PRECALCULUS 4E

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra..................................................... 1

Chapter 1

Functions and Graphs............................................................................................. 126

Chapter 2

Polynomial and Rational Functions ....................................................................... 256

Chapter 3

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ................................................................ 411

Chapter 4

Trigonometric Functions........................................................................................ 489

Chapter 5

Analytic Trigonometry........................................................................................... 663

Chapter 6

Additional Topics in Trigonometry ....................................................................... 780

Chapter 7

Systems of Equations and Inequalities................................................................... 944

Chapter 8

Matrices and Determinants .................................................................................. 1076

Chapter 9

Conic Sections and Analytic Geometry ............................................................... 1181

Chapter 10

Sequences, Induction, and Probability................................................................. 1297

Chapter 11

Introduction to Calculus....................................................................................... 1393

iii

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter P

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Section P.1

Check Point Exercises

1.

6.

8 + 6( x − 3) 2 = 8 + 6(13 − 3) 2

a.

**Because 2 ≈ 1.4, the number inside the
**

absolute value bars is negative. The absolute

value of x when x < 0 is –x. Thus,

= 8 + 6(10) 2

= 8 + 6(100)

= 8 + 600

= 608

2.

(

b.

**Since 2010 is 10 years after 2000, substitute 10 for x.
**

= 17(10)2 + 261(10) + 3257

= 7567

If trends continue, the tuition and fees will be $7567

5.

**The elements common to {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} and
**

{3, 7, 8, 9} are 3 and 7.

{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∩ {3,7,8,9} = {3, 7}

c.

**The union is the set containing all the elements of
**

either set.

{3, 4,5, 6, 7} ∪ {3, 7,8,9} = {3, 4,5, 6, 7,8,9}

π

⎧

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,

2

⎩

9,

x

x

Because x > 0,

Thus,

7.

⎫

10 ⎬

⎭

9 because

π −3

Because π ≈ 3.14, the number inside the

absolute value bars is positive. The absolute

value of a positive number is the number itself.

Thus,

π − 3 = π − 3.

T = 17 x + 261x + 3257

4.

)

1− 2 = − 1− 2 = 2 −1

2

3.

1− 2

x

x

=

x = x.

x

=1

x

−4 − (5) = −9 = 9

The distance between –4 and 5 is 9.

8.

9 =3

a.

Natural numbers:

b.

Whole numbers: 0,

c.

Integers: −9, 0, 9

d.

Rational numbers: −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3,

e.

Irrational numbers:

f.

Real numbers:

π

⎧

⎨ −9, − 1.3, 0, 0.3, ,

2

⎩

7(4 x 2 + 3x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 7(4 x 2 + 3 x) + 2(5 x 2 + x)

= 28 x 2 + 21x + 10 x 2 + 2 x

9

= 38 x 2 + 23x

π

2

,

9.

9

10

9,

⎫

10 ⎬

⎭

6 + 4[7 − ( x − 2)]

= 6 + 4[7 − x + 2)]

= 6 + 4[9 − x]

= 6 + 36 − 4 x

= 42 − 4 x

Exercise Set P.1

1.

7 + 5(10) = 7 + 50 = 57

2.

8 + 6 ( 5 ) = 8 + 30 = 38

3.

6(3) − 8 = 18 − 8 = 10

1

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

4.

8 ( 3) − 4 = 24 − 4 = 20

5.

82 + 3(8) = 64 + 24 = 88

6.

62 + 5 ( 6 ) = 36 + 30 = 66

7.

7 2 − 6(7) + 3 = 49 − 42 + 3 = 7 + 3 = 10

8.

82 − 7 ( 8 ) + 4 = 64 − 56 + 4 = 8 + 4 = 12

9.

4 + 5(9 − 7)3 = 4 + 5(2)3

= 4 + 5(8) = 4 + 40 = 44

10.

6 + 5 (8 − 6 ) = 6 + 5 ( 2 )

3

18.

19.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2 = 4 + 60(2) − 16(2)2

= 4 + 120 − 16(4) = 4 + 120 − 64

= 124 − 64 = 60

Two seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is

60 feet.

20.

h = 4 + 60t − 16t 2

= 4 + 60(3) − 16(3) 2

= 4 + 180 − 16(9)

= 4 + 180 − 144

= 184 − 144 = 40

Three seconds after it is kicked, the ball’s height is

40 feet.

3

= 6 + 5 (8)

= 6 + 40 = 46

11.

82 − 3(8 − 2) = 64 − 3(6)

= 64 − 18 = 46

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

21.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∩ {2, 4,5} = {2, 4}

82 − 4 ( 8 − 3) = 64 − 4 ( 5 ) = 64 − 20 = 44

22.

{1,3, 7} ∩ {2,3,8} = {3}

5( x + 2) 5(10 + 2)

=

2 x − 14 2(10) − 14

5(12)

=

6

= 5⋅2

= 10

23.

{s, e, t} ∩ {t , e, s} = {s, e, t}

24.

{r , e, a, l} ∩ {l , e, a, r} = {r , e, a, l}

25.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {2, 4, 6,8,10} = { }

The empty set is also denoted by ∅.

7( x − 3) 7(9 − 3) 7(6)

=

=

= 7 ⋅ 3 = 21

2 x − 16 2(9) − 16

2

2x + 3 y

; x = −2, y = 4

x +1

2 ( −2 ) + 3 ( 4 ) −4 + 12 8

=

=

=

= −8

−2 + 1

−1

−1

2x + y

; x = −2 and y = 4

xy − 2 x

2 ( −2 ) + 4

( −2 )( 4 ) − 2 ( −2 )

17.

5

5

5

C = ( F − 32) = (86 − 32) = (54) = 30

9

9

9

30°C is equivalent to 86°F.

=

−4 + 4 0

= =0

−8 + 4 4

5

5

C = (50 − 32) = (18) = 10

9

9

10°C is equivalent to 50°F.

26.

{1,3,5, 7} ∩ {−5, −3, −1} = { }

27.

{a, b, c, d} ∩ ∅ = ∅

28.

{w, y, z} ∩ ∅ = ∅

29.

{1, 2,3, 4} ∪ {2, 4,5} = {1, 2,3, 4,5}

30.

{1,3, 7,8} ∪ {2,3,8} = {1, 2,3, 7,8}

31.

{1, 3,5, 7} ∪ {2, 4, 6,8,10}

= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,8,10}

32.

{0,1,3,5} ∪ {2, 4, 6} = {0,1, 2,3, 4,5, 6}

33.

{a, e, i, o, u} ∪ ∅ = {a, e, i, o, u}

34.

{e, m, p, t , y} ∪ ∅

or ∅

= {e, m, p, t , y}

2

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

35. a.

Section P.1

39. 0

100

b.

0, 100

c.

−9, 0, 100

d.

4

−9, − , 0, 0.25, 9.2, 100

5

e.

f.

36. a.

40. Answers may vary. An example is

1

.

2

**41. Answers may vary. An example is 2.
**

42. Answers may vary. An example is −2.

43. true; –13 is to the left of –2 on the number line.

3

44. false; –6 is to the left of 2 on the number line.

4

−9, − , 0, 0.25, 3, 9.2, 100

5

**45. true; 4 is to the right of –7 on the number line.
**

46. true; –13 is to the left of –5 on the number line.

49

47. true; −π = −π

b.

0, 49

c.

−7, 0, 49

d.

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49

**48. true; –3 is to the right of –13 on the number line.
**

49. true; 0 is to the right of –6 on the number line.

e.

f.

37. a.

50

−7, − 0.6, 0, 49, 50

64

b.

0, 64

c.

−11, 0, 64

d.

5

−11, − , 0, 0.75, 64

6

e.

f.

38. a.

5

−11, − , 0, 0.75, 5, π , 64

6

4

0, 4

c.

−5, 0, 4

d.

−5, − 0.3, 0, 4

f.

51.

300 = 300

52.

−203 = 203

53.

12 − π = 12 − π

54.

7−π = 7−π

55.

2 −5 = 5− 2

56.

5 − 13 = 13 − 5

5, π

b.

e.

50. true; 0 is to the right of –13 on the number line.

2

−5, − 0.3, 0, 2, 4

57.

−3 −3

=

= −1

3

−3

58.

−7 −7

=

= −1

7

−7

59.

−3 − −7 = 3 − 7 = −4 = 4

60.

−5 − −13 = 5 − 13 = −8 = 8

61.

x + y = 2 + (−5) = −3 = 3

62.

x − y = 2 − (−5) = 7 = 7

3

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

63.

x + y = 2 + −5 = 2 + 5 = 7

64.

x − y = 2 − −5 = 2 − 5 = −3

65.

y

−5 −5

=

=

= −1

y

−5

5

66.

x

y

2

83.

84.

1

( x + 3) = 1; x ≠ −3 ,

x+3

inverse property of multiplication

( x + 4 ) + ⎡⎣ − ( x + 4 ) ⎤⎦ = 0;

inverse property of addition

85.

−5

2 5

+

= +

= +

= 1 + (−1) = 0

x

y

2 −5 2 −5

5(3 x + 4) − 4 = 5 ⋅ 3x + 5 ⋅ 4 − 4

= 15 x + 20 − 4

= 15 x + 16

67. The distance is 2 − 17 = −15 = 15 .

86.

2(5 x + 4) − 3 = 2 ⋅ 5 x + 2 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 10 x + 8 − 3

68. The distance is 4 − 15 = −11 = 11 .

= 10 x + 5

69. The distance is −2 − 5 = −7 = 7 .

87.

5(3 x − 2) + 12 x = 5 ⋅ 3x − 5 ⋅ 2 + 12 x

= 15 x − 10 + 12 x

70. The distance is −6 − 8 = −14 = 14 .

= 27 x − 10

71. The distance is −19 − (−4) = −19 + 4 = −15 = 15 .

88.

2(5 x − 1) + 14 x = 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅1 + 14 x

= 10 x − 2 + 14 x

72. The distance is −26 − (−3) = −26 + 3 = −23 = 23 .

= 24 x − 2

**73. The distance is
**

−3.6 − (−1.4) = −3.6 + 1.4 = −2.2 = 2.2 .

89.

= 7 ⋅3y − 7 ⋅5 + 2⋅ 4y + 2 ⋅3

= 21y − 35 + 8 y + 6

**74. The distance is
**

−5.4 − (−1.2) = −5.4 + 1.2 = −4.2 = 4.2 .

= 29 y − 29

90.

75. 6 + (–4) = (–4) + 6;

commutative property of addition

= 8 y − 24 + 15 y + 30

= 23 y + 6

91.

77. 6 + (2 + 7) = (6 + 2) + 7;

associative property of addition

5 ( 3 y − 2 ) − ( 7 y + 2 ) = 15 y − 10 − 7 y − 2

= 8 y − 12

92.

6 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 3) = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 2);

commutative property of multiplication

4(5 y − 3) − (6 y + 3) = 20 y − 12 − 6 y − 3

= 14 y − 15

79. (2 + 3) + (4 + 5) = (4 + 5) + (2 + 3);

commutative property of addition

80.

4(2 y − 6) + 3(5 y + 10)

= 4 ⋅ 2 y − 4 ⋅ 6 + 3 ⋅ 5 y + 3 ⋅10

76. 11 ⋅ (7 + 4) = 11 ⋅ 7 + 11 ⋅ 4;

distributive property of multiplication over addition

78.

7(3 y − 5) + 2(4 y + 3)

93.

7 − 4 ⎡⎣3 − ( 4 y − 5 ) ⎤⎦ = 7 − 4 [3 − 4 y + 5]

= 7 − 4 [8 − 4 y ]

7 ⋅ (11⋅ 8) = (11 ⋅ 8) ⋅ 7;

commutative property of multiplication

= 7 − 32 + 16 y

= 16 y − 25

**81. 2 (–8 + 6) = –16 + 12;
**

distributive property of multiplication over addition

82.

**−8(3 + 11) = −24 + (−88) ;
**

distributive property of multiplication over addition

4

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PreCalculus 4E

94.

Section P.1

6 − 5[8 − (2 y − 4)] = 6 − 5 [8 − 2 y + 4]

104. −20

= 6 − 5 [12 − 2 y ]

20

= 6 − 60 + 10 y

95. 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 ( x 2 − 2) + 5⎤⎦

105.

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 12 + 5⎤⎦

= 18 x 2 + 4 − ⎡⎣6 x 2 − 7⎤⎦

= 18 x 2 + 4 − 6 x 2 + 7

96. 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣7 ( x 2 − 2 ) + 4 ⎤⎦

106.

= 14 x + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 14 + 4 ⎤⎦

2

= 14 x 2 + 5 − ⎡⎣ 7 x 2 − 10⎤⎦

−0.6

5

2

−2.5

2.5

−2.5

3

= −0.6 .

5

2.5

2.5 = 2.5

= 14 x 2 − 7 x 2 + 5 + 10

Since 2.5 = 2.5,

= (14 − 7 ) x + 15

2

= 7 x 2 + 15

107.

97. –(–14x) = 14x

− ( −17 y ) = 17 y

30 3

−

40 4

30 30

−

40 40

5

= −2.5 .

2

14 15

⋅

15 14

14 15

⋅

15 14

0 1

0 <1

30 3

14 15

Since 0 < 1,

− <

⋅ .

40 4

15 14

99. –(2x – 3y – 6) = –2x + 3y + 6

100. − ( 5 x − 13 y − 1) = −5 x + 13 y + 1

1

(3 x) + [ (4 y ) + (−4 y ) ] = x + 0

3

=x

108.

1

( 2 y ) + ⎣⎡( −7 x ) + 7 x ⎦⎤ = y + 0 = y

2

6

0.6

2.5

= 14 x 2 + 5 − 7 x 2 + 10

103. −6

−0.6

Since 0.6 = 0.6,

= (18 − 6) x 2 + 11 = 12 x 2 + 11

102.

3

5

0.6

0.6

0.6 = 0.6

= 18 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 4 + 7

101.

50

20 < 50

Since 20 < 50, −20 < −50 .

= 10 y − 54

98.

−50

17 18

⋅

18 17

17 18

⋅

18 17

50 5

−

60 6

50 50

−

60 60

1 0

1> 0

17 18

50 5

Since 1 > 0,

⋅

>

− .

18 17

60 6

−3

3

6>3

Since 6 > 3, −6 > −3 .

5

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

109. 8 8

÷

13 13

8 13

⋅

13 8

115. 8 − 3[−2(2 − 5) − 4(8 − 6)] = 8 − 3[−2(−3) − 4(2)]

−1

= 8 − 3[6 − 8]

= 8 − 3[−2]

1

=8+6

1 1

1=1

Since 1 = 1,

110.

= 14

116. 8 − 3[−2(5 − 7) − 5(4 − 2)] = 8 − 3[−2(−2) − 5(2)]

8 8

÷ = −1 .

13 13

= 8 − 3[4 − 10]

= 8 − 3[−6]

4 4

−2

÷

17 17

4 17

2

⋅

17 4

2 1

2 >1

= 8 + 18

= 26

117.

Since 2 > 1, −2 >

4 4

÷ .

17 17

111. 82 − 16 ÷ 22 ⋅ 4 − 3 = 64 − 16 ÷ 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

= 64 − 4 ⋅ 4 − 3

118.

= 64 − 16 − 3

= 48 − 3

= 45

112. 102 − 100 ÷ 52 ⋅ 2 − 3 = 100 − 100 ÷ 25 ⋅ 2 − 3

119.

= 100 − 4 ⋅ 2 − 3

= 100 − 8 − 3

2(−2) − 4(−3) −4 + 12

=

5−8

−3

8

=

−3

8

=−

3

6(−4) − 5(−3) −24 + 15

=

9 − 10

−1

−9

=

−1

=9

(5 − 6)2 − 2 3 − 7

89 − 3 ⋅ 52

= 92 − 3

= 89

113.

5 ⋅ 2 − 32

2

2

[3 − (−2)]

=

=

=

5⋅2 −9

[9 − (−2)]2

10 − 9

[9 + 2]2

10 − 9

112

1

=

121

114.

10 ÷ 2 + 3 ⋅ 4

(12 − 3 ⋅ 2)

2

=

=

120.

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 22 + 32

7 + 3− 6

2

=

(−1) 2 − 2 −4

89 − 3 ⋅ 25

1 − 2(4)

=

89 − 75

1− 8

=

14

−7

=

14

1

=−

2

=

=

12 ÷ 3 ⋅ 5 4 + 9

7 + 3 − 36

4 ⋅ 5 13

10 − 36

20(13)

=

−26

260

=

−26

= −10

5 + 12

(12 − 6) 2

17

62

17

=

36

121. x − ( x + 4) = x − x − 4 = −4

6

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.1

122. x − ( 8 − x ) = x − 8 + x = 2 x − 8

b.

123. 6 ( −5 x ) = −30 x

124. 10 ( −4 x ) = −40 x

125. 5 x − 2 x = 3 x

126. 6 x − ( −2 x ) = 6 x + 2 x = 8 x

127. 8 x − ( 3x + 6 ) = 8 x − 3x − 6 = 5 x − 6

131. a.

128. 8 − 3 ( x + 6 ) = 8 − 3x − 18 = −3 x − 10

129. a.

b.

130. a.

3

( 220 − a )

5

3

H = ( 220 − 30 )

5

3

= (190 )

5

= 114

The upper limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 114 beats per

minute.

H=

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15, 395 + 988(7) − 2(7)2

= 22, 213

The formula estimates the cost to have been

$22,213 in 2007.

7

( 220 − a )

10

7

H = ( 220 − 20 )

10

7

= ( 200 )

10

= 140

The lower limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 140 beats per

minute.

H=

b.

**This underestimates the value in the graph by
**

$5.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15,395 + 988(10) − 2(10)2

= 25, 075

The formula projects the cost to be $25,075 in

2010.

4

( 220 − a )

5

4

H = ( 220 − 20 )

5

4

= ( 200 )

5

= 160

The upper limit of the heart rate for a 20-yearold with this exercise goal is 160 beats per

minute.

H=

132. a.

T = 15, 395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15, 395 + 988(6) − 2(6)2

= 21, 251

The formula estimates the cost to have been

$21,251 in 2006.

1

( 220 − a )

2

1

H = ( 220 − 30 )

2

1

= (190 )

2

= 95

The lower limit of the heart rate for a 30-yearold with this exercise goal is 95 beats per

minute.

H=

b.

**This underestimates the value in the graph by
**

$16.

c.

T = 15,395 + 988 x − 2 x 2

= 15,395 + 988(12) − 2(12)2

= 26, 963

The formula projects the cost to be $26,963 in

2012.

133. a.

0.05 x + 0.12 (10,000 − x )

= 0.05 x + 1200 − 0.12 x

= 1200 − 0.07 x

b.

**1200 − 0.07 x = 1200 − 0.07(6000)
**

= $780

7

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

134. a.

158. −π > −3.5

0.06t + 0.5(50 − t ) = 0.06t + 25 − 0.5t

= 25 − 0.44t

b.

3.14

= −1.57

2

π

− ≈ −1.571

2

−1.57 > −1.571

159. −

0.06(20) + 0.5(50 − 20)

= 1.2 + 0.5(30)

= 1.2 + 15

= 16.2 miles

−

**135. – 144. Answers may vary.
**

145. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

Sample explanation: Models do not always

accurately predict future values.

3.14

π

>−

2

2

160. a.

**146. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: To use the model, substitute 0

for x.

b4 ⋅ b3 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b7

b.

b5 ⋅ b5 = (b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b)(b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ b) = b10

c.

**add the exponents
**

b7

161. a.

147. makes sense

b

**148. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: The commutative property

changes order and the associative property changes

groupings.

b8

b.

b

c.

**149. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: Some rational numbers are not

integers.

162.

3

2

=

b⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b ⋅b

= b4

b ⋅b ⋅b

=

b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b⋅b ⋅b

= b6

b⋅b

subtract the exponents

6.2 × 103 = 6.2 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 6200

It moves the decimal point 3 places to the right.

**150. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: All whole numbers are integers

Section P.2

151. true

Check Point Exercises

**152. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: Some irrational numbers are

negative.

1.

**153. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: The term x has a coefficient of

1.

( 2x y ) = ( 2) ( x ) ( y )

b.

( −6 x y )( 3xy ) = ( −6 ) ⋅ 3 ⋅ x

3

6

2

4

4

5

3

4

6

4

3

= 16 x12 y 24

2

⋅ x ⋅ y5 ⋅ y3

= −18 x 3 y 8

**154. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

5 + 3( x − 4) = 5 + 3 x − 12 = 3x − 7.

c.

**100 x12 y 2 ⎛ 100 ⎞ ⎛ x12 ⎞ ⎛ y 2 ⎞
**

=

⎜

⎟⎜

⎟

20 x16 y −4 ⎜⎝ 20 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x16 ⎠ ⎝ y −4 ⎠

= 5 x12 −16 y 2 − ( −4)

= 5 x −4 y 6

**155. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: − x − x = −2 x.

=

156. true

157.

a.

5 y6

x4

2 ≈ 1.4

1.4 < 1.5

2 < 1.5

8

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PreCalculus 4E

d.

⎛ 5x ⎞

⎜ 4⎟

⎝y ⎠

Section P.2

( 5) ( x )

−2

−2

=

(y )

4

(5) ( x )

=

(y )

4

7.

−2

−2

=

−2

= (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − 02 ]

= 2534.4

The speed of the blood at the central axis of the

artery is 2534.4 centimeters per second.

−2

−2

5−2 x −2

y −8

Exercise Set P.2

y8

52 x 2

y8

=

25 x 2

=

2.

3.

4.

a.

−6

3.017 × 10

a.

5, 210, 000, 000 = 5.21× 10

b.

−0.00000006893 = −6.893 × 10−8

(

= 0.000003017

2.

62 ⋅ 2 = (6 ⋅ 6) ⋅ 2 = 36 ⋅ 2 = 72

3.

(−2)6 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 64

4.

(−2) 4 = (−2)(−2)(−2)(−2) = 16

5.

−26 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −64

6.

−2 4 = −2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = −16

7.

(−3)0 = 1

)

8.

(−9)0 = 1

9.

−30 = −1

10.

−9 0 = −1

11.

4−3 =

1

1

1

=

=

3

4

4 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 4 64

12.

2−6 =

1

1

1

=

=

6

2

2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 64

13.

2 2 ⋅ 23 = 2 2 + 3 = 25 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 32

14.

33 ⋅ 32 = 33+ 2 = 35 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 243

15.

(22 )3 = 22⋅3 = 26 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 64

16.

(33 )2 = 33⋅2 = 36 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 729

17.

28

= 28− 4 = 24 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 = 16

24

18.

38

= 38 − 4 = 34 = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 = 81

34

19.

3−3 ⋅ 3 = 3−3+1 = 3−2 =

1

1

1

=

=

2

3

3⋅3 9

20.

2−3 ⋅ 2 = 2−3+1 = 2−2 =

1

1

1

=

=

2

2⋅2 4

2

9

410 ×107 = 4.1× 102 × 107

(

= 4.1× 10

)

9

( 7.1×10 )( 5 ×10 )

−7

5

= 7.1 ⋅ 5 × 105 ⋅10−7

= 35.5 × 10−2

(

)

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

(

= 3.55 × 101 × 10−2

= 3.55 × 10

b.

52 ⋅ 2 = (5 ⋅ 5) ⋅ 2 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 50

−2.6 ×10 = −2, 600, 000, 000

b.

a.

1.

9

= 4.1× 102 × 107

5.

)

−1

1.2 × 106 1.2 106

=

⋅

3 ×10−3

3 10−3

= 0.4 × 106 − ( −3)

= 0.4 × 109

= 4 × 108

6.

S = (1.76 × 105 )[(1.44 ×10 –2 ) − r 2 ]

13 × 109

13 109

=

⋅

6

5.1 × 10

5.1 106

≈ 2.5 ⋅ 103

≈ 2500

The average Pell grant was $2500 in 2006.

9

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

21.

23

1

1

1

= 23 − 7 = 2 − 4 = 4 =

=

7

2

2

2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 16

22.

34

1

1

1

= 34 − 7 = 3−3 = 3 =

=

37

3

3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 27

23.

x −2 y =

25.

x0 y5 = 1⋅ y5 = y5

26.

x 7 ⋅ y 0 = x 7 ⋅1 = x 7

27.

x 3 ⋅ x 7 = x 3+ 7 = x10

28.

x ⋅x = x

29.

x −5 ⋅ x10 = x −5+10 = x 5

30.

x −6 ⋅ x12 = x −6 +12 = x 6

31.

( x3 )7 = x 3⋅7 = x 21

32.

( x11 )5 = x11⋅5 = x 55

33.

( x −5 )3 = x −5⋅3 = x −15 =

34.

35.

5

11+ 5

42.

⎛ 6⎞

(−6)3

216

⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3

y

y

⎝ y⎠

43.

(−3x 2 y 5 ) 2 = (−3)2 ( x 2 ) 2 ⋅ ( y 5 ) 2

= 9 x 2⋅2 y 5⋅2

= 9 x 4 y10

1

x

=

y3 y3

xy −3 = x ⋅

(−4)3

64

⎛ 4⎞

⎜− ⎟ = 3 = − 3

x

x

⎝ x⎠

3

1

y

⋅y= 2

x2

x

24.

11

3

41.

44.

**= −27 x 4⋅3 y 6⋅3
**

= −27 x12 y18

=x

45.

(3 x 4 )(2 x 7 ) = 3 ⋅ 2 x 4 ⋅ x 7 = 6 x 4 + 7 = 6 x11

46.

(11x 5 )(9 x12 ) = 11⋅ 9 x 5 x12 = 99 x5 +12 = 99 x17

47.

(−9 x3 y )(−2 x 6 y 4 ) = (−9)(−2) x 3 x 6 yy 4

16

( x −6 ) 4 = x −6⋅4 = x −24 =

= 18 x 3+ 6 y1+ 4

= 18 x 9 y 5

48.

= 30 x11 y12

1

x15

1

x 24

49.

8 x 20 ⎛ 8 ⎞ ⎛ x 20

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

2 x4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ x4

50.

20 x 24 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 24 ⎞

24 − 6

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

= 2 x18

⎟ = 2x

10 x 6 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ x 6 ⎠

x14

= x14 − 7 = x 7

x7

x30

= x 30 −10 = x 20

10

x

38.

⎞

20 − 4

= 4 x16

⎟ = 4x

⎠

25a13 ⋅ b 4 ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎛ a13 ⎞ ⎛ b 4 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟⎜ ⎟

−5a 2 ⋅ b3 ⎝ −5 ⎠ ⎝ a 2 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠

= −5a13 − 2 b 4 − 3

= −5a11b

14

37.

(−5 x 4 y )(−6 x 7 y11 ) = (−5)(−6) x 4 x 7 yy11

= 30 x 4 + 7 y1+11

51.

36.

(−3x 4 y 6 )3 = (−3)3 ( x 4 )3 ( y 6 )3

x

= x14 − ( −7) = x14 + 7 = x 21

x −7

52.

x30

= x30 − ( −10) = x 30 +10 = x 40

x −10

39.

(8 x3 ) 2 = 82 ( x 3 )2 = 82 x 3⋅2 = 64 x 6

40.

(6 x ) = (6) ( x ) = 6 x

4 2

2

4 2

2

4⋅2

= 36 x

35a14 b6 ⎛ 35 ⎞ ⎛ a14 ⎞ ⎛ b6 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟⎜ ⎟

−7a 7 b3 ⎝ −7 ⎠ ⎝ a 7 ⎠ ⎝ b3 ⎠

= −5a14 − 7 b6 − 3

= −5a 7 b3

53.

8

14b7 ⎛ 14 ⎞ ⎛ b 7 ⎞

2

7 −14

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

= 2b −7 = 7

⎟ = 2⋅b

7b14 ⎝ 7 ⎠ ⎝ b14 ⎠

b

10

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

54.

Section P.2

20b10 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ b10 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟

10b 20 ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ b 20 ⎠

3

61.

= 2b10 − 20

= 2b

⎛ −3b5 ⎞

=⎜ 6 ⎟

⎝ a ⎠

−27b15

=

a18

−10

2

b10

=

55.

(4 x3 ) −2 = (4−2 )( x 3 ) −2

−2

=4 x

62.

1

42 x6

1

=

16 x 6

1

103 x 6

1

=

1000 x 6

10 x 4 y 9

1

= x 4 −12 y 9 − ( −3)

30 x12 y −3 3

1

= x −8 y12

3

y12

= 8

3x

59.

⎛ 5x ⎞

5 x

y

⎜

⎟ = −2 =

y

25

x6

⎝

⎠

y

−3

−2

−6

⎛ 3x ⎞

⎛ y ⎞

⎜

⎟ =⎜ 4 ⎟

⎝ 3x ⎠

⎝ y ⎠

y3

= 3 4⋅3

3 x

y3

=

27 x12

4

60.

−2

3

3

63.

⎛ 3a −5b 2 ⎞

=1

⎜

3 −4 ⎟

⎝ 12a b ⎠

64.

⎛ 4a −5b3 ⎞

=1

⎜

3 −5 ⎟

⎝ 12a b ⎠

65.

3.8 × 10 2 = 380

66.

9.2 × 10 2 = 920

67.

6 × 10−4 = 0.0006

68.

7 × 10−5 = 0.00007

69.

−7.16 × 106 = −7,160, 000

70.

−8.17 × 106 = −8,170, 000

71.

7.9 × 10−1 = 0.79

72.

6.8 × 10 −1 = 0.68

73.

−4.15 × 10 −3 = −0.00415

74.

−3.14 × 10−3 = −0.00314

75.

−6.00001×1010 = −60, 000,100, 000

76.

−7.00001×1010 = −70, 000,100, 000

77.

32, 000 = 3.2 × 104

78.

64, 000 = 6.4 ×104

0

24 x 3 ⋅ y 5 3 3− 7 5 − ( −9)

= x y

32 x 7 y −9 4

3

= x −4 y14

4

3 y14

= 4

4x

3

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

0

=

58.

⎛ −30a14b8 ⎞ ⎛ −3b8−( −2)

= ⎜⎜ 17−14

⎜

17 −2 ⎟

⎝ 10a b ⎠ ⎝ a

(10 x 2 )−3 = 10−3 x 2⋅( −3)

3

3

⎛ −3b10 ⎞

=⎜

⎟

⎝ a3 ⎠

−27b30

=

a9

= 10−3 x −6

57.

⎞

⎟⎟

⎠

3

−6

=

56.

⎛ −15a 4b 2 ⎞ ⎛ −3b 2−( −3)

⎜ 10 −3 ⎟ = ⎜⎜ 10−4

⎝ 5a b ⎠ ⎝ a

2

3

11

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

79.

94.

638, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000

(8.2 ×10 )( 4.6 ×10 )

8

4

= 6.38 ×1017

= 37.72 × 108+ 4 = 37.72 × 1012

80.

579,000, 000, 000, 000, 000 = 5.79 × 1017

= 3.772 × 1013 ≈ 3.77 ×1013

81.

−5716 = −5.716 × 103

82.

−3829 = −3.829 × 103

83.

0.0027 = 2.7 × 10 −3

84.

0.0083 = 8.3 × 10 −3

85.

−0.00000000504 = −5.04 × 10−9

86.

−0.00000000405 = −4.05 × 10−9

87.

(3 × 104 )( 2.1 × 103 ) = (3 × 2.1) (104 × 103 )

( 2 ×10 )( 4.1×10 ) = 8.2 ×10

89.

(1.6 × 10 )( 4 × 10 ) = (1.6 × 4) (10

4

3

(1.4 × 10 )(3 × 10 ) = (1.4 × 3) (10

−11

99.

4.8 × 10−2 4.8 10−2

=

×

2.4 × 106 2.4 106

= 2 × 10−2 − 6 = 2 × 10−8

15

× 10−11 )

100. 7.5 ×10−2

= 3 × 10−2 − 6 = 3 × 10−8

6

2.5 × 10

× 10−4 )

**101. 2.4 × 10−2 2.4 10−2
**

=

×

4.8 ×10−6 4.8 10−6

= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

= 4.2 × 104

(6.1 × 10 )( 2 × 10 ) = (6.1× 2) (10

−8

−4

−8

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 × 103

= 12.2 × 10−8+( −4)

= 12.2 × 10−12

102. 1.5 × 10−2

= 0.5 × 10−2 − ( −6)

5 × 10−6

= 0.5 × 104 = 5 ×103

= 1.22 × 10−11

92.

**( 5.1×10 )(3 ×10 ) = 15.3 ×10
**

−8

−4

−12

= 1.53 × 10−11

93.

**103. 480, 000, 000, 000 4.8 × 1011
**

=

0.00012

1.2 ×10−4

4.8 1011

=

×

1.2 10−4

= 4 × 1011− ( −4)

( 4.3 ×10 )(6.2 ×10 )

= ( 4.3 × 6.2) (10 ×10 )

8

4

8

3.6 ×104 3.6 104

=

×

9 10−2

9 × 10−2

= 0.4 ×104 − ( −2)

× 10−11 )

15

= 4.2 × 1015+( −11)

91.

97.

1.2 × 104

= 0.6 × 104 − ( −2) = 0.6 ×106

2 × 10−2

= ( 6 ×10−1 ) ×106 = 6 × 105

= 6.4 × 104

15

6.9 × 108

= 2.3 × 108− 5 = 2.3 × 103

3 ×105

98.

= 6.4 × 1015+ ( −11)

90.

96.

7

−11

15

8.4 × 108 8.4 108

=

×

4 ×105

4 105

= 2.1× 108− 5 = 2.1× 103

= 0.4 ×106 = 4 × 105

= 6.3 × 104+3 = 6.3 × 107

88.

95.

4

= 26.66 × 108+ 4

= 4 × 1015

= 26.66 × 1012

= 2.666 × 1013 ≈ 2.67 × 1013

**104. 282, 000, 000, 000 2.82 × 1011
**

=

0.00141

1.41×10−3

= 2 × 1011− ( −3)

= 2 × 1014

12

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

105.

106.

Section P.2

0.00072 × 0.003

0.00024

7.2

( ×10−4 )(3 ×10−3 )

=

2.4 × 10−4

7.2 × 3 10−4 ⋅10−3

=

×

= 9 × 10−3

2.4

10−4

113.

**( 2−1 x−2 y−1 ) ( 2 x−4 y3 ) (16 x−3 y3 )
**

2

( 2 x−3 y−5 )

( 22 x2 y2 )( 2−2 x8 y−6 )(1)

=

( 22 x−6 y−10 )

−2

=

4

−3

66000 × 0.001 ( 6.6 × 10 )(1× 10 )

=

0.003 × 0.002 ( 3 × 10−3 )( 2 × 10−3 )

114.

6.6 × 10

1− −6

= 1.1× 10 ( )

6 × 10−6

= 1.1× 107

−1

x −3 y −1 )

−2

1

107.

( x y)

(x y )

−3

−2

−1 3

2

=

x 6 y −3

= 6 −3

x y

=

= x 6 − 6 y −3− ( −3) = x 0 y 0 = 1

108.

( xy )

( x y)

−2 −2

−2

−3

= x −2 − 6 y

4 − ( −3)

= x −8 y 7 =

(2

y7

x8

111.

⎛ x y z ⎞

⎜ −3 −4 −5 ⎟

⎝x y z ⎠

3

4 5

−2

−4

−6

y4 )

y −6 )

−2

(9 x

3

y −3 )

0

2

x 6 y 2 )( 2−2 x12 y −8 ) (1)

(2

2

x −8 y −12 )

2.52 × 1012

3 × 108

c.

2.52 × 1012

3 × 108

=

2.52 1012

× 8

3

10

= 0.84 × 104

= 8400

$8400 per American

y

y

=

24 x8 z 6 16 x8 z 6

116. a.

**110. 3 x −4 yz −7 ( 3x )−3 = 3x −4 yz −7 ⋅ 3−3 x ⋅−3
**

(

)

= 3−2 x −7 yz −7 =

(2x

b.

**109. 2 x −3 yz −6 ( 2 x )−5 = 2 x −3 yz −6 ⋅ 2−5 x ⋅−5
**

(

)

= 2−4 x −8 yz −6 =

2

(2x

x 26 y 6

4

115. a.

x −2 y 4

= 6 −3

x y

0

x18 y6

4

(2

=

−2

y

y

=

3 x7 z 7 9 x7 z 7

2

2.27 × 1012

b.

2.98 × 108

c.

2.27 × 1012

2.27 1012

=

×

2.98 108

2.98 × 108

= 0.7617 × 104

= ( x6 y z

)

= 7617

$7617 per American

8 10 −2

= x −12 y −16 z −20 =

1

x y16 z 20

117. 1450 × 109 ⋅ 6.60 = 1.45 × 1012 ⋅ 6.6

12

= 1.45 ⋅ 6.6 × 1012

112. ⎛ x 4 y 5 z 6 ⎞ −4

8 10 12 −4

⎜ −4 −5 −6 ⎟ = ( x y z )

⎝x y z ⎠

= x −32 y −40 z −48 =

= 9.57 × 1012

Box-office receipts were $9.57 × 1012 in 2006.

1

x y 40 z 48

118. 1400 × 109 ⋅ 6.40 = 1.4 × 1012 ⋅ 6.4

32

= 1.4 ⋅ 6.4 × 1012

= 8.96 × 1012

Box-office receipts were $8.96 × 1012 in 2005.

13

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

119. 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 20, 000 = 5.3 × 10−23 ⋅ 2 × 104

138. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 52 ⋅ 5−2 = 25 ⋅ 2−5.

= 5.3 ⋅ 2 × 10−23 ⋅ 104

= 10.6 × 10−19

**139. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is: 534.7 ≠ 5347.

= 1.06 × 101 ⋅ 10−19

**140. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

= 1.06 × 10−18

The mass is 1.06 × 10−18 gram.

8 × 1030

2 × 10−5

120. 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 80, 000 = 1.67 × 10−24 ⋅ 8 × 104

= 1.67 ⋅ 8 × 10−24 ⋅ 104

**141. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

A sample change is:

= 13.36 × 10−20

1

= 1.336 × 10 ⋅ 10

(7 × 105 ) + (2 × 10−3 ) = 700, 000.002.

−20

142. true

= 1.336 × 10−19

**143. The doctor has gathered:
**

1 1

2 1 3

2−1 + 2−2 = +

= + =

2 22 4 4 4

**The mass is 1.336 × 10−19 gram.
**

121. 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 127 = 3.2 × 107 ⋅ 1.27 × 102

= 3.2 ⋅ 1.27 × 107 ⋅ 102

So, 1 −

= 4.064 × 109

3 1

= is remaining.

4 4

144. b A = MN , bC = M , b D = N

Americans eat 4.064 × 109 chickens per year.

b A = bC b D

122. 365 days equals 365 ⋅ 24 or 8760 hours.

A=C+D

**8760 hours equals 8760 ⋅ 60 or 525,600 minutes.
**

525,600 min. equals

525,600 ⋅ 60 or 31,536,000 seconds.

145.

**There are 3.1536 × 107 seconds in a year.
**

123. – 130. Answers may vary.

131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.

**Sample explanation: 36( x3 )9 = 36 x 27 not 36 x12 .
**

132. makes sense

**70 bts 60 min 24 hrs 365 days
**

⋅

⋅

⋅

⋅ 80 yrs

hr

day

yr

min

= 70 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 365 ⋅ 80 beats

= 2943360000 beats

= 2.94336 × 109 beats

≈ 2.94 × 109 beats

The heartbeats approximately 2.94 × 109 times over a

lifetime of 80 years.

146. Answers may vary.

**133. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

147. a.

**Sample explanation: 4.6 × 1012 represents over 4
**

trillion. The entire world population is measured in

billions ( 109 ).

134. makes sense

135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

A sample change is: 4

= 4 × 1030 − ( −5) = 4 × 1035.

−2

b.

16 ⋅ 4 = 64 = 8

c.

16 ⋅ 4 = 16 ⋅ 4

148. a.

300 ≈ 17.32

b.

10 3 ≈ 17.32

c.

300 = 10 3

−3

>4 .

16 ⋅ 4 = 4 ⋅ 2 = 8

136. true

137. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

1

A sample change is: (−2)4 ≠ 2−4 because 16 ≠ .

16

149. a.

b.

21x + 10 x = 31x

21 2 + 10 2 = 31 2

14

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

Section P.3

5.

a.

**Check Point Exercises
**

1.

5 27 + 12

= 5 9⋅3 + 4⋅3

= 5⋅3 3 + 2 3

a.

81 = 9

b.

− 9 = −3

c.

1

1

=

25 5

d.

36 + 64 = 100 = 10

e.

36 + 64 = 6 + 8 = 14

a.

75 = 25 ⋅ 3 = 25 3 = 5 3

b.

5 x ⋅ 10 x = 5 x ⋅10 x

= 15 3 + 2 3

= (15 + 2) 3

= 17 3

2.

b.

= 6 9 ⋅ 2x − 4 4 ⋅ 2x

= 6 ⋅ 3 2x − 4 ⋅ 2 2x

= 18 2 x − 8 2 x

= (18 − 8) 2 x

= 10 2 x

6.

a.

= 50 x 2

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2

b.

5

3

25

25 5

=

=

16

16 4

150 x 3

2x

=

b.

150 x 3

2x

= 5x 3

3

⋅

12

8 13 + 9 13 = (8 + 9) 3

7.

17 x − 20 17 x

= 1 17 x − 20 17 x

= (1 − 20) 17 x

=

Multiply by

3

=

5 3

9

=

5 3

3

12 ⋅ 3 =

3

3

6

12

⋅

36 = 6. So multiply by 1,

for 1.

3

3

=

6 3

36

=

4− 5

.

4− 5

8

8

4− 5

=

⋅

4+ 5 4+ 5 4− 5

=

= −19 17 x

3

for 1.

**The smallest number that will produce a perfect
**

6

square in the denominator of

is 3

12

6

= 17 13

b.

5

choosing

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 3

a.

=

3

because

= 75 x 2

4.

3

choosing

= 5x 2

a.

**If we multiply numerator and denominator by
**

3, the denominator becomes

3 ⋅ 3 = 9 = 3. Therefore, multiply by 1,

= 25 ⋅ 2 x 2

3.

6 18 x − 4 8 x

8(4 − 5)

42 − ( 5)2

8(4 − 5)

16 − 5

8(4 − 5)

32 − 8 5

or

=

11

11

=

15

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6 3

= 3

6

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

8.

9.

a.

3

40 = 3 8 ⋅ 5 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 5 = 2 3 5

Exercise Set P.3

b.

5

8 ⋅ 5 8 = 5 64 = 5 32 ⋅ 5 2 = 2 5 2

1.

36 = 62 = 6

c.

3

125 3 125 5

= 3

=

27

27 3

2.

25 = 52 = 5

3 3 81 − 4 3 3 = 3 3 27 ⋅ 3 − 4 3 3

3.

− 36 = − 62 = −6

4.

− 25 = − 52 = −5

5.

**−36 , The square root of a negative number is not
**

real.

6.

**−25 , The square root of a negative number is not
**

real.

= 3⋅ 33 3 − 4 3 3

= 93 3 − 43 3

= (9 − 4) 3 3

= 53 3

1

25 2 = 25 = 5

10. a.

1

b.

83 = 3 8 = 2

c.

−814 = − 4 81 = −3

d.

( −8 ) 3

e.

27

1

1

−

1

3

= 3 −8 = −2

1

=

1

1

=

3

27 3

4

(

27 3 =

11. a.

( 4)

2

5

1

32

c.

27

42 =

3

b.

3

−

2

=

3

2

)

4

=

27

1

3

= (3)4 = 81

= (2)3 = 8

=

32 5

1

(

5

32

)

2

1 1

= 2 =

2

4

7.

25 − 16 = 9 = 3

8.

144 + 25 = 169 = 13

9.

25 − 16 = 5 − 4 = 1

10.

144 + 25 = 12 + 5 = 17

11.

(−13) 2 = 169 = 13

12.

(−17)2 = 289 = 17

13.

50 = 25 ⋅ 2 = 25 2 = 5 2

14.

27 = 9 ⋅ 3 = 9 3 = 3 3

15.

45 x 2 = 9 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 9 x2 5

( 2 x )( 5x )

4/3

12. a.

8/3

= 9 x2 5

= 2 ⋅ 5 x 4 / 3 ⋅ x8 / 3

=3 x 5

= 10 x ( 4 / 3) + (8 / 3)

= 10 x12 / 3

= 10 x

16.

4

= 25 x 2 5

20 x 4 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x 4 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟

3

5x 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x 2 ⎠

b.

= 25 x 2 5

=5 x 5

4− 3

= 4x ( 2)

8 − 3

= 4 x( 2 ) ( 2 )

= 4x

13.

6

5

17.

2x ⋅ 6x = 2x ⋅ 6x

= 12 x 2

2

= 4x2 ⋅ 3

x3 = x 6 = x 2 = x

3

125 x 2 = 25 x 2 ⋅ 5

1

= 2x 3

16

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

18.

Section P.3

10 x ⋅ 8 x = 10 x ⋅ 8 x

30.

= 80 x 2

24 x 4

=

3x

= 16 x 2 ⋅ 5

= 8 x3

= 4x 5

= 4 x2 ⋅ 2 x

19.

x3 = x 2 ⋅ x = x x

20.

y3 =

21.

2 x2 ⋅ 6 x = 2 x2 ⋅ 6 x

= 2x 2x

31.

y2 ⋅ y = y y

200 x3

10 x −1

= 4 x 2 ⋅ 3x

= 4 ⋅ 5x4

= 2 x2 5

32.

1

1 1

=

=

81

81 9

24.

1

=

49

25.

49

49 7

=

=

16

16 4

26.

121

121 11

=

=

9

3

9

27.

28.

48 x3

=

3x

72 x

3

=

8x

1

7

34.

8 5 + 11 5 = (8 + 11) 5 = 19 5

35.

6 17 x − 8 17 x = (6 − 8) 17 x = −2 17 x

36.

4 13 x − 6 13x = (4 − 6) 13x = −2 13x

= (2 + 3) 2

=5 2

38.

20 + 6 5 = 4 ⋅ 5 + 6 5

= 2 5+6 5

= (2 + 6) 5

=8 5

72 x

= 9 x2 = 3x

8x

150 x

150 x

=

3x

3x

8 + 3 2 = 4⋅2 + 3 2

= 2 2 +3 2

39.

29.

500 x 3

= 50 x 3−( −1)

10 x −1

7 3 + 6 3 = (7 + 6) 3 = 13 3

37.

48 x3

= 16 x 2 = 4 x

3x

4

10 x −1

=

33.

3

=

500 x 3

= 50 x 4 = 25 ⋅ 2 x 4 = 5 x 2 2

= 3x 2x

49

3−( −1)

= 20 x 4

6 x ⋅ 3 x 2 = 6 x ⋅ 3x 2

= 18 x3

1

200 x 3

10 x −1

= 12 x 3

= 9 x2 ⋅ 2 x

23.

=

= 20 x

= 2 x 3x

22.

24 x 4

3x

4

50 x − 8 x = 25 ⋅ 2 x − 4 ⋅ 2 x

= 5 2x − 2 2x

= (5 − 2) 2 x

= 50 x 3

= 3 2x

= 25 x 2 ⋅ 2 x

= 5x 2x

17

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

40.

63 x − 28 x = 9 ⋅ 7 x − 4 ⋅ 7 x

49.

= 3 7x − 2 7x

13

3 + 11

= (3 − 2) 7 x

=

=

= 7x

41.

3 18 + 5 50 = 3 9 ⋅ 2 + 5 25 ⋅ 2

= 3⋅3 2 + 5⋅5 2

= 9 2 + 25 2

= (9 + 25) 2

50.

= 34 2

42.

3

3+ 7

= 4⋅ 2 3 − 2⋅5 3

13(3 − 11)

9 − 11

=

13(3 − 11)

−2

=

= −2 3

3 8 − 32 + 3 72 − 75

51.

= 3 4 ⋅ 2 − 16 ⋅ 2 + 3 36 ⋅ 2 − 25 ⋅ 3

7

5−2

= 6 2 − 4 2 + 18 2 − 5 3

=

= 20 2 − 5 3

= 3 9 ⋅ 6 − 2 4 ⋅ 6 − 16 ⋅ 6 + 4 9 ⋅ 7

52.

= 3⋅3 6 − 2⋅ 2 6 − 4 6 + 4 ⋅3 7

5

3 −1

= 9 6 − 4 6 − 4 6 + 12 7

46.

47.

48.

2

2

5

7

3

=

=

=

2

2

5

7

⋅

10

⋅

10

5

5

=

=

5−2

5+2

⋅

5+2

7( 5 + 2)

( 5) 2 − 22

7( 5 + 2)

5−4

5

3 −1

⋅

3 +1

3 +1

5( 3 + 1)

( 3) 2 − 12

5( 3 + 1)

3 −1

5( 3 + 1)

=

2

7

10

7

=

7

=

⋅

=

7

7

7 7

10

3(3 − 7 )

32 − ( 7 )2

=

=

= 6 + 12 7

45.

3− 7

= 7( 5 + 2)

3 54 − 2 24 − 96 + 4 63

1

⋅

3+ 7 3− 7

=

=

= 3⋅ 2 2 − 4 2 + 3⋅ 6 2 − 5 3

1

3

3(3 − 7)

9−7

3(3 − 7)

=

2

= (8 − 10) 3

44.

32 − ( 11)2

=

= 8 3 − 10 3

43.

13(3 − 11)

=

=

4 12 − 2 75 = 4 4 ⋅ 3 − 2 25 ⋅ 3

13

3 − 11

⋅

3 + 11 3 − 11

2 10

10

=

10

5

53.

10

5

6

5+ 3

=

=

=

3

21

⋅

=

3

3 3

6

5+ 3

⋅

5− 3

5− 3

6( 5 − 3)

( 5) 2 − ( 3) 2

6( 5 − 3)

5−3

6( 5 − 3)

2

= 3( 5 − 3)

=

18

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

11

54.

Section P.3

11

=

7− 3

=

7− 3

⋅

7+ 3

5

73.

7+ 3

11( 7 + 3)

74.

11( 7 + 3)

=

7−3

11( 7 + 3)

=

4

125 = 3 53 = 5

55.

3

56.

3

8 = 3 23 = 2

57.

3

−8 = 3 (−2) = −2

3

77.

5 3 16 + 3 54 = 5 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 3 27 ⋅ 2

= 5 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 33 2

= 13 3 2

61.

4

(−3) 4 = −3 = 3

62.

4

(−2) = −2 = 2

63.

5

(−3)5 = −3

64.

5

(−2) = −2

65.

5

67.

3

= 6 3 3 + 33 3

= 93 3

79.

= − y 3 2x

80.

2

24 xy 3 − y 3 81x

= 2 y 3 3 x − 3 y 3 3x

=

6

3

= 3 8 ⋅ 3xy 3 − y 3 27 ⋅ 3x

= − y 3 3x

1

1

1

= 5 − 5 =−

32

2

2

1

54 xy 3 − y 3 128 x

= 3 y 3 2x − 4 y 3 2x

5

6

3

= 3 27 ⋅ 2 xy 3 − y 3 64 ⋅ 2 x

4

6

3 3 24 + 3 81 = 3 8 ⋅ 3 + 3 27 ⋅ 3

= 3 ⋅ 2 3 3 + 33 3

−81 is not a real number.

1

=

64

162 x5 4

= 81x 4 = 3x

2x

6 5 3 + 25 3 = 85 3

−16 is not a real number.

4

6

2x

4

= 10 3 2 + 3 3 2

60.

66.

4

=

76.

−125 = 3 (−5)3 = −5

−

162 x 5

64 x 6 5

= 32 x5 = 2 x

2x

5

4 5 2 + 35 2 = 7 5 2

3

4

59.

2x

=

75.

78.

58.

5

4

( 7 )2 − ( 3) 2

64 x 6

1

2

81.

2+ 3 8 = 2+2

82.

3 + 3 15 will not simplify

83.

32 = 3 8 ⋅ 4 = 3 8 3 4 = 2 ⋅ 3 4

361/ 2 = 36 = 6

**84. 1211/ 2 = 121 = 11
**

68.

3

69.

3

70.

3

71.

3

72.

3

**150 cannot be simplified further.
**

85.

81/ 3 = 3 8 = 2

x 4 = 3 x3 ⋅ x = x ⋅ 3 x

86.

271/ 3 = 3 27 = 3

x5 = 3 x3 x 2 = x 3 x 2

87. 1252 / 3 =

9 ⋅ 3 6 = 3 54 = 3 27 ⋅ 2 = 3 27 3 2 = 3 3 2

88.

12 ⋅ 4 = 48 = 8 ⋅ 6 = 2 6

3

3

3

3

82 / 3 =

(

3

125

( 8)

3

2

)

2

= 52 = 25

=4

19

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

89.

90. 16−5 / 2 =

91.

1

1

1

= 4 =

4/5

32

2

16

32−4 / 5 =

1

1

1

1

=

=

=

165 / 2 ( 16)5 45 1024

( 7 x )( 2 x ) = 7 ⋅ 2 x

1/ 3

1/ 4

1/ 3

⋅ x1/ 4

1/ 3 +1/ 4

= 14 ⋅ x

20 x1/ 2 ⎛ 20 ⎞ ⎛ x1/ 2 ⎞

= ⎜ ⎟⎜

⎟

5 x1/ 4 ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ x1/ 4 ⎠

= 4 ⋅ x1/ 2 −1/ 4

4

x12 = x12 / 4 = x

105.

6

x4 = 6 / 2 x4 / 2 = 3 x2

106.

9

x6 = 9 / 3 x6 / 3 = 3 x 2

107.

9

x6 y 3 = x 9 y 9 = x 3 y 3 = 3 x 2 y

108.

12

x 4 y 8 = x 12 y 12 = x 3 y 3 =

109.

34

110.

3

94.

95.

(x

)

=x

2 / 3⋅3

=x

98.

(125 x9 y 6 )1/ 3 = 1251/ 3 x 9 / 3 y 6 / 3 = 5 x 3 y 2

1

2

x y2

3

3

1000 + 3 216

1/ 2

−2 −1/ 2

4 −1/ 2

1/ 2

1 ( −2)( −1/ 2 ) ( 4)( −1/ 2)

x

y

( xy1/ 2 )

491/ 2

1

1

−2 + 1/ 2

= x1 y −2 ⋅ xy1/ 2 = x1+1 y ( )

7

7

1

x2

= x 2 y −3 / 2 = 3 / 2

7

7y

3

3

112. ( 8 x −6 y 3 )

1/ 3

(x

5/ 6

y −1/ 3 )

6

= 81/ 3 x ( −6)(1/ 3) y ( 3)(1/ 3) x (5 / 6)( 6) y ( −1/ 3)( 6)

= 2 x −2 y1 x5 y −2 = 2 x −2 + 5 y1+ ( −2 )

2

= 27 y 12 = 27 y 3

24 ( y1/ 5 )

−1/ 2

=

⎛ 14 ⎞

3

⎜ 3y ⎟

3 1

⎝

⎠ = 27 y 4 = 27 y 4 − 12

1

1

y 12

y 12

=

169 + 9 +

−1/ 2

(25 x 4 y 6 )1/ 2 = 251/ 2 x 4⋅1/ 2 y 6⋅1/ 2 = 5 x 2 y

y 3 /10

8

( xy )

= ( 49 ) ( x ) ( y ) ( xy )

97.

1/ 5 4

1

16 + 625 = 3 2 + 25 = 3 27 = 3

111. ( 49 x −2 y 4 )

2

( x 4 / 5 )5 = x 4 / 5⋅5 = x 4

(2y )

2

= 3 4+ 4 = 38

=2

⎞

3 / 4 −1/ 3

= 8 x5 /12

⎟ = 8⋅ x

⎠

96.

8

3

= 3 16 + 16

72 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 72 ⎞ ⎛ x 3 / 4

= ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1/ 3

9 x1/ 3

⎝ 9 ⎠⎝ x

2/3 3

3

= 3 13 + 3 + 10 + 6

= 4 x1/ 4

100.

104.

4

2 / 3+ 3 / 4

= 12 x17 /12

99.

x6 = x6 / 3 = x 2

(3 x 2 / 3 )(4 x3 / 4 ) = 3 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3 ⋅ x 3 / 4

= 12 ⋅ x

93.

3

6

= 14 x 7 /12

92.

103.

= 2 x3 y −1 =

4

y 3 /10

⎛ x −5 / 4 y1/ 3 ⎞

113. ⎜ −3 / 4 ⎟

⎝ x

⎠

4/5

16 y

= 3 /10 = 16 y 4 / 5− 3 /10 = 16 y1/ 2

y

101.

4

52 = 52 / 4 = 51/ 2 = 5

102.

4

7 2 = 7 2 / 4 = 71/ 2 = 7

2 x3

y

−6

(

= x(

= ( x −2 / 4 y1/ 3 ) = x(

−6

= x3 y −2 =

−5 / 4 ) − ( −3 / 4 )

−2 / 4 )( −6 )

y(

y1/ 3

)

−6

1/ 3)( −6 )

x3

y2

20

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.3

⎛ x1/ 2 y −7 / 4 ⎞

114. ⎜

⎟

−5 / 4

⎝ y

⎠

−4

= ( x1/ 2 y −2 / 4 )

= x −2 y 2 =

115. a.

(

= x1/ 2 y (

−4

−7 / 4 ) − ( −5 / 4 )

)

−4

⎛v⎞

118. Ra = R f 1 − ⎜ ⎟

⎝c⎠

= x (1/ 2)( −4) y ( −2 / 4)( −4)

⎛ 0.9c ⎞

= Rf 1− ⎜

⎟

⎝ c ⎠

y2

x2

= R f 1 − ( 0.9 )

In 2004, we have x = 5.

Ra = 0.44 R f

44 = 0.44 R f

In 2011, we have x = 12 .

0.44 R f

44

=

0.44

0.44

100 = R f

If you are gone for 44 weeks, then 100 weeks will

have passed for your friend.

119. Perimeter:

P = 2l + 2 w

For 2020: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 125 + 2 ⋅ 2 20

= 5 10 + 34.1

= 2 ⋅ 25 ⋅ 5 + 4 4 ⋅ 5

For 2050: E = 5 x + 34.1

= 5 40 + 34.1

= 2⋅5 5 + 4⋅ 2 5

= 5 ⋅ 2 10 + 34.1

= 10 5 + 8 5

= 18 5 feet

Area:

A = lw

= 10 10 + 34.1

Difference:

(10 10 + 34.1) − (5 10 + 34.1)

= 10 10 + 34.1 − 5 10 − 34.1

= 125 ⋅ 2 20

= 10 10 − 5 10 + 34.1 − 34.1

= 2 125 ⋅ 20

= 5 10

= 2 2500

= 2 ⋅ 50

= 100 square feet

The difference is 5 10.

b.

117.

2

≈ 0.44 R f

y = 20.8 12 + 21 ≈ 93.1

According to the model, 93.1% of email will be

spam in 2011.

This overestimates the value given in the bar

graph by 21.1%.

116. a.

2

= R f 0.19

y = 20.8 5 + 21 ≈ 67.5

According to the model, 67.5% of email was

spam in 2004.

This underestimates the actual value shown in

the bar graph by 0.5%.

b.

2

5 10 ≈ 15.8

This underestimates the difference projected by

the graph of 65.8 − 47.3 = 18.5 by 2.7. This

represents a difference of 2.7 million people.

2

5 + 1 2( 5 + 1)

⋅

=

5 −1

5 −1 5 +1

2( 5 + 1)

4

5 +1

=

2

≈ 1.62

About 1.62 to 1.

=

21

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

120. Perimeter:

P = 2l + 2w

13 + 2 +

139.

= 2 ⋅ 4 20 + 2 ⋅ 80

7

= 13 + 2 +

3+ 2

= 8 4 ⋅ 5 + 2 16 ⋅ 5

= 24 5 feet

Area:

A = lw

21 − 7 2

9−2

= 13 + 2 +

21 − 7 2

7

1

1

140. a.

= 4 1600

= 4 ⋅ 40

= 160 square feet

b.

121. – 128. Answers may vary.

3 2 > 33

Calculator Check: 1.7321 > 1.4422

7 + 18 > 7 + 18

Calculator Check: 6.8884 > 5

5

**129. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: The denominator is

rationalized correctly.

141. a.

b.

**131. does not make sense; Explanations will vary. Sample
**

explanation: 2 20 + 4 75 simplifies to 4 5 + 20 3

and thus the radical terms are not common.

2

⋅7

1

2

1

4

−

4

3

3

−

4

+ 2−2

+ 2−1

( 8)

3

=

+

4

1

( 16 )

4

3

= 71 = 7.

136. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.

20

5

=

.

8

4

)(5 − 3 ) = 22

25 − 3 = 22

3 =3

25 x 14 = 5 x 7

1

22

+

1 1

+

4

2

4

=

1 1

+

23 2

1 1

+

= 16 4

1 1

+

8 2

5

= 16

5

8

8

=

16

1

=

2

Mom’s portion:

1⎛ 1⎞ 1⎛1⎞ 1

1−

=

=

2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ 4

**135. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

The cube root of –8 is the real number –2.

138.

5 3 1

+ −

4 4

= 22

Son’s portion:

16

**134. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

1

1

1

1

−

A sample change is: ( 8 ) 3 =

= 3 = .

1

2

8

(8) 3

A sample change is:

3

22 ⋅ 24

1

4

2 ⋅2 ÷2 =

8

**133. false; Changes to make the statement true will vary.
**

1

3

4

1

**132. does not make sense; Explanations will vary.
**

Sample explanation: Finding the nth root first often

gives smaller numbers on the middle step.

A sample change is: 7

5

2

2

Her son is 8 years old.

130. makes sense

3

3+ 2 3− 2

= 16

=4

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

(

3− 2

= 13 + 2 + 3 − 2

= 4 20 ⋅ 80

137. 5 +

⋅

= 13 + 2 +

= 8⋅ 2 5 + 2⋅ 4 5

= 16 5 + 8 5

7

22

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1

2

= 23 = 8

PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

142. (2 x3 y 2 )(5 x 4 y 7 ) = 10 x7 y 9

143. 2 x 4 (8 x 4 + 3x) = 2 x 4 (8 x 4 ) + 2 x 4 (3 x) = 16 x8 + 6 x5

144. 2 x( x 2 + 4 x + 5) + 3( x 2 + 4 x + 5)

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 10 x + 3x 2 + 12 x + 15

= 2 x3 + 8 x 2 + 3x 2 + 10 x + 12 x + 15

= 2 x3 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 15

Section P.4

Check Point Exercises

1.

(−17 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 11x − 5) + (16 x 3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 15)

a.

= (−17 x 3 + 16 x3 ) + (4 x 2 − 3x 2 ) + (−11x + 3x) + (−5 − 15)

= − x 3 + x 2 − 8 x − 20

b.

(13x 2 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) − (−7 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 9)

= (13 x3 − 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1) + (7 x3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 9)

= (13 x3 + 7 x 3 ) + (−9 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (1 − 9)

= 20 x3 − 11x 2 − 2 x − 8

2.

(5 x − 2)(3x 2 − 5 x + 4)

= 5 x(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4) − 2(3 x 2 − 5 x + 4)

= 5 x ⋅ 3x 2 − 5 x ⋅ 5 x + 5 x ⋅ 4 − 2 ⋅ 3 x 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x − 2 ⋅ 4

= 15 x 3 − 25 x 2 + 20 x − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 8

= 15 x 3 − 31x 2 + 30 x − 8

3.

(7 x − 5)(4 x − 3) = 7 x ⋅ 4 x + 7 x(−3) + (−5)4 x + (−5)(−3)

= 28 x 2 − 21x − 20 x + 15

= 28 x 2 − 41x + 15

4.

a.

(7 x − 6 y )(3x − y ) = (7 x)(3 x) + (7 x)(− y ) + (−6 y )(3x) + (−6 y )(− y )

= 21x 2 − 7 xy − 18 xy + 6 y 2

= 21x 2 − 25 xy + 6 y 2

5.

b.

(2 x + 4 y )2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(4 y ) + (4 y ) 2 = 4 x 2 + 16 xy + 16 y 2

a.

(3 x + 2 + 5y )(3x + 2 − 5y ) = (3x + 2)2 − (5y )2

= 9x 2 + 12 x + 4 − 25y 2

2

2

= 9x + 12 x − 25y + 4

b.

(2 x + y + 3) 2 = (2 x + y )2 + 2(2 x + y )(3) + 32

= 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 12 x + 6y + 9

2

2

= 4 x + 4 xy + 12 x + y + 6y + 9

23

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

Exercise Set P.4

1.

yes; 2 x + 3 x 2 − 5 = 3 x 2 + 2 x − 5

2.

no; The term 3x −1 does not have a whole number exponent.

3.

no; The form of a polynomial involves addition and subtraction, not division.

4.

yes; x 2 − x 3 + x 4 − 5 = x 4 − x3 + x 2 − 5

5.

**3x 2 has degree 2
**

−5x has degree 1

4 has degree 0

3 x 2 − 5 x + 4 has degree 2.

6.

**−4x 3 has degree 3
**

7x 2 has degree 2

–11 has degree 0

−4 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 11 has degree 3.

7.

x 2 has degree 2

−4x 3 has degree 3

9x has degree 1

−12x 4 has degree 4

63 has degree 0

x 2 − 4 x 3 + 9 x − 12 x 4 + 63 has degree 4.

8.

x 2 has degree 2

−8x 3 has degree 3

15x 4 has degree 4

91 has degree 0

x 2 − 8 x3 + 15 x 4 + 91 has degree 4.

9.

(−6 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 8 x + 9) + (17 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 13) = (−6 x 3 + 17 x 3 ) + (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 ) + (−8 x − 4 x) + (9 − 13)

= 11x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 4

The degree is 3.

10.

**(−7 x3 + 6 x 2 − 11x + 13) + (19 x3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 17) = (−7 x3 + 19 x3 ) + (6 x 2 − 11x 2 ) + (−11x + 7 x) + (13 − 17)
**

= 12 x3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x − 4

The degree is 3.

11.

(17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) − (5 x3 − 9 x 2 − 8 x + 11) = (17 x3 − 5 x 2 + 4 x − 3) + (−5 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 8 x − 11)

= (17 x3 − 5 x3 ) + (−5 x 2 + 9 x 2 ) + (4 x + 8 x) + (−3 − 11)

= 12 x3 + 4 x 2 + 12 x − 14

The degree is 3.

12.

(18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) − (9 x 4 − 6 x3 − 5 x + 7) = (18 x 4 − 2 x 3 − 7 x + 8) + (−9 x 4 + 6 x3 + 5 x − 7)

= (18 x 4 − 9 x 4 ) + (−2 x3 + 6 x3 ) + (−7 x + 5 x) + (8 − 7)

= 9 x 4 + 4 x3 − 2 x + 1

The degree is 4.

24

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PreCalculus 4E

13.

Section P.4

(5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) − ( x 2 − 4 x − 3) = (5 x 2 − 7 x − 8) + (2 x 2 − 3x + 7) + (− x 2 + 4 x + 3)

= (5 x 2 + 2 x 2 − x 2 ) + (−7 x − 3 x + 4 x) + (−8 + 7 + 3)

= 6x2 − 6x + 2

The degree is 2.

14.

(8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) − (3 x 2 − 4 x) − (−6 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 3) = (8 x 2 + 7 x − 5) + (−3x 2 + 4 x) + (6 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3)

= 6 x 3 + (8 x 2 − 3x 2 + 5 x 2 ) + (7 x + 4 x) + (−5 − 3)

= 6 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 11x − 8

The degree is 3.

15.

( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) = x( x 2 ) − x ⋅ x + x ⋅1 + 1( x 2 ) − 1 ⋅ x + 1 ⋅1

= x3 − x 2 + x + x 2 − x + 1

= x3 + 1

16.

( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 5 x + 25 ) = x( x 2 ) − x(5 x) + x(25) + 5( x 2 ) − 5(5 x) + 5(25)

= x 3 − 5 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125)

= x 3 + 125

17.

(2 x − 3)( x 2 − 3x + 5) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−3x) + (2 x)(5) + (−3)( x 2 ) + (−3)(−3x) + (−3)(5)

= 2 x 3 − 6 x 2 + 10 x − 3x 2 + 9 x − 15

= 2 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 19 x − 15

18.

(2 x − 1)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = (2 x)( x 2 ) + (2 x)(−4 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−1)( x 2 ) + (−1)(−4 x) + (−1)(3)

= 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − x 2 + 4 x − 3

= 2 x3 − 9 x 2 + 10 x − 3

19.

( x + 7)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x + 7 x + 21 = x 2 + 10 x + 21

20.

( x + 8)( x + 5) = x 2 + 5 x + 8 x + 40 = x 2 + 13x + 40

21.

( x − 5)( x + 3) = x 2 + 3 x − 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 2 x − 15

22.

( x − 1)( x + 2) = x 2 + 2 x − x − 2 = x 2 + x − 2

23.

(3 x + 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + 3 x(1) + 5(2 x) + 5 = 6 x 2 + 3x + 10 x + 5 = 6 x 2 + 13x + 5

24.

(7 x + 4)(3x + 1) = (7 x)(3x) + 7 x(1) + 4(3x) + 4(1) = 21x 2 + 7 x + 12 x + 4 = 21x 2 + 19 x + 4

25.

(2 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (2 x)(5 x) + (2 x)(3) + (−3)(5 x) + (−3)(3) = 10 x 2 + 6 x − 15 x − 9 = 10 x 2 − 9 x − 9

26.

(2 x − 5)(7 x + 2) = (2 x )(7 x) + (2 x)(2) + (−5)(7 x) + (−5)(2) = 14 x 2 + 4 x − 35 x − 10 = 14 x 2 − 31x − 10

27.

(5 x 2 − 4)(3 x 2 − 7) = (5 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (5 x 2 )(−7) + (−4)(3x 2 ) + (−4)(−7) = 15 x 4 − 35 x 2 − 12 x 2 + 28 = 15 x 4 − 47 x 2 + 28

28.

(7 x 2 − 2)(3 x 2 − 5) = (7 x 2 )(3x 2 ) + (7 x 2 )(−5) + (−2)(3 x 2 ) + (−2)(−5) = 21x 4 − 35 x 2 − 6 x 2 + 10 = 21x 4 − 41x 2 + 10

29.

(8 x

3

+ 3)( x 2 − 5 ) = ( 8 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 8 x 3 ) ( −5 ) + ( 3) ( x 2 ) + ( 3)( −5 ) = 8 x5 − 40 x 3 + 3 x 2 − 15

25

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

30.

(7x

31.

( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 32 = x 2 − 9

32.

( x + 5)( x − 5) = x 2 − 52 = x 2 − 25

33.

(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) = (3 x) 2 − 22 = 9 x 2 − 4

34.

(2 x + 5)(2 x − 5) = (2 x)2 − 52 = 4 x 2 − 25

35.

(5 − 7 x)(5 + 7 x) = 52 − (7 x) 2 = 25 − 49 x 2

36.

(4 − 3x)(4 + 3x) = 42 − (3x) 2 = 16 − 9 x 2

37.

(4 x 2 + 5 x)(4 x 2 − 5 x) = (4 x 2 ) 2 − (5 x) 2 = 16 x 4 − 25 x 2

38.

(3 x 2 + 4 x)(3x 2 − 4 x) = (3x 2 ) 2 − (4 x) 2 = 9 x 4 − 16 x 2

39.

(1 − y )(1 + y ) = (1) − ( y )

40.

( 2 − y )( 2 + y ) = ( 2 ) − ( y )

41.

( x + 2) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = x 2 + 4 x + 4

42.

( x + 5) 2 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = x 2 + 10 x + 25

43.

(2 x + 3)2 = (2 x) 2 + 2(2 x)(3) + 32 = 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9

44.

(3 x + 2)2 = (3x) 2 + 2(3x)(2) + 22 = 9 x 2 + 12 x + 4

45.

( x − 3) 2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 3 + 32 = x 2 − 6 x + 9

46.

( x − 4)2 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 4 + 42 = x 2 − 8 x + 16

47.

(4 x 2 − 1) 2 = (4 x 2 ) 2 − 2(4 x 2 )(1) + 12 = 16 x 4 − 8 x 2 + 1

48.

(5 x 2 − 3)2 = (5 x 2 ) 2 − 2(5 x 2 )(3) + 32 = 25 x 4 − 30 x 2 + 9

49.

(7 − 2 x)2 = 7 2 − 2(7)(2 x) + (2 x) 2 = 49 − 28 x + 4 x 2 = 4 x 2 − 28 x + 49

50.

(9 − 5 x) 2 = 92 − 2(9)(5 x) + (5 x) 2 = 81 − 90 x + 25 x 2 or 25 x 2 − 90 x + 81

51.

( x + 1)3 = x3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅1 + 3x ⋅12 + 13 = x3 + 3 x 2 + 3 x + 1

52.

( x + 2)3 = x 3 + 3 ⋅ x 2 ⋅ 2 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 22 + 23 = x 3 + 6 x 2 + 12 x + 8

53.

(2 x + 3)3 = (2 x)3 + 3 ⋅ (2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x) ⋅ 32 + 33 = 8 x 3 + 36 x 2 + 54 x + 27

3

+ 5 )( x 2 − 2 ) = ( 7 x3 )( x 2 ) + ( 7 x 3 ) ( −2 ) + ( 5 ) ( x 2 ) + ( 5 )( −2 ) = 7 x5 − 14 x3 + 5 x 2 − 10

5

5

5 2

2

5

5

2

= 1 − y10

5 2

= 4 − y10

26

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PreCalculus 4E

Section P.4

54.

(3 x + 4)3 = (3x)3 + 3(3x) 2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3x) ⋅ 42 + 43 = 27 x 3 + 108 x 2 + 144 x + 64

55.

( x − 3)3 = x3 − 3 ⋅ x 3 ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ x ⋅ 32 − 33 = x 3 − 9 x 2 + 27 x − 27

56.

( x − 1)3 = x 3 − 3x 2 ⋅1 + 3 x ⋅12 − 13 = x3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1

57.

(3 x − 4)3 = (3x)3 − 3(3 x)2 ⋅ 4 + 3(3 x) ⋅ 42 − 43 = 27 x 3 − 108 x 2 + 144 x − 64

58.

(2 x − 3)3 = (2 x)3 − 3(2 x) 2 ⋅ 3 + 3(2 x ) ⋅ 32 − 33 = 8 x3 − 36 x 2 + 54 x − 27

59.

( x + 5 y )(7 x + 3 y ) = x(7 x) + x(3 y ) + (5 y )(7 x) + (5 y )(3 y )

= 7 x 2 + 3 xy + 35 xy + 15 y 2

= 7 x 2 + 38 xy + 15 y 2

60.

( x + 9 y )(6 x + 7 y ) = x(6 x) + x(7 y ) + (9 y )(6 x) + (9 y )(7 y )

= 6 x 2 + 7 xy + 54 xy + 63 y 2

= 6 x 2 + 61xy + 63 y 2

61.

( x − 3 y )(2 x + 7 y ) = x(2 x) + x (7 y ) + (−3 y )(2 x) + (−3 y )(7 y )

= 2 x 2 + 7 xy − 6 xy − 21y 2

= 2 x 2 + xy − 21 y 2

62.

(3 x − y )(2 x + 5 y ) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(5 y ) + (− y )(2 x) + (− y )(5 y )

= 6 x 2 + 15 xy − 2 xy − 5 y 2

= 6 x 2 + 13xy − 5 y 2

63.

(3 xy − 1)(5 xy + 2) = (3xy )(5 xy ) + (3xy )(2) + (−1)(5 xy ) + (−1)(2)

= 15 x 2 y 2 + 6 xy − 5 xy − 2

= 15 x 2 y 2 + xy − 2

64.

(7 x 2 y + 1)(2 x 2 y − 3) = (7 x 2 y )(2 x 2 y ) + (7 x 2 y )(−3) + (1)2 x 2 y + (1)(−3)

= 14 x 4 y 2 − 21x 2 y + 2 x 2 y − 3

= 14 x 4 y 2 − 19 x 2 y − 3

65.

(7 x + 5 y ) 2 = (7 x) 2 + 2(7 x)(5 y ) + (5 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 + 70 xy + 25 y 2

66.

(9 x + 7 y )2 = (9 x)2 + 2(9 x )(7 y ) + (7 y )2 = 81x 2 + 126 xy + 49 y 2

67.

( x 2 y 2 − 3) 2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(3) + 32 = x 4 y 4 − 6 x 2 y 2 + 9

68.

( x 2 y 2 − 5)2 = ( x 2 y 2 ) 2 − 2( x 2 y 2 )(5) + 52 = x 4 y 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 25

69.

( x − y )( x 2 + xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x( xy ) + x( y 2 ) + (− y )( x 2 ) + (− y )( xy ) + (− y )( y 2 )

= x3 + x 2 y + xy 2 − x 2 y − xy 2 − y 3

= x3 − y 3

27

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Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra

70.

( x + y )( x 2 − xy + y 2 ) = x( x 2 ) + x(− xy ) + x( y 2 ) + y ( x 2 ) + y (− xy ) + y ( y 2 )

= x 3 − x 2 y + xy 2 + x 2 y − xy 2 + y 3

= x3 + y 3

71.

(3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = (3x) 2 − (5 y )2 = 9 x 2 − 25 y 2

72.

(7 x + 3 y )(7 x − 3 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (3 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 9 y 2

73.

( x + y + 3)( x + y − 3) = ( x + y ) 2 − 32 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 9

74.

( x + y + 5)( x + y − 5) = ( x + y )2 − 52 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 25

75.

(3 x + 7 − 5 y )(3x + 7 + 5 y ) = (3x + 7) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 + 42 x + 49 − 25 y 2

76.

(5 x + 7 y − 2)(5 x + 7 y + 2) = (5 x + 7 y ) 2 − 22 = 25 x 2 + 70 xy + 49 y 2 − 4

77.

[5 y − (2 x + 3)][5 y + (2 x + 3)] = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 3) 2 = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 12 x + 9) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 12 x − 9

78.

[8 y + (7 − 3x)][8 y − (7 − 3x)] = (8 y ) 2 − (7 − 3x) 2 = 64 y 2 − (49 − 42 x + 9 x 2 ) = 64 y 2 − 49 + 42 x − 9 x 2

79.

( x + y + 1) 2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y ) + 1 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 2 x + 2 y + 1

80.

( x + y + 2)2 = ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y )(2) + 22 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 4 y + 4

81.

(2 x + y + 1) 2 = (2 x + y ) 2 + 2(2 x + y ) + 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 + 4 x + 2 y + 1

82.

(5 x + 1 + 6 y )2 = (5 x + 1) 2 + 2(5 x + 1)(6 y ) + (6 y )2 = 25 x 2 + 10 x + 60 xy + 1 + 12 y + 36 y 2

83.

(3 x + 4 y )

2

2

2

2

2

2

− ( 3x − 4 y ) = ⎡( 3x ) + 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(3 x ) − 2 ( 3x )( 4 y ) + ( 4 y ) ⎤

⎣

⎦ ⎣

⎦

(

) (

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 24 xy + 16 y 2

)

= 9 x 2 + 24 xy + 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 + 24 xy − 16 y 2

= 48 xy

84.

(5 x + 2 y )

2

2

2

2

2

2

− ( 5 x − 2 y ) = ⎡(5 x ) + 2 ( 5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤ − ⎡(5 x ) − 2 (5 x )( 2 y ) + ( 2 y ) ⎤

⎣

⎦ ⎣

⎦

(

) (

= 25 x 2 + 20 xy + 4 y 2 − 25 x 2 − 20 xy + 4 y 2

= 25 x + 20 xy + 4 y − 25 x + 20 xy − 4 y

2

2

2

)

2

= 40 xy

85.

(5 x − 7 )( 3x − 2) − ( 4 x − 5)( 6 x − 1)

2

2

= ⎡15 x − 10 x − 21x + 14⎤ − ⎡24 x − 4 x − 30 x + 5⎤

⎣

(

2

⎦ ⎣

) (

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x − 34 x + 5

2

)

⎦

2

= 15 x − 31x + 14 − 24 x + 34 x − 5

2

= −9 x + 3 x + 9

28

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. Section P. = ( 5 x − 3) 2 = ( 5 x ) − 2 ( 5 x )( 3) + ( 3) 2 2 2 = 25 x − 30 x + 9 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 (3 x + 5)( 2 x − 9) − ( 7 x − 2)( x − 1) ( = (6 x ) ( 2 2 = 6 x − 27 x + 10 x − 45 − 7 x − 7 x − 2 x + 2 2 ) ( 2 − 17 x − 45 − 7 x − 9 x + 2 2 ) ) 2 = 6 x − 17 x − 45 − 7 x + 9 x − 2 2 = − x − 8 x − 47 87. (3 x + 4)( 3x − 4) (9 x 2 + 16) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 3 x ) − 4 ⎤ 9 x + 16 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 9 x ) − (16 ) 2 2 = 9 x − 16 9 x + 16 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 81x − 256 ( 2 x − 7 ) = 2 x − 7 5 −3 ( ) 3 ( 2 x − 7) 5 89. ( 2 x + 5)( 2 x − 5) ( 4 x 2 + 25) ( 2 2 2 = ⎡( 2 x ) − 5 ⎤ 4 x + 25 ⎣ ⎦ ( )( = ( 4 x ) − ( 25) 2 2 = 4 x − 25 4 x + 25 2 2 ) ) 2 4 = 16 x − 625 88.PreCalculus 4E 86. = ( 2 x − 7) 2 = ( 2 x ) − 2 ( 2 x )( 7 ) + ( 7 ) 2 2 2 = 4 x − 28 x + 49 ( 5 x − 3) = 5 x − 3 6 − 4 ( ) 4 ( 5 x − 3) 6 90. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.

418 The difference in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15. 446 + 14.923. The model overestimates the actual value of $51. ( x 8 − 2x )(5 − 2 x ) = x ( 40 − 26 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 40 x − 26 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 26 x + 40 x 30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.336 W = 255(18)2 − 2956(18) + 24.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 91. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14. 681 = 15. 995(14) + 63. 481 = 10. 404 − 33. 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. 446 − 17 x3 + 450 x 2 − 6392 x + 14.316 shown in the bar graph by $2432. 923 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $10. 995 x + 63. 210 c. d. d.995. 995 The model estimates the median annual income for a man with 16 years of education to be $56. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. 210 = 15.220 shown in the bar graph by $225. 57. a. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 220 − 41.348. M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15.210 c.539. a. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. 44. 995 x + 63.995 x + 63. M = 177 x 2 + 288 x + 7075 M = 177(16)2 + 288(16) + 7075 = 56.748. The model overestimates this difference by $12. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. 93. 539 − $15. 418 = $121. 764 M − W = −18 x3 − 17 x3 + 923 x 2 + 450 x 2 − 9603x − 6392 x + 48. 995(16) + 63. b.210 M − W = −35(16)3 + 1373(16) 2 − 15. 92. 210 M − W = −35(14)3 + 1373(14) 2 − 15. 210 = 12. 446 + 14. Inc.748 The model estimates the median annual income for a woman with 18 years of education to be $53. 923 = $1425. 446) − (17 x3 − 450 x 2 + 6392 x − 14. 348 The difference in the median income between men and women with 14 years experience is $12. The model underestimates the actual value of $57.348 − $10. . 764) M − W = −18 x3 + 923x 2 − 9603x + 48. W = 255 x 2 − 2956 x + 24. ( x 8 − 2x )(10 − 2 x ) = x ( 80 − 36 x + 4 x 2 ) 2 = 80 x − 36 x + 4 x 3 3 2 = 4 x − 36 x + 80 x 94.418. 539 The actual difference displayed in the graph in the median income between men and women with 16 years experience is $15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. 336 = 53. b.995 x + 63. 764 M − W = −35 x3 + 1373x 2 − 15. M − W = (−18 x3 + 923 x 2 − 9603 x + 48. The model underestimates this difference by $15.

– 102. Sample explanation: FOIL is used to multiply two binomials. 103. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (x + 5)(2x + 1)(x + 2) − 3 ⋅ x(x + 5) = (2x 2 + 11x + 5)(x + 2) − 3x 2 −15x 3 2 2 = 2x + 15x + 27x + 10 − 3x − 15x = 2x 3 + 12x 2 + 12x + 10 110. (2x − 1)x(x + 3) − x(x − 2)x = (2x 2 + 5x − 3)(x + 2) − x 2 (x − 2) 3 2 3 = 2x + 5x − 3x − x + 2x 2 = x 3 + 7x 2 − 3x 109. ( x − 2 )( x − 12) = x 2 − 14 x + 24 113.4 ( x + 9) ( x + 3) − ( x + 5) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − ( x 2 + 6 x + 5 ) = x 2 + 12 x + 27 − x 2 − 6 x − 5 = 6 x + 22 96. (4 x + 1)(2 x − 3 ) = 8 x 2 − 10 x − 3 31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 106.PreCalculus 4E 95. Answers may vary. (y n + 2)(y n − 2) − (y n − 3)2 = y 2 n − 4 − (y 2 n − 6y n + 9) =y 2n −4 −y 2n n + 6y − 9 = 6y n −13 111. Inc. makes sense 104. makes sense. 105. ( x + 4) ( x + 3) − ( x + 2) ( x + 1) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − ( x 2 + 3x + 2 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 − x 2 − 3x − 2 = 4 x + 10 97. Section P. . although answers may vary 107. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. ( x + 3)( x + 4 ) = x 2 + 7 x + 12 112. ( x + 3)( x − 1) + (( x + 3) − x)( x − ( x − 1)) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) + 3( x − x + 1) = x 2 − x + 3x − 3 + 3 = x2 + 2 x 108.

The required integers are –7 and 2. x 2 − 5 x − 14 = ( x − 7)( x + 2) or ( x + 2)( x − 7). Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 Check Point Exercises 1. 32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The possible factors are 1(–7) and –1(7). Find two numbers whose product is –14 and whose sum is –5. Find two numbers whose product is 40 and whose sum is 13. Possible Factors of 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 Sum of Outside and Inside Products (Should Equal 19x) (6 x + 1)( x − 7) −42 x + x = −41x (6 x − 7)( x + 1) 6x − 7x = −x (6 x − 1)( x + 7) 42 x − x = 41x (6 x + 7)( x − 1) −6 x + 7 x = x (3 x + 1)(2 x − 7) −21x + 2 x = −19 x (3 x − 7)(2 x + 1) 3x − 14 x = −11x (3 x − 1)(2 x + 7) 21x − 2 x = 19 x (3 x + 7)(2 x − 1) −3x + 14 x = 11x Thus. a. 5. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (3x − 1)(2 x + 7) or (2 x + 7)(3 x − 1). 10 x3 − 4 x 2 = 2 x 2 (5 x) − 2 x 2 (2) = 2 x 2 (5 x − 2) b. Inc. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is 19x.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Section P. The required integers are 8 and 5. 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = (6 x )(x ) 6 x 2 + 19 x − 7 = ( 3x )( 2 x ) Find two Last terms whose product is –7. 2 x( x − 7) + 3( x − 7) = ( x − 7)(2 x + 3) x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = ( x3 + 5 x 2 ) − (2 x + 10) = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = ( x + 5)( x 2 − 2) 3. Find two First terms whose product is 6 x 2 . Thus. Thus. . 2. x 2 + 13x + 40 = ( x + 5)( x + 8) or ( x + 8)( x + 5) 4.

125 x 3 − 8 = (5 x)3 − 23 = (5 x − 2) ⎡⎣ (5 x)2 + (5 x)(2) + 22 ⎤⎦ = (5 x − 2)(25 x 2 + 10 x + 4) 11. Then use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . a. 3x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) = 3x ( x − 5 ) 2 33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 is a perfect square trinomial. 3x 2 − 13xy + 4 y 2 = (3x )(x ) Find two Last terms whose product is 4 y 2 . check to see if the middle term can be expressed as twice the product of 4x and 7. (−2 y )(−2 y ) . (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) = (9 x 2 + 4) ⎡⎣(3x) 2 − 22 ⎤⎦ = (9 x 2 + 4)(3 x + 2)(3 x − 2) Thus. 16 x 2 − 56 x + 49 = (4 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 x 3 + 1 = x 3 + 13 = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x ⋅ 1 + 12 ) = ( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 1) b. a. Inc. x 2 − 81 = x 2 − 92 = ( x + 9)( x − 9) b. x 2 + 14 x + 49 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 = ( x + 7) 2 b. Express each term as the square of some monomial. = (4 x − 7) 2 . Express 9 x 2 − 4 as the difference of two squares and again use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . Factor out the greatest common factor. factored completely. 3x 2 − 13xy + y 2 = (3x − y )( x − 4 y ) or ( x − 4 y )(3x − y ). 3x 3 − 30 x 2 + 75 x = 3 x ( x 2 − 10 x + 25 ) Factor the perfect square trinomial. a. Try various combinations of these factors to find the factorization in which the sum of the Outside and Inside products is −13xy . 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 + 4)(3x + 2)(3x − 2). Section P. Since 2 ⋅ 4 x ⋅ 7 = 56 x. 8.5 Find two First terms whose product is 3 x 2 . 10. Since 16 x 2 = (4 x) 2 and 49 = 7 2 . 7. (4 y )( y ) . and (−4 y )(− y ) . Thus. 81x 4 − 16 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 42 = (9 x 2 + 4)(9 x 2 − 4) The factor 9 x 2 − 4 is the difference of two squares and can be factored.PreCalculus 4E 6. 36 x 2 − 25 = (6 x) 2 − 52 = (6 x + 5)(6 x − 5) Express 81x 4 − 16 as the difference of two squares and use the formula for factoring A2 − B 2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9. The possible factors are (2 y )(2 y ) .

x(x + 5) + 3(x + 5) = (x + 5)(x + 3) 28. = ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 4 ) = x 2 + 20 x + 100 − 36a 2 = ( x 2 + 20 x + 100 ) − 36a 2 13. 18 x + 27 = 9 ⋅ 2 x + 9 ⋅ 3 = 9(2 x + 3) 2. x 3 − 2 x 2 + 5 x − 10 = x 2 ( x − 2) + 5( x − 2) 32. Inc. x 2 ( x − 3) + 12( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 12) 30. 9 x 2 + 5 x − 4 = (9 x − 4)( x + 1) 33. x 2 – 8x + 15 = (x – 5)(x – 3) 22. x 2 + 8 x + 15 = ( x + 3)( x + 5) 19. x 3 − 3x 2 + 4 x − 12 = x 2 ( x − 3) + 4 ( x − 3) 16. 16x – 24 = 8(2x) + 8(–3) = 8(2x – 3) 3. 9 x 4 − 18 x3 + 27 x 2 2 2 = 9 x 2 ( x 2 ) + 9 x 2 (−2 x) + 9 x 2 (3) = 9 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 3) 6. x 2 – 2x – 15 = (x – 5)(x + 3) 20. x 2 − 4 x − 5 = ( x − 5)( x + 1) 21. 20 x 2 + 27 x − 8 = (5 x + 8)(4 x − 1) Exercise Set P. 4 x − 8 x = 4x(x) + 4x(–2) = 4x(x – 2) 5. Reorder to write as a difference of squares. 15. 3x 2 – 25x – 28 = (3x – 28)(x + 1) 26. 6 x 2 − 17 x + 12 = (2 x − 3)(3x − 4) 8. x 2 − 36a 2 + 20 x + 100 12. x(2x + 1) + 4(2x + 1) = (2x + 1)(x + 4) 29.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 12. 6x 2 –11x + 4 = (2x – 1)(3x – 4) 7.5 1. 3x 2 – x – 2 = (3x + 2)(x – 1) 24. 4 x 2 + 16 x + 15 = (2 x + 3)(2 x + 5) 9. x 2 ( 2 x + 5 ) + 17 ( 2 x + 5) = ( 2 x + 5) ( x 2 + 17 ) 31. 6 x 4 − 18 x 3 + 12 x 2 = 6 x ( x ) + 6 x (−3x) + 6 x (2) 2 2 2 2 = ( x 2 + 5)( x − 2) 34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + 5 x + 6 = ( x + 2)( x + 3) 18. 8 x 2 + 33 x + 4 = (8 x + 1)( x + 4) 10. 3x + 6 x = 3x ⋅ x + 3x ⋅ 2 = 3x ( x + 2) 4. 3x 2 − 2 x − 5 = (3x − 5)( x + 1) = 6 x2 ( x2 − 3x + 2 ) 27. x 2 − 14 x + 45 = ( x − 5)( x − 9) 23. 9 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = (3 x − 1)(3x − 2) 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 = (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 25. = ( x − 1) ⎣⎡ x + ( x − 1) ⎦⎤ ( 2 x − 1) = ( x − 1) 3x 3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x + 4 = x 2 (3x − 2) − 2(3x − 2) = (3x − 2)( x 2 − 2) − 12 − 12 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 2 x − 12 = x 2 ( x + 6 ) − 2 ( x + 6 ) = ( x + 6) ( x2 − 2) 1 + ( x − 1) 2 1− −1 −1 = ( x − 1) 2 ⎡ x + ( x − 1) 2 ( 2 ) ⎤ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ = ( x − 1) x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 2 = x 2 ( x − 1) + 2( x − 1) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 2) = ( x + 10 ) − 36a 2 13. 2 = ( x + 10 + 6a )( x + 10 − 6a ) x ( x − 1) −1 2 14. ( 2 x − 1) x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 5 = x 2 ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 5 ) 1 2 17. .

3x 2 + 4 xy + y 2 = (3x + y )( x + y ) 37. 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 = (2 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 2 x ⋅1 + 12 36. x 2 − 14 x + 49 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 7 + 7 2 64 x3 + 27 = (4 x)3 + 33 = (4 x + 3)(16 x 2 − 12 x + 9) 64. = (4 x + 9)(2 x + 3)(2 x − 3) 2 27 x 3 − 1 = (3x)3 − 13 = (3x − 1)[(3x) 2 + (3 x)(1) + 12 ] = (3x − 1)(9 x 2 + 3 x + 1) 81x 4 − 1 = (9 x 2 ) 2 − 12 = (9 x 2 + 1)(9 x 2 − 1) 63. x 2 − 144 = x 2 − 122 = ( x + 12)( x − 12) 57. 45. 2 x 2 + 3xy + y 2 = (2 x + y )( x + y ) 53. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 x 2 − 7 xy − 5 y 2 = (3 x − 5 y )(2 x + y ) 39.PreCalculus 4E Section P. = (9 x + 1)[(3 x) − 1 ] 2 x 3 − 27 = x 3 − 33 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 48. x 2 + 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅1 + 12 = ( x + 1) 2 50. 8 x 3 + 125 = (2 x)3 + 53 = (2 x + 5)[(2 x)2 − (2 x)(5) + 52 ] = (2 x + 5)(4 x 2 − 10 x + 25) 65. 64 x − 81 = (8 x ) − 9 = (8 x + 9)(8 x − 9) 2 = (2 x + 1) 2 2 2 2 54. x 3 + 27 = x3 + 33 41. x 3 − 64 = x3 − 43 = ( x − 4)( x 2 + x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 46. x 2 − 100 = x 2 − 102 = ( x + 10)( x − 10) 56. 44. Inc. = ( x + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 = ( x − 3)( x 2 + 3 x + 9) x 4 − 1 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 12 = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) 61. = ( x − 4)( x 2 + 4 x + 16) x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 60. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = x 2 − 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 5 + 52 = ( x − 5) 2 35. 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = (5 x) 2 + 2 ⋅ 5 x ⋅1 + 12 = (5 x + 1) 2 55. 8 x 3 − 1 = (2 x)3 − 13 = (2 x − 1)[(2 x) 2 + (2 x)(1) + 12 ] 47.5 34. 36 x 2 − 49 = (6 x) 2 − 7 2 = (6 x + 7)(6 x − 7) 42. 64 x 2 − 16 x + 1 = (8 x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 8 x ⋅1 + 12 = (8 x − 1) 2 40. 9 x 2 − 6 x + 1 = (3x) 2 − 2 ⋅ 3 x ⋅1 + 12 = (3x − 1) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − x ⋅ 3 + 32 ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 3x + 9) 2 58. . 9 x 2 − 25 y 2 = (3 x) 2 − (5 y ) 2 = (3 x + 5 y )(3x − 5 y ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − x ⋅ 4 + 42 ) = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) 36 x 2 − 49 y 2 = (6 x) 2 − (7 y ) 2 = (6 x + 7 y )(6 x − 7 y ) 59. 43. = ( x − 7) 2 3x 3 − 3x = 3x( x 2 − 1) = 3x( x + 1)( x − 1) 35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + 4 x + 4 = x 2 + 2 ⋅ x ⋅ 2 + 22 = ( x + 2) 2 51. 6 x − 5 xy − 6 y = (3x + 2 y )(2 x − 3 y ) 38. 16 x 4 − 81 = (4 x 2 )2 − 92 = (2 x − 1)(4 x 2 + 2 x + 1) = (4 x 2 + 9)(4 x 2 − 9) = (4 x 2 + 9)[(2 x)2 − 32 ] 62. x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 2 2 = (4 x + 3)[(4 x) 2 − (4 x)(3) + 32 ] = (9 x + 1)(3x + 1)(3 x − 1) 2 49. 15 x 2 − 19 x + 6 = (3x − 2)(5 x − 3) 52.

Inc. 6 x 2 − 18 x − 60 = 6( x 2 − 3 x − 10) = 6( x + 2)( x − 5) 69. 2 x 2 − 2 x − 112 = 2( x 2 − x − 56) = 2( x − 8)( x + 7) 74. 9 x3 − 9 x = 9 x( x 2 − 1) = 9 x( x − 1)( x + 1) 77. 6 x 2 − 6 x − 12 = 6( x 2 − x − 2) = 6( x − 2)( x + 1) 75. 78.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 66. 2 x 4 − 162 = 2( x 4 − 81) = 2[( x 2 ) 2 − 92 ] = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 9) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x 2 − 32 ) = 2( x 2 + 9)( x + 3)( x − 3) 70. x 3 + 3x 2 − 25 x − 75 = ( x 3 + 3x 2 ) − (25 x + 75) = x 2 ( x + 3) − 25( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 25)( x + 3) = ( x 2 − 52 )( x + 3) = ( x − 5)( x + 5)( x + 3) 73. . x 2 + 64 is prime. 7 x 4 − 7 = 7( x 4 − 1) = 7[( x 2 ) 2 − 12 ] = 7( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 7( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x − 1) 71. x 3 − 4 x = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x 2 − 22 ) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) 76. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 9 x − 18 = ( x 3 + 2 x 2 ) − (9 x + 18) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 9( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 9)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 32 )( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2) 72. 5 x 3 − 45 x = 5 x( x 2 − 9) = 5 x( x + 3)( x − 3) 67. x 2 + 36 is prime. 4 x 2 − 4 x − 24 = 4( x 2 − x − 6) = 4( x + 2)( x − 3) 68.

x 2 − 12 x + 36 − 49 y 2 = ( x 2 − 12 x + 36 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 ) − 49 y 2 = ( x − 6 + 7 y ) ( x − 6 − 7 y ) 2 86. 48 y 4 − 3 y 2 = 3 y 2 (16 y 2 − 1) = 3 y 2 [(4 y )2 − 12 ] = 3 y 2 (4 y + 1)(4 y − 1) 85. 16a 2 x − 25 y − 25 x + 16a 2 y = (16a 2 x + 16a 2 y ) + ( −25 y − 25 x ) = 16a 2 ( x + y ) − 25 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) (16a 2 − 25 ) = ( x + y )( 4a + 5 )( 4a − 5 ) 89. x 2 y − 16 y + 32 − 2 x 2 = ( x 2 y − 16 y ) + ( −2 x 2 + 32 ) = y ( x 2 − 16 ) − 2 ( x 2 − 16 ) = ( x 2 − 16 ) ( y − 2 ) = ( x + 4 )( x − 4 )( y − 2 ) 90. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x 3 − 98a 2 x + 28 x 2 + 98 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 49a 2 +14 x + 49 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 +14 x + 49 ) − 49a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 7 ) − 49a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 7 − 7a )( x + 7 + 7a ) ⎣ ⎦ 93. 3 1 1 1 ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ x 2 − x 2 = x 2 ⎜ x 2 2 ⎟ − 1 = x 2 ( x − 1) ⎝ ⎠ 37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x 3 − 8a 2 x + 24 x 2 + 72 x 2 = 2 x ( x 2 − 4a 2 + 12 x + 36 ) = 2 x ⎣⎡( x 2 + 12 x + 36 ) − 4a 2 ⎦⎤ = 2 x ⎡( x + 6 ) − 4a 2 ⎤ = 2 x ( x + 6 − 2a )( x + 6 + 2a ) ⎣ ⎦ 92. Section P. y 5 − 16 y = y ( y 4 − 16) = y[( y 2 ) 2 − 42 ] = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 4) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y 2 − 22 ) = y ( y 2 + 4)( y + 2)( y − 2) 83. .PreCalculus 4E 79. Inc. y 5 − 81y = y ( y 4 − 81) = y[( y 2 )2 − 92 ] = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 9) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y 2 − 32 ) = y ( y 2 + 9)( y + 3)( y − 3) 82. x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (− x − 2) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 1)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 12 )( x + 2) = ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x + 2) 81. 20 y 4 − 45 y 2 = 5 y 2 (4 y 2 − 9) = 5 y 2 [(2 y ) 2 − 32 ] = 5 y 2 (2 y + 3)(2 y − 3) 84.5 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 = ( x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−4 x − 8) = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 4)( x + 2) = ( x 2 − 22 )( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)2 80. 12 x 2 y − 27 y − 4 x 2 + 9 = (12 x 2 y − 27 y ) + ( −4 x 2 + 9 ) = 3 y ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) − 1( 4 x 2 − 9 ) = ( 4 x 2 − 9 ) ( 3 y − 1) = ( 2 x + 3)( 2 x − 3)( 3 y − 1) 91. x 2 − 10 x + 25 − 36 y 2 = ( x 2 − 10 x + 25) − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5)2 − 36 y 2 = ( x − 5 + 6 y )( x − 5 − 6 y ) 87. 9b 2 x − 16 y − 16 x + 9b 2 y = ( 9b 2 x + 9b 2 y ) + ( −16 x − 16 y ) = 9b 2 ( x + y ) − 16 ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) ( 9b 2 − 16 ) = ( x + y )( 3b + 4 )( 3b − 4 ) 88.

−8 ( 4 x + 3) + 10 ( 5 x + 1) (4 x + 3)−1 = 2 ( 4 x + 3) ⎣⎡ −4 + 5 ( 5 x + 1)( 4 x + 3) ⎦⎤ = −2 −2 2(100 x 2 + 95 x + 11) (4 x + 3) 2 103. 3 x4 95. 12 x − 3 4 1 x4 = 1⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 3−1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ x 4 4 − 1⎟ = x 4 ⎜ x 2 − 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 8x 3 = 4 x 1 ⎛ 2⎞ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 32 ⎛ −2 4 (1 + 2 x ) ⎜1 + 2 x 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎟ = 4 x 3 (1 + 2 x ) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ x3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 + 6x 4 = 6x − 3 4 1 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 ⎛ −⎜ − ⎟ ⎞ − 6( x + 2) ⎜ 2 + x 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎟ = 6x 4 (2 + x ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ x4 97. ( 99. 7 x 4 + 34 x 2 − 5 = ( 7 x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 5 ) 3 107. ( 4 x − 1) 2 − 1 ⎡ 1 ⎤ 2 ⎢⎣1 − 3 ( 4 x − 1) ⎥⎦ = ( 4 x − 1) 1⎤ ⎡ 4 ⎢⎣1 − 3 x + 3 ⎥⎦ 1 −4(4 x − 1) 2 ( x − 1) 4 ⎛4 4 ⎞ = ( 4 x − 1) ⎜ − x ⎟ = (4 x − 1) 2 (1 − x) = 3 3 ⎝3 3 ⎠ 1 1 2 102. ( x + 3) 2 − ( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3) 2 ⎡⎢1 − ( x + 3) 2 98. 6 x 4 + 35 x 2 − 6 = ( x 2 + 6 )( 6 x 2 − 1) 106. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . (x 1 1 3 3 1 − 2 ⎣ x2 + 4 2 3 2 ) ( − 12 + 3) + x2 + 4 − ( x + 5) −2 3 7 2 ) ( − 32 + ( x 2 + 3) = x2 + 4 = ( x + 5) −5 3 ) 3 2 1 1 ⎤ 2 ⎡1 − ( x + 3) ⎤ = ( x + 3) 2 ( − x − 2 ) = −( x + 3) 2 ( x + 2) = x + 3 ( ) ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎢1 + x 2 + 4 ⎢ ⎣ ( 1 ) 7−3 ⎤ 2 2⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ( = x2 + 4 ) 3 2 ) ( 2⎤ ⎡ 2 2 ⎢1 + x + 4 ⎥ = x + 4 ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ( 3 2 ) ( x4 + 8x2 + 17) 1 ⎛ 3⎞ x+4 − 32 ⎡ − −⎜ − ⎟ ⎤ −3 −3 3 ⎢( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − 1⎥ = ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎣⎡( x + 5 ) − 1⎦⎤ = ( x + 5) 2 ( x + 4 ) = ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) 2 = ( x 2 + 3) 5 −5 ⎡ 2 − 2 −⎛⎜ − 5 ⎞⎟ ⎤ x2 + 4 3 ⎢( x + 3) 3 ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ + 1⎥ = ( x 2 + 3)− 3 ⎡( x 2 + 3) + 1⎤ = 5 ⎣ ⎦ ( x 2 + 3) 3 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 1 3 1 ( 4 x − 1) 2 3 1 3 1 1 − ⎤ ⎡ 1 = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎢1 − ( 4 x − 1) 2 2 ⎥ = ( 4 x − 1) 2 ⎣ 3 ⎦ 101. y 7 + y = y ( y 6 + 1) = y ⎡⎢( y 2 ) + 13 ⎤⎥ = y ( y 2 + 1)( y 4 − y 2 + 1) ⎣ ⎦ 38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. ( x + 5) 100. 10 x 2 ( x + 1) − 7 x ( x + 1) − 6 ( x + 1) = ( x + 1) (10 x 2 − 7 x − 6 ) = ( x + 1)( 5 x − 6 )( 2 x + 1) 104. 4x 1 − x4 − 23 96. Inc. 12 x 2 ( x − 1) − 4 x ( x − 1) − 5 ( x − 1) = ( x − 1) (12 x 2 − 4 x − 5 ) = ( x − 1)( 6 x − 5 )( 2 x + 1) 105.

49 x No. 2 ) − 100 = ( x + y )2 ( x + y − 10 ) ( x + y + 10 ) 2 114.4 x ) = ( x − 0.36 x No. a. ( x + y ) 4 − 100( x + y ) 2 = ( x + y ) )( x − 3 y ) ( )( x + y ) 116. ( 3x ) 2 − 4 ⋅ 22 = 9 x 2 − 16 9 x 2 − 16 = ( 3x + 4 ) ( 3 x − 4 ) (7x) 2 − 4 ⋅ 32 = 49 x 2 − 36 49 x 2 − 36 = ( 7 x + 6 ) ( 7 x − 6 ) x ( x + y) − y ( x + y) x ( x + y ) − y ( x + y ) = ( x + y )( x − y ) x 2 + xy + xy + y 2 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 = ( x + y ) 2 39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 ) = 0.3 ( x − 0.6 ) = 0. 2 x 2 − 7 xy 2 + 3 y 4 = 2 x − y 2 115.4 x ) − 0. 120. ( y + 1) 3 Section P. a.4 ) = ( 0. b. a. the computer is selling at 49% of its original price. 2 )( x ) − y 2 = ( x + 2 y )( x − 2 y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 ) − y 2 = ( x + 3 y )( x − 3 y )( x + y )( x − y ) ( x − y )4 − 4 ( x − y )2 2 2 2 = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y )2 − 4 ) = ( x − y ) ( ( x − y ) + 2 ) ( ( x − y ) − 2 ) = ( x − y ) ( x − y + 2 ) ( x − y − 2 ) 112. b. a.6 x )( 0. 118.4 x )(1 − 0. ( ( x + y) ( 113.5 + 1 = ( y + 1) + 13 = ⎡⎣( y + 1) + 1⎤⎦ ⎡( y + 1) − ( y + 1) + 1⎤ = ( y + 2 ) ⎡⎣( y 2 + 2 y + 1) − y − 1 + 1⎤⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 3 2 = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + 2 y + 1 − y − 1 + 1) = ( y + 2 ) ( y 2 + y + 1) ( 109.4 ( x − 0. a.PreCalculus 4E 108. 117.3x ) = ( x − 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 3x 2 + 5 xy 2 + 2 y 4 = 3 x + 2 y 2 b.7 x ) ( 0. b. x 4 − 5 x 2 y 2 + 4 y 4 = x 2 − 4 y 2 )( x ( 110. x 4 − 10 x 2 y 2 + 9 y 4 = x 2 − 9 y 2 111. ( x − 0.3) = ( 0. Inc. b.3x ) − 0. 119. 2 2 ( x − 0. . b. the computer is selling at 36% of its original price.3x ) (1 − 0.

Changes to make the statement true will vary. Answers may vary. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. – 129. A sample change is: x 3 − 64 = ( x − 4 )( x + 4 x + 16 ) 138. makes sense 134. false. true 136. A sample change is: The binomial x 2 + 36 is prime. 130. does not make sense. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 3a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 3a = 3a3 − 3ab 2 ( = 3a a 2 − b2 ) = 3a ( a + b )( a − b ) 123. makes sense 132. false. makes sense 131. Vshaded = Voutside − Vinside = a ⋅ a ⋅ 4a − b ⋅ b ⋅ 4a = 4a3 − 4ab 2 = 4a ( a 2 − b 2 ) = 4a ( a + b )( a − b ) 122.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. Changes to make the statement true will vary. − x 2 − 4 x + 5 = −1( x 2 + 4 x − 5 ) = −1( x + 5 )( x − 1) = − ( x + 5)( x − 1) 140. . A sample change is: x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 135. Sample explanation: 4 x 2 − 100 = 4( x 2 − 25) = 4( x + 5)( x − 5) 133. x 4 − y 4 − 2 x3 y + 2 xy3 = ( x 4 − y 4 ) + ( −2 x 3 y + 2 xy 3 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) − 2 xy ( x 2 − y 2 ) = ( x 2 − y 2 )( x 2 + y 2 − 2 xy ) = ( x − y )( x + y ) ( x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 ) = ( x − y )( x + y )( x − y ) 2 3 = ( x − y) ( x + y) 40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. false. 137. x 2 n + 6 x n + 8 = ( x n + 4 )( x n + 2 ) 139.

7 x + 3[9 − (2 x − 6)] = 7 x + 3[ 9 − 2 x + 6] = 7 x + 3 [15 − 2 x ] = 7 x + 45 − 6 x = x + 45 6. 4. Mid-Chapter P Check Point −1 ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5) − 12 1 − ( x + 5) 2 ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) − 32 = ( x − 5) ( x + 5) −3 ⎛ ⎞ 1 −⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞⎟ ⎤ − 12 ⎡ − 1 − ⎜⎜ − 3 ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢( x − 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − ( x + 5 ) 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( x + 5) −1 ⎡⎣( x − 5) − ( x + 5 ) ⎤⎦ −10 −3 −1 = ( x − 5 ) 2 ( x + 5 ) 2 ( −10 ) = 3 1 ( x − 5) 2 ( x + 5) 2 2 2 142. b =16. 144. 3 12 − 27 = 3 ⋅ 2 3 − 3 3 = 6 3 − 3 3 = 3 3 5. 2 1 ( 5 32 ) 2 = 1− 1 ( 2) 2 = 1− 1 3 = 4 4 (2 x − 5) − ( x 2 − 3x + 1) = 2 x − 5 − x 2 + 3x − 1 = − x 2 + 5 x − 6 41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 141. 8 or –8 143. where c > 0 is an integer. (3 x + 5) − (4 x − 7) = 3x + 5 − 4 x + 7 = 3x − 4 x + 5 + 7 = − x + 12 6 + 9 6 = 10 6 4. x 2 + bx + 15 . 3. b = 0. 1 1 ⋅ 6 − ⋅6 ⎛ 31 − 12 ⎞ x2 2 −3 ⎜ x y ⎟ = x3 y 2 = x y = 3 y ⎝ ⎠ 8. – 16. (8 x − 3) 2 = (8 x)2 − 2(8 x)(3) + (3) 2 = 64 x 2 − 48 x + 9 7. or –c(c + 4). Publishing as Prentice Hall. − ⎛2⎞ 5 ⎜ 7 ⎟ − 32 = 1 − ⎝ ⎠ 6 0 9. . 1 2 3 4 7 + = + = 2 3 6 6 6 Mid-Chapter P Check Point 1. 5 8 5 4⋅2 1 2 2 ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅ = 4 15 4 5 ⋅ 3 1 3 3 146. x 2 + 6 x + 5 ( x + 5)( x + 1) x + 1 = = x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) x − 5 145. 3. (3 x + 5)(4 x − 7) = (3x)(4 x) + (3 x)(−7) + (5)(4 x) + (5)(−7) = 12 x 2 − 21x + 20 x − 35 = 12 x 2 − x − 35 2.

f . . d . h} = {c. d . e} ∩ {c.2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. 23.2 ×10−2 2 ×106 2 106 ( 3 22. (9a − 10b)(2a + b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a )(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = (9a)(2a) + (9a)(b) + (−10b)(2a) + (−10b)(b) = 18a 2 + 9ab − 20ab − 10b 2 = 18a 2 − 11ab − 10b 2 13. Publishing as Prentice Hall. [ 4 y − (3x + 2)][ 4 y + (3x + 2)] = (4 y)2 − (3x + 2)2 = 16 y 2 − (9 x 2 + 12 x + 4) = 16 y 2 − 9 x 2 − 12 x − 4 20. {a. c. 6 y3 ⎛ 1 −5 4 ⎞ −2 −1 −5 − 2 4 −1 ⎜ 3 x y ⎟ 18 x y = 6 x y = x 7 ⎝ ⎠ ( ) 1 4 18. c. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x( x 2 − 3x + 1) − 5( x 2 − 3 x + 1) = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 + 2 x − 5 x 2 + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x 2 + 2 x + 15 x − 5 = 2 x3 − 11x 2 + 17 x − 5 11. d } 15. d . f . e} ∪ {c. h} 14. {a. f . 24 × 103 24 103 = ⋅ = 12 ×10−3 = 1. d . e. ( x − 2 y − 1) 2 = x ( x − 2 y − 1) − 2 y ( x − 2 y − 1) − ( x − 2 y − 1) = x 2 − 2 xy − x − 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 2 y − x + 2 y + 1 = x 2 − 4 xy + 4 y 2 − 2 x + 4 y + 1 21. 24 x 2 y13 12 y15 2 − 5 13 − ( −2) −3 15 12 12 = − = − = − x y x y x3 −2 x 5 y −2 17. 12 x 4 = x 12 = x 3 = 3 x 19.2 × 101 × 10−3 = 1. d . Inc. c. h} = {a.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. ( 3x 2 ) ( ) y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 − −2 x 2 y 3 − 3xy + 5 y 2 = 3x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 − xy + 4 y 2 + 2 x 2 y 3 + 3 xy − 5 y 2 = 3 x 2 y 3 + 2 x 2 y 3 − xy + 3xy + 4 y 2 − 5 y 2 = 5 x 2 y 3 + 2 xy − y 2 16. 3 32 2 = 3 ) ( ) 32 3 = 16 = 3 24 = 2 3 2 2 ( x 3 + 2)( x 3 − 2) = x 6 − 4 42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 3 + x3 − x3 ⋅ x 3 = 2 x3 − x 6 = − x 6 + 2 x 3 12.

30. 7 x 2 − 22 x + 3 = ( 7 x − 1)( x − 3) 29. 0. Thus x 2 x = − x 2 x = − x3 40. 7 ⎩ − 1 2 ( 1 2 ) ( = x2 + 1 − ) ( 1 2 ) (x ⎡ x 2 + 1 − 10 ⎤ = x 2 + 1 ⎣ ⎦ − 2 x +3 x −3 ) ( )( ) ( x + 1) −9 = 2 1 2 ⎫ 25 ⎬ ⎭ 38. 27. Mid-Chapter P Check Point 11 11 3 = 11 7 + 3 77 + 11 3 77 + 11 3 ⋅ = = 49 − 3 46 7− 3 7+ 3 = 7− 3 11 ⋅ 3 3 3 = 11 3 3 28. Publishing as Prentice Hall.45.PreCalculus 4E 24. x 3 + 5 x 2 + 3x + 15 = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = x 2 ( x + 5) + 3( x + 5) = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 5) 31. x 2 − 2 x + 4 is prime. 26. x ( ) ( ( ) ) 2 2 − 3 2 − 2x − 1 2 1 + x2 = x 3 2 − (1 − 2 x + x ) = ( 1 − x) 2 2 3 x2 36. 140 ⋅ 3. x 2 − 6 x + 9 − 49 y 2 = ( x − 3) − 49 y 2 = ⎡⎣( x − 3) + 7 y ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣( x − 3) − 7 y ⎤⎦ = ( x − 3 + 7 y )( x − 3 − 7 y ) 35. ( x 2 + 2) 2 = ( x 2 ) 2 + 2( x 2 )(2) + (2) 2 = x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4 50 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 2 ⋅ 6 = 5 12 = 5 ⋅ 2 3 = 10 3 25.0 × 108 = 420 × 108 = 4. 3 × 1010 3 1010 = ⋅ = 0. Since x < 0 then x = − x .4 ×10 = 4 7. . 43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 64 y − y 4 = y 64 − y 3 = y ( 4 − y ) 16 + 4 y + y 2 33.5 109 A human brain has 4 times as many neurons as a gorilla brain.2 × 10 2 × 108 = 4.2 × 1010 The total annual spending on ice cream is $4. − . 50 x 3 + 20 x 2 + 2 x = 2 x 25 x 2 + 10 x + 1 = 2 x ( 5 x + 1) 34. 37. Inc.5 ×109 7. 0. ( ) x2 + 1 1 2 ( ) − 10 x 2 + 1 3 ⎧ ⎨ −11.2 × 1010 41. 3x 2 − 4 xy − 7 y 2 = ( 3x − 7 y )( x + y ) 32. Since 2 − 13 < 0 then 2 − 13 = 13 − 2 39.

x ≠ −3 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x2 −1 = 2 x + 2 x + 1 ( x + 1)( x + 1) x −1 = . . x 2 − 36 = ( x + 6)( x − 6) The denominator would equal zero if x = −6 or x = 6. x − 2. a.8(10) + 64 N = 132 Model 1 predicts there will be 132 channels in 2010.8 x + 64 N = 6.5(0) 2 + 9. so –6 and 6 must both must be excluded from the domain. x ≠ −1 Because the denominator has factors of x + 2. and x + 3.8 x + 64 N = 6. 44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. b. a. x ≠ 2.8(0) + 64 N = 64 Model 2: N = −0. The denominator would equal zero if x = −5.5 x + 62 N = −0.5(0) + 62 N = 62 Model 2 best describes the data in 2000. x ≠ −2. x ≠ −3 ( x − 2)( x + 3) Because the denominator is x + 3. x ≠ −2. Model 1: N = 6. x ≠ −1 x +1 x + 3 x2 − x − 6 ⋅ x2 − 4 x2 + 6x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 2) x+3 = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 2) = ⋅ ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 3) x−3 = . Section P. x ≠ −3 Because the denominator is ( x + 1)( x + 1) .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 42. N = −0. x3 + 3x 2 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 x+3 x 2 ( x + 3) = x+3 = x 2 . x ≠ 2. b.5 x 2 + 9.5 x 2 + 9.5(6) + 62 N = 101 Model 2 underestimates the number of channels in 2006 by 3. 3. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so –5 must be excluded from the domain.5(6) 2 + 9. a. and x ≠ −3. c.6 Check Point Exercises 1.5 x + 62 N = −0. b. N = 6.

x ≠ −1 and x ≠ 1. x 2 − 10 x + 25 = ( x − 5) 2 2 x − 10 = 2( x − 5) The least common denominator is 2(x – 5)(x – 5). x ≠ 4 + 3x 3 4x 2 − 3x 4 + 3 x = ÷ 2x 4x 2 − 3x 4 x = ⋅ 2 x 4 + 3x 2 − 3x 4 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 2 2 − 3x 2 = ⋅ 4 + 3x 1 2(2 − 3x) −4 . x≠5 2( x − 5) 2 1−3 2 − 3x x 2 = 2x 2x . 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7. x ≠ −1 Add numerators.6 8. x − 3 Add any unlisted factors from the second denominator. putting this sum over the least common denominator. x ≠ 0 and x ≠ = 4 + 3x 3 45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 9. Inc. x ≠ 0 1+3 4 + 3x x 4 4x 4x 2 − 3x −4 = 2x . x x−4 − 2 x − 10 x + 25 2 x − 10 x x−4 = − ( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5) 2x ( x − 4)( x − 5) = − 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) x 3x + 2 x − 3x − 2 − = x +1 x +1 x +1 −2 x − 2 = x +1 −2 ( x + 1) = x +1 = −2. Write all rational expressions in terms of the least common denominator. x + 3 The least common denominator is the product of all factors in the final list. 2 x − ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 2( x − 5)( x − 5) 3 5 + x + 1 x −1 3x( x − 1) + 5( x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3x − 3 + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 8x + 2 = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) = ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2(4 x + 1) . 6. x ≠ 0. ( x − 3)( x − 3)( x + 3) or ( x − 3)2 ( x + 3) is the least common denominator. x − 3. x 2 − 6 x + 9 = ( x − 3) 2 x 2 − 9 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) List the factors of the first denominator. x − 3. Section P. = 2 x − ( x 2 − 5 x − 4 x + 20) 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = 2 x − x 2 + 5 x + 4 x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 2( x − 5)( x − 5) = − x 2 + 11x − 20 . x ≠ 1 x( x + 2) Find the least common denominator. x − 3. x ≠ −2. x2 − 2x + 1 x2 + x − 2 ÷ 3x2 + 3 x3 + x 2 x − 2 x + 1 3x 2 + 3 = ⋅ 2 x3 + x x +x−2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) 3( x 2 + 1) = ⋅ x( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2)( x − 1) 3( x − 1) = .PreCalculus 4E 4. . Factor each denominator completely.

3 ( x − 3) 3x − 9 = x − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x − 3) x 2 3 . 13 . = = 4 x − 24 4 ( x − 6) 4 2 x≠6 x +1 3/ 2 10.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 1 1 . x ≠ 2. –7 2 x − 49 ( x + 7)( x − 7) 5. –10 x + 11x + 10 ( x + 1)( x + 10) 16. = x+7 x ≠ 7. –5 2 x − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) 4. x−3 x −3 = . x ≠ –1. ) y 2 − 4 y − 5 ( y − 5 )( y + 1) y − 5 . 2 2 ) 12. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 x+3 + x Exercise Set P. and 7 by x+7 x the least common denominator of x( x + 7). x ≠ 5. x 2 − 12 x + 36 ( x − 6 )( x − 6 ) x − 6 . x ≠ −7 =− x( x + 7) x+ 11. x ≠ −9. y 2 + 7 y − 18 ( y + 9 )( y − 2 ) y + 9 . x+5 x+5 = . x≠2 = = x − 4 x + 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 2 ) x − 2 9. 5 x + 4 x − 45 ( x + 9)( x − 5) 2 = x+3 − x 3 x+3 − x x+3 + x = ⋅ 3 x+3 ⋅ x 2 6. − 2 46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –6 ( x − 7) 2 x 2 − 14 x + 49 14. x ≠ 0. 2 x − 2 2x + 6 x − 2 2( x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x + 9 2 x − 4 3( x + 3) 2( x − 2) 2 1 = = . x+7 x+7 = . –7 13. = = y 2 − 3 y + 2 ( y − 2 )( y − 1) y − 1 y ≠ 1. 10. 2. x≠4 = = 3x − 12 3( x − 4) 3 11. Multiply each of the three terms. x+ 1 x x = 1 x x x x = = = = ( x+3 3 3 ( ( ) − ( x) x+3 + x x + 3− x x+3 + x 7. 1 1 x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − x( x + 7) ⎛ 1 ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x+7⎠ ⎝ x⎠ x+7 x = 7 7 x( x + 7) x − ( x + 7) = 7 x( x + 7) −7 = 7 x( x + 7) 1 .x≠3 x −3 8. x 2 − 8 x + 16 ( x − 4 )( x − 4 ) x − 4 . Inc. x −1 x −1 = . x ≠ 7. .x≠3 x−3 15. x ≠ −9 x+9 3. −3 6 3 x−5 6 x + 9 x − 5 3(2 x + 3) ⋅ = ⋅ 3 x − 15 4 x + 6 3( x − 5) 2(2 x + 3) 3 = 6 1 = . 7 . –1 = = y 2 + 5 y + 4 ( y + 4 )( y + 1) y + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 36 ( x + 6) 2 x+6 = = .6 1. y ≠ –4. 2 ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x − 36 x ≠ 6. 12. 4 ( x − 2) 4x − 8 4 . 2 3 x ≠ 5. = ( x − 7)( x + 7) x 2 − 49 x−7 .

x ≠ 3. x 2 − 9 x 2 − 3x ⋅ 2 x2 x + x − 12 x( x − 3) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ 2 ( x + 4)( x − 3) x ( x − 3)( x + 3) = . x ≠ 0. –2. 22. −4. = ⋅ = ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) x − 2 27. x 2 − 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x+2 ÷ = ÷ x − 2 4x − 8 x−2 4( x − 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) 4( x − 2) = ⋅ x−2 x+2 = 4( x − 2). 3 21. x ≠ 1. –3 29. –1. x −1 . 3 x+2 x2 + 5x + 6 x 2 − 9 ⋅ x2 + x − 6 x2 − x − 6 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x − 3)( x + 3) x + 3 . 2. 19. x ≠ 0. 28 x ≠ –5 2 25. x 2 − 25 x 2 + 10 x + 25 ÷ 2 2x − 2 x + 4x − 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)2 = ÷ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5)( x − 1) ( x − 5)( x + 5) ( x + 5)( x − 1) = ⋅ 2( x − 1) ( x + 5) 2 x −5 = . 2 x 2 = 20. –1. x ≠ –2. 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 1. −2. –2 x2 − 5x + 6 x2 − 1 ⋅ x2 − 2x − 3 x2 − 4 ( x − 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 1) ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 26. .3 x( x + 4) 24. − 3 = 3 x2 + 2 x + 4 . 4 x 2 + 10 6 x 2 + 15 ÷ 2 x −3 x −9 2 2(2 x + 5) 3(2 x 2 + 5) = ÷ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x−3 2(2 x 2 + 5) ( x − 3)( x + 3) ⋅ 3(2 x 2 + 5) x−3 2( x + 3) . 0. x2 − 4 2 x − 4 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2( x − 2) ⋅ = ⋅ x − 4x + 4 x + 2 ( x − 2)2 x+2 = 2. x2 + x x2 − 1 ÷ 2 2 x − 4 x + 5x + 6 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 1) = ÷ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) ( x + 2)( x + 3) x( x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x − 1)( x + 1) x( x + 3) . 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 x + 9 ) x + 3 x − 3 x + 9 x ≠ –3 23. x ≠ –3. = ( x − 2)( x − 1) x ≠ 2. x ≠ 2. –5 2 x2 + 6 x + 9 1 ⋅ x 3 + 27 x + 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) 1 1 = ⋅ = 2 . x ≠ 2. x ≠ –2. x ≠ −1 9 47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –2 = 2 x3 − 8 x + 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 2 x + 4 ) x + 2 = ⋅ ⋅ 3x x 2 − 4 3x ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) = x + 5 4 x + 20 x + 5 4( x + 5) ÷ = ÷ 7 9 7 9 x+5 9 = ⋅ 7 4( x + 5) 9 = . Section P. 2. 2 3x 28.PreCalculus 4E 17. –2.6 x + 1 3x + 3 x + 1 3( x + 1) ÷ = ÷ 3 7 3 7 x +1 7 = ⋅ 3 3( x + 1) 7 = . x − 4 ÷ x + 2 = ( x − 2)( x + 2) ⋅ x − 2 x x−2 x x+2 2 ( x − 2) = .

–2. –1.1. 5 32. x ≠ − 6x + 5 6 38. x −4 x + 5x + 6 ÷ x + 3 x − 10 x 2 + 8 x + 15 ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) = ÷ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 3)( x + 5) = ⋅ ( x + 5)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x + 3) =1 x ≠ 2. 5. x + x − 12 x + 5 x + 6 x+3 ⋅ ÷ x 2 + x − 30 x 2 − 2 x − 3 x 2 + 7 x + 6 ( x + 4 )( x − 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x + 6 )( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ x+3 ( x + 6 )( x − 5 ) ( x + 1)( x − 3) 36. 3 4 x − 10 x − 4 4 x − 10 − ( x − 4) − = x−2 x−2 x−2 4 x − 10 − x + 4 = x−2 3x − 6 = x−2 3( x − 2) = x−2 = 3. . 4x + 1 8x + 9 4x + 1 + 8x + 9 + = 6x + 5 6x + 5 6x + 5 12 x + 10 = 6x + 5 2(6 x + 5) 5 = = 2. –5 35. x−3 x ≠ –2. x3 − 25 x 2 x 2 − 2 x2 + 5x ⋅ 2 ÷ 2 4x x − 6x + 5 7x + 7 x ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) 7 ( x + 1) = ⋅ ⋅ 4 x2 ( x − 1)( x − 5 ) x ( x + 5) = 7 ( x + 1) 37. 34. 3 x + 2 3x + 6 3 x + 2 + 3 x + 6 + = 3x + 4 3x + 4 3x + 4 6x + 8 = 3x + 4 2(3x + 4) = 3x + 4 =2 4 x≠− 3 x2 − 2 x x2 + x x2 − 2 x + x2 + x + = x 2 + 3 x x 2 + 3x x 2 + 3x 2 2x − x = 2 x + 3x x(2 x − 1) = x( x + 3) 2x −1 . x ≠ 2 2 x + 3 3 − x 2 x + 3 − (3 − x) − = 3x − 6 3x − 6 3x − 6 2x + 3 − 3 + x = 3x − 6 3x = 3( x − 2) x = . –3. −5 33. 2 2 2 2 31.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 30. = 2 ( x + 4 )( x + 2 ) x−5 x ≠ –6. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3 = x+3 4x − 4 x2 − 4x x2 − 4 x + 4 x − 4 + = x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − x − 6 x2 − 4 = ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( x − 2)( x + 2) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 = . 3. –3. 2 2 x2 x ≠ 0. x−2 x≠2 48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ 0. −1.

x ≠ –5. x ( − 2 )( x − 3) x+5 x−5 + x −5 x +5 ( x + 5 )( x + 5 ) + ( x − 5 )( x − 5 ) = ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + x 2 − 10 x + 25 ( x − 5)( x + 5) = 2 x 2 + 50 . 47. 5 ( x − 5)( x + 5 ) 49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 = x+2 45. x ≠ −2. ( x − 3)( x + 2) 2 41.6 x 2 + 3x x 2 − 12 − x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + x − 12 x 2 + 3 x − ( x 2 − 12) = x 2 + x − 12 2 x + 3 x − x 2 + 12 = x 2 + x − 12 3x + 12 = 2 x + x − 12 3( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 3) 3 = . x ≠ 3. –5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) 8 ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 2 ) 8 2 + = x−2 x−3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x ≠ 2. 0 x2 − 4 x x−6 − 2 2 x − x−6 x − x−6 x 2 − 4 x − ( x − 6) = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 4x − x + 6 = x2 − x − 6 2 x − 5x + 6 = 2 x − x−6 ( x − 2)( x − 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 2) x−2 . 46. = 4 x + 12 − 3 x x ( x + 3) = x + 12 x ( x + 3) 2x x + 2 2 x ( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 )( x + 2 ) + = x+2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 2x2 − 4 x + x2 + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 3x2 + 4 . 3 = 8 x − 24 + 2 x − 4 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) = 10 x − 28 . x ≠ –4. 3x − 3x − 3 3 . x ≠ –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 40. −4 x−3 43.PreCalculus 4E 39. x ≠ –1. 3 3 3x − 3 ( x + 1) − = x ( x + 1) x +1 x = 44. 0 =− x ( x + 1) x ( x + 1) 4 ( x + 3) − 3 x 4 3 − = x x+3 x ( x + 3) x ≠ –3. Inc. = 3 ( x + 5) + 6 ( x + 4) 3 6 + = x+4 x+5 ( x + 4 )( x + 5 ) x ≠ 3. 9 x + 39 . 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 3x x + 4 3x ( x + 2 ) − ( x + 4 )( x − 3) − = x−3 x +2 ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) = 3x 2 + 6 x − ( x 2 + x − 12 ) ( x − 3)( x + 2 ) 2 x + 5 x + 12 . . Section P. –2 3x + 15 + 6 x + 24 = ( x + 4 )( x + 5) = 42.

Inc. x+3 x+2 − x2 − 1 x − 1 x+3 x+2 = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) x − 1 x+3 ( x + 1)( x + 2) = − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x+3 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x + 3 − x 2 − 3x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) −x2 − 2x + 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) x ≠ 1. –4 4 x + 16 ( x + 3) = =− 4 4 4 4 + = + 2 x + 6 x + 9 x + 3 ( x + 3) x+3 = ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = 2 2 3 x ( x + 3) − 2 x ( x + 5 ) = 5 7 5 7 + = + 2 x + 8 3x + 12 2( x + 4) 3( x + 4) 15 14 = + 6( x + 4) 6( x + 4) 15 + 14 = 6( x + 4) 29 = 6( x + 4) x ≠ –4 4 + 4 ( x + 3) 3x 2x − 2 x + 3x − 10 x + x − 6 3x 2x = − ( x + 5 )( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 2 = 3 2 3 2 + = + 2 x + 4 3x + 6 2( x + 2) 3( x + 2) 9 4 = + 6( x + 2) 6( x + 2) 9+4 = 6( x + 2) 13 = 6( x + 2) x ≠ –2 = 52.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 1. = 53. x ≠ –5. . 3 49. 5 5 50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 + 6 x + 9 + x2 − 6 x + 9 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 2 x 2 + 18 . –1 = 3 ( 5x − 2) + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 15 x − 6 + 5 x ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 20 x − 6 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x + 3 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x + 3) + ( x − 3)( x − 3) + = x−3 x+3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) x ≠ –3. 2 . 3 5x 3 5x + = + 2 5 x + 2 25 x − 4 5 x + 2 ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) = = = 3x 2 + 9 x − 2 x 2 − 10 x ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) = x2 − x . –3 ( x + 5 )( x − 2 )( x + 3) x x − 2 x − 2 x − 24 x − 7 x + 6 x x = − ( x − 6 )( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x − 1) 2 x ( x − 1) − x ( x + 4 ) ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) x2 − x − x2 − 4 x ( x − 6 )( x + 4 )( x − 1) 5x . 50. 6 x x − ( )( − 1)( x + 4 ) x ≠ 6. ( x + 3) x ≠ –3 4 + 4 x + 12 ( x + 3) 2 = 55. 2. ( 5 x − 2 )( 5 x + 2 ) 2 2 x≠− . 51. ( x − 3)( x + 3) 54.

4 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 ) 4 ⎡⎢ x − 1⎤⎥ ⎣4 ⎦ = x − 4 = 1 . x ≠ –2.6 x + 5 x +1 − x2 − 4 x − 2 x+5 x +1 = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 x+5 ( x + 2)( x + 1) = − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x+5 x 2 + 3x + 2 − ( x + 2)( x − 2) ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x + 5 − x − 3x − 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) 2 − x2 − 2 x + 3 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x ≠ 2. − 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) x + 1 51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ⎡1 + 1 ⎤ 1+ 1 x = ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ = x + 1 . –3 x+3 ( x − 2 ) [ x − 3] ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x−3 = = 3 ⎤ x ( x − 2) − 3 ⎡ x− 3 x − 2 ( x − 2) ⎢ x − x − 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ − − x x 2 3 ( )( ) = 2 x − 2x − 3 ( x − 2 )( x − 3) x − 2 = = . 1 3 3 − 1 x ⎡3 − 1 ⎤ 3 x − 1 ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ x 62. 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 + 3 ( x + 5) − 5 x ( x − 4 ) ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = 6 x + 17 x − 40 + 3x + 15 − 5 x 2 + 20 x ( x + 5)( x − 4 ) = x 2 + 40 x − 25 . = ⎣ x+ y xy [ x + y ] xy ( x + y ) xy 64. x ≠ –y 4 x 2 + x − 6 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 5 x + 5 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = x 3 2 x 2 + 3x − x x2 + 2 x = ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) x ( x + 2) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x . 3. ⎡x ⎤ − 1 3 ⎢⎣ 3 − 1⎥⎦ x −3 1 = = = . −1 x+2 = 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x + − x 2 + x − 20 x−4 x+5 6 x 2 + 17 x − 40 3 5x = + − 5 4 4 x x x x + − − +5 ( )( ) = 66.PreCalculus 4E 56. x2 −1 ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x − 1)( x + 1) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎡ ⎤ 1+1 xy ⎢ 1 + 1 ⎥ x y x y ⎦ = y+x = 1 . 1 − 1 x ⎡⎢1 − 1 ⎤⎥ x − 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . Inc. x ≠ −5. 8 + 1 x ⎡⎢8 + 1 ⎤⎥ 8 x + 1 1 x = ⎣ x⎦ = . y ≠ 0. Section P. x −1 4 = x−4 61. –2 59. x ≠ 2. x ≠ 0. ( x + 3) ⎡⎢⎣ x − x +x 3 ⎤⎥⎦ x ( x + 3) − x x− x x+3 = = x+2 ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) ( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = x −1 . x ≠ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ 4 4 ( x − 4) 4 ( x − 4) 4 x ≠ 0. . 5 ( x + 1) −3 x ( x + 2 ) 4 x2 + x − 5 + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) = = 58. 1 4 4− x ⎡⎢ 4 − 1 ⎤⎥ 4 x − 1 x x⎦ ⎣ = 57. y ≠ 0 xy x ( xy ) x2 y 65. x≠3 x − 3 3[ x − 3] 3 ( x − 3) 3 60. x ≠ −2. 4 x2 + x − 6 3x 5 − + 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 1 x + 2 4 x2 + x − 6 −3 x 5 = + + ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) x + 1 x + 2 = 63. x ≠ 0.

2. Inc. −1. –1.3 x+2 52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. – 2 = 69. x +1 ( x –1)( x + 1) x ≠ 1. . 3 − 4 3 − 4 x−2 x+2 = x−2 x+2 7 7 2 x − 2 x + 2) ( )( x −4 ⎡ 3 − 4 ⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 7 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 ⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) )( )⎦ ⎣( 3( x + 2) − 4 ( x − 2) 3x + 6 − 4 x + 8 − x + 14 = = = 7 7 7 x − 14 =− x ≠ –2. 68.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 67. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 x +1 1 1 + 2 x − 2x − 3 x − 3 = 1 x +1 1 1 + ( x + 1)( x − 3) x − 3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x +1 = ( x + 1)( x − 3) ( x + 1)( x − 3) + x −3 ( x + 1)( x − 3) x−3 = 1+ x +1 x −3 = x ≠ −2. 2 7 x +1 x +1 − 2 x−2 x = 3 +1 3 +1 ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 − 4 ⎡ x + 1⎤ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ⎣⎢ x − 2 ⎦⎥ = ⎡ ⎤ 3 ⎢ x − 2 x + 2 + 1⎥ ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ( )( ) ⎣ ⎦ = x ( x + 2 ) + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) 3 + ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) x2 + 2 x + x2 − 4 2 x2 + 2 x – 4 = x 2 –1 3 + x2 − 4 2( x 2 + x – 2) = ( x –1)( x + 1) 2( x + 2)( x –1) 2( x + 2) = = .

