ± −4 x= 4 6 ± 2i x= 4 6 2i x= ± 4 4 3 1 = ± i 2 2 = 4i 2 − 3i 2 ⎧3 1 3 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − i. 4] } The solution set is 1 − i 3 .

∞ ) 17. f ( x ) = 2 x2 − 4 x − 6 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 6 − 2 2 ( x − 1) − 8 2 ( x + 4)2 = 2 x+4=± 2 x = −4 ± 2 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 4)2 − 2 = 14 = –1 axis of symmetry: x = 1 domain: (−∞. 388 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) range: ( −∞. f ( x) = −0. Inc. Since a > 0 the parabola opens up with the minimum value occurring at 12 b x=− =− = −3 . f ( x) = −0.025(0) 2 + (0) + 6 = 6 The ball was tossed at a height of 6 feet. –2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 4)2 − 2 16. The axis of symmetry is x = –4. ∞) range: [ 685. ∞) range: [ −8.025) f (20) = −0. f ( x ) = − x + 2x + 3 f (7) = −(7) 2 + 14(7) − 106 = −57 2 = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 b. ∞) range: ( −∞. ∞) range: [ −2. 19. 2a 2(2) The minimum value is f (−3). . f (−3) = 2(−3) 2 + 12(−3) + 703 = 685 domain: (−∞. domain: (−∞. ∞ ) 15. domain: (−∞.025(20) 2 + (20) + 6 = 16 The maximum height of 16 feet occurs when the ball is 20 yards downfield. Since a < 0 the parabola opens down with the maximum value occurring at 14 b x=− =− =7. f ( x) = − x 2 + 14 x − 106 a.Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. −57 ] f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 12 x + 703 a. ∞ ) The maximum height will occur at the vertex.025 x 2 + x + 6 1 b x=− =− = 20 2a 2(−0. b. 4] b.025 x 2 + x + 6 f (0) = −0. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 18. domain: (−∞. f (x) = (x + 4)2 − 2 vertex: (–4. 2a 2(−1) The maximum value is f (7). a. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter 2 Review Exercises The ball is at a height of 0 when it hits the ground. The football’s path: 22. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Maximize the area using A = lw. Inc. y = 36(150 – 4x) = 36(150 – 4·1) = 5256 The maximum yield will be 5256 pounds. 2a 2 (1) 2 −(1) ± (1) 2 − 4(−0. Let x = one of the numbers Let 14 + x = the other number The other number is 14 + x = 14 + ( −7 ) = 7. The area is maximized at 125.3. f ( x ) = − x3 + 12 x 2 − x The graph rises to the left and falls to the right and goes through the origin. The minimum is at b 14 14 x=− =− = − = −7. 2a 2 ( −2 ) −4 23.3(reject) The ball will hit the ground 45. y = (35 + x)(150 – 4x) 2 y = 5250 + 10x − 4x The maximum area is achieved when the width is 250 yards. d. 24. 389 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.025 x 2 + x + 6 21. 000. f ( x) = −0. x= = 250 (1000 − 500 ) = 250 ( 500 ) = 125. − 5. 3x + 4y = 1000 4y = 1000 – 3x 1000 − 3x y= 4 A=x =− x= 20.3 yards downfield.7 4 125 feet by 166.7 feet will maximize the area.25 or 1 tree 2a 2(−4) 4 The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees.025)(6) x= 2(−0. The minimum product is −7 ⋅ 7 = −49.000 square yards when the width is 250 yards and the length is 1000 − 2 ⋅ 250 = 500 yards. We need to minimize the function P ( x ) = x (14 + x ) 0 = −0. The numbers which minimize the product are 7 and −7 .PreCalculus 4E c. y= A ( x ) = −2 x + 1000 x 2 Since a = −2 is negative.025) x ≈ 45. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 1000 1000 b x=− =− =− = 250. so graph (c) is the best match. The maximum area is A ( 250 ) = 250 (1000 − 2 ( 250 ) ) −b −10 5 = = = 1.025 x 2 + x + 6 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = 14 x + x 2 = x 2 + 14 x. A ( x ) = x (1000 − 2 x ) 1000 − 3x 4 3 2 x + 250x 4 −b −250 = = 125 2a 3 2 − 4 1000 − 3(125) = 166. .

we know that even-degree polynomials with negative leading coefficient will fall to the left and to the right. 31. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 21x 2 + 100. the graph touches the x-axis 390 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. multiplicity 2. f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 ( x + 5)3 x = 1. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c. Inc. b. the graph crosses the x-axis 34. 1 leading coefficient is –1 and the degree is 4. f (− x) = (− x )3 − (− x) 2 − 9(− x) + 9 = − x3 − x 2 + 9 x + 9 28. the number of thefts would be negative. multiplicity 1. Applying the Leading Coefficient Test. 26. f ( x) = x3 − x 2 − 9 x + 9 33. the f ( x) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 1) zeros: 3. The model predicts that eventually. h ( x ) = x5 − 5 x 3 + 4 x The graph falls to the left and rises to the right and crosses the y-axis at zero. Since the graph falls to the right. g ( x ) = x6 − 6 x 4 + 9 x 2 The graph rises to the left and rises to the right. In the polynomial. the graph touches the x-axis x = –5. 32. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125 f ( x) = 4 x − x3 a.87 and the degree is 3. multiplicity 2. 2. This function is not useful in modeling the number of thefts over an extended period of time. 29. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. we know that the elk population will die out over time. 30. b. This is impossible.Polynomial and Rational Functions 25. f ( − x ) = −4 x + x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x) origin symmetry c. f ( x) = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) zeros: x = 0. f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f ( x) = − x 4 + 1 f(x) falls to the left and to the right so graph (d) is the best match. 27. so graph (a) is the best match. so graph (b) is the best match. Since n is odd and an > 0. the graph crosses the x-axis x = –2. The leading coefficient is –0. Since n is odd and an < 0. f ( x ) = x3 − 2 x − 1 f (1) = (1)3 − 2(1) − 1 = −2 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 1 = 3 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. –2 = x 2 ( x − 5) − 25( x − 5) = ( x 2 − 25)( x − 5) = ( x + 5)( x − 5) 2 x = –5. the graph crosses the x-axis x = 5. multiplicity 1. a. This means that the graph will fall to the right. multiplicity 5. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. − 3.

The graph falls to the left and to the right. g ( x ) = − x 4 + 25 x 2 38. −2. . f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 15 x 3 a. Inc. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 6(− x)3 − 9(− x) = − x 4 − 6 x3 − 9 x 2 f (− x ) ≠ f ( x ) f (− x) ≠ f ( x). = − x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 zeros: x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. b. f (− x) = 3(− x)4 − 15(− x) 2 = 3x 4 + 15 x 3 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 5 391 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x 3 + 3x 2 − 8 x − 12 a. The graph rises to the left and to the right. a. f (− x) = − f ( x) no symmetry f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry f(x) = (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x + 3) 3 zeros: x = 2. b. b. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 6 x3 − 9 x 2 a. Since h is odd and an > 0. c.PreCalculus 4E 35. b. 0. 37. 3 36. − 2 c. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c 3 x 4 − 15 x3 = 0 − x 4 + 25 x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 3x3 ( x − 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = 0. 5 − x 2 ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = –5. f (− x) = −2 x3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x − 12 The graph falls to the left and to the right. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 25(− x) 2 = − x 4 + 25 x 2 = f ( x) y-axis symmetry c.

f(x) rises to the left and the right. Inc. The root at –4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–4. x = 0. (3 x 4 − 2 x 2 − 10 x) ÷ ( x − 2) 2 41. x = 1 The roots at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f(x) falls to the left and the right. 0) − 2 x2 − 1 −2 x 2 − 1 0 44. − 10 Quotient: 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 − 2 x2 + 3x − 1 2 x + 1 4 x + 6 x + 3x − 1 2 43. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = − x 3 ( x + 4 ) ( x − 1) 2 6 x2 + 3x Since an < 0 and n is even. f (0) = −(0)3 ( 0 + 4 ) ( 0 − 1) = 0 (3 x 4 + 11x 3 − 20 x3 + 7 x + 35) ÷ ( x + 5) 2 –5 The y-intercept is 0. 2 4x − 7x + 5 x + 1 4 x3 − 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 3 0 –2 –10 0 6 12 20 20 6 10 10 20 2 3 Quotient: 3x 3 + 6 x 2 + 10 x + 10 + 4 x3 + 4 x 2 − 7 x2 − 2 x −7 x 2 − 7 x 46. . f ( x ) = 2 x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 42.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. 10 5x − 3 4 3 4 x2 + 2 x2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 + 3 x 40. 0) 2 x2 − 4x + 1 5 x − 3 10 x 3 − 26 x 2 + 17 x − 13 10 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 20 x 2 + 17 x − 20 x 2 + 12 x 5 x − 13 f (0) = 2(0) 2 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 5x − 3 The y-intercept is 0. x = –4. 3 3 11 –20 7 35 –15 20 0 –35 –4 0 7 0 Quotient: 3 x − 4 x + 7 3 45. 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. x = 1. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = 0. 5x + 1 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 7 x 2 + 9 x − 3 –13 5x + 5 2 −4 Quotient: 4 x 2 − 7 x + 5 − 2 4 x +1 20 x−2 –7 9 –3 –26 429 –5694 –33 438 –5697 Quotient: f (–13) = –5697 392 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

1 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 q : ± 1. –2}. b. 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 4 x + 4) = 0 p: ±1 q: ±1. f(–x) has no sign variations. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± q 3 3 3 3 3 0 –4 1 4 –4 1 4 4 1 is a zero. −3 2 48. d. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. 1 sign variation ⇒ 1 positive real zero f (− x) = − x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 2 sign variations ⇒ 2 or no negative real zeros ( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 = 0 f ( x) = x − 6 x + 14 x − 14 x + 5 p : ± 1. Inc. ± 2. f ( − x ) = −6 x 3 + x 2 + 4 x + 1 f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 2 x3 − 8 x + 5 1 sign variation. ± 5 q a. p 8 4 2 1 : ± 1. ±3. ±6 p 1 1 1 : ± 1. ± 8 b. 3 2 f ( x) = 2 x 5 – 3 x3 – 5 x 2 + 3x – 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. ± 8. 3 2 55. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 2 x3 + x + 5 c. x 3 − 17 x + 4 = 0 4 1 1 0 –17 4 4 16 –4 4 –1 0 c. ± q 2 3 6 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 2 sign variations. . 1. ± 4. . f ( − x ) = −2 x 5 + 3 x3 − 5 x 2 − 3x − 1 f(–x) has 2 sign variations. so f(x) = 0 has no negative solutions. –2 are rational zeros. 1 –13 6 4 10 –6 5 –3 0 f ( x ) = f ( − x ) = 2 x4 + 6 x2 + 8 No sign variations exist for either f(x) or f(–x). ± . p : ± 1. . 1 1 −1. are rational zeros. ± 4 q 1 Zeros: x = 2. −2 − 5 . ± 5 4 p : ± 1. 393 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 x = 1 or x = –2 The solution set is{1. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. ± 4. 54. so no real roots exist. f ( x) = ( x − 2)(2 x + 5 x − 3) 2 q : ±1 = ( x − 2)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) p : ± 1. 52. ± 4 –1 6 1 –4 1 –6 5 –1 6 –5 1 0 –1 is a zero. 49. 1 negative real zero. f(x) has 2 sign variations. ±2. ± 2. ± . −2 + 5. ± . so f(x) = 0 has 3 or 1 positive real roots. ± . so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 positive solutions. so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 negative solutions. ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 4 x − 1) = 0 −4 ± 16 + 4 −4 ± 2 5 x= = = −2 ± 5 2 2 { } The solution set is 4. ± 2. ± 2. ± . q : ±1 50. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 12 x − 8 p : ± 1.PreCalculus 4E 47. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 2 2 2 53. ± 3 51.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 1 2 1 2 2 3 sign variations. ±3. ⎬. ⎩2 2 2⎭ 2 sign variations. are rational zeros. ⎬ .± . ±5.± . 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x – ⎟ (8 x – 32 x + 30) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (4 x – 16 x + 15) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ p= b. f ( x ) = x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 2 sign variations. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 58. 3 2⎭ ⎩ x = –1 or x = 56. ± 2. ± 6 q 8 x 3 – 36 x 2 + 46 x – 15 = 0 a. ±4. ±8 1 1 1 p : ± 1.± . ± . 2 or 0 positive real zeros. p: ±1 q: ±1. f ( − x ) = x 4 + x3 − 7 x 2 − x + 6 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (2 x – 5)(2 x – 3) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1 5 3 x = or x = or x = 2 2 2 ⎧1 3 5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . .± . 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ (2 x + 10 x − 2) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + 5 x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Solving x 2 + 5 x − 1 = 0 using the quadratic 0 sign variations.± . 1 negative real zero. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. ± . ( x + 1)(3x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 or x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1.± . d. b. ± . ± 3. . p: ±1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 6 x3 + x 2 – 4 x + 1 = 0 d. . f ( x ) = 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 2 sign variations. ± 5. 3 3 3 5 5 ± . ± q 2 formula gives x = 1 is a zero. ⎬ . 57. f ( − x ) = −2 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 7 x + 1 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 a. ±2 1 p : ± 1. 2 or 0 negative real zeros. 8 2 1 is a rational zero. q 2 4 8 c.± 8 2 4 8 b. ±2. . 1 sign variation. ± 3. no negative real solutions. 8 9 –7 1 1 5 –1 10 –2 0 –36 46 –15 4 –16 15 –32 30 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 d. 394 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x + 1)(6 x 2 – 5 x + 1) = 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 a. f ( − x ) = −8 x3 − 36 x 2 − 46 x − 15 c. 3 or 1 positive real solutions. ± 15. 2 4 8 2 4 5 15 15 15 ± . ±15 q: ±1. 2 1 3 5 . 2 2 2 −5 ± 29 2 ⎪⎧ 1 −5 + 29 −5 − 29 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 p : ± 1. Inc. .

1. { − 2. ±2. −1. d. 1 positive real zero. 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 a. ± q 2 4 b. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. 2i. 1 sign variation. ± 4. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + 7 x 2 − 2 1 sign variation. ⎩ 2 2 ⎭ 1 –1 –6 0 − 2. 1. 2 are rational zeros. −1. 3 are rational zeros. ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 6) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x − 3)( x + 2) = 0 The solution set is 59. 2 or 0 negative real zeros. 3} . p: ±1. 1 –1 Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 –1 –7 1 6 1 0 –7 –6 1 0 –7 –6 0 1 0 –7 –6 –1 1 6 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟⎜ x + ⎟ (4 x + 8) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎜ x − ⎟ ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 Solving x + 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula gives x = ±2i ⎧ 1 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . ±2. x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 d. −1. ±2 q: ±1. 2 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 − 2. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. 2 2 395 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. 2 ⎭ ⎩ 1 1 − . . 60. ± 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. x = −2 or x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ − 2. are rational zeros. . 2 ⎬ . . −1. 1 2 2 2 4 − 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 d. ±4 q: ±1. 1 2 4 0 7 0 –2 2 1 4 2 2 8 4 0 –1 2 1 –9 –4 4 4 10 2 –4 2 5 1 –2 0 2 5 1 –2 –2 –3 2 3 –2 0 4 4 2 8 4 –2 0 –4 0 8 0 1 . ±2 p 1 : ± 1. Inc. ±4 p 1 1 : ± 1. f ( x ) = 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 c.PreCalculus 4E c. ± 2. 1 negative real zero. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 a. p: ±1. − 2i ⎬ . ± . ± q 2 b.

±2 1 p : ± 1. . one with multiplicity two f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 3x3 + 3x − 2 p: ±1. ±4. ±2. 2 f ( x) = ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 2 )( 2 x − 1) 396 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 2 f ( x ) = an ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 3) 1 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 12 x3 + 20 x 2 + 12 x + 18 –8 –16 –7 8 16 0 2 –7 8 16 –1 8 –16 –8 16 0 2 65. ± 2. 1 real zero. g ( x) = 1 −1 ( x + 2) 2 2 x + 3x + 3x – 2 = 0 4 3 ( x + 2)(2 x3 – x 2 + 2 x –1) = 0 ( x + 2)[ x 2 (2 x –1) + (2 x –1)] = 0 ( x + 2)(2 x –1)( x 2 + 1) = 0 1 x = –2. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 nonreal complex zeros 68. ±i. ± 8. 4 real zeros. ± 4. f ( x) = an ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) f (1) = an (1 − 2 ) ⎡⎣12 − 4 (1) + 13⎤⎦ −10 = −10an an = 1 g ( x) = x 4 − 6 x 3 + x 2 + 24 x + 16 p: ±1. ±16 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 2 nonreal complex zeros 67. ±8. ± 16 q –1 1 f ( x ) = 1( x − 2 ) ( x − 4 x + 13) 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 13 x − 2 x 2 + 8 x − 26 1 62. . one with multiplicity two. ± q 2 2 7 ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 = 0 x = –1 or x = 4 g ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 + x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 0 –1 ( x + 1) ( x – 8 x + 16) = 0 f ( x ) = 2 ( x + 1)( x + 6 x + 9 ) 3 1 2 2 2 3 –1 an = 2 –2 16 ( x + 1)( x3 – 7 x 2 + 8 x + 16) = 0 2 2 f ( −1) = an ⎡( −1) + 1⎤ ⎡( −1) + 6 ( −1) + 9 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ 16 = 8an 63. ± 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. 3 real zeros. 24 2 f ( x ) = an ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 2 1 x – 6 x + x + 24 x + 16 = 0 f ( x ) = x − 6 x + 21x − 26 3 –6 66. 2 real zeros. f ( x) = an ( x – 2)( x – 2 + 3i )( x – 2 – 3i ) 64. x = or x = ±i 2 1 The zeros are –2. ±2 q: ±1. 4 nonreal complex zeros 3 –2 –4 2 –4 2 –1 2 –1 0 69.

h( x ) = Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 +3 x −1 72. Inc. f ( x) = 2x x −9 Vertical asymptote: x+3=0 x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. so y = = 2 1 2 Symmetry: f (– x) = – origin symmetry x-intercept: 2x 0= 2 x −9 2x = 0 x=0 y-intercept: y = 2 ( 0) 02 − 9 Vertical asymptote: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3 and x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = 0 2x = – f ( x) x –9 2 =0 397 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 70. . g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 2x – 4 = 0 x=2 2 (0) − 4 4 y-intercept: y = =− 0 + 3 3 ( ) Symmetry: g (– x) = 71. g ( x) = 2x − 4 x+3 –2 x – 4 x+3 g(–x) ≠ g(x).

Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 73. y= 2 x2 – 4 x + 3 (– x + 2) 2 r(–x) ≠ r(x). Slant asymptote: 1 y = x –1+ x +1 y=x–1 x2 + 4 x + 3 ( x + 2) x2 x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. r ( x) = x2 – x +1 f(–x) ≠ f(x). –1 02 + 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = 2 4 (0 + 2) Vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 Symmetry: r (– x) = 398 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. r(–x) ≠ –r(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 4 x + 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x + 1) = 0 x = –3. no horizontal asymptote. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x2 = 0 x=0 02 y-intercept: y = =0 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 n > m. –2 Symmetry: h(– x) = 75. . h ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. so y = = 1 1 x 2 − 3x − 4 x2 − x − 6 x 2 + 3x – 4 x2 + x – 6 h(–x) ≠ h(x). h(–x) ≠ –h(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x 2 − 3x − 4 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 1) x = 4 x = –1 02 − 3 ( 0 ) − 4 2 y-intercept: y = = 02 − 0 − 6 3 Vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 2) = 0 x = 3. so y = = 1 1 74.

Slant asymptote: 12 y = x+5+ x −3 y = x+5 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 2x − 3 4 x 2 + 16 x + 16 Symmetry: g (– x) = –2 x – 3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). f ( x) = 2 = – f ( x) x2 + 1 Origin symmetry x-intercept: −2 x 3 = 0 x=0 −2 ( 0 ) 3 y-intercept: y = = 0 =0 1 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 No vertical asymptote. so no horizontal asymptote. so no horizontal asymptote. Horizontal asymptote: n > m. Slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = 2 x – 5 + 2x – 3 y = 2x – 5 −2 x 3 x2 + 1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 ( 0) − 3 =− 399 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Symmetry: f (– x) = 78. Slant asymptote: 2 16 3 Vertical asymptote: 2x – 3 = 0 3 x= 2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m.PreCalculus 4E 76. . f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = –3. Inc. y= Chapter 2 Review Exercises x2 + 2x − 3 x−3 f ( x) = –2 x + 2x x +1 2 y = –2x x2 – 2 x – 3 –x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 = 0 g ( x) = 4 ( x − 2) = 0 2 x=2 y-intercept: 4 ( 0 ) − 16 ( 0 ) + 16 2 y= 77. so no horizontal asymptote. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 0 2 + 2 ( 0 ) − 3 −3 y-intercept: y = = =1 0−3 −3 Vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 Horizontal asymptote: n > m.

Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −3. and 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) ∪ (1.000 + 25x C ( x) = 83.000 calculators are manufactured. b. 1000 = lw 1000 =l w 25(50) + 50. so y = = 3000 0. 81. 2 1⎞ ⎛ Testing each interval gives a solution set of ⎜ −3. d. C (50) = 1000 x 2000 P = 2x + x P = 2x + 2 85. 25(100) + 50. −4] ∪ ⎡⎢− .50 to manufacture each. Inc. 000 C (1000) = = 75 1000 When 1. a.5 100. it costs $75 to manufacture each. the percentage of men in the U. 000 C (100) = = 525 100 When 100 calculators are manufactured. 4 2 + x+3 x M ( x) 1. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 150 x + 120 0.52 3. x3 + 2 x 2 > 3x Solve the related equation. 80. 000 C (100.48 x + 120.000 x 84. . 000) = = 25.6 x ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 The boundary points are −3 .900 100 x 2 + 729 n < m so y = 0 As the number of years of education increases the percentage rate of unemployment approaches zero. Minimum costs will approach $25.4 + 1. T (x) = 25 x + 50. 000 = 1025 50 When 50 calculators are manufactured. it costs $525 to manufacture each. 25(1000) + 50. a.000 calculators are manufactured. 72. 000) + 50.05 x + 1 150 n = m. 87.05 The number of fish available in the pond approaches 3000.06 Over time.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. ∞ ⎞⎟ ⎣ 2 ⎠ P ( x) = R( x) = 1 . so y = 86.000 When 100. 25 = 25 is the horizontal 1 asymptote. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 ≥ 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. b.58 ≈ 0. it costs $1025 to manufacture each. x3 + 2 x 2 = 3x x 3 + 2 x 2 − 3x = 0 x ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 P( x) = M ( x) + F ( x) = 1. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 = 0 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 4 ) = 0 The boundary points are −4 and − 12 . 2 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ( 2 x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 The boundary points are −3 and f ( x) = 82.4 = P( x) 3. ∞ ) = 3. y= 400 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.S. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 < 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. population will approach 52%. n = m. 25(100. C(x) = 50. c.58 x + 114.06 x + 235 1.06 x + 235 c.58 x + 114. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 1 ( −∞. it costs $25. 0.

d = 16(10) 2 = 1.8) 2 − 4(0. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 23 ( −∞. w = 0.125 x 2 − 0. since this would make the denominator zero. 90. ∞ ) . We exclude 4 4 from the solution set. 40 Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞.3(35) + 27 ≈ 261 The stopping distance on wet pavement for a motorcycle traveling 35 miles per hour is about 261 feet.125(35) 2 + 2.125 x 2 − 0.8) ± (−0. 4 ) ∪ ⎢⎡ . f ( x) = 0. x= ( x + 1)( x − 2) ≥0 x −1 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. ∞ ) .8 x + 99 0 < −16 ( t 2 − 3t + 2 ) 0 < –16(t – 2)(t – 1) F T F 1 2 The projectile’s height exceeds 32 feet during the time period from 1 to 2 seconds. Thus. We exclude 1 from the solution set. . since this would make the denominator zero. 91. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 23 The boundary points are 4 and .4 1200 cubic centimeters of melting snow will produce 134. Chapter 2 Review Exercises x−6 >0 x+2 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. s = −16t 2 + v0 t + s0 32 < −16t 2 + 48t + 0 0 < −16t 2 + 48t − 32 x+3 ≤5 x−4 Express the inequality so that one side is zero.125 x 2 + 2.8 x + 99 > 267 0. d = kt2 144 = k (3) 2 k = 16 d = 16t 2 g (35) = 0.4 cubic centimeters of water. 1) ∪ [ 2. 0.112=k Thus. b. The boundary points are –1. g ( x) = 0. 89.125 x 2 − 0. 0.3x + 27 93. 600 ft 401 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.112s.8 x − 168 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. x+3 −5 ≤ 0 x−4 x + 3 5 ( x − 4) − ≤0 x−4 x−4 −4 x + 23 ≤0 x−4 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. The boundary points are –2 and 6.6 ) ∪ ( 40. Testing each interval gives a solution set of [ −1.125) x = −33.6. 92. speeds exceeding 40 miles per hour on dry pavement will require over 267 feet of stopping distance.112(1200) = 134. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. −33. 94. w = ks 28 = k ⋅ 250 0. This overestimates the distance shown in the graph by 1 foot.125)(−168) 2(0. ∞ ⎞⎟ . −2 ) ∪ ( 6. 1 and 2.125 x 2 − 0.8 x − 168 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−0.PreCalculus 4E 88. ⎣4 ⎠ a. w = 0. Inc.

(6 − 7i )(2 + 5i ) = 12 + 30i − 14i − 35i 2 = 12 + 16i + 35 = 47 + 16i 2. c. L= Chapter 2 Test 1. . 1056 . 5 5 2+i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 5(2 + i ) = 4 +1 5(2 + i ) = 5 = 2+i 3. p= 96. kc w k ⋅ 30 10 = 6 10 = 5h t= k to find k. L = . k w k 660 = 1.4 The pitch is 440 vibrations per second. R k L= R k 30 = 63 k 63 ⋅ 30 = 63 ⋅ 63 1890 = k 1890 Thus. R Use L = This is an approximate model. 2 −49 + 3 −64 = 2(7i ) + 3(8i ) = 14i + 24i = 38i h=2 2c w 2(40) = 16 hours t= 5 t= 98. Inc. k d2 k 28 = 2 8 k = 1792 1792 l= 2 d 1792 l = 2 = 112 decibels 4 l= b.Polynomial and Rational Functions 95. p = 99. V = khB 175 = k ⋅15 ⋅ 35 1 3 1 V = hB 3 1 V = ⋅ 20 ⋅120 = 800 ft 3 3 k= 402 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 97.6 1056 = k p= Thus. a. 1890 R 1890 L= = 70 27 The average life span of an elephant is 70 years. w 1056 = 440 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

–4) axis of symmetry x = 1 x-intercepts: x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 x = 3 or x = –1 x2 − 4 x + 8 = 0 x= x= −b ± b − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(1)(8) 2(1) 2 4 ± −16 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i x= 5. f ( x) = −2 x 2 + 12 x − 16 Since the coefficient of x2 is negative. ∞ ) . 2) domain: ( −∞. f ( x) = x 2 − 2 x − 3 y-intercept: f (0) = 02 − 2(0) − 3 = −3 f ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. −b 2 = =1 2a 2 f (1) = 12 − 2(1) − 3 = −4 vertex: (1. 6. x=− f ( 23) = − ( 23) + 46 ( 23) − 360 = 169 2 Maximum daily profit = $16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Inc. range: ( −∞. −12 x= =3 2(−2) f (3) = −2(3) 2 + 12(3) − 16 = −18 + 36 − 16 =2 Maximum point: (3. 2] domain: ( −∞.900. range: [ −4. f ( x ) = − x 2 + 46 x − 360 b −46 = = 23 2a −2 23 computers will maximize profit. ∞ ) 7.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 2 Test x2 = 4 x − 8 4. 403 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the graph of f(x) opens down and f(x) has a maximum point. 4) axis of symmetry: x = –1 x-intercepts: ( x + 1) 2 + 4 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 −2 ± 4 − 20 = −1 ± 2i 2 no x-intercepts y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 1)2 + 4 = 5 x= domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 8. ∞ ) . range: [ 4. ∞ ) .

Possible rational zeros are: p : ± 1. x 3 + 9 x 2 + 16 x − 6 = 0 Since the leading coefficient is 1. ±6 q: ±1. The x-intercepts should be –1 and 1. f ( x ) = 3x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 + x − 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. ±2 1 3 p : ± 1. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. ±5. 2. b. and −3 − 11 . ± . ± 6 q f ( 7 ) = −7 2 + 14 ( 7 ) = 49 The vertex is (7. The product is f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) = − x 2 + 14 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 14 14 x=− =− =− = 7. ± . 15. There are 3 or 1 positive real solutions and no negative real solutions. ± 5. ± q 2 2 14.Polynomial and Rational Functions 9. ± 3. The maximum product is 49. 2. ±2. Let x = one of the numbers. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. ± . ± . ± 2. b. −3 + 11 . f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 a. 1 1 9 16 –6 –3 –18 6 6 –2 0 Thus x = 3 is a root. 14 − x = the other number. 6 6 –19 16 –4 12 –14 4 –7 2 0 x= −(6) ± (6) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) −6 ± 44 2 = −3 ± 11 The zeros are −3 . the possible rational zeros are the factors of 6 p p = : ± 1. ± 2. 2 3 404 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –3 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. ± 6. 12. –2 The solution set is {5. –2}. a. f ( − x ) = −3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 − x − 1 f(–x) has no sign variations. . ± 15 q : ± 1. ± 3. This occurs when the two number are 7 and 14 − 7 = 7 . ±15. 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±3. f ( x ) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x − 5 x − 4 x + 20 = 0 3 2 x 2 ( x − 5) − 4( x − 5) = 0 ( x − 5)( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 5. ± q 2 2 2 2 6x − 7x + 2 = 0 (3x – 2)(2x – 1) = 0 2 1 x = or x = 3 2 2 The other two roots are −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = The integral root is 2. 2 x= 1 2 and . ±3. 16. the graph of f should fall to the left and rise to the right. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 13. ± 3. 49). Solve the quotient x 2 + 6 x − 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula to find the remaining roots. 11. a. Inc. ± 2 1 3 5 15 p : ±1. f ( x ) = x5 − x Since the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive.

2 f ( x) = 1 ( x + 3) 2 domain: {x | x ≠ –3} or ( −∞. f ( x) = a0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + i )( x − i ) f ( x) = a0 ( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) = a0 ( x 4 − 1) Since f (3) = 160 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Chapter 2 Test Verify that −1 and 3 are zeros as it appears in 2 19. and ± 5 . then a0 (34 − 1) = 160 a0 (80) = 160 160 80 a0 = 2 a0 = f ( x) = 2( x 4 − 1) = 2 x 4 − 2 405 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3) ∪ ( −3. and the polynomial 2 factors as follows: 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 = 0 The zeros (x-intercepts) are –1 and 2 . . Inc. 3 The zeros are −1 . −3 x 2 − x + 2 = 0 0 −15 3 2 15 –4 0 −(3x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 3 Thus. x 3 + 3x 2 – 4 = ( x – 1)( x + 2) 2 18. –3 –3 2 −3 −10 0 −10 1 2 3 1 4 –1 2 0 Factor the quotient to find the remaining zeros. 3 The y-intercept is f (0) = 2 ( x + 1) ( 2 x3 − 3x 2 − 10 x + 15) = 0 ( x + 1) ⎛⎜ x − 3⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2 x − 10 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Find the remaining zeros by solving: 2 x 2 − 10 = 0 2 x 2 = 10 x2 = 5 x=± 5 20. −1 and are zeros. . Use synthetic division to verify this root.PreCalculus 4E b. ∞ ) 17. the graph: −1 2 −1 −13 5 15 –1 −2 3 10 −15 2 −3 −10 15 0 3 2 f ( x ) = −3 x 3 − 4 x 2 + x + 2 The graph shows a root at x = −1 . The zero at –2 has multiplicity of 2. f(x) has zeros at –2 and 1.

x x 2 − 16 domain: {x | x ≠ 4. so no horizontal asymptote exists. Inc. f ( x) = 406 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 − 9 x−2 domain: {x | x ≠ 2} f ( x) = x2 – 9 –x – 2 f(–x) ≠ f(x). 1 +2 x −1 domain: {x | x ≠ 1} or ( −∞. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 21.1) ∪ (1. –3 02 − 9 9 y-intercept: y = = 0−2 2 Vertical asymptote: x–2=0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. 5 Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 2 – x–2 y = x +2 Symmetry: f (– x) = 22. –4 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. x ≠ –4} –x = – f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 16 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: x = 0 0 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 − 16 Vertical asymptotes: x 2 − 16 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 4) = 0 x = 4. ∞ ) f ( x) = 23.

the production cost approaches $10 per radio. x ≠ 1} –x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 2x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). 1 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. =0 2x + 1 ≤3 x−3 2x + 1 −3 ≤ 0 x−3 10 − x ≤0 x −3 Boundary values: 3 and 10 Solution set: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3) ∪ [10. b.PreCalculus 4E 24. 27. 1 2 C ( x) = 26. Since the degree of the numerator equals the degree of the denominator. the horizontal 10 = 10 . . so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. ( x + 3)( x − 4) < 0 Boundary values: –3 and 4 Solution set: ( −3. 000 + 10x x x 2 < x + 12 x − x − 12 < 0 2 25. 300. Chapter 2 Test x +1 x + 2x − 3 x 2 + 2 x − 3 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) domain: {x | x ≠ –3. asymptote is x = 1 This represents the fact that as the number of satellite radio players produced increases. a. Vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x –3. so y = = 4 is the horizontal asymptote. ∞ ) 407 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 02 + 3 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 3 = 0 x 2 = −3 No vertical asymptote. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x+1=0 x = –1 0 +1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 =− 0 + 2 (0) − 3 3 f ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. Inc. 4 ) 4 x2 x2 + 3 domain: all real numbers 4 x2 = f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x +3 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 f ( x) = y-intercept: y = 4 ( 0) 28.

⎟ . 4. Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–2) 1. 3⎠ ⎝3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛5 ⎞ Testing points. ∞ ⎟ . 11. ∞) 3x 2 > 2 x + 5 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 > 0 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 = 0 (3 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = –1 3 3x 2 − 5 x + 1 = 0 5 ± 25 − 12 5 ± 13 = 6 6 ⎪⎧ 5 + 13 5 − 13 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . . The zero at 1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. There is a relative maximum at the point (0. 3⎭ ⎩3 4500 4500 = = 45 foot-candles d2 102 i= 9+ 12. 3). –1. domain: (−2. |2x – 1| = 3 2x −1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 2 x − 1 = −3 2 x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {2. ± 3. ⎝3 ⎠ 408 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1) or (4. ∞ ⎟ . ∞ ) 10. –1}. ±2. 1 f )(−1) = f ( f (−1) ) = f (0) = 3 f ( x) → ∞ as x → −2+ or as 1 2 –5 –6 –3 3 6 –1 –2 0 x + 2 x – 5x – 6 = 0 3 x → 2− 2 ( x + 3)( x 2 – x – 2) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 x = –3 or x = –1 or x = 2 The solution set is {–3. 7. 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 x= 5⎞ ⎛5 ⎛ ⎞ Test intervals are (–∞. The zero at –1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. –1). 8. 3. ⎬. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. − ⎬ . 2. (f 5. 2}. ± 2. the solution is (– ∞. k d2 k 20 = 2 15 4500 = k i= 9. ± 6 q –3 6. 3 2 = x x2 9 x 2 + 3x = 2 9 x2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) = 0 3x − 1 = 0 3x + 2 = 0 1 2 or x = − x= 3 3 2⎫ ⎧1 The solution set is ⎨ . ⎜ .Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. 2) range: [ 0. –1) or ⎜ . x3 + 2 x 2 − 5x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. ±3. ±6 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 2x − 5 > 3 2x − 5 > 3 2x > 8 x>4 2 x − 5 < −3 2x < 2 x <1 (−∞. ⎜ –1.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 14. Cumulative Review Exercises f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 x-intercepts: x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 = 0 15. .PreCalculus 4E 13. f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x − 8 −b −2 = = −1 x= 2a 2 f (−1) = (−1) 2 + 2(−1) − 8 = 1 − 2 − 8 = −9 vertex: (–1. Inc. ( x − 4)( x 2 − 1) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = –1. 4 x-intercepts: f ( 0 ) = 03 − 4(0) 2 − 0 + 4 = 4 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. –9) x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 8 = 0 ( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 x = –4 or x = 2 x −1 x−2 vertical asymptote: x = 2 horizontal asymptote: y = 1 x-intercept: x = 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 f ( x) = 17. 16. 1. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. y-intercept: f(0) = –8 409 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 ( x − 4) − 1( x − 4) = 0 f ( x) = x 2 ( x − 3) zeros: x = 0 (multiplicity 2) and x = 3 y-intercept: y = 0 f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 n = 3. an = 0 so the graph falls to the left and rises to the right.

19. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ⎡ 2( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 1⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ 2 x 2 − x − 1⎤⎦ =⎣ h 2 2 2 x + 4hx − x + 2h − h − 1 − 2 x 2 + x + 1 = h 2 4hx + 2h − h = h = 4 x + 2h − 1 410 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) ( f g )( x) = 2(4 x − 1) 2 − (4 x − 1) − 1 = 32 x 2 − 20 x + 2 20. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 18.

x −2 −1 0 1 2 3. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates. Note that the function g ( x) = 3x −1 has the general form g ( x) = b x + c where c = −1 .56)3 ≈ 160. we Plot these points. x f ( x ) = ( 13 ) −2 ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 91 −1 0 1 2 f ( x ) = 3x 3−2 = 19 3−1 = 13 30 = 1 31 = 3 32 = 9 g ( x) = 3x −1 3−2 −1 = 3−3 = 271 3−1−1 = 3−2 = 19 30 −1 = 3−1 = 13 31−1 = 30 = 1 32 −1 = 31 = 3 x −2 411 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 f ( x ) = 3x f (−3) = 3−3 = 1 27 1 9 1 3 f (−2) = 3−2 = f (−1) = 3−1 = f (0) = 30 = 1 f (1) = 31 = 3 f (2) = 32 = 9 f (3) = 33 = 27 4. f ( x) = 42. f (3) = 42. This overestimates the actual amount shown by $11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . graph g ( x) = 3x −1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 3x one unit to the right. connecting them with a continuous curve. Inc. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g.2(1. the average amount spent after three hours of shopping at the mall is $160. 2. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates.56) x Plot these points. Because c < 0.2(1. connecting them with a continuous curve.Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Section 3.1 Check Point Exercises 1.20876 ≈ 160 According to the function.

918. Inc.665 4.242 412 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g.125 6.95 10. e 3. Note that the function g ( x) = 2 x + 1 has the general form g ( x ) = b x + c where c = 1. 23⋅4 ≈ 10.556 2.47 A = Pe rt A = 10.25 b.042 x f (34) = 1066e0. 4(5) x g ( x) = 5x −2 5−2 = 251 −1 5−1 = 15 0 50 = 1 1 51 = 5 2 52 = 25 Exercise Set 3.116 ≈ 0. f ( x) = 1066e0.5 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.472 f ( x ) = 4x 4−2 = 161 4−1 = 14 40 = 1 41 = 4 42 = 16 2012 is 34 years after 1978. e –0. e 11.08(5) = $14. 6 7.3 ≈ 9. x g ( x) = 2 + 1 2−2 + 1 = 14 + 1 = 54 2−1 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 23 20 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2 21 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3 22 + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5 x 5. r⎞ ⎛ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ a. 7. 5 3 ≈ 16.042(34) ≈ 4446 In 2012 the gray wolf population of the Western Great Lakes is projected to be about 4446.859.964 9. we graph g ( x) = 2 x + 1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 2 x up one unit.967 3. Because c > 0. nt ⎛ 0. 12.75 x −2 −1 0 1 2 ≈ 0. 4 −1. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ = $14.4 ≈ 29. . 3 5 ≈ 11. 32.2 −0.4 ≈ 13.1 1. 000e0. −1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5.974 8.387 ≈ 0. e 2. x f ( x) − 2 −2 2−2 = 14 −1 2−1 = 12 0 20 = 1 1 21 = 2 2 22 = 4 6.08 ⎞ A = 10.

. x −2 −1 0 1 2 Section 3.PreCalculus 4E x 13. ( 34 ) = 169 −1 ( 43 ) = 43 0 ( 43 ) = 1 1 ( 43 ) = 43 2 ( 43 ) = 169 −2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 h ( x ) = ( 12 ) x ( 12 ) = 4 −1 ( 12 ) = 2 0 ( 12 ) = 1 1 ( 12 ) = 12 2 ( 12 ) = 14 −2 h ( x ) = ( 13 ) x ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 19 −2 413 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 g ( x) = ( 32 ) x ( 32 ) = 49 −1 ( 32 ) = 23 0 ( 32 ) = 1 1 ( 32 ) = 32 2 ( 32 ) = 94 −2 g ( x) = ( 43 ) x 15. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −2 −1 0 1 2 x 16. −2 −1 0 1 2 14.

