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Lab Manual

(Database Systems)
Dr. Osman Khalid
COMATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad,
Pakistan
http://osman.pakproject.com

Contents
LAB 01Creating Configuring the database................................................................................................. 5
Command to see the existing databases in MySql Server ........................................................................ 6
Create a database and Populate values .................................................................................................... 6
LAB 02update database structure ........................................................................................................... 25
Command to show the tables in a database .......................................................................................... 26
Retrieve System Time: ............................................................................................................................ 26
Add Two Number: ................................................................................................................................... 26
CREATE NEW TABLE: ............................................................................................................................... 26
Adding/Dropping Primary Key: ............................................................................................................... 26
Adding Column and Drop Column from Table ........................................................................................ 26
LAB 03Change table structure/data ........................................................................................................ 28
Renaming Column in Table ..................................................................................................................... 29
Setting Default Value for a Column: ....................................................................................................... 29
Drop Table............................................................................................................................................... 29
Empty Table: ........................................................................................................................................... 29
Delete a single row from table................................................................................................................ 29
Delete all rows from table: ..................................................................................................................... 29
LAB 04data copying/deletion .................................................................................................................. 30
Transfer/Copy Data from table1 to table2 with same table structure ................................................... 31
1

Delete a single row from table:............................................................................................................... 31


UPDATE a row in table: ........................................................................................................................... 31
LAB 05Auto-increment primary key ........................................................................................................ 32
Creating an AUTO INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY: ....................................................................................... 33
Start Auto Increment with user specified value : ................................................................................... 33
LAB 06database indexes .......................................................................................................................... 35
Creating Indexes : ................................................................................................................................... 36
Drop Indexes : ......................................................................................................................................... 37
LAB 07create index on foreign keys ........................................................................................................ 38
Creating index on foreign key : ............................................................................................................... 39
LAB 08select clause in detail ................................................................................................................... 40
Clauses of the SELECT Statement: .......................................................................................................... 41
Two Special Keywords used in SELECT:................................................................................................... 41
LAB 09Creating Alias in database ............................................................................................................ 43
Using Alias in SELECT Statement: ............................................................................................................ 44
LAB 10sorting the data ............................................................................................................................ 45
Rearranging column Order in SELECT Query: ......................................................................................... 46
LAB 11using expressions and functions .................................................................................................. 47
Using Expressions:................................................................................................................................... 48
Using Functions: ...................................................................................................................................... 48
LAB 12built-in functions .......................................................................................................................... 50
COUNT : Returns single row.................................................................................................................... 51
Difference between COUNT(*) and COUNT(ColumnName) ................................................................... 51
LAB 13NULL values .................................................................................................................................. 53
Using Comparison Operators .................................................................................................................. 54
Using NULL Values .................................................................................................................................. 54
LAB 14logical operators........................................................................................................................... 55
Using Boolean Operators (Logical Operators): ....................................................................................... 56
Using Ranges for Qualification: ............................................................................................................... 56
Using DISTINCT values: ........................................................................................................................... 57
LAB 15understanding in and not in ......................................................................................................... 58
Using IN and NOT IN Lists: ...................................................................................................................... 59
2

Sorting Results: The ORDER BY Clause ................................................................................................... 59


LAB 16the use of limit operator ........................................................................................................... 60
Using LIMIT :............................................................................................................................................ 61
LAB 17Group by and having clause ......................................................................................................... 62
Categorizing Results: The GROUP BY Clause: ......................................................................................... 63
Qualify Results by Categories: ................................................................................................................ 63
LAB 18defining views............................................................................................................................... 65
Using and Defining Views: ...................................................................................................................... 66
LAB 19queries involving multiple tables ................................................................................................. 67
Processing Multiple Tables: .................................................................................................................... 68
LAB 20different types of joins ................................................................................................................. 69
Outer Join:............................................................................................................................................... 70
Left OUTER Join ....................................................................................................................................... 70
LAB 21Self join ......................................................................................................................................... 72
Sample join Involving four tables:........................................................................................................... 73
Self Join: .................................................................................................................................................. 73
LAB 22Subqueries .................................................................................................................................... 75
Subqueries .............................................................................................................................................. 76
LAB 23in, not in, exists, not exists ........................................................................................................... 78
Using the NOT IN qualifier: ..................................................................................................................... 79
Using EXISTS and NOT EXISTS: ................................................................................................................ 79
EXISTS versus IN and NOT EXISTS versus NOT IN.................................................................................... 79
LAB 24derived tables and sub-queries .................................................................................................... 81
Correlated Subqueries: ........................................................................................................................... 82
Using Derived Tables:.............................................................................................................................. 82
LAB 25union operator & type conversion ............................................................................................... 83
Union Operator: ...................................................................................................................................... 84
Data Type Conversion: ............................................................................................................................ 84
LAB 26conditional expression and trigger............................................................................................... 85
Conditional Expressions: ......................................................................................................................... 86
Triggers.................................................................................................................................................... 86
LAB 27introduction to stored procedures............................................................................................... 89
3

Stored Procedures: ................................................................................................................................. 90


LAB 28stored procedure single input ................................................................................................... 91
STORED PROCEDURE WITH A SINGLE INPUT PARAMETER ..................................................................... 92
LAB 29stored procedures input/output ............................................................................................... 93
STORED PROCEDURE WITH A SINGLE INPUT and A SINGLE OUTPUT PARAMETER................................ 94
LAB 30stored procedure returning values .............................................................................................. 95
STORED PROCEDURE WITH A SINGLE INPUT PARAMETER and TWO OUTPUT PARAMETERS ............... 96
LAB 31using mysql functions ................................................................................................................... 97
MySQL FUNCTIONS ................................................................................................................................. 98
LAB 32Connecting mysql with php .......................................................................................................... 99
CONNECTING PHP with MySQL............................................................................................................. 100

LAB 01CREATING CONFIGURING THE DATABASE


Objectives:
The objective of this lab is to make students learn how to show existing
databases, how to create a new database and populate the database
with data, and run simple select queries.

Command to see the existing databases in MySql Server


SHOW DATABASES;

Create a database and Populate values


In this lab we will learn the following:
Creation of database Pineview
Creation of tables
Setting up of constraints
Inserting values in tables.

STEP-1
COPY - PASTE THE BELOW COMMANDS IN QUERY EDITOR
CREATE SCHEMA PINEVIEW;

STEP-2
COPY - PASTE THE BELOW COMMANDS IN QUERY EDITOR
use pineview;

CREATE TABLE Customer_T


(CustomerID

int

NOT NULL,

CustomerName

VARCHAR(25)

CustomerAddress

VARCHAR(30) ,

CustomerCity
CustomerState

NOT NULL,

VARCHAR(20) ,
CHAR(2)

CustomerPostalCode VARCHAR(10) ,

CONSTRAINT Customer_PK PRIMARY KEY (CustomerID));


CREATE TABLE Territory_T
(TerritoryID

int

TerritoryName

NOT NULL,
VARCHAR(50) ,

CONSTRAINT Territory_PK PRIMARY KEY (TerritoryID));

CREATE TABLE DoesBusinessIn_T


(CustomerID

int

TerritoryID

int

NOT NULL,
NOT NULL,

CONSTRAINT DoesBusinessIn_PK PRIMARY KEY (CustomerID, TerritoryID),


CONSTRAINT DoesBusinessIn_FK1 FOREIGN KEY (CustomerID) REFERENCES Customer_T(CustomerID),
CONSTRAINT DoesBusinessIn_FK2 FOREIGN KEY (TerritoryID) REFERENCES Territory_T(TerritoryID));
CREATE TABLE Employee_T
(EmployeeID

VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL,

EmployeeName

VARCHAR(25) ,

EmployeeAddress

VARCHAR(30) ,

EmployeeBirthDate DATE
EmployeeCity
EmployeeState
EmployeeZip

VARCHAR(20) ,
CHAR(2)

VARCHAR(10) ,

EmployeeDateHired DATE

EmployeeSupervisor VARCHAR(10) ,
CONSTRAINT Employee_PK PRIMARY KEY (EmployeeID));

CREATE TABLE Skill_T


(SkillID

VARCHAR(12) NOT NULL,

SkillDescription VARCHAR(30) ,
CONSTRAINT Skill_PK PRIMARY KEY (SkillID));

CREATE TABLE EmployeeSkills_T


(EmployeeID
SkillID

VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL,


VARCHAR(12) NOT NULL,

CONSTRAINT EmployeeSkills_PK PRIMARY KEY (EmployeeID, SkillID),


CONSTRAINT EmployeeSkills_FK1 FOREIGN KEY (EmployeeID) REFERENCES Employee_T(EmployeeID),
CONSTRAINT EmployeeSkills_FK2 FOREIGN KEY (SkillID) REFERENCES Skill_T(SkillID));

CREATE TABLE Order_T


(OrderID

int NOT NULL,

CustomerID
OrderDate

int ,

TIMESTAMP DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP

CONSTRAINT Order_PK PRIMARY KEY (OrderID),


CONSTRAINT Order_FK1 FOREIGN KEY (CustomerID) REFERENCES Customer_T(CustomerID));

