TABLE OF CONTENTS for INSTRUCTOR SOLUTIONS

PRECALCULUS 4E

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra..................................................... 1

Chapter 1

Functions and Graphs............................................................................................. 126

Chapter 2

Polynomial and Rational Functions ....................................................................... 256

Chapter 3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ................................................................ 411

Chapter 4

Trigonometric Functions........................................................................................ 489

Chapter 5

Analytic Trigonometry........................................................................................... 663

Chapter 6

Additional Topics in Trigonometry ....................................................................... 780

Chapter 7

Systems of Equations and Inequalities................................................................... 944

Chapter 8

Matrices and Determinants .................................................................................. 1076

Chapter 9

Conic Sections and Analytic Geometry ............................................................... 1181

Chapter 10

Sequences, Induction, and Probability................................................................. 1297

Chapter 11

Introduction to Calculus....................................................................................... 1393

iii

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter P
Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra
Section P.1
Check Point Exercises
1.

6.

8 + 6( x − 3) 2 = 8 + 6(13 − 3) 2

a.

Because 2 ≈ 1.4, the number inside the
absolute value bars is negative. The absolute
value of x when x < 0 is –x. Thus,

= 8 + 6(10) 2
= 8 + 6(100)
= 8 + 600
= 608
2.

(

b.

Since 2010 is 10 years after 2000, substitute 10 for x.
= 17(10)2 + 261(10) + 3257
= 7567
If trends continue, the tuition and fees will be $7567

5.

The elements common to {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} and
{3, 7, 8, 9} are 3 and 7.
{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∩ {3,7,8,9} = {3, 7}

c.

The union is the set containing all the elements of
either set.
{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∪ {3, 7,8,9} = {3, 4,5, 6, 7,8,9}

π

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,
2

9,

x
x
Because x > 0,
Thus,

7.


10 ⎬

9 because

π −3
Because π ≈ 3.14, the number inside the
absolute value bars is positive. The absolute
value of a positive number is the number itself.
Thus,
π − 3 = π − 3.

T = 17 x + 261x + 3257

4.

)

1− 2 = − 1− 2 = 2 −1

2

3.

1− 2

x
x

=

x = x.

x
=1
x

−4 − (5) = −9 = 9
The distance between –4 and 5 is 9.

8.

9 =3

a.

Natural numbers:

b.

Whole numbers: 0,

c.

Integers: −9, 0, 9

d.

Rational numbers: −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3,

e.

Irrational numbers:

f.

Real numbers:
π

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,
2

7(4 x 2 + 3x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 7(4 x 2 + 3 x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)
= 28 x 2 + 21x + 10 x 2 + 2 x

9

= 38 x 2 + 23x

π
2

,

9.

9

10

9,


10 ⎬

6 + 4[7 − ( x − 2)]
= 6 + 4[7 − x + 2)]
= 6 + 4[9 − x]
= 6 + 36 − 4 x
= 42 − 4 x

Exercise Set P.1
1.

7 + 5(10) = 7 + 50 = 57

2.

8 + 6 ( 5 ) = 8 + 30 = 38

3.

6(3) − 8 = 18 − 8 = 10

1

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

4.

8 ( 3) − 4 = 24 − 4 = 20

5.

82 + 3(8) = 64 + 24 = 88

6.

62 + 5 ( 6 ) = 36 + 30 = 66

7.

7 2 − 6(7) + 3 = 49 − 42 + 3 = 7 + 3 = 10

8.

82 − 7 ( 8 ) + 4 = 64 − 56 + 4 = 8 + 4 = 12

9.

4 + 5(9 − 7)3 = 4 + 5(2)3
= 4 + 5(8) = 4 + 40 = 44

10.

6 + 5 (8 − 6 ) = 6 + 5 ( 2 )
3

18.

19.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2 = 4 + 60(2) − 16(2)2
= 4 + 120 − 16(4) = 4 + 120 − 64
= 124 − 64 = 60
Two seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is
60 feet.

20.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2
= 4 + 60(3) − 16(3) 2
= 4 + 180 − 16(9)
= 4 + 180 − 144
= 184 − 144 = 40
Three seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is
40 feet.

3

= 6 + 5 (8)

= 6 + 40 = 46
11.

82 − 3(8 − 2) = 64 − 3(6)
= 64 − 18 = 46

12.
13.

14.

15.

16.

21.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∩ {2, 4,5} = {2, 4}

82 − 4 ( 8 − 3) = 64 − 4 ( 5 ) = 64 − 20 = 44

22.

{1,3, 7} ∩ {2,3,8} = {3}

5( x + 2) 5(10 + 2)
=
2 x − 14 2(10) − 14
5(12)
=
6
= 5⋅2
= 10

23.

{s, e, t} ∩ {t , e, s} = {s, e, t}

24.

{r , e, a, l} ∩ {l , e, a, r} = {r , e, a, l}

25.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {2, 4, 6,8,10} = { }
The empty set is also denoted by ∅.

7( x − 3) 7(9 − 3) 7(6)
=
=
= 7 ⋅ 3 = 21
2 x − 16 2(9) − 16
2
2x + 3 y
; x = −2, y = 4
x +1
2 ( −2 ) + 3 ( 4 ) −4 + 12 8
=
=
=
= −8
−2 + 1
−1
−1
2x + y
; x = −2 and y = 4
xy − 2 x
2 ( −2 ) + 4

( −2 )( 4 ) − 2 ( −2 )
17.

5
5
5
C = ( F − 32) = (86 − 32) = (54) = 30
9
9
9
30°C is equivalent to 86°F.

=

−4 + 4 0
= =0
−8 + 4 4

5
5
C = (50 − 32) = (18) = 10
9
9
10°C is equivalent to 50°F.

26.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {−5, −3, −1} = { }

27.

{a, b, c, d} ∩ ∅ = ∅

28.

{w, y, z} ∩ ∅ = ∅

29.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∪ {2, 4,5} = {1, 2,3, 4,5}

30.

{1,3, 7,8} ∪ {2,3,8} = {1, 2,3, 7,8}

31.

{1, 3,5, 7} ∪ {2, 4, 6,8,10}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,10}

32.

{0,1,3,5} ∪ {2, 4, 6} = {0,1, 2,3, 4,5, 6}

33.

{a, e, i, o, u} ∪ ∅ = {a, e, i, o, u}

34.

{e, m, p, t , y} ∪ ∅

or ∅

= {e, m, p, t , y}

2
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

35. a.

Section P.1

39. 0

100

b.

0, 100

c.

−9, 0, 100

d.

4
−9, − , 0, 0.25, 9.2, 100
5

e.
f.
36. a.

40. Answers may vary. An example is

1
.
2

41. Answers may vary. An example is 2.
42. Answers may vary. An example is −2.
43. true; –13 is to the left of –2 on the number line.

3

44. false; –6 is to the left of 2 on the number line.

4
−9, − , 0, 0.25, 3, 9.2, 100
5

45. true; 4 is to the right of –7 on the number line.
46. true; –13 is to the left of –5 on the number line.

49

47. true; −π = −π

b.

0, 49

c.

−7, 0, 49

d.

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49

48. true; –3 is to the right of –13 on the number line.
49. true; 0 is to the right of –6 on the number line.

e.
f.
37. a.

50
−7, − 0.6, 0, 49, 50
64

b.

0, 64

c.

−11, 0, 64

d.

5
−11, − , 0, 0.75, 64
6

e.
f.
38. a.

5
−11, − , 0, 0.75, 5, π , 64
6
4
0, 4

c.

−5, 0, 4

d.

−5, − 0.3, 0, 4

f.

51.

300 = 300

52.

−203 = 203

53.

12 − π = 12 − π

54.

7−π = 7−π

55.

2 −5 = 5− 2

56.

5 − 13 = 13 − 5

5, π

b.

e.

50. true; 0 is to the right of –13 on the number line.

2
−5, − 0.3, 0, 2, 4

57.

−3 −3
=
= −1
3
−3

58.

−7 −7
=
= −1
7
−7

59.

−3 − −7 = 3 − 7 = −4 = 4

60.

−5 − −13 = 5 − 13 = −8 = 8

61.

x + y = 2 + (−5) = −3 = 3

62.

x − y = 2 − (−5) = 7 = 7

3
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

63.

x + y = 2 + −5 = 2 + 5 = 7

64.

x − y = 2 − −5 = 2 − 5 = −3

65.

y
−5 −5
=
=
= −1
y
−5
5

66.

x

y

2

83.

84.

1
( x + 3) = 1; x ≠ −3 ,
x+3
inverse property of multiplication

( x + 4 ) + ⎡⎣ − ( x + 4 ) ⎤⎦ = 0;
inverse property of addition

85.

−5

2 5
+
= +
= +
= 1 + (−1) = 0
x
y
2 −5 2 −5

5(3 x + 4) − 4 = 5 ⋅ 3x + 5 ⋅ 4 − 4
= 15 x + 20 − 4
= 15 x + 16

67. The distance is 2 − 17 = −15 = 15 .

86.

2(5 x + 4) − 3 = 2 ⋅ 5 x + 2 ⋅ 4 − 3
= 10 x + 8 − 3

68. The distance is 4 − 15 = −11 = 11 .

= 10 x + 5

69. The distance is −2 − 5 = −7 = 7 .

87.

5(3 x − 2) + 12 x = 5 ⋅ 3x − 5 ⋅ 2 + 12 x
= 15 x − 10 + 12 x

70. The distance is −6 − 8 = −14 = 14 .

= 27 x − 10

71. The distance is −19 − (−4) = −19 + 4 = −15 = 15 .

88.

2(5 x − 1) + 14 x = 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅1 + 14 x
= 10 x − 2 + 14 x

72. The distance is −26 − (−3) = −26 + 3 = −23 = 23 .

= 24 x − 2

73. The distance is
−3.6 − (−1.4) = −3.6 + 1.4 = −2.2 = 2.2 .

89.

= 7 ⋅3y − 7 ⋅5 + 2⋅ 4y + 2 ⋅3
= 21y − 35 + 8 y + 6

74. The distance is
−5.4 − (−1.2) = −5.4 + 1.2 = −4.2 = 4.2 .

= 29 y − 29
90.

75. 6 + (–4) = (–4) + 6;
commutative property of addition

= 8 y − 24 + 15 y + 30
= 23 y + 6
91.

77. 6 + (2 + 7) = (6 + 2) + 7;
associative property of addition

5 ( 3 y − 2 ) − ( 7 y + 2 ) = 15 y − 10 − 7 y − 2
= 8 y − 12

92.

6 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 3) = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 2);
commutative property of multiplication

4(5 y − 3) − (6 y + 3) = 20 y − 12 − 6 y − 3
= 14 y − 15

79. (2 + 3) + (4 + 5) = (4 + 5) + (2 + 3);
commutative property of addition
80.

4(2 y − 6) + 3(5 y + 10)
= 4 ⋅ 2 y − 4 ⋅ 6 + 3 ⋅ 5 y + 3 ⋅10

76. 11 ⋅ (7 + 4) = 11 ⋅ 7 + 11 ⋅ 4;
distributive property of multiplication over addition

78.

7(3 y − 5) + 2(4 y + 3)

93.

7 − 4 ⎡⎣3 − ( 4 y − 5 ) ⎤⎦ = 7 − 4 [3 − 4 y + 5]
= 7 − 4 [8 − 4 y ]

7 ⋅ (11⋅ 8) = (11 ⋅ 8) ⋅ 7;
commutative property of multiplication

= 7 − 32 + 16 y
= 16 y − 25

81. 2 (–8 + 6) = –16 + 12;
distributive property of multiplication over addition
82.

−8(3 + 11) = −24 + (−88) ;
distributive property of multiplication over addition

4

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PreCalculus 4E

94.

Section P.1

6 − 5[8 − (2 y − 4)] = 6 − 5 [8 − 2 y + 4]

104. −20

= 6 − 5 [12 − 2 y ]

20

= 6 − 60 + 10 y

95. 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 ( x 2 − 2) + 5⎤⎦

105.

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 12 + 5⎤⎦
= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 7⎤⎦
= 18 x 2 + 4 − 6 x 2 + 7

96. 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣7 ( x 2 − 2 ) + 4 ⎤⎦

106.

= 14 x + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 14 + 4 ⎤⎦
2

= 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 10⎤⎦

−0.6

5
2

−2.5

2.5

−2.5

3
= −0.6 .
5

2.5
2.5 = 2.5

= 14 x 2 − 7 x 2 + 5 + 10

Since 2.5 = 2.5,

= (14 − 7 ) x + 15
2

= 7 x 2 + 15

107.

97. –(–14x) = 14x

− ( −17 y ) = 17 y

30 3

40 4
30 30

40 40

5
= −2.5 .
2

14 15

15 14
14 15

15 14

0 1
0 <1
30 3
14 15
Since 0 < 1,
− <
⋅ .
40 4
15 14

99. –(2x – 3y – 6) = –2x + 3y + 6
100. − ( 5 x − 13 y − 1) = −5 x + 13 y + 1

1
(3 x) + [ (4 y ) + (−4 y ) ] = x + 0
3
=x

108.

1
( 2 y ) + ⎣⎡( −7 x ) + 7 x ⎦⎤ = y + 0 = y
2

6

0.6

2.5

= 14 x 2 + 5 − 7 x 2 + 10

103. −6

−0.6

Since 0.6 = 0.6,

= (18 − 6) x 2 + 11 = 12 x 2 + 11

102.

3
5

0.6
0.6
0.6 = 0.6

= 18 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 4 + 7

101.

50

20 < 50
Since 20 < 50, −20 < −50 .

= 10 y − 54

98.

−50

17 18

18 17
17 18

18 17

50 5

60 6
50 50

60 60

1 0
1> 0
17 18
50 5
Since 1 > 0,

>
− .
18 17
60 6

−3
3

6>3
Since 6 > 3, −6 > −3 .

5

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

109. 8 8
÷
13 13
8 13

13 8

115. 8 − 3[−2(2 − 5) − 4(8 − 6)] = 8 − 3[−2(−3) − 4(2)]

−1

= 8 − 3[6 − 8]
= 8 − 3[−2]

1

=8+6

1 1
1=1
Since 1 = 1,
110.

= 14
116. 8 − 3[−2(5 − 7) − 5(4 − 2)] = 8 − 3[−2(−2) − 5(2)]

8 8
÷ = −1 .
13 13

= 8 − 3[4 − 10]
= 8 − 3[−6]

4 4
−2
÷
17 17
4 17
2

17 4
2 1
2 >1

= 8 + 18
= 26
117.

Since 2 > 1, −2 >

4 4
÷ .
17 17

111. 82 − 16 ÷ 22 ⋅ 4 − 3 = 64 − 16 ÷ 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 64 − 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

118.

= 64 − 16 − 3
= 48 − 3
= 45
112. 102 − 100 ÷ 52 ⋅ 2 − 3 = 100 − 100 ÷ 25 ⋅ 2 − 3
119.

= 100 − 4 ⋅ 2 − 3
= 100 − 8 − 3

2(−2) − 4(−3) −4 + 12
=
5−8
−3
8
=
−3
8
=−
3
6(−4) − 5(−3) −24 + 15
=
9 − 10
−1
−9
=
−1
=9
(5 − 6)2 − 2 3 − 7
89 − 3 ⋅ 52

= 92 − 3
= 89
113.

5 ⋅ 2 − 32
2

2

[3 − (−2)]

=
=
=

5⋅2 −9
[9 − (−2)]2
10 − 9
[9 + 2]2
10 − 9

112
1
=
121
114.

10 ÷ 2 + 3 ⋅ 4
(12 − 3 ⋅ 2)

2

=
=

120.

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 22 + 32
7 + 3− 6

2

=

(−1) 2 − 2 −4

89 − 3 ⋅ 25
1 − 2(4)
=
89 − 75
1− 8
=
14
−7
=
14
1
=−
2

=
=

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 4 + 9
7 + 3 − 36
4 ⋅ 5 13

10 − 36
20(13)
=
−26
260
=
−26
= −10

5 + 12
(12 − 6) 2
17

62
17
=
36

121. x − ( x + 4) = x − x − 4 = −4

6
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PreCalculus 4E

Section P.1

122. x − ( 8 − x ) = x − 8 + x = 2 x − 8

b.

123. 6 ( −5 x ) = −30 x
124. 10 ( −4 x ) = −40 x
125. 5 x − 2 x = 3 x
126. 6 x − ( −2 x ) = 6 x + 2 x = 8 x
127. 8 x − ( 3x + 6 ) = 8 x − 3x − 6 = 5 x − 6

131. a.

128. 8 − 3 ( x + 6 ) = 8 − 3x − 18 = −3 x − 10
129. a.

b.

130. a.

3
( 220 − a )
5
3
H = ( 220 − 30 )
5
3
= (190 )
5
= 114
The upper limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 114 beats per
minute.
H=

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15, 395 + 988(7) − 2(7)2
= 22, 213
The formula estimates the cost to have been
$22,213 in 2007.

7
( 220 − a )
10
7
H = ( 220 − 20 )
10
7
= ( 200 )
10
= 140
The lower limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 140 beats per
minute.
H=

b.

This underestimates the value in the graph by
$5.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15,395 + 988(10) − 2(10)2
= 25, 075
The formula projects the cost to be $25,075 in
2010.

4
( 220 − a )
5
4
H = ( 220 − 20 )
5
4
= ( 200 )
5
= 160
The upper limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 160 beats per
minute.
H=

132. a.

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15, 395 + 988(6) − 2(6)2
= 21, 251
The formula estimates the cost to have been
$21,251 in 2006.

1
( 220 − a )
2
1
H = ( 220 − 30 )
2
1
= (190 )
2
= 95
The lower limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 95 beats per
minute.
H=

b.

This underestimates the value in the graph by
$16.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2
= 15,395 + 988(12) − 2(12)2
= 26, 963
The formula projects the cost to be $26,963 in
2012.

133. a.

0.05 x + 0.12 (10,000 − x )
= 0.05 x + 1200 − 0.12 x
= 1200 − 0.07 x

b.

1200 − 0.07 x = 1200 − 0.07(6000)
= $780

7
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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

134. a.

158. −π > −3.5

0.06t + 0.5(50 − t ) = 0.06t + 25 − 0.5t
= 25 − 0.44t

b.

3.14
= −1.57
2
π
− ≈ −1.571
2
−1.57 > −1.571

159. −

0.06(20) + 0.5(50 − 20)
= 1.2 + 0.5(30)
= 1.2 + 15
= 16.2 miles

135. – 144. Answers may vary.
145. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: Models do not always
accurately predict future values.

3.14
π
>−
2
2

160. a.

146. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: To use the model, substitute 0
for x.

b4 ⋅ b3 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b7

b.

b5 ⋅ b5 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b10

c.

add the exponents
b7

161. a.

147. makes sense

b

148. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: The commutative property
changes order and the associative property changes
groupings.

b8

b.

b
c.

149. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: Some rational numbers are not
integers.

162.

3

2

=

b⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b
= b4
b ⋅b ⋅b

=

b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b ⋅b
= b6
b⋅b

subtract the exponents

6.2 × 103 = 6.2 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 6200
It moves the decimal point 3 places to the right.

150. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: All whole numbers are integers
Section P.2

151. true

Check Point Exercises

152. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: Some irrational numbers are
negative.

1.

153. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: The term x has a coefficient of
1.

( 2x y ) = ( 2) ( x ) ( y )

b.

( −6 x y )( 3xy ) = ( −6 ) ⋅ 3 ⋅ x

3

6

2

4

4

5

3

4

6

4

3

= 16 x12 y 24
2

⋅ x ⋅ y5 ⋅ y3

= −18 x 3 y 8

154. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is:
5 + 3( x − 4) = 5 + 3 x − 12 = 3x − 7.

c.

100 x12 y 2 ⎛ 100 ⎞ ⎛ x12 ⎞ ⎛ y 2 ⎞
=

⎟⎜

20 x16 y −4 ⎜⎝ 20 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x16 ⎠ ⎝ y −4 ⎠

= 5 x12 −16 y 2 − ( −4)
= 5 x −4 y 6

155. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: − x − x = −2 x.

=

156. true
157.

a.

5 y6
x4

2 ≈ 1.4
1.4 < 1.5
2 < 1.5

8

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PreCalculus 4E

d.

⎛ 5x ⎞
⎜ 4⎟
⎝y ⎠

Section P.2

( 5) ( x )
−2

−2

=

(y )
4

(5) ( x )

=

(y )
4

7.

−2

−2

=

−2

= (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − 02 ]
= 2534.4
The speed of the blood at the central axis of the
artery is 2534.4 centimeters per second.

−2

−2

5−2 x −2
y −8

Exercise Set P.2

y8
52 x 2
y8
=
25 x 2
=

2.

3.

4.

a.

−6

3.017 × 10

a.

5, 210, 000, 000 = 5.21× 10

b.

−0.00000006893 = −6.893 × 10−8

(

= 0.000003017

2.

62 ⋅ 2 = (6 ⋅ 6) ⋅ 2 = 36 ⋅ 2 = 72

3.

(−2)6 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 64

4.

(−2) 4 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 16

5.

−26 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −64

6.

−2 4 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −16

7.

(−3)0 = 1

)

8.

(−9)0 = 1

9.

−30 = −1

10.

−9 0 = −1

11.

4−3 =

1
1
1
=
=
3
4
4 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 4 64

12.

2−6 =

1
1
1
=
=
6
2
2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 64

13.

2 2 ⋅ 23 = 2 2 + 3 = 25 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 32

14.

33 ⋅ 32 = 33+ 2 = 35 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 243

15.

(22 )3 = 22⋅3 = 26 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 64

16.

(33 )2 = 33⋅2 = 36 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 729

17.

28
= 28− 4 = 24 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 16
24

18.

38
= 38 − 4 = 34 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 81
34

19.

3−3 ⋅ 3 = 3−3+1 = 3−2 =

1
1
1
=
=
2
3
3⋅3 9

20.

2−3 ⋅ 2 = 2−3+1 = 2−2 =

1
1
1
=
=
2
2⋅2 4
2

9

410 ×107 = 4.1× 102 × 107

(

= 4.1× 10

)

9

( 7.1×10 )( 5 ×10 )
−7

5

= 7.1 ⋅ 5 × 105 ⋅10−7
= 35.5 × 10−2

(

)

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

(

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2
= 3.55 × 10
b.

52 ⋅ 2 = (5 ⋅ 5) ⋅ 2 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 50

−2.6 ×10 = −2, 600, 000, 000

b.

a.

1.

9

= 4.1× 102 × 107

5.

)

−1

1.2 × 106 1.2 106
=

3 ×10−3
3 10−3
= 0.4 × 106 − ( −3)
= 0.4 × 109
= 4 × 108

6.

S = (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − r 2 ]

13 × 109
13 109
=

6
5.1 × 10
5.1 106
≈ 2.5 ⋅ 103
≈ 2500
The average Pell grant was $2500 in 2006.

9

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

21.

23
1
1
1
= 23 − 7 = 2 − 4 = 4 =
=
7
2
2
2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 16

22.

34
1
1
1
= 34 − 7 = 3−3 = 3 =
=
37
3
3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 27

23.

x −2 y =

25.

x0 y5 = 1⋅ y5 = y5

26.

x 7 ⋅ y 0 = x 7 ⋅1 = x 7

27.

x 3 ⋅ x 7 = x 3+ 7 = x10

28.

x ⋅x = x

29.

x −5 ⋅ x10 = x −5+10 = x 5

30.

x −6 ⋅ x12 = x −6 +12 = x 6

31.

( x3 )7 = x 3⋅7 = x 21

32.

( x11 )5 = x11⋅5 = x 55

33.

( x −5 )3 = x −5⋅3 = x −15 =

34.

35.

5

11+ 5

42.

⎛ 6⎞
(−6)3
216
⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3
y
y
⎝ y⎠

43.

(−3x 2 y 5 ) 2 = (−3)2 ( x 2 ) 2 ⋅ ( y 5 ) 2
= 9 x 2⋅2 y 5⋅2
= 9 x 4 y10

1
x
=
y3 y3

xy −3 = x ⋅

(−4)3
64
⎛ 4⎞
⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3
x
x
⎝ x⎠
3

1
y
⋅y= 2
x2
x

24.

11

3

41.

44.

= −27 x 4⋅3 y 6⋅3
= −27 x12 y18

=x

45.

(3 x 4 )(2 x 7 ) = 3 ⋅ 2 x 4 ⋅ x 7 = 6 x 4 + 7 = 6 x11

46.

(11x 5 )(9 x12 ) = 11⋅ 9 x 5 x12 = 99 x5 +12 = 99 x17

47.

(−9 x3 y )(−2 x 6 y 4 ) = (−9)(−2) x 3 x 6 yy 4

16

( x −6 ) 4 = x −6⋅4 = x −24 =

= 18 x 3+ 6 y1+ 4
= 18 x 9 y 5
48.

= 30 x11 y12
1
x15
1
x 24

49.

8 x 20 ⎛ 8 ⎞ ⎛ x 20
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
2 x4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ x4

50.

20 x 24 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 24 ⎞
24 − 6
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
= 2 x18
⎟ = 2x
10 x 6 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ x 6 ⎠

x14
= x14 − 7 = x 7
x7
x30
= x 30 −10 = x 20
10
x

38.


20 − 4
= 4 x16
⎟ = 4x

25a13 ⋅ b 4 ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎛ a13 ⎞ ⎛ b 4 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
⎟⎜ ⎟
−5a 2 ⋅ b3 ⎝ −5 ⎠ ⎝ a 2 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠
= −5a13 − 2 b 4 − 3
= −5a11b

14

37.

(−5 x 4 y )(−6 x 7 y11 ) = (−5)(−6) x 4 x 7 yy11
= 30 x 4 + 7 y1+11

51.
36.

(−3x 4 y 6 )3 = (−3)3 ( x 4 )3 ( y 6 )3

x
= x14 − ( −7) = x14 + 7 = x 21
x −7

52.

x30
= x30 − ( −10) = x 30 +10 = x 40
x −10

39.

(8 x3 ) 2 = 82 ( x 3 )2 = 82 x 3⋅2 = 64 x 6

40.

(6 x ) = (6) ( x ) = 6 x
4 2

2

4 2

2

4⋅2

= 36 x

35a14 b6 ⎛ 35 ⎞ ⎛ a14 ⎞ ⎛ b6 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
⎟⎜ ⎟
−7a 7 b3 ⎝ −7 ⎠ ⎝ a 7 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠
= −5a14 − 7 b6 − 3
= −5a 7 b3

53.

8

14b7 ⎛ 14 ⎞ ⎛ b 7 ⎞
2
7 −14
= ⎜ ⎟⎜
= 2b −7 = 7
⎟ = 2⋅b
7b14 ⎝ 7 ⎠ ⎝ b14 ⎠
b

10

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

54.

Section P.2

20b10 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ b10 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜

10b 20 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ b 20 ⎠

3

61.

= 2b10 − 20
= 2b

⎛ −3b5 ⎞
=⎜ 6 ⎟
⎝ a ⎠
−27b15
=
a18

−10

2
b10

=
55.

(4 x3 ) −2 = (4−2 )( x 3 ) −2
−2

=4 x

62.

1
42 x6
1
=
16 x 6

1
103 x 6
1
=
1000 x 6

10 x 4 y 9
1
= x 4 −12 y 9 − ( −3)
30 x12 y −3 3
1
= x −8 y12
3
y12
= 8
3x

59.

⎛ 5x ⎞
5 x
y

⎟ = −2 =
y
25
x6


y
−3

−2

−6

⎛ 3x ⎞
⎛ y ⎞

⎟ =⎜ 4 ⎟
⎝ 3x ⎠
⎝ y ⎠
y3
= 3 4⋅3
3 x
y3
=
27 x12
4

60.

−2

3

3

63.

⎛ 3a −5b 2 ⎞
=1

3 −4 ⎟
⎝ 12a b ⎠

64.

⎛ 4a −5b3 ⎞
=1

3 −5 ⎟
⎝ 12a b ⎠

65.

3.8 × 10 2 = 380

66.

9.2 × 10 2 = 920

67.

6 × 10−4 = 0.0006

68.

7 × 10−5 = 0.00007

69.

−7.16 × 106 = −7,160, 000

70.

−8.17 × 106 = −8,170, 000

71.

7.9 × 10−1 = 0.79

72.

6.8 × 10 −1 = 0.68

73.

−4.15 × 10 −3 = −0.00415

74.

−3.14 × 10−3 = −0.00314

75.

−6.00001×1010 = −60, 000,100, 000

76.

−7.00001×1010 = −70, 000,100, 000

77.

32, 000 = 3.2 × 104

78.

64, 000 = 6.4 ×104

0

24 x 3 ⋅ y 5 3 3− 7 5 − ( −9)
= x y
32 x 7 y −9 4
3
= x −4 y14
4
3 y14
= 4
4x

3


⎟⎟

0

=

58.

⎛ −30a14b8 ⎞ ⎛ −3b8−( −2)
= ⎜⎜ 17−14

17 −2 ⎟
⎝ 10a b ⎠ ⎝ a

(10 x 2 )−3 = 10−3 x 2⋅( −3)

3

3

⎛ −3b10 ⎞
=⎜

⎝ a3 ⎠
−27b30
=
a9

= 10−3 x −6

57.


⎟⎟

3

−6

=

56.

⎛ −15a 4b 2 ⎞ ⎛ −3b 2−( −3)
⎜ 10 −3 ⎟ = ⎜⎜ 10−4
⎝ 5a b ⎠ ⎝ a

2

3

11

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

79.

94.

638, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000

(8.2 ×10 )( 4.6 ×10 )
8

4

= 6.38 ×1017

= 37.72 × 108+ 4 = 37.72 × 1012

80.

579,000, 000, 000, 000, 000 = 5.79 × 1017

= 3.772 × 1013 ≈ 3.77 ×1013

81.

−5716 = −5.716 × 103

82.

−3829 = −3.829 × 103

83.

0.0027 = 2.7 × 10 −3

84.

0.0083 = 8.3 × 10 −3

85.

−0.00000000504 = −5.04 × 10−9

86.

−0.00000000405 = −4.05 × 10−9

87.

(3 × 104 )( 2.1 × 103 ) = (3 × 2.1) (104 × 103 )

( 2 ×10 )( 4.1×10 ) = 8.2 ×10

89.

(1.6 × 10 )( 4 × 10 ) = (1.6 × 4) (10

4

3

(1.4 × 10 )(3 × 10 ) = (1.4 × 3) (10
−11

99.

4.8 × 10−2 4.8 10−2
=
×
2.4 × 106 2.4 106
= 2 × 10−2 − 6 = 2 × 10−8

15

× 10−11 )

100. 7.5 ×10−2
= 3 × 10−2 − 6 = 3 × 10−8
6
2.5 × 10

× 10−4 )

101. 2.4 × 10−2 2.4 10−2
=
×
4.8 ×10−6 4.8 10−6
= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

= 4.2 × 104

(6.1 × 10 )( 2 × 10 ) = (6.1× 2) (10
−8

−4

−8

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 × 103

= 12.2 × 10−8+( −4)
= 12.2 × 10−12

102. 1.5 × 10−2
= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)
5 × 10−6
= 0.5 × 104 = 5 ×103

= 1.22 × 10−11
92.

( 5.1×10 )(3 ×10 ) = 15.3 ×10
−8

−4

−12

= 1.53 × 10−11
93.

103. 480, 000, 000, 000 4.8 × 1011
=
0.00012
1.2 ×10−4
4.8 1011
=
×
1.2 10−4
= 4 × 1011− ( −4)

( 4.3 ×10 )(6.2 ×10 )
= ( 4.3 × 6.2) (10 ×10 )
8

4

8

3.6 ×104 3.6 104
=
×
9 10−2
9 × 10−2
= 0.4 ×104 − ( −2)

× 10−11 )

15

= 4.2 × 1015+( −11)

91.

97.

1.2 × 104
= 0.6 × 104 − ( −2) = 0.6 ×106
2 × 10−2
= ( 6 ×10−1 ) ×106 = 6 × 105

= 6.4 × 104
15

6.9 × 108
= 2.3 × 108− 5 = 2.3 × 103
3 ×105

98.

= 6.4 × 1015+ ( −11)

90.

96.

7

−11

15

8.4 × 108 8.4 108
=
×
4 ×105
4 105
= 2.1× 108− 5 = 2.1× 103

= 0.4 ×106 = 4 × 105

= 6.3 × 104+3 = 6.3 × 107
88.

95.

4

= 26.66 × 108+ 4

= 4 × 1015

= 26.66 × 1012
= 2.666 × 1013 ≈ 2.67 × 1013

104. 282, 000, 000, 000 2.82 × 1011
=
0.00141
1.41×10−3
= 2 × 1011− ( −3)
= 2 × 1014

12

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

105.

106.

Section P.2

0.00072 × 0.003
0.00024
7.2
( ×10−4 )(3 ×10−3 )
=
2.4 × 10−4
7.2 × 3 10−4 ⋅10−3
=
×
= 9 × 10−3
2.4
10−4

113.

( 2−1 x−2 y−1 ) ( 2 x−4 y3 ) (16 x−3 y3 )
2
( 2 x−3 y−5 )
( 22 x2 y2 )( 2−2 x8 y−6 )(1)
=
( 22 x−6 y−10 )
−2

=

4
−3
66000 × 0.001 ( 6.6 × 10 )(1× 10 )
=
0.003 × 0.002 ( 3 × 10−3 )( 2 × 10−3 )

114.

6.6 × 10
1− −6
= 1.1× 10 ( )
6 × 10−6
= 1.1× 107

−1

x −3 y −1 )

−2

1

107.

( x y)
(x y )

−3

−2

−1 3

2

=

x 6 y −3
= 6 −3
x y

=

= x 6 − 6 y −3− ( −3) = x 0 y 0 = 1
108.

( xy )
( x y)

−2 −2

−2

−3

= x −2 − 6 y

4 − ( −3)

= x −8 y 7 =

(2

y7
x8

111.

⎛ x y z ⎞
⎜ −3 −4 −5 ⎟
⎝x y z ⎠
3

4 5

−2

−4

−6

y4 )

y −6 )

−2

(9 x

3

y −3 )

0

2

x 6 y 2 )( 2−2 x12 y −8 ) (1)

(2

2

x −8 y −12 )

2.52 × 1012
3 × 108

c.

2.52 × 1012
3 × 108

=

2.52 1012
× 8
3
10

= 0.84 × 104
= 8400
$8400 per American

y
y
=
24 x8 z 6 16 x8 z 6

116. a.

110. 3 x −4 yz −7 ( 3x )−3 = 3x −4 yz −7 ⋅ 3−3 x ⋅−3
(
)

= 3−2 x −7 yz −7 =

(2x

b.

109. 2 x −3 yz −6 ( 2 x )−5 = 2 x −3 yz −6 ⋅ 2−5 x ⋅−5
(
)

= 2−4 x −8 yz −6 =

2

(2x

x 26 y 6
4

115. a.

x −2 y 4
= 6 −3
x y

0

x18 y6
4

(2

=

−2

y
y
=
3 x7 z 7 9 x7 z 7
2

2.27 × 1012

b.

2.98 × 108

c.

2.27 × 1012

2.27 1012
=
×
2.98 108
2.98 × 108
= 0.7617 × 104

= ( x6 y z

)

= 7617
$7617 per American

8 10 −2

= x −12 y −16 z −20 =

1
x y16 z 20

117. 1450 × 109 ⋅ 6.60 = 1.45 × 1012 ⋅ 6.6

12

= 1.45 ⋅ 6.6 × 1012
112. ⎛ x 4 y 5 z 6 ⎞ −4
8 10 12 −4
⎜ −4 −5 −6 ⎟ = ( x y z )
⎝x y z ⎠

= x −32 y −40 z −48 =

= 9.57 × 1012
Box-office receipts were $9.57 × 1012 in 2006.

1
x y 40 z 48

118. 1400 × 109 ⋅ 6.40 = 1.4 × 1012 ⋅ 6.4

32

= 1.4 ⋅ 6.4 × 1012
= 8.96 × 1012
Box-office receipts were $8.96 × 1012 in 2005.

13
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

119. 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 20, 000 = 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 2 × 104

138. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 52 ⋅ 5−2 = 25 ⋅ 2−5.

= 5.3 ⋅ 2 × 10−23 ⋅ 104
= 10.6 × 10−19

139. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is: 534.7 ≠ 5347.

= 1.06 × 101 ⋅ 10−19

140. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is:

= 1.06 × 10−18
The mass is 1.06 × 10−18 gram.

8 × 1030
2 × 10−5

120. 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 80, 000 = 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 8 × 104

= 1.67 ⋅ 8 × 10−24 ⋅ 104

141. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
A sample change is:

= 13.36 × 10−20
1

= 1.336 × 10 ⋅ 10

(7 × 105 ) + (2 × 10−3 ) = 700, 000.002.

−20

142. true

= 1.336 × 10−19

143. The doctor has gathered:
1 1
2 1 3
2−1 + 2−2 = +
= + =
2 22 4 4 4

The mass is 1.336 × 10−19 gram.
121. 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 127 = 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 1.27 × 102

= 3.2 ⋅ 1.27 × 107 ⋅ 102

So, 1 −

= 4.064 × 109

3 1
= is remaining.
4 4

144. b A = MN , bC = M , b D = N

Americans eat 4.064 × 109 chickens per year.

b A = bC b D

122. 365 days equals 365 ⋅ 24 or 8760 hours.

A=C+D

8760 hours equals 8760 ⋅ 60 or 525,600 minutes.
525,600 min. equals
525,600 ⋅ 60 or 31,536,000 seconds.

145.

There are 3.1536 × 107 seconds in a year.
123. – 130. Answers may vary.
131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

Sample explanation: 36( x3 )9 = 36 x 27 not 36 x12 .
132. makes sense

70 bts 60 min 24 hrs 365 days



⋅ 80 yrs
hr
day
yr
min
= 70 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 365 ⋅ 80 beats
= 2943360000 beats
= 2.94336 × 109 beats
≈ 2.94 × 109 beats
The heartbeats approximately 2.94 × 109 times over a
lifetime of 80 years.

146. Answers may vary.

133. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
147. a.

Sample explanation: 4.6 × 1012 represents over 4
trillion. The entire world population is measured in
billions ( 109 ).
134. makes sense
135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 4

= 4 × 1030 − ( −5) = 4 × 1035.

−2

b.

16 ⋅ 4 = 64 = 8

c.

16 ⋅ 4 = 16 ⋅ 4

148. a.

300 ≈ 17.32

b.

10 3 ≈ 17.32

c.

300 = 10 3

−3

>4 .

16 ⋅ 4 = 4 ⋅ 2 = 8

136. true
137. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
1
A sample change is: (−2)4 ≠ 2−4 because 16 ≠ .
16

149. a.
b.

21x + 10 x = 31x
21 2 + 10 2 = 31 2

14

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

Section P.3

5.

a.

Check Point Exercises
1.

5 27 + 12
= 5 9⋅3 + 4⋅3
= 5⋅3 3 + 2 3

a.

81 = 9

b.

− 9 = −3

c.

1
1
=
25 5

d.

36 + 64 = 100 = 10

e.

36 + 64 = 6 + 8 = 14

a.

75 = 25 ⋅ 3 = 25 3 = 5 3

b.

5 x ⋅ 10 x = 5 x ⋅10 x

= 15 3 + 2 3
= (15 + 2) 3
= 17 3

2.

b.

= 6 9 ⋅ 2x − 4 4 ⋅ 2x
= 6 ⋅ 3 2x − 4 ⋅ 2 2x
= 18 2 x − 8 2 x
= (18 − 8) 2 x
= 10 2 x
6.

a.

= 50 x 2
= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2

b.

5
3

25
25 5
=
=
16
16 4
150 x 3
2x

=

b.

150 x 3
2x

= 5x 3

3

12

8 13 + 9 13 = (8 + 9) 3
7.

17 x − 20 17 x
= 1 17 x − 20 17 x
= (1 − 20) 17 x

=

Multiply by

3

=

5 3
9

=

5 3
3

12 ⋅ 3 =
3
3
6
12

36 = 6. So multiply by 1,

for 1.
3
3

=

6 3
36

=

4− 5

.
4− 5
8
8
4− 5
=

4+ 5 4+ 5 4− 5
=

= −19 17 x

3

for 1.

The smallest number that will produce a perfect
6
square in the denominator of
is 3
12

6

= 17 13
b.

5

choosing

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 3

a.

=

3

because

= 75 x 2

4.

3

choosing

= 5x 2
a.

If we multiply numerator and denominator by
3, the denominator becomes
3 ⋅ 3 = 9 = 3. Therefore, multiply by 1,

= 25 ⋅ 2 x 2

3.

6 18 x − 4 8 x

8(4 − 5)
42 − ( 5)2

8(4 − 5)
16 − 5
8(4 − 5)
32 − 8 5
or
=
11
11
=

15

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6 3
= 3
6

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

8.

9.

a.

3

40 = 3 8 ⋅ 5 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 5 = 2 3 5

Exercise Set P.3

b.

5

8 ⋅ 5 8 = 5 64 = 5 32 ⋅ 5 2 = 2 5 2

1.

36 = 62 = 6

c.

3

125 3 125 5
= 3
=
27
27 3

2.

25 = 52 = 5

3 3 81 − 4 3 3 = 3 3 27 ⋅ 3 − 4 3 3

3.

− 36 = − 62 = −6

4.

− 25 = − 52 = −5

5.

−36 , The square root of a negative number is not
real.

6.

−25 , The square root of a negative number is not
real.

= 3⋅ 33 3 − 4 3 3
= 93 3 − 43 3
= (9 − 4) 3 3
= 53 3
1

25 2 = 25 = 5

10. a.

1

b.

83 = 3 8 = 2

c.

−814 = − 4 81 = −3

d.

( −8 ) 3

e.

27

1

1

1
3

= 3 −8 = −2
1

=

1

1

=

3

27 3
4

(

27 3 =

11. a.

( 4)

2
5

1

32

c.

27

42 =

3

b.

3

2

=

3

2

)

4

=

27

1
3

= (3)4 = 81

= (2)3 = 8

=

32 5

1

(

5

32

)

2

1 1
= 2 =
2
4

7.

25 − 16 = 9 = 3

8.

144 + 25 = 169 = 13

9.

25 − 16 = 5 − 4 = 1

10.

144 + 25 = 12 + 5 = 17

11.

(−13) 2 = 169 = 13

12.

(−17)2 = 289 = 17

13.

50 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 25 2 = 5 2

14.

27 = 9 ⋅ 3 = 9 3 = 3 3

15.

45 x 2 = 9 x 2 ⋅ 5
= 9 x2 5

( 2 x )( 5x )
4/3

12. a.

8/3

= 9 x2 5

= 2 ⋅ 5 x 4 / 3 ⋅ x8 / 3

=3 x 5

= 10 x ( 4 / 3) + (8 / 3)
= 10 x12 / 3
= 10 x

16.

4

= 25 x 2 5

20 x 4 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 4 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟
3
5x 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x 2 ⎠

b.

= 25 x 2 5
=5 x 5

4− 3
= 4x ( 2)
8 − 3
= 4 x( 2 ) ( 2 )

= 4x
13.

6

5

17.

2x ⋅ 6x = 2x ⋅ 6x
= 12 x 2

2

= 4x2 ⋅ 3

x3 = x 6 = x 2 = x
3

125 x 2 = 25 x 2 ⋅ 5

1

= 2x 3

16
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

18.

Section P.3

10 x ⋅ 8 x = 10 x ⋅ 8 x

30.

= 80 x 2

24 x 4
=
3x

= 16 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 8 x3

= 4x 5

= 4 x2 ⋅ 2 x

19.

x3 = x 2 ⋅ x = x x

20.

y3 =

21.

2 x2 ⋅ 6 x = 2 x2 ⋅ 6 x

= 2x 2x
31.

y2 ⋅ y = y y

200 x3
10 x −1

= 4 x 2 ⋅ 3x

= 4 ⋅ 5x4
= 2 x2 5
32.

1
1 1
=
=
81
81 9

24.

1
=
49

25.

49
49 7
=
=
16
16 4

26.

121
121 11
=
=
9
3
9

27.

28.

48 x3

=

3x
72 x

3

=

8x

1
7

34.

8 5 + 11 5 = (8 + 11) 5 = 19 5

35.

6 17 x − 8 17 x = (6 − 8) 17 x = −2 17 x

36.

4 13 x − 6 13x = (4 − 6) 13x = −2 13x

= (2 + 3) 2
=5 2
38.

20 + 6 5 = 4 ⋅ 5 + 6 5
= 2 5+6 5
= (2 + 6) 5
=8 5

72 x
= 9 x2 = 3x
8x

150 x
150 x
=
3x
3x

8 + 3 2 = 4⋅2 + 3 2
= 2 2 +3 2

39.
29.

500 x 3
= 50 x 3−( −1)
10 x −1

7 3 + 6 3 = (7 + 6) 3 = 13 3

37.

48 x3
= 16 x 2 = 4 x
3x

4

10 x −1

=

33.

3

=

500 x 3

= 50 x 4 = 25 ⋅ 2 x 4 = 5 x 2 2

= 3x 2x

49

3−( −1)

= 20 x 4

6 x ⋅ 3 x 2 = 6 x ⋅ 3x 2
= 18 x3

1

200 x 3
10 x −1

= 12 x 3

= 9 x2 ⋅ 2 x

23.

=

= 20 x

= 2 x 3x
22.

24 x 4
3x

4

50 x − 8 x = 25 ⋅ 2 x − 4 ⋅ 2 x
= 5 2x − 2 2x
= (5 − 2) 2 x

= 50 x 3

= 3 2x

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2 x
= 5x 2x

17
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

40.

63 x − 28 x = 9 ⋅ 7 x − 4 ⋅ 7 x

49.

= 3 7x − 2 7x

13
3 + 11

= (3 − 2) 7 x

=
=

= 7x
41.

3 18 + 5 50 = 3 9 ⋅ 2 + 5 25 ⋅ 2
= 3⋅3 2 + 5⋅5 2
= 9 2 + 25 2
= (9 + 25) 2

50.

= 34 2
42.

3
3+ 7

= 4⋅ 2 3 − 2⋅5 3

13(3 − 11)
9 − 11

=

13(3 − 11)
−2

=

= −2 3
3 8 − 32 + 3 72 − 75

51.

= 3 4 ⋅ 2 − 16 ⋅ 2 + 3 36 ⋅ 2 − 25 ⋅ 3

7
5−2

= 6 2 − 4 2 + 18 2 − 5 3
=

= 20 2 − 5 3

= 3 9 ⋅ 6 − 2 4 ⋅ 6 − 16 ⋅ 6 + 4 9 ⋅ 7

52.

= 3⋅3 6 − 2⋅ 2 6 − 4 6 + 4 ⋅3 7

5
3 −1

= 9 6 − 4 6 − 4 6 + 12 7

46.

47.

48.

2

2
5
7
3

=

=

=

2

2
5
7

10

10
5
5

=

=

5−2

5+2

5+2

7( 5 + 2)
( 5) 2 − 22
7( 5 + 2)
5−4

5
3 −1

3 +1
3 +1

5( 3 + 1)
( 3) 2 − 12

5( 3 + 1)
3 −1
5( 3 + 1)
=
2

7

10

7

=

7
=

=
7
7
7 7

10

3(3 − 7 )
32 − ( 7 )2

=
=

= 6 + 12 7
45.

3− 7

= 7( 5 + 2)

3 54 − 2 24 − 96 + 4 63

1

3+ 7 3− 7

=
=

= 3⋅ 2 2 − 4 2 + 3⋅ 6 2 − 5 3

1

3

3(3 − 7)
9−7
3(3 − 7)
=
2

= (8 − 10) 3

44.

32 − ( 11)2

=

= 8 3 − 10 3

43.

13(3 − 11)

=

=

4 12 − 2 75 = 4 4 ⋅ 3 − 2 25 ⋅ 3

13
3 − 11

3 + 11 3 − 11

2 10
10
=
10
5

53.

10
5

6
5+ 3

=
=
=

3

21

=
3
3 3

6
5+ 3

5− 3
5− 3

6( 5 − 3)
( 5) 2 − ( 3) 2
6( 5 − 3)
5−3

6( 5 − 3)
2
= 3( 5 − 3)
=

18

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

11

54.

Section P.3

11

=

7− 3

=

7− 3

7+ 3

5

73.

7+ 3

11( 7 + 3)
74.

11( 7 + 3)
=
7−3
11( 7 + 3)
=
4
125 = 3 53 = 5

55.

3

56.

3

8 = 3 23 = 2

57.

3

−8 = 3 (−2) = −2

3

77.

5 3 16 + 3 54 = 5 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 3 27 ⋅ 2
= 5 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 33 2
= 13 3 2

61.

4

(−3) 4 = −3 = 3

62.

4

(−2) = −2 = 2

63.

5

(−3)5 = −3

64.

5

(−2) = −2

65.

5

67.

3

= 6 3 3 + 33 3
= 93 3
79.

= − y 3 2x
80.

2

24 xy 3 − y 3 81x

= 2 y 3 3 x − 3 y 3 3x

=

6

3

= 3 8 ⋅ 3xy 3 − y 3 27 ⋅ 3x
= − y 3 3x

1
1
1
= 5 − 5 =−
32
2
2
1

54 xy 3 − y 3 128 x

= 3 y 3 2x − 4 y 3 2x

5

6

3

= 3 27 ⋅ 2 xy 3 − y 3 64 ⋅ 2 x

4

6

3 3 24 + 3 81 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 + 3 27 ⋅ 3
= 3 ⋅ 2 3 3 + 33 3

−81 is not a real number.

1
=
64

162 x5 4
= 81x 4 = 3x
2x

6 5 3 + 25 3 = 85 3

−16 is not a real number.

4

6

2x

4

= 10 3 2 + 3 3 2

60.

66.

4

=

76.

−125 = 3 (−5)3 = −5

162 x 5

64 x 6 5
= 32 x5 = 2 x
2x

5

4 5 2 + 35 2 = 7 5 2

3

4

59.

2x

=

75.

78.
58.

5

4

( 7 )2 − ( 3) 2

64 x 6

1
2

81.

2+ 3 8 = 2+2

82.

3 + 3 15 will not simplify

83.

32 = 3 8 ⋅ 4 = 3 8 3 4 = 2 ⋅ 3 4

361/ 2 = 36 = 6

84. 1211/ 2 = 121 = 11
68.

3

69.

3

70.

3

71.

3

72.

3

150 cannot be simplified further.
85.

81/ 3 = 3 8 = 2

x 4 = 3 x3 ⋅ x = x ⋅ 3 x

86.

271/ 3 = 3 27 = 3

x5 = 3 x3 x 2 = x 3 x 2

87. 1252 / 3 =

9 ⋅ 3 6 = 3 54 = 3 27 ⋅ 2 = 3 27 3 2 = 3 3 2

88.

12 ⋅ 4 = 48 = 8 ⋅ 6 = 2 6
3

3

3

3

82 / 3 =

(

3

125

( 8)
3

2

)

2

= 52 = 25

=4

19

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

89.

90. 16−5 / 2 =

91.

1
1
1
= 4 =
4/5
32
2
16

32−4 / 5 =

1
1
1
1
=
=
=
165 / 2 ( 16)5 45 1024

( 7 x )( 2 x ) = 7 ⋅ 2 x
1/ 3

1/ 4

1/ 3

⋅ x1/ 4

1/ 3 +1/ 4

= 14 ⋅ x

20 x1/ 2 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x1/ 2 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟⎜

5 x1/ 4 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x1/ 4 ⎠
= 4 ⋅ x1/ 2 −1/ 4

4

x12 = x12 / 4 = x

105.

6

x4 = 6 / 2 x4 / 2 = 3 x2

106.

9

x6 = 9 / 3 x6 / 3 = 3 x 2

107.

9

x6 y 3 = x 9 y 9 = x 3 y 3 = 3 x 2 y

108.

12

x 4 y 8 = x 12 y 12 = x 3 y 3 =

109.

34

110.

3

94.

95.

(x

)

=x

2 / 3⋅3

=x

98.

(125 x9 y 6 )1/ 3 = 1251/ 3 x 9 / 3 y 6 / 3 = 5 x 3 y 2

1

2

x y2

3

3

1000 + 3 216

1/ 2

−2 −1/ 2

4 −1/ 2

1/ 2

1 ( −2)( −1/ 2 ) ( 4)( −1/ 2)
x
y
( xy1/ 2 )
491/ 2
1
1
−2 + 1/ 2
= x1 y −2 ⋅ xy1/ 2 = x1+1 y ( )
7
7
1
x2
= x 2 y −3 / 2 = 3 / 2
7
7y

3

3

112. ( 8 x −6 y 3 )

1/ 3

(x

5/ 6

y −1/ 3 )

6

= 81/ 3 x ( −6)(1/ 3) y ( 3)(1/ 3) x (5 / 6)( 6) y ( −1/ 3)( 6)
= 2 x −2 y1 x5 y −2 = 2 x −2 + 5 y1+ ( −2 )

2

= 27 y 12 = 27 y 3
24 ( y1/ 5 )

−1/ 2

=

⎛ 14 ⎞
3
⎜ 3y ⎟
3 1

⎠ = 27 y 4 = 27 y 4 − 12
1
1
y 12
y 12

=

169 + 9 +

−1/ 2

(25 x 4 y 6 )1/ 2 = 251/ 2 x 4⋅1/ 2 y 6⋅1/ 2 = 5 x 2 y

y 3 /10

8

( xy )
= ( 49 ) ( x ) ( y ) ( xy )

97.

1/ 5 4

1

16 + 625 = 3 2 + 25 = 3 27 = 3

111. ( 49 x −2 y 4 )

2

( x 4 / 5 )5 = x 4 / 5⋅5 = x 4

(2y )

2

= 3 4+ 4 = 38
=2


3 / 4 −1/ 3
= 8 x5 /12
⎟ = 8⋅ x

96.

8

3

= 3 16 + 16

72 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 72 ⎞ ⎛ x 3 / 4
= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1/ 3
9 x1/ 3
⎝ 9 ⎠⎝ x
2/3 3

3

= 3 13 + 3 + 10 + 6

= 4 x1/ 4

100.

104.

4

2 / 3+ 3 / 4

= 12 x17 /12

99.

x6 = x6 / 3 = x 2

(3 x 2 / 3 )(4 x3 / 4 ) = 3 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3 ⋅ x 3 / 4
= 12 ⋅ x

93.

3

6

= 14 x 7 /12
92.

103.

= 2 x3 y −1 =

4

y 3 /10

⎛ x −5 / 4 y1/ 3 ⎞
113. ⎜ −3 / 4 ⎟
⎝ x

4/5

16 y
= 3 /10 = 16 y 4 / 5− 3 /10 = 16 y1/ 2
y
101.

4

52 = 52 / 4 = 51/ 2 = 5

102.

4

7 2 = 7 2 / 4 = 71/ 2 = 7

2 x3
y
−6

(

= x(

= ( x −2 / 4 y1/ 3 ) = x(
−6

= x3 y −2 =

−5 / 4 ) − ( −3 / 4 )

−2 / 4 )( −6 )

y(

y1/ 3

)

−6

1/ 3)( −6 )

x3
y2

20
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

⎛ x1/ 2 y −7 / 4 ⎞
114. ⎜

−5 / 4
⎝ y

−4

= ( x1/ 2 y −2 / 4 )
= x −2 y 2 =
115. a.

(

= x1/ 2 y (

−4

−7 / 4 ) − ( −5 / 4 )

)

−4

⎛v⎞
118. Ra = R f 1 − ⎜ ⎟
⎝c⎠

= x (1/ 2)( −4) y ( −2 / 4)( −4)

⎛ 0.9c ⎞
= Rf 1− ⎜

⎝ c ⎠

y2
x2

= R f 1 − ( 0.9 )

In 2004, we have x = 5.

Ra = 0.44 R f
44 = 0.44 R f

In 2011, we have x = 12 .

0.44 R f
44
=
0.44
0.44
100 = R f
If you are gone for 44 weeks, then 100 weeks will
have passed for your friend.
119. Perimeter:
P = 2l + 2 w

For 2020: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 125 + 2 ⋅ 2 20

= 5 10 + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 25 ⋅ 5 + 4 4 ⋅ 5

For 2050: E = 5 x + 34.1
= 5 40 + 34.1

= 2⋅5 5 + 4⋅ 2 5

= 5 ⋅ 2 10 + 34.1

= 10 5 + 8 5
= 18 5 feet
Area:
A = lw

= 10 10 + 34.1
Difference:
(10 10 + 34.1) − (5 10 + 34.1)
= 10 10 + 34.1 − 5 10 − 34.1

= 125 ⋅ 2 20

= 10 10 − 5 10 + 34.1 − 34.1

= 2 125 ⋅ 20

= 5 10

= 2 2500
= 2 ⋅ 50
= 100 square feet

The difference is 5 10.
b.

117.

2

≈ 0.44 R f

y = 20.8 12 + 21 ≈ 93.1
According to the model, 93.1% of email will be
spam in 2011.
This overestimates the value given in the bar
graph by 21.1%.
116. a.

2

= R f 0.19

y = 20.8 5 + 21 ≈ 67.5
According to the model, 67.5% of email was
spam in 2004.
This underestimates the actual value shown in
the bar graph by 0.5%.
b.

2

5 10 ≈ 15.8
This underestimates the difference projected by
the graph of 65.8 − 47.3 = 18.5 by 2.7. This
represents a difference of 2.7 million people.

2
5 + 1 2( 5 + 1)

=
5 −1
5 −1 5 +1
2( 5 + 1)
4
5 +1
=
2
≈ 1.62
About 1.62 to 1.
=

21
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

120. Perimeter:
P = 2l + 2w

13 + 2 +

139.

= 2 ⋅ 4 20 + 2 ⋅ 80

7

= 13 + 2 +

3+ 2

= 8 4 ⋅ 5 + 2 16 ⋅ 5

= 24 5 feet
Area:
A = lw

21 − 7 2
9−2

= 13 + 2 +

21 − 7 2
7

1

1

140. a.

= 4 1600
= 4 ⋅ 40
= 160 square feet

b.

121. – 128. Answers may vary.

3 2 > 33
Calculator Check: 1.7321 > 1.4422
7 + 18 > 7 + 18
Calculator Check: 6.8884 > 5
5

129. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: The denominator is
rationalized correctly.

141. a.

b.

131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary. Sample
explanation: 2 20 + 4 75 simplifies to 4 5 + 20 3
and thus the radical terms are not common.

2

⋅7

1

2

1
4

4
3

3

4

+ 2−2
+ 2−1

( 8)
3

=

+

4

1

( 16 )
4

3

= 71 = 7.

136. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

20
5
=
.
8
4

)(5 − 3 ) = 22
25 − 3 = 22
3 =3

25 x 14 = 5 x 7

1
22

+

1 1
+
4
2
4
=
1 1
+
23 2
1 1
+
= 16 4
1 1
+
8 2
5
= 16
5
8
8
=
16
1
=
2
Mom’s portion:
1⎛ 1⎞ 1⎛1⎞ 1
1−
=
=
2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 4

135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
The cube root of –8 is the real number –2.

138.

5 3 1
+ −
4 4

= 22

Son’s portion:

16

134. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
1
1
1
1

A sample change is: ( 8 ) 3 =
= 3 = .
1
2
8
(8) 3

A sample change is:

3

22 ⋅ 24

1
4

2 ⋅2 ÷2 =

8

133. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
1

3
4

1

132. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
Sample explanation: Finding the nth root first often
gives smaller numbers on the middle step.

A sample change is: 7

5
2

2
Her son is 8 years old.

130. makes sense

3

3+ 2 3− 2

= 16
=4

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

(

3− 2

= 13 + 2 + 3 − 2

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

137. 5 +

= 13 + 2 +

= 8⋅ 2 5 + 2⋅ 4 5
= 16 5 + 8 5

7

22
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1
2

= 23 = 8

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

142. (2 x3 y 2 )(5 x 4 y 7 ) = 10 x7 y 9
143. 2 x 4 (8 x 4 + 3x) = 2 x 4 (8 x 4 ) + 2 x 4 (3 x) = 16 x8 + 6 x5
144. 2 x( x 2 + 4 x + 5) + 3( x 2 + 4 x + 5)

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 10 x + 3x 2 + 12 x + 15
= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 3x 2 + 10 x + 12 x + 15
= 2 x3 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 15

Section P.4
Check Point Exercises
1.

(−17 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 11x − 5) + (16 x 3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 15)

a.

= (−17 x 3 + 16 x3 ) + (4 x 2 − 3x 2 ) + (−11x + 3x) + (−5 − 15)
= − x 3 + x 2 − 8 x − 20
b.

(13x 2 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) − (−7 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 9)
= (13 x3 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) + (7 x3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 9)
= (13 x3 + 7 x 3 ) + (−9 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (1 − 9)
= 20 x3 − 11x 2 − 2 x − 8

2.

(5 x − 2)(3x 2 − 5 x + 4)
= 5 x(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4) − 2(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4)
= 5 x ⋅ 3x 2 − 5 x ⋅ 5 x + 5 x ⋅ 4 − 2 ⋅ 3 x 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅ 4
= 15 x 3 − 25 x 2 + 20 x − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 8
= 15 x 3 − 31x 2 + 30 x − 8

3.

(7 x − 5)(4 x − 3) = 7 x ⋅ 4 x + 7 x(−3) + (−5)4 x + (−5)(−3)
= 28 x 2 − 21x − 20 x + 15
= 28 x 2 − 41x + 15

4.

a.

(7 x − 6 y )(3x − y ) = (7 x)(3 x) + (7 x)(− y ) + (−6 y )(3x) + (−6 y )(− y )
= 21x 2 − 7 xy − 18 xy + 6 y 2
= 21x 2 − 25 xy + 6 y 2

5.

b.

(2 x + 4 y )2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(4 y ) + (4 y ) 2 = 4 x 2 + 16 xy + 16 y 2

a.

(3 x + 2 + 5y )(3x + 2 − 5y ) = (3x + 2)2 − (5y )2
= 9x 2 + 12 x + 4 − 25y 2
2

2

= 9x + 12 x − 25y + 4
b.

(2 x + y + 3) 2 = (2 x + y )2 + 2(2 x + y )(3) + 32
= 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 12 x + 6y + 9
2

2

= 4 x + 4 xy + 12 x + y + 6y + 9

23

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Exercise Set P.4
1.

yes; 2 x + 3 x 2 − 5 = 3 x 2 + 2 x − 5

2.

no; The term 3x −1 does not have a whole number exponent.

3.

no; The form of a polynomial involves addition and subtraction, not division.

4.

yes; x 2 − x 3 + x 4 − 5 = x 4 − x3 + x 2 − 5

5.

3x 2 has degree 2
−5x has degree 1
4 has degree 0
3 x 2 − 5 x + 4 has degree 2.

6.

−4x 3 has degree 3
7x 2 has degree 2
–11 has degree 0
−4 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 11 has degree 3.

7.

x 2 has degree 2
−4x 3 has degree 3
9x has degree 1
−12x 4 has degree 4
63 has degree 0
x 2 − 4 x 3 + 9 x − 12 x 4 + 63 has degree 4.

8.

x 2 has degree 2
−8x 3 has degree 3
15x 4 has degree 4
91 has degree 0
x 2 − 8 x3 + 15 x 4 + 91 has degree 4.

9.

(−6 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 8 x + 9) + (17 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 13) = (−6 x 3 + 17 x 3 ) + (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 ) + (−8 x − 4 x) + (9 − 13)
= 11x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 4
The degree is 3.

10.

(−7 x3 + 6 x 2 − 11x + 13) + (19 x3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 17) = (−7 x3 + 19 x3 ) + (6 x 2 − 11x 2 ) + (−11x + 7 x) + (13 − 17)
= 12 x3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x − 4
The degree is 3.

11.

(17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) − (5 x3 − 9 x 2 − 8 x + 11) = (17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) + (−5 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 8 x − 11)
= (17 x3 − 5 x3 ) + (−5 x 2 + 9 x 2 ) + (4 x + 8 x) + (−3 − 11)
= 12 x3 + 4 x 2 + 12 x − 14
The degree is 3.

12.

(18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) − (9 x 4 − 6 x3 − 5 x + 7) = (18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) + (−9 x 4 + 6 x3 + 5 x − 7)
= (18 x 4 − 9 x 4 ) + (−2 x3 + 6 x3 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (8 − 7)
= 9 x 4 + 4 x3 − 2 x + 1
The degree is 4.

24

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PreCalculus 4E

13.

Section P.4

(5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) − ( x 2 − 4 x − 3) = (5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) + (− x 2 + 4 x + 3)
= (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 − x 2 ) + (−7 x − 3 x + 4 x) + (−8 + 7 + 3)
= 6x2 − 6x + 2
The degree is 2.

14.

(8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) − (3 x 2 − 4 x) − (−6 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 3) = (8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) + (−3x 2 + 4 x) + (6 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3)
= 6 x 3 + (8 x 2 − 3x 2 + 5 x 2 ) + (7 x + 4 x) + (−5 − 3)
= 6 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 11x − 8
The degree is 3.

15.

( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) = x( x 2 ) − x ⋅ x + x ⋅1 + 1( x 2 ) − 1 ⋅ x + 1 ⋅1
= x3 − x 2 + x + x 2 − x + 1
= x3 + 1

16.

( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 5 x + 25 ) = x( x 2 ) − x(5 x) + x(25) + 5( x 2 ) − 5(5 x) + 5(25)
= x 3 − 5 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125)
= x 3 + 125

17.

(2 x − 3)( x 2 − 3x + 5) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−3x) + (2 x)(5) + (−3)( x 2 ) + (−3)(−3x) + (−3)(5)
= 2 x 3 − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 3x 2 + 9 x − 15
= 2 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 19 x − 15

18.

(2 x − 1)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−4 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−1)( x 2 ) + (−1)(−4 x) + (−1)(3)
= 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − x 2 + 4 x − 3
= 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 10 x − 3

19.

( x + 7)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x + 7 x + 21 = x 2 + 10 x + 21

20.

( x + 8)( x + 5) = x 2 + 5 x + 8 x + 40 = x 2 + 13x + 40

21.

( x − 5)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x − 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 2 x − 15

22.

( x − 1)( x + 2) = x 2 + 2 x − x − 2 = x 2 + x − 2

23.

(3 x + 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + 3 x(1) + 5(2 x) + 5 = 6 x 2 + 3x + 10 x + 5 = 6 x 2 + 13x + 5

24.

(7 x + 4)(3x + 1) = (7 x)(3x) + 7 x(1) + 4(3x) + 4(1) = 21x 2 + 7 x + 12 x + 4 = 21x 2 + 19 x + 4

25.

(2 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (2 x)(5 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−3)(5 x) + (−3)(3) = 10 x 2 + 6 x − 15 x − 9 = 10 x 2 − 9 x − 9

26.

(2 x − 5)(7 x + 2) = (2 x )(7 x) + (2 x)(2) + (−5)(7 x) + (−5)(2) = 14 x 2 + 4 x − 35 x − 10 = 14 x 2 − 31x − 10

27.

(5 x 2 − 4)(3 x 2 − 7) = (5 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (5 x 2 )(−7) + (−4)(3x 2 ) + (−4)(−7) = 15 x 4 − 35 x 2 − 12 x 2 + 28 = 15 x 4 − 47 x 2 + 28

28.

(7 x 2 − 2)(3 x 2 − 5) = (7 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (7 x 2 )(−5) + (−2)(3 x 2 ) + (−2)(−5) = 21x 4 − 35 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 10 = 21x 4 − 41x 2 + 10

29.

(8 x

3

+ 3)( x 2 − 5 ) = ( 8 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 8 x 3 ) ( −5 ) + ( 3) ( x 2 ) + ( 3)( −5 ) = 8 x5 − 40 x 3 + 3 x 2 − 15

25

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

30.

(7x

31.

( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 32 = x 2 − 9

32.

( x + 5)( x − 5) = x 2 − 52 = x 2 − 25

33.

(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) = (3 x) 2 − 22 = 9 x 2 − 4

34.

(2 x + 5)(2 x − 5) = (2 x)2 − 52 = 4 x 2 − 25

35.

(5 − 7 x)(5 + 7 x) = 52 − (7 x) 2 = 25 − 49 x 2

36.

(4 − 3x)(4 + 3x) = 42 − (3x) 2 = 16 − 9 x 2

37.

(4 x 2 + 5 x)(4 x 2 − 5 x) = (4 x 2 ) 2 − (5 x) 2 = 16 x 4 − 25 x 2

38.

(3 x 2 + 4 x)(3x 2 − 4 x) = (3x 2 ) 2 − (4 x) 2 = 9 x 4 − 16 x 2

39.

(1 − y )(1 + y ) = (1) − ( y )

40.

( 2 − y )( 2 + y ) = ( 2 ) − ( y )

41.

( x + 2) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = x 2 + 4 x + 4

42.

( x + 5) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = x 2 + 10 x + 25

43.

(2 x + 3)2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(3) + 32 = 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9

44.

(3 x + 2)2 = (3x) 2 + 2(3x)(2) + 22 = 9 x 2 + 12 x + 4

45.

( x − 3) 2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 3 + 32 = x 2 − 6 x + 9

46.

( x − 4)2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 4 + 42 = x 2 − 8 x + 16

47.

(4 x 2 − 1) 2 = (4 x 2 ) 2 − 2(4 x 2 )(1) + 12 = 16 x 4 − 8 x 2 + 1

48.

(5 x 2 − 3)2 = (5 x 2 ) 2 − 2(5 x 2 )(3) + 32 = 25 x 4 − 30 x 2 + 9

49.

(7 − 2 x)2 = 7 2 − 2(7)(2 x) + (2 x) 2 = 49 − 28 x + 4 x 2 = 4 x 2 − 28 x + 49

50.

(9 − 5 x) 2 = 92 − 2(9)(5 x) + (5 x) 2 = 81 − 90 x + 25 x 2 or 25 x 2 − 90 x + 81

51.

( x + 1)3 = x3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅1 + 3x ⋅12 + 13 = x3 + 3 x 2 + 3 x + 1

52.

( x + 2)3 = x 3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 22 + 23 = x 3 + 6 x 2 + 12 x + 8

53.

(2 x + 3)3 = (2 x)3 + 3 ⋅ (2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x) ⋅ 32 + 33 = 8 x 3 + 36 x 2 + 54 x + 27

3

+ 5 )( x 2 − 2 ) = ( 7 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 7 x 3 ) ( −2 ) + ( 5 ) ( x 2 ) + ( 5 )( −2 ) = 7 x5 − 14 x3 + 5 x 2 − 10

5

5

5 2

2

5

5

2

= 1 − y10

5 2

= 4 − y10

26

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PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

54.

(3 x + 4)3 = (3x)3 + 3(3x) 2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3x) ⋅ 42 + 43 = 27 x 3 + 108 x 2 + 144 x + 64

55.

( x − 3)3 = x3 − 3 ⋅ x 3 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 32 − 33 = x 3 − 9 x 2 + 27 x − 27

56.

( x − 1)3 = x 3 − 3x 2 ⋅1 + 3 x ⋅12 − 13 = x3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1

57.

(3 x − 4)3 = (3x)3 − 3(3 x)2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3 x) ⋅ 42 − 43 = 27 x 3 − 108 x 2 + 144 x − 64

58.

(2 x − 3)3 = (2 x)3 − 3(2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x ) ⋅ 32 − 33 = 8 x3 − 36 x 2 + 54 x − 27

59.

( x + 5 y )(7 x + 3 y ) = x(7 x) + x(3 y ) + (5 y )(7 x) + (5 y )(3 y )
= 7 x 2 + 3 xy + 35 xy + 15 y 2
= 7 x 2 + 38 xy + 15 y 2

60.

( x + 9 y )(6 x + 7 y ) = x(6 x) + x(7 y ) + (9 y )(6 x) + (9 y )(7 y )
= 6 x 2 + 7 xy + 54 xy + 63 y 2
= 6 x 2 + 61xy + 63 y 2

61.

( x − 3 y )(2 x + 7 y ) = x(2 x) + x (7 y ) + (−3 y )(2 x) + (−3 y )(7 y )
= 2 x 2 + 7 xy − 6 xy − 21y 2
= 2 x 2 + xy − 21 y 2

62.

(3 x − y )(2 x + 5 y ) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(5 y ) + (− y )(2 x) + (− y )(5 y )
= 6 x 2 + 15 xy − 2 xy − 5 y 2
= 6 x 2 + 13xy − 5 y 2

63.

(3 xy − 1)(5 xy + 2) = (3xy )(5 xy ) + (3xy )(2) + (−1)(5 xy ) + (−1)(2)
= 15 x 2 y 2 + 6 xy − 5 xy − 2
= 15 x 2 y 2 + xy − 2

64.

(7 x 2 y + 1)(2 x 2 y − 3) = (7 x 2 y )(2 x 2 y ) + (7 x 2 y )(−3) + (1)2 x 2 y + (1)(−3)
= 14 x 4 y 2 − 21x 2 y + 2 x 2 y − 3
= 14 x 4 y 2 − 19 x 2 y − 3

65.

(7 x + 5 y ) 2 = (7 x) 2 + 2(7 x)(5 y ) + (5 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 + 70 xy + 25 y 2

66.

(9 x + 7 y )2 = (9 x)2 + 2(9 x )(7 y ) + (7 y )2 = 81x 2 + 126 xy + 49 y 2

67.

( x 2 y 2 − 3) 2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(3) + 32 = x 4 y 4 − 6 x 2 y 2 + 9

68.

( x 2 y 2 − 5)2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(5) + 52 = x 4 y 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 25

69.

( x − y )( x 2 + xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x( xy ) + x( y 2 ) + (− y )( x 2 ) + (− y )( xy ) + (− y )( y 2 )
= x3 + x 2 y + xy 2 − x 2 y − xy 2 − y 3
= x3 − y 3

27

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

70.

( x + y )( x 2 − xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x(− xy ) + x( y 2 ) + y ( x 2 ) + y (− xy ) + y ( y 2 )
= x 3 − x 2 y + xy 2 + x 2 y − xy 2 + y 3
= x3 + y 3

71.

(3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = (3x) 2 − (5 y )2 = 9 x 2 − 25 y 2

72.

(7 x + 3 y )(7 x − 3 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (3 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 9 y 2

73.

( x + y + 3)( x + y − 3) = ( x + y ) 2 − 32 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 9

74.

( x + y + 5)( x + y − 5) = ( x + y )2 − 52 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 25

75.

(3 x + 7 − 5 y )(3x + 7 + 5 y ) = (3x + 7) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 + 42 x + 49 − 25 y 2

76.

(5 x + 7 y − 2)(5 x + 7 y + 2) = (5 x + 7 y ) 2 − 22 = 25 x 2 + 70 xy + 49 y 2 − 4

77.

[5 y − (2 x + 3)][5 y + (2 x + 3)] = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 3) 2 = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 12 x + 9) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 12 x − 9

78.

[8 y + (7 − 3x)][8 y − (7 − 3x)] = (8 y ) 2 − (7 − 3x) 2 = 64 y 2 − (49 − 42 x + 9 x 2 ) = 64 y 2 − 49 + 42 x − 9 x 2

79.

( x + y + 1) 2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y ) + 1 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 2 x + 2 y + 1

80.

( x + y + 2)2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y )(2) + 22 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 4 y + 4

81.

(2 x + y + 1) 2 = (2 x + y ) 2 + 2(2 x + y ) + 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 2 y + 1

82.

(5 x + 1 + 6 y )2 = (5 x + 1) 2 + 2(5 x + 1)(6 y ) + (6 y )2 = 25 x 2 + 10 x + 60 xy + 1 + 12 y + 36 y 2

83.

(3 x + 4 y )

2

2
2
2
2
2
− ( 3x − 4 y ) = ⎡( 3x ) + 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(3 x ) − 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤

⎦ ⎣

(

) (

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 24 xy + 16 y 2

)

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 + 24 xy − 16 y 2
= 48 xy
84.

(5 x + 2 y )

2

2
2
2
2
2
− ( 5 x − 2 y ) = ⎡(5 x ) + 2 ( 5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(5 x ) − 2 (5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤

⎦ ⎣

(

) (

= 25 x 2 + 20 xy + 4 y 2 − 25 x 2 − 20 xy + 4 y 2
= 25 x + 20 xy + 4 y − 25 x + 20 xy − 4 y
2

2

2

)

2

= 40 xy
85.

(5 x − 7 )( 3x − 2) − ( 4 x − 5)( 6 x − 1)
2
2
= ⎡15 x − 10 x − 21x + 14⎤ − ⎡24 x − 4 x − 30 x + 5⎤

(

2

⎦ ⎣

) (

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x − 34 x + 5
2

)

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x + 34 x − 5
2

= −9 x + 3 x + 9
28

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Section P.4 (3 x + 5)( 2 x − 9) − ( 7 x − 2)( x − 1) ( = (6 x ) ( 2 2 = 6 x − 27 x + 10 x − 45 − 7 x − 7 x − 2 x + 2 2 ) ( 2 − 17 x − 45 − 7 x − 9 x + 2 2 ) ) 2 = 6 x − 17 x − 45 − 7 x + 9 x − 2 2 = − x − 8 x − 47 87. ( 2 x + 5)( 2 x − 5) ( 4 x 2 + 25) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 2 x ) − 5 ⎤ 4 x + 25 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 4 x ) − ( 25) 2 2 = 4 x − 25 4 x + 25 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 16 x − 625 88. (3 x + 4)( 3x − 4) (9 x 2 + 16) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 3 x ) − 4 ⎤ 9 x + 16 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 9 x ) − (16 ) 2 2 = 9 x − 16 9 x + 16 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 81x − 256 ( 2 x − 7 ) = 2 x − 7 5 −3 ( ) 3 ( 2 x − 7) 5 89. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. = ( 2 x − 7) 2 = ( 2 x ) − 2 ( 2 x )( 7 ) + ( 7 ) 2 2 2 = 4 x − 28 x + 49 ( 5 x − 3) = 5 x − 3 6 − 4 ( ) 4 ( 5 x − 3) 6 90. = ( 5 x − 3) 2 = ( 5 x ) − 2 ( 5 x )( 3) + ( 3) 2 2 2 = 25 x − 30 x + 9 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .PreCalculus 4E 86.

539 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15. ( x 8 − 2x )(10 − 2 x ) = x ( 80 − 36 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 80 x − 36 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 36 x + 80 x 94. M = 177 x 2 + 288 x + 7075 M = 177(16)2 + 288(16) + 7075 = 56. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. W = 255 x 2 − 2956 x + 24. 336 = 53. ( x 8 − 2x )(5 − 2 x ) = x ( 40 − 26 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 40 x − 26 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 26 x + 40 x 30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.348 − $10. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 404 − 33. 539 − $15.336 W = 255(18)2 − 2956(18) + 24.348.995. 92.923. d. 995 x + 63. 418 The difference in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15. 220 − 41. 995(14) + 63. Inc. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15.995 x + 63.220 shown in the bar graph by $225. b.316 shown in the bar graph by $2432. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 418 = $121.539.210 M − W = −35(16)3 + 1373(16) 2 − 15. b. 210 c.418. 923 = $1425. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. . 93. The model underestimates this difference by $15.748. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The model overestimates the actual value of $51. The model underestimates the actual value of $57.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 91. 923 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $10. d. 995 x + 63. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. The model overestimates this difference by $12. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. 446 + 14. a. 210 = 15.748 The model estimates the median annual income for a woman with 18 years of education to be $53. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. 210 M − W = −35(14)3 + 1373(14) 2 − 15. 446 + 14. 681 = 15. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. 995 The model estimates the median annual income for a man with 16 years of education to be $56. 210 = 12. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15.995 x + 63.210 c. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. a. 995(16) + 63. 348 The difference in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $12. 57. 44. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. 481 = 10.

(2x − 1)x(x + 3) − x(x − 2)x = (2x 2 + 5x − 3)(x + 2) − x 2 (x − 2) 3 2 3 = 2x + 5x − 3x − x + 2x 2 = x 3 + 7x 2 − 3x 109. . ( x − 2 )( x − 12) = x 2 − 14 x + 24 113. makes sense 104. (x + 5)(2x + 1)(x + 2) − 3 ⋅ x(x + 5) = (2x 2 + 11x + 5)(x + 2) − 3x 2 −15x 3 2 2 = 2x + 15x + 27x + 10 − 3x − 15x = 2x 3 + 12x 2 + 12x + 10 110. makes sense 106. ( x + 4) ( x + 3) − ( x + 2) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − ( x 2 + 3x + 2 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − x 2 − 3x − 2 = 4 x + 10 97.PreCalculus 4E 95. (y n + 2)(y n − 2) − (y n − 3)2 = y 2 n − 4 − (y 2 n − 6y n + 9) =y 2n −4 −y 2n n + 6y − 9 = 6y n −13 111. although answers may vary 107.4 ( x + 9) ( x + 3) − ( x + 5) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − ( x 2 + 6 x + 5 ) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − x 2 − 6 x − 5 = 6 x + 22 96. ( x + 3)( x + 4 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 112. Inc. (4 x + 1)(2 x − 3 ) = 8 x 2 − 10 x − 3 31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Answers may vary. ( x + 3)( x − 1) + (( x + 3) − x)( x − ( x − 1)) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) + 3( x − x + 1) = x 2 − x + 3x − 3 + 3 = x2 + 2 x 108. Sample explanation: FOIL is used to multiply two binomials. does not make sense. – 102. Explanations will vary. 105. 103. Section P. makes sense. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Possible Factors of 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 Sum of Outside and Inside Products (Should Equal 19x) (6 x + 1)( x − 7) −42 x + x = −41x (6 x − 7)( x + 1) 6x − 7x = −x (6 x − 1)( x + 7) 42 x − x = 41x (6 x + 7)( x − 1) −6 x + 7 x = x (3 x + 1)(2 x − 7) −21x + 2 x = −19 x (3 x − 7)(2 x + 1) 3x − 14 x = −11x (3 x − 1)(2 x + 7) 21x − 2 x = 19 x (3 x + 7)(2 x − 1) −3x + 14 x = 11x Thus. Find two First terms whose product is 6 x 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Section P. Find two numbers whose product is 40 and whose sum is 13. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (6 x )(x ) 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = ( 3x )( 2 x ) Find two Last terms whose product is –7. Find two numbers whose product is –14 and whose sum is –5. 2 x( x − 7) + 3( x − 7) = ( x − 7)(2 x + 3) x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = ( x3 + 5 x 2 ) − (2 x + 10) = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = ( x + 5)( x 2 − 2) 3. 10 x3 − 4 x 2 = 2 x 2 (5 x) − 2 x 2 (2) = 2 x 2 (5 x − 2) b. The required integers are 8 and 5. Inc. 32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The required integers are –7 and 2. a. x 2 − 5 x − 14 = ( x − 7)( x + 2) or ( x + 2)( x − 7). . 5. x 2 + 13x + 40 = ( x + 5)( x + 8) or ( x + 8)( x + 5) 4. Thus.5 Check Point Exercises 1. Thus. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is 19x. 2. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (3x − 1)(2 x + 7) or (2 x + 7)(3 x − 1). The possible factors are 1(–7) and –1(7).

(4 y )( y ) . 3x 2 − 13xy + y 2 = (3x − y )( x − 4 y ) or ( x − 4 y )(3x − y ). Since 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 = 56 x. Express 9 x 2 − 4 as the difference of two squares and again use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 .5 Find two First terms whose product is 3 x 2 . (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) = (9 x 2 + 4) ⎡⎣(3x) 2 − 22 ⎤⎦ = (9 x 2 + 4)(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) Thus. a. Inc. 3x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) = 3x ( x − 5 ) 2 33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 + 4)(3x + 2)(3x − 2). x 2 + 14 x + 49 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 = ( x + 7) 2 b. 3x 2 − 13xy + 4 y 2 = (3x )(x ) Find two Last terms whose product is 4 y 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Then use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . check to see if the middle term can be expressed as twice the product of 4x and 7. a. = (4 x − 7) 2 . a. x 2 − 81 = x 2 − 92 = ( x + 9)( x − 9) b. 9. 125 x 3 − 8 = (5 x)3 − 23 = (5 x − 2) ⎡⎣ (5 x)2 + (5 x)(2) + 22 ⎤⎦ = (5 x − 2)(25 x 2 + 10 x + 4) 11. 3x 3 − 30 x 2 + 75 x = 3 x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) Factor the perfect square trinomial. (−2 y )(−2 y ) . Express each term as the square of some monomial. 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 42 = (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) The factor 9 x 2 − 4 is the difference of two squares and can be factored. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is −13xy . 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 = (4 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 x 3 + 1 = x 3 + 13 = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x ⋅ 1 + 12 ) = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) b. 36 x 2 − 25 = (6 x) 2 − 52 = (6 x + 5)(6 x − 5) Express 81x 4 − 16 as the difference of two squares and use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . Thus. Section P. 7. 10.PreCalculus 4E 6. factored completely. Since 16 x 2 = (4 x) 2 and 49 = 7 2 . and (−4 y )(− y ) . The possible factors are (2 y )(2 y ) . 8. Factor out the greatest common factor. 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 is a perfect square trinomial.

18 x + 27 = 9 ⋅ 2 x + 9 ⋅ 3 = 9(2 x + 3) 2. 8 x 2 + 33 x + 4 = (8 x + 1)( x + 4) 10. x 2 − 36a 2 + 20 x + 100 12. x 2 + 8 x + 15 = ( x + 3)( x + 5) 19. x 2 ( x − 3) + 12( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 12) 30. 9 x 4 − 18 x3 + 27 x 2 2 2 = 9 x 2 ( x 2 ) + 9 x 2 (−2 x) + 9 x 2 (3) = 9 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 3) 6. 3x 2 – 25x – 28 = (3x – 28)(x + 1) 26. x 2 – 2x – 15 = (x – 5)(x + 3) 20. = ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 4 ) = x 2 + 20 x + 100 − 36a 2 = ( x 2 + 20 x + 100 ) − 36a 2 13. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 x 2 + 16 x + 15 = (2 x + 3)(2 x + 5) 9. 3x 2 – x – 2 = (3x + 2)(x – 1) 24. 2 = ( x + 10 + 6a )( x + 10 − 6a ) x ( x − 1) −1 2 14. 9 x 2 + 5 x − 4 = (9 x − 4)( x + 1) 33. x 2 − 4 x − 5 = ( x − 5)( x + 1) 21. 20 x 2 + 27 x − 8 = (5 x + 8)(4 x − 1) Exercise Set P. Inc.5 1. x 3 − 3x 2 + 4 x − 12 = x 2 ( x − 3) + 4 ( x − 3) 16. 6 x 2 − 17 x + 12 = (2 x − 3)(3x − 4) 8. 3x + 6 x = 3x ⋅ x + 3x ⋅ 2 = 3x ( x + 2) 4. 15. 4 x − 8 x = 4x(x) + 4x(–2) = 4x(x – 2) 5. x(x + 5) + 3(x + 5) = (x + 5)(x + 3) 28. . x(2x + 1) + 4(2x + 1) = (2x + 1)(x + 4) 29. 9 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = (3 x − 1)(3x − 2) 11. x 2 – 8x + 15 = (x – 5)(x – 3) 22. 3x 2 − 2 x − 5 = (3x − 5)( x + 1) = 6 x2 ( x2 − 3x + 2 ) 27. x 3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 10 = x 2 ( x − 2) + 5( x − 2) 32. ( 2 x − 1) x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 5 = x 2 ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 5 ) 1 2 17. x 2 − 14 x + 45 = ( x − 5)( x − 9) 23. 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 = (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 25. x 2 + 5 x + 6 = ( x + 2)( x + 3) 18. Reorder to write as a difference of squares.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 12. x 2 ( 2 x + 5 ) + 17 ( 2 x + 5) = ( 2 x + 5) ( x 2 + 17 ) 31. 6x 2 –11x + 4 = (2x – 1)(3x – 4) 7. 16x – 24 = 8(2x) + 8(–3) = 8(2x – 3) 3. 6 x 4 − 18 x 3 + 12 x 2 = 6 x ( x ) + 6 x (−3x) + 6 x (2) 2 2 2 2 = ( x 2 + 5)( x − 2) 34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = ( x − 1) ⎣⎡ x + ( x − 1) ⎦⎤ ( 2 x − 1) = ( x − 1) 3x 3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x + 4 = x 2 (3x − 2) − 2(3x − 2) = (3x − 2)( x 2 − 2) − 12 − 12 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 2 x − 12 = x 2 ( x + 6 ) − 2 ( x + 6 ) = ( x + 6) ( x2 − 2) 1 + ( x − 1) 2 1− −1 −1 = ( x − 1) 2 ⎡ x + ( x − 1) 2 ( 2 ) ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ = ( x − 1) x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 2 = x 2 ( x − 1) + 2( x − 1) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 2) = ( x + 10 ) − 36a 2 13.

= (4 x + 9)(2 x + 3)(2 x − 3) 2 27 x 3 − 1 = (3x)3 − 13 = (3x − 1)[(3x) 2 + (3 x)(1) + 12 ] = (3x − 1)(9 x 2 + 3 x + 1) 81x 4 − 1 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 12 = (9 x 2 + 1)(9 x 2 − 1) 63. x 2 + 4 x + 4 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = ( x + 2) 2 51. 45. x 3 − 64 = x3 − 43 = ( x − 4)( x 2 + x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 46. 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 = (2 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 2 x ⋅1 + 12 36. 8 x 3 − 1 = (2 x)3 − 13 = (2 x − 1)[(2 x) 2 + (2 x)(1) + 12 ] 47. 44. 9 x 2 − 6 x + 1 = (3x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 3 x ⋅1 + 12 = (3x − 1) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 3x + 9) 2 58. = ( x + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 3 x + 9) x 4 − 1 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 12 = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) 61. = ( x − 4)( x 2 + 4 x + 16) x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 60. x 3 + 27 = x3 + 33 41. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = ( x − 7) 2 3x 3 − 3x = 3x( x 2 − 1) = 3x( x + 1)( x − 1) 35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 − 144 = x 2 − 122 = ( x + 12)( x − 12) 57. 36 x 2 − 49 = (6 x) 2 − 7 2 = (6 x + 7)(6 x − 7) 42. 6 x 2 − 7 xy − 5 y 2 = (3 x − 5 y )(2 x + y ) 39. 43. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = ( x − 5) 2 35. = (9 x + 1)[(3 x) − 1 ] 2 x 3 − 27 = x 3 − 33 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 48. 64 x 2 − 16 x + 1 = (8 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 8 x ⋅1 + 12 = (8 x − 1) 2 40. 64 x − 81 = (8 x ) − 9 = (8 x + 9)(8 x − 9) 2 = (2 x + 1) 2 2 2 2 54. x 2 − 14 x + 49 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 64 x3 + 27 = (4 x)3 + 33 = (4 x + 3)(16 x 2 − 12 x + 9) 64.5 34. Inc. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 2 2 = (4 x + 3)[(4 x) 2 − (4 x)(3) + 32 ] = (9 x + 1)(3x + 1)(3 x − 1) 2 49. x 2 − 100 = x 2 − 102 = ( x + 10)( x − 10) 56. 2 x 2 + 3xy + y 2 = (2 x + y )( x + y ) 53. 3x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 = (3x + y )( x + y ) 37. 16 x 4 − 81 = (4 x 2 )2 − 92 = (2 x − 1)(4 x 2 + 2 x + 1) = (4 x 2 + 9)(4 x 2 − 9) = (4 x 2 + 9)[(2 x)2 − 32 ] 62. 15 x 2 − 19 x + 6 = (3x − 2)(5 x − 3) 52. . 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = (5 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x ⋅1 + 12 = (5 x + 1) 2 55.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x 2 + 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅1 + 12 = ( x + 1) 2 50. 8 x 3 + 125 = (2 x)3 + 53 = (2 x + 5)[(2 x)2 − (2 x)(5) + 52 ] = (2 x + 5)(4 x 2 − 10 x + 25) 65. 9 x 2 − 25 y 2 = (3 x) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = (3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) 36 x 2 − 49 y 2 = (6 x) 2 − (7 y ) 2 = (6 x + 7 y )(6 x − 7 y ) 59. 6 x − 5 xy − 6 y = (3x + 2 y )(2 x − 3 y ) 38.

Inc. 5 x 3 − 45 x = 5 x( x 2 − 9) = 5 x( x + 3)( x − 3) 67. x 3 − 4 x = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x 2 − 22 ) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) 76. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 3 + 3x 2 − 25 x − 75 = ( x 3 + 3x 2 ) − (25 x + 75) = x 2 ( x + 3) − 25( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 25)( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 52 )( x + 3) = ( x − 5)( x + 5)( x + 3) 73. 6 x 2 − 6 x − 12 = 6( x 2 − x − 2) = 6( x − 2)( x + 1) 75. 4 x 2 − 4 x − 24 = 4( x 2 − x − 6) = 4( x + 2)( x − 3) 68. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 9 x − 18 = ( x 3 + 2 x 2 ) − (9 x + 18) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 9( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 9)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 32 )( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2) 72. 9 x3 − 9 x = 9 x( x 2 − 1) = 9 x( x − 1)( x + 1) 77. 7 x 4 − 7 = 7( x 4 − 1) = 7[( x 2 ) 2 − 12 ] = 7( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 7( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 71. x 2 + 36 is prime.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 66. 2 x 4 − 162 = 2( x 4 − 81) = 2[( x 2 ) 2 − 92 ] = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 9) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 32 ) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x + 3)( x − 3) 70. 6 x 2 − 18 x − 60 = 6( x 2 − 3 x − 10) = 6( x + 2)( x − 5) 69. . 78. 2 x 2 − 2 x − 112 = 2( x 2 − x − 56) = 2( x − 8)( x + 7) 74. x 2 + 64 is prime. 36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Inc. 16a 2 x − 25 y − 25 x + 16a 2 y = (16a 2 x + 16a 2 y ) + ( −25 y − 25 x ) = 16a 2 ( x + y ) − 25 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) (16a 2 − 25 ) = ( x + y )( 4a + 5 )( 4a − 5 ) 89.5 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−4 x − 8) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 4)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 22 )( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)2 80. 2 x 3 − 98a 2 x + 28 x 2 + 98 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 49a 2 +14 x + 49 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 +14 x + 49 ) − 49a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 7 ) − 49a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 7 − 7a )( x + 7 + 7a ) ⎣ ⎦ 93. x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (− x − 2) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 1)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 12 )( x + 2) = ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x + 2) 81. 12 x 2 y − 27 y − 4 x 2 + 9 = (12 x 2 y − 27 y ) + ( −4 x 2 + 9 ) = 3 y ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) − 1( 4 x 2 − 9 ) = ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) ( 3 y − 1) = ( 2 x + 3)( 2 x − 3)( 3 y − 1) 91. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 1 1 1 ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ x 2 − x 2 = x 2 ⎜ x 2 2 ⎟ − 1 = x 2 ( x − 1) ⎝ ⎠ 37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section P. x 2 − 12 x + 36 − 49 y 2 = ( x 2 − 12 x + 36 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 + 7 y ) ( x − 6 − 7 y ) 2 86. y 5 − 81y = y ( y 4 − 81) = y[( y 2 )2 − 92 ] = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 9) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 32 ) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y + 3)( y − 3) 82. x 2 y − 16 y + 32 − 2 x 2 = ( x 2 y − 16 y ) + ( −2 x 2 + 32 ) = y ( x 2 − 16 ) − 2 ( x 2 − 16 ) = ( x 2 − 16 ) ( y − 2 ) = ( x + 4 )( x − 4 )( y − 2 ) 90. y 5 − 16 y = y ( y 4 − 16) = y[( y 2 ) 2 − 42 ] = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 4) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 22 ) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y + 2)( y − 2) 83. . 2 x 3 − 8a 2 x + 24 x 2 + 72 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 4a 2 + 12 x + 36 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 + 12 x + 36 ) − 4a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 6 ) − 4a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 6 − 2a )( x + 6 + 2a ) ⎣ ⎦ 92. 20 y 4 − 45 y 2 = 5 y 2 (4 y 2 − 9) = 5 y 2 [(2 y ) 2 − 32 ] = 5 y 2 (2 y + 3)(2 y − 3) 84. 9b 2 x − 16 y − 16 x + 9b 2 y = ( 9b 2 x + 9b 2 y ) + ( −16 x − 16 y ) = 9b 2 ( x + y ) − 16 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) ( 9b 2 − 16 ) = ( x + y )( 3b + 4 )( 3b − 4 ) 88.PreCalculus 4E 79. 48 y 4 − 3 y 2 = 3 y 2 (16 y 2 − 1) = 3 y 2 [(4 y )2 − 12 ] = 3 y 2 (4 y + 1)(4 y − 1) 85. x 2 − 10 x + 25 − 36 y 2 = ( x 2 − 10 x + 25) − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5)2 − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5 + 6 y )( x − 5 − 6 y ) 87.

( 99.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. 4x 1 − x4 − 23 96. ( x + 3) 2 − ( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3) 2 ⎡⎢1 − ( x + 3) 2 98. ( x + 5) 100. 10 x 2 ( x + 1) − 7 x ( x + 1) − 6 ( x + 1) = ( x + 1) (10 x 2 − 7 x − 6 ) = ( x + 1)( 5 x − 6 )( 2 x + 1) 104. 3 x4 95. Inc. 12 x − 3 4 1 x4 = 1⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ x 4 4 − 1⎟ = x 4 ⎜ x 2 − 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 8x 3 = 4 x 1 ⎛ 2⎞ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 32 ⎛ −2 4 (1 + 2 x ) ⎜1 + 2 x 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎟ = 4 x 3 (1 + 2 x ) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ x3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 6x 4 = 6x − 3 4 1 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 ⎛ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 6( x + 2) ⎜ 2 + x 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎟ = 6x 4 (2 + x ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ x4 97. ( 4 x − 1) 2 − 1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ 2 ⎢⎣1 − 3 ( 4 x − 1) ⎥⎦ = ( 4 x − 1) 1⎤ ⎡ 4 ⎢⎣1 − 3 x + 3 ⎥⎦ 1 −4(4 x − 1) 2 ( x − 1) 4 ⎛4 4 ⎞ = ( 4 x − 1) ⎜ − x ⎟ = (4 x − 1) 2 (1 − x) = 3 3 ⎝3 3 ⎠ 1 1 2 102. (x 1 1 3 3 1 − 2 ⎣ x2 + 4 2 3 2 ) ( − 12 + 3) + x2 + 4 − ( x + 5) −2 3 7 2 ) ( − 32 + ( x 2 + 3) = x2 + 4 = ( x + 5) −5 3 ) 3 2 1 1 ⎤ 2 ⎡1 − ( x + 3) ⎤ = ( x + 3) 2 ( − x − 2 ) = −( x + 3) 2 ( x + 2) = x + 3 ( ) ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢1 + x 2 + 4 ⎢ ⎣ ( 1 ) 7−3 ⎤ 2 2⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ( = x2 + 4 ) 3 2 ) ( 2⎤ ⎡ 2 2 ⎢1 + x + 4 ⎥ = x + 4 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ( 3 2 ) ( x4 + 8x2 + 17) 1 ⎛ 3⎞ x+4 − 32 ⎡ − −⎜ − ⎟ ⎤ −3 −3 3 ⎢( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − 1⎥ = ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎣⎡( x + 5 ) − 1⎦⎤ = ( x + 5) 2 ( x + 4 ) = ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) 2 = ( x 2 + 3) 5 −5 ⎡ 2 − 2 −⎛⎜ − 5 ⎞⎟ ⎤ x2 + 4 3 ⎢( x + 3) 3 ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ + 1⎥ = ( x 2 + 3)− 3 ⎡( x 2 + 3) + 1⎤ = 5 ⎣ ⎦ ( x 2 + 3) 3 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 1 3 1 ( 4 x − 1) 2 3 1 3 1 1 − ⎤ ⎡ 1 = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎢1 − ( 4 x − 1) 2 2 ⎥ = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎣ 3 ⎦ 101. 12 x 2 ( x − 1) − 4 x ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) (12 x 2 − 4 x − 5 ) = ( x − 1)( 6 x − 5 )( 2 x + 1) 105. 7 x 4 + 34 x 2 − 5 = ( 7 x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 5 ) 3 107. 6 x 4 + 35 x 2 − 6 = ( x 2 + 6 )( 6 x 2 − 1) 106. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −8 ( 4 x + 3) + 10 ( 5 x + 1) (4 x + 3)−1 = 2 ( 4 x + 3) ⎣⎡ −4 + 5 ( 5 x + 1)( 4 x + 3) ⎦⎤ = −2 −2 2(100 x 2 + 95 x + 11) (4 x + 3) 2 103. . y 7 + y = y ( y 6 + 1) = y ⎡⎢( y 2 ) + 13 ⎤⎥ = y ( y 2 + 1)( y 4 − y 2 + 1) ⎣ ⎦ 38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

a. 2 2 ( x − 0. a.7 ) = 0.6 x )( 0.49 x No.4 ) = ( 0. Inc. ( x − 0. b. a.3) = ( 0. 3x 2 + 5 xy 2 + 2 y 4 = 3 x + 2 y 2 b. the computer is selling at 36% of its original price. ( x + y ) 4 − 100( x + y ) 2 = ( x + y ) )( x − 3 y ) ( )( x + y ) 116. x 4 − 5 x 2 y 2 + 4 y 4 = x 2 − 4 y 2 )( x ( 110.7 x ) ( 0. b. . b. b.4 ( x − 0. 118. b.4 x ) − 0.36 x No.3x ) (1 − 0. a. 2 x 2 − 7 xy 2 + 3 y 4 = 2 x − y 2 115.5 + 1 = ( y + 1) + 13 = ⎡⎣( y + 1) + 1⎤⎦ ⎡( y + 1) − ( y + 1) + 1⎤ = ( y + 2 ) ⎡⎣( y 2 + 2 y + 1) − y − 1 + 1⎤⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 3 2 = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + 2 y + 1 − y − 1 + 1) = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + y + 1) ( 109.3x ) − 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 )( x ) − y 2 = ( x + 2 y )( x − 2 y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 ) − y 2 = ( x + 3 y )( x − 3 y )( x + y )( x − y ) ( x − y )4 − 4 ( x − y )2 2 2 2 = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y )2 − 4 ) = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y ) + 2 ) ( ( x − y ) − 2 ) = ( x − y ) ( x − y + 2 ) ( x − y − 2 ) 112. 117. the computer is selling at 49% of its original price. ( 3x ) 2 − 4 ⋅ 22 = 9 x 2 − 16 9 x 2 − 16 = ( 3x + 4 ) ( 3 x − 4 ) (7x) 2 − 4 ⋅ 32 = 49 x 2 − 36 49 x 2 − 36 = ( 7 x + 6 ) ( 7 x − 6 ) x ( x + y) − y ( x + y) x ( x + y ) − y ( x + y ) = ( x + y )( x − y ) x 2 + xy + xy + y 2 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 = ( x + y ) 2 39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 ( x − 0. a. 119.3x ) = ( x − 0.PreCalculus 4E 108. ( y + 1) 3 Section P. 120.6 ) = 0. a. x 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 9 y 4 = x 2 − 9 y 2 111.4 x ) = ( x − 0.4 x )(1 − 0. 2 ) − 100 = ( x + y )2 ( x + y − 10 ) ( x + y + 10 ) 2 114. ( ( x + y) ( 113.

Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 4a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 4a = 4a3 − 4ab 2 = 4a ( a 2 − b 2 ) = 4a ( a + b )( a − b ) 122. false. − x 2 − 4 x + 5 = −1( x 2 + 4 x − 5 ) = −1( x + 5 )( x − 1) = − ( x + 5)( x − 1) 140. Publishing as Prentice Hall. false. – 129. Answers may vary. makes sense 134. A sample change is: x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 135. 137. Changes to make the statement true will vary. x 2 n + 6 x n + 8 = ( x n + 4 )( x n + 2 ) 139. Explanations will vary. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 3a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 3a = 3a3 − 3ab 2 ( = 3a a 2 − b2 ) = 3a ( a + b )( a − b ) 123. . makes sense 131.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Inc. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: The binomial x 2 + 36 is prime. Sample explanation: 4 x 2 − 100 = 4( x 2 − 25) = 4( x + 5)( x − 5) 133. A sample change is: x 3 − 64 = ( x − 4 )( x + 4 x + 16 ) 138. true 136. false. 130. makes sense 132. x 4 − y 4 − 2 x3 y + 2 xy3 = ( x 4 − y 4 ) + ( −2 x 3 y + 2 xy 3 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) − 2 xy ( x 2 − y 2 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 − 2 xy ) = ( x − y )( x + y ) ( x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 ) = ( x − y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 3 = ( x − y) ( x + y) 40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. does not make sense.

(8 x − 3) 2 = (8 x)2 − 2(8 x)(3) + (3) 2 = 64 x 2 − 48 x + 9 7. 3 12 − 27 = 3 ⋅ 2 3 − 3 3 = 6 3 − 3 3 = 3 3 5. 1 1 ⋅ 6 − ⋅6 ⎛ 31 − 12 ⎞ x2 2 −3 ⎜ x y ⎟ = x3 y 2 = x y = 3 y ⎝ ⎠ 8. (3 x + 5) − (4 x − 7) = 3x + 5 − 4 x + 7 = 3x − 4 x + 5 + 7 = − x + 12 6 + 9 6 = 10 6 4. (3 x + 5)(4 x − 7) = (3x)(4 x) + (3 x)(−7) + (5)(4 x) + (5)(−7) = 12 x 2 − 21x + 20 x − 35 = 12 x 2 − x − 35 2. where c > 0 is an integer. − ⎛2⎞ 5 ⎜ 7 ⎟ − 32 = 1 − ⎝ ⎠ 6 0 9. 4. x 2 + 6 x + 5 ( x + 5)( x + 1) x + 1 = = x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) x − 5 145. 8 or –8 143. Mid-Chapter P Check Point −1 ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5) − 12 1 − ( x + 5) 2 ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) ( x + 5) −3 ⎛ ⎞ 1 −⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞⎟ ⎤ − 12 ⎡ − 1 − ⎜⎜ − 3 ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢( x − 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) −1 ⎡⎣( x − 5) − ( x + 5 ) ⎤⎦ −10 −3 −1 = ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5 ) 2 ( −10 ) = 3 1 ( x − 5) 2 ( x + 5) 2 2 2 142. 1 2 3 4 7 + = + = 2 3 6 6 6 Mid-Chapter P Check Point 1. Inc. – 16. 5 8 5 4⋅2 1 2 2 ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ = 4 15 4 5 ⋅ 3 1 3 3 146. x 2 + bx + 15 . 3. 144. 2 1 ( 5 32 ) 2 = 1− 1 ( 2) 2 = 1− 1 3 = 4 4 (2 x − 5) − ( x 2 − 3x + 1) = 2 x − 5 − x 2 + 3x − 1 = − x 2 + 5 x − 6 41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7 x + 3[9 − (2 x − 6)] = 7 x + 3[ 9 − 2 x + 6] = 7 x + 3 [15 − 2 x ] = 7 x + 45 − 6 x = x + 45 6.PreCalculus 4E 141. 3. or –c(c + 4). . b = 0. b =16. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

{a.2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. 24 x 2 y13 12 y15 2 − 5 13 − ( −2) −3 15 12 12 = − = − = − x y x y x3 −2 x 5 y −2 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall. d } 15. d . 6 y3 ⎛ 1 −5 4 ⎞ −2 −1 −5 − 2 4 −1 ⎜ 3 x y ⎟ 18 x y = 6 x y = x 7 ⎝ ⎠ ( ) 1 4 18. h} 14. Inc. e. h} = {c. c. f . 24 × 103 24 103 = ⋅ = 12 ×10−3 = 1. d . 23.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. 12 x 4 = x 12 = x 3 = 3 x 19. {a. d .2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. e} ∪ {c. c. e} ∩ {c. . d . ( 3x 2 ) ( ) y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 − −2 x 2 y 3 − 3xy + 5 y 2 = 3x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 + 2 x 2 y 3 − xy + 3xy + 4 y 2 − 5 y 2 = 5 x 2 y 3 + 2 xy − y 2 16.2 ×10−2 2 ×106 2 106 ( 3 22. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 + 2 x − 5 x 2 + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x 2 + 2 x + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 11x 2 + 17 x − 5 11. 3 32 2 = 3 ) ( ) 32 3 = 16 = 3 24 = 2 3 2 2 ( x 3 + 2)( x 3 − 2) = x 6 − 4 42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f . x 3 + x3 − x3 ⋅ x 3 = 2 x3 − x 6 = − x 6 + 2 x 3 12. d . h} = {a. (9a − 10b)(2a + b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a )(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a)(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = 18a 2 + 9ab − 20ab − 10b 2 = 18a 2 − 11ab − 10b 2 13. f . c. ( x − 2 y − 1) 2 = x ( x − 2 y − 1) − 2 y ( x − 2 y − 1) − ( x − 2 y − 1) = x 2 − 2 xy − x − 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 2 y − x + 2 y + 1 = x 2 − 4 xy + 4 y 2 − 2 x + 4 y + 1 21. [ 4 y − (3x + 2)][ 4 y + (3x + 2)] = (4 y)2 − (3x + 2)2 = 16 y 2 − (9 x 2 + 12 x + 4) = 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 12 x − 4 20.

2 × 10 2 × 108 = 4. x 2 − 2 x + 4 is prime. ( ) x2 + 1 1 2 ( ) − 10 x 2 + 1 3 ⎧ ⎨ −11. 43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 50 x 3 + 20 x 2 + 2 x = 2 x 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = 2 x ( 5 x + 1) 34. 140 ⋅ 3. Inc. Mid-Chapter P Check Point 11 11 3 = 11 7 + 3 77 + 11 3 77 + 11 3 ⋅ = = 49 − 3 46 7− 3 7+ 3 = 7− 3 11 ⋅ 3 3 3 = 11 3 3 28. Since x < 0 then x = − x .2 × 1010 41. .0 × 108 = 420 × 108 = 4. x 2 − 6 x + 9 − 49 y 2 = ( x − 3) − 49 y 2 = ⎡⎣( x − 3) + 7 y ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣( x − 3) − 7 y ⎤⎦ = ( x − 3 + 7 y )( x − 3 − 7 y ) 35.PreCalculus 4E 24. 27. 7 x 2 − 22 x + 3 = ( 7 x − 1)( x − 3) 29. − .45. Thus x 2 x = − x 2 x = − x3 40. x 3 + 5 x 2 + 3x + 15 = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 5) 31. ( x 2 + 2) 2 = ( x 2 ) 2 + 2( x 2 )(2) + (2) 2 = x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4 50 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 12 = 5 ⋅ 2 3 = 10 3 25.4 ×10 = 4 7. 37. 30. x ( ) ( ( ) ) 2 2 − 3 2 − 2x − 1 2 1 + x2 = x 3 2 − (1 − 2 x + x ) = ( 1 − x) 2 2 3 x2 36. 3x 2 − 4 xy − 7 y 2 = ( 3x − 7 y )( x + y ) 32. 7 ⎩ − 1 2 ( 1 2 ) ( = x2 + 1 − ) ( 1 2 ) (x ⎡ x 2 + 1 − 10 ⎤ = x 2 + 1 ⎣ ⎦ − 2 x +3 x −3 ) ( )( ) ( x + 1) −9 = 2 1 2 ⎫ 25 ⎬ ⎭ 38. Since 2 − 13 < 0 then 2 − 13 = 13 − 2 39.5 ×109 7. 3 × 1010 3 1010 = ⋅ = 0.5 109 A human brain has 4 times as many neurons as a gorilla brain. 0. 26.2 × 1010 The total annual spending on ice cream is $4. 64 y − y 4 = y 64 − y 3 = y ( 4 − y ) 16 + 4 y + y 2 33.

and x + 3. . c. Section P.5(6) 2 + 9. Inc. b. N = −0.5 x + 62 N = −0.5 x 2 + 9.5(0) + 62 N = 62 Model 2 best describes the data in 2000. 2.8 x + 64 N = 6. 3.5(6) + 62 N = 101 Model 2 underestimates the number of channels in 2006 by 3. b. x ≠ −3 Because the denominator is ( x + 1)( x + 1) .8(10) + 64 N = 132 Model 1 predicts there will be 132 channels in 2010.5 x + 62 N = −0. a. x ≠ −3 ( x − 2)( x + 3) Because the denominator is x + 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and x ≠ −3. Model 1: N = 6. N = 6. The denominator would equal zero if x = −5. x ≠ −1 Because the denominator has factors of x + 2. 44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 42. x3 + 3x 2 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 x+3 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 = x 2 . x ≠ 2.5 x 2 + 9.8(0) + 64 N = 64 Model 2: N = −0. x ≠ −2. so –6 and 6 must both must be excluded from the domain. x ≠ −2. x ≠ −3 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x2 −1 = 2 x + 2 x + 1 ( x + 1)( x + 1) x −1 = . a.8 x + 64 N = 6. x ≠ −1 x +1 x + 3 x2 − x − 6 ⋅ x2 − 4 x2 + 6x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 2) x+3 = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 2) = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x−3 = .6 Check Point Exercises 1. b. so –5 must be excluded from the domain.5(0) 2 + 9. x ≠ 2. x 2 − 36 = ( x + 6)( x − 6) The denominator would equal zero if x = −6 or x = 6. x − 2.

. 2 x − ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 3 5 + x + 1 x −1 3x( x − 1) + 5( x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3x − 3 + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 8x + 2 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) . x − 3. x ≠ 1 x( x + 2) Find the least common denominator. x ≠ 0 and x ≠ = 4 + 3x 3 45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5. 7. putting this sum over the least common denominator. Section P. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x − 3)( x − 3)( x + 3) or ( x − 3)2 ( x + 3) is the least common denominator. Write all rational expressions in terms of the least common denominator. x 2 − 6 x + 9 = ( x − 3) 2 x 2 − 9 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) List the factors of the first denominator. x − 3.6 8. Inc. x ≠ −1 Add numerators. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = ( x − 5) 2 2 x − 10 = 2( x − 5) The least common denominator is 2(x – 5)(x – 5). x ≠ −1 and x ≠ 1. x≠5 2( x − 5) 2 1−3 2 − 3x x 2 = 2x 2x . x − 3. Factor each denominator completely. x ≠ 0. x ≠ −2. = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 9. x ≠ 0 1+3 4 + 3x x 4 4x 4x 2 − 3x −4 = 2x . x2 − 2x + 1 x2 + x − 2 ÷ 3x2 + 3 x3 + x 2 x − 2 x + 1 3x 2 + 3 = ⋅ 2 x3 + x x +x−2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) 3( x 2 + 1) = ⋅ x( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2)( x − 1) 3( x − 1) = .PreCalculus 4E 4. x x−4 − 2 x − 10 x + 25 2 x − 10 x x−4 = − ( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5) 2x ( x − 4)( x − 5) = − 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) x 3x + 2 x − 3x − 2 − = x +1 x +1 x +1 −2 x − 2 = x +1 −2 ( x + 1) = x +1 = −2. x + 3 The least common denominator is the product of all factors in the final list. x − 3 Add any unlisted factors from the second denominator. x ≠ 4 + 3x 3 4x 2 − 3x 4 + 3 x = ÷ 2x 4x 2 − 3x 4 x = ⋅ 2 x 4 + 3x 2 − 3x 4 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 2 2 − 3x 2 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 1 2(2 − 3x) −4 . 6. = 2 x − ( x 2 − 5 x − 4 x + 20) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 .

2 3 x ≠ 5. –7 2 x − 49 ( x + 7)( x − 7) 5. −3 6 3 x−5 6 x + 9 x − 5 3(2 x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x − 15 4 x + 6 3( x − 5) 2(2 x + 3) 3 = 6 1 = . x ≠ 5. = ( x − 7)( x + 7) x 2 − 49 x−7 . 12. y 2 + 7 y − 18 ( y + 9 )( y − 2 ) y + 9 . 5 x + 4 x − 45 ( x + 9)( x − 5) 2 = x+3 − x 3 x+3 − x x+3 + x = ⋅ 3 x+3 ⋅ x 2 6. y ≠ –4. = = 4 x − 24 4 ( x − 6) 4 2 x≠6 x +1 3/ 2 10. x ≠ 2. = = y 2 − 3 y + 2 ( y − 2 )( y − 1) y − 1 y ≠ 1. 3 ( x − 3) 3x − 9 = x − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x − 3) x 2 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. and 7 by x+7 x the least common denominator of x( x + 7). x−3 x −3 = . –6 ( x − 7) 2 x 2 − 14 x + 49 14. x+ 1 x x = 1 x x x x = = = = ( x+3 3 3 ( ( ) − ( x) x+3 + x x + 3− x x+3 + x 7. = x+7 x ≠ 7. –10 x + 11x + 10 ( x + 1)( x + 10) 16. x ≠ 7. x≠2 = = x − 4 x + 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 2 ) x − 2 9. 2 2 ) 12. x 2 − 8 x + 16 ( x − 4 )( x − 4 ) x − 4 . 2 ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x − 36 x ≠ 6. –1 = = y 2 + 5 y + 4 ( y + 4 )( y + 1) y + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 36 ( x + 6) 2 x+6 = = . x ≠ −7 =− x( x + 7) x+ 11.6 1. − 2 46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ 0.x≠3 x −3 8. x≠4 = = 3x − 12 3( x − 4) 3 11. Multiply each of the three terms.x≠3 x−3 15. . –7 13. 2 x − 2 2x + 6 x − 2 2( x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x + 9 2 x − 4 3( x + 3) 2( x − 2) 2 1 = = . x ≠ −9 x+9 3. x ≠ –1. Inc. 1 1 x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x+7⎠ ⎝ x⎠ x+7 x = 7 7 x( x + 7) x − ( x + 7) = 7 x( x + 7) −7 = 7 x( x + 7) 1 . x+5 x+5 = . 10. –5 2 x − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) 4. 4 ( x − 2) 4x − 8 4 . x+7 x+7 = .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 1 1 . 1 x+3 + x Exercise Set P. ) y 2 − 4 y − 5 ( y − 5 )( y + 1) y − 5 . 7 . . x −1 x −1 = . x 2 − 12 x + 36 ( x − 6 )( x − 6 ) x − 6 . 13 . x ≠ −9.

19. x2 − 4 2 x − 4 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2( x − 2) ⋅ = ⋅ x − 4x + 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)2 x+2 = 2. –2. x − 4 ÷ x + 2 = ( x − 2)( x + 2) ⋅ x − 2 x x−2 x x+2 2 ( x − 2) = . −4. x −1 . Section P. − 3 = 3 x2 + 2 x + 4 . 3 x+2 x2 + 5x + 6 x 2 − 9 ⋅ x2 + x − 6 x2 − x − 6 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 3) x + 3 . x ≠ –2. 0. −2. = ⋅ = ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) x − 2 27. x2 + x x2 − 1 ÷ 2 2 x − 4 x + 5x + 6 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 1) = ÷ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) ( x + 2)( x + 3) x( x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 3) . –2. x ≠ –3. x 2 − 25 x 2 + 10 x + 25 ÷ 2 2x − 2 x + 4x − 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)2 = ÷ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5)( x − 1) ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)( x − 1) = ⋅ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5) 2 x −5 = . x ≠ 0. 18. 4 x 2 + 10 6 x 2 + 15 ÷ 2 x −3 x −9 2 2(2 x + 5) 3(2 x 2 + 5) = ÷ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x−3 2(2 x 2 + 5) ( x − 3)( x + 3) ⋅ 3(2 x 2 + 5) x−3 2( x + 3) . 1. 2 x 2 = 20.PreCalculus 4E 17. x ≠ −1 9 47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ 0. –5 2 x2 + 6 x + 9 1 ⋅ x 3 + 27 x + 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) 1 1 = ⋅ = 2 . 2. 22. 2 3x 28. x ≠ 2. x 2 − 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x+2 ÷ = ÷ x − 2 4x − 8 x−2 4( x − 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) 4( x − 2) = ⋅ x−2 x+2 = 4( x − 2). 28 x ≠ –5 2 25. –1.3 x( x + 4) 24. x ≠ 2. –2 x2 − 5x + 6 x2 − 1 ⋅ x2 − 2x − 3 x2 − 4 ( x − 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 1) ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 26. 2. –2 = 2 x3 − 8 x + 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 2 x + 4 ) x + 2 = ⋅ ⋅ 3x x 2 − 4 3x ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) = x + 5 4 x + 20 x + 5 4( x + 5) ÷ = ÷ 7 9 7 9 x+5 9 = ⋅ 7 4( x + 5) 9 = . 3 21. –3 29. x ≠ 3. Inc. x 2 − 9 x 2 − 3x ⋅ 2 x2 x + x − 12 x( x − 3) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ 2 ( x + 4)( x − 3) x ( x − 3)( x + 3) = . x ≠ –2. –1. x ≠ 1. .6 x + 1 3x + 3 x + 1 3( x + 1) ÷ = ÷ 3 7 3 7 x +1 7 = ⋅ 3 3( x + 1) 7 = . 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 x + 9 ) x + 3 x − 3 x + 9 x ≠ –3 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = ( x − 2)( x − 1) x ≠ 2.

x ≠ 0. –3. −3 = x+3 4x − 4 x2 − 4x x2 − 4 x + 4 x − 4 + = x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − 4 = ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 = . x−3 x ≠ –2.1. 5 32. x−2 x≠2 48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –2. 5. 2 2 x2 x ≠ 0. –3. Inc. 3. x −4 x + 5x + 6 ÷ x + 3 x − 10 x 2 + 8 x + 15 ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) = ÷ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) = ⋅ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) =1 x ≠ 2. −1. x + x − 12 x + 5 x + 6 x+3 ⋅ ÷ x 2 + x − 30 x 2 − 2 x − 3 x 2 + 7 x + 6 ( x + 4 )( x − 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x + 6 )( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ x+3 ( x + 6 )( x − 5 ) ( x + 1)( x − 3) 36. 2 2 2 2 31. 4x + 1 8x + 9 4x + 1 + 8x + 9 + = 6x + 5 6x + 5 6x + 5 12 x + 10 = 6x + 5 2(6 x + 5) 5 = = 2. –1. x ≠ 2 2 x + 3 3 − x 2 x + 3 − (3 − x) − = 3x − 6 3x − 6 3x − 6 2x + 3 − 3 + x = 3x − 6 3x = 3( x − 2) x = . −5 33.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 30. x3 − 25 x 2 x 2 − 2 x2 + 5x ⋅ 2 ÷ 2 4x x − 6x + 5 7x + 7 x ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) 7 ( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ 4 x2 ( x − 1)( x − 5 ) x ( x + 5) = 7 ( x + 1) 37. –5 35. 3 x + 2 3x + 6 3 x + 2 + 3 x + 6 + = 3x + 4 3x + 4 3x + 4 6x + 8 = 3x + 4 2(3x + 4) = 3x + 4 =2 4 x≠− 3 x2 − 2 x x2 + x x2 − 2 x + x2 + x + = x 2 + 3 x x 2 + 3x x 2 + 3x 2 2x − x = 2 x + 3x x(2 x − 1) = x( x + 3) 2x −1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . x ≠ − 6x + 5 6 38. 3 4 x − 10 x − 4 4 x − 10 − ( x − 4) − = x−2 x−2 x−2 4 x − 10 − x + 4 = x−2 3x − 6 = x−2 3( x − 2) = x−2 = 3. 34. = 2 ( x + 4 )( x + 2 ) x−5 x ≠ –6.

x ( − 2 )( x − 3) x+5 x−5 + x −5 x +5 ( x + 5 )( x + 5 ) + ( x − 5 )( x − 5 ) = ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + x 2 − 10 x + 25 ( x − 5)( x + 5) = 2 x 2 + 50 . x ≠ –2. 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 3x x + 4 3x ( x + 2 ) − ( x + 4 )( x − 3) − = x−3 x +2 ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) = 3x 2 + 6 x − ( x 2 + x − 12 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) 2 x + 5 x + 12 . = 4 x + 12 − 3 x x ( x + 3) = x + 12 x ( x + 3) 2x x + 2 2 x ( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 )( x + 2 ) + = x+2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 2x2 − 4 x + x2 + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 3x2 + 4 . = 3 ( x + 5) + 6 ( x + 4) 3 6 + = x+4 x+5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) x ≠ 3. 0 x2 − 4 x x−6 − 2 2 x − x−6 x − x−6 x 2 − 4 x − ( x − 6) = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 4x − x + 6 = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 5x + 6 = 2 x − x−6 ( x − 2)( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 .PreCalculus 4E 39. Inc. 3 = x+2 45. 3 = 8 x − 24 + 2 x − 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) = 10 x − 28 . x ≠ –4. x ≠ 3. x ≠ −2. 40. 9 x + 39 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ –5. 47. 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5 ) 49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 46. 3x − 3x − 3 3 . −4 x−3 43. –2 3x + 15 + 6 x + 24 = ( x + 4 )( x + 5) = 42. 3 3 3x − 3 ( x + 1) − = x ( x + 1) x +1 x = 44. –5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) 8 ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 2 ) 8 2 + = x−2 x−3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x ≠ 2. ( x − 3)( x + 2) 2 41. x ≠ –1. Section P.6 x 2 + 3x x 2 − 12 − x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + 3 x − ( x 2 − 12) = x 2 + x − 12 2 x + 3 x − x 2 + 12 = x 2 + x − 12 3x + 12 = 2 x + x − 12 3( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 3) 3 = . 0 =− x ( x + 1) x ( x + 1) 4 ( x + 3) − 3 x 4 3 − = x x+3 x ( x + 3) x ≠ –3.

