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1.

0 INTRODUCTION
The production of methanol is carried out in a moderate-pressure synthesis loop by direct
hydrogenation of carbon dioxide, which generates a liquid product that contains a binary
mixture of methanol and water in approximately equal proportions. To provide
commercial methanol that is nearly free of water, dehydration is achieved commonly by
distillation. The simulation considered an equimolar mixture of 2700 kmol/hr at 25 oC
and 5.2 bar. It is then split and fed to two distillation columns, one at reduced pressure,
with the design specification shown in the following table:
Condition

DC1

DC2

Pressure (bar)

5.2

1.01

Number of trays

16

13

Feed Tray*

12

Reflux ratio

1.26

0.834

Distillate to feed ratio

0.96

0.96

*Count from the top of DC

Pressure Relief Valve

Valve used during this process is to reduce the pressure of methanol water mixture that
discharged from the separator. Valve is a technical device that been used to control the
flow of the fluid by regulating or directing. There are too many different types of valve.
Every different valve has their own design, working principle and function. The type used
in this process is the pressure relief valve. It controls the pressure limit for the system in
order to avoid any hazard due to over limit of pressure.

Distillation Column

An apparatus used widely for countercurrent contacting of vapor and liquid to effect
separations by distillation or absorption. In a column that can be applied to distillation,
a vapor condenser is used to produce liquid (reflux) which is returned to the
top, and a liquid heater (reboiler) is used to generate vapor for introduction at the bottom.
Distillation works by the application of change in composition which will lead to removal

of heat to exploit differences in relative volatility. The heat causes components with lower
boiling points to be vaporized, leaving less volatile components as liquids. This changes
make differences of flow rate from point to point.

2.0 OBJECTIVE
1. Understand the usage of valve and distillation specification

3.0 THEORY
The Peng-Robinson Equation Of State
This equation is popular among the petroleum industry for natural gas system. It had been
presented and developed by Peng and Robinson in 1976. The original equation are:

RT
a(T)
2
V b V 2bV b2

Where,

a(T) = [1 + (1- Tr )] A
2

R Tc
= [a= 0.45724]
Pc

= [b=0.07780]

R Tc
Pc

Where is a dimensionless parameter such that


0.49: = 0.37464 + 1.54226 - 0.26992
> 0.49: = 0.379642 + 1.48503 - 0.164423 + 0.016666
With new variables, A = a(T)P/RT and B = bP/RT it could be rewritten in terms of
Z + (B - 1)Z + (A - 2B - 3B)Z + (B + B - AB) = 0

4.0 PROCEDURES
1. The new project was selected by using ICON software.
2. For the starting, the fluid package was being chosen as mentioned in the manual
which was Advanced Peng-Robinson property package in Figure 1 below.

3. Then the components was filled up by selecting methanol and water in Figure 2.

4. Based on the question given, the equipment that should be used was arranged thus,
the condition of each equipment then was filled up one by one to complete the
process. Starting by arranging the equipment in, then, the composition and
condition of methanol and water was added in the information column in Figure 3.

5. The condition of separator then was completed up and connected to the stream 1.

6. Two distillation column was connected to the outlet of separator with bottom outlet
was connected to the valve first in order to reduced the inlet pressure of second
distillation column from 5.2 bar to 1.01 bar.

7. The condition of the distillation column was filled up one by one starting from the
number of tray, feed tray, and also split ratio.

8. Finally, when the system was calculated as solved, all the information was
observed and taken from the stream summary tables. All the questions then been
answer based on the information taken.

5.0 RESULTS

MOL SUMMARY TABLE


Name

S1

S2

S3

S4

SP-1.Out1

SP-1.Out0

Vlv-1.Out

C-1.Feed_12_feed

Vlv-1.In

C-2.Feed_8_feed

Description
Upstream Op
Downstream Op
VapFrac
T [C]
P [kPa]
MoleFlow/Composition

SP-1.In
0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

25.0

25.0

25.0

25.1

520.00

520.00

520.00

101.00

Fraction

kmol/h

Fraction

kmol/h

Fraction

kmol/h

Fraction

kmol/h

METHANOL

0.5000

1350.00

0.5000

675.00

0.5000

675.00

0.5000

675.00

WATER

0.5000

1350.00

0.5000

675.00

0.5000

675.00

0.5000

675.00

1.00
67577.1
4

2700.00

1.00
33788.5
7

1350.00

1.00
33788.5
7

1350.00

1.00
33788.5
7

1350.00

Total
Mass Flow [kg/h]
Volume Flow [m3/h]
Energy [W]

78.814
-2.287E+
7

39.407
-1.144E+
7

39.407
-1.144E+
7

39.416
-1.144E+
7

H [kJ/kmol]

-30494.8

-30494.8

-30494.8

-30494.8

82.041

82.041

82.041

82.089

25.03
857.420
4

25.03
857.420
4

25.03
857.420
4

25.03
857.230
3

S [kJ/kmol-K]
MW
Mass Density [kg/m3]