CREATE TABLE WorkCenter_T


(WorkCenterID

VARCHAR(12) NOT NULL,

WorkCenterLocation VARCHAR(30) ,
CONSTRAINT WorkCenter_PK PRIMARY KEY (WorkCenterID));

CREATE TABLE ProductLine_T


(ProductLineID

int NOT NULL,

ProductLineName

VARCHAR(50) ,

CONSTRAINT ProductLine_PK PRIMARY KEY (ProductLineID));

CREATE TABLE Product_T


(ProductID
ProductLineID

int NOT NULL,


int ,

ProductDescription VARCHAR(50) ,
ProductFinish

VARCHAR(20) ,

ProductStandardPrice DECIMAL(6,2) ,
CONSTRAINT Product_PK PRIMARY KEY (ProductID),
CONSTRAINT Product_FK1 FOREIGN KEY (ProductLineID) REFERENCES ProductLine_T(ProductLineID));

CREATE TABLE ProducedIn_T


(ProductID

int

WorkCenterID

NOT NULL,

VARCHAR(12) NOT NULL,

CONSTRAINT ProducedIn_PK PRIMARY KEY (ProductID, WorkCenterID),


CONSTRAINT ProducedIn_FK1 FOREIGN KEY (ProductID) REFERENCES Product_T(ProductID),
CONSTRAINT ProducedIn_FK2 FOREIGN KEY (WorkCenterID) REFERENCES WorkCenter_T(WorkCenterID));

CREATE TABLE OrderLine_T


(OrderID
ProductID

int NOT NULL,


int NOT NULL,

OrderedQuantity

int ,

CONSTRAINT OrderLine_PK PRIMARY KEY (OrderID, ProductID),


CONSTRAINT OrderLine_FK1 FOREIGN KEY (OrderID) REFERENCES Order_T(OrderID),
CONSTRAINT OrderLine_FK2 FOREIGN KEY (ProductID) REFERENCES Product_T(ProductID));

CREATE TABLE RawMaterial_T


(MaterialID
MaterialName

VARCHAR(12) NOT NULL,


VARCHAR(30) ,

MaterialStandardCost DECIMAL(6,2) ,
UnitOfMeasure

VARCHAR(10) ,

CONSTRAINT RawMaterial_PK PRIMARY KEY (MaterialID));

10

CREATE TABLE Salesperson_T


(SalespersonID

int NOT NULL,

SalespersonName

VARCHAR(25) ,

SalespersonPhone VARCHAR(50) ,
SalespersonFax
TerritoryID

VARCHAR(50) ,
int ,

CONSTRAINT Salesperson_PK PRIMARY KEY (SalesPersonID),


CONSTRAINT Salesperson_FK1 FOREIGN KEY (TerritoryID) REFERENCES Territory_T(TerritoryID));

CREATE TABLE Vendor_T


(VendorID

int NOT NULL,

VendorName

VARCHAR(25) ,

VendorAddress

VARCHAR(30) ,

VendorCity
VendorState
VendorZipcode
VendorFax

VARCHAR(20) ,
CHAR(2)

VARCHAR(50) ,
VARCHAR(10) ,

VendorPhone

VARCHAR(10) ,

VendorContact

VARCHAR(50) ,

VendorTaxID

VARCHAR(50) ,

CONSTRAINT Vendor_PK PRIMARY KEY (VendorID));

11

CREATE TABLE Supplies_T


(VendorID

int NOT NULL,

MaterialID

VARCHAR(12) NOT NULL,

SuppliesUnitPrice DECIMAL(6,2) ,
CONSTRAINT Supplies_PK PRIMARY KEY (VendorID, MaterialID),
CONSTRAINT Supplies_FK1 FOREIGN KEY (MaterialId) REFERENCES RawMaterial_T(MaterialID),
CONSTRAINT Supplies_FK2 FOREIGN KEY (VendorID) REFERENCES Vendor_T(VendorID));

CREATE TABLE Uses_T


(ProductID

int NOT NULL,

MaterialID

VARCHAR(12) NOT NULL,

GoesIntoQuantity INTEGER

CONSTRAINT Uses_PK PRIMARY KEY (ProductID, MaterialID),


CONSTRAINT Uses_FK1 FOREIGN KEY (ProductID) REFERENCES Product_T(ProductID),
CONSTRAINT Uses_FK2 FOREIGN KEY (MaterialID) REFERENCES RawMaterial_T(MaterialID));

CREATE TABLE WorksIn_T


(EmployeeID
WorkCenterID

VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL,


VARCHAR(12) NOT NULL,

CONSTRAINT WorksIn_PK PRIMARY KEY (EmployeeID, WorkCenterID),


CONSTRAINT WorksIn_FK1 FOREIGN KEY (EmployeeID) REFERENCES Employee_T(EmployeeID),
CONSTRAINT WorksIn_FK2 FOREIGN KEY (WorkCenterID) REFERENCES WorkCenter_T(WorkCenterID));

12

delete from Uses_T;


delete from WorksIn_T;
delete from WorkCenter_T;
delete from DoesBusinessIn_T;
delete from EmployeeSkills_T;
delete from Supplies_T;
delete from ProducedIn_T;
delete from OrderLine_T;
delete from Product_T;
delete from ProductLine_T;
delete from Order_T;
delete from Salesperson_T;
delete from Vendor_T;
delete from Skill_T;
delete from RawMaterial_T;
delete from Territory_T;
delete from Employee_T;
delete from Customer_T;

INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,


CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (1, 'Contemporary Casuals', '1355 S Hines Blvd', 'Gainesville', 'FL', '32601-2871');
INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (2, 'Value Furniture', '15145 S.W. 17th St.', 'Plano', 'TX', '75094-7743');

13

INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,


CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (3, 'Home Furnishings', '1900 Allard Ave.', 'Albany', 'NY', '12209-1125');
INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (4, 'Eastern Furniture', '1925 Beltline Rd.', 'Carteret', 'NJ', '07008-3188');
INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (5, 'Impressions', '5585 Westcott Ct.', 'Sacramento', 'CA', '94206-4056');
INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (6, 'Furniture Gallery', '325 Flatiron Dr.', 'Boulder', 'CO', '80514-4432');
INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (7, 'Period Furniture', '394 Rainbow Dr.', 'Seattle', 'WA', '97954-5589');
INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (8, 'California Classics', '816 Peach Rd.', 'Santa Clara', 'CA', '96915-7754');
INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (9, 'M and H Casual Furniture', '3709 First Street', 'Clearwater', 'FL', '34620-2314');
INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (10, 'Seminole Interiors', '2400 Rocky Point Dr.', 'Seminole', 'FL', '34646-4423');
INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (11, 'American Euro Lifestyles', '2424 Missouri Ave N.', 'Prospect Park', 'NJ', '07508-5621');
INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (12, 'Battle Creek Furniture', '345 Capitol Ave. SW', 'Battle Creek', 'MI', '49015-3401');

14

INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,


CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (13, 'Heritage Furnishings', '66789 College Ave.', 'Carlisle', 'PA', '17013-8834');
INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (14, 'Kaneohe Homes', '112 Kiowai St.', 'Kaneohe', 'HI', '96744-2537');
INSERT INTO Customer_T (CustomerID, CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode)
VALUES (15, 'Mountain Scenes', '4132 Main Street', 'Ogden', 'UT', '84403-4432');

INSERT INTO Territory_T (TerritoryID, TerritoryName)


VALUES (1, 'SouthEast');
INSERT INTO Territory_T (TerritoryID, TerritoryName)
VALUES (2, 'SouthWest');
INSERT INTO Territory_T (TerritoryID, TerritoryName)
VALUES (3, 'NorthEast');
INSERT INTO Territory_T (TerritoryID, TerritoryName)
VALUES (4, 'NorthWest');
INSERT INTO Territory_T (TerritoryID, TerritoryName)
VALUES (5, 'Central');

15

INSERT INTO DoesBusinessIn_T (CustomerID, TerritoryID)


VALUES (1, 1);
INSERT INTO DoesBusinessIn_T (CustomerID, TerritoryID)
VALUES (1, 2);
INSERT INTO DoesBusinessIn_T (CustomerID, TerritoryID)
VALUES (2, 2);
INSERT INTO DoesBusinessIn_T (CustomerID, TerritoryID)
VALUES (3, 3);
INSERT INTO DoesBusinessIn_T (CustomerID, TerritoryID)
VALUES (4, 3);
INSERT INTO DoesBusinessIn_T (CustomerID, TerritoryID)
VALUES (5, 2);
INSERT INTO DoesBusinessIn_T (CustomerID, TerritoryID)
VALUES (6, 5);

INSERT INTO Employee_T (EmployeeID, EmployeeName, EmployeeAddress, EmployeeCity, EmployeeState,


EmployeeZip, EmployeeDateHired, EmployeeBirthDate, EmployeeSupervisor)
VALUES ('123-44-345', 'Jim Jason', '2134 Hilltop Rd', '', 'TN', '', '12/Jun/99', '', '454-56-768');

