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Building s Heat Gains

05/04/2011

Tarik al-Shemmeri

SOURCES OF THERMAL ENERGY


TRANSFER FOR BUILDINGS
Generally, there are FOUR heat transfer
sources within any building, they are:
Fabric:
Ventilation:
Solar:
Internal:
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Heat losses
Heat loss
Heat gains
Heat gains

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Solar Heat gains


FOR BUILDINGS
Solar heat gain through
windows and/or walls provides
a valuable contribution
of space heating.

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Solar Heat gains


FOR BUILDINGS
The solar heat gain through a glazed area is
calculated by:

QSolar

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= Area of window
x solar intensity
x Transmissivity.

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Casual Heat gains


FOR BUILDINGS
Casual heat gains inside a building provide a
valuable source of heat contribution to space
heating. Sources include :

occupants
lights
equipments

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Casual Heat gains


FOR BUILDINGS

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Casual Heat gains


FOR BUILDINGS
Type of Heat Source

Typical Heat Emission

Adults:
Sleeping

80W

Seated quietly

120W

Walking slowly

230W

Medium work

265W

Heavy work

570W

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Casual Heat gains


FOR BUILDINGS

adult male
child ( male, or female)
female ( adult )
old people ( male, or female)
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100%
75
85
80

Casual Heat gains


FOR BUILDINGS

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Casual Heat gains


FOR BUILDINGS
Type of Heat Source FROM
LIGHTS

Typical Heat Emission

Fluorescent @ 400 lux

20W/m2 floor area

Tungsten @ 200 lux

40W/m2 floor area

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Casual Heat gains


FOR BUILDINGS

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Casual Heat gains


FOR BUILDINGS
Electric and Electronic Equipment:

Typical Heat Emission

Desktop computer

150W

Computer printer

100W

Visual display unit

200W

Photocopier

800W

Hair dryer

800W

Domestic fridge-freezer

150W

Colour TV

100W

Hi-fi unit

100W

Toaster

500W

Oven

2500W

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TUTORIAL EXAMPLES

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WORKED EXAMPLE
THE building shown has thermal data as indicated in the table; It is used for a
5-a-side game of football, there are 50 forty watts lights, switched on
continuously, and a 1.5 kW heater inside the hall. Determine the heating load
for this building, when the internal and external temperatures are 20 and zero
degrees centigrade.
20m

5m
D
W

W
10
m

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WORKED EXAMPLE
Element

U-value
W/m2K

Area
m2

Temp.
Difference (oC)

Door

Windows

12 total

Walls

0.5

Roof

0.45

Floor

0.45

Fabric heat loss = TOTAL ( Doors, Windows, Walls, Roof & Floor) =
Ventilation Heat Loss

= 0.335 N V T

Heat gains from occupants


Heat gains from lights
Heat gains from machines
Net heat transfer for the building

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Heat loss
W

SOLUTION EXAMPLE
Element
Door

U-value
W/m2K
2

Area
m2
6

Temp.
Difference(oC)
20

Heat loss
W
240

Windows

12 total

20

720

Walls

0.5

282

20

2820

Roof

0.45

200

20

1800

Floor

0.45

200

Fabric heat loss = TOTAL ( Doors, Windows, Walls, Roof & Floor) =
-5580
Ventilation Heat Loss

= 0.335 N V T

Heat gains from occupants = No. of people x energy/person

=
-6700
=
+600

Heat gains from lights = No. of lights x wattage

=
+2000

Heat gains from machines = No. of machines x output

=
+1500

Net heat transfer for the building

=
- 8180 W

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What do we need Light for:


Visual clarity and color perception
Reduced eye strain and fatigue
Greater learning ability and intelligence
Enhanced mental awareness, concentration and productivity
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Light bulbs
as we know them, were invented by Thomas Edison in the late
19th century. They are extremely inefficient systems. Their
main goal is to provide light, over 95% of the energy in an
incandescent bulb is released as heat. Less than 5% of the
electricity going into your light bulb is being turned into light.
There is a little bit of room for improvement there.

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Mysore palace, lit up by 27,000 light bulbs - Southern India


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ORDINARY light bulbs are to be banned across


the European Union within two years in the
fight against climate change. The 490 million
citizens of the 27 member states will be
expected to switch to energy-efficient bulbs
after a summit of EU leaders yesterday told the
European Commission to "rapidly submit
proposals" to that effect. - Ian Johnston
Environmentalists said the change would save the public up to 5.4 billion a
year in fuel bills and also about 20 million tonnes of carbon emissions every
year.
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2020 VISION on Energy:


The key EU targets and objectives:
A minimum 20 per cent EU cut in greenhouse
gas emissions by 2020, and a push for a
bigger cut of 30 per cent in future.
A target of 20 per cent energy efficiency
savings by 2020, requiring homes, offices and
streets to switch to energy-saving lighting.
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Tips - Energy Efficiency for Lighting

One Switch off all lights when not needed.


Two Label light switches to clearly identify the lights they control.
Three clean light fittings regularly. This will increase output and lead to fewer
lights being turned on.
Four Install modern slimline fluorescent tubes they will last much longer than
ordinary bulbs and use less energy.
Five Where double tubes have been fitted check whether one is sufficient.
Six Maximise natural lighting by ensuring windows are clean and window ledges
are not cluttered.
Seven Ensure that your office layout considers the availability of natural and
artificial lighting.
Eight Consider fitting Presence Detectors

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Tips - Energy Efficiency for Lighting


By switching off lights in rooms which arent being used you could cut your
lighting costs by as much as 15%

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Tips - Energy Efficiency for Lighting


Make the most of the natural daylight by adjusting blinds and curtains
accordingly

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Tips - Energy Efficiency for Lighting


Fit infra-red presence detectors to switch off lights when rooms or desks
are unoccupied

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Tips - Energy Efficiency for Lighting


Replace all light bulbs with energy efficiency recommended bulbs, which
will use around a quarter of the electricity and last up to 12 times longer!

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Tips - Energy Efficiency for Lighting


Clean windows

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