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SUZANA REDZUAN

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September 2014 Semester

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgement.3

TASK1
Introduction
.5-9
Poster..10
Tables of Word Classes.11-14

TASK 2
Fable16
Simple Sentences17
Compound Sentences.18
Complex Sentences..19

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TASK 1
2

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Introduction
Word classes is a set of words that display the same formal properties, especially their
inflections and distribution. It is similar to the more traditional term part of speech. The two
major families of word classes are lexical or open classes like nouns, verbs, adjectives and
adverbs. And function or closed classes such as determiners, particles, prepositions and others.

Noun
A noun is a word which is used to denote a person (headmistress , woman,
President, , teacher etc.), a concrete or abstract entity (blackboard, fork,
field, truth, etc.) or a place (office, garden, railway station). These are all
common nouns. There are also proper nouns which are the names of a
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specific person, place, event etc., usually starting with a capital letter, for
example, York , John, Christmas, Saturday. A noun can be extended to a noun
phrase. In the example phrases given below, the noun (in the first example)
and the noun phrase (in the remaining examples) is in bold.
Dogs can be vicious
Some dogs can be vicious
Some of the dogs can be vicious
Some of the bigger dogs can be vicious
Some of the bigger dogs in the dog pound can be vicious
The pronoun
Pronouns are usually treated as a special sub-class of nouns. This is because
they stand in for a noun or group of nouns. They are limited in number and
belong to what is called a closed set, that is, a group of words to which new
members are, for practical purposes, not allowed. Some examples of
pronouns are: I, you, he, she, our, its, something, anyone and so on. Thus,
instead of saying, Alis arrived. Alis in the school, we prefer Alis arrived.
Hes in the school. Or a person called for you; better would be someone
called for you. There are several other words which fall into this class; for
example (the) one(s), when used to replace dishes in the example: pass me
the dishes - the ones on the top shelf.
The adjective
An occur in two positions in a phrase:

before the noun as in clear water, beautiful beaches, a terrible


decision. The adjectives in these examples are said to be attributive,

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following any form of the verb be (e.g. am, is, was, been) and similar
verbs (seem, appear, become) as in the water became clear, the
beaches are beautiful. These adjectives are in predicative position.

Determiners
A determiner is used to modify a noun. It indicates reference to something
specific or something of a particular type. This function is usually performed
by articles, demonstratives, possessive determiners or quantifiers.
Determiners vs pronouns
Determiners are followed by a noun.

The man

This book

Some people

Subject pronouns ( I , you , he , etc.) and possessive pronouns (mine, yours,


his, etc.) cannot be determiners because they can never be followed by a
noun.

Types of Determiners
Articles
The definite and indefinite articles are all determiners.

Definite article - the

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Indefinite article - a or an (a is used before a consonant sound; an is


used before a vowel sound.)

Examples:
Close the door, please.
I've got a friend in Singapore.
Demonstratives
There are four demonstrative determiners in English which are this, that,
these and those
This is my camera. (Demonstrative used as a pronoun, subject of the verb
is)
This camera is mine. (Demonstrative used as a determiner modifying the
noun camera.)
.
The verb
A group of words cannot be described as a sentence or a clause unless at
least one of the words is a verb. In some ways, we can describe it as the
most important part of speech because it is the 'action' word that tells the
listener or reader what is happening in the sentence. Verbs can be action
words like run, initiate, judge, throw, but they can also denote less active
notions and have more to do with mental processes and perceptions, like
see, know, think and so on.
The adverb
The traditional approach to adverbs has been to assign mainly those words
which are made from adjectives by the addition of the ending ly (quickly,
hopelessly), plus certain other words which are difficult to classify, like not,
just and soon. Their main function is to qualify the action of the verb in the
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clause in some way, but they can also be used to add more information to an
adjective or other adverb e.g. awfully good, incredibly slowly. The class of
adverbs is very wide-ranging in form and is used to add comments to many
of the other word classes.
The preposition
Prepositions allow us to talk about the way in which two parts of a sentence
are related to each other. They include words like in, on, under, beside,
through, inside, before, opposite. More often than not, these relationships are
to do with either time or space, but other types of relationship, such as
possession, cause and effect and method can be expressed by using
prepositions. The words themselves are generally short and simple but some
prepositions are multi-word units; for example, out of, by means of, in spite
of, instead of, up to etc. Unless they are part of a verb (get in, pick up,
switch of), prepositions are always followed by a phrase containing a noun
at school, in the summer, over the moon and so on.
The conjunction
It would be very unusual for anyone to either speak or write completely in
simple sentences; instead we tend to use a mixture of simple, compound and
complex sentences. One way to create longer, more complicated sentences
is to use conjunctions. As we have already noted in the section on types of
clause, conjunctions serve to connect two or more clauses, phrases or words
together to make longer constructions. In the following examples, the
conjunction is in bold:
a) The coffee was strong, but sweet.
b) We can go to the match or watch it on TV.
c) She has a dog and two cats.
d) When I arrived home, they had already eaten.
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e) I had to stop driving because the rain was so bad.