1 1 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 − − ( x + h) 2 x 2 ( x + h) 2 x2 = 2 2 h hx ( x + h) = x 2 − ( x + h) 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2hx + h 2 ) hx 2 ( x + h)2 = x 2 − x 2 − 2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h)2 −2hx − h 2 hx 2 ( x + h) 2 −h(2 x + h) = 2 hx ( x + h) 2 (2 x + h) =− 2 x ( x + h) 2 = 72. Inc.6 6 1 6 1 − − + − −3 ( x 5)( x 3) x x + 2 x − 15 x − 3 = 1 1 +1 +1 x+5 x+5 6( x + 5)( x − 3) ( x + 5)( x − 3) − ( x + 5)( x − 3) x −3 = ( x + 5)( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) x+5 6 − ( x + 5) = ( x − 3) + ( x + 5)( x − 3) 6− x−5 = x − 3 + x 2 + 2 x − 15 1− x = 2 x + 3x − 18 1− x x ≠ −6.PreCalculus 4E Section P. −5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . ( x + h)( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x+h x − − x + h +1 x +1 = x + h +1 x +1 h h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) ( x + h)( x + 1) − x( x + h + 1) = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) x 2 + x + hx + h − x 2 − hx − x h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) h = h( x + h + 1)( x + 1) 1 = ( x + h + 1)( x + 1) = 53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 71.3 = ( x + 6)( x − 3) 2 70.

x+7 − x = 7 = x2 5 − x2 + 5 − x2 = ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜ 5 − x2 + ⎟ 5 − x2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ 5− x ⎠ =⎝ 2 5− x 5 − x2 = 5− x 2 ( = = = ) 81. x (3 x ) 3x − 1 3x 1 = 1− . x > 0 3x ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+h x x⎠ x+h x ⎝ x+h = h h x+h x = x− 74.x>0 4x 75. . 1 4 x ( = x x− 1 4 x ) (4 x) 78. x (4 x ) 4x −1 4x 1 = 1− . 5 − x2 + x2 (5 − x ) ( x+ y x −y 2 2 = = 5 5 − x2 ) 2 = 5 − x2 5 = (5 − x ) 2 . Inc. = 79. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x+5 − x = 5 − x2 + 2 = x2 ⎛ ⎜ =⎝ = − x 2 + 2 ⎞⎟ x 2 + 2 ⎠ x2 x2 + 2 = x2 x2 + 2 = x 2 − ( x 2 + 2) x2 x2 + 2 2 =− 2 x x2 + 2 76. h≠0 x − x+3 3 x x+3 x+5 − x x+5 + x ⋅ 5 x+5 + x ( x + 5) 2 − ( x )2 5( x + 5 + x ) x+5− x 5( x + 5 + x ) 1 x+5 + x x+7 − x x+7 + x ⋅ 7 x+7 + x ( x + 7 )2 − ( x )2 7( x + 7 + x ) x+7− x 7( x + 7 + x ) 1 x+7 + x x+ y x −y 2 2 ⋅ x− y x− y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 5 − x2 2 h x ( x + h) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ 1 1 − − ⎜ ⎟ x+3 x x⎠ x+3 x ⎝ x+3 = 3 3 x+3 x = x2 x2 + 2 x − x+h = 3 ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x − y ) 1 ( x + y )( x − y ) 54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 80. ( = 1 3 x x x− 1 3 x ) (3 x) 77.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra x− 73.

x− y x −y 2 2 Section P. y −1 − ( y + 5) 5 1 −1 = y − 1 y+5 5 LCD = y ( y + 5) 1 y − ⎛1 1 y+5 5 y ( y + 5) ⎜ = ⎝y − 1 ⎞ ⎟ y +5⎠ y ( y + 5)( 5) = y +5− y 5 y ( y + 5) = 5 5 y ( y + 5) = 1 y ( y + 5) 55 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 84. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 ⎞⎛ 5 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ( x + 2) 3 ⎞⎛ ( x − 1) 5 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎜4− ⎟⎜ 1 + ⎟=⎜ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ x + 2 x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 x − 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 x + 8 − 3 ⎞⎛ x − 1 + 5 ⎞ 4 x + 5 x + 4 ( 4 x + 5 )( x + 4 ) =⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎜ ⎟= ( x + 2 )( x − 1) ⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x − 1 ⎠ x + 2 x − 1 87. ( x 2 − y 2 )( x + y ) 6 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 1) 6 ⎞ ⎛ ( x − 2) 3 ⎞ ⎛ − + ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜2− ⎟ ⎜1 + ⎟ = ⎜⎜ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ( x + 1) ( x + 1) ⎠ ⎝ ( x − 2 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 2 x + 2 − 6 ⎞⎛ x − 2 + 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 x − 4 ⎞ ⎛ x + 1 ⎞ 2 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) =2 =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟= ⎝ x + 1 ⎠⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ⎝ x + 1 ⎠ ⎝ x − 2 ⎠ ( x + 1) ( x − 2 ) 86.PreCalculus 4E 82. x− y ( x + y )( x − y )( x + y ) 1 ( x + y )( x + y ) . x≠ y ⎛ ( 2 x + 3) ( x + 5 ) ( x − 1) ⎛ 2 x + 3 x2 + 4 x − 5 ⎞ 2 ⋅ ⋅ 2 =⎜ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − ( 2 x + 3) ( x − 1) ⎝ x + 1 2 x + x − 3 ⎠ x + 2 ⎜⎝ x + 1 2 ( x + 1) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) ( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 2 ( x + 1) = − = x 1 x 2 x 1 x 2 + + + + ( )( ) ( )( ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎞ ⎟− 2 = x+5 − 2 ⎟ x + 2 x +1 x + 2 ⎠ = x 2 + 2 x + 5 x + 10 − 2 x − 2 x2 + 5x + 8 = ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ( x + 1)( x + 2 ) ⎛ ( x + 2) ( x − 4) ⎞ 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 ⋅⎜ − ÷ ⎜⎜ − ⎟ ⎟= x − 2 x − 8 ⎝ x − 4 x + 2 ⎠ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎝ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) ⎟⎠ 1 2 ⎛ x+2−x+4 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ( x − 4 )( x + 2 ) 1 1 6 1 ÷ ⎜⎜ ÷ ⎜⎜ ⋅ = ⎟⎟ = ⎟⎟ = x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + x − x + 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 6 6 ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) ⎝( )( )⎠ ( )( ) 1 = 85. . Inc.6 x− y = x −y 2 x+ y ⋅ 2 x+ y ( x ) − ( y )2 2 = = = 83.

56 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. As x approaches 100. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 100 − 80 20 when x = 80 130 ⋅ 90 130 ⋅ 90 = = 1170 .000 to inoculate 90% of the population. . b. and $1. y −1 − ( y + 2) 1 −1 y = 2 − 1 y+2 2 LCD = y ( y + 2 ) 1 − y y+2 2 89. a. 100 − 40 60 when x = 40 130 ⋅ 80 130 ⋅ 80 2. c.67 . the value of the function increases rapidly.670.170. = = 86.000 to inoculate 40% of the population against this strain of flu. ⎛1 1 y ( y + 2) ⎜ = ⎝y 1 ⎞ ⎟ y+2⎠ y ( y + 2 )( 2 ) = y+2− y 2 y ( y + 2) = 2 2 y ( y + 2) = 1 y ( y + 2) ⎛ a ( c + d ) − b ( c + d ) ⎞⎟ ac + ad − bc − bd ⎞ c−d 1 c−d ⎛ 1 ⎜ ⋅ − = ⋅ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 1 1 ⎝ a 3 − b3 ⎠ a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ( c + d ) ( a − b ) ⎞⎟ c−d c+d c−d 1 − = − ⋅ =⎜ ⎜ ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎟ a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a 2 + bd + b 2 1 ⎝ ⎠ c+d −c+d 2d = 2 = a + ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 ( ( 90. ab + a 2 − ab + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 = ) ⎞⎟ = ) ⎠⎟ a ab 2 + ab + b2 + a 2 − ab + b 2 a 2 + ab + b 2 a2 + b2 a 2 + ab + b 2 130 x is equal to 100 − x 130 ⋅ 40 130 ⋅ 40 1. and it is impossible to inoculate 100% of the population. Inc. So it costs an astronomical amount of money to inoculate almost all of the people.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 88. 100 − 90 10 when x = 90 It costs $86. = = 520 . and $520. the function is not defined. 3.000. For x = 100.000 to inoculate 80% of the population.000. − ) ) ⎛ a ( c − d ) − b ( c − d ) a 3 + b3 ⎞ ⎛ ac − ad − bc + bd a3 − b3 ⎞ ab + ⎜⎜ ÷ 3 3 ⎟⎟ = 2 + ⎜⎜ ⋅ ⎟ 2 a + ab + b ⎝ ac − ad + bc − bd a + b ⎠ a + ab + b ⎝ a ( c − d ) + b ( c − d ) a3 − b3 ⎟⎠ ab 2 2 ( ( ⎛ ( c − d ) ( a − b ) ( a + b ) a 2 − ab + b 2 = 2 +⎜ ⋅ a + ab + b 2 ⎜ ( c − d ) ( a + b ) ( a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 ⎝ ab = 91.

Inc. Substitute 4 for x in the model. women between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2078 calories per day. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 22 calories. 7 93. men between the ages of 19 and 30 with this lifestyle need 2662 calories per day. This underestimates the actual value shown in the bar graph by 38 calories. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Substitute 4 for x in the model. .PreCalculus 4E 92. M = −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 M = −120(4)2 + 998(4) + 590 M = 2662 According to the model. a.6 2d d + r1 d r2 LCD = r1r2 2d d r1 + d ⎛d d ⎞ + ⎜ r r ⎟⎟ 1 ⎝ 2⎠ r1r2 ⎜ r2 = = If r1r2 ( 2d ) = 2r1r2 d r2 d + r1d 2r1r2 d d ( r2 + r1 ) = 2r1r2 r2 + r1 r1 = 40 and r2 = 30. c. W = −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 W = −66(4)2 + 526(4) + 1030 W = 2078 According to the model. the value of this expression will be 2 ⋅ 40 ⋅ 30 2400 = 30 + 40 70 2 = 34 . W −66 x 2 + 526 x + 1030 = M −120 x 2 + 998 x + 590 = = 2 ( −33x 2 + 263x + 515 ) 2 ( −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 ) −33x 2 + 263x + 515 −60 x 2 + 499 x + 295 57 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section P. 7 Your average speed will be 34 2 miles per hour. b.

8. R= = = 1 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 + 1 R1 1 R2 + 1 R3 R1 R2 R3 R1R2 R3 R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2 4 ⋅8 ⋅12 8⋅12 + 4 ⋅12 + 4 ⋅ 8 384 = 96 + 48 + 32 384 = 176 24 = 11 24 The parallel resistance is ohms. 58 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 4 x + 14 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x +5⎠ ⎝ x +6⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+5 x+6 2 x ( x + 6) 2x ( x + ( x + 5)( x + 6) ( x + 5)( x 2 = + 2 2 x + 12 x + 2 x + 10 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 2 = 4 x + 22 x ( x + 5)( x + 6) 97. 12) = 95. P = 2 L + 2W ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x + 3⎠ ⎝ x − 4⎠ = 2⎜ = = 2x + 2x x+3 x+4 2 x ( x + 4) 2 x ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x + 4) ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = + 2 2 x + 8x + 2 x + 6 x ( x + 3)( x + 4) 2 = 96. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –108. Answers may vary. Inc.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 94. 11 R(4.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. true 115. true 116. . 111.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 3 2 + 2 + 3 + + 5 4 3 x x x = x x 2 x3 = x + x + x = x x + x + 1 = x3 1 1 1 x6 x6 x6 x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 1 + 5 + 6 + 5 + 6 4 4 x x x x x x ( ) 59 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. A sample change is: x 2 − 25 ( x + 5)( x − 5) = = x+5 x−5 x−5 114. false.6 109. Sample explanation: 3x − 3 3(1) − 3 0 = = which is undefined. Sample explanation: The numerator and denominator of 7 do not 14 + x share a common factor. does not make sense. Inc. x −1 x 2n 1 x 2n −1 n x +1− x +1−1 x 2n −1 1 x 2n −1 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ x 1 ⎞⎛ x +1 1 ⎞⎛ x + 2 1 ⎞⎛ x + 3 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ − − − ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ x x + x + x + x x x + x + x + x + x + x + 3⎠ 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎛ x − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 1) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2) − 1 ⎞ ⎛ ( x + 3) − 1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠⎝ x +1 ⎠⎝ x + 2 ⎠⎝ x + 3 ⎠ = 119. 1 n x −1 − 1 n x +1 − n 1 x 2n −1 = n x +1 x 2n −1 − n = = 118. does not make sense. 112. makes sense 113. It cubes x. Changes to make the statement true will vary. −1 − 1 6x 1 6x + 1 = + = x x x x ( x − y) −1 + ( x − y) −2 = 1 + x −1 x x +1 x + 2 x −1 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = x x +1 x + 2 x + 3 x + 3 1 ( x − y) ( x − y) 2 = ( x − y) 1 x − y +1 + = 2 ( x − y )( x − y ) ( x − y ) ( x − y )2 120. Sample explanation: The first step is to invert the second fraction. A sample change is: 6 + 117. 4 x( x − 1) 4(1)(1 − 1) 0 110. false. Explanations will vary. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary.

true 7 ( x − 3) = 2(5) − 4 ( x + 5 ) 7 x − 21 = 10 − 4 x − 20 ⎛ x + 2 x −1 ⎞ ⎛ x+2⎞ ⎛ x −1⎞ − = 12 ⎜ − 12 ⎜ 122. 2 −b − b 2 − 4ac −(9) − (9) − 4(2)(−5) = 2a 2(2) −9 − 81 + 40 4 −9 − 121 = 4 −9 − 11 = 4 = −5 = 3. = − x + 10 123.7 Check Point Exercises 1. 2 x = 10 2 x 10 = 2 2 x=5 Check: 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 4[2(5) + 1] − 29 = 3[2(5) − 5] 4[10 + 1] − 29 = 3[10 − 5] 4[11] − 29 = 3[5] 44 − 29 = 15 15 = 15 true The solution set is {5}. 60 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 2(6 − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3(6 + 2) 2(3) − 17 = 13 − 3(8) 6 − 17 = 13 − 24 −11 = −11. 2( x − 3) − 17 = 13 − 3( x + 2) 2. x=7 . x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 x −3 ⎛ 5 x+5⎞ 28 ⋅ = 28 ⎜ − 4 7 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 14 4(2 x + 1) − 29 = 3(2 x − 5) 8 x + 4 − 29 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 = 6 x − 15 8 x − 25 − 6 x = 6 x − 15 − 6 x 2 x − 25 = −15 2 x − 25 + 25 = −15 + 25 −20 6 5 − = 2 x+3 x−2 x + x−6 −20 6 5 − = x + 3 x − 2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x + 3)( x − 2) 5( x + 3)( x − 2) −20( x + 3)( x − 2) − = x+3 x−2 ( x + 3)( x − 2) 6( x − 2) − 5( x + 3) = −20 6 x − 12 − 5 x − 15 = −20 x − 27 = −20 The solution set is {7} .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 121. 12 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 3( x + 2) − 4( x − 1) = 3x + 6 − 4 x + 4 7 x − 21 = −4 x − 10 7 x + 4 x = −10 + 21 11x = 11 11x 11 = 11 11 x =1 Check: x−3 5 x +5 = − 4 14 7 1− 3 5 1+ 5 = − 4 14 7 −2 5 6 = − 4 14 7 1 1 − =− 2 2 The solution set is {1}. Section P. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

2 x2 + x − 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 2x = 1 1 x= 2 1 1 1 + = p q f 1 pqf 1 pqf 1 pqf + = p q f qf + pf = pq x = −1 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . . Section P. a.3} . Inc. x=0 x=3 The solution set is {0. 3}. 7 . 3x 2 − 21 = 0 3x 2 = 21 qf − pq = − pf q( f − p) = − pf − pf q( f − p) = f −p f −p pf q= p− f 6. −5 − 11 . 7. 9. 5. 4 1 − 2 x − 20 = 0 b. −1⎬ . x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x2 + 4x = 1 x2 + 4 x + 4 = 1 + 4 ( x + 2) 2 =5 x+2= ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 61 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x + 5) 2 = 11 x + 5 = ± 11 4 1 − 2 x = 20 x = −5 ± 11 1 − 2x = 5 { 1 − 2x = 5 or 1 − 2 x = −5 −2 x = 4 −2 x = −6 x = −2 x=3 The solution set is {–2. The solution set is { } . ⎩2 ⎭ 8. a. 3x 2 − 9 x = 0 3x( x − 3) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 3 = 0 3 x 2 21 = 3 3 2 x =7 x=± 7 { } The solution set is − 7. } The solution set is −5 + 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x2 + x = 1 b.PreCalculus 4E 4.7 1 4 1 = − x + 2 x2 − 4 x − 2 1 4 1 = − x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x − 2 1( x + 2)( x − 2) 4( x + 2)( x − 2) 1( x + 2)( x − 2) = − x+2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) x−2 x − 2 = 4 − ( x + 2) x−2=4−x−2 x−2=2−x 2x = 4 x=2 2 must be rejected.

c = 5 3. 7x – 5 = 72 7x = 77 x = 11 Check: 7 x − 5 = 72 Check: 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 2 11(7) − [6(7) − 5] = 40 x + 3 = x2 − 6x + 9 77 − (42 − 5) = 40 0 = x2 − 7 x + 6 0 = ( x − 6)( x − 1) x − 6 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 77 − (37) = 40 40 = 40 x=6 x =1 1 does not check and must be rejected. x+3 +3 = x x +3 = x−3 ( x+3 ) 2 = ( x − 3) 11x − (6 x − 5) = 40 11x − 6 x + 5 = 40 b2 − 4ac = (−2)2 − 4 ⋅3 ⋅5 = 4 − 60 = −56 The discriminant is –56.7 a = 2. The solution set is {6} . 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 11. Inc. . ⎬. 12. b = −2.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 10. The equation has two complex imaginary solutions. 5 x + 5 = 40 5 x = 35 x=7 The solution set is {7}. Check: 6 x − 3 = 63 ⎧⎪ −1 + 3 −1 − 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . 6(11) − 3 = 63 66 − 3 = 63 63 = 63 3x 2 − 2x + 5 = 0 a = 3. 6x – 3 = 63 6x = 66 x = 11 The solution set is {11}. c = −1 1. 2 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 Exercise Set P. b = 2. 2. 62 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a = = = = = = −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) 7(11) − 5 = 72 −2 ± 4 + 8 4 −2 ± 12 4 −2 ± 2 3 4 2(−1 ± 3) 4 −1 ± 3 2 77 − 5 = 72 72 = 72 The solution set is {11}.

Section P. 3(7) + 7 = 2(14) 21 + 7 = 28 3x + 5 = 2x + 13 x + 5 = 13 x=8 The solution set is {8}. 13x + 14 = 12x – 5 x + 14 = –5 x = –19 The solution set is {–19}.PreCalculus 4E 4. 5. ⎤ ⎛ 25 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 25 ⎞ 5 ⎜ ⎟ − ⎢ 2 ⎜ ⎟ − 10 ⎥ = 35 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎦ 125 ⎡ 50 ⎤ − − 10⎥ = 35 3 ⎢⎣ 3 ⎦ 125 20 − = 35 3 3 105 = 35 3 35 = 35 13(−19) + 14 = 12(−19) − 5 − 247 + 14 = −228 − 5 − 233 = −233 2x – 7 = 6 + x x–7=6 x = 13 The solution set is {13}. 28 = 28 10.7 5x – (2x – 10) = 35 5x – 2x + 10 = 35 3x + 10 = 35 3x = 25 25 x= 3 7. 2(x – 1) + 3 = x – 3(x +1) 2x – 2 + 3 = x – 3x – 3 2x +1 = –2x – 3 4x + 1 = –3 4x = –4 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. . Check: 7(2) + 4 = 2 + 16 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 7x + 4 = x + 16 6x + 4 = 16 6x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {2}. Inc. Check: 2(13) − 7 = 6 + 13 Check: 3(9 − 2) + 7 = 2(9 + 5) 26 − 7 = 19 19 = 19 6. 3(x – 2) + 7 = 2(x + 5) 3x – 6 + 7 = 2x + 10 3x + 1 = 2x + 10 x + 1 = 10 x=9 The solution set is {9}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Check: 3x + 5 = 2 x + 13 3(8) + 5 = 2(8) + 13 24 + 5 = 16 + 13 29 = 29 Check: 2( x − 1) + 3 = x − 3( x + 1) 2(−1 − 1) + 3 = −1 − 3(−1 + 1) 2(−2) + 3 = −1 − 3(0) − 4 + 3 = −1 + 0 − 1 = −1 63 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎩3⎭ 14 + 4 = 18 18 = 18 Check: 5 x − (2 x − 10) = 35 8. Check: 13 x + 14 = 12 x − 5 9.

3x + 4 x = 10 − 3 7x = 7 x +1 x+2 = 5− 3 7 x + 2⎤ ⎡ x +1 21 ⎢ = 5− 7 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 3 7x + 7 = 105 – 3x – 6 7x + 3x = 99 – 7 10x = 92 92 x= 10 46 x= 5 ⎧ 46 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 4 x − 6 x = −21 − 12 − 2 x = −33 33 2 x= ⎧ 33 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 13. 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. x +3 3 x −5 = + 6 8 4 ⎡ x + 3 3 x − 5⎤ 24 ⎢ = + 8 4 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 6 4 x + 12 = 9 + 6 x − 30 15. x−2 x+3 = 3 8 x − 2 x + 3⎤ ⎡ 24 ⎢5 + = 3 8 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 120 + 8 x − 16 = 3 x + 9 5+ 1 11 +5 = ( x ≠ 1) x −1 x −1 1 11 +5 = x −1 x −1 1 + 5( x − 1) = 11 1 + 5 x − 5 = 11 5 x − 4 = 11 5 x = 15 x=3 The solution set is {3}. . ⎩7⎭ x= x x −3 = 2+ 4 3 x − 3⎤ ⎡x 12 ⎢ = 2 + 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣4 3x = 24 + 4x – 12 3x – 4x = 12 –x = 12 x = –12 The solution set is {–12}.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11. 17. ⎩2⎭ 12. x +1 1 2 − x = + 4 6 3 ⎡ x +1 1 2 − x ⎤ 12 ⎢ = + 6 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 4 3x + 3 = 2 + 8 − 4 x 16. 8 x − 3x = 9 − 104 5 x = −95 x = −19 The solution set is {−19} . 64 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. ⎩5⎭ 3x x − 3 x + 2 − = 5 2 3 ⎡ 3x x − 3 x + 2 ⎤ 30 ⎢ − = 2 3 ⎥⎦ ⎣5 18 x − 15 x + 45 = 10 x + 20 3x − 10 x = 20 − 45 x =1 − 7 x = −25 The solution set is {1}. a. 25 7 ⎧ 25 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .

x ≠ 5. 2 x = − 2 ( x ≠ 2) x−2 x−2 24. a. x ≠ −1) x + 1 x −1 x −1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 x2 − 1 2 1 2x − = x + 1 x − 1 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 2( x − 1) − 1( x + 1) = 2 x 2x − 2 − x −1 = 2x x = −1 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. −x = 8 −7 x = 21 x = −8 The solution set is {–8}. a. b. b. 4 2 32 + = . 8x = 4x + 4 − 8 4 x = −4 2 1 2x − = 2 ( x ≠ 1. Inc. ∅. a. 3 1 2 + = 2x − 2 2 x −1 3 1 2 + = 2( x − 1) 2 x − 1 3 + 1( x − 1) = 4 25. −5 x + 5 x − 5 x 2 − 25 4( x − 5) + 2( x + 5) = 32 4 x − 20 + 2 x + 10 = 32 3 1 2 + = ( x ≠ 1) 2x − 2 2 x −1 6 x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. 3 + x −1 = 4 x=2 The solution set is {2}.7 3 −4 −7 = ( x ≠ −4) x+4 x+4 22. b. −x = 3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. 3 −4 −7 = x+4 x+4 3 − 7( x + 4) = −4 b. ( x ≠ −2. 2 x = −2 x−2 x−2 2 = x − 2( x − 2) x = 2 ⇒ no solution The solution set is the empty set. 8x 8 = 4− x +1 x +1 8 x = 4( x + 1) − 8 b. ∅. 4) 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 x2 − 2 x − 8 1 5 6 − = x − 4 x + 2 ( x − 4)( x + 2) ( x ≠ 4. a. x ≠ −5) b.PreCalculus 4E 18. a. a. ∅. 4 2 32 + = x + 5 x − 5 ( x + 5)( x − 5) ( x ≠ 5. b. 1 x−4 − 5 x+2 = 6 ( x − 4)( x + 2) . x ≠ 2) x + 3 2x + 6 x − 2 8x 8 = 4− ( x ≠ −1) x +1 x +1 23. 3 5 1 = + x + 3 2( x + 3) x − 2 6( x − 2) = 5( x − 2) + 2( x + 3) 6 x − 12 = 5 x − 10 + 2 x + 6 3 − 7 x − 28 = −4 19. 3 5 1 = + ( x ≠ −3. . x ≠ −2) 1( x + 2) − 5( x − 4) = 6 x + 2 − 5 x + 20 = 6 −4 x = −16 x=4 The solution set is the empty set. 2 = x − 2x + 4 21. x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. b. 20. 65 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section P. a.

Pt interest 34. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S −P = t. 29. 3 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 32. a. x ≠ −1. rt interest C = 2πr C r= . T = D + pm T − D = pm F B F S = +V B 36. F S −V B(S − V ) = F B= S −V = T − D pm = m m T −D =p m total of payment 30. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Pr interest 35. b. .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 26. 28. 1 2 8 . ∅. 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) A= 1 h( a + b) 2 2 A = h( a + b) 2A = a+b h A= 37. 1 2 8 − = x − 3 x + 1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) 1( x + 1) − 2( x − 3) = 8 x + 1 − 2x + 6 = 8 −x + 7 = 8 −x = 1 x = −1 The solution set is the empty set. Inc. P = C + MC P − C = MC P −C =M C markup based on cost 31. C 1− r S (1 − r ) = C C 1− r = S C −r = − 1 S C r = − +1 S markup based on selling price S= IR + Ir = E I (R + r) = E 2A −b = a h area of trapezoid E R+r electric current I= 66 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 27. S = P + Prt S – P = Prt S−P = r. 2π circumference of a circle 33. 2A =a+b h 2A −a=b h area of trapezoid I = Prt I P= .

3|2x – 1| = 21 |2x – 1| = 7 2x – 1 = 7 or 2x – 1 = −7 2x = 8 2x = −6 x=4 x = −3 The solution set is {4. . –2}. −5/3} resistance f = 41. Section P. −3} f1 = ff 2 f2 − f 49. x +1 = 5 x + 1 = 5 x + 1 = –5 x=4 x = –6 The solution set is {–6.PreCalculus 4E 38. 4 ⎬ . –5}. 46. 4}. 2x −1 = 5 2x – 1 = 5 2x – 1 = –5 2x = 6 2x = –4 x=3 x = –2 The solution set is {3. 1 1 1 = + R R R 1 2 R1 R2 = RR2 + RR1 43. R1 R2 − RR1 = RR2 R1 ( R2 − R ) = RR2 R1 = RR2 R2 − R 47. ⎩ 5 ⎭ 67 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. ff1 − f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) = − ff 2 f1 ( f − f 2 ) f − f2 2 4− focal length f = 42. + = p q f qf + pf = pq f (q + p) = pq pq f = p+q thin lens equation 40. 2|3x – 2| = 14 |3x – 2| = 7 3x – 2 = 7 3x – 2 = −7 3x = 9 3x = −5 x=3 x = −5/3 The solution set is {3. 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 45. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 = − ff 2 f − f2 48. 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = 11 2 x − 3 = −11 2 x = −8 2 x = 14 x = −4 x=7 The solution set is {–4. 7}.7 A = 2lw + 2lh + 2 wh A − 2lw = h ( 2l + 2 w ) A − 2lw =h 2l + 2 w surface area 1 1 1 39. x−2 =7 x – 2 = 7 x – 2 = –7 x=9 x = –5 The solution set is {9. f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 2 4− f ( f1 + f 2 ) = f1 f 2 4− ff1 + ff 2 = f1 f 2 f − f1 5 x =6 2 4− f 2 ( f − f1 ) = − ff1 = 5 x = 12 2 5 x=6 2 5 − x=2 2 ff 2 − f1 f 2 = − ff1 f 2 ( f − f1 ) 5 x + 6 = 18 2 − ff1 f − f1 x=− ff1 f2 = f1 − f focal length 4 5 or 4 − 5 x = −6 2 5 − x = −10 2 x=4 ⎧ 4 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − .

. 3 3 x = 4 4 3 3 or 1 − 3 x = − 3 1− x = 4 4 4 4 3 1 3 7 − x=− − x=− 4 4 4 4 1 7 x= x= 3 3 1 7 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 3x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . ⎩3⎭ 55. 54. x 2 = −11x − 10 58. ⎬ . 5} . Inc. 5} . 4} . |2x – 1| + 3 = 3 |2x – 1| = 0 2x – 1 = 0 2x = 1 x = 1/2 The solution set is {0. x 2 = 8 x − 15 57. ⎩3 3 ⎭ 1− x 2 − 8 x + 15 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 5) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x=3 x=5 The solution set is {3. 68 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 1− 3 x + 7 = 10 4 4 1− 56. ⎧1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 52. −1} . |x + 1| + 6 = 2 |x + 1| = −4 The solution set is { }. |x + 1| +5 = 3 |x + 1| = −2 No solution The solution set is { }. 51. 3 x =3 4 The solution set is {4. 4} . 59. ⎧2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 3x − 2 + 4 = 4 3 x 2 = 12 x 3x 2 − 12 x = 0 3x( x − 4) = 0 3x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 3x − 2 = 0 3x − 2 = 0 3x = 2 2 x= 3 The solution set is {0. x 2 + 11x + 10 = 0 ( x + 10)( x + 1) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x = −10 x = −1 The solution set is {−10. 9} . x 2 − 13 x + 36 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 9) = 0 x − 4 = 0 or x − 9 = 0 x=4 x=9 61. 5 x 2 = 20 x 5 x 2 − 20 x = 0 5 x( x − 4) = 0 5 x = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x=0 x=4 53. x 2 − 3 x − 10 = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = 0 x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=5 x = −2 The solution set is {−2. ⎩2⎭ 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 50.

Inc. x2 + 6 x = 7 x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 11 + 9 ( x − 3) 2 = 20 x − 3 = ± 20 x = 3± 2 5 x+4=± 7 x = −4 ± 7 { { } The solution set is 3 + 2 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 66. x−4=± 5 x = 4± 5 { } 71. The solution set is 4 ± 5 . 63. 69 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section P. 3 ( x + 4 ) = 21 ( x + 4) 2 =7 2 =± 7 x 2 − 6 x − 11 = 0 x 2 − 6 x = 11 2 ( x + 4) x 2 + 4 x = 12 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 12 + 4 ( x − 4) = 5 ( x − 4) } The solution set is 1 + 3. x + 3 = ±4 x = −3 ± 4 The solution set is {–7. x2 = 9 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 7 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 16 x2 = ± 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {±3} . 3 − 2 5 .7 5 x 2 = 45 67.PreCalculus 4E 62. 3x 2 − 1 = 47 ( x − 1)2 = 3 x 2 = 16 x −1 = ± 3 x 2 = ± 16 x = ±4 The solution set is {±4} . –2}. 1 − 3 . x = 1± 3 { 70. 5 x 2 = 50 ( x + 3) 2 = 1 x 2 = ± 10 x = ± 10 x + 3 = ±1 { x = −3 ± 1 The solution set is {–4. x 2 + 6 x = −8 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = −8 + 9 x 2 = 10 64. 69. } The solution set is ± 10 . . 2 2 ( x + 2)2 = 16 =± 5 x + 2 = ±4 x = −2 ± 4 The solution set is {–6. 1}. 5 x 2 + 1 = 51 68. 3 ( x − 4 ) = 15 2 x2 − 2 x = 2 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 2 + 1 3x 2 = 48 65. } The solution set is −4 ± 7 . 2}.

⎬. −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) −5 ± 25 − 8 2 −5 ± 17 x= 2 x= x 2 + 8 x + 15 = 0 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(1)(3) 2(1) x= The solution set is −2 + 3. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ x2 + 6 x = 5 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 5 + 9 ( x + 3) 2 = 14 78. x= 79. ⎬.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 72. − 3}. 73. x − 2x = 5 x 2 + 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x= x − 2x + 1 = 5 +1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 6 −8 ± 64 − 48 2 −8 ± 16 x= 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 The solution set is {–6. −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(12) 2(1) −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(15) 2(1) ⎧⎪ −5 + 17 −5 − 17 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . 1 − 6 . ⎬ 6 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 6 70 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 + 5x + 3 = 0 x= x+2= ± 3 74. 75. − 3 − 14 . Inc. –2}. 3x 2 − 3 x − 4 = 0 x= 3 ± (−3)2 − 4(3)(−4) 2(3) 3 ± 9 + 48 6 3 ± 57 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 3 + 57 3 − 57 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . . x2 + 4 x + 1 = 0 x 2 + 4 x = −1 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = −1 + 4 77. x= x −1 = ± 6 x = 1± 6 { } The solution set is 1 + 6. x + 3 = ± 14 x2 + 5x + 2 = 0 x= x = −3 ± 14 { } The solution set is −3 + 14. ( x + 2) 2 = 3 x = −2 ± 3 { −5 ± 25 − 12 2 −5 ± 13 x= 2 } x2 + 6 x − 5 = 0 ⎧⎪ −5 + 13 −5 − 13 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ . 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ −8 ± 64 − 60 2 −8 ± 4 x= 2 −8 ± 2 x= 2 The solution set is {−5. − 2 − 3 . x2 − 2 x − 5 = 0 76. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(−2) 2 − 4(3)(1) = 4 – 12 = –8.7 5x2 + x − 2 = 0 x= 83. 10 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 10 81. 4 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 4 x= 2 x 2 + 11x − 6 = 0 112 − 4(2)(−6) = 121 + 48 = 169. 2 unequal real solutions 4x2 = 2x + 7 x= 4 x2 − 2 x + 3 = 0 (−2) 2 − 4(4)(3) = 4 – 48 = –44. 1 real solution 88. 2 unequal real solutions 6 ± 36 − 12 6 6 ± 24 6 6±2 6 6 3± 6 3 90. 4 x2 − 2 x − 7 = 0 2 ± (−2)2 − 4(4)(−7) 2(4) 86. x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 (−3)2 − 4(1)(−7) = 9 + 28 = 37. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 87. Inc. (−4) 2 − 4(1)(−5) = 16 + 20 = 36. 2 x 2 − 11x + 3 = 0 (−11) 2 − 4(2)(3) = 121 – 24 = 97. . The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 2 unequal real solutions ⎧⎪ 3 + 6 3 − 6 ⎫⎪ . 2 unequal real solutions −1 ± 12 − 4(5)(−2) 2(5) −1 ± 1 + 40 10 −1 ± 41 x= 10 x= 84. 2 unequal real solutions 2 ± 4 + 112 x= 8 2 ± 116 x= 8 2 ± 2 29 x= 8 1 ± 29 x= 4 82.PreCalculus 4E 80. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. 2 complex imaginary solutions ⎪⎧ −1 + 41 −1 − 41 ⎪⎫ . Section P. 2 complex imaginary solutions 3x = 6 x − 1 3x − 6 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x= x= 3x 2 = 2 x − 1 3x 2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 2 x= x2 = 2x − 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 0 ⎧⎪1 + 29 1 − 29 ⎫⎪ . x2 − 4 x − 5 = 0 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 89. 3 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 3 71 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (−2) 2 − 4(1)(1) =4–4 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3x 2 + 4 x − 2 = 0 42 − 4(3)(−2) = 16 + 24 = 40. 85.

} The solution set is −5 5. 3x = −2 x2 − 2 x = 1 x2 − 2 x + 1 = 1 + 1 ( x − 1) 2 = 2 x = −3 or x −1 = ± 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 72 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ⎬ . 1⎬ . 5 x 2 + 2 = 11x 94. ⎬. (3 x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 3x + 2 or x − 2 = 0 93. x 2 = 20 2 x2 − x − 1 = 0 (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = ± 20 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = ±2 5 2 x = −1 96. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 5 . . ⎩ 2 ⎭ 92. (5 x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 2 x 2 + 3x = 1 2 x 2 + 3x − 1 = 0 5 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 1 or x = 2 5 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 − x = 1 91. ⎬ . { 2 x 2 = 250 x = ± 125 3x2 − 4x − 4 = 0 2 3 } x 2 = 125 3x 2 − 4 x = 4 x=− { The solution set is −2 5. ⎬. 1 x = − or x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . ⎩5 ⎭ −3 ± 9 + 8 4 −3 ± 17 x= 4 x= x= ⎪⎧ −3 + 17 −3 − 17 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎩ 5⎭ x= ⎪⎧ −11 + 33 −11 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 4 4 ⎪⎩ ⎭⎪ 5 x 2 = 6 − 13x 5 x 2 + 13x − 6 = 0 (2 x + 3)( x + 4) = 1 99. ⎩ 3 ⎭ x = 1± 2 { 5 x 2 − 11x + 2 = 0 98. 95. (5 x − 2)( x + 3) = 0 5 x − 2 = 0 or x + 3 2 x + 8 x + 3x + 12 = 1 2 2 x 2 + 11x + 11 = 0 5x = 2 2 5 or −3 ± 32 − 4(2)(−1) 2(2) x= 5x = 1 x= } The solution set is 1 + 2. 3x 2 = 60 x= x = −3 −11 ± 112 − 4(2)(11) 2(2) −11 ± 121 − 88 4 −11 ± 33 x= 4 ⎧ 2⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. 2 5 . Inc. 2⎬ . 1 − 2 . x = ±5 5 97.

101. 109. 3 ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(−7) 2(2) 3 ± 9 + 56 4 3 ± 65 x= 4 x= 106. (3 x − 4) = 16 2 x2 − 4x + 2 = 0 3x − 4 = ± 16 3x − 4 = ±4 3x = 4 ± 4 3x = 8 or 3x = 0 8 x = or x = 0 3 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 4± 8 2 x = 2± 2 x= ⎧ 8⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. Inc. 4 x 2 − 16 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x − 5x − 5 = 2 4 x 2 = 16 2 x 2 − 3x − 7 = 0 x= x2 = 4 x = ±2 The solution set is {−2. ⎬ . 2 x + 7 = ±5 2 x = −7 ± 5 2 x = −12 or 2 x = −2 x=6 or x = −1 The solution set is {–6. 2 7 2 ⎧ 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨0. ⎬.7 (2 x − 5)( x + 1) = 2 105. 3x 2 − 27 = 0 3 x 2 = 27 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. ⎬ . –1}. ⎩ 3⎭ { } The solution set is 2 ± 2 . 104. ⎩ 2⎭ x = 0 or x = 73 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . (2 x + 7) 2 = 25 x2 = 6 x − 7 108. ⎪⎧ 3 + 65 3 − 65 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 2 x 2 − 7 x = 0 9 − 6x + x = 0 x(2 x − 7) = 0 2 x = 0 or 2 x − 7 = 0 2x = 7 x − 6x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 The solution set is {3}. 102.PreCalculus 4E 100. 3x 2 − 12 x + 12 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(7) 2(1) 6± 8 2 x = 3± 2 x= x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x=2 The solution set is {2}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x= { } The solution set is 3 ± 2 . Section P. x2 − 6 x + 7 = 0 103. 3}. 2} . 4 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 4 x2 = 4 x − 2 107.

x ≠ 3. 3x + 18 = x ( −5 ) − 4 (1)( −12 ) 2 (1) 2 x=2 20 − 8(−10) = −10 20 − 8(2) = 2 20 + 80 = −10 20 − 16 = 2 100 = −10 False The solution set is {2}. 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 2 74 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 1 1 + = . x ≠ 0. −3 x−3 x +3 x −9 2 x ( x + 3) + 6 ( x − 3) = −28 2 x 2 + 6 x + 6 x − 18 = −28 2 x 2 + 12 x + 10 = 0 −5 ± 25 + 24 x= 4 −5 ± 49 x= 4 −5 ± 7 x= 4 1 x = −3. 0 = x2 − 4 x − 6 x= − ( −4 ) ± 3 x + 18 = x 2 ( −4 ) − 4 (1)( −6 ) 2 (1) 2 x 2 − 3x − 18 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 6) = 0 x+3=0 x–6=0 x = –3 x=6 3(−3) + 18 = −3 3(6) + 18 = 6 4 ± 16 + 24 2 4 ± 40 x= 2 4 ± 2 10 x= 2 x = 2 ± 10 x= −9 + 18 = −3 116. −3 x x+3 4 4 x + 12 + 4 x = x 2 + 3x − ( −5 ) ± 18 + 18 = 6 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}. 114. 2 − 10}.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x2 + 5x = 3 110. 112. Inc. 5 ± 25 + 48 x= 2 5 ± 73 x= 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 73 5 − 73 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ⎬. x ≠ 3. 113. ⎬ . 4=2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 1}. 4 x − 3 x − 4 x − 7 x + 12 3x − 12 + 5 x − 15 = x 2 − 20 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −3. −2 x x+2 3 3x + 6 + 3 x = x 2 + 2 x 115. 20 − 8 x = x x 2 + 8 x − 20 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 2) = 0 x + 10 = 0 x−2 = 0 x = −10 0 = x 2 − 5 x − 12 x= 36 = 6 20 − 8 x = x 2 1 1 1 + = . x ≠ 0. 7}. 0 = x2 − 8x + 7 0 = ( x − 7 )( x − 1) x=7 x =1 The solution set is {1. ⎩ 2⎭ 111. 2x + 5x − 3 = 0 2 x= −5 ± 52 − 4(2)(−3) 2(2) 2x 6 −28 + = 2 . 3 5 x 2 − 20 + = 2 . 2 x2 + 6 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 5) = 0 The solution set is {−5. The solution set is {2 + 10.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x + 10 = ( x − 2) 121. 120. ( x + 2)( x − 5) = 0 x+2=0 x−5 = 0 x = −2 x=5 −2 − −2 + 11 = 1 5 − 5 + 11 = 1 −2 − 9 = 1 5 − 16 = 1 −2 − 3 = 1 False The solution set is {5}. 2 x + 10 = x 2 − 4 x + 4 x = −1 6x + 1 = x − 1 6 x + 1 = ( x − 1) 2 2 2 2 x + 13 = x + 14 x + 49 x = 10 2 − 2(2) + 5 = 5 10 − 2(10) + 5 = 5 2− 9 =5 10 − 25 = 5 2 − 3 = 5 False The solution set is {10}. ( x − 2)( x − 10) = 0 x − 2 = 0 x − 10 = 0 16 = 4 x=2 2 x + 13 = x + 7 2 x + 13 = ( x + 7) x=8 6(0) + 1 = 0 − 1 x − 5 = 2x + 5 ( x + 1)( x − 6) = 0 x +1 = 0 x − 6 = 0 119. 2 x + 12 x + 36 = 0 2 ( x + 6) 2 = 0 122. Inc. x + 10 = x − 2 118. 75 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x=0 1 = −1 False The solution set is {8}. 5−4 =1 .7 x+3 = x−3 117. x+6 = 0 10 − 5 = 5 x − x + 11 = 1 x − 1 = x + 11 x = −6 ( x − 1) 2 = x + 11 2(−6) + 13 = −6 + 7 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = x + 11 −12 + 13 = 1 x 2 − 3x − 10 = 0 1 =1 The solution set is {–6}. x2 − 5x − 6 = 0 6(8) + 1 = 8 − 1 0 + 1 = −1 48 + 1 = 7 49 = 7 x − 2x + 5 = 5 ( x − 5) 2 = 2 x + 5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 = 2 x + 5 x=6 −1 + 10 = −1 − 2 x 2 − 12 x + 20 = 0 6 + 10 = 6 − 2 9 = −3 False The solution set is {6}.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x + 3 = x − 6x + 9 x2 − 7 x + 6 = 0 6 x + 1 = x2 − 2 x + 1 ( x − 1)( x − 6) = 0 x–1=0 x–6=0 x=1 x=6 6+3 = 6−3 1+ 3 = 1− 3 x2 − 8x = 0 x( x − 8) = 0 x −8 = 0 False 9 = 3 4 = −2 The solution set is {6}.

Inc. 126. 2 x + 19 = x + 8 ( 2 x + 19 ) 2 = ( x + 8) 2 2 x + 19 = x 2 + 16 x + 64 0 = x 2 + 14 x + 45 0 = ( x + 9)( x + 5) x + 9 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 x = −9 x = −5 –9 does not check and must be rejected. 2 x + 15 − 6 = x 124. The solution set is {–3}. The solution set is {–5}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 125.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 2 x + 19 − 8 = x 123. ⎩ 11 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ − 76 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 25 – [2 + 5y – 3(y + 2)] = –3(2y – 5) – [5(y – 1) – 3y + 3] 25 – [2 + 5y – 3y – 6] = –6y + 15 – [5y – 5– 3y + 3] 25 – [2y – 4] = –6y + 15 – [2y – 2] 25 – 2y + 4 = –6y + 15 – 2y + 2 –2y + 29 = –8y + 17 6y = –12 y = –2 The solution set is {–2}. 45 – [4 – 2y – 4(y + 7)] = –4(1 + 3y) – [4 – 3(y + 2) – 2(2y – 5)] 45 – [4 – 2y – 4y – 28] = –4 – 12y – [4 – 3y – 6 – 4y + 10] 45 – [–6y – 24] = –4 – 12y – [–7y + 8] 45 + 6y + 24 = –4 – 12y + 7y – 8 6y + 69 = –5y – 12 11y = –81 y=− 81 11 ⎧ 81 ⎫ ⎬. 2 x + 15 = x + 6 ( 2 x + 15 ) 2 = ( x + 6) 2 2 x + 15 = x 2 + 12 x + 36 0 = x 2 + 10 x + 21 0 = ( x + 3)( x + 7) x + 3 = 0 or x + 7 = 0 x = −3 x = −7 –7 does not check and must be rejected.

Inc. 4. x = −3. 10 x − 1 = (2 x + 1) 2 10 x − 1 = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 0 = 4 x2 − 6 x + 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 3x + 1 0 = (2 x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x − 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x= 1 2 x =1 ⎧1 ⎫ ⎩2 ⎭ The solution set is ⎨ .1} . 6} . 128. 7 − 7 x = (3x + 2)( x − 1) 7 − 7 x = 3x 2 − x − 2 0 = 3x 2 + 6 x − 9 0 = x2 + 2 x − 3 0 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −3 x =1 The solution set is {−3.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = 12 x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 36 = −12 or ( x + 8)( x − 6) = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 4) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −8. x = −6. 129. x = 6. 130. 1} .1⎬ . . 77 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is {−8. x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 x 2 + 6 x + 1 = 8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 = −8 x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 x2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 3) = 0 Setting each of the factors above equal to zero gives x = −7. and x = 1. The solution set is {−7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − 6.7 127. − 3. and x = 4.

Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded. ( x − 2)( x − 3) . ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x + 2) . x= 135. Inc. This results in the following: 133. −1 ± 1 − 4 (1)( −5 ) 2 x= = 2 (1) = 4−2 = 2 The solution set is {8}. 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ x +5 = x −3+ 4 x −3 + 4 x + 5 = x +1+ 4 x − 3 5 = 1+ 4 x − 3 132. −1 ± 1 − ( −20 ) 2 134. . 2 x+8 − x−4 = 2 x +8 = x−4 + 2 x + 8 = ( x − 4 + 2) 2 x +8 = x −4+ 4 x −4 + 4 x +8 = x + 4 x − 4 8= 4 x−4 x + 2 = ( x − 1)( x − 2) + 5( x − 1) 2= x−4 x + 2 = x2 − 2 x − x + 2 + 5x − 5 4 = x−4 x + 2 = x2 + 2 x − 3 x=8 0 = x2 + x − 5 8+8 − 8−4 = 2 16 − 4 = 2 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 1 b = 1 c = −5 . 1 1 5 = + 2 x − 3x + 2 x + 2 x − 4 1 1 5 = + ( x − 1)( x − 2) x + 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. x +5 − x −3 = 2 −1 ± 21 2 x+5 = x −3 + 2 x + 5 = ( x − 3 + 2) 2 ⎪⎧ −1 ± 21 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. Publishing as Prentice Hall. This results in the following: ( x − 3)( x − 1) + x( x − 2) = 1 4 = 4 x −3 1= x −3 1= x −3 x=4 4+5 − 4−3 = 2 9− 1=2 3 −1 = 2 The solution set is {4}. x − 1 x 1 + = 2 x − 2 x − 3 x − 5x + 6 x −1 x 1 + = x − 2 x − 3 ( x − 2)( x − 3) Multiply both sides of the equation by the least common denominator. x − x − 3x + 3 + x − 2 x = 1 2 2 2x − 6x + 3 = 1 2 2 x2 − 6 x + 2 = 0 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 2 b = −6 c = 2 . ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ = x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(2)(−9) 2(2) −4 ± 88 4 −4 ± 2 22 x= 4 −2 ± 22 x= 2 x= 78 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 131. 2 x2 + 4 x − 9 = 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4 ( 2 )( 2 ) 2 ( 2) 6 ± 36 − 16 6 ± 20 = 4 4 6 ± 4⋅5 6 ± 2 5 = = 4 4 3± 5 = 2 ⎧⎪ 3 ± 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.

This is 6 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph.026 1.74 x + 148 = x + 70 −0.013 b = −1.26 −0.28 x + 140 = x + 50 −0.74( x + 200) = x + 0.19 x + 28.026 1.1(500) 0.10362 0.35(200) x + 200 x + 0.39 and 58. a.013) 2 1.26 x = −78 −0. Values that make the denominator zero must be excluded.35(200) 0.28( x + 500) = x + 0. the healthy weight of a person of height 5’6” is 142 pounds.013x 2 − 1.74 = b.19 ± 0.7 136.19 ± 0.26 x −78 = −0.15 or 33.19 ) ± ( −1.013x 2 − 1.28 = x + 500 0.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0. . − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(12) = 53 2 W − 36 = 53 2 W − 36 + 36 = 53 + 36 2 W = 89 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 89 2 W = 178 According to the formula.19 x + 25.15.72 x = 125 125 liters of pure peroxide must be added. This is 13 pounds below the upper end of the range shown in the bar graph. Thus.4161 − 1.026 ≈ 58. W − 3H = 53 2 W − 3(6) = 53 2 W − 18 = 53 2 W − 18 + 18 = 53 + 18 2 W = 71 2 W 2 ⋅ = 2 ⋅ 71 2 W = 142 According to the formula.72 x −90 = −0.19 x + 28.1(500) x + 500 x + 0.39 The solutions are approximately 33. The function models the actual data well. x + 0.PreCalculus 4E Section P. f ( x ) = 0. 33 year olds and 58 year olds are expected to be in 3 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven.19 c = 25.1(500) C= C= 140.35(200) x + 200 0. x + 0. = 79 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 0.32190 ≈ 0.24 3 = 0.26 x = 300 300 liters of pure acid must be added.013x 2 − 1. = − ( −1. 2 x2 − 8x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−8) ± (−8) 2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) 139.24 ) 2 ( 0.19 ± 1.19 ) − 4 ( 0.013)( 25. Publishing as Prentice Hall.24 0 = 0.72 −0.31248 0.24 x= W 138.72 x = −90 −0. 141. 8 ± 24 4 8± 2 6 x= 4 4± 6 x= 2 x= 137. 0. the healthy weight of a person of height 6’ is 178 pounds.

makes sense 161.7 2 2 ⎛ 2.6 = 0. does not make sense.19 x + 18.1 = 0.19 ) ± 160. ( −1. A sample change is: (2 x − 3) 2 = 25 (2 x − 3) 2 = ± 25 2 x − 3 = ±5 164.5 x 2 − 2 x − 15 = 0 3. M = 0.013x 2 − 1.24 159. Drivers of approximately age 19 and age 72 are expected to be involved in 10 fatal crashes per 100 million miles driven. Changes to make the statement true will vary. ( ) 145.7 2 2 ⎛ 3. false.68383 ≈ 0.5 = 0.026 1.013)(18. 80 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1.19 x + 28.46762 1. The formula does not model the data very well. 2.94848 0.5 ⎞ ⎜ 0. f ( x ) = 0.7 x + 12. Explanations will vary. Answers may vary.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 142.7 x 2.7 x + 12. 144. does not make sense.026 x ≈ 72.19 x + 28. 1.24 Apply the quadratic formula: a = 0.7 x + 12. Explanations will vary. does not make sense.19 ± 1.6 ⎞ ⎜ 0. A sample change is: ax 2 + c = 0 can be solved using b = 0 .1 cluttered minutes 14 years after 1996.24 2 0 = 0.026 0.7 x 3. Changes to make the statement true will vary. true 166.026 162. or 2010.19 ) − 4 ( 0. false.24 ) 2 ( 0.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 25 = x There will be 16 cluttered minutes 25 years after 1996. Sample explanation: You should substitute into the original equation.7 ⎟ = x ⎝ ⎠ 14 ≈ x There will be 15. The formula overestimates the number of fatal accidents.24 x= = − ( −1.19 ± 0.5 167.4161 − 0. ( ) 168. or 2021.5 = x 0.87383 0.19 c = 18. 143.1 x ≈ 19 = 163. 165.68383 1.013x − 1.6 = x 0.013) 2 1. M = 0.013x 2 − 1. . – 158. Inc.50617 x= x= 0.5 7x + 4 + 13 = x b 7(−6) + 4 + 13 = −6 b −38 = −19 b −19b = −38 b=2 [ x − (−3)][ x − (5)] = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 5) = 0 16 = 0. A sample change is: Some quadratics have one number in their solution sets.19 + 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.7 x + 12. Sample explanation: Substitute n = 6 into the equation to find P. Sample explanation: The factoring method would be quicker. Explanations will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 15.026 0.026 Evaluate the expression to obtain two solutions.68383 x= or x = 0.19 ± 0.026 0.013 b = −1. false.19 − 0. 10 = 0.

05x 173. 037 = 130. Inc. b = v0 .8 192 + 56 x + 4 x 2 = 320 Check Point Exercises 1. 400 a = ±120 –120 must be rejected. 900 a 2 = 14.1x = −55 −55 x= −1.026 In 2007 the average teaching salary for women was $57.1 x = 50 33% of female freshmen will respond this way 50 years after 1969. The path must be 2 feet wide. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + (50) 2 = (130)2 a 2 + 2500 = 16. c = − s t= t= t= −v0 ± ( v0 ) − 4 ( −16 )( − s ) 2 ( −16 ) −v0 ± ( v0 ) 2 2 − 64s −32 v0 ± v0 2 − 64 s 32 171. 015 2 x = 115. 2. x + 150 172. 3. or 2019. 81 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4. 015 2 x + 14.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 015 x + x + 14.70 x = 1200 Before the reduction the computer’s price was $1200. Let x = the computer’s price before the reduction. 4 x + 400 Section P.026. 88 − 1. 037 = 72. x + 14. 5. The tower is 120 yards tall. 037 ) = 130.989 6. 20 + 0. Let x = the number of years since 1969. . x − 0. 2l + 2 w = P 2( x + 44) + 2 x = 288 2 x + 88 + 2 x = 288 4 x + 88 = 288 4 x = 200 200 x= 4 x = 50 x + 44 = 94 The dimensions of the court are 50 by 94.30 x = 840 0. (16 + 2 x )(12 + 2 x) = 320 VL = CL − CN + SN CN − CL = NS − LV C ( N − L ) = NS − LV C ( N − L) NS − LV N −L N −L NS − LV LV − NS or C= N −L L−N = 170. Let x + 44 = the length of the court.1x = 33 −1. 037 = 130.1x = 33 − 88 −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = the width of the court.8 C−S N L VL = CL − ( C − S ) N V =C− 169.989 and the average salary for men was $72. 4 x 2 + 56 x − 128 = 0 x 2 + 14 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 16)( x − 2) = 0 x + 16 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −16 x=2 –16 must be rejected. s = −16t 2 + v0 t 0 = −16t 2 + v0 t − s a = −16.70 x = 840 840 x= 0.037 = the average salary for men x + ( x + 14. Let x = the average salary for women Let x + 14.978 x = 57.

8 x = 3. 000 − 375. 000. 000 x + 15. 000. 000 x 7. 000 = 0 x 2 + 3x − 40 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 5) = 0 x + 8 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −8 x=5 –8 must be rejected. 000 x = 5. Let x = the time spent listening to radio. 2. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 3) x x+3 ⎝ ⎠ 5.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra The original amount of money per person. The new amount of money per person. 000.9 weeks. x + ( x + 4) = 11. Inc. 000. Let x = number of weeks Americans spend on vacation. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 x + 15. 000 x 2 − 1. reduction per winner 5. 82 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9 x + 4 = 7. Let x + 581 = the time spent watching TV. x + ( x + 581) = 2529 x + x + 581 = 2529 2 x + 581 − 581 = 2529 − 581 2 x = 1948 x = 974 x + 581 = 1555 Americans spent 974 hours listening to radio and 1555 hours watching TV. 000. 000. 000 5.125. 000 x −375.8 1. 000 = x x+3 5. 000 ⎛ 5. 000( x + 3) − 375.125. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 weeks on vacation and Italians spend an average of 7. 000 x( x + 3) = 5.8 x + x + 4 = 11. 000. 000 − 375. 000. 000 ⎞ x( x + 3) ⎜ − 375. .8 − 4 2 x = 7. There were 5 people in the original group. Let x + 4 = number of weeks Italians spend on vacation.8 2 x + 4 − 4 = 11. 000.9 Americans spend an average of 3. Exercise Set P. 5. 000.

300 at that time.580 and the average salary for computer programmers is $63. Inc.800 − 500 x 1500 x = 13. 000 x + 2 x − 7740 = 99. 200. 5. x + (3x − 3500) = 74. . 000 − 5000 x 10. 760 The average salary for janitors is $19. Let x = the number of years since 1983. 000(25) = 10. 600. 200. 9. 200.000. 000 − 3000 x b. 000 x= −5000 x=7 The car’s value will drop to $10.300 + 1000 x = 26. 060 4 x − 3500 + 3500 = 74. y = 45.6 x = 61 − 43 0. 000 − 12. 060 x + 3 x − 3500 = 74. 000 = 9.6 x = 18 18 x= 0. 83 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 43 + 1. or 2014. 000 − 45. a. or 2016. 060 + 3500 4 x = 77. or 2021. 000 = 45. 000 − 12.6 x = 30 61% of American adults will approve 30 years after 1986. 000 − 300. 000 x = 25 The countries will have the same population 25 years after the year 2000. 7.300 and 26.420. 000 − 3000 x 9000 − 24.8 Let x = the average salary for carpenters. Let x = the average salary for janitors. 000 − 5000 x 10. 000 3 x − 7740 = 99. 8. 420 The average salary for carpenters is $35. 000 = −5000 x −35.5 x = 100 − 43 1. Let 3x − 3500 = the average salary for registered nurses. 390 3 x − 3500 = 54.300 The college’s enrollments will be 22. 000 The population in the year 2025 will be 9.6 x = 61 0. a. 000 x = 10. y = 24. 000 x Let x = the number of years since 1986. 10.760.5 x = 38 All American adults will approve 38 years after 1983. 740 x = 35. 000 − 3000 x 9000 = 24. 000 = −3000 x −15. 43 + 0.900. 000 − 5000 x b. 000 x= −3000 x=5 The car’s value will drop to $9000 after 5 years.000 after 7 years. 000 = −5000 x −35.500 = 1500 1500 x=9 The two colleges will have the same enrollment about 9 years after 2005.800 − 500(9) = 22. Section P. Let 2 x − 7740 = the average salary for computer programmers. 000 = −3000 x −15. Let x = the number of years after 2000 10. 200.900. Let x = the number of years after 2005 13.5 x = 100 1.390 and the average salary for registered nurses is $54. 000 3x − 7740 + 7740 = 99. −16. or the year 2025.PreCalculus 4E 3. x + (2 x − 7740) = 99. 4.300 + 1000(9) = 22. 500 1500 x 13.580 2 x − 7740 = 63. 13. 10. 000 + 7740 3x = 106. 000 − 28. y = 45. y = 24. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6. 000 x = −400. 060 4 x − 3500 = 74. 000 − 12.5 x = 57 57 x= 1. 000 x = 10. 560 x = 19.

the dimensions are 36 feet by 78 feet. the dimensions are 50 yards by 100 yards. .25c 12 = c The dealer’s cost is $12.80 x = 336 x = 420 The television set’s price is $420. Let x = the width of the frame. 0.05 x = 252 x = 240 The nightly cost is $240. Let c = the dealer’s cost 584 = c + 0. Thus.25c 15 = 1. 320 = 2 ( 3w ) + 2 ( w ) 320 = 6w + 2w 320 = 8w 40 = w If w = 40.30 x = 30.20. 126 = 2 ( 2w − 6 ) + 2 ( w ) 126 = 4w − 12 + 2w 126 = 6 w − 12 138 = 6 w 23 = w Find the length. 2 w − 6 = 2(23) − 6 = 46 − 6 = 40 The dimensions are 23 meters by 40 meters. Thus.80 x = 44 The dictionary’s price before the reduction was $44.05 x = 252 1. 16. Inc. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. x − 0. The dimensions are 40 feet by 120 feet. Let 3w = the length of the swimming pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 21. 14. 3w = 3(40) = 120. 15.25c 584 = 1. 20.08 x = 162 x = 150 The nightly cost is $150. 2= x The width of the frame is 2 inches.20 = c The dealer’s cost is $467. 12.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 11. Total length: 16 + 2x Total width: 12 + 2x P = 2(length) + 2(width) 72 = 2 (16 + 2 x ) + 2 (12 + 2 x ) Let w = the width of the field Let 2w = the length of the field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 72 = 32 + 4 x + 24 + 4 x 72 = 8 x + 56 16 = 8 x 300 = 2 ( 2w) + 2 ( w) 300 = 4 w + 2w 300 = 6w 50 = w If w = 50 .08 x = 162 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let w = the width of the pool. then 2 w + 6 = 2(36) + 6 = 78 . Let x = the cost of the dictionary x − 0. 19. 17. Let x = the cost of the television set. Let x = the nightly cost x + 0. Let w = the width of the field Let 2w + 6 = the length of the field 228 = 6w + 12 216 = 6w 36 = w If w = 36 .25c 467. 84 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let 2w – 6 = the length of the pool P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 13.80 0. Let c = the dealer’s cost 15 = c + 0. Let w = the width of the swimming pool.70 x = 30. then 2 w = 100 .20 x = 336 18.

Let w = the width Let w +3 = the length Area = lw 27.PreCalculus 4E 22. This means that x. The width is 6 feet and the length is 6 + 3 = 9 feet. larger square ( x + 3) x=5 The solution set is {−20. Let x = the side of the original square. 2 = 36 x 2 + 4 x + 4 = 36 x 2 + 4 x − 32 = 0 ( x + 8)( x − 4 ) = 0 54 = ( w + 3) w 24. 26.5} . ( x + 11)( x − 5) = 0 x=− Apply the zero product principle. x + 11 = 0 x −5 = 0 x = −11 x=5 The solution set is {−11.5} . ( x + 2) x +8 = 0 x−4 = 0 x=4 x = −8 The length of the side of the original square. The width of the path is 5 meters. is 4 inches. w + 15 = 0 w − 12 = 0 w = 12 w = −15 The width is 12 yards and the length is 12 yards + 3 yards = 15 yards. 180 = w2 + 3w 2 Let x = the width of the path ( 20 + 2 x )(10 + 2 x ) = 600 200 + 40 x + 20 x + 4 x 2 = 600 54 = w2 + 3w 25. Inc. the length of the side of the original square. Let x = the length of the side of the original square Let x + 3 = the length of the side of the new. 23. Section P. 85 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 ( x + 20 ) = 0 x −5 = 0 Let w = the width Let w + 3 = the width Area = lw x + 20 = 0 x = −20 180 = ( w + 3) w 0 = w2 + 3w − 180 0 = ( w + 15 )( w − 12 ) 28. Disregard –20 because we can’t have a negative width measurement. 4 x 2 + 60 x − 400 = 0 4 ( x 2 + 15 x − 100 ) = 0 4 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. Disregard –11 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. is 5 inches.8 Let w = the width of the path Let 40 + 2w = the width of the pool and path Let 60 + 2w = the length of the pool and path 2(40 + 2w) + 2(60 + 2w) = 248 80 + 4w + 120 + 4w = 248 200 + 8w = 248 8w = 48 w=6 The width of the path is 6 feet. 200 + 60 x + 4 x 2 = 600 4 x + 60 x + 200 = 600 0 = w2 + 3w − 54 2 0 = ( w + 9 )( w − 6 ) w+9 = 0 w−6 = 0 w = −9 w=6 Disregard –9 because we can’t have a negative length measurement. larger square Let x = the width of the path (12 + 2 x )(15 + 2 x ) = 378 180 + 24 x + 30 x + 4 x 2 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x + 180 = 378 4 x 2 + 54 x − 198 = 0 2 ( 2 x 2 + 27 x − 99 ) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33)( x − 3) = 0 2 ( 2 x + 33) = 0 = 64 2 x + 33 = 0 2 x = −33 x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 64 x 2 + 6 x − 55 = 0 x −3 = 0 x=3 33 2 The width of the path is 3 meters. . Let x + 2 = the side of the new.

4 – 92. 32.24 feet The distance along the length and width is about 28.62 feet 2x ≈ 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall. or about 116.09 yd 3x ≈ 87. x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 642 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 4096 5 x 2 = 4096 4096 x2 = 5 4096 x=± 5 x ≈ 28.9 feet. Inc.9 feet.3 feet tall. or about 85. 8 x 2 + 25 x − 84 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 28) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 28 = 0 x=3 x = −28 –28 must be rejected.2 –13.62 + 57.2 feet up the house. or about 24. .4 yards.3 must be rejected.4 a 2 = 800 x = ± 846. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + b2 = c2 52 + x 2 = ( x + 1) 2 x 2 + 25 = x 2 + 2 x + 1 25 = 2 x + 1 24 = 2 x x = 12 x + 1 = 13 The wire is 13 feet long.09 + 87. a 2 + b2 = c2 4 x 2 + 44 x − 168 = 0 x 2 + 11x − 42 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 14) = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x + 14 = 0 x=3 x = −14 –14 must be rejected.28.9 – 64. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + (3x) 2 = 922 a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + 9 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 102 = 302 10 x 2 = 8464 a 2 + 100 = 900 x 2 = 846. (20 + 2 x)(30 + 2 x) − (20)(30) = 336 34.2 must be rejected. A person could save 116. The width of the path is 3 feet 30. a 2 + b2 = c2 a 2 + 152 = 202 a 2 + 225 = 400 a 2 = 175 a = ± 175 a ≈ ±13. A person could save 85. (10 + 2 x)(12 + 2 x) − (10)(12) = 168 120 + 44 x + 4 x 2 − 120 = 168 35. 36. Let x be the width.24.4 x ≈ 29. 33. The ladder reaches 13. or about 21.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 29. 600 + 100 x + 4 x 2 − 600 = 336 152 + x 2 = ( x + 4) 2 4 x 2 + 100 x − 336 = 0 x 2 + 225 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 225 = 8 x + 16 209 = 8 x 1 x = 26 8 1 x + 4 = 30 8 1 The wire is 30 feet long.3 –28. The building is 28.4 yards. The width of the path is 3 feet 31.28 yd The distance along the length and width is about 29. a = ± 800 a ≈ ±28. 86 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let x be the width.

000. 000. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 x + 1. There were 6 people in the original group. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 4) x x+4 ⎝ ⎠ 480. 000 = x x+4 480. 000 x = 480. 000 ⎞ x( x + 4) ⎜ − 32. 000. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 2 x − 80 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 8) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 8 = 0 x = −10 x=8 –10 must be rejected. 000 = x x+2 20. 480. Inc. 20. 000 − 500. . 87 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 x 2 − 1. 000 − 500. 000. 000. 000 x = 20. There were 8 people in the original group. 000( x + 2) − 500. The new amount of money per person. 000 x( x + 2) = 20. 000 x 2 − 128. The average velocity of the bus is 30 miles per hour. 000 x 2 − 128. Let x be the car’s average velocity. 000 ⎛ 480. 000 x 40. 000 − 500. 000 x 1.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 000 x 37. 000 x = 0 x 2 + 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 10)( x − 6) = 0 x + 10 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = −10 x=6 –10 must be rejected.8 The original amount of money per person. 480. 000. 000 ⎞ x( x + 2) ⎜ − 500. 000. 000 − 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 x( x + 4) = 480. 000 ⎟ = x( x + 2) x x+2 ⎝ ⎠ 20. 000 − 32. 000 ⎛ 20. 000. 920. 000 x + 40. 920. 000 − 32. 000. 39. reduction per winner 20. 000. 000( x + 4) − 32. car's time traveled bus's time traveled 300 180 = x x − 20 300( x − 20) = 180 x 300 x − 6000 = 180 x 120 x = 6000 x = 50 x − 20 = 30 The average velocity of the car is 50 miles per hour. 000 x 38. 000. 000 20. 000 480. 000.

41. – 52.30(140 + x) 35 + x = 42 + 0. The average velocity on the 7 return trip is 6 miles per hour.30 x 350 + 10 x = 420 + 3x 7 x = 70 x = 10 You must get 10 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 40.6 + 0. Let x be the passenger train’s average velocity. Let x be the number of consecutive hits. 30 + x = 0. passenger train's time traveled 43. Let x be the average velocity of the first engine. Let x = number of hours 63x = labor cost 63x + 532 = 1603 63x = 1071 x = 17 17 hours were required to repair the yacht. Answers may vary. 44. Let x be the number of consecutive hits.30 140 + x 35 + x = 0. 42. 49.28(120 + x) 140 x + 700 + 200 x = 9 x 2 + 45 x 0 = 9 x 2 − 295 x − 700 30 + x = 33. Let x = number of hours 35x = labor cost 35x + 63 = 448 35x = 385 x = 11 It took 11 hours. 47. Let x = inches over 5 feet 100 + 5x = 135 5x = 35 x=7 A height of 5 feet 7 inches corresponds to 135 pounds. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 = 7 x 2 + 3 x − 270 0 = ( x − 6)(7 x + 45) x − 6 = 0 or 7 x + 45 = 0 x=6 45 x=− 7 45 − must be rejected. 140 200 + =9 x x+5 ⎛ 140 200 ⎞ ⎜ x + x+5⎟ =9 ⎝ ⎠ 140 200 ⎛ ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ + = 9 x( x + 5) x + 5 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x 140( x + 5) + 200 x = 9 x( x + 5) 48. 5 5 7 + = x+9 x 6 5⎞ 7 ⎛ 5 6 x( x + 9) ⎜ + ⎟ = 6 x( x + 9) 6 ⎝ x+9 x⎠ 30 x + 30( x + 9) = 7 x( x + 9) 46. 0 = ( x − 35)(9 x − 20) x − 35 = 0 or 9 x + 20 = 0 x = 35 20 x=− x + 5 = 40 9 20 − must be rejected. 88 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.28 120 + x 30 + x = 0. The average velocity of the 9 first engine is 35 miles per hour. freight train's time traveled 240 160 = x x − 20 240( x − 20) = 160 x 240 x − 4800 = 160 x 80 x = 4800 x = 60 x − 20 = 40 The average velocity of the passenger train is 60 miles per hour.28 x 3000 + 100 x = 3360 + 28 x 72 x = 360 x=5 You must get 5 consecutive hits to increase your batting average to 0.28. Let g = the gross amount of the paycheck Yearly Salary = 2 (12 ) g + 750 30 x + 30 x + 270 = 7 x 2 + 63 x 33150 = 24 g + 750 32400 = 24 g 1350 = g The gross amount of each paycheck is $1350. The average velocity of the second engine is 40 miles per hour.30. 45. 35 + x = 0. Let x be the average velocity on the return trip. Inc. . The average velocity of the freight train is 40 miles per hour.

the thief has: 1 1 ⎛1 ⎞ x − ⎜ x + 2⎟ = x − x − 2 = x − 2 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ After passing the second security guard. Answers may vary.6 x − 0.24 x = 72 0. 56. and the girl received $2000.PreCalculus 4E 53. 61.6x) = price after second reduction 0. Let x = the number of plants originally stolen After passing the first security guard.6x – 0.35 x = 780. Let x = correct answers 26 – x = incorrect answers 8 x − 5(26 − x) = 0 8 x − 130 + 5 x = 0 13x − 130 = 0 13x = 130 x = 10 10 problems were solved correctly. 62. Sample explanation: Though mathematical models can often provide excellent estimates about future attitudes. Inc. . Explanations will vary. Let x = original price x – 0. Explanations will vary. 000 2 x = $4. Sample explanation: The correct equation is x − 0. Let x = mother’s amount 2x = boy’s amount x = girl’s amount 2 x x + 2 x + = 14. Let x = woman’s age 3x = Coburn’s age 3x + 20 = 2(x + 20) 3x + 20 = 2x + 40 x + 20 = 40 x = 20 Coburn is 60 years old the woman is 20 years old. and 5. 000 2 7 x = 14. The lengths of the sides are 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. makes sense 55. 57. a 2 + b2 = c2 x 2 + ( x + 1) 2 = [12 − x − ( x + 1) ] 2 x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 1 = [12 − x − x − 1] 2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = (11 − 2 x )2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 = 121 − 44 x + 4 x 2 0 = 2 x 2 − 46 x + 120 0 = x 2 − 23x + 60 0 = ( x − 3)( x − 20) x − 3 = 0 or x − 20 = 0 x=3 x = 20 x +1 = 4 12 − (3 + 4) = 5 20 must be rejected. true –1 is a solution. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 2 x−2 ⎟ 1 1 x−2−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 3 2 ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ After passing the third security guard. makes sense 60. does not make sense. as it is greater than the perimeter. 4. 3 − 2 x ≤ 11 3 − 2(−1) ≤ 11 3 + 2 ≤ 11 5 ≤ 11. 63. the thief has: ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ 4 x−3 ⎟ 1 1 7 x −3−⎜ + 2⎟ = x − 4 2 8 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 7 Thus.6x = price after first reduction 0. Let x be the length of one leg. the boy received $8000. x − = 1 8 2 x − 28 = 8 58. 64.4x = 0. 54. 59. x = 36 The thief stole 36 plants. Section P.4(0. they cannot guaranty perfect precision.8 does not make sense.36 x = 72 x = 200 The original price was $200. 000 The mother received $4000. 89 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Numbers in both [1. Inc. a. −2 x − 4 = x + 5 −2 x − x = 5 + 4 −3 x = 9 9 x= −3 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. [1. [1.9 Check Point Exercises 1.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 65. 2.5 { } c. x+3 x−2 1 = + 4 3 4 ⎛ x+3⎞ ⎛ x−2 1⎞ 12 ⎜ ⎟ = 12 ⎜ 3 + 4 ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x + 3) = 4( x − 2) + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 8 + 3 3x + 9 = 4 x − 5 3x − 4 x = −5 − 9 − x = −14 x = 14 The solution set is {14}.5] = x 1≤ x ≤ 3. { } Graph [1. −1) = x x < −1 a. 6 ) : To find the intersection.3] ∩ ( 2. 3. 5) = x −2 ≤ x < 5 { } b. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.3] . 6 ) : Thus. 66. [−2.3] and ( 2. [−∞. 6 ) = ( 2. . 90 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section P.3] : Graph ( 2.

take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 3. [1.9 Graph [1. 6 ) = [1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3x + 1 > 7 x − 15 −4 x > −16 −4 x −16 < −4 −4 x<4 The solution set is { x x < 4} or ( -∞. 4) . Numbers in either [1. 6 ) : To find the union. 6. ∞) . 6 ) or both: Thus. . 1 ≤ 2 x + 3 < 11 −2 ≤ 2 x < 8 −1 ≤ x < 4 The solution set is { x −1 ≤ x < 4} or [−1. Graph ( 2.PreCalculus 4E Section P.3] ∪ ( 2. 4. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 2 3 6 ⎛ x−4⎞ ⎛ x−2 5⎞ 6⎜ ⎟ ≥ 6⎜ 3 + 6 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x + 1 3x − 2 x ≥ 1 + 12 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} or [13. 2 − 3x ≤ 5 −3 x ≤ 3 x ≥ −1 The solution set is { x x ≥ −1} or [−1. Inc. 6 ) .4] .3] or ( 2.3] : b. 5. ∞ ) . 91 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

25 x 180 < 0. Inc. . x−2 <5 −5 < x − 2 < 5 −3 < x < 7 The solution set is { x −3 < x < 7} or (−3. 92 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.3⎥ . 260 < 80 + 0. 7) . Let x = the number of miles driven in a week. ∞ ) . 18 < 6 − 3x 6 − 3x < −18 −3x < −24 −3x −24 > −3 −3 x >8 or 6 − 3x > 18 −3x > 12 −3x 12 < −3 −3 x < −4 The solution set is { x x < −4 or x > 8} or ( −∞. 10. 8. −3 5 x − 2 + 20 ≥ −19 −3 5 x − 2 ≥ −39 −3 5 x − 2 −39 −3 −3 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 ≤ −13 ≤ 5 x − 2 ≤ 13 −11 ≤ 5 x ≤ 15 −11 5 x 15 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 11 − ≤ x≤3 5 ⎧ 11 ⎫ ⎡ 11 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 3⎬ or ⎢ − .25 x 720 < x Driving more than 720 miles in a week makes Basic the better deal.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −4 ) ∪ ( 8. 5 ⎣ 5 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 9.

. 1<x≤6 2. Graph ( −3. x < 5. 2] = [ −1. 0 ) and [ −1. x ≤ 3. Numbers in both ( −3. –2 ≤ x ≤ 5 7. 0 ) : Graph [ −1.9 1. –2 < x ≤ 4 3. –5 ≤ x < 2 4. 93 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2] : Thus. x>2 8. x>3 9. 2] : To find the intersection.9 Exercise Set P. 0 ) ∩ [ −1.5 14.PreCalculus 4E Section P. x ≥ –5 11. x < 3 12. x ≥ –3 10. 0 ) . ( −3. x < 2 13. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –3 ≤ x ≤ 1 6. Inc.5 15. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. –4 ≤ x < 3 5.

2] . 6 ) ∩ [ 2. 0 ) ∪ [ −1. 6 ) and [ 2.8] : Thus. ( −∞.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 16.1] or both: Thus.8] = [1.6 ) . ( −∞. ( −4. 0 ) .5 ) .8] : To find the intersection. 0 ) : Graph [ −2. Graph ( −∞. Graph ( −∞. 0 ) ∩ [ −2. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. Numbers in both ( −4. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.9] : Thus.9] : To find the intersection.5 ) ∩ [1. 18.1] . Graph ( −4. 94 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Numbers in both ( −∞. Numbers in either ( −3. ( −3. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 2] = ( −3. 0 ) or [ −1. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Numbers in both ( −∞. Inc. 6 ) : Graph [ 2. 20.5) and [1. Graph ( −3. 0 ) ∪ [ −2. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. Numbers in either ( −4. Graph ( −4.1] : To find the intersection. 0 ) : Graph [ −1. 2] or both: Thus. 0 ) : Graph [ −2.1] : Thus.1] : To find the union. 0 ) and [ −2.1] = [ −2.5 ) : Graph [1.9] = [ 2. 19.1] = ( −4. . 17. 2] : To find the union. 0 ) or [ −2.

Numbers in both [3. ∞ ) : To find the intersection. ∞ ) or both: Thus.8] . ∞ ) : Thus.9] = ( −∞. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. [3. Numbers in both [ 2. 23. 95 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) : Graph ( 4. 6 ) : Graph [ 2.8] = ( −∞. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. ∞ ) = [3. ∞ ) and ( 6. ∞ ) = ( 6.∞ ) = ( 4. [ 2. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Section P.5 ) ∪ [1. ( −∞. ∞ ) .∞ ) : To find the intersection. 6 ) or [ 2.9] or both: Thus. Graph [3.PreCalculus 4E 21. .8] or both: Thus. 6 ) ∪ [ 2. [3. Graph ( −∞. Inc. Graph [3. ∞ ) : To find the union.9] . Publishing as Prentice Hall. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. Numbers in either ( −∞. ∞ ) : Graph ( 6. Numbers in either [3.8] : To find the union. ∞ ) ∩ ( 4. 24. ( −∞. Graph [ 2. Numbers in either ( −∞. ∞ ) or ( 6.9] : To find the union. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. 25. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.∞ ) : Thus.5 ) or [1. 22.5 ) : Graph [1. ∞ ) and ( 4.9 Graph ( −∞. ∞ ) ∩ ( 6. ∞ ) ∪ ( 6.

∞ ) . ∞ ) . 29. 31.∞ ) = [ 2. 28. 3x – 7 ≥ 13 3x ≥ 20 20 x≥ 3 ⎧ 20 ⎫ ⎡ 20 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > ⎬ . 96 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Numbers in either [ 2. [ 2. 27.∞ ) : To find the union. Graph ( 4. 3). –9x ≥ 36 x ≤ –4 The solution set is { x x ≤ −4} . . or (–∞.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Graph [ 2. 8x – 2 ≥ 14 8x ≥ 16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x > 2} or [ 2. –5x ≤ 30 x ≥ –6 The solution set is { x x ≥ −6} or [ −6. or ⎢ . or ( −∞. 2x + 5 < 17 2x < 12 x<6 The solution set is { x x < 6} or (–∞.∞ ) or both: Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 6). ∞ ) ∪ ( 4. 5x + 11 < 26 5x < 15 x<3 The solution set is { x x < 3} . ∞ ) . 32. 3 ⎣3 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 30. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. ∞ ⎟ . ∞ ) : 26. −4] . ∞ ) or ( 4.

or (–∞. 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − ⎥ . 8x – 11 ≤ 3x – 13 8x – 3x ≤ –13 + 11 5x ≤ –2 2 x≤− 5 ⎧ 2⎫ 2⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ . 6 6⎦ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ 35. 4(x + 1) + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 4 + 2 ≥ 3x + 6 4x + 6 ≥ 3x + 6 4x – 3x ≥ 6 – 6 x≥0 The solution set is { x x > 0} . or [0. 2x – 11 < – 3(x + 2) 2x – 11 < – 3x – 6 5x < 5 x<1 The solution set is { x x < 1} . 1). ∞).9 33. or ⎜ −∞. − ⎥ . ∞ ). –4(x + 2) > 3x + 20 –4x – 8 > 3x + 20 –7x > 28 x < –4 The solution set is { x x < −4} or (–∞.PreCalculus 4E Section P. 8x + 3 > 3(2x + 1) + x + 5 8x + 3 > 6x + 3 + x + 5 8x + 3 > 7x + 8 8x – 7x > 8 – 3 x>5 The solution set is { x x > 5} or (5. 37. 18x + 45 ≤ 12x – 8 18x – 12x ≤ –8 – 45 6x ≤ –53 53 x≤− 6 ⎧ 53 ⎫ 53 ⎤ ⎛ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − ⎬ or ⎜ −∞. 97 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5⎭ 5⎦ ⎝ ⎩ 34. 38. . Inc. –4).

1 − [ −2. 40. − 98 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 41. ∞). ∞ ) . or [ −10. ∞ ) . 3x 1 x +1 ≥ − 10 5 10 ⎛ 3x ⎞ ⎛1 x ⎞ 10 ⎜ + 1⎟ ≥ 10 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 3x + 10 ≥ 2 − x 4 x ≥ −8 x ≥ −2 The solution set is { x x ≥ −2} or 43. or [6.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 39. x >4 2 x >3 2 x < –6 The solution set is { x x. −6} . Inc. − 6 ) . . 5(3 – x) ≤ 3x – 1 15 – 5x ≤ 3x – 1 –8x ≤ –16 x≥2 The solution set is { x x ≥ 2} or [2. x 3 x − ≤ +1 4 2 2 4x 4 ⋅ 3 4 ⋅ x − ≤ + 4 ⋅1 4 2 2 x − 6 ≤ 2x + 4 − x ≤ 10 x ≥ −10 The solution set is { x x ≥ −10} . 42. ∞). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 – (x + 3) ≥ 4 – 2x 1 – x – 3 ≥ 4 – 2x –x – 2 ≥ 4 – 2x x≥6 The solution set is { x x ≥ 6} . or ( −∞.

∞ ⎟. 4x − 3 2x −1 +2≥ 6 12 2(4 x − 3) + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 8 x − 6 + 24 ≥ 2 x − 1 6 x + 18 ≥ −1 6 x ≥ −19 19 6 ⎧ −19 ⎫ ⎡ -19 ⎞ . −2 ) . ∞). 3 [3( x + 5) + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [ 3( x − 6) − 2(3x − 5) ] < 2(4 x + 3) 3 [3x + 15 + 8 x + 7 ] + 5 [3x − 18 − 6 x + 10] < 8 x + 6 3 [11x + 22] + 5 [ −3x − 8] < 8 x + 6 33x + 66 − 15 x − 40 < 8 x + 6 18 x + 26 < 8 x + 6 10 x < −20 x < −2 The solution set is { x x < −2} or [ −∞. or [13. x−4 x−2 5 ≥ + 6 9 18 3( x − 4) ≥ 2( x − 2) + 5 3x − 12 ≥ 2 x − 4 + 5 x ≥ 13 The solution set is { x x ≥ 13} .9 4 3 7− x < 5 5 4 32 − x<− 5 5 x>8 The solution set is { x x > 8} or (8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Section P. Inc. The solution set is ⎨ x x ≥ ⎬ or ⎢ 6 ⎣ 6 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ x≥− 47. 46. 99 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 45. ∞ ) .PreCalculus 4E 44.

2⎭ ⎣2 2 ⎠ ⎩ 2 100 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5]. 54. –11 < 2x –1 ≤ –5 –10 < 2x ≤ –4 –5 < x ≤ –2 The solution set is { x − 5 < x ≤ −2} . 3 ≤ 4x – 3 < 19 6 ≤ 4x < 22 6 22 ≤x< 4 4 3 11 ≤x< 2 2 ⎧ 3 11⎫ ⎡ 3 11 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x ≤ x < ⎬ or ⎢ . 3). 6 < x + 3 < 8 6–3<x+3–3<8–3 3<x<5 The solution set is { x 3 < x < 5} . 50. Inc. ∞ ⎟ . –2].Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 6). or (3. –6 < x – 4 ≤ 1 –2 < x ≤ 5 The solution set is {x | −2 < x ≤ 5} or (–2. 5 [ 3(2 − 3x) − 2(5 − x) ] − 6 [5( x − 2) − 2(4 x − 3) ] < 3x + 19 5 [ 6 − 9 x − 10 + 2 x ] − 6 [5 x − 10 − 8 x + 6] < 3x + 19 5 [ −7 x − 4] − 6 [ −3x − 4] < 3 x + 19 −35 x − 20 + 18 x + 24 < 3x + 19 −17 x + 4 < 3 x + 19 −20 x < 15 −20 x 15 > −20 −20 3 x>− 4 ⎧ 3⎫ ⎡ 3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎨ x x > − ⎬ or ⎢ − . 52. 4 ⎣ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 49. ⎟ . –3 ≤ x – 2 < 1 –1 ≤ x < 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x < 3} . 5). 53. or (–5. 51. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7 < x + 5 < 11 7 – 5 < x + 5 – 5 < 11 – 5 2<x<6 The solution set is { x 2 < x < 6} or (2. or [–1. .

3]. that is. 5). |3(x – 1) + 2| ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3(x – 1) + 2 ≤ 20 –20 ≤ 3x – 1 ≤ 20 –19 ≤ 3x ≤ 21 19 − ≤x≤7 3 ⎧ 19 ⎫ ⎡ 19 ⎤ The solution set is ⎨ x − ≤ x ≤ 7 ⎬ or ⎢ − . 3 ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ 57. 61. or [3. or 2 x − 5 < −1 3 2 x<4 3 3≤x<6 The solution set is { x 3 ≤ x < 6} . |x| < 5 –5 < x < 5 The solution set is { x − 5 < x < 5} or (–5. 22 ⎛ 22 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x − < x < 4 ⎬ or ⎜ − .PreCalculus 4E 55. −3 ≤ Section P. or (–6. 3]. Inc. |2x – 6| < 8 –8 < 2x – 6 < 8 –2 < 2x < 14 –1 < x < 7 The solution set is { x − 1 < x < 7} . 2y + 6 <2 3 2y + 6 −2 < <2 3 –6 < 2y + 6 < 6 –12 < 2y < 0 –6 < y < 0 The solution set is { x − 6 < y < 0} . or [–1. 3 x + 5 < 17 –17 < 3x + 5 < 17 –22 < 3x < 12 ( −∞. −3) or ( 3. that is. ∞ ) . 9). |x| > 5 x > 5 or x < –5 ⎞ 4⎟ . or (–3. |x – 1| ≤ 2 –2 ≤ x – 1 ≤ 2 –1 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 1 ≤ x ≤ 3} . 3 ⎝ 3 ⎩ ⎭ 68. |x| > 3 x > 3 or x < –3 The solution set is { x x > 3 or x < −3} . all x in ( −∞. 66. 3). 59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 65. 58. 64. . 2≤ [–5. 62.9 63. |x| < 3 –3 < x < 3 The solution set is { x − 3 < x < 3} . or (–1. −5 ) or ( 5. 0). 1]. 6). −6 ≤ x − 4 < −3 2 1 −2 ≤ x < 1 2 −4 ≤ x < 2 The solution set is { x − 4 ≥ x < 2} or [ −4. 101 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 56. 7). |x + 3| ≤ 4 –4 ≤ x + 3 ≤ 4 –7 ≤ x ≤ 1 The solution set is { x −7 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [–7. ⎠ The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} . 7 ⎥ . |2(x – 1) + 4| ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2(x – 1) + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x – 2 + 4 ≤ 8 –8 ≤ 2x + 2 ≤ 8 –10 ≤ 2x ≤ 6 –5 ≤ x ≤ 3 The solution set is { x − 5 ≤ x ≤ 3} . 60. 3 ( x − 1) 4 −6 < <6 3 ( x − 1) <6 4 –24 < 3x – 3 < 24 –21 < 3x < 27 –7 < x < 9 The solution set is { x − 7 < x < 9} or (–7. 67. ∞ ) . 2 ) .

−2] or [ 4. 77. that is all x in ( −∞. ( −∞. ( −∞. ∞ ) . −1] or [3. all x in ⎜ −∞. 2 x ≤ −10 x≥3 x ≤ −5 3 3− x > 9 4 3 3 3 − x > 9 or 3 − x < −9 4 4 3 3 − x>6 − x < −12 4 4 x < −8 x > 16 {x x < −8 or x > 16} . 5 x > 15 3x − 3 ≥1 9 3x − 3 3x − 3 ≥ 1 or ≤ −1 9 9 3x − 3 ≥ 9 3 x − 3 ≤ −9 3x ≥ 12 3 x ≤ −6 x≥4 x ≤ −2 x≥3 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ 1 or x ≥ 3} . −7 ) or (1. Inc. 76.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 69. ∞ ) 5 ⎠ ⎝ 73. ∞ ) . ( −∞. ∞ ) . or ( −∞. |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x≥3 74. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 70. ⎟ or ( 3. 102 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −∞. 3⎠ ⎝ ( −∞. ( −∞. ∞ ) . − 3) or (12. −1] or [3. 75. −8 ) or (16. |x + 3| ≥ 4 x + 3 ≥ 4 or x ≥1 x + 3 ≤ −4 x ≤ −7 The solution set is { x x ≤ −2 or x ≥ 4} . −5] or [3. 71. that is. The solution set is ⎨ x x < 5 ⎩ ⎭ −11 ⎞ ⎛ that is. that is. |5x – 2| > 13 5 x − 2 > 13 or 5 x − 2 < −13 5 x < −11 x>3 x<− 11 5 ⎧ −11 ⎫ or x > 3⎬ . The solution set is { x x ≤ −7 or x ≥ 1} that is. |3x – 8| > 7 3x − 8 > 7 or 3x − 8 < −7 3x > 15 3x < 1 1 x>5 x< 3 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 5⎬ . that is. that is. x − 1 ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 3} . ⎟ or ( 5. ∞ ) . 3|x – 1| + 2 ≥ 8 3|x – 1| ≥ 6 |x – 1| ≥ 2 x − 1 ≥ 2 or x − 1 ≤ −2 2x + 2 ≥2 4 2x + 2 2x + 2 ≥ 2 or ≤ −2 4 4 2x + 2 ≥ 8 2 x + 2 ≤ −8 2x ≥ 6 2 3− x > 5 3 2 2 3 − x > 5 or 3 − x < −5 3 3 2 2 − x>2 − x < −8 3 3 x < −3 x > 12 The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 12} . that is. . The solution set is { x x ≤ −5 or x ≥ 3} . ∞ ) . 72.

Inc. 2x +1 ≤ − − x > −2 or x<2 83. −4 −2 −2 x−4 ≤ 2 80. −2 < 11 − x < 2 −13 < − x < −9 −13 − x −9 > > −1 −1 −1 13 > x > 9 9 < x < 13 The solution set is { x 9 < x < 13}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 103 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section P. The solution set is { x x < −3 or x > 5}. −2 5 − x < −6 5 2 x + 1 ≥ 12 2x +1 ≥ −2 5 − x −6 −2 −2 5− x > 3 12 5 12 5 7 2x ≥ 5 7 x≥ 10 12 5 17 or 2x ≤ − 5 17 x≤− 10 ⎧ 17 7⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ − or x ≥ ⎬ .9 5 2x +1 − 3 ≥ 9 82. 2⎭ 5 > 4 − x is equivalent to 4 − x < 5 . 2 > 11 − x is equivalent to 11 − x < 2 . 10 10 ⎭ ⎩ 2x + 1 ≥ 79. 9 ≤ 4x + 7 4 x + 7 ≥ 9 or 4 x + 7 ≤ −9 4x ≥ 2 4 x ≤ −16 2 x ≤ −4 x≥ 4 1 x≥ 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x x ≤ −4 or x ≥ ⎩ 2≤ x≤6 The solution set is { x 2 ≤ x ≤ 6} . 2 x ≥ 4 or x≥2 ≤ x >8 2 x − 1 ≤ −3 2 x ≤ −2 x ≤ −1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −1 or x ≥ 2} . −4 1 − x < −16 −4 1 − x −16 > −4 −4 1− x > 4 1− x > 4 1 − x < −4 3 or −x > − x < −5 x < −3 x>5 86. > 5− x > 3 −2 x − 4 ≥ −4 −2 x − 4 −2 5 − x < −6 1⎫ ⎬. 81. −3 x + 7 ≥ −27 −27 −3 −3 x+7 ≤9 ≤ −9 ≤ x + 7 ≤ 9 −16 ≤ x ≤ 2 85. − x < −8 3 ≤ 2x −1 2x −1 ≥ 3 −2 ≤ x − 4 ≤ 2 −3 x + 7 5 − x < −3 The solution set is { x x < 2 or x > 8} .PreCalculus 4E 78. The solution set is { x −16 ≤ x ≤ 2} . 84. . −5 < 4 − x < 5 −9 < − x < 1 −9 − x 1 > > −1 −1 −1 9 > x > −1 −1 < x < 9 The solution set is { x −1 < x < 9} .

2 − 3 x < −1 −3 x < −3 x ≥5 3 x x 3 − ≥ 5 or 3 − ≤ −5 3 3 x x − ≥2 − ≤ −8 3 3 x ≤ −6 x ≥ 24 −3 x −3 > −3 −3 x >1 The solution set is { x x ≤ −6 or x ≥ 24} . 2−x > 4 or 2 − x < −4 −x > 2 − x < −6 −x 2 < −1 −1 x < −2 − x −6 > −1 −1 x>6 ( −∞. The solution set is ⎨ x x < − 14 14 ⎭ ⎩ The solution set is { x 0 ≤ x ≤ 8} or [ 0. 104 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 < x − x ≥9 3 3− ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x x < or x > 1⎬ . y≥4 1 − ( x + 3) + 2 x ≥ 4 1 − x − 3 + 2x ≥ 4 x−2≥ 4 x≥6 The solution set is [ 6. ∞ ) . −6] or [ 24. 75 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 87 ⎞ ⎜ −∞. 14 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 14 ⎠ y≤0 2 x − 11 + 3( x + 2) ≤ 0 2 x − 11 + 3x + 6 ≤ 0 5x − 5 ≤ 0 11 7 + 3 3 5x ≤ 5 x ≤1 The solution set is ( −∞. 94. 3 ⎩ ⎭ 88. 4+ 3− 11 4 > − is true for all x.8] . 1 < 2 − 3x is equivalent to 2 − 3x > 1 . − ⎟ or ⎜ . ∞ ⎟ . 4 11 < x− 3 3 Since x − x −1 ≤ 1 2 x ≤2 2 x −2 ≤ 2 − ≤ 2 2 x −4 ≤ − ≤ 0 2 8≥ x≥0 89.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 87. 6 3 + 7 7 81 6 < −2 x + 7 7 6 81 6 81 −2 x + > or −2 x + < − 7 7 7 7 75 87 −2 x > −2 x < − 7 7 75 87 x<− x> 14 14 ⎧ 75 87 ⎫ or x > ⎬ .1] . 3 3 the solution set is { x x is any real number} or (–∞. 4 < 2 − x is equivalent to 2 − x > 4 . 92. that is. 12 < −2 x + − 2− 2− The solution set is { x x < −2 or x > 6} . that is. 93. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . ∞ ). . Inc. 2 − 3x > 1 −3 x > −1 −3x −1 or < −3 −3 1 x< 3 91. 90.

8 > 63 3.S.5 x < 25 or x > 10 1994 + 10 = 2004 In years after 2004. 96. −2. ∞ ) . passion ≤ intimacy or intimacy ≥ passion y≥6 8 − 5x + 3 ≥ 6 102. [ 0.40 x ≤ 44 80 ≤ x ≤ 110 Between 80 and 110 ten minutes. after 3 years 106. − ⎥ . passion<commitment or commitment > passion 5x + 3 ≤ 2 −2 ≤ 5 x + 3 ≤ 2 −5 ≤ 5 x ≤ −1 −5 5 x −1 ≤ ≤ 5 5 5 1 −1 ≤ x ≤ − 5 1⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −1. | 4 − 3 x |≥ 5 or | 3x − 4 |≥ 5 3x − 4 ≤ −5 3 x ≤ −1 1 x≤− 3 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ x | x ≤ − or x ≥ 3⎬ or 3 ⎩ ⎭ 1 ⎛ ⎤ ⎜ −∞. inclusive. fewer than 38. commitment > passion or passion < commitment 105. voters will use punch cards or lever machines.2 x > 12 Since x is the number of years after 1994. 7− 98. 3.1 −2.1% of U. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2⎭ 9⎦ ⎩ ⎣ x + 2 ≤ −3 2 x + 4 ≤ −6 x≥2 99. −10] ∪ [ 2.1x + 25.5] The solution set is ( −∞. 109. 63% of voters will use electronic systems after 2006.PreCalculus 4E Section P.1x > 37. 105 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. commitment ≥ intimacy or intimacy ≤ commitment − 5 x + 3 ≥ −2 − ( − 5 x + 3 ) ≤ − ( −2 ) 103. 28 ≤ 20 + 0. After approximately 5 12 years 107.40 ( x − 60 ) ≤ 40 28 ≤ 20 + 0. | 5 − 4 x |≤ 13 or | 4 x − 5 |≤ 13 x +2 ≤ 4 2 −13 ≤ 4 x − 5 ≤ 13 −8 ≤ 4 x ≤ 18 9 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 x − + 2 ≤ −3 2 x +2 ≥3 2 x +2≥3 or 2 x+4≥ 6 9⎫ 2⎤ ⎧ ⎡ The solution set is ⎨ x | −2 ≤ x ≤ ⎬ or ⎢ −2.1 < 38. − ⎥ ∪ [ 3. 5⎦ ⎣ 104. Let x be the number. 97. 9. x ≤ −10 100. 3⎦ ⎝ 3x − 4 ≥ 5 3x ≥ 9 x≥3 ( 0. 4 ) 108. ∞ ) .9 y≤4 95. . we calculate 1994+12=2006. Inc.40 x − 4 ≤ 40 32 ≤ 0.5 x + 63. Let x be the number. − ⎥ . 101.40 x − 24 ≤ 40 28 ≤ 0.

03x < 200 + 0.5 x 5 ( F − 32 ) ≤ 35 9 9 9 5 9 (15 ) ≤ ⎛⎜ ( F − 32 ) ⎞⎟ ≤ ( 35 ) 5 5⎝9 ⎠ 5 15 ≤ 1200 < x More then 1200 packets of stationary need to be sold each week to make a profit. 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 90 6 86 + 88 + 92 + 84 + x + x ≥ 540 2 x + 350 ≥ 540 2 x ≥ 190 x ≥ 95 You must receive at least a 95% to earn an A. 122.03x <6 x < 200 The credit union is a better deal when writing less than 200 checks. 86 + 88 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 80 3 174 + x < 240 x < 66 This will happen if you get a grade less than 66. 117.645 or ≤ −1.05x 32000 < x A home assessment of greater than $32. Let x = the number of hours the mechanic works on the car. or 41 or less. 226 ≤ 175 + 34 x ≤ 294 51 ≤ 34 x ≤ 119 1. 000 + 0. 000 > 1.08 x < 8 + 0.5 The man will be working on the job at least 1. .6 x > 10. 15 + 0. 000 1. 119. 2 x > 10. 112.6 x > 6250 More than 6250 tapes need to be sold a week to make a profit. inclusive or [59°F. a. 120. 116. 115.225 h − 50 ≤ −8.08x 1600 < 0.40 x 1. 3000 + 3x < 5.50x 30 < 0.645 5 h − 50 h − 50 ≥ 1. 114. 86 + 88 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 90 3 174 + x ≥ 270 x ≥ 96 You must get at least a 96. 118.000 would make the first bill a better deal.3x 100< x Basic Rental is a better deal when driving more than 100 miles per day. h − 50 ≥ 1.95°F] . Inc. b.5 and at most 3.08 x < 3 + . 2 + 0.12 x 12 < 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 110. Let x = the grade on the final exam. 9 ( 3) ≤ F − 32 ≤ 9 ( 7 ) 27 ≤ F − 32 ≤ 63 59 ≤ F ≤ 95 The range for Fahrenheit temperatures is 59°F to 95°F .5 ≤ x ≤ 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 1.20x < 20 + 0.05 x 0.225 h ≥ 58.6 x 10.775 The number of outcomes would be 59 or more.5 hours. 121. 111. 50 + 0.225 h ≤ 41. 245 + 95 x ≤ 3000 95 x ≤ 2755 x ≤ 29 29 bags or less can be lifted safely.5 x 3000 < 2. 265 + 65 x ≤ 2800 65 x ≤ 2535 x ≤ 39 39 bags or fewer can be lifted safely. 113. 106 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1800 + 0.04 x 300 < x Plan A is a better deal when driving more than 300 miles a month.645 5 5 h − 50 ≥ 8.

false.50 x ) < 30 15 + x < 30 x < 15 We also must consider the cost without purchasing a pass.50 −2 4 − (−2)2 = 0 −1 4 − (−1)2 = 3 0 4 − (0)2 = 4 1 4 − (1)2 = 3 124. x −4 −3 y = x +1 −4 + 1 = 3 −3 + 1 = 2 −2 −1 0 1 2 −2 + 1 = 1 −1 + 1 = 0 0 +1 = 1 1+1 = 2 2 +1 = 3 139. makes sense 145.9 143. y = 4 − x 2 x y = 4 − x2 −3 4 − (−3)2 = −5 2. we multiply the cost with the 3month pass by 2. – 131. Because x > y. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: ( −∞. x y = 4− x −3 4 − (−3) = 7 −2 4 − (−2) = 6 The cost with the 6-month pass is C6 = 30.50 + 0. 2 4 − (2)2 = 0 132. y = 4 − x 123. makes sense 135.50 x > 7. 3x > 7. a. −2 ) = ( −∞. | x − 4 |< 3 b. Answers may vary. y – x represents a negative number.50 x. 133. −1 4 − (−1) = 5 0 4 − (0) = 4 1 4 − (1) = 3 2 4 − (2) = 2 3 4 − (3) = 1 Because we need to buy two 3-month passes per 6-month pass. Answers may vary. A sample change is: 3x > 6 is equivalent to x > 2. Inc. When both sides are multiplied by (y – x) the inequality must be reversed. We need this cost to be less than the cost with a 3-month pass.50 x 144. 3) 138. 141. makes sense 3 4 − (3) 2 = −5 x>3 The 3-month pass is the best deal when making more than 3 but less than 15 crossings per 3month period.50 + 0. true 137. false.3) ∪ ( −∞. true 140. Let x = the number of times the bridge is crossed per three month period The cost with the 3-month pass is C3 = 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E Section P. y = x + 1 134. | x − 4 |≥ 3 142.50 + 0. 107 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ( 7. Changes to make the statement true will vary. . makes sense 136.

d . (−3)3 (−2)2 = (−27) ⋅ (4) = −108 9 . c} 5. 17. b. distributive property of multiplication over addition. g} ∩ {a. − = 10 x 23. f . c} B = {a. −17. . 15.75. 5(2 x − 3) + 7 x = 10 x − 15 + 7 x = 17 x − 15 20. d . 3(4 y − 5) − (7 y + 2) = 12 y − 15 − 7 y − 2 = 5 y − 17 A = {a. 0. 0. π f. 4 − (−17) = 4 + 17 = 21 = 21 x 2 − 5( x − y ) = 62 − 5(6 − 2) 14. g} = {a.015(60)2 + (60) + 10 2 = 0. d . π . 1 (5 x) + [ (3 y ) + (−3 y ) ] − (− x) = x + [ 0] + x = 2 x 5 {a. 8 − 2[3 − (5 x − 1)] = 8 − 2[3 − 5 x + 1] = 8 − 2[4 − 5 x ] = 36 − 20 = 16 S = 0. f .55% of 21 year olds have been tested. 0. c} ∪ {a. b. c. 3 − 17 = 17 − 3 since 12. a. 13.55 38. f . (3 ⋅ 7) + (4 ⋅ 7) = (4 ⋅ 7) + (3 ⋅ 7) .75. associative property of multiplication. d . g} 21. b. c. 81 b. 17 is greater than 3. 11. d . 3( 5 + 3) = 15 + 3 . d . 9. 2. e} = {a. 16. 2 −1 = 2 −1 3 A = {a. b. b. commutative property of addition. c} = {a} = 8 − 8 + 10 x 8. 19. d . = 36 − 5(4) 3. c. − e. b.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra Chapter P Review Exercises 1. c} B = {a.05(21)2 + 3. 81 13 −103 = 103 108 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 + 17 = 17 + 3. 18. c. 81 13 24. 7. 0. commutative property of multiplication. 0. d . Inc.6(21) − 15 = 38. 81 d. e} {a. g} {a. (6 ⋅ 9) ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅ (6 ⋅ 9) . c. (6 ⋅ 3) ⋅ 9 = 6 ⋅ (3 ⋅ 9) . commutative property of multiplication. f . b.015 x + x + 10 S = 0. d . b. e} 6. c} ∪ {a. b.05 x 2 + 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. e} = {a.55%. b. 2. f . c. e} {a. = 3 + 6(2)3 = 3 + 6(8) = 3 + 48 = 51 2. −17. 3 + 6( x − 2) = 3 + 6(4 − 2) 3 10. commutative property of addition. This overestimates the percent displayed by the bar graph by 3. A = {a. c} ∩ {a. P = −0. c} C = {a. −17.6 x − 15 P = −0. 3( 5 + 3) = ( 5 + 3) 3 . 0. g} 22.015(3600) + 60 + 10 = 54 + 60 + 10 = 124 4. 9 . 81 c. A = {a. c} C = {a. d .

9 ⎞ 3− 5 =⎜ ⎟ × 10 3 ×105 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 2. 7 5 + 13 5 = (7 + 13) 5 = 20 5 47.59 × 106 = 16 2 35. 4 (3 × 103 )(1.75 1.00725 = 7.75 × 10 10 The average tax return cost $1469.023 1 1 = 5−2 = 2 = 5 25 26.3) × (103 × 102 ) a.75 × 108 2. 7. 40. 000 = 3.9 × 103 ⎛ 6. 10 x ⋅ 2 x = 20 x 2 −2 y ) −11 y 2 y −2 = 10 ⋅ x3−11 y 2 − 2 = 10 x −8 y 0 = 4x2 ⋅ 5 10 = 8 x 30.57 × 1011 2.75 × 102 ⋅ 106 = 1. 300 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 100 ⋅ 3 = 10 3 41. 2−4 + 4−1 = = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 121 121 11 = = 4 2 4 96 x 3 45. 400 46.0000745 = 10 2 + 6 2 34. . (−5 x y )(−2 x 3 2 −11 = (−5)(−2) x x 3 6.74 × 104 = 37. 3 3 = (−2)3 x 4⋅3 y 3⋅3 = −8 x12 y 9 29.25 × 10 −3 109 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 39. 5−3 ⋅ 5 = 5−351 = 5−3+1 27.57 × 102 ⋅ 109 = 2. 7x y ⎛ 7 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ( x5 −15 )( y 6 − ( −2) ) 28 x15 y −2 ⎝ 28 ⎠ 1 = x −10 y 8 4 y8 = 10 4x 5 = 6 2x = 96 x3 2x = 48 x 2 = 16 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4x 3 3.3 × 102 ) = (3 ×1. 175 × 106 = 1. 32. = 2x 5 (2 x3 ) −4 = (2)−4 ( x 3 ) −4 = 2−4 x −12 1 2 x12 1 = 16 x12 = 31.9 × 105 = 390. 33 1 1 = 33− 6 = 3−3 = 3 = 36 3 27 28. (−2 x y ) = (−2) ( x ) ( y ) 3 3 3 4 3 38. Inc. 3. 000 37. r3 = r 2 ⋅ r = r r 44. 257 × 109 = 2. 12 x 2 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 4 x 2 ⋅ 3 = 2 x 3 42. 4 43.3 × 10−2 = 0.590.57 × 1011 b.PreCalculus 4E 25. Chapter P Review Exercises 1 1 + 24 4 1 1 = + 16 4 1 4 = + 16 16 5 = 16 36.469 × 103 = 1469 8 1. 0.45 × 10 = 0. 2 50 + 3 8 = 2 25 ⋅ 2 + 3 4 ⋅ 2 = 2 ⋅5 2 + 3⋅ 2 2 −5 33.57 1011 ⋅ 8 ≈ 1.

4 (−5)4 = 4 625 = 4 54 = 5 57. (5 x 2 / 3 )(4 x1/ 4 ) = 5 ⋅ 4 x 2 / 3+1/ 4 = 20 x11/12 69.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 48. 161/ 2 = 16 = 4 = 5(6 − 3) 33 63. 56. (125 ⋅ x 6 ) 2 / 3 = ( 3 125 x 6 ) 2 −32 = −2 55. 4 72 − 2 48 = 4 36 ⋅ 2 − 2 16 ⋅ 3 58. 4 8 ⋅ 4 10 = 4 80 = 4 16 ⋅ 5 = 4 16 ⋅ 4 5 = 2 4 5 60. 25−1/ 2 = 64. 3 y5 = 59. 642 / 3 = ( 3 64) 2 = 42 = 16 67. 30 30 50. = 14 7− 5 ⋅ 7+ 5 125 = 5 4 −125 is not a real number. 27 −4 / 3 = 68. 5 3 1 1 1 1 = 3 = 4 = 4/3 4 27 3 81 ( 27) = (5 x 2 )2 3 = 25 x 4 71. 2 30 5 = ⋅ = =6 5 5 5 5 5 3 2 3 = 5 6+ 3 = 4 ⋅ 2 3 2 + 53 2 = 83 2 + 53 2 ⋅ = 13 3 2 6− 3 61. y . 3 81 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 27 ⋅ 3 = 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 = = 251/ 2 25 5 1 1 1 = = 271/ 3 3 27 3 65. 4 3 16 + 5 3 2 = 4 3 8 ⋅ 2 + 5 3 2 = 4⋅6 2 − 2⋅4 3 = 24 2 − 8 3 49. 4 4 32 x 5 4 4 = 2x = x 4 2 16 x 62. 15 x 3 / 4 ⎛ 15 ⎞ 3 / 4 −1/ 2 =⎜ ⎟x = 3x1/ 4 5 x1/ 2 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 70. 1251/ 3 = 3 125 = 5 7+ 5 14( 7 + 5) = 7−5 14( 7 + 5) = 2 = 7( 7 + 5) 5 16 x = 5(6 − 3) 36 − 3 7− 5 54. 27 −1/ 3 = 66. y3 y 2 = y 3 y 2 6 ⋅ = 3 3 3 = 5 51. 32 x 5 = 14 3 4 6+ 3 6− 3 52. 53. Inc. 6 y 3 = ( y 3 )1/ 6 = y 3⋅1/ 6 = y1/ 2 = 110 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(a − b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) = a(a 2 ) + a (ab) + a(b 2 ) + (−b)(a 2 ) +(−b)(ab) + (−b)(b 2 ) = a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 − a 2 b − ab 2 − b3 = a 3 − b3 111 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (7 x + 4 y )(7 x − 4 y ) = (7 x) 2 − (4 y ) 2 = 49 x 2 − 16 y 2 85. (3 x 2 + 2 y ) 2 = (3 x 2 )2 + 2(3 x 2 )(2 y ) + (2 y ) 2 = 9 x 4 + 12 x 2 y + 4 y 2 84. (3 x − 5)(2 x + 1) = (3x)(2 x) + (3x)(1) + (−5)(2 x) + (−5)(1) = 6 x 2 + 3 x − 10 x − 5 = 6 x2 − 7 x − 5 76. (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) − (5 x 4 − 3x3 + 2 x 2 − 6) = (13x 4 − 8 x3 + 2 x 2 ) + (−5 x 4 + 3 x3 − 2 x 2 + 6) = (13x 4 − 5 x 4 ) + (−8 x3 + 3x3 ) + (2 x 2 − 2 x 2 ) + 6 = 8x 4 − 5x3 + 6 The degree is 4.PreCalculus 4E 72. (3 x − 4) 2 = (3 x) 2 − 2(3 x) ⋅ 4 + (−4) 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 79. (3 x − 5 y ) 2 = (3x) 2 − 2(3x)(5 y ) + (−5 y ) 2 = 9 x 2 − 30 xy + 25 y 2 83. (2 x + 5) 2 = (2 x)2 + 2(2 x) ⋅ 5 + 52 = 4 x 2 + 20 x + 25 78. ( x + 7 y )(3x − 5 y ) = x(3x ) + ( x)(−5 y ) + (7 y )(3 x) + (7 y )(−5 y ) = 3 x 2 − 5 xy + 21xy − 35 y 2 = 3 x 2 + 16 xy − 35 y 2 82. (4 x + 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x 2 ) − 52 = 16 x 2 − 25 77. (3 x − 2)(4 x 2 + 3x − 5) = (3 x)(4 x 2 ) + (3x)(3x) + (3x)(−5) + (−2)(4 x 2 ) + (−2)(3x) + (−2)(−5) = 12 x3 + 9 x 2 − 15 x − 8 x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 12 x3 + x 2 − 21x + 10 75. . (2 x + 1)3 = (2 x)3 + 3(2 x) 2 (1) + 3(2 x)(1) 2 + 13 = 8 x3 + 12 x 2 + 6 x + 1 80. (5 x − 2)3 = (5 x)3 − 3(5 x )2 (2) + 3(5 x)(2) 2 − 23 = 125 x 3 − 150 x 2 + 60 x − 8 81. 74. 73. Chapter P Review Exercises (−6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 9 x + 3) + (14 x3 + 3x 2 − 11x − 7) = (−6 x3 + 14 x3 ) + (7 x 2 + 3x 2 ) + (−9 x − 11x) + (3 − 7) = 8 x 3 + 10 x 2 − 20 x − 4 The degree is 3. Inc.

6 x2 + 2 x x( x + 2) x . x 3 + 64 = x 3 + 43 = ( x + 4)( x 2 − 4 x + 16) x3 + 2 x 2 x 2 ( x + 2) = = x 2 . x 5 − x = x( x 4 − 1) = x( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) ( x + 2 y + 4) = ( x + 2 y + 4 )( x + 2 y + 4 ) = x ( x + 2 y + 4) + 2 y ( x + 2 y + 4) + 4 ( x + 2 y + 4) 2 = x( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 + 1) 103. 3x 4 − 12 x 2 = 3x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 3x 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) 112 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = = x + 4 x + 4 ( x + 2)2 x + 2 x ≠ –2 2 100. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . x 4 − 16 = ( x 2 ) 2 − 42 = ( x 2 + 4)( x 2 − 4) 109. 16 x 90. x 2 + 18 x + 81 − y 2 = ( x 2 + 18 x + 81) − y 2 88. x 3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 10 = x 2 ( x + 5) − 2( x + 5) = x 2 + 2 xy + 4 x + 2 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 y + 4 x + 8 y + 16 = ( x 2 − 2)( x + 5) = x 2 + 4 xy + 4 y 2 + 8 x + 16 y + 16 104. x ≠ –2 x+2 x+2 x 2 + 3x − 18 ( x + 6)( x − 3) x − 3 . = 3 x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) 94. x 2 + 16 is prime. 12 x − 1 2 + 6x − 3 2 = 6x − 3 2 ( 2 x + 1) = 6(2 x + 1) 96. 64 − x 2 = 82 − x 2 = (8 − x)(8 + x) 92. 99. = ( x + 9 − y )( x + 9 + y ) x 2 − 11x + 28 = ( x − 4)( x − 7) 105. 15 x − x − 2 = (3x + 1)(5 x − 2) 2 91. [5 y − (2 x + 1)][5 y + (2 x + 1)] 101. 3x 4 − 9 x 3 − 30 x 2 = 3 x 2 ( x 2 − 3x − 10) 95. 3 x2 2 y 3 − 8 = y 3 − 23 = ( y − 2)( y 2 + 2 y + 4) 110. −3 3 ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 − ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x2 + 3) 2 2 1 = ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎡⎣1 − ( x 2 − 4 )( x 2 + 3) ⎤⎦ 20 x 7 − 36 x3 = 4 x 3 (5 x 4 − 9) 1 = ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) 2 ⎣⎡1 − ( x − 2 )( x + 2 ) ( x 2 + 3) ⎦⎤ x 3 − 3x 2 − 9 x + 27 = x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) 1 = ( x 2 − 9)( x − 3) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x 2 + 3) 2 (− x 4 + x 2 + 13) = ( x + 3)( x − 3)( x − 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 2 107. Inc. 4 + 32 x 1 4 = 16 x −3 4 = 1 − ( −3 ) ⎛ 4 4 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ −3 (1 + 2 x ) (1 + 2 x ) = 16 x 16 x 4 3 4 1 106. 16 x − 40 x + 25 = (4 x − 5)(4 x − 5) = (4 x − 5)2 97. 108.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 86. = ( x 2 + 4)( x + 2)( x − 2) 98. 15 x + 3 x = 3x ⋅ 5 x + 3x ⋅1 3 2 2 2 = ( x + 9) − y2 2 = 3x (5 x + 1) 2 89. = = ( x + 6)( x − 6) x − 6 x 2 − 36 x ≠ –6. 27 x 3 − 125 = (3 x)3 − 53 = (5 y ) 2 − (2 x + 1) 2 = (3 x − 5)[(3 x)2 + (3x)(5) + 52 ] = 25 y 2 − (4 x 2 + 4 x + 1) = (3 x − 5)(9 x 2 + 15 x + 25) = 25 y 2 − 4 x 2 − 4 x − 1 87. 93. 102.

–3. (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3 x + 2) 1 2 x ≠ . –3 115. − 2 3 = 1 1 1 1 118. Inc. x x ≠ 0. x + 6 x + 9 ⋅ x + 3 = ( x + 3) ⋅ 2 x −4 x − 2 ( x − 2)( x + 2) x − 2 = 116. 6 x + 2 3x 2 + x ÷ x2 − 1 x −1 x(3x + 1) 2(3 x + 1) = ÷ x −1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x −1 2(3 x + 1) = ⋅ ( x − 1)( x + 1) x(3 x + 1) 2 = . x( x + 1) 1 x ≠ 0. x−4 x ≠ –3. x − 2 x − 2 6 x = ⋅ 1 − x 1 − x 6x 3 6 3 6 6 − 3x = 2 x − x2 −3( x − 2) = − x( x − 2) 3 = . x−3 x ≠ 3. − 3. 8 x+3 4x −1 − 2 x2 + 5x − 3 6 x 2 + x − 2 x+3 4x −1 = − (2 x − 1)( x + 3) (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) 4x −1 3x + 2 = ⋅ (2 x − 1)( x + 3) 3x + 2 x+3 x+3 − ⋅ (2 x − 1)(3x + 2) x + 3 = 12 x 2 + 8 x − 3x − 2 − x 2 − 6 x − 9 (2 x − 1)( x + 3)(3x + 2) 11x 2 − x − 11 . –2 112. –2 x2 − 2x + x2 + 2 x − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) = 114. ( x + 2)( x − 2) = x ≠ 2. − 1. 2. 2 117. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4. ( x − 2)2 ( x + 2) x ≠ 2. 2 x − 7 − x − 10 = 2 x − 7 − ( x − 10) x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = ( x + 3)( x − 3) 1 = . x 2 − 5 x − 24 x 2 − 10 x + 16 ÷ 2 x 2 − x − 12 x + x−6 ( x − 8)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 8) = ÷ ( x − 4)( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 2) x −8 x +3 = ⋅ x − 4 x −8 x+3 = .PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 2 2 x+3 111. 2 x x x+2 3x 3x x − 2 + = ⋅ + ⋅ x+2 x−2 x+2 x−2 x−2 x+2 3x2 − 6 x + x 2 + 2 x = ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x2 − 4 x ( x + 2)( x − 2) 4 x( x − 1) = . 113. 1. − 3 = 2 x2 − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) x ≠ 3. x x −1 + x2 − 9 x2 − 5x + 6 x x −1 = + ( x − 3)( x + 3) ( x − 2)( x − 3) x x−2 x −1 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ ( x − 3)( x + 3) x − 2 ( x − 2)( x − 3) x + 3 x ( x − 2) + ( x − 1)( x + 3) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 2) 113 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x + 3)3 .

x ≠ 4 2 30 4 + = x + 2 x − 4 (x + 2)(x − 4) 4(x − 4) + 2(x + 2) = 30 25 − x 2 + x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 25 4x − 16 + 2x + 4 = 30 6x −12 = 30 6x = 42 x=7 The solution set is {7}. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 122. This is a conditional equation. 3 + x 3 + x x 2 = ⋅ 2 1 − 162 1 − 162 x x x 2 3x + 12 x = 2 x − 16 3x( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x − 4) 3x . 3 x + 10 10 x ≠ −3. = x−4 x ≠ 0. 1 1 120. 2( x − 4) + 3( x + 5) = 2 x − 2 2 x − 8 + 3x + 15 = 2 x − 2 5x + 7 = 2 x − 2 3x = −9 x = −3 The solution set is {–3}. 124. This is a conditional equation. x ≠ –2. 2x – 4(5x + 1) = 3x + 17 2x – 20x – 4 = 3x + 17 –18x – 4 = 3x + 17 –21x = 21 x = –1 The solution set is {–1}. x ≠ –1 1 1 2 − = 2 x − 1 x + 1 x −1 1 1 2 − = x − 1 x + 1 (x + 1)(x − 1) x + 1 − (x −1) = 2 x2 25 − x 2 x + 1− x + 1 = 2 25 − x 2 ⎛ 25 − x 2 + x ⎞ 25 − 2 x 2 ⎜ ⎟ 25 − x 2 ⎠ =⎝ (25 − x 2 ) 25 − x 2 2 =2 The solution set is all real numbers except 1 and –1. − 3 25 − x 2 + 121 . 3 − x + 3 3 − x + 3 x + 3 = ⋅ 3+ 1 3+ 1 x +3 x+3 x+3 3( x + 3) − 1 = 3( x + 3) + 1 3x + 9 − 1 = 3x + 9 + 1 3x + 8 = . x ≠ 1. 1 – 2(6 – x) = 3x + 2 1 – 12 + 2x = 3x + 2 –11 – x = 2 –x = 13 x = –13 The solution set is {–13}. . 4. This is a conditional equation. 2 = = = = = 126. 125. –4 123. 12 12 119. (25 − x 2 )3 25 (25 − x 2 )3 ⋅ 25 − x 2 25 − x 2 25 25 − x 2 (25 − x 2 ) 25 25 − x 2 (5 − x)2 (5 + x)2 114 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {2} . ⎬ . 3 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 x= 0 = ( x + 2)( x − 4) or x − 4 = 0 –4 must be rejected. 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 115 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −4 2 x + 1 + 12 = 0 x2 = 9 x = ±3 The solution set is {–3. . ( x − 3) 2 = ± 24 x − 3 = ±2 6 128. 3x 2 + 5 x − 9 x − 15 = 5 3x 2 − 4 x − 20 = 0 x= 2x = x2 + 2x − 2x − 8 4 ± (−4)2 − 4(3)(−20) 2(3) 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 4 ± 16 + 240 6 4 ± 256 x= 6 4 ± 16 x= 6 20 −12 x= . The solution set is {4} .−2 3 x+2=0 x = −2 x= x=4 –2 must be rejected. 6 6 10 x = . 7 ± (−7)2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) 7 ± 49 − 12 6 7 ± 37 x= 6 x= ⎪⎧ 7 + 37 7 − 37 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .1} . x 2 − 9 = 0 127. ( x − 3)2 − 24 = 0 ( x − 3) 2 = 24 The solution set is {−2. ⎩2 ⎭ x = 3± 2 6 2x x 2 = − x + 6x + 8 x + 4 x + 2 2x x 2 = − ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 4 x + 2 133. −4 2 x + 1 = −12 2x + 1 = 3 2 x + 1 = 3 or 2 x + 1 = −3 2x = 2 x =1 2 x = −4 x = −2 132. 2 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 ⎞ ⎛ x = ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎜ − ⎟ ( x + 4)( x + 2) ⎝ x+4 x+2⎠ 2 x = x ( x + 2) − 2( x + 4) (3x + 5)( x − 3) = 5 129. Inc. 8 − 2x = x ( 8 − 2x ) 2 = x2 8 − 2 x = x2 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 ⎧ 10 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 131. ⎬. 3⎭ ⎩ 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 130. 8 − 2x − x = 0 134. 3}. 2 x 2 − 11x + 5 = 0 (2x – 1)(x – 5) = 0 2x – 1 = 0 x – 5 = 0 1 x = or x = 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 5⎬ .

2x − 3 + x = 3 2x − 3 = 3 − x 2x − 3 = 9 − 6x + x2 x 2 − 8 x + 12 = 0 x 2 − 8 x = −12 x 2 − 8 x + 16 = −12 + 16 ( x − 4)2 = 4 x − 4 = ±2 x = 4+2 x = 6. thus the equation has no real solutions.8 = 32.6 x = 19 The percentage of people in the U. and Japan is 20.80 x 60 = x The original price is $60.4 x = 25.3 3x = 16. thus the equation has one repeated real solution. or 2019. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 = 6. x 2 = 2 x − 19 x 2 − 2 x + 19 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−2) 2 − 4(1)(19) = −72 −72 < 0. 340 = 8w − 12 352 = 8w 44 = w The dimensions are 44 yards by 126 yards. 136.5 x = 5.8) + ( x + 15) = 32.1% 19 years after 2000.3 x + 15 = 20. Inc. 000 = x Sales must be $10.5 The daily oil consumption of the United States. Let 3w – 6 = the length of the playing field P = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) 139. Let x = the original price of the phone 48 = x − 0. Let x = the number of years after 2000.4 x = 7.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 135. . Let x = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by Japan. Let x + 15 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by the United States. 6. China.1 0. 143.5 million barrels.3 x + x + 0. that will speak a language other than English at home will reach 25. Let x + 0.3 3 x + 15. 116 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 17. Let x = the amount sold to earn $800 in one week 800 = 300 + 0.S. 144.5 million barrels. 2 The solution set is {2}.5 x + 0. 9 x 2 − 30 x + 25 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−30)2 − 4(9)(25) = 0 340 = 2 ( 3w − 6 ) + 2w 340 = 6w − 12 + 2 w b 2 − 4ac = 0.5 + 0. gt s − vt = 2 t2 t s − vt g= 2 t 2 137.05 x A 1 + rT 500 = 0. respectfully. PrT + P = A P ( rT + 1) = A P= 138. Let w = the width of the playing field. A− P Pr A− P Pr (T ) = Pr Pr PrT = A − P T= 142. and 5.3 million barrels.20 x 48 = 0.05 x 10.8 = millions of barrels of oil consumed each day by China.000 in one week to earn $800. 140.8 + x + 15 = 32. vt + gt 2 = s gt 2 = s − vt 141. x + ( x + 0.

100 + 1500 x and 149. 1500 1500 + 100 = x x−4 1500 ⎛ 1500 ⎞ x( x − 4) ⎜ + 100 ⎟ = x( x − 4) x x−4 ⎝ ⎠ 1500( x − 4) + 100 x( x − 4) = 1500 x 1500 x − 6000 + 100 x 2 − 400 x = 1500 x 15 x − 60 + x 2 − 4 x = 15 x A = lw x 2 − 4 x − 60 = 0 ( x + 6)( x − 10) = 0 x + 6 = 0 or x − 10 = 0 x = −6 x = 10 –6 must be rejected. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 700 − 800 x . . That year the enrollments will be 32. { x x ≤ 0} x 2 = 18. 148. b. (10 + 2 x )(16 + 2 x) = 280 160 + 52 x + 4 x 2 = 280 4 x 2 + 52 x − 120 = 0 x 2 + 13x − 30 = 0 ( x + 15)( x − 2) = 0 x + 15 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −15 x=2 –15 must be rejected. the width is 3 yards. 15 = l ( 2l − 7 ) 15 = 2l 2 − 7l 0 = 2l 2 − 7l − 15 0 = (2l + 3)(l − 5) l =5 2l − 7 = 3 The length is 5 yards. 000 5 x 2 = 90. 147. 000 x ≈ ±134.PreCalculus 4E 145. { x x > −2} 152. 000 150.100 students. Inc. The building is approximately 134 meters high. { x −3 ≤ x < 5} 151. 146. the two colleges will have the same enrollment in the year 2007 + 12 = 2019 . Since y1 = y2 = 32. y2 = 41.100 when x = 12 . Chapter P Review Exercises Check some points to determine that y1 = 14. 117 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The width of the frame is 2 inches. There were originally 10 people. Let x = height of building 2x = shadow height x 2 + (2 x) 2 = 3002 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 90.164 Discard negative height.

take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. 4 ) = ( 0. [1.3) .1] ∪ [ −1.3) or both: Thus. 4 ) : To find the intersection.1] or [ −1. take the portion of the number line that the two graphs have in common.3) .3) ∪ ( 0.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 153.1] and [ −1. Graph [1. 157.1] : Graph [ −1.3) : 156. Graph ( −2. –6x + 3 ≤ 15 –6x ≤ 12 x≥2 The solution set is [ −2. 4 ) : Thus. [1.3) and ( 0. Numbers in either [1.3) = ( −2.1] ∩ [ −1. 4 ) or both: Thus. ( −2. ∞ ) .3) : Graph ( 0. ( −2. Numbers in both [1.3) : To find the union.3) : To find the intersection. Graph [ −1.1] . 155. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 118 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4 ) : To find the union. Numbers in either ( −2. Graph ( 0. 4 ) = [1.3) or ( 0. 4 ) . Graph [1. Inc. take the portion of the number line representing the total collection of numbers in the two graphs. . Graph ( −2.3) : Thus.1] : 154. Numbers in both ( −2.3) ∩ ( 0.3) = [ −1.

20 x 16 ≤ 0. x 3 x − −1 > 3 4 2 ⎛x 3 ⎞ ⎛ x⎞ 12 ⎜ − − 1⎟ > 12 ⎜ ⎟ 3 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4x – 9 – 12 > 6x –21 > 2x 21 − >x 2 2x + 6 >2 3 2x + 6 2x + 6 >2 < –2 3 3 2 x + 6 > 6 2 x + 6 < –6 2x > 0 2 x < −12 x>0 x < −6 The solution set is ( −∞. 3] 0. 6x + 5 > –2(x – 3) – 25 6x + 5 > –2x + 6 – 25 8x + 5 > –19 8x > –24 x > –3 The solution set is ( −∞. 3(2x – 1) – 2(x – 4) ≥ 7 + 2(3 + 4x) 6x – 3 – 2x + 8 ≥ 7 + 6 + 8x 4x + 5 ≥ 8x + 13 –4x ≥ 8 x ≤ –2 x+2≥3 or x ≥1 x + 2 ≤ −3 x ≤ −5 The solution set is ( −∞. 165. − 3] or [ −2.20 x ≤ 80 A customer can drive no more than 80 miles. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . 0. 6 x − 9 ≥ −4 x − 3 163. Inc. 166. ⎡3 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . −4 x + 2 + 5 ≤ −7 −4 x + 2 ≤ −12 The solution set is ( −3. 119 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . The solution set is [ −∞. 2 x + 3 ≤ 15 10 x ≥ 6 3 x≥ 5 –15 ≤ 2x + 3 ≤ 15 –18 ≤ 2x ≤ 12 –9 ≤ x ≤ 6 The solution set is [ −9.PreCalculus 4E Chapter P Review Exercises 158. x+2 ≥3 161. − 6 ) or ( 0. 167. 7 < 2x + 3 ≤ 9 4 < 2x ≤ 6 2<x≤3 (2.20 x ≤ 16 162. ∞ ⎟ . − ⎟ . The solution set is [ 2. ∞ ) .20 0.20 x + 24 ≤ 40 0.3) . −5] ∪ [1. 164. − 2 ) . 2 x + 5 − 7 ≥ −6 2x + 5 ≥ 1 21 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞.6] . ⎣5 ⎠ 159. 2⎠ ⎝ 2x + 5 ≥ 1 or 2x + 5 ≤ –1 2x ≥ –4 2x ≤ –6 x ≥ –2 or x ≤ –3 160.

Inc.5. 30 x3 y 4 5 y8 = 5 x3 −9 y 4 − ( −4) = 5 x −6 y 8 = 6 9 −4 x 6x y 6. 5 × 10−6 5 10−6 = ⋅ = 0. x 2 + 2 x − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 1) x + 3 . –1.5} ∪ {5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = 4 ⋅5 2 − 3⋅3 2 = 20 2 − 9 2 = 11 2 8.25 × 102 = 2. {1. − 3 ( x + 3)( x − 3) 120 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 168. 3. a} = {1.5 × 101 20 × 10−8 20 10−8 12. 6r ⋅ 3r = 18r 2 = 9r 2 ⋅ 2 = 3r 2 4 50 − 3 18 = 4 25 ⋅ 2 − 3 9 ⋅ 2 15.5} ∩ {5. a} 5. x +1 x ≠ 3. {1. 3 5− 2 5+ 2 5− 2 = 3(5 − 2) 25 − 2 = 3(5 − 2) 23 2 x + 8 x2 + 5x + 4 ÷ x−3 x2 − 9 2( x + 4) ( x + 1)( x + 4) = ÷ x−3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 2( x + 4) ( x − 3)( x + 3) = ⋅ x − 3 ( x + 1)( x + 4) 2( x + 3) = . a} = {5} 4. 1. –4. = = x 2 − 3 x + 2 ( x − 2)( x − 1) x − 2 x ≠ 2. 2. .Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 90 5 400 ≤ 95 + 79 + 91 + 86 + x < 450 9. 7. = 7 + 2[−3x + 5] (5 x + 3 y ) 2 = (5 x) 2 + 2(5 x)(3 y ) + (3 y ) 2 = 25 x 2 + 30 xy + 9 y 2 = 7 − 6 x + 10 = −6 x + 17 14. 80 ≤ = 2x 3 2x 10. Chapter P Test 5(2 x 2 − 6 x) − (4 x 2 − 3x) = 10 x 2 − 30 x − 4 x 2 + 3x = 6 x 2 − 27 x 2. 3 5+ 2 = 3 ⋅ 16 x 4 = 3 8 x 3 ⋅ 2 x = 3 8x3 ⋅ 3 2 x 400 ≤ 351 + x < 450 49 ≤ x < 99 A grade of at least 49% but less than 99% will result in a B. –3 x 5 + x+3 x−3 x x−3 5 x+3 = ⋅ + ⋅ x +3 x−3 x −3 x +3 x ( x − 3) + 5( x + 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x + 5 x + 15 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 + 2 x + 15 . 1 11. 2. (2 x − 5)( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = 2 x 3 − 8 x 2 + 6 x − 5 x 2 + 20 x − 15 7 + 2[3( x + 1) − 2(3x − 1)] = 7 + 2[3x + 3 − 6 x + 2] = 2 x 3 − 13x 2 + 26 x − 15 13. 2. x ≠ 3.