This is the graph of f(x) = 3x.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions x 17.8 2 (0. 20. .6)2 = 0. so the function is H ( x) = −3− x. range: ( −1. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = 1. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit to the right. 414 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x +! can be obtained by shifting x −2 (0.6) −1 = 1.6)1 = 0. so the function is g ( x) = 3x −1.8) −2 (0.6)−2 = 2.8) −1 = 1. shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x downward one unit. asymptote: y = −1 23. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x − 1 can be obtained by 19. 21.7 −1 (0.8) 2 = 0.6 2 (0. 22. so the function is h( x) = 3x − 1. 24. ∞ ) . so the function is F ( x) = −3x.64 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. range: ( 0. f ( x ) = ( 0.36 the graph of f ( x) = 2 x one unit to the left. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the x- axis. ∞ ) 27. ∞ ) . This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the y- axis. This is the graph of f ( x) = 3x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.6)0 = 1 1 (0.8) −2 26. ∞ ) downward. so the function is G ( x) = 3− x. Inc.6 0 (0.6 ) 25.25 0 (0.8)0 = 1 1 (0. range: ( 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit domain: ( −∞. x f ( x) = (0.8)1 = 0. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by shifting x the graph of f ( x) = 2 x two units to the left.5625 −1 (0.

asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.1 28. ∞ ) . x 33. range: ( −1. Inc. two units to the asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of h ( x ) = 2 x +1 − 1 can be obtained by 32. .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 30. The graph of g ( x ) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by 31. reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the x-axis. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x) = 2 ⋅ 2 x can be obtained by vertically stretching the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of two. The graph of g ( x ) = −2 x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x two units upward. ∞ ) . x reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the y-axis. The graph of h( x) = 2 x + 2 − 1 can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 left and one unit downward. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) 29. ∞ ) . ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. range: ( −1. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x) = 2− x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 one unit to the left and one unit downward. ∞ ) . range: ( 2. range: ( −∞. range: ( 0. range: ( 0. ∞ ) 415 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. asymptote: y = 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.

range: ( 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 37. The graph of g ( x) = e x −1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right. range: ( −1. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 38. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right and 2 units up. 34. The graph of h( x) = e x −1 + 2 can be obtained by asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 416 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x ) = e x + 2 can be obtained by 1 x ⋅ 2 can be obtained by 2 vertically shrinking the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of one-half. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x ) = moving f ( x) = e x 2 units up. ∞ ) . 35. asymptote: y = −1 domain: ( −∞. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = e x − 1 can be obtained by domain: ( −∞. range: ( 0. . range: ( 2. range: ( 0. Inc. ∞ ) 39. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit down. range: ( 0. The graph of g ( x) = e x +1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left. 36. ∞ ) . asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞.

range: ( −∞. Inc. range: ( 0.1 40. 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. . range: (1. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. range: ( −1. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x) = 2e x can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left and 1 unit down. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of h( x) = e 2 x + 1 can be obtained by stretching f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 2 and then moving the graph up 1 unit. The graph of h( x) = e − x can be obtained by reflecting 44. range: ( 0. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x) = f ( x) = e x about the y-axis. 0 ) asymptote: y = 1 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 42. asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = −e x can be obtained by reflecting f ( x) = e x about the x-axis. 1 x e can be obtained by 2 shrinking f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 1 . ∞ ) 41. range: ( 0. ∞ ) 417 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = e x+1 − 1 can be obtained by 43. stretching f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 2. 45. ∞ ) .

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 1 49. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by horizontally stretching f(x) by a factor of 3. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and one space up. 48. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the y-axis. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. ∞ ) .. range: ( 2. . asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 1 418 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 51. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by vertically shrinking f(x) by a factor of 13 . x 46. The graph of h( x) = e 2 + 2 can be obtained by shrinking f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 1 2 and then moving the graph up 2 units. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 50. ∞ ) 47. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the x-axis.

⎛ 0. 737.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0. ≈ $9527.157. ⎛ 0.51 ⎛ 0. 000e0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.055(5) ≈ $13. Inc.1) .79 12(10) c. 54. 0 f ( x) = 2 x 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 2 4 x −2 −1 4(5) 12(5) c.140. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.3% yield) Investing $6000 for 4 years at 8.065(10) ≈ = $9560. 000e0. a.64 (8. 795. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13. b.055 ⎞ A = 10.92 ≈ 9577.055 ⎞ A = 10. ⎛ 0.70 419 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.31 ⎛ 0. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and two spaces up.07 ⎞ A = 12.25% yield) 2( 4) ⎛ 0. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13. A = 5000 ( e ) 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.67 (6.84 (8.0685(3) ≈ 14.11 (7% yield) A = 12.000 for 3 years at 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return.065 ⎞ b. .055 ⎞ A = 10. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 2 53.19 The point of intersection is ( 0.116.85% yield) Investing $12. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 14.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ d. 12(3) 55. A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2(10) 410 ⋅ ≈ $9479. ⎛ 0.04 g ( x) = 2− x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 A = 10. d. 4( 4 ) 56. a.0825 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $8317.165.083 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $ 8306.1 52. ⎛ 0.25% compounded quarterly yields the greater return.67 2(5) 57.

Inc. The graph is of the form y = b x . g ( x) = 2− x +1 8 4 2 1 1 2 The point of intersection is ( 0. Substitute values from the point (1. −1 0 1 f ( x) = 2 x +1 1 2 1 2 4 2 8 x −2 60. 6) to find b. y = −b x −e = −b1 e=b The equation of the graph is y = −e x 420 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ) . y = bx 6 = b1 6=b The equation of the graph is y = 6 x 63. . y = 2x 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 x y = 3x 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 x x = 3y 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 y 61.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 58. 59. Substitute values from the point (1. The graph is of the form y = −b x . –e) to find b. y = bx x = 2y 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 y 4 = b1 4=b The equation of the graph is y = 4 x 62. 4) to find b. The graph is of the form y = b x . Substitute values from the point (1.

f ( 27 ) = 574 (1.824979946 27 2π ≈ 8.44 c.824977827 The closer the exponent gets to π.9 According to the linear model.026 ) ≈ 4590 . . ⎛1⎞ The equation of the graph is y = ⎜ ⎟ = e − x ⎝e⎠ a. e = b −1 1 e= b eb = 1 1 b= e ≈ 3.4 million words in the federal tax code in 2005. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1.1 ≈ 8.03) 5 5 ≈ $591. g ( x) = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. = 465.5) 80 30 b.249009585 21. 2005 is 50 years after 1955. there were about 8.4 According to the exponential model.1 64.06 ) ≈ $832.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. the closer the 3 value is to 2 . 000 (1 + 0.317278183 21. S = 465.73 ≈ 3.15(50) + 1. find d. 81 e.03) = 510. 66.7 ≈ 3.7320508 ≈ 3. 67.49 Chernobyl will not be safe for human habitation by 2066. the closer the value is to 2π.87e0.824411082 = 574 (1) = 574 23. 3 2 x 65. there were about 10. S = 510. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1.026 ) ≈ 1148 India’s population in 2001 will be 1148 million.14 ≈ 8. India’s population in 2028 will be 2295 million. 000 (1.44 ≈ 8. Substitute values from the point (–1.815240927 23.321880096 21.824961595 India’s population in 1974 was 574 million. 54 71. Since 2028 − 1974 = 54 . = 157. 2005 is 50 years after 1955. find 23. e) to find b.14159 ≈ 8. 21.026 ) ≈ 2295 . f ( x) = 0. f ( 80 ) = 1000 ( 0. b. There will still be 157. c.1415 ≈ 8. a.321995226 21.15 x + 1. 000 (1. 744 10 68. The graph is of the form y = b x .821353305 0 23.732 ≈ 3.321997085 The closer the exponent is to 3 . 230 421 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 (1 + 0.321997068 23.73205 ≈ 3.026 ) 23 ≈ 8 23. India’s population in 2055 will be 4590 million. y = bx 69. India’s population appears to be doubling every 27 years.141 ≈ 8.87e0.0344 x g (50) = 1.9 million words in the federal tax code in 2005.141593 ≈ 8.5741877 70. 2055 − 1974 = 81 .06 ) 10 The linear model is the better model for the data in 2005. f (50) = 0. f ( 0 ) = 574 (1.5 kilograms of cesium-137 in Chernobyl’s atmosphere.0344(50) ≈ 10.

b. f (40) = 6.052 x 37.7 According to the exponential model.44 ≈ 4.7 37.8 30. b.029) x 76.029) x f (56) = 6.1e−0.4 million words in the federal tax code in 1975. The exponential model is the better model for the data in 1975. f ( x) = 6. d.5(52) + 20 ≈ 20 20% of the material is remembered 1 year after it is first learned.44 f (20) = 0. f ( x) = 0.3 g (40) = ≈ 21. b. there were about 3.19(1.19(1.917. c. b. 75. Explanations will vary.5(1) + 20 ≈ 68.052(40) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 21.3 g (56) = ≈ 27. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ = 80e 0 + 20 = 80(1) + 20 = 100 100% of the material is remembered at the moment it is first learned.0 in 2006.3 in 1990. f (4) = 80e −0.052(56) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 28.87e0. ( 24 1 + 0.05(379) ≈ $4. 82. Sample explanation: The horizontal asymptote is y = 0.05 ⎞ A = 10.4 According to the linear model.360. Inc.15 x + 1.0344(20) ≈ 3.0344 x g (20) = 1. a.05 12 ) 12(379) 4t 12 t f (0) = 80e −0. ⎛ 0. 5% compounded quarterly offers the better return. 074. 83.1 1 + 6. 662. b. a.87e0.1e −0. d.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 72.4 37. g ( x) = 1. ≈ $3.029)40 ≈ 19. Answers may vary.19(1.15(20) + 1.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6.19(1.052 x 37. 74.9 1 + 6.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6. f (1) = 80e−0. 753 24e0. .8% of the material is remembered 4 week after it is first learned.5% of the material is remembered 1 week after it is first learned.1e−0. a. there were about 4. f (52) = 80e −0.1e −0. a. 422 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 77.5 68.029)56 ≈ 30. Answers may vary.045 ⎞ A = 10. 81. 73. 794 c. does not make sense. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.5(0) + 20 c.5(4) + 20 ≈ 30. f ( x) = 6. 1975 is 20 years after 1955.7 million words in the federal tax code in 1975. – 80. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1975 is 20 years after 1955. a.

makes sense 87. y = 1 is (b). ( x − 3) 2 > 0 so it is (d) reflected () x about the y-axis. makes sense 85. but not as quickly as y = () y= 1 3 5x .2 Check Point Exercises 93. Solving the related equation. Section 3. 88. 2 = log b 25 means b 2 = 25. −(− x) e +e 2 −x e + ex = 2 e x + e− x = 2 = cosh x cosh(− x) = 2 ⎛ e x + e− x ⎞ ⎛ e x − e− x ⎞ ? ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ =1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x e 2 x − 2 + e −2 x ? − =1 4 4 e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x − e 2 x + 2 − e −2 x ? =1 4 4? =1 4 1=1 about the y-axis while f ( x) = −3x reflects the graph 89. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. 92. 86.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. A sample change is: The functions do not have the same graph. f ( x) = 3− x reflects the graph of y = 3x b. c.2 84. 423 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 1 is the 5 5 –x same as y = 5 . ) 2. 25 = x means 5 = log 2 x. Note that the boundary value x = 3 does not satisfy the inequality. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 . ? (cosh x) 2 − (sinh x) 2 = 1 2 of y = 3x about the x-axis. ∞ ) . We do not know how to solve x = 2 y for y. so it is (c) reflected about the y-axis. 1 . log 4 26 = y means 4 y = 26. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 251/ 2 = 5 2 96. gives x = 3. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. 95. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Inc. true 91. x is the same as y = () x 3–x. y = 1 3 94. false. false. . b. a. e y = 33 means y = log e 33. −x 1. c. y increases as x increases. Changes to make the statement true will vary. i. A sample change is: If f ( x) = 2 x then f (a + b) = f (a ) ⋅ f (b). a. x is (a). y= 5x is () (c). e− x − e−( − x ) 2 e− x − e x = 2 − −e − x + e x = 2 e x − e− x =− 2 = − sinh x sinh(− x) = ( c. b.3) ∪ ( 3. Explanations will vary. y = 3x is (d). does not make sense.e. 90. 3 = log 7 x means 73 = x. A sample change is: The amount of money will not increase without bound. b3 = 27 means 3 = log b 27. Sample explanation: An exponential model is better than a linear model.

7 a. Question: 10 to what power gives 100? log10 100 = 2 because 10 2 = 100. Exercise Set 3. 000 3? =4 The earthquake registered 4. we obtain x < 4. Because log b b = 1. 1. 5 y = 125 9. a.4 ln x − 11.000 I0.0 on the Richter scale. b5 = 32 6. Solving this inequality for x. 4) b. b. 6y = 216 8. 1 1 x 1 3 9 27 9 3 g ( x) = log 3 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 The graph of the inverse can also be drawn by reflecting the graph of f ( x) = 3x about the line y = x. Question: 3 to what power gives 1 log 3 7 3 = because 31 7 = 7 3.6 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 3 x. ∞). 9. Question: 36 to what power gives 6? 1 log 36 6 = because 361/ 2 = 36 = 6 2 d. Because log b 1 = 0. 6. Because I = 10. Because log b b = x. we conclude log 9 9 = 1. 10.2 The domain of h consists of all x for which x − 5 > 0. log28 = 3 424 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞). we obtain x < 0 or x > 0. 2 4 = 16 2. Question: 5 to what power gives c. 5. Thus. The domain of g consists of all x for which x 2 > 0. 7.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 3. 26 = 64 3. Thus the domain of g is (−∞. Solving this inequality for x. Find the temperature increase after 30 minutes by substituting 30 for x and evaluating the function at 30. Substitute the boy’s age. we conclude 3log3 17 = 17. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 9 27 9 3 f (30) = 13. Thus. 4. a. x f ( x ) = 3x 10. b. the domain of f is (−∞.8 log(10 + 1) = 29 + 48. Solving this inequality for x. Inc.6 First. 0) ∪ (0. b. 10. f (10) = 29 + 48. a 10-year-old boy is approximately 80% of his adult height. we conclude log8 1 = 0. for x and evaluate the function at 10. The domain of f consists of all x for which 4 – x > 0. we obtain x > 5. 32 = x 4. the domain of h is (5. f ( x) = 13. b3 = 27 7. 000 I 0 R = log I0 1 ? 125 1 1 1 log 5 = −3 because 5−3 = 3 = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. we conclude log 7 7 = 8. . Because blogb x = x.4 ln 30 − 11. 8 x 11. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 3x. a.8 log(11) ≈ 80 Thus. 92 = x 5. 8. ≈ 34 The function models the actual increase shown in the graph quite well. 125 5 125 7 = log 10.

Because log b b = 1. log15 x = 2 37. Because blogb x = x. 13. 41. 9 9 −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 4 x 1 16 1 4 log 7 7 = 1 because 7 2 = 7. Because log b b = 1. log 2 64 = 6 because 2 = 64. log 5 625 = 4 11. log 3 27 = 3 because 33 = 27. log 7 49 = 2 because 7 = 49. 20. log 5 1 1 = −1 because 5−1 = . 2 35. we conclude log 4 46 = 6. log 64 8 = 1 = −3 125 log8 2 = 1 3 log 64 4 = 34. log 3 1 1 = –2 because 3−2 = . 2 3 . Inc. 2 43. 38.2 10. log 6 1 1 = −1 because 6−1 = . 17. we conclude log 5 57 = 7. log 6 6 = 1 because 6 2 = 6. we conclude log 5 5 = 1. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 4 x. = − because 2 2 = 2 2 2 32. log 3 − 1 1 1 .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 8 8 28. 42. log8 300 = y 21. x g ( x) = log 4 x 1 16 1 4 1 4 16 64 −2 −1 0 1 1 29. 1 3 log81 9 = 1 1 because 64 2 = 64 = 8. log 2 1 1 = −3 because 2−3 = . 6 6 27. Because log b 1 = 0. Because log b 1 = 0. we conclude log 6 1 = 0. First. Because log b b x = x. 31. Because blogb x = x. 2 1 425 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 19. log b 343 = 3 39. 14. 23. 2 3 1 4 16 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 4 x. we conclude log11 11 = 1. 5 5 26. = − because 3 2 = 2 3 3 33. log 2 1 15. Because log b b x = x. 36. we conclude 7 log 723 = 23. 6 24. 2 1 1 because 81 2 = 81 = 9. 25. log 5 1 1 = −4 16 − 1 1 1 . logb1000 = 3 18. 2 22. 2 30. log 2 12. log 4 16 = 2 because 4 = 16. we conclude log 4 1 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log13x = 2 16. log7200 = y 40. we conclude 8log8 19 = 19.

−2 −1 0 1 2 3 x f ( x) = ( 12 ) x 4 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 8 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log1 2 x. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 5 x.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 44. so the function is H ( x) = 1 − log 3 x. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted down one g ( x) = log1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 unit. 50. so the function is G ( x ) = log 3 (− x). This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the y-axis. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . ∞) . This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted right one unit. First. ⎝4⎠ x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 3 1 5 25 125 f ( x) = ( 14 ) Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 5 x. so the function is g ( x) = log 3 ( x − 1). This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis. 51. so the function is F ( x) = − log 3 x. ∞) 426 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 8 49. x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 48. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis and shifted up one unit. 52. range: (−∞. 53. −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 5 x 1 25 1 5 2 x ⎛1⎞ 46. Inc. First. First. . 1 25 x 1 5 2 16 4 1 4 1 1 16 1 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 1 4 x. 1 5 25 125 g ( x) = log 5 x −2 −1 0 1 x 3 1 4 1 16 1 64 g ( x) = log 1 4 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x 16 4 1 x ⎛1⎞ 45. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so the function is h( x) = log3 x − 1. ⎝2⎠ 47. vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1.

∞) 427 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: (−∞. 58. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. ∞) . ∞) 57. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: (2. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . ∞) 61. ∞) . Inc. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . 56. range: (−∞. ∞) 60. vertical asymptote: x = 1 domain: (1. 55. range: (−∞. ∞) 59. ∞ ) . ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. .

∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. 67. . ∞ ) . ∞) . 69. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 62. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . ∞) 64. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . Inc. range: (−∞. 66. ∞) 63. ∞) 428 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. 68. ∞) . ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . ∞) 65.

73. ∞) 81. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . 0) . The domain of f consists of all x for which (x – 2)2 > 0. the domain of f is (–4. Thus. we obtain x < 2. we obtain x > –4. ∞) 72. Solving this inequality for x. Solving this inequality for x. the domain of f is (–6. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (−∞. we conclude 10log33 = 33. Thus. 80. 7). log100 = log10 100 = 2 because 102 = 100. we conclude 10log 53 = 53. range: (−∞. Because log10 x = x. Thus.2 70. ∞). 74. 84. 82. ∞). ∞). we conclude log108 = 8. Because 10log x = x. Inc. we obtain x < 7 or x > 7. we obtain x > –6. Because log10 x = x. log1000 = log10 1000 = 3 because 103 = 1000. ∞ ) . Thus. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 6 > 0. 2). 83. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 7)2 > 0. we obtain x < 2 or x > 2. 79. 2) or (2. The domain of f consists of all x for which 7 − x > 0. the domain of f is (−∞. 429 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Solving this inequality for x.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 7) or (7. ∞). vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. the domain of f is (–∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. the domain of f is (–∞. ∞) 76. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) 86. Solving this inequality for x. 71. we conclude log107 = 7. 85. Because 10logx = x. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. Solving this inequality for x. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 4 > 0. range: (−∞. 77. ∞ ) . 78. range: (−∞. The domain of f consists of all x for which 2 – x > 0. we obtain x < 7. ∞) 75. range: (−∞. the domain of f is (−∞. ∞ ) . Solving this inequality for x. Thus. Thus. .

Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 = 3 x. 105. x +1 ⎛ x +1 ⎞ 111. we conclude eln 300 = 300. and the solution set is {16}. we conclude eln125 = 125. The solution is 64 ⎩ 64 ⎭ x= Because ln e x = x. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Because eln x = x. and the solution set is {10}. log ( ln e ) = log1 = 0 95. so ln 6 = −6. 103. ( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 The boundary points are –1 and 2.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 87. log 5 ( x + 4 ) = 2 52 = x + 4 25 = x + 4 21 = x The solution is 21. log ( log 32 ) = log ( log 25 ) = log 5 = 1 5 2 5 2 5 107. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ ⎟ to be real. we conclude lne9x = 9x. Because 10log x = x. e ln log 64 x = 2 3 2 64 3 = x x= ( 3 64 ) 2 = 42 = 16 The solution is 16. e 106. Because 10log x = x. we conclude 10log x 3 x = x. ln e = log e e = 1 because e1 = e. 91. 4−3 = x 88. 104. ∞ ) . 102. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. 1 = ln e −6 e6 Because ln e x = x we conclude 1 ln e −6 = −6. we conclude eln 5 x = 5 x 2 . 1 1 = 43 64 1 ⎧1⎫ . Because ln e x = x. Because ln e x = x. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. 2 97. 2 98. −1) ∪ ( 5. log 3 ( x − 1) = 2 32 = x − 1 9 = x −1 ( x + 2)( x − 6) = 0 The boundary points are –2 and 6. x − 5 > 0 . and the solution set is {21}. 101. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x2 − x − 2 = 0 96. Inc. we conclude e 1 ln e−7 = −7. log ( log 81) = log ( log 34 ) 2 3 2 3 93. 430 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − x − 2) to be real. −1) ∪ ( 2. 5 − x ⎝ ⎠ The boundary points are –1 and 5. log 3 ( log 7 7 ) = log 3 1 = 0 1 92. ∞ ) . Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. Because ln e x = x. 109. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − 4 x − 12) to be real. we conclude ln e13 x = 13 x. we conclude ln e6 = 6. 99. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. log 4 x = −3 ln1 = 0 because e0 = 1 . x 2 − 4 x − 12 > 0 . x 2 − x − 2 > 0 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because eln x = x. 108. Because eln x = x. we conclude 10log 100. 110. Because eln x = x. we conclude eln 7 x = 7 x 2 . we conclude ln e7 = 7. 10 = x The solution is 10. 89. ln 7 = ln e −7 Because ln e x = x. = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 94. 90. . so ln 7 = −7. ∞ ) .

4 According to the function. and after one year was about 49.2 ×10−6 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 65.86 ln 35 + 32. 116. ∞ ) .9.2% of first-year college women expressed antifeminist views in 2004.5. 26. This underestimates the value in the graph by 1%.5 ≈ 14. after 4 months was about 63. f ( x ) = −7. 2004 is 35 years after 1969. 115. 129. She is approximately 89.5% of first-year college women will express antifeminist views in 2010. g(x) is f(x) reflected about the x-axis.2 According to the function.2 According to the function. f(13) = 62 + 35log(13–4) ≈ 95. 130. 113. 118. 2004 is 35 years after 1969. 15. 131. a. 114. f(2) = 88–15ln(2 + 1) = 71.2% of her adult height.5 f ( 41) = −4. 117. 112. f ( x ) = −7.8 f(8) = 88–15ln(8 + 1) = 55 f(10) = 88–15ln(10 + 1) = 52 f(12) = 88–15ln(12 + 1) = 49.49 ln x + 53 f ( 41) = −7. 119.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.5 According to the function.5 f ( 35 ) = −4. f ( x ) = −4.49 ln 41 + 53 ≈ 25.86 ln x + 32. the sound can rupture the human eardrum.2% of first-year college men will express antifeminist views in 2010. 128. 14. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units left.05 A normal conversation is about 65 decibels. after 6 months was about 58. after 8 months was about 55.2. 2010 is 41 years after 1969. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. f (10) = 62 + 35 log(10 − 4) ≈ 89. 431 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 f(4) = 88–15ln(4 + 1) = 63.5 The average score after 2 months was about 71.4% of her adult height. b. ⎟ x+5 ⎝ x+5⎠ The boundary points are –5 and 2. Answers may vary. – 127. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 ( 3. −5) ∪ ( 2.9 f(6) = 88–15ln(6 + 1) = 58.5 ≈ 15.4% of first-year college men expressed antifeminist views in 2004. g(x) is f(x) shifted right 2 units and upward 1 unit. f(0) = 88–15ln(0 + 1) = 88 The average score on the original exam was 88.6%. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0.3 × 106 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 188 Yes. . Inc.49 ln 35 + 53 ≈ 26. 25. b.8.4 She is approximately 95. a. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 (6. f ( x ) = −4.2 x−2 ⎛ x−2⎞ >0. a. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ to be real. after 10 months was about 52. f ( 35 ) = −7.86 ln 41 + 32. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units upward. 2010 is 41 years after 1969. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5.49 ln x + 53 120. b.86 ln x + 32.

000 times as intense as an earthquake of magnitude 4. does not make sense. makes sense 149. y = x. log3 81 = log3 34 = 4 b.001 2 − (−3) 5 144. 140. false. b. false. logbMN = logbM + logbN The sum of the logarithms of its factors. 141. b. Inc. Sample explanation: An earthquake of magnitude 8 on the Richter scale is 108− 4 = 104 = 10. log 2 (8 ⋅ 4) = log 2 8 + log 2 4 148. false. A sample change is: The domain of f ( x ) = log 2 x 133. log 4 60 < log 4 64 = 3 so log 4 60 < 3. ⎛ 32 ⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 − log 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ y = x2. ∞ ) . Answers may vary. a. log 3 40 > log 3 27 = 3 so log3 40 > 3. y = x . 2 log3 9 = 2 log3 32 = 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 c. 147.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 139. log3 92 = 2 log3 9 432 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 2 32 − log 2 2 = log 2 25 − log 2 2 = 5 − 1 = 4 c. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: We cannot take the log of a negative number. 137. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 146. . log 4 ⎡log 3 ( log 2 8) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = log 4 ⎡⎣ log3 ( log 2 23 ) ⎤⎦ = log 4 [ log 3 3] = log 4 1 = 0 c. a. y = ln x . 145. Publishing as Prentice Hall. They are the same. log 4 60 < 3 < log3 40 log3 40 > log 4 60 d e. is ( 0. makes sense log 2 16 = log 2 24 = 4 136. true 143. 142. b. a. log 2 8 + log 2 4 = log 2 23 + log 2 22 = 3 + 2 = 5 c. y = xx 135. Explanations will vary. log 3 81 − logπ 1 4−0 4 = = log 2 2 8 − log 0. makes sense 138. a. log 2 32 = log 2 25 = 5 134. y = ex. The score falls below 65 after 9 months. log 2 8 3 = A sample change is: log 2 4 2 132. Changes to make the statement true will vary.

⎛9⎞ log 9 ⎜ ⎟ = log 9 9 − log 9 x = 1 − log 9 x ⎝ x⎠ 9. log 7 2506 = ln 2506 ≈ 4. a. 4. log 6 3 = 9 log 6 3 b. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log100 = log x − 2 ⎝ 100 ⎠ 1/ 2 = log5 x 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − log5 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − ( log 5 52 + log 5 y 3 ) = 12 log 5 x − log 5 52 − log 5 y 3 = 12 log 5 x − 2 log 5 5 − 3log 5 y = 12 log 5 x − 2 − 3log 5 y 5.3 Section 3. 000 + log x = 4 + log x 7. a. log b x 4 3 y = log x 4 y1/3 b = log x 4 + log y1/3 b b 1 = 4 log x + log y b 3 b b. ( x − 3)2 x 1 log x − 2 log 5 − 10 log y b b 4 b 1/ 4 2 = logb x − log b 5 − log b y10 = logb x1/ 4 − ( logb 25 − log b y10 ) a. Check Point Exercises 1. log(10.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. b. 1 ln x 2 + ln( x + 5) 3 = ln x 2 + ln( x + 5)1/ 3 9 = logb x1/ 4 − log b 25 y10 = logb x1/ 4 25 y10 4 or log b 7.02 log 7 8. Inc. log(7 x + 6) − log x = log 7x + 6 x 433 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 6. log(100 x) = log100 + log x = ln x 2 ( x + 5)1/ 3 = ln x 2 3 x + 5 b. log 25 + log 4 = log(25 ⋅ 4) = log100 = 2 b. a. log 6 (7 ⋅ 11) = log 6 7 + log 6 11 b. log8 (13 ⋅ 7) = log8 13 + log8 7 3. log(1000x) = log1000 + log x = 3 + log x 6. log 9 9x =log 9 9+log9 x = 1+log 9 x 5. 2 log( x − 3) − log x = log( x − 3) 2 − log x ⎛ 23 ⎞ log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 23 − log8 x ⎝ x ⎠ = log ⎛ e5 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e5 − ln11 ⎝ 11 ⎠ = 5 − ln11 c. 1 ln 3 x = ln x1/ 3 = ln x 3 c. = 2 + log x 2. a. log 5 (7 ⋅ 3) = log 5 7 + log 5 3 2. 000 x) = log10.02 ln 7 x 25 y10 Exercise Set 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3. ⎛7⎞ log 7 ⎜ ⎟ = log 7 7 − log 7 x = 1 − log 7 x ⎝ x⎠ 8. . log 7 (7 x) = log 7 7 + log 7 x = 1 + log 7 x 4. log 7 2506 = log 2506 ≈ 4. log( x + 4) 2 = 2 log( x + 4) a.3 x log 5 25 y 3 1.

⎛ x⎞ 1 1/ 2 log 4 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 4 x − log 4 64 = log 4 x − 3 64 2 ⎝ ⎠ 24. log 100 x = log(100 x )1/ 2 1 = log(100 x) 2 1 = (log100 + log x) 2 1 = (2 + log x) 2 1 = 1 + log x 2 30. log b x 2 y = logb x 2 + log b y = 2 log b x + log b y 22. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1 log 5 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 5 x 2 − log 5 25 = log 5 x − 2 25 2 ⎝ ⎠ 25. ⎛ e4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 4 − ln 8 = 4 ln e − ln 8 = 4 − ln 8 ⎝8⎠ 28. 12. 1 ln 5 x = ln x (1/ 5) = ln x 5 20. ⎛ 64 ⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ = log 4 64 − log 4 y ⎝ y ⎠ = 3 − log 4 y 27. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb ( x 3 y ) − logb z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb x 3 + log b y − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = 3log b x + log b y − 2 log b z log b x 7 = 7 log b x 18. ln 7 x = ln x 7 = 21.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 10. 29. 11. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log1000 = log x − 3 ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 26. ln ex = ln(ex) 17. log 3 ⎛ x = log ⎜ y ⎝ 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢ log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 3 1 1 = log x − log y 3 3 ⎛ 36 ⎞ 1/ 2 log 6 ⎜ ⎟ = log 6 36 − log 6 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log 6 ( x + 1) 2 434 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. ⎛ x2 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = log b ( x 2 y ) − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = log b x 2 + log b y − log b z 2 = 2 log b x + log b y − 2 log b z 15. . logbx3 = 3logbx 16. ⎛ 64 ⎞ 1 2 log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 64 − log8 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log8 ( x + 1) 2 1 2 1 ln(ex) 2 1 = (ln e + ln x) 2 1 = (1 + ln x) 2 1 1 = + ln x 2 2 = 31. ⎛ 125 ⎞ log 5 ⎜ ⎟ = log 5 125 − log 5 y = 3 − log 5 y ⎝ y ⎠ 13. log N–6 = –6log N log M −8 = −8log M 19. ⎛ e2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 2 − ln 5 = 2 ln e − ln 5 = 2 − ln 5 ⎝5⎠ 14. log b xy 3 = log b x + log b y 3 = log b x + 3log b y 1 1 ln x 7 23.

⎛ x⎞ x log 5 = log ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 5 1 1 = log x − log y 5 5 log b 1/ 2 39. 33.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 1 = 2 + 3log x + log(5 − x) − log 3 − 2 log( x + 7) 3 log 5 + log 2 = log(5 ⋅ 2) = log10 = 1 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log x + 3 log y = log x + log y 3 = log( xy 3 ) 50. 2 . ⎡10 x 2 3 1 − x ⎤ log ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 7( x + 1) ⎦ 1 = 1 + 2 log x + log(1 − x) − log 7 − 2 log( x + 1) 3 3 5 5 = log10 + log x 2 + log 3 1 − x − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 2 1 = log5 x + log5 y − log5 52 / 3 3 3 2 1 2 = log5 x + log5 y − 3 3 3 36. ⎛ 96 ⎞ log 2 96 − log 2 3 = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 = 5 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 46. 5 ⎛ 405 ⎞ log 3 405 − log 3 5 = log 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = log3 81 =4 47. ⎡100 x 3 3 5 − x ⎤ log ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ 3( x + 7) ⎦ = log100 + log x3 + log ( 5 − x ) 3 − log 3 − log ( x + 7 ) 1 xy 4 16 = log 2 x1/ 5 + log 2 y 4 / 5 − log 2 161/ 5 41. log 2 x y4 z5 = log x1/ 3 + log b y 4 − log b z 5 b 1 = log b x + 4 log b y − 5log b z 3 40. ln x + ln 7 = ln(7 x) 44.3 1 32. ⎛ 2x + 5 ⎞ log(2 x + 5) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ⎡ x3 x 2 + 1 ⎤ ln ⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ( x + 1) ⎦⎥ 48. 1 4 1 = log 2 x + log 2 y − log 2 16 5 5 5 1 4 4 = log 2 x + log 2 y − 5 5 5 37. Inc. x y3 log b 3 z = logb x1/ 2 + log b y 3 − log b z 3 = 34. − ln ( x + 3) 1 = 4 ln x + ln ( x 2 + 3) − 5 ln ( x + 3) 2 x2 y 25 = log5 x 2 / 3 + log 5 y1/ 3 − log 5 251/ 3 log 5 ⎡ x4 x2 + 3 ⎤ ln ⎢ 5 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ( x + 3) ⎥⎦ ⎡ x 4 ( x 2 + 3)1/ 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ( x + 3) ⎦ = ln x 4 + ln ( x 2 + 3) 1 logb x + 3log b y − 3logb z 2 3 35. ⎛ 3x + 7 ⎞ log(3x + 7) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ = ln x3 + ln x 2 + 1 − ln( x + 1) 4 1 = 3ln x + ln( x 2 + 1) − 4 ln( x + 1) 2 49. log x + 7 log y = log x + log y 7 = log( xy 7 ) 435 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 38. ln x + ln 3 = ln(3x) 45. log 250 + log 4 = log1000 = 3 43.

1 3ln x − ln y = ln x 3 − ln y1/ 3 3 64. 4 x3 ) 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 (log 5 x + log 5 y ) − 2 log 5 ( x + 1) 2 1 = log5 xy − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 xy ( x + 1) 2 1 ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) + 2log 4 ( x + 1) 3 1 x = log 4 + log 4 ( x + 1)2 3 y ⎡⎛ x ⎞ = log 4 ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎣⎝ y ⎠ 1/ 3 8 ln (x +9) − 4 ln x = ln( x + 9)8 − ln x 4 = ln ( 1 log x − log y 4 4 3 x 1 = log 4 y 3 x = log 3 4 y 1 1 2 ln x − ln y = ln x 2 − ln y 2 2 ( x + 6) 1 ( log x + log y ) 2 1 = (log xy ) 2 = log( xy )1/ 2 ⎛ = log ⎜ 4 ⎝ ⎛ x3 ⎞ ⎛ x3 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1/ 3 ⎟ or ln ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 59. x4 y7 z3 = log xy = logb ( x 5 y 6 ) 58. 4 ln x + 7 ln y − 3ln z ( x + 9)8 x4 ⎤ ( x + 1) 2 ⎥ ⎥⎦ = log 4 ⎡( x + 1) 2 3 xy ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 3ln x + 5 ln y − 6 ln z = ln x3 + ln y 5 − ln z 6 = ln x3 y 5 z6 436 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 51. 1 ln x + ln y = ln x1/ 2 + ln y 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ln ⎜ x 2 y ⎟ or ln y x ⎝ ⎠ ( 52. ( ) = ln x 3 y or ln y 3 x 1 ) 53. 5log b x + 6 log b y = log b x 5 + log b y 6 55. = ln x 4 + ln y 7 − ln z 3 ) = ln 63. ⎛ x7 ⎞ 7 ln x − 3ln y = ln x 7 − ln y 3 = ln ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 57. ⎛ x5 ⎞ 5 ln x − 2 ln y = ln x5 − ln y 2 = ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 56. . 65. 2logbx + 3logby = logbx2 + logby3 = logb(x2y3) 54. 1 1 ln x + ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 3 ( 62. 66. Inc. ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎛ x2 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1 ⎟ or ln ⎜ 2 ⎜ y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln( x + 6) − 3ln x = ln( x + 6) 4 − ln x3 = ln 60. 61.

logπ 400 = 79. y = log3 x = log x log 3 80.PreCalculus 4E 67.1 17 = log17 ≈ −1. Inc.2340 ln π = log x + log ( x 2 − 1) − ( log 7 + log( x + 1) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) − log ( 7( x + 1) ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) 7( x + 1) x( x + 1)( x − 1) = log 7( x + 1) x( x − 1) = log 7 70.3 1 [2 ln( x + 5) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 = [ln( x + 5) 2 − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 ⎡ ( x + 5)2 ⎤ = ⎢ ln 3 ⎣ x( x 2 − 4) ⎥⎦ ⎡ ( x + 5) 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 4) ⎦ 1/ 3 ( x + 5) 2 = ln 3 x( x 2 − 4) 68. y = log 2 ( x + 2) = ln 400 ≈ 5.5937 log 5 437 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2304 log 0.3 77. y = log15 x = log x log15 81.2 = ln 57.4595 ln16 75. log16 57. log 6 17 = 73. log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − log15 − log( x + 2) = log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − ( log15 + log( x + 2) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 4 ) − log (15( x + 2) ) x ( x − 4) 2 = log 15( x + 2) x( x + 2)( x − 2) = log 15( x + 2) x( x − 2) = log 15 71.5812 log 6 72. Section 3. log 5 13 = log( x + 2) log 2 log13 ≈ 1. log 0. 1 ⎡5ln( x + 6) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 25) ⎤⎦ 3⎣ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ ⎥ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎢ x( x 2 − 25) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ 3 = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 25) ⎦ 69. log14 87.6944 ln14 74.6193 ln π 78.1 76. logπ 63 = ln 63 ≈ 3.3 19 = log19 ≈ −2.5 = ln 87.2 ≈ 1. log 0.5 ≈ 1. log x + log ( x − 1) − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 log17 ≈ 1.4456 log 0. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

= log b 3 − logb 4 1 = log b 3 2 − log 22 1 log b 3 − 2 log 2 2 1 = C − 2A 2 = 104. x log10 x = x ⋅ x = x 2 94. false. true.63 It will take the chimpanzee a little more than 20. false. log b 6 = log b ( 2 ⋅ 3) 97. ln e = 1 90. ln x + ln(2 x) = ln ( x ⋅ 2 x) ) = ln 2 x 2 3 = log b 3 − log b 2 = C − A 2 83. ln(5 x) + ln1 = ln 5 x + 0 = ln 5 x 96. y = log3 ( x − 2) = ( ) ( ) 92. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ln ee = 0 91. false. This means that the 100 times louder sound will be 20 decibels louder. . 89. false. log x+2 = log( x + 2) − log( x − 1) x −1 85. log b 8 = log b 23 = 3log b 2 = 3 A 99. false. true. e x = ln ee 103. true. ln 8 x3 = ln 23 x3 = ln ( 2 x ) = 3ln ( 2 x ) log( x − 2) log 3 3 93. 88. b.5 weeks to master 30 signs. true. false. a.03 ⎝ 35 ⎠ t ≈ 20. Inc. quotient rule 86. log( x + 3) − log(2 x) = log = log b 2 + log b 3 = A + C 98. log b 84. true. log 3 7 = 1 87. x+3 2x x ⎛ I ⎞ D = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ ⎛ 100 I ⎞ D1 = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ = 10 log (100 I − I 0 ) = 10 log100 + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 = 10(2) + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 = log b ⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎟⎟ 16 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ I ⎞ = 20 + 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ This is 20 more than the loudness level of the softer sound. t= 438 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true. product rule 101. false. false.03 ⎢⎣ 65 − 30 ⎥⎦ 1 ⎛ 65 ⎞ t= ln ⎜ ⎟ 0. log 4 ( 2 x ) = 3log 4 ( 2 x ) 3 1 ⎛ A ⎞ t = ln ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ A− N ⎠ 1 ⎡ 65 ⎤ ln 0. log b 81 = log b 34 = 4log b 3 = 4C 100. b.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 82. ln( x ⋅ 1) = ln x + ln1 95. log b log b 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞2 = logb ⎜ ⎟ 27 ⎝ 27 ⎠ 1 ⎛2⎞ = log b ⎜ 3 ⎟ 2 ⎝3 ⎠ 1 = ( logb 2 − log b 33 ) 2 1 = ( logb 2 − 3log b 3) 2 1 3 = log b 2 − log b 3 2 2 1 3 = A− C 2 2 log 7 1 1 = log 3 = log 3 log 7 log 7 3 102. a.