f) Can I have a word with you, if youve got the time?
g) Although he cant swim, he goes sailing.
There are two types of conjunction. The first is the coordinating
conjunction; examples of this can be seen in sentences a to c above. This
type is always used to connect elements that share the same
grammatical status, that is, main clause to main clause, verb to verb,
noun to noun, adjective to adjective and so on. In sentence a two
adjectives, strong and sweet, are conjoined, in b two verbs, go and watch
and c two nouns, dog and cats.
The second type is the subordinating conjunction, which most often joins
two or more unequal clauses to one another. Typically a main clause will be
connected to a subordinate clause as we saw in the section on clause types.
So in sentences d to g above, the subordinate clause (which you will
remember cannot stand on its own, but needs another more important
clause to complete the meaning) begins with a conjunction, here when,
because, if and although.

The Interjections
An interjection is a word that expresses feeling or emotion; usually it is
followed by an exclamation mark.
Examples: Oh! Ah! Wow! Darn! Gosh! Golly! Gee! Ow! Ouch! Yikes!
Holy moly! Yippee! Hooray! Boo! Whew!

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POSTER

CANTEEN DAY
2014
2014
Food And Drink

Charity Fundraiser
Saturday 22nd November
2014
Fun Photo

8.00a.m. 5.00 p.m.

Booth

Hurry! Join in the fun

Sweets And

You can buy your coupon from


your class teacher..

Treats

Bouncy
Castle

Come and meet


the most
beautiful
princess, Elsa

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All proceeds will be used to upgrade the facilities


of the school. If you want to get more details
please contact Mr. Ali, 0132756360

N
O

WORD
CLASSES

SENTENCES

WORD

FUNCTION

Common Noun
You can buy your
1.

Nouns

Class teacher

To denote a
person.

coupon from your class


teacher.
Proper Noun
Saturday

Saturday 22nd
November 2014
Sekolah Kebangsaan

To specify the
November

day and the


date.

Bandar Baru Perda


To specify the
place.
Starting with a
capital letter.

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Pronouns

You can buy your

You

To refer to

coupon from your class

anybody who

teacher.

wants to buy the


coupon.
Treated as a
special sub-class
of nouns

Adjectives

Attributive
Adjectives
Come and meet the

The most

To describe the

beautiful

princess.

most beautiful
Used before the

princess, Elsa.

noun. (princess)

Determiners

Articles
All proceeds will be

the

Determiners are

used to upgrade the

followed by

facilities of the school.

noun. The noun

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is school.
It indicates
references to
something
specific and
used to modify a
noun.
Demonstrative
Determiners

those

Mystery gift awaits for


Used as a

those who purchase

demonstrative

more than RM500

pronoun.

You can buy your


coupon from your

Verbs

class teacher.
Come and meet

buy

meet are action


come

the most
meet

beautiful

Adverbs

The activities are


12

words that tells


the reader what
is happening in

princess, Elsa.

Buy, come,

the sentence.

incredibly

To add more

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incredibly awesome.

information to
an adjective
(awesome)

Prepositions

Join in the fun.