50. x2 + 6 x + 9 + x2 − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 2 x 2 + 18 . x + 3 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) + ( x − 3)( x − 3) + = x−3 x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) x ≠ –3.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. Inc. –3 ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) x x − 2 x − 2 x − 24 x − 7 x + 6 x x = − ( x − 6 )( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x − 1) 2 x ( x − 1) − x ( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) x2 − x − x2 − 4 x ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) 5x . x ≠ –5. 1. 5 5 50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –1 = 3 ( 5x − 2) + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 15 x − 6 + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 20 x − 6 . x+3 x+2 − x2 − 1 x − 1 x+3 x+2 = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) x − 1 x+3 ( x + 1)( x + 2) = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x+3 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x + 3 − x 2 − 3x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) −x2 − 2x + 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) x ≠ 1. = 53. 3 5x 3 5x + = + 2 5 x + 2 25 x − 4 5 x + 2 ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) = = = 3x 2 + 9 x − 2 x 2 − 10 x ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = x2 − x . 2. 2 . –4 4 x + 16 ( x + 3) = =− 4 4 4 4 + = + 2 x + 6 x + 9 x + 3 ( x + 3) x+3 = ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = 2 2 3 x ( x + 3) − 2 x ( x + 5 ) = 5 7 5 7 + = + 2 x + 8 3x + 12 2( x + 4) 3( x + 4) 15 14 = + 6( x + 4) 6( x + 4) 15 + 14 = 6( x + 4) 29 = 6( x + 4) x ≠ –4 4 + 4 ( x + 3) 3x 2x − 2 x + 3x − 10 x + x − 6 3x 2x = − ( x + 5 )( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 2 = 3 2 3 2 + = + 2 x + 4 3x + 6 2( x + 2) 3( x + 2) 9 4 = + 6( x + 2) 6( x + 2) 9+4 = 6( x + 2) 13 = 6( x + 2) x ≠ –2 = 52. . 6 x x − ( )( − 1)( x + 4 ) x ≠ 6. 51. 3 49. ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 2 2 x≠− . ( x − 3)( x + 3) 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x + 3) x ≠ –3 4 + 4 x + 12 ( x + 3) 2 = 55.

8 + 1 x ⎡⎢8 + 1 ⎤⎥ 8 x + 1 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . x ⎡1 + 1 ⎤ 1+ 1 x = ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ = x + 1 . Inc. Section P. x ≠ −5. 4 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 ) 4 ⎡⎢ x − 1⎤⎥ ⎣4 ⎦ = x − 4 = 1 . x ≠ 2. 1 4 4− x ⎡⎢ 4 − 1 ⎤⎥ 4 x − 1 x x⎦ ⎣ = 57. x ≠ 4 4 ( x − 4) 4 ( x − 4) 4 x ≠ 0. 5 ( x + 1) −3 x ( x + 2 ) 4 x2 + x − 5 + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = = 58. x ≠ 0. x −1 4 = x−4 61. y ≠ 0 xy x ( xy ) x2 y 65. 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 + 3 ( x + 5) − 5 x ( x − 4 ) ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = 6 x + 17 x − 40 + 3x + 15 − 5 x 2 + 20 x ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = x 2 + 40 x − 25 . x ≠ –2. –3 x+3 ( x − 2 ) [ x − 3] ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x−3 = = 3 ⎤ x ( x − 2) − 3 ⎡ x− 3 x − 2 ( x − 2) ⎢ x − x − 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ − − x x 2 3 ( )( ) = 2 x − 2x − 3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x − 2 = = . 1 − 1 x ⎡⎢1 − 1 ⎤⎥ x − 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . x≠3 x − 3 3[ x − 3] 3 ( x − 3) 3 60. .6 x + 5 x +1 − x2 − 4 x − 2 x+5 x +1 = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 x+5 ( x + 2)( x + 1) = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x+5 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x + 5 − x − 3x − 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 − x2 − 2 x + 3 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x ≠ 2. − 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) x + 1 51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ 0. −1 x+2 = 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x + − x 2 + x − 20 x−4 x+5 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x = + − 5 4 4 x x x x + − − +5 ( )( ) = 66. ( x + 3) ⎡⎢⎣ x − x +x 3 ⎤⎥⎦ x ( x + 3) − x x− x x+3 = = x+2 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x −1 . = ⎣ x+ y xy [ x + y ] xy ( x + y ) xy 64. y ≠ 0. 3. ⎡x ⎤ − 1 3 ⎢⎣ 3 − 1⎥⎦ x −3 1 = = = . x ≠ 0.PreCalculus 4E 56. x ≠ −2. x ≠ –y 4 x 2 + x − 6 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = x 3 2 x 2 + 3x − x x2 + 2 x = ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) x ( x + 2) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 3 3 − 1 x ⎡3 − 1 ⎤ 3 x − 1 ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ x 62. –2 59. x2 −1 ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x − 1)( x + 1) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎡ ⎤ 1+1 xy ⎢ 1 + 1 ⎥ x y x y ⎦ = y+x = 1 . 4 x2 + x − 6 3x 5 − + 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 1 x + 2 4 x2 + x − 6 −3 x 5 = + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) x + 1 x + 2 = 63.

Inc. −1. 2. . 1 x +1 1 1 + 2 x − 2x − 3 x − 3 = 1 x +1 1 1 + ( x + 1)( x − 3) x − 3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x +1 = ( x + 1)( x − 3) ( x + 1)( x − 3) + x −3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x−3 = 1+ x +1 x −3 = x ≠ −2. 68.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 67. – 2 = 69.3 x+2 52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 7 x +1 x +1 − 2 x−2 x = 3 +1 3 +1 ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 − 4 ⎡ x + 1⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎣⎢ x − 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎡ ⎤ 3 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 + 1⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ( )( ) ⎣ ⎦ = x ( x + 2 ) + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 3 + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 + 2 x + x2 − 4 2 x2 + 2 x – 4 = x 2 –1 3 + x2 − 4 2( x 2 + x – 2) = ( x –1)( x + 1) 2( x + 2)( x –1) 2( x + 2) = = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x +1 ( x –1)( x + 1) x ≠ 1. 3 − 4 3 − 4 x−2 x+2 = x−2 x+2 7 7 2 x − 2 x + 2) ( )( x −4 ⎡ 3 − 4 ⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 7 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) )( )⎦ ⎣( 3( x + 2) − 4 ( x − 2) 3x + 6 − 4 x + 8 − x + 14 = = = 7 7 7 x − 14 =− x ≠ –2. –1.

PreCalculus 4E Section P. 1 1 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 − − ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x2 = 2 2 h hx ( x + h) = x 2 − ( x + h) 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2hx + h 2 ) hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − x 2 − 2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 −2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h) 2 −h(2 x + h) = 2 hx ( x + h) 2 (2 x + h) =− 2 x ( x + h) 2 = 72. Inc. −5.3 = ( x + 6)( x − 3) 2 70. .6 6 1 6 1 − − + − −3 ( x 5)( x 3) x x + 2 x − 15 x − 3 = 1 1 +1 +1 x+5 x+5 6( x + 5)( x − 3) ( x + 5)( x − 3) − ( x + 5)( x − 3) x −3 = ( x + 5)( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) x+5 6 − ( x + 5) = ( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) 6− x−5 = x − 3 + x 2 + 2 x − 15 1− x = 2 x + 3x − 18 1− x x ≠ −6. 71. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x + h)( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x+h x − − x + h +1 x +1 = x + h +1 x +1 h h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) ( x + h)( x + 1) − x( x + h + 1) = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x 2 + x + hx + h − x 2 − hx − x h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) h = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) 1 = ( x + h + 1)( x + 1) = 53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

80. x+5 − x = 5 − x2 + 2 = x2 ⎛ ⎜ =⎝ = − x 2 + 2 ⎞⎟ x 2 + 2 ⎠ x2 x2 + 2 = x2 x2 + 2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2) x2 x2 + 2 2 =− 2 x x2 + 2 76. x+7 − x = 7 = x2 5 − x2 + 5 − x2 = ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜ 5 − x2 + ⎟ 5 − x2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 5− x ⎠ =⎝ 2 5− x 5 − x2 = 5− x 2 ( = = = ) 81. x > 0 3x ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+h x x⎠ x+h x ⎝ x+h = h h x+h x = x− 74. = 79. 5 − x2 + x2 (5 − x ) ( x+ y x −y 2 2 = = 5 5 − x2 ) 2 = 5 − x2 5 = (5 − x ) 2 . . Inc. x (3 x ) 3x − 1 3x 1 = 1− .x>0 4x 75. 1 4 x ( = x x− 1 4 x ) (4 x) 78. h≠0 x − x+3 3 x x+3 x+5 − x x+5 + x ⋅ 5 x+5 + x ( x + 5) 2 − ( x )2 5( x + 5 + x ) x+5− x 5( x + 5 + x ) 1 x+5 + x x+7 − x x+7 + x ⋅ 7 x+7 + x ( x + 7 )2 − ( x )2 7( x + 7 + x ) x+7− x 7( x + 7 + x ) 1 x+7 + x x+ y x −y 2 2 ⋅ x− y x− y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 5 − x2 2 h x ( x + h) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+3 x x⎠ x+3 x ⎝ x+3 = 3 3 x+3 x = x2 x2 + 2 x − x+h = 3 ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) 1 ( x + y )( x − y ) 54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x (4 x ) 4x −1 4x 1 = 1− . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( = 1 3 x x x− 1 3 x ) (3 x) 77.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra x− 73.

Inc. ( x 2 − y 2 )( x + y ) 6 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 1) 6 ⎞ ⎛ ( x − 2) 3 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜2− ⎟ ⎜1 + ⎟ = ⎜⎜ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ( x + 1) ( x + 1) ⎠ ⎝ ( x − 2 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 x + 2 − 6 ⎞⎛ x − 2 + 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 x − 4 ⎞ ⎛ x + 1 ⎞ 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) =2 =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟= ⎝ x + 1 ⎠⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ( x + 1) ( x − 2 ) 86. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x− y x −y 2 2 Section P. x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x + y ) 1 ( x + y )( x + y ) . 84. y −1 − ( y + 5) 5 1 −1 = y − 1 y+5 5 LCD = y ( y + 5) 1 y − ⎛1 1 y+5 5 y ( y + 5) ⎜ = ⎝y − 1 ⎞ ⎟ y +5⎠ y ( y + 5)( 5) = y +5− y 5 y ( y + 5) = 5 5 y ( y + 5) = 1 y ( y + 5) 55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .PreCalculus 4E 82. 3 ⎞⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ( x + 2) 3 ⎞⎛ ( x − 1) 5 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎜4− ⎟⎜ 1 + ⎟=⎜ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ x + 2 x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 x + 8 − 3 ⎞⎛ x − 1 + 5 ⎞ 4 x + 5 x + 4 ( 4 x + 5 )( x + 4 ) =⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎜ ⎟= ( x + 2 )( x − 1) ⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ x + 2 x − 1 87.6 x− y = x −y 2 x+ y ⋅ 2 x+ y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 = = = 83. x≠ y ⎛ ( 2 x + 3) ( x + 5 ) ( x − 1) ⎛ 2 x + 3 x2 + 4 x − 5 ⎞ 2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 =⎜ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − ( 2 x + 3) ( x − 1) ⎝ x + 1 2 x + x − 3 ⎠ x + 2 ⎜⎝ x + 1 2 ( x + 1) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 2 ( x + 1) = − = x 1 x 2 x 1 x 2 + + + + ( )( ) ( )( ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎞ ⎟− 2 = x+5 − 2 ⎟ x + 2 x +1 x + 2 ⎠ = x 2 + 2 x + 5 x + 10 − 2 x − 2 x2 + 5x + 8 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎛ ( x + 2) ( x − 4) ⎞ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 ⋅⎜ − ÷ ⎜⎜ − ⎟ ⎟= x − 2 x − 8 ⎝ x − 4 x + 2 ⎠ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎝ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎟⎠ 1 2 ⎛ x+2−x+4 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) 1 1 6 1 ÷ ⎜⎜ ÷ ⎜⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎟ = ⎟⎟ = x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 6 6 ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) 1 = 85.

the value of the function increases rapidly. 56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the function is not defined. and it is impossible to inoculate 100% of the population.000 to inoculate 90% of the population. 100 − 90 10 when x = 90 It costs $86. 3. = = 520 . and $520.000 to inoculate 80% of the population. Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 88. . y −1 − ( y + 2) 1 −1 y = 2 − 1 y+2 2 LCD = y ( y + 2 ) 1 − y y+2 2 89. 100 − 40 60 when x = 40 130 ⋅ 80 130 ⋅ 80 2. For x = 100. = = 86. b. 100 − 80 20 when x = 80 130 ⋅ 90 130 ⋅ 90 = = 1170 . a. ⎛1 1 y ( y + 2) ⎜ = ⎝y 1 ⎞ ⎟ y+2⎠ y ( y + 2 )( 2 ) = y+2− y 2 y ( y + 2) = 2 2 y ( y + 2) = 1 y ( y + 2) ⎛ a ( c + d ) − b ( c + d ) ⎞⎟ ac + ad − bc − bd ⎞ c−d 1 c−d ⎛ 1 ⎜ ⋅ − = ⋅ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 1 1 ⎝ a 3 − b3 ⎠ a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ( c + d ) ( a − b ) ⎞⎟ c−d c+d c−d 1 − = − ⋅ =⎜ ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + bd + b 2 1 ⎝ ⎠ c+d −c+d 2d = 2 = a + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 ( ( 90.000. So it costs an astronomical amount of money to inoculate almost all of the people.170.000 to inoculate 40% of the population against this strain of flu.670. As x approaches 100. − ) ) ⎛ a ( c − d ) − b ( c − d ) a 3 + b3 ⎞ ⎛ ac − ad − bc + bd a3 − b3 ⎞ ab + ⎜⎜ ÷ 3 3 ⎟⎟ = 2 + ⎜⎜ ⋅ ⎟ 2 a + ab + b ⎝ ac − ad + bc − bd a + b ⎠ a + ab + b ⎝ a ( c − d ) + b ( c − d ) a3 − b3 ⎟⎠ ab 2 2 ( ( ⎛ ( c − d ) ( a − b ) ( a + b ) a 2 − ab + b 2 = 2 +⎜ ⋅ a + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( c − d ) ( a + b ) ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ab = 91.67 .000. ab + a 2 − ab + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 = ) ⎞⎟ = ) ⎠⎟ a ab 2 + ab + b2 + a 2 − ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a2 + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 130 x is equal to 100 − x 130 ⋅ 40 130 ⋅ 40 1. and $1. c.

b. men between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2662 calories per day. M = −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 M = −120(4)2 + 998(4) + 590 M = 2662 According to the model. 7 Your average speed will be 34 2 miles per hour.PreCalculus 4E 92. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 38 calories. W −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 = M −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 = = 2 ( −33x 2 + 263x + 515 ) 2 ( −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 ) −33x 2 + 263x + 515 −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 22 calories. Inc. Substitute 4 for x in the model. Section P. women between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2078 calories per day. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. 7 93. a.6 2d d + r1 d r2 LCD = r1r2 2d d r1 + d ⎛d d ⎞ + ⎜ r r ⎟⎟ 1 ⎝ 2⎠ r1r2 ⎜ r2 = = If r1r2 ( 2d ) = 2r1r2 d r2 d + r1d 2r1r2 d d ( r2 + r1 ) = 2r1r2 r2 + r1 r1 = 40 and r2 = 30. the value of this expression will be 2 ⋅ 40 ⋅ 30 2400 = 30 + 40 70 2 = 34 . W = −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 W = −66(4)2 + 526(4) + 1030 W = 2078 According to the model. Substitute 4 for x in the model. .

4 x + 14 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x +5⎠ ⎝ x +6⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+5 x+6 2 x ( x + 6) 2x ( x + ( x + 5)( x + 6) ( x + 5)( x 2 = + 2 2 x + 12 x + 2 x + 10 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 2 = 4 x + 22 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 97. 58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12) = 95.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. R= = = 1 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1R2 R3 R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2 4 ⋅8 ⋅12 8⋅12 + 4 ⋅12 + 4 ⋅ 8 384 = 96 + 48 + 32 384 = 176 24 = 11 24 The parallel resistance is ohms. –108. 8. . 11 R(4. P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x + 3⎠ ⎝ x − 4⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+3 x+4 2 x ( x + 4) 2 x ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x + 4) ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = + 2 2 x + 8x + 2 x + 6 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = 96. Answers may vary. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

−1 − 1 6x 1 6x + 1 = + = x x x x ( x − y) −1 + ( x − y) −2 = 1 + x −1 x x +1 x + 2 x −1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = x x +1 x + 2 x + 3 x + 3 1 ( x − y) ( x − y) 2 = ( x − y) 1 x − y +1 + = 2 ( x − y )( x − y ) ( x − y ) ( x − y )2 120. true 116. 4 x( x − 1) 4(1)(1 − 1) 0 110. Publishing as Prentice Hall. false. 111. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. 1 n x −1 − 1 n x +1 − n 1 x 2n −1 = n x +1 x 2n −1 − n = = 118. 112. Sample explanation: 3x − 3 3(1) − 3 0 = = which is undefined. does not make sense. A sample change is: x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) = = x+5 x−5 x−5 114. A sample change is: 6 + 117. Changes to make the statement true will vary.6 109. Sample explanation: The numerator and denominator of 7 do not 14 + x share a common factor. 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 3 2 + 2 + 3 + + 5 4 3 x x x = x x 2 x3 = x + x + x = x x + x + 1 = x3 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 1 + 5 + 6 + 5 + 6 4 4 x x x x x x ( ) 59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Explanations will vary. Inc. x −1 x 2n 1 x 2n −1 n x +1− x +1−1 x 2n −1 1 x 2n −1 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ x 1 ⎞⎛ x +1 1 ⎞⎛ x + 2 1 ⎞⎛ x + 3 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ − − − ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ x x + x + x + x x x + x + x + x + x + x + 3⎠ 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎛ x − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 1) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 3) − 1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠⎝ x +1 ⎠⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x + 3 ⎠ = 119. .PreCalculus 4E Section P. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: The first step is to invert the second fraction. makes sense 113. Explanations will vary. false. does not make sense. true 115. It cubes x.

x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 x −3 ⎛ 5 x+5⎞ 28 ⋅ = 28 ⎜ − 4 7 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 14 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 8 x + 4 − 29 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 − 6 x = 6 x − 15 − 6 x 2 x − 25 = −15 2 x − 25 + 25 = −15 + 25 −20 6 5 − = 2 x+3 x−2 x + x−6 −20 6 5 − = x + 3 x − 2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x + 3)( x − 2) 5( x + 3)( x − 2) −20( x + 3)( x − 2) − = x+3 x−2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x − 2) − 5( x + 3) = −20 6 x − 12 − 5 x − 15 = −20 x − 27 = −20 The solution set is {7} . Section P.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. 2( x − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3( x + 2) 2. 2 −b − b 2 − 4ac −(9) − (9) − 4(2)(−5) = 2a 2(2) −9 − 81 + 40 4 −9 − 121 = 4 −9 − 11 = 4 = −5 = 3. 2(6 − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3(6 + 2) 2(3) − 17 = 13 − 3(8) 6 − 17 = 13 − 24 −11 = −11.7 Check Point Exercises 1. 12 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 3( x + 2) − 4( x − 1) = 3x + 6 − 4 x + 4 7 x − 21 = −4 x − 10 7 x + 4 x = −10 + 21 11x = 11 11x 11 = 11 11 x =1 Check: x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 1− 3 5 1+ 5 = − 4 14 7 −2 5 6 = − 4 14 7 1 1 − =− 2 2 The solution set is {1}. x=7 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. true 7 ( x − 3) = 2(5) − 4 ( x + 5 ) 7 x − 21 = 10 − 4 x − 20 ⎛ x + 2 x −1 ⎞ ⎛ x+2⎞ ⎛ x −1⎞ − = 12 ⎜ − 12 ⎜ 122. 2 x = 10 2 x 10 = 2 2 x=5 Check: 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 4[2(5) + 1] − 29 = 3[2(5) − 5] 4[10 + 1] − 29 = 3[10 − 5] 4[11] − 29 = 3[5] 44 − 29 = 15 15 = 15 true The solution set is {5}. = − x + 10 123. 60 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

} The solution set is −5 + 11.3} . −1⎬ . 3}. 3x 2 − 9 x = 0 3x( x − 3) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 3 = 0 3 x 2 21 = 3 3 2 x =7 x=± 7 { } The solution set is − 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3x 2 − 21 = 0 3x 2 = 21 qf − pq = − pf q( f − p) = − pf − pf q( f − p) = f −p f −p pf q= p− f 6. 9. a. The solution set is { } . Inc.7 1 4 1 = − x + 2 x2 − 4 x − 2 1 4 1 = − x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 1( x + 2)( x − 2) 4( x + 2)( x − 2) 1( x + 2)( x − 2) = − x+2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x−2 x − 2 = 4 − ( x + 2) x−2=4−x−2 x−2=2−x 2x = 4 x=2 2 must be rejected. 2 x2 + x − 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 2x = 1 1 x= 2 1 1 1 + = p q f 1 pqf 1 pqf 1 pqf + = p q f qf + pf = pq x = −1 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 4 1 − 2 x − 20 = 0 b. . a. 7. 7 . x=0 x=3 The solution set is {0. ( x + 5) 2 = 11 x + 5 = ± 11 4 1 − 2 x = 20 x = −5 ± 11 1 − 2x = 5 { 1 − 2x = 5 or 1 − 2 x = −5 −2 x = 4 −2 x = −6 x = −2 x=3 The solution set is {–2.PreCalculus 4E 4. ⎩2 ⎭ 8. 2 x2 + x = 1 b. 5. x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x2 + 4x = 1 x2 + 4 x + 4 = 1 + 4 ( x + 2) 2 =5 x+2= ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −5 − 11 . Section P.

−b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a = = = = = = −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) 7(11) − 5 = 72 −2 ± 4 + 8 4 −2 ± 12 4 −2 ± 2 3 4 2(−1 ± 3) 4 −1 ± 3 2 77 − 5 = 72 72 = 72 The solution set is {11}. The equation has two complex imaginary solutions.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. The solution set is {6} . 5 x + 5 = 40 5 x = 35 x=7 The solution set is {7}. Inc. b = 2. 2 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 Exercise Set P. 7x – 5 = 72 7x = 77 x = 11 Check: 7 x − 5 = 72 Check: 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 2 11(7) − [6(7) − 5] = 40 x + 3 = x2 − 6x + 9 77 − (42 − 5) = 40 0 = x2 − 7 x + 6 0 = ( x − 6)( x − 1) x − 6 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 77 − (37) = 40 40 = 40 x=6 x =1 1 does not check and must be rejected. 6x – 3 = 63 6x = 66 x = 11 The solution set is {11}. 12. c = −1 1. 6(11) − 3 = 63 66 − 3 = 63 63 = 63 3x 2 − 2x + 5 = 0 a = 3. ⎬. 2. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b = −2. 62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c = 5 3.7 a = 2. x+3 +3 = x x +3 = x−3 ( x+3 ) 2 = ( x − 3) 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 11x − 6 x + 5 = 40 b2 − 4ac = (−2)2 − 4 ⋅3 ⋅5 = 4 − 60 = −56 The discriminant is –56. Check: 6 x − 3 = 63 ⎧⎪ −1 + 3 −1 − 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . .

7x + 4 = x + 16 6x + 4 = 16 6x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {2}. 3(x – 2) + 7 = 2(x + 5) 3x – 6 + 7 = 2x + 10 3x + 1 = 2x + 10 x + 1 = 10 x=9 The solution set is {9}. 13x + 14 = 12x – 5 x + 14 = –5 x = –19 The solution set is {–19}. 3(7) + 7 = 2(14) 21 + 7 = 28 3x + 5 = 2x + 13 x + 5 = 13 x=8 The solution set is {8}.PreCalculus 4E 4. Check: 7(2) + 4 = 2 + 16 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Check: 2(13) − 7 = 6 + 13 Check: 3(9 − 2) + 7 = 2(9 + 5) 26 − 7 = 19 19 = 19 6. 28 = 28 10. Check: 13 x + 14 = 12 x − 5 9. Check: 3x + 5 = 2 x + 13 3(8) + 5 = 2(8) + 13 24 + 5 = 16 + 13 29 = 29 Check: 2( x − 1) + 3 = x − 3( x + 1) 2(−1 − 1) + 3 = −1 − 3(−1 + 1) 2(−2) + 3 = −1 − 3(0) − 4 + 3 = −1 + 0 − 1 = −1 63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5. 2(x – 1) + 3 = x – 3(x +1) 2x – 2 + 3 = x – 3x – 3 2x +1 = –2x – 3 4x + 1 = –3 4x = –4 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}.7 5x – (2x – 10) = 35 5x – 2x + 10 = 35 3x + 10 = 35 3x = 25 25 x= 3 7. Section P. ⎩3⎭ 14 + 4 = 18 18 = 18 Check: 5 x − (2 x − 10) = 35 8. Inc. ⎤ ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 25 ⎞ 5 ⎜ ⎟ − ⎢ 2 ⎜ ⎟ − 10 ⎥ = 35 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎦ 125 ⎡ 50 ⎤ − − 10⎥ = 35 3 ⎢⎣ 3 ⎦ 125 20 − = 35 3 3 105 = 35 3 35 = 35 13(−19) + 14 = 12(−19) − 5 − 247 + 14 = −228 − 5 − 233 = −233 2x – 7 = 6 + x x–7=6 x = 13 The solution set is {13}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .

. 64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x +3 3 x −5 = + 6 8 4 ⎡ x + 3 3 x − 5⎤ 24 ⎢ = + 8 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 6 4 x + 12 = 9 + 6 x − 30 15. 25 7 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . x +1 1 2 − x = + 4 6 3 ⎡ x +1 1 2 − x ⎤ 12 ⎢ = + 6 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 4 3x + 3 = 2 + 8 − 4 x 16. 4 x − 6 x = −21 − 12 − 2 x = −33 33 2 x= ⎧ 33 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 17. ⎩7⎭ x= x x −3 = 2+ 4 3 x − 3⎤ ⎡x 12 ⎢ = 2 + 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣4 3x = 24 + 4x – 12 3x – 4x = 12 –x = 12 x = –12 The solution set is {–12}. b. 3x + 4 x = 10 − 3 7x = 7 x +1 x+2 = 5− 3 7 x + 2⎤ ⎡ x +1 21 ⎢ = 5− 7 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 3 7x + 7 = 105 – 3x – 6 7x + 3x = 99 – 7 10x = 92 92 x= 10 46 x= 5 ⎧ 46 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . x−2 x+3 = 3 8 x − 2 x + 3⎤ ⎡ 24 ⎢5 + = 3 8 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 120 + 8 x − 16 = 3 x + 9 5+ 1 11 +5 = ( x ≠ 1) x −1 x −1 1 11 +5 = x −1 x −1 1 + 5( x − 1) = 11 1 + 5 x − 5 = 11 5 x − 4 = 11 5 x = 15 x=3 The solution set is {3}.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11. 14. ⎩2⎭ 12. 13. ⎩5⎭ 3x x − 3 x + 2 − = 5 2 3 ⎡ 3x x − 3 x + 2 ⎤ 30 ⎢ − = 2 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣5 18 x − 15 x + 45 = 10 x + 20 3x − 10 x = 20 − 45 x =1 − 7 x = −25 The solution set is {1}. a. Inc. 8 x − 3x = 9 − 104 5 x = −95 x = −19 The solution set is {−19} .

65 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 5 1 = + x + 3 2( x + 3) x − 2 6( x − 2) = 5( x − 2) + 2( x + 3) 6 x − 12 = 5 x − 10 + 2 x + 6 3 − 7 x − 28 = −4 19. Inc. −x = 3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. 2 x = −2 x−2 x−2 2 = x − 2( x − 2) x = 2 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. a. a. ∅. 4 2 32 + = x + 5 x − 5 ( x + 5)( x − 5) ( x ≠ 5. 8x 8 = 4− x +1 x +1 8 x = 4( x + 1) − 8 b. b. Section P. a. 8x = 4x + 4 − 8 4 x = −4 2 1 2x − = 2 ( x ≠ 1. 3 + x −1 = 4 x=2 The solution set is {2}. ( x ≠ −2. 3 1 2 + = 2x − 2 2 x −1 3 1 2 + = 2( x − 1) 2 x − 1 3 + 1( x − 1) = 4 25. a. 2 = x − 2x + 4 21. b. −x = 8 −7 x = 21 x = −8 The solution set is {–8}. x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. 20.7 3 −4 −7 = ( x ≠ −4) x+4 x+4 22. ∅. a. 4 2 32 + = . 3 5 1 = + ( x ≠ −3. ∅. b. −5 x + 5 x − 5 x 2 − 25 4( x − 5) + 2( x + 5) = 32 4 x − 20 + 2 x + 10 = 32 3 1 2 + = ( x ≠ 1) 2x − 2 2 x −1 6 x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x = − 2 ( x ≠ 2) x−2 x−2 24. x ≠ 2) x + 3 2x + 6 x − 2 8x 8 = 4− ( x ≠ −1) x +1 x +1 23. . x ≠ 5. b.PreCalculus 4E 18. x ≠ −5) b. 1 x−4 − 5 x+2 = 6 ( x − 4)( x + 2) . a. 3 −4 −7 = x+4 x+4 3 − 7( x + 4) = −4 b. 4) 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 x2 − 2 x − 8 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 ( x − 4)( x + 2) ( x ≠ 4. x ≠ −2) 1( x + 2) − 5( x − 4) = 6 x + 2 − 5 x + 20 = 6 −4 x = −16 x=4 The solution set is the empty set. x ≠ −1) x + 1 x −1 x −1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 x2 − 1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2( x − 1) − 1( x + 1) = 2 x 2x − 2 − x −1 = 2x x = −1 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. a. a. b.

. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S −P = t. 27. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S−P = r. 28. P = C + MC P − C = MC P −C =M C markup based on cost 31. 1 2 8 . 1 2 8 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 1( x + 1) − 2( x − 3) = 8 x + 1 − 2x + 6 = 8 −x + 7 = 8 −x = 1 x = −1 The solution set is the empty set. Inc. Pt interest 34. rt interest C = 2πr C r= . F S −V B(S − V ) = F B= S −V = T − D pm = m m T −D =p m total of payment 30. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 26. Pr interest 35. 2A =a+b h 2A −a=b h area of trapezoid I = Prt I P= . T = D + pm T − D = pm F B F S = +V B 36. C 1− r S (1 − r ) = C C 1− r = S C −r = − 1 S C r = − +1 S markup based on selling price S= IR + Ir = E I (R + r) = E 2A −b = a h area of trapezoid E R+r electric current I= 66 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 29. 3 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 32. 2π circumference of a circle 33. 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) A= 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) 2A = a+b h A= 37. ∅. x ≠ −1.

4}. 45. x−2 =7 x – 2 = 7 x – 2 = –7 x=9 x = –5 The solution set is {9. Section P. –5}. 4 ⎬ . ⎩ 5 ⎭ 67 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 A = 2lw + 2lh + 2 wh A − 2lw = h ( 2l + 2 w ) A − 2lw =h 2l + 2 w surface area 1 1 1 39. 44. −3} f1 = ff 2 f2 − f 49. 7}.PreCalculus 4E 38. 2x −1 = 5 2x – 1 = 5 2x – 1 = –5 2x = 6 2x = –4 x=3 x = –2 The solution set is {3. x +1 = 5 x + 1 = 5 x + 1 = –5 x=4 x = –6 The solution set is {–6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f − f2 48. 2|3x – 2| = 14 |3x – 2| = 7 3x – 2 = 7 3x – 2 = −7 3x = 9 3x = −5 x=3 x = −5/3 The solution set is {3. R1 R2 − RR1 = RR2 R1 ( R2 − R ) = RR2 R1 = RR2 R2 − R 47. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 2 4− f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 4− ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 f − f1 5 x =6 2 4− f 2 ( f − f1 ) = − ff1 = 5 x = 12 2 5 x=6 2 5 − x=2 2 ff 2 − f1 f 2 = − ff1 f 2 ( f − f1 ) 5 x + 6 = 18 2 − ff1 f − f1 x=− ff1 f2 = f1 − f focal length 4 5 or 4 − 5 x = −6 2 5 − x = −10 2 x=4 ⎧ 4 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . . ff1 − f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) f − f2 2 4− focal length f = 42. 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = −11 2 x = −8 2 x = 14 x = −4 x=7 The solution set is {–4. + = p q f qf + pf = pq f (q + p) = pq pq f = p+q thin lens equation 40. −5/3} resistance f = 41. 1 1 1 = + R R R 1 2 R1 R2 = RR2 + RR1 43. Inc. –2}. 3|2x – 1| = 21 |2x – 1| = 7 2x – 1 = 7 or 2x – 1 = −7 2x = 8 2x = −6 x=4 x = −3 The solution set is {4. 46.

|2x – 1| + 3 = 3 |2x – 1| = 0 2x – 1 = 0 2x = 1 x = 1/2 The solution set is {0. 4} . 3x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . 9} . 5 x 2 = 20 x 5 x 2 − 20 x = 0 5 x( x − 4) = 0 5 x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 53. 4} . ⎬ . x 2 = −11x − 10 58. 3 x =3 4 The solution set is {4. 3 3 x = 4 4 3 3 or 1 − 3 x = − 3 1− x = 4 4 4 4 3 1 3 7 − x=− − x=− 4 4 4 4 1 7 x= x= 3 3 1 7 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 52. x 2 = 8 x − 15 57. 54. 4 1− 3 x + 7 = 10 4 4 1− 56. 51. ⎧2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5} . 59. 5} . −1} . ⎩2⎭ 60.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 50. ⎩3 3 ⎭ 1− x 2 − 8 x + 15 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 5) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x=3 x=5 The solution set is {3. Inc. . 3x − 2 + 4 = 4 3 x 2 = 12 x 3x 2 − 12 x = 0 3x( x − 4) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 3x − 2 = 0 3x − 2 = 0 3x = 2 2 x= 3 The solution set is {0. |x + 1| + 6 = 2 |x + 1| = −4 The solution set is { }. ⎩3⎭ 55. 68 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. |x + 1| +5 = 3 |x + 1| = −2 No solution The solution set is { }. x 2 − 13 x + 36 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 9) = 0 x − 4 = 0 or x − 9 = 0 x=4 x=9 61. x 2 − 3 x − 10 = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = 0 x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=5 x = −2 The solution set is {−2. x 2 + 11x + 10 = 0 ( x + 10)( x + 1) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x = −10 x = −1 The solution set is {−10. ⎧1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .

Section P. x−4=± 5 x = 4± 5 { } 71. 1}. } The solution set is −4 ± 7 . } The solution set is ± 10 . x = 1± 3 { 70. x 2 + 6 x = −8 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = −8 + 9 x 2 = 10 64. 3x 2 − 1 = 47 ( x − 1)2 = 3 x 2 = 16 x −1 = ± 3 x 2 = ± 16 x = ±4 The solution set is {±4} . 3 ( x − 4 ) = 15 2 x2 − 2 x = 2 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 2 + 1 3x 2 = 48 65. 2 2 ( x + 2)2 = 16 =± 5 x + 2 = ±4 x = −2 ± 4 The solution set is {–6.PreCalculus 4E 62. x2 + 6 x = 7 x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 11 + 9 ( x − 3) 2 = 20 x − 3 = ± 20 x = 3± 2 5 x+4=± 7 x = −4 ± 7 { { } The solution set is 3 + 2 5. Inc. 5 x 2 = 50 ( x + 3) 2 = 1 x 2 = ± 10 x = ± 10 x + 3 = ±1 { x = −3 ± 1 The solution set is {–4. 63. x2 = 9 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 7 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 16 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is 4 ± 5 . . 1 − 3 . 3 ( x + 4 ) = 21 ( x + 4) 2 =7 2 =± 7 x 2 − 6 x − 11 = 0 x 2 − 6 x = 11 2 ( x + 4) x 2 + 4 x = 12 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 12 + 4 ( x − 4) = 5 ( x − 4) } The solution set is 1 + 3. 69 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 − 2 5 . 69. 5 x 2 + 1 = 51 68. x + 3 = ±4 x = −3 ± 4 The solution set is {–7.7 5 x 2 = 45 67. –2}. 2}. 66.

. x2 + 4 x + 1 = 0 x 2 + 4 x = −1 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = −1 + 4 77. x2 − 2 x − 5 = 0 76. –2}. x2 + 5x + 3 = 0 x= x+2= ± 3 74. x= 79. x − 2x = 5 x 2 + 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x= x − 2x + 1 = 5 +1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 6 −8 ± 64 − 48 2 −8 ± 16 x= 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 The solution set is {–6. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ x2 + 6 x = 5 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 5 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 14 78. ( x + 2) 2 = 3 x = −2 ± 3 { −5 ± 25 − 12 2 −5 ± 13 x= 2 } x2 + 6 x − 5 = 0 ⎧⎪ −5 + 13 −5 − 13 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬. ⎬. 3x 2 − 3 x − 4 = 0 x= 3 ± (−3)2 − 4(3)(−4) 2(3) 3 ± 9 + 48 6 3 ± 57 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 3 + 57 3 − 57 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . − 3 − 14 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 2 − 3 . 1 − 6 . x= x −1 = ± 6 x = 1± 6 { } The solution set is 1 + 6.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 72. x + 3 = ± 14 x2 + 5x + 2 = 0 x= x = −3 ± 14 { } The solution set is −3 + 14. ⎬ 6 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 6 70 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 73. − 3}. 75. Inc. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ −8 ± 64 − 60 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 −8 ± 2 x= 2 The solution set is {−5. −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(12) 2(1) −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(15) 2(1) ⎧⎪ −5 + 17 −5 − 17 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) −5 ± 25 − 8 2 −5 ± 17 x= 2 x= x 2 + 8 x + 15 = 0 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(3) 2(1) x= The solution set is −2 + 3.

3 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 3 71 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (−2) 2 − 4(3)(1) = 4 – 12 = –8. (−4) 2 − 4(1)(−5) = 16 + 20 = 36.PreCalculus 4E 80. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. x2 − 4 x − 5 = 0 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 89. Inc. 2 unequal real solutions 4x2 = 2x + 7 x= 4 x2 − 2 x + 3 = 0 (−2) 2 − 4(4)(3) = 4 – 48 = –44.7 5x2 + x − 2 = 0 x= 83. 85. 2 unequal real solutions 2 ± 4 + 112 x= 8 2 ± 116 x= 8 2 ± 2 29 x= 8 1 ± 29 x= 4 82. 1 real solution 88. 4 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 4 x= 2 x 2 + 11x − 6 = 0 112 − 4(2)(−6) = 121 + 48 = 169. x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 (−3)2 − 4(1)(−7) = 9 + 28 = 37. 87. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 2 complex imaginary solutions ⎪⎧ −1 + 41 −1 − 41 ⎪⎫ . The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 3x 2 + 4 x − 2 = 0 42 − 4(3)(−2) = 16 + 24 = 40. Section P. 2 unequal real solutions ⎧⎪ 3 + 6 3 − 6 ⎫⎪ . 2 complex imaginary solutions 3x = 6 x − 1 3x − 6 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x= x= 3x 2 = 2 x − 1 3x 2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x2 = 2x − 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 ⎧⎪1 + 29 1 − 29 ⎫⎪ . 2 unequal real solutions −1 ± 12 − 4(5)(−2) 2(5) −1 ± 1 + 40 10 −1 ± 41 x= 10 x= 84. (−2) 2 − 4(1)(1) =4–4 = 0. 2 x 2 − 11x + 3 = 0 (−11) 2 − 4(2)(3) = 121 – 24 = 97. 4 x2 − 2 x − 7 = 0 2 ± (−2)2 − 4(4)(−7) 2(4) 86. 2 unequal real solutions 6 ± 36 − 12 6 6 ± 24 6 6±2 6 6 3± 6 3 90. 10 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 10 81. .

1 − 2 . 3x 2 = 60 x= x = −3 −11 ± 112 − 4(2)(11) 2(2) −11 ± 121 − 88 4 −11 ± 33 x= 4 ⎧ 2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 − x = 1 91. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 92.5 5 . (3 x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 3x + 2 or x − 2 = 0 93. 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 72 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ⎬ . { 2 x 2 = 250 x = ± 125 3x2 − 4x − 4 = 0 2 3 } x 2 = 125 3x 2 − 4 x = 4 x=− { The solution set is −2 5. } The solution set is −5 5. 3x = −2 x2 − 2 x = 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 1 + 1 ( x − 1) 2 = 2 x = −3 or x −1 = ± 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . ⎩5 ⎭ −3 ± 9 + 8 4 −3 ± 17 x= 4 x= x= ⎪⎧ −3 + 17 −3 − 17 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬ . 5 x 2 + 2 = 11x 94. (5 x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 2 x 2 + 3x = 1 2 x 2 + 3x − 1 = 0 5 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 1 or x = 2 5 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 1 x = − or x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . ⎬. x = ±5 5 97. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 5 . Inc. 2⎬ . ⎩ 3 ⎭ x = 1± 2 { 5 x 2 − 11x + 2 = 0 98. (5 x − 2)( x + 3) = 0 5 x − 2 = 0 or x + 3 2 x + 8 x + 3x + 12 = 1 2 2 x 2 + 11x + 11 = 0 5x = 2 2 5 or −3 ± 32 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) x= 5x = 1 x= } The solution set is 1 + 2. 1⎬ . . x 2 = 20 2 x2 − x − 1 = 0 (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = ± 20 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = ±2 5 2 x = −1 96. ⎩ 5⎭ x= ⎪⎧ −11 + 33 −11 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 5 x 2 = 6 − 13x 5 x 2 + 13x − 6 = 0 (2 x + 3)( x + 4) = 1 99. 95. ⎬.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎪⎧ 3 + 65 3 − 65 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 102. x2 − 6 x + 7 = 0 103. . 3x 2 − 27 = 0 3 x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. ⎬ . 109. 2 7 2 ⎧ 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨0.PreCalculus 4E 100. Inc. 4 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 4 x2 = 4 x − 2 107. x= { } The solution set is 3 ± 2 . 101. (3 x − 4) = 16 2 x2 − 4x + 2 = 0 3x − 4 = ± 16 3x − 4 = ±4 3x = 4 ± 4 3x = 8 or 3x = 0 8 x = or x = 0 3 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 4± 8 2 x = 2± 2 x= ⎧ 8⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. 3 ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(−7) 2(2) 3 ± 9 + 56 4 3 ± 65 x= 4 x= 106. 2 x 2 − 7 x = 0 9 − 6x + x = 0 x(2 x − 7) = 0 2 x = 0 or 2 x − 7 = 0 2x = 7 x − 6x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 The solution set is {3}. 104. 2} . 4 x 2 − 16 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x − 5x − 5 = 2 4 x 2 = 16 2 x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 x= x2 = 4 x = ±2 The solution set is {−2. ⎩ 3⎭ { } The solution set is 2 ± 2 .7 (2 x − 5)( x + 1) = 2 105. 3}. ⎬ . (2 x + 7) 2 = 25 x2 = 6 x − 7 108. Section P. 3x 2 − 12 x + 12 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(7) 2(1) 6± 8 2 x = 3± 2 x= x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x=2 The solution set is {2}. ⎩ 2⎭ x = 0 or x = 73 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎬. 2 x + 7 = ±5 2 x = −7 ± 5 2 x = −12 or 2 x = −2 x=6 or x = −1 The solution set is {–6. –1}.

2x + 5x − 3 = 0 2 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(2)(−3) 2(2) 2x 6 −28 + = 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x2 + 6 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 5) = 0 The solution set is {−5. −2 x x+2 3 3x + 6 + 3 x = x 2 + 2 x 115. x ≠ 3. − 1}. 113. x ≠ 0. 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 2 74 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3 x x+3 4 4 x + 12 + 4 x = x 2 + 3x − ( −5 ) ± 18 + 18 = 6 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. 112. 0 = x2 − 8x + 7 0 = ( x − 7 )( x − 1) x=7 x =1 The solution set is {1. x ≠ 3. −3 x−3 x +3 x −9 2 x ( x + 3) + 6 ( x − 3) = −28 2 x 2 + 6 x + 6 x − 18 = −28 2 x 2 + 12 x + 10 = 0 −5 ± 25 + 24 x= 4 −5 ± 49 x= 4 −5 ± 7 x= 4 1 x = −3. 4 x − 3 x − 4 x − 7 x + 12 3x − 12 + 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 20 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. 2 − 10}. 114. 7}. 5 ± 25 + 48 x= 2 5 ± 73 x= 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 73 5 − 73 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 20 − 8 x = x x 2 + 8 x − 20 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 2) = 0 x + 10 = 0 x−2 = 0 x = −10 0 = x 2 − 5 x − 12 x= 36 = 6 20 − 8 x = x 2 1 1 1 + = . 1 1 1 + = . ⎩ 2⎭ 111. 0 = x2 − 4 x − 6 x= − ( −4 ) ± 3 x + 18 = x 2 ( −4 ) − 4 (1)( −6 ) 2 (1) 2 x 2 − 3x − 18 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 6) = 0 x+3=0 x–6=0 x = –3 x=6 3(−3) + 18 = −3 3(6) + 18 = 6 4 ± 16 + 24 2 4 ± 40 x= 2 4 ± 2 10 x= 2 x = 2 ± 10 x= −9 + 18 = −3 116. 3 5 x 2 − 20 + = 2 . 3x + 18 = x ( −5 ) − 4 (1)( −12 ) 2 (1) 2 x=2 20 − 8(−10) = −10 20 − 8(2) = 2 20 + 80 = −10 20 − 16 = 2 100 = −10 False The solution set is {2}. Inc. ⎬. ⎬ .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 + 5x = 3 110. The solution set is {2 + 10. 4=2 . x ≠ 0.

2 x + 12 x + 36 = 0 2 ( x + 6) 2 = 0 122. x + 10 = ( x − 2) 121. 75 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x + 10 = x 2 − 4 x + 4 x = −1 6x + 1 = x − 1 6 x + 1 = ( x − 1) 2 2 2 2 x + 13 = x + 14 x + 49 x = 10 2 − 2(2) + 5 = 5 10 − 2(10) + 5 = 5 2− 9 =5 10 − 25 = 5 2 − 3 = 5 False The solution set is {10}.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x + 10 = x − 2 118. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. x2 − 5x − 6 = 0 6(8) + 1 = 8 − 1 0 + 1 = −1 48 + 1 = 7 49 = 7 x − 2x + 5 = 5 ( x − 5) 2 = 2 x + 5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 = 2 x + 5 x=6 −1 + 10 = −1 − 2 x 2 − 12 x + 20 = 0 6 + 10 = 6 − 2 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. x+6 = 0 10 − 5 = 5 x − x + 11 = 1 x − 1 = x + 11 x = −6 ( x − 1) 2 = x + 11 2(−6) + 13 = −6 + 7 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = x + 11 −12 + 13 = 1 x 2 − 3x − 10 = 0 1 =1 The solution set is {–6}. ( x − 2)( x − 10) = 0 x − 2 = 0 x − 10 = 0 16 = 4 x=2 2 x + 13 = x + 7 2 x + 13 = ( x + 7) x=8 6(0) + 1 = 0 − 1 x − 5 = 2x + 5 ( x + 1)( x − 6) = 0 x +1 = 0 x − 6 = 0 119. 120. ( x + 2)( x − 5) = 0 x+2=0 x−5 = 0 x = −2 x=5 −2 − −2 + 11 = 1 5 − 5 + 11 = 1 −2 − 9 = 1 5 − 16 = 1 −2 − 3 = 1 False The solution set is {5}.7 x+3 = x−3 117. x + 3 = x − 6x + 9 x2 − 7 x + 6 = 0 6 x + 1 = x2 − 2 x + 1 ( x − 1)( x − 6) = 0 x–1=0 x–6=0 x=1 x=6 6+3 = 6−3 1+ 3 = 1− 3 x2 − 8x = 0 x( x − 8) = 0 x −8 = 0 False 9 = 3 4 = −2 The solution set is {6}. 5−4 =1 . x=0 1 = −1 False The solution set is {8}.

126. 25 – [2 + 5y – 3(y + 2)] = –3(2y – 5) – [5(y – 1) – 3y + 3] 25 – [2 + 5y – 3y – 6] = –6y + 15 – [5y – 5– 3y + 3] 25 – [2y – 4] = –6y + 15 – [2y – 2] 25 – 2y + 4 = –6y + 15 – 2y + 2 –2y + 29 = –8y + 17 6y = –12 y = –2 The solution set is {–2}. 2 x + 15 − 6 = x 124. Inc. ⎩ 11 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ − 76 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x + 19 = x + 8 ( 2 x + 19 ) 2 = ( x + 8) 2 2 x + 19 = x 2 + 16 x + 64 0 = x 2 + 14 x + 45 0 = ( x + 9)( x + 5) x + 9 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 x = −9 x = −5 –9 does not check and must be rejected. The solution set is {–5}.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x + 19 − 8 = x 123. . 45 – [4 – 2y – 4(y + 7)] = –4(1 + 3y) – [4 – 3(y + 2) – 2(2y – 5)] 45 – [4 – 2y – 4y – 28] = –4 – 12y – [4 – 3y – 6 – 4y + 10] 45 – [–6y – 24] = –4 – 12y – [–7y + 8] 45 + 6y + 24 = –4 – 12y + 7y – 8 6y + 69 = –5y – 12 11y = –81 y=− 81 11 ⎧ 81 ⎫ ⎬. 125. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {–3}. 2 x + 15 = x + 6 ( 2 x + 15 ) 2 = ( x + 6) 2 2 x + 15 = x 2 + 12 x + 36 0 = x 2 + 10 x + 21 0 = ( x + 3)( x + 7) x + 3 = 0 or x + 7 = 0 x = −3 x = −7 –7 does not check and must be rejected.

7 127. 10 x − 1 = (2 x + 1) 2 10 x − 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 0 = 4 x2 − 6 x + 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 0 = (2 x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x − 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x= 1 2 x =1 ⎧1 ⎫ ⎩2 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ . x = −6. 129. . 130. − 6. The solution set is {−8. − 3.1} . The solution set is {−7. x = −3. x = 6. 77 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7 − 7 x = (3x + 2)( x − 1) 7 − 7 x = 3x 2 − x − 2 0 = 3x 2 + 6 x − 9 0 = x2 + 2 x − 3 0 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −3 x =1 The solution set is {−3. 128. Inc.1⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 = −8 x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 3) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −7. 4. x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = −12 or ( x + 8)( x − 6) = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 4) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −8. and x = 1. 6} . 1} . and x = 4.

−1 ± 1 − 4 (1)( −5 ) 2 x= = 2 (1) = 4−2 = 2 The solution set is {8}. This results in the following: 133. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x + 2) .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 131. 1 1 5 = + 2 x − 3x + 2 x + 2 x − 4 1 1 5 = + ( x − 1)( x − 2) x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. x +5 − x −3 = 2 −1 ± 21 2 x+5 = x −3 + 2 x + 5 = ( x − 3 + 2) 2 ⎪⎧ −1 ± 21 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. This results in the following: ( x − 3)( x − 1) + x( x − 2) = 1 4 = 4 x −3 1= x −3 1= x −3 x=4 4+5 − 4−3 = 2 9− 1=2 3 −1 = 2 The solution set is {4}. ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ = x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(2)(−9) 2(2) −4 ± 88 4 −4 ± 2 22 x= 4 −2 ± 22 x= 2 x= 78 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x − x − 3x + 3 + x − 2 x = 1 2 2 2x − 6x + 3 = 1 2 2 x2 − 6 x + 2 = 0 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 2 b = −6 c = 2 . 2 x2 + 4 x − 9 = 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4 ( 2 )( 2 ) 2 ( 2) 6 ± 36 − 16 6 ± 20 = 4 4 6 ± 4⋅5 6 ± 2 5 = = 4 4 3± 5 = 2 ⎧⎪ 3 ± 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. −1 ± 1 − ( −20 ) 2 134. x= 135. Inc. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ x +5 = x −3+ 4 x −3 + 4 x + 5 = x +1+ 4 x − 3 5 = 1+ 4 x − 3 132. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x+8 − x−4 = 2 x +8 = x−4 + 2 x + 8 = ( x − 4 + 2) 2 x +8 = x −4+ 4 x −4 + 4 x +8 = x + 4 x − 4 8= 4 x−4 x + 2 = ( x − 1)( x − 2) + 5( x − 1) 2= x−4 x + 2 = x2 − 2 x − x + 2 + 5x − 5 4 = x−4 x + 2 = x2 + 2 x − 3 x=8 0 = x2 + x − 5 8+8 − 8−4 = 2 16 − 4 = 2 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 1 b = 1 c = −5 . x − 1 x 1 + = 2 x − 2 x − 3 x − 5x + 6 x −1 x 1 + = x − 2 x − 3 ( x − 2)( x − 3) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. . ( x − 2)( x − 3) . Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded.

26 −0.26 x = 300 300 liters of pure acid must be added.013 b = −1.72 x = 125 125 liters of pure peroxide must be added.19 ) ± ( −1.24 3 = 0.PreCalculus 4E Section P.19 ) − 4 ( 0. = 79 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.35(200) x + 200 0.32190 ≈ 0.1(500) 0.7 136. the healthy weight of a person of height 6’ is 178 pounds. Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded.72 x = −90 −0. This is 6 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph.74 = b.4161 − 1.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0.1(500) C= C= 140.19 c = 25.28 = x + 500 0.24 0 = 0.35(200) x + 200 x + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.013)( 25. Thus.24 ) 2 ( 0. 0. − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(12) = 53 2 W − 36 = 53 2 W − 36 + 36 = 53 + 36 2 W = 89 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 89 2 W = 178 According to the formula.10362 0. 33 year olds and 58 year olds are expected to be in 3 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven.74 x + 148 = x + 70 −0.013x 2 − 1.013) 2 1.026 1. x + 0.013x 2 − 1.26 x = −78 −0.19 x + 25.31248 0.19 x + 28.74( x + 200) = x + 0. f ( x ) = 0. the healthy weight of a person of height 5’6” is 142 pounds.72 −0.26 x −78 = −0.026 ≈ 58. This is 13 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph. 8 ± 24 4 8± 2 6 x= 4 4± 6 x= 2 x= 137.72 x −90 = −0. Inc. W − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(6) = 53 2 W − 18 = 53 2 W − 18 + 18 = 53 + 18 2 W = 71 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 71 2 W = 142 According to the formula.39 The solutions are approximately 33. = − ( −1.28( x + 500) = x + 0.19 ± 0. 2 x2 − 8x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−8) ± (−8) 2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) 139.013x 2 − 1.28 x + 140 = x + 50 −0. .15.19 ± 1.15 or 33.24 x= W 138.19 x + 28. The function models the actual data well.026 1. a. 141. 0. x + 0.1(500) x + 500 x + 0.35(200) 0.19 ± 0.39 and 58.

10 = 0. A sample change is: ax 2 + c = 0 can be solved using b = 0 .19 x + 28.7 x 3.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 25 = x There will be 16 cluttered minutes 25 years after 1996. 143. ( ) 168. The formula overestimates the number of fatal accidents.19 ) ± 160.013x 2 − 1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 142. 144. Sample explanation: You should substitute into the original equation.68383 ≈ 0.87383 0. Drivers of approximately age 19 and age 72 are expected to be involved in 10 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven. A sample change is: Some quadratics have one number in their solution sets.7 x + 12.6 = 0.19 x + 18.013x 2 − 1.5 ⎞ ⎜ 0.24 159.19 x + 28.19 ± 0.19 − 0.19 ± 1. Explanations will vary. does not make sense.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 14 ≈ x There will be 15.5 167.026 x ≈ 72.7 2 2 ⎛ 2. Changes to make the statement true will vary.026 0.24 2 0 = 0. 1. f ( x ) = 0. M = 0. false. does not make sense.013)(18.6 ⎞ ⎜ 0. A sample change is: (2 x − 3) 2 = 25 (2 x − 3) 2 = ± 25 2 x − 3 = ±5 164. ( −1.026 Evaluate the expression to obtain two solutions. false.6 = x 0.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0.7 x + 12. Sample explanation: The factoring method would be quicker. Changes to make the statement true will vary.026 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.50617 x= x= 0. .026 0. or 2021.013 b = −1. true 166.19 ) − 4 ( 0.026 162.4161 − 0.7 2 2 ⎛ 3.026 0.1 x ≈ 19 = 163.5 7x + 4 + 13 = x b 7(−6) + 4 + 13 = −6 b −38 = −19 b −19b = −38 b=2 [ x − (−3)][ x − (5)] = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 5) = 0 16 = 0. 1. makes sense 161.7 x + 12.013x − 1.24 ) 2 ( 0.1 = 0.19 + 0.46762 1. Inc. Explanations will vary.19 c = 18.1 cluttered minutes 14 years after 1996.5 x 2 − 2 x − 15 = 0 3.94848 0.5 = x 0. – 158.7 x + 12.68383 1. 2. 165. does not make sense. false. The formula does not model the data very well. Sample explanation: Substitute n = 6 into the equation to find P. Explanations will vary.24 x= = − ( −1. M = 0.19 ± 0. Answers may vary.7 x 2.013) 2 1.68383 x= or x = 0. or 2010. 80 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Changes to make the statement true will vary.5 = 0. ( ) 145.5 15.

037 = the average salary for men x + ( x + 14. Let x + 44 = the length of the court.30 x = 840 0. 20 + 0.026 In 2007 the average teaching salary for women was $57. 015 2 x + 14. 3. 015 x + x + 14.1x = 33 −1.1x = 33 − 88 −1. b = v0 . Let x = the width of the court. 5.026. 4 x + 400 Section P.978 x = 57. 4.8 192 + 56 x + 4 x 2 = 320 Check Point Exercises 1. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + (50) 2 = (130)2 a 2 + 2500 = 16. x + 150 172. 81 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1x = −55 −55 x= −1.989 6.1 x = 50 33% of female freshmen will respond this way 50 years after 1969. The tower is 120 yards tall. 037 ) = 130. 037 = 72. 4 x 2 + 56 x − 128 = 0 x 2 + 14 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 16)( x − 2) = 0 x + 16 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −16 x=2 –16 must be rejected. 037 = 130. 88 − 1.8 C−S N L VL = CL − ( C − S ) N V =C− 169. x − 0.70 x = 840 840 x= 0. 015 2 x = 115. 2l + 2 w = P 2( x + 44) + 2 x = 288 2 x + 88 + 2 x = 288 4 x + 88 = 288 4 x = 200 200 x= 4 x = 50 x + 44 = 94 The dimensions of the court are 50 by 94.989 and the average salary for men was $72.PreCalculus 4E Section P. Let x = the average salary for women Let x + 14.05x 173. 037 = 130. 400 a = ±120 –120 must be rejected. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = the computer’s price before the reduction. s = −16t 2 + v0 t 0 = −16t 2 + v0 t − s a = −16. 900 a 2 = 14. x + 14.70 x = 1200 Before the reduction the computer’s price was $1200. The path must be 2 feet wide. or 2019. . Let x = the number of years since 1969. (16 + 2 x )(12 + 2 x) = 320 VL = CL − CN + SN CN − CL = NS − LV C ( N − L ) = NS − LV C ( N − L) NS − LV N −L N −L NS − LV LV − NS or C= N −L L−N = 170. 2. c = − s t= t= t= −v0 ± ( v0 ) − 4 ( −16 )( − s ) 2 ( −16 ) −v0 ± ( v0 ) 2 2 − 64s −32 v0 ± v0 2 − 64 s 32 171. Inc.

9 weeks on vacation and Italians spend an average of 7.8 − 4 2 x = 7.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra The original amount of money per person.125. Inc. 000 x −375.125. 5. Let x + 581 = the time spent watching TV. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 ⎛ 5. .8 1. Exercise Set P. 000. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 3) x x+3 ⎝ ⎠ 5. 000 = 0 x 2 + 3x − 40 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 5) = 0 x + 8 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −8 x=5 –8 must be rejected. 000. 2. 000. Let x = number of weeks Americans spend on vacation.8 x = 3. 000( x + 3) − 375. Let x = the time spent listening to radio. x + ( x + 4) = 11.9 x + 4 = 7. 000 − 375. 82 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The new amount of money per person. x + ( x + 581) = 2529 x + x + 581 = 2529 2 x + 581 − 581 = 2529 − 581 2 x = 1948 x = 974 x + 581 = 1555 Americans spent 974 hours listening to radio and 1555 hours watching TV. 000 ⎞ x( x + 3) ⎜ − 375. reduction per winner 5. Let x + 4 = number of weeks Italians spend on vacation. 000 x = 5.9 Americans spend an average of 3.8 x + x + 4 = 11. 000 = x x+3 5. 000 − 375. 000. 000 x( x + 3) = 5. 000.8 2 x + 4 − 4 = 11. 000. 000. 000 x 7. 000 x + 15. 000. 000. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 x + 15. 000 5. 000 x 2 − 1. 000. There were 5 people in the original group.9 weeks.

Let x = the number of years after 2000 10.800 − 500(9) = 22. Let x = the number of years after 2005 13. 060 4 x − 3500 + 3500 = 74. x + (2 x − 7740) = 99. 060 + 3500 4 x = 77.760. y = 24. 560 x = 19. 000 − 12. 060 x + 3 x − 3500 = 74. Let 3x − 3500 = the average salary for registered nurses. 43 + 1. 000 3 x − 7740 = 99.6 x = 18 18 x= 0. −16.420. or the year 2025. 9. 760 The average salary for janitors is $19. 000 x = 25 The countries will have the same population 25 years after the year 2000. 000 − 5000 x 10. 060 4 x − 3500 = 74. 000 − 5000 x b. 390 3 x − 3500 = 54.900. 000 − 28.500 = 1500 1500 x=9 The two colleges will have the same enrollment about 9 years after 2005. 000 − 45. 000 − 5000 x 10. 000 x = 10. 7. 200.5 x = 100 1. a. Let x = the number of years since 1983.PreCalculus 4E 3. 000 x + 2 x − 7740 = 99. 200. 000 − 12. 000 x = −400.580 and the average salary for computer programmers is $63. or 2016. 000 = −5000 x −35. 600. 10. 000 − 12. 000 = −3000 x −15. 000 x = 10. Let 2 x − 7740 = the average salary for computer programmers. 000 = 9. 000 = −5000 x −35. 000 − 3000 x 9000 − 24.300 + 1000 x = 26.8 Let x = the average salary for carpenters. 000 x= −5000 x=7 The car’s value will drop to $10. 000 = 45. 000(25) = 10. 13.580 2 x − 7740 = 63. 000 + 7740 3x = 106. or 2021. . 000 x Let x = the number of years since 1986. y = 45. 500 1500 x 13.6 x = 61 0. Let x = the average salary for janitors.6 x = 30 61% of American adults will approve 30 years after 1986. 000 − 3000 x b. 200.000 after 7 years. 000 − 300. 5.6 x = 61 − 43 0.800 − 500 x 1500 x = 13.5 x = 100 − 43 1. 43 + 0. 4.900.300 and 26.5 x = 57 57 x= 1. 6. 000 − 3000 x 9000 = 24. x + (3x − 3500) = 74. Section P. 740 x = 35.390 and the average salary for registered nurses is $54.300 + 1000(9) = 22. 000 The population in the year 2025 will be 9. 000 x= −3000 x=5 The car’s value will drop to $9000 after 5 years.300 at that time.300 The college’s enrollments will be 22. 200.5 x = 38 All American adults will approve 38 years after 1983. 83 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8. y = 45. 000 = −3000 x −15. a. 10. 420 The average salary for carpenters is $35. Inc.000. 000 3x − 7740 + 7740 = 99. or 2014. y = 24.

Let w = the width of the swimming pool. The dimensions are 40 feet by 120 feet. the dimensions are 36 feet by 78 feet. Total length: 16 + 2x Total width: 12 + 2x P = 2(length) + 2(width) 72 = 2 (16 + 2 x ) + 2 (12 + 2 x ) Let w = the width of the field Let 2w = the length of the field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 72 = 32 + 4 x + 24 + 4 x 72 = 8 x + 56 16 = 8 x 300 = 2 ( 2w) + 2 ( w) 300 = 4 w + 2w 300 = 6w 50 = w If w = 50 . 17. 15. 3w = 3(40) = 120.80 x = 336 x = 420 The television set’s price is $420.08 x = 162 1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11.25c 584 = 1.20. Let 2w – 6 = the length of the pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 13. Let w = the width of the field Let 2w + 6 = the length of the field 228 = 6w + 12 216 = 6w 36 = w If w = 36 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = the cost of the dictionary x − 0.08 x = 162 x = 150 The nightly cost is $150. 0. 12. Thus. then 2 w = 100 .30 x = 30.05 x = 252 1. Let w = the width of the pool. Let c = the dealer’s cost 15 = c + 0. Let c = the dealer’s cost 584 = c + 0.80 0.20 = c The dealer’s cost is $467. 20. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. Thus. then 2 w + 6 = 2(36) + 6 = 78 . Inc. . 19. x − 0. Let x = the cost of the television set. the dimensions are 50 yards by 100 yards.25c 15 = 1.20 x = 336 18.05 x = 252 x = 240 The nightly cost is $240.80 x = 44 The dictionary’s price before the reduction was $44.25c 467. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. 16. 2= x The width of the frame is 2 inches. Let 3w = the length of the swimming pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 21.70 x = 30. 14. 126 = 2 ( 2w − 6 ) + 2 ( w ) 126 = 4w − 12 + 2w 126 = 6 w − 12 138 = 6 w 23 = w Find the length. 84 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let x = the width of the frame.25c 12 = c The dealer’s cost is $12. 2 w − 6 = 2(23) − 6 = 46 − 6 = 40 The dimensions are 23 meters by 40 meters. 320 = 2 ( 3w ) + 2 ( w ) 320 = 6w + 2w 320 = 8w 40 = w If w = 40.

( x + 11)( x − 5) = 0 x=− Apply the zero product principle. Inc. Disregard –20 because we can’t have a negative width measurement. The width of the path is 5 meters. is 5 inches. larger square Let x = the width of the path (12 + 2 x )(15 + 2 x ) = 378 180 + 24 x + 30 x + 4 x 2 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x + 180 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x − 198 = 0 2 ( 2 x 2 + 27 x − 99 ) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33)( x − 3) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33) = 0 = 64 2 x + 33 = 0 2 x = −33 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 64 x 2 + 6 x − 55 = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 33 2 The width of the path is 3 meters. w + 15 = 0 w − 12 = 0 w = 12 w = −15 The width is 12 yards and the length is 12 yards + 3 yards = 15 yards.8 Let w = the width of the path Let 40 + 2w = the width of the pool and path Let 60 + 2w = the length of the pool and path 2(40 + 2w) + 2(60 + 2w) = 248 80 + 4w + 120 + 4w = 248 200 + 8w = 248 8w = 48 w=6 The width of the path is 6 feet. This means that x. 200 + 60 x + 4 x 2 = 600 4 x + 60 x + 200 = 600 0 = w2 + 3w − 54 2 0 = ( w + 9 )( w − 6 ) w+9 = 0 w−6 = 0 w = −9 w=6 Disregard –9 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The width is 6 feet and the length is 6 + 3 = 9 feet. 180 = w2 + 3w 2 Let x = the width of the path ( 20 + 2 x )(10 + 2 x ) = 600 200 + 40 x + 20 x + 4 x 2 = 600 54 = w2 + 3w 25. x + 11 = 0 x −5 = 0 x = −11 x=5 The solution set is {−11. the length of the side of the original square. Let w = the width Let w +3 = the length Area = lw 27.5} . 2 = 36 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 36 x 2 + 4 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 4 ) = 0 54 = ( w + 3) w 24. 85 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 23. larger square ( x + 3) x=5 The solution set is {−20. Let x + 2 = the side of the new. Section P.PreCalculus 4E 22.5} . 26. 4 ( x + 20 ) = 0 x −5 = 0 Let w = the width Let w + 3 = the width Area = lw x + 20 = 0 x = −20 180 = ( w + 3) w 0 = w2 + 3w − 180 0 = ( w + 15 )( w − 12 ) 28. Let x = the side of the original square. ( x + 2) x +8 = 0 x−4 = 0 x=4 x = −8 The length of the side of the original square. . Disregard –11 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. is 4 inches. 4 x 2 + 60 x − 400 = 0 4 ( x 2 + 15 x − 100 ) = 0 4 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. Let x = the length of the side of the original square Let x + 3 = the length of the side of the new.

8 x 2 + 25 x − 84 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 28) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 28 = 0 x=3 x = −28 –28 must be rejected. Inc. Let x be the width.24 feet The distance along the length and width is about 28.2 feet up the house.09 yd 3x ≈ 87. A person could save 116. A person could save 85. Let x be the width.4 yards.24. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + b2 = c2 52 + x 2 = ( x + 1) 2 x 2 + 25 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 25 = 2 x + 1 24 = 2 x x = 12 x + 1 = 13 The wire is 13 feet long. 86 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 – 92. a 2 + b2 = c2 4 x 2 + 44 x − 168 = 0 x 2 + 11x − 42 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 14) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 14 = 0 x=3 x = −14 –14 must be rejected.9 feet.62 feet 2x ≈ 57.2 must be rejected. . 600 + 100 x + 4 x 2 − 600 = 336 152 + x 2 = ( x + 4) 2 4 x 2 + 100 x − 336 = 0 x 2 + 225 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 225 = 8 x + 16 209 = 8 x 1 x = 26 8 1 x + 4 = 30 8 1 The wire is 30 feet long. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + 152 = 202 a 2 + 225 = 400 a 2 = 175 a = ± 175 a ≈ ±13. or about 85. x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 642 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 4096 5 x 2 = 4096 4096 x2 = 5 4096 x=± 5 x ≈ 28.4 yards.28 yd The distance along the length and width is about 29. The width of the path is 3 feet 31. (10 + 2 x)(12 + 2 x) − (10)(12) = 168 120 + 44 x + 4 x 2 − 120 = 168 35.2 –13. a = ± 800 a ≈ ±28. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The width of the path is 3 feet 30.4 x ≈ 29.09 + 87. or about 21.3 must be rejected. 33.28.9 – 64.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 29. 32.4 a 2 = 800 x = ± 846.62 + 57.9 feet. The ladder reaches 13. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + (3x) 2 = 922 a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + 9 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 102 = 302 10 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 100 = 900 x 2 = 846. or about 116. or about 24. The building is 28. 36. (20 + 2 x)(30 + 2 x) − (20)(30) = 336 34.3 –28.3 feet tall.

000. 000 x( x + 4) = 480. 000 − 32. 000( x + 4) − 32. 000 x 1. 000 x + 1. 480. 000 480. 000. 000 x = 20. 000 x = 480. There were 8 people in the original group. 000 − 500. reduction per winner 20. 920.8 The original amount of money per person. The new amount of money per person. 000 = x x+2 20. 000 ⎛ 480. 000. 000 x 40. 000. 000 20. Let x be the car’s average velocity. 000. 000 − 32. 000. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 80 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 8) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 8 = 0 x = −10 x=8 –10 must be rejected. 000 − 32. 000. 000 ⎛ 20. 000. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 4) x x+4 ⎝ ⎠ 480. 000. 000 − 500.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 000 − 500. 000. 000 x 2 − 128. 000 x( x + 2) = 20. 000 ⎞ x( x + 2) ⎜ − 500. 000( x + 2) − 500. 20. 000. 87 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. There were 6 people in the original group. 000 x + 40. Inc. 000 x 37. 000 = x x+4 480. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 2) x x+2 ⎝ ⎠ 20. . 000 x 2 − 128. 000. 000 ⎞ x( x + 4) ⎜ − 32. 920. car's time traveled bus's time traveled 300 180 = x x − 20 300( x − 20) = 180 x 300 x − 6000 = 180 x 120 x = 6000 x = 50 x − 20 = 30 The average velocity of the car is 50 miles per hour. The average velocity of the bus is 30 miles per hour. 000 x 38. 39. 000 x 2 − 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 x 2 − 1. 480. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 6) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = −10 x=6 –10 must be rejected.

Let x be the average velocity of the first engine. 88 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The average velocity of the freight train is 40 miles per hour. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. 47. 140 200 + =9 x x+5 ⎛ 140 200 ⎞ ⎜ x + x+5⎟ =9 ⎝ ⎠ 140 200 ⎛ ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ + = 9 x( x + 5) x + 5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x 140( x + 5) + 200 x = 9 x( x + 5) 48. freight train's time traveled 240 160 = x x − 20 240( x − 20) = 160 x 240 x − 4800 = 160 x 80 x = 4800 x = 60 x − 20 = 40 The average velocity of the passenger train is 60 miles per hour. – 52.28. 44. The average velocity of the second engine is 40 miles per hour.28 x 3000 + 100 x = 3360 + 28 x 72 x = 360 x=5 You must get 5 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0. 5 5 7 + = x+9 x 6 5⎞ 7 ⎛ 5 6 x( x + 9) ⎜ + ⎟ = 6 x( x + 9) 6 ⎝ x+9 x⎠ 30 x + 30( x + 9) = 7 x( x + 9) 46. Let x = number of hours 35x = labor cost 35x + 63 = 448 35x = 385 x = 11 It took 11 hours. 35 + x = 0. Inc. The average velocity on the 7 return trip is 6 miles per hour. 0 = 7 x 2 + 3 x − 270 0 = ( x − 6)(7 x + 45) x − 6 = 0 or 7 x + 45 = 0 x=6 45 x=− 7 45 − must be rejected. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 42.28(120 + x) 140 x + 700 + 200 x = 9 x 2 + 45 x 0 = 9 x 2 − 295 x − 700 30 + x = 33. 41.30 x 350 + 10 x = 420 + 3x 7 x = 70 x = 10 You must get 10 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0. 49. . 30 + x = 0.30.28 120 + x 30 + x = 0. 45. Let x = number of hours 63x = labor cost 63x + 532 = 1603 63x = 1071 x = 17 17 hours were required to repair the yacht.6 + 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 40. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. The average velocity of the 9 first engine is 35 miles per hour.30(140 + x) 35 + x = 42 + 0. 0 = ( x − 35)(9 x − 20) x − 35 = 0 or 9 x + 20 = 0 x = 35 20 x=− x + 5 = 40 9 20 − must be rejected.30 140 + x 35 + x = 0. Let x be the passenger train’s average velocity. Let x = inches over 5 feet 100 + 5x = 135 5x = 35 x=7 A height of 5 feet 7 inches corresponds to 135 pounds. passenger train's time traveled 43. Let x be the average velocity on the return trip. Let g = the gross amount of the paycheck Yearly Salary = 2 (12 ) g + 750 30 x + 30 x + 270 = 7 x 2 + 63 x 33150 = 24 g + 750 32400 = 24 g 1350 = g The gross amount of each paycheck is $1350. Answers may vary.

59. .8 does not make sense.4x = 0. x = 36 The thief stole 36 plants.24 x = 72 0. Explanations will vary.4(0.PreCalculus 4E 53. 89 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.35 x = 780. Explanations will vary. 64. 000 2 x = $4. makes sense 60. 3 − 2 x ≤ 11 3 − 2(−1) ≤ 11 3 + 2 ≤ 11 5 ≤ 11. 62. 54. does not make sense.6x) = price after second reduction 0. 000 2 7 x = 14. The lengths of the sides are 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and the girl received $2000. x − = 1 8 2 x − 28 = 8 58. as it is greater than the perimeter. Let x = mother’s amount 2x = boy’s amount x = girl’s amount 2 x x + 2 x + = 14. Let x = correct answers 26 – x = incorrect answers 8 x − 5(26 − x) = 0 8 x − 130 + 5 x = 0 13x − 130 = 0 13x = 130 x = 10 10 problems were solved correctly. 61. Section P. the boy received $8000. Let x = original price x – 0. Sample explanation: Though mathematical models can often provide excellent estimates about future attitudes.6x – 0. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 2 x−2 ⎟ 1 1 x−2−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 3 2 ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ After passing the third security guard.6x = price after first reduction 0. 63.36 x = 72 x = 200 The original price was $200. they cannot guaranty perfect precision. the thief has: 1 1 ⎛1 ⎞ x − ⎜ x + 2⎟ = x − x − 2 = x − 2 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ After passing the second security guard. Let x = woman’s age 3x = Coburn’s age 3x + 20 = 2(x + 20) 3x + 20 = 2x + 40 x + 20 = 40 x = 20 Coburn is 60 years old the woman is 20 years old. 000 The mother received $4000. Sample explanation: The correct equation is x − 0. true –1 is a solution. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 4 x−3 ⎟ 1 1 7 x −3−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 4 2 8 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 7 Thus. Let x = the number of plants originally stolen After passing the first security guard. Let x be the length of one leg. 57. Inc.6 x − 0. Answers may vary. 56. and 5. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + ( x + 1) 2 = [12 − x − ( x + 1) ] 2 x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 1 = [12 − x − x − 1] 2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = (11 − 2 x )2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = 121 − 44 x + 4 x 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 46 x + 120 0 = x 2 − 23x + 60 0 = ( x − 3)( x − 20) x − 3 = 0 or x − 20 = 0 x=3 x = 20 x +1 = 4 12 − (3 + 4) = 5 20 must be rejected. 4. makes sense 55.

take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. Inc. [1. 90 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x+3 x−2 1 = + 4 3 4 ⎛ x+3⎞ ⎛ x−2 1⎞ 12 ⎜ ⎟ = 12 ⎜ 3 + 4 ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x + 3) = 4( x − 2) + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 8 + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 5 3x − 4 x = −5 − 9 − x = −14 x = 14 The solution set is {14}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1) = x x < −1 a. [1. −2 x − 4 = x + 5 −2 x − x = 5 + 4 −3 x = 9 9 x= −3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. Numbers in both [1. 6 ) : To find the intersection.5 { } c. 5) = x −2 ≤ x < 5 { } b. [−2.5] = x 1≤ x ≤ 3. 6 ) : Thus. 2.3] and ( 2. .9 Check Point Exercises 1. a.3] : Graph ( 2. [−∞.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 65. { } Graph [1. 3.3] ∩ ( 2.3] . Section P. 6 ) = ( 2. 66.

6.4] . ∞) . 1 ≤ 2 x + 3 < 11 −2 ≤ 2 x < 8 −1 ≤ x < 4 The solution set is { x −1 ≤ x < 4} or [−1.9 Graph [1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . 3x + 1 > 7 x − 15 −4 x > −16 −4 x −16 < −4 −4 x<4 The solution set is { x x < 4} or ( -∞.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 6 ) . Numbers in either [1. 4. [1. 91 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3] : b. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. . 6 ) = [1. 6 ) or both: Thus. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 2 3 6 ⎛ x−4⎞ ⎛ x−2 5⎞ 6⎜ ⎟ ≥ 6⎜ 3 + 6 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x + 1 3x − 2 x ≥ 1 + 12 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} or [13. 4) . 2 − 3x ≤ 5 −3 x ≤ 3 x ≥ −1 The solution set is { x x ≥ −1} or [−1. 6 ) : To find the union. 3. 5. Graph ( 2.3] ∪ ( 2. Inc.3] or ( 2.

18 < 6 − 3x 6 − 3x < −18 −3x < −24 −3x −24 > −3 −3 x >8 or 6 − 3x > 18 −3x > 12 −3x 12 < −3 −3 x < −4 The solution set is { x x < −4 or x > 8} or ( −∞. ∞ ) . −3 5 x − 2 + 20 ≥ −19 −3 5 x − 2 ≥ −39 −3 5 x − 2 −39 −3 −3 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 ≤ −13 ≤ 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 −11 ≤ 5 x ≤ 15 −11 5 x 15 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 11 − ≤ x≤3 5 ⎧ 11 ⎫ ⎡ 11 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 3⎬ or ⎢ − .25 x 720 < x Driving more than 720 miles in a week makes Basic the better deal. 260 < 80 + 0. 7) . −4 ) ∪ ( 8.3⎥ . .25 x 180 < 0. 5 ⎣ 5 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 9.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 7. Inc. Let x = the number of miles driven in a week. x−2 <5 −5 < x − 2 < 5 −3 < x < 7 The solution set is { x −3 < x < 7} or (−3. 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10. 92 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

0 ) . 2] = [ −1.9 1. 0 ) : Graph [ −1. 0 ) and [ −1. 93 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2] : To find the intersection. . x ≥ –5 11. 0 ) ∩ [ −1. Graph ( −3. 2] : Thus.5 15. –5 ≤ x < 2 4. ( −3. –2 < x ≤ 4 3. Inc. x < 2 13. –4 ≤ x < 3 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –2 ≤ x ≤ 5 7. x ≥ –3 10.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x < 3 12. x>2 8. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 1<x≤6 2. x ≤ 3. Numbers in both ( −3.9 Exercise Set P.5 14. –3 ≤ x ≤ 1 6. x < 5. x>3 9.

Numbers in either ( −3.5 ) . 6 ) ∩ [ 2. Graph ( −∞. 18. 0 ) ∪ [ −2.9] : To find the intersection. 0 ) or [ −2.1] = [ −2. Graph ( −4. 94 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1] : To find the union.8] : Thus.5 ) ∩ [1.1] . ( −∞. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 0 ) : Graph [ −1. 2] or both: Thus. 0 ) ∩ [ −2. Numbers in either ( −4. Inc. Numbers in both ( −∞. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 6 ) and [ 2. 0 ) : Graph [ −2. 0 ) .8] = [1.1] : To find the intersection.5) and [1. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.1] = ( −4.5 ) : Graph [1. ( −3. Numbers in both ( −4. ( −4. Numbers in both ( −∞. Graph ( −4. 2] . Graph ( −3. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 0 ) ∪ [ −1. Graph ( −∞. 17. 6 ) : Graph [ 2. ( −∞. 20.9] : Thus. 2] : To find the union.9] = [ 2.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 16. 0 ) or [ −1.1] : Thus.8] : To find the intersection. 0 ) and [ −2.1] or both: Thus. ( −4.6 ) . take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 19. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) : Graph [ −2. . 2] = ( −3.

∞ ) : Graph ( 6. ∞ ) ∪ ( 6.9 Graph ( −∞. Numbers in either [3. ∞ ) . ∞ ) and ( 4.PreCalculus 4E 21. ∞ ) or ( 6. ∞ ) = ( 6.8] . ∞ ) : To find the union. Section P. ∞ ) : Thus. ∞ ) and ( 6. Graph [3. ∞ ) ∩ ( 6. 23.9] or both: Thus. 25.5 ) ∪ [1.9] . ∞ ) or both: Thus. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Numbers in either ( −∞.9] : To find the union. Numbers in both [ 2. 24.∞ ) : To find the intersection. ( −∞. Inc. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. ( −∞. ∞ ) = [3. ∞ ) : To find the intersection. Graph [3. ∞ ) : Graph ( 4. ∞ ) . .∞ ) = ( 4.9] = ( −∞. [ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. [3.5 ) or [1. [3.8] : To find the union. Numbers in both [3. Graph [ 2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.5 ) : Graph [1. 6 ) : Graph [ 2.8] = ( −∞. Graph ( −∞. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. ∞ ) . ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. Numbers in either ( −∞. 95 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 ) ∪ [ 2.∞ ) : Thus. 6 ) or [ 2. 22. ∞ ) ∩ ( 4.8] or both: Thus.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. –5x ≤ 30 x ≥ –6 The solution set is { x x ≥ −6} or [ −6. ∞ ) . ∞ ⎟ . or (–∞. 8x – 2 ≥ 14 8x ≥ 16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x > 2} or [ 2. Numbers in either [ 2.∞ ) = [ 2. 28. or ( −∞. 29. 3 ⎣3 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 30. 5x + 11 < 26 5x < 15 x<3 The solution set is { x x < 3} . Inc. [ 2. –9x ≥ 36 x ≤ –4 The solution set is { x x ≤ −4} .∞ ) : To find the union. 2x + 5 < 17 2x < 12 x<6 The solution set is { x x < 6} or (–∞. −4] . 32. 6). ∞ ) . . or ⎢ .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Graph [ 2. ∞ ) : 26. 31.∞ ) or both: Thus. ∞ ) or ( 4. Graph ( 4. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 96 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x – 7 ≥ 13 3x ≥ 20 20 x≥ 3 ⎧ 20 ⎫ ⎡ 20 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > ⎬ . ∞ ) . 27. 3). ∞ ) ∪ ( 4.

38. 36. 37. − ⎥ . or (–∞. or [0. or ⎜ −∞.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 8x + 3 > 3(2x + 1) + x + 5 8x + 3 > 6x + 3 + x + 5 8x + 3 > 7x + 8 8x – 7x > 8 – 3 x>5 The solution set is { x x > 5} or (5. –4(x + 2) > 3x + 20 –4x – 8 > 3x + 20 –7x > 28 x < –4 The solution set is { x x < −4} or (–∞. Inc. ∞). 2x – 11 < – 3(x + 2) 2x – 11 < – 3x – 6 5x < 5 x<1 The solution set is { x x < 1} . 4(x + 1) + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 4 + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 6 ≥ 3x + 6 4x – 3x ≥ 6 – 6 x≥0 The solution set is { x x > 0} . ∞ ). 5⎭ 5⎦ ⎝ ⎩ 34. . 18x + 45 ≤ 12x – 8 18x – 12x ≤ –8 – 45 6x ≤ –53 53 x≤− 6 ⎧ 53 ⎫ 53 ⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ or ⎜ −∞. 6 6⎦ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ 35. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 33. 1). 97 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8x – 11 ≤ 3x – 13 8x – 3x ≤ –13 + 11 5x ≤ –2 2 x≤− 5 ⎧ 2⎫ 2⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ . − ⎥ . –4).

5(3 – x) ≤ 3x – 1 15 – 5x ≤ 3x – 1 –8x ≤ –16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x ≥ 2} or [2. −6} .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 39. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞). 42. ∞ ) . Inc. 40. − 98 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . x 3 x − ≤ +1 4 2 2 4x 4 ⋅ 3 4 ⋅ x − ≤ + 4 ⋅1 4 2 2 x − 6 ≤ 2x + 4 − x ≤ 10 x ≥ −10 The solution set is { x x ≥ −10} . 1 − [ −2. or [6. 41. 3x 1 x +1 ≥ − 10 5 10 ⎛ 3x ⎞ ⎛1 x ⎞ 10 ⎜ + 1⎟ ≥ 10 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 3x + 10 ≥ 2 − x 4 x ≥ −8 x ≥ −2 The solution set is { x x ≥ −2} or 43. − 6 ) . x >4 2 x >3 2 x < –6 The solution set is { x x. or ( −∞. ∞ ) . 1 – (x + 3) ≥ 4 – 2x 1 – x – 3 ≥ 4 – 2x –x – 2 ≥ 4 – 2x x≥6 The solution set is { x x ≥ 6} . ∞). or [ −10.

−2 ) . ∞).9 4 3 7− x < 5 5 4 32 − x<− 5 5 x>8 The solution set is { x x > 8} or (8. 3 [3( x + 5) + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [ 3( x − 6) − 2(3x − 5) ] < 2(4 x + 3) 3 [3x + 15 + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [3x − 18 − 6 x + 10] < 8 x + 6 3 [11x + 22] + 5 [ −3x − 8] < 8 x + 6 33x + 66 − 15 x − 40 < 8 x + 6 18 x + 26 < 8 x + 6 10 x < −20 x < −2 The solution set is { x x < −2} or [ −∞. 99 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . Inc. or [13. The solution set is ⎨ x x ≥ ⎬ or ⎢ 6 ⎣ 6 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ x≥− 47. 4x − 3 2x −1 +2≥ 6 12 2(4 x − 3) + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 8 x − 6 + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 6 x + 18 ≥ −1 6 x ≥ −19 19 6 ⎧ −19 ⎫ ⎡ -19 ⎞ . ∞ ⎟. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 44. 45. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 6 9 18 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} . 46. Section P.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 ≤ 4x – 3 < 19 6 ≤ 4x < 22 6 22 ≤x< 4 4 3 11 ≤x< 2 2 ⎧ 3 11⎫ ⎡ 3 11 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x ≤ x < ⎬ or ⎢ . 7 < x + 5 < 11 7 – 5 < x + 5 – 5 < 11 – 5 2<x<6 The solution set is { x 2 < x < 6} or (2. –11 < 2x –1 ≤ –5 –10 < 2x ≤ –4 –5 < x ≤ –2 The solution set is { x − 5 < x ≤ −2} . ∞ ⎟ . Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. or (3. or [–1. 54. or (–5. 3). 2⎭ ⎣2 2 ⎠ ⎩ 2 100 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 ⎣ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 49. 53. 6 < x + 3 < 8 6–3<x+3–3<8–3 3<x<5 The solution set is { x 3 < x < 5} . ⎟ . 50. –2]. 5). –6 < x – 4 ≤ 1 –2 < x ≤ 5 The solution set is {x | −2 < x ≤ 5} or (–2. 6). . 52. 51. 5 [ 3(2 − 3x) − 2(5 − x) ] − 6 [5( x − 2) − 2(4 x − 3) ] < 3x + 19 5 [ 6 − 9 x − 10 + 2 x ] − 6 [5 x − 10 − 8 x + 6] < 3x + 19 5 [ −7 x − 4] − 6 [ −3x − 4] < 3 x + 19 −35 x − 20 + 18 x + 24 < 3x + 19 −17 x + 4 < 3 x + 19 −20 x < 15 −20 x 15 > −20 −20 3 x>− 4 ⎧ 3⎫ ⎡ 3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > − ⎬ or ⎢ − . –3 ≤ x – 2 < 1 –1 ≤ x < 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x < 3} . 5].

61. or (–3. |3(x – 1) + 2| ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3(x – 1) + 2 ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3x – 1 ≤ 20 –19 ≤ 3x ≤ 21 19 − ≤x≤7 3 ⎧ 19 ⎫ ⎡ 19 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 7 ⎬ or ⎢ − . 9).9 63. 6). |x| > 3 x > 3 or x < –3 The solution set is { x x > 3 or x < −3} . or (–6. . 2≤ [–5. ∞ ) . 3). 2y + 6 <2 3 2y + 6 −2 < <2 3 –6 < 2y + 6 < 6 –12 < 2y < 0 –6 < y < 0 The solution set is { x − 6 < y < 0} . Inc. 1]. ∞ ) . |x – 1| ≤ 2 –2 ≤ x – 1 ≤ 2 –1 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x ≤ 3} . −3) or ( 3. −6 ≤ x − 4 < −3 2 1 −2 ≤ x < 1 2 −4 ≤ x < 2 The solution set is { x − 4 ≥ x < 2} or [ −4. −5 ) or ( 5. |2(x – 1) + 4| ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2(x – 1) + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x – 2 + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x + 2 ≤ 8 –10 ≤ 2x ≤ 6 –5 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 5 ≤ x ≤ 3} . 3 x + 5 < 17 –17 < 3x + 5 < 17 –22 < 3x < 12 ( −∞. 7 ⎥ . −3 ≤ Section P. that is. 5). 65. that is. 3 ⎝ 3 ⎩ ⎭ 68. all x in ( −∞. 2 ) . 3]. or (–1. 67. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 66. |x| < 5 –5 < x < 5 The solution set is { x − 5 < x < 5} or (–5. or [3. or [–1. ⎠ The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} . 3 ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 57. or 2 x − 5 < −1 3 2 x<4 3 3≤x<6 The solution set is { x 3 ≤ x < 6} . 3 ( x − 1) 4 −6 < <6 3 ( x − 1) <6 4 –24 < 3x – 3 < 24 –21 < 3x < 27 –7 < x < 9 The solution set is { x − 7 < x < 9} or (–7. 1 56. |x| > 5 x > 5 or x < –5 ⎞ 4⎟ . 101 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 58. 62. 3]. 59. |x + 3| ≤ 4 –4 ≤ x + 3 ≤ 4 –7 ≤ x ≤ 1 The solution set is { x −7 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [–7. |2x – 6| < 8 –8 < 2x – 6 < 8 –2 < 2x < 14 –1 < x < 7 The solution set is { x − 1 < x < 7} . 64. 0). 7).PreCalculus 4E 55. 22 ⎛ 22 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x − < x < 4 ⎬ or ⎜ − . 60. |x| < 3 –3 < x < 3 The solution set is { x − 3 < x < 3} .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 72. Inc. 76. ∞ ) . that is. that is. The solution set is ⎨ x x < 5 ⎩ ⎭ −11 ⎞ ⎛ that is. −8 ) or (16. ( −∞. 3⎠ ⎝ ( −∞. −5] or [3. −1] or [3. |3x – 8| > 7 3x − 8 > 7 or 3x − 8 < −7 3x > 15 3x < 1 1 x>5 x< 3 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 5⎬ . 3|x – 1| + 2 ≥ 8 3|x – 1| ≥ 6 |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x − 1 ≤ −2 2x + 2 ≥2 4 2x + 2 2x + 2 ≥ 2 or ≤ −2 4 4 2x + 2 ≥ 8 2 x + 2 ≤ −8 2x ≥ 6 2 3− x > 5 3 2 2 3 − x > 5 or 3 − x < −5 3 3 2 2 − x>2 − x < −8 3 3 x < −3 x > 12 The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 12} . ∞ ) . 71. x − 1 ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 3} . − 3) or (12. . −7 ) or (1. all x in ⎜ −∞. ( −∞. ( −∞. |5x – 2| > 13 5 x − 2 > 13 or 5 x − 2 < −13 5 x < −11 x>3 x<− 11 5 ⎧ −11 ⎫ or x > 3⎬ . ⎟ or ( 5. 70. ∞ ) 5 ⎠ ⎝ 73. that is. ⎟ or ( 3. 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. 77. that is all x in ( −∞. |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x≥3 74. 2 x ≤ −10 x≥3 x ≤ −5 3 3− x > 9 4 3 3 3 − x > 9 or 3 − x < −9 4 4 3 3 − x>6 − x < −12 4 4 x < −8 x > 16 {x x < −8 or x > 16} . −2] or [ 4. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . The solution set is { x x ≤ −5 or x ≥ 3} . ( −∞. that is. ∞ ) . that is. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . The solution set is { x x ≤ −7 or x ≥ 1} that is. 5 x > 15 3x − 3 ≥1 9 3x − 3 3x − 3 ≥ 1 or ≤ −1 9 9 3x − 3 ≥ 9 3 x − 3 ≤ −9 3x ≥ 12 3 x ≤ −6 x≥4 x ≤ −2 x≥3 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ 1 or x ≥ 3} . |x + 3| ≥ 4 x + 3 ≥ 4 or x ≥1 x + 3 ≤ −4 x ≤ −7 The solution set is { x x ≤ −2 or x ≥ 4} . −1] or [3. ∞ ) . 75.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 69. or ( −∞. 102 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

2x +1 ≤ − − x > −2 or x<2 83. 103 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 5}. −2 < 11 − x < 2 −13 < − x < −9 −13 − x −9 > > −1 −1 −1 13 > x > 9 9 < x < 13 The solution set is { x 9 < x < 13}. Inc. −3 x + 7 ≥ −27 −27 −3 −3 x+7 ≤9 ≤ −9 ≤ x + 7 ≤ 9 −16 ≤ x ≤ 2 85. 10 10 ⎭ ⎩ 2x + 1 ≥ 79. 84. The solution set is { x −16 ≤ x ≤ 2} .PreCalculus 4E 78. − x < −8 3 ≤ 2x −1 2x −1 ≥ 3 −2 ≤ x − 4 ≤ 2 −3 x + 7 5 − x < −3 The solution set is { x x < 2 or x > 8} . −4 −2 −2 x−4 ≤ 2 80.9 5 2x +1 − 3 ≥ 9 82. −5 < 4 − x < 5 −9 < − x < 1 −9 − x 1 > > −1 −1 −1 9 > x > −1 −1 < x < 9 The solution set is { x −1 < x < 9} . . > 5− x > 3 −2 x − 4 ≥ −4 −2 x − 4 −2 5 − x < −6 1⎫ ⎬. 2 > 11 − x is equivalent to 11 − x < 2 . 81. 9 ≤ 4x + 7 4 x + 7 ≥ 9 or 4 x + 7 ≤ −9 4x ≥ 2 4 x ≤ −16 2 x ≤ −4 x≥ 4 1 x≥ 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ −4 or x ≥ ⎩ 2≤ x≤6 The solution set is { x 2 ≤ x ≤ 6} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2⎭ 5 > 4 − x is equivalent to 4 − x < 5 . −2 5 − x < −6 5 2 x + 1 ≥ 12 2x +1 ≥ −2 5 − x −6 −2 −2 5− x > 3 12 5 12 5 7 2x ≥ 5 7 x≥ 10 12 5 17 or 2x ≤ − 5 17 x≤− 10 ⎧ 17 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − or x ≥ ⎬ . 2 x ≥ 4 or x≥2 ≤ x >8 2 x − 1 ≤ −3 2 x ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 2} . −4 1 − x < −16 −4 1 − x −16 > −4 −4 1− x > 4 1− x > 4 1 − x < −4 3 or −x > − x < −5 x < −3 x>5 86. Section P.

4+ 3− 11 4 > − is true for all x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 − 3x > 1 −3 x > −1 −3x −1 or < −3 −3 1 x< 3 91. ∞ ) . − ⎟ or ⎜ . 14 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 14 ⎠ y≤0 2 x − 11 + 3( x + 2) ≤ 0 2 x − 11 + 3x + 6 ≤ 0 5x − 5 ≤ 0 11 7 + 3 3 5x ≤ 5 x ≤1 The solution set is ( −∞. y≥4 1 − ( x + 3) + 2 x ≥ 4 1 − x − 3 + 2x ≥ 4 x−2≥ 4 x≥6 The solution set is [ 6. 75 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 87 ⎞ ⎜ −∞. . 93. ∞ ) . that is. 1 < 2 − 3x is equivalent to 2 − 3x > 1 . Inc. 1 < x − x ≥9 3 3− ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 1⎬ . ∞ ⎟ . 3 ⎩ ⎭ 88. that is. 4 11 < x− 3 3 Since x − x −1 ≤ 1 2 x ≤2 2 x −2 ≤ 2 − ≤ 2 2 x −4 ≤ − ≤ 0 2 8≥ x≥0 89. 2 − 3 x < −1 −3 x < −3 x ≥5 3 x x 3 − ≥ 5 or 3 − ≤ −5 3 3 x x − ≥2 − ≤ −8 3 3 x ≤ −6 x ≥ 24 −3 x −3 > −3 −3 x >1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −6 or x ≥ 24} . 12 < −2 x + − 2− 2− The solution set is { x x < −2 or x > 6} . ∞ ). −6] or [ 24. 90. 2−x > 4 or 2 − x < −4 −x > 2 − x < −6 −x 2 < −1 −1 x < −2 − x −6 > −1 −1 x>6 ( −∞.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 87. 3 3 the solution set is { x x is any real number} or (–∞. 104 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 < 2 − x is equivalent to 2 − x > 4 . The solution set is ⎨ x x < − 14 14 ⎭ ⎩ The solution set is { x 0 ≤ x ≤ 8} or [ 0.8] .1] . 94. 6 3 + 7 7 81 6 < −2 x + 7 7 6 81 6 81 −2 x + > or −2 x + < − 7 7 7 7 75 87 −2 x > −2 x < − 7 7 75 87 x<− x> 14 14 ⎧ 75 87 ⎫ or x > ⎬ . 92.

− ⎥ .9 y≤4 95. voters will use punch cards or lever machines.40 x − 4 ≤ 40 32 ≤ 0. x ≤ −10 100. Let x be the number. 101. passion<commitment or commitment > passion 5x + 3 ≤ 2 −2 ≤ 5 x + 3 ≤ 2 −5 ≤ 5 x ≤ −1 −5 5 x −1 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 1 −1 ≤ x ≤ − 5 1⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −1.40 ( x − 60 ) ≤ 40 28 ≤ 20 + 0.5 x < 25 or x > 10 1994 + 10 = 2004 In years after 2004. − ⎥ ∪ [ 3.1 −2.1% of U.1 < 38.1x > 37. After approximately 5 12 years 107. 63% of voters will use electronic systems after 2006.40 x ≤ 44 80 ≤ x ≤ 110 Between 80 and 110 ten minutes. 105 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1x + 25. passion ≤ intimacy or intimacy ≥ passion y≥6 8 − 5x + 3 ≥ 6 102.2 x > 12 Since x is the number of years after 1994. −10] ∪ [ 2. 3⎦ ⎝ 3x − 4 ≥ 5 3x ≥ 9 x≥3 ( 0. 5⎦ ⎣ 104. − ⎥ . we calculate 1994+12=2006. commitment ≥ intimacy or intimacy ≤ commitment − 5 x + 3 ≥ −2 − ( − 5 x + 3 ) ≤ − ( −2 ) 103. 28 ≤ 20 + 0. 3. 109. commitment > passion or passion < commitment 105. 96. Let x be the number. 9. [ 0. Inc. 97. fewer than 38. 7− 98. 4 ) 108. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .8 > 63 3. ∞ ) . | 5 − 4 x |≤ 13 or | 4 x − 5 |≤ 13 x +2 ≤ 4 2 −13 ≤ 4 x − 5 ≤ 13 −8 ≤ 4 x ≤ 18 9 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 x − + 2 ≤ −3 2 x +2 ≥3 2 x +2≥3 or 2 x+4≥ 6 9⎫ 2⎤ ⎧ ⎡ The solution set is ⎨ x | −2 ≤ x ≤ ⎬ or ⎢ −2. inclusive. −2.S. after 3 years 106. ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E Section P. 2⎭ 9⎦ ⎩ ⎣ x + 2 ≤ −3 2 x + 4 ≤ −6 x≥2 99.5] The solution set is ( −∞. | 4 − 3 x |≥ 5 or | 3x − 4 |≥ 5 3x − 4 ≤ −5 3 x ≤ −1 1 x≤− 3 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x | x ≤ − or x ≥ 3⎬ or 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1 ⎛ ⎤ ⎜ −∞.5 x + 63.40 x − 24 ≤ 40 28 ≤ 0.

225 h ≥ 58. Let x = the grade on the final exam.08x 1600 < 0. 113. 245 + 95 x ≤ 3000 95 x ≤ 2755 x ≤ 29 29 bags or less can be lifted safely.08 x < 8 + 0.3x 100< x Basic Rental is a better deal when driving more than 100 miles per day.6 x 10. 119.20x < 20 + 0. 226 ≤ 175 + 34 x ≤ 294 51 ≤ 34 x ≤ 119 1. 116.645 or ≤ −1. 000 > 1.95°F] . 117. 2 x > 10.40 x 1. h − 50 ≥ 1. 106 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 x > 6250 More than 6250 tapes need to be sold a week to make a profit. 3000 + 3x < 5.03x < 200 + 0. Inc.5 The man will be working on the job at least 1. 50 + 0. 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 90 6 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 540 2 x + 350 ≥ 540 2 x ≥ 190 x ≥ 95 You must receive at least a 95% to earn an A. 122. 000 + 0. 120. 1800 + 0.05x 32000 < x A home assessment of greater than $32. 112. 9 ( 3) ≤ F − 32 ≤ 9 ( 7 ) 27 ≤ F − 32 ≤ 63 59 ≤ F ≤ 95 The range for Fahrenheit temperatures is 59°F to 95°F . 2 + 0.645 5 h − 50 h − 50 ≥ 1. b.5 x 3000 < 2.5 hours. 86 + 88 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 270 x ≥ 96 You must get at least a 96. 118.12 x 12 < 0. 115.5 and at most 3. 15 + 0. . 265 + 65 x ≤ 2800 65 x ≤ 2535 x ≤ 39 39 bags or fewer can be lifted safely.225 h − 50 ≤ −8. 000 1. 111. inclusive or [59°F. 121.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 110. 114. Let x = the number of hours the mechanic works on the car.6 1.50x 30 < 0.775 The number of outcomes would be 59 or more.645 5 5 h − 50 ≥ 8. 86 + 88 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 240 x < 66 This will happen if you get a grade less than 66.6 x > 10.225 h ≤ 41. Publishing as Prentice Hall.05 x 0.5 ≤ x ≤ 3.000 would make the first bill a better deal.08 x < 3 + . or 41 or less.04 x 300 < x Plan A is a better deal when driving more than 300 miles a month. a.5 x 5 ( F − 32 ) ≤ 35 9 9 9 5 9 (15 ) ≤ ⎛⎜ ( F − 32 ) ⎞⎟ ≤ ( 35 ) 5 5⎝9 ⎠ 5 15 ≤ 1200 < x More then 1200 packets of stationary need to be sold each week to make a profit.03x <6 x < 200 The credit union is a better deal when writing less than 200 checks.

We need this cost to be less than the cost with a 3-month pass. 3) 138. y = x + 1 134. y = 4 − x 2 x y = 4 − x2 −3 4 − (−3)2 = −5 2.50 x. 2 4 − (2)2 = 0 132. When both sides are multiplied by (y – x) the inequality must be reversed. Let x = the number of times the bridge is crossed per three month period The cost with the 3-month pass is C3 = 7. false.50 + 0. 141. makes sense 136.50 x > 7. true 137. A sample change is: ( −∞. true 140.50 x 144. 107 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ( 7. makes sense 3 4 − (3) 2 = −5 x>3 The 3-month pass is the best deal when making more than 3 but less than 15 crossings per 3month period. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: 3x > 6 is equivalent to x > 2. y – x represents a negative number.9 143. Changes to make the statement true will vary. | x − 4 |< 3 b. 3x > 7. x −4 −3 y = x +1 −4 + 1 = 3 −3 + 1 = 2 −2 −1 0 1 2 −2 + 1 = 1 −1 + 1 = 0 0 +1 = 1 1+1 = 2 2 +1 = 3 139. x y = 4− x −3 4 − (−3) = 7 −2 4 − (−2) = 6 The cost with the 6-month pass is C6 = 30. false.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 133. −2 ) = ( −∞. −1 4 − (−1) = 5 0 4 − (0) = 4 1 4 − (1) = 3 2 4 − (2) = 2 3 4 − (3) = 1 Because we need to buy two 3-month passes per 6-month pass.50 + 0. makes sense 135. .50 x ) < 30 15 + x < 30 x < 15 We also must consider the cost without purchasing a pass.50 −2 4 − (−2)2 = 0 −1 4 − (−1)2 = 3 0 4 − (0)2 = 4 1 4 − (1)2 = 3 124. | x − 4 |≥ 3 142. y = 4 − x 123. Answers may vary. – 131. Because x > y. a.50 + 0. Answers may vary. we multiply the cost with the 3month pass by 2.3) ∪ ( −∞. makes sense 145. Inc.

81 13 24. a.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Chapter P Review Exercises 1. commutative property of multiplication. d . 8 − 2[3 − (5 x − 1)] = 8 − 2[3 − 5 x + 1] = 8 − 2[4 − 5 x ] = 36 − 20 = 16 S = 0. c} C = {a. b. g} = {a. d . f .6 x − 15 P = −0. 81 13 −103 = 103 108 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 − (−17) = 4 + 17 = 21 = 21 x 2 − 5( x − y ) = 62 − 5(6 − 2) 14. c} ∪ {a. P = −0. f .55 38. Inc. 15. c. c. 2.015(3600) + 60 + 10 = 54 + 60 + 10 = 124 4. 2. 17 is greater than 3. −17. 81 c. d . associative property of multiplication. f . b. 11.015(60)2 + (60) + 10 2 = 0. − = 10 x 23.75. 17.6(21) − 15 = 38. 0. 2 −1 = 2 −1 3 A = {a. = 3 + 6(2)3 = 3 + 6(8) = 3 + 48 = 51 2.05(21)2 + 3. b. b. 19. commutative property of addition. 18. b. 0. 9. (−3)3 (−2)2 = (−27) ⋅ (4) = −108 9 . −17. 81 b. e} {a. A = {a. 81 d. 1 (5 x) + [ (3 y ) + (−3 y ) ] − (− x) = x + [ 0] + x = 2 x 5 {a. d . c} C = {a. c. commutative property of addition. 5(2 x − 3) + 7 x = 10 x − 15 + 7 x = 17 x − 15 20. (6 ⋅ 3) ⋅ 9 = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 9) . 3 + 6( x − 2) = 3 + 6(4 − 2) 3 10. 7. g} 22. c} B = {a. c. b. d . e} = {a. 13. commutative property of multiplication. π . f . b. 3(4 y − 5) − (7 y + 2) = 12 y − 15 − 7 y − 2 = 5 y − 17 A = {a. b. d . 0. 3 + 17 = 17 + 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g} 21. (6 ⋅ 9) ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅ (6 ⋅ 9) . b. . 0.55%.75. − e. c} ∪ {a. e} = {a.55% of 21 year olds have been tested. 16. c} ∩ {a. d . c. e} 6. −17. = 36 − 5(4) 3. b. A = {a. c. (3 ⋅ 7) + (4 ⋅ 7) = (4 ⋅ 7) + (3 ⋅ 7) . d . g} ∩ {a. This overestimates the percent displayed by the bar graph by 3. distributive property of multiplication over addition. 0. 3 − 17 = 17 − 3 since 12.05 x 2 + 3. g} {a. e} {a. π f. d . c} B = {a. c} 5. 3( 5 + 3) = ( 5 + 3) 3 . c} = {a} = 8 − 8 + 10 x 8. 3( 5 + 3) = 15 + 3 . 0. f . d .015 x + x + 10 S = 0. 9 .

57 × 1011 2. 0. 39.0000745 = 10 2 + 6 2 34.PreCalculus 4E 25.9 × 103 ⎛ 6. 4 43. 257 × 109 = 2.9 × 105 = 390. 7 5 + 13 5 = (7 + 13) 5 = 20 5 47.3 × 102 ) = (3 ×1. 7. 10 x ⋅ 2 x = 20 x 2 −2 y ) −11 y 2 y −2 = 10 ⋅ x3−11 y 2 − 2 = 10 x −8 y 0 = 4x2 ⋅ 5 10 = 8 x 30. 32. 121 121 11 = = 4 2 4 96 x 3 45. 400 46. 175 × 106 = 1. 000 37. Chapter P Review Exercises 1 1 + 24 4 1 1 = + 16 4 1 4 = + 16 16 5 = 16 36. 4 (3 × 103 )(1.57 × 1011 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.75 × 108 2. 2 50 + 3 8 = 2 25 ⋅ 2 + 3 4 ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅5 2 + 3⋅ 2 2 −5 33. 3 3 = (−2)3 x 4⋅3 y 3⋅3 = −8 x12 y 9 29.25 × 10 −3 109 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12 x 2 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 2 x 3 42.45 × 10 = 0. 33 1 1 = 33− 6 = 3−3 = 3 = 36 3 27 28. 40.590. .469 × 103 = 1469 8 1. 3. 000 = 3.3) × (103 × 102 ) a. (−5 x y )(−2 x 3 2 −11 = (−5)(−2) x x 3 6. Inc. = 2x 5 (2 x3 ) −4 = (2)−4 ( x 3 ) −4 = 2−4 x −12 1 2 x12 1 = 16 x12 = 31.00725 = 7.57 × 102 ⋅ 109 = 2. 5−3 ⋅ 5 = 5−351 = 5−3+1 27.74 × 104 = 37.75 × 102 ⋅ 106 = 1. (−2 x y ) = (−2) ( x ) ( y ) 3 3 3 4 3 38. 300 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 10 3 41. r3 = r 2 ⋅ r = r r 44.59 × 106 = 16 2 35.9 ⎞ 3− 5 =⎜ ⎟ × 10 3 ×105 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 2.3 × 10−2 = 0.75 × 10 10 The average tax return cost $1469. 2−4 + 4−1 = = 3.023 1 1 = 5−2 = 2 = 5 25 26.57 1011 ⋅ 8 ≈ 1.75 1. 7x y ⎛ 7 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ( x5 −15 )( y 6 − ( −2) ) 28 x15 y −2 ⎝ 28 ⎠ 1 = x −10 y 8 4 y8 = 10 4x 5 = 6 2x = 96 x3 2x = 48 x 2 = 16 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4x 3 3.

2 30 5 = ⋅ = =6 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 3 = 5 6+ 3 = 4 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 53 2 = 83 2 + 53 2 ⋅ = 13 3 2 6− 3 61. Inc. y . 3 81 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 = = 251/ 2 25 5 1 1 1 = = 271/ 3 3 27 3 65. 30 30 50. 53. = 14 7− 5 ⋅ 7+ 5 125 = 5 4 −125 is not a real number. 15 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 15 ⎞ 3 / 4 −1/ 2 =⎜ ⎟x = 3x1/ 4 5 x1/ 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 70. 3 y5 = 59. (5 x 2 / 3 )(4 x1/ 4 ) = 5 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3+1/ 4 = 20 x11/12 69. 56. 32 x 5 = 14 3 4 6+ 3 6− 3 52. 5 3 1 1 1 1 = 3 = 4 = 4/3 4 27 3 81 ( 27) = (5 x 2 )2 3 = 25 x 4 71. 6 y 3 = ( y 3 )1/ 6 = y 3⋅1/ 6 = y1/ 2 = 110 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 (−5)4 = 4 625 = 4 54 = 5 57. 4 4 32 x 5 4 4 = 2x = x 4 2 16 x 62. (125 ⋅ x 6 ) 2 / 3 = ( 3 125 x 6 ) 2 −32 = −2 55. 4 8 ⋅ 4 10 = 4 80 = 4 16 ⋅ 5 = 4 16 ⋅ 4 5 = 2 4 5 60. y3 y 2 = y 3 y 2 6 ⋅ = 3 3 3 = 5 51.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 27 −4 / 3 = 68. 4 72 − 2 48 = 4 36 ⋅ 2 − 2 16 ⋅ 3 58. 25−1/ 2 = 64. 1251/ 3 = 3 125 = 5 7+ 5 14( 7 + 5) = 7−5 14( 7 + 5) = 2 = 7( 7 + 5) 5 16 x = 5(6 − 3) 36 − 3 7− 5 54. 161/ 2 = 16 = 4 = 5(6 − 3) 33 63. 27 −1/ 3 = 66. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 3 16 + 5 3 2 = 4 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 5 3 2 = 4⋅6 2 − 2⋅4 3 = 24 2 − 8 3 49. 642 / 3 = ( 3 64) 2 = 42 = 16 67.

(2 x + 1)3 = (2 x)3 + 3(2 x) 2 (1) + 3(2 x)(1) 2 + 13 = 8 x3 + 12 x 2 + 6 x + 1 80. (3 x − 5 y ) 2 = (3x) 2 − 2(3x)(5 y ) + (−5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 − 30 xy + 25 y 2 83. (a − b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) = a(a 2 ) + a (ab) + a(b 2 ) + (−b)(a 2 ) +(−b)(ab) + (−b)(b 2 ) = a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 − a 2 b − ab 2 − b3 = a 3 − b3 111 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (3 x 2 + 2 y ) 2 = (3 x 2 )2 + 2(3 x 2 )(2 y ) + (2 y ) 2 = 9 x 4 + 12 x 2 y + 4 y 2 84. (2 x + 5) 2 = (2 x)2 + 2(2 x) ⋅ 5 + 52 = 4 x 2 + 20 x + 25 78. (3 x − 2)(4 x 2 + 3x − 5) = (3 x)(4 x 2 ) + (3x)(3x) + (3x)(−5) + (−2)(4 x 2 ) + (−2)(3x) + (−2)(−5) = 12 x3 + 9 x 2 − 15 x − 8 x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 12 x3 + x 2 − 21x + 10 75. . Inc. Chapter P Review Exercises (−6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 9 x + 3) + (14 x3 + 3x 2 − 11x − 7) = (−6 x3 + 14 x3 ) + (7 x 2 + 3x 2 ) + (−9 x − 11x) + (3 − 7) = 8 x 3 + 10 x 2 − 20 x − 4 The degree is 3. (7 x + 4 y )(7 x − 4 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (4 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 16 y 2 85. 74.PreCalculus 4E 72. ( x + 7 y )(3x − 5 y ) = x(3x ) + ( x)(−5 y ) + (7 y )(3 x) + (7 y )(−5 y ) = 3 x 2 − 5 xy + 21xy − 35 y 2 = 3 x 2 + 16 xy − 35 y 2 82. (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) − (5 x 4 − 3x3 + 2 x 2 − 6) = (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−5 x 4 + 3 x3 − 2 x 2 + 6) = (13x 4 − 5 x 4 ) + (−8 x3 + 3x3 ) + (2 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + 6 = 8x 4 − 5x3 + 6 The degree is 4. 73. (5 x − 2)3 = (5 x)3 − 3(5 x )2 (2) + 3(5 x)(2) 2 − 23 = 125 x 3 − 150 x 2 + 60 x − 8 81. (3 x − 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(1) + (−5)(2 x) + (−5)(1) = 6 x 2 + 3 x − 10 x − 5 = 6 x2 − 7 x − 5 76. (3 x − 4) 2 = (3 x) 2 − 2(3 x) ⋅ 4 + (−4) 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 79. (4 x + 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x 2 ) − 52 = 16 x 2 − 25 77. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

−3 3 ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 − ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x2 + 3) 2 2 1 = ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎡⎣1 − ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) ⎤⎦ 20 x 7 − 36 x3 = 4 x 3 (5 x 4 − 9) 1 = ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎣⎡1 − ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) ⎦⎤ x 3 − 3x 2 − 9 x + 27 = x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) 1 = ( x 2 − 9)( x − 3) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x 2 + 3) 2 (− x 4 + x 2 + 13) = ( x + 3)( x − 3)( x − 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 2 107. 15 x + 3 x = 3x ⋅ 5 x + 3x ⋅1 3 2 2 2 = ( x + 9) − y2 2 = 3x (5 x + 1) 2 89. 64 − x 2 = 82 − x 2 = (8 − x)(8 + x) 92. = 3 x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) 94. 3x 4 − 9 x 3 − 30 x 2 = 3 x 2 ( x 2 − 3x − 10) 95. 108. = ( x + 9 − y )( x + 9 + y ) x 2 − 11x + 28 = ( x − 4)( x − 7) 105. 93. x 2 + 18 x + 81 − y 2 = ( x 2 + 18 x + 81) − y 2 88. [5 y − (2 x + 1)][5 y + (2 x + 1)] 101. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) x3 + 2 x 2 x 2 ( x + 2) = = x 2 . 6 x2 + 2 x x( x + 2) x .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 86. x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 109. . 3x 4 − 12 x 2 = 3x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 3x 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) 112 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 5 − x = x( x 4 − 1) = x( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2 y + 4) = ( x + 2 y + 4 )( x + 2 y + 4 ) = x ( x + 2 y + 4) + 2 y ( x + 2 y + 4) + 4 ( x + 2 y + 4) 2 = x( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 + 1) 103. 15 x − x − 2 = (3x + 1)(5 x − 2) 2 91. 27 x 3 − 125 = (3 x)3 − 53 = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 1) 2 = (3 x − 5)[(3 x)2 + (3x)(5) + 52 ] = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 4 x + 1) = (3 x − 5)(9 x 2 + 15 x + 25) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 4 x − 1 87. 4 + 32 x 1 4 = 16 x −3 4 = 1 − ( −3 ) ⎛ 4 4 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ −3 (1 + 2 x ) (1 + 2 x ) = 16 x 16 x 4 3 4 1 106. x 2 + 16 is prime. 16 x − 40 x + 25 = (4 x − 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x − 5)2 97. x ≠ –2 x+2 x+2 x 2 + 3x − 18 ( x + 6)( x − 3) x − 3 . 102. 16 x 90. = = ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x 2 − 36 x ≠ –6. 99. x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = x 2 + 2 xy + 4 x + 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 y + 4 x + 8 y + 16 = ( x 2 − 2)( x + 5) = x 2 + 4 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 x + 16 y + 16 104. Inc. = = x + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2)2 x + 2 x ≠ –2 2 100. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 98. 3 x2 2 y 3 − 8 = y 3 − 23 = ( y − 2)( y 2 + 2 y + 4) 110. 12 x − 1 2 + 6x − 3 2 = 6x − 3 2 ( 2 x + 1) = 6(2 x + 1) 96.

2 x − 7 − x − 10 = 2 x − 7 − ( x − 10) x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 1 = . 6 x + 2 3x 2 + x ÷ x2 − 1 x −1 x(3x + 1) 2(3 x + 1) = ÷ x −1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x −1 2(3 x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 1)( x + 1) x(3 x + 1) 2 = . 2 x x x+2 3x 3x x − 2 + = ⋅ + ⋅ x+2 x−2 x+2 x−2 x−2 x+2 3x2 − 6 x + x 2 + 2 x = ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x2 − 4 x ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x( x − 1) = . ( x − 2)2 ( x + 2) x ≠ 2. Inc. –3. − 3. x−4 x ≠ –3. − 3 = 2 x2 − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) x ≠ 3. x − 2 x − 2 6 x = ⋅ 1 − x 1 − x 6x 3 6 3 6 6 − 3x = 2 x − x2 −3( x − 2) = − x( x − 2) 3 = . . x−3 x ≠ 3. 2. x x ≠ 0. − 1. 2 117. –2 x2 − 2x + x2 + 2 x − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) = 114. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 2 3 = 1 1 1 1 118. x + 6 x + 9 ⋅ x + 3 = ( x + 3) ⋅ 2 x −4 x − 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x − 2 = 116.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 2 2 x+3 111. x x −1 + x2 − 9 x2 − 5x + 6 x x −1 = + ( x − 3)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 3) x x−2 x −1 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x − 2 ( x − 2)( x − 3) x + 3 x ( x − 2) + ( x − 1)( x + 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) 113 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4. –3 115. x( x + 1) 1 x ≠ 0. (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3 x + 2) 1 2 x ≠ . ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x ≠ 2. –2 112. 113. x 2 − 5 x − 24 x 2 − 10 x + 16 ÷ 2 x 2 − x − 12 x + x−6 ( x − 8)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 8) = ÷ ( x − 4)( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 2) x −8 x +3 = ⋅ x − 4 x −8 x+3 = . ( x + 3)3 . 8 x+3 4x −1 − 2 x2 + 5x − 3 6 x 2 + x − 2 x+3 4x −1 = − (2 x − 1)( x + 3) (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) 4x −1 3x + 2 = ⋅ (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 3x + 2 x+3 x+3 − ⋅ (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) x + 3 = 12 x 2 + 8 x − 3x − 2 − x 2 − 6 x − 9 (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3x + 2) 11x 2 − x − 11 . 1.

(25 − x 2 )3 25 (25 − x 2 )3 ⋅ 25 − x 2 25 − x 2 25 25 − x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 25 − x 2 (5 − x)2 (5 + x)2 114 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12 12 119. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 − x + 3 3 − x + 3 x + 3 = ⋅ 3+ 1 3+ 1 x +3 x+3 x+3 3( x + 3) − 1 = 3( x + 3) + 1 3x + 9 − 1 = 3x + 9 + 1 3x + 8 = . 2 = = = = = 126. x ≠ 4 2 30 4 + = x + 2 x − 4 (x + 2)(x − 4) 4(x − 4) + 2(x + 2) = 30 25 − x 2 + x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 25 4x − 16 + 2x + 4 = 30 6x −12 = 30 6x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. This is a conditional equation. x ≠ –1 1 1 2 − = 2 x − 1 x + 1 x −1 1 1 2 − = x − 1 x + 1 (x + 1)(x − 1) x + 1 − (x −1) = 2 x2 25 − x 2 x + 1− x + 1 = 2 25 − x 2 ⎛ 25 − x 2 + x ⎞ 25 − 2 x 2 ⎜ ⎟ 25 − x 2 ⎠ =⎝ (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 2 =2 The solution set is all real numbers except 1 and –1. 125. = x−4 x ≠ 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 122. x ≠ 1. 2x – 4(5x + 1) = 3x + 17 2x – 20x – 4 = 3x + 17 –18x – 4 = 3x + 17 –21x = 21 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. This is a conditional equation. 1 – 2(6 – x) = 3x + 2 1 – 12 + 2x = 3x + 2 –11 – x = 2 –x = 13 x = –13 The solution set is {–13}. Inc. x ≠ –2. –4 123. 1 1 120. This is a conditional equation. 2( x − 4) + 3( x + 5) = 2 x − 2 2 x − 8 + 3x + 15 = 2 x − 2 5x + 7 = 2 x − 2 3x = −9 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. 3 + x 3 + x x 2 = ⋅ 2 1 − 162 1 − 162 x x x 2 3x + 12 x = 2 x − 16 3x( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 4) 3x . 124. − 3 25 − x 2 + 121 . 4. 3 x + 10 10 x ≠ −3. .

2 x 2 − 11x + 5 = 0 (2x – 1)(x – 5) = 0 2x – 1 = 0 x – 5 = 0 1 x = or x = 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . The solution set is {2} . 3⎭ ⎩ 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 130. 5⎬ . −4 2 x + 1 = −12 2x + 1 = 3 2 x + 1 = 3 or 2 x + 1 = −3 2x = 2 x =1 2 x = −4 x = −2 132. 3 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 x= 0 = ( x + 2)( x − 4) or x − 4 = 0 –4 must be rejected. ⎩2 ⎭ x = 3± 2 6 2x x 2 = − x + 6x + 8 x + 4 x + 2 2x x 2 = − ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 4 x + 2 133. 2 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 ⎞ ⎛ x = ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎜ − ⎟ ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎝ x+4 x+2⎠ 2 x = x ( x + 2) − 2( x + 4) (3x + 5)( x − 3) = 5 129. ⎬ . ⎬. ( x − 3) 2 = ± 24 x − 3 = ±2 6 128. 3}.−2 3 x+2=0 x = −2 x= x=4 –2 must be rejected. 7 ± (−7)2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 7 ± 49 − 12 6 7 ± 37 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 7 + 37 7 − 37 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 131. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Inc. The solution set is {4} . 3x 2 + 5 x − 9 x − 15 = 5 3x 2 − 4 x − 20 = 0 x= 2x = x2 + 2x − 2x − 8 4 ± (−4)2 − 4(3)(−20) 2(3) 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 4 ± 16 + 240 6 4 ± 256 x= 6 4 ± 16 x= 6 20 −12 x= . 8 − 2x = x ( 8 − 2x ) 2 = x2 8 − 2 x = x2 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 ⎧ 10 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. 6 6 10 x = . 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 115 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x − 3)2 − 24 = 0 ( x − 3) 2 = 24 The solution set is {−2. −4 2 x + 1 + 12 = 0 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. x 2 − 9 = 0 127.1} . 8 − 2x − x = 0 134.