INSERT INTO Employee_T (EmployeeID, EmployeeName, EmployeeAddress, EmployeeCity, EmployeeState,


EmployeeZip, EmployeeDateHired, EmployeeBirthDate, EmployeeSupervisor)
VALUES ('454-56-768', 'Robert Lewis', '17834 Deerfield Ln', 'Nashville', 'TN', '', '01/Jan/99', '', '');

Insert into Employee_T


(EmployeeID,EmployeeName,EmployeeAddress,EmployeeCity,EmployeeState,EmployeeZip,EmployeeDateHired,E
mployeeBirthDate,EmployeeSupervisor)
values ('123-44-346','Phil Morris','2134 Hilltop Rd','Knoxville','TN',null,'12-JUN-99' ,'12-JUN-99','454-56-768');

16

Insert into Employee_T


(EmployeeID,EmployeeName,EmployeeAddress,EmployeeCity,EmployeeState,EmployeeZip,EmployeeDateHired,E
mployeeBirthDate,EmployeeSupervisor)
values ('332445667','Lawrence Haley','5970 Spring Crest Rd','Nashville','TN','54545','2008-7-04','2008-7-04','45456-768');

Insert into Employee_T


(EmployeeID,EmployeeName,EmployeeAddress,EmployeeCity,EmployeeState,EmployeeZip,EmployeeDateHired,E
mployeeBirthDate,EmployeeSupervisor)
values ('454-56-769','Robert Lewis','17834 Deerfield Ln','Knoxville','TN','55555','2008-7-04','2008-7-04','123-44345');

Insert into Employee_T


(EmployeeID,EmployeeName,EmployeeAddress,EmployeeCity,EmployeeState,EmployeeZip,EmployeeDateHired,E
mployeeBirthDate,EmployeeSupervisor)
values ('555955585','Mary Smith','75 Jane Lane','Clearwater','FL','33879','2008-7-04','2008-7-04','332445667');

Insert into Employee_T


(EmployeeID,EmployeeName,EmployeeAddress,EmployeeCity,EmployeeState,EmployeeZip,EmployeeDateHired,E
mployeeBirthDate,EmployeeSupervisor)
values ('Laura','Laura Ellenburg','5342 Picklied Trout Lane','Nashville','TN','38010','2008-7-04',null,'454-56-768');

INSERT INTO Skill_T (SkillID, SkillDescription)


VALUES ('BS12', '12in Band Saw');
INSERT INTO Skill_T (SkillID, SkillDescription)
VALUES ('QC1', 'Quality Control');
INSERT INTO Skill_T (SkillID, SkillDescription)
VALUES ('RT1', 'Router');
INSERT INTO Skill_T (SkillID, SkillDescription)
VALUES ('SO1', 'Sander-Orbital');

17

INSERT INTO Skill_T (SkillID, SkillDescription)


VALUES ('SB1', 'Sander-Belt');
INSERT INTO Skill_T (SkillID, SkillDescription)
VALUES ('TS10', '10in Table Saw');
INSERT INTO Skill_T (SkillID, SkillDescription)
VALUES ('TS12', '12in Table Saw');
INSERT INTO Skill_T (SkillID, SkillDescription)
VALUES ('UC1', 'Upholstery Cutter');
INSERT INTO Skill_T (SkillID, SkillDescription)
VALUES ('US1', 'Upholstery Sewer');
INSERT INTO Skill_T (SkillID, SkillDescription)
VALUES ('UT1', 'Upholstery Tacker');

INSERT INTO EmployeeSkills_T (EmployeeID, SkillID)


VALUES ('123-44-345', 'BS12');
INSERT INTO EmployeeSkills_T (EmployeeID, SkillID)
VALUES ('123-44-345', 'RT1');
INSERT INTO EmployeeSkills_T (EmployeeID, SkillID)
VALUES ('454-56-768', 'BS12');

18

INSERT INTO Order_T (OrderID, OrderDate, CustomerID)


VALUES (1001, '21/Oct/10', 1);
INSERT INTO Order_T (OrderID, OrderDate, CustomerID)
VALUES (1002, '21/Oct/10', 8);
INSERT INTO Order_T (OrderID, OrderDate, CustomerID)
VALUES (1003, '22/Oct/10', 15);
INSERT INTO Order_T (OrderID, OrderDate, CustomerID)
VALUES (1004, '22/Oct/10', 5);
INSERT INTO Order_T (OrderID, OrderDate, CustomerID)
VALUES (1005, '24/Oct/10', 3);
INSERT INTO Order_T (OrderID, OrderDate, CustomerID)
VALUES (1006, '24/Oct/10', 2);
INSERT INTO Order_T (OrderID, OrderDate, CustomerID)
VALUES (1007, '27/Oct/10', 11);
INSERT INTO Order_T (OrderID, OrderDate, CustomerID)
VALUES (1008, '30/Oct/10', 12);
INSERT INTO Order_T (OrderID, OrderDate, CustomerID)
VALUES (1009, '05/Nov/10', 4);
INSERT INTO Order_T (OrderID, OrderDate, CustomerID)
VALUES (1010, '05/Nov/10', 1);

INSERT INTO ProductLine_T (ProductLineID, ProductLineName)


VALUES (1, 'Cherry Tree');

19

INSERT INTO ProductLine_T (ProductLineID, ProductLineName)


VALUES (2, 'Scandinavia');
INSERT INTO ProductLine_T (ProductLineID, ProductLineName)
VALUES (3, 'Country Look');

INSERT INTO Product_T (ProductID, ProductDescription, ProductFinish, ProductStandardPrice, ProductLineID)


VALUES (1, 'End Table', 'Cherry', 175, 1);
INSERT INTO Product_T (ProductID, ProductDescription, ProductFinish, ProductStandardPrice, ProductLineID)
VALUES (2, 'Coffee Table', 'Natural Ash', 200, 2);
INSERT INTO Product_T (ProductID, ProductDescription, ProductFinish, ProductStandardPrice, ProductLineID)
VALUES (3, 'Computer Desk', 'Natural Ash', 375, 2);
INSERT INTO Product_T (ProductID, ProductDescription, ProductFinish, ProductStandardPrice, ProductLineID)
VALUES (4, 'Entertainment Center', 'Natural Maple', 650, 3);
INSERT INTO Product_T (ProductID, ProductDescription, ProductFinish, ProductStandardPrice, ProductLineID)
VALUES (5, 'Writers Desk', 'Cherry', 325, 1);
INSERT INTO Product_T (ProductID, ProductDescription, ProductFinish, ProductStandardPrice, ProductLineID)
VALUES (6, '8-Drawer Desk', 'White Ash', 750, 2);
INSERT INTO Product_T (ProductID, ProductDescription, ProductFinish, ProductStandardPrice, ProductLineID)
VALUES (7, 'Dining Table', 'Natural Ash', 800, 2);
INSERT INTO Product_T (ProductID, ProductDescription, ProductFinish, ProductStandardPrice, ProductLineID)
VALUES (8, 'Computer Desk', 'Walnut', 250, 3);

INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)


VALUES (1001, 1, 2);

20

INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)


VALUES (1001, 2, 2);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1001, 4, 1);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1002, 3, 5);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1003, 3, 3);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1004, 6, 2);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1004, 8, 2);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1005, 4, 3);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1006, 4, 1);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1006, 5, 2);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1006, 7, 2);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1007, 1, 3);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1007, 2, 2);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1008, 3, 3);

21

INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)


VALUES (1008, 8, 3);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1009, 4, 2);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1009, 7, 3);
INSERT INTO OrderLine_T (OrderID, ProductID, OrderedQuantity)
VALUES (1010, 8, 10);

INSERT INTO Salesperson_T (SalesPersonID, SalesPersonName, SalesPersonPhone, SalesPersonFax, TerritoryID)


VALUES (1, 'Doug Henny', '8134445555', '', 1);
INSERT INTO Salesperson_T (SalesPersonID, SalesPersonName, SalesPersonPhone, SalesPersonFax, TerritoryID)
VALUES (2, 'Robert Lewis', '8139264006', '', 2);
INSERT INTO Salesperson_T (SalesPersonID, SalesPersonName, SalesPersonPhone, SalesPersonFax, TerritoryID)
VALUES (3, 'William Strong', '5053821212', '', 3);
INSERT INTO Salesperson_T (SalesPersonID, SalesPersonName, SalesPersonPhone, SalesPersonFax, TerritoryID)
VALUES (4, 'Julie Dawson', '4355346677', '', 4);
INSERT INTO Salesperson_T (SalesPersonID, SalesPersonName, SalesPersonPhone, SalesPersonFax, TerritoryID)
VALUES (5, 'Jacob Winslow', '2238973498', '', 5);

INSERT INTO WorkCenter_T (WorkCenterID, WorkCenterLocation)


VALUES ('SM1', 'Main Saw Mill');
INSERT INTO WorkCenter_T (WorkCenterID, WorkCenterLocation)

22

VALUES ('WR1', 'Warehouse and Receiving');