Changes to make the statement true will vary. reflect the graph of y = log3x about the x-axis. Hence. To obtain the graph of y = –log3x. false. log 3 log x log 25 x = . makes sense b. 113. the graph of the equation with the largest b will be on the top in the interval (0. 116. log(10 x) = log x + 1 and l log(0. y = log 3 x = b. but log 7 7 1 Using the product rule.3 105. A sample change is: log 7 49 log 7 49 = = log 7 49 = 2 . these two graphs are log 7 49 − log 7 7 = 2 − 1 = 1 . log 25 log x log100 x = log100 115. ∞). 127. 121. Answers may vary. To obtain the graph of y = log3(x + 2). c. we would have been able to simplify as follows. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Answers may vary. false. does not make sense. If we were taking the logarithm of a product and not a sum. top graph: y = log 3 x bottom graph: y = log100 x ln x ln 3 Comparing graphs of log b x for b > 1. just vertical shifts of y = log x. makes sense 124.1x) = log x − 1. true 126. . Changes to make the statement true will vary. ⎛ x ⎞2 x = log 4 ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ Sample explanation: log 4 ⎛x⎞ 1 log 4 ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ y⎠ 1 = ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) 2 1 1 = log 4 x − log 4 y 2 2 = 114. 122. A sample change is: logb ( xy ) = 5logb ( xy ) 5 = 5 ( logb x + logb y ) a. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 125. a. 1 To obtain the graph of y = 2 + log3x. – 112. shift the graph of y = log3x two units upward.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ( ) logb x3 y 3 = logb x3 + logb y 3 = 3logb x + 3logb y 128. – 120. shift the graph of y = log3x two units left. 1) and on the bottom in the interval (1. ) A sample change is: logb x3 + y 3 cannot be simplified. ( log x log 3 x = . Inc. makes sense 123. Explanations will vary. = 5logb x + 5logb y top graph: y = log100 x bottom graph: y = log 3 x 439 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

2 x − 7x = 3 2 x − 7x − 3 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−7) ± (−7) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) x= 7 ± 61 2 ⎪⎧ 7 ± 61 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. ∞ ) ( −3. ∞ ) 440 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 7 9 = ⎛ 8x ⎞ ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ = e ⎝ 2x ⎠ x2 + 2 x = 4 x + 3 x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x +1 = 0 or x−3= 0 x = −1 x=3 5 131. e 132. ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3} .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 129. ⎪⎩ 2 ⎪⎭ asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) 2. Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 1. Inc. log e = log10 e = ln e 1 = ln10 ln10 135. 1/ h x⎞ ⎛ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ h⎠ 133. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = x( x − 7) = 3 134. ln 8 x5 − ln 2 x 2 =e ln ( 4 x 3 ) x+2 1 = 4x + 3 x ⎛ x+2 ⎞ ⎛1⎞ x(4 x + 3) ⎜ ⎟ = x(4 x + 3) ⎜ x ⎟ x 4 + 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ x( x + 2) = 4 x + 3 = 4 x3 log b ( x + h) − log b x h x+h log b x = h ⎛ h⎞ log b ⎜1 + ⎟ x⎠ ⎝ = h 1 ⎛ h⎞ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ h x⎠ ⎝ The solution set is {−1. . a( x − 2) = b(2 x + 3) ax − 2a = 2bx + 3b ax − 2bx = 2a + 3b x(a − 2b) = 2a + 3b 2a + 3b x= a − 2b asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −3 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0. log 9 log 32 2 log 3 = = log 7 log 7 log 7 2A = B 130.

f ( x ) = log 3 x + 6 The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x>0 domain: {x | x > 0} or ( 0. Inc. ∞ ) 11. ∞ ) 2 The argument of the logarithm must be positive. log 2 ( log 3 81) = log 2 ( log 3 34 ) = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 range of f = range of g = ( −∞. 8. 2 y = 101 102 y = 101 2y = 1 y= asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. ∞ ) 441 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 1 2 1 1 3 13. ∞ ) . Now ( x + 6 ) is always positive. 9. ∞ ) . −6 ) ∪ ( −6. ∞ ) log 3 1 1 = log 3 2 = log 3 3−2 = −2 9 3 12. log 3 ( x + 6 ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. 2 x = −6 domain: {x | x ≠ 0} or ( −∞. 6. Let log100 10 = y range of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. ∞ ) 100 y = 10 (10 ) 5. except when 4.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 3. ∞ ) . domain of g = (1. f ( x ) = log 3 ( x + 6 ) The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x+6 > 0 x > −6 domain: {x | x > −6} or ( −6. . log 3 10 = log10 3 = 14. 7. log 2 8 + log 5 25 = log 2 23 + log5 52 = 3+ 2 = 5 asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 1 domain of f = ( 0. 10. f ( x ) = 3x + 6 domain: {x | x is a real number} or ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

10log13 = 13 19. Continuously: A = 8000e0. ) xy − log1000 = log ( xy ) 2 − log103 1 1 log ( xy ) − 3 2 1 = ( log x + log y ) − 3 2 1 1 = log x + log y − 3 2 2 = 22. .162 = 8 Interest returned will be $8 more if compounded continuously. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 (10 ) 2 y 102 y = ln x 2 − ln y 3 − ln ( z − 2 ) 1 1 10 = 10−1 = = ln x − ⎡⎣ ln y 3 + ln ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ = ln x − ln ⎡⎣ y 3 ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ 2 y = −1 ⎡ x ⎤ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎣ y ( z − 2) ⎦ 1 y=− 2 π 20. 16. log100 0. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ log 3 ⎜ log 2 ⎟ = log 3 ⎜ log 2 3 ⎟ 8⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 23.08(3) = π ≈ 10. logπ π 21.08 ⎞ Monthly: A = 8000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 10. Inc.170 − 10.162 10.1 = y 25. 6log6 5 = 5 17.170 12⋅3 ( ⎛ 0. = log 3 ( log 2 2−3 ) = log 3 ( −3) 1 1 8 log 7 x − log 7 y = log 7 x8 − log 7 y 3 3 ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ y3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = not possible This expression is impossible to evaluate. ln e 24.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 15. ⎛ xy ⎞ log ⎜ = log ⎜ 1000 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 26. 100 y = 0. 1 ln x − 3ln y − ln ( z − 2 ) 2 ln ( e19 x 20 ) = ln e19 + ln x 20 = 19 + 20 ln x 442 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7 log 5 x + 2 log 5 x = log5 x 7 + log 5 x 2 = log5 ( x 7 ⋅ x 2 ) = 7 7 = log5 x9 18.

The solutions are 0 and (approximately) 1.10. 6. x ex − 7 = 0 x b.90 The solution set is {log 8000} .11 8 x + 2 = 4 x −3 (2 ) 3 2 x+2 3 x +6 ( ) = 22 x= x −3 = 2 2 x −6 (e x = −12 a.04 ln 5 ⎧ ln134 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 443 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5x = 134 ln 5 = ln134 x ln 5 = ln134 ln134 x= ≈ 3. 32 x −1 = 7 x +1 ln 32 x −1 = ln 7 x +1 4.4 Check Point Exercises 1. . 2 = x−4 8= x−4 12 = x Check: log ( x − 4) = 3 2 log (12 − 4) = 3 2 log 8 = 3 2 3=3 The solution set is {12}. − 7 )( e x − 1) = 0 or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 7 ex = 1 ln e = ln 7 ln e x = ln1 x x = ln 7 x=0 The solution set is {0. 3. approximately 3. 3 10 x = 8000 log10 x = log 8000 x log10 = log 8000 x = log 8000 ≈ 3. 3 x−6 7e 2 x = 63 e2 x = 9 ln e 2 x = ln 9 2 x = ln 9 ln 9 ≈ 1.04.90. 2 x ln 3 − ln 3 = x ln 7 + ln 7 2 x ln 3 − x ln 7 = ln 3 + ln 7 x(2 ln 3 − ln 7) = ln 3 + ln 7 ln 3 + ln 7 2 ln 3 − ln 7 x ≈ 12.95. ln7}.4 Section 3. ⎩ ln 5 ⎭ approximately 3. ⎩ 2 ⎭ approximately 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 5 = 125 3 x −6 5 = 53 (2 x − 1) ln 3 = ( x + 1) ln 7 3x − 6 = 3 3x = 9 x=3 b. Inc. 3x + 6 = 2x − 6 2. e 2 x − 8e x + 7 = 0 5. log 2 ( x − 4) = 3 a. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall.10 x= 2 ⎧ ln 9 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.

01. ⎩3⎭ approximately 2.46.02) 4t = ln 3.77 x 6e12.02) 4t = 3600 1000(1.77 For a blood alcohol concentration of 0. 7. 2 10. The solution set is {4.02) = ln 3. the risk of a car accident is 7%.02) 4t = 3600 (1.77 x = 7 6 ⎛7⎞ ln e12.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎛7⎞ 12.46 3 x 2 − 2 x − 3 = 7 x − 23 Check 4 ln 3x = 8 x 2 − 9 x + 20 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 0 x = 4 or x = 5 Both values produce true statements. Inc. the $1000 will grow to an accumulated value of $3600. ⎧ e2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .6 4t ln(1. ln 3x = 2 eln 3 x = e 2 3x = e2 x= e2 ≈ 2. t= 444 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log x( x − 3) = 1 101 = x( x − 3) 10 = x 2 − 3x x= ln ( 76 ) ≈ 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.08 ⎞ 1000 ⎜1_ ⎟ = 3600 4 ⎠ ⎝ 1000(1 + 0. 0 = x − 3x − 10 0 = ( x − 5)( x + 2) x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = 5 or x = −2 Check Checking 5: log 5 + log(5 − 3) = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 1=1 Checking –2: log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log(−2) + log(−2 − 3) 0 1 Negative numbers do not have logarithms so –2 does not check. 5} ⎛ e2 ⎞ 4 ln 3 ⎜ ⎟ = 8 ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln e2 = 8 4(2) = 8 8=8 9.6 4 ln1.77 x = 7 e12. 4 ln 3x = 8 8.08 ⎞ 3600 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4t 4t ⎛ 0.6 ln 3.02 ≈ 16. ln( x − 3) = ln(7 x − 23) − ln( x + 1) 7 x − 23 ln( x − 3) = ln x +1 7 x − 23 x−3= x +1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 7 x − 23 For a risk of 7%.2 After approximately 16.2 years. . let R = 7 in R = 6e12.01 12. The solution set is {5}. ⎛ r⎞ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ nt ⎛ 0.

Exercise Set 3. Section 3. ⎩3⎭ 2 = 64 9.3 7. and the solution set is {6} . 32 x = 8 (2 ) 5 x = 23 5x = 125 2 5 x = 23 5x = 53 x=3 The solution is 3. 3 ⎧3⎫ . and the solution set is {2} .3ln x = −29. 3. and the solution set is {3} . 5.8 ln x = −12. 2 x = 26 x=6 The solution is 6. 5 ⎩5⎭ 4 x = 32 (2 ) 2 x = 25 2 2 x = 25 22 x −1 = 32 2x = 5 22 x −1 = 25 2x − 1 = 5 2x = 6 x=3 The solution is 3. 42 x −1 = 64 42 x −1 = 43 2x − 1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 The solution is 2.8 − 12.8 x = e 12. 54. 8. 1. . and the solution set is {3} .3 ln x 6. 29. x= 5 2 ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .4 f ( x) = 54.3 x ≈ 11. −12. 53 x −1 = 125 53 x −1 = 53 3x − 1 = 3 3x = 4 4 x= 3 x 3x = 34 x=4 The solution set is {4}. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .8 log e x = 12.3 29.277 An annual income of approximately $11. 3x = 81 ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .3ln x = 25 32 x +1 = 33 2x + 1 = 3 2x = 2 x =1 The solution set is {1}. ⎩2⎭ 445 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 32 x +1 = 27 10. 5x = 3 3 x= 5 The solution is 5 = 625 x 5 x = 54 x=4 The solution set is {4}.PreCalculus 4E 11.000 corresponds to 25% of Americans reporting fair or poor health. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. Solve equation when f ( x) = 25 .4 2.8 −29.8 − 12. 4.

and the solution set is {5}. ⎩ 6⎭ 2x = − 446 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎩3⎭ 2x − 4 = 6 1 13. = 54 x= = 6 6 = 62 x −3 1 = 4 2 2 ( x − 3) = 4 (1) 125 x = 625 (5 ) x −3 4 x −3 4 32 x = 33 2x = 3 3 x= 2 The solution is 6 x=5 The solution set is {5}. 2 x = 10 1− x 14. = 33 12.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. 52 − x = 18. 9x = (3 ) 2 x = 1 3 3 1 1 33 − 13 32 x = 3 1 3 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 3⎠ 6 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . 3 x 3 ⎧3⎫ . 4x = (2 ) 2 x = 1 2 1 1 22 22 x = 2 − 12 1 2 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 2⎠ 4 1 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution is − . 17. 9 x = 27 (3 ) 2 x 15. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 7 7 4 3 x−2 6 x−2 6 = 7 1 = 72 x−2 1 = 6 2 2 ( x − 2 ) = 6 (1) ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 3 = 27 1 31− x = 3 3 31− x = 3−3 1 − x = −3 − x = −4 x=4 The solution set is {4}. 4 ⎩ 4⎭ 2x = − 1 125 1 2− x 5 = 3 5 52− x = 5−3 2 − x = −3 − x = −5 x=5 The solution set is {5}. 1 2x − 6 = 4 2 x = 10 x=5 The solution is 5. . Inc. 2 ⎩2⎭ 53 x = 54 3x = 4 16. and the solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Inc. 81− x = 4 x + 2 20.83 ln e x = ln 0. (2 ) 3 1− x ( ) = 22 3 − 3x = 2 x + 4 −5 x = 1 22. 5e x = 23 23 ex = 5 23 ln e x = ln 5 23 x = ln ≈ 1. ⎩ 5⎭ 21.07 ln 8. 13 = x The solution set is {13} . . 10 x = 8.83 ≈ –0.07 x ln10 = ln 8.07 x= ≈ 0.7 x = ln 5.30 5 ln 3. e5 x = 659 10 = 3. x −1 ln e x = 5. ⎩ 3⎭ 23.91 x x= x ln10 = ln 3.91 x ln e5 x = ln 659 ln10 = ln 3. 19 x = 143 x ln 19 = ln 143 ln143 x= ≈ 1.74 23 x + 9 = 2 4 x − 4 3x + 9 = 4 x − 4 26.69 ln19 1 5 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.83 x = ln 0. 1 e x +1 e = e −1 x + 1 = −1 x = −2 The solution set is {−2} .4 8 x +3 = 16 x −1 19.19 ln 5 x = ln17 x ln 5 = ln17 ln17 x= ≈ 1. 9e x = 107 107 ex = 9 107 ln e x = ln 9 107 x = ln ≈ 2.48 9 e x +1 = e x+4 = ⎧ 4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .91 ≈ 0. e x = 0. 27.59 ln10 24. (2 ) 3 x +3 ( ) = 24 25.76 ln 5 x+2 23−3 x = 22 x + 4 x=− e x = 5.91 ln10 447 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.53 5 1 e2 x x+4 e = e −2 x x + 4 = −2 x 3 x = −4 4 x=− 3 30.07 ln10 x = ln 8.7 ≈ 1. 5x = 17 28.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.91 x= 3e5 x = 1977 ln 659 ≈ 1. 29.7 31.

25 ln 3 41. 273 10. 4e7 x = 10.14 5 39.250 ln11. 5 x− 3 = 137 ln 5 x− 3 = ln137 (x – 3) ln 5 = ln 137 ln137 x −3 = ln 5 ln137 x = 3+ ≈ 6. 250 (4x – 5)ln e = ln 11.250 4x – 5 = ln 11.2 x ln 3 = ln 0. 250 + 5 x= ≈ 3. 478 + 3 ≈ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 273 e7 x = 4 ⎛ 10.3 x = ln 813 0.2 ln 3x / 7 = ln 0. 35.2 7 ln 0. 476 e5 x − 3 = 10. 1 – ln 793 ≈ –1. ln 7 x + 2 = ln 410 ( x + 2) ln 7 = ln 410 ln 410 x+2= ln 7 ln 410 x= − 2 ≈ 1.45 5 e 4 x − 5 − 7 = 11. 243 e 4 x – 5 = 11.2 7 x ln 3 = 7 ln 0. 52x + 3 = 3x 2–x1+ 3 ln 5 = ln 3x −1 5 x − 3 = ln10. 273 ⎞ 7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 1 ⎛ 10. 273 ⎞ x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 1.3 x = 813 3x / 7 = 0.3x ln 7 = ln 813 ln 813 x= ≈ 11. 478 70. . 250 ln e 4 x − 5 = ln11.09 ln 7 38.58 4 448 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 478 + 3 36.3ln 7 e1−8 x = 7957 ln e1−8 x = ln 7957 (1 – 8x) ln e = ln 7957 1 – 8x = ln 7957 8x = 1 – ln 7957 1 – ln 7957 x= ≈ –1.00 8 x= 7 x + 2 = 410 ln10. 478 (2 x + 3) ln 5 = ( x − 1) ln 3 2 x ln 5 + 3ln 5 = x ln 3 − ln 3 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x ln 3 − 2 x ln 5 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x(ln 3 − 2 ln 5) 3ln 5 + ln 3 =x ln 3 − 2ln 5 −2.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 32.48 0. e5 x − 3 − 2 = 10. 478 (5 x − 3) ln e = ln10. 478 ln e5 x − 3 = ln10. 33.06 ln 5 ln 70.80 ≈ x 5 x = ln10.12 7 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 37. 273 ⎞ ln e7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎛ 10.2 x= ≈ –10. 40. e1− 5 x = 793 ln e1− 5 x = ln 793 (1 − 5 x)(ln e) = ln 793 1 − 5 x = ln 793 5 x = 1 − ln 793 x= 34. Inc.

The solutions is approximately 1.10. The solutions are 0 and approximately 0. 48. Inc.58 49.39 ≈ x 52. . Section 3. (2 x + 1) ln 7 = ( x + 2) ln 3 ln 3 2 x + 1 = ( x + 2) ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x + 1 = x + ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x − x = −1 ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 ⎞ 2 ln 3 ⎛ −1 x⎜2 − ⎟= ln 7 ⎠ ln 7 ⎝ 2 ln 3 −1 ≈ 0. 2x + 4 = 0 2 x = −4 ln 2 x = ln ( −4 ) − 3)( e x + 1) = 0 ex − 3 = 0 does not exist or e x + 1 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −1 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x = ln(−1) (e 2x = 3 ln 2 x = ln 3 x ln 2 = ln 3 ln 3 ln 2 x ≈ 1. 44.09 ≈ x 449 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ln 6 ≈ 0. log 5 x = 3 53 = x e2 x + 8 = 0 e 2 x = −8 ln e 2 x = ln(−8) 2 x = ln(−8) or e 2 x − 3 = 0 e2 x = 3 ln e 2 x = ln 3 2 x = ln 3 ln 3 ln(−8) does not exist x= 2 ln 3 x= ≈ 0.69. 45. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 22 x + 2 x − 12 = 0 (2 x + 4)(2 x − 3) = 0 e 2 x − 2e x − 3 = 0 x 3x − 1 = 0 3 x = −2 x = ln 2 x=0 The solution set is {0.90 x= 2 e 2 x − 3e x + 2 = 0 43. e 4 x − 3e 2 x − 18 = 0 ( e2 x − 6 )( e2 x + 3) = 0 + 8 )( e 2 x − 3) = 0 50. log 3 x = 4 34 = x 81 = x e 4 x + 5e 2 x − 24 = 0 2x 2x − 3 = 0 x= x = ln 3 no solution The solution set is {ln 3}.4 7 2 x +1 = 3 x + 2 ln 7 2 x +1 = ln 3x + 2 46. 32 x + 3x − 2 = 0 (3x + 2)(3x − 1) = 0 − 2 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 2 = 0 e2 x = −3 ln e 2 x = ln 6 ln e 2 x = ln(−3) 2 x = ln 6 ln(−3) does not exist.PreCalculus 4E 42. ln x = 3 e3 = x 20. ln x = 2 e2 = x 7.55 2 125 = x 51. ln 2).09 x = ln 7 ln 3 2− ln 7 (e e 2 x − 6 = 0 or e 2 x + 3 = 0 e2 x = 6 x 47. or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 2 ex = 1 ln e x = ln 2 ln e x = ln1 3x + 2 = 0 (e 3x = 1 log 3x = log(−2) log 3x = log1 does not exist log 3 = 0 0 x= log 3 x=0 The solution set is {0}.

61.72 ln x + 3 = 1 eln log 4 (3 x + 2) = 3 x+3 = e1 x+3 = e x + 3 = e2 x = e 2 − 3 ≈ 4. Inc. ln x = − x−4 x x = e −1/ 2 ≈ 0. log 3 ( x − 4) = −3 e5 ≈ 74. 1 2 eln x = e −1/ 2 43 = 3 x + 2 58. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 ln 2 x = 30 ln 2 x = 5 2 x = e5 log 5 ( x − 7) = 2 x= 5 = x−7 2 32 = x 55.98 ≈ 57. x 1 −1 3 3 ≈ 0. 32 = 4 x + 1 31 = 4 x 31 =x 4 7. 4 = x+5 3 e ln 2 x = e5 59 = x 54.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 53. log 7 ( x + 2) = −2 1 3 ln x = − x+2 eln x = e − x=e x 63. ⎩4⎭ 5 ln 2 x = 20 ln 2 x = 4 eln 2 x = e4 2 x = e4 x= 7 + 3ln x = 6 3ln x = −1 x+2 64 = 3x + 2 59.61 x 62.39 62 = 3x 62 =x 3 20. 3−3 = 1 = 27 1 4 = 27 4.04 ≈ 56. ln x + 4 = 1 eln x+4 = e1 x+4 =e log 2 (4 x + 1) = 5 x + 4 = e2 2 = 4x + 1 5 x = e 2 − 4 ≈ 3.75 = x 65.39.21 2 e4 ≈ 27. ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .67 ≈ x 64.30 2 450 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 4 ( x + 5) = 3 60. 6 + 2 ln x = 5 2 ln x = −1 x−4 7 −2 = 1 = 49 48 −1 = 49 −1. . log 5 x + log 5 ( 4 x − 1) = 1 log 5 ( 4 x 2 − x ) = 1 4 x2 − x = 5 4 x2 − x − 5 = 0 (4 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = −1 4 x = –1 does not check because log 5 (−1) does not exist.

log 6 x( x + 5) = 2 x( x + 5) = 6 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ x −1 ⎠ x+2 = 41 x −1 x+2 =4 x −1 x + 2 = 4(x – 1) x + 2 = 4x – 4 3x = 6 x=2 2 x 2 + 5 x = 36 x 2 + 5 x − 36 = 0 (x + 9)(x – 4) = 0 x = –9 or x = 4 x = –9 does not check because log 6 (−9 + 5) does not exist. The solution set is {3}. Inc. 5= x 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − log 2 4 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − 2 log 2 ( x − 1) + log 2 ( x + 1) = 3 log 2 ⎡⎣( x − 1)( x + 1) ⎤⎦ = 3 72. log 2 ( x − 6) + log 2 ( x − 4) − log 2 x = 2 log 2 log 2 ( x + 2 ) − log 2 ( x − 5 ) = 3 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟=3 ⎝ x−5⎠ x+2 = 23 x−5 x+2 =8 x−5 x + 2 = 8( x − 5) ( x − 6)( x − 4) =2 x ( x − 6)( x − 4) = 22 x x 2 − 10 x + 24 = 4 x x 2 − 14 x + 24 = 0 x − 12 = 0 or ( x − 12)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {12} since log2 (2−6) = log2 (−4) is not possible. 3= x 73.PreCalculus 4E 66. x + 2 = 8 x − 40 7 x = 42 x=6 451 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 69. 67. Section 3. . The solution set is {6}. 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 3 log 2 ( x − 1) = 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 23 21 = x − 1 x −1 = 8 x2 = 9 x = 3 or x = –3 x = –3 does not check because log 2 (−3 − 1) does not exist.4 log 6 ( x + 5 ) + log 6 x = 2 70. 68. log 4 ( x + 2 ) − log 4 ( x − 1) = 1 log 3 ( x − 5 ) + log 3 ( x + 3) = 2 71. log 3 ⎣⎡( x − 5)( x + 3) ⎦⎤ = 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = log 3 9 + 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 + 2 ( x − 5)( x + 3) = 32 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 4 x 2 – 2 x – 15 = 9 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 24 = 0 32 = x + 4 ( x − 6)( x + 4) = 0 9= x+4 x = 6 or x = −4 x = –4 does not check because log 3 (−4 − 5) does not exist. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {4}.

. ( x − 3) x =2 ( x + 2) log x3 = log125 x3 = 125 x − 3x x+2 4( x + 2) = x 2 − 3x 22 = 3log x = log125 2 x=5 81. 452 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is {28}. log 3x − 3 = 4 x + 4 { }. log(2 x − 1) = log(3x + 9) 2 x − 1 = 3x + 9 79. x2 = log112 7 x2 = 112 7 x 2 = 784 x = ±28 –28 is rejected. log 2 ( x − 3) + log 2 x − log 2 ( x + 2) = 2 log 2 80. x + 4 = 4x 4 = 3x 4 x= 3 77. The solution set is 2 log x − log 7 = log112 log x 2 − log 7 = log112 log(3x − 3) = log( x + 1) + log 4 −7 = x This value is rejected.2 log(5 x + 1) = log(2 x + 3) + log 2 log(5 x + 1) = log(4 x + 6) 5x + 1 = 4x + 6 x=5 x= 83. ⎩3⎭ 76. so the solution set is {8} 75. x+4 = log(5 x + 1) 2 x+4 = 5x + 1 2 x + 4 = 10 x + 2 { }. log( x − 2) + log 5 = log100 log(5 x − 10) = log100 5 x − 10 = 100 5 x = 110 2 log x = log 25 x = 22 log x = log 25 2 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 –5 is rejected.22 x= log( x + 4) = log x + log 4 log( x + 4) = log 4 x 82.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 74. 4 x + 8 = x − 3x 2 log( x + 4) − log 2 = log(5 x + 1) log 0 = x − 7x − 8 2 0 = ( x + 1)( x − 8) x +1 = 0 or x−8 = 0 x = −1 x=8 log2 (−1−3) = log2(−4) does not exist. The solution set is {5}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log( x + 7) − log 3 = log(7 x + 1) log ⎧4⎫ This value is rejected. −10 = x This value is rejected. −9 x = −2 2 9 x ≈ 0. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . The solution set is x+7 = log(7 x + 1) 3 x+7 = 7x + 1 3 x + 7 = 21x + 3 −20 x = −4 log(3x − 3) = log(4 x + 4) 78. log(2 x − 1) = log( x + 3) + log 3 84. Inc. 1 5 x ≈ 0.

1 2 x + 2)+ x = 34 32 x + 2 = 34 2x + 2 = 4 2x = 2 x =1 93. The solution set is {2}. ln( x − 2) − ln( x + 3) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 7) x−2 x −1 = ln x+3 x+7 x − 2 x −1 = x+3 x+7 ( x − 2)( x + 7) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) log( x + 3x) = log10 2 x 2 + 5 x − 14 = x 2 + 2 x − 3 3 x = 11 log( x + 3) + log( x − 2) = log14 11 3 x ≈ 3. x −5 x −1 = ln x+4 x+2 x − 5 x −1 = x+4 x+2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = ( x + 4)( x − 1) ln ln( x − 4) + ln( x + 1) = ln( x − 8) ln( x 2 − 3 x − 4) = ln( x − 8) x 2 − 3x − 10 = x 2 + 3x − 4 x 2 − 3x − 4 = x − 8 −6 x = 6 x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 x = −1 –1 is rejected. . The solution set is { }. The solution set is { }. The solution set is {4}. ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x=2 2 is rejected. ( x + 5)( x − 4) = 0 x = −5 or x = 4 –5 is rejected. 2 ln x − 6 = 0 2 ln x = 6 ln x = 3 ln x = 3 x=e x ≈ 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 3. 52 x ⋅ 54 x = 125 52 x + 4 x = 53 ⎛1⎞ log 2 ( x − 1) − log 2 ( x + 3) = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝x⎠ x −1 ⎛1⎞ = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ log 2 x+3 ⎝x⎠ x −1 1 = x+3 x x2 − x = x + 3 56 x = 53 6x = 3 x= 92. ln( x − 5) − ln( x + 4) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 2) 91. Inc. 86. ln x + 3x = 10 2 x + 3 x − 10 = 0 2 ( x + 5)( x − 2) = 0 x = −5 or x = 2 –5 is rejected. 3x + 2 ⋅ 3x = 81 3( x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x = −1 or x = 3 –1 is rejected.67 x= log( x 2 + x − 6) = log14 x 2 + x − 6 = 14 x 2 + x − 20 = 0 90.09 3 or ln x = −3 x = e −3 x ≈ 0. The solution set is {3}.4 log x + log( x + 3) = log10 89.05 453 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 87.PreCalculus 4E 85. 88.

86 ln 3 x=± −(−5) ± (−5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 5 ± 37 2 5 + 37 x= ≈ 5.54 2 −5 − 37 x= ≈ −5. ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ x = 10−2 x = 0. x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 98. x2 + 5x = 3 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − 2 ln x = 0 x= ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − ln x = 0 2 ln 3 =0 x( x + 5) (2 x + 1)( x − 3) =0 x2 (2 x + 1)( x − 3) = e0 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 =1 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 = x2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2 x + 5x − 3 = 0 2a −(5) ± (5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) −5 ± 37 2 −5 + 37 x= ≈ 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 94.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ −5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. x2 5 = 50 3 x( x + 5) 3 1= x( x + 5) x( x + 5) = 3 e0 = 2 ln 5 x = ln 50 x 2 ln 5 = ln 50 ln 50 x2 = ln 5 ln 50 ≈ ±1.54 2 5 − 37 x= ≈ −0. .56 ln 5 x=± 97. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. ln 3 − ln( x + 5) − ln x = 0 ln 96. 2 ⎩⎪ ⎭⎪ x= x2 − 5x − 3 = 0 454 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.01 x = 102 x = 100 95. 3 log x − 6 = 0 x= 3 log x = 6 log x = 2 log x = 2 or log x = −2 2(1) x= 2 3x = 45 2 ln 3x = ln 45 x 2 ln 3 = ln 45 ln 45 x2 = ln 3 ln 45 ≈ ±1.

0126t A = 36. A = 36. 100. This is represented by the point (118. ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 27 = e0. A = 36. 455 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 = 92 x = ( 32 ) 2x = 34 x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 103. A = 22. f ( x) = 20(0.0183t Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 2005 is 0 years after 2005. Inc.9e0.0126t ln 36. .975) x ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 1 = 20(0.1).1e0.PreCalculus 4E 99.1 40 ln 36. 4x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 b. = 252 x = (5 =5 A = 22.9 The population of Texas was 22.9 27 ln t = 22.975 x 20 3 = ln 0.1e0.0126(0) = 36.0126 The population of California will reach 40 million about 8 years after 2005.0126t = ln 36.1 million in 2005.0183t ln 22. or 2014.3).9 million in 2005. 101.9 ≈ 9 0.1 The population of California was 36.975) x 3 = 0.975 x ln 20 1 = x ln 0.975 x 20 1 = ln 0.0183t ) 2 2x A = 22.0183(0) = 22.9e0.975 x ln 20 3 = x ln 0.0126t 40 = 36. This is represented by the point (75. x = −2 The solution set is {−2.975 x ≈ 75 There is 3% of surface sunlight at 75 feet. 5x 5 5 Section 3.975) x Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 1 = 0.0126t 36. a.975 ln 20 3 ln 20 x= ln 0.9 27 = ln e0.1 40 0. f ( x) = 20(0.1 40 = ln e0. 2005 is 0 years after 2005.975 x ≈ 118 There is 1% of surface sunlight at 118 feet.0183 The population of Texas will reach 27 million about 9 years after 2005.1e0. 6} . a.4 2 −12 x 2 −12 x 2 −12 102.9e0.9e0.975 ln 20 1 ln 20 x= ln 0.975) x 40 = e0.9 27 0. 6} .1 ≈8 t= 0. or 2013 3 = 20(0.0183t 27 = 22. x = −2 The solution set is {−2.0183t 22. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0183t = ln 22.0126t 104.1e0.

005416667) = 15.8) /1440 − 1 ≈ 0.6 106.4 720 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.8 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 1440 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.7 The amount would double in 8. 000 = 8000e r ⋅ 2 e 2 r = 1.014375) 4t = 20. ( 360 ⋅ 4 ) 1440 r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ (1. 500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12. 000 ln 1+ r e ( 360 ) = e(ln1. Inc.4 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 720 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.014375) = ln1.6 1440 ln1.2 4 ln1. accumulated amount = 2(8000) = 16.4) / 720) − 1 111.7% 456 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 years. = 1.00541667 107.8 360 ⎝ ⎠ 4t ln(1.5 ≈ 0.000 16.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = e(ln1. r= (ln1.08t e0.014375) 4t = 1.4 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 720 e ln(1+ r 360 ) 1+ =e r = e(ln1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 ln e 2 r = ln1.6 ≈ 8.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.08 t ≈ 8. 000 = 7250 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 12 t 7250(1.168 e7 r = 3 16.2 years 12 ln1.6 t= r ⎞ ⎛ 9000 = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 108.4) / 720 ln1. 000 = 8000e 0.00541667) = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ (1.08t = ln 2 0.3% r = e(ln1.005416667)12t = r ⎞ ⎛ 1400 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 109.014375 8.203 2 20.157 7 15.08t = ln 2 360⋅2 ln 2 0. 000 4t ln(1. accumulated amount = 3(2350) = 7050 7050 = 2350er ⋅7 ≈ 0.014375) 4t = ln1. 500(1.8 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = ln1.0575 ⎞ 105. 000 = 12. t= 720 = 1.5 r ⎞ ln1.147 14.4 360 ⎝ ⎠ 110.2 years r ⎞ ln1. .5 2r = ln1.8% ln e7 r = ln 3 7r = ln 3 r= ln 3 ≈ 0.7% ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ t= ≈ 11.8) /1440 1+ 60 29 ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln(1. 12. 20.4) / 720 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.08t = 2 ln e0.8 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 1440 12 t ⎛ 0.005416667)12t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ ⎛ 60 ⎞ 12t ln(1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ⎛ 0.065 ⎞ 15.

2 10 The concentration of the acidic rainfall in part (b) is 103.6 mole per liter.6 = log x 79 = 38 ln x x = 10−5. .4 mole per liter. 0 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 95 2007 is 5 years after 2002.2 times greater than the normal rainfall in part (a). 95 30 c.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 697 ⎠ t= ⎝ ≈ 8. 40 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 45 log 2 x = 1.0 ≈ x (9.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ 0. a.4 −( −5. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2.0425t 1000 e0. This underestimates the value shown in the graph by 2%. f (4) = 8 + 38 ln 4 ≈ 61 According to the function.6 = 10−2.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. or 2010. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x 100 = 8 + 38ln x 92 = 38 ln x 92 = ln x 38 x= 92 e 38 x ≈ 11 If the trend continues.6) = 103.8 days.4 = − log x −2.6 79 = ln x 38 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−5. x≈8 If the trend continues. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x log 2 x = f (5) = 8 + 38 ln 5 ≈ 69 According to the function. a.4 −5. pH = − log x 5. Inc. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x −5. 69% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2007. This overestimates the value shown in the graph by 1%.8.0425 113. 000 = 17. P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 115. (2. 0) 117. 79 x = e 38 b. 25.5 ≈ 2. 61% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2006. b.8 Only half the students recall the important features of the lecture after 2. 425e0.5 years 0. 87% of new cellphones will have cameras 8 years after 2002. 100% of new cellphones will have cameras 11 years after 2002. 50) P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 116. or 2013. 10−2. pH = − log x 2.0425t = 697 ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln e0.4 112.5 x = 21.6 = − log x 87 = 8 + 38ln x 114. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 = log x x = 10−2. 95 2 30 = x 9. a.4 2006 is 4 years after 2002.0. 457 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

9). −2. Answers may vary. 10−1 c. log 3 (4 ⋅ 4 − 7) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {4}.3 9=9 The solution set is {1}. Verify: x = 2 2 2 x +1 =8 2 +1 =2 126. 2). 2.3 times greater than the lemon juice in part (a). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 11 Verify: x = 3 11 ⎛ ⎞ log 3 ⎜ 3 ⋅ − 2 ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ log 3 (11-2) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {113} . 10 The concentration of the acidic stomach in part (b) is 101. 23 = 8 8=8 The solution set is {2}. {1} The intersection point is (1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions pH = − log x 118. 1 = − log x −1 = log x x = 10 31+1 = 9 32 = 9 −1 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−1 mole per liter.3 mole per liter. Verify: x = 4 123.3 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2.3) = 101. .3 = − log x −2. Inc.3 = log x x = 10−2. = 10−1−( −2. – 122. Verify x = 1: 3x +1 = 9 pH = − log x b. ( ) The intersection point is 11 . a. The intersection point is (4. 124. The intersection point is (2. 119. 2 . 8). 458 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 125.

. 5−1.291641 = 3(−1.391606.2793139.21678798) and (1. The intersection point is (2. Verify:x ≈ −1. 29). 2).6855579 ≈ 2(1.291641) + 4 0. 132. barometric air pressure increases.6855579}.2793139}.3711158).371158 The solution set is {–1. 51. As the distance from the eye increases. 29 = 0. 129.2793139) + 4 7. 459 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0.291641. The intersection point is (20.24 1 e ln( x +1) = e 0. 1). 130.216788 Verify x ≈ 1.5 miles from the eye of a hurricane.48ln( x + 1) + 27 0.48ln( x + 1) = 2 1 ln( x + 1) = 0.2793139 128. approximately (−1.8379417 The solution set is {–1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0.391606 ≈ 2(−1. Verify x ≈ −1. There are 2 points of intersection.24 − 1 ≈ 63.4 127. The point of intersection is approximately (63.1250782178 ≈ 0. Verify x = 20: log (x – 15) + log x = 2 log (20 – 15) + log 20 = 2 log 5 + log 20 = 2 log 100 = 2 100 = 102 100 = 100 The solution set is {20}.391606) + 3 0. 6.2793139 = 3(1.5 The barometric air pressure is 29 inches of mercury at a distance of about 63.8379416). Verify: x = 2 There are 2 points of intersection. 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.391606 3x = 2x + 3 3-1.391606. Inc.2167879803 ≈ 0.24 x +1 = e 1 x=e 1 0.291641 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 5x = 3x + 4 1=1 The solution set is {2}. 7.291641.37111582 ≈ 6.125077 Verify:x ≈ 1.5.24 0. leveling off at about 30 inches of mercury.6855579. approximately (–1.12507831) and log(2 + 3) + log 2 = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 (1.837941942 ≈ 7. 1. 131.6855579 3x = 2x + 3 31.6855579) + 3 6.

Explanations will vary.9. Explanations will vary. 143. Changes to make the statement true will vary.10076749 The runner’s pulse will be 70 beats per minute after about 7. does not make sense. 2 x = 16 2 x = 24 x=4 136. because there is not a variable in an exponent.5(1.71 is not an exponential equation.05 ⎠ ln 0.03 ⎞ t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0. 2 x = 15 (1.03 ⎞ A = 4000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ Account paying 5% interest: An adult female elephant weighing 1800 kilograms is about 20 years old.05 ⎠ The accounts will have the same balance in about 36 years. Inc. 460 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. false.05 ⎞ A = 2000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ The two accounts will have the same balance when 4000(1. Changes to make the statement true will vary.05)t x explanation: 2 = 15 requires logarithms. 2 = 16 can be solved by rewriting 16 as 24.5 ⎝ 1.03 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0. t ≈ 7. and 10 = 2 x + 5 .9 minutes.05 ⎠ ⎛ 1. false. makes sense 139. then 102 = x + 3.03)t = 0. Sample x ⎛ 0.5 ⎝ 1.9 minutes. 2 x + 5 ⎝ ⎠ 70 ≈ 70. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7x + 3 ⎛ 7x + 3 ⎞ 4 then log ⎜ ⎟ = 4.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. Changes to make the statement true will vary. so it will take about 7.5 t= ≈ 36 ⎛ 1. A sample change is: If log ( x + 3) = 2. 138.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0. 1⋅t 135. false.03)t = 2000(1. A sample change is: x10 = 5. 141.9) 140. 142.05 ⎠ t ⎛ 1. true 134.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 137. . does not make sense.092(7.05)t ln 2 x = ln15 x ln 2 = ln15 ln15 x= ln 2 t ⎛ 1. A sample change is: If log ( 7 x + 3) − log ( 2 x + 5 ) = 4. makes sense 133. Account paying 3% interest: 1⋅t ⎛ 0. The second equation is solved by using the one-to-one property of logarithms.5 ⎝ 1. When P = 70. Sample explanation: The first equation is solved by rewriting it in exponential form. Verify: 70 = 45e −0.

91 million b. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 461 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (log x)(2 log x + 1) = 6 2(log x) 2 + log x − 6 = 0 (2 log x − 3)(log x + 2) = 0 2 log x − 3 = 0 or log x + 2 = 0 2 log x = 3 log x = −2 log x = 3 2 x = 10 The graph of ln(ln(x)) crosses the graph y = 0 at approximately 2.003t a. An exponential function is the best choice. . ln(ln x) = 0 eln(ln x ) = e0 ln x = 1 eln x = e1 x=e The solution set is {e}. There are two points of intersection: (1.003(3) ≈ 9.003(1) ≈ 9. The solution set is ⎨⎩100 ⎭ 2009: A = 10e−0. 2006: A = 10e−0. 2 ( log10 ) (2 log10 3/ 2 3/ 2 + 1) = 6 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 ⋅ + 1⎟ = 6 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (3 + 1) = 6 ⎝2⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (4) = 6 ⎝2⎠ 6=6 Check with graphing utility: 146. Check by direct substitution: Check:x = 10 10 = 103 / 2 (log x)(2log x + 1) = 6 (ln x) = 2 ln x 2 (ln x ) − 2 ln x = 0 ln x(ln x − 2) = 0 ln x = 2 ln x = 0 eln x = e 2 or x =1 x = e2 The solution set is {1. 10 10 ⎬ . e2} as determined algebraically.3890566099. 148. 1 100 A = 10e−0.003(0) = 10 million 2007: A = 10e−0. 4).3890561. x = 10−2 3 2 x= 147. e 2 } . The population is decreasing.4 (ln x) 2 = ln x 2 144.97 million x = 10 10 2008: A = 10e−0. so the solution set is {1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.003(2) ≈ 9. 145. the graph verifies x = 1 and x = e2.718. 0) and approximately (7. Since e2 ≈ 7.94 million ⎧ 1 ⎫ .