4 x = 25.3 x + 15 = 20.3 million barrels. thus the equation has one repeated real solution.8 + x + 15 = 32. Inc. 116 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 million barrels.8 = 6. and Japan is 20. 17. gt s − vt = 2 t2 t s − vt g= 2 t 2 137. 2 The solution set is {2}. 2x − 3 + x = 3 2x − 3 = 3 − x 2x − 3 = 9 − 6x + x2 x 2 − 8 x + 12 = 0 x 2 − 8 x = −12 x 2 − 8 x + 16 = −12 + 16 ( x − 4)2 = 4 x − 4 = ±2 x = 4+2 x = 6. PrT + P = A P ( rT + 1) = A P= 138.20 x 48 = 0. that will speak a language other than English at home will reach 25.5 x + 0. . Let x = the number of years after 2000. 9 x 2 − 30 x + 25 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−30)2 − 4(9)(25) = 0 340 = 2 ( 3w − 6 ) + 2w 340 = 6w − 12 + 2 w b 2 − 4ac = 0. and 5.80 x 60 = x The original price is $60.8 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by China.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 135. 140. Let x + 0. China. 000 = x Sales must be $10. Let x = the amount sold to earn $800 in one week 800 = 300 + 0. Let x = the original price of the phone 48 = x − 0. x + ( x + 0. thus the equation has no real solutions.6 x = 19 The percentage of people in the U. 6. vt + gt 2 = s gt 2 = s − vt 141.05 x A 1 + rT 500 = 0.5 The daily oil consumption of the United States. 340 = 8w − 12 352 = 8w 44 = w The dimensions are 44 yards by 126 yards.4 x = 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 x = 5. 136.8 = 32.000 in one week to earn $800. 144. respectfully. Let x + 15 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by the United States.8) + ( x + 15) = 32.S.3 3 x + 15.5 million barrels. Let w = the width of the playing field.3 x + x + 0.3 3x = 16. Let x = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by Japan.1 0. A− P Pr A− P Pr (T ) = Pr Pr PrT = A − P T= 142. x 2 = 2 x − 19 x 2 − 2 x + 19 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−2) 2 − 4(1)(19) = −72 −72 < 0. Let 3w – 6 = the length of the playing field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 139.1% 19 years after 2000. or 2019.5 + 0. 143.05 x 10.

148.164 Discard negative height. The building is approximately 134 meters high.100 + 1500 x and 149.PreCalculus 4E 145. The width of the frame is 2 inches. There were originally 10 people. That year the enrollments will be 32.100 when x = 12 . b. Let x = height of building 2x = shadow height x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 3002 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 90. the width is 3 yards. 1500 1500 + 100 = x x−4 1500 ⎛ 1500 ⎞ x( x − 4) ⎜ + 100 ⎟ = x( x − 4) x x−4 ⎝ ⎠ 1500( x − 4) + 100 x( x − 4) = 1500 x 1500 x − 6000 + 100 x 2 − 400 x = 1500 x 15 x − 60 + x 2 − 4 x = 15 x A = lw x 2 − 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 10) = 0 x + 6 = 0 or x − 10 = 0 x = −6 x = 10 –6 must be rejected. 000 x ≈ ±134. Since y1 = y2 = 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. { x x > −2} 152. { x x ≤ 0} x 2 = 18.100 students. 147. Inc. 117 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Chapter P Review Exercises Check some points to determine that y1 = 14. y2 = 41. (10 + 2 x )(16 + 2 x) = 280 160 + 52 x + 4 x 2 = 280 4 x 2 + 52 x − 120 = 0 x 2 + 13x − 30 = 0 ( x + 15)( x − 2) = 0 x + 15 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −15 x=2 –15 must be rejected. 000 5 x 2 = 90. 146. 700 − 800 x . { x −3 ≤ x < 5} 151. 000 150. the two colleges will have the same enrollment in the year 2007 + 12 = 2019 . . 15 = l ( 2l − 7 ) 15 = 2l 2 − 7l 0 = 2l 2 − 7l − 15 0 = (2l + 3)(l − 5) l =5 2l − 7 = 3 The length is 5 yards.

Graph ( 0.3) : 156.3) = ( −2. [1. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Graph [1. ∞ ) .3) : Thus. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. ( −2. ( −2. Graph ( −2.1] : 154.3) or ( 0. .3) : Graph ( 0.1] and [ −1. 4 ) = ( 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 153. Graph [1. 4 ) = [1.3) .3) ∪ ( 0. 4 ) : To find the union. 4 ) or both: Thus.1] or [ −1.3) ∩ ( 0. Graph ( −2. 155.3) or both: Thus. Inc.3) . –6x + 3 ≤ 15 –6x ≤ 12 x≥2 The solution set is [ −2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs.3) = [ −1. 4 ) . 4 ) : To find the intersection. Numbers in either ( −2.1] .1] ∪ [ −1. Numbers in both [1. Graph [ −1. Numbers in both ( −2.1] : Graph [ −1. 118 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3) : To find the intersection. 4 ) : Thus.3) and ( 0. Numbers in either [1. 157. Publishing as Prentice Hall. [1. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.1] ∩ [ −1.3) : To find the union.

−4 x + 2 + 5 ≤ −7 −4 x + 2 ≤ −12 The solution set is ( −3. 166. x+2 ≥3 161. The solution set is [ −∞.20 x + 24 ≤ 40 0. −5] ∪ [1. ∞ ⎟ . − 6 ) or ( 0.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 158. 164. 7 < 2x + 3 ≤ 9 4 < 2x ≤ 6 2<x≤3 (2. − ⎟ . 165. ⎡3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . 3(2x – 1) – 2(x – 4) ≥ 7 + 2(3 + 4x) 6x – 3 – 2x + 8 ≥ 7 + 6 + 8x 4x + 5 ≥ 8x + 13 –4x ≥ 8 x ≤ –2 x+2≥3 or x ≥1 x + 2 ≤ −3 x ≤ −5 The solution set is ( −∞.3) . The solution set is [ 2. 6 x − 9 ≥ −4 x − 3 163.6] . − 3] or [ −2. 0. 119 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) .20 0. x 3 x − −1 > 3 4 2 ⎛x 3 ⎞ ⎛ x⎞ 12 ⎜ − − 1⎟ > 12 ⎜ ⎟ 3 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4x – 9 – 12 > 6x –21 > 2x 21 − >x 2 2x + 6 >2 3 2x + 6 2x + 6 >2 < –2 3 3 2 x + 6 > 6 2 x + 6 < –6 2x > 0 2 x < −12 x>0 x < −6 The solution set is ( −∞. 2⎠ ⎝ 2x + 5 ≥ 1 or 2x + 5 ≤ –1 2x ≥ –4 2x ≤ –6 x ≥ –2 or x ≤ –3 160. ⎣5 ⎠ 159. ∞ ) . ∞ ) .20 x ≤ 16 162. 2 x + 5 − 7 ≥ −6 2x + 5 ≥ 1 21 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. − 2 ) . 6x + 5 > –2(x – 3) – 25 6x + 5 > –2x + 6 – 25 8x + 5 > –19 8x > –24 x > –3 The solution set is ( −∞. 3] 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 167. 2 x + 3 ≤ 15 10 x ≥ 6 3 x≥ 5 –15 ≤ 2x + 3 ≤ 15 –18 ≤ 2x ≤ 12 –9 ≤ x ≤ 6 The solution set is [ −9. Inc. ∞ ) .20 x 16 ≤ 0.20 x ≤ 80 A customer can drive no more than 80 miles.

6r ⋅ 3r = 18r 2 = 9r 2 ⋅ 2 = 3r 2 4 50 − 3 18 = 4 25 ⋅ 2 − 3 9 ⋅ 2 15. 2.5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a} = {5} 4. a} = {1.5 × 101 20 × 10−8 20 10−8 12. a} 5. {1. Chapter P Test 5(2 x 2 − 6 x) − (4 x 2 − 3x) = 10 x 2 − 30 x − 4 x 2 + 3x = 6 x 2 − 27 x 2. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = 2 x 3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − 5 x 2 + 20 x − 15 7 + 2[3( x + 1) − 2(3x − 1)] = 7 + 2[3x + 3 − 6 x + 2] = 2 x 3 − 13x 2 + 26 x − 15 13. = = x 2 − 3 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x − 1) x − 2 x ≠ 2. x 2 + 2 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 . 3 5− 2 5+ 2 5− 2 = 3(5 − 2) 25 − 2 = 3(5 − 2) 23 2 x + 8 x2 + 5x + 4 ÷ x−3 x2 − 9 2( x + 4) ( x + 1)( x + 4) = ÷ x−3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 2( x + 4) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ x − 3 ( x + 1)( x + 4) 2( x + 3) = . 3. {1.5} ∩ {5. Inc. 2. 5 × 10−6 5 10−6 = ⋅ = 0. 1. 3 5+ 2 = 3 ⋅ 16 x 4 = 3 8 x 3 ⋅ 2 x = 3 8x3 ⋅ 3 2 x 400 ≤ 351 + x < 450 49 ≤ x < 99 A grade of at least 49% but less than 99% will result in a B. = 4 ⋅5 2 − 3⋅3 2 = 20 2 − 9 2 = 11 2 8. 30 x3 y 4 5 y8 = 5 x3 −9 y 4 − ( −4) = 5 x −6 y 8 = 6 9 −4 x 6x y 6.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 90 5 400 ≤ 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 450 9. 168. 80 ≤ = 2x 3 2x 10.25 × 102 = 2. 2. –1. 1 11. 7. –3 x 5 + x+3 x−3 x x−3 5 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ x +3 x−3 x −3 x +3 x ( x − 3) + 5( x + 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x + 5 x + 15 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 + 2 x + 15 . = 7 + 2[−3x + 5] (5 x + 3 y ) 2 = (5 x) 2 + 2(5 x)(3 y ) + (3 y ) 2 = 25 x 2 + 30 xy + 9 y 2 = 7 − 6 x + 10 = −6 x + 17 14.5} ∪ {5. –4. − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 3) 120 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x +1 x ≠ 3. x ≠ 3. .

3(2 + 5) = 3(5 + 2). commutative property of addition x +5 = 2 + ( x + 3) 5 = ( x + 3) ( x + 3) 5 3 2 x x 2 + 5 − 22x = 3 5 = ( x + 3) 5 (2 x + 3) = = = − x( x + 2) − x 2 x( x + 2) + ( x + 2) = 18. 21.6 × 109 = 13.28n + 53 −0.28(14) + 47 = 43. ( x 2 + 10 x + 25) − 9 y 2 25. 0. Chapter P Test 2x + 3 2 − 2 x − 7 x + 12 x − 3 2x + 3 2 = − ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 2x + 3 2 x−4 = − ⋅ ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 x − 4 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) ( ) 36 x 2 − 84 x + 49 = (6 x) 2 − 2(6 x) ⋅ 7 + 7 2 23.00076 = 7.32 × 1010 3 ( x + 5) − 27 x2 + 5 2 − 27. Inc.28(25) + 47 R= 0.28n + 47 = W 0. y 3 − 125 = y 3 − 53 = ( y − 5)( y 2 + 5 y + 25) 24.28n + 53 −0.PreCalculus 4E 16.08 In 2003. x ( x + 3) 26. 19.25. = ( x + 5)2 − 9 y 2 = ( x + 5 − 3 y )( x + 5 + 3 y ) 1 − x +x 2 ( x + 2) x 1 − x +x 2 = 1 + 1x 1 + 1x ( x + 2) x ( 25 x 2 − 9 = (5 x)2 − 32 = (5 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (6 x − 7) 2 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 2x + 3 − 2x + 8 = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 11 = . 5 7 28. M = −0. R= M −0.28n + 47 0.28n + 47 M = −0. 2003 is 14 years after 1989. − . 0. 22. This describes the projections exactly. This overestimates the actual percent shown by the bar graph by 0. 27 31. x 3 + 2 x 2 + 3 x + 6 = x 2 ( x + 2) + 3( x + 2) = 1 ( 32. are rational numbers. 0. ⎛ 2 x x 2 + 5 − 2 x ⎞ x2 + 5 ⎜ ⎟ x2 +5 ⎠ =⎝ ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x( x 2 + 5) − 2 x3 ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x3 + 10 x − 2 x3 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . ( x − 3)( x − 4) x ≠ 3.08%. a.28(25) + 53 2 = 3 Three women will receive bachelor’s degrees for every two men. 4. R= 121 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x≠0 x + 3x + 2 29. 3 x 2 − 9 x + 18 = ( x − 3)( x − 6) 20.2 × 109 = 1. ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 10 x c. 6(7 + 4) = 6 ⋅ 7 + 6 ⋅ 4 distributive property of multiplication over addition x 2 + 2 x − x2 ( x + 1)( x + 2) 2x = 2 . 43. ) 3 5 − 3 x (x 3) 2x + 3 3 4 22 −7.6 × 10−4 30.08% of bachelor’s degrees were awarded to men. 4 17. 5 3 = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 2) = 5 3 1 ( 3 ) 5 27 = 1 ( 3) 5 = 1 243 ) 2 6.

2⎬ . −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 –4 does not check and must be rejected. 8 − 2x − x = 0 8 − 2x = x ( = 75 3x − 1 = ± 75 8 − 2x ) 2 = ( x) 2 8 − 2 x = x2 3x = 1 ± 5 3 x= 11 ± 112 − 4(1)(28) 2(1) x= −2 x = −10 1 2 } x −3 = x −5 2( x + 3) − 4( x − 3) = 8 x=− { x−3 +5 = x 39. 37. The solution set is {7}. ⎬. 2 x 2 − 3x − 2 = 0 (2x + 1)(x – 2) = 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x=2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 + 5 . 3 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 122 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 33. x − 3 = x 2 − 10 x + 25 x 2 − 11x + 28 = 0 x= 2 x + 6 − 4 x + 12 = 8 −2 x + 18 = 8 11 ± 121 − 112 2 11 ± 9 x= 2 11 ± 3 x= 2 x = 7 or x = 4 4 does not check and must be rejected. . x(x – 2) = 4 x2 − 2 x − 4 = 0 7 x − 14 = 4 x − 17 x= 3x = −3 x = −1 The solution set is {–1}. 34. 7( x − 2) = 4( x + 1) − 21 7 x − 14 = 4 x + 4 − 21 38. x=5 The solution set is {5}. Inc. 2 4 8 − = x − 3 x + 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 35. ⎩ 2 ⎭ ( 3x − 1) 2 40. x= ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −4 ) 2 2 2±2 5 2 x = 1± 5 x= 2x − 3 = 2x − 8 − x −1 The solution set is 1 − 5. 1± 5 3 3 ⎪⎧1 − 5 3 1 + 5 3 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 36. 2± 2x − 3 x − 4 x +1 = − 4 2 4 2 x − 3 = 2( x − 4) − ( x + 1) 2x − 3 = x − 9 x = −6 The solution set is {–6}. The solution set is {2}.

45. ∞ ⎟ . 42. .3⎬ ⎩2 ⎭ 43. x 1 x 3 + ≤ − 6 8 2 4 4 x + 3 ≤ 12 x − 18 −8 x ≤ −21 x≥ 21 8 ⎡ 21 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . ∞ ⎟ . 2x + 5 <6 3 –9 ≤ 2x + 5 < 18 –14 ≤ 2x < 13 13 −7 ≤ x < 2 −3 ≤ 13 ⎞ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −7. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ 2 x + 2 x + 8 = x2 + 2 x 2 x + 8 = x2 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 0 = ( x − 4)( x + 2) x − 4 = 0 or x=4 x+2 =0 48. 2⎠ ⎣ 2x 2 x + = x2 + 6 x + 8 x + 2 x + 4 2x 2 x + = ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 2 x + 4 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2( x + 4)( x + 2) x( x + 4)( x + 2) + = x+2 x+4 ( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 x + 2( x + 4) = x( x + 2) 47. 4x − 7 = 5 4 x − 7 = −5 or 4 x = 12 4x = 2 x=3 1 x= 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . − ⎥ ∪ ⎢ . 3x + 2 ≥ 3 3x + 2 ≥ 3 or 3x + 2 ≤ −3 3x ≥ 1 3 x ≤ −5 1 5 x≥ x≤− 3 3 5⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 12}. Chapter P Test 2 x−6 = 2 3 2 2 x−6 = 2 x − 6 = −2 3 3 2 2 x=8 x=4 3 3 x = 12 x=6 The solution set is {6. x = −2 (rejected) The solution set is {4} . 3(x + 4) ≥ 5x – 12 3x + 12 ≥ 5x – 12 –2x ≥ –24 x ≤ 12 The solution set is (−∞. 1 V = lwh 3 3V = lwh 3V lwh = lw lw 3V =h lw 3V h= lw 44. ⎟ . 12]. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 41. Inc. 123 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎣8 ⎠ −3 4 x − 7 + 15 = 0 −3 4 x − 7 = −15 4x − 7 = 5 46.

residents. length is 12 feet −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(47.600. Let x + 16 = the number movie theaters. . Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = the number drive-in theaters. 24700 = 950 x 26 = x In 26 years.07) x ≈ 14. Let x + 64 = the number video rental stores.07 x 2 + 47. 29. 43x + 575 = 1177 43x = 602 56. 55. y − y1 = mx − mx1 54. x + x + 16 + x + 64 = 83 3x + 80 = 83 3x = 3 as a+s R (a + s ) = as Ra + Rs = as R= x =1 x + 16 = 17 x + 64 = 65 For every one million U. x ≈ −691 (rejected) The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004. or 2018.07 x 2 + 47. there is 1 drivein theater. l = 2w + 4 A = lw x = 14 The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004.S.07 x 2 + 47. 17 movie theaters.07)(−677) 2(0. The formulas model the data quite well.4 x − 677 0 = 0.4) ± (47.4)2 − 4(0.4 x + 500 1177 = 0. Ra − as = − Rs a( R − s ) = − Rs a( R − s ) − Rs = R−s R−s Rs a= s−R 51.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 49. 124 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 52. the cost will be $33.4 x + 500 0 = 2w2 + 4 w − 48 0 = 0. ( x ) + ( x + 16 ) + ( x + 64 ) = 83 −mx = y1 − mx1 − y −mx y1 − mx1 − y = −m −m y − y1 + x1 x= m 50. and 65 video rental stores.4 x − 677 0 = ( w + 6)( w − 4) x= x= 0 = w2 + 2 w − 24 w+6 = 0 w−4 = 0 w = −6 w=4 2 w + 4 = 2(4) + 4 = 12 width is 4 feet.07 x 2 + 47. 700 + 150 x = 5000 + 1100 x 48 = (2w + 4) w 48 = 2w2 + 4 w B = 0. or 2018. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 53.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.06 x 12 < 0. The monthly cost using Plan B is CB = 13 + 0. Let x = the number of local calls The monthly cost using Plan A is C A = 25. 600. 600. 000 ⎛ 600.PreCalculus 4E 57. Let x = the original selling price 20 = x − 0. . C A < CB 25 < 13 + 0.60 x 20 = 0.06 x 200 < x x > 200 Plan A is a better deal when more than 200 local calls are made per month. 000 x + 3. 58. 60. 000. 000 ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ − 6000 ⎟ = x ( x + 5) x x+5 ⎝ ⎠ 600. 000 = 0 x 2 + 5 x − 500 = 0 ( x + 25)( x − 20) = 0 x − 20 = 0 x + 25 = 0 or x = −25 x = 20 –25 must be rejected. 000 x −6000 x 2 − 30. 000( x + 5) − 6000 x( x + 5) = 600. 000 x = 600. 000 600. For Plan A to be better deal. 000 x 59. 000 x + 3.40 x 50 = x The original price is $50. Chapter P Test 242 + x 2 = 262 576 + x 2 = 676 x 2 = 100 x = ±10 The wire should be attached 10 feet up the pole. There were originally 20 people. it must cost less than Plan B. 125 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000. Inc. 000 − 6000 x 2 − 30. 000 − 6000 = x x+5 600.06 x.

x = −1. y = 3 x = −3. the x-intercept is –3. Thus. 5). the y-intercept is 4. b. the x-intercept is 0 and the y-intercept is 0. x = −4. Inc. y = 0 x = 0. Thus. 0). y = 3 x = 2. y = 5 a. The graph crosses the x-axis at (–3. d = 4n + 5 d = 4(15) + 5 = 65 65% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. 1. 50 ] by distance between y -axis minimum maximum tick y -value y -value marks 2.1 Check Point Exercises 4. 60% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. y = 2 x = 2. y = 4 x = 1.50] by [−100. 6. x = 0. y = 2 x = 3. c. there is no x-intercept. According to the line graph. c. 4). 10 ] x = −3. . a. y = 3 126 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.100. Thus.and y-axes at the origin (0. y = 1 x = −1.100. 0). y = 6 5. y = 1 x = 1.Chapter 1 Functions and Graphs Section 1. Thus. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the y-intercept is 5. The graph crosses the x. The graph does not cross the x-axis. y = 7 x = −2. Thus. 100 . The mathematical model overestimates the actual percentage shown in the graph by 5%. [ −100 .10] viewing rectangle is as follows: distance between x -axis minimum maximum tick marks x -value x -value [ −100 . b. y = 1 3. y = 2 x = −2. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. 100 . The meaning of a [−100.

PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 11. 7. Inc. 2. 9. 4.1 1. 10. 3. .1 Exercise Set 1. 8. 5. 12. 127 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

y = −3 x = 0. . y = 2 x = 1. y = −1 x = 2. Inc. y = –1 x = –2. y = 11 x = –2.Functions and Graphs 13. y = 5 x = –3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 2 x = −2. y = 1 16. y = 2 x = 1. y = 1 x = 0. y = 4 x = 3. y = 2 x = 2. y = −5 x = −2. x = −3. y = 6 x = –1. y = −1 x = 1. y = −4 x = −1. y = 3 x = 2. y = −1 x = −1. y = 7 x = 3. y = 0 x = 3. y = 3 x = 0. y = 3 x = 2. y = 7 x = −3. y = −2 x = 0. 15. y = 11 128 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = −2 x = 1. 14. x = –3. y = 6 x = 3. y = 0 x = –1.

2 20. y = −3 x = −3. y = 1 x = 1. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = − 3 2 x = 2. y = –10 x = –2. y = − 1 x = 3. y = −1 18. y = –8 x = –1. y = 3 x = 2. y = 2 x = 0. y = 1 x = −1. y = –6 x = 0. y = −1 x = 0. y = 7 x = 1. x = –3. 19. y = 2 7 2 x = –2. Inc. y = 1 2 x = −2. y = −5 x = −2. x = −3. y = 2 3 x = 1. y = 129 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 5 2 x = 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. y = 0 x = 3. y = 3 x = −1. y = 2 x = 2.1 17. y = 0 x = 3. y = –2 x = 2. y = 3 5 x = –1. y = 1 1 x = 3. y = –4 x = 1. y = 2 x = –3.

y = −6 x = 3. . y = 2 x = 2. y = 3 x = −1. y = 0 x = 0. y = 2 x = 0. y = 1 x = 1. y = 0 x = 1. x = −3. y = −6 x = −3. y = 4 x = −1. y = 1 x = 3. y = −2 x = −1. y = −1 x = 1. y = 2 x = −2. 21. y = 4 x = 3. y = 2 130 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = −4 x = 1. y = 2 x = 2.Functions and Graphs 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 0 x = 2. y = 3 x = 3. y = 4 24. y = −4 x = −2. y = 2 x = 0. y = 0 x = 0. y = 6 x = −2. x = −3. 22. y = 1 x = −1. y = 4 x = −3. y = 6 x = −2. Inc. y = −2 x = 2.

y = 1 36. We can tell because all of the points ( −3. 10.9) . (b). (d) x-axis tick marks –10. 40. y2 = 2 − x . y = 1 (2. Inc. Yes. 40. . 0. 0. 0) . –4. 30. y = −4 is (c). y = 26 26. 27. y = −1 x = 2. y = −8 x = −1. (2. –700. (−2. 2. 0. 3) . 20. y = 0 x = 3. y = 5 x = −2. y = 5 x = 3. y-axis tick marks –1000.9) are on the graph y = x 2 . 34. y = −1 x = 0. 70. x = 3. It passes through the point (0. . 1. –10. –800. and (3. 20. 4) . 0) . 70 x = −3. –900. No. –2. y = 7 x = 2. The equation that corresponds to Y1 in the table is (b). y = −1 x = 1. y = −9 x = −1. ( −2. y = −2 x = 0. –8. 29. x = −2. (0. –4. (−1. 4. 60. 20. (0.1) . y = 27 131 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2) . 0. y1 = x 2 .1) . 2) . (2. (a) x-axis tick marks –40. x = −3. 50. y = −9 (1. 50. 0) .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 4. –1. It passes through the point (0. 3. 30. –20. but all are not on any of the others. 10.1) .1 25. 40. 1000 x = −2. x = −3. –2. but all are not on any of the others. y-axis tick marks –4. 4) . 60. The equation that corresponds to Y in the table 2 x = 1. y-axis tick marks –30. –3. 2. 0) x = 2. y = −4 x = −1. y-axis tick marks are the same. x = 0. 30. 6. y = 8 x = 1. 900. y = 0 37. y = 9 x = 0. 700. 0. (1. 8. –2. 28. y = −27 35. y = −9 32. 4) . –20. 2. y = 0 33. 0. y = 0 x = 2. 4 31. . –6. ( −1. . y = −28 x = −2 . 5) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 8 x = −1. x-axis tick marks –20. We can tell because all of the points (−3. x = 1. . –10. 80. (c) x-axis tick marks –5. and (3. 10. −1) are on the line y = 2 − x . y = 8 x = 3. 5. 800. y = 0 x = −3.

0). The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 1. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 44. 2. 5) 2. 4) and (1. b. a. 42. 51. 2) 39. 48. The graph does not intersect the y-axis. 0). a. 0 (0. 43. 5) none. 1. –2. . The graph intersects the x-axis at (2. 2). 50. –1. 0) and (–2. 2. 46.1) . 1. 2). The graphs of Y and Y intersect at the points 1 2 ( −2. 0) and (–1. 45. 5) (2. x ( x. 5) 47. 0). The graph intersect the y-axis at (0. −3 ( −3. b. 1. 40. –1. The graph does not intersect the x-axis. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. a.–4). b. 5) 1 2 (1. The values of Y1 and Y2 are the same when x = −2 and x = 1 . 2). The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. b. b. y ) none. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 41. a. b. –4. 0). 0). 2. −2 ( −2. 5) −1 ( −1. 49.Functions and Graphs 38. Inc. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. a. a. 5) 3 (3. 132 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (0. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–1. 1).

2⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . −1) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 2. −1) x − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 53. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. 44% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. 18% of seniors used marijuana in 2005. e. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. 133 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. −1) −1 −1 ( −1.4(25) + 28 = 18 According to formula. −3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( x. b. ( x. According to the line graph.3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ .4n + 28 M = −0. −3 ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ .3 ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . A = −n + 70 A = −(26) + 70 = 44 According to formula. M = −0. This underestimates the value in the graph. According to the line graph. c. −1) (2. 2006 is 26 years after 1980. −1) −2 −2 ( −2.1 54. The minimum for marijuana was reached in 1990. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2005. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ (1. ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 55. y ) −3 ( −3. −2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − .1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. x −2 −1 − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 ( x. about 14% of seniors used marijuana in 1990. −1) 1 2 (1.2⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ (1. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. about 45% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. x Section 1. −1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . According to the line graph. This underestimates the value in the graph by 2%. a. 2005 is 25 years after 1980. −1) 3 (3.PreCalculus 4E 52. −1) 0 (0. d.1) ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ 2. .

71. According to the line graph. Set 1 has each x-coordinate paired with only one ycoordinate. – 66. 61. Explanations will vary. false. A = −n + 70 A = −(20) + 70 = 50 According to formula. about 22% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. Changes to make the statement true will vary. y ) –2 y = 2( −2) = −4 58. 134 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ) ( 2. makes sense –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 68. At age 8. 78. 0 ) ( −1. 73. This underestimates the value in the graph. Explanations will vary. women have the least number of awakenings. b. (c) 82. 2000 is 20 years after 1980. (b) 80. ( x. false. A sample change is: A point on the x-axis will have y = 0. Explanations will vary.Functions and Graphs 56. The difference between the number of awakenings for 18-year-old men and women is about 1. (b) The maximum for alcohol was reached in 1980.9. about 72% of seniors used alcohol in 1980. e. averaging about 1 awakening per night. c. 4 ) (1.4n + 28 M = −0. (c) 2000 is 20 years after 1980. −2 ) ( 0. 6 ) ( 2. 4 ) 84. M = −0. does not make sense. 75. 57. Sample explanation: These three points are not collinear. the total calories burned will also go up.8) . y ) ( −2. This matches the value in the graph. false. (d) 77. Inc. −4 ) ( −1. does not make sense. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. A sample change is: 3(5) − 2(2) ≠ −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 y = 2(1) = 2 2 y = 2(2) = 4 ( −2. (a) 81. According to the line graph. 72. men have the greatest number of awakenings. 83. A sample change is: The product of the coordinates of a point in quadrant III is also positive. 60. (a) 76. averaging about 8 awakenings per night.4(20) + 28 = 20 According to formula. a. 0 y = 2(0) + 4 = 4 1 y = 2(1) + 4 = 6 2 y = 2(2) + 4 = 8 69. d. 79. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. x y = 2x ( x. Answers may vary. 0 ) (1. The difference between the number of awakenings for 25-year-old men and women is about 1. 2 ) ( 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.1. (b) According to the line graph. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. true 74. 70. Sample explanation: As the time of day goes up. At age 65. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 0 y = 2(0) = 0 59. x y = 2x + 4 –2 y = 2( −2) + 4 = 0 67. Sample explanation: Most graphing utilities do not display numbers an the axes.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. domain: { x −2 < x ≤ 1} or range: { y −1 ≤ y < 2} or f (− x) = (− x) 2 − 2(− x) + 7 c. f (5) = 400 b.7. = x 2 − ( −2 x ) + 7 domain: { x −3 ≤ x < 0} or range: { y y = −3. −4 ) ( −1. = x 2 + 6 x + 15 c. a. 36}. −2 ) ( 0.1. y is a function of x for the graphs in (a) and (b). 3] . −7 ) ( −1. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. a. 2 ) ( 2. Inc. −1} . Section 1. 4 ) Section 1. When the x-coordinate is 2. The minimum T cell count in the asymptomatic stage is approximately 425. 0 ) .PreCalculus 4E 85. 17. 3. a. then 7. c. 10. b. 10. [0. the equation does not define y as a function of x. When the y-coordinate is 4. The y-coordinates are all real numbers greater than or equal to 1. 6) and (5. the y-coordinate is 3. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. d. ( x. 2. [ −1.1) The graph (c) fails the vertical line test and is therefore not a function. y ) -2 g ( −2 ) = 2( −2) − 3 = −7 -1 g ( −1) = 2( −1) − 3 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 2(0) − 3 = −3 1 g (1) = 2(1) − 3 = −1 2 g ( 2 ) = 2(2) − 3 = 1 ( −2. f (−5) = (−5)2 − 2(−5) + 7 = 25 − (−10) + 7 8.2 Check Point Exercises 1. 8) have the same first component but different second components. The x-coordinates are all real numbers.1] . so the equation defines y as a function of x. if x = 0. [ −3.1] . b.4}. = 42 b.2. f (9) = 100 c. 20. 2 ) .7. x = 9 . . 6. −1) ( 2. −3) (1. The domain is the set of all first components: {0. there is one and only one value for y. x f ( x) = 2x -2 –4 -1 –2 0 0 1 2 2 4 ( x. 30. 5. x2 + y 2 = 1 6. b. The range is the set of all second components: {9.2 a. 135 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x [ −2. −2. domain: { x −2 ≤ x ≤ 1} or range: { y 0 ≤ y ≤ 3} or f ( x + 4) = ( x + 4) 2 − 2( x + 4) + 7 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 − 2 x − 8 + 7 b. −5) ( 0. 0 ) (1. y = ± 1 − 02 = ±1 ). = x + 2x + 7 2 ( −2. 2x + y = 6 y = −2 x + 6 For each value of x. the x-coordinates are –3 and 3. y ) ( −2. a. 13. y = ± 1 − x2 Since there are values of x (all values between – 1 and 1 exclusive) that give more than one value for y (for example. y 2 = 1 − x2 4. g ( x) = 2x − 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 3 units.

y = 16 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 4. y = ±5. then y = ±2. The domain is {1. 7} and the range is {–2. x 2 + y = 16 y = 16 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. Since two values. 4. 9}. 7}. can be obtained for x = 1. 3. y is not a function of x. 13. x + y = 16 16. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {–2. x 2 + y = 25 y = 25 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. can be obtained for x = 1. –5. x 2 + y 2 = 16 y 2 = 16 − x 2 y = ± 16 − x 2 If x = 0. 4) and (4. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {4.2 1. 5. 15. y is a function of x. –2. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {3. 6. The domain is {3. The domain is {4. 5) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (4. can be obtained for one value of x. 9. –1. Since two values. The domain is {–7. y is a function of x. The relation is a function since there are no two ordered pairs that have the same first component and different second components. y = 4 and y = – 4. 6} and the range is {6. 6}. 7. The domain is {5. 5. 4. x 2 + y 2 = 25 y 2 = 25 − x 2 y = ± 25 − x 2 If x = 0.Functions and Graphs Exercise Set 1. 12. –2. 5} and the range is {2. The relation is not a function since there are ordered pairs with the same first component and different second components. 10. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (3. y is a function of x. 5}. y is not a function of x. 4 x = y2 y = ± 4 x = ±2 x If x = 1. 3. 8} and the range is {5. x = y2 y=± x If x = 1. Since two values. 6}. 136 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6} and the range is {1}. y = ±1. 8}. 17. 0} and the range is {–7. 7. 6) and (5. . The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. The relation is a function since there are no ordered pairs that have the same first component but different second components. Since two values. 7) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (6. y is not a function of x. 11. 5. The relation is a function since there are no same first components with different second components. y = 2 and y = –2. 0} and the range is {–3. The domain is {1} and the range is {4. 5)). 1. –3. –5. can be obtained for one value of x. 18. 2. Inc. 6. 5. x + y = 25 y = 25 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 0}. 5. 4} and the range is {4. 10} and the range is {1. y is a function of x. 7)). 0}. – 1. 4. 4) and (3. The domain is {–3. 5}. 6) and (6. y = 5 and y = –5. –1. 14. y = ±4. –3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 1 and y = –1. y is not a function of x. 8.

y = 3 8− x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y = x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 20. y is a function of x. b. h(2) = 24 − 22 + 1 = 16 − 4 + 1 = 13 x −y=2 b. 26. y is a function of x. f(–x) = 4(–x) + 5 = – 4x + 5 28.2 27. b. x + y 3 = 27 c. g (−1) = (−1) 2 − 10(−1) − 3 = 1 + 10 − 3 =8 g ( x + 2) = ( x + 2) 2 − 10(8 + 2) − 3 = x 2 + 4 x + 4 − 10 x − 20 − 3 = x 2 − 6 x − 19 xy − 5 y = 1 y ( x − 5) = 1 c. 137 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . f(–x) = 3(–x) + 7 = –3x + 7 29. y is a function of x. g (− x) = (− x)2 − 10(− x) − 3 = x 2 + 10 x − 3 1 y= x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + 2(− x) + 3 = x2 − 2x + 3 y ( x + 2) = 1 25. a.PreCalculus 4E 19. f(6) = 4(6) + 5 = 29 x −y=5 c. f(x + 1) = 4(x + 1) + 5 = 4x + 9 c. 21. a. 22. a. Inc. y= b. a. h(3a) = (3a) 4 − (3a) 2 + 1 = 81a 4 − 9a 2 + 1 −y = − x +5 y = x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. Section 1. 30. y is a function of x. f(4) = 3(4) + 7 = 19 b. xy + 2 y = 1 1 x+2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 24. 31. g ( x + 5) = ( x + 5) 2 + 2( x + 5) + 3 = x 2 + 12 x + 38 y = 3 27 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. y is a function of x. x + y3 = 8 y3 = 8 − x f(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) + 7 = 3x + 10 c. y is a function of x. y is a function of x. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 4 − ( − x ) 2 + 1 = x 4 − x 2 + 1 d. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −y = − x + 2 y = x −2 h(−1) = (−1)4 − (−1) 2 + 1 = 1 −1 +1 =1 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. g (−1) = (−1)2 + 2(−1) + 3 = 1− 2 + 3 =2 = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + 2 x + 10 + 3 y 3 = 27 − x 23. y = − x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x.

34. h(3) = 33 − 3 + 1 = 25 36. f (−9 − x) = −5 + 3 8 8 = =1 −2 −2 = −9 − x + 3 −9 − x + 3 − x − 6 ⎧ 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.if x > −6 138 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x − 6) = x − 6 + 6 + 3 = x + 3 f (16) = 25 − 16 − 6 = 9 − 6 = 3 − 6 = −3 38. if x < −6 = =⎨ − x − 6 ⎩−1. f (2) = 4(2)2 − 1 15 = 4 22 b. a. a. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 3 − ( − x ) + 1 = − x 3 + x + 1 d. 3 33. Inc. b.Functions and Graphs 32. f (− x) = 4(− x)3 + 1 −4 x 3 + 1 = (− x)3 − x3 4 x3 − 1 x3 or = 27 a − 3a + 1 b. a. f (− x) = 4(− x)2 − 1 4 x 2 − 1 = (− x) 2 x2 f (5) = −6 −6 = = −1 −6 6 r2 r2 5+3 5+3 = r2 =1 r2 = −5 + 3 b. f (2) = f (−6) = −6 + 6 + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3 37. f (25 − 2 x) = 25 − (25 − 2 x) − 6 = 2x − 6 35. f (6) = f (10) = 10 + 6 + 3 = 16 + 3 = 4+3 6 =1 6 b. 2 = −1 −2 . a. f (r 2 ) = =7 c. f (−6) = c. f (−2) = 4(−2) 2 − 1 15 = 4 (−2) 2 c. a. a. h(−2) = (−2)3 − (−2) + 1 = −8 + 2 + 1 = −5 c. h(3a) = (3a)3 − (3a) + 1 f (−2) = 4(−2)3 + 1 −31 31 = = −8 8 (−2)3 c. f (−24) = 25 − (−24) − 6 = 49 − 6 = 7−6 =1 c. f (−5) = c. a. 4(2)3 + 1 33 = 23 8 b. b.

139 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. 0 ) (1. −2 ) ( x. 4 ) ( −1. 40. −5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. −2 ) ( −1.1) ( −1. −2 ) ( −1.3) (1. −4 ) ( x. −5) ( 0. y ) ( −2. −6 ) ( −1.5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 4 units. −3) ( 2. −1) ( 0. 0 ) (1. −3) ( 2. y ) 1 g (1) = −2 (1) − 1 = −3 −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) − 1 = −5 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 ( −2. 2 ) x g ( x) = x − 4 ( x. y ) ( −2. −1) (1. x 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 x g ( x) = x + 3 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 3 = 1 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 3 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = 1 + 3 = 4 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 3 = 5 ( x. 2 ) ( 0. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 4 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 4 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 4 = −4 1 g (1) = 1 − 4 = −3 2 g ( 2 ) = 2 − 4 = −2 ( −2.1) ( 2. −1) ( 0. 0 ) (1. −2 ) ( 2.3) ( −1.1) ( 0.1) ( 2. 41. 4 ) ( 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ) ( 0. −4 ) (1. . x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x − 1 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) − 1 = 3 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) − 1 = 1 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 x f ( x) = x ( x. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 ( −2. y ) ( −2. Inc.2 f ( x) = x ( x. 2 ) 39.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.

The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. 2 ) ( 2. 140 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ) (1. x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 + 1 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 1 = 5 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 1 = 2 0 g (0) = (0) + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = (1) + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) + 1 = 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. 0 ) (1.Functions and Graphs 42.1) ( 0.3) (1. 4 ) ( −1.1) ( 2. ( x. 4 ) ( x. −4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit. 7 ) ( −1.1) ( 2. 4 ) ( x. y ) ( −2. 2 ) ( 0.1) ( 2. 43. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y ) ( −2. 2 ) ( 0. −2 ) (1. 2 ) ( −1. 0 ) (1. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x + 3 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) + 3 = 7 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) + 3 = 5 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = −2 (1) + 3 = 1 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) + 3 = −1 ( x.5 ) x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 2 = 2 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = (1) − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 2 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. 4 ) ( −1. −1) ( 0.5 ) ( 0. Inc. −2 ) ( 2. −1) 44. y ) ( −2. y ) ( −2.5 ) ( −1.1) ( 0. 2 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units.1) (1. 4 ) ( −1. y ) ( −2. y ) ( −2. −1) ( 2.

2 ) ( x. . y ) ( −2. x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x +1 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 1 = 3 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 1 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 1 = 3 ( x. −8) −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 ( −1. −2 ) (1. 2 ) ( 2.1) ( 0. y ) ( −2.2 x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 2 = 0 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = 1 − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 2 = 0 ( x.1) ( 0. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( −1. Section 1. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 2 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 2 = 1 0 g ( 0) = ( 0) + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = (1) + 2 = 3 2 g ( 2 ) = ( 2 ) + 2 = 10 ( −2. y ) f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 ( −2. 0 ) ( −1. y ) ( −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ) ( x. −6 ) ( −1.1) ( 2. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units. Inc. −1) 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( 0. 2 ) ( 0. −1) ( 0.3) f ( x ) = x3 ( x.1) (1.PreCalculus 4E 45. 2 ) (1.1) ( 0.8) x −2 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 + 2 ( x. y ) ( −2.1) ( 2. 0 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit.1) ( 2.10 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. 46. 47. −1) ( 2.3) ( 2. 141 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ) ( −1.3) ( −1. 0 ) (1. 0 ) (1.

49. 7 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. x f ( x ) = −1 ( x. −1) (1. x f ( x) = 3 −2 f ( −2 ) = 3 −1 f ( −1) = 3 0 f ( 0) = 3 1 f (1) = 3 2 f ( 2) = 3 x g ( x) = 5 −2 g ( −2 ) = 5 −1 g ( −1) = 5 0 g ( 0) = 5 1 g (1) = 5 2 g ( 2) = 5 ( x. −1) ( 0. 4 ) ( 2. −2 ) ( 0.3) (1. 4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. −9 ) ( −1. 0 ) ( 2.3) ( 2. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −1 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0 ) = −1 1 f (1) = −1 2 f ( 2 ) = −1 ( −2.Functions and Graphs 48. 142 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 1 = −9 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 1 = −2 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = (1) − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 1 = 7 ( −2. 0 ) (1. y ) ( −2.5) ( −1.8) 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 − 1 ( x. −1) ( −1. −8) ( −1. x f ( x ) = x3 ( x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 ) ( −1.5) (1.3) ( x. −1) ( 2.5) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 5 units.3) ( 0. 4 ) ( 0.5) ( 2. −1) ( 0. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( −2. y ) ( −2.5) ( 0. y ) ( −2. −1) x g ( x) = 4 −2 g ( −2 ) = 4 −1 g ( −1) = 4 0 g ( 0) = 4 1 g (1) = 4 2 g ( 2) = 4 ( x.1) ( 2.3) ( −1. 50. 4 ) (1. −1) (1. Inc. .

3) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = 1 + 2 = 3 4 g ( 4) = 4 + 2 = 4 ( x. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( 9.1) ( 4. Section 1.1) ( 9. 2 ) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 1 = 1 5 g ( 5) = 5 − 1 = 2 10 g (10 ) = 10 − 1 = 3 ( x.1) ( 5. 2 ) (10. y ) ( 0. 0 ) (1. 2 ) (1.3) 53. 143 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y ) ( 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. .1) ( 4.2 x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 4 g ( 4) = 4 −1 = 1 9 g (9) = 9 −1 = 2 ( x. y ) ( 0.3) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. Inc. 0 ) ( 2. 52. −1) (1. 2 ) ( 9. ( x. 2 ) ( 9. ( x. y ) ( 0. y ) ( 0. 5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted right 1 unit.3) ( x.3) ( 4.PreCalculus 4E 51. 0 ) (1. y ) (1. 0 ) ( 4.1) ( 4. 4 ) 9 g (9) = 9 + 2 = 5 (9 .

x-intercepts: –3 and 1 58. g ( −10 ) = 2 74. not a function d. g ( x) = −1. When x = −2.1) ( 4. ∞) 62. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 d. y-intercept: 3 59. 77. range: (–∞. y-intercept: 1 64. y ) ( −2. function e. ∞) b. 76. g ( x ) = 1. f (−2) = −3 and f (2) = 5 domain: (–∞. a.3) 72. y ) ( 0. function 78. 60.Functions and Graphs 54. f (−1) = 0 71. ∞) 55. range: [−4. f ( −3 ) = 0 70. a. f ( 4) = 4 f (2) = −5 f (−1) = 2 and f (3) = 4 144 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ) ( −1. a. x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 2 = 0 –1 g ( −1) = −1 + 2 = 1 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 2 = 2 7 g (7) = 7 + 2 = 3 ( x. function b. function d. f ( −2 ) = −4 66. f (−2) = 3 and domain: (−∞. Inc.1) ( 2. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted left 2 units. g ( 2 ) = −2 73. not a function e. 0 ) (1. domain: (−∞. ∞) 61. 4] 57. ∞) c. x-intercept: none 63. g (10) = −2 75. 2 ) ( 9. 2 ) ( 7. f (−4) = 4 69. Publishing as Prentice Hall. function c. 65. When x = 1. not a function 79. f (2) = −4 67. g ( −4 ) = 2 ( x. 56.3) 68. not a function c. range: [1. . function b. y-intercept: –3 e.

y-intercept: 2 e. x-intercept: { x x ≤ 0} d. − 2] f(3) = 1 c. 0] d. 6] c. a. x-intercept: –1 d. f(–2) = –3 b. range: [1. f(–5) = 2 82. ∞) c. range: [–3. y-intercept: –2 b. ∞) b. 4) e. y-intercept: 1. ∞) b. domain: [0. a. a. f(–4) = –5 and f(4) = –2 c. 89. range: (−∞. range: [–5. a. y-intercept: 4 91. Section 1. x-intercept: none d. y-intercept: −1 f(2) = 1 b. x-intercept: none domain: (–6. ∞) c. x-intercept: 4 e. ∞) domain: [–1. domain: (−∞. range: (−∞. e. a. range: [0. 0. ∞) c. x-intercept: − f(–4) = 3 and f(3) = 4 d. a. ∞) b. f(–1) = 5 domain: {–5. a. a. range: (0. domain: [0. range: [0. b. ∞ ) domain: (–∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 domain: (–∞. range: [0. –2. 86. 3} b. a. x-intercept: none d. ∞) c. 83. range: [–1. f(3) = 2 85. y-intercept: –1 e. 5) e. x-intercept: none d. range: {2} c. 1. 6] domain: (−∞. f(4) = 3 b. d. ∞) c.75 d. x-intercept: 2 d. 88. y-intercept: –3 e. y-intercept: 1 e. range: [–2. y-intercept: 0 e. 0) ∪ (0. a. x-intercept: none d. x-intercept: –1 d. domain: [–3. a. f (−5) + f (3) = 2 + 2 = 4 145 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) c. 2] b. ∞) b.PreCalculus 4E 80. . f(–2) = 0 and f(2) = 4 b. y-intercept: 1 e. 5) c. y-intercept: 1 e.1) ∪ (1. Inc. 5] c. ∞) domain: (−∞. f(4) = 6 84. a. y-intercept: 1 81. x-intercept: –3. 1 2 87.5 e. domain: [–2. 90.

Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range. 146 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the relation is not a function.6.6 in the domain corresponds to both Finland and New Zealand in the range. No.6 ) .7 ) . {( Iceland. ( Denmark. 4} 92. a. a. ( New Zealand. Inc. Yes. 1. Iceland ) .6. x-intercept: none d. . 9. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) − 3 ( − x ) + 7 − ( x 2 − 3x + 7 ) 2 = x 2 + 3x + 7 − x 2 + 3 x − 7 = 6x 99. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) + ( − x ) − 5 − ( x3 + x − 5) 3 = − x 3 − x − 5 − x 3 − x + 5 = −2 x 3 − 2 x 98. {( 9. −4 − ( −1) − ( −3) + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 2 = −4 + 1 − 9 + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 = −3 − 9 + −1 ⋅ −6 = 3 − 9 + 6 = −6 + 6 = 0 97. 9. y-intercept: –2 f (−5) + f (4) = −2 + (−2) = −4 e. range: {–2} c. Denmark )} d. 9.6 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 9.7. 3 − ( −1) − ( −6 ) + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 2 = 3 + 1 − 36 + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 = 4 − 36 + −1 ⋅ 4 = 2 − 36 + −4 = −34 + −4 = −38 96.Functions and Graphs domain: {–5. –2. Finland ) . b.5 )} b. f ( g ( −1) ) = f ( −8) = ( −8) − ( −8 ) + 4 2 = 64 + 8 + 4 = 76 95.5. 9. the relation is a function. 9. New Zealand ) . c. ( 9. 0. f ( g (1) ) = f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) + 4 2 = 4 + 2 + 4 = 10 g ( −1) = 3 ( −1) − 5 = −3 − 5 = −8 94. g (1) = 3 (1) − 5 = 3 − 5 = −2 93. ( 9. ( Finland.

Function f is the better model. T ( x) = −0. Yes. This is represented on the graph by the point (20.8)} b. ( Myanmar. R ( x) = −0. This is represented on the graph by the point (20. This is represented on the graph by the point (0.7 ) .25 x + 72 T (4) = −0.127). b. 1. c. 1. ( Chad. g (70) = 76 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 76%. R( x) = −0. or 2004. Bangladesh ) .6 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91.6(4) + 94 = 91. (1. 147 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.125 x 2 + 5.25 x + 72 T (18) = −0.126).125 x 2 + 5.6(20) + 94 = 82 Americans ordered an average of 82 meals in restaurants per person 20 years after 1984. a.6 x + 94 R(0) = −0. c. Chad ) .125(20)2 + 5.94). or 1988. 101.25(4) + 72 = 91 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91 takeout meals per person. {(1.6 x + 94 R (4) = −0. 104. 1.25(20) + 72 = 127 Americans ordered an average of 127 takeout meals per person 20 years after 1984.7 ) .125(4)2 + 5. Function f is the better model. Haiti ) . a. b.8.7. g (90) = 10 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 10%. a. T ( x) = −0.25(18) + 72 = 126 Americans ordered an average of 126 takeout meals per person 18 years after 1984. the average number of takeout orders approximately equaled the average number of inrestaurant meals 4 years after 1984. b.7. 102. Section 1.125(18)2 + 5. According to the graphs.7 in the domain corresponds to both Bangladesh and Chad in the range. f (90) = 25 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 25%.6(0) + 94 = 94 Americans ordered an average of 94 meals in restaurants per person 0 years after 1984. c.8 ) . b. ( Haiti. or 2004. a. c.PreCalculus 4E 100.25 x + 72 T (20) = −0.2 {( Bangladesh. This is represented on the graph by the point (18. (1. T ( x) = −0.6 meals in restaurants per person. 1. No.82). the relation is a function. 103. f (70) = 83 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 83%.6 x + 94 R(20) = −0. a. 1. or 2002. or 1984. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.125 x 2 + 5. R( x) = −0. the relation is not a function. Inc. (1.8. Myanmar )} d. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range.

Sample explanation: The domain is the number of years worked for the company.(2.000 to produce 90 bicycles. Changes to make the statement true will vary. S ( x) = 0. 121. 2( x + h) 2 + 3( x + h) + 5 − (2 x 2 + 3x + 5) 123. it is not true for all functions.Functions and Graphs 105. 108. false. Sample explanation: This would not be a function because some elements in the domain would correspond to more than one age in the range. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Explanations will vary. such as f ( x).60(50 − x) S (30) = 0.1)} 128. A sample change is: f (0) = 0. the car will be worth $12. C ( x) = 100. To find f (2) . false. 2 ) . rewrite 2 as 1 + 1. C (t ) = 20 + 0.10 x + 0.10(30) + 0. A sample change is: The domain is [−4. V ( x) = 22. there will be 15 mL of sodium-iodine in the vaccine. 900 After 3 years. A sample change is: The range is [ −2. 109. does not make sense.500 − 3200(3) = $12. 122. = 2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 − 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x − 3 x + 3h + 5 − 5 124. 000 + 100 x 125. 40 40 + x x + 30 40 40 T ( 30 ) = + 30 30 + 30 80 40 = + 60 60 120 = 60 =2 If you travel 30 mph going and 60 mph returning. 500 − 3200 x V (3) = 22. Explanations will vary. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. the monthly cost is $36. 130. .60(50 − 30) = 15 When 30 mL of the 10% mixture is mixed with 20 mL of the 60% mixture. your total trip will take 2 hours.40(t − 60) C (100) = 20 + 0. makes sense 129.900.8 C (90) = 100. 120. 000 + 100(90) = $109.1). Explanations will vary. T ( x) = 127. – 117.40(40) = 20 + 16 = 36 For 100 calling minutes. does not make sense. true = 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3h 148 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Answers may vary. It is given that f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) and f (1) = 3 . Inc.40(100 − 60) = 20 + 0. An example is {(1. does not make sense. Answers may vary. 4]. Sample explanation: The parentheses used in function notation. f (2) = f (1 + 1) = f (1) + f (1) = 3+3 = 6 Similarly: f (3) = f (2 + 1) = f (2) + f (1) = 6+3= 9 f (4) = f (3 + 1) = f (3) + f (1) = 9 + 3 = 12 While f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) is true for this function. 126. 119. 131. It is not true for f ( x ) = x 2 . for example. 107. 118. f (a + h) = 3(a + h) + 7 = 3a + 3h + 7 f (a ) = 3a + 7 f ( a + h) − f ( a ) h ( 3a + 3h + 7 ) − ( 3a + 7 ) = h 3a + 3h + 7 − 3a − 7 3h = = =3 h h 106. 000 It will cost $109. do not imply multiplication.

increasing: (0. a. if t > 60 Since 0 ≤ 40 ≤ 60 .40(t − 60) b. C (80) = 20 + 0. 1). g (− x ) = 7(− x)3 − (− x) = −7 x3 + x = − f ( x) The function is odd. decreasing on the interval (–1. ∞) b. constant: none a. c. constant: none a. h( − x ) = ( − x )5 + 1 = − x 5 + 1 The function is neither even nor odd. ∞). Since 80 > 60 . 149 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 1) c. This is represented by ( 80. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 + 2 x 2 − x − 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 Exercise Set 1. ( −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 − −2 x 2 + x + 5 5. f ( x ) = −2 x 2 + x + 5 f ( x + h) = −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) + 5 = −2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + x + h + 5 = −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 6. decreasing: (–1. constant: none 4. constant: none a. 3. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 60 1. 2. a. –1) b. ∞) b. 28 ) . decreasing: (–2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. increasing: (–1. b.3 3. ∞) c. decreasing: none c. This is represented by ( 40.3 b. decreasing: none c. increasing: (–∞. Inc. 20 ) . ⎧ 20 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩ 20 + 0. and increasing on the interval (1. increasing: none b. ) . the cost is $20. C (40) = 20 With 40 calling minutes. increasing: (−1.3 Section 1. constant: none a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. 2) b. a. 4. ∞) b. 6) c. decreasing: none c. Check Point Exercises 1.40(80 − 60) = 28 With 80 calling minutes. decreasing: (−∞. the cost is $28. = The function is increasing on the interval (–∞. increasing: (–3. constant: none a. 5. –1). 2. f (− x) = (− x) 2 + 6 = x 2 + 6 = f ( x) The function is even.

relative minimum = 0 f (− x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = f ( x). neither 21. f ( x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 f (− x) = 2(− x) 2 + (− x)4 + 1 15. x = 0. 13. h( x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 increasing: none h(− x ) = 2(− x )2 + (− x) 4 b. Inc. odd function 18.5) or (3. decreasing: (–4. constant: (−∞. decreasing: (0. decreasing: none c. even function 11. x = 1. − 2) or (4. decreasing: none c. relative minimum = 3 150 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = x 3 + x f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 + (− x ) f ( − x ) = − x 3 − x = −( x 3 + x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). 3. 3. decreasing: none f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 − ( − x ) c. f ( x) = x3 − x g ( x) = x 2 + x b. increasing: (0. 2) or (4. odd function a. even function 14. x = −2. ∞) g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + (− x) c. x =1. constant: (−∞. h(− x ) = h( x). even function 23. x = 4. relative minimum = –1 24. 19. 0) or (1. a. a. 4) h( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − ( − x ) 4 b.5. 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. h( x ) = x 2 − x 4 increasing: (–2. constant: (–∞. neither 10. a. −4) or (−2.5) c. constant: (−1. ∞) a. x = −3. − 1) b. a. 2) h( − x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 c. constant: none g (− x) = x 2 − x. x = −3. x = 0. a. relative minimum = −6 f (− x) = f ( x). relative maximum = 21 f (− x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 b. 3) 17. 4) b. .Functions and Graphs 7. ∞ ) 12. relative maximum = 2 b. 9. relative maximum = 30 b. constant: none 20. increasing: (−∞. −4) or (2. a. 0) or (2. a. relative maximum = 4 f ( x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) 4 + 1 b. ∞ ) h( − x ) = x 2 − x 4 h(− x) = h( x). 22. increasing: (−∞. increasing: (−5. a. −2) or (0. even function 16. g ( x) = x 2 − x g ( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − (− x ) g (− x ) = x 2 + x. 8. ∞) b. decreasing: (−4. 0) f ( − x ) = − x 3 + x = −( x 3 − x ) f (− x) = − f ( x).

f (2) = −2 and f (6) = −2 34. ( −∞. f (−2) = 4 k. ( −∞. f ( x ) = x2 1 − x2 f (−x) = (−x) [ −4. range: c. a. 31. x = −2 and x = 3 i. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph is not symmetric with respect to the y-axis or the origin. ∞ ) 5 f (− x) = −(2 x3 − 6 x 5 ) 27.3 1 6 x − 3x 2 5 1 f (− x) = (− x)6 − 3(− x) 2 5 1 f (− x) = x 6 − 3 x 2 5 f (− x) = f ( x) . a. ∞ ) ( −∞. odd function 28. even function 33. Inc. even function 29. ( −∞. x = −4 and x = 4 l. The function is odd. x-intercepts: –4. 0 ) g. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. ( −∞. 26. y = −4 j. 4 ) g. 1− (−x) 1− x range: l. f (− x) ≠ − x domain: 2 ( −∞. f ( x) = f ( x) = 2 x3 − 6 x 5 f (− x) = 2(− x)3 − 6(− x)5 f ( − x ) = −2 x + 6 x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x). ∞ ) 151 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y-intercept: 1 e. or ( 0. The graph is symmetric with respect to the y-axis.∞ ) f. ∞ ) or [ 4. 2 f(–x) = – f(x). The function is neither even nor odd. 7 d. The function is odd. The function is even. f (−2) = 4 and f (3) = 2 j. neither . domain: neither . −2 ) f. 0 ) h. 30. ( 4. 4 d. ( 0. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. . f (− x) ≠ x .3) or ( 3. f (−3) = 4 k. y-intercept: 4 e. f (− x) ≠ − x 2 f(–x) = f(x). 4] b. x-intercepts: 1.PreCalculus 4E 25. odd function f ( x) = x 1 − x 2 f (− x) = − x 1 − (− x) f (− x) = − x 1 − x 2 ( = − x 1 − x2 ) f (−x) = x 2 2 c. ( −2. 32. Section 1. x=4 i. −4] h. ∞ ) b. f (− x) ≠ x .

x =1 j. ( −∞. a. ( 2. g(0) = 0 + 3 = 3 f(–3) = 6(–3) – 1 = –19 b. a. a. g(–3) = –3 + 3 = 0 e. f(3) = 4(3) + 7 = 19 38. range: [ 0. a. g(0) = 0 + 5 = 5 b. f (0) = 3 e. 4] b. f (4) = −1 k.1) f. 6] c.1] d. 2 ) h. ( −∞. −3] h. g(–5) = –5 + 5 = 0 41. 37. g. 6 ) g. 44. 0] a. a. a. x-intercepts: –3. h(7) = 7 2 − 25 49 − 25 24 = = = 12 7 −5 2 2 b. a. f(2) is not greater than the function values to the immediate left. b. 3 d. x = −5 and x = 5 j. h(0) = 0 2 − 9 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 c. neither l. h(5) = 52 − 9 25 − 9 16 = = =8 5−3 2 2 b. −2 ) f. h(3) = 6 42. negative.Functions and Graphs 35. Inc. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. a. a.3] 39. ( −2. f (1) = 4 i. f(–2) = 3(–2) + 5 = –1 b. b. . domain: range: ( −∞. ( −3. c. 3) i. h(0) = 02 − 25 −25 = =5 0−5 −5 c. g(–6) = –(–6 + 3) = –(–3) = 3 ( −∞. 3 f (0) = 1 43. ( −∞. f(4) = 7(4) + 3 = 31 b. domain: ( −∞. f(0) = 4(0) + 7 = 7 c. f(0) = 7(0) + 3 = 3 c. no. 152 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3) ( −∞. positive. (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 40. g(–6) = –(–6 + 5) = –(–1) = 1 c. b. f (−1) = +2 36. range: c. h(5) = 10 zeros of f: –3.

∞ ) a. ∞) b. 3} a. 0] ∪ {2} 50. b. b. b. 153 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 46. b. b. a. Inc. range: (−∞. 51.PreCalculus 4E 45. range: ( −∞. 49. . 52. ( −∞. Section 1. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. 48. 4} a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 0] ∪ {3} a. a. ∞) range: {−3. 47.3 range: {−4. range: (−∞. 0] ∪ [3. b. range: a. range: [ 0. b.

f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 7( x + h) − 7 x = h 7 x + 7h − 7 x = h 7h = h =7 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2( x + h) 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 2( x + 2 xh + h 2 ) − 2 x 2 = h 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 4 xh + 2h = h h ( 4 x + 2h ) = h = 4 x + 2h 154 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 58. . ∞ ) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 3( x + h) + 7 − (3x + 7) = h 3x + 3h + 7 − 3x − 7 = h 3h = h =3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 6( x + h) + 1 − (6 x + 1) = h 6 x + 6h + 1 − 6 x − 1 = h 6h = h =6 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( x + h) 2 − x2 h x + 2 xh + h 2 − x 2 = h 2 2 xh + h = h h ( 2x + h) = h = 2x + h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 4( x + h) − 4 x = h 4 x + 4h − 4 x = h 4h = h =4 2 60. a. 59. range: [ −1.Functions and Graphs 53. 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. b. 56. Inc. 55. range: [ 0. a. 54.

Inc.3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 4( x + h) + 3 − ( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − 4 x − 4h + 3 − x 2 + 4 x − 3 = h 2 xh + h 2 − 4h = h h(2 x + h − 4) = h = 2x + h − 4 64. 63. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) + 4 − (− x 2 + 2 x + 4) 2 = h − x − 2 xh − h + 2 x + 2h + 4 + x 2 − 2 x − 4 = h 2 −2 xh − h + 2h = h h ( −2 x − h + 2 ) = h = −2 x − h + 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 66.PreCalculus 4E 61. 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) + 5 − (3 x 2 + x + 5) 2 = h 3x 2 + 6 xh + 3h 2 + x + h + 5 − 3x 2 − x − 5 = h 6 xh + 3h 2 + h = h h ( 6 x + 3h + 1) = h = 6 x + 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 5( x + h) + 8 − ( x 2 − 5 x + 8) = h 2 2 x + 2 xh + h − 5 x − 5h + 8 − x 2 + 5 x − 8 = h 2 2 xh + h − 5h = h h ( 2 x + h − 5) = h = 2x + h − 5 65. . 2 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (2 x 2 + x − 1) 2 = f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) − 3 ( x + h ) + 1 − (− x 2 − 3x + 1) 2 = h 2 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h + x + h − 1 − 2 x 2 − x + 1 = h 2 4 xh + 2h + h = h h ( 4 x + 2h + 1) = h = 4 x + 2h + 1 h − x − 2 xh − h − 3 x − 3h + 1 + x 2 + 3x − 1 = h 2 −2 xh − h − 3h = h h ( −2 x − h − 3) = h = −2 x − h − 3 2 2 155 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 1.

Inc. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2 ( x + h ) − ( x + h ) + 3 − (−2 x 2 − x + 3) 2 = h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h − x − h + 3 + 2 x 2 + x − 3 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h − h = h h ( −4 x − 2h − 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h − 1 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − x h x + = h − ( x + h) x + x ( x + h) x ( x + h) = h x−x−h x ( x + h) = h −h x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ x ( x + h) h −1 = x ( x + h) 156 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + x − 1) h −3x 2 − 6 xh − 3h 2 + x + h − 1 + 3 x 2 − x + 1 = h −6 xh − 3h 2 + h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 1) = h = −6 x − 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 71. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 70. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 7 − 7 0 = = =0 h h h −3 ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + 2 x − 1) 2 = h 2 2 −3x − 6 xh − 3h + 2 x + 2h − 1 + 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = h 2 −6 xh − 3h + 2h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 2 ) = h = −6 x − 3h + 2 69. −2 ( x + h ) + 5 ( x + h ) + 7 − (−2 x 2 + 5 x + 7) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 = 2 = h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + 5 x + 5h + 7 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 7 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + 5h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 5 ) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 5 68. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs 67. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 6 − 6 0 = = =0 h h h 72. . 73.

30(t − 120) = 30 + 0.9) − [ f (−π )] + f (−3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 = 2 − (−2) − [ 3] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ ( −4 ) 2 = 4 − 9 + ( −1)( −4 ) = 2−9+ 4 = −3 79. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 400 if t > 400 . 30 + 0.9) − [ f (π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f ( −π ) 2 = 1 + 0 − [ −4 ] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ 3 2 = 1 − 16 + ( −1) ⋅ 3 = 1 − 16 − 3 = −18 78. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5) − f (1.PreCalculus 4E 74.3t − 6 80. f ( −2.3t − 20 81. f ( −1. ⎧50 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩50 + 0.30(t − 400) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x+h − x h x+h − x x+h + x ⋅ h x+h + x x+h− x = = = = h h ( ( x+h + x h x+h + x ) ) 1 = 76.3t − 60 = 0. Inc.9) − [ f ( −π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 f (−2.30(t − 200) = 40 + 0.3t − 36 = 0. Section 1. 40 + 0.5) + f ( −0. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − 2( x + h) 2 x = h x x+h − 2 x ( x + h) 2 x ( x + h) = h −h 2 x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ 2 x ( x + h) h −1 = 2x ( x + h) 77.5) − f (1. 75.3 x+h + x f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x + h −1 − x −1 h = x + h −1 − x −1 x + h −1 + x −1 ⋅ h x + h −1 + x −1 x + h − 1 − ( x − 1) = = = = = h h h ( ( ( x + h −1 + x −1 x + h −1 − x +1 x + h −1 + x −1 h x + h −1 + x −1 ) ) ) 1 x + h −1 + x −1 157 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

75. This model describes percent body fat in women. ∞) Decreasing: (1.5) = 0. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. 101. 92.25 + 0. –2) or (0. 86. f (3) = 0. 26] The number of doctor visits decreases during childhood and then increases as you get older. – 105. 85. 2) 158 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. occurs at around age 20. if t > 450 98.35( x − 349.35(t − 450) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 450 97.50 + 0. 75) 100.148.25(50. 000) = 4386. 65). 000 − 31. range: [23. increasing: (25.75.850) 94.93 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3.15(20. This maximum is 26%.850) = 8923.25 + 0. 89. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. 107. 38] 88. 0) or (2. Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall.59. ⎧60 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩60 + 0. Increasing: (–2. range: [34. f (3. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞.000 owes $8923. 75].75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $20. domain: [25. 93. 91. The percent body fat in men reaches a maximum at age 65.8 ounces is $0. which means that the minimum number of doctor visits.59. The percent body fat in women reaches a maximum at age 55.99).76 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3 ounces is $0.33( x − 160. domain: [25. This model describes percent body fat in men. 96. 000) = 782. 3. 1) or (3. 55). This maximum is 38%. 90. decreasing: (55. 39. 75) 84. Increasing: (−∞.93. 000 − 7825) = 2608.000 owes $2608. 108.29. 469. 75]. 99.75 + 0. T (20. about 4. 87.5 ounces is $0.Functions and Graphs 82. The minimum is (20. decreasing: (65. 3) T (50.76. . Inc. 106. increasing: (25.5 ounces is $0. 83. 700) 95.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $50.

h is even if both f and g are even or if both f and g are odd. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) 118. f and g are both even: f (– x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) f and g are both odd: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = = h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) h is odd if f is odd and g is even or if f is even and g is odd. ∞) when n is odd. 2) Increasing: (0. answers may vary 112. 115. ∞) c. f is odd and g is even: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x ) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) g ( x) f is even and g is odd: f (– x) f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) 159 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 109. Increasing: (2. does not make sense.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Decreasing: (−∞. . 0) 119. Sample explanation: It’s possible the graph is not defined at a. 111. makes sense 116. e.3 b. 0) Decreasing: (0. makes sense 117. Increasing: (–∞. ∞) 113. makes sense Increasing: (0. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. a. f ( x ) = x n is increasing from (–∞. Explanations will vary. 0) d. 110. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. Inc. − 2) Constant: (–2. a. 1) 114. 120. Increasing: (1. answers may vary Decreasing: (−∞. b.

5. −1 − (−2) 1 so the slope is –5.Functions and Graphs 121. move 3 units up and 5 units to the right. y= y=− −6 − (−1) −5 = = −5 . 160 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4(0) − 3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y = 6 y + 1 = −5( x + 2). ⎝2 ⎠ When x = 0 : 4x − 3y − 6 = 0 The slope m is 3 5 and the y-intercept is 1.4 4 −1 3 y2 − y1 = = =3 x2 − x1 −2 − (−3) 1 Check Point Exercises 1. When y = 0 : 4x − 3 y − 6 = 0 4 x − 3(0) − 6 = 0 a. 2 y = −3 x + 4 −3 x + 4 2 or 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4). We can find a second point on the line by using the slope m = 35 = Rise : starting at Run 3 x+2 2 the point (0. answers may vary 122. m= 5 − (−2) 7 7 = =− −1 − 4 −5 5 4x − 6 = 0 4x = 6 2.Solve the equation for y : y + 1 = −5 x − 10 3x + 2 y − 4 = 0 y = −5 x − 11. to obtain the point (5. m= −2 − 4 −6 = =6 −4 − (−3) −1 b. Inc. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 6( x − 2) 3 x= 2 ⎛3 ⎞ The point is ⎜ . y + 5 = 6 x − 12 y = 6 x − 17 3. 0 ⎟ . . 123. we get the point slope equation: y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − (−1) = −5[ x − (−2)] x = −2 The point is ( 0. –1). −2 ) . 1). 124. 0). so one point on the line is (1. y = 3 is a horizontal line. Section 1. Using the point (–2.

7. rises 2 − (−2) 4 4. 9.016 x + 51.016 x + 52.016 x − 5.968 f ( x) = 0. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 57. 3x + 6 y − 12 = 0 6 y = −3 x + 12 −3 12 y= x+ 6 6 1 y = − x+2 2 Exercise Set 1. m= 4 −1 3 = = 3.072 y = 0.6 m= = = ≈ 0. horizontal 3− 4 −1 6. m= −2 − (−4) 2 = = −1. First find the slope. rises 8−4 4 2.6 The temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million would be 61.04 = 0. Change in y 57. m= −1 − 4 −5 = = −5. m= 10 − 7 3 = . Inc. falls 4−6 −2 9.64 − 57. falls −1 − (−2) 1 8. m= −2 − 3 −5 = undefined. Section 1. m= −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. m= 2 −1 1 = . f ( x) = 0. rises 2 − (−1) 3 5. rises 3−2 1 3. Any value can be used for y. 1 and the y-intercept is 2. m= 2 − (−2) 0 = = 0.016 x + 52.016 Change in x 354 − 317 37 Use the point-slope form and then find slopeintercept form. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0 Find the temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million. horizontal 3−4 −1 7.4 All ordered pairs that are solutions of x = −3 have a value of x that is always –3.016( x − 317) y − 57. m= 4−3 1 = .PreCalculus 4E 6.04 = 0.0 = 61.016(600) + 52.04 0. vertical 5−5 0 161 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 2 Find the x-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3x − 2(0) − 6 = 0 3x − 6 = 0 3x = 6 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3(0) − 2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y = 6 y = −3 1.0 f (600) = 0.6°F.4 The slope is − 8.

x1 = 2 m = − . m = 4.Functions and Graphs 5 − (−4) 9 = undefined. x1 = −4. 3 1 m = . y1 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 25. point-slope form: y + 3 = –3(x + 2). m = −5. point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x − 0). slope-intercept form: y = 8x – 33 m = −3. x1 = 0. 1 . m= −1 . 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 2 m = 6. point-slope form: y – 5 = 6(x + 2). point-slope form: y + 4 = − ( x − 10). 12. x1 = 6. y1 = −2. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 6 x + 12 1 22. slope-intercept form: y = –5x – 22 17. 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = y = 6 x + 17 15. x1 = 10. y = −3 x − 9 m = −4. y1 = 5. 4 17 slope-intercept form: y = − x − 4 20. 2) . 5 3 m = − . m= 11. slope-intercept form: y = 4x – 1 13. 5 −1 4 point-slope form: y – 2 = 2(x – 1) using ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 2 x − 6 1 = −1( x + 4). 3 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 3 14. point-slope form: y – 3 = 4(x – 1). 5 3 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 5 y = −4 x − 16 18. x1 = −2. point-slope form: y + 2 = –5(x + 4). y1 = −2. slope-intercept form: y = −4( x + 4) 3 24. point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3). y1 = −2. y1 = 0. m = 8. point-slope form: y + 1 = 8(x – 4). slope-intercept form: y − 2 = 2 x − 2 or y − 10 = 2 x − 10. y1 = 0. x1 = 3. y1 ) = (5. 10) . 2⎠ ⎝ 1 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x − 2 5 y = −x − 2 10 − 2 8 = = 2. point-slope form: y – 0 = –4(x + 4). y1 = 5. x1 = 0. y = 2x 162 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x1 = −2. slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −3 x − 6 23. point-slope form: y + 3 = –2(x – 0) m = −2. x1 = −4. or y – 10 = 2(x – 5) using m= ( x1 . y1 = −1. 1⎞ ⎛ point-slope form: y + 2 = −1⎜ x + ⎟ . x1 = 4. y1 = −3. m = −1. 3 2 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x + 4 3 2 y = − x+2 3 16. y1 ) = (1. x1 = 0. m = 2. y1 = 3. vertical 3−3 0 10. 1 ( x − 0). y1 = −4. y1 = −3. . 3 2 point-slope form: y + 2 = − ( x − 6). y1 = − . 4 1 m = −1. Inc. point-slope form: y + y = 2x −1 21. x1 = −4. x1 = 1. slope-intercept form: y = –2x – 3 19.

y1 ) = ( −2. 0) . y1 ) = (−3. slope-intercept form: y + 1 = 0. 30. y1 ) = (−3. m= 4 −2 − 6 −8 = =− .4 15 − 5 10 = =2. Section 1. . − 1) . y1 ) = ( −3. 3 4 y = x+2 3 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = 2−0 2 = =1. 6 ) . y1 ) = ( 6. 4 ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . − 1) . slope-intercept form: y + 5 = 0. slope-intercept form: y = x + 2 29.PreCalculus 4E 26. 0 − (−3) 3 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . Inc.15) . 27. or y – 3 = 1(x – 0) using ( x1 . 2 ) . or y – 2 = 1(x – 0) using m= 32. y1 ) = ( 8. y1 ) = (−2. 3 − (−3) 6 3 4 point-slope form: y − 6 = − ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . − 5) . y1 ) = (2. 3) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 1) slope-intercept form: y = x – 2 −5 − (−5) 0 = =0. y1 ) = (−3. or y + 5 = 0(x – 6) using m= ( x1 . so y = −5 35. y1 ) = (−3. −2 − 2 −4 point-slope form: y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . − 1) . y1 ) = (2. y1 ) = ( 3. y1 ) = (1. −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. slope-intercept form: y = 2x – 1 28. or y + 1 = 0(x – 4) using m= ( x1 . y1 ) = (3. 0 − 4 −4 = = 1. − 5 ) . 6) . − 2) . − 2 ) . 4 − (−3) 7 point-slope form: y + 1 = 0(x + 3) using ( x1 . or y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . y1 ) = (0. 6 − (−2) 8 4 = = . y1 ) = ( 3.or y – 15 = 2(x – 8) using m= 31. or y + 2 = − ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . − 4 ) . or y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using m= ( x1 . 0 ) . or y = x+2 163 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6 − (−2) 8 point-slope form: y + 5 = 0(x + 2) using ( x1 . 3− 0 3 = =1. or y − 6 = ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . m = 1 − (−2) 3 point-slope form: y + 4 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . 4) . y1 ) = (4. m= 4 − (−1) 5 = =1. slope-intercept form: y = x + 3 m= 4 + 4 or 3x 4 y − 6 = x − 4. 3 − (−3) 6 3 point-slope form: y + 2 = ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y + 1 = x + 3or y−4 = x−2 y = x+2 m= 4 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 3 33. 2 − (−3) 5 point-slope form: y + 1 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . 4) . y1 ) = ( −2. or y + 1 = 1(x – 1) using y = −1 34. ( x1 .so −1 − (−4) 3 = =1. 8−3 5 point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3) using ( x1 . ( x1 .5 ) . y1 ) = ( −2. slope-intercept form: y − 9 = x − 2. 0 − (−2) 2 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . 0) . y1 ) = ( 0.

− 2 ) . 1 ( x − 4) using 2 1 ( x − 0) using ( x1 . m= 0 − (−3) 3 3 = =− −1 − 1 −2 2 41. m = 3. m = 2. 4) . b = 2 164 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y1 ) = ( 0. b = −3 4 −2 − 0 −2 1 = = . 3 m = . m= 43. 0 ) . y1 ) = ( 4. 3 3 slope-intercept form: y + 3 = − x + . m = –2. y1 ) = ( −1. Inc. m= 42. − 3) . 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x − 2 2 or y + 2 = 39. y1 ) = (0. m = –3. b = 1 40. b = –2 4 44. 3 m = . or y − 0 = − ( x + 1) using 2 ( x1 . or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) using ( x1 . . b = 2 4−0 4 = =8. y1 ) = (1. 0 − 4 −4 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x1 . or 2 2 3 3 y = − x− 2 2 37. 0 ) . or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) slope-intercept form: y = 8 x + 4 38.Functions and Graphs 36. b = 1 3 point-slope form: y + 3 = − ( x − 1) using 2 3 ( x1 . 0 − ( − 12 ) 12 point-slope form: y – 4 = 8(x – 0) using ( x1 .0 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y1 ) = ( − 12 .

1 m=− . 165 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 55. 46.b=6 5 51.4 3 m=− . Section 1. 1 m=− .b=0 2 53. Inc. 48. 47.PreCalculus 4E 45. 2 m=− . 52. 50. b=7 5 49. Publishing as Prentice Hall.b=0 3 54.

a. c. 3x − 18 = 0 3x = 18 x=6 61. 2 m = − . Inc. 3x + 12 = 0 3x = −12 x = −4 59. . a. b = –2 3 c. 2 x + 3 y − 18 = 0 2 x − 18 = −3 y −3 y = 2 x − 18 2 18 y= x− −3 −3 2 y = − x+6 3 b. b = 6 166 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. b = 5 c. 3x + y − 5 = 0 y − 5 = −3 x y = −3 x + 5 4 x + 6 y + 12 = 0 4 x + 12 = −6 y −6 y = 4 x + 12 4 12 y= x+ −6 −6 2 y = − x−2 3 m = –3. 4x + y − 6 = 0 y − 6 = −4 x y = −4 x + 6 m = −4. 62. b=6 3 c. a. 2 m=− . 57.Functions and Graphs 56. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 60. b. b. a. 58.

6 m = . a.4 8 x − 4 y − 12 = 0 8 x − 12 = 4 y 4 y = 8 x − 12 8 12 y = x− 4 4 y = 2x − 3 66. 6 x − 2(0) − 12 = 0 6 x − 12 = 0 6 x = 12 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 6(0) − 2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y = 12 y = −6 6 x − 5 y − 20 = 0 6 x − 20 = 5 y 5 y = 6 x − 20 6 20 y = x− 5 5 6 y = x−4 5 b. b = 3 c. 3y − 9 = 0 3y = 9 y=3 b. Section 1. a. 67. m = 0. 167 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. 4 y + 28 = 0 4 y = −28 y = −7 b. a.PreCalculus 4E 63. 65. a. b = −4 5 c. b = –3 c. m = 2. m = 0. . b = −7 c. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 64. Inc.

Inc. Find the x-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8 x − 2(0) + 12 = 0 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x + 3(0) + 6 = 0 2x + 6 = 0 2 x = −6 x = −3 Find the y-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 2(0) + 3 y + 6 = 0 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −6 y = −2 8 x = −12 8 x −12 = 8 8 −3 x= 2 Find the y-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8(0) − 2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y = −12 y = −6 168 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Find the x-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 71. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 70.Functions and Graphs 68. . Find the x-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 6 x − 9(0) − 18 = 0 6 x − 18 = 0 6 x = 18 x=3 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 6(0) − 9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y = 18 y = −2 3x + 5(0) + 15 = 0 3x + 15 = 0 3x = −15 x = −5 Find the y-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 3(0) + 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y = −15 y = −3 69. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

75. 169 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m= 3x − 4 f ( x ) = 6 −4 f ( x ) = −3 x + 6 c 0 a−a The slope is undefined. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 77. m= 6 = −12 − 3 y 18 = −3 y −6 = y −b − 0 −b b = =− a 0 − ( −a ) a Since a and b are both positive. −4 − y 1 = 3 4 − ( −2 ) 6 x − 3(0) + 15 = 0 6 x + 15 = 0 6 x = −15 6 x −15 = 6 6 5 x=− 2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 6(0) − 3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y = −15 y=5 73. (b + c ) − b 81. b Therefore. Inc. 4− y 1− 3 4− y −3 = −2 6 = 4− y 2 = −y −2 = y 80. 76. m= −3 = = f ( x) = 3 3 x− 4 2 (a + c) − c a = a − (a − b) b Since a and b are both positive. a is positive. B B 79. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Therefore. . − 1 −4 − y = 3 4+2 1 −4 − y = 3 6 6 = 3 ( −4 − y ) a is b negative. 74. B B 78. The line is vertical. the line falls. the line falls. m= 0 − a −a a = =− b−0 b b Since a and b are both positive. Ax + By = C By = − Ax + C A C y = − x+ B B A C The slope is − and the y − intercept is . − b is a negative. the line rises. Ax = By − C Ax + C = By A C x+ = y B B A C The slope is and the y − intercept is . Therefore.4 72.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.

0 = 0. 3 ( 2) + b 2 −6 = −3 + b −6 = − 85. a. b2 .78 x − 7.3 = 54.7 = 61. y − 45.45 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American males. y − 45.65 x + 38.3 c. m4 86.78 ( x − 10 ) y = 0. to be 61.6 The life expectancy of American men born in 2020 is expected to be 78.78 ( x − 20 ) b. m2 .5 = = 0. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 6 x−4 5 m= y − 45.7 = 0. 45.7 E ( x) = 0.215(60) + 65. y − 31.3 y − 31.Functions and Graphs 82.65 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form. 170 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.65(35) + 38.2 = 0.65 ( x − 10 ) or y − 51.1 = 0. f ( x ) = 0.9 ) and (10. Using the slope-intercept form for the equation of a line: −1 = −2 ( 3) + b y = 0. Change in y 74.215 x + 65. c. find the slope using ( 20. .215 x − 4. 38. b3 87.2 = 0.1 = 0.7 − 45.78(40) + 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall.78 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form.45% in 2015.65 ( x − 20 ) b. y − 70.65 x + 38.2 ) .215 Change in x 40 − 20 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= E ( x) = 0.1 7. (10.6. m1 .78 ( x − 10 ) or y − 70.5% in 2020. 6 x − 5 f ( x ) = 20 88.7 −1 = −6 + b 5=b 84.3 − 70.7 f ( x ) = 0.65 x − 6.9 − 31.0 = = 0. Inc.78 x + 23.9 = 0. ages 25 – 29.38.8 = = 0.7 ) and 51. b4 .5 83.8 y = 0.1) .65 ( x − 10 ) a. m3 .7 E (60) = 0. a.215 x + 65.1 = 0.215( x − 20) y − 38. to be 54.51. ages 25 – 29. First.7 = 78. f ( 40 ) = 0.7 y − 31.3 c. find the slope using ( 20.215 x + 65. −3 = b 89. b1 .78 x + 23. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) m= b.0 = 0.2 6. −5 f ( x ) = −6 x + 20 f ( x) = First.2 = 0.5 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American females. f ( 35 ) = 0.31.

Inc. 10 − 0 10 2 Change in y 79.4( x − 10) y − 230 = −2. 92.17( x − 10) y − 74. 5. b.–5) and (10.5 3 m= = = 0. 24 − 4 20 m= = = 2.7 − 74. a = −22. Section 1. 91.96876741 b = 260.2 The life expectancy of American women born in 2020 is expected to be 83. 103. Two points are (0.5).5633751 r = −0. 230) (60.17(60) + 73 = 83.75 or . 171 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −10 − (−5) −5 1 m= = =− .PreCalculus 4E 90.7 = 0. 5.17 x − 1.4 60 − 10 50 y − 230 = −2.7 = 0. –2) and (10.4) and (10. .7 y = 0. Two points are (0.8428126855 d. Two points are (0.5 − (−2) 7. a. −24 − 6 −30 m= = = −3.4 x + 254 Answers may vary for predictions.–10). 4 E ( x) = 0.17 x + 73 c. 104. –24).7 = ≈ 0.17 x + 73 E ( x) = 0. b.2. (10. Two points are (0. Answers may vary.17 Change in x 40 − 10 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 74.17 x + 73 E (60) = 0. 10 − 0 10 4 3 Check: y = mx + b : y = x − 2 . 10 − 0 10 c. 102. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 100. Enter data from table. 6) and (10. 110 − 230 120 m= =− = −2. 10 − 0 10 Check: y = mx + b : y = −3x + 6 .4 101. a. – 99.24).4 x + 24 y = −2. 110) Points may vary.

4 then m = 4.Functions and Graphs 114. Explanations will vary. . this function has a positive slope. Explanations will vary.4 M – 20. Explanations will vary. Inc. Sample explanation: Linear functions never change from increasing to decreasing. Then 280 − 40 240 m= = = 2. 117. 115. 111. y1 ) = ( 25. Since the slope is the negative reciprocal of − . Vertical lines have equations of the form x = a . the coefficient of x is –6 and the coefficient of y is 3. A sample change is: Slope-intercept form is y = mx + b . does not make sense. Since the slope is the same as the slope of y = 2 x + 1. Answers may vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 4−0 4 4 = = =2 0 − ( −2 ) 0 + 2 2 118. does not make sense. 125 − 25 100 point-slope form tells us that E – 40 = 2. Let (25. 0). Sample explanation: The slope of line’s whose equations are in this form can be determined in several ways. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − ( −3 ) ) y − 1 = 2 ( x + 3) y − 0 = 2 ( x − ( −2 ) ) y − 1 = 2x + 6 y = 2 ( x + 2) y = 2x + 7 y = 2x + 4 −2 x + y = 4 Find the x– and y–coefficients for the equation of the line with right-hand-side equal to 12.4 . 113. 108. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 4 ( x − 3) y + 5 = 4 x − 12 −4 x + y + 17 = 0 3 ( −2 x + y ) = 3 ( 4 ) −6 x + 3 y = 12 Therefore. makes sense 109. 1 x − 6. 110. 40 ) . then m = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 x − y − 17 = 0 172 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true 112. −2 x + y = 4 1 119. false. x − 2 y = 12 Therefore. false. One such way is to rewrite the equation in slope-intercept form. false. Sample explanation: Since college cost are going up. E) where M is degrees Madonna and E is degrees Elvis. We are given that the y − intercept is − 6 and the 105. we can write the line in point-slope form. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Multiply both sides of −2 x + y = 4 by 3 to obtain 12 on the righthand-side. 4 ) m= 1 . 0 ) and ( 0. We are given that the x − intercept is −2 and the y − intercept is 4 . Using ( x1 . 40) and (125. the coefficient of x is 1 and the coefficient of y is −2. Answers may vary. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) Using the slope and one of the intercepts. 280) be ordered pairs (M. 1 y = x−6 2 1 y − x = −6 2 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ y − x ⎟ = 2 ( −6 ) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 y − x = −12 So the equation of the line is y = 107. Equations of this form have undefined slope and cannot be written in slope-intercept form. 2 We can put this equation in the form ax + by = c to find the missing coefficients. 116. 2 to find the slope.4 (M – 25) or E = 2. does not make sense. We can use the points ( −2. Changes to make the statement true will vary. slope is 106. A sample change is: It is possible for m to equal b. A sample change is: The graph of x = 7 is a vertical line through the point (7.

Write the equation in slope-intercept form: x + 3 y − 12 = 0 3 y = − x + 12 1 y = − x+4 3 s (1.7 − 9.03 = = = 0. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. 173 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 13 − 03 = =1 x2 − x1 1− 0 b.0804 − 4 = = 8.0804 Δs 4. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (2) = 4(2)2 = 16 Change in y 12.PreCalculus 4E 120. . 2 ) . s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 y = 3x + 11 slope-intercept 2.5 − 1 c. men living alone is projected to increase by 0.01 x2 − x1 3 −1 3 −1 6. The slope of the line y = 3 x + 1 is 3.01 − 1 1 thus the slope of 3 any line perpendicular to this line is 3.05 − 0. We are given that it passes through ( 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The slope of this line is − b.25 Change in x 2005 − 1990 15 The slope indicates that the number of U. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Δs 16 − 4 = = 12 feet per second Δt 2 −1 y − 5 = 3 ( x − (−2) ) y − 5 = 3( x + 2) point-slope y − 5 = 3x + 6 b. the equation of the line is f ( x ) = 2 x − 6. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 03 − (−2)3 8 = = =4 x2 − x1 0 − (−2) 2 = Section 1.25 million each year.S. y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) 3x − y = 0 general form 3.5 Check Point Exercises 1. –6) to write the equation. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 23 − 13 8 − 1 = = =7 x2 − x1 2 −1 1 c. a.0 3. Inc.01) = 4(1. 42 − 12 4 −1 15 = 3 =5 a.5)2 = 9 Δs 9 − 4 = = 10 feet per second Δt 1. Use m = 3 and the point (–2. m= y − 2 = 2x − 8 y = 2x − 6 In function notation. 5. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Exercise Set 1.5 1.7 = = ≈ 0.5 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (1) = 4 −1 x2 − x1 4. we know it will have slope m = 2.01)2 = 4. a.5) = 4(1. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y + 6 = 3( x + 2) y + 6 = 3x + 6 −3 x + y = 0 y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. y − (−6) = 3 ( x − (−2) ) Since L is parallel to y = 2 x.04 feet per second Δt 1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (3) − f (1) 0. Section 1.

Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. point-slope form: y − 2 = −3( x + 4) slope-intercept form: y − 2 = −3x − 12 y = −3x − 10 9. 1 y − 2 = ( x − ( −1) ) 2 1 y − 2 = ( x + 1) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. 1 1 y−2 = x+ 2 2 1 1 y = x+ +2 2 2 1 5 y = x+ 2 2 1 5 f ( x) = x + 2 2 2x − 3y − 7 = 0 −3 y = −2 x + 7 2 7 y = x− 3 3 The slope of the given line is 2 2 . 2 ( x + 2) 3 general form: 2 x − 3 y + 10 = 0 point-slope form: y − 2 = 10. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − 2) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y1 = −3. x1 = 2. the equation of the line is 1 f ( x ) = − x + 5. m = –5 since the line is perpendicular to 1 y = x + 6. 4. x1 = −8. point-slope form: y + 10 = –4(x + 8) slope-intercept form: y + 10 = –4x – 32 y = –4x – 42 6. 3 1 L will have slope m = . 4). 2). we have y − 4 = −2 ( x − 3) . Inc. y − 4 = −2 x + 6 y = −2 x + 10 f ( x ) = −2 x + 10 3. Using the point and the slope. 2 y−4 = − x1 = −4. point-slope form: y + 7 = –5(x + 2) slope-intercept form: y + 7 = −5 x − 10 y = −5 x − 17 7. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. 5 point-slope form: y + 3 = –5(x – 2) slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −5 x + 10 y = −5 x + 7 8. y1 = 2 . so m = since the 3 3 lines are parallel.Functions and Graphs 2. y1 = −10. 1 y − 4 = − ( x − 2) 2 1 y − 4 = − x +1 2 1 y = − x+5 2 In function notation. m = –5 since the line is parallel to y = −5 x + 4 . 1 x+7. so m = since the 2 2 lines are parallel. . We are given that it passes 2 through (2. m = –4 since the line is parallel to y = −4 x + 3. Use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. 3x − 2 y − = 0 −2 y = −3x + 5 3 5 y = x− 2 2 The slope of the given line is 3 3 . we know it will 1 have slope m = − . The line passes through (– 2 1. 3 ( x + 1) 2 general form: 3 x − 2 y + 9 = 0 point-slope form: y − 3 = 174 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. L will have slope m = −2 . x1 = −2. y1 = −7 . m = −3 since the line is perpendicular to y = Since L is perpendicular to y = 2 x.

c.07201 Δs 108. y + 7 = –2 ( x − 4 ) point-slope form: c.7212 − 108 = = 72.01)2 = 90.1 feet per second 3.5)2 = 122. we know the graph of f is a horizontal s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (4) = 10(4)2 = 160 line with 0 slope.5)2 = 147 Δs 147 − 108 = = 78 feet per second 3. The slope of the given line is Δs 122.06 Δs 90. . s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3.01)2 = 108.01 feet per second 3. a. Since the line is perpendicular to x = −4 which is a vertical line. The graph of f passes through ( −2. 16.01) = 12(3.5) = 12(3.001) = 12(3. The graph of f passes through ( −1.5 x − 2y − 3 = 0 −2 y = − x + 3 1 3 y = x− 2 2 b. point-slope form: y + 9 = 7(x – 5) general form: 7 x − y − 44 = 0 13. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.PreCalculus 4E 11.601 − 90 = = 60.01 − 3 Δt 2 17. Inc.5 − 90 = = 65 feet per second Δt 3. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (4) = 12(4)2 = 192 Δs 108 − 192 = = 84 feet per second 4−3 Δt b. 15 − 0 15 = =3 5−0 5 14.001) = 10(3. we know the graph of f is a horizontal line with 0 slope. so the equation of Δs 160 − 90 = = 70 feet per second 4−3 Δt f is f ( x ) = 5.06 − 90 = = 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 − 3 1 . so the equation of 175 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.01) = 10(3. f is f ( x ) = 6. Section 1.5 − 2 Δt 52 + 2 ⋅ 5 − (32 + 2 ⋅ 3) 25 + 10 − (9 + 6) = 5−3 2 20 = 2 = 10 2 s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3. Since the line is perpendicular to x = 6 which is a vertical line.7212 Δs 108. a.5 ) . 20.12 feet per second 3. 6 − 2 ( 6 ) − (3 − 2 ⋅ 3) 36 − 12 − ( 9 − 6 ) 21 = = =7 6−3 3 3 9 − 4 3−2 1 = = 9−4 5 5 18.01 − 3 Δt d. 24 − 0 24 = =6 4−0 4 15. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 general form: 2 x + y − 1 = 0 12. so m = 7 since the 7 lines are perpendicular.001)2 = 108.5) = 10(3. so m = –2 since the 2 lines are perpendicular.01 feet per second 3.001)2 = 90. x + 7 y − 12 = 0 7 y = − x + 12 −1 12 y= x+ 7 7 s (3.001 − 3 Δt 1 The slope of the given line is − . s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.601 Δs 90.5 d.07201 − 108 = = 72. 6 ) . s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3. 16 − 9 4 − 3 1 = = 16 − 9 7 7 19.001 − 3 Δt 21. 22.

This line will pass through ( 2. m= −4 − 0 −4 = =2 0 − 2 −2 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. 2 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −6 ) ) 2 1 y − 4 = − ( x + 6) 2 1 y −4 = − x−3 2 1 y = − x +1 2 1 f ( x) = − x +1 2 y−4 = − 24. This line will pass through ( 3. 0 ) and ( 0. First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 3 and y − intercept of −9. 2 1 Use the point ( −6. −4 ) . We use these points to find the slope. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. it will have slope m = − . it will have slope m = − . We use these points to find the slope. m= −9 − 0 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. −9 ) . First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 2 and y − intercept of −4.Functions and Graphs 23. 3 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −5) ) 3 1 y − 6 = − ( x + 5) 3 1 5 y−6 = − x− 3 3 1 13 y =− x+ 3 3 1 13 f ( x) = − x + 3 3 y−6 = − 176 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ) and ( 0. . 4 ) and the slope − to find the equation of the line. 3 Use the point ( −5. 6 ) and the slope − 1 to find the equation of the line.

3 m= ≈ −96 12 − 7 b. First put the equation 4 x − y − 6 = 0 in slope-intercept form. 1 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 6. 2 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 2. m= 612 − 1273 −661 = ≈ −132 2006 − 2001 5 There was an average decrease of approximately 132 discharges per year. a.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. 3x − 2 y − 4 = 0 −2 y = −3 x + 4 y= 3 x−2 2 The equation of f will have slope − 2 since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 3 y − intercept −2.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. 30.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 31.1(7)3 − 35(7) 2 + 264(7) + 557 = 1067.8 − 1067.5 25. P( x) = 1. First put the equation 3 x − 2 y − 4 = 0 in slope-intercept form. m= a. This underestimates the decrease by 36 discharges per year.1(12)3 − 35(12) 2 + 264(12) + 557 = 585. P( x) = −1. 4x − y − 6 = 0 − y = −4 x + 6 y = 4x − 6 1 The equation of f will have slope − since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 4 y − intercept −6.4 1123.3 x + 23 29. f ( x) = 1. 3 26. This overestimates by 5 discharges per year.1(0)3 − 35(0)2 + 264(0) + 557 = 557 f (4) = 1. 4 27.3 f (12) = 1.1(4)3 − 35(4)2 + 264(4) + 557 = 1123. 1163 − 617 546 = ≈ 137 1998 − 1994 4 There was an average increase of approximately 137 discharges per year.4 − 557 m= ≈ 142 4−0 b. 177 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 32.2 x + 47 28. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 1.8 585.

this causes the lines not to appear perpendicular when indeed they are. Ax + By + C = 0 By = − Ax − C By − Ax C = − B B B A C y = − x− B B The slope of the given line is − A . Write Ax + By + C = 0 in slope-intercept form. Sample explanation: Slopes can be used for segments of the graph. makes sense 44. does not make sense. makes sense 42. This is verified because product of their slopes is –1. Inc. b. 39. 43. the lines appear to be perpendicular. A 178 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 33. Answers may vary. Explanations will vary. The lines do not appear to be perpendicular. . makes sense 41. – 38. The lines appear to be perpendicular. In part (b). This causes the scale of the x–axis to differ from the scale on the y–axis despite using the same scale in the window settings. 40. The lines are perpendicular because their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. The calculator screen is rectangular and does not have the same width and height. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. B The slope of any line perpendicular to Ax + By + C = 0 is B . 1 x +1 3 y = −3x − 2 y= a. The zoom square feature compensates for this and in part (c).

The range is { y | 0 ≤ y ≤ 3}. The domain is {0. The relation is a function.3}. 47. b. The relation is a function. − A = so A = − . The range is {−6. 179 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The range is {1. 6}. 4. . c. 2. The slope of the line containing (1. The range is { y | −1 ≤ y ≤ 2}. 4}.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 45. 4. The relation is not a function. 7 7 7 has slope m = 46. Inc. 48. 4 ) b. −3) and ( −2. Therefore. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted to the right 2 units. 2}. Ax + y − 2 = 0 y = − Ax + 2 So the slope of this line is − A. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) reflected across the y-axis. The relation is not a function. 2. c. The domain is {x | −3 < x ≤ 4}. The domain is {x | −2 ≤ x < 2}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. This line is perpendicular to the line above so its 3 3 3 slope is . Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 1. The domain is {1. 3. a. c. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted down 4 units. a. a. b. 4 − ( −3 ) 4+3 7 7 = = =− −2 − 1 −3 −3 3 Solve Ax + y − 2 = 0 for y to obtain slope-intercept form.

. Domain: 11. 26. f (−7) = −2 and f (3) = −2 20. increasing: (–∞. 6. x2 + y = 5 24. f (−2) = 4 18. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x 180 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The range is {−2. 4] 12. ∞) 29. if x = 4. 27. 30. y-intercept: 3 14. neither. f (100) is negative. Inc. so the equation defines y as a function of x. The relation is not a function. ( −6. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (−4) −5 − 3 = = = −1 4 − (−4) 4+4 x2 − x1 25. –2) 15. there is one and only one value for y. x = −2 17.Functions and Graphs 5.1. then y = ± 5 − 4 = ±1 ). 0. −1. decreasing: (–2. 7. ∞ ) 28. 23. Range: ( −∞. ( −∞. f (−6) = 0 and f (2) = 0 21. f (−4) = 3 19. y = − x2 + 5 For each value of x. 10.3}. The domain is {−2. The domain is {x | x ≤ 1}. 8. the equation does not define y as a function of x. −1. x-intercepts: –6 and 2 13. 16. The range is { y | y ≥ −1}. x + y2 = 5 y2 = 5 − x y = ± 5− x Since there are values of x that give more than one value for y (for example. 9. 2}.1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Each value of x corresponds to exactly one value of y. 2 ) 22. The relation is a function.

36. . 31. f (− x) = −2(− x) 2 − x − 5 = −2 x 2 − x − 5 neither. 34.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 35. 5 y = 20 y=4 32. a. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x b. 37. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 33. 5 y = −3 x 3 y=− x 5 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) − 5 − (−2 x 2 + x − 5) = h 2 2 −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h − 5 + 2 x 2 − x + 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 181 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

m1 = Change in y 0 − (−4) 4 = = Change in x 7−2 5 Change in y 6−2 4 = = Change in x 1 − (−4) 5 The slope of the lines are equal thus the lines are parallel.16% per minute of brisk walking. so m = 3. the percentage of patients with depression in remission increased by 0. m= b. and the lines are parallel. 2 +1 . if ⎧30 C ( x) = ⎨ ⎩30 + 0. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = −2 x + 10 43. Inc. C (150) = 30 b. so m = − . C (250) = 30 + 0. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (2) − f (−1) = x2 − x1 2 − (−1) = ( 3(2) 2 − 2 ) − ( 3(−1) 2 − (−1) ) =2 182 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The rate of change is 0. For each minute of brisk walking.16%. y − (−4) = 3( x − 3) y + 4 = 3x − 9 y = 3 x − 13 f ( x) = 3 x − 13 45. 3x − y − 5 = 0 − y = −3 x + 5 m2 = y = 3x − 5 The slope of the given line is 3.40(t − 200) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 200 42.Functions and Graphs 38. and the lines are 5 5 perpendicular. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44. t > 200 a. 2 . 39.40(250 − 200) = 50 −5 y −2 x 10 = + −5 −5 −5 2 y = x−2 5 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) The slope of the given line is y − 3 = −2 ( x − (−4) ) m= 5 ( x − (−4) ) 2 5 y + 3 = − x − 10 2 5 y = − x − 13 2 5 f ( x) = − x − 13 2 y − (−3) = − Change in y 1 − (−5) 6 = = =2 Change in x 2 − (−1) 3 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − 2) y − 1 = 2x − 4 y = 2x − 3 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 41.16 Change in x 180 − 80 100 a. Change in y 42 − 26 16 = = = 0. 2 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 3 = −2( x + 4) y − 3 = −2 x − 8 y = −2 x − 5 f ( x ) = −2 x − 5 40.

8. by a factor of 5. a. 6. Shift to the right 1 unit and down 2 units. then 3 shifted down 2 units. shrunk 1 . 183 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Shift up vertically 3 units.6 Check Point Exercises 1. Horizontally shrink the graph of y = f ( x ) . 4. Vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x . Reflect about the x-axis. Horizontally stretch the graph of y = f ( x ) . 3. 7.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. The graph of y = f ( x ) is shifted 1 unit left. Reflect about the y-axis. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. reflected about the x-axis. . 2.6 Section 1. Shift to the right 4 units. b.

6 1. 9. 2.Functions and Graphs 9. Exercise Set 1. 5. stretched by a factor of 2. 3. . Inc. The graph of f ( x) = x 2 is shifted 1 unit right. 184 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8. 4. then shifted up 3 units. 7. 6.

16. 185 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 12. 11.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Inc. 19. 17.6 10. 15. 13. . 14. 18.

21. .Functions and Graphs 20. 28. 29. 30. 26. 23. 24. 186 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 25. 27. 22.

36. 38. 33. 35. 40. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 34. 39. 187 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 32.6 31.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 37.

47. 48. 50. 49.Functions and Graphs 41. 44. 188 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 46. . 42. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 43. 45.

189 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 57.6 51. 58. 55. 56. 61. Inc. 53. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 54. 59. .PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 60. 62. 52.

Inc. 72. 66. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 69. 73. 190 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 74. . 68. 64. 70.Functions and Graphs 63. 65. 71. 67.

6 81. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 84. 80. 85. 79. Inc. 86. 77. 82. 78. 83.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 75. 76. . 191 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

192 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 94. 97. . 91. 88. 92. 89. 90. 87. 95. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs 93. 98. 96.

103. 104. 105. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 102. 101. 110.6 99.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 193 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 106. 107. 109. Inc. 108. 100.

121. Inc. 119. 122. 116. 115.Functions and Graphs 111. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 118. 123. 114. 112. 125. y = x − 2 + 1 194 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 120. 113. y = x − 2 124. . y = ( x + 1) 2 − 4 126. y = − x 3 + 2 117.

2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c). Answers may vary.9 50 + 20.9. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 3. Section 1.1 = 10 ≈ 0.1 50 + 19 ) 60 − 50 43. .1 ) ( 60 + 19 − 3. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 2. 128.6 First. 195 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10 + 20. c. First. Inc.5 The model describes the actual data very well.9203 = 10 ≈ 0.1 48 + 19 ≈ 40.1 10 − 0 29. a. ( 3.9 ) ( ) d. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 135.8031 − 19 = 10 ≈ 1.1 129.27 − 20.1 − 2. 60 − 50 42.1 − 2.9 48 + 20. f ( x) = 3.0125 − 40.9 inches per month = f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 2. ) 60 + 20. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference.9 0 + 20.1 units. = = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 ( 2. then shift the result up 20. = f ( x) = 2.1 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 10 − 0 28.9 0.1 10 + 19) − ( 3. a. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference.6061 = 10 ≈ 0.0 inches per month f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = d. a.5633 − 40. c.1.PreCalculus 4E 127.1 ≈ 40. b. b.2 The model describes the actual data very well.9 ) ( = b.1 f (48) = 2. – 134.9 x + 20.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c). 0 + 19 ) f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 3.1 x + 19 f (48) = 3. then shift the result up 19 units.0 1.

does not make sense. while the graph a. The domain of f is the set of all real numbers or ( −∞. (a. (a. Inc. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 30 x + 30 139.Functions and Graphs 149. a. Since h( x) = 9 x − 27 contains an even root. domain of g = ( −∞. false. b) 136. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t + 1). Changes to make the statement true will vary. ( f ( x) ) 2 − 2 f ( x ) + 6 = ( 3x − 4 ) − 2(3 x − 4) + 6 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 − 6 x + 8 + 6 137. 150. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 24 x − 6 x + 16 + 8 + 6 138. c. These values must be excluded from the domain. 147. the quantity under the radical must be greater than or equal to 0. 2x 2x = 3x − x 3− x x Check Point Exercises 142. Changes to make the statement true will vary. g ( x) = − x − 2 + 2 2. Explanations will vary. ∞ ) . b – 3) 153. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. 2 = 3 −1 x 140. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. false. true 145. 143. 2b) 151. b. A sample change is: The stretch will be 5 units and the downward shift will be 10 units. 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 144. 155. or the of g is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the yaxis. The denominator equals zero when x = 7 or x = –7. 9 x − 27 ≥ 0 9 x ≥ 27 x≥3 Thus. Section 1. (a + 3. g ( x) = – x – 5 + 1 interval [3. . Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t − 1).7 141. (2 x − 1)( x 2 + x − 2) = 2 x( x 2 + x − 2) − 1( x 2 + x − 2) b. does not make sense. ∞ ) . A sample change is: The graph of g is a translation of f three units to the left and three units upward. g ( x) = − 16 – x 2 − 1 4 = x − 5 + x2 − 1 = − x2 + x − 6 196 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − x 2 − x + 2 = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x 2 − 4 x − x + 2 = 2 x3 + x 2 − 5 x + 2 154. The function f ( x) = x 2 + 3x − 17 contains neither division nor an even root. Explanations will vary. (–a. the domain of h is {x x ≥ 3} . 7 ) ∪ ( 7. A sample change is: The graph of f is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the x-axis. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 5 + ( x 2 − 1) 1 148. g ( x) = −( x + 4)2 146. ∞ ) . a. b) 152.

(g f ) ( x) = g ( f ( x) ) = 2 (5 x + 6 ) − ( 5x + 6 ) − 1 2 = 2(25 x 2 + 60 x + 36) − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 120 x + 72 − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 115 x + 65 c. domain: ( −∞. Thus. The function contains neither division nor an even root. Section 1. x ≠ ±1 = 2 x −1 4. ∞ ) 6. This value must be excluded from the domain. The domain = ( −∞. ∞ ) 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The denominator equals zero when x = 4. ∞) The domain of f + g is the set of all real numbers that are common to the domain of f and the domain of g. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. 3. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. ∞) domain of g: x +1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −1 [−1. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 9.10 ) ∪ (10. ( fg )( x ) = ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 − 1) = x ( x 2 − 1) − 5 ( x 2 − 1) 6. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. The domain = ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 3. a. domain: ( −∞. 4. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. x ≠ − ⎬ 2⎭ ⎩ = x − 5 − x2 + 1 = − x2 + x − 4 c. −4 ) ∪ ( −4.7 ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = ( x) g g ⎝ ⎠ x −5 . (f (f g ) ( x) = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 10. 2 h ( x ) = f g where f ( x) = x .3) ∪ ( 3. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 [3. a. domain: ( −∞. 5 ) ∪ ( 5. This value must be excluded from the domain. ∞). = x − 5 − ( x − 1) g )( x) = (f b. Inc.7 ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5. The function contains neither division nor an even root. 1⎫ ⎧ domain: ⎨ x x ≠ 0. The denominator equals zero when x = −5. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. g ( x) = x 2 + 5 = x3 − x − 5 x 2 + 5 = x3 − 5 x 2 − x + 5 d.9 ) ∪ ( 9. −3) ∪ ( −3. ∞ ) g ) (−1) = 10(−1) 2 − 5(−1) + 1 = 10 + 5 + 1 = 16 197 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5. . −8) ∪ ( −8. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. 1. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 7. the domain of f + g is [3. domain of f: (f ( g ) ( x) = f ( g ( x ) ) ) = 5 2 x2 − x − 1 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x − 5 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 b. The function contains neither division nor an even root. ∞ ) 2. The domain = ( −∞. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 3 + x +1 b.PreCalculus 4E b. The domain = ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . Exercise Set 1. 4 4x = 1 1 + 2x +2 x a. The function contains neither division nor an even root.

⎟ ∪ ⎜ . x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 domain: [ −2. ∞ ) 4 −2 = 0 x −1 4 ⎞ − 2 ⎟ = ( x − 1)( 0 ) ( x − 1) ⎛⎜ ⎝ x −1 ⎠ 13.1) ∪ (1. Exclude x for x = 0 . 4 ) ∪ ( 4. . −2 ) ∪ ( −2. Exclude x for x − 2 = 0 . ∞ ) x =1 4 −2= 0. x 4 −1 = 0 x ⎛4 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 4−x = 0 4 −3 = 0 x−2 4 ⎞ − 3 ⎟ = ( x − 2 )( 0 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎛⎜ − x 2 ⎝ ⎠ 4 − 3( x − 2) = 0 4 − 3x + 6 = 0 −3 x + 10 = 0 −3x = −10 − x = −4 10 3 ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ x=4 domain: ( −∞. The first denominator cannot equal zero. 4 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 .1) ∪ (1. ∞ ) 198 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x−2 Exclude x for 14. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) x= 17. The first denominator cannot equal zero. ∞ ) x=2 4 −3 = 0. x −1 = 0 11. The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. Exclude x for x = 0 . ∞ ) 18.3) ∪ ( 3. domain: ( −∞. Exclude x for x − 1 = 0 . 2 ) ∪ ( 2.Functions and Graphs 15. x−2 = 0 − x = −3 x=3 domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3. −1) ∪ ( −1. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. x −1 Exclude x for 12. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 3 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . 0 ) ∪ ( 0. x 3 −1 = 0 x ⎛3 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 3− x = 0 4 − 2 ( x − 1) = 0 4 − 2x + 2 = 0 −2 x + 6 = 0 −2 x = −6 x=3 domain: ( −∞. 2 ) ∪ ⎜ 2. The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain.

x−2 ≥ 0 x+3≥ 0 and x≥2 x ≥ −3 To make both inequalities true. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 24 − 2 x ≥ 0 ( = ( x − 5) x 2 − 4 ) = ( x − 5)( x + 2)( x − 2) –2.7 19. 5 x + 35 ≥ 0 domain: [ 2. The expression under the radical must be positive. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. x ≥ 2 . ∞ ) . The expression under the radical must be positive.12] 30. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. domain: ( −∞. Inc. −3) ∪ ( −3. ∞ ) −6 x −84 ≤ −6 −6 x ≤ 14 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) −2 x ≥ −24 −2 x −24 ≤ −2 −2 x ≤ 12 domain: ( −∞. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 9 x + 18 24. Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain.5 ) ∪ ( 5. The expression under the radical must not be negative. and 3 must be excluded. ∞ ) x>3 domain: ( 3. 22.14] 25. 6 ) ∪ ( 6. 84 − 6 x ≥ 0 = x2 ( x − 2) − 9 ( x − 2) ( = ( x − 2) x2 − 9 −6 x ≥ −84 ) = ( x − 2)( x + 3)( x − 3) –3. ∞ ) . and 5 must be excluded. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 21. ∞ ) x≥2 The denominator equals zero when x = 5. The expression under the radical must not be negative. ∞ ) = x 2 ( x − 5) − 4 ( x − 5 ) 23. domain: ( −∞. Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. x ≥ 3 . The expression under the radical must not be negative.5) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) 20. 2. x+2>0 27.3) ∪ ( 3. . 7 x ≥ 70 29. The expression under the radical must not be negative. x −3≥ 0 x ≥ −7 domain: [ −7. x−2 ≥ 0 x > −2 domain: ( −2. domain: [3. ∞ ) 199 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) x≥3 The denominator equals zero when x = 6. x −3≥ 0 x+4≥0 and x≥3 x ≥ −4 To make both inequalities true. 5 x ≥ −35 28. 7 x − 70 ≥ 0 domain: [3. x −3 > 0 26. domain: [ 2. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x ≥ 10 domain: [10.

(f + g)(x) = 4x – 2 domain: (–∞. −5) ∪ ( −5. domain: (−∞. ∞) = ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) 2 x + 3 = ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g ( x) x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( f + g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = 2 x − 12 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (3 − x 2 )( x 2 + 2 x − 15) ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 3x2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞.1) ∪ (1. ∞ ) 32. domain: ( −∞. ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = −3 x 2 + x − 5 domain: (−∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x+2 ⎝g⎠ 33. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 6 x2 − x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 4) – (x + 2) = 2x – 6 domain: (–∞. −1) ∪ ( −1. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3 − x2 = ( x ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 2 x − 15 ⎝g⎠ ( f + g )( x) = 5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞.Functions and Graphs 31. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = −2 x 2 − 2 x + 18 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. (2 x – 3)( x + 1) = 2x – 3 ( x + 1) domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x – 6)(5 x 2 ) = 5 x 3 – 30 x 2 domain: (–∞. (f + g)(x) = 3x + 2 domain: (−∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = 6 x 2 − 2 x domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x − 5)(3 x 2 ) = 3x 3 − 15 x 2 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) 200 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. Inc. ∞) (fg)(x) = (3x – 4)(x + 2) = 3x2 + 2x – 8 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞) (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = (2x + 3) – (x – 1) =x+4 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 3x 2 + x − 5 37. ∞ ) 34. . ∞ ) 36. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (6 x 2 − x − 1)( x − 1) = 6 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 1 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x−6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5x2 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. = 2 x3 + x 2 – 4 x – 3 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (2 x 2 – x – 3)( x + 1) = − x 4 − 2 x 3 + 18 x 2 + 6 x − 45 domain: (–∞.1) ∪ (1. ∞) ( f – g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 x – 4 domain: (–∞. ∞) 35. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = –5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 2 x2 – x – 3 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x +1 ⎝g⎠ ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = (2 x + 3) ⋅ ( x − 1) = 2x2 + x − 3 domain: (−∞.

−6 ) ∪ ( −6.5) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) 1 1 + =6 x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 − 1 1 2 6x − 2 − = 6− = x x x x domain: ( −∞. 1 1 − =2 x x domain: ( −∞. . ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 2 + 1 ⎞ 1 6 1 6x −1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ = − 2 = 2 x⎠ x x x x ⎝ domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 39. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x−4 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 5 − x2 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 4 x − 12 ⎝g⎠ 2 + 1x ⎛ ⎛f ⎞ 1⎞ ( ) x = = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ x = 2x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 38. ∞ ) ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 5) domain: [0. 1 1 2 2x + 2 + = 2+ = x x x x domain: ( −∞. Section 1. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) 6 − 1x ⎛ ⎛ f ⎞ 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 1 = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ x = 6 x − 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −5 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (5 − x 2 )( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 1 ⎞ 1 2 1 2x + 1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ = + 2 = x⎠ x x x x2 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) 42. ∞ ) = − x 4 − 4 x3 + 17 x 2 + 20 x − 60 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 2 + = −2 x 2 − 4 x + 17 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 41. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 6 – ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 4) domain: [0. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 5 domain: [0. ∞ ) 201 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 4 domain: [0.7 ( f + g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) = 4x − 7 domain: (–∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) 40. ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 4 domain: [0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 5 domain: [0.

∞ ) 4x = 2 1 2 domain: ( −∞.5 ) ∪ ( 5. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −1 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (1. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5x + 1 4 x − 2 = 2 − x − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = 2 x −9 1 = x −3 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2x − 4 + x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 5x − 3 = 2 x − 25 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 3x + 1 2 x − 4 = 2 − x − 25 x 2 − 25 x+5 = 2 x − 25 1 = x −5 domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = x + 4 ⋅ x − 1 = x 2 + 3 x − 4 domain: [1.Functions and Graphs 43. 2x − 4 = 0 5x + 1 ⎛f ⎞ x2 − 9 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 4 x − 2 ⎝g⎠ x2 − 9 5x + 1 x 2 − 9 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 4x − 2 5x + 1 = 4x − 2 The domain must exclude –3. 5. −3) ∪ ( −3.3) ∪ ( 3. 12 ) ∪ ( 12 . ∞ ) 3x + 1 2 ⎛f ⎞ x − 25 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2 x − 4 g ⎝ ⎠ x 2 − 25 3x + 1 x 2 − 25 = 2 ⋅ x − 25 2 x − 4 3x + 1 = 2x − 4 The domain must exclude –5. −3) ∪ ( −3. ∞ ) 202 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 x2 − 9 (5 x + 1)(4 x − 2) = 2 ( x2 − 9) ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = = = = 3x + 1 2 x − 4 ⋅ x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 (3 x + 1)(2 x − 4) (x 2 − 25 ) 2 domain: ( −∞. 4x − 2 = 0 2x = 4 x=2 domain: ( −∞. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 4 − x − 1 domain: [1. . ∞ ) domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 44. and any values that make 4 x − 2 = 0. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 + x2 − 9 x2 − 9 9x −1 = 2 x −9 domain: ( −∞. and any values that make 2 x − 4 = 0.5 ) ∪ ( 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.5 ) ∪ ( 5. 3. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. −3) ∪ ( −3. Inc.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) x= 45. −3) ∪ ( −3.3) ∪ ( 3. ( f + g )( x) = x + 4 + x − 1 domain: [1.5 ) ∪ ( 5.

f(x) = 4x – 3. f(x) = x + 4. ( f g )( x) = 5(3x − 4) + 2 = 15 x − 18 b. ( f g )(2) = 15(2) − 18 = 12 53. a. . ( f g )(2) = 14(2) 2 − 62 = −6 f ( x) = x 2 + 2. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−3 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (3. g(x) = x – 5 a. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = x + 6 ⋅ x − 3 = x 2 + 3x − 18 domain: [3. ( g f )( x) = 3(5 x + 2) − 4 = 15 x + 2 c. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 6 − x − 3 domain: [3.PreCalculus 4E 46. ( g f )( x) = 3x – 5 c. ( fg )( x) = x − 5 ⋅ 5 − x = − x 2 + 10 x − 25 domain: {5} ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5− x ⎝g⎠ domain: ∅ 54. ( f g )( x) = (2 x + 1) + 4 = 2 x + 5 b. ( f g )(2) = 20(2)2 − 11 = 69 f ( x) = 7 x + 1. g(x) = 2x + 1 ( f + g )( x) = x + 6 + x − 3 domain: [3. a. b. g ( x) = x 2 − 2 50. Inc. ( f g )( x) = 4(5 x 2 − 2) − 3 b. = 20 x 2 − 11 b. g ( x) = 2 x 2 – 9 49. ∞) 47. = 80 x 2 − 120 x + 43 c. g(x) = 3x – 4 ( f + g )( x) = x − 2 + 2 − x domain: {2} ( f − g )( x) = x − 2 − 2 − x domain: {2} a. g(x) = x + 7 ( f g )( x) = 2( x + 7) = 2 x + 14 ( g f )( x) = 5(4 x − 3) 2 − 2 = 5(16 x 2 − 24 x + 9) − 2 ( f + g )( x) = x − 5 + 5 − x domain: {5} ( f − g )( x) = x − 5 − 5 − x domain: {5} a. 55. a. f(x) = 2x. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 51. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 14 = 18 a. f(x) = 5x + 2 . ( g f )( x) = 2(7 x + 1)2 − 9 = 2(49 x 2 + 14 x + 1) − 9 = 98 x 2 + 28 x − 7 c. g ( x) = 5 x 2 − 2 ( fg )( x ) = x − 2 ⋅ 2 − x = − x 2 + 4 x − 4 domain: {2} ⎛f ⎞ x−2 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 2− x ⎝ ⎠ domain: ∅ 48. ( f g )(2) = 3(2) − 15 = −9 ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 2) 2 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 4 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 6 ( f g )( x) = 3( x − 5) = 3 x − 15 b. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 4(2) 2 + 6 = 6 203 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( f g )( x) = 7(2 x 2 − 9) + 1 = 14 x 2 − 62 b. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 5 = 9 52. f(x) = 3x. ( g f )( x) = 2( x + 4) + 1 = 2 x + 9 c. ( g f )( x) = 2 x + 7 c. Section 1. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 2) 2 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 4 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 2 c.

57. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 2 1 b. Inc. ( g f )( x) = c. . f(x) = 2x – 3. ( f g )( x) = 4 − ( 2 x 2 + x + 5 ) = 4 − 2 x2 − x − 5 = −2 x − x − 1 2 b. ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ −3 = x +3−3 = x ⎝ 6 ⎠ b. ( f g )( x) = 5 ( − x 2 + 4 x − 1) − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 5 − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 7 b. 63. g ( x) = = 2 x 2 − 17 x + 41 c. ( g f )( x) = 2 ( 4 − x ) + ( 4 − x ) + 5 2 c. x+3 6 a. 6x − 3 + 3 6x = =x 6 6 a. = −25 x 2 + 20 x − 4 + 20 x − 8 − 1 c. g ( x) = x x ( f g )( x) = = −25 x 2 + 40 x − 13 59.Functions and Graphs f ( x) = x 2 + 1. g(x) = x – 1 a. ( g f )( x) = − ( 5 x − 2 ) + 4 ( 5 x − 2 ) − 1 = −(25 x 2 − 20 x + 4) + 20 x − 8 − 1 (2 x − 3) + 3 2 x = =x 2 2 ( g f )( x) = 62. = 32 − 16 x + 2 x 2 + 4 − x + 5 ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 2 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x + 3−3 =x b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( g f )( x) = x − 1 c. g ( x) = − x 2 + 4 x − 1 a. ( f g )(2) = 2 − 1 = 1 = 1 1 1 . = 2(16 − 8 x + x 2 ) + 4 − x + 5 x+3 2 1 x 1 x =x =x 204 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( g f )( x) = 1 c. ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 3) 2 + 1 f ( x) = x . f ( x) = 4 − x . ( f g )( x) = x − 1 b. g ( x ) = = x4 + 2 x2 − 2 c. ( f g )(2) = −2(2) 2 − 2 − 1 = −11 f ( x) = 5 x − 2. a. g ( x) = x + 2 a. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 6(2) 2 + 10 = 2 a. ( f g )(2) = 2 + 2 = 4 = 2 = x − 6x + 9 + 1 4 2 = x 4 − 6 x 2 + 10 b. ( f g )( x) = x + 2 b. 60. 58. g ( x) = x 2 − 3 56. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 1) 2 − 3 = x + 2x +1 − 3 4 2 61. g ( x) = 2 x 2 + x + 5 a. ( f g )(2) = 2 ( f g )(2) = −5(2) 2 + 20(2) − 7 = 13 f ( x) = x . ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 6 x − 3. ( g f )( x) = x + 2 c.

a. ∞ ) . domain: 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. ∞ ) . x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. =x =x b. x ≠ −4 = 4+ x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . b.PreCalculus 4E 64. b. 6⎞ ⎛ 6 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. b. . 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. 2 ⎛1⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = . a. b. 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 3 denominator of f g to be 0. a. ( f g )(2) = 2 65. ( g f )( x) = 2 c. 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 66. We must exclude −4 because it causes the denominator of f g to be 0. b. 4 ⎛4⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝ x ⎠ 4 +1 x ⎛4⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) x = ⎝ ⎠ ⎛4 ⎞ ⎜ + 1⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 4 . 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0.x ≠ 0 1 x ⎝ ⎠ +3 x 2( x) = ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ + 3⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 2x = 1 + 3x 68. ∞ ) .7 2 2 . − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . 4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 70. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. 205 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 5x ⎛1⎞ = f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ x ⎠ 1 + 4 1 + 4x x 69. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( −∞. ∞ ) . 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 4 denominator of f g to be 0. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. a. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . f g ( x ) = f ( x − 2) = x − 2 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. f ( x) = Section 1. ( f g )( x) = 2 b. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . a. 2 x 2 x 67. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. g ( x) = x x a. 6 We must exclude − because it causes the 5 denominator of f g to be 0. x−2 ≥ 0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. 6 6 ⎛6⎞ f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x = 6 ⎝ x⎠ + 5 6 + 5x x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. a. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. Inc. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 3) = x − 3 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g.

f(x) = |x|. . (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = −5 73. x g ( x) = 2 x − 3 80. g ( x ) = 3x − 1 77. f ( x) = x 4 . (f g )(1) = f ( g (1) ) = f ( −5 ) = 3 f ( x) = 3 x. f (x) = |x|. The graph of f + g − x ≥ −1 x ≤1 domain: (−∞. 1− x ≥ 0 The domain of f is ( −4. 2−x ≥ 0 − x ≥ −2 x≤2 domain: (−∞. g ( 3) 0 ⎛g⎞ = =0 ⎜ ⎟ ( 3) = f ( 3) −3 ⎝f ⎠ 86. 1]. Inc. (f g )( −1) = f ( g (−1) ) = f ( −3) = 1 g ( x) = 2x − 5 90. The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. ( f g )( x) = f ( 1 − x ) = ( 1− x ) 2 +4 = 1− x + 4 85. g(x) = 2x – 5 78. ( ) 2 x − 3x + 8 − 5 = 7 2 2 x 2 − 6 x + 16 − 5 = 7 2 x 2 − 6 x + 11 = 7 2x2 − 6x + 4 = 0 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x =1 x=2 206 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 84. = 5− x b. a. g ( x ) = 5x 2 + 3 92. ( f g )( x) = f ( 2 − x ) = ( 2−x ) 2 +1 = 2 − x +1 88. g ( x ) = x2 − 9 91. f ( x) = 1 . g(x) = 3x – 4 79. ( fg )( 2 ) = f ( 2 ) g ( 2 ) = ( −1)(1) = −1 ( f g )( x) = 7 93. ( g − f )( −2 ) = g ( −2 ) − f ( −2 ) = 2 − 3 = −1 83. a. 76. 3) g 87. x g ( x ) = 4x + 5 81. f ( x) = 1 . 74. f ( x ) = x3 . 75. The graph of f − g = 3− x b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 89. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 2 ) = −6 f ( x) = x. 2]. 72. The domain of f + g is [ −4.Functions and Graphs 71. ( f + g )( −3) = f ( −3) + g ( −3) = 4 + 1 = 5 82. 3] . The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g.

75( x − 400) This models the price of a computer after first a $400 discount and then a 25% discount. ( g f )( x) = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f )( x ) = 0.5 thousand. in 2005 is 6573. 000 + 45(20. g gives the price of the computer after a 25% discount. in 2003 was 1634. a.1 thousand. (f c. f + g = -. g gives the cost of a pair of jeans that has been discounted 40%. b.PreCalculus 4E 94. = 1634.76 The slope for f + g is 0. The function f g models the greater discount.000) – (600.9(5)2 + 5(5) + 6451 = 6573.S. c.7 ( f g )( x) = −5 ) = 65(20.51x + 11.000 since costs exceeded revenues.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 + 3. 000) 97. ( B + D )( x ) f gives the cost of a pair of jeans for which a $5 rebate is offered.9 x 2 + 5 x + 6451 ( B + D )( 5 ) = 3. ( B − D )( x ) = 10. in 2003 by 0. ( f g )( x) = 0.6x – 3 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $3 rebate. b.000) = 65(30. c. since the 25% discount is taken on the regular price first.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7. g )( x ) = 0.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 ( B − D )( 3) = 10. ( R − C )(20. a. 207 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 99. 1 − 2 3 x + x − 1 = −5 2 98. underestimates the actual number of births and deaths in 2005 by 1. f gives the price of the computer after a $400 discount. ( B + D )( x ) = 3. d. Inc.75 x − 400 This models the price of a computer after first a 25% discount and then a $400 discount.07 This is the profit for the two stores combined for each year after 2004. 000 The company lost $200.044x + 13.S. The slope of g is 0. ( Section 1. 000)) = −200. 000) − (600. a.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7.07x + 24.14 = 0. 2 = 3.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) − ( −3.000)) =0 The company broke even. (g d.1 thousand. b.62 + 0.000 + 45(30.5 x 2 − 20 x − 2405 = 10. c.5 thousand.S. ( B − D )( x ) = B ( x ) − D ( x) = (7.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405 100.51 This is the increase in profits for the second store for each year after 2004.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 − 3.6 x − 5 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $5 rebate.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) + ( −3.1 The change in population in the U.44 This is the decrease in profits for the first store for each year after 2004. The slope for f is -0. . ( B − D )( x ) c. a.6 ( x − 5 ) = 0. f g because of a $5 rebate.5 The number of births and deaths in the U.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 b.9 x + 5 x + 6451 b. 96. a. (R – C)(30. ( B + D )( x ) = B ( x ) + D ( x) = (7.9(3)2 − 35(3) + 1641 overestimates the actual change in population in the U. 1 − 6 x 2 − 2 x + 2 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 3 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 8 = 0 3x 2 + x − 4 = 0 (3x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 3 x = −4 x =1 4 x=− 3 95.

x = y2 − 1 x + 1 = y2 120. . Sample explanation: It is common that f g and g f are not the same. (4. y = x +1 2 112. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: (f g )( x ) = f = ( ( x2 − 4 x2 − 4 ) 2 ) −4 = x2 − 4 − 4 = x2 − 8 208 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4] 108. Explanations will vary. Answers may vary. Sample explanation: The diagram illustrates x +1 = y2 x +1 = y g ( f ( x) ) = x + 4. the y value disappears because the function is not defined at x = 0. makes sense 110. − x ≥ −2 x= 5 +4 y ⎛5 ⎞ y ( x) = y ⎜ + 4 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ xy = 5 + 4 y xy − 4 y = 5 y ( x − 4) = 5 5 y= x−4 x ≤2 x≤4 domain: [ 0. 118. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 109. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. g ( x ) = 3x 101.Functions and Graphs 113. {(4. 2)} The element 1 in the domain corresponds to two elements in the range. false. false. ∞ ) . 116. (1. does not make sense. Thus. the relation is not a function. A sample change is: ( f g ) ( 4) = f ( g ( 4)) = f ( 7) = 5 115. When your trace reaches x = 0. false. ( f g )( x) = ( f g )(− x) f ( g ( x)) = f ( g (− x)) since g is even f ( g ( x)) = f ( g ( x)) so f g is even 117. (1. Explanations will vary.1). ( f g )( x) = 2 − x The domain of g is [ 0. true 107. −2). −1). – 105. 2− x ≥ 0 119. Inc. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: f ( x ) = 2 x. does not make sense. ( f g ) ( x ) = f ( g ( x ) ) = f ( 3x ) = 2(3x) = 6 x (g f )( x ) = g ( f ( x ) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( 2 x ) = 6 x 114. 111. 106. The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative.

⎛ x+7⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−7 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x − 7) + 7 g ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 f ( g ( x) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = x 4. The graphs of (b) and (c) pass the horizontal line test and thus have an inverse. f ( x) f −1 ( x ) (−2. 2. 3 −1 x Interchange x and y: 3 x = −1 y Solve for y: 3 x = −1 y xy = 3 − y xy + y = 3 y ( x + 1) = 3 3 y= x +1 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : y= f ( x) = 2 x + 7 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 2x + 7 Interchange x and y: x = 2y + 7 Solve for y: x = 2y + 7 x − 7 = 2y x−7 =y 2 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f −1 ( x) = 3. −1) (1.1) x +1 4 Alternative form for answer: x +1 3 x +1 f ( x) −1 = 3 = 3 4 4 f −1 ( x) = = = 3 3 x +1 3 2 ⋅3 = 3 4 2 3 2x + 2 2 3 2x + 2 3 8 209 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Find points of f −1 . 6. 0) (0. 3 −1 x Replace f ( x) with y: f ( x) = x−7 2 f −1 ( x) = f ( x) = 4 x3 − 1 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 4 x3 − 1 Interchange x and y: x = 4 y3 − 1 Solve for y: x = 4 y3 − 1 x + 1 = 4 y3 x +1 = y3 4 x 1 + 3 =y 4 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : 3 x +1 5. . Inc.8 Check Point Exercises 1. −2) (−1. −2) (−2. 2) (2.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.

Exercise Set 1. f ( x) = 3 x − 7. g ( x ) = 3 3 . g ( x) = 3 3 x−4 +4 ⎛ x−4⎞ = 3⋅⎜ ⎟+4 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = x−4+4 =x f and g are inverses. g ( f ( x) ) = 2 2 x −5 210 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x −8 3 8. f ( x) = 6 x . Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f ( x) = 4 x. g ( x) = + 4 x−4 x 3 3 f ( g ( x)) = 3 = 3 =x + − 4 4 x x f ( x) = g ( f ( x)) = ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝6⎠ 6x =x g ( f ( x) ) = 6 f and g are inverses. f ( x) = 4 x + 9. g ( x) = x−9 4 ⎛ x −9⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟+9 = x −9+9 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x + 9) − 9 4 x g ( f ( x) ) = = =x 4 4 f and g are inverses. x 6 f(x) = 3x + 8. 2 2 . g ( x) = + 5 x −5 x 2 2x f ( g ( x )) = 2 = =x ( x + 5) − 5 2 f ( x) = ⎛ x −5⎞ + 5 = 2⎜ ⎟+5 = x−5+5 = x ⎝ 2 ⎠ f and g are inverses. x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = x − 1 6. y = x2 + 1 Interchange x and y: x = y2 +1 Solve for y: x = y2 + 1 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 x 4 ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x =x g ( f ( x)) = 4 f and g are inverses. 3. g ( x) = 7. g ( x ) = x+5 9 x+3 7 x + 3 3x + 9 3x − 40 ⎛ ⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ −7 = ⎟−7 = 7 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠ 3x − 7 + 3 3x − 4 g ( f ( x) ) = = 7 7 f and g are not inverses. f ( x) = x 2 + 1 Replace f ( x) with y: 4. . 2. f(x) = 5x – 9. Inc. g ( x ) = ⎛ x+5⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 5 ⎜ ⎟−9 ⎝ 9 ⎠ 5 x + 25 = −9 9 5 x − 56 = 9 5x − 9 + 5 5x − 4 g ( f ( x)) = = 9 9 f and g are not inverses.Functions and Graphs 7. x − 1 = y2 5. ⎛ x −8⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 3 ⎜ ⎟+8 = x −8+8 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ (3x + 8) − 8 3x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 3 3 f and g are inverses.

PreCalculus 4E 9.8 f ( x) = − x. 14. y = 4x x = 4y x 4 x −1 f ( x) = 4 y= f ( x) = 3 x − 4. a. 10. x − 3 = 2y f ( f ( x)) = x − 3 + 3 = x x −3 2 x −3 f −1 ( x) = 2 y= f ( x) = x + 5 y = x+5 x = y+5 y = x−5 b. ⎛ x −3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟+3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x −3+3 =x 2x + 3 − 3 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = = =x 2 2 f ( f −1 ( x) ) = x − 5 + 5 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = x + 5 − 5 = x 13. g ( x) = − x f ( g ( x)) = −(− x ) = x g ( f ( x)) = −(− x ) = x f and g are inverses. f(x) = x + 3 y=x+3 x=y+3 y=x–3 −1 f ( x) = x − 3 15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f −1 ( x ) = x − 5 f ( x) = 2 x 16. ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 y = 2x + 3 −1 12. Inc. f and g are inverses. a. . b. ⎛ x +1 ⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ −1 = x +1 −1 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3x − 1 + 1 3x = =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 3 211 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. f ( x) = 2 x + 3 x = 2y + 3 −1 f ( f ( x)) = x + 3 − 3 = x b. a. g ( x) = x 3 + 4 f ( g ( x) ) = 3 x 3 + 4 − 4 = 3 x 3 = x g ( f ( x) ) = ( 3 x−4 ) 3 +4 = x−4+4 = x b. Section 1. a. f ( x) = 3x − 1 y = 2x y = 3x − 1 x = 2y x = 3y −1 x +1 = 3y x 2 x f −1 ( x) = 2 y= b. f ( x) = 4 x x +1 3 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 3 y= ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝2⎠ 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = =x 2 b. 11. a.

Functions and Graphs 17. a. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 3 1 =x 1 x 1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = = x 1 x f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x 2 y= x 2 x= y xy = 2 f ( x) = 2 x 2 f −1 ( x ) = x y= =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 ( x + 2)3 − 2 = x+2−2 =x b. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ) ( x) 3 x +1 −1 = 1 x 1 y= x 1 x= y xy = 1 f ( x) = y= y = 3 x +1 f ( f −1 ( x)) = 3 1 x 1 −1 f ( x) = x x + 1 = y3 b. 20. x + 1 −1 = x +1−1 =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x 3 − 1 + 1 = 3 x3 = x 19. Inc. =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x3 + 2 − 2 = 3 x3 = x f ( x) = x3 − 1 y = x3 − 1 x = y3 − 1 f −1 ( x) = 3 x + 1 ( 3 ) 3 b. 22. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ( 3 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. ( ( 3 x −2+2 ) = ( x) 3 3 3 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( x − 13 + 1 = x − 1 + 1 = x +2 = x−2+2 18. f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x f −1( f ( x )) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x 212 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = ( x − 1)3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = ( x − 1)3 y = x3 + 2 x = ( y − 1)3 3 x = y3 + 2 x−2 = y 3 3 x = y −1 y = 3 x +1 y = x−2 3 −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. a. a. a. f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 y = ( x + 2)3 x = ( y + 2)3 3 x = y+2 y = 3 x −2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. a. . x−2 ) 3 21.

8 f ( x) = x 4 +9 x 4 y = +9 x 4 x = +9 y xy = 4 + 9 y f ( x) = 26. . Inc. −1 xy − 9 y = 4 y ( x − 9) = 4 f ( f ( x)) = ( x ) = x 24. a. a.PreCalculus 4E 23. f ( f −1 ( x)) = x 2 = x = x for x ≥ 0. a. f ( x) = 25. 2 4 x −9 4 f −1 ( x ) = x −9 y= f ( x) = 3 x y=3x x= y=x 3 f ( x) = x 3 −1 b. xy = 7 − 3 y xy + 3 y = 7 y ( x + 3) = 7 7 x+3 7 −1 f ( x) = x+3 y= b. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 x3 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = ( x) 3 3 =x 7 −3 x 7 y = −3 x 7 x = −3 y 27. ( ( ) 4 +9 = x 4 x−9 4 −1 =x f ( f ( x) ) = 4 +9−9 x f f −1 ( x) = 2x + 1 x−3 2x + 1 y= x−3 2 y +1 x= y −3 x(y – 3) = 2y + 1 xy – 3x = 2y + 1 xy – 2y = 3x + 1 y(x – 2) = 3x + 1 3x + 1 y= x−2 3x + 1 f −1 ( x ) = x−2 f ( x) = ) 7 −3 = x 7 x+3 7 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 7 −3+3 x f f −1 ( x) = 213 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 1. a. a. y= x x= y y=x 2 −1 f ( x) = x 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y 3 b. x ≥ 0 b.

so it does have an inverse function. 2x − 3 x +1 2x − 3 y= x +1 2y − 3 x= y +1 xy + x = 2y – 3 y(x – 2) = –x – 3 −x − 3 y= x−2 −x − 3 f −1 ( x ) = . 31. ) ( 3 2x +1 + 1 x −3 2x + 1 − 2 x−3 3 ( 2 x + 1) + x − 3 35. so it does not have an inverse function. The function fails the horizontal line test. Inc. so it does have an inverse function. The function passes the horizontal line test. The function fails the horizontal line test. The function passes the horizontal line test. 7x =x 7 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 28. . = = = b. 2 x + 1 − 2 ( x − 3) 6x + 3 + x − 3 7x = =x 2x +1 − 2x + 6 7 36. ) ( 2 3x + 1 + 1 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = 3x + 1 − 3 x−2 2 ( 3x + 1) + x − 2 6 x + 2 + x − 2 = = 3x + 1 − 3 ( x − 2 ) 3x + 1 − 3 x + 6 –1 34.Functions and Graphs b. ) 29. a. ) ( 2 −x − 3 − 3 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = −x − 3 +1 x−2 −2 x − 6 − 3x + 6 −5 x = = =x −x − 3 + x − 2 −5 − 2x − 3 − 3 x +1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 2x − 3 − 2 x +1 −2 x + 3 − 3x − 3 −5 x = = =x 2x − 3 − 2x − 2 −5 −1 ( 38. 30. The function fails the horizontal line test. 32. so it does not have an inverse function. 214 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The function passes the horizontal line test. so it does have an inverse function. x≠2 x−2 f ( x) = 37. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 33. so it does not have an inverse function.

∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : ( −∞. a. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. Section 1. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞.8 f ( x) = 2 x − 1 y = 2x −1 41. a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. b. 0] domain of f : 215 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain of f : −1 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. b. a.PreCalculus 4E 39. f ( x) = x 2 − 1 y = x2 − 1 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 y = 2x − 3 x = y2 −1 x +1 = y2 x = 2y −3 − x +1 = y x + 3 = 2y f −1 ( x) = − x + 1 x+3 =y 2 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 2 b. a. c. ∞ ) [ −4. c. c. 40. . ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. c. ∞ ) domain of f : [ −4. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. f ( x) = x 2 − 4 y = x2 − 4 x = 2 y −1 x = y2 − 4 x +1 = 2y x + 4 = y2 x +1 =y 2 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 2 x+4 = y f −1 ( x) = x + 4 b. 0] range of f : [ −1. domain of f : [ 0. Inc.

44. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. c.1] domain of f : f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) ( −∞.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. a. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 43. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. ( −∞. a. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. c. f ( x) = x3 + 1 y = x3 + 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 + 1 2 x − 1 = y3 x = y −1 3 x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 1 x +1 = y f −1 ( x) = 1 + x b. domain of f : 46. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. a. b.1] range of f : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f : 216 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. domain of f : [1. Inc. . ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. ∞ ) c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞.∞ ) ( −∞. y = x3 − 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 − 1 2 x + 1 = y3 − x = y −1 3 − x +1 = y x +1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x + 1 −1 f ( x) = 1 − x b. b. c. f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) f ( x) = x3 − 1 45. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞.

∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. 3 3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = x +2 x = ( y − 2)3 3 domain of f : [1. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ( −∞. ( −∞. domain of f : [ 0. c. a. f ( x) = x − 1 3 y = x −1 x = ( y + 2)3 3 3 x= x = y+2 x = y −1 x −2 = y x +1 = y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 f −1 ( x ) = x 2 + 1 b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞.8 f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 47. y −1 2 b. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. Inc. a. ∞ ) domain of f : [ 2. ∞ ) range of f : −1 217 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) [ 2. a. c. ∞ ) domain of f : c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. x= x = y−2 x−2= x +2 = y y +2 y ( x − 2) = y 2 f −1 ( x ) = 3 x + 2 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 2) 2 b. b. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. y = ( x + 2) 49.∞ ) 50. . ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. a. y = ( x − 2) domain of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) f ( x) = ( x − 2)3 48.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. ∞ ) domain of f : c.

∞ ) domain of f : x= (g 4x −1 = 7 f ( x) = x + 1 3 4x = 8 x=2 Thus. Inc. 53. ) . f −1 (1) = 3 y = 3 x −1 y −1 62. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = 1 56. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g −1 ( 7 ) = 2 b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ( g ( f [ h(1) ]) = g f ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = g ( f (4) ) ) = g ( 2 ⋅ 4 − 5) = g ( 3) c. 54. Let g −1 ( 7 ) = x . 52. f ( x) = 3 x + 1 y = 3 x +1 x= 3 y +1 x −1 = 3 y ( x − 1)3 = y f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1)3 b. ( f ( g [ h(1) ]) = f g ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = f ( g (4) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 4 − 1) = f (15 ) f ( g (1) ) = f (1) = 5 = 2 ⋅ 15 − 5 = 25 f ( g (4) ) = f ( 2 ) = −1 218 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 58. f −1 ( g (10) ) = f −1 ( −1) = 2 . Let f −1 (1) = x . since f ( 2 ) = −1 . c. f −1 ( g (1) ) = f −1 (1) = −1 . a. a. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 4 ) = 2 57. 63. Then f ( x) = 3 x − 1 3 f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( −5 ) = 4 ( −5 ) − 1 = −21 ( −∞. (f g )( 0 ) = f ( g (0) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 0 − 1) = f ( −1) = 2 ( −1) − 5 = −7 60. ∞ ) = 4 ⋅ 3 − 1 = 11 domain of f : 64. since f ( −1) = 1 . ( −∞. 55.Functions and Graphs 51. Then x3 = y − 1 g ( x) = 7 x +1 = y 3 −1 = g ( 2 ⋅ 0 − 5) 61. 59. f ( x) = 1 2x − 5 = 1 2x = 6 x=3 Thus. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞.

c.8.7).4.5. 60)} f is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of f is not a function. 68. {(17.3.4).1).3) .8). (8.3.3) are an example of two x-values that correspond to the same y-value. 9.50). Section 1.7). Inc.8. 40). this function does not have an inverse.17). (8. one-to-one 219 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.7) = 30 If there are 30 people in the room. 50). b. {(9. 69.7.2). 9.8.7. 30). The average happiness level is 3 at 12 noon and at 7 p. These values can be represented as (12.8. {(17.9. (8. Thus. f--1(0. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. f--1(0. a. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0.3).5. Answers may vary. (8. 9 ⎡5 ⎤ ( x − 32) ⎥ + 32 5 ⎢⎣ 9 ⎦ = x − 32 + 32 f ( g ( x)) = =x f and g are inverses.8 It passes the horizontal line test and is one-to-one. (8. a.3).8. (22. (22. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. f--1(0.PreCalculus 4E 65. (30. (40. This function fails the horizontal line test. a. (9. (40. (8. 22). (8. 70.5) = 21 If there are 21 people in the room.8.8. a. (12.8.3)} b. (8.8.4). not one-to-one 77. (50.17).3. (30. (8. 67. 60)} g is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of g is not a function. The graph does not represent a one-to-one function.3) and (19.2. 76.1. (50. 30). 22).25. . 40). – 75.25) = 15 If there are 15 people in the room. {(9.3) and (19.m. (60.5).5.5)} b. 66. (60.7.8.4.

makes sense 88. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Inc. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 81. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 92. 86. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. 93. makes sense 90. false. false.1). . (7. f and g are inverses one-to-one 79. x A sample change is: f −1 ( x) = . makes sense 91. A sample change is: f(x) = 5 is a horizontal line. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 80. 85. so it does not pass the horizontal line test. one-to-one 83. 78. true 82. 2)}. makes sense 89. A sample change is: The inverse is {(4.Functions and Graphs 84. Publishing as Prentice Hall. not one-to-one 220 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. not one-to-one 87. 3 94.

y= (g 96. there will be 2 times when the spacecraft is at the same height. 221 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y= 97.8 95. y = x+5 100. No.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. when it is going up and when it is coming down. x = y+5 ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 = (1 − 7) 2 + (−1 − 2) 2 y = x −5 = (−6) 2 + (−3)2 g −1 ( x) = x − 5 f ( x) = 3x = 36 + 9 = 45 y = 3x =3 5 x = 3y x 3 x −1 f ( x) = 3 101. y = 3 x + 15 98. Inc. −1 f −1 ) ( x ) = x x − 15 −5 = 3 3 3x − 2 5x − 3 3x − 2 y= 5x − 3 3y − 2 x= 5y − 3 x(5 y − 3) = 3 y − 2 f ( x) = 102. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. y 2 − 6 y − 4 = 0 y2 − 6 y =4 y − 6y + 9 = 4 + 9 2 ( y − 3) 2 = 13 y − 3 = ± 13 5 xy − 3x = 3 y − 2 y = 3 ± 13 5 xy − 3 y = 3x − 2 y (5 x − 3) = 3 x − 2 3x − 2 5x − 3 3 x−2 f −1 ( x ) = 5x − 3 Note: An alternative approach is to show that ( f f )( x) = x. 8 + f −1 ( x − 1) = 10 f −1 ( x − 1) = 2 f (2) = x − 1 6 = x −1 7=x x=7 x = 3 y + 15 y= x − 15 3 (f g ) ( x) = −1 x − 15 3 g ( x) = x + 5 99. . ( f g )( x) = 3( x + 5) = 3x + 15.

d= ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 d= (1 − (−4) ) + ( −3 − 9 ) 2 2 2 (x x2 + y2 + 4x − 4 y −1 = 0 ) + ( y − 4y ) = 0 ( x + 4x + 4) + ( y + 4 y + 4) = 1 + 4 + 4 2 + 4x 2 2 2 ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 9 = 25 + 144 [ x − (− x)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 32 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . 3. −1] [ −1. x2 + y 2 + 4 x − 4 y − 1 = 0 6. k = 2. k = 0. we have h = −3. ⎟ = ⎜ 4. k = 1. r = 2.77 [ −5. domain: range: 222 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 13 2.9 Check Point Exercises 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we have = 169 h = −2. a. 4. = ( 5) + ( −12 ) 2 2 = 13 2. r = 4. d= = ( −6 − 4 ) + ( 3 − (−1) ) 2 ( −10 ) + ( 4 ) 2 2 2 = 100 + 16 = 116 = 2 29 ≈ 10. k ) = (−3. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . r = 3 .Functions and Graphs Section 1. − ⎟ 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ h = 0. k = −6. 3. Inc. . ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 42 x 2 + y 2 = 16 h = 0. d = (14 − 2) 2 + (8 − 3)2 x 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 = 122 + 52 ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 4 = 144 + 25 = 169 [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 22 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . 1⎞ ⎛ 1 + 7 2 + (−3) ⎞ ⎛ 8 −1 ⎞ ⎛ .9 ( x − 0)2 + [ y − (−6)]2 = 102 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 5. Exercise Set 1.3] c. r = 10. 1) radius: r = 2 d = (8 − 5) 2 + (5 − 1) 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 b. center: (h. 1.

5 − 3.66 223 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3) = = 25 =5 = 8 2 =2 2 = 36 + 4 ≈ 2. Inc. d = ( 5 − 0)2 + [0 − (− 3)]2 = ( 5) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 5+3 d = [2 − (−4)]2 + [−3 − (−1)]2 = 6 2 + ( −2 ) d = (1. d= 14. d = (−. + [3 − ( −2 )]2 = 41 ≈ 6. Section 1.32 9.5)2 + (6.6) 2 + ( −5.40 d = (−3− 0) 2 + (4 − 0) 2 = 3 + ( −4 ) 8.07 = 25 + 4 = 29 ≈ 5.83 = 40 = 2 10 ≈ 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall.39 13.2) 2 = 9 +16 = (−4) 2 + (−2)2 = 25 =5 = 16 + 4 = 20 d = (3 − 0) 2 + ( −4 − 0 ) =2 5 2 ≈ 4. = 9 + 16 ( −1) 2 + ( −7 ) 2 2 = 1 + 49 = 50 d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [−4 − (−6)]2 =5 2 = 52 + 2 2 ≈ 7. 2 .54 = 16 + 25 11. = 16 + 52 = 73 ≈ 8.9 ( −1 − 2 ) + ( 5 − (−3) ) 2 ( −3 ) + ( 8 ) 2 2 10. d= = d = (4 − 0)2 + [1 − (−3)]2 ( ) ( 2 ( 7) 2 + ⎣⎡ − 2 ⎦⎤ 2 = 7+2 = 42 + 4 2 = 9 = 16 + 16 =3 = 32 ) 7 − 0 + ⎡0 − − 2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ =4 2 ≈ 5. d= = 5.2 − 8. ( 4 − 0) = 42 + [3 + 2]2 2 = 32 + 42 6.6 − 2. 2 = 9 + 64 2 7.7 − 1.PreCalculus 4E 4.47 2 12.

⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −12 −8 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 6 −4 ⎞ = ⎜ 2 . Inc.5) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2 21. ⎟ = (6. ⎟ = (4. . ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . ≈ 2.0) =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 224 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.24 18. ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ −5 ⎞ = ⎜ .Functions and Graphs 15. ≈ 9. ⎛ −4 + ( −1) −7 + ( −3) ⎞ ⎛ −5 −10 ⎞ . 0 ⎟ = (2 2. ⎟ = (−4. ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 = 12 + 12 ⎛ 2 10 5 ⎞ =⎜ .41 19. . ⎟ ⎝ 5 2 15 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 27. ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −8 −10 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎛ 7 3 + 3 3 −6 + (−2) ⎞ ⎛ 10 3 −8 ⎞ . = 9 ⋅ 3 + 16 ⋅ 6 = 27 + 96 25.09 17. d = (− 3 − 3 3)2 + (4 5 − 5)2 22. ⎝ ⎠⎟= 5 . −5 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 28. 2 ⎛1 7⎞ ⎛6 1⎞ d = ⎜ − ⎟ +⎜ − ⎟ ⎝3 3⎠ ⎝5 5⎠ 2 = (−2) 2 + 12 = 4 +1 = 5 2 ⎡ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ d = ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ + ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠⎦ ⎣ 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠⎦ 2 ⎛ 3 1 ⎞ ⎡6 1⎤ = ⎜ + ⎟ +⎢ + ⎥ ⎝ 4 4 ⎠ ⎣7 7⎦ ⎛ −2 + ( −8) −1 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ −10 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ . 6) 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 20. ⎟ = ⎜ . −4 29. ⎟ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ −7 ⎛ 5 ⎞ 3 ⎛ 11 ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠. = (−4 3) 2 + (3 5) 2 = 16(3) + 9(5) = 48 + 45 = 93 23.64 16. ⎟ = ( −3. = 1. ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 2 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ( = 5 3. ⎛ −3 + 6 −4 + (−8) ⎞ . −6 ⎟ 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 26. −5) ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ) ) ⎛ 18 + 2 −4 + 4 ⎞ . ⋅ ⎟ = ⎜− . ⎟ = ⎜ −5. d= = ( − 3 − 2 3 ) + (5 ( −3 3 ) + ( 4 6 ) 2 2 6− 6 ) 2 2 24. ⎛ 6 + 2 8 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 12 ⎞ . ⎜ ⎟=⎜ . ⎟=⎜ . −2 ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 ⎛ 2⎞ 7 ⎛ 4 ⎞⎞ ⎛ 4 3 ⎞ ⎜ − 5 + ⎜ − 5 ⎟ 15 + ⎜ − 15 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ − ⎝ ⎠. ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 3 −12 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎛ −2 + (−6) −8 + (−2) ⎞ . 2 ⎟ = ⎜ − . 15 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 4 1 3 1⎞ ⎛ 2 1 ⎞ = ⎜− ⋅ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 5 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( = 2 ≈ 1. ⎛ 10 + 2 4 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 12 10 ⎞ . = 123 ≈ 11. ⎛ 8 + (−6) 3 5 + 7 5 ⎞ . ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛3 2+ 2 0⎞ ⎛4 2 ⎞ .

r = 6. 35. r = 7. 7] domain: + ( y + 1) = 3 2 2 = 2 [ x − (−5)] + [ y − (−3)] ( x + 5) 39. 7] domain: range: 225 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 42. r = 4. center = (0. k = 0. radius = 6 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 102 2 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 0 ) = 100 2 [ x − (−2)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 62 2 ( x + 2 ) + y 2 = 36 2 [ −3. 1). radius = 4 ) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 x 2 + y 2 = 49 32. 0 ⎟ = 3 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. + ( y + 3) = 5 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 36 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 62 2 2 h = 3. center = (0. 0 =⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( 31. k = 1. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = 82 x 2 + y 2 = 64 33. . 4] [ −4.PreCalculus 4E 30.9] [ −5. center = (3. range: ( x − 2 ) + [ y − (−1)] = 42 2 2 ( x − 2 ) + ( y + 1) = 16 2 [ −4. x 2 + y 2 = 16 41. k = 0. Section 1. 2 ( x + 3) 38. 7] [ −7. ⎟⎟ ⎟=⎜ ⎜⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛6 2 ⎞ .9 ⎛ 50 + 2 −6 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 5 2 + 2 0 ⎞ . ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = y 2 h = 0. 0). 2 2 40. 0). . x 2 + y 2 = 49 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 h = 0. Inc. radius = 7 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4 )2 = 22 2 2 ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 4 2 [ x − (−3)] + ( y − 5)2 = 32 2 2 ( x + 3) + ( y − 5 ) = 9 [ x − (−3)] + [ y − (−1)] 2 2 2 ( 3) 2 2 = ( 5) [ −7. 37. 36. 4] domain: ( x − 3 ) + ( y − 2 ) = 52 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 2 ) = 25 range: 2 43. 34.

0] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 4 48. –2). 1). k = 4. 2] [ −11. 2 x 2 + ( y − 1) = 1 2 h = 0. r = 5. r = 2 center = (–2. 2).1] [ 0. radius = 1 h = −1. . ( x + 2) 2 + ( y + 2)2 = 4 ( x + 4 ) + ( y + 5) = 36 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−5)] = 62 2 h = −4. radius = 5 [ −1.Functions and Graphs 44. 3). [ x − (−2)]2 + [ y − (−2)]2 = 22 h = −2. r = 2 center = (–3. radius = 4 45. r = 6. radius = 6 [ −5. [ −2. k = −2. 7] [ −4. [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 22 h = −3. k = 2.1] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 25 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4)2 = 52 2 2 49. center = (–4. center = (0.9] range: domain: range: 226 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. k = 1. 6] [ −1. radius = 2 46. center = (2. 4] [ −10. k = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4] [ −1. r = 4. radius = 2 2 ( x − 2) + ( y − 3)2 = 42 h = 2. 0] [ −4. 2] domain: [ −6. k = −5. ( x − 2) 2 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 47. –5). r = 1. center = (–1. 4). −1] [ 0.

0). radius = 8 [ −6. 3). k = 0. Inc. x 2 + y 2 + 8 x + 4 y + 16 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 8 x ) + ( y 2 + 4 y ) = −16 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y 2 + 4 y + 4 ) = 20 − 16 ( x + 4) + ( y + 2) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−2)] = 22 2 2 center = (–4. 4] domain: range: 227 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5] domain: range: 52.PreCalculus 4E 50. radius = 2 (x (x 2 2 + 6 x ) + ( y 2 + 2 y ) = −6 + 6 x + 9 ) + ( y 2 + 2 y + 1) = 9 + 1 − 6 ( x + 3) + ( y + 1) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−3)] + [9 − (−1)] = 22 2 2 center = (–3. (x (x 2 2 − 10 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 30 − 10 x + 25 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 25 + 9 + 30 ( x − 5) 2 + ( y − 3) = 64 2 ( x − 5)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 82 center = (5. k = 2. 4] domain: range: 51. ( x + 1) 2 + y 2 = 25 h = −1. center = (0.9 x2 + ( y − 2) = 4 2 x2 + y 2 + 6 x + 2 y + 6 = 0 53.0).2). center = (–2. radius = 5 54. Section 1. 4] [ −5. radius = 4 x 2 + y 2 − 10 x − 6 y − 30 = 0 55. Publishing as Prentice Hall. h = 0. radius = 2 [ −6. center = (–1. r = 2. r = 4. –1). radius = 2 [ −2. –2). ( x + 2) 2 + y 2 = 16 h = −2. 2] [ −4. 2] [ 0. k = 0. . r = 5.

3). 3).Functions and Graphs 56. Inc. radius = 4 center = (–4. radius = 7 228 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + y 2 + 12 x − 6 y − 4 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 12 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 4 + 12 x + 36 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 36 + 9 + 4 2 [ x − (−6)] + ( y − 3)2 = 72 center = (–6. radius = 7 57. x 2 − 2 x + y 2 − 15 = 0 59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1). 6). . radius = 4 60. + 8x ) + ( y2 − 2 y ) = 8 x2 + y 2 − 6 y − 7 = 0 x2 + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 7 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y − 2 y + 1) = 16 + 1 + 8 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 1) = 25 2 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 1)2 = 52 2 2 ( x − 0) 2 ( x − 0) 2 = ( y 2 − 6 y + 9) = 0 + 9 + 7 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 3)2 = 42 center = (0. radius = 5 58. 2 2 2 x2 + y 2 + 8x − 2 y − 8 = 0 (x (x ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 16 2 2 ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 42 2 ( x − 2)2 + ( y − 6)2 = 7 2 center = (2. 0). x 2 + y 2 − 4 x − 12 y − 9 = 0 (x (x 2 2 − 4 x ) + ( y 2 − 12 y ) = 9 − 4 x + 4 ) + ( y 2 − 12 y + 36 ) = 4 + 36 + 9 ( x − 2) 2 (x + ( y − 6 ) = 49 (x 2 2 − 2 x ) + y 2 = 15 − 2 x + 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 1 + 0 + 15 2 2 center = (1.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. radius = 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ center = ⎜ . radius = 2 ⎝ 1 =0 2 1 x2 + x + y 2 + y = 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 x +x+ + y + y+ = + + 4 4 2 4 4 x2 + y 2 + x + y − 2 x 2 + y 2 + 3x − 2 y − 1 = 0 64. ⎠ x2 + y 2 + 3x + 5 y + 17 2 9 =0 4 9 4 9 25 9 9 25 2 2 x + 3x + + y + 5 y + =− + + 4 4 4 4 4 x2 + 3x + y 2 + 5 y = − 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜x − ⎟ +⎜ y − ⎟ =1 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 3⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ 25 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ +⎜ y+ ⎟ = 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛ 3 5⎞ 5 center = ⎜ − . Section 1. − ⎟ . center = ⎜ − . radius = 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 62. ⎟ .1⎟ . x 2 − x + y 2 + 2 y = −1 1 1 x 2 − x + + y 2 + 2 y + 1 = −1 + + 1 4 4 x 2 + 3x + y 2 − 2 y = 1 9 9 x 2 + 3x + + y 2 − 2 y + 1 = 1 + + 1 4 4 2 2 1⎞ 1 2 ⎛ ⎜ x − ⎟ + ( y + 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 ⎞ 3⎞ 17 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ + ( y − 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 ⎞ 1 center = ⎜ .9 x2 + y 2 − x + 2 y + 1 = 0 63. radius = 1 ⎝2 2⎠ 229 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .PreCalculus 4E 61. −1⎟ . Inc.

b. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. −3) : 02 + ( −3) = 9 2 2 = 12 + ( −1) = 1 + 1 2 units. 4 = 4 true Check ( 4. 66. ( 4. ⎟=⎜ . The center is ( 5.5 ) . Intersection points: ( 0. Intersection points: ( 0. . ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . −4 ) .9 ) . 0 ) : 2 c. the center is the midpoint of the segment. 0 )} . Publishing as Prentice Hall.10 ) .Functions and Graphs 65. 5 units. 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 7 9 + 11 ⎞ ⎛ 10 20 ⎞ =⎜ . 6 ) . ( 2) ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = 2 2 3 = 3 true 32 + 02 = 9 3−0 = 3 9 = 9 true 3 = 3 true The solution set is {( 0. we get: d= ( 4 − 3) + ( 5 − 6 ) 2 Check ( 0. Since the line segment passes through the center. = 2 The radius is 0 − ( −3 ) = 3 9 = 9 true Check ( 3. 0 ) : = 5 The radius is 0 − ( −4 ) = 4 2 2 230 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Using the point ( 3. ( x − 5) 2 ( x − 5) 2 42 + 02 = 16 4−0 = 4 16 = 16 true 4 = 4 true The solution set is {( 0. −3) .0 )} . −4 ) : 02 + ( −4 ) = 16 2 2 16 = 16 true = 22 + 12 = 4 + 1 c.5 ) 2 68. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. + ( y − 10 ) = 2 ( 5) 2 + ( y − 10 ) = 5 Since the line segment passes through the center. the center is the midpoint of the segment. ( 3. a. a. b. −4 ) and ( 4. The center is ( 4. 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 5 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 10 ⎞ . −3) and ( 3. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 5. Inc.10 ) 67. Using the point ( 3. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 4. =⎜ ⎟=⎜ . ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . we get: d= ( 5 − 3) 2 + (10 − 9 ) Check ( 0.

770 ⋅ 0.7 ) and 4=4 radius 30.1 Intersection points: ( 0. If we place L. makes sense 87. 68 + 14) = (0. d = (8495 − 4422) 2 + (8720 − 1241)2 ⋅ 0. 82) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 682 70.1 d ≈ 2693 The distance between Boston and San Francisco is about 2693 miles.4 ) −1 = 2 − 3 −1 = −1 true 02 + 22 = 4 4=4 true The solution set is {( 0. Check ( 0. at the origin. ( 2. 2 ) 84. Intersection points: ( 0. Check ( 0. −3) and ( 2. 033 ⋅ 0. 2 )} .A. −1) d ≈ 328 The distance between New Orleans and Houston is about 328 miles. −2. −1) : ( 0 − 3) 2 + ( −1 + 1) = 9 2 ( −3) 2 + 02 = 9 −1 = 0 − 1 −1 = −1 true 9=9 Check ( 3. 83. 2 2 86.4 ) ) + ( y − ( −2.7 ) = 900 74. Inc. 079. 2 x 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 4624 75. makes sense = 302 + ( y + 2.7 ) ) true Check ( 2. then we want the equation of a circle with center at ( −2. −1)} .9 69. d = 1. C(0. true + ( 2 + 1) = 9 2 2 = 3 −1 2 = 2 true 0 +3 = 9 9=9 true The solution set is {( 0.1 2 ( x + 2. 72. Answers may vary. 2 . −3) . −1) . −3) : ( 0 − 2 ) + ( −3 + 3) = 9 2 ( −2 ) + 0 2 = 4 2 2 −3 = 0 − 3 −3 = −3 true 73. 524. ( 3. 2 231 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) and ( 3.1 d = 72. – 82.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 2 ) : ( 3 − 3) 2 85. −1) : ( 2 − 2 ) + ( −1 + 3 ) = 4 2 2 d = (8936 − 8448) 2 + (3542 − 2625)2 ⋅ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 71. ( x − ( −2.4.

A sample change is: The center is at (3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 + 4 4 d1 = 1 ( x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 ) 4 1 x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 2 d 2 is distance from midpoint to ( x2 . Inc. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: This is not an equation for a circle. Changes to make the statement true will vary. y2 ) 2 94. Both circles have center (2. . 232 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y1 ) to ( x2 y2 ) d3 = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 AC = (6 − 1) 2 + [6 + d − (1 + d )]2 d3 = x2 2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 = 52 + 52 d1 + d 2 = d3 because = 25 + 25 = 50 1 1 a+ a= a 2 2 96. x ) to midpoint 1 1 2 2 ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 − x1 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ makes sense 2 2 90. The smaller circle has radius 5 and the larger circle has radius 6. Explanations will vary. –5). Changes to make the statement true will vary. 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ + ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ false. The distance for A to C: d3 is the distance from ( x1 . false. A sample change is: The equation would be x 2 + y 2 = 256. The distance for A to B: ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d 2 = ⎜ 1 2 − x2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y2 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ AB = (3 − 1) 2 + [3 + d − (1 + d )]2 = 22 + 22 2 2 ⎛ x + x − 2 x2 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 4+4 = 8 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ =2 2 The distance from B to C: BC = (6 − 3) 2 + [3 + d − ( 6 + d )]2 = 32 + ( −3) 2 d1 = d1 = false. 92. d is distance from ( x . 91.Functions and Graphs 88. The area between them is given by =5 2 AB + BC = AC 2 2 +3 2 = 5 2 π ( 6 ) − π ( 5 ) = 36π − 25π = 11π 2 5 2 =5 2 2 ≈ 34. 95. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 93. ⎛ x + x − 2 x1 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ false. a. 2 2 2 2 d2 = x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 + 4 4 d2 = 1 2 ( x1 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 ) 4 1 x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 2 d1 = d 2 = 9+9 d2 = = 18 =3 2 b. does not make sense. –3). 89. Sample explanation: Since r 2 = −4 this is not the equation of a circle.56 square units. A sample change is: Since r 2 = −36 this is not the equation of a circle. The smaller circle is inside of the larger circle.

The tangent line has slope and 4 4 passes through (3. x − 200 a.000x 233 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 99. R(x) = (18.12x y = x3 c. x > 0. 4 98. d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0 ) Check Point Exercises 1. so its equation is: 3 y + 4 = ( x − 3).09(25. in interval A = 2π r2 + 2 πrh 22 1000 2 = 2π r + 2 πr πr 2 2000 = 2π r 2 + r πr2 44 ⎛ 22 ⎞ 2π r 2 + 2π rh = 2π r 2 + 2π r ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2π r 2 + ⎝ πr ⎠ r 6.000 – 100x b.–4). the area is 1200 sq yd b. f(x) = 15 + 0. ( 0.0) and (3.0).000 – 100x)x = –100x2 + 18.12x 12 = 0. The line perpendicular to the 3− 0 3 3 3 radius has slope . I ( x) = 0. 15 + 0. d = x 2 + x3 ( ) 2 2 = x 2 + x6 a. 4 ) . 4. 2.08x = x2 + y2 b. The slope of the radius with endpoints (0.10 97.07x + 0. 2l + 2w = 200 2l = 200 – 2w l = 100 – w Let x = width. Inc. then length = 100 – x A(x) = x(100 – x) = 100x – x2 2 5. π r 2 h = 22 h= V(x) = (15 – 2x)(8 – 2x)x = (120 – 46x +4x2)x = 4x3 – 46x2 + 120x Since x represents the inches to be cut off. notation. the area is 1000 sq yd 100. so must cut less than 4 off each side. Publishing as Prentice Hall. N(x) = 8000 – 100(x – 100) = 8000 – 100x + 10000 = 18. g(x) = 3 + 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.10 7. V = πr h p = 2l + 2w = 2(50) + 2(20) = 140 1000 = πr 2 h 1000 =h πr 2 A = lw = (50)(20) = 1000 The perimeter is 140 yd.04x 300 = x The plans cost the same for 300 minutes. p = 2l + 2w = 2(40) + 2(30) = 140 A = lw = (40)(30) = 1200 The perimeter is 140 yd. a. 3. 000 − x ) Section 1. The smallest side is 8.08x = 3 + 0. The circle is centered at (0.–4) is −4 − 0 4 m=− = − . The domain of V is { x 0 < x < 4} or. .

f ( x) = 200 + 0. a. 000x 234 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5(14) = 35 g(14) = 21 + 14 = 35 To cross the bridge 14 times costs the same. 1.7(1300) = 1210 g(1300) = 40 + 0.4 − 0. 000 − 500 x) x = −500 x 2 + 40. a.25x b. g( x) = 21+ 0.8 x b. N (x) = 30. P( x) = 28 + 0. 100 + 0. 2. 000 − 500(x − 20) = 30. 40 = 28 + 06x 12 = 0.1x 600 = x For $600 worth of merchandise.7x b. a.3 x b.25x 215 = 0. N (x) = 20. Inc. b.4 − 0.25 x = 21 + 0. 300 + 0. f ( x) = 100 + 0. g( x) = 40 + 0.9 x 260 = 0.4 x = 198 198 years after 1954.15x 120 = 01.25 x 395 = 180 + 0.5 x 0. a. R( x) = (40. 000 − 400x R(x) = (26. a. in 2152. g( x) = 21+ x c. 4. 000 − 400x)x 2 = −400x + 26.3 x 0. g( x) = 40 + 0. .75 x = 21 x = 28 f (28) = 1. your cost is $580 for both plans a. 40% of babies born will be out of wedlock. someone will run a 3 minute mile.9(1300) = 1210 You would have to purchase $1300 in merchandise at a total cost of $1210. in 2010. 000 − 400(x − 15) = 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 x 1300 = x f (1300) = 300 + 0. f ( x) = 2. 000 − 500x + 10000 = 40.3x = 59. 3. a. 2. b. M (x ) = 239. 8. $35.5x c. 000 − 400x + 6000 = 26. 180 = 239.25(28) = 35 g (28) = 21 + 0.9 x 60 = 0.5x = 21+ x 1. for either method.5x 800 = x 800 miles a. 9. 7.5 x b.9 x c.15x 320 = 200 + 0. f ( x) = 180 + 0. f ( x) = 300 + 0.9 x c. 000 x 10.6x 20 = x 20 years after 1990.8x = 40 + 0.Functions and Graphs 6. f ( x) = 1.10 1. 5. 000 − 500x b. b.7 x = 40 + 0.6 x b. Exercise Set 1.5(28) = 35 If a person crosses the bridge 28 times the cost will be $35 for both options a. a.5x = 21 x = 14 f (14) = 2.25x 860 = x You drove 860 miles for $395.

b. the volume will be 800 square inches. 14. Inc. x > 0. Y(x) = 270 − 3(x − 30) = 270 − 3x + 90 = 360 − 3x V(6) = 4(63 ) −120(62 ) + 900(6) = 1944 If 6 inches are cut from each side. the volume will be 1944 square inches. V(x) = (24 − 2x)(24 − 2x)x 2 = (576 − 96x + 4x )x = 4x 3 − 96x 2 + 576x c. 0 < x < 12 a. If x is the inches to be cut off. Since x is the number of inches to be cut from each side. a. R(x) = (12400 − 60x)x = −60x 2 + 12400x V(3) = 4(33 ) −120(32 ) + 900(3) = 1728 If 3 inches are cut from each side. the volume will be 2000 square inches. Since each side is 30 inches. Section 1. . b. ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 8− x ⎞ A( x) = ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 2 2 = x 2 64 − 16 x + x 2 + 16 16 = 2 x 2 − 16 x + 64 16 = x 2 − 8 x + 32 8 V(6) = 4(6) 3 − 96(6)2 + 576(6) = 864 If 6inch squares are cut off each corner. b. the volume will be 1792 square inches. V(x) = (30 − 2x)(30 − 2x)x = (900 −120x + 4x 2 )x = 4x 3 − 120x 2 + 900x b. a. you must cut less than 12 inches off each end. 0 < x < 15 or (0. Y(x) = 320 − 4(x − 50) = 320 − 4x + 200 = 520 − 4x T (x) = (520 − 4x)x = −4x 2 + 520x V(5) = 4(53 ) −120(52 ) + 900(5) = 2000 If 5 inches are cut from each side. x > 0. the volume will be 1936 square inches. the volume will be 1728 square inches. V (3) = 4(3)3 − 96(3)2 + 576(3) = 972 If 3inch squares are cut off each corner. 235 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the volume will be 972 square inches.10 N (x) = 9000 + 50(150 − x) = 9000 − 50x + 7500 = 16500 − 50x R(x) = (16500 − 50x)x = −50x 2 + 16500x 16. 12. b. you must cut less than 15 inches from each side. V(5) = 4(5) 3 − 96(5)2 + 576(5) = 980 If 5inch squares are cut off each corner. the volume will be 1024 square inches. 000 + 60(90 − x) = 7000 − 60x + 5400 = 12400 − 60x c. T (x) = (360 − 3x)x = −3x 2 + 360x V(7) = 4(73 ) −120(72 ) + 900(7) = 1792 If 7 inches are cut from each side. a. a. 13. A(x) = x(20 − 2x) = −2x 2 + 20x 18. Since each side is 24. V(2) = 4(2) 3 − 96(2) 2 + 576(2) = 800 If 2-inch squares are cut off each corner. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 11. V(4) = 4(43 ) −120(4 2 ) + 900(4) = 1936 If 4 inches are cut from each side. b. 15) 17. V(4) = 4(4) 3 − 96(4)2 + 576(4) = 1024 If 4-inch squares are cut off each corner. the volume will be 980 square inches. 15. the volume will be 864 square inches. a. N (x) = 7.

2x = distance around the 2 straight sides 2πr = distance around the 2 curved sides 2 x + 2π r = 880 Let x = w A(x) = x(800 − 2 x) 2 x = 880 − 2π r x = 440 − π r = −2 x 2 + 800x 24. A(x) = x(400 − x) = −x 2 + 400x 22. . 400. 600 − 2 x = length = 440r A(x) = (600 − 2x)x = −2 x 2 + 600x 25. 000 = 475 x + x y= 26. 2 x = distance around 2 straight sides π 2r = distance around 2 curved sides 29. Inc.Functions and Graphs 19. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x + 2π r = 440 2 x = 440 − 2π r x = 220 − π r A(r ) = (220 − π r )2r + π r 2 = 440r − 2π r 2 + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 l = 800 − 2 w 28. 2 x + 3 y = 1000 xy = 4000 4000 y= x 3 y = 1000 − 2 x 1000 − 2 x 3 ⎛ 1000 − 2 x ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ x(1000 − 2 x) = 3 2x + 4y = 1200 ⎡ ⎛ 4000 ⎞ ⎤ C ( x) = ⎢ 2 x + 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 175 + 125 x ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ 1. A(x) = x(300 − x) = −x 2 + 300x 23. 2 w + l = 600 A( x) = r (440 − π r ) + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 + π r 2 l = 600 − 2 l let x = width. 000 = 350 x + + 125 x x 1. 400. P(x) = x(66 − x) = −x 2 + 66x 20. P(x) = x(50 − x) = −x 2 + 50 x 21. 4y = 1200 − 2x 1200 − 2x y= 4 1200 − 2x 4 x(1200 − 2x) = 4 2x(600 − x) = 4 x(600 − x) = 2 A(x) = x 236 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 w + l = 800 27.

A = x (108 − 4 x) 2 d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 = −4 x 3 + 108 x 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 8 ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 16 x 2 + 64 = x 4 − 15 x 2 + 64 237 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.08 x + 720 39. Let x = amount at 10% 18. 6000 = 0.14 x + 720 − 0.12(18750 − x) =y b. 300 = y + 4 x d = ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 300 − 4 x = y 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 4 A( x) = x (300 − 4 x) 2 = −4 x3 + 300 x 2 34.1x + 2250 − 0.10 x + 0. = 0.06(12000 − x) ⎛ 400 ⎞ A = x2 + 5 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x ⎝ x ⎠ 2000 2 =x + x 33. 0.10 125 = lw 125 l = = 5000 x 5000 x 125 x 50000 − 31250 = 18750 Invest $31.15x + 0.05(8000 – x) 400 = x 2 y 400 x2 =y 38.06 x = 0. + 29x 36.02 x = −133 x = 6650 The amount of money to be invested should be $6650 at 10% and $12100 at 12%. .12x – 0.07(50000 – x) 6000 = 0.07 x(50000 − x) 31250 = x + 20x + 9x ⎛ 10 ⎞ A( x) = x 2 + 4 ⎜ x ⋅ 2 ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ 40 = x2 + x 32. Let x = amount invested at 12% 8000 – x = amount invested at 5% loss I(x) = 0. Inc. 2500 = 0. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.250 at 15% and $18. a. let x = l C(x) = 20 2 31.08 x 10 = x y x2 Let x = amount invested at 15% 50000 – x = amount invested at 7% I(x) = 0. Section 1. = w. 35.15 x + 0. Let x = amount at 14% 12000 – x = amount at 6% I ( x) = 0.15 x + 3500 − 0.750 at 7%. ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 8 x 2 + 16 = x 4 − 7 x 2 + 16 108 = y + 4 x 108 − 4 x = y 40.07 x + x + 9x 2 10 a.10 x + 0. 37.12(18750 − x) = 2117 0.PreCalculus 4E 30.750 – x = amount at 12% I ( x) = 0.14 x + 0.12 x = 2117 −0.

V ( x) = ( x)(2 x + 5 x − 3) − x 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x) = 36 + x + x − 20 x + 164 2 V ( x) = ( x)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) − ( x)( x) [ (2 x − 1) − ( x + 1) ] c = x 2 − 20 x + 164 total length 2 V ( x) = 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3x − x3 + 2 x 2 V ( x) = x3 + 7 x 2 − 3x 51. d = ( x − 2) + y 2 c = 9 + 144 − 24 x + x 2 2 = x2 − 4 x + 4 + ( x) c = x 2 − 24 x + 153 2 f ( x ) = 36 + x 2 + x 2 − 24 x + 153 = x 2 − 3x + 4 43. b. A( x) = 2 xy 47. A( x) = 12 x 2 − 25 x + 12 x 2 + 23 x + ( x + 2) [ 2 x − 2] P ( x ) = 2(2 x) + 2 y = 4x + 2 4 − x 44. 6-foot pole c 2 = 62 + x 2 49. . Explanations will vary. 238 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. as it suggests a per minute charge of $30. Road from Town A: c 2 = 62 + x 2 d = ( x − 1) 2 + y 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + ( x) 2 c = 36 + x 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + x Road from Town B: c 2 = 32 + (12 − x) 2 = x − x +1 2 42. Sample explanation: The decrease in passengers is modeled by 60( x − 300). 46. – 62. Inc. a. Explanations will vary.Functions and Graphs 41. does not make sense. A( x) = x 2 − x + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 4 2 A( x) = 3x 2 + x − 4 A( x) = 2 xy = 2x 9 − x A( x) = 12 x( x − 5) + 12 x ( x + 3) 48. 64. V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x + 1)( x + 2) − ( x + 5)(3)( x) V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x 2 + 5 x + 2) − 3x( x + 5) x = 36 + x 2 8-foot pole V ( x) = 2 x3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x + 10 − 3x 2 − 15 x V ( x) = 2 x3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x + 10 c 2 = 82 + (10 − x)2 c = 64 + 100 − 20 x + x 2 50. + ( x + 2) [ ( x − 5) + ( x + 3) ] = 2 x 4 − x2 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. 63. a. 2 A( x) = 12 x(2 x) + 12 (6 x − 4 x)( x + 2) + (4 x)( x + 2) + 2 x(8) A( x) = x + x( x + 2) + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x 2 P( x) = 2(2 x) + 2 y A( x) = x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x = 4x + 2 9 − x2 A( x) = 6 x 2 + 26 45. Sample explanation: This model is not reasonable. does not make sense.

π 12 h3 (7 − 3x )(−2 − 5 x) = −14 − 35 x + 6 x + 15 x 2 = −14 − 29 x + 15 x 2 4 + x2 2 Distance and time walked: d = 6− x rt = d 5t = 6 − x 6− x t= 5 Total time: t= T ( x) = 68. Distance and time rowed: d 2 = 22 + x 2 d = 4 + x2 rt = d = 2t = 4 + x 2 71. Chapter 1 Review Exercises does not make sense. 1 (π 2r ) 2 12 = 2h + 2r + π r P = 2h + 2r + Chapter 1 Review Exercises 1. y = 2 x = 3. . y = –6 x = –1. For example: A 4 by 6 rectangle and a 3 by 7 rectangle both have perimeters of 20 units. y = 0 x = 2. 18 − 8 = 9 ⋅ 2 − 4 ⋅ 2 =3 2 −2 2 = 2 4 + x2 6 − x + 2 5 73. y = –8 x = –2. y = –4 x = 0.PreCalculus 4E 65. 12 − 2r − π r = 2h 12 − 2r − π r =h 2 1 ⎛ 12 − 2r − π r ⎞ 2 A=⎜ ⎟ 2r + 2 π r 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 + π r 2 2 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 2 ( ) x = –3. Explanations will vary. or = 15 x 2 − 29 x − 14 72. 7 + 4 2 2 + 5 2 14 + 35 2 + 8 2 + 40 ⋅ = 2 − 5 2 2 + 5 2 4 + 10 2 − 10 2 − 50 54 + 43 2 −46 54 + 43 2 =− 46 = A( x) = (20 + 2 x)(10 + 2 x) − 10(20) = 4 x 2 + 60 x + 200 − 200 = 4 x 2 + 60 x 69. y = 4 239 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = –2 x = 1. makes sense 2 1 ⎛1 ⎞ = π ⎜ h⎟ h 3 ⎝2 ⎠ 1 1 2 = π h h 3 4 67. r= 1 h 2 1 V ( h) = π r 2 h 3 66. yet their areas are different from each other. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 70. Sample explanation: The area of a rectangle is not solely determined by its perimeter.

and y-scale equal to 1. y = –2 x = 2. 15. y = 1 x = 3. y = –3 x = –2. A portion of Cartesian coordinate plane with minimum x-value equal to –20. y = 1 x = −2. y = –3 x = 1. The coordinates are (1985. y = 0 17. 13} range: {10. maximum x-value equal to 40. y = −1 x = 2. the top marginal tax rate remained constant at about 91%. 12. 0). 19} x = 3. y = 6 x = –2. 5} range: {7} x = −3. The top marginal tax rate in 2005 was 35%. 500. During the ten-year period from 1950 to 1960. π} x = −1. 13. Publishing as Prentice Hall. maximum y-value equal to 5. 6. 4. 15. y-intercept: 2. 0). The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. function domain: {1. 7. –4). 0) and (2. 14} range: {13. y = 6 3. function domain: {2. 9. x-intercept: 5. 50%). y = –2 x = –1. x-intercept: –2. the top marginal tax rate increased about 38%. 3. y = 1 x = 2. 8. . y = –2 x = 0. y = 1 x = –1. Inc. The highest marginal tax rate occurred in 1945 and was about 94%. y = 1 240 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 2 x = 3. The lowest marginal tax rate occurred in 1990 and was about 28%. y = −1 x = 0. The graph intercepts the y-axis at (0. not a function domain: {12. 14. y = 0 16. 0). y = 0 x = 1. x-intercepts: 2. During the five-year period from 1930 to 1935. y = 3 5. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. y = –1 x = 0. x = –3. y-intercept: –4. y = −2 x = 1. 2). x = –3. x-scale equal to 10 and with minimum y-value equal to –5.Functions and Graphs 2. The graph intersects the x-axis at (5. The graph does not intersect the yaxis. 11. y-intercept: None. –2. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 10. 2.

g (−2) = 3(−2) 2 − 5(−2) + 2 = 12 + 10 + 2 31. g ( x − 1) = 3( x − 1) 2 − 5( x − 1) + 2 = 3( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 5 x + 5 + 2 domain: [–3. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 2x + y = 8 y = −2 x + 8 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 29. a. a. g (13) = 13 − 4 = 9 = 3 decreasing: (−3. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. g (0) = 3(0)2 − 5(0) + 2 = 2 b. 5) b. g(0) = 4 – 0 = 4 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. range: [–5. Inc. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. f (2) = 2x + y = 6 (−2) 2 − 1 3 = = −1 −2 − 1 −3 2 y 2 = −2 x + 6 y = ± −2 x + 6 Since more than one value of y can be obtained from some values of x. a. f(–2) = –3 and f(3) = –5 = 3x + 5 x + 2 2 241 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. 0] c. f(1) = 12 c. − 2) or (0. y is a function of x. 3x 2 + y = 14 y = −3x 2 + 14 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. y is not a function of x.PreCalculus 4E 18. 21. 5) = 3x 2 − 11x + 10 d. = 24 c. a. . f(4) = 5 – 7(4) = –23 27. 26. 19. 0) or (3. x-intercept: –3 d. g(–3) = 4 – (–3) = 7 24. 22 − 1 3 = =3 2 −1 1 25. f (−2) = b. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. = −7 x − 16 c. 3) g (− x ) = 3(− x) 2 − 5(− x) + 2 f. a. 23. f ( x + 3) = 5 − 7( x + 3) = 5 − 7 x − 21 28. increasing: (−2. f(x) = 5 – 7x 22. f(–x) = 5 – 7(–x) = 5 + 7x g ( x) = 3x 2 − 5 x + 2 30. y-intercept: –2 e. 20.

f(–9) = –2 and f(14) = 2 = − f ( x) The function is odd. range: (−∞. . = − f ( x) The function is odd. y-intercept: 0 e.Functions and Graphs 32. x-intercepts: –2 and 3 d. ∞) c. −2. a. −5. ∞) 37. 5} a. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x f (− x) = (− x)3 − 5(− x) = − x3 + 5 x b. a. f ( x) = 2 x 1 − x 2 b. domain: (−∞. 0. domain: (−∞. The function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. 40. relative minimum −3. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)2 + 1 b. 2) constant: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x-intercept: 0 = −2 x 1 − x 2 d. Inc. ∞ ) f. ∞) 38. range: { y y ≤ 0} 242 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) f. 0. b. range: {–3. f(–2) = 0 and f(6) = –3 33. 2] f (− x) = 2(− x) 1 − (− x)2 c. a. increasing: (–5. relative maximum 3 b. increasing: (–2. a. 34. relative minimum −6 36. range: [–2. b. − 2) or (2. 0) decreasing: (−∞. a. 3. –5 35. − 5) or (0. y-intercept: 3 e. relative maximum −2 39. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 = f ( x) The function is even. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin.

6 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44. 1 4 51. 42. b. c. thus the 1 slope of the desired line is m = − . vertical −2 − (−2) 0 2 − 6 −4 = =2 −1 − 1 −2 point-slope form: y – 6 = 2(x – 1) or y – 2 = 2(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 2x + 4 m= 52. m= 1 − 2 −1 1 = = − . horizontal 6 − (−3) 9 50. − x − 10 2 d. 3x + y – 9 = 0 y = –3x + 9 m = –3 point-slope form: y + 7 = –3(x – 4) slope-intercept form: y = –3x + 12 – 7 y = –3x + 5 Yes. 30) The eagle was ascending. perpendicular to y = Decreasing: (3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. Constant: (0. 12) The eagle descended. 3) or (12. 17) The eagle’s height held steady during the first 3 seconds and the eagle was on the ground for 5 seconds. y − (−1) = − 16 ( x − (−12) ) y + 1 = − 16 ( x + 12) y + 1 = − 16 x − 2 45. Increasing: (17. m= −4 − (−2) −2 = = 1. . point-slope form: y – 2 = –6(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –6x – 16 −2( x + h) 2 + ( x + h) + 10 − ( −2 x 2 + x + 10 ) 2 47. Write 6 x − y − 4 = 0 in slope intercept form. h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 − x − 10 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h −4 x − 2 h + 1 2 m= 49. a. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 8( x + h) − 11 − (8 x − 11) h 8 x + 8h − 11 − 8 x + 11 = h 8h = 8 =8 = −2 ( x + 2 xh + h h 2 ) + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 43. rises −3 − (−1) −2 6 y + 6 = − x − 12 x + 6 y + 18 = 0 243 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 x+4 3 m = –3 point-slope form: y – 6 = –3(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –3x – 9 + 6 y = –3x – 3 53. − 14 0 = = 0. falls 5−3 2 2 46. 48. the eagle’s height is a function of time since the graph passes the vertical line test.PreCalculus 4E 41. 6x − y − 4 = 0 − y = −6 x + 4 y = 6x − 4 The slope of the perpendicular line is 6. m= 10 − 5 5 = undefined.

y-intercept: 5 56.116 x + 0.000 persons.56 c. slope: –4. y − 11 = 0.3 = 0. According to the graph.Functions and Graphs 54. slope: 2 . y-intercept: –1 5 58. .116 ( x − 90 ) or 57. 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −2 x − 6 2 y = − x−2 3 2 slope: − .44 y = 0. 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 55. y − 2.56 f ( x) = 0.3 8. France has about 5 deaths per 100. y-intercept: 4 b. y-intercept: –2 3 60. 244 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 Find x-intercept: 2 x − 5(0) − 10 = 0 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 Find y-intercept: 2(0) − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = 10 y = −2 59.116 x − 10.7 = = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 11 − 2.116 ( x − 15) 2y −8 = 0 2y = 8 y=4 slope: 0.116 90 − 15 75 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 11 = 0.116 ( x − 90 ) y − 11 = 0.116 x + 0. Inc. a.

272 ≈ 4. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0. 64.3 According to the function.116(32) + 0. France has about 4. . a. 68.3 deaths per 100. 67. Inc.000 persons. S (4) = −16(4) 2 + 64(4) + 80 = 80 80 − 144 = −32 4−2 c. 71. 65.000 persons. The line passes below the point for France.5 2006 − 2002 4 Corporate profits increased at a rate of $182.56 66.56 = 4. 1616 − 886 730 61. 70. The rate of change is $182. S (0) = −16(0)2 + 64(0) + 80 = 80 S (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 80 = 144 144 − 80 = 32 2−0 b.5 billion per year.5 billion per year. The ball is traveling up until 2 seconds.7 deaths per 100.PreCalculus 4E d. 69. then it starts to come down. Chapter 1 Review Exercises f ( x ) = 0. 62. f (32) = 0. m = = = 182. 245 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) [9 − 4 ( 9 )] − [4 − 4 ⋅ 5] = = 10 x2 − x1 9−5 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall.116 x + 0.

76. 80.Functions and Graphs 72. 73. 81. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 74. 83. 82. 77. 79. 78. . 75. Inc. 246 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) = x 2 + 5 x − 14 domain: [2. ∞ ) ( f g )(3) = 16(3) 2 − 8(3) + 4 = 124 f ( x ) = x . ∞ ) 86. g ( x) = x 2 − 1 ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 + x domain: (−∞. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x+7 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (2. g ( x) = 4 x − 1 a. ( f g )( x) = (4 x − 1)2 + 3 = 16 x 2 − 8 x + 4 x ≥ −5 b. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. 3) ∪ ( 3. ( fg )( x ) = (3x − 1)( x − 5) = 3x 2 − 16 x + 5 domain: (−∞. x − 1 ≥ 0 and x + 5 ≥ 0 x ≥1 domain: [1. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. g ( x) = x − 2 93.5 ) ∪ ( 5. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. The denominator is zero when x = –7 or x = 3. The denominator is zero when x = 5. ( f g )(3) = 3 + 1 = 4 = 2 247 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g(x) = x – 5 (f + g)(x) = 4x – 6 domain: (−∞. domain: (−∞. The denominator is zero when x = 7. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = x + 7 ⋅ x − 2 88. ∞) 89. Inc. x–2≥0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) = 3x – 1. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 1) – (x – 5) = 2x + 4 domain: (−∞. f ( x) = x 2 + 3. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −5 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. ( g f )( x) = 4( x 2 + 3) − 1 = 4 x 2 + 11 91. 87.∞ ) f ( x) = x + 7. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x2 + x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x2 − 1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. . ( g f )( x) = x + 1 c. ∞ ) 94.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Review Exercises 92.1) ∪ (1. g ( x) = x + 1 a.5 ) ∪ ( 5. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. The domain is ( −∞. f ( x) = x 2 + x + 1. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = x 4 + x3 − x − 1 85. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1) − ( x 2 − 1) = x + 2 domain: (−∞. ∞) c. 8 – 2x ≥ 0 –2x ≥ –8 x≤4 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) . 90. −1) ∪ ( −1. ( f + g )( x) = x + 7 + x − 2 domain: [2. ( f g )( x) = x + 1 b. 95. 4]. 84. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x + 7 − x − 2 domain: [2.

f ( x) = 3 x 4 f ( x) = 4 x − 3 y = 4x − 3 102. a. f ( x) = x + . b. 97. 0 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ 0. g ( x) = x − 2 5 2 3 3⎛5 ⎞ 1 f ( g ( x)) = ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ + 5⎝3 ⎠ 2 6 1 = x− + 5 2 7 = x− 10 5⎛3 1⎞ g ( f ( x)) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2 3⎝5 2⎠ 5 = x+ −2 6 7 = x− 6 f and g are not inverses of each other. g ( x) = 1 ( f g )( x ) = f ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ ⎝x⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ 1 + 1 ⎜ + 1⎟ x 1+ x x ⎠ = x =⎝ = 1 1 1 − 2x − 2 ⎛⎜ − 2 ⎞⎟ x x ⎝x ⎠ b. Inc. f ( x) = x 99. . 101. a. x = 8 y3 + 1 x − 1 = 8 y3 x −1 = y3 8 3 3 x −1 =y 8 x −1 =y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x −1 2 248 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. f ( x) = 2 − 5 x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. y = 8 x3 + 1 3 1 5 100. ∞ ⎞⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ (f x = 4y −3 x+3 4 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 4 y= g )( x ) = f ( x + 3) = x + 3 − 1 = x + 2 x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 98. [−2. ⎞⎟ ∪ ⎛⎜ .Functions and Graphs 96. ∞) ⎛ x+3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 4 ⎠ = x +3−3 =x (4 x − 3) + 3 4 x f ( f ( x)) = = =x 4 4 g ( x) = x + 2 x − 1 2 −1 g ( x) = 7 x + 4 f ( x) = 8 x3 + 1 103. x≠0 1 − 2x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 1 1 ( −∞. b. 2−x 5 ⎛2−x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 2 − 5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = 2 − (2 − x) =x 2 − (2 − 5 x) 5 x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 5 5 f and g are inverses of each other.

( ) 2 +5 2 x−5 2( x − 5) = +5 2 = x−5+5 111. . 108. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 106.PreCalculus 4E b. The inverse function exists. Inc. 104. The inverse function exists. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. 3 ⎛ 3 x −1 ⎞ f f ( x) = 8 ⎜ +1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x −1 ⎞ = 8⎜ ⎟ +1 ⎝ 8 ⎠ = x −1 +1 ( ) −1 107. =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 (8x 3 ) + 1 −1 109. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. f f −1 ( x) = y = x +1 x= x −1 = f ( f ( x) ) = y +1 y ( x − 1) = y 2 =x −1 f ( x) = x + 1 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 . 2 3 8 x3 2 2x = 2 =x = 110. 2 +5 x 2 y = +5 x 2 x = +5 y xy = 2 + 5 y f ( x) = 1 − x 2 y = 1 − x2 f ( x) = x = 1− y2 y2 = 1− x y = 1− x −1 f ( x) = 1 − x xy − 5 y = 2 y ( x − 5) = 2 2 x −5 2 f −1 ( x) = x −5 y= b. x ≥ 1 2 2 +5−5 x 2 = 2 x 2x = 2 =x 105. a. 249 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

15 + 0. in 2009.1] [ 0. =2 2 x2 − 4x + y2 + 2 y = 4 ≈ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 3). W ( x) = 567 + 15 x 702 = 567 + 15 x 135 = 15 x 9=x 9 years after 2000. –1). the two plans cost the same. ( x − (−2)) 2 + ( y − 4)2 = 62 [ −1. a. 122.1] domain: range: f ( x) = 15 + 0. 6] = 22 + 22 domain: = 4+4 range: = 8 x2 + y2 − 4 x + 2 y − 4 = 0 120. ⎟=⎜ .1] [ −1.05 x b. radius: 3 ⎛ 2 + ( −12 ) 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ −10 10 ⎞ 114. ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 116. .Functions and Graphs 119.05 x = 5 + 0. center: (0. d = [−2 − (−4)]2 + ( 5 − 3) 2 [ −5. a. .83 x2 − 4 x + 4 + y2 + 2 y + 1 = 4 + 4 + 1 ( x − 2) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 9 center: (2. b. 2] domain: ( x + 2) + ( y − 4) = 36 2 2 range: 118. ⎟ = ( −5. ⎜ . radius: 1 121.07 x c. [ −1. d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [9 − (−3)]2 = 52 + 122 = 25 + 144 = 169 = 13 113. 250 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + y 2 = 32 x2 + y 2 = 9 117. −2 ⎟ 115.5] [ −4.07 x 10 = 0. center: (–2. radius: 3 112. the average weekly sales will be $702. 0).02 x 500 = x For 500 minutes. g ( x) = 5 + 0. Inc.5) ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 + (−15) −6 + 2 ⎞ ⎛ −11 −4 ⎞ ⎛ −11 ⎞ .

and (d) are not functions. ⎛ 8 ⎞ = 2x2 + 4 ⎜ ⎟x ⎝ x2 ⎠ 32 = 2x2 + x 127. 0 d. x-intercepts: –4. 2) 0<x<8 e. a. 2. f(4) – f(–3) = 3 – (–2) = 5 b. domain: (–5. f fails the horizontal line test = 640 − 2 x b. even. R( x) = x(640 − 2 x) = −2 x 2 + 640 x w = 16 − 2 x l = 24 − 2 x 125. increasing: (–1. and 5. A( x) = 2 x ⋅ x + 4hx f (0) is a relative minimum. g. (–1. 1. V = lwh 8 = x⋅ x⋅h 8 =h x2 f. 6) f. –1. 2l + 3w = 400 2l = 400 − 3w 400 − 3w 2 Let x = width l= ⎛ 400 − 3w ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ x(400 − 3w) = 2 126. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 b. –2. (b). f(2) = 5 g. Inc. i. –4) h. b. 2. f (− x) = f ( x) e. decreasing: (−5.PreCalculus 4E 123. (c).000 – x) h. a. 251 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y-intercept: –3 a.08x + 0. 5] V ( x) = (16 − 2 x)(24 − 2 x) x d. − 1) or (2. . Chapter 1 Test N ( x) = 400 − 2( x − 120) Chapter 1 Test = 400 − 2 x + 240 1.12(10. 1 c. I = 0. no. 124. 6] c. a. range: [–4. 3.

4] domain: 5. i. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: range: 4. 2] [ −2. range: 9. 2} domain: range: 10. Inc. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) −1 − 0 1 = =− x2 − x1 1 − (−2) 3 ( −∞. ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: range: [ −5. 8. [ −2. 7] domain: range: 252 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 2] [ −1. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( −∞. j.Functions and Graphs 7.1] [ −2. ∞ ) {−1. 2] domain: range: 6. ∞ ) range: {4} [ −6.

( ( g − f )( x) = 2 x − 6 − x 2 − x − 4 = 2x − 6 − x + x + 4 2 = − x 2 + 3x − 2 253 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. [ 0. ∞ ) ( −∞. Inc. ∞ ) domain of f: domain of f: 12. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 15. f ( x − 1) = ( x − 1)2 − ( x − 1) − 4 = x2 − 2 x + 1 − x + 1 − 4 = x2 − 3x − 2 17. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f: f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( ( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 4 − x 2 − x − 4 ) h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − x − h − 4 − x 2 + x + 4 = h 2 xh + h 2 − h = h h ( 2 x + h − 1) = h = 2x + h −1 18. ∞ ) range of g: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 11. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. 13. ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of g: [ −2. 4] domain of f: domain of f: f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 16. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. 14. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. ( −∞. ∞ ) ( −∞. ) . ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ∞ ) range of f: [ −1. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞.

( a. 4x + 2 y − 5 = 0 ⎛ f ⎞ x2 − x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2x − 6 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) = (2 x − 6) 2 − (2 x − 6) − 4 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) = 4 x 2 − 24 x + 36 − 2 x + 6 − 4 y − (−10) = −2 ( x − (−7) ) = 4 x 2 − 26 x + 38 21. thus the slope of the desired line is m = −2. 3(10) 2 − 5 − [3(6) 2 − 5] 10 − 6 205 − 103 = 4 192 = 4 = 48 29. or y − 476 = 5 ( x − 2 ) f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) − 4 b. will be 516 per 100. y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) y − 486 = 5 x − 20 y = 5 x + 466 f ( x ) = 5 x + 466 −8 − 1 −9 = =3 −1 − 2 −3 point-slope form: y – 1 = 3(x – 2) or y + 8 = 3(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 3x – 5 m= c. 24. 486) . 486 − 476 10 = =5 4−2 2 Then use the slope and a point to write the equation in point-slope form. ∞ ) 2 y = −4 x + 5 y = −2 x + 5 2 The slope of the parallel line is –2. 26.S. f (10 ) = 5(10) + 466 = 516 The function predicts that in 2010 the number of sentenced inmates in the U. find the slope using the points (2.3) ∪ ( 3. . = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 14 22. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 20. 476) and (4. First.000 residents. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) ) g ( f (−1) ) = 2 (−1) 2 − (−1) − 4 − 6 = 2 (1 + 1 − 4 ) − 6 m= = 2 ( −2 ) − 6 = −4 − 6 y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) = −10 23. 25. g(–1) = 3 – (–1) = 4 g (7) = 7 − 3 = 4 = 2 254 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = x2 + x − 4 f is neither even nor odd. Write 4 x + 2 y − 5 = 0 in slope intercept form. ( g f )( x) = g ( f ( x) ) ( y + 10 = −2( x + 7) y + 10 = −2 x − 14 ) = 2 x2 − x − 4 − 6 2 x + y + 24 = 0 = 2x − 2x − 8 − 6 2 27.Functions and Graphs 19. 1 y = − x + 5 so m = 4 4 point-slope form: y – 6 = 4(x + 4) slope-intercept form: y = 4x + 22 28.

5 x) = −1.19 x −6.0⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛7 ⎞ The length is 5 and the midpoint is ⎜ . Inc. a.∞ ) Y ( x) = 50 − 1. d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 38.5 x + 45 31.7 seconds. ( f g )( x) = b.5( x − 30) = 50 − 1. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 33.08 = −0. = 95 − 1. domain: ( −∞.000 x = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 ⎜ 2 . ∞ ) 36. ⎟ ∪ ⎜ .78 − 0.19 x 35. −5 ) ∪ ( −5.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 30. 37. 0 ⎟ . 255 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The denominator is zero when x = 1 or x = –5. f ( x ) = x7 34. the winning time will be 35. ⎝2 ⎠ 35. T ( x) = x(95 − 1. . T ( x) = 41. in 2012. 2 − 4x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ domain: ( −∞.5 x 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.7 = 41.1) ∪ (1.78 − 0. 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛7 ⎞ = ⎜ . 8000 = x ⋅ x ⋅ h 8000 =h x2 g ( x ) = 2x + 3 d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) = (5 − 2) 2 + ( 2 − (−2) ) V = lwh A( x) = 2 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 2 x2 + 2 8000 x2 32. 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 2 + 5 −2 + 2 ⎞ ⎟=⎜ 2 . 0 ) ∪ ⎜ 0. x + 5 ≥ 0 and x − 1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −5 a. The expressions under each radical must not be negative.19 x 32 = x 32 years after 1980. x ≥1 domain: [1.5 x 2 + 95 x 2l + 2w = 600 2l = 600 − 2w 7 2 −4 x = l = 300 − w 7x 2 − 4x Let x = w A( x) = x(300 − x) = − x 2 + 300 x x ≠ 0.

a. −27 + −48 = i 27 + i 48 (5 + 4i )(6 − 7i ) = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28i 2 = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28(−1) = 30 + 28 − 35i + 24i = 58 − 11i 5 + 4i 5 + 4i 4 + i = ⋅ 4−i 4−i 4+i 20 + 5i + 16i + 4i 2 = 16 + 4i − 4i − i 2 20 + 21i − 4 = 16 + 1 16 + 21i = 17 16 21 = + i 17 17 5. . x= 256 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3(−1) 7i (2 − 9i ) = 7i (2) − 7i (9i ) = 1 − 4i 3 c.Chapter 2 Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. = 63 + 14i 3. (5 − 2i ) + (3 + 3i ) = 5 − 2i + 3 + 3i = (5 + 3) + (−2 + 3)i = 8+i 4. c = 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 2 ± 4 −8 2 2 ± −4 x= 2 2 ± 2i x= 2 x = 1± i The solution set is {1 + i. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 2. = i 9 ⋅ 3 + i 16 ⋅ 3 = 3i 3 + 4i 3 = 7i 3 (2 + 6i ) − (12 − i ) = 2 + 6i − 12 + i = (2 − 12) + (6 + 1)i = −10 + 7i b. 1 − i}. a. b = −2. Inc. −14 + −12 −14 + i 12 = 2 2 −14 + 2i 3 = 2 −14 2i 3 = + 2 2 = −7 + i 3 x2 − 2x + 2 = 0 a = 1. (−2 + −3) 2 = (−2 + i 3) 2 = (−2) 2 + 2(−2)(i 3) + (i 3) 2 = 14i − 63i 2 = 14i − 63(−1) b.1 Check Point Exercises 1.

( 2 + 3i ) 6 − (−5 + 4i ) − (−13 − i ) = 6 + 5 − 4i + 13 + i = 24 − 3i 7 − (−9 + 2i ) − (−17 − i ) = 7 + 9 − 2i + 17 + i = 33 − i 7. ( 2 + 7i )( 2 − 7i ) = 4 − 49i 2 = 4 + 49 = 53 17. (7 – 5i)(–2 – 3i) = −14 − 21i + 10i + 15i 2 = –14 – 15 – 11i = –29 – 11i 2 2 3+i = ⋅ 3−i 3−i 3+i 2(3 + i ) = 9 +1 2 (3 + i ) = 10 3+i = 5 3 1 = + i 5 5 3 3 4−i = ⋅ 4+i 4+i 4−i 3( 4 − i) = 16 − i 2 3( 4 − i) = 17 12 3 = − i 17 17 257 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 20. (8 – 4i)(–3 + 9i) = −24 + 72i + 12i − 36i 2 = –24 + 36 + 84i = 12 + 84i Exercise Set 2. 2. 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (3 + 5i )(3 − 5i ) = 9 − 15i + 15i − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 (–2 + 6i) + (4 – i) = –2 + 6i + 4 – i = –2 + 4 + 6i – i = 2 + 5i 6.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 8i – (14 – 9i) = 8i – 14 + 9i = –14 + 8i + 9i = –14 + 17i 9. (−5 + i )(−5 − i ) = 25 + 5i − 5i − i 2 = 25 + 1 = 26 18.1 1. . 15. (−7 + i )(−7 − i ) = 49 + 7i − 7i − i 2 = 49 + 1 = 50 19.1 14. 2 = 4 + 12i − 9 = −5 + 12i 10. = 4 + 12i + 9i 2 ( 5 − 2i ) 2 = 25 − 20i + 4i 2 = 25 − 20i − 4 = 21 − 20i 15i – (12 – 11i) = 15i – 12 + 11i = –12 + 15i + 11i = –12 + 26i 21. 8. (7 + 2i) + (1 – 4i) = 7 + 2i + 1 – 4i = 7 + 1 + 2i – 4i = 8 – 2i = 34 (3 + 2i) – (5 – 7i) = 3 – 5 + 2i + 7i = 3 + 2i – 5 + 7i = –2 + 9i (–7 + 5i) – (–9 – 11i) = –7 + 5i + 9 + 11i = –7 + 9 + 5i + 11i = 2 + 16i 16. Inc. 22. –8i (2i – 7) = −16i 2 + 56i = –16(–1) + 56i = 9 − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 = 34 = 16 + 56i 11. (−4 − 8i )(3 + i ) = −12 − 4i − 24i − 8i 2 = −12 − 28i + 8 = −4 − 28i 13. 3. –3i(7i – 5) = −21i 2 + 15i = –21(–1) + 15i = 21 + 15i (−5 + 4i )(3 + i ) = −15 − 5i + 12i + 4i 2 = −15 + 7i − 4 = −19 + 7i 12. 5.

2i 2i 1 − i 2i − 2i 2 2 + 2i = ⋅ = = = 1+ i 1+ i 1+ i 1− i 1+1 2 31. 30. ( −5 − −9 ) 2 = (−5 − i 9)2 = ( −5 − 3i ) 2 = 25 + 30i + 9i 2 = 25 + 30i – 9 = 16 + 30i 35. 24. ( −2 + −4 ) 2 = ( −2 + 2i ) 2 = 4 − 8i + 4i 2 = 4 – 8i – 4 = –8i 8i 8i 4 + 3i = ⋅ 4 − 3i 4 − 3i 4 + 3i 32i + 24i 2 = 16 + 9 −24 + 32i = 25 24 32 =− + i 25 25 34. 25. ( −2 + −11 ) = ( −2 + i 11) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 11 + i 2 (11) = 4 − 11 − 4i 11 = −7 − 4i 11 37. 29. −64 − −25 = i 64 − i 25 = 8i − 5i = 3i −8 + −32 −8 + i 32 = 24 24 −8 + i 16 ⋅ 2 = 24 −8 + 4i 2 = 24 1 2 i =− + 3 6 −12 + −28 −12 + i 28 −12 + i 4 ⋅ 7 = = 32 32 32 = −81 − −144 = i 81 − i 144 = 9i – 12i = –3i −12 + 2i 7 3 7 i =− + 32 8 16 258 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .Polynomial and Rational Functions 23. −6i −6i 3 − 2i −18i + 12i 2 = ⋅ = 3 + 2i 3 + 2i 3 − 2i 9+4 12 18 −12 − 18i = =− − i 13 13 13 ( −3 − −7 ) = ( −3 − i 7 ) 2 2 = 9 + 6i 7 + i 2 ( 7 ) = 9 − 7 + 6i 7 = 2 + 6i 7 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2+i 2−i 4 + 4i − 3i 2 = 4 +1 7 + 4i = 5 7 4 = + i 5 5 36. 26. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5i 8 + 3i 18 = 5i 4 ⋅ 2 + 3i 9 ⋅ 2 = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = 19i 2 33. 27. Inc. 28. 3 − 4i 3 − 4i 4 − 3i = ⋅ 4 + 3i 4 + 3i 4 − 3i 12 − 25i + 12i 2 = 16 + 9 −25i = 25 = −i 38. 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5(4i) + 3(9i) = 20i + 27i = 47i 5i 5i 2 + i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 10i + 5i 2 = 4 +1 −5 + 10i = 5 = −1 + 2i 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

. x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 0 x= 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i The solution set is {3 + i.1 − 4i}. −3 − 5 = i 8(i 3 − 5) = 2i 2 i 3 − 5 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( ) 47. Inc. (3 )( −7 2 −8 −8 ± 64 − 208 8 −8 ± −144 8 −8 ± 12i = 8 4(−2 ± 3i ) = 8 −2 ± 3i = 2 3 = −1 ± i 2 = −4 3 − 2i 6 43. ( ( ) ) = ( = 4i 2 (3 ) 3 − 2i 6 )( ) ( )( −5 −4 −12 = 3i 5 −8i 3 ) = −24i 2 15 3 3 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1 + i. 2 ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(17) x= −15 − 3i 2 5 2 i =− − 33 11 11 −8 x 2 − 2 x + 17 = 0 x= −15 − −18 −15 − i 18 −15 − i 9 ⋅ 2 = = 33 33 33 = 41. x= 259 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 1 − i ⎬ . 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ = 24 15 44. −8 ± 82 − 4(4)(13) 2(4) = −4 − 2 = i 12(i 4 − 2) = 2i 3 2i − 2 4 x 2 + 8 x + 13 = 0 x= = −2 6 − 2i 10 −12 2(1) 2 ± 4 − 68 2 2 ± −64 x= 2 2 ± 8i x= 2 x = 1 ± 4i The solution set is {1 + 4i. Section 2.1 ) = (3i 7 )(2i 8) = (3i 7 )(2i 4 ⋅ 2) ( )( ) = 3i 7 4i 2 = 12i 2 14 = −12 14 45.PreCalculus 4E 39. −6 − −12 −6 − i 12 = 48 48 −6 − i 4 ⋅ 3 = 48 −6 − 2i 3 = 48 1 3 i =− − 8 24 46. 3 − i} . 40.

− − i⎬. Inc. 2 x2 + 2 x + 3 = 0 x= 50. 2 2 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 49. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − i⎬. ⎧⎪ 4 5 4 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ + i. − i⎬. 3x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 2(3) = 2 − 5i + 3i 2 − 9 + i 2 8 ± 64 − 84 6 8 ± −20 6 8 ± 2i 5 6 2(4 ± i 5) 6 4±i 5 3 4 5 i ± 3 3 = −7 − 5i + 4i 2 = −7 − 5i + 4 ( −1) = −11 − 5i 52. ⎩⎪ 3 3 3 3 ⎪⎭ ( 2 + i ) − (3 − i ) 2 2 = ( 4 + 4i + i 2 ) − ( 9 − 6i + i 2 ) = 4 + 4i + i 2 − 9 + 6i − i 2 = −5 + 10i 260 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .Polynomial and Rational Functions 48. 3 3 3 3 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 5 1 5 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 1 The solution set is ⎨ − + i. = = = = = = 2(3) 4 ± 16 − 72 6 4 ± −56 6 4 ± 2i 14 6 2(2 ± i 14) 6 2 ± i 14 3 2 14 i ± 3 3 ( 2 − 3i )(1 − i ) − ( 3 − i )( 3 + i ) = ( 2 − 2i − 3i + 3i 2 ) − ( 32 − i 2 ) − ( −8 ) ± (−8) − 4(3)(7) 2 x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(3)(6) 14 2 14 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 2 The solution set is ⎨ + i. −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(2)(3) 2(2) x= −2 ± 4 − 24 4 −2 ± −20 = 4 −2 ± 2i 5 = 4 2(−1 ± i 5) = 4 −1 ± i 5 = 2 1 5 i =− ± 2 2 = = = = = = = 3x 2 − 8 x + 7 = 0 51. (8 + 9i )( 2 − i ) − (1 − i )(1 + i ) = (16 − 8i + 18i − 9i 2 ) − (12 − i 2 ) = 16 + 10i − 9i 2 − 1 + i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8 ( −1) = 23 + 10i 53.

. = (16 − 8i + i 2 ) − (1 + 4i + 4i 2 ) = 16 − 8i + i − 1 − 4i − 4i 2 f ( 3i ) = 2 = 15 − 12i − 3 ( −1) = 18 − 12i 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5 16 −1 + 3 81 −1 = 5 ⋅ 4i + 3 ⋅ 9i = 20i + 27i = 47i or 0 + 47i 56. f ( x) = f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 5 f (1 − 2i ) = (1 − 2i ) − 2 (1 − 2i ) + 5 2 = 1 − 4i + 4i 2 − 2 + 4i + 5 = 4 + 4i 2 = 4−4 =0 261 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 ( 4 − i ) − (1 + 2i ) 2 2 59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 + 19 2−x 2 − 3i 9i 2 + 19 = 2 − 3i −9 + 19 = 2 − 3i 10 = 2 − 3i 10 2 + 3i = ⋅ 2 − 3i 2 + 3i 20 + 30i = 4 − 9i 2 20 + 30i = 4+9 20 + 30i = 13 20 30 = + i 13 13 = 15 − 12i − 3i 2 55. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5 4 2 −1 + 3 9 2 −1 = 5⋅ 2 2 i + 3⋅3 2 i = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = (10 + 9 ) i 2 = 19i 2 or 0 + 19i 2 60. 57. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 54. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 2 f ( x) = f ( 4i ) = f (1 + i ) = (1 + i ) − 2 (1 + i ) + 2 2 ( 3i ) 2 + 19 x 2 + 11 3− x ( 4i ) 2 + 11 = 16i 2 + 11 3 − 4i 3 − 4i −16 + 11 = 3 − 4i −5 = 3 − 4i −5 3 + 4i = ⋅ 3 − 4i 3 + 4i −15 − 20i = 9 − 16i 2 −15 − 20i = 9 + 16 −15 − 20i = 25 −15 20 = − i 25 25 3 4 =− − i 5 5 = 1 + 2i + i 2 − 2 − 2i + 2 = 1 + i2 = 1 −1 =0 58. Inc.

74. E = IR = ( 2 − 3i )( 3 + 5i ) = 6 + 10i − 9i − 15i = 6 + i − 15 ( −1) 2 (5 + i 15 ) + (5 − i 15 ) = 5 + i 15 + 5 − i 15 = 5+5 = 10 Product: (5 + i 15 )(5 − i 15 ) = 25 − 5i 15 + 5i 15 − 15i 2 = 25 + 15 = 40 64. false. 78. . 4 1+ i 1− i + 1 + 2i 1 − 2i (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = + (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) + (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) 1 − 2i + i − 2i 2 + 1 + 2i − i − 2i 2 = 1 − 4i 2 1 − 2i + i + 2 + 1 + 2i − i + 2 = 1+ 4 6 = 5 6 = + 0i 5 262 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: (3 + 7i)(3 – 7i) = 9 + 49 = 58 which is a real9number. Sample explanation: Imaginary numbers are not undefined. Changes to make the statement true will vary. – 72. Inc. 76. does not make sense. It is not a variable in this context. 62. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 79. 75. 82.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. Sample explanation: i = −1 . A sample change is: 7 + 3i 7 + 3i 5 − 3i 44 − 6i 22 3 = ⋅ = = − i 5 + 3i 5 + 3i 5 − 3i 34 17 17 80. Answers may vary. does not make sense. A sample change is: All irrational numbers are complex numbers. Publishing as Prentice Hall. E = IR = ( 4 − 5i )( 3 + 7i ) E = 12 + 28i − 15i − 35i E = 12 + 13i − 35 ( −1) E = 12 + 35 + 13i = 47 + 13i The voltage of the circuit is (47 + 13i) volts. Explanations will vary. 4 6 − 2i + 3i − i 2 4 6 + i +1 4 = 7+i 4 7−i = ⋅ 7+i 7−i 28 − 4i = 49 − i 2 28 − 4i = 49 + 1 28 − 4i = 50 28 4 = − i 50 50 14 2 = − i 25 25 63. false. makes sense 77. Sum: makes sense ( 2 + i )( 3 − i ) = = = 6 + i + 15 = 21 + i The voltage of the circuit is ( 21 + i ) volts. false. 73. true 2 81.

2 h P=1 P ⎛ ⎞ kP= 4 f ( x) = − ⎜ x − 1 ⎟ + 4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. 2 a =−1 0 = −2( x − 3) 2 + 8 84.2 86. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted 1 unit up and 3 units to the left. 263 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Step 2: find the vertex: (1. −(−2) ± (−2) − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) 2 x= 2± 8 2 2±2 2 = 2 = 1± 2 = The solution set is {1 ± 2}. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 83. 8 i 2 + i i 8 = 2+i i 8i = 2+i 8i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2−i 16i − 8i 2 = 4 − i2 16i + 8 = 4 +1 8 + 16i = 5 8 16 = + i 5 5 = Section 2. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 ( x − 1) 2 =4 x − 1 = ±2 x = 1± 2 x = 3 or x = −1 Step 4: find the y-intercept: −x2 − 2x + 1 = 0 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 2 −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 4) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 2( x − 3) 2 = 8 ( x − 3) 2 = 4 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 x−3= ± 4 x = 3± 2 x = 1.2 Check Point Exercises 1. 8 2 1+ i Section 2. Inc. 5 85.

a = 4.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. Step 2: find the vertex: 4 b x=− =− =2 2a 2(−1) Step 1: The parabola opens up because a > 0. f ( x) = 4 x 2 − 16 x + 1000 a. Step 2: find the vertex: (2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. −b 16 x= = =2 b. 1) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 1 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x ) = − x2 + 4x + 1 f ( 2 ) = −22 + 4(2) + 1 = 5 = −1 The vertex is (2. Step 4: find the y-intercept: x= f (0) = (0 − 2) + 1 = 5 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −4 ± 42 − 4(−1)(1) 2(−1) −4 ± 20 −2 x = 2± 5 The x-intercepts are x ≈ −0.2 . 2a 8 f (2) = 4(2) 2 − 16(2) + 1000 = 984 The minimum point is 984 at x = 2 . Step 4: find the y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 + 4(0) + 1 = 1 x= Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. thus the parabola has no x-intercepts. 4. ∞) range: [984. Inc. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) + 1 2 3. Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2.2 and x ≈ −4. ∞ ) 264 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c. Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 + 4x + 1 x − 2 = −1 x = 2±i The equation has no real roots. domain: (−∞. 5). . Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0.

005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −2 ± 22 − 4(−0. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 120 feet of fencing. 2a 2 (1) 2 y-coordinate of vertex f ( 4) = ( 4) − 8 ( 4) 2 2 y = −0. . −16 ) .005)(5) 2(−0. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 60 60 b x=− =− =− = 30. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 Plot ( 0. The minimum product is −16 . 265 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 30 feet by 30 feet. x-coordinate of vertex −b −2 x= = = 200 2a 2 ( −0. 2 x + 2 y = 120 2 y = 120 − 2 x x= c. Since we need an equation in one variable.PreCalculus 4E 5. Let x = the length of the rectangle. When the length x is 30. The maximum height of the arrow is 205 feet. A ( x ) = x ( 60 − x ) = − x 2 + 60 x The starting point occurs when x = 0. Let x = one of the numbers. The arrow will hit the ground when the height reaches 0. b.005 x + 2 x + 5 0 = −0. This gives an area of 30 ⋅ 30 = 900 square feet. 0 ) . 2 y = −0. This occurs 200 feet from its release. y = −0.005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 a. y = −0. Inc.005) x ≈ −2 or x ≈ 402 The arrow travels 402 feet before hitting the ground. Find the corresponding y-coordinate.2 6. x − 8 = the other number. The information needed is found at the vertex.005(0)2 + 2(0) + 5 = 5 Since a = −1 is negative.205). 5 ) . The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 8 ) = x 2 − 8 x 120 − 2 x = 60 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 60 − x ) . ( 402. and connect them with a smooth curve. Let y = the width of the rectangle. This occurs when the two number are 4 and 4 − 8 = −4 .005(200) + 2(200) + 5 = 205 The vertex is (200. Rewrite y= A as a function of x. the width y is y = 60 − x = 60 − 30 = 30. and ( 200. 205 ) . 7.005 ) The x-coordinate of the minimum is b −8 −8 x=− =− =− = 4. = 16 − 32 = −16 The vertex is ( 4.

domain: ( −∞. The point (–1. 14. f(x) = 2(x – 3) + 1 h = 3. –11). f(x) = –2(x + 1) + 5 h = –1. j ( x ) = − x2 − 1 0 = ( x − 4) −1 2 1 = ( x − 4) 2 2 ±1 = x – 4 x = 3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 4) 2 − 1 = 15 The axis of symmetry is x = 4. 0) is on the graph and g(1) = 0. 7). g ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x + 1 8. f(x) = 2x – 8x + 3 −b 8 x= = =2 2a 4 f(2) = 2(2)2 – 8(2) + 3 = 8 – 16 + 3 = –5 The vertex is at (2. f(x) = –x – 2x + 8 −b 2 x= = = −1 2a −2 2 f(–1) = –(–1) – 2(–1) + 8 = –1 + 2 + 8 = 9 The vertex is at (–1. 0) is on the graph and f(–1) = 0. vertex: (1. The graph is f(x) = x translated down one. k = 12 The vertex is at (2. 1). vertex: (–1. 9. k = –8 The vertex is at (–4. –5). 1) g ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 1 2 3. 2 17. 2 11. –1) x-intercepts: 2 The graph is f(x) = –x translated down one. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 2 13. k = 1 The vertex is at (3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 Exercise Set 2. range: [ −1. f(x) = –3(x – 2) + 12 h = 2. –1) j ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 1 2 4. h ( x ) = x2 −1 6. f(x) = –2(x + 4) – 8 h = –4. k = 5 The vertex is at (–1. –1) f ( x ) = ( x + 1) − 1 2 2 5. 1) h ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 1 2 2. f ( x ) = x 2 + 2 x + 1 7. The point (1. f(x) = 3x – 12x + 1 −b 12 x= = =2 2a 6 f(2) = 3(2)2 – 12(2) + 1 = 12 – 24 + 1 = –11 The vertex is at (2. 16. f ( x ) = ( x − 4) −1 2 vertex: (4. 9). .2 1. 2 12. f(x) = –2x + 8x – 1 −b −8 x= = =2 2 a −4 2 f(2) = –2(2) + 8(2) – 1 = –8 + 16 – 1 = 7 The vertex is at (2. 5). 2 15. 2 10. vertex: (1. Inc. ∞ ) 266 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 12). vertex: (–1. –8).

y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 1) − 2 = –1 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) + 2 = 11 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2) x-intercepts: 2 y − 1 = ( x − 3) 0 = ( x − 3) + 1 2 = −2 ( x − 3) x − 1 = ± −2 2 = −1 x – 3 = ±i x = 3 ±i No x-intercepts. domain: ( −∞. Inc. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) + 2 2 vertex: (1. 21. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 18. domain: ( −∞. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) − 2 0 = ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 1) ( x − 3) 2 2 2 =2 2 = −2 x −1 = ± 2 x − 3 = ±i 2 x = 1± 2 y-intercept: x = 3±i 2 No x-intercepts. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 1) 2 + 2 = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1.∞ ) range: [ 2. y-intercept: 10 x = 1± i 2 No x-intercepts. –2) x-intercepts: vertex: (3. ∞ ) 19. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 3) + 1 = 10 2 range: [1. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. ∞ ) range: [ −2. f ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 2 2 2 vertex: (3. . ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 1) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 2 2 ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 3) + 1 vertex: (1.2 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 2 2 20. ∞ ) 267 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) range: [ 2.

y − 3 = ( x − 1) The axis of symmetry is x = –2. –1) x-intercepts: 0 = 2 ( x + 2) − 1 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f (0) = − ⎜ 0 − ⎟ + = 1 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 ( x + 2) = 1 2 ( x + 2) 2 = x+2= ± x = −2 ± 1 2 1 The axis of symmetry is x = 2 1 2 y-intercept: = −2 ± 2 2 f (0) = 2 ( 0 + 2 ) − 1 = 7 2 domain: ( −∞. ⎟ ⎝2 4⎠ x-intercepts: 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ 0 = −⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. 1 . 5 ⎛ 1⎞ −⎜ x− ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f ( x) = − ⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 5⎞ vertex: ⎜ . ∞ ) 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 y = ( x − 1) + 3 2 vertex: (1. ∞ ) y = ( 0 − 1) + 3 = 4 2 24. ∞ ) x = 1± i 3 No x-intercepts y-intercept: range: [ −1. 2 . f ( x) = The axis of symmetry is x = 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. Inc. ∞ ) 5⎤ ⎛ range: ⎜ −∞. 3) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 3 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −3 x − 1 = ±i 3 domain: ( −∞. ⎥ 4⎦ ⎝ 268 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 5 =± 2 2 1± 5 x= 2 y-intercept: x− f ( x) = 2 ( x + 2 ) − 1 2 vertex: (–2. ∞ ) 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ range: [3.

∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) f ( x ) = 1 − ( x − 3) 2 28.1] domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) =4 domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 2 =1 x–3=±1 x = 2 or x = 4 y-intercept: 0 = ( x − 1) − 16 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 16 x–1=±4 x = –3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 15 = –15 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. . 4] range: [ −4. f ( x ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 26.PreCalculus 4E 25. ∞ ) range: [ −16. ∞ ) 269 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 3 ) + 1 = −8 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 3. domain: ( −∞. –16) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 ( x − 3) 2 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: –3 f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 3 = −3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4) x-intercepts: 2 2 2 =4 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: ( x − 1) 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1.2 f ( x ) = 4 − ( x − 1) 2 27. 1) x-intercepts: f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 16 vertex: (1. –4) x-intercepts: ( x − 1) 0 = ( x − 1) − 4 2 vertex: (1. f ( x ) = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 f ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x − 15 f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 15 − 1 vertex: (3. Inc. Section 2. f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 3 − 1 f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 4 vertex: (1.

2 f ( 0 ) = 2 ( 0 ) − 7 ( 0 ) − 4 = –4 2 The axis of symmetry is x = domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) ⎡ 81 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . − ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2 x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ 0 =⎜x+ ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ 0 = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ 2⎜ x − ⎟ = 4 8 ⎝ ⎠ 2 3⎞ 49 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 3 7 x+ = ± 2 2 3 7 x=− ± 2 2 x = 2 or x = –5 y-intercept: f ( x ) = 02 + 3 ( 0 ) − 10 = −10 The axis of symmetry is x = − 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 4 ⎠ 16 ⎝ 7 9 x− =± 4 4 7 9 x= ± 4 4 1 x = − or x = 4 2 y-intercept: 3 . − ⎟ ⎝4 8 ⎠ x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 49 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ − . f ( x ) = 2x2 − 7 x − 4 7 49 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 2 16 ⎠ 8 ⎝ 9⎞ 9 ⎛ f ( x ) = ⎜ x 2 + 3x + ⎟ − 10 − 4⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ f ( x) = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 7 81 ⎛ ⎞ vertex: ⎜ .Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. ∞ ) ⎡ 49 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 8 ⎠ 270 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ domain: ( −∞. 7 . f ( x ) = x 2 + 3x − 10 30. 4 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.

f (0) = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = −3 . f ( x) = 5 − 4 x − x 2 f ( x) = − x 2 − 4 x + 5 f ( x) = − ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 ) + 5 + 4 f ( x) = − ( x + 2 ) + 9 2 vertex: (–2. 1 y-intercept: f (0) = 5 − 4 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) = 5 2 271 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = ( x + 3) − 6 2 vertex: ( −3. −6 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 3) − 6 2 ( x + 3) 2 =6 x+3 = ± 6 x = −3 ± 6 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 6(0) + 3 domain: ( −∞.9] f ( 0) = 2 ( 0) − ( 0) + 3 = 3 2 33. f ( x) = − x + 2 x + 3 2 f ( x) = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) + 4 vertex: (1. f ( x) = x 2 + 6 x + 3 f ( x) = ( x 2 + 6 x + 9) + 3 − 9 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. Inc. 4] 32. 9) x-intercepts: 0 = − ( x + 2) + 9 2 ( x + 2) 2 domain: ( −∞. Section 2.2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 + 3 The axis of symmetry is x = –2. ∞ ) x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: range: ( −∞. ∞ ) x+2=±3 x = –5. 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 ( x − 1) 2 =4 domain: ( −∞. . ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) =9 range: [ −6.PreCalculus 4E 31. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ ⎛ 1 13 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . −5 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 2) − 5 2 ( x + 2) 2 =5 domain: ( −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 34. Inc. ∞ ) 35. −5) x-intercepts: x= 0 = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 3(0) 2 − 2(0) − 4 2 ( x + 1) = 5 2 ( x + 1) 2 = 5 2 x +1 = ± 1 13 ± 3 3 f (0) = −4 5 2 x = −1 ± 10 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 2(0) 2 + 4(0) − 3 f (0) = −3 272 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 0 = 3⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ range: [ −5. f ( x) = x 2 + 4 x − 1 f ( x) = ( x + 4 x + 4) − 1 − 4 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2 ) − 5 2 vertex: ( −2. − ⎟ ⎝3 3 ⎠ x-intercepts: domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 4(0) − 1 36. ∞ ) x+2 = ± 5 range: [ −5. f ( x) = 3 x 2 − 2 x − 4 2 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x ⎟ − 4 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2 1⎞ 1 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 3 9 3 ⎝ ⎠ f (0) = −1 The axis of symmetry is x = −2 . The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 3⎜ x − ⎟ = 3⎠ 3 ⎝ f ( x) = 2 x + 4 x − 3 2 f ( x) = 2( x 2 + 2 x )−3 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 3⎠ 9 ⎝ f ( x) = 2( x + 2 x + 1) − 3 − 2 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 1 13 x− = ± 3 9 vertex: ( −1.

∞) range: [ −11. . x= = =2 2a 6 2 f(2) = 3(2) – 12(2) – 1 = 12 – 24 – 1 = –13 The minimum is –13 at x = 2 . ∞ ) f (0) = 2 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 2 2 39. ∞) range: [ −13. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. c. Inc. f(x) = 3x – 12x – 1 a. 2 f (0) = 6 − 4 ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) = 6 2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 − 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 2. ∞ ) range: [ 2. f ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x − 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 2 x + 1) − 2 + 1 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) − 1 vertex: (1. 2 40. 3 38. y-intercept: domain: ( −∞. c. f ( x) = 6 − 4 x + x 2 f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 6 f ( x) = ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) + 6 − 4 f ( x) = ( x − 2 ) + 2 2 vertex: (2. −b 8 b. ∞ ) The axis of symmetry is x = 1. −b 12 b. f(x) = 2x – 8x – 3 a. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. a = 3.2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1 . −1] 273 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 3 ⎠ 37. ∞ ) = −2 x − 2 = ±i 2 x = 2±i 2 No x-intercepts y-intercept: ⎡ 13 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . a = 2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. –1) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) − 1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −1 x – 1 = ±i x = 1 ±i No x-intercepts. domain: (−∞. domain: (−∞. x= = =2 2a 4 2 f(2) = 2(2) – 8(2) – 3 = 8 – 16 – 3 = –11 The minimum is –11 at x = 2 . ∞ ) range: ( −∞. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 2 2 ( x − 2) domain: ( −∞.

−b 6 1 = = 2a 12 2 48. The minimum is 2 2 = −4 + 8 − 3 = 1 The maximum is 1 at x = 1 . minimum point. range: ( −∞. a = -4. b. −6] 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 5⎜ ⎟ − 5⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5 5 10 −5 = − = − = 4 2 4 4 4 −5 1 at x = . −b 5 1 x= = = 2a 10 2 domain: ( −∞. k ) = ( −10. f ( x) = −4 x 2 + 8 x − 3 a. Since the parabola has a maximum. domain: ( −∞. a = –2. k ) = ( 5. f(x) = –2x2 – 12x + 3 a. range: [ −2. −2 ) is a f ( x) = 5 x 2 − 5 x a. The minimum is 2 4 c. −b 12 b. 43. b. x= = = −3 2 a −4 f(–3) = –2(–3)2 – 12(–3) + 3 = –18 + 36 + 3 = 21 The maximum is 21 at x = −3 . ∞) range: ⎢ . 4 ) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k = 2 ( x − 7) + 4 51. The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. −5 ) 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−10) ] + (−5) 2 = 2 ( x + 10 ) − 5 274 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) range: ( −∞. −6 ) . domain: (−∞. Since the parabola opens down. ∞ ) . the vertex ( −1. c. ∞ ) . −4 ) is a maximum point. domain: ( −∞. a = 6. domain: ( −∞. ( h. The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. 47. ∞ ) ⎡ −5 ⎞ domain: (−∞. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ 49. Since the parabola has a minimum. k ) = ( 7. 21] 46. Since the parabola opens up. −4] a = 5. ⎡ −3 ⎞ domain: (−∞. range: [18.18) . the vertex ( −3. ∞) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) . ( h.Polynomial and Rational Functions 41. x= x= 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 6⎜ ⎟ − 6⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 6 3 6 −3 = −3 = − = 4 2 2 2 −3 1 at x = . ( h.3) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h ) + k = 2 ( x − 5) + 3 50. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) domain: (−∞. b. Inc. range: ( −∞. −b −8 = =1 2a −8 f (1) = −4(1) 2 + 8(1) − 3 f ( x) = 6 x 2 − 6 x a. 44. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. ∞ ⎟ ⎣2 ⎠ 45. The parabola opens upward and has minimum value. it opens up from the vertex ( −6. c. it opens down from the vertex (10. ∞ ) . ∞) range: ⎢ . .1] 42.

the parabola opens down and a = −3 . b = 2.04 x 2 + 2.01x 2 + 0.3 or x ≈ −2. the parabola opens down and a = −3 .04(26.35 The maximum height of the shot is about 18.04)(6. ( h.04 x 2 + 2.8 or x ≈ −7.1 a = −0.35 feet.12 − 4(−0. ( h. y = −0.01. Publishing as Prentice Hall. This occurs 35 feet from its point of release.1 = = = 26. 53.1 2 = 3( x − 9) + 0 0 = −0.7 ± 0. 2 = −3 ( x − 5) + ( −7 ) 2 58.1 0 = −0. 2 Since the vertex is a minimum.1x + 6. 275 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c = 6.1 = 3( x − 9) 2 a = −0.1(26.7 x + 6. y = −0.25) + 6.1 ≈ 33.1 = 18.7 feet.01.04) x ≈ 55. k ) = ( 9.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 55. b = 2.1 feet.1) 2(−0.01(35) 2 + 0.7 = = = 35 2a 2 ( −0.01)(6. −7 ) y = −0.7 x + 6.01) −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −2.1.25 2a 2 ( −0.1) 2(−0. k ) = ( 5.01(0) 2 + 0.04 x 2 + 2.1 a = −0. c = 6. 0 ) b. f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k = −3[ x − (−2)] + 4 2 = −3 ( x + 2 ) + 4 2 c. k ) = ( −8.7 x + 6.7.2 ( h.1 x= 2 y = −0. b = 0.04.01x + 0.7 x + 6. x= y-coordinate of vertex y = −0.1 = 6. y = −0.7 The maximum height of the shot is about 33.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −0. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0.1 y = −0.8 feet.3 feet. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0. 0 ) y-coordinate of vertex f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 y = −0. f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 57. = −3 ( x − 5 ) − 7 Since the vertex is a minimum.1x + 6.25)2 + 2.01) x ≈ 77. a. c = 6. a.1 = 3 ( x − 11) + 0 2 56.PreCalculus 4E 52. ( h. k ) = (11.1x + 6. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 2 54. ( h. y = −0.04 x 2 + 2.1x + 6.04.1 The shot was released at a height of 6. k ) = ( −2. Since the vertex is a maximum. the parabola opens up and a = 3 .1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −2. −6 ) 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−8)] + (−6) 2 = 2 ( x + 8) − 6 b. b = 0.25 feet from its point of release. 4 ) x= −0.1 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k 55.7 x + 6.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 77. Section 2.01x 2 + 0. c = 6.1. .01x 2 + 0. This occurs 26.7(0) + 6.7 2 − 4(−0.1 Since the vertex is a maximum. the parabola opens up and a = 3 . Inc.7(35) + 6.1 a = −0.01x 2 + 0.04 ) 2 = 3 ( x − 11) The initial height can be found at x = 0.1 ± 2. y = −0.7.

.03 ( 5) + 0. x=− f (12 ) = 0.59 billion in 2002. Let x = the larger number.14 =− ≈2 2a 2 ( −0. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 16 ) = x 2 − 16 x f ( x ) = −0.03 ( 2 ) + 0. This differs from the value in the graph by 0. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0.048 The other number is 20 − x = 20 − 10 = 10. 60.094 b =− ≈ 12 2a 2 ( 0. b. or 1992. 63. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 8 − 16 = −8 . year = − b 20 20 =− =− = 10 −2 2a 2 ( −1) f ( 8 ) = ( 8 ) − 16 ( 8 ) 2 = 64 − 128 = −64 The vertex is ( 8. The maximum product is 10 ⋅10 = 100. or 2002.1 y = −0. −64 ) .6 a.03 billion. f ( x ) = x (16 − x ) The product is = 16 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 16 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 16 16 x=− =− =− = 8. The product of these two numbers is given by P( x) = x ( x − 24 ) = x 2 − 24 x f ( 2 ) = −0.1 feet.04 billion. 276 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions c.04(0)2 + 2. b.05 gallon.1x + 6.004 ) Wine consumption was at a minimum about 12 years after 1980. 16 − x = the other number. −2 2a 2 ( −1) 2 y = −0. adult in 1992. Then x − 24 is the smaller number. Let x = one of the numbers Let 20 – x = the other number P ( x ) = x ( 20 − x ) = 20 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 20 x −0. x=− 2a 2 (1) 2 f ( 5) = −0. The maximum product is 64. f ( x ) = 0. f ( 8 ) = −82 + 16 ( 8 ) = −64 + 128 = 64 f ( 25 ) = 0.14 ( 2 ) + 1. Inc.1 The shot was released at a height of 6.004 x 2 − 0.03 x + 0. 64). = 2.1(0) + 6.094(12) + 2. 61. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0. The initial height can be found at x = 0.6 The vertex is (8. The product is minimized when ( −24 ) b =− = 12 x=− 2a 2 (1) Since 12 − ( −12 ) = 24 . This seems reasonable as compared to the values in the graph. 59. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 16 − 8 = 8 .S.004(12)2 − 0.04 x + 2. Movie attendance was at a minimum about 2 years after 2000.14 ( 5 ) + 1.6 ≈ 2.75 gallons per person.59 Movie attendance was about 1. 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x − 16 = the other number.38 According to the function.004(25) 2 − 0. U.094 x + 2. year = − 62.094(25) + 2. Let x = one of the numbers. The numbers which maximize the product are 10 and 10. adult wine consumption in 2005 was 2. Wine consumption was about 2. the two numbers whose difference is 24 and whose product is minimized are 12 and −12 . The minimum product is b 0.048 gallons per U.1 = 6. The x-coordinate of the minimum is −16 −16 b =− =− = 8.43 2 a.38 billion movie tickets were sold in 2005. Let x = one of the numbers.03) −64 .75 According to the function.14 x + 1.S.43 2 = 1. The minimum product is P(12) = 12 (12 − 24 ) = −144 . 64.43 2 = 1.

PreCalculus 4E Section 2. Since we need an equation in one variable.5 = 156. From the diagram. the length is 600 − 2 (150 ) = 600 − 300 = 300 feet. Let x = the width of the rectangle. Inc.25 square yards. the area of the plot is given by A = l ⋅ w = ( 200 − 2 x )( x ) = −2 x 2 + 200 x Since the graph of this equation is a parabola that opens down. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 12. This gives an area of 150 ⋅ 300 = 45. 66.2 65. 277 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This gives an area of 12.5 = 12. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) 2 y = 50 − 2 x 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 25 − x ) . Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed along a river with 600 feet of fencing. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 20 yards by 20 yards. 000 square feet. Since a = −1 is negative. 000 2 = 5000 The maximum area is 5000 square feet when the length is 100 feet and the width is 50 feet.5. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 12.5. the width y is y = 25 − x = 25 − 12. the area is maximized at the vertex. Let y = the width of the rectangle. A ( x ) = x ( 25 − x ) = − x 2 + 25 x When the width is x = 150 feet. Thus.5.5 yards by 12. we have that x is the width of the rectangular plot and 200 − 2 x is the length. b 200 x=− =− = 50 2a 2 ( −2 ) 68. A ( x ) = x ( 600 − 2 x ) 67.5 yards. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 600 600 x=− =− =− = 150. Rewrite y= A as a function of x. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 20. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 50 yards of fencing. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 25 25 x=− =− =− = 12.5 ⋅12. . This gives an area of 20 ⋅ 20 = 400 square yards. 600 − 2 x = the length of the rectangle We need to maximize. A ( x ) = x ( 40 − x ) = − x 2 + 40 x x=− b 40 40 =− =− = 20. 2 x + 2 y = 50 = 600 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 600 x Since a = −2 is negative. Let x = the length of the rectangle. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. the width y is y = 40 − x = 40 − 20 = 20. Let x = the length of the rectangle Let y = the width of the rectangle 2 x + 2 y = 80 2 y = 80 − 2 x 80 − 2 x y= 2 y = 40 − x A = −2 ( 50 ) + 200 ( 50 ) = −5000 + 10. The dimensions of the rectangular plot with maximum area are 150 feet by 300 feet.

This 3 2 2 gives an area of 100 ⋅ 66 = 6666 square feet. This gives an area of 150 ⋅100 = 15. 70. 2 x + 3 y = 400 3 y = 400 − 2 x 400 − 2 x y= 3 400 2 y= − x 3 3 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ − x⎟ . we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 400 400 b x=− =− 3 = − 3 = 100. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 71. Maximize the cross-sectional area of the gutter: A ( x ) = x ( 20 − 2 x ) = 20 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 20 x. 3 ⎠ ⎝ Rewrite A as a function of x. 3 3 3 3 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with 2 maximum area are 100 feet by 66 feet. Since we need an equation in one variable. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 150. the width is 12 − 2 x = 12 − 2 ( 3) = 12 − 6 = 6. 3 3 Maximize the area of the playground with 600 feet of fencing. Let y = the width of the rectangle. This occurs when the gutter is 3 inches deep and 6 inches wide. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Rewrite A as a function of x. . A ( x ) = x (12 − 2 x ) = 12 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 12 x b 12 12 x=− =− =− =3 −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 3. 72. This occurs when the gutter is 5 inches deep and 10 inches wide. the width y is 2 2 y = 200 − x = 200 − (150) = 100. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 5. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 100. the width y is 400 2 400 2 200 2 y= − x= − (100) = = 66 . we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 20 20 x=− =− =− = 5. 2 x + 3 y = 600 3 y = 600 − 2 x 600 − 2 x y= 3 2 y = 200 − x 3 2 ⎞ ⎛ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ . 000 square feet. the width is 20 − 2 x = 20 − 2 ( 5 ) = 20 − 10 = 10. 278 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with maximum area are 150 feet by 100 feet. Since we need an equation in one variable. A ( 5 ) = −2 ( 5 ) + 20 ( 5 ) 2 = −2 ( 25 ) + 100 = −50 + 100 = 50 The maximum cross-sectional area is 50 square inches. Since a = −2 is negative. Maximize the area of the playground with 400 feet of fencing. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 200 200 b x=− =− =− = 150. 2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ A ( x ) = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ = − x 2 + 200 x 3 ⎠ 3 ⎝ 2 Since a = − is negative. Let y = the width of the rectangle. Let x = the length of the rectangle. Let x = the length of the rectangle. A ( 3) = −2 ( 3) + 12 ( 3) = −2 ( 9 ) + 36 2 = −18 + 36 = 18 The maximum cross-sectional area is 18 square inches.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. Inc. 2 400 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ − x ⎟ = − x2 + x 3 ⎠ 3 3 ⎝ 3 2 Since a = − is negative.