/*
INSERT INTO WorksIn_T (EmployeeID, WorkCenterID)
VALUES ('123-44-345', 'SM1');
INSERT INTO WorksIn_T (EmployeeID, WorkCenterID)
VALUES ('454-56-768', 'Tampa1');
*/

describe Uses_T;
describe WorksIn_T;
describe WorkCenter_T;
describe DoesBusinessIn_T;
describe EmployeeSkills_T;
describe Supplies_T;
describe ProducedIn_T;
describe OrderLine_T;
describe Product_T;
describe ProductLine_T;
describe Order_T;
describe Salesperson_T;
describe Vendor_T;
describe Skill_T;
describe RawMaterial_T;
describe Territory_T;

23

describe Employee_T;
describe Customer_T;

select * from Uses_T;


select * from WorksIn_T;
select * from WorkCenter_T;
select * from DoesBusinessIn_T;
select * from EmployeeSkills_T;
select * from Supplies_T;
select * from ProducedIn_T;
select * from OrderLine_T;
select * from Product_T;
select * from ProductLine_T;
select * from Order_T;
select * from Salesperson_T;
select * from Vendor_T;
select * from Skill_T;
select * from RawMaterial_T;
select * from Territory_T;
select * from Employee_T;
select * from Customer_T;

COMMIT;

24

LAB 02UPDATE DATABASE STRUCTURE


Objectives:
The objective of this lab is to familiarize students with basic select
statement, how to add/drop a primary key, and how to add/drop a
column from table.

25

Command to show the tables in a database


Use PineView;
SHOW TABLES;

Retrieve System Time:


SELECT CURTIME();

Add Two Number:


SELECT 8+4;

CREATE NEW TABLE:


CREATE TABLE temp(
ID INT,
Name VARCHAR(10)
);
DESCRIBE temp;

Adding/Dropping Primary Key:


ALTER TABLE temp ADD CONSTRAINT pk_ID PRIMARY KEY (id);
ALTER TABLE temp DROP PRIMARY KEY;

Adding Column and Drop Column from Table


ALTER TABLE temp
ADD COLUMN address VARCHAR(100);
ALTER TABLE temp
26

DROP COLUMN address;

27

LAB 03CHANGE TABLE STRUCTURE/DATA


Objectives:
The students will learn how to rename a column in table, how to set
default value for a column, how to drop a table, how to empty table
from data, and how to delete a row from table.

28

Renaming Column in Table


ALTER TABLE temp
CHANGE COLUMN address
area VARCHAR(10);

Setting Default Value for a Column:


ALTER TABLE temp
ADD COLUMN city VARCHAR(100) DEFAULT 'ABC';

Drop Table
drop table temp;

Empty Table:
TRUNCATE child

Delete a single row from table


DELETE FROM child where id = 3;

Delete all rows from table:


TRUNCATE child

29

LAB 04DATA COPYING/DELETION


Objectives:
The objective of this lab is to make students learn how to transfer/copy
data from one table to another, how to delete a data from table based
on selected criteria, and how to update a specific row in table.

30

Transfer/Copy Data from table1 to table2 with same


table structure
Populating a table (CHILD) by using subset of another table (PARENT) with the same structure.
INSERT INTO child
SELECT * FROM PARENT;

Delete a single row from table:


DELETE FROM temp WHERE id=111;
Where expression can have either column of the table, but PRIMARY key column is used to
avoid unwanted deletion of data.
e.g.
DELETE FROM temp WHERE name=Ali;
This will delete all the rows with name Ali.

UPDATE a row in table:


First you need to confirm the row you want to update, should exist in the table.
e.g. you want to update the row with ID 7. Check if it exists.

SELECT * FROM product_t WHERE productID=7;

If this returns a row. Then the row exists, and you can run the UPDATE query.

UPDATE product_t SET ProductStandardPrice = 775 WHERE ProductID = 7;

This will update the value of the ProductStandardPrice from 800 to 775.
31

LAB 05AUTO-INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY


Objectives:
The students will learn how to create an auto-increment primary key.
How to insert rows using insert query when auto-increment primary
key is defined, and how to initialize the auto-increment primary key for
a specified value.

32

Creating an AUTO INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY:

CREATE TABLE PERSONS(


ID INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
NAME VARCHAR (50) NOT NULL,
AGE INT,
PRIMARY KEY (ID)
);

Inserting rows in PERSONS:


INSERT INTO PERSONS ( ID , NAME , AGE )
VALUES ( 11 , 'Ali' , 25 );
INSERT INTO PERSONS ( NAME , AGE )
VALUES ( 'Ali' , 25);

This will insert two rows in the table PERSONS, Note that we gave ID for the first row i.e. 11
and we did not give any ID for the second row. And it automatically incremented the next row
ID based on the maximum ID in the rows already inserted. In the next row the ID will be
automatically inserted as 12.

Start Auto Increment with user specified value :


ALTER TABLE PERSONS AUTO_INCREMENT = 100;

33

After the table is altered for its auto increment value, Insert another record in the table.

INSERT INTO persons ( name , age )


VALUES ( 'Ahmed' , 32 );

The ID of the next row inserted starts from 100 , as altered.

34

LAB 06DATABASE INDEXES


Objectives:
Students will learn the benefits of creating indexes on database tables,
how to create indexes on table fields, and how to drop indexes.

35

Creating Indexes :

Indexes are created in RDBMS to provide rapid and sequential access to base table data.
Indexes are usually be created both for primary and secondary keys and both single and
concatenated (multiple column keys).

Example:
To see the structure of a table we use DESCRIBE command
DESCRIBE CUSTOMER_T;
/* below command create index */
CREATE INDEX Name_IDX ON CUSTOMER_T (CUSTOMERNAME) ;

To see the structure of a table we use DESCRIBE command


DESCRIBE CUSTOMER_T;

36

Drop Indexes :
To remove index on the customer name in the table.
DROP INDEX Name_IDX ON CUSTOMER_T;
And describe table to see the index dropped.

37

LAB 07CREATE INDEX ON FOREIGN KEYS


Objectives:
Students will understand the relation of indexes with a tables foreign
keys. Students will learn how to create indexes on foreign key, and how
to drop a foreign key index

38

Creating index on foreign key :


Create two tables:

CREATE TABLE MASTER(


MID VARCHAR(5) PRIMARY KEY,
TYPE VARCHAR(10)
);
CREATE TABLE DETAIL(
DIDT VARCHAR(5) PRIMARY KEY,
DES VARCHAR(50),
MID VARCHAR(5)
);

Add foreign key:


ALTER TABLE DETAIL ADD FOREIGN KEY (MID) REFERENCES MASTER(MID);

And drop foreign key:


ALTER TABLE DETAIL DROP FOREIGN KEY your_fk_name;

Even after dropping the foreign key, the index still resides and has to be dropped manually, by
DROP INDEX MID ON DETAIL;

CONCLUSION: When we create a foreign key in a table, the index is made automatically on the
foreign key attribute. When we drop a foreign key, the index does not automatically delete, and
we have to delete the index manually.

39

LAB 08SELECT CLAUSE IN DETAIL


Objectives:
The objective of this lab is to teach student various clauses of SELECT
statement. Students will learn about the two special keywords used in
select clause.

40

Clauses of the SELECT Statement:


SELECT: lists the columns (including expressions involving columns i.e. age+10) from base
tables, derived tables, or views to be projected into the table that will be the result of the
command.
FROM: Identifies the tables, derived tables, or views from which columns will be chosen to appear in
the result table and include the tables, derived tables, or views needed to join tables to process the
query.
WHERE: Includes the conditions (Boolean expression) for row selection within the items in the FROM
clause and the conditions between tables, derived tables, or views for joining.

Example:
Which products have a standard price of less than $275.
SELECT * FROM PRODUCT_T WHERE ProductStandardPrice<275;

Two Special Keywords used in SELECT:


Two special keywords used in SELECT along with list of columns to display
1. DISTINCT
2. *

DISTINCT: If the user does not wish to see duplicate rows in the result.
Example:
First run simple query:
SELECT PRODUCTDESCRIPTION FROM PRODUCT_T;
And count how many rows are returned. (8 rows are returned).
Next, run query:

41

SELECT DISTINCT PRODUCTDESCRIPTION FROM PRODUCT_T;

And count number of rows returned (7 rows are returned).


Duplicate rows are removed from the results (that was Computer Desk).

*: Retrieves rows for all columns in the table.


e.g.
SELECT * FROM PRODUCT_T;

42

LAB 09CREATING ALIAS IN DATABASE


Objectives:
Student will learn how to create a table alias, and a tables field alias.

43

Using Alias in SELECT Statement:


Advantage: Using alias make the column names more readable in a select query. Moreover, we
can rename a table column name, or a table name, to a new name of our choice in the select
query. However, using alias does not change anything in actual tables structure, it is just used
for data reading/presentation from database.
The simple query without alias will be:
SELECT CUSTOMER_T.CUSTOMERNAME, CUSTOMER_T.CUSTOMERADDRESS
FROM CUSTOMER_T WHERE CUSTOMER_T.customerName='Home Furnishings'

Example for Alias:


What is the address of the customer named Home Furnishings? Use an alias, Name, for the
customer name.

