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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the design and procedures undertaken during the conduct

of the study. It presented the research methods used, respondents of the study, instruments

used, validation of instruments, data gathering procedures and statistical treatment of

data.

This study made used of descriptive research method which is designed for the

researchers to gather information about present existing conditions needed in the chosen

field of study. This method entitles the researchers to interpret the theoretical meaning of

the findings and hypothesis development for further studies.

Descriptive research describes and interprets what is. It is concerned with

conditions of relationships that exist; practices that prevail; beliefs; processes

that are going on; effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing. The

process of descriptive research goes beyond mere gathering and tabulation of

data. It involves the elements or interpretation of the meaning or significance of

what is described. Thus description is often combined with comparison and

contrast involving measurements, classifications, interpretation and evaluation.

(Cited in Calderon & Gonzales, 2007, p.61)

Descriptive method encompasses all the data gathered useful in adjusting or

meeting the existing phenomenon. Survey study was employed to measure the existing

41

event without inquiring into why it exists. In this study, this method involved determined

information about industries rather than individuals.

As used in this research, gathered and treated, are data on the profile of

respondents such as age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, employment status,

number of years in the company, present designation/position and their Environmental

Management System (EMS) requirements and their development measures.

The respondents of the study were the middle and top management of

SPI/Semicon Asia, Inc., Dasmarinas, Cavite. To date, there are 37 existing employees of

SPI/Semicon Asia, Inc., composed of middle and top management. The researchers

disseminated 37 copies of questionnaires, 31 of which were retrieved and patiently

answered.

Instruments Used

In this study, the instruments used are questionnaires, which are necessary for

descriptive method of research. The content of the part 1 and part 3 of the questionnaire

were based on existing references, documents and information materials. The content of

part 2 was adopted from the International Organization for Standardization ISO, which

developed the ISO 14001- the Environmental Management System (EMS) standard.

The questionnaires are divided into three parts. The first part concentrated on the

profile of the respondents. The second part pertained to the compliance of these industries

to the Environmental Management System (EMS) standard. The third part dealt with the

42

developmental measures performed by the company. Likert scale was used to modify the

answers of the respondents considering five options with the corresponding scale. The

options are: Always; Often; Sometimes; Rarely; Never. Respondents are requested to

check the space provided for each option.

Validity is defined as the best available approximation to the truth of falsity of a

given inference, proposition or conclusion. It deals with the relationship of the data

obtained to the nature of variables being studied. (Salvador, Baysa & Geronimo, 2008,

p.166) For the validity of the instruments used, the researchers used the content validity

which includes documentary analysis, consulting experts and persons knowledgeable on

the subject matter.

The questionnaire was presented to their previous English professor who

reviewed the grammar and suggested use of the appropriate words and phrases, to assure

that no misinterpretation of the EMS standard occurred.

The researchers had a great deal of time in developing their questionnaire so as to

serve its intended respondents. They have consulted their previous professor

knowledgeable in quality control and in Productions and Operations Management, who

provided them some supplements related with ISO 14001 Environmental Management

Systems (EMS). With regards to data gathering, the researchers personally went to the

premises of the SPI/Semicon Asia, Inc. to conduct ocular visit and survey. The company

43

officers were too busy thereby delegating to their representatives the responsibility of

touring the researchers to the factory premises and explaining production processes. They

have accommodated the request of the researchers with the notion that the exercise is for

research purposes only. They however recognized that the study could assess the

environmental consciousness of the company and may allow some improvement of their

operation in terms of standard practices and procedures particularly on Environmental

Management System (EMS). The respondents were given ample time to answer the

questionnaire for understanding and appreciation. Other respondents were given a lot of

time so they can answer the instrument with full understanding.

tallied and tabulated according to the frequency of items checked by the participants.

Thereafter, data tabulation results will be interpreted using various statistical tools. The

results of which will serve in coming up with the conclusion and recommendations.

The data collected in this study were subjected to certain statistical treatments.

The data were coded, tallied and tabulated for better presentation and interpretation of the

results. The statistical methods used are the following:

1. Frequency and Percentage

The percentage and frequency distributions will be used to classify the

respondents according to their age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, employment

status, present designation/position, number of years in the company. The frequency will

also present the actual response of the respondents to a specific question or item in the

questionnaires.

44

The percentage of each item is computed by dividing it with the sample total

number of respondents who answered the survey. The formula used in the application of

this technique is:

% = (f/n) x 100

where:

% = percentage

f = frequency

n = number of cases or total sample

2. Ranking

This is a descriptive method to describe numerical data in addition to percentage.

Ranking will be used in the study for comparative purpose and for sharing the importance

of items analyzed.

3. Weighted Mean

Another statistical technique that will be used by the researchers is the weighted

mean. It will be used to determine the average responses of the different options provided

in the various pats of the survey questionnaire to be used. It was solved by the formula:

x = fx / n

where:

x = weighted mean

fx = the sum of all the products of f and x, f being the

frequency of each weight and x as the weight of each

operation

n = total number of respondents

45

This was used to determine the significance of the differences between categories

beyond two levels, the ANOVA sat at .05 probability was used. An F-test is any statistical

test in which the test statistic has an F-distribution under the null hypothesis. It is most

often used when comparing statistical models that have been fit to a data set, in order to

identify the model that best fits the population from which the data were sampled.

The formula for the one-way ANOVA F-test statistic is

or

where

denotes the sample mean in the ith group, ni is the number of observations in the

where Yij is the jth observation in the ith out of K groups and N is the overall sample size.

This F-statistic follows the F-distribution with K 1, N K degrees of freedom

under the null hypothesis. The statistic will be large if the between-group variability is

large relative to the within-group variability, which is unlikely to happen if the population

means of the groups all have the same value.

46

A t-test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic follows a

Student's t distribution if the null hypothesis is true.

Unequal sample sizes, unequal variance:

This test is used only when the two sample sizes are unequal and the variance is

assumed to be different. See also Welch's t-test.

The t statistic to test whether the means are different can be calculated as follows:

Where:

Where s2 is the unbiased estimator of the variance of the two samples, n = number of

participants, 1 = group one, 2 = group two.

5.Likert Scale

The Likert scale method (Emory, 1993) of Summated Ratings was used in the

study. The Likert Scaling Technique assigns one scale value of each of the different

responses. To analyze responses to a Likert Scale, each category is assigned to a

numerical value such as Always which is equal to 5 and Never which is equal to 1. The

total assigned value will be determined by using the weighted mean. The scoring system

for each item must be such a high score consistently reflects favorable response and a low

score reflects an unfavorable response.

The consolidated points from the respondents answers to each item over a five point

scale were as follows:

WEGHTED MEAN

4.51 5.0

SCALE

5

47

VERBAL INTERPRETATION

Always

3.51 4.5

Often

2.51 3.5

Sometimes

1.51 2.5

Rarely

1.0 1.5

Never

48

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