5) + 720 = 840. 2 87.5 vertex: (20. b = –82 b −82 x=− =− = 20. Answers may vary. You can choose Xmin and Xmax so the x-value of the vertex is in the center of the graph. Ymax = 750 d. 520) You can only see a little of the parabola. = 400. 76. y = –4x + 20x + 160 −b −20 = = 2. Inc. –120.5 − 1681 + 720 = −120.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. x= 2 86. 000 + 3000x −100x 2 −b −3000 = = 15 2a 2(−100) The maximum price is 50 + 15 = $65.25x + 40x −b −40 x= = = 80 2a −0.5. 279 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Choose Ymin to include the y-value of the vertex. y = –0. Maximize A = (30 + x)(50 – x) = 1500 + 20x – x2 −20 x= = 10 2(−1) Maximum number of trees = 30 + 10 = 40 trees Maximum yield = (30 + 10)(50 – 10) = 1600 pounds 77.25(80) + 40(80) = 1600 vertex: (80. 185). a =2. y = 5x + 40x + 600 −b −40 = = −4 x= 2a 10 2 y = 5(–4) + 40(–4) + 600 = 80 – 160 + 600 = 520 vertex: (–4.2 73. x = increase A = (50 + x)(8000 −100x) b.5 x= 2a −8 2 y = –4(2.5.5 2a 4 y = 2(20.5) 2 − 82(20. 1600) 75. Maximize A = (30 + x)(200 – 5x) = 6000 + 50x – 5x2 − 50 x= =5 2(−5) Maximum rental = 30 + 5 = $35 Maximum revenue = 35(200 – 5·5) = $6125 ( ) 2 85.5) c.5 + 50 +160 = 185 The vertex is at (2. x = increase A = (20 + x)(60 − 2x) = 1200 + 20x − 2x 2 −b −20 = =5 2a 2(−2) The maximum number of trees is 20 + 5 = 25 trees. x= 74. 2 84. The maximum revenue = 65(800 – 100·15) = $422.5) + 20(2.5) + 160 = –2. 50 x 25 = 1250 pounds. y = 2x – 82x + 720 a. – 83. The maximum yield is 60 – 2·5=50 pounds per tree.500. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 2 y = –0.

170(17) + 14. does not make sense. which allows us to solve for a.005) 2 98. 99. –2) is (–3. 4 = a (1 + 3) − 4 2 8 = a ( 4) 91. (–1.02 2 y = 0. point: (–3. b.005 x 2 − 0. 96. One unit left of (–2. Sample explanation: The football’s path is better described by a quadratic model. we have f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 4 . –2) axis: x = –2 (–1. Vertex (3. 91). Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense.372 The worst gas mileage was 13.817 c. 4 ) . 2 . set y = 0 and solve for x. −1) . Explanations will vary. f(x) = 3(x + 2) – 5. Changes to make the statement true will vary. The values of y increase then decrease. –2). x= 97. 11) 100. 1 2 ( x + 3) − 4 . false. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6(–30) + 100 = 9 – 18 + 100 = 91 The vertex is at (–30. y = 0.372 mpg in 1957.170 x + 14. We start with the form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k . Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: If it is thrown vertically.6x + 100 −b −0. makes sense 92. graph passes through the point (1.6 = = −30 x= 2a 0. 0 = −2 ( x + 4 ) − 8 2 2 ( x + 4 ) = −8 2 ( x + 4) 2 = −4 Because the solutions to the equation are imaginary. −4 ) . false. 93. Inc. ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4 5 The maximum y–value is . 89. 2) Axis: x = 3 second point (0. the function is f ( x ) = 280 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1940 + 17 = 1957 2(. A sample change is: The graph has no x–intercepts. Sample explanation: Some parabolas have the y-axis as the axis of symmetry. To find x–intercepts. We also know that the 2 90. –2). y = 0.817 ≈ 13.01x + 0. does not make sense. 94.01(–30) + 0. a. –2) is one unit right of (–2. true 2 8 = 16a 1 =a 2 Therefore. d.170) = 17. Explanations will vary. false.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 88. 95. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 4 −(−0. k ) = ( −3. 2 Since we know the vertex is ( h. A sample change is: The vertex is ( 5. A sample change is: The x-coordinate of the b 1 1 1 maximum is − =− =− = and the y– 2a 2 ( −1) −2 2 coordinate of the vertex of the parabola is ⎛ b ⎞ ⎛1⎞ 5 f ⎜− ⎟ = f ⎜ ⎟ = . its path will be a line segment.005(17)2 − 0. we know that there are no x–intercepts. –2) y = 0.

Answers may vary. f ( x) = (80 + x)(300 − 3x ) − 10(300 − 3x ) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x) 2 + 1 2 = 24000 + 60 x − 3x − 3000 + 30 x = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 Since f (− x) = f ( x).00. 2 x + 440 π x = 110 π 220 π The dimensions are 110 yards by 2 220 π yards. . the function is even. −3) on the graph to determine the value of a: f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 1 2 x= −3 = a ( −2 + 3) − 1 2 2 2 π π = − π 440 − 2(110) −3 = a − 1 −2 = a Thus.675. so the equation is of the 440 = 2 x + π y 104. 440 − 2 x = π y form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k 2 440 − 2 x = a ⎡⎣ x − ( −3) ⎤⎦ + ( −1) 2 π = a ( x + 3) − 1 =y 440 − 2 x 2 Maximize A = x We use the point ( −2. 2 = −3x + 90 x + 21000 −b −90 3 = = = 15 2 a 2 (−3) 2 The maximum charge is 80 + 15 = $95. Inc. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 5 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 5 = −1 f (3) = (3)3 − 2(3) − 5 = 16 The graph passes through (2.5⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 108. x 3 + 3 x 2 − x − 3 = x 2 ( x + 3) − 1( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 1) = ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 1) d = x 2 + 4 − 8x + 4x 2 d = 5x 2 − 8x + 4 Minimize 5x2 – 8x + 4 −(−8) 4 x= = 2(5) 5 107. the graph is symmetric with respect to the yaxis. 105. We know ( h.2 101. 2 x + y − 2 = 0 y = 2 − 2x d = x + (2 − 2x) π =− −440 440 2 − −3 = a (1) − 1 2 − π 106. 103. which is above the x-axis. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x= 281 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 16). −1) . k ) = ( −3. the maximum profit is –3(15)2 + 9(15) + 21000 = $21. Since the graph of f is continuous. the equation of the parabola is 2 π = 4 = 440 4 f ( x ) = −2 ( x + 3 ) − 1 . which is below the x-axis. –1). it must cross the x-axis somewhere between 2 and 3 to get from one of these points to the other.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. and (3. Thus. 102. ⎛4⎞ 2 y = 2 − 2⎜ ⎟ = ⎝5⎠ 5 ⎛4 2⎞ ⎜5.

x3 − 3x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 x = 0 or x = 3 The x-intercepts are 0 and 3. not a polynomial function 282 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. with multiplicity 2.3 1 The zeros are − . the graph 2 touches the x-axis and turns around at this zero. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 2 x4 − 4 x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 x = 0 or x = –2 or x = 2 The zeros are 0. Since n is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. We can find the degree of the polynomial by adding the degrees of each of its degree 3 degree 1 degree 1 P P  factors. Inc. The graph does not show the function’s end behavior. 3. the function falls to the right. Since the ratio cannot be negative.3 2 7. f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 Since an > 0 and n is odd. Publishing as Prentice Hall. with 2 multiplicity 3. Exercise Set 2. It is not necessary to multiply out the polynomial to determine its degree. . Check Point Exercises 1. f ( x) = 2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5) has degree 3 + 1 + 1 = 5. polynomial function. degree: 7 5. and 2. 8. Thus its graph falls to the left and rises to the right. degree: 3 2. 6. the graph should fall to the left. degree: 5 4. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 1 Because the multiplicity of − is even. not a polynomial function 6. f ( x) = x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 0 = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) 0 = ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) 0 = ( x + 2) 2 ( x − 2) x = 2 or x = –2 The zeros are 2 and –2. polynomial function. Since an > 0 and n is odd. 4. polynomial function. –2. 9. 1⎞ 3 ⎛ f ( x ) = −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 2 1⎞ 3 ⎛ −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 x = − or x = 5 2 1. Because the multiplicity of 5 is odd. f (0) = 03 − 3(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. Since n is even and an > 0. and 5. the graph crosses the x-axis at this zero. 5. the model won’t be appropriate. degree: 4 3. polynomial function.Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. f (−3) = 3(−3)3 − 10(–3) + 9 = −42 f (−2) = 3(−2)3 − 10(−2) + 9 = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between –3 and –2. the graph rises to the left and to the right. 2. f ( x) = 2 x3 ( x − 1)( x + 5) is of odd degree with a positive leading coefficient. f (− x) = (− x)3 − 3(− x) 2 = − x 3 − 3x 2 No symmetry.

The graph crosses the x-axis. The graph crosses the x-axis. 11. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. f ( x) = x3 − 2 x 2 + x = x ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) 2 = x( x − 1)2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. x = –2 and x = –7 have multiplicity 1. not a polynomial function 8. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. Not a polynomial function because graph is not continuous. x = 1 has multiplicity 2. 3 29. f ( x) = 5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is even. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 − 4 x − 28 = x 2 ( x + 7) − 4( x + 7) f ( x) = −11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an < 0 and n is even. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. x = –4 has multiplicity 2. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. f ( x) = 11x − 6 x + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is odd. f ( x) = 3( x + 5)( x + 2)2 x = –5 has multiplicity 1. 1⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = −3 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 4)3 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x = − has multiplicity 1. degree: 2 25. x = 4 has multiplicity 3. = x( x + 2) 2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. . The graph crosses the x-axis. polynomial function 15. x = –6 has multiplicity 3. The graph crosses the x-axis. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. 30. (c) 17. 27. 14. 2 The graph crosses the x-axis. f ( x) = 5 x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is odd. 26. 21. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. 24. not a polynomial function 10. f ( x) = 2( x − 5)( x + 4) 2 x = 5 has multiplicity 1. 23. The graph crosses the x-axis. 16. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. 31. The graph crosses the x-axis. (b) 28. Not a polynomial function because graph is not smooth. (a) 18. Inc. 20. f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 + 4 x = x ( x2 + 4 x + 4) f ( x) = 11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an < 0 and n is even. The graph crosses the x-axis.3 7. 13. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. polynomial function 12. The graph crosses the x-axis. polynomial function. = ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x + 7) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 7) x = 2. not a polynomial function 9. f ( x) = 4( x − 3)( x + 6)3 x = 3 has multiplicity 1. 283 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (d) 19. 22. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around.

f ( x) = x 3 + 5 x 2 − 9 x − 45 40. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = x 4 + 6 x 3 − 18 x 2 f(2) = –8 f(3) = 81 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 35. 39. f ( x ) = x 5 − x3 − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 23 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. x = –3 and x = –5 have multiplicity 1. f ( x ) = 2 x4 − 4 x2 + 1 f(–1) = –1 f(0) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x ) = x3 − x − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. Since an > 0 and n is odd. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 10 x + 9 f(–3) = –42 f(–2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. x = 1. 33. b. f ( x) = x + x − 2x + 1 f(–3) = –11 f(–2) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 36. 284 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –1. 38. d. . The graph crosses the x-axis. and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. = x 2 ( x + 5) − 9( x + 5) = ( x 2 − 9 ) ( x + 5) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 5) x = 3. ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = –2. f ( x ) = x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 a. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. Inc. 37. 41. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 8 x 2 + x + 2 f(2) = –4 f(3) = 14 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. 2 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. x = –1 The zeros at –2. f (− x) = (− x) + 2(− x) 2 − (− x) − 2 = − x3 + 2 x 2 + x − 2 − f ( x) = − x 3 − 2 x 2 + x + 2 The graph has neither origin symmetry nor yaxis symmetry. 34. e. 3 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 ( x + 2) − ( x + 2) = 0 f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 + 2 f(0) = 2 f(1) = –1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. f (0) = (0)3 + 2(0)2 − 0 − 2 = −2 The y-intercept is –2.

f ( x ) = x4 − x2 c. x + x − 4x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) = 0 3 d. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f(x) rises to the left and the right. x = –3 The zeros at –3 and 3 have odd multiplicity. or x = 2.3 f ( x ) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. –1 and 2 have odd multiplicity. x4 − 9 x2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 0. or x = –2 The zeros at –2. c. f (0) = 03 + (0) 2 − 4(0) − 4 = −4 The y-intercept is –4. f (− x) = x 4 − 9 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. –1. f (0) = (0) 4 − (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. b. e. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. x = –1 f touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. f ( x ) = x4 − 9 x2 a. Inc. Since an > 0 and n is even. Section 2. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f (− x) = x 4 − x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. Since an > 0 and n is odd. 2 ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 x = –1. 285 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 1. x = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0. 44.PreCalculus 4E 42. e. f(x) rises to the left and the right. d. x4 − x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. Since an > 0 and n is even. and 2. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. 43. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. b. d. b. The xintercepts are –2. c. x = 0. . f (− x) = − x 3 + x 2 + 4 x − 4 − f ( x) = − x 3 − x 2 + 4 x + 4 neither symmetry e.

it touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 4 47. e. d. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f ( x ) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 a. . Since an > 0 and n is even. so f(x) touches the xaxis at 0. e. – x 4 + 16 x 2 = 0 x 2 ( − x 2 + 16 ) = 0 x 2 ( 4 − x )( 4 + x ) = 0 x = 0. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f (0) = −(0)4 + 4(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. x = 3 The zeros at 3 and 0 have even multiplicity. x = 2. x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 2 x = 0. x = 1 The zeros at 1 and 0 have even multiplicity. b. Since f has a double root at 0. b. b. f (− x) = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0 and 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 45. and 2. c. f ( x ) = − x4 + 4 x2 a. x = 0. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 16 x 2 a. − x4 + 4x2 = 0 x 2 (4 − x 2 ) = 0 x 2 ( 2 − x )( 2 + x ) = 0 48. b. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and 0.0. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. x = 4. c. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f ( x ) = x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 a. f (− x) = − x 4 + 4 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. Since an > 0 and n is even. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f (− x) = − x + 16 x f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. 46. Since an < 0 and n is even. x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 2 x = 0. x = –4 The zeros at –4 and 4 have odd multiplicity. d. c. 286 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(x) rises to the left and the right. e. Since an < 0 and n is even. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. d. x = –2 The x-intercepts are –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) falls to the left and the right. Inc. f (0) = (0) 4 − 2(0)3 + (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0.

f(x) falls to the left and the right. e. c. x = 0. 49. 51. e. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 a. c. b. −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 4 ) = 0 c. . Since an < 0 and n is odd. Since an < 0 and n is even. d. −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 2 ) = 0 The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f(x) falls to the left and the right. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. − x 5 + 6 x3 − 9 x = 0 − x ( x4 − 6 x2 + 9) = 0 − x ( x 2 − 3)( x 2 − 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 4 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. e. a. x = 0. b. Since an < 0 and n is even. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (0) = −(0)5 + 6(0)3 − 9(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. 287 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 2.3 50. x = 1 The zeros at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity. f (0) = (0) 4 − 6(0)3 + 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0.PreCalculus 4E c. x = ± 3 The root at 0 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at (0. The y-intercept is 0. b. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. x = 2 The zeros at 0 and 2 have odd multiplicity. d. f (0) = −2(0) 4 + 4(0)3 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. f (− x) = x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Inc. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 a. f (− x) = x 5 − 6 x 3 + 9 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. f ( x ) = 6 x3 − 9 x − x 5 x = 0. d. f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 2 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. The zeros at – 3 and 3 have even multiplicity so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and − 3 . 0). The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 4 – 1. d.

The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 5 – 1. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions e. 288 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (0) = −(0)3 + 3(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. 1 1 1 f (0) = − (0)4 + = 2 2 2 1 The y-intercept is . − x ( x4 + x2 − 6) = 0 − x ( x 2 + 3)( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = a. − x3 + 3x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 1 1 4 − x 2 2 Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 0. f (0) = −(0)5 − (0)3 + 6(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. Since an < 0 and n is odd. b. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. 52. The graph has 2 turning point and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. . d. f (− x) = The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. c. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. and 2 have odd multiplicity. − x5 − x 3 + 6 x = 0 54. f ( x ) = 6 x − x3 − x 5 a. 0). 1 1 − x4 + = 0 2 2 1 − ( x 4 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1) ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x = ±1 The zeros at –1 and 1 have odd multiplicity. x = ± 2 The zeros at − 2 . f (− x) = x5 + x3 − 6 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. b. c. f ( x ) = 3x 2 − x 3 e. The graph has 4 turning point and 4 ≤ 5 – 1. x = 0. b. e. c. 2 1 1 4 − x 2 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. x = 3 The zero at 3 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at that point. f (− x) = x 3 + 3x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 53. d. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. d. 0. Since an < 0 and n is odd. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. e.

f (0) = −2(0 − 4) 2 (02 − 25) = −2(16)(−25) = 800 The y-intercept is 800. e. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 0). x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. Since an > 0 and n is even. d. x = –2. 0). b. Section 2. 0). f (0) = −3(0 − 1) 2 (02 − 4)3 = −3(1)(−4) = 12 The y-intercept is 12. . x = –2. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. x = 5 The zeros at –5 and 5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. The root at 1 has even multiplicity. The root at 4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the xaxis at (4. x = 0. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. The root at –2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–2.3 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) e. Since an < 0 and n is even. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1.PreCalculus 4E 55. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. d. f ( − x ) = x 2 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 2 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = –5. 289 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b. f (− x) = −2(− x − 4) 2 ( x 2 − 2 ) f ( x ) = x 3 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 a. so f(x) touches the xaxis at (1. f(x) falls to the left and the right. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. c. f ( 0 ) = 03 ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. c. 0). e. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f ( x ) = −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25) 2 a. c. f (0) = 02 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 The y-intercept is 0. 58. f (− x) = −3(− x − 1) 2 ( x 2 − 4 ) f ( x ) = x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 3 a. d. x = –1 The roots at 0 and –1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. Inc. 2 a. x = 1. Since an > 0 and n is even. b. 57. c. −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 2 x = 4. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. Since an < 0 and n is even. f(x) rises to the left and the right. f(x) rises to the left and the right. x = 2 The zeros at –2 and 2 have odd multiplicity. 56. b. x = 0. −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2 x = 1.

d. e. x = 1. x = 0. b. x = 0. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 5 ) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x − 1)( − x + 3) The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 59. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. c. The y-intercept is 0. b. x = –3 The zeros at 1 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. Since an < 0 and n is even. f(x) falls to the left and the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 6 – 1. b. x = 1. Inc. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. . c. 0). The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. d. 60. x = 0. e. x = 2. 290 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. 0). e. Since an < 0 and n is even. Since an < 0 and n is even. x = –5 The roots at 0 and –5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f ( − x ) = − x3 ( − x + 2 ) ( − x + 1) 2 c. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x + 2 )( − x − 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 (−1) ( x − 2 ) (−1) ( x + 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. The y-intercept is 0. f ( 0 ) = −2(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 5 ) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. e. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 3) a. 0). f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 2 ) = 0 d. x = –2 The zeros at 2 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f(x) falls to the left and the right. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f(x) falls to the left and the right. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 − 1)( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( x ) = −2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5 ) 2 a. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) a.Polynomial and Rational Functions d. 61.

Since −2 . Since the graph has two turning points. x + 2 . The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 + 1) ( 0 + 4 ) = 12 3 The y-intercept is 12. f ( 0 ) = −3(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = 3x 3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 3) f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x + 1) ( x + 4 ) 3 a. x = –3 The roots at 0 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. c. d. f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. The graph has 2 turning points f ( − x ) = ( − x − 2 ) ( − x + 4 )( − x − 1) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Section 2. f(x) rises to the left and rises the right. and x − 4 are factors of the function. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . e. 2 The y-intercept is 0. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. 1. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 4 )( x − 1) a. x = 1 The zeros at –4 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. 65. 0). d. e. x = –4. x = 1. From the end behavior. x = –1. Since an > 0 and n is even. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 2 ) ( 0 + 4 )( 0 − 1) = −16 2 b. a. . f ( − x ) = ( − x + 3)( − x + 1) ( − x + 4 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) . f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1)( 0 − 4 ) = 8 291 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The root at 2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (2. 3 ≤ 4 – 1. c. 1. d. b. f(x) falls to the left and the right. x − 1 . The graph has 3 turning points and The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. c. 0). x = –4 The zeros at all have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. all three have odd multiplicity. b. x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. e. Since an > 0 and n is odd. x = –3. Since an < 0 and n is even. Thus. b. x = 2. The y-intercept is –16. and 4. c. the function must be at least of degree 3. 64.3 f ( x ) = −3x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 3) 2 a. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. so they are the zeros. 63.PreCalculus 4E 62. and 4 are the zeros. Inc.

Since −2 . The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . 2 The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 4. x + 3 . the function The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 and 2. 2. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −1 and 4. and 1 are the zeros. b. the function must be at least of degree 6. x + 2 . Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −2 . we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. 3 . The lowest even multiplicity is 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 66. From the end behavior. −1 . one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. and x − 1 are factors of the function. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 and 1. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. Since −2 and 1 are the zeros. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 . 2. it has even multiplicity. the function must be at least of degree 3. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 1. it has even multiplicity. 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. However. the function must be at least of degree 3. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. and 1. a. From the end behavior. Inc. 2 function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) ( x − 4 ) . 2 c. Since −3 and 2 are the zeros. and 5. Since the graph has three turning points. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. they both have odd multiplicity. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. b. and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 3. Since −1 and 4 are the zeros. 2 68. the function 2 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 4 ) = −16 2 2 71. and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. −1 . 2 b. a. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −3 and 2. The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 3. x + 1 . we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. Since −1 and 3 are the zeros. x − 2 . Since the graph has two turning points. b. From the end behavior. is f ( x ) = ( x + 1)( x − 3) . a. and 5 are the zeros. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 . c. From the end behavior. 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 − 2 )( 0 − 5 ) = 30 67. x + 1 and x − 4 are factors of the function. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 3) = 9 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 and 1. Thus. the function must be at least of degree 3. so they are the zeros. it has even multiplicity. x + 3 and x − 2 are factors of the function. x + 2 and x − 1 are factors of the function. so they are the zeros. it has odd multiplicity. so they are the zeros. From the end behavior. Since the graph has two turning points. the function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) . Thus. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. all three have odd multiplicity. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 1) = −4 2 292 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so they are the zeros. so they are the zeros. Thus. Thus. the function must be at least of degree 3. it has odd multiplicity. c. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. a. a. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 . The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. 2 f ( x ) = ( x + 2) f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1) = 2 2 c. the function must be at least of degree 4. Since the graph has two turning points. b. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. c. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x − 2 )( x − 5) . so they are the zeros. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 3) ( 0 − 2 ) = −36 70. Since the graph has five turning points. both have even multiplicity. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. both have even multiplicity. b. x + 1 and x − 3 are factors of the function. a. the 2 c. Since the graph has two turning points. 69. Thus. The function is is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1) . Since −3 . From the end behavior. and x − 5 are factors of the function. to reach degree 6.

b. f. The function will not be a useful model over an extended period of time because it will eventually give negative values. The woman’s heart rate was decreasing from 4 through 8 minutes and from 10 through 12 minutes. c.555 x + 261. 444 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. The woman’s heart rate reached a minimum of about 64 ± 1 beats per minute. 73. 74. 931 = 404. 203(5) + 308. – 93. Answers may vary. so they are the zeros. x + 1 . . x + 2 . g (3) = 2769(3)3 − 28. a. 931 The percentage reached a maximum of about 69 ± 1% in 2000. 293 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the graph rises to the right. Inc. The graph falls to the left and to the right. 2 ( x − 1) 3 . Since there were 3 turning points. 453 f (3) = −3402(3)2 + 42. one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. 324 x 2 + 107. 443 Function f provides a better description of the actual number. 324(3) 2 + 107. The percentage reached a minimum of about 18 ± 1% in 1960. The graph falls to the left and to the right. The function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 1) c. b. they both have odd multiplicity. This occurred after 10 minutes. The woman’s heart rate was increasing from 1 through 4 minutes and from 8 through 10 minutes. 931 = 437. The leading coefficient should be negative. −1 . The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was increasing from 1960 through 1975 and from 1985 through 2000. 931 76. b. There were 3 turning points during the 12 minutes. From the end behavior. c. a. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 and 1. This occurred after 8 minutes. b. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 . There were 3 turning points during the period shown. g. 94. 453 f. b. The leading coefficient should be negative. Since the degree of f is even and the leading coefficient is negative. 731 77. 203x + 308. e. g. 453 2 g (5) = 2769(5)3 − 28. d. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. d. f ( x) = −3402 x + 42. f (5) = −3402(5) 2 + 42. it has even multiplicity. 203(3) + 308. The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was decreasing from 1975 through 1985 and from 2000 through 2005. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 1) = −2 2 3 f ( x) = −3402 x 2 + 42. Based on the end behavior. 324 x 2 + 107. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. 453 = 404. 418 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. Function g provides a better description of the actual number. and 1 are the zeros. e. Since the degree of g is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. 555(3) + 261. and 1. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 72. 203 x + 308. 324(5) 2 + 107. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. a. However. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive.555 x + 261. −1 . a.3 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . the function must be at least of degree 6. to reach degree 6. and x − 1 are factors of the function. The woman’s heart rate reached a maximum of about 116 ± 1 beats per minute. Since the graph has five turning points.555(5) + 261. Since −2 . the graph falls to the right. 75. = 434. a. the function will be a useful model over an extended period of time. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since there were 3 turning points.

1 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 + 103. 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 x − 3 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 7 2 x3 − 6 x 2 100. Section 2. x+5 x + 9 x 2 + 14 x + 45 x2 + 9 x 5 x + 45 5 x + 45 0 The answer is x + 5. false. 99. the graph crosses the x-axis at –2. 110. 95. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. or rises to the left and falls to the right.Polynomial and Rational Functions 107. A sample change is: A function with origin symmetry either falls to the left and rises to the right. A sample change is: Such a function falls to the right and will eventually have negative values. 3x 2 − 9 x − 2x + 7 −2 x + 6 102. 2 x 3 − x 2 − 11x + 6 = ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3 x − 2) = ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) 97. makes sense 104. 106. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 1 . 6 x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 4 112. 108. Sample explanation: A forth degree function has at most 3 turning points. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: Since ( x + 2) is raised to an odd power. f ( x) = x 3 + x 2 − 12 x 109. 2. does not make sense. Inc. 737 2 = 35 + 21 21 111. f(x) = x3 – 2x2 96. A sample change is: f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. makes sense 3x 2 − 11x 101. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1. 105. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. x−3 .4 Check Point Exercises 98. true 294 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Changes to make the statement true will vary.

–4 3 3 f(–4) = –105 4 –5 3 –12 32 –108 –8 27 x + 2 x3 + 5 x 2 + 7 x + 2 x3 + 2 x 2 2 5. x+5 x − 2 x 2 + 3x − 10 4. 7 x3 + 0 x 2 7 x 3 − 14 x 2 14 x 2 − 7 x 14 x 2 − 28 x x 2 + 3x + 1 21x − 10 21x − 10 . –2 1 1 0 –7 –6 –2 4 6 –2 –3 0 3. –1 15 15 14 –3 –2 –15 1 2 –1 –2 0 x 2 − 3x − 2x + 6 −2 x + 6 0 15 x − x − 2 = 0 2 The answer is x 2 + x − 2. –105 x2 + x − 2 x − 3 x − 2x − 5x + 6 3 2 x3 − 3x 2 x2 − 5x 6. ⎬ . Section 2. The answer is 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 + 2 x − 2x 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x+3 1. 3x 2 + 7 x 3x 2 + 6 x x+2 x+2 0 2 The answer is x + 3 x + 1. − . The answer is x − 2 x − 3 . 3x − 1 6 x3 + 7 x 2 + 12 x − 5 x + 5 x 2 + 8 x + 15 x2 + 5x 3 x + 15 3x + 15 0 The answer is x + 3.PreCalculus 4E 3. 3 x2 − 2x 2 x 4 − 4 x3 5 x − 10 5 x − 10 0 The answer is x + 5.4 9 x2 − 3x 15 x − 5 15 x − 5 0 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3 x + 5. . Inc.4 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 x − 2 x 2 x + 3x + 0 x 2 − 7 x − 10 2 4 2. (3 x + 1)(5 x − 2) = 0 1 2 x=− or x = 3 5 1 2⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. 6 x3 − 2 x 2 9 x 2 + 12 x Exercise Set 2. 3 5⎭ ⎩ 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 5. 295 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

984 x−4 x − 4 4 x4 − 4 x2 + 6x 4 x 4 − 16 x 3 12 x 2 − 8 x 9x − 4 9x − 6 2 16 x 3 − 4 x 2 16 x 3 − 64 x 2 60 x 2 + 6 x The answer is 4 x + 3 + 2x − 3 + 26 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 x 2 + 3x 2 6 x − 20 6 x + 18 − 38 The answer is 2 x 2 + x + 6 − 38 . . x−4 3 3x3 3x 2 − 9 x 2 2 x2 + x + 6 − 9. 2x −1 984 . 6 x3 + 8 x 2 x − 3 3x2 − 2 x + 5 9 x 2 + 27 x 3x2 − 9 x 7x + 5 9 x 2 + 12 x 15 x + 20 15 x + 20 0 7 x − 21 26 The answer is 3x + 7 + The answer is 2 x + 3x + 5. 2 3x − 2 11. − 6x + 6 x − 3 x4 3 The answer is 2 x − 3 + − 81 x − 3x 4 3 . 3x − 2 246 x 246 x − 984 3 2x −1 984 The answer is 2 x − 1 4 x2 − 8x + 6 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 4 x2 − 2 x − 6x + 6 x 3 + 3x 2 + 9 x + 27 12. 26 x −3 3x + 7 + 2 60 x 2 − 240 x 2 . 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 3x + 4 6 x + 17 x + 27 x + 20 3 10.Polynomial and Rational Functions 6. x −3 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 3x − 2 12 x 2 + x − 4 8. 9 x2 38 x+3 9 x 2 − 27 x 27 x − 81 x + 3 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 + 9 x − 20 2x + 6x 3 27 x − 81 2 0 x2 + 9 x The answer is x + 3x + 9 x + 27. 2 4x + 3 + 7. Inc. x+3 296 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Inc. 2 x3 + 1 297 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x − x − 3 6 x + 13 x − 11x − 15 2 3 (2x 2 2 + x − 10 ) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 2 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 The answer is 2 x + 5. 3x2 + 1 21. 1 4x −1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x+3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1) ÷ ( x − 1) 1 2 x 3 + 1 2 x5 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 + x 2 –3 3 –1 4 1 4 1 4 3 The answer is 4 x 2 + x + 4 + −8 x 4 − 4 x 2 x3 + 4 x 2 x3 + 1 4x −1 The answer is x 2 − 4 x + 1 + 20 . x −1 .PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 17. x + x−2 3 3 2 7 –20 –15 40 –8 20 The answer is 3x − 8 + 6 x2 + 3x − 1 3x 2 + 1 18 x 4 + 9 x 3 + 3 x 2 20. 18. x2 + x − 3 (x 1 x 4 + x3 − 2 x 2 1 x3 − 2 x 2 − 5x − 3 x 2 − 3x − 6 19. 10 The answer is x + 2. 18 x 4 + 6 x 2 9 x3 − 3x 2 ( 5x 5 − 3x 2 − 3 x 5 − 3x 2 − 1 − 3x + 1 12 –8 –15 81 –27 73 The answer is 5 x − 27 + The answer is 6 x 2 + 3 x − 1 − 3x − 1 . x2 − 4x + 1 (4x 3 2 x5 + x 2 4 4 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 73 . 0 14. x3 + x 2 − 2 x 15. −3x − 3x + 6 2 − 12 ( 3x 5 0 1 –2 1 2 2 0 + 7 x − 20 ) ÷ ( x + 5 ) 2 –5 12 . x+5 − 12 x − 8 ) ÷ ( x + 3) 2 –3 9 x3 + 3x 16.4 2x + 5 13. 4 + x − 2 ) ÷ ( x − 1) 2 1 x 2 + x − 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 4 x 2 − 5x − 6 The answer is x 2 + x − 3 − –10 The answer is 2 x + 5 . 3 .

2 33 . 187 . 4 0 –3 2 3 3 21 63 180 546 21 60 182 549 –2 72 –438 2664 –12 73 –444 2664 2664 . x+5 3 0 x 7 + x 5 − 10 x 3 + 12 x+2 1 –5 –6 The answer is x + x + 2 x + 2 x + 2 . − 5 x3 + x 2 − 5 x ) ÷ ( x + 5) 1 –6 4 − 5x − 5x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 5 + x ) ⇒ –5 1 1 549 x 4 + 7 x 3 + 21x 2 + 60 x + 182 + .Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. Inc. x−2 2 4 28. x+6 0 1 0 0 –2 1 1 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 3 2 1 0 1 –2 4 –2 5 0 –10 0 0 12 –10 20 –20 40 –80 –10 10 –20 40 –68 The answer is x − 2 x 5 + 5 x 4 − 10 x3 + 10 x 2 68 −20 x + 40 − . 64 0 298 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –5 1 0 –5 50 –255 1300 1 –10 The answer is 51 –260 1300 x 4 − 256 x−4 4 1 1 1300 x − 10 x + 51x − 260 + . 2 x 7 − 128 x−2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 –128 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 1 2 4 8 16 32 The answer is x 6 + 2 x5 + 4 x 4 + 8 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 32 x + 64. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x−2 The answer is 5 x 2 + 4 x + 11 + 23. –6 3 11 10 8 22 4 11 33 (6x 5 6 5 –3 1 12 24 44 96 186 6 12 The answer is 22 48 93 187 27. 2 3 30. ( 5x − 6 x 2 + 3x + 11) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 3 2 5 5 26. . x+2 6 29. − 6 x3 + x 2 − 6 x ) ÷ ( x + 6 ) –6 0 6 x 4 + 12 x3 + 22 x 2 + 48 x + 93 + (x 4 − 6 x − 6 x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 6 + x ) ⇒ − 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x + 1) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 24. x −3 (x (x 1 x5 + x3 − 2 x −1 1 + 4 x 4 − 3 x 2 + 2 x + 3) ÷ ( x − 3) 1 7 The answer is –6 The answer is x 3 − 12 x 2 + 73x − 444 + 4 1 1 1 –2 3 25. (x (x 0 0 0 –256 4 16 64 256 16 64 0 4 The answer is x + 4 x + 16 x + 64 .

2 −11 7 2 −6 3 . 5 −5 1 5 6 0 0 −4 f ( −2 ) = −4 299 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 2 x5 − 3x 4 + x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 1 x+2 –2 2 37. 3}. 2 41. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 5 −6 −4 −8 4 −3 1 2 3 2 f ( −3) = −133 −2 2 7 9 1 −9 48 −138 3 −16 46 −133 36. ( x + 1)( x 2 – 5 x + 6) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 3) = 0 x = –1. 5 −6 5 2 −6 −2 1 −3 −1 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − x 3 + 3x 2 − x + 1 x−2 2 −6 3 24 87 246 1 8 29 82 240 129 2 x 4 − 7 x 3 + 15 x 2 − 31x + 64 − . Inc. Dividend: x 3 – 4 x 2 + x + 6 Divisor: x + 1 −6 f ( x ) = 3x 3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x + 5 3 3 −1 −1 −4 −4 − f ( 3) = −27 −3 2 ( 2) 3 −12 −21 1 −4 −7 −27 35. Section 2. 2 −5 −1 −1 8 −12 −20 −3 −5 −25 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 5 x 3 − x 2 + 3x + 2 −1 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 5 4 6 0 f ( 2) = 0 The answer is x 4 − x 2 + x + 1 + 33. −5 − 23 6 10 6 f ( − 32 ) = −7 −2 –1 6 4 1 5 1 1 − 92 1 3 7 9 1 –4 1 6 –1 5 –6 6 0 –5 The quotient is x − 5 x + 6. f ( x ) = x 4 + 5x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 6 3 –3 1 –1 2 –1 –4 14 –30 62 –128 2 –7 The answer is 15 –31 64 –129 f ( 3) = 240 38. x−2 3 1 −7 5 40. 2. x = 2. . 1 −5 2 1 1 –2 –1 3 –1 1 2 0 –2 2 2 0 –1 1 1 3 39. x+2 32. 3 f − 1 =1 f ( 4 ) = −25 34. x = 3 The solution set is {–1.PreCalculus 4E 31.

x= 2 3 2 ⎧ 3 1 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . −1. x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . so 2 is a solution. 12 x3 + 16 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 2 2 –5 1 2 4 –2 –2 –1 –1 0 46. x = The graph indicates that 2 is a solution to the equation. − . 2. 2 2 –3 –11 6 –4 14 –6 –7 3 0 3 3 –18 3 3 –2 –2 0 7 –22 –8 –1 –2 8 6 –24 0 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3x + 6 x − 24 = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1 x = –4. . Inc. 3 2⎭ ⎩ 2 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 2 16 12 The quotient is x 2 − 3 x + 2. x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 6 = 0 ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 + 4 x + 3) = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 3)( x + 1) = 0 The solutions are 2. 1 . . 2 ⎬ . 2 ⎬ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 2. 2} . x=− . Dividend: x 3 − 2 x 2 − x + 2 Divisor: x + 1 –1 1 –2 –1 2 –1 3 –2 1 –3 2 0 45. 3⎬ . 12 – 32 (x + 2) (2 x − 7 x + 3) = 0 2 (x + 2) ( 2 x − 1)( x − 3) = 0 47. ( x + 1)( x 2 − 3x + 2) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 1) = 0 x = –1. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 2 44. ( x – 2)(2 x − x − 1) = 0 (x – 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) = 0 1 x = 2. −3 .x=3 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −2. ⎬ . 2 ⎭ ⎩ x = –2. 1. and −1 . 300 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. or {−3. x = − 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −4. 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 –3 3 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 22 x − 8 = 0 − 13 2 x − 3 x − 11x + 6 = 0 3 –5 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ (12 x − 2 x − 2) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ 2 ( 6 x − x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 2(3x + 1)(2 x – 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 1 1 x=– . − . 43. x = 1 The solution set is {–1. 1}. x = − . x = 2. 2 1 2 −5 −6 2 8 6 1 4 3 0 The remainder is 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 42.

. so −3 is a solution. 2 2 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. b.1⎬ . so 1 is a solution. or −3. 25 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 The remainder is 0. − . − . One solution is 3. 301 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. It can be used to find other solutions (if they exist). 72 = 2h3 + 14h 2 2 x3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 0 = 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 ( x − 1) ( 2 x 2 + 13 x + 6 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( 2 x + 1)( x + 6 ) = 0 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) ( 0 = ( h − 2 ) 2 ( h 2 + 9h + 18 ) 1 The solutions are 1. 2 . Inc. 6 −5 1 −5 1 0 13 −6 2 13 6 0 0 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 0 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 This is the equation obtained in part a. 2 3 ⎩3 2 ⎭ 52. and 2. The dimensions are 2 inches by 4 inches by 9 inches. or ⎨ . 2 x 3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 = 0 The solutions are −3 . 1 6 −11 6 −1 6 75 = ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) 2 { 42 The remainder is 0 so 3 is a solution. 2 ⎭ ⎩ ) 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2 ( h + 6 )( h + 3) ) 0 = 2 ( h − 2 )( h + 6 )( h + 3) 2 ( h − 2) = 0 h + 6 = 0 h + 3 = 0 h−2 = 0 h=2 h = −6 h = −3 The height is 2 inches. 14 ( x + 3) ( 2 x − 5 x + 2 ) = 0 ( x + 3)( 2 x − 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 49.PreCalculus 4E 48. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 3 14 −17 −16 −177 72 0 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) b. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 The solutions are 1. a. the width is 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 inches and the length is 2 + 7 = 9 inches. } 1 . The female moth’s abdominal width is 3 millimeters. so 1 is a solution. 177 We need to find x when f ( x ) = 211. so the only solution is x = 3. or 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎨ −6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 The remainder is 0.1⎬ . 1 2 11 −7 −6 2 59 211 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 50. Section 2. 1 . V = lwh 72 = ( h + 7 )( 2h )( h ) The remainder is 0. 2 0 −72 2 14 4 36 2 18 36 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation.4 The graph indicates that −3 is a solution to the equation. a. −3 2 1 −13 6 −6 15 −6 2 −5 2 0 51. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) = 0 The polynomial 14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 cannot be factored. and . and −6 . . 1 1 ⎧1 1 ⎫ .

1 0. 55. false. c.3 110 0 −6 −5 3 −6 9 −3 8 −12 4 0 80 a.5 x3 − 0. 70. Changes to make the statement true will vary.3 0. x 71. . – 65. x6 since 3 = x 3 . f (x) is not a polynomial function. the government tax revenue will be $70 ten billion. −0.4 a. −0. the length of the rectangle is 0. f (40) = (40. f (x) is not a polynomial function.06 l= = w x + 0.5 x 2 − 0. 70) same answer as in a. f (30) = c. 80 8800 A = l ⋅ w so. does not make sense.3 units.57 Therefore. true 72.06 0.2 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0. 302 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. -8000 8800 80 800 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 = 70 f (30) = 80 + 80 − 110 (30. A sample change is: The divisor is a factor of the divided only if the remainder is the whole number 0.57 40 − 110 b. makes sense 68. Sample explanation: The division must account for the zero coefficients on the x 4 .5 −0.22 x + 0. b. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials. does not make sense.Polynomial and Rational Functions A = l ⋅ w so A 0.06 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Inc.57 ten billion.4 x + 0. A sample change is: The degree of the quotient is 3. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials. x 2 and x terms. (30. Answers may vary. the government’s revenue is $68.22 56. does not make sense. 80(30) − 8000 = 70 30 − 110 80 800 57. Sample explanation: The remainder theorem provides an alternative method for evaluating a function at a given value. 110 -8000 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 f (40) = 80 + 40 − 110 = 68.08 −0. 67. 70) At a 30% tax rate. x3 . A 8 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x + 3 l= = 3 w x+ 4 − 34 8 80(40) − 8000 = 68. true 73. Explanations will vary. 68.3x 2 + 0. Explanations will vary. false. Explanations will vary.5 −0. 66.57) At a 40% tax rate. Sample explanation: The zeros of f are the same as the solutions of f ( x) = 0. 69. Therefore.2 53. 54. the length of the rectangle is 8 x 2 − 12 x + 4 units.

− 4x + 6 −4 x + 6 The polynomial is x – 2. x 2n − x n + 1 +1 x 3n + x 2 n − x 2n x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4)2 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −4 ± 20 2 −4 ± 2 5 x= 2 x = −2 ± 5 − x 2n − x n x= xn +1 xn +1 0 { } The solution set is −2 ± 5 . −1. 5 −20 −20 79. 2 x − 4 = 2( x − 2) Use synthetic division to divide by x – 2.5} . 3 x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 = 0 5 1 −4 −9 16 20 5 20 x3 + 15 x 2 1 8 x 2 − 10 − 16 x + k −16 x − 12 0 To solve the equation. x −5 = 0 x +1 = 0 2x − 3 x=5 x = −1 x+2=0 x−2 = 0 x−2 2 x − 3 2 x2 − 7 x + 6 2 x2 − 3x x = −2 x=2 The solutions are –2. we set it equal to zero and factor.4 5x2 + 2 x − 4 4 x + 3 20 x + 23x 2 − 10 x + k 78. k = –12 76. 77. k must equal –12. 1 −4 The remainder is zero and 5 is a solution to the equation. . 303 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 and 5 and the solution set is {−2. ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) ) = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 )( x + 1)( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = d ( x) ⋅ q( x) + r ( x) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 9 = d ( x )(2 x − 3) + 3 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x)(2 x − 3) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x) Apply the zero product principle. x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 8x2 + 6x 75.PreCalculus 4E 74. 2. Section 2. –1. x n + 1 x 3n −4 = ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) To get a remainder of zero. Then divide the quotient by 2.

± 3 1 –6 22 –30 13 1 –5 17 –13 1 –5 1 is a zero. ⎬. ± 20 are possible rational zeros 1 8 11 –20 1 9 20 1 9 1 is a zero. f ( x) = an ( x 4 − 3 x 2 − 4) ( 1 ±1. 2 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ p : ± 1. ±1. ± 3. = p : ± 1. −b ± b − 4ac 2a 2 x= ±1. 81. ± 2. 1 p : ± 1. 1 5. ± 2.5 x= Check Point Exercises 1. ± 3. ± 2. . 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 + 9 x + 20 = 0 20 0 −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(1)(6) x= 2(1) −4 ± −8 2 −4 ± 2i 2 x= 2 x = −2 ± i 2 x= ( x + 4)( x + 5) = 0 x = −4 or x = −5 { The solution set is {1. ± 6 q : ±1 -5 –2 2 6 2 3 1 0 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(1) 2(1) −3 ± 5 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 5 −3 − 5 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ 2. 2 + 3i. −4. ± 13 are possible rational zeros. ± 10. Inc. ± . } The solution set is −2 ± i 2 . 4. . ± 6 q are the possible rational zeros. ± 4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. ± . ± q 2 4 2 4 are the possible rational zeros. 17 –13 0 q : ± 1. −5}. ± 2 are possible rational zeros f (3) = −150 2 1 ) an (3) − 3(3) − 4 = −150 4 2 an ( 81 − 27 − 4 ) = −150 1 2 is a zero. ± 2. 1 1 5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a double root. ± 5. 2 – 3i}.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. ± 4. x2 + 4 x + 6 = 0 3. x 2 + 3x + 1 = 0 an ( 50 ) = −150 an = −3 x= Section 2. ± . x= 304 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 − 4 x + 13 = 0 0 4 ± 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = = 2 + 3i 2 2 The solution set is{1. ± 3.

± . f ( x) = x 4 − 14 x 3 + 71x 2 − 154 x + 120 q : ±1 f (− x) = x 4 + 14 x 3 + 71x 2 + 154 x + 120 Since f(x) has 4 changes of sign. ± 2. ±15 q: ±1. p : ± 1. –1 are rational zeros. 4. ± . ± 4 q 2. ± 2. ± 2. ± 2. ±6 q: ±1. ± 4 q p : ± 1. ± 8. 2. ± 3. ± 6. x = −2. Section 2. ± 2. ± 4 q : ±1 9. –1}. ±2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 8 q : ±1 b. ± q 2 4 2 4 305 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±3. ± 4 Exercise Set 2. or 0 positive real zeros. ± . f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. ±2. ± . ± . ±4. x = −1 The solution set is {2. ± 2. ± . ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 q 8. ± 4. Since f(–x) has no changes of sign. f ( x) = x 5 − x 4 − 7 x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 12 p : ± 1. ± .PreCalculus 4E 6. Inc. ± 3. ± 2. ±5. ± 6. ± 2. ± 15. ± . 5. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. ± . ±3. ± 2 q : ± 1. there are no negative real zeros. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p: ±1.5 1. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ±2. p : ± 1. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 6 x − 8 p : ± 1. –2. ± . . 2. –2. ± 2. ±8 q: ±1. ±3. ± q 3 3 4 p : ± 1. 1 1 –4 –4 2 6 4 x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x 2 + 3 x + 2) = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x + 3x − 11x − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. ± 2. there are 4. f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 p: ±1. ± 2. ± 8 q 3. p : ± 1.5 ( x + 3)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) 6. ± 3. ±6 q: ±1. ± q 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 0 2 is a zero. ± 4. ± q 3 3 3 3 7. c. ± 2 4 q f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 p : ± 1. ± . ± 4 q : ±1 2 x − 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 x +1 = 0 x = 2. ± 2. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 8 p: ±1. f ( x) = 4 x5 − 8 x 4 − x + 2 p : ± 1. ±2. ± 2. ±4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 f ( x) = an ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) f (1) = an (1 + 3)(12 + 1) = 8an = 8 an = 1 f ( x) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) or x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3 7. p 1 1 : ± 1. ±3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ± 5. ± 4.

x = − . ±4. 1 2. ±6. ±12 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ±3. ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3x − 2) = 0 ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x − 6 p: ±1. x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ 2. 0 x 2 + 3x − 6 = 0 x= 1 x = 3. ± q 2 2 3 2 ( x − 2) ( 2 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 6 a. 1 are rational zeros. 1}. − 2 are rational zeros. x = −3. ±2. x = 1 The solution set is{4. 2 c. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ 306 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ⎭ ⎩ p : ± 1. . x = −2 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨3. –3. –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 5 x 2 + x + 2 p: ±1. ⎬. . ± . 1 3. ± 3. c. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 11x + 12 p: ±1. ±6 q –1 4 –3 –6 –1 –3 6 1 3 –6 –1 is a rational zero. ± 2. 4 –2 –2 ( x − 2) (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 1 x = 2. a. 1⎬ . ±2. x = . 1 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 c. 2 13. 2 b. ± 3. ±3. ± 6. ±2 q: ±1. ( x − 4) ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 x = 4. 2 1 2 –3 0 4 is a zero. ± 6. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 b.Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. a. 1 are rational zeros. . ± 2 p 1 3 : ± 1. ± 3. ± 12 q 4 1 12. 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 11x + 6 = 0 c. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 4. ±6 q: ±1 p : ±1. ± 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. ± 2. a. ± q 2 2 b. b. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(−6) 2(1) −3 ± 33 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 33 −3 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −1. –5 2 –1 –1 0 2 is a zero. . ± 6 q : ± 1. ±3. − 2 ⎬ . –3 –11 6 6 9 –6 2 3 –2 0 3 is a zero. –3. ± 2. ±2. ± 2. − . − . 11.

± 5 q 1 b. a.PreCalculus 4E 14. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. b. a. ⎬. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ x2 + x − 1 = 0 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 16. . ± 2. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a c.5 f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 3 x + 1 p: ±1 q: ±1. ⎧⎪ 1 −1 + 5 −1 − 5 ⎫⎪ . ± q 2 1 2 b. ⎬. a. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 307 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 2 –4 –4 –2 2 2 1 –2 is a rational zero. ±5 q: ±1 p : ± 1. 0 –4 8 –5 1 –3 5 1 –3 5 1 is a rational zero. 2 2 2 x2 + 2 x + 1 = 0 c. 2 c. −1 ± 12 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −1 ± 5 2 f ( x) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 8 x − 5 p: ±1. x= x= 1 –3 1 1 1 –1 2 –2 0 −1 + i −1 − i ⎫ ⎧ . The solution set is ⎨ . ±2 q: ±1. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. Section 2. . 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 15. ± q 2 –2 2 2(2) −2 ± −4 4 −2 ± 2i = 4 −1 ± i = 2 2 x2 + 2 x − 2 = 0 x= −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(1) = 1 is a rational zero. The solution set is ⎨ −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 x 2 − 3x + 5 = 0 x= 6 1 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) 3 ± −11 2 3 ± i 11 = 2 = ⎧⎪ 3 + i 11 3 − i 11 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨1. ⎬. Inc. f ( x) = 2 x3 + 6 x 2 + 5 x + 2 p: ±1.

( x + 1) 2 x = −1 x= The solution set is {4. 4}. ± 3. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 a. ± 2. a. 1 –12 –2 4 12 1 –2 –6 –2 is a rational root. ± 6.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 0 ( x − 4) x = 4. p : ± 1. ± 2. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 13 q 1 b. Inc. ± 12 q b. ±2. –10 } The solution set is −2. 4 are rational roots. –3. 1. ± 12 q : ±1 p : ± 1. 1 − 7 . x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 c. ± 2. ± 4. q : ±1 p : ± 1. 1 2 ± 4 + 24 2 ± 28 = 2 2 2±2 7 = = 1± 7 2 ( x − 4)( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 18. –1. 4 1 –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 b. ± 4. ± 6. 4 are rational roots. −3i}. –2 –7 –4 4 8 4 1 2 1 4 is a root. ± 2. a. c. 1 2 –3 0 4 is a root. −1} . 1. ± 4. 4 + 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = 2 2 4 ± 6i = = 2 ± 3i 2 The solution set is {1. –2 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 2 x − 6) = 0 c. 2 + 3i. ± 3. ± 3. ± 4. ± 3. x3 − 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. 19. 1 –5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a rational root. 0 x3 + 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 c. ± 6. ±4 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 6. 0 { 20. ± 2. 1 + 7. ±13 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 12 q x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 p: ±1. x=4 x = −3 x = 1 The solution set is {–3. 308 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. p : ± 1. 2. ± 12 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 a. ± 4 q 4 0 x= x − 4 = 0 x + 3 = 0 x −1 = 0 b.

1 –2 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 p: ±1. 23. 2. Inc. ± q 2 2 3 3 6 6 –5 6 25 –24 5 –30 25 –5 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 a. ± . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2. b. 2 c. ± . 1 + 5. ± 5 q : ± 1.PreCalculus 4E 21. ⎩2 ⎭ x= 309 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±5. −2. 6 x + 25 x − 24 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 5)(6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 3 c. 2 3 c. 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 1 ( x − ) ( 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8) = 0 2 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x2 − 2 x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ } 2.3 are rational roots. ± 2 ± 4 ± q 2 1 2 2 ( x − 2)( x3 − 5 x − 2) = 0 ( x + 5)(2 x − 1)(3x − 1) = 0 x + 5 = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 3x − 1 = 0 1 1 x = −5. 1 + –5 –6 4 1 –2 –4 –4 –8 0 24. . ± 4 q b. 2 b.5 6 x 3 + 25 x 2 − 24 x + 5 = 0 a. ± 3. ±4 q: ±1. a. x = . 6 –5 1 0 –5 is a root. p : ± 1. 1 − 2 . ± 5. ⎬ . 2 2 –2 –5 8 4 2 0 –10 –4 1 0 –5 –2 2 is a root. x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −5. 1 − 5 ⎬ . ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 2± 4+4 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 2 2 2 = 1± 2 The solution set is x= {−2. ±15 q: ±1 p : ± 1. b. a. . ± 2. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 p: ±1. ± 3 ± 5 ± 15 q 3 1 0 –2 –16 –15 3 9 21 15 1 3 7 3 is a root. ±3. −1. p : ± 1. . ± . 1 1 −5. 2 are rational roots. 0 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 1 1 –2 is a zero of x3 0 –5 –2 –2 4 2 –2 –1 0 – 5x –2 = 0. 1 is a rational root. are rational roots. ±2. ± . ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 5 0 2± 2 5 = 1± 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ± 2. ± 4 q : ±1 p : ± 1. 2 3⎭ ⎩ 22. ± 6 p 1 5 1 5 1 5 : ± 1. Section 2. ± .

25. . − 1 + 2i.Polynomial and Rational Functions c. Inc. − 1. (x – i)(x + i)(x – 3i)(x + 3i) = ( x 2 − i 2 )( x 2 − 9i 2 ) f (−1) = an (−1 − 4 − 4 − 16) = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 9 ) −50 = an (−25) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 f ( x) = an ( x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9) an = 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) f (–1) = an ((–1) 4 + 10(–1) 2 + 9) f ( x) = 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x − 32 20 = an (20) an = 1 f ( x ) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 310 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ) f ( x ) = 1( x3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 ) f ( x ) = x 3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 28. − 1 − 2i} . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( x − 3) ( x + 3x + 7 x + 5 ) = 0 3 –1 2 1 3 7 5 –1 –2 –5 2 5 0 1 −3ix + 12i − 9i 2 ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 8 x + 25 ) = ( x3 − 8 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 40 x + 125 ) = x 3 − 3 x 2 − 15 x + 125 –1 is a root of x 3 + 3 x 2 + 7 x + 5 f ( x) = an ( x 3 – 3x 2 –15 x + 125) ( x − 3) ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 2 x + 5) ( f (2) = an 23 − 3 ( 2 ) − 15 ( 2 ) + 125 –2 ± 4 − 20 –2 ± −16 = x= 2 2 −2 ± 4i = = −1 ± 2i 2 The solution set is {3. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 27. = ( x − 1) ( x 2 + 25 ) ( x − 6) ( x + 5 + 2i ) ( x + 5 − 2i ) = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 5 x − 2ix + 5 x + 25 − 10i + 2ix + 10i − 4i 2 ) = x3 + 25 x − x 2 − 25 = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 10 x + 29 ) = x3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 ) = x 3 + 10 x 2 + 29 x − 6 x 2 − 60 x − 174 = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 f (−1) = an (−1 − 1 − 25 − 25) f ( x) = an ( x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) −104 = an (−52) an = 2 f (2) = an (8 + 16 − 62 − 174) f ( x) = 2 ( x − x + 25 x − 25) 26. 2 91 = an (91) an = 1 ( x − 1) ( x + 5i ) ( x − 5i ) 3 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 − 3i )( x − 4 + 3i ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 3ix − 4 x + 16 − 12i −636 = an (−212) 2 an = 3 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 2 x 2 + 50 x − 50 ( x − 4) ( x + 2i ) ( x − 2i ) f ( x) = 3 ( x3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) = ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 4 ) f ( x) = 3 x3 + 12 x 2 − 93 x − 522 = x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) 29.

1 negative real roots exist. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 + x + 7 Since f(x) has no sign variations no positive real roots exist. . f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. f(x) = 5 x 3 − 3 x 2 + 3 x − 1 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 + x 2 + x + 7 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. 37. 34. f ( − x ) = − x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. Inc. 2 or 0 positive real roots exist.PreCalculus 4E 30. ( x + 4) (3x − 1) ( x − 2 + 3i ) ( x − 2 − 3i ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 2 x − 3ix − 2 x + 4 + 6i + 3ix − 6i − 9i 2 ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 3 x 4 − 12 x 3 + 39 x 2 + 11x3 − 44 x 2 + 143x − 4 x 2 + 16 x − 52 = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 f ( x) = an ( 3x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 ) f (1) = an (3 − 1 − 9 + 159 − 52) 100 = an (100 ) an = 1 f ( x) = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 311 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 2 x 4 − 5 x3 − x 2 − 6 x + 4 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. f ( − x ) = −5 x3 − 3 x 2 − 3x − 1 5 5 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x 4 + x 3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 5x3 + 4 x 2 + 5 x + 2 31. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. no negative real roots exist. f (− x) = − x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 7 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. f ( x) = −2 x 3 + x 2 − x + 7 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. 35. ( x + 2) ( x − 5) ( x − 3 + 2i ) ( x − 3 − 2i ) ( = (x )( − 3 x − 10 ) ( x = x 2 − 3 x − 10 x 2 − 3 x − 2ix − 3x + 9 + 6i + 2ix − 6i − 4i 2 2 2 − 6 x + 13 ) ) 36. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + x 3 + 5 x 2 + 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 1 sign variations. 38. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist.5 1⎞ ⎟ ( x − i )( x + i ) 2⎠ 5 ⎛ ⎞ = ⎜ x 2 + x + 1⎟ ( x 2 + 1) 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 = x 4 + x 2 + x3 + x + x 2 + 1 2 2 5 5 = x 4 + x3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1 2 2 5 ⎛ 4 5 3 ⎞ f ( x ) = an ⎜ x + x + 2 x 2 + x + 1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 3 2 ⎡ 4 ⎤ f (1) = an ⎢(1) + (1) + 2 (1) + (1) + 1⎥ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ 18 = an (9) an = 2 f ( x) = x 3 + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 4 Since f(x) has no sign variations. f ( − x ) = 2 x 4 + 5 x3 − x 2 + 6 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 2 sign variations. no positive real roots exist. 33. = x 4 − 6 x + 13x 2 − 3 x3 + 18 x 2 − 39 x − 10 x 2 + 60 x − 130 = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ( f ( x) = an x 4 − 9 x3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ) f (1) = an (1 − 9 + 21 + 21 − 130) −96 = an (−96) an = 1 f ( x) = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 32. no negative real roots exist. ( x + 2 ) ⎛⎜ x + ⎝ Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since f(–x) has no sign variations. 2 or 0 negative real roots exist. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist.

312 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. exactly one negative real zeros exists. . 2 x3 − x 2 − 9 x − 4 = 0 p : ± 1. 3 x 3 − 8 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. ± 2. x = 5. ± . ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. 5 0 41. ± 4 ± q 2 1 positive real root exists. ± q 3 3 3 3 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. p : ± 1. 1 –1 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ 2 ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ = ( x + 2)( x − 5)( x − 1) x = –2. –2 1 –4 –7 10 –2 12 –10 1 –6 –2 is a zero. f ( x) = x3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10 p : ± 1. ±10 q: ±1. ±2. ±8 q: ±1. ± 5.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. ± 2. ± . f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 11x + 10 ) = ( x + 1)( x + 10)( x + 1) x = −1. ⎬. Since f(x) has no sign variations. exactly 1 negative real zero exists. 10 0 1 ± 1 + 16 1 ± 17 = 2 2 ⎪⎧ 1 1 + 17 1 − 17 ⎪⎫ . x = −10 The solution set is {–1. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 42. ± 4 f (− x) = –3 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 1 sign changes. –10}. 5. ± 5. ± 2 ± 5 ± 10 q 12 21 10 –1 –11 –10 1 11 –1 is a zero. Inc. ± 10 q Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. 3 or 1 negative zeros exist. no positive zeros exist. 0 or 2 positive real zeros exist. x = 1 The solution set is{–2. –1 2 –1 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x + 5) 40. q : ± 1. 2 − –9 –4 –1 1 4 –2 –8 0 1 is a root. ±4. f ( − x ) = − x3 − 4 x 2 + 7 x + 10 Since f(–x) has 1 sign variation. 1}. ±2. 2 x= f ( x) = x 3 + 12 x 2 + 2 x + 10 p: ±1. ± . ± 2. ± 10 q : ±1 p : ± 1. f (− x) = − x 3 + 12 x 2 − 21x + 10 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. The solution set is ⎨ − . ± 2. ±5. 2 or no positive real roots exist. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. f (− x) = −2 x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 4 2 or no negative real roots exist.

f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x3 − x 2 + 14 x + 10 p: ±1. ± 4. ± 4. 3 + i} 45. ± 2. 0 or 2 positive roots exist. 0 or 2 negative roots exist. ⎩3 ⎭ 43. 2 + 2i. ±5. 2 – 2i}. –1. Inc.5 3 2 3 3 –8 –8 8 2 –4 –8 –6 –12 0 44.1 + 5. –1 −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(8) x= 2(1) 1 1 4 ± 16 − 32 x= 2 4 ± −16 x= 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i The solution set is { –1. 3 – i.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ± 4 ± 8 q 1 positive real root exists. –3 –20 –24 –8 –1 4 16 8 –16 –8 0 –4 ( x + 1) ( x − 4 x − 16 x − 8 ) = 0 3 2 313 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –1 1 –2 1 12 8 –4 14 x= p : ±1. ± 2. ±5. ±10 q 2 is a zero. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 4. ± 8 q Since f(x) has 2 sign changes. ±2. ± 8 q : ±1 p : ± 1. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)3 + (− x) 2 − 12 x + 8 4 -1 f ( x) = ( x − 1)( x − 1)( x 2 − 6 x + 10) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 + 12 x + 8 p : ±1. ±2. ±10 q: ±1 p : ±1. ± 8 –1 -4 1 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . .1 − 5 ⎬ . 3 –1 2⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 − 6 x − 12 ) 3⎠ ⎝ 6 ± 36 + 144 6 ± 6 5 = 6 6 = 1± 5 –1 x= x= q : ±1 –1 –8 1 –3 4 8 0 1 –3 4 8 –1 4 –8 –4 8 0 1 2 0 = x − 4x + 8 10 –1 5 -4 -10 1 -5 4 10 0 1 -5 4 10 –1 6 –10 -6 10 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) x =1 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 − 12 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 2 sign changes. x 4 − 3 x 3 − 20 x 2 − 24 x − 8 = 0 p : ± 1. 1 The solution set is {–1. ± 2. ± 2.

f ( x) = 2 x 4 + 3x 3 − 11x 2 − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. ± 3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ± 6 –1 3 } 13. Inc. − 2. 3⎬ . ± q 3 3 2 or no positive real zeros exists. x − x + 2x − 4x − 8 = 0 p: ±1. ±3. 3 ± f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p : ± 1. ± . ± . ±15 q: ±1. f (− x) = 3x 4 + 11x 3 − x 2 − 19 x + 6 2 or no negative real zeros exist. ± 2. ± 2. 2i. x = 3 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. 1 2 2 3 –11 –9 15 2 5 –6 –15 –6 –15 0 5 f ( x) = ( x − 1) ( 2 x + 5 x − 6 x − 15 ) 3 − 52 2 2 2 5 –6 –15 –5 0 15 0 –6 0 314 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − 3x 3 − 11x 2 + 9 x + 15 2 or no negative real zeros exist. ± 6. 4 3 –1 2 1 1 2 1 1 ( x + 1) 2 3 3 19 6 –3 14 –13 –6 –14 13 6 0 –14 13 6 6 –16 –6 –8 –3 0 –1 2 –4 –8 f ( x) = ( x + 1)( x − 2) ( 3x 2 − 8 x − 3) –1 2 –4 8 = ( x + 1)( x − 2)(3x + 1)( x − 3) –2 4 –8 0 1 x = −1. ± 3. ± .Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 1 1 –4 –16 –8 –2 12 8 –6 –4 0 47. . ± 5. ±2. − . ± 3. ( x + 1)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x − 4 ) = 0 6 ± 36 + 16 6 ± 52 = 2 2 6 ± 2 13 3 ± 13 = = 2 2 The solution set is x= {−1. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. ±5. − 2i} . ±8 q: ±1 p : ± 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 4 –8 2 0 8 0 4 ( x − 2) 48. ± . ± q 2 2 2 2 2 or no positive real zeros exist. 0 (x 2 + 4) x + 1 = 0 x − 2 = 0 x2 + 4 = 0 x = –1 –1 f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( 3x 3 − 14 x 2 + 13x + 6 ) ( x + 1) ( x − 2 x + 4 x − 8 ) 3 –11 x=2 x 2 = −4 x = ±2i The solution set is {−1. ± 15. x = 2 x = − . 3 − 13 . 3 46. ±4. q : ± 1. ± 3. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8 q 1 negative real root exists. 2. 2.

± 2 p 1 : ± 1. ± . ± 3. 4 ⎩ ⎭ 7 0 –18 –4 2 3 –8 8 –6 12 12 –8 –6 –6 4 0 ( x + 2)(2 x + 3x − 6 x − 6 x + 4) = 0 4 3 2 4 x 3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. x = − . 2 3 4 –11 ( x − 4) ( 3x 3 + x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 q : ± 1. − . x2 − 3 = 0 x2 = 3 x=± 3 5 x = 1. ± . . ± . ± q 2 2 4 4 3 or 1 positive real roots exists. ± 2. ± . ± 6 1 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3 x 2 − 6 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. ±8 q: ±1. x = − 3 2 ⎧ 5 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. − i 2 ⎬ . ± 8. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 49. f (− x) = 3 x 4 + 11x3 − 3 x 2 + 6 x + 8 2 or no negative real roots exist. Inc. ± 2. ± q 2 2 or no positive real roots exists. 1 negative real root exists. 3. ± . 3⎞ ⎛ ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 4 x 2 + 8 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ 4( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 2 x +2 =0 2 x 5 + 7 x 4 − 18 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p : ± 1. ± 4. x 2 = −2 –2 x = ±i 2 2 3 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. ⎬. i 2. 51. . ± 4. 315 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±2. 4 p 1 3 1 3 : ± 1. 4 –1 5 –2 –6 4 3 8 6 3 8 6 0 12 4 4 –8 1 1 –2 0 3 8 6 –3 0 –6 0 8 0 1 1 –2 2 2 2 3 3 0 x= 4 x + 3 x + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 or 1 negative real root exist. . − 3 ⎬ . ± 6. ± q 3 3 3 3 2 or no positive real roots exist.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. − . ± 4 3 3 3 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 = 0 p : ± 1. ± 3. ± 8 q : ± 1. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. ± . 4 8 −1 ± 1 − 4 −1 ± i 3 = 2 2 ⎧⎪ 2 −1 + i 3 −1 − i 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨4. ± 2. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 2 4 –6 2⎞ ⎛ ( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 + 3x + 3) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2⎞ ⎛ 3( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2 − 34 3 3 ( x − 1)(4 x + 3x + 8 x + 6) = 0 3 –3 Another positive real root must exist.5 5⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 6 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 5⎞ ⎛ = 2( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 − 3) 2⎠ ⎝ 50. ±4. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ± 2. ± 2. x = 3.

± 4 4 2 or no positive real roots exist. ± 8. 2 2⎭ ⎩ 1⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2)2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2( x + 2) 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x −2 = 0 53. and 4. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 52. ±4 p 1 3 : ± 1. ±2. ± 4. q 2 2 1 3 ± . ± 6. . f ( x ) = − x3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 a. ± 3. x=4 . − ⎬ . − 2. ±3. From the graph provided. − 4. ±4. ±12. 2. ± 12. ( x − 3) ( 4 x + 24 x + 31x − 6 x − 8) = 0 4 –2 3 2 24 31 –6 –8 –8 –32 2 8 –1 –4 0 4 4 16 ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( 4 x + 16 x − x − 4 ) = 0 3 –4 4 4 2 16 –1 4 –16 0 4 0 –1 0 316 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±8. We verify this below: −4 −1 1 16 −16 4 −20 −1 5 −4 x2 = 2 x=± 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± . ±24 q: ±1. . b. ±2. 3 16 0 x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x = −4 x =1 The zeros are −4 . Thus.Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 2 2 3 –6 –6 4 –4 2 8 –4 –1 –4 2 0 ( x − 3)( x + 2)( x + 4) ( 4 x 2 − 1) = 0 4 x2 −1 = 0 4 x2 = 1 1 x2 = 4 1 x=± 2 ( x + 2) 2 (2 x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 2) 2 1 2 –1 –4 2 1 0 2 0 –4 0 2 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨3. 1. f (− x) = −4 x5 + 12 x 4 + 41x3 − 99 x 2 − 10 x + 24 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. 4 4 12 –41 –99 10 24 12 72 93 –18 –24 24 31 –6 –8 0 − x 3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 = 0 ( x + 4) ( − x2 + 5x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 ) ( x2 − 5x + 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) = 0 4 x 5 + 12 x 4 − 41x3 − 99 x 2 + 10 x + 24 = 0 p: ±1. Inc. ± 24. ± 2. ±6. ± . − 2 ⎬ . we can see that −4 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function.

− ( x + 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 2 x +1 = 0 or x = −1 ( x − 2) 2 =0 x−2 = 0 x=2 The zeros are −1 and 2. b. From the graph provided. Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. We verify this below: 1 3 3 2 2 −1 From the graph provided. 9 −1 ± −3 2 1 3 −1 ± 3i i = =− ± 2 2 2 1 3 1 i.5 f ( x ) = − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. f ( x ) = 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 a. so we use the quadratic formula: 1 or x 2 + x + 1 = 0 x− =0 3 a =1 b =1 c =1 1 x= 3 f ( x ) = 4 x3 − 8x 2 − 3x + 9 a. 1 is an x3 intercept and is thus a zero of the function. 2x − 3 = 0 2x = 3 x= The zeros are −1 and 3 2 3 . 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3 x + 3 x + 3) = 0 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 55. From the graph provided.PreCalculus 4E 54. We verify this below: −1 −1 3 0 −4 1 −4 −1 4 −4 4 0 − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 = 0 Thus. we can see that 1 1 1 3 3 3 0 Thus. ( x + 1) ( − x 2 + 4 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) = 0 56. b. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The zeros are and − ± 2 2 3 4 x3 − 8 x 2 − 3x + 9 = 0 ( x + 1)( 2 x − 3) = 0 or ( 2 x − 3) 2 = 0 2 x = −1 2 (1) = 0 ( x + 1) ( 4 x 2 − 12 x + 9 ) = 0 x +1 = 0 −1 ± 12 − 4 (1)(1) b. We verify this below: −1 4 −8 −3 9 x= −4 12 −9 4 −12 Thus. . 2 317 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. Inc. Section 2.

we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. ± 2. 2 = −4 −6 2 −2 −8 −12 b. ± 3. b. . ± 2. 0 2 x − 3x − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 4 Thus. so we use the quadratic formula: a =1 b = 2 c = 2 x = 1. ± 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 To factor x − x 2 − 4 x − 6 . One possibility is shown next: = ( x − 1) ( 2 x3 + 4 x 2 − 18 x − 36 ) 3 2 6 6 2 2 0 30 2 10 1 −1 −4 −6 1 4 −18 −36 6 3 0 Thus. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −22 −18 36 Factors of − 6 ±1. ± 2. ± 6 We test values from above until we find a zero.Polynomial and Rational Functions 57. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 2 x 3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 a. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −3 −7 −8 6 −2 ± 22 − 4 (1)( 2 ) 2 (1) From the graph provided. and −1 ± i . ± 6 = Factors of 1 ±1 = ±1. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 58. ± 3. x = −2 The zeros are −3. and 3. 318 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3. 36 12 0 2 x + 2 x − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 = 0 4 3 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( 2 x 2 + 10 x + 12 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( x 2 + 5 x + 6 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = 0 The remainder is 0. x= 1 is an 2 x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. 1. we can see that 1 and 3 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 a. − 2 . From the graph provided. Factors of the constant term −6 : ±1. we can see that 1 −1 −2 ± −4 −2 ± 2i = = −1 ± i 2 2 1 The zeros are . so 3 is a zero of f. 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 2 x + 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. x = −3. 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 Test 3: 3 4 −18 −36 2 2 4 −18 −36 The possible rational zeros are: Thus. Inc. x = 3.

we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. ± 5 −3 −8 −4 3 f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 4 x3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 0 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. ± 5 5 5 We test values from above until we find a zero. 0 Thus. The remainder is 0. . ± 2. 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 2 x = 1. ± 4 = Factors of 3 ±1. we can see that 1 and 2 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. We verify this below: 1 −5 4 −19 16 4 −5 −1 −20 −4 −5 −1 −20 −4 0 Thus. ± 3 60.PreCalculus 4E 59. ± 4. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. x = 2. ± 4 = Factors of 5 ±1. 3x + 2 x − 15 x − 10 x + 12 x + 8 5 4 3 2 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) = ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) To factor 3 x 3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 . Section 2. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. x = −1. a. ± 2. 1 and 2.5 f ( x ) = 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 a. ± 2. ± . − . ± 4. Inc. ± . ± 3 1 2 4 = ±1. One possibility is shown next: 319 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 3 3 3 We test values from above until we find a zero. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 5: ±1. One possibility is shown next: Test −1 : − 1 3 11 12 4 8 4 From the graph provided. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 3: ±1. x = − . we can see that 1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 To factor 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 . ± . x = −2 3 2 The zeros are −2 . ± 2. ± 2. ± 5 1 2 4 = ±1. so −1 is a zero of f. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. 3 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) 2 3 5 −10 −20 −8 6 22 3 11 24 12 8 4 b. We verify this below: 1 3 2 −15 −10 12 8 ( x − 1) ( 3 x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1) ( 3x 2 + 8 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1)( 3 x + 2 )( x + 2 ) = 0 5 −10 −20 −8 3 3 5 −10 −20 −8 0 Thus. ± . We can now finish the factoring: 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 = 0 From the graph provided. ± 2.

V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 2000 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 63. The depth can be 10 inches or 7. 1500). – 71. 1. 12. and ±2i . b. The answers correspond to the points (7. x= 61. 0 −4 0 20 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 0 1 is a zero of f.8. x= b.8.8 Since the depth must be positive. x = 2i 5 1 The zeros are − . 2000). 15).2 Since the depth must be positive. x = − .2 inches to obtain a volume of 1500 cubic inches. 0 65. 2000) and (10. 5 1 −5 −150 750 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x + 2i )( x − 2i ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1 x = 1. 5 −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 The remainder is 0. 1⎞ ⎛ − ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 5 x 2 + 20 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 4 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 1500 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 750 = 0 Find the roots.2. 1500) and (12. The range is (0. 10 1 −5 −150 1000 10 1 64. The depth can be 5 inches or 12. 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 2000 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 1000 = 0 Find the roots. a.8 inches to obtain a volume of 2000 cubic inches. 50 −1000 5 −100 The range is (0. a. Answers may vary. 15).2. 2000 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x b. The answers correspond to the points (5. 5 5 1 0 −750 0 −150 0 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(0) ± (0)2 − 4(1)(−150) 2(1) x ≈ −12. Inc. so − ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 62. . x= 4 −(5) ± (5)2 − 4(1)(−100) 2(1) x ≈ −12.Polynomial and Rational Functions 1 Test − : 5 − 15 5 1 20 −1 5 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. 320 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. reject the negative value. reject the negative value. x = −2i. 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

±2 1 3 5 15 p : ± 1. ±3. we see that the solutions are 1 1 − and . ± . ±2 77. ±5. ± 2. ± 4. 74. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±2. ±4 q: ±1. ± . Section 2. 2 3 and 2. we see that the solutions are 1 2 . ±15 q: ±1. 2 73. ±2 q: ±1. 3. ±2. no negative roots exist. ± . ± . ±2. Even functions do not. ± q 2 3 3 3 6 76. ±3. ± 2. it has no positive real roots. ± q 2 2 2 2 75. Odd functions must have at least one real zero. 1 3 9 p : ± 1. From the graph we see that the solutions are 1 − . 3 and 5. 2 2 6 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. ±2. − . ±9. The polynomial’s graph doesn’t intersect the x-axis. ± . ± 15. ± 3. f ( x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(x) has no sign variations. ± . . ± . ±18. 321 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. From the graph we see the solutions are 3 −3. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. ±6 1 1 2 4 1 p : ± 1. 2 78. ± q 2 2 2 f ( x ) = x 5 − x 4 + x3 − x 2 + x − 8 f(x) has 5 sign variations. ± . − 1. q : ± 1. ±4 1 1 p : ± 1. 2. f ( − x ) = − x5 − x 4 − x3 − x 2 − x − 8 f(–x) has no sign variations. ±9. 40 0 4 x 4 + 4 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 p: ±1.PreCalculus 4E 72. ±3. Inc. ±18 From the graph. ± 5. ±6. ±2.5 2 x 3 − 15 x 2 + 22 x + 15 = 0 p: ±1. ± . so either 5. ±3. 2 x 4 + 7 x 3 − 4 x 2 − 27 x − 18 = 0 p : ± 1. ± . From the graph. or 1 positive real roots exist. ± q 2 4 100 0 From the graph. ±6. so no negative real roots exist. we see that there are no real solutions.

f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 + 6 x3 − 4 x 2 − 24 x + 16 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 3x ( x + 5 ) = 208 ( 2 x 2 + 11x + 5) ( x + 2 ) − 3x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 5 x +10 − 3 x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x − 3 x 2 − 15 x − 198 = 0 2 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x − 198 = 0 2 ( x 3 + 6 x 2 + 6 x − 99 ) = 0 3 real zeros 2 nonreal complex zeros 81. The equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 0. Answers may vary. 84. 86. 85. f ( x) = x 6 − 64 93. A sample change is: Polynonials of degree n have at most n distinct solutions. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 96. Two roots appear twice. The equation of the vertical asymptote is x = 1. does not make sense. f ( x) = x 3 − 6 x − 9 88. 1 real zero 2 nonreal complex zeros 80. A sample change is: The equation has 0 sign variations. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 99. 87. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction and two roots have multiplicity 2. so no positive roots exist. 98. the smallest degree is 5. 94. 322 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true 90. Because the polynomial has no obvious changes of direction but the graph is obviously not linear. Answers will vary 82. 2 92. Sample explanation: The quadratic formula is can be applied only of equations of degree 2. makes sense 100. 89. Explanations will vary. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction. the smallest degree is 3. A sample change is: Descartes’ Rule gives the maximum possible number of real roots. false. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 91. false. 97. Inc. 3 f ( x) = 3 x 4 + 4 x3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x − 3 1 1 6 6 –99 3 27 99 9 33 0 x + 9 x + 33 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = −51 x = 3 in. . the smallest degree is 5.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. 95. The function is undefined at x = 1 and x = 2. 2 real zeros 4 nonreal complex zeros 83. the smallest degree is 3.

5). ∞ ) −75 − −12 = 5i 3 − 2i 3 = 3i 3 (2 − −3 ) = (2 − i 3) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 − 3 = 1 − 4i 3 7. (1 + i )(4 − 3i ) = 4 − 3i + 4i − 3i 2 8. Inc. 2 =4 x−3 = ± 4 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i + i + i2 = ⋅ = 1− i 1− i 1+ i 1 − i2 1 + 2i − 1 = 1+1 2i = 2 =i x = 3± 2 The equation has x-intercepts at x = 1 and x = 5 . x-intercepts: 2 x 2 − 3 x = −4 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 = 0 x= f ( x ) = 5 − ( x + 2) 0 = 5 − ( x + 2) −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a ( x + 2) −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(4) x= 2(2) 2 2 =5 x+2 = ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: 3 ± −23 x= 4 3 23 x= ± i 4 4 f ( 0) = 5 − ( 0 + 2) = 1 2 domain: (−∞. –4). The vertex is (–2. x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 3) − 4 2 ( x − 3) = 4+i+3= 7+i 4. The vertex is (3. 3i (2 + i ) = 6i + 3i 2 = −3 + 6i 3. ∞) range: [ −4. x(2 x − 3) = −4 2 The parabola opens down because a < 0. 5. .PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point 1. 6. 5] 323 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) − 4 = 5 2 domain: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (6 − 2i ) − (7 − i ) = 6 − 2i − 7 + i = −1 − i 2. 9. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) − 4 2 The parabola opens up because a > 0. ∞) range: ( −∞.

domain: (−∞. –2). Publishing as Prentice Hall. b −4 vertex: x = − =− = −2 2a 2(−1) domain: (−∞. is positive. . f ( x ) = − x2 − 4 x + 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 3(0)2 − 6(0) + 1 = 1 The parabola opens down because a < 0. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 2 since the zero has multiplicity 2. 2(−1) 2 ( x + 1) 3 =0 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 4 ± 36 −2 x = −2 ± 3 The x-intercepts are x = 1 and x = −5 . 9). b −6 =− =1 vertex: x = − 2a 2(3) f (1) = 3(1)2 − 6(1) + 1 = −2 The vertex is (1. since the zero has multiplicity 3. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. degree 5.Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. 9] 11. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 324 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and since the leading coefficient. Inc. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. ∞) range: ( −∞. 1. x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 − 4 x + 5 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(−1)(5) 12. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at −1 . y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 − 4(0) + 5 = 5 x= 3 Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 3 f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 The parabola opens up because a > 0. ∞) range: [ −2. ∞ ) f ( −2 ) = −(−2) 2 − 4(−2) + 5 = 9 The vertex is (–2. x-intercepts: 0 = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−6) ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) x= 6 ± 24 6 x= 3± 6 3 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2.

and since the leading coefficient. and 2. f ( x ) = x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 16. degree 6. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. since all have multiplicity 1. is negative. Inc.. −1 . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. 1. 1. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. degree 4. degree 3. and since the leading coefficient. 1. since all have multiplicity 1. degree 4. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. . The graph touches the x-axis and turns around both at −1 and 2 since both zeros have multiplicity 2. and 2. x = −1. x = 1 The zeros are −2 . Since f is an even-degree polynomial. and 2. and since the leading coefficient. 325 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point f ( x ) = − ( x − 2) − ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 =0 2 15. −1 . and since the leading coefficient. The graph crosses the x-axis at all four zeros. x = 2. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) 6 − ( x + 1) = 0 6 ( x − 1) − 4 ( x − 1) = 0 ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. is negative. the graph rises to the left and rises to the right. is positive. −2 . −1 . 1. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 since the zero has multiplicity 6. Apply the zero-product principle: x + 2 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −2 x=2 x =1 The zeros are −2 . and 2. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right.PreCalculus 4E 13. −1 . x4 − 5x2 + 4 = 0 2 ( x + 1) 6 =0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 The zero is are −1 . Since f is an even-degree polynomial. 1. −2 . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. x = −2. 14. is positive. 1. f ( x ) = x4 − 5x2 + 4 (x Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 2 − 4 )( x 2 − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle.

x =1 The zeros are −1 . 3 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x x3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x = 0 x ( x 2 − 2 x + 26 ) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x + 26 does not factor. and 1. −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −6 x 2 + x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 − ( x − 1)( 3x + 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 19. so 1 is a zero. since all have multiplicity 1. . x = −1. so we use the quadratic formula: x = 0 or x 2 − 2 x + 26 = 0 a = 1. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. ± 2. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 −6 7 0 −1 −6 −6 1 1 1 1 0 f ( x ) = 2 x3 − 2 x The remainder is 0. 3 2 x= Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. degree 3. and 1. ± . 2 x3 − 2 x = 0 To find the zeros. 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at 0 (the only real zero). c = 26 The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. x = 3 2 1 1 The zeros are − . the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. ± 3. since it has multiplicity 1. ± 2 3 6 We test values from the above list until we find a zero. b = −2. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. is positive. is negative. ± 2. f ( x ) = −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 18. . 1 1 − . ± . Inc. x = − . Thus. ± 3. and since the leading coefficient. − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( 26 ) 2 (1) 2 2 ± −100 2 ± 10i = = 1 ± 5i 2 2 The zeros are 0 and 1 ± 5i . and 1. ± 6 2 x ( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 x ( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle: x = 0. degree 3. = 326 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. −6 . The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of − 6 ±1. 0. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 List all factors of the leading coefficient −6 : ±1. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. and 1. Apply the zero-product property: 1 1 x = 1. −1 . since all have multiplicity 1. and since the leading coefficient. .

is positive. Thus. 327 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1} . the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. 21. f ( x ) = − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 To find the zeros. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −3 : ±1. . and since the leading coefficient. b = −2. c = −1 = 0 The remainder is 0. ± 2 Factors of 1 ±1 Factors of − 3 ±1. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. ± 3 Factors of − 1 ±1 We test values from above until we find a root. so we use the quadratic formula: x − 3 = 0 or x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 0 x=3 a = 1. x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 x= 2 1 −2 1 1 −2 The remainder is 0. and the solution set is {−2. 3 and 1 ± 2 . − ( −2 ) ± x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. degree 3. ± 3 = = ±1. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 1 0 −3 Test 3: −1 3 −1 1 5 −5 −3 −3 6 3 2 1 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 2 )( x − 1) = 0 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) = 0 ( x − 3) ( − x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 3) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x − 1 does not factor. −1 . degree 3. 20. so 3 is a zero. One is shown next: We test values from the previous list until we find a zero. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. Factors of the constant term 2: ±1. is negative. so 1 is a root of the equation. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −1) 2 (1) 2 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 1± 2 2 2 The zeros are 3 and 1 ± 2 . ± 2 = = ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and since the leading coefficient. Thus. 1. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. ± 2 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Apply the zero-product property: 2 ( x − 1) = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = −2 x −1 = 0 x =1 The solutions are −2 and 1. since all have multiplicity 1. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. ± 3 List all factors of the leading coefficient −1 : ±1 The possible rational zeros are: The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 2 ±1.

Thus. ± 500. ± 2. 2 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. − . . Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. Test 1: 1 6 −11 6 We test values from above until we find a root. ± 5. ± 2. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. Thus. Factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 Factors of the leading coefficient 6: ±1. ± 2. ± 4. and 1. 2 3 2 ⎧ 1 2 7⎫ is ⎨ − . 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 5 −200 −500 20 250 500 2 25 50 0 ( x − 10 ) ( 2 x 2 + 25 x + 50 ) = 0 ( x − 10 )( 2 x + 5 )( x + 10 ) = 0 Apply the zero-product property: x − 1 = 0 or 3 x − 1 = 0 or 2 x − 1 = 0 x =1 2 The remainder is 0. 1⎬ . ± 125. 10 ⎬ . ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. ± 10. 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( 2 x + 1)( 3x − 2 ) ( 2 x − 7 ) = 0 3 Apply the zero-product property: 2x +1 = 0 1 x=− 2 or (3x − 2) 3 = 0 or 3x − 2 = 0 x= 2 3 x = −10 2x − 7 = 0 7 T x= 2 1 2 7 and . ± . One is shown next: 6 −1 6 −5 −5 1 1 Test 10: 0 10 The remainder is 0. . ± 20. ± 25. ± 2 2 2 2 Factors of 500 = ±1. . ± 6 24. so 10 is a root of the equation. ± 20. ± . ⎩ 2 3 2⎭ 328 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 25. ± 2 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of 6 ±1. x= Apply the zero-product property: x − 10 = 0 or 2 x + 5 = 0 or x + 10 = 0 x = 10 x=− 5 2 5 The solutions are −10. ±50. ⎩3 2 ⎭ 23. ± 3. ± 250. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 x= 3 2 1 1 The solutions are . and the solution set is 3 2 ⎧1 1 ⎫ ⎨ . ± 125. and the solution 2 5 ⎧ ⎫ set is ⎨ −10. ± 2 3 6 The possible rational zeros are: We test values from above until we find a root. ± . ± . − . One is shown next: 1 5 25 125 ±250. ± 3. ± 100. and the solution set he solutions are − . ± . ± 50. ± 5. ± 4. ⎬ . Factors of the constant term −500 : ±1. so 1 is a root of the equation. and 10 . Factors of 2 ±10. ± 500 Factors of the leading coefficient 2: ±1. ± 2. ± 100.

± 3. 15 −2 To solve the equation above. ± 6. As this point we know that −3 and 4 are roots of the equation. so 1 1 is a zero and x − is a 2 2 factor. One possibility is shown next: −3 1 −17 −4 2 ⎝ 1⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2x − 4x − 4) = 0 2⎠ The roots are −3 . ± 2. Thus. ± 3. ± 2 2 We test values from above until we find a root. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 4: ±1. Note that x 2 − 2 x − 2 does not factor. we have 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 ( x + 3) ( 2 x3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 x = −1 2 ( x + 3) ⎛⎜ x − x = ± −1 = ± i 26. ± 12 Factors of 6 ±1. One possibility is shown next: Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Test −3 : x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 = x + 12 25. ± 12 = ±1 = ±1. 4. We continue testing potential roots: 1 −1 −11 −1 −12 12 −3 −6 2 −5 ( x + 3) ( 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 Test −3 : −3 6 The remainder is 0. ± 2 1 are roots of 2 the equation. x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 − x − 12 = 0 1 2 6 −6 2 0 1 : 2 2 −5 −2 2 1 −2 −2 ( x + 3) ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 3) ⎡⎣ x 2 ( x − 4 ) + 1( x − 4 )⎤⎦ = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 1) = 0 2 −4 −4 0 The remainder is 0. Using the Factor Theorem. ± 2. so we use the quadratic formula: x2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 a = 1. . ± . ± 2. ± 2. so we use the square-root principle: x 2 + 1 = 0 Summarizing our findings so far. 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We test values from this list we find a root. ± 3. ± 6 = Factors of 2 ±1. Note that x 2 + 1 does not factor. ± 3. Thus. 4 3 2 −3 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 12 Factors of 1 ±1. ± i} . Factors of the constant term −12 : ±1. ± 4. we know that x + 3 is a factor of the polynomial. ± 6. ± 2 1 3 = ±1. ± 2. Inc. 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 3) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 x − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x 4 + x3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. Using the Factor Theorem. c = −2 At this point. ± 12 12 1 −4 1 −4 0 Test The remainder is 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point x − x − 11x − x − 12 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. and the solution set is {−3. 4. Factors of the constant term 6: ±1. so −3 is a root. we know that x − 1 is a factor. we need to factor 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 . so −3 is a root of the equation. b = −2. and ±i . ± 6. ± 4. ± 6. ± 3. ± 4. ± 2. we know that −3 and The possible rational roots are: 329 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 3.

f (0) = an (0 − 2)(0 − 2)(02 + 9) 36 = 36an an = 1 Let x = height of triangle. we know the function opens down and has a maximum at b 150 150 x=− =− =− = 75 . and the 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ solution set is ⎨ −3.Polynomial and Rational Functions x= − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −2 ) 2 (1) 2 30. 2 ( x − 1)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f ( x) = an ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f (−1) = an (−1 − 1) ( (−1) 2 + 1) = −4an = 8 The x-coordinate of the maximum is b −18 −18 x=− =− =− = −9. This occurs when the two number are −9 and −18 − (−9) = −9 . The maximum daily profit is $1200. f ( x) = x 3 − x − 5 f (1) = 13 − 1 − 5 = −5 f (2) = 23 − 2 − 5 = 1 Yes. 2 2 –13 17 18 –24 8 -20 –12 24 6 0 –5 –3 The quotient is 2 x − 5 x − 3 x + 6 . 3 ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x − 3i )( x + 3i ) = ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) The vertex is ( −9. 330 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x2 − x − 3 3x − 1 6 x − 3x − 11x 2 + 2 x + 4 2 4 − 3 x3 − 9 x 2 + 2 x −3 x 3 − 9x + x + 4 −9 x 2 P ( x ) = − x 2 + 150 x − 4425 2 x2 − x − 3 + 31. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 an = −2 f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) or − 2 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 2 x + 2 f ( −9 ) = −9 ⎡⎣ −18 − ( −9 ) ⎤⎦ 33. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. P ( 75 ) = −752 + 150(75) − 4425 (2x 4 +3 x +1 x +1 3x2 − 1 − 13x 3 + 17 x 2 + 18 x − 24 ) ÷ ( x − 4 ) 4 = −5625 + 11. . +x 2 Since a = −1 is negative. the function must have a real zero between 1 and 2 because f (1) and f (2) have opposite signs. 40 − 2x = base of triangle 1 1 A = bh = x(40 − 2 x) 2 2 A( x) = 20 x − x 2 The height at which the triangle will have 20 b maximum area is x = − =− = 10. 3 Let x = one of the numbers. 250 − 4425 = 1200 The company will maximize its profit by manufacturing and selling 75 cabinets per day. The maximum product is f ( x) = an ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) 81. A(10) = 20(10) − (10) 2 = 100 The maximum area is 100 squares inches. = −9 ( −18 + 9 ) = −9 ( −9 ) = 81 29.81) . . 2a 2 ( −1) f ( x) = 1( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 3 + 13x 2 − 36 x + 36 34. 1 ± 3 ⎬ . − 2 x2 6 x4 2 ± 4 + 8 2 ± 12 2 ± 2 3 = = = = 1± 3 2 2 2 1 The solutions are −3 . −18 − x = the other number The product is f ( x ) = x ( −18 − x ) = − x 2 − 18 x 32. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 28. and 1 ± 3 . 2 ⎩ ⎭ 27. .

Shift the graph 1 unit down by subtracting 1 from each y-coordinate. a. All real numbers. a. Since n < m. 2 x2 = 0 x=0 The x-intercept is 0. x = −1 b. Vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: 3 y= =3 1 f ( x) = x −1 x −1 1 = = 2 x − 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x + 1 x = −1 3. x 2x2 x2 − 9 2(− x)2 2x2 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 The y-axis symmetry. The denominator cannot equal zero. b.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. . Since n > m. Begin with the graph of f ( x) = 6. a. 4. No vertical asymptotes. g ( x) = 3x − 3 x−2 3(− x) − 3 −3 x − 3 3x + 3 = = f (− x) = −x − 2 −x − 2 x+2 no symmetry 3(0) − 3 3 f (0) = = 0−2 2 3 The y-intercept is . x −5 = 0 x=5 { x x ≠ 5} b. Inc. f ( x) = Shift the graph 2 units to the left by subtracting 2 from each x-coordinate. 2(0) 2 f (0) = 2 =0 0 −9 The y-intercept is 0.6 5. Check Point Exercises 1. 331 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The denominator cannot equal zero. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 Section 2. 2 3x − 3 = 0 3x = 3 x =1 The x-intercept is 1. y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. x ≠ −5} 2. Since n = m. 1 . there is no horizontal asymptote. c. c. x 2 − 25 = 0 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 {x | x ≠ 5. y = 9 =3 3 y = 3 is a horizontal asymptote. c. x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = 1.

000) = 7. 000) = 500. 8. f ( x) = 5x x−4 { x x ≠ 4} 2. x ≠ −4} 4. x ≠ −6} 332 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 + 400(1000) 1000 = 900 C (1000) = c. 000 + 400(10. 000 + 400 x x 500. C (100. . 000 + 400 x b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and $405. C ( x) = 500. 2 –1 5 the equation of the slant asymptote is y = 2x – 1. 500. C ( x) = 500. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: 2 y= =2 1 9. 000) 100.000 wheelchairs is $900. x=0 The x-intercept is 0. 000) 10. 10. 000 = 450 C (10. x4 x2 + 2 (− x)4 x4 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x) 2 + 2 x 2 + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 f (0) = 2 =0 0 +2 The y-intercept is 0. 2 2 –5 7 4 –2 g ( x) = 3x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 4) { x x ≠ 5. 1. vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 = 0 400 = 400 1 The cost per wheelchair approaches $400 as more wheelchairs are produced. and 100. a. x x − 10 Exercise Set 2. there is no horizontal asymptote. 000 + 400(100. y= x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 20 20 T (x) = + .000. 000 = 405 The average cost per wheelchair of producing 1000. 10. respectively. g ( x) = 2 x2 ( x − 2)( x + 6) { x x ≠ 2. Inc.6 x 2 = −2 no vertical asymptotes horizontal asymptote: Since n > m. f ( x) = 7x x −8 { x x ≠ 8} 3. x4 = 0 f ( x) = d. $450.Polynomial and Rational Functions vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 x = 3.

g ( x) = n = m. x = 3 g ( x) = x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = −4 2 13. Inc. 0 15. +∞ 26. 12 =4 3 . x 1 = x( x + 4) x + 4 x+4=0 h( x ) = x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 14. 19. 0 +∞ x+3 x( x − 3) x( x − 3) = 0 x = 0. x +8 x 2 − 64 x 2 − 64 = ( x − 8)( x + 8) h( x ) = 24. 29. x+7 x 2 + 49 all real numbers f ( x) = 25. +∞ 27. x ≠ −7} 6. r ( x) = f ( x) = 2 12 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 20. f ( x) = 15 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 x 22. x = −4 g ( x) = x x+4 x+4=0 x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = –4 f ( x) = 30. −∞ 10. Section 2. −∞ 18. +∞ 11. 28. { x x ≠ 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −∞ 17. x+8 x + 64 all real numbers f ( x) = 9. r ( x) = 2 x x +3 x 2 + 3 has no real zeros There is no vertical asymptotes. { x x ≠ 8.6 x+7 x 2 − 49 2 x − 49 = ( x − 7)( x + 7) h( x ) = 23. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. 12 x 2 3x 2 + 1 horizontal asymptote: y = 333 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 x 1 = x( x − 3) x − 3 x −3 = 0 h( x ) = x x +4 x 2 + 4 has no real zeros There are no vertical asymptotes. f ( x) = x−3 x−3 = 0 x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 31. 1 21. −∞ 12. 16. 8.PreCalculus 4E 5. x = 3 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. x+3 x( x + 4) x( x + 4) = 0 x = 0. x ≠ −8} 7.

x 2 3 −3 x + 7 5x − 2 n=m s f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 37. f ( x) = n=m 39. h( x ) = 15 x 3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 35.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x h( x ) = 1 +1 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit up. h( x ) = g ( x) = 3 5 1 x −1 40. −2 x + 1 3x + 5 1 2 units up. horizontal asymptote: y = 33. . h( x ) = g ( x) = 1 x−2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 15 =5 3 1 2 units to the right. x 12 x3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 34. Inc. g ( x) = n=m 15 x 2 3x 2 + 1 38. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit to the right. x 334 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 +2 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 36.

h( x ) = 1 ( x + 2) 2 h( x ) = 1 −3 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 4 units down. 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 43. g ( x) = Section 2. x2 1 2 units left. g ( x) = 45.PreCalculus 4E 41.6 1 −2 x +1 44. x2 . x2 335 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 −2 x+2 46. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left and 2 units x g ( x) = 1 ( x + 1) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left. x2 down. 1 3 units down. g ( x) = 1 −4 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 units left and 2 units x down. Inc.

48. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 4(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0−2 x-intercept: 4x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 336 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 47. Inc. so y = = 4 1 1 3 units right and 1 unit x2 up. h( x ) = 1 +2 ( x − 3) 2 50. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 3 units right and 2 units x up. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0 −1 x-intercept: 3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x −1 = 0 f ( x) = x =1 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. . so y = = 3 1 4x x−2 4(− x) 4x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 2 x + 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). h( x ) = vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 1 +1 ( x − 3) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = x=2 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. 3x x −1 3(− x ) 3x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 1 x + 1 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 49.

Inc.PreCalculus 4E 51. 2 x2 x2 −1 f (−x) = 2 (−x) (−x) 2 2 −1 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 2x2 = f ( x) x2 − 1 2 (0) 2 02 − 1 = x-intercept: 2 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x2 −1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. 0 =0 1 . f ( x) = 4x x2 −1 4 (−x) 4x f (−x) = =− 2 = –f(x) 2 ( −x) −1 x −1 Origin symmetry 4 ( 0) =0 y-intercept: 2 0 −1 x-intercept:4x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 f ( x) = 337 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so y = = 2 1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 52. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 2x 2 x −4 2 (−x) 2x = –f(x) =− 2 f (−x) = 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 Origin symmetry 2 ( 0) 0 y-intercept: 2 = =0 0 − 4 −4 x-intercept: 2x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 53. Section 2.

so y = = 4 1 55.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry y-intercept: −3 ( 0 ) y= =0 0+2 x-intercept: –3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 horizontal asymptote: −3 = −3 n = m. f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: −1 = −1 n = m. so y = 1 4 x2 x2 − 9 f (−x) = 4(−x) (−x) 2 2 −9 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 4 ( 0) 4 x2 = f ( x) x2 − 9 2 02 − 9 =0 x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = ±3 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. so y = 1 −x x +1 − (−x) x f (−x) = = (−x) +1 −x +1 f ( x) = f(–x) ≠ f(x). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 56. −3 x x+2 −3 ( − x ) 3x f (−x) = = (−x) + 2 −x + 2 f ( x) = f–x) ≠ f(x). . f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry − ( 0) 0 y-intercept: y = = =0 0 +1 1 x-intercept: –x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 338 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Section 2. 2 2 x −1 60. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry −2 =1 y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 2 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 x = 2.6 1 x −4 1 1 f (−x) = − =− 2 = f(x) 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 y-axis symmetry 1 1 = y-intercept: y = – 2 0 −4 4 x-intercept: –1 ≠ 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x2 = 4 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m or y = 0 f ( x) = − f ( x) = − 59. 2 (−x) 2 −1 =− 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). x = −1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 339 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 58. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = 0 −2 x −x−2 −2 −2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x ) − (− x ) − 2 x + x − 2 f ( x) = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).PreCalculus 4E 57. . x = 1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 2 f (−x) = − 2 x + x−2 2 2 f (−x) = − = 2 2 (−x) − x − 2 x − x − 2 f ( x) = 2 = f(x) x −1 2 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: 2 2 y=− 2 =− =2 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: –2 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 (x – 1)(x + 1) x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 2 2 y-intercept: y = 2 = = −1 0 + 0 − 2 −2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 2 = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1) = 0 x = −2.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. 62. so y = = 4 1 f ( x) = 340 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so y = 0 f ( x) = 2 4 x2 x2 + 1 4(− x) 2 4 x2 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 ( −x) +1 x +1 y axis symmetry 4(0) 2 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +1 x-intercept: 4 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. x+2 x + x−6 −x + 2 −x + 2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( −x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). 2 x2 x2 + 4 2(− x) 2 2 x2 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) + 4 x + 4 y axis symmetry 2(0) 2 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +4 x-intercept: 2 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. x = 2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. Inc. . so y = = 2 1 f ( x) = 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0+2 2 1 =− =− y-intercept: y = 2 0 +0−6 6 3 x-intercept: x+2=0 x = –2 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) x = −3.

Inc. x = 4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 f ( x) = 66. so none f ( x) = x 2 + x − 12 x2 − 4 (− x) 2 − x − 12 x 2 − x − 12 f (−x) = = 2 x2 − 4 (−x) − 4 f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x).PreCalculus 4E 64. Section 2. so y = = 1 1 341 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. so none f ( x) = 2 x4 x2 + 1 2(− x) 4 2 x4 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) +1 x +1 y-axis symmetry 2 ( 04 ) y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +2 x-intercept: 2 x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m. so y = 0 67. ( x − 3)( x + 2) x = 3. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 2. 65. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 + 0 − 12 =3 y-intercept: y = 02 − 4 x-intercept: x 2 + x − 12 = 0 2 ( x − 3)( x + 4) = 0 x = 3.6 x−4 2 x − x−6 x+4 −x − 4 f (−x) = =− 2 2 (−x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). x = −2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0−4 2 = y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−6 3 x-intercept: x − 4 = 0. x4 x +2 (− x) 4 x4 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 (−x) + 2 x + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +2 x-intercept: x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m.

f ( x) = x2 − 4 x + 3 ( x + 1)2 ( − x ) − 4 ( − x ) + 3 x2 + 4 x + 3 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x + 1) ( − x + 1) 2 69. Inc. so y = = 1 1 342 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(–x) ≠ f(x). x = 2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 68. so y = = 1 1 70. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +0−6 x-intercept: x 2 = 0. vertical asymptotes: 2 x2 − 5x = 0 x(2 x − 5) = 0 x2 x2 + x − 6 (− x) 2 x2 f (−x) = = 2 2 (−x) − x − 6 x − x − 6 f ( x) = x = 0.x =1 3 ( x + 1) 2 =0 x = –1 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. so y = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) 2 + 0 − 4 −4 = y-intercept: y = 0 2(0) 2 − 5(0) no y-intercept x-intercepts: 3x2 + x − 4 = 0 (3 x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 x − 1 = 0 3x = −4 4 x = − . x = 0 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 x= ( x + 3)( x − 2) = 0 x = −3. . f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 02 − 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = =3 2 1 ( 0 + 1) x-intercept: x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = 3 and x = 1 vertical asymptote: 3x 2 + x − 4 2 x2 − 5x 3(− x) 2 − x − 4 3 x 2 − x − 4 f (−x) = = 2 2 x2 + 5x 2 ( − x ) + 5x f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 2 x = 5 5 2 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m.

b. Inc. no y-intercept x-intercepts: x 2 − 1 = 0 x = ±1 vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n < m. so none exist. so none exist. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x – x y=x f ( x) = b. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = 72. . f ( x) = a. a. so none exist.PreCalculus 4E 71. Section 2. x2 − 1 x ( − x ) − 1 x2 − 1 = = − f ( x) −x (−x) 2 f (−x) = Origin symmetry y-intercept: y = 0 2 − 1 −1 = 0 0 73. slant asymptote: 4 f ( x) = x – x y=x f (−x) = (−x) 2 +1 x2 − 4 x (−x) 2 −4 = x2 + 1 = − f ( x) −x −x Origin symmetry 02 + 1 1 = y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m.6 horizontal asymptote: n > m. x2 − 4 x f ( x) = x2 + 1 x = x2 − 4 = − f ( x) −x −x origin symmetry 02 − 4 4 =− y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 vertical asymptote: x = 0 343 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. b.

x2 + 4 x slant asymptote: 4 g ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + 4 x (−x) 2 +4 −x origin symmetry y-intercept: y = = x2 + 4 = − f ( x) −x 02 + 4 4 = 0 0 76. b. f ( x) = a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. so none exist. no y-intercept x2 + 4 = 0 x 2 = −4 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m. f (–x) ≠ –g(x) 02 − 0 + 1 1 = = −1 y-intercept: y = 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: x2 − x + 1 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x–1=0 x=1 horizontal asymptote: n > m. 6 x –3 y=x+4 b. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry 0 2 + 0 − 6 −6 y-intercept: y = = =2 0−3 −3 x-intercept: x2 + x − 6 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 x = –3 and x = 2 344 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = a. x2 − x + 1 x −1 slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = x + x –1 y=x f ( x) = x2 − x − 1 x −1 (−x) − (−x) +1 2 f (−x) = 75. b. f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + x − 6 x−3 (−x) 2 + (−x) − 6 x2 + x + 1 −x −1 −x −1 no symmetry f (–x) ≠ f (x).Polynomial and Rational Functions 74. a. so none Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 4 + = = x2 − x − 6 −x − 3 −x − 3 f(–x) ≠ g(x). . vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. so none exist.

+1 x + 2x 3 2 x3 − 1 x2 − 9 slant asymptote: 9x −1 x+ 2 x −9 x 2 − 9 x3 x − 9x 9x −1 − 2 x2 −2 x 2 + 4 x − 4x + 1 y=x y = x−2 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 x3 + 1 x2 + 2 x 78. . (− x)3 + 1 − x3 + 1 = 2 2 (− x) + 2(− x) x − 2 x f (− x) ≠ f ( x). slant asymptote: x−2 x 2 + 2 x x3 f ( x) = a. so none x = −1 vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x = 0 x( x + 2) = 0 x = 0. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 77. so none 345 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = no symmetry no symmetry y-intercept: y = 03 + 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 = 0 + 2(0) 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x3 + 1 = 0 x 3 = −1 03 − 1 1 = 02 − 9 9 x-intercept: x3 – 1 = 0 x3 = 1 x =1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3. f ( x) = a. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = ( − x )3 − 1 − x 3 − 1 = (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). −1 3 b. Inc. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n > m.

f ( x ) = 80. Inc. ( x + 2) 2 10 x 3 1 2 x+2 = 2x ( x − 2) x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 = − 2 ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x+2 So. 5x2 x2 + 4 x + 4 ⋅ x2 − 4 10 x 3 = 5 x2 ( x + 2) ( x − 2) ⋅ 81. x−6 2 ( x − 3) x −5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 ÷ 10 x − 2 25 x 2 − 1 x −5 25 x 2 − 1 = ⋅ 2 10 x − 2 x − 10 x + 25 = ( 5 x + 1) ( 5 x − 1) 2 2 ( 5 x − 1) ( x − 5) = 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) x −5 So. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = ⋅ 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) 346 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. f ( x ) = 2x ( x − 2) x ( x − 3) − 9 ( 2 ) 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x − 18 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = ( x − 6 ) ( x + 3) x−6 = x − 3) 2 ( 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 ) So. .

2 ( x + 3) − 4 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) x 2 − 4 − 3x + 6 x2 − 4 + x + 2 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 2 x + x−2 2x + 6 − 4x − 8 = ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = 3 3 1− x+2 = x + 2 ⋅ ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1 1 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1+ 1+ x−2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) − 3 ( x − 2 ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 ) 1− 2 = −2 x − 2 ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = −2 ( x + 1) −2 = = ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) ( x + 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) ( x − 1) So. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = x 2 +1 x− 347 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 x x 2 +1 x 2 +1 x+ x ( x − 1)( x + 1) So.6 2 4 − 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 4 x + 3 2 4 = − x + 2 x + 1 x + 3 ( )( ) ( )( x + 1) = 83. Section 2. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 82. f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 3) = x−2 x+2 x−2 x+2 1 2 x ⋅ x = x − 1 = ( x − 1)( x + 1) 84. f ( x ) = −2 So. .

the average cost approaches $100. 1 As greater numbers of bicycles are manufactured. it costs $33 to manufacture each. the average cost approaches $30. C(x) = 30x + 300. 000 + 30x x 300000 + 30(1000) = 330 1000 When 1000 shoes are manufactured.Polynomial and Rational Functions 85. 000 C (1000 ) = = $200 1000 When 1000 bicycles are manufactured. n = m. a. so y = 348 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 100(1000) + 100. 000 = $300 500 When 500 bicycles are manufactured. 000 C (4000 ) = = $125 4000 When 4000 bicycles are manufactured. it costs $150 to manufacture each.000 C ( x) = 100x +100. 000 When 100. g ( x) = −1 3x − 7 = +3 x−2 x−2 C ( x ) = 100 x + 100 . . 000 C (2000 ) = = $150 2000 When 2000 bicycles are manufactured. it costs $125 to manufacture each. g ( x) = 3x + 7 1 = +3 x+2 x+2 d. 00) = d.000 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 86. The average cost decreases as the number of bicycles manufactured increases. 000 + 30(100. The average cost decreases as the number of shoes manufactured increases. 1 As greater numbers of shoes are manufactured. it costs $330 to manufacture each. Inc. it costs $300 to manufacture each. 87. g ( x) = 2x + 7 1 = +2 x+3 x+3 89. C(100. a.000 shoes are manufactured. c. n = m. 000) = 33 100. so y = 90. 100(4000) + 100. C(1000) = 300. c.000 x 100 (500 ) + 100. C (500) = 100 = 100 . it costs $200 to manufacture each. it costs $60 to manufacture each.000 shoes are manufactured. 88. 300000 + 30(10000) C(10000) = = 60 10000 When 10. 100 (2000 ) + 100. 30 = 30 . g ( x) = −1 2x − 9 = +2 x−4 x−4 C= 300. b.

5. 100%. 98. the pH level is lowest after about 6 minutes. y = 6. 90% of the deaths are smoking related. is less than the degree of the denominator. the pH level appears to approach 6. as a function of the 5000 . x is P(x) = 2 x + x P = 2x + 2y = 2x + 2 349 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 The pH level after 6 minutes (i. the drug’s concentration after three hours appears to be about 1. From the graph.2 or about 63% 2708.8.5 milligrams per liter. If trends continue. e. From the graph. According to the function. 90) 10 For a disease that smokers are 10 times more likely to contact than non-smokers. the percentage approaches 100%. T (x) = x x − 10 100(10 − 1) = 90 (10. 2. but never reaches 100%.5 as time goes by. so the the horizontal asymptote is y = 0 . 90 5 10 5 + = + 9x x x x The function that expresses the total time for driving 10 5 + . A = xy = 2500 2500 y= x P(9) = T (x) = 5000 2500 = 2x + x x The perimeter of the floor. 6. b. and then slowly begins to approach the normal level.6 From the graph the pH level of the human mouth 42 minutes after a person eats food containing sugar will be about 6. but never gets to be. d. Section 2. = The degree of the numerator. C ( 3) = a. c. Therefore. The horizontal asymptote is y = 11 . and hiking is T (x) = x x P(10) = 99. the drug’s concentration will approach 0 milligrams per liter. 1. the normal pH level must be 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 11(36) 2 + 40(36) + 1040 16736 f (36) = = or 12(36) 2 + 230(36) + 2190 26022 about 64% of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. No. 5 ( 3) b.5 ( 6 ) − 20. b. the pH level rises back to the normal level. 2 f ( x) = 11x 2 + 40 x + 1040 12 x 2 + 230 x + 2190 1707. P. 95. This overestimates the actual percent found in the graph by 1%.5 milligrams per liter. . Over time.PreCalculus 4E 91. c. a. 100.7 of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. 89% of the deaths are smoking related. x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. 15 = 1. 93. a. width. y = 100 As incidence of the diseases increases. During the first hour.5 Over time. 100(9 − 1) = 89 (9.0. From the graph. the percent of death approaches. 12 11 or about 92% of federal 12 expenditures will spent on human resources over time. = 4.5 3 + 1 10 This verifies that the drug’s concentration after 3 hours will be 1.4 ( 6 ) + 234 2 f (6) = 62 + 36 97. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 600 600 + . According to the graph. the lowest pH level) is 4. 96. 94. the pH level drops quickly below normal. Inc. d. 92. 89) 9 For a disease that smokers are 9 times more likely to have than non-smokers.e.

2⎭ ⎩ 350 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: The graph of a rational function may have both a vertical asymptote and a horizontal asymptote. Inc. does not make sense. – 127. Answers may vary. Explanations will vary. x = 50 + b. Answers may vary. and then the number of arrests decreases. f (x) = 50 +2 x 27725(x − 14) − 5x x2 + 9 w=x+1 50 A= + 2 (x + 1) x 50 + 2x + 2 x 50 + 52 = 2x + x The total area of the page is 50 A(x) = 2 x + + 52. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the average cost for a company to produce each unit of its product decreases. Sample explanation: The function has one vertical asymptote. At age 25 the highest number arrests occurs. 117. ⎬ . 119. 121. true 123. – 111. Explanations will vary. g(x) is the graph of a line where f(x) is the graph of a rational function with a slant asymptote. does not make sense. a. 122. does not make sense. . In g(x). Explanations will vary.Polynomial and Rational Functions 101. The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 112. The graph increases from late teens until about the age of 25. 102. There are about 356 arrests for every 100. 2 x 2 + x = 15 2 x 2 + x − 15 = 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) = 0 2x − 5 = 0 or x+3= 0 x= 5 2 x = −3 5⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −3. x = 2. Sample explanation: A rational function can have at most one horizontal asymptote. true 114.000 drivers. true 124. 128. A = lw xy = 50 l=y+2= 115. 113. Sample explanation: As production level increases. 116. 120. x – 2 is a factor of x 2 − 5x + 6 . 118. makes sense The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. c.

7 x3 + x 2 = 4 x + 4 129. x + 4 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −4 x=5 The boundary points are –2 and 4.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 2} . ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.7 Check Point Exercises 1. false 10 (10) − (10) > 20 90 > 20. ( −4. Inc. −4 ) 30 > 20. −4 ) belongs to the solution set. 5 ) does not belong to the solution set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 351 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is ( −∞. Test Test Test Interval Number (−5) 2 − (−5) > 20 –5 ( −∞. 5 ) ( 5. ∞ ) 0 (0) − (0) > 20 0 > 20. x 2 − x > 20 x 2 − x − 20 > 0 ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. true ( −4. ∞ ) or { x x < −4 or x > 5} . −4 ) ∪ ( 5. −1. true 2 2 Conclusion ( −∞. ( 5. x +1 x + 1 2( x + 3) −2= − x+3 x+3 x+3 x + 1 2x + 6 = − x+3 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 = x+3 −x − 5 x+5 = or − x+3 x+3 Section 2. . x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4( x + 1) = 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 − 4) = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 The solution set is {−2. ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. 130.

false 2(2) ≥1 2 +1 4 ≥ 1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. . 352 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1] does not belong to the solution (−2)3 + 3(−2) 2 ≤ (−2) + 3 4 ≤ 1 false set. −3) −16 ≤ −1 true belongs to the solution set. The solution set is ( −∞. does not belong to the solution true set. (0) + 3(0) ≤ (0) + 3 3 [ −1.1] 0 [1. x3 + 3x 2 ≤ x + 3 x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3 ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x = −1 Test Interval x =1 Test Number ( −∞. −3] ∪ [ −1. −1) belongs to the solution set.1] 0 ≤ 3 true ( 6 + 3)( 6 − 5 ) > 0 [1. −1) –2 ( −1. ( −1. true 2(0) ≥1 0 +1 0 ≥ 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3. −3) -4 ( −3. [1. Inc. ∞ ) 2 ( −∞. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or x ≥ 1} .1] or { x x ≤ −3 or − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1} . −1) ∪ [1. ( −3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2.1] does not belong to the solution set. −1] –2 x+3=0 x = −3 Test (−4)3 + 3(−4) 2 ≤ (−4) + 3 0 [1. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 2(−2) ≥1 −2 + 1 4 ≥ 1.1] Conclusion 2 [ −1. The solution set is ( −∞. true 3 ( −∞. 2x ≥1 x +1 2x −1 ≥ 0 x +1 x −1 ≥0 x +1 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x =1 x = −1 Test Test Interval Number ( −∞. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.

true Conclusion ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 −16t 2 + 80t > 64 −16t 2 + 80t − 64 > 0 −16(t − 1)(t − 4) > 0 t − 1 = 0 or t − 4 = 0 t =1 t=4 Test Interval Test Number Test −16(0) + 80(0) > 64 0 > 64. 4 ) does not belong to the solution set. The object will be more than 64 feet above the ground between 1 and 4 seconds. ( 4. false solution set. Inc. . false 2 ( −∞. − 3) or (5. (x – 4)(x + 2) > 0 x = 4 or x = –2 T F T –2 4 Test –3: (–3 – 4)(–3 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True Test 0: (0 – 4)(0 + 2) > 0 –8 > 0 False Test 5: (5 – 4)(5 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True (−∞. belongs to the solution set.7 1.1) 0 (1.1) (1. (x + 3)(x – 5) > 0 x = –3 or x = 5 T F T –3 5 Test –4: (–4 + 3)(–4 – 5) > 0 9 > 0 True Test 0: (0 + 3)(0 – 5) > 0 –15 > 0 False Test 6: (6 + 3)(6 – 5) > 0 18 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. ∞) 2.PreCalculus 4E 4. Section 2. − 2) or (4. ∞ ) does not belong to the 0 > 64. 4 ) 2 −16(2) 2 + 80(2) > 64 96 > 64. ∞ ) 5 Exercise Set 2. −16(5) 2 + 80(5) > 64 ( 4. ∞). 353 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

T F 1 T 4 Test 0: 0 − 5(0) + 4 > 0 x2 + x − 6 > 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) > 0 x = –3 or x = 2 2 T 4 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 5(2) + 4 > 0 −2 > 0 False 2 Test 5: 5 − 5(5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. 2 354 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7]. ∞). 7]. 3 x2 + 5x + 4 > 0 ( x + 1)( x + 4) > 0 x = –1 or x = –4 T F –4 T –1 Test –5: (−5) + 5(−5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True Test –3: (−3)2 + 5(−3) + 4 > 0 –2 > 0 False Test 0: 02 + 5(0) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. F –3 T 2 Test –4: (−4) − 4 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True Test 0: (0) 2 + 0 − 6 > 0 –6 > 0 False Test 3: 32 + 3 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. ∞) .Polynomial and Rational Functions 3. Inc. ∞) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7. 3). 4. − 4) or (−1. T F –3 7 Test –4: (–4 – 7)(–4 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 – 7)(0 + 3) ≤ 0 –21 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 – 7)(8 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–3. (x – 7)(x + 3) ≤ 0 x = 7 or x = –3 F 6. . − 3) or (2. 5. T T 2 (x + 1)(x – 7) ≤ 0 x = –1 or x = 7 F x2 − 4 x + 3 < 0 ( x − 1)( x − 3) < 0 x = 1 or x = 3 x =1 8. F 1 F –1 7 Test –2: (–2 + 1)(–2 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 + 1)(0 – 7) ≤ 0 –7 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 + 1)(8 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–1. 2 x2 − 5x + 4 > 0 ( x − 4)( x − 1) > 0 x = 4 or F Test 0: 0 − 4(0) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False Test 2: 22 − 4(2) + 3 < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 4: 42 − 4(4) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (1. 1) or (4.

⎟ . 10. Inc. 3⎦ ⎣ 355 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞). Section 2. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ T 1 13. ⎥ or ⎢ . 2 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2⎠ ⎝ F 2 3 Test –5: 3(−5)2 + 10(−5) − 8 ≤ 0 17 ≤ 0 False Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 10(0) − 8 ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 True Test 1: 3(1) + 10(1) − 8 ≤ 0 2 5 ≤ 0 False 2⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −4. ⎥ . . Test 0: 0 − 2(0) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 2(2) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. F −2 3 x2 − 2x + 1 > 0 ( x − 1)( x − 1) > 0 x=1 T 1 −2 x= 3 3 T Test 0: 02 − 6(0) + 9 < 0 9 < 0 False 2 Test 4: 4 − 6(4) + 9 < 0 1 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. x= F 3 T 1 3 Test –1: 9(−1) 2 + 3(−1) − 2 ≥ 0 4 ≥ 0 True Test 0: 9(0)2 + 3(0) − 2 ≥ 0 –2 ≥ 0 False Test 1: 9(1) 2 + 3(1) − 2 ≤ 0 10 ≥ 0 True −2 ⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞.7 x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) < 0 x=3 F 12. ∅. ∞ ⎟ . 9 x2 + 3x − 2 ≥ 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) ≥ 0 3 x = 1 3 x = −2 2 x 2 + x − 15 < 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) < 0 2 x − 5 = 0 or x+3=0 2x = 5 5 x= x = −3 or 2 3x 2 + 10 x − 8 ≤ 0 (3 x − 2)( x + 4) ≤ 0 F T –4 T –3 2 x = or x = −4 3 F 2 x 2 + x < 15 F 5 2 Test –4: 2(−4) 2 + (−4) < 15 28 < 15 False Test 0: 2(0) 2 + 0 < 15 0 < 15 True Test 3: 2(3) 2 + 3 < 15 21 < 15 False 5⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −3.PreCalculus 4E 9. 1) or (1.

− ⎟ . Inc. ⎥ . ∞ ⎟ . . 3x 2 + 16 x + 5 < 0 6 x2 + x − 1 > 0 (3 x + 1)( x + 5) < 0 3x + 1 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 (2 x + 1)(3x − 1) > 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or 3x − 1 = 0 2 x = −1 1 x=− 2 3x = −1 3x = 1 1 x= 3 T F − 12 x=− − 13 5 x ≤ 2 − 3x 2 17. 4⎠ ⎝ x = −2 F 1 3 Test –3: 5(−3) ≤ 2 − 3(−3) 2 –15 ≤ –25 False Test 0: 5(0) ≤ 2 − 3(0) 2 0 ≤ 2 True Test 1: 5(1) ≤ 2 − 3(1) 2 5 ≤ –1 False ⎡ 1⎤ The solution set is ⎢ −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 x2 + x > 1 16. ⎣ 3⎦ 356 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎟ or ⎜ .Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. 3x 2 + 16 x < −5 1 or 3 F Test –2: 4(−2) 2 + 7(−2) < −3 2 < −3 False T –2 2 7 ⎛ 7⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ Test − : 4 ⎜ − ⎟ + 7 ⎜ − ⎟ < −3 8 ⎝ 8⎠ ⎝ 8⎠ 49 49 − < −3 16 8 49 − < −3 True 16 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 7(0) < −3 0 < −3 False 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −1. 4 x2 + 7 x + 3 < 0 (4 x + 3)( x + 1) < 0 4x + 3 = 0 or x +1=0 4 x-3=0 3 or x=− x = −1 4 3x2 + 5x − 2 ≤ 0 (3 x − 1)( x + 2) ≤ 0 3x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 3x − 1=0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 x= F − 34 –1 F Test –6: 3(−6) 2 + 16(−6) < −5 12 < –5 False Test –2: 3(−2) 2 + 16(−2) < −5 –20 < –5 True Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 16(0) < −5 0 < –5 False 1⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −5. − ⎟ . 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ 15. 3⎠ ⎝ 4 x 2 + 7 x < −3 T T –5 1 3 F x = −5 1 3 F T Test –1: 6(−1) 2 + (−1) > 1 5 > 1 True Test 0: 6(0) 2 + 0 > 1 0 > 1 False Test 1: 6(1)2 + 1 > 1 7 > 1 True 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞.