3 x 2 − 9 x + 18 = ( x − 3)( x − 6) 20. R= M −0. This describes the projections exactly. 19.6 × 10−4 30. 0.28n + 47 M = −0. y 3 − 125 = y 3 − 53 = ( y − 5)( y 2 + 5 y + 25) 24.25. 2003 is 14 years after 1989. commutative property of addition x +5 = 2 + ( x + 3) 5 = ( x + 3) ( x + 3) 5 3 2 x x 2 + 5 − 22x = 3 5 = ( x + 3) 5 (2 x + 3) = = = − x( x + 2) − x 2 x( x + 2) + ( x + 2) = 18.28n + 47 0.08 In 2003. x≠0 x + 3x + 2 29. 0. 27 31. 21. Chapter P Test 2x + 3 2 − 2 x − 7 x + 12 x − 3 2x + 3 2 = − ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 2x + 3 2 x−4 = − ⋅ ( x − 3)( x − 4) x − 3 x − 4 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) ( ) 36 x 2 − 84 x + 49 = (6 x) 2 − 2(6 x) ⋅ 7 + 7 2 23.2 × 109 = 1.28(25) + 47 R= 0. 0. This overestimates the actual percent shown by the bar graph by 0.00076 = 7. a. 43. ( x 2 + 10 x + 25) − 9 y 2 25. x ( x + 3) 26.6 × 109 = 13. ) 3 5 − 3 x (x 3) 2x + 3 3 4 22 −7. − . ( x − 3)( x − 4) x ≠ 3. x 3 + 2 x 2 + 3 x + 6 = x 2 ( x + 2) + 3( x + 2) = 1 ( 32. are rational numbers.28(25) + 53 2 = 3 Three women will receive bachelor’s degrees for every two men. Inc. 5 3 = ( x 2 + 3)( x + 2) = 5 3 1 ( 3 ) 5 27 = 1 ( 3) 5 = 1 243 ) 2 6. 6(7 + 4) = 6 ⋅ 7 + 6 ⋅ 4 distributive property of multiplication over addition x 2 + 2 x − x2 ( x + 1)( x + 2) 2x = 2 . = ( x + 5)2 − 9 y 2 = ( x + 5 − 3 y )( x + 5 + 3 y ) 1 − x +x 2 ( x + 2) x 1 − x +x 2 = 1 + 1x 1 + 1x ( x + 2) x ( 25 x 2 − 9 = (5 x)2 − 32 = (5 x − 3)(5 x + 3) = (6 x − 7) 2 2 x + 3 − 2( x − 4) = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 2x + 3 − 2x + 8 = ( x − 3)( x − 4) 11 = . ⎛ 2 x x 2 + 5 − 2 x ⎞ x2 + 5 ⎜ ⎟ x2 +5 ⎠ =⎝ ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x( x 2 + 5) − 2 x3 ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 2 x3 + 10 x − 2 x3 b.28n + 53 −0. .28n + 53 −0.PreCalculus 4E 16.08%.28n + 47 = W 0.28(14) + 47 = 43. 5 7 28. 4 17.32 × 1010 3 ( x + 5) − 27 x2 + 5 2 − 27.08% of bachelor’s degrees were awarded to men. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 22. ( x 2 + 5) x 2 + 5 10 x c. 3(2 + 5) = 3(5 + 2). M = −0. 4. R= 121 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

2 x 2 − 3x − 2 = 0 (2x + 1)(x – 2) = 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x=2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 2⎬ . The solution set is {7}. 2 4 8 − = x − 3 x + 3 ( x − 3)( x + 3) 35. 36.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 33. 37. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x=5 The solution set is {5}. 3 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 122 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7( x − 2) = 4( x + 1) − 21 7 x − 14 = 4 x + 4 − 21 38. 2± 2x − 3 x − 4 x +1 = − 4 2 4 2 x − 3 = 2( x − 4) − ( x + 1) 2x − 3 = x − 9 x = −6 The solution set is {–6}. 34. The solution set is {2}. 1 + 5 . ⎬. Inc. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 0 = x2 + 2 x − 8 0 = ( x + 4)( x − 2) x + 4 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x = −4 x=2 –4 does not check and must be rejected. x= ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −4 ) 2 2 2±2 5 2 x = 1± 5 x= 2x − 3 = 2x − 8 − x −1 The solution set is 1 − 5. ⎩ 2 ⎭ ( 3x − 1) 2 40. 8 − 2x − x = 0 8 − 2x = x ( = 75 3x − 1 = ± 75 8 − 2x ) 2 = ( x) 2 8 − 2 x = x2 3x = 1 ± 5 3 x= 11 ± 112 − 4(1)(28) 2(1) x= −2 x = −10 1 2 } x −3 = x −5 2( x + 3) − 4( x − 3) = 8 x=− { x−3 +5 = x 39. . x(x – 2) = 4 x2 − 2 x − 4 = 0 7 x − 14 = 4 x − 17 x= 3x = −3 x = −1 The solution set is {–1}. x − 3 = x 2 − 10 x + 25 x 2 − 11x + 28 = 0 x= 2 x + 6 − 4 x + 12 = 8 −2 x + 18 = 8 11 ± 121 − 112 2 11 ± 9 x= 2 11 ± 3 x= 2 x = 7 or x = 4 4 does not check and must be rejected. 1± 5 3 3 ⎪⎧1 − 5 3 1 + 5 3 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .

2x + 5 <6 3 –9 ≤ 2x + 5 < 18 –14 ≤ 2x < 13 13 −7 ≤ x < 2 −3 ≤ 13 ⎞ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −7. Inc. 42.3⎬ ⎩2 ⎭ 43. 12}. 4x − 7 = 5 4 x − 7 = −5 or 4 x = 12 4x = 2 x=3 1 x= 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 45. ∞ ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 41. 2⎠ ⎣ 2x 2 x + = x2 + 6 x + 8 x + 2 x + 4 2x 2 x + = ( x + 4)( x + 2) x + 2 x + 4 2 x( x + 4)( x + 2) 2( x + 4)( x + 2) x( x + 4)( x + 2) + = x+2 x+4 ( x + 4)( x + 2) 2 x + 2( x + 4) = x( x + 2) 47. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ 2 x + 2 x + 8 = x2 + 2 x 2 x + 8 = x2 0 = x2 − 2 x − 8 0 = ( x − 4)( x + 2) x − 4 = 0 or x=4 x+2 =0 48. ∞ ⎟ . 1 V = lwh 3 3V = lwh 3V lwh = lw lw 3V =h lw 3V h= lw 44. 123 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x + 2 ≥ 3 3x + 2 ≥ 3 or 3x + 2 ≤ −3 3x ≥ 1 3 x ≤ −5 1 5 x≥ x≤− 3 3 5⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 3(x + 4) ≥ 5x – 12 3x + 12 ≥ 5x – 12 –2x ≥ –24 x ≤ 12 The solution set is (−∞. − ⎥ ∪ ⎢ . 12]. x 1 x 3 + ≤ − 6 8 2 4 4 x + 3 ≤ 12 x − 18 −8 x ≤ −21 x≥ 21 8 ⎡ 21 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ . Chapter P Test 2 x−6 = 2 3 2 2 x−6 = 2 x − 6 = −2 3 3 2 2 x=8 x=4 3 3 x = 12 x=6 The solution set is {6. ⎣8 ⎠ −3 4 x − 7 + 15 = 0 −3 4 x − 7 = −15 4x − 7 = 5 46. ⎟ . . x = −2 (rejected) The solution set is {4} .

residents. the cost will be $33.4 x − 677 0 = 0.07 x 2 + 47. Let x + 64 = the number video rental stores. 55. x ≈ −691 (rejected) The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004.07 x 2 + 47. and 65 video rental stores.07 x 2 + 47. y − y1 = mx − mx1 54.07) x ≈ 14.4) ± (47. 24700 = 950 x 26 = x In 26 years.07)(−677) 2(0.600.07 x 2 + 47. l = 2w + 4 A = lw x = 14 The system’s income will be $1177 billion 14 years after 2004. ( x ) + ( x + 16 ) + ( x + 64 ) = 83 −mx = y1 − mx1 − y −mx y1 − mx1 − y = −m −m y − y1 + x1 x= m 50. or 2018. length is 12 feet −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(47. Inc. Let x + 16 = the number movie theaters.4 x + 500 1177 = 0. 124 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let x = the number drive-in theaters.Prerequisites: Fundamental Concepts of Algebra 49. Ra − as = − Rs a( R − s ) = − Rs a( R − s ) − Rs = R−s R−s Rs a= s−R 51. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4 x + 500 0 = 2w2 + 4 w − 48 0 = 0. x + x + 16 + x + 64 = 83 3x + 80 = 83 3x = 3 as a+s R (a + s ) = as Ra + Rs = as R= x =1 x + 16 = 17 x + 64 = 65 For every one million U. .4 x − 677 0 = ( w + 6)( w − 4) x= x= 0 = w2 + 2 w − 24 w+6 = 0 w−4 = 0 w = −6 w=4 2 w + 4 = 2(4) + 4 = 12 width is 4 feet.4)2 − 4(0. 29. or 2018. 700 + 150 x = 5000 + 1100 x 48 = (2w + 4) w 48 = 2w2 + 4 w B = 0. The formulas model the data quite well. 43x + 575 = 1177 43x = 602 56. 17 movie theaters.S. 52. there is 1 drivein theater. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 53.

For Plan A to be better deal. C A < CB 25 < 13 + 0. 000 x + 3. 000( x + 5) − 6000 x( x + 5) = 600.06 x 200 < x x > 200 Plan A is a better deal when more than 200 local calls are made per month. Inc. 60.06 x 12 < 0. 000 x −6000 x 2 − 30. 600. Chapter P Test 242 + x 2 = 262 576 + x 2 = 676 x 2 = 100 x = ±10 The wire should be attached 10 feet up the pole. 000 − 6000 x 2 − 30. 000 600. 000 − 6000 = x x+5 600. 000 x + 3. 000. 000 ⎛ 600. Publishing as Prentice Hall.PreCalculus 4E 57. 000 = 0 x 2 + 5 x − 500 = 0 ( x + 25)( x − 20) = 0 x − 20 = 0 x + 25 = 0 or x = −25 x = 20 –25 must be rejected. There were originally 20 people. Let x = the original selling price 20 = x − 0. 125 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 58. The monthly cost using Plan B is CB = 13 + 0. 000 x 59. it must cost less than Plan B. . Let x = the number of local calls The monthly cost using Plan A is C A = 25. 000. 000 x = 600.40 x 50 = x The original price is $50. 000 ⎞ x( x + 5) ⎜ − 6000 ⎟ = x ( x + 5) x x+5 ⎝ ⎠ 600.06 x.60 x 20 = 0. 600.

100 . y = 3 x = 2. 50 ] by distance between y -axis minimum maximum tick y -value y -value marks 2. y = 1 x = −1.10] viewing rectangle is as follows: distance between x -axis minimum maximum tick marks x -value x -value [ −100 . Thus. x = 0. Thus. the y-intercept is 5.1 Check Point Exercises 4. The graph crosses the x-axis at (–3. 0). . b. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. y = 1 x = 1. y = 2 x = 2. y = 4 x = 1.100. The mathematical model overestimates the actual percentage shown in the graph by 5%. c. [ −100 . y = 0 x = 0. 5). there is no x-intercept. 4).and y-axes at the origin (0. The graph crosses the y-axis at (0. d = 4n + 5 d = 4(15) + 5 = 65 65% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. The graph does not cross the x-axis. y = 7 x = −2. b. the x-intercept is 0 and the y-intercept is 0. 100 . y = 3 x = −3. Thus. Publishing as Prentice Hall. According to the line graph. The graph crosses the x. Thus. 0). y = 1 3. 60% of marriages end in divorce after 15 years when the wife is under 18 at the time of marriage. y = 6 5. Thus.Chapter 1 Functions and Graphs Section 1. 6. Inc. y = 3 126 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.50] by [−100. x = −4. y = 2 x = 3. the y-intercept is 4. the x-intercept is –3. a.100. 10 ] x = −3. c. x = −1. y = 2 x = −2. y = 5 a. 1. The meaning of a [−100.

PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 7. 11. 10. 6. 12. 2.1 Exercise Set 1.1 1. 9. 3. . 4. Inc. 5. 127 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 8.

y = 0 x = 3. y = 11 x = –2. 14. y = 2 x = 1. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 5 x = –3. y = 7 x = 3. y = –1 x = –2. y = −3 x = 0. y = 3 x = 2. y = −1 x = −1. x = –3. y = 1 x = 0. y = −2 x = 1. y = −4 x = −1. y = 2 x = 2. y = −5 x = −2. y = 11 128 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 3 x = 0. x = −3. y = 7 x = −3. y = 2 x = 1. y = −1 x = 1. y = 1 16. y = −2 x = 0. y = 6 x = –1. y = 4 x = 3. Inc. y = 2 x = −2. 15. y = −1 x = 2. y = 6 x = 3.Functions and Graphs 13. y = 3 x = 2. y = 0 x = –1.

y = 3 5 x = –1. y = 3 x = −1. 2 20. y = 1 1 x = 3. y = 5 2 x = 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. y = 2 x = –3. y = –8 x = –1. y = 129 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = −3. y = 2 7 2 x = –2. y = −5 x = −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = –3. y = −1 x = 0. y = 0 x = 3. y = –6 x = 0. y = −1 18. y = 1 x = −1. y = −3 x = −3. y = –10 x = –2. y = 0 x = 3. y = –4 x = 1. y = 3 x = 2. . y = 2 x = 2.1 17. y = 2 3 x = 1. Inc. y = 1 2 x = −2. 19. y = –2 x = 2. y = 2 x = 0. y = − 1 x = 3. y = 1 x = 1. y = 7 x = 1. y = − 3 2 x = 2.

y = 2 x = 2. y = 1 x = 1. y = 2 x = 2. 22. y = 4 x = −3. x = −3. Inc. y = −6 x = −3. y = −4 x = 1. y = −4 x = −2. . x = −3. y = 2 x = −2. y = 1 x = −1. y = 4 x = 3. y = 6 x = −2. y = 0 x = 1. y = 4 x = −1. y = 3 x = −1. y = −2 x = 2. y = −2 x = −1. y = 0 x = 0. y = 1 x = 3. y = −6 x = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 2 x = 0. y = 4 24. y = −1 x = 1.Functions and Graphs 23. 21. y = 3 x = 3. y = 2 130 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 6 x = −2. y = 0 x = 0. y = 0 x = 2. y = 2 x = 0.

y = −1 x = 0. –700. y = 0 33. 10.1) . (0. y = 0 x = 2. (0. 28. y = 5 x = 3. 2) . 70 x = −3. y = 9 x = 0.1) . 2. 20. 0. . –2. –1. 8. 5) .9) are on the graph y = x 2 . 0. and (3. –900. 34. y = −8 x = −1. 2. 3. 2) . 1. 80. y = 1 36. The equation that corresponds to Y in the table 2 x = 1. 20. –6. y = 8 x = 3. y-axis tick marks –4. 800.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 4. –3. 0) .1) . y = −2 x = 0. . 2. y = −4 x = −1. (1. y = −28 x = −2 . y = 26 26. y = 0 37. –4. (−1. x-axis tick marks –20. 20. 1000 x = −2. (2. 0) . (−2. We can tell because all of the points ( −3. ( −1. 60. 30. 0. 70. –800. (a) x-axis tick marks –40. y-axis tick marks –30. 10. but all are not on any of the others. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Yes. y = −9 32. . . –20. –10. No. y = 8 x = −1. Inc. It passes through the point (0. –2. –10. y = −9 x = −1. The equation that corresponds to Y1 in the table is (b). (d) x-axis tick marks –10. x = 1. and (3. x = 0. 4. –4. 30. . (b). 40. y = 0 x = 3. ( −2. x = −3. –2. y = 5 x = −2. 6. 29. 0. –20. 0) x = 2. −1) are on the line y = 2 − x . y1 = x 2 . x = 3. 4 31. It passes through the point (0. y-axis tick marks are the same. We can tell because all of the points (−3. (c) x-axis tick marks –5. 3) . 50. y = 0 x = −3. 0. y = −27 35. y = 27 131 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 25. y-axis tick marks –1000. (2. x = −2. 700. y = −1 x = 2. 10. 0. y = 1 (2. 40. but all are not on any of the others. 4) . y = −1 x = 1. 27. 0) . 4) . 30. y = −9 (1. 5. y = 7 x = 2. 900. 50. x = −3. y = −4 is (c). y2 = 2 − x . 40. –8. 4) . y = 8 x = 1.9) . 60.

1). The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. b. 2). The graph intersects the x-axis at (1. Inc. 0). y ) none. 44. 5) none. 2). 4) and (1. 5) 47. 45. 0). 1. 5) (2. 1. The graph does not intersect the y-axis. 132 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 0). 2. (0.1) . 5) −1 ( −1. –1. 0). 41. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2). −2 ( −2. a. 50. 0) and (–1. a. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–1. a. 0 (0. 51. The graphs of Y and Y intersect at the points 1 2 ( −2. a. 46. 1. 1. 5) 3 (3. 48. 49. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. 2) 39. . 2. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. b. b.–4). b. a. 5) 1 2 (1. −3 ( −3. –4. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. x ( x. b. The graph does not intersect the x-axis. The graph intersects the x-axis at (2. 0) and (–2. 40. –1. a. 0). 5) 2. 42. The graph intersect the y-axis at (0.Functions and Graphs 38. 2. The values of Y1 and Y2 are the same when x = −2 and x = 1 . 43. b. –2.

⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1. . This underestimates the value in the graph by 2%. about 14% of seniors used marijuana in 1990. e. −1) x − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 53. ( x.2⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ (1. a. According to the line graph. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2005.3 ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . −1) 1 2 (1. x Section 1. −1) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 2. 2005 is 25 years after 1980. −1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . −1) 0 (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1) 3 (3.PreCalculus 4E 52. 18% of seniors used marijuana in 2005. −1) −1 −1 ( −1. y ) −3 ( −3.1) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . c. −2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ (1. The minimum for marijuana was reached in 1990.2⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − . A = −n + 70 A = −(26) + 70 = 44 According to formula. x −2 −1 − 1 2 − 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 ( x. 2006 is 26 years after 1980.3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . −3 ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . 44% of seniors used alcohol in 2006.4(25) + 28 = 18 According to formula.1) ⎛ 1⎞ ⎜ 2. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( x. − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ ( −1.4n + 28 M = −0. According to the line graph. According to the line graph. M = −0.1 54. −1) (2. −3 ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ . y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. This underestimates the value in the graph. −1) −2 −2 ( −2. 133 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. d. y ) 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −2. b. ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 55. about 45% of seniors used alcohol in 2006. −2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − .

c. does not make sense. makes sense –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 68. At age 65. A sample change is: 3(5) − 2(2) ≠ −4. A sample change is: The product of the coordinates of a point in quadrant III is also positive. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. The difference between the number of awakenings for 25-year-old men and women is about 1. women have the least number of awakenings.9. A sample change is: A point on the x-axis will have y = 0. −4 ) ( −1. (c) 82. false. y ) –2 y = 2( −2) = −4 58. 0 ) ( −1. false. 70. 1 y = 2(1) = 2 2 y = 2(2) = 4 ( −2. At age 8. 79. 73. Explanations will vary. 50% of seniors used alcohol in 2000. about 22% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. (b) The maximum for alcohol was reached in 1980. Sample explanation: Most graphing utilities do not display numbers an the axes. The difference between the number of awakenings for 18-year-old men and women is about 1. 134 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. According to the line graph. Explanations will vary. the total calories burned will also go up. a. y ) ( −2. 60.1. 83. 78. averaging about 8 awakenings per night. 2000 is 20 years after 1980. true 74. Changes to make the statement true will vary. −2 ) ( 0.4n + 28 M = −0. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: These three points are not collinear. ( x. 4 ) 84. (d) 77. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: As the time of day goes up. Set 1 has each x-coordinate paired with only one ycoordinate. 61. This underestimates the value in the graph. 71. 20% of seniors used marijuana in 2000. 72.Functions and Graphs 56. (a) 81. about 72% of seniors used alcohol in 1980. d. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( 0. averaging about 1 awakening per night. false. 0 y = 2(0) + 4 = 4 1 y = 2(1) + 4 = 6 2 y = 2(2) + 4 = 8 69. This matches the value in the graph. 2 ) ( 2. –1 y = 2( −1) + 4 = 2 0 y = 2(0) = 0 59. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 ) (1. (b) 80. (c) 2000 is 20 years after 1980. M = −0. (b) According to the line graph. Explanations will vary. b. x y = 2x + 4 –2 y = 2( −2) + 4 = 0 67. x y = 2x ( x. 57. does not make sense.4(20) + 28 = 20 According to formula. – 66.8) . 6 ) ( 2. does not make sense. A = −n + 70 A = −(20) + 70 = 50 According to formula. According to the line graph. e. Inc. Answers may vary. 75. men have the greatest number of awakenings. (a) 76.

1] .1) The graph (c) fails the vertical line test and is therefore not a function. y = ± 1 − x2 Since there are values of x (all values between – 1 and 1 exclusive) that give more than one value for y (for example. f (5) = 400 b. Inc. 3. f (9) = 100 c. the y-coordinate is 3. The domain is the set of all first components: {0.PreCalculus 4E 85. = x + 2x + 7 2 ( −2. domain: { x −2 < x ≤ 1} or range: { y −1 ≤ y < 2} or f (− x) = (− x) 2 − 2(− x) + 7 c. b. 3] .1. 135 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 Check Point Exercises 1. g ( x) = 2x − 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 3 units. −3) (1. [0.1] . ( x. −2 ) ( 0. x = 9 . d. −1) ( 2. 8) have the same first component but different second components. The range is the set of all second components: {9. . When the y-coordinate is 4.4}. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. a.2 a. 6. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. y ) -2 g ( −2 ) = 2( −2) − 3 = −7 -1 g ( −1) = 2( −1) − 3 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 2(0) − 3 = −3 1 g (1) = 2(1) − 3 = −1 2 g ( 2 ) = 2(2) − 3 = 1 ( −2. 13. 0 ) (1. the equation does not define y as a function of x. The y-coordinates are all real numbers greater than or equal to 1. 10. 4 ) Section 1. the x-coordinates are –3 and 3. x [ −2. = x 2 − ( −2 x ) + 7 domain: { x −3 ≤ x < 0} or range: { y y = −3. c. 2 ) . then 7. a. 0 ) . The minimum T cell count in the asymptomatic stage is approximately 425. −5) ( 0. −4 ) ( −1. [ −3. b. a. When the x-coordinate is 2. 6) and (5.2. y 2 = 1 − x2 4. The x-coordinates are all real numbers. a. so the equation defines y as a function of x. 30.7. 17. 2. = 42 b. y is a function of x for the graphs in (a) and (b). 10. domain: { x −2 ≤ x ≤ 1} or range: { y 0 ≤ y ≤ 3} or f ( x + 4) = ( x + 4) 2 − 2( x + 4) + 7 = x 2 + 8 x + 16 − 2 x − 8 + 7 b. −1} . b. a. 2 ) ( 2. if x = 0. −7 ) ( −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y ) ( −2. x f ( x) = 2x -2 –4 -1 –2 0 0 1 2 2 4 ( x. = x 2 + 6 x + 15 c. 36}. −2. 5.7. y = ± 1 − 02 = ±1 ). Section 1. 2x + y = 6 y = −2 x + 6 For each value of x. 20. f (−5) = (−5)2 − 2(−5) + 7 = 25 − (−10) + 7 8. [ −1. x2 + y 2 = 1 6. there is one and only one value for y.

can be obtained for x = 1. 12. 5. 11. –1. 136 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7. 6}. 15. The domain is {3. –5. x 2 + y = 16 y = 16 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. –2. The domain is {1. 5}. y = 16 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 5. 5}. The domain is {1} and the range is {4. 4. The relation is a function since there are no ordered pairs that have the same first component but different second components. y is a function of x. y is not a function of x.Functions and Graphs Exercise Set 1. 9}. 2. 8} and the range is {5. 7}. The relation is not a function since there are ordered pairs with the same first component and different second components. –3. 5. 6. Since two values. x + y = 16 16. –1. y is a function of x. 0} and the range is {–7. –3. 5. x 2 + y = 25 y = 25 − x 2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 7} and the range is {–2. 7)). 13. 4. Since two values. y = ±5. 6) and (5. Since two values. The relation is a function since there are no same first components with different second components. y = 4 and y = – 4. 3. 5) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (4. – 1. 3. y = ±1. 10} and the range is {1. 5)). The domain is {–3. x + y = 25 y = 25 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. x = y2 y=± x If x = 1. can be obtained for one value of x. 10. x 2 + y 2 = 25 y 2 = 25 − x 2 y = ± 25 − x 2 If x = 0. 4} and the range is {4. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (3. 14. . y = ±4. –5. y = 1 and y = –1. 7) have the same first component but different second components (the same could be said for the ordered pairs (6. 6} and the range is {6. The relation is not a function since the two ordered pairs (5. y = 2 and y = –2. The domain is {4. can be obtained for x = 1. 9. The relation is a function since no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components. then y = ±2. The relation is a function since there are no two ordered pairs that have the same first component and different second components. x 2 + y 2 = 16 y 2 = 16 − x 2 y = ± 16 − x 2 If x = 0. 8}. 6. 17. The domain is {–7. –2. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {3. 5. can be obtained for one value of x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5} and the range is {2. 6}. 4) and (4.2 1. 1. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {4. y is a function of x. 6} and the range is {1}. y is not a function of x. 0}. Inc. 4 x = y2 y = ± 4 x = ±2 x If x = 1. y is not a function of x. 7. 8. 0} and the range is {–3. 4) and (3. y is a function of x. 4. The relation is a function because no two ordered pairs have the same first component and different second components The domain is {–2. 18. 4. y = 5 and y = –5. 0}. The domain is {5. Since two values. y is not a function of x. 6) and (6.

a. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 4 − ( − x ) 2 + 1 = x 4 − x 2 + 1 d. −y = − x + 2 y = x −2 h(−1) = (−1)4 − (−1) 2 + 1 = 1 −1 +1 =1 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 31. g (−1) = (−1) 2 − 10(−1) − 3 = 1 + 10 − 3 =8 g ( x + 2) = ( x + 2) 2 − 10(8 + 2) − 3 = x 2 + 4 x + 4 − 10 x − 20 − 3 = x 2 − 6 x − 19 xy − 5 y = 1 y ( x − 5) = 1 c. a. 24. y is a function of x. f(–x) = 4(–x) + 5 = – 4x + 5 28.PreCalculus 4E 19. f(6) = 4(6) + 5 = 29 x −y=5 c. y is a function of x. y = x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. y is a function of x. y is a function of x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x + y 3 = 27 c. h(2) = 24 − 22 + 1 = 16 − 4 + 1 = 13 x −y=2 b. y = − x+4 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. b. 137 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g (−1) = (−1)2 + 2(−1) + 3 = 1− 2 + 3 =2 = x 2 + 10 x + 25 + 2 x + 10 + 3 y 3 = 27 − x 23. 22. y is a function of x. y = 3 8− x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. f(x + 1) = 4(x + 1) + 5 = 4x + 9 c. g (− x) = (− x)2 − 10(− x) − 3 = x 2 + 10 x − 3 1 y= x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. a. y is a function of x. y is a function of x. Section 1. h(3a) = (3a) 4 − (3a) 2 + 1 = 81a 4 − 9a 2 + 1 −y = − x +5 y = x −5 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. b. a. g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + 2(− x) + 3 = x2 − 2x + 3 y ( x + 2) = 1 25. 30. f(4) = 3(4) + 7 = 19 b. a. 21. y is a function of x. . xy + 2 y = 1 1 x+2 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. Inc. f(–x) = 3(–x) + 7 = –3x + 7 29. g ( x + 5) = ( x + 5) 2 + 2( x + 5) + 3 = x 2 + 12 x + 38 y = 3 27 − x Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. 26. 20.2 27. x + y3 = 8 y3 = 8 − x f(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) + 7 = 3x + 10 c. y= b.

Inc. f (−9 − x) = −5 + 3 8 8 = =1 −2 −2 = −9 − x + 3 −9 − x + 3 − x − 6 ⎧ 1. 3 33. h(3) = 33 − 3 + 1 = 25 36. h(3a) = (3a)3 − (3a) + 1 f (−2) = 4(−2)3 + 1 −31 31 = = −8 8 (−2)3 c. f (2) = f (−6) = −6 + 6 + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3 37. f (−6) = c. a. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (25 − 2 x) = 25 − (25 − 2 x) − 6 = 2x − 6 35. a. b. h(−2) = (−2)3 − (−2) + 1 = −8 + 2 + 1 = −5 c. f (− x) = 4(− x)3 + 1 −4 x 3 + 1 = (− x)3 − x3 4 x3 − 1 x3 or = 27 a − 3a + 1 b. 34. f (−24) = 25 − (−24) − 6 = 49 − 6 = 7−6 =1 c. f (2) = 4(2)2 − 1 15 = 4 22 b. 2 = −1 −2 . f (−5) = c. a. f (− x) = 4(− x)2 − 1 4 x 2 − 1 = (− x) 2 x2 f (5) = −6 −6 = = −1 −6 6 r2 r2 5+3 5+3 = r2 =1 r2 = −5 + 3 b. h( − x ) = ( − x ) 3 − ( − x ) + 1 = − x 3 + x + 1 d. f ( x − 6) = x − 6 + 6 + 3 = x + 3 f (16) = 25 − 16 − 6 = 9 − 6 = 3 − 6 = −3 38. if x < −6 = =⎨ − x − 6 ⎩−1. b.if x > −6 138 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a.Functions and Graphs 32. f (r 2 ) = =7 c. 4(2)3 + 1 33 = 23 8 b. a. f (6) = f (10) = 10 + 6 + 3 = 16 + 3 = 4+3 6 =1 6 b. a. f (−2) = 4(−2) 2 − 1 15 = 4 (−2) 2 c.

y ) ( −2.2 f ( x) = x ( x. 0 ) (1. −4 ) (1. 2 ) ( 0.1) ( −1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units. 0 ) (1. y ) ( −2. x 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 x g ( x) = x + 3 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 3 = 1 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 3 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = 1 + 3 = 4 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 3 = 5 ( x. −1) (1. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 4 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 4 = −5 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 4 = −4 1 g (1) = 1 − 4 = −3 2 g ( 2 ) = 2 − 4 = −2 ( −2.1) ( 0. 41. −1) ( 0. . −5) ( 0.3) (1. 2 ) x g ( x) = x − 4 ( x. 4 ) ( −1. −1) ( 0.3) ( −1. y ) ( −2. −3) ( 2. y ) 1 g (1) = −2 (1) − 1 = −3 −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) − 1 = −5 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 ( −2. 40.1) ( 2. −5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. −3) ( 2. −2 ) ( 2. 2 ) 39. −2 ) ( x. −6 ) ( −1. 4 ) ( 2.1) ( 2. −2 ) ( −1. Inc. x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x − 1 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) − 1 = 3 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) − 1 = 1 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 x f ( x) = x ( x.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 4 units. −2 ) ( −1. −4 ) ( x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 ( −2. 2 ) ( 0. 139 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ) (1.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. y ) ( −2. y ) ( −2. y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1. 4 ) ( x.Functions and Graphs 42. 2 ) ( −1. 4 ) ( −1. y ) ( −2. x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 + 1 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 1 = 5 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 1 = 2 0 g (0) = (0) + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = (1) + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) + 1 = 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x. y ) ( −2. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 3 units.1) ( 0.5 ) x f ( x ) = x2 −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = 4 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = 1 0 f ( 0) = (0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 4 x g ( x ) = x2 − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 2 = 2 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = (1) − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 2 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( x.1) (1. 0 ) (1. −4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit. −2 ) ( 2. 4 ) ( −1. . x f ( x ) = −2 x –2 f ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) = 4 –1 f ( −1) = −2 ( −1) = 2 0 f ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) = 0 1 f (1) = −2 (1) = −2 2 f ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) = −4 x g ( x ) = −2 x + 3 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 ( −2 ) + 3 = 7 –1 g ( −1) = −2 ( −1) + 3 = 5 0 g ( 0 ) = −2 ( 0 ) + 3 = 3 1 g (1) = −2 (1) + 3 = 1 2 g ( 2 ) = −2 ( 2 ) + 3 = −1 ( x. ( x. −1) ( 0. 2 ) ( 0.1) ( 2. 7 ) ( −1. 4 ) ( −1. 2 ) ( 2. 43.5 ) ( −1. −1) ( 2.5 ) ( 0. 0 ) (1. y ) ( −2.1) ( 2.1) ( 2.1) ( 0. Inc.3) (1. 4 ) ( x. −1) 44. 140 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −2 ) (1. 2 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units. 2 ) ( 0.

y ) ( −2. 2 ) ( 0. 47. 2 ) (1. Inc.3) f ( x ) = x3 ( x. x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x +1 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 1 = 3 −1 g ( −1) = −1 + 1 = 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 1 = 1 1 g (1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 1 = 3 ( x. −1) ( 0. −8) −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 ( −1. Section 1. y ) ( −2. −6 ) ( −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1) ( 2. 46. 141 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) + 2 = −6 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) + 2 = 1 0 g ( 0) = ( 0) + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = (1) + 2 = 3 2 g ( 2 ) = ( 2 ) + 2 = 10 ( −2. 2 ) ( x.8) x −2 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 + 2 ( x. 0 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 1 unit.2 x f ( x) = x −2 f ( −2 ) = −2 = 2 −1 f ( −1) = −1 = 1 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 2 f ( 2) = 2 = 2 x g ( x) = x − 2 −2 g ( −2 ) = −2 − 2 = 0 −1 g ( −1) = −1 − 2 = −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 2 = −2 1 g (1) = 1 − 2 = −1 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 2 = 0 ( x.PreCalculus 4E 45. . 0 ) (1. 0 ) ( −1.1) ( 0. y ) ( −2. 0 ) (1. 2 ) ( −1. 2 ) ( x. 2 ) ( −1. −2 ) (1. 2 ) ( 2. y ) ( −2.10 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units.1) ( 0.3) ( −1.1) ( 2. −1) 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( 0. y ) f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 ( −2. 0 ) (1.1) ( 0. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 2 units.1) ( 2.3) ( 2.1) (1. −1) ( 2.

5) ( 2. −1) x g ( x) = 4 −2 g ( −2 ) = 4 −1 g ( −1) = 4 0 g ( 0) = 4 1 g (1) = 4 2 g ( 2) = 4 ( x.3) (1. . y ) ( −2.5) ( −1.3) ( 2.3) ( x. x f ( x ) = x3 ( x. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) = −8 −1 f ( −1) = ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0) = ( 0) = 0 1 f (1) = (1) = 1 2 f ( 2) = ( 2) = 8 ( −2. −1) (1. −1) ( 0.1) ( 2. y ) ( −2. x f ( x ) = −1 ( x.8) 3 3 3 3 3 x g ( x ) = x3 − 1 ( x.3) ( −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 5 units.Functions and Graphs 48. x f ( x) = 3 −2 f ( −2 ) = 3 −1 f ( −1) = 3 0 f ( 0) = 3 1 f (1) = 3 2 f ( 2) = 3 x g ( x) = 5 −2 g ( −2 ) = 5 −1 g ( −1) = 5 0 g ( 0) = 5 1 g (1) = 5 2 g ( 2) = 5 ( x. −1) ( 0. 7 ) 3 3 3 3 3 The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. y ) ( −2. −1) ( 2. 4 ) ( 0. −1) ( −1. 0 ) ( 2. 4 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. 4 ) ( −1. y ) −2 g ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − 1 = −9 −1 g ( −1) = ( −1) − 1 = −2 0 g ( 0 ) = ( 0 ) − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = (1) − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = ( 2) − 1 = 7 ( −2. −1) (1. 49. 4 ) (1. Inc.3) ( 0.5) (1. −8) ( −1. y ) −2 f ( −2 ) = −1 −1 f ( −1) = −1 0 f ( 0 ) = −1 1 f (1) = −1 2 f ( 2 ) = −1 ( −2. 142 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5) ( 0. 0 ) (1. −9 ) ( −1. 4 ) ( 2. 50. −2 ) ( 0.

0 ) (1. 2 ) (1. Inc. 0 ) (1. 0 ) (1. 52. 0 ) ( 4. ( x.3) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 0 g ( 0) = 0 + 2 = 2 1 g (1) = 1 + 2 = 3 4 g ( 4) = 4 + 2 = 4 ( x. 2 ) ( 9. y ) ( 0.3) ( 4. 2 ) ( 9.PreCalculus 4E 51. 5 ) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted right 1 unit.1) ( 4. 2 ) ( 9. y ) ( 0. ( x. 2 ) x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 2 g ( 2) = 2 − 1 = 1 5 g ( 5) = 5 − 1 = 2 10 g (10 ) = 10 − 1 = 3 ( x.3) The graph of g is the graph of f shifted down 1 unit. Section 1.2 x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x −1 0 g ( 0 ) = 0 − 1 = −1 1 g (1) = 1 − 1 = 0 4 g ( 4) = 4 −1 = 1 9 g (9) = 9 −1 = 2 ( x.1) ( 9. y ) ( 0. y ) ( 0. 143 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1) ( 5. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted up 2 units. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ) (10. y ) (1. −1) (1.3) 53. .1) ( 4. 0 ) ( 2.1) ( 4.3) ( x. 4 ) 9 g (9) = 9 + 2 = 5 (9 . y ) ( 0.

0 ) (1. y ) ( 0. g ( x) = −1. function b. g ( x ) = 1. a. function 78. g ( −10 ) = 2 74. range: [1. x-intercept: none 63.3) 72. a. g (10) = −2 75. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 58. not a function 79. ∞) b. function e. f ( 4) = 4 f (2) = −5 f (−1) = 2 and f (3) = 4 144 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (−1) = 0 71. 2 ) ( 7. not a function c. 77. function d. 2 ) ( 9. Inc. ∞) c.1) ( 2. x f ( x) = x 0 f ( 0) = 0 = 0 1 f (1) = 1 = 1 4 f ( 4) = 4 = 2 9 f (9) = 9 = 3 x g ( x) = x + 2 –2 g ( −2 ) = −2 + 2 = 0 –1 g ( −1) = −1 + 2 = 1 2 g ( 2) = 2 + 2 = 2 7 g (7) = 7 + 2 = 3 ( x. not a function e. 56. domain: (−∞. When x = 1. y-intercept: –3 e.1) ( 4. 4] 57. function c. 76. y ) ( −2. 0 ) ( −1. y-intercept: 1 64. not a function d.3) 68. f (−2) = −3 and f (2) = 5 domain: (–∞. ∞) 62. g ( 2 ) = −2 73. f (2) = −4 67. f (−2) = 3 and domain: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: [−4.Functions and Graphs 54. 65. y-intercept: 3 59. g ( −4 ) = 2 ( x. function b. f (−4) = 4 69. ∞) 61. x-intercepts: –3 and 1 d. range: (–∞. When x = −2. ∞) 55. f ( −2 ) = −4 66. a. f ( −3 ) = 0 70. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted left 2 units. . 60.

range: [–5. range: (−∞. ∞) c. ∞) c. range: (−∞. range: [–2.75 d. a. f(4) = 6 84. 0) ∪ (0. x-intercept: 4 e. 3} b. a. ∞) c. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. domain: [–3. Inc. f(–4) = –5 and f(4) = –2 c. ∞) domain: (−∞. Section 1. range: [–1. x-intercept: none d.1) ∪ (1. –2. x-intercept: none domain: (–6. f(–2) = 0 and f(2) = 4 b. 86. a. ∞) c. d. range: [–3. x-intercept: –1 d. 90. y-intercept: 1 81. f(–1) = 5 domain: {–5. a. 88. y-intercept: 1 e. a. − 2] f(3) = 1 c. x-intercept: –1 d. range: [0. y-intercept: 1.5 e. a. ∞) b. x-intercept: –3. e.PreCalculus 4E 80. f(–2) = –3 b. 4) e. ∞) domain: [–1. b. x-intercept: none d. a. y-intercept: 4 91. x-intercept: − f(–4) = 3 and f(3) = 4 d. 5] c. 5) c. x-intercept: 2 d. f (−5) + f (3) = 2 + 2 = 4 145 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. range: [0. a. y-intercept: –3 e. range: (0. f(–5) = 2 82. y-intercept: –2 b. ∞) b. y-intercept: –1 e. range: {2} c. ∞) b. 0] d. y-intercept: 2 e. x-intercept: { x x ≤ 0} d. x-intercept: none d. 1. ∞) c. 6] c. domain: (−∞. 0. 1 2 87. 2] b. range: [1. range: [0. domain: [–2. a. x-intercept: none d. . ∞ ) domain: (–∞. y-intercept: 0 e. 6] domain: (−∞. a. y-intercept: 1 e. domain: [0. 5) e.2 domain: (–∞. y-intercept: −1 f(2) = 1 b. 89. ∞) c. ∞) b. domain: [0. y-intercept: 1 e. f(3) = 2 85. 83. f(4) = 3 b.

7 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall.5. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range. 0. b.6 in the domain corresponds to both Finland and New Zealand in the range. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) − 3 ( − x ) + 7 − ( x 2 − 3x + 7 ) 2 = x 2 + 3x + 7 − x 2 + 3 x − 7 = 6x 99. 9.6. ( 9. Iceland ) . .6. {( 9. f ( g (1) ) = f ( −2 ) = ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) + 4 2 = 4 + 2 + 4 = 10 g ( −1) = 3 ( −1) − 5 = −3 − 5 = −8 94. ( Denmark. 9. the relation is a function. f (−x) − f ( x) = ( − x ) + ( − x ) − 5 − ( x3 + x − 5) 3 = − x 3 − x − 5 − x 3 − x + 5 = −2 x 3 − 2 x 98. 3 − ( −1) − ( −6 ) + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 2 = 3 + 1 − 36 + 6 ÷ ( −6 ) ⋅ 4 = 4 − 36 + −1 ⋅ 4 = 2 − 36 + −4 = −34 + −4 = −38 96. f ( g ( −1) ) = f ( −8) = ( −8) − ( −8 ) + 4 2 = 64 + 8 + 4 = 76 95. 9. c. g (1) = 3 (1) − 5 = 3 − 5 = −2 93. 146 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs domain: {–5. 9. ( 9. No. 9.6 ) . range: {–2} c. Finland ) . ( 9. –2. 1. the relation is not a function. ( New Zealand. {( Iceland. 4} 92. −4 − ( −1) − ( −3) + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 2 = −4 + 1 − 9 + −3 ÷ 3 ⋅ −6 = −3 − 9 + −1 ⋅ −6 = 3 − 9 + 6 = −6 + 6 = 0 97. a. New Zealand ) .5 )} b.6 ) .7. Inc. y-intercept: –2 f (−5) + f (4) = −2 + (−2) = −4 e. Denmark )} d. a. Yes. ( Finland. x-intercept: none d.

Function f is the better model. 1.8)} b. According to the graphs. a. 101. This is represented on the graph by the point (20.125(20)2 + 5.6 x + 94 R (4) = −0.8. or 1988.25(4) + 72 = 91 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91 takeout meals per person. b. Bangladesh ) . g (90) = 10 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 10%. a. c.6 x + 94 R(0) = −0. 1. This is represented on the graph by the point (18.82). f (90) = 25 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 90 is 25%.8 ) .PreCalculus 4E 100. c.125 x 2 + 5. b. a. This is represented on the graph by the point (20. or 2004. g (70) = 76 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 76%.6 x + 94 R(20) = −0.6 meals in restaurants per person.125 x 2 + 5.25(18) + 72 = 126 Americans ordered an average of 126 takeout meals per person 18 years after 1984.2 {( Bangladesh. 1. Inc. the relation is a function. .94). Myanmar )} d.7.6(0) + 94 = 94 Americans ordered an average of 94 meals in restaurants per person 0 years after 1984. 1.7 in the domain corresponds to both Bangladesh and Chad in the range. or 2004. or 1984.25 x + 72 T (20) = −0. 147 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c.125(4)2 + 5.6(4) + 94 = 91.7 ) . b. Haiti ) .125 x 2 + 5. (1. b. This is represented on the graph by the point (0. Yes. T ( x) = −0.25 x + 72 T (18) = −0.8.7. Each element in the domain corresponds to only one element in the range. R( x) = −0.6(20) + 94 = 82 Americans ordered an average of 82 meals in restaurants per person 20 years after 1984. f (70) = 83 which means the chance that a 60-year old will survive to age 70 is 83%. or 2002. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( Myanmar. a. R ( x) = −0. 104. 1. a.126). (1.6 In 1988 Americans ordered an average of 91. 102. Section 1. T ( x) = −0. c. No. Function f is the better model. the relation is not a function. ( Chad.25(20) + 72 = 127 Americans ordered an average of 127 takeout meals per person 20 years after 1984. R( x) = −0. ( Haiti.125(18)2 + 5.7 ) .127). (1. Chad ) . {(1. T ( x) = −0.25 x + 72 T (4) = −0. 103. the average number of takeout orders approximately equaled the average number of inrestaurant meals 4 years after 1984.

makes sense 129. A sample change is: The range is [ −2.60(50 − x) S (30) = 0.900.40(t − 60) C (100) = 20 + 0.1).10 x + 0. f (a + h) = 3(a + h) + 7 = 3a + 3h + 7 f (a ) = 3a + 7 f ( a + h) − f ( a ) h ( 3a + 3h + 7 ) − ( 3a + 7 ) = h 3a + 3h + 7 − 3a − 7 3h = = =3 h h 106. 130. A sample change is: The domain is [−4. it is not true for all functions. 109.10(30) + 0. = 2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x + 3h + 5 − 2 x 2 − 3x − 5 = 2 x 2 − 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3x − 3 x + 3h + 5 − 5 124. Answers may vary. Explanations will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 4]. . 131. Answers may vary.500 − 3200(3) = $12. T ( x) = 127. your total trip will take 2 hours. true = 4 xh + 2h 2 + 3h 148 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.40(40) = 20 + 16 = 36 For 100 calling minutes.(2. 107.40(100 − 60) = 20 + 0.8 C (90) = 100. the monthly cost is $36. 120. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Sample explanation: This would not be a function because some elements in the domain would correspond to more than one age in the range. 000 + 100 x 125. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. such as f ( x). false. Inc. false. f (2) = f (1 + 1) = f (1) + f (1) = 3+3 = 6 Similarly: f (3) = f (2 + 1) = f (2) + f (1) = 6+3= 9 f (4) = f (3 + 1) = f (3) + f (1) = 9 + 3 = 12 While f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) is true for this function. false. – 117.Functions and Graphs 105. 000 + 100(90) = $109. 2( x + h) 2 + 3( x + h) + 5 − (2 x 2 + 3x + 5) 123. 500 − 3200 x V (3) = 22.60(50 − 30) = 15 When 30 mL of the 10% mixture is mixed with 20 mL of the 60% mixture. C ( x) = 100. 118. It is not true for f ( x ) = x 2 . A sample change is: f (0) = 0. 2 ) . Explanations will vary. there will be 15 mL of sodium-iodine in the vaccine. S ( x) = 0. 126. 900 After 3 years. 122. Sample explanation: The parentheses used in function notation. 108. Explanations will vary. To find f (2) .000 to produce 90 bicycles. It is given that f ( x + y ) = f ( x) + f ( y ) and f (1) = 3 . Changes to make the statement true will vary. 40 40 + x x + 30 40 40 T ( 30 ) = + 30 30 + 30 80 40 = + 60 60 120 = 60 =2 If you travel 30 mph going and 60 mph returning. does not make sense. the car will be worth $12. 119. An example is {(1. does not make sense. V ( x) = 22. rewrite 2 as 1 + 1.1)} 128. for example. C (t ) = 20 + 0. do not imply multiplication. Sample explanation: The domain is the number of years worked for the company. 000 It will cost $109. 121.

h( − x ) = ( − x )5 + 1 = − x 5 + 1 The function is neither even nor odd. a. − 1) c. constant: none 4. 2) b.40(80 − 60) = 28 With 80 calling minutes. ∞) b.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Check Point Exercises 1. f ( x ) = −2 x 2 + x + 5 f ( x + h) = −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) + 5 = −2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 ) + x + h + 5 = −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 6. decreasing: none c. increasing: none b. constant: none a.3 Section 1. 2. a. and increasing on the interval (1. 1). decreasing: (–2. 2. 5. C (40) = 20 With 40 calling minutes.40(t − 60) b. a. f (− x) = (− x) 2 + 6 = x 2 + 6 = f ( x) The function is even. This is represented by ( 40. increasing: (−1. decreasing: (−∞. increasing: (–∞. –1) b. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 60 1. c. constant: none a. ( −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 − −2 x 2 + x + 5 5. ∞) c. Inc. –1). increasing: (–1. 149 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. constant: none a. Since 80 > 60 . decreasing: (–1. 6) c. decreasing: none c. g (− x ) = 7(− x)3 − (− x) = −7 x3 + x = − f ( x) The function is odd. decreasing: none c. C (80) = 20 + 0. 3.3 3. 4. increasing: (–3. b. ⎧ 20 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩ 20 + 0. 28 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. decreasing on the interval (–1. ∞) b. increasing: (0. 20 ) . if t > 60 Since 0 ≤ 40 ≤ 60 . the cost is $28. ∞). constant: none a. ) . constant: none a. = The function is increasing on the interval (–∞. c. ∞) b. This is represented by ( 80.3 b. the cost is $20. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + x + h + 5 + 2 x 2 − x − 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 Exercise Set 1.

2) h( − x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 c. 4) b. even function 16. constant: none g (− x) = x 2 − x. −4) or (2. −2) or (0. decreasing: (0. 3. 8. x = −3. ∞) g (− x ) = (− x) 2 + (− x) c. relative minimum = 3 150 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. h( x ) = 2 x 2 + x 4 increasing: none h(− x ) = 2(− x )2 + (− x) 4 b. a. increasing: (−∞.5. decreasing: none c. h( x ) = x 2 − x 4 increasing: (–2. decreasing: (–4.Functions and Graphs 7. relative maximum = 30 b. − 2) or (4. x = −3. even function 23. f ( x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 f (− x) = 2(− x) 2 + (− x)4 + 1 15. 22. Publishing as Prentice Hall. constant: (−1. a. neither 10. 13. . 2) or (4. increasing: (0.5) c. neither 21. constant: (–∞. ∞ ) h( − x ) = x 2 − x 4 h(− x) = h( x). increasing: (−5. f ( x) = x3 − x g ( x) = x 2 + x b. constant: (−∞. odd function 18. 9. a. x = 0. decreasing: none f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 − ( − x ) c. odd function a. relative maximum = 2 b. ∞ ) 12. a. 19. 0) f ( − x ) = − x 3 + x = −( x 3 − x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). ∞) a. x = 1. − 1) b. even function 11. even function 14. a. constant: none 20. increasing: (−∞. x = −2. 0) or (1. 0) or (2. x = 0. 4) h( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − ( − x ) 4 b. decreasing: (−4. g ( x) = x 2 − x g ( − x ) = ( − x ) 2 − (− x ) g (− x ) = x 2 + x. constant: (−∞. 3. relative maximum = 21 f (− x) = 2 x 2 + x 4 + 1 b. f ( x) = x 3 + x f ( − x ) = ( − x )3 + (− x ) f ( − x ) = − x 3 − x = −( x 3 + x ) f (− x) = − f ( x). a. decreasing: none c. h(− x ) = h( x). ∞) b. a. 3) 17. relative minimum = −6 f (− x) = f ( x). relative minimum = 0 f (− x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = f ( x). 1. a. relative minimum = –1 24. −4) or (−2. x =1. Inc.5) or (3. relative maximum = 4 f ( x) = x 2 − x 4 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) 4 + 1 b. x = 4.

Section 1. x = −4 and x = 4 l. domain: neither . odd function f ( x) = x 1 − x 2 f (− x) = − x 1 − (− x) f (− x) = − x 1 − x 2 ( = − x 1 − x2 ) f (−x) = x 2 2 c. The function is odd. a. −4] h. The graph is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. range: c. The function is odd. odd function 28. 4 ) g. The graph is not symmetric with respect to the y-axis or the origin. . The function is even. f (− x) ≠ − x 2 f(–x) = f(x). a.∞ ) f. x = −2 and x = 3 i. even function 33.3) or ( 3. ( −∞. ( −∞. ∞ ) b. ∞ ) or [ 4. f (− x) ≠ − x domain: 2 ( −∞. f (2) = −2 and f (6) = −2 34. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. x=4 i. ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (−3) = 4 k. 30. or ( 0. Inc. 1− (−x) 1− x range: l. f (− x) ≠ x . f (−2) = 4 and f (3) = 2 j. f ( x ) = x2 1 − x2 f (−x) = (−x) [ −4. 0 ) g. 2 f(–x) = – f(x).PreCalculus 4E 25. ( 0. x-intercepts: 1. −2 ) f. ∞ ) 151 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 32. neither . ( −2. The graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. 7 d. f (−2) = 4 k. f (− x) ≠ x . 4 d. ∞ ) 5 f (− x) = −(2 x3 − 6 x 5 ) 27. ∞ ) ( −∞. 26.3 1 6 x − 3x 2 5 1 f (− x) = (− x)6 − 3(− x) 2 5 1 f (− x) = x 6 − 3 x 2 5 f (− x) = f ( x) . 0 ) h. The function is neither even nor odd. ( 4. 31. y-intercept: 4 e. x-intercepts: –4. 4] b. even function 29. ( −∞. y = −4 j. y-intercept: 1 e. f ( x) = f ( x) = 2 x3 − 6 x 5 f (− x) = 2(− x)3 − 6(− x)5 f ( − x ) = −2 x + 6 x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x).

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 ) h. f(–2) = 3(–2) + 5 = –1 b. no. g(–3) = –3 + 3 = 0 e. f(3) = 4(3) + 7 = 19 38. 0] a. g(0) = 0 + 3 = 3 f(–3) = 6(–3) – 1 = –19 b. a. domain: ( −∞. 37. h(3) = 6 42. g(–6) = –(–6 + 5) = –(–1) = 1 c. a. g(0) = 0 + 5 = 5 b. positive. f(4) = 7(4) + 3 = 31 b. a. g(–6) = –(–6 + 3) = –(–3) = 3 ( −∞. range: c. ( −3. f (4) = −1 k. h(5) = 52 − 9 25 − 9 16 = = =8 5−3 2 2 b. ( −∞. neither l. range: [ 0. 152 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (0) = 3 e. f(2) is not greater than the function values to the immediate left. a. 3 f (0) = 1 43. a. f(0) = 7(0) + 3 = 3 c. (1.Functions and Graphs 35. h(7) = 7 2 − 25 49 − 25 24 = = = 12 7 −5 2 2 b. ( −∞. Inc. g(–5) = –5 + 5 = 0 41. 4] b. 6 ) g. b. b. a.1] d. 44. negative. a. h(5) = 10 zeros of f: –3. f (−1) = +2 36. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. c. f(0) = 4(0) + 7 = 7 c.3) ( −∞. a. domain: range: ( −∞. ( −∞. x-intercepts: –3. 6] c. h(0) = 02 − 25 −25 = =5 0−5 −5 c. g. a. ( 2. 3 d. ( −2. −3] h. x = −5 and x = 5 j. f (1) = 4 i. b. 3) i. h(0) = 0 2 − 9 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 c.3] 39.1) f. −2 ) f. x =1 j. 40. .

47. 52. a. range: ( −∞. 48. 49. range: (−∞. a. a. range: a.PreCalculus 4E 45. ∞ ) a. b. Inc. b. 0] ∪ {3} a.3 range: {−4. b. Section 1. b. 46. 0] ∪ {2} 50. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. . 0] ∪ [3. 153 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( −∞. b. ∞) b. range: (−∞. 3} a. b. 51. ∞) range: {−3. 4} a. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: [ 0.

Functions and Graphs 53. range: [ 0. b. range: [ −1. ∞ ) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 3( x + h) + 7 − (3x + 7) = h 3x + 3h + 7 − 3x − 7 = h 3h = h =3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 6( x + h) + 1 − (6 x + 1) = h 6 x + 6h + 1 − 6 x − 1 = h 6h = h =6 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( x + h) 2 − x2 h x + 2 xh + h 2 − x 2 = h 2 2 xh + h = h h ( 2x + h) = h = 2x + h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 4( x + h) − 4 x = h 4 x + 4h − 4 x = h 4h = h =4 2 60. a. 56. Inc. a. 57. ∞ ) 58. b. 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 55. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 7( x + h) − 7 x = h 7 x + 7h − 7 x = h 7h = h =7 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2( x + h) 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 2( x + 2 xh + h 2 ) − 2 x 2 = h 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h 2 − 2 x 2 = h 2 4 xh + 2h = h h ( 4 x + 2h ) = h = 4 x + 2h 154 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 59. .

2 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (2 x 2 + x − 1) 2 = f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) − 3 ( x + h ) + 1 − (− x 2 − 3x + 1) 2 = h 2 2 2 x + 4 xh + 2h + x + h − 1 − 2 x 2 − x + 1 = h 2 4 xh + 2h + h = h h ( 4 x + 2h + 1) = h = 4 x + 2h + 1 h − x − 2 xh − h − 3 x − 3h + 1 + x 2 + 3x − 1 = h 2 −2 xh − h − 3h = h h ( −2 x − h − 3) = h = −2 x − h − 3 2 2 155 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h − ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) + 4 − (− x 2 + 2 x + 4) 2 = h − x − 2 xh − h + 2 x + 2h + 4 + x 2 − 2 x − 4 = h 2 −2 xh − h + 2h = h h ( −2 x − h + 2 ) = h = −2 x − h + 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 66. Section 1. Inc.3 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 4( x + h) + 3 − ( x 2 − 4 x + 3) = h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − 4 x − 4h + 3 − x 2 + 4 x − 3 = h 2 xh + h 2 − 4h = h h(2 x + h − 4) = h = 2x + h − 4 64.PreCalculus 4E 61. 62. 63. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) + 5 − (3 x 2 + x + 5) 2 = h 3x 2 + 6 xh + 3h 2 + x + h + 5 − 3x 2 − x − 5 = h 6 xh + 3h 2 + h = h h ( 6 x + 3h + 1) = h = 6 x + 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h) 2 − 5( x + h) + 8 − ( x 2 − 5 x + 8) = h 2 2 x + 2 xh + h − 5 x − 5h + 8 − x 2 + 5 x − 8 = h 2 2 xh + h − 5h = h h ( 2 x + h − 5) = h = 2x + h − 5 65.

−3 ( x + h ) + ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + x − 1) h −3x 2 − 6 xh − 3h 2 + x + h − 1 + 3 x 2 − x + 1 = h −6 xh − 3h 2 + h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 1) = h = −6 x − 3h + 1 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 71. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 6 − 6 0 = = =0 h h h 72. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 70.Functions and Graphs 67. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) 7 − 7 0 = = =0 h h h −3 ( x + h ) + 2 ( x + h ) − 1 − (−3x 2 + 2 x − 1) 2 = h 2 2 −3x − 6 xh − 3h + 2 x + 2h − 1 + 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 = h 2 −6 xh − 3h + 2h = h h ( −6 x − 3h + 2 ) = h = −6 x − 3h + 2 69. −2 ( x + h ) + 5 ( x + h ) + 7 − (−2 x 2 + 5 x + 7) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 2 = 2 = h −2 x 2 − 4 xh − 2h 2 + 5 x + 5h + 7 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 7 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + 5h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 5 ) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 5 68. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2 ( x + h ) − ( x + h ) + 3 − (−2 x 2 − x + 3) 2 = h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h − x − h + 3 + 2 x 2 + x − 3 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h − h = h h ( −4 x − 2h − 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h − 1 2 2 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − x h x + = h − ( x + h) x + x ( x + h) x ( x + h) = h x−x−h x ( x + h) = h −h x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ x ( x + h) h −1 = x ( x + h) 156 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 73. .

3t − 6 80. if 0 ≤ t ≤ 400 if t > 400 . Section 1. 30 + 0.PreCalculus 4E 74.5) − f (1. f ( −2. Inc.5) − f (1.3t − 60 = 0.9) − [ f (π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f ( −π ) 2 = 1 + 0 − [ −4 ] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ 3 2 = 1 − 16 + ( −1) ⋅ 3 = 1 − 16 − 3 = −18 78.30(t − 200) = 40 + 0.30(t − 120) = 30 + 0.3 x+h + x f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x + h −1 − x −1 h = x + h −1 − x −1 x + h −1 + x −1 ⋅ h x + h −1 + x −1 x + h − 1 − ( x − 1) = = = = = h h h ( ( ( x + h −1 + x −1 x + h −1 − x +1 x + h −1 + x −1 h x + h −1 + x −1 ) ) ) 1 x + h −1 + x −1 157 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎧50 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩50 + 0.5) + f ( −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 75. f ( −1. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h 1 1 − 2( x + h) 2 x = h x x+h − 2 x ( x + h) 2 x ( x + h) = h −h 2 x ( x + h) = h 1 −h = ⋅ 2 x ( x + h) h −1 = 2x ( x + h) 77.3t − 36 = 0.30(t − 400) f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h x+h − x h x+h − x x+h + x ⋅ h x+h + x x+h− x = = = = h h ( ( x+h + x h x+h + x ) ) 1 = 76.3t − 20 81. 40 + 0.9) − [ f (−π )] + f (−3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 = 2 − (−2) − [ 3] + 2 ÷ ( −2 ) ⋅ ( −4 ) 2 = 4 − 9 + ( −1)( −4 ) = 2−9+ 4 = −3 79.9) − [ f ( −π ) ] + f ( −3) ÷ f (1) ⋅ f (π ) 2 f (−2.

75) 100. 89. 000) = 782. 75]. domain: [25. 2) 158 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.850) 94. 75].75. ⎧60 C (t ) = ⎨ ⎩60 + 0. 86. range: [23. 55).76. 91.25 + 0.5 ounces is $0. 99.75 + 0. Increasing: (−∞. 106.148.99). The minimum is (20. 000 − 7825) = 2608. 39. 101. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1. 000 − 31. 0) or (2.75. decreasing: (55. 700) 95.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $50.5) = 0. which means that the minimum number of doctor visits. increasing: (25. f (3) = 0. Answers may vary. 26] The number of doctor visits decreases during childhood and then increases as you get older. occurs at around age 20.25(50. –2) or (0.59. about 4.93 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3.850) = 8923. domain: [25. increasing: (25. 3) T (50.000 owes $8923. 3.29.5 ounces is $0.33( x − 160. Publishing as Prentice Hall.59.8 ounces is $0. f (3. T (20. The percent body fat in men reaches a maximum at age 65. This maximum is 38%. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞.Functions and Graphs 82. – 105. 65). The percent body fat in women reaches a maximum at age 55. 108. 83. 90. Inc. This model describes percent body fat in women. 85. range: [34. 93.75 A single taxpayer with taxable income of $20. 469. decreasing: (65. 75) 84.35( x − 349. if t > 450 98.76 The cost of mailing a first-class letter weighing 3 ounces is $0. The cost to mail a letter weighing 1.25 + 0.93. 96.50 + 0. 87. 1) or (3. ∞) Decreasing: (1. Increasing: (–2. 107. 000) = 4386. This maximum is 26%. . 38] 88.35(t − 450) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 450 97.15(20.000 owes $2608. 92. This model describes percent body fat in men.

Decreasing: (−∞. . Explanations will vary. Increasing: (1. b. 110. ∞) c. a. 0) 119. a. f is odd and g is even: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x ) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) g ( x) f is even and g is odd: f (– x) f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = =– = – h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) 159 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. 115. makes sense 117. makes sense 116. 0) Decreasing: (0. ∞) Decreasing: (–∞. answers may vary Decreasing: (−∞. Inc. ∞) when n is odd. does not make sense. Sample explanation: It’s possible the graph is not defined at a. ∞) 118. makes sense Increasing: (0. ∞) 113. 1) 114. f ( x ) = x n is increasing from (–∞. h is even if both f and g are even or if both f and g are odd. 109. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) d. 120. Increasing: (–∞. f and g are both even: f (– x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = h( x ) g (– x) g ( x) f and g are both odd: f (– x) – f ( x) f ( x) h(– x) = = = = h( x ) g (– x) – g ( x) g ( x) h is odd if f is odd and g is even or if f is even and g is odd. Increasing: (2. − 2) Constant: (–2.3 b. 111. e. 2) Increasing: (0. answers may vary 112.

4 4 −1 3 y2 − y1 = = =3 x2 − x1 −2 − (−3) 1 Check Point Exercises 1. m= −2 − 4 −6 = =6 −4 − (−3) −1 b. Using the point (–2. 123. to obtain the point (5. so one point on the line is (1. 0). 1). We can find a second point on the line by using the slope m = 35 = Rise : starting at Run 3 x+2 2 the point (0.Functions and Graphs 121. move 3 units up and 5 units to the right. ⎝2 ⎠ When x = 0 : 4x − 3y − 6 = 0 The slope m is 3 5 and the y-intercept is 1. Inc. m= 5 − (−2) 7 7 = =− −1 − 4 −5 5 4x − 6 = 0 4x = 6 2. 4). answers may vary 122. 2 y = −3 x + 4 −3 x + 4 2 or 4. 160 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –1). −2 ) . Section 1.Solve the equation for y : y + 1 = −5 x − 10 3x + 2 y − 4 = 0 y = −5 x − 11. 124. −1 − (−2) 1 so the slope is –5. . 5. y + 5 = 6 x − 12 y = 6 x − 17 3. 4(0) − 3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y − 6 = 0 −3 y = 6 y + 1 = −5( x + 2). y= y=− −6 − (−1) −5 = = −5 . y = 3 is a horizontal line. 0 ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. we get the point slope equation: y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − (−1) = −5[ x − (−2)] x = −2 The point is ( 0. When y = 0 : 4x − 3 y − 6 = 0 4 x − 3(0) − 6 = 0 a. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 6( x − 2) 3 x= 2 ⎛3 ⎞ The point is ⎜ .

016 x − 5.6°F. rises 8−4 4 2.0 Find the temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million.04 0.968 f ( x) = 0. horizontal 3− 4 −1 6. m= 10 − 7 3 = . 9. m= −2 − (−4) 2 = = −1.04 = 0.016 x + 51. vertical 5−5 0 161 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Section 1.04 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 0. 2 Find the x-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3x − 2(0) − 6 = 0 3x − 6 = 0 3x = 6 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 3x − 2 y − 6 = 0 3(0) − 2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y − 6 = 0 −2 y = 6 y = −3 1.016(600) + 52.4 The slope is − 8. m= 2 − (−2) 0 = = 0.6 The temperature at a concentration of 600 parts per million would be 61.6 m= = = ≈ 0. Change in y 57. 7. m= 2 −1 1 = .4 All ordered pairs that are solutions of x = −3 have a value of x that is always –3. 3x + 6 y − 12 = 0 6 y = −3 x + 12 −3 12 y= x+ 6 6 1 y = − x+2 2 Exercise Set 1. rises 2 − (−1) 3 5.0 = 61. m= −1 − 4 −5 = = −5. falls −1 − (−2) 1 8. m= 4 −1 3 = = 3.016 x + 52. m= −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. m= −2 − 3 −5 = undefined.64 − 57.016( x − 317) y − 57. First find the slope. rises 2 − (−2) 4 4. horizontal 3−4 −1 7. Inc. rises 3−2 1 3. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 57. falls 4−6 −2 9. m= 4−3 1 = .0 f (600) = 0.PreCalculus 4E 6.016 x + 52.016 Change in x 354 − 317 37 Use the point-slope form and then find slopeintercept form.072 y = 0. 1 and the y-intercept is 2. Any value can be used for y.

Inc. . slope-intercept form: y = −4( x + 4) 3 24. 2) . x1 = −4. slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 6 x + 12 1 22. 3 2 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x + 4 3 2 y = − x+2 3 16. 5 3 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 5 y = −4 x − 16 18. x1 = −4. point-slope form: y + 3 = –3(x + 2). 5 3 m = − . 3 1 m = . y1 ) = (5. x1 = 6. 1⎞ ⎛ point-slope form: y + 2 = −1⎜ x + ⎟ .Functions and Graphs 5 − (−4) 9 = undefined. 2⎠ ⎝ 1 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = − x − 2 5 y = −x − 2 10 − 2 8 = = 2. x1 = −2. point-slope form: y + 4 = − ( x − 10). y = 2x 162 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y1 = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y1 = − . slope-intercept form: y − 5 = 2 x − 6 1 = −1( x + 4). x1 = 4. y1 = 0. x1 = 10. slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −3 x − 6 23. y1 = −3. x1 = 0. x1 = −4. point-slope form: y + y = 2x −1 21. point-slope form: y – 3 = 4(x – 1). 10) . m = 2. slope-intercept form: y − 2 = 2 x − 2 or y − 10 = 2 x − 10. m = −5. 3 2 point-slope form: y + 2 = − ( x − 6). 3 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 3 14. 4 1 m = −1. m= −1 . y = −3 x − 9 m = −4. x1 = 0. 5 −1 4 point-slope form: y – 2 = 2(x – 1) using ( x1 . 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = y = 6 x + 17 15. y1 = −2. point-slope form: y + 2 = –5(x + 4). vertical 3−3 0 10. x1 = 1. slope-intercept form: y = –5x – 22 17. m= 11. y1 ) = (1. slope-intercept form: y = 4x – 1 13. m = 8. y1 = −3. point-slope form: y – 0 = –4(x + 4). point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x − 0). 12. y1 = −1. point-slope form: y + 3 = –2(x – 0) m = −2. y1 = 5. m = 4. y1 = −2. y1 = 3. slope-intercept form: y = –2x – 3 19. x1 = 2 m = − . 1 . y1 = 5. x1 = 3. point-slope form: y + 1 = 8(x – 4). point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3). 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x 2 m = 6. y1 = 0. point-slope form: y – 5 = 6(x + 2). 2 25. m = −1. x1 = −2. y1 = −4. or y – 10 = 2(x – 5) using m= ( x1 . 1 ( x − 0). y1 = −2. 4 17 slope-intercept form: y = − x − 4 20. slope-intercept form: y = 8x – 33 m = −3. x1 = 0.

6 − (−2) 8 4 = = . y1 ) = ( 0. slope-intercept form: y − 9 = x − 2. Inc. y1 ) = (−3. −1 − (−1) 0 = = 0. y1 ) = (3. or y + 1 = 0(x – 4) using m= ( x1 . or y – 3 = 1(x – 0) using ( x1 . or y + 1 = 1(x – 1) using y = −1 34. 30. m = 1 − (−2) 3 point-slope form: y + 4 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . y1 ) = ( −2. slope-intercept form: y = 2x – 1 28. − 5) . or y + 5 = 0(x – 6) using m= ( x1 . y1 ) = ( 6. 4) . y1 ) = (0. y1 ) = (−2. y1 ) = (2. 0 − (−3) 3 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . 0) . y1 ) = (2. or y – 2 = 1(x – 0) using m= 32. y1 ) = ( −2. − 5 ) . so y = −5 35. −2 − 2 −4 point-slope form: y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . − 1) . y1 ) = (1. 0 − 4 −4 = = 1. − 1) . 8−3 5 point-slope form: y – 5 = 2(x – 3) using ( x1 . 0) . slope-intercept form: y + 5 = 0. or y – 4 = 1(x – 2) using ( x1 . − 1) slope-intercept form: y = x – 2 −5 − (−5) 0 = =0. or y − 6 = ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . y1 ) = (−3. or y = x+2 163 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y1 ) = ( 3. 3 4 y = x+2 3 slope-intercept form: y + 2 = 2−0 2 = =1. 27. 4) . or y + 2 = − ( x − 3) using 3 ( x1 . m= 4 − (−1) 5 = =1. y1 ) = ( 8. 0 ) . slope-intercept form: y + 1 = 0. 6 ) . − 2) . 3) . y1 ) = (−3. Section 1. 2 ) . − 4 ) . or y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using m= ( x1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 − (−3) 5 point-slope form: y + 1 = 1(x + 3) using ( x1 . y1 ) = ( −2. slope-intercept form: y = x + 2 29.so −1 − (−4) 3 = =1. − 2 ) . 0 − (−2) 2 point-slope form: y – 0 = 1(x + 2) using ( x1 . y1 ) = ( 3. ( x1 .or y – 15 = 2(x – 8) using m= 31. m= 4 −2 − 6 −8 = =− . y1 ) = (−3. − 1) . 3 − (−3) 6 3 4 point-slope form: y − 6 = − ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 .4 15 − 5 10 = =2. 6 − (−2) 8 point-slope form: y + 5 = 0(x + 2) using ( x1 . 6) .PreCalculus 4E 26. .15) . 4 − (−3) 7 point-slope form: y + 1 = 0(x + 3) using ( x1 . slope-intercept form: y = x + 3 m= 4 + 4 or 3x 4 y − 6 = x − 4. 4 ( x + 3) using 3 4 ( x1 . 3− 0 3 = =1. slope-intercept form: y + 1 = x + 3or y−4 = x−2 y = x+2 m= 4 slope-intercept form: y = − x + 2 3 33. 3 − (−3) 6 3 point-slope form: y + 2 = ( x1 . y1 ) = ( −3.5 ) . ( x1 . y1 ) = (4.

m= 43. y1 ) = ( −1. b = 1 40. 0 − ( − 12 ) 12 point-slope form: y – 4 = 8(x – 0) using ( x1 . y1 ) = ( 4. m = –3. b = 2 164 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m= 42. y1 ) = (1. 0 ) . 3 m = . b = 1 3 point-slope form: y + 3 = − ( x − 1) using 2 3 ( x1 .Functions and Graphs 36. 4) . b = –2 4 44. . m= 0 − (−3) 3 3 = =− −1 − 1 −2 2 41. − 2 ) . y1 ) = ( − 12 . m = –2. 0 − 4 −4 2 point-slope form: y − 0 = ( x1 . or y − 0 = − ( x + 1) using 2 ( x1 . 2 1 slope-intercept form: y = x − 2 2 or y + 2 = 39. m = 2. 0 ) . or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) using ( x1 . 3 3 slope-intercept form: y + 3 = − x + . 1 ( x − 4) using 2 1 ( x − 0) using ( x1 . Inc. y1 ) = ( 0. b = −3 4 −2 − 0 −2 1 = = . b = 2 4−0 4 = =8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 m = . y1 ) = (0. − 3) . or y − 0 = 8 ( x + 12 ) slope-intercept form: y = 8 x + 4 38. m = 3.0 ) . or 2 2 3 3 y = − x− 2 2 37.

Inc. 1 m=− . 50. Section 1. 2 m=− .PreCalculus 4E 45.4 3 m=− . 48. 46.b=0 3 54. 1 m=− . 55. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 165 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 52. b=7 5 49.b=6 5 51. 47.b=0 2 53. .

2 m=− . Inc. b. 3x + y − 5 = 0 y − 5 = −3 x y = −3 x + 5 4 x + 6 y + 12 = 0 4 x + 12 = −6 y −6 y = 4 x + 12 4 12 y= x+ −6 −6 2 y = − x−2 3 m = –3. a. 3x − 18 = 0 3x = 18 x=6 61. b=6 3 c. 58. 60. b = –2 3 c. . 57. b = 6 166 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 62. b = 5 c. a. 2 x + 3 y − 18 = 0 2 x − 18 = −3 y −3 y = 2 x − 18 2 18 y= x− −3 −3 2 y = − x+6 3 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. a.Functions and Graphs 56. 2 m = − . b. 4x + y − 6 = 0 y − 6 = −4 x y = −4 x + 6 m = −4. 3x + 12 = 0 3x = −12 x = −4 59. a. c.

6 m = . b = −4 5 c. . a.PreCalculus 4E 63. Inc. a. 65. Section 1. 3y − 9 = 0 3y = 9 y=3 b. m = 0. 6 x − 2(0) − 12 = 0 6 x − 12 = 0 6 x = 12 x=2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 6(0) − 2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y − 12 = 0 −2 y = 12 y = −6 6 x − 5 y − 20 = 0 6 x − 20 = 5 y 5 y = 6 x − 20 6 20 y = x− 5 5 6 y = x−4 5 b. m = 2. b. 167 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. m = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b = 3 c. b = –3 c. 4 y + 28 = 0 4 y = −28 y = −7 b. a. b = −7 c. a.4 8 x − 4 y − 12 = 0 8 x − 12 = 4 y 4 y = 8 x − 12 8 12 y = x− 4 4 y = 2x − 3 66. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 2 y − 12 = 0 64. 67.

Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 70. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Functions and Graphs 68. Find the x-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8 x − 2(0) + 12 = 0 8 x + 12 = 0 2 x + 3(0) + 6 = 0 2x + 6 = 0 2 x = −6 x = −3 Find the y-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 2(0) + 3 y + 6 = 0 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −6 y = −2 8 x = −12 8 x −12 = 8 8 −3 x= 2 Find the y-intercept: 8 x − 2 y + 12 = 0 8(0) − 2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y + 12 = 0 −2 y = −12 y = −6 168 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Find the x-intercept: 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 71. . Inc. Find the x-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 6 x − 9(0) − 18 = 0 6 x − 18 = 0 6 x = 18 x=3 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 9 y − 18 = 0 6(0) − 9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y − 18 = 0 −9 y = 18 y = −2 3x + 5(0) + 15 = 0 3x + 15 = 0 3x = −15 x = −5 Find the y-intercept: 3x + 5 y + 15 = 0 3(0) + 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y + 15 = 0 5 y = −15 y = −3 69.

the line rises. B B 79. − b is a negative. 76. −4 − y 1 = 3 4 − ( −2 ) 6 x − 3(0) + 15 = 0 6 x + 15 = 0 6 x = −15 6 x −15 = 6 6 5 x=− 2 Find the y-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 6(0) − 3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y + 15 = 0 −3 y = −15 y=5 73. Therefore. 74. b Therefore. 4− y 1− 3 4− y −3 = −2 6 = 4− y 2 = −y −2 = y 80. (b + c ) − b 81. B B 78. Inc.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. . Ax = By − C Ax + C = By A C x+ = y B B A C The slope is and the y − intercept is . 75. m= 3x − 4 f ( x ) = 6 −4 f ( x ) = −3 x + 6 c 0 a−a The slope is undefined. m= 6 = −12 − 3 y 18 = −3 y −6 = y −b − 0 −b b = =− a 0 − ( −a ) a Since a and b are both positive. the line falls. 169 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Find the x-intercept: 6 x − 3 y + 15 = 0 77. m= −3 = = f ( x) = 3 3 x− 4 2 (a + c) − c a = a − (a − b) b Since a and b are both positive. the line falls. m= 0 − a −a a = =− b−0 b b Since a and b are both positive. Therefore. − 1 −4 − y = 3 4+2 1 −4 − y = 3 6 6 = 3 ( −4 − y ) a is b negative.4 72. a is positive. The line is vertical. Ax + By = C By = − Ax + C A C y = − x+ B B A C The slope is − and the y − intercept is .

Change in y 74.215 x + 65.3 y − 31. 6 x − 5 f ( x ) = 20 88.1 7.1 = 0. −3 = b 89.78 ( x − 10 ) y = 0.2 6.65 x − 6.7 −1 = −6 + b 5=b 84. (10. First.9 ) and (10.6.215 Change in x 40 − 20 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= E ( x) = 0. to be 54.215( x − 20) y − 38.5 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American females.65 ( x − 10 ) a.7 = 78.2 = 0. m4 86.3 c.65 ( x − 10 ) or y − 51.3 = 54. y − 31.1 = 0.7 E ( x) = 0.45 The linear function predicts the percentage of never married American males.65(35) + 38. ages 25 – 29.0 = = 0. Inc.78(40) + 23.51.215 x + 65.215 x + 65. find the slope using ( 20. m2 .1) . b3 87.1 = 0. y − 45. .5% in 2020. c.2 ) .7 − 45.6 The life expectancy of American men born in 2020 is expected to be 78.7 = 61. 45.38.2 = 0. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 6 x−4 5 m= y − 45.215 x − 4. a.7 y − 31. 3 ( 2) + b 2 −6 = −3 + b −6 = − 85.2 = 0. b2 .78 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form.65 x + 38.45% in 2015. m3 .5 83.0 = 0. a.8 y = 0.5 = = 0.9 = 0.65 ( x − 20 ) b.0 = 0. −5 f ( x ) = −6 x + 20 f ( x) = First.8 = = 0. ages 25 – 29. find the slope using ( 20.78 ( x − 10 ) or y − 70. y − 45. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) m= b.215(60) + 65. 38.78 ( x − 20 ) b.78 x + 23.3 − 70. f ( 40 ) = 0.7 E (60) = 0. f ( 35 ) = 0.7 = 0.65 x + 38.78 x − 7.78 x + 23. f ( x ) = 0.7 f ( x ) = 0. y − 70.7 ) and 51.9 − 31.3 c. b1 . m1 . Using the slope-intercept form for the equation of a line: −1 = −2 ( 3) + b y = 0.Functions and Graphs 82. to be 61.65 20 − 10 10 Then use the slope and one of the points to write the equation in point-slope form. 170 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b4 .31.

2. 5. −10 − (−5) −5 1 m= = =− . 230) (60.8428126855 d.24). 10 − 0 10 2 Change in y 79.7 = 0. 6) and (10.17( x − 10) y − 74. Section 1.PreCalculus 4E 90. Enter data from table.5 3 m= = = 0. 10 − 0 10 c. –24).–10). 100. 24 − 4 20 m= = = 2.17 x − 1.17 x + 73 c.4( x − 10) y − 230 = −2. 104. 10 − 0 10 Check: y = mx + b : y = −3x + 6 .4) and (10.4 60 − 10 50 y − 230 = −2. – 99.96876741 b = 260.17 x + 73 E (60) = 0.7 = 0. –2) and (10. −24 − 6 −30 m= = = −3. 92.5).–5) and (10. 110) Points may vary. 5. a = −22. Two points are (0. 171 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.17 x + 73 E ( x) = 0. Inc.5633751 r = −0.17 Change in x 40 − 10 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 74. 10 − 0 10 4 3 Check: y = mx + b : y = x − 2 . b.4 101. Two points are (0. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. (10.7 = ≈ 0. 110 − 230 120 m= =− = −2. a.2 The life expectancy of American women born in 2020 is expected to be 83. 4 E ( x) = 0.7 − 74. 91.75 or .4 x + 24 y = −2. 102. a.17(60) + 73 = 83. Two points are (0. b. Two points are (0.5 − (−2) 7. 103.4 x + 254 Answers may vary for predictions.7 y = 0.

makes sense 109. A sample change is: It is possible for m to equal b. Then 280 − 40 240 m= = = 2. y1 ) = ( 25. One such way is to rewrite the equation in slope-intercept form. Since the slope is the negative reciprocal of − . Answers may vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 40) and (125. Explanations will vary. false. 113. Explanations will vary. this function has a positive slope. 2 to find the slope.4 (M – 25) or E = 2. −2 x + y = 4 1 119. 1 y = x−6 2 1 y − x = −6 2 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ y − x ⎟ = 2 ( −6 ) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 y − x = −12 So the equation of the line is y = 107. 4−0 4 4 = = =2 0 − ( −2 ) 0 + 2 2 118. 4 x − y − 17 = 0 172 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. E) where M is degrees Madonna and E is degrees Elvis. 110. Vertical lines have equations of the form x = a . We are given that the x − intercept is −2 and the y − intercept is 4 . the coefficient of x is –6 and the coefficient of y is 3. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. We are given that the y − intercept is − 6 and the 105. x − 2 y = 12 Therefore. Since the slope is the same as the slope of y = 2 x + 1.Functions and Graphs 114. we can write the line in point-slope form. A sample change is: Slope-intercept form is y = mx + b . 4 ) m= 1 . y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − (−5) = 4 ( x − 3) y + 5 = 4 x − 12 −4 x + y + 17 = 0 3 ( −2 x + y ) = 3 ( 4 ) −6 x + 3 y = 12 Therefore. 1 x − 6. Multiply both sides of −2 x + y = 4 by 3 to obtain 12 on the righthand-side. 4 then m = 4. Equations of this form have undefined slope and cannot be written in slope-intercept form. false. 116.4 . does not make sense. A sample change is: The graph of x = 7 is a vertical line through the point (7. Sample explanation: Linear functions never change from increasing to decreasing. Let (25. 0). Publishing as Prentice Hall. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) Using the slope and one of the intercepts. does not make sense. 108. Explanations will vary. 0 ) and ( 0. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − ( −3 ) ) y − 1 = 2 ( x + 3) y − 0 = 2 ( x − ( −2 ) ) y − 1 = 2x + 6 y = 2 ( x + 2) y = 2x + 7 y = 2x + 4 −2 x + y = 4 Find the x– and y–coefficients for the equation of the line with right-hand-side equal to 12. 117. 125 − 25 100 point-slope form tells us that E – 40 = 2. . true 112. 115. We can use the points ( −2. does not make sense. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Using ( x1 . Inc. 2 We can put this equation in the form ax + by = c to find the missing coefficients. Sample explanation: The slope of line’s whose equations are in this form can be determined in several ways. 280) be ordered pairs (M. Sample explanation: Since college cost are going up. 111. slope is 106. 40 ) . Answers may vary. the coefficient of x is 1 and the coefficient of y is −2. then m = 2.4 M – 20.

f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 13 − 03 = =1 x2 − x1 1− 0 b. y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) 3x − y = 0 general form 3.0804 Δs 4. the equation of the line is f ( x ) = 2 x − 6.S. The slope of this line is − b. a.0 3. 42 − 12 4 −1 15 = 3 =5 a. 173 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.05 − 0.5) = 4(1. we know it will have slope m = 2.5 1.5 − 1 c.01 − 1 1 thus the slope of 3 any line perpendicular to this line is 3. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Exercise Set 1.01) = 4(1. We are given that it passes through ( 4.7 = = ≈ 0. a. Section 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (1. y − (−6) = 3 ( x − (−2) ) Since L is parallel to y = 2 x.PreCalculus 4E 120. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) Δs 16 − 4 = = 12 feet per second Δt 2 −1 y − 5 = 3 ( x − (−2) ) y − 5 = 3( x + 2) point-slope y − 5 = 3x + 6 b. Use m = 3 and the point (–2.5)2 = 9 Δs 9 − 4 = = 10 feet per second Δt 1. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 y = 3x + 11 slope-intercept 2.01)2 = 4.0804 − 4 = = 8.04 feet per second Δt 1. The slope of the line y = 3 x + 1 is 3. Inc. m= y − 2 = 2x − 8 y = 2x − 6 In function notation.25 Change in x 2005 − 1990 15 The slope indicates that the number of U. Write the equation in slope-intercept form: x + 3 y − 12 = 0 3 y = − x + 12 1 y = − x+4 3 s (1. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 03 − (−2)3 8 = = =4 x2 − x1 0 − (−2) 2 = Section 1.25 million each year.03 = = = 0.5 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (1) = 4 −1 x2 − x1 4. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. 5.7 − 9. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) 23 − 13 8 − 1 = = =7 x2 − x1 2 −1 1 c. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) y + 6 = 3( x + 2) y + 6 = 3x + 6 −3 x + y = 0 y − 2 = 2 ( x − 4) Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. –6) to write the equation. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (3) − f (1) 0. .01 x2 − x1 3 −1 3 −1 6. 2 ) .5 Check Point Exercises 1. men living alone is projected to increase by 0. s (1) = 4(1)2 = 4 s (2) = 4(2)2 = 16 Change in y 12.

2 y−4 = − x1 = −4. The line passes through (– 2 1. 4). We are given that it passes 2 through (2. We use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. point-slope form: y + 7 = –5(x + 2) slope-intercept form: y + 7 = −5 x − 10 y = −5 x − 17 7. y1 = −10. m = –4 since the line is parallel to y = −4 x + 3. the equation of the line is 1 f ( x ) = − x + 5. L will have slope m = −2 . y1 = 2 . 2 ( x + 2) 3 general form: 2 x − 3 y + 10 = 0 point-slope form: y − 2 = 10. 3 ( x + 1) 2 general form: 3 x − 2 y + 9 = 0 point-slope form: y − 3 = 174 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x1 = −8. y1 = −3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so m = since the 2 2 lines are parallel. 3 1 L will have slope m = . Using the point and the slope. m = –5 since the line is parallel to y = −5 x + 4 . 1 y − 4 = − ( x − 2) 2 1 y − 4 = − x +1 2 1 y = − x+5 2 In function notation. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − 2) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. m = –5 since the line is perpendicular to 1 y = x + 6. Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. y1 = −7 . x1 = 2. Inc. 5 point-slope form: y + 3 = –5(x – 2) slope-intercept form: y + 3 = −5 x + 10 y = −5 x + 7 8. point-slope form: y + 10 = –4(x + 8) slope-intercept form: y + 10 = –4x – 32 y = –4x – 42 6. 5. Use the slope and point to write the equation in point-slope form. we have y − 4 = −2 ( x − 3) . so m = since the 3 3 lines are parallel. 2). we know it will 1 have slope m = − . y − 4 = −2 x + 6 y = −2 x + 10 f ( x ) = −2 x + 10 3. 1 1 y−2 = x+ 2 2 1 1 y = x+ +2 2 2 1 5 y = x+ 2 2 1 5 f ( x) = x + 2 2 2x − 3y − 7 = 0 −3 y = −2 x + 7 2 7 y = x− 3 3 The slope of the given line is 2 2 . point-slope form: y − 2 = −3( x + 4) slope-intercept form: y − 2 = −3x − 12 y = −3x − 10 9. x1 = −2. 3x − 2 y − = 0 −2 y = −3x + 5 3 5 y = x− 2 2 The slope of the given line is 3 3 .Functions and Graphs 2. 1 y − 2 = ( x − ( −1) ) 2 1 y − 2 = ( x + 1) 2 Solve for y to obtain slope-intercept form. . 1 x+7. m = −3 since the line is perpendicular to y = Since L is perpendicular to y = 2 x. 4.

24 − 0 24 = =6 4−0 4 15.1 feet per second 3. The graph of f passes through ( −2.601 Δs 90. 16.07201 − 108 = = 72.5 ) .5 − 3 1 .01 feet per second 3. 15 − 0 15 = =3 5−0 5 14.001)2 = 90.5 − 2 Δt 52 + 2 ⋅ 5 − (32 + 2 ⋅ 3) 25 + 10 − (9 + 6) = 5−3 2 20 = 2 = 10 2 s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3.001) = 10(3.01) = 10(3. . Section 1.001 − 3 Δt 1 The slope of the given line is − . y + 7 = –2 ( x − 4 ) point-slope form: c.01 − 3 Δt d. Since the line is perpendicular to x = −4 which is a vertical line.01 feet per second 3.5 − 90 = = 65 feet per second Δt 3.5 d. 6 ) . s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3.5)2 = 122.5 x − 2y − 3 = 0 −2 y = − x + 3 1 3 y = x− 2 2 b.PreCalculus 4E 11. so m = –2 since the 2 lines are perpendicular. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (3.5) = 10(3.06 − 90 = = 60.01 − 3 Δt 2 17.5)2 = 147 Δs 147 − 108 = = 78 feet per second 3.06 Δs 90. so m = 7 since the 7 lines are perpendicular.001 − 3 Δt 21.5) = 12(3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.001)2 = 108. 6 − 2 ( 6 ) − (3 − 2 ⋅ 3) 36 − 12 − ( 9 − 6 ) 21 = = =7 6−3 3 3 9 − 4 3−2 1 = = 9−4 5 5 18. s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 general form: 2 x + y − 1 = 0 12. x + 7 y − 12 = 0 7 y = − x + 12 −1 12 y= x+ 7 7 s (3. a. so the equation of 175 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.01)2 = 90. point-slope form: y + 9 = 7(x – 5) general form: 7 x − y − 44 = 0 13.601 − 90 = = 60. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (4) = 12(4)2 = 192 Δs 108 − 192 = = 84 feet per second 4−3 Δt b. a.01)2 = 108. 16 − 9 4 − 3 1 = = 16 − 9 7 7 19.7212 Δs 108. The slope of the given line is Δs 122.07201 Δs 108.001) = 12(3. 22. f is f ( x ) = 6. 20. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3. so the equation of Δs 160 − 90 = = 70 feet per second 4−3 Δt f is f ( x ) = 5. Since the line is perpendicular to x = 6 which is a vertical line.7212 − 108 = = 72. The graph of f passes through ( −1. s (3) = 12(3)2 = 108 s (3. c. we know the graph of f is a horizontal s (3) = 10(3)2 = 90 s (4) = 10(4)2 = 160 line with 0 slope.01) = 12(3.12 feet per second 3. we know the graph of f is a horizontal line with 0 slope.

We use these points to find the slope. This line will pass through ( 3. 6 ) and the slope − 1 to find the equation of the line. 0 ) and ( 0. m= −9 − 0 −9 = =3 0 − 3 −3 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. 4 ) and the slope − to find the equation of the line. 0 ) and ( 0. We use these points to find the slope. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 Use the point ( −5. . m= −4 − 0 −4 = =2 0 − 2 −2 1 Since the graph of f is perpendicular to this line. First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 2 and y − intercept of −4. it will have slope m = − . 3 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −5) ) 3 1 y − 6 = − ( x + 5) 3 1 5 y−6 = − x− 3 3 1 13 y =− x+ 3 3 1 13 f ( x) = − x + 3 3 y−6 = − 176 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. This line will pass through ( 2. Inc. it will have slope m = − . First we need to find the equation of the line with x − intercept of 3 and y − intercept of −9. 2 y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) 1 ( x − ( −6 ) ) 2 1 y − 4 = − ( x + 6) 2 1 y −4 = − x−3 2 1 y = − x +1 2 1 f ( x) = − x +1 2 y−4 = − 24. −4 ) . −9 ) . 2 1 Use the point ( −6.Functions and Graphs 23.

a. f ( x) = 1.4 1123.PreCalculus 4E Section 1.3 x + 23 29. P( x) = −1.3 m= ≈ −96 12 − 7 b. . This underestimates the decrease by 36 discharges per year. 4x − y − 6 = 0 − y = −4 x + 6 y = 4x − 6 1 The equation of f will have slope − since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 4 y − intercept −6. 1163 − 617 546 = ≈ 137 1998 − 1994 4 There was an average increase of approximately 137 discharges per year. 3 26.8 585. m= 612 − 1273 −661 = ≈ −132 2006 − 2001 5 There was an average decrease of approximately 132 discharges per year. This overestimates by 5 discharges per year.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1.3 f (12) = 1.5 25.2 x + 47 28. Inc. First put the equation 3 x − 2 y − 4 = 0 in slope-intercept form. 2 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 2.1(7)3 − 35(7) 2 + 264(7) + 557 = 1067. First put the equation 4 x − y − 6 = 0 in slope-intercept form.1(12)3 − 35(12) 2 + 264(12) + 557 = 585. Publishing as Prentice Hall. P( x) = 1. m= a. 30. 4 27. 3x − 2 y − 4 = 0 −2 y = −3 x + 4 y= 3 x−2 2 The equation of f will have slope − 2 since it is perpendicular to the line above and the same 3 y − intercept −2. 1 So the equation of f is f ( x ) = − x − 6. 32. 31.1x3 − 35 x 2 + 264 x + 557 f (0) = 1. f ( x) = 1.1(4)3 − 35(4)2 + 264(4) + 557 = 1123. 177 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.8 − 1067.4 − 557 m= ≈ 142 4−0 b.1(0)3 − 35(0)2 + 264(0) + 557 = 557 f (4) = 1.

does not make sense.Functions and Graphs 33. makes sense 42. Answers may vary. The lines are perpendicular because their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. 39. 40. Inc. – 38. 1 x +1 3 y = −3x − 2 y= a. The calculator screen is rectangular and does not have the same width and height. The lines appear to be perpendicular. this causes the lines not to appear perpendicular when indeed they are. the lines appear to be perpendicular. makes sense 41. Sample explanation: Slopes can be used for segments of the graph. Ax + By + C = 0 By = − Ax − C By − Ax C = − B B B A C y = − x− B B The slope of the given line is − A . The lines do not appear to be perpendicular. Write Ax + By + C = 0 in slope-intercept form. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The zoom square feature compensates for this and in part (c). 43. This is verified because product of their slopes is –1. . Explanations will vary. This causes the scale of the x–axis to differ from the scale on the y–axis despite using the same scale in the window settings. In part (b). makes sense 44. B The slope of any line perpendicular to Ax + By + C = 0 is B . A 178 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. b.

48. The range is {−6.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 45. 4 ) b. The domain is {x | −3 < x ≤ 4}. The slope of the line containing (1. The domain is {1. 2. 6}. The domain is {x | −2 ≤ x < 2}. c. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − A = so A = − . 4. b. This line is perpendicular to the line above so its 3 3 3 slope is . Ax + y − 2 = 0 y = − Ax + 2 So the slope of this line is − A. The relation is a function. The relation is not a function. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted down 4 units. 4}. c. b. 179 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 1. 3. 4. The range is { y | 0 ≤ y ≤ 3}. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) reflected across the y-axis. The range is { y | −1 ≤ y ≤ 2}. 2. 47. The relation is not a function. Inc. 7 7 7 has slope m = 46. a.3}. The relation is a function. 4 − ( −3 ) 4+3 7 7 = = =− −2 − 1 −3 −3 3 Solve Ax + y − 2 = 0 for y to obtain slope-intercept form. The graph in part (b) is the graph in part (a) shifted to the right 2 units. . The domain is {0. Therefore. −3) and ( −2. a. a. 2}. The range is {1.

f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (4) − f (−4) −5 − 3 = = = −1 4 − (−4) 4+4 x2 − x1 25.1. 9. f (−2) = 4 18. f (−7) = −2 and f (3) = −2 20. −1. x + y2 = 5 y2 = 5 − x y = ± 5− x Since there are values of x that give more than one value for y (for example. 26. The domain is {−2. 0. –2) 15. increasing: (–∞.3}. y = − x2 + 5 For each value of x. 16. f (−6) = 0 and f (2) = 0 21. 7. so the equation defines y as a function of x. 23. 8. ∞ ) 28. 4] 12. The range is { y | y ≥ −1}. The domain is {x | x ≤ 1}. y-intercept: 3 14.1. x-intercepts: –6 and 2 13. the equation does not define y as a function of x. The relation is a function. 30. ( −6. Domain: 11. decreasing: (–2. x = −2 17. ( −∞. 2 ) 22. Each value of x corresponds to exactly one value of y. f (100) is negative. The range is {−2. 6. there is one and only one value for y. neither. x2 + y = 5 24. 27. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Range: ( −∞. f (−4) = 3 19. 10. .Functions and Graphs 5. then y = ± 5 − 4 = ±1 ). 2}. Inc. The relation is not a function. if x = 4. ∞) 29. −1. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x 180 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

31. Inc. 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 y = −3 x 3 y=− x 5 f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h −2( x + h)2 + ( x + h) − 5 − (−2 x 2 + x − 5) = h 2 2 −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h − 5 + 2 x 2 − x + 5 = h −4 xh − 2h 2 + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h = −4 x − 2 h + 1 181 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) ≠ x and f (− x) ≠ − x b. a. 34. f (− x) = −2(− x) 2 − x − 5 = −2 x 2 − x − 5 neither. 5 y = 20 y=4 32. 37. 33. .PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 1 Check Point 35.

For each minute of brisk walking. the percentage of patients with depression in remission increased by 0.16% per minute of brisk walking. 2 +1 . 2 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 3 = −2( x + 4) y − 3 = −2 x − 8 y = −2 x − 5 f ( x ) = −2 x − 5 40. C (150) = 30 b. and the lines are 5 5 perpendicular. m1 = Change in y 0 − (−4) 4 = = Change in x 7−2 5 Change in y 6−2 4 = = Change in x 1 − (−4) 5 The slope of the lines are equal thus the lines are parallel. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) f (2) − f (−1) = x2 − x1 2 − (−1) = ( 3(2) 2 − 2 ) − ( 3(−1) 2 − (−1) ) =2 182 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = −2 x + 10 43. m= b. y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44.40(250 − 200) = 50 −5 y −2 x 10 = + −5 −5 −5 2 y = x−2 5 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) The slope of the given line is y − 3 = −2 ( x − (−4) ) m= 5 ( x − (−4) ) 2 5 y + 3 = − x − 10 2 5 y = − x − 13 2 5 f ( x) = − x − 13 2 y − (−3) = − Change in y 1 − (−5) 6 = = =2 Change in x 2 − (−1) 3 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) y − 1 = 2 ( x − 2) y − 1 = 2x − 4 y = 2x − 3 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 41. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so m = − . Change in y 42 − 26 16 = = = 0. so m = 3. C (250) = 30 + 0. 2 . t > 200 a. 39. 3x − y − 5 = 0 − y = −3 x + 5 m2 = y = 3x − 5 The slope of the given line is 3. y − (−4) = 3( x − 3) y + 4 = 3x − 9 y = 3 x − 13 f ( x) = 3 x − 13 45. Inc.16 Change in x 180 − 80 100 a.16%.40(t − 200) if 0 ≤ t ≤ 200 42. and the lines are parallel. if ⎧30 C ( x) = ⎨ ⎩30 + 0.Functions and Graphs 38. The rate of change is 0.

Reflect about the y-axis. Shift to the right 1 unit and down 2 units. 6. Horizontally shrink the graph of y = f ( x ) . 7. Shift to the right 4 units. Reflect about the x-axis. then 3 shifted down 2 units.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. reflected about the x-axis. Inc. 8. . by a factor of 5. 4. The graph of y = f ( x ) is shifted 1 unit left. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. Vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x .6 Section 1.6 Check Point Exercises 1. 183 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. Shift up vertically 3 units. a. Horizontally stretch the graph of y = f ( x ) . shrunk 1 . 3.

7. . Exercise Set 1. 4. 8. 5. The graph of f ( x) = x 2 is shifted 1 unit right. 6.Functions and Graphs 9. 9. Inc. 3. stretched by a factor of 2.6 1. 184 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. then shifted up 3 units. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2.

18. Inc. 16. 19. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 185 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 10.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. . 14. 12. 15. 17. 11. 13.

Functions and Graphs 20. 186 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 29. 28. 24. 27. Inc. . 26. 30. 25. 21. 22. 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

40. .PreCalculus 4E Section 1.6 31. 187 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 39. Inc. 36. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 33. 37. 34. 35. 32. 38.

44. 46. 42. 188 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.Functions and Graphs 41. 50. 49. 47. 43. 45. 48. .

59. . 53. 189 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 56. 58. 54. 55. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 57. 62. 61. 52.6 51. 60.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. Inc.

66. . 71. 74. 72. 64. 68. 69.Functions and Graphs 63. 67. 190 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 73. 70. Inc. 65.

6 81. 84. . 75. 78. 82. 79. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 76.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 191 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 80. 77. Inc. 86. 85. 83.

96. 89. 92. 95. 94. Inc. 91. 88.Functions and Graphs 93. 87. 98. 192 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 97. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 90.

. Inc. 105.6 99. 109. 102. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 107. 108. 193 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 110. 100. 106.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 103. 104. 101.

125.Functions and Graphs 111. 112. . Inc. 113. 123. 120. y = ( x + 1) 2 − 4 126. 122. 115. 114. y = x − 2 + 1 194 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 116. y = − x 3 + 2 117. 121. 118. y = x − 2 124. 119.

9 ) ( = b. 60 − 50 42.1.1 129.1 units.9 0 + 20. 128.9 x + 20. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 10 − 0 29.6061 = 10 ≈ 0. ) 60 + 20.1 ) ( 60 + 19 − 3. then shift the result up 20. = f ( x) = 2.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c).8031 − 19 = 10 ≈ 1. a.1 − 2. First. c.9.1 − 2.9203 = 10 ≈ 0. Answers may vary. Inc. 195 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 This rate of change is lower than the rate of change in part (c).27 − 20.1 x + 19 f (48) = 3. – 134.1 10 + 19) − ( 3. = = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 ( 2.1 50 + 19 ) 60 − 50 43. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 135. Section 1. . vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 3. then shift the result up 19 units.6 First.1 f (48) = 2. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference. f ( x) = 3. a. b. b.2 The model describes the actual data very well. ( 3. 10 + 20.1 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = f (10) − f (0) 10 − 0 10 − 0 28.5 The model describes the actual data very well. 0 + 19 ) f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 3.PreCalculus 4E 127.0125 − 40.9 50 + 20.5633 − 40.9 48 + 20.0 inches per month f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 = d.1 ≈ 40. a.0 1. The relative leveling off of the curve shows this difference. vertically stretch the graph of f ( x) = x by the factor 2.1 = 10 ≈ 0.9 ) ( ) d.9 0.1 48 + 19 ≈ 40.9 inches per month = f (60) − f (50) 60 − 50 ( 2.

7 ) ∪ ( 7. Since h( x) = 9 x − 27 contains an even root. . 147. b) 136. while the graph a. g ( x) = − 16 – x 2 − 1 4 = x − 5 + x2 − 1 = − x2 + x − 6 196 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 141. ∞ ) . ( f ( x) ) 2 − 2 f ( x ) + 6 = ( 3x − 4 ) − 2(3 x − 4) + 6 2 = 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 − 6 x + 8 + 6 137. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. domain of g = ( −∞. g ( x) = −( x + 4)2 146.Functions and Graphs 149. false. 9 x − 27 ≥ 0 9 x ≥ 27 x≥3 Thus. 2 = 3 −1 x 140. 144. (a. Section 1. 150. A sample change is: The graph of g is a translation of f three units to the left and three units upward. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. g ( x) = – x – 5 + 1 interval [3. The domain of f is the set of all real numbers or ( −∞. (a. false. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t − 1). A sample change is: The stretch will be 5 units and the downward shift will be 10 units. (–a. (a + 3. Changes to make the statement true will vary. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. Sample explanation: The reprogram should be y = f (t + 1). c. a. b. 2b) 151. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 30 x + 30 139. Changes to make the statement true will vary. = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − x 2 − x + 2 = 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x 2 − 4 x − x + 2 = 2 x3 + x 2 − 5 x + 2 154. 143. 1. or the of g is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the yaxis. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 5 + ( x 2 − 1) 1 148. does not make sense. a. Inc. b – 3) 153. 2x 2x = 3x − x 3− x x Check Point Exercises 142. 155. the domain of h is {x x ≥ 3} . These values must be excluded from the domain. The function f ( x) = x 2 + 3x − 17 contains neither division nor an even root. A sample change is: The graph of f is a reflection of the graph of y = x in the x-axis. makes sense = 9 x 2 − 24 x − 6 x + 16 + 8 + 6 138. ∞ ) . true 145. false. b) 152. the quantity under the radical must be greater than or equal to 0. Explanations will vary. g ( x) = − x − 2 + 2 2. The denominator equals zero when x = 7 or x = –7. Changes to make the statement true will vary. (2 x − 1)( x 2 + x − 2) = 2 x( x 2 + x − 2) − 1( x 2 + x − 2) b.

x ≠ − ⎬ 2⎭ ⎩ = x − 5 − x2 + 1 = − x2 + x − 4 c. The domain = ( −∞. ∞ ) 3. domain: ( −∞. 4. Section 1. ∞ ) 2. The function contains neither division nor an even root.PreCalculus 4E b. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. The function contains neither division nor an even root.7 ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5. (f (f g ) ( x) = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 10. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. ∞ ) 9.9 ) ∪ ( 9. 4 4x = 1 1 + 2x +2 x a. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 3 + x +1 b. (g f ) ( x) = g ( f ( x) ) = 2 (5 x + 6 ) − ( 5x + 6 ) − 1 2 = 2(25 x 2 + 60 x + 36) − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 120 x + 72 − 5 x − 6 − 1 = 50 x 2 + 115 x + 65 c. The domain = ( −∞. domain of f: (f ( g ) ( x) = f ( g ( x ) ) ) = 5 2 x2 − x − 1 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x − 5 + 6 = 10 x 2 − 5 x + 1 b. g ( x) = x 2 + 5 = x3 − x − 5 x 2 + 5 = x3 − 5 x 2 − x + 5 d. . ∞). 5 ) ∪ ( 5. −8) ∪ ( −8. domain: ( −∞. −4 ) ∪ ( −4. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. the domain of f + g is [3. 1. ∞) The domain of f + g is the set of all real numbers that are common to the domain of f and the domain of g. ∞ ) . This value must be excluded from the domain. Exercise Set 1. x −3≥ 0 x≥3 [3. = x − 5 − ( x − 1) g )( x) = (f b. The values that make the denominators equal zero must be excluded from the domain. ∞ ) 6. The function contains neither division nor an even root. ∞) domain of g: x +1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −1 [−1. 3. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. a. This value must be excluded from the domain. The values that make the denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain.10 ) ∪ (10. domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. The denominator equals zero when x = −5. 2 h ( x ) = f g where f ( x) = x . x ≠ ±1 = 2 x −1 4. ∞ ) 8.7 ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = ( x) g g ⎝ ⎠ x −5 . Thus. 5.3) ∪ ( 3. Inc. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. The function contains neither division nor an even root. domain: ( −∞. The denominator equals zero when x = 4. ∞ ) g ) (−1) = 10(−1) 2 − 5(−1) + 1 = 10 + 5 + 1 = 16 197 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 7. ( fg )( x ) = ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 − 1) = x ( x 2 − 1) − 5 ( x 2 − 1) 6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. The domain = ( −∞. −3) ∪ ( −3. The domain = ( −∞. 1⎫ ⎧ domain: ⎨ x x ≠ 0. ∞ ) .

2 ) ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) 16. The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. ∞ ) x= 17. x 4 −1 = 0 x ⎛4 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 4−x = 0 4 −3 = 0 x−2 4 ⎞ − 3 ⎟ = ( x − 2 )( 0 ) ( x − 2 ) ⎛⎜ − x 2 ⎝ ⎠ 4 − 3( x − 2) = 0 4 − 3x + 6 = 0 −3 x + 10 = 0 −3x = −10 − x = −4 10 3 ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ domain: ( −∞. 3 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 .1) ∪ (1. The expression under the radical must not be negative. The values that make the second denominator equal zero must be excluded from the domain. Inc. x 3 −1 = 0 x ⎛3 ⎞ x ⎜ − 1⎟ = x ( 0 ) ⎝x ⎠ 3− x = 0 4 − 2 ( x − 1) = 0 4 − 2x + 2 = 0 −2 x + 6 = 0 −2 x = −6 x=3 domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. The first denominator cannot equal zero.Functions and Graphs 15. x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 domain: [ −2. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. x−2 = 0 − x = −3 x=3 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 18. ∞ ) 4 −2 = 0 x −1 4 ⎞ − 2 ⎟ = ( x − 1)( 0 ) ( x − 1) ⎛⎜ ⎝ x −1 ⎠ 13. . 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 4 Exclude x for − 1 = 0 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) 198 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The first denominator cannot equal zero. Exclude x for x − 1 = 0 . Exclude x for x = 0 . ⎟ ∪ ⎜ .3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) x =1 4 −2= 0.1) ∪ (1. x−2 Exclude x for 14. domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) x=2 4 −3 = 0. Exclude x for x − 2 = 0 . x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. x −1 Exclude x for 12. x −1 = 0 11. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. Exclude x for x = 0 . The expression under the radical must not be negative. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ x=4 domain: ( −∞. 2 ) ∪ ⎜ 2. −1) ∪ ( −1.

The expression under the radical must not be negative. 6 ) ∪ ( 6. ∞ ) . 24 − 2 x ≥ 0 ( = ( x − 5) x 2 − 4 ) = ( x − 5)( x + 2)( x − 2) –2. 84 − 6 x ≥ 0 = x2 ( x − 2) − 9 ( x − 2) ( = ( x − 2) x2 − 9 −6 x ≥ −84 ) = ( x − 2)( x + 3)( x − 3) –3. 22.12] 30. −3) ∪ ( −3. domain: [3.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) −6 x −84 ≤ −6 −6 x ≤ 14 domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x −3≥ 0 x+4≥0 and x≥3 x ≥ −4 To make both inequalities true. The expression under the radical must not be negative. . 7 x − 70 ≥ 0 domain: [3. ∞ ) = x 2 ( x − 5) − 4 ( x − 5 ) 23. x −3≥ 0 x ≥ −7 domain: [ −7. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 5 x ≥ −35 28. x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x ≥ 10 domain: [10.7 19. ∞ ) 199 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The expression under the radical must be positive. 5 x + 35 ≥ 0 domain: [ 2. ∞ ) x≥2 The denominator equals zero when x = 5.5) ∪ ( 5. domain: ( −∞. The expression under the radical must not be negative. ∞ ) 20. x−2 ≥ 0 x+3≥ 0 and x≥2 x ≥ −3 To make both inequalities true. The expression under the radical must be positive.14] 25. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. ∞ ) −2 x ≥ −24 −2 x −24 ≤ −2 −2 x ≤ 12 domain: ( −∞. x−2 ≥ 0 x > −2 domain: ( −2. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 9 x + 18 24.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. x −3 > 0 26. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. x+2>0 27. ∞ ) x≥3 The denominator equals zero when x = 6. ∞ ) x>3 domain: ( 3. x ≥ 2 . 2. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. The expression under the radical must not be negative. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. x ≥ 3 . domain: [ 2. Inc. domain: ( −∞. Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. The expressions under the radicals must not be negative. and 5 must be excluded. and 3 must be excluded. Find the values that make the denominator equal zero and must be excluded from the domain. 2. The expression under the radical must not be negative.5 ) ∪ ( 5. 21. ∞ ) . 7 x ≥ 70 29.

3) ∪ ( 3. ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = −2 x 2 − 2 x + 18 domain: (–∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x−6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5x2 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 34. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (3 − x 2 )( x 2 + 2 x − 15) ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 3x2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. = 2 x3 + x 2 – 4 x – 3 domain: (–∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = −3 x 2 + x − 5 domain: (−∞. Inc. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = –5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞) = ⎛f ⎞ f ( x) 2 x + 3 = ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g ( x) x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (2 x 2 – x – 3)( x + 1) = − x 4 − 2 x 3 + 18 x 2 + 6 x − 45 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x − 5)(3 x 2 ) = 3x 3 − 15 x 2 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞) (f – g)(x) = f(x) – g(x) = (2x + 3) – (x – 1) =x+4 domain: (−∞. −2 ) ∪ ( −2. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 x 2 – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = 6 x 2 − 2 x domain: (–∞.Functions and Graphs 31. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x – 6)(5 x 2 ) = 5 x 3 – 30 x 2 domain: (–∞. −5) ∪ ( −5. ∞ ) 200 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x+2 ⎝g⎠ 33. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 2 x2 – x – 3 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x +1 ⎝g⎠ ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = (2 x + 3) ⋅ ( x − 1) = 2x2 + x − 3 domain: (−∞. (f + g)(x) = 4x – 2 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 3x 2 + x − 5 37. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 6 x2 − x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞.1) ∪ (1. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 4) – (x + 2) = 2x – 6 domain: (–∞. (f + g)(x) = 3x + 2 domain: (−∞.1) ∪ (1. ∞) 35. ∞) ( f + g )( x) = (3 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) = 2 x − 12 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) 32. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3 − x2 = ( x ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 2 x − 15 ⎝g⎠ ( f + g )( x) = 5 x 2 + x – 6 domain: (–∞. ∞) ( fg )( x) = (6 x 2 − x − 1)( x − 1) = 6 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 1 domain: (–∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ( f – g )( x) = 2 x 2 – 2 x – 4 domain: (–∞. ∞) (fg)(x) = (3x – 4)(x + 2) = 3x2 + 2x – 8 domain: (–∞. . ∞ ) 36. (2 x – 3)( x + 1) = 2x – 3 ( x + 1) domain: ( −∞. domain: (−∞. −1) ∪ ( −1.

0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) − ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 41.PreCalculus 4E 38. ∞ ) 39. ∞ ) 6 − 1x ⎛ ⎛ f ⎞ 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 1 = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ x = 6 x − 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 40. ∞ ) 201 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 5 domain: [0. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x−4 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 2 + 1 ⎞ 1 6 1 6x −1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 6 − ⎟ ⋅ = − 2 = 2 x⎠ x x x x ⎝ domain: ( −∞. ( f + g )( x) = x + x − 4 domain: [0. ∞ ) ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 5) domain: [0. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = (5 − x 2 )( x 2 + 4 x − 12) 1 ⎞ 1 2 1 2x + 1 ⎛ ( fg )( x) = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ = + 2 = x⎠ x x x x2 ⎝ domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) = − x 4 − 4 x3 + 17 x 2 + 20 x − 60 domain: (–∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 4 domain: [0. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x −5 ⎝g⎠ domain: [ 0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 6 – ( fg )( x) = x ( x − 4) domain: [0. . ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x − x + 5 domain: [0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = 2 + = −2 x 2 − 4 x + 17 domain: (–∞. ∞ ) ( f + g )( x) = 6 − 1 1 2 6x − 2 − = 6− = x x x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 42. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. Inc. 4 ) ∪ ( 4. −6 ) ∪ ( −6. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. 0 ) ∪ ( 0.5) ∪ ( 5.7 ( f + g )( x) = (5 − x 2 ) + ( x 2 + 4 x − 12) = 4x − 7 domain: (–∞. 1 1 − =2 x x domain: ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Section 1. 1 1 2 2x + 2 + = 2+ = x x x x domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 1 1 + =6 x x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 5 − x2 = x ( ) ⎜ ⎟ x 2 + 4 x − 12 ⎝g⎠ 2 + 1x ⎛ ⎛f ⎞ 1⎞ ( ) x = = ⎜ 2 + ⎟ ⋅ x = 2x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ 1 x⎠ ⎝ ⎝g⎠ x domain: ( −∞. 0 ) ∪ ( 0.

∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 x2 − 9 (5 x + 1)(4 x − 2) = 2 ( x2 − 9) ( fg )( x) = f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = = = = 3x + 1 2 x − 4 ⋅ x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 (3 x + 1)(2 x − 4) (x 2 − 25 ) 2 domain: ( −∞. ( f + g )( x) = x + 4 + x − 1 domain: [1. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. −3) ∪ ( −3.3) ∪ ( 3. .5 ) ∪ ( 5.5 ) ∪ ( 5. Inc. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 5x + 1 4 x − 2 = 2 − x − 9 x2 − 9 x+3 = 2 x −9 1 = x −3 domain: ( −∞. −3) ∪ ( −3. ∞ ) 4x = 2 1 2 domain: ( −∞. 2 ) ∪ ( 2. and any values that make 2 x − 4 = 0. −3) ∪ ( −3. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 4 − x − 1 domain: [1.3) ∪ ( 3.3) ∪ ( 3. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 44. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2x − 4 + x 2 − 25 x 2 − 25 5x − 3 = 2 x − 25 domain: ( −∞. 12 ) ∪ ( 12 . ∞ ) 202 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 3x + 1 2 ⎛f ⎞ x − 25 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2 x − 4 g ⎝ ⎠ x 2 − 25 3x + 1 x 2 − 25 = 2 ⋅ x − 25 2 x − 4 3x + 1 = 2x − 4 The domain must exclude –5. −3) ∪ ( −3. ∞) ( fg )( x) = x + 4 ⋅ x − 1 = x 2 + 3 x − 4 domain: [1. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −1 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (1. ( f + g )( x) = f ( x) + g ( x) 5x + 1 4x − 2 + x2 − 9 x2 − 9 9x −1 = 2 x −9 domain: ( −∞. and any values that make 4 x − 2 = 0. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = f ( x) − g ( x) 3x + 1 2 x − 4 = 2 − x − 25 x 2 − 25 x+5 = 2 x − 25 1 = x −5 domain: ( −∞.3) ∪ ( 3.Functions and Graphs 43.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) x= 45. 5. 4x − 2 = 0 2x = 4 x=2 domain: ( −∞. 3.5 ) ∪ ( 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2x − 4 = 0 5x + 1 ⎛f ⎞ x2 − 9 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 4 x − 2 ⎝g⎠ x2 − 9 5x + 1 x 2 − 9 = 2 ⋅ x − 9 4x − 2 5x + 1 = 4x − 2 The domain must exclude –3.

f(x) = 4x – 3. Section 1. ( f g )(2) = 14(2) 2 − 62 = −6 f ( x) = x 2 + 2. Inc. g ( x) = x 2 − 2 50. 55. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = x + 6 − x − 3 domain: [3. b. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 2) 2 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 4 − 2 = x4 + 4 x2 + 2 c. ( f g )(2) = 20(2)2 − 11 = 69 f ( x) = 7 x + 1.PreCalculus 4E 46. ( f g )( x) = 7(2 x 2 − 9) + 1 = 14 x 2 − 62 b. = 20 x 2 − 11 b. g(x) = x – 5 a. g(x) = 3x – 4 ( f + g )( x) = x − 2 + 2 − x domain: {2} ( f − g )( x) = x − 2 − 2 − x domain: {2} a. ( f g )( x) = (2 x + 1) + 4 = 2 x + 5 b. . ( g f )( x) = 2(7 x + 1)2 − 9 = 2(49 x 2 + 14 x + 1) − 9 = 98 x 2 + 28 x − 7 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = 80 x 2 − 120 x + 43 c. g(x) = 2x + 1 ( f + g )( x) = x + 6 + x − 3 domain: [3. g ( x) = 2 x 2 – 9 49. ∞) ( fg )( x ) = x + 6 ⋅ x − 3 = x 2 + 3x − 18 domain: [3.7 51. ( g f )( x) = 2( x + 4) + 1 = 2 x + 9 c. ( f g )(2) = 15(2) − 18 = 12 53. g ( x) = 5 x 2 − 2 ( fg )( x ) = x − 2 ⋅ 2 − x = − x 2 + 4 x − 4 domain: {2} ⎛f ⎞ x−2 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g 2− x ⎝ ⎠ domain: ∅ 48. a. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 5 = 9 52. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x+6 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−3 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (3. ( g f )( x) = 2 x + 7 c. f(x) = 3x. ( fg )( x) = x − 5 ⋅ 5 − x = − x 2 + 10 x − 25 domain: {5} ⎛f ⎞ x −5 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 5− x ⎝g⎠ domain: ∅ 54. ( f g )(2) = 24 − 4(2) 2 + 6 = 6 203 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( f g )(2) = 2(2) + 14 = 18 a. a. ( g f )( x) = 3x – 5 c. ( f g )( x) = 5(3x − 4) + 2 = 15 x − 18 b. f(x) = 2x. f(x) = x + 4. ∞) 47. ( f g )( x) = 4(5 x 2 − 2) − 3 b. a. ( g f )( x) = 3(5 x + 2) − 4 = 15 x + 2 c. ( f g )(2) = 3(2) − 15 = −9 ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 2) 2 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 4 + 2 = x4 − 4 x2 + 6 ( f g )( x) = 3( x − 5) = 3 x − 15 b. g(x) = x + 7 ( f g )( x) = 2( x + 7) = 2 x + 14 ( g f )( x) = 5(4 x − 3) 2 − 2 = 5(16 x 2 − 24 x + 9) − 2 ( f + g )( x) = x − 5 + 5 − x domain: {5} ( f − g )( x) = x − 5 − 5 − x domain: {5} a. f(x) = 5x + 2 .

= −25 x 2 + 20 x − 4 + 20 x − 8 − 1 c. ( g f )( x) = c. 57. g ( x) = x + 2 a. ( g f )( x) = 1 c. ( f g )( x) = 5 ( − x 2 + 4 x − 1) − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 5 − 2 = −5 x 2 + 20 x − 7 b. ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ −3 = x +3−3 = x ⎝ 6 ⎠ b. a. ( f g )(2) = 2 ( f g )(2) = −5(2) 2 + 20(2) − 7 = 13 f ( x) = x . f ( x) = 4 − x . ( g f )( x) = 2 ( 4 − x ) + ( 4 − x ) + 5 2 c. g ( x) = = 2 x 2 − 17 x + 41 c. = 32 − 16 x + 2 x 2 + 4 − x + 5 ⎛ x +3⎞ ( f g )( x) = 2 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x + 3−3 =x b. ( f g )( x) = x + 2 b. g ( x ) = = x4 + 2 x2 − 2 c. ( g f )( x) = x + 2 c. ( f g )( x) = 4 − ( 2 x 2 + x + 5 ) = 4 − 2 x2 − x − 5 = −2 x − x − 1 2 b. ( f g )(2) = −2(2) 2 − 2 − 1 = −11 f ( x) = 5 x − 2. ( f g )(2) = 2 − 1 = 1 = 1 1 1 . g ( x) = 2 x 2 + x + 5 a. = 2(16 − 8 x + x 2 ) + 4 − x + 5 x+3 2 1 x 1 x =x =x 204 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. g ( x) = − x 2 + 4 x − 1 a. x+3 6 a. ( g f )( x) = x − 1 c. ( f g )(2) = 2 + 2 = 4 = 2 = x − 6x + 9 + 1 4 2 = x 4 − 6 x 2 + 10 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) = 2x – 3. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 2 1 b. ( f g )(2) = 2 f ( x) = 6 x − 3. . 6x − 3 + 3 6x = =x 6 6 a. ( f g )( x) = ( x 2 − 3) 2 + 1 f ( x) = x . ( f g )(2) = 24 − 6(2) 2 + 10 = 2 a. ( g f )( x) = − ( 5 x − 2 ) + 4 ( 5 x − 2 ) − 1 = −(25 x 2 − 20 x + 4) + 20 x − 8 − 1 (2 x − 3) + 3 2 x = =x 2 2 ( g f )( x) = 62. 60. 58. ( g f )( x) = ( x 2 + 1) 2 − 3 = x + 2x +1 − 3 4 2 61. 63. g(x) = x – 1 a.Functions and Graphs f ( x) = x 2 + 1. g ( x) = x x ( f g )( x) = = −25 x 2 + 40 x − 13 59. g ( x) = x 2 − 3 56. ( f g )( x) = x − 1 b.

g ( x) = x x a. x−2 ≥ 0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. 6 We must exclude − because it causes the 5 denominator of f g to be 0. . 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 4 denominator of f g to be 0. We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. a. ∞ ) . 4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 70. domain: 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. We must exclude −4 because it causes the denominator of f g to be 0. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) . 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 3) = x − 3 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. a.PreCalculus 4E 64. f g ( x ) = f ( x − 2) = x − 2 The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. ∞ ) . ( g f )( x) = 2 c. 4 ⎛4⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝ x ⎠ 4 +1 x ⎛4⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ( x) x = ⎝ ⎠ ⎛4 ⎞ ⎜ + 1⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 4 . ( −∞. 3⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 66. 6⎞ ⎛ 6 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞.x ≠ 0 1 x ⎝ ⎠ +3 x 2( x) = ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ + 3⎟ ( x ) ⎝x ⎠ 2x = 1 + 3x 68. ( f g )( x) = 2 b. x ≠ −4 = 4+ x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. b. 2 x 2 x 67. a. b. ∞ ) . b. Inc. ∞ ) . x −3≥ 0 x≥3 domain: [3. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. =x =x b. b. b. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . 1⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ domain: ⎜ −∞. a. 6 6 ⎛6⎞ f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = x = 6 ⎝ x⎠ + 5 6 + 5x x We must exclude 0 because it is excluded from g. 2 ⎛1⎞ ( f g )( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = .7 2 2 . 1 We must exclude − because it causes the 3 denominator of f g to be 0. ( f g )(2) = 2 65. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 5x ⎛1⎞ = f g ( x) = f ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ x ⎠ 1 + 4 1 + 4x x 69. a. 0 ) ∪ ( 0. f ( x) = Section 1. − ⎟ ∪ ⎜ − . −4 ) ∪ ( −4. 205 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 ⎟ ∪ ( 0. ∞ ) .

. g(x) = 2x – 5 78.Functions and Graphs 71. f ( x) = 1 . 1− x ≥ 0 The domain of f is ( −4. f (x) = |x|. g ( x ) = 3x − 1 77. 2]. f(x) = |x|. g ( x ) = 5x 2 + 3 92. a. g(x) = 3x – 4 79. (f g )( −1) = f ( g (−1) ) = f ( −3) = 1 g ( x) = 2x − 5 90. ( g − f )( −2 ) = g ( −2 ) − f ( −2 ) = 2 − 3 = −1 83. ( fg )( 2 ) = f ( 2 ) g ( 2 ) = ( −1)(1) = −1 ( f g )( x) = 7 93. 1]. 3] . f ( x ) = x3 . 76. The domain of f + g is [ −4. 75. (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = −5 73. = 5− x b. 2−x ≥ 0 − x ≥ −2 x≤2 domain: (−∞. 74. g ( 3) 0 ⎛g⎞ = =0 ⎜ ⎟ ( 3) = f ( 3) −3 ⎝f ⎠ 86. The graph of f − g = 3− x b. 84. Inc. ( f g )( x) = f ( 1 − x ) = ( 1− x ) 2 +4 = 1− x + 4 85. f ( x) = x 4 . The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. The domain of f g must exclude any values that are excluded from g. x g ( x) = 2 x − 3 80. x g ( x ) = 4x + 5 81. ( f + g )( −3) = f ( −3) + g ( −3) = 4 + 1 = 5 82. (f g )(1) = f ( g (1) ) = f ( −5 ) = 3 f ( x) = 3 x. a. 89. ( f g )( x) = f ( 2 − x ) = ( 2−x ) 2 +1 = 2 − x +1 88. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph of f + g − x ≥ −1 x ≤1 domain: (−∞. g ( x ) = x2 − 9 91. 3) g 87. 72. f ( x) = 1 . ( ) 2 x − 3x + 8 − 5 = 7 2 2 x 2 − 6 x + 16 − 5 = 7 2 x 2 − 6 x + 11 = 7 2x2 − 6x + 4 = 0 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2) = 0 x − 1 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 x =1 x=2 206 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 2 ) = −6 f ( x) = x.

000)) =0 The company broke even. The slope for f is -0.07 This is the profit for the two stores combined for each year after 2004.S. c. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 x 2 − 20 x − 2405 = 10.5 The number of births and deaths in the U.000 since costs exceeded revenues. 1 − 2 3 x + x − 1 = −5 2 98. 000) 97.S.PreCalculus 4E 94.7 ( f g )( x) = −5 ) = 65(20.5 thousand. 96. The slope of g is 0. f + g = -.1 thousand. ( B + D )( x ) f gives the cost of a pair of jeans for which a $5 rebate is offered. Inc. a.62 + 0. g )( x ) = 0.9 x 2 + 5 x + 6451 ( B + D )( 5 ) = 3. in 2005 is 6573.S. 1 − 6 x 2 − 2 x + 2 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 3 = −5 −6 x 2 − 2 x + 8 = 0 3x 2 + x − 4 = 0 (3x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 3 x = −4 x =1 4 x=− 3 95. b. g gives the price of the computer after a 25% discount. 000)) = −200. a.6 x − 5 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $5 rebate.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 b.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7. f gives the price of the computer after a $400 discount. a. 207 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405) = 7.5 thousand. ( B + D )( x ) = B ( x ) + D ( x) = (7.6 ( x − 5 ) = 0. ( B − D )( x ) = 10.000) – (600.044x + 13. 000 + 45(20. in 2003 was 1634. = 1634.1 The change in population in the U. b. ( Section 1.9 x 2 − 35 x + 1641 ( B − D )( 3) = 10. a.44 This is the decrease in profits for the first store for each year after 2004. 000 The company lost $200. f g because of a $5 rebate.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) + ( −3. 2 = 3.9 x + 5 x + 6451 b.75( x − 400) This models the price of a computer after first a $400 discount and then a 25% discount.000 + 45(30. (g d.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046) − ( −3. a.51x + 11. (R – C)(30. d. (f c.000) = 65(30. ( B − D )( x ) = B ( x ) − D ( x) = (7. ( f g )( x) = 0. underestimates the actual number of births and deaths in 2005 by 1. since the 25% discount is taken on the regular price first.75 x − 400 This models the price of a computer after first a 25% discount and then a $400 discount. b.6x – 3 The cost of a pair of jeans is 60% of the regular price minus a $3 rebate.14 = 0. ( R − C )(20.1 thousand. c. 000) − (600. The function f g models the greater discount. in 2003 by 0. g gives the cost of a pair of jeans that has been discounted 40%.07x + 24. ( g f )( x) = 0.51 This is the increase in profits for the second store for each year after 2004. 99. . ( B + D )( x ) = 3.5 x 2 + 20 x + 2405 100.9(5)2 + 5(5) + 6451 = 6573. f )( x ) = 0. ( B − D )( x ) c.76 The slope for f + g is 0.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 + 3.9(3)2 − 35(3) + 1641 overestimates the actual change in population in the U.4 x 2 − 15 x + 4046 − 3.

The expression under the radical in f g must not be negative. 2)} The element 1 in the domain corresponds to two elements in the range. Sample explanation: It is common that f g and g f are not the same. 2− x ≥ 0 119. ( f g )( x) = ( f g )(− x) f ( g ( x)) = f ( g (− x)) since g is even f ( g ( x)) = f ( g ( x)) so f g is even 117.Functions and Graphs 113. −2). does not make sense. − x ≥ −2 x= 5 +4 y ⎛5 ⎞ y ( x) = y ⎜ + 4 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ xy = 5 + 4 y xy − 4 y = 5 y ( x − 4) = 5 5 y= x−4 x ≤2 x≤4 domain: [ 0. (4. – 105. A sample change is: (f g )( x ) = f = ( ( x2 − 4 x2 − 4 ) 2 ) −4 = x2 − 4 − 4 = x2 − 8 208 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. Answers may vary. 116. y = x +1 2 112. Thus. A sample change is: f ( x ) = 2 x. 4] 108. ( f g )( x) = 2 − x The domain of g is [ 0. Explanations will vary. false. makes sense 109. When your trace reaches x = 0. x = y2 − 1 x + 1 = y2 120. the relation is not a function. 106. Changes to make the statement true will vary. the y value disappears because the function is not defined at x = 0. .1). (1. 111. −1). (1. does not make sense. false. ( f g ) ( x ) = f ( g ( x ) ) = f ( 3x ) = 2(3x) = 6 x (g f )( x ) = g ( f ( x ) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( 2 x ) = 6 x 114. Changes to make the statement true will vary. true 107. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . A sample change is: ( f g ) ( 4) = f ( g ( 4)) = f ( 7) = 5 115. Explanations will vary. {(4. Sample explanation: The diagram illustrates x +1 = y2 x +1 = y g ( f ( x) ) = x + 4. 118. g ( x ) = 3x 101. makes sense 110. Answers may vary. Inc.

2. −2) (−2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2) (2.1) x +1 4 Alternative form for answer: x +1 3 x +1 f ( x) −1 = 3 = 3 4 4 f −1 ( x) = = = 3 3 x +1 3 2 ⋅3 = 3 4 2 3 2x + 2 2 3 2x + 2 3 8 209 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. 6. . f ( x) f −1 ( x ) (−2. The graphs of (b) and (c) pass the horizontal line test and thus have an inverse. −1) (1.8 Check Point Exercises 1. Find points of f −1 . ⎛ x+7⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−7 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x − 7) + 7 g ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 f ( g ( x) ) = g ( f ( x) ) = x 4.8 Section 1. 0) (0. −2) (−1. Inc. 3 −1 x Replace f ( x) with y: f ( x) = x−7 2 f −1 ( x) = f ( x) = 4 x3 − 1 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 4 x3 − 1 Interchange x and y: x = 4 y3 − 1 Solve for y: x = 4 y3 − 1 x + 1 = 4 y3 x +1 = y3 4 x 1 + 3 =y 4 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : 3 x +1 5. 3 −1 x Interchange x and y: 3 x = −1 y Solve for y: 3 x = −1 y xy = 3 − y xy + y = 3 y ( x + 1) = 3 3 y= x +1 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : y= f ( x) = 2 x + 7 Replace f ( x) with y: y = 2x + 7 Interchange x and y: x = 2y + 7 Solve for y: x = 2y + 7 x − 7 = 2y x−7 =y 2 Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f −1 ( x) = 3.

x 6 f(x) = 3x + 8. f ( x) = 4 x + 9. g ( x) = + 5 x −5 x 2 2x f ( g ( x )) = 2 = =x ( x + 5) − 5 2 f ( x) = ⎛ x −5⎞ + 5 = 2⎜ ⎟+5 = x−5+5 = x ⎝ 2 ⎠ f and g are inverses. g ( x ) = ⎛ x+5⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 5 ⎜ ⎟−9 ⎝ 9 ⎠ 5 x + 25 = −9 9 5 x − 56 = 9 5x − 9 + 5 5x − 4 g ( f ( x)) = = 9 9 f and g are not inverses. ⎛ x −8⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 3 ⎜ ⎟+8 = x −8+8 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ (3x + 8) − 8 3x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 3 3 f and g are inverses. f(x) = 5x – 9. .8 x 4 ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x =x g ( f ( x)) = 4 f and g are inverses. Replace y with f −1 ( x ) : f ( x) = 4 x. g ( f ( x) ) = 2 2 x −5 210 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g ( x) = 7.Functions and Graphs 7. 2 2 . f ( x) = 6 x . x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = x − 1 6. Inc. g ( x) = + 4 x−4 x 3 3 f ( g ( x)) = 3 = 3 =x + − 4 4 x x f ( x) = g ( f ( x)) = ⎛ x⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 6 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝6⎠ 6x =x g ( f ( x) ) = 6 f and g are inverses. f ( x) = x 2 + 1 Replace f ( x) with y: 4. g ( x ) = 3 3 . x −8 3 8. x − 1 = y2 5. 3. g ( x) = 3 3 x−4 +4 ⎛ x−4⎞ = 3⋅⎜ ⎟+4 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = x−4+4 =x f and g are inverses. f ( x) = 3 x − 7. g ( x ) = x+5 9 x+3 7 x + 3 3x + 9 3x − 40 ⎛ ⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ −7 = ⎟−7 = 7 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠ 3x − 7 + 3 3x − 4 g ( f ( x) ) = = 7 7 f and g are not inverses. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g ( x) = x−9 4 ⎛ x −9⎞ f ( g ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟+9 = x −9+9 = x ⎝ 4 ⎠ (4 x + 9) − 9 4 x g ( f ( x) ) = = =x 4 4 f and g are inverses. y = x2 + 1 Interchange x and y: x = y2 +1 Solve for y: x = y2 + 1 1. 2. Exercise Set 1.

f(x) = x + 3 y=x+3 x=y+3 y=x–3 −1 f ( x) = x − 3 15. a.8 f ( x) = − x. 10. a. 11. ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝4⎠ 4x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = =x 4 y = 2x + 3 −1 12. ⎛ x −3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟+3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ = x −3+3 =x 2x + 3 − 3 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = = =x 2 2 f ( f −1 ( x) ) = x − 5 + 5 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = x + 5 − 5 = x 13. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = 4 x x +1 3 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 3 y= ⎛ x⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 ⎜ ⎟ = x ⎝2⎠ 2x f −1 ( f ( x)) = =x 2 b. ⎛ x +1 ⎞ f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 ⎜ ⎟ −1 = x +1 −1 = x ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3x − 1 + 1 3x = =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 3 211 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. f ( x) = 3x − 1 y = 2x y = 3x − 1 x = 2y x = 3y −1 x +1 = 3y x 2 x f −1 ( x) = 2 y= b. a. f −1 ( x ) = x − 5 f ( x) = 2 x 16. . x − 3 = 2y f ( f ( x)) = x − 3 + 3 = x x −3 2 x −3 f −1 ( x) = 2 y= f ( x) = x + 5 y = x+5 x = y+5 y = x−5 b. 14. y = 4x x = 4y x 4 x −1 f ( x) = 4 y= f ( x) = 3 x − 4. a. a.PreCalculus 4E 9. f ( x) = 2 x + 3 x = 2y + 3 −1 f ( f ( x)) = x + 3 − 3 = x b. g ( x) = − x f ( g ( x)) = −(− x ) = x g ( f ( x)) = −(− x ) = x f and g are inverses. Inc. Section 1. f and g are inverses. g ( x) = x 3 + 4 f ( g ( x) ) = 3 x 3 + 4 − 4 = 3 x 3 = x g ( f ( x) ) = ( 3 x−4 ) 3 +4 = x−4+4 = x b. b.