0248 The strontium-90 will decay to a level of 10 grams about 72 years after the accident. 0. A = 906.2(0) The proportion of correct responses prior to learning trials was 0.021t 643 ⎛ 2000 ⎞ 0.8. c. a. a. 2. A0 = 643 .7 1 + e−0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 149. Substitute 10 for t in the model: 0. 462 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 f (0) = = 0.021t ⎝ 643 ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 54 t= ⎝ 0.4 1 + e −0. eln 3 = 3 A0 = A0 e k ⋅28 2 1 e 28 k = 2 1 ln e 28 k = ln 2 1 28k = ln 2 ln1/ 2 k= ≈ −0. b.021 k= ⎝ 16 Thus. Substitute 60 for A0 and 10 for A in the model from part (a) and solve for t. T = C + (To – C)ekt 2000 = e0.8 f (10) = ≈ 0.0248t In the exponential decay model A = A0 e kt . c . 10 = 60e −0. The limiting size of the proportion of correct responses as continued learning trials take place is 0. In the logistic growth model. A0 for A since the amount present 2 after 28 years is half the original amount.5 Check Point Exercises 1.0248t eln 3 = 3 b.2(10) The proportion of correct responses after 10 learning trials was 0. (e ) ln 3 x = 3x e(ln 3) x = 3x Section 3.4.7. Since 2006 is 16 years after 1990. 1 6 ln e −0. substitute 4. the growth function is A = 643e0. b.0248t = 1 6 1 −0.021t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 643 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0. 2000 = 643e0. Inc. when t = 16 .0248 28 So the exponential decay model is A = A0 e −0.021t a.021t 3. a.0248t = ln ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 16k ⎝ 643 ⎠ b. A = A0 ekt 906 = 643ek (16) 906 = e16k 643 ⎛ 906 ⎞ 16 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 643 ⎠ e = −0. ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 0. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.021t . or 2044. .0248t = ln 6 ln 16 t= ≈ 72 −0.021 Africa’s population will reach 2000 million approximately 54 years after 1990. A = 643e0. f (t ) = a. The time prior to learning trials corresponds to t = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

8) x .5 80 = 30 + (100 − 30)e k5 80 = 30 + 70e 5k 50 = 70 e 6. Iraq has the greatest growth rate at 2.5e0 A = 127.8)x is equivalent to y = 4e(ln 7.0673t 14 1 = ln e −0. T = 30 + 70e-0.5 (1) A = 127. the population of Iraq was 26. y = 4(7. 5k 5 = e 5k 7 5 ln = ln e 5 k 7 5 ln = 5 k 7 5 ln 7 =k 5 −0. Because the data in the scatter plot increase rapidly at first and then begin to level off.8e 0. Rounded to three decimal places.5e 0. Scatter plot: 2.0673(20) ≈ 48o After 20 minutes.0673t 7.027t A = 26. Inc. find A when t = 0 : A = 127. find A when t = 0 : A = 26. 4.8) x in terms of a natural logarithm. Publishing as Prentice Hall.027( 0 ) A = 26.7% per year. the model is approximately equivalent to y = 4e2. the population of Japan was 127.8e0 A = 26.0673t 5 = 70 e −0.004 .5 1.8 (1) A = 26.054 x . The population is dropping at of 0. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006. the shape suggests that an exponential function is a good choice for modeling the data. c.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. y = ab x is equivalent to y = ae(ln b ) x . Scatter plot: Exercise Set 3.0673 ≈ k Because the data in the scatter plot appear to increase more and more rapidly.4% per year.0673t ln 14 1 = −0.001t A = 127. the shape suggests that a logarithmic function is a good choice for modeling the data. a = 4.8 million. 5.0673t b.5e0.0673t ln 14 1 ln 14 = t −0. Thus. T = 30 + 70e −0. 1 = e −0. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006.8e0.5 In 2006. Since k = −0. b = 7. 35 = 30 + 70e—0.001( 0 ) A = 127.8.8 In 2006.5 million. For y = 4(7. . 3. the temperature will be 48o. Russia has a decreasing population. 463 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0673 39 ≈ t The temperature will reach 35o after 39 min.

0147t P(18) = 91. when t = 50 .2 . Inc. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.014t 1238 = e0. or 2015.04e k (50) 10 = e50 k 6.1e0.2 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 3.2ek (50) 12 = e50 k 3.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5.04e0.04 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0.04e0. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0.014t 1095.4 1416 ln = ln e0.0147(18) P(18) = 91.014t 1095.014t 1095. Substitute A = 1416 into the model for India and solve for t: 1416 = e0.04 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0.01 Now.4 1238 ln = ln e0. 464 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.026 Now.04 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0.4e0.014 The population of India will be 1416 million approximately 18 years after 2006. a.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 3. A0 = 3.4 1416 ln 1095.7 The population is projected to be 118. e0.026t .01t .026 k= ⎝ 50 Thus.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.2e0. .04 ⎠ k= ⎝ ≈ 0. 9 = e0.4 1238 ln 1095. 1416 = 1095.04 ⎛ 10 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6. a. 9 = 6.014t 1095. 9.4 1238 ln = 0.2e0.026t = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3. A = 10 . A = A0 ekt 3.1e0.014t 7.01 50 Thus. P( x) = 91.4 t= ≈9 0. Substitute A = 1238 into the model for India and solve for t: 1238 = 1095.4e b.026t = 9 9 3.014 The population of India will be 1238 million approximately 9 years after 2006. the growth function is A = 6.014t 1095.2 ⎠ ≈ 0.014t 1095. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040. when t = 50 .0147(18) ≈ 118. 6.01t ⎝ 6.01t 6. 2000 + 40 = 2040.026t = 10 = 6.01t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6.4 1416 ln = 0. A = A0 e kt 12 = 3. A = 12 .04 .4 t= ≈ 18 0. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040 8.01t b. or 2024. A0 = 6.7 million in 2025. ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 6.2 9 ⎞ ln e0. 2000 + 40 = 2040.1e0.04 ⎠ 0.026t = ln ⎛⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3.2 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0. the growth function is A = 3.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6.

2 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 44.0ekt 14. P( x) = 44.7e0.4 = 19.0285 The growth rate is 0.2 = e18k 44.0 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 44.0053 The growth rate is –0.000121t A = 16e −0. 15. 16. A = 16e −0.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.0 ⎠ ⎛ 40.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 7.4e18k 32.PreCalculus 4E 10. P(18) = 164.691515 A ≈ 8.38303 A ≈ 4.7e0.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 19.5 The population is projected to be 218.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.01 Approximately 8 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 5715 years.3 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.01 Approximately 4 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 11.2 = 44.0157(18) ≈ 218.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.0 18k =e 44.000121t A = 16e −0.3 ⎛ 6.4 ⎛ 55.4 ⎛ 32.3ekt 6.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0.4e18k 55.4 ⎠ ⎛ 32.4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 32.0 = 44. 11. Section 3.0082 The growth rate is –0.0121.0 ⎛ 40. 12.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. P(18) = 164.4 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 19.3 = 7.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 19.0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 40.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0.7e0.4 18k =e 19.3e18k 6.000121(11430) A = 16e −1.0285.5 P( x) = 164.0 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.0053.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6. A = 16e −0.3 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 7. P( x) = 19. Inc.430 years.0157(18) 40.4ekt 32. .3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 7.0157t 13. P( x) = 7.4ekt 55.0082.000121(5715) A = 16e −0.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.0121 The growth rate is 0. P( x) = 44.0e18k 40.3 18k =e 7. 465 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 million in 2025.

5 = e −0. After 20 seconds.5 = ln e17.5 =k 17.000121t 100 ln 0.000121t 15 = e −0.88 = −0. 466 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 = −0. there will be 16 ⋅ 0.15 = −0.000 years. After 75.6 The half-life is 12.000121t 100 ln 0.5 = −0. there will be 16 ⋅ ln 0. After 10 seconds.88 t= ≈ 1056 −0.055t ln 0. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present. 23.5 = 17. After 100.5 =k 4560 k ≈ −0.5 = 4560k −0.000428 The decay rate is 0. 0.000121t ln 0. 2 2 21. 0. After 50 seconds.0428% per year.5 = ln e−0. there 2 1 will be 2 ⋅ = 1 gram present.6 years.000121 In 1989.063 t ≈ 11.5 = e1620 k ln 0.000121t ln 0.000121t ln 0. 22.5 = ln e4560 k ln 0.5 =t −0.063t ln 0.5 =k 1620 k ≈ −0.000 years. 0.5 k ≈ −0.000 years. there will 2 1 be 2 ⋅ = 1 grams present.5 = e17.000121t A = A0 e 0. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present.000 years.000152 The decay rate is 0. After 50.5 = ln e1620 k ln 0. 20.055t ln 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present.5 = e −0. After 30 seconds. 88 = 100e −0.679 years old. After 125.0152% per year. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 17.055 t ≈ 12.5 = ln e −0. 19.055t ln 0. 2 1 1 there will be 1 ⋅ = gram present.5 = ekt 0.5k ln 0. the skeletons were approximately 1056 years old.5 = e kt 24.5 =t −0. .5 = 1620k A = A0 e −0.5 = ekt 0. 25. 679 −0. there 2 1 1 will be 1 ⋅ = gram present. Inc.063t ln 0.88 = ln e −0. 15 = 100e−0.000 years. After 40 seconds.000121t ln 0. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present.000121 The paintings are approximately 15.0 years. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present.0 The half-life is 11.5 = e kt 0.5 = ekt 0.15 t= ≈ 15. 0. 18.5 = e4560 k ln 0.063t ln 0.5k ln 0.000121t ln 0.039608 The decay rate is 3.000121t 88 = e −0.15 = ln e −0.5k ln 0.9608% per day. 2 2 After 25.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.000094t Next use the decay equation answer question. A = e−0.5 = ekt −0.5 = ln e7340 k ln 0.52912t 0.000094 t ≈ 17121.2 = e−0. 0.000094t ln 0.000094t 0.031507t ln 0.8 = ln e−0.31k 2 1 ln k = 2 ≈ −0.006134 The decay rate is 0.5 =k 113 k ≈ −0.5 =k 22 k ≈ −0.1069 billion or 106.5 = 113k ln 0. 29. b.8 =t −0.52912 1.2 = ln e−0.031507t ln 0.8 = e−0. A = e−0.031507t Next use the decay equation answer question.945 t= ≈ 0.031507 ln 0.5 = e7340k ln 0.8 = −0.5 = 22k ln 0. First find the decay equation.900.5 = 7340k ln 0.1 It will take 7. First find the decay equation.52912t ln 0.5 28.000094t ln 0.5 = ekt 0.7 It will take 17121.031507 t ≈ 7.52912 The age of the dinosaur ones is approximately 0.6134% per hour.000094t ln 0.5 = e113k 0.5 = e22 k 0.2 = −0.52912t ln 0.5 = ln e22k ln 0.945 = ln e −0.31k 2 1 ln = 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.52912 t 0. 1 = 1e k 1.31 2 1 ln = ln e1.1 years.52912t . Inc. A = e−0. a. . 0. A = A0 e −0. 467 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 = ekt 26.945 A0 = A0 e 0.031507t 0.945 = −0.5 = ln e113k ln 0.2 =t −0.945 = e−0.000094 ln 0.7 years.1069 −0.031507t ln 0.5 =k 7340 k ≈ −0.000 years old.52912t ln 0. A = e−0.31 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0. 27.

A = A0 e kt 1000 = 1400e k 5 1000 = e5k 1400 5 ln = 5k 7 5 ln k = 7 ≈ −0.9 = e−0.5 = e12k ln 0. k A = A0 ekt 3 A0 = A0 ekt ln 0.5 = ln e ln 0.2 It will take 6.0673 The population will drop below 100 birds approximately 34 years from now.5 hours.057762t ln 0.5 = ekt 0.5 = 36k ln 0.019254 t ≈ 5. First find the decay equation.9 = −0.0673t 1000 1 ln = ln e −0. 36k 2 A0 = A0 e kt ln 0.5 =k 36 k ≈ −0.7 = e−0.019254t 0.0673t 10 1 ln = −0.057762t ln 0.019254t Next use the decay equation answer question.0673t 10 1 ln 10 t= ≈ 34.9 = ln e−0. Inc. 3 = e kt ln 3 = ln e kt ln 3 = kt t= ln 3 k The population will triple in t = 468 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (This is 39 years from the time the population was 1400.057762t ln 0.019254t 34.0673 5 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.5 =k 12 k ≈ −0.2 −0.9 =t −0.5 = ekt 0.7 = ln e−0. k . The population will double in t = 2 = e kt t= ln 2 k A = e−0.057762t 0.7 =t −0. 31.5 It will take 5.5 = 12k ln 0.019254t ln 0.2 hours. 0. 100 = 1000e −0.5 = ln e12 k ln 0.019254t ln 0.5 = e36k 33.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 30. ln 3 years.057762t Next use the decay equation answer question.019254 ln 2 = ln e kt ln 2 = kt A = e−0.057762 A = e−0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0673t 100 = e −0. ln 2 years.057762 t ≈ 6. 0. 32.7 = −0.) A = e−0. First find the decay equation.0673t .

11. 40.027( x ) 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall.027(57) The function models the data very well.012t b.027( x ) 11.82 30.012t 37. 000 ≈ 1080 1 + 5.82 k = 0.82 −0.48e −0. t= c.81e −0. t= 36.82 f ( x) = 8 + 30.027( x ) = In the logistic growth model. k = 0.82 1 + 3.0 1 + 3. A = 4.67 x= −0.4 = 107.01 .81e −0.01t ln 2 = 0.01 New Zealand’s population will double in approximately 69 years.027( x ) 8 (1 + 3.48 3. 38.027( x ) ln e = ln 30.81e −0. 100.2%.012t ln 2 = 0. b.027( x ) = ln 2 = ln e0. 469 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 = 4.82 1 + 3.01t 2=e 39.81e −0.1e0.5 A = 4. 11.012 .82 f ( x) = 26.01t ln 2 = ln e0. A = 107. A = 107. a.01t a. so New Zealand’s growth rate is 1%. b.67 4.67 4.000 people.48e −0.027( x ) = 3. f ( x) = When the epidemic began.67e −0. Section 3. 000e −4 About 1080 people were ill at the end of the fourth week. 11.027( x ) 7 (1 + 3.82 f ( 4) = 30.027 x = ln 30.82 8= 1 + 3.82 f (54) = ≈ 6.01t 2 ⋅ 4. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.81e −0. e −0.027( x ) 11.81e −0.82 f (51) = ≈ 6.1e0. t = 0.027 x ≈ 77 The world population will reach 8 billion 77 years after 1949.82 3.81e −0.82 ln 26.82 ln e −0. c f (t ) = . 41.5 1 + 3.012 Mexico’s population will double in approximately 58 years.4e0.027( x ) = 11.4e0.82 ln 30.027(51) The function models the data very well.82 1 + 3.027 x = ln 26.027( x ) ) = 11.01t ln 2 ≈ 69 0.027 x ≈ 63 The world population will reach 7 billion 63 years after 1949.48 x= −0.027( x ) ) = 11.012t 4.48 3.67 4.48 3.81e −0. or 2012.012t a. 2 ⋅107.82 −0. Inc.027( x ) = 11.PreCalculus 4E 35. e −0.027( x ) 11.027( x ) = 4. The limiting size of the population that becomes ill is 100.82 1 + 3.82 2 = e0.81e −0. f ( x) = 7 + 26. or 2026.1e0. . 11.012t ln 2 ≈ 58 0.027( x ) = ln 26.67e −0. so Mexico’s growth rate is 1.82 −0.82 7= 1 + 3.4e0. 100.82 26.81e −0. 0. 000 f (0) = ≈ 20 1 + 5000e0 Twenty people became ill when the epidemic began.

271e −0.0916t 5 1 ln = ln e−0.122 x = 70 2 271e−0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6%.8 ln 271 t= ≈ 48 −0.9 0. . the temperature will be 121o.0916 ≈ k 90 ≈ 3. f ( x) = 2 10k =e 5 2 ln = ln e10k 5 2 ln = 10k 5 2 ln 5 =k 10 −0.8 −0. 0.8 0.122 x T = C + (To – C)ekt 300 = 70 + (450 − 70)ek 5 230 = 380e5k 70(1 + 271e−0.5 = 1 + 271e−0.8 e −0.122t = 1.0916 18 ≈ t The temperature will reach 50o after 18 min. T = 45 + 25e-0.122t 0. 90 1 + 271e−0.122 t ln e = ln 271 0.122 x ) = 90 90 1 + 271e−0.5 (1 + 271e −0.122t ) = 0.122t = 271 0.0916t 1 = e−0.82 1 + 3. 45. 55 = 45 + (70 – 45)ek10 10 = 25e10k 48.7%.1004t b.9 c.122 x = 7 2 − x 0.1004 ≈ k T = 70 + 380e−0. 470 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0916t b.6 1 + 271e −0.122 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 50% at about age 48.122(80) The probability that an 80-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 88. 23 = e5k 38 23 = ln e5k ln 38 23 = 5k ln 38 23 ln 38 = k 5 −0.027( x ) As x increases.0916t 5 1 ln 5 =t −0.82 billion. P(20) = 90 ≈ 88.8 70 = 50 = 45 + 25e—0. the limiting size of this function is 11.81e −0.122t = ln 271 0.122 = e 1897 2 −0.122t = 0.7 1 + 271e −0. a.1004(20) ≈ 121o After 20 minutes. Inc. 1 + 271e −0. a.122 x = ln 1897 2 ln 1897 x= −0. P(80) = T = 45 + 25e−0.0916(15) ≈51o After 15 minutes.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. This will make e −0. 47. T = 70 + 380ke-0.027( x ) become very close to 0 and make the denominator become very close to 1. 44. 43.122 x ≈ 56 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 70% at about age 56. 46. the temperature will be 51o.8 −0. the exponent of e will decrease.122(20) The probability that a 20-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 3.0916t 5 = 25e−0. Thus.0916t 5 1 ln = −0. 11.

0239t ln 47 17 ln 47 = t −0.1004t ln 38 7 = −0.5 140 = 70 + 380e—0. −35 = −41e10k 35 10k =e 41 35 = ln e10k ln 41 35 = 10k ln 41 35 ln 41 = k 10 −0.1004t 38 7 = ln e−0.0158 ≈ k T = 65 − 41e−0.1004t ln 38 7 ln 38 = t −0. 50 = 75 − 47e−0.0239 26 = t The temperature will reach 50o after 26 min.0158t −37 = −47e10k −37 10k =e −47 37 = ln e10k ln 47 37 = 10k ln 47 37 ln 47 = k 10 −0. Inc. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.0158t T = C + (To – C)ekt 38 = 75 + (28 − 75)ek10 45 = 65 – 41e—0.1004t 7 = e−0. −25 = e−0.0239t ln 47 25 = −0.1004 17 ≈ t The temperature will reach 140o after 17 min. T = C + (To – C)ekt 30 = 65 + (24 − 65)ek10 50.0239t −47 25 = ln e−0.1004t 70 = 380e−0.0239t 20 = e−0.0158t 41 20 = ln e −0. 471 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Section 3.0158t −20 = −41e−0.0158 45 ≈ t The temperature will reach 45o after 45 min. 49.0239 ≈ k T = 75 − 47e−0. a.0158t ln 41 20 = −0. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0158t ln 41 20 ln 41 = t −0.0239t 51.0239t −25 = −47e−0.PreCalculus 4E c.

5e( ln 0. Using ln 0. 58. y = 2.7 ≈ −0. Since r = 0. Answers may vary.011) .5e −0.011) x y = 200. b. 55.574 ln x .9e0.654 x + 198. a. y = 200.7 ) x . A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.526. y = 4. 57. Since r = 0. y = 100(4. Since r ≈ 0. . y = 2.999 is very close to 1.901. The logarithmic model is y = 193.871x0. b.5(0. b. 52. the model fits the data very well.097 . The linear model is y = 2. 71.16 + 23. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. the population of the United States is increasing by about 1% each year.988 x . a.511x . The exponential model is y = 200.0109 x Since k = . The power regression model is y = 195.357. y = 1000e1.9e( 54.988. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 56.526 x . Inc.357 x .3) x .0109 . but not great. the model fits the data fairly well.9 (1. x Since r ≈ 0. Using ln 4.511.6)x is equivalent to y = 100e( ln 4.5(0.5e −0. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.3 ≈ 1.9 (1.6 ≈ –0. the model fits the data okay.6) x . – 67. 68. 70. Using ln 0. y = 4. 53.878 is fairly close to 1.997 is close to 1. a. 472 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3)x is equivalent to y = 1000e( ln 7. 69.011) y = 200.5e( ln 0. b. x ln1.015 . Using ln 7. y = 1000(7.6)x is equivalent to y = 4.6) x .6 ≈ 1. the model fits the data well. 59. y = 100e1.7)x is equivalent to y = 2.

x 74.9 (1. Growth rate measures how fast a population is growing relative to that population.02) x . Publishing as Prentice Hall.46(1.424 ln x 75. According to the linear model.9 ⎟⎠ x= ⎝ ≈ 41 ln (1.056 ) ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = x ln (1. 473 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9 (1. does not make sense.46(1.673 Linear Regression: y = 0.011) ln1.5 72.46e0. x y = 3.015 . 77.011) ⎝ 200.654 x + 198. makes sense 78.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. r ≈ 0.011) 1969 + 41 = 2010 Using the linear model: y = 2. population will reach 315 million around the year 2010. Explanations will vary. model y = 200.654 x + 198. Sample explanation: This is not necessarily so. a.015 315 = 2. the growth rate is negative.02) x .02 ) x y = 3.011) .654 x 116.512. Inc.011) ⎟ ⎝ 200.972. r ≈ 0. the model of best fit is the exponential b. the U. Sample explanation: Since the car’s value is decreasing (depreciating).46e( The model of second best fit is the linear model y = 2.015 116.46(1.947 The exponential model has an r value closer to 1. Using r. true Exponential Regression: 82.985 x= ≈ 44 2. r ≈ 0. Thus. the better model is y = 3.402 (1. does not make sense. It does not indicate how the size of a population compares to the size of another population.02 x The 65-and-over population is increasing by approximately 2% each year.994 Logarithmic Regression: y = 14.078 ) x Exercise 52: y = 2896.011) 200. Explanations will vary. y = 3. Sample models are provided 315 x = (1. the U.654 x + 198.9 ⎠ Exercise 51: y = 1. Models and predictions will vary.557 x − 10. population will reach 315 million around the year 2013.02) x x Exercise 53: y = 120 + 4. true 81. Using the exponential model: 315 = 200. 76. Explanations will vary. true 80.9 ⎛ 315 ⎞ x ln ⎜ = ln (1.629 + 13.654 1969 + 44 = 2013 According to the exponential model. 73.S.985 = 2.752ln x − 26. makes sense 79.S.343ln x Exercise 54: y = −11.7 (1. true y = 3.9 ⎠ ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ 200. Both results are reasonably close to the result found in Example 1 (2010). .

0069 ≈ k Use k to write equation. 827 = 70 + (85.7 ln 15.6 = 70 + (98.6 15. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x. range of f = range of g = ( 0.7 ln = 30k 15.0069t 15.6 = ln e−0. 3.6 = t −0.6 = −0. 5.0069t 15. ∞ ) ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . − π 12 π 24π + 12 12 −π + 24π = 12 23π = 12 + 2π = − Chapter 3 Review Exercises 1.6 ln 28. ∞ ) 17π 17π 12π − 2π = − 6 6 6 17π − 12π = 6 5π = 6 474 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4. Answers may vary. 84.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 83. Inc.6 12.7 = e30k 15.7 ln = ln e30k 15.0069t ln 28. .6 15. or 8:22 am.6 = e−0.6 − 70)e−0.0069 ln 28.0069 88 ≈ t The death occurred at 88 minutes before 9:30. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 85. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the yaxis.7 = 15. Use data to find k. ⎩8 ⎭ 86.6 15. The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit to the right.6 − 70)ek 30 12.6 = 28. 2. so the function is h ( x ) = −4 − x . This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis then shifted upward 3 units. 5π = 2π x 4 5π 2π x = 4 ⋅ 2π 2π 5 =x 8 asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. so the function is r ( x) = −4− x + 3.6e−0.0069t 28.6 = k 30 −0. 85.6 12. so the function is g ( x ) = 4− x. 87.6 12.6e30k 12. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis.

8. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −1 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) range of g = ( −1. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0. Inc. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 The graph of g(x) vertically stretches the graph of f(x) by a factor of 2. Chapter 3 Review Exercises The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit down. ∞ ) 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.055 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6558. . ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.5% compounded semiannually: 2⋅5 ⎛ 0. 475 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5.16 12 ⎠ ⎝ 5. range of f = range of g = ( 0. 0 ) 10. 9. ∞ ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 range of f = ( 0.25% compounded monthly: 12⋅5 ⎛ 0.0525 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6497.26 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the x – axis. ∞ ) range of g = ( −∞.5% compounded semiannually yields the greater return. ∞ ) range of f = ( 0.PreCalculus 4E 6. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the y – axis.

43 = x 15. The temperature of the room is 70°. y-axis. 491/ 2 = 7 14. log16 4 = 23. log 3 (log8 8) = 0. the temperature of the coffee was about 120°. 20. 1 1 = −2 because 5−2 = . domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. 7% compounded monthly: 1 12⋅10 ⎛ 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. 000 ⎜ 1 + ≈ 28. b. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 3 (log8 8) = log 3 1. 2 22. so the function is g ( x) = log(− x). we conclude log17 17 = 1.135. . a. 24.04855( 20 ) T = 70 + 130e ≈ 119. Inc. Therefore. 32. 25. After 20 minutes. 25 25 is defined only for x > 0. 13. log13 874 = y 19. ∞ ) we conclude log 3 38 = 8. the temperature of the coffee was 200°. 12. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x reflected about the Because ln e x = x. log 3 ( −9 ) cannot be evaluated since log b x 26. The coffee will cool to about 70°. Because log b = 1. log 3 27. −0.07 ⎞ A = 14. 1 because 161/ 2 = 16 = 4. 30. Because logb b x = x.85% compounded continuously: 0. Because log b 1 = 0 we conclude log 3 1 = 0. we conclude ln e5 = 5. So.26 ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 6. the temperature is about 119°.23 Using a calculator.0685(10 ) A = 14. log − 1 1 1 = log 3 1 = log3 3 2 = − 2 3 32 1 = ln e−2 = −2 e2 1 1 = log 3 = log10−3 = −3 1000 10 29. ln 28. 3 y = 81 16. ∞ ) 31. 772. we conclude log8 8 = 1. 476 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. When first taken out of the microwave. log 6 216 = 3 17. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. log 5 21. Because log b b = 1. log 4 64 = 3 because 43 = 64. log b 625 = 4 18. c.81 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return. 000e ≈ 27.

∞ ) range: ( −∞. 34. so the function is r ( x) = 1 + log(2 − x). . reflected about the y-axis. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x shifted left 2 units then reflected about the y-axis. ∞ ) 41. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) 37. 35. Publishing as Prentice Hall. then shifted upward one unit. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. x-intercept: (3. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( 0. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 5 > 0. range: ( −∞. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x 38. shifted left 2 units. ∞ ) 477 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so the function is h( x) = log(2 − x) . ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. x-intercept: (2.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 33. ∞ ) 39. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x. Inc. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = −3 domain of f = ( 0. 0 ) 36. ∞ ) 40. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: ( 2. we obtain x > −5. Solving this inequality for x. x-intercept: (–1. domain of g = ( −3. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( −∞. Thus the domain of f is ( −5. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞.

log 2 x 1 = log 4 x 2 − log 4 64 64 1 = log 4 x − 3 2 44. 8. 61. 3 log b 7 + log b 3 = log b (7 ⋅ 3) = log b 21 55. 63. = log 2 x + 2 log 2 y − 6 1000 I 0 = log1000 = 3 I0 The Richter scale magnitude is 3. respectively. the average score was 76.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. Because e ln x = x. 1 ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 8. f (2) = 76 − 18log ( 2 + 1) ≈ 67 f (4) = 76 − 18log ( 4 + 1) ≈ 63 f (6) = 76 − 18log ( 6 + 1) ≈ 61 f (8) = 76 − 18log ( 8 + 1) ≈ 59 54. f (12 ) = 76 − 18log (12 + 1) ≈ 56 After 2. = log 56. Thus. and 12 months. R = log 48. the average scores are about 67. 1) ∪ (1. Solving this inequality for x. 3 x3 3ln x + 4 ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 4 = ln ( x3 y 4 ) 57. Because 10log x = x. 51. 4. Because ln e x = x.3) . 1 ln x − ln y 2 1 = ln x 2 − ln y = ln t= x y 478 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 49. ln 3 x e 1 ⎛ x⎞ = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝e⎠ 1 = [ ln x − ln e] 3 1 1 = ln x − ln e 3 3 1 1 = ln x − 3 3 f ( 0 ) = 76 − 18log ( 0 + 1) = 76 When first given. a.06 ⎝ 12 − 5 ⎠ It will take about 9 weeks.98 0. log 4 52. the domain of f is (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the domain of f is ( −∞. 45. 59. . log 3 − 3log x = log 3 − log x 3 c. log 6 ( 36 x 3 ) = log 6 36 + log 6 x3 = log 6 36 + 3log 6 x = 2 + 3log 6 x 43. b. we conclude ln e6 x = 6 x. Retention decreases as time passes. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 1)2 > 0. 2 xy 2 = log 2 xy 2 − log 2 64 64 = log 2 x + log 2 y 2 − log 2 64 46. Inc. we obtain x < 1 or x > 1. ∞). 53. we obtain x < 3. Solving this inequality for x. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. and 56. 6. Thus. 50. we conclude 10log 4 x = 4 x 2 . we conclude e ln x = x.0. 47.

500 4 x ln 5 = ln 37.43 5 4x − 2 = 6 4x = 8 x=2 65.85 67. log( x + 9) − log( x + 1) = log ( x + 9) ( x + 1) ln e5 x = ln141 5 x = ln141 ln141 ≈ 0. 72. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 125 x = 25 (5 ) 3 x = 52 71. 500 − 2 ln 5 x= ≈ 1.52 ln 8 69.14 4 ln 5 log10 x = log 7000 x log10 = log 7000 x = log 7000 x ≈ 3.500 10 x = 7000 66. log 6 72. false.143 ln 8x = ln12. .500 ln 54 x + 2 = ln 37. log 2 x 4 = 4 log 2 x 63.1063 ln 4 60. 9e5 x = 1269 e5 x = 141 ln 0. false.99 x= 5 62. e12 − 5 x − 7 = 123 e12−5 x = 130 −x 2 x+4 3 = 3−3 x 2 x + 4 = −3 x 5 x = −4 4 x=− 5 479 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (ln x )(ln1) = (ln x )(0) = 0 61. (3 ) 2 ( ) = 33 3x + 4 = 7 2 x −1 ln 3x + 4 = ln 7 2 x −1 ( x + 4) ln 3 = (2 x − 1) ln 7 x ln 3 + 4 ln 3 = 2 x ln 7 − ln 7 x ln 3 − 2 x ln 7 = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x(ln 3 − 2 ln 7) = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x= ln 3 − 2 ln 7 4 ln 3 + ln 7 x= 2 ln 7 − ln 3 x ≈ 2. Inc. true.348 = 59.27 9 x + 2 = 27 − x x+2 54 x+ 2 = 37. 8 x = 12. ln e x = x ln e 64.348 ≈ 6. 53 x = 52 3x = 2 2 x= 3 4 x ln 5 + 2 ln 5 = ln 37.863 = log 72. log 4 0.143 x ln 8 = ln 12.500 ( 4 x + 2 ) ln 5 = ln 37. 70. true.143 ln12.500 − 2 ln 5 ln 37. 2 4 x− 2 = 64 2 4 x −2 = 26 ln e12−5 x = ln130 12–5 x = ln 130 5 x = 12– ln 130 12– ln130 x= ≈ 1.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 58.863 ≈ −0.143 x= ≈ 4.2448 log 6 68.

⎧e ⎫ The solutions set is ⎨ ⎬ . 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 x − 15 16 = x 2 x 2 = 16 x = ±4 x = −4 does not check and must be rejected. 3 + 4 ln(2 x) = 15 4 ln(2 x) = 12 ln(2 x) = 3 ln ( x + 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln x x+4 = ln x x +1 x+4 =x x +1 x( x + 1) = x + 4 ln 2 x = e3 e3 2 x ≈ 10.099 ln(−2) does not exist. Inc. − 3)( e + 2 ) = 0 x x −1 =2 x+2 x −1 = 32 x−2 x −1 =9 x+2 x – 1 = 9(x + 2) x – 1 = 9x + 18 8x = –19 19 x=− 8 19 ⎛ 19 ⎞ x=− does not check because log 3 ⎜ − − 1⎟ 8 ⎝ 8 ⎠ does not exist. 480 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is {2}. approximately 1. ⎩2⎭ 3 76. log 4 ( 3x − 5 ) = 3 3x – 5 = 43 3x – 5 = 64 3x = 69 x = 23 The solutions set is {23}. 74.04 x= x2 + x = x + 4 x2 = 4 x = ±2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. e2 x − e x − 6 = 0 (e x 77.10. . log 3 e x − 3 = 0 or e x + 2 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −2 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x − ln(−2) x = ln 3 x = ln(−2) x = ln 3 ≈ 1. 78. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {5}. log 3 ( x − 1) − log 3 ( x + 2 ) = 2 log 2 ( x + 3) + log 2 ( x − 3) = 4 79. 75. The solution set is {ln 3} .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 73. log 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 2 ( x 2 − 9) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) x 2 − 9 = 24 x 2 − 9 = 16 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 x = –5 does not check because log 2 (−5 + 3) does not exist. The solution set is ∅. The solution set is {4}.

Inc.045t b. Everest is about 5.005 ) 364 560 ln = t ln1.075 = 3 ln e0. 000 85.37 ln x + 0. A = 22. Publishing as Prentice Hall.075t = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 14.045 ≈ k 3.000.37 ln x + 0.075t = 150.075t = ln 3 0. 3 ⋅ 50. 000 e0.6 The peak of Mt.4e0.37 9 = ln x e9 = eln x x = e9 ≈ 8103 The population of New York City is approximately 8103 thousand.1 million. 481 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 0.7e −0. 35.37 ln x 3.1 In 2010.7 4.3 4 ln1.4e0.075 It will take about 14.21x ln 14.7 t= ≈ 5. 3P = Pe5 r e5 r = 3 ln e5 r = ln 3 5r = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 0.6 = −0.05 a. 000 = 12.21x ln 14.7 4. Chapter 3 Review Exercises P ( x ) = 14. 4.6 = e −0.4 35.6 years.005 ) t 560 = 364 (1.33 = 0.4e k 10 35.4 35.500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12. A = 22.005 364 560 ln 364 ≈ 86.5 −0.01625) 4t = 20.005 ) t ln(1. 000 = 50.4 35. or 8.6 ≈ 7.21 f ( t ) = 364 (1.6 ln 14.05 3.103.005 The carbon dioxide concentration will be double the pre-industrial level approximately 86 years after the year 2000 in the year 2086.6 4t ln1.01625 It will take about 7.21x 83.38 = 0.500(1.3 = 10k ln 22.01625 = ln1.2197 5 The interest rate would need to be about 22% r= 86.PreCalculus 4E 80.3 years.5 miles above sea level.7 4. 000e0.3 = 22.3 ln 22.6 ln1.075t 50.33 = ln x 0.3 = ln e10 k ln 22.21x 4. t= 84. . 4t (1. the population will be about 55. When an investment value triples. A = 3P.065 ⎞ 20. 000e0. t= 560 t = (1.7e −0.6 = ln e −0.005) 364 560 t ln = ln (1. 81.6 = 14.3 = e10 k 22.045(20) ≈ 55.4 = k 10 0. ⎛ 0.4 t= ln1. W ( x ) = 0. 82.21x 14.01625) 4t = ln1.01625) 4t = 1.

045t 22. .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 60 = 22.1438 ≈ k The population will reach 60 million about 22 years after 1990. f (0) = 500. 89.004951t 0.1438t 3 1 ln = ln e−0.004951t ln 0. a. b.045t c. Inc.1438t 40 = 120e−0. 500.4 60 ln 22.1438t 3 1 ln 3 =t −0. 105 = 65 + 120e—0. a.410 were ill after 6 weeks.000 people 482 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A logarithmic function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data.2 −0.045t 22.1438t 3 1 ln = −0.1438 7. a.1438t 1 = e−0. f (6) = b. 500.004951t ln 0.6 ≈ t The temperature will reach 105o after 8 min. ln 12 = ln e140 k ln 12 = 140k ln 12 =k 140 k ≈ −0. in 2012.4 60 ln = 0.004951t ln 0.1438t 87.004951 t ≈ 325 It will take about 325 days for the substance to decay to 20% of its original amount. Use the half-life of 140 days to find k.004951 Use A = A0 e kt to find t.4e0.92(6) 1 + 2499e 45.92(0) 200 people became ill when the epidemic began. 150 = 65 + (185 − 65)ek 2 90 = 120e2k 60 = e0.045t 22. t= 88.2 = −0.4 = t 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 90. 411 −0.2 = e −0. A = A0 e kt 1 2 = e k ⋅140 1 2 = e140 k T = C + (To – C)ekt b. 000 = 45.2 = ln e −0.045 22 ≈ t 90 = e 2k 120 3 ln = ln e2k 4 3 ln = 2k 4 3 ln 4 =k 2 −0. A = A0 e −0.4 60 ln = ln e0. 000 = 200 1 + 2499e −0. T = 65 + 120e−0. c.

2589 0. log 4 ( 64 x 5 ) = log 4 64 + log 4 x5 An exponential function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data. 5 = 125 3 x= ln 4 ≈ 277.005 x = ln 4 0.5e −0. ln 7 − 3ln x = ln 7 − ln x 3 7 = ln 3 x 10. log 36 6 = 5. log 71 ≈ 1. . 6 log x + 2 log y = log x 6 + log y 2 ln 2.005 x = 1600 e0. Solving this inequality for x. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. 92. Answers may vary.43) y = 6.43) x y = 6. 5 x = 1. 6.4 ≈ 0. ln1.3). 2.844 x 9. y = 73 ( 2. x = log ( x 6 y 2 ) ( ln 0. we obtain x < 3.4 x= 13.5741 log15 3x −2 = 9 x + 4 ( ) 3x −2 = 32 x+ 4 3x −2 = 32 x +8 x − 2 = 2x + 8 − x = 10 x = −10 12. Chapter 3 Test 1.5e 1 x = log3 x 3 − log 3 81 81 1 = log3 x − 4 3 3 7. b.005 x = ln 4 3. the domain of f is (−∞.4 ln 5 x = ln1. 11.956 x 93.PreCalculus 4E 91. Inc. y = 73e( = 3 + 5 log 4 x x log 3 8.6 ) 1 2 4. log15 71 = 94. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 73e0.2091 ln 5 400e0.5 ( 0.6 ) x y = 6.4 x ln 5 = ln1.005 x = 4 ln e0. Thus. Chapter 3 Test a.005 483 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

ln 2 = ln e10 r ln 2 = 10r ln 2 r= ≈ 0. e4 x= ≈ 18. 4 x − 1 = 63 22.6094 x=0 20. The solution set is {0. Inc. 687.0125 ) 4t ln 2 = ln (1.0125 ) ln 2 = 4 ln (1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ln e5 x = 5 x. log x + log ( x + 15 ) = 2 log ( x 2 + 15 x ) = 2 x + 15 x = 10 2 ⎛ 0.065 ⎞ A = 3.0125 ) 4t ln (1. 15.0125 ) 4ln (1.51 ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 6% compounded continuously: 0. 1012 I 0 I0 = 10log1012 = 10 ⋅12 = 120 The loudness of the sound is 120 decibels.0125) 4000 4t 2 = (1.9 4 ln (1. Since ln e x = x. log 6 1 = 0 because 60 = 1 . 18. The solution set is {5}. e 2 x − 6e x + 5 = 0 (e x 19. . 000 ⎜1 + ≈ $5.0125 ) It will take approximately 13.069 10 The money will double in 10 years with an interest rate of approximately 6. The solution set is { }. 000e ( ) ≈ $5.5% compounded semiannually yields about $221 more than 6% compounded continuously. − 5 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 5 = 0 or ex = 1 ln e x = ln 5 ln e x = ln1 x = ln 5 x = ln1 x ≈ 1. 217 = 54. log b b = 1 because b1 = b . 6. 484 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9 years for the money to grow to $8000.0125 ) ln 2 = 4t ln (1.9%.1994 3 17.6094. 4t 2 x + 15 x − 100 = 0 2 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 x + 20 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = –20 x=5 x = –20 does not check because log(−20) does not exist.0125) ln 2 t= ≈ 13. 4 x − 1 = 216 23. 2(10 ) ⎛ 0.36 6.05 ⎞ 8000 = 4000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 8000 4t = (1 + 0.06 10 A = 3. 466. 21. ln ≈ 1.5% compounded semiannually: log 6 ( 4 x − 1) = 3 4 x = 217 x= 16. ln 5} . ln ( x − 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln 6 2 = 1er10 2 = e10 r x−4 = ln 6 ln x +1 x−4 =6 x +1 6( x + 1) = x − 4 6x + 6 = x − 4 5 x = −10 x = −2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected.25 4 2 ln 3x = 8 ln 3x = 4 3x = e4 24. ex −1 = 0 ex = 5 D = 10log 25.