− ⎟ or (0. x2 − 4 x ≥ 0 x( x − 4) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x . 0] or [4.7 4 x2 + 1 ≥ 4 x 20.4 = 0 x=4 2 x 2 + 3x > 0 x(2 x + 3) > 0 x = 0 or x = − 3 2 T T F 0 T F − 32 4 T 0 Test –2: 2(−2) 2 + 3(−2) > 0 2 > 0 True Test –1: 2(−1)2 + 3(−1) > 0 –1 > 0 False Test 1: 2(1) 2 + 3(1) > 0 5 > 0 True 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) ≥ 0 2x −1 = 0 1 x= 2 x2 + 2x < 0 x( x + 2) < 0 x = 0 or x = –2 F T –2 F 0 Test –3: (−3) + 2(−3) < 0 3 < 0 False Test –1: (−1) 2 + 2(−1) < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 + 2(1) < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (–2. Section 2. 21. ∞). Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. ∞). 357 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2⎠ ⎝ Test –1: (−1) 2 − 4(−1) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 − 4(1) ≥ 0 −3 ≥ 0 False 0 ≤ 2 True Test 5: 52 − 4(5) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True The solution set is (−∞.PreCalculus 4E 18. 2 T T 1 2 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(0) 1 ≥ 0 True Test 1: 4(1) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(1) 5 ≥ 4 True The solution set is (−∞. . ∞ ). 0). 19.

3.59.41] .59 3.59 or x ≈ 3. 2 5 3 Test –1: 3(−1)2 − 5(−1) ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 False Test 1: 3(1)2 − 5(1) ≤ 0 –2 ≤ 0 True Test 2: 3(2)2 − 5(2) ≤ 0 2 ≤ 0 False ⎡ 5⎤ The solution set is ⎢0. Inc. −2 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0. 1]. Publishing as Prentice Hall.41 The solution set is ⎡⎣ 2 − 2. . 2 + 2 ⎤⎦ or [ 0. 3x 2 − 5 x ≤ 0 x(3x − 5) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 24. ⎥ . 5 3 − x2 + 2 x ≥ 0 x(− x + 2) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x = 2 F F T F 0 T F 0 2 Test –1: −(−1) + 2(−1) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False Test 1: −(1) 2 + 2(1) ≥ 0 1 ≥ 0 True Test 3: −(3)2 + 2(3) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0. −x2 + x ≥ 0 x= x2 − x ≤ 0 x( x − 1) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 1 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) F T 0 4± 8 2 = 2± 2 x ≈ 0. ⎣ 3⎦ x2 ≤ 4 x − 2 25. 358 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. x2 − 4 x + 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 4 x + 2 = 0 23.41 = F 1 Test –1: −(−1) + (−1) ≥ 0 −2 ≥ 0 False 2 F T F 2 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ Test : − ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 1 ≥ 0 True 4 Test 2: −(2) 2 + 2 ≥ 0 0. 2].

∞). ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x + 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –1. 4] ∪ [6. 3 30. 3. ∞). Publishing as Prentice Hall. x(3 − x)( x − 5) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. ∞ ). x(4 − x)( x − 6) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0.7 29. 359 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.73 2 The solution set is [1. F T F T –0. F T F x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 Solve x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 ( x − 3)2 = 0 28. ∞).73] . and –3 Test one value in each interval. 2] ∪ [3.73 0 x=3 3 T 5 The solution set is [0. –2 T The solution set is [–3.73 or x ≈ 2. 27. = F T 6 The solution set is [0. –2] ∪ [–1.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 3. and 3 Test one value in each interval. x − 2x − 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) 1 2 ± 12 2 = 1± 3 x ≈ −0. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 1. 32. 3] ∪ [5. F T F x2 ≤ 2x + 2 26. 2. 2. and 5 Test one value in each interval. F T F 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 0 (2 x − 1)2 = 0 x= –1 31.73. F F 3 The solution set is the empty set.1 + 3 ⎤⎦ or [ −0. ∅. The solution set is ⎡⎣1 − 3.73 F –3 2. ∞). Inc. . 1 2 T 4 T T 1 2 The solution set is (−∞. and 5 Test one value in each interval. –2.

35. ∞). F T T 2 The solution set is [–2. F T 1 The solution set is (1. and 2 Test one value in each interval. 360 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ) ∪ 2. . Inc. 13 . and 38. 2 The solution set is [ −2. T T F 7 2 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) ≥ 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. x3 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 > 0 x 2 ( x + 1) + 4( x + 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 + 4) ≥ 0 Boundary point: –1 Test one value in each interval. –1 The solution set is (−1. 7 2 Boundary points: 2. ∞ ). 72 . –7) ∪ (–1.Polynomial and Rational Functions ( ) 33.5 ) ∪ 5. x 3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) ≥ 0 ( F x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 9 > 0 x 2 ( x − 1) + 9 ( x − 1) ≥ 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 9) ≥ 0 Boundary point: 1. 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. T F T 13 2 5 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 7 < 0 x 2 ( x + 7) − ( x + 7) < 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x + 2)( x − 2) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. –1. ∞). –1 and 1 Test one value in each interval. and 2 Test one value in each interval. 1). Test one value in each interval. T F F Test one value in each interval. 13 2 Test one value in each interval. ∞). x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 ) 40. and ( x − 3)( x 2 − 9) ≥ 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –3 and 3 Test one value in each interval. −3]. ( ) 34. –3 3 The solution set is (−∞. −2] ∪ [2. –1] ∪ [1. F F T –2 1 The solution set is (–∞ . T T F ( x + 7)( x 2 − 1) < 0 ( x + 7)( x + 1)( x − 1) < 0 Boundary points: –7. (5 − x)2 x − 13 <0 2 Boundary points: 5. F T F –2 –1 39. (2 − x)2 x − 72 < 0 37. 2 –7 –1 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2.

− 3) ∪ (4. ∞ ). − 5) ∪ (2. T –3 x=4 –3 −x + 2 ≥0 x−4 x = 2 or x = 4 F 2 4 The solution set is [2. 3 x+5 <0 x+2 x = –5 or x = –2 F T F –4 –3 The solution set is (–4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4]. T T x = 2 or x = − x+5 >0 x−2 x = –5 or x = 2 T F The solution set is (−∞. − 3] ∪ (−2. 0] ∪ [9. 43. Inc. x−4 >0 x+3 x−4 = 0 x+3 = 0 x = −3 T F −x − 3 ≤0 x+2 x = –3 or x = –2 T F 4 49. 4). 361 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 x3 − 9 x 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 9) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 0 and 9 Test one value in each interval. ∞). x − 4x ≤ 0 x 2 ( x − 4) ≤ 0 2 Boundary points: 0 and 4. –2). 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2 The solution set is (−∞. 47. F F T 0 46. ⎟ ∪ [2. ∞). 44. The solution set is ( −∞. F –5 –2 The solution set is (–5. Test one value in each interval. 0 4 The solution set is (–∞. 9 The solution set is [ 0. .PreCalculus 4E 41. ∞). ∞). Section 2. 45. –3). T T F 48. –2 4 − 2x ≤0 3x + 4 4 3 T F − 43 F –5 T x+3 <0 x+4 x = −3 or F x = −4 T T 2 −4 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 42.

−4] ∪ ( −2. ∞). 53. − 3] ∪ (−1. Inc. ( x + 3)( x − 2) ≤0 x +1 x = −3 or x = −1 or x = 2 . − 5) ∪ (−3. 3x + 5 ≥0 6 − 2x 5 x = − or x = 3 3 F 54. 2). Publishing as Prentice Hall. x >0 x−3 x = 0 or x = 3 T F 0 T 3 The solution set is (−∞. ⎡ 5 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ − . T F –4 T –2 x −2>0 x −1 x 2( x − 1) − >0 x −1 x −1 x − 2x + 2 >0 x −1 −x + 2 >0 x −1 F 1 Values of x = −4 or x = 1 result in f ( x) = 0 and. 0 The solution set is ( −∞. therefore must be included in the solution set. x+4 >0 x x = –4 or x = 0 T –1 F –5 T –4 2 x +1 <2 x+3 x +1 −2<0 x+3 x + 1 − 2( x + 3) <0 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 <0 x+3 −x − 5 <0 x+3 x = or x = –3 T F F Values of x = −3 or x = 2 result in f ( x) = 0 and. 2]. The solution set is ( −∞. T − F –3 3 5 3 55. 362 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 50. ( x + 4)( x − 1) ≤0 x+2 x = −4 or x = −2 or x = 1 . ∞) . − 4) ∪ (0. The solution set is (−∞. ⎣ 3 ⎠ 51. T F T T –3 The solution set is (−∞. 0) ∪ (3. 3 ⎟ . therefore must be included in the solution set. 52. F . ∞). x >2 x −1 56.1] x = 2 or x = 1 F T 1 2 The solution set is (1.

x = −6 or 1 2 F T T -2 The solution set is (−∞. ∞ ) . 4 The solution set is (−∞. Section 2. x−2 ≤2 x+2 x−2 −2≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2 ( x + 2) ≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2x − 4 ≤0 x+2 −x − 6 ≤0 x+2 T T F –4 –2 The solution set is [–4.7 x+4 ≤3 2x − 1 x+4 −3≤ 0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 3 ( 2 x − 1) ≤0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 6x + 3 ≤0 2x − 1 −5 x + 7 ≤0 2x − 1 x= 7 or 5 x= T 59. x ≥2 x+2 60. x −2≥0 x+2 x 2( x + 2) − ≥0 x+2 x+2 x − 2x − 4 ≥0 x+2 −x − 4 ≥0 x+2 1 −1 < 0 x −3 1 x−3 − <0 x−3 x−3 1− x + 3 <0 x −3 −x + 4 <0 x−3 x = –4 or x = –2 x = 4 or x = 3 F F 3 F -6 7 5 1 <1 x−3 T x = −2 T 1 2 58. –2). 2⎦ ⎝ 363 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞). . Inc. 3) ∪ (4. 61. ⎥ ∪ [ 2. ∞). f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 2 x2 − 5x + 2 ≥ 0 Solve 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 2 T F 1 2 T 2 1⎤ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. − 6] ∪ (−2.PreCalculus 4E 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

⎛1 ⎤ The domain is ⎜ . . thus. it must be included in the domain. Inc. ∞ ) . ⎟ ∪ ( 2. thus. ⎝2 ⎦ 364 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 2x −1 x +1 The domain of this function requires that T F 2x x −1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 x +1 x +1 x = −1 or x = 1 T -1 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. The domain is ( −∞. 4⎠ ⎝ 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 1) ∪ [1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 62. 1 f ( x) = 4x − 9x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 > 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(4 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 4 2 T F 1 4 T 2 1⎞ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. f ( x) = x −1 2x − 1 x −x + 1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 2x − 1 2x − 1 1 x= or x = 1 2 The domain of this function requires that F T 1 2 F 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. it must be included in the domain. ∞ ) . 1⎥ . 64.

True 5 52 + 2 ( 5) − 36 > 12 ( 6. −8 ) ∪ ( −6. 66. x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 or x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 ( x + 6 )( x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 8 )( x − 6 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. 365 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 6. ∞ ) belongs to the 2 27 > 12. x + 6 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 or x + 8 = 0 or x−6 = 0 x = −6 x=4 x = −8 The boundary points are −8. 4 ) ∪ ( 6. The solution set is ( −∞. True solution set. ∞ ) or { x x < −8 or − 6 < x < 4 or x > 6} . ( 4. −6 ) −7 ( −7 ) 2 + 2 ( −7 ) − 36 > 12 1 > 12. 6 ) does not belong 1 > 12. 6 ) solution set. solution set. 4 ) belongs to the 02 + 2 ( 0 ) − 36 > 12 ( 4. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 65. ( −6. x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 or x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 ( x + 3) 2 =0 ( x + 7 )( x − 1) = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x + 3 = ± 0 or x + 7 = 0 3 0 7 x+ = x=− x =1 x = −3 The boundary points are −7. −8 ) −9 ( −9 ) 2 x=6 Test Conclusion + 2 ( −9 ) − 36 > 12 ( −∞. 4 and 6 . −3. and 1 . −6 ) does not belong to the solution set. .7 x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 2 x − 36 < −12 or x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 x 2 + 2 x − 24 < 0 x 2 + 2 x − 48 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. False to the solution set. False ( −6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 6. True ( −8. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. 4 ) 0 36 > 12. −8) belongs to the 27 > 12. Section 2. ∞ ) 7 7 + 2 ( 7 ) − 36 > 12 ( −8. x2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 6 x + 1 < −8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 x2 + 6 x + 9 < 0 x2 + 6 x − 7 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations.

∞ ) belongs to the 22 + 6 ( 2 ) + 1 > 8 2 to the solution set. False (1. 3 1 > − . True ( −7. . False 2 The solution set is ( −3. 1 > 3. ∞ ) (1. True 2 3 3 ( 2. 2 ) 0 ( 2. 1 −3 > .1) does not belong 02 + 6 ( 0 ) + 1 > 8 0 solution set. ( −3. −3) ( −3. ∞ ) does not belong > 3+3 3− 2 to the solution set. ∞ ) or { x x < −7 or x > 1} . −7 ) −8 ( −8 ) 2 Test Conclusion + 6 ( −8 ) + 1 > 8 ( −∞. −3) does not belong + 6 ( −5 ) + 1 > 8 4 ≥ 8. 2 ) or { x −3 < x < 2} . 3 3 − >0 x+3 x−2 3( x − 2) 3 ( x + 3) − >0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 3x − 6 − 3x − 9 <0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) −15 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) <0 Find the values of x that make the denominator zero.1) to the solution set. 366 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 ≥ 8. −3) −5 ( −5 ) 2 ( −7. 2 ) belongs to the > 0+3 0−2 solution set. solution set.Polynomial and Rational Functions Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. −7 ) belongs to the 17 ≥ 8. x+3 = 0 x−2=0 x = −3 x=2 The boundary points are −3 and 2. 3 3 > x+3 x−2 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. False ( −3. 67. 17 ≥ 8. True The solution set is ( −∞. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3) does not belong > −4 + 3 −4 − 2 to the solution set. False 2 3 3 ( −3. ∞ ) 3 Test Conclusion 3 3 ( −∞. −7 ) ∪ (1.

True 3 2 1 2 ( −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and 1. False 3 1 2 ( −3. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 1 2 ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 68.1) belongs to the > 0 + 1 0 −1 solution set. 1 > 1.1) or { x x < −3 or − 1 < x < 1} . −3) ( −3. Inc. −3) ∪ ( −1.1) 0 (1. −3) belongs to the > −4 + 1 −3 − 1 solution set. Section 2. −1) does not belong > −2 + 1 −2 − 1 to the solution set. False 3 The solution set is ( −∞. 1 > −2. 2 −1 > − . . −1 . 1 2 − >0 x + 1 x −1 2 ( x + 1) x −1 − >0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) x −1 − 2x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) <0 −x − 3 <0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. 1 1 − > − . True 1 2 (1.7 1 2 > x + 1 x −1 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. −1) −2 ( −1. 367 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. −x − 3 = 0 x +1 = 0 x −1 = 0 −3 = x x = −1 x =1 The boundary points are −3 . ∞ ) does not belong > 2 + 1 2 −1 to the solution set.

∞ ) to the solution set. 7 > 0. 4 > 0.52 − 2. True 3 The solution set is ( −∞. 2 ) ( 2. −1) belongs to the solution set. ( 2. 2 − > 0. Inc.3) 1.5 ) + 3 − ( 3.3) does not belong to the solution set. 2 and 3. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 10 > 0. 368 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1) ∪ (1.5 4 ( −1. Test Interval Test Number Test 2 −2 ( −∞. 1. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 x=3 x =1 The boundary points are −1 . . x2 − x − 2 >0 x2 − 4 x + 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. True 3 2. 2 ) ∪ ( 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. False 3 1.52 − 4 (1.5 − 2 >0 1.5 − 2 >0 2.5 ) + 3 5 > 0. −1) ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) − 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 4 ( −2 ) + 3 ( −1.52 − 4 ( 2.52 − 1. 2 ) belongs to the solution set. True 15 0 02 − 0 − 2 >0 0 − 4 (0) + 3 2 (1. False 3 42 − 4 − 2 >0 4 − 4 ( 4) + 3 2 ( 3.5 2.1) Conclusion ( −∞.1) does not belong (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle.

52 − 2 (1. 2 ) ( 2. .5) + 2 >0 2.52 − 3 (1. True 15 2. Section 2.7 x2 − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.3) does not belong − (1. 2 and 3. Test Interval ( −∞. 12 > 0.5 ) − 3 (1. 369 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1) 0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 Test Conclusion ( −∞.5 ) + 2 >0 1. 2 ) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . −1) ∪ (1. −1) Test Number −2 x − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 2 ( −1. to the solution set.PreCalculus 4E 70. 1. x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x=2 x =1 x=3 The boundary points are −1 .1) does not belong to the solution set. Inc.5 ) − 3 ( 2. ∞ ) 4 42 − 3 ( 4 ) + 2 4 − 2 ( 4) − 3 2 3 > 0.52 − 2 ( 2. ( 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ) belongs to the 2. x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 x2 − 2x − 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle.52 − 3 ( 2. True 5 The solution set is ( −∞. False 3 1. 6 > 0. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. −1) belongs to the ( −2 ) − 3 ( −2 ) + 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 2 ( −2 ) − 3 2 solution set. 1.5 2 > 0. False 7 >0 solution set.5 1 > 0. True 5 02 − 3 ( 0 ) + 2 0 − 2 ( 0) − 3 2 >0 ( −1.3) − ( 3.

∞ ) . + = = = = 4 ( x + 2 ) 4 ( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x 2 − 4 x +1 crosses the x-axis at −1 . and 1. Thus. − . Inc. the boundaries are −6 . the solution set is ⎨ x x < −6 or − < x < 1⎬ or 2 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( −∞. Now. the curve is below the x-axis when x < −2 and when −1 < x < 2 . These intervals are The graph of f ( x ) = indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. − ⎥ ∪ [1. 370 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and has vertical asymptotes at x = −2 and x = 2 .1⎟ . These intervals are 2 1 indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. x2 − 4 the boundaries are −2 . 1 3 ≤− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + ≤0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) Simplify the left side of the inequality: 3( x + 2) 4 ( x + 1) x−2 x − 2 + 3x + 6 4x + 4 x +1 . −2 ) ∪ [ −1. These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. the curve is above the x-axis when −6 < x < − 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ and when x > 1 . 2 2⎦ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ 72.Polynomial and Rational Functions 71. the solution set is ⎨ x − 6 ≤ x ≤ − or x ≥ 1⎬ or ⎢ −6. We verify this 2 numerically by substituting these values into the function: f ( −6 ) = 2 ( −6 ) + 11( −6 ) − 7 ( −6 ) − 6 = 2 ( −216 ) + 11( 36 ) − ( −42 ) − 6 = −432 + 396 + 42 − 6 = 0 3 2 3 2 1 11 7 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ − ⎟ − 7 ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = − + + − 6 = 0 2 2 2 2 8 4 2 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ f (1) = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 (1) − 6 = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 − 6 = 2 + 11 − 7 − 6 = 0 3 2 1 Thus. . Now. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 < 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 < 0 1 In Problem 63. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≥ 0 . Thus. 2 ) . and 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≤ 0 . Thus. the solution set is { x x < −2 or − 1 ≤ x < 2} or ( −∞. and 1. we verified that the boundaries are −6 . −6 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞ . − . We need to find the intervals on which 2 f ( x ) < 0 . Now. the curve is below the x-axis when x < −6 and when − 1 ⎧ 1 ⎫ < x < 1 . Thus. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 ≥ 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 ≥ 0 1 The graph of f ( x ) = 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 appears to cross the x-axis at −6 . ⎝ 2 ⎠ 73. − . and 1. −1 .

Inc.0875(35)2 − 0.6 ≈ 160 feet g (35) = 0. The function values and the data are identical. the solution set is { x −2 < x < −1 or x > 2} or ( −2.9 x + 11.6 g ( x) = 0.9(35) + 11. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 8t + 87 The diver’s height will exceed that of the cliff when s (t ) > 87 −16t 2 + 8t + 87 > 87 −16t 2 + 8t > 0 −8t (2t − 1) > 0 1 . −1 . 75. Thus. The interval is ⎜ 0.7 1 3 >− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + >0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) x +1 >0 ( x + 2)( x − 2) The boundaries are −2 . We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) > 0 .6 a.6 ≈ 185 feet b. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c. The interval is ( 0. f ( x) = 0.0875(35) 2 + 1.4(35) + 66.PreCalculus 4E 74. . 77.0875 x 2 + 1. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 48t + 160 The ball’s height will exceed that of the rooftop when s (t ) > 160 −16t 2 + 48t + 160 > 160 −16t 2 + 48t > 0 −16t (t − 3) > 0 The boundaries are 0 and 3. These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. Testing each interval shows that the ball will be higher than the rooftop for the first three seconds after the throw. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1) ∪ ( 2.0875 x 2 − 0. f (35) = 0. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well. 3) . Section 2. 371 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 x + 66. ⎝ 2⎠ The boundaries are 0 and 76. ∞ ) . Testing each interval shows that the diver will be higher than the cliff for the first half 2 ⎛ 1⎞ second after beginning the jump. and 2. The curve is above the x-axis when −2 < x < −1 and when x > 2 . ⎟ .

0. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.0875 x 2 + 1. 0.4 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. 76 ) does not belong to the solution set.9 x + 528. True ( 30.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.4 x + 473. .0875 x 2 − 0.9) ± (1.4 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(1.6 a.6 > 540 265.0875 x 2 + 1. 76 ) Test Conclusion 0.4(100) + 66. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 x + 11. ( 76.Polynomial and Rational Functions d.4(50) + 66.6 > 540 901.6 > 540 0.9(55) + 11. False ( 76.0875 x 2 − 0.6 > 540 0.35 > 540.0875 x 2 + 1. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 76 miles per hour.6 g ( x) = 0.6 ≈ 381 feet b.4) 2(0. d.9 x + 11.4) ± (−0.6 ≈ 309 feet g (55) = 0. 540). ∞ ) 100 0. 78. Inc.4 x + 473.0875) x ≈ −89 or 68 372 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well.4 x + 66.0875)(473.0875(100)2 − 0.6 > 540.0875 x 2 + 1. x= Interval Test Value 50 ( 30. This is represented on graph (b) to the right of point (76.4(55) + 66. 0. f ( x) = 0.0875(55)2 + 1. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c. 0. On dry pavement.0875(50)2 − 0.9)2 − 4(0.0875) x ≈ −71 or 76 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30. we must test the following intervals.4)2 − 4(0. f (55) = 0.0875 x 2 − 0.9 x + 528.0875)(528.4) 2(0.4 x + 66.0875 x 2 − 0.0875(55)2 − 0.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.

we must test the following intervals. ( 68. Interval Test Value 50 ( 30. 6 ) belongs to the 25 ( 0 ) − 0 ≤ 114 2 0 ≤ 114.9(100) + 11. 6 ) 0 Test Conclusion ( −∞. Thus. This is represented on graph (a) to the right of point (68. False to the solution set. 68) does not belong 2 0. On wet pavement.9(50) + 11. so we have that width = A ( x ) ≤ 114 x ( 25 − x ) ≤ 114 25 x − x 2 ≤ 114 Solve the related equation 25 x − x 2 = 114 0 = x 2 − 25 x + 114 0 = ( x − 19 )( x − 6 ) Apply the zero product principle: x − 19 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = 19 x=6 The boundary points are 6 and 19.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. then the width is 19 feet. 540).19 ) does not belong 25 (10 ) − 10 ≤ 114 2 150 ≤ 114. we know 50 = 2 x + 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 Now. Since Perimeter = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) . Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. True solution set. True ( 6. ∞ ) 20 solution set.6 > 540 325.0875(50) + 1. ( 6. if the area of the rectangle is not to exceed 114 square feet. ∞ ) 100 0. (19. ∞ ) belongs to the 25 ( 20 ) − 20 ≤ 114 2 100 ≤ 114. the length of the shorter side must be 6 feet or less. .35 > 540.68) Test Conclusion ( 30.0875(100)2 + 1. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 68 miles per hour. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. If the length is 6 feet. If the length is less than 6 feet. 79. 373 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.6 > 540 1076. Let x = the length of the rectangle. Publishing as Prentice Hall.19 ) 10 (19.6 > 540.7 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30. then the width is greater than 19 feet. A = ( length )( width ) . False ( 68. True to the solution set.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. we ignore the larger solution. 81. Graph y1 = 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 in a standard window. 45) 5 90 ( 5 ) − ( 5 ) ≤ 800 true 20 90 ( 20 ) − ( 20 ) ≤ 800 false 2 2 ( 0. . Answers may vary. 2⎭ 2⎦ ⎣ 374 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph is below or equal to the x-axis for −3 ≤ x ≤ . 86. The length of the shorter side cannot exceed 10 feet. ⎥ . – 85. That is. Inc. 1 87. The solution set is (−∞. Test Test Test Conclusion Interval Number ( 0. -5) ∪ (2. 2l + 2w = P 2l + 2w = 180 2l = 180 − 2w l = 90 − w We want to restrict the area to 800 square feet.10] . 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x − 3 ≤ x ≤ ⎩ 1⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ ⎬ or ⎢ −3. ∞). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 45 ) is not part of the solution set The solution set is {w | 0 < w ≤ 10} or ( 0.10 ) (10.10 ) is part of the solution set (10. A ≤ 800 l ⋅ w ≤ 800 ( 90 − w ) w ≤ 800 90w − w2 ≤ 800 − w2 + 90w − 800 ≤ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 ≥ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 = 0 ( w − 80 )( w − 10 ) = 0 w − 80 = 0 or w − 10 = 0 w = 80 w = 10 Assuming the width is the shorter side.

∞ ) 1 2 and y2 = x +1 x+4 y1 less than or equal to y2 for −4 < x < −1 or x ≥ 2 . ∞). 0.7 88. a.9 b.1x + 399.1x + 55. x−4 in a standard viewing window. The graph is below the x-axis for x −1 The solution set is (1. 91. The solution set is (–2.1125 x 2 − 0.1)2 − 4(0.1 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. −1) ∪ [ 2. 89.1) ± (−0. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −∞. Graph y1 = 1 < x ≤ 4.1 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. 0. f ( x) = 0. we must test the following intervals.3) ∪ [8. 4].1125) x ≈ −59 or 60 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0. x+2 and y2 = 2 x−3 y1 less than or equal to y2 for x < 3 or x ≥ 8 .1) 2(0. 90. –1) or (2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.1125 x 2 − 0.1x + 399. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1125 x 2 − 0.1x + 55.1125 x 2 − 0. Inc. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −4. . x= 375 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1125)(399. ∞ ) 92.9 > 455 0.

Changes to make the statement true will vary.7 x + 37. Sample explanation: To solve this inequality you must first subtract 2 from both sides. makes sense 95. does not make sense.7(100) + 37.1375 x 2 + 0. . 93.8 b.15 > 455. False ( 60.2) 2(0.7)2 − 4(0. makes sense 97.9 > 455 332. A sample change is: The inequality cannot be solved by multiplying both sides by x + 3.1375(100)2 + 0.7(10) + 37. f ( x) = 0. 96.1(100) + 55. stopping distances will exceed 455 feet for speeds exceeding 60 miles per hour. Changes to make the statement true will vary. but not included in the domain of the second inequality.8 > 446.7 x + 408. Explanations will vary. 100. we must test the following intervals.7) ± (0.9 > 455 1170.1375 x 2 + 0.1125(100) − 0. is included in the domain of the first inequality.Polynomial and Rational Functions Interval Test Value 50 ( 0. 101. 1. 99.8 > 446 58.52 ) does not belong to the solution set.9 > 455. On dry pavement. ∞ ) .1(50) + 55. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 60 ) does not belong to the solution set. A sample change is: The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} or ( −∞.1375)(408. Sample explanation: Polynomials are defined for all values. does not make sense.52 ) Test Conclusion 2 0.1375 x 2 + 0.2 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(0. false. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. The value.55 > 446.1375(10) + 0. ( 52.7 x + 37. 0.2 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. True ( 0. 0. Thus. stopping distances will exceed 446 feet for speeds exceeding 52 miles per hour. True ( 0. we would not know whether or not to reverse the order of the inequality. 60 ) Test Conclusion 2 0. Inc.1375) x ≈ −57 or 52 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0. ( 60. 94. false. 98.1375 x 2 + 0. A sample change is: The inequalities have different solution sets.1125(50) − 0. Explanations will vary. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. ∞ ) 100 0. ∞ ) 100 2 0. False ( 52. −5) ∪ ( 5.8 > 446 1482. Changes to make the statement true will vary.7 x + 408. a. false. Interval Test Value 10 ( 0.8 > 446 0. We do not know if x + 3 is positive or negative. true 376 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. On wet pavement.

7 102. the solution is the empty set. Inc. c.imaginary The solution set is all real numbers. One possible solution: x 2 − 2 x − 15 ≤ 0 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 109. y = kx 2 64 = k ⋅ 22 64 = 4k 16 = k b. 3 2 Test 0: 27 − 3(0) 2 ≥ 0 27 ≥ 0 True Test 4: 27 − 3(4)2 ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 8 ± (−8) 2 − 4(4)(7) x= 2(4) −21 ≥ 0 no graph -imaginary The solution set is [–3. x= 110. 8 ± 64 − 112 8 8 ± −48 ⇒ imaginary x= 8 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 > 0 7 > 0 True The inequality is true for all numbers. 3]. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 x−3 103. c. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 y = 16 ⋅ 52 y = 400 377 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∅. the solution includes only 2. b. Because any non-zero number squared is positive. T –3 106. 4 x2 − 8x + 7 > 0 27 − 3(−4) ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 107. a. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 4 x2 − 8x + 7 < 0 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 = 7 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. and the reciprocal of zero is undefined. Because any number squared is positive. 105. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. The solution set is the empty set. Test –4: −21 ≥ 0 no graph. a.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. the solution is all real numbers except 2. ∅. 108. the solution is all real numbers except 2. One possible solution: ≥0 x+4 9 − x2 ≥ 0 (3 − x)(3 + x) ≥ 0 3− x = 0 3+ x = 0 x = 3 or x = −3 104. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .

Inc. 000 12. kA S= 112. f Use the given values to find k . k x k 12 = 8 96 = k y= 111. W = 6t f = 512 A 10 inch violin string will have a frequency of 512 cycles per second. 000 8=k 3. L . k L= f 5120 L= f Use the equation to find f when L = 10 . w = 0. Use the given values to find k . 378 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 6(11) = 66 A shower lasting 11 minutes will use 66 gallons of water. f k can be expressed as L = . varies inversely as the frequency. a.6 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. 000 ⋅ 40 =k 60. The volume of water. varies directly as the cube of the length.6(25)3 = 9375 The 25-foot long shark was 9375 pounds.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. W = kt k . x The length. Use the given values to find k . w = kl 3 k x 96 y= x y= 2025 = k (15)3 0. w = 0. w . t can be expressed as W = kt . k L= f k 8= 640 5120 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. Publishing as Prentice Hall. W . y varies directly as the cube of x is expressed as y = kx3 . l can be expressed as w = kl 2 . w = kl 3 96 x 96 y= 3 y = 32 y= c. The weight. b.6l 3 Use the equation to find w when l = 25.6l 3 = 0. W = kt 30 = k (5) 6=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. P k ⋅ 60. y varies directly as x is expressed as y = kx. y varies inversely as x is expressed as y = 5120 f 5120 10 = f 10 f = 5120 L= W = 6t Use the equation to find W when t = 11 . Section 2. varies directly as the time. 000 = 40 12.8 Check Point Exercises 1. .

x . kQ M = P k (16) 32 = 4 8=k Exercise Set 2. V varies jointly with h and r 2 and can be modeled as V = khr 2 . Use the given values to find k. 3 (2)(12) 2 = 96π cubic feet k x k 6= 3 18 = k y= y= 18 =2 9 379 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use the given values to find k. 120π = k (10)(6)2 π 3 =k Therefore. Inc.8 1. M = 5. x 60 When x = 2.8 let M represent the number of minutes let Q represent the number of problems let P represent the number of people M varies directly as Q and inversely as P is expressed kQ . 2. Use the given values to find k. 2 8Q P 8(24) M = 8 M = 24 It will take 24 minutes for 8 people to solve 24 problems. Publishing as Prentice Hall. as M = P Use the given values to find k .PreCalculus 4E 4. V = khr 2 4. When x = 12. y = kx 45 = k ⋅ 5 9=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. k . k y= x k 12 = 5 k 5 ⋅12 = 5 ⋅ 5 60 = k 60 The equation becomes y = . y = 9 x = 9 ⋅13 = 117 3. y = = 30. we have y = 1 2 hr . kQ M = P 8Q M = P Use the equation to find M when P = 8 and Q = 24 . y = kx 65 = k ⋅ 5 65 k ⋅ 5 = 5 5 13 = k The equation becomes y = 13 x. Section 2. y = 13 x = 13 ⋅12 = 156. the volume equation is V = V= π 3 Since y varies inversely with x.

y = ( 8 )(12 ) = 240. 2 The equation becomes y = y= 45mn 2 45(3)(4) 2 2160 = = = 216 10 10 p 380 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 5. we have y = kxz. 3 c 9 y= kmn 2 p k (2)(1) 2 6 2k 15 = 6 2k 15(6) = (6) 6 90 = 2k 15 = 25 = k ( 2 )( 5 ) 25 = k (10 ) 25 k (10 ) = 10 10 5 =k 2 k = 45 5 xz. z2 When x = 3 and z = 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. kx y= 2 z k ( 50 ) 20 = 52 k ( 50 ) 20 = 25 20 = 2k 8. Inc. 2 5 When x = 8 and z = 12. the square root of c. 10 = k The equation becomes y = 10 x . Since y varies jointly as x and z. z Use the given values to find k. 175 = k ( 2100 )( 4 ) 175 = k ( 8400 ) 1 =k 48 C= 9. c = 9. b = 3. The equation becomes y = c When a = 5. z 6 36 36 6 6. y = kxz 1 14400 = 300 ( 2400 )( 6 ) = 48 48 Since y varies jointly as a and b and inversely as kab . . kab y= c k (3)(2) 12 = 25 k (6) 12 = 5 k (6) 12(5) = (5) 5 60 = 6k 60 6k = 6 6 10 = k 10ab . a= 7= 7= kb c2 k (9) ( 6) k (9) 2 36 k 7= 4 28 = k a= 7. 10ab 10(5)(3) 150 y= = = = 50 . 10 x 10 ( 3) 10 ( 3) 30 5 y= 2 = 2 = = = . we have y = c Use the given values to find k. 28 ( 4 ) ( 8) 2 = 28 ( 4 ) 64 = C = kAT 7 4 10. we have y = 2 . Use the given values to find k. Since y varies inversely as x and inversely as the kx square of z.

Solving for y: x = kyz 15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y Solving for y kz 3 x= y 16.PreCalculus 4E 11. Solving for y: x = kz ( y + w) x= xy = y ⋅ x= x = kzy + kzw kz 3 y x − kzw = kzy x − kzw kzy = kz kz x − kzw y= kz xy = kz 3 xy kz 3 = x x kz 3 y= x 14. kz 3 . Inc. x kyz = . .8 x = kyz . Solving for y : y= x = kyz 2 x kyz 2 = 2 2 kz kz x y= 2 kz 13. x w kz 18. x = kyz 2 . kyz w2 ⎛ w2 ⎞ w2 kyz ⎜ ⎟x = kz w2 ⎝ kz ⎠ xw2 y= kz 17. kz yz x y= kz x= kyz . x = kz ( y + w) . x = kz ( y − w) x = kzy − kzw k3 z x= y x + kzw = kzy x + kzw kzy = kz kz x + kzw y= kz k3 z yx = y ⋅ y yx = k 3 z yx k 3 z = x x y= k3 z x 381 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. w Solving for y: kyz x= w x ( w ) = ( w ) kyzw x w = kyz x w kyz = kz kz 12. Section 2.

000496 (1. Use the given values to find k.75 f 15 0.7 It was dropped from 80 inches.75 f = 0.75 0. y−w Solving for y: kz x= y−w ( y − w) x = ( y − w) 8. 1 (186 ) = 31 6 A person who weighs 186 pounds on Earth will weigh 31 pounds on the moon. yx + xw = kz yx = kz − xw yx kz − xw = x x kz − xw y= x 15 = 0. Use the given values to find k. When h = 107. When B = 56 . The tail length is 5.9(6) = 5.75 f = 0. B = kD kz . 000 343.7 12 The equation becomes B = 0. 3 w = 0. 043) ≈ 607. we have w = kh 3 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. kz y+w ( y + w) x = ( y + w) kz y+w 24. 170 = k ( 70 ) 3 170 = k ( 343. 21. T = 0. .9 B .75 20 = f A force of 20 pounds is needed.4 . we have T = kB . 382 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 k (12 ) = 12 12 8.6 k (4) = 4 4 0. 22.4 = k (12 ) 8. When B = 6 . 000 ) 170 = 343. x= 56 0. Since B varies directly as D.000496 = k The equation becomes w = 0. w = kh3 3.4 feet. T = kB 3.7 0. x= 23. Inc. we have B = kD.000496 (107 ) M = kE 60 = k ( 360 ) 60 k ( 360 ) = 360 360 1 =k 6 M = d = kf 9 = k (12) 9 k (12) = 12 12 0. Robert Wadlow’s weight was approximately 607 pounds.7 D = 0. 000 0.6 = k (4) 25. 225. Use the given values to find k.000496h 3 . Since a man’s weight varies directly as the cube of his height. 56 = 0. Since T varies directly as B.Polynomial and Rational Functions 19.9 = k The equation becomes T = 0.7 D kz y−w xy − wx = kz xy = kz + wx xy kz + wx = x x xw + kz y= x 20.4 k= = 0.7 D.7 56 D= = 80 0.75 = k d = 0. 000 ) k ( 343.

t= 383 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. k I= 2. h = 0. r 3. d Use the given values to find k.75 = 1600 i= (1600)3. Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance. k B= r k 28 = 4 ⎛k⎞ 28 ( 4 ) = 28 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4⎠ 112 = k 112 .5 feet. d k 62.88 Celsius at a depth of 5000 meters. k d2 k 3. t= 4.5d 2 d 2 = 625 d = 625 d = 25 A water pipe with a 25 centimeter diameter can serve 1250 houses.5 . .4 d2 502 2500 The illumination is 2. we have k I= .8 h = kd 2 26.5(30) 2 h = 450 A water pipe with a 30 centimeter diameter can serve 450 houses.5 .52 6.5 = k 562.75 = (1600) k 1600 6000 = k 6000 6000 6000 = = = 2.5 ) = 9 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ 562.5 562.4 = (1000) k 1000 4400 = k 4400 4400 = = 0.5 The banking angle is 32 when the turning radius is 3. Since the banking angle varies inversely as k the turning radius. h = 0. r Use the given values to find k.5d 2 h = 0. we have B = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.88 d 5000 The water temperature is 0.5d 2 a.4 foot-candles at a distance of 50 feet. The equation becomes B = r 112 112 When r = 3. we have pressure. I = = = 90 2.4 = 30.5 = 2 3 k 62.25 The intensity is 90 milliroentgens per hour.5 = k 29. 2 h = 0. i= k d k 1000 (1000)4. 27. 50 = k ⋅ 10 0.5d 2 1250 = 0.5 .5 When d = 2. The equation becomes I = d2 562. Inc.5 = 9 ⎛k ⎞ 9 ( 62. 28.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. B = = = 32 .75 = 2 40 k 3.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 33. h When w = 170 and h = 70. we kw have I = 2 .4. h Use the given values to find k. (70)2 This person has a BMI of 24. 703(170) I= ≈ 24. So the sound 4 1 of what it was originally. e = kmv 2 36 = k (8)(3) 2 36 = k (8)(9) 36 = 72k 36 72k = 72 72 k = 0. 1 . 3 The heat loss is 1800 Btu .15 = 602 k (180) 35. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 34. Since heat loss varies jointly as the area and temperature difference. i= be multiplied by a factor of intensity is 36.15 = 3600 k (180) (3600)35. km c k (25) 125 = 20 k (25) 20(125) = (20) 20 2500 = 25k 2500 25k = 25 25 100 = k i= 35.15 = 3600 126540 = k (180) 1200 = k (3 ⋅ 6)(20) 1200 = 360k 1200 360k = 360 360 10 k= 3 The equation becomes L = 10 AD 3 When A = 6 ⋅ 9 = 54 .5(4)(36) = 72 A mass of 4 grams and velocity of 6 centimeters per second has a kinetic energy of 72 ergs. we have L = kAD .5 e = 0. kw I= 2 h k (180 ) 35. L = 10 ( 9 ⋅ 6 ) (10) = 1800 . 126540 = 703 180 703w The equation becomes I = 2 . Since index varies directly as weight and inversely as the square of one’s height. k= 32. 4 k a k 1 k t= = ⋅ 3a 3 a t= A year will seem to be 1 of a year.5mv 2 = 0. Use the given values to find k. Inc. D = 10 . we k have I = 2 . If you move to a seat twice as d far.4 and is not overweight. So we have k k 1 k . then d = 2d . Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the sound source. The intensity will I= = = ⋅ (2d ) 2 4d 2 4 d 2 100m c 100(40) 80 = c 4000 80 = c 4000 80c = c ⋅ c 80c = 4000 80c 4000 = 80 80 c = 50 The chronological age is 50.5(4)(6) 2 = 0. 3 384 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. L = kAD 31.

can be modeled as P = kv 2 . v. Since the average number of phone calls varies jointly as the product of the populations and inversely as the square of the distance. – 48. does not make sense.PreCalculus 4E 37.02 P1 P2 . 000) 326.87 × 1012 ) 176. Since the current varies inversely as k resistance we have R = .5) = (0. 000 ) (3. 51. makes sense 53. Current varies inversely as resistance. kP P C = 12 2 d k ( 777. 000 = 16269841. 2 k ( 2. 385 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000) (400) 2 = 17.02 ≈ k The equation becomes C = c. P.5) 0. Inc. we have kP P C = 12 2 . Sample explanation: A direct variation with a positive constant of variation will have both variables increase simultaneously.27k 0.875 daily phone calls. C= f = kas 2 b. 000 = 326. Using one of I the given ordered pairs to find k . Answers may vary. Answers will vary. 38. d2 0. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 400 326. 50. If v = x then P = k ( x) 2 = kx 2 If v = 2 x then P = k (2 x) 2 = 4kx 2 If the wind speed doubles the pressure is 4 times more destructive. 000)(220. Sample explanation: For an inverse variation. 150 = k (4 ⋅ 5)(30) 150 = k (20)(900) 150 = 18000k 150 18000k = 18000 150 1 =k 120 1 1 (3 ⋅ 4)(60) 2 f = as 2 = 120 120 1 (12)(3600) = 120 = 360 Yes. varies directly as the square of wind velocity. 2 49. Explanations will vary. 695. makes sense 52. Section 2.5 k 12(0. d b. Use the given values to find k. the wind will exert a force of 360 pounds on the window. 0. the independent variable can not be zero.5 k =6 6 The equation becomes R = . Explanations will vary. I 40.875 There are approximately 17. k 12 = 0. . c. does not make sense. 000 = ( 420 ) 39. Pressure.8 a.02(650.

Illumination. 60. 5. can be modeled as I = 2 . 6 6 5−i = ⋅ 5+i 5+i 5−i 30 − 6i = 25 + 1 30 − 6i = 26 15 − 3i = 13 15 3 = − i 13 13 386 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. v. I. kv 2 H= r If the voltage remains constant. 4i (3i − 2) = (4i )(3i ) + (4i )(−2) = 12i 2 − 8i = −12 − 8i 56. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. the Hubble telescope is able to see about 7 times farther than a ground-based telescope.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. 3. to triple the heat the resistant must be reduced by a multiple of 3. r. Chapter 2 Review Exercises If I = k ⇒d= d2 (8 – 3i) – (17 – 7i) = 8 – 3i – 17 + 7i = –9 + 4i 2. d. x 1 1 k x= 2 ⇒d = x then 50 50 d (7 − i )(2 + 3i ) = 14 + 21i − 2i + 3 = 17 + 19i 50k k = 50 . H. varies directly as the square of the voltage. . 55. The Heat. = 7 ⋅ 2 + 7(3i ) + (−i )(2) + (−i )(3i ) k . and inversely as the resistance. I. d k k If d = 15 then I = 2 = 15 225 k k If d = 30 then I = 2 = 30 900 900 =4 Note that 225 If the distance doubles the illumination is 4 times less intense. x x 4. Inc. d. Illumination. (3 − 4i ) 2 = 32 + 2 ⋅ 3(−4i ) + (−4i )2 = 9 − 24i − 16 = −7 − 24i 57. d If I = x then x = 1. 6. Since 50 ≈ 7 . (7 + 8i )(7 − 8i ) = 7 2 + 82 = 49 + 64 = 113 58. Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 59. can be modeled as I = 2 . varies inversely as the square of the k distance.

2 ± −12 2 2 ± 2i 3 x= 2 x= x =1 ±i 3 { domain: (−∞. 2 x − 2x + 4 = 0 2 =4 x + 1 = ±2 x = −1 ± 2 x = −3 or x = 1 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) + 4 = 3 2 x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(4) 2(1) x= 2 ± 4 − 16 2 The axis of symmetry is x = −1 .PreCalculus 4E 7. Inc. 1 + i 3 . 4 + −8 4 + i 8 4 + 2i 2 = = = 2+i 2 2 2 2 11. + i ⎬ . x= 6 ± 36 − 40 4 6 ± −4 x= 4 6 ± 2i x= 4 6 2i x= ± 4 4 3 1 = ± i 2 2 = 4i 2 − 3i 2 ⎧3 1 3 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − i. 8. ⎩2 2 2 2 ⎭ = (4i − 3i ) 2 =i 2 13. Chapter 2 Review Exercises 3 + 4i 3 + 4i 4 + 2i = ⋅ 4 − 2i 4 − 2i 4 + 2i 12 + 6i + 16i + 8i 2 = 16 − 4i 2 12 + 22i − 8 = 16 + 4 4 + 22i = 20 1 11 = + i 5 10 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) range: ( −∞. 9. 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x + 1) + 4 2 = 4 − 40i + (10i ) 2 = 4 − 40i − 100 = −96 − 40i ( x + 1) 10. . 387 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (−2 + −100) = (−2 + i 100) −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) x= −32 − −18 = i 32 − i 18 = i 16 ⋅ 2 − i 9 ⋅ 2 2 2 2x − 6x + 5 = 0 2 = (−2 + 10i ) 2 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. 4] } The solution set is 1 − i 3 .

∞) range: [ −8. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 18.025 x 2 + x + 6 1 b x=− =− = 20 2a 2(−0. ∞) range: [ 685. domain: (−∞. 2a 2(−1) The maximum value is f (7). f ( x ) = − x + 2x + 3 f (7) = −(7) 2 + 14(7) − 106 = −57 2 = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 b. a. The axis of symmetry is x = –4. domain: (−∞. 2a 2(2) The minimum value is f (−3). f (x) = (x + 4)2 − 2 vertex: (–4.025) f (20) = −0. Since a < 0 the parabola opens down with the maximum value occurring at 14 b x=− =− =7. f ( x ) = 2 x2 − 4 x − 6 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 6 − 2 2 ( x − 1) − 8 2 ( x + 4)2 = 2 x+4=± 2 x = −4 ± 2 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 4)2 − 2 = 14 = –1 axis of symmetry: x = 1 domain: (−∞. f (−3) = 2(−3) 2 + 12(−3) + 703 = 685 domain: (−∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. . ∞) range: ( −∞. ∞) range: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall.025 x 2 + x + 6 f (0) = −0. −57 ] f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 12 x + 703 a. f ( x) = −0. 4] b. –2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 4)2 − 2 16.025(20) 2 + (20) + 6 = 16 The maximum height of 16 feet occurs when the ball is 20 yards downfield. domain: (−∞. ∞) range: [ −2. f ( x) = −0. 388 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since a > 0 the parabola opens up with the minimum value occurring at 12 b x=− =− = −3 . ∞ ) The maximum height will occur at the vertex. Inc. ∞ ) 17. ∞ ) 15. f ( x) = − x 2 + 14 x − 106 a. b. 19.025(0) 2 + (0) + 6 = 6 The ball was tossed at a height of 6 feet.

y = 36(150 – 4x) = 36(150 – 4·1) = 5256 The maximum yield will be 5256 pounds. d. x= = 250 (1000 − 500 ) = 250 ( 500 ) = 125. A ( x ) = x (1000 − 2 x ) 1000 − 3x 4 3 2 x + 250x 4 −b −250 = = 125 2a 3 2 − 4 1000 − 3(125) = 166.25 or 1 tree 2a 2(−4) 4 The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. Inc.PreCalculus 4E c. − 5. so graph (c) is the best match. y = (35 + x)(150 – 4x) 2 y = 5250 + 10x − 4x The maximum area is achieved when the width is 250 yards. The minimum product is −7 ⋅ 7 = −49. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 1000 1000 b x=− =− =− = 250. We need to minimize the function P ( x ) = x (14 + x ) 0 = −0. y= A ( x ) = −2 x + 1000 x 2 Since a = −2 is negative. 000.025)(6) x= 2(−0. Maximize the area using A = lw.3(reject) The ball will hit the ground 45.025 x 2 + x + 6 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = 14 x + x 2 = x 2 + 14 x. The football’s path: 22. The area is maximized at 125. . The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. f ( x) = −0.000 square yards when the width is 250 yards and the length is 1000 − 2 ⋅ 250 = 500 yards.025) x ≈ 45.025 x 2 + x + 6 21.7 feet will maximize the area. 24.7 4 125 feet by 166.3 yards downfield. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The maximum area is A ( 250 ) = 250 (1000 − 2 ( 250 ) ) −b −10 5 = = = 1.3. The numbers which minimize the product are 7 and −7 . 2a 2 (1) 2 −(1) ± (1) 2 − 4(−0. Chapter 2 Review Exercises The ball is at a height of 0 when it hits the ground. 389 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2a 2 ( −2 ) −4 23. 3x + 4y = 1000 4y = 1000 – 3x 1000 − 3x y= 4 A=x =− x= 20. f ( x ) = − x3 + 12 x 2 − x The graph rises to the left and falls to the right and goes through the origin. Let x = one of the numbers Let 14 + x = the other number The other number is 14 + x = 14 + ( −7 ) = 7. The minimum is at b 14 14 x=− =− = − = −7.

This function is not useful in modeling the number of thefts over an extended period of time. the number of thefts would be negative. so graph (a) is the best match. we know that even-degree polynomials with negative leading coefficient will fall to the left and to the right. f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 ( x + 5)3 x = 1. multiplicity 5. multiplicity 1. 1 leading coefficient is –1 and the degree is 4. − 3. b. multiplicity 1. the f ( x) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 1) zeros: 3. f (− x) = (− x )3 − (− x) 2 − 9(− x) + 9 = − x3 − x 2 + 9 x + 9 28. f ( x) = x3 − x 2 − 9 x + 9 33. 27. 30. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c. g ( x ) = x6 − 6 x 4 + 9 x 2 The graph rises to the left and rises to the right. The leading coefficient is –0. the graph crosses the x-axis 34. 29. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 21x 2 + 100. This is impossible. the graph touches the x-axis 390 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so graph (b) is the best match. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 31. . This means that the graph will fall to the right. Inc. f (− x) ≠ f ( x). the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. h ( x ) = x5 − 5 x 3 + 4 x The graph falls to the left and rises to the right and crosses the y-axis at zero. b. the graph crosses the x-axis x = –2.87 and the degree is 3. 32. we know that the elk population will die out over time. multiplicity 2. 2. Since n is odd and an > 0. the graph touches the x-axis x = –5. The model predicts that eventually. 26. f ( x ) = x3 − 2 x − 1 f (1) = (1)3 − 2(1) − 1 = −2 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 1 = 3 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. –2 = x 2 ( x − 5) − 25( x − 5) = ( x 2 − 25)( x − 5) = ( x + 5)( x − 5) 2 x = –5. f ( x) = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) zeros: x = 0. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125 f ( x) = 4 x − x3 a. f ( x) = − x 4 + 1 f(x) falls to the left and to the right so graph (d) is the best match. multiplicity 2. Since the graph falls to the right. Since n is odd and an < 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( − x ) = −4 x + x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x) origin symmetry c. the graph crosses the x-axis x = 5. Applying the Leading Coefficient Test. a. In the polynomial.Polynomial and Rational Functions 25.

f (− x) = 3(− x)4 − 15(− x) 2 = 3x 4 + 15 x 3 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). g ( x ) = − x 4 + 25 x 2 38. The graph rises to the left and to the right. Since h is odd and an > 0. b. . 5 391 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 35. 37. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 6(− x)3 − 9(− x) = − x 4 − 6 x3 − 9 x 2 f (− x ) ≠ f ( x ) f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 5 − x 2 ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = –5. f (− x) = −2 x3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x − 12 The graph falls to the left and to the right. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 6 x3 − 9 x 2 a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c 3 x 4 − 15 x3 = 0 − x 4 + 25 x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 3x3 ( x − 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = 0. a. − 2 c. f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 15 x 3 a. −2. = − x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 zeros: x = 0. f (− x) = − f ( x) no symmetry f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry f(x) = (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x + 3) 3 zeros: x = 2. b. Inc. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 3 36. b. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x 3 + 3x 2 − 8 x − 12 a. b. c. The graph falls to the left and to the right. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 25(− x) 2 = − x 4 + 25 x 2 = f ( x) y-axis symmetry c. 0.

f ( x ) = 2 x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 42. x = 0. 0) 2 x2 − 4x + 1 5 x − 3 10 x 3 − 26 x 2 + 17 x − 13 10 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 20 x 2 + 17 x − 20 x 2 + 12 x 5 x − 13 f (0) = 2(0) 2 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 5x − 3 The y-intercept is 0. . 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10 5x − 3 4 3 4 x2 + 2 x2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 + 3 x 40. 5x + 1 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 7 x 2 + 9 x − 3 –13 5x + 5 2 −4 Quotient: 4 x 2 − 7 x + 5 − 2 4 x +1 20 x−2 –7 9 –3 –26 429 –5694 –33 438 –5697 Quotient: f (–13) = –5697 392 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(x) falls to the left and the right. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = 1 The roots at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. Inc. x = –4. f (0) = −(0)3 ( 0 + 4 ) ( 0 − 1) = 0 (3 x 4 + 11x 3 − 20 x3 + 7 x + 35) ÷ ( x + 5) 2 –5 The y-intercept is 0. f ( x ) = − x 3 ( x + 4 ) ( x − 1) 2 6 x2 + 3x Since an < 0 and n is even. The root at –4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–4. 3 3 11 –20 7 35 –15 20 0 –35 –4 0 7 0 Quotient: 3 x − 4 x + 7 3 45. 2 4x − 7x + 5 x + 1 4 x3 − 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 3 0 –2 –10 0 6 12 20 20 6 10 10 20 2 3 Quotient: 3x 3 + 6 x 2 + 10 x + 10 + 4 x3 + 4 x 2 − 7 x2 − 2 x −7 x 2 − 7 x 46. (3 x 4 − 2 x 2 − 10 x) ÷ ( x − 2) 2 41. 0) − 2 x2 − 1 −2 x 2 − 1 0 44. x = 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. x = 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. − 10 Quotient: 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 − 2 x2 + 3x − 1 2 x + 1 4 x + 6 x + 3x − 1 2 43.

± 5 4 p : ± 1. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 2 2 2 53. d. . 1 1 −1. f ( − x ) = −2 x 5 + 3 x3 − 5 x 2 − 3x − 1 f(–x) has 2 sign variations. ± 4 q 1 Zeros: x = 2. 1 x = 1 or x = –2 The solution set is{1. b. ±2. are rational zeros. p 8 4 2 1 : ± 1. x 3 − 17 x + 4 = 0 4 1 1 0 –17 4 4 16 –4 4 –1 0 c. 1. ± . . ± . ± 2. p : ± 1. ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 4 x − 1) = 0 −4 ± 16 + 4 −4 ± 2 5 x= = = −2 ± 5 2 2 { } The solution set is 4. −2 − 5 . ± 2. –2}. ± 2. 3 2 55. f ( − x ) = −6 x 3 + x 2 + 4 x + 1 f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 2 x3 − 8 x + 5 1 sign variation. so no real roots exist. f ( x) = ( x − 2)(2 x + 5 x − 3) 2 q : ±1 = ( x − 2)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) p : ± 1. Inc. ± . ±6 p 1 1 1 : ± 1. ± 2. 393 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. q : ±1 50. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. –2 are rational zeros. 54. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 12 x − 8 p : ± 1. 49. so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 negative solutions. 3 2 f ( x) = 2 x 5 – 3 x3 – 5 x 2 + 3x – 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 positive solutions. ±3. ± 8. ± 8 b. 1 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 q : ± 1. 1 negative real zero. −3 2 48. f(x) has 2 sign variations. ± 5 q a. . ± q 2 3 6 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 2 sign variations. 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 4 x + 4) = 0 p: ±1 q: ±1. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. 1 –13 6 4 10 –6 5 –3 0 f ( x ) = f ( − x ) = 2 x4 + 6 x2 + 8 No sign variations exist for either f(x) or f(–x). −2 + 5. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 2 x3 + x + 5 c. so f(x) = 0 has no negative solutions.PreCalculus 4E 47. ± . ± 3 51. 1 sign variation ⇒ 1 positive real zero f (− x) = − x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 2 sign variations ⇒ 2 or no negative real zeros ( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 = 0 f ( x) = x − 6 x + 14 x − 14 x + 5 p : ± 1. ± . f(–x) has no sign variations. 52. ± 4 –1 6 1 –4 1 –6 5 –1 6 –5 1 0 –1 is a zero. ± 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 4. so f(x) = 0 has 3 or 1 positive real roots. ± q 3 3 3 3 3 0 –4 1 4 –4 1 4 4 1 is a zero.

±15 q: ±1. Inc. 1 negative real zero. 8 2 1 is a rational zero. ± q 2 formula gives x = 1 is a zero. ⎩2 2 2⎭ 2 sign variations. p: ±1 q: ±1.± . 1 sign variation. 394 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.± 8 2 4 8 b. 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ (2 x + 10 x − 2) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + 5 x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Solving x 2 + 5 x − 1 = 0 using the quadratic 0 sign variations.± . ± 3. x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 p : ± 1. ⎬. ± 5. . 2 1 3 5 . f ( x ) = 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 2 sign variations. f ( − x ) = −8 x3 − 36 x 2 − 46 x − 15 c. ⎬ .Polynomial and Rational Functions 6 x3 + x 2 – 4 x + 1 = 0 d. ±2. ±3. ± 2.± .± . ± 6 q 8 x 3 – 36 x 2 + 46 x – 15 = 0 a. 3 2⎭ ⎩ x = –1 or x = 56. 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x – ⎟ (8 x – 32 x + 30) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (4 x – 16 x + 15) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ p= b. . ±2 1 p : ± 1. 8 9 –7 1 1 5 –1 10 –2 0 –36 46 –15 4 –16 15 –32 30 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 d. 3 3 3 5 5 ± . . 2 4 8 2 4 5 15 15 15 ± .± . are rational zeros. ± . ± 3. d. b. 2 or 0 negative real zeros. . ±8 1 1 1 p : ± 1. ±4. p: ±1. ( x + 1)(6 x 2 – 5 x + 1) = 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 a. 57. ( x + 1)(3x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 or x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. ±5. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 58. f ( − x ) = −2 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 7 x + 1 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 a. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. 3 or 1 positive real solutions. ⎬ . q 2 4 8 c. ± . 2 2 2 −5 ± 29 2 ⎪⎧ 1 −5 + 29 −5 − 29 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . . no negative real solutions.± . 2 or 0 positive real zeros. 2 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 1 2 1 2 2 3 sign variations. f ( x ) = x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 2 sign variations. ± 15. f ( − x ) = x 4 + x3 − 7 x 2 − x + 6 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (2 x – 5)(2 x – 3) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1 5 3 x = or x = or x = 2 2 2 ⎧1 3 5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± .

60. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 a. 2i. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. −1. . p: ±1. − 2i ⎬ . 1 positive real zero. 2 2 395 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. 3} . 2 or 0 negative real zeros. ±4 p 1 1 : ± 1. ± q 2 4 b. 2 are rational zeros. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (− x) = 4 x 4 + 7 x 2 − 2 1 sign variation. . 2 ⎬ . −1. ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 6) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x − 3)( x + 2) = 0 The solution set is 59. 2 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 − 2. x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 d. 1 –1 Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 –1 –7 1 6 1 0 –7 –6 1 0 –7 –6 0 1 0 –7 –6 –1 1 6 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟⎜ x + ⎟ (4 x + 8) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎜ x − ⎟ ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 Solving x + 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula gives x = ±2i ⎧ 1 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . are rational zeros. . 1 negative real zero. ± 4. ±4 q: ±1. 3 are rational zeros. ± 2. ±2. 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 a. f ( x ) = 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 c. 2 ⎭ ⎩ 1 1 − . ± q 2 b. 1 sign variation. −1. 1 2 2 2 4 − 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 d. −1. ± 2. d. c. ± .PreCalculus 4E c. Inc. ±2 q: ±1. 1 2 4 0 7 0 –2 2 1 4 2 2 8 4 0 –1 2 1 –9 –4 4 4 10 2 –4 2 5 1 –2 0 2 5 1 –2 –2 –3 2 3 –2 0 4 4 2 8 4 –2 0 –4 0 8 0 1 . 1. ±2. { − 2. p: ±1. x = −2 or x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ − 2. ⎩ 2 2 ⎭ 1 –1 –6 0 − 2. 1. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 2 sign variations.

±2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = or x = ±i 2 1 The zeros are –2. 2 f ( x) = ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 2 )( 2 x − 1) 396 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . . 2 nonreal complex zeros 67. ±16 q: ±1 p : ± 1. one with multiplicity two f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 3x3 + 3x − 2 p: ±1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. ±2 1 p : ± 1. 4 2 f ( x ) = an ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 3) 1 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 12 x3 + 20 x 2 + 12 x + 18 –8 –16 –7 8 16 0 2 –7 8 16 –1 8 –16 –8 16 0 2 65. ± 2. ±i. 4 real zeros. ±2 q: ±1. f ( x) = an ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) f (1) = an (1 − 2 ) ⎡⎣12 − 4 (1) + 13⎤⎦ −10 = −10an an = 1 g ( x) = x 4 − 6 x 3 + x 2 + 24 x + 16 p: ±1. 2 real zeros. 24 2 f ( x ) = an ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 2 1 x – 6 x + x + 24 x + 16 = 0 f ( x ) = x − 6 x + 21x − 26 3 –6 66. ±4. 4 nonreal complex zeros 3 –2 –4 2 –4 2 –1 2 –1 0 69. ± 2. f ( x) = an ( x – 2)( x – 2 + 3i )( x – 2 – 3i ) 64. 1 real zero. Inc. one with multiplicity two. 3 real zeros. ± 16 q –1 1 f ( x ) = 1( x − 2 ) ( x − 4 x + 13) 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 13 x − 2 x 2 + 8 x − 26 1 62. ± 8. 2 nonreal complex zeros 68. ± 4. ±8. ± q 2 2 7 ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 = 0 x = –1 or x = 4 g ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 + x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 0 –1 ( x + 1) ( x – 8 x + 16) = 0 f ( x ) = 2 ( x + 1)( x + 6 x + 9 ) 3 1 2 2 2 3 –1 an = 2 –2 16 ( x + 1)( x3 – 7 x 2 + 8 x + 16) = 0 2 2 f ( −1) = an ⎡( −1) + 1⎤ ⎡( −1) + 6 ( −1) + 9 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ 16 = 8an 63. g ( x) = 1 −1 ( x + 2) 2 2 x + 3x + 3x – 2 = 0 4 3 ( x + 2)(2 x3 – x 2 + 2 x –1) = 0 ( x + 2)[ x 2 (2 x –1) + (2 x –1)] = 0 ( x + 2)(2 x –1)( x 2 + 1) = 0 1 x = –2.

f ( x) = 2x x −9 Vertical asymptote: x+3=0 x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m.PreCalculus 4E 70. so y = 0 2x = – f ( x) x –9 2 =0 397 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . h( x ) = Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 +3 x −1 72. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 2x – 4 = 0 x=2 2 (0) − 4 4 y-intercept: y = =− 0 + 3 3 ( ) Symmetry: g (– x) = 71. g ( x) = 2x − 4 x+3 –2 x – 4 x+3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). Inc. so y = = 2 1 2 Symmetry: f (– x) = – origin symmetry x-intercept: 2x 0= 2 x −9 2x = 0 x=0 y-intercept: y = 2 ( 0) 02 − 9 Vertical asymptote: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3 and x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

r ( x) = x2 – x +1 f(–x) ≠ f(x). –2 Symmetry: h(– x) = 75. y= 2 x2 – 4 x + 3 (– x + 2) 2 r(–x) ≠ r(x). h ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. . r(–x) ≠ –r(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 4 x + 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x + 1) = 0 x = –3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. no horizontal asymptote. Slant asymptote: 1 y = x –1+ x +1 y=x–1 x2 + 4 x + 3 ( x + 2) x2 x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. so y = = 1 1 x 2 − 3x − 4 x2 − x − 6 x 2 + 3x – 4 x2 + x – 6 h(–x) ≠ h(x). f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x2 = 0 x=0 02 y-intercept: y = =0 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 n > m. h(–x) ≠ –h(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x 2 − 3x − 4 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 1) x = 4 x = –1 02 − 3 ( 0 ) − 4 2 y-intercept: y = = 02 − 0 − 6 3 Vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 2) = 0 x = 3. –1 02 + 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = 2 4 (0 + 2) Vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 Symmetry: r (– x) = 398 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so y = = 1 1 74. Inc.Polynomial and Rational Functions 73.

y= Chapter 2 Review Exercises x2 + 2x − 3 x−3 f ( x) = –2 x + 2x x +1 2 y = –2x x2 – 2 x – 3 –x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). Horizontal asymptote: n > m. Slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = 2 x – 5 + 2x – 3 y = 2x – 5 −2 x 3 x2 + 1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 ( 0) − 3 =− 399 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Slant asymptote: 12 y = x+5+ x −3 y = x+5 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 2x − 3 4 x 2 + 16 x + 16 Symmetry: g (– x) = –2 x – 3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = –3. Symmetry: f (– x) = 78. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 = 0 g ( x) = 4 ( x − 2) = 0 2 x=2 y-intercept: 4 ( 0 ) − 16 ( 0 ) + 16 2 y= 77. so no horizontal asymptote. so no horizontal asymptote. so no horizontal asymptote. f ( x) = 2 = – f ( x) x2 + 1 Origin symmetry x-intercept: −2 x 3 = 0 x=0 −2 ( 0 ) 3 y-intercept: y = = 0 =0 1 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 No vertical asymptote. .PreCalculus 4E 76. Inc. Slant asymptote: 2 16 3 Vertical asymptote: 2x – 3 = 0 3 x= 2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. 1 0 2 + 2 ( 0 ) − 3 −3 y-intercept: y = = =1 0−3 −3 Vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 Horizontal asymptote: n > m.

48 x + 120. 000) = = 25.58 ≈ 0. −4] ∪ ⎡⎢− . 25(100) + 50. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 ≥ 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. and 1. c. Minimum costs will approach $25. a. x3 + 2 x 2 = 3x x 3 + 2 x 2 − 3x = 0 x ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 P( x) = M ( x) + F ( x) = 1. ∞ ) = 3. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 < 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. Inc. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 1 ( −∞. n = m.06 x + 235 c.000 + 25x C ( x) = 83. the percentage of men in the U. ∞ ⎞⎟ ⎣ 2 ⎠ P ( x) = R( x) = 1 .000 When 100. 0. so y = 86. x3 + 2 x 2 > 3x Solve the related equation. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 150 x + 120 0. 000 C (100.5 100. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 = 0 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 4 ) = 0 The boundary points are −4 and − 12 . b.05 The number of fish available in the pond approaches 3000. 80. so y = = 3000 0. a.4 = P( x) 3. C (50) = 1000 x 2000 P = 2x + x P = 2x + 2 85. it costs $25. it costs $525 to manufacture each. it costs $1025 to manufacture each. 000 C (100) = = 525 100 When 100 calculators are manufactured.06 Over time. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 25(1000) + 50. 25 = 25 is the horizontal 1 asymptote. 4 2 + x+3 x M ( x) 1.52 3. population will approach 52%. y= 400 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b.000 x 84.4 + 1. it costs $75 to manufacture each.000 calculators are manufactured. 2 1⎞ ⎛ Testing each interval gives a solution set of ⎜ −3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79.05 x + 1 150 n = m.50 to manufacture each. 1000 = lw 1000 =l w 25(50) + 50.S. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ( 2 x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 The boundary points are −3 and f ( x) = 82. 000) + 50. 81. 25(100.900 100 x 2 + 729 n < m so y = 0 As the number of years of education increases the percentage rate of unemployment approaches zero. d. 87.000 calculators are manufactured. . 0 ) ∪ (1. 72. T (x) = 25 x + 50. C(x) = 50. 000 = 1025 50 When 50 calculators are manufactured.06 x + 235 1. 000 C (1000) = = 75 1000 When 1.58 x + 114.6 x ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 The boundary points are −3 .58 x + 114.

Testing each interval gives a solution set of [ −1. 94. −33. g ( x) = 0.3(35) + 27 ≈ 261 The stopping distance on wet pavement for a motorcycle traveling 35 miles per hour is about 261 feet. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. 600 ft 401 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 0. 89. ∞ ) . 1) ∪ [ 2. 90. ∞ ) .125)(−168) 2(0.125) x = −33. x+3 −5 ≤ 0 x−4 x + 3 5 ( x − 4) − ≤0 x−4 x−4 −4 x + 23 ≤0 x−4 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. d = 16(10) 2 = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6. since this would make the denominator zero.8 x + 99 > 267 0. Inc.8 x − 168 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. w = 0. This overestimates the distance shown in the graph by 1 foot. ∞ ) . The boundary points are –2 and 6.112=k Thus.125 x 2 − 0. ⎣4 ⎠ a. since this would make the denominator zero.8 x + 99 0 < −16 ( t 2 − 3t + 2 ) 0 < –16(t – 2)(t – 1) F T F 1 2 The projectile’s height exceeds 32 feet during the time period from 1 to 2 seconds. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 23 ( −∞. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. . 0.125 x 2 − 0.8 x − 168 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. 4 ) ∪ ⎢⎡ . w = 0. 92.125 x 2 − 0. We exclude 4 4 from the solution set.112s. d = kt2 144 = k (3) 2 k = 16 d = 16t 2 g (35) = 0. speeds exceeding 40 miles per hour on dry pavement will require over 267 feet of stopping distance.6 ) ∪ ( 40.8) 2 − 4(0. 23 The boundary points are 4 and .4 cubic centimeters of water. s = −16t 2 + v0 t + s0 32 < −16t 2 + 48t + 0 0 < −16t 2 + 48t − 32 x+3 ≤5 x−4 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. 91.125 x 2 + 2. 1 and 2.8) ± (−0. w = ks 28 = k ⋅ 250 0. The boundary points are –1.PreCalculus 4E 88. b.125(35) 2 + 2.4 1200 cubic centimeters of melting snow will produce 134.112(1200) = 134. x= ( x + 1)( x − 2) ≥0 x −1 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. We exclude 1 from the solution set. 0. Thus.125 x 2 − 0. ∞ ⎞⎟ .3x + 27 93. Chapter 2 Review Exercises x−6 >0 x+2 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. 40 Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞.

6 1056 = k p= Thus. R Use L = This is an approximate model. 5 5 2+i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 5(2 + i ) = 4 +1 5(2 + i ) = 5 = 2+i 3. L= Chapter 2 Test 1. V = khB 175 = k ⋅15 ⋅ 35 1 3 1 V = hB 3 1 V = ⋅ 20 ⋅120 = 800 ft 3 3 k= 402 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (6 − 7i )(2 + 5i ) = 12 + 30i − 14i − 35i 2 = 12 + 16i + 35 = 47 + 16i 2. k d2 k 28 = 2 8 k = 1792 1792 l= 2 d 1792 l = 2 = 112 decibels 4 l= b. a. L = . 1056 . Inc. 2 −49 + 3 −64 = 2(7i ) + 3(8i ) = 14i + 24i = 38i h=2 2c w 2(40) = 16 hours t= 5 t= 98. p = 99. p= 96. R k L= R k 30 = 63 k 63 ⋅ 30 = 63 ⋅ 63 1890 = k 1890 Thus. c. . 1890 R 1890 L= = 70 27 The average life span of an elephant is 70 years.Polynomial and Rational Functions 95.4 The pitch is 440 vibrations per second. Publishing as Prentice Hall. k w k 660 = 1. kc w k ⋅ 30 10 = 6 10 = 5h t= k to find k. w 1056 = 440 2. 97.

PreCalculus 4E Chapter 2 Test x2 = 4 x − 8 4. range: [ −4. range: ( −∞. f ( x) = −2 x 2 + 12 x − 16 Since the coefficient of x2 is negative. f ( x) = x 2 − 2 x − 3 y-intercept: f (0) = 02 − 2(0) − 3 = −3 f ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. 403 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the graph of f(x) opens down and f(x) has a maximum point. . –4) axis of symmetry x = 1 x-intercepts: x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 x = 3 or x = –1 x2 − 4 x + 8 = 0 x= x= −b ± b − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(1)(8) 2(1) 2 4 ± −16 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i x= 5. 6.900. range: [ 4. f ( x ) = − x 2 + 46 x − 360 b −46 = = 23 2a −2 23 computers will maximize profit. ∞ ) . Inc. x=− f ( 23) = − ( 23) + 46 ( 23) − 360 = 169 2 Maximum daily profit = $16. ∞ ) . 2] domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 8. 4) axis of symmetry: x = –1 x-intercepts: ( x + 1) 2 + 4 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 −2 ± 4 − 20 = −1 ± 2i 2 no x-intercepts y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 1)2 + 4 = 5 x= domain: ( −∞. −12 x= =3 2(−2) f (3) = −2(3) 2 + 12(3) − 16 = −18 + 36 − 16 =2 Maximum point: (3. −b 2 = =1 2a 2 f (1) = 12 − 2(1) − 3 = −4 vertex: (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 7. 2) domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) .

± 2 1 3 5 15 p : ±1. 2 3 404 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –3 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. 16. ± 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Solve the quotient x 2 + 6 x − 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula to find the remaining roots. ± . 12. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 a. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 13. ±3. a. 14 − x = the other number. f ( x ) = x5 − x Since the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. 2. 2. the possible rational zeros are the factors of 6 p p = : ± 1. ± . ±6 q: ±1. b. The product is f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) = − x 2 + 14 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 14 14 x=− =− =− = 7. Inc. ± 3. ±3. The x-intercepts should be –1 and 1. ± 5. . ± 15 q : ± 1. 2 x= 1 2 and . ± q 2 2 14. x 3 + 9 x 2 + 16 x − 6 = 0 Since the leading coefficient is 1. This occurs when the two number are 7 and 14 − 7 = 7 . ± 2. ± . 11. 49). and −3 − 11 . The maximum product is 49. the graph of f should fall to the left and rise to the right. –2 The solution set is {5. 1 1 9 16 –6 –3 –18 6 6 –2 0 Thus x = 3 is a root. b. f ( − x ) = −3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 − x − 1 f(–x) has no sign variations. 10. There are 3 or 1 positive real solutions and no negative real solutions. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. a. 6 6 –19 16 –4 12 –14 4 –7 2 0 x= −(6) ± (6) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) −6 ± 44 2 = −3 ± 11 The zeros are −3 . −3 + 11 . ±2 1 3 p : ± 1. –2}. f ( x ) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x − 5 x − 4 x + 20 = 0 3 2 x 2 ( x − 5) − 4( x − 5) = 0 ( x − 5)( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 5. ± 6. ±15. ± 3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 9. ±2. ±5. Let x = one of the numbers. ± . ± 2. ± q 2 2 2 2 6x − 7x + 2 = 0 (3x – 2)(2x – 1) = 0 2 1 x = or x = 3 2 2 The other two roots are −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = The integral root is 2. 15. ± 6 q f ( 7 ) = −7 2 + 14 ( 7 ) = 49 The vertex is (7. Possible rational zeros are: p : ± 1. f ( x ) = 3x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 + x − 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right.

. and the polynomial 2 factors as follows: 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 = 0 The zeros (x-intercepts) are –1 and 2 . Chapter 2 Test Verify that −1 and 3 are zeros as it appears in 2 19. ∞ ) 17. –3 –3 2 −3 −10 0 −10 1 2 3 1 4 –1 2 0 Factor the quotient to find the remaining zeros. −3) ∪ ( −3.PreCalculus 4E b. 3 The y-intercept is f (0) = 2 ( x + 1) ( 2 x3 − 3x 2 − 10 x + 15) = 0 ( x + 1) ⎛⎜ x − 3⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2 x − 10 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Find the remaining zeros by solving: 2 x 2 − 10 = 0 2 x 2 = 10 x2 = 5 x=± 5 20. . f(x) has zeros at –2 and 1. The zero at –2 has multiplicity of 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 3 + 3x 2 – 4 = ( x – 1)( x + 2) 2 18. the graph: −1 2 −1 −13 5 15 –1 −2 3 10 −15 2 −3 −10 15 0 3 2 f ( x ) = −3 x 3 − 4 x 2 + x + 2 The graph shows a root at x = −1 . and ± 5 . f ( x) = a0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + i )( x − i ) f ( x) = a0 ( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) = a0 ( x 4 − 1) Since f (3) = 160 . 2 f ( x) = 1 ( x + 3) 2 domain: {x | x ≠ –3} or ( −∞. 3 The zeros are −1 . Use synthetic division to verify this root. −3 x 2 − x + 2 = 0 0 −15 3 2 15 –4 0 −(3x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 3 Thus. Inc. −1 and are zeros. then a0 (34 − 1) = 160 a0 (80) = 160 160 80 a0 = 2 a0 = f ( x) = 2( x 4 − 1) = 2 x 4 − 2 405 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Inc.1) ∪ (1. –4 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. . f ( x) = 406 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –3 02 − 9 9 y-intercept: y = = 0−2 2 Vertical asymptote: x–2=0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so no horizontal asymptote exists. ∞ ) f ( x) = 23.Polynomial and Rational Functions 21. x ≠ –4} –x = – f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 16 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: x = 0 0 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 − 16 Vertical asymptotes: x 2 − 16 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 4) = 0 x = 4. 5 Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 2 – x–2 y = x +2 Symmetry: f (– x) = 22. x x 2 − 16 domain: {x | x ≠ 4. x2 − 9 x−2 domain: {x | x ≠ 2} f ( x) = x2 – 9 –x – 2 f(–x) ≠ f(x). 1 +2 x −1 domain: {x | x ≠ 1} or ( −∞. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = 3.

the production cost approaches $10 per radio. a. b. ( x + 3)( x − 4) < 0 Boundary values: –3 and 4 Solution set: ( −3. 2 02 + 3 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 3 = 0 x 2 = −3 No vertical asymptote.3) ∪ [10. the horizontal 10 = 10 . so y = = 4 is the horizontal asymptote. 27. Since the degree of the numerator equals the degree of the denominator. 1 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. asymptote is x = 1 This represents the fact that as the number of satellite radio players produced increases. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x+1=0 x = –1 0 +1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 =− 0 + 2 (0) − 3 3 f ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. 4 ) 4 x2 x2 + 3 domain: all real numbers 4 x2 = f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x +3 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 f ( x) = y-intercept: y = 4 ( 0) 28. 1 2 C ( x) = 26. . ∞ ) 407 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ 1} –x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 2x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). Inc. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. Vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x –3. =0 2x + 1 ≤3 x−3 2x + 1 −3 ≤ 0 x−3 10 − x ≤0 x −3 Boundary values: 3 and 10 Solution set: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 24. 000 + 10x x x 2 < x + 12 x − x − 12 < 0 2 25. Chapter 2 Test x +1 x + 2x − 3 x 2 + 2 x − 3 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) domain: {x | x ≠ –3. 300.

⎝3 ⎠ 408 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7. ⎜ –1. the solution is (– ∞. x3 + 2 x 2 − 5x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. –1. 2) range: [ 0. 2x − 5 > 3 2x − 5 > 3 2x > 8 x>4 2 x − 5 < −3 2x < 2 x <1 (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4. 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 x= 5⎞ ⎛5 ⎛ ⎞ Test intervals are (–∞. 1) or (4. ∞) 3x 2 > 2 x + 5 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 > 0 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 = 0 (3 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = –1 3 3x 2 − 5 x + 1 = 0 5 ± 25 − 12 5 ± 13 = 6 6 ⎪⎧ 5 + 13 5 − 13 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 8. 3⎭ ⎩3 4500 4500 = = 45 foot-candles d2 102 i= 9+ 12. The zero at –1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. ∞ ⎟ . ± 2. ± 3. –1}. . Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–2) 1. 2. 2}. ∞ ⎟ . domain: (−2. –1). 11. k d2 k 20 = 2 15 4500 = k i= 9. 3. 3). ⎬. 3⎠ ⎝3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛5 ⎞ Testing points. The zero at 1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. 3 2 = x x2 9 x 2 + 3x = 2 9 x2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) = 0 3x − 1 = 0 3x + 2 = 0 1 2 or x = − x= 3 3 2⎫ ⎧1 The solution set is ⎨ . |2x – 1| = 3 2x −1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 2 x − 1 = −3 2 x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {2. ∞ ) 10. ±3. ±6 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 6 q –3 6. ±2. (f 5. 1 f )(−1) = f ( f (−1) ) = f (0) = 3 f ( x) → ∞ as x → −2+ or as 1 2 –5 –6 –3 3 6 –1 –2 0 x + 2 x – 5x – 6 = 0 3 x → 2− 2 ( x + 3)( x 2 – x – 2) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 x = –3 or x = –1 or x = 2 The solution set is {–3. –1) or ⎜ . Inc. − ⎬ . ⎟ . ⎜ . There is a relative maximum at the point (0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 29.

1. Cumulative Review Exercises f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 x-intercepts: x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 = 0 15. y-intercept: f(0) = –8 409 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x − 8 −b −2 = = −1 x= 2a 2 f (−1) = (−1) 2 + 2(−1) − 8 = 1 − 2 − 8 = −9 vertex: (–1. ( x − 4)( x 2 − 1) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = –1. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 4 x-intercepts: f ( 0 ) = 03 − 4(0) 2 − 0 + 4 = 4 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. –9) x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 8 = 0 ( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 x = –4 or x = 2 x −1 x−2 vertical asymptote: x = 2 horizontal asymptote: y = 1 x-intercept: x = 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 f ( x) = 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall. an = 0 so the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 16. Inc. x 2 ( x − 4) − 1( x − 4) = 0 f ( x) = x 2 ( x − 3) zeros: x = 0 (multiplicity 2) and x = 3 y-intercept: y = 0 f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 n = 3. . 14.PreCalculus 4E 13.

19. . Inc. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ⎡ 2( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 1⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ 2 x 2 − x − 1⎤⎦ =⎣ h 2 2 2 x + 4hx − x + 2h − h − 1 − 2 x 2 + x + 1 = h 2 4hx + 2h − h = h = 4 x + 2h − 1 410 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Polynomial and Rational Functions 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) ( f g )( x) = 2(4 x − 1) 2 − (4 x − 1) − 1 = 32 x 2 − 20 x + 2 20.

we Plot these points. f (3) = 42. connecting them with a continuous curve. the average amount spent after three hours of shopping at the mall is $160. . connecting them with a continuous curve.56)3 ≈ 160. f ( x) = 42.1 Check Point Exercises 1.20876 ≈ 160 According to the function. x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 f ( x ) = 3x f (−3) = 3−3 = 1 27 1 9 1 3 f (−2) = 3−2 = f (−1) = 3−1 = f (0) = 30 = 1 f (1) = 31 = 3 f (2) = 32 = 9 f (3) = 33 = 27 4. Because c < 0. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g.56) x Plot these points. 2. graph g ( x) = 3x −1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 3x one unit to the right. x f ( x ) = ( 13 ) −2 ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 91 −1 0 1 2 f ( x ) = 3x 3−2 = 19 3−1 = 13 30 = 1 31 = 3 32 = 9 g ( x) = 3x −1 3−2 −1 = 3−3 = 271 3−1−1 = 3−2 = 19 30 −1 = 3−1 = 13 31−1 = 30 = 1 32 −1 = 31 = 3 x −2 411 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2(1. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Section 3. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates. x −2 −1 0 1 2 3. Note that the function g ( x) = 3x −1 has the general form g ( x) = b x + c where c = −1 . This overestimates the actual amount shown by $11.2(1.

3 ≈ 9. 5 3 ≈ 16.4 ≈ 29.4 ≈ 13.25 b. 3 5 ≈ 11.47 A = Pe rt A = 10. 918.387 ≈ 0. Because c > 0. 23⋅4 ≈ 10. .95 10.242 412 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.964 9.472 f ( x ) = 4x 4−2 = 161 4−1 = 14 40 = 1 41 = 4 42 = 16 2012 is 34 years after 1978. Publishing as Prentice Hall.042 x f (34) = 1066e0. e 3. e 11.08 ⎞ A = 10.967 3. 4(5) x g ( x) = 5x −2 5−2 = 251 −1 5−1 = 15 0 50 = 1 1 51 = 5 2 52 = 25 Exercise Set 3. 12.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5.042(34) ≈ 4446 In 2012 the gray wolf population of the Western Great Lakes is projected to be about 4446. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ = $14.665 4. 000e0. f ( x) = 1066e0.556 2.859. Note that the function g ( x) = 2 x + 1 has the general form g ( x ) = b x + c where c = 1.5 = 0. −1. e –0.2 −0.974 8.116 ≈ 0. r⎞ ⎛ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ a. Inc. x f ( x) − 2 −2 2−2 = 14 −1 2−1 = 12 0 20 = 1 1 21 = 2 2 22 = 4 6.125 6.1 1. 6 7. 7. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g.08(5) = $14. we graph g ( x) = 2 x + 1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 2 x up one unit.75 x −2 −1 0 1 2 ≈ 0. e 2. x g ( x) = 2 + 1 2−2 + 1 = 14 + 1 = 54 2−1 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 23 20 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2 21 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3 22 + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5 x 5. nt ⎛ 0. 4 −1. 32.

−2 −1 0 1 2 14. −2 −1 0 1 2 x 16. x −2 −1 0 1 2 Section 3.PreCalculus 4E x 13.1 g ( x) = ( 32 ) x ( 32 ) = 49 −1 ( 32 ) = 23 0 ( 32 ) = 1 1 ( 32 ) = 32 2 ( 32 ) = 94 −2 g ( x) = ( 43 ) x 15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. . ( 34 ) = 169 −1 ( 43 ) = 43 0 ( 43 ) = 1 1 ( 43 ) = 43 2 ( 43 ) = 169 −2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 h ( x ) = ( 12 ) x ( 12 ) = 4 −1 ( 12 ) = 2 0 ( 12 ) = 1 1 ( 12 ) = 12 2 ( 12 ) = 14 −2 h ( x ) = ( 13 ) x ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 19 −2 413 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

The graph of g ( x) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by shifting x the graph of f ( x) = 2 x two units to the left. ∞ ) .25 0 (0.6 ) 25. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit domain: ( −∞.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions x 17. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x +! can be obtained by shifting x −2 (0.6)0 = 1 1 (0. so the function is F ( x) = −3x. range: ( 0. shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x downward one unit.6)1 = 0.8)0 = 1 1 (0. ∞ ) . range: ( −1. Inc. so the function is G ( x) = 3− x.8)1 = 0. asymptote: y = −1 23.6)2 = 0. ∞ ) downward. .8 2 (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 2 (0.7 −1 (0. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.8) −2 26. range: ( 0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the y- axis. so the function is H ( x) = −3− x.6) −1 = 1.36 the graph of f ( x) = 2 x one unit to the left. ∞ ) 18. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the x- axis.8) −1 = 1. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x − 1 can be obtained by 19. so the function is h( x) = 3x − 1. f ( x ) = ( 0. 22. so the function is g ( x) = 3x −1. 21. 20. 24. x f ( x) = (0. This is the graph of f ( x) = 3x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis.6 0 (0.5625 −1 (0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit to the right.6)−2 = 2. This is the graph of f(x) = 3x.8) 2 = 0. = 1.64 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. 414 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8) −2 (0. ∞ ) 27. ∞ ) .

∞ ) . range: ( 0. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x) = 2 ⋅ 2 x can be obtained by vertically stretching the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of two. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. range: ( −1. ∞ ) . range: ( −∞.1 28. The graph of h( x) = 2 x + 2 − 1 can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 left and one unit downward. range: ( −1. . Inc. x 33. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. The graph of h ( x ) = 2 x +1 − 1 can be obtained by 32. range: ( 2. asymptote: y = 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. range: ( 0. reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the x-axis. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 415 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ) 29.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. The graph of g ( x ) = −2 x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x two units upward. x reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the y-axis. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = 2− x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 one unit to the left and one unit downward. ∞ ) 30. two units to the asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x ) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by 31.

∞ ) . 34. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x ) = e x + 2 can be obtained by 1 x ⋅ 2 can be obtained by 2 vertically shrinking the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of one-half. range: ( 0. Inc. 35.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 37. ∞ ) . ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 38. range: ( 0. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. asymptote: y = −1 domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph of h( x) = e x −1 + 2 can be obtained by asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = e x − 1 can be obtained by domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 39. range: ( 0. range: ( 2. range: ( −1. ∞ ) . ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . . The graph of g ( x) = e x −1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right. 36. ∞ ) . range: ( 2. ∞ ) 416 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph of g ( x ) = moving f ( x) = e x 2 units up. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit down. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = e x +1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right and 2 units up.

asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = f ( x) = e x about the y-axis. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . range: ( −∞. ∞ ) 417 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. stretching f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 2. ∞ ) . 1 x e can be obtained by 2 shrinking f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 1 . ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 0 ) asymptote: y = 1 domain: ( −∞. range: ( −1. ∞ ) . ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. The graph of h( x) = e x+1 − 1 can be obtained by 43. range: ( 0. 45. range: ( 0. range: (1. range: ( 0. ∞ ) . 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x) = 2e x can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left and 1 unit down. The graph of h( x) = e 2 x + 1 can be obtained by stretching f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 2 and then moving the graph up 1 unit. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of h( x) = e − x can be obtained by reflecting 44. Inc. ∞ ) 41. ∞ ) 42. . The graph of h( x) = −e x can be obtained by reflecting f ( x) = e x about the x-axis.1 40.

asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 1 418 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 51. ∞ ) 47. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by vertically shrinking f(x) by a factor of 13 . The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and one space up. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the y-axis. Publishing as Prentice Hall.. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by horizontally stretching f(x) by a factor of 3. 48.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 1 49. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. The graph of h( x) = e 2 + 2 can be obtained by shrinking f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 1 2 and then moving the graph up 2 units. x 46. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 50. range: ( 2. . ∞ ) . The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the x-axis. Inc.

PreCalculus 4E Section 3.84 (8.51 ⎛ 0.116.165. 4( 4 ) 56. ⎛ 0. d.000 for 3 years at 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return.25% compounded quarterly yields the greater return. ⎛ 0. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 2 53.065(10) ≈ = $9560. Publishing as Prentice Hall.31 ⎛ 0.0825 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $8317. 000e0. A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2(10) 410 ⋅ ≈ $9479.055(5) ≈ $13.055 ⎞ A = 10. 000e0.1 52. Inc. A = 5000 ( e ) 0. ⎛ 0. b.055 ⎞ A = 10.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ d. 795. 54.3% yield) Investing $6000 for 4 years at 8.07 ⎞ A = 12.083 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $ 8306.92 ≈ 9577. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 14.79 12(10) c. . 12(3) 55.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.11 (7% yield) A = 12.04 g ( x) = 2− x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 A = 10.157.70 419 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.0685(3) ≈ 14. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and two spaces up.25% yield) 2( 4) ⎛ 0.64 (8. 0 f ( x) = 2 x 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 2 4 x −2 −1 4(5) 12(5) c.85% yield) Investing $12. ⎛ 0. 737.19 The point of intersection is ( 0. a. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.1) . a.065 ⎞ b. ⎛ 0.055 ⎞ A = 10.67 2(5) 57. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.140. ≈ $9527.67 (6.

y = bx x = 2y 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 y 4 = b1 4=b The equation of the graph is y = 4 x 62. The graph is of the form y = −b x . y = −b x −e = −b1 e=b The equation of the graph is y = −e x 420 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Substitute values from the point (1. Inc. 4) to find b. g ( x) = 2− x +1 8 4 2 1 1 2 The point of intersection is ( 0. 6) to find b. Substitute values from the point (1. The graph is of the form y = b x . –e) to find b. y = bx 6 = b1 6=b The equation of the graph is y = 6 x 63. . Substitute values from the point (1. 59. 2 ) . y = 2x 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 x y = 3x 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 x x = 3y 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 y 61. −1 0 1 f ( x) = 2 x +1 1 2 1 2 4 2 8 x −2 60.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 58. The graph is of the form y = b x . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

e) to find b. c.141593 ≈ 8. The graph is of the form y = b x .06 ) 10 The linear model is the better model for the data in 2005.03) = 510.026 ) 23 ≈ 8 23.9 million words in the federal tax code in 2005.026 ) ≈ 4590 .49 Chernobyl will not be safe for human habitation by 2066. 21. 000 (1.14159 ≈ 8. ⎛1⎞ The equation of the graph is y = ⎜ ⎟ = e − x ⎝e⎠ a. 000 (1.87e0.1415 ≈ 8.321997085 The closer the exponent is to 3 .44 c. e = b −1 1 e= b eb = 1 1 b= e ≈ 3. . S = 510.026 ) ≈ 1148 India’s population in 2001 will be 1148 million. 3 2 x 65.824411082 = 574 (1) = 574 23.9 According to the linear model.732 ≈ 3. the closer the 3 value is to 2 .4 According to the exponential model. 2055 − 1974 = 81 . 000 (1 + 0. = 465. 744 10 68. India’s population in 2028 will be 2295 million.73 ≈ 3.815240927 23. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1.06 ) ≈ $832. there were about 8. 66.5741877 70. 2005 is 50 years after 1955. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1.321997068 23. a. find 23.03) 5 5 ≈ $591.141 ≈ 8. 54 71.5 kilograms of cesium-137 in Chernobyl’s atmosphere.0344(50) ≈ 10. 2005 is 50 years after 1955. Substitute values from the point (–1.14 ≈ 8.4 million words in the federal tax code in 2005. find d.321995226 21.7 ≈ 3.824979946 27 2π ≈ 8. f ( x) = 0.0344 x g (50) = 1. Since 2028 − 1974 = 54 .44 ≈ 8.7320508 ≈ 3. 81 e. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( 80 ) = 1000 ( 0. y = bx 69. the closer the value is to 2π. f ( 0 ) = 574 (1. 000 (1 + 0.249009585 21.821353305 0 23.317278183 21.1 ≈ 8. S = 465. there were about 10. There will still be 157.73205 ≈ 3.15(50) + 1. India’s population in 2055 will be 4590 million. b. Inc. f ( 27 ) = 574 (1. 230 421 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.824977827 The closer the exponent gets to π.824961595 India’s population in 1974 was 574 million.15 x + 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. g ( x) = 1. India’s population appears to be doubling every 27 years. f (50) = 0. = 157.1 64.5) 80 30 b. 67.87e0.321880096 21.026 ) ≈ 2295 .

f ( x) = 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 72. d.19(1.5(4) + 20 ≈ 30.87e0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 794 c.44 ≈ 4. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ = 80e 0 + 20 = 80(1) + 20 = 100 100% of the material is remembered at the moment it is first learned.1e −0.4 37. 1975 is 20 years after 1955.7 According to the exponential model. 77.1e−0. f ( x) = 6. a.360.3 g (56) = ≈ 27.5(52) + 20 ≈ 20 20% of the material is remembered 1 year after it is first learned.029)40 ≈ 19.19(1.0344 x g (20) = 1.5 68. f (4) = 80e −0.5% of the material is remembered 1 week after it is first learned.8 30. b.5(1) + 20 ≈ 68. f (1) = 80e−0. Answers may vary.5(0) + 20 c. Sample explanation: The horizontal asymptote is y = 0. there were about 4.15(20) + 1. 753 24e0. – 80.1e−0.05(379) ≈ $4. 5% compounded quarterly offers the better return.052(56) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 28.1 1 + 6. b. f (40) = 6. f (52) = 80e −0. . f ( x) = 6. c. Answers may vary. 83.0 in 2006.05 12 ) 12(379) 4t 12 t f (0) = 80e −0.4 million words in the federal tax code in 1975.045 ⎞ A = 10.7 million words in the federal tax code in 1975.8% of the material is remembered 4 week after it is first learned. ≈ $3. 74. Inc. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.052 x 37. 73.029) x 76.052 x 37. ⎛ 0. b.15 x + 1. a.7 37.1e −0.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6.87e0.19(1. b.44 f (20) = 0. The exponential model is the better model for the data in 1975.19(1.917.029)56 ≈ 30. does not make sense.3 in 1990.9 1 + 6. b. Explanations will vary. there were about 3. ( 24 1 + 0.05 ⎞ A = 10.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6.029) x f (56) = 6. 662.4 According to the linear model.3 g (40) = ≈ 21.0344(20) ≈ 3. a. 75. d. 1975 is 20 years after 1955. 81. a. g ( x) = 1. a.052(40) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 21. 422 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 074. 82.

PreCalculus 4E Section 3. false. y= 5x is () (c). log 4 26 = y means 4 y = 26. x is (a). f ( x) = 3− x reflects the graph of y = 3x b. false. A sample change is: If f ( x) = 2 x then f (a + b) = f (a ) ⋅ f (b). 95. e− x − e−( − x ) 2 e− x − e x = 2 − −e − x + e x = 2 e x − e− x =− 2 = − sinh x sinh(− x) = ( c. 2 = log b 25 means b 2 = 25. c. false. gives x = 3. 86. b. makes sense 87. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 Check Point Exercises 93. y = 3x is (d). 423 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. but not as quickly as y = () y= 1 3 5x . Changes to make the statement true will vary. Solving the related equation. a. Note that the boundary value x = 3 does not satisfy the inequality. y = 1 is (b). A sample change is: The functions do not have the same graph. y = 1 is the 5 5 –x same as y = 5 . Explanations will vary. A sample change is: The amount of money will not increase without bound. Section 3. ) 2. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 . y increases as x increases. b. Inc. −x 1. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. We do not know how to solve x = 2 y for y. true 91. b3 = 27 means 3 = log b 27. makes sense 85. x is the same as y = () x 3–x. Sample explanation: An exponential model is better than a linear model. 92. 25 = x means 5 = log 2 x. does not make sense.e. . ∞ ) . ? (cosh x) 2 − (sinh x) 2 = 1 2 of y = 3x about the x-axis. Changes to make the statement true will vary. a.3) ∪ ( 3. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 so it is (d) reflected () x about the y-axis. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 88.2 84. 251/ 2 = 5 2 96. i. 3 = log 7 x means 73 = x. so it is (c) reflected about the y-axis. y = 1 3 94. a. e y = 33 means y = log e 33. −(− x) e +e 2 −x e + ex = 2 e x + e− x = 2 = cosh x cosh(− x) = 2 ⎛ e x + e− x ⎞ ⎛ e x − e− x ⎞ ? ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ =1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x e 2 x − 2 + e −2 x ? − =1 4 4 e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x − e 2 x + 2 − e −2 x ? =1 4 4? =1 4 1=1 about the y-axis while f ( x) = −3x reflects the graph 89. 1 . c. 90.

we obtain x < 0 or x > 0. ∞). 1. b. Because log b 1 = 0. ≈ 34 The function models the actual increase shown in the graph quite well.2 The domain of h consists of all x for which x − 5 > 0. a. for x and evaluate the function at 10. a 10-year-old boy is approximately 80% of his adult height. 8 x 11. Find the temperature increase after 30 minutes by substituting 30 for x and evaluating the function at 30. f ( x) = 13. 5 y = 125 9. The domain of g consists of all x for which x 2 > 0. 1 1 x 1 3 9 27 9 3 g ( x) = log 3 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 The graph of the inverse can also be drawn by reflecting the graph of f ( x) = 3x about the line y = x. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 9 27 9 3 f (30) = 13. Thus the domain of g is (−∞.4 ln 30 − 11. we conclude 3log3 17 = 17.000 I0. we conclude log 9 9 = 1. Question: 36 to what power gives 6? 1 log 36 6 = because 361/ 2 = 36 = 6 2 d. Thus. Substitute the boy’s age. a.8 log(10 + 1) = 29 + 48. Because I = 10. Exercise Set 3. Because log b b = 1. Solving this inequality for x. 8. 2 4 = 16 2. the domain of h is (5.0 on the Richter scale. 4) b. f (10) = 29 + 48. 125 5 125 7 = log 10. 26 = 64 3. ∞). The domain of f consists of all x for which 4 – x > 0. Question: 10 to what power gives 100? log10 100 = 2 because 10 2 = 100. we obtain x < 4. Solving this inequality for x. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 3x. . 10.6 First. we obtain x > 5. 6y = 216 8. b3 = 27 7. 32 = x 4. b.8 log(11) ≈ 80 Thus. Thus. 4. Because blogb x = x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7. 000 3? =4 The earthquake registered 4. 0) ∪ (0. 6. log28 = 3 424 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 10.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 3. b5 = 32 6. we conclude log 7 7 = 8. 000 I 0 R = log I0 1 ? 125 1 1 1 log 5 = −3 because 5−3 = 3 = . x f ( x ) = 3x 10. a. Question: 3 to what power gives 1 log 3 7 3 = because 31 7 = 7 3. b. 92 = x 5. 9. Solving this inequality for x. we conclude log8 1 = 0. the domain of f is (−∞.6 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 3 x. Inc. 5. Question: 5 to what power gives c. 7 a. Because log b b = x.4 ln x − 11.

14. log 3 1 1 = –2 because 3−2 = . log 6 1 1 = −1 because 6−1 = . Because log b 1 = 0. log 64 8 = 1 = −3 125 log8 2 = 1 3 log 64 4 = 34. we conclude log 4 46 = 6. log 6 6 = 1 because 6 2 = 6. log 2 64 = 6 because 2 = 64. 6 24. log 2 12. 2 30. log b 343 = 3 39. 41. 2 3 1 4 16 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 4 x. First. logb1000 = 3 18. Inc. 9 9 −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 4 x 1 16 1 4 log 7 7 = 1 because 7 2 = 7. 36. log13x = 2 16.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. we conclude log 5 57 = 7. 2 35. 38. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 5 26. 19.2 10. 2 1 1 because 81 2 = 81 = 9. log 7 49 = 2 because 7 = 49. 2 3 . 25. log 3 27 = 3 because 33 = 27. = − because 2 2 = 2 2 2 32. log7200 = y 40. Because log b b x = x. we conclude log 6 1 = 0. x g ( x) = log 4 x 1 16 1 4 1 4 16 64 −2 −1 0 1 1 29. log 2 1 15. log8 300 = y 21. Because blogb x = x. 31. Because log b b = 1. log 2 1 1 = −3 because 2−3 = . log 5 1 1 = −4 16 − 1 1 1 . set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 4 x. Because log b b x = x. we conclude 8log8 19 = 19. 6 6 27. 2 43. 13. 42. 23. 20. log 5 1 1 = −1 because 5−1 = . we conclude log 5 5 = 1. we conclude log 4 1 = 0. 17. Because log b 1 = 0. we conclude 7 log 723 = 23. 2 1 425 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because log b b = 1. 8 8 28. 2 22. log 3 − 1 1 1 . we conclude log11 11 = 1. = − because 3 2 = 2 3 3 33. 1 3 log81 9 = 1 1 because 64 2 = 64 = 8. log15 x = 2 37. log 4 16 = 2 because 4 = 16. Because blogb x = x. log 5 625 = 4 11.

so the function is H ( x) = 1 − log 3 x. 1 5 25 125 g ( x) = log 5 x −2 −1 0 1 x 3 1 4 1 16 1 64 g ( x) = log 1 4 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x 16 4 1 x ⎛1⎞ 45. ⎝2⎠ 47. 50.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 44. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted down one g ( x) = log1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 unit. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted right one unit. 1 25 x 1 5 2 16 4 1 4 1 1 16 1 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 1 4 x. First. 51. Inc. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis and shifted up one unit. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x f ( x) = ( 12 ) x 4 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 8 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log1 2 x. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . ∞) . −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 5 x 1 25 1 5 2 x ⎛1⎞ 46. so the function is h( x) = log3 x − 1. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the y-axis. 52. range: (−∞. First. First. vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 48. so the function is g ( x) = log 3 ( x − 1). 1 8 49. . so the function is F ( x) = − log 3 x. ∞) 426 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so the function is G ( x ) = log 3 (− x). ⎝4⎠ x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 3 1 5 25 125 f ( x) = ( 14 ) Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 5 x. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . 53. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 5 x.

vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: (2. 58. 56. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. vertical asymptote: x = 1 domain: (1. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. Inc. ∞) 59. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. ∞) 61. range: (−∞. ∞) . range: (−∞.2 54. range: (−∞. 55. ∞ ) . ∞) . ∞) 427 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) 57. ∞ ) . ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E Section 3. . ∞ ) . ∞) 60.

68. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) 428 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. 66. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) 65. ∞ ) . Inc. ∞) . ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. 69. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . 67. . range: (−∞. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . ∞) .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 62. ∞) 64. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . ∞) 63.

we obtain x > –6. the domain of f is (−∞. ∞). log100 = log10 100 = 2 because 102 = 100. 2). we obtain x < 7. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. Solving this inequality for x. Thus. 7) or (7. ∞) 75. 85. the domain of f is (–4. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. Thus. we conclude log107 = 7. ∞ ) . Inc. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (−∞. 82. 79. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 7)2 > 0. The domain of f consists of all x for which (x – 2)2 > 0. Because 10log x = x. 2) or (2. we obtain x > –4. ∞ ) . 84. we obtain x < 2 or x > 2. 7). ∞) 76. The domain of f consists of all x for which 2 – x > 0. we conclude 10log 53 = 53. log1000 = log10 1000 = 3 because 103 = 1000. 77. the domain of f is (−∞. we conclude 10log33 = 33. 78. Solving this inequality for x. ∞). ∞ ) . ∞) 86. we obtain x < 2. Thus. the domain of f is (–6. . 83. 73. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 6 > 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. the domain of f is (–∞. Solving this inequality for x. range: (−∞. Because 10logx = x. we conclude log108 = 8. Because log10 x = x. Thus. Solving this inequality for x. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞). Thus. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. Solving this inequality for x. Solving this inequality for x. 0) . The domain of f consists of all x for which 7 − x > 0. the domain of f is (–∞. range: (−∞. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 4 > 0. 74. ∞ ) . ∞). ∞) 72. Thus. 80.2 70. Because log10 x = x. we obtain x < 7 or x > 7. ∞) 81. 429 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 71. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0.

90. Because 10log x = x. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Because ln e x = x. 4−3 = x 88. 101. log ( log 32 ) = log ( log 25 ) = log 5 = 1 5 2 5 2 5 107. so ln 6 = −6. 1 = ln e −6 e6 Because ln e x = x we conclude 1 ln e −6 = −6. log 4 x = −3 ln1 = 0 because e0 = 1 . For f ( x) = ln ⎜ ⎟ to be real. Inc. −1) ∪ ( 5. we conclude 10log 100. x 2 − 4 x − 12 > 0 . ∞ ) . we conclude eln 5 x = 5 x 2 . so ln 7 = −7. log 3 ( log 7 7 ) = log 3 1 = 0 1 92. ( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 The boundary points are –1 and 2. we conclude eln 7 x = 7 x 2 . x − 5 > 0 . Because eln x = x. = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 94. 89. −1) ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 87. Because ln e x = x. we conclude ln e6 = 6. 108. we conclude eln125 = 125. ln 7 = ln e −7 Because ln e x = x. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x2 − x − 2 = 0 96. we conclude lne9x = 9x. 2 98. 430 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 91. and the solution set is {21}. we conclude eln 300 = 300. 99. we conclude e 1 ln e−7 = −7. Because eln x = x. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 = 3 x. ln e = log e e = 1 because e1 = e. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − x − 2) to be real. 103. e ln log 64 x = 2 3 2 64 3 = x x= ( 3 64 ) 2 = 42 = 16 The solution is 16. 102. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. and the solution set is {10}. The solution is 64 ⎩ 64 ⎭ x= Because ln e x = x. 5 − x ⎝ ⎠ The boundary points are –1 and 5. we conclude ln e7 = 7. ∞ ) . log ( log 81) = log ( log 34 ) 2 3 2 3 93. 110. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. x +1 ⎛ x +1 ⎞ 111. log 3 ( x − 1) = 2 32 = x − 1 9 = x −1 ( x + 2)( x − 6) = 0 The boundary points are –2 and 6. Because ln e x = x. 105. 104. log ( ln e ) = log1 = 0 95. x 2 − x − 2 > 0 . we conclude 10log x 3 x = x. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. 2 97. log 5 ( x + 4 ) = 2 52 = x + 4 25 = x + 4 21 = x The solution is 21. . and the solution set is {16}. Because 10log x = x. e 106. 10 = x The solution is 10. Because eln x = x. 109. 1 1 = 43 64 1 ⎧1⎫ . Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − 4 x − 12) to be real. Because eln x = x. we conclude ln e13 x = 13 x.

f ( x ) = −7.2% of first-year college women expressed antifeminist views in 2004.5% of first-year college women will express antifeminist views in 2010.05 A normal conversation is about 65 decibels. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5.8. 25.4% of first-year college men expressed antifeminist views in 2004.3 × 106 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 188 Yes. 2010 is 41 years after 1969.2 ×10−6 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 65.4 She is approximately 95. f (10) = 62 + 35 log(10 − 4) ≈ 89. 112. f(13) = 62 + 35log(13–4) ≈ 95.86 ln 41 + 32. after 4 months was about 63. 118. 130.2 According to the function.2. f ( 35 ) = −7. after 6 months was about 58. 115. the sound can rupture the human eardrum.2 x−2 ⎛ x−2⎞ >0.86 ln 35 + 32. f ( x ) = −4.2 According to the function.9.4% of her adult height.5 According to the function.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ to be real. 113.6%.49 ln 41 + 53 ≈ 25. 431 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(2) = 88–15ln(2 + 1) = 71. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units upward. 14.5 The average score after 2 months was about 71. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 ( 3. after 8 months was about 55. 116. 114.5 ≈ 15. ⎟ x+5 ⎝ x+5⎠ The boundary points are –5 and 2. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞.5 f(4) = 88–15ln(4 + 1) = 63.5 ≈ 14.4 According to the function. 2010 is 41 years after 1969. g(x) is f(x) shifted right 2 units and upward 1 unit. a. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 (6. −5) ∪ ( 2. 131. 119. 15. .8 f(8) = 88–15ln(8 + 1) = 55 f(10) = 88–15ln(10 + 1) = 52 f(12) = 88–15ln(12 + 1) = 49. g(x) is f(x) reflected about the x-axis.86 ln x + 32. 128.49 ln 35 + 53 ≈ 26. b. 129. – 127. She is approximately 89. b. 117. and after one year was about 49.86 ln x + 32.5 f ( 35 ) = −4. 2004 is 35 years after 1969.9 f(6) = 88–15ln(6 + 1) = 58. This underestimates the value in the graph by 1%. ∞ ) . f ( x ) = −7. 26. f(0) = 88–15ln(0 + 1) = 88 The average score on the original exam was 88. f ( x ) = −4.49 ln x + 53 120. 2004 is 35 years after 1969.2% of her adult height. b. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0.49 ln x + 53 f ( 41) = −7. a. a. after 10 months was about 52. Answers may vary.5. Inc.2% of first-year college men will express antifeminist views in 2010. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units left.5 f ( 41) = −4.

b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 139. ∞ ) . false. b. log 4 60 < 3 < log3 40 log3 40 > log 4 60 d e. y = ex. 141. They are the same. makes sense 138. makes sense log 2 16 = log 2 24 = 4 136. 000 times as intense as an earthquake of magnitude 4. 140. Answers may vary. A sample change is: The domain of f ( x ) = log 2 x 133. log 4 ⎡log 3 ( log 2 8) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = log 4 ⎡⎣ log3 ( log 2 23 ) ⎤⎦ = log 4 [ log 3 3] = log 4 1 = 0 c. 2 log3 9 = 2 log3 32 = 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 c. Sample explanation: An earthquake of magnitude 8 on the Richter scale is 108− 4 = 104 = 10. a. makes sense 149. log 4 60 < log 4 64 = 3 so log 4 60 < 3. Changes to make the statement true will vary. true 143. y = x. A sample change is: We cannot take the log of a negative number. 137. log 2 8 3 = A sample change is: log 2 4 2 132. log3 81 = log3 34 = 4 b. log 3 81 − logπ 1 4−0 4 = = log 2 2 8 − log 0. log 2 8 + log 2 4 = log 2 23 + log 2 22 = 3 + 2 = 5 c. a. false. log 2 32 − log 2 2 = log 2 25 − log 2 2 = 5 − 1 = 4 c. Inc. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. y = xx 135. 146. log 2 (8 ⋅ 4) = log 2 8 + log 2 4 148. . is ( 0. b. log 2 32 = log 2 25 = 5 134. 147. The score falls below 65 after 9 months. a. log3 92 = 2 log3 9 432 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 3 40 > log 3 27 = 3 so log3 40 > 3. y = x . logbMN = logbM + logbN The sum of the logarithms of its factors. false. 145. y = ln x . Explanations will vary. ⎛ 32 ⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 − log 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ y = x2. 142.001 2 − (−3) 5 144. a.

= 2 + log x 2. 4. log 9 9x =log 9 9+log9 x = 1+log 9 x 5. log 7 2506 = ln 2506 ≈ 4. ( x − 3)2 x 1 log x − 2 log 5 − 10 log y b b 4 b 1/ 4 2 = logb x − log b 5 − log b y10 = logb x1/ 4 − ( logb 25 − log b y10 ) a. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 7 2506 = log 2506 ≈ 4. log 7 (7 x) = log 7 7 + log 7 x = 1 + log 7 x 4. a. 1 ln x 2 + ln( x + 5) 3 = ln x 2 + ln( x + 5)1/ 3 9 = logb x1/ 4 − log b 25 y10 = logb x1/ 4 25 y10 4 or log b 7. 000 + log x = 4 + log x 7. a. log 25 + log 4 = log(25 ⋅ 4) = log100 = 2 b. 2 log( x − 3) − log x = log( x − 3) 2 − log x ⎛ 23 ⎞ log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 23 − log8 x ⎝ x ⎠ = log ⎛ e5 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e5 − ln11 ⎝ 11 ⎠ = 5 − ln11 c. 3. ⎛7⎞ log 7 ⎜ ⎟ = log 7 7 − log 7 x = 1 − log 7 x ⎝ x⎠ 8.3 Section 3. log(100 x) = log100 + log x = ln x 2 ( x + 5)1/ 3 = ln x 2 3 x + 5 b. log(10.3 x log 5 25 y 3 1. log(7 x + 6) − log x = log 7x + 6 x 433 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.02 ln 7 x 25 y10 Exercise Set 3. . log 6 3 = 9 log 6 3 b. log b x 4 3 y = log x 4 y1/3 b = log x 4 + log y1/3 b b 1 = 4 log x + log y b 3 b b.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log100 = log x − 2 ⎝ 100 ⎠ 1/ 2 = log5 x 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − log5 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − ( log 5 52 + log 5 y 3 ) = 12 log 5 x − log 5 52 − log 5 y 3 = 12 log 5 x − 2 log 5 5 − 3log 5 y = 12 log 5 x − 2 − 3log 5 y 5.3 6. 000 x) = log10. a. 1 ln 3 x = ln x1/ 3 = ln x 3 c. log(1000x) = log1000 + log x = 3 + log x 6. ⎛9⎞ log 9 ⎜ ⎟ = log 9 9 − log 9 x = 1 − log 9 x ⎝ x⎠ 9. log8 (13 ⋅ 7) = log8 13 + log8 7 3.02 log 7 8. Check Point Exercises 1. log 6 (7 ⋅ 11) = log 6 7 + log 6 11 b. b. log 5 (7 ⋅ 3) = log 5 7 + log 5 3 2. log( x + 4) 2 = 2 log( x + 4) a. a.

log N–6 = –6log N log M −8 = −8log M 19. ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb ( x 3 y ) − logb z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb x 3 + log b y − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = 3log b x + log b y − 2 log b z log b x 7 = 7 log b x 18. ln ex = ln(ex) 17. ⎛ e2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 2 − ln 5 = 2 ln e − ln 5 = 2 − ln 5 ⎝5⎠ 14. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1/ 2 log 4 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 4 x − log 4 64 = log 4 x − 3 64 2 ⎝ ⎠ 24. ⎛ x2 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = log b ( x 2 y ) − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = log b x 2 + log b y − log b z 2 = 2 log b x + log b y − 2 log b z 15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 29. 11. . logbx3 = 3logbx 16. 12. ln 7 x = ln x 7 = 21.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 10. 1 ln 5 x = ln x (1/ 5) = ln x 5 20. log b xy 3 = log b x + log b y 3 = log b x + 3log b y 1 1 ln x 7 23. log 3 ⎛ x = log ⎜ y ⎝ 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢ log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 3 1 1 = log x − log y 3 3 ⎛ 36 ⎞ 1/ 2 log 6 ⎜ ⎟ = log 6 36 − log 6 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log 6 ( x + 1) 2 434 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ e4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 4 − ln 8 = 4 ln e − ln 8 = 4 − ln 8 ⎝8⎠ 28. ⎛ 125 ⎞ log 5 ⎜ ⎟ = log 5 125 − log 5 y = 3 − log 5 y ⎝ y ⎠ 13. ⎛ 64 ⎞ 1 2 log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 64 − log8 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log8 ( x + 1) 2 1 2 1 ln(ex) 2 1 = (ln e + ln x) 2 1 = (1 + ln x) 2 1 1 = + ln x 2 2 = 31. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log1000 = log x − 3 ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 26. ⎛ 64 ⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ = log 4 64 − log 4 y ⎝ y ⎠ = 3 − log 4 y 27. Inc. log 100 x = log(100 x )1/ 2 1 = log(100 x) 2 1 = (log100 + log x) 2 1 = (2 + log x) 2 1 = 1 + log x 2 30. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1 log 5 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 5 x 2 − log 5 25 = log 5 x − 2 25 2 ⎝ ⎠ 25. log b x 2 y = logb x 2 + log b y = 2 log b x + log b y 22.

x y3 log b 3 z = logb x1/ 2 + log b y 3 − log b z 3 = 34. ln x + ln 3 = ln(3x) 45. log x + 3 log y = log x + log y 3 = log( xy 3 ) 50. 33. ⎛ 96 ⎞ log 2 96 − log 2 3 = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 = 5 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 46. 2 . ⎛ 3x + 7 ⎞ log(3x + 7) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ = ln x3 + ln x 2 + 1 − ln( x + 1) 4 1 = 3ln x + ln( x 2 + 1) − 4 ln( x + 1) 2 49. log 250 + log 4 = log1000 = 3 43. log x + 7 log y = log x + log y 7 = log( xy 7 ) 435 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5 ⎛ 405 ⎞ log 3 405 − log 3 5 = log 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = log3 81 =4 47. − ln ( x + 3) 1 = 4 ln x + ln ( x 2 + 3) − 5 ln ( x + 3) 2 x2 y 25 = log5 x 2 / 3 + log 5 y1/ 3 − log 5 251/ 3 log 5 ⎡ x4 x2 + 3 ⎤ ln ⎢ 5 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ( x + 3) ⎥⎦ ⎡ x 4 ( x 2 + 3)1/ 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ( x + 3) ⎦ = ln x 4 + ln ( x 2 + 3) 1 logb x + 3log b y − 3logb z 2 3 35. Inc. ⎛ 2x + 5 ⎞ log(2 x + 5) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ⎡ x3 x 2 + 1 ⎤ ln ⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ( x + 1) ⎦⎥ 48. 38. ⎡100 x 3 3 5 − x ⎤ log ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ 3( x + 7) ⎦ = log100 + log x3 + log ( 5 − x ) 3 − log 3 − log ( x + 7 ) 1 xy 4 16 = log 2 x1/ 5 + log 2 y 4 / 5 − log 2 161/ 5 41. 1 4 1 = log 2 x + log 2 y − log 2 16 5 5 5 1 4 4 = log 2 x + log 2 y − 5 5 5 37. log 2 x y4 z5 = log x1/ 3 + log b y 4 − log b z 5 b 1 = log b x + 4 log b y − 5log b z 3 40. ln x + ln 7 = ln(7 x) 44. 1 = 2 + 3log x + log(5 − x) − log 3 − 2 log( x + 7) 3 log 5 + log 2 = log(5 ⋅ 2) = log10 = 1 42.3 1 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎡10 x 2 3 1 − x ⎤ log ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 7( x + 1) ⎦ 1 = 1 + 2 log x + log(1 − x) − log 7 − 2 log( x + 1) 3 3 5 5 = log10 + log x 2 + log 3 1 − x − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 2 1 = log5 x + log5 y − log5 52 / 3 3 3 2 1 2 = log5 x + log5 y − 3 3 3 36.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ⎛ x⎞ x log 5 = log ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 5 1 1 = log x − log y 5 5 log b 1/ 2 39.

61. x4 y7 z3 = log xy = logb ( x 5 y 6 ) 58. ⎛ x5 ⎞ 5 ln x − 2 ln y = ln x5 − ln y 2 = ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 56. 4 x3 ) 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 (log 5 x + log 5 y ) − 2 log 5 ( x + 1) 2 1 = log5 xy − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 xy ( x + 1) 2 1 ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) + 2log 4 ( x + 1) 3 1 x = log 4 + log 4 ( x + 1)2 3 y ⎡⎛ x ⎞ = log 4 ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎣⎝ y ⎠ 1/ 3 8 ln (x +9) − 4 ln x = ln( x + 9)8 − ln x 4 = ln ( 1 log x − log y 4 4 3 x 1 = log 4 y 3 x = log 3 4 y 1 1 2 ln x − ln y = ln x 2 − ln y 2 2 ( x + 6) 1 ( log x + log y ) 2 1 = (log xy ) 2 = log( xy )1/ 2 ⎛ = log ⎜ 4 ⎝ ⎛ x3 ⎞ ⎛ x3 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1/ 3 ⎟ or ln ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 59. 5log b x + 6 log b y = log b x 5 + log b y 6 55. = ln x 4 + ln y 7 − ln z 3 ) = ln 63.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 51. ( ) = ln x 3 y or ln y 3 x 1 ) 53. 2logbx + 3logby = logbx2 + logby3 = logb(x2y3) 54. 4 ln x + 7 ln y − 3ln z ( x + 9)8 x4 ⎤ ( x + 1) 2 ⎥ ⎥⎦ = log 4 ⎡( x + 1) 2 3 xy ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 3ln x + 5 ln y − 6 ln z = ln x3 + ln y 5 − ln z 6 = ln x3 y 5 z6 436 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 65. 1 3ln x − ln y = ln x 3 − ln y1/ 3 3 64. 1 1 ln x + ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 3 ( 62. ⎛ x7 ⎞ 7 ln x − 3ln y = ln x 7 − ln y 3 = ln ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 57. 1 ln x + ln y = ln x1/ 2 + ln y 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ln ⎜ x 2 y ⎟ or ln y x ⎝ ⎠ ( 52. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎛ x2 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1 ⎟ or ln ⎜ 2 ⎜ y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln( x + 6) − 3ln x = ln( x + 6) 4 − ln x3 = ln 60. 66. Inc.