SELECT CUST.customerName AS CNAME , CUST.CUSTOMERADDRESS AS ADDRESS


FROM CUSTOMER_T AS CUST WHERE CUST.customerName='Home Furnishings';

This returns the columns with their alias names, i.e. Name for CusomterName and Address for
CustmerAddress.

44

LAB 10SORTING THE DATA


Objectives:
Students will learn how to sort table data using ORDER BY clause.

45

Rearranging column Order in SELECT Query:


While creating new table, it is not necessary to create columns in a table in a specific order.
Because, we can select data from table in any order we like, by placing the columns in different
orders in select query.
The below query will return the data in the original order of columns as they were appearing in
the actual table (the order in which they were appearing when table was created).
SELECT * FROM PRODUCT_T;

Now we want to change the order of columns in the retrieved record in the next query.
Query: List the unit price, product name and product ID for all products in the product table, in
the same order as given in this statement.
SELECT ProductStandardPrice, ProductDescription, ProductID FROM PRODUCT_T;

46

LAB 11USING EXPRESSIONS AND FUNCTIONS


Objectives:
Students will learn how to use expressions and functions in select
queries.

47

Using Expressions:
Query: What are the standard price and standard price if increased by 10% for every product.

SELECT ProductStandardPrice, ProductStandardPrice*1.1 AS IncreasedBy10 FROM


PRODUCT_T;

Returns two columns, one the ProductStandardPrice and the other column with the price
increased by 10% and its alias name as IncreasedBy10.
(Multiplying 1.1 is equivalent to calculating 10% and adding it to Product Price)

Using Functions:
Mathematical:

MIN, MAX, COUNT, SUM, ROUND, MOD, AVG

String:

LOWER(): To change all string characters in lower case.


UPPER(): To change all string characters in upper case.
INITCAT(): To change only an initial letter to capital
CONCAT(): To Concatenate two strings

48

SUBSTR(): To isolate character. Used to find a substring in a given string.


COALESCE() : Finding the first positions of not null values in a list of columns
Date

ADDDATE() : Sum two dates


CURDATE(): Return current date
DAY() : Given date as input, this function returns the DAY on that date
MONTH(): Given date as input, this function returns MONTH on that date
YEAR(): Given date as input, this function returns YEAR on that date.

Analytical

TOP() : find the top n values in a set, e.g. top 5 customers by total annual
sales

These are only basic functions, search more functions regarding your need on MySQL website.
Query: What is the average standard price for all products in inventory?
SELECT AVG (ProductStandardPrice) AS AveragePrice FROM PRODUCT_T;

49

LAB 12BUILT-IN FUNCTIONS


Objectives:
Students will understand the use of some of the built-in functions, such
as COUNT, MIN, and MAX.

50

COUNT : Returns single row


Query: How many different items where ordered number 1004?
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ORDERLINE_T WHERE ORDERID=1004;

Query: How many different items were ordered on order number 1001, and what are they?

SELECT ProductID, COUNT(*) FROM ORDERLINE_T WHERE ORDERID=1001;

This query should return error, because count returns only one row , though we are selecting multiple
rows for productID. It will return error in SQL Server or Oracle, but for MySQL query returns the 1st
productID along with count as the query result.

Difference between COUNT(*) and


COUNT(ColumnName)
The following query will not count nulls in count.
SELECT COUNT(ProductID) FROM Product_T;

The following query will count nulls in count.


SELECT COUNT(*) FROM PRODUCT_T;

Query: Display for each product the difference between its standard price and the overall
average standard price of all the products.
SELECT ProductStandardPrice, ProductStandardPrice - (SELECT AVG(ProductStandardPrice)
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AS PriceAvg FROM PRODUCT_T) AS Difference FROM PRODUCT_T ;

The Difference here is a derived attribute from column ProductStandardPrice.


Query: Alphabetically, what is the first product_name in the product table?

SELECT MIN(ProductDescription) FROM PRODUCT_T;

The MIN() function is used for numeric values as well as string values, but if there is a string
starting with numeric value then the numeric value of the string will be used for comparison
(while to rest of the string will be truncated). If instead, we use MAX function, it will give
preference to string value, and string starting with highest alphabet position will be return
(ignoring the string starting with numeric value)

52

LAB 13NULL VALUES


Objectives:
Students will learn the work of various comparison operators, and the
use of NULL keyword.

53

Using Comparison Operators


Query: Which orders have been placed since 10/24/2010.
SELECT ORDERID , ORDERDATE FROM ORDER_T WHERE ORDERDATE>'2010-10-24';

Query: What furniture does Pine View carry that is not made of Cherry?
SELECT ProductDescription, ProductFinish FROM PRODUCT_T WHERE ProductFinish!='Cherry';

Using NULL Values


-Columns that are defined without the NOT NULL clause may be empty (due to space inside
cell).
-NULL value means a column is missing a value, the value is not zero, or blank, or any special
code there is simply NULL value.
-The functions may produce different results where NULL values are present than when a
column has a value of zero.
Query : Display all customers for whom we do not know their Postal Code.

/*below query returns all rows for which CustomerPostalCode contains NULL value*/
SELECT * FROM CUSTOMER_T WHERE CustomerPostalCode IS NULL;

/*below query returns all rows for which CustomerPostalCode does not contains NULL
value*/

SELECT * FROM CUSTOMER_T WHERE CustomerPostalCode IS NOT NULL;

54

LAB 14LOGICAL OPERATORS


Objectives:
Students will learn different types of logical operators, and how they
are used to filter data in select queries. The use of DISTINCT operator
will be also be discussed.

55

Using Boolean Operators (Logical Operators):


-

AND: Joins two or more conditions and return results only when all conditions are true.
OR: Joins two or more conditions and returns results when at least one condition is true.
NOT: Negates an expression.

Order of Preference:
If multiple Boolean operators are used in an SQL statements, NOT is evaluated first then AND ,
then OR.
Query: List Product Name, Finish, and Standard Price for all desks and all tables that cost more
than $300 in the product table.
SELECT ProductDescription, ProductFinish, ProductStandardPrice FROM PRODUCT_T WHERE
(ProductDescription LIKE '%Desk%' OR ProductDescription LIKE '%Table%' ) AND
ProductStandardPrice > 300.00 ;

The LIKE operator is used to search for a specified pattern in a column.


% before the string acts as a wild card that anything can appear before the string, but should
end with the string. Vice versa % after the string acts as a wild card that anything can appear
after the string, but should start with the string. If % is added before and after the string, than
the string can appear as a sub-string in a string, either in start, mid, or end.

Expression

Column Value

Returns

LIKE %Desk

Big Desk

True

LIKE Desk%

Desk Shop

True

LIKE %Desk%

Blue Desk Shop

True

LIKE %Desk

My Desk Shop

False

LIKE Desk%

Big Desk Shop

False

Using Ranges for Qualification:


Query: Which product in the product table has a standard price between $200 and $300.
56

SELECT ProductDescription, ProductFinish, ProductStandardPrice FROM PRODUCT_T WHERE


ProductStandardPrice >= 200.00 AND ProductStandardPrice <= 300.00 ;

Query: Which product in the product table has a standard price between $200 and $300.
SELECT ProductDescription, ProductFinish, ProductStandardPrice FROM PRODUCT_T WHERE
ProductStandardPrice BETWEEN 200.00 AND 300.00 ;

Using DISTINCT values:


Query: What Order numbers are included in the OrderLine table?
SELECT OrderID FROM OrderLine_t;

If we are interested only to see which order IDs are appearing rather than how many times they
are appearing we will use DISTINCT.

Query: What are distinct order numbers included in orderline table?

SELECT DISTINCT OrderID FROM OrderLine_t;

57

LAB 15UNDERSTANDING IN AND NOT IN


Objectives:
The objective of this lab is to make students understand the two very
important keywords in SQL that are IN and NOT IN, and how to sort
data using ORDER BY clause.

58

Using IN and NOT IN Lists:


To match a list of values.
Query: List all customers who live in warmer states.
SELECT CustomerName, CustomerCity, CustomerState FROM Customer_t WHERE
CustomerState IN(FL , CA , HI ,TX);

Sorting Results: The ORDER BY Clause


ORDER BY: Sorts the final results rows in ascending or descending order.
GROUP BY: Groups rows in an intermediate results table were the values in those rows where
same for one or more columns.
HAVING: Can only be used following a GROUP BY and acts as a secondary WHERE clause,
returning only those groups that meet a specified condition.
Query: List Customer, City, and State for all customers in the Customer table whose address is
Florida, Texas, California, or Hawaii.
List the customers alphabetically by state and alphabetically by customer within state.
SELECT CustomerCity, CustomerState FROM CUSTOMER_T WHERE ADDRESS IN(FL , CA ,
HI,TX) ORDER BY CustomerState ,CustomerName;
Column names can also be given as its column number i.e. 3, 1.
SELECT CustomerName, CustomerCity, CustomerState FROM Customer_T WHERE
CustomerState IN ('FL' , 'TX' , 'CA', 'HI') ORDER BY 3 , 1 ;

59

LAB 16THE USE OF LIMIT OPERATOR


Objectives:
The students will understand the benefit and use of LIMIT operator.