036t .5 = ekt −0.002t 82.5 days.2k The population of Germany is decreasing.096270t ln 0.5 = e −0. f (10 ) = 140 b. 29.5 ln t = 82.5 It will take 12.5 million approximately 5 years after 2006 in the year 2011. The limiting size of the elk population is 140 elk. In the logistic growth model.5 ln = −0.3 = ln e−0. 729 = 509ek 10 729 = e10 k 509 729 ln = ln e10 k 509 729 ln = 10k 509 729 ln 509 = k 10 0.3 =t −0.3 = −0.5 =k 7. 0.PreCalculus 4E 26. f (0) = 140 = 14 −0.4 million.4 In 2006. the population of Germany was 82.5 = ln e7. Inc. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain. y 5 −5 5 x −5 The values appear to belong to a linear function. 0.002t ln 0.4 ≈ 5 −0.4e Chapter 3 Test −0. b.4e−0. 81.096270 t ≈ 12.4 81.5 = e7.036 ≈ k The exponential growth function is A = 509e0. c f (t ) = . First find the decay equation.3 = e−0. 81.096270t Next use the decay equation answer question. c.4 81. A = e−0.165(10 ) 1 + 9e After 10 years.2 k ≈ −0.5 = 7. t = 0 and A0 = 509 In 2000.002( 0 ) A = 82. t = 2000 – 1990 = 10 and A = 729. . In 1990. ≈ 51 −0. a.096270t 0.096270t ln 0. A = 82. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c.2 k ln 0.165( 0 ) 1 + 9e Fourteen elk were initially introduced to the habitat.096270t ln 0.002t 82. 30.4 81. about 51 elk are expected.2 k ln 0. We can tell because the model has a negative k = −0.002( x ) 28.096270 A = e−0.5 = 82.5 ln = ln e −0.4e ≈ 82. 27. Plot the ordered pairs.002.002 The population of Germany will be 81. a. 485 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.002t 82.

32. .9704. −5 5 x The values appear to belong to an exponential function. ln128 ≈ 0. 1}. ⎩3 ⎭ 486 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 96e −0. 1 y 1 –3 –1 2 –2 2 2 –2 –1 1 0 –1 ( x + 2)( x – x – x + 1) = 0 3 16 2 ( x + 2)[ x 2 ( x – 1) − ( x – 1)] = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1)( x – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 −5 5 x ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x – 1) 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 The values appear to belong to a quadratic function. x= −5 The values appear to belong to a logarithmic function. Plot the ordered pairs. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y 900 3.9704 5 ⎧ ln128 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . y 5 27 x −3 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) −2 ± −16 2 −2 ± 4i x= 2 x = −1 ± 2i The solution set is {−1 ± 2i} . ± 2 q –2 1 33. ±2 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ⎩ 5 ⎭ x= 3x − 4 = 2 3x – 4 = 2 or 3x = 6 3x – 4 = –2 3x = 2 2 x=2 x= 3 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . approximately 0.38) x 4. x 4 + x3 − 3x 2 − x + 2 = 0 p: ±1. x y = 96e( ln 0. 2.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 31. Inc.968 x x =1 e5 x − 32 = 96 e5 x = 128 ln e5 x = ln128 5 x = ln128 Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–3) 1. y = 96 ( 0. –1. 34. 2 ⎬ . Plot the ordered pairs.38 ) x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {–2. Plot the ordered pairs.

Cumulative Review Exercises log 2 ( x + 5) + log 2 ( x − 1) = 4 10. 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 0 ) . 6. ln ( x + 4 ) + ln ( x + 1) = 2 ln ( x + 3) ln ( ( x + 4 )( x + 1) ) = ln ( x + 3) ( x + 4 )( x + 1) = ( x + 3) 2 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 2 x2 = 4 x2 + 5x + 4 = x2 + 6 x + 9 x = ±2 The vertical asymptotes are x = 2 and x = –2. 4] . The solution set is {3}. x-intercepts: x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 The x-intercepts are (1. –2) and radius of 2 487 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Parabola with vertex: (2. 7. 9. Circle with center: (3. 0 ) and ( −1. –1) log 2 [( x + 5)( x − 1)] = 4 ( x + 5)( x − 1) = 24 x 2 + 4 x − 5 = 16 x 2 + 4 x − 21 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 3) = 0 x + 7 = 0 or x − 3 = 0 x = −7 x=3 x = –7 does not check because log 2 (–7 + 5) does not exist. 0 ) . 0 ) and ( −1. Inc. Horizontal asymptote: y 5 1 5x + 4 = 6x + 9 −x = 5 x = −5 x = −5 does not check and must be rejected. or x = −1 The x-intercepts are ( 2. The solution set is { }.3] . x-intercepts: x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 and x ≥ 1 x=2 The solution set is [1. 11. 2x − 4 ≤ 2 2 x − 4 ≤ 2 and 2 x − 4 ≥ −2 2x ≤ 6 2x ≥ 2 x≤3 12. 14 − 5 x ≥ −6 −5 x ≥ −20 x≤4 The solution set is ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 5.

k H= 2 C 32 H= 2 C Use the equation to find H when C = 4 . H . Substitute the value of k into the equation. 2 = x2 + 4 x + 4 (g −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a t= g )( x ) = f ( x + 2 ) = ( x + 2) s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Let s (t ) = 0 : f )( x ) = g ( x 2 ) 20. (f −(64) ± (64)2 − 4(−16)(5) 2(−16) t ≈ 4. C can be expressed k as H = 2 . 18. . x The hours. 3 − (−3) 6 = = −3 1− 3 −2 Using (1.1 The negative value is rejected. slope-intercept form: y − 3 = −3( x − 1) t= y − 3 = −3 x + 3 y = −3 x + 6 16. C Use the given values to find k . 32 H= 2 C 32 H= 2 4 H =2 If 4 cups of coffee are consumed you should expect to sleep 2 hours. Inc. 3) point-slope form: y − 3 = −3 ( x − 1) m= 19.1 seconds. t ≈ −0. 0 = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Use the quadratic formula to solve.5 x ) = 660 40 x + 15 x = 660 55 x = 660 x = 12 Your normal hourly salary is $12 per hour. The ball hits the ground after about 4. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 The ball reaches its maximum height at −b −(64) = = 2 seconds. s (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 5 = 69 feet. 14. = x2 + 2 40 x + 10 (1.1. vary inversely as the square of the number of cups of coffee.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 13. y varies inversely as the square of x is expressed as k y= 2. t= 2a 2(−16) The maximum height is s (2) . k H= 2 C k 8= 2 2 32 = k 488 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 15. 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

a. 30π 29π = 15 15 . s. add 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. 2. Now use the formula for radian measure to find the radian measure of θ . = 180° 3π = radians 2 π radians 180° 5π =− radians 3 4 radians = = b. –135o + 360o = 225o 180o π radians ≈ 343. s 42 feet θ= = = 3.Chapter 4 Trigonometric Functions Section 4. 270π radians 180 = −300π radians 180 d. The circle’s radius is 12 feet: r = 12 feet. The radian measure of a central angle is the length of the intercepted arc.1 Check Point Exercises 1. 4. a. −300° = −300° ⋅ c.8o 6. 60° = 60° ⋅ = 3. a. The length of the intercepted arc is 42 feet: s = 42 feet. r. 60π radians 180 = π radians 270° = 270° ⋅ π − b. 13π 13π 10π 3π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 b. For a 400º angle. For a –135º angle. a.5 r 12 feet Thus. 180o π radians = 45o 4π 4π radians 180o ⋅ radians = − 3 3 π 4 ⋅180o =− = −240o 3 6 radians = 6 radians ⋅ = 6 ⋅180o π 5. 400o – 360o = 40o b. divided by the circle’s radius.5 π 3 π radians 180° c. a. Inc. subtract 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. Publishing as Prentice Hall. radians b. π radians 4 o 180 4 ⋅ c. the radian measure of θ is 3. − π 15 + 2π = − π 15 + 489 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝4⎠ 4 We are given ω . a. ω = 45 revolutions per minute We use the formula ν = rω to find v. acute 5. 135° = 135° ⋅ π radians 180° 135π radians 180 3π radians = 4 = 490 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 inches ⋅ 1 minute minute The linear speed is 135π inches per minute. 855° − 360° ⋅ 2 = 855° − 720° = 135° The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. θ= s 400 centimeters = = 4 radians r 100 centimeters 12. θ= s 8 yards 4 = = radians r 6 yards 3 10. Inc. which is approximately 424 inches per minute. 45° = 45° ⋅ 25π 25π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 6 6 25π 36π 11π =− + = 6 6 6 − c. 180° π radians 45 45° = 45° ⋅ π radians = 180° 180 = π radians 4 Now we can use the formula s = rθ to find the length of the arc. we begin by converting π radians 45° to radians. π radians 180° 45π radians 180 π = radians 4 = 14. The length of the arc intercepted by this 4 4 central angle is ⎛ π ⎞ 6π inches ≈ 4. the angular speed. we must express ω in radians per minute. 8. Multiply by . acute 4. straight 6. θ= s 600 centimeters = = 6 radians r 100 centimeters 13.71 inches. The measure of the central angle in radians is 9. The circle’s radius is 6 inches : r = 6 inches. θ= s 18 yards = = 2. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. θ= s 30 feet = = 6 radians r 5 feet 9.25 radians r 8 yards 11. the linear speed. Thus. The linear speed is 90π 135π inches = ν = rω = 1. 18° = 18° ⋅ = = π radians 180° 18π radians 180 π 10 radians 15. Exercise Set 4. .1 17π 17π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π 3 3 17π 12π 5π = − = 3 3 3 1. Before applying the formula. obtuse 3. obtuse 2. π :θ = π .Trigonometric Functions 7. right 7. 45 revolutions 2π radians ⋅ ω= 1 minute 1 revolution 90π radians = 1 minute The angular speed of the propeller is 90π radians per minute. θ= s 40 inches = = 4 radians r 10 inches 8.

18.31 radians 180° ⋅ −4π radians ⋅ 29. 3π radians 1800 3 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 135o 4 4 π radians π radians 180° 225π radians =− 180 5π radians =− 4 −270° = −270° ⋅ 2π 2π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 3 3 π radians o 2 ⋅180 = 3 = 120o 76° = 76° ⋅ 31. . 2 π 9 radians = 28. Inc.70 radians 491 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −40° = −40° ⋅ 180o π radians 180o ⋅ π radians = 20o π radians 30.1 16. 20.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 18° = 18° ⋅ π radians π radians 180o π radians = −3 ⋅180o = −540o 270π radians 180 3π radians =− 2 π 7π 7π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 6 6 π radians o 7 ⋅180 = 6 = 210o 26. 150° = 150° ⋅ π radians 23. π radians 300° = 300° ⋅ 24. 2 o 180 = 2 = 90o radians = = π radians 9 o 180 9 180o = −4 ⋅180o = −720o π radians π radians 180° 18π = radians 180 ≈ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. =− 21. 19. π radians 330° = 330° ⋅ 180° 330π radians = 180 11π radians = 6 −225° = −225° ⋅ 11π radians 180o 11 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 330o 6 6 π radians 27.33 radians π radians 180° 40π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. 180° 76π = radians 180 ≈ 1. −3π radians = −3π radians ⋅ 22. 180° 300π radians = 180 5π radians = 3 25. 180° 150π radians = 180 5π radians = 6 17.

.36 radians 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ = 2 ⋅180o 43.02o 40. 3 radians ⋅ 37.59o π radians 17 −4.8 radians ⋅ = −4.Trigonometric Functions 32. −50° = −50° ⋅ 33. 13 π 17 180o 3 ⋅180o = ≈ 171. 35. π 38. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 200π radians 180 ≈ 3.2 ⋅180o 180o = π radians π ≈ −297. 250° = 250° ⋅ π radians 180° 250π = radians 180 ≈ 4. 180o 180o = ≈ 10. −5. 180o π radians 44. 39.8 ⋅180o 46. π ≈ 114.89o π radians π radians = π radians 13 180o = 13 ≈ 13.2 radians ⋅ 47.87 radians π radians 180° 42.59o 36. Inc.49 radians = 34. 180° 50π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. −5. 200° = 200° ⋅ π radians 41.85o radians ⋅ ⋅ 180o π radians 45.8 radians = −4. 180o π radians π ≈ −275.94o 492 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

55. −150° + 360° = 210° 60. 19π 19π 12π 7π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 64. 57. −760° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −760° + 1080° = 320° 63. − 53. 51. 56. 415° − 360° = 55° 59. − 69. Inc. 395° − 360° = 35° 58. 23π 23π 23π 20π 3π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 5 5 5 5 5 66. π 50 π 40 + 2π = − + 2π = − π 50 π 40 + 100π 99π = 50 50 + 80π 79π = 40 40 31π 31π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 7 7 31π 42π 11π =− + = 7 7 7 493 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 25π 25π 25π 24π π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 6 6 6 6 6 67. −160° + 360° = 200° 61.1 48.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 52. 17π 17π 10π 7π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 65. 49. − 68. −765° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −765° + 1080° = 315° 62. 54. . 50.

− 7π 5π and 6 6 79. 35 7π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 85. − 3π 5π and 4 4 80. −π and π 83. 73. convert 60° to radians. 38π 38π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 9 9 38π 54π 16π =− + = 9 9 9 − r = 12 inches. 7π 63π s = rθ = 9 ⋅ = yards ≈ 49. 76. 74. − π 4 π 2 and 7π 4 and 3π 2 82.76 inches 3 3 77. First. 20 revolutions per second 20 revolutions 2π radians 40π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolution 1 second = 40π radians per second 494 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.48 yards 4 4 1 ⋅ 360° = 60° 6 Now. in order to use the formula s = rθ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 1 360° revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution r = 9 yards. in order to use the formula s = rθ .42 feet 4 86. s = rθ = 12 ⋅ 72. . θ = 315° Begin by converting 315° to radians.Trigonometric Functions 70. in order to use the formula s = rθ . π radians π = radians 45° = 45° ⋅ 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . π radians 60π = 60° = 60° ⋅ radians 180° 180 = = π 3 radians Therefore. π radians 7π = 315° = 315° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . 3 minutes and 40 seconds equals 220 seconds. 5π s = rθ = 8 ⋅ = 10π feet ≈ 31. in order to use the formula s = rθ . π 4 = 3π inches ≈ 9. π 16π s = rθ = 16 ⋅ = inches ≈ 16. θ = 60° Begin by converting 60° to radians. 75. 4 minutes and 25 seconds equals 265 seconds. 71. − 4π 2π and 3 3 78. − 81. π radians π = radians 60° = 60° ⋅ 180° 3 Now use the formula s = rθ . θ = 45° Begin by converting 45° to radians. 6 revolutions per second 6 revolutions 2π radians 12π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolutions 1 seconds = 12π radians per second 1 π revolution is equivalent to 60° or 6 3 radians. 265 53π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 87. Inc. convert to degrees.42 inches r = 16 inches. π radians 5π = 225° = 225° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . 220 22π ⋅ 2π = 60 3 r = 8 feet. 55 11π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 84. θ = 225° Begin by converting 225° to radians.

convert 6 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution = π = π radians 3 The length that the wheel moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 80π s = rθ = (80 centimeters) ⎜ ⎟ = centimeters 3 ⎝3⎠ ≈ 83. We are given that r = 80 centimeters and θ = 60°. π s . The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. Inc.000 miles and r = 4000 miles. The distance that the wheel moves is given by s = rθ . We are given that r s = 10. we begin by finding r and θ . We must convert revolution to radians. The 1 minute hand moves from 12 to 2 o'clock. We are given that r s = 8000 miles and r = 4000 miles.1 91. s. 90. 1 1 360o revolutions = revolutions ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 1 o o = ⋅ 360 = 120 3 Now. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. 3 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 2π radians = 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ 2π ⎞ 12π s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ inches ⎟= 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 4π inches ≈ 12.70 inches. We are given that r = 8 inches. π radians 60π 60° = 60° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 89. convert 2 radians to degrees. 180o 2.57 inches. Recall that θ = 495 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π radians 90π 90° = 90° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 88. 92. s 10. The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length. s .59o π radians 93. The minute hand moves from 12 to 4 1 o’clock. The length of each arc is given by s = rθ .78 centimeters. s 8000 miles θ= = = 2 radians r 4000 miles Now. s.5 radians ⋅ ≈ 143.24o 2π radians 94. or of a complete revolution.5 radians r 4000 miles Now. We are given that r = 6 inches. convert 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Since s = rθ . We are given that r = 24 inches and θ = 90°. Recall that θ = radians 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 8π s = rθ = (8 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = inches ⎝3⎠ 3 ≈ 8. convert to degrees. 180o 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ ≈ 114.38 inches. 000 miles θ= = = 2.5 radians to degrees. π radians 120π = 120° = 120° ⋅ radians 180° 180 2π = radians 3 1 2π Therefore. Since s = rθ . We must 1 revolution to radians. or of a 6 complete revolution. we begin by finding r and θ . The formula 3 s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in 1 radians. . The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length. = radians 2 The length of each arc is ⎛π ⎞ s = rθ = (24 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = 12π inches ⎝2⎠ ≈ 37. First. Publishing as Prentice Hall. convert 120° to radians. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. revolution is equivalent to 120° or 3 3 radians.

Begin by converting 2. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. Inc. Answers may vary. We are given that ω= π 101. ≈ 1508 feet per minute The linear speed of the wheel is about 1508 feet per minute. Therefore. π radians 10π 10° = 10° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 = π 18 100. 97. radians per hour and 12 r = 4000 miles. 98. 96.5 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution = 5π radians per minute The linear speed of the animals in the outer rows is ν = rω = (20 feet)(5π ) ≈ 100 feet per minute The linear speed of the animals in the inner rows is ν = rω = (10 feet)(5π ) ≈ 50 feet per minute The difference is 100π − 50π = 50π feet per minute or about 157. ⎛π ⎞ ν = rω = (4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ 4000π = miles per hour 12 ≈ 1047 miles per hour The linear speed is about 1047 miles per hour. 3 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 3 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution 115. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 10° . 496 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 113.Trigonometric Functions 95. = 6π radians per minute ν = rω = (25 feet)(6π ) ≈ 471 feet per minute The linear speed of the Ferris wheel is about 471 feet per minute. We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 30° . We are given that r = 12 feet and the wheel rotates at 20 revolutions per minute. 114. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . Recall that s = rθ . 20 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 20 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution radians = 40π radians per minute ν = rω = (12 feet)(40π ) ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 2094 miles ⎝6⎠ To the nearest mile. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the distance from A to B is 2094 miles.5 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 2. π radians 30π 30° = 30° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 π = 6 99. We need to convert 3 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. . 116. Recall that s = rθ . Linear speed is given by ν = rω . 2. – 112.5 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. the distance from A to B is 698 miles.08 feet per minute. We are given that r = 25 feet and the wheel rotates at 3 revolutions per minute. radians ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 698 miles ⎝ 18 ⎠ To the nearest mile. We can only use the formula s = rθ when θ is expressed in radians.

makes sense 120. A right angle measures 90° and 90° = π Section 4. 122. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Sample explanation: It is possible for π to be used in an angle measured using degrees. x = − . Inc. 20° = 20° ⋅ 100= r= π r 9 900 π π 180° = π 9 radians ⎛ 3 1⎞ P⎜ . s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 26° to radians.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.2 radians ≈ 1. 0). Check Point Exercises 1. The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to t = π has coordinates (–1. 2 3 If θ = radians = 1. y = 2 2 1 − x 1 1 = 2 =− =− y 3 3 3 2 119. 124. 26° = 26° ⋅ 3 3 =− 3 3 13π radians 90 180° 13π s =4000 ⋅ 90 ≈ 1815 miles To the nearest mile. 1 3 126. domain: { x −1 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [ −1. Sample explanation: Angles greater than π will exceed a straight angle. Explanations will vary.1] 117. ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 sin t = y = 2 cos t = x = = 1 2 3 2 y = x csc t = 1 =2 y = 3 3 1 2 3 = x 3 x cot t = = 3 y sec t = 123. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 20° to radians. Explanations will vary. θ is smaller than a 2 right angle. 2. does not make sense. 121.1] 118. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: That will not be possible if the angle is a multiple of 2π . Use x = –1 and y = 0 to find the values of the trigonometric functions.57 radians. sin π = y = 0 cos π = x = −1 0 y tan π = = =0 x −1 1 1 sec π = = = −1 x −1 x −1 cot π = = = undefined y 0 1 1 cscπ = = = undefined y 0 497 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . π 3 2 tan t = ≈ 286 miles To the nearest mile.5 radians. Miami. range: { y −1 ≤ y ≤ 1} or [ −1. a radius of 286 miles should be used. does not make sense.2 125. does not make sense. Florida is 1815 miles north of the equator.

2 1. . Use x = − 17 and y = 17 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions.0025 π 4 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = cos ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ≈ 0. π π 4 = x = y 1 y 1 2 6. 8 sin t = y = 17 15 cos t = x = − 17 8 tan t = 8 y = 1715 = − 15 x − 17 1 17 = y 8 1 17 sec t = = − x 15 x 15 cot t = = − y 8 csc t = 498 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 17 ⎟ . 5.0≤t < 2 2 sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 sin t = π 2 . 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ − ⎟ = − sin ⎜ ⎟ = − 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ⎛1⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ cos 2 t = 1 − =1 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = sec ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝4⎠ b. 3 5 5 1 1 5 = = 2 tan θ 2 5 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 15 8 ⎛ 15 8 ⎞ ⎜ − 17 . sin b. ⎛ 9π cos ⎜ − ⎝ 4 a. 2 sin θ = 3 tan θ = cos θ 5 3 2 3 2 = ⋅ = 3 5 5 2 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 2 5 5 8. csc 1. ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ .Trigonometric Functions 3. 1 1 3 = = sin θ 2 2 3 1 1 3 = = sec θ = cos θ 5 5 3 csc θ = = cot θ = 3 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 1 4 3 3 = 4 2 cos t = a. ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ π 1 csc = = 2 4 y π 1 sec = = 2 4 x t= cot 4. cot b. = 1 π . 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ a. Inc. cos t is positive. P⎜ .7071 Exercise Set 4.5 ≈ 1.

− ⎟⎟ . 2 sin t = y = 2 2 cos t = x = − 2 x=− 1 13 =− 12 y 1 13 sec t = = − x 5 x 5 cot t = = y 12 csc t = 3. tan π = 0 =0 −1 10. Use x = t = − has coordinates ⎜⎜ 4 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 and y = − to find the values of the trigonometric 2 functions. Use has coordinates ⎜ − ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ 2 tan t = 1 = 2 y 1 sec t = = − 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 2 2 2⎞ π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 13 ⎟ Use x = − 13 and y = − 13 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions. csc 4π 1 −2 3 = = 3 3 3 − 2 13. 12 sin t = y = − 13 5 cos t = x = − 13 12 − 12 y tan t = = 13 = 5 5 x − 13 4. 2 2 2 cos t = x = 2 5. Section 4. cos 5π 3 =− 6 2 8. csc 7π 1 = 1 = −2 6 −2 12.2 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 5 12 ⎛ 5 12 ⎞ ⎜ − 13 . . tan 0 = 0 =0 1 11. sin π 7. . cos 2π 1 =− 3 2 9. sec 11π 1 2 3 = = 3 6 3 sin t = y = − tan t = y − = x 2 2 2 2 y = 2 = −1 x − 2 2 = −1 1 =− 2 y 1 sec t = = 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = 6 3 = = 1 2 3 2 2 499 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. sin π 6.PreCalculus 4E 2. Inc. 2 2 and y = to find the values of the 2 2 trigonometric functions. The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 3π 2 2⎞ t= .

b. sec 5π 1 = 1 =2 3 2 24. 1 2 tan 8 15 3 5 4 5 = 3 4 5 3 5 sec t = 4 4 cot t = 3 5π 1 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 6 = − 2 ⎠ 27. cos π 6 b. a. cos t = 5 5 tan t = 5π 1 = 6 2 ⎛ 5π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 6 8 15 . a. Inc. sec 3π = undefined 2 18. cos t = 3 3 tan t = 1 3 2 2 3 = 2 4 csc t = 3 2π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 3 = − 2 ⎠ 3 2 4 cot t = 2 2 sec t = 3 5π − 2 = 1 =− 3 3 2 ⎛ 5π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 3 = csc t = 2π 3 = sin 3 2 ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 8 17 15 17 3 4 sin t = . 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. tan 3π = undefined 2 b. cos 3π =0 2 17. tan 5π ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 3 = 3 ⎠ 500 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π 3 = 26. a. . 25. 1 2 2 sin t = . a. 22. sin 3π = −1 2 16. cos t = 17 17 17 8 17 sec t = 15 15 cot t = 8 π 1 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 3 3 2 ⎝ ⎠ sin sin t = 11π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 6 = 3 ⎠ csc t = π 3 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 6 6 2 ⎝ ⎠ cos ⎛ 11π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 tan t = 3 2 = 11π − 12 3 = =− 3 6 3 2 15. 23. a. b. b. 21. a. 19. b.Trigonometric Functions 14.

3 = cos 2. 39 64 25 5 = 64 8 cos 2 t = 1 − cos t = 5 2 Because 0 ≤ t < 6 π sin t = . .PreCalculus 4E 28.0≤t < 5 2 sin t = 13 13 = 49 7 cos t = π sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 cos 2 t = 1 − 30. cos t = 3 3 2 3 5 3 = 31. 2 . csc2 π 3 6 − tan 2 − cot 2 π 3 π 6 = 1 because 1 + tan 2 t = sec 2 t.3 ⎠ 35. sec2 π 38. 0 ≤ t < 8 2 cos t = 2 21 π .7 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ sin1. 37. sin 2 π 36. sin 2 π 2 15 15 = 64 8 π 33. sin t = tan t = Section 4.3 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ cos 2.7 ⎠ 34. 2 ⎛7⎞ 2 ⎜ 8 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ π 21 25 4 2 = 25 5 cos 2 t = 1 − sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 Because 0 ≤ t < .2 2 5 . cos t is positive. Because 0 ≤ t < 49 cos t = 1 − 64 2 . 0 ≤ t < 7 2 32. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 ⎛6⎞ 2 ⎜ 7 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < π 2 2 36 49 cos t = . cos t is positive. Inc.3 sec 2. cos t is positive. 39 π . cos t is positive.7 = sin1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = 1 because 1 + cot 2 t = csc 2 t. 501 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0≤t < 8 2 sin t = 6 3 + cos 2 + cos 2 π 2 π 3 = 1 by the Pythagorean identity.7 csc1. ⎛ 1 ⎞ cos 2. = 1 because sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 5 5 2 ⎛ 39 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 8 ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 3 5 sec t = 5 csc t = cot t = 29. ⎛ 21 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 5 ⎝ ⎠ 7 π sin t = . ⎛ 1 ⎞ sin1.

⎛ 9π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π 2 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sin 4 = − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 42. tan 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = tan ⎜ + π ⎟ = tan = 1 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 44.Trigonometric Functions 39. sin b. 50. 49. ⎛ 9π sec ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sec ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sec 4 = 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 43. sin 3π 2 = 4 2 b. . ⎛ 9π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 4 + 3π ⎟ = tan 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 47. cot 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 45. 51. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. cos b. cos 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos =− 4 4 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ π ⎛π ⎞ − cot ⎜ + 17π ⎟ = − cot = −1 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 55. a. cos ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 π 2 =0 9π ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 4π ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎡π ⎤ = cos ⎢ + 2(2π ) ⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ = cos π 2 =0 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 56. a. sin π 2 =1 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 4π ⎟ = sin = 1 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 502 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 53. cos 3π 2 =− 4 2 π ⎛π ⎞ − tan ⎜ + 15π ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝4 ⎠ b. a. sin 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = sin = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 54. csc 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = csc ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = csc = 2 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 41. cos 9π π 2 ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 40. 52. a. 48. ⎛ 5π cot ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎟ = cot ⎜ 4 − 2π ⎟ = cot 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 46.

9511 3π ≈ 0.8090 10 503 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8508 67.1884 = − cos t + 7 cos t + tan t + tan t + sin t + sin t 66. sin 0. π 69. 3cos( −t ) − cos t = 3cos t − cos t = 2cos t = 2b 75. sin(−t ) − sin t = − sin t − sin t = −2sin t = −2a 72. cot 71. cos 68. sec 1 ≈ 1.2 tan π = 57. a. sin π 10 − cos t + 7 cos(t + 1000π ) + tan t + tan(t + 999π ) = 6 cos t + 2 tan t + 2sin t = 2a + 6b + 2c ≈ 0. tan( −t ) − tan t = − tan t − tan t = −2 tan t = −2c 73. Inc. tan 3.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.7 ≈ 0. 0 =0 −1 tan17π = tan(π + 16π ) b. cos 0.6 ≈ 0. cos 70. b. 59.6713 = a −b+c 47π ⎛ 7π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 10π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 76. cot cot π 2 = 0 =0 1 15π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + 7π ⎟ = cot = 0 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 7π 2 =− sin 4 2 sin b. csc 1 ≈ 1.7321 cot = sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) ⎡ 7π ⎤ = sin ⎢ + 5 ( 2π ) ⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎦ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 60. ≈ 3.8 ≈ 0. .8253 = cos t + cos t − tan t − tan t − sin t + 4sin t 63. sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) − tan(t + π ) = sin(t ) + cos(t ) − tan(t ) = a+b−c 77.7174 cos t + cos(t + 1000π ) − tan t − tan(t + 999π ) − sin t + 4sin(t − 1000π ) 62. 4 cos(−t ) − cos t = 4 cos t − cos t = 3cos t = 3b 74.4 ≈ 0. 61. sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) 12 π 18 ≈ 5. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2643 = 3a + 2b − 2c = 2 cos t − 2 tan t + 3sin t 64. + sin t + sin(t − 1000π ) 65. a. b.6247 80. tan 3. = tan[π + 8(2π )] = tan π =0 58. a. sin(−t − 2π ) + cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) + cos(t ) + tan(t ) 47π 7π 2 ⎛ 7π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 10π ⎟ = cos = cos 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ = −a + b + c 79. sin(−t − 2π ) − cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) = −a − b + c 7π 2 = 4 2 78.

7 There are about 3. π ⋅14 = sin π = 0 ⋅ 21 = sin 3π = −1 2 ⋅ 28 = sin 2π = sin 0 = 0 5π π = sin = 1 14 2 2 Observations may vary.7339 π 6 ⋅6 = 10 + 4sin π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. 504 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. E = sin = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on March 21. π For t = 14.3998 There are about 14. a. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅12 6 = 10 + 4sin 2π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.3 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on June 21. t = 6. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin 4. ≈ 20. At midnight.3 There are about 20. a.. At 6 P.3sin 0 = 12 + 8.5837 E = sin π π 14 For t = 28.3sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ = 12 + 8. 82. . ≈ 3.M. the period is 35 – 7 = 28 or 28 days. For t = 7. c.6 There are about 9. At noon.5837 = 10 + 4sin π 6 ⋅3 π = 10 + 4(1) = 14 2 The height is 14 feet. t = 3.7339 ⋅ 7 = sin π 2 =1 b. 14 14 For t = 21.3sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8.M.M. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ 12 + 24sin 0 = 12 + 24(0) = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in San Diego on March 21.. E = sin ⋅ 35 = sin Because E(35) = E(7) = 1.3sin 4. Inc. b. E = sin b. ≈ 14. At 6 A. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅0 6 = 10 + 4sin 0 = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. c..Trigonometric Functions 81.4 hours of daylight in San Diego on June 21. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin1.3sin1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on December 21. 84. t = 0. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8.3sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8.3(0) 83. At 9 A. ≈ 9.6 hours of daylight in San Diego on December 21. t = 18. a. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. a. t = 12. E = sin π 14 For t = 35.

2 H = 10 + 4sin π 98. . First find the hypotenuse. c2 = a2 + b2 The period of the sine function is 2π or on the interval [0. t is in the third quadrant therefore sin t < 0. f ( x) = sin x and f (a) = 1 ⎛1⎞ − 2⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝4⎠ 1 =− 4 f(–a) = –f(a) because sin (–x) = –sin x.M. Thus.M. = . t = 21. we find a low tide at does not make sense. π or t = 3.7 feet above the ground. ⋅18 6 = 10 + 4sin 3π = 10 + 4 sin π Note that − = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. the period is 12 hours. only choice (c) is true. Explanations will vary. is 14 feet. makes sense 505 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Answers may vary. Thus. 105. we find a high tide at π t= π 2 1 4 f (a) + 2 f (−a) = f (a) − 2 f (a) 103. low tide is at 3 A.M.M. Sine is an odd function. For t = 9. is also 6 feet. a period of 2π we also find a maximum at 2 π 5π or t = 15. π ⋅9 6 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 2 The height is 6 feet.m. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 97.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Because the sine has 5π . The height is given by h = 45 + 40 sin(t – 90°) h(765°) = 45 + 40sin(765° − 90°) ≈ 16. a 5 = c 13 85. Thus. makes sense 3π or 6 2 t = 9. 104. and cot t > 0. At 3 A. This 6 2 value of t corresponds to 9 a.M. t= The sine function has a maximum at 10 ≈ −1. The sine function has a minimum at h = 10 + 4sin π 3π . 2 1 4 f (a) + f (a + 2π ) + f (a + 4π ) + f (a + 6π ) 102. f ( x) = sin x and f (a ) = ⎛1⎞ = 4 f (a) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 because sin x has a ⎝4⎠ period of 2π ..M. – 96. This value of t corresponds to 3 P. does not make sense. Sample explanation: Cosine is not an odd function. and ends at t = 2π 6 2 6 or t = 12.58 < −1. Thus. H = 10 + 4sin 99. c. high tide is at 9 A. starts at t= c 2 = 169 c = 13 Next write the ratio. Inc. the height at 3 A. and 9 P.M. tan t > 0. which means high and low tides occur every 12 hours. the height at 9 A. 101. From part a. From part a.M. 2π ] . b. Explanations will vary.7 You are about 16. We find another high tide at t = 6 2 This value of t corresponds to 9 P. π ⋅ 21 6 7π 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4sin 2 2 = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 The height is 6 feet. Thus. and 3 P. 2 100. Sample explanation: sin t cannot be less than −1.M. The cycle of the sine function π c 2 = 52 + 122 c 2 = 25 + 144 5π π or t = 0.

a 2 + b2 = c2 12 + b 2 = 52 2 = Use the Pythagorean Theorem.Trigonometric Functions 106. .3 2 Check Point Exercises c 2 = 12 + 12 1. adjacent. and hypotenuse. opposite 1 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 cos θ = adjacent 2 6 = hypotenuse 5 opposite 1 6 = = adjacent 2 6 12 hypotenuse 5 = =5 csc θ = opposite 1 tan θ = sec θ = hypotenuse 5 5 6 = = adjacent 12 2 6 cot θ = adjacent 2 6 = =2 6 opposite 1 506 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. First find the hypotenuse. to find b. continue simplifying by substituting c 2 for a 2 + b2 . c2 = 1 + 1 c2 = 2 c= 2 Next write the ratio and simplify. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . Inc. a 1 = c 2 = 1 2 ⋅ 2 2 = 2 2 2 c 2 = a 2 + b 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 c = 25 = 5 Referring to these lengths as opposite. 2 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ ⎜ c ⎟ +⎜ c ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ c c = 2. we have opposite 3 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 adjacent 4 = cos θ = hypotenuse 5 opposite 3 = tan θ = adjacent 4 hypotenuse 5 = csc θ = opposite 3 hypotenuse 5 = sec θ = adjacent 4 adjacent 4 = cot θ = opposite 3 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ 107. a2 + b2 c2 Use the Pythagorean Theorem. ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝c⎠ ⎝c⎠ c c = a 2 + b2 c2 Since c 2 = a 2 + b2 . c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . to find c. 2 2 c = a +b Section 4. a = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b = 4 c   2 a + b2 1 + b 2 = 25 c2 b 2 = 24 c2 = 2 c =1 b = 24 = 2 6 Note that side a is opposite θ and side b is adjacent to θ .

sin 46o = cos(90o − 46o ) = cos 44o b.PreCalculus 4E 3. 3 = 1 3 ⋅ 3 3 = 3 3 a. 507 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Section 4. cot π ⎛π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ 12 ⎝ 2 12 ⎠ ⎛ 6π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 12 ⎠ 5π = tan 12 Because we have a known angle. a tan 240 = 750 a = 750 tan 240 a ≈ 750(0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. length of hypotenuse csc 45° = length of side opposite 45° 2 = 2 1 length of hypotenuse sec 45° = length of side adjacent to 45° = 2 = 2 1 length of side adjacent to 45° cot 45° = length of side opposite 45° 1 = =1 1 = 4. we select the tangent function.3 Apply the definitions of these three trigonometric functions. tan 60° = length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 3 = 3 1 length of side opposite 30° tan 30° = length of side adjacent to 30° = 1 = 5. and a known adjacent side. Inc. an unknown opposite side.4452) ≈ 334 The distance across the lake is approximately 334 yards. 6.

Inc. side opposite 14 = side adjacent 10 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . c 2 = 62 + 82 = 100 c = 100 = 10 opposite 6 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 10 adjacent 8 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 10 opposite 6 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 8 4 hypotenuse 10 csc θ = = = opposite 6 hypotenuse 10 sec θ = = = adjacent 8 adjacent 8 4 cot θ = = = opposite 6 3 3 5 4 5 5 3 5 4 508 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Trigonometric Functions 7.3 1. Exercise Set 4. tan θ = Many Graphing Calculators Many Scientific Calculators TAN −1 ( 14 ÷ 10 ) TAN ( 14 ÷ 10 ) ENTER ENTER The display should show approximately 54. c 2 = 92 + 122 = 225 c = 225 = 15 opposite 9 3 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 adjacent 12 4 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 opposite 9 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 12 4 hypotenuse 15 5 csc θ = = = opposite 9 3 hypotenuse 15 5 sec θ = = = adjacent 12 4 adjacent 12 4 cot θ = = = opposite 9 3 2. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 54°. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .

a 2 + 402 = 412 a 2 = 289 − 225 = 64 a 2 = 1681 − 1600 = 81 a = 64 = 8 opposite 8 = = hypotenuse 17 adjacent 15 = = hypotenuse 17 opposite 8 = = adjacent 15 hypotenuse 17 = = opposite 8 hypotenuse 17 = = adjacent 15 adjacent 15 = = opposite 8 a = 81 = 9 opposite 9 = = hypotenuse 41 adjacent 40 = = hypotenuse 41 opposite 9 = = adjacent 40 hypotenuse 41 = = opposite 9 hypotenuse 41 = = adjacent 40 adjacent 40 = = opposite 9 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 509 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a 2 = 841 − 441 = 400 b 2 = 676 − 100 = 576 a = 400 = 20 opposite 20 = = hypotenuse 29 adjacent 21 = = hypotenuse 29 opposite 20 = = adjacent 21 hypotenuse 29 = = opposite 20 hypotenuse 29 = = adjacent 21 adjacent 21 = = opposite 20 b = 576 = 24 opposite 10 5 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 adjacent 24 12 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 opposite 10 5 = = = adjacent 24 12 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = opposite 10 5 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = adjacent 24 12 adjacent 24 12 = = = opposite 10 5 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ a 2 + 152 = 17 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 102 + b 2 = 262 6. Section 4. Inc.3 5. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. a 2 + 212 = 292 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 4.PreCalculus 4E 3.

a 2 + 212 = 352 11. length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 1 3 − cos = π 4 1 3 17. = 10. csc θ sec θ cot θ 9. 13. cos π 3 sec π 3 − cot π 3 = 1− 3 3− 3 = 3 3 3 3 510 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a = 784 = 28 opposite 28 4 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 adjacent 21 3 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 opposite 28 4 = = = adjacent 21 3 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = opposite 28 4 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = adjacent 21 3 adjacent 21 3 = = = opposite 28 4 12. tan 30° = = π 3 2 = 2 1 = tan 60° = 14. length of side adjacent to 60° length of side opposite 60° 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.Trigonometric Functions 7. tan π 4 + csc π 6 ⋅ 1 2 3 3 ⋅ 3 3 = − 1 2 =0 ⎞ ⎟⎟ − 1 ⎠ 6 −1 4 6 −4 = 4 = length of side opposite 30° length of side adjacent to 30° 1 3 3 1 2 = + = 1+ 2 = 3 1 1 π π π ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 sin cos − tan = ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 4 4 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 3 2 = 3 = = tan 45° + csc 30° length of side adjacent to 30° length of hypotenuse 1 3 = sin 45° − cos 45° = 16. . a = 1225 − 441 = 784 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 8. b = 49 = 7 opposite 24 = = hypotenuse 25 adjacent 7 = = hypotenuse 25 opposite 24 = = adjacent 7 hypotenuse 25 = = opposite 24 hypotenuse 25 = = adjacent 7 adjacent 7 = = opposite 24 cos 30° = tan = b = 625 − 576 = 49 tan θ length of hypotenuse length of side opposite 45° csc 45° = = 2 cos θ 2 = 2 1 = 242 + b 2 = 252 sin θ length of hypotenuse length of side adjacent to 45° sec 45° = cot π 3 sin π 4 3 = 3 1 = cot 60° = = 15.