3 19 = log19 ≈ −2.2304 log 0. log16 57.5812 log 6 72. log 6 17 = 73. log 0.4595 ln16 75. logπ 63 = ln 63 ≈ 3. y = log15 x = log x log15 81. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 67. log x + log ( x − 1) − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 log17 ≈ 1.2340 ln π = log x + log ( x 2 − 1) − ( log 7 + log( x + 1) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) − log ( 7( x + 1) ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) 7( x + 1) x( x + 1)( x − 1) = log 7( x + 1) x( x − 1) = log 7 70.2 ≈ 1. Section 3.5937 log 5 437 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 76.3 1 [2 ln( x + 5) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 = [ln( x + 5) 2 − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 ⎡ ( x + 5)2 ⎤ = ⎢ ln 3 ⎣ x( x 2 − 4) ⎥⎦ ⎡ ( x + 5) 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 4) ⎦ 1/ 3 ( x + 5) 2 = ln 3 x( x 2 − 4) 68.2 = ln 57. y = log3 x = log x log 3 80. log 5 13 = log( x + 2) log 2 log13 ≈ 1. Inc.5 = ln 87. log 0. logπ 400 = 79. 1 ⎡5ln( x + 6) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 25) ⎤⎦ 3⎣ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ ⎥ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎢ x( x 2 − 25) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ 3 = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 25) ⎦ 69.1 17 = log17 ≈ −1.4456 log 0.5 ≈ 1. .6944 ln14 74.6193 ln π 78.3 77. y = log 2 ( x + 2) = ln 400 ≈ 5. log14 87. log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − log15 − log( x + 2) = log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − ( log15 + log( x + 2) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 4 ) − log (15( x + 2) ) x ( x − 4) 2 = log 15( x + 2) x( x + 2)( x − 2) = log 15( x + 2) x( x − 2) = log 15 71.

log x+2 = log( x + 2) − log( x − 1) x −1 85. ln e = 1 90. x+3 2x x ⎛ I ⎞ D = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ ⎛ 100 I ⎞ D1 = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ = 10 log (100 I − I 0 ) = 10 log100 + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 = 10(2) + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 = log b ⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎟⎟ 16 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ I ⎞ = 20 + 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ This is 20 more than the loudness level of the softer sound. a. false. b. x log10 x = x ⋅ x = x 2 94. true. false. true. ln( x ⋅ 1) = ln x + ln1 95. false.5 weeks to master 30 signs. true. This means that the 100 times louder sound will be 20 decibels louder. . log b 81 = log b 34 = 4log b 3 = 4C 100. ln x + ln(2 x) = ln ( x ⋅ 2 x) ) = ln 2 x 2 3 = log b 3 − log b 2 = C − A 2 83. log b 8 = log b 23 = 3log b 2 = 3 A 99. true. log 3 7 = 1 87. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ln(5 x) + ln1 = ln 5 x + 0 = ln 5 x 96. 88. y = log3 ( x − 2) = ( ) ( ) 92. log b 84. = log b 3 − logb 4 1 = log b 3 2 − log 22 1 log b 3 − 2 log 2 2 1 = C − 2A 2 = 104. e x = ln ee 103. log( x + 3) − log(2 x) = log = log b 2 + log b 3 = A + C 98. Inc. log b log b 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞2 = logb ⎜ ⎟ 27 ⎝ 27 ⎠ 1 ⎛2⎞ = log b ⎜ 3 ⎟ 2 ⎝3 ⎠ 1 = ( logb 2 − log b 33 ) 2 1 = ( logb 2 − 3log b 3) 2 1 3 = log b 2 − log b 3 2 2 1 3 = A− C 2 2 log 7 1 1 = log 3 = log 3 log 7 log 7 3 102. true. t= 438 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.03 ⎢⎣ 65 − 30 ⎥⎦ 1 ⎛ 65 ⎞ t= ln ⎜ ⎟ 0. 89. b. log b 6 = log b ( 2 ⋅ 3) 97.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 82. log 4 ( 2 x ) = 3log 4 ( 2 x ) 3 1 ⎛ A ⎞ t = ln ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ A− N ⎠ 1 ⎡ 65 ⎤ ln 0. true. ln ee = 0 91. false. a. false. product rule 101. ln 8 x3 = ln 23 x3 = ln ( 2 x ) = 3ln ( 2 x ) log( x − 2) log 3 3 93. false.03 ⎝ 35 ⎠ t ≈ 20. false.63 It will take the chimpanzee a little more than 20. false. quotient rule 86.

To obtain the graph of y = log3(x + 2). Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: logb ( xy ) = 5logb ( xy ) 5 = 5 ( logb x + logb y ) a. 121. log 3 log x log 25 x = . . Changes to make the statement true will vary.1x) = log x − 1. shift the graph of y = log3x two units left. true 126.3 105. Inc. does not make sense. 116. shift the graph of y = log3x two units upward. reflect the graph of y = log3x about the x-axis. these two graphs are log 7 49 − log 7 7 = 2 − 1 = 1 . Answers may vary. Explanations will vary. just vertical shifts of y = log x. y = log 3 x = b. To obtain the graph of y = –log3x. but log 7 7 1 Using the product rule. ∞). the graph of the equation with the largest b will be on the top in the interval (0. 1 To obtain the graph of y = 2 + log3x. Answers may vary. makes sense 124. false. = 5logb x + 5logb y top graph: y = log100 x bottom graph: y = log 3 x 439 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 127. ) A sample change is: logb x3 + y 3 cannot be simplified. – 120. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: log 7 49 log 7 49 = = log 7 49 = 2 . false. ( log x log 3 x = . ( ) logb x3 y 3 = logb x3 + logb y 3 = 3logb x + 3logb y 128. 113.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. – 112. makes sense b. we would have been able to simplify as follows. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Hence. a. 125. makes sense 123. log 25 log x log100 x = log100 115. log(10 x) = log x + 1 and l log(0. false. 1) and on the bottom in the interval (1. c. top graph: y = log 3 x bottom graph: y = log100 x ln x ln 3 Comparing graphs of log b x for b > 1. 122. ⎛ x ⎞2 x = log 4 ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ Sample explanation: log 4 ⎛x⎞ 1 log 4 ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ y⎠ 1 = ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) 2 1 1 = log 4 x − log 4 y 2 2 = 114. If we were taking the logarithm of a product and not a sum.

∞ ) 440 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 2. a( x − 2) = b(2 x + 3) ax − 2a = 2bx + 3b ax − 2bx = 2a + 3b x(a − 2b) = 2a + 3b 2a + 3b x= a − 2b asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −3 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1/ h x⎞ ⎛ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ h⎠ 133. 2 x − 7x = 3 2 x − 7x − 3 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−7) ± (−7) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) x= 7 ± 61 2 ⎪⎧ 7 ± 61 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. ( 0. e 132. Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 1. log e = log10 e = ln e 1 = ln10 ln10 135. log 7 9 = ⎛ 8x ⎞ ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ = e ⎝ 2x ⎠ x2 + 2 x = 4 x + 3 x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x +1 = 0 or x−3= 0 x = −1 x=3 5 131. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0. log 9 log 32 2 log 3 = = log 7 log 7 log 7 2A = B 130. ln 8 x5 − ln 2 x 2 =e ln ( 4 x 3 ) x+2 1 = 4x + 3 x ⎛ x+2 ⎞ ⎛1⎞ x(4 x + 3) ⎜ ⎟ = x(4 x + 3) ⎜ x ⎟ x 4 + 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ x( x + 2) = 4 x + 3 = 4 x3 log b ( x + h) − log b x h x+h log b x = h ⎛ h⎞ log b ⎜1 + ⎟ x⎠ ⎝ = h 1 ⎛ h⎞ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ h x⎠ ⎝ The solution set is {−1.3} . . ∞ ) ( −3. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = x( x − 7) = 3 134. ⎪⎩ 2 ⎪⎭ asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 129.

∞ ) . Let log100 10 = y range of f = range of g = ( −∞. 6. ∞ ) 100 y = 10 (10 ) 5. ∞ ) 2 The argument of the logarithm must be positive. log 2 ( log 3 81) = log 2 ( log 3 34 ) = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 range of f = range of g = ( −∞. f ( x ) = log 3 ( x + 6 ) The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x+6 > 0 x > −6 domain: {x | x > −6} or ( −6. f ( x ) = log 3 x + 6 The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x>0 domain: {x | x > 0} or ( 0.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 3. log 2 8 + log 5 25 = log 2 23 + log5 52 = 3+ 2 = 5 asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 1 domain of f = ( 0. f ( x ) = 3x + 6 domain: {x | x is a real number} or ( −∞. except when 4. log 3 10 = log10 3 = 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 2 x = −6 domain: {x | x ≠ 0} or ( −∞. ∞ ) 1 2 1 1 3 13. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) 441 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. domain of g = (1. ∞ ) 11. log 3 ( x + 6 ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. 8. ∞ ) log 3 1 1 = log 3 2 = log 3 3−2 = −2 9 3 12. Now ( x + 6 ) is always positive. . 2 y = 101 102 y = 101 2y = 1 y= asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. 9. ∞ ) . −6 ) ∪ ( −6. 7. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. 10.

log100 0.1 = y 25. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ log 3 ⎜ log 2 ⎟ = log 3 ⎜ log 2 3 ⎟ 8⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 23. 10log13 = 13 19. ⎛ xy ⎞ log ⎜ = log ⎜ 1000 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 26. Inc.170 − 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 15. ) xy − log1000 = log ( xy ) 2 − log103 1 1 log ( xy ) − 3 2 1 = ( log x + log y ) − 3 2 1 1 = log x + log y − 3 2 2 = 22.162 = 8 Interest returned will be $8 more if compounded continuously.1 (10 ) 2 y 102 y = ln x 2 − ln y 3 − ln ( z − 2 ) 1 1 10 = 10−1 = = ln x − ⎡⎣ ln y 3 + ln ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ = ln x − ln ⎡⎣ y 3 ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ 2 y = −1 ⎡ x ⎤ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎣ y ( z − 2) ⎦ 1 y=− 2 π 20. logπ π 21. 100 y = 0.162 10.08 ⎞ Monthly: A = 8000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 10.08(3) = π ≈ 10. ln e 24.170 12⋅3 ( ⎛ 0. 16. 7 log 5 x + 2 log 5 x = log5 x 7 + log 5 x 2 = log5 ( x 7 ⋅ x 2 ) = 7 7 = log5 x9 18. . 6log6 5 = 5 17. 1 ln x − 3ln y − ln ( z − 2 ) 2 ln ( e19 x 20 ) = ln e19 + ln x 20 = 19 + 20 ln x 442 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Continuously: A = 8000e0. = log 3 ( log 2 2−3 ) = log 3 ( −3) 1 1 8 log 7 x − log 7 y = log 7 x8 − log 7 y 3 3 ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ y3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = not possible This expression is impossible to evaluate.

3x + 6 = 2x − 6 2.4 Section 3.10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 = 125 3 x −6 5 = 53 (2 x − 1) ln 3 = ( x + 1) ln 7 3x − 6 = 3 3x = 9 x=3 b.90 The solution set is {log 8000} .95. x ex − 7 = 0 x b.04. 2 = x−4 8= x−4 12 = x Check: log ( x − 4) = 3 2 log (12 − 4) = 3 2 log 8 = 3 2 3=3 The solution set is {12}. ⎩ 2 ⎭ approximately 1. ⎩ ln 5 ⎭ approximately 3. 32 x −1 = 7 x +1 ln 32 x −1 = ln 7 x +1 4. 5x = 134 ln 5 = ln134 x ln 5 = ln134 ln134 x= ≈ 3.10 x= 2 ⎧ ln 9 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. a. 3. 443 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. approximately 3. Inc. − 7 )( e x − 1) = 0 or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 7 ex = 1 ln e = ln 7 ln e x = ln1 x x = ln 7 x=0 The solution set is {0. 3 x−6 7e 2 x = 63 e2 x = 9 ln e 2 x = ln 9 2 x = ln 9 ln 9 ≈ 1. ln7}. The solutions are 0 and (approximately) 1. 2 x ln 3 − ln 3 = x ln 7 + ln 7 2 x ln 3 − x ln 7 = ln 3 + ln 7 x(2 ln 3 − ln 7) = ln 3 + ln 7 ln 3 + ln 7 2 ln 3 − ln 7 x ≈ 12.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.4 Check Point Exercises 1. 6. 3 10 x = 8000 log10 x = log 8000 x log10 = log 8000 x = log 8000 ≈ 3. e 2 x − 8e x + 7 = 0 5.11 8 x + 2 = 4 x −3 (2 ) 3 2 x+2 3 x +6 ( ) = 22 x= x −3 = 2 2 x −6 (e x = −12 a. .04 ln 5 ⎧ ln134 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.90. log 2 ( x − 4) = 3 a.

⎧ e2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .77 x 6e12.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log x( x − 3) = 1 101 = x( x − 3) 10 = x 2 − 3x x= ln ( 76 ) ≈ 0.2 After approximately 16.77 x = 7 6 ⎛7⎞ ln e12.08 ⎞ 1000 ⎜1_ ⎟ = 3600 4 ⎠ ⎝ 1000(1 + 0.02 ≈ 16.77 x = 7 e12. 2 10.46 3 x 2 − 2 x − 3 = 7 x − 23 Check 4 ln 3x = 8 x 2 − 9 x + 20 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 0 x = 4 or x = 5 Both values produce true statements.46. The solution set is {5}.2 years. let R = 7 in R = 6e12.6 ln 3. 5} ⎛ e2 ⎞ 4 ln 3 ⎜ ⎟ = 8 ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln e2 = 8 4(2) = 8 8=8 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall.77 For a blood alcohol concentration of 0. the risk of a car accident is 7%. ⎛ r⎞ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ nt ⎛ 0.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎛7⎞ 12. 4 ln 3x = 8 8. t= 444 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7.01 12.6 4 ln1. the $1000 will grow to an accumulated value of $3600.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions b. ⎩3⎭ approximately 2.02) 4t = 3600 (1.02) 4t = 3600 1000(1.02) 4t = ln 3. The solution set is {4.08 ⎞ 3600 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4t 4t ⎛ 0.01.02) = ln 3. .6 4t ln(1. ln 3x = 2 eln 3 x = e 2 3x = e2 x= e2 ≈ 2. Inc. 0 = x − 3x − 10 0 = ( x − 5)( x + 2) x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = 5 or x = −2 Check Checking 5: log 5 + log(5 − 3) = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 1=1 Checking –2: log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log(−2) + log(−2 − 3) 0 1 Negative numbers do not have logarithms so –2 does not check. ln( x − 3) = ln(7 x − 23) − ln( x + 1) 7 x − 23 ln( x − 3) = ln x +1 7 x − 23 x−3= x +1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 7 x − 23 For a risk of 7%.

29. 3x = 81 ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .3ln x = 25 32 x +1 = 33 2x + 1 = 3 2x = 2 x =1 The solution set is {1}. 42 x −1 = 64 42 x −1 = 43 2x − 1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 The solution is 2. and the solution set is {3} . 5x = 3 3 x= 5 The solution is 5 = 625 x 5 x = 54 x=4 The solution set is {4}. and the solution set is {3} .3 7. 53 x −1 = 125 53 x −1 = 53 3x − 1 = 3 3x = 4 4 x= 3 x 3x = 34 x=4 The solution set is {4}. 3. 32 x +1 = 27 10.4 f ( x) = 54. 1. 5.4 2. Inc. 54. 8. 5 ⎩5⎭ 4 x = 32 (2 ) 2 x = 25 2 2 x = 25 22 x −1 = 32 2x = 5 22 x −1 = 25 2x − 1 = 5 2x = 6 x=3 The solution is 3. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . Exercise Set 3.PreCalculus 4E 11. 2 x = 26 x=6 The solution is 6.8 log e x = 12.8 −29. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x= 5 2 ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩3⎭ 2 = 64 9.8 − 12.277 An annual income of approximately $11. and the solution set is {2} . 32 x = 8 (2 ) 5 x = 23 5x = 125 2 5 x = 23 5x = 53 x=3 The solution is 3. ⎩2⎭ 445 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 − 12. 3 ⎧3⎫ .3ln x = −29. Section 3. 4. Solve equation when f ( x) = 25 . −12.8 x = e 12.3 x ≈ 11. and the solution set is {6} .000 corresponds to 25% of Americans reporting fair or poor health. .8 ln x = −12.3 29.3 ln x 6.

⎩3⎭ 2x − 4 = 6 1 13. 2 ⎩2⎭ 53 x = 54 3x = 4 16. 52 − x = 18. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩ 6⎭ 2x = − 446 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. = 33 12. and the solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. 3 x 3 ⎧3⎫ . 1 2x − 6 = 4 2 x = 10 x=5 The solution is 5. 9 x = 27 (3 ) 2 x 15. 9x = (3 ) 2 x = 1 3 3 1 1 33 − 13 32 x = 3 1 3 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 3⎠ 6 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . 4 ⎩ 4⎭ 2x = − 1 125 1 2− x 5 = 3 5 52− x = 5−3 2 − x = −3 − x = −5 x=5 The solution set is {5}. 4x = (2 ) 2 x = 1 2 1 1 22 22 x = 2 − 12 1 2 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 2⎠ 4 1 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution is − . 3 = 27 1 31− x = 3 3 31− x = 3−3 1 − x = −3 − x = −4 x=4 The solution set is {4}. . = 54 x= = 6 6 = 62 x −3 1 = 4 2 2 ( x − 3) = 4 (1) 125 x = 625 (5 ) x −3 4 x −3 4 32 x = 33 2x = 3 3 x= 2 The solution is 6 x=5 The solution set is {5}. and the solution set is {5}. 2 x = 10 1− x 14. 7 7 4 3 x−2 6 x−2 6 = 7 1 = 72 x−2 1 = 6 2 2 ( x − 2 ) = 6 (1) ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

5e x = 23 23 ex = 5 23 ln e x = ln 5 23 x = ln ≈ 1. 5x = 17 28.83 ln e x = ln 0. e5 x = 659 10 = 3.7 ≈ 1. e x = 0.30 5 ln 3.48 9 e x +1 = e x+4 = ⎧ 4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .07 x= ≈ 0.91 x ln e5 x = ln 659 ln10 = ln 3. 9e x = 107 107 ex = 9 107 ln e x = ln 9 107 x = ln ≈ 2. 19 x = 143 x ln 19 = ln 143 ln143 x= ≈ 1. x −1 ln e x = 5.69 ln19 1 5 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .83 ≈ –0. 29.91 x= 3e5 x = 1977 ln 659 ≈ 1. 13 = x The solution set is {13} .59 ln10 24.19 ln 5 x = ln17 x ln 5 = ln17 ln17 x= ≈ 1.07 x ln10 = ln 8. (2 ) 3 x +3 ( ) = 24 25. ⎩ 3⎭ 23.4 8 x +3 = 16 x −1 19.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.07 ln10 x = ln 8.91 ln10 447 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (2 ) 3 1− x ( ) = 22 3 − 3x = 2 x + 4 −5 x = 1 22. 27. ⎩ 5⎭ 21. Inc.76 ln 5 x+2 23−3 x = 22 x + 4 x=− e x = 5.07 ln 8. . 81− x = 4 x + 2 20.7 31. 1 e x +1 e = e −1 x + 1 = −1 x = −2 The solution set is {−2} . Publishing as Prentice Hall.91 ≈ 0.53 5 1 e2 x x+4 e = e −2 x x + 4 = −2 x 3 x = −4 4 x=− 3 30.91 x x= x ln10 = ln 3. 10 x = 8.7 x = ln 5.83 x = ln 0.74 23 x + 9 = 2 4 x − 4 3x + 9 = 4 x − 4 26.

09 ln 7 38. e5 x − 3 − 2 = 10. . 33.06 ln 5 ln 70.80 ≈ x 5 x = ln10.25 ln 3 41.00 8 x= 7 x + 2 = 410 ln10. 476 e5 x − 3 = 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 478 (5 x − 3) ln e = ln10.58 4 448 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 478 ln e5 x − 3 = ln10. 1 – ln 793 ≈ –1. 5 x− 3 = 137 ln 5 x− 3 = ln137 (x – 3) ln 5 = ln 137 ln137 x −3 = ln 5 ln137 x = 3+ ≈ 6. 478 70.45 5 e 4 x − 5 − 7 = 11.2 x= ≈ –10.3 x = 813 3x / 7 = 0. 243 e 4 x – 5 = 11.3x ln 7 = ln 813 ln 813 x= ≈ 11. 40.14 5 39. 478 + 3 36. 478 (2 x + 3) ln 5 = ( x − 1) ln 3 2 x ln 5 + 3ln 5 = x ln 3 − ln 3 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x ln 3 − 2 x ln 5 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x(ln 3 − 2 ln 5) 3ln 5 + ln 3 =x ln 3 − 2ln 5 −2.2 ln 3x / 7 = ln 0.12 7 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 37. e1− 5 x = 793 ln e1− 5 x = ln 793 (1 − 5 x)(ln e) = ln 793 1 − 5 x = ln 793 5 x = 1 − ln 793 x= 34. 4e7 x = 10. 273 e7 x = 4 ⎛ 10. 35. 250 ln e 4 x − 5 = ln11. 250 (4x – 5)ln e = ln 11.2 x ln 3 = ln 0. 250 + 5 x= ≈ 3. 52x + 3 = 3x 2–x1+ 3 ln 5 = ln 3x −1 5 x − 3 = ln10.250 4x – 5 = ln 11. ln 7 x + 2 = ln 410 ( x + 2) ln 7 = ln 410 ln 410 x+2= ln 7 ln 410 x= − 2 ≈ 1.250 ln11. 273 ⎞ ln e7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎛ 10. 273 ⎞ 7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 1 ⎛ 10.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 32.2 7 ln 0.3 x = ln 813 0. 273 ⎞ x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 1. Inc.3ln 7 e1−8 x = 7957 ln e1−8 x = ln 7957 (1 – 8x) ln e = ln 7957 1 – 8x = ln 7957 8x = 1 – ln 7957 1 – ln 7957 x= ≈ –1.48 0. 273 10. 478 + 3 ≈ 2.2 7 x ln 3 = 7 ln 0.

58 49. 22 x + 2 x − 12 = 0 (2 x + 4)(2 x − 3) = 0 e 2 x − 2e x − 3 = 0 x 3x − 1 = 0 3 x = −2 x = ln 2 x=0 The solution set is {0.09 ≈ x 449 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 32 x + 3x − 2 = 0 (3x + 2)(3x − 1) = 0 − 2 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 2 = 0 e2 x = −3 ln e 2 x = ln 6 ln e 2 x = ln(−3) 2 x = ln 6 ln(−3) does not exist. The solutions are 0 and approximately 0.69. Inc. 45. Section 3. ln x = 3 e3 = x 20. or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 2 ex = 1 ln e x = ln 2 ln e x = ln1 3x + 2 = 0 (e 3x = 1 log 3x = log(−2) log 3x = log1 does not exist log 3 = 0 0 x= log 3 x=0 The solution set is {0}.10. log 5 x = 3 53 = x e2 x + 8 = 0 e 2 x = −8 ln e 2 x = ln(−8) 2 x = ln(−8) or e 2 x − 3 = 0 e2 x = 3 ln e 2 x = ln 3 2 x = ln 3 ln 3 ln(−8) does not exist x= 2 ln 3 x= ≈ 0.PreCalculus 4E 42. The solutions is approximately 1. ln 2). (2 x + 1) ln 7 = ( x + 2) ln 3 ln 3 2 x + 1 = ( x + 2) ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x + 1 = x + ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x − x = −1 ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 ⎞ 2 ln 3 ⎛ −1 x⎜2 − ⎟= ln 7 ⎠ ln 7 ⎝ 2 ln 3 −1 ≈ 0. log 3 x = 4 34 = x 81 = x e 4 x + 5e 2 x − 24 = 0 2x 2x − 3 = 0 x= x = ln 3 no solution The solution set is {ln 3}. ln 6 ≈ 0. 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall. .09 x = ln 7 ln 3 2− ln 7 (e e 2 x − 6 = 0 or e 2 x + 3 = 0 e2 x = 6 x 47.39 ≈ x 52.4 7 2 x +1 = 3 x + 2 ln 7 2 x +1 = ln 3x + 2 46. ln x = 2 e2 = x 7. 2x + 4 = 0 2 x = −4 ln 2 x = ln ( −4 ) − 3)( e x + 1) = 0 ex − 3 = 0 does not exist or e x + 1 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −1 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x = ln(−1) (e 2x = 3 ln 2 x = ln 3 x ln 2 = ln 3 ln 3 ln 2 x ≈ 1. 44.90 x= 2 e 2 x − 3e x + 2 = 0 43.55 2 125 = x 51. e 4 x − 3e 2 x − 18 = 0 ( e2 x − 6 )( e2 x + 3) = 0 + 8 )( e 2 x − 3) = 0 50.

3−3 = 1 = 27 1 4 = 27 4.61 x 62.98 ≈ 57.30 2 450 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .72 ln x + 3 = 1 eln log 4 (3 x + 2) = 3 x+3 = e1 x+3 = e x + 3 = e2 x = e 2 − 3 ≈ 4. log 7 ( x + 2) = −2 1 3 ln x = − x+2 eln x = e − x=e x 63.75 = x 65.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 53. ⎩4⎭ 5 ln 2 x = 20 ln 2 x = 4 eln 2 x = e4 2 x = e4 x= 7 + 3ln x = 6 3ln x = −1 x+2 64 = 3x + 2 59. log 5 x + log 5 ( 4 x − 1) = 1 log 5 ( 4 x 2 − x ) = 1 4 x2 − x = 5 4 x2 − x − 5 = 0 (4 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = −1 4 x = –1 does not check because log 5 (−1) does not exist. 1 2 eln x = e −1/ 2 43 = 3 x + 2 58. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 = x+5 3 e ln 2 x = e5 59 = x 54. ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 32 = 4 x + 1 31 = 4 x 31 =x 4 7. log 3 ( x − 4) = −3 e5 ≈ 74. x 1 −1 3 3 ≈ 0.21 2 e4 ≈ 27.39.39 62 = 3x 62 =x 3 20. log 4 ( x + 5) = 3 60. Inc.04 ≈ 56. 61. ln x = − x−4 x x = e −1/ 2 ≈ 0. 6 + 2 ln x = 5 2 ln x = −1 x−4 7 −2 = 1 = 49 48 −1 = 49 −1. ln x + 4 = 1 eln x+4 = e1 x+4 =e log 2 (4 x + 1) = 5 x + 4 = e2 2 = 4x + 1 5 x = e 2 − 4 ≈ 3. 6 ln 2 x = 30 ln 2 x = 5 2 x = e5 log 5 ( x − 7) = 2 x= 5 = x−7 2 32 = x 55.67 ≈ x 64.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 log 6 ( x + 5 ) + log 6 x = 2 70. The solution set is {6}.PreCalculus 4E 66. . The solution set is {3}. x + 2 = 8 x − 40 7 x = 42 x=6 451 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 69. Section 3. The solution set is {4}. 5= x 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − log 2 4 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − 2 log 2 ( x − 1) + log 2 ( x + 1) = 3 log 2 ⎡⎣( x − 1)( x + 1) ⎤⎦ = 3 72. 3= x 73. 67. log 4 ( x + 2 ) − log 4 ( x − 1) = 1 log 3 ( x − 5 ) + log 3 ( x + 3) = 2 71. 68. log 6 x( x + 5) = 2 x( x + 5) = 6 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ x −1 ⎠ x+2 = 41 x −1 x+2 =4 x −1 x + 2 = 4(x – 1) x + 2 = 4x – 4 3x = 6 x=2 2 x 2 + 5 x = 36 x 2 + 5 x − 36 = 0 (x + 9)(x – 4) = 0 x = –9 or x = 4 x = –9 does not check because log 6 (−9 + 5) does not exist. Inc. 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 3 log 2 ( x − 1) = 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 23 21 = x − 1 x −1 = 8 x2 = 9 x = 3 or x = –3 x = –3 does not check because log 2 (−3 − 1) does not exist. log 3 ⎣⎡( x − 5)( x + 3) ⎦⎤ = 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = log 3 9 + 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 + 2 ( x − 5)( x + 3) = 32 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 4 x 2 – 2 x – 15 = 9 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 24 = 0 32 = x + 4 ( x − 6)( x + 4) = 0 9= x+4 x = 6 or x = −4 x = –4 does not check because log 3 (−4 − 5) does not exist. log 2 ( x − 6) + log 2 ( x − 4) − log 2 x = 2 log 2 log 2 ( x + 2 ) − log 2 ( x − 5 ) = 3 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟=3 ⎝ x−5⎠ x+2 = 23 x−5 x+2 =8 x−5 x + 2 = 8( x − 5) ( x − 6)( x − 4) =2 x ( x − 6)( x − 4) = 22 x x 2 − 10 x + 24 = 4 x x 2 − 14 x + 24 = 0 x − 12 = 0 or ( x − 12)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {12} since log2 (2−6) = log2 (−4) is not possible.

−10 = x This value is rejected. log(2 x − 1) = log(3x + 9) 2 x − 1 = 3x + 9 79. ( x − 3) x =2 ( x + 2) log x3 = log125 x3 = 125 x − 3x x+2 4( x + 2) = x 2 − 3x 22 = 3log x = log125 2 x=5 81. . Inc. The solution set is {28}. The solution set is x+7 = log(7 x + 1) 3 x+7 = 7x + 1 3 x + 7 = 21x + 3 −20 x = −4 log(3x − 3) = log(4 x + 4) 78. log( x + 7) − log 3 = log(7 x + 1) log ⎧4⎫ This value is rejected. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x+4 = log(5 x + 1) 2 x+4 = 5x + 1 2 x + 4 = 10 x + 2 { }.22 x= log( x + 4) = log x + log 4 log( x + 4) = log 4 x 82. −9 x = −2 2 9 x ≈ 0. 4 x + 8 = x − 3x 2 log( x + 4) − log 2 = log(5 x + 1) log 0 = x − 7x − 8 2 0 = ( x + 1)( x − 8) x +1 = 0 or x−8 = 0 x = −1 x=8 log2 (−1−3) = log2(−4) does not exist. The solution set is 2 log x − log 7 = log112 log x 2 − log 7 = log112 log(3x − 3) = log( x + 1) + log 4 −7 = x This value is rejected. log 3x − 3 = 4 x + 4 { }. x2 = log112 7 x2 = 112 7 x 2 = 784 x = ±28 –28 is rejected. so the solution set is {8} 75. log( x − 2) + log 5 = log100 log(5 x − 10) = log100 5 x − 10 = 100 5 x = 110 2 log x = log 25 x = 22 log x = log 25 2 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 –5 is rejected. 452 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .2 log(5 x + 1) = log(2 x + 3) + log 2 log(5 x + 1) = log(4 x + 6) 5x + 1 = 4x + 6 x=5 x= 83. log(2 x − 1) = log( x + 3) + log 3 84. ⎩3⎭ 76. log 2 ( x − 3) + log 2 x − log 2 ( x + 2) = 2 log 2 80. 1 5 x ≈ 0. The solution set is {5}. x + 4 = 4x 4 = 3x 4 x= 3 77.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 74.

Publishing as Prentice Hall.67 x= log( x 2 + x − 6) = log14 x 2 + x − 6 = 14 x 2 + x − 20 = 0 90. 52 x ⋅ 54 x = 125 52 x + 4 x = 53 ⎛1⎞ log 2 ( x − 1) − log 2 ( x + 3) = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝x⎠ x −1 ⎛1⎞ = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ log 2 x+3 ⎝x⎠ x −1 1 = x+3 x x2 − x = x + 3 56 x = 53 6x = 3 x= 92. 88. ln( x − 5) − ln( x + 4) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 2) 91.05 453 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is { }. . ( x + 5)( x − 4) = 0 x = −5 or x = 4 –5 is rejected. 3x + 2 ⋅ 3x = 81 3( x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x = −1 or x = 3 –1 is rejected. Inc. 1 2 x + 2)+ x = 34 32 x + 2 = 34 2x + 2 = 4 2x = 2 x =1 93.PreCalculus 4E 85. 87. ln( x − 2) − ln( x + 3) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 7) x−2 x −1 = ln x+3 x+7 x − 2 x −1 = x+3 x+7 ( x − 2)( x + 7) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) log( x + 3x) = log10 2 x 2 + 5 x − 14 = x 2 + 2 x − 3 3 x = 11 log( x + 3) + log( x − 2) = log14 11 3 x ≈ 3.4 log x + log( x + 3) = log10 89. x −5 x −1 = ln x+4 x+2 x − 5 x −1 = x+4 x+2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = ( x + 4)( x − 1) ln ln( x − 4) + ln( x + 1) = ln( x − 8) ln( x 2 − 3 x − 4) = ln( x − 8) x 2 − 3x − 10 = x 2 + 3x − 4 x 2 − 3x − 4 = x − 8 −6 x = 6 x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 x = −1 –1 is rejected.09 3 or ln x = −3 x = e −3 x ≈ 0. The solution set is {2}. 86. 2 ln x − 6 = 0 2 ln x = 6 ln x = 3 ln x = 3 x=e x ≈ 20. Section 3. The solution set is { }. The solution set is {4}. ln x + 3x = 10 2 x + 3 x − 10 = 0 2 ( x + 5)( x − 2) = 0 x = −5 or x = 2 –5 is rejected. ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x=2 2 is rejected. The solution set is {3}.

. ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ x = 10−2 x = 0.01 x = 102 x = 100 95. x2 + 5x = 3 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − 2 ln x = 0 x= ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − ln x = 0 2 ln 3 =0 x( x + 5) (2 x + 1)( x − 3) =0 x2 (2 x + 1)( x − 3) = e0 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 =1 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 = x2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2 x + 5x − 3 = 0 2a −(5) ± (5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) −5 ± 37 2 −5 + 37 x= ≈ 0.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ −5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.54 2 −5 − 37 x= ≈ −5.86 ln 3 x=± −(−5) ± (−5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 5 ± 37 2 5 + 37 x= ≈ 5. 3 log x − 6 = 0 x= 3 log x = 6 log x = 2 log x = 2 or log x = −2 2(1) x= 2 3x = 45 2 ln 3x = ln 45 x 2 ln 3 = ln 45 ln 45 x2 = ln 3 ln 45 ≈ ±1. x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 98. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.54 2 5 − 37 x= ≈ −0. x2 5 = 50 3 x( x + 5) 3 1= x( x + 5) x( x + 5) = 3 e0 = 2 ln 5 x = ln 50 x 2 ln 5 = ln 50 ln 50 x2 = ln 5 ln 50 ≈ ±1. 2 ⎩⎪ ⎭⎪ x= x2 − 5x − 3 = 0 454 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. ln 3 − ln( x + 5) − ln x = 0 ln 96.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 94.56 ln 5 x=± 97.

x = −2 The solution set is {−2.1e0.9e0. ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 27 = e0.9 27 ln t = 22. This is represented by the point (118.975) x 40 = e0.1 40 = ln e0. A = 36.975) x Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 1 = 0.0183t Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 2005 is 0 years after 2005.9 27 0.975) x ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 1 = 20(0. This is represented by the point (75. a. Inc.4 2 −12 x 2 −12 x 2 −12 102. 6} . 2005 is 0 years after 2005.9e0.0126t 40 = 36.1 40 ln 36.0126(0) = 36.9 The population of Texas was 22. b. or 2014.1 The population of California was 36.0126t 104.9 ≈ 9 0. A = 22.1 million in 2005.975 x ≈ 75 There is 3% of surface sunlight at 75 feet.975 x ln 20 3 = x ln 0.975) x 3 = 0.1e0. or 2013 3 = 20(0. a. x = −2 The solution set is {−2. 101.0126t A = 36. .0183t ) 2 2x A = 22. 5x 5 5 Section 3. 6} . A = 36. 4x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 b.0183t ln 22.975 x 20 1 = ln 0. f ( x) = 20(0. 100.9e0.0183t 22.1 ≈8 t= 0.1e0.0126t ln 36.975 x ≈ 118 There is 1% of surface sunlight at 118 feet. 455 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 20(0.9 27 = ln e0.975 x ln 20 1 = x ln 0.975 ln 20 1 ln 20 x= ln 0.9e0.0183(0) = 22.3).0126t 36.0183 The population of Texas will reach 27 million about 9 years after 2005.0183t = ln 22.975 ln 20 3 ln 20 x= ln 0. = 252 x = (5 =5 A = 22.975 x 20 3 = ln 0.9 million in 2005. 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 = 92 x = ( 32 ) 2x = 34 x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 103. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0126t = ln 36.1e0.0126 The population of California will reach 40 million about 8 years after 2005.1).0183t 27 = 22.1 40 0.PreCalculus 4E 99.

8) /1440 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.00541667) = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ (1.8 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 1440 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1. .8) /1440 − 1 ≈ 0. 000 = 8000e r ⋅ 2 e 2 r = 1.065 ⎞ 15. ( 360 ⋅ 4 ) 1440 r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ (1. Inc.7 The amount would double in 8.6 t= r ⎞ ⎛ 9000 = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 108. 000 ln 1+ r e ( 360 ) = e(ln1.7 years.08 t ≈ 8.203 2 20.7% ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ t= ≈ 11. t= 720 = 1.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = e(ln1.5 ln e 2 r = ln1.4) / 720 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.6 ≈ 8. 000 = 12.8 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = ln1.7% 456 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12.4 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 720 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.4 360 ⎝ ⎠ 110.6 106.014375) 4t = 20.168 e7 r = 3 16.0575 ⎞ 105. accumulated amount = 3(2350) = 7050 7050 = 2350er ⋅7 ≈ 0. 000 = 8000e 0.4 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 720 e ln(1+ r 360 ) 1+ =e r = e(ln1.014375) 4t = 1.157 7 15. 20.014375) = ln1.8) /1440 1+ 60 29 ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln(1.08t = ln 2 0.147 14.6 1440 ln1. 000 = 7250 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 12 t 7250(1.2 years 12 ln1. 000 4t ln(1.4 720 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.014375) 4t = ln1.2 4 ln1.08t = ln 2 360⋅2 ln 2 0.005416667)12t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ ⎛ 60 ⎞ 12t ln(1. = 1.2 years r ⎞ ln1.005416667) = 15.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ⎛ 0.08t = 2 ln e0.014375 8. 12.5 ≈ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.08t e0. r= (ln1.8 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 1440 12 t ⎛ 0.5 2r = ln1. 500(1.00541667 107.005416667)12t = r ⎞ ⎛ 1400 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 109.5 r ⎞ ln1. accumulated amount = 2(8000) = 16.3% r = e(ln1.4) / 720) − 1 111.4) / 720 ln1.8 360 ⎝ ⎠ 4t ln(1.8% ln e7 r = ln 3 7r = ln 3 r= ln 3 ≈ 0.000 16.

or 2013. 40 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 45 log 2 x = 1. 69% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2007.2 10 The concentration of the acidic rainfall in part (b) is 103. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x −5.0.6 = log x 79 = 38 ln x x = 10−5.4 −5. 0 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 95 2007 is 5 years after 2002.0 ≈ x (9. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x log 2 x = f (5) = 8 + 38 ln 5 ≈ 69 According to the function. f (4) = 8 + 38 ln 4 ≈ 61 According to the function. pH = − log x 5. 25.5 ≈ 2. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2. (2.5 years 0. or 2010. Inc. 95 2 30 = x 9.6 = 10−2. This overestimates the value shown in the graph by 1%. 100% of new cellphones will have cameras 11 years after 2002. 61% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2006.0425t 1000 e0.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.5 x = 21. This underestimates the value shown in the graph by 2%.4 mole per liter. a.2 times greater than the normal rainfall in part (a).0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 697 ⎠ t= ⎝ ≈ 8. 87% of new cellphones will have cameras 8 years after 2002.4 = − log x −2.6 = − log x 87 = 8 + 38ln x 114.8.4 2006 is 4 years after 2002.8 days. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x 100 = 8 + 38ln x 92 = 38 ln x 92 = ln x 38 x= 92 e 38 x ≈ 11 If the trend continues. 0) 117.6) = 103. b. x≈8 If the trend continues. 425e0.6 79 = ln x 38 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−5. b.8 Only half the students recall the important features of the lecture after 2. 79 x = e 38 b.6 mole per liter. 95 30 c. 50) P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 116.4 = log x x = 10−2. 10−2.4 −( −5. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 112. 000 = 17.0425t = 697 ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln e0.0425 113. a. 457 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . pH = − log x 2. P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 115. a.

9). 10−1 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 = − log x −2.3 9=9 The solution set is {1}. {1} The intersection point is (1. 23 = 8 8=8 The solution set is {2}. log 3 (4 ⋅ 4 − 7) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {4}. Verify x = 1: 3x +1 = 9 pH = − log x b.3) = 101. 124. −2. 458 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 10−1−( −2. 119. 10 The concentration of the acidic stomach in part (b) is 101. a. The intersection point is (4. .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions pH = − log x 118. 2. 8).3 = log x x = 10−2. – 122. Inc. 2 . Verify: x = 2 2 2 x +1 =8 2 +1 =2 126.3 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2. ( ) The intersection point is 11 .3 times greater than the lemon juice in part (a). Verify: x = 4 123.3 mole per liter. 1 = − log x −1 = log x x = 10 31+1 = 9 32 = 9 −1 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−1 mole per liter. Answers may vary. 2). 3 11 Verify: x = 3 11 ⎛ ⎞ log 3 ⎜ 3 ⋅ − 2 ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ log 3 (11-2) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {113} . The intersection point is (2.3 125.

21678798) and (1.5 miles from the eye of a hurricane. 129. The intersection point is (2.3711158).2793139. Verify x ≈ −1. 6.291641. The intersection point is (20.291641) + 4 0. As the distance from the eye increases. 0.291641.391606. approximately (−1. .125077 Verify:x ≈ 1.2793139 128.24 1 e ln( x +1) = e 0. 459 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The point of intersection is approximately (63. 29 = 0.291641 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 5x = 3x + 4 1=1 The solution set is {2}. 1. 131.391606. approximately (–1.371158 The solution set is {–1.6855579) + 3 6.6855579 ≈ 2(1. 1. 130.391606 3x = 2x + 3 3-1.391606 ≈ 2(−1.12507831) and log(2 + 3) + log 2 = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 (1.8379416).24 0. 132.6855579}.216788 Verify x ≈ 1. 0. Inc.5 The barometric air pressure is 29 inches of mercury at a distance of about 63.24 x +1 = e 1 x=e 1 0.837941942 ≈ 7.5. 2). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7.48ln( x + 1) + 27 0. Verify:x ≈ −1. barometric air pressure increases. Verify: x = 2 There are 2 points of intersection.391606) + 3 0.1250782178 ≈ 0. 1). There are 2 points of intersection.6855579.24 − 1 ≈ 63. 51.2793139) + 4 7.291641 = 3(−1.2793139}.6855579 3x = 2x + 3 31.8379417 The solution set is {–1.2167879803 ≈ 0.4 127.2793139 = 3(1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 29).48ln( x + 1) = 2 1 ln( x + 1) = 0.37111582 ≈ 6. Verify x = 20: log (x – 15) + log x = 2 log (20 – 15) + log 20 = 2 log 5 + log 20 = 2 log 100 = 2 100 = 102 100 = 100 The solution set is {20}. leveling off at about 30 inches of mercury. 5−1.

10076749 The runner’s pulse will be 70 beats per minute after about 7. The second equation is solved by using the one-to-one property of logarithms. false. Sample explanation: The first equation is solved by rewriting it in exponential form. 143. 2 = 16 can be solved by rewriting 16 as 24. Sample x ⎛ 0. 2 x = 15 (1.03)t = 0.05 ⎞ A = 2000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ The two accounts will have the same balance when 4000(1. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary.5 ⎝ 1. so it will take about 7. false. Explanations will vary. t ≈ 7.03)t = 2000(1. then 102 = x + 3. 2 x = 16 2 x = 24 x=4 136.9 minutes. When P = 70.03 ⎞ t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0. 141. A sample change is: If log ( 7 x + 3) − log ( 2 x + 5 ) = 4. A sample change is: x10 = 5.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.05 ⎠ t ⎛ 1. does not make sense.9. 7x + 3 ⎛ 7x + 3 ⎞ 4 then log ⎜ ⎟ = 4.5 ⎝ 1.5 ⎝ 1. does not make sense. Verify: 70 = 45e −0.05 ⎠ ⎛ 1.03 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0. makes sense 139. because there is not a variable in an exponent. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and 10 = 2 x + 5 . 2 x + 5 ⎝ ⎠ 70 ≈ 70. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 142. 138. Changes to make the statement true will vary.5(1.03 ⎞ A = 4000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ Account paying 5% interest: An adult female elephant weighing 1800 kilograms is about 20 years old.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0. 460 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.9) 140.05)t ln 2 x = ln15 x ln 2 = ln15 ln15 x= ln 2 t ⎛ 1. Explanations will vary.9 minutes. A sample change is: If log ( x + 3) = 2.05 ⎠ The accounts will have the same balance in about 36 years.71 is not an exponential equation.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 137. true 134.092(7. makes sense 133. 1⋅t 135. .5 t= ≈ 36 ⎛ 1. Account paying 3% interest: 1⋅t ⎛ 0.05 ⎠ ln 0.05)t x explanation: 2 = 15 requires logarithms.

Since e2 ≈ 7. 2 ( log10 ) (2 log10 3/ 2 3/ 2 + 1) = 6 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 ⋅ + 1⎟ = 6 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (3 + 1) = 6 ⎝2⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (4) = 6 ⎝2⎠ 6=6 Check with graphing utility: 146. The solution set is ⎨⎩100 ⎭ 2009: A = 10e−0. e 2 } . There are two points of intersection: (1.003(2) ≈ 9. (log x)(2 log x + 1) = 6 2(log x) 2 + log x − 6 = 0 (2 log x − 3)(log x + 2) = 0 2 log x − 3 = 0 or log x + 2 = 0 2 log x = 3 log x = −2 log x = 3 2 x = 10 The graph of ln(ln(x)) crosses the graph y = 0 at approximately 2.91 million b. The population is decreasing.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.003(0) = 10 million 2007: A = 10e−0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 461 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) and approximately (7. 148.3890561.97 million x = 10 10 2008: A = 10e−0.3890566099. Check by direct substitution: Check:x = 10 10 = 103 / 2 (log x)(2log x + 1) = 6 (ln x) = 2 ln x 2 (ln x ) − 2 ln x = 0 ln x(ln x − 2) = 0 ln x = 2 ln x = 0 eln x = e 2 or x =1 x = e2 The solution set is {1.94 million ⎧ 1 ⎫ . so the solution set is {1. the graph verifies x = 1 and x = e2. Inc. . An exponential function is the best choice.003t a. e2} as determined algebraically.718. 1 100 A = 10e−0.003(3) ≈ 9. 4). x = 10−2 3 2 x= 147.4 (ln x) 2 = ln x 2 144. 145. ln(ln x) = 0 eln(ln x ) = e0 ln x = 1 eln x = e1 x=e The solution set is {e}.003(1) ≈ 9. 10 10 ⎬ . 2006: A = 10e−0.

0248t = ln ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 16k ⎝ 643 ⎠ b. A0 = 643 . 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain. ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 0. Substitute 10 for t in the model: 0.4 1 + e −0.8 f (10) = ≈ 0. the growth function is A = 643e0. T = C + (To – C)ekt 2000 = e0.2(10) The proportion of correct responses after 10 learning trials was 0. a. substitute 4.021t 3. 2. a. when t = 16 . Inc. c. 462 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0248t eln 3 = 3 b.0248t = 1 6 1 −0.021t a.021t 643 ⎛ 2000 ⎞ 0.4.0248 28 So the exponential decay model is A = A0 e −0. c .021 Africa’s population will reach 2000 million approximately 54 years after 1990.0248 The strontium-90 will decay to a level of 10 grams about 72 years after the accident. (e ) ln 3 x = 3x e(ln 3) x = 3x Section 3. Substitute 60 for A0 and 10 for A in the model from part (a) and solve for t. A0 for A since the amount present 2 after 28 years is half the original amount. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8. 1 6 ln e −0. . Since 2006 is 16 years after 1990.2(0) The proportion of correct responses prior to learning trials was 0. The time prior to learning trials corresponds to t = 0. A = A0 ekt 906 = 643ek (16) 906 = e16k 643 ⎛ 906 ⎞ 16 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 643 ⎠ e = −0. 0. The limiting size of the proportion of correct responses as continued learning trials take place is 0.021 k= ⎝ 16 Thus. 10 = 60e −0.021t ⎝ 643 ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 54 t= ⎝ 0. 2000 = 643e0. b.8 f (0) = = 0.5 Check Point Exercises 1. eln 3 = 3 A0 = A0 e k ⋅28 2 1 e 28 k = 2 1 ln e 28 k = ln 2 1 28k = ln 2 ln1/ 2 k= ≈ −0. In the logistic growth model.0248t In the exponential decay model A = A0 e kt . A = 906.7. a. or 2044.021t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 643 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0.7 1 + e−0. A = 643e0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 149. b.021t .0248t = ln 6 ln 16 t= ≈ 72 −0. f (t ) = a.

the model is approximately equivalent to y = 4e2.7% per year.0673t 14 1 = ln e −0.0673t ln 14 1 = −0.0673t b.5e0 A = 127.027( 0 ) A = 26.0673 ≈ k Because the data in the scatter plot appear to increase more and more rapidly.0673t 7. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006.001t A = 127.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.5 In 2006.8) x in terms of a natural logarithm. 3.5 1. The population is dropping at of 0.8 million. 1 = e −0. 35 = 30 + 70e—0. the temperature will be 48o. y = ab x is equivalent to y = ae(ln b ) x . the population of Iraq was 26. Scatter plot: 2. Rounded to three decimal places.5 80 = 30 + (100 − 30)e k5 80 = 30 + 70e 5k 50 = 70 e 6.054 x . Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.001( 0 ) A = 127. T = 30 + 70e −0. Scatter plot: Exercise Set 3.8)x is equivalent to y = 4e(ln 7.0673(20) ≈ 48o After 20 minutes. 5k 5 = e 5k 7 5 ln = ln e 5 k 7 5 ln = 5 k 7 5 ln 7 =k 5 −0. 463 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006. 4.5e 0.0673t 5 = 70 e −0.8e0.027t A = 26. the shape suggests that a logarithmic function is a good choice for modeling the data.5e0. y = 4(7. Because the data in the scatter plot increase rapidly at first and then begin to level off. find A when t = 0 : A = 26. T = 30 + 70e-0. Iraq has the greatest growth rate at 2. the population of Japan was 127.8e0 A = 26. For y = 4(7. Russia has a decreasing population.8. b = 7.8 (1) A = 26.0673 39 ≈ t The temperature will reach 35o after 39 min. a = 4. 5.4% per year. the shape suggests that an exponential function is a good choice for modeling the data. find A when t = 0 : A = 127. .5 (1) A = 127.0673t ln 14 1 ln 14 = t −0. Thus. c.8 In 2006.5 million. Since k = −0.004 .8e 0.8) x .

0147(18) P(18) = 91. A = 12 .01t 6.2e0.01t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6. 464 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A = 10 .2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.4 t= ≈9 0.014t 1095.4 1238 ln = 0. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.014t 1095.4 1416 ln = 0.014t 1238 = e0.04 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0.04e k (50) 10 = e50 k 6.04 ⎛ 10 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6.04e0.014t 7. 6.4e b.01t ⎝ 6.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6.026 k= ⎝ 50 Thus.026t = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3.2 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0.1e0.4 1416 ln = ln e0.04 ⎠ k= ⎝ ≈ 0.0147t P(18) = 91.014t 1095.2 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 3.026t = 9 9 3.2e0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.04 .4 1416 ln 1095. P( x) = 91.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0. e0.1e0. A = A0 ekt 3. 9 = 6.014 The population of India will be 1416 million approximately 18 years after 2006. or 2015.014 The population of India will be 1238 million approximately 9 years after 2006.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 3. the growth function is A = 3. A0 = 3.2 .04 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0.4 t= ≈ 18 0. when t = 50 .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5. Substitute A = 1238 into the model for India and solve for t: 1238 = 1095. 2000 + 40 = 2040. a.4 1238 ln = ln e0.026 Now.014t 1095.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3. the growth function is A = 6. 1416 = 1095. A = A0 e kt 12 = 3. a. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040. Substitute A = 1416 into the model for India and solve for t: 1416 = e0.4e0.0147(18) ≈ 118.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 6.04e0.026t = 10 = 6.7 The population is projected to be 118.01 Now.1e0.026t .014t 1095.026t = ln ⎛⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3.01 50 Thus. A0 = 6. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040 8.7 million in 2025.2 ⎠ ≈ 0. Inc.04 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0.014t 1095. 9 = e0. .2 9 ⎞ ln e0. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000. 9. or 2024.01t . 2000 + 40 = 2040. ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6.4 1238 ln 1095.2ek (50) 12 = e50 k 3.04 ⎠ 0.01t b. when t = 50 .

4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 32. Section 3.4ekt 32.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 7.0157t 13.5 P( x) = 164.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0.2 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 44. 15.PreCalculus 4E 10.691515 A ≈ 8.0 18k =e 44.4 18k =e 19.0121.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.3 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.0 ⎛ 40.000121(11430) A = 16e −1.7e0.0285.4ekt 55.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.5 The population is projected to be 218.2 = 44.0053 The growth rate is –0.4 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 19. .7e0. P( x) = 44.38303 A ≈ 4.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.0121 The growth rate is 0. Inc.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.000121t A = 16e −0.3 = 7. P( x) = 7.0157(18) ≈ 218.3 ⎛ 6.0 ⎠ ⎛ 40.01 Approximately 4 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 11.0082.0053.3 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 7.4 ⎛ 55.0 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0. 12. A = 16e −0.0285 The growth rate is 0.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.01 Approximately 8 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 5715 years. P( x) = 19. P(18) = 164.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.5 million in 2025. 11.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0. 465 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A = 16e −0.0157(18) 40.430 years.3 18k =e 7. P(18) = 164.0 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 44.2 = e18k 44.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 19.4 ⎛ 32.0ekt 14.000121(5715) A = 16e −0.000121t A = 16e −0.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 19.4e18k 55.0e18k 40.0082 The growth rate is –0.4 = 19.7e0.3ekt 6.3e18k 6.0 = 44.4 ⎠ ⎛ 32.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 7. 16.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 40. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4e18k 32. P( x) = 44.

2 1 1 there will be 1 ⋅ = gram present.000121t ln 0.5 k ≈ −0. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present. there will 2 1 be 2 ⋅ = 1 grams present.000121t A = A0 e 0.5 = ekt 0.000 years.000428 The decay rate is 0. 25.000121t ln 0.5k ln 0.15 = ln e −0.000121t ln 0. 88 = 100e −0.0428% per year. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present. 18. After 50 seconds.063t ln 0.5 = −0.88 = −0.5 =t −0. After 20 seconds.000 years. After 30 seconds.5 = e1620 k ln 0.063 t ≈ 11.5 = e −0.5 =k 1620 k ≈ −0. 0. After 40 seconds.5 = e kt 24.000 years.6 The half-life is 12. After 10 seconds. 20.0 The half-life is 11. 2 2 21.5 = e kt 0. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present.5k ln 0.055t ln 0. . 22.000121t ln 0. 2 2 After 25. After 75.000121t ln 0.5 = −0. 0.88 t= ≈ 1056 −0.039608 The decay rate is 3.5 =k 17.000121t 100 ln 0.6 years. the skeletons were approximately 1056 years old.5 = 17.000121t 88 = e −0.5 = ln e−0.0152% per year. there will be 16 ⋅ ln 0. 23.000121 The paintings are approximately 15.000121 In 1989.679 years old.063t ln 0. 0.5k ln 0.5 = e17.5 =k 4560 k ≈ −0. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present.5 = ln e −0. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present.5 = 1620k A = A0 e −0.000121t 100 ln 0. there 2 1 will be 2 ⋅ = 1 gram present.5 = ekt 0.5 = e −0.9608% per day.5 = 4560k −0.5 = ln e17. 679 −0. there 2 1 1 will be 1 ⋅ = gram present. After 125.5 = ln e1620 k ln 0. 19.000121t 15 = e −0. 15 = 100e−0.055t ln 0.5 = e4560 k ln 0.15 t= ≈ 15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0. After 100.5 = ln e4560 k ln 0. 466 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.000152 The decay rate is 0.5 = ekt 0.000 years.88 = ln e −0. After 50.055t ln 0.0 years. Inc.000 years. there will be 16 ⋅ 0.063t ln 0.5 =t −0. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present.055 t ≈ 12.15 = −0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 17.

031507 ln 0.5 = e7340k ln 0.5 = ln e113k ln 0. A = e−0.52912 The age of the dinosaur ones is approximately 0.031507t ln 0.7 years.8 =t −0.52912 t 0.000094t ln 0.006134 The decay rate is 0.52912t ln 0.52912t ln 0.31k 2 1 ln k = 2 ≈ −0.5 = e113k 0.31 2 1 ln = ln e1.52912t ln 0.5 28.6134% per hour.5 = ekt 0. 29.1 It will take 7. First find the decay equation. a.945 = −0.52912t .000094t Next use the decay equation answer question.031507t ln 0.5 = 22k ln 0.5 = ln e7340 k ln 0.8 = −0.2 = ln e−0.31k 2 1 ln = 1.5 = ekt 26.7 It will take 17121.945 A0 = A0 e 0.5 =k 113 k ≈ −0.5 = ln e22k ln 0.000094t 0.000094 ln 0.5 = 113k ln 0.5 = 7340k ln 0.1069 billion or 106.031507t 0.5 =k 22 k ≈ −0.52912 1. A = e−0.5 = ekt −0. 0. First find the decay equation.000094t ln 0.900. 0.031507t ln 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 =t −0.2 = e−0.945 = ln e −0.031507 t ≈ 7.5 =k 7340 k ≈ −0.31 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0. 27. A = e−0.8 = ln e−0. b.000094 t ≈ 17121. . 467 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 years.8 = e−0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.2 = −0. 1 = 1e k 1.000094t ln 0.000 years old. A = A0 e −0.031507t Next use the decay equation answer question.945 = e−0.52912t 0. Inc.5 = e22 k 0.1069 −0.945 t= ≈ 0. A = e−0.

ln 2 years.5 = ekt 0. 3 = e kt ln 3 = ln e kt ln 3 = kt t= ln 3 k The population will triple in t = 468 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 30.057762 A = e−0. First find the decay equation.7 =t −0.5 = ekt 0.0673 The population will drop below 100 birds approximately 34 years from now.019254t 34.7 = −0. Inc. 0.019254 ln 2 = ln e kt ln 2 = kt A = e−0.0673t .057762t ln 0.0673 5 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.2 −0.5 =k 12 k ≈ −0.5 =k 36 k ≈ −0. 31. (This is 39 years from the time the population was 1400.0673t 1000 1 ln = ln e −0.5 = ln e12 k ln 0.057762t Next use the decay equation answer question. Publishing as Prentice Hall.019254t ln 0.057762t 0.5 hours. k . The population will double in t = 2 = e kt t= ln 2 k A = e−0.5 = 36k ln 0.0673t 100 = e −0.2 It will take 6.057762t ln 0.9 = ln e−0. A = A0 e kt 1000 = 1400e k 5 1000 = e5k 1400 5 ln = 5k 7 5 ln k = 7 ≈ −0.7 = e−0.) A = e−0.5 = ln e ln 0.5 = e12k ln 0. 36k 2 A0 = A0 e kt ln 0.019254t Next use the decay equation answer question.2 hours.5 It will take 5. 0.5 = e36k 33.057762 t ≈ 6.9 = e−0.7 = ln e−0.0673t 10 1 ln 10 t= ≈ 34. ln 3 years. 100 = 1000e −0.9 = −0. First find the decay equation.019254t ln 0. k A = A0 ekt 3 A0 = A0 ekt ln 0.057762t ln 0.0673t 10 1 ln = −0.5 = 12k ln 0.019254 t ≈ 5.019254t 0.9 =t −0. 32.

67 4. 100. Inc.48 3.012 Mexico’s population will double in approximately 58 years.027( x ) = ln 2 = ln e0. or 2012. 11.4e0. t = 0.48 3.01t 2=e 39. or 2026.81e −0. b.82 3.82 1 + 3.81e −0.81e −0.027 x ≈ 77 The world population will reach 8 billion 77 years after 1949.1e0.027( x ) 11.012t 4.82 8= 1 + 3. 469 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.81e −0.027( x ) = ln 26. 2 ⋅107. a.1 = 4.012t b.027 x = ln 30. b. .01t ln 2 = ln e0.81e −0.027( x ) 11.012t a.82 26.01 . k = 0.82 f (54) = ≈ 6.82 f ( x) = 8 + 30.027( x ) = 11.82 −0.4e0. e −0.82 ln 30.82 f ( 4) = 30. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain. 38.4e0. t= 36. Section 3.027( x ) 11.027( x ) = 4. 000 ≈ 1080 1 + 5.82 1 + 3.5 A = 4.81e −0. The limiting size of the population that becomes ill is 100.82 2 = e0.01 New Zealand’s population will double in approximately 69 years.027( x ) ) = 11.027(57) The function models the data very well. f ( x) = 7 + 26. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 11. 40.027 x ≈ 63 The world population will reach 7 billion 63 years after 1949.027( x ) 8 (1 + 3. A = 4.2%.012t 37.027( x ) = In the logistic growth model.027 x = ln 26.012t ln 2 = 0.0 1 + 3. so New Zealand’s growth rate is 1%. 0.027( x ) 7 (1 + 3.012 . t= c.5 1 + 3. e −0.027( x ) 11.1e0. c f (t ) = .012t ln 2 ≈ 58 0.82 −0.81e −0.48e −0. 000e −4 About 1080 people were ill at the end of the fourth week. A = 107.82 7= 1 + 3.82 ln 26. 000 f (0) = ≈ 20 1 + 5000e0 Twenty people became ill when the epidemic began.1e0.81e −0.027(51) The function models the data very well.48 x= −0.48 3.82 ln e −0.01t ln 2 ≈ 69 0.67e −0.82 f ( x) = 26. 100.000 people.82 f (51) = ≈ 6. 41.027( x ) = 11.67 4. A = 107.82 1 + 3. f ( x) = When the epidemic began.67 4. 11.82 −0.01t ln 2 = 0.027( x ) = 3. so Mexico’s growth rate is 1.81e −0.67e −0.4 = 107.67 x= −0.027( x ) ) = 11.82 1 + 3.81e −0.027( x ) ln e = ln 30.01t 2 ⋅ 4.01t a.48e −0.82 k = 0.PreCalculus 4E 35.82 30. 11.

P(80) = T = 45 + 25e−0.0916(15) ≈51o After 15 minutes.122t = 271 0. 46. Inc. .122 x ) = 90 90 1 + 271e−0.0916t b.122t = 1.122 x = 7 2 − x 0.0916t 5 1 ln = −0.8 0. T = 70 + 380ke-0.81e −0.7 1 + 271e −0.1004(20) ≈ 121o After 20 minutes. 43. 47.027( x ) As x increases.8 ln 271 t= ≈ 48 −0. This will make e −0.7%.0916t 5 1 ln 5 =t −0.82 billion.8 −0. the exponent of e will decrease.027( x ) become very close to 0 and make the denominator become very close to 1.122 x = 70 2 271e−0. the limiting size of this function is 11.5 (1 + 271e −0.0916t 1 = e−0. a. T = 45 + 25e-0. f ( x) = 2 10k =e 5 2 ln = ln e10k 5 2 ln = 10k 5 2 ln 5 =k 10 −0.122 x ≈ 56 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 70% at about age 56. 470 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.122t = 0.6%. the temperature will be 51o. the temperature will be 121o. 44. P(20) = 90 ≈ 88. 55 = 45 + (70 – 45)ek10 10 = 25e10k 48.122 x T = C + (To – C)ekt 300 = 70 + (450 − 70)ek 5 230 = 380e5k 70(1 + 271e−0.122 t ln e = ln 271 0. 45.122 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 50% at about age 48.0916t 5 1 ln = ln e−0.0916 ≈ k 90 ≈ 3.0916t 5 = 25e−0.8 70 = 50 = 45 + 25e—0.5 = 1 + 271e−0.122 = e 1897 2 −0.0916 18 ≈ t The temperature will reach 50o after 18 min.122 x = ln 1897 2 ln 1897 x= −0. 0.8 e −0.9 c. 271e −0.82 1 + 3.8 −0.122t 0.122t = ln 271 0. 1 + 271e −0.9 0. 23 = e5k 38 23 = ln e5k ln 38 23 = 5k ln 38 23 ln 38 = k 5 −0. Thus.122(80) The probability that an 80-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 88.6 1 + 271e −0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. 11.1004 ≈ k T = 70 + 380e−0. a.1004t b.122(20) The probability that a 20-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 3. 90 1 + 271e−0.122t ) = 0.

0239t ln 47 17 ln 47 = t −0.0158t T = C + (To – C)ekt 38 = 75 + (28 − 75)ek10 45 = 65 – 41e—0.1004t 7 = e−0.0239 ≈ k T = 75 − 47e−0.0239t 20 = e−0.0158t ln 41 20 ln 41 = t −0.0239t −25 = −47e−0. a. −25 = e−0. T = C + (To – C)ekt 30 = 65 + (24 − 65)ek10 50.0239t −47 25 = ln e−0.1004t 70 = 380e−0. Section 3.5 140 = 70 + 380e—0.0158t 41 20 = ln e −0.0158t −37 = −47e10k −37 10k =e −47 37 = ln e10k ln 47 37 = 10k ln 47 37 ln 47 = k 10 −0.0158 45 ≈ t The temperature will reach 45o after 45 min. 50 = 75 − 47e−0. Inc.1004t ln 38 7 ln 38 = t −0.1004 17 ≈ t The temperature will reach 140o after 17 min.0158t ln 41 20 = −0. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. b.0239t ln 47 25 = −0. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.0158 ≈ k T = 65 − 41e−0. 49.0158t −20 = −41e−0.1004t ln 38 7 = −0. 471 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0239 26 = t The temperature will reach 50o after 26 min.1004t 38 7 = ln e−0.PreCalculus 4E c. −35 = −41e10k 35 10k =e 41 35 = ln e10k ln 41 35 = 10k ln 41 35 ln 41 = k 10 −0.0239t 51.

52. the population of the United States is increasing by about 1% each year. 55. y = 1000(7. the model fits the data okay.5(0.9 (1.654 x + 198. Using ln 0.7)x is equivalent to y = 2.357. y = 100(4. 68.011) x y = 200.0109 . A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. Since r ≈ 0.0109 x Since k = .015 . x Since r ≈ 0. The logarithmic model is y = 193.9 (1.878 is fairly close to 1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 56. Inc. .3)x is equivalent to y = 1000e( ln 7.7 ) x .3) x . the model fits the data well.5e −0. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. y = 2.6 ≈ 1.6)x is equivalent to y = 4.997 is close to 1.16 + 23.5(0. b. Using ln 0. Answers may vary.871x0.6) x . 53. y = 200.526. y = 4. b. – 67.3 ≈ 1. Using ln 4.097 . a. y = 100e1. a. the model fits the data fairly well. 70. the model fits the data very well. a. 69.5e( ln 0.011) .6)x is equivalent to y = 100e( ln 4.574 ln x . The exponential model is y = 200.6 ≈ –0.988. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.9e0. x ln1. y = 4.5e( ln 0. a.9e( 54.5e −0. 472 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 71. Since r = 0.988 x . 57. 58. Since r = 0.526 x . Using ln 7. b.511x . 59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The power regression model is y = 195. y = 1000e1.7 ≈ −0. but not great.6) x . The linear model is y = 2. y = 2. b.511.011) y = 200.999 is very close to 1.357 x .901.

985 = 2.056 ) ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = x ln (1. Using r.011) 200. population will reach 315 million around the year 2010. 76.S.985 x= ≈ 44 2.673 Linear Regression: y = 0.7 (1.9 (1. the model of best fit is the exponential b.015 116. r ≈ 0. r ≈ 0.654 x + 198.424 ln x 75.S. true 80.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.02) x .9 ⎠ ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ 200. Both results are reasonably close to the result found in Example 1 (2010).46e( The model of second best fit is the linear model y = 2.343ln x Exercise 54: y = −11.654 x 116. It does not indicate how the size of a population compares to the size of another population. Explanations will vary. model y = 200. true 81. the U. 73.02 ) x y = 3. the better model is y = 3.9 (1.015 . 473 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 3.9 ⎛ 315 ⎞ x ln ⎜ = ln (1. Growth rate measures how fast a population is growing relative to that population.654 1969 + 44 = 2013 According to the exponential model. r ≈ 0. Explanations will vary.46(1. does not make sense. Using the exponential model: 315 = 200.015 315 = 2.994 Logarithmic Regression: y = 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall.02) x .02 x The 65-and-over population is increasing by approximately 2% each year. true Exponential Regression: 82. 77. population will reach 315 million around the year 2013.011) 1969 + 41 = 2010 Using the linear model: y = 2. x 74. a. true y = 3.972. the growth rate is negative. x y = 3.078 ) x Exercise 52: y = 2896. Sample explanation: Since the car’s value is decreasing (depreciating).947 The exponential model has an r value closer to 1.512. Thus.5 72.011) .654 x + 198. According to the linear model.011) ⎝ 200. the U.02) x x Exercise 53: y = 120 + 4.46(1. makes sense 79. Models and predictions will vary.629 + 13. .46e0.9 ⎠ Exercise 51: y = 1.9 ⎟⎠ x= ⎝ ≈ 41 ln (1. Sample models are provided 315 x = (1. Sample explanation: This is not necessarily so.011) ln1. Inc.557 x − 10.011) ⎟ ⎝ 200.654 x + 198. Explanations will vary.46(1.752ln x − 26.402 (1. does not make sense. makes sense 78.

This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis then shifted upward 3 units.7 ln = 30k 15.6e30k 12.6 = ln e−0.0069t 15. ⎩8 ⎭ 86.6 = 28.6 = e−0.6 = 70 + (98. Use data to find k.6 12. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis. 5π = 2π x 4 5π 2π x = 4 ⋅ 2π 2π 5 =x 8 asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. 85. 4.6 = t −0. 3. Answers may vary. ∞ ) 17π 17π 12π − 2π = − 6 6 6 17π − 12π = 6 5π = 6 474 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − π 12 π 24π + 12 12 −π + 24π = 12 23π = 12 + 2π = − Chapter 3 Review Exercises 1.0069t 15. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x.7 ln 15.0069t ln 28.0069t 28. . so the function is r ( x) = −4− x + 3.0069 88 ≈ t The death occurred at 88 minutes before 9:30. so the function is h ( x ) = −4 − x .6 − 70)ek 30 12.7 = 15. The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit to the right.0069 ln 28. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 = e30k 15. ∞ ) ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .6 12.6 = −0. 87. 827 = 70 + (85.6 − 70)e−0. 85. 84.6 = k 30 −0.6 15. or 8:22 am.6e−0. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the yaxis.7 ln = ln e30k 15.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 83.0069 ≈ k Use k to write equation.6 12. range of f = range of g = ( 0.6 15.6 15. so the function is g ( x ) = 4− x.6 ln 28. 2. 5. Inc.

PreCalculus 4E 6. 0 ) 10. ∞ ) range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) range of g = ( −1. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 range of f = ( 0.5% compounded semiannually yields the greater return.16 12 ⎠ ⎝ 5.055 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6558. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 The graph of g(x) vertically stretches the graph of f(x) by a factor of 2. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0. The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the x – axis. 5.5% compounded semiannually: 2⋅5 ⎛ 0. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f = ( 0. ∞ ) The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the y – axis. 9. Chapter 3 Review Exercises The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit down. range of f = range of g = ( 0. ∞ ) 7.26 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5. . 8. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −1 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.0525 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6497. Publishing as Prentice Hall.25% compounded monthly: 12⋅5 ⎛ 0. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. Inc. 475 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x reflected about the Because ln e x = x. ∞ ) 31. log16 4 = 23. 772. Because log b 1 = 0 we conclude log 3 1 = 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. 30. 25 25 is defined only for x > 0. . log 3 (log8 8) = 0. After 20 minutes. Because log b = 1. The coffee will cool to about 70°. we conclude log17 17 = 1. −0. a. log b 625 = 4 18.26 ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 6. 24.135. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. log 4 64 = 3 because 43 = 64. 1 1 = −2 because 5−2 = . log 5 21. log 3 (log8 8) = log 3 1. we conclude ln e5 = 5. Therefore. Because logb b x = x.85% compounded continuously: 0. we conclude log8 8 = 1. 7% compounded monthly: 1 12⋅10 ⎛ 0.0685(10 ) A = 14. 491/ 2 = 7 14. 000e ≈ 27. 3 y = 81 16. 1 because 161/ 2 = 16 = 4. log 6 216 = 3 17. 2 22. log − 1 1 1 = log 3 1 = log3 3 2 = − 2 3 32 1 = ln e−2 = −2 e2 1 1 = log 3 = log10−3 = −3 1000 10 29.23 Using a calculator. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. y-axis. Inc. Because log b b = 1. b. 20. log13 874 = y 19. 13. 12. log 3 27.07 ⎞ A = 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 ⎜ 1 + ≈ 28. 476 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. 32. The temperature of the room is 70°. ln 28.04855( 20 ) T = 70 + 130e ≈ 119. log 3 ( −9 ) cannot be evaluated since log b x 26. the temperature is about 119°. c. the temperature of the coffee was 200°. 43 = x 15. So. the temperature of the coffee was about 120°. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. 25. ∞ ) we conclude log 3 38 = 8.81 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return. so the function is g ( x) = log(− x). When first taken out of the microwave.

∞ ) range: ( −∞. 34. ∞ ) 39. ∞ ) 41. 0 ) 36. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. 35. so the function is h( x) = log(2 − x) . so the function is r ( x) = 1 + log(2 − x). then shifted upward one unit. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 5 > 0. we obtain x > −5.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 33. Inc. domain of g = ( −3. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: ( 2. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x 38. x-intercept: (2. range: ( −∞. reflected about the y-axis. Thus the domain of f is ( −5. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x. x-intercept: (3. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) 40. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x shifted left 2 units then reflected about the y-axis. shifted left 2 units. ∞ ) 37. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( 0. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 477 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = −3 domain of f = ( 0. x-intercept: (–1. Solving this inequality for x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0.

Solving this inequality for x. 51. ln 3 x e 1 ⎛ x⎞ = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝e⎠ 1 = [ ln x − ln e] 3 1 1 = ln x − ln e 3 3 1 1 = ln x − 3 3 f ( 0 ) = 76 − 18log ( 0 + 1) = 76 When first given. f (12 ) = 76 − 18log (12 + 1) ≈ 56 After 2. log 6 ( 36 x 3 ) = log 6 36 + log 6 x3 = log 6 36 + 3log 6 x = 2 + 3log 6 x 43.06 ⎝ 12 − 5 ⎠ It will take about 9 weeks. Solving this inequality for x. Inc. Because 10log x = x. the average scores are about 67. 3 x3 3ln x + 4 ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 4 = ln ( x3 y 4 ) 57. Because e ln x = x. 6. log 4 52. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 1)2 > 0. 1) ∪ (1. = log 56. 2 xy 2 = log 2 xy 2 − log 2 64 64 = log 2 x + log 2 y 2 − log 2 64 46. b. and 56. 47.98 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we conclude 10log 4 x = 4 x 2 . we obtain x < 1 or x > 1. f (2) = 76 − 18log ( 2 + 1) ≈ 67 f (4) = 76 − 18log ( 4 + 1) ≈ 63 f (6) = 76 − 18log ( 6 + 1) ≈ 61 f (8) = 76 − 18log ( 8 + 1) ≈ 59 54. and 12 months. Because ln e x = x.3) .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. R = log 48. 3 log b 7 + log b 3 = log b (7 ⋅ 3) = log b 21 55. 50. 4. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0. we conclude e ln x = x.0. 49. 8. ∞). we obtain x < 3. Thus. the average score was 76. 53. we conclude ln e6 x = 6 x. Thus. respectively. Retention decreases as time passes. a. the domain of f is ( −∞. = log 2 x + 2 log 2 y − 6 1000 I 0 = log1000 = 3 I0 The Richter scale magnitude is 3. log 2 x 1 = log 4 x 2 − log 4 64 64 1 = log 4 x − 3 2 44. 63. 1 ln x − ln y 2 1 = ln x 2 − ln y = ln t= x y 478 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 59. the domain of f is (−∞. . 61. 45. 1 ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 8. log 3 − 3log x = log 3 − log x 3 c.

log 6 72.52 ln 8 69.1063 ln 4 60. 8 x = 12.863 = log 72. log( x + 9) − log( x + 1) = log ( x + 9) ( x + 1) ln e5 x = ln141 5 x = ln141 ln141 ≈ 0.143 ln12.500 − 2 ln 5 ln 37. 70. .863 ≈ −0.500 ( 4 x + 2 ) ln 5 = ln 37. 53 x = 52 3x = 2 2 x= 3 4 x ln 5 + 2 ln 5 = ln 37. 9e5 x = 1269 e5 x = 141 ln 0.500 4 x ln 5 = ln 37.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 58. ln e x = x ln e 64. Publishing as Prentice Hall. true.27 9 x + 2 = 27 − x x+2 54 x+ 2 = 37. (3 ) 2 ( ) = 33 3x + 4 = 7 2 x −1 ln 3x + 4 = ln 7 2 x −1 ( x + 4) ln 3 = (2 x − 1) ln 7 x ln 3 + 4 ln 3 = 2 x ln 7 − ln 7 x ln 3 − 2 x ln 7 = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x(ln 3 − 2 ln 7) = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x= ln 3 − 2 ln 7 4 ln 3 + ln 7 x= 2 ln 7 − ln 3 x ≈ 2. 72.348 = 59.99 x= 5 62. log 4 0.14 4 ln 5 log10 x = log 7000 x log10 = log 7000 x = log 7000 x ≈ 3. e12 − 5 x − 7 = 123 e12−5 x = 130 −x 2 x+4 3 = 3−3 x 2 x + 4 = −3 x 5 x = −4 4 x=− 5 479 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.85 67.143 x= ≈ 4. log 2 x 4 = 4 log 2 x 63. false.500 10 x = 7000 66.143 x ln 8 = ln 12.500 ln 54 x + 2 = ln 37. true. 2 4 x− 2 = 64 2 4 x −2 = 26 ln e12−5 x = ln130 12–5 x = ln 130 5 x = 12– ln 130 12– ln130 x= ≈ 1. 125 x = 25 (5 ) 3 x = 52 71.2448 log 6 68. Inc. false.143 ln 8x = ln12.43 5 4x − 2 = 6 4x = 8 x=2 65. (ln x )(ln1) = (ln x )(0) = 0 61. 500 − 2 ln 5 x= ≈ 1.348 ≈ 6.

78. log 3 e x − 3 = 0 or e x + 2 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −2 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x − ln(−2) x = ln 3 x = ln(−2) x = ln 3 ≈ 1.10. 480 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 x − 15 16 = x 2 x 2 = 16 x = ±4 x = −4 does not check and must be rejected. The solution set is {5}. ⎩2⎭ 3 76.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 73. log 3 ( x − 1) − log 3 ( x + 2 ) = 2 log 2 ( x + 3) + log 2 ( x − 3) = 4 79. log 4 ( 3x − 5 ) = 3 3x – 5 = 43 3x – 5 = 64 3x = 69 x = 23 The solutions set is {23}. Publishing as Prentice Hall.04 x= x2 + x = x + 4 x2 = 4 x = ±2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. 74. . e2 x − e x − 6 = 0 (e x 77. approximately 1. The solution set is ∅. − 3)( e + 2 ) = 0 x x −1 =2 x+2 x −1 = 32 x−2 x −1 =9 x+2 x – 1 = 9(x + 2) x – 1 = 9x + 18 8x = –19 19 x=− 8 19 ⎛ 19 ⎞ x=− does not check because log 3 ⎜ − − 1⎟ 8 ⎝ 8 ⎠ does not exist. The solution set is {4}.099 ln(−2) does not exist. ⎧e ⎫ The solutions set is ⎨ ⎬ . Inc. The solution set is {ln 3} . 3 + 4 ln(2 x) = 15 4 ln(2 x) = 12 ln(2 x) = 3 ln ( x + 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln x x+4 = ln x x +1 x+4 =x x +1 x( x + 1) = x + 4 ln 2 x = e3 e3 2 x ≈ 10. The solution set is {2}. log 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 2 ( x 2 − 9) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) x 2 − 9 = 24 x 2 − 9 = 16 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 x = –5 does not check because log 2 (−5 + 3) does not exist. 75.

A = 3P.PreCalculus 4E 80. 81. ⎛ 0.065 ⎞ 20.6 4t ln1. 000e0.3 ln 22.7e −0.3 = ln e10 k ln 22.21x ln 14.7 4.6 ln 14. t= 84.21x 4.3 years.7 t= ≈ 5.6 ≈ 7. 3 ⋅ 50. 000e0.7 4. 4t (1.075t = 150.3 = 10k ln 22.6 = 14.21 f ( t ) = 364 (1.7e −0.01625 It will take about 7.7 4.6 years.6 = −0.4e0.005) 364 560 t ln = ln (1.21x ln 14.37 ln x + 0. 82. 4.05 3.33 = ln x 0.4 = k 10 0. 000 85. 000 = 50. Chapter 3 Review Exercises P ( x ) = 14.4 35.21x 83. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4e k 10 35. Inc.000.6 ln1. A = 22.6 0. W ( x ) = 0.075t = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 14. Everest is about 5.5 miles above sea level. 000 = 12. t= 560 t = (1.01625) 4t = ln1.37 ln x + 0.005 ) t ln(1. 481 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the population will be about 55.01625) 4t = 20.33 = 0.075 It will take about 14.3 4 ln1.045 ≈ k 3.4 t= ln1.075 = 3 ln e0.500(1.01625) 4t = 1. 000 e0.4 35. When an investment value triples.21x 14.005 The carbon dioxide concentration will be double the pre-industrial level approximately 86 years after the year 2000 in the year 2086.045t b.005 ) 364 560 ln = t ln1.4e0.1 million.38 = 0. .500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12. or 8.075t 50.6 = ln e −0.05 a. 3P = Pe5 r e5 r = 3 ln e5 r = ln 3 5r = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 0.37 9 = ln x e9 = eln x x = e9 ≈ 8103 The population of New York City is approximately 8103 thousand.103.3 = 22.005 ) t 560 = 364 (1.045(20) ≈ 55. 35.5 −0.005 364 560 ln 364 ≈ 86.4 35.3 = e10 k 22.2197 5 The interest rate would need to be about 22% r= 86. A = 22.1 In 2010.6 = e −0.075t = ln 3 0.37 ln x 3.6 The peak of Mt.01625 = ln1.

000 people 482 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A = A0 e −0.1438t 3 1 ln = −0. ln 12 = ln e140 k ln 12 = 140k ln 12 =k 140 k ≈ −0.2 = ln e −0. 000 = 45.2 = e −0.1438t 87. f (6) = b.045 22 ≈ t 90 = e 2k 120 3 ln = ln e2k 4 3 ln = 2k 4 3 ln 4 =k 2 −0. 89.4 60 ln 22. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall.004951t ln 0.004951 t ≈ 325 It will take about 325 days for the substance to decay to 20% of its original amount.045t 22.045t c. 90. Inc.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 60 = 22.045t 22.1438t 1 = e−0. A = A0 e kt 1 2 = e k ⋅140 1 2 = e140 k T = C + (To – C)ekt b. T = 65 + 120e−0.2 = −0.004951t 0. a.4 60 ln = 0. 411 −0.1438 7. 500. .6 ≈ t The temperature will reach 105o after 8 min.1438t 3 1 ln 3 =t −0.045t 22. c. f (0) = 500.1438 ≈ k The population will reach 60 million about 22 years after 1990. Use the half-life of 140 days to find k.004951t ln 0. 500.4 60 ln = ln e0.004951t ln 0.4 = t 0. 105 = 65 + 120e—0.1438t 3 1 ln = ln e−0.2 −0. t= 88. A logarithmic function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data. a.4e0.004951 Use A = A0 e kt to find t. 150 = 65 + (185 − 65)ek 2 90 = 120e2k 60 = e0.92(0) 200 people became ill when the epidemic began.92(6) 1 + 2499e 45.410 were ill after 6 weeks. 000 = 200 1 + 2499e −0.1438t 40 = 120e−0. b. in 2012.

92.005 x = 1600 e0. 6 log x + 2 log y = log x 6 + log y 2 ln 2. Answers may vary. x = log ( x 6 y 2 ) ( ln 0.844 x 9. y = 73 ( 2.4 ln 5 x = ln1. b.005 x = ln 4 3.2589 0. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0.PreCalculus 4E 91.5741 log15 3x −2 = 9 x + 4 ( ) 3x −2 = 32 x+ 4 3x −2 = 32 x +8 x − 2 = 2x + 8 − x = 10 x = −10 12. 6.43) x y = 6. Chapter 3 Test a. ln 7 − 3ln x = ln 7 − ln x 3 7 = ln 3 x 10. log 71 ≈ 1.5e −0. ln1. 5 = 125 3 x= ln 4 ≈ 277. 5 x = 1. Thus. Chapter 3 Test 1.5 ( 0.2091 ln 5 400e0.6 ) 1 2 4. y = 73e0.43) y = 6.6 ) x y = 6.3). log15 71 = 94.005 483 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 4 ( 64 x 5 ) = log 4 64 + log 4 x5 An exponential function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.005 x = ln 4 0.4 x= 13. log 36 6 = 5. Solving this inequality for x.956 x 93.005 x = 4 ln e0. 11. Inc.4 ≈ 0.5e 1 x = log3 x 3 − log 3 81 81 1 = log3 x − 4 3 3 7. y = 73e( = 3 + 5 log 4 x x log 3 8.4 x ln 5 = ln1. we obtain x < 3. the domain of f is (−∞. 2.

The solution set is {5}.06 10 A = 3. 18.9%.069 10 The money will double in 10 years with an interest rate of approximately 6.5% compounded semiannually: log 6 ( 4 x − 1) = 3 4 x = 217 x= 16. 4t 2 x + 15 x − 100 = 0 2 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 x + 20 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = –20 x=5 x = –20 does not check because log(−20) does not exist. Inc. . 15. ln 2 = ln e10 r ln 2 = 10r ln 2 r= ≈ 0. 484 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ln ≈ 1. e4 x= ≈ 18. 4 x − 1 = 216 23. 4 x − 1 = 63 22.05 ⎞ 8000 = 4000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 8000 4t = (1 + 0.6094. 21. 466.0125) 4000 4t 2 = (1.9 4 ln (1. log 6 1 = 0 because 60 = 1 .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 14. ln 5} .0125 ) It will take approximately 13. ln e5 x = 5 x. 000 ⎜1 + ≈ $5. log x + log ( x + 15 ) = 2 log ( x 2 + 15 x ) = 2 x + 15 x = 10 2 ⎛ 0.51 ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 6% compounded continuously: 0. 687. − 5 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 5 = 0 or ex = 1 ln e x = ln 5 ln e x = ln1 x = ln 5 x = ln1 x ≈ 1. e 2 x − 6e x + 5 = 0 (e x 19.0125 ) 4t ln (1.1994 3 17.0125 ) 4ln (1.0125 ) 4t ln 2 = ln (1. 000e ( ) ≈ $5.6094 x=0 20. 217 = 54. The solution set is { }.0125) ln 2 t= ≈ 13.9 years for the money to grow to $8000. log b b = 1 because b1 = b . Since ln e x = x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2(10 ) ⎛ 0. ln ( x − 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln 6 2 = 1er10 2 = e10 r x−4 = ln 6 ln x +1 x−4 =6 x +1 6( x + 1) = x − 4 6x + 6 = x − 4 5 x = −10 x = −2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected.0125 ) ln 2 = 4t ln (1.36 6.25 4 2 ln 3x = 8 ln 3x = 4 3x = e4 24.0125 ) ln 2 = 4 ln (1.065 ⎞ A = 3. 1012 I 0 I0 = 10log1012 = 10 ⋅12 = 120 The loudness of the sound is 120 decibels. 6.5% compounded semiannually yields about $221 more than 6% compounded continuously. The solution set is {0. ex −1 = 0 ex = 5 D = 10log 25.

c f (t ) = . In the logistic growth model.2 k ln 0. 485 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 ln = −0. about 51 elk are expected. ≈ 51 −0.3 =t −0. f (10 ) = 140 b. Plot the ordered pairs. t = 0 and A0 = 509 In 2000.002( 0 ) A = 82.165(10 ) 1 + 9e After 10 years.3 = e−0.5 =k 7. a.3 = −0.5 = ekt −0.5 = 7.4 81.036t .5 It will take 12.002t ln 0. the population of Germany was 82. The limiting size of the elk population is 140 elk.096270t Next use the decay equation answer question. f (0) = 140 = 14 −0. y 5 −5 5 x −5 The values appear to belong to a linear function.096270t 0.5 million approximately 5 years after 2006 in the year 2011.3 = ln e−0. A = 82.2 k ≈ −0. 81.4e ≈ 82.5 = 82. 0.165( 0 ) 1 + 9e Fourteen elk were initially introduced to the habitat.4 In 2006. c.2 k ln 0.096270t ln 0. First find the decay equation. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 million. a. 27.002t 82. 0.5 = e7. 729 = 509ek 10 729 = e10 k 509 729 ln = ln e10 k 509 729 ln = 10k 509 729 ln 509 = k 10 0.096270t ln 0.4e Chapter 3 Test −0.4e−0.PreCalculus 4E 26. In 1990.002 The population of Germany will be 81. We can tell because the model has a negative k = −0.096270 A = e−0. 81.002t 82.036 ≈ k The exponential growth function is A = 509e0. Inc.096270t ln 0.5 ln t = 82.096270 t ≈ 12.5 = ln e7.2k The population of Germany is decreasing.4 81.4 ≈ 5 −0. c. A = e−0. b.5 = e −0.002( x ) 28. .002t 82. 30. 29.5 days.002. t = 2000 – 1990 = 10 and A = 729.5 ln = ln e −0.4 81.

⎩ 5 ⎭ x= 3x − 4 = 2 3x – 4 = 2 or 3x = 6 3x – 4 = –2 3x = 2 2 x=2 x= 3 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . . ± 2 q –2 1 33. y = 96 ( 0. y = 96e −0. 32. Plot the ordered pairs. Plot the ordered pairs. x y = 96e( ln 0. 1 y 1 –3 –1 2 –2 2 2 –2 –1 1 0 –1 ( x + 2)( x – x – x + 1) = 0 3 16 2 ( x + 2)[ x 2 ( x – 1) − ( x – 1)] = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1)( x – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 −5 5 x ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x – 1) 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 The values appear to belong to a quadratic function.9704 5 ⎧ ln128 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . y 5 27 x −3 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) −2 ± −16 2 −2 ± 4i x= 2 x = −1 ± 2i The solution set is {−1 ± 2i} .9704.968 x x =1 e5 x − 32 = 96 e5 x = 128 ln e5 x = ln128 5 x = ln128 Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–3) 1. 1}. −5 5 x The values appear to belong to an exponential function. Inc. x 4 + x3 − 3x 2 − x + 2 = 0 p: ±1. ⎩3 ⎭ 486 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 34. Plot the ordered pairs.38 ) x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {–2. ±2 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ln128 ≈ 0. –1.38) x 4. approximately 0. x= −5 The values appear to belong to a logarithmic function. y 900 3. 2.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 31. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ⎬ .

Cumulative Review Exercises log 2 ( x + 5) + log 2 ( x − 1) = 4 10. 8. 6.PreCalculus 4E 5. 7. 9. 0 ) . 0 ) and ( −1. 0 ) and ( −1. –2) and radius of 2 487 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2x − 4 ≤ 2 2 x − 4 ≤ 2 and 2 x − 4 ≥ −2 2x ≤ 6 2x ≥ 2 x≤3 12. Inc. –1) log 2 [( x + 5)( x − 1)] = 4 ( x + 5)( x − 1) = 24 x 2 + 4 x − 5 = 16 x 2 + 4 x − 21 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 3) = 0 x + 7 = 0 or x − 3 = 0 x = −7 x=3 x = –7 does not check because log 2 (–7 + 5) does not exist. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Horizontal asymptote: y 5 1 5x + 4 = 6x + 9 −x = 5 x = −5 x = −5 does not check and must be rejected. 4] . x-intercepts: x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 The x-intercepts are (1. The solution set is {3}. 14 − 5 x ≥ −6 −5 x ≥ −20 x≤4 The solution set is ( −∞. Circle with center: (3. 11. The solution set is { }. Parabola with vertex: (2. 0 ) . ln ( x + 4 ) + ln ( x + 1) = 2 ln ( x + 3) ln ( ( x + 4 )( x + 1) ) = ln ( x + 3) ( x + 4 )( x + 1) = ( x + 3) 2 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 2 x2 = 4 x2 + 5x + 4 = x2 + 6 x + 9 x = ±2 The vertical asymptotes are x = 2 and x = –2.3] . x-intercepts: x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 and x ≥ 1 x=2 The solution set is [1. or x = −1 The x-intercepts are ( 2.

3 − (−3) 6 = = −3 1− 3 −2 Using (1. 15. = x2 + 2 40 x + 10 (1. 3) point-slope form: y − 3 = −3 ( x − 1) m= 19. 0 = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Use the quadratic formula to solve. s (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 5 = 69 feet.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 13. vary inversely as the square of the number of cups of coffee. 14. 2 = x2 + 4 x + 4 (g −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a t= g )( x ) = f ( x + 2 ) = ( x + 2) s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Let s (t ) = 0 : f )( x ) = g ( x 2 ) 20. 32 H= 2 C 32 H= 2 4 H =2 If 4 cups of coffee are consumed you should expect to sleep 2 hours. The ball hits the ground after about 4.1. y varies inversely as the square of x is expressed as k y= 2. t ≈ −0.1 seconds.1 The negative value is rejected.5 x ) = 660 40 x + 15 x = 660 55 x = 660 x = 12 Your normal hourly salary is $12 per hour. x The hours. (f −(64) ± (64)2 − 4(−16)(5) 2(−16) t ≈ 4. t= 2a 2(−16) The maximum height is s (2) . k H= 2 C 32 H= 2 C Use the equation to find H when C = 4 . C Use the given values to find k . 17. Substitute the value of k into the equation. Inc. . k H= 2 C k 8= 2 2 32 = k 488 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. slope-intercept form: y − 3 = −3( x − 1) t= y − 3 = −3 x + 3 y = −3 x + 6 16. 18. C can be expressed k as H = 2 . s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 The ball reaches its maximum height at −b −(64) = = 2 seconds. H . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

π radians 4 o 180 4 ⋅ c. −300° = −300° ⋅ c. subtract 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. 270π radians 180 = −300π radians 180 d. 4. divided by the circle’s radius. s 42 feet θ= = = 3. Inc. 60π radians 180 = π radians 270° = 270° ⋅ π − b. a. a. s. 180o π radians = 45o 4π 4π radians 180o ⋅ radians = − 3 3 π 4 ⋅180o =− = −240o 3 6 radians = 6 radians ⋅ = 6 ⋅180o π 5. radians b. The radian measure of a central angle is the length of the intercepted arc. 400o – 360o = 40o b.5 π 3 π radians 180° c. 60° = 60° ⋅ = 3. The length of the intercepted arc is 42 feet: s = 42 feet. –135o + 360o = 225o 180o π radians ≈ 343. the radian measure of θ is 3. a. add 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. a.1 Check Point Exercises 1. 30π 29π = 15 15 . The circle’s radius is 12 feet: r = 12 feet. Now use the formula for radian measure to find the radian measure of θ . For a –135º angle. For a 400º angle. − π 15 + 2π = − π 15 + 489 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2.8o 6.Chapter 4 Trigonometric Functions Section 4. a.5 r 12 feet Thus. r. = 180° 3π = radians 2 π radians 180° 5π =− radians 3 4 radians = = b. 13π 13π 10π 3π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Inc. 18° = 18° ⋅ = = π radians 180° 18π radians 180 π 10 radians 15. θ= s 18 yards = = 2. s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝4⎠ 4 We are given ω . Multiply by . the linear speed. θ= s 8 yards 4 = = radians r 6 yards 3 10. 45° = 45° ⋅ 25π 25π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 6 6 25π 36π 11π =− + = 6 6 6 − c. π :θ = π .71 inches.5 inches ⋅ 1 minute minute The linear speed is 135π inches per minute. θ= s 40 inches = = 4 radians r 10 inches 8. . θ= s 400 centimeters = = 4 radians r 100 centimeters 12.25 radians r 8 yards 11. θ= s 30 feet = = 6 radians r 5 feet 9. 855° − 360° ⋅ 2 = 855° − 720° = 135° The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. Exercise Set 4. obtuse 3. The measure of the central angle in radians is 9. obtuse 2. The linear speed is 90π 135π inches = ν = rω = 1. right 7. we begin by converting π radians 45° to radians. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we must express ω in radians per minute.Trigonometric Functions 7. the angular speed. The length of the arc intercepted by this 4 4 central angle is ⎛ π ⎞ 6π inches ≈ 4. Before applying the formula. acute 5.1 17π 17π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π 3 3 17π 12π 5π = − = 3 3 3 1. b. which is approximately 424 inches per minute. 135° = 135° ⋅ π radians 180° 135π radians 180 3π radians = 4 = 490 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. straight 6. 8. acute 4. ω = 45 revolutions per minute We use the formula ν = rω to find v. θ= s 600 centimeters = = 6 radians r 100 centimeters 13. The circle’s radius is 6 inches : r = 6 inches. a. 45 revolutions 2π radians ⋅ ω= 1 minute 1 revolution 90π radians = 1 minute The angular speed of the propeller is 90π radians per minute. 180° π radians 45 45° = 45° ⋅ π radians = 180° 180 = π radians 4 Now we can use the formula s = rθ to find the length of the arc. π radians 180° 45π radians 180 π = radians 4 = 14. Thus.

150° = 150° ⋅ π radians 23. −40° = −40° ⋅ 180o π radians 180o ⋅ π radians = 20o π radians 30. 19. . 180° 76π = radians 180 ≈ 1.1 16. 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 3π radians 1800 3 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 135o 4 4 π radians π radians 180° 225π radians =− 180 5π radians =− 4 −270° = −270° ⋅ 2π 2π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 3 3 π radians o 2 ⋅180 = 3 = 120o 76° = 76° ⋅ 31.70 radians 491 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 18. π radians 300° = 300° ⋅ 24. 2 o 180 = 2 = 90o radians = = π radians 9 o 180 9 180o = −4 ⋅180o = −720o π radians π radians 180° 18π = radians 180 ≈ 0. 18° = 18° ⋅ π radians π radians 180o π radians = −3 ⋅180o = −540o 270π radians 180 3π radians =− 2 π 7π 7π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 6 6 π radians o 7 ⋅180 = 6 = 210o 26. −3π radians = −3π radians ⋅ 22. Inc. 180° 300π radians = 180 5π radians = 3 25.33 radians π radians 180° 40π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. =− 21. π radians 330° = 330° ⋅ 180° 330π radians = 180 11π radians = 6 −225° = −225° ⋅ 11π radians 180o 11 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 330o 6 6 π radians 27. 180° 150π radians = 180 5π radians = 6 17.31 radians 180° ⋅ −4π radians ⋅ 29. 2 π 9 radians = 28.

2 ⋅180o 180o = π radians π ≈ −297.36 radians 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ = 2 ⋅180o 43.8 radians = −4. 3 radians ⋅ 37. π ≈ 114. 200π radians 180 ≈ 3. 13 π 17 180o 3 ⋅180o = ≈ 171.94o 492 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −50° = −50° ⋅ 33. 35.89o π radians π radians = π radians 13 180o = 13 ≈ 13. π 38.49 radians = 34. . 180o 180o = ≈ 10. −5.87 radians π radians 180° 42. 250° = 250° ⋅ π radians 180° 250π = radians 180 ≈ 4.8 radians ⋅ = −4.2 radians ⋅ 47. Inc. 180o π radians π ≈ −275.8 ⋅180o 46. 200° = 200° ⋅ π radians 41.Trigonometric Functions 32.85o radians ⋅ ⋅ 180o π radians 45. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 180° 50π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. −5.59o π radians 17 −4. 180o π radians 44. 39.59o 36.02o 40.

415° − 360° = 55° 59. 25π 25π 25π 24π π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 6 6 6 6 6 67. 57. − 69. 19π 19π 12π 7π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 64. 52. Inc. − 53. 395° − 360° = 35° 58. −760° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −760° + 1080° = 320° 63. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −150° + 360° = 210° 60. π 50 π 40 + 2π = − + 2π = − π 50 π 40 + 100π 99π = 50 50 + 80π 79π = 40 40 31π 31π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 7 7 31π 42π 11π =− + = 7 7 7 493 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −160° + 360° = 200° 61. − 68. 50. 51. 23π 23π 23π 20π 3π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 5 5 5 5 5 66. 56. 17π 17π 10π 7π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 65. −765° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −765° + 1080° = 315° 62. 54. 49.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 55.1 48.

π radians 7π = 315° = 315° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . π 4 = 3π inches ≈ 9. 1 1 360° revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution r = 9 yards. 3 minutes and 40 seconds equals 220 seconds. 73. − 81. 55 11π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 84. π radians 5π = 225° = 225° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . − π 4 π 2 and 7π 4 and 3π 2 82. 6 revolutions per second 6 revolutions 2π radians 12π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolutions 1 seconds = 12π radians per second 1 π revolution is equivalent to 60° or 6 3 radians. 4 minutes and 25 seconds equals 265 seconds. − 3π 5π and 4 4 80.42 inches r = 16 inches. θ = 315° Begin by converting 315° to radians. Publishing as Prentice Hall.48 yards 4 4 1 ⋅ 360° = 60° 6 Now.42 feet 4 86. 76. − 4π 2π and 3 3 78. π 16π s = rθ = 16 ⋅ = inches ≈ 16. π radians π = radians 45° = 45° ⋅ 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . θ = 225° Begin by converting 225° to radians. 7π 63π s = rθ = 9 ⋅ = yards ≈ 49. θ = 45° Begin by converting 45° to radians. . in order to use the formula s = rθ . 220 22π ⋅ 2π = 60 3 r = 8 feet. 75. 265 53π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 87. in order to use the formula s = rθ . −π and π 83. 5π s = rθ = 8 ⋅ = 10π feet ≈ 31. 35 7π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 85. 20 revolutions per second 20 revolutions 2π radians 40π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolution 1 second = 40π radians per second 494 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.76 inches 3 3 77. in order to use the formula s = rθ . − 7π 5π and 6 6 79. First. convert to degrees. 71. Inc. in order to use the formula s = rθ . 38π 38π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 9 9 38π 54π 16π =− + = 9 9 9 − r = 12 inches. 74. s = rθ = 12 ⋅ 72. π radians π = radians 60° = 60° ⋅ 180° 3 Now use the formula s = rθ . θ = 60° Begin by converting 60° to radians. convert 60° to radians. π radians 60π = 60° = 60° ⋅ radians 180° 180 = = π 3 radians Therefore.Trigonometric Functions 70.

38 inches. The distance that the wheel moves is given by s = rθ . 180o 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ ≈ 114. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. s. First. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 radians to degrees. The formula 3 s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in 1 radians. We are given that r s = 10. 1 1 360o revolutions = revolutions ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 1 o o = ⋅ 360 = 120 3 Now. Recall that θ = 495 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we begin by finding r and θ . convert 6 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution = π = π radians 3 The length that the wheel moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 80π s = rθ = (80 centimeters) ⎜ ⎟ = centimeters 3 ⎝3⎠ ≈ 83. s . .70 inches. 92. We are given that r = 6 inches. Inc. The 1 minute hand moves from 12 to 2 o'clock. We must convert revolution to radians.1 91. We are given that r = 24 inches and θ = 90°.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. s 8000 miles θ= = = 2 radians r 4000 miles Now.57 inches. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. 3 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 2π radians = 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ 2π ⎞ 12π s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ inches ⎟= 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 4π inches ≈ 12. The minute hand moves from 12 to 4 1 o’clock. π radians 120π = 120° = 120° ⋅ radians 180° 180 2π = radians 3 1 2π Therefore. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. we begin by finding r and θ . or of a complete revolution. π radians 90π 90° = 90° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 88. We are given that r s = 8000 miles and r = 4000 miles.5 radians ⋅ ≈ 143. We are given that r = 80 centimeters and θ = 60°. Since s = rθ . π radians 60π 60° = 60° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 89. convert 2. = radians 2 The length of each arc is ⎛π ⎞ s = rθ = (24 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = 12π inches ⎝2⎠ ≈ 37. Since s = rθ . or of a 6 complete revolution.000 miles and r = 4000 miles.59o π radians 93. The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length.5 radians r 4000 miles Now. s. The length of each arc is given by s = rθ . We must 1 revolution to radians. 180o 2. convert 2 radians to degrees. The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length. We are given that r = 8 inches. Recall that θ = radians 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 8π s = rθ = (8 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = inches ⎝3⎠ 3 ≈ 8.78 centimeters. 90. s 10. convert 120° to radians. revolution is equivalent to 120° or 3 3 radians. convert to degrees. 000 miles θ= = = 2.24o 2π radians 94. π s .

Therefore. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 10° . Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 2. the distance from A to B is 2094 miles. = 6π radians per minute ν = rω = (25 feet)(6π ) ≈ 471 feet per minute The linear speed of the Ferris wheel is about 471 feet per minute. Recall that s = rθ .5 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution = 5π radians per minute The linear speed of the animals in the outer rows is ν = rω = (20 feet)(5π ) ≈ 100 feet per minute The linear speed of the animals in the inner rows is ν = rω = (10 feet)(5π ) ≈ 50 feet per minute The difference is 100π − 50π = 50π feet per minute or about 157. We can only use the formula s = rθ when θ is expressed in radians. Linear speed is given by ν = rω .5 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. 20 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 20 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution radians = 40π radians per minute ν = rω = (12 feet)(40π ) ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 2094 miles ⎝6⎠ To the nearest mile. Inc. . 97. 3 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 3 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution 115. the distance from A to B is 698 miles.08 feet per minute. 114. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. π radians 10π 10° = 10° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 = π 18 100. We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 30° . 113. We need to convert 3 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. We are given that r = 12 feet and the wheel rotates at 20 revolutions per minute. Begin by converting 2. Answers may vary. ≈ 1508 feet per minute The linear speed of the wheel is about 1508 feet per minute. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . ⎛π ⎞ ν = rω = (4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ 4000π = miles per hour 12 ≈ 1047 miles per hour The linear speed is about 1047 miles per hour.Trigonometric Functions 95. radians per hour and 12 r = 4000 miles. radians ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 698 miles ⎝ 18 ⎠ To the nearest mile. We are given that ω= π 101. 98. Recall that s = rθ . 2. 96. We are given that r = 25 feet and the wheel rotates at 3 revolutions per minute. 116. π radians 30π 30° = 30° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 π = 6 99. 496 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. – 112.

A right angle measures 90° and 90° = π Section 4. Check Point Exercises 1. 1 3 126. Use x = –1 and y = 0 to find the values of the trigonometric functions. 121. 2.2 radians ≈ 1. . 20° = 20° ⋅ 100= r= π r 9 900 π π 180° = π 9 radians ⎛ 3 1⎞ P⎜ . y = 2 2 1 − x 1 1 = 2 =− =− y 3 3 3 2 119. ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 sin t = y = 2 cos t = x = = 1 2 3 2 y = x csc t = 1 =2 y = 3 3 1 2 3 = x 3 x cot t = = 3 y sec t = 123. θ is smaller than a 2 right angle. domain: { x −1 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [ −1. does not make sense. Sample explanation: It is possible for π to be used in an angle measured using degrees.1] 118. x = − . 122. Inc. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. π 3 2 tan t = ≈ 286 miles To the nearest mile. 26° = 26° ⋅ 3 3 =− 3 3 13π radians 90 180° 13π s =4000 ⋅ 90 ≈ 1815 miles To the nearest mile. Sample explanation: That will not be possible if the angle is a multiple of 2π .5 radians. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 26° to radians. Florida is 1815 miles north of the equator. 124. Sample explanation: Angles greater than π will exceed a straight angle. 0). range: { y −1 ≤ y ≤ 1} or [ −1. sin π = y = 0 cos π = x = −1 0 y tan π = = =0 x −1 1 1 sec π = = = −1 x −1 x −1 cot π = = = undefined y 0 1 1 cscπ = = = undefined y 0 497 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.57 radians. 2 3 If θ = radians = 1. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 20° to radians.2 125. Explanations will vary. The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to t = π has coordinates (–1. does not make sense. Miami. Explanations will vary. a radius of 286 miles should be used. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. makes sense 120.1] 117.

P⎜ . = 1 π . 3 5 5 1 1 5 = = 2 tan θ 2 5 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 15 8 ⎛ 15 8 ⎞ ⎜ − 17 . ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ . 8 sin t = y = 17 15 cos t = x = − 17 8 tan t = 8 y = 1715 = − 15 x − 17 1 17 = y 8 1 17 sec t = = − x 15 x 15 cot t = = − y 8 csc t = 498 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. cos t is positive. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0025 π 4 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = cos ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ≈ 0.Trigonometric Functions 3. 2 ⎛1⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ cos 2 t = 1 − =1 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = sec ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝4⎠ b. cot b.2 1.5 ≈ 1. 2 sin θ = 3 tan θ = cos θ 5 3 2 3 2 = ⋅ = 3 5 5 2 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 2 5 5 8. 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ a. 5. ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ π 1 csc = = 2 4 y π 1 sec = = 2 4 x t= cot 4. π π 4 = x = y 1 y 1 2 6. 1 1 3 = = sin θ 2 2 3 1 1 3 = = sec θ = cos θ 5 5 3 csc θ = = cot θ = 3 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 1 4 3 3 = 4 2 cos t = a. ⎛ 9π cos ⎜ − ⎝ 4 a. csc 1. Use x = − 17 and y = 17 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions.0≤t < 2 2 sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 sin t = π 2 . .7071 Exercise Set 4. sin b. 17 ⎟ . 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ − ⎟ = − sin ⎜ ⎟ = − 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < 7. Inc.

sin π 7. csc 7π 1 = 1 = −2 6 −2 12. Use has coordinates ⎜ − ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ 2 tan t = 1 = 2 y 1 sec t = = − 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 2 2 2⎞ π . sin π 6.2 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 5 12 ⎛ 5 12 ⎞ ⎜ − 13 . csc 4π 1 −2 3 = = 3 3 3 − 2 13. tan 0 = 0 =0 1 11. 12 sin t = y = − 13 5 cos t = x = − 13 12 − 12 y tan t = = 13 = 5 5 x − 13 4. 2 2 2 cos t = x = 2 5. cos 2π 1 =− 3 2 9. The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 3π 2 2⎞ t= .PreCalculus 4E 2. Use x = t = − has coordinates ⎜⎜ 4 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 and y = − to find the values of the trigonometric 2 functions. cos 5π 3 =− 6 2 8. Section 4. sec 11π 1 2 3 = = 3 6 3 sin t = y = − tan t = y − = x 2 2 2 2 y = 2 = −1 x − 2 2 = −1 1 =− 2 y 1 sec t = = 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = 6 3 = = 1 2 3 2 2 499 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 sin t = y = 2 2 cos t = x = − 2 x=− 1 13 =− 12 y 1 13 sec t = = − x 5 x 5 cot t = = y 12 csc t = 3. . − 13 ⎟ Use x = − 13 and y = − 13 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 2 and y = to find the values of the 2 2 trigonometric functions.− ⎟⎟ . tan π = 0 =0 −1 10. Inc. .

a. tan 5π ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 3 = 3 ⎠ 500 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 21. 19. sin 3π = −1 2 16. π 3 = 26. a. sec 5π 1 = 1 =2 3 2 24. b. 20. tan 3π = undefined 2 b. 1 2 2 sin t = . sec 3π = undefined 2 18. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. cos t = 17 17 17 8 17 sec t = 15 15 cot t = 8 π 1 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 3 3 2 ⎝ ⎠ sin sin t = 11π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 6 = 3 ⎠ csc t = π 3 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 6 6 2 ⎝ ⎠ cos ⎛ 11π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 tan t = 3 2 = 11π − 12 3 = =− 3 6 3 2 15. 25.Trigonometric Functions 14. cos π 6 b. Inc. 22. cos 3π =0 2 17. cos t = 3 3 tan t = 1 3 2 2 3 = 2 4 csc t = 3 2π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 3 = − 2 ⎠ 3 2 4 cot t = 2 2 sec t = 3 5π − 2 = 1 =− 3 3 2 ⎛ 5π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 3 = csc t = 2π 3 = sin 3 2 ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 8 17 15 17 3 4 sin t = . cos t = 5 5 tan t = 5π 1 = 6 2 ⎛ 5π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 6 8 15 . a. b. a. b. a. a. 23. b. 1 2 tan 8 15 3 5 4 5 = 3 4 5 3 5 sec t = 4 4 cot t = 3 5π 1 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 6 = − 2 ⎠ 27.

Inc. cos t is positive.7 = sin1. sin 2 π 36.PreCalculus 4E 28. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 ⎛6⎞ 2 ⎜ 7 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < π 2 2 36 49 cos t = .7 csc1.2 2 5 . 0 ≤ t < 7 2 32.3 ⎠ 35. cos t = 3 3 2 3 5 3 = 31. csc2 π 3 6 − tan 2 − cot 2 π 3 π 6 = 1 because 1 + tan 2 t = sec 2 t.7 ⎠ 34.3 = cos 2. sin 2 π 2 15 15 = 64 8 π 33. 37. cos t is positive. = 1 because 1 + cot 2 t = csc 2 t. ⎛ 21 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 5 ⎝ ⎠ 7 π sin t = . Because 0 ≤ t < 49 cos t = 1 − 64 2 .3 sec 2. . ⎛ 1 ⎞ cos 2. 39 64 25 5 = 64 8 cos 2 t = 1 − cos t = 5 2 Because 0 ≤ t < 6 π sin t = .0≤t < 5 2 sin t = 13 13 = 49 7 cos t = π sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 cos 2 t = 1 − 30. 0 ≤ t < 8 2 cos t = 2 21 π .3 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ cos 2.7 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ sin1. sin t = tan t = Section 4. 2 . cos t is positive.0≤t < 8 2 sin t = 6 3 + cos 2 + cos 2 π 2 π 3 = 1 by the Pythagorean identity. cos t is positive. = 1 because sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1. sec2 π 38. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 5 5 2 ⎛ 39 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 8 ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 3 5 sec t = 5 csc t = cot t = 29. 39 π . 2 ⎛7⎞ 2 ⎜ 8 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ π 21 25 4 2 = 25 5 cos 2 t = 1 − sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 Because 0 ≤ t < . ⎛ 1 ⎞ sin1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 501 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

⎛ 9π sec ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sec ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sec 4 = 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 43. a. 52. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. sin b. csc 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = csc ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = csc = 2 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 41. 49. sin 3π 2 = 4 2 b. a. sin 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = sin = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 54. Inc. cos ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 π 2 =0 9π ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 4π ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎡π ⎤ = cos ⎢ + 2(2π ) ⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ = cos π 2 =0 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 56. cos 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos =− 4 4 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ π ⎛π ⎞ − cot ⎜ + 17π ⎟ = − cot = −1 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 55. sin π 2 =1 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 4π ⎟ = sin = 1 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 502 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. cos 9π π 2 ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 40. 51. . cos 3π 2 =− 4 2 π ⎛π ⎞ − tan ⎜ + 15π ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝4 ⎠ b. ⎛ 9π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π 2 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sin 4 = − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 42. cos b. ⎛ 9π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 4 + 3π ⎟ = tan 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 47. ⎛ 5π cot ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎟ = cot ⎜ 4 − 2π ⎟ = cot 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 46. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 53. 50. a. cot 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 45. 48.Trigonometric Functions 39. tan 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = tan ⎜ + π ⎟ = tan = 1 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 44.

2 tan π = 57. + sin t + sin(t − 1000π ) 65.7174 cos t + cos(t + 1000π ) − tan t − tan(t + 999π ) − sin t + 4sin(t − 1000π ) 62. b.4 ≈ 0. π 69.7321 cot = sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) ⎡ 7π ⎤ = sin ⎢ + 5 ( 2π ) ⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎦ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 60. sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) 12 π 18 ≈ 5.8 ≈ 0. sec 1 ≈ 1.9511 3π ≈ 0. a. sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) − tan(t + π ) = sin(t ) + cos(t ) − tan(t ) = a+b−c 77. 4 cos(−t ) − cos t = 4 cos t − cos t = 3cos t = 3b 74. cos 0. sin(−t ) − sin t = − sin t − sin t = −2sin t = −2a 72.8253 = cos t + cos t − tan t − tan t − sin t + 4sin t 63. cos 70. sin(−t − 2π ) − cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) = −a − b + c 7π 2 = 4 2 78.6713 = a −b+c 47π ⎛ 7π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 10π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 76. sin(−t − 2π ) + cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) + cos(t ) + tan(t ) 47π 7π 2 ⎛ 7π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 10π ⎟ = cos = cos 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ = −a + b + c 79. sin π 10 − cos t + 7 cos(t + 1000π ) + tan t + tan(t + 999π ) = 6 cos t + 2 tan t + 2sin t = 2a + 6b + 2c ≈ 0.2643 = 3a + 2b − 2c = 2 cos t − 2 tan t + 3sin t 64. Inc. . cot cot π 2 = 0 =0 1 15π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + 7π ⎟ = cot = 0 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 7π 2 =− sin 4 2 sin b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = tan[π + 8(2π )] = tan π =0 58. a. 3cos( −t ) − cos t = 3cos t − cos t = 2cos t = 2b 75.8508 67.7 ≈ 0. ≈ 3. b. tan 3. tan( −t ) − tan t = − tan t − tan t = −2 tan t = −2c 73.8090 10 503 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 ≈ 0.6247 80. a. cot 71. 0 =0 −1 tan17π = tan(π + 16π ) b. tan 3.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. a.1884 = − cos t + 7 cos t + tan t + tan t + sin t + sin t 66. sin 0. 59. csc 1 ≈ 1. cos 68. 61.

E = sin b. E = sin = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on March 21. At 6 A. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin1. a. c.7339 π 6 ⋅6 = 10 + 4sin π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.5837 E = sin π π 14 For t = 28. t = 3. π For t = 14. .M.5837 = 10 + 4sin π 6 ⋅3 π = 10 + 4(1) = 14 2 The height is 14 feet.. 504 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education..6 There are about 9.M.3sin 4. At 9 A. ≈ 3. At noon. a.3sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ = 12 + 8. the period is 35 – 7 = 28 or 28 days.. E = sin π 14 For t = 35. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅12 6 = 10 + 4sin 2π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. c.Trigonometric Functions 81.3998 There are about 14. At 6 P.7 There are about 3.3sin1. ≈ 9.3(0) 83. Inc. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. π ⋅14 = sin π = 0 ⋅ 21 = sin 3π = −1 2 ⋅ 28 = sin 2π = sin 0 = 0 5π π = sin = 1 14 2 2 Observations may vary.7339 ⋅ 7 = sin π 2 =1 b.3sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8.M.3sin 0 = 12 + 8. ≈ 20. ≈ 14. t = 6. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin 4. At midnight.4 hours of daylight in San Diego on June 21. 84.6 hours of daylight in San Diego on December 21. a. t = 0. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅0 6 = 10 + 4sin 0 = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. For t = 7. 82. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ 12 + 24sin 0 = 12 + 24(0) = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in San Diego on March 21. 14 14 For t = 21. t = 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 There are about 20.3sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8. b. a.7 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on December 21.3 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on June 21. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. t = 18. E = sin ⋅ 35 = sin Because E(35) = E(7) = 1.

M. π ⋅ 21 6 7π 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4sin 2 2 = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 The height is 6 feet. 2 1 4 f (a) + f (a + 2π ) + f (a + 4π ) + f (a + 6π ) 102.M. makes sense 505 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 100. b. is also 6 feet. . makes sense 3π or 6 2 t = 9. we find a low tide at does not make sense. Inc. The sine function has a minimum at h = 10 + 4sin π 3π .M. and cot t > 0. does not make sense.M. At 3 A.7 feet above the ground.m. t = 21. tan t > 0. Because the sine has 5π . f ( x) = sin x and f (a) = 1 ⎛1⎞ − 2⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝4⎠ 1 =− 4 f(–a) = –f(a) because sin (–x) = –sin x. – 96. The height is given by h = 45 + 40 sin(t – 90°) h(765°) = 45 + 40sin(765° − 90°) ≈ 16. t= The sine function has a maximum at 10 ≈ −1. Answers may vary.M. and 3 P.2 H = 10 + 4sin π 98. Explanations will vary.58 < −1.M. and ends at t = 2π 6 2 6 or t = 12. t is in the third quadrant therefore sin t < 0. starts at t= c 2 = 169 c = 13 Next write the ratio. 105. π ⋅9 6 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 2 The height is 6 feet. Sample explanation: sin t cannot be less than −1. 104.M. the period is 12 hours. c. Thus. which means high and low tides occur every 12 hours. First find the hypotenuse. 2π ] . high tide is at 9 A. 101. Publishing as Prentice Hall. only choice (c) is true. is 14 feet.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. a period of 2π we also find a maximum at 2 π 5π or t = 15.7 You are about 16. low tide is at 3 A. 97. Explanations will vary. ⋅18 6 = 10 + 4sin 3π = 10 + 4 sin π Note that − = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. From part a. Sine is an odd function. a 5 = c 13 85. π or t = 3. H = 10 + 4sin 99. Thus. we find a high tide at π t= π 2 1 4 f (a) + 2 f (−a) = f (a) − 2 f (a) 103. For t = 9. f ( x) = sin x and f (a ) = ⎛1⎞ = 4 f (a) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 because sin x has a ⎝4⎠ period of 2π . Sample explanation: Cosine is not an odd function. Thus. The cycle of the sine function π c 2 = 52 + 122 c 2 = 25 + 144 5π π or t = 0. From part a. Thus. This 6 2 value of t corresponds to 9 a. This value of t corresponds to 3 P. the height at 9 A. We find another high tide at t = 6 2 This value of t corresponds to 9 P. = . and 9 P. the height at 3 A. Thus. Thus.M. c2 = a2 + b2 The period of the sine function is 2π or on the interval [0.M..

Trigonometric Functions 106. 2 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ ⎜ c ⎟ +⎜ c ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ c c = 2. a2 + b2 c2 Use the Pythagorean Theorem. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we have opposite 3 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 adjacent 4 = cos θ = hypotenuse 5 opposite 3 = tan θ = adjacent 4 hypotenuse 5 = csc θ = opposite 3 hypotenuse 5 = sec θ = adjacent 4 adjacent 4 = cot θ = opposite 3 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ 107. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . . Inc. a = 3. to find b.3 2 Check Point Exercises c 2 = 12 + 12 1. ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝c⎠ ⎝c⎠ c c = a 2 + b2 c2 Since c 2 = a 2 + b2 . c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . a 2 + b2 = c2 12 + b 2 = 52 2 = Use the Pythagorean Theorem. b = 4 c   2 a + b2 1 + b 2 = 25 c2 b 2 = 24 c2 = 2 c =1 b = 24 = 2 6 Note that side a is opposite θ and side b is adjacent to θ . 2 2 c = a +b Section 4. and hypotenuse. continue simplifying by substituting c 2 for a 2 + b2 . adjacent. c2 = 1 + 1 c2 = 2 c= 2 Next write the ratio and simplify. to find c. First find the hypotenuse. a 1 = c 2 = 1 2 ⋅ 2 2 = 2 2 2 c 2 = a 2 + b 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 c = 25 = 5 Referring to these lengths as opposite. opposite 1 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 cos θ = adjacent 2 6 = hypotenuse 5 opposite 1 6 = = adjacent 2 6 12 hypotenuse 5 = =5 csc θ = opposite 1 tan θ = sec θ = hypotenuse 5 5 6 = = adjacent 12 2 6 cot θ = adjacent 2 6 = =2 6 opposite 1 506 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

. and a known adjacent side. Inc. sin 46o = cos(90o − 46o ) = cos 44o b. we select the tangent function. 6. cot π ⎛π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ 12 ⎝ 2 12 ⎠ ⎛ 6π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 12 ⎠ 5π = tan 12 Because we have a known angle. 507 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 = 1 3 ⋅ 3 3 = 3 3 a.PreCalculus 4E 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. length of hypotenuse csc 45° = length of side opposite 45° 2 = 2 1 length of hypotenuse sec 45° = length of side adjacent to 45° = 2 = 2 1 length of side adjacent to 45° cot 45° = length of side opposite 45° 1 = =1 1 = 4. tan 60° = length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 3 = 3 1 length of side opposite 30° tan 30° = length of side adjacent to 30° = 1 = 5.3 Apply the definitions of these three trigonometric functions. a tan 240 = 750 a = 750 tan 240 a ≈ 750(0. Section 4.4452) ≈ 334 The distance across the lake is approximately 334 yards. an unknown opposite side.

tan θ = Many Graphing Calculators Many Scientific Calculators TAN −1 ( 14 ÷ 10 ) TAN ( 14 ÷ 10 ) ENTER ENTER The display should show approximately 54. . the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 54°. c 2 = 92 + 122 = 225 c = 225 = 15 opposite 9 3 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 adjacent 12 4 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 opposite 9 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 12 4 hypotenuse 15 5 csc θ = = = opposite 9 3 hypotenuse 15 5 sec θ = = = adjacent 12 4 adjacent 12 4 cot θ = = = opposite 9 3 2. Thus. Inc.Trigonometric Functions 7. c 2 = 62 + 82 = 100 c = 100 = 10 opposite 6 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 10 adjacent 8 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 10 opposite 6 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 8 4 hypotenuse 10 csc θ = = = opposite 6 hypotenuse 10 sec θ = = = adjacent 8 adjacent 8 4 cot θ = = = opposite 6 3 3 5 4 5 5 3 5 4 508 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. side opposite 14 = side adjacent 10 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Exercise Set 4.

a 2 = 841 − 441 = 400 b 2 = 676 − 100 = 576 a = 400 = 20 opposite 20 = = hypotenuse 29 adjacent 21 = = hypotenuse 29 opposite 20 = = adjacent 21 hypotenuse 29 = = opposite 20 hypotenuse 29 = = adjacent 21 adjacent 21 = = opposite 20 b = 576 = 24 opposite 10 5 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 adjacent 24 12 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 opposite 10 5 = = = adjacent 24 12 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = opposite 10 5 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = adjacent 24 12 adjacent 24 12 = = = opposite 10 5 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ a 2 + 152 = 17 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 102 + b 2 = 262 6.3 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. a 2 + 402 = 412 a 2 = 289 − 225 = 64 a 2 = 1681 − 1600 = 81 a = 64 = 8 opposite 8 = = hypotenuse 17 adjacent 15 = = hypotenuse 17 opposite 8 = = adjacent 15 hypotenuse 17 = = opposite 8 hypotenuse 17 = = adjacent 15 adjacent 15 = = opposite 8 a = 81 = 9 opposite 9 = = hypotenuse 41 adjacent 40 = = hypotenuse 41 opposite 9 = = adjacent 40 hypotenuse 41 = = opposite 9 hypotenuse 41 = = adjacent 40 adjacent 40 = = opposite 9 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 509 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 3. . a 2 + 212 = 292 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 4. Section 4.