60

Using LIMIT :
LIMIT is used to limit to limit/constraint the number of results returned, or to give a range of
rows to return.
LIMIT 5: returns 5 rows.
LIMIT 2, 3: will skip first 2 rows, and return the next 3 rows.
SELECT CustomerName, CustomerCity, CustomerState FROM Customer_T WHERE
CustomerState IN ('FL' , 'TX' , 'CA', 'HI') ORDER BY 3 , 1 LIMIT 3, 5;

This will skip the first 3 rows and return next 5 rows.

61

LAB 17GROUP BY AND HAVING CLAUSE


Objectives:
In this lab, students will learn the use of GROUP BY and HAVING clause.

62

Categorizing Results: The GROUP BY Clause:


GROUP BY is useful when paired with aggregate functions such as SUM or COUNT. GROUP BY
divides a table into subsets (by group); then aggregate function can be used to provide
summary information for that group.
The single value returned by the previous aggregate function examples is called scalar
aggregate.
When aggregate functions are used in a GROUP BY clause and several values are returned, they
are called vector aggregate.
Query: Count the number of customers with addresses in each state.

SELECT CustomerState, COUNT(CustomerState) FROM Customer_T GROUP BY CustomerState;

The next query is ordering results by first preference to CustomerState, and second preference
to CustomerCity
SELECT CustomerState, CustomerCity, COUNT(CustomerCity) FROM Customer_T GROUP BY
CustomerState, CustomerCity;

It is also possible to nest groups within groups; the same logic is used when sorting multiple
columns.

Query: Count the number of customers with addresses in each city to which we ship. List the
cities by State.
WHERE is cannot be used with GROUP BY. HAVING is used with GROUP BY.

Qualify Results by Categories:


The HAVING clause acts like a WHERE clause, but it identifies groups, rather than rows, that
meet a criterion. Before, we usually see a HAVING clause following by a GROUP BY.
63

Query: Find only states with more than one customer.

SELECT CustomerState, COUNT (CustomerState) FROM Customer_T GROUP BY CustomerState


HAVING COUNT (CustomerState) > 1;

To include more than one condition in the HAVING Clause, use AND, OR, and NOT.
Query: List, in alphabetical order, the product finish and the average standard price for each
finish for selected finishes having an average standard price less than 750.
SELECT ProductFinish, AVG(ProductStandardPrice) FROM Product_t WHERE ProductFinish IN
( 'Cherry', 'Natural Ash', 'Natural Maple', 'White Ash') GROUP BY ProductFinish HAVING
AVG(ProductStandardPrice) <750 ORDER BY ProductFinish;

64

LAB 18DEFINING VIEWS


Objectives:
The students will understand the basics of views and how to define
views.

65

Using and Defining Views:


The purpose of a view is to simplify query commands, but a view may also improve data security

and significantly enhance programming consistency and productivity for a database.


Query: What are the data elements necessary to create an invoice for a customer? Save this
query as a view named Invoice_v.
CREATE VIEW Invoice_v AS
SELECT Customer_T.CustomerID, CustomerAddress, Order_T.OrderID, Product_T.ProductID,
ProductStandardPrice, OrderedQuantity FROM Customer_T, Order_T, OrderLine_T,
Product_t WHERE Customer_T.CustomerID = Order_T. CustomerID AND Order_T.OrderID =
OrderLine_T.OrderID AND Product_T.ProductID = Orderline_T.ProductID;

Query: What are the data elements necessary to create an invoice for number 1004?
SELECT CustomerID, CustomerAddress, ProductID, OrderedQuantity FROM Invoice_V WHERE
OrderID=1004;

Query: What is the total values of orders placed for each furniture product ?
CREATE VIEW OrderTotals_V AS
SELECT ProductID, SUM(ProductStandardPrice * OrderedQuantity) as Total FROM Invoice_V
GROUP BY ProductID;

Query: List all furniture products that have ever had a standard price over $300.
CREATE VIEW ExpensiveStuff_V AS
SELECT ProductID, ProductDescription, ProductStandardPrice FROM Product_t WHERE
ProductStandardPrice > 300;

66

LAB 19QUERIES INVOLVING MULTIPLE TABLES


Objectives:
This lab will teach the students how to write queries on multiple tables,
how to use INNER JOIN.

67

Processing Multiple Tables:


Equi-Join: A join in which the joining condition is based on equality between the values in the
common columns. Common columns appear (redundantly) in the result table.

Query: What are the customer IDs and Names of all customers along with the order id for all
the orders that are placed?
SELECT Customer_T.CustomerID , Order_T.CustomerID, CustomerName, OrderID
FROM Customer_T, Order_T
WHERE Customer_T.CustomerID = Order_T.CustomerID ORDER BY OrderID;

INNER JOIN.ON are used to establish an equi-join in the FROM clause.

Query: What are the Customer ID and names of all customers, along with the Order IDs for all
the orders they have placed?
SELECT Customer_t.customerid , order_t.customerid, CustomerName, OrderID
FROM customer_t
INNER JOIN Order_T ON
Customer_t.customerid = Order_T.customerid
ORDER BY OrderID;

68

LAB 20DIFFERENT TYPES OF JOINS


Objectives:
Students will learn how to use different types of joins, left outer join,
right outer join

69

Outer Join:
A join in which rows that do not have matching value in common columns are nevertheless
included in the results table. Null values appear in columns where there is no match between
tables.
Example use: In Order_T table come customers orders are appearing. There are some
customers in Customer_T who have not placed any order. Due to that qui-join shown previously
do not include all the customer shown in Customer_T. The organization may be very interested
in identifying those customers who have not placed orders. It might want to contact them to
encourage new orders, or it might be interested in analyzing the customers to know why they
are not ordering.
Using an outer join produces this information.

Left OUTER Join


Query: List customer name, identification number, and order number for all customers listed in
the customer table. Include the customer identification number and name even if there is no
order available for that customer.

SELECT Customer_t.Customerid, Customername, Orderid


FROM Customer_t LEFT OUTER JOIN Order_t ON
Customer_t.CustomerID = Order_t.customerid;

Query: List customer name , identification number, and order number for all orders listed in the
order table. Include the order number, even if there is no customer name, and identification
number available.
SELECT customer_t.CustomerID, CustomerName, OrderID FROM Customer_T
RIGHT OUTER JOIN Order_t ON
Customer_t.CustomerID = Order_t.CustomerID;

70

This query will also return the rows in which the foreign key column does not exist i.e. NULL, for
any row

71

LAB 21SELF JOIN


Objectives:
The objective of this lab is to teach how to use SELF JOIN, and running
query involving 4 tables.

72

Sample join Involving four tables:


Query: Assemble all information necessary to create an invoice for order number 1006.
SELECT Customer_t.CustomerID, CustomerName , CustomerAddress, CustomerCity,
CustomerState, CustomerPostalCode, Order_t.OrderID, OrderedQuantity,
ProductDescription, ProductStandardPrice, (OrderedQuantity * ProductStandardPrice) AS
price
FROM Order_t, Customer_t, Orderline_t, Product_t
WHERE
Customer_t.Customerid = Order_t.CustomerID AND
Orderline_T.orderID = order_t.orderid AND
orderline_t.ProductID = product_t.productid AND
Order_t.OrderID = 1006;

Self Join:
There are times when a join requires matching rows in a table with other rows in that same
table that is joining a table with itself.

Query: What are the employee ID and name of each employee, and the name of his/her
supervisor (label the name of supervisors name with manager)?
SELECT
E.EmployeeID,
E.EmployeeName,
M.EmployeeName AS Manager FROM
Employee_T E, Employee_T M

73

WHERE
E.EmployeeSupervisor = M.EmployeeID;

74

LAB 22SUBQUERIES
Objectives:
The purpose of this lab is to familiarize students with how to call a
query within other query to make a sub-query, and how to write
efficient sub-queries.

75

Subqueries
The preceding SQL examples illustrate one of the two basic approaches for joining two tables:
the joining technique. SQL also provides the subquery technique, which involves placing an
inner query (SELECT . . . FROM . . . WHERE) within a WHERE or HAVING clause of another
(outer) query. The inner query provides a set of one or more values for the search condition of
the outer query. Such queries are referred to as subqueries or nested subqueries. Subqueries
can be nested multiple times. Subqueries are prime examples of why SQL is a set-oriented
language.
Query: (Not Subquery) What are the name and address of the customer who placed order
number 1008?
SELECT CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity, CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode
FROM Customer_T, Order_T
WHERE Customer_T.CustomerID = Order_T. CustomerID
AND OrderID = 1008;

Query (Sub-query): What are the name and address of the customer who placed order number
1008?
SELECT CustomerName, CustomerAddress, CustomerCity,CustomerState,
CustomerPostalCode
FROM Customer_T
WHERE Customer_T.CustomerID =
(SELECT Order_T.CustomerID
FROM Order_T
WHERE OrderID = 1008);
Query: What are the names of customers who have placed orders?