. a. x−2 ) 3 21. 22. f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 y = ( x + 2)3 x = ( y + 2)3 3 x = y+2 y = 3 x −2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 3 1 =x 1 x 1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = = x 1 x f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x 2 y= x 2 x= y xy = 2 f ( x) = 2 x 2 f −1 ( x ) = x y= =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 ( x + 2)3 − 2 = x+2−2 =x b. a. a. a. f ( f −1 ( x)) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x f −1( f ( x )) = 2 x = 2⋅ = x 2 2 x 212 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 20. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ) ( x) 3 x +1 −1 = 1 x 1 y= x 1 x= y xy = 1 f ( x) = y= y = 3 x +1 f ( f −1 ( x)) = 3 1 x 1 −1 f ( x) = x x + 1 = y3 b. f ( x) = ( x − 1)3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = ( x − 1)3 y = x3 + 2 x = ( y − 1)3 3 x = y3 + 2 x−2 = y 3 3 x = y −1 y = 3 x +1 y = x−2 3 −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 2 b. f ( f −1 ( x)) = ( 3 b. a. ( ( 3 x −2+2 ) = ( x) 3 3 3 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 ( x − 13 + 1 = x − 1 + 1 = x +2 = x−2+2 18. =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x3 + 2 − 2 = 3 x3 = x f ( x) = x3 − 1 y = x3 − 1 x = y3 − 1 f −1 ( x) = 3 x + 1 ( 3 ) 3 b.Functions and Graphs 17. x + 1 −1 = x +1−1 =x f −1 ( f ( x)) = 3 x 3 − 1 + 1 = 3 x3 = x 19. Inc.

a.8 f ( x) = x 4 +9 x 4 y = +9 x 4 x = +9 y xy = 4 + 9 y f ( x) = 26. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . a. −1 xy − 9 y = 4 y ( x − 9) = 4 f ( f ( x)) = ( x ) = x 24.PreCalculus 4E 23. ( ( ) 4 +9 = x 4 x−9 4 −1 =x f ( f ( x) ) = 4 +9−9 x f f −1 ( x) = 2x + 1 x−3 2x + 1 y= x−3 2 y +1 x= y −3 x(y – 3) = 2y + 1 xy – 3x = 2y + 1 xy – 2y = 3x + 1 y(x – 2) = 3x + 1 3x + 1 y= x−2 3x + 1 f −1 ( x ) = x−2 f ( x) = ) 7 −3 = x 7 x+3 7 =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 7 −3+3 x f f −1 ( x) = 213 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y= x x= y y=x 2 −1 f ( x) = x 2 . 2 4 x −9 4 f −1 ( x ) = x −9 y= f ( x) = 3 x y=3x x= y=x 3 f ( x) = x 3 −1 b. Section 1. xy = 7 − 3 y xy + 3 y = 7 y ( x + 3) = 7 7 x+3 7 −1 f ( x) = x+3 y= b. a. f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 x3 = x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = ( x) 3 3 =x 7 −3 x 7 y = −3 x 7 x = −3 y 27. a. a. Inc. f ( f −1 ( x)) = x 2 = x = x for x ≥ 0. x ≥ 0 b. y 3 b. f ( x) = 25.

The function fails the horizontal line test.Functions and Graphs b. ) ( 2 −x − 3 − 3 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = −x − 3 +1 x−2 −2 x − 6 − 3x + 6 −5 x = = =x −x − 3 + x − 2 −5 − 2x − 3 − 3 x +1 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 2x − 3 − 2 x +1 −2 x + 3 − 3x − 3 −5 x = = =x 2x − 3 − 2x − 2 −5 −1 ( 38. 7x =x 7 f −1 ( f ( x)) = 28. x≠2 x−2 f ( x) = 37. 2 x + 1 − 2 ( x − 3) 6x + 3 + x − 3 7x = =x 2x +1 − 2x + 6 7 36. 30. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The function passes the horizontal line test. a. so it does not have an inverse function. The function fails the horizontal line test. 214 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so it does not have an inverse function. 32. so it does have an inverse function. . so it does have an inverse function. 2x − 3 x +1 2x − 3 y= x +1 2y − 3 x= y +1 xy + x = 2y – 3 y(x – 2) = –x – 3 −x − 3 y= x−2 −x − 3 f −1 ( x ) = . so it does have an inverse function. The function passes the horizontal line test. 33. Inc. The function fails the horizontal line test. = = = b. The function passes the horizontal line test. ) ( 2 3x + 1 + 1 x−2 f ( f ( x)) = 3x + 1 − 3 x−2 2 ( 3x + 1) + x − 2 6 x + 2 + x − 2 = = 3x + 1 − 3 ( x − 2 ) 3x + 1 − 3 x + 6 –1 34. 31. ) ( 3 2x +1 + 1 x −3 2x + 1 − 2 x−3 3 ( 2 x + 1) + x − 3 35. ) 29. so it does not have an inverse function.

∞ ) domain of f : ( −∞. b. Inc. domain of f : [ 0. f ( x) = x 2 − 1 y = x2 − 1 f ( x) = 2 x − 3 y = 2x − 3 x = y2 −1 x +1 = y2 x = 2y −3 − x +1 = y x + 3 = 2y f −1 ( x) = − x + 1 x+3 =y 2 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 2 b. . ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) [ −4. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. c. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 39. 40. a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f : −1 42. a. 0] domain of f : 215 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0] range of f : [ −1. Section 1. ∞ ) domain of f : [ −4. b. ( −∞. a.8 f ( x) = 2 x − 1 y = 2x −1 41. f ( x) = x 2 − 4 y = x2 − 4 x = 2 y −1 x = y2 − 4 x +1 = 2y x + 4 = y2 x +1 =y 2 x +1 f −1 ( x) = 2 x+4 = y f −1 ( x) = x + 4 b. c.

domain of f : 46. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. c.∞ ) range of f : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ 0. ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. a. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. b. a.1] domain of f : f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) ( −∞. f ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 1) f ( x) = x3 − 1 45. a. f ( x) = x3 + 1 y = x3 + 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 + 1 2 x − 1 = y3 x = y −1 3 x −1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x − 1 x +1 = y f −1 ( x) = 1 + x b.Functions and Graphs 43. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. . b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1] range of f : [ 0. Inc. a. ∞ ) c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. y = x3 − 1 2 x = ( y − 1) x = y3 − 1 2 x + 1 = y3 − x = y −1 3 − x +1 = y x +1 = y −1 f ( x) = 3 x + 1 −1 f ( x) = 1 − x b. domain of f : [1. ∞ ) domain of f : 216 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. c.∞ ) ( −∞. 44. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. c. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞.

∞ ) range of f : [ 0. c. ∞ ) [ 2. a. ∞ ) domain of f : c.∞ ) 50. a. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0.8 f ( x) = ( x + 2)3 47. ∞ ) f ( x) = ( x − 2)3 48. ( −∞. y = ( x + 2) 49. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [1. a. y −1 2 b. b. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. . ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. domain of f : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f : c. a. x= x = y−2 x−2= x +2 = y y +2 y ( x − 2) = y 2 f −1 ( x ) = 3 x + 2 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 2) 2 b. ∞ ) range of f : −1 217 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f : [ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = x − 1 3 y = x −1 x = ( y + 2)3 3 3 x= x = y+2 x = y −1 x −2 = y x +1 = y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x − 2 f −1 ( x ) = x 2 + 1 b. c. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. y = ( x − 2) domain of f −1 : [ 0. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. 3 3 f ( x) = x + 2 y = x +2 x = ( y − 2)3 3 domain of f : [1.

( g ( f [ h(1) ]) = g f ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = g ( f (4) ) ) = g ( 2 ⋅ 4 − 5) = g ( 3) c. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 51. f −1 (1) = 3 y = 3 x −1 y −1 62. 54. ∞ ) domain of f : x= (g 4x −1 = 7 f ( x) = x + 1 3 4x = 8 x=2 Thus. 63. a. since f ( −1) = 1 . 59. f ( x) = 3 x + 1 y = 3 x +1 x= 3 y +1 x −1 = 3 y ( x − 1)3 = y f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1)3 b. (f g )( 0 ) = f ( g (0) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 0 − 1) = f ( −1) = 2 ( −1) − 5 = −7 60. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. f −1 ( g (1) ) = f −1 (1) = −1 . 52. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. since f ( 2 ) = −1 . ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. c. a. (g f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( 4 ) = 2 57. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) = 4 ⋅ 3 − 1 = 11 domain of f : 64. Let f −1 (1) = x . (g f )( −1) = g ( f (−1) ) = g (1) = 1 56. ) . ( f ( g [ h(1) ]) = f g ⎡⎣12 + 1 + 2⎤⎦ = f ( g (4) ) = f ( 4 ⋅ 4 − 1) = f (15 ) f ( g (1) ) = f (1) = 5 = 2 ⋅ 15 − 5 = 25 f ( g (4) ) = f ( 2 ) = −1 218 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 55. ∞ ) range of f : ( −∞. ( −∞. Let g −1 ( 7 ) = x . f ( x) = 1 2x − 5 = 1 2x = 6 x=3 Thus. Then x3 = y − 1 g ( x) = 7 x +1 = y 3 −1 = g ( 2 ⋅ 0 − 5) 61. g −1 ( 7 ) = 2 b. Inc. f −1 ( g (10) ) = f −1 ( −1) = 2 . 58. 53. Then f ( x) = 3 x − 1 3 f )( 0 ) = g ( f (0) ) = g ( −5 ) = 4 ( −5 ) − 1 = −21 ( −∞.

8.3). 60)} f is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of f is not a function. (12. (30. 60)} g is not a one-to-one function because the inverse of g is not a function. 9 ⎡5 ⎤ ( x − 32) ⎥ + 32 5 ⎢⎣ 9 ⎦ = x − 32 + 32 f ( g ( x)) = =x f and g are inverses. 22).8. (8.7. Thus. (8.8 It passes the horizontal line test and is one-to-one. f--1(0.9. (8. (8. – 75. (50.1.4. {(17. (50.7). f--1(0. 68.25) = 15 If there are 15 people in the room.m.4).8). one-to-one 219 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. {(9. 40).3) and (19. These values can be represented as (12.3) and (19. 9. (60. (30. 30).50). not one-to-one 77.8.5. Answers may vary. a. 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (8. Inc. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0. (40. (22. (8.7) = 30 If there are 30 people in the room. (60. this function does not have an inverse. 69. (8. 22).4.4). a. (8.8. f--1(0. 67. 76.3) .5). .5) = 21 If there are 21 people in the room. (8.2). c. {(17.8. a.5.3.8. {(9. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0.17). a.17).PreCalculus 4E 65.25.1).5)} b.5.7. The graph does not represent a one-to-one function.8.8. (9. The average happiness level is 3 at 12 noon and at 7 p.8.8. b.2.7. 50). Section 1.3. b. 30).3).3) are an example of two x-values that correspond to the same y-value.3. (40. 66. 40). (22. the probability that 2 of them have the same birthday is 0.7). 70. This function fails the horizontal line test.3)} b.

2)}. true 82. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 81. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall. false. makes sense 90. 86. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 78. not one-to-one f and g are inverses 80. not one-to-one 220 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 94. makes sense 91. f and g are inverses one-to-one 79. makes sense 89. A sample change is: f(x) = 5 is a horizontal line. Inc. x A sample change is: f −1 ( x) = . 92. (7.1).Functions and Graphs 84. makes sense 88. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. A sample change is: The inverse is {(4. . one-to-one 83. 85. not one-to-one 87. so it does not pass the horizontal line test. 93.

there will be 2 times when the spacecraft is at the same height. 221 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( f g )( x) = 3( x + 5) = 3x + 15. Inc. x = y+5 ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 = (1 − 7) 2 + (−1 − 2) 2 y = x −5 = (−6) 2 + (−3)2 g −1 ( x) = x − 5 f ( x) = 3x = 36 + 9 = 45 y = 3x =3 5 x = 3y x 3 x −1 f ( x) = 3 101. . −1 f −1 ) ( x ) = x x − 15 −5 = 3 3 3x − 2 5x − 3 3x − 2 y= 5x − 3 3y − 2 x= 5y − 3 x(5 y − 3) = 3 y − 2 f ( x) = 102. No. y= 97.8 95. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8 + f −1 ( x − 1) = 10 f −1 ( x − 1) = 2 f (2) = x − 1 6 = x −1 7=x x=7 x = 3 y + 15 y= x − 15 3 (f g ) ( x) = −1 x − 15 3 g ( x) = x + 5 99. Answers may vary.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. y = x+5 100. y = 3 x + 15 98. when it is going up and when it is coming down. y 2 − 6 y − 4 = 0 y2 − 6 y =4 y − 6y + 9 = 4 + 9 2 ( y − 3) 2 = 13 y − 3 = ± 13 5 xy − 3x = 3 y − 2 y = 3 ± 13 5 xy − 3 y = 3x − 2 y (5 x − 3) = 3 x − 2 3x − 2 5x − 3 3 x−2 f −1 ( x ) = 5x − 3 Note: An alternative approach is to show that ( f f )( x) = x. y= (g 96.

3. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ .9 ( x − 0)2 + [ y − (−6)]2 = 102 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 5. 1⎞ ⎛ 1 + 7 2 + (−3) ⎞ ⎛ 8 −1 ⎞ ⎛ . − ⎟ 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ h = 0. k = 0. 1) radius: r = 2 d = (8 − 5) 2 + (5 − 1) 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 b. k = 2.Functions and Graphs Section 1. d = (14 − 2) 2 + (8 − 3)2 x 2 + ( y + 6)2 = 100 = 122 + 52 ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 4 = 144 + 25 = 169 [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 1) 2 = 22 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . k = −6. r = 10. −1] [ −1.77 [ −5. k ) = (−3. we have = 169 h = −2. . domain: range: 222 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Exercise Set 1. a.3] c. 4. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 42 x 2 + y 2 = 16 h = 0. d= = ( −6 − 4 ) + ( 3 − (−1) ) 2 ( −10 ) + ( 4 ) 2 2 2 = 100 + 16 = 116 = 2 29 ≈ 10. r = 4. = 13 2. = ( 5) + ( −12 ) 2 2 = 13 2. ⎟ = ⎜ 4. we have h = −3. r = 3 . x2 + y 2 + 4 x − 4 y − 1 = 0 6.9 Check Point Exercises 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. center: (h. d= ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 d= (1 − (−4) ) + ( −3 − 9 ) 2 2 2 (x x2 + y2 + 4x − 4 y −1 = 0 ) + ( y − 4y ) = 0 ( x + 4x + 4) + ( y + 4 y + 4) = 1 + 4 + 4 2 + 4x 2 2 2 ( x + 2) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 9 = 25 + 144 [ x − (− x)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 32 So in the standard form of the circle’s equation ( x − h) 2 + ( y − k ) 2 = r 2 . k = 1. 1. r = 2. Inc. 3.

= 16 + 52 = 73 ≈ 8.32 9. Section 1. d = (−. 2 . ( 4 − 0) = 42 + [3 + 2]2 2 = 32 + 42 6. d= = 5. d = ( 5 − 0)2 + [0 − (− 3)]2 = ( 5) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 5+3 d = [2 − (−4)]2 + [−3 − (−1)]2 = 6 2 + ( −2 ) d = (1.07 = 25 + 4 = 29 ≈ 5.6 − 2. d= = d = (4 − 0)2 + [1 − (−3)]2 ( ) ( 2 ( 7) 2 + ⎣⎡ − 2 ⎦⎤ 2 = 7+2 = 42 + 4 2 = 9 = 16 + 16 =3 = 32 ) 7 − 0 + ⎡0 − − 2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ =4 2 ≈ 5. + [3 − ( −2 )]2 = 41 ≈ 6.PreCalculus 4E 4.2) 2 = 9 +16 = (−4) 2 + (−2)2 = 25 =5 = 16 + 4 = 20 d = (3 − 0) 2 + ( −4 − 0 ) =2 5 2 ≈ 4.39 13.5 − 3.2 − 8.6) 2 + ( −5.9 ( −1 − 2 ) + ( 5 − (−3) ) 2 ( −3 ) + ( 8 ) 2 2 10.5)2 + (6. d= 14. = 9 + 16 ( −1) 2 + ( −7 ) 2 2 = 1 + 49 = 50 d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [−4 − (−6)]2 =5 2 = 52 + 2 2 ≈ 7.3) = = 25 =5 = 8 2 =2 2 = 36 + 4 ≈ 2.66 223 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.47 2 12.54 = 16 + 25 11. Inc. 2 = 9 + 64 2 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.83 = 40 = 2 10 ≈ 6.7 − 1.40 d = (−3− 0) 2 + (4 − 0) 2 = 3 + ( −4 ) 8.

24 18. −6 ⎟ 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 26. 6) 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 20. ⎜ ⎟=⎜ . ⎟=⎜ . ⎛ 6 + 2 8 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 12 ⎞ . ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ 2 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ( = 5 3. d= = ( − 3 − 2 3 ) + (5 ( −3 3 ) + ( 4 6 ) 2 2 6− 6 ) 2 2 24.64 16. ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 = 12 + 12 ⎛ 2 10 5 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛3 2+ 2 0⎞ ⎛4 2 ⎞ . ⎟ = ⎜ .0) =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 224 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎟ ⎝ 5 2 15 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5 10 ⎠ 27. ⎟ = (−4. ⎛ −2 + (−6) −8 + (−2) ⎞ . ≈ 2.Functions and Graphs 15. −4 29. ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ −5 ⎞ = ⎜ . ⎛ 10 + 2 4 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 12 10 ⎞ . ⎝ ⎠⎟= 5 . ⎟ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ −7 ⎛ 5 ⎞ 3 ⎛ 11 ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ 2 +⎜− 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠.5 5 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( = 2 ≈ 1. d = (− 3 − 3 3)2 + (4 5 − 5)2 22. ⎛ −3 + 6 −4 + (−8) ⎞ . ⎟ = ⎜ −5. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 3 −12 ⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎞ =⎜ . ⎟ = ( −3. = (−4 3) 2 + (3 5) 2 = 16(3) + 9(5) = 48 + 45 = 93 23. −2 ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 ⎛ 2⎞ 7 ⎛ 4 ⎞⎞ ⎛ 4 3 ⎞ ⎜ − 5 + ⎜ − 5 ⎟ 15 + ⎜ − 15 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ − ⎝ ⎠. . −5) ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ) ) ⎛ 18 + 2 −4 + 4 ⎞ . ⎟ = (6. = 123 ≈ 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ . Inc. ⎛ −4 + ( −1) −7 + ( −3) ⎞ ⎛ −5 −10 ⎞ . . ⋅ ⎟ = ⎜− . ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −12 −8 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 6 −4 ⎞ = ⎜ 2 . = 1. −5 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 28. ⎛ 8 + (−6) 3 5 + 7 5 ⎞ .09 17. 15 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 4 1 3 1⎞ ⎛ 2 1 ⎞ = ⎜− ⋅ . ≈ 9. ⎛ 7 3 + 3 3 −6 + (−2) ⎞ ⎛ 10 3 −8 ⎞ .41 19. ⎟ = (4. 2 ⎛1 7⎞ ⎛6 1⎞ d = ⎜ − ⎟ +⎜ − ⎟ ⎝3 3⎠ ⎝5 5⎠ 2 = (−2) 2 + 12 = 4 +1 = 5 2 ⎡ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ ⎡ 6 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ d = ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ + ⎢ − ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠⎦ ⎣ 7 ⎝ 7 ⎠⎦ 2 ⎛ 3 1 ⎞ ⎡6 1⎤ = ⎜ + ⎟ +⎢ + ⎥ ⎝ 4 4 ⎠ ⎣7 7⎦ ⎛ −2 + ( −8) −1 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ −10 5 ⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ .5) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ 2 21. = 9 ⋅ 3 + 16 ⋅ 6 = 27 + 96 25. 2 ⎟ = ⎜ − . 0 ⎟ = (2 2. ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ −8 −10 ⎞ =⎜ .

9] [ −5. center = (0. . 4] [ −4. ⎟⎟ ⎟=⎜ ⎜⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛6 2 ⎞ . 7] [ −7. 37. radius = 6 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 102 2 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 0 ) = 100 2 [ x − (−2)] + ( y − 0 )2 = 62 2 ( x + 2 ) + y 2 = 36 2 [ −3. 36. 0 ⎟ = 3 2. range: ( x − 2 ) + [ y − (−1)] = 42 2 2 ( x − 2 ) + ( y + 1) = 16 2 [ −4. ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = 82 x 2 + y 2 = 64 33. 42. center = (3. k = 0. 7] domain: + ( y + 1) = 3 2 2 = 2 [ x − (−5)] + [ y − (−3)] ( x + 5) 39. r = 6. 0). r = 7. 0 =⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( 31. center = (0. 2 2 40. 0). 2 ( x + 3) 38. + ( y + 3) = 5 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 36 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 1) = 62 2 2 h = 3. k = 1. radius = 7 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4 )2 = 22 2 2 ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 4 2 [ x − (−3)] + ( y − 5)2 = 32 2 2 ( x + 3) + ( y − 5 ) = 9 [ x − (−3)] + [ y − (−1)] 2 2 2 ( 3) 2 2 = ( 5) [ −7. . r = 4. Section 1. Inc. x 2 + y 2 = 49 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 h = 0. 1). Publishing as Prentice Hall. 35. k = 0. radius = 4 ) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = 7 2 x 2 + y 2 = 49 32. 34. 4] domain: ( x − 3 ) + ( y − 2 ) = 52 2 2 ( x − 3) + ( y − 2 ) = 25 range: 2 43. 7] domain: range: 225 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 2 + y 2 = 16 41.9 ⎛ 50 + 2 −6 + 6 ⎞ ⎛ 5 2 + 2 0 ⎞ . ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0) 2 = y 2 h = 0.PreCalculus 4E 30.

7] [ −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. center = (–1. 6] [ −1. radius = 2 2 ( x − 2) + ( y − 3)2 = 42 h = 2. 1). 2 x 2 + ( y − 1) = 1 2 h = 0. center = (2. k = 3. k = 2. ( x − 2) 2 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 47.1] [ 0. Inc. center = (–4. [ x − (−2)]2 + [ y − (−2)]2 = 22 h = −2. r = 2 center = (–2. –5). center = (0. r = 1. [ x − (−3)]2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 22 h = −3. r = 2 center = (–3. k = −5. [ −2. −1] [ 0. radius = 2 46. 2). r = 6. r = 5. 4] [ −10. . radius = 5 [ −1. 3). radius = 1 h = −1. r = 4. –2). radius = 4 45. k = 1.1] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 1) + ( y − 4 ) = 25 2 [ x − (−1)] + ( y − 4)2 = 52 2 2 49. 0] domain: domain: range: range: ( x + 3) 2 + ( y − 2) 2 = 4 48. radius = 6 [ −5. k = −2.Functions and Graphs 44. 4). 2] [ −11. 4] [ −1. 2] domain: [ −6. ( x + 2) 2 + ( y + 2)2 = 4 ( x + 4 ) + ( y + 5) = 36 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−5)] = 62 2 h = −4. 0] [ −4.9] range: domain: range: 226 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. k = 4.

r = 5. radius = 4 x 2 + y 2 − 10 x − 6 y − 30 = 0 55. r = 4. 4] domain: range: 51.0). 5] domain: range: 52.PreCalculus 4E 50. k = 0.0). radius = 8 [ −6. h = 0. Inc. 4] domain: range: 227 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –2). Publishing as Prentice Hall.2). 3). ( x + 2) 2 + y 2 = 16 h = −2. k = 2. r = 2. x 2 + y 2 + 8 x + 4 y + 16 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 8 x ) + ( y 2 + 4 y ) = −16 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y 2 + 4 y + 4 ) = 20 − 16 ( x + 4) + ( y + 2) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−4)] + [ y − (−2)] = 22 2 2 center = (–4. k = 0. ( x + 1) 2 + y 2 = 25 h = −1. . 2] [ 0. radius = 2 (x (x 2 2 + 6 x ) + ( y 2 + 2 y ) = −6 + 6 x + 9 ) + ( y 2 + 2 y + 1) = 9 + 1 − 6 ( x + 3) + ( y + 1) = 4 2 2 [ x − (−3)] + [9 − (−1)] = 22 2 2 center = (–3. 4] [ −5. Section 1. center = (–1. center = (0.9 x2 + ( y − 2) = 4 2 x2 + y 2 + 6 x + 2 y + 6 = 0 53. radius = 2 [ −6. radius = 2 [ −2. –1). center = (–2. (x (x 2 2 − 10 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 30 − 10 x + 25 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 25 + 9 + 30 ( x − 5) 2 + ( y − 3) = 64 2 ( x − 5)2 + ( y − 3)2 = 82 center = (5. radius = 5 54. 2] [ −4.

radius = 7 57. 0). Publishing as Prentice Hall. . radius = 4 60. x 2 − 2 x + y 2 − 15 = 0 59. radius = 7 228 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1). radius = 4 center = (–4. 6). Inc. + 8x ) + ( y2 − 2 y ) = 8 x2 + y 2 − 6 y − 7 = 0 x2 + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 7 + 8 x + 16 ) + ( y − 2 y + 1) = 16 + 1 + 8 2 ( x + 4 ) + ( y − 1) = 25 2 [ x − (−4)] + ( y − 1)2 = 52 2 2 ( x − 0) 2 ( x − 0) 2 = ( y 2 − 6 y + 9) = 0 + 9 + 7 + ( y − 3) = 16 2 ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 3)2 = 42 center = (0. 3). x 2 + y 2 − 4 x − 12 y − 9 = 0 (x (x 2 2 − 4 x ) + ( y 2 − 12 y ) = 9 − 4 x + 4 ) + ( y 2 − 12 y + 36 ) = 4 + 36 + 9 ( x − 2) 2 (x + ( y − 6 ) = 49 (x 2 2 − 2 x ) + y 2 = 15 − 2 x + 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 1 + 0 + 15 2 2 center = (1.Functions and Graphs 56. radius = 5 58. 3). 2 2 2 x2 + y 2 + 8x − 2 y − 8 = 0 (x (x ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 16 2 2 ( x − 1) + ( y − 0 ) = 42 2 ( x − 2)2 + ( y − 6)2 = 7 2 center = (2. x 2 + y 2 + 12 x − 6 y − 4 = 0 (x (x 2 2 + 12 x ) + ( y 2 − 6 y ) = 4 + 12 x + 36 ) + ( y 2 − 6 y + 9 ) = 36 + 9 + 4 2 [ x − (−6)] + ( y − 3)2 = 72 center = (–6.

Section 1.PreCalculus 4E 61.9 x2 + y 2 − x + 2 y + 1 = 0 63.1⎟ . radius = 1 ⎝2 2⎠ 229 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎠ x2 + y 2 + 3x + 5 y + 17 2 9 =0 4 9 4 9 25 9 9 25 2 2 x + 3x + + y + 5 y + =− + + 4 4 4 4 4 x2 + 3x + y 2 + 5 y = − 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜x − ⎟ +⎜ y − ⎟ =1 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 3⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ 25 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ +⎜ y+ ⎟ = 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎛ 3 5⎞ 5 center = ⎜ − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 2 − x + y 2 + 2 y = −1 1 1 x 2 − x + + y 2 + 2 y + 1 = −1 + + 1 4 4 x 2 + 3x + y 2 − 2 y = 1 9 9 x 2 + 3x + + y 2 − 2 y + 1 = 1 + + 1 4 4 2 2 1⎞ 1 2 ⎛ ⎜ x − ⎟ + ( y + 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 ⎞ 3⎞ 17 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ + ( y − 1) = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 ⎞ 1 center = ⎜ . radius = 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ center = ⎜ . radius = 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 62. center = ⎜ − . . Inc. −1⎟ . − ⎟ . ⎟ . radius = 2 ⎝ 1 =0 2 1 x2 + x + y 2 + y = 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 x +x+ + y + y+ = + + 4 4 2 4 4 x2 + y 2 + x + y − 2 x 2 + y 2 + 3x − 2 y − 1 = 0 64.

−3) : 02 + ( −3) = 9 2 2 = 12 + ( −1) = 1 + 1 2 units. 0 )} . ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 4. Intersection points: ( 0. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle. Using the point ( 3. −3) . ( 4. ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 = ( 5. The center is ( 4.10 ) . we get: d= ( 5 − 3) 2 + (10 − 9 ) Check ( 0.9 ) . + ( y − 10 ) = 2 ( 5) 2 + ( y − 10 ) = 5 Since the line segment passes through the center. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3) and ( 3. −4 ) . 66. b. −4 ) and ( 4. ⎟=⎜ . =⎜ ⎟=⎜ . The center is ( 5. ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 7 9 + 11 ⎞ ⎛ 10 20 ⎞ =⎜ . 0 ) : 2 c. ⎛ x + x y + y2 ⎞ M =⎜ 1 2 . . a. 6 ) . Inc. we get: d= ( 4 − 3) + ( 5 − 6 ) 2 Check ( 0. the center is the midpoint of the segment. 5 units. a.5 ) 2 68. 0 ) : = 5 The radius is 0 − ( −4 ) = 4 2 2 230 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎛ 3 + 5 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ 8 10 ⎞ . b. the center is the midpoint of the segment. ( 3. ( x − 5) 2 ( x − 5) 2 42 + 02 = 16 4−0 = 4 16 = 16 true 4 = 4 true The solution set is {( 0. −4 ) : 02 + ( −4 ) = 16 2 2 16 = 16 true = 22 + 12 = 4 + 1 c. Using the point ( 3. ( 2) ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = ( x − 4) 2 + ( y − 5) = 2 2 3 = 3 true 32 + 02 = 9 3−0 = 3 9 = 9 true 3 = 3 true The solution set is {( 0. Intersection points: ( 0.10 ) 67. 0 ) The radius is the distance from the center to one of the points on the circle.5 ) .0 )} . Since the line segment passes through the center.Functions and Graphs 65. = 2 The radius is 0 − ( −3 ) = 3 9 = 9 true Check ( 3. 4 = 4 true Check ( 4.

( 3. Check ( 0.4.A. d = (8495 − 4422) 2 + (8720 − 1241)2 ⋅ 0. 2 231 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 68 + 14) = (0. −1) and ( 3. 079. −1) : ( 0 − 3) 2 + ( −1 + 1) = 9 2 ( −3) 2 + 02 = 9 −1 = 0 − 1 −1 = −1 true 9=9 Check ( 3.7 ) = 900 74. 2 ) : ( 3 − 3) 2 85. d = 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. ( 2. C(0. −1) : ( 2 − 2 ) + ( −1 + 3 ) = 4 2 2 d = (8936 − 8448) 2 + (3542 − 2625)2 ⋅ 0. ( x − ( −2.7 ) and 4=4 radius 30.1 d = 72. −3) : ( 0 − 2 ) + ( −3 + 3) = 9 2 ( −2 ) + 0 2 = 4 2 2 −3 = 0 − 3 −3 = −3 true 73. −1) d ≈ 328 The distance between New Orleans and Houston is about 328 miles. 2 x 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 4624 75.1 d ≈ 2693 The distance between Boston and San Francisco is about 2693 miles. 770 ⋅ 0. – 82. 2 2 86. 2 )} . −3) . −1) . makes sense 87. 524. 2 ) 84. Intersection points: ( 0. −2. makes sense = 302 + ( y + 2. at the origin. then we want the equation of a circle with center at ( −2. If we place L.7 ) ) true Check ( 2.9 69. 71. 72. Inc. −1)} . 82) ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 82) 2 = 682 70. true + ( 2 + 1) = 9 2 2 = 3 −1 2 = 2 true 0 +3 = 9 9=9 true The solution set is {( 0.4 ) ) + ( y − ( −2. −3) and ( 2. 2 . 033 ⋅ 0. Check ( 0. 83. Answers may vary.1 2 ( x + 2.4 ) −1 = 2 − 3 −1 = −1 true 02 + 22 = 4 4=4 true The solution set is {( 0.1 Intersection points: ( 0.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. The distance for A to B: ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d 2 = ⎜ 1 2 − x2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y2 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ AB = (3 − 1) 2 + [3 + d − (1 + d )]2 = 22 + 22 2 2 ⎛ x + x − 2 x2 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 4+4 = 8 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y2 ⎞ d2 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ =2 2 The distance from B to C: BC = (6 − 3) 2 + [3 + d − ( 6 + d )]2 = 32 + ( −3) 2 d1 = d1 = false. A sample change is: The center is at (3. 91. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense.Functions and Graphs 88. 89. x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 + 4 4 d1 = 1 ( x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 ) 4 1 x2 − 2 x1 x2 + x1 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 2 d 2 is distance from midpoint to ( x2 . A sample change is: This is not an equation for a circle. The distance for A to C: d3 is the distance from ( x1 . Both circles have center (2. Inc. a. y2 ) 2 94. Changes to make the statement true will vary. . 93. ⎛ x + x − 2 x1 ⎞ ⎛ y1 + y2 − 2 y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ false.56 square units. 232 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 2 2 d2 = x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 + 4 4 d2 = 1 2 ( x1 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 ) 4 1 x12 − 2 x1 x2 + x2 2 + y12 − 2 y2 y1 + y2 2 2 d1 = d 2 = 9+9 d2 = = 18 =3 2 b. Changes to make the statement true will vary. The area between them is given by =5 2 AB + BC = AC 2 2 +3 2 = 5 2 π ( 6 ) − π ( 5 ) = 36π − 25π = 11π 2 5 2 =5 2 2 ≈ 34. Sample explanation: Since r 2 = −4 this is not the equation of a circle. –5). The smaller circle is inside of the larger circle. y1 ) to ( x2 y2 ) d3 = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 AC = (6 − 1) 2 + [6 + d − (1 + d )]2 d3 = x2 2 − 2 x1 x2 + x12 + y2 2 − 2 y2 y1 + y12 = 52 + 52 d1 + d 2 = d3 because = 25 + 25 = 50 1 1 a+ a= a 2 2 96. A sample change is: Since r 2 = −36 this is not the equation of a circle. 95. A sample change is: The equation would be x 2 + y 2 = 256. false. The smaller circle has radius 5 and the larger circle has radius 6. –3). 92. Explanations will vary. d is distance from ( x . 2 ⎛ x − x ⎞ ⎛ y − y1 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 2 1 ⎟ + ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ false. x ) to midpoint 1 1 2 2 ⎛x +x ⎞ ⎛ y + y2 ⎞ d1 = ⎜ 1 2 − x1 ⎟ + ⎜ 1 − y1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ makes sense 2 2 90.

d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0 ) Check Point Exercises 1.12x 12 = 0.–4). p = 2l + 2w = 2(40) + 2(30) = 140 A = lw = (40)(30) = 1200 The perimeter is 140 yd.04x 300 = x The plans cost the same for 300 minutes.10 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.10 97. Inc.0) and (3. g(x) = 3 + 0.000 – 100x)x = –100x2 + 18. a. notation. . R(x) = (18. 4 98. The tangent line has slope and 4 4 passes through (3. The circle is centered at (0.000x 233 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The slope of the radius with endpoints (0. then length = 100 – x A(x) = x(100 – x) = 100x – x2 2 5. f(x) = 15 + 0. the area is 1000 sq yd 100.09(25. so must cut less than 4 off each side. 2. ( 0. V = πr h p = 2l + 2w = 2(50) + 2(20) = 140 1000 = πr 2 h 1000 =h πr 2 A = lw = (50)(20) = 1000 The perimeter is 140 yd.08x = x2 + y2 b. 000 − x ) Section 1.PreCalculus 4E Section 1. so its equation is: 3 y + 4 = ( x − 3). 4. The domain of V is { x 0 < x < 4} or.08x = 3 + 0. π r 2 h = 22 h= V(x) = (15 – 2x)(8 – 2x)x = (120 – 46x +4x2)x = 4x3 – 46x2 + 120x Since x represents the inches to be cut off.0). N(x) = 8000 – 100(x – 100) = 8000 – 100x + 10000 = 18.000 – 100x b.–4) is −4 − 0 4 m=− = − . 3. The smallest side is 8. 15 + 0. x > 0.12x y = x3 c. The line perpendicular to the 3− 0 3 3 3 radius has slope . I ( x) = 0. 99. d = x 2 + x3 ( ) 2 2 = x 2 + x6 a. 4 ) . 2l + 2w = 200 2l = 200 – 2w l = 100 – w Let x = width.07x + 0. in interval A = 2π r2 + 2 πrh 22 1000 2 = 2π r + 2 πr πr 2 2000 = 2π r 2 + r πr2 44 ⎛ 22 ⎞ 2π r 2 + 2π rh = 2π r 2 + 2π r ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 2π r 2 + ⎝ πr ⎠ r 6. x − 200 a. the area is 1200 sq yd b.

5x = 21 x = 14 f (14) = 2. g( x) = 40 + 0.8 x b. a. 000 − 400x R(x) = (26.3 x 0. 000 − 500 x) x = −500 x 2 + 40. Inc. b. a.9 x c. g( x) = 40 + 0. a.7 x = 40 + 0.5(14) = 35 g(14) = 21 + 14 = 35 To cross the bridge 14 times costs the same.9 x 260 = 0.75 x = 21 x = 28 f (28) = 1.7(1300) = 1210 g(1300) = 40 + 0. P( x) = 28 + 0. 3. 000 − 500x + 10000 = 40. 7.1x 600 = x For $600 worth of merchandise.7x b. $35.25 x = 21 + 0. 2. a.5 x b. 100 + 0. 000x 234 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 − 0. N (x) = 20.25 x 395 = 180 + 0. . f ( x) = 180 + 0.5x = 21+ x 1. 000 − 400(x − 15) = 20.9 x c. 8. a. 40% of babies born will be out of wedlock.25x b. 40 = 28 + 06x 12 = 0. in 2010.6x 20 = x 20 years after 1990. 300 + 0.8x = 40 + 0.3x = 59. 000 x 10. f ( x) = 1.25x 860 = x You drove 860 miles for $395.3 x b. N (x) = 30. f ( x) = 2. g( x) = 21+ x c.15x 120 = 01.9 x 60 = 0. b.4 x = 198 198 years after 1954. 000 − 400x + 6000 = 26.5x 800 = x 800 miles a. 000 − 500x b.25(28) = 35 g (28) = 21 + 0.2 x 1300 = x f (1300) = 300 + 0. 2. a. f ( x) = 300 + 0. 000 − 400x)x 2 = −400x + 26. a. 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9(1300) = 1210 You would have to purchase $1300 in merchandise at a total cost of $1210. R( x) = (40.25x 215 = 0. Exercise Set 1. 9. 180 = 239. in 2152. g( x) = 21+ 0.15x 320 = 200 + 0.4 − 0. f ( x) = 200 + 0.Functions and Graphs 6.10 1.6 x b. 1.5x c. M (x ) = 239. someone will run a 3 minute mile. f ( x) = 100 + 0. 000 − 500(x − 20) = 30. 5. for either method. b.5(28) = 35 If a person crosses the bridge 28 times the cost will be $35 for both options a.5 x 0. your cost is $580 for both plans a.

13. the volume will be 1792 square inches. V(4) = 4(43 ) −120(4 2 ) + 900(4) = 1936 If 4 inches are cut from each side. 0 < x < 15 or (0. the volume will be 972 square inches. Y(x) = 320 − 4(x − 50) = 320 − 4x + 200 = 520 − 4x T (x) = (520 − 4x)x = −4x 2 + 520x V(5) = 4(53 ) −120(52 ) + 900(5) = 2000 If 5 inches are cut from each side. b. Inc. 15. V(4) = 4(4) 3 − 96(4)2 + 576(4) = 1024 If 4-inch squares are cut off each corner. a. T (x) = (360 − 3x)x = −3x 2 + 360x V(7) = 4(73 ) −120(72 ) + 900(7) = 1792 If 7 inches are cut from each side. 0 < x < 12 a. a. R(x) = (12400 − 60x)x = −60x 2 + 12400x V(3) = 4(33 ) −120(32 ) + 900(3) = 1728 If 3 inches are cut from each side. b. the volume will be 980 square inches. x > 0. b. N (x) = 7. a. a. V(2) = 4(2) 3 − 96(2) 2 + 576(2) = 800 If 2-inch squares are cut off each corner. 12. a. V(5) = 4(5) 3 − 96(5)2 + 576(5) = 980 If 5inch squares are cut off each corner. V(x) = (30 − 2x)(30 − 2x)x = (900 −120x + 4x 2 )x = 4x 3 − 120x 2 + 900x b. b.10 N (x) = 9000 + 50(150 − x) = 9000 − 50x + 7500 = 16500 − 50x R(x) = (16500 − 50x)x = −50x 2 + 16500x 16. V(x) = (24 − 2x)(24 − 2x)x 2 = (576 − 96x + 4x )x = 4x 3 − 96x 2 + 576x c. you must cut less than 15 inches from each side. Since each side is 30 inches. A(x) = x(20 − 2x) = −2x 2 + 20x 18. the volume will be 1936 square inches. the volume will be 800 square inches. If x is the inches to be cut off. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the volume will be 1024 square inches. 235 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 11. 15) 17. 14. ⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ 8− x ⎞ A( x) = ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 2 2 = x 2 64 − 16 x + x 2 + 16 16 = 2 x 2 − 16 x + 64 16 = x 2 − 8 x + 32 8 V(6) = 4(6) 3 − 96(6)2 + 576(6) = 864 If 6inch squares are cut off each corner. Section 1. the volume will be 1728 square inches. x > 0. the volume will be 2000 square inches. the volume will be 1944 square inches. V (3) = 4(3)3 − 96(3)2 + 576(3) = 972 If 3inch squares are cut off each corner. Since x is the number of inches to be cut from each side. b. . 000 + 60(90 − x) = 7000 − 60x + 5400 = 12400 − 60x c. the volume will be 864 square inches. Y(x) = 270 − 3(x − 30) = 270 − 3x + 90 = 360 − 3x V(6) = 4(63 ) −120(62 ) + 900(6) = 1944 If 6 inches are cut from each side. Since each side is 24. you must cut less than 12 inches off each end.

600 − 2 x = length = 440r A(x) = (600 − 2x)x = −2 x 2 + 600x 25. A(x) = x(300 − x) = −x 2 + 300x 23. 2 w + l = 600 A( x) = r (440 − π r ) + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 + π r 2 l = 600 − 2 l let x = width. 400. P(x) = x(66 − x) = −x 2 + 66x 20. . 400. Publishing as Prentice Hall. P(x) = x(50 − x) = −x 2 + 50 x 21. 2 x + 2π r = 440 2 x = 440 − 2π r x = 220 − π r A(r ) = (220 − π r )2r + π r 2 = 440r − 2π r 2 + π r 2 = 440r − π r 2 l = 800 − 2 w 28. 2 w + l = 800 27. 2 x + 3 y = 1000 xy = 4000 4000 y= x 3 y = 1000 − 2 x 1000 − 2 x 3 ⎛ 1000 − 2 x ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ x(1000 − 2 x) = 3 2x + 4y = 1200 ⎡ ⎛ 4000 ⎞ ⎤ C ( x) = ⎢ 2 x + 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 175 + 125 x ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ 1. Inc. 2 x = distance around 2 straight sides π 2r = distance around 2 curved sides 29. 4y = 1200 − 2x 1200 − 2x y= 4 1200 − 2x 4 x(1200 − 2x) = 4 2x(600 − x) = 4 x(600 − x) = 2 A(x) = x 236 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Functions and Graphs 19. 2x = distance around the 2 straight sides 2πr = distance around the 2 curved sides 2 x + 2π r = 880 Let x = w A(x) = x(800 − 2 x) 2 x = 880 − 2π r x = 440 − π r = −2 x 2 + 800x 24. 000 = 475 x + x y= 26. 000 = 350 x + + 125 x x 1. A(x) = x(400 − x) = −x 2 + 400x 22.

750 at 7%. = 0. b.PreCalculus 4E 30. 37.12 x = 2117 −0.250 at 15% and $18. + 29x 36.750 – x = amount at 12% I ( x) = 0.14 x + 0.06(12000 − x) ⎛ 400 ⎞ A = x2 + 5 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x ⎝ x ⎠ 2000 2 =x + x 33. Let x = amount invested at 12% 8000 – x = amount invested at 5% loss I(x) = 0.07 x + x + 9x 2 10 a.05(8000 – x) 400 = x 2 y 400 x2 =y 38.08 x 10 = x y x2 Let x = amount invested at 15% 50000 – x = amount invested at 7% I(x) = 0. Section 1.12(18750 − x) = 2117 0.10 x + 0. 2500 = 0.07(50000 – x) 6000 = 0. let x = l C(x) = 20 2 31.02 x = −133 x = 6650 The amount of money to be invested should be $6650 at 10% and $12100 at 12%. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Let x = amount at 10% 18. = w.14 x + 720 − 0. Inc.06 x = 0. ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 8 x 2 + 16 = x 4 − 7 x 2 + 16 108 = y + 4 x 108 − 4 x = y 40.12(18750 − x) =y b. A = x (108 − 4 x) 2 d = ( x − 0)2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 = −4 x 3 + 108 x 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 8 ) 2 = x 2 + x 4 − 16 x 2 + 64 = x 4 − 15 x 2 + 64 237 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 300 = y + 4 x d = ( x − 0) 2 + ( y − 0)2 = x2 + y2 300 − 4 x = y 2 ( = x2 + x2 − 4 A( x) = x (300 − 4 x) 2 = −4 x3 + 300 x 2 34. a.07 x(50000 − x) 31250 = x + 20x + 9x ⎛ 10 ⎞ A( x) = x 2 + 4 ⎜ x ⋅ 2 ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ 40 = x2 + x 32. 0.10 125 = lw 125 l = = 5000 x 5000 x 125 x 50000 − 31250 = 18750 Invest $31.15 x + 0.15x + 0. 6000 = 0.12x – 0.10 x + 0. Let x = amount at 14% 12000 – x = amount at 6% I ( x) = 0.08 x + 720 39. .15 x + 3500 − 0.1x + 2250 − 0. 35.

A( x) = 2 xy 47. d = ( x − 2) + y 2 c = 9 + 144 − 24 x + x 2 2 = x2 − 4 x + 4 + ( x) c = x 2 − 24 x + 153 2 f ( x ) = 36 + x 2 + x 2 − 24 x + 153 = x 2 − 3x + 4 43. A( x) = 12 x 2 − 25 x + 12 x 2 + 23 x + ( x + 2) [ 2 x − 2] P ( x ) = 2(2 x) + 2 y = 4x + 2 4 − x 44. b. 63. – 62. 2 A( x) = 12 x(2 x) + 12 (6 x − 4 x)( x + 2) + (4 x)( x + 2) + 2 x(8) A( x) = x + x( x + 2) + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x 2 P( x) = 2(2 x) + 2 y A( x) = x 2 + x 2 + 2 x + 4 x 2 + 8 x + 16 x = 4x + 2 9 − x2 A( x) = 6 x 2 + 26 45. 6-foot pole c 2 = 62 + x 2 49. Sample explanation: The decrease in passengers is modeled by 60( x − 300). Road from Town A: c 2 = 62 + x 2 d = ( x − 1) 2 + y 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + ( x) 2 c = 36 + x 2 = x2 − 2 x + 1 + x Road from Town B: c 2 = 32 + (12 − x) 2 = x − x +1 2 42. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. Explanations will vary.Functions and Graphs 41. a. as it suggests a per minute charge of $30. 238 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. does not make sense. . Inc. 46. Explanations will vary. 64. a. V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x + 1)( x + 2) − ( x + 5)(3)( x) V ( x) = ( x + 5)(2 x 2 + 5 x + 2) − 3x( x + 5) x = 36 + x 2 8-foot pole V ( x) = 2 x3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x + 10 − 3x 2 − 15 x V ( x) = 2 x3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x + 10 c 2 = 82 + (10 − x)2 c = 64 + 100 − 20 x + x 2 50. + ( x + 2) [ ( x − 5) + ( x + 3) ] = 2 x 4 − x2 b. does not make sense. Sample explanation: This model is not reasonable. V ( x) = ( x)(2 x + 5 x − 3) − x 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x) = 36 + x + x − 20 x + 164 2 V ( x) = ( x)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) − ( x)( x) [ (2 x − 1) − ( x + 1) ] c = x 2 − 20 x + 164 total length 2 V ( x) = 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 3x − x3 + 2 x 2 V ( x) = x3 + 7 x 2 − 3x 51. A( x) = x 2 − x + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 4 2 A( x) = 3x 2 + x − 4 A( x) = 2 xy = 2x 9 − x A( x) = 12 x( x − 5) + 12 x ( x + 3) 48.

y = –6 x = –1.PreCalculus 4E 65. y = 4 239 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = –2 x = 1. y = 2 x = 3. yet their areas are different from each other. y = 0 x = 2. For example: A 4 by 6 rectangle and a 3 by 7 rectangle both have perimeters of 20 units. Chapter 1 Review Exercises does not make sense. y = –4 x = 0. 7 + 4 2 2 + 5 2 14 + 35 2 + 8 2 + 40 ⋅ = 2 − 5 2 2 + 5 2 4 + 10 2 − 10 2 − 50 54 + 43 2 −46 54 + 43 2 =− 46 = A( x) = (20 + 2 x)(10 + 2 x) − 10(20) = 4 x 2 + 60 x + 200 − 200 = 4 x 2 + 60 x 69. 1 (π 2r ) 2 12 = 2h + 2r + π r P = 2h + 2r + Chapter 1 Review Exercises 1. . 18 − 8 = 9 ⋅ 2 − 4 ⋅ 2 =3 2 −2 2 = 2 4 + x2 6 − x + 2 5 73. or = 15 x 2 − 29 x − 14 72. π 12 h3 (7 − 3x )(−2 − 5 x) = −14 − 35 x + 6 x + 15 x 2 = −14 − 29 x + 15 x 2 4 + x2 2 Distance and time walked: d = 6− x rt = d 5t = 6 − x 6− x t= 5 Total time: t= T ( x) = 68. Inc. 70. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = –8 x = –2. 12 − 2r − π r = 2h 12 − 2r − π r =h 2 1 ⎛ 12 − 2r − π r ⎞ 2 A=⎜ ⎟ 2r + 2 π r 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 + π r 2 2 1 = 12r − 2r 2 − π r 2 2 ( ) x = –3. Sample explanation: The area of a rectangle is not solely determined by its perimeter. makes sense 2 1 ⎛1 ⎞ = π ⎜ h⎟ h 3 ⎝2 ⎠ 1 1 2 = π h h 3 4 67. Explanations will vary. Distance and time rowed: d 2 = 22 + x 2 d = 4 + x2 rt = d = 2t = 4 + x 2 71. r= 1 h 2 1 V ( h) = π r 2 h 3 66.

0). function domain: {1. 500. A portion of Cartesian coordinate plane with minimum x-value equal to –20. y = –3 x = –2. y = 6 3. y = 1 x = 2. maximum y-value equal to 5. . The graph intercepts the y-axis at (0. y = 2 x = 3. y = 0 16. x = –3. 8. y = 1 240 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph does not intersect the yaxis. 5} range: {7} x = −3. y = 0 x = 1. y-intercept: None. During the five-year period from 1930 to 1935.Functions and Graphs 2. π} x = −1. 7. y = 6 x = –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x-intercept: –2. –4). 19} x = 3. 0). and y-scale equal to 1. y = 1 x = 3. x-scale equal to 10 and with minimum y-value equal to –5. 15. maximum x-value equal to 40. 13. y = 0 17. y = −2 x = 1. The coordinates are (1985. The top marginal tax rate in 2005 was 35%. –2. 11. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. the top marginal tax rate remained constant at about 91%. 6. The highest marginal tax rate occurred in 1945 and was about 94%. 13} range: {10. y = −1 x = 2. function domain: {2. The graph intersects the x-axis at (–2. 14} range: {13. y = −1 x = 0. y = –2 x = 2. The graph intersects the x-axis at (5. not a function domain: {12. 0). 2). 10. 2. 50%). 14. 12. x = –3. x-intercepts: 2. 0) and (2. y-intercept: 2. Inc. y = 3 5. the top marginal tax rate increased about 38%. 15. 3. y = –3 x = 1. y = –2 x = –1. y = 1 x = −2. y = –1 x = 0. y = –2 x = 0. During the ten-year period from 1950 to 1960. y = 1 x = –1. The graph intersects the y-axis at (0. y-intercept: –4. x-intercept: 5. 4. The lowest marginal tax rate occurred in 1990 and was about 28%. 9.

y-intercept: –2 e. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(–x) = 5 – 7(–x) = 5 + 7x g ( x) = 3x 2 − 5 x + 2 30. range: [–5. a.PreCalculus 4E 18. a. b. g(–3) = 4 – (–3) = 7 24. a. a. 19. 3) g (− x ) = 3(− x) 2 − 5(− x) + 2 f. f(x) = 5 – 7x 22. x-intercept: –3 d. f (2) = 2x + y = 6 (−2) 2 − 1 3 = = −1 −2 − 1 −3 2 y 2 = −2 x + 6 y = ± −2 x + 6 Since more than one value of y can be obtained from some values of x. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 2x + y = 8 y = −2 x + 8 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. f ( x + 3) = 5 − 7( x + 3) = 5 − 7 x − 21 28. g (−2) = 3(−2) 2 − 5(−2) + 2 = 12 + 10 + 2 31. f(1) = 12 c. . f(4) = 5 – 7(4) = –23 27. = −7 x − 16 c. 0] c. 29. 22 − 1 3 = =3 2 −1 1 25. − 2) or (0. b. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. g (0) = 3(0)2 − 5(0) + 2 = 2 b. 23. g (13) = 13 − 4 = 9 = 3 decreasing: (−3. 5) = 3x 2 − 11x + 10 d. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. 3x 2 + y = 14 y = −3x 2 + 14 Since only one value of y can be obtained for each value of x. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. 26. f(–2) = –3 and f(3) = –5 = 3x + 5 x + 2 2 241 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = 24 c. g ( x − 1) = 3( x − 1) 2 − 5( x − 1) + 2 = 3( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 5 x + 5 + 2 domain: [–3. Inc. 0) or (3. g(0) = 4 – 0 = 4 c. increasing: (−2. 20. The vertical line test shows that this is not the graph of a function. 5) b. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. y is a function of x. The vertical line test shows that this is the graph of a function. y is a function of x. 21. f (−2) = b. a. y is not a function of x.

b. relative maximum −2 39. a. 34. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2) constant: (−∞. 0) decreasing: (−∞. ∞) 37. − 2) or (2. y-intercept: 3 e. range: (−∞. a. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)2 + 1 b. range: [–2. y-intercept: 0 e. −5. 0. a. range: { y y ≤ 0} 242 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. f(–9) = –2 and f(14) = 2 = − f ( x) The function is odd. increasing: (–2. 3. 5} a. . f(–2) = 0 and f(6) = –3 33. domain: (−∞. 2] f (− x) = 2(− x) 1 − (− x)2 c.Functions and Graphs 32. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. increasing: (–5. 0. x-intercept: 0 = −2 x 1 − x 2 d. domain: (−∞. = − f ( x) The function is odd. relative minimum −6 36. The function is symmetric with respect to the origin. Inc. ∞ ) f. ∞) 38. − 5) or (0. f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 = f ( x) The function is even. a. f ( x) = 2 x 1 − x 2 b. ∞) c. 40. relative minimum −3. −2. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x f (− x) = (− x)3 − 5(− x) = − x3 + 5 x b. ∞ ) f. b. x-intercepts: –2 and 3 d. relative maximum 3 b. range: {–3. a. –5 35.

Inc. point-slope form: y – 2 = –6(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –6x – 16 −2( x + h) 2 + ( x + h) + 10 − ( −2 x 2 + x + 10 ) 2 47.PreCalculus 4E 41. 17) The eagle’s height held steady during the first 3 seconds and the eagle was on the ground for 5 seconds. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 8( x + h) − 11 − (8 x − 11) h 8 x + 8h − 11 − 8 x + 11 = h 8h = 8 =8 = −2 ( x + 2 xh + h h 2 ) + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 43. m= −4 − (−2) −2 = = 1. 1 4 51. the eagle’s height is a function of time since the graph passes the vertical line test. a. − 14 0 = = 0. m= 10 − 5 5 = undefined. m= 1 − 2 −1 1 = = − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 30) The eagle was ascending. c. . b. 3x + y – 9 = 0 y = –3x + 9 m = –3 point-slope form: y + 7 = –3(x – 4) slope-intercept form: y = –3x + 12 – 7 y = –3x + 5 Yes. falls 5−3 2 2 46. 48. 12) The eagle descended. thus the 1 slope of the desired line is m = − . y − (−1) = − 16 ( x − (−12) ) y + 1 = − 16 ( x + 12) y + 1 = − 16 x − 2 45. rises −3 − (−1) −2 6 y + 6 = − x − 12 x + 6 y + 18 = 0 243 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − x − 10 2 d. horizontal 6 − (−3) 9 50. 1 x+4 3 m = –3 point-slope form: y – 6 = –3(x + 3) slope-intercept form: y = –3x – 9 + 6 y = –3x – 3 53. 42. 3) or (12. perpendicular to y = Decreasing: (3. vertical −2 − (−2) 0 2 − 6 −4 = =2 −1 − 1 −2 point-slope form: y – 6 = 2(x – 1) or y – 2 = 2(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 2x + 4 m= 52. Constant: (0. Increasing: (17. h −2 x − 4 xh − 2h + x + h + 10 + 2 x 2 − x − 10 = h 2 −4 xh − 2h + h = h h ( −4 x − 2h + 1) = h −4 x − 2 h + 1 2 m= 49. 6 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) 44. 6x − y − 4 = 0 − y = −6 x + 4 y = 6x − 4 The slope of the perpendicular line is 6. Write 6 x − y − 4 = 0 in slope intercept form.

2 x − 5 y − 10 = 0 Find x-intercept: 2 x − 5(0) − 10 = 0 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 Find y-intercept: 2(0) − 5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y − 10 = 0 −5 y = 10 y = −2 59.116 x + 0.44 y = 0.116 ( x − 90 ) y − 11 = 0. .3 = 0. slope: –4.116 x + 0. 244 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2x + 3y + 6 = 0 3 y = −2 x − 6 2 y = − x−2 3 2 slope: − . y − 2. According to the graph. France has about 5 deaths per 100. y-intercept: –1 5 58. 11 − 2. y-intercept: 4 b. Inc.116 x − 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 = = 0. y − 11 = 0.Functions and Graphs 54.56 c. y-intercept: 5 56.116 ( x − 15) 2y −8 = 0 2y = 8 y=4 slope: 0.56 f ( x) = 0. y-intercept: –2 3 60. 2 x − 10 = 0 2 x = 10 x=5 55. a.116 90 − 15 75 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) m= y − 11 = 0.116 ( x − 90 ) or 57. slope: 2 .000 persons.3 8.

3 deaths per 100. S (4) = −16(4) 2 + 64(4) + 80 = 80 80 − 144 = −32 4−2 c.5 2006 − 2002 4 Corporate profits increased at a rate of $182. 65. 71. Inc. The rate of change is $182. S (0) = −16(0)2 + 64(0) + 80 = 80 S (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 80 = 144 144 − 80 = 32 2−0 b.5 billion per year.3 According to the function. Publishing as Prentice Hall.000 persons.116(32) + 0. 64. 245 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 68. 62.PreCalculus 4E d. The ball is traveling up until 2 seconds. Chapter 1 Review Exercises f ( x ) = 0. The line passes below the point for France.000 persons.7 deaths per 100.56 66.116 x + 0.56 = 4. 1616 − 886 730 61. . m = = = 182. 2 2 f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) [9 − 4 ( 9 )] − [4 − 4 ⋅ 5] = = 10 x2 − x1 9−5 63. 67.272 ≈ 4.5 billion per year. then it starts to come down. a. 69. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0. France has about 4. 70. f (32) = 0.

73. 77.Functions and Graphs 72. 80. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 246 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 82. 81. 79. Inc. 78. . 83. 75. 74. 76.

( f + g )( x) = x + 7 + x − 2 domain: [2. g ( x) = x + 1 a. g(x) = x – 5 (f + g)(x) = 4x – 6 domain: (−∞.1) ∪ (1. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. ∞ ) 86. ∞ ) ( f − g )( x) = x + 7 − x − 2 domain: [2. domain: (−∞. The denominator is zero when x = –7 or x = 3. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 94.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) = x 2 + 5 x − 14 domain: [2. 84. The domain is ( −∞. 95. ( g f )( x) = x + 1 c. g ( x) = x − 2 93. ∞) 89. 4]. The denominator is zero when x = 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The expressions under each radical must not be negative.∞ ) f ( x) = x + 7. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ x2 + x + 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = x2 − 1 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. x − 1 ≥ 0 and x + 5 ≥ 0 x ≥1 domain: [1. f ( x) = x 2 + 3. 87. 8 – 2x ≥ 0 –2x ≥ –8 x≤4 domain: (−∞. ∞) c. f(x) = 3x – 1. ∞) ⎛f ⎞ 3x − 1 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x −5 ⎝ ⎠ domain: ( −∞. x–2≥0 x≥2 domain: [ 2. ( fg )( x ) = (3x − 1)( x − 5) = 3x 2 − 16 x + 5 domain: (−∞. −1) ∪ ( −1. ∞) ( f − g )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1) − ( x 2 − 1) = x + 2 domain: (−∞. ∞ ) ⎛f ⎞ x+7 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = g x−2 ⎝ ⎠ domain: (2. −7 ) ∪ ( −7. ( g f )( x) = 4( x 2 + 3) − 1 = 4 x 2 + 11 91. . g ( x) = 4 x − 1 a. ∞) (f – g)(x) = (3x – 1) – (x – 5) = 2x + 4 domain: (−∞. 3) ∪ ( 3.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Review Exercises 92. ( f g )(3) = 3 + 1 = 4 = 2 247 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 ) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) ( f g )(3) = 16(3) 2 − 8(3) + 4 = 124 f ( x ) = x . domain: ( −∞. Inc. g ( x) = x 2 − 1 ( f + g )( x) = 2 x 2 + x domain: (−∞. ∞ ) ( fg )( x ) = x + 7 ⋅ x − 2 88. f ( x) = x 2 + x + 1. 90. ∞) ( fg )( x) = ( x 2 + x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = x 4 + x3 − x − 1 85. ( f g )( x) = (4 x − 1)2 + 3 = 16 x 2 − 8 x + 4 x ≥ −5 b. The denominator is zero when x = 5. 7 ) ∪ ( 7. ( f g )( x) = x + 1 b.

Inc. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. a. x≠0 1 − 2x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 1 1 ( −∞.Functions and Graphs 96. g ( x) = x − 2 5 2 3 3⎛5 ⎞ 1 f ( g ( x)) = ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ + 5⎝3 ⎠ 2 6 1 = x− + 5 2 7 = x− 10 5⎛3 1⎞ g ( f ( x)) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2 3⎝5 2⎠ 5 = x+ −2 6 7 = x− 6 f and g are not inverses of each other. f ( x) = 2 − 5 x. 97. 2−x 5 ⎛2−x⎞ f ( g ( x)) = 2 − 5 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = 2 − (2 − x) =x 2 − (2 − 5 x) 5 x g ( f ( x)) = = =x 5 5 f and g are inverses of each other. [−2. 0 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ 0. f ( x) = x + . y = 8 x3 + 1 3 1 5 100. . ⎞⎟ ∪ ⎛⎜ . ∞ ⎞⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ (f x = 4y −3 x+3 4 x+3 f −1 ( x) = 4 y= g )( x ) = f ( x + 3) = x + 3 − 1 = x + 2 x+2≥0 x ≥ −2 98. b. a. g ( x) = 1 ( f g )( x ) = f ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ ⎝x⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ 1 + 1 ⎜ + 1⎟ x 1+ x x ⎠ = x =⎝ = 1 1 1 − 2x − 2 ⎛⎜ − 2 ⎞⎟ x x ⎝x ⎠ b. a. f ( x) = 3 x 4 f ( x) = 4 x − 3 y = 4x − 3 102. x = 8 y3 + 1 x − 1 = 8 y3 x −1 = y3 8 3 3 x −1 =y 8 x −1 =y 2 f −1 ( x) = 3 x −1 2 248 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) ⎛ x+3⎞ f ( f −1 ( x)) = 4 ⎜ ⎟−3 ⎝ 4 ⎠ = x +3−3 =x (4 x − 3) + 3 4 x f ( f ( x)) = = =x 4 4 g ( x) = x + 2 x − 1 2 −1 g ( x) = 7 x + 4 f ( x) = 8 x3 + 1 103. 101. f ( x) = x 99.

2 3 8 x3 2 2x = 2 =x = 110. 3 ⎛ 3 x −1 ⎞ f f ( x) = 8 ⎜ +1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x −1 ⎞ = 8⎜ ⎟ +1 ⎝ 8 ⎠ = x −1 +1 ( ) −1 107. The inverse function exists. f f −1 ( x) = y = x +1 x= x −1 = f ( f ( x) ) = y +1 y ( x − 1) = y 2 =x −1 f ( x) = x + 1 f −1 ( x) = ( x − 1) 2 . ( ) 2 +5 2 x−5 2( x − 5) = +5 2 = x−5+5 111. The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. =x f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 (8x 3 ) + 1 −1 109. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.PreCalculus 4E b. x ≥ 1 2 2 +5−5 x 2 = 2 x 2x = 2 =x 105. The inverse function exists. 108. . The inverse function does not exist since it does not pass the horizontal line test. Chapter 1 Review Exercises 106. a. 2 +5 x 2 y = +5 x 2 x = +5 y xy = 2 + 5 y f ( x) = 1 − x 2 y = 1 − x2 f ( x) = x = 1− y2 y2 = 1− x y = 1− x −1 f ( x) = 1 − x xy − 5 y = 2 y ( x − 5) = 2 2 x −5 2 f −1 ( x) = x −5 y= b. 249 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 104.

250 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. g ( x) = 5 + 0. radius: 3 112.05 x = 5 + 0. . ⎜ ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 116. 0). . [ −1. ⎟ = ( −5. d = [−2 − (−4)]2 + ( 5 − 3) 2 [ −5. 3). . –1). ⎜ . center: (0.02 x 500 = x For 500 minutes. x 2 + y 2 = 32 x2 + y 2 = 9 117. 6] = 22 + 22 domain: = 4+4 range: = 8 x2 + y2 − 4 x + 2 y − 4 = 0 120. 15 + 0.05 x b. ( x − (−2)) 2 + ( y − 4)2 = 62 [ −1. a. 2] domain: ( x + 2) + ( y − 4) = 36 2 2 range: 118. in 2009. −2 ⎟ 115.07 x c. d = [3 − (−2)]2 + [9 − (−3)]2 = 52 + 122 = 25 + 144 = 169 = 13 113. radius: 3 ⎛ 2 + ( −12 ) 6 + 4 ⎞ ⎛ −10 10 ⎞ 114. W ( x) = 567 + 15 x 702 = 567 + 15 x 135 = 15 x 9=x 9 years after 2000. 122.Functions and Graphs 119. the average weekly sales will be $702.1] [ −1.83 x2 − 4 x + 4 + y2 + 2 y + 1 = 4 + 4 + 1 ( x − 2) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 9 center: (2. a.5) ⎟=⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 4 + (−15) −6 + 2 ⎞ ⎛ −11 −4 ⎞ ⎛ −11 ⎞ .5] [ −4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. center: (–2.1] [ 0. Inc. b. ⎟=⎜ . radius: 1 121.1] domain: range: f ( x) = 15 + 0.07 x 10 = 0. the two plans cost the same. =2 2 x2 − 4x + y2 + 2 y = 4 ≈ 2.

a. R( x) = x(640 − 2 x) = −2 x 2 + 640 x w = 16 − 2 x l = 24 − 2 x 125. f fails the horizontal line test = 640 − 2 x b.08x + 0. and (d) are not functions. (–1. 1. 3.000 – x) h. f(4) – f(–3) = 3 – (–2) = 5 b. i. –1. 251 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2.PreCalculus 4E 123. –2. g. (c). I = 0. 2) 0<x<8 e. (b). y-intercept: –3 a. and 5. Chapter 1 Test N ( x) = 400 − 2( x − 120) Chapter 1 Test = 400 − 2 x + 240 1. –4) h. domain: (–5. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6) f. b. increasing: (–1. no. a.12(10. A( x) = 2 x ⋅ x + 4hx f (0) is a relative minimum. x-intercepts: –4. 2. Inc. f(2) = 5 g. ⎛ 8 ⎞ = 2x2 + 4 ⎜ ⎟x ⎝ x2 ⎠ 32 = 2x2 + x 127. 2 b. range: [–4. . even. 124. decreasing: (−5. V = lwh 8 = x⋅ x⋅h 8 =h x2 f. 1 c. 5] V ( x) = (16 − 2 x)(24 − 2 x) x d. f (− x) = f ( x) e. 6] c. 2l + 3w = 400 2l = 400 − 3w 400 − 3w 2 Let x = width l= ⎛ 400 − 3w ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ x(400 − 3w) = 2 126. − 1) or (2. 0 d.

. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2] [ −2. Inc. f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) −1 − 0 1 = =− x2 − x1 1 − (−2) 3 ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: range: 4. [ −2. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) {−1. 4] domain: 5. range: 9. ∞ ) domain: range: [ −5.Functions and Graphs 7. ( −∞. 7] domain: range: 252 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) range: {4} [ −6. 2} domain: range: 10. ∞ ) ( −∞. domain: ( −∞. 8. j. ( −∞.1] [ −2. 2] domain: range: 6. 2] [ −1. i.

[ 0. 15. ) . ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : [ −1. ∞ ) domain of f: domain of f: 12. ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 14. ∞ ) range of g: [ −2. ∞ ) domain of f: f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = ( ( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 4 − x 2 − x − 4 ) h x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 − x − h − 4 − x 2 + x + 4 = h 2 xh + h 2 − h = h h ( 2 x + h − 1) = h = 2x + h −1 18. 4] domain of f: domain of f: f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 16. ∞ ) range of f: [ 0. Inc. ∞ ) range of g: ( −∞. 13. ∞ ) range of f: ( −∞. f ( x − 1) = ( x − 1)2 − ( x − 1) − 4 = x2 − 2 x + 1 − x + 1 − 4 = x2 − 3x − 2 17.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 11. ∞ ) range of f −1 : ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f: [ −1. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of g: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f −1 : ( −∞. ( −∞. ( ( g − f )( x) = 2 x − 6 − x 2 − x − 4 = 2x − 6 − x + x + 4 2 = − x 2 + 3x − 2 253 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f −1 : [ 0.

25. First. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) = (2 x − 6) 2 − (2 x − 6) − 4 y − y1 = m( x − x1 ) = 4 x 2 − 24 x + 36 − 2 x + 6 − 4 y − (−10) = −2 ( x − (−7) ) = 4 x 2 − 26 x + 38 21. 1 y = − x + 5 so m = 4 4 point-slope form: y – 6 = 4(x + 4) slope-intercept form: y = 4x + 22 28.Functions and Graphs 19. find the slope using the points (2. will be 516 per 100. = x2 + x − 4 f is neither even nor odd. 486) .3) ∪ ( 3. ( g f )( x) = g ( f ( x) ) ( y + 10 = −2( x + 7) y + 10 = −2 x − 14 ) = 2 x2 − x − 4 − 6 2 x + y + 24 = 0 = 2x − 2x − 8 − 6 2 27.000 residents. Write 4 x + 2 y − 5 = 0 in slope intercept form. ( a. 476) and (4. 24. 26. f (10 ) = 5(10) + 466 = 516 The function predicts that in 2010 the number of sentenced inmates in the U. . 486 − 476 10 = =5 4−2 2 Then use the slope and a point to write the equation in point-slope form. 20. = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 14 22. Inc. 4x + 2 y − 5 = 0 ⎛ f ⎞ x2 − x − 4 ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2x − 6 ⎝g⎠ domain: ( −∞. y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) y − 486 = 5 x − 20 y = 5 x + 466 f ( x ) = 5 x + 466 −8 − 1 −9 = =3 −1 − 2 −3 point-slope form: y – 1 = 3(x – 2) or y + 8 = 3(x + 1) slope-intercept form: y = 3x – 5 m= c. 3(10) 2 − 5 − [3(6) 2 − 5] 10 − 6 205 − 103 = 4 192 = 4 = 48 29. y − y1 = m ( x − x1 ) ) g ( f (−1) ) = 2 (−1) 2 − (−1) − 4 − 6 = 2 (1 + 1 − 4 ) − 6 m= = 2 ( −2 ) − 6 = −4 − 6 y − 486 = 5 ( x − 4 ) = −10 23. g(–1) = 3 – (–1) = 4 g (7) = 7 − 3 = 4 = 2 254 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.S. ∞ ) 2 y = −4 x + 5 y = −2 x + 5 2 The slope of the parallel line is –2. or y − 476 = 5 ( x − 2 ) f ( x) = x 2 − x − 4 f (− x) = (− x) 2 − (− x) − 4 b. thus the slope of the desired line is m = −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

2 − 4x ≠ 0 1 x≠ 2 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ domain: ( −∞.08 = −0.000 x = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 =5 ⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 ⎜ 2 . 8000 = x ⋅ x ⋅ h 8000 =h x2 g ( x ) = 2x + 3 d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) = (5 − 2) 2 + ( 2 − (−2) ) V = lwh A( x) = 2 x 2 + 4 x 2 = 2 x2 + 2 8000 x2 32.∞ ) Y ( x) = 50 − 1. .19 x −6. T ( x) = 41.7 = 41. x ≥1 domain: [1.5 x 32. in 2012.5( x − 30) = 50 − 1. f ( x ) = x7 34. The expressions under each radical must not be negative. The denominator is zero when x = 1 or x = –5. 255 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.19 x 32 = x 32 years after 1980. domain: ( −∞.5 x + 45 31. 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛7 ⎞ = ⎜ .PreCalculus 4E Chapter 1 Test 30. a.78 − 0.0⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛7 ⎞ The length is 5 and the midpoint is ⎜ .19 x 35. 0 ⎟ . d = ( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 38. ∞ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 33. ( f g )( x) = b.78 − 0.7 seconds. ⎝2 ⎠ 35. −5 ) ∪ ( −5. 0 ) ∪ ⎜ 0.1) ∪ (1. 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 2 + 5 −2 + 2 ⎞ ⎟=⎜ 2 . ∞ ) 36. ⎟ ∪ ⎜ . = 95 − 1.5 x 2 + 95 x 2l + 2w = 600 2l = 600 − 2w 7 2 −4 x = l = 300 − w 7x 2 − 4x Let x = w A( x) = x(300 − x) = − x 2 + 300 x x ≠ 0. Inc.5 x) = −1. the winning time will be 35. T ( x) = x(95 − 1. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x + 5 ≥ 0 and x − 1 ≥ 0 x ≥ −5 a. 37.

Inc. b = −2. . a. 2. −27 + −48 = i 27 + i 48 (5 + 4i )(6 − 7i ) = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28i 2 = 30 − 35i + 24i − 28(−1) = 30 + 28 − 35i + 24i = 58 − 11i 5 + 4i 5 + 4i 4 + i = ⋅ 4−i 4−i 4+i 20 + 5i + 16i + 4i 2 = 16 + 4i − 4i − i 2 20 + 21i − 4 = 16 + 1 16 + 21i = 17 16 21 = + i 17 17 5. = i 9 ⋅ 3 + i 16 ⋅ 3 = 3i 3 + 4i 3 = 7i 3 (2 + 6i ) − (12 − i ) = 2 + 6i − 12 + i = (2 − 12) + (6 + 1)i = −10 + 7i b. (−2 + −3) 2 = (−2 + i 3) 2 = (−2) 2 + 2(−2)(i 3) + (i 3) 2 = 14i − 63i 2 = 14i − 63(−1) b. x= 256 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. c = 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) 2 ± 4 −8 2 2 ± −4 x= 2 2 ± 2i x= 2 x = 1± i The solution set is {1 + i. = 63 + 14i 3.1 Check Point Exercises 1. = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3(−1) 7i (2 − 9i ) = 7i (2) − 7i (9i ) = 1 − 4i 3 c. (5 − 2i ) + (3 + 3i ) = 5 − 2i + 3 + 3i = (5 + 3) + (−2 + 3)i = 8+i 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a.Chapter 2 Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. 1 − i}. −14 + −12 −14 + i 12 = 2 2 −14 + 2i 3 = 2 −14 2i 3 = + 2 2 = −7 + i 3 x2 − 2x + 2 = 0 a = 1. b.

–8i (2i – 7) = −16i 2 + 56i = –16(–1) + 56i = 9 − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 = 34 = 16 + 56i 11. (3 + 5i )(3 − 5i ) = 9 − 15i + 15i − 25i 2 = 9 + 25 (–2 + 6i) + (4 – i) = –2 + 6i + 4 – i = –2 + 4 + 6i – i = 2 + 5i 6. (−4 − 8i )(3 + i ) = −12 − 4i − 24i − 8i 2 = −12 − 28i + 8 = −4 − 28i 13. 8i – (14 – 9i) = 8i – 14 + 9i = –14 + 8i + 9i = –14 + 17i 9. 22. (7 + 2i) + (1 – 4i) = 7 + 2i + 1 – 4i = 7 + 1 + 2i – 4i = 8 – 2i = 34 (3 + 2i) – (5 – 7i) = 3 – 5 + 2i + 7i = 3 + 2i – 5 + 7i = –2 + 9i (–7 + 5i) – (–9 – 11i) = –7 + 5i + 9 + 11i = –7 + 9 + 5i + 11i = 2 + 16i 16. .1 1. 8. 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 2 + 7i )( 2 − 7i ) = 4 − 49i 2 = 4 + 49 = 53 17. 20. ( 2 + 3i ) 6 − (−5 + 4i ) − (−13 − i ) = 6 + 5 − 4i + 13 + i = 24 − 3i 7 − (−9 + 2i ) − (−17 − i ) = 7 + 9 − 2i + 17 + i = 33 − i 7.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 2 = 4 + 12i − 9 = −5 + 12i 10. (−5 + i )(−5 − i ) = 25 + 5i − 5i − i 2 = 25 + 1 = 26 18. (8 – 4i)(–3 + 9i) = −24 + 72i + 12i − 36i 2 = –24 + 36 + 84i = 12 + 84i Exercise Set 2. Inc. 15. 4.1 14. (7 – 5i)(–2 – 3i) = −14 − 21i + 10i + 15i 2 = –14 – 15 – 11i = –29 – 11i 2 2 3+i = ⋅ 3−i 3−i 3+i 2(3 + i ) = 9 +1 2 (3 + i ) = 10 3+i = 5 3 1 = + i 5 5 3 3 4−i = ⋅ 4+i 4+i 4−i 3( 4 − i) = 16 − i 2 3( 4 − i) = 17 12 3 = − i 17 17 257 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. (−7 + i )(−7 − i ) = 49 + 7i − 7i − i 2 = 49 + 1 = 50 19. –3i(7i – 5) = −21i 2 + 15i = –21(–1) + 15i = 21 + 15i (−5 + 4i )(3 + i ) = −15 − 5i + 12i + 4i 2 = −15 + 7i − 4 = −19 + 7i 12. 5. = 4 + 12i + 9i 2 ( 5 − 2i ) 2 = 25 − 20i + 4i 2 = 25 − 20i − 4 = 21 − 20i 15i – (12 – 11i) = 15i – 12 + 11i = –12 + 15i + 11i = –12 + 26i 21.

( −2 + −11 ) = ( −2 + i 11) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 11 + i 2 (11) = 4 − 11 − 4i 11 = −7 − 4i 11 37. 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5(4i) + 3(9i) = 20i + 27i = 47i 5i 5i 2 + i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 10i + 5i 2 = 4 +1 −5 + 10i = 5 = −1 + 2i 32. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 − 4i 3 − 4i 4 − 3i = ⋅ 4 + 3i 4 + 3i 4 − 3i 12 − 25i + 12i 2 = 16 + 9 −25i = 25 = −i 38. 29. 30. 2i 2i 1 − i 2i − 2i 2 2 + 2i = ⋅ = = = 1+ i 1+ i 1+ i 1− i 1+1 2 31. −6i −6i 3 − 2i −18i + 12i 2 = ⋅ = 3 + 2i 3 + 2i 3 − 2i 9+4 12 18 −12 − 18i = =− − i 13 13 13 ( −3 − −7 ) = ( −3 − i 7 ) 2 2 = 9 + 6i 7 + i 2 ( 7 ) = 9 − 7 + 6i 7 = 2 + 6i 7 2 + 3i 2 + 3i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2+i 2−i 4 + 4i − 3i 2 = 4 +1 7 + 4i = 5 7 4 = + i 5 5 36. 24. 27. ( −5 − −9 ) 2 = (−5 − i 9)2 = ( −5 − 3i ) 2 = 25 + 30i + 9i 2 = 25 + 30i – 9 = 16 + 30i 35.Polynomial and Rational Functions 23. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5i 8 + 3i 18 = 5i 4 ⋅ 2 + 3i 9 ⋅ 2 = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = 19i 2 33. 25. ( −2 + −4 ) 2 = ( −2 + 2i ) 2 = 4 − 8i + 4i 2 = 4 – 8i – 4 = –8i 8i 8i 4 + 3i = ⋅ 4 − 3i 4 − 3i 4 + 3i 32i + 24i 2 = 16 + 9 −24 + 32i = 25 24 32 =− + i 25 25 34. Inc. . 28. −64 − −25 = i 64 − i 25 = 8i − 5i = 3i −8 + −32 −8 + i 32 = 24 24 −8 + i 16 ⋅ 2 = 24 −8 + 4i 2 = 24 1 2 i =− + 3 6 −12 + −28 −12 + i 28 −12 + i 4 ⋅ 7 = = 32 32 32 = −81 − −144 = i 81 − i 144 = 9i – 12i = –3i −12 + 2i 7 3 7 i =− + 32 8 16 258 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 26.

− 1 − i ⎬ . Section 2. ( ) 47. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. x= 259 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 ) = (3i 7 )(2i 8) = (3i 7 )(2i 4 ⋅ 2) ( )( ) = 3i 7 4i 2 = 12i 2 14 = −12 14 45. . −8 ± 82 − 4(4)(13) 2(4) = −4 − 2 = i 12(i 4 − 2) = 2i 3 2i − 2 4 x 2 + 8 x + 13 = 0 x= = −2 6 − 2i 10 −12 2(1) 2 ± 4 − 68 2 2 ± −64 x= 2 2 ± 8i x= 2 x = 1 ± 4i The solution set is {1 + 4i. −3 − 5 = i 8(i 3 − 5) = 2i 2 i 3 − 5 42.PreCalculus 4E 39. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ = 24 15 44. 3 − i} . ( ( ) ) = ( = 4i 2 (3 ) 3 − 2i 6 )( ) ( )( −5 −4 −12 = 3i 5 −8i 3 ) = −24i 2 15 3 3 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1 + i. x 2 − 6 x + 10 = 0 x= 6 ± (−6) 2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i The solution set is {3 + i. 40. 2 ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(17) x= −15 − 3i 2 5 2 i =− − 33 11 11 −8 x 2 − 2 x + 17 = 0 x= −15 − −18 −15 − i 18 −15 − i 9 ⋅ 2 = = 33 33 33 = 41. −6 − −12 −6 − i 12 = 48 48 −6 − i 4 ⋅ 3 = 48 −6 − 2i 3 = 48 1 3 i =− − 8 24 46. (3 )( −7 2 −8 −8 ± 64 − 208 8 −8 ± −144 8 −8 ± 12i = 8 4(−2 ± 3i ) = 8 −2 ± 3i = 2 3 = −1 ± i 2 = −4 3 − 2i 6 43.1 − 4i}.

Inc. − i⎬. . (8 + 9i )( 2 − i ) − (1 − i )(1 + i ) = (16 − 8i + 18i − 9i 2 ) − (12 − i 2 ) = 16 + 10i − 9i 2 − 1 + i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8i 2 = 15 + 10i − 8 ( −1) = 23 + 10i 53. = = = = = = 2(3) 4 ± 16 − 72 6 4 ± −56 6 4 ± 2i 14 6 2(2 ± i 14) 6 2 ± i 14 3 2 14 i ± 3 3 ( 2 − 3i )(1 − i ) − ( 3 − i )( 3 + i ) = ( 2 − 2i − 3i + 3i 2 ) − ( 32 − i 2 ) − ( −8 ) ± (−8) − 4(3)(7) 2 x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(3)(6) 14 2 14 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 2 The solution set is ⎨ + i. ⎩⎪ 3 3 3 3 ⎪⎭ ( 2 + i ) − (3 − i ) 2 2 = ( 4 + 4i + i 2 ) − ( 9 − 6i + i 2 ) = 4 + 4i + i 2 − 9 + 6i − i 2 = −5 + 10i 260 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − − i⎬. −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(2)(3) 2(2) x= −2 ± 4 − 24 4 −2 ± −20 = 4 −2 ± 2i 5 = 4 2(−1 ± i 5) = 4 −1 ± i 5 = 2 1 5 i =− ± 2 2 = = = = = = = 3x 2 − 8 x + 7 = 0 51. 3x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 2(3) = 2 − 5i + 3i 2 − 9 + i 2 8 ± 64 − 84 6 8 ± −20 6 8 ± 2i 5 6 2(4 ± i 5) 6 4±i 5 3 4 5 i ± 3 3 = −7 − 5i + 4i 2 = −7 − 5i + 4 ( −1) = −11 − 5i 52. 2 x2 + 2 x + 3 = 0 x= 50.Polynomial and Rational Functions 48. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎧⎪ 4 5 4 5 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ + i. 3 3 3 3 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ 5 1 5 ⎪⎫ ⎪⎧ 1 The solution set is ⎨ − + i. 2 2 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 49. − i⎬.

. 5 −8 + 3 −18 = 5 4 2 −1 + 3 9 2 −1 = 5⋅ 2 2 i + 3⋅3 2 i = 10i 2 + 9i 2 = (10 + 9 ) i 2 = 19i 2 or 0 + 19i 2 60. Section 2. = (16 − 8i + i 2 ) − (1 + 4i + 4i 2 ) = 16 − 8i + i − 1 − 4i − 4i 2 f ( 3i ) = 2 = 15 − 12i − 3 ( −1) = 18 − 12i 5 −16 + 3 −81 = 5 16 −1 + 3 81 −1 = 5 ⋅ 4i + 3 ⋅ 9i = 20i + 27i = 47i or 0 + 47i 56. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 2 f ( x) = f ( 4i ) = f (1 + i ) = (1 + i ) − 2 (1 + i ) + 2 2 ( 3i ) 2 + 19 x 2 + 11 3− x ( 4i ) 2 + 11 = 16i 2 + 11 3 − 4i 3 − 4i −16 + 11 = 3 − 4i −5 = 3 − 4i −5 3 + 4i = ⋅ 3 − 4i 3 + 4i −15 − 20i = 9 − 16i 2 −15 − 20i = 9 + 16 −15 − 20i = 25 −15 20 = − i 25 25 3 4 =− − i 5 5 = 1 + 2i + i 2 − 2 − 2i + 2 = 1 + i2 = 1 −1 =0 58. x 2 + 19 2−x 2 − 3i 9i 2 + 19 = 2 − 3i −9 + 19 = 2 − 3i 10 = 2 − 3i 10 2 + 3i = ⋅ 2 − 3i 2 + 3i 20 + 30i = 4 − 9i 2 20 + 30i = 4+9 20 + 30i = 13 20 30 = + i 13 13 = 15 − 12i − 3i 2 55. 57. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. f ( x) = f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x + 5 f (1 − 2i ) = (1 − 2i ) − 2 (1 − 2i ) + 5 2 = 1 − 4i + 4i 2 − 2 + 4i + 5 = 4 + 4i 2 = 4−4 =0 261 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 ( 4 − i ) − (1 + 2i ) 2 2 59.PreCalculus 4E 54.

false. Sample explanation: i = −1 . 4 6 − 2i + 3i − i 2 4 6 + i +1 4 = 7+i 4 7−i = ⋅ 7+i 7−i 28 − 4i = 49 − i 2 28 − 4i = 49 + 1 28 − 4i = 50 28 4 = − i 50 50 14 2 = − i 25 25 63. true 2 81. A sample change is: All irrational numbers are complex numbers. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Explanations will vary. A sample change is: (3 + 7i)(3 – 7i) = 9 + 49 = 58 which is a real9number. does not make sense. false. A sample change is: 7 + 3i 7 + 3i 5 − 3i 44 − 6i 22 3 = ⋅ = = − i 5 + 3i 5 + 3i 5 − 3i 34 17 17 80. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. 82. 75. E = IR = ( 2 − 3i )( 3 + 5i ) = 6 + 10i − 9i − 15i = 6 + i − 15 ( −1) 2 (5 + i 15 ) + (5 − i 15 ) = 5 + i 15 + 5 − i 15 = 5+5 = 10 Product: (5 + i 15 )(5 − i 15 ) = 25 − 5i 15 + 5i 15 − 15i 2 = 25 + 15 = 40 64. 76.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. 4 1+ i 1− i + 1 + 2i 1 − 2i (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = + (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) (1 + i )(1 − 2i ) + (1 − i )(1 + 2i ) = (1 + 2i )(1 − 2i ) 1 − 2i + i − 2i 2 + 1 + 2i − i − 2i 2 = 1 − 4i 2 1 − 2i + i + 2 + 1 + 2i − i + 2 = 1+ 4 6 = 5 6 = + 0i 5 262 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. It is not a variable in this context. 78. 79. does not make sense. – 72. Inc. Sum: makes sense ( 2 + i )( 3 − i ) = = = 6 + i + 15 = 21 + i The voltage of the circuit is ( 21 + i ) volts. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 77. 74. Sample explanation: Imaginary numbers are not undefined. 73. Explanations will vary. Answers may vary. E = IR = ( 4 − 5i )( 3 + 7i ) E = 12 + 28i − 15i − 35i E = 12 + 13i − 35 ( −1) E = 12 + 35 + 13i = 47 + 13i The voltage of the circuit is (47 + 13i) volts. . 62.

263 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Step 2: find the vertex: (1. −(−2) ± (−2) − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) 2 x= 2± 8 2 2±2 2 = 2 = 1± 2 = The solution set is {1 ± 2}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 2( x − 3) 2 = 8 ( x − 3) 2 = 4 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 x−3= ± 4 x = 3± 2 x = 1. . Inc.2 Check Point Exercises 1. The graph of g is the graph of f shifted 1 unit up and 3 units to the left. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 ( x − 1) 2 =4 x − 1 = ±2 x = 1± 2 x = 3 or x = −1 Step 4: find the y-intercept: −x2 − 2x + 1 = 0 x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 2 −b ± b 2 − 4ac x= 2a Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 1.PreCalculus 4E 83. 2 h P=1 P ⎛ ⎞ kP= 4 f ( x) = − ⎜ x − 1 ⎟ + 4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0. 8 i 2 + i i 8 = 2+i i 8i = 2+i 8i 2 − i = ⋅ 2+i 2−i 16i − 8i 2 = 4 − i2 16i + 8 = 4 +1 8 + 16i = 5 8 16 = + i 5 5 = Section 2. 2 a =−1 0 = −2( x − 3) 2 + 8 84. 5 85.2 86. 8 2 1+ i Section 2.

Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 + 4x + 1 x − 2 = −1 x = 2±i The equation has no real roots. f ( x) = 4 x 2 − 16 x + 1000 a. .2 and x ≈ −4. c. 4. Step 4: find the y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 + 4(0) + 1 = 1 x= Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. ∞) range: [984. 1) Step 3: find the x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 1 2 ( x − 2) 2 f ( x ) = − x2 + 4x + 1 f ( 2 ) = −22 + 4(2) + 1 = 5 = −1 The vertex is (2. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) + 1 2 3. Step 4: find the y-intercept: x= f (0) = (0 − 2) + 1 = 5 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −4 ± 42 − 4(−1)(1) 2(−1) −4 ± 20 −2 x = 2± 5 The x-intercepts are x ≈ −0. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. 5). thus the parabola has no x-intercepts. domain: (−∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. Step 2: find the vertex: 4 b x=− =− =2 2a 2(−1) Step 1: The parabola opens up because a > 0. a = 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2a 8 f (2) = 4(2) 2 − 16(2) + 1000 = 984 The minimum point is 984 at x = 2 . Step 5: The axis of symmetry is x = 2. ∞ ) 264 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 . Inc. −b 16 x= = =2 b. Step 2: find the vertex: (2. Step 1: The parabola opens down because a < 0.

2 x + 2 y = 120 2 y = 120 − 2 x x= c. Find the corresponding y-coordinate. the width y is y = 60 − x = 60 − 30 = 30. x − 8 = the other number. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 8 ) = x 2 − 8 x 120 − 2 x = 60 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 60 − x ) . y = −0. x-coordinate of vertex −b −2 x= = = 200 2a 2 ( −0. 265 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 2.005 x + 2 x + 5 0 = −0. 205 ) . y = −0. The arrow will hit the ground when the height reaches 0. This occurs when the two number are 4 and 4 − 8 = −4 . Let x = one of the numbers. 0 ) . The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 30 feet by 30 feet. 2a 2 (1) 2 y-coordinate of vertex f ( 4) = ( 4) − 8 ( 4) 2 2 y = −0.005)(5) 2(−0. A ( x ) = x ( 60 − x ) = − x 2 + 60 x The starting point occurs when x = 0. and connect them with a smooth curve. Let y = the width of the rectangle. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. When the length x is 30.2 6. 2 y = −0. Rewrite y= A as a function of x. This occurs 200 feet from its release. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 ) . = 16 − 32 = −16 The vertex is ( 4. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 120 feet of fencing.005(200) + 2(200) + 5 = 205 The vertex is (200.005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 a. The maximum height of the arrow is 205 feet. . 2a 2 ( −1) −2 Plot ( 0.205). −16 ) . and ( 200. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 60 60 b x=− =− =− = 30. 7. Let x = the length of the rectangle. Since we need an equation in one variable. ( 402.005 ) The x-coordinate of the minimum is b −8 −8 x=− =− =− = 4.005(0)2 + 2(0) + 5 = 5 Since a = −1 is negative. The information needed is found at the vertex.005 x 2 + 2 x + 5 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −2 ± 22 − 4(−0. This gives an area of 30 ⋅ 30 = 900 square feet.PreCalculus 4E 5.005) x ≈ −2 or x ≈ 402 The arrow travels 402 feet before hitting the ground. The minimum product is −16 . b.

1) g ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 1 2 3. f ( x ) = x 2 + 2 x + 1 7. f(x) = 2(x – 3) + 1 h = 3. 14. k = 1 The vertex is at (3. 9. 16. 5). f(x) = 2x – 8x + 3 −b 8 x= = =2 2a 4 f(2) = 2(2)2 – 8(2) + 3 = 8 – 16 + 3 = –5 The vertex is at (2. –8). f(x) = –x – 2x + 8 −b 2 x= = = −1 2a −2 2 f(–1) = –(–1) – 2(–1) + 8 = –1 + 2 + 8 = 9 The vertex is at (–1. f(x) = –2(x + 1) + 5 h = –1. 1). 0) is on the graph and f(–1) = 0. vertex: (–1.2 1. 2 17. f(x) = –3(x – 2) + 12 h = 2. 0) is on the graph and g(1) = 0. 7). f(x) = –2(x + 4) – 8 h = –4. . 2 12. The graph is f(x) = x translated down one. The point (–1. k = –8 The vertex is at (–4. 2 15. 9). ∞ ) 2 13. vertex: (1. 1) h ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 1 2 2. 12). –1) j ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 1 2 4. k = 12 The vertex is at (2. vertex: (–1. Inc. f(x) = 3x – 12x + 1 −b 12 x= = =2 2a 6 f(2) = 3(2)2 – 12(2) + 1 = 12 – 24 + 1 = –11 The vertex is at (2. 2 11. vertex: (1. k = 5 The vertex is at (–1. 2 10. g ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x + 1 8. range: [ −1. domain: ( −∞. –11). f(x) = –2x + 8x – 1 −b −8 x= = =2 2 a −4 2 f(2) = –2(2) + 8(2) – 1 = –8 + 16 – 1 = 7 The vertex is at (2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 Exercise Set 2. –5). The point (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 266 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –1) f ( x ) = ( x + 1) − 1 2 2 5. j ( x ) = − x2 − 1 0 = ( x − 4) −1 2 1 = ( x − 4) 2 2 ±1 = x – 4 x = 3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 4) 2 − 1 = 15 The axis of symmetry is x = 4. h ( x ) = x2 −1 6. –1) x-intercepts: 2 The graph is f(x) = –x translated down one. f ( x ) = ( x − 4) −1 2 vertex: (4.

∞ ) y = ( 0 − 3) + 1 = 10 2 range: [1. Section 2. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) + 2 2 vertex: (1. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 1) − 2 = –1 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) + 2 = 11 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) range: [ −2. –2) x-intercepts: vertex: (3. y-intercept: 10 x = 1± i 2 No x-intercepts. 1) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 2 2 ( x − 1) 2 y = ( x − 3) + 1 vertex: (1. . f ( x ) = ( x − 1) + 2 2 2 vertex: (3. ∞ ) range: [ 2. ∞ ) 19.PreCalculus 4E 18. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) − 2 0 = ( x − 3) + 2 ( x − 1) ( x − 3) 2 2 2 =2 2 = −2 x −1 = ± 2 x − 3 = ±i 2 x = 1± 2 y-intercept: x = 3±i 2 No x-intercepts.2 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 2 2 20. 2) x-intercepts: 2 y − 1 = ( x − 3) 0 = ( x − 3) + 1 2 = −2 ( x − 3) x − 1 = ± −2 2 = −1 x – 3 = ±i x = 3 ±i No x-intercepts.∞ ) range: [ 2. domain: ( −∞. 21. y-intercept: f (0) = (0 − 1) 2 + 2 = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. The axis of symmetry is x = 3. domain: ( −∞. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 267 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞.

∞ ) y = ( 0 − 1) + 3 = 4 2 24. 1 5 =± 2 2 1± 5 x= 2 y-intercept: x− f ( x) = 2 ( x + 2 ) − 1 2 vertex: (–2. 1 . 2 . 2 y = ( x − 1) + 3 2 vertex: (1. ∞ ) 23. ∞ ) 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ range: [3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. ⎥ 4⎦ ⎝ 268 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎟ ⎝2 4⎠ x-intercepts: 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ 0 = −⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ domain: ( −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. 3) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 1) + 3 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −3 x − 1 = ±i 3 domain: ( −∞. y − 3 = ( x − 1) The axis of symmetry is x = –2. –1) x-intercepts: 0 = 2 ( x + 2) − 1 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f (0) = − ⎜ 0 − ⎟ + = 1 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 ( x + 2) = 1 2 ( x + 2) 2 = x+2= ± x = −2 ± 1 2 1 The axis of symmetry is x = 2 1 2 y-intercept: = −2 ± 2 2 f (0) = 2 ( 0 + 2 ) − 1 = 7 2 domain: ( −∞. f ( x) = The axis of symmetry is x = 1. ∞ ) 5⎤ ⎛ range: ⎜ −∞. 5 ⎛ 1⎞ −⎜ x− ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 1⎞ 5 ⎛ f ( x) = − ⎜ x − ⎟ + 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛1 5⎞ vertex: ⎜ . ∞ ) x = 1± i 3 No x-intercepts y-intercept: range: [ −1.

∞ ) range: ( −∞.PreCalculus 4E 25. . –16) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 ( x − 3) 2 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: –3 f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 3 = −3 The axis of symmetry is x = 1.2 f ( x ) = 4 − ( x − 1) 2 27. f ( x ) = − ( x − 3) + 1 2 f ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x − 15 f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 15 − 1 vertex: (3. ∞ ) 269 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. domain: ( −∞. 4) x-intercepts: 2 2 2 =4 x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: ( x − 1) 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –4) x-intercepts: ( x − 1) 0 = ( x − 1) − 4 2 vertex: (1. ∞ ) =4 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. f ( x ) = ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 3 − 1 f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 4 vertex: (1. f ( x ) = − ( 0 − 1) + 4 = 3 26. Inc. 4] range: [ −4. domain: ( −∞.1] domain: ( −∞. Section 2. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 − 3 ) + 1 = −8 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 3. ∞ ) f ( x ) = 1 − ( x − 3) 2 28. f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 2 =1 x–3=±1 x = 2 or x = 4 y-intercept: 0 = ( x − 1) − 16 2 ( x − 1) 2 = 16 x–1=±4 x = –3 or x = 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 02 − 2 ( 0 ) − 15 = –15 The axis of symmetry is x = 1. 1) x-intercepts: f ( x ) = ( x − 1) − 16 vertex: (1. ∞ ) range: [ −16.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ domain: ( −∞. 7 . 4 . ∞ ) ⎡ 49 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . ∞ ) ⎡ 81 ⎞ range: ⎢ − . f ( x ) = 2x2 − 7 x − 4 7 49 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 2 16 ⎠ 8 ⎝ 9⎞ 9 ⎛ f ( x ) = ⎜ x 2 + 3x + ⎟ − 10 − 4⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ f ( x) = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 7 81 ⎛ ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 8 ⎠ 270 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 2 f ( 0 ) = 2 ( 0 ) − 7 ( 0 ) − 4 = –4 2 The axis of symmetry is x = domain: ( −∞. − ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2 x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ 0 =⎜x+ ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 2 7 ⎞ 81 ⎛ 0 = 2⎜ x − ⎟ − 4⎠ 8 ⎝ 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ 2⎜ x − ⎟ = 4 8 ⎝ ⎠ 2 3⎞ 49 ⎛ ⎜x+ ⎟ = 2⎠ 4 ⎝ 3 7 x+ = ± 2 2 3 7 x=− ± 2 2 x = 2 or x = –5 y-intercept: f ( x ) = 02 + 3 ( 0 ) − 10 = −10 The axis of symmetry is x = − 2 7⎞ 81 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 4 ⎠ 16 ⎝ 7 9 x− =± 4 4 7 9 x= ± 4 4 1 x = − or x = 4 2 y-intercept: 3 . − ⎟ ⎝4 8 ⎠ x-intercepts: 2 3 ⎞ 49 ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x + ⎟ − 2⎠ 4 ⎝ ⎛ 3 49 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ − . f ( x ) = x 2 + 3x − 10 30.

. −6 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 3) − 6 2 ( x + 3) 2 =6 x+3 = ± 6 x = −3 ± 6 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 6(0) + 3 domain: ( −∞.9] f ( 0) = 2 ( 0) − ( 0) + 3 = 3 2 33. f ( x ) = ( x + 3) − 6 2 vertex: ( −3.PreCalculus 4E 31. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) x+2=±3 x = –5. 4] 32. f (0) = 3 The axis of symmetry is x = −3 . 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 ( x − 1) 2 =4 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) x – 1 = ±2 x = –1 or x = 3 y-intercept: range: ( −∞.2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 + 3 The axis of symmetry is x = –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = − x + 2 x + 3 2 f ( x) = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) + 4 vertex: (1. 1 y-intercept: f (0) = 5 − 4 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) = 5 2 271 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 9) x-intercepts: 0 = − ( x + 2) + 9 2 ( x + 2) 2 domain: ( −∞. Section 2. ∞ ) =9 range: [ −6. f ( x) = 5 − 4 x − x 2 f ( x) = − x 2 − 4 x + 5 f ( x) = − ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 ) + 5 + 4 f ( x) = − ( x + 2 ) + 9 2 vertex: (–2. Inc. f ( x) = x 2 + 6 x + 3 f ( x) = ( x 2 + 6 x + 9) + 3 − 9 The axis of symmetry is x = 1.

∞ ) x+2 = ± 5 range: [ −5. 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 3⎜ x − ⎟ = 3⎠ 3 ⎝ f ( x) = 2 x + 4 x − 3 2 f ( x) = 2( x 2 + 2 x )−3 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ ⎜x− ⎟ = 3⎠ 9 ⎝ f ( x) = 2( x + 2 x + 1) − 3 − 2 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 1 13 x− = ± 3 9 vertex: ( −1. − ⎟ ⎝3 3 ⎠ x-intercepts: domain: ( −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 34. ∞ ) 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ 0 = 3⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ range: [ −5. −5) x-intercepts: x= 0 = 2 ( x + 1) − 5 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 3(0) 2 − 2(0) − 4 2 ( x + 1) = 5 2 ( x + 1) 2 = 5 2 x +1 = ± 1 13 ± 3 3 f (0) = −4 5 2 x = −1 ± 10 2 y-intercept: f (0) = 2(0) 2 + 4(0) − 3 f (0) = −3 272 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: f (0) = (0) 2 + 4(0) − 1 36. The axis of symmetry is x = −1 . Inc. . f ( x) = 3 x 2 − 2 x − 4 2 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x ⎟ − 4 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2 1⎞ 1 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x 2 − x + ⎟ − 4 − 3 9 3 ⎝ ⎠ f (0) = −1 The axis of symmetry is x = −2 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −5 ) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 2) − 5 2 ( x + 2) 2 =5 domain: ( −∞. f ( x) = x 2 + 4 x − 1 f ( x) = ( x + 4 x + 4) − 1 − 4 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2 ) − 5 2 vertex: ( −2. 2 1 ⎞ 13 ⎛ f ( x) = 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ − 3⎠ 3 ⎝ ⎛ 1 13 ⎞ vertex: ⎜ . ∞ ) 35.

2 40. ∞) range: [ −13. x= = =2 2a 6 2 f(2) = 3(2) – 12(2) – 1 = 12 – 24 – 1 = –13 The minimum is –13 at x = 2 . f ( x) = 6 − 4 x + x 2 f ( x) = x 2 − 4 x + 6 f ( x) = ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) + 6 − 4 f ( x) = ( x − 2 ) + 2 2 vertex: (2. ∞ ) = −2 x − 2 = ±i 2 x = 2±i 2 No x-intercepts y-intercept: ⎡ 13 ⎞ range: ⎢ − .2 The axis of symmetry is x = 1 . a = 2. a = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. domain: (−∞. f(x) = 2x – 8x – 3 a. ∞) range: [ −11. f ( x) = − x 2 + 2 x − 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 2 x + 1) − 2 + 1 2 f ( x) = − ( x − 1) − 1 vertex: (1. c. ∞ ) f (0) = 2 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) − 2 = −2 2 2 39. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. −b 8 b. Inc. ∞ ) The axis of symmetry is x = 1. −1] 273 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. c.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. –1) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x − 1) − 1 2 ( x − 1) 2 = −1 x – 1 = ±i x = 1 ±i No x-intercepts. ∞ ) range: [ 2. y-intercept: domain: ( −∞. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 3 ⎠ 37. 2 f (0) = 6 − 4 ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) = 6 2 f ( x) = 2 x − x 2 − 2 The axis of symmetry is x = 2. 2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 2) + 2 2 ( x − 2) domain: ( −∞. domain: (−∞. x= = =2 2a 4 2 f(2) = 2(2) – 8(2) – 3 = 8 – 16 – 3 = –11 The minimum is –11 at x = 2 . −b 12 b. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. 3 38. . f(x) = 3x – 12x – 1 a.

1] 42. Since the parabola has a maximum. minimum point. b. The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. the vertex ( −3. 43. 47. a = –2. c. 4 ) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k = 2 ( x − 7) + 4 51. x= = = −3 2 a −4 f(–3) = –2(–3)2 – 12(–3) + 3 = –18 + 36 + 3 = 21 The maximum is 21 at x = −3 . f ( x) = −4 x 2 + 8 x − 3 a. range: ( −∞. range: ( −∞. c. k ) = ( 5. Inc. Since the parabola opens down. ∞ ) . domain: ( −∞. −b 6 1 = = 2a 12 2 48. Since the parabola opens up. ∞) range: ( −∞. The parabola opens upward and has minimum value. ∞) range: ⎢ . ∞) range: ⎢ . 21] 46.Polynomial and Rational Functions 41.18) . The parabola opens upward and has a minimum value. the vertex ( −1. it opens down from the vertex (10. k ) = ( 7. ( h. ∞ ⎟ ⎣2 ⎠ 45. ∞ ) . range: [18. The minimum is 2 2 = −4 + 8 − 3 = 1 The maximum is 1 at x = 1 . ∞ ) domain: (−∞. domain: ( −∞. −b 5 1 x= = = 2a 10 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) .3) 2 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h ) + k = 2 ( x − 5) + 3 50. ⎡ −3 ⎞ domain: (−∞. Since the parabola has a minimum. −6 ) . 44. b. ( h. −5 ) 2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−10) ] + (−5) 2 = 2 ( x + 10 ) − 5 274 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) range: ( −∞. k ) = ( −10. −b 12 b. b. The parabola opens downward and has a maximum value. f(x) = –2x2 – 12x + 3 a. −6] 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 5⎜ ⎟ − 5⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5 5 10 −5 = − = − = 4 2 4 4 4 −5 1 at x = . ( h. it opens up from the vertex ( −6. ∞ ) . −2 ) is a f ( x) = 5 x 2 − 5 x a. −4] a = 5. domain: ( −∞. The minimum is 2 4 c. . −4 ) is a maximum point. ∞ ) ⎡ −5 ⎞ domain: (−∞. c. a = 6. −b −8 = =1 2a −8 f (1) = −4(1) 2 + 8(1) − 3 f ( x) = 6 x 2 − 6 x a. domain: (−∞. x= x= 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 6⎜ ⎟ − 6⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 6 3 6 −3 = −3 = − = 4 2 2 2 −3 1 at x = . range: [ −2. a = -4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ⎟ ⎣ 4 ⎠ 49.

x= y-coordinate of vertex y = −0.25) + 6.01x 2 + 0.1 a = −0. c = 6.3 feet.04)(6.7 ± 0.01. y = −0.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −2.04) x ≈ 55.01x + 0. a. .04. the parabola opens down and a = −3 . 2 Since the vertex is a minimum. the parabola opens up and a = 3 .7 The maximum height of the shot is about 33.25 2a 2 ( −0. Since the vertex is a maximum. k ) = ( −2. c = 6.1 ± 2. c = 6.04(26. 0 ) y-coordinate of vertex f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 y = −0. 275 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1x + 6.7. b = 2.04 ) 2 = 3 ( x − 11) The initial height can be found at x = 0.01) x ≈ 77.1x + 6.04 x 2 + 2.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 77.1 a = −0.8 The maximum horizontal distance is 55. a.7 x + 6.1 ≈ 33. k ) = ( 5. −7 ) y = −0.1 = = = 26. ( h. 0 ) b.1 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k 55. y = −0.01)(6.1 0 = −0. b = 0.04 x 2 + 2. 53. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0. ( h. The ball will reach the maximum horizontal distance when its height returns to 0. This occurs 26.01x 2 + 0.1) 2(−0.1 = 6. Inc.25)2 + 2.1 Since the vertex is a maximum.7 2 − 4(−0. y = −0. f ( x ) = −3 ( x − h ) + k = −3[ x − (−2)] + 4 2 = −3 ( x + 2 ) + 4 2 c. k ) = ( 9. Publishing as Prentice Hall. k ) = ( −8.35 The maximum height of the shot is about 18. −6 ) 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x − h) + k 2 = 2 [ x − (−8)] + (−6) 2 = 2 ( x + 8) − 6 b.04 x 2 + 2.25 feet from its point of release.04 x 2 + 2.1.1 2 = 3( x − 9) + 0 0 = −0. b = 0. 4 ) x= −0.1(26.1 The shot was released at a height of 6.01(35) 2 + 0.7 x + 6.1. = −3 ( x − 5 ) − 7 Since the vertex is a minimum.1 y = −0. ( h.1 x-coordinate of vertex −b −0.7 feet.7 x + 6. y = −0.1 feet.7. ( h.1 a = −0.1x + 6.04.8 or x ≈ −7.1) 2(−0.3 or x ≈ −2.7 x + 6. c = 6.7(0) + 6.01x 2 + 0. This occurs 35 feet from its point of release.7(35) + 6. k ) = (11. 2 = −3 ( x − 5) + ( −7 ) 2 58.7 x + 6.01(0) 2 + 0.7 = = = 35 2a 2 ( −0.1 x= 2 y = −0.2 ( h.1 = 18. the parabola opens up and a = 3 . f ( x ) = 3( x − h) + k 2 57.8 feet. y = −0.01.01x 2 + 0. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 2 54.PreCalculus 4E 52.01) −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −2.1 = 3( x − 9) 2 a = −0. b = 2. the parabola opens down and a = −3 .35 feet.1x + 6. Section 2.1 = 3 ( x − 11) + 0 2 56.12 − 4(−0.

43 2 = 1. 16 − x = the other number.14 =− ≈2 2a 2 ( −0. the two numbers whose difference is 24 and whose product is minimized are 12 and −12 . The numbers which maximize the product are 10 and 10. −64 ) . Then x − 24 is the smaller number.14 ( 2 ) + 1.004(25) 2 − 0.094(12) + 2. 61. x=− f (12 ) = 0.38 billion movie tickets were sold in 2005. adult wine consumption in 2005 was 2.094 x + 2.59 billion in 2002.1 y = −0. f ( 8 ) = −82 + 16 ( 8 ) = −64 + 128 = 64 f ( 25 ) = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.004 ) Wine consumption was at a minimum about 12 years after 1980. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0. 64).14 ( 5 ) + 1. The minimum product is b 0. The product of these two numbers is given by P( x) = x ( x − 24 ) = x 2 − 24 x f ( 2 ) = −0. Let x = the larger number.Polynomial and Rational Functions c. This differs from the value in the graph by 0. The maximum product is 64. Inc. This seems reasonable as compared to the values in the graph.75 According to the function.S.03 billion.6 The vertex is (8.6 a. . U.38 According to the function. The initial height can be found at x = 0.14 x + 1.43 2 = 1.03) −64 . f ( x ) = 0.75 gallons per person.04(0)2 + 2. 276 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.05 gallon.6 ≈ 2. year = − b 20 20 =− =− = 10 −2 2a 2 ( −1) f ( 8 ) = ( 8 ) − 16 ( 8 ) 2 = 64 − 128 = −64 The vertex is ( 8. x − 16 = the other number. This occurs when the two number are 8 and 16 − 8 = 8 . Wine consumption was about 2. 60.59 Movie attendance was about 1. or 1992. −2 2a 2 ( −1) 2 y = −0. = 2.1 The shot was released at a height of 6.03 ( 2 ) + 0.03 ( 5) + 0.004(12)2 − 0. adult in 1992.094(25) + 2. This underestimates the graph’s value by 0. b. 64. b.1x + 6. The minimum product is P(12) = 12 (12 − 24 ) = −144 . This occurs when the two number are 8 and 8 − 16 = −8 . or 2002.S. x=− 2a 2 (1) 2 f ( 5) = −0.04 x + 2. year = − 62.04 billion. 63.03 x + 0.1(0) + 6. The product is minimized when ( −24 ) b =− = 12 x=− 2a 2 (1) Since 12 − ( −12 ) = 24 . Let x = one of the numbers. The x-coordinate of the minimum is −16 −16 b =− =− = 8.094 b =− ≈ 12 2a 2 ( 0. 1.1 feet. The maximum product is 10 ⋅10 = 100.048 The other number is 20 − x = 20 − 10 = 10. Let x = one of the numbers. Movie attendance was at a minimum about 2 years after 2000.43 2 a.048 gallons per U.1 = 6. f ( x ) = x (16 − x ) The product is = 16 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 16 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 16 16 x=− =− =− = 8.004 x 2 − 0. 59. Let x = one of the numbers Let 20 – x = the other number P ( x ) = x ( 20 − x ) = 20 x − x 2 = − x 2 + 20 x −0. The product is f ( x ) = x ( x − 16 ) = x 2 − 16 x f ( x ) = −0.

000 square feet. the width y is y = 40 − x = 40 − 20 = 20. The dimensions of the rectangular plot with maximum area are 150 feet by 300 feet. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 25 25 x=− =− =− = 12. the area is maximized at the vertex. Thus. This gives an area of 150 ⋅ 300 = 45. 2 x + 2 y = 50 = 600 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 600 x Since a = −2 is negative. 000 2 = 5000 The maximum area is 5000 square feet when the length is 100 feet and the width is 50 feet. . we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 600 600 x=− =− =− = 150. Let x = the length of the rectangle.5 ⋅12. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 12. the area of the plot is given by A = l ⋅ w = ( 200 − 2 x )( x ) = −2 x 2 + 200 x Since the graph of this equation is a parabola that opens down.5 yards by 12.5 = 156.5 = 12. Rewrite y= A as a function of x.5 yards. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed along a river with 600 feet of fencing. 600 − 2 x = the length of the rectangle We need to maximize. This gives an area of 12. Since we need an equation in one variable. From the diagram. 277 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 20 yards by 20 yards. Let y = the width of the rectangle. we have that x is the width of the rectangular plot and 200 − 2 x is the length. A ( x ) = x ( 25 − x ) = − x 2 + 25 x When the width is x = 150 feet. The dimensions of the rectangular region with maximum area are 12. the width y is y = 25 − x = 25 − 12. Since a = −1 is negative.5.25 square yards. Let x = the width of the rectangle.2 65.5. A ( x ) = x ( 40 − x ) = − x 2 + 40 x x=− b 40 40 =− =− = 20. 66. Let x = the length of the rectangle Let y = the width of the rectangle 2 x + 2 y = 80 2 y = 80 − 2 x 80 − 2 x y= 2 y = 40 − x A = −2 ( 50 ) + 200 ( 50 ) = −5000 + 10. Inc. b 200 x=− =− = 50 2a 2 ( −2 ) 68. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the length is 600 − 2 (150 ) = 600 − 300 = 300 feet.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. This gives an area of 20 ⋅ 20 = 400 square yards. Maximize the area of a rectangle constructed with 50 yards of fencing. A ( x ) = x ( 600 − 2 x ) 67. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) 2 y = 50 − 2 x 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 We need to maximize A = xy = x ( 25 − x ) . 2a 2 ( −1) −2 When the length x is 20.5.

2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ A ( x ) = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ = − x 2 + 200 x 3 ⎠ 3 ⎝ 2 Since a = − is negative. the width is 20 − 2 x = 20 − 2 ( 5 ) = 20 − 10 = 10. Let y = the width of the rectangle. A ( 5 ) = −2 ( 5 ) + 20 ( 5 ) 2 = −2 ( 25 ) + 100 = −50 + 100 = 50 The maximum cross-sectional area is 50 square inches. −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 5. Let x = the length of the rectangle. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. 3 3 Maximize the area of the playground with 600 feet of fencing. Since we need an equation in one variable. 2 x + 3 y = 600 3 y = 600 − 2 x 600 − 2 x y= 3 2 y = 200 − x 3 2 ⎞ ⎛ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ 200 − x ⎟ . 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Rewrite A as a function of x. 000 square feet. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at b 20 20 x=− =− =− = 5. Since a = −2 is negative. we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 400 400 b x=− =− 3 = − 3 = 100. Inc. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 100. This occurs when the gutter is 5 inches deep and 10 inches wide. 3 3 3 3 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with 2 maximum area are 100 feet by 66 feet. A ( 3) = −2 ( 3) + 12 ( 3) = −2 ( 9 ) + 36 2 = −18 + 36 = 18 The maximum cross-sectional area is 18 square inches. . we know the function 3 opens downward and has a maximum at 200 200 b x=− =− =− = 150. 2 400 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ A( x) = x ⎜ − x ⎟ = − x2 + x 3 ⎠ 3 3 ⎝ 3 2 Since a = − is negative. Let x = the length of the rectangle. This gives an area of 150 ⋅100 = 15. Since we need an equation in one variable. This occurs when the gutter is 3 inches deep and 6 inches wide. 72. 3 3 The dimensions of the rectangular playground with maximum area are 150 feet by 100 feet. the width is 12 − 2 x = 12 − 2 ( 3) = 12 − 6 = 6. the width y is 400 2 400 2 200 2 y= − x= − (100) = = 66 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 69. the width y is 2 2 y = 200 − x = 200 − (150) = 100. 3 ⎠ ⎝ Rewrite A as a function of x. 2 x + 3 y = 400 3 y = 400 − 2 x 400 − 2 x y= 3 400 2 y= − x 3 3 ⎛ 400 2 ⎞ We need to maximize A = xy = x ⎜ − x⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 2a ⎛ 2⎞ − 2⎜ − ⎟ 3 ⎝ 3⎠ When the length x is 150. 70. use the perimeter to express y in terms of x. Maximize the cross-sectional area of the gutter: A ( x ) = x ( 20 − 2 x ) = 20 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 20 x. Maximize the area of the playground with 400 feet of fencing. 71. A ( x ) = x (12 − 2 x ) = 12 x − 2 x 2 = −2 x 2 + 12 x b 12 12 x=− =− =− =3 −4 2a 2 ( −2 ) When the height x is 3. 278 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Let y = the width of the rectangle. This 3 2 2 gives an area of 100 ⋅ 66 = 6666 square feet.

25x + 40x −b −40 x= = = 80 2a −0. 185).5 + 50 +160 = 185 The vertex is at (2. y = –0. x= 74. 50 x 25 = 1250 pounds. b = –82 b −82 x=− =− = 20. The maximum revenue = 65(800 – 100·15) = $422. Maximize A = (30 + x)(200 – 5x) = 6000 + 50x – 5x2 − 50 x= =5 2(−5) Maximum rental = 30 + 5 = $35 Maximum revenue = 35(200 – 5·5) = $6125 ( ) 2 85.5.5) 2 − 82(20.5) + 20(2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. = 400.5) + 720 = 840. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 2 y = –0.5. 76. x = increase A = (20 + x)(60 − 2x) = 1200 + 20x − 2x 2 −b −20 = =5 2a 2(−2) The maximum number of trees is 20 + 5 = 25 trees. –120. y = –4x + 20x + 160 −b −20 = = 2. y = 2x – 82x + 720 a.5 vertex: (20. 279 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Choose Ymin to include the y-value of the vertex. – 83.5) + 160 = –2. 2 87. 000 + 3000x −100x 2 −b −3000 = = 15 2a 2(−100) The maximum price is 50 + 15 = $65. 1600) 75. Answers may vary.500. y = 5x + 40x + 600 −b −40 = = −4 x= 2a 10 2 y = 5(–4) + 40(–4) + 600 = 80 – 160 + 600 = 520 vertex: (–4. Ymax = 750 d.5 2a 4 y = 2(20. 520) You can only see a little of the parabola.5 − 1681 + 720 = −120. You can choose Xmin and Xmax so the x-value of the vertex is in the center of the graph. x = increase A = (50 + x)(8000 −100x) b.5) c. x= 2 86. Maximize A = (30 + x)(50 – x) = 1500 + 20x – x2 −20 x= = 10 2(−1) Maximum number of trees = 30 + 10 = 40 trees Maximum yield = (30 + 10)(50 – 10) = 1600 pounds 77.2 73. . 2 84. Inc.5 x= 2a −8 2 y = –4(2. a =2. The maximum yield is 60 – 2·5=50 pounds per tree.25(80) + 40(80) = 1600 vertex: (80.

–2) is one unit right of (–2.005 x 2 − 0. The values of y increase then decrease. ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎝2⎠ 4 5 The maximum y–value is .372 mpg in 1957.372 The worst gas mileage was 13. –2) is (–3. We start with the form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k . 99. 96. we have f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 4 . We also know that the 2 90.170 x + 14. Sample explanation: If it is thrown vertically. –2) y = 0. false. Explanations will vary. 94. 93. Explanations will vary. 2 Since we know the vertex is ( h.6(–30) + 100 = 9 – 18 + 100 = 91 The vertex is at (–30. 89. does not make sense. false. Publishing as Prentice Hall.817 ≈ 13. A sample change is: The vertex is ( 5. we know that there are no x–intercepts. the function is f ( x ) = 280 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. –2). false. true 2 8 = 16a 1 =a 2 Therefore. Sample explanation: Some parabolas have the y-axis as the axis of symmetry.01(–30) + 0. does not make sense. 2 .01x + 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2 88. 0 = −2 ( x + 4 ) − 8 2 2 ( x + 4 ) = −8 2 ( x + 4) 2 = −4 Because the solutions to the equation are imaginary. –2) axis: x = –2 (–1. x= 97. b. Changes to make the statement true will vary.005) 2 98. 4 ) .6x + 100 −b −0.005(17)2 − 0. 4 = a (1 + 3) − 4 2 8 = a ( 4) 91. Vertex (3. graph passes through the point (1. y = 0. −1) . set y = 0 and solve for x.02 2 y = 0. Sample explanation: The football’s path is better described by a quadratic model.170(17) + 14. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary.817 c. makes sense 92. y = 0. d. 4 −(−0. A sample change is: The graph has no x–intercepts. 91). Explanations will vary.6 = = −30 x= 2a 0. 1 2 ( x + 3) − 4 . 95. which allows us to solve for a. –2). 2) Axis: x = 3 second point (0. A sample change is: The x-coordinate of the b 1 1 1 maximum is − =− =− = and the y– 2a 2 ( −1) −2 2 coordinate of the vertex of the parabola is ⎛ b ⎞ ⎛1⎞ 5 f ⎜− ⎟ = f ⎜ ⎟ = . To find x–intercepts. point: (–3. −4 ) . 11) 100. its path will be a line segment. does not make sense. a. f(x) = 3(x + 2) – 5. 1940 + 17 = 1957 2(. One unit left of (–2. k ) = ( −3. (–1. Inc.170) = 17.

5⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 108. 440 − 2 x = π y form f ( x ) = a ( x − h ) + k 2 440 − 2 x = a ⎡⎣ x − ( −3) ⎤⎦ + ( −1) 2 π = a ( x + 3) − 1 =y 440 − 2 x 2 Maximize A = x We use the point ( −2. Inc. the equation of the parabola is 2 π = 4 = 440 4 f ( x ) = −2 ( x + 3 ) − 1 . 2 x + y − 2 = 0 y = 2 − 2x d = x + (2 − 2x) π =− −440 440 2 − −3 = a (1) − 1 2 − π 106. the maximum profit is –3(15)2 + 9(15) + 21000 = $21. f ( x) = (80 + x)(300 − 3x ) − 10(300 − 3x ) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x) 2 + 1 2 = 24000 + 60 x − 3x − 3000 + 30 x = x4 − 2 x2 + 1 Since f (− x) = f ( x). 2 x + 440 π x = 110 π 220 π The dimensions are 110 yards by 2 220 π yards. 2 = −3x + 90 x + 21000 −b −90 3 = = = 15 2 a 2 (−3) 2 The maximum charge is 80 + 15 = $95.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. −1) . We know ( h. ⎛4⎞ 2 y = 2 − 2⎜ ⎟ = ⎝5⎠ 5 ⎛4 2⎞ ⎜5. and (3. the function is even. which is below the x-axis. 105. . 103. 102. Answers may vary. it must cross the x-axis somewhere between 2 and 3 to get from one of these points to the other.2 101. x= 281 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 5 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 5 = −1 f (3) = (3)3 − 2(3) − 5 = 16 The graph passes through (2. Thus. –1). x 3 + 3 x 2 − x − 3 = x 2 ( x + 3) − 1( x + 3) 2 = ( x + 3)( x 2 − 1) = ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 1) d = x 2 + 4 − 8x + 4x 2 d = 5x 2 − 8x + 4 Minimize 5x2 – 8x + 4 −(−8) 4 x= = 2(5) 5 107. Since the graph of f is continuous. −3) on the graph to determine the value of a: f ( x ) = a ( x + 3) − 1 2 x= −3 = a ( −2 + 3) − 1 2 2 2 π π = − π 440 − 2(110) −3 = a − 1 −2 = a Thus. k ) = ( −3.00. 16). which is above the x-axis.675. so the equation is of the 440 = 2 x + π y 104. the graph is symmetric with respect to the yaxis.

Inc. Check Point Exercises 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. not a polynomial function 6. 5. f (− x) = (− x)3 − 3(− x) 2 = − x 3 − 3x 2 No symmetry. the function falls to the right. We can find the degree of the polynomial by adding the degrees of each of its degree 3 degree 1 degree 1 P P factors. f (0) = 03 − 3(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. 4. with multiplicity 2. 6. Since n is even and an > 0. . the graph rises to the left and to the right. degree: 3 2. and 2. the graph should fall to the left. f ( x) = x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 0 = x 2 ( x + 2) − 4( x + 2) 0 = ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) 0 = ( x + 2) 2 ( x − 2) x = 2 or x = –2 The zeros are 2 and –2. Thus its graph falls to the left and rises to the right. polynomial function. 9. f ( x) = 2 x3 ( x − 1)( x + 5) is of odd degree with a positive leading coefficient. x3 − 3x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 x = 0 or x = 3 The x-intercepts are 0 and 3. not a polynomial function 282 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. polynomial function. The graph does not show the function’s end behavior. with 2 multiplicity 3. f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 Since an > 0 and n is odd. degree: 4 3. Because the multiplicity of 5 is odd.3 2 7. degree: 5 4. Since an > 0 and n is odd. f (−3) = 3(−3)3 − 10(–3) + 9 = −42 f (−2) = 3(−2)3 − 10(−2) + 9 = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between –3 and –2. 1⎞ 3 ⎛ f ( x ) = −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 2 1⎞ 3 ⎛ −4 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 5 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1 x = − or x = 5 2 1. Exercise Set 2.3 1 The zeros are − . 1 Because the multiplicity of − is even. and 5. f ( x) = 2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5) has degree 3 + 1 + 1 = 5. the graph 2 touches the x-axis and turns around at this zero. –2.Polynomial and Rational Functions Section 2. degree: 7 5. Since n is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. the model won’t be appropriate. 8. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 2 x4 − 4 x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 4) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 x = 0 or x = –2 or x = 2 The zeros are 0. polynomial function. It is not necessary to multiply out the polynomial to determine its degree. 3. polynomial function. 2. the graph crosses the x-axis at this zero. Since the ratio cannot be negative.

The graph crosses the x-axis.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. f ( x) = 5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is even. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (c) 17. Not a polynomial function because graph is not smooth. Not a polynomial function because graph is not continuous. f ( x) = 11x − 6 x + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is odd. 16. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. (b) 28. (d) 19. Inc. 283 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. f ( x) = 2( x − 5)( x + 4) 2 x = 5 has multiplicity 1. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. 26. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. 23. polynomial function 12. (a) 18. . 1⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = −3 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − 4)3 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x = − has multiplicity 1. not a polynomial function 9.3 7. f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an < 0 and n is even. x = –6 has multiplicity 3. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 − 4 x − 28 = x 2 ( x + 7) − 4( x + 7) f ( x) = −11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an < 0 and n is even. The graph crosses the x-axis. 11. f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 + 4 x = x ( x2 + 4 x + 4) f ( x) = 11x 4 − 6 x 2 + x + 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. 3 29. the graph of f(x) falls to the left and to the right. degree: 2 25. polynomial function. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. 2 The graph crosses the x-axis. x = –2 has multiplicity 2. The graph crosses the x-axis. 27. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. x = –4 has multiplicity 2. f ( x) = x3 − 2 x 2 + x = x ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) 2 = x( x − 1)2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. 14. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around. x = 4 has multiplicity 3. The graph crosses the x-axis. polynomial function 15. 20. 31. x = 1 has multiplicity 2. = ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x + 7) = ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 7) x = 2. 22. not a polynomial function 8. x = –2 and x = –7 have multiplicity 1. The graph crosses the x-axis. The graph crosses the x-axis. The graph crosses the x-axis. 21. = x( x + 2) 2 x = 0 has multiplicity 1. 24. f ( x) = 3( x + 5)( x + 2)2 x = –5 has multiplicity 1. 30. The graph crosses the x-axis. 13. f ( x) = 4( x − 3)( x + 6)3 x = 3 has multiplicity 1. f ( x) = 5 x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 9 Since an > 0 and n is odd. the graph of f(x) rises to the left and to the right. not a polynomial function 10.

and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 39. c. x = –3 and x = –5 have multiplicity 1. 37. f ( x ) = x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 a. Since an > 0 and n is odd. . f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. 41. f ( x ) = x 4 + 6 x 3 − 18 x 2 f(2) = –8 f(3) = 81 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. f ( x ) = x 5 − x3 − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 23 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. x = –1 The zeros at –2. f (0) = (0)3 + 2(0)2 − 0 − 2 = −2 The y-intercept is –2. f ( x ) = x3 − x − 1 f(1) = –1 f(2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. d. –1. 36. b. 35. The graph crosses the x-axis. Inc. 34. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 10 x + 9 f(–3) = –42 f(–2) = 5 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x ) = 3x3 − 8 x 2 + x + 2 f(2) = –4 f(3) = 14 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. Publishing as Prentice Hall. = x 2 ( x + 5) − 9( x + 5) = ( x 2 − 9 ) ( x + 5) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 5) x = 3. 38. x = 1. 284 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 33. f (− x) = (− x) + 2(− x) 2 − (− x) − 2 = − x3 + 2 x 2 + x − 2 − f ( x) = − x 3 − 2 x 2 + x + 2 The graph has neither origin symmetry nor yaxis symmetry. 3 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 ( x + 2) − ( x + 2) = 0 f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 + 2 f(0) = 2 f(1) = –1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. e. ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = –2. f ( x) = x 3 + 5 x 2 − 9 x − 45 40. 2 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. f ( x ) = 2 x4 − 4 x2 + 1 f(–1) = –1 f(0) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. f ( x) = x + x − 2x + 1 f(–3) = –11 f(–2) = 1 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values.

so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points.PreCalculus 4E 42. b. f (0) = (0) 4 − (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. Inc. e. x = 3. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 44. 43. f ( x ) = x4 − 9 x2 a. b. f (− x) = x 4 − 9 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. a. f (− x) = − x 3 + x 2 + 4 x − 4 − f ( x) = − x 3 − x 2 + 4 x + 4 neither symmetry e. x4 − x2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. b. f (0) = 03 + (0) 2 − 4(0) − 4 = −4 The y-intercept is –4. c. f(x) rises to the right and falls to the left. x = 0. The xintercepts are –2. and 2.3 f ( x ) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. Since an > 0 and n is even. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. x = –3 The zeros at –3 and 3 have odd multiplicity. f (− x) = x 4 − x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. d. e. Since an > 0 and n is even. x4 − 9 x2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 0. or x = 2. Since an > 0 and n is odd. f ( x ) = x4 − x2 c. –1 and 2 have odd multiplicity. x + x − 4x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) = 0 3 d. . 285 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. x = –1 f touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. Section 2. 2 ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 x = –1. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. x = 1. or x = –2 The zeros at –2. –1. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. d. c.

f (0) = −(0)4 + 4(0)2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. Inc. d. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. 286 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 = 0 x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 2 x = 0. b. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 3 The zeros at 3 and 0 have even multiplicity. f(x) rises to the left and the right. – x 4 + 16 x 2 = 0 x 2 ( − x 2 + 16 ) = 0 x 2 ( 4 − x )( 4 + x ) = 0 x = 0. b. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. Since an > 0 and n is even. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = x 4 − 6 x3 + 9 x 2 a. x = 0. f ( x ) = − x4 + 4 x2 a. so f(x) touches the xaxis at 0. x = 1 The zeros at 1 and 0 have even multiplicity.Polynomial and Rational Functions 45. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 16 x 2 a. d. f(x) falls to the left and the right. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. f ( x ) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 a. c. x = 4. d. f (− x) = − x 4 + 4 x 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. Since f has a double root at 0. and 2. e. x = 2. The root at 0 has even multiplicity. x = –4 The zeros at –4 and 4 have odd multiplicity. x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 = 0 x 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) = 0 x 2 ( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 2 x = 0. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and 0. x = –2 The x-intercepts are –2. f (− x) = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Since an < 0 and n is even. it touches but does not cross the x-axis at 0. f(x) rises to the left and the right. f (0) = (0) 4 − 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. 4 47. f (− x) = − x + 16 x f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. Since an > 0 and n is even. e. f (0) = (0) 4 − 2(0)3 + (0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. − x4 + 4x2 = 0 x 2 (4 − x 2 ) = 0 x 2 ( 2 − x )( 2 + x ) = 0 48. so f(x) touches the x-axis at 0 and 1. c. e.0. 46. f(x) falls to the left and the right. b. c. b.

x = 0. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 a. f (− x) = x 5 − 6 x 3 + 9 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. f ( x ) = 6 x3 − 9 x − x 5 x = 0. d. f (0) = −2(0) 4 + 4(0)3 = 0 The y-intercept is 0.PreCalculus 4E c. Since an < 0 and n is odd. b. f (− x) = x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Inc. −2 x 4 + 4 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 4 ) = 0 c. Section 2. The zeros at – 3 and 3 have even multiplicity so f(x) touches the x-axis at 3 and − 3 . −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 = 0 x 3 ( −2 x + 2 ) = 0 The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. e. b. 49. f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 2 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. a. f (0) = (0) 4 − 6(0)3 + 9(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 2 The zeros at 0 and 2 have odd multiplicity. f ( x ) = −2 x 4 + 2 x 3 a. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 51. x = 1 The zeros at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. c. d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 4 – 1. . f(x) falls to the left and the right. The y-intercept is 0. 287 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(x) falls to the left and the right. − x 5 + 6 x3 − 9 x = 0 − x ( x4 − 6 x2 + 9) = 0 − x ( x 2 − 3)( x 2 − 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = −2 x 4 − 4 x 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. d. e. b. x = ± 3 The root at 0 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at (0.3 50. 0). Since an < 0 and n is even. c. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. e. f (0) = −(0)5 + 6(0)3 − 9(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. d. x = 0.

1 1 1 f (0) = − (0)4 + = 2 2 2 1 The y-intercept is . d. − x ( x4 + x2 − 6) = 0 − x ( x 2 + 3)( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = a. 0. f (0) = −(0)3 + 3(0) 2 = 0 The y-intercept is 0. 1 1 − x4 + = 0 2 2 1 − ( x 4 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1)( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 1 2 − ( x + 1) ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 2 x = ±1 The zeros at –1 and 1 have odd multiplicity. x = ± 2 The zeros at − 2 . The graph has 4 turning point and 4 ≤ 5 – 1. d. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. and 2 have odd multiplicity. f (0) = −(0)5 − (0)3 + 6(0) = 0 The y-intercept is 0. The graph has 2 turning point and 2 ≤ 3 – 1. c. d. a. 288 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 53. Inc. e. 0). f ( x ) = 3x 2 − x 3 e. f(x) rises to the left and falls to the right. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. e. f (− x) = x5 + x3 − 6 x f (− x) = − f ( x) The graph has origin symmetry. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. − x3 + 3x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3) = 0 1 1 4 − x 2 2 Since an < 0 and n is even. f (− x) = The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. Since an < 0 and n is odd. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 2 1 1 4 − x 2 2 f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. b. f(x) falls to the left and the right. c. x = 0. x = 3 The zero at 3 has odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at that point.Polynomial and Rational Functions e. b. 52. . f (− x) = x 3 + 3x 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f ( x ) = 6 x − x3 − x 5 a. − x5 − x 3 + 6 x = 0 54. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 5 – 1. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. Since an < 0 and n is odd. x = 0. b.