13. b = 49 = 7 opposite 24 = = hypotenuse 25 adjacent 7 = = hypotenuse 25 opposite 24 = = adjacent 7 hypotenuse 25 = = opposite 24 hypotenuse 25 = = adjacent 7 adjacent 7 = = opposite 24 cos 30° = tan = b = 625 − 576 = 49 tan θ length of hypotenuse length of side opposite 45° csc 45° = = 2 cos θ 2 = 2 1 = 242 + b 2 = 252 sin θ length of hypotenuse length of side adjacent to 45° sec 45° = cot π 3 sin π 4 3 = 3 1 = cot 60° = = 15. Inc.Trigonometric Functions 7. a = 784 = 28 opposite 28 4 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 adjacent 21 3 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 opposite 28 4 = = = adjacent 21 3 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = opposite 28 4 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = adjacent 21 3 adjacent 21 3 = = = opposite 28 4 12. a 2 + 212 = 352 11. a = 1225 − 441 = 784 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 8. length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 1 3 − cos = π 4 1 3 17. cos π 3 sec π 3 − cot π 3 = 1− 3 3− 3 = 3 3 3 3 510 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. tan 30° = = π 3 2 = 2 1 = tan 60° = 14. csc θ sec θ cot θ 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = 10. tan π 4 + csc π 6 ⋅ 1 2 3 3 ⋅ 3 3 = − 1 2 =0 ⎞ ⎟⎟ − 1 ⎠ 6 −1 4 6 −4 = 4 = length of side opposite 30° length of side adjacent to 30° 1 3 3 1 2 = + = 1+ 2 = 3 1 1 π π π ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 sin cos − tan = ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 4 4 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 3 2 = 3 = = tan 45° + csc 30° length of side adjacent to 30° length of hypotenuse 1 3 = sin 45° − cos 45° = 16. length of side adjacent to 60° length of side opposite 60° 18. .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. csc 25° = sec(90° – 25 ) = sec 65° 24.7536) ≈ 188 cm π 21.5592) ≈ 7 m 33. o 23.9657 π 10 511 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. tan 27. 2π ⎛ π 2π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 5 ⎝2 5 ⎠ ⎛ 5π 4π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 10 ⎠ = sin a 13 a = 13sin 34° sin 34° = 16 16 ≈ ≈ 41 m sin 23° 0.8040) ≈ 18 cm 31. Inc. a 10 a = 10 tan 61° tan 61° = a ≈ 10(1.8290) ≈ 182 in. cos π 9 32. 6 6 12 3 + 6 = 6 =2 3+ 20. ⎛π π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝2 9⎠ ⎛ 9π 2π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 18 18 ⎠ 7π = cot 18 π ⎛π π ⎞ ⎛ 7π 2π = cot ⎜ − ⎟ = cot ⎜ − 7 ⎝2 7⎠ ⎝ 14 14 a ≈ 13(0.PreCalculus 4E 19. 2 tan π 3 Section 4. 6 tan π 4 + sin π 3 sec 29. ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 3 ⎞ = 6(1) + ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 6 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 6 = 6+ 6 =7 sin 7° = cos(90° − 7°) = cos83° 22. cos 30. b 220 b = 220 cos 34° cos 34° = b ≈ 220(0.3907 tan 44° = b= 16 c 23 b 23 23 ≈ ≈ 24 yd tan 44° 0. tan 26. sin19° = cos ( 90° − 19° ) = cos 71° 3π π ⎛ π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 4π 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − − ⎟ = sin ⎜ ⎟ = sin 8 8 ⎠ 8 ⎝2 8 ⎠ ⎝ 8 a 250 a = 250 tan 37° tan 37° = a ≈ 250(0. . csc 35° = sec(90° − 35°) = sec55° 25. sin 23° = c= 5π ⎞ ⎟ = cot 14 ⎠ 34.3 + cos π tan 4 π 6 =2 ⎛ 2 ⎝ 2 ( 3 ) + ⎜⎜ ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 28.

5117 ENTER Display (rounded to three places) .4169.395 radians.877 ENTER Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 29 If cos θ = 0.2974 SIN −1 If sin θ = 0. Inc.Trigonometric Functions 35. . Publishing as Prentice Hall.6252 TAN −1 TAN −1 4. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .9499 ENTER If sin θ = 0.877 COS-1 COS-1 .4112 COS−1 Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 88 If cos θ = 0. 38.2974.395 Scientific Calculator .0307 ENTER Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) COS−1 .9499 SIN-1 SIN-1 . then θ ≈ 78°.0307 TAN-1 If tan θ = 26. 42.4169 ENTER .5117 TAN −1 Graphing Calculator TAN −1 . 39.4169 TAN −1 Display (rounded to three places) 1.4112.6252. then θ ≈ 29° . then θ ≈ 88°.877. 37. Scientific Calculator 26. Graphing Calculator TAN-1 26. Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) SIN −1 .473 If tan θ = 0. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 4.4112 ENTER 1. 36. 41. then θ = 0.2974 ENTER 17 Scientific Calculator . Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) TAN −1 .147 Scientific Calculator . Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator . Scientific Calculator . then θ ≈ 0.9499.147 radians. then θ = 1.253 radians.6252 ENTER 78 If tan θ = 4.253 If tan θ = 0. then θ ≈ 17°.0307. then θ ≈ 1.5117.473 512 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 40.

csc 37° sec 53° − tan 53° cot 37° = sec 53° sec 53° − tan 53° tan 53° = sec 2 53° − tan 2 53° =1 48. cos12° sin 78° + cos 78° sin12° = sin 78° sin 78° + cos 78° cos 78° = sin 2 78° + cos 2 78° =1 513 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 + sin 2 40° + sin 2 50° = 1 + sin 2 (90° − 50°) + sin 2 50° = 1 + cos 2 50° + sin 2 50° = 1+1 =2 46.3 π 3 − 1 sec π = 3 1 − 1 2 π cos 6 = 6 3 1 − 1 2 3 2 3 3 − 2 2 =0 = 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Inc. 2 Section 4. 1 cot π 4 − 2 csc π = 1 1 tan 6 = 1 1 1 − π 1 sin 4 − 2 π 6 2 1 1 2 1 2 = − 1 2 = 1−1 =0 45. 1 − tan 2 10° + csc 2 80° = 1 − cot 2 80° + csc2 80° = 1 + csc 2 80° − cot 2 80° = 1+1 =2 47.PreCalculus 4E tan 43.

. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 36°. Publishing as Prentice Hall. tan θ = Many Scientific Calculators 125 ÷ 172 = TAN −1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN −1 ( 125 ÷ 172 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 36. 514 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8391) ≈ 529 The distance across the lake is approximately 529 yards. f (θ ) = 2 sin θ − sin θ 2 π π ⎛π ⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 sin − sin 3 3 2 ⎝3⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 51. Inc. f (θ ) = 2 cos θ − cos 2θ π ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ π⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 cos − cos ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎟ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 6⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝3⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 50.8391) ≈ 29 The tree’s height is approximately 29 feet.Trigonometric Functions 49. 55. Thus. 1 ⎛π ⎞ tan ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cot θ = 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ 52. 125 172 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . 54. 1 1 ⎛π ⎞ csc ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sec θ = = 1 =3 θ 2 cos ⎝ ⎠ 3 53. h 35 h = 35 tan 40° tan 40° = h ≈ 35(0. a 630 a = 630 tan 40° tan 40° = a ≈ 630(0.

999999998 515 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 57.00001 1 × 10 −5 1 . θ 0. 59.3 555 1320 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .0099998 sin θ 0. tan Many Scientific Calculators 555 ÷ 1320 = TAN-1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN-1 ( 555 ÷ 1320 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 23.4 0. Thus. c= 58. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2955 0. Answers may vary. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 47°.3 0.0872) = 436 The driver’s increase in altitude was approximately 436 feet. a 5000 a = 5000sin 5° ≈ 5000(0.01 sinθ 0.1 0.9983 0.PreCalculus 4E 56. cos θ = Many Scientific Calculators 60 ÷ 75 = COS Many Graphing Calculators −1 COS−1 ( 60 ÷ 75 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 37. Thus. the angle of elevation is approximately 23°.9736 0.2 0. – 67. 60.999998 × 10 −4 9.1736 The plane has flown approximately 2880 feet.001 0.99998 θ sin θ approaches 1 as θ approaches 0.9851 0.3894 0. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 37°. sin10° = 500 c 500 500 ≈ ≈ 2880 sin10° 0.0001 9. θ 0.1987 0. Section 4.99999998 × 10 −5 0.0998 0. sin 5° = 60 75 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .9999998 0. Thus.9933 0. Inc. 0. cos θ = 61. 68. Many Scientific Calculators Many Graphing Calculators -1 55 ÷ 80 = COS COS-1 ( 55 ÷ 80 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 47. 55 80 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .

1 0.2 0.01 cos θ 0. θ 60 70 80 89 89.296 572.9999995 0. . does not make sense. 72. Irrational numbers are rounded on calculators. A sample change is: 75. At 90°.98007 0. false. 73. Therefore both 1 2 + 1 2 = 2 2 ≠1 opposite adjacent and must be hypotenuse hypotenuse less than 1 for an acute angle in a right triangle. tanθ is undefined.005 0. tanθ increases without bound.04996 –0.7321 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. θ 0. false.958 As θ approaches 90°.0005 1 –0. 70. true tan 45° ⎛ 45° ⎞ ≠ tan ⎜ ⎟ tan15° ⎝ 15° ⎠ 78.999999995 –0. does not make sense.099667 –0.9 89.Trigonometric Functions 69. Explanations will vary.00005 0 θ cos θ − 1 θ approaches 0 as θ approaches 0. Explanations will vary.4 0.99 89.99500 0. Then use the table to describe what happens to the tangent of an acute angle as the angle gets close to 90°.19735 –0.0001 0. Inc. Changes to make the statement true will vary.001 0.3 0. the hypotenuse is greater than either other side. 79. Sample explanation: The sine and cosine are cofunctions of each other. Explanations will vary. In a right triangle. does not make sense. 71. true 76.99995 cos θ − 1 –0.6713 57 573 5730 57. 516 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.95534 0. The sine and cosine are not reciprocals of each other.9999 tanθ 1. Sample explanation: An increase in the size of a triangle does not affect the ratios of the sides. makes sense 74.00001 0. Use a calculator in degree mode to generate the following table. Changes to make the statement true will vary.92106 0. Sample explanation: This value is irrational.148878 –0.999 89. A sample change is: sin 45° + cos 45° = 77.7475 5.

θ ′ = 360D − 345D = 15D b. y = 1.PreCalculus 4E 80. y. b. which is r 34 34 34 34 negative. Inc. r = x2 + y2 π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive y-axis.7002 The ship is approximately 357 feet from the lighthouse. r 5 82. undefined y 0 b.1): x = 0. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. y −3 3 10 = =− r 10 10 cos θ = 144 + 250 = 394 The plane is approximately 394 feet above the water. Select the point P = (1. b tan 22° = 357 b = 357 tan 22° ≈ 357(0. Let b = the plane’s height above the lighthouse. θ = 90° = x r First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = 34 x −3 −3 34 −3 34 = = ⋅ = .4 Check Point Exercises 1. a.4 Let a = distance of the ship from the lighthouse. b. y = 0. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. x 1 10 = = r 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = = −3 x 1 r 10 10 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 y r r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = (−3) 2 + 42 r =5 y 4 = . . Section 4. which is positive. r = (−3)2 + 52 83. θ′ = π − 5π 6π 5π π = − = 6 6 6 6 10 = 10 1 1 1 =− −3 3 a.4040) ≈ 144 sin θ = a.0): x = 1. a. a. x 1 cos 0° = cos 0 = = = 1 r 1 r 1 csc 0° = csc 0 = = . Select the point P = (0. b. r = 12 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. 81. θ = 0° = 0 radians The terminal side of the angle is on the positive x-axis. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . π x 0 cos 90° = cos = = = 0 2 r 1 π r 1 csc 90° = csc = = = 1 2 y 1 517 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 250 tan 35° = a 250 250 a= ≈ ≈ 357 tan 35° 0. 2. and r.

y = 0. sin 60° = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. Select the point P = (0. Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. all the functions are positive in quadrant I. Inc. it is in quadrant II. Furthermore. angle is θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 11π 11π 12π π + 2 ⋅ 2π = − + = 3 3 3 3 This angle is in quadrant I. 4. 3π x 0 cos 270° = cos = = =0 2 r 1 3π r 1 csc 270° = csc = = = −1 2 y −1 c. it is in quadrant III. 4 4 4 4 π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. undefined y 0 5. Because sin θ < 0. Because 8π . x −1 cos180° = cos π = = = −1 r 1 r 1 csc180° = csc π = = . 5π π = + tan = 1 . y. thus the reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 305° = 55° . 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. c. thus the reference − angle is θ ′ = Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative.71 . 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = 3 x −3 x = −3. x is negative and y is positive.Trigonometric Functions c. 4 4 4 4 2π = 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative y-axis. The reference angle is 4 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = .14 and 3π ≈ 4. a. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. y 1 1 10 10 sin θ = = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 sec θ = 7π 3π 6π = and lies between 4 2 4 r 10 10 = =− x 3 −3 3 . we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7. a. we can find sin θ and sec θ . and r. The reference angle is θ = 240 − 180 = 60° . thus the reference 7π 8π 7π π = − = . it is in quadrant IV. it is in quadrant III. 15π 15π 8π 7π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 This angle is in quadrant IV. θ lies in quadrant II.6 − π ≈ 0.46 . Thus.0): x = −1. sin 300° = − sin 60° = − b. b. sin θ is positive in quadrant II. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which cosine is negative and the sine is negative. The reference 4 7π 8π 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = − = .–1): x = 0. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. Because 3. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . θ = 270° = 6. In quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . y = 1 Furthermore. θ cannot lie in quadrant I. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . b. The reference 2 angle is θ ′ = 3. tan 4 4 tan 518 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d. . y = −1. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. with sin θ < 0. 300° lies in quadrant IV. 3.6 lies between π ≈ 3. θ = 180° = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative x-axis. θ cannot lie in quadrant II. π 3 . 665° − 360° = 305° This angle is in quadrant IV. Thus. d. Because –240° lies between –180° and –270°. Select the point P = (–1. a. 2 5π lies in quadrant III.

y. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + 52 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . and r. Because P = (–12. sin We need values for x. . Inc. . 6 6 6 2 −22π −22π 24π 2π + 8π = + = lies in 3 3 3 3 quadrant II. 6 3 ⎝ 6⎠ 8. θ′ = π − 3 3 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 sin = .PreCalculus 4E c. π 2 3 = 6 3 Because the secant is positive in quadrant IV. The reference angle is 6 θ′ = π 6 1. 6 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II.4 Exercise Set 4. = r 5 5 = =− 4 x −4 4 x −4 cot θ = = =− 3 3 y sec θ = 17π 5π π 3 = cos = − cos = − . and r. y. 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = lies in quadrant 6 6 6 6 5π π II. The reference angle is θ ′ = π − = .4 lies in quadrant IV. cos cos b. sec r = x 2 + y 2 = (−4)2 + 32 = 16 + 9 = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. y 5 sin θ = = r 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− 13 13 r 5 5 y tan θ = = =− 12 x −12 −22π 2π π 3 = sin = sin = . y. and r. y. x = −4 and y = 3 . 3 3 3 2 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = − 5 5 y csc θ = 519 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − π Section 4. x = −12 and y = 5 . Furthermore. 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Furthermore. 2. a. and r. Because P = (–4. We need values for x. y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 cos θ = = =− 5 5 r 3 3 y tan θ = = =− 4 x −4 r 5 csc θ = = y 3 π 2 3 ⎛ π⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = + sec = . 6 6 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 . The reference angle is 2π π = .

Furthermore. y. Furthermore. and r.Trigonometric Functions 3. 2 sin θ = 2 2 2 = 18 = 3 2 Now that we know x. and r. Inc. Because P = (2. 3 7 r 5 2 = = 2 5 x 5 x = −1 cot θ = = y −5 sec θ = 520 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 3 and y = 7 . r = x 2 + y 2 = 5 + (−5)2 = 25 + 25 = 50 7 7 58 7 58 y = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 −5 −1 2 2 y = = ⋅ =− 2 r 5 2 2 2 5 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 5 2 2 2 y −5 = −1 tan θ = = 5 x r 5 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −5 y cos θ = 58 3 sec θ = −3 −1 2 2 y = =− ⋅ =− 2 r 3 2 2 2 cos θ = 13 2 sec θ = We need values for x. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . We need values for x. and r. 6. . r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + 7 2 = 9 + 49 = 58 Now that we know x. Because P = (3. 3 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 3 2 2 2 y −3 = −1 tan θ = = x 3 r 3 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −3 y r 3 2 = = 2 3 x 3 x = −1 cot θ = = y −3 sec θ = 2 3 We need values for x. and r. y. y. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7) is a point on the terminal side of θ . and r. y. y. and r. and r. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + (−3) 2 = 9 + 9 r = x + y = 2 + 3 = 4 + 9 = 13 Now that we know x. 5. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . x = 2 and y = 3 . sin θ = =5 2 Now that we know x. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 3 3 13 3 13 y = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 sin θ = 2 2 13 2 13 x = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 y 3 tan θ = = x 2 13 r csc θ = = 3 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y 4. x = 5 and y = –5 . –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . 3 3 58 3 58 x = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 y 7 tan θ = = x 3 58 r csc θ = = 7 y sin θ = cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y We need values for x. Because P = (3. y. Because P = (5. x = 3 and y = −3 . and r. Furthermore. y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Furthermore.

x −1 cos π = = = −1 r 1 3π y −1 = = . Inc. r 1 = −1 sec π = = x −1 12. 0): x = −1. 0): x = −1. r 1 csc π = = . Select the point P = (0. and r. y = 0. undefined x 0 2 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. 1): x = 0. 29 29 =− −2 2 −2 2 = −5 5 We need values for x. cot π 2 521 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . = x 0 = =0 y 1 . r = 1 Apply the definition of the θ= 10 = − 10 −1 −1 1 = −3 3 15. x = −2 and y = −5 .4 We need values for x. y. and r. Select the point P = (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and r. 3π x 0 = = =0 cos 2 r 1 θ= θ= π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. –1): x = 0. sin θ = tangent function. y = 0. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. 0): x = −1. tan −3 −3 10 3 10 y = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 14. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cotangent function.PreCalculus 4E 7. 0): x = −1. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Furthermore. y 0 =0 tan π = = x −1 11. 10. Furthermore. y. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosecant function. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . y = –1. y = 0. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. Because P = (–1. sin θ = −5 −5 29 5 29 y = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 −2 −2 29 2 29 x = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 y −5 5 tan θ = = = x −2 2 29 29 r =− csc θ = = −5 5 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 8. y = −1. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. y. r = 1 Apply the definition of the secant function. y. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. y = 1. x = –1 and y = –3 . Select the point P = (–1. Section 4. Select the point P = (–1. undefined y 0 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−2) 2 + (−5) 2 = 4 + 25 = 29 Now that we know x. Select the point P = (–1. 13. −1 −1 10 10 x cos θ = = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = =3 x −1 10 10 r =− csc θ = = −3 3 y r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 9. y = 0. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−1) 2 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. Select the point P = (–1. –1): x = 0. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . Because P = (–2. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. Select the point P = (0. and r.

13 r 13 Furthermore. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r = 5. y. Thus. We are also given that sec θ < 0 . . the tangent function is positive in those quadrants. 3 x −3 cosθ = − = = . x2 + y 2 = r 2 20. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. θ= π 22. x = –3. Thus. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . Inc. x is negative and y is negative. 1): x = 0. with tan θ < 0. Because tan θ < 0. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant II. Because sin θ < 0. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. 522 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant II. 4 y −4 sin θ = = =− 5 5 r y −4 4 tan θ = = = x −3 3 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 3 x −3 3 = cot θ = = y −4 4 18. θ cannot lie in quadrant II or quadrant IV. We are also given that cos θ > 0. y. radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. π y 1 tan = = . θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. Thus. Because quadrant II is the only quadrant in which the cosine is negative and the tangent is negative. We are also given that sin θ < 0 . the tangent function is positive in those two quadrants. Furthermore. 52 = (−3) 2 + y 2 y 2 = 25 − 9 = 16 y = − 16 = −4 Now that we know x. Thus. x −5 5 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 y −12 12 tan θ = = = x −5 5 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −12 12 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −5 5 x −5 5 cot θ = = = y −12 12 21. with tan θ < 0. with sin θ < 0. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. x 2 + (−12) 2 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 144 = 25 x = − 25 = −5 Now that we know x. 19. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III.Trigonometric Functions 16. Select the point P = (0. θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. In quadrant III. Because sin θ > 0. 5 r 5 r 2 = x2 + y2 17. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. y = 1. the sine function is negative in those quadrants. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the secant is negative and the cotangent is positive. 12 y −12 sin θ = − = = . undefined 2 x 0 23. In quadrant III x is negative and y is negative. Thus. and r. and r. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant III. y = −12. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. Thus. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. θ cannot lie in quadrant III or quadrant IV. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. We are also given that cos θ > 0 . r = 13 . Because tan θ < 0. Because sin θ < 0. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the sine is negative and the tangent is negative. Because quadrant I is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and sine is positive. with cot θ > 0. with sin θ > 0. 24. the cotangent function is negative in those two quadrants. Because cot θ > 0. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant I. Thus. Thus. with sin θ < 0.

r = 13 . . In quadrant IV. y. In quadrant IV x is positive and y is negative. x = 1. In quadrant IV. y −3 3 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 y −3 3 tan θ = = =− x 4 4 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 r 5 sec θ = = x 4 x 4 4 cot θ = = =− y −3 3 y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. and r. r = 5 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 x cos θ = = . y. 17 r r = 17. 13 r x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + 52 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 25 = 144 82 + y 2 = 17 2 x = − 144 = −12 Now that we know x. Thus. y −15 15 sin θ = = =− r 17 17 y −15 15 tan θ = = =− x 8 8 r 17 17 csc θ = = =− y −15 15 r 17 sec θ = = x 8 x 8 8 cot θ = = =− y −15 15 x −12 12 = =− r 13 13 y 5 5 = =− x −12 12 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 = =− y 5 5 26. 5 r 2 2 x + y = r2 28. r = 3 . 3 r 2 2 x + y = r2 42 + y 2 = 52 y 2 = 25 − 16 = 9 12 + y 2 = 32 y = − 9 = −3 Now that we know x. x = 4. x = 8. and r. and r. Furthermore. θ is in quadrant IV. y = 5. Thus. cos θ = tan θ = csc θ = sec θ = cot θ = y 2 = 289 − 64 = 225 y = − 225 = −15 Now that we know x. Furthermore. and r. y. Furthermore x2 + y 2 = r 2 25. Thus. 8 x cos θ = = . Thus. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . x is positive and y is negative. Because 270° < θ < 360°. Because 270° < θ < 360°. x is positive and y is negative. Inc. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . In quadrant II x is negative and y is positive. 4 x cos θ = = . 5 y sin θ = = . Furthermore. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. y. θ is in quadrant IV.4 27. sin θ = y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 tan θ = y −2 2 = = −2 2 x 1 r 3 3 2 3 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 r 3 sec θ = = = 3 x 1 csc θ = cot θ = x 1 1 2 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 523 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ .

. In quadrant III. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . In quadrant III. x is 4 y −4 . y. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . θ lies in quadrant III. Thus. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y = 1. Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. sin θ = y 2 2 13 2 13 = = ⋅ = r 13 13 13 13 cos θ = −3 −3 13 x 3 13 = = ⋅ =− r 13 13 13 13 csc θ = r 13 = y 2 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Trigonometric Functions 29. 2 y 2 tan θ = − = = . 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = . Furthermore. y = –4. 3 x −3 32. and r. y −4 4 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 x −3 3 cos θ = = =− r 5 5 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 x −3 3 cot θ = = = y −4 4 13 13 =− −3 3 −3 3 =− 2 2 30. Furthermore. y. x = −3 . y = 2. Thus. negative and y is negative. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. and r. 12 x −12 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. Thus. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Inc. 3 x −3 31. Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. tan θ = = = 3 x −3 x = –3. x is negative and y is positive. y. x is negative and y is negative. y. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + (−4)2 = 9 + 16 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 22 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. x is negative and y is positive. and r. In quadrant II. θ lies in quadrant II. θ lies in quadrant II. 5 y −5 tan θ = = = . y −5 5 sin θ = = =− r 13 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −5 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = = y −5 5 10 10 =− −3 3 −3 = −3 1 524 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. θ lies in quadrant III. Furthermore. and r. y = −5 . In quadrant II. Furthermore. x = −12. sin θ = y 1 1 10 10 = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 cos θ = −3 −3 x 10 3 10 = = ⋅ =− r 10 10 10 10 csc θ = r 10 = = 10 y 1 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + (−5)2 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. x = −3. Thus.

4 4 4 4 42. Because 160° lies between 90° and 180°. The reference angle is 14 5π 7π 5π 2π = − = . −150° + 360° = 210° Because the angle is in quadrant III. 525 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x is negative and y is negative. it is in quadrant III. Because the cosecant is negative and the tangent is positive. Because x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + (−1) 2 = 42 x 2 = 16 − 1 = 15 5π π 3π 6π lies between = and π = . 36. y −2 2 = =2 2 x −1 40. r 3 3 2 3 2 csc θ = = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 cot θ = x 1 2 2 −1 = = ⋅ = y −2 2 2 2 2 4 7π 3π 6π 8π lies between = and 2π = . y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Thus. the reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . The reference angle is 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = . it is in quadrant III. it is in quadrant IV. r = 4 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 170° = 10° . r 4 csc θ = −4 = = . Furthermore. r 3 sec θ = −3 = = . The reference angle is 5π 6π 5π π = − = . y. x is negative and y is negative. it 4 2 4 4 is in quadrant IV. θ lies in quadrant III. and r. it is in quadrant II. x = −1. x −1 x2 + y 2 = r 2 35. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Because 5π 10π π 7π = lies between = and 2 14 7 14 14π . θ′ = π − 7 7 7 7 π= 45. θ′ = π − 6 6 6 6 x = − 15 Now that we know x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. it is in quadrant II. Furthermore. 38. y −1 1 sin θ = = =− r 4 4 x − 15 15 cos θ = = =− r 4 4 y 1 15 15 −1 tan θ = = = ⋅ = x − 15 15 15 15 sec θ = r 4 4 15 4 15 = =− ⋅ =− x − 15 15 15 15 cot θ = x − 15 = = 15 y −1 43. it is 6 2 6 6 in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 355° = 5° . In quadrant III. and r. Because the secant is negative and the tangent is positive. it is in quadrant II. Thus. y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 x −1 1 cos θ = = =− r 3 3 sin θ = tan θ = 39. r = 3 . θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 41. it 4 4 2 4 is in quadrant III. Because 351° lies between 270° and 360°. Because 34. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . The reference angle is 7π 8π 7π π = − = . Inc. it is in quadrant IV. Because 205° lies between 180° and 270°. (−1)2 + y 2 = 32 37. y = −1. The reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° . The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 351° = 9° .4 33. Because 170° lies between 90° and 180°. The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 160° = 20° . Because 44. Because 355° lies between 270° and 360°. y −1 5π 4π 3π 6π lies between π = and = . θ lies in quadrant III. In quadrant III. y. Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°.

2 62. Inc. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . −335° + 360° = 25° Because the angle is in quadrant I. the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . 210° lies in quadrant III. 47. 2 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant III. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 2π − 5. 58.28 . 553° − 360° = 193° Because the angle is in quadrant III. 52. 6 6 cos 225°= − cos 45°= − 2 . 50.Trigonometric Functions 46. 4 4 3 . cos 45° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant II. 2 it is in quadrant IV. it 2 59. 4 4 − 17π 17π 24π 7π + 4π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant III. 6 6 − 13π 13π 18π 5π + 6π = − + = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. tan 30° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 4π = − = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. 57. the reference angle is θ ′ = 25° . the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = π − = . 60. 300° lies in quadrant IV.7 − π ≈ 1. 2 63. the reference angle is θ ′ = 1° . Because 5. Because 4. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . the reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° . 6 6 − 25π 25π 36π 11π + 6π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. 3π ≈ 4. The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45° . 55. the reference 11π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . 54. is in quadrant III. −250° + 360° = 110° Because the angle is in quadrant II.71 . 3 3 − 61. 48. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = .14 and 3π ≈ 4. 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. −359° + 360° = 1° Because the angle is in quadrant I. 11π 11π 8π 3π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant II. 11π 11π 16π 5π + 4π = − + = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant III. the reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 110° = 70° . 565° − 360° = 205° Because the angle is in quadrant III. .56 . 3 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. 225° lies in quadrant III. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 3 tan 210°= tan 30° = 3 . the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = −π = .78 . the reference 3π π angle is θ ′ = π − = . 4 4 sin 60° = sin 300° = − sin 60° = − 23π 23π 16π 7π − 4π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. 56. the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = −π = . 3 526 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 lies between π ≈ 3.5 lies between 51.5 ≈ 0. 49. the reference angle is θ ′ = 193° − 180° = 13° .71 and 2π ≈ 6. 53. The reference angle is θ ′ = 4.

tan 60° = 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. The reference angle is 4 3π 4π 3π π θ′ = π − = − = . 7π π csc = − csc = −2 . The reference angle is 6 7π 7π 6π π −π = − = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. tan 45° = 1 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. The reference angle is 4 9π 9π 8π π − 2π = − = . 66.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. cos 9π lies on the positive y-axis. 2 2 2 2 π 9π is also Because tan is undefined. tan 405°=tan45°=1 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 405° − 360° = 45° . 2π π 3 =sin = .4 64. =– cos = − 4 4 2 3 . . 2 sin(−225°) = sin 45° = . The reference angle is 4 7π 8π 7π π = − = . sin 60° = sin(−240°)= sin 60°= 3π π 2 . 7π lies in quadrant IV. 420° lies in quadrant I. –225° lies in quadrant II. The reference angle is 2 9π 9π 8π π θ′ = − 4π = − = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45°. 70. 68. θ′ = 6 6 6 6 2 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. sin 9π lies in quadrant I. 73. 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. tan 420°= tan 60°= 3 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . 4 4 4 4 π 2 cos = 4 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 420° − 360° = 60° . π 69. –240° lies in quadrant II. 2 sin 45° = π =2 6 Because the cosecant is negative in quadrant III. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . 4 4 cot 527 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7π lies in quadrant III. 3 3 2 3π lies in quadrant II. 240° lies in quadrant III. 2 74. θ′ = 4 4 4 4 tan 2π lies in quadrant II. 405° lies in quadrant I. tan 2 2 undefined. θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 65. Inc. 3 3 3 3 sin π =1 4 Because the cotangent is negative in quadrant IV. 67. sec 60° = 2 Because the secant is negative in quadrant III. sec 240° = − sec 60° − 2 . 71. 6 6 csc π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. 7π π cot = − cot = −1 . 72. The reference angle is 3 2π 3π 2π π θ′ = π − = − = . 9π π tan =tan = 1 4 4 3 = 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II.

cos 35π 11π 3 = cos = 6 6 2 83. Inc. tan = sec 495° = sec135° = − 2 78. π ⎛ 11π ⎞ = tan = 1 tan ⎜ − ⎟ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 85. − π 87. lies in quadrant IV. The reference angle is 4 θ′ = π 4 76. sin ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 1 − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ 3 6 6 3 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. cos 23π 7π 2 = cos = 4 4 2 82. θ= π ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 − −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ . 6 3 ⎝ ⎠ 77. 19π 7π = cot = 3 6 6 11π 5π 11π 5π cos sin + cos 4 6 4 6 ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ =⎜ − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6+ 2 =− 4 =− 80. cot 13π π 3 = cot = 3 3 3 81. Publishing as Prentice Hall. cot π 4 cos 0 − sin π 6 cos π 2 1 + 2 2 2 +1 = 2 = 3 ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − . π 1 ⎛ 35π ⎞ = sin = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 6 2 ⎝ 6 ⎠ 90. − π 6 π cos π − cos π 3 sin 3π 2 3 1 + 2 2 1− 3 = 2 88. π ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝ 4⎠ tan sin 89. =1 4 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV.Trigonometric Functions 75. 2 3 sec 510° = sec150° = − 3 79. . 17π 5π 17π 5π cos sin + cos 3 4 3 4 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 2⎞ = ⎜− − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6− 2 = 4 = 7π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = tan 6 = 3 ⎠ π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = sin 3 = 2 ⎠ 528 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. lies in quadrant IV. The reference angle is π 3 =− π . ⎛ 17π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 86. ⎛ 17π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 84.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 17π ⎝ 3 ( h D g ) ⎛⎜ 96. ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ 11π ⎞ = h⎜ f ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ sin ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ( h D f ) ⎛⎜ 3π ⎛ 8π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − + cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ = ( −1) 3 + ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2⎞ = 2⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) = 2 3 2 97. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . 92. 94. Inc. .4 3π ⎛ 15π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − − cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1)(1) − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 1 = −1 − 2 2 1 =− − 2 2 3 =− 2 sin 95.PreCalculus 4E 91. f ( x2 ) ) 2 3 3 − 2 2 3 3 =− 2 =− 93. Section 4. f ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . m= f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ − sin ⎜ 4 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 3π 5π − 2 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ 4π π ⎞ ⎛ 4π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ f⎜ + ⎟+ f ⎜ +f⎜ ⎟ ⎟ 6⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝6⎠ 4 π π 4 π π ⎛ ⎞ = sin ⎜ + ⎟ + sin + sin 6⎠ 3 6 ⎝ 3 3π 4π π = sin + sin + sin 2 3 6 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠ =− ⎞⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ cos ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎛1⎞ = 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ =1 sin =− 3− ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎟ = h⎜ g ⎜ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ π 4 2 −1 + 2 = 3 +1 2 π 4 ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎛ 5π π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ + ⎟+ g⎜ g⎜ ⎟+ g⎜ 6 ⎟ 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π π ⎛ 5π π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + ⎟ + cos + cos 6 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ π 5π = cos π + cos + cos 6 6 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 3 3⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = −1 = ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2 2 −4 π 529 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Inc. Answers may vary. QII π π 3π 4 4 103. Explanations will vary. 3 3 100. cos θ = − 2 2 −4 π 4 5π 4 5π 7π θ= . π 3 4π = 3 π 3 and θ is QIV θ = 2π − π 3 5π = 3 3 π when the reference angle is and 6 3 θ is in quadrants II or IV. 3 3 π 4 = π 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is 3 2 in quadrants II or III. Sample explanation: Sine is defined for all values of the angle.Trigonometric Functions 98. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . – 109. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. sin θ = − g ( x2 ) − g ( x1 ) x2 − x1 QIII ⎛ 3π ⎞ cos (π ) − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ = 3π π− 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = θ =π + 99. 101. QI QIV π θ = 2π − 3 = θ= . 4 4 4 = π = π ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ QIV 3 θ = 2π − π 6 11π = 6 105. does not make sense. 110. ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ θ =π − 2 π when the reference angle is and θ is 4 2 in quadrants I or II. cos θ = θ= 7π 4 θ =π + in quadrants II or IV. g ( x2 ) ) m= 2 π when the reference angle is and 4 2 θ is in quadrants III or IV. QI QII θ =π − . tan θ = − 3 when the reference angle is 3π = 4 θ= π 3 2π = 3 2π 4π θ= . g ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . QII QIII sin θ = θ= θ = 2π − 102. 4 θ =π − 4 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is in 3 2 quadrants I or IV. 6 6 π 5π 3 π 3 2π = 3 2π 5π θ= . 530 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 104. tan θ = − π QII 3 5π 3 θ =π − QIV π 6 5π = 6 5π 11π θ= .

Explanations will vary. y = cos(4 x + π ) 2 x − π π radians 13π 12 −4 4π 3 0 13π 13π radians 180o radians = − ⋅ π radians 20 20 o = −117 11π 11π 6π 5π − 2π = − = 3 3 3 3 b. x 1 5 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 7 3 3 0 − 2 2 11 4 3 3 −3 − 0 2 3 6. 0 2π ⎞ ⎛ 115. y = 3sin x 0 y 0 7π 12 4 π 2 5π 6 0 10π radians 180 π radians 180° =− 105π radians 180 7π radians 12 π π 3. . does not make sense. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Sample explanation: Sine and cosecant have the same sign within any quadrant because they are reciprocals of each other. y = 4 sin ⎜ 2 x − 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x = radians =− 0 8 18 180° −105° = −105° ⋅ 1 114. c. 5π is in quadrant IV. − 19π 19π 24π 5π + 6π = − + = 4 4 4 4 b. Explanations will vary. 5π is in quadrant III. − 5. does not make sense. Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 1. makes sense π − 4 1 2 y π 0 1 − 2 y π 3 0 116. 113. 10° = 10° ⋅ = 112. Inc. 2. Since a. a.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 111. 8 4 1 2 5π 5π radians 180o radians = ⋅ = 75o 12 12 π radians 4. the reference angle 4 5π 5π 4π π −π = − = is 4 4 4 4 Since 531 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: It is also possible that y = −3 and x = −5. the reference angle 3 5π 6π 5π π is 2π − = − = 3 3 3 3 c.

sin θ = −2 2 13 y = =− 13 r 13 3 3 13 x = = 13 r 13 2 y −2 tan θ = = =− 3 3 x 13 13 r =− csc θ = = −2 2 y cos θ = 13 r = 3 x 3 3 x =− cot θ = = 2 y −2 sec θ = 532 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . the reference angle is 180° − 150° = 30° cos θ = r = x2 + y2 2 adjacent 11 = hypotenuse 6 opposite 5 11 = adjacent 11 hypotenuse 6 = csc θ = opposite 5 tan θ = 2 9 16 25 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 4⎞ r = ⎜− ⎟ +⎜− ⎟ = + = =1 5 5 25 25 25 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Now that we know x. y. a.Trigonometric Functions 7. 510° − 360° = 150° 9. y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 8. Inc. b = 11 opposite 5 = sin θ = hypotenuse 6 Since 150° is in quadrant II. 4 − y 4 sin θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 3 − x 3 cos θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 4 − y 4 tan θ = = 5 = 3 3 x − 5 r 1 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 5 r 1 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 5 3 − x 3 cot θ = = 5 = 4 y − 4 5 10. sec θ = hypotenuse 6 6 11 = = adjacent 11 11 cot θ = adjacent 11 = opposite 5 r = x2 + y2 r = 32 + (−2) 2 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. and r. Use the Pythagorean theorem to find b. and r. a 2 + b2 = c2 b. . 52 + b 2 = 62 25 + b 2 = 36 b 2 = 11 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

x is positive and y is negative. cot120° = 1 1 1 3 = = =− tan120° − tan 60° − 3 3 18. θ is in quadrant II. and r. Therefore y = −2 10 Use x. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y. and r to find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y. 4 y 13. r 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 r =5 Now that we know x. Thus. sin θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− r 7 7 tan θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− x 3 3 r 7 7 10 = =− y −2 10 20 r 7 sec θ = = x 3 x 3 3 10 cot θ = = =− y −2 10 20 csc θ = 16. Furthermore. x = −4. 7 r Since θ is acute. x is negative and y is positive. r = 6 . cos 240° = − cos 60° = − 19. Furthermore. Since cos θ = 1 x = .PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 11. 3 x tan θ = − = . . r = 7 . sec 20. In quadrant IV. y = 3 . Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. x = 3. θ is in quadrant IV. tan 30° = 3 3 17. 6 r x2 + y2 = r 2 12 + y 2 = 62 1 + y 2 = 36 y 2 = 35 y = ± 35 3 x = . y = + 35 = 35 y 35 ⎛π ⎞ = 35 cot ⎜ − θ ⎟ = tan θ = = x 1 ⎝2 ⎠ x2 + y2 = r 2 32 + y 2 = 72 9 + y 2 = 49 y 2 = 40 y = ± 40 = ±2 10 Because the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. Furthermore. y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 =− cos θ = = 5 5 r r 5 csc θ = = y 3 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 4 x −3 4 =− cot θ = = y 4 3 12. Inc. sin 2 11π = 6 π 7 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 = = = = 11π π 3 3 3 cos cos 6 6 2 + cos 2 π 7 =1 533 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 1. In quadrant II. Since cos θ = side adjacent θ hypotenuse 250 cos 72° = c 250 c= cos 72° c ≈ 809 m cos θ = 15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. side opposite θ side adjacent θ a tan 41° = 60 a = 60 tan 41° tan θ = r 2 = x2 + y2 r = (−3) + 4 2 2 a ≈ 52 cm 2 14.

9 feet sin θ = side opposite θ side adjacent θ 50 tan θ = 60 ⎛ 50 ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 60 ⎠ θ ≈ 40° tan θ = 534 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Begin by converting from degrees to radians. − cos π = (1) − (−1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ + 2π n ⎟ + tan ⎜ + nπ ⎟ cos ⎜ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π 5π π π = cos + tan = − cos − tan 6 6 6 6 3 3 3 3 2 3 =− − =− − 2 3 6 6 5 3 =− 6 side opposite θ hypotenuse h sin 6° = 5280 h = 5280sin 6° h ≈ 551. It is given that r = 10 feet and the merry-go-round rotates at 8 revolutions per minute.7 feet per minute T he linear speed of the horse is about 502. 26.Trigonometric Functions 21. . ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 3 + 2π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4π π = sin = − sin 3 3 27. 2 3 =− 24. 2 2 29. cos 495° = cos ( 495° − 360° ) = cos135° = tan = 8π ≈ 25. Convert 8 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. ⎛ 22π csc ⎜ ⎝ 3 23. 25.7 feet per minute. 7π ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎛ 17π ⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 6 + 4π ⎟ = tan 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 2 π 2 π 6 = 2π radians 1 revolution = 16π radians per minute ν = rω = (10)(16π ) = 160π ≈ 502. Inc. 8 revolutions per minute 4π ⎞ ⎛ 22π ⎞ ⎟ = csc ⎜ 3 − 6π ⎟ = csc 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1 = = = 4π π 3 − sin sin − 3 3 2 =− π 3 3 30.13 cm = 8 revolutions per minute ⋅ 2 3 3 = − cos 45° = − 5 28. π radians π 36° = 36° ⋅ = radians 180° 5 s = rθ = 40 ⋅ 3 =− 2 22. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

2 . 2. then by adding quarter-periods to 4 4 2 generate x-values for each of the key points. by 4.− 1 2 . The equation y = 3sin x is of the form y = A sin x with A = 3.5 Section 4.3 π y = 3sin x = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . Thus.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.5 Check Point Exercises 1. 2π] by dividing the period. 0) 3π 2 1 3π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − (−1) = 2 2 3π 1 . We find the three x–intercepts. by 4. −3 2 2π y = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . 2π. 2 2 2π 1 y = − sin 2π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (2 π . The period for both y = − sin x 2 2 2 and y = sin x is 2π . 0) 1 π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − ⋅1 = − 2 2 π π 1 y = − sin π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (π . 0) 2 π 2 π 2 = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= coordinates = 3 ⋅1 = 3 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The five x-values are x=0 π 1 y = − sin 0 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 coordinates (0. 0) 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sinx. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The five x-values are x=0 x = 0+ x= π 2 π + x =π + = 2 π 2 π 2 π x=0+ 2 =π = x= 3π 2 2 + x y = 3sin x 0 y = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π π 2 x (0. the maximum point. Inc. 2π . 0) 3π 2 3π y = 3 sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 3π . period 2π π = = . 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 1 y = − sin x 2 535 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. then by 4 4 2 adding quarter. the amplitude is 2 1 1 1 A = − = . 2 π x=π+ x= y = 3sin 1 The equation y = − sin x is of the form y = Asin x 2 1 with A = − . Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 2π π the period. = = . and the minimum point on the interval [0. the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 The period for both y = 3sin x and y = sinx is 2π. 0) π 2 0 .periods.

− 2 ) 3π 2 = 2 ⋅ (−1) = −2 = 2 sin 4π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . 2π 2π The period is = =π. x = π 6 . B = 2. Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The C 3 π 1 π = = ⋅ = . 2) begins. = 2 ⋅1 = 2 1 ⋅2π 2 is of the form π 3 . 0) = 2 sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 536 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and C = = 2 sin 0 π The equation y = 3 sin 2 x − (2 π . 4 4 adding quarter-periods. The five x-values are x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. The phase shift is B 2 3 2 6 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π = . Inc. 2π 2π = 1 = 4π . π (0. 2 The amplitude is A = 2 = 2 . The period is B The equation y = 2sin Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 0 ) = 2 sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3. then by adding the period. 0) = 2 sin 2π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 (π . . 1 x is of the form 2 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle = 2 ⋅0 = 0 y = 2 sin 3 amplitude is A = 3 = 3 . π . x 0 y = 2sin y = 2 sin 1 x 2 4. B 2 coordinates 1 ⋅0 2 π y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3. by 4. 2 Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 4π = = π .Trigonometric Functions Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . 3π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅3π 2 (3π . Extend the pattern of each graph to the left and right as desired. then by the period. 4π . by 4.

4) .0 6 ⎛ 1⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ = −4 cos 6π = 3 sin 2π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 = 3 sin π 2 1 . −3 12 7π 6 y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ 7π π − 6 3 The equation y = −4 cos π x is of the form y = Acos Bx with A = −4. and B = π .0 = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 5π 12 ⎛ 5π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 3π π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 5π . then by adding 4 4 2 quarter periods to the value of x where the cycle begins. –4) = −4 cos 0 = −4 1 2 7π . The period is B π Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period 2 1 the period. 2π 2π = = 2. π π 3 6 . (1.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2. Thus. = = .5 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph. x=0+ x y = −4 cos πx 0 y = −4 cos (π ⋅ 0 ) coordinates (0.0 2 =0 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 1) = −4 cos π = 4 537 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The five x-values are x= π 6 π 2π 3π 5π + = + = 6 4 12 12 12 5π π 5π 3π 8π 2π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 3 2π π 8π 3π 11π x= + = + = 3 4 12 12 12 11π π 11π 3π 14 π 7π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 6 Evaluate the function at each value of x. x= π x π 6 y = 3sin 2x − y = 3sin 2 ⋅ π 6 π coordinates 3 − 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. by 4. Inc.3 12 2π 3 ⎛ 2π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ 3 3⎠ ⎝ 3π = 3sin = 3sin π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 2π . The five x-values are x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.0 3 11π 12 ⎛ 11π π ⎞ − ⎟ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 9π 3π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ( −1) = −3 11π . the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 .

by 4. 538 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − π 4 3 2 . 2 2 2 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph. = . x = − 3 cos(2 x + π ) 2 π 3 cos − + π 2 2 3 cos(0 + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅ −1 = − 2 2 = π 3 cos + π 2 2 x=− y= π x=− 2 2 π 4 x=0+ x= π + + + π 4 π π 4 π 4 = = =− . –4) = −4 cos 2π = −4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 2 2 2π 2π The period is = =π.Trigonometric Functions ⎛ 3⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 3π = −4 cos =0 2 3 2 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 2) 2 3 . Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the left. − π 4 y= 3 cos(−π + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 y= y= = 0 π 4 6. and C = −π . then by adding 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle y= begins. 2 3 3 Thus.0 0.0 2 x − π 2 (2. B 2 π C −π The phase shift is = =− . Publishing as Prentice Hall. B = 2 . 3 3 cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π )) 2 2 The equation is of the form y = Acos(Bx − C) with 3 A = . .0 3 π 3 cos(π + π ) . the amplitude is A = = . 2 B 2 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π the period. Inc. π π π − π 3 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 . 2 The five x-values are x=− − 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 y= y= coordinates π 4 =0 π 4 π 4 4 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. π . 2 π 4 2 .

The quarter-period is 2π π or . we obtain one period of the graph. B C 3= B C 3= π B= . is 3. Thus. 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 π 2 y = 2 cos π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 π y = 2 cos π + 1 3π 2 y = 2 cos 2π A.5 The graph of y = 2 cosx + 1 is the graph of y = 2 cosx shifted one unit upwards. 539 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 7. D = 12. The period is . the curve oscillates about the middle value. 2 B π 2π = 2 B πB = 4 π π 2 2π π = 12 6 The graph shows that the starting point of the cycle is C shifted from 0 to 3. Section 4. Add quarter4 2 periods to generate x-values for the key points. The number of hours of daylight is modeled by (2 π . The graph shows that this maximum value is 4. or 12 2π months. is the maximum value of y. x y = 2 cosx + 1 coordinates 0 y = 2 cos0 + 1 (0. The cycle begins at x = 0. Thus. . The maximum number of hours is 2 hours above 12 hours.1 2 6 π =C 2 Substitute these values into y = Asin(Bx − C) + D . . Thus. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 (π . A = 2. 2 =π = 9. 12 = B 12B = 2π 3π . x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 8. The phase shift. the amplitude. π B=4 Substitute these values into y = A sin Bx . The period is 12. π 2π A = 4 . 3π 2 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. −1) = 2 ⋅(−1) + 1 = −1 3π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 y = 2 cos2π + 1 Because the hours of daylight ranges from a minimum of 10 hours to a maximum of 14 hours. and period = . Thus. The graph is modeled by y = 4 sin 4 x . Inc. y = 2sin π 6 x− π 2 + 12 . The period for both functions is 2π . 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 By connecting the points with a smooth curve. 12 hours.

0) 3π . 0) 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) π π 2 y = 5sin π 2 coordinates = 5 ⋅1 = 5 .Trigonometric Functions 2. π The equation y = 5 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 5. 540 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) π 2 . 0) 3π 2 y = 5sin 2π y = 5sin 2π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 π y = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = 4 sin 3π . Thus. the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. The quarter-period is or .5 1. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = x=0+ π x= 2 =π = y = 4 sin x 0 y = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin 2 + π 2 = 4 ⋅1 = 4 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = 5sin x coordinates 0 y = 5sin 0 = 5⋅ 0 = 0 (0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.4 π y = 5sin π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . the amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . x=0 3π = 5(−1) = −5 2 (0. −5 2 (2 π . The period is 2π . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Inc. Exercise Set 4. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The equation y = 4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 4. 3π 2 x 2 π x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 2π π or . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2π π The period is 2π . .5 (π . −4 2 2π y = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Thus.

(2 π . 0) 2 . 0) coordinates (0. Thus. The period is 2π . 541 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. with A = . Inc.− 2 4 2π y= 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (2 π .PreCalculus 4E 3. 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 π 2 π 2 π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= x y= 1 sin x 4 (0. 0) 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 3 3 3 π 1 π 2 3 y= 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 4 4 4 π 1 2 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 (π . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. with A = . the amplitude is A = 4 4 4 2π π or . . The period is 2π . 0) 1 3π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . x=0 The equation y = x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π 2 = 4.5 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 3 1 1 1 = . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0.− 2 3 3π 2 y= 1 3π 1 1 sin = (−1) = − 2 4 4 4 1 3π . Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . 0) π y= 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (π . 2 π x=π+ x= π 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 4 1 1 1 = . Section 4. Thus. x=0 The equation y = 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) y= 1 sin x 3 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 y= π y= 3π 2 y= 1 3π sin 2 3 1 1 = (−1) = − 3 3 y= + 2 = coordinates x 2π 2 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. the amplitude is A = 3 3 3 2π π or .

3 2 (2 π . 0) y = −4 sin π 2 coordinates = −4 ⋅1 = −4 π y = −4 sin π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −4 sin 2π y = −4 sin 2π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = −4(−1) = 4 2 (0. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0.Trigonometric Functions 5. x=0 . 2π π or . 0) π 2 . The period is 2π . Thus.4 2 (2 π . coordinates π + x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) 3π . Thus. . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 x y = −3sin x 0 y = −3 sin x = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 y = −3 sin π 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 π y = −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −3sin 2π y = −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 = −3(−1) = 3 π 2 (0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = −4 sin x 0 y = −4 sin 0 = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 2 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . The equation y = −3sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –3. −4 (π . π The equation y = −4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –4. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The period is 2π . the amplitude is A = −3 = 3. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 6. 3π . 542 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −3 (π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 2π π or .

. The A = 1 = 1. Thus. Section 4. The period is = = π .0 y = sin 4 ⋅ 4 y = sin 4 ⋅ 3π 8 y = sin 4 ⋅ = sin 3π . the amplitude is 2π 2π π = = .1 8 π π 2 2 y = sin(2 ⋅ π ) = sin 2π = 0 = 4 3π x= + = 4 8 8 3π π π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The B 2 quarter-period is π 8. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.5 The equation y = sin 2x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 2.1 . 0) 0 y = sin(4 ⋅ 0) = sin 0 = 0 π 4 π .0 3π . The cycle begins at 4 2 4 8 x = 0. −1 4 π 3π = sin = −1 2 π ⋅ coordinates π 3π y = sin 2 ⋅ 4 π 1 π = sin π = 0 3π 4 = π =1 y = sin 2 ⋅ 2 . Add x= π 4 + π x=0+ 4 π 4 = π x= 2 π π 3π x= + = 2 4 4 3π π x= + =π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) π (0. x y = sin 2x 0 y = sin 2 ⋅ 0 = sin 0 = 0 π 4 y = sin 2 ⋅ = sin π 2 π 2 π 4 π π 8 + π 8 π 8 = = π 8 π x y = sin 4x (0.0 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. x=0 x=0+ The equation y = sin 4x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 4. The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) π 2 . x=0 quarter-period is 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. π . The period is B 4 2 coordinates π 8 π 4 = sin 2 =1 = sin π = 0 3π 8 π 8 π 4 . −1 8 3π = −1 2 y = sin 2π = 0 2 (π . . The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 1 = 1. 543 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 7.

Inc. 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . Publishing as Prentice Hall.Trigonometric Functions 9. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. Thus. 544 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The quarterThe period is B with A = 3 and B = 2 4π period is = π . x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) (6π . The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. x 0 y = 3sin 1 x 2 4 8π = 2 π . Add quarter4 periods to generate x-values for the key points. coordinates 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 0 2 y = 3sin = 3sin 2π 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 2π y = 2sin = 3 ⋅1 = 3 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 2π 2 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 3π 2 y = 3sin y = 2sin 1 x 4 1 ⋅0 4 coordinates (0. The quarter-period is B 10. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. x=0 x = 0 + 2π = 2π x = 2π + 2π = 4π x = 4π + 2 π = 6π x = 6π + 2 π = 8π Evaluate the function at each value of x. The equation y = 3sin 1 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 2 1 x is of the form 4 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The period is 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π . . 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π x 1 ⋅ 2π 4 π 2 (2 π . 3) = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π y = 2sin (0. 0) = 2sin 0 = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 = 2sin (2 π . 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . The equation y = 2sin 1 . − 2) (8π . the 4 amplitude is A = 2 = 2. The cycle begins at x = 0. − 3) 3π = 3sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 4π 0 (π . 0) (3π . 2) = 2 ⋅1 = 2 4π y = 2sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 6π y = 2sin 8π y = 2sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = 2(−1) = −2 2 (4π .

Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The equation y = 3sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 3 and B = 2π . The cycle begins at x = 0. The equation y = −3 sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –3 and B = 2π .0 2 = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 .5 11. 0) 3 4 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 2) = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 1 4 (0. 13. 0) 3 4 3 . 1 1 = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The is A = 3 = 3. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 4 = 4. −3 4 3π = 3(−1) = −3 2 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅1) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (1. The B π 2 1 quarter-period is = . The cycle begins at x = 0. . −4 2 = 4 sin 2 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ coordinates y = 3sin 2π ⋅ = 3sin 1 (2. 0) 0 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 4 1 .3 4 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ 1 2 1 . The period is B 2π 1 quarter-period is . Inc. The equation y = 4 sin πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 4 and B = π . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The amplitude 2π 2π = = 1. 0) 1 . x=0+ x=0+ x y = 4 sin πx 0 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 0) = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 2 y = 4 sin π ⋅ = 4 sin 1 3 2 π 2 1 2 coordinates x y = 3sin 2πx (0. x=0 12.4 2 = 3sin = 4(1) = 4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅1) = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin π ⋅ 3 2 1 2 (1. Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The period is = = 2 . The amplitude 545 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 2 Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.

The period is 2 1 = . y = −3 sin 2πx x coordinates quarter-period is 0 1 4 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = −3sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 = −3sin quarter-period is (0. π 2 1 2 (0. . 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The B π 3 2 (1. 1 .0 2 3 2 3 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 2 3π = −3sin 2 = −3(−1) = 3 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅1) 1 (1. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.Trigonometric Functions is A = −3 = 3. The B 2π is A = −2 = 2 .3 4 coordinates y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin = −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 4 x 1 2 1 . x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The period is 2π 2π = = 1. 0) 3 . The equation y = −2 sin π x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . with A = –1 and B = 14. −3 4 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 1 2 2π 2π = = 2 . 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) = −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 15. The equation y = − sin 2 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 3 2 . The amplitude 546 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. −2 2 = −2 ⋅1 = −2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅1) = −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin 3 .2 2 3π = −2(−1) = 2 2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅2) = −2 sin 2π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2. 0) y = −2 sin π x 0 y = −2 sin(π ⋅ 0) = −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 1 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 2 1 . 0) 1 . The cycle begins at x = 0.

3 3π 2π 2π = 4 = 2π ⋅ = . Inc. x=0 3π 3π = x=0+ 8 8 3π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 4 3π 3π 9π x= + = 4 8 8 9π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The quarter-period is = − sin 0 = 0 3π 4 4 x is of the form 3 4 y = Asin Bx with A = –1 and B = .1 4 3π = − sin 2 = −(−1) = 1 3π y = − sin 2 ⋅ 3π 3 3π 2 3π 1 3π ⋅ = . The equation y = − sin x y = − sin 0 y = − sin 4 x 3 4 ⋅0 3 = coordinates (0. 3 3π . −1 4 = −1 2 3π ⋅ 3 2 3π .0 4 . The quarter-period is 2 x 3 x y = − sin 0 2 y = − sin ⋅ 0 3 coordinates 3 y = − sin = − sin 3π 2 y = − sin 2 3π ⋅ 3 4 π 2 (0. B 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The period is B 4 2 16. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1.0 2 = − sin π = 0 9π 4 y = − sin 2 9π ⋅ 3 4 9π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) 3π . 3π .5 The period is 2π 2π 3 = 2 = 2π ⋅ = 3π . 4 2 4 8 The cycle begins at x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x=0 3π 3π x=0+ = 4 4 3π 3π 3π x= + = 4 4 2 3π 3π 9π x= + = 2 4 4 9π 3π x= + = 3π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) = − sin 0 = 0 (3π . 0) 3π 8 = − sin 2π = 0 y = − sin = − sin 3π 4 y = − sin 4 3π ⋅ 3 8 π 2 3π . −1 8 = −1 4 3π ⋅ 3 4 = − sin π = 0 547 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Trigonometric Functions


8

y = − sin

4 9π

3 8


,1
8


= − sin
= −(−1) = 1
2

2

4 3π
y = − sin ⋅
3 2


,0
2

x

y = sin(x − π )

coordinates

π

y = sin(π − π )

(π , 0)


2

y = sin

= sin 0 = 0

= sin

= − sin 2π = 0
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.


−π
2

π
2


,1
2

=1

y = sin(2 π − π )


2

y = sin

(2 π , 0)

= sin π = 0

= sin


−π
2


, −1
2


= −1
2

y = sin(3π − π )

(3π , 0 )
= sin 2π = 0
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

17. The equation y = sin(x − π ) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C = π . The
amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
C π
2π 2π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
= = π . The
B
1
B 1
2π π
= . The cycle begins at x = π .
quarter-period is
4
2
Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=π

18. The equation y = sin x −

π


x=π+ =
2
2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
π 5π
x = 2π + =
2
2
5π π
x=
+ = 3π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π
2

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C =

π
2

. The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
π

2π 2π
C 2 π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
= = . The
B
1
B 1 2
2π π
= . The cycle begins at
quarter-period is
4
2
x=

π

. Add quarter-periods to generate
2
x-values for the key points.

548
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x=
x=

Section 4.5
19. The equation y = sin(2 x − π ) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C = π . The
amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
2π 2π
C π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= . The quarterB
2
B 2

π
2

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2


=


2

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
π 5π
x = 2π + =
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=

x

π

π

y = sin x −

π

2

y = sin

π

y = sin π −


2

y = sin

2

π

x=
x=

= sin 0 = 0

2

π
2

= sin

3π π

2
2

π
2

=1

π
2

,0

(π , 1)

y = sin 2π −


,0
2

y = sin

2

π

+

x

π
2

π
2

(2 π , −1)

5π π

2
2

π

=


4

y = sin(2 x − π )
y = sin 2 ⋅

π
2

−π

coordinates

π
2

,0

= sin(π − π )
= sin 0 = 0


= −1
= sin
2

2

π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= sin π = 0

π

2 4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4
4
2

coordinates

2

π

. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
2
periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is


4


,0
2

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin

= sin 2π = 0

= sin

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π


−π
4


,1
4


−π
2

π
2

=1

y = sin(2 ⋅ π − π )
= sin(2 π − π )
= sin π = 0

549

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(π , 0)

Trigonometric Functions


4

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin
= sin


2


−π
4


, −1
4

x


−π
2

π
4


= −1
2

y = sin 2 ⋅

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin


−π
2


,0
2

π

= sin(3π − π )
= sin 2π = 0

2

π
2

y = sin 2 ⋅


4

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin

coordinates

2

π

4

π

π

2

4

π

2

,0

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

= sin π −
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

y = sin 2x −

π

π

π

2

2

= sin

2

3π π

4 2

π
2

,1

=1

,0
4

3π π

2
2

= sin π = 0

20. The equation y = sin 2x −

π
2

π
is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C =

π
2

= sin 2π −
. The

= sin

amplitude is A = 1 = 1.
2π 2π
=
=π.
The period is
B
2


4

π

The phase shift is

C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = .
B 2 2 2 4

The quarter-period is

π

4

The cycle begins at x =

x=

2

π
2

5π π

4 2

5π π

2
2

4
4

+

π

=

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

4


,0
4

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
π

(π , −1)

= sin 2π = 0
. Add quarter-periods to

4
generate x-values for the key points.
x=

π


= −1
2

y = sin 2 ⋅
= sin

.

π

y = sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

550
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

21. The equation y = 3sin(2x − π ) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C = π . The
amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is
2π 2π
C π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= . The quarterB
2
B 2

π

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
2
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
period is

x=
x=

π
2

π

+

π

=


4

22. The equation y = 3 sin 2 x −

2 4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4
4
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

π
2

y = 3sin(2x − π )
y = 3sin 2 ⋅

π
2

−π

y = 3sin 2 ⋅


−π
4

,0

π


4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅
= 3 sin


−π
4

π

4

The cycle begins at x =
x=


,3
4

x=

π
4

+

π

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

(π , 0)

4

=

π


, −3
4


2
= 3(−1) = −3

−π
2

π

4


−π
2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

.

π

= 3 sin

2

.

. Add quarter-periods to
4
generate x-values for the key points.

π

= 3 ⋅1 = 3
2
y = 3sin(2 ⋅ π − π )
= 3sin(2 π − π )
= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π


−π
= 3sin
2
= 3sin

π

C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = .
The phase shift is
B 2 2 2 4

= 3sin(π − π )
= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

4

is of the form

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .
2π 2π
=
=π.
The period is
B
2

The quarter-period is

2

2

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C =

coordinates

π

π


,0
2

= 3 sin(3π − π )
= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

551
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

y = 3 sin 2 x −

π

π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅
= sin

π
2

4

π

23.

coordinates

2

π

π

2

4

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

,0

= 3 sin π −
= 3 sin

4

π
2

π

π

2

2

,3

π
2

. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
2
the key points.

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π π
y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

4 2

= 3 sin 2π −
= 3 sin

4

2

π
2

x=0+
x=

(π , − 3)

π
2

+

+

π
2

π
2

2

x

,0
4

π
2

5π π

2
2

π

π
2
=

=0

π
2


2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=π+

π

5π π

4 2

2

x=−


= 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3
2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅
= 3 sin

π

π

x=−


,0
4

= 3 sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0
y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

x=−

3π π
= 3 sin

2
2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A =

2

2

1
π
sin x − −
2
2

1
π
, B = 1, and C = − .
2
2
1
1
The amplitude is A =
= . The period is
2
2
π
2π 2π
C −2
π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
=
=− .
B
B
1
1
2
2π π
The quarter-period is
= . The cycle begins at
4
2

π

π

1
π
π
1
sin x +
= sin x − −
2
2
2
2

The equation y =

= 3 sin 0 = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y=

=

y=

π
1
sin x +
2
2

y=

1
π π
sin − +
2
2 2

=

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0
0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=
=

π
2

y=
=

coordinates

π
2

,0

1
1
sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2
1
π
sin 0 +
2
2

0,

1
2

1
1
π 1
sin = ⋅1 =
2
2
2 2
1
π π
sin
+
2
2 2
1
1
sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

552

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

π
2

,0

PreCalculus 4E

π

Section 4.5

y=

1
π
sin π +
2
2

π, −

1
2

1

sin
2
2
1
1
= ⋅(−1) = −
2
2

=


2

y=

1
3π π
sin
+
2
2
2


,0
2

x

y=

−π

y=

1
sin 2π
2
1
= ⋅0 = 0
2
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
2

=

1
sin(− π + π )
2
1
1
= sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

y=
=

0

π
2

24.

1
1
sin(x + π ) = sin( x − (− π ))
2
2
1
The equation y = sin(x − (−π )) is of the form
2
1
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = , B = 1, and C = −π .
2
1
1
The amplitude is A =
= . The period is
2
2
2π 2π
C −π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
=
= −π .
B
B
1
1
2π π
The quarter-period is
= . The cycle begins at
4
2
x = −π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
the key points.
x = −π
y=

x = −π +
x=−

π
2

x=0+

π

π
2

+

π
2

π
2
=

=−

1
π
sin − + π
2
2

1
sin(0 + π )
2
1
1
= sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

y=

1
π
sin

2
2

(−π , 0 )

π 1
2

,

2

(0, 0)

π
2

,−

1
2

1
3π 1
1
sin
= ⋅ (−1) = −
2
2
2
2

1
sin(π + π )
2
1
1
= sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2

y=

(π , 0)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
2

=0

π
2

π

+ =π
2 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=

coordinates

1
1
π 1
sin = ⋅1 =
2
2
2 2

y=

=

π

1
sin(x + π )
2

553

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

25.

y = −2 sin 2x +

π
2

= −2 sin 2 x − −

The equation y = −2 sin 2x − −

π
2

π

x

2

is of the form

π
4

π
2

= −2 sin −

. The amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is
π

0

x=−
x=−

4

x=0+
x=

π
4

+

+

π
4

π

π

=
=

4

=0

π

π
4

,0

2

π
2

(0, –2)

π
2

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅
= −2 sin

4

π
2

π
4

+

π

π

2

4

π

π

2

2

,0

π

+

2

= −2 sin π
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4

π

4

4

2

2
= −2 ⋅1 = −2

4

π

π

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −2 sin

π
π

+

4

+

2

= −2 sin 0 +

π

. The cycle begins at x = − . Add
4
4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.

period is

π

= −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π 2π
=
= π . The
B
2

π 1
π
C −2
=
= − ⋅ = − . The quarterphase shift is
B
2
2 2
4
π

π

coordinates

2

y = −2 sin 2⋅ −

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2,
B = 2, and C = −

π

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

π
2

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

π
2

= −2 sin π +

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

+

,2

π
2


2
= −2(−1) = 2
= −2 sin


4

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅
= −2 sin

3π π
+
4 2


,0
4

3π π
+
2 2

= −2 sin 2π
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

554

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

26.

Section 4.5

y = −3sin 2x +

π
2

= −3sin 2x − −

The equation y = −3sin 2x − −

π
2

π

π

2

4

= −3sin

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2, and C = −

π
2

π
2


π
C
π 1
π
2
=
= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is .
2
2 2
4
4
B

π

4

π
4

+

+

π
4

π
4

π
4
=
=

=0

π
4

x

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

,0

+

π

π

2

2

,3

π
2


,0
4

3π π
+
2
2

π
2

π
4

+

+

π
2

π
4

,0

π
2

= −3sin 0 = −3⋅ 0 = 0
y = −3sin 2 ⋅ 0 +
= −3sin 0 +
= −3sin

4

3π π
+
4 2

coordinates

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ −
= −3sin −

0

2

2

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

4

π

π

+

π

π

π

π

= −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

+


= −3⋅ (−1) = 3
2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅
= −3sin

4

x=0+
x=


4

π
π

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

. Add quarter-periods to
4
generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

2

4

= −3sin π +

π

x=−

π

π

= −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

.

The amplitude is A = −3 = 3. The period is
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
B
2

The cycle begins at x = −

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

π
2

π
2

(0, –3)

π
2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

555
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

27.

y = 3sin(π x + 2)
The equation y = 3sin(π x − (−2)) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = π , and C = –2.
The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is
C −2
2
2π 2π
=
= 2 . The phase shift is
=
= − . The
B π
B
π
π
2 1
quarter-period is = . The cycle begins at
4 2
2
x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 4
3π − 4
y = 3sin π
+2

π

2π − 2

1 π −4
x=− + =
π 2

π − 4 1 π −2
x=
+ =
π
2

π − 2 1 3π − 4
x=
+ =
π
2

3π − 4 1 2π − 2
x=
+ =
π
2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.
2

2

π

y = 3sin π −

2

π

= 3sin


−2 +2
2


2
= 3(−1) = −3

π

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

3π − 4
+2
2

= 3sin

the key points.
2
x=−

x

= 3sin

π

y = 3sin π

2π − 2

π

= 3sin
= 3sin
= 3sin

π −4
2

π
2

2

π

,0

π−4
,3

+2

−2 + 2

π

2
= 3⋅1 = 3

π −2
π −2
π y = 3sin π π + 2

2π − 2

π

,0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

= 3sin(−2 + 2)
= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

π −4
π −4
2π y = 3sin π 2π + 2

+2

= 3sin(2 π − 2 + 2)
= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

coordinates
+2


, −3
4

π −2
,0
π

= 3sin(π − 2 + 2)
= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

556
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

28.

Section 4.5

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4) = 3sin(2π x − (−4))
The equation y = 3sin(2 πx − (−4)) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2π , and
C = –4. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period
C −4
2
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
=
=− .
is
B 2π
B 2π
π
1
The quarter-period is . The cycle begins at
4
2
x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 8
3π − 8
y = 3sin 2π
+4

the key points.
2
x=−

π − 2 y = 3sin 2π π − 2 + 4
π
π
= 3sin(2 π − 4 + 4)
= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π
π

1 π −8
=
4

π −8 1 π − 4
x=
+ =
4


π − 4 1 3π − 8
x=
+ =
4


3π − 8 1 π − 2
x=
+ =
π
4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=−

2

π

x

2

π

+

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4)
y = 3sin 2π −

2

π

= 3sin
= 3sin

2

π
2

π
2

= 3sin


− 4+4
2

= 3sin


= 3(−1) = −3
2

π −2
,0
π

coordinates
+4

π −8
π −8
+4
y = 3sin 2π


π −8

3π − 8
+4
2

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

2

π

,0

29.

= 3sin(−4 + 4)
= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

= 3sin

= 3sin

3π − 8
, −3

π −8
,3

+4

−4 + 4
= 3 ⋅1 = 3

π −4
π−4
2π y = 3sin 2π 2 π + 4

π−4
,0

= 3sin(π − 4 + 4)
= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π ) = −2sin(2π x − (−4π ))
The equation y = −2 sin(2π x − (−4π )) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2, B = 2π , and
C = −4 π . The amplitude is A = −2 = 2 . The
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
period is
B 2π
1
C −4 π
=
= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

4
B
begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x = −2
7
1
x = −2 + = −
4
4
7 1
3
x=− + =−
4 4
2
3 1
5
x=− + =−
2 4
4
5 1
x = − + = −1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

557
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π )

coordinates

–2 y = −2 sin(2π (−2) + 4 π )
= −2 sin(−4π + 4π )
= −2 sin 0
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

(–2, 0)

x

7
7
4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

π
2

7
, −2
4


+ 4π
2

= −2 sin −
= −2 sin

30.

1
7
=−
4
4
7 1
3
x=− + =−
4 4
2
3 1
5
x=− + =−
2 4
4
5 1
x = − + = −1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x = −2 +

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

3
3
2 y = −2 sin 2π − 2 + 4 π

3
− ,0
2

= −2 sin(−3π + 4π )
= −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

5
5
4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π
= −2 sin −

y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π ) = −3 sin(2π x − (−4π ))
The equation y = −3 sin(2 πx − (−4 π )) is of the form
y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2π , and
C = −4π . The amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The
2π 2π
=
= 1 . The phase shift is
period is
B 2π
C −4π
1
=
= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2π
4
begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x = −2

5
,2
4


+ 4π
2

x

y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π )

–2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−2) + 4π )

(–2, 0)

= −3 sin( −4 π + 4π )
= −3 sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0


2
= −2 (−1) = 2
= −2 sin

–1 y = −2 sin(2π (−1) + 4 π )
= −2 sin(−2π + 4π )

coordinates

7
7
4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

(–1, 0)

= −3 sin −

= −2 sin 2π

= −3 sin

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π
2

7
, −3
4


+ 4π
2
= −3 ⋅1 = −3

3
3
2 y = −3 sin 2π − 2 + 4π

3
− ,0
2

= −3 sin( −3π + 4π )
= −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

5
5
4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π
= −3 sin −
= −3 sin

–1

5
,3
4


+ 4π
2


= −3(−1) = 3
2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−1) + 4π )
= −3 sin( −2 π + 4π )
= −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

558
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(–1, 0)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

the graph of y = 2 cosx .

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

32. The equation y = 3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
with A = 3. Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .
π

or .
The period is 2π . The quarter-period is
4
2
The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

31. The equation y = 2 cosx is of the form y = Acos x
with A = 2. Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2 .
π

or .
The period is 2π . The quarter-period is
4
2
The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

π
2

π
2

=

x=0+

π

x=

2

y = 2 cosx

2

π

y = 2 cos

π

2
= 2⋅0 = 0

y = 2 cos π

2

,0

(π , − 2)

= 2 ⋅(−1) = −2


2

y = 2 cos


2
= 2⋅0 = 0


,0
2

y = 2 cos2π

(2 π , 2 )

π
2


=


2

y = 3 cos x

0

y = 3 cos 0 = 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

(0, 2)

π

2

2

x

π

coordinates

y = 2 cos0

π

π

x=

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

π

+

2

=

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.


x=π+ =
2
2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

0

2

x=π+

π

x

π

π

y = 3 cos

π
2

coordinates

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = 3 cos π = 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3


2

y = 3 cos

y = 3 cos2 π = 3 ⋅1 = 3


= 3⋅ 0 = 0
2

(0, 3)

π
2

,0

(π , − 3)

,0
2
(2 π , 3)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
and graph one complete cycle of the given function
with the graph of y = cos x .

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function with

559

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions
33. The equation y = −2 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
with A = –2. Thus, the amplitude is
A = −2 = 2 . The period is 2π . The quarterπ

or . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add
period is
4
2
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

π

=

2

π
2

34. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
with A = –3. Thus, the amplitude is A = −3 = 3 .
π

or .
The period is 2π . The quarter-period is
4
2
The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+

π
2

x=


x=π+ =
2
2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

coordinates

0

y = −2 cos 0

(0, –2)

2

π

y = −2 cos

π

2
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = −2 cos π

y = −2 cos

y = −2 cos 2π


2
= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

π
2


=


2

y = −3 cos x

0

y = −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

π

,0

(π , 2)

= −2 ⋅ (−1) = 2


2

π

=

x

2

π

+

2

2
3π π
x=
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

π

2

x=π+

π

y = −2 cos x

π

π


,0
2

y = −3 cos

π
2

coordinates

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3


2

y = −3 cos

y = −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3


= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0
2

(0, –3)

π
2

,0

(π , 3)

,0
2
(2 π , − 3)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function with
the graph of y = cos x .

(2 π , − 2)

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function with
the graph of y = cos x .

560

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

35. The equation y = cos2 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
with A = 1 and B = 2. Thus, the amplitude is
2π 2π
A = 1 = 1. The period is
=
= π . The
B
2

quarter-period is

π

36. The equation y = cos 4 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
with A = 1 and B = 4. Thus, the amplitude is
2π 2π π
A = 1 = 1. The period is
=
= . The
B
4
2
π

. The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=0
x=0+
x=

π
4

+

π
4

π
4

=
=

π

x=0+

4

π

x=

2
π π 3π
x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

y = cos2 x

0

y = cos(2 ⋅ 0)

4

y = cos 2 ⋅
= cos

π
2

π
2

π
8

(0, 1)

π

4

4

π

2

2

y = cos 2 ⋅


4

y = cos(2 ⋅ π )

+

π
8

π

, −1

8

=
=

π
8

π

0

y = cos(4 ⋅ 0) = cos 0 = 1

8

,0

y = cos 4 ⋅

4

y = cos 4 ⋅


8

y = cos 4 ⋅
= cos


,0
4

π


=0
= cos
2

π

π

y = cos 4 x

= cos π = −1

4

=

x

π

π

π

π

=0

y = cos 2 ⋅

π 1

π

coordinates

π

=

4

x= + =
4 8
8
3π π π
x=
+ =
8
8 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= cos 0 = 1

π

2

. The cycle begins at
4 2 4 8
x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
the key points.
x=0

quarter-period is

2

coordinates

π
8

π
4

= cos

π
2

=0

= cos π = −1


8

(0, 1)

π
8

π
4

,0

, −1


,0
8


=0
2

y = cos 4 ⋅

π
2

= cos2 π = 1

π
2

,1

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

(π , 1)

= cos2 π = 1
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

561

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions
37. The equation y = 4 cos2 πx is of the form
y = Acos Bx with A = 4 and B = 2π . Thus, the
amplitude is A = 4 = 4 . The period is
2π 2π
1
=
= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2π
4
begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x=0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

x

y = 4 cos2 πx

0

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

38. The equation y = 5 cos2 πx is of the form
y = Acos Bx with A = 5 and B = 2π . Thus, the
amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . The period is
2π 2π
1
=
= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2π
4
begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x=0

coordinates

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

(0, 4)

= 4 cos 0
= 4 ⋅1 = 4
1
4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅
= 4 cos

1
4

1
,0
4

π

2
= 4 ⋅0 = 0
1
2

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

1
2

1
, −4
2

3
4

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅
= 5 cos

3
,0
4


2
= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1
2

= 4 cos

1

0
1
4

= 4 ⋅ (−1) = −4
y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

y = 5 cos2 πx

coordinates
(0, 5)

= 5 cos 0 = 5 ⋅1 = 5

= 4 cos π
3
4

x

π
2

1
4

1
,0
4

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

1
2

1
, −5
2

= 5 cos π = 5 ⋅ (−1) = −5

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅1)

(1, 4)

3
4

= 4 cos2 π
= 4 ⋅1 = 4

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅
= 5 cos

1


4

3
,0
4


= 5⋅ 0 = 0
2

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅1)
= 5 cos2 π = 5 ⋅1 = 5

562

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(1, 5)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y = −4 cos

1
⋅ 3π
2

(3π , 0 )


2
= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0
= −4 cos

y = −4 cos

1
⋅ 4π
2

(4π , – 4)

= −4 cos 2π
= −4 ⋅1 = −4

1
x is of the form
2
1
y = Acos Bx with A = –4 and B = . Thus, the
2
amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . The period is
2π 2π
= 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . The quarter-period is
B

39. The equation y = −4 cos

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

2


= π . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0
x = 0 +π = π

1
40. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form
3
1
y = Acos Bx with A = –3 and B = . Thus, the
3
amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The period is
2π 2π
= 1 = 2π ⋅3 = 6π . The quarter-period is
B

x = π + π = 2π
x = 2π + π = 3π
x = 3π + π = 4 π
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x
0

y = −4 cos
y = −4 cos

1
x
2
1
⋅0
2

coordinates

3

6π 3π
=
. The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4
2
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

(0, –4)

= −4 cos 0

3π 3π
=
2
2
3π 3π
x=
+
= 3π
2
2
3π 9π
x = 3π +
=
2
2
9π 3π
x=
+
= 6π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

π

y = −4 cos
= −4 cos

1
⋅π
2

x=0+

(π , 0)

π

2
= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

y = −4 cos

1
⋅ 2π
2

(2 π , 4)

= −4 cos π
= −4 ⋅ (−1) = 4

563

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

1
y = −3 cos x
3

0

y = −3 cos

x=0
coordinates

1
⋅0
3

3 3
=
2 2
3 3
x = + =3
2 2
3 9
x= 3+ =
2 2
9 3
x = + =6
2 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

(0, –3)

= −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

2

y = −3 cos
= −3 cos

1 3π

3 2

π
2

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

1
y = −3 cos ⋅ 3π
3


,0
2

(3π , 3)

= −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

2

y = −3 cos
= −3 cos

y = −3 cos

1 9π

3 2

x

y=−

π
1
cos x
3
2

0

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅ 0
3
2


,0
2

0, −

1
2

1
cos0
2
1
1
= − ⋅1 = −
2
2
=−


= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0
2
1
⋅ 6π
3

coordinates

3
2

(6π , − 3)

y=−

π 3
1
cos ⋅
3 2
2

3
,0
2

π
1
cos
2
2
1
= − ⋅0 = 0
2

= −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

=−

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.
3

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅3
3
2

3,

1
2

1
cos π
2
1
1
= − ⋅(−1) =
2
2

=−

9
2

π
1
cos x is of the form
3
2
π
1
y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the
3
2
1
1
= . The period is
amplitude is A = −
2
2
2π 2π
3
6 3
= π = 2π ⋅ = 6 . The quarter-period is = .
B
π
4 2

41. The equation y = −

y=−

1
π 9
cos ⋅
3 2
2

9
,0
2


1
cos
2
2
1
= − ⋅0 = 0
2

=−

6

3

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅6
3
2

1
cos2π
2
1
1
= − ⋅1 = −
2
2

=−

The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.

564

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6, −

1
2

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=−

6

=−
y=−

8

1
π
cos ⋅6
4
2

(6, 0)


1
1
cos
= − ⋅0 = 0
2
2
2

π
1
cos ⋅8
4
2

8, −

1
2

1
1
1
cos2π = − ⋅1 = −
2
2
2
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.
=−

π
1
cos x is of the form
4
2
π
1
y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the
4
2
1
1
= . The period is
amplitude is A = −
2
2
2π 2π
4
8
= π = 2π ⋅ = 8 . The quarter-period is 4 = 2 .
B
π

42. The equation y = −

4

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

π⎞

43. The equation y = cos ⎜ x − ⎟ is of the form
2⎠

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

x = 0 +2 = 2
x= 2+ 2 = 4

π

x = 4 +2 = 6

C=

x = 6 +2 = 8
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

period is

x

y=−

1
π
cos x
2
4

0

y=−

π
1
cos ⋅ 0
4
2

=−
2

y=−
=−

4

=−

1
2

cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter-periods to
2
generate x-values for the key points.
x=

(2, 0)

x=

π
1
1
cos = − ⋅ 0 = 0
2
2
2

π
1
y = − cos ⋅ 4
4
2

2π 2π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
B
1

2π π
C 2 π
=
= . The quarter-period is
= . The
4
2
B 1 2

1
1
1
cos0 = − ⋅1 = −
2
2
2

π
1
cos ⋅2
4
2

A = 1 = 1 . The

π

coordinates
0, −

. Thus, the amplitude is

2

π
2

π
2

+

x =π +

π
2

π


=


2

2
3π π
+ = 2π
x=
2
2
π 5π
x = 2π + =
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1
4,
2

1
1
1
cos π = − ⋅ (−1) =
2
2
2

565

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

π

x

coordinates

π
2

⎛π ⎞
⎜ 2 , 1⎟

x=−

π

(π , 0 )

x =0+


2

⎛ 3π

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

( 2π , 0 )


2

⎛ 5π ⎞
⎜ 2 , 1⎟

x=−

x=

2

period is

π
2

π

+

2

π
2

π
2
=

=0

π
2


=
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

. Thus, the amplitude is

π

x

coordinates

π

⎛ π ⎞
⎜ − 2 , 1⎟

π⎞

44. The equation y = cos ⎜ x + ⎟ is of the form
2⎠

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and
π

+

2

x =π +

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

C=−

2

π

2

0

( 0, 0 )

π
2

⎛π

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

π

(π , 0 )


2

⎛ 3π ⎞
⎜ 2 , 1⎟

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

A = 1 = 1 . The

2π 2π
=
= 2π . The phase shift is
B
1

π


2π π
C
π
= 2 = − . The quarter-period is
= . The
4
2
B
1
2
cycle begins at x = −

π

. Add quarter-periods to
2
generate x-values for the key points.

566
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PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

45. The equation y = 3cos(2x − π ) is of the form
y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 3, and B = 2, and

46. The equation y = 4 cos(2x − π ) is of the form
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 4, and B = 2, and C = π .
Thus, the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. The period is
C π
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= . The
B 2
B
2

C = π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The
C π
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
= .
period is
B 2
B
2
The quarter-period is

π

. The cycle begins at x =

π

4
2
Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x=
x=

π

x=

2

π

+

π

=

π

π

. The cycle begins at x = . Add
4
2
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.

quarter-period is

.

π
2

π 3π
+ =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4 4
2


4

x=

2 4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
5π π 3π
x=
+ =
4 4
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

coordinates

π

π

2

2

x

,3

coordinates

π

π

2

2

,4


4


,0
4


4


,0
4

π

(π , − 3)

π

(π , − 4)


4


,0
4


4


,0
4


2


,4
2


2


,3
2

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

567
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

47.

1
1
π
π
= cos 3x − −
cos 3x +
2
2
2
2

y=

The equation y =

1
π
cos 3x − −
2
2

is of the form

1
, and B = 3, and
2
1
1
π
= . The
C = − . Thus, the amplitude is A =
2
2
2
2π 2π
=
. The phase shift is
period is
B
3
π
π 1
π
C −2
=
= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is
3
2 3
6
B
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A =

π

1
1
cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π ))
2
2
1
The equation y = cos(2 x − (−π )) is of the form
2
1
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = , and B = 2, and
2
1
1
C = −π . Thus, the amplitude is A =
= . The
2
2
2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
period is
B
2
C −π
π
π
=
= − . The quarter-period is . The cycle
B 2
2
4

6

begins at x = −

48.


3

π
2π 1 π
=
⋅ = . The cycle begins at x = − . Add
4
3 4 6
6
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=−
x=−

π
6

π
6

x=0+

π

x=

6

π

x=

+
+

π

+

=0

6

π

=

6

π
6

π

=
=

π
6

3

π

x=−

0

x=−

π 1
,
6 2

π

6

6

,−

π

π

3

3

π
2

π
2

π
4

x=0+

(0, 0)

π

π

x=−

coordinates

π

. Add quarter-periods to generate x2
values for the key points.

π

3 6 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

y=

x=

π

+
+

π
4

π

π
4

π
4
=

=−

π
4

=0

π
4

π

+ =
4 4 2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1
2

,0

π 1

,
2 2
2
Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

568
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x

π
2

π
4

Section 4.5

49. The equation y = −3 cos 2x −


π 1
,
2 2

π
4

B = 2, and C =

,0

π
2

. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −3 = 3. The period is
π

0

1
0, −
2

π

π

4

4

π 1
2

,

. The cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter4
4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.

,0

2

π

2π 2π
=
= π . The
B
2

C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period
B 2 2 2 4

phase shift is
is

π

π

is of the form
2
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –3, and

coordinates

x=

2

x=

π
4

π

π

π

x

4

=

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

4

+

π

coordinates

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −3

,0


4


,3
4

π

(π , 0)


4


, −3
4

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

569
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

50. The equation y = −4 cos 2x −

π

51.

is of the form

2
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –4, and B = 2, and

C=

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 .

The period is
π

2π 2π
=
= π . The phase shift is
B
2

π
C 2 π 1 π
= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period is . The
4
B 2 2 2 4
cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter-periods to
4
generate x-values for the key points.
x=
x=

π
4

π
4

+

π

π

2

x= + =
2 4
4
3π π
x=
+ =π
4 4
π 5π
x=π+ =
4
4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

x

4

=

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −4


,4
4

π

(π , 0)


4


, −4
4

coordinates

–4

(–4, 2)

15
4

7
2

7
− , −2
2

13
4

,0


4

x

coordinates

π

y = 2 cos(2π x + 8π ) = 2 cos(2πx − (−8π ))
The equation y = 2 cos(2π x − (−8π )) is of the form
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 2, B = 2π , and C = −8π .
Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2. The period is
C −8π
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
=
= −4 . The
B 2π
B 2π
1
quarter-period is . The cycle begins at x = –4. Add
4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.
x = −4
1
15
x = −4 + = −
4
4
15 1
7
x=− + =−
4 4
2
7 1
13
x=− + =−
2 4
4
13 1
x = − + = −3
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

–3

15
,0
4

13
,0
4

(–3, 2)

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
and graph one complete cycle of the given function.

570
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

52.

Section 4.5

y = 3cos(2πx + 4 π ) = 3 cos(2πx − (−4π ))
The equation y = 3cos(2πx − (−4π )) is of the form
y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 3, and B = 2π , and
C = −4π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The
2π 2π
=
= 1. The phase shift is
period is
B 2π
1
C −4π
=
= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle
4
B 2π
begins at x = –2. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x = −2
1
7
x = −2 + = −
4
4
7 1
3
x=− + =−
4 4
2
3 1
5
x=− + =−
2 4
4
5 1
x = − + = −1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x
–2

53. The graph of y = sin x + 2 is the graph of y = sin x
shifted up 2 units upward. The period for both

π
functions is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The
4
2
cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2

π
2

=

π
2


=


2

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=

x

y = sin x + 2

coordinates

0

y = sin 0 + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

(0, 2)

coordinates

π

(–2, 3)

2

7
,0
4

π

y = sin π + 2
= 0 +2 = 2


2

y = sin

y = sin 2π + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

7
4

3
2

3
− , −3
2

5
4


,0
4

–1
(–1, 3)
Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

+2
2
=1 +2 = 3

y = sin


+2
2
= −1 + 2 = 1

π
2

,3

(π , 2)

,1
2

(2 π , 2 )

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

571
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions
54. The graph of y = sin x − 2 is the graph of y = sin x
shifted 2 units downward. The period for both

π
functions is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The
4
2
cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2

π
2

=

55. The graph of y = cos x − 3 is the graph of y = cos x
shifted 3 units downward. The period for both

π
functions is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The
4
2
cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

π

x=0+

2


=

x=


2

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

y = sin x − 2

0

y = sin 0 − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

2

y = sin

2

+

x=π+

π
2

π

y = sin π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2


2

y = sin

y = sin 2π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2


− 2 = −1 − 2 = −3
2

π
2

π
2

π
2


=


2

x=

coordinates

− 2 = 1 − 2 = −1

2

=

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

π

π

π

(0, –2)

π
4

, −1

x

y = cos x − 3

coordinates

0

y = cos 0 − 3
= 1 − 3 = −2

(0, –2)

π

y = cos

π

−3
2
= 0 − 3 = −3

(π , − 2)

2


, −3
2

π

y = cos π − 3
= −1 − 3 = − 4


2

y = cos

y = cos2 π − 3
= 1 − 3 = −2

(2 π , − 2)

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.


−3
2
= 0 − 3 = −3

π
2

, −3

(π , − 4)

, −3
2

(2 π , − 2)

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

572
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

x=0
x = 0 +π = π
x = π + π = 2π
x = 2π + π = 3π
x = 3π + π = 4 π
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

56. The graph of y = cos x + 3 is the graph of y = cos x
shifted 3 units upward. The period for both functions

π
is 2π . The quarter-period is
or . The cycle
4
2
begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.
x=0

x=0+
x=

π
2

+

x=π+

π
2

π
2

π
2

=

π
2


=

x

y = 2sin

0

y = 2sin


2

x

y = cos x + 3

0

y = cos 0 + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

2

(0, 1)

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π π
+ = 2π
2
2
Evaluate the function at each value of x.

y = cos

1
⋅0 +1
2

coordinates

= 2sin 0 + 1

x=

π

1
x +1
2

π
2

π

= 2sin

(0, 4)

π
2

,3

π

y = cos π + 3 = −1 + 3 = 2

(π , 2)


2

y = cos


+3 = 0 + 3 = 3
2


,3
2

y = cos2 π + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

(2 π , 4)

1
⋅π + 1
2

(π , 3)

π

+1
2
= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

coordinates

+3 = 0+ 3= 3

y = 2sin

y = 2sin

1
⋅ 2π + 1
2

(2 π , 1)

= 2sin π + 1
= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

y = 2sin

1
⋅ 3π + 1
2

(3π , − 1)


+1
2
= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1
= −2 + 1 = −1
= 2sin

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

y = 2sin

1
⋅ 4π + 1
2

(4π , 1)

= 2sin 2π + 1
= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1
By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.
1

57. The graph of y = 2sin 2 x + 1 is the graph
1

of y = 2sin 2 x shifted one unit upward. The
amplitude for both functions is 2 = 2. The period

for both functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter2


period is
= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add
4
quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key
points.

573
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

1
58. The graph of y = 2 cos x + 1 is the graph of
2
1
y = 2 cos x shifted one unit upward. The amplitude
2
for both functions is 2 = 2. The period for both

functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter-period is
2


= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0
x = 0 +π = π
x = π + π = 2π
x = 2π + π = 3π
x = 3π + π = 4 π
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x

1
y = 2 cos x + 1
2

0

y = 2 cos

1
⋅0 +1
2

59. The graph of y = −3 cos2 πx + 2 is the graph of
y = −3 cos2 πx shifted 2 units upward. The amplitude
for both functions is −3 = 3. The period for both
1

= 1. The quarter-period is . The
functions is
4

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate
x-values for the key points.
x=0

coordinates

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

(0, 3)

= 2 cos0 + 1
= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

π

y = 2 cos
= 2 cos

1
⋅π + 1
2

(π , 1)

π

+1
2
= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

y = 2 cos

1
⋅ 2π + 1
2

x

y = −3 cos2 πx + 2

0

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 0) + 2
= −3 cos 0 + 2
= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2
= −3 + 2 = −1

(2 π , − 1)

= 2 cos π + 1
= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1 = − 2 + 1 = −1

y = 2 cos

1
⋅ 3π + 1
2

1
4
(3π , 1)

= −3 cos

y = 2 cos

1
⋅ 4π + 1
2

π

2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

(4π , 3)
1
2

= 2 cos2π + 1
= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

1
+2
4

coordinates
(0, –1)

1
,2
4

+2

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

1
+2
2

= −3 cos π + 2
= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2
= 3 +2 = 5

574
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1
,5
2

PreCalculus 4E

3
4

Section 4.5

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

3
+2
4

3
,2
4


+2
2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2
= 0 +2 = 2

x

y = −3sin 2πx + 2

0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) + 2
= −3sin 0 + 2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

= −3 cos

1

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 1) + 2
= −3 cos2 π + 2
= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2
= −3 + 2 = −1

1
4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

(1, –1)

= −3sin

1
+2
4

coordinates
(0, 2)

1
, −1
4

π

+2
2
= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2 = −3 + 2 = −1

1
2

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

1
+2
2

1
,2
2

= −3sin π + 2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

3
4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

3
+2
4

3
,5
4


+2
2
= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5
= −3sin

1

60. The graph of y = −3sin 2πx + 2 is the graph of
y = −3 sin 2πx shifted two units upward. The
amplitude for both functions is A = −3 = 3. The

= 1. The quarterperiod for both functions is

1
period is . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter–
4
periods to generate x-values for the key points.
x=0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 1) + 2
= −3sin 2π + 2
= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

(1, 2)

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
obtain one period of the graph.

1 1
=
4 4
1 1 1
x= + =
4 4 2
1 1 3
x= + =
2 4 4
3 1
x = + =1
4 4
Evaluate the function at each value of x.
x=0+

61. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 ,
The period is 4π and thus

2π 1
B=
=
=
period 4π 2
y = A cos Bx

y = 3cos

1
x
2

575
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

62. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 , The
period is 4π and thus

2π 1
=
=
B=
period 4π 2
y = A sin Bx

y = 3sin

67.

1
x
2

63. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,
The period is π and thus


=
=2
B=
period π
y = A sin Bx

68.

y = −2sin 2 x
64. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,
The period is 4π and thus


=
=2
B=
period π
y = A cos Bx

69.

y = −2cos 2 x
65. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 , The
period is 4 and thus

2π π
=
=
B=
period
4
2

70.

y = A sin Bx
⎛π
y = 2sin ⎜
⎝2


x⎟

66. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 ,
The period is 4 and thus

2π π
=
=
B=
period
4
2
y = A cos Bx

71.

⎛π ⎞
y = 2 cos ⎜ x ⎟
⎝2 ⎠

72.

576
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74. 2π . (9. (0. . The information gives the five key points of the graph. Answers may vary. The longest day of the year will have the most hours of daylight. (12. By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph information from noon to midnight.M. (12. 577 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The period is c. 10) corresponds to December.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 38) corresponds to 3 P. 23) corresponds to Midnight. Extend the graph one cycle to the right to graph the information for 0 ≤ x ≤ 24. (3. 77. (6. Answers may vary. The period of the intellectual cycle is 23 days. The information gives the five key point of the graph. A = 3 and B = 80. The period of the physical cycle is 33 days.5 84. because the emotional cycle is at a maximum. In the month of March. 365 2π 2π 365 = 2π = 2π ⋅ = 365 . Inc. 53) corresponds to 6 P. (9. 12) corresponds to March. the intellectual cycle is at a maximum on February 11. Thus. 14) corresponds to June By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph the information from June of one year to June of the following year. B 2π 365 y = 15 There will be 15 hours of daylight. 76. The amplitude is b. 79. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 is of the form 365 C⎞ ⎛ y = A sin B ⎜ x − ⎟ + D with B⎠ ⎝ 85. 38) corresponds to 9 P. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(−1) + 12 y = 3sin y=9 There will be 9 hours of daylight. (0. In the month of February.. March 21 would be the best day to meet an on-line friend for the first time..M. 82.M. The period of the emotional cycle is 28 days. (6. the physical cycle is at a minimum on February 18.. The shortest day of the year will have the least hours of daylight. 23) corresponds to Noon. a. This occurs when the sine function equals –1. In the month of February. the author should not run in a marathon on February 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2π y = 3sin ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(1) + 12 81. the author should begin writing the on February 11. Thus. (3. 73. d. 75. This occurs when the sine function equals 1. 14) corresponds to June. The function y = 3sin 78. A = 3 = 3. 83. 12) corresponds to September.

40) (7.25 . 12) (352. x = 79 x = 79 + 91. The highest average monthly temperature is 56° in July. 9. The cycle begins at x = 79.25 = 444 Because we are graphing for 0 ≤ x ≤ 365 . The amplitude is A = 16 = 16 .07) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain one period of the graph. x=4 The amplitude is 3. Add quarter4 periods to find the x-values for the key points.25 = 261. 578 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 56) (10. The period is 12. B = π 6 .25 = 352. (0. 9. starting on January 1. πx 6 +9.25 x = 170. The cycle begins at x = 4. 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π ⎞ ⎟ + 40 is in the ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) + D with A = 16. 15) (261. Using a calculator we have the following points. The quarter-period is B 365 = 91.5 x = 261.75 x = 352. Thus. D = 9.5 + 91. 12) (170. 9) (365.75 + 91. The phase B π 6 and C = C = shift is B 2π 3 π 6 B= 2π π = 12 6 Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . A = 3. The maximum depth of the water is 3 feet above 9 feet. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12-0.5.25. The function y = 16 sin ⎜ x − 3 ⎝6 87.25 = 170. 40) (12. The period is 365. 9 feet. 26. 3 2π 2π 6 The period is = π = 2π ⋅ = 12 .25 + 91.1) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain the graph for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . The quarter-period is 3 π 12 = 3 . the curve oscillates about the middle value. we will evaluate the function for the first four xvalues along with x = 0 and x = 365. x = 4+3 = 7 x = 7 + 3 = 10 x = 10 + 3 = 13 x = 13 + 3 = 16 Because we are graphing for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Add 4 quarter-periods to find the x-values of the key points. 2π ⎛π 86.Trigonometric Functions e. along with x = 1 and x = 12.75. or 12 hours. The depth of the water is modeled by y = 3cos 2π 6 = ⋅ = 4 . Thus. . The C phase shift is = 79 . Using a calculator we have the following points.07) (79. Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 6 feet to a maximum of 12 feet. 24) (4. 2π . (1. Inc. we will evaluate the function for the three x-values between 1 and 12.

B = 2π . Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . The amplitude is 2π 2π = = π . The period is 12. 4 4 B 2π 2 2π 4 and −3 ≤ y ≤ 3 for our graph. and −1 ≤ y ≤ 1 for our graph. The graphs appear to be the same from − x= 579 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The cycle begins at B 2 C −π π π 3π x= = = − . The amplitude is y = A cos( Bx − C ) + D with A = 3. B = 2. D = 4. 4 feet. We choose B π 10 −10 ≤ x ≤ 30 . Thus. Thus. and B 2 2 2 2 −4 ≤ y ≤ 4 for our graph. The 2π 2π = = 1 . The period is 105. π 2 to π 2 . The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. The amplitude is period is 2π π = 12 6 at x = πx 6 2π 2π 10 = π = 2π ⋅ = 20 . B = 2. We choose − ≤ x ≤ . The cycle begins at x = = . The cycle begins B π 10 C −π 10 = π = −π ⋅ = −10 . The function y = 3sin(2 x − π ) + 5 is of the form the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 3. Thus. . The amplitude is period is A = 3 = 3 . 89.2. The depth of the water is modeled by y = cos π .2 . C = π . or 12 hours. the curve oscillates about the middle value. We choose ≤ x ≤ 2 2 our graph. We choose ≤ x ≤ . Inc. 101. and C = −π . A = −2 = 2 . Answers may vary. – 100. The function ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ y = 0. The D = 5. period is C π 2π 2π = = π . A = 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π B= 103. Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 3 feet to a maximum of 5 feet.2 sin ⎜ x + π ⎟ = 0. and A = 3 = 3 .5 88. The cycle begins at B 2π π C π 1 1 1 9 = 2 = ⋅ = . and 10 A = 0. π⎞ ⎛ 102. B = C = −π . and 0 ≤ y ≤ 10 for upward. The function y = −2 cos ⎜ 2π x − ⎟ is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx − C ) with A = –2.2 = 0. The maximum depth of the water is 1 foot above 4 feet. The +4. and C= π 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The function y = 3sin(2 x + π ) = 3sin(2 x − (−π )) is of 104. the graph has a vertical shift 5 units π 5π . B 2 B 2 Because D = 5.2sin ⎜ x − (−π ) ⎟ is of the ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 0.

⎣ 6 6 6⎦ The graph is very similar to y = sin x . a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. except not smooth. does not make sense. b. B= 2π 2π = = 2π period 1 C C = = −2 B 2π C = −4π y = A cos( Bx − C ) y = 22. makes sense 107. Answers may vary. makes sense 115. 106. Explanations will vary. ⎥ by [ −5. A = π 109. except the amplitude is greater and the curve is less smooth. 116.17 y = π cos(2π x + 4π ) or y = π cos [ 2π ( x + 2) ] 580 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎡ π 23π π ⎤ . the maximum will occur at 3 − 2 = 1 and the minimum will occur at −3 − 2 = −5 .Trigonometric Functions 110.1] The graph is similar to y = sin x . . Since A = 1 and D = −2. Since A = 3 and D = −2.04) + 57. a.1.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . −1] ⎡ π 7π π ⎤ . . the maximum will occur at 1 − 2 = −1 and the minimum will occur at −1 − 2 = −3 . 111. Thus the range is [ −3. Thus the range is [ −5. Sample explanation: It may be easier to start at the highest point. makes sense The graphs appear to be the same from − π 2 to π 2 112. Inc. b. 114.50 x − 2.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . 113.61sin(0. −1. ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ 108. ⎥ by [ −3.

Answers may vary. Inc. y = cos x = + cos 2 x 2 2 The reciprocal function is undefined. 2 119. b. . ⎟ < x < ⎬ or ⎜ − ⎨x − 4 4 ⎝ 4 4⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 581 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 120. 3π π 2π π + − − 4 4 = 4 = 2 = −π 2 2 2 4 122. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.5 117. y = sin 2 x = 1 1 − cos 2 x 2 2 − 121. − π 2 − π π 2 < x+ < x+ π π 4 − < π π 2 < π − π 4 4 4 2 4 2π π 2π π − − <x< − 4 4 4 4 π 3π − <x< 4 4 ⎧ 3π π⎫ ⎛ 3π π ⎞ . 1 1 118. a.

Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0+π π x-intercept = = 2 2 582 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The 2 2 curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Midway between these asymptotes is x = 4 0. . Inc. Use the two asymptotes. ⎝ ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. In order to graph for 3π <x< . − π An x-intercept is π 3. and the points midway between to graph one period π 4 to π 4 and the graph passes through π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . 0). Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. Solve the equations x− π 2 =− x= π π and 2 π x− π 2 = π 2 π π x= + − 2 2 2 2 x=0 x =π Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 Because the coefficient of the cotangent is . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − .6 Check Point Exercises 1. Solve the equations π 2 x = 0 and x=0 π 2 x =π x= π π 2 2. An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. An xintercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. 4 π of y = 3 tan 2 x from − 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ 2 . the x-intercept.Trigonometric Functions Section 4. Solve the equations 2 x = − x= − π and 2 π 2x = x= 4 and x = 2 π 4 π . 0 ⎟ . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . x = 0 and x 2 1 π = 2. the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. 0). x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. to graph one full period of π Thus. Continue the pattern 2⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. Midway between x = 0 and x = 2 is x = 1. x = 0 and x = π . to graph one full period of y = cot x . Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right.

2. Thus. ⎜ . π 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 2 B C C π = =− 2 B 1 3. . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. Thus. Use quarter-periods. π= C= π 2 +C π 2 π⎞ ⎛ The function is y = − tan ⎜ x − ⎟ . . Thus. C π π The phase shift. The graph has an asymptote at x = 0 . C π π . 2). from to − is −π units. . −2 ⎟ .6 π⎞ ⎛ The x-intercepts of y = sin ⎜ x + ⎟ correspond to 4⎠ ⎝ Exercise Set 4. 583 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (π . Use the and extend the graph − 4 graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Evaluating the function at each 4 2 4 value of x. Starting with x = 0. . Inc. 0 ⎟ . from to 0 is − units. ⎜ . and π . to find x-values for the five 4 key points. y = 2 cos 2 x . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 C=− 2π 2π period: = =π B 2 π 2 The function with C = − π .6 π⎞ ⎛ vertical asymptotes of y = csc ⎜ x + ⎟ . Section 4. π π⎞ ⎛ is y = tan ⎜ x + ⎟ . 2) . 4⎠ ⎝ 1. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 2. 2⎠ ⎝ 4. the x-values are π π 3π 0. In order to 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 3π 3π ≤x≤ . 0 ⎟ . 5. ⎜ . The graph has an asymptote at π . 2 C C There is no phase shift. and use them as guides to graph y = 2sec 2 x . The graph has an asymptote at x = − The phase shift. 2 2 B C C = = −π B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = tan( x + π ) . = =0 B 1 C =0 The function with C = 0 is y = − tan x . 2 2⎠ ⎝ The graph has an asymptote at x = π .PreCalculus 4E 4. . Use the first four points graph for − 4 4 3π units to the left. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Graph the reciprocal cosine function.

0). Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = −2π and x = 2π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 4 . − π π to . −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Because the coefficient of the tangent is . Publishing as Prentice Hall. π 4 and 2 x = x= x= π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. 0). Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. x from −2π to 4 2π . . Inc. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. 584 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = −2π and x x = 2π . x = − and 4 2 π 1 x = . Solve the equations 2 x = − π 2 − π2 x= 2 x=− Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . 1 0). Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. π Solve the equations π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ Solve the equations x = ⎜ − ⎟ 4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 π . to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 7. to graph one full period of y = tan 2 x from 2 4 x-intercept = 6.Trigonometric Functions 5. to graph one full period of y = 3 tan from 4 −2π to 2π .

Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− x= and 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x =π Thus. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . 4 4 Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 585 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. to graph one full period of y = −2 tan x 2 from −π to π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2.PreCalculus 4E 8. Section 4. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2.6 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− and x= 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x=π Thus. 0). x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Solve the equations 2x = − x= π and 2 x = 2 −2 2 π x=− x= π x= 4 π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. Because the coefficient of the tangent is –2. to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 2 x from π to . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 π 4 . − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. 0). 0). x = −π and 1 x = π . x = −π and x = π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . and . to graph one full 1 period of y = −3 tan x from −π to π . Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the coefficient of the tangent is –3. x = − x= − π π 4 π 4 10. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Continue 2 the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. . 9. −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0.

3π . C C = =0 B 1 C =0 Because the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. x = − π 2 + 32π 42π 4π = = =π 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π and the graph passes through (π . to graph one full period of 2 π 3π to .Trigonometric Functions 11. and x = 13. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = π 4 3π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = and the graph passes through and 1. Solve the equations x− π 4 =− π and 2 2π π + x=− 4 4 x=− π 4 x− π 4 = 2 2π π + x= 4 4 3π x= 4 3π and x = . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. C π π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. Continue the pattern y = tan( x − π ) from 2 2 and extend the graph another full period to the right. to graph one full period of and x = 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . 4 − x-intercept = π 4 2 . 0 ⎟ . There is no phase shift. The graph has an asymptote at 12. A = –1. and x = 2 x-intercept = 4 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Continue the pattern 4⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. An x-intercept is π π 2 Thus. Inc. 14. 2⎠ ⎝ 4 3π 2π 4 = 4 =π 2 2 4 + 586 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. The phase shift. B 1 2 π Thus. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 π 2 and 1. 0) . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − π C= π 2 The function with C = π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = − cot ⎜ x − ⎟ . ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 2 π +π 2 3π x= 2 x= π π 2 3π . from 0 to is units. B 2 2 C C π = = Thus. The function with C = 0 and A = –1 is y = − cot x . Solve the equations x −π = − x=− x= π and 2 π 2 +π x −π = 13.

The graph has an asymptote at −π . . 0 ⎟ . Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π . 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Two An x-intercept is 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. 2 C π π C C π = =− . Thus. 587 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the points on the graph midway between an x2 16. The phase shift. x = 0 and x = π . from 0 to − is − units. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 2 2⎠ ⎝ An x-intercept is 0+π π = 2 2 2 1 2 1 and − . 0 ⎟ . Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 1 . from 0 to −π is −π units. B 1 2 B 2 2 C=− The function with C = − π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . The graph has an asymptote at − π 18. C . to graph one full period of y = cot x . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. x-intercept = π and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. π and the graph passes through intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 17. B C C = = −π Thus. B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = cot( x + π ) . The phase shift. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 0 2 1 and x = π . 0 +π π x-intercept = = 2 2 . Inc. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. to graph one full period of y = 2 cot x .6 15.

Because the coefficient of the cotangent is –3. x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . The curve is repeated along the x-axis 2 one full period as shown.Trigonometric Functions 19. the points on the graph midway between an x2 21. x = 0 and x = 2. x = 0 2 π 1 and x = . x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . 0 ⎟ . x = 0 and x = π 2 . 0 ⎟ . to graph one full period of y = 2 cot 2 x . Solve the equations 2 x = 0 x=0 and 2x = π x= π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . Inc. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. 20. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 1 . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 588 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. to graph one full period of y = cot 2 x . Solve the equations π 2 x=0 x=0 and π 2 x =π x= π π 2 1 intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 1 and − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Solve the equations 2 x = 0 and x=0 2x = π x= The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. to graph one full period of y = −3cot π x . 0+2 2 x-intercept = = =1 2 2 An x-intercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. . 2 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 2. 0).

the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. x = 0 and x = 4 . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. 0 ) . Solve the equations x+ π 4 =0 and x =0− x . to graph one full period of y = −2cot π 24. 0). 0+4 4 x-intercept = = =2 2 2 An x-intercept is 2 and the graph passes through ( 2. x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is – 2. 4 x-intercept = 23. Solve the equations π π and 2 π π⎞ ⎛ x = .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 =π x =π − and − π4 + 34π 24π π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is x+ 4 3π . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 3. The curve is repeated along the x4⎠ ⎝ axis one full period as shown. to graph one full period of y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 22. to graph one full period of 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . − π2 + π2 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. . x = − 2 2 π 2 and . Inc. 2 2⎠ ⎝ 589 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . 0 ⎟ . The curve is repeated along the x- x=− 4 axis one full period as shown. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 3. x = − π 4 3π and x = . Solve the equations π 4 π x = 0 and 4 x=0 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. x =π x= π π 4 x=4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 4. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x+ π π 4 =π x =π − 4 π π 4 3π x= 4 4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π 2 =0 and x =0− x=− π 2 π 2 x+ π 2 x= π π 2 4 and the graph passes through and –3.

and use them as guides to graph y = 3csc x . 0) . . π 2 x. and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = 3csc 4 x . 1 cos 2π x corresponds to 2 1 vertical asymptotes of y = sec 2π x . The x-intercepts of y = 3sin 4 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = 3csc 4 x .Trigonometric Functions 1 x 25. (π . and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = −3sec 29. Use ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ these key points to graph y = 3sin x from 0 to 2π . and use them as a guide to 1 x sketch the graph of y = − csc . The x-intercepts of y = − sin corresponds to 2 2 1 x vertical asymptotes of y = − csc . The x-intercepts of y = −3cos π 2 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = −3sec π x . Draw the vertical asymptotes. Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. the key points are (0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. y = 3sin x . ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ . amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. 0). 0). Starting with x = 0. 2 27. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. and 2π . Evaluating the function at 0. 2 2 28. π . 3 ⎟ . the x-values are π 3π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . − 3 ⎟ . π . The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 3 and B = 1. and (2π . 2 2 each value of x. Graph the reciprocal sine function. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. ⎜ . Inc. Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. and use them as a guide to 1 sketch the graph of y = sec 2π x . The x-intercepts of y = 590 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. to find x-values for the 2 five key points. Draw the 2 2 vertical asymptotes. 26.

2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 x Use these key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 2 4 8π . y = Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. y = 1 x sin . 2 ⎟ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts.6 30. 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ π . and (8π . 4π . . ⎜ . the key points are (0. Use these 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 4π . the key points are 3⎞ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎛ (0. 3 x sin . (π . and use 1 x them as guides to graph y = csc . . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. (4π . π . − ⎟ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. and 4π . The Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. to find x-values for the five key points. Starting with x = 0. to find x-values for the five 2 key points. Starting with x = 0. the x-values are 0. 4 3 3 = amplitude: A = 2 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π period: B 4 Use quarter-periods. 6π . 0). (2π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 0). the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. 0). Publishing as Prentice Hall. to find x-values for the five key points. and (4π . ⎜ 2π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. ⎜ 6π . Evaluating the function at each value of x. Inc. The 2 4 3 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . 32. ⎟ . 2π . 2π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Use these key points to graph y = 2sin x from 0 to 2π . ⎟ .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The 2 2 1 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . the x-values are π 3π 0. 0). ⎜ 3π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. . and 8π . 2π . 2 4 591 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0). π . and (2π . the x-values are 0. 0) . 2 1 1 amplitude: A = = 2 2 2π 2π period: = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. π . Starting with x = 0. 2 2 31. π . − 2 ⎟ . 0) . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Graph the reciprocal sine function. 2 2 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. and 2π . − ⎟ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Evaluating the function at each value of x. 0). amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. ⎜ . y = 2sin x . 3π . and use them as guides to graph y = 2cscx. 0) . and use them as guides to graph 3 x y = csc .

34. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. − 1). to find x-values for 4 2 the five key points. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. (π . 3π . y = 3cos x . x 35. 2 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ at each value of x. amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. the x-values are 0. ⎜ . 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. y = cos . y = 2 cos x . 1) . Use these key points to ⎝ 2 ⎠ graph y = 2 cos x from 0 to 2π . and use them as x guides to graph y = sec . . ⎝2 ⎠ 3 π ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . Inc. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. − 3). π . π 3π . . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec x . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎜ . the key points are (0. Graph the reciprocal cosine function.Trigonometric Functions 33. 2). Evaluating the function are 0. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 592 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 0 ⎟ . ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ x points to graph y = cos from 0 to 6π . 3). The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. 3 amplitude: B= period: A = 1 =1 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 3 = 6π B 3 6π 3π = . Extend the 3 graph one cycle to the right. 2) . π. the key points are (0. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 3 and B = 1 . π . Evaluating the function at each value 2 2 ⎛π ⎞ of x. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. the x-values 3π 9π . − 2). . Starting with x = 0. 0 ⎟ . . 1). The 3 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. 3) . 2π . and (6π . . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. the x-values are π 3π 0. ⎜ . 0 ⎟ . and (2π . Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. (2π . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 9π ⎞ . 0 ⎟ . and 2π . Starting with x = 0. and use them as guides to graph y = 3sec x . 3 Use quarter-periods. Starting with x = 0. (π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: Use these key points to graph y = 3cos x from 0 to 2π . 0 ⎟ . ⎜ . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. and 6π . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. 0 ⎟ . Use these key (3π .

the x-values are 1 3 0. 2 Use quarter-periods. . (1. to find 4 2 x-values for the five key points. the x-values are 0. 0). 0). Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Starting with x = 0. 2π . Starting with x = 0. and 2 . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. (1. Evaluating the function at each value of x. y = − sin π x . − 2 ⎟ . . 1 3 the x-values are 0. 3π . Use quarter-periods. − ⎟ . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. Use these key 2 ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ points to graph y = −2sin π x from 0 to 2. 2 The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with x from 0 to 2 4π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 0). . 593 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 amplitude: A = − period: 1 1 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. ⎟ . period: 1 38. and (2. 2 ⎟ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. The 2 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . 0 ) . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. (2π . the key points are 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎛3 1⎞ (0. 0) . 1). and use them as guides to graph y = −2 csc π x . ⎜ . 37. ( 3π . to find x-values for the five key points. and (2.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. x 36. 0). π . π . ⎜ . Inc. 0 ) . . 0) . and 2. 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎝2 2⎠ 1 Use these key points to graph y = − sin π x from 0 2 to 2 . ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ . 1) . 1. 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 B= 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. . ⎜ . Graph the reciprocal sine function. 1.6 Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. − 1). the key points are (0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 1 and use them as guides to graph y = − csc π x . amplitude: A = −2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . Graph the reciprocal sine function. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. Evaluating the 2 2 function at each value of x. x and use them as guides to graph y = sec . The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 A=− Use these key points to graph y = cos 1 and B = π . the key points are (0. and 4π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. (π . y = −2sin π x . and (4π . Starting with x = 0. y = cos .

− ⎟ . and 2. 1. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. and 2 . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with 1 and B = π . ⎜ 2. 3 and use them as guides to graph y = − sec π x . − ⎟ . the key points are 3⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0. ⎜ 2. 2 Use quarter-periods. 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . ⎜ . Use quarter-periods. the x-values are 1 3 0. 0 ⎟ . − ⎟ . ⎜ . 594 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Trigonometric Functions 1 39. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ value of x. Inc. ⎜1. . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. . Extend 2 the graph one cycle to the right. ⎟ . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. ⎜1. the x-values are 1 3 0. the key points are ⎜ 0. . . Starting with x = 0. Starting with x = 0. ⎟ . 2 3 3 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . 1. y = − cos π x . 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ . Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. y = − cos π x . . 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 Use these key points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 2 to 2 . 0 ⎟ . ⎜ . − ⎟ . Use these key 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 to 2. 2 amplitude: period: A = − A=− 1 1 = 2 2 3 and B = π . and use them as guides to graph 1 y = − sec π x . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A=− 3 40. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2 amplitude: A = − 2π 2π = =2 B π period: 2 1 = .

2⎠ ⎝ . π. to find Use quarter-periods. and use them as guides to graph y = csc( x − π ) . − 1) . B = 1 . and .6 41. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. ⎜ . the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . the x-values are π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Graph the reciprocal sine function.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2π . Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. 0) . ⎜ . ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . (π . ( 2π . (3π . and 3π . 0 ⎟ . and B = 1. 2π . 1⎟ . 0 ⎟ . and C = π . 2 2 Evaluating the function at each value of x. 0). 4 2 x-values for the five key points. Starting with x = π π 2 . to find x-values for the five key points. 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 5π to . and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = csc ⎜ x − ⎟ . and ⎜ . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π2 π = = phase shift: B 1 2 period: Use quarter-periods. y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . Graph the reciprocal sine function. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. the x-values are 3π 5π . π 2 . (2π . . 3π 5π . the key ⎛ 3π ⎞ points are (π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. π⎞ ⎛ 42. y = sin( x − π ) . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. 0). Starting with x = π . 2⎠ ⎝ The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 1. Inc. 595 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 1⎟ . . Use these key points to graph 2 ⎝ ⎠ y = sin( x − π ) from π to 3π . π 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 period: . amplitude: A = 1 = 1 A = 1 . and C = 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π = =π phase shift: B 1 2π π = . 1) .

2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Use these ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ key points to graph y = 2 cos( x + π ) from −π to π . 0. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 0 ⎟ . − π π . the key points are (−π .Trigonometric Functions 43. ( 0. − 2 ) . the key points are ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ − . 0 ⎟ . the x-values π 2 key points. Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. 0 ) . Starting with x = − A = 2 =2 period: are −π . = . 2 amplitude: A = 2 = 2 46. Inc. to find x-values for the five − π . π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ . The equation is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2 and B = 1 . Starting with x = −π . 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C − π2 π = =− phase shift: B 1 2 period: 596 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 sec ⎜ x + ⎟ . and (π . . Evaluating the function 2 2 at each value of x. y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2. and . y = 2 cos( x + π ) . 0 ) . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec( x + π ) . 2⎠ ⎝ 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C −π = = −π phase shift: B 1 2π π Use quarter-periods. 44. − 2 ⎟ . 0. to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. 2) . ⎜ . π . and C = −π . . (π . and C=− π 2 . π 45. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 3π − to . ⎜ . The equation is of the form Use quarter-periods. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎜ . amplitude: . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. 2). B = 1. ( 0. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ − . 2 ⎟ . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 ⎟ . and π . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. the x-values are π 3π .

93. Inc. x=− 2 2 x ≈ −4. 3π π . 2. x = −2π . x ≈ −6. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ tan x and y2 = −1 . . . − 0. π⎞ ⎛ y = ( f h ) ( x) = f (h( x)) = 2 sec ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 54. and Ymax = 2 . Xmax = 2π . Publishing as Prentice Hall.79. and Ymax = 2 . x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ cos x and y2 = 1 . − .28 597 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5π π 3π 7π . 5. 6.57 51. and Ymax = 2 . Ymin = −2 . 5.93. 2.50 50. 0.71. − . π⎞ ⎛ y = ( g h ) ( x) = g (h( x)) = −2 tan ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 55. 56. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ sin x and y2 = 1 . 1. 58.50 49. 0. 2π 52. . For the window use Xmin = −2π . 48. Use a graphing utility with y1 = tan x and y2 = −1 .28. Xmax = 2π . − 0. Ymin = −2 .79.36. For the window use Xmin = −2π . Ymin = −2 . 53. For the window use Xmin = −2π . Xmax = 2π . and Ymax = 2 .6 47. x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. For the window use Xmin = −2π . Ymin = −2 . 57.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Xmax = 2π . 5π π 3π 7π .36.

the adjacent leg is the distance d.) An x-intercept is 2 2 . and Connect these points with a smooth curve. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 10 and B = 1. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 12. ⎥ . 1. d sec x = 10 d = 10 sec x Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 0 ⎟ .25. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0). 2]. amplitude: A = 10 = 10 period: b. For − π 2 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 <x< π 2 . and the opposite leg is 2 mi. Use the two 1 1 consecutive asymptotes. 0 ⎟ . To graph on [0. d cot x = 2 d = 2 cot x Use the equations x = 0 and x = π . and use ⎡ π π⎤ them as guides to graph d = 10sec x on ⎢ − . 10). x = − and x = . and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Use the function that relates the acute angle with the hypotenuse and the adjacent leg. use the x-values − ⎛ π ⎞ find the key points ⎜ − . y = 10 cos x . Solve the equations 2π t = − π and 2π t = x = π . ⎝2 ⎠ 2 . 2].75. 61.Trigonometric Functions 59.25. π π The function is undefined for t = 0. then draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. and 1.75. 0 ⎟ . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. 4 4 − 14 + 14 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. . Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and d = 12 tan 2π t a. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. the secant function. continue the pattern and extend the graph to 2. and ⎜ . π π to 2 ⎛π ⎞ (0. x = 0 and x = π . to graph y = 2 cot x for 0 < x < π . The beam is shining parallel to the wall at these times. 0. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 60. to 4 4 graph one full period of d = 12 tan 2π t . (Do not use the left hand side of the first period of the graph on [0. Use the cotangent function. Midway between x = 0 and x = π is x = π 2 2 π − π2 t= t= 2 2π 2π 1 1 t=− t= 4 4 Thus. In a right triangle the angle of elevation is one of the acute angles. two consecutive asymptotes occur at 1 1 x