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CE 366 SETTLEMENT (Problems & Solutions)

P. 1) LOAD UNDER A RECTANGULAR AREA (1)


The footing shown in the figure below exerts a uniform pressure of 300 kN/m2 to the
soil. Determine vertical stress due to uniform pressure at a point 4m directly under;
(a) point A , (b) point B

2m

2m

2m
B
2m

A
L Shaped Footing

a) Point A;
2m
a

4m

1
2

z = q.Ir
By the use of the Figure 1.6 in Lecture Notes, page 1-8;

For area 1 : A(abcfg)

z=4m

mz = 4

m = 4/4 = 1

Ir = 0.12

nz = 2

n = 2/4 = 0.5

For area 2 : A(cdef)

z=4m

mz = 2

m = 2/4 = 0.5

nz = 2

n = 2/4 = 0.5

Ir = 0.085

z = 300 (0.12 + 0.085) = 61.5 kPa


the stress at 4m depth under point A due to 300 kN/m2 uniform pressure

b) Point B;
2m

2m

Area 1 = Area 2 = Area 3


mz = nz = 2

m = n = 2/4 = 0.5

z = 300 (3 x 0.085)
= 76.5 kPa

Ir = 0.085

P. 2) LOAD UNDER A RECTANGULAR AREA (2)


A rectangular footing as shown in figure below exerts a uniform pressure of 420 kN/m2.
Determine the vertical stress due to uniform pressure at point A for a depth of 3 m.
6m
A uniform pressure of
420 kN/m2
2m

Composite footing

2m

5m

2m

2m

2m
b

1.5 m

2m
h

1.5 m
g

For area (abkh) :


z=3m

mz = 4
nz = 3.5

m = 4 / 3 = 1.33
n = 3.5 / 3 = 1.17

Ir = 0.195

m = 3.5 / 3 = 1.17
n = 2 / 3 = 0.67

Ir = 0.151

For area (bcdk) :


mz = 3.5
nz = 2

For area (defk) :


mz = 2
nz = 1.5

m = 2 / 3 = 0.67
n = 1.5 / 3 = 0.5

Ir = 0.105

m = 4 / 3 = 1.33
n = 1.5 / 3 = 0.5

Ir = 0.133

For area (fghk) :


mz = 4
nz = 1.5

For area (ijkm) :


mz = nz = 2

m = n = 2 / 3 = 0.67

z = Ir
= 420 [ Ir 1 + Ir 2 + Ir 3 + Ir 4 - Ir 5 ]
= 420 [ 0.195 + 0.151 + 0.105 + 0.133 0.117 ]
z = 196.14 kPa

Ir = 0.117

P. 3) IMMEDIATE SETTLEMENT
A foundation 4

2 m, carrying a net uniform pressure of 200 kN/m2, is located at a

depth of 1.5 m in a layer of clay 5 m thick for which the value of Eu is 45 MN/m2. The
layer is underlain by a second layer, 10 m thick, for which the value of Eu is 80 MN/m2.
A hard stratum lies below the second layer. Determine the average immediate settlement
under the foundation.
q = 200 kN/m2

1.5 m
2m
Eu = 45 MN/m2

3.5 m

Eu = 80 MN/m2
10 m

Hard stratum
S i = 0 1

qB
Eu
q
B is the smaller dimension !

D
H

We obtain,
0 from D / B
1 from H / B and L / B

Hard stratum
D / B = 1.5 / 2 = 0.75
L/B=4/2=2

0 = 0.95 ( Figure 3.3, Course Notes )

(1) Consider the upper layer with Eu = 45 MPa.


D
Eu = 45 MPa

H / B = 3.5 / 2 = 1.75
L/B=4/2=2

H = 3.5 m
S i 1 = 0 1

Hard stratum

1 = 0.65

qB
(200) 2
= (0.95) (0.65)
= 5.49mm
Eu
45

(2) Consider the two layers combined with Eu = 80 MPa.

H / B = (3.5 + 10) / 2 = 6.75


L/B=4/2=2

1 = 0.9

Eu = 80 MPa

S i 2 = 0 1

H = 13.5 m

qB
(200) 2
= (0.95) (0.9)
= 4.28mm
Eu
80

Hard stratum

(3) Consider the upper layer with Eu = 80 MPa.


D

H / B = 3.5 / 2 = 1.75
L/B=4/2=2

Eu = 80 MPa

H = 3.5 m

S i 3 = 0 1

Hard stratum

1 = 0.65

qB
(200) 2
= (0.95) (0.65)
= 3.08mm
Eu
80

Using the principle of superposition, the settlement of the foundation is given by;
S i = S i 1 + S i 2 - Si 3
Si = 5.49 + 4.28 3.08
Si = 6.69 mm

P. 4) SCHMERTMAN
A soil profile consists of deep, loose to medium dense sand (dry = 16 kN/m3 , sat = 18
kN/m3). The ground water level is at 4 m depth. A 3.5m x 3.5m square footing rests at 3m
depth. The total (gross) load acting at the foundation level (footing weight + column
load + weight of soil or footing) is 2000 kN. Estimate the settlement of the footing 6
years after the construction using influence factor method (Schmertman, 1978).
End resistance values obtained from static cone penetration tests are;
Depth (m)

qc (kN/m2)

0.00 2.00

8000

2.00 - 4.75

10000

4.75 - 6.50

8000

6.50 12.00

12000

12.00 15.00

10000

Note that;
for square footing;

z (depth)(from foundation level) Iz (strain factors)


0
0.1
B/2
0.5
2B
0.0
B : width of footing

Es = 2.0 qc

Solution:
Si = C1 C2 qnet

Iz
z
E

qnet = net foundation pressure

C 1 = 1 0 .5 0
q net
'

correction factor for footing depth

o = effective overburden pressure at foundation level

C 2 = 1 + 0.2 log

t
0 .1

correction factor for creep

t = time at which the settlement is required (in years)

qgross = 2000 kN
4m

dry = 16 kN/m3

3m

deep loose to medium dense sand


sat = 18 kN/m3

q net =

20000
3x16 = 115.26 kPa
3 .5 x 3 .5

gross pressure.

initial effective overburden pressure

o = 3x16 = 48 kPa
C 1 = 1 0 .5

48
= 0.792
115.26

C 2 = 1 + 0.2 log

6
= 1.356
0 .1

ground surface qc (kN/m2)


0.0 m
8000
2
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
Iz

10000
4

z1

Layer 1

4.75

0.5B = 1.75m

8000

z2

Layer 2

6
6.5

z3

Layer 3
8

enter from mid-height


of each layer

12000

z4

Layer 4

10

7
2B=2x3.5 = 7m

Width of foundation,
B=3.5m

12

10000
14
15
Es = 2.5 qc
Layer No

Depth(m)

z(m)

qc(kPa)

Es(kPa)

Iz

(Iz /Es) z

3.00-4.75

1.75

10.000

20.000

0.3

2.65x10-5

4.75-6.50

1.75

8.000

16.000

0.416

4.55x10-5

6.50-8.25

1.75

12.000

24.000

0.249

1.82x10-5

8.25-10.00

1.75

12.000

24.000

0.083

0.605x10-5

= 9.625x105
Si = (0.792) (1.356) (115.26) (9.625x10-5)
= 0.01191 m

Si = 11.91 mm