In

To relate to each
other which two
parts of a
sentence.

A fun day out for the


for

whole family.

Conjunctions

Coordinating
Conjunction
and

To connect

Come and meet the

elements that

most beautiful

share the same

princess, Elsa.

grammatical
status, that is,
verb to verb.

Subordinating

if

Conjunction
The subordinate
If you want to get more
details please contact
Mr. Ali

clause (cannot
stand on its
own) needs
another more

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important clause
to complete the
meaning which
is begin with if.

Interjections

Hurry! Join in the fun.

Hurry!

To express
feeling or
emotion and
followed by an
exclamation
mark.

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Why Dogs Wag their Tails

TASK 2

A rich man owned a dog and a cat. The dog had served his master for many years . He had become so
old and was unable to fight anymore, but he was a good guide and companion to the cat.
One day he called the animals and bade them carry a ring to his daughter.

You are strong and brave, he said to the cat. You may carry the ring, but you must be careful not to
drop it.
To the dog he said, You must go with the cat to guide her and keep her from harm.
They started out.
Let me take the ring, said the dog as they were about to plunge into the water.
The cat refused and then she reluctantly gave it to him.
The river was wide an swift that they grew very tired. They reached the opposite bank . The dog
dropped the ring. They searched carefully, but could not find it anywhere. After a while they turned
back to tell their master. However, the dog was so scared that he ran away.
The cat went on alone. It was frightened. She explained how the ring had been lost and how the dog
had run away. The master was angry, and commanded that it should be punished by having its tail cut
off. He ordered that all the dogs in the world should join in the search, and ever since when one dog
meets another they immediately wag their tail to prove that they are not guilty.
Taken from The Educator volume 56

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Simple Sentences

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Compound Sentences

Complex Sentences

Simple Sentence
A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it
expresses a complete thought. Examples of the simple sentences in the fable above are as below.
In the following simple sentences, subjects are in yellow and verbs are in green.
1. The dog had served his master for many years.
2. The dog dropped the ring.

Compound Sentences
A compound sentences contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The
coordinators are as follow:

for
and
nor
but
or
yet
so

Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. In the following
compound sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green and the coordinators and the
commas that precede them are in red.
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1. You may carry the ring, but you must be careful not to drop it.
There are two independent clauses:
You may carry the ring.
You must be careful not to drop it.
2. You must go with the cat to guide her and keep her from harm.
There are two independent clauses.
You must go with the cat to guide her.
Keep her from harm.

Complex Sentences
A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses.
Dependent clauses cannot stand alone because they do not express a complete thought. The
dependent clause gives more information about the independent clause, and is introduced by a
subordinating conjunction such as because, since after, although, when (and many others) or a
relative pronouns such as that,who,or which. In the following complex sentences, subjects are in
yellow, verbs are in green and the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in red.
1. After a while , they turned back to tell their master.
The sentence begins with the dependent clause which is followed by a comma. It is
required before the independent clause.

2. The river was wide and swift that they grew very tired.
After the independent clause, a relative pronoun (that) is used.

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REFERENCES
Alexander,L.G..(1988). Longman English Grammar.New York: Longman
Chung Han Teik,Komathy Senathy Rajah, Ong Siow Kim.
(2011).HBEL1203 Language Description. OUM
Hooper,J.S. (1980). A quick Englis reference. Kuala Lumpur:Oxford
University Press
Leech,G.& Svatvik,J.(1975). A communicative grammar of English.
London: Longman
Quir,R. & Greenbaum, S. (1990). A students grammar of the English
Language. England: Longman
Sinclair,J.(ed) (1991). Collins cobuild students grammar. London:
HarperCollins
Woods,E.& McLeod,N. (1990). Using English grammar: meaning and
form. New York: Prentice Hall.Frank,M. (1986). Modern English
Exercises for non native speakers. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents
Rozakis,L.(2003). English grammar for the utterly confused. New York:
McGraw Hill.
http://www.southtexascollege.edu/devenglish/A/Webct/Keys/a_parts_of_speech.htm

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