76

SELECT CustomerName
FROM Customer_T
WHERE CustomerID IN
(SELECT DISTINCT CustomerID
FROM Order_T);

77

LAB 23IN, NOT IN, EXISTS, NOT EXISTS


Objectives:
This lab is intended to introduce students with some powerful
keywords of SQL, and how to make their good use to reduce query size.

78

Using the NOT IN qualifier:


Query: Which customers have not placed any orders for computer desks?

SELECT CustomerName
FROM Customer_T WHERE CustomerID NOT IN
(SELECT CustomerID FROM Order_T, OrderLine_t, Product_T WHERE
OrderLine_t.OrderID = Order_t.OrderID
AND OrderLine_T.ProductID = Product_t.ProductID
AND ProductDescription = 'Computer Desk');

Using EXISTS and NOT EXISTS:


EXISTS will take value of true in the sub query return an intermediate result table that contains
one or more rows (i.e. a non-empty row set) and false if no rows are returned (i.e. an empty
set).
NOT EXISTS: will take a value of true if no rows are returned and false if one or more rows are
returned

EXISTS versus IN and NOT EXISTS versus NOT IN.


WE use EXISTS when we just want to check whether the sub query returns a non-empty set (i.e
we dont care what is in the set, just whether it is empty), and we use IN when we need to
know what values are in the.
IN and NOT IN return a set of values from only one column which can be then compared to one
column in the outer query.
EXISTS and NOT EXISTS return only true or false value depending on whether there are any
rows in the answer table of the inner query or sub query.

79

Query: What are the order IDs for all orders that have included furniture finished in Naturals
ash?
SELECT DISTINCT OrderID FROM OrderLine_T
WHERE EXISTS
(SELECT * FROM Product_T Where ProductID = Orderline_t.ProductID
AND ProductFinish = 'Natural Ash'
);

80

LAB 24DERIVED TABLES AND SUB-QUERIES


Objectives:
The purpose of this lab is to familiarize students with queries involving
derived tables, and the correlated sub queries.

81

Correlated Subqueries:
Correlated sub queries use the result of outer query to determine the processing of the inner
query. In this case, the inner query must be computed for each outer row.
Example Correlated Subquery:
Query: List the details about the product with the highest standard price;
SELECT ProductDescription, ProductFinish, ProductStandardPrice
FROM Product_t PA
WHERE PA.ProductStandardPrice > ALL
(SELECT ProductStandardPrice
FROM Product_t PB WHERE PB.ProductID != PA.ProductID)

The word ALL, which must follow a comparison operator, means return TRUE if the comparison
is TRUE for ALL of the values in the column that the subquery returns.

Using Derived Tables:


Subquery may also be used in the FROM clause to create a temporary derived table (or SET)
that is used in the query. Creating a derived table that has an aggregate value in it, such as
MAX, AVG, or MIN, allows the aggregate to be used in the where clause.

Query: Show the product description , product standard price, and overall average standard
price for al products that have a standard price that is higher than average standard price.

SELECT ProductDescription, ProductStandardPrice, AvgPrice


FROM
(SELECT AVG(ProductStandardPrice) AvgPrice FROM Product_t) tempTable, Product_t WHERE
ProductStandardPrice > AvgPrice;

82

LAB 25UNION OPERATOR & TYPE CONVERSION


Objectives:
The purpose of this lab is to brief students about how to use the UNION
operator to join results from different queries, and how we can use
type conversion in MySQL.

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Union Operator:
Combining Queries: The UNION clause is used to combine the output (i.e. union the set of rows
from multiple queries together into a single result table. To use the UNIION clause we each
query involved must output the same number of columns , and they must be of compatible
data types.
SELECT C1.CustomerID, CustomerName, OrderedQuantity, ' Largest Quantity' AS Quantity
FROM Customer_t C1, Order_t O1, OrderLine_t Q1
WHERE C1.CustomerID = O1.CustomerID AND O1.OrderID = Q1.OrderID AND
OrderedQuantity= (SELECT MAX(OrderedQuantity) FROM OrderLine_t)
UNION
SELECT C1.CustomerID, CustomerName, OrderedQuantity, ' Smallest Quantity' AS Quantity
FROM Customer_t C1, Order_t O1, OrderLine_t Q1
WHERE C1.CustomerID = O1.CustomerID AND O1.OrderID = Q1.OrderID AND
OrderedQuantity= (SELECT MIN(OrderedQuantity) FROM OrderLine_t)
ORDER BY 3;

Query: The following query determines the customer(s) who has in a given line item purchases
the largest quantity of any Pine Valley product and the customer(s) who has in a given line item
purchased the smallest quantity and returns the results in the table.
INTERSECT: An INTERSECT is simply an inner join where we compare the tuples of one table
with those of the other, and select those that appear in both while weeding out duplicates.
MINUS: The MINUS operator takes the distinct rows of one query and returns the rows that do not
appear in a second result set.

Data Type Conversion:


CAST operator us used to control the data type conversion.
SELECT CAST(OrderDate as CHAR) FROM Order_T;

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LAB 26CONDITIONAL EXPRESSION AND TRIGGER


Objectives:
This lab will introduce students with conditional expressions, as well as
how we can define and use triggers in MySQL.

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Conditional Expressions:
IF-THEN-ELSE
CASE Keyword

Query:
SELECT
CASE
WHEN ProductLineID=1 THEN ProductDescription
ELSE '###'
END AS ProductDescription
FROM Product_t;

Triggers
A named set of SQL statements that are triggered automatically when a data modification (i.e.,
INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) occurs or if certain data definitions are encountered. If a condition
stated within a trigger is met, then a prescribed action is taken. Triggers are used when you
need to perform, under specified conditions, a certain action as the result of some database
event (e.g., the execution of a DML statement such as INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE or the DDL
statement ALTER TABLE). Thus, a trigger has three partsthe event, the condition, and the
actionand these parts are reflected in the coding structure for triggers.
Command to see the triggers currently in database;
show triggers;

Now to understand trigger, create a new table named: PriceUpdates_T


use pineview;

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create table PriceUpdates_T


(
ProductID int,
ProductDescription varchar(50),
UpdateDate DATE,
NewPrice decimal(6,2)
)

Now we write the trigger code as follows, that will create a trigger with name:
StandardPriceUpdate
use pineview;

CREATE TRIGGER StandardPriceUpdate


AFTER UPDATE ON Product_T
FOR EACH ROW
INSERT INTO PriceUpdates_T VALUES (NEW.ProductID, NEW.ProductDescription, curdate(),
NEW.ProductStandardPrice);

To see our newly created trigger use following command


show triggers;
Now the following command will automatically execute (trigger) the trigger
StandardPriceUpdate
update product_t set productstandardprice=210 where productid=3;

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After the above command is run, check the data in PriceUpdates_T table
SELECT * FROM priceupdates_t;

You will see a new row is inserted in the PriceUpdates_T table.


How it happened?
The trigger code StandardPriceUpdate states that whenever there is an update in Product_T
table, the updated row(s) fields will be automatically inserted into the PriceUpdates_T as new
rows. Thats why we are seeing new row inserted into PriceUpdates_T table. FOR EACH ROW
means that, the new row in PriceUpdates_T will be inserted for each updated row, e.g., the
following query updates two rows in the product_t table.
update product_t set ProductStandardPrice=333 where productid in (5,6);

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LAB 27INTRODUCTION TO STORED PROCEDURES


Objectives:
This lab introduces the stored procedures and discuss several examples
of how effectively can we use stored procedures in MySQL.

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Stored Procedures:
A collection of procedural and SQL statements that are assigned a unique name within the
schema and stored in the database. A procedure may have input parameters, output
parameters, and parameters that are both input and output parameters.
The following procedure performs three tasks.
It inserts a new field in Product_T table named SalePrice.
It updates SalePrice for ProductStandardPrice >= 400
It updates SalePrice for ProductStandardPrice < 400
CREATE PROCEDURE `ProductLineSale` ()
BEGIN

ALTER TABLE Product_T ADD COLUMN SalePrice decimal(6,2);

UPDATE Product_T
SET SalePrice = .90 * ProductStandardPrice
WHERE ProductStandardPrice >= 400;

UPDATE Product_T
SET SalePrice = .85 * ProductStandardPrice
WHERE ProductStandardPrice < 400;

END

To execute a stored procedure we use the following command


call ProductLineSale();

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LAB 28STORED PROCEDURE SINGLE INPUT


Objectives:
The purpose of this lab is to make students learn how we can pass a
single argument to stored procedures.

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STORED PROCEDURE WITH A SINGLE INPUT


PARAMETER
The following stored procedure takes a single int value as input and returns a limited set of
records based on the provided input parameter.

CREATE PROCEDURE `get_Records` (total INT)


BEGIN
SELECT * FROM Product_T LIMIT total;
END

Use the above procedure, the following code will return just 2 records
call get_Records(2)

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LAB 29STORED PROCEDURES INPUT/OUTPUT


Objectives:
In this lab students will lab, how can pass single input and output single
value from stored procedures.