7536) ≈ 188 cm π 21. Inc. sin19° = cos ( 90° − 19° ) = cos 71° 3π π ⎛ π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 4π 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − − ⎟ = sin ⎜ ⎟ = sin 8 8 ⎠ 8 ⎝2 8 ⎠ ⎝ 8 a 250 a = 250 tan 37° tan 37° = a ≈ 250(0. csc 25° = sec(90° – 25 ) = sec 65° 24. 2 tan π 3 Section 4.8290) ≈ 182 in.5592) ≈ 7 m 33. b 220 b = 220 cos 34° cos 34° = b ≈ 220(0. o 23. csc 35° = sec(90° − 35°) = sec55° 25.9657 π 10 511 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .3907 tan 44° = b= 16 c 23 b 23 23 ≈ ≈ 24 yd tan 44° 0.3 + cos π tan 4 π 6 =2 ⎛ 2 ⎝ 2 ( 3 ) + ⎜⎜ ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 28. 6 6 12 3 + 6 = 6 =2 3+ 20. tan 27. ⎛π π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝2 9⎠ ⎛ 9π 2π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 18 18 ⎠ 7π = cot 18 π ⎛π π ⎞ ⎛ 7π 2π = cot ⎜ − ⎟ = cot ⎜ − 7 ⎝2 7⎠ ⎝ 14 14 a ≈ 13(0.PreCalculus 4E 19. 2π ⎛ π 2π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 5 ⎝2 5 ⎠ ⎛ 5π 4π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 10 ⎠ = sin a 13 a = 13sin 34° sin 34° = 16 16 ≈ ≈ 41 m sin 23° 0.8040) ≈ 18 cm 31. Publishing as Prentice Hall. tan 26. cos 30. sin 23° = c= 5π ⎞ ⎟ = cot 14 ⎠ 34. ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 3 ⎞ = 6(1) + ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 6 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 6 = 6+ 6 =7 sin 7° = cos(90° − 7°) = cos83° 22. cos π 9 32. 6 tan π 4 + sin π 3 sec 29. a 10 a = 10 tan 61° tan 61° = a ≈ 10(1.

4169 TAN −1 Display (rounded to three places) 1. Scientific Calculator . then θ ≈ 78°.5117 ENTER Display (rounded to three places) .2974 ENTER 17 Scientific Calculator .147 radians. then θ ≈ 88°. 40.877 COS-1 COS-1 .6252.4112. then θ ≈ 1.9499 SIN-1 SIN-1 .877. then θ = 0.147 Scientific Calculator . then θ = 1. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .4169 ENTER . Publishing as Prentice Hall.0307 ENTER Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) COS−1 .395 radians.473 512 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.877 ENTER Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 29 If cos θ = 0.5117 TAN −1 Graphing Calculator TAN −1 .4112 ENTER 1. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .4169.2974 SIN −1 If sin θ = 0. Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) TAN −1 .2974. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 4.4112 COS−1 Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 88 If cos θ = 0.5117.0307. 39.253 radians. Scientific Calculator 26. then θ ≈ 17°.6252 ENTER 78 If tan θ = 4.Trigonometric Functions 35. 37.473 If tan θ = 0. then θ ≈ 29° . Graphing Calculator TAN-1 26.9499 ENTER If sin θ = 0.395 Scientific Calculator . then θ ≈ 0. 36.9499. Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) SIN −1 . 38.6252 TAN −1 TAN −1 4. 41.0307 TAN-1 If tan θ = 26. .253 If tan θ = 0. 42. Inc.

3 π 3 − 1 sec π = 3 1 − 1 2 π cos 6 = 6 3 1 − 1 2 3 2 3 3 − 2 2 =0 = 44. 1 − tan 2 10° + csc 2 80° = 1 − cot 2 80° + csc2 80° = 1 + csc 2 80° − cot 2 80° = 1+1 =2 47. cos12° sin 78° + cos 78° sin12° = sin 78° sin 78° + cos 78° cos 78° = sin 2 78° + cos 2 78° =1 513 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. csc 37° sec 53° − tan 53° cot 37° = sec 53° sec 53° − tan 53° tan 53° = sec 2 53° − tan 2 53° =1 48. 1 + sin 2 40° + sin 2 50° = 1 + sin 2 (90° − 50°) + sin 2 50° = 1 + cos 2 50° + sin 2 50° = 1+1 =2 46. 2 Section 4. Inc.PreCalculus 4E tan 43. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 cot π 4 − 2 csc π = 1 1 tan 6 = 1 1 1 − π 1 sin 4 − 2 π 6 2 1 1 2 1 2 = − 1 2 = 1−1 =0 45.

. 514 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (θ ) = 2 cos θ − cos 2θ π ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ π⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 cos − cos ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎟ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 6⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝3⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 50. 1 1 ⎛π ⎞ csc ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sec θ = = 1 =3 θ 2 cos ⎝ ⎠ 3 53. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 125 172 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . h 35 h = 35 tan 40° tan 40° = h ≈ 35(0. f (θ ) = 2 sin θ − sin θ 2 π π ⎛π ⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 sin − sin 3 3 2 ⎝3⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 51. a 630 a = 630 tan 40° tan 40° = a ≈ 630(0. 1 ⎛π ⎞ tan ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cot θ = 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ 52.8391) ≈ 29 The tree’s height is approximately 29 feet. Thus. 54. Inc.Trigonometric Functions 49. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 36°. 55.8391) ≈ 529 The distance across the lake is approximately 529 yards. tan θ = Many Scientific Calculators 125 ÷ 172 = TAN −1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN −1 ( 125 ÷ 172 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 36.

0872) = 436 The driver’s increase in altitude was approximately 436 feet.0099998 sin θ 0. Inc. the angle of elevation is approximately 23°. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 0.3894 0. Thus. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 37°.99998 θ sin θ approaches 1 as θ approaches 0. 68.9851 0. sin 5° = 60 75 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .999998 × 10 −4 9. 57. Section 4. tan Many Scientific Calculators 555 ÷ 1320 = TAN-1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN-1 ( 555 ÷ 1320 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 23.0998 0. θ 0. 55 80 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . sin10° = 500 c 500 500 ≈ ≈ 2880 sin10° 0.2 0.00001 1 × 10 −5 1 .0001 9. Answers may vary.3 555 1320 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . 60. cos θ = 61.9999998 0. – 67. θ 0.PreCalculus 4E 56. 0.001 0. Thus.9933 0.99999998 × 10 −5 0.01 sinθ 0. c= 58.9736 0.9983 0.1987 0. 59. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 47°.999999998 515 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. cos θ = Many Scientific Calculators 60 ÷ 75 = COS Many Graphing Calculators −1 COS−1 ( 60 ÷ 75 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 37.4 0.2955 0. Many Scientific Calculators Many Graphing Calculators -1 55 ÷ 80 = COS COS-1 ( 55 ÷ 80 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 47. a 5000 a = 5000sin 5° ≈ 5000(0.1736 The plane has flown approximately 2880 feet.1 0. Thus.

148878 –0.001 0.999999995 –0. the hypotenuse is greater than either other side.2 0.9999 tanθ 1.92106 0.0005 1 –0.01 cos θ 0. tanθ increases without bound. Then use the table to describe what happens to the tangent of an acute angle as the angle gets close to 90°.00005 0 θ cos θ − 1 θ approaches 0 as θ approaches 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 79. true tan 45° ⎛ 45° ⎞ ≠ tan ⎜ ⎟ tan15° ⎝ 15° ⎠ 78.1 0. In a right triangle. 70.0001 0. tanθ is undefined. makes sense 74.99995 cos θ − 1 –0.005 0. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: This value is irrational. θ 0. false.19735 –0. does not make sense. A sample change is: sin 45° + cos 45° = 77. 71. Irrational numbers are rounded on calculators. Explanations will vary.6713 57 573 5730 57.Trigonometric Functions 69. Use a calculator in degree mode to generate the following table.296 572.7475 5.9 89. θ 60 70 80 89 89.099667 –0. 72.4 0. A sample change is: 75. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Therefore both 1 2 + 1 2 = 2 2 ≠1 opposite adjacent and must be hypotenuse hypotenuse less than 1 for an acute angle in a right triangle.99500 0.9999995 0.999 89. Inc.99 89.98007 0. . does not make sense. true 76.00001 0.04996 –0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.7321 2.95534 0. At 90°. Explanations will vary.3 0. 73. Sample explanation: An increase in the size of a triangle does not affect the ratios of the sides. does not make sense. false.958 As θ approaches 90°. 516 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: The sine and cosine are cofunctions of each other. The sine and cosine are not reciprocals of each other.

Let b = the plane’s height above the lighthouse. y −3 3 10 = =− r 10 10 cos θ = 144 + 250 = 394 The plane is approximately 394 feet above the water. y = 1. a. y. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and r. a. b. undefined y 0 b. 2. r = (−3)2 + 52 83. r = 12 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. r 5 82.4 Check Point Exercises 1.7002 The ship is approximately 357 feet from the lighthouse. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. θ ′ = 360D − 345D = 15D b. 81. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . y = 0.4040) ≈ 144 sin θ = a. . 250 tan 35° = a 250 250 a= ≈ ≈ 357 tan 35° 0. r = x2 + y2 π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive y-axis. which is positive. b. θ = 90° = x r First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = 34 x −3 −3 34 −3 34 = = ⋅ = .PreCalculus 4E 80. π x 0 cos 90° = cos = = = 0 2 r 1 π r 1 csc 90° = csc = = = 1 2 y 1 517 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b tan 22° = 357 b = 357 tan 22° ≈ 357(0. which is r 34 34 34 34 negative. Section 4. Select the point P = (1. x 1 cos 0° = cos 0 = = = 1 r 1 r 1 csc 0° = csc 0 = = . b.4 Let a = distance of the ship from the lighthouse. x 1 10 = = r 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = = −3 x 1 r 10 10 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 y r r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = (−3) 2 + 42 r =5 y 4 = . Section 4.0): x = 1. θ′ = π − 5π 6π 5π π = − = 6 6 6 6 10 = 10 1 1 1 =− −3 3 a. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. Select the point P = (0. a. θ = 0° = 0 radians The terminal side of the angle is on the positive x-axis.1): x = 0.

θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. sin θ is positive in quadrant II. thus the reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 305° = 55° . 5π π = + tan = 1 .14 and 3π ≈ 4. x is negative and y is positive. Furthermore. x −1 cos180° = cos π = = = −1 r 1 r 1 csc180° = csc π = = . thus the reference 7π 8π 7π π = − = . 3. Thus. θ = 270° = 6. 2 5π lies in quadrant III. 4 4 4 4 2π = 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative y-axis. it is in quadrant II. Because 8π . 4 4 4 4 π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. y = 0. y 1 1 10 10 sin θ = = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 sec θ = 7π 3π 6π = and lies between 4 2 4 r 10 10 = =− x 3 −3 3 . with sin θ < 0.6 lies between π ≈ 3. a. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which cosine is negative and the sine is negative. The reference angle is 4 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = . Because –240° lies between –180° and –270°. tan 4 4 tan 518 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV.Trigonometric Functions c.–1): x = 0. we can find sin θ and sec θ . a. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . thus the reference − angle is θ ′ = Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. The reference 2 angle is θ ′ = 3. θ cannot lie in quadrant II. y = 1 Furthermore. undefined y 0 5. 15π 15π 8π 7π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 This angle is in quadrant IV. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . all the functions are positive in quadrant I. angle is θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 11π 11π 12π π + 2 ⋅ 2π = − + = 3 3 3 3 This angle is in quadrant I. it is in quadrant III. 4. 3π x 0 cos 270° = cos = = =0 2 r 1 3π r 1 csc 270° = csc = = = −1 2 y −1 c. 300° lies in quadrant IV. y.6 − π ≈ 0. sin 300° = − sin 60° = − b. Because 3. In quadrant II. Thus. θ = 180° = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative x-axis. a. θ cannot lie in quadrant I. 7. The reference 4 7π 8π 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = − = . sin 60° = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. it is in quadrant IV. y = −1. d. Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. b. θ lies in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ = 240 − 180 = 60° . c. Because sin θ < 0. 665° − 360° = 305° This angle is in quadrant IV. b. Inc. it is in quadrant III. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. and r.0): x = −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π 3 . d. 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = 3 x −3 x = −3.71 . . Select the point P = (–1. Select the point P = (0.46 .

r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + 52 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . y. 6 6 6 2 −22π −22π 24π 2π + 8π = + = lies in 3 3 3 3 quadrant II. and r. y. and r. The reference angle is 6 θ′ = π 6 1. θ′ = π − 3 3 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 sin = . 3 3 3 2 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = − 5 5 y csc θ = 519 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y. We need values for x. 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = lies in quadrant 6 6 6 6 5π π II. and r. a.PreCalculus 4E c.4 Exercise Set 4. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . π 2 3 = 6 3 Because the secant is positive in quadrant IV. 5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . The reference angle is θ ′ = π − = . Inc. . Furthermore. Because P = (–4. 6 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . x = −12 and y = 5 . − π Section 4. . y 5 sin θ = = r 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− 13 13 r 5 5 y tan θ = = =− 12 x −12 −22π 2π π 3 = sin = sin = . 2. cos cos b. x = −4 and y = 3 . 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. Furthermore. y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 cos θ = = =− 5 5 r 3 3 y tan θ = = =− 4 x −4 r 5 csc θ = = y 3 π 2 3 ⎛ π⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = + sec = . y. The reference angle is 2π π = . = r 5 5 = =− 4 x −4 4 x −4 cot θ = = =− 3 3 y sec θ = 17π 5π π 3 = cos = − cos = − . Because P = (–12. sin We need values for x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 3 ⎝ 6⎠ 8.4 lies in quadrant IV. 6 6 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 . and r. sec r = x 2 + y 2 = (−4)2 + 32 = 16 + 9 = 25 = 5 Now that we know x.

and r. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + (−3) 2 = 9 + 9 r = x + y = 2 + 3 = 4 + 9 = 13 Now that we know x. and r. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . y. Because P = (5. and r. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . y. y. sin θ = =5 2 Now that we know x. 2 sin θ = 2 2 2 = 18 = 3 2 Now that we know x. 6. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . We need values for x. and r. and r. 7) is a point on the terminal side of θ . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . x = 3 and y = 7 . and r. 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Because P = (2. Inc. 3 3 13 3 13 y = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 sin θ = 2 2 13 2 13 x = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 y 3 tan θ = = x 2 13 r csc θ = = 3 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y 4. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + 7 2 = 9 + 49 = 58 Now that we know x. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . x = 3 and y = −3 . x = 2 and y = 3 . x = 5 and y = –5 . Furthermore. y. 3 3 58 3 58 x = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 y 7 tan θ = = x 3 58 r csc θ = = 7 y sin θ = cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y We need values for x. 5. 3 7 r 5 2 = = 2 5 x 5 x = −1 cot θ = = y −5 sec θ = 520 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Furthermore. and r. and r. . Because P = (3. Because P = (3. Furthermore. r = x 2 + y 2 = 5 + (−5)2 = 25 + 25 = 50 7 7 58 7 58 y = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 −5 −1 2 2 y = = ⋅ =− 2 r 5 2 2 2 5 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 5 2 2 2 y −5 = −1 tan θ = = 5 x r 5 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −5 y cos θ = 58 3 sec θ = −3 −1 2 2 y = =− ⋅ =− 2 r 3 2 2 2 cos θ = 13 2 sec θ = We need values for x. Furthermore. 3 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 3 2 2 2 y −3 = −1 tan θ = = x 3 r 3 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −3 y r 3 2 = = 2 3 x 3 x = −1 cot θ = = y −3 sec θ = 2 3 We need values for x. y. y. y. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Trigonometric Functions 3. y.

y = 0. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. x = –1 and y = –3 . Inc. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosecant function. y. Select the point P = (0. –1): x = 0. tan −3 −3 10 3 10 y = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 14. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. sin θ = −5 −5 29 5 29 y = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 −2 −2 29 2 29 x = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 y −5 5 tan θ = = = x −2 2 29 29 r =− csc θ = = −5 5 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 8. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. y = 0. 1): x = 0. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. y. r = 1 Apply the definition of the secant function. y = 1. x = −2 and y = −5 . y = 0. –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . y = 0. 0): x = −1. Select the point P = (–1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3π x 0 = = =0 cos 2 r 1 θ= θ= π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. 0): x = −1. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−1) 2 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. Section 4. Furthermore. r = 1 Apply the definition of the θ= 10 = − 10 −1 −1 1 = −3 3 15. 10. 13. sin θ = tangent function. y. Select the point P = (–1. r 1 csc π = = . cot π 2 521 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. Select the point P = (–1. y. Because P = (–1. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cotangent function. Furthermore. = x 0 = =0 y 1 . r 1 = −1 sec π = = x −1 12.PreCalculus 4E 7. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . undefined y 0 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−2) 2 + (−5) 2 = 4 + 25 = 29 Now that we know x. and r. 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. Select the point P = (0. 0): x = −1. Select the point P = (0. Because P = (–2. –1): x = 0. −1 −1 10 10 x cos θ = = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = =3 x −1 10 10 r =− csc θ = = −3 3 y r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 9. and r. undefined x 0 2 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. 29 29 =− −2 2 −2 2 = −5 5 We need values for x. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Select the point P = (–1. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. and r. y 0 =0 tan π = = x −1 11.4 We need values for x. y = –1. and r. y = −1. 0): x = −1. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. x −1 cos π = = = −1 r 1 3π y −1 = = .

Thus. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . and r. r = 13 . the cotangent function is negative in those two quadrants. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. θ cannot lie in quadrant II or quadrant IV. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 + y 2 = r 2 20. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. with sin θ < 0. 5 r 5 r 2 = x2 + y2 17. with sin θ > 0. 1): x = 0. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. 3 x −3 cosθ = − = = . x 2 + (−12) 2 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 144 = 25 x = − 25 = −5 Now that we know x. the tangent function is positive in those two quadrants. Because quadrant I is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and sine is positive. with tan θ < 0. Thus. with sin θ < 0. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant II. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. Thus. radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant III. We are also given that cos θ > 0. 52 = (−3) 2 + y 2 y 2 = 25 − 9 = 16 y = − 16 = −4 Now that we know x. Because cot θ > 0. the sine function is negative in those quadrants. Because sin θ < 0. In quadrant III x is negative and y is negative. Inc. We are also given that sec θ < 0 . 12 y −12 sin θ = − = = . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the secant is negative and the cotangent is positive. θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. x −5 5 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 y −12 12 tan θ = = = x −5 5 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −12 12 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −5 5 x −5 5 cot θ = = = y −12 12 21. Thus. y.Trigonometric Functions 16. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. Thus. Because sin θ > 0. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the sine is negative and the tangent is negative. with cot θ > 0. y = −12. Because quadrant II is the only quadrant in which the cosine is negative and the tangent is negative. 24. y. 522 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π y 1 tan = = . We are also given that cos θ > 0 . θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. Because tan θ < 0. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant II. x is negative and y is negative. the tangent function is positive in those quadrants. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. Thus. undefined 2 x 0 23. Furthermore. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . with tan θ < 0. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. In quadrant III. 4 y −4 sin θ = = =− 5 5 r y −4 4 tan θ = = = x −3 3 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 3 x −3 3 = cot θ = = y −4 4 18. Thus. r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. θ cannot lie in quadrant III or quadrant IV. and r. Thus. r = 5. Because tan θ < 0. y = 1. θ= π 22. . Because sin θ < 0. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. x = –3. Select the point P = (0. We are also given that sin θ < 0 . we conclude that θ lies in quadrant I. 13 r 13 Furthermore. 19.

y −15 15 sin θ = = =− r 17 17 y −15 15 tan θ = = =− x 8 8 r 17 17 csc θ = = =− y −15 15 r 17 sec θ = = x 8 x 8 8 cot θ = = =− y −15 15 x −12 12 = =− r 13 13 y 5 5 = =− x −12 12 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 = =− y 5 5 26. r = 13 . 13 r x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + 52 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 25 = 144 82 + y 2 = 17 2 x = − 144 = −12 Now that we know x. Furthermore. Thus. y −3 3 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 y −3 3 tan θ = = =− x 4 4 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 r 5 sec θ = = x 4 x 4 4 cot θ = = =− y −3 3 y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. 8 x cos θ = = . and r. x is positive and y is negative. Furthermore x2 + y 2 = r 2 25. Thus. θ is in quadrant IV.4 27. r = 3 . In quadrant IV. θ is in quadrant IV. Because 270° < θ < 360°. and r. and r. 1 x cos θ = = . 5 y sin θ = = . y.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. y = 5. Furthermore. x = 8. y. Furthermore. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . cos θ = tan θ = csc θ = sec θ = cot θ = y 2 = 289 − 64 = 225 y = − 225 = −15 Now that we know x. x is positive and y is negative. In quadrant IV x is positive and y is negative. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . and r. Because 270° < θ < 360°. r = 5 . sin θ = y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 tan θ = y −2 2 = = −2 2 x 1 r 3 3 2 3 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 r 3 sec θ = = = 3 x 1 csc θ = cot θ = x 1 1 2 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 523 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. x = 4. y. y. 17 r r = 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 r 2 2 x + y = r2 42 + y 2 = 52 y 2 = 25 − 16 = 9 12 + y 2 = 32 y = − 9 = −3 Now that we know x. . x = 1. Inc. In quadrant II x is negative and y is positive. Thus. In quadrant IV. 4 x cos θ = = . 5 r 2 2 x + y = r2 28.

θ lies in quadrant II. and r. sin θ = y 1 1 10 10 = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 cos θ = −3 −3 x 10 3 10 = = ⋅ =− r 10 10 10 10 csc θ = r 10 = = 10 y 1 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + (−5)2 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. tan θ = = = 3 x −3 x = –3. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y = −5 . θ lies in quadrant III. x = −3. and r. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. 5 y −5 tan θ = = = . Furthermore. y = –4. 3 x −3 31. 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = . Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y. x = −3 . y −4 4 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 x −3 3 cos θ = = =− r 5 5 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 x −3 3 cot θ = = = y −4 4 13 13 =− −3 3 −3 3 =− 2 2 30. Thus. y −5 5 sin θ = = =− r 13 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −5 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = = y −5 5 10 10 =− −3 3 −3 = −3 1 524 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . In quadrant II. x is negative and y is negative. Furthermore. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. . x = −12. Furthermore. y = 2. Thus. x is negative and y is positive.Trigonometric Functions 29. negative and y is negative. y. In quadrant II. y. θ lies in quadrant III. 2 y 2 tan θ = − = = . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . and r. y = 1. Furthermore. Thus. 3 x −3 32. x is negative and y is positive. θ lies in quadrant II. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus. sin θ = y 2 2 13 2 13 = = ⋅ = r 13 13 13 13 cos θ = −3 −3 13 x 3 13 = = ⋅ =− r 13 13 13 13 csc θ = r 13 = y 2 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. In quadrant III. 12 x −12 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. y. Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. Inc. and r. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + (−4)2 = 9 + 16 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 22 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. x is 4 y −4 . In quadrant III.

y. the reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . . r 3 3 2 3 2 csc θ = = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 cot θ = x 1 2 2 −1 = = ⋅ = y −2 2 2 2 2 4 7π 3π 6π 8π lies between = and 2π = . Because 170° lies between 90° and 180°. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 355° = 5° . The reference angle is 7π 8π 7π π = − = . y −1 1 sin θ = = =− r 4 4 x − 15 15 cos θ = = =− r 4 4 y 1 15 15 −1 tan θ = = = ⋅ = x − 15 15 15 15 sec θ = r 4 4 15 4 15 = =− ⋅ =− x − 15 15 15 15 cot θ = x − 15 = = 15 y −1 43. Thus. θ lies in quadrant III. y −1 5π 4π 3π 6π lies between π = and = . Because x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + (−1) 2 = 42 x 2 = 16 − 1 = 15 5π π 3π 6π lies between = and π = . (−1)2 + y 2 = 32 37. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . r = 3 . Because 351° lies between 270° and 360°. Because the cosecant is negative and the tangent is positive. x is negative and y is negative. it is in quadrant II. it is in quadrant II. −150° + 360° = 210° Because the angle is in quadrant III. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . r = 4 . it is in quadrant III. In quadrant III. In quadrant III. Furthermore. θ′ = π − 6 6 6 6 x = − 15 Now that we know x. Because 160° lies between 90° and 180°. Because 44. Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. r 3 sec θ = −3 = = . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 38. Inc. r 4 csc θ = −4 = = . x is negative and y is negative. it 4 2 4 4 is in quadrant IV. x = −1. Because 205° lies between 180° and 270°. it 4 4 2 4 is in quadrant III. Because 34. The reference angle is 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = . y −2 2 = =2 2 x −1 40. Furthermore. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 351° = 9° . it is in quadrant IV. θ lies in quadrant III. x −1 x2 + y 2 = r 2 35. The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 170° = 10° . The reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° .4 33. it is 6 2 6 6 in quadrant II. The reference angle is 14 5π 7π 5π 2π = − = . y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. y = −1. it is in quadrant IV. it is in quadrant III. 36. 525 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The reference angle is 5π 6π 5π π = − = . y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 x −1 1 cos θ = = =− r 3 3 sin θ = tan θ = 39. Because 5π 10π π 7π = lies between = and 2 14 7 14 14π . Because the secant is negative and the tangent is positive. Thus. The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 160° = 20° .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and r. θ′ = π − 7 7 7 7 π= 45. Because 355° lies between 270° and 360°. y. θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 41. 4 4 4 4 42. it is in quadrant II. and r.

3 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. The reference angle is θ ′ = 2π − 5.5 ≈ 0. 2 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant III.7 lies between π ≈ 3. 11π 11π 16π 5π + 4π = − + = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant III. 50. is in quadrant III. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 210° lies in quadrant III. the reference angle is θ ′ = 193° − 180° = 13° .71 . 52. Because 4. 553° − 360° = 193° Because the angle is in quadrant III. the reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° . −335° + 360° = 25° Because the angle is in quadrant I. Because 5. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = −π = . 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . . 6 6 − 25π 25π 36π 11π + 6π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant IV.71 and 2π ≈ 6. 11π 11π 8π 3π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant II. the reference angle is θ ′ = 1° . 49. 3 526 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 110° = 70° . 300° lies in quadrant IV. 47. 58. the reference 11π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . it 2 59. 53. 4 4 3 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45° . the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . 6 6 − 13π 13π 18π 5π + 6π = − + = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV.5 lies between 51. 225° lies in quadrant III. cos 45° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant II.56 .14 and 3π ≈ 4. 565° − 360° = 205° Because the angle is in quadrant III.78 .7 − π ≈ 1. 3 3 − 61. 6 6 cos 225°= − cos 45°= − 2 . 48. −250° + 360° = 110° Because the angle is in quadrant II. Inc. 2 63. 4 4 sin 60° = sin 300° = − sin 60° = − 23π 23π 16π 7π − 4π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. 3π ≈ 4.28 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . 57. 54. the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = −π = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 4. 4 4 − 17π 17π 24π 7π + 4π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant III. −359° + 360° = 1° Because the angle is in quadrant I. the reference angle is θ ′ = 25° . 55. 2 it is in quadrant IV. the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . 60. 2 62.Trigonometric Functions 46. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = π − = . the reference 3π π angle is θ ′ = π − = . tan 30° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 4π = − = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. 3 3 tan 210°= tan 30° = 3 . 56.

4 4 4 4 π 2 cos = 4 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. sin 9π lies in quadrant I. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° .PreCalculus 4E Section 4.4 64. sin 60° = sin(−240°)= sin 60°= 3π π 2 . –225° lies in quadrant II. 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. The reference angle is 4 7π 8π 7π π = − = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 420° − 360° = 60° . tan 60° = 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . =– cos = − 4 4 2 3 . sec 240° = − sec 60° − 2 . 73. 3 3 3 3 sin π =1 4 Because the cotangent is negative in quadrant IV. 9π π tan =tan = 1 4 4 3 = 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. tan 45° = 1 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. 6 6 csc π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. tan 2 2 undefined. 405° lies in quadrant I. 67. . 3 3 2 3π lies in quadrant II. The reference angle is 4 9π 9π 8π π − 2π = − = . 70. The reference angle is 3 2π 3π 2π π θ′ = π − = − = . 2 74. The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45°. 240° lies in quadrant III. 66. 2 sin 45° = π =2 6 Because the cosecant is negative in quadrant III. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 65. θ′ = 6 6 6 6 2 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. 72. tan 405°=tan45°=1 . 7π lies in quadrant III. 2 2 2 2 π 9π is also Because tan is undefined. sec 60° = 2 Because the secant is negative in quadrant III. The reference angle is θ ′ = 405° − 360° = 45° . θ′ = 4 4 4 4 tan 2π lies in quadrant II. cos 9π lies on the positive y-axis. The reference angle is 6 7π 7π 6π π −π = − = . 68. tan 420°= tan 60°= 3 . 7π π csc = − csc = −2 . The reference angle is 4 3π 4π 3π π θ′ = π − = − = . 2π π 3 =sin = . 7π π cot = − cot = −1 . 7π lies in quadrant IV. –240° lies in quadrant II. 420° lies in quadrant I. 4 4 cot 527 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 71. 2 sin(−225°) = sin 45° = . The reference angle is 2 9π 9π 8π π θ′ = − 4π = − = . π 69.

cos 23π 7π 2 = cos = 4 4 2 82. 6 3 ⎝ ⎠ 77. The reference angle is π 3 =− π . =1 4 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. θ= π ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 − −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ . sin ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 1 − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ 3 6 6 3 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. lies in quadrant IV. 17π 5π 17π 5π cos sin + cos 3 4 3 4 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 2⎞ = ⎜− − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6− 2 = 4 = 7π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = tan 6 = 3 ⎠ π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = sin 3 = 2 ⎠ 528 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Trigonometric Functions 75. Inc. The reference angle is 4 θ′ = π 4 76. 19π 7π = cot = 3 6 6 11π 5π 11π 5π cos sin + cos 4 6 4 6 ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ =⎜ − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6+ 2 =− 4 =− 80. cot π 4 cos 0 − sin π 6 cos π 2 1 + 2 2 2 +1 = 2 = 3 ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − . lies in quadrant IV. tan = sec 495° = sec135° = − 2 78. ⎛ 17π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 84. Publishing as Prentice Hall. cot 13π π 3 = cot = 3 3 3 81. π 1 ⎛ 35π ⎞ = sin = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 6 2 ⎝ 6 ⎠ 90. . − π 87. π ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝ 4⎠ tan sin 89. − π 6 π cos π − cos π 3 sin 3π 2 3 1 + 2 2 1− 3 = 2 88. π ⎛ 11π ⎞ = tan = 1 tan ⎜ − ⎟ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 85. cos 35π 11π 3 = cos = 6 6 2 83. ⎛ 17π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 86. 2 3 sec 510° = sec150° = − 3 79.

⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ 11π ⎞ = h⎜ f ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ sin ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ( h D f ) ⎛⎜ 3π ⎛ 8π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − + cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ = ( −1) 3 + ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2⎞ = 2⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) = 2 3 2 97.4 3π ⎛ 15π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − − cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1)(1) − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 1 = −1 − 2 2 1 =− − 2 2 3 =− 2 sin 95. 94. 17π ⎝ 3 ( h D g ) ⎛⎜ 96. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . m= f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ − sin ⎜ 4 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 3π 5π − 2 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ 4π π ⎞ ⎛ 4π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ f⎜ + ⎟+ f ⎜ +f⎜ ⎟ ⎟ 6⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝6⎠ 4 π π 4 π π ⎛ ⎞ = sin ⎜ + ⎟ + sin + sin 6⎠ 3 6 ⎝ 3 3π 4π π = sin + sin + sin 2 3 6 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠ =− ⎞⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ cos ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎛1⎞ = 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ =1 sin =− 3− ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎟ = h⎜ g ⎜ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ π 4 2 −1 + 2 = 3 +1 2 π 4 ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎛ 5π π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ + ⎟+ g⎜ g⎜ ⎟+ g⎜ 6 ⎟ 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π π ⎛ 5π π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + ⎟ + cos + cos 6 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ π 5π = cos π + cos + cos 6 6 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 3 3⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = −1 = ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2 2 −4 π 529 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 91. Inc. f ( x2 ) ) 2 3 3 − 2 2 3 3 =− 2 =− 93. . 92. Section 4. f ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ θ =π − 2 π when the reference angle is and θ is 4 2 in quadrants I or II. Answers may vary. QI QII θ =π − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. tan θ = − π QII 3 5π 3 θ =π − QIV π 6 5π = 6 5π 11π θ= . 4 θ =π − 4 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is in 3 2 quadrants I or IV. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . 530 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .Trigonometric Functions 98. g ( x2 ) ) m= 2 π when the reference angle is and 4 2 θ is in quadrants III or IV. 3 3 100. 104. 6 6 π 5π 3 π 3 2π = 3 2π 5π θ= . Inc. QII QIII sin θ = θ= θ = 2π − 102. 3 3 π 4 = π 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is 3 2 in quadrants II or III. 110. does not make sense. π 3 4π = 3 π 3 and θ is QIV θ = 2π − π 3 5π = 3 3 π when the reference angle is and 6 3 θ is in quadrants II or IV. 4 4 4 = π = π ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ QIV 3 θ = 2π − π 6 11π = 6 105. QI QIV π θ = 2π − 3 = θ= . tan θ = − 3 when the reference angle is 3π = 4 θ= π 3 2π = 3 2π 4π θ= . – 109. sin θ = − g ( x2 ) − g ( x1 ) x2 − x1 QIII ⎛ 3π ⎞ cos (π ) − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ = 3π π− 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = θ =π + 99. g ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . QII π π 3π 4 4 103. 101. cos θ = − 2 2 −4 π 4 5π 4 5π 7π θ= . Explanations will vary. cos θ = θ= 7π 4 θ =π + in quadrants II or IV. Sample explanation: Sine is defined for all values of the angle.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 4 sin ⎜ 2 x − 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x = radians =− 0 8 18 180° −105° = −105° ⋅ 1 114. − 5. c. the reference angle 3 5π 6π 5π π is 2π − = − = 3 3 3 3 c. x 1 5 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 7 3 3 0 − 2 2 11 4 3 3 −3 − 0 2 3 6. Explanations will vary. 8 4 1 2 5π 5π radians 180o radians = ⋅ = 75o 12 12 π radians 4.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 111. 5π is in quadrant IV. Sample explanation: It is also possible that y = −3 and x = −5. 2. does not make sense. Since a. − 19π 19π 24π 5π + 6π = − + = 4 4 4 4 b. the reference angle 4 5π 5π 4π π −π = − = is 4 4 4 4 Since 531 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 0 2π ⎞ ⎛ 115. y = 3sin x 0 y 0 7π 12 4 π 2 5π 6 0 10π radians 180 π radians 180° =− 105π radians 180 7π radians 12 π π 3. does not make sense. y = cos(4 x + π ) 2 x − π π radians 13π 12 −4 4π 3 0 13π 13π radians 180o radians = − ⋅ π radians 20 20 o = −117 11π 11π 6π 5π − 2π = − = 3 3 3 3 b. Inc. makes sense π − 4 1 2 y π 0 1 − 2 y π 3 0 116. 5π is in quadrant III. Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 1. a. 113. Sample explanation: Sine and cosecant have the same sign within any quadrant because they are reciprocals of each other. Explanations will vary. 10° = 10° ⋅ = 112.

Inc. 52 + b 2 = 62 25 + b 2 = 36 b 2 = 11 c. 4 − y 4 sin θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 3 − x 3 cos θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 4 − y 4 tan θ = = 5 = 3 3 x − 5 r 1 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 5 r 1 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 5 3 − x 3 cot θ = = 5 = 4 y − 4 5 10.Trigonometric Functions 7. y. Use the Pythagorean theorem to find b. 8. sin θ = −2 2 13 y = =− 13 r 13 3 3 13 x = = 13 r 13 2 y −2 tan θ = = =− 3 3 x 13 13 r =− csc θ = = −2 2 y cos θ = 13 r = 3 x 3 3 x =− cot θ = = 2 y −2 sec θ = 532 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. sec θ = hypotenuse 6 6 11 = = adjacent 11 11 cot θ = adjacent 11 = opposite 5 r = x2 + y2 r = 32 + (−2) 2 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. and r. . a. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 510° − 360° = 150° 9. the reference angle is 180° − 150° = 30° cos θ = r = x2 + y2 2 adjacent 11 = hypotenuse 6 opposite 5 11 = adjacent 11 hypotenuse 6 = csc θ = opposite 5 tan θ = 2 9 16 25 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 4⎞ r = ⎜− ⎟ +⎜− ⎟ = + = =1 5 5 25 25 25 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Now that we know x. y. and r. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . a 2 + b2 = c2 b. b = 11 opposite 5 = sin θ = hypotenuse 6 Since 150° is in quadrant II. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

and r to find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . x = −4. y. Since cos θ = side adjacent θ hypotenuse 250 cos 72° = c 250 c= cos 72° c ≈ 809 m cos θ = 15. Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. 7 r Since θ is acute.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 11. In quadrant II. θ is in quadrant II. Furthermore. Inc. 3 x tan θ = − = . r = 6 . side opposite θ side adjacent θ a tan 41° = 60 a = 60 tan 41° tan θ = r 2 = x2 + y2 r = (−3) + 4 2 2 a ≈ 52 cm 2 14. tan 30° = 3 3 17. Since cos θ = 1 x = . x = 1. Furthermore. x is positive and y is negative. In quadrant IV. x = 3. r 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 r =5 Now that we know x. 6 r x2 + y2 = r 2 12 + y 2 = 62 1 + y 2 = 36 y 2 = 35 y = ± 35 3 x = . cot120° = 1 1 1 3 = = =− tan120° − tan 60° − 3 3 18. r = 7 . y. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 y 13. sin 2 11π = 6 π 7 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 = = = = 11π π 3 3 3 cos cos 6 6 2 + cos 2 π 7 =1 533 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. θ is in quadrant IV. x is negative and y is positive. . y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 =− cos θ = = 5 5 r r 5 csc θ = = y 3 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 4 x −3 4 =− cot θ = = y 4 3 12. y = 3 . Furthermore. sin θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− r 7 7 tan θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− x 3 3 r 7 7 10 = =− y −2 10 20 r 7 sec θ = = x 3 x 3 3 10 cot θ = = =− y −2 10 20 csc θ = 16. Therefore y = −2 10 Use x. cos 240° = − cos 60° = − 19. sec 20. Thus. and r. y = + 35 = 35 y 35 ⎛π ⎞ = 35 cot ⎜ − θ ⎟ = tan θ = = x 1 ⎝2 ⎠ x2 + y2 = r 2 32 + y 2 = 72 9 + y 2 = 49 y 2 = 40 y = ± 40 = ±2 10 Because the cosine is positive and the sine is negative.

Convert 8 revolutions per minute to radians per minute.Trigonometric Functions 21. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . It is given that r = 10 feet and the merry-go-round rotates at 8 revolutions per minute. 8 revolutions per minute 4π ⎞ ⎛ 22π ⎞ ⎟ = csc ⎜ 3 − 6π ⎟ = csc 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1 = = = 4π π 3 − sin sin − 3 3 2 =− π 3 3 30. Inc. 2 2 29. 2 3 =− 24. 7π ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎛ 17π ⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 6 + 4π ⎟ = tan 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 2 π 2 π 6 = 2π radians 1 revolution = 16π radians per minute ν = rω = (10)(16π ) = 160π ≈ 502. π radians π 36° = 36° ⋅ = radians 180° 5 s = rθ = 40 ⋅ 3 =− 2 22.7 feet per minute.13 cm = 8 revolutions per minute ⋅ 2 3 3 = − cos 45° = − 5 28. . ⎛ 22π csc ⎜ ⎝ 3 23.7 feet per minute T he linear speed of the horse is about 502. Begin by converting from degrees to radians. − cos π = (1) − (−1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ + 2π n ⎟ + tan ⎜ + nπ ⎟ cos ⎜ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π 5π π π = cos + tan = − cos − tan 6 6 6 6 3 3 3 3 2 3 =− − =− − 2 3 6 6 5 3 =− 6 side opposite θ hypotenuse h sin 6° = 5280 h = 5280sin 6° h ≈ 551. cos 495° = cos ( 495° − 360° ) = cos135° = tan = 8π ≈ 25. ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 3 + 2π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4π π = sin = − sin 3 3 27. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 feet sin θ = side opposite θ side adjacent θ 50 tan θ = 60 ⎛ 50 ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 60 ⎠ θ ≈ 40° tan θ = 534 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 25. 26.