Name

S5

S6

S7

S8

C-1.LiquidDraw_0_c
ondenserL

C-1.LiquidDraw_17
_reboilerL

C-2.LiquidDraw_0_c
ondenserL

C-2.LiquidDraw_12_r
eboilerL

Description
Upstream Op
Downstream Op
VapFrac
T [C]
P [kPa]
MoleFlow/Composition

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

123.4

153.1

73.0

99.9

520.00

520.00

101.00

101.00

Fraction

kmol/h

Fraction

kmol/h

Fraction

kmol/h

Fraction

kmol/h

METHANOL

0.52083

675.00

0.00001

0.00

0.52083

675.00

0.00001

0.00

WATER

0.47917

621.00
1296.0
0

0.99999

54.00

0.47917

621.00

0.99999

54.00

1.00

54.00

1.00

1296.00

1.00

54.00

Total
Mass Flow [kg/h]
Volume Flow [m3/h]

1.00
32815.74

972.83

32815.74

972.83

42.830

40.193
-9.413E+
6

1.015
-4.316E+
5

Energy [W]

-7.708E+6

1.063
-3.684E
+5

H [kJ/kmol]

-21410.5

-24559.7

-26146.4

-28770.0

108.113

98.406

95.395

87.885

25.32

18.02
915.270
5

25.32

18.02

816.4473

958.8348

S [kJ/kmol-K]
MW
Mass Density [kg/m3]

766.1795

MASS SUMMARY TABLE


Name

S1

S2

S3

S4

SP-1.Out1

SP-1.Out0

Vlv-1.Out

C-1.Feed_12_feed

Vlv-1.In

C-2.Feed_8_feed

Description
Upstream Op
Downstream Op
VapFrac
T [C]
P [kPa]
Mole Flow [kmol/h]
MassFlow/Composition

SP-1.In
0.00

0.00

25.0

25.0

25.0

25.1

520.00

520.00

101.00

2700.00

1350.00

1350.00

1350.00

Fraction
0.64011

WATER

0.35989

Volume Flow [m3/h]

0.00

520.00

METHANOL

Total

0.00

kg/h
43256.5
1
24320.6
3
67577.1
4

1.00

Fraction

kg/h
21628.2
6
12160.3
1
33788.5
7

0.64011
0.35989
1.00

Fraction

kg/h
21628.2
6
12160.3
1
33788.5
7

0.64011
0.35989
1.00

Fraction
0.64011
0.35989
1.00

Energy [W]

78.814
-2.287E+
7

39.407
-1.144E+
7

39.407
-1.144E+
7

39.416
-1.144E+
7

H [kJ/kmol]

-30494.8

-30494.8

-30494.8

-30494.8

82.041

82.041

82.041

82.089

25.03

25.03

25.03

25.03

S [kJ/kmol-K]
MW

Name

kg/h
21628.2
6
12160.3
1
33788.5
7

S5

S6

S7

S8

C-1.LiquidDraw_0_c
ondenserL

C-1.LiquidDraw_17_
reboilerL

C-2.LiquidDraw_0_c
ondenserL

C-2.LiquidDraw_12_
reboilerL

Description
Upstream Op
Downstream Op
VapFrac
T [C]
P [kPa]
Mole Flow [kmol/h]
MassFlow/Composition

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

123.4

153.1

73.0

99.9

520.00

520.00

101.00

101.00

1296.00

54.00

1296.00

54.00

Fraction

kg/h

Fraction

kg/h

Fraction

kg/h

Fraction

kg/h

METHANOL

0.65908

21628.24

0.00001

0.01

0.65908

21628.24

0.00002

0.01

WATER

0.34092

11187.50

0.99999

972.82

0.34092

11187.50

0.99998

972.82

1.00

32815.74

1.00

972.83

1.00

32815.74

1.00

972.83

Total
Volume Flow [m3/h]
Energy [W]

42.830
-7.708E+
6

1.063
-3.684E
+5

40.193
-9.413E+
6

1.015
-4.316E+
5

H [kJ/kmol]

-21410.5

-24559.7

-26146.4

-28770.0

S [kJ/kmol-K]

108.113

98.406

95.395

87.885

MW

25.32
766.179
5

18.02
915.270
5

25.32

18.02
958.834
8

Mass Density [kg/m3]

816.4473

10

1. What is the molar flow before entering DC1 and DC2?


DC1: 1350 kmol/h

DC2: 1350kmol/h

2. How to reduce pressure in DC2?


By using valve. This valve will reduced the pressure from the outlet stream of
separator (5.2 bar to 1.01 bar).
3. What is the temperature at the bottom of DC1 and DC2?
DC1: 153.1C

DC2: 99.9C

4. Did the process achieve a methanol that free from water? What is the purity of the
methanol? How to increase the purity?
Yes, the process to remove the water from the methanol is achieved since the both
bottom outlet of distillation contains 0.999 composition of water. The purity of the
methanol can be checked by using simplest method which is by measuring its specific
gravity, methanol purity = (1 - specific gravity) divided by 0.2087. The purity is less
than 1. In order to increase the purity of methanol, the impurities must be removed by
formation of resin and the most important is it must be free from water since its purity
is dependent on the water.

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6.0 DISCUSSIONS
Based on the process simulation had been done using ICON software, the usage of valve
and the distillation column can be understanding better. The pure liquid methanol was
produced at the end of process. The component fed are water and methanol that passed
through splitter with ratio 0.5 then into two distillation column.
The first distillation column was fed with no pressure drop while the second column with
P = 4.19 bar. The function of distillation column is to achieve the highest purities in
both top and bottom outlet. The purity of methanol is determined by the composition of
methanol from the distillation process. In order to increase the purity of methanol, the
number of tray can be added to the column.
The product leaving the column can be said as free from water since the both bottom
outlet of distillation contains 0.999 composition of water. The process to get the pure
methanol product is achieved.

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