Since an > 0 and n is even. The root at 4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the xaxis at (4. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. x = –2.PreCalculus 4E 55. f (0) = −3(0 − 1) 2 (02 − 4)3 = −3(1)(−4) = 12 The y-intercept is 12. x = 0. f(x) falls to the left and the right. e. x = 5 The zeros at –5 and 5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. f ( 0 ) = 03 ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. 0). 289 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(x) falls to the left and the right. . x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f(x) rises to the left and the right. 0). f (0) = −2(0 − 4) 2 (02 − 25) = −2(16)(−25) = 800 The y-intercept is 800. f(x) rises to the left and the right. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. Since an > 0 and n is even. x = –5. x = –2. −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 2 x = 4. x = –1 The roots at 0 and –1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. b. 0). 58. d.3 f ( x ) = −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) e. 57. x = 2 The zeros at –2 and 2 have odd multiplicity. x = 1. 2 a. d. c. f (0) = 02 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 The y-intercept is 0. so f(x) touches the xaxis at (1. 56. f (− x) = −2(− x − 4) 2 ( x 2 − 2 ) f ( x ) = x 3 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 a. b. Section 2. The root at 1 has even multiplicity. f (− x) = −3(− x − 1) 2 ( x 2 − 4 ) f ( x ) = x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 3 a. Since an < 0 and n is even. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since an < 0 and n is even. d. c. f ( x ) = −2 ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 25) 2 a. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. e. −3 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2 x = 1. 0). b. c. The root at –2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–2. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. Inc. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = 0. c. The graph has 1 turning point and 1 ≤ 4 – 1. f ( − x ) = x 2 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 2 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry.

x = –2 The zeros at 2 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. 59. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 6 – 1. c. c. x = –5 The roots at 0 and –5 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 5 ) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. Since an < 0 and n is even. b. b. f ( − x ) = − x3 ( − x + 2 ) ( − x + 1) 2 c. The y-intercept is 0. e. 0). 61. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. d. 0). f(x) falls to the left and the right. x = 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions d. x = –3 The zeros at 1 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. f(x) falls to the left and the right. Since an < 0 and n is even. f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 2 ) = 0 d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f(x) falls to the left and the right. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. e. The y-intercept is 0. x = 1. e. . f ( 0 ) = −02 ( 0 − 1)( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( x ) = −2 x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 5 ) 2 a. x = 1. b. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x + 2 )( − x − 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 (−1) ( x − 2 ) (−1) ( x + 2 ) f (− x) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) f (− x) = f ( x) The graph has y-axis symmetry. The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f ( 0 ) = −2(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 5 ) = 0 2 The y-intercept is 0. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. f ( − x ) = − x 2 ( − x − 1)( − x + 3) The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. 60. 290 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x = 0. Inc. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x − 1)( x + 3) a. 0). e. d. The graph has 3 turning points and 3 ≤ 4 – 1. x = 0. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. Since an < 0 and n is even. x = 0. The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. f ( x ) = − x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) a.

x = 2. and 4. x + 2 . so they are the zeros. 0). d. x = 0. 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. f ( 0 ) = −3(0)3 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 3) = 0 f ( − x ) = 3x 3 ( − x − 1) ( − x + 3) f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x + 1) ( x + 4 ) 3 a. e. a. The root at 2 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (2. Since an < 0 and n is even. c. The graph has 3 turning points and The graph has 2 turning points and 2 ≤ 6 – 1. f(x) rises to the left and rises the right. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 + 1) ( 0 + 4 ) = 12 3 The y-intercept is 12. The graph has 2 turning points f ( − x ) = ( − x − 2 ) ( − x + 4 )( − x − 1) 2 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. d. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1)( 0 − 4 ) = 8 291 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and 4 are the zeros. Section 2. e. c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. x = 1 The zeros at –4 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. 2 The y-intercept is 0. 64. f ( − x ) = ( − x + 3)( − x + 1) ( − x + 4 ) 3 The graph has neither y-axis nor origin symmetry. x = –1. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 2 ) ( 0 + 4 )( 0 − 1) = −16 2 b. Thus. x = –3 The roots at 0 and –3 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points.3 f ( x ) = −3x 3 ( x − 1) ( x + 3) 2 a. Since an > 0 and n is odd. Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. 1. f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. .PreCalculus 4E 62. From the end behavior. and x − 4 are factors of the function. 0). 65. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 4 )( x − 1) a. x = 1. The y-intercept is –16. Since an > 0 and n is even. The root at 1 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (1. d. e. x = –4. b. f(x) falls to the left and the right. x = –3. b. Since −2 . c. x = –4 The zeros at all have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at these points. 1. the function must be at least of degree 3. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) . Inc. all three have odd multiplicity. x − 1 . c. Since the graph has two turning points. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . 63. 3 ≤ 4 – 1.

Since −1 and 3 are the zeros. and 1 are the zeros. both have even multiplicity. x − 2 . 2 c. 2. Thus. a. Thus. Since −2 . Thus. one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 and 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 66. b. all three have odd multiplicity. Since the graph has five turning points. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the function must be at least of degree 4. the function must be at least of degree 3. a. the function 2 f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 4 ) = −16 2 2 71. 2 f ( x ) = ( x + 2) f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 − 1) = 2 2 c. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −1 and 4. From the end behavior. b. b. the function The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 and 2. However. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. x + 3 and x − 2 are factors of the function. Thus. to reach degree 6. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. the function is f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x − 2 )( x − 5) . Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 1. the 2 c. 2 function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) ( x − 4 ) . and 5. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −2 . From the end behavior. 2 b. −1 . we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 3. both have even multiplicity. they both have odd multiplicity. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at both −3 and 2. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 3) = 9 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 and 1. it has even multiplicity. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −1 . 2 68. the function must be at least of degree 3. c. a. and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. −1 . a. Since the graph has three turning points. it has odd multiplicity. 2. Since −3 and 2 are the zeros. x + 1 and x − 3 are factors of the function. 2 The x-intercepts of the graph are −1 and 4. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. Since −3 . Since the graph actually crosses the x-axis at all three places. 2 f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 3)( 0 − 2 )( 0 − 5 ) = 30 67. a. The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . it has even multiplicity. From the end behavior. so they are the zeros. the function must be at least of degree 6. and 5 are the zeros. x + 1 . 3 . x + 2 . so they are the zeros. so they are the zeros. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. The x-intercepts of the graph are −3 . a. Since the graph has two turning points. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. From the end behavior. Since −2 and 1 are the zeros. so they are the zeros. the function must be at least of degree 3. so they are the zeros. and 1. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. b. Inc. and the lowest even multiplicity is 2. so they are the zeros. and x − 1 are factors of the function. it has even multiplicity. x + 1 and x − 4 are factors of the function. and x − 5 are factors of the function. Since the graph has two turning points. c. From the end behavior. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 3. the function must be at least of degree 3. the function is f ( x ) = − ( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) . c. it has odd multiplicity. Since −1 and 4 are the zeros. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 . Since the graph has two turning points. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 ) ( 0 + 1)( 0 − 1) = −4 2 292 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The lowest odd multiplicity is 1. 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) 3 . Thus. The function is is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 1) . is f ( x ) = ( x + 1)( x − 3) . we can tell that the leading coefficient must be negative. x + 3 . b. 69. From the end behavior. x + 2 and x − 1 are factors of the function. f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 3) ( 0 − 2 ) = −36 70. Since the graph has two turning points.

203(3) + 308. Since there were 3 turning points. a. Based on the end behavior. 203(5) + 308. 2 ( x − 1) 3 . d. c. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. 444 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. Answers may vary. −1 . and x − 1 are factors of the function. 203 x + 308. a. The woman’s heart rate reached a maximum of about 116 ± 1 beats per minute. Since there were 3 turning points. The woman’s heart rate reached a minimum of about 64 ± 1 beats per minute. The function is f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 1) c.PreCalculus 4E 72. Since the graph crosses the x-axis at −2 and 1. a polynomial of degree 4 would provide the best fit. 324 x 2 + 107. and 1 are the zeros.555(5) + 261. g. 94. Since the degree of g is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. b. so they are the zeros. Since the graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 . 203x + 308. 931 76. The percentage reached a minimum of about 18 ± 1% in 1960. The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was decreasing from 1975 through 1985 and from 2000 through 2005. −1 . Inc. The leading coefficient should be negative. This occurred after 8 minutes. Function g provides a better description of the actual number. and 1. f ( x) = −3402 x + 42. 453 = 404. g. it has even multiplicity. b. x + 2 . 74. d. 324(3) 2 + 107. = 434. 931 = 404. 418 g ( x) = 2769 x 3 − 28. 324(5) 2 + 107. The woman’s heart rate was increasing from 1 through 4 minutes and from 8 through 10 minutes. e. 75. However. they both have odd multiplicity. the graph falls to the right. a. 453 f. a. 555(3) + 261. g (3) = 2769(3)3 − 28. The lowest even multiplicity is 2. x + 1 . Since the graph has five turning points. Since the degree of f is even and the leading coefficient is negative. Section 2. The graph falls to the left and to the right. b. c. The leading coefficient should be negative. 293 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f. e. b. 443 Function f provides a better description of the actual number. the graph rises to the right. one of the odd multiplicities must be 3. The percentage of students with B+ averages or better was increasing from 1960 through 1975 and from 1985 through 2000. to reach degree 6. . The woman’s heart rate was decreasing from 4 through 8 minutes and from 10 through 12 minutes. This occurred after 10 minutes. the function must be at least of degree 6. a. Since −2 . The graph falls to the left and to the right.555 x + 261. b. 453 f (3) = −3402(3)2 + 42. f ( 0 ) = ( 0 + 2 )( 0 + 1) ( 0 − 1) = −2 2 3 f ( x) = −3402 x 2 + 42. There were 3 turning points during the period shown. the function will be a useful model over an extended period of time. The function will not be a useful model over an extended period of time because it will eventually give negative values. 73. From the end behavior.3 The x-intercepts of the graph are −2 . – 93. 931 The percentage reached a maximum of about 69 ± 1% in 2000.555 x + 261. 453 2 g (5) = 2769(5)3 − 28. f (5) = −3402(5) 2 + 42. There were 3 turning points during the 12 minutes. we can tell that the leading coefficient must be positive. 731 77. and the lowest odd multiplicity is 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 324 x 2 + 107. 931 = 437.

99. f(x) = x3 – 2x2 96. Changes to make the statement true will vary. true 294 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Sample explanation: A forth degree function has at most 3 turning points.4 Check Point Exercises 98. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Sample explanation: Since ( x + 2) is raised to an odd power. 106. 95. Section 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 107. A sample change is: f(x) falls to the left and rises to the right. Changes to make the statement true will vary. does not make sense. false. does not make sense. makes sense 104. A sample change is: A function with origin symmetry either falls to the left and rises to the right. 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 x − 3 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 7 2 x3 − 6 x 2 100. Explanations will vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 x 3 − x 2 − 5 x + 4 112. 2 x 3 − x 2 − 11x + 6 = ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3 x − 2) = ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) 97. or rises to the left and falls to the right. false. 2. A sample change is: Such a function falls to the right and will eventually have negative values. 110. Inc. 1 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 + 103. f ( x) = x 3 + x 2 − 12 x 109. 1. 3x 2 − 9 x − 2x + 7 −2 x + 6 102. makes sense 3x 2 − 11x 101. 108. 1 . x−3 . false. 105. x+5 x + 9 x 2 + 14 x + 45 x2 + 9 x 5 x + 45 5 x + 45 0 The answer is x + 5. 737 2 = 35 + 21 21 111. Explanations will vary. the graph crosses the x-axis at –2.

4 9 x2 − 3x 15 x − 5 15 x − 5 0 The answer is 2 x 2 + 3 x + 5. . –2 1 1 0 –7 –6 –2 4 6 –2 –3 0 3. The answer is x − 2 x − 3 . The answer is 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 + 2 x − 2x 4. –1 15 15 14 –3 –2 –15 1 2 –1 –2 0 x 2 − 3x − 2x + 6 −2 x + 6 0 15 x − x − 2 = 0 2 The answer is x 2 + x − 2. –105 x2 + x − 2 x − 3 x − 2x − 5x + 6 3 2 x3 − 3x 2 x2 − 5x 6. 3x − 1 6 x3 + 7 x 2 + 12 x − 5 x + 5 x 2 + 8 x + 15 x2 + 5x 3 x + 15 3x + 15 0 The answer is x + 3. 3 5⎭ ⎩ 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 5. 7 x3 + 0 x 2 7 x 3 − 14 x 2 14 x 2 − 7 x 14 x 2 − 28 x x 2 + 3x + 1 21x − 10 21x − 10 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 x3 − 2 x 2 9 x 2 + 12 x Exercise Set 2. ⎬ . x+5 x − 2 x 2 + 3x − 10 4. –4 3 3 f(–4) = –105 4 –5 3 –12 32 –108 –8 27 x + 2 x3 + 5 x 2 + 7 x + 2 x3 + 2 x 2 2 5. 3 x2 − 2x 2 x 4 − 4 x3 5 x − 10 5 x − 10 0 The answer is x + 5. 3x 2 + 7 x 3x 2 + 6 x x+2 x+2 0 2 The answer is x + 3 x + 1. (3 x + 1)(5 x − 2) = 0 1 2 x=− or x = 3 5 1 2⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. − . Inc.PreCalculus 4E 3. 295 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 2 x 2 + 7 x + 14 x − 2 x 2 x + 3x + 0 x 2 − 7 x − 10 2 4 2. x+3 1. Section 2.

x+3 296 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 2 4x + 3 + 7. 3x − 2 246 x 246 x − 984 3 2x −1 984 The answer is 2 x − 1 4 x2 − 8x + 6 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 4 x2 − 2 x − 6x + 6 x 3 + 3x 2 + 9 x + 27 12. x −3 4 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 60 x + 246 + 3x − 2 12 x 2 + x − 4 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x 2 + 3x + 5 3x + 4 6 x + 17 x + 27 x + 20 3 10. x−4 3 3x3 3x 2 − 9 x 2 2 x2 + x + 6 − 9. 984 x−4 x − 4 4 x4 − 4 x2 + 6x 4 x 4 − 16 x 3 12 x 2 − 8 x 9x − 4 9x − 6 2 16 x 3 − 4 x 2 16 x 3 − 64 x 2 60 x 2 + 6 x The answer is 4 x + 3 + 2x − 3 + 26 . 3 x 2 + 3x 2 6 x − 20 6 x + 18 − 38 The answer is 2 x 2 + x + 6 − 38 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 6. . 6 x3 + 8 x 2 x − 3 3x2 − 2 x + 5 9 x 2 + 27 x 3x2 − 9 x 7x + 5 9 x 2 + 12 x 15 x + 20 15 x + 20 0 7 x − 21 26 The answer is 3x + 7 + The answer is 2 x + 3x + 5. 2 3x − 2 11. − 6x + 6 x − 3 x4 3 The answer is 2 x − 3 + − 81 x − 3x 4 3 . 9 x2 38 x+3 9 x 2 − 27 x 27 x − 81 x + 3 2 x 3 + 7 x 2 + 9 x − 20 2x + 6x 3 27 x − 81 2 0 x2 + 9 x The answer is x + 3x + 9 x + 27. 26 x −3 3x + 7 + 2 60 x 2 − 240 x 2 . 2x −1 984 .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 + x − 3 (x 1 x 4 + x3 − 2 x 2 1 x3 − 2 x 2 − 5x − 3 x 2 − 3x − 6 19. 3 . 17. 4 + x − 2 ) ÷ ( x − 1) 2 1 x 2 + x − 2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 4 x 2 − 5x − 6 The answer is x 2 + x − 3 − –10 The answer is 2 x + 5 . 2 x3 + 1 297 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x − x − 3 6 x + 13 x − 11x − 15 2 3 (2x 2 2 + x − 10 ) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 − 6 x 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 2 15 x 2 − 5 x − 15 The answer is 2 x + 5. x+5 − 12 x − 8 ) ÷ ( x + 3) 2 –3 9 x3 + 3x 16. 18 x 4 + 6 x 2 9 x3 − 3x 2 ( 5x 5 − 3x 2 − 3 x 5 − 3x 2 − 1 − 3x + 1 12 –8 –15 81 –27 73 The answer is 5 x − 27 + The answer is 6 x 2 + 3 x − 1 − 3x − 1 .PreCalculus 4E Section 2. Inc.4 2x + 5 13. x −1 . 0 14. x3 + x 2 − 2 x 15. 18. x2 − 4x + 1 (4x 3 2 x5 + x 2 4 4 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 73 . 1 4x −1 . −3x − 3x + 6 2 − 12 ( 3x 5 0 1 –2 1 2 2 0 + 7 x − 20 ) ÷ ( x + 5 ) 2 –5 12 . x + x−2 3 3 2 7 –20 –15 40 –8 20 The answer is 3x − 8 + 6 x2 + 3x − 1 3x 2 + 1 18 x 4 + 9 x 3 + 3 x 2 20. x+3 − 3x 2 + 3x − 1) ÷ ( x − 1) 1 2 x 3 + 1 2 x5 − 8 x 4 + 2 x3 + x 2 –3 3 –1 4 1 4 1 4 3 The answer is 4 x 2 + x + 4 + −8 x 4 − 4 x 2 x3 + 4 x 2 x3 + 1 4x −1 The answer is x 2 − 4 x + 1 + 20 . 3x2 + 1 21. 10 The answer is x + 2.

187 . ( 5x − 6 x 2 + 3x + 11) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 3 2 5 5 26. (x (x 0 0 0 –256 4 16 64 256 16 64 0 4 The answer is x + 4 x + 16 x + 64 . 2 x 7 − 128 x−2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 –128 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 1 2 4 8 16 32 The answer is x 6 + 2 x5 + 4 x 4 + 8 x 3 + 16 x 2 + 32 x + 64. − 5 x3 + x 2 − 5 x ) ÷ ( x + 5) 1 –6 4 − 5x − 5x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 5 + x ) ⇒ –5 1 1 549 x 4 + 7 x 3 + 21x 2 + 60 x + 182 + . − 6 x3 + x 2 − 6 x ) ÷ ( x + 6 ) –6 0 6 x 4 + 12 x3 + 22 x 2 + 48 x + 93 + (x 4 − 6 x − 6 x3 + x 4 ) ÷ ( 6 + x ) ⇒ − 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x + 1) ÷ ( x − 2 ) 2 24. –6 3 11 10 8 22 4 11 33 (6x 5 6 5 –3 1 12 24 44 96 186 6 12 The answer is 22 48 93 187 27. x−2 The answer is 5 x 2 + 4 x + 11 + 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –5 1 0 –5 50 –255 1300 1 –10 The answer is 51 –260 1300 x 4 − 256 x−4 4 1 1 1300 x − 10 x + 51x − 260 + . 64 0 298 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 3 30. . x+5 3 0 x 7 + x 5 − 10 x 3 + 12 x+2 1 –5 –6 The answer is x + x + 2 x + 2 x + 2 . 2 33 . x+6 0 1 0 0 –2 1 1 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 3 2 1 0 1 –2 4 –2 5 0 –10 0 0 12 –10 20 –20 40 –80 –10 10 –20 40 –68 The answer is x − 2 x 5 + 5 x 4 − 10 x3 + 10 x 2 68 −20 x + 40 − . 4 0 –3 2 3 3 21 63 180 546 21 60 182 549 –2 72 –438 2664 –12 73 –444 2664 2664 . Inc. x−2 2 4 28. x+2 6 29.Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. x −3 (x (x 1 x5 + x3 − 2 x −1 1 + 4 x 4 − 3 x 2 + 2 x + 3) ÷ ( x − 3) 1 7 The answer is –6 The answer is x 3 − 12 x 2 + 73x − 444 + 4 1 1 1 –2 3 25.

3}. . 1 −5 2 1 1 –2 –1 3 –1 1 2 0 –2 2 2 0 –1 1 1 3 39. x+2 32. 5 5 −6 −4 −8 4 −3 1 2 3 2 f ( −3) = −133 −2 2 7 9 1 −9 48 −138 3 −16 46 −133 36. −5 − 23 6 10 6 f ( − 32 ) = −7 −2 –1 6 4 1 5 1 1 − 92 1 3 7 9 1 –4 1 6 –1 5 –6 6 0 –5 The quotient is x − 5 x + 6. ( x + 1)( x 2 – 5 x + 6) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 3) = 0 x = –1. 5 −5 1 5 6 0 0 −4 f ( −2 ) = −4 299 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 −11 7 2 −6 3 . Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 31. x−2 3 1 −7 5 40. f ( x ) = x 4 + 5x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 6 3 –3 1 –1 2 –1 –4 14 –30 62 –128 2 –7 The answer is 15 –31 64 –129 f ( 3) = 240 38.4 2 x5 − 3x 4 + x 3 − x 2 + 2 x − 1 x+2 –2 2 37. 5 −6 5 2 −6 −2 1 −3 −1 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − x 3 + 3x 2 − x + 1 x−2 2 −6 3 24 87 246 1 8 29 82 240 129 2 x 4 − 7 x 3 + 15 x 2 − 31x + 64 − . x = 2. x = 3 The solution set is {–1. 3 f − 1 =1 f ( 4 ) = −25 34. 2 −5 −1 −1 8 −12 −20 −3 −5 −25 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 5 x 3 − x 2 + 3x + 2 −1 2 f ( x ) = 2 x 3 − 11x 2 + 7 x − 5 4 6 0 f ( 2) = 0 The answer is x 4 − x 2 + x + 1 + 33. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 41. Dividend: x 3 – 4 x 2 + x + 6 Divisor: x + 1 −6 f ( x ) = 3x 3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x + 5 3 3 −1 −1 −4 −4 − f ( 3) = −27 −3 2 ( 2) 3 −12 −21 1 −4 −7 −27 35. 2.

( x + 1)( x 2 − 3x + 2) = 0 (x + 1)(x – 2)(x – 1) = 0 x = –1. 2} . 2. 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 –3 3 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 22 x − 8 = 0 − 13 2 x − 3 x − 11x + 6 = 0 3 –5 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ (12 x − 2 x − 2) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ 2 ( 6 x − x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 2(3x + 1)(2 x – 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 1 1 x=– . 2 2 –3 –11 6 –4 14 –6 –7 3 0 3 3 –18 3 3 –2 –2 0 7 –22 –8 –1 –2 8 6 –24 0 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3x + 6 x − 24 = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ x + ⎟ 3( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 1 x = –4. ⎬ . x = 1 The solution set is {–1. ( x – 2)(2 x − x − 1) = 0 (x – 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) = 0 1 x = 2. so 2 is a solution. 1 . and −1 .x=3 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = − 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −4. . 2 ⎩ ⎭ 2 44. −3 . x = The graph indicates that 2 is a solution to the equation. 2 1 2 −5 −6 2 8 6 1 4 3 0 The remainder is 0. 1. 2 ⎬ . x = 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 42. Inc. 12 x3 + 16 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 2 2 –5 1 2 4 –2 –2 –1 –1 0 46. . x=− . 3⎬ . 2 ⎭ ⎩ x = –2. − . or {−3. x= 2 3 2 ⎧ 3 1 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x − 6 = 0 ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 + 4 x + 3) = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 3)( x + 1) = 0 The solutions are 2. 1}. 3 2⎭ ⎩ 2 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 2 16 12 The quotient is x 2 − 3 x + 2. 43. 300 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −1. x = 2. x = − . x = 1 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 12 – 32 (x + 2) (2 x − 7 x + 3) = 0 2 (x + 2) ( 2 x − 1)( x − 3) = 0 47. − . 2 ⎬ . Dividend: x 3 − 2 x 2 − x + 2 Divisor: x + 1 –1 1 –2 –1 2 –1 3 –2 1 –3 2 0 45.

or −3. } 1 . 2 x 3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 = 0 The solutions are −3 . a. 177 We need to find x when f ( x ) = 211. 301 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. The female moth’s abdominal width is 3 millimeters. 25 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 The remainder is 0. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 The solutions are 1.1⎬ . 1 6 −11 6 −1 6 75 = ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) 2 { 42 The remainder is 0 so 3 is a solution. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 3 14 −17 −16 −177 72 0 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) b. and 2. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 = 0 ( x − 3) (14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 ) = 0 The polynomial 14 x 2 + 25 x + 59 cannot be factored. or ⎨ . 1 2 11 −7 −6 2 59 211 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 50. 2 2 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. 2 0 −72 2 14 4 36 2 18 36 The table indicates that 1 is a solution to the equation. Publishing as Prentice Hall. One solution is 3. The dimensions are 2 inches by 4 inches by 9 inches. 1 . a. − . It can be used to find other solutions (if they exist). 6 −5 1 −5 1 0 13 −6 2 13 6 0 0 f ( x ) = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x + 34 0 = 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 This is the equation obtained in part a. so the only solution is x = 3. 2 3 ⎩3 2 ⎭ 52.1⎬ . 2 . − . so 1 is a solution. the width is 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 inches and the length is 2 + 7 = 9 inches. 72 = 2h3 + 14h 2 2 x3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 0 = 2h3 + 14h 2 − 72 ( x − 1) ( 2 x 2 + 13 x + 6 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( 2 x + 1)( x + 6 ) = 0 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2h 2 + 18h + 36 ) ( 0 = ( h − 2 ) 2 ( h 2 + 9h + 18 ) 1 The solutions are 1. and . −3 2 1 −13 6 −6 15 −6 2 −5 2 0 51. so −3 is a solution. 14 ( x + 3) ( 2 x − 5 x + 2 ) = 0 ( x + 3)( 2 x − 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 49. or 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎨ −6.4 The graph indicates that −3 is a solution to the equation. and −6 . . b. 1 1 ⎧1 1 ⎫ . .PreCalculus 4E 48. so 1 is a solution. Section 2. 2 ⎭ ⎩ ) 0 = ( h − 2 ) ( 2 ( h + 6 )( h + 3) ) 0 = 2 ( h − 2 )( h + 6 )( h + 3) 2 ( h − 2) = 0 h + 6 = 0 h + 3 = 0 h−2 = 0 h=2 h = −6 h = −3 The height is 2 inches. 14 x3 − 17 x 2 − 16 x − 177 The remainder is 0. V = lwh 72 = ( h + 7 )( 2h )( h ) The remainder is 0.

f (40) = (40. Changes to make the statement true will vary. x3 .57 ten billion. Sample explanation: The division must account for the zero coefficients on the x 4 . true 72.22 x + 0.06 0.22 56.5 x 2 − 0. true 73.Polynomial and Rational Functions A = l ⋅ w so A 0. 69. A sample change is: The degree of the quotient is 3.06 l= = w x + 0. the length of the rectangle is 0. Inc. 80(30) − 8000 = 70 30 − 110 80 800 57. c. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials.5 −0.06 0.57) At a 40% tax rate. (30. -8000 8800 80 800 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 = 70 f (30) = 80 + 80 − 110 (30. b. makes sense 68.2 0. 70) At a 30% tax rate. x 2 and x terms. x6 since 3 = x 3 . false. does not make sense. 0. Explanations will vary. f (x) is not a polynomial function. Explanations will vary.57 40 − 110 b.3 110 0 −6 −5 3 −6 9 −3 8 −12 4 0 80 a. 68. A 8 x3 − 6 x 2 − 5 x + 3 l= = 3 w x+ 4 − 34 8 80(40) − 8000 = 68. Therefore.3x 2 + 0. 54. A sample change is: The divisor is a factor of the divided only if the remainder is the whole number 0. – 65. 70. f (30) = c.2 53. does not make sense.08 −0. Explanations will vary. 70) same answer as in a. −0. does not make sense. the length of the rectangle is 8 x 2 − 12 x + 4 units. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false.5 x3 − 0. 66.57 Therefore. 302 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the government tax revenue will be $70 ten billion. 80 8800 A = l ⋅ w so. . x 71.1 0. 67. Sample explanation: The remainder theorem provides an alternative method for evaluating a function at a given value. the government’s revenue is $68. Sample explanation: The zeros of f are the same as the solutions of f ( x) = 0.5 −0. It is a rational function because it is the quotient of two linear polynomials. −0.4 a.3 units. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 0. 110 -8000 800 f ( x) = 80 + x − 110 800 f (40) = 80 + 40 − 110 = 68. f (x) is not a polynomial function. Answers may vary.4 x + 0. 55.

5} . 1 −4 The remainder is zero and 5 is a solution to the equation.4 5x2 + 2 x − 4 4 x + 3 20 x + 23x 2 − 10 x + k 78. k must equal –12. − 4x + 6 −4 x + 6 The polynomial is x – 2. 5 −20 −20 79. Then divide the quotient by 2. 2 and 5 and the solution set is {−2. x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 8x2 + 6x 75. . k = –12 76. Section 2. x −5 = 0 x +1 = 0 2x − 3 x=5 x = −1 x+2=0 x−2 = 0 x−2 2 x − 3 2 x2 − 7 x + 6 2 x2 − 3x x = −2 x=2 The solutions are –2. x 2n − x n + 1 +1 x 3n + x 2 n − x 2n x2 + 4x − 1 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(4) ± (4)2 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −4 ± 20 2 −4 ± 2 5 x= 2 x = −2 ± 5 − x 2n − x n x= xn +1 xn +1 0 { } The solution set is −2 ± 5 . –1. Inc. 303 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 77.PreCalculus 4E 74. ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 ) ( x 2 ( x + 1) − 4 ( x + 1) ) = 0 ( x − 5)( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 ) = 0 ( x − 5 )( x + 1)( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) = 0 f ( x) = d ( x) ⋅ q( x) + r ( x) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 9 = d ( x )(2 x − 3) + 3 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x)(2 x − 3) 2 x 2 − 7 x + 6 = d ( x) Apply the zero product principle. x n + 1 x 3n −4 = ( x − 5) ( x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 ) To get a remainder of zero. 2. −1. we set it equal to zero and factor. 3 x 4 − 4 x 3 − 9 x 2 + 16 x + 20 = 0 5 1 −4 −9 16 20 5 20 x3 + 15 x 2 1 8 x 2 − 10 − 16 x + k −16 x − 12 0 To solve the equation. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 x − 4 = 2( x − 2) Use synthetic division to divide by x – 2.

x2 + 4 x + 6 = 0 3. 4. ± 2. x= 304 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. } The solution set is −2 ± i 2 . ⎬. ± 4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. ± . ± 3. 2 + 3i. ±1. ± 20 are possible rational zeros 1 8 11 –20 1 9 20 1 9 1 is a zero. ± 10. x 2 − 4 x + 13 = 0 0 4 ± 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = = 2 + 3i 2 2 The solution set is{1. −b ± b − 4ac 2a 2 x= ±1. −4. ± 2 are possible rational zeros f (3) = −150 2 1 ) an (3) − 3(3) − 4 = −150 4 2 an ( 81 − 27 − 4 ) = −150 1 2 is a zero. ± 2. ± 3 1 –6 22 –30 13 1 –5 17 –13 1 –5 1 is a zero. ± . ± q 2 4 2 4 are the possible rational zeros. 81. ± 2. x 2 + 3x + 1 = 0 an ( 50 ) = −150 an = −3 x= Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 6 q : ±1 -5 –2 2 6 2 3 1 0 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(1) 2(1) −3 ± 5 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 5 −3 − 5 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ 2. x 2 + 9 x + 20 = 0 20 0 −(4) ± (4) 2 − 4(1)(6) x= 2(1) −4 ± −8 2 −4 ± 2i 2 x= 2 x = −2 ± i 2 x= ( x + 4)( x + 5) = 0 x = −4 or x = −5 { The solution set is {1. 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. 17 –13 0 q : ± 1. 1 1 5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a double root. . f ( x) = an ( x 4 − 3 x 2 − 4) ( 1 ±1. ± . ± 3. Inc. ± 4. = p : ± 1.5 x= Check Point Exercises 1. ± 5. 1 5. ± 2. 2 – 3i}. 2 2 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪ p : ± 1. ± 6 q are the possible rational zeros. ± 13 are possible rational zeros. −5}. . ± 3. 1 p : ± 1.

±2. ± 2. ± 2. ± 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 6. p : ± 1. ± 3. ±6 q: ±1. Since f(–x) has no changes of sign. x = −1 The solution set is {2. p 1 1 : ± 1. ± 2. ±15 q: ±1. ± 2 4 q f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 p : ± 1. ±3. ±3. there are 4. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 6 x − 8 p : ± 1. ±2. ± q 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 2 0 2 is a zero. ± 5. f ( x) = x 5 − x 4 − 7 x3 + 7 x 2 − 12 x − 12 p : ± 1. ± 8. ± 3. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. x = −2. ± 4. ± 4 Exercise Set 2. ± . ±6 q: ±1. .5 ( x + 3)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) 6. or 0 positive real zeros. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3x 2 − 6 x + 8 p: ±1. ± . f ( x) = x 4 − 14 x 3 + 71x 2 − 154 x + 120 q : ±1 f (− x) = x 4 + 14 x 3 + 71x 2 + 154 x + 120 Since f(x) has 4 changes of sign. ± . 5. ± 2. 1 1 –4 –4 2 6 4 x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x 2 + 3 x + 2) = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2)( x + 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x + 3x − 11x − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. f ( x) = 4 x5 − 8 x 4 − x + 2 p : ± 1. ± q 3 3 3 3 7. ± 4 q 2. ±3. p : ± 1. ± . f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 p: ±1. f ( x) = x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 a. ± 2. ± . ± 2. ± 8 q 3. ± q 2 4 2 4 305 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±4. ± 4. ± 4. ± . ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 f ( x) = an ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) f (1) = an (1 + 3)(12 + 1) = 8an = 8 an = 1 f ( x) = ( x + 3)( x 2 + 1) or x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3 7. –1}. Section 2. ± q 3 3 4 p : ± 1. ± . 2. ±2. ±2. ± 3. ± 2. ± 4 q : ±1 2 x − 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 x +1 = 0 x = 2. ± . ± 6. ± 15. ± 2.5 1.PreCalculus 4E 6. –1 are rational zeros. ± 3 ± 4 ± 6 ± 12 q 8. ±4 p 1 1 3 3 : ± 1. –2. ± . c. ± 2 q : ± 1. ±8 q: ±1. Inc. 2. ±3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ± 4 q : ±1 9. 4. –2. ± 2. ± . ±5. ± 8 q : ±1 b. p : ± 1. f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p: ±1. ± 2. there are no negative real zeros. ± 4 q p : ± 1. ± . ± 2. ± 2.

± 4. 4. ± q 2 2 3 2 ( x − 2) ( 2 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 f ( x) = 2 x 3 − 3x 2 − 11x + 6 a. –5 2 –1 –1 0 2 is a zero. ± 3. ⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −3 ± 32 − 4(1)(−6) 2(1) −3 ± 33 2 ⎪⎧ −3 + 33 −3 − 33 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −1. ± . x = 1 The solution set is{4. Inc. 2 1 2 –3 0 4 is a zero. − 2 ⎬ . ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 4 –2 –2 ( x − 2) (2 x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 1 x = 2. ±3. . ±6 q: ±1 p : ±1. 2 2 ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ 306 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 6 q : ± 1. x = −3. 2 13. ±2. 2 ⎭ ⎩ p : ± 1. 1 are rational zeros. ± 6. ( x − 4) ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 x = 4. ± 3. ±6 q –1 4 –3 –6 –1 –3 6 1 3 –6 –1 is a rational zero. ⎬. ± q 2 2 b. ±2. –3. x = − . 1}. . 1 are rational zeros. ±4. ± 6. ± 2. ±2 q: ±1. 1 2 x3 − 5x 2 + x + 2 = 0 c. 1⎬ . ± 2. 1 2. − . f ( x) = x 3 − 2 x − 11x + 12 p: ±1. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 b. ± 12 q 4 1 12. c. a. ± 2. ± 3. 0 x 2 + 3x − 6 = 0 x= 1 x = 3. ( x − 3)(2 x 2 + 3x − 2) = 0 ( x − 3)(2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 f ( x) = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 3x − 6 p: ±1. 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 11x + 6 = 0 c. 2 c. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. ± 2. a. ± 2 p 1 3 : ± 1. . 2 b. b. . x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ 2. − . ±12 q: ±1 p : ± 1. x = . ±3. –3. 1 3. –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 5 x 2 + x + 2 p: ±1. –3 –11 6 6 9 –6 2 3 –2 0 3 is a zero. − 2 are rational zeros. ±6. x = −2 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. 11. ±3. ±2.

±2 p 1 : ± 1. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 307 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 2. ⎬. The solution set is ⎨ −2. ±2 q: ±1. 0 –4 8 –5 1 –3 5 1 –3 5 1 is a rational zero. 2 c.5 f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 3 x + 1 p: ±1 q: ±1. f ( x) = 2 x3 + 6 x 2 + 5 x + 2 p: ±1. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. 0 x 2 − 3x + 5 = 0 x= 6 1 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) 3 ± −11 2 3 ± i 11 = 2 = ⎧⎪ 3 + i 11 3 − i 11 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨1. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 15. a. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±5 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± q 2 1 2 b. ⎬. a. ± 2. ⎧⎪ 1 −1 + 5 −1 − 5 ⎫⎪ . ± q 2 –2 2 2(2) −2 ± −4 4 −2 ± 2i = 4 −1 ± i = 2 2 x2 + 2 x − 2 = 0 x= −2 ± 22 − 4(2)(1) = 1 is a rational zero. 2 2 2 x2 + 2 x + 1 = 0 c. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a c. a. −1 ± 12 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −1 ± 5 2 f ( x) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 8 x − 5 p: ±1. 2 2 ⎭ ⎩ x2 + x − 1 = 0 x= = −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 16. x= x= 1 –3 1 1 1 –1 2 –2 0 −1 + i −1 − i ⎫ ⎧ . Inc.PreCalculus 4E 14. ⎬. 5 2 –4 –4 –2 2 2 1 –2 is a rational zero. The solution set is ⎨ . ± 5 q 1 b. . .

x3 − 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. ± 2. 0 x3 + 2 x 2 − 7 x − 4 = 0 c. c. ± 12 q : ±1 p : ± 1. ± 4. ± 2. a. 1. ± 3. 4 are rational roots. 4 1 –2 –11 12 4 8 –12 b. ± 2. –2 –7 –4 4 8 4 1 2 1 4 is a root. ±4 q: ±1 p : ± 1. ± 2. ± 3. ± 3. 0 { 20. 1 + 7. a. ± 13 q 1 b. 1 –12 –2 4 12 1 –2 –6 –2 is a rational root. p : ± 1. ± 6. ± 6. –1. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 c. ± 12 q b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1. 1 2 –3 0 4 is a root. Inc. ( x + 1) 2 x = −1 x= The solution set is {4. 4 are rational roots. −1} . −3i}. 1 –5 17 –13 1 –4 13 1 –4 13 1 is a rational root.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. ± 4. 4 + 16 − 52 4 ± −36 = 2 2 4 ± 6i = = 2 ± 3i 2 The solution set is {1. . x=4 x = −3 x = 1 The solution set is {–3. ±13 q: ±1 p : ± 1. –2 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 2 x − 6) = 0 c. 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 0 ( x − 4) x = 4. ± 4. q : ±1 p : ± 1. 4}. ± 6. –10 } The solution set is −2. x 3 − 2 x 2 − 11x + 12 = 0 a. ± 2. 1 − 7 . ± 3. 308 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 19. ± 6. 1 2 ± 4 + 24 2 ± 28 = 2 2 2±2 7 = = 1± 7 2 ( x − 4)( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 18. ± 12 q x 3 − 5 x 2 + 17 x − 13 = 0 p: ±1. p : ± 1. 2. ± 4 q 4 0 x= x − 4 = 0 x + 3 = 0 x −1 = 0 b. ± 4. ± 12 x 3 − 10 x − 12 = 0 a. 2 + 3i. –3. ±2.

2 c. ± . ± 2. ± 4 q : ±1 p : ± 1. 23. ± . ± 3. 1 − 5 ⎬ . −2. ± 5 q : ± 1. . ± 3 ± 5 ± 15 q 3 1 0 –2 –16 –15 3 9 21 15 1 3 7 3 is a root. Inc. 1 + 5. 2 3⎭ ⎩ 22. 2 b.5 6 x 3 + 25 x 2 − 24 x + 5 = 0 a. 1 − 2 . 1 is a rational root. . p : ± 1. −1. ± 4 q b. ± q 2 2 3 3 6 6 –5 6 25 –24 5 –30 25 –5 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 a. p : ± 1. a. b. ±5. ± . ⎬ . ±4 q: ±1. ± . 2 are rational roots. ± 2 ± 4 ± q 2 1 2 2 ( x − 2)( x3 − 5 x − 2) = 0 ( x + 5)(2 x − 1)(3x − 1) = 0 x + 5 = 0 2 x − 1 = 0 3x − 1 = 0 1 1 x = −5. 6 –5 1 0 –5 is a root. ± 2. x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −5. 1 + –5 –6 4 1 –2 –4 –4 –8 0 24. ±15 q: ±1 p : ± 1. . 2 2 –2 –5 8 4 2 0 –10 –4 1 0 –5 –2 2 is a root. 6 x + 25 x − 24 x + 5 = 0 ( x + 5)(6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 3 c. Section 2. ±3. a. ± 5.3 are rational roots. ± 2. 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 1 ( x − ) ( 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8) = 0 2 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x2 − 2 x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ } 2. 1 1 −5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 p: ±1.PreCalculus 4E 21. are rational roots. 1 –2 2 x3 − 5x 2 − 6 x + 4 = 0 p: ±1. b. 2 3 c. 5 0 2± 2 5 = 1± 5 2 ⎧1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 0 x 4 − 2 x3 − 5x 2 + 8x + 4 = 0 1 1 –2 is a zero of x3 0 –5 –2 –2 4 2 –2 –1 0 – 5x –2 = 0. x = . ( x − 2)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 2± 4+4 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 2 2 2 = 1± 2 The solution set is x= {−2. ± 6 p 1 5 1 5 1 5 : ± 1. ⎩2 ⎭ x= 309 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. ±2. 2. ± .

. ) f ( x ) = 1( x3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 ) f ( x ) = x 3 − 3x 2 − 15 x + 125 28. − 1 + 2i. − 1 − 2i} . x 4 − 2 x 2 − 16 x − 15 = 0 27. = ( x − 1) ( x 2 + 25 ) ( x − 6) ( x + 5 + 2i ) ( x + 5 − 2i ) = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 5 x − 2ix + 5 x + 25 − 10i + 2ix + 10i − 4i 2 ) = x3 + 25 x − x 2 − 25 = ( x − 6) ( x 2 + 10 x + 29 ) = x3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − x 2 + 25 x − 25 ) = x 3 + 10 x 2 + 29 x − 6 x 2 − 60 x − 174 = x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 f (−1) = an (−1 − 1 − 25 − 25) f ( x) = an ( x 3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) −104 = an (−52) an = 2 f (2) = an (8 + 16 − 62 − 174) f ( x) = 2 ( x − x + 25 x − 25) 26. ( x − 3) ( x + 3x + 7 x + 5 ) = 0 3 –1 2 1 3 7 5 –1 –2 –5 2 5 0 1 −3ix + 12i − 9i 2 ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 8 x + 25 ) = ( x3 − 8 x 2 + 25 x + 5 x 2 − 40 x + 125 ) = x 3 − 3 x 2 − 15 x + 125 –1 is a root of x 3 + 3 x 2 + 7 x + 5 f ( x) = an ( x 3 – 3x 2 –15 x + 125) ( x − 3) ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 2 x + 5) ( f (2) = an 23 − 3 ( 2 ) − 15 ( 2 ) + 125 –2 ± 4 − 20 –2 ± −16 = x= 2 2 −2 ± 4i = = −1 ± 2i 2 The solution set is {3. (x – i)(x + i)(x – 3i)(x + 3i) = ( x 2 − i 2 )( x 2 − 9i 2 ) f (−1) = an (−1 − 4 − 4 − 16) = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 9 ) −50 = an (−25) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 f ( x) = an ( x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9) an = 2 f ( x) = 2 ( x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) f (–1) = an ((–1) 4 + 10(–1) 2 + 9) f ( x) = 2 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x − 32 20 = an (20) an = 1 f ( x ) = x 4 + 10 x 2 + 9 310 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. − 1. 25. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 91 = an (91) an = 1 ( x − 1) ( x + 5i ) ( x − 5i ) 3 ( x + 5 )( x − 4 − 3i )( x − 4 + 3i ) = ( x + 5 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 3ix − 4 x + 16 − 12i −636 = an (−212) 2 an = 3 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 2 x 2 + 50 x − 50 ( x − 4) ( x + 2i ) ( x − 2i ) f ( x) = 3 ( x3 + 4 x 2 − 31x − 174 ) = ( x − 4) ( x 2 + 4 ) f ( x) = 3 x3 + 12 x 2 − 93 x − 522 = x3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 f ( x) = an ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + 4 x − 16 ) 29.Polynomial and Rational Functions c.

f (− x) = 4 x 4 + x 3 + 5 x 2 + 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 1 sign variations. f ( − x ) = − x3 + 2 x 2 − 5 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. no negative real roots exist. f ( x) = −2 x 3 + x 2 − x + 7 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. 34.5 1⎞ ⎟ ( x − i )( x + i ) 2⎠ 5 ⎛ ⎞ = ⎜ x 2 + x + 1⎟ ( x 2 + 1) 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 = x 4 + x 2 + x3 + x + x 2 + 1 2 2 5 5 = x 4 + x3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1 2 2 5 ⎛ 4 5 3 ⎞ f ( x ) = an ⎜ x + x + 2 x 2 + x + 1 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 5 5 3 2 ⎡ 4 ⎤ f (1) = an ⎢(1) + (1) + 2 (1) + (1) + 1⎥ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ 18 = an (9) an = 2 f ( x) = x 3 + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 4 Since f(x) has no sign variations. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. f ( x) = x 3 + 7 x 2 + x + 7 Since f(x) has no sign variations no positive real roots exist. f (− x) = − x 3 + 7 x 2 − x + 7 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. no positive real roots exist. ( x + 2) ( x − 5) ( x − 3 + 2i ) ( x − 3 − 2i ) ( = (x )( − 3 x − 10 ) ( x = x 2 − 3 x − 10 x 2 − 3 x − 2ix − 3x + 9 + 6i + 2ix − 6i − 4i 2 2 2 − 6 x + 13 ) ) 36. 38. . Inc. 35. 2 or 0 positive real roots exist. 37. f ( − x ) = −5 x3 − 3 x 2 − 3x − 1 5 5 ⎛ ⎞ f ( x ) = 2 ⎜ x 4 + x 3 + 2 x 2 + x + 1⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 5x3 + 4 x 2 + 5 x + 2 31. no negative real roots exist. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 or 0 negative real roots exist. 1 negative real roots exist. f ( x) = 2 x 4 − 5 x3 − x 2 − 6 x + 4 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. f ( x) = 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. 33. = x 4 − 6 x + 13x 2 − 3 x3 + 18 x 2 − 39 x − 10 x 2 + 60 x − 130 = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ( f ( x) = an x 4 − 9 x3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 ) f (1) = an (1 − 9 + 21 + 21 − 130) −96 = an (−96) an = 1 f ( x) = x 4 − 9 x 3 + 21x 2 + 21x − 130 32. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. f(x) = 5 x 3 − 3 x 2 + 3 x − 1 Since f(x) has 3 sign variations. f ( − x ) = 2 x3 + x 2 + x + 7 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. Since f(–x) has no sign variations.PreCalculus 4E 30. f ( − x ) = 2 x 4 + 5 x3 − x 2 + 6 x + 4 Since f(–x) has 2 sign variations. ( x + 2 ) ⎛⎜ x + ⎝ Section 2. ( x + 4) (3x − 1) ( x − 2 + 3i ) ( x − 2 − 3i ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 2 x − 3ix − 2 x + 4 + 6i + 3ix − 6i − 9i 2 ) = ( 3 x 2 + 11x − 4 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) = 3 x 4 − 12 x 3 + 39 x 2 + 11x3 − 44 x 2 + 143x − 4 x 2 + 16 x − 52 = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 f ( x) = an ( 3x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 ) f (1) = an (3 − 1 − 9 + 159 − 52) 100 = an (100 ) an = 1 f ( x) = 3 x 4 − x3 − 9 x 2 + 159 x − 52 311 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 or 1 positive real roots exist. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist.

–1 2 –1 2 f ( x) = ( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x + 5) 40. ± . ± . . ± 4 f (− x) = –3 x3 − 8 x 2 + 8 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 1 sign changes. x = 1 The solution set is{–2. ±4. –10}. p : ± 1. f (− x) = −2 x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 4 2 or no negative real roots exist. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 2 42. 2 or no positive real roots exist. ± 5. exactly 1 negative real zero exists. 0 or 2 positive real zeros exist. ± 2 ± 5 ± 10 q 12 21 10 –1 –11 –10 1 11 –1 is a zero. 1 –1 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ 2 ⎛ 2 ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x − x − 4) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ = ( x + 2)( x − 5)( x − 1) x = –2. ⎬. f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( x 2 + 11x + 10 ) = ( x + 1)( x + 10)( x + 1) x = −1. ±10 q: ±1. ± 10 q : ±1 p : ± 1. ± 2. The solution set is ⎨ − . 2 − –9 –4 –1 1 4 –2 –8 0 1 is a root. q : ± 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. no positive zeros exist. 5 0 41. f (− x) = − x 3 + 12 x 2 − 21x + 10 Since f(–x) has 3 sign variations. ± 10 q Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. –2 1 –4 –7 10 –2 12 –10 1 –6 –2 is a zero. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. x = 5. x = −10 The solution set is {–1. ± . 2 x= f ( x) = x 3 + 12 x 2 + 2 x + 10 p: ±1. ± q 3 3 3 3 Since f(x) has 2 sign variations. 5. ± 5. f ( x) = x3 − 4 x 2 − 7 x + 10 p : ± 1. 10 0 1 ± 1 + 16 1 ± 17 = 2 2 ⎪⎧ 1 1 + 17 1 − 17 ⎪⎫ . ±5. ± 2. Inc. Since f(x) has no sign variations. exactly one negative real zeros exists. ±2. 1}. 3 x 3 − 8 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. ± 2. ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. ±2. ±8 q: ±1. ± 2. 2 x3 − x 2 − 9 x − 4 = 0 p : ± 1. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. 3 or 1 negative zeros exist. ± 4 ± q 2 1 positive real root exists. 312 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( − x ) = − x3 − 4 x 2 + 7 x + 10 Since f(–x) has 1 sign variation.

3 –1 2⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 − 6 x − 12 ) 3⎠ ⎝ 6 ± 36 + 144 6 ± 6 5 = 6 6 = 1± 5 –1 x= x= q : ±1 –1 –8 1 –3 4 8 0 1 –3 4 8 –1 4 –8 –4 8 0 1 2 0 = x − 4x + 8 10 –1 5 -4 -10 1 -5 4 10 0 1 -5 4 10 –1 6 –10 -6 10 0 −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(1)(10) 2(1) x =1 6 ± 36 − 40 2 6 ± −4 x= 2 6 ± 2i x= 2 x = 3±i = x 4 + 2 x 3 + x 2 − 12 x + 8 Since f(–x) has 2 sign changes. ±2.1 − 5 ⎬ . ⎩3 ⎭ 43. f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x3 − x 2 + 14 x + 10 p: ±1. ± 2. 3 + i} 45. –3 –20 –24 –8 –1 4 16 8 –16 –8 0 –4 ( x + 1) ( x − 4 x − 16 x − 8 ) = 0 3 2 313 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2. 3 or 1 negative real roots exist.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 2 + 2i. . ±2. ± 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 4. –1 1 –2 1 12 8 –4 14 x= p : ±1. 1 The solution set is {–1. –1 −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(8) x= 2(1) 1 1 4 ± 16 − 32 x= 2 4 ± −16 x= 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i The solution set is { –1. ± 4 ± 8 q 1 positive real root exists. ±10 q 2 is a zero. f (− x) = (− x) 4 − 2(− x)3 + (− x) 2 − 12 x + 8 4 -1 f ( x) = ( x − 1)( x − 1)( x 2 − 6 x + 10) f ( x) = x 4 − 2 x3 + x 2 + 12 x + 8 p : ±1. ± 2. ± 4. ± 8 q Since f(x) has 2 sign changes. x 4 − 3 x 3 − 20 x 2 − 24 x − 8 = 0 p : ± 1.5 3 2 3 3 –8 –8 8 2 –4 –8 –6 –12 0 44. 0 or 2 positive roots exist. ±10 q: ±1 p : ±1. ± 2.1 + 5. –1. 2 – 2i}. Inc. ±5. ±5. ± 8 –1 -4 1 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 0 or 2 negative roots exist. ± 8 q : ±1 p : ± 1. 3 – i.

± 3 p 1 2 : ± 1. ± 2. ±2. 2. ±3. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + 3x 3 − 11x 2 − 9 x + 15 p: ±1. 1 2 2 3 –11 –9 15 2 5 –6 –15 –6 –15 0 5 f ( x) = ( x − 1) ( 2 x + 5 x − 6 x − 15 ) 3 − 52 2 2 2 5 –6 –15 –5 0 15 0 –6 0 314 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 3. ± . Inc. q : ± 1. 4 3 –1 2 1 1 2 1 1 ( x + 1) 2 3 3 19 6 –3 14 –13 –6 –14 13 6 0 –14 13 6 6 –16 –6 –8 –3 0 –1 2 –4 –8 f ( x) = ( x + 1)( x − 2) ( 3x 2 − 8 x − 3) –1 2 –4 8 = ( x + 1)( x − 2)(3x + 1)( x − 3) –2 4 –8 0 1 x = −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 − 13 . 3⎬ . 2. − . ± . ± 2 ± 4 ± 8 q 1 negative real root exists. 3 ± f ( x) = 3 x 4 − 11x 3 − x 2 + 19 x + 6 p : ± 1. ± 6 –1 3 } 13. . − 2. ± 2. 0 (x 2 + 4) x + 1 = 0 x − 2 = 0 x2 + 4 = 0 x = –1 –1 f ( x) = ( x + 1) ( 3x 3 − 14 x 2 + 13x + 6 ) ( x + 1) ( x − 2 x + 4 x − 8 ) 3 –11 x=2 x 2 = −4 x = ±2i The solution set is {−1. ± 5. ±8 q: ±1 p : ± 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 1 1 –4 –16 –8 –2 12 8 –6 –4 0 47. ± 3. 2i. f (− x) = 2 x 4 − 3x 3 − 11x 2 + 9 x + 15 2 or no negative real zeros exist. x = 3 3 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1. ±5. ± . ±2 p 1 3 5 15 : ± 1. ±15 q: ±1. ± . ( x + 1)( x + 2) ( x 2 − 6 x − 4 ) = 0 6 ± 36 + 16 6 ± 52 = 2 2 6 ± 2 13 3 ± 13 = = 2 2 The solution set is x= {−1. ± 3. x = 2 x = − . ± 15. ± 6. 3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 –2 4 –8 2 0 8 0 4 ( x − 2) 48. − 2i} . 3 46. ± q 2 2 2 2 2 or no positive real zeros exist. ±4. x − x + 2x − 4x − 8 = 0 p: ±1. ± q 3 3 2 or no positive real zeros exists. f (− x) = 3x 4 + 11x 3 − x 2 − 19 x + 6 2 or no negative real zeros exist.

± q 2 2 or no positive real roots exists. − 3 ⎬ . x2 − 3 = 0 x2 = 3 x=± 3 5 x = 1. 2 3 4 –11 ( x − 4) ( 3x 3 + x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 q : ± 1. 4 ⎩ ⎭ 7 0 –18 –4 2 3 –8 8 –6 12 12 –8 –6 –6 4 0 ( x + 2)(2 x + 3x − 6 x − 6 x + 4) = 0 4 3 2 4 x 3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. 4 8 −1 ± 1 − 4 −1 ± i 3 = 2 2 ⎧⎪ 2 −1 + i 3 −1 − i 3 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨4. ± q 3 3 3 3 2 or no positive real roots exist. ± . 51.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. ±8 q: ±1. x = − .5 5⎞ ⎛ f ( x) = ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 6 ) 2⎠ ⎝ 5⎞ ⎛ = 2( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 − 3) 2⎠ ⎝ 50. ± 2. ± 2 ± 4 ± 8. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 3 2 4 –6 2⎞ ⎛ ( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3x 2 + 3x + 3) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2⎞ ⎛ 3( x − 4) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 2 − 34 3 3 ( x − 1)(4 x + 3x + 8 x + 6) = 0 3 –3 Another positive real root must exist. ± 4. − i 2 ⎬ . ±3 p 1 2 4 8 : ± 1. 1 negative real root exists. . − . 3 or 1 negative real root exist. Inc. ± 2. i 2. ± 8 q : ± 1. ± 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = − 3 2 ⎧ 5 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. . 4 p 1 3 1 3 : ± 1. ± 2. ⎬. ± 8. ± . 315 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± . ± 6. ± . ± . ± 3. 4 –1 5 –2 –6 4 3 8 6 3 8 6 0 12 4 4 –8 1 1 –2 0 3 8 6 –3 0 –6 0 8 0 1 1 –2 2 2 2 3 3 0 x= 4 x + 3 x + 8 x + 6 = 0 has no positive real roots. x 2 = −2 –2 x = ±i 2 2 3 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨1. ± 3. ± 6 1 3 x 4 − 11x3 − 3 x 2 − 6 x + 8 = 0 p: ±1. f (− x) = 3 x 4 + 11x3 − 3 x 2 + 6 x + 8 2 or no negative real roots exist. . x = 3. ± q 2 2 4 4 3 or 1 positive real roots exists. ±2. ± 2. ± 4 3 3 3 4 x 4 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 2 x − 6 = 0 p : ± 1. 3. ± 2 p 1 : ± 1. ± . − . 3⎞ ⎛ ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 4 x 2 + 8 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ 4( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2 ) = 0 4⎠ ⎝ 2 x +2 =0 2 x 5 + 7 x 4 − 18 x 2 − 8 x + 8 = 0 p : ± 1. ± 2. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 49. ±4.

− 4. ± . ± 6. We verify this below: −4 −1 1 16 −16 4 −20 −1 5 −4 x2 = 2 x=± 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ −2. ±24 q: ±1. ± 3. q 2 2 1 3 ± . Inc. Thus. b. 1.Polynomial and Rational Functions –2 2 2 3 –6 –6 4 –4 2 8 –4 –1 –4 2 0 ( x − 3)( x + 2)( x + 4) ( 4 x 2 − 1) = 0 4 x2 −1 = 0 4 x2 = 1 1 x2 = 4 1 x=± 2 ( x + 2) 2 (2 x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 2) 2 1 2 –1 –4 2 1 0 2 0 –4 0 2 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨3. ± 4. x=4 . f ( x ) = − x3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 a. ±2. f (− x) = −4 x5 + 12 x 4 + 41x3 − 99 x 2 − 10 x + 24 3 or 1 negative real roots exist. . . ±8. 2 2⎭ ⎩ 1⎞ ⎛ ( x + 2)2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x 2 − 4 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2( x + 2) 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x −2 = 0 53. ± . ( x − 3) ( 4 x + 24 x + 31x − 6 x − 8) = 0 4 –2 3 2 24 31 –6 –8 –8 –32 2 8 –1 –4 0 4 4 16 ( x − 3)( x + 2) ( 4 x + 16 x − x − 4 ) = 0 3 –4 4 4 2 16 –1 4 –16 0 4 0 –1 0 316 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±3. 2. ± 2. ±4. − ⎬ . ±4 p 1 3 : ± 1. ±2. 4 4 12 –41 –99 10 24 12 72 93 –18 –24 24 31 –6 –8 0 − x 3 + x 2 + 16 x − 16 = 0 ( x + 4) ( − x2 + 5x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 ) ( x2 − 5x + 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 4 )( x − 1)( x − 4 ) = 0 4 x 5 + 12 x 4 − 41x3 − 99 x 2 + 10 x + 24 = 0 p: ±1. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 52. 3 16 0 x + 4 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x = −4 x =1 The zeros are −4 . we can see that −4 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. ±12. ±6. − 2. ± 12. From the graph provided. ± 8. and 4. − 2 ⎬ . ± 24. Publishing as Prentice Hall.± 4 4 2 or no positive real roots exist.

f ( x ) = 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 a. − ( x + 1)( x − 2 ) = 0 2 x +1 = 0 or x = −1 ( x − 2) 2 =0 x−2 = 0 x=2 The zeros are −1 and 2. . From the graph provided. b. Section 2. we can see that 1 1 1 3 3 3 0 Thus. 3x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 3 x + 3 x + 3) = 0 3 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 3 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + x + 1) = 0 3⎠ ⎝ 55. From the graph provided.5 f ( x ) = − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. b. 2 317 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 54. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 9 −1 ± −3 2 1 3 −1 ± 3i i = =− ± 2 2 2 1 3 1 i. ( x + 1) ( − x 2 + 4 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x + 1) ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) = 0 56. Inc. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. 2x − 3 = 0 2x = 3 x= The zeros are −1 and 3 2 3 . 1 is an x3 intercept and is thus a zero of the function. We verify this below: −1 −1 3 0 −4 1 −4 −1 4 −4 4 0 − x3 + 3x 2 − 4 = 0 Thus. We verify this below: −1 4 −8 −3 9 x= −4 12 −9 4 −12 Thus. The zeros are and − ± 2 2 3 4 x3 − 8 x 2 − 3x + 9 = 0 ( x + 1)( 2 x − 3) = 0 or ( 2 x − 3) 2 = 0 2 x = −1 2 (1) = 0 ( x + 1) ( 4 x 2 − 12 x + 9 ) = 0 x +1 = 0 −1 ± 12 − 4 (1)(1) b. so we use the quadratic formula: 1 or x 2 + x + 1 = 0 x− =0 3 a =1 b =1 c =1 1 x= 3 f ( x ) = 4 x3 − 8x 2 − 3x + 9 a. Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. we can see that −1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. We verify this below: 1 3 3 2 2 −1 From the graph provided.

2 x 4 + 2 x3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 Test 3: 3 4 −18 −36 2 2 4 −18 −36 The possible rational zeros are: Thus. ± 3. ± 2. 36 12 0 2 x + 2 x − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 = 0 4 3 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( 2 x 2 + 10 x + 12 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3) ( x 2 + 5 x + 6 ) = 0 2 ( x − 1)( x − 3)( x + 3)( x + 2 ) = 0 The remainder is 0. − 2 . 3. ± 3. and 3. 2 = −4 −6 2 −2 −8 −12 b. x = 3. 0 2 x − 3x − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 4 Thus. 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 = 0 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2 ⎝ ⎠ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x − 3) ( x 2 + 2 x + 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Note that x 2 + x + 1 will not factor. 3 1⎞ ⎛ 3 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( 2 x − 2 x − 8 x − 12 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x3 − x 2 − 4 x − 6 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 3 To factor x − x 2 − 4 x − 6 . we can see that 1 and 3 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Polynomial and Rational Functions 57. ± 2. ± 3. Inc. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −22 −18 36 Factors of − 6 ±1. 1. x = −3. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 58. ± 2. Factors of the constant term −6 : ±1. we can see that 1 −1 −2 ± −4 −2 ± 2i = = −1 ± i 2 2 1 The zeros are . x= 1 is an 2 x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. . From the graph provided. b. We verify this below: 1 2 2 −3 −7 −8 6 −2 ± 22 − 4 (1)( 2 ) 2 (1) From the graph provided. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 2 x 3 − 22 x 2 − 18 x + 36 a. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. so we use the quadratic formula: a =1 b = 2 c = 2 x = 1. and −1 ± i . One possibility is shown next: = ( x − 1) ( 2 x3 + 4 x 2 − 18 x − 36 ) 3 2 6 6 2 2 0 30 2 10 1 −1 −4 −6 1 4 −18 −36 6 3 0 Thus. ± 6 We test values from above until we find a zero. f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − 3x3 − 7 x 2 − 8 x + 6 a. so 3 is a zero of f. x = −2 The zeros are −3. ± 6 = Factors of 1 ±1 = ±1. 318 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

± 3 3 3 We test values from above until we find a zero. ± .5 f ( x ) = 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 a. ± 4. . 3x + 2 x − 15 x − 10 x + 12 x + 8 5 4 3 2 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) = ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) To factor 3 x 3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 . One possibility is shown next: 319 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1.PreCalculus 4E 59. 3 = ( x − 1) ( 3x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8) 2 3 5 −10 −20 −8 6 22 3 11 24 12 8 4 b. ± 3 1 2 4 = ±1. We verify this below: 1 −5 4 −19 16 4 −5 −1 −20 −4 −5 −1 −20 −4 0 Thus. ± 2. we can see that 1 is an x-intercept and is thus a zero of the function. we can see that 1 and 2 are x-intercepts and are thus zeros of the function. ± . ± 4 = Factors of 3 ±1. ± . ± 2. 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 2 x = 1. We verify this below: 1 3 2 −15 −10 12 8 ( x − 1) ( 3 x 4 + 5 x3 − 10 x 2 − 20 x − 8 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 ) ( 3x3 + 11x 2 + 12 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1) ( 3x 2 + 8 x + 4 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x − 2 )( x + 1)( 3 x + 2 )( x + 2 ) = 0 5 −10 −20 −8 3 3 5 −10 −20 −8 0 Thus. − . One possibility is shown next: Test −1 : − 1 3 11 12 4 8 4 From the graph provided. ± 5 5 5 We test values from above until we find a zero. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 To factor 5 x 3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 . ± 5 −3 −8 −4 3 f ( x ) = −5 x 4 + 4 x3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 0 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 4 ±1. x = 2. ± 3 60. ± 2. a. Section 2. ± 4. we use the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational zeros. ± 2. −1 . 0 Thus. ± 2. ± 4 = Factors of 5 ±1. ± 5 1 2 4 = ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so −1 is a zero of f. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 5: ±1. ± 4 Factors of the leading coefficient 3: ±1. ± . x = −1. The remainder is 0. 1 and 2. Inc. Factors of the constant term 4: ±1. We can now finish the factoring: 3x 5 + 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 − 10 x 2 + 12 x + 8 = 0 From the graph provided. x = −2 3 2 The zeros are −2 . x = − . ± 2.

reject the negative value. 5 −5 x 4 + 4 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x + 4 = 0 The remainder is 0. b.8. – 71.2 inches to obtain a volume of 1500 cubic inches. 2000). 50 −1000 5 −100 The range is (0.8 inches to obtain a volume of 2000 cubic inches. 320 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. 7. and ±2i .2 Since the depth must be positive. 12. so − ( x − 1) ( −5 x3 − x 2 − 20 x − 4 ) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 5 x3 + x 2 + 20 x + 4 ) = 0 62. 1500) and (12. V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 2000 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 63. a.8 Since the depth must be positive. 10 1 −5 −150 1000 10 1 64.2. 2000 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x b. The depth can be 10 inches or 7. Answers may vary. x = 2i 5 1 The zeros are − . 1500). 15). x = −2i. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 5 1 0 −750 0 −150 0 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots.2. The depth can be 5 inches or 12. 15). reject the negative value. −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(0) ± (0)2 − 4(1)(−150) 2(1) x ≈ −12. x= 4 −(5) ± (5)2 − 4(1)(−100) 2(1) x ≈ −12. a. The range is (0. 2000) and (10. 1. 1⎞ ⎛ − ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( 5 x 2 + 20 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 4 ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ V ( x) = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = x( x + 10)(30 − 2 x) 1500 = −2 x3 + 10 x 2 + 300 x 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 1500 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 750 = 0 Find the roots. 5 1 −5 −150 750 1⎞ ⎛ −5 ( x − 1) ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x + 2i )( x − 2i ) = 0 5⎠ ⎝ 1 x = 1. 2 x 3 − 10 x 2 − 300 x + 2000 = 0 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 150 x + 1000 = 0 Find the roots. . The answers correspond to the points (7. x= b. The answers correspond to the points (5.8. x = − .Polynomial and Rational Functions 1 Test − : 5 − 15 5 1 20 −1 5 Use the remaining quadratic to find the other 2 roots. x= 61. 0 −4 0 20 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= 0 1 is a zero of f. 0 65.

PreCalculus 4E 72. Section 2. 3 and 5. 2. ± q 2 4 100 0 From the graph. 3. From the graph. so no negative real roots exist. ± 3. 2 2 6 x 3 − 19 x 2 + 16 x − 4 = 0 p: ±1. ± . ±9. ± q 2 2 2 2 75. ± . f ( x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(x) has no sign variations. . ±15 q: ±1. ±6 1 1 2 4 1 p : ± 1. ±2 1 3 5 15 p : ± 1. ±9. 2 x 4 + 7 x 3 − 4 x 2 − 27 x − 18 = 0 p : ± 1. so either 5. ±3. ±3. ± . ± q 2 2 2 f ( x ) = x 5 − x 4 + x3 − x 2 + x − 8 f(x) has 5 sign variations. ±2. 74. ±18. ± . ± 2. The polynomial’s graph doesn’t intersect the x-axis. Even functions do not. ± . we see that the solutions are 1 2 . no negative roots exist.5 2 x 3 − 15 x 2 + 22 x + 15 = 0 p: ±1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. or 1 positive real roots exist. − 1. ± . ±2. ±2. q : ± 1. 2 73. ± . ±2 77. 2 3 and 2. ± 2. ± . f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 5 x 2 + 2 Since f(–x) has no sign variations. 2 78. ±18 From the graph. From the graph we see the solutions are 3 −3. we see that the solutions are 1 1 − and . ±2. ±2 q: ±1. f ( − x ) = − x5 − x 4 − x3 − x 2 − x − 8 f(–x) has no sign variations. ± 4. ±6. ±4 1 1 p : ± 1. ± 15. ± . From the graph we see that the solutions are 1 − . ±3. ± q 2 3 3 3 6 76. 321 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±4 q: ±1. Inc. 1 3 9 p : ± 1. ± . ± 5. Odd functions must have at least one real zero. we see that there are no real solutions. ±2. ±5. − . 40 0 4 x 4 + 4 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 2 = 0 p: ±1. it has no positive real roots. ±6. ±3.

1 real zero 2 nonreal complex zeros 80. 87. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction. the smallest degree is 5. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 95. so no positive roots exist. makes sense 96. Inc. 85. 322 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = x 6 − 64 93. A sample change is: The equation has 0 sign variations. the smallest degree is 3. 94. The equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 0. A sample change is: Descartes’ Rule gives the maximum possible number of real roots. 84. Answers will vary 82. false. . Answers may vary. 97. does not make sense. Because the polynomial has no obvious changes of direction but the graph is obviously not linear. 2 real zeros 4 nonreal complex zeros 83. makes sense 99. the smallest degree is 5. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 + 6 x3 − 4 x 2 − 24 x + 16 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 5 )( x + 2 ) − 3x ( x + 5 ) = 208 ( 2 x 2 + 11x + 5) ( x + 2 ) − 3x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 11x 2 + 22 x + 5 x +10 − 3 x 2 − 15 x = 208 2 x 3 + 15 x 2 + 27 x − 3 x 2 − 15 x − 198 = 0 2 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 12 x − 198 = 0 2 ( x 3 + 6 x 2 + 6 x − 99 ) = 0 3 real zeros 2 nonreal complex zeros 81.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. Two roots appear twice. false. The equation of the vertical asymptote is x = 1. 91. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 100. the smallest degree is 3. 98. 89. The function is undefined at x = 1 and x = 2. Sample explanation: The quadratic formula is can be applied only of equations of degree 2. false. 86. A sample change is: Polynonials of degree n have at most n distinct solutions. 2 92. true 90. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Because the polynomial has two obvious changes of direction and two roots have multiplicity 2. f ( x) = x 3 − 6 x − 9 88. Explanations will vary. 3 f ( x) = 3 x 4 + 4 x3 − 7 x 2 − 2 x − 3 1 1 6 6 –99 3 27 99 9 33 0 x + 9 x + 33 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = −51 x = 3 in.

3i (2 + i ) = 6i + 3i 2 = −3 + 6i 3. ∞ ) −75 − −12 = 5i 3 − 2i 3 = 3i 3 (2 − −3 ) = (2 − i 3) 2 2 = 4 − 4i 3 + 3i 2 = 4 − 4i 3 − 3 = 1 − 4i 3 7. 6. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = ( 0 − 3) − 4 = 5 2 domain: (−∞. f ( x ) = ( x − 3) − 4 2 The parabola opens up because a > 0. 9. ∞) range: [ −4. 5. 5] 323 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point 1. x(2 x − 3) = −4 2 The parabola opens down because a < 0. . Inc. (1 + i )(4 − 3i ) = 4 − 3i + 4i − 3i 2 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (6 − 2i ) − (7 − i ) = 6 − 2i − 7 + i = −1 − i 2. ∞) range: ( −∞. The vertex is (3. –4). The vertex is (–2. 5). x-intercepts: 0 = ( x − 3) − 4 2 ( x − 3) = 4+i+3= 7+i 4. 2 =4 x−3 = ± 4 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i + i + i2 = ⋅ = 1− i 1− i 1+ i 1 − i2 1 + 2i − 1 = 1+1 2i = 2 =i x = 3± 2 The equation has x-intercepts at x = 1 and x = 5 . x-intercepts: 2 x 2 − 3 x = −4 2 x 2 − 3x + 4 = 0 x= f ( x ) = 5 − ( x + 2) 0 = 5 − ( x + 2) −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a ( x + 2) −(−3) ± (−3) 2 − 4(2)(4) x= 2(2) 2 2 =5 x+2 = ± 5 x = −2 ± 5 y-intercept: 3 ± −23 x= 4 3 23 x= ± i 4 4 f ( 0) = 5 − ( 0 + 2) = 1 2 domain: (−∞.

the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 1. ∞) range: ( −∞. degree 5. 2(−1) 2 ( x + 1) 3 =0 ( x − 2 ) ( x + 1) 2 4 ± 36 −2 x = −2 ± 3 The x-intercepts are x = 1 and x = −5 . ∞ ) f ( −2 ) = −(−2) 2 − 4(−2) + 5 = 9 The vertex is (–2. b −4 vertex: x = − =− = −2 2a 2(−1) domain: (−∞. y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = −02 − 4(0) + 5 = 5 x= 3 Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 3 f ( x ) = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 The parabola opens up because a > 0. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. 9). f ( x ) = − x2 − 4 x + 5 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = 3(0)2 − 6(0) + 1 = 1 The parabola opens down because a < 0. is positive.Polynomial and Rational Functions 10. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at 2 since the zero has multiplicity 2. b −6 =− =1 vertex: x = − 2a 2(3) f (1) = 3(1)2 − 6(1) + 1 = −2 The vertex is (1. . 9] 11. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at −1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞) range: [ −2. and since the leading coefficient. since the zero has multiplicity 3. Inc. x-intercepts: 0 = 3x 2 − 6 x + 1 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−6) ± (−6) 2 − 4(3)(1) 2(3) x= 6 ± 24 6 x= 3± 6 3 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. domain: (−∞. –2). x-intercepts: 0 = − x2 − 4 x + 5 x= x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(−1)(5) 12. f ( x ) = ( x − 2) 324 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph.

PreCalculus 4E 13.. 14. since all have multiplicity 1. since all have multiplicity 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. is positive. −2 . 1. Inc. degree 3. x = 2. and 2. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. is negative. x4 − 5x2 + 4 = 0 2 ( x + 1) 6 =0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 The zero is are −1 . Since f is an even-degree polynomial. and since the leading coefficient. 1. x = −2. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around at −1 since the zero has multiplicity 6. f ( x ) = x4 − 5x2 + 4 (x Apply the zero-product principle: ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or ( x + 1) 2 − 4 )( x 2 − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. x = −1. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. x = 1 The zeros are −2 . and 2. Apply the zero-product principle: x + 2 = 0 or x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x = −2 x=2 x =1 The zeros are −2 . and since the leading coefficient. is negative. −1 . Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. −1 . −1 . −2 . Since f is an even-degree polynomial. degree 6. The graph crosses the x-axis at all four zeros. x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) 6 − ( x + 1) = 0 6 ( x − 1) − 4 ( x − 1) = 0 ( x 2 − 4 ) ( x − 1) = 0 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 x 2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 )( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 =0 x−2= 0 x +1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 The zeros are −1 and 2. is positive. the graph falls to the left and falls to the right. degree 4. Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point f ( x ) = − ( x − 2) − ( x − 2) 2 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 =0 2 15. and 2. 1. . degree 4. Since f is an even-degree polynomial. and since the leading coefficient. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. and 2. −1 . 1. 325 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = x3 − x 2 − 4 x + 4 16. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and since the leading coefficient. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. the graph rises to the left and rises to the right. The graph touches the x-axis and turns around both at −1 and 2 since both zeros have multiplicity 2. 1. 1.

x = 3 2 1 1 The zeros are − . The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of − 6 ±1. degree 3. x = −1. and since the leading coefficient. − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( 26 ) 2 (1) 2 2 ± −100 2 ± 10i = = 1 ± 5i 2 2 The zeros are 0 and 1 ± 5i . 0. −6 . so 1 is a zero. and 1. Thus. f ( x ) = −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 18. ± 3. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at 0 (the only real zero). 2 x3 − 2 x = 0 To find the zeros. ± 2. is positive.Polynomial and Rational Functions 17. and 1. . ± 2. since it has multiplicity 1. ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. 1 1 − . ± 3. ± 2 3 6 We test values from the above list until we find a zero. Apply the zero-product property: 1 1 x = 1. 3 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x x3 − 2 x 2 + 26 x = 0 x ( x 2 − 2 x + 26 ) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x + 26 does not factor. and 1. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. ± . the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. 0. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. and since the leading coefficient. degree 3. 2. . b = −2. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. and 1. so we use the quadratic formula: x = 0 or x 2 − 2 x + 26 = 0 a = 1. c = 26 The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. is negative. 3 2 x= Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. x =1 The zeros are −1 . −1 . . x = − . we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 List all factors of the leading coefficient −6 : ±1. The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 −6 7 0 −1 −6 −6 1 1 1 1 0 f ( x ) = 2 x3 − 2 x The remainder is 0. ± 6 2 x ( x 2 − 1) = 0 2 x ( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero-product principle: x = 0. −6 x 3 + 7 x 2 − 1 = 0 ( x − 1) ( −6 x 2 + x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − x − 1) = 0 − ( x − 1)( 3x + 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 19. ± . Publishing as Prentice Hall. since all have multiplicity 1. Inc. since all have multiplicity 1. = 326 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

21. degree 3. and since the leading coefficient. f ( x ) = − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 To find the zeros. since all have multiplicity 1. b = −2. we use the Rational Zero Theorem: List all factors of the constant term −3 : ±1. Factors of the constant term 2: ±1. so we use the quadratic formula: x − 3 = 0 or x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 0 x=3 a = 1. ± 3 Factors of − 1 ±1 We test values from above until we find a root. Inc. so 1 is a root of the equation. Publishing as Prentice Hall. and since the leading coefficient. degree 3. 3 and 1 ± 2 . ± 2 = = ±1. x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 − x3 + 5 x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 x= 2 1 −2 1 1 −2 The remainder is 0. Thus. 1.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. ± 2 Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Apply the zero-product property: 2 ( x − 1) = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = −2 x −1 = 0 x =1 The solutions are −2 and 1. −1 .1} . − ( −2 ) ± x3 − 3x + 2 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. and the solution set is {−2. Since f is an odd-degree polynomial. 327 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −1) 2 (1) 2 2± 8 2±2 2 = = 1± 2 2 2 The zeros are 3 and 1 ± 2 . The graph of f crosses the x-axis at all three zeros. c = −1 = 0 The remainder is 0. One is shown next: Test 1: 1 1 0 −3 Test 3: −1 3 −1 1 5 −5 −3 −3 6 3 2 1 0 ( x − 1) ( x 2 + x − 2 ) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 2 )( x − 1) = 0 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) = 0 ( x − 3) ( − x 2 + 2 x + 1) = 0 − ( x − 3) ( x 2 − 2 x − 1) = 0 Note that x 2 − 2 x − 1 does not factor. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. is negative. is positive. Thus. 20. so 3 is a zero. One is shown next: We test values from the previous list until we find a zero. ± 2 Factors of 1 ±1 Factors of − 3 ±1. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. Plot additional points as necessary and construct the graph. ± 3 = = ±1. . ± 3 List all factors of the leading coefficient −1 : ±1 The possible rational zeros are: The possible rational zeros are: Factors of 2 ±1.

± 2 2 2 2 Factors of 500 = ±1. ± 25. ± 125. ⎩3 2 ⎭ 23. ± . and the solution 2 5 ⎧ ⎫ set is ⎨ −10. 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( 2 x + 1)( 3x − 2 ) ( 2 x − 7 ) = 0 3 Apply the zero-product property: 2x +1 = 0 1 x=− 2 or (3x − 2) 3 = 0 or 3x − 2 = 0 x= 2 3 x = −10 2x − 7 = 0 7 T x= 2 1 2 7 and . 10 ⎬ . ± 2. ⎩ 2 3 2⎭ 328 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± .Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. and the solution set he solutions are − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ± 10. Thus. ± 25. ± 4. ± 2. so 1 is a root of the equation. ± 20. ⎬ . ± 250. x= Apply the zero-product property: x − 10 = 0 or 2 x + 5 = 0 or x + 10 = 0 x = 10 x=− 5 2 5 The solutions are −10. Factors of 2 ±10. . ± 100. ± 125. ± 6 24. ± 2 3 6 The possible rational zeros are: We test values from above until we find a root. and the solution set is 3 2 ⎧1 1 ⎫ ⎨ . ± 2 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 1 ±1 = Factors of 6 ±1. Factors of the constant term −1 : ±1 Factors of the leading coefficient 6: ±1. so 10 is a root of the equation. ± 2. ± 3. ± 5. Factors of the constant term −500 : ±1. and 1. 1⎬ . ± 6 1 1 1 = ±1. − . 2 x3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 ( x − 1) ( 6 x 2 − 5 x + 1) = 0 ( x − 1)( 3 x − 1)( 2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 x= 3 2 1 1 The solutions are . and 10 . . ± 100. ± 3. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 500. Test 1: 1 6 −11 6 We test values from above until we find a root. 2 3 2 ⎧ 1 2 7⎫ is ⎨ − . ± 2. ± . ± . 2 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 200 x − 500 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. Inc. ± 500 Factors of the leading coefficient 2: ±1. ± 4. − . ± . Thus. ± 50. 6 x 3 − 11x 2 + 6 x − 1 = 0 5 −200 −500 20 250 500 2 25 50 0 ( x − 10 ) ( 2 x 2 + 25 x + 50 ) = 0 ( x − 10 )( 2 x + 5 )( x + 10 ) = 0 Apply the zero-product property: x − 1 = 0 or 3 x − 1 = 0 or 2 x − 1 = 0 x =1 2 The remainder is 0. One is shown next: 6 −1 6 −5 −5 1 1 Test 10: 0 10 The remainder is 0. ± 20. One is shown next: 1 5 25 125 ±250. ± 5. . ±50.

± 3. As this point we know that −3 and 4 are roots of the equation.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 2 Check Point x − x − 11x − x − 12 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 3. ± 3. ± 2 2 We test values from above until we find a root. ± 12 12 1 −4 1 −4 0 Test The remainder is 0. ± 2. and the solution set is {−3. 4 3 2 −3 The possible rational zeros are: Factors of − 12 Factors of 1 ±1. Thus. ± 3. c = −2 At this point. we know that x + 3 is a factor of the polynomial. ± 4. ± 3. and ±i . ± 6. ± 6 = Factors of 2 ±1. ± 6. so −3 is a root. so −3 is a root of the equation. ± 2 1 3 = ±1. so 1 1 is a zero and x − is a 2 2 factor. Using the Factor Theorem. we have 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 ( x + 3) ( 2 x3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 x = −1 2 ( x + 3) ⎛⎜ x − x = ± −1 = ± i 26. ± . ± 12 Factors of 6 ±1. ± 2. One possibility is shown next: Factors of the leading coefficient 1: ±1 Test −3 : x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 = x + 12 25. ± 4. Inc. One possibility is shown next: −3 1 −17 −4 2 ⎝ 1⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2x − 4x − 4) = 0 2⎠ The roots are −3 . b = −2. 2 x 4 + x 3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We test values from this list we find a root. we need to factor 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 . Using the Factor Theorem. ± 4. ± 3. Note that x 2 + 1 does not factor. ± 2. 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ( x + 3) ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 − 2 x − 2 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 2 x 4 + x3 − 17 x 2 − 4 x + 6 = 0 We begin by using the Rational Zero Theorem to determine possible rational roots. ± 6. 15 −2 To solve the equation above. ± 2 1 are roots of 2 the equation. x 4 − x 3 − 11x 2 − x − 12 = 0 1 2 6 −6 2 0 1 : 2 2 −5 −2 2 1 −2 −2 ( x + 3) ( x 3 − 4 x 2 + x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 3) ⎡⎣ x 2 ( x − 4 ) + 1( x − 4 )⎤⎦ = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 1) = 0 2 −4 −4 0 The remainder is 0. ± 2. ± i} . ± 6. so we use the square-root principle: x 2 + 1 = 0 Summarizing our findings so far. ± 12 = ±1 = ±1. 4. Factors of the constant term 6: ±1. so we use the quadratic formula: x2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 a = 1. ± 6 Factors of the leading coefficient 4: ±1. we know that −3 and The possible rational roots are: 329 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 4. ± 2. Factors of the constant term −12 : ±1. Thus. We continue testing potential roots: 1 −1 −11 −1 −12 12 −3 −6 2 −5 ( x + 3) ( 2 x 3 − 5 x 2 − 2 x + 2 ) = 0 Test −3 : −3 6 The remainder is 0. ± 2. Note that x 2 − 2 x − 2 does not factor. . we know that x − 1 is a factor. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

. 2 ⎩ ⎭ 27. The maximum product is f ( x) = an ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) 81. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 an = −2 f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) or − 2 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 2 x + 2 f ( −9 ) = −9 ⎡⎣ −18 − ( −9 ) ⎤⎦ 33. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 250 − 4425 = 1200 The company will maximize its profit by manufacturing and selling 75 cabinets per day. and the 2 1 ⎧ ⎫ solution set is ⎨ −3. 3 Let x = one of the numbers. 330 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.81) . P ( 75 ) = −752 + 150(75) − 4425 (2x 4 +3 x +1 x +1 3x2 − 1 − 13x 3 + 17 x 2 + 18 x − 24 ) ÷ ( x − 4 ) 4 = −5625 + 11. f ( x) = x 3 − x − 5 f (1) = 13 − 1 − 5 = −5 f (2) = 23 − 2 − 5 = 1 Yes. f (0) = an (0 − 2)(0 − 2)(02 + 9) 36 = 36an an = 1 Let x = height of triangle. −18 − x = the other number The product is f ( x ) = x ( −18 − x ) = − x 2 − 18 x 32.Polynomial and Rational Functions x= − ( −2 ) ± ( −2 ) − 4 (1)( −2 ) 2 (1) 2 30. we know the function opens down and has a maximum at b 150 150 x=− =− =− = 75 . 2 2 –13 17 18 –24 8 -20 –12 24 6 0 –5 –3 The quotient is 2 x − 5 x − 3 x + 6 . The maximum daily profit is $1200. This occurs when the two number are −9 and −18 − (−9) = −9 . +x 2 Since a = −1 is negative. 2 x2 − x − 3 3x − 1 6 x − 3x − 11x 2 + 2 x + 4 2 4 − 3 x3 − 9 x 2 + 2 x −3 x 3 − 9x + x + 4 −9 x 2 P ( x ) = − x 2 + 150 x − 4425 2 x2 − x − 3 + 31. and 1 ± 3 . A(10) = 20(10) − (10) 2 = 100 The maximum area is 100 squares inches. 1 ± 3 ⎬ . the function must have a real zero between 1 and 2 because f (1) and f (2) have opposite signs. . Inc. = −9 ( −18 + 9 ) = −9 ( −9 ) = 81 29. . 2a 2 ( −1) f ( x) = 1( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) f ( x) = x 4 − 4 x 3 + 13x 2 − 36 x + 36 34. 40 − 2x = base of triangle 1 1 A = bh = x(40 − 2 x) 2 2 A( x) = 20 x − x 2 The height at which the triangle will have 20 b maximum area is x = − =− = 10. 2 ( x − 1)( x − i )( x + i ) = ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f ( x) = an ( x − 1)( x 2 + 1) f (−1) = an (−1 − 1) ( (−1) 2 + 1) = −4an = 8 The x-coordinate of the maximum is b −18 −18 x=− =− =− = −9. − 2 x2 6 x4 2 ± 4 + 8 2 ± 12 2 ± 2 3 = = = = 1± 3 2 2 2 1 The solutions are −3 . 3 ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x − 3i )( x + 3i ) = ( x − 2)( x − 2)( x 2 + 9) The vertex is ( −9. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 28.

y = 9 =3 3 y = 3 is a horizontal asymptote. All real numbers. The denominator cannot equal zero. No vertical asymptotes. The denominator cannot equal zero.6 5. Inc. x 2 − 25 = 0 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 {x | x ≠ 5. Since n < m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. Since n = m. 1 . x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = 1. Shift the graph 1 unit down by subtracting 1 from each y-coordinate. . 2 x2 = 0 x=0 The x-intercept is 0. 2 3x − 3 = 0 3x = 3 x =1 The x-intercept is 1. x = −1 b. Vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: 3 y= =3 1 f ( x) = x −1 x −1 1 = = 2 x − 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) x + 1 x = −1 3. c. Since n > m. 2(0) 2 f (0) = 2 =0 0 −9 The y-intercept is 0. c.6 Section 2. Check Point Exercises 1. a. 4. a. y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote. x ≠ −5} 2. 331 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x −5 = 0 x=5 { x x ≠ 5} b. f ( x) = Shift the graph 2 units to the left by subtracting 2 from each x-coordinate. g ( x) = 3x − 3 x−2 3(− x) − 3 −3 x − 3 3x + 3 = = f (− x) = −x − 2 −x − 2 x+2 no symmetry 3(0) − 3 3 f (0) = = 0−2 2 3 The y-intercept is . Begin with the graph of f ( x) = 6. a. there is no horizontal asymptote.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. c. x 2x2 x2 − 9 2(− x)2 2x2 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 The y-axis symmetry.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10. g ( x) = 2 x2 ( x − 2)( x + 6) { x x ≠ 2.Polynomial and Rational Functions vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 x = 3. a. Inc. C ( x) = 500. 000 + 400 x x 500. $450. 2 –1 5 the equation of the slant asymptote is y = 2x – 1. x4 x2 + 2 (− x)4 x4 f (− x) = = = f ( x) (− x) 2 + 2 x 2 + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 f (0) = 2 =0 0 +2 The y-intercept is 0. x4 = 0 f ( x) = d. 8. and 100. y= x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. 500. there is no horizontal asymptote. x=0 The x-intercept is 0. 000 = 405 The average cost per wheelchair of producing 1000. 10.6 x 2 = −2 no vertical asymptotes horizontal asymptote: Since n > m. 000) 10. C ( x) = 500. 2 2 –5 7 4 –2 g ( x) = 3x 2 ( x − 5)( x + 4) { x x ≠ 5. . 000) 100. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: 2 y= =2 1 9. C (100. f ( x) = 5x x−4 { x x ≠ 4} 2. and $405. x x − 10 Exercise Set 2. 1. f ( x) = 7x x −8 { x x ≠ 8} 3. vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 = 0 400 = 400 1 The cost per wheelchair approaches $400 as more wheelchairs are produced. x ≠ −6} 332 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x ≠ −4} 4. 000 + 400(10. 000 + 400(1000) 1000 = 900 C (1000) = c. 000 + 400 x b. 000 = 450 C (10. 000) = 500.000. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 20 20 T (x) = + . respectively. 000 + 400(100. 000) = 7.000 wheelchairs is $900.

0 15. Inc. 0 +∞ x+3 x( x − 3) x( x − 3) = 0 x = 0. 16.PreCalculus 4E 5. x 1 = x( x + 4) x + 4 x+4=0 h( x ) = x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 14. r ( x) = 2 x x +3 x 2 + 3 has no real zeros There is no vertical asymptotes. 8. 29. { x x ≠ 8. 28. x+3 x( x + 4) x( x + 4) = 0 x = 0. −∞ 17. 1 x 1 = x( x − 3) x − 3 x −3 = 0 h( x ) = x x +4 x 2 + 4 has no real zeros There are no vertical asymptotes. g ( x) = n = m.6 x+7 x 2 − 49 2 x − 49 = ( x − 7)( x + 7) h( x ) = 23. +∞ 11. { x x ≠ 7. f ( x) = 15 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 x 22. Section 2. x+7 x 2 + 49 all real numbers f ( x) = 25. 1 21. −∞ 10. f ( x) = x−3 x−3 = 0 x=3 vertical asymptote: x = 3 31. 19. −∞ 18. −∞ 12. +∞ 27. x +8 x 2 − 64 x 2 − 64 = ( x − 8)( x + 8) h( x ) = 24. +∞ 26. 12 =4 3 . x = 3 g ( x) = x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = −4 2 13. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x ≠ −8} 7. x = −4 g ( x) = x x+4 x+4=0 x = −4 vertical asymptote: x = –4 f ( x) = 30. x = 3 vertical asymptotes: x = 0. r ( x) = f ( x) = 2 12 x 3x 2 + 1 n<m horizontal asymptote: y = 0 20. 12 x 2 3x 2 + 1 horizontal asymptote: y = 333 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x+8 x + 64 all real numbers f ( x) = 9. x ≠ −7} 6. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x = 0.

1 +2 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 36. x 2 3 −3 x + 7 5x − 2 n=m s f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: y = − 37. −2 x + 1 3x + 5 1 2 units up. x h( x ) = 1 +1 x Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit up. horizontal asymptote: y = 33. g ( x) = n=m 15 x 2 3x 2 + 1 38. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . h( x ) = g ( x) = 3 5 1 x −1 40. h( x ) = g ( x) = 1 x−2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 15 =5 3 1 2 units to the right. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit to the right. x 12 x3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 34. x 334 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = n=m 39.Polynomial and Rational Functions 32. Inc. h( x ) = 15 x 3 3x2 + 1 n>m no horizontal asymptote 35.

1 3 units down. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x2 . h( x ) = 1 ( x + 2) 2 h( x ) = 1 −3 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 4 units down. x2 335 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 43. Inc.6 1 −2 x +1 44. g ( x) = 45.PreCalculus 4E 41. 42. g ( x) = Section 2. x2 1 2 units left. 1 −2 x+2 46. Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left and 2 units x g ( x) = 1 ( x + 1) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 1 unit left. x2 down. g ( x) = 1 −4 x2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 units left and 2 units x down.

3x x −1 3(− x ) 3x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 1 x + 1 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). so y = = 4 1 1 3 units right and 1 unit x2 up. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 4(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0−2 x-intercept: 4x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 336 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. h( x ) = vertical asymptote: x−2 = 0 1 +1 ( x − 3) 2 Shift the graph of f ( x) = x=2 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) y-intercept: y = =0 0 −1 x-intercept: 3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x −1 = 0 f ( x) = x =1 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . h( x ) = 1 +2 ( x − 3) 2 50. 49. 48.Polynomial and Rational Functions 47. 1 Shift the graph of f ( x) = 2 3 units right and 2 units x up. so y = = 3 1 4x x−2 4(− x) 4x = f (− x) = (− x ) − 2 x + 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x).

Inc. so y = = 2 1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 52. 2 x2 x2 −1 f (−x) = 2 (−x) (−x) 2 2 −1 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 2x2 = f ( x) x2 − 1 2 (0) 2 02 − 1 = x-intercept: 2 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x2 −1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m.PreCalculus 4E 51. Section 2. f ( x) = 4x x2 −1 4 (−x) 4x f (−x) = =− 2 = –f(x) 2 ( −x) −1 x −1 Origin symmetry 4 ( 0) =0 y-intercept: 2 0 −1 x-intercept:4x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 0 x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 f ( x) = 337 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0 =0 1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 2x 2 x −4 2 (−x) 2x = –f(x) =− 2 f (−x) = 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 Origin symmetry 2 ( 0) 0 y-intercept: 2 = =0 0 − 4 −4 x-intercept: 2x = 0 x=0 f ( x) = 53.

f ( x) = horizontal asymptote: −1 = −1 n = m. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry y-intercept: −3 ( 0 ) y= =0 0+2 x-intercept: –3x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 horizontal asymptote: −3 = −3 n = m. 56.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. so y = 1 4 x2 x2 − 9 f (−x) = 4(−x) (−x) 2 2 −9 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: y = = 4 ( 0) 4 x2 = f ( x) x2 − 9 2 02 − 9 =0 x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = ±3 horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. −3 x x+2 −3 ( − x ) 3x f (−x) = = (−x) + 2 −x + 2 f ( x) = f–x) ≠ f(x). Inc. so y = = 4 1 55. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry − ( 0) 0 y-intercept: y = = =0 0 +1 1 x-intercept: –x = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 338 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . so y = 1 −x x +1 − (−x) x f (−x) = = (−x) +1 −x +1 f ( x) = f(–x) ≠ f(x).

PreCalculus 4E 57. 2 (−x) 2 −1 =− 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). so y = 0 −2 x −x−2 −2 −2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x ) − (− x ) − 2 x + x − 2 f ( x) = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 2 2 y-intercept: y = 2 = = −1 0 + 0 − 2 −2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 2 = 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1) = 0 x = −2. 58. . x = −1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 339 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 1 x −4 1 1 f (−x) = − =− 2 = f(x) 2 (−x) − 4 x − 4 y-axis symmetry 1 1 = y-intercept: y = – 2 0 −4 4 x-intercept: –1 ≠ 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 x2 = 4 x = ±2 horizontal asymptote: n < m or y = 0 f ( x) = − f ( x) = − 59. Inc. x = 1 horizontal asymptote: n < m so y = 0 2 f (−x) = − 2 x + x−2 2 2 f (−x) = − = 2 2 (−x) − x − 2 x − x − 2 f ( x) = 2 = f(x) x −1 2 y-axis symmetry y-intercept: 2 2 y=− 2 =− =2 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: –2 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptotes: x2 −1 = 0 (x – 1)(x + 1) x = ±1 horizontal asymptote: n < m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry −2 =1 y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−2 x-intercept: none vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 2 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 x = 2. Section 2. 2 2 x −1 60.

so y = = 2 1 f ( x) = 63. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0+2 2 1 =− =− y-intercept: y = 2 0 +0−6 6 3 x-intercept: x+2=0 x = –2 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) x = −3. . Inc. 2 x2 x2 + 4 2(− x) 2 2 x2 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) + 4 x + 4 y axis symmetry 2(0) 2 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +4 x-intercept: 2 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. so y = = 4 1 f ( x) = 340 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 62.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. so y = 0 f ( x) = 2 4 x2 x2 + 1 4(− x) 2 4 x2 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 ( −x) +1 x +1 y axis symmetry 4(0) 2 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +1 x-intercept: 4 x 2 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. x+2 x + x−6 −x + 2 −x + 2 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( −x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x).

. x = −4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 ( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 2. so y = = 1 1 341 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x4 x +2 (− x) 4 x4 f (−x) = = = f ( x) 2 2 (−x) + 2 x + 2 y-axis symmetry 04 =0 y-intercept: y = 2 0 +2 x-intercept: x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m.6 x−4 2 x − x−6 x+4 −x − 4 f (−x) = =− 2 2 (−x) − (−x) − 6 x + x − 6 f(–x) ≠ f(x). 65. so none f ( x) = 2 x4 x2 + 1 2(− x) 4 2 x4 = 2 = f ( x) f (−x) = 2 (−x) +1 x +1 y-axis symmetry 2 ( 04 ) y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +2 x-intercept: 2 x 4 = 0 x=0 vertical asymptote: none horizontal asymptote: n > m. Section 2. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. ( x − 3)( x + 2) x = 3. so none f ( x) = x 2 + x − 12 x2 − 4 (− x) 2 − x − 12 x 2 − x − 12 f (−x) = = 2 x2 − 4 (−x) − 4 f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 + 0 − 12 =3 y-intercept: y = 02 − 4 x-intercept: x 2 + x − 12 = 0 2 ( x − 3)( x + 4) = 0 x = 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = 0 67. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 64. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n < m. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 0−4 2 = y-intercept: y = 2 0 −0−6 3 x-intercept: x − 4 = 0. x = 4 vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 f ( x) = 66.

Inc. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 02 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 +0−6 x-intercept: x 2 = 0. f ( x) = x2 − 4 x + 3 ( x + 1)2 ( − x ) − 4 ( − x ) + 3 x2 + 4 x + 3 f (−x) = = 2 2 ( − x + 1) ( − x + 1) 2 69. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) no symmetry 02 − 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = =3 2 1 ( 0 + 1) x-intercept: x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = 3 and x = 1 vertical asymptote: 3x 2 + x − 4 2 x2 − 5x 3(− x) 2 − x − 4 3 x 2 − x − 4 f (−x) = = 2 2 x2 + 5x 2 ( − x ) + 5x f ( x) = f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f(–x) ≠ f(x). Publishing as Prentice Hall.x =1 3 ( x + 1) 2 =0 x = –1 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. so y = = 1 1 342 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. vertical asymptotes: 2 x2 − 5x = 0 x(2 x − 5) = 0 x2 x2 + x − 6 (− x) 2 x2 f (−x) = = 2 2 (−x) − x − 6 x − x − 6 f ( x) = x = 0. x = 2 horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. x = 0 vertical asymptotes: x2 + x − 6 = 0 x= ( x + 3)( x − 2) = 0 x = −3. so y = = 1 1 70. . so y = 2 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). 2 x = 5 5 2 horizontal asymptote: 3 n = m. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry 3(0) 2 + 0 − 4 −4 = y-intercept: y = 0 2(0) 2 − 5(0) no y-intercept x-intercepts: 3x2 + x − 4 = 0 (3 x + 4)( x − 1) = 0 3x + 4 = 0 x − 1 = 0 3x = −4 4 x = − .Polynomial and Rational Functions 68.

so none exist. a. . so none exist. b. Section 2.PreCalculus 4E 71. Inc. x2 − 1 x ( − x ) − 1 x2 − 1 = = − f ( x) −x (−x) 2 f (−x) = Origin symmetry y-intercept: y = 0 2 − 1 −1 = 0 0 73. a. f ( x) = a. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = 72. so none exist. no y-intercept x-intercepts: x 2 − 1 = 0 x = ±1 vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n < m. Slant asymptote: 1 f ( x) = x – x y=x f ( x) = b.6 horizontal asymptote: n > m. slant asymptote: 4 f ( x) = x – x y=x f (−x) = (−x) 2 +1 x2 − 4 x (−x) 2 −4 = x2 + 1 = − f ( x) −x −x Origin symmetry 02 + 1 1 = y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. x2 − 4 x f ( x) = x2 + 1 x = x2 − 4 = − f ( x) −x −x origin symmetry 02 − 4 4 =− y-intercept: y = 0 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x2 − 4 = 0 x = ±2 vertical asymptote: x = 0 343 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. so none exist. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry 0 2 + 0 − 6 −6 y-intercept: y = = =2 0−3 −3 x-intercept: x2 + x − 6 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 x = –3 and x = 2 344 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 − x + 1 x −1 slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = x + x –1 y=x f ( x) = x2 − x − 1 x −1 (−x) − (−x) +1 2 f (−x) = 75. f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + x − 6 x−3 (−x) 2 + (−x) − 6 x2 + x + 1 −x −1 −x −1 no symmetry f (–x) ≠ f (x). f ( x) = a. Inc. f ( x) = a.Polynomial and Rational Functions 74. so none Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 4 + = = x2 − x − 6 −x − 3 −x − 3 f(–x) ≠ g(x). f (–x) ≠ –g(x) 02 − 0 + 1 1 = = −1 y-intercept: y = 0 −1 −1 x-intercept: x2 − x + 1 = 0 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x–1=0 x=1 horizontal asymptote: n > m. b. b. no y-intercept x2 + 4 = 0 x 2 = −4 no x-intercept vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: n > m. x2 + 4 x slant asymptote: 4 g ( x) = x + x y=x f ( x) = f (−x) = x2 + 4 x (−x) 2 +4 −x origin symmetry y-intercept: y = = x2 + 4 = − f ( x) −x 02 + 4 4 = 0 0 76. . so none exist. 6 x –3 y=x+4 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a.

−1 3 b.PreCalculus 4E 77. so none x = −1 vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x = 0 x( x + 2) = 0 x = 0. slant asymptote: x−2 x 2 + 2 x x3 f ( x) = a. +1 x + 2x 3 2 x3 − 1 x2 − 9 slant asymptote: 9x −1 x+ 2 x −9 x 2 − 9 x3 x − 9x 9x −1 − 2 x2 −2 x 2 + 4 x − 4x + 1 y=x y = x−2 b. . f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = no symmetry no symmetry y-intercept: y = 03 + 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 = 0 + 2(0) 0 no y-intercept x-intercept: x3 + 1 = 0 x 3 = −1 03 − 1 1 = 02 − 9 9 x-intercept: x3 – 1 = 0 x3 = 1 x =1 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3. Inc. Section 2. x = −3 horizontal asymptote: n > m. (− x)3 + 1 − x3 + 1 = 2 2 (− x) + 2(− x) x − 2 x f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f ( x) = a. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) f (− x) = ( − x )3 − 1 − x 3 − 1 = (− x )2 − 9 x 2 − 9 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). Publishing as Prentice Hall.6 x3 + 1 x2 + 2 x 78. x = −2 horizontal asymptote: n > m. so none 345 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5x2 x2 + 4 x + 4 ⋅ x2 − 4 10 x 3 = 5 x2 ( x + 2) ( x − 2) ⋅ 81. x−6 2 ( x − 3) x −5 x 2 − 10 x + 25 ÷ 10 x − 2 25 x 2 − 1 x −5 25 x 2 − 1 = ⋅ 2 10 x − 2 x − 10 x + 25 = ( 5 x + 1) ( 5 x − 1) 2 2 ( 5 x − 1) ( x − 5) = 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) x −5 So. Inc. f ( x ) = ⋅ 5x + 1 2 ( x − 5) 346 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x ) = 80. f ( x ) = 2x ( x − 2) x ( x − 3) − 9 ( 2 ) 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x 2 − 3x − 18 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = ( x − 6 ) ( x + 3) x−6 = x − 3) 2 ( 2 ( x + 3) ( x − 3 ) So. .Polynomial and Rational Functions 79. ( x + 2) 2 10 x 3 1 2 x+2 = 2x ( x − 2) x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 − 2 2x + 6 x − 9 x 9 = − 2 ( x + 3) ( x + 3)( x − 3) = x+2 So.

Section 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = x 2 +1 x− 347 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 ( x + 3) − 4 ( x + 2 ) ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) x 2 − 4 − 3x + 6 x2 − 4 + x + 2 x 2 − 3x + 2 = 2 x + x−2 2x + 6 − 4x − 8 = ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = 3 3 1− x+2 = x + 2 ⋅ ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1 1 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 1+ 1+ x−2 x−2 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) − 3 ( x − 2 ) = ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) + ( x + 2 ) 1− 2 = −2 x − 2 ( x + 2 )( x + 1)( x + 3) = −2 ( x + 1) −2 = = ( x + 2 ) ( x + 1) ( x + 3) ( x + 2 )( x + 3) ( x − 2 ) ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) ( x − 1) So. f ( x ) = ( x + 2 )( x + 3) = x−2 x+2 x−2 x+2 1 2 x ⋅ x = x − 1 = ( x − 1)( x + 1) 84. 1 x x 2 +1 x 2 +1 x+ x ( x − 1)( x + 1) So.PreCalculus 4E 82.6 2 4 − 2 x + 3x + 2 x + 4 x + 3 2 4 = − x + 2 x + 1 x + 3 ( )( ) ( )( x + 1) = 83. f ( x ) = −2 So. . Inc.

000) = 33 100.000 shoes are manufactured. it costs $125 to manufacture each. it costs $330 to manufacture each. n = m. 1 As greater numbers of bicycles are manufactured. The average cost decreases as the number of shoes manufactured increases. The average cost decreases as the number of bicycles manufactured increases. it costs $150 to manufacture each. g ( x) = −1 2x − 9 = +2 x−4 x−4 C= 300. c.000 C ( x) = 100x +100. g ( x) = −1 3x − 7 = +3 x−2 x−2 C ( x ) = 100 x + 100 . b. it costs $60 to manufacture each. it costs $200 to manufacture each. 000 C (2000 ) = = $150 2000 When 2000 bicycles are manufactured. 000 C (4000 ) = = $125 4000 When 4000 bicycles are manufactured. 1 As greater numbers of shoes are manufactured. c. the average cost approaches $100. so y = 348 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. C(100. . so y = 90. Publishing as Prentice Hall. it costs $300 to manufacture each. 100 (2000 ) + 100. it costs $33 to manufacture each. n = m. 000 = $300 500 When 500 bicycles are manufactured. 00) = d. 86. C(1000) = 300. the average cost approaches $30. a. Inc. a. 000 When 100. g ( x) = 3x + 7 1 = +3 x+2 x+2 d.000 b.000 x 100 (500 ) + 100. 000 + 30(100. 100(1000) + 100.Polynomial and Rational Functions 85. 88.000 shoes are manufactured. 300000 + 30(10000) C(10000) = = 60 10000 When 10. 30 = 30 . 000 + 30x x 300000 + 30(1000) = 330 1000 When 1000 shoes are manufactured. C (500) = 100 = 100 . 87. 000 C (1000 ) = = $200 1000 When 1000 bicycles are manufactured. 100(4000) + 100. g ( x) = 2x + 7 1 = +2 x+3 x+3 89. C(x) = 30x + 300.

Section 2.2 or about 63% 2708. c. 89) 9 For a disease that smokers are 9 times more likely to have than non-smokers.5 Over time. and then slowly begins to approach the normal level. A = xy = 2500 2500 y= x P(9) = T (x) = 5000 2500 = 2x + x x The perimeter of the floor. the normal pH level must be 6. = 4. 90 5 10 5 + = + 9x x x x The function that expresses the total time for driving 10 5 + . From the graph. a. but never reaches 100%. 2. 6. the drug’s concentration after three hours appears to be about 1. y = 100 As incidence of the diseases increases. According to the graph. T (x) = x x − 10 100(10 − 1) = 90 (10.4 ( 6 ) + 234 2 f (6) = 62 + 36 97. If trends continue. From the graph.5. 15 = 1. 2 f ( x) = 11x 2 + 40 x + 1040 12 x 2 + 230 x + 2190 1707. the drug’s concentration will approach 0 milligrams per liter. the pH level is lowest after about 6 minutes. b.5 as time goes by.7 of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006.8 The pH level after 6 minutes (i.8. is less than the degree of the denominator. y = 6. 12 11 or about 92% of federal 12 expenditures will spent on human resources over time. d. but never gets to be. = The degree of the numerator. width. 94. the percentage approaches 100%. Inc.e. 92. C ( 3) = a. P.5 milligrams per liter. . Over time. the pH level rises back to the normal level. During the first hour. a.5 ( 6 ) − 20.0. 90% of the deaths are smoking related. 98. and hiking is T (x) = x x P(10) = 99. 96. d. 100(9 − 1) = 89 (9. 1.5 milligrams per liter. 89% of the deaths are smoking related. e. 90) 10 For a disease that smokers are 10 times more likely to contact than non-smokers. x is P(x) = 2 x + x P = 2x + 2y = 2x + 2 349 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The horizontal asymptote is y = 11 . the percent of death approaches. The function that expresses the total time required to complete the round trip is 600 600 + .5 3 + 1 10 This verifies that the drug’s concentration after 3 hours will be 1. 100. Therefore. c. No. the lowest pH level) is 4. 100%. x – 10 = the average velocity on the return trip. b. According to the function. 93. so the the horizontal asymptote is y = 0 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. From the graph. 5 ( 3) b. the pH level appears to approach 6.6 From the graph the pH level of the human mouth 42 minutes after a person eats food containing sugar will be about 6.PreCalculus 4E 91. This overestimates the actual percent found in the graph by 1%. 11(36) 2 + 40(36) + 1040 16736 f (36) = = or 12(36) 2 + 230(36) + 2190 26022 about 64% of federal expenditures were spent on human resources in 2006. as a function of the 5000 . the pH level drops quickly below normal. 95.

117. and then the number of arrests decreases. Inc. x – 2 is a factor of x 2 − 5x + 6 . Explanations will vary. a.Polynomial and Rational Functions 101. x = 50 + b. 122. f (x) = 50 +2 x 27725(x − 14) − 5x x2 + 9 w=x+1 50 A= + 2 (x + 1) x 50 + 2x + 2 x 50 + 52 = 2x + x The total area of the page is 50 A(x) = 2 x + + 52. 121. Explanations will vary. true 123. Answers may vary. ⎬ . – 111. 112. x = 2. 119. Sample explanation: A rational function can have at most one horizontal asymptote. true 114. Answers may vary. Sample explanation: The function has one vertical asymptote. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph increases from late teens until about the age of 25. At age 25 the highest number arrests occurs. Sample explanation: As production level increases. does not make sense. A = lw xy = 50 l=y+2= 115. 2 x 2 + x = 15 2 x 2 + x − 15 = 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) = 0 2x − 5 = 0 or x+3= 0 x= 5 2 x = −3 5⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −3.000 drivers. does not make sense. 120. In g(x). false. Explanations will vary. makes sense The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. 118. The graph approaches the horizontal asymptote faster and the vertical asymptote slower as n increases. 102. Changes to make the statement true will vary. – 127. g(x) is the graph of a line where f(x) is the graph of a rational function with a slant asymptote. the average cost for a company to produce each unit of its product decreases. A sample change is: The graph of a rational function may have both a vertical asymptote and a horizontal asymptote. There are about 356 arrests for every 100. 2⎭ ⎩ 350 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 113. 116. 128. . does not make sense. true 124. c.

The solution set is ( −∞. . −4 ) belongs to the solution set. x3 + x 2 − 4 x − 4 = 0 x 2 ( x + 1) − 4( x + 1) = 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 − 4) = 0 ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x − 2) = 0 The solution set is {−2. x + 4 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = −4 x=5 The boundary points are –2 and 4. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1. ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. −4 ) ∪ ( 5. x +1 x + 1 2( x + 3) −2= − x+3 x+3 x+3 x + 1 2x + 6 = − x+3 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 = x+3 −x − 5 x+5 = or − x+3 x+3 Section 2.7 Check Point Exercises 1. ∞ ) or { x x < −4 or x > 5} . 5 ) ( 5. Test Test Test Interval Number (−5) 2 − (−5) > 20 –5 ( −∞. ∞ ) 0 (0) − (0) > 20 0 > 20.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.7 x3 + x 2 = 4 x + 4 129. −4 ) 30 > 20. false 10 (10) − (10) > 20 90 > 20. 130. Inc. 2} . ( −4. 5 ) does not belong to the solution set. x 2 − x > 20 x 2 − x − 20 > 0 ( x + 4 )( x − 5 ) > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. 351 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true 2 2 Conclusion ( −∞. ( 5. true ( −4.

true 3 ( −∞.1] or { x x ≤ −3 or − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1} . −1) –2 ( −1.1] 0 [1. ( −1. 3. ∞ ) 2 ( −∞. ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 2(−2) ≥1 −2 + 1 4 ≥ 1. . false 2(2) ≥1 2 +1 4 ≥ 1. [1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. (0) + 3(0) ≤ (0) + 3 3 [ −1. x3 + 3x 2 ≤ x + 3 x3 + 3x 2 − x − 3 ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) ≤ 0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 or x = −1 Test Interval x =1 Test Number ( −∞. The solution set is ( −∞. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 352 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1] 0 ≤ 3 true ( 6 + 3)( 6 − 5 ) > 0 [1. The solution set is ( −∞. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or x ≥ 1} . −1] –2 x+3=0 x = −3 Test (−4)3 + 3(−4) 2 ≤ (−4) + 3 0 [1. true 2(0) ≥1 0 +1 0 ≥ 1. −3) −16 ≤ −1 true belongs to the solution set. −1) ∪ [1. −1) belongs to the solution set.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. does not belong to the solution true set. ( −3.1] does not belong to the solution set.1] Conclusion 2 [ −1. 2x ≥1 x +1 2x −1 ≥ 0 x +1 x −1 ≥0 x +1 x − 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x =1 x = −1 Test Test Interval Number ( −∞. Inc. −3) -4 ( −3. −3] ∪ [ −1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. −1] does not belong to the solution (−2)3 + 3(−2) 2 ≤ (−2) + 3 4 ≤ 1 false set.

353 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 −16t 2 + 80t > 64 −16t 2 + 80t − 64 > 0 −16(t − 1)(t − 4) > 0 t − 1 = 0 or t − 4 = 0 t =1 t=4 Test Interval Test Number Test −16(0) + 80(0) > 64 0 > 64. ( 4. −16(5) 2 + 80(5) > 64 ( 4. ∞). false solution set.7 1. ∞) 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . ∞ ) does not belong to the 0 > 64.1) (1. belongs to the solution set. false 2 ( −∞. true Conclusion ( −∞. ∞ ) 5 Exercise Set 2.1) 0 (1. − 3) or (5. Section 2. − 2) or (4. The object will be more than 64 feet above the ground between 1 and 4 seconds. Inc. (x + 3)(x – 5) > 0 x = –3 or x = 5 T F T –3 5 Test –4: (–4 + 3)(–4 – 5) > 0 9 > 0 True Test 0: (0 + 3)(0 – 5) > 0 –15 > 0 False Test 6: (6 + 3)(6 – 5) > 0 18 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. (x – 4)(x + 2) > 0 x = 4 or x = –2 T F T –2 4 Test –3: (–3 – 4)(–3 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True Test 0: (0 – 4)(0 + 2) > 0 –8 > 0 False Test 5: (5 – 4)(5 + 2) > 0 7 > 0 True (−∞. 4 ) does not belong to the solution set.PreCalculus 4E 4. 4 ) 2 −16(2) 2 + 80(2) > 64 96 > 64.

T F –3 7 Test –4: (–4 – 7)(–4 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 – 7)(0 + 3) ≤ 0 –21 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 – 7)(8 + 3) ≤ 0 11 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–3. 3 x2 + 5x + 4 > 0 ( x + 1)( x + 4) > 0 x = –1 or x = –4 T F –4 T –1 Test –5: (−5) + 5(−5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True Test –3: (−3)2 + 5(−3) + 4 > 0 –2 > 0 False Test 0: 02 + 5(0) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. F 1 F –1 7 Test –2: (–2 + 1)(–2 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False Test 0: (0 + 1)(0 – 7) ≤ 0 –7 ≤ 0 True Test 8: (8 + 1)(8 – 7) ≤ 0 9 ≤ 0 False The solution set is [–1. 2 x2 − 5x + 4 > 0 ( x − 4)( x − 1) > 0 x = 4 or F Test 0: 0 − 4(0) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False Test 2: 22 − 4(2) + 3 < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 4: 42 − 4(4) + 3 < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (1. T F 1 T 4 Test 0: 0 − 5(0) + 4 > 0 x2 + x − 6 > 0 ( x + 3)( x − 2) > 0 x = –3 or x = 2 2 T 4 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 5(2) + 4 > 0 −2 > 0 False 2 Test 5: 5 − 5(5) + 4 > 0 4 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. − 3) or (2. ∞) . ∞). . 7]. 7]. 2 354 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. F –3 T 2 Test –4: (−4) − 4 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True Test 0: (0) 2 + 0 − 6 > 0 –6 > 0 False Test 3: 32 + 3 − 6 > 0 6 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 3. − 4) or (−1. 3). 4. ∞) . 5. 1) or (4. T T 2 (x + 1)(x – 7) ≤ 0 x = –1 or x = 7 F x2 − 4 x + 3 < 0 ( x − 1)( x − 3) < 0 x = 1 or x = 3 x =1 8. 7. (x – 7)(x + 3) ≤ 0 x = 7 or x = –3 F 6.

F −2 3 x2 − 2x + 1 > 0 ( x − 1)( x − 1) > 0 x=1 T 1 −2 x= 3 3 T Test 0: 02 − 6(0) + 9 < 0 9 < 0 False 2 Test 4: 4 − 6(4) + 9 < 0 1 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. 9 x2 + 3x − 2 ≥ 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) ≥ 0 3 x = 1 3 x = −2 2 x 2 + x − 15 < 0 (2 x − 5)( x + 3) < 0 2 x − 5 = 0 or x+3=0 2x = 5 5 x= x = −3 or 2 3x 2 + 10 x − 8 ≤ 0 (3 x − 2)( x + 4) ≤ 0 F T –4 T –3 2 x = or x = −4 3 F 2 x 2 + x < 15 F 5 2 Test –4: 2(−4) 2 + (−4) < 15 28 < 15 False Test 0: 2(0) 2 + 0 < 15 0 < 15 True Test 3: 2(3) 2 + 3 < 15 21 < 15 False 5⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −3.PreCalculus 4E 9. ⎥ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.7 x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) < 0 x=3 F 12. 10. Inc. Test 0: 0 − 2(0) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True Test 2: 22 − 2(2) + 1 > 0 1 > 0 True The solution set is (−∞. ∞). ⎥ or ⎢ . . x= F 3 T 1 3 Test –1: 9(−1) 2 + 3(−1) − 2 ≥ 0 4 ≥ 0 True Test 0: 9(0)2 + 3(0) − 2 ≥ 0 –2 ≥ 0 False Test 1: 9(1) 2 + 3(1) − 2 ≤ 0 10 ≥ 0 True −2 ⎤ ⎛ ⎡1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 2⎠ ⎝ F 2 3 Test –5: 3(−5)2 + 10(−5) − 8 ≤ 0 17 ≤ 0 False Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 10(0) − 8 ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 True Test 1: 3(1) + 10(1) − 8 ≤ 0 2 5 ≤ 0 False 2⎤ ⎡ The solution set is ⎢ −4. 3⎦ ⎝ ⎣3 ⎠ T 1 13. Section 2. 2 11. 3⎦ ⎣ 355 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1) or (1. ⎟ . ∞ ⎟ . ∅.

2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ 15. 3⎠ ⎝ 4 x 2 + 7 x < −3 T T –5 1 3 F x = −5 1 3 F T Test –1: 6(−1) 2 + (−1) > 1 5 > 1 True Test 0: 6(0) 2 + 0 > 1 0 > 1 False Test 1: 6(1)2 + 1 > 1 7 > 1 True 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. 3x 2 + 16 x + 5 < 0 6 x2 + x − 1 > 0 (3 x + 1)( x + 5) < 0 3x + 1 = 0 or x + 5 = 0 (2 x + 1)(3x − 1) > 0 2 x + 1 = 0 or 3x − 1 = 0 2 x = −1 1 x=− 2 3x = −1 3x = 1 1 x= 3 T F − 12 x=− − 13 5 x ≤ 2 − 3x 2 17. 4 x2 + 7 x + 3 < 0 (4 x + 3)( x + 1) < 0 4x + 3 = 0 or x +1=0 4 x-3=0 3 or x=− x = −1 4 3x2 + 5x − 2 ≤ 0 (3 x − 1)( x + 2) ≤ 0 3x – 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 3x − 1=0 or x + 2 = 0 3x = 1 x= F − 34 –1 F Test –6: 3(−6) 2 + 16(−6) < −5 12 < –5 False Test –2: 3(−2) 2 + 16(−2) < −5 –20 < –5 True Test 0: 3(0) 2 + 16(0) < −5 0 < –5 False 1⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −5. . 6 x2 + x > 1 16. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎥ . ⎣ 3⎦ 356 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎟ .Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. ∞ ⎟ . 3x 2 + 16 x < −5 1 or 3 F Test –2: 4(−2) 2 + 7(−2) < −3 2 < −3 False T –2 2 7 ⎛ 7⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ Test − : 4 ⎜ − ⎟ + 7 ⎜ − ⎟ < −3 8 ⎝ 8⎠ ⎝ 8⎠ 49 49 − < −3 16 8 49 − < −3 True 16 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 7(0) < −3 0 < −3 False 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −1. − ⎟ or ⎜ . 4⎠ ⎝ x = −2 F 1 3 Test –3: 5(−3) ≤ 2 − 3(−3) 2 –15 ≤ –25 False Test 0: 5(0) ≤ 2 − 3(0) 2 0 ≤ 2 True Test 1: 5(1) ≤ 2 − 3(1) 2 5 ≤ –1 False ⎡ 1⎤ The solution set is ⎢ −2. − ⎟ . Inc.

∞). 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) ≥ 0 2x −1 = 0 1 x= 2 x2 + 2x < 0 x( x + 2) < 0 x = 0 or x = –2 F T –2 F 0 Test –3: (−3) + 2(−3) < 0 3 < 0 False Test –1: (−1) 2 + 2(−1) < 0 –1 < 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 + 2(1) < 0 3 < 0 False The solution set is (–2. x2 − 4 x ≥ 0 x( x − 4) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x . 21. . 19. 0] or [4. 2 T T 1 2 Test 0: 4(0) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(0) 1 ≥ 0 True Test 1: 4(1) 2 + 1 ≥ 4(1) 5 ≥ 4 True The solution set is (−∞. Section 2. 0).PreCalculus 4E 18.4 = 0 x=4 2 x 2 + 3x > 0 x(2 x + 3) > 0 x = 0 or x = − 3 2 T T F 0 T F − 32 4 T 0 Test –2: 2(−2) 2 + 3(−2) > 0 2 > 0 True Test –1: 2(−1)2 + 3(−1) > 0 –1 > 0 False Test 1: 2(1) 2 + 3(1) > 0 5 > 0 True 3⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. ∞ ). 357 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 4 x2 + 1 ≥ 4 x 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − ⎟ or (0. Inc. 2⎠ ⎝ Test –1: (−1) 2 − 4(−1) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True Test 1: (1) 2 − 4(1) ≥ 0 −3 ≥ 0 False 0 ≤ 2 True Test 5: 52 − 4(5) ≥ 0 5 ≥ 0 True The solution set is (−∞. ∞).

5 3 − x2 + 2 x ≥ 0 x(− x + 2) ≥ 0 x = 0 or x = 2 F F T F 0 T F 0 2 Test –1: −(−1) + 2(−1) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False Test 1: −(1) 2 + 2(1) ≥ 0 1 ≥ 0 True Test 3: −(3)2 + 2(3) ≥ 0 –3 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0. 2 5 3 Test –1: 3(−1)2 − 5(−1) ≤ 0 8 ≤ 0 False Test 1: 3(1)2 − 5(1) ≤ 0 –2 ≤ 0 True Test 2: 3(2)2 − 5(2) ≤ 0 2 ≤ 0 False ⎡ 5⎤ The solution set is ⎢0.59 3. 3. 2 + 2 ⎤⎦ or [ 0. x2 − 4 x + 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 4 x + 2 = 0 23.41 The solution set is ⎡⎣ 2 − 2. ⎣ 3⎦ x2 ≤ 4 x − 2 25. 1].41] .59. −2 ≥ 0 False The solution set is [0.59 or x ≈ 3. −x2 + x ≥ 0 x= x2 − x ≤ 0 x( x − 1) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 1 −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) 2(1) F T 0 4± 8 2 = 2± 2 x ≈ 0. Inc. 2].Polynomial and Rational Functions 22. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 358 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.41 = F 1 Test –1: −(−1) + (−1) ≥ 0 −2 ≥ 0 False 2 F T F 2 1 ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ Test : − ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0 2 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 1 ≥ 0 True 4 Test 2: −(2) 2 + 2 ≥ 0 0. 3x 2 − 5 x ≤ 0 x(3x − 5) ≤ 0 x = 0 or x = 24. ⎥ .

4] ∪ [6. 1 2 T 4 T T 1 2 The solution set is (−∞. and –3 Test one value in each interval. –2] ∪ [–1.73 F –3 2. ( x − 1)( x − 2)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 1. 359 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2] ∪ [3. F T F x2 ≤ 2x + 2 26. F T F T –0. F F 3 The solution set is the empty set. and 3 Test one value in each interval.73] . ( x + 1)( x + 2)( x + 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –1. x(3 − x)( x − 5) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0. F T F 4 x2 − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0 (2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 0 (2 x − 1)2 = 0 x= –1 31. –2 T The solution set is [–3.1 + 3 ⎤⎦ or [ −0. and 5 Test one value in each interval. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 32. ∞). Inc. The solution set is ⎡⎣1 − 3. 3. ∞).73 0 x=3 3 T 5 The solution set is [0. F T F x2 − 6 x + 9 < 0 Solve x 2 − 6 x + 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 ( x − 3)2 = 0 28. .7 29. 2. and 5 Test one value in each interval. = F T 6 The solution set is [0. ∞). 3 30. ∞ ). ∅.73 2 The solution set is [1. –2.73. 3.73 or x ≈ 2. 3] ∪ [5. x − 2x − 2 ≤ 0 Solve x 2 − 2 x − 2 = 0 2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) 1 2 ± 12 2 = 1± 3 x ≈ −0. x(4 − x)( x − 6) ≤ 0 Boundary points: 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. 27. 2. ∞).

T T F 7 2 2 x3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 3) − 9( x − 3) ≥ 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. x3 + x 2 + 4 x + 4 > 0 x 2 ( x + 1) + 4( x + 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 1)( x 2 + 4) ≥ 0 Boundary point: –1 Test one value in each interval. and 38. x 3 + 2 x 2 − x − 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 1( x + 2) ≥ 0 ( F x3 − x 2 + 9 x − 9 > 0 x 2 ( x − 1) + 9 ( x − 1) ≥ 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 9) ≥ 0 Boundary point: 1. 72 . –1. ∞). and 2 Test one value in each interval. –1] ∪ [1. Test one value in each interval. Inc. ∞ ). –7) ∪ (–1.Polynomial and Rational Functions ( ) 33. F T F –2 –1 39. 1). 7 2 Boundary points: 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. F T T 2 The solution set is [–2. F T 1 The solution set is (1. F F T –2 1 The solution set is (–∞ . ( ) 34. T F F Test one value in each interval. 2 The solution set is [ −2. 36. –3 3 The solution set is (−∞. . T F T 13 2 5 x3 + 7 x 2 − x − 7 < 0 x 2 ( x + 7) − ( x + 7) < 0 ( ) The solution set is ( −∞. –1 The solution set is (−1. and ( x − 3)( x 2 − 9) ≥ 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 3) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –3 and 3 Test one value in each interval. 2 ) ∪ 2. 13 . –1 and 1 Test one value in each interval. ( x + 2)( x 2 − 4) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x + 2)( x − 2) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2.5 ) ∪ 5. ∞). (5 − x)2 x − 13 <0 2 Boundary points: 5. 35. T T F ( x + 7)( x 2 − 1) < 0 ( x + 7)( x + 1)( x − 1) < 0 Boundary points: –7. 13 2 Test one value in each interval. −2] ∪ [2. x 3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x + 2) − 4 x + 1 ≥ 0 ) 40. −3]. 2 –7 –1 ( x + 2)( x 2 − 1) ≥ 0 ( x + 2)( x − 1)( x + 1) ≥ 0 Boundary points: –2. and 2 Test one value in each interval. 360 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (2 − x)2 x − 72 < 0 37. ∞).

44.PreCalculus 4E 41. − 3) ∪ (4. T T F 48. F –5 –2 The solution set is (–5. ∞). . 9 The solution set is [ 0. 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2 The solution set is (−∞. –3). − 5) ∪ (2. T –3 x=4 –3 −x + 2 ≥0 x−4 x = 2 or x = 4 F 2 4 The solution set is [2. ⎟ ∪ [2. 361 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − 3] ∪ (−2. 4]. Inc. x−4 >0 x+3 x−4 = 0 x+3 = 0 x = −3 T F −x − 3 ≤0 x+2 x = –3 or x = –2 T F 4 49. 4). Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞). 0 4 The solution set is (–∞. 43. –2). T T x = 2 or x = − x+5 >0 x−2 x = –5 or x = 2 T F The solution set is (−∞. ∞). F F T 0 46. 3 x+5 <0 x+2 x = –5 or x = –2 F T F –4 –3 The solution set is (–4. 0] ∪ [9. 45. –2 4 − 2x ≤0 3x + 4 4 3 T F − 43 F –5 T x+3 <0 x+4 x = −3 or F x = −4 T T 2 −4 ⎞ ⎛ The solution set is ⎜ −∞. ∞).7 x3 − 9 x 2 ≥ 0 x 2 ( x − 9) ≥ 0 Boundary points: 0 and 9 Test one value in each interval. Test one value in each interval. Section 2. ∞ ). The solution set is ( −∞. x − 4x ≤ 0 x 2 ( x − 4) ≤ 0 2 Boundary points: 0 and 4. 42. 47.

− 3] ∪ (−1. therefore must be included in the solution set. − 5) ∪ (−3. F . ( x + 4)( x − 1) ≤0 x+2 x = −4 or x = −2 or x = 1 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 50. ⎡ 5 ⎞ The solution set is ⎢ − . 362 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x+4 >0 x x = –4 or x = 0 T –1 F –5 T –4 2 x +1 <2 x+3 x +1 −2<0 x+3 x + 1 − 2( x + 3) <0 x+3 x + 1 − 2x − 6 <0 x+3 −x − 5 <0 x+3 x = or x = –3 T F F Values of x = −3 or x = 2 result in f ( x) = 0 and. ∞). ⎣ 3 ⎠ 51.1] x = 2 or x = 1 F T 1 2 The solution set is (1. The solution set is ( −∞. T F –4 T –2 x −2>0 x −1 x 2( x − 1) − >0 x −1 x −1 x − 2x + 2 >0 x −1 −x + 2 >0 x −1 F 1 Values of x = −4 or x = 1 result in f ( x) = 0 and. 3x + 5 ≥0 6 − 2x 5 x = − or x = 3 3 F 54. 0) ∪ (3. 3 ⎟ . 0 The solution set is ( −∞. 52. − 4) ∪ (0. 53. ∞). −4] ∪ ( −2. x >2 x −1 56. Inc. T F T T –3 The solution set is (−∞. 2]. The solution set is (−∞. ( x + 3)( x − 2) ≤0 x +1 x = −3 or x = −1 or x = 2 . therefore must be included in the solution set. x >0 x−3 x = 0 or x = 3 T F 0 T 3 The solution set is (−∞. T − F –3 3 5 3 55. ∞) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2).

x = −6 or 1 2 F T T -2 The solution set is (−∞. 2⎦ ⎝ 363 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎥ ∪ [ 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞).7 x+4 ≤3 2x − 1 x+4 −3≤ 0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 3 ( 2 x − 1) ≤0 2x − 1 x + 4 − 6x + 3 ≤0 2x − 1 −5 x + 7 ≤0 2x − 1 x= 7 or 5 x= T 59. Inc. –2).PreCalculus 4E 57. ∞). − 6] ∪ (−2. 61. f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 2 x2 − 5x + 2 ≥ 0 Solve 2 x 2 − 5 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 2 T F 1 2 T 2 1⎤ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. x ≥2 x+2 60. ∞ ) . Section 2. 4 The solution set is (−∞. 3) ∪ (4. x−2 ≤2 x+2 x−2 −2≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2 ( x + 2) ≤0 x+2 x − 2 − 2x − 4 ≤0 x+2 −x − 6 ≤0 x+2 T T F –4 –2 The solution set is [–4. . x −2≥0 x+2 x 2( x + 2) − ≥0 x+2 x+2 x − 2x − 4 ≥0 x+2 −x − 4 ≥0 x+2 1 −1 < 0 x −3 1 x−3 − <0 x−3 x−3 1− x + 3 <0 x −3 −x + 4 <0 x−3 x = –4 or x = –2 x = 4 or x = 3 F F 3 F -6 7 5 1 <1 x−3 T x = −2 T 1 2 58.

⎛1 ⎤ The domain is ⎜ . ∞ ) . thus. ⎝2 ⎦ 364 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1⎥ . thus. − 1) ∪ [1. 1 f ( x) = 4x − 9x + 2 The domain of this function requires that 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 > 0 Solve 4 x 2 − 9 x + 2 = 0 ( x − 2)(4 x − 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 2 4 2 T F 1 4 T 2 1⎞ ⎛ The domain is ⎜ −∞. 4⎠ ⎝ 63.Polynomial and Rational Functions 62. ⎟ ∪ ( 2. f ( x) = x −1 2x − 1 x −x + 1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 2x − 1 2x − 1 1 x= or x = 1 2 The domain of this function requires that F T 1 2 F 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. f ( x) = 2x −1 x +1 The domain of this function requires that T F 2x x −1 − 1 ≥ 0 or ≥0 x +1 x +1 x = −1 or x = 1 T -1 1 The value x = 1 results in 0 and. . it must be included in the domain. The domain is ( −∞. it must be included in the domain. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 64.

. x + 6 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 or x + 8 = 0 or x−6 = 0 x = −6 x=4 x = −8 The boundary points are −8. ∞ ) 7 7 + 2 ( 7 ) − 36 > 12 ( −8. 365 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Section 2. and 1 . 6 ) does not belong 1 > 12. False ( −6. 66. ∞ ) or { x x < −8 or − 6 < x < 4 or x > 6} . 4 and 6 . 4 ) belongs to the 02 + 2 ( 0 ) − 36 > 12 ( 4. True ( −8. −3. − 6. −8 ) ∪ ( −6. x2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 6 x + 1 < −8 or x 2 + 6 x + 1 > 8 x2 + 6 x + 9 < 0 x2 + 6 x − 7 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. False to the solution set. True solution set. ∞ ) belongs to the 2 27 > 12. −8) belongs to the 27 > 12. −6 ) −7 ( −7 ) 2 + 2 ( −7 ) − 36 > 12 1 > 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. solution set. ( 6. The solution set is ( −∞.7 x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 Express the inequality without the absolute value symbol: x 2 + 2 x − 36 < −12 or x 2 + 2 x − 36 > 12 x 2 + 2 x − 24 < 0 x 2 + 2 x − 48 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equations. x 2 + 2 x − 24 = 0 or x 2 + 2 x − 48 = 0 ( x + 6 )( x − 4 ) = 0 ( x + 8 )( x − 6 ) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. ( −6. −6 ) does not belong to the solution set.PreCalculus 4E 65. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. −8 ) −9 ( −9 ) 2 x=6 Test Conclusion + 2 ( −9 ) − 36 > 12 ( −∞. True 5 52 + 2 ( 5) − 36 > 12 ( 6. x 2 + 6 x + 9 = 0 or x2 + 6 x − 7 = 0 ( x + 3) 2 =0 ( x + 7 )( x − 1) = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x + 3 = ± 0 or x + 7 = 0 3 0 7 x+ = x=− x =1 x = −3 The boundary points are −7. 6 ) solution set. 4 ) 0 36 > 12. ( 4. 4 ) ∪ ( 6.

∞ ) does not belong > 3+3 3− 2 to the solution set. 2 ) belongs to the > 0+3 0−2 solution set.Polynomial and Rational Functions Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. True The solution set is ( −∞.1) does not belong 02 + 6 ( 0 ) + 1 > 8 0 solution set. 1 −3 > . Inc. False (1. −7 ) −8 ( −8 ) 2 Test Conclusion + 6 ( −8 ) + 1 > 8 ( −∞. 17 ≥ 8.1) to the solution set. −7 ) belongs to the 17 ≥ 8. ∞ ) (1. −3) −5 ( −5 ) 2 ( −7. . ∞ ) 3 Test Conclusion 3 3 ( −∞. Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. −3) ( −3. True ( −7. 3 3 > x+3 x−2 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. x+3 = 0 x−2=0 x = −3 x=2 The boundary points are −3 and 2. 366 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −7 ) ∪ (1. 1 > 3. 2 ) or { x −3 < x < 2} . 1 ≥ 8. −3) does not belong + 6 ( −5 ) + 1 > 8 4 ≥ 8. False 2 3 3 ( −3. ( −3. ∞ ) or { x x < −7 or x > 1} . 3 3 − >0 x+3 x−2 3( x − 2) 3 ( x + 3) − >0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) 3x − 6 − 3x − 9 <0 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) −15 ( x + 3)( x − 2 ) <0 Find the values of x that make the denominator zero. False 2 The solution set is ( −3. −3) does not belong > −4 + 3 −4 − 2 to the solution set. 2 ) 0 ( 2. 67. False ( −3. ∞ ) belongs to the 22 + 6 ( 2 ) + 1 > 8 2 to the solution set. solution set. 3 1 > − . True 2 3 3 ( 2.