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STORED PROCEDURE WITH A SINGLE INPUT and A


SINGLE OUTPUT PARAMETER
The following stored procedure takes as input a single parameter and outputs result into a
single parameter. For the output parameter, we use OUT keyword
CREATE PROCEDURE `get_count`(mynum INT, OUT outnum INT)
BEGIN
SELECT count(productid) into outnum from product_t where productid > mynum;
END

To call the above procedure we use code


CALL get_count(3,@outnum);
select @outnum;
The above procedure is returning count of records into outnum, and only those records count
is returned whose productid is greater than 3.

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LAB 30STORED PROCEDURE RETURNING VALUES


Objectives:
Students will learn how we can define and use a stored procedure that
is able to return multiple values, provided with an input value.

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STORED PROCEDURE WITH A SINGLE INPUT


PARAMETER and TWO OUTPUT PARAMETERS
CREATE PROCEDURE `get_multiple_values`(prodid INT, OUT proddesc VARCHAR(50), OUT price
decimal(6,2))
BEGIN
SELECT ProductStandardPrice into price from product_t where productid = prodid;
SELECT ProductDescription into proddesc from product_t where productid = prodid;
END
To call the above procedure we use code:
CALL get_multiple_values(3,@proddesc, @price);
select @proddesc, @price;

Here, the above procedure is returning values of product description and product standard
price for a provided productid=3.

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LAB 31USING MYSQL FUNCTIONS


Objectives:
In this lab, students will learn how to define, and use functions in
MySQL, and how to pass arguments and return values from functions.

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MySQL FUNCTIONS
A function returns one value and has only input parameters. You have already seen the many
built-in functions included in SQL, such as MAX, MIN, CEILING, FLOOR, SQRT, etc.
The following function returns takes one value as input and returns a single value.
CREATE FUNCTION `my_function` (myinput INT)
RETURNS INTEGER
BEGIN
declare temp int;
SELECT COUNT(*) into temp from Product_T where productid>myinput;
RETURN temp;
END

To call this function we use code


select my_function(3);

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LAB 32CONNECTING MYSQL WITH PHP


Objectives:
Purpose of this lab is to create a small application connecting PHP with
MySQL. Creating PHP forms to insert data into database, delete data,
update data, and select data from database.

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CONNECTING PHP with MySQL


Make sure you have pineview database successfully configured in your MySQL server / wamp.
Follow the following steps.
Run wampserver, and make sure that phpmyadmin is opening and running fine. If not, there
might be some port issues, change port of apache server to 8080. Or quit skype and re-return
the wampserver, as skype uses the same port as wampserver.
Step-1: In www folder of your wampserver, create a new folder with name: myproject.
Step-2: Uncheck the following option from Folder and Search options of your PC hide file
extensions for known file type, and click on apply/ok.
Step-3: In myproject folder create three files, namely index.php, selectdata.php, and
updatedata.php.
Step-4: Using notepad++, write the following code in index.php.
index.php
<html>
<body>

<table border="1">
<tr>
<td><a href="index.php">Home</a></td>
<td><a href="selectdata.php"> Show Record </a></td>
<td><a href="updatedata.php"> Update Data</a></td>
</tr>
</table>

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<br>
<br>

<h6> THIS IS HOME PAGE </h6>


</body>
</html>

Step-5: Write following code in selectdata.php.


Make sure you correctly set values shown in red font below as per your system configuration.
(Means these values may be changed in your system.)
selectdata.php
<html>
<head> <title> This is data selection page </title>
</head>
<body>
<table border="1">
<tr>
<td><a href="index.php">Home</a></td>
<td><a href="selectdata.php"> Show Record </a></td>
<td><a href="updatedata.php"> Update Data</a></td>
</tr>
</table>

<?php

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$servername = "localhost";
$username = "root";
$password = "ciit"; // set this field "" (empty quotes) if you have not set any password in mysql
$dbname = "pineview";

try {
$conn = new PDO("mysql:host=$servername;dbname=$dbname", $username, $password);
// set the PDO error mode to exception
$conn->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);

echo "Connection successful";


?>
<table border="1">
<th>ProductID</th>
<th> ProductLineID</th>
<th>ProductDescription </th>
<th>ProductFinish </th>
<th>ProductStandardPrice</th>

<?php

foreach($conn->query('SELECT * FROM product_t') as $row)


{
?>
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<tr>

<td><?php echo $row[0]; ?> </td>


<td><?php echo $row[1]; ?> </td>
<td><?php echo $row[2]; ?> </td>
<td><?php echo $row[3]; ?> </td>
<td><?php echo $row[4]; ?> </td>

</tr>
<?php
}
?>
</table>
<?php
}
catch(PDOException $e)
{
echo $sql . "<br>" . $e->getMessage();
}

$conn = null;
?>
</body>
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</html>

Step-6: Create file updatedata.php and put following code in that.


updatedate.php
<html>
<head> </head>
<body>

<table border="1">
<tr>
<td><a href="index.php">Home</a></td>
<td><a href="selectdata.php"> Show Record </a></td>
<td><a href="updatedata.php"> Update Data</a></td>
</tr>
</table>

<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "root";
$password = "ciit";
$dbname = "pineview";

try {
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$conn = new PDO("mysql:host=$servername;dbname=$dbname", $username, $password);


// set the PDO error mode to exception
$conn->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);

echo "Connection successful";

//

$sql = "update product_t set productdescription='new table' where productid=3";

if( isset($_POST['btn']) )
{

$txt1 = $_POST['txt1'];
$txt2 = $_POST['txt2'];
$txt3 = $_POST['txt3'];
$txt4 = $_POST['txt4'];
$txt5 = $_POST['txt5'];

//echo $txt1 . " " . $txt2 . " " . $txt3 . " " . $txt4 . " " . $txt5;

$sql = "insert into product_t (ProductID, ProductLineID, ProductDescription,


ProductFinish, ProductStandardPrice) values ($txt1, $txt2, '$txt3', '$txt4', $txt5)";

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// use exec() because no results are returned

$conn->exec($sql);
echo "\nTable product_t updated successfully";
}
}
catch(PDOException $e)
{
echo $sql . "<br>" . $e->getMessage();
}

$conn = null;
?>

<title> This is test php page </title>

<form id="frm" method="post" action="">


<table border="1">
<tr>
<td>ProductID</td>
<td><input id="txt1" name="txt1" type="text" /></td>
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</tr>

<tr>
<td>ProductLineID</td>
<td><input id="txt2" name="txt2" type="text" /></td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td>ProductDescription</td>
<td><input id="txt3" name="txt3" type="text" /></td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td>ProductFinish</td>
<td><input id="txt4" name="txt4" type="text" /></td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td>ProductStandardPrice</td>
<td><input id="txt5" name="txt5" type="text" /></td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td>Save Record</td>
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<td><input id="btn" name="btn" type="submit" value="Save Record" /></td>


</tr>

</table>
</form>

</body>
</html>

Step-7: Test your application by giving command:


http://localhost/myproject/index.php
or if your apache server is using port 8080 then,
http://localhost:8080/myproject/index.php
As a final note, instead of repeating the same data connection code in each file again and again,
you can put it in one file and call that file in your remaining files.
For example, create a new file named: opendb.php, and add following code in that:
opendb.php
<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "root";
$password = "ciit"; // set this field "" (empty quotes) if you have not set any password in mysql
$dbname = "pineview";

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try {
$conn = new PDO("mysql:host=$servername;dbname=$dbname", $username, $password);
// set the PDO error mode to exception
$conn->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);

echo "Connection successful";


}
catch(PDOException $e)
{
echo $sql . "<br>" . $e->getMessage();
}

?>

Now, as a sample code, you can re-write the selectdata.php file as:

selectdata.php
<html>
<head> </head>
<body>
<table border="1">
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<tr>
<td><a href="index.php">Home</a></td>
<td><a href="selectdata.php"> Show Record </a></td>
<td><a href="updatedata.php"> Update Data</a></td>
</tr>
</table>

<?php include_once ("opendb.php"); ?>

<table border="1">
<th>ProductID</th>
<th> ProductLineID</th>
<th>ProductDescription </th>
<th>ProductFinish </th>
<th>ProductStandardPrice</th>

<?php
try
{

foreach($conn->query('SELECT * FROM product_t') as $row)


{
?>
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<tr>

<td><?php echo $row[0]; ?> </td>


<td><?php echo $row[1]; ?> </td>
<td><?php echo $row[2]; ?> </td>
<td><?php echo $row[3]; ?> </td>
<td><?php echo $row[4]; ?> </td>

</tr>
<?php
}
?>
</table>
<?php
}
catch(PDOException $e)
{
echo $sql . "<br>" . $e->getMessage();
}

$conn = null;
?>

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</body>
</html>

We can see, the database connection code is removed from above file, and we are just
including the file that is maintaining the database connectivity.
The similar modifications can also be performed in other files.

------- THE END OF LAB MANUAL ----------

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