0) π 2 0 . 2 2 2π 1 y = − sin 2π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (2 π . 0) 1 π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − ⋅1 = − 2 2 π π 1 y = − sin π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (π . 0) 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sinx.3 π y = 3sin x = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . Thus. The five x-values are x=0 π 1 y = − sin 0 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 coordinates (0. 1 y = − sin x 2 535 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 The period for both y = 3sin x and y = sinx is 2π. −3 2 2π y = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . The period for both y = − sin x 2 2 2 and y = sin x is 2π . 2. then by adding quarter-periods to 4 4 2 generate x-values for each of the key points. and the minimum point on the interval [0.5 Check Point Exercises 1. = = . by 4. 2π . Inc.periods. 2π] by dividing the period. Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 2π π the period.5 Section 4. 2π. 0) 2 π 2 π 2 = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= coordinates = 3 ⋅1 = 3 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The equation y = 3sin x is of the form y = A sin x with A = 3. 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. by 4.− 1 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The five x-values are x=0 x = 0+ x= π 2 π + x =π + = 2 π 2 π 2 π x=0+ 2 =π = x= 3π 2 2 + x y = 3sin x 0 y = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π π 2 x (0. 2 . We find the three x–intercepts. 2 π x=π+ x= y = 3sin 1 The equation y = − sin x is of the form y = Asin x 2 1 with A = − . 0) 3π 2 1 3π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − (−1) = 2 2 3π 1 . Thus.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. the maximum point. 0) 3π 2 3π y = 3 sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 3π . period 2π π = = . then by 4 4 2 adding quarter. the amplitude is 2 1 1 1 A = − = .

1 x is of the form 2 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . B = 2. 0) = 2 sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 536 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = π 6 . 2) begins. π (0. 2π 2π The period is = =π. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The period is B The equation y = 2sin Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. by 4. 0) = 2 sin 2π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 (π . by 4. x 0 y = 2sin y = 2 sin 1 x 2 4. The C 3 π 1 π = = ⋅ = . 0 ) = 2 sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3. Inc. . = 2 ⋅1 = 2 1 ⋅2π 2 is of the form π 3 . Extend the pattern of each graph to the left and right as desired. 4π . 4 4 adding quarter-periods. π . and C = = 2 sin 0 π The equation y = 3 sin 2 x − (2 π . then by the period. 2 Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 4π = = π . The phase shift is B 2 3 2 6 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π = .Trigonometric Functions Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . then by adding the period. B 2 coordinates 1 ⋅0 2 π y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3. The five x-values are x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. 2 The amplitude is A = 2 = 2 . 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle = 2 ⋅0 = 0 y = 2 sin 3 amplitude is A = 3 = 3 . Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the right. − 2 ) 3π 2 = 2 ⋅ (−1) = −2 = 2 sin 4π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . 3π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅3π 2 (3π . 2π 2π = 1 = 4π .

0 3 11π 12 ⎛ 11π π ⎞ − ⎟ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 9π 3π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ( −1) = −3 11π . –4) = −4 cos 0 = −4 1 2 7π .0 = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 5π 12 ⎛ 5π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 3π π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 5π .0 2 =0 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 1) = −4 cos π = 4 537 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = = . Thus. Inc. −3 12 7π 6 y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ 7π π − 6 3 The equation y = −4 cos π x is of the form y = Acos Bx with A = −4. then by adding 4 4 2 quarter periods to the value of x where the cycle begins. and B = π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2. The five x-values are x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. by 4. x= π x π 6 y = 3sin 2x − y = 3sin 2 ⋅ π 6 π coordinates 3 − 5. 4) .0 6 ⎛ 1⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ = −4 cos 6π = 3 sin 2π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 = 3 sin π 2 1 . the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . The five x-values are x= π 6 π 2π 3π 5π + = + = 6 4 12 12 12 5π π 5π 3π 8π 2π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 3 2π π 8π 3π 11π x= + = + = 3 4 12 12 12 11π π 11π 3π 14 π 7π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 6 Evaluate the function at each value of x. π π 3 6 .3 12 2π 3 ⎛ 2π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ 3 3⎠ ⎝ 3π = 3sin = 3sin π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 2π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The period is B π Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period 2 1 the period. (1.5 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph. x=0+ x y = −4 cos πx 0 y = −4 cos (π ⋅ 0 ) coordinates (0. 2π 2π = = 2.

2 2 2 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph. by 4. 538 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the left. Inc. = . 2 2 2π 2π The period is = =π. − π 4 y= 3 cos(−π + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 y= y= = 0 π 4 6.0 0. 2 The five x-values are x=− − 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 y= y= coordinates π 4 =0 π 4 π 4 4 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. B = 2 . then by adding 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle y= begins. B 2 π C −π The phase shift is = =− . 2 3 3 Thus. π . 2 π 4 2 .0 3 π 3 cos(π + π ) . –4) = −4 cos 2π = −4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. x = − 3 cos(2 x + π ) 2 π 3 cos − + π 2 2 3 cos(0 + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅ −1 = − 2 2 = π 3 cos + π 2 2 x=− y= π x=− 2 2 π 4 x=0+ x= π + + + π 4 π π 4 π 4 = = =− . the amplitude is A = = . π π π − π 3 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 . .Trigonometric Functions ⎛ 3⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 3π = −4 cos =0 2 3 2 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 2) 2 3 .0 2 x − π 2 (2. − π 4 3 2 . 2 B 2 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π the period. and C = −π . 3 3 cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π )) 2 2 The equation is of the form y = Acos(Bx − C) with 3 A = . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

. D = 12. The graph shows that this maximum value is 4. π 2π A = 4 . is the maximum value of y. Inc. Thus.PreCalculus 4E 7. 12 = B 12B = 2π 3π . Thus.5 The graph of y = 2 cosx + 1 is the graph of y = 2 cosx shifted one unit upwards. The number of hours of daylight is modeled by (2 π . Add quarter4 2 periods to generate x-values for the key points. π B=4 Substitute these values into y = A sin Bx . the curve oscillates about the middle value. 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 π 2 y = 2 cos π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 π y = 2 cos π + 1 3π 2 y = 2 cos 2π A. . −1) = 2 ⋅(−1) + 1 = −1 3π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 y = 2 cos2π + 1 Because the hours of daylight ranges from a minimum of 10 hours to a maximum of 14 hours. Section 4. we obtain one period of the graph. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 8. y = 2sin π 6 x− π 2 + 12 .1 2 6 π =C 2 Substitute these values into y = Asin(Bx − C) + D . The period is 12. The phase shift. The period for both functions is 2π . and period = . The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. 3π 2 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The cycle begins at x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph is modeled by y = 4 sin 4 x . 12 hours. 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 By connecting the points with a smooth curve. B C 3= B C 3= π B= . the amplitude. 2 B π 2π = 2 B πB = 4 π π 2 2π π = 12 6 The graph shows that the starting point of the cycle is C shifted from 0 to 3. 2 =π = 9. is 3. or 12 2π months. The period is . A = 2. x y = 2 cosx + 1 coordinates 0 y = 2 cos0 + 1 (0. Thus. The quarter-period is 2π π or . Thus. 539 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 (π . The maximum number of hours is 2 hours above 12 hours. Thus.

0) 3π . the amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . Thus. 2π π The period is 2π . x=0 3π = 5(−1) = −5 2 (0. 0) 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . .Trigonometric Functions 2. −5 2 (2 π . Inc. The equation y = 4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 4. 0) π π 2 y = 5sin π 2 coordinates = 5 ⋅1 = 5 . 2π π or . Thus. Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = x=0+ π x= 2 =π = y = 4 sin x 0 y = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin 2 + π 2 = 4 ⋅1 = 4 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = 5sin x coordinates 0 y = 5sin 0 = 5⋅ 0 = 0 (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Exercise Set 4.5 (π . 0) 3π 2 y = 5sin 2π y = 5sin 2π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 π y = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = 4 sin 3π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. π The equation y = 5 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 5. the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. 540 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3π 2 x 2 π x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.5 1.4 π y = 5sin π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . The period is 2π . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. The quarter-period is or . 0) π 2 . −4 2 2π y = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π .

with A = . with A = . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) coordinates (0. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) y= 1 sin x 3 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 y= π y= 3π 2 y= 1 3π sin 2 3 1 1 = (−1) = − 3 3 y= + 2 = coordinates x 2π 2 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.PreCalculus 4E 3. the amplitude is A = 4 4 4 2π π or . 2 π x=π+ x= π 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 4 1 1 1 = . 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Thus. 0) 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 3 3 3 π 1 π 2 3 y= 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 4 4 4 π 1 2 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 (π .− 2 4 2π y= 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (2 π . 0) 2 . 0) π y= 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (π . Section 4.− 2 3 3π 2 y= 1 3π 1 1 sin = (−1) = − 2 4 4 4 1 3π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.5 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 3 1 1 1 = . Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . (2 π . 0) 1 3π . . the amplitude is A = 3 3 3 2π π or . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. x=0 The equation y = 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 . 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . x=0 The equation y = x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π 2 = 4. π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 π 2 π 2 π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= x y= 1 sin x 4 (0. Thus. 541 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The period is 2π . The period is 2π . Inc.

0) 3π . 0) π 2 . . Thus. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Thus. 542 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = −4 sin x 0 y = −4 sin 0 = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 2 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . −4 (π . The period is 2π . coordinates π + x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 2π π or . Inc. 2π π or . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. π The equation y = −4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –4. 0) y = −4 sin π 2 coordinates = −4 ⋅1 = −4 π y = −4 sin π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −4 sin 2π y = −4 sin 2π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = −4(−1) = 4 2 (0.Trigonometric Functions 5. x=0 .3 2 (2 π . x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 6. The equation y = −3sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –3. the amplitude is A = −3 = 3. The period is 2π . π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 x y = −3sin x 0 y = −3 sin x = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 y = −3 sin π 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 π y = −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −3sin 2π y = −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 = −3(−1) = 3 π 2 (0.4 2 (2 π . 3π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3 (π .

The cycle begins at 4 2 4 8 x = 0. x=0 quarter-period is 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.0 3π . The B 2 quarter-period is π 8. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 1 = 1. 0) π (0. Add x= π 4 + π x=0+ 4 π 4 = π x= 2 π π 3π x= + = 2 4 4 3π π x= + =π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The cycle begins at x = 0.5 The equation y = sin 2x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 2. −1 8 3π = −1 2 y = sin 2π = 0 2 (π . Section 4.0 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. .0 y = sin 4 ⋅ 4 y = sin 4 ⋅ 3π 8 y = sin 4 ⋅ = sin 3π . x=0 x=0+ The equation y = sin 4x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 4. −1 4 π 3π = sin = −1 2 π ⋅ coordinates π 3π y = sin 2 ⋅ 4 π 1 π = sin π = 0 3π 4 = π =1 y = sin 2 ⋅ 2 . 0) π 2 . 543 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.1 8 π π 2 2 y = sin(2 ⋅ π ) = sin 2π = 0 = 4 3π x= + = 4 8 8 3π π π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.1 . The period is B 4 2 coordinates π 8 π 4 = sin 2 =1 = sin π = 0 3π 8 π 8 π 4 .PreCalculus 4E 7. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. . Thus. π . Inc. the amplitude is 2π 2π π = = . The A = 1 = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) 0 y = sin(4 ⋅ 0) = sin 0 = 0 π 4 π . x y = sin 2x 0 y = sin 2 ⋅ 0 = sin 0 = 0 π 4 y = sin 2 ⋅ = sin π 2 π 2 π 4 π π 8 + π 8 π 8 = = π 8 π x y = sin 4x (0. The period is = = π .

0) (3π . 3) = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π y = 2sin (0. The cycle begins at x = 0. Thus. x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. x 0 y = 3sin 1 x 2 4 8π = 2 π . The quarterThe period is B with A = 3 and B = 2 4π period is = π . 0) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 2) = 2 ⋅1 = 2 4π y = 2sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 6π y = 2sin 8π y = 2sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = 2(−1) = −2 2 (4π . x=0 x = 0 + 2π = 2π x = 2π + 2π = 4π x = 4π + 2 π = 6π x = 6π + 2 π = 8π Evaluate the function at each value of x. 544 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) = 2sin 0 = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 = 2sin (2 π . − 3) 3π = 3sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 4π 0 (π . Add quarter4 periods to generate x-values for the key points. − 2) (8π . The period is 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π . coordinates 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 0 2 y = 3sin = 3sin 2π 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 2π y = 2sin = 3 ⋅1 = 3 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 2π 2 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 3π 2 y = 3sin y = 2sin 1 x 4 1 ⋅0 4 coordinates (0. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The quarter-period is B 10. 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . the 4 amplitude is A = 2 = 2. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. 0) (6π . The equation y = 2sin 1 . 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π x 1 ⋅ 2π 4 π 2 (2 π . Inc. The equation y = 3sin 1 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 2 1 x is of the form 4 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . The cycle begins at x = 0. 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π .Trigonometric Functions 9.

The B π 2 1 quarter-period is = .0 2 = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 . The equation y = −3 sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –3 and B = 2π . The period is = = 2 .3 4 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ 1 2 1 . The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) 3 4 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 2) = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 1 4 (0. Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The equation y = 4 sin πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 4 and B = π . 13. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 1 1 = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. . The amplitude 545 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The equation y = 3sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 3 and B = 2π . Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 4 = 4. 0) 1 .4 2 = 3sin = 4(1) = 4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅1) = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin π ⋅ 3 2 1 2 (1. 4 2 Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) 0 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 4 1 . The is A = 3 = 3. x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The period is B 2π 1 quarter-period is . The amplitude 2π 2π = = 1. −3 4 3π = 3(−1) = −3 2 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅1) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 11. x=0+ x=0+ x y = 4 sin πx 0 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 0) = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 2 y = 4 sin π ⋅ = 4 sin 1 3 2 π 2 1 2 coordinates x y = 3sin 2πx (0. The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) 3 4 3 . −4 2 = 4 sin 2 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ coordinates y = 3sin 2π ⋅ = 3sin 1 (2. x=0 12.

The period is 2 1 = . 0) 1 . π 2 1 2 (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) 3 . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The period is 2π 2π = = 1.Trigonometric Functions is A = −3 = 3. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The B π 3 2 (1. The equation y = −2 sin π x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . The B 2π is A = −2 = 2 . 1 .3 4 coordinates y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin = −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 4 x 1 2 1 . 0) y = −2 sin π x 0 y = −2 sin(π ⋅ 0) = −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 1 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 2 1 . The equation y = − sin 2 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 3 2 . −2 2 = −2 ⋅1 = −2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅1) = −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin 3 . The amplitude 546 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 15. Inc. . 0) = −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. y = −3 sin 2πx x coordinates quarter-period is 0 1 4 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = −3sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 = −3sin quarter-period is (0. −3 4 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 1 2 2π 2π = = 2 . x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x.0 2 3 2 3 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 2 3π = −3sin 2 = −3(−1) = 3 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅1) 1 (1. 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1.2 2 3π = −2(−1) = 2 2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅2) = −2 sin 2π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2. with A = –1 and B = 14. The cycle begins at x = 0. 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.

Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The equation y = − sin x y = − sin 0 y = − sin 4 x 3 4 ⋅0 3 = coordinates (0. 3π . The quarter-period is 2 x 3 x y = − sin 0 2 y = − sin ⋅ 0 3 coordinates 3 y = − sin = − sin 3π 2 y = − sin 2 3π ⋅ 3 4 π 2 (0. The period is B 4 2 16. 3 3π .0 4 . 0) 3π 8 = − sin 2π = 0 y = − sin = − sin 3π 4 y = − sin 4 3π ⋅ 3 8 π 2 3π . −1 4 = −1 2 3π ⋅ 3 2 3π . The cycle begins at x = 0. x=0 3π 3π = x=0+ 8 8 3π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 4 3π 3π 9π x= + = 4 8 8 9π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The quarter-period is = − sin 0 = 0 3π 4 4 x is of the form 3 4 y = Asin Bx with A = –1 and B = .1 4 3π = − sin 2 = −(−1) = 1 3π y = − sin 2 ⋅ 3π 3 3π 2 3π 1 3π ⋅ = . −1 8 = −1 4 3π ⋅ 3 4 = − sin π = 0 547 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1. B 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0 2 = − sin π = 0 9π 4 y = − sin 2 9π ⋅ 3 4 9π . 4 2 4 8 The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) = − sin 0 = 0 (3π . x=0 3π 3π x=0+ = 4 4 3π 3π 3π x= + = 4 4 2 3π 3π 9π x= + = 2 4 4 9π 3π x= + = 3π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 3 3π 2π 2π = 4 = 2π ⋅ = .5 The period is 2π 2π 3 = 2 = 2π ⋅ = 3π . 0) 3π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.

Trigonometric Functions


8

y = − sin

4 9π

3 8


,1
8


= − sin
= −(−1) = 1
2

2

4 3π
y = − sin ⋅
3 2


,0
2

x

y = sin(x − π )

coordinates

π

y = sin(π − π )

(π , 0)


2

y = sin

= sin 0 = 0

= sin

= − sin 2π = 0
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.


−π
2

π
2


,1
2

=1

y = sin(2 π − π )


2

y = sin

(2 π , 0)

= sin π = 0

= sin


−π
2


, −1
2


= −1
2

y = sin(3π − π )

(3π , 0 )
= sin 2π = 0
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

17. The equation y = sin(x − π ) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C = π . The
amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
C π
2π 2π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
= = π . The
B
1
B 1
2π π
= . The cycle begins at x = π .
quarter-period is
4
2
Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=π

18. The equation y = sin x −

π


x=π+ =
2
2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
π 5π
x = 2π + =
2
2
5π π
x=
+ = 3π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π
2

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C =

π
2

. The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
π

2π 2π
C 2 π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
= = . The
B
1
B 1 2
2π π
= . The cycle begins at
quarter-period is
4
2
x=

π

. Add quarter-periods to generate
2
x-values for the key points.

548
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x=
x=

Section 4.5
19. The equation y = sin(2 x − π ) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C = π . The
amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
2π 2π
C π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= . The quarterB
2
B 2

π
2

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2


=


2

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
π 5π
x = 2π + =
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=

x

π

π

y = sin x −

π

2

y = sin

π

y = sin π −


2

y = sin

2

π

x=
x=

= sin 0 = 0

2

π
2

= sin

3π π

2
2

π
2

=1

π
2

,0

(π , 1)

y = sin 2π −


,0
2

y = sin

2

π

+

x

π
2

π
2

(2 π , −1)

5π π

2
2

π

=


4

y = sin(2 x − π )
y = sin 2 ⋅

π
2

−π

coordinates

π
2

,0

= sin(π − π )
= sin 0 = 0


= −1
= sin
2

2

π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= sin π = 0

π

2 4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4
4
2

coordinates

2

π

. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
2
periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is


4


,0
2

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin

= sin 2π = 0

= sin

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π


−π
4


,1
4


−π
2

π
2

=1

y = sin(2 ⋅ π − π )
= sin(2 π − π )
= sin π = 0

549

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(π , 0)

Trigonometric Functions


4

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin
= sin


2


−π
4


, −1
4

x


−π
2

π
4


= −1
2

y = sin 2 ⋅

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin


−π
2


,0
2

π

= sin(3π − π )
= sin 2π = 0

2

π
2

y = sin 2 ⋅


4

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin

coordinates

2

π

4

π

π

2

4

π

2

,0

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

= sin π −
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

y = sin 2x −

π

π

π

2

2

= sin

2

3π π

4 2

π
2

,1

=1

,0
4

3π π

2
2

= sin π = 0

20. The equation y = sin 2x −

π
2

π
is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C =

π
2

= sin 2π −
. The

= sin

amplitude is A = 1 = 1.
2π 2π
=
=π.
The period is
B
2


4

π

The phase shift is

C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = .
B 2 2 2 4

The quarter-period is

π

4

The cycle begins at x =

x=

2

π
2

5π π

4 2

5π π

2
2

4
4

+

π

=

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

4


,0
4

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
π

(π , −1)

= sin 2π = 0
. Add quarter-periods to

4
generate x-values for the key points.
x=

π


= −1
2

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin

.

π

y = sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

550
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

21. The equation y = 3sin(2x − π ) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C = π . The
amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is
2π 2π
C π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= . The quarterB
2
B 2

π

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
2
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
period is

x=
x=

π
2

π

+

π

=


4

22. The equation y = 3 sin 2 x −

2 4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4
4
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

π
2

y = 3sin(2x − π )
y = 3sin 2 ⋅

π
2

−π

y = 3sin 2 ⋅


−π
4

,0

π


4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅
= 3 sin


−π
4

π

4

The cycle begins at x =
x=


,3
4

x=

π
4

+

π

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

(π , 0)

4

=

π


, −3
4


2
= 3(−1) = −3

−π
2

π

4


−π
2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

.

π

= 3 sin

2

.

. Add quarter-periods to
4
generate x-values for the key points.

π

= 3 ⋅1 = 3
2
y = 3sin(2 ⋅ π − π )
= 3sin(2 π − π )
= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π


−π
= 3sin
2
= 3sin

π

C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = .
The phase shift is
B 2 2 2 4

= 3sin(π − π )
= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

4

is of the form

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .
2π 2π
=
=π.
The period is
B
2

The quarter-period is

2

2

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C =

coordinates

π

π


,0
2

= 3 sin(3π − π )
= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

551
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

y = 3 sin 2 x −

π

π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅
= sin

π
2

4

π

23.

coordinates

2

π

π

2

4

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

,0

= 3 sin π −
= 3 sin

4

π
2

π

π

2

2

,3

π
2

. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
2
the key points.

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π π
y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

4 2

= 3 sin 2π −
= 3 sin

4

2

π
2

x=0+
x=

(π , − 3)

π
2

+

+

π
2

π
2

2

x

,0
4

π
2

5π π

2
2

π

π
2
=

=0

π
2


2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=π+

π

5π π

4 2

2

x=−


= 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3
2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅
= 3 sin

π

π

x=−


,0
4

= 3 sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0
y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

x=−

3π π
= 3 sin

2
2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A =

2

2

1
π
sin x − −
2
2

1
π
, B = 1, and C = − .
2
2
1
1
The amplitude is A =
= . The period is
2
2
π
2π 2π
C −2
π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
=
=− .
B
B
1
1
2
2π π
The quarter-period is
= . The cycle begins at
4
2

π

π

1
π
π
1
sin x +
= sin x − −
2
2
2
2

The equation y =

= 3 sin 0 = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y=

=

y=

π
1
sin x +
2
2

y=

1
π π
sin − +
2
2 2

=

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0
0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=
=

π
2

y=
=

coordinates

π
2

,0

1
1
sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2
1
π
sin 0 +
2
2

0,

1
2

1
1
π 1
sin = ⋅1 =
2
2
2 2
1
π π
sin
+
2
2 2
1
1
sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

552

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

π
2

,0

PreCalculus 4E

π

Section 4.5

y=

1
π
sin π +
2
2

π, −

1
2

1

sin
2
2
1
1
= ⋅(−1) = −
2
2

=


2

y=

1
3π π
sin
+
2
2
2


,0
2

x

y=

−π

y=

1
sin 2π
2
1
= ⋅0 = 0
2
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
2

=

1
sin(− π + π )
2
1
1
= sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

y=
=

0

π
2

24.

1
1
sin(x + π ) = sin( x − (− π ))
2
2
1
The equation y = sin(x − (−π )) is of the form
2
1
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = , B = 1, and C = −π .
2
1
1
The amplitude is A =
= . The period is
2
2
2π 2π
C −π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
=
= −π .
B
B
1
1
2π π
The quarter-period is
= . The cycle begins at
4
2
x = −π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
the key points.
x = −π
y=

x = −π +
x=−

π
2

x=0+

π

π
2

+

π
2

π
2
=

=−

1
π
sin − + π
2
2

1
sin(0 + π )
2
1
1
= sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

y=

1
π
sin

2
2

(−π , 0 )

π 1
2

,

2

(0, 0)

π
2

,−

1
2

1
3π 1
1
sin
= ⋅ (−1) = −
2
2
2
2

1
sin(π + π )
2
1
1
= sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

y=

(π , 0)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
2

=0

π
2

π

+ =π
2 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=

coordinates

1
1
π 1
sin = ⋅1 =
2
2
2 2

y=

=

π

1
sin(x + π )
2

553

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

25.

y = −2 sin 2x +

π
2

= −2 sin 2 x − −

The equation y = −2 sin 2x − −

π
2

π

x

2

is of the form

π
4

π
2

= −2 sin −

. The amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is
π

0

x=−
x=−

4

x=0+
x=

π
4

+

+

π
4

π

π

=
=

4

=0

π

π
4

,0

2

π
2

(0, –2)

π
2

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅
= −2 sin

4

π
2

π
4

+

π

π

2

4

π

π

2

2

,0

π

+

2

= −2 sin π
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4

π

4

4

2

2
= −2 ⋅1 = −2

4

π

π

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −2 sin

π
π

+

4

+

2

= −2 sin 0 +

π

. The cycle begins at x = − . Add
4
4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.

period is

π

= −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π 2π
=
= π . The
B
2

π 1
π
C −2
=
= − ⋅ = − . The quarterphase shift is
B
2
2 2
4
π

π

coordinates

2

y = −2 sin 2⋅ −

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2,
B = 2, and C = −

π

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

π
2

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

π
2

= −2 sin π +

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

+

,2

π
2


2
= −2(−1) = 2
= −2 sin


4

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅
= −2 sin

3π π
+
4 2


,0
4

3π π
+
2 2

= −2 sin 2π
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

554

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

26.

Section 4.5

y = −3sin 2x +

π
2

= −3sin 2x − −

The equation y = −3sin 2x − −

π
2

π

π

2

4

= −3sin

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2, and C = −

π
2

π
2


π
C
π 1
π
2
=
= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is .
2
2 2
4
4
B

π

4

π
4

+

+

π
4

π
4

π
4
=
=

=0

π
4

x

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

,0

+

π

π

2

2

,3

π
2


,0
4

3π π
+
2
2

π
2

π
4

+

+

π
2

π
4

,0

π
2

= −3sin 0 = −3⋅ 0 = 0
y = −3sin 2 ⋅ 0 +
= −3sin 0 +
= −3sin

4

3π π
+
4 2

coordinates

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ −
= −3sin −

0

2

2

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

4

π

π

+

π

π

π

π

= −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

+


= −3⋅ (−1) = 3
2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅
= −3sin

4

x=0+
x=


4

π
π

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

. Add quarter-periods to
4
generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

2

4

= −3sin π +

π

x=−

π

π

= −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

.

The amplitude is A = −3 = 3. The period is
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
B
2

The cycle begins at x = −

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

π
2

π
2

(0, –3)

π
2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

555
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

27.

y = 3sin(π x + 2)
The equation y = 3sin(π x − (−2)) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = π , and C = –2.
The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is
C −2
2
2π 2π
=
= 2 . The phase shift is
=
= − . The
B π
B
π
π
2 1
quarter-period is = . The cycle begins at
4 2
2
x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 4
3π − 4
y = 3sin π
+2

π

2π − 2

1 π −4
x=− + =
π 2

π − 4 1 π −2
x=
+ =
π
2

π − 2 1 3π − 4
x=
+ =
π
2

3π − 4 1 2π − 2
x=
+ =
π
2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.
2

2

π

y = 3sin π −

2

π

= 3sin


−2 +2
2


2
= 3(−1) = −3

π

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

3π − 4
+2
2

= 3sin

the key points.
2
x=−

x

= 3sin

π

y = 3sin π

2π − 2

π

= 3sin
= 3sin
= 3sin

π −4
2

π
2

2

π

,0

π−4
,3

+2

−2 + 2

π

2
= 3⋅1 = 3

π −2
π −2
π y = 3sin π π + 2

2π − 2

π

,0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

= 3sin(−2 + 2)
= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

π −4
π −4
2π y = 3sin π 2π + 2

+2

= 3sin(2 π − 2 + 2)
= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

coordinates
+2


, −3
4

π −2
,0
π

= 3sin(π − 2 + 2)
= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

556
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

28.

Section 4.5

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4) = 3sin(2π x − (−4))
The equation y = 3sin(2 πx − (−4)) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2π , and
C = –4. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period
C −4
2
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
=
=− .
is
B 2π
B 2π
π
1
The quarter-period is . The cycle begins at
4
2
x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 8
3π − 8
y = 3sin 2π
+4

the key points.
2
x=−

π − 2 y = 3sin 2π π − 2 + 4
π
π
= 3sin(2 π − 4 + 4)
= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π
π

1 π −8
=
4

π −8 1 π − 4
x=
+ =
4


π − 4 1 3π − 8
x=
+ =
4


3π − 8 1 π − 2
x=
+ =
π
4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=−

2

π

x

2

π

+

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4)
y = 3sin 2π −

2

π

= 3sin
= 3sin

2

π
2

π
2

= 3sin


− 4+4
2

= 3sin


= 3(−1) = −3
2

π −2
,0
π

coordinates
+4

π −8
π −8
+4
y = 3sin 2π


π −8

3π − 8
+4
2

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

2

π

,0

29.

= 3sin(−4 + 4)
= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

= 3sin

= 3sin

3π − 8
, −3

π −8
,3

+4

−4 + 4
= 3 ⋅1 = 3

π −4
π−4
2π y = 3sin 2π 2 π + 4

π−4
,0

= 3sin(π − 4 + 4)
= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π ) = −2sin(2π x − (−4π ))
The equation y = −2 sin(2π x − (−4π )) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2, B = 2π , and
C = −4 π . The amplitude is A = −2 = 2 . The
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
period is
B 2π
1
C −4 π
=
= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

4
B
begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x = −2
7
1
x = −2 + = −
4
4
7 1
3
x=− + =−
4 4
2
3 1
5
x=− + =−
2 4
4
5 1
x = − + = −1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

557
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π )

coordinates

–2 y = −2 sin(2π (−2) + 4 π )
= −2 sin(−4π + 4π )
= −2 sin 0
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

(–2, 0)

x

7
7
4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

π
2

7
, −2
4


+ 4π
2

= −2 sin −
= −2 sin

30.

1
7
=−
4
4
7 1
3
x=− + =−
4 4
2
3 1
5
x=− + =−
2 4
4
5 1
x = − + = −1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x = −2 +

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

3
3
2 y = −2 sin 2π − 2 + 4 π

3
− ,0
2

= −2 sin(−3π + 4π )
= −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

5
5
4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π
= −2 sin −

y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π ) = −3 sin(2π x − (−4π ))
The equation y = −3 sin(2 πx − (−4 π )) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2π , and
C = −4π . The amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The
2π 2π
=
= 1 . The phase shift is
period is
B 2π
C −4π
1
=
= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2π
4
begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x = −2

5
,2
4


+ 4π
2

x

y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π )

–2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−2) + 4π )

(–2, 0)

= −3 sin( −4 π + 4π )
= −3 sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0


2
= −2 (−1) = 2
= −2 sin

–1 y = −2 sin(2π (−1) + 4 π )
= −2 sin(−2π + 4π )

coordinates

7
7
4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

(–1, 0)

= −3 sin −

= −2 sin 2π

= −3 sin

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
2

7
, −3
4


+ 4π
2
= −3 ⋅1 = −3

3
3
2 y = −3 sin 2π − 2 + 4π

3
− ,0
2

= −3 sin( −3π + 4π )
= −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

5
5
4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π
= −3 sin −
= −3 sin

–1

5
,3
4


+ 4π
2


= −3(−1) = 3
2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−1) + 4π )
= −3 sin( −2 π + 4π )
= −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

558
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(–1, 0)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

the graph of y = 2 cosx .

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

32. The equation y = 3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
with A = 3. Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .
π

or .
The period is 2π . The quarter-period is
4
2
The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

31. The equation y = 2 cosx is of the form y = Acos x
with A = 2. Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2 .
π

or .
The period is 2π . The quarter-period is
4
2
The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

π
2

π
2

=

x=0+

π

x=

2

y = 2 cosx

2

π

y = 2 cos

π

2
= 2⋅0 = 0

y = 2 cos π

2

,0

(π , − 2)

= 2 ⋅(−1) = −2


2

y = 2 cos


2
= 2⋅0 = 0


,0
2

y = 2 cos2π

(2 π , 2 )

π
2


=


2

y = 3 cos x

0

y = 3 cos 0 = 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

(0, 2)

π

2

2

x

π

coordinates

y = 2 cos0

π

π

x=

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

π

+

2

=

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.


x=π+ =
2
2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

0

2

x=π+

π

x

π

π

y = 3 cos

π
2

coordinates

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = 3 cos π = 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3


2

y = 3 cos

y = 3 cos2 π = 3 ⋅1 = 3


= 3⋅ 0 = 0
2

(0, 3)

π
2

,0

(π , − 3)

,0
2
(2 π , 3)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
and graph one complete cycle of the given function
with the graph of y = cos x .

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function with

559

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions
33. The equation y = −2 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
with A = –2. Thus, the amplitude is
A = −2 = 2 . The period is 2π . The quarterπ

or . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add
period is
4
2
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

π

=

2

π
2

34. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
with A = –3. Thus, the amplitude is A = −3 = 3 .
π

or .
The period is 2π . The quarter-period is
4
2
The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+

π
2

x=


x=π+ =
2
2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

coordinates

0

y = −2 cos 0

(0, –2)

2

π

y = −2 cos

π

2
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = −2 cos π

y = −2 cos

y = −2 cos 2π


2
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

π
2


=


2

y = −3 cos x

0

y = −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

π

,0

(π , 2)

= −2 ⋅ (−1) = 2


2

π

=

x

2

π

+

2

2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

π

2

x=π+

π

y = −2 cos x

π

π


,0
2

y = −3 cos

π
2

coordinates

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3


2

y = −3 cos

y = −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3


= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0
2

(0, –3)

π
2

,0

(π , 3)

,0
2
(2 π , − 3)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function with
the graph of y = cos x .

(2 π , − 2)

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function with
the graph of y = cos x .

560

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

35. The equation y = cos2 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
with A = 1 and B = 2. Thus, the amplitude is
2π 2π
A = 1 = 1. The period is
=
= π . The
B
2

quarter-period is

π

36. The equation y = cos 4 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
with A = 1 and B = 4. Thus, the amplitude is
2π 2π π
A = 1 = 1. The period is
=
= . The
B
4
2
π

. The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=0
x=0+
x=

π
4

+

π
4

π
4

=
=

π

x=0+

4

π

x=

2
π π 3π
x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

y = cos2 x

0

y = cos(2 ⋅ 0)

4

y = cos 2 ⋅
= cos

π
2

π
2

π
8

(0, 1)

π

4

4

π

2

2

y = cos 2 ⋅


4

y = cos(2 ⋅ π )

+

π
8

π

, −1

8

=
=

π
8

π

0

y = cos(4 ⋅ 0) = cos 0 = 1

8

,0

y = cos 4 ⋅

4

y = cos 4 ⋅


8

y = cos 4 ⋅
= cos


,0
4

π


=0
= cos
2

π

π

y = cos 4 x

= cos π = −1

4

=

x

π

π

π

π

=0

y = cos 2 ⋅

π 1

π

coordinates

π

=

4

x= + =
4 8
8
3π π π
x=
+ =
8
8 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= cos 0 = 1

π

2

. The cycle begins at
4 2 4 8
x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
the key points.
x=0

quarter-period is

2

coordinates

π
8

π
4

= cos

π
2

=0

= cos π = −1


8

(0, 1)

π
8

π
4

,0

, −1


,0
8


=0
2

y = cos 4 ⋅

π
2

= cos2 π = 1

π
2

,1

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

(π , 1)

= cos2 π = 1
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

561

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions
37. The equation y = 4 cos2 πx is of the form
y = Acos Bx with A = 4 and B = 2π . Thus, the
amplitude is A = 4 = 4 . The period is
2π 2π
1
=
= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2π
4
begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x=0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

x

y = 4 cos2 πx

0

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

38. The equation y = 5 cos2 πx is of the form
y = Acos Bx with A = 5 and B = 2π . Thus, the
amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . The period is
2π 2π
1
=
= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2π
4
begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x=0

coordinates

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

(0, 4)

= 4 cos 0
= 4 ⋅1 = 4
1
4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅
= 4 cos

1
4

1
,0
4

π

2
= 4 ⋅0 = 0
1
2

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

1
2

1
, −4
2

3
4

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅
= 5 cos

3
,0
4


2
= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1
2

= 4 cos

1

0
1
4

= 4 ⋅ (−1) = −4
y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

y = 5 cos2 πx

coordinates
(0, 5)

= 5 cos 0 = 5 ⋅1 = 5

= 4 cos π
3
4

x

π
2

1
4

1
,0
4

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

1
2

1
, −5
2

= 5 cos π = 5 ⋅ (−1) = −5

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅1)

(1, 4)

3
4

= 4 cos2 π
= 4 ⋅1 = 4

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅
= 5 cos

1


4

3
,0
4


= 5⋅ 0 = 0
2

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅1)
= 5 cos2 π = 5 ⋅1 = 5

562

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(1, 5)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y = −4 cos

1
⋅ 3π
2

(3π , 0 )


2
= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0
= −4 cos

y = −4 cos

1
⋅ 4π
2

(4π , – 4)

= −4 cos 2π
= −4 ⋅1 = −4

1
x is of the form
2
1
y = Acos Bx with A = –4 and B = . Thus, the
2
amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . The period is
2π 2π
= 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . The quarter-period is
B

39. The equation y = −4 cos

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

2


= π . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0
x = 0 +π = π

1
40. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form
3
1
y = Acos Bx with A = –3 and B = . Thus, the
3
amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The period is
2π 2π
= 1 = 2π ⋅3 = 6π . The quarter-period is
B

x = π + π = 2π
x = 2π + π = 3π
x = 3π + π = 4 π
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x
0

y = −4 cos
y = −4 cos

1
x
2
1
⋅0
2

coordinates

3

6π 3π
=
. The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4
2
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

(0, –4)

= −4 cos 0

3π 3π
=
2
2
3π 3π
x=
+
= 3π
2
2
3π 9π
x = 3π +
=
2
2
9π 3π
x=
+
= 6π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

π

y = −4 cos
= −4 cos

1
⋅π
2

x=0+

(π , 0)

π

2
= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

y = −4 cos

1
⋅ 2π
2

(2 π , 4)

= −4 cos π
= −4 ⋅ (−1) = 4

563

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

1
y = −3 cos x
3

0

y = −3 cos

x=0
coordinates

1
⋅0
3

3 3
=
2 2
3 3
x = + =3
2 2
3 9
x= 3+ =
2 2
9 3
x = + =6
2 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

(0, –3)

= −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

2

y = −3 cos
= −3 cos

1 3π

3 2

π
2

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

1
y = −3 cos ⋅ 3π
3


,0
2

(3π , 3)

= −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

2

y = −3 cos
= −3 cos

y = −3 cos

1 9π

3 2

x

y=−

π
1
cos x
3
2

0

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅ 0
3
2


,0
2

0, −

1
2

1
cos0
2
1
1
= − ⋅1 = −
2
2
=−


= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0
2
1
⋅ 6π
3

coordinates

3
2

(6π , − 3)

y=−

π 3
1
cos ⋅
3 2
2

3
,0
2

π
1
cos
2
2
1
= − ⋅0 = 0
2

= −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

=−

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.
3

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅3
3
2

3,

1
2

1
cos π
2
1
1
= − ⋅(−1) =
2
2

=−

9
2

π
1
cos x is of the form
3
2
π
1
y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the
3
2
1
1
= . The period is
amplitude is A = −
2
2
2π 2π
3
6 3
= π = 2π ⋅ = 6 . The quarter-period is = .
B
π
4 2

41. The equation y = −

y=−

1
π 9
cos ⋅
3 2
2

9
,0
2


1
cos
2
2
1
= − ⋅0 = 0
2

=−

6

3

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅6
3
2

1
cos2π
2
1
1
= − ⋅1 = −
2
2

=−

The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.

564

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6, −

1
2

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=−

6

=−
y=−

8

1
π
cos ⋅6
4
2

(6, 0)


1
1
cos
= − ⋅0 = 0
2
2
2

π
1
cos ⋅8
4
2

8, −

1
2

1
1
1
cos2π = − ⋅1 = −
2
2
2
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.
=−

π
1
cos x is of the form
4
2
π
1
y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the
4
2
1
1
= . The period is
amplitude is A = −
2
2
2π 2π
4
8
= π = 2π ⋅ = 8 . The quarter-period is 4 = 2 .
B
π

42. The equation y = −

4

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

π⎞

43. The equation y = cos ⎜ x − ⎟ is of the form
2⎠

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

x = 0 +2 = 2
x= 2+ 2 = 4

π

x = 4 +2 = 6

C=

x = 6 +2 = 8
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

period is

x

y=−

1
π
cos x
2
4

0

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅ 0
4
2

=−
2

y=−
=−

4

=−

1
2

cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter-periods to
2
generate x-values for the key points.
x=

(2, 0)

x=

π
1
1
cos = − ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2
2

π
1
y = − cos ⋅ 4
4
2

2π 2π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
B
1

2π π
C 2 π
=
= . The quarter-period is
= . The
4
2
B 1 2

1
1
1
cos0 = − ⋅1 = −
2
2
2

π
1
cos ⋅2
4
2

A = 1 = 1 . The

π

coordinates
0, −

. Thus, the amplitude is

2

π
2

π
2

+

x =π +

π
2

π


=


2

2
3π π
+ = 2π
x=
2
2
π 5π
x = 2π + =
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1
4,
2

1
1
1
cos π = − ⋅ (−1) =
2
2
2

565

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

π

x

coordinates

π
2

⎛π ⎞
⎜ 2 , 1⎟

x=−

π

(π , 0 )

x =0+


2

⎛ 3π

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

( 2π , 0 )


2

⎛ 5π ⎞
⎜ 2 , 1⎟

x=−

x=

2

period is

π
2

π

+

2

π
2

π
2
=

=0

π
2


=
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

. Thus, the amplitude is

π

x

coordinates

π

⎛ π ⎞
⎜ − 2 , 1⎟

π⎞

44. The equation y = cos ⎜ x + ⎟ is of the form
2⎠

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and
π

+

2

x =π +

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

C=−

2

π

2

0

( 0, 0 )

π
2

⎛π

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

π

(π , 0 )


2

⎛ 3π ⎞
⎜ 2 , 1⎟

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

A = 1 = 1 . The

2π 2π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
B
1

π


2π π
C
π
= 2 = − . The quarter-period is
= . The
4
2
B
1
2
cycle begins at x = −

π

. Add quarter-periods to
2
generate x-values for the key points.