Test Interval Test Number −4 ( −∞. −3) ( −3. −1) does not belong > −2 + 1 −2 − 1 to the solution set.PreCalculus 4E 68. True 1 2 (1. False 3 The solution set is ( −∞. . ∞ ) 2 Test Conclusion 1 2 ( −∞. −3) belongs to the > −4 + 1 −3 − 1 solution set. 1 1 − > − . 1 > −2. and 1. −1 . 1 2 − >0 x + 1 x −1 2 ( x + 1) x −1 − >0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) ( x + 1)( x − 1) x −1 − 2x − 2 ( x + 1)( x − 1) <0 −x − 3 <0 ( x + 1)( x − 1) Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. Section 2. −x − 3 = 0 x +1 = 0 x −1 = 0 −3 = x x = −1 x =1 The boundary points are −3 .7 1 2 > x + 1 x −1 Express the inequality so that one side is zero. False 3 1 2 ( −3. 1 > 1. ∞ ) does not belong > 2 + 1 2 −1 to the solution set. Inc. True 3 2 1 2 ( −3. −3) ∪ ( −1.1) or { x x < −3 or − 1 < x < 1} . −1) −2 ( −1.1) belongs to the > 0 + 1 0 −1 solution set. 367 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 −1 > − .1) 0 (1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1.1) Conclusion ( −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 69.52 − 1. 2 − > 0.3) does not belong to the solution set. −1) ( −2 ) − ( −2 ) − 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 4 ( −2 ) + 3 ( −1. 10 > 0.5 − 2 >0 1.5 4 ( −1. −1) belongs to the solution set. −1) ∪ (1. 2 ) ∪ ( 3. Inc. 2 ) belongs to the solution set. ( 2. 368 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) to the solution set. False 3 42 − 4 − 2 >0 4 − 4 ( 4) + 3 2 ( 3.52 − 4 (1.5 2. ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} .5 ) + 3 5 > 0. True 15 0 02 − 0 − 2 >0 0 − 4 (0) + 3 2 (1. True 3 2. 7 > 0.5 ) + 3 − ( 3. x2 − x − 2 = 0 x2 − 4 x + 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x + 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x − 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 and 3. 2 ) ( 2.3) 1.1) does not belong (1. Test Interval Test Number Test 2 −2 ( −∞. .52 − 4 ( 2. True 3 The solution set is ( −∞. False 3 1.52 − 2. x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x=2 x = −1 x=3 x =1 The boundary points are −1 . x2 − x − 2 >0 x2 − 4 x + 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.5 − 2 >0 2. 4 > 0. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.

5 ) − 3 ( 2.5 1 > 0. True 5 02 − 3 ( 0 ) + 2 0 − 2 ( 0) − 3 2 >0 ( −1. Inc. Test Interval ( −∞. True 15 2.5 ) + 2 >0 1.3) − ( 3. 1.1) does not belong to the solution set. to the solution set. False 3 1. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 2 ) ( 2.1) 0 x +1 = 0 x = −1 Test Conclusion ( −∞.52 − 3 (1. 2 and 3. True 5 The solution set is ( −∞. −1) belongs to the ( −2 ) − 3 ( −2 ) + 2 >0 2 ( −2 ) − 2 ( −2 ) − 3 2 solution set.5 2 > 0. x 2 − 3x + 2 = 0 x2 − 2x − 3 = 0 ( x − 2 )( x − 1) = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 Apply the zero product principle. 1. −1) Test Number −2 x − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 2 ( −1. Publishing as Prentice Hall.52 − 3 ( 2. ( 3. . False 7 >0 solution set.5) + 2 >0 2. 369 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x − 2 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 x − 3 = 0 or x=2 x =1 x=3 The boundary points are −1 . ∞ ) or { x x < −1 or 1 < x < 2 or x > 3} . 2 ) ∪ ( 3.52 − 2 ( 2.7 x2 − 3x + 2 >0 x2 − 2x − 3 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero.5 ) − 3 (1. 2 ) belongs to the 2. −1) ∪ (1.3) does not belong − (1.PreCalculus 4E 70.52 − 2 (1. ∞ ) 4 42 − 3 ( 4 ) + 2 4 − 2 ( 4) − 3 2 3 > 0. Section 2. 12 > 0. 6 > 0.

Now. and 1. the boundaries are −6 . −2 ) ∪ [ −1. + = = = = 4 ( x + 2 ) 4 ( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 4 ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) x 2 − 4 x +1 crosses the x-axis at −1 . Now. and 1. Thus. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 ≥ 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 ≥ 0 1 The graph of f ( x ) = 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 appears to cross the x-axis at −6 . Thus. We need to find the intervals on which 2 f ( x ) < 0 . − . Inc. − . −1 . − ⎥ ∪ [1. Now. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 73. the curve is below the x-axis when x < −6 and when − 1 ⎧ 1 ⎫ < x < 1 . Thus. x2 − 4 the boundaries are −2 . 2 x 3 + 11x 2 < 7 x + 6 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 < 0 1 In Problem 63. the curve is below the x-axis when x < −2 and when −1 < x < 2 . These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. We verify this 2 numerically by substituting these values into the function: f ( −6 ) = 2 ( −6 ) + 11( −6 ) − 7 ( −6 ) − 6 = 2 ( −216 ) + 11( 36 ) − ( −42 ) − 6 = −432 + 396 + 42 − 6 = 0 3 2 3 2 1 11 7 ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛1⎞ ⎛ 7⎞ f ⎜ − ⎟ = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ − ⎟ − 7 ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = 2 ⎜ − ⎟ + 11⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ − ⎟ − 6 = − + + − 6 = 0 2 2 2 2 8 4 2 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ f (1) = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 (1) − 6 = 2 (1) + 11(1) − 7 − 6 = 2 + 11 − 7 − 6 = 0 3 2 1 Thus. and 1. These intervals are 2 1 indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis. ∞ ) . . Thus. and 1. the solution set is ⎨ x − 6 ≤ x ≤ − or x ≥ 1⎬ or ⎢ −6. 2 ) . and has vertical asymptotes at x = −2 and x = 2 . 370 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1⎟ . − . the solution set is { x x < −2 or − 1 ≤ x < 2} or ( −∞. 1 3 ≤− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + ≤0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) Simplify the left side of the inequality: 3( x + 2) 4 ( x + 1) x−2 x − 2 + 3x + 6 4x + 4 x +1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. the curve is above the x-axis when −6 < x < − 2 ⎧ 1 ⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ and when x > 1 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 71. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≤ 0 . 2 2⎦ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ 72. These intervals are The graph of f ( x ) = indicated on the graph where the curve is below the x-axis. we verified that the boundaries are −6 . We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) ≥ 0 . the solution set is ⎨ x x < −6 or − < x < 1⎬ or 2 2 ⎩ ⎭ ( −∞. −6 ) ∪ ⎛⎜ − 1 ⎞ .

s (t ) = −16t 2 + 8t + 87 The diver’s height will exceed that of the cliff when s (t ) > 87 −16t 2 + 8t + 87 > 87 −16t 2 + 8t > 0 −8t (2t − 1) > 0 1 . The interval is ( 0. The interval is ⎜ 0. ⎝ 2⎠ The boundaries are 0 and 76. Section 2. The function values and the data are identical.0875 x 2 − 0.6 g ( x) = 0. We need to find the intervals on which f ( x ) > 0 .0875 x 2 + 1.0875(35) 2 + 1. −1) ∪ ( 2. Thus.6 ≈ 185 feet b. 75.6 ≈ 160 feet g (35) = 0. The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well. Testing each interval shows that the diver will be higher than the cliff for the first half 2 ⎛ 1⎞ second after beginning the jump.9(35) + 11. 3) . .PreCalculus 4E 74. and 2. The curve is above the x-axis when −2 < x < −1 and when x > 2 .4(35) + 66. the solution set is { x −2 < x < −1 or x > 2} or ( −2. f ( x) = 0. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c. f (35) = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0875(35)2 − 0. Testing each interval shows that the ball will be higher than the rooftop for the first three seconds after the throw.4 x + 66. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 48t + 160 The ball’s height will exceed that of the rooftop when s (t ) > 160 −16t 2 + 48t + 160 > 160 −16t 2 + 48t > 0 −16t (t − 3) > 0 The boundaries are 0 and 3. ∞ ) . 371 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. These intervals are indicated on the graph where the curve is above the x-axis.9 x + 11.7 1 3 >− 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) 1 3 + >0 4 ( x + 2) 4 ( x − 2) x +1 >0 ( x + 2)( x − 2) The boundaries are −2 . 77. ⎟ .6 a. Inc. −1 .

9 x + 11. Dry pavement: graph (b) Wet pavement: graph (a) c.4 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(1.6 a. ∞ ) 100 0. 0. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 76 miles per hour.0875(50)2 − 0.4 x + 66.6 ≈ 309 feet g (55) = 0.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.0875 x 2 + 1.4(100) + 66.9(55) + 11.4 x + 66.4(50) + 66. True ( 30.9 x + 528.0875 x 2 − 0. 0.9) ± (1.0875 x 2 − 0. This is represented on graph (b) to the right of point (76.0875(55)2 − 0. False ( 76.4 x + 473.6 ≈ 381 feet b.6 g ( x) = 0.6 > 540 0.0875) x ≈ −89 or 68 372 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0875 x 2 − 0. 540).4) ± (−0.4) 2(0.0875 x 2 + 1.6 > 540 265. On dry pavement.4)2 − 4(0.0875)(473.9 x + 11. f (55) = 0. d.0875 x 2 + 1.4 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.4 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. 78. 76 ) does not belong to the solution set. 0.4) 2(0.0875(55)2 + 1.6 > 540 901. 76 ) Test Conclusion 0.0875(100)2 − 0.9 x + 528.6 > 540 0. x= Interval Test Value 50 ( 30.0875)(528.6 > 540.4(55) + 66. ( 76. . The answers to part (a) model the actual stopping distances shown in the figure extremely well.Polynomial and Rational Functions d.35 > 540. 0.9)2 − 4(0.4 x + 473. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.0875 x 2 + 1.0875 x 2 − 0. we must test the following intervals.0875) x ≈ −71 or 76 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30. f ( x) = 0.

If the length is less than 6 feet. we must test the following intervals. the length of the shorter side must be 6 feet or less. On wet pavement. ( 6. True solution set. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. True ( 6. This is represented on graph (a) to the right of point (68. if the area of the rectangle is not to exceed 114 square feet. Let x = the length of the rectangle. ∞ ) 20 solution set. False ( 68. .9(50) + 11. False to the solution set. Since Perimeter = 2 ( length ) + 2 ( width ) . ∞ ) belongs to the 25 ( 20 ) − 20 ≤ 114 2 100 ≤ 114.0875(100)2 + 1. 6 ) belongs to the 25 ( 0 ) − 0 ≤ 114 2 0 ≤ 114.19 ) 10 (19. Test Interval Test Number ( −∞. 68) does not belong 2 0.9(100) + 11.0875(50) + 1. True to the solution set. A = ( length )( width ) . (19.6 > 540.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. If the length is 6 feet.7 Since the function’s domain is x ≥ 30. then the width is greater than 19 feet.6 > 540 1076.6 > 540 325.68) Test Conclusion ( 30. stopping distances will exceed 540 feet for speeds exceeding 68 miles per hour. Interval Test Value 50 ( 30.19 ) does not belong 25 (10 ) − 10 ≤ 114 2 150 ≤ 114. we know 50 = 2 x + 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 2 ( width ) 50 − 2 x = 25 − x 2 Now. ∞ ) 100 0. so we have that width = A ( x ) ≤ 114 x ( 25 − x ) ≤ 114 25 x − x 2 ≤ 114 Solve the related equation 25 x − x 2 = 114 0 = x 2 − 25 x + 114 0 = ( x − 19 )( x − 6 ) Apply the zero product principle: x − 19 = 0 or x − 6 = 0 x = 19 x=6 The boundary points are 6 and 19. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. 540). 373 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Thus. 6 ) 0 Test Conclusion ( −∞. then the width is 19 feet.35 > 540. 79. ( 68.

The length of the shorter side cannot exceed 10 feet. 2 ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ x − 3 ≤ x ≤ ⎩ 1⎫ 1⎤ ⎡ ⎬ or ⎢ −3.Polynomial and Rational Functions 80. . The graph is below or equal to the x-axis for −3 ≤ x ≤ . The solution set is (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Answers may vary. -5) ∪ (2. 86. we ignore the larger solution. Test Test Test Conclusion Interval Number ( 0. 81. Inc. A ≤ 800 l ⋅ w ≤ 800 ( 90 − w ) w ≤ 800 90w − w2 ≤ 800 − w2 + 90w − 800 ≤ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 ≥ 0 w2 − 90w + 800 = 0 ( w − 80 )( w − 10 ) = 0 w − 80 = 0 or w − 10 = 0 w = 80 w = 10 Assuming the width is the shorter side. That is. 1 87. 2⎭ 2⎦ ⎣ 374 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 45) 5 90 ( 5 ) − ( 5 ) ≤ 800 true 20 90 ( 20 ) − ( 20 ) ≤ 800 false 2 2 ( 0. Graph y1 = 2 x 2 + 5 x − 3 in a standard window.10 ) is part of the solution set (10. – 85. ∞). 2l + 2w = P 2l + 2w = 180 2l = 180 − 2w l = 90 − w We want to restrict the area to 800 square feet.10] .10 ) (10. 45 ) is not part of the solution set The solution set is {w | 0 < w ≤ 10} or ( 0. ⎥ .

89.3) ∪ [8.1x + 399. ∞). ∞ ) 1 2 and y2 = x +1 x+4 y1 less than or equal to y2 for −4 < x < −1 or x ≥ 2 .1 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. we must test the following intervals.7 88.1125)(399.1 = 0 x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. ∞ ) 92. 0. f ( x) = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 > 455 0. a.1125 x 2 − 0.1125 x 2 − 0. Inc.1125) x ≈ −59 or 60 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0.1x + 399.1x + 55. 0. Graph y1 = 1 < x ≤ 4. 91. −1) ∪ [ 2. 90. The solution set is (–2. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −4. Graph y1 = The solution set is ( −∞.9 b.1x + 55.1125 x 2 − 0. x−4 in a standard viewing window. . The graph is below the x-axis for x −1 The solution set is (1. 4].1) 2(0. x+2 and y2 = 2 x−3 y1 less than or equal to y2 for x < 3 or x ≥ 8 . –1) or (2.PreCalculus 4E Section 2.1) ± (−0. x= 375 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1125 x 2 − 0.1)2 − 4(0.

1375(10) + 0.7 x + 408. stopping distances will exceed 446 feet for speeds exceeding 52 miles per hour. a.7 x + 408.1(50) + 55. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1125(50) − 0. 98. makes sense 95.8 > 446 1482.8 > 446 58. does not make sense.1(100) + 55. makes sense 97.15 > 455. Inc.8 > 446.1375 x 2 + 0. False ( 60.1125(100) − 0.7 x + 37.1375)(408. We do not know if x + 3 is positive or negative.9 > 455 1170. 60 ) does not belong to the solution set.8 b.9 > 455.7 x + 37. 96.7)2 − 4(0.7(100) + 37. True ( 0.7(10) + 37. False ( 52. ∞ ) 100 2 0.8 > 446 0. A sample change is: The solution set is { x x < −5 or x > 5} or ( −∞. false. false. . stopping distances will exceed 455 feet for speeds exceeding 60 miles per hour.2 = 0 x= x= −b ± b2 − 4ac 2a −(0. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set. On wet pavement.52 ) Test Conclusion 2 0. Sample explanation: Polynomials are defined for all values.1375(100)2 + 0. but not included in the domain of the second inequality. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 0. Thus. A sample change is: The inequality cannot be solved by multiplying both sides by x + 3. 1.1375) x ≈ −57 or 52 Since the function’s domain must be x ≥ 0.1375 x 2 + 0.Polynomial and Rational Functions Interval Test Value 50 ( 0. ∞ ) belongs to the solution set.1375 x 2 + 0. 99. Explanations will vary. A sample change is: The inequalities have different solution sets. 0. −5) ∪ ( 5. ∞ ) .2) 2(0. Interval Test Value 10 ( 0.55 > 446.52 ) does not belong to the solution set. Explanations will vary. we would not know whether or not to reverse the order of the inequality.7) ± (0.2 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. True ( 0. true 376 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The value. 101. ( 52. false. ∞ ) 100 0. 60 ) Test Conclusion 2 0. Sample explanation: To solve this inequality you must first subtract 2 from both sides. ( 60. Changes to make the statement true will vary. 100.1375 x 2 + 0. 94. f ( x) = 0. On dry pavement. does not make sense. is included in the domain of the first inequality.9 > 455 332. we must test the following intervals. 93. Changes to make the statement true will vary.

c. Test –4: −21 ≥ 0 no graph. One possible solution: ≥0 x+4 9 − x2 ≥ 0 (3 − x)(3 + x) ≥ 0 3− x = 0 3+ x = 0 x = 3 or x = −3 104. a. One possible solution: x 2 − 2 x − 15 ≤ 0 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 109. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is the empty set. 105. the solution includes only 2. ∅. 108. y = kx 2 64 = k ⋅ 22 64 = 4k 16 = k b. the solution is all real numbers except 2. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 4 x2 − 8x + 7 < 0 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 = 7 < 0 False The solution set is the empty set. the solution is all real numbers except 2. 27 − 3x 2 ≥ 0 x−3 103. Because any number squared is positive. 8 ± 64 − 112 8 8 ± −48 ⇒ imaginary x= 8 no critical values Test 0: 4(0) 2 − 8(0) + 7 > 0 7 > 0 True The inequality is true for all numbers. 3 2 Test 0: 27 − 3(0) 2 ≥ 0 27 ≥ 0 True Test 4: 27 − 3(4)2 ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 8 ± (−8) 2 − 4(4)(7) x= 2(4) −21 ≥ 0 no graph -imaginary The solution set is [–3. a. Because any non-zero number squared is positive. ∅.7 102. x= 110.imaginary The solution set is all real numbers.PreCalculus 4E Section 2. c. the solution is the empty set. Inc. 3]. b. Because any number squared other than zero is positive. 4 x2 − 8x + 7 > 0 27 − 3(−4) ≥ 0 27 − 48 ≥ 0 107. T –3 106. and the reciprocal of zero is undefined. . Because any number squared other than zero is positive. y = kx 2 y = 16 x 2 y = 16 ⋅ 52 y = 400 377 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

a. k L= f 5120 L= f Use the equation to find f when L = 10 . l can be expressed as w = kl 2 . W . Use the given values to find k . t can be expressed as W = kt . The volume of water. f k can be expressed as L = . W = kt k . varies directly as the time. The weight. P k ⋅ 60. . k x k 12 = 8 96 = k y= 111. L . 000 12. varies directly as the cube of the length.6(25)3 = 9375 The 25-foot long shark was 9375 pounds.Polynomial and Rational Functions 2. Section 2. varies inversely as the frequency. Inc. 000 8=k 3. w = 0. k L= f k 8= 640 5120 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation. y varies inversely as x is expressed as y = 5120 f 5120 10 = f 10 f = 5120 L= W = 6t Use the equation to find W when t = 11 . y varies directly as the cube of x is expressed as y = kx3 . y varies directly as x is expressed as y = kx. w = 0. x The length. b. kA S= 112. 000 = 40 12. Use the given values to find k . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 378 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 000 ⋅ 40 =k 60. W = 6t f = 512 A 10 inch violin string will have a frequency of 512 cycles per second.6l 3 = 0.6l 3 Use the equation to find w when l = 25. w . f Use the given values to find k . w = kl 3 96 x 96 y= 3 y = 32 y= c. = 6(11) = 66 A shower lasting 11 minutes will use 66 gallons of water. W = kt 30 = k (5) 6=k Substitute the value of k into the equation.6 = k Substitute the value of k into the equation.8 Check Point Exercises 1. w = kl 3 k x 96 y= x y= 2025 = k (15)3 0.

120π = k (10)(6)2 π 3 =k Therefore. x 60 When x = 2. y = kx 65 = k ⋅ 5 65 k ⋅ 5 = 5 5 13 = k The equation becomes y = 13 x. the volume equation is V = V= π 3 Since y varies inversely with x. as M = P Use the given values to find k . kQ M = P 8Q M = P Use the equation to find M when P = 8 and Q = 24 . Use the given values to find k. y = kx 45 = k ⋅ 5 9=k Substitute the value of k into the equation. we have y = 1 2 hr . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Use the given values to find k. k . kQ M = P k (16) 32 = 4 8=k Exercise Set 2. V = khr 2 4. 2 8Q P 8(24) M = 8 M = 24 It will take 24 minutes for 8 people to solve 24 problems. Inc.8 let M represent the number of minutes let Q represent the number of problems let P represent the number of people M varies directly as Q and inversely as P is expressed kQ .8 1. V varies jointly with h and r 2 and can be modeled as V = khr 2 .PreCalculus 4E 4. x . Section 2. Use the given values to find k. When x = 12. k y= x k 12 = 5 k 5 ⋅12 = 5 ⋅ 5 60 = k 60 The equation becomes y = . y = = 30. 2. y = 9 x = 9 ⋅13 = 117 3. M = 5. 3 (2)(12) 2 = 96π cubic feet k x k 6= 3 18 = k y= y= 18 =2 9 379 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 13 x = 13 ⋅12 = 156.

c = 9. Use the given values to find k. . we have y = 2 . 2 5 When x = 8 and z = 12. 2 The equation becomes y = y= 45mn 2 45(3)(4) 2 2160 = = = 216 10 10 p 380 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 c 9 y= kmn 2 p k (2)(1) 2 6 2k 15 = 6 2k 15(6) = (6) 6 90 = 2k 15 = 25 = k ( 2 )( 5 ) 25 = k (10 ) 25 k (10 ) = 10 10 5 =k 2 k = 45 5 xz. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. we have y = c Use the given values to find k. Since y varies inversely as x and inversely as the kx square of z. 28 ( 4 ) ( 8) 2 = 28 ( 4 ) 64 = C = kAT 7 4 10. the square root of c.Polynomial and Rational Functions 5. b = 3. kab y= c k (3)(2) 12 = 25 k (6) 12 = 5 k (6) 12(5) = (5) 5 60 = 6k 60 6k = 6 6 10 = k 10ab . 10 = k The equation becomes y = 10 x . z 6 36 36 6 6. Since y varies jointly as x and z. z2 When x = 3 and z = 6. z Use the given values to find k. The equation becomes y = c When a = 5. 175 = k ( 2100 )( 4 ) 175 = k ( 8400 ) 1 =k 48 C= 9. 10 x 10 ( 3) 10 ( 3) 30 5 y= 2 = 2 = = = . we have y = kxz. y = kxz 1 14400 = 300 ( 2400 )( 6 ) = 48 48 Since y varies jointly as a and b and inversely as kab . kx y= 2 z k ( 50 ) 20 = 52 k ( 50 ) 20 = 25 20 = 2k 8. y = ( 8 )(12 ) = 240. 10ab 10(5)(3) 150 y= = = = 50 . a= 7= 7= kb c2 k (9) ( 6) k (9) 2 36 k 7= 4 28 = k a= 7.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = kz ( y + w) .8 x = kyz . Section 2. w Solving for y: kyz x= w x ( w ) = ( w ) kyzw x w = kyz x w kyz = kz kz 12. Solving for y : y= x = kyz 2 x kyz 2 = 2 2 kz kz x y= 2 kz 13. x = kyz 2 . kyz w2 ⎛ w2 ⎞ w2 kyz ⎜ ⎟x = kz w2 ⎝ kz ⎠ xw2 y= kz 17. Solving for y: x = kz ( y + w) x= xy = y ⋅ x= x = kzy + kzw kz 3 y x − kzw = kzy x − kzw kzy = kz kz x − kzw y= kz xy = kz 3 xy kz 3 = x x kz 3 y= x 14. kz 3 . x = kz ( y − w) x = kzy − kzw k3 z x= y x + kzw = kzy x + kzw kzy = kz kz x + kzw y= kz k3 z yx = y ⋅ y yx = k 3 z yx k 3 z = x x y= k3 z x 381 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 11. y Solving for y kz 3 x= y 16. . x kyz = . Inc. Solving for y: x = kyz 15. kz yz x y= kz x= kyz . x w kz 18.

x= 23. T = kB 3.6 k (4) = 4 4 0. 382 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 = k (4) 25. Use the given values to find k. we have w = kh 3 . .75 f = 0. 21.9(6) = 5.4 feet. we have T = kB . T = 0.4 . Inc.7 56 D= = 80 0.7 0. Since a man’s weight varies directly as the cube of his height. 3 w = 0.4 k (12 ) = 12 12 8. kz y+w ( y + w) x = ( y + w) kz y+w 24. 22.000496h 3 .7 D. Use the given values to find k.000496 (1.7 D = 0.75 = k d = 0. 000 0. 000 343. Robert Wadlow’s weight was approximately 607 pounds. we have B = kD. When B = 6 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Since T varies directly as B.4 k= = 0. y−w Solving for y: kz x= y−w ( y − w) x = ( y − w) 8. B = kD kz . 1 (186 ) = 31 6 A person who weighs 186 pounds on Earth will weigh 31 pounds on the moon.75 0. 170 = k ( 70 ) 3 170 = k ( 343.7 It was dropped from 80 inches.9 = k The equation becomes T = 0. Use the given values to find k.75 f 15 0. x= 56 0.4 = k (12 ) 8.7 12 The equation becomes B = 0. When h = 107.Polynomial and Rational Functions 19. The tail length is 5. 225.75 20 = f A force of 20 pounds is needed. yx + xw = kz yx = kz − xw yx kz − xw = x x kz − xw y= x 15 = 0. w = kh3 3. 000 ) 170 = 343.75 f = 0. 000 ) k ( 343. When B = 56 . 043) ≈ 607.000496 = k The equation becomes w = 0. 56 = 0.9 B .7 D kz y−w xy − wx = kz xy = kz + wx xy kz + wx = x x xw + kz y= x 20. Since B varies directly as D.000496 (107 ) M = kE 60 = k ( 360 ) 60 k ( 360 ) = 360 360 1 =k 6 M = d = kf 9 = k (12) 9 k (12) = 12 12 0.

5d 2 h = 0.75 = 2 40 k 3. we have pressure. i= k d k 1000 (1000)4.4 foot-candles at a distance of 50 feet.5 .4 = 30. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r Use the given values to find k.25 The intensity is 90 milliroentgens per hour. Inc. 27. d Use the given values to find k. t= 4. . k B= r k 28 = 4 ⎛k⎞ 28 ( 4 ) = 28 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4⎠ 112 = k 112 . we have B = .4 = (1000) k 1000 4400 = k 4400 4400 = = 0. I = = = 90 2.5 = 9 ⎛k ⎞ 9 ( 62.4 d2 502 2500 The illumination is 2.5(30) 2 h = 450 A water pipe with a 30 centimeter diameter can serve 450 houses. k d2 k 3.5d 2 d 2 = 625 d = 625 d = 25 A water pipe with a 25 centimeter diameter can serve 1250 houses. d k 62.5d 2 a. The equation becomes B = r 112 112 When r = 3.88 Celsius at a depth of 5000 meters.5 . b.5 = k 562.8 h = kd 2 26. Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance.5 The banking angle is 32 when the turning radius is 3. h = 0. 28. r 3.75 = 1600 i= (1600)3. k I= 2.88 d 5000 The water temperature is 0. 50 = k ⋅ 10 0.5 562. Since the banking angle varies inversely as k the turning radius.5 .5 ) = 9 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ 562. B = = = 32 . t= 383 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. h = 0. we have k I= .PreCalculus 4E Section 2.5 feet.5 When d = 2. 2 h = 0.52 6. The equation becomes I = d2 562.5 = k 29.5d 2 1250 = 0.75 = (1600) k 1600 6000 = k 6000 6000 6000 = = = 2.5 = 2 3 k 62.

we kw have I = 2 .15 = 602 k (180) 35. km c k (25) 125 = 20 k (25) 20(125) = (20) 20 2500 = 25k 2500 25k = 25 25 100 = k i= 35. 3 The heat loss is 1800 Btu . The intensity will I= = = ⋅ (2d ) 2 4d 2 4 d 2 100m c 100(40) 80 = c 4000 80 = c 4000 80c = c ⋅ c 80c = 4000 80c 4000 = 80 80 c = 50 The chronological age is 50. Since index varies directly as weight and inversely as the square of one’s height. 703(170) I= ≈ 24.4. 1 . h When w = 170 and h = 70. Since intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the sound source. 34. So the sound 4 1 of what it was originally.5(4)(6) 2 = 0.4 and is not overweight. 3 384 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Use the given values to find k. L = 10 ( 9 ⋅ 6 ) (10) = 1800 .5(4)(36) = 72 A mass of 4 grams and velocity of 6 centimeters per second has a kinetic energy of 72 ergs.15 = 3600 k (180) (3600)35.5 e = 0. Since heat loss varies jointly as the area and temperature difference.5mv 2 = 0. we k have I = 2 .Polynomial and Rational Functions 33. h Use the given values to find k. (70)2 This person has a BMI of 24. e = kmv 2 36 = k (8)(3) 2 36 = k (8)(9) 36 = 72k 36 72k = 72 72 k = 0. D = 10 .15 = 3600 126540 = k (180) 1200 = k (3 ⋅ 6)(20) 1200 = 360k 1200 360k = 360 360 10 k= 3 The equation becomes L = 10 AD 3 When A = 6 ⋅ 9 = 54 . So we have k k 1 k . 4 k a k 1 k t= = ⋅ 3a 3 a t= A year will seem to be 1 of a year. If you move to a seat twice as d far. i= be multiplied by a factor of intensity is 36. k= 32. Inc. L = kAD 31. 126540 = 703 180 703w The equation becomes I = 2 . kw I= 2 h k (180 ) 35. . we have L = kAD . then d = 2d .

02(650. 2 49. 000) 326. 000 = 16269841. d2 0. Pressure. 385 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.875 There are approximately 17. 000) (400) 2 = 17. .27k 0. kP P C = 12 2 d k ( 777. Section 2. does not make sense. can be modeled as P = kv 2 .5 k =6 6 The equation becomes R = .875 daily phone calls. the independent variable can not be zero. varies directly as the square of wind velocity. 000 ) (3. makes sense 53. 2 k ( 2. If v = x then P = k ( x) 2 = kx 2 If v = 2 x then P = k (2 x) 2 = 4kx 2 If the wind speed doubles the pressure is 4 times more destructive. 38.5) = (0. I 40. Sample explanation: For an inverse variation. Current varies inversely as resistance. C= f = kas 2 b.87 × 1012 ) 176. v.02 ≈ k The equation becomes C = c. Explanations will vary.8 a. Answers will vary. 150 = k (4 ⋅ 5)(30) 150 = k (20)(900) 150 = 18000k 150 18000k = 18000 150 1 =k 120 1 1 (3 ⋅ 4)(60) 2 f = as 2 = 120 120 1 (12)(3600) = 120 = 360 Yes. Since the average number of phone calls varies jointly as the product of the populations and inversely as the square of the distance. 0. 50. Sample explanation: A direct variation with a positive constant of variation will have both variables increase simultaneously.5 k 12(0. we have kP P C = 12 2 . Since the current varies inversely as k resistance we have R = . 695. does not make sense. makes sense 52. Using one of I the given ordered pairs to find k . Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 = 326. 000 = ( 420 ) 39. P.PreCalculus 4E 37.5) 0. – 48. k 12 = 0. a. Use the given values to find k. the wind will exert a force of 360 pounds on the window. 400 326. c. 51. Explanations will vary.02 P1 P2 . d b. 000)(220. Inc.

the Hubble telescope is able to see about 7 times farther than a ground-based telescope. r. x x 4. 3. 60. Inc. 6. Since 50 ≈ 7 . and inversely as the resistance. Answers may vary. 55.Polynomial and Rational Functions 54. = 7 ⋅ 2 + 7(3i ) + (−i )(2) + (−i )(3i ) k . H. The Heat. Illumination. to triple the heat the resistant must be reduced by a multiple of 3. d k k If d = 15 then I = 2 = 15 225 k k If d = 30 then I = 2 = 30 900 900 =4 Note that 225 If the distance doubles the illumination is 4 times less intense. d. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Chapter 2 Review Exercises If I = k ⇒d= d2 (8 – 3i) – (17 – 7i) = 8 – 3i – 17 + 7i = –9 + 4i 2. (7 + 8i )(7 − 8i ) = 7 2 + 82 = 49 + 64 = 113 58. 5. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. I. kv 2 H= r If the voltage remains constant. Illumination. can be modeled as I = 2 . 6 6 5−i = ⋅ 5+i 5+i 5−i 30 − 6i = 25 + 1 30 − 6i = 26 15 − 3i = 13 15 3 = − i 13 13 386 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. d. can be modeled as I = 2 . (3 − 4i ) 2 = 32 + 2 ⋅ 3(−4i ) + (−4i )2 = 9 − 24i − 16 = −7 − 24i 57. 4i (3i − 2) = (4i )(3i ) + (4i )(−2) = 12i 2 − 8i = −12 − 8i 56. varies directly as the square of the voltage. varies inversely as the square of the k distance. I. d If I = x then x = 1. v. x 1 1 k x= 2 ⇒d = x then 50 50 d (7 − i )(2 + 3i ) = 14 + 21i − 2i + 3 = 17 + 19i 50k k = 50 . 59. .

9. 4] } The solution set is 1 − i 3 . ∞) range: ( −∞. 1 + i 3 . x= 6 ± 36 − 40 4 6 ± −4 x= 4 6 ± 2i x= 4 6 2i x= ± 4 4 3 1 = ± i 2 2 = 4i 2 − 3i 2 ⎧3 1 3 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − i. . 4) x-intercepts: 2 0 = − ( x + 1) + 4 2 = 4 − 40i + (10i ) 2 = 4 − 40i − 100 = −96 − 40i ( x + 1) 10. 4 + −8 4 + i 8 4 + 2i 2 = = = 2+i 2 2 2 2 11. (−2 + −100) = (−2 + i 100) −(−6) ± (−6)2 − 4(2)(5) 2(2) x= −32 − −18 = i 32 − i 18 = i 16 ⋅ 2 − i 9 ⋅ 2 2 2 2x − 6x + 5 = 0 2 = (−2 + 10i ) 2 f ( x ) = − ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. Chapter 2 Review Exercises 3 + 4i 3 + 4i 4 + 2i = ⋅ 4 − 2i 4 − 2i 4 + 2i 12 + 6i + 16i + 8i 2 = 16 − 4i 2 12 + 22i − 8 = 16 + 4 4 + 22i = 20 1 11 = + i 5 10 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎩2 2 2 2 ⎭ = (4i − 3i ) 2 =i 2 13.PreCalculus 4E 7. 387 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. + i ⎬ . Inc. 2 ± −12 2 2 ± 2i 3 x= 2 x= x =1 ±i 3 { domain: (−∞. 8. 2 x − 2x + 4 = 0 2 =4 x + 1 = ±2 x = −1 ± 2 x = −3 or x = 1 y-intercept: f ( 0 ) = − ( 0 + 1) + 4 = 3 2 x= −(−2) ± (−2) 2 − 4(1)(4) 2(1) x= 2 ± 4 − 16 2 The axis of symmetry is x = −1 .

The axis of symmetry is x = –4. b.025(0) 2 + (0) + 6 = 6 The ball was tossed at a height of 6 feet.025) f (20) = −0. f ( x) = −0. Inc. f ( x) = −0. 19. ∞) range: [ 685. f ( x ) = − ( x − 1) + 4 2 18. a. f ( x ) = − x + 2x + 3 f (7) = −(7) 2 + 14(7) − 106 = −57 2 = − ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 3 + 1 b. ∞) range: ( −∞. ∞) range: [ −2. ∞) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) The maximum height will occur at the vertex. −57 ] f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 12 x + 703 a. ∞ ) 17. Since a < 0 the parabola opens down with the maximum value occurring at 14 b x=− =− =7. 388 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.025(20) 2 + (20) + 6 = 16 The maximum height of 16 feet occurs when the ball is 20 yards downfield. 2a 2(−1) The maximum value is f (7). domain: (−∞. f (x) = (x + 4)2 − 2 vertex: (–4. Since a > 0 the parabola opens up with the minimum value occurring at 12 b x=− =− = −3 . 2a 2(2) The minimum value is f (−3).025 x 2 + x + 6 f (0) = −0. f (−3) = 2(−3) 2 + 12(−3) + 703 = 685 domain: (−∞. . domain: (−∞. ∞ ) 15. f ( x ) = 2 x2 − 4 x − 6 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) − 6 − 2 2 ( x − 1) − 8 2 ( x + 4)2 = 2 x+4=± 2 x = −4 ± 2 y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 4)2 − 2 = 14 = –1 axis of symmetry: x = 1 domain: (−∞. f ( x) = − x 2 + 14 x − 106 a.025 x 2 + x + 6 1 b x=− =− = 20 2a 2(−0. domain: (−∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 14. –2) x-intercepts: 0 = ( x + 4)2 − 2 16. ∞) range: [ −8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4] b.

025 x 2 + x + 6 21. The minimum product is −7 ⋅ 7 = −49. A ( x ) = x (1000 − 2 x ) 1000 − 3x 4 3 2 x + 250x 4 −b −250 = = 125 2a 3 2 − 4 1000 − 3(125) = 166.25 or 1 tree 2a 2(−4) 4 The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. The area is maximized at 125. Chapter 2 Review Exercises The ball is at a height of 0 when it hits the ground.025 x 2 + x + 6 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = 14 x + x 2 = x 2 + 14 x.000 square yards when the width is 250 yards and the length is 1000 − 2 ⋅ 250 = 500 yards.PreCalculus 4E c. y = (35 + x)(150 – 4x) 2 y = 5250 + 10x − 4x The maximum area is achieved when the width is 250 yards. The minimum is at b 14 14 x=− =− = − = −7. Inc.025) x ≈ 45. d.7 feet will maximize the area. The football’s path: 22.025)(6) x= 2(−0. 2a 2 (1) 2 −(1) ± (1) 2 − 4(−0. − 5.7 4 125 feet by 166. 2a 2 ( −2 ) −4 23. y= A ( x ) = −2 x + 1000 x 2 Since a = −2 is negative. x= = 250 (1000 − 500 ) = 250 ( 500 ) = 125. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we know the function opens downward and has a maximum at 1000 1000 b x=− =− =− = 250. We need to minimize the function P ( x ) = x (14 + x ) 0 = −0. f ( x) = −0. The numbers which minimize the product are 7 and −7 . The maximum area is A ( 250 ) = 250 (1000 − 2 ( 250 ) ) −b −10 5 = = = 1. The maximum number of trees should be 35 + 1 = 36 trees. Maximize the area using A = lw. Let x = one of the numbers Let 14 + x = the other number The other number is 14 + x = 14 + ( −7 ) = 7. y = 36(150 – 4x) = 36(150 – 4·1) = 5256 The maximum yield will be 5256 pounds. 000. . f ( x ) = − x3 + 12 x 2 − x The graph rises to the left and falls to the right and goes through the origin.3 yards downfield. 3x + 4y = 1000 4y = 1000 – 3x 1000 − 3x y= 4 A=x =− x= 20. so graph (c) is the best match. 389 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 24.3(reject) The ball will hit the ground 45.3.

the graph crosses the x-axis x = 5. Inc. This means that the graph will fall to the right. b. multiplicity 1. –2 = x 2 ( x − 5) − 25( x − 5) = ( x 2 − 25)( x − 5) = ( x + 5)( x − 5) 2 x = –5. 26. 2. the graph rises to the left and falls to the right. multiplicity 1. The leading coefficient is –0. multiplicity 2. a. so graph (b) is the best match. the graph crosses the x-axis 34. − 3. 31. the graph touches the x-axis 390 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (− x) ≠ f ( x). f ( x) = x3 − x 2 − 9 x + 9 33. b. 30. we know that the elk population will die out over time.Polynomial and Rational Functions 25. the graph touches the x-axis x = –5. 27. we know that even-degree polynomials with negative leading coefficient will fall to the left and to the right. so graph (a) is the best match. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 21x 2 + 100. Since n is odd and an > 0. In the polynomial. g ( x ) = x6 − 6 x 4 + 9 x 2 The graph rises to the left and rises to the right. This is impossible.87 and the degree is 3. f ( x) = x( x 2 − 4) = x( x − 2)( x + 2) zeros: x = 0. 29. the graph crosses the x-axis x = –2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 25 x + 125 f ( x) = 4 x − x3 a. f ( x) = − x 4 + 1 f(x) falls to the left and to the right so graph (d) is the best match. Since n is odd and an < 0. Applying the Leading Coefficient Test. multiplicity 2. f ( x) = −2( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 ( x + 5)3 x = 1. f ( x ) = x3 − 2 x − 1 f (1) = (1)3 − 2(1) − 1 = −2 f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2) − 1 = 3 The sign change shows there is a zero between the given values. Since the graph falls to the right. The model predicts that eventually. f (− x) = (− x )3 − (− x) 2 − 9(− x) + 9 = − x3 − x 2 + 9 x + 9 28. h ( x ) = x5 − 5 x 3 + 4 x The graph falls to the left and rises to the right and crosses the y-axis at zero. 32. This function is not useful in modeling the number of thefts over an extended period of time. 1 leading coefficient is –1 and the degree is 4. . the number of thefts would be negative. f ( − x ) = −4 x + x 3 f (− x) = − f ( x) origin symmetry c. multiplicity 5. the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. the f ( x) = ( x − 3)( x + 3)( x − 1) zeros: 3.

Since h is odd and an > 0. f (− x) = 3(− x)4 − 15(− x) 2 = 3x 4 + 15 x 3 f (− x) ≠ f ( x). b. a. g ( x ) = − x 4 + 25 x 2 38. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. b. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 25(− x) 2 = − x 4 + 25 x 2 = f ( x) y-axis symmetry c. f (− x) = −2 x3 + 3 x 2 + 8 x − 12 The graph falls to the left and to the right. −2. f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 15 x 3 a. 37. 0. b. . the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 5 − x 2 ( x − 5 )( x + 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = –5. f (− x) = − f ( x) no symmetry f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry f(x) = (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x + 3) 3 zeros: x = 2. f ( x ) = − x 4 + 6 x3 − 9 x 2 a. − 2 c. b. c. f (− x) ≠ − f ( x) no symmetry c 3 x 4 − 15 x3 = 0 − x 4 + 25 x 2 = 0 − x 2 ( x 2 − 25 ) = 0 3x3 ( x − 5 ) = 0 zeros: x = 0. The graph falls to the left and to the right. 5 391 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = − x2 ( x2 − 6 x + 9) = 0 − x 2 ( x − 3)( x − 3) = 0 zeros: x = 0.PreCalculus 4E 35. 3 36. The graph rises to the left and to the right. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x 3 + 3x 2 − 8 x − 12 a. f (− x) = −(− x) 4 + 6(− x)3 − 9(− x) = − x 4 − 6 x3 − 9 x 2 f (− x ) ≠ f ( x ) f (− x) ≠ f ( x).

x = 1. 5x + 1 f ( x) = 2 x3 − 7 x 2 + 9 x − 3 –13 5x + 5 2 −4 Quotient: 4 x 2 − 7 x + 5 − 2 4 x +1 20 x−2 –7 9 –3 –26 429 –5694 –33 438 –5697 Quotient: f (–13) = –5697 392 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 10 5x − 3 4 3 4 x2 + 2 x2 6 x3 − 2 x 2 + 3 x 40.Polynomial and Rational Functions 39. f(x) rises to the left and the right. Inc. x = –2 The zeros at 1 and –2 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. x = –4. f ( x ) = − x 3 ( x + 4 ) ( x − 1) 2 6 x2 + 3x Since an < 0 and n is even. − 10 Quotient: 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 − 2 x2 + 3x − 1 2 x + 1 4 x + 6 x + 3x − 1 2 43. f(x) falls to the left and the right. (3 x 4 − 2 x 2 − 10 x) ÷ ( x − 2) 2 41. 0) 2 x2 − 4x + 1 5 x − 3 10 x 3 − 26 x 2 + 17 x − 13 10 x 3 + 6 x 2 − 20 x 2 + 17 x − 20 x 2 + 12 x 5 x − 13 f (0) = 2(0) 2 ( 0 − 1) ( 0 + 2 ) = 0 3 5x − 3 The y-intercept is 0. 3 3 11 –20 7 35 –15 20 0 –35 –4 0 7 0 Quotient: 3 x − 4 x + 7 3 45. x = 1 The roots at 0 and 1 have odd multiplicity so f(x) crosses the x-axis at those points. . The root at –4 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (–4. The root at 0 has even multiplicity so f(x) touches the axis at (0. f (0) = −(0)3 ( 0 + 4 ) ( 0 − 1) = 0 (3 x 4 + 11x 3 − 20 x3 + 7 x + 35) ÷ ( x + 5) 2 –5 The y-intercept is 0. 2 4x − 7x + 5 x + 1 4 x3 − 3 x 2 − 2 x + 1 3 0 –2 –10 0 6 12 20 20 6 10 10 20 2 3 Quotient: 3x 3 + 6 x 2 + 10 x + 10 + 4 x3 + 4 x 2 − 7 x2 − 2 x −7 x 2 − 7 x 46. x = 0. 0) − 2 x2 − 1 −2 x 2 − 1 0 44. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f ( x ) = 2 x 2 ( x − 1) ( x + 2 ) 42. 3 Since an > 0 and n is even. x = 0.

. ± q 2 3 6 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 2 sign variations. 1 x = 1 or x = –2 The solution set is{1. ± 2. f ( x) = x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 a. ± 5 q a. f ( − x ) = −6 x 3 + x 2 + 4 x + 1 f ( x ) = 3x 4 − 2 x3 − 8 x + 5 1 sign variation. ± . ± 4 –1 6 1 –4 1 –6 5 –1 6 –5 1 0 –1 is a zero. –2}. ± . . are rational zeros. ± 5 4 p : ± 1. ± . 1 f ( x ) = 6 x3 + x 2 − 4 x + 1 q : ± 1. ( x − 4 ) ( x 2 + 4 x − 1) = 0 −4 ± 16 + 4 −4 ± 2 5 x= = = −2 ± 5 2 2 { } The solution set is 4. Chapter 2 Review Exercises f ( x) = 2 x3 + x 2 − 13x + 6 2 2 2 53. ± 2. b. p : ± 1. Inc. f(x) has 2 sign variations. 49. ± 4. ± 3 51.PreCalculus 4E 47. p 8 4 2 1 : ± 1. so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 negative solutions. f ( x) = ( x − 2)(2 x + 5 x − 3) 2 q : ±1 = ( x − 2)(2 x − 1)( x + 3) p : ± 1. ± 8 b. d. −3 2 48. 3 2 f ( x) = 2 x 5 – 3 x3 – 5 x 2 + 3x – 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. ± 8. so no real roots exist. ± 2. ± . 393 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –2 are rational zeros. ±2. 3 2 55. f ( x) = 3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 15 x 3 + 10 x 2 + 12 x − 8 p : ± 1. −2 + 5. f ( − x ) = 3x 4 + 2 x3 + x + 5 c. 54. ± . 1. ±3. ± q 3 3 3 3 3 0 –4 1 4 –4 1 4 4 1 is a zero. f ( − x ) = −2 x 5 + 3 x3 − 5 x 2 − 3x − 1 f(–x) has 2 sign variations. . 52. x 3 − 17 x + 4 = 0 4 1 1 0 –17 4 4 16 –4 4 –1 0 c. q : ±1 50. 1 –13 6 4 10 –6 5 –3 0 f ( x ) = f ( − x ) = 2 x4 + 6 x2 + 8 No sign variations exist for either f(x) or f(–x). 0 ( x − 1)( x 2 + 4 x + 4) = 0 p: ±1 q: ±1. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. so f(x) = 0 has no negative solutions. 1 negative real zero. so f(x) = 0 has 2 or 0 positive solutions. so f(x) = 0 has 3 or 1 positive real roots. f(–x) has no sign variations. ±6 p 1 1 1 : ± 1. 1 sign variation ⇒ 1 positive real zero f (− x) = − x 3 + 3x 2 − 4 2 sign variations ⇒ 2 or no negative real zeros ( x − 1)( x + 2) 2 = 0 f ( x) = x − 6 x + 14 x − 14 x + 5 p : ± 1. ± 2. ± 4 q 1 Zeros: x = 2. 1 1 −1. ± 4. −2 − 5 .

b. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. ±2. 8 2 1 is a rational zero. 2 2 ⎪⎭ ⎩⎪ 2 58. 8 9 –7 1 1 5 –1 10 –2 0 –36 46 –15 4 –16 15 –32 30 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 d. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. f ( − x ) = −8 x3 − 36 x 2 − 46 x − 15 c. ± 15. no negative real solutions.± . 3 2⎭ ⎩ x = –1 or x = 56. f ( − x ) = −2 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 7 x + 1 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 a. f ( − x ) = x 4 + x3 − 7 x 2 − x + 6 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (2 x – 5)(2 x – 3) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1 5 3 x = or x = or x = 2 2 2 ⎧1 3 5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . 1 negative real zero. ⎩2 2 2⎭ 2 sign variations. ( x + 1)(3x − 1)(2 x − 1) = 0 1 1 or x = 2 3 1 1⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ −1.± . ( x + 1)(6 x 2 – 5 x + 1) = 0 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 = 0 a. p: ±1. ⎬ . 3 3 3 5 5 ± . 2 f ( x ) = 8 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 46 x − 15 1 2 1 2 2 3 sign variations. q 2 4 8 c. ⎬. ± . 2 or 0 negative real zeros.± .± 8 2 4 8 b. ± 3. ± 6 q 8 x 3 – 36 x 2 + 46 x – 15 = 0 a. d. . 2 4 8 2 4 5 15 15 15 ± . ±15 q: ±1. ± 2. f ( x ) = x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 2 sign variations. ±5. p: ±1 q: ±1. ± 5. 2 2 2 −5 ± 29 2 ⎪⎧ 1 −5 + 29 −5 − 29 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . ±8 1 1 1 p : ± 1.± . 394 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎬ . 2 1 3 5 . ±2 1 p : ± 1. ±4. ± q 2 formula gives x = 1 is a zero. . Inc.± .± . 3 or 1 positive real solutions. 57. . ± . 1⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜ x – ⎟ (8 x – 32 x + 30) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x – ⎟ (4 x – 16 x + 15) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ p= b.Polynomial and Rational Functions 6 x3 + x 2 – 4 x + 1 = 0 d. . 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ (2 x + 10 x − 2) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟ ( x 2 + 5 x − 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Solving x 2 + 5 x − 1 = 0 using the quadratic 0 sign variations. f ( x ) = 2 x3 + 9 x 2 − 7 x + 1 2 sign variations. 1 sign variation. x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 p : ± 1. ±3. ± 3. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. are rational zeros. ± .

p: ±1. 2 ⎭ ⎩ 1 1 − . 3 are rational zeros. −1. d. −1. Inc. ±2 p 1 : ± 1. . 60. ±4 p 1 1 : ± 1. 1 2 2 2 4 − 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 d. .PreCalculus 4E c. 2 or 0 negative real zeros. ⎩ 2 2 ⎭ 1 –1 –6 0 − 2. 1 2 4 0 7 0 –2 2 1 4 2 2 8 4 0 –1 2 1 –9 –4 4 4 10 2 –4 2 5 1 –2 0 2 5 1 –2 –2 –3 2 3 –2 0 4 4 2 8 4 –2 0 –4 0 8 0 1 . f (− x) = 4 x 4 + 7 x 2 − 2 1 sign variation. 2i. x 4 − x3 − 7 x 2 + x + 6 = 0 d. x = −2 or x = 1 2 1 ⎫ ⎧ The solution set is ⎨ − 2. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. are rational zeros. ±4 q: ±1. 1. −1. ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x 2 − x + 6) = 0 ( x − 1)( x + 1)( x − 3)( x + 2) = 0 The solution set is 59. 1 –1 Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 –1 –7 1 6 1 0 –7 –6 1 0 –7 –6 0 1 0 –7 –6 –1 1 6 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ x − ⎟⎜ x + ⎟ (4 x + 8) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎞⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎜ x − ⎟ ⎜ x + ⎟ ( x 2 + 2) = 0 2 ⎠⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 Solving x + 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula gives x = ±2i ⎧ 1 1 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − . 3} . f (− x) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 9 x 2 + 4 x + 4 2 sign variations. 2 are rational zeros. ± 2. − 2i ⎬ . −1. 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 = 0 a. 1. f ( x) = 2 x 4 + x 3 − 9 x 2 − 4 x + 4 a. 1 positive real zero. ± 4. ± q 2 b. ±2. 2 2 395 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ±2. 1 negative real zero. 2 or 0 positive real zeros. f ( x ) = 4 x4 + 7 x2 − 2 c. ± 2. { − 2. 2 ⎬ . ± . 1 sign variation. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±2 q: ±1. p: ±1. ± q 2 4 b. . c. 2 2 x 2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (2 x − 1)( x + 2) = 0 − 2.

±2 q: ±1. 2 nonreal complex zeros 68. f ( x) = an ( x − 2 ) ( x 2 − 4 x + 13) f (1) = an (1 − 2 ) ⎡⎣12 − 4 (1) + 13⎤⎦ −10 = −10an an = 1 g ( x) = x 4 − 6 x 3 + x 2 + 24 x + 16 p: ±1. one with multiplicity two. ± 8. 24 2 f ( x ) = an ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 2 1 x – 6 x + x + 24 x + 16 = 0 f ( x ) = x − 6 x + 21x − 26 3 –6 66.Polynomial and Rational Functions 61. f ( x) = an ( x – 2)( x – 2 + 3i )( x – 2 – 3i ) 64. ±i. ± 4. . 1 real zero. ± 2. ±8. 4 nonreal complex zeros 3 –2 –4 2 –4 2 –1 2 –1 0 69. x = or x = ±i 2 1 The zeros are –2. ±2. ± 16 q –1 1 f ( x ) = 1( x − 2 ) ( x − 4 x + 13) 2 f ( x ) = x 3 − 4 x 2 + 13 x − 2 x 2 + 8 x − 26 1 62. Inc. 2 nonreal complex zeros 67. . 4 2 f ( x ) = an ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 3) 1 f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 12 x3 + 20 x 2 + 12 x + 18 –8 –16 –7 8 16 0 2 –7 8 16 –1 8 –16 –8 16 0 2 65. 4 real zeros. ± q 2 2 7 ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 = 0 x = –1 or x = 4 g ( x) = ( x + 1) 2 ( x – 4)2 f ( x ) = 2 ( x 4 + 6 x3 + 9 x 2 + x 2 + 6 x + 9 ) 0 –1 ( x + 1) ( x – 8 x + 16) = 0 f ( x ) = 2 ( x + 1)( x + 6 x + 9 ) 3 1 2 2 2 3 –1 an = 2 –2 16 ( x + 1)( x3 – 7 x 2 + 8 x + 16) = 0 2 2 f ( −1) = an ⎡( −1) + 1⎤ ⎡( −1) + 6 ( −1) + 9 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ 16 = 8an 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g ( x) = 1 −1 ( x + 2) 2 2 x + 3x + 3x – 2 = 0 4 3 ( x + 2)(2 x3 – x 2 + 2 x –1) = 0 ( x + 2)[ x 2 (2 x –1) + (2 x –1)] = 0 ( x + 2)(2 x –1)( x 2 + 1) = 0 1 x = –2. 2 real zeros. one with multiplicity two f ( x ) = 2 x 4 + 3x3 + 3x − 2 p: ±1. 3 real zeros. ±4. ±2 1 p : ± 1. 2 f ( x) = ( x − i )( x + i )( x + 2 )( 2 x − 1) 396 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ± 2. ±16 q: ±1 p : ± 1.

.PreCalculus 4E 70. h( x ) = Chapter 2 Review Exercises 1 +3 x −1 72. f ( x) = 2x x −9 Vertical asymptote: x+3=0 x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: 2 n = m. g ( x) = 2x − 4 x+3 –2 x – 4 x+3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = 0 2x = – f ( x) x –9 2 =0 397 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so y = = 2 1 2 Symmetry: f (– x) = – origin symmetry x-intercept: 2x 0= 2 x −9 2x = 0 x=0 y-intercept: y = 2 ( 0) 02 − 9 Vertical asymptote: x2 − 9 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 3) = 0 x = 3 and x = –3 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 2x – 4 = 0 x=2 2 (0) − 4 4 y-intercept: y = =− 0 + 3 3 ( ) Symmetry: g (– x) = 71. Inc.

no horizontal asymptote.Polynomial and Rational Functions 73. h ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m. r ( x) = x2 – x +1 f(–x) ≠ f(x). h(–x) ≠ –h(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x 2 − 3x − 4 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 1) x = 4 x = –1 02 − 3 ( 0 ) − 4 2 y-intercept: y = = 02 − 0 − 6 3 Vertical asymptotes: x2 − x − 6 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 2) = 0 x = 3. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = = 1 1 74. so y = = 1 1 x 2 − 3x − 4 x2 − x − 6 x 2 + 3x – 4 x2 + x – 6 h(–x) ≠ h(x). –1 02 + 4 ( 0 ) + 3 3 y-intercept: y = = 2 4 (0 + 2) Vertical asymptote: x+2=0 x = –2 Symmetry: r (– x) = 398 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. r(–x) ≠ –r(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 4 x + 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x + 1) = 0 x = –3. y= 2 x2 – 4 x + 3 (– x + 2) 2 r(–x) ≠ r(x). –2 Symmetry: h(– x) = 75. Inc. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x2 = 0 x=0 02 y-intercept: y = =0 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x+1=0 x = –1 n > m. Slant asymptote: 1 y = x –1+ x +1 y=x–1 x2 + 4 x + 3 ( x + 2) x2 x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = Horizontal asymptote: 1 n = m.

PreCalculus 4E 76. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y= Chapter 2 Review Exercises x2 + 2x − 3 x−3 f ( x) = –2 x + 2x x +1 2 y = –2x x2 – 2 x – 3 –x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). f ( x) = 2 = – f ( x) x2 + 1 Origin symmetry x-intercept: −2 x 3 = 0 x=0 −2 ( 0 ) 3 y-intercept: y = = 0 =0 1 0 +1 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 1 = 0 x 2 = −1 No vertical asymptote. Slant asymptote: 12 y = x+5+ x −3 y = x+5 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 2x − 3 4 x 2 + 16 x + 16 Symmetry: g (– x) = –2 x – 3 g(–x) ≠ g(x). so no horizontal asymptote. g(–x) ≠ –g(x) No symmetry x-intercept: 4 x 2 − 16 x + 16 = 0 g ( x) = 4 ( x − 2) = 0 2 x=2 y-intercept: 4 ( 0 ) − 16 ( 0 ) + 16 2 y= 77. Symmetry: f (– x) = 78. Horizontal asymptote: n > m. . f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x = –3. so no horizontal asymptote. so no horizontal asymptote. Inc. Slant asymptote: 2 16 3 Vertical asymptote: 2x – 3 = 0 3 x= 2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. 1 0 2 + 2 ( 0 ) − 3 −3 y-intercept: y = = =1 0−3 −3 Vertical asymptote: x–3=0 x=3 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. Slant asymptote: 1 g ( x) = 2 x – 5 + 2x – 3 y = 2x – 5 −2 x 3 x2 + 1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 ( 0) − 3 =− 399 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

25(100) + 50. Minimum costs will approach $25. 000 C (100) = = 525 100 When 100 calculators are manufactured.000 calculators are manufactured.S. ∞ ) = 3. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 = 0 ( 2 x + 1)( x + 4 ) = 0 The boundary points are −4 and − 12 . 25(1000) + 50. 25(100. c. it costs $25.000 + 25x C ( x) = 83.58 ≈ 0. 000) = = 25. 000 = 1025 50 When 50 calculators are manufactured. 1000 = lw 1000 =l w 25(50) + 50. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 1 ( −∞.Polynomial and Rational Functions 79.06 x + 235 1. x3 + 2 x 2 = 3x x 3 + 2 x 2 − 3x = 0 x ( x 2 + 2 x − 3) = 0 P( x) = M ( x) + F ( x) = 1. so y = 86. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b.05 The number of fish available in the pond approaches 3000. 25 = 25 is the horizontal 1 asymptote. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ( 2 x − 1)( x + 3) = 0 The boundary points are −3 and f ( x) = 82. so y = = 3000 0.900 100 x 2 + 729 n < m so y = 0 As the number of years of education increases the percentage rate of unemployment approaches zero.58 x + 114. the percentage of men in the U. C(x) = 50.4 + 1. 81. . 0.58 x + 114. d.000 x 84. 80. 000 C (100. ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 150 x + 120 0. y= 400 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a.05 x + 1 150 n = m. b. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −3.5 100. T (x) = 25 x + 50. 0 ) ∪ (1. n = m. a. x3 + 2 x 2 > 3x Solve the related equation. 72. 2 x2 + 5x − 3 < 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. it costs $525 to manufacture each.4 = P( x) 3. population will approach 52%. 2 1⎞ ⎛ Testing each interval gives a solution set of ⎜ −3. Inc. C (50) = 1000 x 2000 P = 2x + x P = 2x + 2 85. it costs $75 to manufacture each.000 calculators are manufactured.50 to manufacture each.48 x + 120. 87.000 When 100. 000 C (1000) = = 75 1000 When 1. ∞ ⎞⎟ ⎣ 2 ⎠ P ( x) = R( x) = 1 . −4] ∪ ⎡⎢− . 4 2 + x+3 x M ( x) 1. 000) + 50.06 x + 235 c.6 x ( x + 3)( x − 1) = 0 The boundary points are −3 . and 1.06 Over time. 2 x2 + 9 x + 4 ≥ 0 Solve the related quadratic equation. it costs $1025 to manufacture each.52 3.

x+3 −5 ≤ 0 x−4 x + 3 5 ( x − 4) − ≤0 x−4 x−4 −4 x + 23 ≤0 x−4 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. We exclude 4 4 from the solution set.8 x + 99 > 267 0.112(1200) = 134.125(35) 2 + 2. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 600 ft 401 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.125 x 2 − 0.112s. speeds exceeding 40 miles per hour on dry pavement will require over 267 feet of stopping distance.3x + 27 93.125 x 2 − 0. d = kt2 144 = k (3) 2 k = 16 d = 16t 2 g (35) = 0. 89.112=k Thus. ∞ ⎞⎟ . x= ( x + 1)( x − 2) ≥0 x −1 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. b. This overestimates the distance shown in the graph by 1 foot. 0. 91.125 x 2 + 2. 0. w = ks 28 = k ⋅ 250 0.8) 2 − 4(0. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. ∞ ) . ⎣4 ⎠ a. since this would make the denominator zero. Testing each interval gives a solution set of [ −1.125 x 2 − 0.125)(−168) 2(0. s = −16t 2 + v0 t + s0 32 < −16t 2 + 48t + 0 0 < −16t 2 + 48t − 32 x+3 ≤5 x−4 Express the inequality so that one side is zero.8 x − 168 > 0 Solve the related quadratic equation.4 cubic centimeters of water. .8 x + 99 0 < −16 ( t 2 − 3t + 2 ) 0 < –16(t – 2)(t – 1) F T F 1 2 The projectile’s height exceeds 32 feet during the time period from 1 to 2 seconds.8) ± (−0.4 1200 cubic centimeters of melting snow will produce 134. Testing each interval gives a solution set of 23 ( −∞. w = 0.PreCalculus 4E 88.6 ) ∪ ( 40. w = 0. 4 ) ∪ ⎢⎡ . The boundary points are –2 and 6. 94. We exclude 1 from the solution set.125) x = −33.3(35) + 27 ≈ 261 The stopping distance on wet pavement for a motorcycle traveling 35 miles per hour is about 261 feet.6. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. ∞ ) . f ( x) = 0. The boundary points are –1. 23 The boundary points are 4 and .8 x − 168 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a −(−0. since this would make the denominator zero. ∞ ) . Thus. d = 16(10) 2 = 1. 90. Chapter 2 Review Exercises x−6 >0 x+2 Find the values of x that make the numerator and denominator zero. 92. 1 and 2. 40 Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. g ( x) = 0. 1) ∪ [ 2.125 x 2 − 0. −33.

w 1056 = 440 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. c. k w k 660 = 1. L = .Polynomial and Rational Functions 95. R Use L = This is an approximate model. R k L= R k 30 = 63 k 63 ⋅ 30 = 63 ⋅ 63 1890 = k 1890 Thus. k d2 k 28 = 2 8 k = 1792 1792 l= 2 d 1792 l = 2 = 112 decibels 4 l= b. V = khB 175 = k ⋅15 ⋅ 35 1 3 1 V = hB 3 1 V = ⋅ 20 ⋅120 = 800 ft 3 3 k= 402 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. kc w k ⋅ 30 10 = 6 10 = 5h t= k to find k. (6 − 7i )(2 + 5i ) = 12 + 30i − 14i − 35i 2 = 12 + 16i + 35 = 47 + 16i 2. p= 96. Inc. a. . L= Chapter 2 Test 1. 2 −49 + 3 −64 = 2(7i ) + 3(8i ) = 14i + 24i = 38i h=2 2c w 2(40) = 16 hours t= 5 t= 98. 1890 R 1890 L= = 70 27 The average life span of an elephant is 70 years. 1056 . 5 5 2+i = ⋅ 2−i 2−i 2+i 5(2 + i ) = 4 +1 5(2 + i ) = 5 = 2+i 3. 97. p = 99.4 The pitch is 440 vibrations per second.6 1056 = k p= Thus.

x=− f ( 23) = − ( 23) + 46 ( 23) − 360 = 169 2 Maximum daily profit = $16. f ( x) = −2 x 2 + 12 x − 16 Since the coefficient of x2 is negative. 403 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 7. range: [ −4. 4) axis of symmetry: x = –1 x-intercepts: ( x + 1) 2 + 4 = 0 2 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 −2 ± 4 − 20 = −1 ± 2i 2 no x-intercepts y-intercept: f (0) = (0 + 1)2 + 4 = 5 x= domain: ( −∞. 6. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: [ 4. . Inc. f ( x ) = − x 2 + 46 x − 360 b −46 = = 23 2a −2 23 computers will maximize profit. 2) domain: ( −∞. 2] domain: ( −∞. range: ( −∞. the graph of f(x) opens down and f(x) has a maximum point. f ( x) = x 2 − 2 x − 3 y-intercept: f (0) = 02 − 2(0) − 3 = −3 f ( x ) = ( x + 1) + 4 vertex: (–1. −12 x= =3 2(−2) f (3) = −2(3) 2 + 12(3) − 16 = −18 + 36 − 16 =2 Maximum point: (3. −b 2 = =1 2a 2 f (1) = 12 − 2(1) − 3 = −4 vertex: (1.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 2 Test x2 = 4 x − 8 4. –4) axis of symmetry x = 1 x-intercepts: x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 0 x = 3 or x = –1 x2 − 4 x + 8 = 0 x= x= −b ± b − 4ac 2a x= −(−4) ± (−4) 2 − 4(1)(8) 2(1) 2 4 ± −16 2 4 ± 4i x= 2 x = 2 ± 2i x= 5.900. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 8.

Solve the quotient x 2 + 6 x − 2 = 0 using the quadratic formula to find the remaining roots. ±15. ± 2 1 3 5 15 p : ±1. Possible rational zeros are: p : ± 1. ±5. 6 6 –19 16 –4 12 –14 4 –7 2 0 x= −(6) ± (6) 2 − 4(1)(−2) 2(1) −6 ± 44 2 = −3 ± 11 The zeros are −3 . The product is f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) f ( x ) = x (14 − x ) = − x 2 + 14 x The x-coordinate of the maximum is b 14 14 x=− =− =− = 7. f ( x ) = x5 − x Since the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. ± 3. −3 + 11 . 11. ± . ±2 1 3 p : ± 1. 16. 14 − x = the other number. Let x = one of the numbers. ± . ± q 2 2 2 2 6x − 7x + 2 = 0 (3x – 2)(2x – 1) = 0 2 1 x = or x = 3 2 2 The other two roots are −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a = The integral root is 2. ± 15 q : ± 1. 2a 2 ( −1) −2 13. –3 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. ± 2. ± 6. Inc. and −3 − 11 . f ( x ) = 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 a. There are 3 or 1 positive real solutions and no negative real solutions. . f ( x ) = x 3 − 5 x 2 − 4 x + 20 x − 5 x − 4 x + 20 = 0 3 2 x 2 ( x − 5) − 4( x − 5) = 0 ( x − 5)( x − 2)( x + 2) = 0 x = 5. 2. 10. ± 6 q f ( 7 ) = −7 2 + 14 ( 7 ) = 49 The vertex is (7. ± 2. ± 3. 1 1 9 16 –6 –3 –18 6 6 –2 0 Thus x = 3 is a root. a. 49). 12. The x-intercepts should be –1 and 1. 2 x 3 + 11x 2 − 7 x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. ±3. 2. x 3 + 9 x 2 + 16 x − 6 = 0 Since the leading coefficient is 1. the graph of f should fall to the left and rise to the right. f ( x ) = 3x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 + x − 1 f(x) has 3 sign variations. 2 3 404 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ±3. –2 The solution set is {5. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. ± . The maximum product is 49. 15. –2}. the possible rational zeros are the factors of 6 p p = : ± 1. a.Polynomial and Rational Functions 9. ± 3. This occurs when the two number are 7 and 14 − 7 = 7 . ± q 2 2 14. ± 5. b. b. ±2. 2 x= 1 2 and . f ( − x ) = −3 x5 − 2 x 4 − 2 x 2 − x − 1 f(–x) has no sign variations. ±6 q: ±1. ± .

Chapter 2 Test Verify that −1 and 3 are zeros as it appears in 2 19. and the polynomial 2 factors as follows: 2 x 4 − x 3 − 13x 2 + 5 x + 15 = 0 The zeros (x-intercepts) are –1 and 2 . . f ( x) = a0 ( x + 1)( x − 1)( x + i )( x − i ) f ( x) = a0 ( x 2 − 1)( x 2 + 1) = a0 ( x 4 − 1) Since f (3) = 160 . Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −3) ∪ ( −3. −1 and are zeros.PreCalculus 4E b. the graph: −1 2 −1 −13 5 15 –1 −2 3 10 −15 2 −3 −10 15 0 3 2 f ( x ) = −3 x 3 − 4 x 2 + x + 2 The graph shows a root at x = −1 . then a0 (34 − 1) = 160 a0 (80) = 160 160 80 a0 = 2 a0 = f ( x) = 2( x 4 − 1) = 2 x 4 − 2 405 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x 3 + 3x 2 – 4 = ( x – 1)( x + 2) 2 18. Use synthetic division to verify this root. and ± 5 . The zero at –2 has multiplicity of 2. f(x) has zeros at –2 and 1. −3 x 2 − x + 2 = 0 0 −15 3 2 15 –4 0 −(3x − 2)( x + 1) = 0 3 Thus. . ∞ ) 17. 2 f ( x) = 1 ( x + 3) 2 domain: {x | x ≠ –3} or ( −∞. 3 The zeros are −1 . 3 The y-intercept is f (0) = 2 ( x + 1) ( 2 x3 − 3x 2 − 10 x + 15) = 0 ( x + 1) ⎛⎜ x − 3⎞ 2 ⎟ ( 2 x − 10 ) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ Find the remaining zeros by solving: 2 x 2 − 10 = 0 2 x 2 = 10 x2 = 5 x=± 5 20. –3 –3 2 −3 −10 0 −10 1 2 3 1 4 –1 2 0 Factor the quotient to find the remaining zeros.

Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. –3 02 − 9 9 y-intercept: y = = 0−2 2 Vertical asymptote: x–2=0 x=2 Horizontal asymptote: n > m. x ≠ –4} –x = – f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 16 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: x = 0 0 y-intercept: y = 2 =0 0 − 16 Vertical asymptotes: x 2 − 16 = 0 (x – 4)(x + 4) = 0 x = 4. x2 − 9 x−2 domain: {x | x ≠ 2} f ( x) = x2 – 9 –x – 2 f(–x) ≠ f(x). 5 Slant asymptote: f ( x) = x + 2 – x–2 y = x +2 Symmetry: f (– x) = 22. x x 2 − 16 domain: {x | x ≠ 4. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote.Polynomial and Rational Functions 21. –4 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. f ( x) = 406 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercepts: x2 − 9 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 3) = 0 x = 3.1) ∪ (1. 1 +2 x −1 domain: {x | x ≠ 1} or ( −∞. so no horizontal asymptote exists. . ∞ ) f ( x) = 23.

1 2 C ( x) = 26.3) ∪ [10. asymptote is x = 1 This represents the fact that as the number of satellite radio players produced increases. Publishing as Prentice Hall. so y = = 4 is the horizontal asymptote. 27. 1 Horizontal asymptote: n < m. Inc. 000 + 10x x x 2 < x + 12 x − x − 12 < 0 2 25. so y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote. Chapter 2 Test x +1 x + 2x − 3 x 2 + 2 x − 3 = ( x + 3)( x − 1) domain: {x | x ≠ –3. =0 2x + 1 ≤3 x−3 2x + 1 −3 ≤ 0 x−3 10 − x ≤0 x −3 Boundary values: 3 and 10 Solution set: ( −∞. . 300. the production cost approaches $10 per radio. x ≠ 1} –x +1 Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x – 2x – 3 f(–x) ≠ f(x). a. Vertical asymptotes: x2 + 2 x − 3 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 x –3. ∞ ) 407 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ( x + 3)( x − 4) < 0 Boundary values: –3 and 4 Solution set: ( −3. b. 2 02 + 3 Vertical asymptote: x2 + 3 = 0 x 2 = −3 No vertical asymptote. the horizontal 10 = 10 . f(–x) ≠ –f(x) No symmetry x-intercept: x+1=0 x = –1 0 +1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 =− 0 + 2 (0) − 3 3 f ( x) = Horizontal asymptote: 4 n = m.PreCalculus 4E 24. Since the degree of the numerator equals the degree of the denominator. 4 ) 4 x2 x2 + 3 domain: all real numbers 4 x2 = f ( x) Symmetry: f (– x) = 2 x +3 y-axis symmetry x-intercept: 4 x2 = 0 x=0 f ( x) = y-intercept: y = 4 ( 0) 28.

3). ±2. 3. (f 5. ± 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ⎟ . 8. 7. 4. Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–2) 1. |2x – 1| = 3 2x −1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 2 x − 1 = −3 2 x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {2. –1. 3 2 = x x2 9 x 2 + 3x = 2 9 x2 + 3x − 2 = 0 (3 x − 1)(3 x + 2) = 0 3x − 1 = 0 3x + 2 = 0 1 2 or x = − x= 3 3 2⎫ ⎧1 The solution set is ⎨ . domain: (−2. ⎜ . ± 3. 3⎠ ⎝3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛5 ⎞ Testing points. 11. There is a relative maximum at the point (0. the solution is (– ∞. The zero at 1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. 1) or (4. k d2 k 20 = 2 15 4500 = k i= 9. ∞) 3x 2 > 2 x + 5 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 > 0 3x 2 – 2 x – 5 = 0 (3 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = –1 3 3x 2 − 5 x + 1 = 0 5 ± 25 − 12 5 ± 13 = 6 6 ⎪⎧ 5 + 13 5 − 13 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ .Polynomial and Rational Functions 29. ∞ ) 10. ±3. ⎬. ⎜ –1. ⎟ . x3 + 2 x 2 − 5x − 6 = 0 p: ±1. ± 6 q –3 6. Inc. 2}. ±6 q: ±1 p : ± 1. –1}. 2. 2) range: [ 0. 3⎭ ⎩3 4500 4500 = = 45 foot-candles d2 102 i= 9+ 12. 1 f )(−1) = f ( f (−1) ) = f (0) = 3 f ( x) → ∞ as x → −2+ or as 1 2 –5 –6 –3 3 6 –1 –2 0 x + 2 x – 5x – 6 = 0 3 x → 2− 2 ( x + 3)( x 2 – x – 2) = 0 ( x + 3)( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 x = –3 or x = –1 or x = 2 The solution set is {–3. ⎝3 ⎠ 408 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2x − 5 > 3 2x − 5 > 3 2x > 8 x>4 2 x − 5 < −3 2x < 2 x <1 (−∞. ∞ ⎟ . –1) or ⎜ . 6 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ 6 x= 5⎞ ⎛5 ⎛ ⎞ Test intervals are (–∞. The zero at –1 touches the x-axis at turns around so it must have a minimum multiplicity of 2. –1). . − ⎬ .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. 1. 16. Cumulative Review Exercises f ( x ) = x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 x-intercepts: x3 − 4 x 2 − x + 4 = 0 15. y-intercept: f(0) = –8 409 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x − 8 −b −2 = = −1 x= 2a 2 f (−1) = (−1) 2 + 2(−1) − 8 = 1 − 2 − 8 = −9 vertex: (–1. –9) x-intercepts: x2 + 2 x − 8 = 0 ( x + 4)( x − 2) = 0 x = –4 or x = 2 x −1 x−2 vertical asymptote: x = 2 horizontal asymptote: y = 1 x-intercept: x = 1 1 y-intercept: y = 2 f ( x) = 17.PreCalculus 4E 13. x 2 ( x − 4) − 1( x − 4) = 0 f ( x) = x 2 ( x − 3) zeros: x = 0 (multiplicity 2) and x = 3 y-intercept: y = 0 f ( x) = x 3 − 3x 2 n = 3. ( x − 4)( x 2 − 1) = 0 ( x − 4)( x + 1)( x − 1) = 0 x = –1. 14. an = 0 so the graph falls to the left and rises to the right. . 4 x-intercepts: f ( 0 ) = 03 − 4(0) 2 − 0 + 4 = 4 The degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is positive. Inc.

Polynomial and Rational Functions 18. ( f g )( x) = f ( g ( x) ) ( f g )( x) = 2(4 x − 1) 2 − (4 x − 1) − 1 = 32 x 2 − 20 x + 2 20. f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ⎡ 2( x + h) 2 − ( x + h) − 1⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ 2 x 2 − x − 1⎤⎦ =⎣ h 2 2 2 x + 4hx − x + 2h − h − 1 − 2 x 2 + x + 1 = h 2 4hx + 2h − h = h = 4 x + 2h − 1 410 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 19.

x −2 −1 0 1 2 3.56)3 ≈ 160.20876 ≈ 160 According to the function. x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 f ( x ) = 3x f (−3) = 3−3 = 1 27 1 9 1 3 f (−2) = 3−2 = f (−1) = 3−1 = f (0) = 30 = 1 f (1) = 31 = 3 f (2) = 32 = 9 f (3) = 33 = 27 4. Note that the function g ( x) = 3x −1 has the general form g ( x) = b x + c where c = −1 . Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g. graph g ( x) = 3x −1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 3x one unit to the right. f ( x) = 42.2(1. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates. x f ( x ) = ( 13 ) −2 ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 91 −1 0 1 2 f ( x ) = 3x 3−2 = 19 3−1 = 13 30 = 1 31 = 3 32 = 9 g ( x) = 3x −1 3−2 −1 = 3−3 = 271 3−1−1 = 3−2 = 19 30 −1 = 3−1 = 13 31−1 = 30 = 1 32 −1 = 31 = 3 x −2 411 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we Plot these points. connecting them with a continuous curve.1 Check Point Exercises 1. the average amount spent after three hours of shopping at the mall is $160.2(1. Begin by setting up a table of coordinates.56) x Plot these points. f (3) = 42. 2. connecting them with a continuous curve. . This overestimates the actual amount shown by $11. Inc. Because c < 0.Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Section 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1 1. 3 5 ≈ 11. x g ( x) = 2 + 1 2−2 + 1 = 14 + 1 = 54 2−1 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 23 20 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2 21 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3 22 + 1 = 4 + 1 = 5 x 5.4 ≈ 13.08 ⎞ A = 10. Because c > 0. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ = $14. 918.75 x −2 −1 0 1 2 ≈ 0.472 f ( x ) = 4x 4−2 = 161 4−1 = 14 40 = 1 41 = 4 42 = 16 2012 is 34 years after 1978.042(34) ≈ 4446 In 2012 the gray wolf population of the Western Great Lakes is projected to be about 4446.95 10. .5 = 0.25 b. we graph g ( x) = 2 x + 1 by shifting the graph of f ( x) = 2 x up one unit. e 3.387 ≈ 0. e –0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. e 2. nt ⎛ 0.3 ≈ 9.4 ≈ 29.116 ≈ 0. −1. f ( x) = 1066e0. 23⋅4 ≈ 10.556 2. 5 3 ≈ 16.125 6. Note that the function g ( x) = 2 x + 1 has the general form g ( x ) = b x + c where c = 1.08(5) = $14. 12.47 A = Pe rt A = 10. 000e0.042 x f (34) = 1066e0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5. r⎞ ⎛ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ a. 6 7. e 11. Construct a table showing some of the coordinates for f and g. x f ( x) − 2 −2 2−2 = 14 −1 2−1 = 12 0 20 = 1 1 21 = 2 2 22 = 4 6.859.242 412 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.665 4. 4(5) x g ( x) = 5x −2 5−2 = 251 −1 5−1 = 15 0 50 = 1 1 51 = 5 2 52 = 25 Exercise Set 3.967 3.964 9. 32. Inc.974 8. 7.2 −0. 4 −1.

−2 −1 0 1 2 x 16.1 g ( x) = ( 32 ) x ( 32 ) = 49 −1 ( 32 ) = 23 0 ( 32 ) = 1 1 ( 32 ) = 32 2 ( 32 ) = 94 −2 g ( x) = ( 43 ) x 15. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ( 34 ) = 169 −1 ( 43 ) = 43 0 ( 43 ) = 1 1 ( 43 ) = 43 2 ( 43 ) = 169 −2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 h ( x ) = ( 12 ) x ( 12 ) = 4 −1 ( 12 ) = 2 0 ( 12 ) = 1 1 ( 12 ) = 12 2 ( 12 ) = 14 −2 h ( x ) = ( 13 ) x ( 13 ) = 9 −1 ( 13 ) = 3 0 ( 13 ) = 1 1 ( 13 ) = 13 2 ( 13 ) = 19 −2 413 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E x 13. −2 −1 0 1 2 14. x −2 −1 0 1 2 Section 3. Inc.

shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x downward one unit.8) −2 (0. ∞ ) 18.8) 2 = 0.6 ) 25. range: ( 0. so the function is G ( x) = 3− x. = 1. range: ( −1.8) −1 = 1.36 the graph of f ( x) = 2 x one unit to the left.6 0 (0.5625 −1 (0. ∞ ) .6 2 (0.6)−2 = 2.64 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) downward.8)0 = 1 1 (0. 21. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x − 1 can be obtained by 19. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the x- axis. This is the graph of f(x) = 3x. so the function is h( x) = 3x − 1. 24. so the function is F ( x) = −3x.6) −1 = 1.6)1 = 0.7 −1 (0. f ( x ) = ( 0. Inc. ∞ ) .8) −2 26.8)1 = 0. 20. asymptote: y = −1 23.6)0 = 1 1 (0.8 2 (0.6)2 = 0. so the function is H ( x) = −3− x. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x +! can be obtained by shifting x −2 (0. range: ( 0. 414 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x f ( x) = (0.25 0 (0. 22. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions x 17. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit domain: ( −∞. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x reflected about the y- axis. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 3x shifted one unit to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The graph of g ( x) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by shifting x the graph of f ( x) = 2 x two units to the left. ∞ ) 27. This is the graph of f ( x) = 3x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis. ∞ ) . . so the function is g ( x) = 3x −1.

The graph of h( x) = 2 x + 2 − 1 can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 left and one unit downward. range: ( −1. Inc. The graph of g ( x) = 2− x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 one unit to the left and one unit downward. two units to the asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞.1 28.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: ( −1. 0 ) 29. The graph of g ( x) = 2 ⋅ 2 x can be obtained by vertically stretching the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of two. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the x-axis. . ∞ ) 415 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. range: ( 0. ∞ ) . x 33. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x ) = 2 x + 2 can be obtained by 31. range: ( 2. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. asymptote: y = 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. x reflecting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x about the y-axis. asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of h ( x ) = 2 x +1 − 1 can be obtained by 32. range: ( 0. ∞ ) 30. range: ( −∞. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x ) = −2 x can be obtained by shifting the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x two units upward.

The graph of g ( x ) = moving f ( x) = e x 2 units up. ∞ ) . range: ( 2. range: ( −1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 37. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit down. The graph of g ( x) = e x − 1 can be obtained by domain: ( −∞. asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = e x +1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left. Inc. The graph of h( x) = e x −1 + 2 can be obtained by asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 38. The graph of g ( x ) = e x + 2 can be obtained by 1 x ⋅ 2 can be obtained by 2 vertically shrinking the graph of f ( x ) = 2 x by a factor of one-half. ∞ ) 39. ∞ ) . 34. range: ( 0. ∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. . ∞ ) . ∞ ) . range: ( 0. 36. 35. asymptote: y = −1 domain: ( −∞. range: ( 0. ∞ ) moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right and 2 units up. ∞ ) 416 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. range: ( 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . The graph of g ( x) = e x −1 can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit right.

∞ ) asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = e − x can be obtained by reflecting 44. The graph of h( x) = −e x can be obtained by reflecting f ( x) = e x about the x-axis.1 40. asymptote: y = −1 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. The graph of g ( x) = f ( x) = e x about the y-axis. . ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) 42.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 45. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: ( 0. 1 x e can be obtained by 2 shrinking f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 1 . ∞ ) 417 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. stretching f ( x) = e x vertically by a factor of 2. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞ ) domain: ( −∞. range: ( 0. ∞ ) . The graph of h( x) = e x+1 − 1 can be obtained by 43. range: (1. asymptote: y = 0 domain: ( −∞. Inc. The graph of g ( x) = 2e x can be obtained by moving f ( x) = e x 1 unit left and 1 unit down. 0 ) asymptote: y = 1 domain: ( −∞. ∞ ) 41. range: ( 0. The graph of h( x) = e 2 x + 1 can be obtained by stretching f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 2 and then moving the graph up 1 unit. range: ( −∞. range: ( −1.

48. ∞ ) 47. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and one space up. The graph of h( x) = e 2 + 2 can be obtained by shrinking f ( x) = e x horizontally by a factor of 1 2 and then moving the graph up 2 units. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by horizontally stretching f(x) by a factor of 3. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 50. x 46. . asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 1 418 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the x-axis. Inc. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by reflecting f(x) about the y-axis.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 1 49.. Publishing as Prentice Hall. range: ( 2. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by vertically shrinking f(x) by a factor of 13 . ∞ ) . asymptote: y = 2 domain: ( −∞. asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 0 51.

asymptote of f ( x) : y = 0 asymptote of g ( x) : y = 2 53.25% compounded quarterly yields the greater return.19 The point of intersection is ( 0.67 2(5) 57. 0 f ( x) = 2 x 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 2 4 x −2 −1 4(5) 12(5) c.11 (7% yield) A = 12.04 g ( x) = 2− x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 A = 10.85% yield) Investing $12.31 ⎛ 0. ⎛ 0.116.165. a. 4( 4 ) 56.083 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $ 8306. 795. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13. d.0825 ⎞ A = 6000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $8317. A = 5000 ( e ) 0.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ d. 12(3) 55.51 ⎛ 0.065 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.79 12(10) c.64 (8. . 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 14. 54.065 ⎞ b.055 ⎞ A = 10.0685(3) ≈ 14. ⎛ 0.84 (8. ⎛ 0.140.000 for 3 years at 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return. 000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13. The graph of g(x) can be obtained by moving the graph of f(x) one space to the right and two spaces up.92 ≈ 9577. A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 2(10) 410 ⋅ ≈ $9479.1 52. Inc.055 ⎞ A = 10.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.3% yield) Investing $6000 for 4 years at 8. ⎛ 0.055(5) ≈ $13.157. a.07 ⎞ A = 12.055 ⎞ A = 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ≈ $9527.25% yield) 2( 4) ⎛ 0. 000e0.67 (6. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ $13.70 419 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1) . 000e0. ⎛ 0.065(10) ≈ = $9560. 737. b.

Inc. . y = 2x 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 x y = 3x 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 x x = 3y 1 −2 9 1 −1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 y 61. 59. –e) to find b.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 58. y = bx 6 = b1 6=b The equation of the graph is y = 6 x 63. 2 ) . 6) to find b. g ( x) = 2− x +1 8 4 2 1 1 2 The point of intersection is ( 0. The graph is of the form y = −b x . −1 0 1 f ( x) = 2 x +1 1 2 1 2 4 2 8 x −2 60. 4) to find b. Substitute values from the point (1. Substitute values from the point (1. The graph is of the form y = b x . Substitute values from the point (1. The graph is of the form y = b x . y = bx x = 2y 1 −2 4 1 −1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 y 4 = b1 4=b The equation of the graph is y = 4 x 62. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = −b x −e = −b1 e=b The equation of the graph is y = −e x 420 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

824977827 The closer the exponent gets to π.44 c. 000 (1. b.03) 5 5 ≈ $591. Since 2028 − 1974 = 54 . find 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall.141 ≈ 8.1 ≈ 8. 000 (1. there were about 8. The graph is of the form y = b x . There will still be 157. c.141593 ≈ 8.9 million words in the federal tax code in 2005.026 ) ≈ 1148 India’s population in 2001 will be 1148 million. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. . 000 (1 + 0. Substitute values from the point (–1.1 64. 67.824961595 India’s population in 1974 was 574 million.321997085 The closer the exponent is to 3 .49 Chernobyl will not be safe for human habitation by 2066. 230 421 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1415 ≈ 8.7320508 ≈ 3. Inc.824979946 27 2π ≈ 8. find d. f ( x) = 0.5) 80 30 b.14159 ≈ 8.73205 ≈ 3. 54 71. f ( 0 ) = 574 (1. y = bx 69.14 ≈ 8.5741877 70. India’s population in 2028 will be 2295 million. S = 465.4 According to the exponential model.732 ≈ 3. India’s population in 2055 will be 4590 million. e = b −1 1 e= b eb = 1 1 b= e ≈ 3. 3 2 x 65. India’s population appears to be doubling every 27 years.5 kilograms of cesium-137 in Chernobyl’s atmosphere.06 ) 10 The linear model is the better model for the data in 2005. = 157. S = 510. e) to find b. 21. 000 (1 + 0. f ( 27 ) = 574 (1.9 According to the linear model.73 ≈ 3.15(50) + 1.15 x + 1. f ( 80 ) = 1000 ( 0. f ( 54 ) = 574 (1.03) = 510.4 million words in the federal tax code in 2005.321880096 21. a. the closer the value is to 2π.06 ) ≈ $832. 744 10 68. the closer the 3 value is to 2 .026 ) ≈ 2295 .249009585 21.0344 x g (50) = 1. 2005 is 50 years after 1955.87e0. 2055 − 1974 = 81 .87e0.321995226 21. g ( x) = 1.7 ≈ 3. 66. there were about 10. ⎛1⎞ The equation of the graph is y = ⎜ ⎟ = e − x ⎝e⎠ a. 2005 is 50 years after 1955.026 ) ≈ 4590 .317278183 21.821353305 0 23.321997068 23.44 ≈ 8. 81 e.026 ) 23 ≈ 8 23.815240927 23.0344(50) ≈ 10. f (50) = 0. = 465.824411082 = 574 (1) = 574 23.

1 1 + 6.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 72. f ( x) = 0.7 million words in the federal tax code in 1975.7 According to the exponential model. a.05 ⎞ A = 10.15(20) + 1.1e−0.360. The exponential model is the better model for the data in 1975. 1975 is 20 years after 1955. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. a. a.19(1. ≈ $3.5(0) + 20 c. Explanations will vary.029)40 ≈ 19. Answers may vary. 77.19(1. 75.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6.029) x f (56) = 6. d.3 g (56) = ≈ 27.052(40) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 21.029) x 76. c.052 x 37. 74.05 12 ) 12(379) 4t 12 t f (0) = 80e −0. 82.045 ⎞ A = 10.19(1.4 million words in the federal tax code in 1975.3 g ( x) = 1 + 6. f (52) = 80e −0. 73. b.3 in 1990.4 37. ( 24 1 + 0. g ( x) = 1.4 According to the linear model. does not make sense.5 68. Sample explanation: The horizontal asymptote is y = 0.3 g (40) = ≈ 21. there were about 3. a.5(1) + 20 ≈ 68.917. 83.0 in 2006.05(379) ≈ $4. 753 24e0.029)56 ≈ 30.8% of the material is remembered 4 week after it is first learned.052 x 37.1e−0. 81. 074.5% of the material is remembered 1 week after it is first learned. f ( x) = 6. f (40) = 6.15 x + 1.87e0. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ 0.19(1.87e0. f (1) = 80e−0.8 30. 794 c. a.44 f (20) = 0. b. 5% compounded quarterly offers the better return. 000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ = 80e 0 + 20 = 80(1) + 20 = 100 100% of the material is remembered at the moment it is first learned.5(52) + 20 ≈ 20 20% of the material is remembered 1 year after it is first learned.0344(20) ≈ 3. b. 422 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. there were about 4. 662.1e −0. .9 1 + 6.44 ≈ 4.7 37.5(4) + 20 ≈ 30. Answers may vary. 1975 is 20 years after 1955. Inc. f ( x) = 6.0344 x g (20) = 1. f (4) = 80e −0. d. b. ⎛ 0. – 80.1e −0.052(56) Function g ( x) is a better model for the graph’s value of 28.

251/ 2 = 5 2 96. f ( x) = 3− x reflects the graph of y = 3x b. i. 2 = log b 25 means b 2 = 25. does not make sense. b. A sample change is: The functions do not have the same graph. b3 = 27 means 3 = log b 27. 86. A sample change is: If f ( x) = 2 x then f (a + b) = f (a ) ⋅ f (b). y = 1 is the 5 5 –x same as y = 5 . Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. 88. true 91. a. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Section 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3) ∪ ( 3. ∞ ) . gives x = 3. y = 1 is (b).PreCalculus 4E Section 3. makes sense 87. 1 . Changes to make the statement true will vary. Explanations will vary. false. y = 1 3 94. 90. x is the same as y = () x 3–x. a. We do not know how to solve x = 2 y for y. . −(− x) e +e 2 −x e + ex = 2 e x + e− x = 2 = cosh x cosh(− x) = 2 ⎛ e x + e− x ⎞ ⎛ e x − e− x ⎞ ? ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ =1 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x e 2 x − 2 + e −2 x ? − =1 4 4 e 2 x + 2 + e −2 x − e 2 x + 2 − e −2 x ? =1 4 4? =1 4 1=1 about the y-axis while f ( x) = −3x reflects the graph 89. ? (cosh x) 2 − (sinh x) 2 = 1 2 of y = 3x about the x-axis. 423 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 Check Point Exercises 93. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 . Inc. y = 3x is (d). 3 = log 7 x means 73 = x. ) 2. Note that the boundary value x = 3 does not satisfy the inequality.2 84. Solving the related equation. −x 1. 92.e. 25 = x means 5 = log 2 x. y= 5x is () (c). makes sense 85. e y = 33 means y = log e 33. ( x − 3) 2 > 0 so it is (d) reflected () x about the y-axis. Testing each interval gives a solution set of ( −∞. x is (a). Sample explanation: An exponential model is better than a linear model. but not as quickly as y = () y= 1 3 5x . c. so it is (c) reflected about the y-axis. b. A sample change is: The amount of money will not increase without bound. y increases as x increases. log 4 26 = y means 4 y = 26. a. e− x − e−( − x ) 2 e− x − e x = 2 − −e − x + e x = 2 e x − e− x =− 2 = − sinh x sinh(− x) = ( c. c. 95.

Question: 36 to what power gives 6? 1 log 36 6 = because 361/ 2 = 36 = 6 2 d.0 on the Richter scale. Inc. The domain of f consists of all x for which 4 – x > 0. Because I = 10. 125 5 125 7 = log 10. 5 y = 125 9.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 3. Because log b 1 = 0. b5 = 32 6. Question: 10 to what power gives 100? log10 100 = 2 because 10 2 = 100. 1. 10. b. 92 = x 5. Solving this inequality for x.8 log(10 + 1) = 29 + 48. ∞). a. 4) b. . we obtain x > 5. 000 3? =4 The earthquake registered 4. 1 1 x 1 3 9 27 9 3 g ( x) = log 3 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 The graph of the inverse can also be drawn by reflecting the graph of f ( x) = 3x about the line y = x. 9. the domain of f is (−∞. Because log b b = x.4 ln 30 − 11. 2 4 = 16 2. we obtain x < 0 or x > 0. a. Find the temperature increase after 30 minutes by substituting 30 for x and evaluating the function at 30. Because blogb x = x. we conclude log 7 7 = 8. Solving this inequality for x. 6y = 216 8. Question: 3 to what power gives 1 log 3 7 3 = because 31 7 = 7 3. b. Exercise Set 3. 8. Solving this inequality for x. 000 I 0 R = log I0 1 ? 125 1 1 1 log 5 = −3 because 5−3 = 3 = . the domain of h is (5. 4.6 First. 10.8 log(11) ≈ 80 Thus. Substitute the boy’s age. The domain of g consists of all x for which x 2 > 0. we conclude log 9 9 = 1. Thus. f ( x) = 13.000 I0.2 The domain of h consists of all x for which x − 5 > 0. Thus. we conclude 3log3 17 = 17. Thus the domain of g is (−∞. f (10) = 29 + 48. for x and evaluate the function at 10. 26 = 64 3. Question: 5 to what power gives c. a. 0) ∪ (0. 5.4 ln x − 11. ≈ 34 The function models the actual increase shown in the graph quite well.6 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 3 x. we obtain x < 4. 6. x f ( x ) = 3x 10. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 3x. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 1 1 1 3 9 27 9 3 f (30) = 13. b. Because log b b = 1. 7. 8 x 11. we conclude log8 1 = 0. b3 = 27 7. a 10-year-old boy is approximately 80% of his adult height. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log28 = 3 424 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞). 32 = x 4. 7 a.

13. log 3 1 1 = –2 because 3−2 = . log 2 1 1 = −3 because 2−3 = . we conclude log11 11 = 1. we conclude log 4 46 = 6. log 4 16 = 2 because 4 = 16. 1 3 log81 9 = 1 1 because 64 2 = 64 = 8. log 2 64 = 6 because 2 = 64. 20. 42. we conclude log 5 57 = 7. 6 24. Because log b 1 = 0. 5 5 26. log7200 = y 40. we conclude log 5 5 = 1. 8 8 28. = − because 3 2 = 2 3 3 33. log8 300 = y 21. log 7 49 = 2 because 7 = 49.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. x g ( x) = log 4 x 1 16 1 4 1 4 16 64 −2 −1 0 1 1 29. Because blogb x = x. Because log b b = 1. 2 43. Because blogb x = x. 19. 2 35. log 2 12. 2 3 . log b 343 = 3 39. 2 22. we conclude 7 log 723 = 23. 25. Inc. 9 9 −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 4 x 1 16 1 4 log 7 7 = 1 because 7 2 = 7. log13x = 2 16. 2 3 1 4 16 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 4 x. log 64 8 = 1 = −3 125 log8 2 = 1 3 log 64 4 = 34. log 5 625 = 4 11. log15 x = 2 37. 14. 2 1 1 because 81 2 = 81 = 9. 36. log 5 1 1 = −4 16 − 1 1 1 . log 3 − 1 1 1 . log 6 6 = 1 because 6 2 = 6. log 5 1 1 = −1 because 5−1 = . 6 6 27. log 3 27 = 3 because 33 = 27. Because log b b = 1. we conclude log 6 1 = 0. 23. 41. Because log b b x = x. 31. First.2 10. we conclude log 4 1 = 0. 38. we conclude 8log8 19 = 19. log 6 1 1 = −1 because 6−1 = . 2 1 425 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 30. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because log b b x = x. 17. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 4 x. log 2 1 15. Because log b 1 = 0. = − because 2 2 = 2 2 2 32. logb1000 = 3 18.

so the function is h( x) = log3 x − 1. 53. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the y-axis. 1 8 49. First. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . ⎝2⎠ 47. set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = ⎜ ⎟ . This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted right one unit. 51. 1 25 x 1 5 2 16 4 1 4 1 1 16 1 64 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 1 4 x. Inc. so the function is g ( x) = log 3 ( x − 1). ∞) 426 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. so the function is F ( x) = − log 3 x. ⎝4⎠ x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 3 1 5 25 125 f ( x) = ( 14 ) Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log 5 x. range: (−∞. First. vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x f ( x) = ( 12 ) x 4 2 1 2 1 1 4 1 8 Reversing these coordinates gives the coordinates for the inverse function g ( x) = log1 2 x. x 4 2 1 1 2 1 4 48. −2 −1 0 1 x f ( x) = 5 x 1 25 1 5 2 x ⎛1⎞ 46. Publishing as Prentice Hall. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 44. 50. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x. ∞) . set up a table of coordinates for f ( x) = 5 x. . 52. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x shifted down one g ( x) = log1 2 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 unit. so the function is H ( x) = 1 − log 3 x. so the function is G ( x ) = log 3 (− x). 1 5 25 125 g ( x) = log 5 x −2 −1 0 1 x 3 1 4 1 16 1 64 g ( x) = log 1 4 x −2 −1 0 1 2 3 x 16 4 1 x ⎛1⎞ 45. First. This is the graph of f ( x) = log 3 x reflected about the x-axis and shifted up one unit.

. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. ∞) . ∞) 59. vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: (2. ∞ ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 54. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. Inc. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) . 56.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. range: (−∞. ∞ ) . ∞) 427 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. 55. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞) 61. ∞) 60. range: (−∞. ∞) 57. range: (−∞. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 1 domain: (1. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 58. ∞ ) .

Inc. ∞) 65. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 68. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . ∞) 63. ∞) . range: (−∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . ∞ ) . range: (−∞. range: (−∞. 69. ∞ ) . range: (−∞. . 66. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. vertical asymptote: x = –2 domain: (−2. range: (−∞. range: (−∞. ∞) . ∞) 64. ∞ ) . 67.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 62. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = –1 domain: (−1. ∞) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) 428 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

we conclude 10log 53 = 53. . ∞). we obtain x > –4. ∞ ) . vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. The domain of f consists of all x for which 2 – x > 0. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 7)2 > 0. Because 10logx = x. Solving this inequality for x. ∞) 76. range: (−∞. Because 10log x = x.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 79. log1000 = log10 1000 = 3 because 103 = 1000. Because log10 x = x. range: (−∞. the domain of f is (–∞. Thus. we conclude log108 = 8. we obtain x < 2. 74. Thus. ∞). Solving this inequality for x. The domain of f consists of all x for which (x – 2)2 > 0. Because log10 x = x. ∞) 81. 71. 84. 85. ∞ ) . Thus. 0) . The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 4 > 0. 7). 429 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Solving this inequality for x. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. 77. the domain of f is (–4. Solving this inequality for x. the domain of f is (−∞. 73. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. ∞) 72. we conclude log107 = 7. ∞ ) . 78. The domain of f consists of all x for which 7 − x > 0. range: (−∞. Inc. Thus. log100 = log10 100 = 2 because 102 = 100. we obtain x < 7 or x > 7. we conclude 10log33 = 33.2 70. we obtain x > –6. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the domain of f is (−∞. Thus. ∞ ) . 2). ∞). Solving this inequality for x. range: (−∞. we obtain x < 2 or x > 2. ∞). Thus. Solving this inequality for x. range: (−∞. the domain of f is (–6. 82. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (−∞. ∞) 75. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 6 > 0. 80. 83. 7) or (7. vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: (0. the domain of f is (–∞. ∞) 86. 2) or (2. we obtain x < 7.

log ( log 81) = log ( log 34 ) 2 3 2 3 93. 1 = ln e −6 e6 Because ln e x = x we conclude 1 ln e −6 = −6. 109. x − 5 > 0 . and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ln 7 = ln e −7 Because ln e x = x. ln e = log e e = 1 because e1 = e. 5 − x ⎝ ⎠ The boundary points are –1 and 5. x 2 − 4 x − 12 > 0 . For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − x − 2) to be real. we conclude ln e13 x = 13 x. 110. ∞ ) .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 87. we conclude ln e7 = 7. we conclude lne9x = 9x. ( x + 1)( x − 2) = 0 The boundary points are –1 and 2. Because ln e x = x. 104. 103. Publishing as Prentice Hall. we conclude eln125 = 125. Because eln x = x. log 5 ( x + 4 ) = 2 52 = x + 4 25 = x + 4 21 = x The solution is 21. we conclude eln 300 = 300. we conclude eln 5 x = 5 x 2 . we conclude 10log x 3 x = x. we conclude 10log 100. Inc. 91. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. Because 10log x = x. ∞ ) . log ( log 32 ) = log ( log 25 ) = log 5 = 1 5 2 5 2 5 107. For f ( x) = ln( x 2 − 4 x − 12) to be real. −1) ∪ ( 5. Because ln e x = x. and the solution set is {21}. 2 97. e 106. The solution is 64 ⎩ 64 ⎭ x= Because ln e x = x. Because ln e x = x. Because eln x = x. 101. . log 3 ( x − 1) = 2 32 = x − 1 9 = x −1 ( x + 2)( x − 6) = 0 The boundary points are –2 and 6. so ln 6 = −6. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. and the solution set is {16}. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x2 − x − 2 = 0 96. 90. 99. x +1 ⎛ x +1 ⎞ 111. 105. log ( ln e ) = log1 = 0 95. Because eln x = x. 102. 430 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 3 ( log 7 7 ) = log 3 1 = 0 1 92. 1 1 = 43 64 1 ⎧1⎫ . Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ ⎟ to be real. we conclude e 1 ln e−7 = −7. −2 ) ∪ ( 6. Because 10log x = x. e ln log 64 x = 2 3 2 64 3 = x x= ( 3 64 ) 2 = 42 = 16 The solution is 16. 4−3 = x 88. Solve the related equation to find the boundary points: x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 = 3 x. 108. we conclude eln 7 x = 7 x 2 . so ln 7 = −7. x 2 − x − 2 > 0 . and the solution set is {10}. log 4 x = −3 ln1 = 0 because e0 = 1 . ∞ ) . = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 94. −1) ∪ ( 2. Because eln x = x. 2 98. we conclude ln e6 = 6. 89. 10 = x The solution is 10.

b. a. 114. 130.5. a.49 ln 41 + 53 ≈ 25. 15.9. 431 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 128. −5) ∪ ( 2. f (10) = 62 + 35 log(10 − 4) ≈ 89. This underestimates the value in the graph by 0. after 4 months was about 63. the sound can rupture the human eardrum. 2004 is 35 years after 1969. f(13) = 62 + 35log(13–4) ≈ 95. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units upward. g(x) is f(x) shifted 3 units left.9 f(6) = 88–15ln(6 + 1) = 58. Inc.49 ln 35 + 53 ≈ 26. f ( x ) = −7. 112.8 f(8) = 88–15ln(8 + 1) = 55 f(10) = 88–15ln(10 + 1) = 52 f(12) = 88–15ln(12 + 1) = 49. This underestimates the value in the graph by 1%.2 ×10−6 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 65.2 x−2 ⎛ x−2⎞ >0. 115.2% of her adult height. a. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 (6. f(2) = 88–15ln(2 + 1) = 71. after 8 months was about 55. 131.86 ln 41 + 32.5. .5 f ( 35 ) = −4. She is approximately 89. For f ( x) = ln ⎜ to be real. 116. after 6 months was about 58.2% of first-year college men will express antifeminist views in 2010. Answers may vary. 113.6%. b. 117. 2010 is 41 years after 1969.3 × 106 ) ⎤⎦ ≈ 188 Yes.4% of first-year college men expressed antifeminist views in 2004.2. f ( x ) = −4. 14. – 127. 118.86 ln x + 32.2 According to the function. ∞ ) .5 According to the function. f(0) = 88–15ln(0 + 1) = 88 The average score on the original exam was 88.5 ≈ 15.4 She is approximately 95.86 ln 35 + 32.5 f ( 41) = −4.2 According to the function. D = 10 log ⎡⎣1012 ( 3. b. 26.5% of first-year college women will express antifeminist views in 2010. f ( x ) = −4. g(x) is f(x) reflected about the x-axis.86 ln x + 32. 129. 119. 25. 2010 is 41 years after 1969. after 10 months was about 52.5 ≈ 14.4 According to the function. ⎟ x+5 ⎝ x+5⎠ The boundary points are –5 and 2.8.4% of her adult height. f ( 35 ) = −7. Testing each interval gives a domain of ( −∞.5 f(4) = 88–15ln(4 + 1) = 63. 2004 is 35 years after 1969.5 The average score after 2 months was about 71.49 ln x + 53 f ( 41) = −7. and after one year was about 49.49 ln x + 53 120. f ( x ) = −7.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.2% of first-year college women expressed antifeminist views in 2004.05 A normal conversation is about 65 decibels. Publishing as Prentice Hall. g(x) is f(x) shifted right 2 units and upward 1 unit.

log3 81 = log3 34 = 4 b. a. log 4 ⎡log 3 ( log 2 8) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = log 4 ⎡⎣ log3 ( log 2 23 ) ⎤⎦ = log 4 [ log 3 3] = log 4 1 = 0 c. makes sense 149. 141. . y = ln x . makes sense log 2 16 = log 2 24 = 4 136. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. y = x. log 4 60 < log 4 64 = 3 so log 4 60 < 3. ⎛ 32 ⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 − log 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ y = x2. A sample change is: We cannot take the log of a negative number. y = ex. log 4 60 < 3 < log3 40 log3 40 > log 4 60 d e. log 2 32 = log 2 25 = 5 134. logbMN = logbM + logbN The sum of the logarithms of its factors. b. a. 140. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 2 8 + log 2 4 = log 2 23 + log 2 22 = 3 + 2 = 5 c. Changes to make the statement true will vary. The score falls below 65 after 9 months. log 3 40 > log 3 27 = 3 so log3 40 > 3. false. ∞ ) . 142. y = x . log 3 81 − logπ 1 4−0 4 = = log 2 2 8 − log 0.001 2 − (−3) 5 144. false. does not make sense. Explanations will vary. Sample explanation: An earthquake of magnitude 8 on the Richter scale is 108− 4 = 104 = 10. 2 log3 9 = 2 log3 32 = 2 ⋅ 2 = 4 c. 147.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 139. a. log3 92 = 2 log3 9 432 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 137. Inc. b. is ( 0. makes sense 138. a. log 2 32 − log 2 2 = log 2 25 − log 2 2 = 5 − 1 = 4 c. y = xx 135. log 2 (8 ⋅ 4) = log 2 8 + log 2 4 148. true 143. 146. b. log 2 8 3 = A sample change is: log 2 4 2 132. They are the same. 145. A sample change is: The domain of f ( x ) = log 2 x 133. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Answers may vary. 000 times as intense as an earthquake of magnitude 4.

log 5 (7 ⋅ 3) = log 5 7 + log 5 3 2. 3. a. log8 (13 ⋅ 7) = log8 13 + log8 7 3.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 000 + log x = 4 + log x 7. . log 9 9x =log 9 9+log9 x = 1+log 9 x 5. 1 ln x 2 + ln( x + 5) 3 = ln x 2 + ln( x + 5)1/ 3 9 = logb x1/ 4 − log b 25 y10 = logb x1/ 4 25 y10 4 or log b 7. log 25 + log 4 = log(25 ⋅ 4) = log100 = 2 b.3 6. b. a. log 6 3 = 9 log 6 3 b. Check Point Exercises 1. ⎛7⎞ log 7 ⎜ ⎟ = log 7 7 − log 7 x = 1 − log 7 x ⎝ x⎠ 8. 000 x) = log10.02 log 7 8. 1 ln 3 x = ln x1/ 3 = ln x 3 c.3 x log 5 25 y 3 1. log 7 2506 = ln 2506 ≈ 4. = 2 + log x 2. a. log(100 x) = log100 + log x = ln x 2 ( x + 5)1/ 3 = ln x 2 3 x + 5 b. a. ⎛9⎞ log 9 ⎜ ⎟ = log 9 9 − log 9 x = 1 − log 9 x ⎝ x⎠ 9. log(10. log 7 (7 x) = log 7 7 + log 7 x = 1 + log 7 x 4. 4. log 6 (7 ⋅ 11) = log 6 7 + log 6 11 b. 2 log( x − 3) − log x = log( x − 3) 2 − log x ⎛ 23 ⎞ log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 23 − log8 x ⎝ x ⎠ = log ⎛ e5 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e5 − ln11 ⎝ 11 ⎠ = 5 − ln11 c. log(1000x) = log1000 + log x = 3 + log x 6. log b x 4 3 y = log x 4 y1/3 b = log x 4 + log y1/3 b b 1 = 4 log x + log y b 3 b b.3 Section 3.02 ln 7 x 25 y10 Exercise Set 3. Inc. ( x − 3)2 x 1 log x − 2 log 5 − 10 log y b b 4 b 1/ 4 2 = logb x − log b 5 − log b y10 = logb x1/ 4 − ( logb 25 − log b y10 ) a. log(7 x + 6) − log x = log 7x + 6 x 433 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log100 = log x − 2 ⎝ 100 ⎠ 1/ 2 = log5 x 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − log5 25 y 3 = log5 x1/ 2 − ( log 5 52 + log 5 y 3 ) = 12 log 5 x − log 5 52 − log 5 y 3 = 12 log 5 x − 2 log 5 5 − 3log 5 y = 12 log 5 x − 2 − 3log 5 y 5. log( x + 4) 2 = 2 log( x + 4) a. log 7 2506 = log 2506 ≈ 4.

⎛ x2 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = log b ( x 2 y ) − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = log b x 2 + log b y − log b z 2 = 2 log b x + log b y − 2 log b z 15. . Inc. 29. 12. ⎛ x ⎞ log ⎜ ⎟ = log x − log1000 = log x − 3 ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 26. log b x 2 y = logb x 2 + log b y = 2 log b x + log b y 22. ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb ( x 3 y ) − logb z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ ⎛ x3 y ⎞ log b ⎜ 2 ⎟ = logb x 3 + log b y − log b z 2 ⎝ z ⎠ = 3log b x + log b y − 2 log b z log b x 7 = 7 log b x 18. ⎛ 125 ⎞ log 5 ⎜ ⎟ = log 5 125 − log 5 y = 3 − log 5 y ⎝ y ⎠ 13. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1/ 2 log 4 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 4 x − log 4 64 = log 4 x − 3 64 2 ⎝ ⎠ 24. ⎛ e4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 4 − ln 8 = 4 ln e − ln 8 = 4 − ln 8 ⎝8⎠ 28. ⎛ 64 ⎞ 1 2 log8 ⎜ ⎟ = log8 64 − log8 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log8 ( x + 1) 2 1 2 1 ln(ex) 2 1 = (ln e + ln x) 2 1 = (1 + ln x) 2 1 1 = + ln x 2 2 = 31. ⎛ 64 ⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ = log 4 64 − log 4 y ⎝ y ⎠ = 3 − log 4 y 27. ⎛ e2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 2 − ln 5 = 2 ln e − ln 5 = 2 − ln 5 ⎝5⎠ 14. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log N–6 = –6log N log M −8 = −8log M 19. 1 ln 5 x = ln x (1/ 5) = ln x 5 20. log b xy 3 = log b x + log b y 3 = log b x + 3log b y 1 1 ln x 7 23. ln ex = ln(ex) 17. log 3 ⎛ x = log ⎜ y ⎝ 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢ log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 3 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 3 1 1 = log x − log y 3 3 ⎛ 36 ⎞ 1/ 2 log 6 ⎜ ⎟ = log 6 36 − log 6 ( x + 1) ⎝ x +1 ⎠ 1 = 2 − log 6 ( x + 1) 2 434 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 100 x = log(100 x )1/ 2 1 = log(100 x) 2 1 = (log100 + log x) 2 1 = (2 + log x) 2 1 = 1 + log x 2 30. ⎛ x⎞ 1 1 log 5 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = log 5 x 2 − log 5 25 = log 5 x − 2 25 2 ⎝ ⎠ 25.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 10. logbx3 = 3logbx 16. 11. ln 7 x = ln x 7 = 21.

1 4 1 = log 2 x + log 2 y − log 2 16 5 5 5 1 4 4 = log 2 x + log 2 y − 5 5 5 37. ⎛ 3x + 7 ⎞ log(3x + 7) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ = ln x3 + ln x 2 + 1 − ln( x + 1) 4 1 = 3ln x + ln( x 2 + 1) − 4 ln( x + 1) 2 49.3 1 32. 38. ⎡100 x 3 3 5 − x ⎤ log ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ 3( x + 7) ⎦ = log100 + log x3 + log ( 5 − x ) 3 − log 3 − log ( x + 7 ) 1 xy 4 16 = log 2 x1/ 5 + log 2 y 4 / 5 − log 2 161/ 5 41. ⎛ 96 ⎞ log 2 96 − log 2 3 = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ = log 2 32 = 5 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 46. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log x + 7 log y = log x + log y 7 = log( xy 7 ) 435 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ 2x + 5 ⎞ log(2 x + 5) − log x = log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ⎡ x3 x 2 + 1 ⎤ ln ⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎣⎢ ( x + 1) ⎦⎥ 48. log 250 + log 4 = log1000 = 3 43. ln x + ln 3 = ln(3x) 45. ⎡10 x 2 3 1 − x ⎤ log ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣ 7( x + 1) ⎦ 1 = 1 + 2 log x + log(1 − x) − log 7 − 2 log( x + 1) 3 3 5 5 = log10 + log x 2 + log 3 1 − x − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 2 1 = log5 x + log5 y − log5 52 / 3 3 3 2 1 2 = log5 x + log5 y − 3 3 3 36.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. x y3 log b 3 z = logb x1/ 2 + log b y 3 − log b z 3 = 34. log x + 3 log y = log x + log y 3 = log( xy 3 ) 50. 1 = 2 + 3log x + log(5 − x) − log 3 − 2 log( x + 7) 3 log 5 + log 2 = log(5 ⋅ 2) = log10 = 1 42. ⎛ x⎞ x log 5 = log ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ 1 ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞⎤ = ⎢log ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎝ y ⎠⎦ 1 = (log x − log y ) 5 1 1 = log x − log y 5 5 log b 1/ 2 39. − ln ( x + 3) 1 = 4 ln x + ln ( x 2 + 3) − 5 ln ( x + 3) 2 x2 y 25 = log5 x 2 / 3 + log 5 y1/ 3 − log 5 251/ 3 log 5 ⎡ x4 x2 + 3 ⎤ ln ⎢ 5 ⎥ ⎢⎣ ( x + 3) ⎥⎦ ⎡ x 4 ( x 2 + 3)1/ 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 5 ⎣ ( x + 3) ⎦ = ln x 4 + ln ( x 2 + 3) 1 logb x + 3log b y − 3logb z 2 3 35. log 2 x y4 z5 = log x1/ 3 + log b y 4 − log b z 5 b 1 = log b x + 4 log b y − 5log b z 3 40. 2 . ln x + ln 7 = ln(7 x) 44. Inc. 5 ⎛ 405 ⎞ log 3 405 − log 3 5 = log 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ = log3 81 =4 47. 33.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ x5 ⎞ 5 ln x − 2 ln y = ln x5 − ln y 2 = ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 56. ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎛ x2 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1 ⎟ or ln ⎜ 2 ⎜ y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln( x + 6) − 3ln x = ln( x + 6) 4 − ln x3 = ln 60. ⎛ x7 ⎞ 7 ln x − 3ln y = ln x 7 − ln y 3 = ln ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝y ⎠ 57. 4 ln x + 7 ln y − 3ln z ( x + 9)8 x4 ⎤ ( x + 1) 2 ⎥ ⎥⎦ = log 4 ⎡( x + 1) 2 3 xy ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 3ln x + 5 ln y − 6 ln z = ln x3 + ln y 5 − ln z 6 = ln x3 y 5 z6 436 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 1 ln x + ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 3 ( 62. 1 3ln x − ln y = ln x 3 − ln y1/ 3 3 64. . 61. = ln x 4 + ln y 7 − ln z 3 ) = ln 63. 65. 1 ln x + ln y = ln x1/ 2 + ln y 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ln ⎜ x 2 y ⎟ or ln y x ⎝ ⎠ ( 52. 2logbx + 3logby = logbx2 + logby3 = logb(x2y3) 54. Inc. 4 x3 ) 1/ 3 x⎞ ⎟ y⎠ 1 (log 5 x + log 5 y ) − 2 log 5 ( x + 1) 2 1 = log5 xy − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 − log 5 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 ( xy )1/ 2 ( x + 1) 2 = log5 xy ( x + 1) 2 1 ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) + 2log 4 ( x + 1) 3 1 x = log 4 + log 4 ( x + 1)2 3 y ⎡⎛ x ⎞ = log 4 ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎣⎝ y ⎠ 1/ 3 8 ln (x +9) − 4 ln x = ln( x + 9)8 − ln x 4 = ln ( 1 log x − log y 4 4 3 x 1 = log 4 y 3 x = log 3 4 y 1 1 2 ln x − ln y = ln x 2 − ln y 2 2 ( x + 6) 1 ( log x + log y ) 2 1 = (log xy ) 2 = log( xy )1/ 2 ⎛ = log ⎜ 4 ⎝ ⎛ x3 ⎞ ⎛ x3 ⎞ = ln ⎜ 1/ 3 ⎟ or ln ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 59. 66. 5log b x + 6 log b y = log b x 5 + log b y 6 55.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 51. ( ) = ln x 3 y or ln y 3 x 1 ) 53. x4 y7 z3 = log xy = logb ( x 5 y 6 ) 58.

log x + log ( x − 1) − log 7 − log( x + 1) 2 log17 ≈ 1. log 0.1 17 = log17 ≈ −1. log 0.2340 ln π = log x + log ( x 2 − 1) − ( log 7 + log( x + 1) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) − log ( 7( x + 1) ) = log x ( x 2 − 1) 7( x + 1) x( x + 1)( x − 1) = log 7( x + 1) x( x − 1) = log 7 70.4456 log 0. Section 3.4595 ln16 75.2304 log 0.6193 ln π 78.1 76. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − log15 − log( x + 2) = log x + log ( x 2 − 4 ) − ( log15 + log( x + 2) ) ( ) = log x ( x 2 − 4 ) − log (15( x + 2) ) x ( x − 4) 2 = log 15( x + 2) x( x + 2)( x − 2) = log 15( x + 2) x( x − 2) = log 15 71. log14 87. log 6 17 = 73. logπ 400 = 79.3 19 = log19 ≈ −2. 1 ⎡5ln( x + 6) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 25) ⎤⎦ 3⎣ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ ⎥ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎢ x( x 2 − 25) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 ⎡ ( x + 6)5 ⎤ 3 = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 25) ⎦ 69. . y = log15 x = log x log15 81.PreCalculus 4E 67.5812 log 6 72. y = log 2 ( x + 2) = ln 400 ≈ 5. log 5 13 = log( x + 2) log 2 log13 ≈ 1. Inc.2 = ln 57.6944 ln14 74.3 77.5937 log 5 437 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 = ln 87.3 1 [2 ln( x + 5) − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 = [ln( x + 5) 2 − ln x − ln( x 2 − 4)] 3 1 ⎡ ( x + 5)2 ⎤ = ⎢ ln 3 ⎣ x( x 2 − 4) ⎥⎦ ⎡ ( x + 5) 2 ⎤ = ln ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ x( x − 4) ⎦ 1/ 3 ( x + 5) 2 = ln 3 x( x 2 − 4) 68. logπ 63 = ln 63 ≈ 3.2 ≈ 1.5 ≈ 1. log16 57. y = log3 x = log x log 3 80.

false. log 4 ( 2 x ) = 3log 4 ( 2 x ) 3 1 ⎛ A ⎞ t = ln ⎜ ⎟ c ⎝ A− N ⎠ 1 ⎡ 65 ⎤ ln 0. b. 88. .63 It will take the chimpanzee a little more than 20. 89. log b 84. x log10 x = x ⋅ x = x 2 94.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 82. true. log b log b 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞2 = logb ⎜ ⎟ 27 ⎝ 27 ⎠ 1 ⎛2⎞ = log b ⎜ 3 ⎟ 2 ⎝3 ⎠ 1 = ( logb 2 − log b 33 ) 2 1 = ( logb 2 − 3log b 3) 2 1 3 = log b 2 − log b 3 2 2 1 3 = A− C 2 2 log 7 1 1 = log 3 = log 3 log 7 log 7 3 102. false. b. true. Publishing as Prentice Hall. false. false. x+3 2x x ⎛ I ⎞ D = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ ⎛ 100 I ⎞ D1 = 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ = 10 log (100 I − I 0 ) = 10 log100 + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 = 10(2) + 10 log I − 10 log I 0 ⎛ 3⎞ 3 = log b ⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎟⎟ 16 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ I ⎞ = 20 + 10 log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ I0 ⎠ This is 20 more than the loudness level of the softer sound. ln e = 1 90. product rule 101. ln ee = 0 91. log b 8 = log b 23 = 3log b 2 = 3 A 99. log( x + 3) − log(2 x) = log = log b 2 + log b 3 = A + C 98. ln 8 x3 = ln 23 x3 = ln ( 2 x ) = 3ln ( 2 x ) log( x − 2) log 3 3 93. e x = ln ee 103. true. log 3 7 = 1 87. true. y = log3 ( x − 2) = ( ) ( ) 92. = log b 3 − logb 4 1 = log b 3 2 − log 22 1 log b 3 − 2 log 2 2 1 = C − 2A 2 = 104. false.03 ⎢⎣ 65 − 30 ⎥⎦ 1 ⎛ 65 ⎞ t= ln ⎜ ⎟ 0. a. Inc. false. false. a. quotient rule 86. false. t= 438 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. true. ln x + ln(2 x) = ln ( x ⋅ 2 x) ) = ln 2 x 2 3 = log b 3 − log b 2 = C − A 2 83. log b 81 = log b 34 = 4log b 3 = 4C 100. log b 6 = log b ( 2 ⋅ 3) 97. ln(5 x) + ln1 = ln 5 x + 0 = ln 5 x 96. true. log x+2 = log( x + 2) − log( x − 1) x −1 85.03 ⎝ 35 ⎠ t ≈ 20. This means that the 100 times louder sound will be 20 decibels louder. ln( x ⋅ 1) = ln x + ln1 95.5 weeks to master 30 signs.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. = 5logb x + 5logb y top graph: y = log100 x bottom graph: y = log 3 x 439 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 116. 1) and on the bottom in the interval (1. makes sense 123. makes sense b. A sample change is: log 7 49 log 7 49 = = log 7 49 = 2 . ∞). Answers may vary. ⎛ x ⎞2 x = log 4 ⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ y⎠ Sample explanation: log 4 ⎛x⎞ 1 log 4 ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ y⎠ 1 = ( log 4 x − log 4 y ) 2 1 1 = log 4 x − log 4 y 2 2 = 114. Inc. Answers may vary. log 25 log x log100 x = log100 115. – 112. To obtain the graph of y = log3(x + 2). shift the graph of y = log3x two units left. y = log 3 x = b. ) A sample change is: logb x3 + y 3 cannot be simplified. Explanations will vary. false. Changes to make the statement true will vary. just vertical shifts of y = log x. 113. false. these two graphs are log 7 49 − log 7 7 = 2 − 1 = 1 . does not make sense. 1 To obtain the graph of y = 2 + log3x. true 126. c.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 122. If we were taking the logarithm of a product and not a sum. Changes to make the statement true will vary. makes sense 124. ( ) logb x3 y 3 = logb x3 + logb y 3 = 3logb x + 3logb y 128. – 120. . reflect the graph of y = log3x about the x-axis. 121. log(10 x) = log x + 1 and l log(0.3 105.1x) = log x − 1. Changes to make the statement true will vary. false. a. 125. A sample change is: logb ( xy ) = 5logb ( xy ) 5 = 5 ( logb x + logb y ) a. shift the graph of y = log3x two units upward. the graph of the equation with the largest b will be on the top in the interval (0. we would have been able to simplify as follows. top graph: y = log 3 x bottom graph: y = log100 x ln x ln 3 Comparing graphs of log b x for b > 1. ( log x log 3 x = . Hence. 127. log 3 log x log 25 x = . To obtain the graph of y = –log3x. but log 7 7 1 Using the product rule.

⎪⎩ 2 ⎪⎭ asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. 2 x − 7x = 3 2 x − 7x − 3 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(−7) ± (−7) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) x= 7 ± 61 2 ⎪⎧ 7 ± 61 ⎪⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0. e 132. . log e = log10 e = ln e 1 = ln10 ln10 135. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) ( −3. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = x( x − 7) = 3 134. Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 1. log 9 log 32 2 log 3 = = log 7 log 7 log 7 2A = B 130. ln 8 x5 − ln 2 x 2 =e ln ( 4 x 3 ) x+2 1 = 4x + 3 x ⎛ x+2 ⎞ ⎛1⎞ x(4 x + 3) ⎜ ⎟ = x(4 x + 3) ⎜ x ⎟ x 4 + 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ x( x + 2) = 4 x + 3 = 4 x3 log b ( x + h) − log b x h x+h log b x = h ⎛ h⎞ log b ⎜1 + ⎟ x⎠ ⎝ = h 1 ⎛ h⎞ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ h x⎠ ⎝ The solution set is {−1. a( x − 2) = b(2 x + 3) ax − 2a = 2bx + 3b ax − 2bx = 2a + 3b x(a − 2b) = 2a + 3b 2a + 3b x= a − 2b asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −3 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.3} .Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 129. ∞ ) 440 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) 2. log 7 9 = ⎛ 8x ⎞ ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ = e ⎝ 2x ⎠ x2 + 2 x = 4 x + 3 x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x +1 = 0 or x−3= 0 x = −1 x=3 5 131. 1/ h x⎞ ⎛ = log b ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ h⎠ 133. ( 0. Inc.

Now ( x + 6 ) is always positive. ∞ ) 100 y = 10 (10 ) 5. −6 ) ∪ ( −6. 7. Inc. domain of g = (1. ∞ ) 11. ∞ ) 1 2 1 1 3 13. 2 y = 101 102 y = 101 2y = 1 y= asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. 9. log 2 8 + log 5 25 = log 2 23 + log5 52 = 3+ 2 = 5 asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 1 domain of f = ( 0. except when 4. ∞ ) 2 The argument of the logarithm must be positive. ∞ ) . f ( x ) = 3x + 6 domain: {x | x is a real number} or ( −∞. Let log100 10 = y range of f = range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. ∞ ) . 2 x = −6 domain: {x | x ≠ 0} or ( −∞. log 3 ( x + 6 ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) . ∞ ) 441 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) . 8. 6. ∞ ) log 3 1 1 = log 3 2 = log 3 3−2 = −2 9 3 12. . f ( x ) = log 3 x + 6 The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x>0 domain: {x | x > 0} or ( 0.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 3 Check Point 3. f ( x ) = log 3 ( x + 6 ) The argument of the logarithm must be positive: x+6 > 0 x > −6 domain: {x | x > −6} or ( −6. log 2 ( log 3 81) = log 2 ( log 3 34 ) = log 2 4 = log 2 22 = 2 range of f = range of g = ( −∞. log 3 10 = log10 3 = 14. 10.

10log13 = 13 19. ln e 24. Continuously: A = 8000e0.162 10. = log 3 ( log 2 2−3 ) = log 3 ( −3) 1 1 8 log 7 x − log 7 y = log 7 x8 − log 7 y 3 3 ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ y3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ x8 ⎞ = log 7 ⎜ ⎜ 3 y ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = not possible This expression is impossible to evaluate.1 = y 25.1 (10 ) 2 y 102 y = ln x 2 − ln y 3 − ln ( z − 2 ) 1 1 10 = 10−1 = = ln x − ⎡⎣ ln y 3 + ln ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ = ln x − ln ⎡⎣ y 3 ( z − 2 ) ⎤⎦ 2 y = −1 ⎡ x ⎤ = ln ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎣ y ( z − 2) ⎦ 1 y=− 2 π 20.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 15. Inc. logπ π 21. Publishing as Prentice Hall.170 12⋅3 ( ⎛ 0.08 ⎞ Monthly: A = 8000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 10. 100 y = 0. ) xy − log1000 = log ( xy ) 2 − log103 1 1 log ( xy ) − 3 2 1 = ( log x + log y ) − 3 2 1 1 = log x + log y − 3 2 2 = 22. ⎛ xy ⎞ log ⎜ = log ⎜ 1000 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 26. 16. 1 ln x − 3ln y − ln ( z − 2 ) 2 ln ( e19 x 20 ) = ln e19 + ln x 20 = 19 + 20 ln x 442 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6log6 5 = 5 17. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎛ log 3 ⎜ log 2 ⎟ = log 3 ⎜ log 2 3 ⎟ 8⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 23.170 − 10.162 = 8 Interest returned will be $8 more if compounded continuously.08(3) = π ≈ 10. log100 0. . 7 log 5 x + 2 log 5 x = log5 x 7 + log 5 x 2 = log5 ( x 7 ⋅ x 2 ) = 7 7 = log5 x9 18.

The solutions are 0 and (approximately) 1. 3. approximately 3. e 2 x − 8e x + 7 = 0 5.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. 32 x −1 = 7 x +1 ln 32 x −1 = ln 7 x +1 4. 5x = 134 ln 5 = ln134 x ln 5 = ln134 ln134 x= ≈ 3.4 Check Point Exercises 1. ln7}.10. − 7 )( e x − 1) = 0 or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 7 ex = 1 ln e = ln 7 ln e x = ln1 x x = ln 7 x=0 The solution set is {0.4 Section 3.95. 2 x ln 3 − ln 3 = x ln 7 + ln 7 2 x ln 3 − x ln 7 = ln 3 + ln 7 x(2 ln 3 − ln 7) = ln 3 + ln 7 ln 3 + ln 7 2 ln 3 − ln 7 x ≈ 12.04.11 8 x + 2 = 4 x −3 (2 ) 3 2 x+2 3 x +6 ( ) = 22 x= x −3 = 2 2 x −6 (e x = −12 a. 5 = 125 3 x −6 5 = 53 (2 x − 1) ln 3 = ( x + 1) ln 7 3x − 6 = 3 3x = 9 x=3 b. 3 10 x = 8000 log10 x = log 8000 x log10 = log 8000 x = log 8000 ≈ 3.90. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3x + 6 = 2x − 6 2. 2 = x−4 8= x−4 12 = x Check: log ( x − 4) = 3 2 log (12 − 4) = 3 2 log 8 = 3 2 3=3 The solution set is {12}. 3 x−6 7e 2 x = 63 e2 x = 9 ln e 2 x = ln 9 2 x = ln 9 ln 9 ≈ 1. ⎩ 2 ⎭ approximately 1. ⎩ ln 5 ⎭ approximately 3. x ex − 7 = 0 x b.10 x= 2 ⎧ ln 9 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.04 ln 5 ⎧ ln134 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. log 2 ( x − 4) = 3 a. .90 The solution set is {log 8000} . a. Inc. 443 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 6.

6 4 ln1. ⎩3⎭ approximately 2.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎛7⎞ 12. Publishing as Prentice Hall. t= 444 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.02) 4t = ln 3. Inc. ⎛ r⎞ A = P ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ nt ⎛ 0. 5} ⎛ e2 ⎞ 4 ln 3 ⎜ ⎟ = 8 ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 4 ln e2 = 8 4(2) = 8 8=8 9.2 years. 0 = x − 3x − 10 0 = ( x − 5)( x + 2) x − 5 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x = 5 or x = −2 Check Checking 5: log 5 + log(5 − 3) = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 1=1 Checking –2: log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log(−2) + log(−2 − 3) 0 1 Negative numbers do not have logarithms so –2 does not check. ln 3x = 2 eln 3 x = e 2 3x = e2 x= e2 ≈ 2.02 ≈ 16.02) 4t = 3600 (1.08 ⎞ 3600 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4t 4t ⎛ 0.77 x 6e12.02) = ln 3.2 After approximately 16. .01. ln( x − 3) = ln(7 x − 23) − ln( x + 1) 7 x − 23 ln( x − 3) = ln x +1 7 x − 23 x−3= x +1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = 7 x − 23 For a risk of 7%.77 x = 7 e12.6 4t ln(1. 7.77 x = 7 6 ⎛7⎞ ln e12.02) 4t = 3600 1000(1. 2 10.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions b. 4 ln 3x = 8 8.6 ln 3. ⎧ e2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .08 ⎞ 1000 ⎜1_ ⎟ = 3600 4 ⎠ ⎝ 1000(1 + 0. let R = 7 in R = 6e12.46 3 x 2 − 2 x − 3 = 7 x − 23 Check 4 ln 3x = 8 x 2 − 9 x + 20 = 0 ( x − 4)( x − 5) = 0 x = 4 or x = 5 Both values produce true statements.46.77 For a blood alcohol concentration of 0. The solution set is {4. the $1000 will grow to an accumulated value of $3600.01 12. The solution set is {5}. the risk of a car accident is 7%.77 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝6⎠ log x + log( x − 3) = 1 log x( x − 3) = 1 101 = x( x − 3) 10 = x 2 − 3x x= ln ( 76 ) ≈ 0.

2 x = 26 x=6 The solution is 6. Inc. 5x = 3 3 x= 5 The solution is 5 = 625 x 5 x = 54 x=4 The solution set is {4}. and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ .277 An annual income of approximately $11. 3 ⎧3⎫ . 32 x +1 = 27 10. ⎩2⎭ 445 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −12. 3x = 81 ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 3. Section 3.000 corresponds to 25% of Americans reporting fair or poor health. Exercise Set 3.8 −29.3 7.8 − 12. 53 x −1 = 125 53 x −1 = 53 3x − 1 = 3 3x = 4 4 x= 3 x 3x = 34 x=4 The solution set is {4}.8 x = e 12.8 ln x = −12. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3ln x = −29. 54. 32 x = 8 (2 ) 5 x = 23 5x = 125 2 5 x = 23 5x = 53 x=3 The solution is 3. and the solution set is {6} .8 − 12. 8.3 29.PreCalculus 4E 11.3 x ≈ 11. and the solution set is {3} . 29. 5. and the solution set is {3} . ⎩3⎭ 2 = 64 9.3ln x = 25 32 x +1 = 33 2x + 1 = 3 2x = 2 x =1 The solution set is {1}.4 f ( x) = 54. 42 x −1 = 64 42 x −1 = 43 2x − 1 = 3 2x = 4 x=2 The solution is 2. 1.3 ln x 6. and the solution set is {2} . 5 ⎩5⎭ 4 x = 32 (2 ) 2 x = 25 2 2 x = 25 22 x −1 = 32 2x = 5 22 x −1 = 25 2x − 1 = 5 2x = 6 x=3 The solution is 3.8 log e x = 12. Solve equation when f ( x) = 25 .4 2. x= 5 2 ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 4. .

9 x = 27 (3 ) 2 x 15. 4 ⎩ 4⎭ 2x = − 1 125 1 2− x 5 = 3 5 52− x = 5−3 2 − x = −3 − x = −5 x=5 The solution set is {5}. 2 ⎩2⎭ 53 x = 54 3x = 4 16. 17. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. and the solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ . 2 x = 10 1− x 14. 52 − x = 18.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. 7 7 4 3 x−2 6 x−2 6 = 7 1 = 72 x−2 1 = 6 2 2 ( x − 2 ) = 6 (1) ⎧4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩3⎭ 2x − 4 = 6 1 13. and the solution set is {5}. 4x = (2 ) 2 x = 1 2 1 1 22 22 x = 2 − 12 1 2 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 2⎠ 4 1 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution is − . = 54 x= = 6 6 = 62 x −3 1 = 4 2 2 ( x − 3) = 4 (1) 125 x = 625 (5 ) x −3 4 x −3 4 32 x = 33 2x = 3 3 x= 2 The solution is 6 x=5 The solution set is {5}. 3 x 3 ⎧3⎫ . 1 2x − 6 = 4 2 x = 10 x=5 The solution is 5. ⎩ 6⎭ 2x = − 446 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 = 27 1 31− x = 3 3 31− x = 3−3 1 − x = −3 − x = −4 x=4 The solution set is {4}. = 33 12. . and the solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 9x = (3 ) 2 x = 1 3 3 1 1 33 − 13 32 x = 3 1 3 1⎛ 1⎞ 1 x = ⎜− ⎟ = − 2⎝ 3⎠ 6 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .

53 5 1 e2 x x+4 e = e −2 x x + 4 = −2 x 3 x = −4 4 x=− 3 30. 29. x −1 ln e x = 5. (2 ) 3 x +3 ( ) = 24 25.07 x ln10 = ln 8. e x = 0. 5e x = 23 23 ex = 5 23 ln e x = ln 5 23 x = ln ≈ 1. 9e x = 107 107 ex = 9 107 ln e x = ln 9 107 x = ln ≈ 2.83 x = ln 0.4 8 x +3 = 16 x −1 19.91 x ln e5 x = ln 659 ln10 = ln 3. (2 ) 3 1− x ( ) = 22 3 − 3x = 2 x + 4 −5 x = 1 22. 13 = x The solution set is {13} .19 ln 5 x = ln17 x ln 5 = ln17 ln17 x= ≈ 1.7 x = ln 5.7 ≈ 1. 27.48 9 e x +1 = e x+4 = ⎧ 4⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .91 x x= x ln10 = ln 3. 81− x = 4 x + 2 20.7 31. 5x = 17 28. .07 ln10 x = ln 8.30 5 ln 3. e5 x = 659 10 = 3.91 ln10 447 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.83 ≈ –0. ⎩ 5⎭ 21.07 ln 8. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10 x = 8. ⎩ 3⎭ 23. Inc.07 x= ≈ 0.76 ln 5 x+2 23−3 x = 22 x + 4 x=− e x = 5. 1 e x +1 e = e −1 x + 1 = −1 x = −2 The solution set is {−2} .59 ln10 24. 19 x = 143 x ln 19 = ln 143 ln143 x= ≈ 1.69 ln19 1 5 ⎧ 1⎫ The solution set is ⎨ − ⎬ .83 ln e x = ln 0.91 x= 3e5 x = 1977 ln 659 ≈ 1.74 23 x + 9 = 2 4 x − 4 3x + 9 = 4 x − 4 26.91 ≈ 0.

273 ⎞ x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 32. 478 (5 x − 3) ln e = ln10. 250 (4x – 5)ln e = ln 11. 52x + 3 = 3x 2–x1+ 3 ln 5 = ln 3x −1 5 x − 3 = ln10. e1− 5 x = 793 ln e1− 5 x = ln 793 (1 − 5 x)(ln e) = ln 793 1 − 5 x = ln 793 5 x = 1 − ln 793 x= 34. e5 x − 3 − 2 = 10.250 4x – 5 = ln 11.14 5 39.2 x ln 3 = ln 0. 250 + 5 x= ≈ 3.25 ln 3 41. 35. 273 ⎞ 7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 1 ⎛ 10. 250 ln e 4 x − 5 = ln11.00 8 x= 7 x + 2 = 410 ln10. 273 10. 476 e5 x − 3 = 10.3 x = 813 3x / 7 = 0.3x ln 7 = ln 813 ln 813 x= ≈ 11.58 4 448 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 33.80 ≈ x 5 x = ln10. 273 e7 x = 4 ⎛ 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 7 x ln 3 = 7 ln 0.12 7 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 37. ln 7 x + 2 = ln 410 ( x + 2) ln 7 = ln 410 ln 410 x+2= ln 7 ln 410 x= − 2 ≈ 1. 243 e 4 x – 5 = 11.2 x= ≈ –10. 478 70. 5 x− 3 = 137 ln 5 x− 3 = ln137 (x – 3) ln 5 = ln 137 ln137 x −3 = ln 5 ln137 x = 3+ ≈ 6.48 0. Inc.3ln 7 e1−8 x = 7957 ln e1−8 x = ln 7957 (1 – 8x) ln e = ln 7957 1 – 8x = ln 7957 8x = 1 – ln 7957 1 – ln 7957 x= ≈ –1.09 ln 7 38.250 ln11.06 ln 5 ln 70.2 ln 3x / 7 = ln 0. 40. 478 (2 x + 3) ln 5 = ( x − 1) ln 3 2 x ln 5 + 3ln 5 = x ln 3 − ln 3 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x ln 3 − 2 x ln 5 3ln 5 + ln 3 = x(ln 3 − 2 ln 5) 3ln 5 + ln 3 =x ln 3 − 2ln 5 −2. .3 x = ln 813 0. 1 – ln 793 ≈ –1. 478 + 3 ≈ 2. 273 ⎞ ln e7 x = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎛ 10. 478 ln e5 x − 3 = ln10.45 5 e 4 x − 5 − 7 = 11.2 7 ln 0. 478 + 3 36. 4e7 x = 10.

ln x = 2 e2 = x 7.4 7 2 x +1 = 3 x + 2 ln 7 2 x +1 = ln 3x + 2 46. ln x = 3 e3 = x 20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . Section 3. The solutions is approximately 1.90 x= 2 e 2 x − 3e x + 2 = 0 43. The solutions are 0 and approximately 0.58 49. or e x − 1 = 0 ex = 2 ex = 1 ln e x = ln 2 ln e x = ln1 3x + 2 = 0 (e 3x = 1 log 3x = log(−2) log 3x = log1 does not exist log 3 = 0 0 x= log 3 x=0 The solution set is {0}. 2x + 4 = 0 2 x = −4 ln 2 x = ln ( −4 ) − 3)( e x + 1) = 0 ex − 3 = 0 does not exist or e x + 1 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −1 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x = ln(−1) (e 2x = 3 ln 2 x = ln 3 x ln 2 = ln 3 ln 3 ln 2 x ≈ 1. 44. 48.69. log 3 x = 4 34 = x 81 = x e 4 x + 5e 2 x − 24 = 0 2x 2x − 3 = 0 x= x = ln 3 no solution The solution set is {ln 3}. 22 x + 2 x − 12 = 0 (2 x + 4)(2 x − 3) = 0 e 2 x − 2e x − 3 = 0 x 3x − 1 = 0 3 x = −2 x = ln 2 x=0 The solution set is {0. ln 2).PreCalculus 4E 42. log 5 x = 3 53 = x e2 x + 8 = 0 e 2 x = −8 ln e 2 x = ln(−8) 2 x = ln(−8) or e 2 x − 3 = 0 e2 x = 3 ln e 2 x = ln 3 2 x = ln 3 ln 3 ln(−8) does not exist x= 2 ln 3 x= ≈ 0. e 4 x − 3e 2 x − 18 = 0 ( e2 x − 6 )( e2 x + 3) = 0 + 8 )( e 2 x − 3) = 0 50.55 2 125 = x 51.09 ≈ x 449 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.09 x = ln 7 ln 3 2− ln 7 (e e 2 x − 6 = 0 or e 2 x + 3 = 0 e2 x = 6 x 47.10.39 ≈ x 52. (2 x + 1) ln 7 = ( x + 2) ln 3 ln 3 2 x + 1 = ( x + 2) ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x + 1 = x + ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 2 ln 3 2x − x = −1 ln 7 ln 7 ln 3 ⎞ 2 ln 3 ⎛ −1 x⎜2 − ⎟= ln 7 ⎠ ln 7 ⎝ 2 ln 3 −1 ≈ 0. Inc. 45. ln 6 ≈ 0. 32 x + 3x − 2 = 0 (3x + 2)(3x − 1) = 0 − 2 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 2 = 0 e2 x = −3 ln e 2 x = ln 6 ln e 2 x = ln(−3) 2 x = ln 6 ln(−3) does not exist.

61. ⎩4⎭ 5 ln 2 x = 20 ln 2 x = 4 eln 2 x = e4 2 x = e4 x= 7 + 3ln x = 6 3ln x = −1 x+2 64 = 3x + 2 59.39 62 = 3x 62 =x 3 20. log 4 ( x + 5) = 3 60. ln x + 4 = 1 eln x+4 = e1 x+4 =e log 2 (4 x + 1) = 5 x + 4 = e2 2 = 4x + 1 5 x = e 2 − 4 ≈ 3.61 x 62. x 1 −1 3 3 ≈ 0. 4 = x+5 3 e ln 2 x = e5 59 = x 54.21 2 e4 ≈ 27. . log 5 x + log 5 ( 4 x − 1) = 1 log 5 ( 4 x 2 − x ) = 1 4 x2 − x = 5 4 x2 − x − 5 = 0 (4 x − 5)( x + 1) = 0 5 x = or x = −1 4 x = –1 does not check because log 5 (−1) does not exist.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 53. log 7 ( x + 2) = −2 1 3 ln x = − x+2 eln x = e − x=e x 63. Inc. ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 32 = 4 x + 1 31 = 4 x 31 =x 4 7.04 ≈ 56.72 ln x + 3 = 1 eln log 4 (3 x + 2) = 3 x+3 = e1 x+3 = e x + 3 = e2 x = e 2 − 3 ≈ 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3−3 = 1 = 27 1 4 = 27 4.30 2 450 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. log 3 ( x − 4) = −3 e5 ≈ 74.67 ≈ x 64. 6 + 2 ln x = 5 2 ln x = −1 x−4 7 −2 = 1 = 49 48 −1 = 49 −1. ln x = − x−4 x x = e −1/ 2 ≈ 0. 6 ln 2 x = 30 ln 2 x = 5 2 x = e5 log 5 ( x − 7) = 2 x= 5 = x−7 2 32 = x 55. 1 2 eln x = e −1/ 2 43 = 3 x + 2 58.75 = x 65.39.98 ≈ 57.

The solution set is {6}. 67. 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 3 log 2 ( x − 1) = 1 ( x − 1)( x + 1) = 23 21 = x − 1 x −1 = 8 x2 = 9 x = 3 or x = –3 x = –3 does not check because log 2 (−3 − 1) does not exist.4 log 6 ( x + 5 ) + log 6 x = 2 70.PreCalculus 4E 66. 2 69. The solution set is {3}. log 6 x( x + 5) = 2 x( x + 5) = 6 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 4 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ x −1 ⎠ x+2 = 41 x −1 x+2 =4 x −1 x + 2 = 4(x – 1) x + 2 = 4x – 4 3x = 6 x=2 2 x 2 + 5 x = 36 x 2 + 5 x − 36 = 0 (x + 9)(x – 4) = 0 x = –9 or x = 4 x = –9 does not check because log 6 (−9 + 5) does not exist. 3= x 73. Publishing as Prentice Hall. log 2 ( x − 6) + log 2 ( x − 4) − log 2 x = 2 log 2 log 2 ( x + 2 ) − log 2 ( x − 5 ) = 3 ⎛ x+2⎞ log 2 ⎜ ⎟=3 ⎝ x−5⎠ x+2 = 23 x−5 x+2 =8 x−5 x + 2 = 8( x − 5) ( x − 6)( x − 4) =2 x ( x − 6)( x − 4) = 22 x x 2 − 10 x + 24 = 4 x x 2 − 14 x + 24 = 0 x − 12 = 0 or ( x − 12)( x − 2) = 0 x−2=0 x = 12 x=2 The solution set is {12} since log2 (2−6) = log2 (−4) is not possible. . log 3 ⎣⎡( x − 5)( x + 3) ⎦⎤ = 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = log 3 9 + 2 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 + 2 ( x − 5)( x + 3) = 32 2 log 3 ( x + 4) = 4 x 2 – 2 x – 15 = 9 log 3 ( x + 4) = 2 x 2 − 2 x − 24 = 0 32 = x + 4 ( x − 6)( x + 4) = 0 9= x+4 x = 6 or x = −4 x = –4 does not check because log 3 (−4 − 5) does not exist. 68. x + 2 = 8 x − 40 7 x = 42 x=6 451 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 5= x 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − log 2 4 3log 2 ( x − 1) = 5 − 2 log 2 ( x − 1) + log 2 ( x + 1) = 3 log 2 ⎡⎣( x − 1)( x + 1) ⎤⎦ = 3 72. Inc. Section 3. log 4 ( x + 2 ) − log 4 ( x − 1) = 1 log 3 ( x − 5 ) + log 3 ( x + 3) = 2 71. The solution set is {4}.

The solution set is x+7 = log(7 x + 1) 3 x+7 = 7x + 1 3 x + 7 = 21x + 3 −20 x = −4 log(3x − 3) = log(4 x + 4) 78. 4 x + 8 = x − 3x 2 log( x + 4) − log 2 = log(5 x + 1) log 0 = x − 7x − 8 2 0 = ( x + 1)( x − 8) x +1 = 0 or x−8 = 0 x = −1 x=8 log2 (−1−3) = log2(−4) does not exist.22 x= log( x + 4) = log x + log 4 log( x + 4) = log 4 x 82. log 2 ( x − 3) + log 2 x − log 2 ( x + 2) = 2 log 2 80. The solution set is {5}. ⎩3⎭ 76. −10 = x This value is rejected. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −9 x = −2 2 9 x ≈ 0. The solution set is {28}. ( x − 3) x =2 ( x + 2) log x3 = log125 x3 = 125 x − 3x x+2 4( x + 2) = x 2 − 3x 22 = 3log x = log125 2 x=5 81. Inc. x+4 = log(5 x + 1) 2 x+4 = 5x + 1 2 x + 4 = 10 x + 2 { }. x2 = log112 7 x2 = 112 7 x 2 = 784 x = ±28 –28 is rejected.2 log(5 x + 1) = log(2 x + 3) + log 2 log(5 x + 1) = log(4 x + 6) 5x + 1 = 4x + 6 x=5 x= 83. 1 5 x ≈ 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 74. log 3x − 3 = 4 x + 4 { }. The solution set is 2 log x − log 7 = log112 log x 2 − log 7 = log112 log(3x − 3) = log( x + 1) + log 4 −7 = x This value is rejected. log( x − 2) + log 5 = log100 log(5 x − 10) = log100 5 x − 10 = 100 5 x = 110 2 log x = log 25 x = 22 log x = log 25 2 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 –5 is rejected. x + 4 = 4x 4 = 3x 4 x= 3 77. 452 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . . log(2 x − 1) = log( x + 3) + log 3 84. log( x + 7) − log 3 = log(7 x + 1) log ⎧4⎫ This value is rejected. so the solution set is {8} 75. log(2 x − 1) = log(3x + 9) 2 x − 1 = 3x + 9 79.

( x + 5)( x − 4) = 0 x = −5 or x = 4 –5 is rejected. ln( x − 2) − ln( x + 3) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 7) x−2 x −1 = ln x+3 x+7 x − 2 x −1 = x+3 x+7 ( x − 2)( x + 7) = ( x + 3)( x − 1) log( x + 3x) = log10 2 x 2 + 5 x − 14 = x 2 + 2 x − 3 3 x = 11 log( x + 3) + log( x − 2) = log14 11 3 x ≈ 3. 1 2 x + 2)+ x = 34 32 x + 2 = 34 2x + 2 = 4 2x = 2 x =1 93. ln( x − 5) − ln( x + 4) = ln( x − 1) − ln( x + 2) 91. x −5 x −1 = ln x+4 x+2 x − 5 x −1 = x+4 x+2 ( x − 5)( x + 2) = ( x + 4)( x − 1) ln ln( x − 4) + ln( x + 1) = ln( x − 8) ln( x 2 − 3 x − 4) = ln( x − 8) x 2 − 3x − 10 = x 2 + 3x − 4 x 2 − 3x − 4 = x − 8 −6 x = 6 x2 − 4 x + 4 = 0 x = −1 –1 is rejected. Inc. The solution set is {4}.09 3 or ln x = −3 x = e −3 x ≈ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. . 3x + 2 ⋅ 3x = 81 3( x2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x = −1 or x = 3 –1 is rejected. The solution set is { }. The solution set is {2}. The solution set is { }. ln x + 3x = 10 2 x + 3 x − 10 = 0 2 ( x + 5)( x − 2) = 0 x = −5 or x = 2 –5 is rejected. 87. Section 3. 88.05 453 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.67 x= log( x 2 + x − 6) = log14 x 2 + x − 6 = 14 x 2 + x − 20 = 0 90.4 log x + log( x + 3) = log10 89.PreCalculus 4E 85. 52 x ⋅ 54 x = 125 52 x + 4 x = 53 ⎛1⎞ log 2 ( x − 1) − log 2 ( x + 3) = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝x⎠ x −1 ⎛1⎞ = log 2 ⎜ ⎟ log 2 x+3 ⎝x⎠ x −1 1 = x+3 x x2 − x = x + 3 56 x = 53 6x = 3 x= 92. The solution set is {3}. 86. 2 ln x − 6 = 0 2 ln x = 6 ln x = 3 ln x = 3 x=e x ≈ 20. ( x − 2)( x − 2) = 0 x=2 2 is rejected.

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 94. x2 5 = 50 3 x( x + 5) 3 1= x( x + 5) x( x + 5) = 3 e0 = 2 ln 5 x = ln 50 x 2 ln 5 = ln 50 ln 50 x2 = ln 5 ln 50 ≈ ±1.54 2 −5 − 37 x= ≈ −5.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ −5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬. Inc.56 ln 5 x=± 97.54 (rejected) 2 ⎧⎪ 5 + 37 ⎫⎪ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬.54 2 5 − 37 x= ≈ −0.01 x = 102 x = 100 95.86 ln 3 x=± −(−5) ± (−5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 5 ± 37 2 5 + 37 x= ≈ 5. 3 log x − 6 = 0 x= 3 log x = 6 log x = 2 log x = 2 or log x = −2 2(1) x= 2 3x = 45 2 ln 3x = ln 45 x 2 ln 3 = ln 45 ln 45 x2 = ln 3 ln 45 ≈ ±1. x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a 98. . 2 ⎩⎪ ⎭⎪ x= x2 − 5x − 3 = 0 454 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. x2 + 5x = 3 x2 + 5x − 3 = 0 ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − 2 ln x = 0 x= ln(2 x + 1) + ln( x − 3) − ln x = 0 2 ln 3 =0 x( x + 5) (2 x + 1)( x − 3) =0 x2 (2 x + 1)( x − 3) = e0 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 =1 x2 2 x2 − 5x − 3 = x2 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2 x + 5x − 3 = 0 2a −(5) ± (5) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) −5 ± 37 2 −5 + 37 x= ≈ 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎩⎪ 2 ⎭⎪ x = 10−2 x = 0. ln 3 − ln( x + 5) − ln x = 0 ln 96.

or 2013 3 = 20(0. 4x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 b.9 The population of Texas was 22.975) x Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 1 = 0.0126t 40 = 36.0126t 104.975) x 3 = 0.0126t ln 36. 6} . 100.975 x 20 1 = ln 0. or 2014.9 27 = ln e0.0183t ln 22.9e0.0183t 27 = 22.9e0. = 252 x = (5 =5 A = 22.1e0.0183(0) = 22.9 27 0.0183t Apply the zero product property: x − 6 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 x=6 2005 is 0 years after 2005.9 27 ln t = 22.3).0126t A = 36.1). A = 22.1 40 ln 36.1e0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 The population of California was 36.0126t 36. This is represented by the point (75. 6} .9e0. Inc.975) x ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 1 = 20(0.975 x ≈ 118 There is 1% of surface sunlight at 118 feet.975 x ≈ 75 There is 3% of surface sunlight at 75 feet.975 ln 20 3 ln 20 x= ln 0.1e0.1 ≈8 t= 0.1 million in 2005. This is represented by the point (118. x = −2 The solution set is {−2. .0126 The population of California will reach 40 million about 8 years after 2005.1 40 0. 101.975 x ln 20 1 = x ln 0.9e0.PreCalculus 4E 99. 2005 is 0 years after 2005.975 x 20 3 = ln 0. ( x − 6 )( x + 2 ) = 0 27 = e0.9 million in 2005.1 40 = ln e0.975) x 40 = e0. a.0183t = ln 22.975 ln 20 1 ln 20 x= ln 0.975 x ln 20 3 = x ln 0.4 2 −12 x 2 −12 x 2 −12 102.0126t = ln 36.9 ≈ 9 0. 5x 5 5 Section 3. A = 36.0183 The population of Texas will reach 27 million about 9 years after 2005. f ( x) = 20(0.0183t ) 2 2x A = 22.1e0. 455 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 3x 2 −12 = 92 x = ( 32 ) 2x = 34 x x 2 − 12 = 4 x x 2 − 4 x − 12 = 0 103. x = −2 The solution set is {−2. b.0126(0) = 36. a. f ( x) = 20(0. A = 36.0183t 22.

005416667)12t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ ⎛ 60 ⎞ 12t ln(1.168 e7 r = 3 16.5 2r = ln1.7 years. 000 ln 1+ r e ( 360 ) = e(ln1.6 106. accumulated amount = 3(2350) = 7050 7050 = 2350er ⋅7 ≈ 0.8 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 1440 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1. 500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12.5 r ⎞ ln1. 000 4t ln(1. Inc.8) /1440 1+ 60 29 ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln(1.014375) 4t = 20.7% 456 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4) / 720 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.0575 ⎞ 105.203 2 20. 000 = 12.00541667) = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ (1.08t = ln 2 360⋅2 ln 2 0.014375) = ln1. 000 = 7250 ⎜1 + ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 12 t 7250(1. 20.2 years 12 ln1.157 7 15.147 14.8 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 1440 12 t ⎛ 0.6 ≈ 8.014375 8.4) / 720 ln1.4 720 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1.08t e0.8 360 ⎝ ⎠ 4t ln(1.5 ln e 2 r = ln1.5 ≈ 0.065 ⎞ 15.08t = ln 2 0.8% ln e7 r = ln 3 7r = ln 3 r= ln 3 ≈ 0.4 360 ⎝ ⎠ 110. 500(1.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = e(ln1. 000 = 8000e 0. 12.08 t ≈ 8.3% r = e(ln1.6 t= r ⎞ ⎛ 9000 = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 108. Publishing as Prentice Hall.8 r ⎞ ⎛ ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = ln1. 000 = 8000e r ⋅ 2 e 2 r = 1.000 16.014375) 4t = ln1.4 ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ 720 ln ⎜1 + ⎟ = ln1. .7% ⎛ 60 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 29 ⎠ t= ≈ 11.005416667) = 15.00541667 107.7 The amount would double in 8. = 1. ( 360 ⋅ 4 ) 1440 r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ (1.8) /1440 − 1 ≈ 0. t= 720 = 1. r= (ln1.014375) 4t = 1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions ⎛ 0.2 years r ⎞ ln1.4 ⎛ ln ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 360 ⎠ 720 e ln(1+ r 360 ) 1+ =e r = e(ln1.2 4 ln1.08t = 2 ln e0.6 1440 ln1. accumulated amount = 2(8000) = 16.4) / 720) − 1 111.005416667)12t = r ⎞ ⎛ 1400 = 1000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 360 ⎠ r ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ 360 ⎝ ⎠ 109.8) /1440 − 1 360 r = 360(e(ln1.

2 10 The concentration of the acidic rainfall in part (b) is 103. 69% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2007. pH = − log x 2. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x log 2 x = f (5) = 8 + 38 ln 5 ≈ 69 According to the function.6 = 10−2.5 x = 21. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2. (2. 95 30 c. a. f (4) = 8 + 38 ln 4 ≈ 61 According to the function. P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 115. Inc. 10−2.5 ≈ 2.4 2006 is 4 years after 2002.0425t 1000 e0. . 457 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6) = 103.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ 0.6 = log x 79 = 38 ln x x = 10−5. pH = − log x 5. 000 = 17. b.8 Only half the students recall the important features of the lecture after 2. 61% of new cellphones will have cameras in 2006.0 ≈ x (9. x≈8 If the trend continues. 40 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 45 log 2 x = 1.0.8. This underestimates the value shown in the graph by 2%.5 years 0.4 −5. or 2013. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 100% of new cellphones will have cameras 11 years after 2002.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.4 = log x x = 10−2. 425e0.6 mole per liter. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x 100 = 8 + 38ln x 92 = 38 ln x 92 = ln x 38 x= 92 e 38 x ≈ 11 If the trend continues. f ( x) = 8 + 38ln x −5.6 = − log x 87 = 8 + 38ln x 114. 50) P( x) = 95 − 30 log 2 x 116. This overestimates the value shown in the graph by 1%.0425t = 697 ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln e0.8 days.2 times greater than the normal rainfall in part (a). 0) 117. a. 0 = 95 − 30 log 2 x 30 log 2 x = 95 2007 is 5 years after 2002. 87% of new cellphones will have cameras 8 years after 2002. 79 x = e 38 b. or 2010.0425t = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 697 ⎠ ⎛ 1000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 697 ⎠ t= ⎝ ≈ 8. 25.0425 113.6 79 = ln x 38 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−5. b.4 mole per liter.4 −( −5. a.4 112.4 = − log x −2. 95 2 30 = x 9.

– 122. a. The intersection point is (2. 10 The concentration of the acidic stomach in part (b) is 101. 124. 8).3 times greater than the lemon juice in part (a). Verify: x = 2 2 2 x +1 =8 2 +1 =2 126. 9). 10−1 c. 2).3 9=9 The solution set is {1}.3) = 101.3 mole per liter. = 10−1−( −2. . log 3 (4 ⋅ 4 − 7) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {4}. {1} The intersection point is (1. Verify x = 1: 3x +1 = 9 pH = − log x b. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−2. 458 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Verify: x = 4 123. ( ) The intersection point is 11 . The intersection point is (4.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions pH = − log x 118.3 = log x x = 10−2. 119. Inc.3 = − log x −2.3 125. 1 = − log x −1 = log x x = 10 31+1 = 9 32 = 9 −1 The hydrogen ion concentration is 10−1 mole per liter. 2 . Answers may vary. 2. −2. 3 11 Verify: x = 3 11 ⎛ ⎞ log 3 ⎜ 3 ⋅ − 2 ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ log 3 (11-2) = 2 log 3 9 = 2 2=2 The solution set is {113} . 23 = 8 8=8 The solution set is {2}.

29).291641 = 3(−1.3711158).291641.291641) + 4 0.837941942 ≈ 7.2167879803 ≈ 0. 0. 2). approximately (–1. 51.6855579}.6855579. As the distance from the eye increases.2793139. barometric air pressure increases.24 x +1 = e 1 x=e 1 0.8379416). 7.4 127.391606 3x = 2x + 3 3-1. 6.216788 Verify x ≈ 1.125077 Verify:x ≈ 1.2793139 = 3(1.48ln( x + 1) + 27 0.12507831) and log(2 + 3) + log 2 = 1 log 5 + log 2 = 1 (1. 132.391606.391606.48ln( x + 1) = 2 1 ln( x + 1) = 0. Verify x ≈ −1. 0.6855579 3x = 2x + 3 31.5 The barometric air pressure is 29 inches of mercury at a distance of about 63. Inc. Verify x = 20: log (x – 15) + log x = 2 log (20 – 15) + log 20 = 2 log 5 + log 20 = 2 log 100 = 2 100 = 102 100 = 100 The solution set is {20}. Verify:x ≈ −1.8379417 The solution set is {–1. 29 = 0. 5−1. 459 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1. leveling off at about 30 inches of mercury.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.291641. 1).21678798) and (1. 129.24 0. Verify: x = 2 There are 2 points of intersection. .291641 log(5 ⋅ 2) = 1 log10 = 1 5x = 3x + 4 1=1 The solution set is {2}.371158 The solution set is {–1.6855579) + 3 6.391606) + 3 0. The intersection point is (2. The intersection point is (20. Publishing as Prentice Hall. There are 2 points of intersection.5 miles from the eye of a hurricane.2793139 128.2793139}. 131.2793139) + 4 7. 130.6855579 ≈ 2(1.391606 ≈ 2(−1.1250782178 ≈ 0.24 1 e ln( x +1) = e 0.37111582 ≈ 6. approximately (−1.5.24 − 1 ≈ 63. The point of intersection is approximately (63. 1.

Sample x ⎛ 0. Explanations will vary.05 ⎠ ⎛ 1.092(7.9 minutes. 7x + 3 ⎛ 7x + 3 ⎞ 4 then log ⎜ ⎟ = 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 t= ≈ 36 ⎛ 1.05 ⎠ ln 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.03)t = 2000(1.5 ⎝ 1. Sample explanation: The first equation is solved by rewriting it in exponential form. true 134.10076749 The runner’s pulse will be 70 beats per minute after about 7. A sample change is: If log ( x + 3) = 2. and 10 = 2 x + 5 . 2 x + 5 ⎝ ⎠ 70 ≈ 70.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.03 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0. The second equation is solved by using the one-to-one property of logarithms.5(1.5 ⎝ 1.05)t x explanation: 2 = 15 requires logarithms. 2 x = 15 (1. t ≈ 7. Verify: 70 = 45e −0.05)t ln 2 x = ln15 x ln 2 = ln15 ln15 x= ln 2 t ⎛ 1. then 102 = x + 3. 2 x = 16 2 x = 24 x=4 136. 1⋅t 135. so it will take about 7. false.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 137.03 ⎞ t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0.05 ⎠ The accounts will have the same balance in about 36 years. Explanations will vary. Inc.03 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln 0. false. .9) 140. makes sense 139. 138. 460 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 ⎝ 1. false. 141.9. because there is not a variable in an exponent. When P = 70. 143. does not make sense. Account paying 3% interest: 1⋅t ⎛ 0. does not make sense.03 ⎞ A = 4000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ Account paying 5% interest: An adult female elephant weighing 1800 kilograms is about 20 years old.71 is not an exponential equation.9 minutes. A sample change is: x10 = 5. 142. Changes to make the statement true will vary.05 ⎞ A = 2000 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ The two accounts will have the same balance when 4000(1.05 ⎠ t ⎛ 1. makes sense 133. 2 = 16 can be solved by rewriting 16 as 24. A sample change is: If log ( 7 x + 3) − log ( 2 x + 5 ) = 4.03)t = 0. Changes to make the statement true will vary.

003(3) ≈ 9. x = 10−2 3 2 x= 147. 2006: A = 10e−0. An exponential function is the best choice.91 million b. The population is decreasing. 10 10 ⎬ . 145. 4).003t a. There are two points of intersection: (1. 461 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section 3. so the solution set is {1. e 2 } .003(1) ≈ 9. The solution set is ⎨⎩100 ⎭ 2009: A = 10e−0. 0) and approximately (7.4 (ln x) 2 = ln x 2 144.003(2) ≈ 9. (log x)(2 log x + 1) = 6 2(log x) 2 + log x − 6 = 0 (2 log x − 3)(log x + 2) = 0 2 log x − 3 = 0 or log x + 2 = 0 2 log x = 3 log x = −2 log x = 3 2 x = 10 The graph of ln(ln(x)) crosses the graph y = 0 at approximately 2. 2 ( log10 ) (2 log10 3/ 2 3/ 2 + 1) = 6 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ 2 ⋅ + 1⎟ = 6 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (3 + 1) = 6 ⎝2⎠ ⎛3⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (4) = 6 ⎝2⎠ 6=6 Check with graphing utility: 146.718. Inc. e2} as determined algebraically. Check by direct substitution: Check:x = 10 10 = 103 / 2 (log x)(2log x + 1) = 6 (ln x) = 2 ln x 2 (ln x ) − 2 ln x = 0 ln x(ln x − 2) = 0 ln x = 2 ln x = 0 eln x = e 2 or x =1 x = e2 The solution set is {1. 1 100 A = 10e−0.94 million ⎧ 1 ⎫ . Since e2 ≈ 7. ln(ln x) = 0 eln(ln x ) = e0 ln x = 1 eln x = e1 x=e The solution set is {e}.97 million x = 10 10 2008: A = 10e−0.3890566099.3890561. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the graph verifies x = 1 and x = e2.003(0) = 10 million 2007: A = 10e−0. 148. .

T = C + (To – C)ekt 2000 = e0.4 1 + e −0. A = 906.8 f (0) = = 0.021t 643 ⎛ 2000 ⎞ 0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 149.2(0) The proportion of correct responses prior to learning trials was 0.7. b. In the logistic growth model. ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 0.021t ⎝ 643 ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ 643 ⎟⎠ ≈ 54 t= ⎝ 0.0248t = 1 6 1 −0. c . A = A0 ekt 906 = 643ek (16) 906 = e16k 643 ⎛ 906 ⎞ 16 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 643 ⎠ e = −0. the growth function is A = 643e0. substitute 4. Inc.021t . 2000 = 643e0. A0 = 643 .021t 3. 1 6 ln e −0.8 f (10) = ≈ 0. 0. Substitute 60 for A0 and 10 for A in the model from part (a) and solve for t. The time prior to learning trials corresponds to t = 0. b.0248t eln 3 = 3 b. when t = 16 .021 Africa’s population will reach 2000 million approximately 54 years after 1990. 462 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. (e ) ln 3 x = 3x e(ln 3) x = 3x Section 3. a.0248t = ln ⎛ 906 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 16k ⎝ 643 ⎠ b.021t a. Since 2006 is 16 years after 1990.8.4. .0248 28 So the exponential decay model is A = A0 e −0. The limiting size of the proportion of correct responses as continued learning trials take place is 0. c.7 1 + e−0.0248 The strontium-90 will decay to a level of 10 grams about 72 years after the accident.021t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 643 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2000 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0. 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Substitute 10 for t in the model: 0. A = 643e0. A0 for A since the amount present 2 after 28 years is half the original amount.0248t In the exponential decay model A = A0 e kt . 10 = 60e −0.021 k= ⎝ 16 Thus.2(10) The proportion of correct responses after 10 learning trials was 0.5 Check Point Exercises 1. eln 3 = 3 A0 = A0 e k ⋅28 2 1 e 28 k = 2 1 ln e 28 k = ln 2 1 28k = ln 2 ln1/ 2 k= ≈ −0. a.0248t = ln 6 ln 16 t= ≈ 72 −0. or 2044. a. f (t ) = a. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.

0673 39 ≈ t The temperature will reach 35o after 39 min.5e 0.0673 ≈ k Because the data in the scatter plot appear to increase more and more rapidly.5 1. y = 4(7. Scatter plot: 2.8)x is equivalent to y = 4e(ln 7. Scatter plot: Exercise Set 3. 5k 5 = e 5k 7 5 ln = ln e 5 k 7 5 ln = 5 k 7 5 ln 7 =k 5 −0.5e0.5 In 2006. T = 30 + 70e-0. the population of Japan was 127.054 x . Since k = −0. Inc. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006. find A when t = 0 : A = 127. T = 30 + 70e −0. Iraq has the greatest growth rate at 2.8) x in terms of a natural logarithm.0673t 14 1 = ln e −0.5 80 = 30 + (100 − 30)e k5 80 = 30 + 70e 5k 50 = 70 e 6. . the population of Iraq was 26. Rounded to three decimal places. 1 = e −0.5 million.0673t ln 14 1 ln 14 = t −0.8 (1) A = 26.8 In 2006. Russia has a decreasing population.0673t 7. 35 = 30 + 70e—0. b = 7. c. find A when t = 0 : A = 26. For y = 4(7.0673t b.8 million.5 (1) A = 127. 5.0673t ln 14 1 = −0.004 .8e0 A = 26.027t A = 26. Since 2006 is 0 years after 2006.8.027( 0 ) A = 26. Because the data in the scatter plot increase rapidly at first and then begin to level off. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the shape suggests that a logarithmic function is a good choice for modeling the data.0673(20) ≈ 48o After 20 minutes. a = 4. 463 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4% per year. y = ab x is equivalent to y = ae(ln b ) x .8e0. Thus. The population is dropping at of 0.5e0 A = 127.7% per year.0673t 5 = 70 e −0. the shape suggests that an exponential function is a good choice for modeling the data. 4.8) x . the model is approximately equivalent to y = 4e2.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.8e 0.001t A = 127.001( 0 ) A = 127. 3. the temperature will be 48o.

7 million in 2025. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.04e k (50) 10 = e50 k 6. 9. the growth function is A = 3.014t 1095.1e0. 2000 + 40 = 2040. when t = 50 .014t 7.014t 1095.01t ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6. Substitute A = 1238 into the model for India and solve for t: 1238 = 1095.2 ⎠ ≈ 0. A = 10 . 9 = e0.014t 1095.2ek (50) 12 = e50 k 3.4e0. P( x) = 91.014 The population of India will be 1238 million approximately 9 years after 2006. 9 = 6.014 The population of India will be 1416 million approximately 18 years after 2006.4 1238 ln 1095.4 t= ≈ 18 0.04 ⎠ 0.0147(18) ≈ 118. Inc. Since 2050 is 50 years after 2000.04 ⎛ 10 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 6. Substitute A = 1416 into the model for India and solve for t: 1416 = e0. 464 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6.2e0.2e0. a.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 6.4 1238 ln = ln e0.01 50 Thus. so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040.04 ⎠ k= ⎝ ≈ 0. when t = 50 . so the population will be 9 million is approximately the year 2040 8.04 ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0.01t b.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ 0.04 ⎠ ⎛ 10 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 6.026 k= ⎝ 50 Thus.04e0.2 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.014t 1095. e0.1e0.01t 6. A0 = 3.4 1416 ln 1095. 2000 + 40 = 2040.026 Now.014t 1238 = e0.2 ⎛ 12 ⎞ 50 k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 3.026t = ln ⎛⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3.026t = 9 9 3.2 .4 1416 ln = ln e0.4 1238 ln = 0.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 50k ⎝ 3.0147t P(18) = 91.4e b.7 The population is projected to be 118.04 ⎠ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 0.026t = 10 = 6.014t 1095. or 2024. the growth function is A = 6.01 Now. A = A0 e kt 12 = 3.01t .0147(18) P(18) = 91. a. 6.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5. or 2015.01t ⎝ 6.2 ⎠ ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ 3.2 9 ⎞ ln e0. A = 12 .1e0.026t . A = A0 ekt 3.4 t= ≈9 0.4 1416 ln = 0. .026t = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3.04 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0.2 ⎠ ≈ 40 t= ⎝ 0.04 . 1416 = 1095.014t 1095. Publishing as Prentice Hall.04e0. A0 = 6.

0e18k 40. P( x) = 19.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0.3 18k =e 7. P( x) = 44.4 ⎠ ⎛ 32.0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 40. A = 16e −0.5 The population is projected to be 218.3 ⎛ 6. A = 16e −0.0053 The growth rate is –0. 465 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0 ⎠ ⎛ 40.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44. P(18) = 164.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 19.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44.000121(11430) A = 16e −1.000121(5715) A = 16e −0.4e18k 32.691515 A ≈ 8.0285.4 = 19.0285 The growth rate is 0.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 7.2 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 44.000121t A = 16e −0.3 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 7. 16.3 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0.0157(18) ≈ 218.4e18k 55.7e0.4ekt 55. .4 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 19.0157t 13.0 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e 44.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.0 ⎛ 40.4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 32.2 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 44.4 18k =e 19.3 ⎠ ⎛ 6.0053. 15.0ekt 14.4 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 19.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.7e0.000121t A = 16e −0.01 Approximately 4 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 11.3 = 7.4 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ 0. P(18) = 164.4 ⎛ 32.0082 The growth rate is –0.0 = 44.5 P( x) = 164.0121.3ekt 6.0121 The growth rate is 0. 11. P( x) = 44.0082.0 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = 18k ⎝ 44. Inc.0157(18) 40.3 ⎞ 18k ln ⎜ ⎟ = ln e ⎝ 7.0 18k =e 44. 12.4 ⎛ 55.0 ⎠ = k 18 k ≈ −0. Section 3.2 = 44.PreCalculus 4E 10.01 Approximately 8 grams of carbon-14 will be present in 5715 years. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 million in 2025. P( x) = 7.4ekt 32.2 = e18k 44.4 ⎠ ⎛ 55.430 years.7e0.38303 A ≈ 4.3e18k 6.

1 = 8 grams 2 1 present. After 40 seconds.000121 In 1989.15 t= ≈ 15. After 20 seconds.5 = −0. 22.000121t 88 = e −0.000 years. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present. 0. 0.000121t 15 = e −0.5k ln 0.5 k ≈ −0.0 years.88 t= ≈ 1056 −0. 88 = 100e −0.000121t 100 ln 0. 466 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 years.5 = e kt 24.000428 The decay rate is 0.5 = ekt 0.000 years.5 =t −0. there will be 16 ⋅ ln 0.15 = −0. 679 −0.5 = 4560k −0.5 = 17.88 = −0.055 t ≈ 12. After 125. 0.000121t A = A0 e 0.000152 The decay rate is 0.063t ln 0. .5 = 1620k A = A0 e −0. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present. 19.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 17. 15 = 100e−0.5 =t −0.0152% per year. there will be 1 4 ⋅ = 2 grams present.0 The half-life is 11.15 = ln e −0. there 2 1 will be 2 ⋅ = 1 gram present. 2 2 After 25.5 = e1620 k ln 0.000121t ln 0.5k ln 0. After 50 seconds.063t ln 0. 25.039608 The decay rate is 3. 2 1 1 there will be 1 ⋅ = gram present.5 = e −0.6 The half-life is 12.063 t ≈ 11.5 = e17.5k ln 0. the skeletons were approximately 1056 years old.88 = ln e −0.5 = ekt 0. After 100.5 = −0.5 = e kt 0. 18.000 years. Publishing as Prentice Hall.063t ln 0. there will be 16 ⋅ 0.5 =k 4560 k ≈ −0. After 10 seconds.5 = ln e−0.000121 The paintings are approximately 15.000121t ln 0. After 30 seconds. 1 = 8 grams 2 1 present.000 years. 2 2 21.5 =k 1620 k ≈ −0.5 = ln e −0.000121t ln 0. After 75.000 years.5 = ekt 0.055t ln 0.5 = e −0.055t ln 0.000121t ln 0. After 50.000121t ln 0.055t ln 0.9608% per day.000121t 100 ln 0. Inc. 0. there 2 1 1 will be 1 ⋅ = gram present.679 years old. there will 2 1 be 2 ⋅ = 1 grams present.5 = e4560 k ln 0. there will be 8 ⋅ = 4 2 grams present.5 = ln e1620 k ln 0. 20.5 = ln e17.5 =k 17.5 = ln e4560 k ln 0.0428% per year. 23.

0.1069 billion or 106.5 = ln e113k ln 0.2 = ln e−0.52912 t 0.5 = e113k 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.006134 The decay rate is 0.2 = −0.031507t Next use the decay equation answer question.5 =k 22 k ≈ −0. b.5 28.5 =k 7340 k ≈ −0.2 = e−0.1 years.52912t ln 0.000 years old.000094t 0.000094t Next use the decay equation answer question. 467 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6134% per hour.5 = ln e7340 k ln 0. Inc.8 =t −0. a.52912t ln 0.31 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.31k 2 1 ln k = 2 ≈ −0.52912t .000094t ln 0. A = e−0.5 =k 113 k ≈ −0.5 = ekt 26.000094 ln 0.031507t ln 0.31k 2 1 ln = 1. First find the decay equation.5 = ekt −0.5 = ln e22k ln 0.52912 The age of the dinosaur ones is approximately 0. A = e−0.5 = e22 k 0.5 = 7340k ln 0.5 = 22k ln 0.7 It will take 17121. .1069 −0.945 t= ≈ 0.52912t 0.8 = −0.031507t ln 0.2 =t −0.945 = −0.5 = ekt 0. First find the decay equation.000094t ln 0.945 = ln e −0. A = e−0.8 = ln e−0.031507 t ≈ 7. 0.000094 t ≈ 17121.945 A0 = A0 e 0.031507 ln 0.8 = e−0.031507t ln 0. 29.5 = 113k ln 0.945 = e−0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.031507t 0.900.000094t ln 0.1 It will take 7.52912t ln 0.5 = e7340k ln 0. A = e−0.52912 1. A = A0 e −0. 27. 1 = 1e k 1.31 2 1 ln = ln e1.7 years.

057762t ln 0.9 = −0. 36k 2 A0 = A0 e kt ln 0. ln 2 years.057762 A = e−0.0673t 1000 1 ln = ln e −0. The population will double in t = 2 = e kt t= ln 2 k A = e−0.9 = ln e−0.2 hours.019254t ln 0.9 = e−0. (This is 39 years from the time the population was 1400.0673 The population will drop below 100 birds approximately 34 years from now.019254 t ≈ 5.5 = ln e ln 0.5 hours.9 =t −0.7 = −0. 31.0673t . 32.057762t 0.2 It will take 6.019254t ln 0.5 = ekt 0. ln 3 years.7 = ln e−0.2 −0.0673t 10 1 ln 10 t= ≈ 34.057762t ln 0. 0.5 = ekt 0.057762t Next use the decay equation answer question.) A = e−0. 100 = 1000e −0.057762t ln 0.019254t Next use the decay equation answer question.019254 ln 2 = ln e kt ln 2 = kt A = e−0. A = A0 e kt 1000 = 1400e k 5 1000 = e5k 1400 5 ln = 5k 7 5 ln k = 7 ≈ −0.7 =t −0.0673t 100 = e −0. k A = A0 ekt 3 A0 = A0 ekt ln 0.7 = e−0.019254t 0.5 = ln e12 k ln 0. First find the decay equation. Inc.5 =k 12 k ≈ −0.5 = e12k ln 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. k . First find the decay equation.5 = e36k 33. 3 = e kt ln 3 = ln e kt ln 3 = kt t= ln 3 k The population will triple in t = 468 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0.057762 t ≈ 6.0673t 10 1 ln = −0.5 It will take 5.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 30.5 = 36k ln 0.5 = 12k ln 0.019254t 34.0673 5 The exponential model is given by A = A0 e −0.5 =k 36 k ≈ −0.

027( x ) = ln 26.67 4.0 1 + 3.67 4.027( x ) 11. 000 f (0) = ≈ 20 1 + 5000e0 Twenty people became ill when the epidemic began.82 3.82 7= 1 + 3.027( x ) = 4.012t 4.027( x ) 11.81e −0.81e −0. 38.82 8= 1 + 3. or 2012. Section 3.027(57) The function models the data very well.012t a. A = 107.82 2 = e0. c f (t ) = .82 −0.82 f (51) = ≈ 6.4e0. 2 ⋅107.82 k = 0. t= c.67e −0.027( x ) = ln 2 = ln e0.82 f ( x) = 26.000 people. e −0.01t 2 ⋅ 4.012t b.01 New Zealand’s population will double in approximately 69 years.82 −0.4e0.027( x ) ln e = ln 30.67e −0. b.82 f ( x) = 8 + 30. 100.027( x ) 8 (1 + 3.01t ln 2 = ln e0.67 x= −0.48 3.027 x ≈ 63 The world population will reach 7 billion 63 years after 1949.012 Mexico’s population will double in approximately 58 years.48e −0. 40. or 2026.027( x ) = 11.82 ln 26.2%.82 ln 30.027( x ) 11. a.82 f ( 4) = 30.027 x ≈ 77 The world population will reach 8 billion 77 years after 1949.012t 37.81e −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.82 f (54) = ≈ 6.81e −0. so Mexico’s growth rate is 1.027( x ) = 11.81e −0.82 −0.67 4.027( x ) ) = 11.01t 2=e 39.48 x= −0.81e −0.012t ln 2 = 0.82 1 + 3.027( x ) 11. 11.82 1 + 3. 100.01t ln 2 = 0. t= 36.01 . e −0.01t a.1 = 4. Inc. 000e −4 About 1080 people were ill at the end of the fourth week. 11.027 x = ln 26. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.48 3.48e −0. 000 ≈ 1080 1 + 5.PreCalculus 4E 35.82 26. b.4e0.4 = 107.1e0. 11.81e −0.01t ln 2 ≈ 69 0.012t ln 2 ≈ 58 0.1e0.027( x ) = 3.1e0.48 3. . f ( x) = When the epidemic began.82 1 + 3.5 1 + 3.027( x ) 7 (1 + 3.81e −0. The limiting size of the population that becomes ill is 100. A = 107. 469 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x) = 7 + 26. k = 0. 0.027 x = ln 30.027( x ) = In the logistic growth model.82 ln e −0.5 A = 4.82 30.012 . A = 4.027(51) The function models the data very well. so New Zealand’s growth rate is 1%. 11.81e −0. 41. t = 0.81e −0.82 1 + 3.027( x ) ) = 11.

1004t b. 23 = e5k 38 23 = ln e5k ln 38 23 = 5k ln 38 23 ln 38 = k 5 −0.7 1 + 271e −0. the limiting size of this function is 11. the temperature will be 51o.82 billion. P(80) = T = 45 + 25e−0.122 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 50% at about age 48.0916t 5 1 ln 5 =t −0.8 70 = 50 = 45 + 25e—0.122 x ) = 90 90 1 + 271e−0.027( x ) As x increases.1004 ≈ k T = 70 + 380e−0. f ( x) = 2 10k =e 5 2 ln = ln e10k 5 2 ln = 10k 5 2 ln 5 =k 10 −0.0916t 5 = 25e−0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42.7%. the exponent of e will decrease.0916t 5 1 ln = ln e−0.0916t b. 470 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0916t 1 = e−0. 1 + 271e −0.122t = 271 0.122(20) The probability that a 20-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 3.8 −0. T = 45 + 25e-0.8 −0.0916(15) ≈51o After 15 minutes.1004(20) ≈ 121o After 20 minutes.122t = ln 271 0.0916 ≈ k 90 ≈ 3. Inc. 90 1 + 271e−0. the temperature will be 121o.8 e −0.122 x T = C + (To – C)ekt 300 = 70 + (450 − 70)ek 5 230 = 380e5k 70(1 + 271e−0. . P(20) = 90 ≈ 88. a.122 x = 70 2 271e−0.122 x = 7 2 − x 0.5 (1 + 271e −0. 45.0916t 5 1 ln = −0.122(80) The probability that an 80-year-old has some coronary heart disease is about 88. 43.9 c. 11.122t 0.81e −0.82 1 + 3. This will make e −0.6%.027( x ) become very close to 0 and make the denominator become very close to 1.122 x = ln 1897 2 ln 1897 x= −0. 55 = 45 + (70 – 45)ek10 10 = 25e10k 48. 271e −0.122t = 1. T = 70 + 380ke-0. 47.6 1 + 271e −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.122 = e 1897 2 −0. Thus. 44.122t ) = 0.122t = 0. 0.5 = 1 + 271e−0. a.122 x ≈ 56 The probability of some coronary heart disease is 70% at about age 56.8 0.0916 18 ≈ t The temperature will reach 50o after 18 min.122 t ln e = ln 271 0.9 0.8 ln 271 t= ≈ 48 −0. 46.

0239 26 = t The temperature will reach 50o after 26 min.0158t ln 41 20 = −0.0158 45 ≈ t The temperature will reach 45o after 45 min.PreCalculus 4E c.1004t ln 38 7 ln 38 = t −0.0158t T = C + (To – C)ekt 38 = 75 + (28 − 75)ek10 45 = 65 – 41e—0. 471 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data.0239t 20 = e−0. −25 = e−0.1004t ln 38 7 = −0.0239t −47 25 = ln e−0.0158t −20 = −41e−0. −35 = −41e10k 35 10k =e 41 35 = ln e10k ln 41 35 = 10k ln 41 35 ln 41 = k 10 −0. T = C + (To – C)ekt 30 = 65 + (24 − 65)ek10 50. a.1004t 70 = 380e−0.0158 ≈ k T = 65 − 41e−0.0158t ln 41 20 ln 41 = t −0.1004 17 ≈ t The temperature will reach 140o after 17 min. 49.0239t −25 = −47e−0. Inc.0239t ln 47 25 = −0. 50 = 75 − 47e−0.0239 ≈ k T = 75 − 47e−0.0239t 51.1004t 7 = e−0.0158t 41 20 = ln e −0. .0239t ln 47 17 ln 47 = t −0.5 140 = 70 + 380e—0. Section 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0158t −37 = −47e10k −37 10k =e −47 37 = ln e10k ln 47 37 = 10k ln 47 37 ln 47 = k 10 −0.1004t 38 7 = ln e−0. b.

7 ) x .5(0. Since r ≈ 0.015 .9 (1.511x .16 + 23.097 . 70.6) x .7 ≈ −0. The logarithmic model is y = 193. 55. Publishing as Prentice Hall.988 x .5e −0.526. . Inc. The power regression model is y = 195. An exponential function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. Using ln 7. 58.357 x .6)x is equivalent to y = 4.0109 x Since k = . a.5e( ln 0. the model fits the data very well. Answers may vary. Using ln 0.011) x y = 200.011) .9e( 54.988. y = 200. 53. y = 1000(7.901.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 56. a. The linear model is y = 2. 69.511.7)x is equivalent to y = 2. b. the model fits the data okay.9e0. y = 2.6) x .997 is close to 1. b. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. a.574 ln x . x ln1. A logarithmic function appears to be the best choice for modeling the data. y = 1000e1.5(0.999 is very close to 1.3) x . Using ln 4.654 x + 198.3)x is equivalent to y = 1000e( ln 7. 68.9 (1.6)x is equivalent to y = 100e( ln 4.0109 . Using ln 0. a. x Since r ≈ 0.5e( ln 0. y = 4. b. the model fits the data well. Since r = 0. y = 2.5e −0. 71. y = 100e1.878 is fairly close to 1.6 ≈ –0.6 ≈ 1.3 ≈ 1. Since r = 0. The exponential model is y = 200. 472 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.526 x .871x0. b. 59. 57. 52. the population of the United States is increasing by about 1% each year. y = 100(4. – 67. y = 4. but not great. the model fits the data fairly well.011) y = 200.357.

According to the linear model.5 72. 77. population will reach 315 million around the year 2010. Explanations will vary.673 Linear Regression: y = 0. Sample explanation: Since the car’s value is decreasing (depreciating). Inc.947 The exponential model has an r value closer to 1. true Exponential Regression: 82.985 = 2.011) ln1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. makes sense 79. model y = 200.011) .46(1.9 (1.557 x − 10. It does not indicate how the size of a population compares to the size of another population.424 ln x 75.994 Logarithmic Regression: y = 14. Sample explanation: This is not necessarily so. r ≈ 0.654 x 116. the growth rate is negative. does not make sense.011) 1969 + 41 = 2010 Using the linear model: y = 2. does not make sense.9 ⎛ 315 ⎞ x ln ⎜ = ln (1. true y = 3. the better model is y = 3.654 1969 + 44 = 2013 According to the exponential model.46e0. population will reach 315 million around the year 2013.056 ) ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ = x ln (1.654 x + 198. 473 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9 (1. true 80.972. Sample models are provided 315 x = (1.02 ) x y = 3.02) x x Exercise 53: y = 120 + 4. Models and predictions will vary.PreCalculus 4E Section 3.015 116. Both results are reasonably close to the result found in Example 1 (2010). Growth rate measures how fast a population is growing relative to that population.752ln x − 26.654 x + 198. the model of best fit is the exponential b. x y = 3.9 ⎟⎠ x= ⎝ ≈ 41 ln (1.S. r ≈ 0.46(1.9 ⎠ Exercise 51: y = 1. x 74. Explanations will vary.S. .46(1. the U.46e( The model of second best fit is the linear model y = 2.011) ⎟ ⎝ 200. Thus.015 . the U. 76. true 81. Using the exponential model: 315 = 200.02) x . Explanations will vary. r ≈ 0.078 ) x Exercise 52: y = 2896.7 (1.629 + 13.011) ⎝ 200. a.985 x= ≈ 44 2.343ln x Exercise 54: y = −11.654 x + 198.512.011) 200. makes sense 78. y = 3.02 x The 65-and-over population is increasing by approximately 2% each year. Using r. 73.02) x .015 315 = 2.9 ⎠ ⎛ 315 ⎞ ln ⎜ 200.402 (1.

Use data to find k. 4. 2.7 = 15.6 ln 28.6 15.0069t 28. so the function is r ( x) = −4− x + 3. ⎩8 ⎭ 86.6 12. 84.6 = 28.6 12.0069t ln 28. 85. 827 = 70 + (85.0069 ln 28.6 = 70 + (98.6 = −0. The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit to the right. range of f = range of g = ( 0.7 ln 15. 5π = 2π x 4 5π 2π x = 4 ⋅ 2π 2π 5 =x 8 asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞.6 = k 30 −0.6 − 70)e−0.6 12. 85.6e−0. Inc. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the yaxis. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x. so the function is g ( x ) = 4− x.6 15.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 83.7 = e30k 15.6 − 70)ek 30 12.6 = ln e−0. Answers may vary.0069t 15. or 8:22 am.6 15. ∞ ) 17π 17π 12π − 2π = − 6 6 6 17π − 12π = 6 5π = 6 474 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0069t 15.6 = t −0.0069 88 ≈ t The death occurred at 88 minutes before 9:30. 5. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis then shifted upward 3 units.6e30k 12. This is the graph of f ( x ) = 4 x reflected about the xaxis and about the y-axis. 3.7 ln = 30k 15. .6 = e−0. so the function is h ( x ) = −4 − x . ∞ ) ⎧5⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 87. Publishing as Prentice Hall.0069 ≈ k Use k to write equation. − π 12 π 24π + 12 12 −π + 24π = 12 23π = 12 + 2π = − Chapter 3 Review Exercises 1.7 ln = ln e30k 15.

16 12 ⎠ ⎝ 5.5% compounded semiannually: 2⋅5 ⎛ 0.PreCalculus 4E 6. ∞ ) range of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 The graph of g(x) vertically stretches the graph of f(x) by a factor of 2. 475 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( 0. ∞ ) 7. asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = −1 domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. Chapter 3 Review Exercises The graph of g(x) shifts the graph of f(x) one unit down.26 2 ⎠ ⎝ 5. 5. ∞ ) range of g = ( −1.0525 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6497.055 ⎞ A = 5000 ⎜1 + ⎟ ≈ 6558.25% compounded monthly: 12⋅5 ⎛ 0. Inc. ∞ ) range of f = ( 0. The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the x – axis. range of f = range of g = ( 0. ∞ ) domain of f = domain of g = ( −∞. ∞ ) asymptote of f: y = 0 asymptote of g: y = 0 range of f = ( 0. . 0 ) 10. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5% compounded semiannually yields the greater return. 9. 8. ∞ ) The graph of g(x) reflects the graph of f(x) about the y – axis.

domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. b. 000e ≈ 27.0685(10 ) A = 14. log 5 21. log 3 (log8 8) = log 3 1. 13. Therefore. −0. The temperature of the room is 70°.135. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ∞ ) 31. log 3 (log8 8) = 0. log16 4 = 23. a. 25. 43 = x 15. log b 625 = 4 18. Because log b 1 = 0 we conclude log 3 1 = 0. 2 22. 32. we conclude log17 17 = 1. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. the temperature of the coffee was 200°. Because logb b x = x. log 4 64 = 3 because 43 = 64. c.81 7% compounded monthly yields the greater return. log − 1 1 1 = log 3 1 = log3 3 2 = − 2 3 32 1 = ln e−2 = −2 e2 1 1 = log 3 = log10−3 = −3 1000 10 29. we conclude log8 8 = 1. When first taken out of the microwave. so the function is g ( x) = log(− x). So.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 11. 476 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 30. log13 874 = y 19. log 3 ( −9 ) cannot be evaluated since log b x 26. ∞ ) we conclude log 3 38 = 8. ln 28. 3 y = 81 16. 12. domain of f = range of g = ( −∞. the temperature is about 119°. Because log b b = 1. 24. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x reflected about the Because ln e x = x. the temperature of the coffee was about 120°.04855( 20 ) T = 70 + 130e ≈ 119. we conclude ln e5 = 5. 1 because 161/ 2 = 16 = 4. 20. Because log b = 1. ∞ ) range of f = domain of g = ( 0. log 6 216 = 3 17. 491/ 2 = 7 14.26 ⎟ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 6. The coffee will cool to about 70°. Inc. 000 ⎜ 1 + ≈ 28.23 Using a calculator. . 25 25 is defined only for x > 0.07 ⎞ A = 14. 772. After 20 minutes. 1 1 = −2 because 5−2 = . y-axis.85% compounded continuously: 0. 7% compounded monthly: 1 12⋅10 ⎛ 0. log 3 27.

∞ ) 41. domain of g = ( −3. 0 ) 36. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x 38. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = −3 domain of f = ( 0. Thus the domain of f is ( −5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 35. range: ( −∞. reflected about the y-axis. ∞ ) 477 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. x-intercept: (3. so the function is r ( x) = 1 + log(2 − x). 0) vertical asymptote: x = 2 domain: ( 2. Solving this inequality for x. ∞ ) 37. ∞ ) range of f = range of g = ( −∞. . then shifted upward one unit. This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x. ∞ ) asymptote of f: x = 0 asymptote of g: x = 0 domain of f = domain of g = ( 0. shifted left 2 units. we obtain x > −5.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 33. Inc. The domain of f consists of all x for which x + 5 > 0. ∞ ) 40. ∞ ) 39. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( 0. x-intercept: (2. so the function is h( x) = log(2 − x) . This is the graph of f ( x ) = log x shifted left 2 units then reflected about the y-axis. 0) vertical asymptote: x = 0 domain: ( −∞. x-intercept: (–1. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. ∞ ) range: ( −∞. 34.

b. 2 xy 2 = log 2 xy 2 − log 2 64 64 = log 2 x + log 2 y 2 − log 2 64 46. the domain of f is ( −∞. 53. Because 10log x = x. R = log 48.98 0. Retention decreases as time passes.06 ⎝ 12 − 5 ⎠ It will take about 9 weeks. 3 x3 3ln x + 4 ln y = ln x 3 + ln y 4 = ln ( x3 y 4 ) 57. and 56.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 42. The domain of f consists of all x for which ( x − 1)2 > 0. 1 ⎛ 12 ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 8. 47. the average score was 76. we obtain x < 1 or x > 1. we conclude ln e6 x = 6 x. we conclude e ln x = x. Thus. 50. log 6 ( 36 x 3 ) = log 6 36 + log 6 x3 = log 6 36 + 3log 6 x = 2 + 3log 6 x 43.3) . . Solving this inequality for x. 49. log 4 52. Solving this inequality for x. 1) ∪ (1. Inc. 8. 59.0. 1 ln x − ln y 2 1 = ln x 2 − ln y = ln t= x y 478 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 45. we obtain x < 3. respectively. the domain of f is (−∞. log 3 − 3log x = log 3 − log x 3 c. Because ln e x = x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the average scores are about 67. = log 2 x + 2 log 2 y − 6 1000 I 0 = log1000 = 3 I0 The Richter scale magnitude is 3. f (12 ) = 76 − 18log (12 + 1) ≈ 56 After 2. = log 56. 61. ∞). Because e ln x = x. 3 log b 7 + log b 3 = log b (7 ⋅ 3) = log b 21 55. 51. and 12 months. 6. log 2 x 1 = log 4 x 2 − log 4 64 64 1 = log 4 x − 3 2 44. a. Thus. 63. ln 3 x e 1 ⎛ x⎞ = ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎝e⎠ 1 = [ ln x − ln e] 3 1 1 = ln x − ln e 3 3 1 1 = ln x − 3 3 f ( 0 ) = 76 − 18log ( 0 + 1) = 76 When first given. f (2) = 76 − 18log ( 2 + 1) ≈ 67 f (4) = 76 − 18log ( 4 + 1) ≈ 63 f (6) = 76 − 18log ( 6 + 1) ≈ 61 f (8) = 76 − 18log ( 8 + 1) ≈ 59 54. we conclude 10log 4 x = 4 x 2 . 4. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0.

false. false. 9e5 x = 1269 e5 x = 141 ln 0.863 = log 72.PreCalculus 4E Chapter 3 Review Exercises 58. true.52 ln 8 69.348 = 59. 53 x = 52 3x = 2 2 x= 3 4 x ln 5 + 2 ln 5 = ln 37. 2 4 x− 2 = 64 2 4 x −2 = 26 ln e12−5 x = ln130 12–5 x = ln 130 5 x = 12– ln 130 12– ln130 x= ≈ 1.85 67. .500 ln 54 x + 2 = ln 37.99 x= 5 62. log 6 72.500 10 x = 7000 66. e12 − 5 x − 7 = 123 e12−5 x = 130 −x 2 x+4 3 = 3−3 x 2 x + 4 = −3 x 5 x = −4 4 x=− 5 479 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.500 4 x ln 5 = ln 37. log 2 x 4 = 4 log 2 x 63. (ln x )(ln1) = (ln x )(0) = 0 61.143 ln12.500 ( 4 x + 2 ) ln 5 = ln 37. log 4 0. ln e x = x ln e 64.14 4 ln 5 log10 x = log 7000 x log10 = log 7000 x = log 7000 x ≈ 3. (3 ) 2 ( ) = 33 3x + 4 = 7 2 x −1 ln 3x + 4 = ln 7 2 x −1 ( x + 4) ln 3 = (2 x − 1) ln 7 x ln 3 + 4 ln 3 = 2 x ln 7 − ln 7 x ln 3 − 2 x ln 7 = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x(ln 3 − 2 ln 7) = −4 ln 3 − ln 7 −4 ln 3 − ln 7 x= ln 3 − 2 ln 7 4 ln 3 + ln 7 x= 2 ln 7 − ln 3 x ≈ 2. 125 x = 25 (5 ) 3 x = 52 71. 500 − 2 ln 5 x= ≈ 1. log( x + 9) − log( x + 1) = log ( x + 9) ( x + 1) ln e5 x = ln141 5 x = ln141 ln141 ≈ 0. 8 x = 12.27 9 x + 2 = 27 − x x+2 54 x+ 2 = 37.43 5 4x − 2 = 6 4x = 8 x=2 65.2448 log 6 68.348 ≈ 6.143 x ln 8 = ln 12. 70. true.143 ln 8x = ln12.143 x= ≈ 4. 72.1063 ln 4 60.500 − 2 ln 5 ln 37. Inc.863 ≈ −0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

The solution set is ∅. e2 x − e x − 6 = 0 (e x 77. Inc. − 3)( e + 2 ) = 0 x x −1 =2 x+2 x −1 = 32 x−2 x −1 =9 x+2 x – 1 = 9(x + 2) x – 1 = 9x + 18 8x = –19 19 x=− 8 19 ⎛ 19 ⎞ x=− does not check because log 3 ⎜ − − 1⎟ 8 ⎝ 8 ⎠ does not exist.04 x= x2 + x = x + 4 x2 = 4 x = ±2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. The solution set is {2}. 3 + 4 ln(2 x) = 15 4 ln(2 x) = 12 ln(2 x) = 3 ln ( x + 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln x x+4 = ln x x +1 x+4 =x x +1 x( x + 1) = x + 4 ln 2 x = e3 e3 2 x ≈ 10.10. 75. log 2 ( x + 3)( x − 3) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x − 3) + log 4 ( x + 5 ) log 2 ( x 2 − 9) = 4 log 4 ( 2 x + 1) = log 4 ( x 2 + 2 x − 15) x 2 − 9 = 24 x 2 − 9 = 16 x 2 = 25 x = ±5 x = –5 does not check because log 2 (−5 + 3) does not exist.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 73. approximately 1. The solution set is {ln 3} . log 4 ( 3x − 5 ) = 3 3x – 5 = 43 3x – 5 = 64 3x = 69 x = 23 The solutions set is {23}. 480 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The solution set is {4}. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The solution set is {5}. 78. log 3 e x − 3 = 0 or e x + 2 = 0 ex = 3 e x = −2 ln e x = ln 3 ln e x − ln(−2) x = ln 3 x = ln(−2) x = ln 3 ≈ 1.099 ln(−2) does not exist. ⎧e ⎫ The solutions set is ⎨ ⎬ . 2 x + 1 = x 2 + 2 x − 15 16 = x 2 x 2 = 16 x = ±4 x = −4 does not check and must be rejected. 74. ⎩2⎭ 3 76. log 3 ( x − 1) − log 3 ( x + 2 ) = 2 log 2 ( x + 3) + log 2 ( x − 3) = 4 79. .

5 miles above sea level.7 4.4 t= ln1.6 = 14.005) 364 560 t ln = ln (1.2197 5 The interest rate would need to be about 22% r= 86.075 = 3 ln e0.37 ln x + 0.075t = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 14.21x ln 14.05 3.7 4.005 The carbon dioxide concentration will be double the pre-industrial level approximately 86 years after the year 2000 in the year 2086.6 ln1.045(20) ≈ 55. 82.21x 4. 3P = Pe5 r e5 r = 3 ln e5 r = ln 3 5r = ln 3 ln 3 ≈ 0.38 = 0.7e −0. Inc.6 0.005 ) t 560 = 364 (1.6 = −0.075t = 150.103.4 35.21x 83.21x 14.33 = 0.4 35.4e0.1 In 2010.6 ≈ 7. Publishing as Prentice Hall.005 ) 364 560 ln = t ln1.6 4t ln1. 81.01625) 4t = ln1.6 = e −0.3 years.4 = k 10 0. A = 22.000.21 f ( t ) = 364 (1.37 9 = ln x e9 = eln x x = e9 ≈ 8103 The population of New York City is approximately 8103 thousand.045t b. 000 = 50. the population will be about 55.500 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 12.6 ln 14.PreCalculus 4E 80.6 years.7 4. t= 84.3 = 10k ln 22.3 = 22. 000e0. 000e0. When an investment value triples.01625 It will take about 7. t= 560 t = (1.005 ) t ln(1.5 −0. 3 ⋅ 50.33 = ln x 0.3 ln 22. or 8.075t 50.01625) 4t = 20. A = 22.7 t= ≈ 5.7e −0. 000 e0.3 = ln e10 k ln 22.4e0. A = 3P. 000 = 12.3 = e10 k 22.3 4 ln1. Chapter 3 Review Exercises P ( x ) = 14. 35.1 million.37 ln x 3.4 35. 4t (1.075t = ln 3 0.21x ln 14.4e k 10 35. Everest is about 5.37 ln x + 0. ⎛ 0.01625 = ln1. 000 85. 481 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.005 364 560 ln 364 ≈ 86.075 It will take about 14.6 = ln e −0.01625) 4t = 1. . W ( x ) = 0.6 The peak of Mt.065 ⎞ 20.05 a.045 ≈ k 3. 4.500(1.

90.4 = t 0.2 = e −0.1438t 3 1 ln 3 =t −0.004951t ln 0.1438 7. ln 12 = ln e140 k ln 12 = 140k ln 12 =k 140 k ≈ −0. 500. b.1438 ≈ k The population will reach 60 million about 22 years after 1990.4e0. 000 = 45.92(0) 200 people became ill when the epidemic began.045t 22.004951t ln 0. t= 88.2 = −0.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 60 = 22. 89. a. 150 = 65 + (185 − 65)ek 2 90 = 120e2k 60 = e0.045t 22.004951t 0.6 ≈ t The temperature will reach 105o after 8 min. A = A0 e −0.004951 t ≈ 325 It will take about 325 days for the substance to decay to 20% of its original amount. f (6) = b.1438t 1 = e−0. in 2012.1438t 87.2 = ln e −0.2 −0.410 were ill after 6 weeks. .4 60 ln = ln e0. a.1438t 3 1 ln = −0.000 people 482 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 60 ln = 0. 500. f (0) = 500. T = 65 + 120e−0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 411 −0.045t c.045t 22.045 22 ≈ t 90 = e 2k 120 3 ln = ln e2k 4 3 ln = 2k 4 3 ln 4 =k 2 −0. A = A0 e kt 1 2 = e k ⋅140 1 2 = e140 k T = C + (To – C)ekt b. 000 = 200 1 + 2499e −0. 105 = 65 + 120e—0.1438t 40 = 120e−0.4 60 ln 22.92(6) 1 + 2499e 45. Inc. A logarithmic function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data.004951 Use A = A0 e kt to find t.1438t 3 1 ln = ln e−0.004951t ln 0. c. a. Use the half-life of 140 days to find k.

4 x= 13.005 x = ln 4 3. y = 73e( = 3 + 5 log 4 x x log 3 8. Chapter 3 Test 1. b. Inc.4 x ln 5 = ln1. 6 log x + 2 log y = log x 6 + log y 2 ln 2. the domain of f is (−∞.PreCalculus 4E 91.844 x 9.005 x = ln 4 0.6 ) 1 2 4. 6. . log15 71 = 94. 11.43) x y = 6. Solving this inequality for x.5e 1 x = log3 x 3 − log 3 81 81 1 = log3 x − 4 3 3 7. Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall.005 x = 1600 e0.5e −0.2589 0. log 4 ( 64 x 5 ) = log 4 64 + log 4 x5 An exponential function appears to be the better choice for modeling the data. y = 73 ( 2.005 483 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2. ln1.005 x = 4 ln e0. ln 7 − 3ln x = ln 7 − ln x 3 7 = ln 3 x 10. y = 73e0. The domain of f consists of all x for which 3 − x > 0.956 x 93.2091 ln 5 400e0. 5 = 125 3 x= ln 4 ≈ 277.5 ( 0. log 71 ≈ 1. Thus. 92.6 ) x y = 6.4 ≈ 0. log 36 6 = 5.4 ln 5 x = ln1.43) y = 6.3). 5 x = 1.5741 log15 3x −2 = 9 x + 4 ( ) 3x −2 = 32 x+ 4 3x −2 = 32 x +8 x − 2 = 2x + 8 − x = 10 x = −10 12. Chapter 3 Test a. x = log ( x 6 y 2 ) ( ln 0. we obtain x < 3.

9%. ex −1 = 0 ex = 5 D = 10log 25. 6. ln 5} .5% compounded semiannually: log 6 ( 4 x − 1) = 3 4 x = 217 x= 16.5% compounded semiannually yields about $221 more than 6% compounded continuously. − 5 )( e x − 1) = 0 ex − 5 = 0 or ex = 1 ln e x = ln 5 ln e x = ln1 x = ln 5 x = ln1 x ≈ 1.0125 ) 4ln (1. 15. 484 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.0125 ) 4t ln 2 = ln (1.06 10 A = 3. ln e5 x = 5 x. log 6 1 = 0 because 60 = 1 .05 ⎞ 8000 = 4000 ⎜1 + ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 8000 4t = (1 + 0. The solution set is { }.0125) 4000 4t 2 = (1. 4t 2 x + 15 x − 100 = 0 2 ( x + 20 )( x − 5 ) = 0 x + 20 = 0 or x − 5 = 0 x = –20 x=5 x = –20 does not check because log(−20) does not exist.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 14.1994 3 17.6094. ln ( x − 4 ) − ln ( x + 1) = ln 6 2 = 1er10 2 = e10 r x−4 = ln 6 ln x +1 x−4 =6 x +1 6( x + 1) = x − 4 6x + 6 = x − 4 5 x = −10 x = −2 x = −2 does not check and must be rejected. 4 x − 1 = 216 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2(10 ) ⎛ 0. 18.0125 ) 4t ln (1.51 ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 6% compounded continuously: 0.0125) ln 2 t= ≈ 13. 4 x − 1 = 63 22.069 10 The money will double in 10 years with an interest rate of approximately 6. The solution set is {5}. ln 2 = ln e10 r ln 2 = 10r ln 2 r= ≈ 0. 000 ⎜1 + ≈ $5. 1012 I 0 I0 = 10log1012 = 10 ⋅12 = 120 The loudness of the sound is 120 decibels.25 4 2 ln 3x = 8 ln 3x = 4 3x = e4 24. 21. 000e ( ) ≈ $5.36 6. e4 x= ≈ 18.6094 x=0 20. 687. log b b = 1 because b1 = b .0125 ) ln 2 = 4 ln (1. Since ln e x = x. e 2 x − 6e x + 5 = 0 (e x 19. The solution set is {0.0125 ) ln 2 = 4t ln (1. . Inc. log x + log ( x + 15 ) = 2 log ( x 2 + 15 x ) = 2 x + 15 x = 10 2 ⎛ 0.9 years for the money to grow to $8000. 217 = 54.0125 ) It will take approximately 13.9 4 ln (1. ln ≈ 1.065 ⎞ A = 3. 466.

5 ln t = 82.036t .165( 0 ) 1 + 9e Fourteen elk were initially introduced to the habitat. a. c. We can tell because the model has a negative k = −0. The limiting size of the elk population is 140 elk.4 81.096270t ln 0. t = 2000 – 1990 = 10 and A = 729. In the logistic growth model.4e ≈ 82.002t 82.2k The population of Germany is decreasing. a. Plot the ordered pairs.002.002t 82.5 = 7. 29. First find the decay equation. about 51 elk are expected. y 5 −5 5 x −5 The values appear to belong to a linear function.5 million approximately 5 years after 2006 in the year 2011.4 In 2006.4 ≈ 5 −0. b.096270t ln 0.5 = ln e7.036 ≈ k The exponential growth function is A = 509e0. 485 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f (0) = 140 = 14 −0.002( x ) 28.096270t 0.4 81.3 = e−0. c f (t ) = .096270 t ≈ 12.096270t Next use the decay equation answer question.5 ln = −0.4e Chapter 3 Test −0. 81.5 = e7.5 It will take 12. .5 = e −0.5 =k 7. the population of Germany was 82. A = 82. 0.4 million.002( 0 ) A = 82.PreCalculus 4E 26. 27.5 = 82. ≈ 51 −0. 0. 729 = 509ek 10 729 = e10 k 509 729 ln = ln e10 k 509 729 ln = 10k 509 729 ln 509 = k 10 0.3 = ln e−0. f (10 ) = 140 b.4e−0. In 1990. c.5 ln = ln e −0.5 days. A = e−0. 30. 1 + ae − bt the constant c represents the limiting size that f(t) can attain.096270 A = e−0.002t ln 0. t = 0 and A0 = 509 In 2000.096270t ln 0.3 =t −0.2 k ln 0.2 k ln 0. 81.4 81.002t 82.3 = −0.2 k ≈ −0.002 The population of Germany will be 81. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.165(10 ) 1 + 9e After 10 years.5 = ekt −0.

32. Plot the ordered pairs. 2 ⎬ . ⎩ 5 ⎭ x= 3x − 4 = 2 3x – 4 = 2 or 3x = 6 3x – 4 = –2 3x = 2 2 x=2 x= 3 ⎧2 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ . y = 96 ( 0. ⎩3 ⎭ 486 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y 900 3.38 ) x = −2 x = −1 The solution set is {–2. –1. ln128 ≈ 0.9704. . Inc. 1}. −5 5 x The values appear to belong to an exponential function. 1 y 1 –3 –1 2 –2 2 2 –2 –1 1 0 –1 ( x + 2)( x – x – x + 1) = 0 3 16 2 ( x + 2)[ x 2 ( x – 1) − ( x – 1)] = 0 ( x + 2)( x 2 – 1)( x – 1) = 0 ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x − 1)( x − 1) = 0 −5 5 x ( x + 2)( x + 1)( x – 1) 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 or x − 1 = 0 The values appear to belong to a quadratic function.38) x 4.9704 5 ⎧ ln128 ⎫ The solution set is ⎨ ⎬ . 34.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 31. ±2 q: ±1 p : ± 1. y 5 27 x −3 x2 + 2 x + 5 = 0 x= −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a x= −(2) ± (2)2 − 4(1)(5) 2(1) −2 ± −16 2 −2 ± 4i x= 2 x = −1 ± 2i The solution set is {−1 ± 2i} . y = 96e −0. x 4 + x3 − 3x 2 − x + 2 = 0 p: ±1. ± 2 q –2 1 33. 2. x y = 96e( ln 0. approximately 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Plot the ordered pairs. Plot the ordered pairs.968 x x =1 e5 x − 32 = 96 e5 x = 128 ln e5 x = ln128 5 x = ln128 Cumulative Review Exercises (Chapters P–3) 1. x= −5 The values appear to belong to a logarithmic function.

Circle with center: (3. 9. ln ( x + 4 ) + ln ( x + 1) = 2 ln ( x + 3) ln ( ( x + 4 )( x + 1) ) = ln ( x + 3) ( x + 4 )( x + 1) = ( x + 3) 2 vertical asymptotes: x2 − 4 = 0 2 x2 = 4 x2 + 5x + 4 = x2 + 6 x + 9 x = ±2 The vertical asymptotes are x = 2 and x = –2.3] . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 8. 4] . 0 ) and ( −1. 6. 14 − 5 x ≥ −6 −5 x ≥ −20 x≤4 The solution set is ( −∞. 0 ) and ( −1. 2x − 4 ≤ 2 2 x − 4 ≤ 2 and 2 x − 4 ≥ −2 2x ≤ 6 2x ≥ 2 x≤3 12. Inc. –1) log 2 [( x + 5)( x − 1)] = 4 ( x + 5)( x − 1) = 24 x 2 + 4 x − 5 = 16 x 2 + 4 x − 21 = 0 ( x + 7)( x − 3) = 0 x + 7 = 0 or x − 3 = 0 x = −7 x=3 x = –7 does not check because log 2 (–7 + 5) does not exist. 0 ) . 11. The solution set is {3}. x-intercepts: x − 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 and x ≥ 1 x=2 The solution set is [1. 0 ) . Horizontal asymptote: y 5 1 5x + 4 = 6x + 9 −x = 5 x = −5 x = −5 does not check and must be rejected. Parabola with vertex: (2. . The solution set is { }. 7. x-intercepts: x2 − 1 = 0 x2 = 1 x = ±1 The x-intercepts are (1. Cumulative Review Exercises log 2 ( x + 5) + log 2 ( x − 1) = 4 10. or x = −1 The x-intercepts are ( 2. –2) and radius of 2 487 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E 5.

k H= 2 C k 8= 2 2 32 = k 488 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3) point-slope form: y − 3 = −3 ( x − 1) m= 19. 0 = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Use the quadratic formula to solve. t ≈ −0. = x2 + 2 40 x + 10 (1. 3 − (−3) 6 = = −3 1− 3 −2 Using (1. 17. slope-intercept form: y − 3 = −3( x − 1) t= y − 3 = −3 x + 3 y = −3 x + 6 16.5 x ) = 660 40 x + 15 x = 660 55 x = 660 x = 12 Your normal hourly salary is $12 per hour. . s (2) = −16(2) 2 + 64(2) + 5 = 69 feet. 2 = x2 + 4 x + 4 (g −b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a t= g )( x ) = f ( x + 2 ) = ( x + 2) s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 Let s (t ) = 0 : f )( x ) = g ( x 2 ) 20. vary inversely as the square of the number of cups of coffee. H . 14. C Use the given values to find k . C can be expressed k as H = 2 . 18. s (t ) = −16t 2 + 64t + 5 The ball reaches its maximum height at −b −(64) = = 2 seconds. 32 H= 2 C 32 H= 2 4 H =2 If 4 cups of coffee are consumed you should expect to sleep 2 hours. t= 2a 2(−16) The maximum height is s (2) . Substitute the value of k into the equation. The ball hits the ground after about 4.1 The negative value is rejected. (f −(64) ± (64)2 − 4(−16)(5) 2(−16) t ≈ 4. y varies inversely as the square of x is expressed as k y= 2.1.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 13. x The hours. k H= 2 C 32 H= 2 C Use the equation to find H when C = 4 . 15. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.1 seconds.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. The radian measure of a central angle is the length of the intercepted arc.8o 6. 180o π radians = 45o 4π 4π radians 180o ⋅ radians = − 3 3 π 4 ⋅180o =− = −240o 3 6 radians = 6 radians ⋅ = 6 ⋅180o π 5. For a –135º angle. the radian measure of θ is 3. subtract 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. r. 60° = 60° ⋅ = 3. 13π 13π 10π 3π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 b. − π 15 + 2π = − π 15 + 489 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.5 π 3 π radians 180° c. 4. radians b. a. Inc. add 360º to find a positive coterminal angle. a. The circle’s radius is 12 feet: r = 12 feet. s 42 feet θ= = = 3. a. a.1 Check Point Exercises 1. 30π 29π = 15 15 . For a 400º angle. Now use the formula for radian measure to find the radian measure of θ . –135o + 360o = 225o 180o π radians ≈ 343. 400o – 360o = 40o b.5 r 12 feet Thus. s. = 180° 3π = radians 2 π radians 180° 5π =− radians 3 4 radians = = b. 2. 270π radians 180 = −300π radians 180 d. The length of the intercepted arc is 42 feet: s = 42 feet. 60π radians 180 = π radians 270° = 270° ⋅ π − b.Chapter 4 Trigonometric Functions Section 4. a. −300° = −300° ⋅ c. π radians 4 o 180 4 ⋅ c. divided by the circle’s radius.

obtuse 3. Before applying the formula. acute 4. b. ω = 45 revolutions per minute We use the formula ν = rω to find v. The linear speed is 90π 135π inches = ν = rω = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. obtuse 2. θ= s 8 yards 4 = = radians r 6 yards 3 10. a. which is approximately 424 inches per minute. θ= s 18 yards = = 2. 8. acute 5. π :θ = π . 135° = 135° ⋅ π radians 180° 135π radians 180 3π radians = 4 = 490 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 180° π radians 45 45° = 45° ⋅ π radians = 180° 180 = π radians 4 Now we can use the formula s = rθ to find the length of the arc. The measure of the central angle in radians is 9. the angular speed. .71 inches. 855° − 360° ⋅ 2 = 855° − 720° = 135° The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. θ= s 30 feet = = 6 radians r 5 feet 9. θ= s 600 centimeters = = 6 radians r 100 centimeters 13. π radians 180° 45π radians 180 π = radians 4 = 14. the linear speed. The circle’s radius is 6 inches : r = 6 inches. straight 6.25 radians r 8 yards 11. Exercise Set 4.1 17π 17π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π 3 3 17π 12π 5π = − = 3 3 3 1. The length of the arc intercepted by this 4 4 central angle is ⎛ π ⎞ 6π inches ≈ 4. 45 revolutions 2π radians ⋅ ω= 1 minute 1 revolution 90π radians = 1 minute The angular speed of the propeller is 90π radians per minute. θ= s 400 centimeters = = 4 radians r 100 centimeters 12. Multiply by . we begin by converting π radians 45° to radians. 18° = 18° ⋅ = = π radians 180° 18π radians 180 π 10 radians 15.Trigonometric Functions 7. s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝4⎠ 4 We are given ω . Thus. right 7. we must express ω in radians per minute. 45° = 45° ⋅ 25π 25π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 6 6 25π 36π 11π =− + = 6 6 6 − c. θ= s 40 inches = = 4 radians r 10 inches 8. Inc.5 inches ⋅ 1 minute minute The linear speed is 135π inches per minute.

2 o 180 = 2 = 90o radians = = π radians 9 o 180 9 180o = −4 ⋅180o = −720o π radians π radians 180° 18π = radians 180 ≈ 0. −3π radians = −3π radians ⋅ 22.33 radians π radians 180° 40π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. 2 π 9 radians = 28. 180° 76π = radians 180 ≈ 1. . −40° = −40° ⋅ 180o π radians 180o ⋅ π radians = 20o π radians 30. 150° = 150° ⋅ π radians 23. Inc. =− 21.31 radians 180° ⋅ −4π radians ⋅ 29. 18. 20. 19. π radians 330° = 330° ⋅ 180° 330π radians = 180 11π radians = 6 −225° = −225° ⋅ 11π radians 180o 11 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 330o 6 6 π radians 27.70 radians 491 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 180° 150π radians = 180 5π radians = 6 17. π radians 300° = 300° ⋅ 24. 3π radians 1800 3 ⋅180o ⋅ = = 135o 4 4 π radians π radians 180° 225π radians =− 180 5π radians =− 4 −270° = −270° ⋅ 2π 2π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 3 3 π radians o 2 ⋅180 = 3 = 120o 76° = 76° ⋅ 31.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 180° 300π radians = 180 5π radians = 3 25. 18° = 18° ⋅ π radians π radians 180o π radians = −3 ⋅180o = −540o 270π radians 180 3π radians =− 2 π 7π 7π radians 180o radians = ⋅ 6 6 π radians o 7 ⋅180 = 6 = 210o 26. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1 16.

180o π radians π ≈ −275. 250° = 250° ⋅ π radians 180° 250π = radians 180 ≈ 4. 200° = 200° ⋅ π radians 41. π 38. π ≈ 114.87 radians π radians 180° 42. −5.59o 36.Trigonometric Functions 32.2 ⋅180o 180o = π radians π ≈ −297. 180o 180o = ≈ 10.49 radians = 34. −50° = −50° ⋅ 33.36 radians 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ = 2 ⋅180o 43. 39.94o 492 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 radians ⋅ 37.8 radians ⋅ = −4. −5.2 radians ⋅ 47. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 200π radians 180 ≈ 3.8 ⋅180o 46.85o radians ⋅ ⋅ 180o π radians 45.02o 40. Inc. 13 π 17 180o 3 ⋅180o = ≈ 171. 35.89o π radians π radians = π radians 13 180o = 13 ≈ 13. 180° 50π =− radians 180 ≈ −0. 180o π radians 44.8 radians = −4.59o π radians 17 −4.

1 48. 52. 56. 19π 19π 12π 7π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 64. 49. 54. −765° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −765° + 1080° = 315° 62. − 68. − 69. 51.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Inc. 57. 50. 17π 17π 10π 7π − 2π = − = 5 5 5 5 65. 23π 23π 23π 20π 3π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 5 5 5 5 5 66. π 50 π 40 + 2π = − + 2π = − π 50 π 40 + 100π 99π = 50 50 + 80π 79π = 40 40 31π 31π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 7 7 31π 42π 11π =− + = 7 7 7 493 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 395° − 360° = 35° 58. 25π 25π 25π 24π π − 2π ⋅ 2 = − 4π = − = 6 6 6 6 6 67. −760° + 360° ⋅ 3 = −760° + 1080° = 320° 63. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 415° − 360° = 55° 59. − 53. −160° + 360° = 200° 61. . −150° + 360° = 210° 60. 55.

in order to use the formula s = rθ . . π 16π s = rθ = 16 ⋅ = inches ≈ 16. − π 4 π 2 and 7π 4 and 3π 2 82. 265 53π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 87. 6 revolutions per second 6 revolutions 2π radians 12π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolutions 1 seconds = 12π radians per second 1 π revolution is equivalent to 60° or 6 3 radians. 76. θ = 315° Begin by converting 315° to radians. First. 220 22π ⋅ 2π = 60 3 r = 8 feet. −π and π 83. 3 minutes and 40 seconds equals 220 seconds. 20 revolutions per second 20 revolutions 2π radians 40π radians = ⋅ = 1 second 1 revolution 1 second = 40π radians per second 494 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 7π 63π s = rθ = 9 ⋅ = yards ≈ 49.48 yards 4 4 1 ⋅ 360° = 60° 6 Now. 73. π radians π = radians 45° = 45° ⋅ 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . − 4π 2π and 3 3 78.42 inches r = 16 inches. convert 60° to radians. 5π s = rθ = 8 ⋅ = 10π feet ≈ 31.Trigonometric Functions 70. 74. s = rθ = 12 ⋅ 72. 35 7π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 85. Publishing as Prentice Hall. in order to use the formula s = rθ . 55 11π ⋅ 2π = 60 6 84. 71. − 3π 5π and 4 4 80. θ = 225° Begin by converting 225° to radians.76 inches 3 3 77. Inc. θ = 45° Begin by converting 45° to radians. π radians 7π = 315° = 315° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . 38π 38π + 2π ⋅ 3 = − + 6π 9 9 38π 54π 16π =− + = 9 9 9 − r = 12 inches.42 feet 4 86. π 4 = 3π inches ≈ 9. convert to degrees. π radians 5π = 225° = 225° ⋅ radians 180° 4 Now use the formula s = rθ . π radians π = radians 60° = 60° ⋅ 180° 3 Now use the formula s = rθ . 1 1 360° revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution r = 9 yards. − 7π 5π and 6 6 79. in order to use the formula s = rθ . 75. in order to use the formula s = rθ . θ = 60° Begin by converting 60° to radians. − 81. π radians 60π = 60° = 60° ⋅ radians 180° 180 = = π 3 radians Therefore. 4 minutes and 25 seconds equals 265 seconds.

The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length. or of a complete revolution.1 91. s. We are given that r = 80 centimeters and θ = 60°.5 radians ⋅ ≈ 143. Recall that θ = radians 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 8π s = rθ = (8 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = inches ⎝3⎠ 3 ≈ 8. we begin by finding r and θ . We are given that r = 24 inches and θ = 90°. we begin by finding r and θ . 1 1 360o revolutions = revolutions ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 1 o o = ⋅ 360 = 120 3 Now. π s . 92.78 centimeters. convert 2 radians to degrees. or of a 6 complete revolution. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. s 10. π radians 120π = 120° = 120° ⋅ radians 180° 180 2π = radians 3 1 2π Therefore. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. convert 2. We are given that r = 8 inches. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians. convert to degrees.38 inches. We must 1 revolution to radians. Since s = rθ . The distance that the tip of the minute hand moves is given by its arc length.70 inches. We are given that r s = 8000 miles and r = 4000 miles. The formula 3 s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in 1 radians.5 radians to degrees. 180o 2. The length of each arc is given by s = rθ . = radians 2 The length of each arc is ⎛π ⎞ s = rθ = (24 inches) ⎜ ⎟ = 12π inches ⎝2⎠ ≈ 37. 90. Since s = rθ . Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 radians r 4000 miles Now.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. π radians 90π 90° = 90° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 88. The distance that the wheel moves is given by s = rθ . We are given that r = 6 inches. π radians 60π 60° = 60° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 89. revolution is equivalent to 120° or 3 3 radians.57 inches. First. 3 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 3 3 1 revolution 2π radians = 3 The distance the tip of the minute hand moves is ⎛ 2π ⎞ 12π s = rθ = (6 inches) ⎜ inches ⎟= 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ = 4π inches ≈ 12.000 miles and r = 4000 miles. 000 miles θ= = = 2. We must convert revolution to radians. 180o 2 radians = 2 radians ⋅ ≈ 114. convert 6 1 1 2π radians revolution = revolution ⋅ 6 6 1 revolution = π = π radians 3 The length that the wheel moves is ⎛ π ⎞ 80π s = rθ = (80 centimeters) ⎜ ⎟ = centimeters 3 ⎝3⎠ ≈ 83. convert 120° to radians. Inc. We are given that r s = 10. Recall that θ = 495 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. s 8000 miles θ= = = 2 radians r 4000 miles Now.24o 2π radians 94. The 1 minute hand moves from 12 to 2 o'clock. s.59o π radians 93. s . The minute hand moves from 12 to 4 1 o’clock. .

Linear speed is given by ν = rω . Inc.Trigonometric Functions 95. 98. ≈ 1508 feet per minute The linear speed of the wheel is about 1508 feet per minute. We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 30° . Recall that s = rθ .5 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. We are given that r = 25 feet and the wheel rotates at 3 revolutions per minute. Publishing as Prentice Hall.5 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 2. radians ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 698 miles ⎝ 18 ⎠ To the nearest mile. We are given that r = 12 feet and the wheel rotates at 20 revolutions per minute. 20 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 20 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution radians = 40π radians per minute ν = rω = (12 feet)(40π ) ⎛π ⎞ s =rθ =(4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ≈ 2094 miles ⎝6⎠ To the nearest mile. ⎛π ⎞ ν = rω = (4000 miles) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 12 ⎠ 4000π = miles per hour 12 ≈ 1047 miles per hour The linear speed is about 1047 miles per hour. π radians 10π 10° = 10° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 = π 18 100. 114. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . 96. 97. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . We are given that r = 4000 miles and θ = 10° . Recall that s = rθ . the distance from A to B is 2094 miles. = 6π radians per minute ν = rω = (25 feet)(6π ) ≈ 471 feet per minute The linear speed of the Ferris wheel is about 471 feet per minute. the distance from A to B is 698 miles. 3 revolutions per minute 2π radians = 3 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution 115. Begin by converting 2. – 112. The formula s = rθ can only be used when θ is expressed in radians.08 feet per minute. 113. We are given that ω= π 101. radians per hour and 12 r = 4000 miles. We need to convert 3 revolutions per minute to radians per minute.5 revolutions per minute ⋅ 1 revolution = 5π radians per minute The linear speed of the animals in the outer rows is ν = rω = (20 feet)(5π ) ≈ 100 feet per minute The linear speed of the animals in the inner rows is ν = rω = (10 feet)(5π ) ≈ 50 feet per minute The difference is 100π − 50π = 50π feet per minute or about 157. 496 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Therefore. Answers may vary. We can only use the formula s = rθ when θ is expressed in radians. π radians 30π 30° = 30° ⋅ radians = 180° 180 π = 6 99. 2. . 116.

. sin π = y = 0 cos π = x = −1 0 y tan π = = =0 x −1 1 1 sec π = = = −1 x −1 x −1 cot π = = = undefined y 0 1 1 cscπ = = = undefined y 0 497 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Explanations will vary. 20° = 20° ⋅ 100= r= π r 9 900 π π 180° = π 9 radians ⎛ 3 1⎞ P⎜ . s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 26° to radians. 2. θ is smaller than a 2 right angle. Sample explanation: It is possible for π to be used in an angle measured using degrees. makes sense 120. Use x = –1 and y = 0 to find the values of the trigonometric functions. range: { y −1 ≤ y ≤ 1} or [ −1.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to t = π has coordinates (–1. does not make sense.5 radians.57 radians. Sample explanation: Angles greater than π will exceed a straight angle. Miami. 2 3 If θ = radians = 1. ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 sin t = y = 2 cos t = x = = 1 2 3 2 y = x csc t = 1 =2 y = 3 3 1 2 3 = x 3 x cot t = = 3 y sec t = 123. 0). domain: { x −1 ≤ x ≤ 1} or [ −1. Check Point Exercises 1.1] 118.2 radians ≈ 1. 26° = 26° ⋅ 3 3 =− 3 3 13π radians 90 180° 13π s =4000 ⋅ 90 ≈ 1815 miles To the nearest mile. a radius of 286 miles should be used. Publishing as Prentice Hall.1] 117. x = − . Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary. π 3 2 tan t = ≈ 286 miles To the nearest mile. does not make sense. s = rθ Begin by changing θ = 20° to radians.2 125. 1 3 126. 121. does not make sense. y = 2 2 1 − x 1 1 = 2 =− =− y 3 3 3 2 119. 124. 122. Florida is 1815 miles north of the equator. Inc. A right angle measures 90° and 90° = π Section 4. Sample explanation: That will not be possible if the angle is a multiple of 2π .

7071 Exercise Set 4. 5. Inc. csc 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ 9π cos ⎜ − ⎝ 4 a. cot b. P⎜ . 1 1 3 = = sin θ 2 2 3 1 1 3 = = sec θ = cos θ 5 5 3 csc θ = = cot θ = 3 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 1 4 3 3 = 4 2 cos t = a. 2 sin θ = 3 tan θ = cos θ 5 3 2 3 2 = ⋅ = 3 5 5 2 5 ⋅ 5 5 = 2 5 5 8. 17 ⎟ . 8 sin t = y = 17 15 cos t = x = − 17 8 tan t = 8 y = 1715 = − 15 x − 17 1 17 = y 8 1 17 sec t = = − x 15 x 15 cot t = = − y 8 csc t = 498 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 1. 3 5 5 1 1 5 = = 2 tan θ 2 5 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 15 8 ⎛ 15 8 ⎞ ⎜ − 17 .Trigonometric Functions 3. 2 ⎛1⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ cos 2 t = 1 − =1 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = sec ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ 4⎠ ⎝4⎠ b. = 1 π . ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ π 1 csc = = 2 4 y π 1 sec = = 2 4 x t= cot 4. cos t is positive. sin b. ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ . 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ − ⎟ = − sin ⎜ ⎟ = − 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < 7. . 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ a.5 ≈ 1.0025 π 4 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = cos ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ≈ 0.0≤t < 2 2 sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 sin t = π 2 . π π 4 = x = y 1 y 1 2 6. Use x = − 17 and y = 17 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions.

Use x = t = − has coordinates ⎜⎜ 4 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 and y = − to find the values of the trigonometric 2 functions. Use has coordinates ⎜ − ⎜ 2 2 ⎟⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ 2 tan t = 1 = 2 y 1 sec t = = − 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 2 2 2⎞ π . csc 4π 1 −2 3 = = 3 3 3 − 2 13. sec 11π 1 2 3 = = 3 6 3 sin t = y = − tan t = y − = x 2 2 2 2 y = 2 = −1 x − 2 2 = −1 1 =− 2 y 1 sec t = = 2 x x cot t = = −1 y csc t = 6 3 = = 1 2 3 2 2 499 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. cos 2π 1 =− 3 2 9. The point P on the unit circle that corresponds to ⎛ 3π 2 2⎞ t= . csc 7π 1 = 1 = −2 6 −2 12. 2 2 2 cos t = x = 2 5. tan π = 0 =0 −1 10. Section 4. 12 sin t = y = − 13 5 cos t = x = − 13 12 − 12 y tan t = = 13 = 5 5 x − 13 4.− ⎟⎟ .PreCalculus 4E 2. − 13 ⎟ Use x = − 13 and y = − 13 to find the ⎝ ⎠ values of the trigonometric functions. sin π 7. Inc. sin π 6. 2 2 and y = to find the values of the 2 2 trigonometric functions. . 2 sin t = y = 2 2 cos t = x = − 2 x=− 1 13 =− 12 y 1 13 sec t = = − x 5 x 5 cot t = = y 12 csc t = 3. . tan 0 = 0 =0 1 11. Publishing as Prentice Hall.2 The point P on the unit circle has coordinates 5 12 ⎛ 5 12 ⎞ ⎜ − 13 . cos 5π 3 =− 6 2 8.

20. 25. Inc. cos t = 17 17 17 8 17 sec t = 15 15 cot t = 8 π 1 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 3 3 2 ⎝ ⎠ sin sin t = 11π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 6 = 3 ⎠ csc t = π 3 ⎛ π⎞ cos ⎜ − ⎟ = cos = 6 6 2 ⎝ ⎠ cos ⎛ 11π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 tan t = 3 2 = 11π − 12 3 = =− 3 6 3 2 15. a. 23. a. b. sin 3π = −1 2 16. cos 3π =0 2 17. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. b. . a. b. a. 21. cos π 6 b. π 3 = 26. 19. cos t = 5 5 tan t = 5π 1 = 6 2 ⎛ 5π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 6 8 15 . tan 3π = undefined 2 b. cos t = 3 3 tan t = 1 3 2 2 3 = 2 4 csc t = 3 2π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 3 = − 2 ⎠ 3 2 4 cot t = 2 2 sec t = 3 5π − 2 = 1 =− 3 3 2 ⎛ 5π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 3 = csc t = 2π 3 = sin 3 2 ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 8 17 15 17 3 4 sin t = . 1 2 tan 8 15 3 5 4 5 = 3 4 5 3 5 sec t = 4 4 cot t = 3 5π 1 ⎞ ⎟ = − sin 6 = − 2 ⎠ 27. 22. a. 1 2 2 sin t = . sec 5π 1 = 1 =2 3 2 24. a. sec 3π = undefined 2 18. tan 5π ⎞ ⎟ = − tan 3 = 3 ⎠ 500 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Trigonometric Functions 14.

0≤t < 8 2 sin t = 6 3 + cos 2 + cos 2 π 2 π 3 = 1 by the Pythagorean identity.3 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ cos 2.2 2 5 . Inc. csc2 π 3 6 − tan 2 − cot 2 π 3 π 6 = 1 because 1 + tan 2 t = sec 2 t. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 . = 1 because sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 ⎛6⎞ 2 ⎜ 7 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ Because 0 ≤ t < π 2 2 36 49 cos t = . 39 π . cos t is positive.7 ⎠ 34.7 csc1. ⎛ 21 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 5 ⎝ ⎠ 7 π sin t = . 39 64 25 5 = 64 8 cos 2 t = 1 − cos t = 5 2 Because 0 ≤ t < 6 π sin t = . 501 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. cos t is positive. sin 2 π 2 15 15 = 64 8 π 33. . cos t is positive.3 = cos 2. ⎛ 1 ⎞ cos 2. 37. sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 2 5 5 2 ⎛ 39 ⎞ 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ + cos t = 1 8 ⎝ ⎠ 3 2 3 5 sec t = 5 csc t = cot t = 29.7 ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎝ sin1.3 sec 2. sec2 π 38.3 ⎠ 35. 0 ≤ t < 7 2 32. cos t is positive. sin t = tan t = Section 4. 2 ⎛7⎞ 2 ⎜ 8 ⎟ + cos t = 1 ⎝ ⎠ π 21 25 4 2 = 25 5 cos 2 t = 1 − sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 Because 0 ≤ t < . 0 ≤ t < 8 2 cos t = 2 21 π . cos t = 3 3 2 3 5 3 = 31.7 = sin1. Because 0 ≤ t < 49 cos t = 1 − 64 2 . sin 2 π 36.0≤t < 5 2 sin t = 13 13 = 49 7 cos t = π sin 2 t + cos 2 t = 1 cos 2 t = 1 − 30.PreCalculus 4E 28. ⎛ 1 ⎞ sin1. = 1 because 1 + cot 2 t = csc 2 t.

tan 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = tan ⎜ + π ⎟ = tan = 1 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 44. 52. cos 3π 2 =− 4 2 π ⎛π ⎞ − tan ⎜ + 15π ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝4 ⎠ b. ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ cos ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = cos ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = cos 4 2 = 2 53. 50. cot 5π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + π ⎟ = cot = 1 4 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 45. sin b. 51. ⎛ 9π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π 2 ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sin 4 = − 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 42. cos ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 1000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 π 2 =0 9π ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 4π ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎡π ⎤ = cos ⎢ + 2(2π ) ⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ = cos π 2 =0 ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ sin ⎜ − − 2000π ⎟ = sin ⎜ − + 2π ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 56. ⎛ 9π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 4 + 3π ⎟ = tan 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 47. a. 48. cos b. Inc.Trigonometric Functions 39. sin 3π 2 = 4 2 b. sin 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = sin = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 54. sin π 2 =1 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 4π ⎟ = sin = 1 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠ 502 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a. cos 9π π 2 ⎛π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos = 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ 40. . ⎛ 9π sec ⎜ − ⎝ 4 7π ⎞ ⎛ 9π ⎞ ⎟ = sec ⎜ − 4 + 4π ⎟ = sec 4 = 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 43. ⎛ 5π cot ⎜ − ⎝ 4 3π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎟ = cot ⎜ 4 − 2π ⎟ = cot 4 = −1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 46. csc 9π π ⎛π ⎞ = csc ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = csc = 2 4 4 ⎝4 ⎠ 41. a. Publishing as Prentice Hall. cos 11π 3π 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 2π ⎟ = cos =− 4 4 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ π ⎛π ⎞ − cot ⎜ + 17π ⎟ = − cot = −1 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 55. 49. a.

8253 = cos t + cos t − tan t − tan t − sin t + 4sin t 63. sin(−t ) − sin t = − sin t − sin t = −2sin t = −2a 72. 0 =0 −1 tan17π = tan(π + 16π ) b.2643 = 3a + 2b − 2c = 2 cos t − 2 tan t + 3sin t 64. a. cos 70. sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) 12 π 18 ≈ 5. cot 71. sin(−t − 2π ) + cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) + cos(t ) + tan(t ) 47π 7π 2 ⎛ 7π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + 10π ⎟ = cos = cos 4 4 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ = −a + b + c 79.6247 80.7174 cos t + cos(t + 1000π ) − tan t − tan(t + 999π ) − sin t + 4sin(t − 1000π ) 62.8090 10 503 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.4 ≈ 0. b. a. sec 1 ≈ 1. sin(−t − 2π ) − cos(−t − 4π ) − tan(−t − π ) = − sin(t + 2π ) − cos(t + 4π ) + tan(t + π ) = − sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) = −a − b + c 7π 2 = 4 2 78.7321 cot = sin(t ) − cos(t ) + tan(t ) ⎡ 7π ⎤ = sin ⎢ + 5 ( 2π ) ⎥ ⎣ 4 ⎦ 7π = sin 4 2 =− 2 60.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. ≈ 3. . = tan[π + 8(2π )] = tan π =0 58. tan 3. 4 cos(−t ) − cos t = 4 cos t − cos t = 3cos t = 3b 74. cot cot π 2 = 0 =0 1 15π π ⎛π ⎞ = cot ⎜ + 7π ⎟ = cot = 0 2 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ 7π 2 =− sin 4 2 sin b.8508 67. csc 1 ≈ 1. sin π 10 − cos t + 7 cos(t + 1000π ) + tan t + tan(t + 999π ) = 6 cos t + 2 tan t + 2sin t = 2a + 6b + 2c ≈ 0. 3cos( −t ) − cos t = 3cos t − cos t = 2cos t = 2b 75. b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc.7 ≈ 0.2 tan π = 57. π 69. 59. cos 68. cos 0.6713 = a −b+c 47π ⎛ 7π ⎞ = sin ⎜ + 10π ⎟ 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 76. a.8 ≈ 0. sin 0. tan( −t ) − tan t = − tan t − tan t = −2 tan t = −2c 73. + sin t + sin(t − 1000π ) 65.6 ≈ 0. tan 3. a.1884 = − cos t + 7 cos t + tan t + tan t + sin t + sin t 66. sin(t + 2π ) + cos(t + 4π ) − tan(t + π ) = sin(t ) + cos(t ) − tan(t ) = a+b−c 77. 61.9511 3π ≈ 0.

3sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. 82.7339 π 6 ⋅6 = 10 + 4sin π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.3sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 8.7339 ⋅ 7 = sin π 2 =1 b. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8. π For t = 14. t = 3. t = 6..5837 = 10 + 4sin π 6 ⋅3 π = 10 + 4(1) = 14 2 The height is 14 feet. . c. Inc. ≈ 14. At noon.3sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ = 12 + 8.6 hours of daylight in San Diego on December 21. At 9 A. ≈ 20.7 There are about 3.7 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on December 21.4 hours of daylight in San Diego on June 21. At 6 A.M. E = sin = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on March 21. For t = 7.Trigonometric Functions 81. c. 14 14 For t = 21.3 There are about 20. At midnight. b. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅0 6 = 10 + 4sin 0 = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. a. t = 12. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (80 − 80) ⎥ 365 ⎣ ⎦ 12 + 24sin 0 = 12 + 24(0) = 12 There are 12 hours of daylight in San Diego on March 21. the period is 35 – 7 = 28 or 28 days.3sin 4. π ⋅14 = sin π = 0 ⋅ 21 = sin 3π = −1 2 ⋅ 28 = sin 2π = sin 0 = 0 5π π = sin = 1 14 2 2 Observations may vary.3998 There are about 14.M. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (355 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin 4. At 6 P.. a. E = sin π 14 For t = 35. H = 10 + 4sin π ⋅12 6 = 10 + 4sin 2π = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet.. ≈ 3. t = 18. E = sin ⋅ 35 = sin Because E(35) = E(7) = 1. E = sin b. 504 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. a.3sin1. H = 10 + 4sin ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 24 sin ⎢ (172 − 80) ⎥ ⎣ 365 ⎦ ≈ 12 + 24 sin1.M. ≈ 9. a.5837 E = sin π π 14 For t = 28. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3(0) 83.3 hours of daylight in Fairbanks on June 21. t = 0.3sin 0 = 12 + 8. 84.6 There are about 9. ⎡ 2π ⎤ H = 12 + 8.

the height at 3 A. 2 1 4 f (a) + f (a + 2π ) + f (a + 4π ) + f (a + 6π ) 102. the height at 9 A. 105. Answers may vary. 97. we find a low tide at does not make sense. 2 100.M. – 96. Thus. The height is given by h = 45 + 40 sin(t – 90°) h(765°) = 45 + 40sin(765° − 90°) ≈ 16. low tide is at 3 A.7 feet above the ground.7 You are about 16. and 3 P. makes sense 505 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. which means high and low tides occur every 12 hours. Thus. This 6 2 value of t corresponds to 9 a.M. Sample explanation: sin t cannot be less than −1. a period of 2π we also find a maximum at 2 π 5π or t = 15. and 9 P.M. f ( x) = sin x and f (a) = 1 ⎛1⎞ − 2⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝4⎠ 1 =− 4 f(–a) = –f(a) because sin (–x) = –sin x.58 < −1. 104. and ends at t = 2π 6 2 6 or t = 12. high tide is at 9 A.2 H = 10 + 4sin π 98. c2 = a2 + b2 The period of the sine function is 2π or on the interval [0.m. t= The sine function has a maximum at 10 ≈ −1. From part a. The sine function has a minimum at h = 10 + 4sin π 3π . From part a. we find a high tide at π t= π 2 1 4 f (a) + 2 f (−a) = f (a) − 2 f (a) 103. b. starts at t= c 2 = 169 c = 13 Next write the ratio. Explanations will vary.. ⋅18 6 = 10 + 4sin 3π = 10 + 4 sin π Note that − = 10 + 4 ⋅ 0 = 10 The height is 10 feet. Sine is an odd function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π or t = 3. First find the hypotenuse. makes sense 3π or 6 2 t = 9. t is in the third quadrant therefore sin t < 0. Thus. f ( x) = sin x and f (a ) = ⎛1⎞ = 4 f (a) = 4 ⎜ ⎟ = 1 because sin x has a ⎝4⎠ period of 2π . = . and cot t > 0. For t = 9.M.M. only choice (c) is true.M. Explanations will vary. π ⋅ 21 6 7π 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4sin 2 2 = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 The height is 6 feet.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Inc. Thus. π ⋅9 6 3π = 10 + 4sin = 10 + 4(−1) = 6 2 The height is 6 feet. is 14 feet. Because the sine has 5π . .M. is also 6 feet.M. H = 10 + 4sin 99. 101. the period is 12 hours. Sample explanation: Cosine is not an odd function. This value of t corresponds to 3 P. a 5 = c 13 85. tan t > 0. 2π ] . t = 21. c. does not make sense. At 3 A.M. The cycle of the sine function π c 2 = 52 + 122 c 2 = 25 + 144 5π π or t = 0. We find another high tide at t = 6 2 This value of t corresponds to 9 P. Thus. Thus.

to find c.Trigonometric Functions 106. b = 4 c 2 a + b2 1 + b 2 = 25 c2 b 2 = 24 c2 = 2 c =1 b = 24 = 2 6 Note that side a is opposite θ and side b is adjacent to θ . . Inc. a 2 + b2 = c2 12 + b 2 = 52 2 = Use the Pythagorean Theorem. First find the hypotenuse. 2 2 c = a +b Section 4. ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝c⎠ ⎝c⎠ c c = a 2 + b2 c2 Since c 2 = a 2 + b2 . and hypotenuse. c2 = 1 + 1 c2 = 2 c= 2 Next write the ratio and simplify. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 .3 2 Check Point Exercises c 2 = 12 + 12 1. we have opposite 3 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 adjacent 4 = cos θ = hypotenuse 5 opposite 3 = tan θ = adjacent 4 hypotenuse 5 = csc θ = opposite 3 hypotenuse 5 = sec θ = adjacent 4 adjacent 4 = cot θ = opposite 3 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ 107. a = 3. c 2 = a 2 + b 2 . a2 + b2 c2 Use the Pythagorean Theorem. a 1 = c 2 = 1 2 ⋅ 2 2 = 2 2 2 c 2 = a 2 + b 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 c = 25 = 5 Referring to these lengths as opposite. Publishing as Prentice Hall. to find b. opposite 1 = sin θ = hypotenuse 5 cos θ = adjacent 2 6 = hypotenuse 5 opposite 1 6 = = adjacent 2 6 12 hypotenuse 5 = =5 csc θ = opposite 1 tan θ = sec θ = hypotenuse 5 5 6 = = adjacent 12 2 6 cot θ = adjacent 2 6 = =2 6 opposite 1 506 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 a 2 b2 ⎛a⎞ ⎛b⎞ ⎜ c ⎟ +⎜ c ⎟ = 2 + 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ c c = 2. adjacent. continue simplifying by substituting c 2 for a 2 + b2 .

cot π ⎛π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ 12 ⎝ 2 12 ⎠ ⎛ 6π π ⎞ = tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 12 ⎠ 5π = tan 12 Because we have a known angle. an unknown opposite side. tan 60° = length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 3 = 3 1 length of side opposite 30° tan 30° = length of side adjacent to 30° = 1 = 5. sin 46o = cos(90o − 46o ) = cos 44o b. length of hypotenuse csc 45° = length of side opposite 45° 2 = 2 1 length of hypotenuse sec 45° = length of side adjacent to 45° = 2 = 2 1 length of side adjacent to 45° cot 45° = length of side opposite 45° 1 = =1 1 = 4. 3 = 1 3 ⋅ 3 3 = 3 3 a. Section 4. a tan 240 = 750 a = 750 tan 240 a ≈ 750(0.PreCalculus 4E 3. and a known adjacent side. 6. Inc.3 Apply the definitions of these three trigonometric functions. Publishing as Prentice Hall.4452) ≈ 334 The distance across the lake is approximately 334 yards. we select the tangent function. . 507 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

c 2 = 62 + 82 = 100 c = 100 = 10 opposite 6 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 10 adjacent 8 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 10 opposite 6 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 8 4 hypotenuse 10 csc θ = = = opposite 6 hypotenuse 10 sec θ = = = adjacent 8 adjacent 8 4 cot θ = = = opposite 6 3 3 5 4 5 5 3 5 4 508 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. side opposite 14 = side adjacent 10 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Exercise Set 4. . tan θ = Many Graphing Calculators Many Scientific Calculators TAN −1 ( 14 ÷ 10 ) TAN ( 14 ÷ 10 ) ENTER ENTER The display should show approximately 54.3 1. Inc. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 54°.Trigonometric Functions 7. Thus. c 2 = 92 + 122 = 225 c = 225 = 15 opposite 9 3 sin θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 adjacent 12 4 cos θ = = = hypotenuse 15 5 opposite 9 3 tan θ = = = adjacent 12 4 hypotenuse 15 5 csc θ = = = opposite 9 3 hypotenuse 15 5 sec θ = = = adjacent 12 4 adjacent 12 4 cot θ = = = opposite 9 3 2.

a 2 + 402 = 412 a 2 = 289 − 225 = 64 a 2 = 1681 − 1600 = 81 a = 64 = 8 opposite 8 = = hypotenuse 17 adjacent 15 = = hypotenuse 17 opposite 8 = = adjacent 15 hypotenuse 17 = = opposite 8 hypotenuse 17 = = adjacent 15 adjacent 15 = = opposite 8 a = 81 = 9 opposite 9 = = hypotenuse 41 adjacent 40 = = hypotenuse 41 opposite 9 = = adjacent 40 hypotenuse 41 = = opposite 9 hypotenuse 41 = = adjacent 40 adjacent 40 = = opposite 9 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 509 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 4. Inc. a 2 + 212 = 292 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 4. . a 2 = 841 − 441 = 400 b 2 = 676 − 100 = 576 a = 400 = 20 opposite 20 = = hypotenuse 29 adjacent 21 = = hypotenuse 29 opposite 20 = = adjacent 21 hypotenuse 29 = = opposite 20 hypotenuse 29 = = adjacent 21 adjacent 21 = = opposite 20 b = 576 = 24 opposite 10 5 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 adjacent 24 12 = = = hypotenuse 26 13 opposite 10 5 = = = adjacent 24 12 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = opposite 10 5 hypotenuse 26 13 = = = adjacent 24 12 adjacent 24 12 = = = opposite 10 5 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ a 2 + 152 = 17 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 102 + b 2 = 262 6.PreCalculus 4E 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 5.

a = 784 = 28 opposite 28 4 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 adjacent 21 3 = = = hypotenuse 35 5 opposite 28 4 = = = adjacent 21 3 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = opposite 28 4 hypotenuse 35 5 = = = adjacent 21 3 adjacent 21 3 = = = opposite 28 4 12.Trigonometric Functions 7. b = 49 = 7 opposite 24 = = hypotenuse 25 adjacent 7 = = hypotenuse 25 opposite 24 = = adjacent 7 hypotenuse 25 = = opposite 24 hypotenuse 25 = = adjacent 7 adjacent 7 = = opposite 24 cos 30° = tan = b = 625 − 576 = 49 tan θ length of hypotenuse length of side opposite 45° csc 45° = = 2 cos θ 2 = 2 1 = 242 + b 2 = 252 sin θ length of hypotenuse length of side adjacent to 45° sec 45° = cot π 3 sin π 4 3 = 3 1 = cot 60° = = 15. length of side adjacent to 60° length of side opposite 60° 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. 13. a = 1225 − 441 = 784 2 sin θ cos θ tan θ csc θ sec θ cot θ 8. csc θ sec θ cot θ 9. cos π 3 sec π 3 − cot π 3 = 1− 3 3− 3 = 3 3 3 3 510 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. length of side opposite 60° length of side adjacent to 60° 1 3 − cos = π 4 1 3 17. . = 10. a 2 + 212 = 352 11. tan 30° = = π 3 2 = 2 1 = tan 60° = 14. tan π 4 + csc π 6 ⋅ 1 2 3 3 ⋅ 3 3 = − 1 2 =0 ⎞ ⎟⎟ − 1 ⎠ 6 −1 4 6 −4 = 4 = length of side opposite 30° length of side adjacent to 30° 1 3 3 1 2 = + = 1+ 2 = 3 1 1 π π π ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 sin cos − tan = ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 4 4 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2 3 2 = 3 = = tan 45° + csc 30° length of side adjacent to 30° length of hypotenuse 1 3 = sin 45° − cos 45° = 16.

csc 35° = sec(90° − 35°) = sec55° 25.3 + cos π tan 4 π 6 =2 ⎛ 2 ⎝ 2 ( 3 ) + ⎜⎜ ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 28. tan 27. b 220 b = 220 cos 34° cos 34° = b ≈ 220(0. cos π 9 32.PreCalculus 4E 19.7536) ≈ 188 cm π 21. Inc. cos 30. tan 26. 2π ⎛ π 2π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 5 ⎝2 5 ⎠ ⎛ 5π 4π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 10 10 ⎠ = sin a 13 a = 13sin 34° sin 34° = 16 16 ≈ ≈ 41 m sin 23° 0.3907 tan 44° = b= 16 c 23 b 23 23 ≈ ≈ 24 yd tan 44° 0. a 10 a = 10 tan 61° tan 61° = a ≈ 10(1.8290) ≈ 182 in. sin 23° = c= 5π ⎞ ⎟ = cot 14 ⎠ 34. ⎛π π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝2 9⎠ ⎛ 9π 2π ⎞ = cot ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 18 18 ⎠ 7π = cot 18 π ⎛π π ⎞ ⎛ 7π 2π = cot ⎜ − ⎟ = cot ⎜ − 7 ⎝2 7⎠ ⎝ 14 14 a ≈ 13(0.9657 π 10 511 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 tan π 3 Section 4. o 23. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 6 6 12 3 + 6 = 6 =2 3+ 20. csc 25° = sec(90° – 25 ) = sec 65° 24. 6 tan π 4 + sin π 3 sec 29. ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 3 ⎞ = 6(1) + ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 6 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 6 = 6+ 6 =7 sin 7° = cos(90° − 7°) = cos83° 22. .5592) ≈ 7 m 33. sin19° = cos ( 90° − 19° ) = cos 71° 3π π ⎛ π 3π ⎞ ⎛ 4π 3π ⎞ = sin ⎜ − − ⎟ = sin ⎜ ⎟ = sin 8 8 ⎠ 8 ⎝2 8 ⎠ ⎝ 8 a 250 a = 250 tan 37° tan 37° = a ≈ 250(0.8040) ≈ 18 cm 31.

40.395 Scientific Calculator .4169 ENTER . then θ = 0.6252 ENTER 78 If tan θ = 4. Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) TAN −1 .5117 ENTER Display (rounded to three places) . 36.147 Scientific Calculator .0307 TAN-1 If tan θ = 26.4112 ENTER 1. then θ = 1. then θ ≈ 0.877.4112.877 ENTER Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 29 If cos θ = 0.2974 ENTER 17 Scientific Calculator .253 If tan θ = 0.0307 ENTER Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to three places) COS−1 .9499. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .Trigonometric Functions 35.4169 TAN −1 Display (rounded to three places) 1.253 radians.4169. 42.877 COS-1 COS-1 .473 If tan θ = 0. 37. .2974 SIN −1 If sin θ = 0.5117.4112 COS−1 Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 88 If cos θ = 0. Scientific Calculator 26. 41.0307. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) 4.9499 SIN-1 SIN-1 . then θ ≈ 29° . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Graphing Calculator Display (rounded to the nearest degree) SIN −1 . Scientific Calculator . then θ ≈ 1. 39. then θ ≈ 78°. Graphing Calculator TAN-1 26.6252. then θ ≈ 88°. 38.2974.9499 ENTER If sin θ = 0. then θ ≈ 17°. Scientific Calculator Graphing Calculator .6252 TAN −1 TAN −1 4. Inc.5117 TAN −1 Graphing Calculator TAN −1 .395 radians.147 radians.473 512 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

1 cot π 4 − 2 csc π = 1 1 tan 6 = 1 1 1 − π 1 sin 4 − 2 π 6 2 1 1 2 1 2 = − 1 2 = 1−1 =0 45. 2 Section 4. csc 37° sec 53° − tan 53° cot 37° = sec 53° sec 53° − tan 53° tan 53° = sec 2 53° − tan 2 53° =1 48.3 π 3 − 1 sec π = 3 1 − 1 2 π cos 6 = 6 3 1 − 1 2 3 2 3 3 − 2 2 =0 = 44. 1 + sin 2 40° + sin 2 50° = 1 + sin 2 (90° − 50°) + sin 2 50° = 1 + cos 2 50° + sin 2 50° = 1+1 =2 46. cos12° sin 78° + cos 78° sin12° = sin 78° sin 78° + cos 78° cos 78° = sin 2 78° + cos 2 78° =1 513 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E tan 43. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 − tan 2 10° + csc 2 80° = 1 − cot 2 80° + csc2 80° = 1 + csc 2 80° − cot 2 80° = 1+1 =2 47. .

a 630 a = 630 tan 40° tan 40° = a ≈ 630(0. 1 1 ⎛π ⎞ csc ⎜ − θ ⎟ = sec θ = = 1 =3 θ 2 cos ⎝ ⎠ 3 53. tan θ = Many Scientific Calculators 125 ÷ 172 = TAN −1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN −1 ( 125 ÷ 172 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 36.Trigonometric Functions 49. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. f (θ ) = 2 sin θ − sin θ 2 π π ⎛π ⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 sin − sin 3 3 2 ⎝3⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝6⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 51. . 125 172 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . Thus. 1 ⎛π ⎞ tan ⎜ − θ ⎟ = cot θ = 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ 52.8391) ≈ 29 The tree’s height is approximately 29 feet. 514 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the angle of elevation of the sun is approximately 36°. 54. 55.8391) ≈ 529 The distance across the lake is approximately 529 yards. h 35 h = 35 tan 40° tan 40° = h ≈ 35(0. f (θ ) = 2 cos θ − cos 2θ π ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ π⎞ f ⎜ ⎟ = 2 cos − cos ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎟ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 6⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛π ⎞ = 2⎜ − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝3⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 3 1 − 2 2 2 3 −1 = 2 = 50.

Answers may vary. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Thus.9851 0. cos θ = 61. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 47°.0099998 sin θ 0. sin10° = 500 c 500 500 ≈ ≈ 2880 sin10° 0.999999998 515 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.999998 × 10 −4 9. the angle of elevation is approximately 23°.9999998 0. cos θ = Many Scientific Calculators 60 ÷ 75 = COS Many Graphing Calculators −1 COS−1 ( 60 ÷ 75 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 37.00001 1 × 10 −5 1 . 60. θ 0. Thus.99999998 × 10 −5 0. sin 5° = 60 75 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .01 sinθ 0.0001 9. – 67.001 0. 68. a 5000 a = 5000sin 5° ≈ 5000(0.4 0. 57. c= 58. Many Scientific Calculators Many Graphing Calculators -1 55 ÷ 80 = COS COS-1 ( 55 ÷ 80 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 47. Inc.9933 0. the angle between the wire and the pole is approximately 37°.0872) = 436 The driver’s increase in altitude was approximately 436 feet.99998 θ sin θ approaches 1 as θ approaches 0.1987 0.2955 0. 59.PreCalculus 4E 56. Thus. Section 4. θ 0.2 0.9736 0.3894 0. 55 80 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ .3 555 1320 Use a calculator in degree mode to find θ . 0.1736 The plane has flown approximately 2880 feet.1 0.3 0.9983 0. tan Many Scientific Calculators 555 ÷ 1320 = TAN-1 Many Graphing Calculators TAN-1 ( 555 ÷ 1320 ) ENTER The display should show approximately 23.0998 0.

Explanations will vary.0001 0.4 0. makes sense 74. Inc.19735 –0.00001 0. 73.6713 57 573 5730 57.7475 5. A sample change is: 75.1 0.Trigonometric Functions 69.999999995 –0.7321 2.99995 cos θ − 1 –0. Sample explanation: An increase in the size of a triangle does not affect the ratios of the sides.01 cos θ 0.99500 0. Sample explanation: The sine and cosine are cofunctions of each other. θ 0.3 0. false. tanθ is undefined.9999995 0.099667 –0. 516 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The sine and cosine are not reciprocals of each other.2 0.0005 1 –0.92106 0. true 76. . At 90°.00005 0 θ cos θ − 1 θ approaches 0 as θ approaches 0. Then use the table to describe what happens to the tangent of an acute angle as the angle gets close to 90°. 79.999 89.958 As θ approaches 90°. does not make sense.296 572. Changes to make the statement true will vary. Changes to make the statement true will vary. the hypotenuse is greater than either other side.04996 –0. does not make sense. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9999 tanθ 1. Therefore both 1 2 + 1 2 = 2 2 ≠1 opposite adjacent and must be hypotenuse hypotenuse less than 1 for an acute angle in a right triangle. Explanations will vary.95534 0. Explanations will vary. In a right triangle. false. 70.99 89.005 0.001 0. Use a calculator in degree mode to generate the following table. 72. does not make sense.98007 0.148878 –0. 71. Irrational numbers are rounded on calculators. tanθ increases without bound. A sample change is: sin 45° + cos 45° = 77. Sample explanation: This value is irrational.9 89. true tan 45° ⎛ 45° ⎞ ≠ tan ⎜ ⎟ tan15° ⎝ 15° ⎠ 78. θ 60 70 80 89 89.

b. 250 tan 35° = a 250 250 a= ≈ ≈ 357 tan 35° 0.1): x = 0. θ = 90° = x r First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = 34 x −3 −3 34 −3 34 = = ⋅ = .0): x = 1. a. 2. Inc. a. x 1 10 = = r 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = = −3 x 1 r 10 10 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 y r r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = First find r: r = x 2 + y 2 r = (−3) 2 + 42 r =5 y 4 = . b. π x 0 cos 90° = cos = = = 0 2 r 1 π r 1 csc 90° = csc = = = 1 2 y 1 517 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y.PreCalculus 4E 80. Section 4. r 5 82. which is positive. Select the point P = (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x 1 cos 0° = cos 0 = = = 1 r 1 r 1 csc 0° = csc 0 = = .7002 The ship is approximately 357 feet from the lighthouse.4 Check Point Exercises 1. Let b = the plane’s height above the lighthouse. b tan 22° = 357 b = 357 tan 22° ≈ 357(0.4040) ≈ 144 sin θ = a. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. θ = 0° = 0 radians The terminal side of the angle is on the positive x-axis. b. . θ ′ = 360D − 345D = 15D b. r = (−3)2 + 52 83. which is r 34 34 34 34 negative. y = 1. undefined y 0 b. r = x2 + y2 π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive y-axis. 81. r = 12 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. y = 0. a. Section 4. y −3 3 10 = =− r 10 10 cos θ = 144 + 250 = 394 The plane is approximately 394 feet above the water. Select the point P = (1. θ′ = π − 5π 6π 5π π = − = 6 6 6 6 10 = 10 1 1 1 =− −3 3 a.4 Let a = distance of the ship from the lighthouse. and r. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions.

7. The reference angle is θ = 240 − 180 = 60° . y = −1. 4 4 4 4 π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. all the functions are positive in quadrant I. thus the reference − angle is θ ′ = Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. 4 4 4 4 2π = 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative y-axis. c. it is in quadrant IV. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. thus the reference 7π 8π 7π π = − = . 5π π = + tan = 1 . Furthermore. y 1 1 10 10 sin θ = = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 sec θ = 7π 3π 6π = and lies between 4 2 4 r 10 10 = =− x 3 −3 3 . Because 8π . r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. we can find sin θ and sec θ .6 − π ≈ 0. 665° − 360° = 305° This angle is in quadrant IV. b. 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. Inc.46 . y. sin 60° = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. 3.6 lies between π ≈ 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a. θ cannot lie in quadrant II. Select the point P = (0. a. In quadrant II. sin 300° = − sin 60° = − b. undefined y 0 5. and r.–1): x = 0. a. tan 4 4 tan 518 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because sin θ < 0. The reference 2 angle is θ ′ = 3. Because –240° lies between –180° and –270°. θ lies in quadrant II. it is in quadrant II. The reference 4 7π 8π 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = − = . Thus.71 . 300° lies in quadrant IV. y = 0. sin θ is positive in quadrant II.0): x = −1. Because 3. x −1 cos180° = cos π = = = −1 r 1 r 1 csc180° = csc π = = . Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. 4. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . d.14 and 3π ≈ 4. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . d. The reference angle is 4 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = . Thus. Select the point P = (–1. x is negative and y is positive. . 3π x 0 cos 270° = cos = = =0 2 r 1 3π r 1 csc 270° = csc = = = −1 2 y −1 c. r = 1 Apply the definitions of the cosine and cosecant functions. it is in quadrant III. it is in quadrant III. thus the reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 305° = 55° . 15π 15π 8π 7π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 This angle is in quadrant IV. with sin θ < 0. b. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. θ cannot lie in quadrant I. 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = 3 x −3 x = −3. π 3 . θ = 270° = 6. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which cosine is negative and the sine is negative. 2 5π lies in quadrant III. y = 1 Furthermore. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . θ = 180° = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative x-axis.Trigonometric Functions c. angle is θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 11π 11π 12π π + 2 ⋅ 2π = − + = 3 3 3 3 This angle is in quadrant I.

y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 cos θ = = =− 5 5 r 3 3 y tan θ = = =− 4 x −4 r 5 csc θ = = y 3 π 2 3 ⎛ π⎞ sec ⎜ − ⎟ = + sec = . θ′ = π − 3 3 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 sin = . y. 5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . and r.4 lies in quadrant IV. Furthermore. sec r = x 2 + y 2 = (−4)2 + 32 = 16 + 9 = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. y 5 sin θ = = r 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− 13 13 r 5 5 y tan θ = = =− 12 x −12 −22π 2π π 3 = sin = sin = . y. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The reference angle is 6 θ′ = π 6 1. y. 2. The reference angle is 2π π = . 6 6 6 2 −22π −22π 24π 2π + 8π = + = lies in 3 3 3 3 quadrant II. 3 3 3 2 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = − 5 5 y csc θ = 519 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . . The reference angle is θ ′ = π − = . r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + 52 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. π 2 3 = 6 3 Because the secant is positive in quadrant IV. x = −4 and y = 3 . 6 6 The function value for the reference angle is π 3 . We need values for x. x = −12 and y = 5 .4 Exercise Set 4. = r 5 5 = =− 4 x −4 4 x −4 cot θ = = =− 3 3 y sec θ = 17π 5π π 3 = cos = − cos = − . cos cos b. 6 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. . y. Because P = (–4. Because P = (–12. − π Section 4. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . and r. Inc.PreCalculus 4E c. sin We need values for x. 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . a. 6 3 ⎝ 6⎠ 8. 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = lies in quadrant 6 6 6 6 5π π II. Furthermore. and r. and r.

y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . x = 3 and y = 7 . and r. Because P = (3. Furthermore. Because P = (5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = 5 and y = –5 . –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . and r. 3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . and r. 5. 6. Because P = (3. Because P = (2. and r. y. y. Inc. and r. and r. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . 2 sin θ = 2 2 2 = 18 = 3 2 Now that we know x. . 3 3 13 3 13 y = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 sin θ = 2 2 13 2 13 x = = ⋅ = 13 r 13 13 13 y 3 tan θ = = x 2 13 r csc θ = = 3 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y 4. Furthermore. Furthermore. y. 3 3 58 3 58 x = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 y 7 tan θ = = x 3 58 r csc θ = = 7 y sin θ = cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y We need values for x. sin θ = =5 2 Now that we know x. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + (−3) 2 = 9 + 9 r = x + y = 2 + 3 = 4 + 9 = 13 Now that we know x. and r. 7) is a point on the terminal side of θ . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . x = 2 and y = 3 . and r.Trigonometric Functions 3. 3 7 r 5 2 = = 2 5 x 5 x = −1 cot θ = = y −5 sec θ = 520 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. r = x 2 + y 2 = 5 + (−5)2 = 25 + 25 = 50 7 7 58 7 58 y = = ⋅ = 58 r 58 58 58 −5 −1 2 2 y = = ⋅ =− 2 r 5 2 2 2 5 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 5 2 2 2 y −5 = −1 tan θ = = 5 x r 5 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −5 y cos θ = 58 3 sec θ = −3 −1 2 2 y = =− ⋅ =− 2 r 3 2 2 2 cos θ = 13 2 sec θ = We need values for x. We need values for x. y. x = 3 and y = −3 . y. Furthermore. r = x 2 + y 2 = 32 + 7 2 = 9 + 49 = 58 Now that we know x. y. y. 3 1 2 2 x = = ⋅ = 2 r 3 2 2 2 y −3 = −1 tan θ = = x 3 r 3 2 =− 2 csc θ = = −3 y r 3 2 = = 2 3 x 3 x = −1 cot θ = = y −3 sec θ = 2 3 We need values for x.

3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function.4 We need values for x. Publishing as Prentice Hall. r = x 2 + y 2 = (−1) 2 + (−3)2 = 1 + 9 = 10 Now that we know x. Select the point P = (0. y = 0. 1): x = 0. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. 29 29 =− −2 2 −2 2 = −5 5 We need values for x. y = –1. y. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . 13. –5) is a point on the terminal side of θ . and r. sin θ = −5 −5 29 5 29 y = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 −2 −2 29 2 29 x = = ⋅ =− 29 r 29 29 29 y −5 5 tan θ = = = x −2 2 29 29 r =− csc θ = = −5 5 y cos θ = r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 8. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. 3π x 0 = = =0 cos 2 r 1 θ= θ= π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cotangent function. y. 0): x = −1. 0): x = −1. Select the point P = (0. and r. undefined x 0 2 3π radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the negative yaxis. Inc. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . undefined y 0 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−2) 2 + (−5) 2 = 4 + 25 = 29 Now that we know x. sin θ = tangent function. y = 0. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. 0): x = −1. r = 1 Apply the definition of the θ= 10 = − 10 −1 −1 1 = −3 3 15. θ = π radians The terminal side of the angle is on the negative xaxis. y 0 =0 tan π = = x −1 11. tan −3 −3 10 3 10 y = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 14. y = 0. Furthermore. Because P = (–1. y = 1. and r. r 1 = −1 sec π = = x −1 12. Select the point P = (–1.PreCalculus 4E 7. x = –1 and y = –3 . 10. Select the point P = (0. cot π 2 521 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y = 0. r 1 csc π = = . r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. and r. y. –3) is a point on the terminal side of θ . –1): x = 0. −1 −1 10 10 x cos θ = = = ⋅ =− 10 r 10 10 10 y −3 tan θ = = =3 x −1 10 10 r =− csc θ = = −3 3 y r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = 9. Select the point P = (–1. Select the point P = (–1. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosine function. –1): x = 0. r = 1 Apply the definition of the secant function. = x 0 = =0 y 1 . Because P = (–2. r = 1 Apply the definition of the cosecant function. y = −1. 0): x = −1. x = −2 and y = −5 . x −1 cos π = = = −1 r 1 3π y −1 = = . Select the point P = (–1. y. Section 4. Furthermore.

θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. Because sin θ < 0. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the sine is negative and the tangent is negative. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . 52 = (−3) 2 + y 2 y 2 = 25 − 9 = 16 y = − 16 = −4 Now that we know x. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . the tangent function is positive in those quadrants. 4 y −4 sin θ = = =− 5 5 r y −4 4 tan θ = = = x −3 3 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 3 x −3 3 = cot θ = = y −4 4 18. Thus. Thus. 12 y −12 sin θ = − = = . θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV.Trigonometric Functions 16. We are also given that cos θ > 0 . Thus. 13 r 13 Furthermore. Thus. the sine function is negative in those quadrants. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . radians 2 The terminal side of the angle is on the positive yaxis. We are also given that cos θ < 0 . Because quadrant I is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and sine is positive. 1): x = 0. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant III. with sin θ < 0. We are also given that sin θ < 0 . and r. x is negative and y is negative. Because quadrant III is the only quadrant in which the secant is negative and the cotangent is positive. We are also given that sec θ < 0 . undefined 2 x 0 23. θ lies in quadrant II or quadrant IV. θ cannot lie in quadrant II or quadrant IV. y. the tangent function is positive in those two quadrants. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant II. with tan θ < 0. Thus. 3 x −3 cosθ = − = = . θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. Furthermore. Thus. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant I. Because sin θ > 0. Because cot θ > 0. y = 1. Because quadrant IV is the only quadrant in which the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. Because tan θ < 0. . Thus. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. 19. the cotangent function is negative in those two quadrants. 5 r 5 r 2 = x2 + y2 17. θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. x2 + y 2 = r 2 20. Because tan θ < 0. with sin θ < 0. Thus. Select the point P = (0. π y 1 tan = = . θ cannot lie in quadrant I or quadrant II. In quadrant III x is negative and y is negative. θ lies in quadrant III or quadrant IV. 522 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the sine function is positive in those two quadrants. We are also given that cos θ > 0. with cot θ > 0. x = –3. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because quadrant II is the only quadrant in which the cosine is negative and the tangent is negative. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant IV. y = −12. and r. x 2 + (−12) 2 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 144 = 25 x = − 25 = −5 Now that we know x. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant II. with sin θ > 0. 24. y. In quadrant III. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. with tan θ < 0. x −5 5 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 y −12 12 tan θ = = = x −5 5 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −12 12 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −5 5 x −5 5 cot θ = = = y −12 12 21. Because sin θ < 0. θ= π 22. r = 5. we conclude that θ lies in quadrant III. θ lies in quadrant I or quadrant III. Inc. r = 1 Apply the definition of the tangent function. r = 13 . θ cannot lie in quadrant III or quadrant IV.

r = 5 . y. Furthermore x2 + y 2 = r 2 25. x = 8. 3 r 2 2 x + y = r2 42 + y 2 = 52 y 2 = 25 − 16 = 9 12 + y 2 = 32 y = − 9 = −3 Now that we know x.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. sin θ = y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 tan θ = y −2 2 = = −2 2 x 1 r 3 3 2 3 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 r 3 sec θ = = = 3 x 1 csc θ = cot θ = x 1 1 2 2 = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 523 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 1 x cos θ = = . 17 r r = 17. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y. In quadrant IV x is positive and y is negative. and r. 8 x cos θ = = . In quadrant IV. In quadrant IV. Furthermore. x = 1. y −15 15 sin θ = = =− r 17 17 y −15 15 tan θ = = =− x 8 8 r 17 17 csc θ = = =− y −15 15 r 17 sec θ = = x 8 x 8 8 cot θ = = =− y −15 15 x −12 12 = =− r 13 13 y 5 5 = =− x −12 12 r 13 = y 5 r 13 13 = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 = =− y 5 5 26. Thus. 5 r 2 2 x + y = r2 28. cos θ = tan θ = csc θ = sec θ = cot θ = y 2 = 289 − 64 = 225 y = − 225 = −15 Now that we know x. and r. Furthermore. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ .4 27. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . . 13 r x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + 52 = 132 x 2 = 169 − 25 = 144 82 + y 2 = 17 2 x = − 144 = −12 Now that we know x. y. In quadrant II x is negative and y is positive. θ is in quadrant IV. and r. Furthermore. 4 x cos θ = = . and r. r = 13 . y = 5. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Thus. x is positive and y is negative. x = 4. Because 270° < θ < 360°. Thus. θ is in quadrant IV. Because 270° < θ < 360°. 5 y sin θ = = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. x is positive and y is negative. y. Thus. Inc. y −3 3 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 y −3 3 tan θ = = =− x 4 4 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −3 3 r 5 sec θ = = x 4 x 4 4 cot θ = = =− y −3 3 y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. r = 3 .

x is 4 y −4 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = 1. Thus. Thus. 5 y −5 tan θ = = = . y. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y −5 5 sin θ = = =− r 13 13 x −12 12 cos θ = = =− r 13 13 r 13 13 csc θ = = =− y −5 5 r 13 13 sec θ = = =− x −12 12 x −12 12 cot θ = = = y −5 5 10 10 =− −3 3 −3 = −3 1 524 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. y. θ lies in quadrant III. Furthermore. 3 x −3 31. y. In quadrant III. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . tan θ = = = 3 x −3 x = –3. and r. θ lies in quadrant II. y. Furthermore. x = −3. 12 x −12 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 12 = 9 + 1 = 10 Now that we know x. sin θ = y 2 2 13 2 13 = = ⋅ = r 13 13 13 13 cos θ = −3 −3 13 x 3 13 = = ⋅ =− r 13 13 13 13 csc θ = r 13 = y 2 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = = 25 = 5 Now that we know x. Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. Thus. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. x is negative and y is positive. negative and y is negative. 2 y 2 tan θ = − = = . r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + (−4)2 = 9 + 16 r = x 2 + y 2 = (−3) 2 + 22 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. x is negative and y is positive. Furthermore. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . Thus. and r. sin θ = y 1 1 10 10 = = ⋅ = r 10 10 10 10 cos θ = −3 −3 x 10 3 10 = = ⋅ =− r 10 10 10 10 csc θ = r 10 = = 10 y 1 r = x x cot θ = = y sec θ = r = x 2 + y 2 = (−12) 2 + (−5)2 = 144 + 25 = 169 = 13 Now that we know x. 1 y 1 tan θ = − = = . y = 2. x is negative and y is negative. θ lies in quadrant III. y = –4. x = −12. In quadrant III. In quadrant II. Because the tangent is negative and the sine is positive. . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . y −4 4 sin θ = = =− r 5 5 x −3 3 cos θ = = =− r 5 5 r 5 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 r 5 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 x −3 3 cot θ = = = y −4 4 13 13 =− −3 3 −3 3 =− 2 2 30.Trigonometric Functions 29. and r. Because the tangent is positive and the cosine is negative. Furthermore. 3 x −3 32. θ lies in quadrant II. In quadrant II. and r. y = −5 . Inc. x = −3 .

θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 41. it is 6 2 6 6 in quadrant II. Because 44. Because 205° lies between 180° and 270°. Furthermore.4 33. it is in quadrant III. Because the secant is negative and the tangent is positive. x is negative and y is negative. θ′ = π − 6 6 6 6 x = − 15 Now that we know x. 36. Inc. r 3 3 2 3 2 csc θ = = = ⋅ =− y −2 2 −2 2 2 4 cot θ = x 1 2 2 −1 = = ⋅ = y −2 2 2 2 2 4 7π 3π 6π 8π lies between = and 2π = . 525 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. it is in quadrant II. y −2 2 = =2 2 x −1 40. r 4 csc θ = −4 = = . θ′ = π − 7 7 7 7 π= 45. x = −1. Because 34. Because 160° lies between 90° and 180°. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 355° = 5° . Thus. it 4 4 2 4 is in quadrant III. y −1 5π 4π 3π 6π lies between π = and = . and r. The reference angle is 14 5π 7π 5π 2π = − = . it is in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 170° = 10° . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . The reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° . −150° + 360° = 210° Because the angle is in quadrant III. Because 210° lies between 180° and 270°. it 4 2 4 4 is in quadrant IV. Because x2 + y 2 = r 2 x 2 + (−1) 2 = 42 x 2 = 16 − 1 = 15 5π π 3π 6π lies between = and π = . r 3 sec θ = −3 = = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. r = 4 . x is negative and y is negative. Because the cosecant is negative and the tangent is positive. (−1)2 + y 2 = 32 37. Furthermore. the reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . x −1 x2 + y 2 = r 2 35. . it is in quadrant IV. r = 3 . we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . The reference angle is 7π 8π 7π π = − = . 38. 4 4 4 4 42. y −2 2 2 2 = =− r 3 3 x −1 1 cos θ = = =− r 3 3 sin θ = tan θ = 39. y. In quadrant III. The reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 160° = 20° . The reference angle is 5π 6π 5π π = − = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . In quadrant III. The reference angle is 5π 5π 4π π θ′ = −π = − = . y −1 1 sin θ = = =− r 4 4 x − 15 15 cos θ = = =− r 4 4 y 1 15 15 −1 tan θ = = = ⋅ = x − 15 15 15 15 sec θ = r 4 4 15 4 15 = =− ⋅ =− x − 15 15 15 15 cot θ = x − 15 = = 15 y −1 43. Because 351° lies between 270° and 360°. and r. θ lies in quadrant III. The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 351° = 9° .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. it is in quadrant III. Thus. θ lies in quadrant III. Because 355° lies between 270° and 360°. it is in quadrant IV. y. y = −1. y2 = 9 −1 = 8 y = − 8 = −2 2 Now that we know x. Because 170° lies between 90° and 180°. Because 5π 10π π 7π = lies between = and 2 14 7 14 14π . it is in quadrant II.

50. the reference angle is θ ′ = 1° . 48. −359° + 360° = 1° Because the angle is in quadrant I. 4 4 3 . 60. Because 4. 3 526 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.71 . −250° + 360° = 110° Because the angle is in quadrant II. 56. the reference angle is θ ′ = 25° . the reference angle is θ ′ = 193° − 180° = 13° . the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . 2 62.7 − π ≈ 1. Because 5.71 and 2π ≈ 6. 57. the reference 11π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = .56 . the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = −π = .28 . The reference angle is θ ′ = 360° − 300° = 60° . 58. the reference angle is θ ′ = 180° − 110° = 70° . . 6 6 − 13π 13π 18π 5π + 6π = − + = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. Inc.14 and 3π ≈ 4. 3π ≈ 4. 3 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant III. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . 553° − 360° = 193° Because the angle is in quadrant III. The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45° . the reference angle is θ ′ = 205° − 180° = 25° .78 .7 lies between π ≈ 3. the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = π − = .Trigonometric Functions 46. 300° lies in quadrant IV. The reference angle is θ ′ = 2π − 5. 11π 11π 16π 5π + 4π = − + = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant III. it 2 59. 4 4 sin 60° = sin 300° = − sin 60° = − 23π 23π 16π 7π − 4π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. 53. −335° + 360° = 25° Because the angle is in quadrant I.5 lies between 51. 52. 3 3 tan 210°= tan 30° = 3 . 6 6 − 25π 25π 36π 11π + 6π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. cos 45° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 2π = − = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant II. tan 30° = 17π 17π 12π 5π − 4π = − = 3 3 3 3 Because the angle is in quadrant IV. 3 3 − 61. 225° lies in quadrant III. 2 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant III. 54. The reference angle is θ ′ = 4. The reference angle is θ ′ = 210° − 180° = 30° . 2 it is in quadrant IV. 49. 55. 47. Publishing as Prentice Hall. is in quadrant III.5 ≈ 0. 2 63. 565° − 360° = 205° Because the angle is in quadrant III. 6 6 cos 225°= − cos 45°= − 2 . 4 4 − 17π 17π 24π 7π + 4π = − + = 6 6 6 6 Because the angle is in quadrant III. the reference 3π π angle is θ ′ = π − = . 210° lies in quadrant III. 3 2 Because the sine is negative in quadrant IV. 11π 11π 8π 3π − 2π = − = 4 4 4 4 Because the angle is in quadrant II. the reference 7π π angle is θ ′ = 2π − = . the reference 5π π angle is θ ′ = −π = .

The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . sec 60° = 2 Because the secant is negative in quadrant III. 7π lies in quadrant IV. 72. θ′ = 4 4 4 4 tan 2π lies in quadrant II. The reference angle is θ ′ = 405° − 360° = 45° . The reference angle is 3 2π 3π 2π π θ′ = π − = − = . 3 3 2 3π lies in quadrant II. θ ′ = 2π − 4 4 4 4 65. 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. sec 240° = − sec 60° − 2 . 420° lies in quadrant I. Publishing as Prentice Hall. =– cos = − 4 4 2 3 . 70. 66.4 64. 240° lies in quadrant III. tan 405°=tan45°=1 . 7π π cot = − cot = −1 . –240° lies in quadrant II. 9π π tan =tan = 1 4 4 3 = 3 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. The reference angle is 6 7π 7π 6π π −π = − = . 6 6 csc π =1 4 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. 2 2 2 2 π 9π is also Because tan is undefined. 67. The reference angle is θ ′ = 240° − 180° = 60° . –225° lies in quadrant II. . sin 9π lies in quadrant I. 3 3 3 3 sin π =1 4 Because the cotangent is negative in quadrant IV. 4 4 cot 527 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The reference angle is θ ′ = 225° − 180° = 45°. 2 sin 45° = π =2 6 Because the cosecant is negative in quadrant III. The reference angle is 4 3π 4π 3π π θ′ = π − = − = . π 69. The reference angle is 2 9π 9π 8π π θ′ = − 4π = − = . tan 2 2 undefined. 7π lies in quadrant III. The reference angle is 4 9π 9π 8π π − 2π = − = . cos 9π lies on the positive y-axis. 405° lies in quadrant I. 7π π csc = − csc = −2 . The reference angle is 4 7π 8π 7π π = − = . 68. θ′ = 6 6 6 6 2 2 Because the sine is positive in quadrant II. tan 60° = 3 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. 2 74.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 71. 2π π 3 =sin = . The reference angle is θ ′ = 420° − 360° = 60° . sin 60° = sin(−240°)= sin 60°= 3π π 2 . tan 420°= tan 60°= 3 . tan 45° = 1 Because the tangent is positive in quadrant I. 2 sin(−225°) = sin 45° = . 73. 4 4 4 4 π 2 cos = 4 2 Because the cosine is negative in quadrant II. Inc.

17π 5π 17π 5π cos sin + cos 3 4 3 4 ⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 2⎞ = ⎜− − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6− 2 = 4 = 7π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = tan 6 = 3 ⎠ π 3 ⎞ ⎟ = sin 3 = 2 ⎠ 528 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. =1 4 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. cos 23π 7π 2 = cos = 4 4 2 82. tan = sec 495° = sec135° = − 2 78. cot 13π π 3 = cot = 3 3 3 81. sin ⎛ 2⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 1 − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ 3 6 6 3 Because the tangent is negative in quadrant IV. The reference angle is 4 θ′ = π 4 76. lies in quadrant IV. θ= π ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ =⎜ −1 − −1 ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ( ) ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ( ) ⎝ ⎠ . Inc. π ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − tan = −1 4 ⎝ 4⎠ tan sin 89. The reference angle is π 3 =− π . cot π 4 cos 0 − sin π 6 cos π 2 1 + 2 2 2 +1 = 2 = 3 ⎛ π⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = − . . 2 3 sec 510° = sec150° = − 3 79. − π 87. − π 6 π cos π − cos π 3 sin 3π 2 3 1 + 2 2 1− 3 = 2 88.Trigonometric Functions 75. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π ⎛ 11π ⎞ = tan = 1 tan ⎜ − ⎟ 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 85. 19π 7π = cot = 3 6 6 11π 5π 11π 5π cos sin + cos 4 6 4 6 ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ =⎜ − + − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 6 2 − 4 4 6+ 2 =− 4 =− 80. ⎛ 17π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 86. ⎛ 17π tan ⎜ − ⎝ 6 84. 6 3 ⎝ ⎠ 77. cos 35π 11π 3 = cos = 6 6 2 83. π 1 ⎛ 35π ⎞ = sin = sin ⎜ − ⎟ 6 2 ⎝ 6 ⎠ 90. lies in quadrant IV.

Inc.4 3π ⎛ 15π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − − cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1)(1) − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ 1 = −1 − 2 2 1 =− − 2 2 3 =− 2 sin 95.PreCalculus 4E 91. f ( x2 ) ) 2 3 3 − 2 2 3 3 =− 2 =− 93. Section 4. 17π ⎝ 3 ( h D g ) ⎛⎜ 96. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. m= f ( x2 ) − f ( x1 ) x2 − x1 ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ − sin ⎜ 4 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 3π 5π − 2 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ 4π π ⎞ ⎛ 4π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ f⎜ + ⎟+ f ⎜ +f⎜ ⎟ ⎟ 6⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝6⎠ 4 π π 4 π π ⎛ ⎞ = sin ⎜ + ⎟ + sin + sin 6⎠ 3 6 ⎝ 3 3π 4π π = sin + sin + sin 2 3 6 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛1⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎠ =− ⎞⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ cos ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎛1⎞ = 2⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ =1 sin =− 3− ⎛ ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎟ = h⎜ g ⎜ 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ π 4 2 −1 + 2 = 3 +1 2 π 4 ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ ⎛ 5π π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ + ⎟+ g⎜ g⎜ ⎟+ g⎜ 6 ⎟ 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π π ⎛ 5π π ⎞ = cos ⎜ + ⎟ + cos + cos 6 6 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ π 5π = cos π + cos + cos 6 6 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 3 3⎞ = ( −1) + ⎜ − + ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = −1 = ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2 2 −4 π 529 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. f ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . 94. ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ 11π ⎞ = h⎜ f ⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ⎛ ⎛ 11π ⎞ ⎞ = 2 ⎜ sin ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠⎠ ( h D f ) ⎛⎜ 3π ⎛ 8π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ tan ⎜ − + cos ⎜ − ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 6 ⎠ ⎛ 3⎞ = ( −1) 3 + ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 2⎞ = 2⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) = 2 3 2 97. 92.

g ( x2 ) ) m= 2 π when the reference angle is and 4 2 θ is in quadrants III or IV. QI QII θ =π − . Explanations will vary. QII QIII sin θ = θ= θ = 2π − 102. Inc. sin θ = − g ( x2 ) − g ( x1 ) x2 − x1 QIII ⎛ 3π ⎞ cos (π ) − cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ = 3π π− 4 ⎛ 2⎞ −1 − ⎜⎜ − ⎟⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ = θ =π + 99. 104. 4 θ =π − 4 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is in 3 2 quadrants I or IV. 3 3 100. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 4 4 4 = π = π ⎛ 2 4 ⎜ −1 + ⎜ 2 = ⎝ ⎛π ⎞ 4⎜ ⎟ ⎝4⎠ QIV 3 θ = 2π − π 6 11π = 6 105. 530 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.Trigonometric Functions 98. 3 3 π 4 = π 1 π when the reference angle is and θ is 3 2 in quadrants II or III. does not make sense. cos θ = − 2 2 −4 π 4 5π 4 5π 7π θ= . 110. The average rate of change is the slope of the line through the points ( x1 . QI QIV π θ = 2π − 3 = θ= . cos θ = θ= 7π 4 θ =π + in quadrants II or IV. ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ θ =π − 2 π when the reference angle is and θ is 4 2 in quadrants I or II. g ( x1 ) ) and ( x2 . tan θ = − 3 when the reference angle is 3π = 4 θ= π 3 2π = 3 2π 4π θ= . Answers may vary. 101. QII π π 3π 4 4 103. . π 3 4π = 3 π 3 and θ is QIV θ = 2π − π 3 5π = 3 3 π when the reference angle is and 6 3 θ is in quadrants II or IV. 6 6 π 5π 3 π 3 2π = 3 2π 5π θ= . tan θ = − π QII 3 5π 3 θ =π − QIV π 6 5π = 6 5π 11π θ= . Sample explanation: Sine is defined for all values of the angle. – 109.

Sample explanation: Sine and cosecant have the same sign within any quadrant because they are reciprocals of each other. Sample explanation: It is also possible that y = −3 and x = −5. the reference angle 4 5π 5π 4π π −π = − = is 4 4 4 4 Since 531 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . x 1 5 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 7 3 3 0 − 2 2 11 4 3 3 −3 − 0 2 3 6. y = 3sin x 0 y 0 7π 12 4 π 2 5π 6 0 10π radians 180 π radians 180° =− 105π radians 180 7π radians 12 π π 3. 10° = 10° ⋅ = 112. Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 1. does not make sense. 0 2π ⎞ ⎛ 115. Explanations will vary. Explanations will vary. a. − 5. − 19π 19π 24π 5π + 6π = − + = 4 4 4 4 b. 113. 8 4 1 2 5π 5π radians 180o radians = ⋅ = 75o 12 12 π radians 4. 2. y = 4 sin ⎜ 2 x − 3 ⎟⎠ ⎝ x = radians =− 0 8 18 180° −105° = −105° ⋅ 1 114. makes sense π − 4 1 2 y π 0 1 − 2 y π 3 0 116. the reference angle 3 5π 6π 5π π is 2π − = − = 3 3 3 3 c. c.PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 111. 5π is in quadrant IV. y = cos(4 x + π ) 2 x − π π radians 13π 12 −4 4π 3 0 13π 13π radians 180o radians = − ⋅ π radians 20 20 o = −117 11π 11π 6π 5π − 2π = − = 3 3 3 3 b. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. Since a. does not make sense. 5π is in quadrant III.

52 + b 2 = 62 25 + b 2 = 36 b 2 = 11 c. Inc. . and r. sin θ = −2 2 13 y = =− 13 r 13 3 3 13 x = = 13 r 13 2 y −2 tan θ = = =− 3 3 x 13 13 r =− csc θ = = −2 2 y cos θ = 13 r = 3 x 3 3 x =− cot θ = = 2 y −2 sec θ = 532 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . a 2 + b2 = c2 b. we can find the six trigonometric functions of θ . Use the Pythagorean theorem to find b. the reference angle is 180° − 150° = 30° cos θ = r = x2 + y2 2 adjacent 11 = hypotenuse 6 opposite 5 11 = adjacent 11 hypotenuse 6 = csc θ = opposite 5 tan θ = 2 9 16 25 ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ 4⎞ r = ⎜− ⎟ +⎜− ⎟ = + = =1 5 5 25 25 25 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Now that we know x.Trigonometric Functions 7. 4 − y 4 sin θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 3 − x 3 cos θ = = 5 = − r 1 5 4 − y 4 tan θ = = 5 = 3 3 x − 5 r 1 5 csc θ = = =− y −4 4 5 r 1 5 sec θ = = =− x −3 3 5 3 − x 3 cot θ = = 5 = 4 y − 4 5 10. a. b = 11 opposite 5 = sin θ = hypotenuse 6 Since 150° is in quadrant II. 8. y. Publishing as Prentice Hall. y. sec θ = hypotenuse 6 6 11 = = adjacent 11 11 cot θ = adjacent 11 = opposite 5 r = x2 + y2 r = 32 + (−2) 2 = 9 + 4 = 13 Now that we know x. and r. 510° − 360° = 150° 9.

y = + 35 = 35 y 35 ⎛π ⎞ = 35 cot ⎜ − θ ⎟ = tan θ = = x 1 ⎝2 ⎠ x2 + y2 = r 2 32 + y 2 = 72 9 + y 2 = 49 y 2 = 40 y = ± 40 = ±2 10 Because the cosine is positive and the sine is negative. sec 20. r = 6 . sin θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− r 7 7 tan θ = y −2 10 2 10 = =− x 3 3 r 7 7 10 = =− y −2 10 20 r 7 sec θ = = x 3 x 3 3 10 cot θ = = =− y −2 10 20 csc θ = 16. x is positive and y is negative. θ is in quadrant IV. x = 3. we can find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . cot120° = 1 1 1 3 = = =− tan120° − tan 60° − 3 3 18. cos 240° = − cos 60° = − 19. 7 r Since θ is acute. tan 30° = 3 3 17. . Inc. Furthermore. Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is negative. 6 r x2 + y2 = r 2 12 + y 2 = 62 1 + y 2 = 36 y 2 = 35 y = ± 35 3 x = . r 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 r =5 Now that we know x. sin 2 11π = 6 π 7 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 = = = = 11π π 3 3 3 cos cos 6 6 2 + cos 2 π 7 =1 533 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. In quadrant IV. y = 3 .PreCalculus 4E Mid-Chapter 4 Check Point 11. y 3 sin θ = = r 5 4 x −4 =− cos θ = = 5 5 r r 5 csc θ = = y 3 r 5 5 =− sec θ = = x −3 4 x −3 4 =− cot θ = = y 4 3 12. r = 7 . In quadrant II. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Therefore y = −2 10 Use x. y. x = −4. x = 1. and r. Since cos θ = 1 x = . 4 y 13. Since cos θ = side adjacent θ hypotenuse 250 cos 72° = c 250 c= cos 72° c ≈ 809 m cos θ = 15. y. 3 x tan θ = − = . side opposite θ side adjacent θ a tan 41° = 60 a = 60 tan 41° tan θ = r 2 = x2 + y2 r = (−3) + 4 2 2 a ≈ 52 cm 2 14. Furthermore. Furthermore. and r to find the remaining trigonometric functions of θ . θ is in quadrant II. x is negative and y is positive. Thus.

− cos π = (1) − (−1) = 1 + 1 = 2 2 ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ + 2π n ⎟ + tan ⎜ + nπ ⎟ cos ⎜ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 5π 5π π π = cos + tan = − cos − tan 6 6 6 6 3 3 3 3 2 3 =− − =− − 2 3 6 6 5 3 =− 6 side opposite θ hypotenuse h sin 6° = 5280 h = 5280sin 6° h ≈ 551. 2 3 =− 24. Publishing as Prentice Hall.13 cm = 8 revolutions per minute ⋅ 2 3 3 = − cos 45° = − 5 28. .9 feet sin θ = side opposite θ side adjacent θ 50 tan θ = 60 ⎛ 50 ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 60 ⎠ θ ≈ 40° tan θ = 534 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.7 feet per minute T he linear speed of the horse is about 502. cos 495° = cos ( 495° − 360° ) = cos135° = tan = 8π ≈ 25. π radians π 36° = 36° ⋅ = radians 180° 5 s = rθ = 40 ⋅ 3 =− 2 22. 8 revolutions per minute 4π ⎞ ⎛ 22π ⎞ ⎟ = csc ⎜ 3 − 6π ⎟ = csc 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 1 1 = = = 4π π 3 − sin sin − 3 3 2 =− π 3 3 30. Convert 8 revolutions per minute to radians per minute. ⎛ 22π csc ⎜ ⎝ 3 23. It is given that r = 10 feet and the merry-go-round rotates at 8 revolutions per minute. 26. Inc. 7π ⎛ 17π ⎞ ⎛ 17π ⎞ tan ⎜ − ⎟ = tan ⎜ − 6 + 4π ⎟ = tan 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sin 2 π 2 π 6 = 2π radians 1 revolution = 16π radians per minute ν = rω = (10)(16π ) = 160π ≈ 502. Begin by converting from degrees to radians. 25.7 feet per minute. Linear speed is given by ν = rω . 2 2 29.Trigonometric Functions 21. ⎛ 2π sin ⎜ − ⎝ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎟ = sin ⎜ − 3 + 2π ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 4π π = sin = − sin 3 3 27.

Thus. 0) 3π 2 1 3π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − (−1) = 2 2 3π 1 . Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 2π π the period. −3 2 2π y = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . the amplitude is 2 1 1 1 A = − = . by 4. 2 π x=π+ x= y = 3sin 1 The equation y = − sin x is of the form y = Asin x 2 1 with A = − . Inc. then by 4 4 2 adding quarter.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. We find the three x–intercepts. the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 The period for both y = 3sin x and y = sinx is 2π. 2 2 2π 1 y = − sin 2π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (2 π . 0) 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sinx. The five x-values are x=0 x = 0+ x= π 2 π + x =π + = 2 π 2 π 2 π x=0+ 2 =π = x= 3π 2 2 + x y = 3sin x 0 y = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π π 2 x (0. 2 . 2π] by dividing the period. then by adding quarter-periods to 4 4 2 generate x-values for each of the key points.5 Section 4.− 1 2 . 0) π 2 0 . The period for both y = − sin x 2 2 2 and y = sin x is 2π . and the minimum point on the interval [0. 2π . by 4.periods. 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 0) 2 π 2 π 2 = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= coordinates = 3 ⋅1 = 3 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. the maximum point.5 Check Point Exercises 1. Thus. The equation y = 3sin x is of the form y = A sin x with A = 3. 1 y = − sin x 2 535 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. = = . 2. 0) 3π 2 3π y = 3 sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 3π . 2π. 0) 1 π y = − sin 2 2 1 1 = − ⋅1 = − 2 2 π π 1 y = − sin π 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 (π . The five x-values are x=0 π 1 y = − sin 0 2 1 = − ⋅0 = 0 2 coordinates (0. period 2π π = = .3 π y = 3sin x = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

x = π 6 . 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle = 2 ⋅0 = 0 y = 2 sin 3 amplitude is A = 3 = 3 . 2 The amplitude is A = 2 = 2 . Inc. B 2 coordinates 1 ⋅0 2 π y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3. π (0. 1 x is of the form 2 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . and C = = 2 sin 0 π The equation y = 3 sin 2 x − (2 π . 2 Find the x–values for the five key points by dividing period 4π = = π . then by the period. 0 ) = 2 sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3. The C 3 π 1 π = = ⋅ = . The phase shift is B 2 3 2 6 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π = . The period is B The equation y = 2sin Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. Publishing as Prentice Hall. then by adding the period. 2) begins. by 4. 2π 2π = 1 = 4π . Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the right.Trigonometric Functions Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . B = 2. π . x 0 y = 2sin y = 2 sin 1 x 2 4. 4π . = 2 ⋅1 = 2 1 ⋅2π 2 is of the form π 3 . Extend the pattern of each graph to the left and right as desired. 2π 2π The period is = =π. 3π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅3π 2 (3π . 0) = 2 sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 536 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . − 2 ) 3π 2 = 2 ⋅ (−1) = −2 = 2 sin 4π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . 0) = 2 sin 2π y = 2 sin 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 (π . 4 4 adding quarter-periods. The five x-values are x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. by 4.

The five x-values are x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 2.0 = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 5π 12 ⎛ 5π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 3π π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 5π . Inc.5 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. = = . x= π x π 6 y = 3sin 2x − y = 3sin 2 ⋅ π 6 π coordinates 3 − 5. (1. the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . −3 12 7π 6 y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ 7π π − 6 3 The equation y = −4 cos π x is of the form y = Acos Bx with A = −4. then by adding 4 4 2 quarter periods to the value of x where the cycle begins.0 2 =0 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 1) = −4 cos π = 4 537 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The period is B π Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period 2 1 the period. –4) = −4 cos 0 = −4 1 2 7π . 2π 2π = = 2. π π 3 6 . The five x-values are x= π 6 π 2π 3π 5π + = + = 6 4 12 12 12 5π π 5π 3π 8π 2π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 3 2π π 8π 3π 11π x= + = + = 3 4 12 12 12 11π π 11π 3π 14 π 7π x= + = + = = 12 4 12 12 12 6 Evaluate the function at each value of x. and B = π .0 6 ⎛ 1⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ = −4 cos 6π = 3 sin 2π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 = 3 sin π 2 1 . x=0+ x y = −4 cos πx 0 y = −4 cos (π ⋅ 0 ) coordinates (0. Thus. by 4.0 3 11π 12 ⎛ 11π π ⎞ − ⎟ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ ⎝ 12 3 ⎠ 9π 3π = 3sin = 3sin 6 2 = 3 ( −1) = −3 11π . Publishing as Prentice Hall.3 12 2π 3 ⎛ 2π π ⎞ y = 3sin ⎜ 2 ⋅ − ⎟ 3 3⎠ ⎝ 3π = 3sin = 3sin π 3 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 2π . 4) .

Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 2 2π 2π The period is = =π. 2 π 4 2 . π π π − π 3 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 . x = − 3 cos(2 x + π ) 2 π 3 cos − + π 2 2 3 cos(0 + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅ −1 = − 2 2 = π 3 cos + π 2 2 x=− y= π x=− 2 2 π 4 x=0+ x= π + + + π 4 π π 4 π 4 = = =− . –4) = −4 cos 2π = −4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 538 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 3 3 cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π )) 2 2 The equation is of the form y = Acos(Bx − C) with 3 A = .Trigonometric Functions ⎛ 3⎞ y = −4 cos ⎜ π ⋅ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ 3π = −4 cos =0 2 3 2 y = −4 cos(π ⋅ 2) 2 3 . B 2 π C −π The phase shift is = =− . − π 4 3 2 .0 3 π 3 cos(π + π ) . 2 B 2 Find the x-values for the five key points by dividing period π the period. Extend the pattern of the graph another full period to the left. π .0 2 x − π 2 (2. 2 2 2 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given graph. the amplitude is A = = . by 4. 2 3 3 Thus. and C = −π . Inc. 2 The five x-values are x=− − 3 ⋅0 = 0 2 y= y= coordinates π 4 =0 π 4 π 4 4 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. = . − π 4 y= 3 cos(−π + π ) 2 3 3 = ⋅1 = 2 2 y= y= = 0 π 4 6. .0 0. B = 2 . then by adding 4 4 quarter-periods to the value of x where the cycle y= begins.

The cycle begins at x = 0.1 2 6 π =C 2 Substitute these values into y = Asin(Bx − C) + D . Thus. The quarter-period is 2π π or . D = 12. we obtain one period of the graph.1 (π . The period is . 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 π 2 y = 2 cos π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 π y = 2 cos π + 1 3π 2 y = 2 cos 2π A. 12 = B 12B = 2π 3π . . is the maximum value of y. or 12 2π months. π 2π A = 4 .5 The graph of y = 2 cosx + 1 is the graph of y = 2 cosx shifted one unit upwards. A = 2. The graph is modeled by y = 4 sin 4 x . 539 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. is 3. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 8. 2 =π = 9. The number of hours of daylight is modeled by (2 π .PreCalculus 4E 7. The graph shows that this maximum value is 4. 12 hours. Thus. the amplitude. 2 B π 2π = 2 B πB = 4 π π 2 2π π = 12 6 The graph shows that the starting point of the cycle is C shifted from 0 to 3. Thus. y = 2sin π 6 x− π 2 + 12 . The period is 12. Inc. The phase shift. Thus. . Thus. The maximum number of hours is 2 hours above 12 hours. B C 3= B C 3= π B= . 3) = 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 3 By connecting the points with a smooth curve. Section 4. 3π 2 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. x y = 2 cosx + 1 coordinates 0 y = 2 cos0 + 1 (0. the curve oscillates about the middle value. π B=4 Substitute these values into y = A sin Bx . The period for both functions is 2π . Add quarter4 2 periods to generate x-values for the key points. and period = . Publishing as Prentice Hall. −1) = 2 ⋅(−1) + 1 = −1 3π +1 2 = 2 ⋅0 +1 =1 y = 2 cos2π + 1 Because the hours of daylight ranges from a minimum of 10 hours to a maximum of 14 hours.

The quarter-period is or .5 (π . . 0) 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Inc. −5 2 (2 π . The period is 2π . x=0 3π = 5(−1) = −5 2 (0. 2π π The period is 2π . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . 0) π π 2 y = 5sin π 2 coordinates = 5 ⋅1 = 5 . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. −4 2 2π y = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2 π . 540 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The equation y = 4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 4.5 1. the amplitude is A = 5 = 5 .Trigonometric Functions 2.4 π y = 5sin π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 (π . Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . Exercise Set 4. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) 3π 2 y = 5sin 2π y = 5sin 2π = 5 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 π y = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = 4 sin 3π . The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Thus. 0) π 2 . 3π 2 x 2 π x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. 2π π or . the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0) 3π . 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = x=0+ π x= 2 =π = y = 4 sin x 0 y = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin 2 + π 2 = 4 ⋅1 = 4 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = 5sin x coordinates 0 y = 5sin 0 = 5⋅ 0 = 0 (0. π The equation y = 5 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = 5. Thus.

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . 2 π x=π+ x= π 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 4 1 1 1 = . with A = . The period is 2π . 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. Thus. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) coordinates (0. π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 π 2 π 2 π 2 =π = 3π 2 x= x y= 1 sin x 4 (0. The period is 2π . 0) 2 . 541 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. the amplitude is A = 3 3 3 2π π or . the amplitude is A = 4 4 4 2π π or . Inc. .− 2 3 3π 2 y= 1 3π 1 1 sin = (−1) = − 2 4 4 4 1 3π . (2 π .PreCalculus 4E 3. x=0 The equation y = 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 . 0) y= 1 sin x 3 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 y= π y= 3π 2 y= 1 3π sin 2 3 1 1 = (−1) = − 3 3 y= + 2 = coordinates x 2π 2 π 3π π + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.− 2 4 2π y= 1 1 sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (2 π . 0) 1 3π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.5 1 sin x is of the form y = Asin x 3 1 1 1 = . 0) π y= 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 (π . x=0 The equation y = x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π 2 = 4. with A = . 0) 0 y= 1 1 sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0 4 4 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 3 3 3 π 1 π 2 3 y= 1 1 π 1 sin = ⋅1 = 2 4 4 4 π 1 2 1 1 sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0 3 3 (π . Thus. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Section 4. 4 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.

. π x=0+ 2 x= =π = 3π 2 x y = −3sin x 0 y = −3 sin x = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 2 y = −3 sin π 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 π y = −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −3sin 2π y = −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 = −3(−1) = 3 π 2 (0. 0) y = −4 sin π 2 coordinates = −4 ⋅1 = −4 π y = −4 sin π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π 2 y = −4 sin 2π y = −4 sin 2π = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = −4(−1) = 4 2 (0. 2π π or . the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . 2π π or . coordinates π + x=π+ 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. the amplitude is A = −3 = 3. The period is 2π . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x . The period is 2π . 0) π 2 . Inc. x=0 x=0+ x= π 2 + x=π+ π 2 π 2 π = 6. x=0 . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. 0) 3π . Thus.Trigonometric Functions 5. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0.4 2 (2 π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 542 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. −4 (π . π The equation y = −4 sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –4. 3π . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function with the graph of y = sin x .3 2 (2 π . 0) 2 π 2 π = π 2 =π = 3π 2 x y = −4 sin x 0 y = −4 sin 0 = −4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 2 π 2 3π π x= + = 2π 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The quarter-period is 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Thus. −3 (π . The equation y = −3sin x is of the form y = Asin x with A = –3. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.

543 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) π 2 . The A = 1 = 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π . The period is = = π . 0) 0 y = sin(4 ⋅ 0) = sin 0 = 0 π 4 π . The cycle begins at 4 2 4 8 x = 0.0 y = sin 4 ⋅ 4 y = sin 4 ⋅ 3π 8 y = sin 4 ⋅ = sin 3π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.5 The equation y = sin 2x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 2. Thus.PreCalculus 4E 7. 0) π (0. The cycle begins at x = 0. The period is B 4 2 coordinates π 8 π 4 = sin 2 =1 = sin π = 0 3π 8 π 8 π 4 . x=0 x=0+ The equation y = sin 4x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 1 and B = 4. The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 1 = 1. −1 4 π 3π = sin = −1 2 π ⋅ coordinates π 3π y = sin 2 ⋅ 4 π 1 π = sin π = 0 3π 4 = π =1 y = sin 2 ⋅ 2 . The B 2 quarter-period is π 8.1 . the amplitude is 2π 2π π = = . . x y = sin 2x 0 y = sin 2 ⋅ 0 = sin 0 = 0 π 4 y = sin 2 ⋅ = sin π 2 π 2 π 4 π π 8 + π 8 π 8 = = π 8 π x y = sin 4x (0. Inc. Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function.0 Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. −1 8 3π = −1 2 y = sin 2π = 0 2 (π . . Section 4. Add x= π 4 + π x=0+ 4 π 4 = π x= 2 π π 3π x= + = 2 4 4 3π π x= + =π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. x=0 quarter-period is 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.1 8 π π 2 2 y = sin(2 ⋅ π ) = sin 2π = 0 = 4 3π x= + = 4 8 8 3π π π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.0 3π .

3) = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π y = 2sin (0. the 4 amplitude is A = 2 = 2. The equation y = 2sin 1 . 2) = 2 ⋅1 = 2 4π y = 2sin π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 6π y = 2sin 8π y = 2sin 2π = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 3π = 2(−1) = −2 2 (4π . 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . 0) (3π . 0) (6π . 0) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The equation y = 3sin 1 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 2 1 x is of the form 4 1 y = Asin Bx with A = 2 and B = . 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 π x 1 ⋅ 2π 4 π 2 (2 π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. . − 3) 3π = 3sin 2 = 3(−1) = −3 4π 0 (π . Add quarter4 periods to generate x-values for the key points. The cycle begins at x = 0. 544 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The quarter-period is B 10. The cycle begins at x = 0. The quarterThe period is B with A = 3 and B = 2 4π period is = π .Trigonometric Functions 9. x 0 y = 3sin 1 x 2 4 8π = 2 π . x=0 x = 0 + 2π = 2π x = 2π + 2π = 4π x = 4π + 2 π = 6π x = 6π + 2 π = 8π Evaluate the function at each value of x. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. coordinates 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 0 2 y = 3sin = 3sin 2π 1 ⋅π 2 π 2 2π y = 2sin = 3 ⋅1 = 3 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 2π 2 1 y = 3sin ⋅ 3π 2 y = 3sin y = 2sin 1 x 4 1 ⋅0 4 coordinates (0. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 1 ⋅ 4π 2 (4π . Thus. x=0 x = 0 +π = π x = π + π = 2π x = 2π + π = 3π x = 3π + π = 4 π Evaluate the function at each value of x. Inc. The period is 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π . 0) = 2sin 0 = 2 ⋅ 0 = 0 = 2sin (2 π . − 2) (8π .

0) 3 4 3 .4 2 = 3sin = 4(1) = 4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅1) = 4 sin π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = 4 sin π ⋅ 3 2 1 2 (1. The period is B 2π 1 quarter-period is . −4 2 = 4 sin 2 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ coordinates y = 3sin 2π ⋅ = 3sin 1 (2. The amplitude 545 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. The equation y = −3 sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –3 and B = 2π . 4 2 Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. Inc. The period is = = 2 . 0) 3 4 3π 2 = 4(−1) = −4 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 2) = 4 sin 2π = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 2 1 4 (0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x=0 12. The equation y = 3sin 2πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 3 and B = 2π . 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. x=0 1 1 = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. −3 4 3π = 3(−1) = −3 2 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅1) = 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 (1. The cycle begins at x = 0.0 2 = 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 . x=0+ x=0+ x y = 4 sin πx 0 y = 4 sin(π ⋅ 0) = 4 sin 0 = 4 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 2 y = 4 sin π ⋅ = 4 sin 1 3 2 π 2 1 2 coordinates x y = 3sin 2πx (0. 0) 1 . The amplitude is 2π 2π A = 4 = 4. The amplitude 2π 2π = = 1. 1 1 = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The is A = 3 = 3. . 13. 0) 0 y = 3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0 1 4 1 .3 4 = 3 ⋅1 = 3 y = 3sin 2π ⋅ 1 2 1 .5 11. The equation y = 4 sin πx is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = 4 and B = π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The B π 2 1 quarter-period is = .

3 4 coordinates y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin = −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 3 4 x 1 2 1 . Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. The B 2π is A = −2 = 2 .2 2 3π = −2(−1) = 2 2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅2) = −2 sin 2π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 (2. The amplitude 546 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 0) = −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. The cycle begins at x = 0. y = −3 sin 2πx x coordinates quarter-period is 0 1 4 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) = −3sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 = −3sin quarter-period is (0. x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 4 4 1 1 1 x= + = 4 4 2 1 1 3 x= + = 2 4 4 3 1 x = + =1 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. The equation y = −2 sin π x is of the form y = Asin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . 0) y = −2 sin π x 0 y = −2 sin(π ⋅ 0) = −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 π 1 1 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 2 1 . The B π 3 2 (1. x=0 1 1 x=0+ = 2 2 1 1 x = + =1 2 2 1 3 x =1 + = 2 2 3 1 x = + =2 2 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x. with A = –1 and B = 14. 1 . 15. −3 4 2 = −3 ⋅1 = −3 1 2 2π 2π = = 2 . 0) 3 . The equation y = − sin 2 x is of the form y = Asin Bx 3 2 .Trigonometric Functions is A = −3 = 3. 0) Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 0) 1 . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. π 2 1 2 (0. 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1.0 2 3 2 3 y = −3sin 2π ⋅ 4 2 3π = −3sin 2 = −3(−1) = 3 y = −3sin(2 π ⋅1) 1 (1. 4 2 The cycle begins at x = 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The period is 2π 2π = = 1. −2 2 = −2 ⋅1 = −2 y = −2 sin(π ⋅1) = −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0 y = −2 sin π ⋅ = −2 sin 3 . . The period is 2 1 = . Inc.

−1 4 = −1 2 3π ⋅ 3 2 3π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.0 4 . x=0 3π 3π = x=0+ 8 8 3π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 4 3π 3π 9π x= + = 4 8 8 9π 3π 3π x= + = 8 8 2 Evaluate the function at each value of x.0 2 = − sin π = 0 9π 4 y = − sin 2 9π ⋅ 3 4 9π . The cycle begins at x = 0. 0) = − sin 0 = 0 (3π . 0) 3π 8 = − sin 2π = 0 y = − sin = − sin 3π 4 y = − sin 4 3π ⋅ 3 8 π 2 3π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4.5 The period is 2π 2π 3 = 2 = 2π ⋅ = 3π . 3 3π 2π 2π = 4 = 2π ⋅ = .1 4 3π = − sin 2 = −(−1) = 1 3π y = − sin 2 ⋅ 3π 3 3π 2 3π 1 3π ⋅ = . 4 2 4 8 The cycle begins at x = 0. 3 3π . The equation y = − sin x y = − sin 0 y = − sin 4 x 3 4 ⋅0 3 = coordinates (0. Add 4 quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points. −1 8 = −1 4 3π ⋅ 3 4 = − sin π = 0 547 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3π . x=0 3π 3π x=0+ = 4 4 3π 3π 3π x= + = 4 4 2 3π 3π 9π x= + = 2 4 4 9π 3π x= + = 3π 4 4 Evaluate the function at each value of x. B 2 Connect the five points with a smooth curve and graph one complete cycle of the given function. 0) 3π . The quarter-period is = − sin 0 = 0 3π 4 4 x is of the form 3 4 y = Asin Bx with A = –1 and B = . Inc. The quarter-period is 2 x 3 x y = − sin 0 2 y = − sin ⋅ 0 3 coordinates 3 y = − sin = − sin 3π 2 y = − sin 2 3π ⋅ 3 4 π 2 (0. 3 The amplitude is A = −1 = 1. The period is B 4 2 16.

Trigonometric Functions

9π

8

y = − sin

4 9π

⋅

3 8

9π

,1

8

3π

= − sin

= −(−1) = 1

2

3π

2

4 3π

y = − sin ⋅

3 2

3π

,0

2

x

y = sin(x − π )

coordinates

π

y = sin(π − π )

(π , 0)

3π

2

y = sin

= sin 0 = 0

= sin

= − sin 2π = 0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

−π

2

π

2

3π

,1

2

=1

2π

y = sin(2 π − π )

5π

2

y = sin

(2 π , 0)

= sin π = 0

= sin

5π

−π

2

5π

, −1

2

3π

= −1

2

y = sin(3π − π )

(3π , 0 )

= sin 2π = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

**17. The equation y = sin(x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is

C π

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

= = π . The

B

1

B 1

2π π

= . The cycle begins at x = π .

quarter-period is

4

2

Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=π

18. The equation y = sin x −

π

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

5π π

x=

+ = 3π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

2

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 1, and C =

π

2

. The

**amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is
**

π

2π 2π

C 2 π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

= = . The

B

1

B 1 2

2π π

= . The cycle begins at

quarter-period is

4

2

x=

π

**. Add quarter-periods to generate
**

2

x-values for the key points.

548

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x=

x=

Section 4.5

19. The equation y = sin(2 x − π ) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 1 = 1. The period is

2π 2π

C π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The quarterB

2

B 2

π

2

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

x

π

π

y = sin x −

π

2

y = sin

π

y = sin π −

3π

2

y = sin

2

π

−

x=

x=

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

2

= sin

3π π

−

2

2

π

2

=1

π

2

,0

(π , 1)

y = sin 2π −

3π

,0

2

y = sin

2

π

+

x

π

2

π

2

(2 π , −1)

5π π

−

2

2

π

=

3π

4

y = sin(2 x − π )

y = sin 2 ⋅

π

2

−π

coordinates

π

2

,0

= sin(π − π )

= sin 0 = 0

3π

= −1

= sin

2

5π

2

π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= sin π = 0

2π

π

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4

4

2

coordinates

2

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
**

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is

3π

4

5π

,0

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

= sin 2π = 0

= sin

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

3π

−π

4

3π

,1

4

3π

−π

2

π

2

=1

y = sin(2 ⋅ π − π )

= sin(2 π − π )

= sin π = 0

549

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(π , 0)

Trigonometric Functions

5π

4

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

= sin

3π

2

5π

−π

4

5π

, −1

4

x

5π

−π

2

π

4

3π

= −1

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

3π

−π

2

3π

,0

2

π

= sin(3π − π )

= sin 2π = 0

2

π

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

3π

4

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

coordinates

2

π

−

4

π

π

2

4

π

−

2

,0

= sin 0 = 0

2

π

= sin π −

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

y = sin 2x −

−

π

π

π

2

2

= sin

2

3π π

−

4 2

π

2

,1

=1

3π

,0

4

3π π

−

2

2

= sin π = 0

20. The equation y = sin 2x −

π

2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 1, B = 2, and C =

π

2

= sin 2π −

. The

= sin

amplitude is A = 1 = 1.

2π 2π

=

=π.

The period is

B

2

5π

4

π

The phase shift is

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = .

B 2 2 2 4

The quarter-period is

π

4

The cycle begins at x =

x=

2

π

2

5π π

−

4 2

5π π

−

2

2

4

4

+

π

=

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

4

5π

,0

4

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

π

(π , −1)

= sin 2π = 0

. Add quarter-periods to

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

π

3π

= −1

2

y = sin 2 ⋅

= sin

.

π

y = sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

550

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**21. The equation y = 3sin(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C = π . The

amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is

2π 2π

C π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The quarterB

2

B 2

π

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add quarter4
**

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

period is

x=

x=

π

2

π

+

π

=

3π

4

22. The equation y = 3 sin 2 x −

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4

4

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

π

2

y = 3sin(2x − π )

y = 3sin 2 ⋅

π

2

−π

y = 3sin 2 ⋅

3π

−π

4

,0

π

5π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= 3 sin

5π

−π

4

π

4

**The cycle begins at x =
**

x=

3π

,3

4

x=

π

4

+

π

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

(π , 0)

4

=

π

5π

, −3

4

3π

2

= 3(−1) = −3

3π

−π

2

π

4

5π

−π

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

.

π

= 3 sin

3π

2

.

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

π

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

y = 3sin(2 ⋅ π − π )

= 3sin(2 π − π )

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

3π

−π

= 3sin

2

= 3sin

π

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = .

The phase shift is

B 2 2 2 4

= 3sin(π − π )

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

3π

4

is of the form

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .

2π 2π

=

=π.

The period is

B

2

The quarter-period is

2

2

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2, and C =

coordinates

π

π

3π

,0

2

= 3 sin(3π − π )

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

551

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

y = 3 sin 2 x −

π

π

4

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= sin

π

2

−

4

π

23.

coordinates

2

−

π

π

2

4

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

,0

= 3 sin π −

= 3 sin

3π

4

π

2

−

π

π

2

2

,3

π

2

**. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for
**

2

the key points.

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π π

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

−

4 2

= 3 sin 2π −

= 3 sin

5π

4

2

π

2

x=0+

x=

(π , − 3)

π

2

+

+

π

2

π

2

2

x

5π

,0

4

−

π

2

5π π

−

2

2

π

π

2

=

=0

π

2

=π

3π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=π+

π

5π π

−

4 2

2

x=−

3π

= 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3

2

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅

= 3 sin

π

π

x=−

3π

,0

4

= 3 sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

y = 3 sin 2 ⋅ π −

π

x=−

3π π

= 3 sin

−

2

2

π

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A =

2

2

1

π

sin x − −

2

2

1

π

, B = 1, and C = − .

2

2

1

1

The amplitude is A =

= . The period is

2

2

π

2π 2π

C −2

π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

=

=− .

B

B

1

1

2

2π π

The quarter-period is

= . The cycle begins at

4

2

π

π

1

π

π

1

sin x +

= sin x − −

2

2

2

2

The equation y =

= 3 sin 0 = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y=

=

y=

π

1

sin x +

2

2

y=

1

π π

sin − +

2

2 2

=

= 3 sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

0

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=

=

π

2

y=

=

coordinates

−

π

2

,0

1

1

sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

1

π

sin 0 +

2

2

0,

1

2

1

1

π 1

sin = ⋅1 =

2

2

2 2

1

π π

sin

+

2

2 2

1

1

sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

552

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π

2

,0

PreCalculus 4E

π

Section 4.5

y=

1

π

sin π +

2

2

π, −

1

2

1

3π

sin

2

2

1

1

= ⋅(−1) = −

2

2

=

3π

2

y=

1

3π π

sin

+

2

2

2

3π

,0

2

x

y=

−π

y=

−

1

sin 2π

2

1

= ⋅0 = 0

2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

2

=

1

sin(− π + π )

2

1

1

= sin 0 = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

=

0

π

2

24.

1

1

sin(x + π ) = sin( x − (− π ))

2

2

1

The equation y = sin(x − (−π )) is of the form

2

1

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = , B = 1, and C = −π .

2

1

1

The amplitude is A =

= . The period is

2

2

2π 2π

C −π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

=

= −π .

B

B

1

1

2π π

The quarter-period is

= . The cycle begins at

4

2

x = −π . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

the key points.

x = −π

y=

x = −π +

x=−

π

2

x=0+

π

π

2

+

π

2

π

2

=

=−

1

π

sin − + π

2

2

1

sin(0 + π )

2

1

1

= sin π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

1

π

sin

+π

2

2

(−π , 0 )

−

π 1

2

,

2

(0, 0)

π

2

,−

1

2

1

3π 1

1

sin

= ⋅ (−1) = −

2

2

2

2

1

sin(π + π )

2

1

1

= sin 2π = ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

y=

(π , 0)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

2

=0

π

2

π

+ =π

2 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

coordinates

1

1

π 1

sin = ⋅1 =

2

2

2 2

y=

=

π

1

sin(x + π )

2

553

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

25.

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

2

= −2 sin 2 x − −

The equation y = −2 sin 2x − −

π

2

π

x

2

−

is of the form

π

4

π

2

= −2 sin −

. The amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is

π

0

x=−

x=−

4

x=0+

x=

π

4

+

+

π

4

π

π

=

=

4

=0

π

−

π

4

,0

2

π

2

(0, –2)

π

2

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

= −2 sin

4

π

2

π

4

+

π

π

2

4

π

π

2

2

,0

π

+

2

= −2 sin π

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

π

4

4

2

2

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

4

π

π

π

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −2 sin

π

π

+

4

+

2

= −2 sin 0 +

π

**. The cycle begins at x = − . Add
**

4

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

period is

π

= −2 sin 0 = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π 2π

=

= π . The

B

2

π 1

π

C −2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarterphase shift is

B

2

2 2

4

π

π

coordinates

2

y = −2 sin 2⋅ −

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2,

B = 2, and C = −

π

y = −2 sin 2x +

π

π

2

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

π

2

= −2 sin π +

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

+

,2

π

2

3π

2

= −2(−1) = 2

= −2 sin

3π

4

y = −2 sin 2 ⋅

= −2 sin

3π π

+

4 2

3π

,0

4

3π π

+

2 2

= −2 sin 2π

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

554

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

26.

Section 4.5

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

= −3sin 2x − −

The equation y = −3sin 2x − −

π

2

π

π

2

4

= −3sin

is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2, and C = −

π

2

π

2

−

π

C

π 1

π

2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is .

2

2 2

4

4

B

π

4

π

4

+

+

π

4

π

4

π

4

=

=

=0

π

4

x

y = −3sin 2x +

π

2

,0

+

π

π

2

2

,3

π

2

3π

,0

4

3π π

+

2

2

π

2

π

4

+

+

π

2

−

π

4

,0

π

2

= −3sin 0 = −3⋅ 0 = 0

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ 0 +

= −3sin 0 +

= −3sin

4

3π π

+

4 2

coordinates

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅ −

= −3sin −

0

2

2

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

4

π

π

+

π

π

π

π

= −3sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

−

+

3π

= −3⋅ (−1) = 3

2

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

4

x=0+

x=

3π

4

π

π

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

= −3sin

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

2

4

= −3sin π +

π

x=−

π

π

= −3sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

.

**The amplitude is A = −3 = 3. The period is
**

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

B

2

The cycle begins at x = −

y = −3sin 2 ⋅

π

2

π

2

(0, –3)

π

2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

555

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

27.

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

The equation y = 3sin(π x − (−2)) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = π , and C = –2.

The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period is

C −2

2

2π 2π

=

= 2 . The phase shift is

=

= − . The

B π

B

π

π

2 1

quarter-period is = . The cycle begins at

4 2

2

x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 4

3π − 4

y = 3sin π

+2

2π

2π

π

2π − 2

1 π −4

x=− + =

π 2

2π

π − 4 1 π −2

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

π − 2 1 3π − 4

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

3π − 4 1 2π − 2

x=

+ =

π

2

2π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

2

−

2

π

y = 3sin π −

2

π

= 3sin

3π

−2 +2

2

3π

2

= 3(−1) = −3

π

y = 3sin(π x + 2)

3π − 4

+2

2

= 3sin

**the key points.
**

2

x=−

x

= 3sin

π

y = 3sin π

2π − 2

π

−

= 3sin

= 3sin

= 3sin

π −4

2

π

2

2

π

,0

π−4

,3

2π

+2

−2 + 2

π

2

= 3⋅1 = 3

π −2

π −2

π y = 3sin π π + 2

2π − 2

π

,0

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

= 3sin(−2 + 2)

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

π −4

π −4

2π y = 3sin π 2π + 2

+2

= 3sin(2 π − 2 + 2)

= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

coordinates

+2

5π

, −3

4

π −2

,0

π

= 3sin(π − 2 + 2)

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

556

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

28.

Section 4.5

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4) = 3sin(2π x − (−4))

The equation y = 3sin(2 πx − (−4)) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = 3, B = 2π , and

C = –4. The amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The period

C −4

2

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

=

=− .

is

B 2π

B 2π

π

1

The quarter-period is . The cycle begins at

4

2

x = − . Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

3π − 8

3π − 8

y = 3sin 2π

+4

4π

4π

**the key points.
**

2

x=−

π − 2 y = 3sin 2π π − 2 + 4

π

π

= 3sin(2 π − 4 + 4)

= 3sin 2π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

π

1 π −8

=

4

4π

π −8 1 π − 4

x=

+ =

4

4π

2π

π − 4 1 3π − 8

x=

+ =

4

2π

4π

3π − 8 1 π − 2

x=

+ =

π

4

4π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=−

2

π

x

−

2

π

+

y = 3sin(2 πx + 4)

y = 3sin 2π −

2

π

= 3sin

= 3sin

2

π

2

π

2

= 3sin

3π

− 4+4

2

= 3sin

3π

= 3(−1) = −3

2

π −2

,0

π

coordinates

+4

π −8

π −8

+4

y = 3sin 2π

4π

4π

π −8

3π − 8

+4

2

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

−

2

π

,0

29.

= 3sin(−4 + 4)

= 3sin 0 = 3⋅ 0 = 0

= 3sin

= 3sin

3π − 8

, −3

4π

π −8

,3

4π

+4

−4 + 4

= 3 ⋅1 = 3

π −4

π−4

2π y = 3sin 2π 2 π + 4

π−4

,0

2π

= 3sin(π − 4 + 4)

= 3sin π = 3 ⋅ 0 = 0

**y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π ) = −2sin(2π x − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = −2 sin(2π x − (−4π )) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –2, B = 2π , and

C = −4 π . The amplitude is A = −2 = 2 . The

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

1

C −4 π

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

2π

4

B

begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

7

1

x = −2 + = −

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

557

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

y = −2 sin(2π x + 4π )

coordinates

–2 y = −2 sin(2π (−2) + 4 π )

= −2 sin(−4π + 4π )

= −2 sin 0

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

(–2, 0)

x

−

7

7

4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

−

π

2

7

, −2

4

7π

+ 4π

2

= −2 sin −

= −2 sin

−

30.

1

7

=−

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x = −2 +

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

3

3

2 y = −2 sin 2π − 2 + 4 π

3

− ,0

2

= −2 sin(−3π + 4π )

= −2 sin π = −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

−

5

5

4 y = −2 sin 2π − 4 + 4π

= −2 sin −

**y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π ) = −3 sin(2π x − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = −3 sin(2 πx − (−4 π )) is of the form

y = Asin(Bx − C) with A = –3, B = 2π , and

C = −4π . The amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The

2π 2π

=

= 1 . The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

C −4π

1

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = −2 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

−

5

,2

4

5π

+ 4π

2

x

y = −3 sin(2 πx + 4π )

–2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−2) + 4π )

(–2, 0)

= −3 sin( −4 π + 4π )

= −3 sin 0 = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

3π

2

= −2 (−1) = 2

= −2 sin

−

–1 y = −2 sin(2π (−1) + 4 π )

= −2 sin(−2π + 4π )

coordinates

7

7

4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

(–1, 0)

= −3 sin −

= −2 sin 2π

= −3 sin

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

−

π

2

−

7

, −3

4

7π

+ 4π

2

= −3 ⋅1 = −3

3

3

2 y = −3 sin 2π − 2 + 4π

3

− ,0

2

= −3 sin( −3π + 4π )

= −3 sin π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

−

5

5

4 y = −3 sin 2π − 4 + 4 π

= −3 sin −

= −3 sin

–1

−

5

,3

4

5π

+ 4π

2

3π

= −3(−1) = 3

2

y = −3 sin(2 π (−1) + 4π )

= −3 sin( −2 π + 4π )

= −3 sin 2π = −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

558

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(–1, 0)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

the graph of y = 2 cosx .

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

**32. The equation y = 3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = 3. Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

**31. The equation y = 2 cosx is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = 2. Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

π

2

π

2

=

x=0+

π

x=

2

y = 2 cosx

2

π

y = 2 cos

π

2

= 2⋅0 = 0

y = 2 cos π

2

,0

(π , − 2)

= 2 ⋅(−1) = −2

3π

2

y = 2 cos

3π

2

= 2⋅0 = 0

3π

,0

2

2π

y = 2 cos2π

(2 π , 2 )

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

y = 3 cos x

0

y = 3 cos 0 = 3 ⋅1 = 3

2

(0, 2)

π

2

2

x

π

coordinates

y = 2 cos0

π

π

x=

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

π

+

2

=

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

0

2

x=π+

=π

π

x

π

π

y = 3 cos

π

2

coordinates

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = 3 cos π = 3 ⋅ (−1) = −3

3π

2

y = 3 cos

2π

y = 3 cos2 π = 3 ⋅1 = 3

3π

= 3⋅ 0 = 0

2

(0, 3)

π

2

,0

(π , − 3)

3π

,0

2

(2 π , 3)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
**

and graph one complete cycle of the given function

with the graph of y = cos x .

= 2 ⋅1 = 2

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

559

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

33. The equation y = −2 cos x is of the form y = Acos x

with A = –2. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −2 = 2 . The period is 2π . The quarterπ

2π

or . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

period is

4

2

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

π

=

2

π

2

**34. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form y = Acos x
**

with A = –3. Thus, the amplitude is A = −3 = 3 .

π

2π

or .

The period is 2π . The quarter-period is

4

2

The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

π

2

x=

=π

3π

x=π+ =

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

coordinates

0

y = −2 cos 0

(0, –2)

2

π

y = −2 cos

π

2

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = −2 cos π

y = −2 cos

2π

y = −2 cos 2π

3π

2

= −2 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

π

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

y = −3 cos x

0

y = −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

π

,0

(π , 2)

= −2 ⋅ (−1) = 2

3π

2

π

=

x

2

π

+

2

2

3π π

x=

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

π

2

x=π+

π

y = −2 cos x

π

π

3π

,0

2

y = −3 cos

π

2

coordinates

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

π

y = −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

3π

2

y = −3 cos

2π

y = −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

3π

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

(0, –3)

π

2

,0

(π , 3)

3π

,0

2

(2 π , − 3)

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

the graph of y = cos x .

(2 π , − 2)

= −2 ⋅1 = −2

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function with

the graph of y = cos x .

560

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**35. The equation y = cos2 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
**

with A = 1 and B = 2. Thus, the amplitude is

2π 2π

A = 1 = 1. The period is

=

= π . The

B

2

quarter-period is

π

**36. The equation y = cos 4 x is of the form y = Acos Bx
**

with A = 1 and B = 4. Thus, the amplitude is

2π 2π π

A = 1 = 1. The period is

=

= . The

B

4

2

π

. The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

4

+

π

4

π

4

=

=

π

x=0+

4

π

x=

2

π π 3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y = cos2 x

0

y = cos(2 ⋅ 0)

4

y = cos 2 ⋅

= cos

π

2

π

2

π

8

(0, 1)

π

4

4

π

2

2

y = cos 2 ⋅

3π

4

y = cos(2 ⋅ π )

+

π

8

π

, −1

8

=

=

π

8

π

0

y = cos(4 ⋅ 0) = cos 0 = 1

8

,0

y = cos 4 ⋅

4

y = cos 4 ⋅

3π

8

y = cos 4 ⋅

= cos

3π

,0

4

π

3π

=0

= cos

2

π

π

y = cos 4 x

= cos π = −1

3π

4

=

x

π

π

⋅

π

π

=0

y = cos 2 ⋅

π 1

π

coordinates

π

=

4

3π

x= + =

4 8

8

3π π π

x=

+ =

8

8 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= cos 0 = 1

π

2

**. The cycle begins at
**

4 2 4 8

x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for

the key points.

x=0

quarter-period is

2

coordinates

π

8

π

4

= cos

π

2

=0

= cos π = −1

3π

8

(0, 1)

π

8

π

4

,0

, −1

3π

,0

8

3π

=0

2

y = cos 4 ⋅

π

2

= cos2 π = 1

π

2

,1

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

(π , 1)

= cos2 π = 1

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

561

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

37. The equation y = 4 cos2 πx is of the form

y = Acos Bx with A = 4 and B = 2π . Thus, the

amplitude is A = 4 = 4 . The period is

2π 2π

1

=

= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

x

y = 4 cos2 πx

0

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

**38. The equation y = 5 cos2 πx is of the form
**

y = Acos Bx with A = 5 and B = 2π . Thus, the

amplitude is A = 5 = 5 . The period is

2π 2π

1

=

= 1 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2π

4

begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

coordinates

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, 4)

= 4 cos 0

= 4 ⋅1 = 4

1

4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

= 4 cos

1

4

1

,0

4

π

2

= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1

2

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

1

2

1

, −4

2

3

4

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅ 0)

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

= 5 cos

3

,0

4

3π

2

= 4 ⋅0 = 0

1

2

= 4 cos

1

0

1

4

= 4 ⋅ (−1) = −4

y = 4 cos 2π ⋅

y = 5 cos2 πx

coordinates

(0, 5)

= 5 cos 0 = 5 ⋅1 = 5

= 4 cos π

3

4

x

π

2

1

4

1

,0

4

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

1

2

1

, −5

2

= 5 cos π = 5 ⋅ (−1) = −5

y = 4 cos(2π ⋅1)

(1, 4)

3

4

= 4 cos2 π

= 4 ⋅1 = 4

y = 5 cos 2π ⋅

= 5 cos

1

3π

4

3

,0

4

3π

= 5⋅ 0 = 0

2

y = 5 cos(2π ⋅1)

= 5 cos2 π = 5 ⋅1 = 5

562

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

(1, 5)

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 3π

2

(3π , 0 )

3π

2

= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

= −4 cos

4π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 4π

2

(4π , – 4)

= −4 cos 2π

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

1

x is of the form

2

1

y = Acos Bx with A = –4 and B = . Thus, the

2

amplitude is A = −4 = 4 . The period is

2π 2π

= 1 = 2π ⋅2 = 4 π . The quarter-period is

B

39. The equation y = −4 cos

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

2

4π

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

1

40. The equation y = −3 cos x is of the form

3

1

y = Acos Bx with A = –3 and B = . Thus, the

3

amplitude is A = −3 = 3 . The period is

2π 2π

= 1 = 2π ⋅3 = 6π . The quarter-period is

B

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

0

y = −4 cos

y = −4 cos

1

x

2

1

⋅0

2

coordinates

3

6π 3π

=

. The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4

2

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

(0, –4)

= −4 cos 0

3π 3π

=

2

2

3π 3π

x=

+

= 3π

2

2

3π 9π

x = 3π +

=

2

2

9π 3π

x=

+

= 6π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

= −4 ⋅1 = −4

π

y = −4 cos

= −4 cos

1

⋅π

2

x=0+

(π , 0)

π

2

= −4 ⋅ 0 = 0

2π

y = −4 cos

1

⋅ 2π

2

(2 π , 4)

= −4 cos π

= −4 ⋅ (−1) = 4

563

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

x

1

y = −3 cos x

3

0

y = −3 cos

x=0

coordinates

1

⋅0

3

3 3

=

2 2

3 3

x = + =3

2 2

3 9

x= 3+ =

2 2

9 3

x = + =6

2 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, –3)

= −3 cos 0 = −3 ⋅1 = −3

3π

2

y = −3 cos

= −3 cos

1 3π

⋅

3 2

π

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

1

y = −3 cos ⋅ 3π

3

3π

3π

,0

2

(3π , 3)

= −3 cos π = −3 ⋅ (−1) = 3

9π

2

y = −3 cos

= −3 cos

6π

y = −3 cos

1 9π

⋅

3 2

x

y=−

π

1

cos x

3

2

0

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅ 0

3

2

9π

,0

2

0, −

1

2

1

cos0

2

1

1

= − ⋅1 = −

2

2

=−

3π

= −3 ⋅ 0 = 0

2

1

⋅ 6π

3

coordinates

3

2

(6π , − 3)

y=−

π 3

1

cos ⋅

3 2

2

3

,0

2

π

1

cos

2

2

1

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

= −3 cos2 π = −3 ⋅1 = −3

=−

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

3

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅3

3

2

3,

1

2

1

cos π

2

1

1

= − ⋅(−1) =

2

2

=−

9

2

π

1

cos x is of the form

3

2

π

1

y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the

3

2

1

1

= . The period is

amplitude is A = −

2

2

2π 2π

3

6 3

= π = 2π ⋅ = 6 . The quarter-period is = .

B

π

4 2

41. The equation y = −

y=−

1

π 9

cos ⋅

3 2

2

9

,0

2

3π

1

cos

2

2

1

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

=−

6

3

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅6

3

2

1

cos2π

2

1

1

= − ⋅1 = −

2

2

=−

**The cycle begins at x = 0 . Add quarter-periods to
**

generate x-values for the key points.

564

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

6, −

1

2

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

y=−

6

=−

y=−

8

1

π

cos ⋅6

4

2

(6, 0)

3π

1

1

cos

= − ⋅0 = 0

2

2

2

π

1

cos ⋅8

4

2

8, −

1

2

1

1

1

cos2π = − ⋅1 = −

2

2

2

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

=−

π

1

cos x is of the form

4

2

π

1

y = Acos Bx with A = − and B = . Thus, the

4

2

1

1

= . The period is

amplitude is A = −

2

2

2π 2π

4

8

= π = 2π ⋅ = 8 . The quarter-period is 4 = 2 .

B

π

42. The equation y = −

4

**The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to
**

generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

π⎞

⎛

43. The equation y = cos ⎜ x − ⎟ is of the form

2⎠

⎝

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

x = 0 +2 = 2

x= 2+ 2 = 4

π

x = 4 +2 = 6

C=

x = 6 +2 = 8

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

period is

x

y=−

1

π

cos x

2

4

0

y=−

π

1

cos ⋅ 0

4

2

=−

2

y=−

=−

4

=−

1

2

cycle begins at x =

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

2

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

(2, 0)

x=

π

1

1

cos = − ⋅ 0 = 0

2

2

2

π

1

y = − cos ⋅ 4

4

2

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

B

1

2π π

C 2 π

=

= . The quarter-period is

= . The

4

2

B 1 2

1

1

1

cos0 = − ⋅1 = −

2

2

2

π

1

cos ⋅2

4

2

A = 1 = 1 . The

π

coordinates

0, −

. Thus, the amplitude is

2

π

2

π

2

+

x =π +

π

2

π

=π

=

3π

2

2

3π π

+ = 2π

x=

2

2

π 5π

x = 2π + =

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1

4,

2

1

1

1

cos π = − ⋅ (−1) =

2

2

2

565

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

π

x

coordinates

π

2

⎛π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

x=−

π

(π , 0 )

x =0+

3π

2

⎛ 3π

⎞

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

⎝

⎠

2π

( 2π , 0 )

5π

2

⎛ 5π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

x=−

x=

2

period is

π

2

π

+

2

π

2

π

2

=

=0

π

2

=π

3π

=

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

. Thus, the amplitude is

π

x

coordinates

π

⎛ π ⎞

⎜ − 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

−

π⎞

⎛

44. The equation y = cos ⎜ x + ⎟ is of the form

2⎠

⎝

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 1, and B = 1, and

π

+

2

x =π +

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

C=−

2

π

2

0

( 0, 0 )

π

2

⎛π

⎞

⎜ 2 , − 1⎟

⎝

⎠

π

(π , 0 )

3π

2

⎛ 3π ⎞

⎜ 2 , 1⎟

⎝

⎠

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

A = 1 = 1 . The

2π 2π

=

= 2π . The phase shift is

B

1

π

−

2π π

C

π

= 2 = − . The quarter-period is

= . The

4

2

B

1

2

cycle begins at x = −

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

2

generate x-values for the key points.

566

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

**45. The equation y = 3cos(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = A cos ( Bx − C ) with A = 3, and B = 2, and

**46. The equation y = 4 cos(2x − π ) is of the form
**

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 4, and B = 2, and C = π .

Thus, the amplitude is A = 4 = 4. The period is

C π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= . The

B 2

B

2

**C = π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The
**

C π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

= .

period is

B 2

B

2

The quarter-period is

π

. The cycle begins at x =

π

4

2

Add quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x=

x=

π

x=

2

π

+

π

=

π

π

**. The cycle begins at x = . Add
**

4

2

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

quarter-period is

.

π

2

π 3π

+ =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4 4

2

3π

4

x=

2 4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

5π π 3π

x=

+ =

4 4

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

**Evaluate the function at each value of x.
**

x

coordinates

π

π

2

2

x

,3

coordinates

π

π

2

2

,4

3π

4

3π

,0

4

3π

4

3π

,0

4

π

(π , − 3)

π

(π , − 4)

5π

4

5π

,0

4

5π

4

5π

,0

4

3π

2

3π

,4

2

3π

2

3π

,3

2

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

567

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

47.

1

1

π

π

= cos 3x − −

cos 3x +

2

2

2

2

y=

The equation y =

1

π

cos 3x − −

2

2

is of the form

1

, and B = 3, and

2

1

1

π

= . The

C = − . Thus, the amplitude is A =

2

2

2

2π 2π

=

. The phase shift is

period is

B

3

π

π 1

π

C −2

=

= − ⋅ = − . The quarter-period is

3

2 3

6

B

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A =

π

1

1

cos(2 x + π ) = cos(2 x − (− π ))

2

2

1

The equation y = cos(2 x − (−π )) is of the form

2

1

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = , and B = 2, and

2

1

1

C = −π . Thus, the amplitude is A =

= . The

2

2

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

period is

B

2

C −π

π

π

=

= − . The quarter-period is . The cycle

B 2

2

4

6

begins at x = −

48.

2π

3

π

2π 1 π

=

⋅ = . The cycle begins at x = − . Add

4

3 4 6

6

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=−

x=−

π

6

π

6

x=0+

π

x=

6

π

x=

+

+

π

+

=0

6

π

=

6

π

6

π

=

=

−

π

6

3

π

x=−

0

x=−

π 1

,

6 2

π

6

6

,−

π

π

3

3

π

2

π

2

π

4

x=0+

(0, 0)

π

π

x=−

coordinates

−

π

**. Add quarter-periods to generate x2
**

values for the key points.

π

3 6 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y=

x=

π

+

+

π

4

π

π

4

π

4

=

=−

π

4

=0

π

4

π

+ =

4 4 2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

1

2

,0

π 1

,

2 2

2

Connect the five points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function

568

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

x

−

−

π

2

π

4

Section 4.5

49. The equation y = −3 cos 2x −

−

−

π 1

,

2 2

π

4

B = 2, and C =

,0

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is

A = −3 = 3. The period is

π

0

1

0, −

2

π

π

4

4

π 1

2

,

. The cycle begins at x =

π

. Add quarter4

4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

,0

2

π

2π 2π

=

= π . The

B

2

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period

B 2 2 2 4

phase shift is

is

π

π

**is of the form
**

2

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –3, and

coordinates

x=

2

x=

π

4

π

π

π

x

4

=

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

4

+

π

coordinates

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −3

,0

3π

4

3π

,3

4

π

(π , 0)

5π

4

5π

, −3

4

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

569

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

50. The equation y = −4 cos 2x −

π

51.

is of the form

2

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = –4, and B = 2, and

C=

π

2

. Thus, the amplitude is A = −4 = 4 .

The period is

π

2π 2π

=

= π . The phase shift is

B

2

π

C 2 π 1 π

= = ⋅ = . The quarter-period is . The

4

B 2 2 2 4

cycle begins at x =

π

**. Add quarter-periods to
**

4

generate x-values for the key points.

x=

x=

π

4

π

4

+

π

π

2

3π

x= + =

2 4

4

3π π

x=

+ =π

4 4

π 5π

x=π+ =

4

4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

π

x

4

=

π

π

4

4

π

π

2

2

, −4

3π

,4

4

π

(π , 0)

5π

4

5π

, −4

4

coordinates

–4

(–4, 2)

15

4

−

7

2

7

− , −2

2

13

4

−

−

,0

3π

4

x

−

coordinates

π

**y = 2 cos(2π x + 8π ) = 2 cos(2πx − (−8π ))
**

The equation y = 2 cos(2π x − (−8π )) is of the form

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 2, B = 2π , and C = −8π .

Thus, the amplitude is A = 2 = 2. The period is

C −8π

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

=

= −4 . The

B 2π

B 2π

1

quarter-period is . The cycle begins at x = –4. Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

x = −4

1

15

x = −4 + = −

4

4

15 1

7

x=− + =−

4 4

2

7 1

13

x=− + =−

2 4

4

13 1

x = − + = −3

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

−

–3

15

,0

4

13

,0

4

(–3, 2)

**Connect the five points with a smooth curve and
**

graph one complete cycle of the given function

**Connect the five key points with a smooth curve
**

and graph one complete cycle of the given function.

570

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

52.

Section 4.5

**y = 3cos(2πx + 4 π ) = 3 cos(2πx − (−4π ))
**

The equation y = 3cos(2πx − (−4π )) is of the form

y = Acos(Bx − C) with A = 3, and B = 2π , and

C = −4π . Thus, the amplitude is A = 3 = 3. The

2π 2π

=

= 1. The phase shift is

period is

B 2π

1

C −4π

=

= −2 . The quarter-period is . The cycle

4

B 2π

begins at x = –2. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x = −2

1

7

x = −2 + = −

4

4

7 1

3

x=− + =−

4 4

2

3 1

5

x=− + =−

2 4

4

5 1

x = − + = −1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

–2

**53. The graph of y = sin x + 2 is the graph of y = sin x
**

shifted up 2 units upward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

x

y = sin x + 2

coordinates

0

y = sin 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

(0, 2)

coordinates

π

(–2, 3)

2

7

,0

4

π

y = sin π + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

3π

2

y = sin

2π

y = sin 2π + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

−

7

4

−

−

3

2

3

− , −3

2

−

5

4

−

5π

,0

4

–1

(–1, 3)

Connect the five key points with a smooth curve and

graph one complete cycle of the given function.

π

+2

2

=1 +2 = 3

y = sin

3π

+2

2

= −1 + 2 = 1

π

2

,3

(π , 2)

3π

,1

2

(2 π , 2 )

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

571

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

54. The graph of y = sin x − 2 is the graph of y = sin x

shifted 2 units downward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

**55. The graph of y = cos x − 3 is the graph of y = cos x
**

shifted 3 units downward. The period for both

2π

π

functions is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The

4

2

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

π

x=0+

2

=π

=

x=

3π

2

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

y = sin x − 2

0

y = sin 0 − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

2

y = sin

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

y = sin π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

3π

2

y = sin

2π

y = sin 2π − 2 = 0 − 2 = −2

3π

− 2 = −1 − 2 = −3

2

π

2

π

2

π

2

=π

=

3π

2

x=

coordinates

− 2 = 1 − 2 = −1

2

=

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=

π

π

π

(0, –2)

π

4

, −1

x

y = cos x − 3

coordinates

0

y = cos 0 − 3

= 1 − 3 = −2

(0, –2)

π

y = cos

π

−3

2

= 0 − 3 = −3

(π , − 2)

2

3π

, −3

2

π

y = cos π − 3

= −1 − 3 = − 4

3π

2

y = cos

2π

y = cos2 π − 3

= 1 − 3 = −2

(2 π , − 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

3π

−3

2

= 0 − 3 = −3

π

2

, −3

(π , − 4)

3π

, −3

2

(2 π , − 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

572

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

PreCalculus 4E

Section 4.5

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

**56. The graph of y = cos x + 3 is the graph of y = cos x
**

shifted 3 units upward. The period for both functions

2π

π

is 2π . The quarter-period is

or . The cycle

4

2

begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate xvalues for the key points.

x=0

x=0+

x=

π

2

+

x=π+

π

2

π

2

π

2

=

π

2

=π

=

x

y = 2sin

0

y = 2sin

3π

2

x

y = cos x + 3

0

y = cos 0 + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

2

(0, 1)

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π π

+ = 2π

2

2

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

y = cos

1

⋅0 +1

2

coordinates

= 2sin 0 + 1

x=

π

1

x +1

2

π

2

π

= 2sin

(0, 4)

π

2

2π

,3

π

y = cos π + 3 = −1 + 3 = 2

(π , 2)

3π

2

y = cos

3π

+3 = 0 + 3 = 3

2

3π

,3

2

2π

y = cos2 π + 3 = 1 + 3 = 4

(2 π , 4)

1

⋅π + 1

2

(π , 3)

π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

coordinates

+3 = 0+ 3= 3

y = 2sin

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 2π + 1

2

(2 π , 1)

= 2sin π + 1

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

3π

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 3π + 1

2

(3π , − 1)

3π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1

= −2 + 1 = −1

= 2sin

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

4π

y = 2sin

1

⋅ 4π + 1

2

(4π , 1)

= 2sin 2π + 1

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

By connecting the points with a smooth curve we

obtain one period of the graph.

1

**57. The graph of y = 2sin 2 x + 1 is the graph
**

1

**of y = 2sin 2 x shifted one unit upward. The
**

amplitude for both functions is 2 = 2. The period

2π

for both functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter2

4π

period is

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add

4

quarter-periods to generate x-values for the key

points.

573

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

1

58. The graph of y = 2 cos x + 1 is the graph of

2

1

y = 2 cos x shifted one unit upward. The amplitude

2

for both functions is 2 = 2. The period for both

2π

functions is 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π . The quarter-period is

2

4π

= π . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

x = 0 +π = π

x = π + π = 2π

x = 2π + π = 3π

x = 3π + π = 4 π

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x

1

y = 2 cos x + 1

2

0

y = 2 cos

1

⋅0 +1

2

**59. The graph of y = −3 cos2 πx + 2 is the graph of
**

y = −3 cos2 πx shifted 2 units upward. The amplitude

for both functions is −3 = 3. The period for both

1

2π

= 1. The quarter-period is . The

functions is

4

2π

cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter-periods to generate

x-values for the key points.

x=0

coordinates

1 1

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

(0, 3)

= 2 cos0 + 1

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

π

y = 2 cos

= 2 cos

1

⋅π + 1

2

(π , 1)

π

+1

2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

2π

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 2π + 1

2

x

y = −3 cos2 πx + 2

0

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 0) + 2

= −3 cos 0 + 2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2

= −3 + 2 = −1

(2 π , − 1)

= 2 cos π + 1

= 2 ⋅ ( −1) + 1 = − 2 + 1 = −1

3π

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 3π + 1

2

1

4

(3π , 1)

= −3 cos

y = 2 cos

1

⋅ 4π + 1

2

π

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

= 2 ⋅0 +1 = 0 +1 =1

4π

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

(4π , 3)

1

2

= 2 cos2π + 1

= 2 ⋅1 + 1 = 2 + 1 = 3

1

+2

4

coordinates

(0, –1)

1

,2

4

+2

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

1

+2

2

= −3 cos π + 2

= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2

= 3 +2 = 5

574

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

1

,5

2

PreCalculus 4E

3

4

Section 4.5

y = −3 cos 2π ⋅

3

+2

4

3

,2

4

3π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2

= 0 +2 = 2

x

y = −3sin 2πx + 2

0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 0) + 2

= −3sin 0 + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

= −3 cos

1

y = −3 cos(2π ⋅ 1) + 2

= −3 cos2 π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2

= −3 + 2 = −1

1

4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

(1, –1)

= −3sin

1

+2

4

coordinates

(0, 2)

1

, −1

4

π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ 1 + 2 = −3 + 2 = −1

1

2

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

1

+2

2

1

,2

2

= −3sin π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

3

4

y = −3sin 2π ⋅

3

+2

4

3

,5

4

3π

+2

2

= −3 ⋅ ( − 1) + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5

= −3sin

1

**60. The graph of y = −3sin 2πx + 2 is the graph of
**

y = −3 sin 2πx shifted two units upward. The

amplitude for both functions is A = −3 = 3. The

2π

= 1. The quarterperiod for both functions is

2π

1

period is . The cycle begins at x = 0. Add quarter–

4

periods to generate x-values for the key points.

x=0

y = −3sin(2 π ⋅ 1) + 2

= −3sin 2π + 2

= −3 ⋅ 0 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2

(1, 2)

**By connecting the points with a smooth curve we
**

obtain one period of the graph.

=

4 4

1 1 1

x= + =

4 4 2

1 1 3

x= + =

2 4 4

3 1

x = + =1

4 4

Evaluate the function at each value of x.

x=0+

**61. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 ,
**

The period is 4π and thus

2π

2π 1

B=

=

=

period 4π 2

y = A cos Bx

y = 3cos

1

x

2

575

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Trigonometric Functions

**62. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 3 and A = 3 , The
**

period is 4π and thus

2π

2π 1

=

=

B=

period 4π 2

y = A sin Bx

y = 3sin

67.

1

x

2

**63. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,
**

The period is π and thus

2π

2π

=

=2

B=

period π

y = A sin Bx

68.

y = −2sin 2 x

64. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = −2 ,

The period is 4π and thus

2π

2π

=

=2

B=

period π

y = A cos Bx

69.

y = −2cos 2 x

65. Using y = A sin Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 , The

period is 4 and thus

2π

2π π

=

=

B=

period

4

2

70.

y = A sin Bx

⎛π

y = 2sin ⎜

⎝2

⎞

x⎟

⎠

**66. Using y = A cos Bx the amplitude is 2 and A = 2 ,
**

The period is 4 and thus

2π

2π π

=

=

B=

period

4

2

y = A cos Bx

71.

⎛π ⎞

y = 2 cos ⎜ x ⎟

⎝2 ⎠

72.

576

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

53) corresponds to 6 P. (3. 365 2π 2π 365 = 2π = 2π ⋅ = 365 . This occurs when the sine function equals 1. 79. Answers may vary. a. 77. 82. The period of the physical cycle is 33 days. 12) corresponds to September. 23) corresponds to Noon. By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph information from noon to midnight. (0. In the month of March. d. This occurs when the sine function equals –1. The period of the intellectual cycle is 23 days. 577 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.M. 14) corresponds to June By connecting the five key points with a smooth curve we graph the information from June of one year to June of the following year. Answers may vary. March 21 would be the best day to meet an on-line friend for the first time. The period is c. Thus. 76. B 2π 365 y = 15 There will be 15 hours of daylight. the author should not run in a marathon on February 18. (9. In the month of February. (6.5 84. The information gives the five key points of the graph. A = 3 and B = 80.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. 2π .M. 83. because the emotional cycle is at a maximum. 10) corresponds to December. (12. . Extend the graph one cycle to the right to graph the information for 0 ≤ x ≤ 24. 12) corresponds to March. The longest day of the year will have the most hours of daylight. The period of the emotional cycle is 28 days. Inc. 38) corresponds to 9 P. the author should begin writing the on February 11. 2π y = 3sin ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(1) + 12 81. The information gives the five key point of the graph.. 74.. In the month of February. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 365 y = 3(−1) + 12 y = 3sin y=9 There will be 9 hours of daylight. 38) corresponds to 3 P. 75. (3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The shortest day of the year will have the least hours of daylight. Thus. (0. The function y = 3sin 78. the intellectual cycle is at a maximum on February 11. A = 3 = 3. 14) corresponds to June. 73. the physical cycle is at a minimum on February 18. 23) corresponds to Midnight.M. (6. (9. (12. The amplitude is b. 2π ( x − 79) + 12 is of the form 365 C⎞ ⎛ y = A sin B ⎜ x − ⎟ + D with B⎠ ⎝ 85..

2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π ⎞ ⎟ + 40 is in the ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) + D with A = 16. A = 3. starting on January 1. x = 4+3 = 7 x = 7 + 3 = 10 x = 10 + 3 = 13 x = 13 + 3 = 16 Because we are graphing for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . (0. (1. Add quarter4 periods to find the x-values for the key points. 578 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The function y = 16 sin ⎜ x − 3 ⎝6 87. The phase B π 6 and C = C = shift is B 2π 3 π 6 B= 2π π = 12 6 Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . 26. D = 9. 12) (352.5 x = 261.5 + 91. Thus. 9) (365. The maximum depth of the water is 3 feet above 9 feet. The highest average monthly temperature is 56° in July. 9.75 x = 352. Thus. 3 2π 2π 6 The period is = π = 2π ⋅ = 12 .75 + 91. The cycle begins at x = 4.25 + 91.25.07) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain one period of the graph. Using a calculator we have the following points. The period is 365. The period is 12. 40) (7. Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 6 feet to a maximum of 12 feet. 9. 2π ⎛π 86.25 x = 170.07) (79. The C phase shift is = 79 . Using a calculator we have the following points. 2π .25 = 261. 12) (170. 40) (12. . 24) (4. or 12 hours.1) By connecting the points with a smooth curve we obtain the graph for 1 ≤ x ≤ 12 . 56) (10. The quarter-period is B 365 = 91. the curve oscillates about the middle value. Thus.25 = 170.Trigonometric Functions e. The quarter-period is 3 π 12 = 3 . x = 79 x = 79 + 91. along with x = 1 and x = 12. B = π 6 . 15) (261. we will evaluate the function for the three x-values between 1 and 12. Add 4 quarter-periods to find the x-values of the key points.25 . we will evaluate the function for the first four xvalues along with x = 0 and x = 365. Publishing as Prentice Hall.25 = 352.5. πx 6 +9. The cycle begins at x = 79. Inc. 9 feet. The amplitude is A = 16 = 16 . The depth of the water is modeled by y = 3cos 2π 6 = ⋅ = 4 . x=4 The amplitude is 3.75. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12-0.25 = 444 Because we are graphing for 0 ≤ x ≤ 365 .

and C = −π . π 2 to π 2 . The function ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ y = 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. B = 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. The function y = −2 cos ⎜ 2π x − ⎟ is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx − C ) with A = –2. We choose − ≤ x ≤ . . The period is 12.2 . The cycle begins at B 2π π C π 1 1 1 9 = 2 = ⋅ = . Inc. Thus. D = 4. The graphs appear to be the same from − x= 579 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. and B 2 2 2 2 −4 ≤ y ≤ 4 for our graph. the curve oscillates about the middle value. The amplitude is y = A cos( Bx − C ) + D with A = 3.2. B = 2. The amplitude is 2π 2π = = π . The period is 105. The cycle begins at x = = .2 sin ⎜ x + π ⎟ = 0. The function y = 3sin(2 x + π ) = 3sin(2 x − (−π )) is of 104. Answers may vary.2sin ⎜ x − (−π ) ⎟ is of the ⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠ form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 0. The cycle begins B π 10 C −π 10 = π = −π ⋅ = −10 . the graph has a vertical shift 5 units π 5π . We choose ≤ x ≤ .2 = 0. The amplitude is period is A = 3 = 3 . and 10 A = 0. and C= π 2 . The depth of the water is modeled by y = cos π . Thus. C = π . B 2 B 2 Because D = 5. The cycle begins at B 2 C −π π π 3π x= = = − . and −1 ≤ y ≤ 1 for our graph. The graph shows that one complete cycle occurs in 12–0. period is C π 2π 2π = = π . The +4. 4 4 B 2π 2 2π 4 and −3 ≤ y ≤ 3 for our graph. or 12 hours. Substitute these values into y = A cos Bx + D . A = −2 = 2 . Because the depth of the water ranges from a minimum of 3 feet to a maximum of 5 feet.5 88. – 100. 89. B = 2π . B = C = −π . We choose ≤ x ≤ 2 2 our graph. We choose B π 10 −10 ≤ x ≤ 30 . The 2π 2π = = 1 . A = 1. Thus. 4 feet. and A = 3 = 3 . π⎞ ⎛ 102. 101. and 0 ≤ y ≤ 10 for upward. 2π 12 = B 12 B = 2π B= 103. The amplitude is period is 2π π = 12 6 at x = πx 6 2π 2π 10 = π = 2π ⋅ = 20 . The maximum depth of the water is 1 foot above 4 feet. The D = 5. The function y = 3sin(2 x − π ) + 5 is of the form the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 3.

Thus the range is [ −3. ⎥ by [ −5. Since A = 1 and D = −2. Since A = 3 and D = −2.Trigonometric Functions 110. 116. B= 2π 2π = = 2π period 1 C C = = −2 B 2π C = −4π y = A cos( Bx − C ) y = 22. except not smooth. ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ 108. −1. ⎣ 6 6 6⎦ The graph is very similar to y = sin x . Answers may vary. makes sense The graphs appear to be the same from − π 2 to π 2 112. makes sense 115. 114. a. ⎥ by [ −3.04) + 57. Thus the range is [ −5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Explanations will vary. A = π 109. .1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . −1] ⎡ π 7π π ⎤ . 106. the maximum will occur at 3 − 2 = 1 and the minimum will occur at −3 − 2 = −5 . b.1] The graph is similar to y = sin x . the maximum will occur at 1 − 2 = −1 and the minimum will occur at −1 − 2 = −3 . 113. a. ⎡ π 23π π ⎤ .17 y = π cos(2π x + 4π ) or y = π cos [ 2π ( x + 2) ] 580 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. does not make sense. makes sense 107. Inc. Sample explanation: It may be easier to start at the highest point.1.1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . b. except the amplitude is greater and the curve is less smooth. . 111.50 x − 2.61sin(0.

Inc. 3π π 2π π + − − 4 4 = 4 = 2 = −π 2 2 2 4 122. − π 2 − π π 2 < x+ < x+ π π 4 − < π π 2 < π − π 4 4 4 2 4 2π π 2π π − − <x< − 4 4 4 4 π 3π − <x< 4 4 ⎧ 3π π⎫ ⎛ 3π π ⎞ . Answers may vary. ⎟ < x < ⎬ or ⎜ − ⎨x − 4 4 ⎝ 4 4⎠ ⎩ ⎭ 581 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Publishing as Prentice Hall. y = cos x = + cos 2 x 2 2 The reciprocal function is undefined.5 117. 2 119.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. b. − 120. 1 1 118. y = sin 2 x = 1 1 − cos 2 x 2 2 − 121. a.

Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = 0 and x = π . 0). the x-intercept. 0 ⎟ . Midway between these asymptotes is x = 4 0. x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. x = 0 and x 2 1 π = 2. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − π An x-intercept is π 3. In order to graph for 3π <x< . 0+π π x-intercept = = 2 2 582 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The 2 2 curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. Inc. Solve the equations π 2 x = 0 and x=0 π 2 x =π x= π π 2 2. and the points midway between to graph one period π 4 to π 4 and the graph passes through π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π . Continue the pattern 2⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. . An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 . to graph one full period of π Thus. Use the two consecutive asymptotes.6 Check Point Exercises 1. Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. Solve the equations x− π 2 =− x= π π and 2 π x− π 2 = π 2 π π x= + − 2 2 2 2 x=0 x =π Thus. 0).Trigonometric Functions Section 4. An xintercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. ⎝ ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − . Use the two asymptotes. Midway between x = 0 and x = 2 is x = 1. 4 π of y = 3 tan 2 x from − 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ 2 . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . 1 Because the coefficient of the cotangent is . to graph one full period of y = cot x . Solve the equations 2 x = − x= − π and 2 π 2x = x= 4 and x = 2 π 4 π .

C π π . ⎜ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. (π . from to − is −π units. −2 ⎟ . . The graph has an asymptote at π . the x-values are π π 3π 0. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. 2).6 π⎞ ⎛ vertical asymptotes of y = csc ⎜ x + ⎟ . Thus. 2 C C There is no phase shift.PreCalculus 4E 4. Starting with x = 0. π 2 . 4⎠ ⎝ 1. Use the first four points graph for − 4 4 3π units to the left. = =0 B 1 C =0 The function with C = 0 is y = − tan x . from to 0 is − units. The graph has an asymptote at x = 0 .6 π⎞ ⎛ The x-intercepts of y = sin ⎜ x + ⎟ correspond to 4⎠ ⎝ Exercise Set 4. Evaluating the function at each 4 2 4 value of x. . ⎜ . 2 2 B C C = = −π B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = tan( x + π ) . π= C= π 2 +C π 2 π⎞ ⎛ The function is y = − tan ⎜ x − ⎟ . Thus. 2. Use quarter-periods. π π⎞ ⎛ is y = tan ⎜ x + ⎟ . 2⎠ ⎝ 4. 0 ⎟ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ⎟ . 5. . ⎜ . Use the and extend the graph − 4 graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. The graph has an asymptote at x = − The phase shift. Section 4. and use them as guides to graph y = 2sec 2 x . C π π The phase shift. y = 2 cos 2 x . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 C=− 2π 2π period: = =π B 2 π 2 The function with C = − π . . and π . 2 2 B C C π = =− 2 B 1 3. to find x-values for the five 4 key points. The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 2. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Inc. . Thus. In order to 4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 4 ⎠ 3π 3π ≤x≤ . 2) . 2 2⎠ ⎝ The graph has an asymptote at x = π . 583 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . x from −2π to 4 2π . the 2 points on the graph midway between an x-intercept 1 and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of − and 2 1 π . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 4 . Because the coefficient of the tangent is . Continue the pattern and extend the 4 4 graph another full period to the right. − π π to . 0). Solve the equations 2 x = − π 2 − π2 x= 2 x=− Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ Solve the equations x = ⎜ − ⎟ 4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. π 4 and 2 x = x= x= π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = −2π and x = 2π . Inc. π Solve the equations π x x π =− and = 4 2 4 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟4 x = ⎜ ⎟4 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −2π x = 2π Thus. 584 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 3. x = − and 4 2 π 1 x = . −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 7. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. to graph one full period of y = 3 tan from 4 −2π to 2π . Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 0). x = −2π and x x = 2π .Trigonometric Functions 5. to graph one full period of y = tan 2 x from 2 4 x-intercept = 6. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −2π and x = 2π . 0). . −2π + 2π 0 x-intercept = = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0.

Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− and x= 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x=π Thus. − π4 + π4 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − and x = π 4 π 4 . to graph one full 1 period of y = −3 tan x from −π to π . Solve the equations 2x = − x= π and 2 x = 2 −2 2 π x=− x= π x= 4 π 2 π 2 2 π 4 Thus. Inc.PreCalculus 4E 8. Solve the equations 1 π 1 π x=− x= and 2 2 2 2 ⎛ π⎞ ⎛π ⎞ x = ⎜− ⎟2 x = ⎜ ⎟2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ x = −π x =π Thus. . Because the coefficient of the tangent is –3. to graph one full period of y = 2 tan 2 x from π to . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 2. to graph one full period of y = −2 tan x 2 from −π to π . two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. 0).6 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. Continue 2 the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. Because the coefficient of the tangent is –2. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = −π and x = π . 9. x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = − x= − π π 4 π 4 10. and . Section 4. 4 4 Continue the pattern and extend the graph another full period to the right. 0). the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. −π + π 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 585 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. 0). the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x = −π and 1 x = π . x = −π and x = π . Use the two consecutive asymptotes.

Inc. 0 ⎟ .Trigonometric Functions 11. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. B 1 2 π Thus. 0) . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = π 4 3π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 14. and x = 2 x-intercept = 4 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Solve the equations x− π 4 =− π and 2 2π π + x=− 4 4 x=− π 4 x− π 4 = 2 2π π + x= 4 4 3π x= 4 3π and x = . C π π . Continue the pattern 4⎠ ⎝ and extend the graph another full period to the right. Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. 2⎠ ⎝ 4 3π 2π 4 = 4 =π 2 2 4 + 586 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . There is no phase shift. Thus. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = and the graph passes through and 1. 4 − x-intercept = π 4 2 . Solve the equations x −π = − x=− x= π and 2 π 2 +π x −π = 13. two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − π C= π 2 The function with C = π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = − cot ⎜ x − ⎟ . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 π 2 and 1. C C = =0 B 1 C =0 Because the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 and 1. A = –1. The graph has an asymptote at 12. x = − π 2 + 32π 42π 4π = = =π 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π and the graph passes through (π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 1. 3π . to graph one full period of 2 π 3π to . B 2 2 C C π = = Thus. The phase shift. The function with C = 0 and A = –1 is y = − cot x . An x-intercept is π π 2 Thus. and x = 13. ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –1 2 π +π 2 3π x= 2 x= π π 2 3π . Continue the pattern y = tan( x − π ) from 2 2 and extend the graph another full period to the right. from 0 to is units. to graph one full period of and x = 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = tan ⎜ x − ⎟ from 0 to π .

6 15. The graph has an asymptote at −π . The phase shift. Two An x-intercept is 2 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 0 ⎟ . 587 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. The phase shift. 2 2⎠ ⎝ An x-intercept is 0+π π = 2 2 2 1 2 1 and − . x = 0 2 1 and x = π . The graph has an asymptote at − π 18. consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . 2 C π π C C π = =− . The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. 0 +π π x-intercept = = 2 2 . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x-intercept = π and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . to graph one full period of y = cot x . the points on the graph midway between an x2 16. 0 ⎟ . C . B 1 C = −π The function with C = −π is y = cot( x + π ) . π and the graph passes through intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 17. . Inc. Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Thus. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. to graph one full period of y = 2 cot x . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 1 . B C C = = −π Thus. B 1 2 B 2 2 C=− The function with C = − π π 2 π⎞ ⎛ is y = cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. x = 0 and x = π . from 0 to − is − units. Solve the equations x = 0 and x = π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = π . from 0 to −π is −π units.

to graph one full period of y = cot 2 x . x = 0 and x = π 2 . 588 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎝4 ⎠ the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 and –2. the points on the graph midway between an x2 21. Inc. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x = 0 2 π 1 and x = . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 1 . 20. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 2. x = 0 and x = 2. x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. to graph one full period of y = −3cot π x . 0 ⎟ . x=2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 2. x-intercept = 0 + π2 π2 π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is π 4 and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . 0). 2 2 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. 0+2 2 x-intercept = = =1 2 2 An x-intercept is 1 and the graph passes through (1. Solve the equations 2 x = 0 and x=0 2x = π x= The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown. The curve is repeated along the x-axis 2 one full period as shown. . Solve the equations π 2 x=0 x=0 and π 2 x =π x= π π 2 1 intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 2 1 and − . Solve the equations 2 x = 0 x=0 and 2x = π x= π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –3 and 3. π 2 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x= π 2 . 0 ⎟ . to graph one full period of y = 2 cot 2 x . Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is –3.Trigonometric Functions 19.

Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝4 ⎠ 3. 4 x-intercept = 23. π Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . to graph one full period of 4 π⎞ ⎛ y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ . Solve the equations π π and 2 π π⎞ ⎛ x = . 0). 2 2⎠ ⎝ 589 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. The curve is repeated along the x- x=− 4 axis one full period as shown. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Solve the equations x+ π 4 =0 and x =0− x . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 =π x =π − and − π4 + 34π 24π π = = 2 2 4 An x-intercept is x+ 4 3π . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is – 2.6 22. Solve the equations π 4 π x = 0 and 4 x=0 The curve is repeated along the x-axis one full period as shown.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. . 0+4 4 x-intercept = = =2 2 2 An x-intercept is 2 and the graph passes through ( 2. 0 ) . x =π x= π π 4 x=4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and x = 4. − π2 + π2 0 = =0 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. x+ π π 4 =π x =π − 4 π π 4 3π x= 4 4 Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = − x= π 2 =0 and x =0− x=− π 2 π 2 x+ π 2 x= π π 2 4 and the graph passes through and –3. x = − π 4 3π and x = . x = − 2 2 π 2 and . Inc. The curve is repeated along the x4⎠ ⎝ axis one full period as shown. x = 0 and x = 4 . the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 3 and –3. Use the two consecutive asymptotes. x-intercept = Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 0 ⎟ . Because the coefficient of the cotangent is 3. to graph one full period of y = −2cot π 24. to graph one full period of y = 3cot ⎜ x + ⎟ .

0) . Graph the reciprocal sine function. Starting with x = 0. π . Inc. . Use ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ these key points to graph y = 3sin x from 0 to 2π . 2 2 each value of x. The x-intercepts of y = 590 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ . The x-intercepts of y = 3sin 4 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = 3csc 4 x . and use them as guides to graph y = 3csc x . Draw the vertical asymptotes. amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 2 27. and use them as a guide to 1 sketch the graph of y = sec 2π x . 1 cos 2π x corresponds to 2 1 vertical asymptotes of y = sec 2π x . π 2 x.Trigonometric Functions 1 x 25. − 3 ⎟ . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Evaluating the function at 0. Draw the 2 2 vertical asymptotes. y = 3sin x . and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = −3sec 29. The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 3 and B = 1. (π . Publishing as Prentice Hall. The x-intercepts of y = − sin corresponds to 2 2 1 x vertical asymptotes of y = − csc . Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. 2 2 28. 26. The x-intercepts of y = −3cos π 2 x correspond to vertical asymptotes of y = −3sec π x . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. to find x-values for the 2 five key points. and use them as a guide to sketch the graph of y = 3csc 4 x . . π . the x-values are π 3π . 0). and 2π . Draw the 2 vertical asymptotes. 3 ⎟ . 0). and use them as a guide to 1 x sketch the graph of y = − csc . ⎜ . and (2π . the key points are (0.

Publishing as Prentice Hall. π . y = 2sin x . ⎜ . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 3 x sin . to find x-values for the five key points. and (2π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. The 2 4 3 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. y = 1 x sin . 2π . 0). and (4π . Starting with x = 0. ⎜ 2π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. Graph the reciprocal sine function. 2π . The 2 2 1 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = and 2 1 B= . and use them as guides to graph 3 x y = csc . the key points are 3⎞ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎛ (0. 0). 6π . ⎜ 3π . (4π . to find x-values for the five 2 key points. Starting with x = 0. the x-values are π 3π 0. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. (π . 0) . (2π . 0). y = Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. the x-values are 0. π . the x-values are 0. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. 32. 2 2 equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. Use these 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 x key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 4π . and use them as guides to graph y = 2cscx. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Graph the reciprocal sine function. 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Use these key points to graph y = 2sin x from 0 to 2π . π . 0) . and 2π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. to find x-values for the five key points. 0).6 30. and 4π . 2 4 591 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. − ⎟ . ⎜ . 4π . 0) . and 8π . 2 ⎟ . ⎟ . . 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 x Use these key points to graph y = sin from 0 to 2 4 8π . and (8π . Evaluating the function at each value of x. Inc. − ⎟ . Evaluating the function at each value of x. 2π . and use 1 x them as guides to graph y = csc . The Extend the graph one cycle to the right. . 2 2 31. Starting with x = 0. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. ⎜ 6π . 0). . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. ⎟ . 3π . − 2 ⎟ . 4 3 3 = amplitude: A = 2 2 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 4 = 8π period: B 4 Use quarter-periods. the key points are (0. 0). π . 2 1 1 amplitude: A = = 2 2 2π 2π period: = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods.

amplitude: A = 3 = 3 period: 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. and (6π . 1) . 3 amplitude: B= period: A = 1 =1 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 3 = 6π B 3 6π 3π = . y = cos . and (2π . the x-values 3π 9π . . the key points are (0. and 6π . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec x . and use them as x guides to graph y = sec . (π . x 35. ⎜ . 2). to find x-values for the five 2 key points. y = 3cos x . . 2π 2π = = 2π 1 B Use quarter-periods. . (π . the key points are (0. y = 2 cos x . ⎜ . 34. to find x-values for the five 2 key points. ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ x points to graph y = cos from 0 to 6π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 592 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ (0. π. Evaluating the function are 0. and use them as guides to graph y = 3sec x . . Evaluating the function at each value 2 2 ⎛π ⎞ of x. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. − 3). ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 9π ⎞ . amplitude: A = 2 = 2 period: Use these key points to graph y = 3cos x from 0 to 2π . The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 3 and B = 1 . Use these key points to ⎝ 2 ⎠ graph y = 2 cos x from 0 to 2π . − 2). − 1). Graph the reciprocal cosine function. π . 2π . . π 3π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 0 ⎟ . Use these key (3π . Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Starting with x = 0. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Extend the 3 graph one cycle to the right. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Starting with x = 0. 0 ⎟ . to find x-values for 4 2 the five key points. 3). Extend the graph one cycle to the right. The 3 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . 0 ⎟ . 2 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ at each value of x. π . 0 ⎟ .Trigonometric Functions 33. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. Evaluating the function at 2 2 each value of x. ⎜ . ⎝2 ⎠ 3 π ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ . 3 Use quarter-periods. Starting with x = 0. 1). Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. the x-values are π 3π 0. 3π . π . 3) . ⎜ . and 2π . 2) . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 0 ⎟ . 0 ⎟ . The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 2 and B = 1. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. (2π . the x-values are 0.

Starting with x = 0. Graph the reciprocal sine function. the x-values are 1 3 0. Evaluating the 2 2 function at each value of x. − ⎟ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. π . 0 ) . Graph the reciprocal sine function. (π . ⎜ . .6 Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. . 3π . . Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. y = − sin π x . 2 The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with x from 0 to 2 4π . 0). π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. (1. 0) . 2 A=− Use these key points to graph y = cos 1 and B = π . 0). and use them as guides to graph y = −2 csc π x . 1 and use them as guides to graph y = − csc π x . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. . to find 4 2 x-values for the five key points. 2 Use quarter-periods. the key points are (0. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. ⎜ . and (2. 593 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. the x-values are 0. 1 3 the x-values are 0. . and (4π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Publishing as Prentice Hall. x and use them as guides to graph y = sec . Starting with x = 0. Use these key 2 ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ points to graph y = −2sin π x from 0 to 2. and 4π . ⎜ . 0). (1. 37. 1). to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. 0). x 36. 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 B= 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Use quarter-periods. 1. The equation is of the form y = A sin Bx with A = –2 and B = π . and 2. 0 ) . amplitude: A = −2 = 2 period: 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . period: 1 38. 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎝2 2⎠ 1 Use these key points to graph y = − sin π x from 0 2 to 2 . 1) . Starting with x = 0. y = cos . The 2 equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 1 and 1 . y = −2sin π x . the key points are 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎛3 1⎞ (0. and (2. 0) . 1. the key points are (0. 2 amplitude: A = − period: 1 1 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . ( 3π . to find x-values for the five key points. 2π . and 2 . ⎟ . Use quarter-periods. − 1). 2 ⎟ . Evaluating the function at each value of x. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. − 2 ⎟ . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. (2π .

⎟ . 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with 1 and B = π . . 2 amplitude: period: A = − A=− 1 1 = 2 2 3 and B = π . . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2 amplitude: A = − 2π 2π = =2 B π period: 2 1 = . Evaluating the function at each 2 2 1⎞ ⎛ value of x. ⎜ 2. − ⎟ . and use them as guides to graph 1 y = − sec π x . Starting with x = 0. − ⎟ . y = − cos π x . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. and 2. Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 594 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. the x-values are 1 3 0. . ⎜1. ⎜1. Evaluating the function at each 2 2 value of x.Trigonometric Functions 1 39. 0 ⎟ . Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 2 The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A=− 3 40. 1. Starting with x = 0. 2 3 3 = 2 2 2π 2π = =2 B π 2 1 = . 3 and use them as guides to graph y = − sec π x . 0 ⎟ . Extend 2 the graph one cycle to the right. ⎟ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. ⎜ . the x-values are 1 3 0. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 0 ⎟ . − ⎟ . ⎜ 2. 0 ⎟ . the key points are ⎜ 0. . − ⎟ . 2⎠ ⎝ 1⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ . y = − cos π x . 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Inc. . 2 Use quarter-periods. ⎜ . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. Use these key 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 to 2. Use quarter-periods. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. and 2 . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. the key points are 3⎞ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ ⎛ 3⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 0. 2 2 2 2 2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 3 Use these key points to graph y = − cos π x from 0 2 to 2 . ⎜ .

4 2 x-values for the five key points. 0 ⎟ . y = sin( x − π ) .PreCalculus 4E Section 4. the key points are ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . − 1) . and 3π . 0). and C = 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π = =π phase shift: B 1 2π π = .6 41. π 2 . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Graph the reciprocal sine function. ( 2π . 2π . ⎜ . 595 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2⎠ ⎝ The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with The equation is of the form y = A sin( Bx − C ) with A = 1. the x-values are 3π 5π . . to find Use quarter-periods. 1⎟ . B = 1 . (2π . amplitude: A = 1 = 1 A = 1 . 0 ⎟ . 2π . Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. (π . 1) . and B = 1. ⎜ . π⎞ ⎛ 42. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎛ 5π ⎞ ⎜ . and . the x-values are π . 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 5π to . 2 2 Evaluating the function at each value of x. 3π 5π . π 2 amplitude: A = 1 = 1 period: . and ⎜ . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2⎠ ⎝ . y = sin ⎜ x − ⎟ . and C = π . 0). Use these key points to graph 2 ⎝ ⎠ y = sin( x − π ) from π to 3π . Graph the reciprocal sine function. and use them as guides to graph y = csc( x − π ) . (3π . − 1⎟ . 0) . the key ⎛ 3π ⎞ points are (π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Inc. to find x-values for the five key points. 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C π2 π = = phase shift: B 1 2 period: Use quarter-periods. 0 ⎟ . Starting with x = π . π. Starting with x = π π 2 . . Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = csc ⎜ x − ⎟ .

= . and . Evaluating the function at 2 2 2 each value of x. 0. Extend the graph one cycle to the right. Graph the reciprocal cosine function. ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π⎞ ⎛ Use these key points to graph y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ from 2⎠ ⎝ π 3π − to . Draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. 2 amplitude: A = 2 = 2 46. 2 ⎟ . ( 0. Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. Use these ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ key points to graph y = 2 cos( x + π ) from −π to π . π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 cos ⎜ x + ⎟ . π 45. to find x-values for the five − π . 44. Evaluating the function 2 2 at each value of x. 2). ⎜ . B = 1. 2⎠ ⎝ 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C −π = = −π phase shift: B 1 2π π Use quarter-periods. 0. ⎜ . and (π . 0 ⎟ . . − 2 ⎟ . and C = −π . . to find x-values for the 4 2 five key points. y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2. π . Starting with x = −π . Starting with x = − A = 2 =2 period: are −π . Extend the graph one cycle to the right. 0 ) . 0 ⎟ . The equation is of the form Use quarter-periods. amplitude: . and use them as guides to graph π⎞ ⎛ y = 2 sec ⎜ x + ⎟ . and π . the x-values are π 3π . Draw vertical asymptotes through the xintercepts. the key points are (−π . the x-values π 2 key points. . 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 C − π2 π = =− phase shift: B 1 2 period: 596 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 2 Use the graph to obtain the graph of the reciprocal function. 2) . the key points are ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛ 3π ⎞ ⎜ − . and use them as guides to graph y = 2 sec( x + π ) . ( 0. The equation is of the form 2⎠ ⎝ y = A cos( Bx + C ) with A = 2 and B = 1 . 2 ⎟ . y = 2 cos( x + π ) . ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ − . ⎜ . 0 ) . − 2 ) . Publishing as Prentice Hall.Trigonometric Functions 43. and C=− π 2 . − π π . Inc. (π . Graph the reciprocal cosine function.

6.28.79. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ cos x and y2 = 1 . 2π 52. Xmax = 2π . − 0.36. Ymin = −2 . 53.71. 56. 3π π .79.50 50. For the window use Xmin = −2π . x=− 2 2 x ≈ −4. Xmax = 2π . − . x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. x = −2π . Use a graphing utility with y1 = tan x and y2 = −1 . For the window use Xmin = −2π .50 49. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ sin x and y2 = 1 .28 597 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Xmax = 2π . 5π π 3π 7π . 2. Inc. and Ymax = 2 . 0. and Ymax = 2 . Xmax = 2π . x ≈ −6. π⎞ ⎛ y = ( g h ) ( x) = g (h( x)) = −2 tan ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 55. For the window use Xmin = −2π . Ymin = −2 . 57. 58. and Ymax = 2 . Ymin = −2 .6 47. 5. . − 0. Use a graphing utility with y1 = 1/ tan x and y2 = −1 . 0. .93. Ymin = −2 . π⎞ ⎛ y = ( f h ) ( x) = f (h( x)) = 2 sec ⎜ 2 x − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 54. 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. − .57 51. 1. For the window use Xmin = −2π . . 2. 5π π 3π 7π .PreCalculus 4E Section 4.93.36. x=− 4 4 4 4 x ≈ −3. and Ymax = 2 . 48.

Trigonometric Functions 59. The beam is shining parallel to the wall at these times. 61. . and the opposite leg is 2 mi. Because the coefficient of the cotangent is ⎝2 ⎠ 2. the secant function.25. the adjacent leg is the distance d. amplitude: A = 10 = 10 period: b. Use the function that relates the acute angle with the hypotenuse and the adjacent leg. 1. ⎣ 2 2⎦ 598 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall. π π to 2 ⎛π ⎞ (0. 4 4 − 14 + 14 0 = =0 x-intercept = 2 2 An x-intercept is 0 and the graph passes through (0. y = 10 cos x . the points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of –2 and 2. 0 ⎟ . Use the two consecutive asymptotes. 2].75.25. Use the cotangent function. To graph on [0. (Do not use the left hand side of the first period of the graph on [0. ⎝2 ⎠ 2 . and use ⎡ π π⎤ them as guides to graph d = 10sec x on ⎢ − . Inc. and the graph passes through ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ . and 1. 0 ⎟ .) An x-intercept is 2 2 . Solve the equations 2π t = − π and 2π t = x = π . 2].75. x = 0 and x = π . Because the coefficient of the tangent is 12. two consecutive asymptotes occur at 1 1 x = − and x = . 0). ⎥ . ⎝ 2 ⎠ 60. then draw vertical asymptotes through the x-intercepts. and Connect these points with a smooth curve. In a right triangle the angle of elevation is one of the acute angles. to 4 4 graph one full period of d = 12 tan 2π t . continue the pattern and extend the graph to 2. use the x-values − ⎛ π ⎞ find the key points ⎜ − . The equation is of the form y = A cos Bx with A = 10 and B = 1. the points on the graph midway between an x-intercept and the asymptotes have ycoordinates of –12 and 12. d sec x = 10 d = 10 sec x Graph the reciprocal cosine function. 0. to graph y = 2 cot x for 0 < x < π . 0 ⎟ . Two consecutive asymptotes occur at x = 0 and d = 12 tan 2π t a. d cot x = 2 d = 2 cot x Use the equations x = 0 and x = π . Use the two 1 1 consecutive asymptotes. 0. Midway between x = 0 and x = π is x = π 2 2 π − π2 t= t= 2 2π 2π 1 1 t=− t= 4 4 Thus. 10). x = − and x = . π π The function is undefined for t = 0. and ⎜ . For − π 2 2π 2π = = 2π B 1 <x< π 2 .

period: π = π =1 π πx = x= x= π 2 π 2 π 2 −1 −1 π π −2 2π x ≈ 0. 2 64.82 ≤ x ≤ 1. 4 82. we include −0.18 in our graph of 1 y = tan(π x + 1) . Answers may vary. Inc. 77. 2 599 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 65. 63.85 ≤ x ≤ 1. – 76. Solve the equations π x +1 = − πx= − x= 78.2 . 81. . period: π B Graph y = = π =1 π 1 tan π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 . period: π B = π 1 4 Graph y = tan = π ⋅ 4 = 4π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 8π . Graphs will vary. period: π 80. period: π B = π and π x + 1 = 2 π −1 2 −π 2 −1 π −π − 2 x= 2π π 4 Graph y = tan 4 x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π 2 x ≈ −0.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Graphs will vary.6 62. 79. and graph for −0.18 B Thus.82 . B = π 1 2 Graph y = cot = π ⋅ 2 = 2π x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 4π . period: π = π B 2 Graph y = cot 2 x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π . Publishing as Prentice Hall.

. Thus. 2 86. period: Thus. Inc. period: 3π 3 = 2π 2 The points on the graph midway between an xintercept and the asymptotes have y-coordinates of 1 and –1. period: The graph shows that carbon dioxide concentration rises and falls each year. Thus. 88. does not make sense. we include y = sin 25π in our graph. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 85. The graph has the shape of a cotangent function with consecutive asymptotes at 2π 2π 2π x = 0 and x = . Thus. 2 B= 600 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. makes sense 90. and 12 89. does not make sense. 2π 2π 3 = π = 2π ⋅ = 6 B π 3 Graph the functions for 0 ≤ x ≤ 12 . Explanations will vary. 92. 84. and graph Thus. Explanations may vary. we include ≤ x ≤ 6 6 9 for 0 ≤ x ≤ . but over all the concentration increased from 1990 to 2008.Trigonometric Functions 2π 2π = 1 = 2π ⋅ 2 = 4π B 2 Graph the functions for 0 ≤ x ≤ 8π . An equation for this graph is y = cot x . use sine or cosine. 3 3 3 π 2π = B 3 2π B = 3π 2π 2π = =2 B π C π6 π 1 1 = = ⋅ = phase shift: B π 6 π 6 1 25 in our graph. 3 C = 0. Sample explanation: To model a cyclical temperature. 87. 83. Sample explanation: To obtain a cosecant graph. A = 1. makes sense 91. The oscillation is faster as x gets closer to 0. period: 2π 2π = =π B 2 C π6 π phase shift: = = B 2 12 π ≤x≤ 12 5π graph for 0 ≤ x ≤ . 2 1 x The graph is oscillating between 1 and –1. There is no phase shift. Explanations will vary. you can use a sine graph. The period is −0 = . 93.

Since the period is 2. . . 601 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. An equation for 3 the reciprocal function is y = cos x . Inc. 6 ⎥⎦ ⎣ 6 b.1⎥ by [ −6. 6 ⎛ 5π 3⎞ This is represented by the point ⎜ . Since A=1. the coefficient of x is given by 2π =2 B where B 2π =2 B 2 B = 2π b. B =π Thus.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. Thus. 3. yes. Explanations will vary. ⎝ 6 2⎠ 95. yes.1] ⎣ 2 2 ⎦ 98. C = 0 . Since the period is 3π . −3] ∪ [3. ⎛ π ⎞ This is represented by the point ⎜ − . a. an 4 3 equation for this graph is y = sec x . The angle is − π 6 . π . a. 6. 1⎞ ⎛ π This is represented by the point ⎜ − . The graph has the shape of a secant function. The range shows that A = 2. Explanations will vary. c. = 3 B 3 8π B = 6π 6π 3 = 8π 4 There is no phase shift. Publishing as Prentice Hall. −x y = 2 sin x b. the coefficient of x is given 2π = 3π by B where B 2π = 3π B 3Bπ = 2π B= b. y = π csc π x 97. 100. − ⎟ . a. − 3 ⎟ . 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2− x decreases the amplitude as x gets larger. y = 2 csc 2x 3 96. 4 B= c. The period is 99. ⎜ 6 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 101.− ⎟.6 94. 8π 2π 8π . The angle is − π 3 . c. 2 3 Thus. yes. The angle is 5π .1] Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . ∞ ) 7π ⎤ ⎡ π by [ −3. −1] ∪ [1. ∞ ) ⎡ 1 7 ⎤ Viewing rectangle: ⎢ − . The reciprocal function has amplitude A = 1 . Since A=3. a. Thus. the range is ( −∞. Explanations will vary. Examples may vary. The range shows that A = π . the range is ( −∞. Thus.

tan −1 (−35. . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . Thus θ = − . then sin θ = − .85) Radian 35. The only angle in the interval ⎢ − .2310 TAN −1 –1. Let θ = sin −1 3 3 . π ] that satisfies cos θ = − is .Trigonometric Functions Section 4. Thus 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ θ =− π 4 or tan −1 θ = − π 4 . θ = . ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2 π π 2⎞ π ⎡ π π⎤ The only angle in the interval ⎢ − .85 Display (rounded to four places) Keystrokes + − COS−1 1. 2 2 3 ⎝ 2⎠ 2π ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2π . tan −1 (−35. ⎛1⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ Radian 1 ÷ 3 = b. 2 2 3 π π 3 π ⎡ π π⎤ is . 4.85) Radian Display (rounded to four places) Keystrokes COS−1 TAN −1 ( 1 ÷ 3 ) ENTER − 35. Thus.5429 602 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. ⎜ 2 4 4 4 ⎣ 2 2⎦ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3. The only angle in the interval [0. or sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟⎟ = − . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = −1 is − . then cos θ = − . Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode a. Inc. ⎥ that satisfies cos θ = − is − . θ= 3 ⎝ 2⎠ 3 π ⎛ π π⎞ Let θ = tan −1 (−1) . then sin θ = . or sin −1 = .7 Check Point Exercises 1. or cos −1 ⎜ − ⎟ = . Thus.85 ENTER 1. then tan θ = −1 .2310 –1. Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 2 3 3 3 ⎣ 2 2⎦ 2. ⎛1⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝3⎠ Radian b. 5. ⎛ 2 2⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − .5429 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode a. 1 1 2π ⎛ 1⎞ Let θ = cos −1 ⎜ − ⎟ .

so sin −1 (sin π ) = sin −1 (0) = 0 ⎣ 2 2⎦ c. x is in [–1.PreCalculus 4E 6.7 cos ( cos −1 0. x 2 + (−1) 2 = 22 x2 + 1 = 4 x2 = 3 x= 3 Use values for x and r to find the exact value. Because sin θ is negative.7 ) x = 0.7) = 0. x is not in ⎢ − . sin −1 (sin π ) ⎡ π π⎤ x = π .7 . then tan θ = . x is not in [–1. θ is in quadrant IV.1] so cos ( cos −1 π ) is not defined. 3⎞ side opposite θ 3 ⎛ = sin ⎜ tan −1 ⎟ = sin θ = 4 hypotenuse 5 ⎝ ⎠ 8. x ⎡ 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ cos ⎢sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥ = cos θ = = 2 r 2 ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 603 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Section 4. ⎥ .7 b.1] so cos(cos −1 0. 2 ⎝ 2⎠ Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find x. θ is in the first quadrant. Because tan θ is positive. x is in the domain of sin x. a. r 2 = 32 + 42 = 9 + 16 = 25 r = 25 = 5 Use the right triangle to find the exact value. Inc. 7. 3 ⎛3⎞ Let θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ . . cos ( cos −1 π ) x = π . then sin θ = − . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 1 ⎛ 1⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ . 4 ⎝4⎠ Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find r.

Thus θ = 0 . or ⎣ 2 2⎦ −1 sin 0 = 0 .Trigonometric Functions 9. Let θ = sin −1 sin −1 2. The only angle in the interval 2 2 2 π = . 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 is 4 . Thus ⎣ ⎦ 3 π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . Thus ⎣ ⎦ 3 π = . 1 π π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 .7 1. 2 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ 1 π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . The only angle in the interval 2 ⎝ 2⎠ π π ⎛ 1⎞ θ = − . 3. 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 is 6 . a. The only angle in the interval 2 2 . θ = 6 . θ= 4. 1 Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the third side. 1 π = . 2 3 1 ⎛ 1⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ . then sin θ = . 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 2 is 3 . or sin −1 2 π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎢ − 2 . then tan θ =x = x . 2 4 3 3 . sec ( tan −1 x ) = sec θ = x2 + 1 = x2 + 1 1 Exercise Set 4. Let θ = tan −1 x . then sin θ = . then sin θ = . Inc. then sin θ = 0 . or ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ π π⎤ Let θ = sin −1 0 . Thus. 2 ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = − 2 is − 6 . Thus ⎣ ⎦ 604 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. 2 6 Let θ = sin −1 π 4 π 3 2 2 . or sin −1 Let θ = sin −1 θ= 5. Publishing as Prentice Hall. a 2 = x 2 + 12 a = x2 + 1 Use the right triangle to write the algebraic expression. The only angle in the interval 2 2 . or sin −1 ⎜ − ⎟ = − . 1 1 . The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = 0 is 0. . then sin θ = − .

Let θ = cos −1 0 . Let θ = cos −1 ⎜ − . 2 2 2 4 4 2 π = . then cos θ = 1 . Publishing as Prentice Hall. 3 π = . π ] that satisfies cos θ = 1 is 0 . or tan −1 3 π = . 3 6 π ⎛ π π⎞ 14. or cos −1 0 = 2 π 2 . The only angle in the interval [0. or tan −1 1 = π 4 . The only angle in the interval [ 0. 9. ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = is . Thus θ = − . Thus ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 3π 2 ⎞ 3π . then tan θ = 1 . θ= ⎟⎟ = ⎜ 4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 4 ⎛ 3 3⎞ 10. or cos −1 1 = 0 . ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ 3 π π ⎡ π π⎤ The only angle in the interval ⎢ − . Section 4. ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 6 2 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ 11. or cos −1 ⎜ − = . then cos θ = . 605 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. π ] that satisfies cos θ = is . The only angle in the interval [ 0. Thus 3 3 3 6 ⎝ 2 2⎠ . 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 2 π π .PreCalculus 4E 6. then tan θ = .7 ⎛ 3 3⎞ Let θ = sin −1 ⎜ − . 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ Thus θ = π 4 . then sin θ = − . Let θ = cos −1 1 . Let θ = tan −1 1 . 13. ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ The only angle in the interval [ 0. π ] that satisfies cos θ = is . Let θ = tan −1 θ= π 6 3 3 3 π ⎛ π π⎞ . π ] that satisfies cos θ = − is . or sin −1 ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ 7. or cos −1 ⎜ − . π ] that satisfies cos θ = 0 is Thus θ = π 2 π . Let θ = cos −1 or cos −1 8. Thus θ = 0 . then cos θ = − . 2 4 ⎛ 2 2 2⎞ 3π Let θ = cos −1 ⎜ − . The only angle in the interval [0. Thus θ = . 12. . π ] that satisfies cos θ = − ⎛ 3 5π 5π 3 ⎞ 5π is . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = 1 is . 2 6 Let θ = cos −1 or cos −1 3 3 3 π π . ⎥ that satisfies sin θ = − is − . The only angle in the interval [0. then cos θ = . then cos θ = 0 . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . Inc. The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . Thus θ = . 2 2 2 3 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ 3⎞ π =− . . then cos θ = − . Thus θ = .

or ⎝ 2 2⎠ tan −1 0 = 0 .30 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes Display (rounded to two places) sin −1 0. Let θ = tan −1 − 3 . Thus 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ θ =− π 4 . 3 ⎝ 2 2⎠ ( Thus θ = − π 3 ) ( ) .49 606 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.47 ENTER 0.3 Radian SIN −1 0. Let θ = tan −1 (−1) . Publishing as Prentice Hall. ⎛ 3⎞ 3 18. Inc.47 Radian SIN −1 0. or tan −1 − 3 = − π 3 .49 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes Display (rounded to two places) sin −1 0.Trigonometric Functions ⎛ π π⎞ 15. The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = −1 is − .3 SIN −1 Display (rounded to two places) 0. ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = − 3 6 ⎝ 2 2⎠ Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes sin −1 0. ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = 0 is 0. then tan θ = 0 . The only angle in the interval ⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ π 3⎞ π Thus θ = − . then tan θ = −1 . . then tan θ = − . then tan θ = − 3 .30 20. or tan −1 (−1) = − π 4 . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . or tan −1 ⎜ − =− . ⎟ that satisfies tan θ = − 3 is − . Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode Keystrokes sin −1 0. Let θ = tan −1 ⎜ − . Let θ = tan −1 0 . π ⎛ π π⎞ 16.47 SIN −1 Display (rounded to two places) 0. Thus θ = 0 . The only angle in the interval ⎜ − . 3 π ⎛ π π⎞ is − .3 ENTER 0. ⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ 6 6 ⎝ ⎠ 19. ⎜ − .47 Radian 0. π ⎛ π π⎞ 17.3 Radian 0.

32 ENTER –0.32) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes SIN −1 − 0. . Function Mode sin −1 (−0.68 Scientific Calculator Solution 23.33 Scientific Calculator Solution 22.625) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes 0.68 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode sin −1 (−0.32 − SIN −1 –0.11 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode ⎛4⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 ( 4 ÷ 9 ) ENTER 1. Function Mode ⎛3⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝8⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes 3 ÷ 8 = COS−1 1.7 21.33 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode sin −1 (−0. Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode sin −1 (−0. Inc.625) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes SIN −1 − 0.PreCalculus 4E Section 4.19 Scientific Calculator Solution 24.625 + − SIN −1 –0.625 ENTER –0.32) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes + 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.11 607 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.19 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode ⎛3⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝8⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 ( 3 ÷ 8 ) ENTER 1. Function Mode ⎛4⎞ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝9⎠ Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes 4 ÷ 9 = COS−1 1.

54 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode tan −1 (−30) Radian Keystrokes TAN −1 − 30 ENTER Display (rounded to two places) –1. Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode 5 7 Radian cos −1 Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 ÷ 7 = 5 1.30 Graphing Calculator Solution Function cos −1 7 10 Mode Radian 27. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.Trigonometric Functions 25. Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 7 ÷ 10 ) ( ENTER 1.54 608 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.52 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode tan −1 (−20) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes TAN −1 − 20 ENTER –1.30 Scientific Calculator Solution Function Mode tan −1 (−20) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes + 20 − TAN −1 –1.25 Scientific Calculator Solution Function cos −1 7 10 Mode Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes ÷ 10 = 7 COS−1 1. Function Mode tan −1 (−30) Radian Keystrokes + 30 − TAN −1 Display (rounded to two places) –1.52 Scientific Calculator Solution 28. Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes COS−1 5 ÷ 7 ) ( ENTER 1.25 Graphing Calculator Solution Function Mode 5 7 Radian cos −1 26. .

x is in [−1.57 33. Scientific Calculator Solution Function ( tan −1 − 473 Mode ) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes + 473 TAN −1 − –1. π ⎡ π π⎤ ⎛ π⎞ π . cos(cos −1 0.57. x is in ⎢ − . so cos(cos −1 0. Inc.52 Graphing Calculator Solution Function ( tan −1 − 473 Mode ) Radian 30. ⎛ π⎞ sin −1 ⎜ sin ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ x= 34. π ].9.9 ) x = 0. 35. x is in [−1.PreCalculus 4E Section 4. so sin ⎜ sin 6 ⎟ = sin ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 6 ⎣ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 609 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . 2 ⎥ . so sin(sin −1 0. Publishing as Prentice Hall.9 32.56 sin ( sin −1 0.57) = 0. Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes TAN −1 − ( 473 ) ENTER –1.7 29. 3 2π ⎞ 2π ⎛ so cos −1 ⎜ cos ⎟= 3 ⎠ 3 ⎝ 5π ⎞ ⎛ sin −1 ⎜ sin ⎟ 6 ⎠ ⎝ 5π x= . x is not in 6 5π ⎞ π ⎡ π π⎤ −1 ⎛ −1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎢ − 2 .57) x = 0. 1].9) = 0. ⎥ . so sin −1 ⎜ sin ⎟ = 3 3⎠ 3 ⎣ 2 2⎦ ⎝ 2π ⎞ ⎛ cos −1 ⎜ cos ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2π x= . 1]. x is in [0.56 Graphing Calculator Solution Function ( tan −1 − 5061 31.52 Scientific Calculator Solution Function ( tan −1 − 5061 Mode ) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes + 5061 − TAN −1 –1. x is in the domain of sin x. Mode ) Radian Display (rounded to two places) Keystrokes TAN −1 ( − 5061 ) ENTER –1.

44. θ is in the first quadrant. 47. so sin ( sin −1 π ) is not so tan(tan −1 380) = 380 39. x is not in ⎢ − . tan ( tan −1 125 ) x = 125. so tan −1 ⎜ tan ⎟ = tan − 3 = − 3 ⎠ 3 ⎝ ( 42. x is in the domain of 3 ⎝ 2 2⎠ 2 π⎞ π ⎛ −1 tan x. 45. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Because sin θ is 5 5 positive. 1] so cos(cos −1 3π ) is not defined. tan(tan −1 380) x = 380. 4π ⎞ ⎛ cos −1 ⎜ cos ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 4π x= . Inc. so sin −1 (sin π ) = sin −1 0 = 0 4π ⎞ 1 ⎞ 2π ⎛ −1 ⎛ so cos −1 ⎜ cos ⎟ = cos ⎜ − ⎟ = 3 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2⎠ 3 37. 46. Let θ = sin −1 ⎡ ⎛ π ⎞⎤ tan −1 ⎢ tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎦ π ⎛ π π⎞ x = − . 3 ⎝ 2 2⎠ π ⎡ ⎛ π ⎞⎤ so tan −1 ⎢ tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥ = − 3 3 ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ x2 + y2 = r 2 x 2 + 4 2 = 52 2π ⎞ ⎛ tan −1 ⎜ tan ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2π ⎛ π π⎞ x= . cos(cos −1 3π ) x = 3π . x is not in ⎜ − . ⎥ . x is a real number. x is in the domain of cos x. −1 x=− cos −1 (cos 2π ) x = 2π . sin −1 (sin π ) x 2 = 25 − 16 = 9 x=3 x 3 4⎞ ⎛ cos ⎜ sin −1 ⎟ = cos θ = = 5⎠ r 5 ⎝ ) 3π ⎞ ⎛ tan −1 ⎜ tan ⎟ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3π ⎛ π π⎞ x= . π ]. x is not in[0. ⎡ π π⎤ x = π . ⎟ . π ]. 1] . x is a real number. 3 x is in the domain of cos x. x is not in [0. ⎟ . x is not in ⎜ − . ⎛ π π⎞ . so cos −1 (cos 2π ) = cos −1 1 = 0 x = π . sin ( sin −1 π ) defined. ⎣ 2 2⎦ x is in the domain of sin x. 43. x is in ⎜ − .Trigonometric Functions 36. so tan ( tan −1 125 ) = 125 38. then sin θ = . x is not in [−1. ⎡ ⎛ π ⎞⎤ tan ⎢ tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ 6 ⎠⎦ 41. x is not in [−1. ⎟ . so 6 ⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎡ ⎛ π ⎞⎤ π tan −1 ⎢ tan ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥ = − 6 ⎣ ⎝ 6 ⎠⎦ 40. 4 ⎝ 2 2⎠ x is in the domain of tan x 3π ⎞ π ⎛ −1 so tan −1 ⎜ tan ⎟ = tan (−1) = − 4 4 ⎝ ⎠ 610 Copyri