566
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PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

45. The equation y = 3cos(2x − π ) is of the form
y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 3, and B = 2, and

46. The equation y = 4 cos(2x − π ) is of the form
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 4, and B = 2, and C = π .
Thus, the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. The period is
C π
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= . The
B 2
B
2

C = π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The
C π
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= .
period is
B 2
B
2
The quarter-period is

π

. The cycle begins at x =

π

4
2
Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=
x=

π

x=

2

π

+

π

=

π

π

. The cycle begins at x = . Add
4
2
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.

quarter-period is

.

π
2

π 3π
+ =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4 4
2


4

x=

2 4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4 4
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

coordinates

π

π

2

2

x

,3

coordinates

π

π

2

2

,4


4


,0
4


4


,0
4

π

(π , − 3)

π

(π , − 4)


4


,0
4


4


,0
4


2


,4
2


2


,3
2

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

567
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

47.

1
1
π
π
= cos 3x − −
cos 3x +
2
2
2
2

y=

The equation y =

1
π
cos 3x − −
2
2

is of the form

1
, and B = 3, and
2
1
1
π
= . The
C = − . Thus, the amplitude is A =
2
2
2
2π 2π
=
. The phase shift is
period is
B
3
π
π 1
π
C −2
=
= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is
3
2 3
6
B
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A =

π

1
1
cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π ))
2
2
1
The equation y = cos(2 x − (−π )) is of the form
2
1
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = , and B = 2, and
2
1
1
C = −π . Thus, the amplitude is A =
= . The
2
2
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
period is
B
2
C −π
π
π
=
= − . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2
2
4

6

begins at x = −

48.


3

π
2π 1 π
=
⋅ = . The cycle begins at x = − . Add
4
3 4 6
6
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=−
x=−

π
6

π
6

x=0+

π

x=

6

π

x=

+
+

π

+

=0

6

π

=

6

π
6

π

=
=

π
6

3

π

x=−

0

x=−

π 1
,
6 2

π

6

6

,−

π

π

3

3

π
2

π
2

π
4

x=0+

(0, 0)

π

π

x=−

coordinates

π

. Add quarter-periods to generate x2
values for the key points.

π

3 6 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

y=

x=

π

+
+

π
4

π

π
4

π
4
=

=−

π
4

=0

π
4

π

+ =
4 4 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1
2

,0

π 1

,
2 2
2
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

568
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x

π
2

π
4

Section 4.5

49. The equation y = −3 cos 2x −


π 1
,
2 2

π
4

B = 2, and C =

,0

π
2

. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −3 = 3. The period is
π

0

1
0, −
2

π

π

4

4

π 1
2

,

. The cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter4
4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.

,0

2

π

2π 2π
=
= π . The
B
2

C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period
B 2 2 2 4

phase shift is
is

π

π

is of the form
2
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –3, and

coordinates

x=

2

x=

π
4

π

π

π

x

4

=

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

4

+

π

coordinates

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −3

,0


4


,3
4

π

(π , 0)


4


, −3
4

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

569
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

50. The equation y = −4 cos 2x −

π

51.

is of the form

2
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –4, and B = 2, and

C=

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 .

The period is
π

2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
B
2

π
C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period is . The
4
B 2 2 2 4
cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter-periods to
4
generate x-values for the key points.
x=
x=

π
4

π
4

+

π

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

x

4

=

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −4


,4
4

π

(π , 0)


4


, −4
4

coordinates

–4

(–4, 2)

15
4

7
2

7
− , −2
2

13
4

,0


4

x

coordinates

π

y = 2 cos(2π x + 8π ) = 2 cos(2πx − (−8π ))
The equation y = 2 cos(2π x − (−8π )) is of the form
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 2, B = 2π , and C = −8π .
Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2. The period is
C −8π
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
=
= −4 . The
B 2π
B 2π
1
quarter-period is . The cycle begins at x = –4. Add
4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x = −4
1
15
x = −4 + = −
4
4
15 1
7
x=− + =−
4 4
2
7 1
13
x=− + =−
2 4
4
13 1
x = − + = −3
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

–3

15
,0
4

13
,0
4

(–3, 2)

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
and graph one complete cycle of the given function.

570
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

52.

Section 4.5

y = 3cos(2πx + 4 π ) = 3 cos(2πx − (−4π ))
The equation y = 3cos(2πx − (−4π )) is of the form
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 3, and B = 2π , and
C = −4π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
period is
B 2π
1
C −4π
=
= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
4
B 2π
begins at x = –2. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x = −2
1
7
x = −2 + = −
4
4
7 1
3
x=− + =−
4 4
2
3 1
5
x=− + =−
2 4
4
5 1
x = − + = −1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x
–2

53. The graph of y = sin x + 2 is the graph of y = sin x
shifted up 2 units upward. The period for both

π
functions is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The
4
2
cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2

π
2

=

π
2


=


2

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=

x

y = sin x + 2

coordinates

0

y = sin 0 + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

(0, 2)

coordinates

π

(–2, 3)

2

7
,0
4

π

y = sin π + 2
= 0 +2 = 2


2

y = sin

y = sin 2π + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

7
4

3
2

3
− , −3
2

5
4


,0
4

–1
(–1, 3)
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

+2
2
=1 +2 = 3

y = sin


+2
2
= −1 + 2 = 1

π
2

,3

(π , 2)

,1
2

(2 π , 2 )

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

571
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions
54. The graph of y = sin x − 2 is the graph of y = sin x
shifted 2 units downward. The period for both

π
functions is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The
4
2
cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2

π
2

=

55. The graph of y = cos x − 3 is the graph of y = cos x
shifted 3 units downward. The period for both

π
functions is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The
4
2
cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

π

x=0+

2


=

x=


2

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

y = sin x − 2

0

y = sin 0 − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

2

y = sin

2

+

x=π+

π
2

π

y = sin π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2


2

y = sin

y = sin 2π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2


− 2 = −1 − 2 = −3
2

π
2

π
2

π
2


=


2

x=

coordinates

− 2 = 1 − 2 = −1

2

=

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

π

π

π

(0, –2)

π
4

, −1

x

y = cos x − 3

coordinates

0

y = cos 0 − 3
= 1 − 3 = −2

(0, –2)

π

y = cos

π

−3
2
= 0 − 3 = −3

(π , − 2)

2


, −3
2

π

y = cos π − 3
= −1 − 3 = − 4


2

y = cos

y = cos2 π − 3
= 1 − 3 = −2

(2 π , − 2)

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.


−3
2
= 0 − 3 = −3

π
2

, −3

(π , − 4)

, −3
2

(2 π , − 2)

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

572
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

x=0
x = 0 +π = π
x = π + π = 2π
x = 2π + π = 3π
x = 3π + π = 4 π
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

56. The graph of y = cos x + 3 is the graph of y = cos x
shifted 3 units upward. The period for both functions

π
is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The cycle
4
2
begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2

π
2

=

π
2


=

x

y = 2sin

0

y = 2sin


2

x

y = cos x + 3

0

y = cos 0 + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

2

(0, 1)

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

y = cos

1
⋅0 +1
2

coordinates

= 2sin 0 + 1

x=

π

1
x +1
2

π
2

π

= 2sin

(0, 4)

π
2

,3

π

y = cos π + 3 = −1 + 3 = 2

(π , 2)


2

y = cos


+3 = 0 + 3 = 3
2


,3
2

y = cos2 π + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

(2 π , 4)

1
⋅π + 1
2

(π , 3)

π

+1
2
= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

coordinates

+3 = 0+ 3= 3

y = 2sin

y = 2sin

1
⋅ 2π + 1
2

(2 π , 1)

= 2sin π + 1
= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

y = 2sin

1
⋅ 3π + 1
2

(3π , − 1)


+1
2
= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1
= −2 + 1 = −1
= 2sin

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

y = 2sin

1
⋅ 4π + 1
2

(4π , 1)

= 2sin 2π + 1
= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1
By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.
1

57. The graph of y = 2sin 2 x + 1 is the graph
1

of y = 2sin 2 x shifted one unit upward. The
amplitude for both functions is 2 = 2. The period

for both functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter2


period is
= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add
4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.

573
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

1
58. The graph of y = 2 cos x + 1 is the graph of
2
1
y = 2 cos x shifted one unit upward. The amplitude
2
for both functions is 2 = 2. The period for both

functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter-period is
2


= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0
x = 0 +π = π
x = π + π = 2π
x = 2π + π = 3π
x = 3π + π = 4 π
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

1
y = 2 cos x + 1
2

0

y = 2 cos

1
⋅0 +1
2

59. The graph of y = −3 cos2 πx + 2 is the graph of
y = −3 cos2 πx shifted 2 units upward. The amplitude
for both functions is −3 = 3. The period for both
1

= 1. The quarter-period is . The
functions is
4

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

coordinates

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

(0, 3)

= 2 cos0 + 1
= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

π

y = 2 cos
= 2 cos

1
⋅π + 1
2

(π , 1)

π

+1
2
= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

y = 2 cos

1
⋅ 2π + 1
2

x

y = −3 cos2 πx + 2

0

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 0) + 2
= −3 cos 0 + 2
= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2
= −3 + 2 = −1

(2 π , − 1)

= 2 cos π + 1
= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1 = − 2 + 1 = −1

y = 2 cos

1
⋅ 3π + 1
2

1
4
(3π , 1)

= −3 cos

y = 2 cos

1
⋅ 4π + 1
2

π

2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

(4π , 3)
1
2

= 2 cos2π + 1
= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

1
+2
4

coordinates
(0, –1)

1
,2
4

+2

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

1
+2
2

= −3 cos π + 2
= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2
= 3 +2 = 5

574
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1
,5
2

PreCalculus 4E

3
4

Section 4.5

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

3
+2
4

3
,2
4


+2
2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

x

y = −3sin 2πx + 2

0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) + 2
= −3sin 0 + 2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

= −3 cos

1

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 1) + 2
= −3 cos2 π + 2
= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2
= −3 + 2 = −1

1
4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

(1, –1)

= −3sin

1
+2
4

coordinates
(0, 2)

1
, −1
4

π

+2
2
= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2 = −3 + 2 = −1

1
2

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

1
+2
2

1
,2
2

= −3sin π + 2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

3
4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

3
+2
4

3
,5
4


+2
2
= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5
= −3sin

1

60. The graph of y = −3sin 2πx + 2 is the graph of
y = −3 sin 2πx shifted two units upward. The
amplitude for both functions is A = −3 = 3. The

= 1. The quarterperiod for both functions is

1
period is . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter–
4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 1) + 2
= −3sin 2π + 2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

(1, 2)

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

61. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 ,
The period is 4π and thus

2π 1
B=
=
=
period 4π 2
y = A cos Bx

y = 3cos

1
x
2

575
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

62. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 , The
period is 4π and thus

2π 1
=
=
B=
period 4π 2
y = A sin Bx

y = 3sin

67.

1
x
2

63. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,
The period is π and thus


=
=2
B=
period π
y = A sin Bx

68.

y = −2sin 2 x
64. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,
The period is 4π and thus


=
=2
B=
period π
y = A cos Bx

69.

y = −2cos 2 x
65. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 , The
period is 4 and thus

2π π
=
=
B=
period
4
2

70.

y = A sin Bx
⎛π
y = 2sin ⎜
⎝2


x⎟

66. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 ,
The period is 4 and thus

2π π
=
=
B=
period
4
2
y = A cos Bx

71.

⎛π ⎞
y = 2 cos ⎜ x ⎟
⎝2 ⎠

72.

576
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

a. The period of the physical cycle is 33 days. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 is of the form 365 C⎞ ⎛ y = A sin B ⎜ x − ⎟ + D with B⎠ ⎝ 85.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.5 84. 38) corresponds to 3 P.M. The period of the intellectual cycle is 23 days. In the month of February. (0. 577 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The function y = 3sin 78. A = 3 = 3. The shortest day of the year will have the least hours of daylight. the physical cycle is at a minimum on February 18. Thus. 74. the author should not run in a marathon on February 18. A = 3 and B = 80. The information gives the five key point of the graph. Thus. This occurs when the sine function equals –1. (12. The period is c. (0. (6. 76. 53) corresponds to 6 P. 77. The amplitude is b. By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph information from noon to midnight. (3. 10) corresponds to December. (9. Inc. 38) corresponds to 9 P. (12. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(−1) + 12 y = 3sin y=9 There will be 9 hours of daylight. In the month of March. the author should begin writing the on February 11. 14) corresponds to June By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph the information from June of one year to June of the following year. This occurs when the sine function equals 1. 14) corresponds to June. 75. 2π . 82. Extend the graph one cycle to the right to graph the information for 0 ≤ x ≤ 24. 12) corresponds to September. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (6. because the emotional cycle is at a maximum.. 23) corresponds to Midnight.. In the month of February. 365 2π 2π 365 = 2π = 2π ⋅ = 365 . B 2π 365 y = 15 There will be 15 hours of daylight. the intellectual cycle is at a maximum on February 11. The information gives the five key points of the graph. 79..M. 83. The longest day of the year will have the most hours of daylight. . 12) corresponds to March. (9.M. d. March 21 would be the best day to meet an on-line friend for the first time. Answers may vary. 73. 2π y = 3sin ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(1) + 12 81. Answers may vary. (3. 23) corresponds to Noon. The period of the emotional cycle is 28 days.

Using a calculator we have the following points.25 = 261. 26. The depth of the water is modeled by y = 3cos 2π 6 = ⋅ = 4 . D = 9.75 + 91.5 + 91.5. 40) (12. Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 6 feet to a maximum of 12 feet. The amplitude is A = 16 = 16 . B = π 6 .25 x = 170.1) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain the graph for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 .07) (79. 9.25 + 91. 9 feet. A = 3. the curve oscillates about the middle value. The cycle begins at x = 79. 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π ⎞ ⎟ + 40 is in the ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) + D with A = 16. x=4 The amplitude is 3. The C phase shift is = 79 . Thus. starting on January 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 40) (7.25 . πx 6 +9. The period is 365.75 x = 352.25. Thus.07) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain one period of the graph. 9) (365. or 12 hours. x = 4+3 = 7 x = 7 + 3 = 10 x = 10 + 3 = 13 x = 13 + 3 = 16 Because we are graphing for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 .25 = 352. (0. The cycle begins at x = 4. The highest average monthly temperature is 56° in July.75. we will evaluate the function for the first four xvalues along with x = 0 and x = 365. Add 4 quarter-periods to find the x-values of the key points. 56) (10. The period is 12. 2π . 2π ⎛π 86. 15) (261. Add quarter4 periods to find the x-values for the key points. 12) (170. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12-0. x = 79 x = 79 + 91. 9. Inc. Thus. . 12) (352. 3 2π 2π 6 The period is = π = 2π ⋅ = 12 .5 x = 261.Trigonometric Functions e. The phase B π 6 and C = C = shift is B 2π 3 π 6 B= 2π π = 12 6 Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . (1.25 = 444 Because we are graphing for 0 ≤ x ≤ 365 .25 = 170. Using a calculator we have the following points. 578 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The function y = 16 sin ⎜ x − 3 ⎝6 87. The quarter-period is B 365 = 91. The maximum depth of the water is 3 feet above 9 feet. 24) (4. along with x = 1 and x = 12. The quarter-period is 3 π 12 = 3 . we will evaluate the function for the three x-values between 1 and 12.

The cycle begins at x = = . C = π . The function ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ y = 0. and −1 ≤ y ≤ 1 for our graph. Thus. B = 2π . and A = 3 = 3 . Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 3 feet to a maximum of 5 feet. B = 2. B = C = −π . 101. and C = −π . The amplitude is y = A cos( Bx − C ) + D with A = 3. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. B = 2. We choose ≤ x ≤ 2 2 our graph. The amplitude is period is A = 3 = 3 . and B 2 2 2 2 −4 ≤ y ≤ 4 for our graph. Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . The depth of the water is modeled by y = cos π . Answers may vary. or 12 hours. B 2 B 2 Because D = 5.5 88. and 0 ≤ y ≤ 10 for upward. The 2π 2π = = 1 . and 10 A = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. We choose B π 10 −10 ≤ x ≤ 30 . The cycle begins at B 2π π C π 1 1 1 9 = 2 = ⋅ = . The graphs appear to be the same from − x= 579 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 89.2sin ⎜ x − (−π ) ⎟ is of the ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 0. period is C π 2π 2π = = π . Inc. The +4. 4 4 B 2π 2 2π 4 and −3 ≤ y ≤ 3 for our graph. The period is 12.2 = 0. A = 1. π⎞ ⎛ 102.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The maximum depth of the water is 1 foot above 4 feet. The amplitude is period is 2π π = 12 6 at x = πx 6 2π 2π 10 = π = 2π ⋅ = 20 . The function y = 3sin(2 x + π ) = 3sin(2 x − (−π )) is of 104. the graph has a vertical shift 5 units π 5π . Thus. . π 2 to π 2 . The D = 5.2 . The cycle begins at B 2 C −π π π 3π x= = = − . D = 4. 4 feet. We choose ≤ x ≤ . 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π B= 103. the curve oscillates about the middle value. A = −2 = 2 .2. We choose − ≤ x ≤ . Thus. The function y = −2 cos ⎜ 2π x − ⎟ is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx − C ) with A = –2. The cycle begins B π 10 C −π 10 = π = −π ⋅ = −10 . The function y = 3sin(2 x − π ) + 5 is of the form the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 3. The period is 105.2 sin ⎜ x + π ⎟ = 0. The amplitude is 2π 2π = = π . and C= π 2 . – 100.

1. Inc. except not smooth. makes sense 107. Explanations will vary. ⎡ π 23π π ⎤ .Trigonometric Functions 110. does not make sense. ⎥ by [ −3. Thus the range is [ −3. 114. 116. B= 2π 2π = = 2π period 1 C C = = −2 B 2π C = −4π y = A cos( Bx − C ) y = 22. 113. −1. A = π 109.17 y = π cos(2π x + 4π ) or y = π cos [ 2π ( x + 2) ] 580 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since A = 1 and D = −2. Thus the range is [ −5. b.04) + 57. ⎥ by [ −5. ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ 108. Answers may vary.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . makes sense 115. 111. except the amplitude is greater and the curve is less smooth. a.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . a.61sin(0. Since A = 3 and D = −2. ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ The graph is very similar to y = sin x . the maximum will occur at 1 − 2 = −1 and the minimum will occur at −1 − 2 = −3 . b. . the maximum will occur at 3 − 2 = 1 and the minimum will occur at −3 − 2 = −5 .50 x − 2. Sample explanation: It may be easier to start at the highest point.1] The graph is similar to y = sin x . . 106. −1] ⎡ π 7π π ⎤ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. makes sense The graphs appear to be the same from − π 2 to π 2 112.

3π π 2π π + − − 4 4 = 4 = 2 = −π 2 2 2 4 122. − 120. Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − π 2 − π π 2 < x+ < x+ π π 4 − < π π 2 < π − π 4 4 4 2 4 2π π 2π π − − <x< − 4 4 4 4 π 3π − <x< 4 4 ⎧ 3π π⎫ ⎛ 3π π ⎞ . .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. a. 2 119.5 117. ⎟ < x < ⎬ or ⎜ − ⎨x − 4 4 ⎝ 4 4⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 581 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = cos x = + cos 2 x 2 2 The reciprocal function is undefined. Inc. y = sin 2 x = 1 1 − cos 2 x 2 2 − 121. 1 1 118. b.

An xintercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. . to graph one full period of y = cot x . 0). the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 . the x-intercept. Midway between x = 0 and x = 2 is x = 1. Solve the equations π 2 x = 0 and x=0 π 2 x =π x= π π 2 2. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 4 π of y = 3 tan 2 x from − 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ 2 . Solve the equations 2 x = − x= − π and 2 π 2x = x= 4 and x = 2 π 4 π .Trigonometric Functions Section 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Midway between these asymptotes is x = 4 0. 0). 0+π π x-intercept = = 2 2 582 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 0 and x = π . An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. 1 Because the coefficient of the cotangent is . x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. x = 0 and x 2 1 π = 2. Inc. to graph one full period of π Thus. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . − π An x-intercept is π 3. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. Solve the equations x− π 2 =− x= π π and 2 π x− π 2 = π 2 π π x= + − 2 2 2 2 x=0 x =π Thus. The 2 2 curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. In order to graph for 3π <x< . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. 0 ⎟ . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Continue the pattern 2⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. and the points midway between to graph one period π 4 to π 4 and the graph passes through π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. ⎝ ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. Use the two asymptotes.6 Check Point Exercises 1.

⎜ . Thus. . 2). Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 2⎠ ⎝ 4. . Section 4. 2. C π π . π= C= π 2 +C π 2 π⎞ ⎛ The function is y = − tan ⎜ x − ⎟ . y = 2 cos 2 x . Evaluating the function at each 4 2 4 value of x. ⎜ . The graph has an asymptote at π . and π . 2 C C There is no phase shift. Thus. . −2 ⎟ . 2) .6 π⎞ ⎛ vertical asymptotes of y = csc ⎜ x + ⎟ . 4⎠ ⎝ 1. amplitude: A = 2 = 2 C=− 2π 2π period: = =π B 2 π 2 The function with C = − π . 5. = =0 B 1 C =0 The function with C = 0 is y = − tan x . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. ⎜ . The graph has an asymptote at x = 0 . from to 0 is − units. The graph has an asymptote at x = − The phase shift. the x-values are π π 3π 0. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 2.PreCalculus 4E 4. 2 2⎠ ⎝ The graph has an asymptote at x = π . Use the first four points graph for − 4 4 3π units to the left. Use quarter-periods. . 0 ⎟ .6 π⎞ ⎛ The x-intercepts of y = sin ⎜ x + ⎟ correspond to 4⎠ ⎝ Exercise Set 4. . In order to 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 3π 3π ≤x≤ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. (π . 2 2 B C C = = −π B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = tan( x + π ) . from to − is −π units. Thus. to find x-values for the five 4 key points. Use the and extend the graph − 4 graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. π 2 . Starting with x = 0. and use them as guides to graph y = 2sec 2 x . 583 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ⎟ . π π⎞ ⎛ is y = tan ⎜ x + ⎟ . C π π The phase shift. 2 2 B C C π = =− 2 B 1 3. Inc.

the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 π . Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. x from −2π to 4 2π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. π 4 and 2 x = x= x= π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. 0). Because the coefficient of the tangent is . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 4 . x = −2π and x x = 2π . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. 0). 1 0). x = − and 4 2 π 1 x = . −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 7. − π π to . −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Inc. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. π Solve the equations π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . to graph one full period of y = 3 tan from 4 −2π to 2π . Solve the equations 2 x = − π 2 − π2 x= 2 x=− Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. x = −2π and x = 2π .Trigonometric Functions 5. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. to graph one full period of y = tan 2 x from 2 4 x-intercept = 6. 584 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ Solve the equations x = ⎜ − ⎟ 4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0.

the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. Section 4. Inc. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Continue 2 the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right.6 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. 4 4 Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. x = −π and x = π . to graph one full period of y = −2 tan x 2 from −π to π . 0). to graph one full 1 period of y = −3 tan x from −π to π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . x = − x= − π π 4 π 4 10. − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0.PreCalculus 4E 8. 0). Because the coefficient of the tangent is –2. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . 9. to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 2 x from π to . . Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− x= and 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x =π Thus. Because the coefficient of the tangent is –3. Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− and x= 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x=π Thus. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 π 4 . 0). −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 585 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. and . x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Solve the equations 2x = − x= π and 2 x = 2 −2 2 π x=− x= π x= 4 π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. x = −π and 1 x = π . −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0.

Thus. 0) . Solve the equations x −π = − x=− x= π and 2 π 2 +π x −π = 13.Trigonometric Functions 11. The phase shift. ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 2 π +π 2 3π x= 2 x= π π 2 3π . The graph has an asymptote at 12. The function with C = 0 and A = –1 is y = − cot x . x = π 4 3π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. Continue the pattern 4⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. Continue the pattern y = tan( x − π ) from 2 2 and extend the graph another full period to the right. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = and the graph passes through and 1. C π π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. B 1 2 π Thus. There is no phase shift. 0 ⎟ . to graph one full period of and x = 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . 2⎠ ⎝ 4 3π 2π 4 = 4 =π 2 2 4 + 586 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. to graph one full period of 2 π 3π to . and x = 2 x-intercept = 4 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 π 2 and 1. 3π . and x = 13. 14. An x-intercept is π π 2 Thus. Solve the equations x− π 4 =− π and 2 2π π + x=− 4 4 x=− π 4 x− π 4 = 2 2π π + x= 4 4 3π x= 4 3π and x = . Inc. A = –1. . from 0 to is units. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Publishing as Prentice Hall. C C = =0 B 1 C =0 Because the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − π C= π 2 The function with C = π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = − cot ⎜ x − ⎟ . B 2 2 C C π = = Thus. x = − π 2 + 32π 42π 4π = = =π 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π and the graph passes through (π . 4 − x-intercept = π 4 2 .

The graph has an asymptote at −π . 0 ⎟ . B C C = = −π Thus. x = 0 2 1 and x = π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. to graph one full period of y = cot x . 0 ⎟ . . B 1 2 B 2 2 C=− The function with C = − π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . C . π and the graph passes through intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 17. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = cot( x + π ) . 587 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. from 0 to −π is −π units. 0 +π π x-intercept = = 2 2 . to graph one full period of y = 2 cot x . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Thus. Inc. Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = 0 and x = π . The phase shift. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. x-intercept = π and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . from 0 to − is − units. Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 1 . 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. The graph has an asymptote at − π 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 2⎠ ⎝ An x-intercept is 0+π π = 2 2 2 1 2 1 and − . consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown.6 15. The phase shift. Two An x-intercept is 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . the points on the graph midway between an x2 16. 2 C π π C C π = =− .

to graph one full period of y = cot 2 x . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 1 . Solve the equations π 2 x=0 x=0 and π 2 x =π x= π π 2 1 intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 1 and − . 0). x = 0 and x = π 2 . 0 ⎟ . x = 0 and x = 2. Solve the equations 2 x = 0 x=0 and 2x = π x= π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . 2 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. to graph one full period of y = −3cot π x . Solve the equations 2 x = 0 and x=0 2x = π x= The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. .Trigonometric Functions 19. 20. 588 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Inc. to graph one full period of y = 2 cot 2 x . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. 0 ⎟ . π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . The curve is repeated along the x-axis 2 one full period as shown. 0+2 2 x-intercept = = =1 2 2 An x-intercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. x = 0 2 π 1 and x = . the points on the graph midway between an x2 21. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is –3. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 2.

x = − 2 2 π 2 and . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is – 2. . π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . to graph one full period of y = −2cot π 24. 2 2⎠ ⎝ 589 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Solve the equations x+ π 4 =0 and x =0− x . 4 x-intercept = 23. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 3. 0+4 4 x-intercept = = =2 2 2 An x-intercept is 2 and the graph passes through ( 2. Inc. Solve the equations π π and 2 π π⎞ ⎛ x = . x+ π π 4 =π x =π − 4 π π 4 3π x= 4 4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π 2 =0 and x =0− x=− π 2 π 2 x+ π 2 x= π π 2 4 and the graph passes through and –3. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 3. to graph one full period of y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . x = 0 and x = 4 . to graph one full period of 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . 0). x =π x= π π 4 x=4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 4. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 =π x =π − and − π4 + 34π 24π π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is x+ 4 3π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The curve is repeated along the x4⎠ ⎝ axis one full period as shown. Solve the equations π 4 π x = 0 and 4 x=0 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − π2 + π2 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. 0 ) . x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. The curve is repeated along the x- x=− 4 axis one full period as shown. 0 ⎟ .6 22. x = − π 4 3π and x = .

Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. The x-intercepts of y = 3sin 4 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = 3csc 4 x . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The x-intercepts of y = −3cos π 2 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = −3sec π x . amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. 0) . 3 ⎟ . Draw the vertical asymptotes. 0). − 3 ⎟ . Draw the 2 2 vertical asymptotes. 0). 1 cos 2π x corresponds to 2 1 vertical asymptotes of y = sec 2π x . the key points are (0. π 2 x. to find x-values for the 2 five key points. the x-values are π 3π . and use them as a guide to 1 sketch the graph of y = sec 2π x . Use ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ these key points to graph y = 3sin x from 0 to 2π . Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. Evaluating the function at 0. and 2π . and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = 3csc 4 x . 2 2 each value of x. and use them as guides to graph y = 3csc x . . and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = −3sec 29. The x-intercepts of y = − sin corresponds to 2 2 1 x vertical asymptotes of y = − csc . The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 3 and B = 1. Graph the reciprocal sine function. . π . π . ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ . ⎜ . Inc. 2 2 28.Trigonometric Functions 1 x 25. The x-intercepts of y = 590 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 3sin x . 26. 2 27. and (2π . and use them as a guide to 1 x sketch the graph of y = − csc . (π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Starting with x = 0.

to find x-values for the five key points. Starting with x = 0. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. and use 1 x them as guides to graph y = csc . 0). 0). and use them as guides to graph y = 2cscx. 2 2 31. The 2 4 3 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . (4π . . y = 2sin x . y = 1 x sin . 2 ⎟ . π . Evaluating the function at each value of x. and use them as guides to graph 3 x y = csc . and 2π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2π . and 8π . (π . π . ⎟ . ⎜ 2π . 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Use these key points to graph y = 2sin x from 0 to 2π . and (2π . y = Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. The 2 2 1 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . ⎜ 3π . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. − 2 ⎟ . 4π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. π . 2 1 1 amplitude: A = = 2 2 2π 2π period: = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. Starting with x = 0. 3 x sin . Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ π . and (8π . − ⎟ . 0). ⎜ 6π . π . 32. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Use these 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 4π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. to find x-values for the five key points. 2π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. the key points are (0. . the x-values are π 3π 0. − ⎟ . the x-values are 0. ⎟ . Evaluating the function at each value of x. Graph the reciprocal sine function. amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. 2π . 0). Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 6π . ⎜ . 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 x Use these key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 2 4 8π . (2π . the x-values are 0. 4 3 3 = amplitude: A = 2 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π period: B 4 Use quarter-periods. and 4π . 0) . 2 4 591 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. 0) . . Inc. 0). the key points are 3⎞ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎛ (0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2 2 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. The Extend the graph one cycle to the right.6 30. Graph the reciprocal sine function. ⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Starting with x = 0. 0) . 0). 3π . and (4π .

Evaluating the function at each value 2 2 ⎛π ⎞ of x. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. and use them as x guides to graph y = sec . 3) . − 3). Extend the graph one cycle to the right. π . Use these key points to ⎝ 2 ⎠ graph y = 2 cos x from 0 to 2π . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: Use these key points to graph y = 3cos x from 0 to 2π . y = cos . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 592 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. − 2). The 3 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . . y = 2 cos x . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 9π ⎞ . 2π . 34. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 3 and B = 1 . Extend the 3 graph one cycle to the right. 0 ⎟ . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . 3). to find x-values for the five 2 key points. − 1). 0 ⎟ . ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ x points to graph y = cos from 0 to 6π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 0 ⎟ . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. Evaluating the function are 0. 1). (π . 2). 3 Use quarter-periods. ⎜ .Trigonometric Functions 33. the x-values 3π 9π . Starting with x = 0. ⎝2 ⎠ 3 π ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . the key points are (0. ⎜ . The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. x 35. and 6π . to find x-values for 4 2 the five key points. ⎜ . (π . . and use them as guides to graph y = 3sec x . amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec x . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. π 3π . . 2 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ at each value of x. π. Starting with x = 0. and 2π . ⎜ . 3 amplitude: B= period: A = 1 =1 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 3 = 6π B 3 6π 3π = . π . Use these key (3π . the x-values are π 3π 0. 3π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. (2π . Inc. 1) . and (2π . the key points are (0. . 2) . . y = 3cos x . 0 ⎟ . π . Starting with x = 0. and (6π . the x-values are 0. Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function.

to find x-values for the five key points. y = cos . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. period: 1 38. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2π . x and use them as guides to graph y = sec . . 1. ⎟ . π . The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. x 36. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. the key points are (0. and 4π . to find 4 2 x-values for the five key points. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (1. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎝2 2⎠ 1 Use these key points to graph y = − sin π x from 0 2 to 2 . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. (π . Use these key 2 ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ points to graph y = −2sin π x from 0 to 2. Use quarter-periods. Evaluating the function at each value of x. 1. 0). and 2 . 2 ⎟ .6 Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 1). ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ . ⎜ . . 0 ) . . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 0 ) . 1 and use them as guides to graph y = − csc π x . and (2. Starting with x = 0. and (4π . Starting with x = 0. ⎜ . Graph the reciprocal sine function. the x-values are 1 3 0. y = − sin π x . 2 The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with x from 0 to 2 4π . 2 A=− Use these key points to graph y = cos 1 and B = π . Inc. The 2 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . the key points are (0. 1) . 0) . 0). ( 3π . 0). Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 B= 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. and (2. 37. y = −2sin π x . − ⎟ . and 2. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2 amplitude: A = − period: 1 1 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . Starting with x = 0. . 3π . and use them as guides to graph y = −2 csc π x . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 0). 0) . the x-values are 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. − 2 ⎟ . (1. amplitude: A = −2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . Evaluating the 2 2 function at each value of x. ⎜ . . 1 3 the x-values are 0. the key points are 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎛3 1⎞ (0. 593 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π . 2 Use quarter-periods. − 1). (2π .

. − ⎟ . Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A=− 3 40. ⎜ 2. ⎟ . 3 and use them as guides to graph y = − sec π x . Use quarter-periods. 1. y = − cos π x . 0 ⎟ . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 Use these key points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 2 to 2 .Trigonometric Functions 1 39. y = − cos π x . Starting with x = 0. ⎜ 2. the key points are 3⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0. 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with 1 and B = π . and 2 . ⎜1. the key points are ⎜ 0. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. ⎟ . 2 3 3 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . 2 Use quarter-periods. . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. . − ⎟ . Use these key 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 to 2. ⎜1. Inc. ⎜ . − ⎟ . the x-values are 1 3 0. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2 amplitude: A = − 2π 2π = =2 B π period: 2 1 = . 1. . 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ . 0 ⎟ . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. 594 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ value of x. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎜ . Extend 2 the graph one cycle to the right. 0 ⎟ . and 2. Starting with x = 0. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. − ⎟ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. the x-values are 1 3 0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 0 ⎟ . and use them as guides to graph 1 y = − sec π x . 2 amplitude: period: A = − A=− 1 1 = 2 2 3 and B = π . . ⎜ .

Graph the reciprocal sine function. 4 2 x-values for the five key points. y = sin( x − π ) . (3π . 1) . 2⎠ ⎝ The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 1. (π . 0).PreCalculus 4E Section 4. the x-values are π . 1⎟ . 2π . π. and C = π . ⎜ . (2π . 0 ⎟ . − 1) . Graph the reciprocal sine function. π 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 period: . and 3π . amplitude: A = 1 = 1 A = 1 . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. ⎜ . the x-values are 3π 5π . and . and B = 1. 0 ⎟ . Inc.6 41. π⎞ ⎛ 42. 3π 5π . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . π 2 . . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. the key ⎛ 3π ⎞ points are (π . 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 5π to . and C = 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π = =π phase shift: B 1 2π π = . 2π . 0) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π2 π = = phase shift: B 1 2 period: Use quarter-periods. 595 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Starting with x = π . and ⎜ . Use these key points to graph 2 ⎝ ⎠ y = sin( x − π ) from π to 3π . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . . and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = csc ⎜ x − ⎟ . 2⎠ ⎝ . B = 1 . to find Use quarter-periods. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. 2 2 Evaluating the function at each value of x. 0 ⎟ . ( 2π . 0). to find x-values for the five key points. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Starting with x = π π 2 . 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ . and use them as guides to graph y = csc( x − π ) . − 1⎟ .

y = 2 cos( x + π ) . 0 ) . − π π . 0 ⎟ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. and . 2) . ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ − . 2). the x-values are π 3π . Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. π 45. and (π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2 ⎟ . ⎜ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. the x-values π 2 key points. Evaluating the function 2 2 at each value of x. 44. 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C − π2 π = =− phase shift: B 1 2 period: 596 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ . and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 sec ⎜ x + ⎟ . 0. to find x-values for the five − π . 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. Use these ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ key points to graph y = 2 cos( x + π ) from −π to π . − 2 ⎟ . the key points are ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ − . ⎜ . Starting with x = −π . = . the key points are (−π . ( 0. 2⎠ ⎝ 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C −π = = −π phase shift: B 1 2π π Use quarter-periods. 0 ) . ( 0. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. and π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. B = 1. Starting with x = − A = 2 =2 period: are −π . 2 amplitude: A = 2 = 2 46. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. The equation is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2 and B = 1 . ⎜ . and C = −π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 3π − to . 2 ⎟ . 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. π . . − 2 ) . and C=− π 2 . y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2. (π . 0 ⎟ . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec( x + π ) . The equation is of the form Use quarter-periods.Trigonometric Functions 43. . amplitude: .

0. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ cos x and y2 = 1 . − . and Ymax = 2 . x ≈ −6. 58. 53. x=− 2 2 x ≈ −4. Xmax = 2π . For the window use Xmin = −2π . 5. 3π π . For the window use Xmin = −2π . Use a graphing utility with y1 = tan x and y2 = −1 . 2. − 0.79. π⎞ ⎛ y = ( g h ) ( x) = g (h( x)) = −2 tan ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 55. 5π π 3π 7π .57 51. 2. For the window use Xmin = −2π .50 49. .6 47. π⎞ ⎛ y = ( f h ) ( x) = f (h( x)) = 2 sec ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 54. 1. . 2π 52. − 0. 5. 48. and Ymax = 2 .28. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ sin x and y2 = 1 . Ymin = −2 . For the window use Xmin = −2π . Ymin = −2 . x = −2π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4.79. 5π π 3π 7π . Xmax = 2π . and Ymax = 2 .50 50.93. 57.71. Ymin = −2 . . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Ymin = −2 . and Ymax = 2 .36. 6. x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3.93. 56.36. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ tan x and y2 = −1 . Xmax = 2π . 0. − . x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3.28 597 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Xmax = 2π . Inc.

0 ⎟ . two consecutive asymptotes occur at 1 1 x = − and x = . Solve the equations 2π t = − π and 2π t = x = π . Inc. . then draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Use the two 1 1 consecutive asymptotes. 0 ⎟ . 0. and ⎜ . the secant function. x = 0 and x = π . and Connect these points with a smooth curve.75. ⎣ 2 2⎦ 598 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. to 4 4 graph one full period of d = 12 tan 2π t . Midway between x = 0 and x = π is x = π 2 2 π − π2 t= t= 2 2π 2π 1 1 t=− t= 4 4 Thus. In a right triangle the angle of elevation is one of the acute angles. the adjacent leg is the distance d. continue the pattern and extend the graph to 2. amplitude: A = 10 = 10 period: b. and use ⎡ π π⎤ them as guides to graph d = 10sec x on ⎢ − . 0. ⎥ . The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 10 and B = 1. π π to 2 ⎛π ⎞ (0.25. d cot x = 2 d = 2 cot x Use the equations x = 0 and x = π . d sec x = 10 d = 10 sec x Graph the reciprocal cosine function. The beam is shining parallel to the wall at these times. 0). Publishing as Prentice Hall. Use the function that relates the acute angle with the hypotenuse and the adjacent leg. 10). and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . y = 10 cos x .) An x-intercept is 2 2 .25. 0 ⎟ . To graph on [0. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 12. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. For − π 2 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 <x< π 2 . Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and d = 12 tan 2π t a. 1. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 60.75. ⎝2 ⎠ 2 . x = − and x = . 2]. 61. (Do not use the left hand side of the first period of the graph on [0. to graph y = 2 cot x for 0 < x < π . Use the cotangent function. π π The function is undefined for t = 0. and the opposite leg is 2 mi. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have ycoordinates of –12 and 12. 4 4 − 14 + 14 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. use the x-values − ⎛ π ⎞ find the key points ⎜ − . Use the two consecutive asymptotes.Trigonometric Functions 59. and 1. 2].

PreCalculus 4E Section 4. period: π B = π and π x + 1 = 2 π −1 2 −π 2 −1 π −π − 2 x= 2π π 4 Graph y = tan 4 x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π 2 x ≈ −0.18 in our graph of 1 y = tan(π x + 1) . 79. Graphs w